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Full text of "Visual Education (Jan-Nov 1920)"

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A L DIO-V IS UAL CONSERVATION 
LIBRARY tf CONGRESS 




Packard Campus 

for Audio Visual Conservation 

www.loc.gov/avconservation 

Motion Picture and Television Reading Room 
www.loc.gov/rr/mopic 

Recorded Sound Reference Center 
www.loc.gov/rr/record 



JANUARY, 1920 



VISUAL 
EDUCATION 



VOLUME 1. NUMBER 1 



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED 
TO THE CAUSE OF 
AMERICAN EDUCATION 






I/O 



PUBLISHED EVERY MONTH EXCEPT JULY AND AUGUST 

BY THE 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

ONE DOLLAR A YEAR SINGLE COPY. FIFTEEN CENTS 




327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

— vy 

OFFICERS 

President, Rollin D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 

Vice-President and General Manager, H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation 

Secretary, F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 

DIRECTORS 

W. W. Atwood, Harvard University 

W. C. Bagley, Columbia University 

C. A. Beard, New York Bureau of Municipal Research 

O. W. Caldwell, Lincoln School of Teachers College, Columbia University 

J. M. Coulter, University of Chicago 

J. G. Coulter, Chicago, 111. 

H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation, Chicago, 111. 

F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 

W. F. Russell, University of Iowa 

R. D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 

V. C. Vaughan, University of Michigan 

GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD 

J. H. Beveridge, Superintendent of Schools, Omaha, Nebraska 

Mrs. Guy Blanchard, Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs, Chicago, Illinois 

J. C. Brown, President, State Normal School, St. Cloud, Minnesota 

C. E. Chadsey, Dean of the College of Education, University of Illinois 

L. D. Coffman, Dean of the College of Education, University of Minnesota 

L. T. Damon, Professor of English, Brown University 

E. R. Downing, School of Education, University of Chicago 

E. C. Elliott, Chancellor of the University, .University of Montana. 
David Felmley, President, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. 
J. Paul Goode, Professor of Geography, University of Chicago 

V. A. C. Henmon, Director of the School of Education, University of Wisconsin 
C. H. Judd, Director of the School of Education, University of Chicago 
J. A. H. Keith, President, Normal School, Indiana, Pennsylvania 

F. J. Kelley, Dean of the College of Education, University of Kansas 

O. E. Klingaman, Director of the Extension Division, University of Iowa 

G. E. Maxwell, President, State Normal School, Winona, Minnesota 
R. C. McCrea, Professor of Economics, Columbia University 

Mrs. Myra K. Miller, President, National Federation of College Women, New York City 
Paul Monroe, Professor of Elementary Education, Teachers College, Columbia Univ. 
M. C. Potter, Superintendent of Schools, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
J. E. Russell, Dean of Teachers College, Columbia University 
H. B. Wilson, Superintendent of Schools, Berkeley, California 
J. H. Wilson, Director of Visual Instruction, Detroit Michigan 
J. W. Withers, Superintendent of Schools, St. Louis, Missouri 
W. C. Wood, Commissioner of Education, California 

(For special committees see inside back cover) 



FEB 24 1920 

©CI.B4551S9 



VISUAL EDUCATION 



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED 
TO THE. CAUSE OF 
AMERICAN EDUCATION 



Rollin D. Salisbury, President Nelson L. Greene, Editor 

Forest R. Mottlton, Secretary Harley L. Clarkk, Uanag.r 



PUBLISHED EVERY MONTH EXCEPT JULY AND AUGUST 

Copyright, 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 
Subscription price, one dollar a year. Fifteen cents a copy. 

VOLUME I JANUARY, 1920 NUMBER l 



IN" THIS NUMBEK 

Foreword 2 

Why the Society for Visual Education ? 7 

Otis W. Caldwell 

The Need for Experimental Investigation of Visual Instruction 10 

William F. Russell. 

Visual Instruction in the Public Schools of Evanston, Illinois 12 

W. Arthur Justice 

First Steps in the Study of Geography 22 

Wallace W. A I wood 

Human Eyes and Optical Instruments 25 

Fores I R. Moulton 

The Pact of 1925 35 

C 11. Ward 

A Word or Two More 38 

Announcements 40 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



VISUAL EDU CATION 

A National Organ of the New Movement in American Education 



Nelson L. Greene, Editor Harley L. Clarke, Manager 

Copyright 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

Volume I JANUARY, 1920 Number 1 



Foreword 

//"Y"¥" TORK and Play" is a phrase that has attained the dignity of authority 
l/l/ in the language as a fairly adequate synonym for the whole waking 
™ ™ activity of man. The dominant factor governing "work" is the reason ; 
the dominant factor governing "play" is the emotions. With equal simplicity and 
sufficient accuracy human inventions and discoveries may be roughly classified in 
two corresponding groups ; those calculated for the "work" side of life and appeal- 
ing to the reason, and those concerned with the "play" side of life and appealing 
to the emotions. The wheelbarrow and the sewing-machine are obvious examples 
of the termer, and by far the larger group ; the kaleidoscope and the merry-go- 
round would seem to belong exclusively to the latter. 

These categories, however, are not mutually exclusive. Many a device serves 
both ends, regardless of the intentions of the inventor. If a given invention con- 
tains possibilities for both utility and amusement, it is interesting to note the 
apparent rule that the amusement possibilities will be developed first. The 
rationalizing process of passing time reveals the other — and generally richer 
possibilities. This is a strictly logical phenomenon, for the emotions answer an 
appeal more promptly than the reason. Hence a novelty often becomes established 
as a toy before it occurs to the reason that the toy may be used as well for work. 
Mankind has been busy devising toys and tools since the dawn of history. 
The whole march of the race out of the prehistoric fog down to the year of Our 
Lord, 1920, has been punctuated by inventions that have gradually transformed 
the world — that have finally dulled the edge of wonder. Yet the human spirit 
that achieved these miracles of science, holds still the primal appetite for 
laughter and amusement. It is a never-sleeping instinct, primitive, elemental, 
strong. It claims the first tribute from each new discovery, arrogating to itself 
each novelty as it appears — and the intellect must wait till curiosity and shaking 
sides subside. 

In all probability the first hieroglyphics were merely entertainment for the 
artist and his onlookers. Cadmus, with his mighty alphabet, must have first 
excited wonder and amusement; little did he or his disciples dream that, but foi 
those magic little marks, the world would remain practically inarticulate. 
Mechanical science was born in the making of toys. Tops were spinning in 
Homer's day for the amusement of young mankind, but it was a far ery to the 



Foreword 3 

gyroscopic governors of modem Archimedes , his water 

elevator, and numerous other ingenuities that he did not think worthy of record 
in his writings, these were the things thai gave the greal geometrician his w 

• m the ancient world. The mass of his contemporarii • zled by his 

minor achievements. These device- fascinated ratlin- than served; their appeal 
reached first the emotions which are quick to respond, rather than the reason 
which is slow. Men were children in the presence of a oovelty in those days. 

have they changed much since in this respect. When the omnipotent 
little Printing Press assisted at the birth of the modern world and made effective 
the power of the human intellect — the most suhtle and resistless force in the 
—-many a learned mind and pious heart grieved at this invention of the 
deviJ ; for it poured forth so many frivolities which would lead the world inevitably 
to perdition. The first dingy efforts of Daguerre amused, hut hardly sugg 
the dazzling future of Photography. Yet think of the toiling cameras today, 
snapping ceaselessly around the world; at midnight, at noon; in thousand- of 
workshops and laboratories, engraving plants and glaring studios; on the earth, 
in the air, under the sea; endlessly turning out their mighty values for the world 
of business. Photography has passed the amusement stage. The click of the 
summer- resort snapshot is drowned in the chorus of commercial shutters. 

The dominant emotions experienced in the first steps of modern transporta- 
tion sprang from the fascination of being moved from one place to another by a 
lifeless mechanism; not from the consciousness that a revolution in human living 
was at hand. The first trains were for the curious — gaily-dressed, beparasolled 
ladies with their escorts, adventurers out for a thrilling holiday. Freight — the 
world's sustenance today — was an afterthought. The first steamships carried 
chattering passengers, not merchandise. Now the whole face of the sea is 
wrinkled with wakes of a myriad ships, but most of them are "tramps/' not 
"greyhounds." Eecall the merry velocipede and the bicycle that followed it to its 
more and more utilitarian destiny. The horseless "carriage" preceded the "truck." 
The aeroplane carried no mail nor ammunition till it had carried sportsmen and 
professional entertainers. 

The first occupation of the Roentgen rays was to show to titillating witnesses 
coins in leather purses and nails in shoe-heels. Yet modern medical science owes 
its astounding progress largely to these same X-rays. The Wireless Telegraph was 
long a prize attraction on the lecture platform. It put many little lecturers on 
the road to success before it set struggling ships on their course through the storm. 
It was amusing thousands in Chautauqua tents before it began keeping millions 
safe on the high seas. The Phonograph was merely "funny" at the start. Prom 
its early success in the penny arcades, it has become a genuine cultural force 
among America's millions. The art of Literature benefited hardly more by 
Printing than the art of Music henefits by the Phonograph. The Stereopticon 
and the Stereoscope have had a similar career. The former went through a novelty 
period, but few educators today would deny that the lantern slide is a cultural and 
educational means of high value. The Stereoscope's first mission was to supply 
summer-vacation wages to student canvassers and breathless entertainment to 



4 Visual Education 

the curious purchasers of the wonderful thing. If the same little 'scope has 
now been moved from the marble-topped parlor table to a trunk in the dusty 
attic, while thousands of new ones are finding daily use in American schools, 
it proves merely that the amusement days are over, the utility days are come. 
Thus in the end — in the dear old "long run" — every invention comes 
into its own and turns at last to the greater service. It is a law. 

* * * 

Now comes the Motion Picture, the big brother of the lens family, the 
colossus among all amusement devices ever known to the race. Whether this 
giant proves to be the ogre that a host of educators have seemed to fear, or a 
mighty benefactor to their cause depends on the educators themselves. 

Why — when they know perfectly well the above facts — why do some in- 
telligent people still feel called upon to "despise" the Motion Picture ? Why do 
they condemn this innocent device for running the same lawless course that 
greater things have run before it? The whole story of human progress hangs 
on ideas, discoveries and inventions that wrinkled the corners of the mouth 
before they wrinkled the forehead. The Motion Picture is not yet through 
with the corners of the mouth. It has not yet begun its real work on the 
forehead of this nation and the world. 

On the other hand, thousands of intellectual men are awake to the existence 
of this new giant in our midst. Thousands more are stirring in their sleep. 
There is a vast deal of vague thinking on this subject going on throughout the 
country. The educational world is uneasy from a growing suspicion that there is 
real value wrapped up in the Motion Picture, which is as yet undetermined. 
Thinking men are dimly conscious that something important is being missed in 
the monster industry that is rolling up its mushroom millions every week. 

Yet all this random cerebration is getting us nowhere. Like the waves of 
the wireless which cannot be directed, the half-formed ideas of individuals are 
dissipated in the academic ether, reaching by chance but a few listeners here 
and there, out of the many who would like to hear. There exists no adequate 
means for collecting these vagrant ideas, making them accessible to all who 
would like to survey the field and analyze the present consensus of opinion as 
a basis for further study. Already a large audience of educators of all ranks, 
high and humble, are ready and eager to hear the question discussed, to take 
active part in the discussion. 

This magazine is interested in the whole subject of visual education. We 
believe whole-heartedly in all rational means thus far devised for taking full 
advantage of the great educative capacity of the human eye. Maps, Charts, 
Diagrams, Models, Prints — when properly made — need no defense as legitimate 
and valuable adjuncts to the classroom equipment. The learned world has 
long since ceased to doubt the value of the Laboratory. It would be ridiculous 
in our day to argue for the worth of the Microscope or the Telescope. The 
position of the Stereopticon and the Stereoscope in the pedagogic economy is 
quite secure. Out of all, only the Motion Picture seems to need defending, 
and this late-comer, we fancy, when once the proper hands are at work upon 



Foreword 5 

it, will outstrip most of its predecessors in its total contribution to the great 
work of American education. 

* * * 

"Visual Education," therefore, enters the field of educational magazines 
with the solemn resolution to do its utmost toward the extension of all existing 
activities along the line of visual instruction. It will seek also to promote by 
every appropriate means the sane and scholarly development of the new resources 
put within our reach by the Motion Picture. 

As a necessary initial step to these ends, Visual Education offers itself 
as a clearing-house for ideas on this great subject, which will not be silenced much 
longer. The country is seething with the vague aspirations or maudlin en- 
thusiasms of well-intentioned promoters of screen education, and with the anxious 
misgivings or virulent antagonisms of teachers who fear the invasion of com- 
mercial crudeness. It is time that serious men became articulate. Somewhere 
amid it all there is truth which must appear in due time. Visual Education 
aims to find and publish it, in all its forms, from all fruitful sources, whether 
it come from babes or sages. We believe it will come from both. 

For the commercial "Movies," the pioneer days are passed. For the educa- 
tional picture they are just beginning and it is time for the academic pioneers 
to strike the trail. We shall print the abstractions of scholarly research and the 
concrete practice of the classroom; the untested theories of our universities and 
the convictions built on experience in the grades; the glowing arguments of 
friends and the acid criticisms of enemies. All material will be welcomed, 
provided always that the motive and source are serious and sincere, trustworthy, 
and authoritative, and that all authors accept full responsibility for their state- 
ments. On such a foundation the investigation will take on definiteness. Ideas 
will be crystallized, precise aims formulated, real and fictitious values dis- 
tinguished, and progress toward real conclusions will begin. 

Further, we plan to collect and present, as rapidly as is consistent with 
accuracy, data from all sources bearing upon this question. Beginning with 
the February number, Visual Education will supply monthly reference lists 
of current magazine articles with brief indications of the nature and contents 
of each. Partial reprints of important material will be given frequently. Short 
reviews of significant new books as they appear, together with lists and sum- 
maries of volumes previously written on the subject, will constitute a depart- 
ment by itself. Ultimately this Bibliography will cover the entire literature of 
the subject. It will provide material for exhaustive study of the general topic 
of Visual Education, and incidentally will afford a basis for estimating the total 
serious achievement of the Motion Picture since its inception. 

A separate department is planned for Correspondents, which will undertake 
to print significant letters received during the month and give general or specific 
answers to all communications. Readers are urged to take advantage of the 
opportunity thus afforded for establishing and maintaining intimate contact 
with this magazine and thereby with the whole movement. If we are to achieve 
concerted action, it is important that the whole rank and file of educators 



6 Visual Education 

be constantly informed of the status of the movement. This department should 
serve as a valuable means to that end. 

We believe that the future awaiting the present efforts toward visual educa- 
tion will be more brilliant than the dreams of its most ardent devotees. Un- 
doubtedly, much of the prophecy now being uttered so freely on all sides will 
prove to have been either false or gravely misdirected. But the future will come 
— as the future always does — and it will bring to American education great 
benefit or untold harm according as it is moulded by the sound judgments of 
educational experts or by the bungling hands of enthusiastic tyros. "Visual 
Education" is at the service of the former, to be freely used in any and all ways 
that the best interests of the cause shall dictate. 



"This picture tells me in an instant what would be spread 
over ten printed pages." 

Turgenev. 



"Visual Education presents the most promising avenue of 
approach to the final solution of the great problem of a truly 
universal education." 

Bagley. 



Why the Society for Visual Education ? 

THERE are enough organizations now attempting to minister to the needs of 
public education. A new organization has no right to come into existence 
unless it has a new function to perform or has a better way of performing 
some function which already exists. There is no virtue in increasing the number of 
organizations nor in adding one whose excuse is found in "just being different.'" 
There are motion pictures galore and motion picture theatres open at every corner. 
School children throughout the country are already attending motion pictures in 
large numbers. Many schools are endeavoring to make some kind of use of mo- 
tion pictures within the school walls. 

The school's business is serious, however, and, while most of us desire to 
make school life interesting and pleasant, we must never forget that it is serious 
and that it must relate to the training of people so that they may be more ef- 
fective citizens. Therefore, when motion pictures are introduced into the school 
or when school children attend picture theatres we must ask ourselves whether a 
contribution is being made to the serious work for which the schools exist. This 
question cannot be asked merely "in the large," but must be asked either with 
reference to the specific subjects that are included in the school curriculum or 
with reference to social or community service or personal ideals which we expect 
the school's activities to develop. Furthermore, when this question is asked we 
are at once led to the conclusion that a very vital interest has been used essen- 
tially as a means of superficial entertainment rather than as a means of funda- 
mental education. It is highly desirable, therefore, that experienced and thought- 
ful school people shall turn their attention to a thorough study of the correct place 
of motion pictures in modern education. 

There exist fundamental educational reasons for the use of motion pictures. 
It is a matter of common experience that we learn more rapidly and retain longer 
when our learning is based upon first-hand contacts with materials and processes. 
Our thinking is very much more secure if it rests upon our own experiences rather 
than upon reports by others. It is often said, "I have seen it with my own eyes," 
and because of having thus seen, our judgments are better, and we can more 
readily understand and judge the arguments of others. The eye, as a means 
through which knowledge comes to us, is second to no other one of the senses. 
There are innumerable experiences which we need in order to understand the 
busy world in which we live, and most people cannot have a large number of 
these first hand. In order that learning may be as nearly correct and as extensive 
as possible, it is desired to increase to the maximum the opportunity of observing 
occurrences from real situations which may not be visited. There is no better 
way of putting these situations before the learner than through motion pictures, 
for, if properly made, these pictures tell the truth of things because they portray 
the movements, expressions, processes, etc., which really occur. 

If seeing through motion pictures, as suggested above, were the only thing 
that is done, it would be scarcely worth while. The development in class instruc- 
tion of the fundamental ideas that are related to the things seen is entirely essen- 

7 



8 Visual Education 

tial, and the school should be organized so as to make the largest use of this kind 
of thinking. If there were nothing but exposure to the interesting situations pre- 
sented by the films — that is, if the pupils were allowed to visit promiscuously the 
various motion picture theatres that are available to them without having their 
thoughts stimulated concerning the things observed — they would be interested 
and pleased, but not fundamentally instructed. Careful thought development 
relating to the things observed is just as essential as the preceding observation. 
Indeed, exposure without development is as unprofitable as would be true in 
photography. If a photographer were to expose his sensitive plates to a variety of 
situations without developing each situation upon a single plate, his work would 
be profitless. If more than one exposure is made upon a single sensitive plate 
and development then follows, a "confused blur" is the result. The successful 
photographer knows that proper exposure followed by proper amount of develop- 
ment provide the only means of securing the clean-cut permanent negative which 
is essential. From such a negative clear and satisfactory new impressions may 
be taken at any future time. This analogy, when applied to the field of educa- 
tional psychology, illustrates a definite reason for the use of motion pictures as 
well as for the thought development subsequent to this use. School work has 
dealt too largely with thought development which did not have adequate exposure, 
and motion picture theatres have too often over-exposed without the requisite 
thought development. It is possible and necessary that these two elements be so 
arranged that they shall supplement each other. 

The relation of visual instruction to reading is also fundamental. We are 
interested in reading, and read more intelligently concerning the things about 
which we already have some information. Much reading is dead to the reader 
because it does not relate to a vital experience and a vital need. Motion pictures 
concerning travel, industry, manufacture, social and civic situations furnish the 
stimulus for reading about these matters and also furnish the concrete basis for 
interpretation and understanding of the things that are read. Proper visual in- 
struction, therefore, increases the use of reading as well as increases the intel- 
lectual aspects of reading. 

It must be clear that motion pictures will not serve their proper use in 
schools unless they are selected and organized with direct reference to the sub- 
jects of the curriculum. There is a tremendous opportunity for educational ad- 
vance through the development of films upon an educational basis. Carefully 
selected situations, photographed by the best motion picture experts, and edited 
by those who know what these pictures should contribute as a part of the regular 
instructional work of the school, furnish not only an opportunity, but supply an 
important demand in modern education. This is a large task to undertake. 
That its importance is recognized is shown by the fact that representatives of 
the National Government, of the National Geographic Society and of various 
organizations of educational people are now offering their materials for educa- 
tional uses and have expressed their desire to incorporate those materials into 
an organic relation with the curriculum. 

Those who have entered into the organization of The Society for Visual 



Why the Society for Visual Education ? 9 

Education have done so with the belief that the organization can make some of 
the needed contributions to the improvement of our educational practice. 

Otis W. Caldwell, 
Director of The Lincoln School of Teachers College, 

Columbia University. 



The first public announcement of the Society for Visual Education, Inc., 
was made by Dr. F. E. Moult on in an informal address delivered to the delegates 
of the Xational Federation of College Women, assembled in convention at the 
Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, on November 19, 1919. The work of the Society 
has since received 'the hearty endorsement of this and other national organizations 
concerned with educational, civic and social progress. A list of these organiza- 
tions will be printed in an early issue of Visual Education. 

The Society now has descriptive literature ready for distribution, setting 
forth clearly the personnel and the intentions of the organization. This material 
will be mailed promptly to any address upon request. 



The Need of Experimental Investigation of Visual 
Instruction. 

(Editor's Note — Additional articles on the work of the Research 
Committee, written by Dr. Russell and his Associates, will appear in 
later issues throughout the year.) 

ONE outstanding feature of the schools of Japan, which at once strikes a 
visitor, is the extraordinary use that is made of objective equipment. In 
some of the schools in Tokyo the walls are lined with pictures ; cabinets con- 
tain file after file of newspaper cuts kept for assistance in teaching hygiene, geo- 
graphy, history and citizenship ; and in one room which impressed the writer par- 
ticularly, there was a rack of charts extending down the entire side of a room, each 
kept conveniently at hand to be used when the occasion demanded. Charts are also 
used in moral instruction, the most important subject in the Japanese course of 
study. Every school child has one recitation every day in this subject ; and to assist 
in its proper teaching, a series of pictures or charts is supplied to the school. 

While the schools of the United States have been backward in the use of 
visual equipment in teaching, there are signs that we are soon to learn this lesson. 
School rooms are changing their appearance. We see bulletin boards covered 
with clippings. We note pictures clipped from magazines. The stereopticon 
lantern is becoming more common. Extension departments of state institutions 
are routing lantern slides; and in many sections of the country the use of the 
motion picture is becoming increasingly common. It is probably not an ex- 
travagant statement to say that in the next few years, great progress will be made 
in the introduction into our schools of all sorts of visual aids, and the most im- 
portant of these will be the moving picture. 

This progress cannot be of the right sort, however, unless the introduction of 
the motion picture is made in exactly the right way. There was once a time when 
the only road to educational progress lay in the time-honored method of trial and 
error. We introduced a new method, an original device, or a strange subject in 
fear and trembling. An enthusiastic traveler would report upon a difference in 
practice between our schools and those of another country. A professor would 
develop a new theory. One by one the schools would take it up and work with it. 
Sometimes it would fail. Occasionally it would succeed. We were never sure as to 
the exact cause either of its success or its failure. And then after long trial and 
frequent mistakes it would either be widely adopted or forgotten. But at no time 
were school men in possession of the results of exact scientific experimentation 
either as to the general or particular advantages of the method, device or idea 
that was on trial. We must avoid this mistake with the motion picture. 

There is probably no universal panacea for all the ills of class-room teaching. 
It is probable that the motion picture will not solve all our problems. It is alto- 
gether likely that there are certain places in the teaching process where it will 
be a waste of time, where it is more likely to impede progress than to make 
it. It is also likely that there are certain subjects and certain places where it 
will be of great worth. 

10 



Experimental Investigation of Visual Instruction 11 

The thing that progressive school men must guard against, therefore, is 
failure to know exactly the use that we must make of this objective aid. If we 
introduce it as an experiment and happen accidentally to use it in a place where 
it does no good, we must protect ourselves from the danger of judging too hastily 
and discarding the whole matter without careful trial. If by chance we try it in 
a place where it is most likely to succeed we must protect ourselves from the danger 
of overenthusiasm. 

There is only one way to accomplish this. We must subject the use of the 
motion picture in schools to the same scientific scrutiny that today is being given 
to the teaching of spelling, to the use of drill work, to the use of phonics in the 
teaching of beginning reading, to the value of supervised study, to the measure- 
ment of results of teaching and problems of a similar sort. 

One object of the Society for Visual Education will be to supply to the edu- 
cational world accurate information based upon the results of scientific experi- 
ment as to the right and wrong kinds of school films, right and wrong places to 
use them, and right and wrong methods of teaching with them. We are gathering 
together a committee of investigators who will act in an advisory capacity in plan- 
ning and mapping out experimental investigation and we are supplying funds to 
see that these experiments are carried to a convincing conclusion. It is our in- 
tention that experiments of a fundamental sort shall be carefully devised and 
tried in a few places to perfect the method of work. We then expect to publish 
the tentative results, and, to verify our conclusion, to try the same experiments 
on many children in many schools. Only in this way can the motion picture 
achieve its greatest success in the American school, and if we receive the co- 
operation of our teachers, we can safely say that we can eliminate years of in- 
adequate trial and error in our schools. 

A more specific statement of the plans of the committee will appear in the 
February number of Visual Education. 

William F. Bussell, 
Dean of the College of Education, University of Iowa. 

Chairman, Committee on Educational Research. 



Visual Instruction in the Public Schools of 
Evanston, 111. 

AT its regular meeting in June, 1919, the Board of Education of District 75 
authorized the organization of a bureau of visual instruction in its school 
curriculum. In taking this action, the Board had two purposes in mind — 
first, to establish more definitely the use of motion pictures in the system, and, 
secondly, to obtain a closer and more immediate correlation between the films and 
the subject matter in the school courses. The words "more definitely" are used 
advisedly, for the Evanston schools have made use of regular educational motion 
picture programs since November, 1918. 

The introduction of the educational type of film into our schools was a 
matter of evolution, based upon seven years of experimentation in various school 
systems on the part of the director of the Evanston bureau, and guided by the 
observation of the efforts of our best educators and of many progressive school 
administrators in all parts of our country, to evolve a method which would adapt 
the cinema to the school needs. 

In this connection, many empirical attempts, often abortive, can be cited, 
but they serve to demonstrate that consciousness everywhere is awakening to the 
educative possibilities of motion pictures. One needs only to review the educa- 
tional publications of this and other countries to judge of the progress that is 
being made in this field and to note the direction in which this progress is tend- 
ing. 

As outstanding guideposts of the movement, reference should be made to 

(a) Eecent decisions of Boards of Education in such important school 
centers as Newark and Detroit, to establish departments of visual instruction. 
To-wit : 

In a recent magazine article, Mr. A. G. number of projection machines. We have 

Balcom, Superintendent of the Newark contracted for films covering quite a 

schools says, "Newark, N. J., is one of field> including travel, literature, history 

the first of the larger cities of the United and a great many industr ial films. The 

States seriously and officially, through its FoM MotQr Company is stm at work 

board of education, to adopt motion pic- . ,. „ _. . . 

M , x , , upon production of films for us under 
tures as an integral part of its school 

, T . . , e the direction of our supervisor of geog- 

system. Visual education, so far as * 

Newark is concerned, is an accepted fact. ™V h ?> but so far no films have been 
The school board has authorized its su- released. We are using motion pictures 
perintendent, through his assistants in fourteen schools, organized on the 
assigned for the purpose, to equip the platoon plan, our form of organization 
schools of the city with fireproof booths being that one day each week is given 
and standard professional apparatus, and over entirely to film work in the audi- 
it has authorized appropriations for edu- torium of the school. Machines are 
cational film service." being operated by the teachers them- 
Likewise, Mr. Charles L. Spain, Deputy selves and the film service is being cared 
Superintendent of the Detroit schools, for by the supervisor of this work. It 
says: "In Detroit we are just getting is expected that this work will be ex- 
started on motion picture work in our tended next year to include probably 
public schools and have purchased a fifteen or twenty more schools." 

12 



Visual Instruction in Public Schools 13 

(b) The work of visual instruction carried on by the extension departments 
of state universities such as the University of Wisconsin and Iowa State College. 

(c) The recent activities in visual education on the part of state depart- 
ments of public instruction of which the efforts of the department of North 
Carolina are typical. 

Evanston is by no means in the rear guard of this movement, for motion 
picture programs, selected for community evening entertainments and for so- 
called educational afternoon presentations, shown after school sessions, were 
irregularly carried on several years before the fall of 1918. 

At this time four of our grade school buildings, which were provided with 
projection apparatus, became the nucleus of an earnest endeavor to promote the 
establishment of a regular circuit of educational films within our own school 
system. The experiment developed in the following manner. For several months, 
two and three-reel programs were shown weekly, within school hours. No attempt 
was made, during this time, to correlate the pictures with the study of text 
material, but they were given for the general educative information which they 
might impart. Some attempt was made to announce the titles of the films a 
day or two in advance of their appearance on the screen, for it was hoped that 
the teachers might incorporate the picture topics in their language lessons. 
Typical among the films shown were these — "Mexico's Floating Gardens," "Night 
Animals," "Furs and Quills," "Screen Telegrams," Pathe and Ford "Weeklies," 
and kindred material. 

Furthermore, there was not, during these first months, any attempt to adapt 
certain films to different grade groups of children, but all films were shown, with- 
out differentiation, to all the pupils of the schools. 

The cost of these regular weekly shows was defrayed by an "entertainment 
fund" which was supplied by the receipts from monthly "diversional movies" in 
which current drama and comedy plays were shown. 



Sample of "diversional show" announcement. 




COME 

To Lincolnwood School to our movie 
and see "Cinderella's" Fairy God- 
mother turn the mice and pumpkin 
into a "coach and four." 
A new film — All star cast — 260 child actors. 
Two afternoon shows — 3:00 and 4:30. Admission 10 cents. 

At eight o'clock another show. One of the world's classics. 
New films. Also O. Henry's famous story filmed. 
Admission 15 Cents. 



14 



Visual Education 



The circuit programs were well received by both the children and the teachers, 
for they clarified and greatly enlivened the drab values of texts hitherto lazily 
scanned and but partially understood. This enthusiasm gave rise to a new idea 
—to associate the pictures more closely with the class room work. 

Accordingly, in April, 1919, arrangements were made with a large educa- 
tional film company of Chicago, whereby our "teacher-operator," Miss Lucile 
Berg, who has contributed much time and many valuable suggestions to the 
launching of our "movie" project, was given permission to visit the library 
exchange of this film corporation from week to week. While there, she selected 
and reviewed suitable film materials, itemized their subject content, and booked 
the pictures, usually two weeks in advance of their appearance in the schools. 
This proceeding enabled us, on the one hand, to discriminate carefully in the 
choice of purely educational matter which could be directly applied in amplifying 
and explaining the school texts and, on the other hand, to give to teacher and 
to pupil a suggestive synopsis in outline form, of the picture to be viewed the 
week following its receipt. 

When, in June, 1919, the members of the Board of Education were apprised 
of the success of this scheme in the four schools where it was used, they straight- 
way voted an appropriation sufficient to equip all of our eight schools with 
standard apparatus and, in addition to this, a fund which would cover film rental 
for the succeeding school year, 1919-1920. 



. " * 


i ■ '-■ 



STUDENT OPERATORS AND TYPICAL BOOTH 

The installation of all new equipment took place in the summer vacation. 
In full compliance with the rulings of the fire insurance underwriters of Chicago, 
every precaution was taken to provide suitable booths for the several machines. 
In buildings where it was impracticable to construct permanent booths, movable 
structures, made of 24-gauge sheet steel, were erected on large piano casters, in 
order that they might, when not in use, be rolled into the most inconspicuous 
corner of the auditorium or into a convenient closet. 



Visual Instruction" in Public Schools 



15 



Beginning with the new school term in September, 1919, a regular schedule 
of picture presentation was observed by the schools. It ran as follows : 

Crandon, 



Rooms 
■1, 



Thursday Morning- 
Time Group 



Kg-.— 1, 2, 3 10:00 to 10.40 1 

4, 5, 6, 7, 8 11:00 to 11:40 2 

9. 10, 11, 12 9:00 to 9:40 3 

Dewey, Tuesday Afternoon 

Kg. — 2, 3 2:15 to 2:45 1 

7, 8, 9, 10 2:50 to 3:30 2 

11, 12, 13 1:30 to 2:10 3 

Foster, Wednesday Morning 

Kg. — 4, 5 9:50 to 10:30 1 

6, 7, 8, 10 11:00 to 11:40 2 

9, 11, 12 9:00 to 9:40 3 

Larimer, Tuesday Morning 

Kg.— 2, 3 10:00 to 10:40 1 

4, 5 11:00 to 11:40 2 

6, 7, 8 9:00 to 9:40 3 



Lincolnwood, Wednesday Afternoon 

Kg.— 1, 2 2:15 to 2:45 

3, 4, 5 2:50 to 3:30 

6, 7, 8 1:30 to 2:10 

Miller, Monday Afternoon 

Kg.— 2, 3 2:15 to 2:45 

.4, 5, 6 2:50 to 3:30 

8, 9, 10 1:30 to 2:10 



Noyes, 

Kg.— B 

2, 3, 4, 

7 Inter. 

Orrington, 

Kg.— 2, 3. 

4, 5, 



Friday Morning 
1 10:10 to 10:50 

5 11:00 to 11:40 

9:30 to 10:00 
Thursday Afternoon 
2:15 to 2:45 
7 2:50 to 3:30 

10 1.30 to 2:10 



Each week's program consisted of four topics : 



TOPIC A 

Usually fairy stories, animal action 

or children's activities pictures. 
Shown to kindergarten, first and 

second grades or Group 1. 

TOPIC B 

Usually animal action pictures, 

transportation, modes of living 

(foreign countries) and simple 

industries. 
Shown to third, fourth and fifth 

grades or Group 2. 

Sample programs are given here to indicate the method of announcement. 
These outlines are published in our School Bulletin and are distributed each 
Monday morning to every teacher and school child, which gives them every op- 
portunity to study the topics assigned the various grades. 

Seventy-five thousand sheep being 



TOPIC C 

Usually geographic, industrial scenes, 
historical plays, scientific material. 

Shown to sixth, seventh and eighth 
grades or Group 3. 

TOPIC D 

Ford Weeklies 

Shown to sixth, seventh and eighth 
grades or Group 3. 



EDUCATIONAL MOVING PICTURES 
FOR WEEK OF MONDAY, SEP- 
TEMBER 29, 1919. 

Topic A — Three Bears and Golden Locks. 
(Diverges somewhat from story.) 

Topic B — Story of Sheep. Shropshire 
Breed. 

Sheep and lambs. 
Yearling ewes. 
Ewe lambs. 
Sheep dog "rounding up" or 



driven to shearing ground. 

Stables where 2,000 sheep are sheared 
per day. 

(Compare old and new methods of 
shearing.) 

Topic C — Boston Tea Party, Reel 1. 

Reel 1 shows home life, styles and 
customs of Colonial times. 



Topic D — Ford Educational Film. 

Unfortunately, it is impossible to se- 
cure outlines of these Ford Films at 
present. Watch for the announcements 
of the following week's title at the end 
of the Ford pictures at each successive 
presentation. 

Note: Topic C in this case is a three-reel production and was run one 
reel each week for three successive weeks. 

General colonial history was studied during this time. 



'milling" 



Sending dog alone to bring sheep in at 
night. 

Where we got our game of "Follow the 
Leader." 



16 



Visual Education 



Clipping from Evanston School Bulletin, District 75, Monday October 
20, 1919: 



EDUCATIONAL MOTION PICTURES 

FOR WEEK BEGINNING 

OCT. 27, 1919. 

Topic A — African Sea Birds. 

Penguin — on nest. Gathering eggs for 
London market. Note distress of birds 
over loss of eggs. 

Solon geese or malagas. Island 300 
yards square, harbors 300,000 birds. Note 
how similar their flight is to that of the 
sea gull. Courtship of malagas. Note 
black wingtip and tail. Preening for the 
day. 

Duckers or divers. 

Ostrich farming — South America. Com- 
plete growth, egg to plumed bird. Pluck- 
ing plumes. Why does covering the 
head quiet ostrich? Why cut feathers 
instead of pulling them? 

Capturing a bob-cat. 

Topic B — Scenes in Florida. 

Everglades — reclaimed land. 

Deep in the everglades. 

Ants on sandy soil. 

Spanish air moss. 

Seminole Indians. 

Alligator farm, showing nest, eggs and 
alligators from those just hatched to 
full-grown ones. 

Florida in winter. 

Topic C — Over the Northern Andes. 

Study relief map of South America — 
it will be shown on film. Section of 
scene — Colombia. Colombia has very few 
railroads, due to the mountains making 
railroad construction expensive and fre- 
quently impossible. 



There is a railroad between Cali, on 
the Cauca river, and Buenaventura on 
the Pacific. It begins on the plains about 
Cali and passes over high mountains 
before reaching Colombia's chief seaport. 

The native huts in Buenaventura are 
made of loose boards and have thatched 
roofs. The only frame building is the 
cable station. 

Natives live in huts, good-sized boats 
and under the wharves. 

One of the chief products of Colombia 
is the cocoa bean. 

Cachimbo planted with cocoa to pro- 
tect it from sun. 

Cocoa pods growing on branches and 
trunk. Blossoms and pods grow on tree 
at same time. (Of what other tree is 
this characteristic?) 

Steps in growth — gathering and pre- 
paring of cocoa for market. 

Open pod. 

Planting bean. 

Height attained in one month, three 
months, three years. 

While young, protected by banana 
tree. (What other plant or tree is pro- 
tected by banana tree while young? Why 
banana tree? 

Pods collected from trees with long- 
forked sticks. 

Pods beaten open to get beans. 

Pods fed to cattle. 

Leaf of cocoa shaped like pod — feather- 
veined. 

Beans wrapped in leaves and allowed 
to ferment; then dried, packed, shipped. 

Product of beans — cocoa, cocoa-butter, 
chocolate. 

Topic D — Ford Educational Film. 



Note: Topic C is one reel of a series of three reels on South America. 
Grades seeing these reels had a comprehensive three weeks' study of this country. 



One feature of our work which deserves a little more than passing attention 
is the co-operation existing between the public library and the Bureau of Visual 
Instruction. 

A "motion picture reference shelf" has been established in a corner of the 
children's room of the public library. Here pupils may find much pertinent 
material in the form of books and magazines which have been conveniently 
marked for the purpose of ready reference. 

The librarian is supplied in advance with copies of our Motion Picture pro- 
gram — outlines which give her an opportunity to stock the "reference shelf" with 
literature that suitably illustrates the film topics. 



Visual Instruction- in Public Schools 



17 



A bulletin board placed above the shelf displays a bibliography of the 
material selected and acts as a guide for the pupils in their study. 
Two such bibliographies are here presented. 



ROYAL GORGE. 

Pearsons, E. — Guide Book to Colorado, 

p. 119-120. 
Steele, D. M. — Going abroad overland, p. 

144-147. 

ELK AND DEER. 

Wright — Four-footed Americans, p. 302, 
304-308. 

PERU. 

Bowman — South America, p. 84-127. 
Miller — In the wilds of South America, 
p. 265-278. 

Callao. 

Bowman — South America, p. 104. 

Callao to Lima. 

Peck — South American tour, Chaps. 6 
and 8. 

Lima. 
Bowman — South America, 105-108. 

Incas. 

Book of History, v. 14, p. 5861-5874. 
Bowman — South America, p. 161-175. 

Simon Bolivar. 
Book of History, v. 14, p. 5964-5969. 



SHEEP. 

Allen, N. B. — Sheep and wool industry in 
industrial studies: United States, p. 
233-42. 

American Woolen Co. — From wool to 
cloth. 

Austin, M. H.— The flock. 

Carpenter, F. G. — Sheep and wool in 
Australia: In Australia, p. 24-34. 

Johonnot, J. — How the sheep looks and 
lives. In Book of cats and dogs, p. 
87-90. 

Johonnot, J. — Wool bearers of the pas- 
tures. In Neighbors with claws and 
hoofs, p. 184-90. 

Shillig, E. E.— Wool. In The Four Won- 
ders, p. 37-64. 

Tappan, E. M. — Ways of the sheep. In 
Farmer and his friends, p. 72-78. 

Wright, M. O. — Bighorns. In Four-footed 
Americans, p. 243-5. 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bulletin 94. 

Stories. 

Hamp, S. F. — Dale and Fraser, sheep- 
men. 

Pierson, C. D. — Lamb with the longest 
tail; Why the sheep ran away. In 
Among the farmyard people. 

Twombly & Dana — Sheep shearing. In 
Romance of labor, p. 201-210. 



The question of the teachers' attitude toward the pictures may be answered 
by presenting excerpts of letters. 

From an eighth grade teacher 

"The movies are very valuable in the teaching of Geography and History as 
co-operation has made it possible to have films given that fitted into our work by 
making of lists of topics ahead of time. The pictures seemed to be as valuable 
when given after the lessons as before or at the same time, as then they constituted 
a very pleasant form of review, and the comments of the chidlren showed they 
enjoyed them as such. Often very good comparisons were drawn. They de- 
veloped observation and several boys told me that having them in school had 
taught them to be far more observing when attending other movies and to utilize 
the information they received." 

From a seventh and eighth grade Geography teacher 



"If presented before the topic is studied, it forms a good working basis 
and adds much interest. Example — About ten days ago a film showing many 
mountain views in California was shown and yesterday my seventh grade, in 



18 Visual Education 

giving their description of Yosemite Park, made use of the knowledge gained 
and named the various pictures shown that day (rather remarkable, as they 
were not named on the film at all). The children are continually making allu- 
sions to some process, view, etc., seen in the movies (perhaps last fall) and con- 
necting it with their daily work. In recitation you'll sometimes hear, "You saw 
that point explained in the movies," when a child asks the one reciting a ques- 
tion and the others will nod emphatically, thus attention is taught to some care- 
less pupils. 

"If shown after topic is studied, the pictures prove a valuable source of re- 
view." 

From a -fifth grade teacher 

"Pictures are almost the only means many children have of gaining a 
knowledge of the topography of a country. Few of our pupils have had the 
opportunity to travel, and moving pictures stimulate their interest in a subject 
and induce them to do more research work. 

"Pictures of the different industries have been especially valuable to the 
pupils who are studying geography." 

From a third grade teacher 

"In my estimation there is great value in the motion pictures for the lower 
grades, when the pictures are adapted to the work and the work outlined in 
advance. The pictures can be used as a basis for the Nature work, given in a 
more interesting and clearer manner than is possible in merely reading or trying 
to find one's own material. 

"The pictures are an excellent device in beginning composition work in 
the lower grades. The pictures form a splendid foundation for visualizing Geog- 
raphy which will be studied in a higher grade." 

From a first grade teacher 

"I have been amazed this year at the direct help the movies have given us. 

"The types which have helped us most are the nature pictures and the 
fairy story types. Moving pictures have brought to us things we need in our 
work in the way of illustrative materials which it would be impossible for us 
all to go and see. For instance, today we had a song about geese building their 
nests by a reedy lake and if it hadn't been for our last movie we wouldn't have 
had so easy a time understanding what a reedy lake was. And so it is almost 
daily, some reference in our work is given to some animal or story we have seen 
on the screen. 

"Children at this age (primary grades) are so very eye-minded that we have 
wonderful help in observation. 

"Then, too, movies give us much material for independent seat work. Much 
free hand cutting can be done. 



Visual Instruction in Public Schools 



19 




A MOTION PICTURE CLASS IN AN EVANSTON SCHOOL 



"The joy which the movies give us is inestimable. The pictures are so well 
chosen that they are within the comprehension of the children. 

"The outlines have been a great help in bringing the messages to the parents 
of what is going on at the movies." 

Pupils were recently asked to write a short, one-page composition concern- 
ing our "movies." They were given no ideas or suggestions upon what to write. 
Several representative selections are presented : 

Elizabeth P. — "I think the movies have helped us a great deal. Our knowl- 
edge of the manufacture of things we see in the home is much larger. We can 
remember how things were made if we see them made. We can't remember so well 
if we read about it. 

"The pictures of places we know about but have not seen give us a very 
much better idea of the people and country the pictures are about. 

"Therefore I would like to have the movies continued." 

Laura C. — "I have received information from the school movie which is 
very valuable to know. 

"I have learned a lot of another world, a world of insects, animals and 
birds. 

"Before I saw the movies here at Lincolnwood I knew almost nothing of 
the outside world. 

"I have learned things that will be of value in future years as well as now. 

"Our mothers and fathers have also become interested in these films and 
have attended a great many. I hope that this movie will be used in the school 
right along." 



20 



Visual Education 



Marjorie G. — "The trap-door spider makes a hole in the ground and lines 
it with silk. It has a hinged lid which fills the opening of the hole. There are 
two little holes in the edge of the lid farthest from the hinge. 

"When the spider enters its nest it runs over the door and, catching the 
claws of its hind leg into these holes, it pulls the door shut after it." 

Two themes are given below in full to illustrate further the stimulating 
effect of the screen. Hazel, aged 11, 6th grade, is deeply impressed by the 
mental nourishment derived; while Maurice, aged 11, 5th grade, is meved 
to pictorial utterance as well as verbal. Maurice's interesting spelling of "noise" 
is an unconscious mark of loyalty to his home and school in Evanston, where Noyes 
street and the Noyes School are easily dominant in his mind over all other noises. 

THEME No. 1. 
By Hazel. 

The Soo Canal is situated between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, in the St. 
Marys River. It is named after the city Sault Ste. Marie. The St. Marys River has 
a great many rapids. So the people that lived around there built this very large 
canal. Since they built this canal there has been a great deal of transportation going 
on there. If something happened to the locks of the Soo Canal, it would stop all 
transportation between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. 

This film was most interesting to me because I have never known much about 
the Soo Canal. And just from that one film my head was filled. If the Soo Canal 
was not there the northwestern part of the Western States would not be half as 
important as it is now. It is one of the most important places in the United 
States. And I think the Soo Canal is going to grow even more. 

THEME No. 2. 
By Maurice. 

t^q^^^^r HE Western States have many wonders. Its mountains are 

y 

L most noted. The film of "A Little Bit of Heaven." It showed 



a great many of the wonders. You would leave here in a train 



go west to 



small town 




near the Yosemite Valley, or in it. When you leave the 



station 



at a 




you would go for a horse 



p"T nearby stable. Then you are off to the 



Visual Instruction in Public Schools 
wonders away from the street noyeses. 



21 



But there 



another 




noyes. It is the water falls which are bordered with lofty 




precipices of 



/? granite, and 



pine trees galor. 



There are boulders half 



tall as 



Some are so close together 

that a horse can't get through. 




feT^, 



There are places where you can stand out on a river 



above a fall on the rocks. 



Let it be stated in conclusion that the end for which we are striving is to 
make the Motion Picture a real factor in the education of the child. He grows in- 
tellectually in proportion as he increases his power of thought and expression. 
To gain this end we give the child, not a passive viewing of the picture, but a 
presentation which will be of definite informational and thought-producing value. 
We try to accomplish this by giving opportunity for 

(1) Active study. (Guiding the pupil to look for the significant thing while 
undertaking a preparatory study of our outline.) 

(2) Thoughtful consideration. (Conducting socialized class-room discus- 
sions and reports on topics assigned.) 

(3) Careful observation. (Silence is preserved during the showing of the 
film to permit complete concentrating upon the picture. Close attention is fur- 
ther encouraged by the pupil's knowledge that he may be asked at any time to 
write a theme upon the picture he has seen.) 

W. Arthur Justice, 
Director of Visual Instmction, 'Public Schools, 

Evanston, III. 



First Steps in the Study of Geography. 

THE little child comes unconsciously to the study of geography. The simple 
observations made in play about the home, or in the fields may be the very 
first lessons. His personal experience on the seashore, in exploring a ravine, 
with various types of weather, in watching the rising or setting of the sun, or in 
observing the moon and stars, his experience in travel or at a store — all form the 
basis for later studies in geography. As he comes to know of the occupations in 
the home, on the farm or in the city, he is laying the foundations for the study of 
geography. 

By some, these first lessons might be called nature studies, but there is no 
eharp line to be drawn between nature study and geography; in fact, most of the 
lessons in what is called nature study with children are a legitimate part of a 
course in geography. In schools where work in geography is outlined for all 
grades from the first to the eighth, inclusive, the work for the first three years is 
commonly based on the observation of natural phenomena. Thus, during the first 
eight or nine years of a child's life, he is rapidly acquiring a knowledge of the 
earth and of some of the people of the earth that should form the basis of the 
first more formal lessons in geography. 

In most American schools home geography is taken up in the fourth grade. 
That geography should include, in addition to a study of the home and its immedi- 
ate surroundings, the study of the natural region in which the home is located. 
In this way the home will be seen in a certain natural setting. A vivid picture 
of the life throughout that region should be built up in the child's mind. This 
first large picture built up in the study of geography is based chiefly upon the 
personal observations and experiences of the child. These personal observations 
and experiences may, of course, be supplemented by those of the other children 
in the class, or by those of the teacher. They can be supplemented very effectively 
by the study of pictures, lantern slides and industrial exhibits. Anything which 
illustrates the physical features, the climate, the natural resources, or the activi- 
ties of the people living in that natural region may be used to enrich the image 
in the child's mind. In all of this work the teaching should be done through 
the eye. 

By means of imaginary journeys, the child should visit the homes of many 
different people. This will lead him to the study of various natural regions where 
the life is controlled by very different geographic conditions. Eegions should be 
selected where the physical features, climate and resources are distinctly different 
from those at home. A visit to an Eskimo home might be chosen, and the child 
should live with the Eskimos, in imagination, a summer and a winter. Pictures, 
drawings, maps and museum exhibits should be used to make the mental pictures 
that are being fixed in the child's mind as accurate and vivid as possible. Illus- 
trative material is absolutely essential. The most effective instruction will be 
through the eye. It is doubtful if any amount of descriptive language alone can 
fix in the mind of a child, who has always lived in the temperate zone, a correct 
image of an Eskimo home, of the Eskimos caring for their reindeer herds or 

22 



First Steps in Study of Geography 23 

engaged in fishing, or of the Eskimo children in the modern schools that our 
Government has established in Alaska. 

If a truthful and characteristic motion picture film were available, it would 
teach more in a few minutes than any other illustrative material, and would serve 
as the basis for numerous discussions. It might suggest the construction of a 
model of an Eskimo home, or a miniature Eskimo boat, or the making of clothing 
like that of an Eskimo. If a group of children chose to take up the construction 
of a miniature Eskimo village, preparing it somewhat as the museum curators 
would prepare a habitat group, that work would call for careful study, for reading, 
and perhaps for the help of parents. The whole exercise would be educative, and 
probably as valuable for those at home as for those going to school. In the end, 
this group of children might succeed in preparing an exhibit of more than tem- 
porary value, at least one that could be loaned to other rooms in the school, or 
to other schools, so that it would serve a useful purpose beyond that of training 
those engaged in its construction. 

Geography must be made vivid. It should be made dramatic. It would be 
appropriate for the children, while studying the homes of people in the Far North, 
to enact before another room in the school some scene illustrating the life of the 
people they have been studying. 

Turn next to the life in a hot desert region. Make an imaginary journey to 
the Sahara. The route should be shown on a globe and on a flat map ; the child 
should follow that route in imagination and describe what he sees. The outfitting 
of a caravan at some trading post on the margin of the desert should be pictured. 
Nothing can do this so well as a motion picture film. The party then travels 
across the desert, through great sand dune areas, by bare rocky mountains, meets a 
group of Arab traders on the way, and in time approaches an oasis. The oasis, 
with its beautiful palm trees, presents an entirely new habitat for study. Lantern 
slides, pictures, products from that country, or a visit to a museum will help to 
build up a vivid picture of this home in the mind of the child. This visit 
should be continued throughout a year, so that the life of the people at various 
seasons may be understood. 

Again the motion picture film would be an ideal way to illustrate this life. 
The people should be seen at work. Their activities are the things in which we 
are interested. Their everyday costumes and their dress on special occasions 
should be depicted. 

The study of an oasis might arouse in another group of children the desire 
to construct a model of an oasis in the Sahara, to costume miniature forms that 
represent the people, and perhaps to construct a miniature caravan. That work 
would call for genuine research from all the sources available at school and at 
home. The little child is a natural research student and that investigative spirit 
must be kept alive; it should be cultivated, guided and trained so that it may 
become an asset throughout his life. 

Visit next a home in a tropical forest where there is luxuriant vegetation. 
This may lead to a journey up the Amazon. Stop at. the mouth of the river 
and visit the city of Belem (Para) which is almost at the equator, and watch 



24 Visual Education 

the sun at the time of our equinox when it rises in the east, passes overhead at 
noon and sets in the west. On each imaginary journey plan to call attention 
to the great differences in climate. Little by little, by experiences that are as 
nearly like those they would have in actual travel as we can make them, the child 
will accumulate concepts that are essential to the further study of geography. 
These individual clear concepts will be the basis in later study for a scientific 
understanding of geography. 

Later, go among people living in a high mountainous country or to people 
on the coast. Include a visit to the island dwellers, like those in Samoa or 
Hawaii, or spend a year, in imagination, with the Japanese or Chinese, coming 
back at last to a prosperous American farm. Finish with an enthusiastic study 
of life in our own country, not forgetting the play and recreation of those who 
must be engaged for a good part of the time in the cultivation of the fields or in 
the harvesting of crops. 

The possibilities of sound educational work in visiting one after another of 
these distinctly different types of homes are indeed remarkable. This kind of 
work could well serve as the basis for a year's course of study in geography with 
children in the third or fourth grade. 

Toward the end of the year, an international carnival might be held, with 
the children impersonating in costume the people of the various nations they have 
visited. Close this carnival with a review of the motion picture films used in the 
study of the several homes. Geography would then become a live subject, the most 
alive of any subject in the elementary school curriculum. These first lessons 
are a study of homes and of the geographic conditions surrounding them. 

Wallace W. Atwood, 
Professor of Physiography, 
Harvard University. 



Human Eyes and Optical Instruments. 

Editor's Note — This article is the first of a series by Dr. Moulton 
on Human Eyes and Optical Instruments. The one published in this 
issue is limited to a consideration of eyes without optical aid. Later 
ones will take up the whole range of ordinary optical instruments and 
illustrations will be given of the wonders which they reveal. 

THE higher forms of animals possess five senses through which they have 
contact with the external world. The relative importance of these senses 
varies from one species to another. In the case of human beings the most 
valuable sense is undoubtedly that of sight, and the eyes of men are probably 
better than those of any other animal. 

Although we human beings learn of the exterior world through all of our 
senses, we do not get the same amount or exactly the same kind of information 
from all of them. We learn more through our eyes than through any other 
sense organs. If it were not so, the impressions we retain after traveling in 
unfamiliar regions would not be so largely visual. If it were not so, we should 
not invariably say we had seen a country rather than that we had sensed it in 
some other way. An additional fact of importance is that our eyes give us infor- 
mation that can be obtained otherwise only with difficulty or not at all. For 
example, nearly all we know of the size and shape of objects comes from having 
seen them, especially if they are beyond the reach of our hands; and absolutely 
all we know of the planets and the millions of stars in the universe beyond this 
little earth on which we live has been learned through the sense of sight. The 
importance of this may be judged from the fact that it was from observations 
of these bodies that the fundamental and very important laws of mechanics were 
discovered; and, indeed, from the fact that the safe navigation of the seas and 
the accurate determination of time are even now dependent upon daily astronom- 
ical observations. It is, of course, through our eyes alone that we learn of the 
colors of objects ; that we judge of the progress of ripening fruit or gram ; that 
we note the glow of health in the cheek, and that we are thrilled by the rain- 
bow's spectrum or the tints of the evening sky. But this, which pertains to 
the natural eye, is not all, for no other sense has benefited so much from artificial 
and instrumental aid. If our eyes are defective, glasses will generally correct 
them. If they fail in accommodation with age, suitable lenses will overcome the 
difficulty. If they do not gather enough light to enable us to see faint or far 
distant objects, telescopes will bring them within our view. If they can not 
discern very minute objects, microscopes will magnify them. If glimpses of 
things are fleeting, photographs will preserve them. If bodies seem flat in pic- 
tures, stereoscopic views will give them the appearance of solidity. If objects 
appear stationary in pictures, moving pictures will show them in action, in 
short, the ordinary defects of the eyes can be remedied, the infinite and the 
infinitesimal can both be brought into range, the scenes of all times and places 
can be preserved in three dimensions and in motion — indeed, the universe, in 
both space and time, can be brought to us here and now. 

But it is not necessary to argue the actual and relative importance of the 
sense of sight. It is irrefutably established bv the very idioms and imagery 

25 



26 



Visual Education 



of language. We often say that we "see through" a thing instead of asserting 
that we understand it; our "foresight" means our foreknowledge; if a proposi- 
tion seems to be favorable we declare it "looks good"; to say nothing of numer- 
ous expressions such as "look me up/' "I'll see you later," "seeing is believing," 
"au revoir" and "auf wiedersehen." 

The human eye is an organ whose essential optical parts are shown in axial 
section in Fig. 1. When light enters the eye it passes, in order, through the 
transparent membrane c, known as the cornea ; the 
chamber a, filled with the aqueous humor; the 
crystalline lens I; and the chamber v, filled with 
the vitreous humor; and it finally falls upon the 
retina r. 

The eye is much like a camera, with which 
nearly everyone is somewhat familiar. The lens 
of the eye corresponds to the lens of the camera, 
and the retina corresponds to the photographic 
plate. The analogy goes still further, for, just 
as a camera is provided with a diaphragm by means of which the amount of 
light which enters it may be controlled, so the eye has the iris which regulates 
the amount of light that falls upon the retina. The pupil is simply the aperture 
through the iris. 

If it were not for the lens of the eye, light from every visible part of an 
object would be scattered over the whole retina and no definite outlines of any- 
thing would be observed. The function of the lens is to bring to a focus on the 




Figure 1 




Figure 2 



retina all the rays of light which enter the eye from a given point on an 
object. Fig. 2 is a photograph of three initially parallel rays which pass through 
a lens. It is seen that the direction of the central one is not changed, while the 
other two are bent, or refracted, by the lens and intersect the central ray at the 
same point. In the case of an ideally perfect lens all the rays parallel to the 
central ray would intersect it at the same focus. The case of initially parallel 
rays is that in which the object is at a very great distance. If the object were 



Human Eyes and Optical Instruments 27 

near, the rays from any point on it would diverge somewhat asvthey entered the 
lens, and in this case also they would be brought to a focus after passing through 
it but at a greater distance from it than in the case of the very remote object. 
Figure 3 shows how the lens L forms an image of the object AB upon the 
surface S. Every ray from A is brought to a focus at a, the direction of the ray 
which passes through the center of L being unchanged. Similarly, every ray 
from B is brought to a focus at b and the direction of the ray through the 
center of L is unchanged. The image of AB is inverted. Its size depends upon 
the angle between the central rays and is proportional to the distance from 
L to S. If the lens L were too convex or too dense, the rays from A would be 
brought to a focus before they reached S ; they would cross at a focal point, and, 
diverging again, they would fall upon S in a small circle. The result would be 
similar for rays from every other point of AB. The small circles would overlap 
and no sharp image would be obtained. If L were too flat or of too low density, 
the rays from AB would converge toward a focus beyond S. The result in this 




case also would be a series of overlapping circles with the result that there would 
be no sharp images. 

The foregoing is a brief outline of the method of formation of optical images 
by simple refracting lenses, but a number of qualifications must be made. In the 
first place, if the surfaces of L were sectors of perfect spheres and if L were of 
the same density throughout, the rays from a point of AB would not all be 
brought to an exact point on S. Those which passed through the margin of L 
would be brought to a focus nearest the lens. But if the first surface of L were 
less convex than the second, then this error, known as spherical aberration, would 
not be so serious as it would be otherwise. The lens of the eye satisfies this con- 
dition for small spherical aberration because its first surface is less convex than 
the second. If the center of the lens were denser than the marginal parts, a con- 
dition that can not be secured in artificial lenses, the spherical aberration would 
also be reduced. It is a remarkable fact that the central part of the lens of the 
eye actually is denser than the outer parts. For these reasons the normal eye has 
only small and unimportant defects of this type. 

In case of a fixed lens L, the nearer the object AB is to L the more distant 
is its image ab. In the case of the camera, the nearer the object the more the 



28 Visual Education 

photographic plate and the objective lens must be separated. The adjustment in 
the case of the eye is made otherwise in an extraordinary way. With the approach 
of the object the muscles of the eye contract in such a manner as to render tne 
lens more convex, and the consequence of this is that it is not necessary that the 
distance from the lens to the retina should be increased. Everyone has noticed 
that he must focus, or accommodate, Ms eyes according to the distance of the 
object at which he is looking. With advancing years, the muscles of the eye lose 
some of their elasticity, the power of accommodation diminishes, and glasses must 
be used for reading and seeing objects at short distances. 

The amount of light which passes through the lens L depends upon its size 
(is proportional to the square of its diameter) and the luminosity of the object. 
The more luminous the object the smaller the lens required to admit a given 
amount of light. In the case of the camera the aperture is controlled by means 
of the diaphragm. In the case of the eye, the aperture, or pupil, is automatically 
regulated by the iris. When the pupil is dilated' for seeing objects in compara- 
tive darkness, it admits more than ten times as much light as it does when it 
is contracted under the stimulus of strong sunlight. Moreover, the light which 
enters the eye may be still further reduced by squinting so as to interpose the 
eye lashes and to produce a shade by the eye brows. 

There is still another defect of lenses known as chromatic (color) aberra- 
tion. A perfect lens does not bring parallel rays of different colors to a focus at 
the same point. Of the rays which are visible to the human eye, the violet and 
blue are brought to a focus nearest the lens and the red at the greatest distance. 
In the case of optical instruments, such as cameras and telescopes, chromatic 
aberration is largely overcome by suitable combinations of convex and concave 
lenses having different optical properties. In the case of eyes this defect is in 
no way remedied. This is the most important and about the only respect in 
which the optician's art is superior to nature's product. It is true that we are 
seldom conscious of this defect because it is always with us. Nearly everyone nas 
noticed that it is fatiguing to read blue and red letters mixed, or even to read 
blue letters on a red background. The reason is that the eyes are not in focus for 
both colors at once. We are accustomed to judge the distances of objects partly 
by the muscular effort required to focus upon them. As a consequence both of 
this habit and of the chromatic aberration to which the eye is subject, objects 
at a given distance whidi are red appear to be nearer than those which are 
violet or blue. 

It should not be inferred from the foregoing statements that the human eye 
is not a very remarkable optical instrument. It is so nearly perfect that if two 
points are at such a distance from the eye and from each other that their images 
on the retina are separated by as much as one twelve hundredth of an inch, they 
are seen as separate objects. On a portion of the retina having an area of only 
a fraction of a square inch, the details of a great landscape may be so accurately 
imaged that all of its numerous features may be clearly discerned. 

The direction of the eye is controlled and may be changed by six muscles 
which are attached to its exterior. One pair of muscles produces horizontal 



Hum ax Eyes and Optical Instruments 29 

motion to the right or left; two pairs are used to produce a motion upward or 
downward; and all three pairs are necessary to secure any oblique motion, as 
upward and outward. Usually the two eyes move so that their axes remain 
either parallel or inclined to each other at a constant angle. The axes of the 
two eyes are normally so directed that they point toward the object which at the 
instant is the center of interest. If it is remote, the axes are sensibly parallel ; 
if it is near, they converge toward it. If the attention is changed from a remote 
object to a near one, the relation of the axes of the eyes must be correspondingly 
altered. The muscles which control the directions of the eyes automatically pro- 
duce precisely this adjustment, and from it we also estimate the distances of 
objects. 

As has been stated, the axes of the eyes are directed toward the object which 
is the chief center of visual attention. This is necessary in order that the images 
of the object shall fall on corresponding parts of the retinas of the two eyes. If 
they should fall on parts which do not correspond the object would appear to 
be double. This can be shown to be true by looking at an object and then dis- 
placing one of the eye balls out of position by gentle pressure. 

There is a certain yellow spot near the center of the retina which is most 
sensitive both to light and to color. In looking at an object the eyes are so 
directed that its images fall on these yellow spots. But there are many other 
objects which are less distinctly within the field of view. Consider one which is 
to the right of the object of chief interest. Its image in the eye will be formed 
on the retina at the point at which a straight line from it through the center of 
the lens strikes the retina. In the case of the right eye, this point will be on 
the side of the yellow spot toward the nose; and in the case of the left eye, it 
will be on the side of the yellow spot away from the nose. Now, in order that 
the object may not be seen double the points on the two retinas must correspond, 
and if the object is at the right distance from the eyes they do correspond. That 
is, the part of the retina of one eye on the side of the yellow spot toward the nose 
corresponds, for visual purposes, with the part of the retina of the other eye on 
the side of the yellow spot away from the nose, and conversely. However, struc- 
turally the parts of the retinas toward the nose in the two eyes correspond. On 
the other hand, the upper and lower parts of the retina of one eye correspond 
respectively to the upper and lower parts of the retina of the other, both visually 
and structurally. It can be seen from these statements that seeing the same 
objects simultaneously with two eyes presents some interesting questions which 
do not arise in connection with optical instruments. 

There is an insensitive, or so-called blind, spot on the retina where the optic 
nerve leads out from it to the brain. It is on the side of the yellow spot toward 
the nose. In order to prove its existence make two smaller circular patches on a 
piece of paper about four inches apart. Place them so that the line joining them 
is parallel to the line joining the eyes. Then close the left eye and look at the 
left hand spot with the right eye, and shift the paper slowly back and forth to 
about reading distance. At a certain distance the image of the right hand spot 
will fall on the blind spot of the retina and it will be invisible. But its ima^e 



30 Visual Education 

will not fall at the same time on the blind spot of the left eye, and when both 
eyes are used together there is no invisible position for an object within the whole 
field of vision. 

There are many analogies between the eye and a camera and, as has been 
stated, the retina corresponds to the sensitive plate. But in the case of the 
retina and the sensitive plate the differences are profound. The sensitive plate 
is simple; the retina is very complex. The photographic plate is coated simply 
with an emulsion of gelatin and a compound of silver which has the property of 
undergoing certain chemical changes when it is exposed to light. The lens 
throws an image of the object at which it is pointed on to the plate, ana the 
silver compound of the parts thus exposed turns dark upon treatment with suit- 
able chemical reagents. The remainder is washed away before the plate is taken 
into the open. On the other hand, the retina is a highly complex structure con- 
sisting of nine layers of nerve cells, nerve fibers, blood vessels, granules, and rods 
and cones. When light falls upon the retina chemical, and possibly physical, 
reactions take place with resulting stimulus of the optic nerve and corresponding 
impressions on the brain. 

Only one picture can be obtained on a photographic plate, because when the 
silver compound has once been darkened the result is permanent. But the effect 
of light on the retina soon disappears, and one image can succeed another in an 
almost endless series. In one respect this is an immense advantage, and in 
another a disadvantage, as compared with the photographic plate. The advan- 
tage is obvious. The disadvantage arises from the fact that the stimulus to the 
optic nerve produced by an image on the retina does not increase with time. If, 
for example, an object is too faint to be visible in the first few seconds it can 
not be seen at all. On the contrary, the effects of a faint light on a photographic 
plate are proportional to the time of exposure. If a few seconds do not give a 
strong enough image, the exposure may be continued for a few minutes, or even 
a few hours. In celestial photography such long exposures are often made, and 
photographs are obtained of objects which are so faint that they are far beyond 
the reach of the eye even with the aid of the greatest telescopes. The photo- 
graphic plate distinguishes among colors only by the fact that it is more sensitive 
to some than to others. The retina, however, is differently affected by different 
colors. Thomas Young and, later, Helmholtz explained color perception by the 
theory that the retina contains three kinds of nerve fibers which are sensitive 
particularly to three kinds of light, namely, violet, green, and red, while being 
relatively insensitive to the others. This theory, however, does not explain all 
the facts, and it has been replaced by one due to Hering. According to Hering 
the retina contains three kinds of substances, each of which is acted on by one 
kind of light in one way and by another kind of light in the opposite way. Such 
pairs of colors are complementary, and when they strike the retina at the same 
time they produce the effect of grey light. These three pairs of oppositely acting 
colors are white and black, blue and yellow, and green and red. Other colors 
may be obtained by mixtures of these colors, though they also exist independently. 
Indeed, as has been stated, there are rays similar to light whose waves are either 



Human Eyes and Optical Instruments 



31 



shorter than the violet or longer than the red. The eyes of other animals may 
possibly be sensitive to some of the rays which are invisible to human eyes. 

It was stated at the beginning of this article that men have better eyes 
than any other animals. The most primitive forms of life, having no nervous 
systems, have no sense of sight whatever. But the lowly Medusae and Annelidae 
have eye-specks, which are simply slight expansions of optic nerve filaments 
covered with a transparent membrane, but these first approximations to eyes have 
no image-forming lenses. They are sensitive to light but do not respond to light 
stimuli much more effectively than heliotropic plants. Further up the scale 
of life the insects and Crustaceans are found to have compound eyes, which con- 




Incorrect Way to Use Artificial Light — Strong Light Directly in the Eyes 
and Feeble Light on the Book 

sist essentially of a number of cone-like bodies whose vertices are united at the 
end of optic nerve filaments and whose bases spread out fan-like on the inner 
surface of a sort of cornea. Since each cone is distinct from all the others it is 
affected only by those rays which enter along the line of its axis. The visual 
field depends upon the sector of the sphere covered by the bases of these cones. 
In some of the insects nearly the whole sphere is covered; in others, only a small 
part of it. Finally, at the top of the scale of animal life the vertebrates have 
eyes which in all essentials are similar to those of men. 

It is not to be understood that the eyes of all the vertebrates are as good as 
those of men. It is highly probable that they are not. Wild game is notoriously 
defective in eye-sight, though often having very acute hearing and amazingly 



32 Visual Education 

sensitive olfactory nerves. It is the same with domestic animals. The ears of a 
horse or a dog, rather than his eyes, express his emotions. 

One might suspect by analogy with the foregoing facts that the most civilized 
races of men have the best eyes. Such appears to be the case, though the evidence 
is not conclusive. The writer has tested the ability of Indians and low-caste 
Mexicans both to see very faint objects and also to see as separate points two 
objects which were apparently very close together. Most of these tests were 
on the stars. He has also tested many white people. The Indians and Mexicans 
had whatever advantage there may have been because of some familiarity with 
the objects, for they are much better acquainted with the stars than most white 
people are. Nevertheless, it was found that not only were their best eyes inferior 
in both respects to the best eyes of white people, but also their eyes averaged 
much less nearly perfect. The name given by the keen-eyed Arabs to the little 
star near the larger one at the bend of the handle of the Big Dipper, was Alcor 
(the test), although it is easily seen by anyone whose eyes are anywhere nearly 
normal ; and although these Arabs were for some centuries the leading astronomers 
of the world and made extensive catalogs of the stars, they failed to see a number 
of objects that are visible to half of present-day university students. 

Partisans of Visual Education might suggest that the most intelligent 
species of animals owe their intellectual position to their superior powers of sight. 
Is it not probable, rather, that in a general way the evolutions of the central 
nervous system and the various sense organs have kept pace with each other, and 
that one sense or another has become most highly developed in a species accord- 
ing to its environment and the demands of its life ? We are probably correct in 
picturing to ourselves the remote ancestors of the present highest forms of life 
as lowly creatures, living in the slime of far-off geologic ages. Day after day, 
with rhythmic periodicity, the sun stimulated their rudimentary eye-specks, and 
through them their central nervous systems. The ebb and flow of tides and the 
daily variations in temperature also prevented their life processes from descend- 
ing to a dull uniformity. As a consequence of the stimuli from without and the 
inherent potentialities of the matter of which they were composed, they developed 
through millions of years into the forms that exist on the earth today. The 
senses of animals of all types more or less perfectly meet their needs. Kudimen- 
tary eyes are sufficient for the lower forms. In caves certain Araclmidae, and, in 
both caves and the deep sea, even fishes have either no eyes at all or only useless 
ones. The eyes of fishes in shallow water have lenses of a convexity exactly 
adapted to such a medium. The pupils of the eyes of herbivorous animals are 
elongated horizontally, and a result of this is that they can focus most sharply 
on vertical lines such as grasses present. On the other hand, the pupils of the 
eyes of cats and other carnivorous animals are longest in the vertical direction, 
and a result of this is that they can focus most sharply on things darting to the 
right or left. Man needs better eyes than other animals to meet the require- 
ments of his life, and he has them. The demands have enormously increased in 
the last few generations, particularly because of the developments in printing, 
strong artificial lights, and rapid locomotion. Apparently our eyes are meeting 



Human Eyes and Optical Instruments 



33 



all the new demands, and there is no reason to suppose that they may not improve 
as much in the future of the race as they have in the past, especially if men 
shall consciously direct their own evolution and avoid or remove unfavorable 
conditions. 

Human eyes are not always perfect. Sometimes the muscles which control 
their movements are not balanced and the person is cross-eyed or has some other 
abnormality in the muscular control of his eyes. Some of the fibres of the 
muscles should be clipped to restore the balance. The lens of the eye may be 




Correct Way to Use Artificial Light — Strong Illumination Obliquely on the 
Book and None Directly in the Eyes 



too convex with the result that the person is near sighted. The defect should 
be remedied by wearing concave glasses. The curvature of the lens in one direc- 
tion may be different from that in another direction with the result that the 
person has astigmatism. The defect should be corrected by cylindrical lenses. 
All such imperfections of refraction can be remedied by suitable glasses. 

A word remains to be said regarding the illumination which should be 
employed, As a rule people do not use anywhere nearly enough illumination tor 
such work as reading. Our ancestors for a million generations used only sunlight 
and our eyes are adapted to such illumination as the sun gives. Sunlight is very 
intense, being equivalent, when direct, to sixty thousand candle power at the dis- 
tance of a yard. Compared to it all ordinary lights are insignificant. A street 



34 "Visual Education 

lamp appears ridiculously feeble in the day time. Full moon light is not to be 
despised and one can read by it, but sun light is six hundred thousand times 
brighter. One would expect from these considerations that bright illumination 
would be advisable. 

Illuminating engineers recommend light equivalent to from six to ten candle 
power at a distance of one foot. School rooms are very often illuminated far 
below the minimum of these figures. Likewise, artificial light usually does not 
measure up to them. If a book or paper is held at a distance of only four feet 
from the source of light, the candle power of the source should be from ninety-six 
to one hundred and sixty. Moreover, as everyone knows, the light should not 
fall directly into the eyes but obliquely on the page so that the reflection from 
the mirror-like paper will not strike the eyes. 

F. E. Moulton, 
Professor of Astronomy, 

The University of Chicago. 



The Fact of 1925. 

A TEACHER of English who lives in the arcanum of Pedagogy, where 
minds respond to pretty schemes and theories, enjoys observing the 
market-place of Cinema, where minds respond only to facts. It was, 
for example, once a fact that every audience showed enthusiasm for a pie so 
thrown by one character as to distribute itself over the face of another char- 
acter ; movie-makers responded and produced a plentiful throwing of pies. Later 
it became a fact that pie-throwing caused little applause; the filmers promptly 
responded by discontinuing the hurling of pastry. They have always been will- 
ing to experiment with highbrow matter proposed by educators or with lowbrow 
ideas suggested by accident; but they have observed the resultant facts, never 
imagining that flat failure could, be theorized into success. They have been »ble 
to maintain their industry only by reacting to the effects observable in an audi- 
ence. 

The ordinary educator has no such ability to respond to facts. His field 
of experiment is so divided and multiform, his results so much a matter of in- 
terpretative guess-work, that if he sets out with a hopeful theory he may mistake 
failure for success. He has no immediate and indisputable verdict to guide him. 
If, for instance, he tries out some program of "socialization" or of "joy in the 
work," and if ten schools under peculiar conditions report progress, he will judge 
the experiment a success; whereas in ninety other schools, under normal con- 
ditions, the program may be demonstrably a course of destruction. During the 
last thirty years educators have frequently been the victims of hallucination: 
witness such devices as "teach in the large," "let the pupil do the teaching," 
"there is no transfer of acquired abilities," "make the ninth-grade work consist 
largely of observing society at work." A mind trained in adjusting to facts 
would not have needed ten years to recognize such falsities and to abandon them. 

If, then, a movie-maker is sensitive to facts, and if an educator is not sensi- 
tive, what is a movie educator going to be? He is a hybrid. One-half of him 
lives in one element, the other half in a very different medium. Will the whole 
of him breathe by the lungs of fact or through the gills of theory? Promoters 
of Visual Education must choose by which method they will live. 

There are doubtless commercial possibilities in an appeal to vague hope- 
fulness, to such a prophecy as this one uttered by the United States Department 
of Education before the World War: "Within the next decade the moving pic- 
ture will be the indispensable adjunct of every teacher The future 

usefulness of the educational cinematograph bids fair to surpass the predictions 
of its most sanguine advocates." There are in the country hundreds of sanguine 
educators who will gladly boost this hope, acclaiming it from platforms and 
honestly fancying that they are heralding a bright era of pedagogic pleasure. 
They will be secure from the ridicule of old-fashioned teachers, because they 
can preface all their propaganda with the words of the most hard-headed of 
inventors, Edison: "I expect that moving pictures will take the place of most 

books below the ninth grade With the moving picture I can teach 

35 



36 Visual Education 

reading, -writing, spelling, geography, arithmetic and physiology. I can even 
teach history and some branches of science." Here is a vast field pointed out by 
a man whose wizard eye was never deluded by phantoms. Why not invest our 
millions, overrun the whole domain of grammar school, revolutionize education, 
build the gigantic pedagogic industry that Edison — the peerless, practical Edi- 
son — saw with unerring vision ? Why not ? 

Perhaps Edison never made any such claims, but merely allowed an adver- 
tiser to use his name. It is conceivable that, even if he did so speak, he was for 
once in his life mistaken. Possibly his conception of a movie education was 
realizable by him, but not by any other human being. With these and similar 
speculations we need not spend time. This article is written to call attention 
to an entirely different sort of comment, to a fact, a fact a million times as 
large as any dictum of the world's premier inventor. 

I refer to the eternal truth that effective education is always some kind of 
process that is hard for the pupil. Only once in human history, and in only one 
country, has this truth ever been obscured — that is, during the last forty years 
in the United States. For the first and last time in history a powerful nation 
has developed without being forced — as humanity has always been forced else- 
where — to be careful. Not even in education have we been obliged to follow that 
hard course of accuracy that all mankind has in all other ages been compelled 
to follow. Haste and inattention to details have almost been virtues. This prime 
cause, combined with more recent causes of another kind, have misled the unwary, 
blinding them to the fact that our latter-day, joy-riding, hopeful, visionary proj- 
ects of easy ways to knowledge are in flat opposition to the universal truth about 
the road to learning: it must be hard. Greeks and Chinamen and Gauls and 
Pilgrim Fathers and Western Eeserve pioneers — all have known this eternal fact. 
Milton said that "the path is laborious at the first ascent," and Dooley says that 
it must be "hard." The easy way to sound learning is a recent dream, credited 
by only a few, certain to be dissipated as soon as our country begins to adapt 
itself to the harsh realities that now loom directly before us as population thickens 
and the struggle for existence demands real education. 

I am not speaking as a schoolmaster voicing his narrow convictions. I 
speak as one who feebly rehearses the deep oaths of hate that business men vent 
against our easy education. I write as one who reports what trade journals have 
to say of "the lame ducks from high school" that have been crippled by an easy 
education. I testify as one who hears all the air vocal with the rage of the great 
common people against the delusion and folly of "joy first and efficiency after- 
wards." If democracy is to survive, it must have a hard education. Most of us 
confess a faith that democracy is going to survive. 

That is the fact of 1925 that confronts promoters of Visual Education. 
If they can side-step or tunnel under it, they may earn money for a time; they 
will go to ruin before long. Ten years ago there might have been a golden era 
of "see the pretty pictures and grow wise," but five years hence the fact will 
be "work hard or be scrapped." Can cameras be of use in developing the type of 
education that democracy now requires? 



The Fact of 1925 ;]; 

I don't know why not. For there is, paradoxically enough, an obverse to 
this fact of "hard." Though education must be essentially laborious, it is always 
the teacher's task to make the y/ay as smooth as possible, to reduce grades, to 
discover easier approaches. The motion picture may be a valuable agent in 
making the hard road shorter, in bringing pupils sooner to what Milton prom- 
ised after the first ascent : "so smooth, so green, so full of goodly prospect." 
Perhaps pictures can aid in conveying children more quickly to that goodly 
prospect where all sensible ideas are perceived as moving, human, useful realities. 
Even I, as I sit at a teacher's desk, can fancy a screen on which a hand writes 
"sep," pauses, attracts every mind to a moment of intent focusing on what fol- 
lows, and then' makes a big "A." Such a movie might teach effectively in thirty 
seconds what mere blackboard and chalk cannot teach in thirty days. The 
orthography of "separate" would be unforgettable through life. For aught I 
know there are a thousand other ways in which motion pictures might assist the 
teaching of literature and composition. The essence of good teaching is the 
vivid and unmistakable presentation of ideas; if cameras can be so manipulated 
as to help teachers in the hard climb up the laborious steep, may God speed the 
operators in their enterprise, endowing them with wisdom to know that no easy 
substitute can be contrived for all the hard work, giving them skill to cheer us 
all along the difficult road. 

C. H. Ward, 
The Taft School, 
Watertown, Conn. 



A Word Or 

The Epigram is a powerful and dan- 
gerous thing : powerful, because it car- 
ries home swiftly its brief and definite 
message — dangerous, because it may 
not be exactly true. Truth, like gold, 
is seldom found in a virgin state. It 
generally needs to undergo the refining 
process of careful qualification and 
precise definition. But the epigram 
inclines to be impatient of this process ; 
loves to flash into the consciousness 
with all the glitter of universality upon 
it; prefers to state crisply, as a general 
truth, what should be told at greater 
length, but more accurately, as a par- 
ticular truth. 

Nevertheless there is undying charm 
in the epigram. The world has always 
loved it, as far back as we know the 
world. There is a fascination about 
tabloid thought. It requires so little 
thinking. It is pleasant to take be- 
cause so easily and quickly done. Since 
it is so delectable a sweetmeat to the 
average palate of the race, the little 
epigram has done and can still do 
mighty things. It can wreck careers, 
ruin cities, and shatter empires — or it 
can carry individuals and nations to 
the pinnacles of achievement. 

There is just now, for instance, an 
epigram afloat in the educational at- 
mosphere of America that has been 
exerting a considerable influence for 
weal or woe on the minds of many a 
teacher. It is this. 

"The shortest path to the brain is 
through the eye." 

It was put forth — we avoid the word 
"created," for we fancy that "rehabili- 

38 



Two More 

tated" would be more logical — several 
years ago by the wizard of modern in- 
vention himself. His name, coupled 
with the innate strength of the epi- 
grammatic form, has given the remark 
a double power. I| has been quoted 
uncounted times since and looms large 
in the consciousness of some teachers 
as the last word in pedagogy. We 
should like to agree at once with this 
estimate; it would be splendid econ- 
omy if these ten words could replace 
the investigations of coming months. 
At present, however, we take refuge in 
the classic verdict of "important if 
true." 

We do not know how many times the 
idea has been uttered in preceding cen- 
turies nor does the count particularly 
concern us here — though we should not 
like to see the laurels of priority 
stripped from Comenius and Pesta- 
lozzi, or even from the Greeks and 
Romans, in unceremonious fashion. 
But we should be interested to know 
how many in the educational profes- 
sion today are thinking that the epi- 
gram means all that it seems to say. 
We fear that many most agreeable in- 
terpretations and corollaries are being 
drawn from it and accepted. For 
example, "Drop the books and bring on 
the pictures." "Open the child's eyes 
and make him a man." "Whatever 
gets through the eye is pre-digested 
food for the brain." "To show pic- 
tures is to educate," etc. 

Wherever such interpretation is put 
upon this splendidly Edisonian phrase, 
there may follow pedagogic tragedy. 
One might say with equal conciseness, 
sonority and charm, "The shortest 
path to tbe biceps is through the skin" 



A Word or Two More 



39 



— yet the hypodermic needle is not 
widely advocated as a muscle developer. 
All depends on what you want to do 
to the muscle. Equally, whether we 
should inject mental pabulum through 
the eye of a child or not depends on 
what it is going to do to the brain. 

The ever convenient analogy of the 
camera will serve aptly to close this 
paragraph. To make valuable impres- 
sions on the photographic plate the 
rays must be sent through the lens. To 
make exactly tbe same kind of impres- 
sion on the child mind, the eye is 
unquestionably the best path to follow. 
That much is known now. But, on 
the photographic plate, we desire and 
get only a purely visual impression — it 
would be unfortunate in the extreme if 
the negative were to attempt any ad- 
justive reaction upon the image pre- 
sented. The absolute contrary is 
sought when educational material is 
flashed upon the child. If the little 
mind does not react — if it does not 
interpret, adjust, correlate, reflect, 
cerebrate — in short, if the experience 
does not make the child think, visual 
education will not educate and must 
ultimately take its place among the 
futile fads of history. 

The primary task before us believers 
in visual instruction is to settle, scien- 
tifically and conclusively, this funda- 
mental question. It is the sine qua non 
of further advance and is worthy of 



the attention of the keenest minds of 
the educational realm. 

We are rash enough to hope that 
hundreds of those who receive this copy 
of Visual Education will follow their 
impulse and write to the editor their 
impressions. We are quite aware that 
this is inviting troubles, but every 
editor is entitled to have them. 

What will be done with all these let- 
ters is hard to foretell. Every letter 
will be read, our reaction carefully 
noted, and whatever seems the logical 
thing to do about it will be done. All 
will, of course, be answered directly or 
indirectly. Many will be printed. The 
latter fate will usually be assigned be- 
cause letters are interesting, learned, 
clever or critical. We shall welcome 
them all and shall give ample evidence 
of our appreciation. 

Naturally the letters which must 
surely provoke instant and inevitable 
action on our part will be those begin- 
ning, "Enclosed please find — ". Use 
the slip. It is easy to do if done 
quickly, without thinking over much 
about it and before ceasing to think at 
all. One Dollar is a small matter — 
much smaller indeed than ever before. 
Still it is enough to show your approval 
or your scepticism. In either case, you 
need to see Visual Education every 
month to justify or to correct that first 
impression. The Editor. 



Announcements 

The unfortunate delay in the appearance of the January number of Visual 
Education will not affect the completeness of Volume I. All ten numbers will 
be issued during 1920. The magazine is scheduled to appear at a successively 
earlier date each month until the regular date — the fifth of the month — shall be 
reached. 

The February number will contain articles by F. E. Moulton of the 
University of Chicago, W. F. Eussell of the University of Iowa, L. T. Damon 
of Brown University, L. L. Thurstone of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, 
B. K. Fretwell of Columbia University, W. H. Dudley of the University of 
Wisconsin, and others. Two new departments will be added. The number of 
pages will be materially increased. 



Notice to Advertisers 

The decision to issue the January number of Visual Education without 
advertising has compelled us to hold over all copy now in our hands. The 
advertisers have been notified to this effect. 

The increased size of the magazine, beginning with the February number, 
enables us to offer space for strictly educational advertising. Copy reaching us 
not later than March 3rd will be in time for printing in the February issue. 
Advertising rates sent upon request. 



VISUAL 
EDUCATION 

A Magazine Devoted to the Cause of American Education 
Vol. I. APRIL, 1920 No. 2 



In This Number 

Scope and Outlook of Visual Education /. Paul Goode 
New Films for Teaching Americanism W. F. Russell 
Human Eyes and Optical Instruments F. R. Moulion 
What is an Educational Motion Picture? L. L Thurstone 
The Motion Picture and English Literature L. T. Damon . 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, Inc. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 
One Dollar a Year Single Copy, Fifteen Cents 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 



327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



OFFICERS 

President, Rollin D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 

Vice-President and General Manager, H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation 

Secretary, F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 

DIRECTORS 
Frank A. Vanderlip, Chairman, New York City. 
W. W. Atwood, Harvard University 
W. C. Bagley, Columbia University 
C. A. Beard, New York Bureau of Municipal Research 
- O. W. Caldwell, Lincoln School of Teachers College, Columbia University 
H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation, Chicago, 111. 
J. M. Coulter, University of Chicago 
F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 
W. F. Russell, University of Iowa 
R. D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 
V. C. Vaughan, University of Michigan 

GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD 
Mrs. Harriet H. Barry, President* National Federation of 

Better Film Workers Los Angeles, California 

J. H. Beveridge, Superintendent of Schools Omaha, Nebraska 

Mrs. Guy Blanchard, Chairman Motion Picture Committee, 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Chicago, Illinois 

Mary C. C. Bradford, State Superintendent of Schools Denver, Colorado 

M. L. Brittain, State Superintendent of Schools Atlanta, Georgia 

E. C. Brooks, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Raleigh, North Carolina 

J. C. Brown, President State Normal College St. Cloud, Minnesota 

Violet P. Brown, Chairman Public Health and Child Welfare, 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs * .Kankakee, Illinois 

T. W. Butcher, President Kansas State Normal School .Emporia, Kansas 

C. E. Chadsey, Dean of College of Education, University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 

J. A. C. Chandler, President of College of William and Mary. . .Williamsburg, Virginia 
H. W. Chase, President of University of North Carolina. . .Chapel Hill, North Carolina 
L. D. Coffman, Dean of University of Education, University 

of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota 

S. S. Colvin, Professor of Education, Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 

F. B. Cooper, Superintendent of Seattle Public Schools Seattle, Washington 

L. T. Damon, Professor of English, Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 

G. H. Denny, President of University of Alabama University, Alabama 

E. R. Downing, School of Education, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

E. C. Elliott,CftawceZZor of the University, University of Montana Helena, Montana 

Mrs. Albert W. Evans, Chairman of Education, Illinois Federation 

of Women's Clubs. Chicago, Illinois 

David Felmley, President of Illinois State Normal College....'. Normal, Illinois 

T. E. Finegan, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. . .Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 
H. W. Foght, President of Northern Normal and 

Industrial School Aberdeen, South Dakota 

C. Fordyce, Dean of Teachers College, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 

J. Paul Goode, Professor of Geography, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

H. E. Gregory, Professor of Geography, Yale University. New Haven, Connecticut 









©CIB458632 

VISUAL EDUCATION 



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED 
TO THE CAUSE OF 
AMERICAN EDUCATION 



Roi.lin D. Salisbury, President Nelsox L. Greene, Editor 

Fobrst R. Moulton, Secretary Harley L. Clarke, Manager 

V c< 



Published every month except July and August 

Copyright, April, 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

Subscription price one dollar a year. Fifteen cents a copy. 



VOLUME I APRIL, 1920 NUMBER 2 

IN THIS NUMBEE 
Editorial 4 

The Scope and Outlook of Visual Education 6 

J. Paul Goode 

New Films for Teaching Americanism 14 

William F. Russell 

Human Eyes and Optical Instruments, II — Telescopes 17 

F. R. Moulton 

What Is an Educational Motion Picture ? 24 

L. L. Thnrstone 

The .Motion Picture and English Literature 29 

Lindsay T. Damon 

Visual Education in North Eussia 35 

C. J Primm. 

Pageantry Notes 37 

Among Other Things They Say 40 

A Word or Two More 45 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



VISUAL EDU CATION 

A National Organ of the New Movement in American Education 



Nelson L. Geeene, Editor 



Published every month except July and August 
Copyright, April, 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 



Volume I APRIL, 1920 Number 2 



Notice 

We have encountered some of the difficulties older magazines have recently 
experienced and the result is that this issue of Visual Education appears about 
one month later than the time it was expected that it would appear. The diffi- 
culties have been overcome, and future issues may be expected on time. 

In view of the unavoidable delay, this number is called the April issue. 
Consequently only eight numbers will appear this year. The second volume will 
begin with January, 1921, and will contain ten numbers. There will be no 
loss as a consequence of this change in plans. Our readers will lose nothing, 
for all manuscript intended for publication will appear in due time. Our sub- 
scribers will lose nothing, for their subscriptions have been extended to include 
two additional numbers. Our advertisers will lose nothing for their advertise- 
ments will appear at the expected times. 

Editorial 

The appeal to the eye was made to the Cave child and the process has been 
endlessly repeated with all the myriads who have succeeded him. The crude out- 
line of the mastodon scratched on the cavern walls certainly conveyed information 
to the primitive eyes that viewed it. Intentionally or unintentionally, those walls 
were blackboards, that child the first experimental subject in visual instruction. 
That the artist was unaware of his teaching and the child unconscious of his 
tutelage changes not their primacy in the long history of pedagogy. 

The greater part of education, now as then, is not deliberate or intentional. 
It is a slow process, but constant and inevitable. Every conscious moment, from 
the first cry to the last breath, performs its share in working the final miracle, 
the development of an individual personality. Every experience modifies, devel- 
ops, educates the rational being that receives it. Experiences can come only 
through the senses and the visual sense is admittedly the most constantly used. 
If man, then, derives all material for growth solely through his senses, he owes 
the greater part of his present personality to his eyes. Therefore, belief in visual 
education is merely an acknowledgment of the supremacy of our supreme faculty. 
Natural education uses it to the full. Formal education must do the same. 



Editorial o 

TIME was — and but a very few years ago — when the worth of a pageant was 
considered to lie chiefly in its advertising value to the interests presenting 
it, such as schools, communities, social organizations or industrial societies. 
Alumni and alumnae, patrons and friends, were thoroughly circularized in 
advance, with the delicate suggestion that they "tell others." Slips, in assorted 
colors, were inserted in all outgoing mail and flung to the four corners of the 
postal zone, informing the world of the epochal step to be taken by said institu- 
tion in producing a pageant. 

Now pageants are common throughout the country. Mere novelty no longer 
justifies their production. A skeleton framework of mediocre English is no 
longer adequate for the text. Odds and ends of colored cloth, selected from 
family trunks and wardrobes and spliced together according to the varying 
tastes of individual participants, do not suffice for the costuming. The herding 
of many people across a stage is not necessarily "action." There must be intel- 
lectual content, dramatic quality and artistic finish harmoniously blended 
throughout the whole, if the performance is to merit the name of pageant. 

Centuries ago Pageantry was considered and treated as an art. It is again 
coming to be recognized as such, and many indications give promise that we 
shall soon be deriving from it once more the cultural values that so greatly 
enriched the Middle Ages, both intellectually and esthetically. 

Visual Education is interested in Pageantry. In this issue we are starting 
a department for its use and are soon to have the pleasure of printing definitive 
articles on the subject by experts in the field. 



Hundreds of progressive schools throughout the country have succeeded in 
getting projection equipment installed, only to find endless difficulty in securing 
material worth projecting. (Increased trouble is the pioneer's normal reward.) 
There are some of these schools, we suppose, who have not written us asking help 
— but we are receiving daily what sounds like an universal chorus of requests for 
information that will inform. These schools find, as we have found innumerable 
times, that the chief thing obtainable from commercial companies' lists of "edu- 
cationals" is fond hope and keen disappointment. 

It is our apparent duty to tackle this job, and we accept gladly. The thing 
shall be done, but how soon or how well are questions still on the knees of the 
gods. To help our inquiring friends curb their impatience we would ask them to 
remember two things: first, it is a gigantic task — in these feverish days of de- 
lirious production when the last purpose of the producers is to serve the schools — 
to supply information that will not disappoint concerning projection equipment, 
films, sources of supply, transportation, terms, cost, etc. ; second, Visual Educa- 
tion aims to be nothing if not trustworthy. We want to be sure before we speak 
so that, when we speak, our readers can be sure. 

This subject is mentioned further on page 46 of this number. We shall have 
much more to say in the May issue. 



Scope and Outlook of Visual Education 

Editor's Note. — This address was delivered at the Cleveland Conven- 
tion of the National Education Association, February 25, 1920. It is here 
printed for the first time by special permission of Dr. Goode and the 
N. E. A. 

IT is hardly necessary in the new department of Visual Education to remind 
ourselves of the fact that the psychologists have always been telling us that of 
all the senses, sight leads as an avenue of sense perception. Of that fact we 
are all of us sure. Nor is it news to most of us that sense perceptions are vastly 
reinforced and deepened when added avenues of sense are contributing to the pre- 
sentation. We prove this to ourselves in a hundred ways every day. But it is one 
thing to state the fact and believe it and quite another thing to put it to use 
profitably in our formal education. Traditions in education, like other habits, 
persist, perpetuate themselves and may be hard to displace when better methods 
come along. We have grown so accustomed to the printed page as the foundation 
of school education — so satisfied with the old routine of assigning so much text 
and demanding a reaction from the pupil in some oral or written test, that it 
may be actually something of a shock to have a change suggested. Yet when we 
take an account of stock we discover that the printed page is one of the slowest 
means of presenting a wide range of information. To see a coral reef for even a 
few minutes will give a far more vivid and intimate realization of its character 
than any amount of printed description could do. With the impressions of the 
reef seen, felt, heard and smelt, a foundation is laid for a life long interest in 
all sorts of printed or -spoken description and discussion of coral reefs. 

But the world is large, and most people are rooted to the daily task. They 
cannot pick up and go to the ends of the earth to see the many things it is well 
to know about. So to the aid of the printed page has been brought more and 
more, in recent years, many devices in visual education to enlist the eye in arous- 
ing interest, deepening impressions, making it easier and quicker for the student 
to learn and to retain the lesson. 

It is my purpose in this paper to make a survey of the various ways, beyond 
the printed page, in which the eye may be utilized profitably in the business of 
education. And then to make a plea for the correlation of the different agencies 
and the best application of them in educational practice. 

One of the oldest studies in the school — Geography — was the first to take 
advantage of visual methods. The map is a system of shorthand in the presenta- 
tion to the eye of space relations. From the earliest time it presented areas in 
two dimensions and came later, by one pictorial device or another, to suggest land 
relief, the third dimension. The map has always been a part of the fundamental 
equipment in geographic instruction. And yet it has never been made to give 
its best service to the pupil. In all geography rooms globes and maps are essen- 
tial, but the very great value of the desk outline map to be filled in by the 
pupil, in exercises and tests on distribution, is an open and largely unfilled field 
in education. For we are not only eye-minded, we are hand- or motor-minded; 
and working on a map has possibilities in education largely overlooked. 

6 



Scope and Outlook of Visual Education 7 

And because we are motor minded and because it is a good investment in 
education to enlist other senses than that of sight, the museum has been developed. 
Every museum is an investment in popular education, the value of which now is 
generally conceded. And the museum has here and there been put to work in 
the interest of school education. Perhaps the best development in America has 
been achieved by the Philadelphia Commercial Museum. As an aid in the teach- 
ing of geography, but especially of Commercial Geography, this museum has 
prepared many traveling collections with sets of articles, which are sent gratis 
to the schools, to be used for a specific time in classroom instruction. The exhibits 
are made up of samples of various commodities of commerce, such as textiles, raw 
and manufactured, cabinet woods, grains, ores, metals and other materials, which 
have in them a little bit of the reality of the world about which the pupil is 
reading and studying. 

Very early also the geographer introduced the picture as an aid in the 
presentation of his subject. But it is only in recent decades that the value of 
the picture has been demonstrated in many other lines as well as geography. A 
reading book in the lower grades nowadays is unthinkable without generous 
illustration. All the sciences and arts use the picture and the diagram in increas- 
ing measure in texts and in articles for general reading. Botany, zoology, anthro- 
pology and geography would be crippled beyond measure without the prolific 
picture. The growing generosity of illustration by the current magazine and 
certain daily papers has been a godsend to the schools wherever live teachers have 
undertaken to collect and use these pictures as an aid in classroom instruction. 
One of the best services rendered by any periodical in this country has been that 
of the lavishly illustrated National Geographic Magazine. Its collection of pic- 
tures now runs to over fifty thousand and they are being reprinted and made 
available at cost for individual pupil's use. 

The success of this picture phase of visual education has been marked. But 
it has required some genius to get best results. The pictures are as a rule too 
small for class use. They may be studied individually, but it is difficult to get 
a class discussion without having a picture large enough for ^use before the class 
entire. This early led to the use of the projection lantern. 

But the lantern of early days was a cumbersome thing. It called for a 
darkened room, which has been always somewhat difficult to manage. Then the 
illuminant was a messy affair, with tanks of oxygen and hydrogen and candles 
of lime, always slacking into dust; the whole outfit dangerous in the hands of 
a novice and requiring a skillful operator. Thus the lantern could he used only 
by the school entire and largely for entertainment, not instruction. The coming 
of electricity gave much more freedom, but even here the danger of open circuits, 
and the attention to the open arc, have kept the equipment out of common use. 

The coming of the Mazda filament lamp, however, has thrown all barriers 
down. Now little projection lanterns are available at small cost, and every school 
building may have one or more such lanterns. The lantern is coupled into any 
lamp socket, it can be safely managed by any child, the light is so intense that 
the darkening of the room is not a serious matter. The lantern now may be 



8 Visual Education 

ready for service at a minute's notice in any room where the electric current is 
available. And by means of the reflectoscope, book and magazine illustrations 
become available, also. 

The lantern makes possible and profitable the use of many maps and graphs 
as well as pictures. Here is a very large avenue of service, which is little devel- 
oped. A map can be copied into a lantern slide and colored for a dollar or so 
and thrown on the screen on a scale much larger than any printed map obtain- 
able. This gives unlimited freedom to the instructor for many maps which we 
may never hope to have published in large form, could be used with profit in the 
class room. To make one such map would require much time and skill, and 
might cost fifteen or twenty dollars or more. Then, too, a hundred and fifty such 
maps in the form of lantern slides can be stored in one drawer of the ordinary 
card catalog cabinet of the library, whereas in the ordinary printed form, in rolls 
and on sticks, a whole room would be required for storage. 

The graph is a device in visual education which has large possibilities and is 
but little developed. A whole page of statistics can be thrown into the form of 
a curve, as for example, the production of wheat year by year for a generation, 
and the trend of production can be read at a glance. Wheat export for the same 
years can be thrown into another curve and the two curves compared. The price 
of wheat can also be entered, and such combinations offer the finest opportunities 
for discussion and interpretation. I have seen great audiences of the best 
educated men and women sitting on the front edge of their chairs, in rapt atten- 
tion, as some interpretation has been read from maps and graphic statistics. 
One may notice the conspicuous success of the Babson curves of business expan- 
sion and depression, and the growing use of graphics in many lines of business, 
to realize something of the possibilities of this form of visual education. 

The photograph, the print, the lantern slide have done splendid service in 
the school room, but the finest service yet rendered has been done by the stereo- 
graph. The photograph presents but two dimensions. At best it suggests the 
third dimension. We are generous and supply out of our own experience the 
third dimension. But the stereocamera and the stereoscope work a miracle. 
They supply the actuality of binocular vision, and the third dimension is pre- 
sented to the eye in vivid reality. This is a degree of perfection the camera alone 
can never give. The person who looks through the stereoscope looks upon the 
real mountain, looks into the depths of the real canyon, looks upon the actual 
statue, the actual cathedral. 

The stereoscope a generation ago was an interesting and entertaining novelty, 
little more. Its place was on the parlor table, along with the reading lamp and 
the family Bible. But it has won its spurs now as one of the best devices in visual 
education yet developed. For the stereoscope, with its charm of intense reality, 
comes to have a teaching power of the highest value. But like many another 
teaching device, it was tried in the schools and failed to hold its own until long 
study and analysis of its possibilities in actual use had determined the correct 
mode of employing the stereoscope. 

By going into the school room and earnestly watching the boys and girls 



Scope and Outlook of Visual Education 



700 000 ooo Tons 



500 000 000 



400 000 000 



COAL PRODUCTION 

6Y LEADING NATIONS 
1850-1917 
WORLb TOTAL ID 1912 * 1363 937 9t><ts.T. 

Sources Coal Resources of the World 



Rep. int. cope, geol.toromto i9r3,v0L i,p. xix o 

+ 
+ 



v U.S.C5. MirttR/^L Resources . AnnufiL 




The graph puts a whole page of statistics into the form of curves 
which will show at a glance the trend of development through a period 
of time, as here; the pronounced expansion in coal production by Britain 
and the more rapid development by Germany; the phenomenal develop- 
ment by America and the final rank of the leading six coal-producing 
nations of the world. 



react under the stimulus of this marvelous instrument, it was learned how it 
could be made best to serve the purpose of school room' work. It was discovered 
that the stereograph must be worked, but not overworked. It must help get the 
day's lesson, not get in the way of the lesson. It must occupy the student without 
the attention of the teacher. It must lead the pupil to apply himself and learn 
for the pleasure of learning. 

The method is simple. An ample supply of stereographs is provided. The 



10 Visual Education 

number in one standard set runs to 600. The subjects are chosen to cover the 
whole earth, and with selections so made as to cover many topics which will be 
studied in geography, in history, in literature. These stereographs are classified 
into all the topics where their use may be profitable, cross-referenced and indexed, 
and the whole study published in book form, as a Teacher's Guide, so that the 
teacher may find any stereograph available for teaching any subject as easily as 
she can find a word in the dictionary, and can put her hand right on the required 
stereograph without a moment's delay. 

Each stereograph has on the reverse side a description running to 250 words, 
written in an interesting style and carrying the necessary information to the stu- 
dent. In use the teacher puts out the stereoscope and one or two stereographs, 
relating to the next day's lesson. Some time during the study periods of the day 
each pupil will study the stereograph, read the description and be ready next day 
to tell what he saw. It becomes a game to see who can stand and report in good 
English what he saw looking through the window of the stereoscope into the 
reality beyond. At the end of the week, or when the review on the country or 
topic comes, the same views, in lantern slide form, are put before the whole class, 
and some pupil is chosen to stand before the class and discuss what one view 
presents and other pupils report on other slides. 

A real interest is aroused. Better teaching results. Live material is in hand 
always for drill in geography, history, English. The success of the method is 
unquestioned. The sets of views are in use in thousands of schools all over the 
country. It is the best contribution yet made in visual education in America. 

The stereograph arrives at perfection in presenting the perception of solidity 
and distance, the third dimension of the view. There is nothing to compare with 
it in this service, but it is a static world. The waterfall is a frozen waterfall. The 
wave is an arrested wave. Motion is absent. Yet motion is another "dimension" 
and the presentation of motion in the picture is an arrival at another apex of 
perfection. The jetting, plunging water of the cataract is there, before the eyes. 
The gracefully moving animal, the rushing waves, the swaying trees, are all there, 
to the last perfect detail of motion. The marvel of it, the miracle of it, has 
an endless charm. And as usual, this interest has been catered to by using the 
film as an amusement, because, of course, people are always ready to pay well 
for being amused. So compelling, so persistent, so universal is this interest in 
the film that, as we are now told, the cinema business is one of the largest three 
or four industries in the whole country. 

Now since education comes through arousing the interest of the child and 
since the power of the movie to arouse interest is patent to all, it has occurred 
to many people to draft the movie into the service of the school room. And the 
trial has been made repeatedly. Every trial has shown some measure of success, 
but always some critical drawback has arisen to block progress. The flickering 
light on the screen is hard on the eyes. The projection machine is very expensive. 
It uses a large current, which may be dangerous, especially as it is likely to set 
fire to the film. That puts it under ban by the insurance interests, and an expen- 
sive housing or shelter is required. This restricts its use to the auditorium, and 



Scope and Outlook of Visual Education 11 

this in turn, takes it out of the reach of class work. The films are very expen- 
sive, and !'• t part have been made with the one aim of entertainment, 
or of advertisement, so may not be satisfactory or even usable for purposes of 
instruction. In short, the whole matter up to the present moment seems like 
an exhibition of misfit effort, .-bowing in a high degree a lack of intelligent cooper- 
ation on the part of the interests directly involved. 

And yet the perfection of motion is there; the interest compelling power of 
the thing is undeniably there ; the possibility of large service in school education 
thrusts itself before the mind's eye and will not down. 

It remains to bring the mechanical elements of projection to such a point 
of perfection that the machinery can be forgotten. This is practically an ac- 
complished fact. An analysis of the shortcomings of present day motion picture 
projection has been made, solutions of the difficulties have been found, and the 
result is a new projector, shortly to appear on the market, in which the weak- 
nesses of present machines are eliminated. With such projection the eye no 
longer suffers from flicker, distortion, spasmodic movement, etc. One is no 
longer conscious of the mechanical agency behind the picture. 

This is but a part of the activity of the Society for Visual Education, which 
has been recently formed. Educational experts in many lines have associated 
for the purpose of solving the problems in the adaptation of the cinema to pur- 
poses of instruction in the schools. All sorts of tests and measurements will be 
made to find out the place and best service of each of the devices in visual educa- 
tion in the administration of the school program. Carefully thought out films 
are being provided for the express purpose of class instruction. The scenario^ 
for these films will be made to meet the approval of the best teachers in the 
subject presented. 

Now let us make no mistake as to the efficiency of any or all the devices 
which may be used in visual education. No one of them or all of them will ever 
take the place of the live, earnest, competent teacher. Moreover, the best of 
teachers will have to be initiated into the best methods of using the graphic mate- 
rial, whatever it is. All of the visual devices together will not remove the need 
of effort, of work on the part of the pupil. The pupil's real achievement will 
be measured next generation as it was last by the attention and effort of the 
pupil. But the visual helps will create interest, stimulate attention and reduce 
effort. So more ground may be covered in a given time. So also may a higher 
record of achievement be won by a larger number of pupils. 

And this brings us to the economic phase of our quest. It will pay school 
boards to invest in the proven methods of visual instruction. This has been 
demonstrated in repeated instances, but one case will serve, by way of illustration. 
The Eacine, Wisconsin, schools in 1910 had a good record in efficiency. They 
compared well with the schools of other cities of similar size the country over. 
Their record of pupils failed at the end of the year was low — only one in ten of 
the pupils below the high school. A ten per cent failure was to be expected. In 
1910 these schools began to adopt the stereographic equipment called the 600 set, 
and with the aroused interest, and better organization of recitation, the failures 



12 



Visual Education 



3OO00O0O7b//s, 



20000 000 Tons 



TQNNQQ€ €NT£K€D QNb CL€fi\£D 



S0VKQ€3i 

i. aooi« • tsvi or ComV Touts ^ 67 




JO 000 000 Tons *^j^ 



1870 



Very complicated interrelations are shown to the eye at a glance as 
here; the rapid rise of London as the world's leading port between 1870 
and 1903; the later more rapid rise of Rotterdam, Hamburg, Antwerp 
and New York; and the final rank of the world's leading ten seaports. 



began to decrease. Rooms began to make a record of no failures at all during 
the year. In 1914 the Russell Sage Foundation made a wide study of "failures 
and promotions" and the Racine schools were recorded as showing an average of 
5% of failure. The survey also brought out the fact that in the schools where 
the new system of visual education was not used the record still stood at 10%. In 
the 5,000 children in the Racine schools, between the kindergarten and the high 
school, cutting the failures from 10% to 5% gave promotions to 250 pupils, who 



Scope and Outlook of Visual Education 13 

without the improved instruction would have beeu ranked as failures and would 
have been required to repeat the course. To have had 250 pupils repeating the 
course would have called for six or eight extra teachers and extra rooms. On 
the basis of the average cost of a year's schooling, this promotion of 250 pupils 
was a saving to the taxpayers of Racine of between $10,000 and $15,000. in the 
year. Think of what the saving to the whole country will be, when visual educa- 
tion in all its phases has been fully worked out and entered to the game in all 
the schools ! 

There are in the common schools of the country at this time, in the grades 
below the high schools, over 20,000,000 pupils enrolled. The record shows over 
15,000,000 in attendance. The average annual cost per pupil in these schools in 
1914 -^as not far from $30 each. This cost has doubtless doubled since then. 
An average of ten per cent failure in this number gives us about 1,500,000 pupils 
to repeat the work. This, at $60 per pupil, makes the very respectable sum of 
$90,000,000 per year. Suppose now, the introduction of visual education could 
cut this failure record down five per cent on the average. That would make a 
neat sum of $45,000,000 per year, a prize well worth working for. Now not only 
can this improvement be made in the grades, it can be made in some measure 
in the secondary schools as well. The equipment thus made ready may serve in 
Americanization work in churches and in Community Centers. This is a wide 
and magnificent opportunity for service. It is worthy the best brains and most 
serious effort of all of us. 

J. Paul Goode, 
Professor of Geography, 

University of Chicago. 



New Films for Teaching Americanism 

ON E of the problems that is receiving a great deal of attention in the United 
States today is that of making better citizens not only of immigrants who 
have come to our shores, but also of native Americans. The term Amer- 
icanization has become so common that many people are beginning to tire of it, 
but the problem is so serious and the need of its solution so great that no think- 
ing citizen can fail to be concerned about it. 

It required a world war to awake America to the need of solidarity among 
its citizens. For many years we had been perfectly content to idle along assimilat- 
ing, more or less imperfectly, from 55 to 110 new arrivals for each thousand of 
native population during each decade. These newcomers for the most part settled 
in our large cities in compact masses, and it was only vigorous work on the 
part of the public schools and civic agencies that secured unity when the crisis 
came. The problem of making good citizens out of so great a mass of people 
has never before been met in any country in the world. 

No country was subjected to such a large influx of foreigners as was America 
during the last half of the nineteenth century. In no country was there such 
great need of nationalization. It made no difference to the Empire of Eussia 
whether its citizens were loyal and true. The police cared for that. It made but 
little difference to Louis XIV whether the French were good citizens. His army 
took care of that. But America is not ruled by czar or emperor. It is ruled 
by people who are chosen from the masses, and chosen wisely or not according 
as the people are wise or not. So the problem of nationalization in America was 
more important than in any other country in the world — first, because of the 
large proportion of foreign born immigrants, and second, because of the peculiar 
need of true assimilation in a democracy. 

The careless way in which America treated the immigrant and the almost 
entire freedom that was given him caused grave concern upon the part of many 
of our farseeing leaders. They knew that not all of these who became citizens 
were Americans in heart and soul. They knew that not all of them were coming to 
love this country. They knew that not all were learning to understand our govern- 
ment and the ways in which it worked. They felt that the complete assimilation 
which had taken place in the earlier half of the nineteenth century was not being 
achieved in these later years. They therefore expected grave difficulties in the 
face of a national crisis, and so widespread was this belief that the German For- 
eign Office felt that it could count with certainty upon the loyalty to the father- 
land of the great German population in our midst. 

But these alarmists were mistaken. The American public school had done 
its work, and the unity with which our country went into the great war and 
the almost universal support that was given it is, as a matter of fact, one of the 
wonders of the world. It was almost completely unexpected. 

Just because, however, we were able to weather the storm in the past does 
not guarantee that we can face the crisis that is now confronting us. It is one 
thing to fight an enemy like the Kaiser with his great armies against which we 

14 



New Films foe Teaching Americanism 15 

could marshal our public sentiment. The murder of Edith CavelL the Zirnmer- 
mann note, and the Belgian atrocities gave us points about which to center our 
emotions. The selective service act, which took boys from every home, and the 
ever present soldier and the passing flag continually kept us in a fever heat 
of patriotism. It is quite another matter now. Our new enemy gives us none 
of these opportunities. Lenine and Trotsky are striving to undermine our so- 
ciety, they are speaking frankly of a new internationalism, the downfall of every 
government, a war to the death between capital and labor, and a dictatorship of 
the proletariat. They are not fighting us with 42 centimeter guns. They are 
not bombing our cities. They are working quietly and faithfully upon the minds 
of men, gathering little groups together here and there, magnifying injustices, 
and speaking of our government as an agency which takes boys for its army and 
money for its coffers and gives nothing in return. To a man who does not clearly 
understand what our government is doing for us, who does not keenly appreciate 
the duties that he owes in return, who does not know that the power to correct 
injustices now lies in his hands, the doctrine of the Bolshevik propagandist is apt 
to sound good. He is apt to think that there is some sense in it. He is not likely 
to see the situation in the large. It will be difficult to suppress Bolshevism 
with policemen and with soldiers. It will be impossible to deport all its sympa- 
thizers. The enemy is unseen. We can not count on arousing the emotions of 
our people in support of the struggle. The only way to fight an idea is with 
another idea. America's only insurance is education. 

We can count on the safety of the coming generation if our school masters 
do their work. If the people of America can raise teachers' salaries and stand 
behind the schools in the way they should, we need not worry about our country 
twenty years from now. The problem that we are facing is to make very sure that 
our country does not go to pieces within the next ten years, and the solution 
lies in the universal and widespread education of the adult. 

There are many agencies at work upon this problem. The Y. M. C. A. 
is developing an ambitious and f arsighted program of work in health, citizenship, 
religion, and loyalty in all our large centers. The Inter-racial Council is working 
through the foreign language press. The United Americans are working in a 
variety of ways, most notably perhaps the poster advertising. The American 
Legion is standing firm. Many of the State Councils of Defense have been per- 
petuated. The Women's Clubs have been doing their part, publishing primers, 
holding classes, encouraging boards of education and activities of a similar sort. 
There is one avenue of approach, however, that has been relatively neglected 
— namely, the moving picture. It is true that a great many films hav« been pro- 
duced that are called Americanization pictures. A complete list of them has 
recently been published by the National Board of Beview of Motion Pictures. 
Careful examination reveals nothing but stories of the life of Americans and 
little plays aiming at patriotic spirit, or else geographic scenes of our own land. 
It is possible that The Romance of Happy Valley or The Copperhead will yield 
beneficial results. It is not out of the realm of probability that In Glacier Parle 
or The Grand Canyon of the Colorado will make our people appreciate something 



16 Visual Education 

of the grandeur of our land. But in almost no degree are they furnishing am- 
munition to combat the enemy in our midst. The citizens and prospective citizens 
of our country need to he so clear as to the privileges and responsibilities of their 
citizenship and so active in their support of our own government that the 
Bolshevik propagandist and the I. W. W. leader can make no impression upon 
them. 

We need to have available for the unrestricted use of every city and state, every 
Council of Defense and Americanization committee, every patriotic meeting and 
class in citizenship, a series of films especially designed to supply this need. They 
should not waste time in romance or fanciful story. The facts in themselves are 
interesting enough. In a scientific pedagogical way they should tell the audience 

( 1 ) that the government of America now serves all its people in very many ways, 

(2) that this service is alike to rich and poor, (3) that there are many duties 
that each citizen owes in return, and (4) that if there are any defects in our 
present system, the voice of each citizen may help correct them. These films 
should deal only with the facts as we find them. There should be no effort to 
confuse the present with the ideal. Without fear, our country can stand com- 
parison with any other in the world. 

William F. Eussell, 
Dean of the College of Education, 

University of Iowa. 



Visual Education is glad to contribute its bit of publicity to the following 
report, which has just been released by the National Education Association. It 
is a most significant paragraph on a subject of grave importance to America's 
future. 

Teachers Suffer Most 

"Among those employees who suffer most acutely have been the teachers in 
our schools. Their situation in many parts of the country has become deplorable. 
Thousands of them, trained in their profession, with a high and honorable pride 
in it, have been literally forced to leave it, and to resign what had been their hope, 
not of wealth, but of loyal service in building the foundation of knowledge and 
character upon which our national strength must rest. In consequence there is 
everywhere a shortage of teachers. An inquiry made by the Bureau of Education 
showed that in January, 1920, more than 18,000 teachers' positions in the public 
schools of the country were then vacant because the teachers to fill them could not 
be had. Over 42,000 positions are filled, in order that they may be filled at all, 
by teachers whose qualifications are below the minimum standard of requirement 
in the several states. It is the estimate of the Commissioner of Education that 
more than 300,000 of the 650,000 school teachers of the country are today "below 
any reasonable minimum standard of qualifications." Many of those who remain 
in our schools receive less pay than common laborers, despite the long years of 
preparation for their profession that they have undertaken. This situation is a 
national menace. It is useless to talk of Americanization and of the diminution 
of illiteracy and other national educational problems, unless it is faced at once. — 
Eeport of the Industrial Conference, called by the President." 



Human Eyes and Optical Instruments II 
— Telescopes 

NO OTHER sense has benefited so much from artificial aid as that of sight 
and no other optical instrument has so marvelously extended the powers 
of the eyes as the telescope. It is the telescope that has brought within 
our range the wonders of the universe. 

Before the invention of telescopes men looked up into the clear night sky 
and saw the planets as tiny points of light; the great instruments of today 
magnify them until they appear larger than the sun or moon appear to the un- 
aided eye, and show that they are worlds which in most cases are greater than the 
earth. "Without optical aid not more than 5,000 stars can be seen, and in an- 
tiquity they were often 
thought to be little jewels 
on a crystalline sphere; 
modern instruments 
make visible hundreds of 
millions of stars, and 
show that they are enor- 
mous blazing suns, each a 
million times as large as 
the earth. The ancients 
turned their eyes toward 
the starry heavens and 
were inspired by what 
they saw to some of the 
noblest passages in their 
literatures and to some 
of the finest conceptions 
of their philosophies : 
modern observations have been of both practical and theoretical value — they have 
led to the discovery of the laws of motion and the foundations of mechanics, 
they make safe the navigation of the seas, they furnish time to mankind, they 
show us the place we occupy in the universe, they are the basis for theories re- 
specting the origin, development and extinction of the earth, and they bring us 
face to face with infinity in both space and time. In the making of telescopes 
there has been much that was romantic, as we shall see, and in the use of them 
there has been much arduous and self-sacrificing labor. 

The telescope is a relatively modern invention. While some passages in the 
writings of that universal genius, Eoger Bacon, seem to indicate that as early as 
the year 1280 he had sound ideas respecting the theoretical basis for making 
telescopes, their practical construction did not begin until the first decade of the 
seventeenth century. At about the time the early immigrants to this continent 
were landing at Jamestown, Hans Lippershey, a Dutch optician, made a small 
telescope for viewing terrestrial objects. Within a year or two the brilliant 

17 




The planet Saturn as seen through a large 
telescope, from a drawing by Professor Barnard. 
Saturn is now visible in the evening as a yel- 
lowish star a little east of south (the very 
bright planet directly south is Jupiter) and 
about two-thirds the distance from the horizon 
up toward the zenith. 



18 Visual Education 

Italian, Galileo, had independently invented the telescope. Then, for the first 
time in the history of the human race, men saw the sun, moon, and planets with 
optical aid. Although the telescope of Galileo was small and, when judged by 
modern stands, very poor, yet every observation through it was an adventure com- 
parable to a voyage across an unknown sea, and the discoveries made with it were 
as marvelous as the new lands which Columbus and his followers found by sailing 
westward from Europe. 

In 1610 Galileo finished his third telescope, which magnified thirty-three 




The Yerkes Observatory (from the southwest) of the University of 
Chicago, located near Williams Bay, Wisconsin, on the shores of Lake 
Geneva. The large dome contains the great 40-inch Yerkes refractor. 
The smaller dome at the right contains a two-foot reflector, and the other 
small dome a 12-inch refractor. 

diameters. With it he discovered four of the satellites of Jupiter, the rings 
of Saturn, mountains and plains on the moon, spots on the sun, and the rotation 
of the sun. For half a century telescopes were used exclusively for observing 
the surface characteristics of celestial bodies. Then it was realized that they 
could be made instruments for precise measurements, and this use has become 
more important than the former. 

Optically a telescope consists of two parts: (a) an objective lens, or a con- 
cave mirror, which brings the light to a focus and forms an image of the object ; 
and (b) an eye-piece, which magnifies the image and enables the observer to see 
it. In case an objective is employed to focus the rays, the light passes through 
a lens and the telescope is called a refractor. When a concave mirror is used to 
bring the rays to a focus the telescope is called a reflector. Eefractors are gen- 
erally used for visual work and reflectors for photographic. 



Telescopes 19 

The essential parts of a simple refracting telescope are shown in Figure 1, 
in which L is the objective and E is the eve-piece. If the telescope is pointed at 
a very distant object, such as a star, the rays enter L in essentially parallel lines. 
They are brought to a focus at F and after passing through E emerge in parallel 
lines. Consequently when they enter an eye beyond E they will be brought to a 
focus on the retina and the star will appear to be a point of light as it does to 
the unaided eye. But the large cylinder of rays which enters L is condensed 
to the small cylinder which emerges from E. Therefore many more rays will 
enter the eye than would enter it without the telescope, and the result is that the 
apparent brightness of the star is greatly increased. How greatly it may be 
increased is easily determined. The diameter of the pupil of the eye when a star 






Figure 1 

is observed without optical aid is about one-fifth of an inch; the diameter of the 
objective of the great Yerkes telescope, the largest refractor i n the world, is forty 
inches, or two hundred times that of the pupil. Their areas are as the squares of 
their diameters. Therefore the great lens gathers 2 =40,000 times as much light 
as enters the unaided eye. This is the reason that we now see hundreds of mil- 
lions of stars in addition to the five thousand that were visible to the ancients. 

A telescope not only makes such an object as a star appear brighter but it 
magnifies objects having appreciable apparent diameters, such as the sun, moon, 
and planets. The amount of magnification is proportional to the distance from 
L to F and inversely as the distance from F to E. With every telescope a number 
of eye-pieces are supplied, giving various distances from F to E. Consequently 
every telescope gives several magnifications, depending on the eye-piece used. 
Theoretically an eye-piece can be constructed to give almost any magnification, 
but there are severe practical limitations. If the image at F is very good an 
eye-piece can be advantageously used giving a higher magnifying power than if 
the image is poor. 

In the case of the great Yerkes telescope the image of the object is on a large 
scale because the distance LF is sixty-two feet, and, under good atmospheric con- 
ditions, the image is unsurpassed in excellence. The highest power that can be 
advantageously used with it on most objects is 1,000 diameters. With such an 
eye-piece the apparent distance between two very close stars is increased one 
thousand fold, and the apparent diameter of such an object as the moon is multi- 
plied by one thousand. So many large numbers are used in astronomy that it 
is easy to fail to appreciate how great this magnification really is. In order to 
illustrate it consider the moon Avhose apparent diameter is about half a degree. 
If it were magnified one thousand times it would have a diameter of 500 degrees, 
or 140 degrees more than a full circumference. Obviously with such a magnifica- 



20 



Visual Education 



tion only a very small part of it could be seen at once. In fact, the more a 
telescope magnifies the smaller its field of view, and for this reason one is often 
disappointed when he sees through a large telescope for the first time. 




A small portion of the moon near the center of its disk as photo- 
graphed with the great Yerkes telescope. At reading distance the apparent 
area of the part shown is more than 100,000 times greater than it is as 
seen with the unaided eye. The large crater is Theophilus, 64 miles in 
diameter and 17,000 feet deep. The sun is shining from the right toward 
the left, and the shadows of crater rims and mountains, such as those in 
Theophilus, extend toward the left. There is no water or air on the 
moon, and consequently the shadows are very black. 



Telescopes 21 

Telescopes are not so simple as might be inferred from Figure 1. If a tele- 
scope were made exactl) r on that plan the rays which pass through the margin 
of L would be brought to a focus before they reached F. The result would be an 
imperfect image. Moreover, the blue rays would be brought to a focus before 
the red rays, and this would be a serious additional defect of the image. These 
imperfections are both smaller the less convex the lens and the greater the dis- 
tance from L to F. Consequently the early telescopes were often of very great 
focal length and correspondingly unwieldy. 

When the images are produced by light reflected from mirrors the second 
defect is not present and the first can be largely remedied. It was for these 
reasons that Gregory and Newton abandoned refractors and made only reflectors. 
From their day till this reflectors have been much in use, especially for photo- 
graphic purposes. 

It was later discovered that the defects of refractors could be largely elimi- 
nated by making the objective of two pieces of suitable glass. The most common 
form is to have a double concave lens of heavy flint glass on the outside and a 
double convex lens of lighter crown glass on the inside. When all the surfaces are 
made exactly right, depending on the desired distance to F and the optical 
properties of the two kinds of glass, the defects which have been described are 
almost completely eliminated. 

The surfaces of telescopic lenses and mirrors must be produced with the 
most extraordinary precision. The requirements are far beyond those of the 
finest machinery or even of the surfaces of spectacle glasses or camera lenses. 
In fact, they must be accurate to the order of a fifty thousandth of an inch, 
and are the very limits of the mechanician's art. 

All great telescope makers have been real artists. Among the foremost 
of them was William Herschel. He left Germany as a young man to avoid 
military service and settled in Bath, England, where he became a teacher of 
music. A copy of a book on Astronomy fell into his hands and fired his imagina- 
tion. He wished to scan the heavens for himself, but there was neither a 
telescope to which he could get access nor one which he could buy. Consequently 
the musician took up the study of the mathematics which was necessary to 
design a telescope. After he had mastered it he began the grinding of mirrors 
with his own unskilled hands. The first results were only fair but they were 
encouraging. When the nights were clear he searched the sky with such tele- 
scopes as he had produced; when they were cloudy he worked on new mirrors. 
Better and still better ones were made, even up to four feet in diameter, and 
discoveries followed one another in rapid succession. In fact, in 1781 Herschel 
found with one of his own instruments the planet Uranus, the first world to be 
discovered in historical times. This discovery made him the most celebrated 
astronomer of his time. His sister Caroline assisted him in a long life devoted 
to astronomy, and he was succeeded by his son John. 

Of all makers of telescopes, Alvan Clark and his son Alvan G. Clark have 
been the most successful and the most celebrated. The elder Clark was a portrait 
painter of Boston, when in 1844 he became interested in the construction of a 



22 



Visual Education 



little ^reflector. His artistic temperament seems to have been adapted to the 
peculiar requirements of the exacting work of making mirrors and lenses. Phe- 
nomenal success soon attended his efforts. Five of his refractors were purchased 




\\ V\ '^%A x «w 

%X1 





!■■ 






The great Yerkes telescope, the largest refractor in the world. Its 
length is 62 feet, its diameter is 40 inches and its weight is 9 tons. The 
chairs on the floor and the winding stairway on the pier give an idea of its 
size. It is accurately moved by clockwork so that it follows the stars in 
their motion across the sky. 



Telescopes 23 

by the English astronomer Dawes. The Clarks made seventy five telescopes 
having an aperture of more than six inches, and they were of a perfection which 
had never been approached and which has not yet been surpassed. Five times 
between 1860 and 1895 they made telescopes which were larger than any then 
in existence.. Among their greatest instruments are the 23-inch telescope at 
Princeton, the 24-inch at Flagstaff, Arizona, the 26-inch at Washington and a 
similar one at the University of Virginia, the 30-inch at Pulkowa, Eussia, the 
36-inch at Mount Hamilton, California, and the 40-inch Yerkes telescope at 
Williams Bay, Wisconsin. The Yerkes telescope was the last work of Alvan 
G-. Clark, and for twenty-five years it has stood as the largest refractor in the 
world. 

Americans are often supposed by Europeans to be dollar-chasers, and to care 
little for the finer things of life. Although there may be some truth in the 
accusation, it is nevertheless true that no other people have been so generous 
in the construction of telescopes, or have been so successful in using them. The 
two largest refractors in the world are in the United States, and of the ten 
largest ones in the world six are in this country. The conditions are similar 
in the case of reflectors. The three most powerful reflectors in the world are 
in North America, two at the Solar Observatory at Mt. Wilson, California, 
and one at Victoria, British Columbia. The reflectors are considerably larger 
than the refractors. The Canadian telescope has a diameter of 72.6 inches, 
while those on Mt. Wilson have apertures of 60 and 100 inches. 

The question always arises whether or not still more powerful telescopes 
will be made. It is unsafe to assert that anything will not be accomplished, 
but the difficulties attending any appreciable increase in the dimensions of 
telescopes would be enormous. They would be due not alone to the greater 
weight and unwieldiness of the instruments themselves, but in part to the ever- 
present unsteadiness of the air. However clear the night may be the stars 
twinkle, and their scintillations are due to the irregular paths of the rays of 
light through an atmosphere which is always in motion. When these irregu- 
larities are magnified a thousand times, as they are by a great telescope, they 
become so serious as to render further magnification useless. At present, the 
unsteadiness of the atmosphere is the most serious obstacle with which astron- 
omers have to contend, and is the reason why observatories are often placed on 
mountains above the denser parts of the air. Fortunately astronomers have 
invented other instruments which are almost as valuable as telescopes. 

F. E. Moulton, 

Professor of Astronomy, 

The University of Chicago. 



What is an Educational Motion Picture? 

THE great popularity of lantern slides in education and their effectiveness in 
teaching bring forcibly to our attention the possibility of using motion pic- 
tures for similar purposes. The motion picture is so much more effective 
than the lantern slide in every sense that it is rather odd that it has not been pressed 
into educational service before, in spite of its greater expense and mechanical 
difficulties in pedagogical adaptation. The expense of the films has undoubtedly 
been a deterring factor. The films used for other commercial purposes are routed 
from one city to another, but such an arrangement would hardly be applicable in 
education because the several schools which are giving the same curriculum would 
all need the films the same week. This is a serious difficulty in that it forces the 
schools to buy the films instead of renting them. It is not until quite recently 
that projecting apparatus has been adapted for school purposes. The commercial 
theater projecting outfit with its booth and underwriters' regulations are only 
with considerable difficulty applicable in schools. With the appearance of 
projectors specially adapted for schools, the extension of motion pictures in educa- 
tion will depend largely on the development of pedagogical procedure. 

Here we should recognize the necessity of a type of organization which was 
not necessary in the adaptation of lantern slides to teaching. In preparing lan- 
tern slides the individual instructor can prepare his own charts, collect his own 
pictures, and he can without further technical assistance send his material to 
the nearest photographer who makes the lantern slides for him. Sometimes the 
instructor even prepares his own slides. This is not at all possible with motion 
pictures. The individual teacher might prepare a scenario for that which he 
desires to teach by motion pictures, but he will rarely possess the technical insight 
necessary for predicting just what the effect of his scenario is going to be. He 
may have the correct content for his pictures and it may be arranged in a peda- 
gogically acceptable order, but the scenic detail in motion picture presentation 
necessitates technical assistance of a type which the individual teacher rarely 
possesses himself. Furthermore, the great expense of the preparation of motion 
pictures compared with that of lantern slides necessitates more administrative pro- 
cedure and greater caution. It is obvious that the development of motion pictures 
in education will depend on the combination of the talents of the expert in the 
subject matter to be taught, the expert photographer with experience in motion 
pictures, the scenario writer, the film laboratory and others. Possibly a profes- 
sional pedagogue should be added to the staff to pass on the purely educational 
features of presentation with or without portfolio in subject matter, as the case 
may be. The first problem in the development of acceptable motion pictures for 
educational purposes is one of organization. 

The commercial interests involved in the motion picture industry have by no 
means been blind to the educational possibilities of their art. But the unguided 
attempts of commercial organizations to prepare so-called educational films are 
ludicrous to professional educators, with due respect, of course, to the impulsive 

U 



What is an Educational Motion Picture? 25 

and commercial brains that have made the attempts. Their efforts were a neces- 
sary part of the development of educational films. 

I should like to call attention to what I consider the fundamental criterion 
of an educational film. A film to be educational must correlate with a curricu- 
lum; it must correlate with class room or lecture work. In order to do tins it 
is absolutely imperative that the films be prepared so as to fit a sjdlabus or out- 
line of instruction. Certain facts, principles, operations or ideals are to be 
taught. Enumerate them; arrange them in a teachable order, and then parcel 
out the teaching procedure among the various teaching media, such as the recita- 
tion, the lecture, the laboratory, the field trip, the home exercise, the problem, 
the film, the lantern slide, the demonstration, etc. When educational films have 
been fitted into the educational regime in such a manner they will be serial in 
character. Film so and so will precede or follow lecture so and so. The film 
equipment for any given course will in all likelihood consist of a series of films 
definitely placed in the course of instruction. One does not need to know much 
about the so-called educational films now on the market to realize how hopelessly 
out of place they are. No commercial film organization can produce educational 
films without the close cooperation of those whose profession it is to teach. 

Motion pictures have had entertainment as their primary purpose and that 
will peihaps always be the most general purpose of motion pictures. Without 
depreciating in the least the legitimate place of motion pictures for purposes of 
entertainment, it is necessary for us to keep in mind that educational films have 
a utilitarian purpose. 

If a film that purports to be educational is too entertaining we had better 
look it over again to see if it is really educational. If we can make educational 
films interesting, attention-holding, and entertaining, so much the better. But 
the point I wish to make is that a film may be of the very highest educational 
value as a teaching tool, even if it is extremely boring and uninteresting to the 
casual onlooker. The best textbooks about which the thinking student is enthu- 
siastic and from which he receives professional inspiration are perhaps quite 
generally meaningless and uninteresting to the layman. Let us realize from the 
outset that an educational film is a teaching tool and that it should be accepted 
or discarded on its merits as a teaching tool. Its entertaining features are sec- 
ondary but desirable, of course. 

The first catalogues of so-called educational films were probably prepared by 
listing, in a heterogenous collection, all kinds of films that happened to be avail- 
able and which could be thought of as in some way instructive. Thus under the 
caption "Geography" would be listed any and all available films from foreign 
lands, and so on for other categories without any educational plan. These films 
have no doubt served a good purpose for isolated occasions in which some combina- 
tion of entertainment and instruction was desired. ISTo doubt such classifications 
will continue to serve a good purpose, but the real educational films will be the 
ones that are prepared to fit in as a part of the teaching routine in organized 
courses of instruction in the public schools and in the colleges. 

There is a further distinction in terminology which I should like to suggest 



26 Visual Education 

in this connection, namely, the distinction between propaganda films and educa- 
tional films. In a large social sense a propaganda film is also educational. 
During the last few years the term propaganda has become almost synonymous 
with German intrigue, but the term should not necessarily have a derogatory 
meaning. The distinction is largely in the attitude of the percipient. If the 
film is sugar-coated and presented ostensibly in the form of entertainment, but 
actually for the purpose of convincing the audience about something, of making 
them think in a certain manner about something, the film should more properly 
be called a propaganda film. If the audience takes the explicit attitude that they 
are there for instruction, and if they are looking for instruction while watching 
the film, then it is truly educational. My reason for drawing this distinction is 
that the types of organizations best qualified to prepare these two types of film 
are radically different. Educational films are easier to prepare than propaganda 
films, because experts in the subject matter to be taught are usually more readily 
available than those who are competent to plan an effective film propaganda. 

One rather frequent type of propaganda film is the advertising film. I 
recently saw a film in which was described the story of a small town merchant 
who had difficulty in keeping his accounts. He was continually hampered by 
clerks who stole money from his cash drawer and by customers who were dissatis- 
fied with the errors made in keeping their charge accounts and payments. The 
film shows a salesman going thru the motions of selling the merchant a cash 
register and the satisfaction which followed the investment in this device. The 
merchant's contentment is extreme with freedom from worry about the accuracy 
and honesty of the various cash transaction in his store. His home life becomes 
peaceful and he soon rides around in an automobile, which he could not previously 
afford. The moral of the story is that it is good to have a cash register. Now 
this kind of film is perfectly legitimate, but I should call such a film an adver- 
tising film or propaganda film, rather than an educational film in the more con- 
servative sense. Such films as I have just described often serve the important 
purpose of rendering more stable the corporate spirit and morale of an organiza- 
tion, and their social usefulness in this sense is very large. 

Another variant of the propaganda film is the portrayal of the failure of a 
salesman in a department store who fails to sell a customer because of indiffer- 
ence to the customer. Another salesman appears on the scene and by his courtesy 
and his knowledge of the tricks of selling he succeeds in selling his victim a large 
order. The film is of course not complete without showing the customer as 
extremely pleased with the purchase, and the salesman must of course be shown 
as. receiving a large bonus at the end of the month. In a film of this sort the 
training which the audience receives is slipped over unlabeled. The percipient, 
with sufficient exposure to this sort of thing, will himself become more courteous 
and skillful in selling his wares. Much of the training so received may even 
be attained by unconscious imitation of the film action which has been portrayed 
as agreeable and successful. The behavior of the poor salesman, who might even 
be the villain in the film story, would be less frequently imitated. Now I shall 



What is ax Educational Motion Picture? 27 

not argue as to whether this sort of film could be called educational, but personally 
I should prefer to call it by some other name. 

On the other hand, if we arrange films for teaching salesmanship in which 
the audience takes the explicit attitude that they are going to learn about the 
right and wrong way to behave toward a customer, the right and wrong things 
to say, the right things to sell to certain types of customers, and if the films 
make no pretense to hide the fact that they are prepared to teach us something 
according to a systematic educational plan, then let us call them educational. 

Another kind of film, which is frequently called educational, but which does 
not satisfy our criterion for educational films, is what 1 should call the "story-of" 
picture. Consider, for instance, the "story of paper," in which the film starts 
with pictures of a forest, some exciting glimpses of logging, a flash or two from 
a paper mill and so on until one sees the paper rolling thru a printing press. 
All this is somehow supposed to be quite instructive, and it is if we start without 
knowing anything at all about the manufacture of paper, but the main purpose 
of "story-of" films is evidently entertainment. This is more apparent if you 
discuss matters of inclusion and exclusion with scenario writers and photogra- 
phers. Their universal criterion which overshadows every other thought is 
always "Is this stuff interesting?" If it is they accept it. And so it is that 
we have listed among educational films the story of bricks, the story of the ocean, 
and the story of everything else that is at all interesting. I spent one summer in 
a well-known laboratory preparing this kind of educational films. My assign- 
ments were in succession the preparation of a film to show how a cream separator 
works, using glass models and colored liquids to indicate the separation of the 
cream, then we prepared a film to show how Foucault's pendulum works, and 
finally we prepared a film to show the habits of bugs ! rso one can maintain a 
professional attitude in education in such a headless conglomeration, but this 
has been typical of educational film work until very recently. 

Another type of picture which should also be taboo as far as our criteria of 
educational films are concerned is what I should call the "Oh, how wonderful" 
picture. By all means, let us show wonderful things in pictures, but let us not 
consider our job of education completed when we have convinced the audience 
that what they have just seen is truly wonderful. Too frequently the purpose 
of a film of this type seems to be to have the percipient gasp with awe at huge 
and colossal things, beautiful things, intricate things, and to marvel at these 
wonderful modern times. If this sort of thing serves the purpose of arousing 
interest in that which you want to teach him, well and good. But it is taboo as 
far as education is concerned, if it does not give more than gluttonous satisfac- 
tion in the sensational. 

Motion pictures could be used to teach in a systematic manner such subjects 
as ethics, patriotism and corporate spirit. If this instruction by films is carried 
out in an explicit manner so that the percipient is aware of the fact that he is 
learning a principle of conduct, the instruction might not be as effective as if 
the films were arranged in the nature of a propaganda. Principles of conduct, 
whether they refer to courtesy, the ethics of business, or patriotism, can perhaps 



28 Visual Education 

best be imbibed under some other label than that of instruction. While this is 
a large field of service I am confident that professional teachers should devote 
their energies to the development of educational films in the conservative sense 
and leave to another class of specialists the preparation of propaganda films. 

If the preparation of educational films is done extensively it will undoubtedly 
be advisable to develop a technique of presenting the subject matter which would 
differ in some respects from that of the more usual type of film. It will be neces- 
sary to devote considerable thought to the manner in which titles and descriptions 
are combined with the pictures. Educational films must be more deliberate tnaL 
the ordinary film. Above all it will be necessary to enable the percipient to take 
the attitude of actually studying, scrutinizing, examining the content of the film, 
rather than merely looking at it. It will probably be advisable to devote more 
film length to any given topic than would be necessary for entertainment purposes. 

The expense of educational motion pictures will probably be reduced in time 
when it will perhaps be possible to use the opaque projector principle with the 
pictures printed on strips of sensitized paper, instead of on the expensive celluloid 
film. This should not be impossible, especially in view of the fact that the size 
of picture needed for class room use should not necessarily exceed four or five 
feet square. The projector for such an arrangement would be simpler than those 
which are required for handling with safety the inflammable film. 

My main point in regard to educational motion pictures is that they must 
be serial and arranged to fit a specified curriculum. A set of thirty or forty 
reels of film would be part of a carefully prepared course of instruction in which 
the films dovetail with the other teaching media. This can not be accomplished 
except by the cooperation of experts in the subject matter to be taught, and the 
technical assistance of those who are versed in the motion picture art. 

L. L. Thurstone, 
Department of Psychology, 
Carnegie Institute of Technology, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 



The Motion Picture and English Literature 

THE moving picture has been hanging for some time about the educational 
threshold, and many teachers have been eagerly looking for some one to show 
us how to use the motion picture in school work for some other end than 
mere entertainment. Five years ago I approached a publisher with a scheme for 
supplementing the textbook with the screen, the printed word with the pictured 
action, Hotspur's "Oh, gentlemen, the time of life is short !" with a flash of the 
actual deeds of the combat, or Falstaffs ragged army on the march. But nothing 
came of it. The imprisonment in the Tower of educational convention is too 
much for most of us; we actually do not dare experiment; we will not take 
our freedom when we may. 

The motion picture is now seriously to be used in school and college work. 
Plans are on foot to investigate the field of the educational use of moving pictures, 
to find, to stabilize, and to supply the demand. I feel that it is not unsafe to 
predict an educational stir. The chance for vitalization of class-room processes is 
evident ; one sniffs a breath of educational fresh air. 

There is, indeed, a chance that we shall take too much of it at first. It will 
be so easy to be absurd, to make a toy of the motion picture in the class room, to 
use it to replace effort on our own part, and ou the pupil's. That way failure lies. 
I have been glad of the chance to write an article on the topic, because as an 
avowed adherent of the plan, I may with safety study what the moving picture 
cannot do in the field of English as well as what it can do. I am even glad that 
the first experiments are to be made in other fields than English, because it will 
give us, who deal with the "imponderables," and who can thereby the more easily 
go astray, a chance to watch the men of facts at work, to see how the motion pic- 
ture is used to illuminate the textbook in geography before we rashly supplant 
David Copper-field or Macbeth or the textbook in Composition by films. 

Cutting down the list of the textbooks will, indeed, be the first temptation 
in all fields. Many will say, "Since we can show the thing itself, why use text- 
books at all ?" It is conceivably possible that a gifted and learned teacher, with 
all the time needed at his disposal, could in some subjects dispense with the text- 
book and rely on the picture. But I think not. To begin with, education must 
inevitably present, as a part of its substance, abstractions, generalizations, prin- 
ciples. The mere quickness of the moving picture and the spoken word would 
hamper us fatally in gathering such things to our intellectual bosoms. The pupil 
would grope hopelessly after statements from the desk; his eyes and his ears 
would fight each other if the processes of picture and talk were carried on simul- 
taneously; and in no event could he give, without the textbook, the continued 
reflection without which human beings only half apprehend any statement above 
the grade of "Butter and eggs cost double what they did four years ago." And, to 
speak frankly, the gifted and learned teacher does not grow on every bench ; most 
of us need the stiffening from without which a good textbook supplies. I, for one, 
after twenty-five years of college teaching, find it better, in all except small ad- 

29 



30 Visual Education 

vanced classes, to use a textbook, and make of myself the index-finger that points 
out the significance of it all in large and in little. The motion picture, then, is 
not likely to supplant the textbook. But it will most powerfully supplement and 
enforce and vitalize it. It will, for the first time in educational procedure, take 
heed of the fact long known and never used, that, while some of us think in words, 
others think in pictures. 

Let us now engage directly with the questions, what the motion picture can 
do for the English class; what it cannot do. I shall make no attempt to cover 
college work, or to deal with composition beyond pointing out that a mine of 
subjects for themes is here opened, and that the motion picture offers a chance 
for the much needed liaison work between English and other subjects. An article 
could be written on that subject alone. I shall confine myself to the use of the 
moving picture in school classes in English Literature. 

If, in general, it is dangerous to try to supplant books by moving pictures, 
it is trebly so in English Literature. It is fatally easy to neglect the truth that, 
generally speaking, a moving picture can give only the facts of the case in action, 
plus whatever elemental emotion these facts generate. It is hopeless to expect that 
many a film of Hamlet and David Ilarum will not appear. Narrative poetry, too, 
will be a mine for first endeavors in this vein. Such poems as the Wreck of the 
Hesperus will instantly be "filmed" if not too expensive; Eobin Hood and the 
treacherous nun, Young Lochinvar, Paul Revere's Ride, the Charge of the Light 
Brigade, King Robert of Sicily, and Sohrab and Rustum will appear in animated 
black and white. Gray's Elegy i? foredoomed to a brief and inglorious 
career on the screen. We shall be playing in great luck indeed if no one "films" 
the Ode on the Intimations of Immortality, the hero striding to the center of the 
screen "trailing clouds of glory" as he comes. 

Now in "filming" brief narrative poems, no real harm will be done, and a 
deal of good may result. One of the legitimate functions of the moving picture 
in English classes will be served, that of illustration. It cannot be denied that a 
booted and spurred Paul Revere, actually leaping on a champing steed, is a more 
potent realizer of the text than the woodenly drawn print that seems the highest 
possible reach of the illustrator's art. Thousands of similar cases will appear, and 
the lad who glowered dully over the printed page will go back to it with a new 
sense of its vitality, especially if he be of the "picture thinking group." 

A question of when the film of Paul Revere's Ride should be presented, at 
once arises, however. I take it for granted that, in the case of short poems, no 
one will try to make the film replace the poem. Shall it be shown before or after 
reading the text, simultaneous picture and poem being out of the question? I am 
unequivocally for reading first, picture second. The mean scraps of dull and 
sentimental wording with which the commercial moving picture explains its scenes 
are not for schools and literature. The motion picture of Paul Revere will be 
given in the school room to increase appreciation of the poem. Read first; next, 
see the picture. Then, if you like, re-read the poem. And pick poems which are 
really capable of vitalization by an animated illustration. I am not sure, for in- 
stance, that Browning's "Incident of French Camp" would be vitalized in the film. 



Motion Pictures and English Literature 31 

" 'You're wounded !' 'Nay/ his soldier's pride, 
Touched to the quick, he said: 
'I'm killed, Sire!' and his chief beside, 
Smiling, the boy fell dead." 

Will it really make this strike deeper to see an actor tumble down beside a 
man dressed like a caricature of Napoleon? I doubt it. On the other hand, I 
should have liked, when a boy, to see a picture of How They Brought the Good 
News From Ghent to Air. Indeed, I have always wondered why the commercial 
companies neglected that, and a thousand other "good bets" that lie open to them 
in literature. Is it too much to hope that the taste of moving picture audiences 
may be improved if the educational picture shows that action and impossibility, 
sentiment and "slop" are not necessarily synonymous ? Let me not be misunder- 
stood, however, to mean that only action that is relatively common place should 
be chosen. I think that La Belle Dame Sans Merci would make a charming film. 
Its very simplicity of action makes it suitable; So far, the producer of com- 
mercial "movies" has sought either tumult or sentimentality as his motifs. 1 
have a suspicion that another generation will see quieter moving pictures, pic- 
tures that stimulate imagination instead of replacing it. 

Why not make motion pictures of plays take the place of plays entirely in 
the English class? Well, melodrama may be so treated, for the action can be 
forecast from movement to movement almost without words. It takes no long 
speech to unfold the sequence of events that will follow on the heels of the stealthy 
opening of a window and the appearance of a man who flashes a torch-light tri- 
umphantly at the little safe in the corner. And if one can be content to drop 
overboard as impedimenta all the ideas that accompany the action in a good play, 
the picture will do as a substitute. But if the play is one of ideas and dialogue, 
the task is impossible. Show me the man who can make a good silent drama of 
The School for Scandal! She Stoops to Conquer perhaps, but not the School for 
Scandal; Henry V, perhaps, but not Hamlet or Macbeth. Henry V is a possible 
motion picture because it is a Chronicle play ; Hamlet is an impossibility because, 
though there is plenty of action, there is more cerebration. Macbeth should not 
be used for a picture because, though the action is sufficient, it would be a dastard's 
act to take away the poetry. The loss would be too great. Yet Shakespeare would 
lend himself better to the silent drama than most modern playwrights. The mo- 
tion picture is not primarily a play, it is a narrative ; and the Elizabethan drama 
is far more nearly "just a story" than the modern drama, or any play, indeed, 
written after 1642. Motion pictures of dramas should not, then, be given in their 
entirety in the class-room. I will discuss at a later point what appears to me a 
desirable method of using the film in the case of plays. 

As for novels, it may be stated flatly that they make poor plays, even on 
the regular stage. For the screen, even the commercial screen, the older novels 
are normally too long and too complicated in action. Moreover, the school pic- 
ture will not be allowed the length of time that is accorded to the commercial 
film of Jack London's Sea Wolf. It must be briefer by far. We shall not get 



32 Visual Education 

beyond the "period" limit. By no conceivable process of compression can Adam 
Bede, or Oliver Twist, or Henry Esmond be given adequate or even consecutive 
presentation in an hour. If the motion picture accentuated the habit of think- 
ing in bits, of a goat-like leaping from point to point which is the bane of the 
school-room, it would be, not a help, but a menace to be cursed with bell and book 
and candle. 

Moreover, normally the best part of a novel cannot be transferred to the screen. 
In the case of such tales as Treasure Island, indeed, a coarsened, syncopated repre- 
sentation of the plot can be given, but that is all. And this is not the function 
of the educational motion picture. In the case of more delicately conceived novels, 
even when as in Henry Esmond action plays a relatively large role, the loss is far 
greater. We could easily film the duel between Mohun and Lord Esmond. But 
how could the film give the delicate strength of the scene in which young Henry 
learns that his dying benefactor has confessed that the title and estate belong to 
Harry ? 

"At the end of an hour — it may be more — Mr. Atterbury came out of the 
room, looking very hard at Esmond, and holding a paper. 

" 'He is on the brink of God's awful judgment,' the priest whispered. 'He 
has made his breast clean to me. He forgives and believes, and makes restitution. 
Shall it be in public? Shall we call a witness to sign it?' 

" 'God knows,' sobbed out the young man, 'my dearest Lord has only done 
me kindness all his life.' 

"The priest put the paper into Esmond's hand. He looked at it. It swam 
before his eyes. 

" ' 'Tis a confession,' he said. 

" ' 'Tis as you please,' said Mr. Atterbury. 

"There was a fire in the room, where the cloths were drying for the baths, 
and there lay a heap in a corner, saturated with the blood of my dear Lord's body. 
Esmond went to the fire, and threw the paper into it. 'Twas a great chimney with 
glazed Dutch tiles. How we remember such trifles in such awful moments ! — the 
scrap of the book that we have read in great grief — the taste of that last dish we 
have eaten before a duel — or some such supreme meeting or parting. On the 
Dutch tiles at the bagnio was a rude picture representing Jacob in hairy gloves, 
cheating Isaac of Esau's birthright. The burning paper lighted it up." 

To rely on free use of a handkerchief, as the screen actor would to regis- 
ter his grief, would not merely wrong Thackeray; it would wrong the pupil, 
would coarsen him by dulling his finer edges. Again and again it must be reiter- 
ated, the motion pictures can kill imagination. Among other functions, English 
Literature has the task of stimulating and making finer the imagination of a 
rather work-a-day generation. 

What remains, then, if we rule out whole classes of books as unsuitable ma- 
terial for the silent drama ? So much that it is difficult to pin oneself down to a 
reasonable compass. But two principles begin for me to emerge. The first is, 
the moving picture must not he used in schools for amusement only, or as a sup- 



Motion Pictures and English Literature 33 

planter of the finer things in literature. The second is, that it can and should be 
used to vitalize and bring home to youth material that youth is too prone to 
regard as "mere literature." To do this, it must be used as a series of glorified 
illustrations. 

These illustrations may be of two sorts. The first consists of representations 
of the action of entire brief narratives, or of crucial parts of long narratives. 
Examples of brief wholes suitable for films have already been mentioned. The 
list is infinitely extensible. And, by a proper use of "traveling libraries" of films, 
an immense number of excellent narratives can be brought before the schools. 
They can be either prose or verse — Young Lochinvar or Rip Van Winkle will do 
equally well. As for crucial parts of longer narratives and dramas, the entry of 
Henry V into London, in the play of that name, or the stirring scene at the court 
of the Duke of Burgundy, in Quentin Durward will serve as examples. 

The mention of Quentin Durward brings up the second sort of illustration 
I have in mind. There is a wealth of picturesque detail as to localities, customs, 
and manners which will illuminate material for which our youth have no back- 
ground. 

"The stag at eve had drunk his fill 

Where danced the moon on Monan's rill 

And deep his midnight lair had made 

In lone Glenartney's hazel shade." 

carries some definite picture to all but idiots. Yet American youth knows not the 
Scottish hills and lakes, and to put these hills and lakes before him visibly is to 
get body into the lines. As for Quentin Durward a bit of the life of the French 
court of Louis XI projected on the screen would help enormously. If I were read- 
ing Beowulf with a high school class, I should not care for a moving picture of 
Beowulf fighting a pasteboard dragon. But I should much desire a picture of 
Beowulf and his men going to Heorot, and of the banquet in the hall, with the 
King at the long upper table, the harper at his side, and Wealtheow the Queen 
moving courteously among the foreigners at the lower tables ; their swords above 
them on the wall, the tables profusely loaded, and the mead cup passing from hand 
to hand. If, to come to a scene and time far remote from Beowulf, I were reading 
The Courtship of Miles Standish, I doubt if I should want the story told on the 
screen ; it is not a motion picture story. But I should like a visible record of the 
day of a Puritan in Plymouth in 1621. If I were dealing with the Miracle plays, 
I should not greatly care whether I had a film of the Second Shepherd's Play or 
not; I should like a film of the way an English town turned out to see the 
Miracle plays, and of the passing pageants. Similarly, I do not care whether 
Robin Hood and the Monk is filmed or not. But I would like a ballad audience 
in a hut or on a village common. And while I should object to a motion picture 
of Hamlet, I long for one of an Elizabethan audience at the Globe. 

The list of examples could be made vast even under the restrictions I have 
proposed. I dare say the restrictions will seem to many to narrow the field 
unduly. I think not. But whether they are right or not, some differentiation 



34 Visual Education 

between the educational motion picture and the commercial "movie" must be 
worked out, to the end that the good of the scheme may he secured without corre- 
sponding and overwhelming evils. I end with the points I have already made 
several times. First, the motion picture in the English class cannot be a substi- 
tute for work, or, second, a substitute for books and reading. Third, it can be 
made a powerful aid to reading. Properly used, it will stimulate imagination as 
well as give information. It may even help to improve the vilely vapid commer- 
cial "movie." For it is only a matter of making people know that good plays 
are more amusing that bad ones. In any case, we of the schools must hold to 
excellence. Better dead routine than false flashiness. But it need not be either. 
Use the motion picture to catch your youngster's attention, to give him facts that 
he will find significant, to drive his imagination toward big and fine and true 
things. It can be done. Lindsay T. Damon, 

Professor of English, 

Brown University. 



Preliminary Announcement by the N. E. A. 
Press Service 

"The next annual meeting of the National Press Association will be held at 
Salt Lake City, Utah, July 4-10, inclusive. The program is nearing completion 
and will be printed in the next issue of the N. E. A. Bulletin. 

"A feature of the program will be the Congress of Boards of Education on 
Thursday, July 8, — forenoon, afternoon, and evening. Theme : 'Financing and 
Managing the Public Schools.' Members of school boards, state, city and county 
superintendents, and educational experts will take part in the discussions. 

"The Congress will meet in two sections on Thursday forenoon, one section 
to consider rural school problems and the other to consider the financial problems 
of the city school. It will met in one body Thursday afternoon and Thursday 
evening. Several eminent men and women have accepted places on the program. 

"The Council of State Superintendents will hold an important two days' 
conference preceding the general sessions. The National Council will hold its 
sessions on Monday, July 5. 

"Sunday, July 4, will be designated on the program as Musical Sunday. The 
program of patriotic music under the auspices of the teachers and musical asso- 
ciations of Salt Lake City and the State of Utah means that musical Sunday 
will be one of the great days of the convention. 

"All general sessions will be held in the world-renowned Tabernacle of 
the Mormon Church. 

"The preparation of the program for this great meeting is in the hands of 
the President of the Association, Mrs. Josephine Corliss Preston, who not only 
takes into account in the program the actual needs of the hour but looks ahead 
to shape readjustments and tendencies for the future welfare of our schools." 

A more detailed statement of this program will appear in the May number 
of Visual Education. 



Visual Education in North Russia 

IN the course of a year or so of contact with the people and schools of North 
Eussia — the section lying east, south and west of the city of Archangel — the 
observer is impressed by the intelligence of the bulk of the people and by the 
existence of an educational system making extensive use of visual teaching. 

While these northern peasants are not educated in the sense that we are 
accustomed to the word, they have brains in their heads and learn readily when 
they have a chance. For many years past each little village or group of villages 
has had its school house and its trained school teacher. Theoretically every child 





Aeroplane view of Technical Institute in Archangel, the "School City" 
of North Russia. The smaller building in right foreground is the Naviga- 
tion School. 

is required to attend at least three years and receive a minimum of 100 hours of 
personal attention by the teacher in that time. The result has been that it is 
rare to find a North Eussian peasant between the ages of ten and thirty-five who 
cannot read and write to some extent. 

As a matter of fact, the troublous times have limited the village schools at 
present to the three years course. But in those three years the child may learn 
more that is really useful to him and be further along in preparation for his 
career as farmer, woodsman or riverman than does the American child in the 
first five years spent in preparing for his future in America. And this is due 
to visual education, which is practiced from the first grade in the village school 
clear up to the end of the most technical courses offered in the institutes of 
Archangel, the "college town" of North Eussia. 

Of course, this is not "movie" visualization, altho there are cinemato- 
graphs in Eussia. The closest approach to the motion picture is a revolving 

35 ' 



36 



Visual Education 



view stereoscopic arrangement used in the Technical Institute. But the visual 
education, which had its foundation in the bookless years of the dim past, and 
which has been of immense help in the limited North Eussia public school work, 
is conducted by means of pictures, charts, relief models, stuffed figures and samples 
without number. These apply chiefly to the shapes of plane and solid figures, 
the simple geography of the world and more analytical geography of Eussia, the 
history of Eussia and of the Eussian church, the chief industries, raw materials, 
processes and finished products of Eussia, the animal life of Eussia, methods 




Yemetskoe, Archangel Province, North Russia, before the Bolshevists 
took it. Village school is second house from left. 



of transportation and the type of people predominating in the larger countries of 
both hemispheres. How many children at the end of the fifth or sixth grade in 
America know whether the rectangle is plane or solid, whether South America 
is larger than North America, whether Texas raises most value of wheat or of 
cotton, what were the successive waves of population over-running the ranges of 
the North American Indian, and so on through the list of items of the previous 
paragraph as they might be applied to the United States? We do not mean to 
leave the impression that all or any large part of the North Eussian kiddies can 
remember all such things regarding their own country, but they know some of 
them, and have been shown concrete examples and pictured processes and scenes 
to such an extent that they are prepared to see and hear more without surprise 
and with a degree of understanding that is sometimes startling when one remem- 
bers that they have never traveled or met many travelers. 

Fish is a staple in North Eussia. The average ten-year-old boy can tell you 
of the fish and the ways of catching them, although he may never have been away 



Visual Education in Russia 3? 

from one river village where only a few varieties are caught and only a few 
methods used. 

The average girl of twelve can tell you much about fabrics, how they are 
made and how to judge them, whereas the home industries of her village com- 
prise only certain sorts of spinning, weaving and dyeing. 

One cause of the widespread use of visual material in the schools of Russia 
is the training that is given the teachers in the normal school. The future teacher 
is practiced in the use of maps, models and charts ; but what is more important, 
he is taught to make them. In one normal school, preparing young women to 
teach in village schools, the manual training classes spent most of their time in 
preparing wooden models to be used in teaching. The art classes were engaged 
in enlarging maps and pictures from pages of a book to be used as charts. In 
one room the students are making models from plaster-of-paris. The science 
students were preparing an exhibit to be hung upon the wall, illustrating the 
crops of Russia. The aim was not alone to teach the subject matter in question. 
The students were skilled in producing material of this sort. The result was 
that the young women, going out into the villages, were able to develop visual 
education, even where there were no charts, maps or models. They made them 
themselves. The result was that the children were better taught, the school was 
better equipped and the teachers, feeling a proprietary interest in the school, were 
more contented and happy. 

The Eussian school child is accustomed to learn from articles placed before 
him and the teacher knows how to talk to him so as to help him learn. From 
visual education as they have used it, to visual education by motion pictures, 
is but a step, and a logical step. The foundation has been laid through natural 
development of educational methods in the schools. When Russia is again quiet 
there will be a wonderful field for American enterprise in this line. 

C. J Primm, 
Society for Visual Education, 

Chicago, III. 



Pageantry Notes 



(This Department will print accounts of important pageants in progress or 
in preparation at various places throughout the country. Communications are 
invited. It is desired that announcements he brief, hut as definite and detailed 
as possible.) 

HE first two pageants described here were given in March, each one 
celebrating an occasion of great historical interest. The paragraphs are 
quoted from advance notices sent out by the authorities in charge. 

PILGRIM FESTIVAL at Boston, Mass. 

Department of Publicity, Boston University, 
68S Boylston Street. 
"Over 600 people are to take part in the Pilgrim Festival to be given by 



T 



38 Visual Education 

Boston University on March 19th to Commemorate the tercentennary of the land- 
ing of the Pilgrims. This festival is in place of the annual Klatsch Collegium, 
which is held in the College of Liberal Arts. 

A masque dealing with the life of the Pilgrims, in which over 70 people will 
participate, will be given in Jacob Sleeper Hall and will be the central point of 
interest. The masque, which was written by Miss Esther W. Bates of Eoslindale, 
Boston University, '06, who is a pupil of Prof. Baker of Harvard, will consist of 
three episodes. 

Episode One deals with the life of the Pilgrims in Merrie England, showing 
their persecution and final departure from their homes for Holland. During the 
interlude between the departure of the Pilgrims for America and their arrival 
in the land of freedom, comes a very effective dance of the elements by twenty 
of the University girls, portraying through music and interpretative dancing the 
fury of the wind, thunder, lightning and rain, that greeted the Pilgrims on the 
cold, New England shores. 

Indian life and Indian war dances are the features of the Second Episode. 
In spite of hardships and the thinning of the ranks, the brave Pilgrims celebrated 
their first Thanksgiving in the new land, with Massasoit and his braves as guests. 
One interesting incident in this episode is that while the elders are holding a 
prayer meeting to give thanks for their preservation, the younger members of 
the colony resurrect a smuggled fiddle, and enjoy a country dance. 

In the midst of the Thanksgiving dinner, a ship arrives from England, 
bearing the charter for the new colony and amid great rejoicing the formal es- 
tablishment of New England is announced. 

The last Episode deals with modern Pilgrims to America. All nationalities, 
Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, Syrian, Chinese, Japanese, Alsatian, Bohemian, 
Roumanian, Serbian, Armenian, Turkish, Hindu and Eussian, are represented 
in the colorful pageant. As the climax, the Goddess of Liberty reveals herself 
to them as the leader of both the pilgrims of 1620 and the new pilgrims of 1920. 

Dvorak's "New World Symphony" and MacDowell's "1620" will be the 
musical themes of the masque and the various emotions and experiences of the 
Pilgrims will be interpreted through special dances under the direction of Miss 
Rachel Hardwick, director of physical education for women. 

During the festival each room in the College of Liberal Arts will be 
given over to various divisions of the University for headquarters. The Woman's 
Graduate Club will entertain in the Colonial Room with Pilgrim tableaux under 
the direction of Mrs. Walter Hartstone of Brookline. There will also be a Dutch 
room and an Indian room. 

A processional including all the students, faculty and administration depart- 
ment of the College of Liberal Arts will procede to the Crown Room, where the 
Queen of the Festival will hold court. 

It is expected that fully 1,500 guests will be present at the festival and they 
will be invited to join in the revels of the university students. 

Miss Dorothea Truitt, of Brookline, B. U. '21, who is the president of 
Gamma Delta Society, the social club of all the girls in C. L. A., is student head 



Pageantry Notes 39 

of the festival committee, being Secretary of the Executive Committee. Mrs. E. 
Charlton Black of Cambridge, Advisor of Women at Boston University, is coach- 
ing the pageant in conjunction with the author, Miss Bates." 

MISSOURI PAGEANT at Columbia, Missouri 

"On March 25th occurs the Centennial Celebration of the State Historical 
Society of Missouri and the pageant is to be a feature of the occasion. It is being 
given under the combined auspices of the State Historical Society of Missouri, 
the Columbia Commercial Club, and the University of Missouri. The perform- 
ance will take place in the Hall Theatre at Columbia in the evening of the 25th. 
This pageant will depict the history of Missouri during the last 200 years; 
including the Spanish, French and Pioneer Periods, the Civil War period, and 
coming down to modern times. It will be divided into six episodes with historical 
interludes between. Four hundred persons will take part and 1,000 costumes 
will be used. 

The day itself is a notable occasion, as it celebrates the hundredth anni- 
versary of the passage of the Missouri Enabling Act. Numerous distinguished 
guests are expected to be present, including a lineal descendant of Lafayette as 
representative of the French nation at the Centennial." 



Other Important Pageants Now in Progress or Soon to Take 
Place are Noted Below 

PARTHENIA at Berkeley, California 

April 8th is to be the date of the annual festival dedicated to the spirit of 
womanhood and produced by the women students of the University of California. 
This is a very beautiful and impressive spectacle, with elaborate costumes, proces- 
sions and dancing. It is given in the open air in the Faculty Glade, a most 
charming spot on the university campus. 

MASQUE at Claremont, California 

A very elaborate bit of pageantry is given annually by the women of Pomona 

College, which is known as the May Masque. It is given out of doors in a natural 
theater with a background of live oaks and long vistas which add greatly to the 
effectiveness and charm of the play. Motion pictures of previous Masques have 
been made which lose very little of the beauty of the originals. The date for 
the Masque this year is May 15th. 

In the same setting will be given on June 18th the annual Senior Play by 
the Senior Class of Pomona College. Further mention of this play will be made 
in a later issue. 

PA GEANT at Kent, Ohio 

A most interesting and valuable piece of work is under way at the Kent State 
Normal College. Classes in English are at work writing a pageant portraying 
the development local community from Indian times down to and including the 
(Concluded on Page 46) 



Among Other Things They Say 



City Superintendent in Tennessee 



An Iowa Superintendent of School 



"Copy of your magazine has been re- 
ceived. It is a genuine pleasure to en- 
close a dollar. I am delighted with the 
launching of Visual Education." 



From a New Jersey Principal: 

"Received the sample copy of Visual 
Education. Decided to take a chance. 
Here is your dollar. Do your prettiest." 

An Illinois teacher writes; 

"Your complimentary number of Visual 
Education received. Have read its arti- 
iles and my check for one dollar is mate- 
•ial evidence of my approbation. It is 
he logical way to teach." 



This from a teacher in Maine, who is 
also a member of the Advisory Commit- 
tee of the National Board of Review of 
New York City: 

"I can but poorly express to you my 
Joy in receiving the initial copy of your 
valuable publication. It gives me the 
greatest pleasure to enclose the dollar 
that I send with the printed slip. I 
shall anxiously await the next issue, as 
I know of no other magazine dealing 
with the subject in which I have for so 
long a time been deeply interested." 



An Attorney at Law of the Central 
West writes as follows.- 

"I am profoundly interested in the 
whole subject and especially in its prac- 
tical development, in the planning of the 
films, methods of making them an edu- 
cational factor, and, in general, in "put- 
ting over" the plans, as the saying goes. 
I like the idea of making the magazine a 
field for discussion, as in that way comes 
development. I should be glad of an 
opportunity to enter actively into the 
movement. . . . The magazine is wonder- 
fully suggestive. There are so many 
lines of thought that come to mind that 
it is impossible to marshal them all in 
one letter. Its field will broaden from 
month to month, I should think. It has 
ground to break in many directions." 



"Good luck to you in having the nerve 
to start such a magazine for a dollar in 
these days of high prices." 



From a Michigan Principal: 
"Visual Education is a subject in which 
I have been and am tremendously inter- 
ested. Hope soon to hear of progress 
made by committee on History and the 
one on Citizenship." 



A Minnesota Superintendent writes.- 
"Allow me to congratulate the founders 
of this magazine for their spirit of loyalty 
and patriotism to the educational system 
of the United States. We need more 
broadminded men who will do .something 
without looking first and foremost for 
financial gain. The educational world 
needs just such a magazine as you are 
endeavoring to put out, and if educators 
interested in visual instruction will stand 
back of it and send in their subscriptions 
I predict that it will soon rank with the 
most important school magazines of the 
day." 



This from a California High School 
Principal.- 

"I believe in visual education for our 
schools, but want to see it introduced 
not as a mere diversion but as an aid to 
teaching students to think. I hope you 
will conduct a special department for 
high schools. In California many of ua 
have decided views on this subject which 
we hope to see realized. Success to you!" 



An Illinois Principal says.- 

"There is no reason for a failure for 
this kind of a publication by such men 
as are putting it forth. I have reason 
for believing in your success and con- 
gratulate you on getting into the field." 



Here are tivo letters from schools which 
have already sensed the possibilities of 
visual aids in teaching and have made 
promising beginnings in this direction. 



40 







- 


GOOD 




*&&:' ~\ I 


REASONS 
WHY 


5 : #: 


?5# 




Ss&J 






"*%~jfmk$ 


-. i ' It ".S 



THE 
KEYSTONE 
SYSTEM 



Filling Pig Skins with Juice of Maguey Plant 

Should Be In Your School 

To keep the pupils in school. 

To lighten the Teacher's burden. 

To conserve the joy of child life. 
To make recitations vital. 

To produce natural impressions. 

To give pupils models of simple English. 

To have material adapted to the regular program. 
To enable the pupil to see what he studies 
To insure free expression of thought. 

To have a System which is usable. 

HOW the "600 Set" Works 

STEREOGRAPHS, the most REAL of all pictures, are for pupil individual study, 
visualizing the text; hence vitalizing the recitation. 

LANTERN SLIDES, duplicating the stereographs, are for recitation and review, afford- 
ing opportunity for pupil oral expression. Thus 

VIVID IMPRESSION INSURES FREE EXPRESSION 

WHY "600 SET" MEETS the NEED 

It is an evolution from 20 years use in the classroom, particularly correlated to the 
regular course of study by teachers for teachers. It is valuable because it is practical. 

Keystone View Company, Inc. 

(Originators of Applied Visual Instruction) 

Main Offices and Factories (Dept. V-I) Meadville, Pa. 

Sets COLORED Slides loaned FREE to raise Funds 



?illlllllllllllllllllii'lllllNllllllllllluil'IINIllii[iiii ; ■ 1 1 ! I ' 1 1 [ I • 1 1 : 1 1 r 1 1 1 M I : I ■ : . I : i I f I ■ : ! ] 1 1 [ 1 1 1 L : 1 1 1 M ! 1 1 1 ! M s I i M I r ( [ l ' : : '!inilllllllln= 

41 



Visual Education 



Hundreds of other schools have taken 
similar steps. We want to hear from 
them. We shall be glad to print such 
letters as these in every issue of Visual 
Education to the limit of our available 
space. 

"Your first issue has been read with 
interest and especially so as this insti- 
tution is emphasizing that phase of edu- 
cation. The need of such training was 
first brought to our attention through 
our military work. We found by numer- 
ous tests that very few of the cadets were 
able to place on paper the prominent 
landmarks that they had passed on a 
tactical walk of even one mile, and when 
taken to the crest of a hill and given a 
few minutes to view the landscape in a 
given direction were unable to reproduce 
these impressions in the form of a sketch 
with any degree of accuracy. It was in- 
teresting, however, to see that wonderful 
results were secured with a small amount 
of training. We have used the projector 
in our classroom with such satisfactory 
results that we plan next year to em- 
phasize it strongly in every department 
possible." 

Colonel Royal P. Davidson, 
President Northwestern Military and 
Naval Academy, Lake Geneva, Wis. 



"The aims and plans of your work as 
laid out so definitely are bound to 
bring success, for they will lead to the 
proper use of the motion picture in school 
work, as there is a tremendous oppor- 
tunity and demand for educational ad- 
vance through the development of films 
upon an educational basis. 

There is not even the slightest doubt 
in my mind as to the incalculable bene- 
fit to be derived from the use of the 
motion picture in school work if the ma- 
terial is classified according to definite 
aims, correlated with the regular text or 
school subject, arranged according to a 
system and carried out through well- 
developed plans and methods. 

The Philadelphia school of which I 
am supervising principal is located in 
one of the best residential sections of 



that city, and near its most northern 
limits, there being no motion picture 
theaters within a radius of one and a 
half miles. On two occasions I took two 
hundred pupils, large and small, to the 
central theaters to see 'Jack and the 
Beanstalk' and wonderful colored motion 
pictures of Alaska. The good resultant 
from the two trips repaid us fully, not 
only in the pleasure experienced, but in 
the interest displayed in the subjects 
depicted. 

Our school has no auditorium or we 
would have started motion picture work 
for ourself, but we have now had offered 
to us the use of the assembly hall of one 
of the neighboring churches and the use 
of their motion picture equipment (one 
of the finest in the city) to carry out 
our plans. These are not yet completed, 
but I have gained a great deal of useful 
information from the article of W. 
Arthur Justice entitled 'Visual Instruc- 
tion in the Public Schools of Evanston, 
111.' 

I am most heartily in accord with this 
'New Movement in American Education,' 
and I believe most optimistically with 
you that 'the future awaiting the present 
efforts toward visual education will be 
more brilliant than the dreams of its 
most ardent devotees.' So here's luck 
and best wishes galore." 

Elizabeth B. Pendlebury, 
Supervising Principal Ellwood School, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

The two following letters voice an 
exceedingly widespread demand. VIS- 
UAL EDUCATION means to make a 
complete and satisfying ansioer, but it 
loill take time. Our May issue ivill con- 
tain a definite plan of procedure for sup- 
plying our readers with this information, 
and a beginning loill be made toward list- 
ing usable films. 

"This is a wonderful little magazine. 
However, you have a great task before 
you if you supply the schools with in- 
formation concerning suitable films for 
entertainment and educational purposes. 
Hope you succeed." 




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in light bills, operating expenses and the better illumina- 
tion on the screen. 

Argus-Sheck Universal Adapter and Mazda Projector Lamps give 
an ideal quality of light that produces proper tone color and depth 
in a soft, pleasing picture on the screen. Entirely eliminates "flicker," 
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MILWAUKEE. 



43 



44 



Visual Education 



An Illinois High School Science 
Teacher. 

"I am one of those animals that has 
to teach about five hours a day and 
handle the executive work beside, so the 
valuable copy of your magazine was 
pigeonholed for some time. 

"We have a standard projection equip- 
ment but the chief trouble that I have 
is getting film that will vitalize our 
work. The best that I have been able 
to do for the history is a series of Cha- 
pin's Lincoln. Good, but I have not been 



able to get anything for other parts of 
history. For English, The Passing of the 
Third Floor Back, and The Goose Girl. 
Enough said. For chemistry a little on 
one or two subjects. For the Dairy class 
a film that was frankly advertising Bor- 
den's Milk. 

"For the present, if not permanently, 
would it not be one of the best things 
for all of us if you would run a depart- 
ment to help us out with these problems? 
I should certainly appreciate some help 
quickly." 

A California High School Principal. 



Harmegnies & Howell 



INCORPORATED 

PRINTERS AND BINDERS 



512 Sherman Street 



CHICAGO 



Many letters, like the two following, 
emphasize the need of service to the rural 
schools. We want to assure our readers 
that VISUAL EDUCATION realizes most 
keenly this need and hopes to do much 
toward meeting it. Visual aids in teach- 
ing are of great value everywhere, out 
supremely so in the isolated rural school. 
It has our affection and shall receive of 
our best. 

"I am interested in the Visual Educa- 
tion movement and am glad to find a 
journal devoted exclusively to it. I have 
read every word of the January number 
sent me and am highly pleased with all 
the articles. 

"I am heartily in sympathy with you 

and the whole movement and hope to 

see it grow to include all the village and 

rural schools as well as the city schools." 

An Illinois Principal. 

"A copy of Visual Education came to 
me just by chance and received a most 



hearty welcome. Since the beginning of 
'movies' time I have thought the motion 
picture could be used to great advantage 
in the study of geography and nature 
work, especially in the rural districts, 
where pupils must depend entirely on 
text books, magazines and papers for 
information. The average rural pupil 
when leaving school cannot read any 
periodical under standingly. 

"After reading Visual Education I 
thot what an excellent thing it would 
be if a 'movie' machine could be estab- 
lished here for educational purposes only, 
but I am totally ignorant of the cost of 
such an enterprise and where to get in- 
formation, so I shall be very, very grate- 
ful to you for your advice on the subject 
and any information regarding it. If 
too expensive for one district, perhaps I 
could interest the county superintendent 
and establish a machine at the county 
seat." 

A Colorado School Board Secretary. 



A Word or Two More 

THE movie makers pour forth 
"Educationals" which are loudly 
offered as the long-awaited pan- 
acea for the human intellect. These 
are generally entertaining, sometimes 
genuinely interesting and instructive, 
and, of course, are "educational" to a 
greater or less degree; for every ex- 
perience that reaches any one of our 
senses from the cradle to the grave is 
educational. The baby that touches 
the stove, the youth that reads printed 
rubbish, and the adult that buys oil 
stock — all learn something. Without 
question, the dime novel has wielded 
an immensely "educational" influence ; 
many a phrase therein has doubtless 
been enlightening to the reader — being 
what he was — may even have given 
him new food for real thought, an 
impulse after something bigger and 
even something better ; yet this hardly 
puts the authors and the publishers 
of said dime novels into the class of 
"educators" as the term is commonly 
understood. 

The comparison is, of course, ex- 
treme. Perhaps a more gentle and 
just parallel might be drawn between 
a great textbook company and the pub- 
lishing house that popularizes knowl- 
edge. At hearing the propaganda of 
the latter, one wonders how so much 
ignorance can still be left in the world 
when a mere $4.00 or $8.75 or $9.92 
will buy an "Encyclopedia of All 
Worth Knowing," "The Juvenile Edu- 
cator," "Youth's Treasure House," 
etc., in one volume or many, delivered 
free at the door, a monthly magazine 
subscription thrown in, the whole con- 
taining all needful mental nourish- 
ment for a family of seven from in- 
fancy to old age. Only from the ads 
of such companies can we learn the 
deep sincerity of their intentions, the 
urge they feel in their souls toward the 
salvation of the benighted minds, the 
uplifting of the race, etc. Many, to 
be sure, who do not read their adver- 
tising, imagine that such efforts are 
not of great importance and suspect 
(Concluded on Page 46) 



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45 



i<> 



Visual Education 



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Pageantry Notes (Concluded) 

establishment of the school at Kent. Four acts of the pageant show the Indians, 
the Pioneers, Business Development, and the Founding of the School. Home 
life, amusements and typical occupations are shown in each division. 

From two to five hundred people will constitute the cast and a natural hill 
on the campus is to serve as the setting. If the composition and preliminary 
arrangements can be satisfactorily completed in time, it is planned to produce 
this pageant the last of May or the first of June. If the time proves too short 
for this, the performance will be postponed to the following year. 



A Word or Two More (Concluded) 



that the first purpose behind such ac- 
tivity is to show a profit; the second 
purpose, to make that profit indefin- 
itely larger, etc., etc. 

But, seriously, the rising generation 
must have its movies. We believe it 
is infinitely better for schools and com- 
munity centers to show all that is 
possible of the less objectionable ma- 
terial now available than to leave the 
theatres entirely alone to exercise their 
mighty influence upon the plastic 



minds and hearts of America's chil- 
dren. We cannot wait for the perfect 
educational films, which will surely 
come. The demand is here ahead of 
the supply. It must be met. When 
bread cannot be given to the hungry, 
even crackers are comforting and help- 
ful. 

Visual Education is at work on 
this problem. We hope that the visible 
results of our labors in the May issue 
will not be disappointing. — Editor. 



F-.iiWrfMHrf-wfcrwTa 



VISUAL 
EDUCATION 

« l / 

V«5. - . / 

A Magazine Devoted to the Cause of American Education 

■ 

Vol. I. MAY, 1920 No, 3 



In This Number 

Motion Pictures and the Teaching of 

Drama D. C. Stuart 

Human Eyes and Optical Instruments F. R. Moulton 

Moving Pictures in the Teaching of 

Chemistry A. L, MacLeod 

Some of the Pitfalls F. W, Seymour 

Habitat Groups in the Teaching of 

Geography W. W. Alveood 



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VOLUME I MAY, 1920 NUMBER 3 

IN THIS NUMBER 
Ideals and Activities of the Society 4 

Motion Pictures and the Teaching of Drama 7 

Donald Clire Stuart 

Human Eyes and Optical Instruments, III — Spectroscopes 11 

F. R. Moulton 

Moving Pictures in the Teaching of Chemistry 18 

Annie Louise Macteod 

Some of the Pitfalls 24 

Flora Warren Seymour 

Habitat Groups in the Teaching of Geography 30 

Wallace W. At wood 

Visual Education Problems Common to Most Small Schools 37 

Charles B. Klingelhoefer 

Miscellaneous Notes 39 

Among Other Things They Say 48 

The Film Field 50 

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VISUAL EDU CATION 

A National Organ of the New Movement in American Education 



Nelson L. Greene, Editor 



Published every month except July and August 
Copyright, May, 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 



Volume I MAY, 1920 Number 3 



Ideals and Activities of the Society 

The Society for Visual Education was founded for the fulfillment of an 
ideal, and whatever it may accomplish will be a consequence of that ideal. 
That ideal is simply to make the next generation and all succeeding generations 
of American citizens much better than the present generation — better in their 
knowledge of their own country and its history; better in their understanding 
of and faith in its institutions; better in their preparation for and willingness 
to do useful work in the world; better in their mind, physique, and health; 
in short, better in all those respects which are essential for the establishing of 
prosperous and happy homes in a great free country. The whole organization 
of the Society for Visual Education and all its policies have been formulated 
for the accomplishment of these ideals. 

Fortunately the ideal of the Society is not the ideal of a single person, or 
of a few persons; it is the ideal of hundreds of thousands. Witness the names 
of those who are identified with the Society and are giving it the benefit of their 
counsels and assistance. The ideal of the Society did not originate in the mind 
of a single person. Even the main features of its policies, which are all for the 
purpose of accomplishing its ideal, occurred almost simultaneously to many. 
All this is interpreted as meaning, first, that the ideal of the Society is worthy 
and, secondly, that the plans of the Society are sound. 

What are the plans of the Society? To seize on and to put into use the 
most important means, heretofore neglected, of accomplishing its ideal. The 
most important single means is the use of motion pictures. For whom are 
they being prepared? So far as the coming school year is concerned, for the 
millions who are in grades five to nine of the elementary schools, and who will 
not for the most part go beyond the elementary schools. They will make up 
the bulk of the population of the next generation, and they are much more in 
need of assistance than the relatively small number who will go on to high 
school and college. On what subjects are films being produced? On those 
which are most important for preparing the children of today to become 
useful citizens tomorrow. They are American History, Geography, Citizenship, 
and Health and Sanitation. 



Ideals and Activities of the Society 5 

Dr. Bagley and his committee have produced and are producing films which 
bid fair to revolutionize the teaching of history. They show in a dramatic 
fashion the explorations and migrations of men, the difficulties encountered, the 
results achieved, and the reasons for the clashes of peoples. 

Dr. Atwood and his committee are doing corresponding things for geog- 
raphy. They emphasize American geography. They lay no emphasis on the 
bounding of states and the location of their capitols ; they show rather the sources 
and methods of production of our food, the materials for our houses from the raw 
state in forest, clay-pit and mine to the finished product, the origin and manufac- 
ture of our clothing, and our means of transportation and communication. Geog- 
raphy is seen to be concerned with the vital things of life and is correspondingly 
interesting, especially when the sea, the rivers, the prairies, the forests, the moun- 
tains, the country and the cities, and the process which take place in them, are all 
brought by moving pictures to the pupil, wherever he may live and however 
restricted his opportunities may be. 

Dr. Beard and his committee are showing in a manner that one would 
not dream possible the innumerable ways in which our government serves its 
citizens, especially in local affairs, and the opportunities and duties we have of 
participating in that government. 

Dr. Yaughan and his committee are preparing films for teaching the fun- 
damentals of health and hygiene, and those lessons once learned, the benefit to the 
country, even from the standpoint of dollars and cents, will be almost beyond 
computation. Micro-photography in combination with motion picture projection 
is opening new and marvelous possibilities in the biological field. 

All of these subjects are treated as systematically as books are written, and 
in such a way as to be of assistance to text-books, laboratories and all other 
good means of giving instruction now in use. They are treated as subjects, 
rather than from the standpoint of any particular books, and consequently the 
films will fit in with any good text-book. 

In order to advance its ideals as rapidly and as effectively as possible the 
Society has established a department of educational experiments. The educa- 
tional experiments are for the purpose of determining what types of films are 
of greatest educational value, how long the titles should be, how many reels 
should be shown in succession, how many times they should be repeated, whether 
they should be shown before or after the subject has been studied, how valuable 
they are for giving instruction as compared with the older methods, and innu- 
merable related questions. It is doubtful if any other educational movement 
ever made so serious an attempt to establish itself on a scientific basis or to 
measure the value of its accomplishments. 

It is clear from the foregoing that a great educational project has been 
launched. That is why the educational work is being directed by the fore- 
most educators of the country. The fact that the so-called educational films 
heretofore produced have usually not been successful from the educational point 
of view need not be disquieting. One would not expect that a writer of senti- 
mental fiction for a popular magazine would be able to prepare a good text-book 



6 Visual Education 

on American citizenship, or that a plumber would be a good dentist without 
education or experience as a dentist. And the fact that this .project is serious 
means that the film's which are being produced should not be used as those 
have been used which have heretofore been shown in schools from time to time. 
They are not for amusement but for serious work, just as laboratories, and shops, 
and domestic science equipment are for serious work. Every school should have 
one room equipped for motion picture projection, and individual classes should 
be taken to that room for their lessons involving the use of films just as they 
are taken to laboratories for certain lessons in science. 

F. R. Moultox, Secretarv. 



Notice! 



Visual Education wishes to serve — not only as a national forum for the 
discussion of all phases of visual instruction activities — but also as a medium of 
information to our readers on any question pertaining to the field in general or 
to the work of the Society for Visual Education in particular. 

All letters will be answered by this office directly or in a following issue of 
the magazine; or they will be turned over to the proper member of the Society 
for his personal attention and reply. 

Correspondence is invited. Our readers are urged to identify themselves 
with the movement, at least to the extent of a two-cent stamp. 

Editor. 



Motion Pictures and the Teaching 
of Drama 

THE teaching of dramatic art is still in its infancy and labors under heavy 
handicaps due, in the first place, to a fundamental misconception of dramatic 
art and, in the second place, to a lack of means of presenting the art of 
drama directly to students. 

The fundamental misconception in regard to drama arose from considering 
drama as a branch of literature. Indeed, for centuries, from Aristotle's time 
clown to the eighteenth century, drama was regarded as belonging under the 
general classification of "Poetry," because plays were written in verse. Thus, 
tragedy was classified by critics with epic and lyric poems, on the ground that 
tragedy, like epic and lyric poetry, was "serious and in verse"; whereas comedy 
was classified with burlesque and satiric poetry because these forms were "humor- 
ous and in verse." When playwrights began to write dialog in prose, critics of 
dramatic art received a painful jolt which was long overdue. These composers 
of Artes Poeticce found that drama no longer belonged in their domain. They 
protested loudly, but in vain, against plays with dialog in prose. As is usual, 
when creators of art really revolt against self-appointed guardians of art, the 
guardians or critics suddenly find themselves at least a generation behind the 
times. 

Flung from their traditional position, the critics immediately took the view 
that drama, if not a poetical art, was at least a literary art. The fact that drama 
generally, though not always by any means, employs words in making its appeal, 
the fact that dramatic dialog could be published in book form was enough evi- 
dence for literary critics that dramatic art was theirs to criticize and judge. 

Horace, though a poet who treated drama in an Ars Poctica, realized cen- 
turies ago that dramatic art makes its strongest effect, not through the ear, but 
through the eye ; but the irony of it is, that instead of heeding this fundamental 
precept, critics insisted to such an extent upon Horace's statement that horrible 
actions should not be shown upon the stage that narration usurped the place of 
dramatic action for centuries. 

In the eighteenth century, however, Diderot suddenly burst a bombshell 
among the critics by saying that when he went to a play he closed his ears, and 
if the play "got over" to him, he considered it a good piece of dramatic art. It 
was Diderot who first expounded the theory of stage pictures, of the grouping of 
characters in such a manner as to make an emotional effect and to tell a part of 
the story. He was the first "movie fan," the first to lay down the principles 
underlying the art of motion pictures ! 

During the next hundred and fifty years, the battle waged between the 
dramatists and the critics on the question as to whether the art of the dramatist 
was to be expounded and criticised according to literary or dramatic canons. 
The dramatist had ceased to be necessarily a poet. He now, more and more, 
ceased to be a writer. The younger Dumas proclaimed that 3 man without any 

7 



8 Visual Education 

value as a writer could be an excellent dramatist. The dramatist became a play- 
wright, not a play-writer. He made or built plays. The literary critics, however, 
sought to take revenge. They ceased to regard the modern dramatist as a pro- 
ducer of art. They announced the downfall of the theatre. The only trouble 
was that the theatre did not fall. Instead, the theatre became a very important 
element in modern life. 

The last stronghold of reactionary ideas and influence against true dramatic 
art lies in our educational institutions. The teaching of drama as an art was 
rarely, if ever, attempted until the beginning of the twentieth century. Courses 
in which plays were studied were, at best, courses in literature or literary history. 
At worst, they were courses in morphology, scansion, and grammar. One first 
came in contact with Sophocles Oedipus Bex in a course of the latter type. One 
studied Shakespeare as a poet and philosopher. The dramatic art of Shake- 
speare and Sophocles was never mentioned. Except in rare instances, no plays 
less than three hundred years old were studied even from a literary point of view. 
If any one ventured to suggest that there was something in drama besides dialog 
he was generally met with the hopeless answer : "You refer to scenery." 

Within the last twenty-five years many institutions of higher education 
have recognized that drama is an art by itself; and men have been appointed to 
teach dramatic art, not as a mere branch of literature, but as an art which, to 
make its effect, may call upon the painter, the electrician, costumer, the singer 
and actor, the musician, the writer and the producer or director who welds the 
separate arts of these persons into an artistic unity. Courses in which the prin- 
ciples of dramatic art are explained from this point of view are not necessarily 
courses in playwriting. Indeed, courses in playwriting should be restricted to 
very few students; whereas courses on dramatic art should be open to all persons 
who enjoy the theatre. Furthermore, such courses which aim to teach a correct 
appreciation of drama should, by no means, be restricted to institutions of higher 
education, but should be offered in preparatory schools and high schools. The 
impression that one gains from an investigation of the curriculum of our secondary 
schools is that dramatic art died with Shakespeare in 1616. The average person 
who teaches courses of literature in which plays are studied holds this view; and, 
as a result, the average student believes one ought to hold this view. Up to 
within a few years, the theatrical audiences have been self-educated. Probably 
not one person in a hundred thousand has been offered the same opportunity to 
cultivate a good taste for drama that he has had to cultivate a good taste for 
literature. The marvel of it all is that we have any dramatic art in America 
worthy of serious consideration, for the theatre can never be on an artistic plane 
above the audience. Therefore, it is at least as necessary to educate the millions 
of theatre-goers as it is to train the hundreds of would-be playwrights in our 
colleges. 

In most large universities courses are now offered in playwriting or in 
dramatic art or along both these lines. However, the problem of teaching drama 
is not yet solved, as anyone who has given such courses will freely admit. The 
teacher of dramatic art now has entire libertv to set forth his views ; but he is 



Motion Pictures and the Teaching of Drama 9 

still in a position similar to the one in which a teacher of harmony would find 
himself if the latter were deprived of all musical instruments and could only use 
textbooks of harmony and musical scores to illustrate his ideas. For instance, 
no amount of verbal description can possibly show the dramatic effect of the 
chorus in the opening scenes of Oedipus Rex. Few people ever have an oppor- 
tunity to see one of Shakespeare's plays presented as Shakespeare intended to 
have it produced. Years of practice and study are necessary to be able to visual- 
ize the action described in stage, directions. 

In order to supply this lack of means of presenting the visual side of dramatic 
art to students '^Workshops" and "Dramatic Laboratories" have been established. 
Valuable as such institutions may be for the person who is studying playwriting, 
neither time nor materials are at hand to present plays or scenes from plays 
illustrating the development of dramatic art over any extended period. The 
would-be playwright is given a very good opportunity to write plays under the 
direction of an expert and to have his plays worthy of production given an 
adequate trial in a dramatic laboratory; but the person who has no desire to 
•study playwriting intensively, but who has a legitimate desire to study dramatic 
art of some period has no reliable means of visualizing any part of dramatic 
art which appeals to the eye. For this reason, as well as for the reason that those 
who teach drama are too often only' teachers of literature, the study of drama 
has been almost a failure. 

In this era of the motion picture the means of removing this handicap 
under which the teaching of dramatic art labors, is so simple, so obvious that 
it is strange to find the handicap still in existence. The technique of football 
is already taught in colleges by means of motion pictures which show far more 
vividly than could the observance of the actual plays the value and faults of 
certain formations, If teachers of drama had at their disposition films showing 
important scenes or even entire dramas, the visual element in dramatic art could 
be reproduced, whereas, at present the effect on drama of scenery, of the shape and 
size of the stage, of the grouping of actors, of the acting itself, etc., can be illus- 
trated only by verbal descriptions and by an appeal to the imagination of the 
student. 

Such reproduction of plays, however, should be made in purely theatrical and 
dramatic conditions. For instance, in making a film of Othello to illustrate 
Shakespeare's play to a class studying dramatic art, the street scenes should not 
be filmed in Venice, Shakespeare's scenes should not be edited or changed in the 
slightest degree. It would be necessary to make the picture reproduce the play 
as far as possible, just as it was originally acted on the Elizabethan stage. Then 
the play, or at least, striking scenes from the play, could be filmed as produced 
under conditions prevailing in the modern theatre. 

If a class in a high school could be shown these films, Shakespeare would 
suddenly become a dramatist to the boy and girl who now consider him as a poet 
they ought to admire. Everyone who teaches Euripides could arouse an intense 
interest in his course if he could show a motion picture reproduction of Granville 
Barker's representation of Iphigenia or Margaret Anglin's production of Medea. 



10 Visual Education 

If, after reading the first act of Cyrano de Bergerac, a class were shown this act 
on a screen — and it would make a wonderful film without a cut or change — the 
whole class would re-read the act with intense interest and with a much deeper 
understanding of the drama. Surely, one does not need to point out what 
such films showing the development of the stage and drama, would mean to those 
teaching the few courses in dramatic art now offered in our schools; but one 
excellent result would be to' make it possible for every college, at least, to offer 
such a course. The demand for instruction in the art of the theatre would become 
universal and irresistible. Xo one could question the utility or efficiency of such 
a course. 

There are, no doubt, motion picture versions of many dramas both of the 
past and of the present, but these versions are practically useless for purposes of 
teaching the art of the theatre. They have been made according to the "picture 
book" method with result that they are constantly undramatic. It is all very 
well for motion picture artists to insist upon the pictorial element in their art; 
but the lover of drama has already realized that many a film is uninteresting 
because it gives far too much prominence to non-essential details. That part of a 
film which would be called the exposition in drama, is generally of such a length 
that it is boring to the spectator, and is artistically wholly out of proportion to 
the action. There is too much opening and closing of doors, too much entrance 
and exit. Also, just as drama suffered artistically for hundreds of years because 
Horace insisted it should contain five acts, motion pictures are suffering now 
because of the desire to lengthen the story to five reels. 

These films, for laboratory purposes in the study of the drama, would of 
course lack certain features which tend to make motion pictures attractive, 
but they would also lack certain features which make many pictures inartistic. 
Such films would not all be fitted for presentation to the general public. They 
would not be made with that purpose, in view; but one of the by-products of their 
production and presentation would probably be the proof, both for the producer 
and the audience, that motion pictures are too "narrative"; that the dramatic 
sequence of scenes is too often supplanted by an undramatic chronological 
sequence ; that the so-called motion picture drama breaks unnecessarily too many 
laws of dramatic art. Both the art of the drama and the art of motion picture 
would benefit mutually. 

If there were in every high school and university in this country a series 
of films showing the history and development of dramatic art from its origin to 
the present day, we could actually begin to teach and study drama efficiently. 
As a beginning, only twenty or thirty films would be necessary. If no motion 
picture producer can be persuaded to do education a great service by furnishing 
such material, some one. else must be found who has vision enough to see that 
education in dramatic art carried on in this way will make theatrical audiences 
demand the best there is in drama. Then, and only then, will we always get the 
best in drama on the American stage. Donald Clive Stuart, 

Professor of Dramatic Literature, 
Princeton University. 



Human Eyes and Optical Instruments 
III — Spectroscopes 

EARLY in the construction of telescopes it was found that a simple lens 
brings different colors to a focus at different distances. Most objects 
radiate or reflect several colors. Consequently, if light of one color is in 
focus that of other colors is out of focus and the result is very unsatisfactory. In 
fact, Newton despaired of making satisfactory refracting telescopes and turned 
his attention exclusively to reflectors. 

Two hundred years ago the unequal refraction of light of various colors was 
lamented by scientific men. It was supposed that this property of light seriously 
impaired optical instruments without offering any compensating advantages. 
Doubtless many supposed that if they had had the privilege of establishing the 
laws of Nature they would have avoided all such difficulties. Fortunately men 
have not made the laws of Nature. They might have made the refraction of all 
:olors the same and thus have simplified the construction of telescopes, but in 
doing it they would have made impossible the spectroscope, an instrument as 
marvelous as any we possess and one which penetrates fields that were supposed 
to be inaccessible. 




Figure 1. 



The principle underlying the spectroscope is simply that when light passes 
through a refracting medium, such as a glass prism, the different colors are re- 
fracted, or bent, different amounts. Figure 1 illustrates the principle, though 
the indicated arrangement is not adapted to practical work. A beam of light 
L strikes the screen S through which there is a narrow slit o. A thin sheet of 
light passes through o and falls on the glass prism P. All the rays are bent 
downward, but, of those which are visible to- human eyes, the blue are bent the 
most and the red the least. On emerging from P to a rarer medium the rays are 
bent down still more, again the blue being bent the most and the red the least. 
They fall on the screen M, each color in its own position. 

11 



12 Visual Education 

How does it happen that such properties of light are valuable ? The answer 
was not immediately evident for these properties were known for more than one 
hundred years before it was found that they could be made to serve useful pur- 
poses. Then Fraunhofer's reflections on the principles involved and his suitable 
arrangements of the screens, slits, and prisms led to the analysing spectroscope. 

It is observed that after light passes through a spectroscope its different 
colors all emerge in slightly different directions and fall on the screen M at 
different places. So far it has been tacitly assumed that all colors are present. 
Suppose only part of the colors are in the original beam L; then only part of 
the screen M will be illuminated by these colors. That is, there will be on M 
bands of colors, corresponding to those in L, and intervening places at which 
there will be no light. 

The spectroscope unscrambles light, but the eye is not able to analyze a mix- 
ture of colors into their separate components. For example, certain shades of 
blue and yellow mixed appear to the eye to be pure green. On the other hand, 
the ear has the ability to unscramble a mixture of sounds. In the midst of all 
the noises to which we are almost continually subject, we select those we wish 
to heed and ignore the others. If it were not so we could scarcely use a telephone. 
An orchestra leader hears every instrument separately and an error on the part 
of any one is instantly caught. This ability of the ears to analyze- sounds is not 
confined to human beings, for a sheep will recognize the cry of her lamb in the 
midst of the bleatings of a flock. 

The faculty the ear has of analysing sounds is of the highest importance 
for it enables us to distinguish, for example, the voice of one person from that 
of another. Even though two persons should speak in the same pitch and with 
the same loudness their voices would be distinguished because they would have 
many slight differences which the ear would detect. The result depends first upon 
the fact that no two tones produced by different persons or instruments are 
exactly alike, and secondly upon the fact that the ear can analyze and detect 
the differences. 

From analogy with the production of sound it might be supposed that no 
two different kinds of substances radiate or reflect exactly the same kinds of 
light. Such indeed is the case if the substances are in the gaseous state. For 
example, sodium in a gaseous state radiates two kinds of yellow light which 
appear at definite places, near together, on the screen M. They are recognized 
by these positions rather than by the impressions of color the eye gets from them. 
ISTo other substance radiates exactly these kinds of light. Similarly, incandescent 
gaseous lead, silver, iron, etc., radiate particular kinds of light and no two of 
them the same kinds. Some elements radiate only a few kinds of light and 
others a great many. For example, when iron is heated until it is in the gaseous 
state it radiates more than 2,000 kinds of light. 

Since each element, when in an incandescent gaseous condition, radiates 
uniquely characteristic kinds of light, it is evident that the nature of the source 
can be determined by analysing into its fundamental parts the light which the 
source emits. It is necessary, of course, to determine in the laboratory what kinds 



Spectroscopes 



13 




A laboratory spectroscope. The light enters through a slit in the tube at 
the right, passes through the prism in the center, and is observed through 
the telescope at the left. 



of light each element radiates. Such determinations have been made for all of 
the more than 80 chemical elements and for many compounds which are not 
broken up by the heat necessary to get them into the incandescent gaseous con- 
dition. In order to determine the character of an unknown substance its light 
is passed through a spectroscope and the result is compared with the known 
spectra of the different elements. If the substance is a simple element its spec- 
trum will be precisely that of some element in the list of spectra. If the sub- 
stance is a mixture of elements the corresponding spectra will be found. The 
fact that the substance is a mixture ordinarily makes very little difference. It is 
clear that the spectroscope may be used for making a chemical analysis. In the 
case of metals it is often the simplest and most certain method known. The 
spectroscope will prove the presence of sodium when the quantity is so minute 
that it would entirely escape ordinary chemical methods. 

In order to use the customary methods of chemical analysis the substance 
under examination evidently must be actually in the possession of the chemist. 
On the other hand, when spectrum analysis is employed it is sufficient that the 
light shall reach the experimenter. If it travels a few feet in the laboratory, 
very well; if it comes across the 93,000,000 miles which separate us from the sun, 
also very well ; and if it comes from the enormously distant stars, still the method 
does not fail. 

A little more than half a century ago a philosopher undertook to define the 
domains which it might be hoped human knowledge would sometime compass. 
He explained, among other things, how astronomers could measure the distances 
of the moon, planets, and sun. He showed how they could get the dimensions 



1 \ Visual Education 

and masses of these bodies and could determine the laws of their motions. He 
remarked that powerful telescopes would show us much of their surface features. 
But he insisted that the chemical constitution of the bodies beyond this earth 
would forever remain unknown to us, because we should never be able to reach 
out across the appalling distances which separate us from them and get their 
substances for examination in our laboratories. What vain limits on our knowl- 
edge ! While the philosopher wrote, Kirchhoff was laying down the principles 
of spectrum analysis, and before the ink of his publication was dry the chemical 
constitution of the sun was being determined. In the sun there are sodium, cal- 
cium, lead, iron, hydrogen, oxygen and more than half of the chemical elements of 
which the earth is composed. In fact, in both the sun and the stars, which in 
many cases are more than a million times as far away, we find the very elements 
of which we ourselves are composed. In spite of the fact that there are several 
hundred millions of stars within the reach of our telescopes, and that they occupy 
a region whose dimensions are vast beyond the wildest nights of our imagination, 
the spectroscope shows there is a unity in the constitution of the Universe as 
though it had been cast in one mould. This is one of the reasons why many astron- 
omers think it is probable that there is life on millions of other worlds which 
doubtless revolve about the distant stars ; for, by analogy, it is to be expected that 
many other suns have planets comparable to those which revolve around our own 
sun, though these planets are all so remote as to be completely invisible even 
through the largest telescope, and if other similar worlds exist it is only reasonable 
to suppose that part of them are in a condition favorable for the development and 
perpetuation of life. Of course, it must not be supposed that the highest forms 
of life are similar to human beings, for the differences necessitated by different 
environments might be very great. Nor must it be supposed that the highest 
forms of life on other worlds have reached the same intellectual, political, and 
social stage as human beings. In some cases they are probably in the state cor- 
responding to that of our ancestors hundreds of thousands of years ago, and in 
others they are probably in the state corresponding to that at which our successors 
will have arrived hundreds of thousands of years in the future. 

It must not be inferred that everything is known about the spectra of the 
sun and stars. In the solar spectrum there are 20,000 spectral lines, correspond- 
ing to different shades of colors, and only about half of them have been identified. 
Some of them may be due to unknown elements, and some of them may be lines 
of known elements which are produced only under the extreme conditions of 
temperature and electrical excitation which exist in the sun. In some cases lines 
in the sun's spectrum have led to the discovery on the earth of the elements which 
produce them. The most interesting and important example is that of the ele- 
ment helium. Its lines were always found in the solar spectrum and hence it 
was called helium, from the Greek ^Aios, meaning the sun. For many years it 
was not known to exist on the earth. Finally its spectrum was found when cer- 
tain rare minerals were heated until they were incandescent gases. This proved 
that helium was present in these minerals in small quantities, and then the chem- 
ists were able to isolate it. It was found to have most remarkable properties. 



Spectroscopes 



16 



It is lighter than any other known substance except hydrogen, it is chemically 
inert, and it can be liquefied only with the utmost difficulty. Moreover, it is inti- 
mately wrapped up in the whole theory of radioactive substances, for it is always 
one of the products of degeneration when uranium and radium break up. 

It may be interesting to note that helium was on the point of having very 
valuable applications in the late war. All balloons were filled with hydrogen, 
which is a violent explosive when mixed with air, and consequently they could 
easily be destroyed by firing incendiary bullets into them. Since helium is chem- 
ically inert, it would not have this disadvantage, The only problem was to get 
enough of this remarkable gas. The problem was supposed to be hopeless until 
it was found that it was given forth in considerable quantities from certain, bm 
not all, gas wells. "When the armistice was signed American scientists actually 
had isolated millions of cubic feet of helium. 

The spectroscope has made it possible to observe at any time the violent 
eruptions which are almost continually taking place from the surface of the sun. 
Until it was used these eruptions could be observed only when the sun was totally 
eclipsed by the moon. Since total eclipses are very infrequent and of short dura- 




The spectroscope used with the great Yerkes telescope, weight about 900 
pounds. The direction of the light is changed 180 degrees by the three 
prisms which are visible at the lower left. This is, of course, a very power- 
ful instrument. 



Visual Education 




Photograph of a small sector of the margin of the sun showing an 
eruption of highly heated gases which had ascended to a height of 80,000 
miles. This photograph was taken with the great Yerkes telescope with a 
spectroscopic attachment. 



tion, the opportunities were very poor for observing these remarkable phenomena, 
compared to which the most violent volcanic eruptions on the earth are insig- 
nificant. The reason that solar eruptions, or prominences, as they are called, 
can not be seen at any time is that the earth's atmosphere in the apparent vicinity 
of the sun is as bright as the prominences themselves and no contrast is presented. 
But when the light is passed through the spectroscope the sky illumination is 
spread out and correspondingly enfeebled because it is white light, while the in- 
tensity of the light of the eruptions is not diminished because it is of one color. 
That is, the background is made darker without any diminution of the brightness 
of the prominences. 

The spectroscope has been put to quite a different use. It enables us to de- 
termine whether we are approaching or receding from a star. When we are 
approaching a star its light waves are crowded together a little, depending on 
our velocity relative to the star, and when we are receding the light waves are 
separated a little. That is, the color of the star is slightly changed. It is 
analogous to the pitch of a locomotive whistle or bell which is higher when the 
locomotive is approaching than when it is receding. The change in the color 
of a star can not be detected, but its spectral lines and groups of lines are 
slightly displaced, and from the amount of displacement from their normal posi- 
tions the direction and rate of relative motion of the solar system can be de- 
termined. It has been found in this way that the sun and planets are going 
about 400,000,000 miles per year nearly in the direction of the bright star Vega, 



Spectroscopes 17 

which at this time of the year is low down in the northeast sky early in the 
evening. In spite of this great velocity of the earth, the stars are so enormously 
remote that our motion will produce no sensible changes in their appearance for 
hundreds or even thousands of years. 

The tones given out by a musical instrument depend upon the structure of 
the instrument. From their character something of the structure of the instru- 
ment can be inferred. Similarly, the character of the light which a substance 
emits depends upon the structure of the radiating units. The spectroscope 
analyzes the radiations of an incandescent mass into their constituent parts. 
Every different kind of radiation, or color, corresponds to some sort of periodic 
vibration, or oscillation, in the radiating atoms. The structure of the atom* 
must be such that these oscillations are possible. If a substance gives out many 
kinds of light, as in the case of iron, its atoms must be very complex. Long be- 
fore the discovery of radium and similar substances, in which atoms are actually 
found to break up into smaller units, spectrum analysis was pointing directly to 
the conclusion that the atoms are not ultimate structureless units of matter, as 
the chemists supposed, but that they are highly organized systems of smaller par- 
ticles, comparable, perhaps, in their complexity to the sun and its numerous 
retinue of circulating planets, satellites, and comets. In the attack on the diffi- 
cult and important question of the structure of the atoms no other weapon has 
been so valuable in the past as the spectroscope and none promises more for the 
future. 

F. R. Moulton, 
Professor of Astronomy, 
The University of Chicago. 



Moving Pictures in the Teaching 
Of Chemistry 

PROBABLY every teacher of elementary chemistry will admit that this sub- 
ject seems to offer a surprising degree of difficulty to the average student; 
or, from another point of view, that there is an enormous waste of time 
and energy somewhere in the process of assimilating and digesting what are, after 
all, very simple facts and arguments. In any case, the results are disappointing. 
During the last five years the average number of students passing the chemistry 
examination of the College Entrance Examination Board was only about 52 per 
cent of those taking this examination. This might be due to unreasonable require- 
ments on the part of this examining body, or to too great severity on the part of 
the readers, but personal experience has convinced me that the fault is not with the 
Board. The questions asked are fully within the capacity of high school pupils, 
a large freedom of choice is allowed, and each bit of appropriate knowl- 
edge receives credit even when the answer as a whole is not satisfactory. 
Surely, if at the end of a year's study practically half of the students examined 
fail to gather together enough information to reach a pass-mark of 60 per cent, 
there is something wrong with our system of instruction. When we consider 
that for the most part only the better students in the schools attempt College en- 
trance examinations our conviction of wrong grows. The trouble is not only 
in the schools, but in the colleges as well. The amount of chemistry which a 
College student learns in his first year of that subject appears small in proportion 
to the amount of time which he and his instructors spend upon it. 

This is doubtless a matter of common experience in all departments of educa- 
tion, but it is perhaps peculiarly unfortunate in chemistry because of the great 
importance of this subject in connection with the industrial development of the 
country. Manufacturers have realized since the war, as never before, the enor- 
mous value of chemical investigation in supplementing and improving our natural 
resources and the need for hosts of trained chemists in connection with practi- 
cally every industry, a need which we can safely prophesy will increase rather 
than decrease as time goes on and competition grows keener. The great chemists 
of the future must be drawn from the schools and colleges of today. Unsatis- 
factory methods of imparting the fundamentals mean unnecessary delay and 
waste of time at the best, and may result in the complete discouragement of many 
who might otherwise have developed into creditable chemists. It would, there- 
fore, seem worth while to devote some time and attention to an effort to discover 
the cause of the present situation and to finding some method of improving it. 

The cause I believe to be inherent in the nature of the subject, the novelty 
of the line of argument, the necessity of dealing with many things foreign to the 
experience of the student, and the difficulty of combining manual dexterity, 
accurate observation and abstract reasoning, as must be done in the laboratory. 
The panacea may be found, to my mind, in the extensive use of motion pictures 

18 



Moving Pictures in the Teaching of Chemistet 19 

to supplement, and to some extent to be substituted for both lecture demonstra- 
tion and laboratory work. 

Before discussing the advantages offered by motion pictures we must be 
clear as to the general aims of elementary chemistry courses, both in school and 
college. As summarized by Professor Alexander Smith 1 of Columbia University, 
these aims are : 

a. To give training in observation, directing attention particularly 
to material objects and, therefore, differing from other studies and 
arousing a new set of activities. 

b. To give training in comparison and induction, working from 
the original material; in other words, the development of the scientific 
spirit. 

c. To exercise and control the imagination. 

d. To teach self-elimination, the diminishing as far as possible of 
the personal equation in intellectual work. 

e. To impart valuable information. 

Beside these general aims, the teacher must keep in mind the fact that 
in all probability he has among his students several distinct groups; those who 
will wish to go on from this point to specialize in chemistry, either for teaching 
or technical work; those who will wish to use this chemistry as a foundation for 
other studies in professional schools; and those who are not likely to have more 
than one year of chemistry all told and whose only ideas of its applications must 
be got from this one year's work. Moreover, in addition to this, the secondary 
school teacher must endeavor to meet the specific requirements of the College 
Entrance Examination Board and other examining bodies from whom his 
students may wish to obtain a certificate. It is obvious, therefore, that his task 
is no sinecure. 

The usual method of teaching the subject is to combine lectures or text-book 
reading (descriptive and didactive material), accompanied by frequent quizzes to 
test the pupil's memory of what he has read or heard, and by lecture-experiments 
illustrating the principles involved, with what is even more important in the eyes 
of most teachers and certainly more difficult to use efficiently, the laboratory 
work. Theoretically it is in the laboratory that the real mind-training, which is 
after all the most vital part of the work, is done. There the student learns to 
manipulate various unfamiliar tools, thus acquiring a dexterity that is unques- 
tionably of value in other fields than chemistry ; there, rather than in the lecture 
room, he learns to observe accurately; and there, as well as in the lecture room, 
he learns to correlate facts, to develop plausible hypotheses from these facts, and to 
test and sift his hypotheses until he has arrived at a logical and incontrovertible 
conclusion. That is, he is supposed to learn all these things, and the value of 
his course depends largely on the success with which these objects are attained. 
As a matter of fact, it is extremely doubtful whether the average laboratory 
course does much more than familiarize the student with such strange utensils 
as beakers and test tubes and with the habits and customs of a few acids and 
other unpleasant substances. There is no time, in the crowded curricula of 

1. Teaching of Chemistry In Secondary Schools. 



20 Visual Education 

school and college to develop the scientific attitude of mind, and at the same time 
cover the ground of even the simplest course as ordinarily given. The attempt is 
often made, says J. H. Long, 1 to cram more chemistry into the high school boy 
than many of our smaller Colleges find possible at 20. That attempt is natural 
on the part of an enthusiastic teacher with a store of information, all valuable 
in its way, which he is anxious to impart. The result is also natural; mental 
indigestion for the bo} T , irritation for his examiners, and disappointment for his 
teacher. The colleges have a little more time to spend, as well as more mature 
students, but even there the work must be hurried. 

A noted English chemist 2 points out that there has been little change in the 
methods of teaching chemistry in the last sixty years. Is it reasonable to suppose 
that this is because the system was perfect at that time ? Hardly ! Moreover, it 
was devised for, and applied to more mature students than those with whom we 
now have to deal. We would scarcely be content with so little progress in in- 
dustrial life ; why should we rest content with stagnation in education ? 

Granted that the present system is not the best, what advantages do moving 
pictures offer in teaching chemistry ? Many, it seems to me, both pedagogical and 
practical. First, they may be used to supplement the lectures so as to increase 
both their interest and their value. I believe they might very well take the 
place of many, if not all, of the lecture experiments now used for this purpose. 
A lecture-table experiment, to be of any use, must be carried out on a large scale 
so that the whole class may see clearly what is going on. With many experiments 
it is impossible to secure this. Even in the most modern lecture theatres, those 
sitting at the back of the room complain that they cannot see a large part 
of the demonstration, and the finer points are not infrequently missed by the 
whole class. The close-up with its exaggeration of detail, would be a boon to 
the back row. Further, an experiment takes its own time; it is neither to be 
hastened nor retarded to suit the convenience of the lecturer. The possibility of 
holding it at a definite point while the details are made clear or a discussion 
carried on, would add considerably to its educational value, as would also the 
possibility of repeating it as often as necessary at a moment's notice. Many 
lecture experiments which take only a moment to carry out before the class require 
much time and care in their previous preparation and subsequently can only be 
given once in the course of a lecture. Also, even with the greatest care before- 
hand, it not infrequently happens that some unavoidable accident happens and 
the experiment is a failure. The moving picture would eliminate the necessity 
of explaining to the class what should have happened and why it did not. It 
would also do away partly or altogether with the need of a special lecture assistant 
whose work it is to prepare these lecture demonstrations year after year, and in 
the case of the secondary schools where the master has to be his own assistant, 
it would effect an enormous saving of his time, which could easily be put to better 
advantage. A pictured experiment could be used not merely as well, but, on 
account of its greater clearness and exaggerated size, better than an actual lecture- 
table experiment for testing and training the student's powers of observation 

1. Sci. 14 (1901). 360. 

2. W. H. Perkin, Nature, 62 (1900), 476. 



Moving Pictures in the Teaching of Chemistry 31 

and reasoning. Moreover, I have no doubt that this could be done more effectively 
by a teacher whose mind is not occupied with the mechanical details of carrying 
out the experiment. 

The College Entrance Examination Board in specifying the essentials to 
be taught in preparation for the examination in chemistry says, "It should be the 
aim of the teacher to emphasize, as opportunity offers, the essential importance 
of chemistry to modern civilization." This sounds simple and natural, but experi- 
ence shows that the average beginner in chemistry has peculiar difficulty in corre- 
lating theory and practice. He puts the two things into separate compartments 
in his mind and loses the key of the communicating door. The presentation and 
.discussion of properly worked out films of industrial processes should be a great 
help in this direction, especially as they might so easily be accompanied by films 
of the corresponding laboratory processes for comparison. The suggestion that 
moving pictures should be used to bring industrial processes home to the student 
and thus stimulate interest, as well as improve his understanding of such 
processes, was made at the Buffalo meeting of the American Chemical Society 
and received with the greatest enthusiasm by the chemists present. 

No course in chemistry which does not include laboratory work can be at all 
adequate, inasmuch as the student can acquire only in the laboratory the dexterity 
and ingenuity which are essential before proceeding to the higher branches of the 
science. Otherwise, so far as the pedagogy is concerned, the elementary laboratory 
accomplishes little which the moving picture could not do as well or better. The 
student sees things done and the results follow in the picture, makes his own 
observation, draws his own conclusion, learns to sift the essential from the super- 
ficial, to eliminate prejudice and preconceived ideas, and to reason logically from 
the facts presented to him. It would seem as easy to do all this from a pictured 
experiment as from one which he performs for himself. Moreover, it seems to 
be a fact that a moving picture tends to remain fixed in the memory even longer 
than a piece of work which one has carried out with one's own hands. This may 
be because the mind is not deflected from the main object by attention to mechan- 
ical difficulties or by bodily fatigue. The freedom of mind from all minor matters 
is also an advantage to the teacher, who can thus give his undivided attention 
to the mental processes of his class. To plunge a beginning student into a 
laboratory where practically nothing he handles is familiar to him and expect 
him to reason about the processes he goes through is not unlike asking a person 
in the early stages of finger exercises and scales to play and interpret a Bach 
fugue. The mechanical difficulties absorb his whole attention and in the effort 
to get through note perfect he has no time to think of expression. We put our 
beginners in the laboratory too soon, with the result that they waste a large 
proportion of their time there doing painfully and uncertainly what might a 
little later be done pleasantly and easily. There are those who profess to find 
a pedagogical value in this very difficulty, but while effort is undoubtedly stimu- 
lating, too great a tax is deadening. Since we believe the mental training to be 
the most valuable thing which the student gets, why not concentrate on this at 
the beginning and let the correlation between experimentation and mental process 



22 Visual Education 

come a little later. Pictures of laboratory processes may be shown and studied 
carefully from the same point of view as a laboratory experiment, until the student 
has become accustomed to that kind of seeing and thinking. They may then be 
sent into the laboratory to try to repeat for themselves some of the processes which 
they have seen carried on in the picture. In the attempt to imitate exactly what 
has been done they will learn the necessity for accurate observation and attention 
to detail, and will also naturally tend to take more interest in the mechanical 
processes. Further, since the theoretical discussion has already directed their 
thoughts along the proper line, the instructor may now be more critical than would 
otherwise be reasonable. Unquestionably this would be an improvement over 
the blind following of printed directions, which is all that can be accomplished 
in many laboratories where time and teaching force are limited and classes 
unlimited. Later on the pupil may be trusted to use and not misuse printed 
directions, since by this time his point of view will have matured. 

While the motion picture can never entirely displace laboratory teaching, 
it may take the place of part of it. One instructor could handle larger sections 
in the laboratory after the preliminary training. Time, apparatus and ma- 
terials would be saved, no inconsiderable matter. There is a growing feeling 
that the ratio of expenditure to profit in elementary laboratory courses is too 
large, and any way in which this ratio might be altered for the better would be 
welcome. Columbia and New York Universities have tried to adjust by careful 
standardization and application of the efficiency methods of a modern factory 
to the laboratory work. Professor Blanchard of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology in criticizing this method raises the objection that there is grave 
danger of all mental stimulus being sacrificed to the routine. He says in part : 

It is more often the case than not that after a student has performed a 
routine experiment in the routine manner he will retain of it so vague a recol- 
lection that he is unable to relate his observations next day in the class room. 
The value of laboratory work depends mostly on the extent to which the students 
feel the research spirit — even if in but a very feeble way in elementary labora- 
tories. Acquiring manipulative skill and learning properties which are better 
stated in the text books than they can be by the student, are for the most part 
incidental to the more important purposes. There must be a compromise in 
elementary laboratories handling large classes between efficiency of the supply 
service on the one hand and the scientific inspiration of the individual student 
on the other. If it becomes necessary on account of the expense so to standardize 
the laboratory work that it loses nearly all its stimulus, were it not better to omit 
laboratory from the program entirely, at least until the point is reached where 
sustained experiments apply, (i. e., the working out of a simple problem, as in the 
unknown of qualitative analysis). Some students are at school or college for a 
general liberal education — not to specialize in science. How shall they be treated 
if they elect to study the elements of chemistry ? Is the expense of even a stand- 
ardized and denatured laboratory course justified? When chemistry is chosen 
mainly for the object of intellectual development, does not the class room work 
without the laboratory serve the purpose? 1 

1. Science, 69, 112. 



Moving Pictures in the Teaching of Chemistry 83 

If I am not mistaken, the administrative problem might be at least partly 
solved without compromising the scientific inspiration. 

With regard to the practical details of such a scheme much needs to be 
worked out by chemist and moving picture expert in collaboration. The success 
with which the ordinary standard experiments could be reproduced can only be 
learned by actual tests. There might be difficulty in arranging a laboratory to 
serve as a moving picture studio; there would certainly be difficulty in arranging 
a studio to serve as a laboratory. It would be advantageous to be able to repro- 
duce experiments in colour, and it would, of course, be necessary to plan a stand- 
ard series of experiments which could be used in a great many different institu- 
tions. For schools such a series might be based on the requirements of the Col- 
lege Entrance Examination Board. There is perhaps a little more variation in 
the courses given at the different colleges, but even so there are a large number 
of experiments common to all elementary courses. 

The idea of using motion pictures for educational purposes is not new, and 
the idea of applying them for scientific work seems to be in the air, but none of 
these ideas so far have been sufficiently far-reaching. A series such as I have 
in mind, if technically feasible, would cover the whole field of elementary 
chemistry, with possibly some extensions to later courses, as well, and would apply 
to every institution where chemistry is taught. 

Annie Louise Macleod, 
Associate Professor of Chemistry, 
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 



Some of the Pitfalls 

VISUAL EDUCATION is not a new idea. That the child of today is be- 
ing educated by the motion picture is patent enough to the most casual 
observer. Whence these garlanded curls, these coquettish glances, these airs 
and graces the little girl affects? Whence the clownish walk, the knockabout 
antics, the slap-stick merrymaking of her small brother? A dime plus wartax 
will speedily introduce you to the source of these and various other juvenile de- 
velopments. 

Evidently the problem of Visual Education is not to build, but to rebuild. 
Education by the motion picture began with the motion picture itself. It is going 
on daily in every collection of people large enough to call itself a village. It is 
not to create, but to direct education by this means, that the Society for Visual 
Education exists. 

Putting the motion picture into the schools is not a matter of introducing 
a machine and showing a picture to the assembled pupils, although the industry 
started about as simply as that. Someone turned a crank and someone else col- 
lected the nickels. (It was a nickel in those days of ten or fifteen years ago.) To 
the blithe hearts who made those early beginnings, the present endeavor would be 
merely the matter of turning another crank and letting the school board supply 
the nickels. 

The motion picture, however, has grown with the growing century. It is the 
young giant of the industries. It is the infant phenomenon of the sciences. It 
is, alas, the enfant terrible of the arts. A development that has revolutionized the 
theatrical world, disjointed the magazine business and thrust it into new forms, 
created a tremendous new publicity and propaganda medium, is not going to 
come quietly into the schools and sit down like a timid visitor. We can be sure 
it will bring about amazing changes there as it has elsewhere. We should be 
just as sure that we must demand changes in the motion picture business when 
introducing it. 

Two big problems loom up — to prepare the motion picture for the schools, 
and to adjust the schools to the motion picture. The first of these is primarily 
the work of the educator, the trained psychologist, the expert teacher. It is a 
problem of working out with the utmost patience, the completest science, the 
readiest adaptability, an endless series of minutiae as well as a broad plan of 
procedure. The so-called "educational films" one may see are but a hint at the 
sort of thing that is needed. They are no nearer to really educational material 
than the mere movement pictures of twenty years ago are to the involved and 
elaborate productions of the present day. The school film of the future will be 
the result of study and experiment and vision. It will be the product of experts. 
Secondly, the adjustment of the school to the film is a work even more difficult in 
its way because in it the personal element is so largely developed. Three factors 
enter into our schools: The teaching force directs and carries out plans. The 
public is the cause of it all, furnishing support in both a material and a moral 
sense. Without the co-operation of the pupil the efforts of either of the other 

24 



Some of the Pitfalls £5 

forces is after all of little avail. These three sets of influences make our schools 
what they are. 

With these three — teacher, public and pupil — there must be a distinct cam- 
paign designed to "sell" the new idea, as the slang of the advertiser puts it. The 
teacher must be convinced of the desirability of the method. The parent, the 
business man, the onlooker, must see good results; and the child must at least 
be a no more reluctant field for educational endeavor than at present ; conceivably, 
he should become a much more active and interested partner in the work of 
cultivation. 

Growing up with the century and with the motion picture, perhaps part of 
some great world force to which we are yet too close for exact definition has been 
the practice of the "joy" idea in education. The "lickin' and larnin' " of the 
Hoosier Schoolmaster passed out a half century ago. "Beading without tears" 
has been the motto of the schools, and the effort to find a "royal road" has been 
crowned with a fair measure of success; that is, the road has often been attained, 
but it has not invariably led to learning. The path has been made as pleasing 
and as full of "interest" for the young traveler as the nature of the case would 
permit. All has gone well enough until he emerges upon a broader path. Then 
come the sad lessons that should have been learned earlier; that penmanship 
should be legible, that spelling underlies the use of the written word, that the 
multiplication table is quite inelastic. By sparing the child this experience in 
the schools we not infrequently send him forth to learn it in the school of hard 
knocks. 

One of the pitfalls into which the use of the motion picture in schools may 
fall is that it may become an adjunct to this theory of joy, and nothing more. 
It may — and should — be the cause of a great deal of enjoyment. It may — and 
should — create a higher and deeper interest than ever children have felt in their 
school work, but if it does only tins, it will have missed entirely its real useful- 
ness. The failure to translate the joy into activity, the interest into accomplish- 
ment, is the humiliation of the present, as it is the problem of the immediate 
future. Pleasure in education is highly desirable. Discipline by education is 
absolutely essential. Not to be a substitute for study, but to become a stimulus 
to study is the true function of the picture. 

It is obvious that more than the turning of a crank will be needed to bring 
about this result. More than a well-worked out picture will be needed, too. In- 
evitably a new technique in education will in time be demanded. One has a 
glimpse of the ideal teacher ; with the vision to supplement and direct and vitalize 
the work of the screen; with the fine adaptability that turns to account every 
current of action and reaction going on before her ; with high purpose that makes 
of this new education a forceful individual development impossible with the 
older methods. 

Given this new teacher, the new technique well worked out, then the con- 
version of the public to the plan should not be difficult. To the average individual 
who takes perhaps but a superficial view of the whole matter of schools and their 
work, this movement is doomed to appear, at first, merely another scheme to 



26 Visual Education 

make education easier for all concerned, and so less efficient. If this surface judg- 
ment is to be replaced by a more favorable opinion, it must be through the actual 
results made manifest. The thorough grounding of a group of boys and girls in 
the fundamentals of the common schools would be one of the best of arguments. 
Far, far better would be the development of the group so that, emerging from 
the school, they would both desire to build upon that foundation, and know how 
to apply themselves to the work of building. Knowledge is a little, the desire 
for knowledge much, the ability to acquire it most of all. To such high goal as 
this the new education must tend, if it is to meet the objections of the "practical" 
man, the parent who demands results. 

And what of the pupil, for by the result upon him the whole fabric stands 
or falls ? He is not merely the passive object upon which educational theories may 
be tried. He is not plastic as clay ; he is not unyielding as marble. He is some- 
thing far more difficult to handle than either — an individual, a personality. His 
response to visual education will prove or disprove its value. His participation 
will determine its effectiveness or its failure. t 

For the child of the present already knows the motion picture only too well. 
He is fed daily on serial thriller, on erotic romance, on the rough and tumble 
scenes of violence and vulgarity denominated comedy. Some of his reactions to 
this mass of crude sensations will be helpful; more will be decidedly otherwise. 
Insofar as he has learned to observe and enjoy, he will be helped to observe and 
enjoy still further; but there has been created a craving for excitement that 
is a stumbling-block indeed. 

When an "educational picture" is shown at a commercial picture house the 
change in the temper of the audience is immediate. It is the signal for leaving, 
or for the bustle and inattention that mark the restless endurance until the next 
"photoplay" begins. In a juvenile gathering the effect is even more marked. 
Educational movies are "slow," just as school is "slow" ; young America demands 
gun-play. Some concession will undoubtedly have to be made to this craving 
for violent action; and how to make the concession without yielding the detail 
and the patience necessary to the imparting of real information is a serious 
problem. 

Even more serious, though apparently but a small consideration, is the fact 
that the movie has created in the child a distrust of itself. The wonder and 
credulity that are supposed to be essentially childlike characteristics are fast- 
disappearing phenomena. The boy or girl who has seen a man run over by an 
automobile, thrown off a cliff into the sea, caught in the jaws of huge machinery, 
only to spring up unharmed and vigorous, is not credulous enough to think that 
the picture records fact. He learns quickly enough that these are but illusions 
fabricated for his sight. He will be apt to reach the same conclusion whenever 
anything is presented that seems marvelous, or without an adequate explanation 
from his daily experience. Show in a schoolroom a chemical reaction, and the 
undertone will be "Aw, it's only a fake !" 

Suppose the teacher is presenting the story of the Revolutionary soldiers at 
Valley Forge. The scene has been worked out with fidelity to fact and reality, 



Some of the Pitfalls 27 

but the child knows that Washington lived a century and a half ago, while the 
picture was made yesterday. He probably feels as sure that the picture was 
taken in Hollywood instead of at Valley Forge. With this inevitable unbelief at 
the root of his lesson, it will be difficult to inspire faith in the accuracy of the 
whole. 

Complete sincerity must lie at the basis of the educational motion picture; 
and its basic problem will be to convince the child of that fact. To compel atten- 
tion and belief, to be stimulating without being sensational, to impart knowledge 
and arouse the thirst for knowledge — here is no petty task. 

This has been no more than a brief summary of a few of the obstacles that 
must be overcome if education by means of the motion picture is to be really 
successful, if it is to be anything more than just another way of getting 
through the dull hours custom decrees teacher and pupil should spend together. 
One hopes the school of the future, the teacher of the future, the pupil of the 
future, may all have a higher ideal than this; and that the motion picture, sur- 
mounting these and other hazards, may be a powerful factor in bringing about 
this condition. 

Flora Warren Seymour. 
Attorney-at-Law , 
Corresponding Secretary of the 
National Federation of College Women. 



28 Visual Education " *" 

Announcement by the N. E. A. Press Service 

PROGRAM 

Annual Meeting of the NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, Salt Late City, Utah. 

(All sessions will be held in the Tabernacle) 

Monday Evening, Jnly 5, 1920, 7:30 o'clock 

E. A. Smith, Superintendent of Schools, Salt Lake City, Utah, introduces George D. 
Strayer, Professor Educational Administration, Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York, N. Y. 

Addresses of Welcome 

G. N. Childs, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Simon Bramberger, Governor of State of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Response 

A. E, Winship, Editor "Journal of Education," Boston, Mass, 
Trombone Solo 

Alfred Roncovieri, Superintendent of Schools, San Francisco, Calif. 
President's Address 

Josephine Corliss Preston, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, 
Wash. 

Report of the Council of Education 

Homer H. Seerley, President Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa. 

Tuesday Afternoon, July 6, 1920, 2:00 o'clock 

The National Education Association as the Interpretation of American Civili- 
zation 
Mary C C. Bradford, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Denver, Colo. 

Report of the Commission on the Emergency in Education 

George D. Strayer, Professor Educational Administration, Teachers College, Co- 
lumbia University, New York, N. Y. 

The Recognition of Education as Related to Our National Life 
Olive Jones, Principal Public School No. 120, New York, N. Y. 
Will C. Wood, State Superintendent Public Instruction, Sacramento, Calif. 

Tuesday Evening, July 6, 1920, 7:30 o'clock 

CIVIC EDUCATION 
The Problems of Americanization 

Jessie Burrall, Chief of School Service, National Geographic Society, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

How We Are Teaching Citizenship in Our Schools (8 minutes) 
William J. Guitteau, Superintendent of Schools, Toledo, Ohio. 
F. B. Cooper, Superintendent of Schools, Seattle, Wash. 
Frank Webster, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Minneapolis, Minn. 
L. P. Benezet, Superintendent of Schools, Evansville, Ind. 
Susan Dorsey, Superintendent of Schools, Los Angeles, Calif. 

What the War Contributed Towards Teaching Citizenship 

Guy Potter Benton, Vice President Sargent Service Corporation, New York, N. Y. 



National Education Association "-'• i 

Wednesday Afternoon, July 7, 1920, 2:00 o'clock 

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 
The Opportunity School 
Abe We Getting Proper Returns from Industrial Education in Our Public Schools 

H. S. Weet, Superintendent of Schools, Rochester, N. Y. 

C. A. Prosser, Principal Dunwoody School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

E. A. Bryan, Commissioner of Education, Boise, Idaho. 

Transition of the Pupil from the School to Industry 

Arthur Holder, Federal Board of Education, Washington, D. C. 

Wednesday Evening, July 7, 1920, 7:30 o'clock 

HEALTH EDUCATION 
Health Education (5 minutes) 

Thomas D. Wood, Professor of Physical Education, Teachers College, Columbia 

University, New York, N. Y., Chairman. 
Sallie Lucas Jean, Director Child Health Organization, New York, N. Y. 
E. G. Gowans, State Health Inspector, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
A. A. Slade, Commissioner of Education, Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Margaret S. McNaught, Commissioner of Elementary Education, Sacramento, 

Calif. 
Katherine D. Blake, Principal Public School No. 6. Borough of Manhattan, N. Y. 

Character Education 

E. H. Lindley, President University of Idaho, Boise, Idaho. 

Illiteracy 

Cora Wilson Stewart, Chairman Kentucky Illiteracy Commission, Frankfort, Ky. 

Thrift Education 

Arthur Chamberlain, Secretary California Council of Education, San Francisco, 
Calif. 

Thursday Forenoon, July 8, 19*20, 9:00 o'clock 

National Congress of School Boards, Classroom Teachers and Superintendents 
The School Board's Place in the Educational System (4 minutes) 

Albert Wunderlich, Commissioner of Education, St. Paul, Minn. 

Frank Gilbert, Deputy Commissioner of Education, Albany, N. Y. 

C. C. Hansen, Member of School Board, Memphis, Tenn. 

E. C. Day, Member of School Board, Helena, Mont. 

Frank Thompson, Member of School Board, Cleveland, Ohio. 

O. O. Hoga, Member of School Board, Boise, Idaho. 

Mrs. V. H. Miller, Chairman School Board Section Inland Empire Teachers As- 
sociation, Tacoma, Wash. 

Nova Snell, Member of School Board, Lincoln, Nebr. 

Mrs. J. H. Barnes, Member of School Board, Duluth, Minn. 

J. C. Freece, Member of School Board, Davenport, Wash. 

R. W. Corwin, Member of School Board, Pueblo, Colo. 

John M. Withrow, Member of School Board, Cincinnati. Ohio. 

The Survival of Professional Spirit Despite Economic Pressure and Social Unrest 
John H. Finley, Commissioner of Education, Albany, N. Y. 

(Continued on page f/fl) 



Habitat Groups in the Teaching of 
Geography 

AS a sequel to my article in Number 1 of this magazine* the following 
photographs were received. They illustrate very happily the work of 
children in preparing habitat groups. This work was clone in connec- 
tion with the study of geography at the Normal School at Lowell, Mass. It is 
along just the lines that I proposed and it is work which I most heartily commend. 

The children prepared these little exhibits in a co-operative way. Some 
of the older pupils in the seventh and eighth grades volunteered to make certain 
of the models and turn them over to the children of the lower grades who were 
actually at work in preparing the habitat groups. In a few instances older 
pupils added large drawings which served as backgrounds. 

The work has not the finish that the trained museum curator should 
strive for. It is the work of the children, and the chief educational value came 
to those who were actually engaged in preparing the group. Each group re- 
quired the visualization of a distinct scene. It called for home work. It dis- 
turbed many parents, and it required special reading in the library. Numerous 
discussions in the classroom were based upon this work, and other discussions 
followed in the hours after school when the children worked, of their own accord, 
in perfecting the details of the several groups. 




Fig. 1. The life among the people of the far north has a very strong 
appeal for children, and it is a pleasure to them to assist in making the 
snow houses, built by the Eskimos in travelling, and to make the tiny 
sledges and the dogs. The boys who made the dogs evidently wanted 
animals that were in first-oiass, healthy condition. The beautiful curl on 
the dogs' tails is indicative of perfect health. 



♦Visual Education, Vol. 1, No. 1, First Steps in the Study of Geography. 

30 



Habitat Groups in the Teaching of Geography 



31 




Fig. 2. A lumbering camp in the woods of northern Maine. The fore- 
ground is built on a table and the background is a drawing attached to the 
blackboard. The log cabins are made of small twigs and the little figures 
are tiny dolls. The snow is chiefly cotton, with a scattering of mica flakes 
to give the sparkling effect. The trees are made from small green twigs. 




Fi(i. 3. This is the most elaborate of the log cabins made for the mini- 
ature workmen in the Maine woods. A boy with twigs and a good jack 
knife took a real delight in making this home, and there can be no doubt 
that he imagined himself there living the life of a woodchopper during a 
few months of the winter. 



32 



Visual Education 




Fig. 4. It would be an unusual group of children that did not wish to 
make a habitat group of Japan at the time they were studying the geog- 
raphy of that country. The strangeness of the homes, the beauty of the 
cherry blossoms and of the costumes all appeal to the young pupils, and they 
enjoy giving expression to the ideas which they are gaining. There is a 
dramatic element in this work which appeals to the child. 




Fig. 5. In the interior of the little Japanese homes the children have 
placed the simple mattings and simpler beds. The custom of removing the 
shoes, before entering the house, is prettily illustrated, and the lanterns 
and the cherry blossoms add a very effective bunch of color to the scene. 



Habitat Groups in the Teaching or Geography 



33 




Fig. 6. The customs of these people and their modes of travel seem to 
appeal to children very strongly. The hats appear to have received special 
attention. 




Fig. 7. The American Indians serve as a most interesting study, and 
this group is valuable not only in connection with the geography and 
history work, but in a series of reading lessons, for no child should go 
through his school days without becoming familiar with the wonderful 
story of Hiawatha. 



34 



Visual Education 




Fig. 8. Holland with its canals and great windmills always fascinates 
the children in their geography lessons. The simple homes with their ever- 
present flower gardens, the great towers about the windmills, the bridges 
across the canals, and the grazing of cattle make up the chief elements in 
the scene. Tiny dolls and a few specimens from a Noah's Ark have been 
contributed. 




Fie. 9. A more detailed view of a portion of the Dutch scene. The 
simplicity of this scene is one of its chief assets. It must be viewed as the 
work of the children. 



Habitat Groups in the Teacpiing of Geography 



35 





I . "iPi lr 



Fig. 10. A desert scene is in marked contrast to the others thus far 
shown, but it is a most interesting life to study. The sphinx and the 
pyramids are shown here. A Bedouin home appears in the foreground, 
and a more permanent structure is at the right near the date palms. It is 
evident that visitors have come to this oasis. 




Fig. 11. A closer study shows that tiny dolls have been brought from 
home, and a horse and a camel have probably come from Noah's Ark. 



36 Visual Education 

The study of this series of pictures cannot but inspire the educator with 
the significance of this type of work. There was the training of the imagination, 
the advantages that came from the mechanical work associated with carrying 
out the enterprise, the promotion of co-operation in the group of children, the 
visualization of the study of geography. 

Furthermore, when the groups were completed they were viewed several 
times by the other children in the school. They aroused an unusual interest be- 
cause they were the work of other children. The finished product of an adult 
would not have served as effectively in promoting a real interest in the homes 
which are depicted here. The little children overlook many imperfections, such 
as errors in scale, which we may detect. Their imaginations work in sympathy 
with the imaginations of those who prepared the habitat groups. They are all 
children, they are familiar with the ways of children, and they are delighted 
with the work of their fellow pupils. 

The habitat groups teach through the eye and through the hand. 

Wallace W. Atwood. 
Professor of Geography, 
Harvard University. 



Visual Education Problems Common to 
Most Small Schools 

THE announcement of the formation of the Society for Visual Education 
through the first number of Visual Education, created unusual interest on 
the part of school administrators. Many of these, particularly in the larger 
cities, had made the best of what was available in the form of slides and so-called 
educational films, and realized both the shortcomings and the possibilities awaiting 
proper development of the field. 

The April bulletin and journal have pointed the way for the most hopeful 
educational policy since the establishment of the public school system. The per- 
sonnel of the society insures the soundness of the project to the satisfaction of 
the school administrators; the announcement of the results accomplished in so 
short a time shows the remarkable executive capacity of its leaders, and presages 
the general introduction of visual education where none was hitherto possible. 
It is with the introduction of these opportunities in the smaller cities and towns 
that this article is chiefly concerned. 

There are still about as many pupils in the smaller cities and villages as in 
the larger centers. In many of these, conditions similar to the following still 
obtain : 

1. "Weak school spirit. 

2. Parent-teacher association dead, or at best not reaching those whom 
it ought to reach most. 

3. No school auditorium. 

4. Chautauquas and lyceums financial failures and difficult to main- 
tain. 

5. Wholesome employment of leisure lacking for both youth and 
adults — 

(a) Commercial movies trashy and unsanitary. 

(b) High class spoken drama and opera equally beyond gen- 
eral reach. 

6. School finances inadequate to even a fair compensation to teachers, 
causing generally a loss of enthusiasm and exercise of initiative as 
well as a desire to abide only temporarily in such towns. 

7. No motion picture projector and lack of desirable slides. 

8. Community co-operation poorly developed. 

Most of these conditions existed last September in the writer's community — 
a clean enterprising town of 2,500 in a rich mining and farming country, only 
twenty-six miles from a metropolis. Similar conditions will still face many 
superintendents and high school principals next September. It is primarily with 
the intention of offering assistance to these in overcoming their particular diffi- 
culties that the details of the writer's experience are given. 

In September, the guarantors of the local lyceum course, who were also the 
guarantors of the chautauquas which failed despite the efforts of the hustling 
commercial club of which all are members, decided to place the selling of season 
tickets in the hands of the superintendent and the high school, the excess over 
expenses to go to the school. In the presentation of the project to the pupils, the 
writer set the goal at the cost of a good projector. This was reached and passed 

37 



38 Visual Education 

by over $50. In order to obtain this for use during the winter and before the 
lyceum course closed, the superintendent advanced the money for this and a high 
class release of general interest — "Evangeline." The two upper grade and high 
school pupils were shown this during the afternoon, and the parents and the guar- 
antors were invited for the evening. (The general public could not be invited, 
owing to the small capacity of the H. S. Assembly — 180.) Phonograph records 
particularly adapted and skillfully handled helped to make the venture an aston- 
ishing success. After the program the ladies were invited to refreshments in the 
domestic science room while the writer explained his project to the men. In eight 
minutes an informal H. S. club was organized and a presiding officer and a hus- 
tling secretary-treasurer elected. This club is composed of practically all the pro- 
gressive men of the community, ranging from millionaires to artisans and miners 
and from university graduates to men of meager education. After each program 
every member pays his dues in advance so that there is always enough money to 
pay for the next two. Everybody comes unless sick or out of town, and brings the 
adult members of his family. Everybody is eligible to club membership. The 
dues are only 50 cents for each program. This is preferable to the admission fee 
plan for each of these men feels that he is doing something to make the best in 
film possible for the boys and girls. 

After all it is the men who must become imbued with school spirit to accom- 
plish the utmost. The instrument for this end must be of general interest and at- 
tractive enough to sustain that interest, and lead to greater ends. In the writer's 
opinion, nothing can equal the high class screen portrayals of the best of the 
world's literature suitable to visualization, for this dual purpose. If such, prop- 
erly produced, cannot secure and hold the interest of youth and adult public, the 
power and influence of literature has been grossly exaggerated and curriculum 
reconstruction is imperative. If the artistic portrayal of the highest ideals of 
the human race fail in inspiration of intellectual uplift and social betterment, 
what will produce these? How well will this lend itself to the Americanization 
and universal brotherhood efforts? Not that the screen shall displace the inten- 
sive study of the classics, but that it shall supplement and intensify these ideals. 
Taken in this order there need be no fear of stultifying the imagination nor of 
dull English classes. ISTor shall the literary program displace the specialized and 
technical matter vitally needed despite skilled instructors. Bather it shall pave 
the way for its general introduction through the awakening of the general public 
to the economy of visual instruction expertly planned. 

In closing, let no one delude himself that funds for the proper development 
of this work are trifling and readily obtainable generally without this school 
interest. Unfortunately, screen portrayals of literary masterpieces are often ex- 
ceedingly expensive to produce and difficult to obtain. In a search practically 
nation wide, the writer found but five of the desired type. His pupils and 
patrons clamor for more. The interest of the latter will decline as the school 
house becomes more rarely the center of social gathering for them. 

Charles B. Klingelhoefer, 

Superintendent Public Schools, 
Mascoutah, III. 



Miscellaneous Notes 



THE Shakespeare Festival of Teach- 
ers College, New York City, held at 
the College, Feb. 18th and 19th, was 
one of the most elaborate productions of 
the kind ever presented. 

The scene of the Festival was the 
countryside about Stratford, and the time, 
the year of Shakespeare's withdrawal 
from the stage of London. The Festival 
itself consisted of eight episodes begin- 
ning with a Fairy Prolog and ending 
with the midnight drinking scene from 
Twelfth Night. 

The work of staging, designing of the 
costumes, and decorating, was accom- 
plished by students in various depart- 
ments in the College at an unbelievably 
low cost. Each episode was given into 
the charge of a teacher or student who 
organized and rehearsed the group, in 
some cases writing the scene. 

The March number of Teachers College 
Record devotes a large amount of space to 
a detailed account of the methods used 
in producing the Festival, together with 
a reprint of the entire libretto. 
• • • 

AN interesting pamphlet has recently 
been published by the Department 
of the Interior, Bureau of Educa- 
tion, Washington, D. C, It is called 
"Extension Leaflet No. 1," is dated Decem- 
ber, 1919, and bears the title "Educational 
Institutions Equipped with Moving Pic- 
ture Projection Machines." This pam- 
phlet tabulates the replies received to 
over 38,000 questionnaires sent out by 
the visual instruction section of the divi- 
sion of educational extension to locate 
the moving picture projection machines 
in use for purely educational purposes 
in the U. S. Out of 16,351 educational 
institutions which reported, 1,129 were 
equipped with projectors at the time; 
a complete list of these institutions along 
with the address, make of machine, 
and capacity of auditorium, is given 
in the pamphlet mentioned. A goodly 
number of the other institutions were 
planning immediate installations and 
doubtless many more schools and col- 
leges have joined the ranks of the pro- 

39 



gressives since January 1, 1920. An ex- 
planatory note states that this summary 
is "presumably incomplete only, and 
not inaccurate. It should, and doubtless 
will, be followed by later lists, supplying 
the deficiencies of this list and keeping 
the information up to date." 

• • • 

Old English May Fete, Washing- 
ton University, St. Louis, Mo. 
THE Women's Athletic Association of 
Washington University, St. Louis, 
announced their celebration of May 
Day ceremonies on May 5th, as follows: 
"We are planning an old English May 
Fete, calling it The Bonnybrook Fair. It 
will take place in the 'Quad' with the 
buildings forming the background and 
with festive booths on the side, Including 
a thatched Ann Hathaway cottage, the 
Tavern, and an outdoor stage in the cen- 
ter; the whole arrangement duplicates as 
nearly as possible the old English settings 
for May Fetes. We have been following 
John Bennetts' 'Master Skylark' and will 
run the story, dramatized, through the 
whole performance." 

• • • 

THE National Geographic Society has 
made arrangements to issue its 
splendid collection of pictures on 
separate sheets, in a size suitable for 
school-room use, and in series edited 
to fit various courses of study. Many 
school boards have ordered these sets 
extensively for every building, feeling 
that they are a valuable aid to visual 
education. The newest sets just off 
the press include a series on Eskimo 
and Sahara Life, the United States, and 
Land, Water and Air. Requests for in- 
formation should be addressed to J. C. 
Burrall, Chief of School Service, National 
Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. 

• * • 

ON May 3rd, in Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
was held a magnificent historical 
pageant, commemorating the two 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, the company 
which once controlled three-fourths of the 
North American continent and made the 
history of western Canada. 



40 



Visual Education 



The occasion was observed by a fur 
brigade of Indians, trappers, and voya- 
geurs on Red river, and a pow-wow and 
peace pipe ceremonies between the In- 
dians and the governor of the company, 
Sir Robert Kindersley, who came from 
London for the event. Prom Labrador, 
from the Pacific coast, from the shores of 
the Arctic ocean, came old time servants 
of the company together with Indians 
from a dozen scattered tribes to renew the 
ancient friendship between the tribesmen 
and the company. After an oration de- 
livered with dignity and skill by Kine- 
wakan, chief of the Wahpeton Sioux, the 
peace pipe was smoked at old Fort Garry, 
which once faced the wilderness alone, the 
last post on the trail, and which saw the 
first treaty of peace signed in 1871 be- 
tween Canada and the western Indians. 

Thousands of people watched the im- 
pressive rites that marked the day. The 
anniversary will be celebrated later by 
successive street pageants in Edmonton, 
Calgary, Vancouver and Victoria, all of 
which towns grew up about old Hudson's 
Bay Company posts. 

• • • 

IN Scribner's Magazine for May are five 
delightful etchings of Old Plymouth 
which will charm all lovers of the 
quaint old town. They are the work of 
Sears Gallagher done in honor of the Ter- 
centenary of the Landing of the Pilgrims, 
and appear with peculiar appropriate- 
ness at this time, when so much is being 
done throughout the country to celebrate 
the memorable event. 

• • • 

IT is reported that the Conservation 
Committee of the State of New York 
is to make a series of films showing 
the beauties of New York State. These 
productions will be distributed by the 
Educational Film Corporation, 729 7th 
Ave., New York City. 

• • • 

THE following is reported from Al- 
bany, New York, on May 1st: "The 
local exchange of Universal yester- 
day gave a private screening of a picture 
which will be featured in connection with 
the National Ship-by-Truck and Good 
Roads week. Present at the showing 
were Secretary of State Hugo and a num- 
ber of other state officials. 



The film will have its first New York 
showing at the Capitol theater on Satur- 
day morning, May 15, at a meeting at 
which Secretary of State Hugo will act 
as chairman and at which Vice-President 
Thomas R. Marshall and Governor Alfred 
E. Smith are also expected to speak." 

• • • 

£{pTT^HE early struggle in Kansas to 
I determine whether or not the 
-*- State would be free will be de- 
picted in an historical pageant to be 
staged at the University of Kansas at 
the annual May fete to be given May 
15. The pageant is being written by 
Prof. C. F. Skilton of the university." 
— C. S. Monitor, April 29, 1920. 

• • • 

THE Western College for Women, Ox- 
ford, Ohio, is planning to present a 
flower pageant on Tree Day, May 19. 
A hillside on the campus will be used as 
the setting and the cast will include one 
hundred of the college girls. Included 
among the day's events is the spectacular 
staging of "Joan of Arc" by the senior 
class. jf jf. jf 

THE tercentenary of the landing of 
the Pilgrims in America from the 
Mayflower will be commemorated by 
the British Societies of San Francisco with 
a pageant requiring a cast of 650 people, on 
Empire Day, May 24, in which they will 
be assisted by the Bay cities and the New 
England Association. Characters will be 
correctly costumed and genuine relics will 
be a feature of the historical tableaux. 

The origin of the earliest New England 
colonies will be shown by symbolic group- 
ings, and British and American veterans 
of the world war will join in presenting 
"Reunited." 

A Carnegie Ross, British Consul-Gen- 
eral, is chairman of the committee of 
arrangements. The author and director 
of the pageant is Charles B. Sedgwick. 
The proceeds will go to local British 
charities. — C. S. Monitor, April 30, 1920. 

• • • 

THE Literary Digest in the number of 
May first quotes at length from an 
article of Alfred Pittman in "Fac- 
tory" dealing with results obtained by the 
use of moving pictures in the National 
Cash Register Company at Dayton, Ohio. 



Miscellaneous Notes 



41 



The president of the company, John H. 
Patterson, felt that there were many 
wastes in the factory which could he cor- 
rected through effective suggestions to the 
employees. It was also the case that sales 
were running far ahead of the output. Mr. 
Patterson decided that visualization of 
the situation through moving pictures 
was the most promising method of rem- 
edying the condition and consequently 
employed a scenario expert who had ex- 
perience in handling men. That man 
spent a number of weeks in studying the 
situation and getting in close touch with 
the workers. At the end of that time, he 
prepared his scenario and made his pic- 
tures with the aid of the most efficient 
cameramen. 

When the results of his labor were 
thrown before the employes on the screen 
of the factory auditorium, the workers 
were made to realize as never before the 
numerous small ways in which they 
wasted the company's time and materials 
and their own energy. Lack of con- 
scientious regard of closing hours; fail- 
ure to concentrate on the work in hand; 
surreptitious reading of papers; gossip; 
powdering of shiny noses; absence of re- 
sponsibility in preserving small tools 
used in various processes; carelessness; 
lack of system; and many other thefts of 
time were presented in such an interest- 
ing and forcible manner that they were 
made impressive and unforgettable. A 
diagram showing statistically the propor- 
tion of income lost through wasted time 
was an argument that convinced. 

Since it was results that were sought 
and not mere amusement, it is interesting 
to know that this method of "painless 
education" has paid. It has been observed 
by the management that many of the 
practices set forth in the pictures have 
been to a great extent discontinued. 
Moreover there has been a continual rise 
in the output per man during tho last few 
weeks. 

This is but one of many experiments 
that have been and are being made in 
the industrial world which constitute a 
growing mass of most impressive evi- 
dence on the educative value of motion 
pictures. 



THE May number of Current Opinion 
publishes an interesting little article 
on "Movies in the Time of William 
Shakespeare," in which it is stated that 
the puppet show and shadow-play, to- 
gether with exhibitions of mechanical 
moving pictures and organs, with dancing 
figures of Elizabethan times formed the 
embryo from which has developed our 
modern moving pictures. Numerous rec- 
ords extant prove that this form of enter- 
tainment was indeed popular. On July 14, 
1572, for instance, the Lord Mayor of 
London was asked "to permitte libertie to 
certein Italiann plaiers to make shewe of 
an instrument of strange motions." On 
September 25, 1632, certain players in 
Coventry were licensed "to set forth and 
shew an Italiann motion with divers and 
sundry storyes in it." In the light of 
these facts, it is believed that many 
metaphorical allusions to motions, shad- 
ows, and shadow plays found in Eliza- 
bethan and later literature will perhaps 
prove less cryptic to commentators. 

• * * 

A SECOND article in the May Cur- 
rent Opinion gives a detailed ac- 
count of the plans that are being 
made to celebrate the three hundredth 
anniversary of the landing of the Pil- 
grim Fathers in America. England is 
planning for this occasion "Tercenten- 
ary meetings in many of its churches; 
Holland is to commemorate the event 
in late August with a celebration In 
which many prominent officials will take 
part; in America, hundreds of thousands 
of dollars are being appropriated from 
national and state treasuries to be used 
for this purpose. A huge statue of Mass- 
asoit, the Indian friend of the Pilgrims, 
is proposed to overlook Plymouth harbor; 
the removal of Plymouth Rock, which was 
raised above the tide in 1741, to its orig- 
inal place is also being discussed. The 
article contains further a discussion of 
the social and historic significance of the 
landing of the Pilgrims. 

The result of the international observ- 
ance of this great event will be, according 
to the view of Lord Weardale, Chairman 
of the Executive of the Anglo-American 
Society, the binding more closely together 



42 



Visual Education 



the people of Great Britain and America 
with great thoughts and purposes, in- 
spired by "the common and glorious heri- 
tage from the past." 

* * * 

ON April 30th, at the Cafe Boulevard, 
New York City, an informal dinner 
was given by the Pathescope Com- 
pany of America, to an invited company 
of about 50 representative educators. It 
was a significant event for all those inter- 
ested in the progress of visual education, 
not only for the speeches made there by 
prominent educators, but also for the 
demonstration given by Mr. Cook, Presi- 
dent of the Pathescope Company, of a 
new model Pathescope far superior to the 
old machine which was officially adopted 
for New York schools about five years 
ago. (For detailed information on this 
machine, our readers should address The 
Pathescope Company of America, 35 West 
42nd street, New York City, or 17 North 
Wabash avenue, Chicago, 111.) 

The dinner was attended by representa- 
tives of the Educational Department of 
Universal Films, of the Educational Film 
Magazine, and of Visual Education; the 
rest of the company consisted entirely of 
High School principals and superintend- 
ents. Addresses were given by Dr. Ernest 
L. Crandall, Director of Lectures, New 
York Board of Education, on "Some Re- 
cent Experiments in Visual Education;" 
by Mr. Don Carlos Ellis, Director of Edu- 
cational Production, Universal Film Man- 
ufacturing Company, on "The Plan of 
Films in Classroom Instruction;" by Mr. 
Wm. P. McCarthy, Principal Public School 
No. 52, Bronx, on "Selection of Projec- 
tors for School Use;" and by Dr. Ed- 
ward W. Stitt, District Superintendent of 
Schools, New York City, on "Do We 
Teachers Talk Too Much?" 

¥ * ¥ 

The following is an extract freely 
translated from a long article in "UIllus- 
tration" for the 10th day of January, 
1920. It is an elaborate account of the 
newly perfected cinematograph for col- 
ored pictures which is announced as 
completed by Gaumont & Co., one of the 
foremost motion picture firms in France. 
The article contains diagrams and pho- 
tographs which make exceedingly clear 
the working of the new machine. 



THE Academy of Sciences on the 10th 
of November last enjoyed a demon- 
stration by the Chief Engineer of 
the Gaumont Company of their latest de- 
vice for reproducing moving subjects in 
colors. Today these fascinating exhibitions 
are freely being offered to the public. This 
time it is really cinematography in col- 
ors — a thing which can be obtained by 
everyone without handling color mate- 
rials at all. The processes are simple 
and short, as the celluloid film itself, 
although in black and white as usual, 
brings out upon the screen the infinitely 
varied shadings of natural color. The 
negatives themselves are identical in ap- 
pearance with the regular film which has 
been projected for the past 25 years 
throughout the world. 

In 1912 M. Gaumont gave a few dem- 
onstrations which proved that he had 
gone furthest along the track toward 
this end. In 1914 he had almost reached 
the goal when the war brutally ended 
his researches. In 1919 he is there. We 
have already seen all the colors in all 
their infinite shades of value repro- 
duced by the combination of the three 
fundamental colors which we call for 
simplicity's sake green, red, and blue. 
(The actual shades established after long 
experimentation are a yellowish green, an 
orange red, and a blue violet.) If, then, 
one could take three separate snapshots 
of the subject upon an ordinary film, 
but in such a way that one of the 
negatives should be made only by the 
green rays, the second by the red 
rays, and the third by the blue rays, 
these images would have absorbed all 
the coloring which was formerly dis- 
tributed throughout the whole composi- 
tion. We should have then a three-fold 
negative, each of slightly different values 
but all three black and white. Then if 
the positive obtained by direct print 
should be reflected back in a mass upon 
the screen, we should have the same 
blending of green, red, and blue rays, 
identical in quantity and arrangement 
as the rays which first struck the film 
when the picture was taken. In other 
words, therefore, the picture would in- 



Miscellaneous Notes 



43 



evitably reproduce the exact color of 
every point in the subject. 

Chemical and Mechanical Difficulties 

This is all quite simple but here, for 
instance, was one obstacle to overcome. 
The sensitive emulsion ordinarily used 
in photography is scarcely affected by 
the red rays. Witness the red light used 
in photographic laboratories. Inversely, 
this emulsion is much more sensitive to 
blue and violet rays than to any other, 
so much so that if it were employed for 
this new device the photograph of the 
green rays would hardly have time to be 
impressed on the emulsion before the 
photograph of the blue rays would be 
over-exposed, and while the red rays 
would still have produced no effect at 
all. 

The panchromatization of the films — 
that is, the process of sensitizing them 
to all colored rays — is an industrial 
process well known for 15 years past. 
The difficulty in the present instance 
is this ; hitherto the emulsion has not 
been equally sensitive for all these rays. 
It has always been necessary to use 
screens to retard the action of the blue 
and violet rays in the landscape, and 
therefore panchromatization has always 
diminished the speed of the emulsion. 
This defect becomes particularly serious 
when one attempts to use it in motion 
pictures at high rapidity with the sub- 
jects in movement. M. Gaumont, there- 
fore, could not accomplish his work until 
he had perfected this vital element, 
namely, an emulsion which was sensitive 
at the same speed to these three primary 
colors. He found the emulsion. 

After this chemical difficulty arose a 
mechanical one. It was necessary in the 
new machine to project in a single flash 
three images and to repeat this action 
sixteen times a second, while in the 
standard machines this speed is needed 
for one image only. In other words, the 
new film must be moved three times as 
rapidly, with decided danger of tearing 
the celluloid. He therefore reduced about 
one-third the height of each frame in 
the film (to 14 mm. instead of 19 mm.) 
and thus needed only double speed to 
achieve his purpose. He found, Inci- 



dentally, that the oblong form thus given 
to the little pictures lent itself very 
happily to landscape and panorama, which 
will be one of the principal fields, of 
course, of the new color art. 

The Apparatus 
The camera for taking the new pic- 
tures is formed of three superposed lens 
chambers, placed as close as possible to 
each other so that the three lenses will 
take the view from almost identical 
angles. Across the rear of these cham- 
bers at each partial revolution of the 
star wheel passes, in a downward direc- 
tion, a length of fresh film long enough to 
receive the three images side by side at 
a single exposure. It is evident now 
that this process would give us no new 
effect whatever upon the film. We 
simply would have three images instead 
of one, each produced by the total multi- 
colored rays given off by the subject and 
nothing more. The function, however, of 
each of these chambers is to receive rays 
of different nature and only these rays. 
If, therefore, we place behind the lens of 
the upper chamber a disc colored in the 
primary green, the emulsion at the back 
of the chamber will receive only the 
green rays emanating from the subject. 
Similarly a red disc is placed behind the 
central lens and a blue disc behind the 
lowest lens of the three. These discs are 
called selective screens because they make 
a veritable selection of the rays from the 
subject which they will record; but the 
impression on the emulsion, I repeat 
again, whatever the color of the ray, is 
translated onto the film in black and 
white. 

The projection apparatus is as follows: 
The source of light sends its rays 
through the three negatives of the film; 
selective screens, respectively green, red, 
and blue, interposed between the film 
and the lenses, allow to pass only the 
same rays which came through said lens 
when the picture was taken. These 
three images then are thrown at the 
same time upon the screen in such a 
way that they are superposed with abso- 
(Continued on page 64) 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

OFFICERS 
President, Rollin D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 
Vice-President and General Manager, H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation 
Secretary, F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 
DIRECTORS 
Frank A. Vanderlip, Chairman, New York City 
W. W. Atwood, Harvard University 
W. C. Bagley, Columbia University 
C. A. Beard, New York Bureau of Municipal Research 
0. W. Caldwell, Lincoln School of Teachers College, Columbia University 
H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation, Chicago, 111. 
J. M. Coulter, University of Chicago 
F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 
W. F. Russell, University of Iowa 
R. D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 
V. C. Vaughan, University of Michigan 

GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD 
Mrs. Harriet H. Barry, President National Federation of 

Better Film Workers Los Angeles, California 

J. H. Beveridge, Superintendent of Schools Omaha, Nebraska 

Mrs. Guy Blanchard, Chairman Motion Picture Committee, 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Chicago, Illinois 

Mary C. C. Bradford, State Superintendent of Schools Denver, Colorado 

M. L. Brittain, State Superintendent of Schools Atlanta, Georgia 

E. C. Brooks, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Raleigh, North Carolina 

J. C. Brown, President State Normal College St. Cloud, Minnesota 

Violet P. Brown, Chairman Public Health and Child Welfare, 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Kankakee, Illinois 

T. W. Butcher, President Kansas State Normal School .Emporia, Kansas 

C. E. Chadsey, Dean of College of Education, University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 

J. A. C. Chandler, President of College of William and Mary. . .Williamsburg, Virginia 
H. W. Chase, President of University of North Carolina. . .Chapel Hill, North Carolina 
L. D. Coffman, Dean of University of Education, University 

of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota 

S. S. Colvin, Professor of Education, Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 

F. B. Cooper, Superintendent of Seattle Public Schools. Seattle, Washington 

L. T. Damon, Professor of English, Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 

G. H. Denny, President of University of Alabama University, Alabama 

E. R. Downing, School of Education, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

E. C. Elliott, Chancellor of the University, University of Montana. . . .Helena, Montana 
Mrs. Albert W. Evans, Chairman of Education, Illinois Federation 

of Women's Clubs Chicago, Illinois 

David Felmley, President of Illinois State Normal College Normal, Illinois 

T. E. Finegan, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. . .Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 
H. W. Foght, President of Northern Normal and 

Industrial School Aberdeen, South Dakota 

C. Fordyce, Dean of Teachers College, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 

J. Paul Goode, Professor of Geography. University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

H. E. Gregory, Professor of Geography, Yale University New Haven, Connecticut 

44 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 



327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD ( Continued ) 

Mrs. William H. Hart, President of Illinois Federation of 

Women's Clubs Benton, Illinois 

V. A. C. Hennion, Director of School of Education, University 

of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 

A. Ross Hill, President of University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri 

W. A. Jessup, President of State University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 

D. B. Johnson, President Winthrop Normal and 

Industrial College Rock Hill, South Carolina 

C. H. Judd, Director of School of Education, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

J. A. H. Keith, President of Normal School Indiana, Pennsylvania 

F. J. Kelley, Dean of College of Education, University of Kansas. . . .Lawrence, Kansas 

J. R. Kirk, President State Teachers College Kirksville, Missouri 

O. E. Klingaman, Director of Extension Division, University of Iowa. .Iowa City, Iowa 

L. C. Lord, Eastern Illinois State Normal School Charleston, Illinois 

P. E. McClenahan, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Des Moines, Iowa 

Mrs. F. J. Macnish, Chairman of Civics, Illinois Federation 

of Women's Clubs Oak Park, Illinois 

G. E. Maxwell, President of State Normal College Winona, Minnesota 

R. C. McCrea, Professor of Economics, Columbia University 

New York City, New York 

C. A. McMurry, Geo. Peabody College for Teachers Nashville, Tennessee 

Mrs. Myra Kingman Miller, President of National 

Federation of College Women New York City, New York 

S. C. Mitchell, President of Delaware College .Newark, Delaware 

Raymond Moley, Director of the Cleveland Foundation Cleveland, Ohio 

Paul Monroe, Professor of Elementary Education, 

Teachers College, Columbia University New York City, New York 

A. A. Murphree, President of University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 

G. W. Nash, President of Washington State Normal School. . .Bellingham, Washington 

George Norlin, University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 

R. M. Ogden, Department of Education, Cornell University Ithaca, New York 

C. G. Pearse, President of State Normal School Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

M. C. Potter, Superintendent of Schools Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Josephine C. Preston, Superintendent of Public Instruction Olympia, Washington 

J. E. Russell, Dean of Teachers College 

Columbia University New York City, New York 

A. A. Slade, Commissioner of Education, State of Wyoming. .. .Cheyenne, Wyoming 
H. L. Smith, Dean of College of Education, Indiana University. .Bloomington, Indiana 

C. L. Spain, Deputy Superintendent of Schools Detroit, Michigan 

A. 0. Thomas, State Superintendent of Public Schools Augusta, Georgia 

A. S. Whitney, Professor of Education, University of Michigan. ..Ann Arbor, Michigan 

H. B. Wilson, Superintendent of Schools Berkeley, California 

J. H. Wilson, Director of Visual Education, Public Schools Detroit, Michigan 

J. W. Withers, Superintendent of Schools St. Louis, Missouri 

W. C. Woods, Commissioner of Education Sacramento, California 

G. A. Works, New York. State College of Agriculture at 

Cornell University Ithaca, New York 

45 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 



327 SOUTH LA SALLE ST. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



COMMITTEES 



COMMITTEE ON AMERICANIZATION 
W. F. Russell, Chairman, 
University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
Guy Stanton Ford, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Albert E. Jenks, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Frank O. Lowden, 

Governor of State of Illinois, 
Springfield, Illinois. 
C. E. Merriam, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
Raymond Moley, 

The Cleveland Foundation, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Martin J. Wade, 

United States District Court, 
Washington, D. C. 
W. W. Willoughby, 
Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Md. 



COMMITTEE ON BIOLOGY 

John M. Coulter, Chairman, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
(Other members to be announced later) 



COMMITTEE ON BOTANY 
John M. Coulter, Chairman, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
(Other members to be announced later) 



COMMITTEE ON CIVICS 
Chas. A. Beard, Chairman, 
Columbia University, 
New York, N. Y. 
F. G. Bates, 
Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana. 
F. F. Blachly, 

University of Oklahoma, 
Athens, Okla. 
R. E. Cushman, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
H. W. Dodds, 

Western Reserve University , 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
H. G. James, 

University of Texas, 
Austin, Texas. 



D. C. Knowlton, 

The Lincoln School of Teachers College, 
New York, N. Y. 
T. H. Reed, 

University of California, 
Berkeley, Calif. 



COMMITTEE ON GEOGRAPHY 
W. W. Atwood, Chairman, 
Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 
M. J. Ahearn, S. J. 
Canisius College, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
R. D. Calkins, 
Mt. Pleasant Normal School, 
Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 
C. C. Colby, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
T. M. Hills, 

Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

C. A. McMurry, 

Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn. 
L. C. Packard, 
Boston Normal School, 
Boston, Mass. 
Miss Edith Parker, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
A. E. Parkins, 
Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

D. C. Ridgley, 

State Normal School, 
Normal, 111. 
C. O. Sauer, 

University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Miss Laura M. Smith, 

Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn. 
R. H. Whitbeck, 

University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 
L. H. Wood, 
Kalamazoo Normal School, 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 



COMMITTEE ON HEALTH AND SANI- 
TATION 
V. C. Vaughan, Chairman, 
University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
E. R. Downing, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 



46 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC, 



327 SOUTH LA SALLE ST. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



Simon Flexner, 

Rockefeller Institute, 
New York, N. Y. 
F. M. Gregg, 

University of Nebraska. 
Lincoln, Nebr. 
Ludvig Hektoen, 
John McCormick Institute for 
tious Diseases. 
Chicago, Illinois. 
E. O. Jordan, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
Wickliffe Rose, 
International Health Board, 
New York, N. Y. 
M. J. Rosenau, 
Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 
C. E. Turner, 

Mass. Inst, of Technology. 
Boston, Mass. 



COMMITTEE ON HISTORY 

Wm. C. Bagley, Chairman, 
Columbia University, 
New York, N. Y. 
G. S. Ford, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
S. B. Harding, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
Miss Frances Morehouse, 
University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Joseph Schafer, 

University of Oregon, 
Eugene, Ore. 



COMMITTEES 

V. A. C. Henmon, 

University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 
Ernest Horn, 

University of loxca, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
W. A. Justice, 
Infec- Director of Visual Education. 
Evanston, Illinois. 
T. L. Kelly, 

Teachers College. Columbia University. 
New York, N. Y. 
W. S. Monroe, 

University of Illinois, 
Urbana, 111. 
P. C. Packer, 
Board of Education, 
Detroit, Michigan. 
Rudolph Pintner, 

Ohio State University, 
Columbus, 0. 
H. O. Rugg, 
Lincoln School of Teachers College. 
New York, N. Y. 
E. K. Strong, Jr., 

Carnegie Institute of Technology. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL 
PERIMENTS 

William F. Russell, Chairman, 
University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
G. S. Counts, 

University of Washington, 
Seattle, Wash. 
F. N. Freeman, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
M. E. Haggerty, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



EX- 



COMMITTEE ON TECHNICAL EXPERI- 
MENTS 

F. R. Moulton, Chairman, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
W. A. Cogshall, 

University of Indiana, 
Bloomington, Ind. 
A. H. Pfund, 

Johns Hopkins University. 
Baltimore, Md. 
H. B. Lemon, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 



COMMITTEE ON CO-ORDINATION OF 
WORK 

Otis W. Caldwell, Chairman, 

Lincoln School of Teachers College. 
H. L. Clarke, 

Utilities Development Corporation. 
N. L. Greene, 

Editor of Visual Education. 
F. R. Moulton, 

University of Chicago. 
C. J. Primm. 

Manager Visual Text Department. 



47 



Among Other Things They Say 



From an Officer of the National Com- 
mittee for Better Films 

"I have been intensely interested in 
reading carefully the April issue of 
Visual Education, especially those arti- 
cles which deal directly or indirectly 
with the use of motion pictures. 

As a university and seminary trained 
man, with some local interest in sec- 
ondary schools, I am pleased to find so 
many men considering seriously the place 
of motion pictures in education. As a 
secretary of an organization which has 
studied critically the development of the 
motion picture through every day of the 
past 11 years, like some of your other cor- 
respondents, I have some positive opin- 
ions. Among these are several which 
have come from a rather careful study 
of the effects of pictures on the lay mind, 
both mature and formative. 

I believe an interesting discussion could 
be developed with Professor Thurstone, 
who has written on the educational mo- 
tion picture, and also with Professor 
Damon, who has presented some argu- 
ments about the motion picture and Eng- 
lish literature. 

The one topic which has been of in- 
tense interest to me is that of the value 
of indirection, or the round-about or 
dramatic presentation of ideas to people. 
I wonder if your magazine will have 
anything to say about this method of 
capturing the attention and influencing 
the minds both of students and adults. 

I hope a large number of intelligent 
parents and those interested in the devel- 
opment of character, as well as those 
educators technically trained, will join 
in discussions which you evidently intend 
to carry on in your magazine. By the in- 
teresting exchange of ideas, something 
worth while will slowly be developed 
toward the more complete understanding 
of those forces which underlie conduct, 
mental processes and character forma- 
tion. 

Wishing you abundant success in this 
most important field. 

O. G. C, 
Secretary and Editor. 



Coming from Colorado 

"I have been very much interested in 
the motion picture as a means of class- 
room instruction, but so far have found 
that most of the so-called educational 
films did not hit the spot; that is, I 
could not see how they could be used 
in any way except for livening up school 
exercises. I think the movement you 
have started will be of great value." . . . 
R. R., 
Superintendent . 



Heard from Minnesota 
"This is not only good work but is and 
must be a vital part of public school 
education; also of religious education." 
R. M. W., 
University Professor. 



Coming from an Iowa Superintendent 
. . . "I am very much interested in 
Visual Education and hope that I may 
receive much inspiration from the mag- 
azine." T. C. G. 



This from an Indiana Lawyer 
. . . "I found on my desk a copy of 
the magazine pertaining to visual educa- 
tion. I took it home with me the other 
night and started to read it from cover 
to cover. Visual education is a wonder- 
ful thing, and I believe you have started 
a campaign of education on that subject 
that will eventually result in more good 
and benefit to our school system than 
anything that has been suggested within 
the past century. If subsequent issues 
of your magazine are as instructive and 
as interesting as the last issue, no Amer- 
ican citizen concerned with future de- 
velopment of our people and the preserva- 
tion of our present form of government 
can afford to do without it." . . . 

B. K. 



What a Principal in St. Louis says 
. . . "I have become so much con- 
vinced of the efficiency and practicability 
of teaching through the moving picture 
that I intend, if I see the least possi- 
bility of prospect for success, to take a 



48 



Amoxg Other Things Thet Sat 



40 



portable machine and the best films that 
can be procured and go from coast to 
coast with educational and religious 
films, unless I can affiliate with some con- 
cern or organization already carrying on 
this work." 

R. A. R. 

From Dotcn South 

. . . "I am writing an essay on the 
influence of the film, its defects and pos- 
sibilities. Will you please send two num- 
bers that you think will be of assistance? 
I have the January, 1920, number and 
find it very helpful." E. S., 

Teacher. 



Comment from a Neio Jersey Club 
Woman 

"I am greatly interested in the compli- 
mentary copy of your first number and 
enclose cheque to pay for a year's sub- 
scription. The copy is to be sent to the 
chairman of the Moving Picture Commit- 
tee of this Association, as I know it will 
materially help her in her work." 
A. L., 
President. 



methods the greatest intellectual punch 
that has been administered since the in- 
troduction of the printing press. The 
driving power behind this punch is des- 
tined to knock the 'shun' out of edu- 
cation." D. M. B. 



An Iowa Superintendent remarks that 

. . . "The work being done by the 

Society is giving elementary educational 



From the Western Coast 

"It has been stated by eminent author- 
ity that of all the senses, sight leads 
as an avenue of sense perception. . . . 
That the motion picture can vitalize the 
subject matter and make the work of the 
school more real is no longer a dream. 
. . . It is not a substitute for work, 
but stimulates the imagination and pre- 
sents facts in a thought-provoking way. 
. . . Who can foretell the possibilities 
of the motion picture in the class room 

of tomorrow? The U School is 

one of the many that are attempting to 
measure the results obtained by using 
Visual Education in connection with reg- 
ular class room work. . . . Over one 
hundred films have been shown in the 
class room during the past year, at an 
expense not exceeding seventy-five dol- 
lars. The films have been of much value 
to classes studying Geography, English, 
and History." R. G. D., 

Principal. 



Announcement by the N. E. A. Press Service 

{Continued from page 29) 
Adequate Salabtes fob Teachebs 

P. P. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C 

Thursday Afternoon, July 8, 1920, 2:00 o'clock 

The Paet the Teacheb Should Play in the Administeation of the School System 
(4 minutes) 
M. G. Clark, Superintendent City Schools, Sioux City, Iowa 

Cornelia Adair, President of National League of Teachers Association, Rich- 
mond, Va. 
Jessie A. Skinner, Teacher of Mathematics, City Schools, Portland, Oregon. 
Helen Herron, City Schools, New Orleans, La. 
J. R. Kirk, President State Teachers College, Kirksville, Mo. 
Agnes Winn, Grade Teacher, City Schools, Seattle, Wash. 
O. C. Pratt, Superintendent City Schools, Spokane, Wash. 
Education fob the New Eba 

Payson Smith. Commissioner of Education, Boston, Mass. 
(Continued on page 56) 



The Film Field 

IN response to numerous inquiries from schools having projectors which are 
forced to stand idle for lack of usable materials, Visual Education hopes 
gradually to supply information which will enable such schools to get satis- 
factory programs as they are needed. It is a difficult task which will require 
much time and effort on our part, and we ask merely patience on yours. 

In this issue we list thirteen of the largest exchange systems in the country, 
with the address of each branch office. These concerns are occupied mainly, of 
course, with supplying theatrical material to professional exhibitors, but their 
stock usually includes a small percentage of "educational films." Schools desir- 
ing film material may write to the nearest exchange of any or all of the thirteen 
companies, requesting information available on films suitable for the particular 
purpose and occasion. (We would caution the school, when such information 
comes, to make due allowance for advertising phraseology and not to order a 
film solely on the strength of the company's fluent assurance of its educational 
worth. Films should be viewed by qualified judges before being shown to school 
children.) 

We also list a few of the many "educational" films now on the market, with 
the exchanges handling them. When the film is not handled by any of the 
thirteen exchanges here listed, the name and address of the producer are given.* 
If a school wishes to rent one of the films listed with its exchange, it is necessary 
merely to find the nearest branch of that exchange in the reference list and write 
for information concerning the film. If the film is not listed with one of the 
thirteen exchanges, write the. producer asking him to name the point of distribu- 
tion nearest the school. 

Constant disappointment must be expected. Often the nearest exchange 
will not have a print in stock ; or the film will be out and unavailable on the date 
it is needed ; or the film will be worn and in bad condition ; or the price will be 
hopelessly high ; or the shipment will go astray ; or slight attention will be paid 
to your communication ; etc., etc. 

In the course of time, however, as we shall be able to add more exchange 
systems to our reference lists, increase the number of titles in our film lists, 
eliminate films which have been withdrawn from circulation, and start a section 
for reviews of important films by the Visual Education - staff — a semblance of 
order and some approach to satisfaction ought to come out of the present chaotic 
and discouraging situation. 



•Addresses of producers named in the List of Films in this issue are as follows: 
Atlas Educational Film Co., 1111 South Blvd., Oak Park, 111. 
Beseler Film Co., 71 W. 23rd St., New York City. 
Carter Cinema Co., 220 W. 42nd St., New York City. 
Educational Films Corporation, 729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 
Scientific Film Corporation, 13 Dutch St., New York City. 
Worcester Film Corporation, 145 W. 45th St., New York City. 



50 



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51 



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and 

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it is our opinion you have not done vour duty by your 
institution or yourself until you have learned about 
the service Rogers & Hall Company give and have 
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We ship or express to any point 
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Make a Printing Connection with a Specialist and a Large and 
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Ask the Publishers of "Visual Education" 
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When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



52 



Visual Education 




gy A Motion Picture 

for Every Need 

"*b. /^\UR Educational Department is organized to give Schools, 
II Churches, and Industrial Plants the same complete and high 
^^^ grade service that we render theatres. Whether for carefully 
censored amusement, or instruction along religious or educational 
lines, we are prepared to supply both equipment and films of the 
right sort. 

We FY PF V> XQ in the field 

are I^Ar£jI\ 1 J of Projection 

Our interest does not cease when you have purchased your 
equipment, whether from us or elsewhere. We have the films you 
want all ready for you. We know the films and we know your needs. 
A select list of films from all leading exchanges, now ready for 
Incandescent or Arc distribution. Price SOc each. 

Light PROFESSIONAL EQUIPMENT ONLY 

Hand driven. . . .$425.00 When you buy motion picture equipment, get only the regular 

Motor driven... 495.00 tried and tested kind— that used by regular theatres. This is the 
The Simplex is the last only way you will get the same grade of pictures. 
word in Motion Picture REGULAR THEATRE EQUIPMENT COMPLETE 

Projection. Used in the Complete outfit, including Simplex Projector, Motor for direct 

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For more detailed quotation give us the following data: 

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Voltage ? 

Do you want Incandescent or Arc Light? 

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We supply everything for the projection of pictures. 

Stereopticons that never fail. 

Our Service goes on and on. 

EXHIBITORS SUPPLY COMPANY Educational Department, 1882 Transportation Bldg., Chicago 

1186 



Reference List of Commercial Film Exchanges 

(Address all inquiries to the nearest exchange) 



AMERICAN RED CROSS 

Atlanta, Ga 249 Ivy St. 

Boston, Mass 108 Mass. Av. 

Chicago, 111 Pioneer Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio Plymouth Bldg. 

Denver, Colo 14th and Welton Sts. 

Minneapolis, Minn 423 5th St. S. 

New Orleans, La. . Wash'gt'n Artillery Hall 

New York City 44 E. 23d St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 134 S. 16th St. 

San Francisco, Cal 864 Mission St. 

Seattle, Wash White Bldg. 

St. Louis, Mo Equitable Bldg. 

Washington, D. C 411 18th St. N. W. 

FAMOUS PLAYERS-LASKY CORP. 

Atlanta, Ga 51 Luckie St. 

Boston, Mass 8 Shawmut St 

Buffalo, N. Y 145 Franklin St. 

Charlotte, N. C 28 W. 4th St. 

Chicago, 111 845 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 107 W. 3d St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 811 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1902 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1747 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 415 W. 8th St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 2024 Broadway Av. 

Los Angeles, Calif 112 W. 9th St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

New Haven, Conn 132 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, Da 814 Perdido St. 

New York City 729 7th Av. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 128 W. 3d St. 

Omaha, Neb 208 S. 13th St. 



Philadelphia, Pa 1219 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1018 Forbes St. 

Portland, Me 85 Market St. 

Portland, Ore 14 N. 9th St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 133 E. 2d South St. 

San Francisco, Calif 821 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 2017-19 3d St. 

St. Louis, Mo 3929 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 421 10th St. N. W. 

FIRST NATIONAL EXHIBITORS CIR- 
CUIT, INC. 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 35 Piedmont St. 

Chicago, 111 110 S. State St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 402 Sloan Bldg. 

Buffalo, N. Y 215 Franklin St. 

Dallas, Texas 1924 Main St 

Denver, Colo 1518 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa. . .Garden Theatre Bldg. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind...24 W. Washington St. 

Kansas City, Mo 317 Gloyd Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif. . . .833 South Broadway 

Louisville, Ky Nat. Theatre Bldg. 

Milwaukee, Wis 402 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 

408-18 Loeb Arcade Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 126 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La..Tulane Av. & Liberty St. 

New York City 6 W. 48th St. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 127 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb 314 S. 13th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1339 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 414 Ferry St. 



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In a word: Ford Educational 
Weekly, produced by the Ford 
Motor Company of Detroit, is 
a library of the most practical, 
interesting and generally instruct- 
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one is produced every week. Gold- 
wyn Distributing Corpora- 
<g$j%l ^ tion distributes them from 
&ucalicnal | 22 leading cities. When 
f you use Ford Educational 
Weekly motion-pictures in 
your classes it lifts a bigger 
Teachers:— The motion-pictures of load from your head and your 
Ford Educational Weekly once heart than you knew you were 

carrying. 



Yes, he's studying about the '49ers 
going to California for gold; 
but it's ancient history to him. 
He can't make out from the book 
how it all was. 

The other lad is seeing them go 
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learned — and with real joy 
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introduced into the school room 

work wonders. The mentally slow 

become quickly alert! The unin- "" Why not 

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low stand — absorb difficult facts in 

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fill out the coupon 
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54 



Visual Education 



Richmond, Va 904 E. Broad St. 

St. Louis, Mo. .New Grand Central Theatre 
Salt Lake City, Utah.. 136 B. 2d South St. 
San Francisco, Calif.. 134 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash... 2023 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 



FOX FILM CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 54-56-58 Piedmont St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 209 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 Mailers Bldg. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 514 Elm St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1907 Commerce St. 

Detroit, Mich Mack Bldg. 

Denver, Col 1442 Welton St. 

Indianapolis, Ind 232 N. Illinois St. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 734 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 First Av. N. 

New York City 130 W. 46th St. 

New Orleans, La 723-25 Poydras St. 

Omaha, Neb : 315 S. 16th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1333 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 121 Fourth Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 46 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Calif.. 243 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2006 Third Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3632 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 305 9th St. N. W. 



GOLDVVY1V DISTRIBUTING CORPORA- 
TION 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 42 Piedmont St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 200 Pearl St. 

Chicago, 111 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 216 E. 5th St. 

Cleveland, O...403 Standard Theatre Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1922 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1440 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich Film Exchange Bldg. 

Kansas City, Mo 1120 Walnut St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 912 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 16 N. 4th St. 

New Orleans, La 714 Poydras St. 

New York City 509 5th Av. 

Omaha, Neb 1508 Howard St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1335 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 135 E. 2d South St. 

San Francisco, Cal 985 Market St. 

St. Louis, Mo .3312 Lindell Blvd. 

Seattle, Wash 2018 Third Ave. 

Washington, D. C 714 11th St. N. W 

METRO PICTURES CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 60 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 327 Main St. 

Chicago, 111. . 5 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 7th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio 404 Sincere Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1924 Main St. 

Denver, Col 1721 California St. 

Detroit, Mich 51 Elizabeth St. E. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 820 S. Olive St. 

Little Rock, Ark ..106 S. Cross St. 

Minneapolis, Minn. . . .Produce Exch, Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 126 Meadow St. 

New York City 729 7th Av. 

New Orleans, La Saenger Bldg. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 127 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb .211 S. 13th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1321 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1018 Forbes St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 20 Post Office Place 

San Francisco, Calif 55 Jones St. 

St. Louis, Mo 3313-A Olive St. 

Seattle, Wash 2002 Third Av 

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PATHE EXCHANGE, INC. 

Albany, N. Y 398 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga m Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 7 Isabella St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 269 Main St. 

Charlotte, N. C 2 S. Graham St. 

Chicago, 111 220 S. State St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 124 E. 7th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. S. E. 

Dallas, Texas 2012% Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1436 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 316 W. Locust St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 B. Elizabeth St. 

Indinapapolis, Ind. .52-54 W. New York St. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 732 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 174 2d St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

Newark, N. J 6 Mechanic St. 

New Orleans, La 936 Common St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Oklahoma City, Okla 119 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb. 1417 Harney St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 211 N. 13th St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 938 Penn Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. . .64 Exchange Place 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 2113 3d Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3210 Locust St. 

Spokane, Wash 12 S. Washington St. 

Washington, D. C 601 F St., N. W. 

REPUBLIC PICTURES , 

Atlanta, Ga 148 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 78-90 Broadway 

Buffalo, N. Y 269 Main St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio Main and 7th Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio Belmont Bldg. 

Dallas, Tex 1905 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1753 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 1612 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 736 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn. . . .Produce Exch. Bldg. 

New York City 126 W. 46th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1315 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 1301 5th Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W 



ROBERTSON-COLE DISTRIBUTING 
CORPORATION 

Albany, N. Y 733 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 39 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 315 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 Consumers Bldg. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 224 E. 7th St 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av' 

Dallas, Texas .1807 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1724 Welton. St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind Ill W. Maryland St 

Kansas City, Mo Gloyd Bldg 

Los Angeles, Calif 825 S. Olive St' 

Milwaukee, Wis 301 Enterprise Bldg 

Minneapolis, Minn.. 309 Loeb Arcade Bide 

New Orleans La 815 Perdido St.' 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Oklahoma City, Okla 7 S. Walker St. 

grp.fha Neb i 30 6 Farnum St. 

Philadelphia Pa 1219 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 121 4 th Av. 

San Francisco, Calif.. 177 Golden Gate Av. 

St- -Louis, MO . .3623 Washington Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 12 Postoffice Place 

Seattle, Wash 1933 3d Av. 

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Advertisements 



"Do You Want To Know 

The Test of 
A Successful Man?" 

Asked the Late 

James J. Hill. 

It Is This, 

"Can He Save Money?" 



Perhaps you, like many 
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under present conditions. "TV.- f 

If you have not accumu- Tvle»**c 
lated as much as you hoped, 
it is safe to say that it was 
due to one of three reasons: 
you were not systematic in 
your efforts; you were not 
properly obligated, or you 
did not have sufficient in- 
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Again, even though suc- 
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Es&ci 



Our "Partial Payment Plan for 
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the favorite investment not only 
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such as savings banks and insur- 
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This plan permits the purchase 
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is credited with all interest accru- 
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he is, in turn, charged with inter- 



est at the rate of 6 per cent on 
his unpaid balance. 

If you are interested in a stimu- 
lating plan, combining systematic 
saving with conservative invest- 
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describing further the details of 
this plan, which book will be sent 
without obligation, together with 
a list of our bond offerings. 



HALSEY, STUART & CO. 

Incorporated— Successors to 
N.W. HALSEY & CO., CHICAGO 

209 SO. LA SALLE ST., 

New York Philadelphia Boston St. Louis 
Detroit Minneapolis Milwaukee 



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56 



Visual Education 



SELECT PICTURES CORPORATION 

Albany, N. T 679 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga 148 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass. . 69 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y . . > 176 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 207 S. "Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio.. 402 Strand Theatre Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio 306 Sloan Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1917 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1728 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind 224 Wimmer Bldg. 

Kansas City, Mo 920 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 736 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn.. Film Exchange Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 19 Portsea St. 

New Orleans, La 712 Poydras St. 

New York City 126 W. 46th St. 

Omaha, Neb.. 1512 Howard St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1308-10-12 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3617 Washington Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 160 Regent St. 

San Francisco, Cal 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 308 Virginia St. 

Washington, D. C.....525 13th St. N. W. 

UNITED PICTURE THEATRES 

Atlanta, Ga 104 Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 48 Melrose St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 86 Exchange Place 

Chicago, 111 5 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 215 E. 5th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 506 Sloan Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1814 Commerce St. 

Denver, Col 1435 Champa St. 

Detroit, Mich 55 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 22d and Grand Av. 

Los Angeles, Calif 643 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 172 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 16 N. 4th St. 

New Haven, Conn 130 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La 610 Canal St. 

New York City 1457 Broadway 

Omaha, Neb 1222 Harney St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 13th and Vine Sts. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 414 Penn Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3321 Lindell Blvd. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 58 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Cal. ... .86 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2010 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 



, UNIVERSAL, FILM MFG. CO. 

Buffalo, N. Y 35 Church St. 

Butte, Mont 52 E. Broadway 

Charleston, W. Va. 

Chicago, 111 220 S. State St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 531 Walnut St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 850 Prospect Av. 

Columbus, Ohio 

Denver. Col 1422 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 918-920 Locust Av. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Evansville, Ind 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Indianapolis, Ind 113 W. Georgia St. 

Kansas City, Mo 214 E. 12th St. 

Los Angeles, Cal 822 S. Olive St. 

Louisville, Ky 

Milwaukee, Wis 172 2d St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 719 Hennepin Av. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 116-118 W. 2d St. 

Omaha, Neb •. . 1304 Farnum St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 938-940 Penn Av. 

Portland, Ore 405-407 Davis St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. . .56 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Cal... 121 Golden Gate Av. 

Sioux Falls, S. D. 

Spokane, Wash 16 S. Washington St. 

St. Louis, Mo 2116 Locust Av. 

Wichita, Kan 209 E. First Av. 

VITAGRAPH 

Albany, N. Y . . . 48 Howard St. 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 131 Arlington St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 86 Exchange St. 

Chicago, 111 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio.. . .Cor. 7th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio .2077 E. 4th St. 

Dallas, Texas 1900 Commerce St. 

Denver, Col 734 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 17th and Main Sts. 

Los Angeles, Cal 643 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

New Orleans, La. 420 Camp St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Omaha, Neb 1111 Farnum St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1227 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 117 4th Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3310 Lindell Blvd. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 62 Exchange Place 

San Francisco, Cal 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 115 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 712 11th St. N. W. 



Announcement by the N. E. A. Press Service 

(Continued from page 49) 
What Should be Done to Keep High Class Superintendents in the Schools 
(4 minutes) 
E. O. Holland, President Washington State College, Pullman, Wash. 
William M. Davidson, Superintendent of Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
E. O. Sisson, President University of Montana, Missoula, Mont. 
Charles E. Chadsey, Dean of Education, University of Illinois, Champaign, 111. 
Thursday Evening, July 8, 1920, 7:30 o'clock 

FINANCING- OUR PUBLIC SCHOOLS 
Rural Schools 

W. C. Bagley, Professor of Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, 
New York, N. Y. 
From the Business Man's Standpoint 

Frank A. Vanderlip, New York, N. Y. 
From the Standpoint of the State 

Frank O. Lowden, Governor of the State of Illinois, Springfield, 111. 

Friday Forenoon, July 9, 1920, 9:00 o'clock 

Ideals and Standards of the American Home 

Sarah Louise Arnold, Dean of Simmons College, Boston, Mass. 
Business Session 



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The New Home of 

Victor Picture Projectors 







This entire manufacturing plant is devoted ex- 
clusively to the production of 

Motion Picture Machines 
Stereopticons and 
Lantern Slides 

Sixty thousand feet of floor space, plenty of fresh 
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combine in the making of the foremost line of 
picture projectors in America. 

Catalogs and price lists mailed on application 

VICTOR ANIMATOGRAPH CO., Inc. 

DAVENPORT, IOWA, U. S. A. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL. EDUCATION 



58 



Visual Education 



List of Films 

Produced by various commercial companies and 
intended for general educational use. All entries are 
1 reel (1000 ft.) in length unless otherwise specified. 

(In offering these selections, Visual Education in no way guaran- 
tees the value or suitability of the films. This can be done only when we 
have personally viewed the picture. The list represents merely the most 
careful choice possible to make from data given out by the producing 
companies. If such information, however, promises to be helpful to 
schools, these lists can be greatly extended in later issues. Further, 
Visual Education plans to give brief critical reviews and synopses of 
important "educational" releases each month, as soon as arrangements 
are completed with the numerous producers to submit their productions 
for viewing by our staff. Only the films so reviewed by our staff should 
be considered as having Visual Education's recommendation, qualified 
or .unqualified as the case may be.) 



AMERICAN RED CROSS FILMS 

No. 10 — REPATRIATES AT E'VIAN. 

No. 11— FIELD SERVICE ON THE 
WESTERN FRONT. 

No. 12— IN THE RUINS OF RHEIMS. 
French official war picture. 

No. 13— FRANCE IN ARMS. French 
official war picture. 5 reels. 

No. 14-A-PERSHING'S MEN IN 
FRANCE. Last stages of training and 
drilling in the use of liquid fire. 

No. 15— THE SPIRIT OF THE RED 
CROSS. Romance of Red Cross work un- 
der fire. 2 reels. 

No. 16 — THE MAKING OF A NURSE. 
Taken in New York Hospital. 

No. 100— FOURTH OF JULY IN PARIS. 
America's veterans marching in Paris. 

No. 101— SOOTHING THE HEART OF 
ITALY. 

No. 102— THE REFUGEES OF EVIAN. 
Germans returning war prisoners to de- 
vastated homes. 

No. 104— FOR ALL HUMANITY. Photo- 
drama of services of Red Cross to soldiers 
and their families. 3 reels. 

No. 105— SERBIA VICTORIOUS. Sol- 
dier's relief scenes and decorations of 
workers. 

No. 106— FIRST AID ON THE PIAVE. 
Heroic deed of Lieut. Edward M. McKey, 
Red Cross. 

No. 107— THE PIIDDIES OF NO MAN'S 
LAND. Care of orphaned French and Bel- 
gium children. 

No. 108— REBUILDING BROKEN LIVES. 
Providing artificial limbs for injured sol- 
diers. 

No. 109 — MARSEILLES. Scenic picture 
and docks for Red Cross supplies. 

No. 110— A HELPING HAND TO SICILY. 
Children of Sicily and Palermo cared for. 

No. Ill — RUSSIA — A WORLD PROB- 
LEM. Trip of the first American Red 
Cross Commission. 

No. 112— NEW FACES FOR OLD. Mak- 
ing over faces of mutilated soldiers. 

No. 113 — YOUR BOY. Paris panorama 
from Red Cross hospital. 

No. 114— OUR RED CROSS IN ITALY, 
Rapid organization for assistance. 

No. 115— HOMEWARD BOUND. Details 
of the return. 

No. 116— THE PEACE CELEBRATION 
IN PARIS. 

No. 117— BELGIUM'S DAY OF DAYS. 

Day of the return of the King and Queen. 

No. 118— DOUGHBOYS AND BOLSHE- 

VIKI IN ARCHANGEL. Soldiers and the 

arrival of Red Cross supplies. 



No. 119— WHAT ITALY FOUGHT FOR. 

No. 120— THE GREATEST GIFT. Story 
of Red Cross propaganda. 

No. 121— ADVANCING WITH THE 
EAGLE IN ITALY. Landing of the first 
American troops and the welcome of the 
Italians. 

TRAVEL. AND SCENIC'S 

KINETO REVIEW — 23. NEW YORK — 
AMERICA'S GATEWAY. (Republic) Sight 
Seeing on the Island of Manhattan. 

CHAS. URBAN'S MOVIE CHATS. 7TH 
SERIES. (Republic) Rough Crossing of 
Irish Channel. Irish Cloth Industry. Af- 
fection of Mother Bird for Young. Forma- 
tion of Chemical Crystals. Otter Hunt in 
Midlands of England. 

THE WHY OF A VOLCANO. (Educa- 
tional Films Corp.) The Evolution of the 
Volcano. 

APACHE TRAIL. (Republic) Views of 
the "Trail of Romance" and of the Apache 
Indians and Cliff Dwellers. 

AMERICA'S HERITAGE. 2 reels. (Uni- 
versal) Boy Scout Pictures. 

SUNSHINE AND SHADOW. (Famous 
Players-Lasky) A Scenic of Great Beauty. 

CANNIBALS OF THE SOUTH SEAS. 5 
reels. (Robertson-Cole) Martin John- 
son's pictures made during his years out- 
side the pale of civilization. 

ARCHANGEL, THE CITY OF SNOW. 
(Educational Films Corp.) Views of the 
people and their customs in this city of 
the far north. 

THE REFRESHING RIVIERA. (Repub- 
lic) Beautiful pictures of this wonder- 
land of the world. 

GUATEMALA. (Republic) A modern 
land of ancient people. 

THE CHILKAT CUBS. (Educational 
Films Corp.) A Robert Bruce Scenic, 
showing the Chilkat River in Alaska, to- 
gether with a little story about two bear 
cubs. 

CHINA AND THE CHINESE. (Educa- 
tional Films Corp.) Farming, fishing, irri- 
gation of rice fields. 

OLD FAITHFUL. (Republic) Yellow- 
stone National Park. 

OUT OF THE SEA. (Republic) Key 
West. Fishing for Sponges; pictures of 
strange fish. 

ISLANDS OF THE ST. LAWRENCE. 
(Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) Up the St. 
Lawrence, together with views of the 
bridges of East River. 

MEMORY LANE. (Famous Players- 
Lasky) A beautiful nature picture. 



Advertisements 59 



ONE THOUSAND 

FILM SUBJECTS 

at your service 

IT has for several years been our business to 
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and projectors particularly suited to their needs. 

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includes educational subjects, picturized clas- 
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29 East Madison St., Chicago, 111. 




When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



60 Visual Education 



Zenith Portable Projector 

Built with all the standard features, is absolutely fire- 
proof — an automatic shutter eliminates this danger. 

YOU DO NOT 

require an experienced operator, anyone can run it. Operation can 
be had from any light socket. The Zenith takes all standard films 
and projects from 10 to 100 feet with absolute perfection. Has all 
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THIS IS THE PROJECTOR 
for use in Churches — that's what it is built for. Weighs 60 lbs.; 
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RUTLEDGE & COMPANY 35 so D c E £H£ N o STREET 



TIDES AND THE MOON. (Goldwyn) GOWNS VENUS WOULD ENVY. (Re- 
Cartoon showing how the moon affects the public) Methods of making Batik, 
tides; also the habits of ducks. MEAT AGAIN. (Ford Weekly) (Gold- 

AMERICA'S OLDEST INHABITANTS. wyn) Packing and potting meat with 

(Goldwyn) Taos and Taos Indians. other correlated processes. 

COST OF CARELESSNESS. (Goldwyn) MAKING COLOR FILMS. (Republic) 

Lessons in the prevention of forest fires. Process of making Prizma films. 

INDUSTRIAL FILMS IX CONNECTION WITH THE CLASSICS 

WHEN BLACK IS RED. (Ford Weekly) EVANGELINE. 7 reels. (Fox.) 

(Goldwyn) The Story of a Modern News- UNCLE TOM'S CABIN. 5 reels. (Famous 

paper. Players-Lasky.) 

ROCKS OF AGES. (Ford Weekly) THE PRINCE AND THE PAUPER. 5 

(Goldwyn) Granite Quarries. reels. (Famous Players-Lasky.) 

EQUITY CO-OPERATIVE PACKING TALE OF TWO CITIES. 6 reels. (Fox.) 
PLANT AT FARGO, N. D. (Publicity Film HUCKLEBERRY FINN. 7 reels. (Fa- 
Co., Bismarck, N. D.) The meat-packing mous Players-Lasky.) 

industry in North Dakota showing the TREASL RE ISLAND. 5 reels. (Fox.) 

farmer's utility ownership movement. ^, AVI1 ? GARRICK. 5 reels. (Famous 

TAKEN WITH A GRAIN OF SALT. pl ayers-Lasky.) . 

(Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) The mining of ^, THE BLUEBIRD. 5 reels. (Famous 

sa lt Players-Lasky.) 

LITTLE BO-PEEP. (Ford Weekly) D1 LITTL T E , WOMEN - 5 reels - (Famous 

(Goldwyn) The wool industrv. " P1 ayers-Lasky ) 

HANG-IT-ALL. (Ford Weekly) (Gold- ^"SJJ 1 ^ 5 reels ' (Famous 



wyn) The story of wall-paper 



Players-Lasky.) 



THE ORANGE. (Republic? A complete Uo ™f p^oT" 2 reela - <AtlaB Educa- 



exposition of orange raising 



THE LAST DAYS OF POMPEII. 8 reels. 



Th^T I X°V T - t (F ? rd Wee * ly) (Goldwyn) (Atlas Educational Film Co.) 

^?*1t JnxiS. dX^I ^T S c S ak /™ & - , „r TOM SAWYER. 5 reels. (Famous Play- 

CAN THE POOR FISH. (Ford Weekly) ers-Lasky ) 

(Goldwyn) Exposition of the salmon in- GREAT EXPECTATIONS. 5 reels. (Fa- 

austry. mous Players-Lasky.) 



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512 Sherman Street CHICAGO 



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MICROSCOPICAL VIEW OF THE 
BLOOD CIRCULATION. (Scientific Film 
Corp.) Arterial and venous circulation. 
Microscopic views of the blood. Close-up 
of bone marrow. 

HOW LIFE BEGINS. 4 parts. (Carter 
Cinema Co.) Information concerning im- 
portant life-processes of plants and 
animals. 

THRU LIFE'S WINDOWS. (Worcester 
Film Corp.) The construction and action 
of the eye. «i#*i 

TOAD TRAITS. (Beseler) The growth 
of a toad, with illustrations of types. 

A DAY WITH JOHN BURROUGHS. 
(Republic) Intimate studies of the out-of- 
doors made for children. 

GATORS. (Republic) An alligator farm 
in Florida. 

JUNGLE VAUDEVILLE. (Ed. Film 
Corp.) Habits of strange and familiar 
animals presented as if on a stage. 

BIRDS AND FLOWERS. (Republic) 
Rare birds and unusual flowers. 

ENEMIES OF THE GARDEN. Half reel. 
(E'd. Film Corp.) Insects destructive to 
plant life. 

OUR FARMYARD FRIENDS. (Ed. Film 
Corp.) All kinds of domesticated animals, 
with pictures of unusual companionship 
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BIRDS OF SANDS AND SHEEP OF 
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TRAINED ELEPHANTS AND CARL 
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THE ANGLERS. (Ford Weekly) (Gold- 
wyn) Trout-fishing in the Adirondacks. 

LIFE IN INLAND WATERS. V 2 reel. 
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64 



Visual Education 




For Floors of Maple, Bit 
aticf Close Grained Woods; 



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We have a booklet, "Your 
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::=U 



Miscellaneous Notes 

{Continued from page 43) 

lute precision. Thus the percipient be- 
holds on the screen the elusion of the 
original subject exactly as it appeared 
under the light of the sun. 

One more difficulty met and overcome 
by Mr. Gaumont is as follows: Great as 
is the precision of his machine, minute 
as is the care bestowed upon the manu- 
facture of the film, there is always the 
possibility in the projection of an in- 
finitely small displacement of one of the 
three colors in relation to the two others 
(such as the very slight play in the 
mounting of one of the lenses, the expan- 
sion or contraction of the celluloid, etc.). 
A fraction of a millimeter of inaccuracy 
is sufficient when multiplied to the con- 
siderable dimension of the image on the 
screen to falsify in some degree the col- 
oring of the picture, or at least to rob 
the image of its perfect clearness. There- 
fore the lenses have been mounted in 
such a way that the one in the middle 
(the red) remains fixed while the two 
others (the green and the blue) permit 
of adjustment vertically and horizon- 
tally. By this means perfect superposi- 
tion of the three images is possible. A 
last refinement in this adjustment device 
is as follows: It is not the operator in 
the booth who makes this fine adjust- 
ment of the three images on the screen, 
for he is not advantageously placed for 
detecting such small inaccuracies. There- 
fore M. Gaumont has prepared a small 
electric apparatus by means of which an 
employee sitting anywhere in the audi- 
ence can make the adjustment with per- 
fect accuracy as he views the picture. 

The cinematography in colors is now 
within reach of all. It requires, to be 
sure, special machines, but machines 
which even improvised operators can 
handle with perfect success. It is but 
a matter of time when the color picture 
must supplant the ordinary black and 
white because, save for the initial ex- 
pense of the new machines, the increase 
in cost of the new art is negligible. 



VISUAL 
EDUCATION 

A Magazine Devoted to the Cause of American Education 



Vol. I. JUNE, 1920 No. 4 



In This Number 

Visual Education in Detroit Schools /. H. Wilson 

The Regional Treatment of Geography W. W. Atwood 

Motion Pictures as an Educational 

Agency. A Review Ernest Hor*^ 

* Our School Children and the Movies E. L. Mof4£bn 

u '~ "^ >*• 

An Inexpensive Model of a Medieval vg. ^7 

Castle M. L. BonhanMfa ^ 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, Inc. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

One Dollar a Year Single Copy, Fifteen Cents 



Visual Education 



"Save It, Young 
Man, Save It!" 

An ambitious young man once 
asked the late E. H. Harriman 
how to be successful, 
"Well, I'd take $5,000—" began 
Mr. Harriman. 

"But I haven't any money," 
interrupted his questioner. 
"Haven't $5,000? Then go out 
and sate it, young man, save it!'* 

YOUNG MEN who 
are wide awake ap- 
preciate that their 
success or failure at fifty 
depends upon how deter- 1&& 
minedly they save during M^anS 
the period of their great- 
est earning capacity. We, 
in HALSEY, STUART & 
CO., also appreciate this 
fact. 

The young man who 
buys bonds on our partial 
payment plan today is 
the successful man of ten 
and twenty years hence. 
His future bond buying 
business will be worth 
handling. We believe it 
good business of the most 
enlightened sort to make spe- 
cial efforts to help young men 
save, especially save by getting 
the bond buying habit. 

Largely with this purpose in 
mind we instituted some time 
ago Halsey, Stuart & Co.'s Par- 
tial Payment Plan for purchas- 
ing safe bonds. Under its terms 
you may purchase any of our 
bonds in partial payments, ex- 
tending, if desired, over a year's 
time. From the time of your 
initial payment of at least 10% 
of the par amount of your pur- 
chase, you are credited with the 




interest on the bond which you 
are purchasing. You are in turn 
charged interest at 6% on your 
unpaid balance. In effect, there- 
fore, you obtain bond interest 
on all partial payments. 

The plan combines systematic 
savings with conservative in- 
vestment and a more liberal re- 
turn than would ordinarily be 
available with the same degree 
of safety elsewhere. To young 
men, especially, and to all who 
are interested in systematic sav- 
ing, we recommend this plan. 



Additional detail* regarding 
the plan are contained in our 
booklet VM-2, which will be 
tent upon request, together 
with our list of offerings. 



HALSEY, STUART & CO. 

Incorporated— Successors to N. W. Halsey & Co., Chicago 
CHICAGO NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA BOSTON 
DETROIT ST. LOUIS MINNEAPOLIS MILWAUKEE 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



H»^ fi2V< ©CLB462061 

VISUAL EDUCATION 



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED 
TO THE CAUSE OF 
AMERICAN EDUCATION 



Rollin D. Salisbury, President Nelson L. Greene, Editor 

Forest R. Mottlton, Secretary Harlet L. Clarke, Manager 



Published every month except July and August 

Copyright, June 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

Subscription price one dollar a year. Fifteen cents a copy. 



JUNE, 1920 NUMBER 4 



IN THIS NUMBEE 
Editorial 6 

Visual Education in Detroit Schools 9 

J. H. Wilson 

The Eegional Treatment of Geography ' 15 

Wallace W. Ahuood 

Motion Pictures as an Educational Agency, A Eeview 18 

Ernest Horn 

Our School Children and the Movies 24 

Estella L. Moullon 

An Inexpensive Model of a Medieval Castle 28 

Mdlledge L. Boriham, Jr. 

The Eelative Value of Motion Pictures as an Educational Agency. A Eeprint. 33 

John V. Lacy 

Pageantry Notes 40 

Miscellaneous Notes 43 

The Film Field 52 



PUBLISHED BY THE 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



VISUAL EDU CATION 

A National Organ of the New Movement in American Education 



Nelson L. Geeene, Editor 



Published every month except July and August 
Copyright, June 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 



Volume I JUNE, 1920 Number 4 



Editorial 



THIS is the June number of Visual Education. If you wish to see also 
the enlarged September number, do not fail to send us a postal confirming 
your present address or informing us of any change in same. We cannot 
afford to risk the non-arrival of even a small fraction of our mailing. 



IT is an exceedingly comfortable sensation for the holder of an opinion to 
receive ample confirmation of the opinion from an authoritative source. 
When 1920 was just starting on its expensive way, we opined that the 
educational world needed and would appreciate a serious publication devoted to 
the cause of visual education in American schools and communities. We stated 
our faith and acted upon it. The January number of Visual Education appeared 
without a single subscriber, without a single line of advertising, and also without 
the slightest intention of failing. In times when high prices have become a 
national habit and profiteering an almost universal instinct, we had the temerity 
to adopt a $1.00 subscription price, thus proving to our colleagues that there is 
still something of value that the venerable and once respected coin will buy. 
Since those days of seeming rashness, we have published four numbers of the 
magazine containing respectively 40, 48, 64, and 72 pages. The respective 
amounts of advertising in these numbers were 0, 5y 8 , 12y 2 , and 18 pages. The 
$1.00 still stands as the subscription price and is more sure of its footing than 
before. The visual movement concerns every teacher' in the United States; 
the magazine belongs to the movement; therefore, the price should be kept 
within the reach of all, and we intend to keep it there. 

The faith that was in us has already been justified. The influx of sub- 
scriptions and epistolary enthusiasms has not ceased for a single day; the maga- 
zine force, ninefold greater than in January, is being steadily increased to keep 
pace with this vigorous growth; and plans are now formulated for a publication 
of double the present size and of undiminished quality by January, 1921. 



Editorial 7 

VISUAL EDUCATION has passed its infancy period, but not without ex- 
periencing the ills and sufferings incident thereto. When we reflect, for 
instance, upon our paper, printing, and postal struggles, how little we 
incline to agree with Wordsworth singing, "Heaven lies about us in our infancy !" 
As applied to our own biography, a word could well be changed in the immortal 
line with decided gain in truth, whatever the loss to propriety. The poet is equally 
inaccurate as he sings on, "Shades of the prisonhouse begin to close upon the 
growing boy." We find quite the contrary to be true. We are just beginning 
to feel the sensation of breathing in the open. 

This feverish initial stage, however, has not been barren of results. Tens 
of thousands of American teachers and non-professional friends of education 
have had convincing proof of the earnestness and sincerity behind our efforts; they 
have seen that there is a mass of significant material on the subject of visual 
education which deserves publicity and which has hitherto lacked an adequate 
medium ; they have understood as never before the universality of the interest 
in the visual movement throughout the country and the power that lies in the 
national impulse toward visual aids in achieving a broader and deeper prepara- 
tion of America's citizens-to-be. 

As for ourselves, we have learned far more than our readers. Among other 
things we have learned that the visual field is wide enough to absorb the entire 
and utmost energies of a magazine that aims to cover it. The field is broadening 
constantly and our policies and facilities are being shaped to permit of com- 
mensurate growth indefinitely. We have learned that public interest in the 
question vastly exceeeds the present activity and achievement and the ratio bids 
fair to continue for a long time to come. This intellectual appetite must be 
appeased and we find that a great variety in printed pabulum is required to 
satisfy our multi-minded reading public. Practically every article — we were on 
the point of saying every paragraph — that has appeared in our previous issues, 
has been cited by a larger or smaller number of our correspondents as the 
utterance that the national ear has been most eagerly waiting to hear. This 
selective enthusiasm appears entirely natural when one considers the wide range 
of our appeal and the innumerable angles from which the general subject may 
be viewed. Obviously the same elements in a magazine will not interest equallv 
the teacher in a rural school, the State superintendent of public instruction, the 
university professor of pedagogy, and the United States Senator absorbed in a 
comprehensive Americanization program for his whole state. We must supply 
an abundant choice of materials which may be skipped, skimmed, or scanned, 
as the inclination and taste of each particular reader may direct. Any other 
procedure would be comparable to the classic example of offering an exclusive 
stock of radiators for sale in the tropics or of refrigerators among the Eskimos. 



SUMMER has come. American Pedagogy is taking a deep breath of June, 
preparing for a change of work or for a more or less \mconditional sur- 
render to play. While our colleagues are occupied at loafing or limousining. 
in study or meditation, we shall seize the welcome chance afforded by a two 
months' respite from the printing press to carry through a program still more 
crowded than during our brief past. 

The experimental days are passing for us. It is becoming steadily clearer 
exactly what sort of a magazine Visual Education ought to be. We wish to 
assure our numerous friends that the schedule of work we have set before us 
for the summer will show marked results in the appearance, contents and general 
worth of Visual Education for the ensuing year. 

The difficult problem of paper will be solved and negotiations now under 



8 Visual Education 

way will insure a paper and cover stock that will leave nothing to be desired. 
Illustrations can then become a noteworthy feature. Halftone work of the 
highest quality and special designs for cover, headings and titles, will add 
artistic distinction to the publication. 

The written matter will be of exceptional variety and value. Our modest 
beginnings thus far have touched upon a few aspects only of the great subject. 
As more and more of our leading educators feel drawn , to give their serious 
attention to the movement, which is rapidly taking on such profound significance 
for the cause of American culture, our readers will have in hand the most 
exhaustive treatment of every phase of the subject, by the ablest authorities, that 
can be obtained in any single publication. 

Physiologists and psychologists will treat the broad field of vision; the 
process of visual interpretation; the relative appeal of black and white, colored, 
still, and moving pictures ; the effects on attention of movement and the cessation 
of movement; individual study as compared to the group study of pictures, 
models, maps, and diagrams ; the receptivity and retention of different kinds of 
matter visually presented; the picture as a stimulus or drug to independent 
thinking; the question of combining visual and oral methods of presentation, 
etc. There will be departmental articles on pedagogical methods with pictures as 
applicable in various subjects of the curriculum; reports of scientific tests of 
teaching values conducted throughout the country; accounts of actual workings 
of visual instruction in important school centers ; technical articles on equipment 
and installation problems for schools and communities, etc. We shall print also 
special articles from time to time on the general field, such as a series of analytical 
articles on the history of projection; accounts of important achievements in 
the use of museums for visual instruction; visual activities in foreign coun- 
tries, etc. 

New departments will be started in September. The bibliography of the 
subject of visual education will be developed to include ultimately the entire 
literature in this field. Eeviews of books and current articles will constitute 
another department. A question and answer service will be established as soon 
as the slow process of assembling a complete reference library is completed. The 
department of film information will be enlarged and critical reviews of important 
educational films, made by our staff, will be a feature of notable value. 

As perhaps its greatest immediate service, Visual Education plans to cir- 
culate on an elaborate scale a questionnaire to American schools which should 
yield comprehensive and reliable data- on the present situation of visual instruc- 
tion in the United States and which will serve as a basis for planning a 
progressive program for further advance along these lines. 



THE last copy of the last issue of Visual Education for the school year 
1919-20 is in the mails. Our feeling is one of joy, not unmixed with relief. 
The June number now passes into the limbo of irrevocable things, nor have 
we the slightest wish to call back any part of it — except a small portion of page 
39 (q. v.) 

To all its friends, both within the educational ranks and outside, Visual 
Education extends' its heartiest good wishes for the recreation season, and its 
sincerest thanks for their prompt and nation-wide cooperation given to its early 
endeavors. We are confident that this cooperation will increase steadily with the 
passing months and enable Visual Education to render a continually greater 
service to the cause of American progress along intellectual lines. 

Editor. 



Visual Education in Detroit Schools 



OX E year's work in visual education in fourteen schools in the city of 
Detroit has shown some positive results which increase our faith in the 
visual venture, and it has also raised some questions which we hope to 
see answered in a definite way in the near future. Conclusions in these matters 
seem obvious at first blush, and yet supporting facts are strangely missing. 

Can a child learn better by seeing a thing than by hearing about it? Do 
pictures of industry Avith their pointed sequence and economy of action train the 
child in logical thought and orderly processes of organization? Does the actual 
seeing of a haloed, historical character destroy the visionary ideal? Is there an 
economy of time in the use of added visual material? Can we rationalize the 
"tinkling cymbal" of a great part of classroom routine? Is the charge that 
we are attempting to sugar-coat all education, eliminate all effort and serve or 
rather inoculate our children with wisdom justified by fact? 

Many other questions confront all who seriously attempt such an abrupt 
tangent to the pedagogical wheel as the visualist must needs follow. We in 
Detroit want to know the answers to these questions and are attempting to find 
out by protracted experiment what they are. We are optimistic. 
Rational Pedagogy 

Eegarding the rationality of the screen as a desirable classroom adjunct, in 
the study of physical geography, for instance, what results are possible? We 
all know that Ave cannot take the class to the mountain, but with the aid of the 
silver screen Ave knoAv that we can bring the mountain with all its snoAV-capped 
peaks, its dizzy heights, and astounding bigness into the classroom where the 
child can actually see it in progressive detail. So can the birds, bees, animals, 
floAvers, insect life and the Avorld of story and song be established in intimate 
associations with our children. 

In the study of birds it is sound pedagogy to shoAV on the screen a "still" of 
a bird, colored and in natural setting, permitting the child to study size, 
strength, proportion, color, nest, habitat, etc., and then to let him see the bird 
rise on wing, circle and finally settle on its nest, and at the same time have the 
victrola sound the bird's call. These things Ave believe even a child should knoAv 
in their most obscure detail. What descriptions by the most eloquent spellbinders 
compare with the intimacy of these direct touches? 
Organizing Material 

Films teach children to organize their statements effectively. One of the 
first recognized pedagogical principles is to attempt to teach our children to 
arrange what they say in as simple and direct a manner as is possible, and Ave 
all know the success of our efforts. An experiment in this Avork Avith third grade 
children conducted by Miss Carroll, auditorium teacher in the Stephens School 
of this city, gave these results. None of the children in a class of thirty who saAv 
a picture dealing Avith the planting, cultivating, picking and care of oranges, 
mixed his topics, when telling about it. Each chose one or two phases of the 

9 



10 Visual Education 

subject and told it with a clear understanding, stopping when the point was 
fully covered. New words from the screen were used naturally by the children. 
No questions were asked by teachers and no suggestions given. The presenta- 
tion of the film required twelve minutes. 

Following are five actual statements made by Third grade children after 
seeing a film on oranges : 

1. How They Fumigate the Trees: 

"First thing, they take a big white sheet over the trees. Then a gas 
wagon comes along and a little hose is put under the trees. They gas the 
trees forty-five minutes. The gas is so strong that a cat would die if it were 
in the tree. They fumigate the trees so as to get the bugs off so they don't 
eat the oranges." 

2. How They Water the Trees in the Dry Season: 

"The snow melts on the high mountains and comes through a dam. They 
close the gates in the dam and keep it there for a month. Then they let it 
go through two little ditches which look like wagon wheels going all over 
the orchard. There are little branches leading off of these. This is the way 
the orchard gets the water." 

3. Packing: 

"The oranges dump out and go down a big belt and then fall into the 
water. There are little brushes in there that keep going around and wash 
the oranges. Then they go up into another belt and keep going till they come 
to rollers which separate the oranges. When the oranges start down the 
incline the small ones fall down a trough and the big ones go further. Then 
they come to the ladies that pack them. They pack them so fast that you can 
hardly see what they are doing. They put them back on the roller which 
goes around a big turn and looks like trains. Then they come to a man who 
nails the box up and another who has little strips of tin and he puts these 
all around the box. Then it comes to the end of the roller and goes through 
a shoot and returns outside. Then they load them on a wagon and ship 
them to different places." 

The story as told by two children in the Fifth Grade : 

Planting, Grafting and Transplanting. 

"The first thing we would do if we wanted to plant oranges would be — 
we would have some laths in the ground to plant the seed. The reason for 
these laths is this. We could not plant the seeds in a sunny place. If we 
should the seeds would be spoiled. The laths shade the seeds from being 
burned. They leave the seeds in the ground for one year. After two years 
have passed they take the trees which have grown quite high to another place 
which has more room.. As soon as they get the tree into the ground they 
take a bud from a tree that produces excellent fruit and put it into a hole 
which has been cut into the small tree and set it in very carefully. After the 
bud has been put in they take a strip of cotton and bind it around the place 
where the tree has been cut. They don't cover the place where the bud is. 
If they did the tree would not be able to grow." 

"After two weeks have passed they cut the top of the tree off. If they did 
not cut the top of the tree off all the strength that comes from the roots would 
go to the top of the tree. They want it to go to the place where the bud is. 
After they have cut the top of the tree off they paint it so it won't rot." 

"When the tree is one year old they take it from the nursery to the regu- 
lar orange grove. When they dig it up they have quite a space from the tree 
so they can have a ball of earth around it. The way they keep a ball of earth 
around the tree is — they have a sack and put the tree into it and tie the sack 
very tightly around with what they think is best." 



Visual Education in Detroit Schools 11 

"After they have been dug up with the ball of earth around the root they 
tie it in sacks. Then it is given an honest-to-goodness bath. It is borne away 
from the nursery to the regular orange grove where they put it in a hole 
with a lot of water and cover the roots." 
Irrigation: 

"People of California said that it was too dry to grow anything so they 
dug ditches for water to run down from the mountains to the groves. First 
it is in one big stream. It stops at the dam. In the dry season they open the 
dam once a month and let the water go down into the groves and water the 
trees. In the wet season it is opened every two months. 'It branches off and 
goes between rows of trees." 
Slacker Trees: 

"A 'slacker tree' is a tree that doesn't bear as much fruit as the owners 
want it to. Then they make a hole in the bark and put a little bud in. This 
bud comes from the best producing orange tree in the grove. They bind it 
up not too tight. They cut off the top of the tree two weeks later. They 
paint the top to prevent it from decay. Cutting the top off and making a new 
tree from a slacker is better than making a new tree because it takes longer 
to grow a tree from a seed. Three years afterwards the slacker tree has 
been budded, it bears fruit." 
Fumigation: 

"They fumigate the trees because it would be a great loss if the insects 
ate all the leaves off and got into the buds. They take a little gas wagon and 
a man looks at the meter and sees if it has enough gas and then it goes to 
the next tree. The trees are covered with sheets. They are covered all the 
way down to the ground. They have a little hose and put it under the canvas 
and let the gas out. They gas a tree for forty-five minutes. Then they take 
the big sheet of canvas and put it on another tree." 
The Beauty of the Tree: 

"Now that we see the trees we think they are very beautiful. Some have 
buds on, others have blossoms and still others have oranges on. In California 
there are oranges picked every day. The ones that have blossoms on we may 
like the best. I would like the ones with the oranges on because I would 
eat those." 
Heaters: 

"On frosty nights the owners supply the men with little heaters. If they 
should not do that the trees would freeze and would be a severe loss to owners 
because they would not get any profit out of growing trees. They fix them 
one for each tree." 

We believe that industrial films, beside giving an intimate knowledge of 
the work-a-day world, do teach concisely and without effort a very direct type 
of organization. 

Ideals 

Films do not spoil our idealistic conception of the historically great by show- 
ing that they were only men after all, and that the greatest thing about them 
was that as men they did the mighty feats recorded by history. Are you sorry 
that you learned about Santa Claus? Did the awakening rob Christmas of its 
emotional appeal to you, or did it open a door to greater understanding and 
simply close the story book "twist" as a pleasant memory? Does it harm your 
conception of Washington or Lincoln to see them portrayed? They were men. 
Should we think of them as such or can they do us the greatest good by being 
relegated to a spiritual world neveT spoiled by the muck of our body politic? 



55 


2 


60 


3 


65 


4 


70 


4 


75 


7 


80 


1 


85 


2 


90 





iral average, 70.8% 




24 children 





12 Visual Education 

Time Saved 
How much time can we save by letting the pictures do their work? The 
story of oranges, presented in 17 2/3 minutes covering agricultural, horticultural, 
and marketing problems in detail, when compared with the best thirty minute 
oral presentation we could secure, showed for groups of mentally equal children 
the following average percents per class.* 

Two Methods 
Oral— 30 min. Visual— 17 2/3 min. 

Percent No. of children No. of children 


3 
3 
1 
1' 
5 
8 
2 
Visual average, 78% 
24 children 
Misconceptions 
How do pictures assist in rationalizing our class work? When we discuss 
volcanoes with our little fifth graders, how many distinct impressions do we 
create ? A psychologist would undoubtedly say, as many impressions as children 
in the class, and these impressions vary from a tiny hill emitting smoke to moun- 
tainous giants of impossible size. 

If this is true of volcanoes, is it not equally true of all subjects not within 
the reach of the classroom, and what a small percent is actually brought into 
the class room. What a correspondingly large amount of indefinite impressions 
then must we by virtue of our oral limits be daily creating in our schools ! The 
motion picture not only shows the child the volcano, but takes him up its side 
to the very edge of the mighty crater, where he sees the foaming, flashing lava, 
and it even lets him descend into the jagged pit where the stream and fumes 
are thrown into his very face. After this experience do we need to tell him 
what a volcano is and what it does ? On the contrary, he has an impression which 
is decidedly fast, accurate and real, and he is ready now to go into a rational 
study of the causes and life history of such a mountain. 

Study 
An English gentleman, versed in Oxford humanities, once caustically said 
that all the character which civilization has claimed has come from hard study, 
and that any plan which attempts to short-cut the arduous path to learning 



*Note: These papers which did not have the names of the children nor the 
method of their instruction attached were given to five different teachers for grading, 
none of whom knew how the others had marked them. There was no place in the 
score sheet which showed a negative tendency on the part of the pictures. Each mark 
showed an equivalent to or an improvement over the oral method. The papers were 
marked on content and on organization — two separate marks. The per cents listed 
above are the grand average of both the content and organization marks. Note that 
the time saved by the visual method is nearly 50%. At the same time the children 
showed an increased score of 7.2%. The marks of these children in their other work 
are, on an average, equal, which shows them to be hypothetically mentally equal 
groups. 



Visual Education in Deteoit Schools 13 

with its attendant discipline is pernicious. Were we to stop where his ancestral 
boundary limited his fathers' studies, we, too, would say, "slow it up ; make him 
work for the little he is getting or he won't appreciate it." However, how 
much more does a boy of today know at the age of ten than his father knew 
at that age ? What has happened to the peaks attained by our fathers ? Should 
we stress the method of attainment as the Englishman would direct, or the 
accomplishment of a goal with method serving a well-suited purpose? Is it 
discipline or achievement, study for study's sake, or study to live ? We do not 
believe that the mechanical accompaniment to study, reading or writing words, 
inspecting things or repeating thoughts, is any part of study itself; but that 
the application of these impressions, however gained, to a life purpose, is study 
in its highest form. 

Detroit Plan of Operation 

Our plan of operation is very simple. We show on Monday, Wednesday 
and Friday to fourteen schools, which are grouped in three circuits. Tuesday 
and Thursday are delivery days for the transfer of machines and films. We are 
using portable projectors. Pictures are shown in the auditoriums and class- 
rooms. Teachers have proven themselves to be satisfactory operators of the 
machines. We show to from seven to ten thousand children a week at a per 
capita cost of about eight mills. 

This year our films have all been rented. However, we hope to build up 
a library which will suit our own needs and which will make it possible for us 
to put films in any classroom in Detroit at the time they are needed. This 
can only be done through the establishment of our library. Incidentally this 
will reduce maintenance cost to a possible two or three mills per capita. 

We have confined our bookings strictly to educational material. A comedy 
was used once as a "filler," but was rejected by the children, who said they 
wanted something better — an educational picture. We have shown most of 
the available literature stories, such as "Puss-in-Boots," "Little Eed Riding 
Hood," "Hop 0' My Thumb," "Aladdin," "Sleeping Beauty," "Cinderella," 
"Goldilocks," "Children's Hour," "The Brook," and "Treasure Island." Travels 
have taken us into nearly every country and shown us bits of native indus- 
try, habits, customs, etc., but the greatest part of our films have dealt with 
industry, perhaps because of their greater availability. 

One child in the eighth grade was asked if she thought the "movies" 
in her school helped her and the story she handed in the next day was as fol- 
lows : 

Moving Pictures at School 
"We have moving pictures every Thursday from 12:30 to 1:30 o'clock at 

our school. "We have them to help us with our history and other studies. The 

smaller children do not realize their value. They think moving pictures are 

only for pleasure. 

"The most interesting picture I saw was how sugar was made. Of course, 

I knew sugar came from sugar cane, but after I saw the picture I felt so sure 

I knew the history of sugar that I was positive I could pass an examination 

on it. 

"It did help me because that evening at the supper table my cousin who 



14 Visual Education 

had supper with me asked how sugar was made, and I told her. She was 
actually surprised that I knew exactly how it was made. My parents listened 
with interest as I was telling the story and were quite surprised, too, at the 
Way I could explain. 

"The picture of sugar did help me in my work because a short time after- 
wards I was to write a composition on sugar and I had no trouble in writing 
it after seeing the picture. 

"I would not like to go to a school that has no moving pictures because 
I think they give you both pleasure and education. 

"I think the pictures they show at the school are just what we ought to 
see. I used to like drama pictures but I am getting to like educational pic- 
tures better. 

"I do not remember of anybody expressing bad opinions of the movies, but 
I have heard some children say they think it is just lovely that the Board of 
Education allows pictures to be shown at school, and that they think it is a 
good rest for the children after working in their rooms." 

Our plan for next year will be to experiment with pictures on different 
phases of a definite topic over an average of three weeks, with an idea to assist 
in correlating the various school studies. For instance, we ma}' spend the 
month of October in the stud}? of Holland. The films would roughly cover 
agriculture and general industries, architecture, dress, games, customs, and gen- 
eral folk lore. This is merely an experiment to see if an economy of time and 
a greater effectiveness in the use of pictures can thus be secured. 

J. H. Wilson, 

Director of Visual Education, 
Detroit Public Schools, Detroit, Michigan. 



Program of the N. E. A. Convention 

Annual Meeting of the NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

(All sessions will be held in the Tabernacle) 

Monday Eyening, July 5, 1920, 7:30 o'clock 

E. A. Smith, Superintendent of Schools, Salt Lake City, Utah, introduces George D. 
Strayer, Professor Educational Administration, Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York, N. Y. 

Addresses of Welcome 

G. N. Childs, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Simon Bramberger, Governor of State of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Response 

A. E. Winship, Editor "Journal of Education," Boston, Mass. 
Trombone Solo 

Alfred Roncovleri, Superintendent of Schools, San Francisco, Calif. 
President's Address 

Josephine Corliss Preston, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, 
Wash. 

Report of the Council of Education 

Homer H. Seerley, President Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Palls, Iowa. 

(Program continued on page 17) 



The Regional Treatment of Geography 

IN two previous articles on the teaching of geography published in this mag- 
azine 1 I have emphasized the importance of very simple studies in home 
geography. I believe in such work for little children as an introduction to the 
study of this subject. Ideally, a parent or teacher would like to travel with a 
child of school age and take him to one country after another. On such jour- 
neys the child would come, in a most natural way, to know the children of other 
lands. He should climb the mountains, traverse the lowland fields, and see the 
people at work. He should see the great seaports. He should come to know the 
differences in climate in the various parts of the world. The actual experience 
of living through a rainy season in the Philippine Islands, of noting the change 
in the monsoon circulation in India, of traveling across a great desert, would fix 
indelibly in his mind certain images which should be of permanent value to him 
in the study of geography. 

Imaginary journeys must accomplish as far as possible the same ends. The 
child must get pictures of other lands and other people impressed upon his mind. 
He must come to know of the changes in the lengths of day and night in the 
Arctic and Antarctic regions, of the constancy in the twelve hours of day and of 
night at the equator, of the changes of. the winds from day to night along the 
coast, and of numerous other natural phenomena with which he has not had 
actual personal experience. This training of the imagination is exceedingly 
valuable and makes up in part for the lack of that vividness which personal 
experiences in actual travel would bring to him. As educators we must aim to 
develop and preserve the child's imagination as he grows older. 

I also emphasized the importance of vividly picturing, perhaps dramatizing, 
the life in each country which is studied in the first lessons in geography. The 
use of pictures, maps, charts, museum materials, all fit into such a scheme of 
instruction. There is no possible way of instructing children so easily and so 
accurately as through the eye. I would urge that in these early stages of instruc- 
tion the child be encouraged to make picture collections of his own. As soon as 
he is able to write he should prepare little stories about what he sees in the 
picture. Perhaps he will raise questions about the scene or the objects shown in 
the view. Such questions should serve as the basis for wholesome discussions. 
The picture collections should grow in size just as the child's experiences should 
increase through travel or through imaginary journeys. 

This beginning work, which seems, at first thought, to be without organiza- 
tion, is perfectly wholesome during the early stages in the teaching of geography. 
The little child in the third, fourth, and possibly in the fifth grade of school is 
not greatly concerned with the organization of material or with the explanation 
of all that he is learning. 

There comes, however, in the mental development of each normal individual, 
the stage when the study of geography must be more definitely organized. This 
has been generally recognized, and we have commonly taken a continent or a 
political unit as a basis for study. 



Visual Education, January 1920 and May 1920, 

15 



16 Visual Education 

, These units have some virtue in them, but a new unit which can now be 
defined as a "natural region" offers still greater advantages to the teacher of 
geography. A natural region is a portion of the earth's surface throughout 
which the geographic conditions which influence life do not differ greatly. For 
example, the Central Plains of the United States serve as a convenient natural 
region in the study of human geography. Within that region, bounded on the 
east by the Appalachian Plateau and on the west by the great semiarid plains, 
there are rich soils, an amount of rainfall adequate for agriculture, a long grow- 
ing season, excellent waterways and water power, and wonderful resources in coal, 
oil, gas, lead, zinc and some other minerals. Near that natural region, in the 
Lake Superior district, there are vast supplies of iron, copper and timber. The 
physical features, the climate and the natural resources, which are the three 
great outstanding elements in the geography of any natural region, are quickly 
presented and easily understood. 

The natural region should be looked upon as a habitat where scenes in 
human life are being enacted. Certain people enter upon the stage. They may 
have their own peculiarities, but the geography of the region will almost cer- 
tainly determine their occupations. We are assuming that they are intelligent, 
civilized beings. The drama that is enacted cannot be understood unless the 
influence of great geographic controls is understood. 

Suppose we turn to the Black Hills of South Dakota. This is a clearly 
defined natural region which has a distinct control over the life and activities of 
the people who live there. The hills or low mountains rise abruptly from the 
bordering plains. The rocks are so exposed that man' easily discovered great 
mineral wealth in them. Their elevation causes a greater rainfall than falls on 
the neighboring plains, and the hills are therefore well watered. Mining, lum- 
bering, and some agriculture are carried on, while on the plains grazing is the 
chief occupation, and agriculture can be pursued only where irrigation is possible. 

The Eocky Mountains make another very natural region where the physical 
features, the climate, and the natural resources determine the occupations of the 
people and the economic conditions in that part of the country. 

Numerous other examples could be given. The valley of California stands 
out conspicuously as a small natural region. The Plain of Hungary, surrounded 
by mountains, the valley of the Po, the highlands of Switzerland, the desert of 
Arabia, or the desert of Iran, all yield to this same treatment and serve as units 
in the study of geography. 

The aim to understand geography now comes to the front. Pure memoriz- 
ing of facts has resulted in a very inadequate training in geography. Facts that 
are unassociated in the mind fail to linger there. They are meaningless. Such 
teaching results in no mental training, no growth or acquisition of power on the 
part of the student. Geography offers a remarkable opportunity to the teacher 
to train young people, through the problem method of instruction, to think, to 
understand existing conditions, and to sympathize with the various races of man. 
This should in the end lead them to become better citizens, not only of the 
United States, but of the world. 

To the regional treatment of geography, therefore, we may look for a more 



The Regional Treatment of Geography 17 

complete understanding of the subject, for a more thorough knowledge of facts, 
and for a more adequate mental training. Many teachers have already adopted 
the natural region as the unit of study. All good teachers use the problem 
method of instruction, and if these plans are carried out, the natural enthusiasm 
which a child brings to the study of geography will be maintained. That enthus- 
iasm will be cultivated, the imagination will be trained, and geography will 
become one of the greatest forces in American education. 

Wallace W. Atwood, 

Harvard University. 



N. E. A. Program (Continued from page 14) 
Tuesday Afternoon, July 6, 1920, 2:00 o'clock 

The National Education Association as the Interpretation of American Civili- 
zation 
Mary C. C. Bradford, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Denver, Colo. 

Report op the Commission on the Emergency in Education 

George D. Strayer, Professor Educational Administration, Teachers College, Co- 
lumbia University, New York, N. Y. 

The Recognition of Education as Related to Our National Life 
Olive Jones, Principal Public School No. 120, New York, N. Y. 
Will C. Wood, State Superintendent Public Instruction, Sacramento, Calif. 

Tuesday Evening, July 6, 1920, 7:30 o'clock 

CIVIC EDUCATION 

The Problems of Americanization 

Jessie Burrall, Chief of School Service, National Geographic Society, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

How We Are Teaching Citizenship in Our Schools (8 minutes) 
William J. Guitteau, Superintendent of Schools, Toledo, Ohio. 
F. B. Cooper, Superintendent of Schools, Seattle, Wash. 
Frank Webster, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Minneapolis, Minn. 
L. P. Benezet, Superintendent of Schools, Evansville, Ind. 
Susan Dorsey, Superintendent of Schools, Los Angeles, Calif. 

What the War Contributed Towards Teaching Citizenship 

Guy Potter Benton, Vice President Sargent Service Corporation, New York, N. Y. 

Wednesday Afternoon, July 7, 1920, 2:00 o'clock 

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 
The Opportunity School 
Are We Getting Proper Returns from Industrial Education in Our Public Schools 

H. S. Weet, Superintendent of Schools, Rochester, N. Y. 

C. A. Prosser, Principal Dunwoody School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

E. A. Bryan, Commissioner of Education, Boise, Idaho. 

Transition of the Pupil from the School to Industry 

Arthur Holder, Federal Board of Education, Washington, D. C. 
(Program continued on page 32) 



"Motion Pictures as an Educational Agency' ' 

A Eeview 

THE purpose of this article is to evaluate the experiment reported by 
Mr. John V. Lacy in his article, "Motion Pictures as an Educational 
Agency," originally appearing in the Teachers' College Record for Novem- 
ber 1919, and reprinted in this issue* of Visual Education. 

It should be said at the outset that Mr. Lacy deserves great credit for his 
efforts to subject this important problem to experimental treatment. His experi- 
ments were among the pioneer efforts in this field. The whole tone of his 
discussion shows a desire to be fair and conservative. He realizes, too, that this 
is only one of a series of experiments which must be conducted before we can 
arrive at a set judgment regarding the value of motion pictures in the schools. 

It should be kept in mind, however, that his whole experiment deals with 
narrative material and that his conclusions reached, if sound, must be taken to 
apply primarily to this type of material. Whether or not similar results would 
be obtained by using this method with other material remains to be proved. There 
are many reasons for thinking that different results might be expected from 
experiments in such subjects as Geography, History and Science. These subjects 
are of a more factual nature and can be tested more rigorously. Moreover, the 
"set" of the child mind in viewing pictures dealing with such content subject 
matter is one of inquiry and learning. On the contrary, in reading literature the 
child can hardly be said to have a learning attitude. He reads primarily for 
the enjoyment of the story. Many of the facts in the story are arbitrary and 
do not appeal to the reader as something to be remembered. 

Any experiment of a pedagogical nature is improved by keeping in mind 
the objectives which the school seeks to reach by teaching the subject matter 
which is used in the experiment. In the case of literary material the primary 
purpose, in the judgment of the writer, is the cultivation of a taste for the specific 
selection used, and for literature in general. There are several questions which 
might be asked in any attempt to measure the effectiveness of motion pictures as 
a means of cultivating a taste for good literature. Among these are: 

1. If a child sees a moving picture of a story or a play which he 
has not read, may we expect the motion picture to act as an in- 
centive to reading the story? 

2. In case he has already read the story, will the motion picture 
add to his appreciation or tend to cause him to reread the story ? 

3. Can the human experiences given in the story be taught as well 
by the motion pictures as through the printed page ? 

4. Will the introduction of the motion pictures tend to increase 
the amount or quality of literature read? 

Mr. Lacy's experiment is not planned to throw light, specifically, on these 
problems. No doubt he would say, and perhaps justly, that he had to use some 
material for his experiment and that literary material happened to be convenient. 
It must be clear, however, that the problem, the method, the testing, and perhaps 

*See page 33. 

18 



Motion Pictures as an Educational Agency 19 

the conclusions would have been quite different had he used the government 
film, which was prepared to teach soldiers how to read a topographical map. 

In the method of his experiment the chief variables to be taken into account 
are the time given to each exercise, the subjects to which the exercises were 
assigned, the method of presentation used, and the method of testing. The 
experimenter should plan to equate all factors except the one being investigated, 
and should in the interest of clearness report the precautions taken to secure 
such a limitation of variables. In number and distribution of subjects, in the 
arrangement of sections, and in the personnel of the teaching aids Mr. Lacy 
seems to have planned very well, but it is not so clear that he sufficiently equated 
the time for presentation for each of the types of exercises, or that his method of 
testing is of a sort to bring out the true effect of each mode of learning. 

Whether or not the presentation by story, by reading, and by moving pictures, 
extended over the same number of minutes is not clear from the description of 
the experiment. If, as Mr. Lacy states, the story-teller in narrating the story 
gave "a practically verbatim" reproduction of the text read by the reading section 
the time of presentation could hardly have been the same. The experiment gives 
no indication of the time used for the presentation by moving pictures. Neither 
is it clear how inequalities of reading rate were taken care of in the reading 
group, nor is it possible to tell whether or not pupils, who had furnished a single 
reading, were allowed to reread. It would, of course, have been possible to make 
the time of each method of presentation equal, but not for the presentation 
of identical data. If the time was not equal, then the conclusions are valid, only 
when amended to compare the effect of a single presentation, regardless of the 
time taken for such a presentation. Suppose, for example, that the time given to 
each presentation was as follows: motion pictures, twenty minutes; reading, 
thirty minutes, and oral presentation, forty minutes. The conclusions based upon 
the evidences offered by Mr. Lacy would be quite different. 

Important as are these possible differences in the time given to each type 
of presentation, they are not so significant in evaluating Mr Lacy s experiment 
as the effect of the type of test used. It is, of course, very difficult to arrange 
a set of questions which test with equal rigor what one has obtained from seeing 
a moving picture representing a certain story, as compared with what is obtained 
by reading the story itself. Assuming that the moving pictures have been accur- 
ately made and that the legends which accompany the pictures are ample and in 
harmony with the original text, it must be clear that one could ask a great 
number of questions which pupils who had not seen the picture could not answer. 
In a similar way, unless the pictures and the legend present all the data given in 
the story itself, it would be possible to ask the questions on the original material 
which could not be answered by those who had seen the picture. Mr. Lacy states 
that no data were called for in the questions that were not supplied in each form 
of presentation. Unfortunately, he does not give the questions, so that we are 
not able to judge their fairness and adequacy. Assuming, however, that precau- 
tion was taken to ask questions the answers to which could have been found in 
the picture, in the text and in the story, it must still be clear that the very 



20 Visual Education 

fact that the test was a ianguage test rendered it at once unsuited to be the sole 
test of the efficiency of these three modes of presentation. On the one hand, 
experiments have shown quite clearly that individuals, after reading a paragraph 
or longer selection, may answer questions asked upon it quite glibly and with 
apparent correctness, and yet be shown to have very little real understanding of 
the selection. On the other hand, it is quite clear that many individuals who 
have a thorough-going understanding of a given situation through having experi- 
enced it may yet be unable to answer questions on the experience in a satisfactory 
manner. This is particularly true in case the questions require generalizations. 
The thing to remember is the inadequacy of language to assure accurate compre- 
hension except in case the individual has already had the essential experiences 
to the recall of which the language merely acts as a stimulus. This is true 
whether the language refers to the odor of a salt marsh, the howl of the coyote, 
the tug of a trout at the end of a fishing rod, or the appearance of the country 
in which the scene of "The Hoosier Schoolmaster" is laid. It is within the 
field of visual concreteness that moving pictures might be expected to make an 
important contribution. 

It is very common for children to be able to answer questions on a paragraph 
or a longer selection quite accurately, when by a more rigorous test they would 
be shown to have wholly erroneous and inadequate ideas of the meaning of the 
text. This has been shown quite clearly in the experiments which have been 
conducted in reading in the University of Iowa during the past three years. 
Two of these experiments will suffice to illustrate this deficiency. 

The following exercise was given along with a number of others to children 
in the third, fourth, fifth and sixth grade classes, and also to college students in 
the regular session 1917-18 and in the summer session. 

"I want to see how carefully you can read a short paragraph. After 

you have read it, you will be asked to answer some questions about it. 

In answering these questions there are three things you should be sure 

to remember. They are : 

1. Give just the information needed to answer each question, but 
make sure that the answer you give is to be found in the para- 
graph. 

2. If any question is asked for which you think there is no answer 
given in the paragraph, write on your paper, "The paragraph 
does not tell." 

3. You may read the paragraph as often as you wish to make sure 
that your answers are correct. 

Now that you know exactly what to do, read the following para- 
graph and answer the questions just as you have been told, remembering 
that you may have all the time that you need. 

PIONEER FURNITURE 

The big fireplace would be among the first things to attract atten- 
tion. Above it, resting on a shelf or mantel, would be seen a candle, a 
, clock and one of the housewife's most beautiful plates. Within the fire- 
place, fastened at one side, would be seen the crane upon which hang the 
kettles over the blazing fire. 

Sketch the picture you see when reading this paragraph." 



Motion Pictures as ax Educational Agency 21 

In carrying out the request to sketch the picture suggested by the paragraph 
it was not expected that the students would produce any finished drawing. After 
the drawings had been made, they were scored as to their accuracy. One part 
of the drawing test will illustrate the failure of the students to reproduce accur- 
ately the meaning of such a paragraph. One-half of a class of 21 children, in 
drawing the clock, drew a modern alarm clock. Only one child sketched a clock 
that had, any resemblance to any of the common forms of colonial clocks. Two 
pupils drew no clock at all on the mantel. 

It is quite clear that no amount of reading will give a child a clear idea of 
what a pioneer clock looks like, and yet, if the test of this paragraph had been 
the ability to answer the sort of questions ordinarily asked on material which 
has been read, these children no doubt would have made a very good score. Even 
in the case of college graduates, a large proportion drew alarm clocks to represent 
pioneer clocks. These adults, after having read the paragraph through once, said 
that they understood the paragraph and were only made aware of the inaccuracy 
of their comprehension by the drawing test. It may, of course, be argued that it 
is not important to know what a pioneer clock was like. Whether or not the 
information is important is, however, beside the point of the experiment, which 
sought to discover how accurately a paragraph is comprehended through reading. 
A very great proportion of the material found in text books in the elementary 
schools is less concrete and more difficult than this paragraph. 

Similar results are shown in a companion experiment conducted by Dr. 
Harry Greene and recently repeated. The exercise was designed to give some 
data on the ability of pupils to read a selection from geography. The test follows : 

"I want to see how carefully you can read a short paragraph. After 
you have read it you will be asked to answer some questions about it. 
In answering these questions there are three things you should be sure 
to remember. They are: 

1. Give just the information needed to answer each question, but 
make sure that the answer you give is to be found in the para- 
graph. 

2. If any question is asked for which you think there is no answer 
given in the paragraph write on your paper, "The paragraph 
does not tell." 

3. You may read the paragraph as often as you wish to make sure 
that your answers are correct. 

Now that you know exactly what to do, read the following para- 
graph and answer the questions just as you have been told, remembering 
that you may have all the time that you need. 

WHEAT BELTS 

The chief wheat belts extend through the valleys of the Missouri, the Ohio, 
and the upper Mississippi. Of all the states in this region Minnesota raises the 
most wheat. There is another belt along the Pacific coast. The present center 
of wheat production is about 100 miles west of Des Moines, Iowa; since 1850 it 
has moved westward nearly seven hundred miles, and northward about one 
hundred miles. 

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS 

1. Mark on the accompanying map the chief wheat belts of the 
United States by using a large letter "W" in the proper places. 



22 



Visual Education 



2. Place a number one (1) in the state raising the most wheat, on 
the map. 

3. Place a small cross (x) where the present center of wheat pro- 
duction is located. 

4. Show by an arrow ( —> ) the direction on the map in which the 
center of wheat production has moved 700 miles since 1850. 

5. Show by a star ( * ) on the map about where the center of wheat 
production previous to 1850 was located." 

In scoring the answers Dr. Greene arranged a scale of values which 
"would give credit to even slight approximations to the correct answer. 
The scale of values follows : 



KEY FOR SCORING EXPOSITION READING TEST WITH MAP 

"WV marking the valleys of the Mississippi, Missouri and 

Ohio rivers, and Pacific coast. 

"W's" marking valleys of the Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio. 

"W" in one of the three valleys. 

No "W" correctly placed. 

(1) in the state of Minnesota. 

(x) placed in Western Iowa. 

(x) placed in Nebraska. 

(x) placed in South Dakota or Kansas or farther west. 

No (x) correctly placed, or "paragraph does not tell." 

An arrow from central Ohio or any place in Ohio pointing 

toward central Iowa. 

An arrow to the east of Iowa pointing westward. 

An arrow pointing westward. 

No arrow, or arrow not pointing westward or northwest, or 

"paragraph does not tell." 



A star ( * ) in Ohio. 

A star in Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania or Kentucky. 

A star in any place to the east of the present center (100 

miles west of Des Moines). 

On the basis of this scale of values the following scores were given. For 
question 1 : Grade four made a score which was 39.1% of the total possible score; 
Grade five, a score which was 57.5% of the possible score; Grade six made a 
score which was 71.3% of the possible score. The percentage of possible scores 
for the other questions follows. For question II: Grade four, 29%; grade 
five, 72% ; grade six, 69.7%. For question III : Grade four, 36.2% ; grade five. 
72.7%; grade six, 71.3%. For question IV: Grade four, 18.8%; grade five, 
30.3%; grade six, 25.8%. For question V: Grade four, 24.7%; grade 
five, 18.2% ; grade six, 4.6%. It is interesting that in answering the fifth ques- 
tion no pupil in any of these three grades gave an answer which could be regarded 
as correct. 

No doubt this exercise does involve some knowledge of the map. This, 



Question I 


Score 3 : 


Score 2 : 


Score 1 : 


Score 0: 


Question II 


Score 3 : 


Question III 


Score 3 : 


Score 2 : 


Score 1 : 


Score : 


Question IV 


Score 3 : 


Score 2 : 


Score 1 : 


Score 0: 


Question V 


Score 3: 


Score 2 : 


Score 1 : 



Motion Pictures as an Educational Agency 23 

however, was largely offset by indicating on the map most of the regions referred 
to in the text. 

As in the exercise on pioneer furniture the result showed quite clearly that 
in testing by such an exercise pupils do not show an accurate comprehension of 
geographical material which they read. These data seem to show quite clearly, 
first, that if we expect children to get an accurate comprehension of the facts in 
such subjects as history and geography, we must make a very liberal use of 
devices which assure concreteness ; and second, that in comparing the results of 
reading with some other form of presentation, it is very important to guarantee 
that the test given does measure in an accurate way the comprehension of the 
pupil. Good teachers have long used pictures and models to assist in making 
their teaching concrete. More recently a development of project teaching (using 
"project" in the sense of an exercise taken in its natural setting and involving 
the use of concrete material and particularly in a constructive way), has done 
much to assure accurate comprehension. For example, the child who has made 
candles, using pioneer candle molds, has a far more accurate understanding of 
how candles were made than he ever could have as a result of reading about 
the process. 

The latest attempt to add to the reality of teaching and to guarantee a 
highly concrete and highly accurate understanding of such subjects as history, 
geography and science, is to be found in the use of moving pictures. The work 
at present is in its pioneer stages. For the most part, those who are interested 
have shown themselves quite willing to submit the efficiency of the moving 
pictures to the most careful inquiry. The most promising method of approach 
to the various problems involved in inquiry seems to the writer to consist first, 
in showing the limitations of presenting data orally or through reading; and 
second, in evaluating the various materials which may be proposed to supplement 
these language presentations. Among the devices which must be studied are; 
the picture, the graph, the stereoscope, the lantern slide, the project, the museum, 
the excursion, and the moving picture. Because of the serious commercial prob- 
lems involved in the manufacture, introduction and distribution of moving 
pictures it is particularly desirable that we continue the experiments which Mr. 
Lacy and others have begun. Many serious mistakes and the consequent loss 
in money and in opportunity, can be avoided only in this way. 

Ernest Horn, 
Professor of Education, State University of Iowa, 

Iowa City, Iowa. 



Our School Children and the Movies 



THE Commission upon Moving Pictures Censorship appointed September 23, 
1919, under resolution of the Judiciary Committee of the City Council of 
the City of Chicago, has been conducting hearings and investigations, and 
in a report of its findings says : 

"The motion picture industry, in the few years of its existence as 
a popular amusement and practical business, has outstripped every 
otber industry or enterprise. It is more far-reaching, and has a greater 
influence and is of greater importance to all people than any of the 
other industries of life because of the vast numbers of people coming 
in direct contact with it, and in the amount and extent of the daily 
turnover of money in its production. 

"The Cinema, as it is known in Europe, or the Motion Pictures, 
as it is called in this country, has a greater bearing and more direct 
effect upon and controlling influence on the people as a whole — men, 
women and children alike — than does the home, the school, the church, 
or than do the physical things necessary to social community existence, 
such as lighting, health regulations, liquor traffic, transportation, etc., 
or even "quality of municipal administration of government." 

"The Motion Pictures relate to and directly bear upon and control 
to an unbelievable extent, the trend of the mind and the education 
and morals of every man, woman and child in the community."' 

The essential correctness of the foregoing statements is conceded by all. 
It is impossible to over-rate the power and influence upon our national life 
which is being exercised by motion pictures today. They are a part of the life 
of the people. The rich and the poor, the educated and the illiterate, of all 
ages and all classes, no matter what language they speak or understand, find 
amusement and recreation in them. The motion picture speaks to the mind 
in a universal language. A picture can be absolutely absorbed merely by seeing 
it. It is probably the easiest way to receive impressions that the world has yet 
discovered. Mr. Oberhoetzer, Secretary of the State Board of Censorship of 
Pennsylvania, says : "One can read and get an impression if he is industrious 
enough to do so, but when he views a motion picture he gets an impression in 
spite of himself. The influence of a motion picture is obviously much greater 
than the influence of a book. It is more graphic and is an influence which fixes 
the mind of a person who does not read or who cannot read and he absorbs it 
anyhow," 

The extent of the patronage of moving picture theaters is astonishing. It 
is estimated that the average weekly attendance in the United States is fifty 
millions. The paid admissions in Chicago alone are about three millions per 
week. On account of its far reaching and powerful influence thru its direct 
contact with vast numbers of people, the motion picture industry possesses the 
power to do either the greatest good for the community or the greatest harm. 
This is realized now more than ever before. Nearly every organization which is 
interested in child welfare work and community betterment has a Better Films, 
or Motion Picture Committee. This is especially true of women's clubs and 
parent-teacher associations. 

24 



Our School Children and the Movies 25 

The first thing needed is reliable information regarding the actual situa- 
tion. The parent-teacher associations are interested primarily in the extent to 
which school children attend the motion picture theaters, the kinds of pictures 
they like and the effects these pictures have upon them. 

During the latter part of Miarch, in order to determine the real conditions 
in Chicago, I sent questionnaires to six schools located in representative sections 
of the city, including two in Hyde Park, one in Woodlawn, one in Englewood, 
one in an Italian district, and one in a western suburb. Thru the splendid 
co-operation of principals and teachers, all pupils in the grades from fourth to 
eighth inclusive wrote the answers to five questions as an English lesson, often 
elaborating upon their replies in true childish fashion. 

I read with much interest the papers from more than three thousand pupils, 
and questions 1 and 2 (1. How many times a week do you go to the movies? 
2. On which days of the week do you usually go?) revealed the following facts: 
With several hundred children attendance at the movies is a fixed habit, 
as their replies indicate. One said "I always go every Friday night, as there 
is no school the next clay." Others stated their reasons, almost apologetically, "I 
go nine times a week, every night and also in the afternoon on Saturday and 
Sunday, because my mother plays the piano at the show." "I always go two 
times a week except in Lent. I never go in Lent." Etc. Friday, Saturday or 
Sunday means attendance at the movies as definitely as Sunday used to mean 
attendance at Sunday School. 

The results on attendance for the 3,000 pupils who answered the question- 
naire were as follows : 

,44% attend the movies once a week 
'28% " " " twice 
10% " " " three times a week 
3% " " " four " " " 
1% " " " five " " " 
3/5 of 1% " " " six " " " 
2/5 of 1% " " " seven or more times a week 
3% do not go at all 
10% go only occasionally. 
This indicates that for the 2,610 pupils who attend regularly it requires 
4,602 tickets per week, not including those whose attendance is irregular. The 
average cost of a ticket is at least 20 cents, or a weekly total for these six schools 
of $920. The total for the year is the astonishing amount of over $46,000. 

If question five were given alone, accurate information could not be secured 
from the children, and therefore three and four were given to serve as a check 
on five. These three questions were : 

3. Name the best picture you have ever seen. 

4. Name five others which you liked very much. 

5. What kind of pictures do you prefer ? 

As an illustration, one pupil gave Charlie Chaplin in "Shoulder Arms" as 
the best picture he had ever seen and named four comedies and one serial as 
favorites, then answered five by saying "I like educational pictures best, espe- 



26 Visual Education 

daily those with Charlie Chaplin." With this reply to five, given without three 
and four, his preference might have been classified under "educational,"' but 
with the other two questions serving as a cbeck on five, it was very evident his 
preference was comedy. 

Tn order to simplify the classification of pictures named, the following 
outline was used in discussing the replies: 

Drama — All best grade films, educational, dramas, Paramount travel, Avar, 
industrial, fairy stories, books, as "Little Women," "The Blue Bird," etc. 

Comedy — Cartoons, animated funnies, best grade of comedy. 

Serial and Western — Mystery and adventure, cowboy stories, rough western 
comedy and shooting. 

The classification of the kind of picture preferred has been carefully made 
after taking into consideration the picture named as best and the five favorites, 
the count being given to the majority. 

52% indicated a preference for drama 
20% " " " " comedy 

20% " " " " serials and western 

It is an interesting fact that the preferences are quite different in the 
school in the Italian district from those in the other districts. A much lower 
grade of pictures are shown there, the motion picture theaters are less numerous, 
and the standards of living are quite different from those of the better resi- 
dential neighborhoods. Shooting and fighting to them is indicative of brave 
and courageous men. 

For 714 pupils in two schools of the two types the classification of picture 
preference follows: 

Comedy Drama Western and Serial 

South Side School 187 415 112 

Tenement School 119 163 432 

The serials are nothing more nor less than the old dime novel pictured and 
given in the form of a continued story. 

It is also an interesting fact that while, in the school in the Italian district, 
there are 245 pupils in the fourth grade and 218 pupils in the fifth grade, there 
are only 116 in the sixth grade, 79 in the seventh, and 73 in the eighth. Here 
is a definite example of the decrease in attendance at school above the fifth grade 
in the tenement district. The following comparison in school attendance is made 
between schools of approximately the same size. 

Uh 5th 6th 7th 8th 





Total No 




pupils 


South Side 


719 


Tenement District . . . 


731 



108 • 163 158 155 135 

245 218 116 79 73 

Returning to question five, here are a few replies as given by the children : 
"The kinds of picture I like best are those that scare you." "Good sensible pic- 
tures where people are very poor and grow rich." "Lots of pep and exciting." 
"Monkeys and Fatty Arbuckle; they make fun." "Guns and police wagons, 
because people are all sad and excited." "Lots of fighting when men are brave 
and fight for a girl." "I never go but the best picture I ever saw was flowers. 



Our School Children and the Movies 27 

I like flowers, cats, dogs and lakes, but I like flowers best of all." "Mystery, 
but not too deep." "Educational pictures like the Lincoln Highwayman." "I 
like a picture that is 2/3 humorous and 1/3 serious." (Evidently beginning 
study of fractions.) "I like to see how things are made; pictures of fisheries, 
etc., and good western scenery." "Good books like Pollyanna." "Travels with 
Burton Holmes." "I never go except when mother knows it is a good show 
and she goes with me." "I never went. I have nothing to tell you because I 
never went." Etc. 

In order to determine the actual effect of the movies on the school work of 
the pupils the teachers were asked to indicate by numbers (not names) the five 
best pupils in scholarship and deportment in each room, also the five poorest. 
The data from these pupils were compiled separately and for the six schools the 
attendance at the movies of the best pupils included 275 pupils and they require 
393 tickets per week, while the 275 poorest require 503 tickets weekly. Again 
there is a great difference in the various districts and you can draw your own 
conclusions from the following table: 

TABLE OF 50 BEST PUPILS AND 50 POOREST FROM EACH OF FOUR SCHOOLS 

(10 of each from each grade) 

Weekly Attendance 

SCHOOL A B C D TOTAL 

Best Poorest Best Poorest Best Poorest Best Poorest Best Poorest 

No. of pupils.. 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 200 200 

One 28 24 14 16 26 20 18 14 86 74 

Two 11 17 19 14 12 18 16 18 58 67 

Three ....3 1 6 7 5 7 7 14 22 

Four 7 1 3 1 10 

Five 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 

Six 1 1 1 1 2 

Seven 1 1 

None 1 3 1 3 

Occasionally . . 8 5 9 4 3 1 16 6 36 16 
No. of tickets 

per week.. 59 69 75 103 81 82 50 94 265 348 
Kind of Picture Preferred 

Comedy 10 15 8 13 6 6 8 10 32 44 

Drama 37 29 41 27 14 6 31 20 123 82 

Serial and 

Western . . 3 .6 1 10 29 35 11 20 44 71 
School A represents families of many nationalities in moderate circumstances. 
School B represents a fair average. 

School C tenement district where movie theaters are very poor and not numerous. 

School D is in one of the best residential sections where theaters are good and 
very numerous. 

ESTELLA L. MODLTON, 

Chairman Better Films Committee, 
Illinois Council of Parent-Teacher Association. 



An Inexpensive Model of a Medieval 
Castle 

IT IS easy nowadays for the teacher with funds at his disposal to secure 
good models of many objects which will conduce to the better appreciation 
of the life, customs and environment of the historic peoples his pupils study. 
Not all teachers have such a fund, but where there is a manual-training depart- 
ment in the school it is quite feasible to have a number of good models made at 
practically no expense. Even the one-teacher rural school can secure such ma- 
terials at a very small expenditure of money, time and effort. For example, a 
model of a feudal castle can be made (by teacher, or pupils directed by the 
teacher) for about twenty-five cents — fifty cents at the outside. Of course the 
collaboration of the pupils will not only tend to eliminate the cost item entirely; 
but will promote a clearer understanding of the significance of such a model. 

To test the practicability of making such a model cheaply, some time ago 
I made a model of an English castle to illustrate the history of the Norman 
period. The plans and illustrations may be found in such books as Gross's 
Antiquities, Vol. L, Gotch's Growth of the House, ch. 1, Viollet-le-Duc's Annals 
of the Fortress, ch. ix. ; see also the article, "The Development of the Castle in 
England and Wales" in The History Teacher's Magazine for November, 1912, 
(II, 191) and Barnard's Companion to English History in the Middle Ages. In 
case none of these is available to the teacher of the one-room rural school, I 
submit the following details in the hope that he may profit by my experience. 

On a substantial base of cardboard 21 by 30 inches, draw a rectangle 15 by 
15. This represents the line of the outer wall. Within draw a square 7 inches 
by 7. At the corners of the squares the bastions are erected. The accompanying 
diagram (Fig. I), which is not drawn to scale, gives the ground-plan. The 
dimensions are approximately: 5 inches from the edge of the cardboard to the 
moat, which is 2>y 2 inches wide; 7 inches from the outer wall to the inner; 6 
inches from the inner wall to the castle. Obviously these proportions may be 
varied to suit the needs of the teacher. 

Pasteboard, ink, mucilage, paper, water-colors, tinfoil, cigarette boxes, a 
bit of cloth, pins, toothpicks and string are all the materials needed ; while 
knife, scissors, ruler and pencil are the necessary implements. 

Around the wall of the outer bailey narrow strips of tinfoil may be pasted 
to represent the silvery gleam of water in the moat. The wall of the outer bailey 
(or of both) and that of the castle can be made by standing cigarette boxes on 
edge, pasting them to the cardboard and to each other. Thin boxes of a rectan- 
gular shape answer best, and when you ask your friends to save their empty boxes 
for you, make sure that they use brands of cigarettes which have tinfoil in the 
boxes. By cutting a box in half, lengthwise, then fitting two fourths together 
and standing this square box on end, towers, bastions, etc., are secured. These 
are also attached with paste, but can be further strengthened by pasting strips of 
paper to them and to the cardboard base in the manner of a hinge. Strips of 
paper can be cut as in Figure II and pasted to the tops of the walls to give the 

28 



An Inexpensive Model of a Medieval Castle 



29 










Figure I 




\. 


Moat B. Outer 


Bailey. 


C. 


Inner Bailey. D. Courtyard 


1. 


Drawbridge towers 




7. 


Well 


2. 


Drawbridge 




8. 


Donjon 


3. 


"Windlass 




9. 


Cbapel 


4. 


Outer wall 




10. 


Stables, granaries, armories, smith 


5. 


Inner wall 






ies, houses of retainers, etc. 


6. 


Castle walls 




11. 


Portcullis 



effect of battlements. For the walls of the outbuildings, castle and square towers, 
cigarette, match or pillboxes may be used, as convenient. 

Eound towers and flanking walls forming the defenses of the approach to 
the drawbridge are made by rolling heavy paper into cylinders of the desired 
size, pasting them together, and attaching them to ground by hinges of paper as 
already directed. The drawbridge is simply a strip of pasteboard, with a paper 
hinge securing it at the inner end. The windlass is made of two strips of paste- 
board, fastened like the towers, with a pin or toothpick on which to wind the 
chains, which are strings. The portcullis is made of a strip of cardboard arranged 
to slide between the towers, or walls of a gateway. (See Fig. III). The gate 



rLrumruin 



30 Visual Education 

to the inner wall and the door of the castle — if a door is preferred to another 
portcullis here — may be either hinged or sliding, as desired. 

After the whole model is dry, paint the cardboard within the walls and on 
each side the moat green, to represent grass. ' (That within the courtyard may 
be painted grey or brown. to represent a flagged pavement). Dissolve your brown 
water-color in the least possible amount of water, add enough black ink to make 
a blackish-gray, weather-beaten looking wash, and color the walls and castle with 
it. More than one coat will be needed, especially if your cigarette boxes are of 
different colors. When this is dry, sketch with white ink, or yellow paint, win- 
dows, embrasures, etc. 

Either a bit of cloth, or paper of various colors may be used to make a flag, 
which can be hoisted over the donjon tower on a flagstaff made of a toothpick. 
From a cigarette box of one of the "fancy" brands, the gilt crest can be cut, in 
shield shape, and pasted as a coat-of-arms over the entrance. If preferred, a 
real crest may be copied from Burke, or some work on heraldry. 

It is well to have a picture of some 
famous castle (Perry Pictures or Tuck 
Postcards) to guide you in the construc- 
tion of such a model. As Figure 1 shows, 
it is necessary to conventionalize the 
ground-plan and produce a "typical" cas- 
tle, rather than try to copy a particular 
castle, unless you have the co-operation of 
well-equipped manual training and art departments. Such a model could be 
used with profit in high school classes in medieval and English history. The 
making of one would be an excellent 'and profitable exercise for the history 
classes of a normal school. 

Such questions as the following [which are the result of showing the model 
to. classes and noting their questions] will serve to stimulate interest and 
thought. 

1. What is this [Portcullis]. What purpose did it serve? 

2. Why do the bastions and towers project outside the walls? 
Why are the towers higher? 

3. What purposes would the moat serve? How? 

4. Where would the water come from? What does this sug- 
gest as to the choice of a site for a castle? 

5. What purpose do the flankers to the drawbridge serve? Are 
they necessary? Why? 

6. For what are these outhouses? 

?'. Why is grass left growing in the baileys? 

8. Why have two walls around the castle? 

9. Why is the donjon tower higher than the rest? 

10. Why are there so few entrances? Why so placed? 

11. Why are the windows so few, so small and so high up? 

12. Of what was such a castle built? Whence obtained? 

13. How would you heat such buildings? Why? 



Figure II 



An Inexpensive Model of a Medieval Castle 



31 



14. Who lived in such a place? Why? 

15. Was it built for comfort or security? How do you know? 

16. Who manned it? Under what circumstances? 

17. Compare it with a picture of a castle built about 1550, (e. g. 
Deal Castle in Tuck Postcards). Which is the more graceful and com- 
fortable? Why? 

18. Can you explain why castles like this model were not built 
after about 1500? 

Collateral readings in such works as Oman's History of the Art of War, 
Creasy's Decisive Battles, LaCroix's Military and Religious Life in the Middle 
Ages, Froissart's Chronicles, and Cornish's Chivalry, might be assigned with 
profit, while the class was working on such a model. Of course the chances of 
collaboration with the English teacher, in the utilization of historical novels are 
obvious and manifold. All teachers, I hope, possess "castles in Spain." [Woe be 
unto the pupil when the teacher ceases to build them!] Here is a chance to 
visualize one "from turret to foundation-stone," and, unlike that of Douglas, it 
will not be your king's but your own. 



Z&A'l-V- 



7o+/er 




:&~M ~ 



Figure III 



Along with the model, in the teaching of a lesson on feudal warfare, the 
teacher should display photographs of such masterpieces as A 7 isscher's King- 
Arthur, or the suits of armor in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, or some simi- 
lar institution. 

One more word, and I am done. If you have not already started a histori- 
cal museum in your school, let this model be the first exhibit in it. With this 
as a nucleus, you can soon develop something which will help every teacher in 
the school, and which, with the library and auditorium, will tend to make the 
school a true community centre. It ought also to be the first step towards the 
organization of a local historical society, if your community has not one 'already. 
On the making and using a museum of history, I cannot possibly do better than 
call your attention to the brilliant and helpful essays of Professor E. C. Page, 
namely : 

"A Working Museum of History," History Teacher's Magazine, March, 1914. 



32 Visual Education 

"How the Working Museum of History Works," Ibid., December, 1915. 

"More about the Working Museum of History," Historical Outlook, Feb. 
1920. 

See also : Sheap, H., "How I Collected Material for My Museum," History 
Teacher's Magazine, June, 1915. 

MlLLEDGE L. BONHAM, Jr. 

Professor of History, 
Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 



N. E. A. Program (Continued from page 17) 
Wednesday Evening, July 7, 1920, 7:30 o'clock 

HEALTH EDUCATION 

Health Education (5 minutes) 

Thomas D. Wood, Professor of Physical Education, Teachers College, Columbia 

University, New York, N. Y., Chairman. 
Sallie Lucas Jean, Director Child Health Organization, New York, N. Y. 
E. G. Gowans, State Health Inspector, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
A. A. Slade, Commissioner of Education, Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Margaret S. McNaught, Commissioner of Elementary Education, Sacramento, 

Calif. 
Katherine D. Blake, Principal Public School No. 6, Borough of Manhattan, N. Y. 

Character Education 

E. H. Lindley, President University of Idaho, Boise, Idaho. 

Illiteracy 

Cora Wilson Stewart, Chairman Kentucky Illiteracy Commission, Frankfort, Ky. 

Thrift Education 

Arthur Chamberlain, Secretary California Council of Education, San Francisco, 
Calif. 

Thursday Forenoon, July 8, 1920, 9:00 o'clock 

National Congress of School Boards, Classroom Teachers and Superintendents 
The School Board's Place in the Educational System (4 minutes) 

Albert Wunderlich, Commissioner of Education, St. Paul, Minn. 

Frank Gilbert, Deputy Commissioner of Education, Albany, N. Y. 

C. C. Hansen, Member of School Board, Memphis, Tenn. 

E. C. Day, Member of School Board, Helena, Mont. 

Frank Thompson, Member of School Board, Cleveland, Ohio. 

O. O. Hoga, Member of School Board, Boise, Idaho. 

Mrs. V. H. Miller, Chairman School Board Section Inland Empire Teachers As- 
sociation, Tacoma, Wash. 

Nova Snell, Member of School Board, Lincoln, Nebr. 

Mrs. J. H. Barnes, Member of School Board, Duluth, Minn. 

J. C. Freece, Member of School Board, Davenport, Wash. 

R. W. Corwin, Member of School Board, Pueblo, Colo. 

John M. Withrow, Member of School Board, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

The Survival of Professional Spirit Despite Economic Pressure and Social Unrest 
John H. Finley, Commissioner of Education, Albany, N. Y. 
(Program continued on page 39) 



The Relative Value of Motion Pictures as an 
Educational Agency 

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 

Editor's Note. This article is reprinted by permission from Teachers 
College Record for November, 1919. The Italics are our own. 

(For lack of space the latter part of Mr. Lacy's article is omitted 
here. It contains valuable tables of percentage statistics on his experi- 
ment, and our readers are referred to the original publication for this 
additional data.) 

IN THE memory of those still young, colleges which concerned themselves 
most with the morals of their students forbade attendance at the "movies." 
In spite of such opposition, however, motion pictures have come into their 
own. They have invaded the churches and the schools ; in fact, the motion picture 
theaters, particularly in the cities, have become the adult continuation schools 
and the real social centers. Certain cynics hold that academic tradition is the 
last stronghold against the new; yet even this stronghold is surrendering to the 
motion picture, for Columbia University has just introduced courses in cinema- 
tography. It is now openly admitted that the two greatest modern inventions 
are motion pictures and the phonograph, for the former preserves that which is 
good to see and the latter that which is good to hear. 

No one denies that motion pictures have some moral and pedagogical value, 
so the problem really reduces itself to a comparison of these values with those of 
other agencies. The exponent of motion pictures has little evidence upon which 
to base his claims, for experimental data on this subject are practically non- 
existent. The purpose of this article is to report the methods and results of some 
experiments to determine the pedagogical and moral value of motion pictures. 
These experiments compare the efficiency of three typical methods of pre- 
senting a story to pupils: (1) silent reading of a story by pupils, (2) oral telling 
of the story to pupils, and (3) presentation of the story to pupils by means of 
motion pictures. 

The ultimate evaluation of these three methods of presentation will depend 
upon a number of measurements, including the influence of each upon vision, 
social behavior, and other aspects of personal experience. Only four measure- 
ments were applied during these experiments. The questions which the investi- 
gation was designed to answer were: (1) Which method gives pupils the most 
factual knowledge ? (2) Which method stimulates the largest amount of thinking 
or inference? (3) Which method most improves the ability of pupils to make 
moral discriminations? (4) Which method is most interesting to pupils? 

The experiments were conducted and the results statistically treated as 
described in detail in the latter part of the article. The data tabulated support 
the following conclusions: 

Under the conditions of our experiments, questions of fact, inference, or 
moral discrimination can be answered more adequately when the narrative mate- 
rial has been presented by a story-teller or as reading matter than ivhen presented 
through the motion picture; of the two more successful methods of presentation, 
the story-telling has the advantage. 

33 



34 Visual Education 

The relative merit of the different methods of presentation, stated more 
exactly, is as follows : 

1. Superiority of presentation through reading matter to presentation 
through the motion picture, as concerns 

(a) questions of fact, 7.26 per cent 

(b) questions of inference, 8.375 per cent 

(c) questions of moral discrimination, 5.525 per cent. 

2. Superiority of oral presentation to presentation through the motion 
picture, as concerns 

(a) questions of fact, 12.21 per cent 

(b) questions of inference, 9.475 per cent 

(c) questions of moral discrimination, 5.35 per cent. 

3. Superiority of oral presentation to presentation through reading 
matter, as concerns 

(a) questions of fact, 4.95 per cent 

(b) questions of inference, 1.1 per cent 

(c) questions of moral discrimination, 0.175 per cent. 

When the results of the different tests are combined by averaging the figures 
given above, the relative merit is as follows : 

Superiority of presentation through reading matter to presentation through 
the motion picture, 7.053 per cent;. of oral presentation to presentation through 
the motion picture, 9.012 per cent; and of oral presentation to presentation 
through reading matter, 1.958 per cent. 

After a part of the story selected had been presented to the pupils by each 
of the three methods, and the first measurements had been taken, a supplementary 
experiment was conducted to investigate the attitude of the subjects toward the 
various methods of presentation, and to discover the one which had made the 
largest appeal to their interest. An opportunity was given for the subjects to 
vote upon the method by which they desired that the remaining two-fifths of the 
story be presented, with the understanding that the preference thus expressed 
would be respected. As was to be expected, the vote favored the presentation 
through the motion picture; next in order came the reading, while story-telling 
was the least popular of all. The percentages were respectively 90.8, 5.0 and 0.4, 
3.8 not voting. Thus our results would indicate that the order of effectiveness 
of the various methods, where appeal to interest is concerned, is exactly the oppo- 
site of that which obtains if the ability to reproduce and apply the material 
presented is considered. 

After an interval varying from three to five weeks the same four measure- 
ments, excepting the interest measurement, were repeated to determine the per- 
manent value of the three methods of presentation. The data tabulated support 
the following conclusions : 

Under the conditions of our experiments, questions of fact, inference, or 
moral discrimination can be answered more adequately upon delayed recall when 
the narrative material has been presented by a story-teller or as reading matter 
than when presented through the motion picture; of the tivo more successful 
methods of presentation, story-telling is the more advantageous. 



Motion Pictures as an Educational Agency 35 

The relative merit of the different methods of presentation, stated numer- 
ically, is as follows: 

1. Superiority of presentation through reading matter to presentation 
through the motion picture, as concerns 

(a) questions of fact, 0.95 per cent 

(b) questions of inference, 2.35 per cent 

(c). questions of moral discrimination, 0.55 per cent. 

2. Superiority of oral presentation to presentation through the motion 
picture, as concerns 

(a) questions of fact, 4.25 per cent 

(b) questions of inference, 5.85 per cent 

(c) questions of moral discrimination, 3.625 per cent. 

3. Superiority of oral presentation to presentation through reading- 
matter, as concerns 

(a) questions of fact, 3.275 per cent 

(b) questions of inference, 3.50 per cent 

(c) questions of moral discrimination, 4.175 per cent. 

When the results of the different tests of delayed recall are combined by 
averaging the figures given above, the relative merit is as follows : 

Superiority of presentation through reading matter to presentation through 
the motion picture, 0.917 per cent; of oral presentation to presentation through 
the motion picture, 4.575 per cent; and of oral presentation to presentation 
through reading matter, 3.65 per cent. 

The differences between the various methods of presentation are less in 
the tests for delayed recall than in the original ones. The same relative position, 
however, is retained by each method. The decreased differences may be explained 
by the fact that since the material was all taken from one story, there may have 
been transfer of ideas from one section of the story to another, and this would 
particularly affect the tests of delayed recall. Although the questions were worded 
very carefully to prevent such possible transfer, still the greater familiarity with 
the characters would be sufficient to lessen the actual differences between the 
various methods, were there no other sources of transfer. The differences are 
still marked, however; and if this factor has operated, our conclusions, as a result, 
are conservative. 

Various questions as to the degree of confidence which should be placed in 
the results readily suggest themselves. A number of these will be discussed briefly. 

First, was the reliability of the conclusions affected by departures from the 
original plan of the experiment ? Such could scarcely be the case since, with two 
slight modifications, the experiment was conducted as originally planned, ami 
these modifications were not such as to affect the results presented. 

Second, were the subjects a representative selection? They were boys from 
two New York schools. Since these schools were situated on the lower east and 
west sides, respectively, the subjects were chiefly Hebrews and Italians. The 
strictly American stock was not well represented. It is possible that results 
obtained from experiments upon members of different nationalities might vary 
somewhat from those obtained in our experiments; but it is not highly probable 
that they would vary to such an extent as to change our conclusions, inasmuch 



36 Visual Education 

as the results obtained from both nationalities are essentially the same, although 
the two groups differ so widely in their characteristics. Further, the variation 
in age (from 11 to 17 years) is sufficient to justify the application of our conclu- 
sions to older children and possibly also to adults. 

Third, were the test questions used fair to all the methods of presentation? 
In answer it may be said that since the questions were selected so that the elements 
of the story involved were common to the three types of narrative material, none 
of the methods was favored in this regard. The objection may be raised that 
the motion picture does not supply the words of the story as do story-telling and 
silent reading. This statement is in part true ; still, through the captions of the * 
motion picture most of the essential words are vividly portrayed. Although the 
rest of the words are not supplied, this lack is inherent in the method of presenta- 
tion, and a distinctive difference of this sort is just the type of factor the tests 
were designed to measure. 

Fourth, have all the factors involved been investigated? Considerations of 
time and convenience have necessarily limited the research. For example, it would 
have been desirable to investigate the effect of the various methods of presentation 
on the conduct of the children. Some steps were taken to devise tests to subject 
this factor to quantitative investigation, but the undertaking was abandoned 
because of the time which would have been required for such a study. Further- 
more, the investigation should be supplemented by experiments which would 
eliminate any constant error due to the fact that but one motion picture and one- 
story-teller were introduced. The investigation, therefore, can make no claim 
to completeness, nor does it make possible a final estimate of the relative value 
of motion pictures as an educational agency. It may serve, however, to point out 
the advantage of methods already in vogue and serve as a warning against the 
assumption that motion pictures are unqualifiedly our most valuable educational 
agency. 

The remainder of this article is devoted to a description of the method of 
procedure followed in conducting the main experiments and the treatment of 
results, and presents the data upon which the conclusions cited earlier are based. 

"The Hoosier Schoolmaster," a five-reel feature film, was selected as a 
suitable motion picture for the experiments, only the first three parts being used 
as a basis for measurement. Equivalent material in printed and story form was 
provided in the following manner : A student who had majored in English during 
her college course viewed the motion picture. She then wrote up the story as 
carefully as possible, taking care to include all essential facts as a basis for pros- 
pective test questions. She then polished the story by substituting as far as 
possible the words of the author, that the material thus prepared might be equiva- 
lent in artistic and dramatic effect to the motion picture. This material was 
multigraphed and used for silent reading. It served also as the basis for 
the story-telling, a practically verbatim reproduction being given by the story- 
teller. 2 

The subjects for the experiments were three hundred and fifteen boys from 



2. The story-teller was a grade school principal above the average in native abil- 
ity, though not a trained story-teller. 



TABLE I 








A.SSES AND ISTl 
D01 I 


JMBER OF 

7A1 4 


Subjects 

7A2 


7A3 


I 


(22) 5 
7A4 


(30) 

7A5 


(17) 
7A6 


II 


(24) 
8A1 


(21) 
8A2 


(21) 
8x4.3 


II 


(35) 
8A4 


(23) 
9A1 


(32) 
9A2 




(31) 


(24) 


(35) 



Motion Pictures as an Educational Agency 37 

two New York public schools. 3 At one school six 7A grades participated; at 
the other, four 8A and two 9A grades. The 7A grades included boys from 
11 to 15 years of age, with the median age at 13 ; the 8 A and 9A grades, boys 
from 12 to 16 years of age, with the median age at 14. These twelve classes 
were divided into four experimental units, three classes in each group, as indi- 
cated in the table. 

Arrangement o 
Experimental Unit I 

« n 

" III 

" IV 

The rotation experimental method was used in the presentation of the mate- 
rial. The procedure in Experiment I, which is typical of that followed in the 
other experiments, is indicated below. 

TABLE II 

experimental unit i 

Order of Presentation of material 

Week Motion-Picture Silent Reading Story-Telling 

First 7A3 7A2 7A1 

Second 7A2 7A1 7A3 

Third 7A1 7A3 7A2 

The first week three of the 7A sections were presented the three forms of 

material : 7 A3 saw the first reel of the motion picture ; 7A2 read from multigraphed 

copy the equivalent part of the story, and 7A1 heard the same part of the story 

as told by the story-teller. The second week a similar procedure was followed, 

but a different method of presentation for each section was employed. Thus, for 

example, 7A3 heard but did not see the second part of the story. The third 

week a shift was made again, so that at the end of that time each grade had had 

an opportunity to see, read and hear one part of the story. 

THE TEST QUESTIONS 

As has been indirectly indicated, the results of the various methods of presen- 
tation were measured by means of a series of test questions. The principles gov- 
erning the making out of the test questions were as follows : 

1. Select the most important ideas and facts for interrogation. 

2. Ask enough questions to cover all the important ideas and facts. 
(Some less important ones were also included.) 

3. Make the questions independent of each other. 

4. "Word all questions in such a way as not to answer otliers. 

5. For single questions select unit facts and ideas. 

6. Use language that all pupils understand easily. 

3. The author wishes to acknowledge gratefully the cooperation of Principals 
Marks and Wade of Public Schools 64 and 95, respectively, with whose permission and 
assistance the experiments were conducted. 

4. The numbers following- 7A, 8A, and 9A refer to the sections. 

5. The figures in parentheses indicate the number of subjects in each group who 
completed the experiment. 



38 Visual Education 

These test questions were of three different kinds : questions of fact, questions 
of inference, and questions of moral discrimination. 

The fact questions consisted of forty interrogations concerning events and 
actual facts presented by the three methods previously described — through the 
motion picture, the reading, and the story-telling. Below is a sample of the 
questions and also of the preliminary directions which were placed above the 
questions. 

Directions. When the answer to a question is "Yes," draw a line under the 
word "Yes." When the answer to a question is "No," draw a line under the 
word "No." Be sure to answer every question; guess at the answers to the 
questions that you do not know. Do it like this : 

Did the story take place in the city? Yes No 

Did the story take place in the country ? 6 Yes No 

Was Mrs. Means' house neat and in order? Yes No 

Did Bud have a sister ? Yes No 

Was Mr. Means whittling ? Yes No 

Answers to these questions could in each case be secured from the material 

which the subjects had actually either seen, read, or heard. Thus, to take the 

first sample given, "Was Mrs. Means' house neat and in order?" a very untidy 

home is displayed in the picture, and a statement to the effect that Mrs. Means 

was a very untidy housekeeper is made in the story. 

The questions of inference consisted of twenty interrogations, answers to 
which were to be inferred from the facts presented. Although the illustrative 
questions printed below appear to be of the same nature as the fact questions, 
such is not the case, for the answers to these could not be directly obtained from 
the material presented. 

Did Mrs. Means think the schoolmaster would make a 

pretty good husband for Mirandy? Yes No 

Did Mrs. Means offer to get Balph's coat mended because 

she was fond of him? Yes No 

Did Hanna do a good piece of work on the coat in order 

to spite Mrs. Means? Yes No 

The moral discrimination questions consisted of twenty interrogations, 
which, as the name indicates, required for answer the exercise of moral judgment. 
Illustrative questions appear below : 

Should Jack have told what he knew about the store robbery ? Yes No 
Was it right for Bud to speak up for Hanna against his 

mother ? Yes- No 

Was it wrong for Balph to ask Mrs. Means to mend his coat ? Yes No 
Would the Captain with a wooden leg make a good friend? Yes No 
Three sets of test questions, one of each type, were prepared for each of tb; 
three parts of the story, thus making a total of nine. 

John V. Lacy, 
Secretary for Sunday School zvorJc in Korea under the Board of Sunday Schools 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Seoul, Korea. 



6. Although the illustrative questions given the subjects are but two forms of the 
same question, no duplication occurred in the text of the test itself. 



National Education Association 39 

N. E. A. Program (Continued from page 32) 
Adequate Salaries fob Teachebs 

P. P. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C. 
Thursday Afternoon, July 8, 1920, 2:00 o'clock 
The Pabt the Teacheb Should Play in the Administbation of the School System 
(4 minutes) 
M. G. Clark, Superintendent City Schools, Sioux City, Iowa 

Cornelia Adair, President of National League of Teachers Association, Rich- 
mond, "Va. 
J. R. Kirk, President State Teachers College, Kirksville, Mo. 
O. C. Pratt, Superintendent City Schools, Spokane, Wash. 
Education fob the New Eba 

Payson Smith. Commissioner of Education, Boston, Mass. 

What Should be Done to Keep High Class Supeeintendents in the Schools 
(4 minutes) 
E. O. Holland, President Washington State College, Pullman, Wash. 
William M. Davidson, Superintendent of Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
E. O. Sisson, President University of Montana, Missoula, Mont. 
Charles E. Chadsey, Dean of Education, University of Illinois, Champaign, 111. 
Thursday Evening, July 8, 1920, 7:30 o'clock 

FINANCING OUR PUBLIC SCHOOLS 
Rural Schools 

W. C. Bagley, Professor of Education. Teachers College, Columbia University, 
New York, N. Y. 
Pbom the Business Man's Standpoint 

Frank A. Vanderlip, New York, N. Y. 
Fbom the Standpoint of the State 

Frank O. Lowden, Governor of the State of Illinois, Springfield, 111. 

Friday Forenoon, July 9, 1920, 9:00 o'clock 

Ideals and Standabds of the American Home x 

Sarah Louise Arnold, Dean of Simmons College, Boston, Mass. 
Business Session 



This Will Do It 



Date 

"VISUAL EDUCATION/' 327 South La Salle St., Chicago, 111. : 



check 

draft 

money 

(not stamps, please) 



□ In ra i I enclose one dollar for one year's subscription. 



□ This is my order for one year's subscription. I await yoixr bill. 

Name 

Address 



Pageantry Notes 



SCENES from a "Midsummer Night's 
Dream" and from "Robin Hood" 
were presented in the May Festival 
at Bryn Mawr, May 7th and 8th. The 
pageants and plays, which were most 
elaborate, were staged on the picturesque 
campus of the college, and the parts were 
played entirely by students. 

* * * 

A MAY pageant of unusual interest 
was presented on the campus at 
Collegeville, Pa., May 15th. The 
audience, seated in a natural amphithea- 
ter, beheld the actors advancing in a 
picturesque procession to the open green. 
The crowning of the queen of the May 
was observed with appropriate Maying 
songs and dances and the ceremonies 
ended with a May pole dance. 

Following this performance a play, 
"Miss Cherryblossom," was also presented 
on the campus. 

• • • 

IN 1858, the General Assembly of the 
State of Iowa passed an act establish- 
ing a model farm and appropriated 
$10,000 to establish it. In the same year, 
1858, President Lincoln signed the Mor- 
rill Act passed by Congress, granting 
land to every state in the Union for the 
establishing of colleges of agriculture, 
mechanics, arts and other related sub- 
jects. 

On June 7th Iowa State College pre- 
sented a vast pageant to depict its own 
history and thus to symbolize by a 
specific example the growth of the ideals 
and influence whose conception was made 
possible through the occurrences of 
1858. 

A brief outline of the episodes is re- 
printed below. 

In episode one, History introduces the 
committees and the delegates from the 
counties desiring the location of the 
model farm. The honor is conferred, 
after much balloting, upon Story County. 

Episode two shows the Spirit of Edu- 
cation influencing a country lad to enter 
the Model Farm. Then is re-enacted the 
laying of the cornerstones of the college 
in 1862. Eager boys and girls hasten to 



enter into the college through the gate of 
opportunity. At the end of this scene 
Father Time wanders across the stage, 
indicating that the time is now 1920. 

The Spirit of American Vision comes in 
episode 3 to question the Spirit of Iowa 
State Teachers College concerning her use 
of trust bestowed upon her fifty years 
before. Thereupon the achievements and 
divisions of the institution are marshalled 
in order before American Vision. 

First comes the division of industrial 
science, with symbolical figures repre- 
senting History, Botany, Physics, Math- 
ematics, Modern Languages, English and 
other foundation subjects. These groups 
are richly costumed and each brings gifts 
to the educational world. 

Then the trumpets announce the ap- 
proach of the Division of Home Eco- 
nomics. The Spirit of Home Economics 
presents such gifts as Foods, Cooking, 
Art, Textiles and Home Management to a 
grateful mother, who in turn shares them 
with community groups representing in- 
dustries and trades. 

The march of the divisions is inter- 
rupted by the Spirit of Gaiety, who leads 
in May Day revelers. 

Following this interlude comes the Di- 
vision of Veterinary Medicine. In this 
group are men who have made themselves 
great throughout all the ages by their 
skill and inventions in medicine. Person- 
ified diseases circling about this group 
are put to ignominious rout. 

The Division of Agriculture is ushered 
in by horses and chariot in which sit 
Ceres, Pomona and Flora. About the 
chariot dance figures, allegorical o'f the 
harvests and fruits and trees. In a beau- 
tiful carnival they present their offerings 
to the world. 

Bridge builders, figures symbolizing 
Architecture, Ceramics, Fire, Water, 
Steam and Electricity, with Miners and 
Chemists form the Division of Engineer- 
ing next in order to appear. 

At the end of the procession the Grad- 
uates throng to receive their reward from 
the Spirit of Education and then, with a 
blare of trumpets, Education, Religion 

40 



Pageantry Notes 



41 



and Service, guided by American Vision, 
advance to lead their divisions onward. 
is -k X 

THE beautiful Wooded Island in 
Jackson Park, Chicago, furnished 
the setting for an unusual pageant 
given June 5th. The Wild Flower Pres- 
ervation Society in conjunction with the 
Junior Drama League presented a wild 
flower pageant to which the school chil- 
dren of Chicago, their parents and friends 
were invited. In the afternoon a fare- 
well ceremony was observed in honor of 
the Old Field Museum, whose contents 
have just been moved into the new build- 
ing near Twelfth Street. 

• • • 

A PAGEANT of Spring was pre- 
sented at the State Normal School, 
Indiana, Pa., on June 5, in connec- 
tion with the closing exercises. Previous 
to this, on May 28th, a large musical fes- 
tival had been given under the leadership 
of the director of the Conservatory. A 
chorus of 250 school children, together 
with a local musical organization, and 
out-of-town artists appeared in the pro- 
duction. 

• * * 

AN elaborate production of the not- 
able piece, The Continental Con- 
gress, will take place at Aber- 
deen, South Dakota, in July and August. 
This pageant, under the general direc- 
tion of the Honorable J. L. O'Brien of the 
United States Bureau of Education, has 
been given in Washington, D. C, Bir- 
mingham, Ala., Nashville, Tenn., Char- 
lottesville, Va., and many other places. 
The first production was staged some 
years ago by the Department of the In- 
terior before 10,000 people at Washington. 
Mr. O'Brien will have general charge of 
the performance at Aberdeen also. 

The uniforms and accoutrements of 
the Continental Army will be furnished 
from Washington; other costumes will 
be the work of experts in this line. From 
two to three hours will be required for 
the performance of this pageant. 

• * • 

THE following pageant was written 
by the pupils of the Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne School of Oak Park, Illinois, 
in commemoration of the tercentenary 



anniversary of the Landing of the Pil- 
grims and was presented at the Haw- 
thorne Gymnasium on the third and the 
fourth of June. 

The pageant is divided into a prologue 
and six episodes. A brief synopsis of 
these episodes, together with extracts 
from the dialogue is reprinted below. 

It will be noticed that each part, while 
necessary in carrying out the develop- 
ment of the theme, is so arranged that 
opportunity is given for much interest- 
ing variety in entertainment. 

The last two episodes show the expan- 
sion of the Pilgrims' ideals of liberty, 
freedom, and equality all of which re- 
sulted in the Declaration of Independ- 
ence and in the conquering of the wilder- 
ness. This last part is beautifully sym- 
bolical. 

As is very evident, this is a remark- 
able production for children in the 
grades. It shows creative power, dram- 
atic instinct, familiarity with historical 
events, and considerable ability to see 
the underlying significance of these 
events. 

Episode I (English Scene) 
Setting — May-day scene in English vil- 
lage. 

Children are playing, picking flowers, 
and dancing rustic dances such as, "A 
Hunting We Will Go." The entrance of 
Robin Hood with his men furnishes more 
gaiety and merriment. In the midst of 
the dancing, the Pilgrims enter to say 
farewell. Their somber attire and quiet 
demeanor emphasize the joy and happi- 
ness that they are leaving behind, as 
they start their uncertain adventuring 
after religious freedom. 

Episode II (Dutch Scene) 
Setting — A market place in Holland. 

Small Dutch children are attempting to 
inveigle the Pilgrim children into play- 
ing their games and reading their books 
with them. The Pilgrim elders behold 
this proselyting with horror and send the 
children to their homes. This scene 
makes apparent the immediate reason for 
leaving Holland. 

Episode III (Indian Scene) 
Setting — An Indian village. 

Squaws, Indian maidens, and children 



42 



Visual Education 



carry on the various activities character- 
istic of an Indian village; some weave, 
some grind maize between stones; a 
medicine man weaves charms beside the 
large war drum; a mother sings a lullaby 
to her papoose; the small boys engage in 
a miniature hunt. A sound from the 
forest halts all motion until the chief 
with his befeathered and painted war- 
riors returns from a successful hunt. 
All join in a dance of triumph which is 
interrupted by a breathless runner an- 
nouncing the approach of a rival tribe. 
Instantly the peaceful scene changes; the 
men prepare for battle with war song and 
dance. 

This scene is intended to prepare for 
the coming of the Pilgrims and to show 
the Indians as they were before the 
arrival of the white men. 

Episode IV (The Mayflower) 
(Scene 1) 
Setting — Main room of the cabin. 

John Carver, Miles Standish, Bradford, 
Billington, Elder Brewster, Alden Hop- 
kins, Robinson, and others whose names 
are household words, are seated in the 
cabin, with the women at their spinning- 
wheels. The need for establishing an 
acceptable government in the new colony 
is discussed as follows: 
Carver: It seemeth we have need to 
discuss plans for ye carrying on of gov- 
ernmente of our colonie. It seemeth 
clear that an understanding must be 
sought whereby we may have an equal 
chance. 

Billington: Master Carver has well said; 
we should understand each other that 
when we come ashore we should use our 
own libertie. 

Hopkins: I agree with Master Billing- 
ton; we were to land at ye mouth of ye 
Hudson; landing in this strange bay cer- 
tainly absolves us from any obligations 
to the Virginia Company. 
Bradford: Truth, no one hath power to 
command us. Ye patente we have is for 
Virginia and not for New England which 
belongs to another governmente with 
which ye Virginia Company hath nothing 
to do. We have no place of appeal. Our 
worthe brother hath put ye case well. 
Standish: Therefore, we must make a 



law for ourselves; a colonie cannot exist 
without a governmente. 
John Alden: Yes, Friend Standish, that 
is what we must therefore do. 
Robinson: Let it not be a political man- 
ifesto such as a scheming cabal, let it be 
a policie of self, governmente imposing 
equal laws on all and giving to all an 
equal chance as Master Carver said. 
Standish: It is to be man for man, and 
ye simple manhood in each man is what 
counts. 

Elder Brewster: Ye central idea be ye 
right of each to his own individual liber- 
tie, ye obligation to each of us to use his 
libertie as not abusing it and subordinate 
his mere selfish aims to ye common good, 
and to make of our body politick genuine 
human brotherhood. The Kingdom of 
God cometh not with observation. 

(Scene 2) 
Setting — Same cabin in the Mayflower. 

Six conspirators, members of the 
crew, plot against the welfare of the 
Pilgrims, but are finally obliged to sign 
the Mayflower compact with the others. 
This momentous historical event is given 
its deserved importance by the solemn 
attitude of the Pilgrims, and the digni- 
fied reading of the Compact, together 
with the chanting of the 100th psalm. 

Episode V (Scene 1) 
Setting — Interior of a log cabin in Ply- 
mouth, Mass. 

Nineteen men gathered about the table 
are discussing the establishment of a 
military force for protection against the 
Indians. Miles Standish is selected 
leader; at his request retaining the title 
of captain. As they are talking, Desire 
Minter, wild with fright, rushes in, 
screaming that the Indians are coming. 
The men seize their arms as the hubbub 
and confusion increase outside. Sud- 
denly the Indian, Squanto, appears in the 
doorway with the dramatic greeting, 
"Welcome Englishmen!" In the ensuing 
conversation, the friendly attitude of 
the Indians is made clear. 
(Scene 2) 
Setting — A forest glade. 

Massasoit, with his braves about him 
is awaiting the English. Winslow enter- 
ing with gifts, announces the arrival of 



Miscellaneous Notes 



43 



Carver with his musketeers. A treaty is 
made and the peace pipe smoked. 

(Scene 3) 
Setting — Street before Independence Hall. 
The street is crowded with cheering 
people; a small band of Hessians marches 
by jeered at by the mob; Jefferson, 
Franklin, Sherman, Adams, Livingston, 
and other patriots pass into the building. 
Several young men join a regiment of 
ragged Continental soldiers and march 
away while the band plays Yankee 
Doodle. Adams again appears on the 
balcony and reads the Declaration of 
Independence. The people shout, the 
royal coat of arms is torn down, and a 
small boy cries, "Ring, grandpa, ring!" 

Episode TI 

Setting — The forest, with America asleep 
on a dais partially concealed by a 
misty curtain. 
The spirit of the Wilderness with the 



Powers of the Forest, the Powers of the 
River, and the Mist Maidens dance, their 
revelry being interrupted by a shot. The 
spirits disappear in anger as a group of 
pioneers enters, but re-appear, with 
branches with which they lash in vain 
the Pioneers. As they go, the Powers of 
the River stream in with white scarfs 
(foam) and attack the Pioneers. The 
Pioneers show signs of weariness and are 
gradually overcome by the Mist Maidens 
and the Spirit of Fever. They are re- 
vived, however, and conciliate the 
Spirits of the Wilderness, all joining in 
a song. At the end of the song a large 
band of other nationalities enters and 
America awakes. From the large group 
come leaders bearing gifts to America, 
democracy, liberty, education, and art. 
They sing "America the Beautiful." 

Curtain. 
• • • 



Miscellaneous Notes 



LARGE commercial and industrial 
organizations are more and more 
using motion pictures to promote 
their general sales work according to an 
article by Alfred Pittman in System, 
quoted at length in the Literary Digest 
for May 29, 1920. 

For instance, a company manufactur- 
ing a new type of airbrake, found diffi- 
culty in persuading railway executives 
to go out into the yards to witness a 
demonstration. There was no difficulty 
encountered, however, when the same 
officials were requested to sit in their 
easy chairs and view the projection of 
the apparatus on the screen — and the 
moving pictures made good. 

In another case, four Chicago security 
houses were trying to float an issue of 
bonds for a public utilities corporation. 
The representatives of the bond houses 
interested, wished to see the properties of 
the corporation, but a trip of at least 
three days would have been required to 
cover even the most important of them. 
What was done? Moving pictures of all 
the properties and communities served 



were made and shown to the visiting rep- 
resentatives. What was the result? The 
time used was three hours instead of 
three days; far more ground was cov- 
ered in detail through the visual method 
than could have been covered through 
the physical method, and the negotiations 
were satisfactorily concluded at a saving 
of half the time, effort and expense. 

A breeder of pure-bred hogs took a mov- 
ing picture of his herd with him to his 
prospects and with the use of a "suit- 
case" projector actually brought his ani- 
mals into the prospective customer's of- 
fice and in every case clinched the deal. 
The price of the film and projector was 
more than paid for in the revenue of his 
first two sales. 

The International Harvester Company 
produces pictures of general educational 
value to the farmer without the least 
suggestion of commercial advertising, 
estimating that whatever tends to make 
farmers prosperous is of advantage to 
the company. 

Most of these commercial films are 
without the shadow of a plot but in a 



44 



Visual Education 



number of cases a slight framework of a 
story lias been used on which to hang 
the facts. A film recently produced for 
Marshall Field & Co. as an exposition of 
the company's lace factories, used a faint 
romance as a basis for the picture, but 
this method is the exception rather than 
the rule. 

In many cases, pictures are used in in- 
dustrial plants to instruct workers in 
various operations and have proved to be 
the most successful and rapid method of 
training. 

These are but a few of the many ex- 
amples in the article by Mr. Pittman 
showing the enormously varied opportu- 
nities that await the motion picture in 
the fields of industry and commerce. 
* • • 

THE following article has recently 
appeared, quoted from a London 
weekly, "The Graphic": 

"Situated in a beautiful garden, in the 
suburbs of the Californian city of Los 
Angeles, stands the Clark Observatory, 
planned and built solely for the benefit 
of the public, who are admitted free on 
five nights a week. Its graceful tower is 
sixty feet in height, and consists of three 
stories. ^ On the ground floor there is a 
large collection of photographic trans- 
parencies of the heavenly bodies. The 
first floor houses the library and the 
third floor contains the telescopes, under 
a copper dome. 

"The chief telescope is a six-inch re- 
fractor. There are four other telescopes 
of smaller size, three field-glasses, three 
stereopticons, a moving-picture machine, 
and various other astronomical appara- 
tus. What you can see through the tele- 
scopes at the observatory — and it really 
needs a highly trained eye to appreciate 
the full significance of what is seen — is 
supplemented by many other ingenious 
and instructive devices, which make the 
mystery of the heavens as plain as a 
pikestaff to the meanest intelligence. 

"The star maps and models, which 
have been specially invented by the cur- 
ator, Dr. Baumgardt, who is a Swede, 
are wonderful. The maps, fourteen 
inches by seventeen inches, faithfully por- 
tray portions of the night sky; and over 
150 of the maps, covering the whole of 



the heavens, are now being prepared. 
The stars are represented by small illu- 
minated disks mounted on a black back- 
ground, and by taking the map out in 
the open it is possible to compare it with 
the heavens. A particularly interesting 
map is that showing the Milky Way, a 
foot wide. 

"A large plaster of Paris model of the 
moon — most models of which are flat — 
will, when finished, portray the exact 
appearance of the moon as seen through 
the great telescopes. By means of cer- 
tain dental instruments the exact contour 
is being obtained — an enormous task to 
undertake, since there are hundreds of 
craters, not to mention lunar mountains 
and valleys. 

"Another feature of the observatory is 
the models of the planets of our solar 
system, made to scale, with a circular 
ring upon the floor which represents the 
sun. The larger models are of wood, the 
smaller of brass, but all are painted as 
they appear through a good telescope. 
Beneath, on the platform, is a plane- 
tarium illustrating the weekly positions 
of the planets and demonstrating many 
astronomical facts relating to the earth, 
sun, and moon, their positions and mo- 
tions. In short, the whole science of 
astronomy is reduced to the utmost sim- 
plicity. 

"The star photographs in the observa- 
tory are framed and illuminated by elec- 
tric light in a very ingenious way. Those 
of the moon are shown with a white 
light; those of the sun have a yellow 
tint; and those of the nebulae, star clus- 
ters, spirals, and comets have a soft blue 
light. In each instance the exact appear- 
ance is given as when viewed through a 
large telescope. Here, too, is an interest- 
ing spectacular display of radium. Re- 
cently the curator made a container of 
radium in which the bombardment of 
the alpha particles of radium can be seen 
many feet away, a wonderful sight. The 
Americans have set an example which 
might well be followed by ourselves." 
• • * 

DR. Charles W. Eliot, president 
emeritus of Harvard University, 
believes most whole-heartedly in 
the use of motion pictures in the schools 



Miscellaneous Xotes 



45 



as a means of education. He deplores the 
fact that methods of education have 
hitherto depended to a great extent on 
the ear, and rejoices in the fact that the 
eye is at last coming into its own. 
Speaking before the National Association 
of Cotton Manufacturers held recently in 
Boston, he says: "We have been accus- 
tomed to depend upon the ear very 
largely to begin with . . . It is a 
very inferior method to education through 
the eye." 

Dr. Eliot cites his own experience as a 
student in chemistry to prove that the 
lecture method is practically valueless 
compared with the visual method for, 
"You have got to see the experiment you 
try and its results, and its operations 
must be guided by the eye." 

• • • 

VISUAL methods were used in mak- 
ing vivid the report of the board of 
Home Missions of the Methodist 
Episcopal -church to the general council 
held in Des Moines, Iowa, May 10th. The 
progress made in the rural church, the 
foreign speaking community, and other 
branches of home missions were pre- 
sented in moving pictures. 

• • • 

ACCORDING to an article in a re- 
cent number of Current Opinion, 
operas are to be seen as well as 
heard, and future productions are to be 
made a delight to the eye as well as to 
the ear. As a matter of fact, the vivid 
interiors, designed by prominent Amer- 
ican stage decorators, and the exquisite 
tones of the costumes and mountings 
made such a charming visual appeal that 
a number of this season's operas were a 
marked success, whereas if dependence 
had been placed upon the music alone, 
the success would have been indifferent. 
Boris Anisfeld, the Russian colorist, 
has created the scenes for a number of 
brilliant productions, among them La 
Reine Piamette and Wolff's "The Blue- 
bird," based on Maeterlinck's drama of 
the same name. Norman Bel-Geddes de- 
signed the background for a new opera, 
"La Nave," which was given in Chicago 
last November. The atmosphere of the 
gorgeous Spanish court of Philip IV was 



revived by Robert Edmund Jones for the 
presentation of "The Birthday of the In- 
fanta" by John Alden Carpenter. 

The beauty of the scenes of these pro- 
ductions has made a new standard in 
opera setting and proves conclusively 
that the visual element is destined to a 
higher position in the art of the operatic 
stage. 

• • • 

NEW York University in a recent 
luncheon, given at the Biltmore 
for members of the college faculty 
and several hundred of the alumni, hon- 
ored a man, whose achievements, it is 
claimed, made possible the ultimate de- 
velopment of the motion picture. In 
1840, Dr. John W. Draper, professor of 
physics and chemistry at New York 
University took the first photograph of 
the human face. It is not difficult to 
realize the vast significance of this event 
in view of the fact that the moving pic- 
ture industry is one of the largest in the 
world with a host of correlated indus- 
tries in its train. 

• • • 

JUDGE Ben B. Lindsay is continually 
demonstrating the fact that he is a 
versatile man of genius. In addition 
to his work in his famous juvenile court, 
he is to appear on the screen in a produc- 
tion for Paramount Artcraft. The pic- 
ture which is temporarily named "The 
Boy" is a story built on the theme of the 
boy-problem and affords Lindsay an op- 
portunity to show his methods of pro- 
cedure. With Judge Lindsay appears 
his wife who works with him in court- 
room and office. 

• • • 

THE Bureau of Education of the De- 
partment of the Interior has just 
published a booklet named "Motion 
Pictures and Motion Picture Equipment." 
This handbook was issued to answer the 
hundreds of inquiries addressed to the 
Bureau and to encourage visual education 
throughout the schools of the United 
States. 

Before the booklet was printed a ques- 
tionaire was sent out and from the knowb 
(Continued on page 70) 



Society for Visual Education 

(Incorporated) 

327 South La Salle Street Chicago, Illinois 

iniiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiniiini 
, THE SCHOOL FILMS OF THE SOCIETY 

Everything worth while is produced or carried out in harmony with a more 
or less explicitly formulated set of principles. This is true in making the con- 
stitution of a country, or in prosecuting a military campaign, or in constructing 
a transportation system, or in writing a book. It is true m the plans for the 
school films of the Society for Visual Education. The principles which have 
guided and are guiding the production of these films are: 

They must show wJiat is true. This does not mean that it is sufficient to 
avoid what is false, for such a truth might be entirely misleading. For example, 
the statement that a certain man never beats his children on three successive 
Sundays might not be erroneous, but it might give a false impression. The just 
criterion of the truth of a film is the correctness of the mental pictures which it 
produces in the minds of those who see it. 

It follows that if a film is true, in the sense in which the term is used 
here, it will not show the exceptional, the abnormal, and the bizarre, but rather 
the typical and the normal. The former would be chosen by the showman ; the 
latter by the educator. The former may excite wonder; the latter prepares one 
to get along in the world. More concretely, good instruction in elementary Eng- 
lish is that in which the pupil is taught to speak and write well of things that 
naturally come within his horizon; good instruction in arithmetic deals with 
problems that arise in ordinary lives ; good instruction in geography lays emphasis 
on the normal features of plains, and valleys, and mountains, and rivers, and 
lakes, and oceans ; good instruction in citizenship makes clear the governmental 
problems and processes of our own land at the present day; and good instruction 
in health and sanitation brings home the importance of cleanliness, of pure food 
and water, of care of the eyes and teeth, and shows how the more common infec- 
tious diseases are spread. 

School films which are not true are immoral, for it is positively wrong and 
vicious to print erroneous pictures on impressionable minds. Such mental pic- 
tures are not like drawings on a blackboard which may be erased at will; they 
are deeper things like scars which last forever. That is, no mind which has once 
believed falsehoods is ever the same as it would have been if it had believed the 
truth. The opinion that an error of childhood can be fully corrected in the hard 
school of later experience is fallacious; the error is simply shown to be an error, 
and the result is too often cynicism and a loss of ideals. 

They must show what is important. The school days of a child do not 
last long and the things he should be taught are very numerous. On some 
memorable morning the little fellow starts to school for the first time, and the 
day is one of excitement and adventure. In a week he is established in his new 

46 



The School Films of the Society 47 

environment. It is not long until he is on the team. A little later he leaves 
school and is at work, for he wants to be a man and have a job and make money. 
In the brief interval between his entrance and his departure he must be taught 
reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography, grammar, history, civics, ele- 
mentary science, music, and numerous other things which are intended to pre- 
pare him to make his way in the world. Obviously, they will all be taught 
imperfectly for the time is much too short to teach them well. It is equally 
obvious that since very much must he omitted, only important things should 
be retained. 

Moving' pictures are a powerful moans of giving instruction. They make 
sharp and lasting mental impressions. They are the only simple means we have 
of making clear the processes of life and industry. They are difficult and ex- 
pensive to produce. Consequently it would be a crime to employ in schools 
such precious and expensive means of education for showing simply trivial and 
amusing things. For these reasons the films which the Society is producing on 
History, Geography, Citizenship, and Health and Sanitation are designed for 
serious purposes. Thev depict the great events in our history and make clear 
the reasons for them. They show the natural features of our country, and it? 
agriculture, industry and commerce. They drive home the fact that our gov 
ernment serves its citizens in countless ways and is worthy of their loyal support. 
They emphasize the benefits of correct habits and sanitary surroundings and 
the health that follows from them. 

They must he of interest. What is taught, whether by moving pictures or 
by other means, should be interesting. Otherwise the child will not have his 
curiosity stimulated, his imagination fired, or his ambitions aroused.' Education 
based on the theory that the naturally active mind of a child should be curbed 
until it becomes the passive receptacle for useless information will not lead to 
satisfactory results. The active attitude of mind should be encouraged, and 
this can be done only by things that are interesting. 

The question arises whether the things that are true and important may 
also be interesting. When one thinks of the success of deliberate fakes and of 
silly things he naturally doubts it. But these things succeed largely because 
people are simply trying to break up the dull monotony of their lives. When 
they take a vacation or are on an outing they soon tire of frauds. A fanner 
at a fair in the morning will be found venturing on a merry-go-round or mar- 
veling at the peculiarities of a wart hog. Before night he will be much more 
interested in tractors and Poland Chinas. The useless things are not of per- 
manent interest. It is doubtful if many men could be found who could be hired 
to do permanently something which they knew to be of no economic value. Is 
it not true that few men could be induced, for example, to carry a pile of bricks 
from one place to another and then to return them, and to continue the process 
in an endless cycle? 

The child has an advantage over the adult. The world is all new and 
wonderful to him. The voyages and travels of explorers give a thrill that the 
dulled and cynical mind of a mature person can never experience. The storv 
of how we get our food and clothing and houses is inherently, and can be made, 



48 Visual Education 

as interesting as any fiction. The natural scenery of our own country is more 
wonderful than any that can be imagined. Morever, a person always realizes 
that the things that are true are not vain dreams of simply conceivable things 
which never were and never can be realized, but that what has happened or has 
existed may happen or may exist again, possibly in his own experience. This 
possibility changes his whole relation to them and leads him to make them vital 
elements of his own life. 

The Society does not fear that true and important things will be found 
uninteresting. Eeason and common sense assert that the contrary is the case. 
Moreover, actual experience with the films that have been produced confirm 
the conclusion. Adults and school children alike have sat in wrapt attention 
before Professor Bagley's pictures of the early French and English explorations 
and settlements in North America and Professor Atwood's pictures of the devel- 
opment of a glacier. Consequently the Society will limit itself to the production 
of films showing things that are true and important, and it wijl produce them 
in such a way that they will be interesting. 

They must be of artistic merit. That the true and important and interest- 
ing may be and should be of the highest artistic grade needs no argument. It 
is in harmony with the recent developments in school books, and, indeed, of 
nearly everything from wrist watches to farm machinery. 

Conclusion. Films satisfying the foregoing conditions will develop char- 
acter, and this is one of the chief objects of education. By character is not 
meant the reputation of an individual or the record of what he has done, but 
rather his intellectual and moral constitution, that is, the nature of his tenden- 
cies under various sets of circumstances. Boys and girls who have seen the 
history of their country unfold before their eyes, who have had the natural 
scenery of the whole world brought within the range of their vision, who have 
seen pictures of all the agricultural and industrial processes essential to modern 
life, who have witnessed the scope and activities of our government, who have 
observed the benefits of sanitary living, who believe in their hearts that all that 
has been shown them is true, who know by their own common sense that it is 
important, who have found it most interesting and of artistic merit— boys and 
girls who have had the intellectual experiences these things produce will have 
character and will become stable and progressive citizens who can be relied on 
to help do the work of the world in times of peace and steadfastly to support 
the best ideals of our country in times of trouble. 

F. E. Moulton, 

Secretary. 



49 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 



327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD (Continued from page 4) 
Mrs. William H. Hart, President of Illinois Federation of 

Women's Clubs Benton, Illinois 

V. A. C. Henmon, Director of School of Education, University 

of Wiscoyisin Madison, Wisconsin 

A. Ross Hill, President of University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri 

W. A. Jessup, President of State University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 

D. B. Johnson, President Winthrop Normal and 

Industrial College Rock Hill, South Carolina 

C. H. Judd, Director of School of Education, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

J. A. H. Keith, President of Normal School Indiana, Pennsylvania 

F. J. Kelley, Dean of College of Education, University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 

J. R. Kirk, President State Teachers College Kirksville, Missouri 

0. E. Klingaman, Director of Extension Division, University of Iowa. .Iowa City, Iowa 

L. C. Lord, Eastern Illinois State Normal School Charleston, Illinois 

Shailer Mathews, Dean of the Divinity School, University of Chicago Chicago, 111. 

P. E. McClenahan, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Des Moines, Iowa 

Mrs. F. J. Macnish, Chairman of Civics, Illinois Federation 

of Women's Clubs Oak Park, Illinois 

G. E. Maxwell, President of State Normal College Winona, Minnesota 

R. C. McCrea, Professor of Economics, Columbia University 

New York City, New York 

C. A. McMurry, Geo. Peabody College for Teachers Nashville, Tennessee 

Mrs. Myra Kingman Miller, President of National 

Federation of College Women New York City, New York 

S. C. Mitchell, President of Delaware College Newark, Delaware 

Raymond Moley, Director of the Cleveland Foundation Cleveland, Ohio 

Paul Monroe, Professor of Elementary Education, 

Teachers College, Columbia University New York City, New York 

A. A. Murphree, President of University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 

G. W. Nash, President of Washington State Normal School. . .Bellingham, Washington 

George Norlin, University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 

R. M. Ogden, Professor of Education, Cornell University Ithaca, New York 

C. G. Pearse, President of State Normal School Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

M. C. Potter, Superintendent of Schools Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Josephine C. Preston, Superintendent of Public Instruction Olympia, Washington 

J. E. Russell, Dean of Teachers College 

Columbia University New York City, New York 

A. A. Slade, Commissioner of Education, State of Wyoming Cheyenne, Wyoming 

H. L. Smith, Dean of College of Education, Indiana University . .Bloomington, Indiana 

C. L. Spain, Deputy Superintendent of Schools Detroit, Michigan 

Thomas Taggart, Former U. S. Senator from Indiana French Lick, Indiana 

A. O. Thomas, State Superintendent of Public Schools Augusta, Georgia 

A. S. Whitney, Professor of Education, University of Michigan. ..Ann Arbor, Michigan 

H. B. Wilson, Superintendent of Schools Berkeley, California 

J. H. Wilson, Director of Visual Education, Public Schools Detroit, Michigan 

J. W. Withers, Superintendent of Schools St. Louis, Missouri 

W. C. Wood, Commissioner of Education Sacramento, California 

G. A. Works, Professor of Education, New York College of Agriculture at 

Cornell University Ithaca, New York 



50 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE ST. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



COMMITTEES 



COMMITTEE ON AMERICANIZATION 
W. P. Russell, Chairman, 
University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
Guy Stanton Ford, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Albert E. Jenks, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Frank O. Lowden, 

Governor of State of Illinois, 
Springfield, Illinois. 
C. E. Merriam, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
Raymond Moley. 

The Cleveland Foundation, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Martin J. Wade, 

United States District Court, 
Washington, D. C. 
W. W. Willoughby, 
Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Md. 



COMMITTEE ON BIOLOGY 

John M. Coulter, Chairman, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
(Other members to be announced later) 



COMMITTEE ON BOTANY 
John M. Coulter, Chairman, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
(Other members to be announced later) 



COMMITTEE ON CIVICS 
Chas. A. Beard, Chairman. 

Director N. Y. Bureau of Municipal 
Research, 

New York, N. Y. 
F. G. Bates, 
Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana. 
F. F. Blachly, 

University of Oklahoma, 
Athens, Okla. 
R. E. Cushman, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
H. W. Dodds, 

Western Reserve University, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
H. G. James, 

University of Texas, 
Austin. Tetaa 
D. C. Knowlton, 

The Lincoln School of Teachers College, 
New York, N. Y. 



T. H. Reed, 

University of California, 
Berkeley, Calif. 



COMMITTEE ON GEOGRAPHY 
W. W. Atwood, Chairman, 

Harvard University, 
Cambridge. Mass. 
M J. Ahearn. S. J. 
Canisius College, 
Buffalo. N. Y. 
A. P. Brigham, 
Colgate University, 
Hamilton, N. Y. 
R. D. Calkins, 
Mt. Pleasant Normal School, 
Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 
C. C. Colby, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago Til. 
Elizabeth Fisher, 
Wellesley College, 
Wellesley, Mass. 
H. E. Gregory , 
Yale University, 

New Haven, Conn. 
T. M. Hills, 

Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

C. A. McMurry, 

Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn. 
L. C. Packard, 
Boston Normal School, 
Boston, Mass. 
Miss Edith Parker, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
A. E. Parkins, 
Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

D. C. Ridgley, 

State Normal School, 
Normal, 111. 
C. O. Sauer, 

University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Miss Laura M. Smith, 

Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn. 
R. H. Whitbeck, 

University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 
L. H. Wood, 
Kalamazoo Normal School, 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 



COMMITTEE ON HEALTH AND SANI- 
TATION 
V. C. Vaughan, Chairman, 
University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
E. R. Downing, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 



51 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 



327 SOUTH LA SALLE ST. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



COMMITTEES 



Simon Flexner, 
Rockefeller Institute, 
New York, N. Y. 
F. M. Gregg, 

University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln, Nebr. 
Ludvig Hektoen, 
John McCormick Institute for Infec- 
tious Diseases. 
Chicago, Illinois. 
E. O. Jordan, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
Wickliffe Rose, 
International Health Board, 
New York, N. Y. 
M. J. Rosenau, 

Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 
C. E. Turner, 

Inst, of Technology, 
Boston, Mass. 



COMMITTEE ON HISTORY 

Wm. C. Bagley, Chairman, 
Columbia University, 
New York, N. Y. 
G. S. Ford, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
S. B. Harding, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
Miss Frances Morehouse, 
University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Joseph Schafer, 

University of Oregon, 
Eugene, Ore. 



COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL EX- 
PERIMENTS 

William F. Russell, Chairman, 
University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
G. S. Counts, 

University of Washington, 
Seattle, Wash. 
F. N. Freeman, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
M. E. Haggerty, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



V. A. C. Henmon, 

University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 
Ernest Horn, 

University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
W. A. Justice, 
Director of Visual Education, 
Evanston, Illinois. 
T. L. Kelly, 

Teachers College, Columbia University. 
New York, N. Y. 
W. S. Monroe, 

University of Illinois, 
Urbana, 111. 
P. C. Packer, 
Board of Education, 
Detroit, Michigan. 
Rudolph Pintner, 

Ohio State University, 
Columbus, O. 
H. O. Rugg, 

Lincoln School of Teachers College, 
New York, N. Y. 
E. K. Strong, Jr., 

Carnegie Institute of Technology. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



COMMITTEE ON TECHNICAL EXPERI- 
MENTS 

F. R. Moulton, Chairman, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
W. A. Cogshall, 

University of Indiana, 
Bloomington, Ind. 
A. H. Pfund, 

Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Md. 
H. B. Lemon, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 



COMMITTEE ON CO-ORDINATION OF 
WORK 

Otis W. Caldwell, Chairman, 

Lincoln School of Teachers College. 
H. L. Clarke, 

Utilities Development Corporation. 
N. L. Greene, 

Editor of Visual Education. 
F. R. Moulton, 

University of Chicago. 
C. J. Primm, 

Manager Visual Text Department. 



The Film Field 



IN response to numerous inquiries from schools having projectors which are 
forced to stand idle for lack of usable materials, Visual Education hopes 
gradually to supply information which will enable such schools to get satis- 
factory programs as they are needed. It is a difficult task which will require 
much time and effort on our part, and we ask merely patience on yours. 

In this issue we list eighteen of the largest exchange systems in the country, 
with the address of each branch office. These concerns are occupied mainly, of 
course, with supplying theatrical material to professional exhibitors, but their 
stock usually includes a small percentage of "educational films." Schools desir- 
ing film material may write to the nearest exchange of any or all of the eighteen 
companies, requesting information available on films suitable for the particular 
purpose and occasion. (We would caution the school, when such information 
comes, to make due allowance for advertising phraseology and not to order a 
film solely on the strength of the company's fluent assurance of its educational 
worth. Films should be viewed by qualified judges before being shown to school 
children.) 

We also list a few of the many "educational" films now on the market, with 
the exchanges handling them. When the film is not handled by any of the 
eighteen exchanges here listed, the name and address of the producer are given.* 
If a school wishes to rent one of the films listed with its exchange, it is necessary 
merely to find the nearest branch of that exchange in the reference list and write 
for information concerning the film. If the film is not listed with one of the 
eighteen exchanges, write the producer asking him to name the point of distribu- 
tion nearest the school. 

Constant disappointment must be expected. Often the nearest exchange 
will not have a print in stock ; or the film will be out and unavailable on the date 
it is needed ; or the film will be worn and in bad condition ; or the price will be 
hopelessly high; or the shipment will go astray; or slight attention will be paid 
to your communication; etc., etc. 

In the course of time, however, as we shall be able to add more exchange 
systems to our reference lists, increase the number of titles in our film lists, 
eliminate films which have been withdrawn from circulation, and start a section 
for reviews of important films by the Visual Education staff — a semblance of 
order and some approach to satisfaction ought to come out of the present chaotic 
and discouraging situation. 



*Addresses of producers named in the List of Films in this issue a 

Atlas Educational Film Co., 1111 South Blvd., Oak Park, 111. 

Beseler Film Co., 71 W. 23rd St.. New York City. 

Carter Cinema Co., 220 W. 42nd St., New York City. 

Educational Films Corporation, 729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Eskay-Harris, 126 W. 46th St.. New York City. 

Ford Motor Co., Detroit, Mich. 

National Motion Pictures Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Underwriters' Laboratories, New York City. 

U. S. Steel Corporation, Empire Building-, New York City. 

Scientific Film Corporation, 13 Dutch St., New. York City. 

Worcester Film Corporation, 145 W. 45th St., New York City. 

52 



Reference List of Commercial Film Exchanges 

(Address all inquiries to the nearest exchange) 



AMERICAN RED CROSS 

Atlanta, Ga 249 Ivy St. 

Boston, Mass 108 Mass. Av. 

Chicago, III Pioneer Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio Plymouth Bldg. 

Denver, Colo 14th and Welton Sts. 

Minneapolis, Minn 423 5th St. S. 

New Orleans, La. .Wash'gt'n Artillery Hall 

New York City 44 E. 23d St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 134 S. 16th St. 

San Francisco, Cal 864 Mission St. 

Seattle, Wash White Bldg. 

St. Louis, Mo Equitable Bldg. 

Washington, D. C 411 18th St. N. W. 

FAMOUS PLA1ERS-LASKY CORP. 

Albany, N. Y 33 Orange St. 

Atlanta, Ga 51 Luckie St. 

Boston, Mass 8 Shawmut St 

Buffalo, N. Y 145 Franklin St. 

Charlotte, N. C 28 W. 4th St. 

Chicago, 111 845 S. Wabash Av. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1219 ^ine St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 107 W. 3d St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 811 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1902 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1747 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 415 W. 8th St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 2024 Broadway Av. 

Los Angeles, Calif 112 W. 9th St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

New Haven, Conn 132 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La 814 Perdido St. 

New York City 729 7th Av. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 128 W. 3d St. 

Omaha, Neb 208 S. 13th St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1018 Forbes St. 

Portland, Me 85 Market St. 

Portland, Ore 14 N. 9th St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 133 E. 2d South St. 

San Francisco, Calif 821 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 2017-19 3d St. 

St. Louis, Mo 3929 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 421 10th St. N. W. 

FIRST NATIONAL EXHIBITORS CIR- 
CUIT, INC. 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 35 Piedmont St. 

Chicago, 111 110 S. State St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 402 Sloan Bldg. 

Buffalo, N. Y 215 Franklin St. 

Dallas, Texas 1924 Main St 

Denver, Colo 1518 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa. . .Garden Theatre Bldg. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind...24 W. Washington St. 

Kansas City, Mo 317 Gloyd Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif. . . .833 South Broadway 

Louisville, Ky Nat. Theatre Bldg. 

Milwaukee, Wis 402 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 

408-18 Loeb Arcade Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 126 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La..Tulane Av. & Liberty St. 

New York City 6 W. 48th St. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 127 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb 314 S. 13th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1339 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 414 Ferry St. 

Richmond, Va 904 E. Broad St. 

St. Louis, Mo.. New Grand Central Theatre 
Salt Lake City, Utah.. 136 E. 2d South St. 
San Francisco, Calif.. 134 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2023 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 



FOX FILM CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St 

Boston, Mass 54-56-58 Piedmont St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 209 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 845 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 514 Elm St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1907 Commerce St. 

Detroit, Mich Mack Bldg. 

Denver, Col 1442 Welton St. 

Indianapolis, Ind 232 N. Illinois St. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 734 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 First Av. N. 

New York City 130 W. 46th St. 

New Orleans, La 723-25 Poydras St. 

Omaha, Neb 315 S. 16th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1333 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 121 Fourth Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 46 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Calif.. 243 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2006 Third Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3632 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 305 9th St. N. W. 

GOLDWTN DISTRIBUTING CORPORA- 
TION 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 42 Piedmont St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 200 Pearl St. 

Chicago, 111 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 216 E. 5th St. 

Cleveland, O. ..403 Standard Theatre Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1922 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1440 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich Film Exchange Bldg. 

Kansas City, Mo 1120 Walnut St. 

Dos Angeles, Calif 912 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 16 N. 4th St. 

New Orleans, La 714 Poydras St. 

New York City 509 5th Av. 

Omaha, Neb 1508 Howard St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1335 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 135 E. 2d South St. 

San Francisco, Cal 985 Market St. 

St. Louis, Mo 3312 Lindell Blvd. 

Seattle, Wash 2018 Third Ave. 

Washington, D. C 714 11th St. N. W 

HALLMARK PICTURES CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga 51 Luckie St. 

Boston, Mass 46 Melrose St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 86 Exchange St. 

Chicago, 111 5 So. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 215 E. 5th St. 

Dallas, Tex 1814 Commerce St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 506 Sloan Bldg. 

Denver, Colo 1435 Champa St. 

Detroit, Mich 5 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo . . . .4th Floor Boley Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif 643 So. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 406 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 16 No. 4th St. 

New Haven, Conn 130 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La 348 Carondelet St. 

New York, N. Y 130 West 46th St. 

Omaha, Neb '. 1222 Harney St. 

Philadelphia, Pa..S. E. Cor. 13th & Vine Sts. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 414 Penn Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3318 Lindell Blvd. 

San Francisco, Calif 86 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2010 Third Av. 

Washington, D. C. 916 G St. N. W. 

METRO PICTURES CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 60 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 327 Main St. 

(Continued on Page 55) 



53 



54 



Visual Education 




Fiery Hell af War 



Comes This Amazing, Vivid, Gripping Chronicle of the Daily Lives 
of Two Million Yankee Heroes in France. The One Priceless Souve- 
nir of the War You Will Enjoy and Treasure Above All Others 

ERE is a living, breathing record number exactly 



I — I of the lives of two million men 
in war — written by the men them- 
selves as they fought in France. It is 
our soldiers' own wonderful story of 
those days over there — a story that will 
live forever as the most unique his- 
torical document ever written, 

Nothing can give you so vivid, real- 
istic and intimate a picture of what our 
soldiers experienced in France as their 
own remarkable newspaper, the Stars 
and Stripes, written by the soldiers, for 
the soldiers, over there on the battle- 
fields in the thick of the fight. 



Behind the 

Scenes with 

the 

American 

Doughboys 



All the Overseas Issues of 
Che Stars, and Stripes 

in One Complete Bound Volume 



To read the 
overseas issues 
of the Stars and 

Stripes is to live over, in startling reality, those 
days with our soldiers in France. It will bring 
you face to face with actual conditions as they 
knew them — their novel life in the French vil- 
lages, their droll experiences with foreign cus- 
toms, their marches over the long white dusty 
roads, their nerve-torturing baptism of fire, 
their glorious gallantry at Chateau Thierry, 
Saint Mihiel, Verdun, and their magnificent 
drive through the Argonne forest. 

Fabulous prices have been paid for single 
copies of the overseas Stars and Stripes. 
Throughout the country a tremendous demand 
has sprung up for complete files of this Unique, 
historical publication. 

To satisfy this demand the overseas issues 
have now been bound into one De-Luxe Volume 
— with sturdy, khaki-colored covers — richly em- 
bossed—a beautiful lasting edition that you will 
treasure now and hand down to your children. 
The first issue of the Stars and Stripes was 
published February 8, 1918— the last June 13, 
1919. There were 71 issues, each paper consist- 
ing of 8 pages, 18^x24J^ inches in size and every 
When you write, please rr 



number exactly as it was printed in France 
appears in this beautiful bound volume. 

Limited Edition — Reserve 
Your Copy Now 

Think of having a complete file of this historic 
newspaper, the most unique souvenir of the 
war! You will find endless fascination in the 
many great features that an army eagerly read 
— Walgren's famous cartoons, Balbridge's draw- 
ings, Captain Hansen's official accounts of bat- 
tles, skirmishes and marches, the histories of 
the Divisions and Divisional insignia, etc., etc. 

This edition of the complete file of the over- 
seas Stars and Stripes is limited. Hundreds of 
reservation orders have already been placed and 
more are pouring in each day. It is likely that 
the entire edition will be quickly subscribed. 
Place your order today to avoid disappointment. 

Send No 
Money 

Clip and mail 
the coupon quick! 
We will reserve 
a copy of this 
limited edition for 
you and ship it 
to you as soon 
as ready. When 
it reaches your 
express office you 
can examine it thoroughly. If you decide to keep it, pay 
your express agent the Special Introductory Price of $12. 
If you are not satisfied that you want to keep this great 
souvenir of the war, return it and you will not be out 
one penny. This may be your only opportunity to secure 
a complete file of this historic newspaper; certainly never 
again at this low price. Mailing the coupon puts you 
under no obligation. It merely signifies your desire to 
see this great volume — you send not a penny of money — 
just the coupon. Address: 
EAMES-LUCKETT CORPORATION, Dept. 236 

Distributors A. E. F. Pub. Assn. 
64 West Randolph St. CHICAGO, ILL. 

Reservation Coupon — Mail today 

Earnes-Luckett Corporation, Dept. 236 
Distributors A. E. F. Publishing Assn. 
C4 West Randolph St., Chicago. III. 

Please reserve for me one complete bound file of all the 
71 issues of the overseas Stars and Stripes, to be shipped 
to me as soon as it is ready. When it arrives I shall 
examine it thoroughly and if satisfied I shall pay the 
express company $12.00. Otherwise I will return it to 
you at your expense. 

Name 



City State. 

ention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 



55 



The Schoolhousing Problem Solved 

Don't crowd your pupils. Don't pay exorbitant prices 
for buildings. Don't let contracts for permanent build- 
ings hastily. 

Use "AMERICAN" ^Portable 
Schools and Gymnasiums 

Average cost $1.50 per square foot, including ready-cut mate- 
rials with FREIGHT PAID TO YOUR CITY, and cost of erecting 
on your site. 

Attractive in appearance, warmer and dryer than lath-and- 
plaster, absolutely portable, durable and PRACTICABLE. Proved 
by 20 years' trial in all climates. 

More than 150 cities, towns and school districts, scattered 
through 35 states, now using "American" Portable Schools. 

Send for Special School folder and names of customers in 
your state. We ready-cut buildings for any purpose. 

AMERICAN PORTABLE HOUSE CO. 

Arcade Bldg. SEATTLE, WASH. 



(Continued from Page 53) 

Chicago, 111 5 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 7th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio 404 Sincere Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1924 Main St. 

Denver, Col 1721 California St. 

Detroit, Mich 51 Elizabeth St. E. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 820 S. Olive St. 

Little Rock, Ark 106 S. Cross St. 

Minneapolis, Minn. .. .Produce Exch, Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 126 Meadow St. 

New York City 729 7th Av. 

New Orleans, La Saenger Bldg. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 127 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb 211 S. 13th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1321 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1018 Forbes St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 20 Post Office Place 

San Francisco, Calif 55 Jones St. 

St. Louis, Mo 3313-A Olive St. 

Seattle, Wash 2002 Third Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

PATHE EXCHANGE, INC. 

Albany, N. Y 398 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass .7 Isabella St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 269 Main St. 

Charlotte, N. C 2 S. Graham St. 

Chicago, 111 220 S. State St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 124 E.-7th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. S. E. 

Dallas, Texas 2012% Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1436 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 3:H> W. Locust St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 Til. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind. ..52-54 W. New York St. 



Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 732 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 174 2d St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

Newark, N. J 6 Mechanic St. 

New Orleans, La 936 Common St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Oklahoma City, Okla 119 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb 1417 Harney St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 211 N. 13th St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 938 Penn Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 64 Exchange Place 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 2113 3d Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3210 Locust St. 

Spokane, Wash 12 S. Washington St. 

Washington, D. C 601 F St., N. W. 

REALART PICTURES CORPORATION 

Cincinnati, Ohio Film Exchange Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio.... 942 Prospect Av., East 

Denver, Colo 1742 Glenart Av. 

Detroit, Mich 303 Joseph Mack Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn. .801 Produce Exch. Bdg. 

Omaha, Neb 1216 Farnum St. 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 2012 Third Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3626 Olive St. 

REPUBLIC PICTURES 

Atlanta, Ga 148 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 78-90 Broadway 

Buffalo, N. Y 269 Main St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio Main and 7th Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio Belmont Bldg. 

Dallas, Tex 1905 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1753 Welton St. 

(Continued on Page 57) 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



56 



Visual Education 



NATION-WIDE SEARCH FOR TEACHERS 

In order to meet the present emergency, we have again enlarged 
our facilities, and we are better prepared than ever before to render 
professional service to teachers available for any kind of educational 
positions and to colleges, universities, public and private schools 
seeking teachers. 

With our affiliated Agencies we cover the entire country. 

FISK TEACHERS AGENCY 

E. E. OIp, Manager 28 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago 



The 
West 
Pays 
Teachers 



Cline Teachers' Agency 



CHICAGO, ILL. 
6128 University Ave. 
M. F. Ford, Mgr. 



COLUMBIA, MO. 
Exchange Bank Bldg. 
Arthur B. Cline, Mgr. 



BOISE, IDAHO 
George F. Gorow, Mgr. 



SAN DIEGO, CALIF 
326-7-8 Owl Building 
Wynne S. Staley, Mgr. 

All Offices Recommend You 'Till Placed 
ENROLL FREE! 



The poems You 

Want -Only 15c 

A splendid collection of famous poems, at 
a very low price. The 101 Famous Poems 
contains not only the very best poetry of 
the ages, but a prose supplement with the 
Declaration of Independence, Gettysburg 
Address, Letters to Mrs. Bixby, etc. Espe- 
cially arranged for school use; photo of 
each author; handy size. 

25c each, prepaid, in any 
quantity. No free samples. 

Favorite Son&s 

(Catholic Edition) 

The ideal song book for 
school use. Songs for entire 
year; also secular and patri- 
otic melodies. Send for 
sample. 7c in 100 lots, f.o.b. 
Chicago. $1.00doz., prepaid; 
10c each, prepaid. (C-44) 

Cable Co., 1221 Cable Bldg., Chicago 




QTAMMER M N o°re 

^^ Re-education the key. This marvelous method fully 

outlined in an accurate, dependable, worth-while book 

—"HOW TO STOP STAMMERING." Mailed on receipt of 

10 cents. The Hatfield Institute, 109 N .Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



"g>djoo! €iiitimty ikrbtce" 

- — in — ■ 

Motion 
<Ptcturebom 

We make it our special business to 
keep in close touch with all of the 
new ideas about machines and films 
and shall be glad to 

First — Advise freely and 
without obligation. 
Second- — Guarantee satis- 
faction on any purchase. 

& ft. Bum & Company 

EXPERT LIBRARY BUILDERS- 
MOTION PICTURE SPECIALISTS 

Cbucattonal department 

(SUBURBAN TO CHICAGO) 

DOWNERS GROVE, ILLINOIS 



Advertisements 



57 



"THE AGENCY OF QUICK SERVICE AND EFFICIENCY" 

WESTERN TEACHERS' EXCHANGE 

Chicago, Illinois Denver, Colorado Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Peoples Gas Bldg. Gas & Electric Bldg. The Plymouth Bldg. 

Berkeley Ca 1 ifornia: Berkeley Bank Bldg. 

WILL AID YOU IN SECURING BETTER POSITIONS 

THOUSANDS OF VACANCIES NOW LISTED 

FREE ENROLLMENT ALL OFFICES 

The Only Agency That Maintains Educational Men Constantly in the Field 



TEACHER! THE WEST NEEDS YOU 

The best of positions. The best of salaries. Vacancies in all departments, 
and unlimited territory. NEW OWNERSHIP, with EFFICIENT 
MANAGEMENT and BANK REFERENCES, gives you SATISFAC- 
TION and RESULTS. Let us show you. Inquiries appreciated and 
given attention. Let us help you secure a homestead while you teach. 

Dept. 1 

Northwestern Teachers' Agency and Supply Company 

Great Falls, Montana 



(Continued from Page 55) 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 1612 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 736 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn Produce Exch. Bldg. 

New York City 126 W. 46th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1315 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 1301 5th Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

ROBERTSON-COLE DISTRIBUTING 
CORPORATION 

Albany, N. Y 733 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 39 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 315 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 Consumers Bldg. 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 224 E. 7th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1807 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1724 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind Ill W. Maryland St. 

Kansas City, Mo Gloyd Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif 825 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 301 Enterprise Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn.. 309 Loeb Arcade Bldg. 

New Orleans, La 815 Perdido St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Oklahoma City, Okla 7 S. Walker St. 

Omaha, Neb 1306 Farnum St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1219 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 121 4th Av. 

San Francisco, Calif.. 177 Golden Gate Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3623 Washington Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 12 Postoffice Place 

Seattle, Wash 1933 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

When you write, please m 



SELECT PICTURES CORPORATION 

Albany, N. Y 679 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga 148 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 69 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 176 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. .402 Strand Theatre Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio 306 Sloan Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1917 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1728 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind 224 Wimmer Bldg. 

Kansas City, Mo, 920 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 736 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn.. Film Exchange Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 19 Portsea St. 

New Orleans, La 712 Poydras St. 

New York City 126 W. 46th St. 

Omaha, Neb 1512 Howard St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1308-10-12 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3617 Washington Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 160 Regent St. 

San Francisco, Cal 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 308 Virginia St. 

Washington, D. C 525 13th St. N. W. 

UNITED PICTURE THEATRES 

Atlanta, Ga 104 Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 48 Melrose St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 86 Exchange Place 

Chicago, 111 5 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 215 E. 5th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 506 Sloan Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1814 Commerce St. 

Denver, Col 1435 Champa St. 

Detroit, Mich 55 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 22d and Grand Av. 

Los Angeles, Calif 643 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 172 Toy Bldg. 

(Continued on Page 58) 
ention VISUAL EDUCATION 



58 



Visual Education 



WANTED — Progressive Teachers 



s 



We offer you an opportunity if qualified, to 
cash in on your educational experience. Sal- 
ary $1200 per year and up. State age, edu- 
cation and employment record to date. 



! 



Standard Education Soc'y, 189W. Madison St.,Chicago 



AGENTS WANTED 

to sell school supplies and furniture during 
the summer months. 

Liberal commissions — exclusive territory. Applicants 
will please state what if any experience they have 
had in selling goods and also during what months 
their services will be available. 

CAXTON SCHOOL SUPPLY CO. 
Dept. No. 34 2344-46 Wentworth Ave., Chicago, III. 



AGENTS WANTED 

for our new book "PICTORIAL HISTORY OF THE 
WORLD WAR," large book with many beautiful half- 
tone and colored illustrations, complete and authentic. 
Price $4.50, fast seller. One agent sold 59 first week. 
A teacher in Minnesota taking a rest from school work 
has sold 400 in one County in two months. An agent 
in Iowa sold 32 in one day. He says, "Every person I 
canvassed bought a book." Fifty per cent commission. 
Splendid opportunity for teachers to make money during 
summer vacation. Send 35 cents for complete agent's 
outfit. 

H. MILLER & CO. 

4410 N. Western Ave. Chicago, 111. 



ST-STU JEERING ^r^S 

booklet free. Walter McDonnell, 743 Potomac 
Bank Building, Washington, D. C. 



(Continued from Page 57) 

Minneapolis, Minn 16 N. 4th St. 

New Haven, Conn ......... 130 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La 610 Canal St. 

New York City 1457 Broadway 

Omaha, Neb.... ...1222 Harney St. 

Philadelphia, Pa. . . . . . .13th and Vine Sts. 

Pittsburgh, Pa ..414 Penn Av. 

St. Louis, Mo.... ..3321 Lindell Blvd. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 58 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Cal. ... .86 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2010 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C. ....... .916 G St. N. W. 

UNIVERSAL. FILM MFG. CO. 

Buffalo, N. Y... ........ 35 Church St. 

Butte, Mont ..... ..... 52 E. Broadway 

Charleston, W. Va. 

Chicago, 111.......... 220 S. State St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 531 Walnut St. 

Cleveland, Ohio. ........ .850 Prospect Av. 

Columbus, Ohio 

Denver, Col ............... 1422 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa. .... .918-920 Locust Av. 

Detroit, Mich... 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Evansville, Ind. 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Indianapolis, Ind. ..... .113 W. Georgia St. 

Kansas City, Mo 214 E. 12th St. 

Los Angeles, Cal 822 S. Olive St. 

Louisville, Ky. .... 

Milwaukee, Wis.. 172 2d St. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 719 Hennepin Av. 

Oklahoma City, Okla. .. .116-118 W. 2d St. 

Omaha, Neb... 1304 Farnum St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 938-940 Penn Av. 

Portland, Ore. ......... .405-407 Davis St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. . .56 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Cal... 121 Golden Gate Av. 

Sioux Falls, S. D 

Spokane, Wash...... 16 S. Washington St. 

St. Louis, Mo 2116 Locust Av. 

Wichita, Kan........ 209 E. First Av. 

VITAGRAPH 

Albany, N. Y... 48 Howard St. 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass. .......... .131 Arlington St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 86 Exchange St. 

Chicago, 111 . ... 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio.... Cor. 7th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio... 2077 E. 4th St. 

Dallas, Texas 1900 Commerce St. 

Denver, Col 734 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich . 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 17th and Main Sts. 

Los Angeles, Cal 643 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

New Orleans, La 420 Camp St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Omaha, Neb .....1111 Farnum St. 



Philadelphia, Pa.... 1227 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 117 4th Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3310 Lindell Blvd. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 62 Exchange Place 

San Francisco, Cal 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 115 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 712 11th St. N. W. 



BUREAU OF EDUCATION 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Qualified State Distributing Centers 

Agricultural College, Miss. 

Mississippi Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College. ...... .Claud H. Tingle 

Ames, la. 

Iowa State College Charles Roach 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 

University of Michigan. .W. D. Henderson 

Athens, Ga. 

University of Georgia. . . . .Roger N. Hill 

University of Texas Wm. R. Duffey 

Berkeley, Calif. 

University of California 

Leon J. Richardson 

Bloomington, Ind. 

Indiana University F. W. Shockley 

Boston, Mass. 

State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion James A. Moyer 

Boulder, Col. 

University of Colorado. . .H. R. Spangler 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Buffalo Society of Natural Science. . 

C. E. Cummings 

Burlington, Vt. 

University of Vermont Guy G. Bailey 

Charlotteville, Va. 

University of Virginia.. Charles G. Maphis 

Cleveland, O. 

Cleveland Normal Training School. . 

W. N. Gregory 

College Park, Md. 

Maryland State College of Agricul- 
ture .C. S. Richardson 

Columbia, Mo. 

University of Missouri. . .C. H. Williams 

Columbia, S. C. 

University of South Carolina 

Reed Smith 

Eugene, Ore. 

University of Oregon. . 

Fayetteville, Arkansas 
University of Arkansas 

Gainesville, Fla. 

University of Florida B 

Iowa City, la. 

(Continued on Page 60) 



.John C. Almack 
. .A. M. Harding 
B. C. Riley 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 59 




Printing tfjp Day and Night 

and Service 

Advertising 1 All the Year 

Advisers fwttBSM S' '::: : Around 



. 



One of the Largest and Most Completely Equipped 
Prijiting Plants in the United States 

School Printing 

Whether you have a large or small Catalogue, Bulle- 
tin, Pamphlet, Magazine or Publication to be printed 
it is our opinion you have not done your duty by your 
institution or yourself until you have learned about 
the service Rogers & Hall Company give and have 
secured prices. 

We ship or express to any point 
or mail direct from Chicago 

Make a Printing Connection with a Specialist and a Large and 
Reliable Printing House. 

You Secure From Us 

Proper Quality — Quick Delivery — Right Price 

Business Methods and Financial Standing 
the Highest 

Ask the Publishers of "Visual Education" 
what they think of our service and prices. 

ROGERS & HALL COMPANY 

Catalogue and Publication 
PRINTERS 

Artists — Engravers— Electrotypers 
English and Foreign Languages 

Polk & La Salle Streets CHICAGO, ILL. 

Telephone Wabash 3381— Local and Long Distance 

"When you write, please mention VISUAL. EDUCATION 



60 



Visual Education 



Zenith Portable Projector 

Built with all the standard features, is absolutely fire- 
proof — an automatic shutter eliminates this danger. 

YOU DO NOT 

require an experienced operator, anyone can run it. Operation can 
be had from any light socket. The Zenith takes all standard films 
and projects from 10 to 100 feet with absolute perfection. Has all 
the features of the higher priced machines and more than most 
of them. 

THIS IS THE PROJECTOR 
for use in Churches — that's what it is built for. Weighs 60 lbs.; 
light enough to be portable, heavy enough to stand firmly on its 
own legs. Stereopticon attachment. 

FREE FILM INFORMATION BUREAU 



Write Us for Particulars 

35 SO. 



RUTLEDGE & COMPANY 



DEARBORN STREET 
CHICAGO 



(Continued from Page 58) 

University of Iowa O. E. Klingaman 

Knoxville, Tenn. 

. University of Tennessee 

Charles B. Ferris 
Lawrence, Kan. 

University of Kansas. .Harold C. Ingham 
Lexington, Ky. 

University of Kentucky 

Wellington Patrick 
Lincoln, Neb. 

University of Nebraska. .. .G. E. Condra 
Madison, Wis. 

University of Wisconsin. .Wm. H. Dudley 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

University of Minnesota. .J. V. Ankeney 
Missoula, Mont. 

State University E. O. Sisson 

Morgantown, W. Va. 

West Virginia University L. B. Hill 

Natchitoches, La. ^ 

State Normal School L. J. Alleman 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

Rutgers College W. M. Demarest 

Normal, 111. 

Illinois State Normal University. . . . 

David Felmley 
Norman, Okla. 

University of Oklahoma. . .J. W. Scroggs 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Commercial Museum 

Chas. R. Toothaker 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

University of Pittsburgh....!. H. Kelly 
Providence, R. I. 

Brown University Walter Jacobs 

Pullman, Wash. 

State College of Washington 

F. F. Nalder 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Bureau of Community Service 

W. C. Crosby 

When you write, pi 



Reno, Nev. 

University of Nevada 

Charles A. Norcross 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

University of Utah W. F. Reynolds 

Tucson, Ariz. 

University of Arizona. .Frank Lockwood 
University, Ala. 

University of Alabama Jas. Thomas 

University, N. D. 

University of North Dakota. .A. H. Yoder 
Vermillion, S. D. 

University of South Dakota 

J. C. Tjaden 

GENERAL, ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Boston, Mass 84 State St. 

Chicago, 111 Monadnock Bldg 

Cincinnati, Ohio ... .Provident Bank Bldg 

Dallas, Texas Interurban Bldg 

Philadelphia, Pa Witherspoon Bldg 

Salt Lake City Newhouse Bldg 

San Francisco, Cal.116 New Montgomery St 
Schenectady, N. Y Publication Bureau 

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER CO. 
Distributing Centers 

Aberdeen, S. D. 

Industrial & Normal School 



Ada, Okla. 

East Central State Norms 



J. C. Thorns 



School. . 
B. A. Pratt 
Agricultural College, N. D. 

North Dakota Agricultural College.. 

R. A. Corbett 
Alva, Okla. 

Northwestern Normal School 

A. G. Vinson 
Ames, la. 

Iowa State College Chas. Roach 

(Continued on Page 62) 
mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 61 

aillllllllllllllllllllllllNIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIM^ 



15 he 

CLASSROOM 
STEREOPTICON 




The Most Efficient Portable Stereopticon in the World 



Catalog and Trial Terms Mailed on Application 



Manufactured and Guaranteed by 



VICTOR ANIMATOGRAPH COMPANY 

(INCORPORATED) 

Davenport, Iowa, U. S. A. 



62 



Visual Education 



Austin, Tex. 

University of Texas Wm. R. Duffey 

Bellingham, Wash. 

Washing-ton State Normal School... 

J. V. Coughlin 
Canyon, Tex. 

West Texas State Normal College.. 

P. H. Ives 
College Station, Tex. 

c|o A. & M. College M. L. Hayes 

Corvallis, Ore. 

Oregon Agricultural College 

O. D. Center 
Durant, Okla. 

Southeast Normal School. .E. B. Robbins 

Edmond, Okla. 

Central State Normal School 

J. G. Mitchell 
Emporia, Kan. 

Kansas State Normal School 

M. L. Smith 
Kirksville. Mo. 

State Teachers College T. A. Dalton 



Lawrence, Kan. 

University of Kansas 

Miss Grace Haverkampf 

Madison, Wis. 

University of Wisconsin. . . W. H. Dudley 

Pullman, Wash. 

c|o State College of Washington. . . . 

L. R. Lounsbury 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion I. B. Ball 

St. Paul, Minn. 

University of Minnesota, University 
Farm J. V. Ankeney 

Tahlequah, Okla. 

Northeastern Normal School....... 

C. W. Prier 

Trenton, N. J. 

New Jersey State Museum, c|o State 
House Mrs. Kathryn B. Greywacz 

Vermillion, S. D. 

University of South Dakota. .J. C. Tjaden 

Weatherford, Okla. 

Southwestern Normal School 

J. B. Estridge 



List of Films 

Produced by various commercial companies and 
intended for general educational use. All entries are 
1 reel (1000 ft.) in length unless otherwise specified. 

(In offering these selections, Visual Education in no way guaran- 
tees the value or suitability of the films. This can be done only when we 
have personally viewed the picture. The list represents merely the most 
careful choice possible to make from data given out by the producing 
companies. If such information, however, promises to be helpful to 
schools, these lists can be greatly extended in later issues. Further, 
Visual Education plans to give brief critical reviews and synopses of 
important "educational" releases each month, as soon as arrangements 
are completed with the numerous producers to submit their productions 
for viewing by our staff. Only the films so reviewed by our staff should 
be considered as haying Visual Education's recommendation, qualified 
or unqualified as the case may be.) 



TRAVELOGUES AND SCENICS 

A NIGHT IN JUNE. (Famous Players- 
Lasky) A Post Nature Picture. 

BESIDE THE GLIMMER GLASS. (Educ. 
Film Corp.) (Bruce Scenic) A wonderful 
lake in the far mountains of the west. 

THE TRAIL TO THE SKY. (Educ. Film 
Corp.) A superb scenic of mountains and 
sky line. 

IN SHANGHAI, CHINA. (Beseler) Many 
interesting views of this city of the 
Orient. 

DUTCH CAPS AND COSTUMES. (Educ. 
Film Corp.) Dykes, canals, bridges, town 
halls and many incidentals that constitute 
Dutch "atmosphere." 

FISHING AT OTSU. (Republic) Life 
and activities of a quaint Japanese fishing 
village. 

THE LAST OF THE SEMINOLES. (Re- 
public) Pictures of the Indians inhabit- 
ing the Florida Everglades. 

THRU THE ROOSEVELT COUNTRY 
WITH COLONEL ROOSEVELT. 2 reels. 
(Hallmark Pictures.) 

TWO CITIES OF CATHAY. (Burton 
Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) The 
ancient cities of Swatow and Amoy. 



BANGKOK, THE ROYAL CITY. (Bur- 
ton Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) The 
city of a million pagodas. 

THE CATARACT OF IQUASON. (Bur- 
ton Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) 
Falls higher than Niagara situated in the 
jungles of South America. 

MARTYRED CITIES. (Burton Holmes) 
(Famous Players-Lasky). 

BATTLEFIELDS OF FRANCE. (Bur- 
ton Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky). 

ARTISTIC ANTWERP. (Burton Holmes'* 
(Famous Players-Lasky). 

IN HAPPY ALSACE. (Burton Holmes) 
(Famous Players-Lasky). 

MAROONED IN THE SOUTH SE \S. 
(Robertson-Cole) A picture made by Mar- 
tin Johnson during his year's jour ney 
through these untraveled lands. 

LONELY SOUTH PACIFIC MISSIONS. 
(Robertson-Cole) Photographed by Martin 
Johnson. 

TALES OF THE TALL TIMBER. ( Bruce 
Scenic) (Educ. Film Corn.) Lumbering in 
northern California and in Idaho. 

SUMATRA. (Pathe) Through fields and 
cities of this Dutch colony. 

(Continued on Page 64) 



Advertisements 



63 




Some Practical Suggestions 

In Selecting 

Motion Picture Machines and Films 



Machine 
Portability 



You will prefer a machine, weighing not more than 25 lbs., which you 
can carry from class room to class room. The machine goss to the pupils 
— not the pupils to the machine. 



Machine 
Construction 

Machine 

and 

Film Safety 



Your best investment will be in a well made machine, best for light, best 
for absence of flicker, best for quiet action and good projection. 

You will protect yourself from fire hazard and legal troubles by securing 
a machine and films inspected and approved by all insurance authorities. 
Look for the Underwriters' inspection label on the machine. 

The "New Premier" Pathescope fully qualifies in all of the 
foregoing particulars, portability, excellence of construction 
and safety. 



Film 
Safety 



First and foremost, you will insist on films as well as machines that carry 
the approval and label of the Underwriters Laboratories of the National 
Board of Fire Insurance Underwriters. THIS IS PROOF OF SAFETY. 



Film 
Technique 



Film 
Value Test 



Film 
Supply 



You will require motion pictures correct in technique, educationally 
and photographically. They must truly supplement your teaching work. 

You will choose motion pictures made by experienced and successful pro- 
ducers, pictures approved by the use of the foremost educational authorities. 

You will demand not only quality but also abundant supply. The Pathe- 
scope Exchanges already cover 1,200 of the most select subjects in litera- 
ture, science, art, travel, history and industry, comprising thousands of 
reels of film of highest quality. To this list you will add the thousands 
of new films and new subjects that will be available to you from other 
Safety Standard Film makers. 



PATHESCOPE 
MEANS 



The "NEW PREMIER," easily the leader 
of all portable projectors. 
A comprehensive cinematographic encyclo- 
paedia of choice educational motion pic- 
tures. 

23 years of cinema supremacy machines 
and films. Pathe quality. Investigate, then 
buy the best — buy Pathescope. 



Send for the PATHESCOPE illustrated 
Motion Picture catalogue and the interest- 
ing PATHESCOPE booklet entitled "Edu- 
cation by Visualization" — The Royal Road 
to Learning. 

THE PATHESCOPE COMPANY 

Chicago Office— 17 North Wabash Ave. 

Film Service at all Pathescope and other Safety Standard offices in the United States and Canada. 
When you write, please mention VISUAL, EDUCATION 




64 



Visual Education 



(Continued from Page 62) 

THE WANDERER AND THE WHOSITT. 
(Bruce Scenic) (Educ. Films Corp.) Tramp- 
ing- with two dogs through the Sierra 
Nevadas. 

ON THE FRONTIER OF THIBET. 
(Beseler) Views of queer ceremonies and 
quaint places in this little known country. 

PICTURESQUE CALIFORNIA. (Beseler) 
Wonder places in this wonderful state. 

RIVER GRAY AND RIVER GREEN. 
(Educ. Film Corp.) Two magnificent rivers 
beautifully contrasted to emphasize the 
inevitable moral. 

THE RED HOT SEA. (Educ. Film 
Corp.) The Kilauea volcano at Hawaii. 

CAMERARING THROUGH AFRICA. 
(Chester Outing) (First National) Views 
in British East Africa, many of which 
show native animals. 

PETRIFIED FORESTS OF ARIZONA. 
(Republic) A study of the petrified for- 
ests and painted deserts of Arizona. 

EVENTIDE. (Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) 
Rivers and clouds and moonlight; exposi- 
tion of beaver's home. 

MARIMBA LAND. (Republic) A study 
of the manners and customs of the de- 
scendents of the Aztecs in Guatemala. 

NORWAY, LAND OF THE MIDNIGHT 
SUN. (Educ. Film Corp.) Views of inter- 
est in the Scandinavian peninsula. 

HISTORICAL ST. AUGUSTINE. (Pathe) 
The ancient fortress and other places of 
interest in this old town. 

208 EVERY SWIMMER A LIFE-SAVER. 
(Red Cross) The latest and most approved 
methods of rescue and resuscitation. 

209 A DAY WITH THE JUNIOR RED 
CROSS COLONY IN CZECHO-SLOVAKIA. 
(Red Cross.) 

206 AMERICA JUNIOR. 2 reels. (Red 
Cross) A picture story made in this coun- 
try. 

THE BOTTOM OF THE WORLD. (Rob- 
ertson-Cole) A thrilling record of the voy- 
age of Sir Ernest Shackleton in the Ant- 
arctic ocean. 

THE AUSABLE FALLS IN THE ADI- 
RONDACK^. (Carter Cinema Co.) Life 
and sports of this scenic region. 

PIKE'S PEAK, THE SENTINEL OF 
COLORADO. (Carter Cinema Co.) Won- 
derful mountain scenery. 

DOWN IN OLD RICHMOND. (Carter 
Cinema Co.) Cotton section and southern 
homes. 

COACHING THROUGH CONWAY IN 
WALES. (Carter Cinema Co.) Beautiful 
scenes of rural England. 

GYPSIES OF THE ARCTIC. (Educ. Film 
Corp.) Laplanders, their methods of living, 
their herds of reindeer, etc. 

CITY OF MEXICO. (Beseler) Public 
building and thoroughfares. 

INDUSTRIAL FILMS 

BUBBLES. (Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) 
An exposition of the process of making 
soap. 

THE STORY OF ZINC. (Ford Weekly) 
(Goldwyn) Mining, smelting and casting 

SCHOOL DAYS. (Ford Weekly) (Gold- 
wyn) The place of myriad activities known 
as the public school. 

DE-LIGHT. (Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) 
The manufacture of electric bulbs. 

JUST KIDS. (Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) 
All the processes involved in the manu- 
facture of gloves. 

TICK-TOCK. (Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) 
The making and assembling of the differ- 
ent parts of a watch. 

HOOPING UP. (Ford Weekly) (Gold- 
wyn) The nine months process of making 

FOUR RUNNERS OF JOY. (Ford 
Weekly) (Goldwyn) The manufacture of 
wneels. 



COAL MINING IN SOUTHERN ILLI- 
NOIS. (Atlas Educ. Film Co.) 

MAGIC CLAY. (Select Pictures) The 
Rookwood pottery work shop, Cincin- 
nati, O. 

AIDS TO CUPID. (Select Pictures) The 
ages old industry of perfume making in 
Grasse, France. 

SILKS AND SATINS. 2 reels. (Bureau 
of Commercial Economics, Universal) 
The manufacture of silk from the begin- 
ning to the end. 

THE COLOSSUS OF ROADS. 2 reels. 
(Universal) The making of firestone cord 
tires. 

AGRICULTURE IN THE STATE OF 
WASHINGTON. (Beseler) Harvesting with 
tractors; State Fair attractions. 

THE WOOD WORKERS OF ST. CLOUD. 
% reel. (Educ. Film Corp.) The produc- 
tion of beautiful original woodwork. 

TEXTILE INDUSTRY OF FRANCE. 
(Beseler) (Reissue). 

HOW PLASTER IS OBTAINED. (Re- 
issue) (Beseler) Gypsum quarries. 

THE OYSTER INDUSTRY. (Beseler) 
The entire process from dredging to seal- 
ing the cans. 

FARM INCONVENIENCES. (Internat. 
Harvester Co.) A picture demonstrating 
how lack of system and careless methods 
will prevent successful farming. Right 
methods suggested. 

THE EVOLUTION OF HARVESTING. 
(Internat. Harvester Co.) From primitive 
methods up to the modern tractor. 

AMERICA'S GOLDEN HARVEST. (In- 
ternat. Harvester Co.) Reaping and bind- 
ing and shocking of grain. 

TRACTOR FARMING. (Internat. Har- 
vester Co.) This picture shows what a 
tractor, that Jack of all trades, means to 
a farmer in the saving of labor. 

CANNING — COLD PACK METHOD. (In- 
ternat. Harvester Co.) Food conservation 
advocated by exposition of various meth- 
ods of preserving fruits, berries, etc. 

CORN — HARVESTING AND TESTING 
SEED. (Internat. Harvester Co.) A pic- 
ture that should offer many suggestions 
to a rural community. 

THE SUGAR TRAIL. (General Electric 
Co.) A depiction of the beet sugar in- 
dustry with animated statistics showing 
the world's production and consumption. 

QUEEN OF THE WAVES. (General 
Electric Co.) The history of five hundred 
years of American navigation. 

THE POTTER'S WHEEL. (General 
Electric Co.) The making of electrical por- 
celain. . 

THE ELECTRICAL GIANT. (General 
Electric Co.) The manufacture of a 50,000 
horsepower steam turbine generator. 

PITTSFIELD WORKS. (General Elec- 
tric Co.) A trip through the Pittsfield 
Works of the General Electric Company. 

BUTTE, ANACONDA AND PACIFIC 
RAILROAD. (General Electric Co.) A 
pictorial record of the Butte, Anaconda 
and Pacific Railroad electrification through 
a rough and mountainous country. 

THE APPLE INDUSTRY. (Beseler) 
The pruning and spraying of trees; the 
picking and packing of apples. 

THE MAKING OF A SHOE. (Beseler) 
The making of a shoe from cutting out the 
soles to packing for shipment. 

THE SLATE INDUSTRY. (Beseler) 
Quarrying slate, manufacturing school 
slates. 

INDUSTRIES IN TENNESSEE. (Bese- 
ler) Asbestos quarry; coke industry. 

PUBLISHING THE LOS ANGELES EX- 
AMINER. (Beseler) Views in every de- 
partment used in the publication of this 
journal. 

(Continued on Page 66) 



Advertisements 65 



This Is the Portable Motion Picture Projecting 
Machine Without an Apology 



THE 

American 
Projectoscope 




Run It Forward or Backward 

Pictures may be run either way, at will. Simply reverse the motor and 
repeat any portion desired. This feature is especially valuable in a lecture 
room, as it permits returning to any point of especial interest, to explain in 
more detail, without the necessity of rewinding and running the whole film 
over again. 

Use It Like a Stereopticon 

The machine may be stopped for a few moments at any picture for a 
detailed study. This combines the moivng picture and stereopticon feature 
in one machine. The danger of burning the film is negligible as the ar- 
rangement of lenses patented in this machine give a cool but strong light. 
Every device is used to make this machine as fireproof and foolproof as 
possible. 

Uses Standard Size Films 

The ordinary standard motion picture films — the same kind used in 
theatres all over the world — are used in the American Projectoscope. 

SOME SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES 
WHO KNOW FROM EXPERIENCE 

Hopewell Township High School, Franklin, Ind. 

City Schools, Warsaw, Ind. 

City High School, Monticello, Ind. 

City Schools, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Humboldt Park School, Milwaukee, Wis. 

State Normal School, Santee, Neb. 

City Schools, Albert Lee, Minn. 

State Normal School, Madison, So. Dakota. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

State Agricultural College, Ft. Collins, Colo. 

Francis Parker School, Chicago, 111. 

Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, N. Y. 

Loyola University, Chicago, 111. 

First Baptist Church, Covington, Va. 

St. Peter and Paul Parish, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

St. Ignatius, Chicago, 111. 

Plymouth Congregational Church, Cleveland, O. 

WRITE FOR LITERATURE 
Dealers and Jobbers in school supplies are requested to write for our agency proposition. 

AMERICAN PROJECTING CO., Inc. 

6231 Broadway CHICAGO, ILL. 

When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



66 



Visual Education 



"Mcintosh Lanterns are Honest Lanterns" 

The Classroom 

is the place for Visual Instruction. No 
more marching thru the halls — no more 
disturbance and skylarking. Just at- 
tach an Automatic Sciopticon 




to any incandescent socket and turn on 
the current. Remarkably efficient — 
extremely simple. Ask for circular. 

Mcintosh Educational Slides 

are used all over the country. They 
are listed in four catalogs : 

A of Agriculture, S of Science, E of 
Industries, H of History and Civics. 
Which do you want? 

McINTOSH C om¥a°ny ,con 

E. Randolph St., Chicago, 111. 



PROJECTORS 

Motion Picture and Slides 

The largest and most complete stock 
of projection apparatus in the country 
is a fact that Bass can well be proud of. 
It enables us to make more prompt 
shipment and quote lower prices on all 
standard apparatus. 

Also a complete stock of Motion Pic- 
ture cameras for the taking of the 
picture. 

Send for our catalogues at once! Free 
on request. 

VICTOR STEREOPTICONS 

Projects pictures from 10 to 120 ft. 
from the screen. Equipped with 400-watt 
nitrogen lamp. Can be attached to any 
ordinary light socket. 

Bass recommends a Victor. 
LtstPrice,$60.00. Our Special Price, $47.50. Case,$5.00 
DE VRY PORTABLE PROJECTOR 

The standard portable motion picture 
projector of today. 1,000 ft. capacity 
Has projection throw up to 80 ft. from 
the screen. Each fully guaranteed to 
be absolutely perfect. 

C-2 — Used — Guaranteed $100.00 

C-30— New 200.00 

C-90— Slightly Used 150.00 

C-90— New 200.00 

Wire orders given special immediate attention 

BASS CAMERA COMPANY 

Dept. V 
103 No. Dearborn St. CHICAGO, ILL. 



(Continued from Page 64) 

MANUFACTURING PAPER MONEY. 
(Reissue) (Beseler) Every operation 
through every department. 

SPRING LOG DRIVING IN MAINE. 
(Beseler) From lumber camp to mill. 

THE ASSEMBLING OF AN AUTOMO- 
BILE. (Ford Motor Co.) 

THE MAKING OF AN AUTOMOBILE 
PISTON. (Ford Motor Co.) 

PUBLIC SAFETY 

DANGERS OF THE STREET. (National 
Motion Pictures Co.) A film intended to 
warn children against the dangers of 
carelessness. 

THE REASON WHY. 2 reels. (U. S. 
Steel Corp.) Made by the U. S. Steel Corp. 
to impress on its workmen the need for 
observance of "safety first" rules. 

STAKING THEIR LIVES. (National 
Motion Pictures Co.) The needlessness of 
accident, made vivid through pictures. 

THE LOCKED DOOR. 3 reels. (Under- 
writers' Laboratories) A picture made in 
cooperation with the New York Fire De- 
partment to promote proper fire protec- 
tion. 

FIRST AID TO THE INJURED. (Atlas 
Educ. Film Corp.) A film giving informa- 
tion that everyone should possess. 

WELFARE WORK OF THE CARNEGIE 
STEEL CO. (U. S. Steel Corp.) 

ON THE TRAIL OF GERMS. (Educ. 
Film Corp.) Produced under the auspices 
of the Chicago Tuberculosis Institute. 

IN CONNECTION WITH THE CLASSICS 

THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. 5 reels. 
(Pathe.) 

KING LEAR. 5 reels. (Pathe.) 
WILHELM TELL. 5 reels. (Famous 
When you write, please m 



Players-Lasky) Schiller's classic filmed 
where the events occurred and played by 
Swiss actors. 

ALICE IN WONDERLAND. 6 reels. 
(Eskay-Harris.) 

ALICE THROUGH THE LOOKING 
GLASS. 3 reels. (Eskay-Harris.) 

GHOST OF SLUMBER MOUNTAIN. (Re- 
public) A drama of prehistoric animals. 

THE COPPERHEAD. 5 reels. (Famous 
Players-Lasky) An intensely thrilling and 
patriotic story of the Civil War times. 

TREASURE ISLAND. 5 reels. (Famous 
Players-Lasky) A Maurice Tourneur pro- 

DR. JEKYLL AND MR. HYDE. 6 reels. 
(Famous Players-Lasky.) 

THE HOUSE OF SEVEN GABLES. (Re- 
issue) 5 reels. (Beseler.) 

CINDERELLA. 5 reels. (Mary Pickford) 
(Famous Players-Lasky). 

PUDD'N HEAD W T ILSON. 5 reels. (Fam- 
ous Players-Lasky.) 

PEER GYNT. 5 reels. (Famous Play- 
ers-Lasky.) 

BIOLOGY AND NATURAL SCIENCE 

BIRDS OF PREY. (Educ. Film Corp.) 
Eagle, vulture, owl and other predatory 
birds. 

EDIBLE FISH OF THE MEDITER- 
RANEAN. (Pathe) Weird citizens of the 
sea. 

THE DOG AND HIS VARIOUS MERITS. 
(Beseler) Training the police dog, to- 
gether with pictures of different types of 
dogs in Holland and Belgium. 

HOW PLANTS ARE BORN, LIVE AND 
DIE. (Beseler) A valuable study of gen- 
eral interest. 

THE ORANG. (Educ. Film Corp.) A 
Ditmars Studio picture exploiting a most 
remarkable animal. 

(Continued on Page 68) 
tion VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 



67 



THE COMBINED 

MOTION PICTURE CAMERA AND PROJECTOR 




YOU CAN SUCCESSFULLY TAKE AND PROJECT 
YOUR OWN MOVIES WITH A 




The complete outfit includes Camera and Projector At- 
tachments, Tripod, Screen, and Electrical Equipment. 



PRICES 

Complete Outfit Camera Only 

With F-3-5 Tessar Lens $150.00 With F-3-5 Lens $125.00 

With F-6 Lens 125.00 With F-6 Lens 100.00 

SEND FOR OUR BOOKLET 

Klix Manufacturing Co. 



326 W. MADISON ST. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL. EDUCATION 



68 



Visual Education 



Class Room Instruction by Motion Pictures 

Motion pictures are now available wherever there is 
electric light. No expensive, complicated installation nec- 
essary. 

The American Projeetoscope — the portable motion picture 
projecting machine "without an apology" — is compact, simple, 
motor or hand driven, weighs only 19 pounds (25 with motor), 
throws a perfect picture 8 ft. or SO ft. with wonderful bril- 
liancy and uses any standard films. Can be reserved in- 
stantly to repeat any portion desired. Attaches to any electric 
light socket. Exclusive lens arrangement, eliminates tire 
danger. Shows any frame on a film as a "still," like a 
stereopticon. 

The most practical machine ever offered for class room 
work. Easily carried from class to class. 

Ask for booklet giving full description, prices* etc. 

We are experts in the field of picture pro- 
jection and shall be glad to help you Work 
out any problem along this line. 

Motion picture supplies of all kinds always in stock. Reg- 
ular theatre equipment is advised for Educational work wher- 
ever a permanent installation is possible. 

Exhibitors Supply Company 

Educational^ Department, 1881 J Transportation BIdg., Chicago 




( 1273) 



(Continued from 



66) 



THE FRIENDLY BEE. (Educ. Film 
Corp.) Hives and bees and their care. 

EVOLUTION AND LIFE OF A SILK 
WORM. (Educ. Film Corp.) The various 
stages from beginning- to end. 

WONDERS OF CRYSTALLIZATION. 
(Educ. Film Corp.) Miscroscopic slides of 
various fluids. 

THE WAR ON THE MOSQUITO. (Bese- 
ler) Draining marshes with pictures of 
larvae, etc. 

MOLLUSKS. (Beseler) Sea slugs and 
other little known sea animals. 

LESSON IN PHYSICS; OXYGEN. (Re- 
issue) (Beseler) Experiments in combus- 
tion, etc. 

REPTILE— PART 5. (Beseler) Differ- 
ent kinds of familiar and unfamiliar 
snakes. 

THE BIOGRAPHY OF A STAG. (Educ. 
Film Corp.) Written chiefly in the growth 
of its antlers. 

CAUGHT. (Ford weekly) (Goldwyn) 
Hunting of bears; forest fires prevention. 

TROUT. (Republic) The care of fish by 
the state fish and game commission. 

BIRDS OF VANITY. (Educ. Film Corp.) 
Pheasants and peacocks and other gor- 
geous birds. 

A VISIT TO THE BRONX ZOO. (Bese- 
ler) Views of many of the animals in this 
great collection. 

LIQUID AIR. (Atlas Educ. Film Co.) 
Experiments showing effects of liquid air 
upon metals, flowers and living objects. 

ICE AND SNOW. (Atlas Educ. Film Co.) 
Power of frost and the formation of ice 
and snow. 

WEEKLIES, NEWS ITEMS AND 
REVIEWS 

PATHE NEWS, 38. (Pathe) Races at 
When you write, please m 



Louisville; Panama Canal; Uncle Joe Can- 
non; Military Review by M. Paul Des- 
chanel; Aviation at Mineola, N. Y. ; The 
Lunar Eclipse, etc. 

PATHE NEWS, 37. (Pathe) New York 
City; captured German guns; Supreme 
Council of Italy; seniors at Wellesley; the 
Pacific Fleet; Centennial in Hawaii, etc. 

PATHE NEWS, 36. (Pathe) Ceremonies 
at St. Mark's Square, Venice; the Prince 
of Wales surf-riding at Waikiki Beach, 
Hawaii; demonstrations in Ireland; war- 
ships back from Cuba. 

PATHE REVIEW, 40. (Pathe) Pathe- 
color, Lourdes, the Mecca of France, Bari- 
licue, most famous cathedral in France, 
grotto of Lourdes, making of cement; 
Novagraph film, ball playing. Ditmars 
film, the southern Mason wasp, glimpses 
of interior of nest; (cut dance at end). 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS, 18. (Univer- 
sal) New York City, opening of ball sea- 
son; Wyoming, spring- lamb round-up; 
New York volunteers running locomotives 
to end strike; Proti, in the Sea of Mar- 
mora; Searchlight on the Pacific, etc. 

PATHE REVIEW, 33. (Pathe) Views 
in France; a lighthouse repair shop; Dit- 
mars film, the ant lion; testing the head 
resistance of a shell; Novagraph film; how 
the champions do it. 

PATHE NEWS, 39. (Pathe) Celebration 
of Polish freedom in Detroit, Mich.; new 
ditching machine attached to locomotive; 
summer Y. W. C. A. camp on Lake Michi- 
can; Hudson Bay pageant in Winnepeg; 
loading supplies on U. S. S. Oklahoma, etc. 

PATHE NEWS, 40. (Pathe) Freight 
congestion in Detroit, Mich.; Are fighters 
test new hose in Lawrence, Mass.; join the 
American Legion; tribute to Joan of Arc 

(Continued on Page 70) 
ention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 



69 



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Which Way Are You Teaching? 



To teach without using visual education 
is to walk with one leg — to work with 
an arm tied behind you. Teach in the 
up-to-date way. It will pay! 

To illustrate. Geography is hard for most 
pupils. Ridges are hills; or hills 
are mountains; actual moun- 
tains have been seen by only 
a few. But the Ford Educational 
"Weekly motion pictures, show- 
ing human life in relation to 
mountains — plains — valleys — and 
rivers, make the pupil instantly to visual- 
ize — and so to know. In the Ford 
Weekly the pupil has experienced 
Geography! 

The Ford Weekly, with films on geogra- 
phy, history, industry, science and home- 




life, makes teaching a joy to the teacher 
because it makes learning a joy to the 
pupil. It lifts off of your shoulders most 
of the drudgery. Dull pupils wake up. All 
pupils take on a new interest. It's quite 
unbelievable — until you try it. 



Ford "Weekly films — one new one 
each week — are distributed by 
the Goldwyn Distributing Cor- 
poration from 22 leading cities. 
This reduces express charges to 
minimum. 



It's our pleasure to get into touch with 
Teachers, Principals, and School Boards. 
Tell us your problems. If you will fill 
out, sign and mail the coupon below — 
do it now — today — don 't delay — it will 
receive our instant response. 



If your school has no projector, or a poor one, we will 
assist you to get in touch with the best projector made. 

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Fitzpatrick & McElroy. 202 S. State St., Chicago, III., Dept. R-6 

□ Yes. □ No. Is your School now a subscriber to the Ford Educational Weekly? 

□ Yes. □ No. Have you ever seen a Ford Educational Weekly film? 

□ Yes. □ No. May we lend you one gratis to throw on your screen? 

□ Yes. D No. Has your School an adequate projector? 

I would like more information about 

D Projectors. □ Ford Educational Weekly. 



□ Catalogue of Films. 



Street . 
City 



When you write, please mention VISUAL, EDUCATION 



70 



Visual Education 



Do You Teach Composition? 

Send for 

75 Composition Outlines 

A Help for Teachers and Pupils 
Price 40 Cents, Postpaid 

Miller Publishing Co. oak^rI®!"' 



(Continued from page 68) 

in New York City; army air meet at Boil- 
ing- Field, D. C. ; dedication of National 
Memorial at Arlington, Va., etc. 

The Pictographs, produced by Bray 
Studios, are one reel pictures containing 
a variety of interesting educational sub- 
jects and ending always with an animated 
cartoon which may be omitted or not as 
desired. 

PICTOGRAPH, 7039. (Goldwyn) The 
Enchanted Garden — Pictures showing the 
wonderful flowers in Yosemite National 
Park. Master Minds of America — Inti- 
mate views of Dr. Simon Flexner, the fam- 
ous pathologist and bacteriologist. Times 
Have Changed — Cartoon. 

PICTOGRAPH, 7038. (Goldwyn) Beat- 
ing the Landlord — Methods of circumvent- 
ing high rents. How's Your Eyesight — 
Technical drawings showing what is 
wrong with other people's eyes. Jerry on 
the Job — Cartoon. 

PICTOGRAPH, 7040. (Goldwyn) Spring- 
time in Zooland's Nursery — All kinds of 
babies, feathered, furred and otherwise. 
A Friend in Need — The work of the "Big 
Sister" Division of the Traveler's Aid So- 
ciety. Master Minds of America — Arthur 
Powell Davis, the great hydraulic en- 
gineer. 

HOME STUDY £&£"& Xls 

sional degree Courses. Eighth year. Catalog Free 
TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE, Washington, D. C| 



Miscellaneous Notes 

(Continued from Page 45) 
edge of urgent needs thus revealed the 
material was compiled. 

The technicalities of motion picture 
exhibition, such as the differences be- 
tween standard and narrow width film; 
the adaptability of various currents, and 
details of actual projection are all ex- 
plained simply for the benefit of the 
uninitiated. There is also an explanation 
of the different machines now in use in 
the schools. Altogether this is a most 
valuable collection of information. 
• • • 

CRITICS have long deplored the 
growing power of the screen, which 
on its tidal wave of success 
threatens to inundate the fields of legiti- 
mate drama and completely submerge 
them. Their fears, sharpened by the 
merging of the Frohman interests into 

When you write, please ment 



the Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, 
are augmented by the productions of 
Georg Kaiser, a prolific German drama- 
tist. According to an article in the May 
22nd number of the Literary Digest, the 
technique of Kaiser's dramas is that of 
the cinema and his influence has already 
manifested itself on the English stage. 
"From Morn to Midnight," the first of his 
plays to be translated into English, shows 
a number of quickly changing scenes 
with a marked absence of dialogue and 
soliloquy. His scenes are not always 
presented in their logical time order, but 
are moved about in order to heighten the 
emotional and dramatic effect. To 
quote from the Literary Digest: "Just 
as in the screen play, there is a certain 
telescoping of emotional effects, which 
may be used to heighten them, and a 
speeding up not only of gesture, but of 
events, so Herr Kaiser rattles through 
spiritual adventures in disconnected 
scenes at a tremendous pace. The point 
is that, though the items in the sum of 
emotions, so to speak, are added up with 
the lightning rapidity of an expert 
ledger-keeper, the total figure works out 
as large as if the process had been 
leisurely." 

• • • 

ANEW course to be given in Teach- 
ers' College, Columbia University, 
is listed as Education 218 and has 
the title "The Educational Value of 
Motion Pictures." The course is to be 
given by Mr. E. K. Fretwell, a professor 
of instruction in scouting and by Mr. 
Charles W. Hunt, the principal of the 
Horace Mann Elementary School. These 
men are much interested in motion pic- 
tures and are going to organize the ma- 
terials which can be used in the above 
course of instruction. 

A second course in moving pictures of- 
fered at Columbia University during the 
summer is concerned with the making of 
photoplays. Fundamentals of dramatic 
construction as applied to the screen, 
principles of visual appeal, the successful 
use of motion picture devices, and other 
"tricks of the trade" are to be a part of 

(Continued on Page 72) 
ion VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 



71 



m 




Duplex Lighting 

Means Better Vision 



Progressive educators are beginning to 
realize more and more that good lighting is 
a matter of vital importance. 

It is obvious that students can make greater 
headway in their work when the class room 
is filled with a bright, soft, glareless light. 

The visual efficiency of Duplex Lighting is 
higher than that of any other system. 



Western Electric 

Duplexalite 

fills every part of the room, even the corners, 
with a thoroughly diffused, restful brilliancy. 
Glare is absolutely eliminated. You can look 
directly at this lighting unit without the least eye- 
strain. It combines direct and indirect lighting, 
having the merits of both and 
the faults of neither. 



Duplexalites have been adopted 
for schools in many large cities, 
having been approved after ex- 
haustive, comparative tests with 
other lighting units. 



Write for a copy of our interesting booklet 
DP-43 entitled "Light Where You Want It." 



Western Electric Company 

195 Broadway New York, N. Y. 

Offices in All Principal Cities 




..When you write, please mention VISUAL .EDUCATION 



72 



Visual Education 




For Floors of Maple, Birch 
and Close Grained Woods 



Martin's Amber- Lyte 

is very easily applied and 
dries over night — produces a 
soft, golden Amber finish. 




Amber-Lyte is the ideal 

finish for schoolroom 
floors and halls — with- 
stands the hardest serv- 
ice, the grit, and the dirt 
as no other finish can. 
Amber - Lyte penetrates 
deeply into the hardest 
kind of woods, such as 
maple, oak, etc. — fills 
every dirt hole and crev- 
ice — and drys quickly with 
a hard surface that is 
dust-resisting and abso- 
lutely sanitary. 
We have a booklet, "Your 
Floors," which should be 
on every school superin- 
tendent's desk. It con- 
tains a wealth of infor- 
mation on modern meth- 
ods of finishing floors in 
schools and public build- 
ings. 

MARTIN VARNISH CO. 

2520 Quarry St. 
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the course which is given by Rowland 
Patterson. 

• • • 

AMONG the interesting new devel- 
opments in the teaching of geog- 
raphy is a publication by Dr. Wal- 
lace W. Atwood of Harvard University, 
Nellie B. Allen of Fitchburg, Mass., 
author of "Geographical and Industrial 
Studies," and Edward K. Robinson. These 
authors have developed a device, which 
is shortly to be published by Ginn and 
Company, by which a pupil not onlyfills 
in a printed outline map but" himself 
draws the entire map, thereby emphasiz- 
ing his visual impression of the outlines 
of continents, countries, and states, in a 
way that has not been possible when 
pupils have merely filled in printed out- 
line maps. 

Another valuable feature in connection 
with this publication is the correlation 
of history with geography. At the pres- 
ent time most outline map work pro- 
vides the teacher with no definite course 
to be followed. This new series provides 
a very definite outline accompanying the 
maps, and a generous number of geo- 
graphical games and devices which Miss 
Allen has developed and accumulated 
during her experience as a teacher in 
the Fitchburg (Mass.) Normal School. 
The work is divided into two parts. The 
first, Practical Map Exercises in Geog- 
raphy and History — Western Hemisphere, 
is to be published in June. The second 
part covering the Eastern Hemisphere in 
the same way will be published in the 
fall. 



Did You 

Notice the Slip 

on Page 39? 



When you write, please mention VISUAL, EDUCATION 



VISUAL 
EDUCATION 

A Magazine Devoted to the Cause of American Education 
Vol. I. SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER, 1920 No. 5 

In This Number 



Visual Education as a Constructive 

Force in Industry H. L. Clarke 

Teaching English to Foreigners 

Through Motion Pictures C. L. Hultgren 

How North Carolina Uses Motion Pic- 
tures in Its Community Service 
System F. A. Olds 

The Woman's Club and Its Attitude 

Toward Visual Education F. B. Blanchard 

Motion Pictures in the Toledo Museum 

of Art E. L. Anderson 

Visual Material: Spur or Sedative L. C.Everard 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, Inc. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

One Dollar a Year Single Copy, Fifteen Cents 



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of Bonds 




Increase your \nowledge of 
bonds — write, call or telephone 
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which will be sent to you 
without charge or obligation 
uponrequest for booklet VM-2 



Even though a consist- 
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may be some points about 
bonds concerning which 
you desire more complete 
information. If an invest- 
or in other lines or a be- 
ginning bond buyer, you 
owe it to yourself to be- 
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the merits of this increas- 
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vestment. 

Both experienced and 
inexperienced bond buyers 
will, therefore, find our 
booklet, herewith il- 
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"Bonds — Questions Answered 
— Terms Defined" 

of interest and value. In its twenty-six pages are discussed the questions 
which our extended experience has shown are those most frequently asked 
by bond buyers. Its contents also include non-technical definitions of the 
most commonly used bond terms. 

HALSEY, STUART & CO. 

Incorporated — Successors to N. W. Halsey & Co., Chicago 



CHICAGO 

209 S. LA SALLE ST. 



NEW YORK 

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When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



,©CI.B481558£ 

0" 30 1920 J 

VISUAL EDUCATION 

A MAGAZINE DEVOTED 
TO THE CAUSE OF 
AMERICAN EDUCATION 

Rollix D. Salisbury, President Forest R. Moultox, Secretary 

Hari.ey L. Clarke, Manager 



Published every month except July and August 
I Copyright October, 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 
Subscription price, one dollar a year. Fifteen cents a copy. 

VOLUME M SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER, 1920 V NUMBER 5 

IN THIS NUMBER 

Editorial 8 

Visual Education as a Constructive Force in Industry'. 12 

II. L. Clarice 

.Motion Pictures in the Toledo Museum of Art 14 

Enla Lee Anderson 

The Woman's Club : Its Attitude Toward Visual Education 16 

Florence Butler Blanch a rd 

What School Superintendents Think 19 

How North Carolina Uses Motion Pictures in Its System of Community 

Service 21 

F. A. Olds 

Teaching English to Foreigners Through Motion Pictures 25 

C. L. Hultgren 

Visual Material : Spur or Sedative : 2.9 

L. C. Everard 

Pageantry Notes 34 

\l iscellany 36 

Book Reviews 40 

Films Viewed and Reviewed -I : » 

The Film Field 49 

If You Need a Film 53 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



VISUAL EDU CATION 

A National Organ of the New Movement in American Education 

Published every month except July and August 

Copyright, October, 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 



Volume I 



SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER, 1920 



Number 5 



Editorial 



OWING to the shortage of print 
paper — a condition that is work- 
ing- loss and embarrassment to 
the publishing trade the country over — 
there has been an unavoidable delay in 
issuing this copy of Visual Education. 
In consequence, it has been found ad- 
visable to consolidate the September 
and October numbers, and to extend 
subscriptions and advertising contracts 
one month by way of making adjust- 
ment. 

It is comforting to reflect that a suffi- 
cient supply of stock is now in storage 
to take care of our paper needs for the 
remainder of the year. Readers may 
be assured that Visual Education 
will make its appearance regularly from 
this time forth. 



AMERICA, land of opportunity, 
has, for at least twenty years, 
been missing priceless oppor- 
tunities. 

Every day that slips into the past 
carries significant events of world his- 
tory into the limbo of the irrevocable. 
Persons, things, acts and occasions are 
seen by a few eyes at the moment of 



their living actuality, and then must 
take their place forever in history, im- 
perfectly preserved in .the transient 
memory of witnesses, in printed words 
of inadequate description, and in still 
pictures that record only frozen mo- 
ments in the march of an event that 
lived and moved. Yet we have at hand 
an instrument that will preserve for all 
time a good fraction of what has oc- 
curred since the 20th century began, 
and practically everything of real sig- 
nificance that will take place through- 
out the world in all the years to come. 

By way of illustration, consider the 
titles of these old Edison films, made 
between 1900 and 1905, which George 
Kleine — a pioneer in motion pictures 
who never has lost the vision of the 
serious values obtainable from the great 
invention — recently bad nnearthed. 
These are' selected at random from a 
collection of 179 similar subjects: 

Mount Pelee, smoking before the 
eruption. 

Eruption of volcano and destruction 
of St. Pierre. 

President McKinley's funeral. 

Skirmish between Russians and Japs. 



Editorial 



Panorama of Culebra Cut (while 
(■anal was building). 

U. S. troops landing at Daiquiri, 
( luba. 

Galveston Flood. Search for bodies 
in ruins. 

The aeroplane ''June Bug." 

Opening of the New York Subway. 

Seeing New York. (These views 
taken at the beginning of the century 
would make interesting viewing at the 
end of it.) 

What magical possibilities for pre- 
serving the past are here suggested ! Tn 
the days when these films were made, 
motion cameras were few and their 
work sadly inferior to results achieved 
within a decade afterward. Today per- 
fected cameras are everywhere. Very 
few notable events of the world escape 
the omnipresent lens. Out of the vast 
amount of footage taken since 1900, 
millions of feet still exist containing 
priceless records. It is futile to at- 
tempt an evaluation of the output of 
coming years. 

Such material should be recognized 
as a national asset, invaluable and ir- 
replaceable. Celluloid is perishable. 
This great record of world activities 
being made daily by the motion pic- 
ture, is doomed to destruction after its 
present prescribed course is run, unless 
steps are taken to preserve it. 

Will America stand by and watch 
this heritage pass away? 

What the Library of Congress has 
done and is doing for books, a like 
institution could do for films. The 
two problems would be quite similar, 
save in two details. The storage 
vaults for film will differ fundamen- 
tally from the book stacks, and the 
studio for reprinting aging negatives 
will replace the bindery. The initial 



cost would be heavy, the upkeep 
equally so; but America is blessed be- 
yond all other nations in the ability to 
afford any cost which value received 
will justify. 



FORMAL education, in the mod- 
ern world, lias been going on for 
something over a thousand years. 
Its beginnings under Charlemagne were 
humble: its early steps, painfully slow; 
its whole progress down to the present 
day has been unduly sluggish because 
of the innate quality of the academic 
mind, which insists upon being over- 
sure of the value of a change before 
making it. 

The "thousand years" fall readily 
into three periods of very unequal 
length: the period of the listening ear, 
the period of the reading eye. the period 
of the seeing eye. The first period was 
seven or eight centuries long; the sec- 
ond, three or four centuries; the third, 
a score of years or so. 

In old eighth-century Alcuin's day, 
and for nearly eight hundred years 
afterward, teachers spoke and pupils 
listened. Crinkled parchments and 
dog's-eared manuscripts, written by the 
hands of monks long dead, were too 
rare and precious for use by any but 
the little company of learned men. 
These masters were, therefore, the 
oracles for the masses — the only source 
of learning, outside personal experi- 
ence, for the rank-and-file of humanity. 

The medieval university consisted of . 
a lecturer on a grassy knoll with his 
listeners seated on the ground around 
him. The eminence of the speaker and 
the carrying power of his voice deter- 
mined whether the listeners numbered 



10 



Visual Education 



scores,, or hundreds, or thousands. 
Often the university moved indoors un- 
der the shelter of any roof available. 
Gradually special buildings came to be 
erected for the purpose and the name 
"University'" took on a more concrete 
meaning. The manuscripts were given 
homes to insure, the preservation of 
their priceless contents. Thus libraries 
were born. All this spelled progress. 
Yet educational method remained the 
same : oral expression by the teacher, 
aural acquisition by the taught. Those 
long twilight centuries, from the eighth 
to the fifteenth, were the period of the 
listening ear. 

Printing came — in the fifteenth cen- 
tury — and the world fell to reading. 
The sense of sight began to dominate 
the field of formal education. Sources 
of knowledge suddenly multiplied ten 
thousandfold. The manuscript in the 
medieval library had been inaccessible 
to the' world save through the medium 
of the teacher's voice, and for a few 
learners to master the contents of a 
single document required many lec- 
tures extending over many days. Once 
printed, however, that same document 
could become the intellectual possession 
of tens of thousands in a single day. 
What printing did for the speeding-up 
of education can never be calculated. 

This was the period of the reading 
eye, and it extended, we may say, from 
the fifteenth century to the days of our 
own childhood. It marked a great ad- 
vance over the preceding period. The 
printed copies of one or two great books 
have doubtless exerted a mightier in- 
fluence upon the human mind in total 
than did all the lectures of all the lec- 
turers of the Dark Ages. In the first 
period, the ears of thousands were serv- 



ing the cause of education; in the sec- 
ond period, the eyes of millions. 

Yet the eye served only to scan the 
lifeless page, to translate to the brain 
printed words which were in themselves 
but inadequate symbols seeking to con- 
vey realities. Between the mind and 
the truth stood always the double bar- 
rier of verbal description by the writer 
and visual translation by the reader. 
Bach intermediate step was inevitably 
fruitful in error and distortion. This 
is still the case, and always must be as 
long as men write books and other men 
read them ; for what is written in a book 
is not necessarily true, and what we 
read in that book is not necessarily what 
was written there. Throughout the 
whole period of the reading eye, formal 
education has been thus handicapped, 
even down, to our own day. 
* * * 

We have reached today the third pe- 
riod of the thousand years — the last, 
and unquestionably the greatest, of the 
three. Educators are fortunate indeed 
to be living their little spans just at 
this moment in the march of time. We 
are scarcely over the threshold of the 
period, and no one can yet know the 
vastness of the opportunity that is 
opening before us. It is a momentous 
time. World movements just born have 
the helplessness characteristic of all 
new life. There is great need of our 
care and attention. Some of us will do 
our utmost for the newcomer; some of 
us will conscientiously try to hinder its 
growth ; most of us, unfortunately, will 
have to wait some years more to realize 
what is going on. This regrettable fact, 
however, makes little difference after 
all. Most of the world is asleep at the 
hour of dawn, Few see the sun rise, 
but so far it has never failed to rise, 



Km COR] \i. 



Jl 



and the new day (.•nine- whether man is 
watching for it or not. 

Visual instruction is the keynote of 

the new education. The complete un- 
derstanding of realities, physical and 
intellectual, is the end of formal edu- 
cation. Tins end is attainable only 
through our five senses. Obviously, we 
should use the sense that enables us to 
approach most nearly to the actuality 
of the thing being studied, avoiding as 
far as possible all intermediate steps in 
the approach. If it is odors we arc 
studying, we should use our sense of 
smell; if flavors, the sense of taste; if 
sounds, our hearing; if surfaces, our 
sense of touch. For these special sub- 
jects the senses named give immediate 
and direct contact between the student 
and the reality he seeks. 

Such fields of study are, however, 
exceedingly limited. The total data 
gathered by these four senses can rarely 



give a complete concepl to the mind. 
Allow a studenl the freest possible use 
of his nose, tongue, ears and fingers, 
and how pathetic will he his resulting 
concept of a rose, a cloud, a locomotive, 
the ocean, m- a mountain-range! Give 
him his eyes, with the other sense- as 
contributory aids, and man can gather 
all the material the natural world 
affords. This material, digested and 
assimilated through the processes of 
research, discussion and reflection, be- 
comes the mental nourishment of the 
world intellect. 

The period of the seeing eye promises 
lo develop the most perfect education 
yet achieved. This is truism rather 
than prophecy. During this period the 
race will advance with swifter stride 
than ever before along the path to final 
mastery of all things, which we like to 
believe is the ultimate heritage of man. 



; 



De Maupassant on Visual Education 

(Written about 1850) 

From "Hov? He Got the Legion of Honor" 

I £ f E. wanted gratuitous theatres to be established in every poor 
i - j: — - 1 quarter in Paris for little children. Their parents were to 
take them there when they were quite young, and, by means of a 
magic lantern, all the notions of human knowledge, were to be im- 
parted to them. There were to be regular courses. The sight 
would educate the mind, while the pictures would remain impressed 
on the brain; and thus science would, so to say, be made visible. 
What could be more simple than to teach universal history, natural 
history, geography, botany, zoology, anatomy, thus? 






VISUAL EDUCATION AS A 

CONSTRUCTIVE FORCE 

IN INDUSTRY 

By H. L. Clarke 
President, Utilities Development Corporation 



THE boys and girls of today are 
the workers of tomorrow. 

What we sow this year in the 
schoolrooms of America, we shall reap 
a few years hence in the communities 
of America. 

There are certain studies that .teach 
facts and standards of vital impor- 
tance to the well-being of nation and 
individual — studies that help to make 
better citizens and better men and 
women. Foremost among these essen- 
tial studies are American history and 
government, geography and industry, 
sanitation and hygiene. On these 
fundamental subjects, therefore, the 
Society for Visual Education is build- 
ing the first of its film courses. The 
more the grades are able, by utilizing 
the teaching power of the screen, to 
increase the amount and effectiveness 
of the instruction given in these es- 
sential subjects today, the better will 
it be for community and citizen to- 
morrow. 

So much for the future citizen and 
his present needs. 

FILM EDUCATION FOR ADULT WORKERS 

What of the citizen of today? 

Is it good business to withhold 
from the men and women already en- 
rolled in the army of industry this 
same valuable tea chin 2f our future 



workers are receiving in the things 
that go to make better citizens and 
better employees ? 

That many private employers real- 
ize it is poor business to neglect the 
education of the adult citizen, is 
proved by the generous sums large in- 
dustrial concerns are appropriating 
for their own industrial education 
departments. Whatever it may cost 
to improve the morale of their work- 
ers, they look upon the investment as 
one they cannot afford to sidestep. 

DIPLOMACY OF SCREEN TEACHING 

The best education in industry is 
that which stimulates a workman to 
produce more for both himself and his 
employer. The ideal way to impart 
such an education is by means of the 
screen. It is a thoroughly tactful 
way. It does its work without creat- 
ing antagonisms. Whether schoolboy, 
schoolgirl or factory worker, few will 
pick a quarrel with the motion pic- 
ture's story, provided only it is the 
truth. On the other hand, the same 
positive information coming from a 
lecturer is likely either to fall on deaf 
ears or to provoke resentful and often 
dangerous argument. 

A DIVIDEND-PAYING METHOD 

Again, it is well known that a far 
greater percentage of people see alike 



12 



Visi \i. Education As \ Constructive Force 



13 



than hear alike. Also there is the in- 
escapable fact of time saved and 
vividness gained by taking advantage 

of the screen's power to tell much in 
small compass, and to tell it in such 
a way that the knowledge sticks. 

It follows, therefore, that industrial 
education by the visual method comes 
nearer than any other way to ac- 
complishing the desired results. It 
economizes time, it . makes for uni- 
formity of impression, and it provokes 
little antagonism. It is obvious that 
visual methods — especially where 
there is only a limited knowledge of 
English, as in the case of the foreign 
labor so largely employed in our fac- 
tories and mines — will materially in- 
crease the rate of return on the money 
.invested in industrial education. 

APPLICATION TO INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

The Society for Visual Education 
is developing films to portray all 
phases of the safety problem. It is 
endeavoring to picturize many other 
phases of the industrial problems that 
affect ■ railroad, store and factory. 
Films are being designed to trace the 
course of freight from consignor to 
consignee, bringing out the vital na- 
ture of each single step in the jour- 
ney, and emphasizing the obligation 
of every employee to perform each 
duty well and thoroughly, lest one in- 
stance of carelessness or neglect clog an 
entire division of a huge railroad sys- 
tem. 

There are still other films planned 
to show how little mistakes in great 



mercantile houses may Ik- rectified, 

and how various raw materials are 
converted, through a long series of 
factory processes, into valuable manu- 
factured products. 

Manufacturers tell us that it i> be- 
coming increasingly important for 
each worker to know what his fellows 
are doing. The right sort of motion 
pictures will make every worker sense 
the inspiring fact that he is a funda- 
mental and essential part of the or- 
ganization. 

COMBATING THE BOLSHEVISTIC IDEA 

One purpose of the Society for 
Visual Education in its series of in- 
dustrial studies is to show that com- 
bination and organization of capital 
are necessary; that any man may draw 
against capital just to the extent that 
he is willing to pay in energy and edu- 
cation. It is important for every 
citizen to have a correct understand- 
ing of the nature of invested capital 
and of the functions of capital. Films 
of the truly educational sort can vis- 
ualize the vital relations of capital to 
other business. They can show that 
surpluses, large or small, most fre- 
quently represent land, buildings, ma- 
chinery or other equipment, all of 
which are responsible for the con- 
tinued earning power of the corpora- 
tions, and none of which may be dis- 
turbed or distributed without destroy- 
ing that earning power. 

If we can impart these truths in 
some small measure to the workmen 
of America, surely great and lasting 
good must result. 



MOTION PICTURES IN THE TOLEDO 
MUSEUM OF ART 



By Eula Lee Anderson 
Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio 



THE child of today is the man of 
tomorrow, and the richer and 
finer his education, the better 
citizen will he make for his country. 
To appreciate the fine arts, a love for 
them must be instilled in the child as 
soon as he reaches school age and this 
development must parallel his general 
education. 

Art in the public schools is taught 
in a very limited way and one which 
makes little appeal to the average child. 
Realizing this need of our future citi- 
zens, the Toledo Museum of Art is 
endeavoring to lay a foundation in art 
appreciation. It is offering to the 
little Museum visitor the advantages 
of the story hour, the gallery talk, the 
music hour, classes in pure and applied 
design, and the educational motion 
picture. 

BRINGING THE CHILDREN WITHIN 
REACH 

Interest in visits to the Museum was 
first stimulated through the medium 
of an organized bird club. The chil- 
dren were taught to feed, protect and 
save the birds, and were given plans 
for the building of bird-houses which 
they were urged to bring to the Mu- 
seum. That brought the boys and girls 
in crowds. An exhibition of their work 
was later held at the Museum, and 
•3,000 of the cleverly made miniature 
houses were placed in the parks and 
along the highways. Many girls and 
boys who perhaps had never- before 
heard of the Museum or might not 



otherwise have been interested enough 
to give up part of their play-time to 
visit us, thus learned of its location and 
fascinating contents. Thousands have 
also been brought to the Museum dur- 
ing the past four years by means of the 
annual vegetable and flower shows in 
which the children have participated. 

THE LURE OF MOTION PICTURES 

The Toledo Museum was the first to 
include motion pictures in its educa- 
tional plan when, in the autumn of 
1915, the necessary equipment was pre- 
sented through the efforts of H. Y. 
Barnes, then assistant to the Director. 
This proved not only a further magnet 
to attract boys and girls to the Mu- 
seum, but a further means of teaching 
art. During the first few years films 
dealing with travel, crafts and art were 
quite difficult to secure ; yet by diligent 
search many fine things were made 
available, including the Life of Pa- 
lissy, the famous potter, and a beautiful 
hand-colored film showing the making 
of silk. The policy of the Museum is 
not to amuse by means of the film, but 
to educate the child along artistic lines, 
using only such productions as are of a 
distinctly cultural quality. 

EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE OF MUSEUM 

It is the aim of this institution to 
show pictures that supply background 
and atmosphere to its collections, stim- 
ulate interest in them, correlate with 
Museum activities, and are generally 
educational in content and plan. Since 
the pioneer days of the motion picture 



14 



Motion Pictures in the Toledo Museum of Aim 



15 



in the Toledo Museum, film producers 
have shown a marked improvemenl in 

the character of their product, so that 
it is now possible to obtain films on 
art. history, Literature and nature study 
with far greater ease than formerly. 

During one season a series of stories 
on Egyptian art. illustrated with lan- 
tern slides, was presented to the cb.il- 



Docents. Their duties are to act as 

guides to adults and other children 
visiting the Museum galleries. 

The illustrated music hour is an im- 
portant factor in the Museum's educa- 
tional work for children. This instruc- 
tion, like all other Museum activities. 
is free. Once each month themes from 
a great opera are played and slides de- 




ONE REASON WHY THE TOLEDO ART MUSETJ 

dren. At the same time moving pic- 
tures were projected, showing the Nile 
valley, the pyramids, temples and other 
remains of ancient Egypt. Another 
series was based on Greek art and myth- 
ology, and for this films were secured 
showing ancient Greece with its scenes 
of historic and artistic interest. Mo- 
tion pictures were shown on Babylon, 
Assyria, Japan, China, India and Italy, 
always keeping in view the purpose of 
awakening interest in the Museum's 
collections. 

Through the medium of the motion 
picture and the story hour Toledo boys 
and girls have become so familiar with 
our collections that many have been 
made members of the Staff of Assistant 



M BELIEVES IN EDUCATIONAL "MOVIES" 

picting scenes therefrom tire thrown on 
the screen. 

TLIE EDUCATIONAL MOTION PICTURE 

During the past year 70,000 children 
have attended our various activities. 
Short visits do not suffice for them; on 
Saturdays many bring their lunches 
and remain for the day. So great are 
the numbers thronging to see the mov- 
ing pictures, that we find it necessary 
to run our films two or three times on 
Saturday and Sunday. Such attend- 
ance records certainly disprove the 
statement, so frequently heard, that the 
child prefers the sort of entertainment 
provided at the' ordinary motion pic- 
ture theater to pictures of a strictly 
educational nature. 



THE WOMAN'S CLUB: ITS ATTITUDE 
TOWARD VISUAL EDUCATION 

By Florence Butler Blanchard 

Chairman Motion Pictures, General Federation of Women's Clubs 



THE woman's club is one of the 
most important factors in the 
community life of America. It 
has grown out of a common desire 
among women for recreation, self-im- 
provement a n d 
free discussion 
of things that 
are happening in 
the world ; it has 
grow n out of 
their longing to 
be of real service 
to their commu- 
nity and the 
world at large. 

Women's clubs 
have evolved 
from the "quilt- 
ing bees" a n d 
"apple peelings" 
of long ago into 
societies w h i c h 
take up the study 
of literature, his- 
tory, art, politi- 
cal economy and 
other subjects. 
They devote 
themselves not 
only to research 
work, but to the 
active perform- 
ance of civic du- 
ties and other community obligations. 
Only after many years of getting to- 
gether and talking things over has the 
club movement taken an active stand 
on questions affecting municipal, 



county, state and national questions. 

Today all the clubs are combined in 
various federations -*- city, county and 
state 



— with nearly 
r the General 



RESOLUTION 

Whereas, The great popularity of 
the Motion Picture, growing out of 
the fact that eighty-five per cent of 
our thinking is in terms of visual 
images, has demonstrated the un- 
limited power of the Motion Pic- 
ture in leading the mind of the child 
and influencing it for good or evil, 
and 

Whereas, The Society for Visual 
Education, composed of many of the 
foremost educators of America, has 
devised a system of Motion Pictures 
for strictly educational use, such 
pictures being closely articulated 
with the courses of study in our 
public schools, and designed to make 
clear and vivid in the mind of the 
pupil the cold abstractions of the 
printed page, and 

Whereas, Such an association of 
educators is capable of fully and 
properly developing the educational 
possibilities of the Motion Picture, 
without permitting it to become a 
mere amusement device or to be 
more actively harmful in dissemin- 
ating false ideas and false stand- 
ards, be It 

Resolved, That the General Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs, in Con- 
vention assembled, heartily endorse 
the efforts of the Society for Visual 
Education, and that we offer it our 
earnest suppost in its sincere en- 
deavor to utilize fully and properly 
this most potent educational force. 



Resolution Adopted by the General Federa- 
tion at Its Biennial Convention, Held in 
Des Moines, la., June 16-23, 1920. 
Published in the General Federa- 
tion Bulletin for August, 192©. 



dl of these, in turn, 
Federation. 

VITAL HOME 
QUESTIONS 

Among the 
questions which 
figure on the 
programs of 
these progressive 
clubs are sub- 
jects touching 
every phase of 
the home life of 
America. Such 
questions are 
given much time, 
thought and in- 
vestigation, be- 
cause the de- 
clared purpose" 
underlying the 
entire woman's 
club movement 
is "to bring 
women together 
for the promo- 
tion of higher 
intellectual, so- 
cial and moral 
conditions." 
These vital subjects have been pres- 
ented to the clubs by the best-known 
authorities ; and because of the high 
regard in which the opinion and the 
influence of clubwomen are held, nearly 



18 



The Woman's Club and Visual Edu< ltios 



i: 



every ill that our . country has de- 
veloped or inherited has at one 
time or another been brought before 
them, and they have been asked to 
investigate and co-operate with the 
agencies working for betterment. 

MOTION PICTURES AND EDUCATION 

Education, for example, in its broad- 
est aspects, is a matter of supreme in- 
terest to women's clubs. The recent 
movement to introduce a greater degree 
of visual instruction into American 
schools makes a particular appeal to 
them. There is general agreement — 
not only among educators, but among 
all who take intelligent interest in this 
vital problem — on the following points : 

(1) that the greater part of life-long 
education is achieved through the eye; 

(2) that only a fraction of this total 
process takes place in school; (3) that, 
outside of the school, the greatest single 
influence that is today being exercised 
over national intellect and instincts is 
that of the commercial "movie." Ob- 
viously, this is a situation deserving the 
most earnest consideration and ener- 
getic action. More and more, there- 
fore, our women's clubs are enlisting 
for this great work. 

THE COMMERCIAL "MOVIE" 

The commercial motion picture 
thrust itself upon the clubs with the 
swiftness of a forest fire. It made such 
astonishing headwa y that it had 
reached a point almost beyond control 
long before some of its baleful influ- 
ences were discovered. It had, in fact, 
sprung into favor almost overnight. So 
attractive was this novelty and so low 
the price of the entertainment, that as 
far back as 1914, going to "the movies" 
at least once a week had become a fixed 



habil with nearly every man, woman 

ami child in our land. 

The attention of the women's clubs 
was directed to the fact that much of 
what was being nightly absorbed at the 
motion picture theater was in complete 
disagreement with the ideals of Amer- 
ican life and to a startling degree harm- 
ful to our children. Therefore, in hun- 
dreds of cities throughout the country, 
the clubs appointed committees to re- 
view pictures and conducted special 
showings of really good pictures, for 
which they themselves sold tickets. In 
every possible way the clubwomen have 
co-operated with exhibitors to raise the 
standard of pictures, but all with most 
inadequate results so far as any definite 
improvement in the general character 
of films exhibited is concerned. 

• STATE FILM SURVEYS 

The motion picture became such a 
burning question that in 1916, when 
the General Federation held its biennial 
convention in New York City, a special 
chairman was appointed and state sur- 
veys were recommended. The states 
and cities making these surveys found 
such disturbing conditions and such an 
alarming attendance of children of 
school age, that when the General Fed- 
eration met again at Hot Springs, Ark., 
in 1918, it unanimously adopted a reso- 
lution setting forth the character of the 
films that were being exhibited ; the fact 
that the educational value of the mo- 
tion picture was being seriously endan- 
gered; that the voluntary system of 
censorship and review had proved in- 
sufficient, and that adequate censorship 
called for constant application and legal 
authority. It recommended that the 
women of the various states exert all 
possible efforts toward extending the 



18 



Visual Education 



area protected by law from harmful 
films — Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland 
and Kansas being at this time the only 
states with legal censorship. 

CENSORSHIP 

The women's clubs took a firm stand 
for censorship of motion pictures, not 
only because they knew many of the 
unprintable facts regarding the making 
and exhibiting of unclean motion pic- 
tures — not only because of the harmful 
influence such films exert upon the 
adolescent and even the adult — but be- 
cause they realized fully the impossibil- 
ity of "cleaning the screen" without the 
help of those in authority. The 
women's clubs do not assume the re- 
sponsibility for the enforcement of 
laws; they feel that that duty devolves 
upon the legally elected or appointed 
officers of the state or community. 

While they have not yet succeeded in 
extending the area which is protected 
by law from the influence of harmful 
films, the clubs are still hopeful and 
still working, knowing that films are 
still unimproved morally to any appre- 
ciable degree, and that legislatures still 
1 1 KM't in annual or biennial sessions. 

WHAT THE CLUBS ARE DOING 

As part of their activities in the mo- 
tion picture field, the women's clubs are 
searching out the things that need to 
be done in order to preserve the high 
standards for which this country is 
honored : clean manhood, fair dealing, 
protection of the weak, respect for 
womanhood and for law and order. 
They are agitating and giving publicity 
to all movements for film improvement, 
by every means at their command. They 
are opposing the use of the screen to 
degrade women ; to instruct in crime ; 
to ridicule law and order; to portray 



the American home and the American 
public in an untruthful manner, and 
by so doing instill false standards in 
the minds of our future citizens. They 
are endeavoring to secure laws that will 
empower those in authority in each 
state to inspect every film before it 
may be exhibited in that state. 

VISUAL EDUCATION ENDORSED 

When, at the 1920 Biennial held at 
Des Moines, the General Federation 
adopted the resolution that is here re- 
printed, endorsing the plans of the So- 
ciety for Visual Education and offering 
its earnest co-operation in- furthering 
the work, it marked the beginning of 
another epoch in the motion picture 
activities of the women's clubs of Amer- 
ica. We have known full well that 
some day the motion picture as a school 
aid would. be thoroughly tried out. ISfow 
that the day has come, we are ready to 
help the schools take full advantage of 
their new opportunity. 

The clubwoman has long been an 
ardent believer in the efficiency of visual 
education. Hasn't she lived with her 
children, the best posted of movie fans? 
Every motion picture chairman lias 
been deluged with letters demanding 
lists of pictures for educational pur- 
poses. Up to the present year, how- 
ever, little progress has been made in 
the direction of motion pictures for 
schools. 

We are ready to give our help now 
because we feel that the program pre- 
sented by the Society for A^isual Edu- 
cation — directed, as it is, by the promi- 
nent educators whose names head the 
several courses — guarantees the quality 
of the matter that is to be put into 
these films. As our interest is always 
keen in anything that touches the 



What School Superintendents Think 



19 



schools, we are ready to give this move- 
ment every practical assistance that lies 
within our power. If it develops any- 
thing like the possibilities we vision for 
it, the motion picture as an aid to better 
school work will be reasonably well es- 
tablished when our next biennial con- 
vention assembles. 

The writer believes she is voicing the 
unanimous opinion of the clubwomen 



of this country in saying that they will 
continue to support all reasonable 
movements for censorship, because they 
are fully aware of the dangerous influ- 
ence of the uncensored film. Aware as 
well that the motion picture presents a 
wonderful medium of education, dis- 
tinct and apart from the entertainment 
film, they will enthusiastically support 
the visual education movement. 



WHAT SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS 

THINK 



THE eye is the strongest of the senses 
and the widest avenue to the brain. 
We are eye-minded more than ear-minded. 
Therefore we love to see things. Any kind 
of visual education simplifies the problem 
of understanding. All educators will wel- 
come the day when education through 
vision dominates all teaching processes. 
Lawton B. Evans 
Augusta, Georgia 

NO superintendent acquainted with the 
simplest facts of psychology can con- 
sistently ignore visual education. The 
truth is that for generations we have 
talked children to death in the school 
room, in spite of the fact' that for years 
we have generally understood that most 
children get a clearer perception and have 
more lasting memories of what they see 
than of what they merely hear and read 
about. When visual education is as well 
adapted to the course of study we wish to 
teach as it is to the psychology of the 
child it will revolutionize teaching. 

J. 0. Engleman 
Decatur, Illinois 

VISUAL education will shorten the 
time that it takes a child to gain in- 
formation, but lengthen many times the 
period for which he will retain it. 

Z. C. Thornburg 
Des Moines, loiva 



SINCE impressions through the eye 
are so much more effective than those 
through the ear, too much emphasis can 
not be placed on visual education. 

Charles Baker 
Andalusia, Alabama 

THE value of visual instruction by 
means of diagrams, models, pictures, 
slides and films, can not be estimated. 
It is the most direct, therefore the best, 
method of imparting knowledge to stu- 
dents. 

Ernest Berry 
Mt. Ida, Arkansas 

THE Los Angeles City School Depart- 
ment recognizes the tremendous value 
of visual education to the extent of as- 
signing an elementary school library as- 
sistant to a full time assignment upon 
visual education. It is our intention dur- 
ing the 'coming year to extend this very 
important subject to the fullest possible 
extent in elementary, intermediate and 
high schools. 

Robert Layie 
Los Angeles, California 

VISUAL instruction is the most practi- 
cal and permanent form of instruc- 
tion. I want to see it used much more 
extensively than it now is. 

Howard T. Ennis 
New Ca,stle, Delaware 



20 



Visual Education 



SINCE thVee-fourths of all the sense 
perceptions come through the eye, 
visual education can not be too much 
emphasized. Any aid to seeing the mate- 
rial of instruction attractively, vividly 
and accurately is an invaluable reinforce- 
ment to the text. 

M. A. Cassidy 
Lexington, Kentucky 

VISUAL instruction should more than 
double the effectiveness of teaching. 
The greater the number of senses ap- 
pealed to, the deeper and more lasting is 
the impression, and the clearer and more 
spontaneous the recall. 

Charles Bickford 
Lewiston, Maine 

NINETY out of every hundred of us 
are eye-minded, yet we have edu- 
cated as if the reverse were true. Visual 
education follows the natural order. 
Frank A. Grause 
Bay City, Michigan 

THE present movement for emphasis 
on visual education is one of the most 
important in many years. It will do more 
than anything else to prevent mere mem- 
ory of words without the proper associa- 
tion of ideas in education. 

L. McCartney 
Hannibal, Missouri 

WE are using slides and motion pic- 
tures extensively in our school work. 
We are awaiting very anxiously the com- 
ing of actual text-book work in this line. 
Why are school folks so slow in recogniz- 
ing this wonderful opportunity for using 
the most susceptible of the five senses?. 
A. J. Stoddard 
Beatrice, Nebraska 

VISUAL instruction must make better 
teachers and more alert pupils than 
any other form of instruction now in use. 
Geography, history and civics will in the 
near future be taught largely by visual 
method. 

Herbert Taylor 
Manchester, New Hampshire 



THE value and importance of visual 
education are very great. Impressions 
received through the eye are clearer and 
more lasting than those received through 
the ear. The possibilities of visual edu- 
cation include not only an expansion of 
the field, but a revolution in methods of 
instruction in the schools 1 . Personally, 1 
am enthusiastic about the future in this 
field of activity. 

David B. Corson 
Newark, New Jersey 

THE importance of visual instruction in 
the field of modern education can not 
be overemphasized. No superior method 
for vitalizing much of the subject matter 
which it is essential to teach exists. 
L. F. Hodge 
Yonkers, New York 

ACCORDING to the psychologist, 80 
per cent of our education is received 
through the eye. Visual education is 
opening up a field of experience to the 
child to whom heretofore we have ap- 
pealed through reason and reflection 
upon a world that he doesn't know. 

M. K. Weber 
Asheville, North Carolina 

OF the five human senses, I believe 
that the sense of sight is the chief 
one on which the human mind during 
infancy and early childhood relies for the 
accumulation of knowledge. The children 
in kindergarten and in the grades or com- 
mon school would learn a great deal more 
than they now do and, furthermore, they 
would gain a more correct and better 
grounded understanding of what they 
now learn, if visual instruction (motion 
pictures and other pictures) were em- 
ployed to reinforce what they have been 
taught in the now prevailing methods of 
teaching. 

P. J. Iverson 
Lakota, North Dakota 

IN my judgment there is a great field 
opening in the schools for visual in- 
struction. It will speed up the process of 
learning and give new interest and zest 
to the work of the schools. 

8. H. Layton 
Altoona, Pennsylvania 



HOW NORTH CAROLINA USES 

MOTION PICTURES IN ITS SYSTEM 

OF COMMUNITY SERVICE 



By Fred A. Olds 
North Carolina Historical Commission 



NORTH CAROLINA has struck 
a new note in its County Unit 
System of Community Service. 
Three agencies combined to bring this 
about: first, W. C. Crosby, director of 
the service and originator of the plan; 
second, Governor Thomas Walter 
Bickett, who had the vision to recognize 
the great possibilities of this plan for 
bringing visual instruction to rural 
communities; third, the legislature of 
1917 which, acting upon Governor 
Bickett's recommendation, appropriated 
$25,000 to meet the state's share of the 
cost. 

The Bureau of Community Service 
was organized in 1916, under a volun- 
tary arrangement entered' into by the' 
State Departments of Education, 
Health and Agriculture ; the State Col- 
lege of Agriculture and Engineering; 
the State College for Women, and the 
State Farmers' Union. It has now been 
made a division of the State Departr 
ment of Education, with the Depart- 
ments of Agriculture and Health co- 
operating. 

The law enacted declares itself de- 
signed to improve the social and educa- 
tional conditions of rural communities 
through a series of entertainments, con- 
sisting of moving pictures selected by 
the Department of Public Instruction 
for their entertaining and educational 
value. A third of the expense of these 
entertainments is paid by the State 
Board of Education out of the annual 



appropriation of $25,000, under the 
direction and supervision of the State 
Superintendent. 

The first county test was made in 
Sampson county and the first exhibi- 
tion of state pictures was at the village 
of Mebane, Governor Bickett, Mr. 
Crosby and J. Y. Joyner, then State 
Superintendent, being present. 

ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT 

■ The tests showed that the only way 
in which the service could be given 
cheaply enough to bring it within reach 
of the average rural community was to 
make up complete portable operating 
units which could be assigned to defi- 
nite circuits. It was found best to limit 
each circuit to a group of communities 
within a single county. The operating 
units consist of a motion picture projec- 
tor, a Delco light plant, and other neces- 
sary equipment, all mounted on a 
34-ton truck with panel body. The 
photograph shows fairly clearly the 
arrangement of one of these "movie 
trucks" of North Carolina. 

The uniform plan of organizing 
county circuits is to choose at least ten 
communities as centers, so located as to 
be accessible to the largest possible 
number of people, the selection being- 
governed also to some extent by their 
strategic importance in the event of 
future school consolidation — something 
for which the state is striving steadily. 

As alreadv stated, under the terms 



21 



22 



Visual Education 




INTERIOR VIEW OF ,ONE OF NORTH CAROLINA'S 
"MOVIE TRUCKS" 



of the legislative act the state pays one- 
third of the cost and the community 
two-thirds. It has been found that the 
total cost of the service per person } at- 
tending, based upon the school popula- 
tion of the centers served, is fifteen 
cents. To raise its necessary two-thirds 
the community is instructed to charge 
ten cents admission for each person 
over six years of age, there being no 
half-rate. No donations are accepted 
from public-spirited citizens or other 
sources, the fundamental object being 
to bring the people together in com- 
munity meetings rather than to give 
financial support to the work. This 
plan likewise puts the project on a 



competitive basis, because there are al- 
ways more communities and counties 
desiring the service than can be served 
with the present limited appropriation. 
While no county has less than ten 
centers now enjoying this service, some 
have as many as twenty. When an ap- 
plication comes from a County Board 
of Education, it is carefully investi- 
gated ; and if it is found that the spirit 
of the people is such as will ensure suc- 
cess, a complete operating unit, owned 
by the State Board of Education, is 
placed in the county with a mechanic 
to operate it. It is in general charge 
of a "County Director of Community 
Service" and under the joint super- 



Motiox Pictures i\ Community Service 



23 



vision of the County School Superin- 
tendent and the State Bureau of Com- 
munity Service. 

TRAINING OF DIRECTORS 

The county directors are women se- 
lected by the County Superintendent 
for special fitness and approved by the 
State Department of Education. Each 
directs all the community center activ- 
ities in her circuit Of communities, in- 
cluding plays and games in the school, 
story-telling, community organization 
and junior citizenship, as well as the 
regular community meetings and mov- 
ing picture entertainments. 

For these county directors and other 
community workers, a ten-day course 
of instruction in a "Community Serv- 
ice School" was given this summer at 
the University of North Carolina, un- 
der the direction of Mr. Crosby. At 
this school, the first of the sort ever 
conducted, daily speakers took up vari- 
ous angles of the great subject of mass 
education through visual interest. 

HOW MEETINGS ARE CONDUCTED 

Where there are ten community cen- 
ters there will be two meetings each 
month. At each meeting there is a new 
picture program of six reels, half an 
hour or less being given over to the dis- 
cussion of community problems and 
matters of timely interest. 

At first all films were rented, but 
this plan was not found to answer. The 
direct purchase of all films, after care- 
ful inspection, has proved the only pos- 
sible solution. Of the six reels shown, 
two, for example, will treat dramatic or 
historical subjects, two purely educa- 
tional subjects, and two be simply good, 
wholesome comedies. 



The machines for projecting are light 
and can be. used in any building; the 
truck is attractively painted and let- 
tered as the property of the State Board 
of Education, and a film librarian has 
charge of the 800 films which the state 
now owns. 

OPPORTUNITIES FOR CONSTRUCTIVE 
WORK 

The meetings always bring out a 
large attendance and accomplish " far 
bigger things than they seem to be aim- 
ing at, inasmuch as farm demonstra- 
tion agents, County Superintendents 
and health officers, the Superintendent 
of Public Welfare, and all other con- 
structive state and county forces are 
encouraged to use these "get-together" 
occasions to the fullest extent. It used 
to be difficult to get people out to 
farmers' meetings held by the State De- 
partment of Agriculture and to other 
affairs of the sort, but the "movies'" 
have proved an unfailing drawing-card. 

COUNTY PROGRESS FILMS 

In each of the twenty counties in 
which this community service is now 
given (this being the limit under the 
present appropriation), what is known 
as a "county progress film" is being 
made; that is, a pictorial survey of the 
county, showing the best and poorest 
schools, homes, farms, roads, live-stock 
and so- on, as well as characteristic local 
activities. After a county progress 
film has been exhibited in the com- 
munities of that particular county, it 
is sent round the circle so that other 
counties may see what is being done 
elsewhere. It is then filed in the state's 
permanent film library for future ref- 
erence. 



24 



Visual Education 



POPULARITY OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
PLAN 

It is impossible to describe adequately 
the interest that is taken in these "rural 
movies," as they have come to be called. 
They draw like a circus. Young and 
old come in swarms, arriving in every 
sort of vehicle, and the interest and 
enthusiasm are a joy to witness. The 
school-houses are packed to the final 
square inch, cushions being brought in 
from automobiles and farm wagons to 
increase the seating capacity. The as- 
sembly room is brightly lighted ; there 
are good stories and music, and there 
is frequently a special exhibit of com- 
munity activities. All sorts of live 
discussions crop out in that wholly 
spontaneous way which testifies to the 
genuineness of the interest that is. being 
taken in the meeting. It is delightful 
also to notice the people's attitude of 
proprietorship toward the pictures. 

There are now twenty county units 
going full time and holding 400 com- 
munity meetings each month, with a 
total monthly attendance of 45,000. No 
stronger testimony to the popularity of 
this new and remarkably alluring edu- 
cational service could possibly be given, 
for it must be remembered that the first 
circuit— that in Sampson county, which 
is entirely rural — was not established 
until December, 1917. Forty more 
counties are asking for the service ; in 
fact, all the counties want it. All that 
is required to make it possible to meet 
their demand is an increase in the state 
appropriation. 



The cost per year per county is 
$3,200, itemized as follows: salary of 
County Director, $1,500; salary of me- 
chanic, $1,200; expense of operation, 
$500. 

FAR-REACHING BENEFITS 

Thousands of people who never saw 
the movies have been reached by this 
plan. In a certain mountain county, 
not over forty in a first audience of 280 
had ever before seen a moving picture. 
In the mountains, in remote sections, 
people will often walk eight or ten miles 
to attend these meetings, spending the 
night with friends and returning home 
in the morning. The "picture .show" is 
an event. It is something to look for- 
ward to, and the community where it is 
given naturally feels a pride in being 
chosen. People become used to these 
centers, and presently there comes that 
development so much desired in isolated 
communities — the consolidation of sev- 
eral small schools into one large central 
school. 

North Carolina has scored what may 
be termed a "visual success," and it is 
small wonder that the plan that has 
been developed there is creating com- 
ment throughout the Union. It is sure 
to spread, for there is no finer way of 
getting a grip on rural folks and in- 
creasing their content with country life. 
By concerted effort the best type of edu- 
cational and recreational motion pic- 
tures can be brought to brighten the 
lives and widen the horizons of .young 
and old, even in the most remote sec- 
tions of our country. 



TEACHING ENGLISH TO FOREIGNERS 
THROUGH MOTION PICTURES 



By C. L. Hultgren 
Jefferson City, Mo. 



IN acquiring a foreign language one 
feels conscious of a new world grad- 
ually unfolding its vistas of beauty 
and revealing its mysteries. 

This is especially true when the lan- 
guage is learned in response to the de- 
mands of strenuous necessity, or under 
the pressure of meeting everyday needs, 
as is the case with the immigrant. To 
him the need is urgent and real ; yet 
not until the war brought home to us 
in striking ways the necessity for thor- 
oughly Americanizing the foreigner on 
our shores, did we give any really seri- 
ous consideration to the question of 
teaching him our language. 

THE PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED 

Too long have we followed the theory 
that it was well for the immigrant to 
learn our language if he so wished; if 
not — well, no matter. Yet is it not 
true that if he does not learn the lan- 
guage he is despised as ignorant or 
pitied as lacking in intelligence? 

The immigrant himself feels the 
situation keenly — how keenly, no one 
who has not passed through this experi- 
ence can ever understand. It is not a 
feeling conducive to the rapid or volun- 
tary Americanization of the foreigner. 
Nevertheless, the speedy assimilation 
of the immigrant is a vital necessity at 
the present stage of development of our 
institutions, for there can be no true 
fusion of nationalities without the com- 
mon medium of intercourse provided 
by a common language. 



The question which must be an- 
swered is : "How can we provide the 
means whereby the English language 
may most readily be acquired, and 
with it some knowledge of American 
institutions and ideals?" This is the 
fundamental problem of Americaniza- 
tion. 

THE SOLUTION 

A solution of the problem is offered 
by motion pictures. Pictures are uni- 
versal in their appeal. They speak a 
language that can be grasped by the 
newcomer, and the impression they 
make is often more vivid than that 
made by either spoken or written lan- 
guage. These things point to motion 
pictures as the ideal method of teach- 
ing English to foreigners. 

The subject-matter of the lessons 
here outlined has been selected with due 
regard to these psychological facts : ( 1 ) 
that the things we know most about in- 
terest us most, -and (2) that the capac- 
ity to learn — other things being equal — 
varies as the interest. Therefore, the 
lessons have been made to deal with 
commonplace matters with which even' 
immigrant is familiar, and with things 
of universal interest. The following 
lessons will be sufficient to indicate the 
general plan of such a course. 

THE MEANS 

The text is thrown on the screen by 
means of the stereopticon. At the same 
time, alongside the text, the moving 
pictures are shown, being repeated or 



25 



26 



Visual Education 



held according to the need and compre- 
hension of the class. The effect will 
be that of presenting the native and the 
foreign language to the immigrant in 
parallel columns. ' Not only objects, 
but actions and time of action, can thus 
be shown. 

Following the lesson, printed or 
mimeographed sheets of the text should 
be given out so that the student will 



have them in permanent form. This 
saves time, but with exceptionally capa- 
ble classes it is preferable to have 'stu- 
dents write the lesson in a blank book 
and illustrate with marginal drawings. 
In conducting the lessons, blackboard 
work, questions and answers, singing 
and dramatization should be freely 
used. Much depends on the skill and 
enthusiasm of the teacher. 



Lesson I 



ON THE ATLANTIC OCEAN 



This is the steamship "Northland." It is sail- 
ing to America. Jolm and Louise are on the ship. 
Early in the morning they can see the sun rise. 
It is fifteen minutes after five o'clock. They watch 
the sun and walk on the deck until seven o'clock, 
when they eat breakfast. After breakfast they go 
out on deck and talk with the other passengers. 
Sometimes they play games till noon, which is 
twelve o'clock. Then they have dinner. 

In the afternoon it is hot on deck and they sit 
in the shade. In the evening it is cooler, and they 
walk around the deck before supper. Supper is 
served at six o'clock. 

After supper John and Louise go up on deck 
again. It is evening now, and the sun is going 
down. This is called the sunset. After the sun 
has set, twilight comes. It grows darker and 
darker. Now the night has come. 

John and Louise look up and see the stars in 
the sky. Soon the moon rises and shines upon 
the water. It is ten o'clock. The passengers go 
below deck. Soon they will be asleep. 



Show the picture of the 
"Northland" sailing west- 
ward, and then introduce 
John and Louise, separately, 
showing them later among 
the passengers. 

Show the pictures as sug- 
gested in the text : sunrise, 
time indicated by the clock, 
and John and Louise, 
among others, watching the 
rising sun. Picture the 
breakfast, with the time in- 
dicated by a clock. (Later 
the same for dinner and 
supper. ) 

Show the deck with games 
— quoits, blind man's buff, 
ring games. Picture the 
heat by showing people wip- 
ing away perspiration and 
going to the inviting shade 
under awning. 

Indicate evening by lower 
sun and finally the sinking 
sun and sunset with twi- 
light; then the gathering 
darkness, with stars and 
moonlight. 

Show passing of time by 
clock, and finally a scene of 
sleeping passengers in 
bunks. 



Teach iN<; English to Foreigners 



27 



Lesson II 
A STORM OX THE OCEAX 



One day a storm came up. Clouds rose in the 
sky. The wind blew and the clouds flew across 
the sky. Soon the sky was black with clouds. 
Then the lightning flashed. John said : 

"It will rain." 

"I am so afraid of lightning!-' said Louise. 

The rain began to fall. The passengers went 
inside. The rain beat on the deck. The wind 
blew hard, and the waves dashed high against the 
side of the ship. 

After a time the rain stopped falling. The 
clouds began to scatter and the sun shone again. 
The wind stopped blowing, but the waves still 
rolled and the ship tossed on the waves. The 
passengers came up on deck again. Louise came 
on deck just as the sun was setting. It was eve- 
ning. 

"If the ship were still I should feel better,'' said 
Louise. 

John answered: "The storm is over now, and 
the waves will be still by morning. It will be 
calm." 

In the morning it was as John had said. The 
sea was calm. 

"We had a hard storm yesterday," he said. 

"I am glad we do not have a storm today," said 
Louise. 



Picture the wind's fury 
by showing hats, dresses and 
coats flapping in the wind 
and the passengers looking 
skyward as the clouds come 
up.' Then show the black- 
ness and the piercing bright- 
ness of lightning flashes. 
John by gesture indicates 
"It will rain," and Louise 
shows what she says by her 
attitude of fear. 

Show the gradual coming 
of the rain, the passengers 
seeking shelter, and the in- 
creasing force of wind and 
waves. 

Picture the gradual cessa- 
tion of the rainfall and the 
breaking up of the clouds. 
The n the sun breaking 
through a n d indications 
that the wind is blowing less 
hard. Then show the pas- 
sengers venturing forth on 
deck, and finally Louise at 
sunset. 



Show a calendar w i t h 
date — say, June 16 — indi- 
cated. 



One picture of storm with 
word "storm" beneath. One 
of a tranquil sea with word 
"calm." 



Picture of calendar dated 
June 16, and words: "It 
stormed today." Of June 
^7, with words: "It is calm 
today, but yesterday we had 
a storm." 



28 



Visual Education 



Lesson III 
JOHN AND LOUISE SEE THE NEW LAND 



Land was in sight. All of the passengers 
crowded to the rail to look. The ship sailed along 
the shore of Long Island, headed for New York. 
The immigrants were glad. John waved his hat: 

"This is my country now !" he said. 

As they entered New York Harbor the sailors 
hoisted the American flag. Louise clapped her 
hands as she saw the Stars' and Stripes go up. 

"How pretty it is !" she said. "That will be my 
flag now." 

While she spoke the band began to play. When 
the passengers heard the sound of the music those 
who were sitting stood up. The men took off their 
hats. Those who knew English began to sing. The 
ship sailed up the harbor and past the statue of 
the Goddess of Liberty. Then all tried to sing. 
This is what they sang: (Here are to be added 
words and music of "The Star-Spangled Banner.") 



Eegister the first sight of 
land, with the passengers 
crowding the rail. Indicate 
the course of the ship by a 
map of New York Harbor 
and surroundings, as Long 
Island, Staten Island, the 
Jersey shore and the North 
River. 

Indicate the feeling by 
showing, an expression of 
happiness on the faces of 
the passengers. 

Show the hoisting of the 
flag, and then show the 
starry field with the word 
"stars" beneath, and the 
stripes with the word 
"stripes." 

Show the band playing, 
the people rising, and the 
removal of hats. Here also 
show the picture of a man 
with "man" beneath; of 
several with word "men" 
beneath. In the same way 
show " w o m a n ' ' and 
"women." 

Show the picture of the 
Goddess of Liberty, and the 
people singing, with the 
words and music forming 
part of the text. 



VISUAL MATERIAL: SPUR OR 
SEDATIVE 



By L. C. Everard 
United States Forest Service 



LAST week a salesman who was 
in my office to sell film assured 
me that his visual material was 
"fool-proof* — that no matter how in- 
efficient the teacher might be, the les- 
son would be taught exactly as it 
should be taught. "It's all on the 
film." 

There is a fallacious notion abroad 
in the land that if teachers are not 
quite up to the mark, their work can 
be improved by supplying them with 
pictures, either still or moving. The 
truth is, however, that these things 
improve the w T ork of those teachers 
who are already efficient, who can 
dominate and use the machinery that 
is given them. The imperfectly trained 
teacher, the teacher lacking in force 
or personality, the teacher who 
teaches for a living rather than for 
the joy of contact with perpetual 
youth, becomes a machine-driven 'pup- 
pet instead of a master. 

THE PERSONAL FACTOR 

The sleepiest lecture course ' in all 
my college years was the only one in 
which "visual material" was used. In 
those days my endurance was extra- 
ordinarily good and by sheer deter- 
mination I managed to keep my spine . 
erect and my eyes open; but the man 
to my right had recourse to whittling 
the bench and the one to my left slept 
peacefully with his head on my shoul- 
der. That course of lectures is the 
nightmare of my under-graduate days, 
for I disliked the sleeping classmate 



and ' he slept consistently. Each of 
those lectures seemed to last a year, 
and I emerged from each with a vow 
that never again would I enroll for 
such a course. 

On the other hand, there was an- 
other course in which the only prop- 
erties used by the lecturer were a pine 
table and swivel chair in which he re- 
dined with a distrait air. He just talked, 
while we leaned forward in our seats 
and listened spellbound. After what 
seemed like ten minutes he would give 
a start, look at his watch, and remark : 
"That's all. The hour's over." Some- 
times, still under the spell, we stayed 
so long in our places that he would 
ask in a tone of surprise: "Well, why 
don't you go ? The hour's over." 

Was it the visual material that 
made the first of these courses so dull 
and sleepy, or the absence of visual 
aids that made the other course so 
•stimulating? Obviously not. But 
these examples bring out with suf- 
cient clearness, I trust, one of the 
great dangers always threatening 
modern education — the tendency to 
substitute machinery . of one kind or - 
another for real men or women in the 1 
classroom. Visual material cannot 
be substituted for training, ability 
and initiative in the teacher. If we 
are to use it successfully, we must 
rather have better teachers, better 
trained and better paid. 

In the hands of the right kind of 
teacher, lantern slide, film and photo- 
graph exhibit are like a sharp razor 



29 



30 



Visual Education 



in the hands of a competent barber. 
The work is done with thoroughness, 
neatness and dispatch. The pupil's 
mental stubble is all cleared away; the 
most remote corners are swept clean of 
misconception and inapprehension. 

WHERE VISUAL AIDS ARE 
INDISPENSABLE 

Slides and movies are especially 
valuable in what may be called "out- 
door" subjects, such as geography, for- 
estry, agriculture. One of the first 
and most important lessons in forestry 
is the necessity of fire protection. Fire 
is the forester's worst enemy, an enemy 
so fierce and ubiquitous as constantly 
to threaten the absolute ruin of the 
work of generations of foresters. Aside 
from getting him on the fire line, fill- 
ing his lungs with the stinging smoke, 
and wearing the flesh off his bones in 
week-long, night-and-day battles with 
the enemy, what better way is there of 



bringing home this fact to the forest 
school student than the motion picture ? 
Not only is the basic principle that fire 
protection comes first vividly impressed 
upon the student's mind, but there are 
brought before his eyes modern methods 
of preventing and fighting fire, with all 
the details of mobilization of crews, 
supply service, the strategy of fire line 
location, and hundreds of other things 
vital to a forester's education. 

To be sure, the film has to be fol- 
lowed by careful, detailed study of the 
various branches of the work; but just 
as in the study of warfare, pictures can 
be used to show actual conditions on the 
battlefield, so they can be used in for- 
estry teaching to show actual conditions 
in fighting bona-fide fires. To the stu- 
dent who has seen such a picture, show- 
ing perhaps a trainload of men being 
rushed to the fire lines, fed and shel- 
tered, and brought up in relays to the 
fight, the study of methods of supply 




GOOD LUMBERING 

This photograph and the one opposite are striking examples of the advantage of the picture in 

teaching methods of handling timber. On the one hand, low stumps — brush piled for burning 

in the wet season — good seed trees left for another crop 



Visi Ai, Material: Spur ob Sedative 



31 



and transportation of fire-fighting 
crews takes on an interest that could be 
aroused in no other way. 

In the same way, other operation- in 
the out-of-doors lend themselves with 
peculiar effectiveness to the motion 
picture method of presentation. Log- 
ging, tree planting, turpentining and 
other woods operations can all be 
shown as they are actually carried on. 
The only other way to do this is to 
take the student into the forest — an 
expensive and difficult undertaking. 

COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY AND 
AGRICULTURE 

In commercial geography, pictures 
showing the handling of wheat at 
Minneapolis, cattle at Chicago, cotton 
at New Orleans, and other products of 
other regions, will help immeasurably 
to remove the curse of abstraction from 
the study. In agriculture, too, the pos- 
sibilities are boundless, for there the 



teacher, when the proper studies have 
been made, will be able to contrast not 
only good and bad methods, but the 
concrete results of each. The Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has already made 
an excellent start in filming such work 
and is going ahead as fast as possible 
with its very limited appropriation. It 
has brought out a considerable number 
of films on a variety of subjects, rang- 
ing from eggs to forest fires. These 
are supplemented by lantern slide sets 
and photographic exhibits, all aimed 
at filling the need for what might be 
called "the actual" in the teaching of 
agriculture, forestry and related sub- 
jects. 

PUBLIC EDUCATION IX CONSERVATION 

The visual material of the Forest 
Service is prepared not only for school 
work, but for other fields of public edu- 
cation as well. The means and the ad- 
vantages of forest conservation on the 




BAD LUMBERING 
Here we have an illustration of wrong methods of handling timber: the best part of the tree 
wasted in high stumps — slash left on the ground to become a fire trap — no proper provision for 

a new stand 



32 



Visual Education 



one hand, and progress in wood-using 
industries through scientific study and 
experiment on the other, are the two 
main subjects with which its films 
have thus far dealt. The practical ap- 
plication of educational work in such 
matters cannot wait for the next gen- 
eration to grow up, for the evil results 
of ignorance and carelessness are al- 
ready making life more difficult for the 
American people. It is necessary to 
reach, as quickly as possible, every indi- 
vidual and every industry that uses or 
deals in the products of the forest, 
teaching both how to use the present 
supply of timber to the best advantage 
and how to provide for a future supply. 
The existence of this magazine and of 
all the hundreds of other publications 
printed in America depends upon tim- 
ber; our textbooks, from the primer of 
the first grade to the calculus of the en- 




gineer, come literally out of the woods. 
And so it is with thousands of other 
essential things : wood either goes into 
their construction or into the molds, 
forms, etc., used for their manufacture. 
If the need for wood confronts us at 
every turn, why do people have to he 




SMOKE FROM A FOREST FIRE 



A FOREST SERVICE NURSERY 
Showing methods of transplanting seedlings 

educated up to an appreciation of its 
importance and of the importance of 
conserving the forests? The answer is 
that we have hitherto had so much 
wood in this country that we have ac- 
cepted it as we do the air we breathe 
and the water we drink. It was for a 
long time a matter of course. And now, 
though the supply has dwindled to a 
dangerous extent, it is difficult to get 
people to change old habits of think- 
ing. They will have to do so, however, 
unless they wish wood to become in 
the end an imported luxury, with a 
consequent lowering of our, standard of 
living. 

To bring home the facts in the case 
not only to the schools, but also to the 
industry of the country, visual material 
offers one of the most effective instru- 
ments available. For instance, by 
means of such material, it is possible to 
suggest ways in which the lumberman, 



Visual Material: Spur or Sedative 



33 



the manufacturer of vehicles or furni- 
ture, the shoemaker, the threadmaker, 
and hundreds of others, can prevent a 
large proportion of the enormous waste 
that is going on all the time, for we 
now waste about half of all the mate- 
rial in every tree we cut. 

This economic aspect, however, is 
not the only important one; the habit 
of mind that goes with it is all-im- 
portant. Education is not merely a 
matter of imparting information. Men- 
tal alertness and endurance are far 
more important. I use "endurance" in 
the sense in which it is used by the ath- 
lete — the opposite of what Bacon calls 
"brittle wit." 

OUT OF THE RUT 

• Visual material is admirably adapted 
to the suggestion of new ideas and new 
ways of approaching a problem and to 
helping the mind out of mental ruts. 
A motion picture showing a view from 



an airplane has to many people the ef- 
fect of a great mental stimulus. Things 
look so different that the mind is 
aroused to speculation on the reality 
and the justness of its previous concep- 
tions. Earth, forests, seas, cities, roads 
and other familiar things are found no 
longer to fit into the old pigeon-holes. 
Subconsciously we ' realize that the 
world is not cut-and-dried ; that there 
is always another point of view from 
which to look at it and at life itself. 

THE INSPIRING FUTURE 

Today we are seeing only the begin- 
ning of the educational effectiveness of 
the motion picture. If the most is 
made of this beginning, if it is followed 
up by such treatment, of the subject in 
hand as will induce cerebration instead 
of merely entertaining those in attend- 
ance, there is every reason to believe 
that the movies will become a means of 
education in the very highest sense. 




FIRE'S DEVASTATING TRAIL 
There' is nothing like a photograph to bring home to us the effect of a forest fire 



PAGEANTRY NOTES 



A BRILLIANT and most unusual 
pageant in honor of Joan of Arc 
was presented on the campus of 
Fordham University in New York City on 
May 16th. The production was notable 
not only for the number of persons em- 
ployed — ten thousand— but also for the 
attention paid to its elaborate and varied 
details. As an example, the music con- 
sisted of folk songs of the fifteenth 
century sung by a chorus of five thou- 
sand and accompanied by a symphony 
orchestra. 

The pageant was presented in nine epi- 
sodes which comprehended the entire 
career of the simple peasant maid. The 
time that she tended her father's sheep 
in her beloved village of Domremy was 
followed by scenes of the visions that 
aroused her in behalf of scourged Prance. 
Then follow her reception by the Dau- 
phin and the magnificent rout of the 
English, leading up to the climax where 
she enters Rheims, triumphant, at the 
head of her adoring army and beholds 
the Dauphin crowned Charles the Seventh 
of Prance. Her capture at Compiegne 
and her gallant fight for life in the dark 
medieval courts of Rouen form the 
seventh and eighth episodes. Her final 
agony at the stake was delicately and ef- 
fectively done. The final episode repre- 
sented her canonization and the entire 
personnel of the pageant was grouped to- 
gether in a most imposing tableau. 

Such a portrayal of such a universally 
inspiring life could not fail to teach a 
great lesson of patriotism and devotion. 

• • • 

IN connection with the convention of 
the American Society of the Amer- 
ican Indian, to be held in St. Louis, 
Mo., November 16-20, there will be a 
pageant of unusual interest presented. 
The plan is to elaborate some episode of 
St. Louis history in which the Indians 
were prominent and to use that as the 
basis of the pageant. "Various St. Louis 
societies such as the Archaeological, the 



Historical and the Pageant, will co-op- 
erate with the American Society in 
planning and staging the production. It 
is expected that many of the actors will 
be found among the five hundred dele- 
gates representing the remaining original 
Indian tribes. 

• • • 

AMERICANIZATION was the funda- 
mental thought underlying four 
large pageants that were given in 
the city of Chicago, beginning Monday, 
August 23. These pageants, extending 
over eight days, were presented by the 
Immigration Commission of the Chicago 
Y. M. C. A. in concluding a series of 
open-air meetings held in various parks 
throughout the summer. 

The pageants were historical in char- 
acter, dealing with events from the reign 
of Charles I down to the present time, 
but the emphasis was continually placed 
on the things that make for good citizen- 
ship. Among the episodes particularly 
elaborated was that celebrating the ter- 
centenary anniversary of the Landing of 
the Pilgrims, an occasion which is receiv- 
ing due attention everywhere. The char- 
acters were played by representatives 
from the different nationalities with 
which the commission is working. 

• • • 

A PAGEANT entitled "The Light," 
which was presented last February 
at the Cleveland convention of the 
National Education Association, proved 
so effective that it has since been pre- 
sented in a score of American cities. 
The pageant is considered a marked 
contribution to educational literature 
and its success has gained new distinc- 
tion for the author, Miss Catherine T. 
Bryce, who is now assistant Professor of 
Elementary Education in the recently 
established School of Education in Yale. 

The play, which is allegorical in form, 
shows vividly the importance of giving 
proper support to educational projects. 



34 



Pageantry Notes 



35 



It also shows the disastrous conditions 
that result from indifference. The chief 
character is a personification of any city. 
Seated at ease in his study, he decides 
to cut down on the coming year's appro- 
priations for the schools so that the 
budgets for the other departments of the 
city may not be reduced. Feeling that 
matters are satisfactorily adjusted, he 
sinks into complacent slumber, which is 
interrupted by the appearance of Educa- 
tion, who shows him how educational 
methods have developed through the 
centuries. 

Among the great educational agencies 
illustrated in a succession of scenes is 
that of Experience — oldest of all teachers 
— which is presented in an Indian scene, 
where the savages learn sadly that cer- 
tain beautiful fruit is to he used visually, 
not internally. 

Indian women laboriously grinding 
corn between heavy stones and refus- 
ing to adopt any innovation just because 
their grandmothers and great grand- 
mothers had used the same process, forc- 
ibly depict the influence of tradition. 

Invention — that vigorous promoter of 
civilization — is painted in a scene from 
Hiawatha showing the beginnings of pic- 
ture-writing. The valuable results of 
training as shown in contests and danc- 
ing by bands of Greek boys and girls, and 
the benefits of discipline portrayed most 
appropriately by a small phalanx of 
Roman soldiers, are two of the interest- 
ing and effective scenes. 

The picturesque days of King John of 
England are used as the background for 
the first lesson in democracy. A feudal 
lord arrogantly notifying an unreason- 
able serf that the perusal of the great 
illuminated books of the castle and the 
twanging of the strings of the trouba- 
dour's harp are not privileges of hench- 



men is checked by the news of the sign- 
ing of Magna Charta. "Justice for all 
has come!" it is announced. While we 
know that this statement and the arrival 
of justice were not simultaneous, yet the 
scene is excellent in its motive. 

At the end a model school, made pos- 
sible by liberal tax schedules and co- 
operation on the part of the public, is 
contrasted with a crowded, poorly 
equipped, poorly taught school and the 
lesson is obvious. When the finale is con- 
cluded, Any City awakens and, benefiting 
from what he has seen, makes an appro- 
priation suitable in every respect for the 
needs of the schools. 

A more detailed account of this 
pageant, written by Charles H. Lake, 
Assistant Superintendent of Schools, 
Cleveland, Ohio, may be found in the 
July number of The American City. 

• • • 

THE celebrations long planned in 
England to commemorate the three 
hundredth anniversary of the sail- 
ing of the Mayflower, are beginning. 

On July 24th, a pageant emphasizing 
the historical significance of the event 
and showing vividly the color and ro- 
mance of the great adventure of the de- 
parture of the Pilgrims was presented 
near the place from which the devoted 
band sailed. A carnival and sports 
typical of the days of "Merrie England" 
followed the pageant. 

On the same day, Romford, Chelms- 
ford, Southend and Billericay, towns in 
Essex from which many Pilgrims came, 
observed the occasion fittingly. 

On July 29th, Ambassador Davis un- 
veiled a memorial in the Congregational 
Church at Billericay in honor of the four 
Pilgrims who came from that town. 

These celebrations are but the first 
among many yet to come. 



MISCELLANY 



FROM over the seas comes an inter- 
esting comment on the use of motion 
pictures as an educational medium. 
In the Bioscope for July first is published 
a short article by C. J. Power, M. A., dis- 
cussing the possibilities of the cinema in 
connection with school room use. In be- 
ginning, he admits the fact that the eye 
is the royal highway to learning. He be- 
lieves, however, that the lantern in con- 
junction with the spoken word is as effi- 
cacious as the moving picture. In the 
study of some subjects, the use of the 
cinema may be even harmful, in others 
it is merely incidental, but in such a' 
study as history it should become a most 
vital factor. 

Thus, for instance, he says that scenics 
and pictures of travel confuse because of 
their very variety and continual motion. 
It is much easier to obtain results for the 
study of geography with the slide, which 
emphasizes and concentrates upon some 
salient feature. 

Pictures may be of aid in connection 
with modern languages and certain sci- 
ences, but not any more so than other 
visual methods. 

It is in the study of history that the 
cinema is most helpful. The great diffi- 
culty in connection with teaching history 
has always been the impossibility of 
making it live and vital to the student; 
in other words, of arousing his imagina- 
tion. To quote: "The history of the past 
is mere boring records if one is not one- 
self transported into it. In kindling this 
often slow fire of imagination, the cinema 
has a great mission." Because seeing is 
almost synonymous with remembering, 
motion pictures can keep the past and its 
significance continually within the stu- 
dent's horizon. Moreover, Mr. Power 
feels that a sympathetic understanding 
of the past may tend in some degree to 
alleviate the great social unrest of today. 
The motion picture here n superior to 
the spoken drama because there is no 
limit to the possibilities in setting, and 
because the performances can be repeated 
irdefinitely. 



The slow-moving films will prove of 
great value in physical training work, but 
they must be shown so as to permit the 
spectators to check and practice the 
movements simultaneously. 

Moving pictures do more harm than 
good in connection with the study of the 
classics, for the pervading soul of the 
author is lost and the original is gone. 
Such performances, no matter how seri- 
ously done, cannot help being more or 
less farcical. 

• • • 

AN interesting experiment in visual 
instruction recently conducted in 
the schools of New York City is 
mentioned in the Moving Picture World 
of August 7th. Under the direction of 
Eugene E. Nifenecker, Director of the 
Bureau of Reference, Research and 
Statistics, and at the request of Mr. 
Ernest Crandall, Director of Public Lec- 
tures and Visual Instruction, tests were 
carried on in seven schools. 

The first half of the sixth grade was 
selected for the experiment, which con- 
sisted of teaching the geography of South 
America by moving pictures as well as 
by the text. Corresponding to each one 
of these seven schools using visual means, 
there was a school called a control school, 
which employed the regular method of 
teaching geography from the text only. 
At the end of the course, fair and im- 
partial questions were made to estimate 
the results. The average in the first test 
showed 33.9 credits for the classes taught 
visually as against 23.3 credits for the 
control groups. Other tests showed a 
like proportion greatly in favor of the 
classes that employed visual methods. 

• • • 

FRANKLIN K. LANE, former Secre- 
tary of the Interior, writing in the 
National Geographic for June, says: 
"We are all fascinated by pictures. Re- 
cently I have induced the motion-picture 
industry of the United States to enlist 
itself in this cause and produce Ameri- 
canization pictures, and give upon its 



36 



Miscellany 



37 



screens slogans, suggestions and apo- 
thegms that will stimulate the American 
ideal, because I have the notion that there 
is something in the United States that 
we call Americanism that is distinctive, 
that no other country has, and that it is 
expressed in the lives of our people, in 
their work, in their philosophy, in their 
tradition and history." 

• • • 

RAPIDLY and certainly moving pic- 
tures are exercising a mighty, en- 
veloping influence over art. Critics 
in all stages of devotion watch the process 
of devouring with pitiful and impotent 
shrieks. There is one, however, who as- 
sures us that the detestable cinema is 
-making the American nation a musical 
people and placing American music on 
a plane where it can be called art. 

Sigmund Spaeth, writing in Arts and 
Decorations for May, says: "It is through 
the motion picture theater that young 
America is today acquiring its most solid 
and practical education in music." He 
points out that musical improvement has 
run parallel with the improvement of 
pictures and that the fact that music has 
always been used interpretatively with 
the motion picture is of unspeakable sig- 
nificance. It is true the beginnings were 
crude enough in the old days when the 
mechanical piano was started at the first 
of the program and not allowed to run 
down until the end; or when an indiffer- 
ent pianist, having exhausted her reper- 
toire by the middle of the third reel, 
obligingly began again. Then came the 
time when songs were adapted to the sub- 
titles, the accuracy of adaptation depend- 
ing upon the musician's dramatic instinct 
and memory. The conductors in the great 
theaters of today have gone far beyond 
taking their cues from the wording of the 
leaders, however. The musical accom- 
paniment of today's motion picture ex- 
presses all delicate differences of mood 
and atmosphere. It is truly art. 

Men whose names mean something in 
the musical world are engaged not only 
in selecting, arranging and fitting music 
to films, but also in composing entire 
film symphonies. One notable name that 



can be mentioned in this connection is 
Victor Herbert. Among directors, Grif- 
fith was one of the first to see clearly 
that the right kind of music heightens 
the emotional effect of the picture. Those 
who saw Intolerance will never forget 
the haunting melody that helped to 
make the Babylonian episode almost un- 
bearable in its intensity. Nor will they 
forget the heart-appealing sweetness of 
the strains of "Oh Believe Me if All Those 
Endearing Young Charms" as they oc- 
curred from time to time throughout the 
production. 

It is believed that the motion picture 
may offer a more varied field to the com- 
poser than opera, for he is not hampered 
by the necessity of writing within the 
range of the human voice and of subdu- 
ing his orchestra so that the words get 
over the footlights. Moreover, in the mo- 
tion picture, words, action and setting, all 
come concretely to the aid of the com- 
poser, affording him a creative field which 
is infinite in its possibilities. 

The great point to note, however, is 
that the American public has been un- 
consciously swept along with this musical 
progress, and that the average American 
citizen is five times as familiar with 
classical music as he was ten years ago. 
This familiarity has been thrust upon 
him through the screen explanation of 
the interlude of the orchestra and 
through the musical interpretation of 
the pictures. In the last case, he may not 
realize that the music is classical, but he 
does know that he likes it. Where he 
once listened with avidity to "Where the 
Wurzberger Flows," he now listens with 
unfeigned enjoyment to strains of Bee- 
thoven and Mendelssohn. 



"P 



• • • 

UTTING pictures into the motion 
picture" may seem a strangely 
paradoxical statement, but that 
is what Roy Wagner, in an article con- 
tributed to the New York Globe and re- 
viewed in the July Current Opinion, de- 
clares must be done to raise the cinema 
into the realm of art. Producers now 
believe that they have done their all 
when the sets are gorgeous, expensive 



38 



Visual Education 



and appropriate to the most minute de- 
tail. This lavish attention to detail is 
not true artistry, however, says Mr. 
Wagner, for the concentration that should 
be centered on the characters and on the 
development of the underlying theme is 
diffused by the wealth of details with in- 
jurious effects upon the appreciation of 
the drama as a whole. For example, a 
landscape painter in painting a tree does 
not paint the leaves, for he knows that 
if one's interest is localized on the leaves, 
one does not see the tree. Art is as much 
a matter of elimination as of selection. 
Mr. Wagner goes so far as to state that 
at one-quarter the cost of Mr. Griffith's 
sets for ancient Babylon, a well-equipped 
artist could have attained twice the mag- 
nificence. To quote further from his 
article: 

"We see the world with two eyes, hence 
stereoscopically; but the camera has but 
one eye, and so, like the painting of the 
artist, the picture can be shown, in but 
two dimensions. The third dimension 
must be suggested by the artist. The 
camera cannot do it. 

"To achieve this, the artist introduces 
and forces what is called atmospheric 
perspective. He envelops his figures in 
light and shade so that they recede and 
take their proper places. So far on the 
screen, these few stereoscopic effects have 
been achieved, one suspects, quite by ac- 
cident. The artist knows intellectually 
how to do this, for he paints with light 
and shade." 

• • • 

THE General Federation of Women's 
Clubs celebrated its thirtieth birth- 
day at its Biennial Convention held 
in Des Moines, Iowa, June 16-23, called 
the Golden Prairie Biennial. While the 
social events planned by the Local Bien- 
nial Board gave relaxation and a chance 
to feel the warm welcome of Iowa, the 
business of the convention was conducted 
by Mrs. Josiah Evans Cowles in such an 
efficient way as to command the respect 
and admiration of the disinterested by- 
stander. 

The delegation of 1500 women consid- 
ered the work that had been directed by 
the eleven departments of work during 



the biennial period of 1918-20, embracing 
child welfare, community service, con- 
servation, overseas units, Americaniza- 
tion, all of which had been so shaped as 
to use every woman belonging to the 
General Federation of Women's Clubs to 
her fullest capacity for service to aid her 
government during a time of war. 

The plan for the coming biennial 
period is to marshal the forces of these 
same Women's Clubs to do their best 
work in hastening the return of nor- 
mality in all branches of work and liv- 
ing, now that the Great War is over. 

Mrs. Thomas G. Winter, of Minne- 
apolis, the newly-elected President, has 
been the Chairman of Americanization, 
besides being Second Vice-President, serv- 
ing with Mrs. Cowles. 

Resolutions were adopted on the fol- 
lowing subjects: Americanization cover- 
ing compulsory education and including 
adequate training in American ideals, 
history and government in every state 
for all children between the ages of six 
and sixteen; English as the sole medium 
of instruction; revision of naturalization 
laws, and standardized qualifications for 
direct citizenship for women and minor 
children; national library service; water- 
ways, eighteenth amendment enforcement, 
Pilgrim tercentenary celebration, conser- 
vation, visual education, occupational ther- 
apy, thrift, civil service reform, retirement 
law, and many other constructive plans. 
This list serves to show the scope of the 
matters considered by this thoughtful 
body of public-spirited American women. 

• • • 

AT Madison, Wisconsin, on July 14, 
15, and 16, was held a convention 
which bids fair to have a real sig- 
nificance for American education. During 
those three days the National Academy of 
Visual Instruction took on definite form, 
declaring its general purpose to be the 
promotion and development of visual 
education. 

Educational leaders and prominent men 
interested in visual education came from 
north, south, east and west to take active 
part in the discussions and deliberations 
which led up to the formation of the 
permanent body. 



M [S( ELX w V 



39 



Such speakers as W. H. Dudley, of the 
Extension Division of the University of 
Wisconsin; J. H. Wilson, Director of 
Visual Instruction, Detroit Public 
Schools; J. H. Shepherd, of the Univer- 
sity of Oklahoma; W. C. Crosby, Director 
of Coniniunity Service, Raleigh, N. C; 
Dudley Grant Hays, Director of Com- 
munity Service, Chicago, 111., and others 
of like repute, all showed themselves to 
be thoroughly imbued with the ideals of 
visual education and. alert to its immense 
possibilities. 

. The initial duty of the Academy was 
felt to be the delimitation of the field 
and the establishing of the principles of 
visual education. Elaborate researches 
would then be carried on to determine 
values and methods in the new field. The 
Academy would then become a clearing 
house for ideas, experiences and informa- 
tion concerning projection equipment, 
film material, its sources, availability, 
methods of using this material, etc. 

The meetings will be memorable be- 
cause of the fact that a gathering of pro- 
fessional men, vitally concerned with 
education, was welded into a permanent 
organization for the consideration and 
promotion of visual instruction. 

The following men were named as of- 
ficers: President, William H. Dudley, 
University of Wisconsin; vice-president, 
Dr. G. E. Condea, Director of State Sur- 
veys, Lincoln, Neb.; secretary, J. H. Wil- 
son, Department of Visual Instruction, 
Detroit Public Schools, Detroit, Mich.; 
treasurer, Charles Roach, Visual Instruc- 
tion Service, State College, Ames, Iowa; 
executive committee, G. E. Coxdra, J. W. 
Scroggs, Director of Extension, Univer- 
sity of Oklahoma; S. G. Reixertsen, 
Superintendent of Schools, Alta, Iowa; 
A. W. Abrams, Director of Visual Instruc- 
tion, State Department of Education, Al- 
bany, New York; W. M. Gregory, Curator 
Educational Museum, Cleveland, Ohio; 
W. C. Crosby, Director Community Serv- 
ice, Raleigh, N. C, and the president ex- 
officio of the Academy. 

For a more detailed account of the 
meeting reference may be made to The 
Educational Film Magazine for August. 



SEPTEMBER first witnessed the in- 
itial issue of the "Ford Educational 
Library." According to a statement 
from the non-theatrical department of 
Fitzpatrick and McElroy, Chicago, sole 
representatives of the "Ford Educational 
Library," there is being produced an edu- 
cational film library that will provide for 
schools and colleges films of great educa- 
tional value. (These films are not to be 
confused with the "Ford Educational 
Weekly," which is entirely a separate 
production, intended for use in the thea- 
ters.) These films are being prepared by 
educators who are acknowledged experts 
in their own subjects, to meet all condi- 
tions and requirements of the school cur- 
ricula. Moreover, the library will offer 
to every university and college in the 
United States facilities for production 
of films in any quantities on any desired 
subject. 

Dr. S. S. Marquis, former dean of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, Detroit, will have gen- 
eral charge of the "Ford Educational 
Library." Dr. W. H. Dudley, chief of the 
Bureau of Visual Instruction, University 
of Wisconsin; Professors Charles Roach, 
Visual Instruction Service. Iowa State 
College of Agriculture and Mechanical 
Arts; J. V. Ankeney, Visual Presentation 
Department, University of Minnesota, and 
W. M. Gregory, Director of Visual In- 
struction, Normal Training School, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, are associated and actively 
engaged in the editing and final review 
and approval of the films. 

• • • 

ON June 29th there was incorporated 
under the laws of the State of 
Indiana a society called "The Na- 
tional Visual Education Association." 

According to a prospectus sent out by 
the Association, its objects, briefly sum- 
marized, are: 

To co-operate with other educational, 
civic, patriotic and commercial associa- 
tions. 

To aid in advancing education by sup- 
plementing common school branches; and 
(Continued on Page 70) 



BOOK REVIEWS 



"PICTURED KNOWLEDGE" 

(6 Volumes) 

Published by the Compton- Johnson Co., 
Chicago, III. 

The very title of these books is most 
happy and suggestive. They are pre- 
pared expressly for use in that richest of 
all educational fields, the child, by a 
staff of eminent scholars under the chief- 
editorship of Calvin N. Kendall, Commis- 
sioner of Education of the State of New 
Jersey. The work is designed as a home 
supplement to the school and should 
prove a blessing to parents who realize 
that their own educational duty is not 
ended when the child enters the first 
grade. 

The mere name, "Pictured Knowledge," 
is significant. The entire contents have 
been ably selected from what is good to 
"know" and everything is presented in 
the "picture" way. Expert choice of ma- 
terial, logical arrangement, skilful pres- 
entation in interesting and informal lan- 
guage, splendid use of illustration — these 
are evidence that the distinguished board 
of editors and contributors did far more 
than "lend their names" to the work. 

These volumes are the product of sound 
scholarship combined with a sympathetic 
understanding of the child mind and a 
full realization of the potency of pictures. 
Educators seldom attain such freedom of 
phraseology as characterizes these books. 
Such expressions as "Pranks the River 
Plays," "Why the Sun Is Your Grand- 
father," "Going Down Where the Grass 
Begins," "An Ant Convention in Africa," 
lead the child, in a most willing mood, to 
a knowledge of geography, astronomy, 
botany, zoology, etc. "The World's Sugar 
Bowl," "Pish That Ride in a Pullman," 
"Will We Miss the Oil When the Well 
Runs Dry?" "Weaving Dreams Into the 
Rugs," "Putting Gold on to Boil," "A 
Bushel of Wheat in Ten Minutes" — such 
phrases are irresistible invitations to the 
child to learn more about the Industries. 



"Little Eyefuls of Knowledge" are brief 
and fascinating answers to questions 
which the child may never have thought 
of asking, but which he will learn to ask 
more and more as he reads on in these 
pages. Art, Architecture and Literature; 
History, Government. and Civics; Health, 
Science, Inventions, Philanthropy — the 
whole range of things that are the normal 
food for growing minds can be found 
here in substantial quantities, and al : 
ways in a form most acceptable to the 
young mental appetite. 

The variety of illustration is note- 
worthy. Pictures in black and white, pic- 
tures in color, have been beautifully re- 
produced from photographs, drawings 
and famous paintings. Excellent use is 
made of designs, pictured diagrams, pic- 
torial maps, and especially of relief maps 
effectively photographed. The richest 
sources in the country have been tapped 
for photographic material, and the de- 
signs and drawings are evidently the 
work of artists with an instinctive 
grasp of the purpose before them. 

The "Plan Book" is a feature which 
enables the parent to guide the reading 
of the child, co-ordinate it with his school 
activities and thus insure orderly 
progress in his mental development. 
Finally, a single, masterful index to all 
the volumes renders this whole wealth 
of material instantly accessible, for either 
the guiding parent or the exploring 
child. 

Faults in the work can be found, of 
course. We have noticed a few even in 
our necessarily brief examination. These 
flaws, however, are largely matters of 
opinion and, in proportion to the big 
values all around them, they seem rather 
too small in the ensemble to justify the 
time and space for discussion. 

We have seldom seen equal educational 
value in equal compass. It will be a 
rare child who will not thrill to these 
books. (We have had some little diffi- 
culty in putting them aside ourselves.) 
He should be interested from the first 



40 



Book Reviews 



41 



glimpse; he cannot read on without learn- 
ing; and the authorities who have pro- 
duced the work have made sure that what 
he learns will be invariably worth-while. 
Visual Education is glad to express its 
approval of "Pictured Knowledge." 



NEW GEOGRAPHY— Book II 
Wallace W. At wood 

Published by Ginn & Co. 

To the question, "What, in his study 
of geography, interests the average child 
most?" the experienced teacher replies 
unhesitatingly: 

"People — their modes of life, their sur- 
roundings, their occupations." 

Dr. Atwood's treatment of his subject 
is based on human geography: the life of 
the peoples of the earth as controlled by 
their environments. More and more have 
we come to realize that bounding coun- 
tries, naming capes and bays, and locating 
cities no longer suffice. Geography can 
never again be, thought of as material for 
memory tests on isolated facts; its great 
concern must be to acquaint the child 
with the life of other peoples of the 
earth and the geographical conditions un- 
der which they live; it must furnish him 
with a background and basis for judging 
his opportunities for making the best use 
of the natural resources of his own en- 
vironment. 

Scarcely do we need to say — so often 
has the fact been brought home to us 
during the last few years of concern over 
world problems — that our national out- 
look has been wrenched from its nar- 
row limits to a world view. Our days 
of "splendid isolation" are past — the 
American child of today and tomorrow 
is a world citizen. He can understand 
the problems of other peoples only in 
direct proportion to his knowledge of the 
conditions under which they live. The 
study of human geography is the big- 
gest' factor in ultimate world peace. 

The first book of the series (New Geog- 
raphy, Book 1 — Alexis Everett Frye — 
Ginn & Company) treats home geography 



and a simple view of world facts very 
charmingly for the child. Dr. At wood 
carries out the idea for the child in the 
upper grades by establishing certain 
units of study — natural regions — which 
differ from each other in soil, climate, 
surface features, and hence in resources; 
and so have produced groups of people 
different in occupations and modes of 
life. The Malay in the jungle-like forests 
of southeastern Asia is forced by his 
environment to an existence quite dif- 
ferent from that of the herdsman on the 
open pampas of Argentina. The regional 
treatment of geography has long been 
recognized as sound in principle; but 
never has it been so thoroughly devel- 
oped in text form as here. 

In Dr. Atwood's hands, material be- 
comes concrete. A considerable portion 
of the text is given up to map studies, 
general review questions, and problem 
studies. Illustrations are ever made to 
suggest their own little problems; a 
bird's-eye view of the city of Panama, 
with the gulf beyond, carries the ex- 
planation, "This is the city of Panama. 
Can you explain how it is that the Pa- 
cific end is the eastern end of the canal?" 
A picture of Dutch fishing vessels says: 
"Along the shores of the Zuider Zee are 
little Dutch fishing villages. The fisher- 
men build their trim little houses along 
the water-front and moor their boats 
close by. What kinds of fish do the 
Dutch fishermen catch? Why is the 
North Sea such an excellent fishing 
ground?" 

The point of view and the natural 
curiosity of the child are refreshingly rec- 
ognized. Another illustration says, "Here 
is a section of one of the great railroads 
of the state of New York, where six 
tracks run parallel to one another. 
Above each track is the signal which tells 
the engineer whether to go ahead or to 
slow down. If it is upright, the track 
is clear; if it is down, there is a train 
ahead." 

Scarcely a text on the market today 
carries such a wealth of illustrative ma- 
terial: colored maps of each natural re- 



\> 



Visual Education 



gion; routes of ocean commerce with 
their exports and imports; lines of in- 
land transportation; relief and vegetation 
maps; product maps; rainfall maps; 
maps of geographical explorations; aero- 
plane drawings of cities and their sur- 
roundings — to say nothing of the hun- 
dreds of carefully chosen pictures. Each 
illustration carries its own story; be- 
comes a living thing. 

Nor is geography a science sufficient 
unto itself. It is linked very closely to 
others. Human history develops where 
geographical conditions permit, and the 
connection between natural conditions 
and the history of settlements is strik- 
ingly clear. Here is a text bringing 
European history up to date: maps show 
settled and unsettled boundaries, territory 
controlled by the League of Nations, etc. 

Certain refreshing departures from tra- 
ditional textbook practices are evident. 
The usual sequence in the treatment of 
continents is not observed: Africa is in- 
terposed between Europe and Asia; Polar 
regions are treated separately as natural 
units. The last section of the text de- 
votes itself to "The United States — a 
World Power," bringing out, in the light 
of the child's knowledge of other countries 
and peoples, our relationship to them. 
Finally, the quality of the printing — 
paper stock, type selections, half-tones 
and color work — is beyond criticism. 
The book is a product of art as well as 
scholarship. 

To anyone privileged to know the At- 
wood text, the words on the title page 
become more than an empty statement: 
"A New World Lies Before Us." 

• • * 

THE MOTION PICTURE HANDBOOK 

F. H. Richardson 

Published by the Moving Picture World, 

New York City, Distributed by the 

Movie Supply Co., Chicago, III. 

Such a book as this is needed by those 
in charge of selecting and installing new 



projection equipment, or maintaining 
equipment already in operation, and it is 
of especial value to every operator oc- 
cupied with the handling and care of 
the machines. 

It is a complete work for study and 
reference, notable for its clear definitions 
and descriptions, and is written in a 
readable style free from cumbrous tech- 
nical language. The principles of elec- 
tricity and electrical equipment, the me- 
chanics of projection for both stereop- 
ticon and motion pictures, problems of 
the auditorium — such as arrangement, 
heating, lighting, ventilation, seating, 
booth-construction, etc. — every phase of 
the question is accurately and exhaust- 
ively covered. Constant revisions in the 
course of three editions have brought the 
manual to the point of completeness and 
thorough reliability. Lavish illustration 
by diagrams and photographs, and an 
adequate index, are features that make 
for still greater interest and usability and 
leave nothing to be desired in this val- 
uable book. 

,•'•.• 



MOTION PICTURE ELECTRICITY 
J. H. Hallberg 

Published by The Moving Picture World. 

This is a technical book of great value 
for any operator whose ambition is not 
content when he has learned the mere 
externals of his business. A study of this 
authoritative manual will enable the op- 
erator to handle his machines with ready 
understanding of the underlying princi- 
ples and with intelligent appreciation of 
what is really going on. Motion Picture 
Electricity is a thorough treatise in rea- 
sonable compass. All problems confront- 
ing an operator are fully discussed — ele- 
mental principles of electricity, wiring, 
carbon setting, current control, etc.. — as 
well as the use of the various units of 
equipment necessary to this work. Ex- 
tensive reference tables are a large fea- 
ture of the book. A reference index puts 
all this material within immediate reach. 



FILMS VIEWED AND REVIEWED 



THROUGHOUT the country, educa- 
tors of all ranks are demanding- films 
suitable for correlation with class- 
room work. "The Microscopical View of 
the Blood Circulation" is a film to make 
teachers of science rejoice, for it should 
be of the greatest value when properly 
handled in connection with such subjects 
as physiology, biology and anatomy. Not- 
withstanding the fact that this is a 
highly specialized film, it should prove 
of general interest because of the type of 
subject matter presented and the skilful 
treatment of the material. 

Its three reels comprise a careful and 
comprehensive explanation of the func- 
tions of the heart and lungs, and of the 
blood, its ingredients and scheme of cir- 
culation. There is also an elaborate anal- 
ysis of the living muscle and of bone tis- 
sue. All possible devices, such as lucid 
diagrams and animations, in addition to 
thoughtfully worded subtitles, have been 
used to render the processes easy to 
grasp. The heart of a chick embryo, of a 
horse and of a turtle serve as illustrations 
for much of the exposition. (It should be 
said in passing, that the film is distinctly 
clinical. However, the only views which 
could possibly make the audience a bit 
squeamish are those of the beating 
heart of the live turtle. The fact that 
this illustration is most apt for the pur- 
pose in hand, thoroughly justifies its 
frankness.) The film serves also as a 
splendid example of the efficiency of mod- 
ern laboratory methods. 

To the Scientific Film Corporation be- 
longs the distinction of making this film. 
It is a scholarly and significant achieve- 
ment in the scientific field.- 

This film is handled in the central west 
by The New Era Films, Chicago, 111. 
* • • 

THE Pathe Reviews (not to be con- 
fused with the Pathe Weeklies) are 
thoroughly worth including in seri- 
ous programs for schools and communi- 
ties. They are artistic and definitely edu- 
cational. They offer the well balanced 
variety of subject matter always desirable 



in weeklies, and in addition possess two 
features which are distinctive. One is 
the Pathecolor, an elementary color meth- 
od which renders an artistic approxima- 
tion to the natural colors. The tones are 
delicate and suggest most satisfactorily 
the color values of landscape. The sec- 
ond feature is the Novagraph, which 
analyzes motions too quick to be ac- 
curately comprehended by the eye by 
means of the Ultra Rapid Camera, which 
takes the successive pictures eight times 
faster than the ordinary machine. When 
these are projected at normal speed we 
learn that many things we have often 
seen were not really seen at all. The 
titling is good and the photography of the 
best. The Pathe Reviews are released 
through the Pathe Exchange, Inc. 
• • • 

FILM producers recognizing the grow- 
ing tendency of the American pub- 
lic to demand something instructive 
in connection with its motion picture 
diet, are continually on the alert for 
something to supply the demand. "Ship- 
wrecked Among Cannibals," a recent Uni- 
versal release, is a picture that can well 
be classed as educational. 

The picture, made by Edward Laemmle 
and Wm. F. Alder, is a celluloid diary of 
their travels through the South Seas. 
These views of unfamiliar lands and of 
strange unfamiliar peoples can not fail 
to have an educational value, enlarging 
the spectator's horizon and making him 
alive to the fact that the world reaches 
far and that there are many things in it 
not comformable to his small Main Street 
code. 

The camera men, after making some 
interesting reels of the first half of their 
journey through Siam, turned their at- 
tention to the Guineas, and, acting on 
their own risk against the advice of the 
Dutch authorities, secured a sailing ship, 
which was wrecked upon Frederick 
Henry Island. This island was the home 
of the Kia Kias, famed head hunters, 
whose disregard for human life was 
nothing short of magnificent. The pic- 



u 



4\ 



Visual Education 



tures of these hideous cannibals, their 
village, homes, and social life, are unique, 
adding a new and rare chapter to the in- 
formation that the camera has accumu- 
lated about lands and peoples that have 
hitherto been inaccessible to the world 
at large. 

These pictures were made when 
Laemmle and Alder were not quite cer- 
tain which one was to furnish the entree 
at a sumptuous banquet. The appetites 
of these barbarians were as horrid as 
their facial decorations and the explorers 
had great cause to recall the prayers of 
their infancy. 

The photography and continuity 
throughout the reels are excellent. Many 
of the scenes are superb and all are in- 
teresting because of their remarkable sub- 
ject matter. The picture is one that has 
fine- educational possibilities if rightly 
used. There are naturally a few scenes 
that could be called rather "strong" and 
startling. For school use, therefore, the 
age of the children viewing this film 
should be carefully considered and the 
picture should be viewed by the teacher 
in advance. 

* • • 

THE Charles Urban Movie Chats, pro- 
duced by the Kineto Co., are de- 
lightful bits of genuine value. They 
seek primarily to entertain and run in the 
theatres, to be sure, but the materials 
chosen are of the sort that is good for 
the mind and the fancy at seven or 
seventy. Here are half a dozen topics 
that make up Chat IV, for instance: 

(1) An -English holiday crowd on the 
Thames watching the Henley rowing 
races; the vista of punts huddled close 
together along the course as far as the 
lens can see, — with pennants and paddles 
and picnickers gloriously jumbled dur- 
ing the excitement of a passing race; a 
colorful scene, teeming with life and 
movement, that makes the viewer want 
to know more of out-of-doors England. 

(2) Close-up illustrations of the ef- 
fects produced by a small electrical ma- 
chine are suggestive of what can be done 
with Physics on the screen. The lab- 
oratory will soon have, not a rival, but a 
strong partner. 



(3) The picturesque trade of gather- 
ing sea birds' eggs on the face of the 
Scotch crags is vividly shown. It thrills, 
for there is manifest risk in the work. 
These are legitimate thrills. The hardy 
Scotchmen have lived such lives for gen- 
erations past. If we are to grasp fully 
how the rest of the world lives, we should 
feel what they feel. Let the American 
boy have the thrill the Scotch boy had 
the first time he went over the edge of 
the sheer cliff with but a slender rope to 
keep him from the hungry swirl below. 

(4) Then monkeys in India, swarm- 
ing on the temple steps, rapidly broaden 
the American child's common conception 
of a monkey as a component part of a 
hand organ. 

(5) Next, many a grown-up learns 
with a bit of astonishment that camels 
are not always as passive as they seem. 
They fight. Many more grown-ups will 
here learn for the first time how camels 
fight. 

(6) Finally, half a dozen glimpses of 
matchless Paris, under the witchery of 
sunset and the night sky. 

A thousand feet of such stuff, titled 
with great skill and excellently photo- 
graphed, seem short. There will be many 
reels in this series before the releases 
stop. School and community centers 
should remember the Urban Chats when 
their programs need "one more reel." 

• • • 

ATRIP Thru the Fastest Growing 
Automobile Factory in the World 
is a frank advertisement of the 
past and present activities of the Elgin 
Motor Works, Inc. It seeks to give an 
impressive survey of the work that will 
promote sales both of stock and product. 
However well the film may attain this 
primary purpose, we are still more inter- 
ested here in another aspect of the pro- 
duction; namely, its general educational 
value. 

America is justly world-famous as the 
land of swift-growing industries. Any 
film, therefore, which depicts with full- 
ness and clarity such a distinctly Amer- 
ican achievement is a document of gen- 
uine public value, whose secondary re- 



FlLMi 



l'.WI- I) AND 



5VIEWED 



45 



suits are fully as important as the 
primary one sought by its makers. 

The Elgin Company has just made such 
a film. ( It was viewed by us before the 
final editing, which ivill doubtless remove 
the minor defects then visible.) The 
humble shed, which was the birthplace of 
the company, four years ago, gives place 
on the screen to a panorama of the elab- 
orate plant as it stands today on its 
seventeen acres. Next, individual build- 
ings, flashed before the eye in rapid suc- 
cession, suggest the rapidity with which 
they were actually erected, while the 
work went on constantly under huge 
temporary tents. 

The whole process is now shown in 
great • detail, from the receipt of raw 
materials and parts and their disposal in 
immense storage rooms to the beautifully 
finished Elgin gliding home from its 
final outdoor test. Views of testing, ma- 
chining, enameling, top-making, etc., fol- 
low, with numerous details of method in 
various departments. The film succeeds 
in giving an idea, not only of what is 
done, but how it is done. 

Perhaps the most interesting feature 
is the great conveyor, two blocks long, 
which receives bare frames at one end, 
moves steadily past stations, each of 
which adds a new part,- and delivers a 
finished car at the other end. In show- 
ing the work of this conveyor, and 
throughout the film, excellent use is 
made of animation drawings, which are 
often so much more effective than photo- 
graphs of the object itself. 



This film has decided instructional 
value. It gives a vivid idea by this single 
concrete example of the great national 
activity in the particular line of auto- 
assembly. It reflects also the fine spirit 
that animates the ivorkers throughout 
the plant and, above all, is alive with the 
sense of energy and expansion, qualities 
ivhich are so characteristically American. 

• • • 

AN industrial picture which has a 
close bearing upon the problem of 
commodity distribution has just 
been made at the Chicago laboratories of 
the Union Draft Gear Company. In these 
days of the freight car shortage assigned 
as the major cause of our present threat- 
ened coal famine, any factor aiding car 
conservation presents itself as a construc- 
tive measure of national significance. 

The film in question pictures a remark- 
able series of tests made with a heavy 
drop hammer, using a 3-inch stroke at the 
start and gradually increasing to 46 
inches, devised to parallel service condi- 
tions where the gear is in use with a 
train of heavily loaded freight cars. There 
was no breakage until the hammer had 
fallen from the 46-inch height, whereas 
a 3-inch drop represented the limit of 
strength in ordinary types of draft gear. 

This film, which was produced by the 
newly organized Industrial Film Division 
of the Society for Visual Education, 
evoked enthusiastic comment when it was 
projected before a convention of railroad 
men in Montreal, September 14 to 16. 



'Sign on the Dotted Line' 



Date. 



VISUAL EDUCATION," 327 South La Salle St., Chicago, Illinois: 

1 enclose one dollar for one year's subscription. 
D This is my order for one year's subscription. I await your bill. 



check 
n draft 

^ n money order 

(not stamps, please) 



Name. 



Address , 



46 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

32? SOUTH LA SALLE STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD (Continued from page 6) 
Mrs. William H. Hart, President of Illinois Federation of 

Women's Clubs. . .Benton, Illinois 

V. A. C. Henmon, Director of School of Education, University 

of Wisconsin. .Madison, Wisconsin 

A. Ross Hill, President of University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri 

V. A. Jessup, President of State University of Iowa .Iowa City, Iowa 

D. B. Johnson, President Winthrop Normal and 

Industrial College Rock Hill, South Carolina 

C. H. Judd, Director of School of Education, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

J. A. H. Keith, President of Normal School ... .Indiana, Pennsylvania 

F. J. Kelley, Dean of College of Education, University of Kansas. . . .Lawrence, Kansas 

J. R. Kirk, President State Teachers College. Kirksville, Missouri 

O. B. Klingaman, Director of Extension Division, University of Iowa. .Iowa City, Iowa 

L. C. Lord, Eastern Illinois State Normal School. Charleston. Illinois 

Shailer Mathews, Dean of the Divinity School, University of Chicago. . . . .Chicago, 111. 

P. E. McClenahan, State Superintendent of Public Instruction ..... .Des Moines, Iowa 

Mrs. F. J. Macnish, Chairman of Civics, Illinois Federation 

of Women's Clubs. Oak Park, Illinois 

G. E. Maxwell, President of State Normal College. .Winona, Minnesota 

R. C. McCrea, Professor of Economics, Columbia University 

... New York City, New York 

C. A. McMurry, Geo. Peabody College for Teachers. Nashville, Tennessee 

Mrs. Myra Kingman Miller, President of National 

Federation of College Women. New York City, New York 

S. C. Mitchell, President of Delaware College. Newark, Delaware 

Raymond Moley, Director of the Cleveland Foundation Cleveland, Ohio 

Paul Monroe, Professor of Elementary Education, 

Teachers College, Columbia University. New York City, New York 

A. A. Murphree, President of University of Florida. ............. .Gainesville, Florida 

G. W. Nash, President of Washington State Normal School. . .Bellingham, Washington 

George Norlin, University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 

R. M. Ogden, Professor of Education, Cornell University . ..... .Ithaca, New York 

C. G. Pearse, President of State Normal School Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

M. C. Potter, Superintendent of Schools. Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Josephine C. Preston, Superintendent of Public Instruction Olympia, Washington 

J. E. Russell, Dean of Teachers College, 

Columbia University .New York City, New York 

A. A. Slade, Commissioner of Education, State of Wyoming. .-. .Cheyenne, Wyoming 
H. L. Smith, Dean of College of Education, Indiana University . . Bloomington, Indiana 

C. L. Spain, Deputy Superintendent of Schools. .Detroit, Michigan 

Thomas Taggart, Former U. S. Senator from Indiana. ..... .French Lick, Indiana 

A. O. Thomas, State Superintendent of Public Schools. Augusta, Georgia 

A. S. Whitney, Professor of Education, University of Michigan. ..Ann Arbor, Michigan 

H. B. Wilson, Superintendent of Schools. . Berkeley, California 

J. H. Wilson, Director of Visual Education, Public Schools. ...... v . Detroit, Michigan 

J. W. Withers, Superintendent of Schools. St. Louis, Missouri 

W. C. Wood, Commissioner of Education. Sacramento, California 

G. A. Works, Professor of Education, New York College of Agriculture at 

Cornell University Ithaca, New York 



47 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE ST. 
CHIC/ GO, ILL. 



COMMITTEES 



COMMITTEE ON AMERICANIZATION 
W. F. Russell, Chair-man, 
University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
Guy Stanton Ford, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Albert E. Jenks, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Frank O. Lowden, 

Governor of State of Illinois, 
Springfield, Illinois. 
C. E. Merriam, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
Raymond Moley, 

The Cleveland Foundation, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Martin J. Wade, 

United States District Court, 
Washington, D. C. 
W. W. Willoughby, 

Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Md. 



COMMITTEE ON BIOLOGY 

John M. Coulter, Chairman, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
(Other members to be announced later) 



COMMITTEE ON BOTANY 
John M. Coulter, Chairman, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
(Other members to be announced later) 



COMMITTEE ON CIVICS 
Chas. A. Beard, Chairman, 

Director N. Y. Bureau of Municipal 
Research, 

New York, N. Y. 
F. G. Bates, 
Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana. 
F. F. Blachly, 

University of Oklahoma, 
Athens, Okla. 
R. E. Cushman, 

University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
H. W. Dodds, 

Western Reserve University, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
H. G. James, 

University of Texas, 
Austin. Texas. 
D. C. Knowlton, 

The Lincoln School of Teachers College, 
New York, N. Y. 



T. H. Reed, 

University of California, 
Berkeley, Calif. 



COMMITTEE ON GEOGRAPHY 
W. W. Atwood, Chairman, 
Clark University 
Worcester, Mass. 
M. J. Ahearn, S. J. 
Canisius College, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
R. D. Calkins, 
Mt. Pleasant Normal School, 
Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 
C. C. Colby, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
Elizabeth Fisher, 
Wellesley College, 
Wellesley, Mass. 
H. E. Gregory , 
Yale University, 

New Haven, Conn. 
T. M. Hills, 

Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

C. A. McMurry, 

Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn. 
L. C. Packard, 
Boston Normal School, 
Boston, Mass. 
Miss Edith Parker, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
A. E. Parkins, 
Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

D. C. Ridgley, 

State Normal School, 
Normal, 111. 
C. O. Sauer, 

University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Miss Laura M. Smith, 

Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn. 
R. H. Whitbeck, 

University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 
L. H. Wood, 
Kalamazoo Normal School, 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 



COMMITTEE ON HEALTH AND SANI- 
TATION 
V. C. Vaughan, Chairman, 
University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
E. R. Downing, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 



48 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, !NC, 



327 SOUTH LA SALLE ST. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



COMMITTEES 



Simon Plexner, 

Rockefeller Institute, 
New York, N. Y. 
F. M. Gregg, 

University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln, Nebr. 
Ludvig Hektoen, 
John McCormick Institute for Infec- 
tious Diseases. 
Chicago, Illinois. 
E. O. Jordan, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
Wickliffe Rose, 

International Health Howl. 
New York, N. V 
M. J. Rosenau, 

Harvard Universi i y . 
Cambridge, Muss. 
C. E. Turner, 

Mass. Inst, of Technolo'iu. 
Boston, Mass. 



COMMITTEE ON HISTORY 

Wm. C. Bagley, Chain, 

Columbia Univen>n a , 
New York, N. \. 
G. S. Ford, 

University of Minnesota 
Minneapolis, MinL. 
S. B. Harding, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
Miss Frances Moreiiou^e 
University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis. ........ 

Joseph Schaiei , 

University of Oixyun. 
Eugene, Ore. 



COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION Al 
PERIMENTb 

William F. Russell. Chan ,„un. 
University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
G. S. Counts, 

University of Washington, 
Seattle, Wash. 
F. N. Freeman, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
M. E. Haggerty, 

University of Mm,,, ,.,,a. 
Minneapolis. Miii^. 



i:x- 



V. A. C. Henmon, 

University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 
Ernest Horn, 

University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
W. A. Justice, 

Director of Visual Education, 
Evanston, Illinois. 
T. L. Kelly, 

Teachers College, Columbia University. 
New York, N. Y. 
W. S. Monroe, 

University of Illinois, 
Urbana, 111. 
P. C. Packer, 
Board of Education, 
Detroit, Michigan. 
Rudolph Pintner, 
Ohio State University, 
Columbus, O. 
H. O. Rugg, 

Lincoln School of Teachers College, 
New York, N. Y. 
E. K. Strong, Jr., 

Carnegie Institute of Technology. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



COMMITTEE ON TECHNICAL EXPERI- 
MENTS 

F. R. Moulton, Chairman, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 
W. A. Cogshall, 

University of Indiana, 
Bloomington, Intt. 
A. H. Pfund, 
Johns Hopkins University. 
Baltimore, Md. 
H. B. Lemon, 

University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 



COMMITTEE ON CO-ORDINATION OF 
WORK 

Otis W. Caldwell, Chairman, 

Lincoln School of Teachers College. 
H. L. Clarke, 

Utilities Development Corporation. 
F. R. Moulton, 

University of Chicago. 
C. J. Primm, 

Manager Visual Text Department. 



THE FILM FIELD 

IX response to numerous inquiries from schools having projectors which are 
forced to stand idle for lack of usable materials. Visual Education has 
undertaken to supply information which will enable such schools to get satis- 
factory programs as they are needed. It is a difficult task which will require 
much time and effort on our part, and we ask merely patience on yours. 

In this issue we list eighteen of the largest exchange systems in the country, 
with the address of each branch office. These concerns are occupied mainly, of 
course, with supplying theatrical material to professional exhibitors, but their 
stock usually includes a small percentage of "educational films/' Schools desir- 
ing film material may write to the nearest exchange of any or all of the eighteen 
companies, requesting information available on films suitable for the particular 
purpose and occasion. (We would caution the school, when such information 
comes, to make due allowance for advertising phraseology and not to order a 
film solely on the strength of the company's fluent assurance of its educational 
worth. Films should be viewed by qualified judges before being shown to school 
children.) 

We also list a few of the many "educational" films now on the market, with 
the exchanges handling them. When the film is not handled by any of the 
eighteen exchanges here listed, the name and address of the producer are given.* 
If a school wishes to rent one of the films listed with its exchange, it is necessary 
merely to find the nearest branch of that exchange in the reference list and write 
for information concerning the film. If the film is not listed with one of the 
eighteen exchanges, write the producer indicated, asking him to name the point 
of distribution nearest the school. 

Constant disappointment must be expected. Often the nearest exchange 
will not have a print in stock; or the film will be out and unavailable on the date 
it is needed ; or the film will be worn and in bad condition ; or the price will lie 
hopelessly high; or the shipment will go astray; or slight attention will be paid 
to your communication; etc., etc. 

In the course of time, however, as we are able to add more exchange systems 
to our reference lists, increase the number of titles in our film lists, eliminate 
films which have been withdrawn from circulation, and develop our department 
of films reviewed by the Visual Education staff, a semblance of order and some 
approach to satisfaction ought to come out of the present chaotic and discourag- 
ing situation. 



* Addresses of producers named in the List of Films in this issue are as follow 

Beseler Film Co., 71 W. 23d Street, New York City. 

Carter Cinema Co., 220 W. 42d Street, New York City. 

Educational Films Corporation, 729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Goodrich Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio. 

Henderson Films, 610 Masonic Temple. Chicago, 111. 

Kineto Company of America, 71 W. 23d St., New York City. 

Lea-Bel Co., 64 W. Randolph Street, Chicago. 111. 

New Era Films, 207 S. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



Reference List of Commercial Film Exchanges 

(Address all inquiries to the nearest exchange) 



AMERICAN RED CROSS 

Atlanta, Ga. ........ . ..... .249 Ivy St. 

Boston, Mass. . 108 Mass. Av. 

Chicago, 111 Pioneer Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio. ......... .Plymouth Bldg. 

Denver, Colo. ...... .14th and Welton Sts. 

Minneapolis, Minn. ......... .423 5th St. S. 

New Orleans, La. .Wash'gt'n Artillery Hall 
New York City. ............ .44 E. 23d St. 

Philadelphia, Pa..... ..134 S. 16th St. 

San Francisco, Cal. ...... .864 Mission St. 

Seattle, Wash. . ...... ... .White Bldg. 

St. Louis, Mo. ........... .Equitable Bldg. 

Washington, D. C .411 18th St. N. W. 

FAMOUS PLA1ERS-LASKY CORP. 

Albany, N. Y . . . 33 Orange St. 

Atlanta, Ga. .51 Luckie St. 

Boston, Mass ....8 Shawmut St 

Buffalo, N. Y 145 Franklin St. 

Charlotte, N. C. . . . ..... .28 W. 4th St. 

Chicago, 111. . . . 845 S. Wabash Av. 

Philadelphia, Pa...... ..1219 ^ine St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio .107 W. 3d St. 

Cleveland, Ohio. .811 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas. ........ .1902 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo......... 1747 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa.... 415 W. 8th St. 

Detroit, Mich.. 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 2024 Broadway Av. 

Los Angeles, Calif ........ .112 W. 9th St. 

Minneapolis, Minn. ........ .608 1st Av. N. 

New Haven, Conn.. ...... .132 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La 814 Perdido St. 

New York City... .......729 7th Av. 

Oklahoma City, Okla. ... 128 W. 3d St. 

Omaha, Neb........ 208 S. 13th St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa...... 1018 Forbes St. 

Portland, Me. .............. 85 Market St. 

Portland, Ore..... 14 N. 9th St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 133 E. 2d South St. 

San Francisco, Calif 821 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash.. .2017-19 3d St. 

St. Louis, Mo .3929 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 421 10th St. N. W. 

FIRST NATIONAL EXHIBITORS CIR- 
CUIT, INC. 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass. ........... .35 Piedmont St. 

Chicago, 111.... 110 S. State St. 

Cleveland, Ohio... ..402 Sloan Bldg. 

Buffalo, N. Y.. 215 Franklin St. 

Dallas, Texas 1924 Main St 

Denver, Colo 1518 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa. . .Garden Theatre Bldg. 
Detroit, Mich. ........ .63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind...24 W. Washington St. 

Kansas City, Mo ......317 Gloyd Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif.... 833 South Broadway 

Louisville, Ky. ....... .Nat. Theatre Bldg. 

Milwaukee, Wis. .......... .402 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 

.............. .408-18 Loeb Arcade Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn. ....... .126 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La..Tulane Av. & Liberty St. 

New York City .6 W. 48th St. 

Oklahoma City, Okla.... 127 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb 314 S. 13th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa..... ...1339 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 414 Ferry St. 

Richmond, Va. .......... .904 E. Broad St 

St. Louis, Mo. .New Grand Central Theatre 
Salt Lake City, Utah.. 136 E. 2d South St. 
San Francisco, Calif.. 134 Golden Gate Av. 
Seattle, Wash ................ 2023 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C. 916 G St. N. W. 



FOX FILM CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga. Ill Walton St 

Boston, Mass 54-56-58 Piedmont St 

Buffalo, N. Y. . . . 209 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 845 S. Wabash • Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio ......514 Elm St. 

Cleveland, Ohio ...750 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1907 Commerce St.' 

Detroit, Mich .......Mack Bldg. 

Denver, Col 1442 Welton St. 

Indianapolis, Ind .232 N. Illinois St. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif .734 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis. Minn 608 First Av. N. 

New York City 130 W. 46th St. 

New Orleans, La 723-25 Poydras St. 

Omaha, Neb. 315 S. 16th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa..... 1333 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 121 Fourth Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. . .46 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Calif.. 243 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2006 Third Av. 

St. Louis, Mo .3632 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 305 9th St. N. W. 

GOLDWYN DISTRIBUTING CORPORA- 
TION 

Atlanta, Ga. ..Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 42 Piedmont St. 

Buffalo, N. Y .200 Pearl St. 

Chicago, 111. . 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio ....216 E. 5th St. 

Cleveland, O...403 Standard Theatre Bldg. 
Dallas, Texas. ............. .1922 Main St. 

Denver, Colo. . 1440 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich Film Exchange Bldg. 

Kansas City, Mo ...1120 Walnut St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 912 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 16 N. 4th St. 

New Orleans, La. 714 Poydras St. 

New York City. . .509 5th Av. 

Omaha, Neb. .1508 Howard St. 

Philadelphia, Pa .1335 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 135 E. 2d South St. 
San Francisco, Cal. ...... .985 Market St. 

St. Louis, Mo 3312 Lindell Blvd. 

Seattle, Wash 2018 Third Ave. 

Washington, D. C 714 11th St. N. W 

HALLMARK PICTURES CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga ...... 51 Luckie St. 

Boston, Mass 46 Melrose St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 86 Exchange St. 

Chicago, 111 5 So. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 215 E. 5th St. 

Dallas, Tex 1814 Commerce St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 506 Sloan Bldg. 

Denver, Colo 1435 Champa St. 

Detroit, Mich 5 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo.... 4th Floor Boley Bldg. 
Los Angeles, Calif. ...... .643 So. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 406 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn ....16 No. 4th St. 

New Haven, Conn 130 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La 348 Carondelet St. 

New York, N. Y. .130 West 46th St. 

Omaha, Neb 1222 Harney St. 

Philadelphia, Pa..S. E. Cor. 13th & Vine Sts. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 414 Penn Av. 

St. Louis, Mo. 3318 Lindell Blvd. 

San Francisco, Calif. . . .86 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash .2010 Third Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

METRO PICTURES CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga. .146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass .60 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 327 Main St. 



50 



Film Ext m w«;i :s 



51 



Chicago, 111 5 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 7th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio 404 Sincere Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1924 Main St. 

Denver, Col 1721 California St. 

Detroit Mich 51 Elizabeth St. E. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 820 S. Olive St. 

Little Rock, Ark 106 S. Cross St. 

Minneapolis, Minn Produce Exch, Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 126 Meadow St. 

New York City 729 7th Av. 

New Orleans, La Saenger Bldg. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 127 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb 211 S. 13th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1321 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1018 Forbes St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 20 Post Office Place 

San Francisco, Calif 55 Jones St. 

St. Louis, Mo 3313-A Olive St. 

Seattle, Wash 2002 Third Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

PATHE EXCHANGE, INC. 

Albany, N. Y 398 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 7 Isabella St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 269 Main St. 

Charlotte, N. C 2 S. Graham St. 

Chicago, 111 220 S. State St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 124 E. 7th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. S. E. 

Dallas, Texas 2012Ms Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1436 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 316 W. Locust St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind. . .52-54 W. New York St. 

Kansas City, Mo. . . 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 732 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 174 2d St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

Newark, N. J 6 Mechanic St. 

New Orleans, La 936 Common St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Oklahoma City, Okla 119 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb 1417 Harney St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 211 N. 13th St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 938 Penn Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 64 Exchange Place 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle. Wash 2113 3d Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3210 Locust St. 

Spokane, Wash 12 S. Washington St. 

Washington, D. C 601 F St., N. W. 

REALART PICTURES CORPORATION 

Cincinnati, Ohio Film Exchange Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio 942 Prospect Av., East 

Denver, Colo 1742 Glenart Av. 

Detroit, Mich 303 Joseph Mack Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn. .801 Produce Exch. Bdg. 

Omaha, Neb 1216 Farnum St. 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 2012 Third Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3626 Olive St. 

REPUBLIC PICTURES 

Atlanta, Ga 148 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 78-90 Broadway 

Buffalo, N. Y 269 Main St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio ...Main and 7th Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio Belmont Bldg. 

• Dallas, Tex 1905 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1753 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 1612 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 736 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn Produce Exch. Bldg. 

New York City 126 W. 46th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1315 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 



Seattle, Wash 1301 5th Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

ROBERTSON-COLE DISTRIBUTING 
CORPORATION 

Albany, N. Y 733 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 39 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 315 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 Consumers Bldg. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 224 E. 7th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1807 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1724 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind Ill W. Maryland St. 

Kansas City, Mo Gloyd Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif 825 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 301 Enterprise Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn.. 309 Loeb Arcade Bldg. 

New Orleans, La 815 Perdido St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Oklahoma City, Okla 7 S. Walker St. 

Omaha, Neb 1306 Farnum St. 

Philadelphia, Pa .1219 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 121 4th Av. 

San Francisco, Calif.. 177 Golden Gate Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3623 Washington Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 12 Postoffice Place 

Seattle, Wash 1933 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

SELECT PICTURES CORPORATION 

Albany, N. Y 679 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga 148 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 69 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 176 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. .402 Strand Theatre Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio 306 Sloan Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas .1917 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1728 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind 224 Wimmer Bldg. 

Kansas City, Mo 920 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 736 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn.. Film Exchange Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 19 Portsea St. 

New Orleans, La 712 Poydras St. 

New York City 126 W. 46th St. 

Omaha, Neb 1512 Howard St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1308-10-12 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3617 Washington Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 160 Regent St. 

San Francisco, Cal 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 308 Virginia St. 

Washington, D. C 525 13th St. N. W. 

UNITED PICTURE THEATRES 

Atlanta, Ga 104 Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 48 Melrose St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 86 Exchange Place 

Chicago, 111 5 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 215 E. 5th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 506 Sloan Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1814 Commerce St. 

Denver, Col 1435 Champa St. 

Detroit, Mich 55 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 22d and Grand Av. 

Los Angeles, Calif 643 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 172 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 16 N. 4th St. 

New Haven, Conn 130 Meadow St. 

New Orleans. La 610 Canal St. 

New York City 1457 Broadway 

Omaha, Neb 1222 Harney St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 13th and Vine Sts. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 414 Penn Av. 

St Louis, Mo 3321 Lindell Blvd. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 58 Exchange Place 

San Francisco, Cal 86 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2010 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 



52 



Visual Education 



UNIVERSAL. FILM MFG. CO. 

Buffalo, N. T.......... .35 Church St. 

Butt®, Mont 52 E. Broadway 

Charleston. W. Va. 

Chicago, 111. .......220 S. State St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 531 Walnut St. 

Cleveland, Ohio. ........ .860 Prospect Av. 

Columbus, Ohio 

Denver, Col ...... .....1422 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa. .... .918-920 Locust Av. 

Detroit, Mich ....63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Evansville, Ind. .......................... 

Fort Smith, Ark. .................... 

Indianapolis, Ind. ..... .113 W. Georgia St. 

Kansas City, Mo ......214 E. 12th St. 

Los Angeles, Cal. ........ .822 S. Olive St. 

Louisville, Ky. .......................... 

Milwaukee. Wis.... ..172 2d St. 

Minneapolis, Minn. ..... .719 Hennepin Av. 

Oklahoma City, Okla. .. .116-118 W. 2d St. 

Omaha, Neb 1304 Farnum St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa...... 938-940 Penn Av. 

Portland, Ore. 405-407 Davis St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 66 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Cal...l21 Golden Gate Av. 

Sioux Falls, S. D . . . . . ........ 

Spokane, Wash...... 16 S. Washington St. 

St. Louis, Mo. ........... .2116 Locust Av. 

Wichita. Kan..... ...209 E. First Av. 

VITAGRAPH 

Albany, N. Y........ 48 Howard St. 

Atlanta, Ga..... ....Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass. .......... .131 Arlington St. 

Buffalo, N. Y. .......... .86 Exchange St. 

Chicago, 111 .... . ... 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio.... Cor. 7th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio.. .....2077 E. 4th St. 

Dallas, Texas. ........ .1900 Commerce St. 

Denver, Col. .... . . .734 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich . 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo. . . . . . .17th and Main Sts. 

Los Angeles, Cal ........... 643 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn .......... 608 1st Av. N. 

New Orleans, La.. ......420 Camp St. 

New York City ....1600 Broadway 

Omaha, Neb. ............ .1111 Farnum St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1227 Vine Si 

Pittsburgh, Pa 117 4th A v. 

St. Louis, Mo... 3310 Lindell Blvd 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 62 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Cal. ...... .985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 115 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 712 11th St. N. W. 



BUREAU OF EDUCATION 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Qualified State Distributing Centers 

Agricultural College, Miss. 

Mississippi Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College Claud H. Tingle 

Ames, la. 

Iowa State College Charles Roach 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 

University of Michigan. . W. D. Henderson 

Athens, Ga. 

University of Georgia. . . . .Roger N. Hill 

Austin, Tex. 

University of Texas Wm. R. Duffey 

Berkeley, Calif. 

University of California. ........... 

Leon J. Richardson 

Bloomington, Ind. 

Indiana University F. W. Shockley 

Boston, Mass. 

State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion James A. Moyer 

Boulder, Col. 

University of Colorado. . .H. R. Spangler 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Buffalo Society of Natural Science.. 

C. E. Cumming* 



Burlington, Vt. 

University of Vermont. .. .Guy G. Bailey 
Charlotteville, Va. 

University of Virginia.. Charles G. Maphls 
Cleveland, O. 

Cleveland Normal Training School.. 

W. N. Gregory 
College Park, Md. 

Maryland State College of Agricul- 
ture . . . . .C. S. Richardson 

Columbia, Mo. 

University of Missouri. . .C. H. Williams 
Columbia, S. C. 

University of South Carolina 

Reed Smith 
Eugene, Ore. 

University of Oregon. . . .John C. Almack 
Fayetteville, Arkansas 

University of Arkansas. . . .A. M. Harding 
Gainesville, Fla. 

University of Florida. ...... .B. C. Riley 

Iowa City, la. 

University of Iowa O. E. Klingaman 

Knoxville, Tenn. 

University of Tennessee 

Charles E. Ferris 
Lawrence, Kan. 

University of Kansas. .Harold C. Ingham 
Lexington, Ky. 

University of Kentucky 

Wellington Patrick 
Lincoln, Neb. 

University of Nebraska. .. .G. E. Condra 
Madison, Wis. 

University of Wisconsin. .Wm. H. Dudley 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

University of Minnesota. .J. V. Ankeney 
Missoula, Mont. 

State University E. O. Sisson 

Morgantown, W. Va. 

West Virginia University .... .L. B. Hill 
Natchitoches, La. 

State Normal School. .... .L. J. Alleman 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

Rutgers College. ...... . W. M. Demarest 

Normal, 111. 

Illinois State Normal University.... 

David Felmley 
Norman, Okla. 

University of Oklahoma. . .J. W. Scroggs 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Commercial Museum 

Chas. R. Toothaker 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

University of Pittsburgh. .. .J. H. Kelly 
Providence, R. I. 

Brown University Walter Jacobs 

Pullman, Wash. 

State College of Washington. 

F. F. Nalder 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Bureau of Community Service 

W. C. Crosby 
Reno, Nev. 

University of Nevada 

Charles A.. Norcross 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

University of Utah W. F. Reynolds 

Tucson, Ariz. 

University of Arizona. .Prank Lockwood 
University, Ala. 

University of Alabama Jas. Thomas 

University, N. D. 

University of North Dakota. .A. H. Yoder 
Vermillion, S. D. 

University of South Dakota 

J. C. Tjaden 

GENERAL, ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Boston, Mass 84 State St 

Chicago, 111. Monadnock Bldg, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. .. .Provident Bank Bldg 

Dallas, Texas Interurban Bldg 

Philadelphia, Pa Witherspoon Bldg, 

Salt Lake City Newhouse Bldg. 

San Francisco, Cal. 116 New Montgomery St. 
Schenectady, N. Y Publication Bureau 



ILM Lists 



INTERNATIONAL harvester CO. 

Distributing Centers 

Aberdeen, S. D. 

Industrial & Normal School 



J. C. Thomas 

Ada, Okla. 

East Central State Normal School.. 

B. A. Pratt 

Agricultural College, N. D. 

North Dakota Agricultural College.. 

R. A. Corbett 

Alva, Okla. 

Northwestern Normal School 

A. G. Vinson 

Ames, la. 

Iowa State College Chas. Roach 

Austin, Tex. 

University of Texas Wra. R. Duffey 

Bellingham, Wash. 

Washington State Normal School... 

J. V. Coughlin 
Canyon, Tex. 

West Texas State Normal College.. 

P. H. Ives 
College Station, Tex. 

c|o A. & M. College M. L. Hayes 

Corvallis, Ore. 

Oregon Agricultural College 

O. D. Center 
Durant, Okla. 

Southeast Normal School 



,E. B. Robbins 



Edmond, Okla. 

Central State Normal School 

J. G. Mitchell 
Emporia, Kan. 

Kansas State Normal School 

M. L. Smith 
Kirksville. Mo. 

State Teachers College T. A. Dalton 

Lawrence, Kan. 

University of Kansas 

Miss Grace Haverkampf 
Madison, Wis. 

University of Wisconsin. . . W. H. Dudley 
Pullman, Wash. 

c|o State College of Washington. . . . 

L. R. Lounsbury 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion I. B. Ball 

St. Paul, Minn. 

University of Minnesota, University 

Farm J. V. Ankeney 

Tahlequah, Okla. 

Northeastern Normal School 

C. W. Prier 
Trenton, N. J. 

New Jersey State Museum, c|o State 

House Mrs. Kathryn B. Greywacz 

Vermillion, S. D. 

University of South Dakota. .J. C. Tjaden 
Weatherford, Okla. 

Southwestern Normal School 

J. B. Estridge 



If You Need a Film 

Produced by various commercial companies and 
intended for general educational use. All entries are 
1 reel (1000 ft.) in length unless otherwise specified. 

(In offering these selections, Visual Education in no way guaran- 
tees the value or suitability of the films. This can be done only when we 
have personally viewed the picture. The list represents merely the most 
careful choice possible to make from data given out by the producing 
companies. Visual Education will continue to give brief critical re- 
views and synopses of important "educational" releases each month. 
Only the films so reviewed by our staff should be considered as having 
Visual Education's recommendation, qualified or unqualified as the 
case may be.) 



TRAVELOGUES AND SCENICS 

WHITE SILENCE. (Burton Holmes) 
(Famous Players-Lasky) A . wonderful 
scenic reel illustrating Whittier's poem 
"Snow-Bound." 

VESUVIUS. (Burton Holmes) (Famous 
Players-Lasky) Many of the thrilling de- 
tails that make a crater in action a most 
convincing natural phenomenon; views of 
the reconstruction of old dust-covered 
Pompeii. 

THE UPPER NILE. (Burton Holmes) 
(Famous Players-Lasky) Through the 
temple of Isis, by the tombs of the Pha- 
raohs, you are floated on the waters of 
the Nile from ancient Egypt to modern. 



THE LAND OF THE LAOS. (Burton 
Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) Views 
of the interior of Siam with glimpses of 
the home life and customs of the Siamese. 

FIRE WALKERS OF BEQUA. (Burton 
Holmes) . (Famous Players-Lasky) The 
Bequa Islands, one of the groups of the 
Fiji Islands, with interesting views of 
significant dances and feasts and of Fiji 
fanatics martyring themselves on hot 
stones. 

ORIENTAL FIGHTING MEN. (Burton 
Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) Soldiers 
from Northwest India in manoeuvres, and 
in their hours off duty. 

GLORIOUS VERSAILLES. (Burton 



54 



Visual Education 



Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) Beauti- 
ful views of the place that still reflects 
the splendor of the past. 

FILIPINO SCHOOL DAYS. (Burton 
Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) A pic- 
ture that gives much information con- 
cerning the progress of modern educa- 
tional methods in this far-away land. 

THE VALLEY OF TEN THOUSAND 
SMOKES. (Educ. Film Corp.) This is not 
exactly what the title indicates but is an 
unusual picture of a valley in Alaska 
where large quantities of steam charged 
with hydrofluoric acid escape. 

POLO AND HOCKS OF POUMANACH. 
(Educ. Film Corp.) The first part of this 
reel deals with the game of polo shown in 
slow motion pictures. The second part 
shows the weird rocks of Poumanach in 
Brittany. 

PIGS AND KAVA. (Educ. Fijm Corp.) 
One of the South Sea Isles is the scene of 
a Chester travel reel. Tropical scenery, 
natives in weird dances, and celebration 
of festivals, make up this unusual and 
interesting picture. 

WHEN DREAMS COME TRUE. (Ches- 
ter Scenic) (Educ. Film Corp.) Pictures 
of the old wall of China that has watched 
the seasons pass for two thousand years. 

INDIA, THE LAND OF MYSTERY. 
(Educ. Film Corp.) This reel includes 
views from Lake Dal, the city of Madeira, 
the Bay of Bengal, city of Benares, and 
the Ganges River. At the very end come 
pictures of kittens and puppies of any 
land. 

ONE DROP WAS ENOUGH. (Educ. 
Film Corp.) A trip down a South Ameri- 
can river to a large and beautiful series 
of waterfalls. 

THE CASTAWAY. (Bruce Scenic) 

(Educ. Film Corp.) A slight plot of a ship- 
wrecked sailor who finally finds content- 
ment on his desert island gives oppor- 
tunity to show the sea in many moods. 

OLD BUDDHA'S MAZE. (Chester Out- 
ing) (Educ. Film Corp.) The quaint archi- 
tecture of picturesque Pekin with views 
of street and temple scenes. 

PYRENEES AND WOODEN LEGS. 
(Chester Outing) (Educ. Film Corp.) 
Scenes -in the rocky heights of the small 
republic, Andorra. 

THE SONG OF THE PADDLE. (Bruce 
Scenic) (Educ. Film Corp.) The paddle 
sings through many waters from the 
Skagway to the coast of British Columbia 
in this beautiful picture. 

THE TITAN OF CHASMS. (Carter 
Cinema Co.) To the Grand Canyon of 
Arizona is applied this striking title. 

THE LURE OF THE MAINE COAST. 
(Carter Cinema Co.) Attractive pictures 
of the beauties of this historic section. 

IN AND AROUND KEY WEST (Uni- 
versal) Varied scenes of the customs, in- 
dustry of cigar making, etc. 

ROME (Universal) A picture showing 
many points of interest about the city, in- 
cluding the gates and hills that antiquity 
knew, with views of the monks of today. 

THE LONE TRAPPER. (Robertson- 
Cole) An adventure scenic showing a 
trapper placing his traps, journeying over 
the deep snows, and returning home with 
skin of the silver-haired fox. 

THE COOLIE. (Select) Man power ap- 
parently runs the business of China, as 
this picture would show. 

BRETONS OF THE SEA. (Select) 
Views of an old fishing village of Brittanv 
and of its fishing fleet that are interest'- 
ing and quaint. 

THE GRAND CANYON. (Republic) Led 
by 'Indian guides, we are shown the won- 
ders <>f this magnificent gorge. 



OUR NATIONAL PARKS. (Pathe) 

Rainier Park with its glorious mountains, 
waterfalls, forests and glaciers is the sub- 
ject of this reel. 

THE YELLOWSTONE. (Pathe) One- 
half reel. Many of the things of interest 
that travelers are eager to see are shown 
in this picture. 

SINGAPORE. (Pathe) The Orient is al- 
ways fascinating and the views of this 
great eastern city will be most entertain- 
ing. 

OLD PLYMOUTH. (Ford Weekly) 

(Goldwyn) As the tercentenary celebra- 
tion of the landing of the Pilgrims draws 
near, this picture should be of unusual 
interest. 

THE HOME OF THE SEMINOLES. 
(Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) The emphasis 
in this picture is placed upon the study 
of the habits of the Indians, rather than 
upon the natural surroundings. 

IN SAMOA. (Beseler) Many things of 
curious interest; among them a Samoan 
chief and his daughter, girls in the Mis- 
sion School, tlie gathering of cocoanuts, 
the Liva-Liva dance, catching fish with 
dynamite, etc. 

BOW A LETTER TRAVELS. '(Beseler) 
Von travel with this letter from the 
African jungle by devious routes to its 
destination in Paris. 

MOSQUES AND TURKISH PALACES. 
(New Era) The average public has little 
idea of the splendors of these oriental 
residences. They are shown here in all 
their beauty. 

A TRIP THROUGH BOSNIA, AUSTRIA. 
(New Era) Pictures showing this country 
before it was laid' waste by war. Among 
tin- towns of interest portrayed is the 
Ci'ty of Sarajevo, which has gone clown 
in history as the birthplace of the World 
War. 

THE CATELONIAN COAST. (New Era) 
A colored travelogue of the rugged coast 
of Spain. In this reel are also found 
scenes 'of Mt. Blanc, Temples of India 
and the Abbey of Paris. 

ON THE BANKS OF THE ZUYDER- 
ZEE. (New Era) Beautiful Dutch land- 
scapes and intimate glimpses of the 
everyday life of these interesting people. 
On this same reel will be found scenes of 
Heligoland, the once famous Teuton fort- 
ress in the North Sea. 

THROUGH PICTURESQUE SWITZER- 
LAND. (New Era) Midwinter scenes 
taken from a moving train as it wound its 
way among the mountains from Sweisnen 
to Spietz. 

INDUSTRIAL FIL3IS 

CURRENT OCCURRENCE. (Ford Week- 
ly) (Goldwyn) The making of the parts 
and assembling of an electric iron and 
electric percolator. 

PLAYTHINGS OF CHILDHOOD. (Ford 
Weekly) (Goldwyn) Some of the processes 
that dolls, toys, pianos and doll houses 
must go through before they are ready 
for the nursery. 

GOOD ROADS. (Ford Weekly) (Gold- 
wyn) A contrast between old roads and 
new that shows clearly the need for good 
roads. 

BROKEN SILENCE. (Ford Weekly) 
(Goldwyn) A visit to a day-school for the 
deaf, dumb and blind. 

SEE-SAW. (Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) 
A. clear exposition of the manufacture of 
different kinds of saws. 

JUST WRITE. (Ford Weekly) (Gold- 
wyn) How fountain pens are made. 

CONSTRUCTION OF A CONCRETE 
SILO. (U. S. Dept. of Agric.) Process of 
building a concrete silo. 



Film Lists 



CONSTRUCTION OF A WOODEN HOOP 
SILO. (U. S. Dept. of Agric) Method of 
construction of a silo built of wooden 
hoops and staves. 

MILK AND HONEY. if. S. Dept. of 
Agric.) 2 reels. A dairy romance in which 
methods of conducting- a modern dairy are 
shown as part of the story. 

TYPES OP HORSES AT WASHINGTON 
HORSE SHOW (U. S. Dep't of Agric.) 2 
reels. Types and individual horses which 
won prizes at the Horse Show. 

WORK OF THE FOREST PRODUCTS 
LABORATORY. (U. S. Dept. of Agric.) 
Work at the Forest Products Laboratory, 
Madison, Wis., testing- the preservative 
treatment of timber,, manufacture of pa- 
per, methods of service to manufacturers. 

CONGRESSIONAL SEED DISTRIBU- 
TION. (U. S. Dept. of Agric.) Testing, 
storing, and packaging of some of the 
14,000,000 packages of seed sent out by 
the Department of Agriculture in 1913- 
1914. 

MACADAM ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 
(U. S. Dept. of Agric.) The construction of 
a macadam road in Maryland. 

THE LAND OF COTTON. (General 
Electric) Two reels. Depicting the cotton 
industry from the planting of the seed 
to the finished fabric. The film was pro- 
duced at one of the largest cotton plan- 
tations in the South, at one of the largest 
cotton terminals and at one of the larg- 
est textile mills. 

. FAIRY MAGIC. (General Electric) Two 
reels. Manufacturing operations in pro- 
ducing electric lamp sockets with sugges- 
tions as to "Safety First" methods. 

TURNING OUT SILVER BULLETS. 
(New Era) Showing the evolution of a 
coin from the crude metal to the finished 
product. 

BOYS' WORKING RESERVES OF ILLI- 
NOIS. . (Henderson Films) Three reels. 
An official picture made in cooperation 
with the State Council of National De- 
fense, showing most clearly and compre- 
hensively the activities of the Boys' Work- 
ing Reserves during the war. 

COD FISHING IN THE ATLANTIC. 
(Beseler) The shores of Iceland and grim 
Newfoundland furnish the setting for this 
picture of the great industry of cod fish- 
ing. 

CATTLE INDUSTRY IN NEW MENICO. 
(Beseler) A film that includes many phases 
of the industry, such as disinfecting, ship- 
ping and inspecting. There are also 
glimpses of the sheep industry. 

FLORIDA'S STRANGE INDUSTRIES. 
(Beseler) Some of these industries that 
are shown in this reel are crab fishing, 
turtle catching and sponge fishing. 

WINTER LOGGING IN MAINE. (Bese- 
ler) As the title indicates, an interesting 
picture of this picturesque industry. 

• INDUSTRIES IN TENNESSEE. (Bese- 
ler) Asbestos quarry and works where this 
mineral is made into articles of com- 
merce; coke industry with its various 
processes. 

STORY OF THE ORANGE. (Pathe) 
Picking ripe fruit, planting seed, washing 
and planting trees, pruning, fumigating 
trees; the culinary uses of the orange. 

OAHU. (Select) The pineapple industry 
on the Island of Oahu of the Hawaiian 
group, showing the various stages from 
seed planting through canning. 



SILKS AND SATINS. (Universal) Two 
reels. This film from the Bureau of Com- 
mercial Economics portrays the silk in- 
dustry from the beginning to the end. 

THE POTTER'S WHEEL. (Educ. Film 
Corp.) The manufacture of electrical por- 
celain. 

PICTURESQUE INDUSTRIES OF MEX- 
ICO. (Educ. Film Corp.) Fishers of Lake 
Texaco; making nets for fly-eggs; mak- 
ing adobe bricks; moulding the bricks; 
making Mexican sandals by hand; Mexi- 
can feather work of the Aztecs. 

OUR WINGS OF VICTORY. (Visual In- 
struction Dept. U. S. Bureau of Education) 
Two reels. Process of making airplanes; 
the assembling of material and the manu- 
facture of the different parts, motors, pro- 
pellers, etc. Tests of machines, training 
of aviators, types of planes, and air fleet 
in formation. 

MAKING THE DESERT BLOSSOM. 
(Visual Instruction Dept. U. S. Bureau of 
Education) Two reels. Irrigation projects 
of the West, such as the Yakima project, 
the Roosevelt Dam, Elephant Butte Dam, 
etc. Process of irrigation, use of tractor 
planters, machine digging potatoes, load- 
ing alfalfa. 

THE STORY OF A TIRE. (Goodrich 
Rubber Co.) An exhaustive study of the 
processes through which rubber passes 
from the time it is raw material on the 
New York piers to the finished product 
in the factory. 

BIOLOGY AND THE NATURAL 
SCIENCES 

STARTING LIFE. (Ford Weekly) 

(Goldwyn) A deviation from the usual 
run of Ford pictures. The reel consists 
of scenes of lambs, kittens, pups, fowls, 
pigs, ponies, etc. 

FOREIGN DEER. (Educ. Film. Corp.) 
Deer that habitat in South America, Eu- 
rope and Asia, taken from Ditmars' Living 
Book of Nature. 

MODERN CENTAURS. (Educ. Film 
Corp.) An offering with feats of horse- 
manship, remarkable and thrilling in most 
cases, and where they are not remarkable, 
executed with unusual ease and grace. 

THE WOLF OF THE TETONS. (Educ. 
Film Corp.). A Bruce Scenic featuring a 
wolf dog and a hound, which meet and 
then in the bonds of friendship, hunt and 
fish together; pictures of a brown bear 
crossing a pole over a stream. 

TREE ANIMALS. (Educ. Film Corp.) 
A Ditmars picture showing the wonderful 
possibilities of filming creatures of the 
night; pictures also of the honey bear, 
Brazilian opossums, flying Phalanger. 

ASPHYXIATING GASES. (Educ. Film 
Corp.) One-half reel. Sulphur, chloride, 
bromide formation. 

SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS IN ELEC- 
TRICITY. (Beseler) Electricity by induc- 
tion, etc. 

PICTURES IN CHEMISTRY. (Beseler) 
Combustion of sulphocyanide, of am- 
monium, destruction of chalk, electrolysis 
of water, destruction of silver wire by 
nitric acid, etc. 

GEOLOGY — Part 1. (Beseler) An ex- 
planation of the formation of ice, with 
an additional account of the production 
of artificial ice. Winter sports. 

MUSHROOM CULTURE. (Beseler) One- 



56 



Visca^ Education 



half reel. The preparation of the soil, 
planting of the spawn, and specimens. 

PLANTS WITH NERVES. (Beseler) 
One-half reel. Mimosa, common meadow 
plant, showing- reaction of blows, electric- 
ity, chloroform; also- an exposition of 
plants that eat. 

BIRD LIFE STUDY— Part 1. (Beseler) 
South African ostrich, Australian bustard, 
black hornbill, wren, robin, starling and 
many other birds of great interest. 

WILD ANIMAL STUDY. (Beseler) South 
American tapir, Indian rhinoceros, Red 
River hog, wart hog, hippopotamus, ele- 
phants, etc. 

INSECT LIFE. (Beseler) The ant and 
its habits, female ant, the male drones, 
ant hill, eggs, inside of nest, cocoons, 
ant hauling match, the ant lion. 

FILMS OF LITERARY AND HISTORICAL 
INTEREST 

YOUR OBEDIENT SERVANT. (New 
Era) Three reels. Adapted from Anna 
Sewell's story of "Black Beauty," featur- 
ing Don Tulano, a horse. Black Beauty 
tells his own story of his happy youth 
on a Kentucky blue grass farm. 

RIDE OF PAUL REVERE. (New Era) 
The historic ride of Paul Revere, photo- 
graphed on the actual scene of his ride. 
The captions are lines of Longfellow's 
poem. 

THE PIED PIPER OF HAMLIN. (New 
Era) The old folk tale. 

ALADDIN AND HIS WONDERFUL 
LAMP. (Fox) Eight reels. The Arabian 
Night story that never will grow old. 

ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES. 
(Fox) Five reels. The original thrills 
that accompanied the reading of this story 
will return when the picture is viewed. 

SON OF DEMOCRACY. (Famous Play- 
ers-Lasky) Ten episodes in two reels. A 
remarkable series of pictures portraying 
various periods and important events in 
the life of Abraham Lincoln. The value 
of these pictures cannot be overempha- 
sized. They are splendid for teaching pa- 
triotism, loyalty and kindness, in addition 
10 their historical interest. 

THE BOSTON TEA PARTY. (Beseler) 
Two reels. Such a colorful event as- the 
Boston Tea Party can not fail to be in- 
teresting when filmed. 

EDGAR AND THE TEACHER'S PET. 
(Goldwyn) Two reels. An amusing and 
well-done treatment of boyhood's dreams 
and cares. One of the Booth Tarkington 
series. 

FROM THE MANGER TO THE CROSS. 
(Vitagraph) Six reels. A complete life 
of Christ, photographed in Palestine, and 
one of the best of its kind. 

RIP VAN WINKLE. (Lea-Bel Co.) Five 
reels. Joseph Jefferson is featured in this 
reproduction of Irving's immortal tale. 

WEEKLIES, NEWS ITEMS AND 
REVIEWS 

PATHE NEWS 59. (Pathe) Experi- 
ments at Marshfield, Mass., with incuba- 
tors for raising pheasants newly-born; 
Resolute in race for America's Cup; ship- 
building at Hog Island; school athletics 
in Joinville, France; return of U. S. sol- 



diers from Russia; meeting of allies with 
Germans at Spa, etc. 

PATHE NEWS 61. (Pathe) Parade in 
Belfast; delivery of German Zeppelin to 
France; ascent of Mt. Hood; acceptance 
of Republican vice-presidential nomina- 
tion by Coolidge; winning of the Cup by 
Resolute. 

PATHE NEWS 62. (Pathe) Dedication 
of French monument to Wilbur Wright; 
first trans-continental air boat; "wild 
west" days in Cheyenne, Wyoming; car- 
toon. 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS Vol. 2-45 
(Universal) Washington, D. C, Cox and 
Franklin hold conference; U. Si soldiers 
arriving in San Francisco from Russia; 
final trials for Olympic stars at the Harv- 
ard Stadium; pictures of the second inter- 
national yacht race, etc. (Cut cartoon.) 

PATHE REVIEW 46. (Pathe) Color 
scenes from Biska, North Africa; Nova- 
graph photography of elephant and sea- 
gulls; study of turtles made in the Dit- 
mars Studio; mining in Mexico. 

PATHE REVIEW 50. (Pathe) Colored 
scenes laid in the Orient; floating of new 
buoys; slow motion picture of French 
athlete; contribution from Ditmars' Studio 
showing the feeling of animals for music; 
making of Seidlitz powders; Spanish 
fandango danced by two famous Span- 
ish senoritas. 

PATHE REVIEW 59. (Pathe) Pathe- 
color scenes from Lisbon; study of mon- 
keys from Java, Ceylon and India made 
by the Ditmars' Studio; Novagraph film, 
the Nautch dance from East India. 

PATHE REVIEW 61. (Pathe) Colored 
scenes from France; process of cod fish- 
ing from catching to packing; Novagraph 
picture showing maneuvers of a tumbler 
slowed down eight times; uncommon birds 
photographed at the Zoological Garden. 

PATHE REVIEW 62. (Pathe) Pathe- 
color, scenes in Switzerland; Novagraph 
film, balancing; retreading old tires; 
building a gown on Fifth Avenue; Rus- 
sian dance. 

BRAY PICTOGRAPH 436. (Goldwyn) 
The shipping of long horned steers from 
Venezuela; cock fighting in Venezuela; the 
filming of a Rex Beach production; ani- 
mated cartoon. 

BRAY PICTOGRAPH 437. (Goldwyn) 
Scenes showing the activities of the Trav- 
eler's Aid Society of New York City; mas- 
ter minds of America, the American 
painter, Childe Hassam at work; new 
process of etching; Out of the Ink Well 
cartoon. 

CHAS. URBAN'S MOVIE CHATS 10. 
(Kineto Co. of America) The London Fire 
Dept. gives a demonstration; oyster fish- 
ing and industry in England; a starling 
builds nest in chimney, etc. 

CHAS. URBAN'S MOVIE CHATS 25. 
(Kineto Co. of America) Scenes from the 
river Dee, Aberdeen, Scotland; London 
North Western Railroad cultivates wil- 
lows, making baskets and willow hampers 
for light transportation; the giant dragon 
fly, honey bee, wasp, bumble bee, action of 
tongue of bumble bee. 

CHAS. URBAN'S MOVIE CHATS 6. 
(Kineto Co. of America) Greek colony 
of sponge fishers at Tarpon Springs, Flor- 
ida; views of animals: panorama of Jeru- 
salem; microscopic views of insects. 



Advertisements 57 



The Society For Visual Education 

Announces the opening of a new department 

75he 

Industrial Film Division 

Equipped for the Production of Every- 
thing in Motion Picture Photography 

Making a specialty of high-class films for Welfare and Interorganization 
Purposes — Sales Promotion — Advertising — Industrial Education 



"DEING an organization of specialists in 
■* - ' the making of industrial motion pic- 
tures, this organization, combined with 
the Society's unusual research facilities, 
guarantees productions of genuine power, 
quality and effectiveness. 

The Animated Cartoon Department 
has new and original methods in anima- 
tion — the result of extensive experiment — 
to offer users of industrial films. Any 
type of animated drawings can be sup- 
plied, from the simplest comedy to the 
most intricate study of technical processes 
or mechanical devices. 



The Society will make surveys and submit scenarios 
and estimates without charge or obligation 

ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION 
Industrial Film Division 

327 South La Salle St. CHICAGO 

When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



58 



Visual Education 



NATION-WIDE SEARCH FOR TEACHERS 

In order to meet the present emergency, we have again enlarged 
our facilities, and we are better prepared .than ever before to render 
professional service to teachers available for any kind of educational 
positions and to colleges, universities, public "and private schools 
seeking teachers. 

With our affiliated Agencies we cover the entire country. 

FISK TEACHERS AGENCY 

E. E. OLP, Manager 28 East Jackson Boulevard, Chicago 



The 

West 

Pays 

Teachers 



Cline Teachers* Agency 

CHICAGO, ILL. COLUMBIA, MO. 

New Address: 1441 E. 60th St. Exchange Bldg. 

M. F. Ford, Mgr. Arthur B. Cline, Mgr. 

BOISE, IDAHO SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 

George F. Gorow, Mgr. 326-7-8. Owl Building 

Wynne S. Staley, Mgr. 

All Offices Recommend You ' Till Placed 
ENROLL FREE! 



Poems that Qrip 

A handy little book, unusually 
complete, with just the poetry 
you want, especially prepared 
for school use, at only 25c per 
copy. That's the 

101 Famous Poems 

By all means order a single 
copy and examine this famous 
little book that such a large 
number of schools are using. 
Has a Prose Supplement, 
photo of each author, etc. 

Price : 25 Cents 

prepaid in any quantity. No 
free copies. 

We also publish the Favorite 
Songs for Catholic Schools. 

The Cable Co., 1221 Cable Big., Chicago 

STOP! LOOK!! ACT!!! 

SEE PAGE 45 




"B>it)ool €fftctencj> lettuce" 

— in — 

Motion 
pcturebom 

Demands 

AS TO MACHINES— That y. jU secure the best for 
you, to meet the special needs of your particular school; 

AS TO FILMS— That you have a means of keeping 
in touch With the many sources of service that are open 
to you. 

The Demands Met 

It is our ambition to cater to those who realize that 
the subject of Motion Pictures for Schools is one big 
enough for a highly specialized attention, and who 
therefore wish to have the benefit of expert advice 
from a firm that is in a position to be impartial in 
recommendation. 

We shall endeavor to get whatever you may want, 
on the basis of SATISFACTION GUARANTEED OR 
MONEY BACK. "Tell us your troubles." 

& ft. ©urn & Company 

EXPERT LIBRARY BUILDERS- 
MOTION PICTURE SPECIALISTS 

Cfeticaiional department 

(SUBURBAN TO CHICAGO) 

DOWNERS GROVE, ILLINOIS 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 



THURSTON TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Railway Exchange Building 
224 S. Michigan Ave. 

Chicago, 111. , 

No registration fee now or later. Choice positions filled 
every month in the year. 

SEND FOR REGISTRATION BLANK 

C. M. McDANIEL, Manager 



READINGS and ORATIONS 

for 

Public Speaking and Contests 

The variety of titles and subjects our 
service covers, and our low prices will 
surprise you. We have a catalog 
waiting for you. 

Write for it. 

IVAN BLOOM HARDIN COMPANY 

3808 Cottage Grove Ave. Des Moines, Iowa 

All orders filled within twenty-four. hours. 



HOME STUDY SLSfSi ?&£ 

sional degree Courses. Ninth year. Catalog Free 
TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE, Washington, D. C 



ETAL ART PINS 



and Rings loaned to Grammar, High. 
Sunday School and College class officers 
or faculty. Make sample selection from 
FREE catalog of 300 designs from 20 
cents to $20 each. 
METAL ARTS CO., Dept. 8, Rochester, N.Y. 




Zenith Safety Projector 



TX7E offer this machine to you with 
confidence in its merits because of 
the many letters we have received from 
SATISFIED CUSTOMERS, some of 
whom write as follows: 

"We sincerely believe it to be the finest 
machine of its kind on the market. We 
have used it continuously for months." 

A pastor writes — "We are enthusiastic 
about it. It does everything you said it 
would, and even more." 



A large Industrial Company writes: — 
"Demonstration of the Zenith was made 
at 105 feet with very satisfactory results." 

If you are at all interested in having 
motion pictures and want the best, you 
also want the best available machine to 
project them, we have it in the ZENITH. 
It is a machine of proven value. 

Write us about it. Send for literature to 



RUTLEDGE & COMPANY 



35 S. DEARBORN ST. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



60 



Visual Education 



The "Vertico- Slant" 
Stream of the 

Rundle-Spence 
Drinking Fountain 






V 



Overcomes formidable objections put 
forth by scientists to some types of this 
modern invention. 

Lips cannot touch the nozzle, thus preventing 
contamination. 

Write for circular giving greater details 

The Rundle-Spence Mfg. Company 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 



PERSONAL 

Did You 

Notice the Slip 

on Page 45 ? 



P ROJECTORS 




Write for any intormation you might 
desire on the taking or projecting of 
motion pictures. Gladly given. 

VICTOR STEREOPTICON 
Projects pictures from 10 to 120 ft. from 
the screen, fitted with special upright 
nitrogen lamp, ready for action at any 
ordinary lamp socket. Special price of 
$48.00. Metal case for above, $5.00. Acme 
Model 11, the most Standard Portable 
M. P. Projector today, 1,000 ft. capacity, 
motor driven, special Nitrogen Bulb 
Illumination, special rewind. See Bass 
for immediate delivery. Price, $200.00. 
Acme Generator for use with any auto- 
mobile where electric power is not ob- 
tainable. Price, $150.00. 

Acme Junior, made especially for school 
room use. Price, $135.00. 

DE FRANNE M. P. CAMERA 
Field and Studio Model, 400 ft. capacity, 
forward and reverse take up, regular 
and trick crank, automatic dissolve, 
Tessar lens, a complete high-grade 
camera, ready for action, at $225.00. 
Get the Bass Movie List at Once 
BASS CAMERA COMPANY 
Dept. V, 109 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 



? DID YOU EVER THINK ? 

Of Capitalizing Your Spare Time? 

Many teachers, principals and superintend- 
ents are turning their leisure hours and holidays 
into an increased bank account. Some have 
established themselves in a highly profitable educa- 
tional enterprise before giving up their professional 
work: — others, after. 

Let me tell YOU how. Write today. H. J. 
SMITH, 7 East Harrison Street, Chicago. 



$10 




Brings This Latest Model 
L. C. Smith or a Remington 

TYPEWRITER 

Thoroughly rebuilt in our fac- 
tory by the famous "YoungProcess." 
Fully guaranteed. Easy terms. No 
interest. FREE TRIAL. We handle 
all standard makes. Write for details. 
YOUNG TYPEWRITER CO., Dept. 24 .Chicago 



Be Happy You Need Not 
STAMMER or STUTTER 

Many have been cured by my system. Complete cure in 
from four to five weeks' treatment. Terms according to 
arrangements. Write or call for details and references. 

Charles Pferdmenges 

1406 Marshall Field Annex ' 
Tel. Rand. 3431 Chicago, 111. 



WANTFH* Teachers and Students to pre- 
nm,,LU ' pare for good office positions. 
We train and place you before you pay us. 
Study at home or at our college. Address: 
Greenfield Business College. Dept. No. 22, 
Greenfield. Ohio. 



When you write, pl« 



TYPEWRITERS 

Low as $15 



by corporation! closing down, movin_. 
Remlnctoits, Smiths, Royal*. 01 Ivors mast 
I be sola at once I Everyone Al condition— in- 
spected by experts H3iuran<**« S yaarsl 

\B FreeTriaS Offer ?.*,*& 

• cricss and Saacla! 10 Days Dlscocnt OHar. 

TYPEWRITER CO. 

191-3 N. Dearborn Street - CHICAGO, ILL. 

mention VISUAL EDUCATION 




Al>\ ERTISEMENTS 



61 



T5he 

CLASSROOM 
STEREOPTICON 




The Most Efficient Portable Stereopticon in the World 



Catalog and Trial Terms Mailed on Application 



Manufactured and Guaranteed by 



VICTOR ANIMATOGRAPH COMPANY 

(INCORPORATED) 

Davenport, Iowa, U. S. A. 



-.iiiinii mi: ■ -■. 

When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



62 



Visual Education 











School Books 






School Supplies 






Every need for the Modern School Room can 
be supplied by us. Books of every kind, on any 
subject. Supplies of every kind for every need. 
We manufacture an. extensive line of Loose-Leaf 
School Papers and Covers. 






Write for catalog and samples. 






A. C. McClurg & Co. 






ii« East Ohio Street CHICAGO 











MOTION PICTURES 




FOR THE 






SCHOOL 




From The 


From George Kleine's 


Especially Adapted 


Scientific Film Corporation 


Cycle of Film Classics 


Programs For 


The Anatomical Structure 


Julius Caesar 


COMMUNITY 


of the Heart 
The Heart Our Living 


Othello 


NIGHTS 


Pump 






A Microscopical View of 


Last Days of 


50 Different 


the Blood Circulation 


Pompeii 


Selections from 


The Blood and Its 

Ingredients 

Eye Sight the Master 


Anthony and 
Cleopatra 


One to Seven Reels 
Now Available 


Sense 


The Lion of Venice 


Reasonable Prices 


What Causes the Heart 




Prompt Service 


Beat? 


Spartacus 




The Incubator as a 






Mother and Its 


Vanity 


Write for Our 


Brood 

THE N 


Fair 

EW ERA 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 


New Catalogue 

FILMS 


Tel., Wabash 5875-8-9 


207 


SOUTH WABASH AVE. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertised h\ i - 



63 



Printing 

and 

Advertising 

Advisers 




Day and Night 

Service 

All the Year 

Around 



One of the Largest and Most Completely Equipped 
Printing Plants in the United Stales 

School Printing 

Whether you have a large or small Catalogue, Bulle- 
tin, Pamphlet, Magazine or Publication to be printed 
it is our opinion you have not done your duty by your 
institution or yourself until you have learned about 
the service Rogers & Hall Company give and have 
secured prices. 

We ship or express to any point 
or, mail direct from Chicago 

Make a Printing Connection with a Specialist and a Large and 
Reliable Printing House. 

You Secure From Us 

Proper Quality — Quick Delivery — Right Price 

Business Methods and Financial Standing 
the Highest 

Ask the Publishers of "Visual Education" 
what they think of our service and prices. 

ROGERS & HALL COMPANY 

Catalogue and Publication 
PRINTERS 

Artists — Engravers — Electrotypers 
English and Foreign Languages 

Polk & La Salle Streets CHICAGO, ILL. 

Telephone Wabash 3381— Local and Long Distance 



When you. write, please .mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



64 



Visual Education 



if«$ 



The 
BIGGEST VALUE 

In 
SHOW CARD 

COLORS 



Art Supervisors and 
Art Workers who have 
wished to use Tempera 
Colors, but have felt 
somewhat handicapped by the price, will find 
these Show Card Colors a boon. 

They will serve the purpose equally well at 
one-half the cost. 

Why Don't You Try Them? 

Write for Color Card and Prices. 

Wallbrunn, Kling & Co. 

Everything in Card Writers' Supplies. 

327-329 South Clark St. 
CHICAGO 

Pacific Coast Distributors 
Schussler Bros., 326 Groye St., San Francisco 




A FEW POSITIONS S -2153 

ladies to travel and form child-welfare clubs 
among mothers. Education, refinement and per- 
sonality are chief requisites. Full training is given 

for this delightful work. Salary, railroad fare and 
commissions paid. Call or address A. D. Dorsett, 
205 West Monroe St.. 10th Floor. Chicago, 111. 




THE L. C. SMITH 



TYPEWRITERS 

All Makes 

REBUILT — GUARANTEED 

Cash or Terms 

ROBT V. JOHNSON CO. 

Dept. L. Transportation BIdg. 



STAMMER M N ° re 

^^ Re-education the key. This mar- 
velous method fully outlined in an 
accurate, dependable, worth-while book 
—"HOW TO STOP STAMMERING." 
Mailed on receipt of 10 cents. The Hat- 
field Institute, 109 N. Dear bom St., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

When you write, please ment 




Here is the Trusty, Effi- 
cient Servant of the , 
Educator! 

It expounds, illustrates, and ex- 
plodes theories, practices and 
sophisms. It illustrates the edu- 
cator's examples in such wise that 
the pupil understands instantly. 
It spreads out facts and processes 
in living, moving, pictures. "See- 
ing is believing" — is comprehend- 
ing, without possibility of error. 

The Graphoscope Jr. 



deserves a place in every educa- 
tional institution in the United 
States — primary or finishing. 
Its mechanical construction pro- 
vides highest results in clear, beau- 
tiful pictures, without flicker, and 
with the greatest ease of opera- 
tion. Has nothing complicated to 
break or get out of order. Uses 
standard film. Motor wind and 
rewind. 

Professors and Teachers in 

all Branches should learn 

about this machine 

Write for Graphoscope Junior lit- 
erature giving full mechanical 
details. 

GRAPHOSCOPE DEV. CO. 

49 Mechanic St., Newark, N. J. 



>n VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 



65 




Why 115 New York Schools 
Chose Pathescope 

Selection Based on Safety 
Efficiency and Portability Features 

After a number of exhaustive tests, 115 of the New York public 
schools chose the Pathescope motion picture projector as the 
most efficient aid to visual education, because — 

The Pathescope weighs but 23 pounds, making it readily port- 
able from room to room with a minimum of effort. 



The Pathescope eliminates al 
sive projection features. 



objectionable flicker by exclu- 



The Pathescope uses "safety standard" film, approved by all 
insurance authorities and does not require an enclosing booth 
or licensed operator as a precaution against fire hazard. 

The Pathescope film service is the most complete, covering 
thousands of the most instructive subjects in literature, his- 
tory, science, art, travel and industry. 



The "New Premier" is easily the leader of all portable pro- 
jectors, absolutely safe and surprisingly simple to operate. 
Send for our free illustrated booklet, "Education by Visualiza- 
tion," and the Pathescope illustrated motion picture catalog. 
Simply clip and mail the coupon — your request implies no obli- 
gation. 



The Pathescope Company 

17 North Wabash Ave. 
Chicago, 111. 




THE PATHESCOPE COMPANY 

Department 20, 17 No. Wabash Ave., 
Chicago, 111. 

Please send me, without any obligation 
on my part, your free illustrated booklet, 
"Education by Visualization," and Pathe- 
scope illustrated film catalog. 

Name 



Address 



City. 



State. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



66 



Visual Education 



Visualizing Historical Characters 

Robertson's Geographic-Historical Series 

The series consists of sixty large maps, size 3% feet long and 2% feet wide, 
lithographed in beautiful colors on the strongest paper known to the trade, and 
mounted on an iron tripod which makes them very durable and attractive. 

The series illustrates and correlates the entire range of American History 
from the time of the Sagas up to the present moment. By a series of beautiful 
maps and illustrations, events formerly meaningless and devoid of interest are 
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67 



How To Tell If You Are Cutting Off Your Life 

A Simple Test That May Add 20 Years to Your Life 

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68 



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VISUAL 
EDUCATION 

A Magazine Devoted to the Cause of American Education 



Vol. I. NOVEMBER, 1920 No. 6 



In This Number 



Visual Health Education in Grammar 
Schools C. E. Turner 



Basic Material in Education P. P. Claxion 



The Working Museum Visualizing 

History E. C. Page 



Visualizing Mythology G. P. Smith 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, Inc. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 
One Dollar a Year Single Copy, Fifteen Cents 



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©CI.B485594 

VISUAL EDUCATION 

A MAGAZINE DEVOTED 
TO THE CAUSE OF 
AMERICAN EDUCATION 

Rollin D. Salisbury, President Forest R. Moultox, Secretary 

Harley L. Clarke, Manager Nelson L. Greene. Editor 



Published every month except July and August 

Copyright November, 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

Subscription price, one dollar a year. Fifteen cents a copy. 



VOLUME I NOVEMBER, 1920 NUMBER 6 

IN THIS NUMBER 

Editorial 10 

Visual Health Education in Grammar Schools 14 

G. E. Turner 

Basic Material in Education 20 

P. P. Claxton 

The Working Museum Visualizing History 22 

E. G. Page 

Visualizing Mythology 27 

Grace P. Smith 

Miscellaneous Notes 30 

What School Superintendents Think 34 

A Department of Beginnings 30 

The Film Field 38 

Section of the Society for Visual Education 44 

Among Other Things Thev Say 61 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



tf&i 



\3^ 



VISUAL EDU CATION 

A National Organ of the New Movement in American Education 



Published every month except Jurly and August 
Copyright, November, 1920, by the Society for Visual Education, Inc. 



Volume I NOVEMBER. 1920 Number 6 



Editorial 



T 



HE development of modern science pretty thoroughly exploded the idea of 
"perpetual motion," although this idea has engrossed the mechanically- 
minded since man began his creative thinking. The basic principle of ^per- 
petual motion is that still more venerable fallacy, the idea of 
something "getting something for nothing/' which the development of 
nothing modern business has done much to destroy. It dates from the 
days before bank accounts and apartment houses ; when a living 
could be had for the picking, without money and without price, and when any 
old branch was "home." 

Consider for a moment, however, the "getting" of a modern magazine, which 
comes dangerously near to being a "something for nothing." To be specific, take 
Visual Education. 

Our subscribers pay ten cents, our readers pay fifteen cents — for a copy 
which costs its makers twenty-four cents, exclusive of overhead expense ! Obvi- 
ously we cannot undertake or pretend to do philanthropy. Our friends who read 
would manifestly be "getting something for nothing" were it not for our equally 
good friends who advertise. The latter, in turn, are entirely willing to bear the 
lion's share of the cost if a fair return on their investment is 
pacts forthcoming. The circle is complete with its three segments, 

but no segment must fail. The advertisers will take care of us ; 
ive will take care of our readers; but our readers must take care of our adver- 
tisers. Keep the circle intact ! 

Therefore, buy your magazine for a fraction of its cost; read it, ads and 
.ill * then, send your orders to the advertisers, your criticisms to the editor. 

We are aware that the above is purest platitude. This is not information; 
it is merely a reminder. We have used twenty square inches of our precious paper 
stock in -this fashion solely because we know that the best known facts are often 
the most easily forgotten. 

10 



Editorial 11 

THE interest in visual instruction is not confined to organizations and pub- 
lications specializing in the field; witness the following editorial which 
appeared in the September number of the Quarterly Bulletin of the 
International Federation of Catholic Alumnae. Because such an utterance from 
an independent and impartial source is strong evidence of the wide appeal of 
the movement, and because the Bulletin's ideas upon the question accord precisely 
with our own — Visual Education has obtained permission to reprint the article 
entire. 

"The present movement towards visual education has had a remarkably rapid 

growth. A few years ago the visual idea was hardly more than a hobby in the 

minds of a few; now it is a nation-wide demand. It has gained possession of four 

great fields of educational interest, viz. : academic, religious, 

growth c i v j c an j industrial. The picture is coming to be considered and 

OF THE r ° 

idea demanded as a mental stimulus of unequalled value in schools 

and colleges ; in the broad field of religious thought and 
activity; in social centers and industrial organizations. 

"The Catholic Church has marked the way for the extensive use of this new 
instrumentality in education, by appropriating through the National Catholic 
War Council a large sum for the development and extension of the motion 
pictures on a capacious scale throughout the entire country. An elaborate system 
of distribution by autos, and the services of trained lecturers are included in the 
comprehensive plan. Other religious bodies have followed rapidly with similar 
plans and appropriations. 

"All innovations are subject to the law of inertia; the hardest thing is to get 
them moving ; but the number of thinking men and women who still doubt 'the 
value of this new idea, is rapidly diminishing. There was a time, for instance, 
when "textbooks" were viewed with skepticism and apprehension. 
textbooks "Why make textbooks about literature when you have the liter- 
textfilms ature itself accessible?" "Why supplant the truth with a weak 
dilution of the truth?" Such objections and others still more 
caustic, were hurled at the innovation which seemed to threaten the foundations 
of sound learning and destroy all hope of the ultimate attainment of wisdom. 
Today we can but smile at such thoughts when we recall the millions of textbooks 
now doing their mighty work in schools, colleges and universities; in evening- 
classes and settlement houses ; in a myriad of homes from coast to coast. 

"Strange as this period in the history of textbooks now appears, we are in 
exactly the same period in the history of 'textfilms.' Warnings are still cried 
occasionally against 'making education easy,' 'removing the incentive to effort,' 
etc., but this chorus is becoming faint and feeble. The country sees more and 
more clearly every day that pictures— and above all the motion picture — will 
make education easy only in the sense that we can now achieve more quickly 
all that has previously been achieved in education, and thus open the way to a 
richer, deeper and broader training for the nation without the expenditure of 
anv more time and effort than before. The crowded schedule of modern life 



12 Visual Education 

relentlessly limits the time we can devote to assembling our mental equipment, 
and therein lies the strongest argument for the picture. The objection to accom- 
plishing more in the same time than we have previously been able to accomplish, 
is too illogical to stand. 

"As a matter of fact the motion picture is but a logical and scientific develop- 
ment of the "object lesson" method of teaching and is as infinitely superior to 
that method as the teaching by objects was to the lumbering methods that 
preceded it. 
occasional "What, then, is the vital element in the whole question of 

to be visual education? On what does the potency of the new forces 

expected depend ? The answer is, the content and quality of the film. 

"Bad textbooks have injured, and still injure, the cause of 
education. Bad textbooks have been produced in great numbers, yet these facts 
do not shake the faith of the educational world in good textbooks. In like 
manner, faulty films have been produced by the millions of feet — and among 
them, films conspicuously labeled educational. It is also true that not a few 
intellectual people have viewed these faulty attempts and honored them with an 
approval which only the productions of qualified scholars would deserve. In 
general, however, judgment upon such productions has been adverse, and some 
have made the absurd mistake of supposing that such verdict makes a case against 
"educational films." Parallel instances could be cited. The canons of archi- 
tectural art are seriously violated in a grain elevator, a rolling-mill, or a brick- 
yard, yet critics do not condemn Architecture on such grounds. On the contrary, 
they approve such structures, for they bear in mind the builder who made them 
and the end he sought to achieve. Similarly, the mass of pseudo-educational films 
that clog the market today — and still more the storage shelves of their disap- 
pointed producers — should be judged with the same reservations in the mind 
of the judge. He must remember the makers of such films and the ends they 
sought and seek. Buskin did not derive his art canons from a study of Man- 
chester factories or Liverpool warehouses; no more will American exponents of 
the teaching art base their valuation of educational motion pictures on what the 
movie-makers have achieved thus far. 

"If, then, the worth of the whole idea depends on the character and quality 

of the film to be used, it is pertinent to ask, 'Are there such things as good 

educational films ?' The answer is emphatically yes. They are being made today 

for use in the schools by at least one organization in this country, 

educa- namely the Society for Visual Education. This society, recently 

tional incorporated in Chicago, has a personnel of eminent educators 

which alone is ample assurance of the quality of productions to 

be expected. In practice the films produced are classified under several subject 

headings, those of each subject being produced under the direction of a distinct 

committee, each member of which is an acknowledged authority on the particular 

subject. The chairman of each committee is a scholar of national eminence, and 

thus each film is authoritative in the same degree as a textbook would be with 

the same scholar's name on the title page. 



Kim ioimai. l."> 

"From this organization or a similar one, must come the materials tor which 
i'orward-thinking educators have long been waiting. The country is no longer 
under the necessity of attempting visual instruction by nondescript films, which 
are usually little more than by-products of the theatrical business. The day of 
real 'textfilms' is here and a great step toward the better training of Americans, 
in school and community, is assured by the new activities. The Bulletin of the 
International Federation of Catholic Alumnae greets the advent of the Society 
for Visual Education with heartiest approval." 



FIRST efforts in any line are likely to be both modest and heroic. This 
is true of the introduction of visual methods in American schools. We 
say "modest," because in the present paucity of materials, especially films, 
such efforts can seldom be anything else. We say "heroic," because trail-blazing 
is hard and the majority of folk insist upon waiting for the macadam highway. 
We are living in the pioneer days of visual instruction, when the beginners 
are the only veterans. The best possible encouragement to schools now con- 
sidering the adoption of the new methods will be to hear what the "veterans'' 
have done. The humbler these beginnings — the more stubborn 

HELP the difficulties met and overcome — the more valuable will be 

wanted . , , 

the story as an incentive to those who have as yet done nothing 

at all. Therefore, we are making the following request to the hundreds of 

American schools who have made their start: 

Send us a brief, but detailed and informing account of what is being done 

in your school along visual lines. Visual Education will maintain each month 

a department for printing these accounts, and will see to it that they reach 

thousands who are genuinely interested. 



THERE is a growing demand among our readers and subscribers for back 
numbers of A 7 isual Education. They are now anxious to have their files 
complete. We anticipated this demand from the beginning and made what 
we considered adequate arrangements to meet it, but we underestimated the 
requirements. Xoav the expense of supplying these back copies is many times 
greater than for copies of the current issue sent out in 

NUMBERS re - ulai mailin gS- 

Hereafter, therefore, the price of bach numbers of 
Visual Education will he 25 cents a copy. This does not mean that we can 
always supply them, but we shall be glad to do so as long as we have any on hand 
or can secure them from chance sources. 



VISUAL HEALTH EDUCATION IN 
GRAMMAR SCHOOLS 

C. E. Turner 

Assistant Professor of Biology and Public Health, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 

Cambridge 



WHAT should grammar school 
children be taught about 
health? Can the motion pic- 
lure be made an effective aid in teach- 
ing hygiene? 

The first question has received much 
consideration from both educators and 
public health experts. The second 
question was presented to the writer at 
a time when he was busy developing 
and improving the process of taking 
motion pictures through the micro- 
scope. This investigation had been 
undertaken in co-operation with an in- 
structor in photography at the Insti- 
tute of Technology because it promised 
returns both in the field of biological 
research and in that of education. 
So great, however, seemed the impor- 
tance of the task undertaken by Dr. 
Vaughan and his Health and Sanita- 
tion Committee of the Society for Vis- 
ual Education that all the work previ- 
ously done in this direction has been 
turned for the present toward aiding 
the- solution of the problem of health 
instruction in grammar schools. The 
following discussion is in the form of 
an answer to the above questions. 

THE CASE FOR HEALTH EDUCATION 

The question of what to teach ■ is 
linked with the question : "Why should 
we teach health?" Everyone appreci- 
ates the importance of hygienic living, 
especially if he is able to remember 
and contrast a period of sickness with 
a period of buoyant health in his own 
experience. Sweet as may be the fruit 



of the tree of knowledge, nothing is 
sweeter than life itself — life not em- 
bittered by the canker of disease. "A 
sound mind in a sound body" is still 
in favor among educators, although, as 
Prof. Wni, T. Sedgwick points out, 
"Nowadays we know only too well that 
the sound mind and the sound body 
are unavailing for the conduct of nor- 
mal living unless the environment with 
which they have to deal consists of 
fairly good air, fairly pure water, 
fairly good food, and is fairly free 
from communicable diseases, unfavor- 
able temperatures, defective ventilation, 
dirt, noise and other prejudicial sani- 
tary conditions." 

The last three decades have given us 
a new science of disease prevention and 
a new story of health preservation 
through proper care of the human 
mechanism. The maintenance of pub- 
lic health has become increasingly a 
function of government. In a democ- 
racy like ours this function progresses 
step by step with public information 
regarding its importance and sound- 
ness; for the health activities of the 
government must win the approval and 
support of the people. It has become 
important, therefore, that we should 
instruct our great body of citizens-to-be 
in community health as well as in the 
care of their bodies before they leave 
the public schools. 

When the draft statistics informed 
us that one-third of our men of mili- 
tary age were unfit for service, there 



14 



Visual Health Education in Grammar Schools 



15 



was an immediate re- 
sponse to the implied 
suggestion that we 
should take better care 
of the health of our 
school children. This 
is already resulting in 
better medical super- 
vision as well as in 
more consideration for 
the teaching of hy- 
giene ; and we m a y 
hope that our work in 
school hygiene will 
eventually equal or 
surpass the work of the 
European countries 
which have hitherto 
led us in this field. 

Perhaps a more direct suggestion for 
the teaching of hygiene is to be found 
in the statistics which indicate that we 
are making rapid progress against dis- 
eases which are controllable by proper 
sanitation, but very slow progress 
against those diseases which are to be 
controlled only through the personal 
hygiene of the individual. Our army 
records give the best data, for there 
medical and health authorities had 
direct supervision. The death rate 
was commendably low, and the fatal- 
ities from enteric and insect-borne 
fevers, which had caused so many 
deaths in previous wars, were practi- 
cally negligible. The great causes of 
death were the respiratory diseases. 
Here personal hygiene and not sanitary 
supervision is the important factor. 

Health experts are well agreed that 
the great saving of lives in the next 
generation is to be accomplished 
through the teaching of the funda- 
mental facts of personal and preventive 
hygiene. An appreciation of this has 
already stimulated the colleges to 
strengthen the teaching of hygiene, 
and almost every institution of higher 




THE CHILDREN ARE INTERESTED IN THE NEW KIND 
OF GARDEN 



education has recently enlarged or is 
contemplating an expansion of its 
health activities. 

The public health nurse has assisted 
health officials to save thousands of 
lives because she added the. personal 
touch to health information and gave 
her instruction individually. The same 
personal contact exists in the school- 
room, and those educators, both ad- 
ministrators and teachers, who are pro- 
viding live, practical and interesting 
health instruction are adding immeas- 
urably to the health and happiness of 
our rising generation. 

We know that if there nre things 
which we desire the next generation of 




MAKING NEW GARDENS IS LIKE 
MAKING GELATIN PUDDING 



If, 



Visual Education 



Americans to possess, those things we 
must put into the public schools. 
Surely we want health in the next gen- 
pration. 

WHAT TO TEACH 

But what should be taught? The 
subject of hygiene naturally divides 
itself into two phases : personal hy- 
giene, or the care of the body mechan- 
ism, and preventive hygiene, or the 
cultivation of living habits which en- 
able us to avoid infectious diseases. 

PERSONAL HYGIENE 

The proper use of the body in the 



the heart, the lungs, the eyes, the teeth, 
the skin? What purposes are served 
by the different kinds of food? What 
is the relationship between ventilation 
and health ? What is desirable exercise 
and what are its benefits ? What effects 
have anger, worry and the other emo- 
tions? These are some of the perti- 
nent questions concerning this phase of 
the subject. 

The answers to these questions can 
only follow a knowledge of certain body 
.structures and functions, but this does 
not mean that a detailed knowledge of 
anatomy and physiology must precede 




THE SOIL IS STERILIZED TO KILL THE WEEDS 



normal activities of life is an old sub- 
ject, but never has it had more impor- 
tance. Never has there been a greater 
temptation or tendency for great masses 
of our population to avoid a normal 
and vigorous physical life. It is the 
unused or seldom-used machine that is 
in the greatest danger. A knowledge 
of the relationship between health and 
happiness and the care of the body is 
highly important. 

What are the essential daily health 
habits? What are the essential facts 
in the care of the digestive apparatus. 



those answers. Every one of these sub- 
jects can be presented to the child in 
terms which he can understand and in 
ways which will interest him. 

These subjects may well be preceded 
in the classroom or on the screen by a 
discussion of the human mechanism. 
Any child is interested in the story of 
the modern steamboat, with its boiler, 
fire-box and engine for transforming 
energy, its skeleton framework which 
gives form to the ship, its system of 
communication reaching into every 
compartment, its motor parts, and its 



Visi \i. Eealth Education in Grammar Schools 



i; 



water-proof covering of paint. The 
child is interested to learn that the 
boat takes on fuel, lubricating mate- 
rial and material for repairs. It is 
pleasant to think of the ship, with its 
proud and graceful form, always kepi 
iit ami t r i m a n d 
equal to the roughest 
weather. 

The child is equally 
interested in the much 
more wonderful hu- 
man mechanism with 
its parallel and sur- 
passing accomplish- 
ments. The child at 
grammar school age is 
read v to study the 
parts of the human 
body with real interest 
in the mechanism and 
without any undesir- 
able reaction. As he 
studies the different 
parts he learns of their 
care. With the body, 
as with the ship, the 
child does not ask what is its physics, 
its chemistry, or its precise architec- 
ture. He asks rather : "What does that 
part do ? What is this good for ? How 
do you keep it going?" He is ready 
for hygiene long before he is ready for 
physiology. 

PREVENTIVE HYGIENE 

The second phase of the subject — 
preventive hygiene — should give the 
child a fundamental conception of the 
nature and habitat of micro-organisms 
and the way in which the infectious 
diseases are avoided; it should teach 
the child what the organized forces of 
government can do for health preserva- 
tion. 

We hear some complaint that chil- 
dren are frightened by the teaching of 
these facts ; but the writer has seen this 
subject taught without any of these 
undesirable reactions. Ought we not 



to ask ourselves always, when we find 
it difficult to present the facts of na- 
ture, whether it is the facts or the 
methods that are at fault? Perhaps we 
have been talking too much about 
germs. When we find a child or an 




WALTER PLANTS ONE OF THE ROUND "GARDENS" BY 
RUBBING HIS FINGERS IN THE DUST ON THE TABLE 
AND PLACING THEM ON THE STERILE "SOIL" 



adult who believes that all bacteria are 
germs, we must conclude that the in- 
dividual has been studying pathology 
and not bacteriology. 

It is not the normal method of ap- 
proach to talk only of disease-produc- 
ing organisms. No one would think 
of substituting criminology for soci- 
ology. To cite a parallel example, sup- 
pose that whenever the- city child were 
told of the fields and woods he heard 
only about the poison ivy, dogwood, 
snakeberries and poison mushrooms. 
Do you suppose he would have a whole- 
some desire to go to the country? And 
yet these poison plants do exist among 
the higher plants and in as great a 
proportion as do the disease germs 
among microscopic plants. Ought not 
the child to know, not only that most 
bacteria are harmless, but that the bac- 
teria which cause decay and break down 



L8 



Visual Education 




DOROTHY LEARNS THAT THE MI- 
CROSCOPE IS A, WONDERFUL 
INSTRUMENT 

organic substances are just as essential 
to the continuation of life on the globe 
as are the green plants which build up 
new substances? We teach the child 
to be interested in the maple tree which 
makes sugar. Why not also interest 
him in the bacillus which makes vine- 
gar? 

THE LOGICAL APPROACH 

We teach the nature of wild plants 
and flowers and how they grow; inci- 
dentally we teach people to avoid the 
poisonous plants. A very similar ap- 
proach can be made in the teaching of 
preventive hygiene. If a child learns 
the real nature of bacteria and their 
growth, he will very naturally accept 
the facts concerning the relatively few 
harmful ones. 

That is the point of view which was 
taken in preparing the film from which 
the illustrations for this article have 
been drawn — a film entitled "Getting 
Acquainted with Bacteria — the Small- 
est Plants in the World." 

In this film only the harmless or 
useful bacteria are considered. The 
children who were photographed in the 
picture were thoroughly interested in 
the strange plants and in the "gardens''' 
in which they were grown ; in "making 
the soil like a gelatin pudding," and in 
sterilizing it to "kill any weeds" which 



might be present. Especially were they 
interested in the microscope which en- 
abled them to see things not visible to 
the naked eye. They clearly appreci- 
ated the way in which the microscope 
"'because it had one eye very close to 
the plants," made it possible to see the 
separate plants just as one sees the 
separate plants in entering a garden of 
which only the rows were visible at a 
distance. 

They learned that these harmless lit- 
tle plants grow in dirt and in water. 
From that point it will be an easy step 
for them to learn that dangerous plants 
might be mingled with useful bacteria 
under certain conditions, just as poison 
ivy might get into a field of grass. 
With this fundamental conception the 
child is ready to move on to a consid- 
eration of the personal and public prob- 
lems of preventive hygiene and pre- 
ventive sanitation. 

SOME OF THE PROBLEMS 

There are problems which confront 
health motion picture production for 
grammar school children, but these are 
not insurmountable. Perhaps the first 
difficulty is clue to the fact that health 
teaching is not yet standardized in the 
way that the teaching of geography, 
history and civics is standardized. To 




IN A FEW DAYS THE HARMLESS 
PLANTS HAVE GROWN INTO 
MASSES WHICH CAN BE SEEN 
WITH THE NAKED EYE 



Visual Health Education in Grammar Schools 



19 



be sure, a few states have legislated to 
secure a definite number of minutes of 
health teaching each week, and the sub- 
ject is rapidly taking form throughout 
the country; but at present there is no 
well-defined course to be followed. 

Again, if they are to be most use- 
ful, health films must do more than 
present facts; they must stimulate ac- 
tion and correct wrong habits of living 
and thinking. This is a difficult task. 
Fortunately, however, the stimulus 
does not end with the picture, for in 
the grammar school program there is 
to follow the strong and effective per- 
sonal contact of our excellent body of 
grade teachers. Here as elsewhere the 
picture is a teaching aid — not a sub- 
stitute. 

In making pictures concerning the 
care of the bod) r , there is a difficulty in 
presenting the old facts in an interest- 
ing and compelling way. The child 
must not be left with a "You must 
keep clean." He must be shown why 
cleanliness is necessary; a desire for 
cleanliness must be established. 

In presenting the facts of disease 
prevention the problem is quite differ- 
ent. The subject is interesting because 
it is new, but care must be taken not 
to take the mind of the child from 
the cheerful and positive thought of 




WHAT THE MICROSCOPE REVEALED 

health and center it upon the disturb- 
ing and negative thought of disease. 
But successful pictures in both phases 
of the subject can be produced by suffi- 
cient care and preliminary experimen- 
tation. 

A RICH FIELD FOR VISUAL EDUCATION 

It is the firm belief of the writer 
that visual education offers an unprec- 
e d e n t e d opportunity for teaching 
health. The school curriculum is al- 
ready full, and yet the people of the 
country demand that the essentials of 
health education shall be taught. The 
motion picture, with its time-saving 
and telling manner of presenting 
health information, will go far toward 
establishing for us the brief, effective 
and standardized instruction which the 
welfare of the country and the health 
of the people demand. 



[EDITOR'S NOTE: The author of this article writes that he would be glad 
to hear from any who are interested in the subject of visual health education, 
and that the results of his own experiments in this new field of teaching are freely 
available to readers of this journal.] 



BASIC MATERIAL IN EDUCATION 

Philander P. Claxton 

United States Commissioner of Education 



MANY' of the most important 
reforms in education have 
been based on the principle of 
getting away from mere descriptions 
and words about things to the tilings 
themselves as a basis for ideas, for rea- 
soning, and for an understanding of 
principles. Bid following every such 
reform there has always been a drift 
back to words; to spoken or written 
descriptions, reasonings and statements 
to be memorized by the pupils. It is 
so easy for teachers and pupils to be- 
come passive; to sit and read, or talk. 
or listen ! All the force of inertia tends 
to drag down to it. 

There are several ways of making 
use of things as the basic material in 
education. The term "things" is used 
here to include also actions, qualities 
and relations. 

THE PERSONAL EXPERIENCE WAY 

The first and most effective way is 
to go to the things themselves : to visit 
the hills and mountains, valleys and 
plains, fields and forests, seacoasts and 
waterfalls, mines and mills, stores and 
markets, waterways and railroads, sea- 
ports and railroad terminals; to asso- 
ciate with men. women and children, 
and observe and take part in their 
activities; to observe armies in camps, 
on the inarch and in battle. 

Tins method is effective and to be 
vised to the fullest extent possible, lint 
it is costly in time and energy, and 
difficult and sometimes impossible to 
use in such an orderly way as to make 
it contribute to systematic instruction. 



MUSEUMS AND PICTURES 

The next best way is to bring the 
things to the child in the schoolroom. 
Museums and all kinds of collections 
are arranged for this purpose. This 
method makes it possible to fit the ob- 
servation into the processes of system- 
atic instruction. From its very nature, 
however, it is narrowly limited. Only 
samples and fragments of most things 
can be brought into the museums and 
collections, even when these are on the 
largest possible scale. Many things 
cannot be used in this way at all. This 
is particularly true of activities, move- 
ments and processes. 

From the days of Comenius and his 
Orbis Pictns, there has been an ever- 
increasing effort to bring into the 
schools pictures of things, either to 
illustrate texts and lectures or to be 
used as the basis of description, analy- 
sis and reasoning. For centuries such 
illustrations had to be confined to 
woodcuts and engravings. The inven- 
tion of photography made possible a 
wider use of pictures. The stereoscope 
and projection lantern made photog- 
raphy far more effective and greatly 
enlarged its use. 

AND NOW THE MOTION PICTURE 

But photography, even with the help 
of the stereoscope and lantern, could 
not re-present action. The re-presenta- 
tion of action, movements and processes 
is the particular field of the moving 
picture, which thus supplements in a 
magnificent way all the other methods 
of presentation and re-presentation. 



Basic Material in Education 



•31 



All these methods are included under 
the term "visual instruction." A right 
use of the term must include them all. 
"each and all'' 

Each method has its place, and nunc 
of them can take the place of the ex- 
pression of ideas and thoughts in words 
and sentences, nor of the hard and 
necessary work of thinking — of analyz- 
ing, sifting, grouping, abstracting and 
expressing in words. 

Man is a thinking and speaking 
animal. Mere gazing at objects and 
pictures — even at the most interesting 
moving pictures — like a cow gazing at 
a new gate, will not result in education, 
not even in knowledge. Knowledge 
and education are something more than 
mere sense impressions, and something 
very much more difficult to obtain. 
Passive gazing is not more valuable 
than passive listening and may be very 
much less valuable. 

TO SUPPLEMENT, NOT TO SUPPLANT 

ISTor can moving films take the place 
of first-hand observation of the things 
themselves, or entirely replace wood- 



cuts, engravings, paintings, and the 
use of the stereoscope and the projec- 
tion hint rin. For the presentation of 
many things — such as landscapes and 
objects that are best observed in posi- 
tion and motionless, requiring time for 
analysis — moving pictures are much 
less effective than still pictures. 

Neither can the film take the place 
of language, particularly of the spoken 
word, which in reach and power, in 
fineness and variety, has possibilities 
far beyond those of any form of visual 
expression or presentation. 

By calling attention thus briefly to 
some of the limitations in the use of 
the motion picture in the school, I 
would not discredit it for any of its 
legitimate work. Its value as a help 
in school work is far greater than we 
have yet imagined, but this use must 
be in its own legitimate field. The 
sooner and more clearly we recognize 
this the better it will be for us, and 
the more rapidly and surely will the 
legitimate use of the moving picture 
be extended. 




fe 



THE COLONIAL HEARTH AND SOME THINGS THAT WENT WITH IT 

THE WORKING MUSEUM 
VISUALIZING HISTORY 



Edward 
Northern Illinois State N 

AMERICA'S entrance into the 
Great War drew one of the as- 
sistants of our Normal faculty 
into war service. Thus a recitation 
room was left without immediate use, 
and being adjacent to the corridors, 
nooks and corners used by the Museum 
of History, it was turned over to that 
museum for its purposes. It was 
divided into two portions, one of which 
because a Colonial Room. Into this 
room have been admitted, for the most 
part, only such articles as date back 
to 1800 and earlier. 

AN OLD TIME FIREPLACE 

The feature of this room which first 



Carlton Page 
ormal School, De Kalb, 111. 

focuses attention is the end with the 
fireplace. Since a building project 
with permanent quarters for the 
Museum is on the program for the 
near future, the present fireplace is 
only a make-believe; but a framework 
covered with canvas and painted to 
represent brick proves sufficiently real- 
istic. When the permanent fireplace 
becomes possible, it will probably be a 
replica of the one in the kitchen of 
the old Whittier homestead, where 
"Snow-Bound" was written. 

Before the fireplace stands a Dutch 
oven, and on the hearth, inside the 
fireplace, is a bake kettle on its three 

22 



The Working Museum Visualizing History 



33 



legs. Xear at hand, in the chimney- 
nook, is a great brass kettle, it- grimy 
exterior telling of many a soft-soap- 
boiling, lard-trying, or apple-butter- 
making. A hearth brick from a New 
England house of L67 1 ) bears the evi- 
dences of two centuries and a half of 
use. An ancient boot-jack is conveni- 
ently at hand. A foot-warmer reminds 
one there is no excuse for staying at 
home from meeting on the Sabbath, 
even though the meeting-house be un- 
warmed. Heavy home-made fire-tongs 
hang by the chimney-side on a crude 
hand-wrought nail with a monstrous 
head. The bellows hang on another 
old nail driven between the "bricks." 
Opposite stands a two-hundred • year 
old tree stump which was converted 
into a mortar for making samp. Its 
browned interior tells how it was hol- 
lowed out by burning with heaped-up 
coals, red-hot. The bottom is badly 
decayed because it stood on the ground 
under the overhanging eaves of a stable, 
and for perhaps fifty years was used 
as a hen's nest. 

On the mantelpiece is the inevitable 
candlestick with accompanying snuffers 
and tray. This candlestick is of the 
sort that often did duty on butchering- 
day by serving as a scraper for remov- 
ing the bristles from the hog. Here, 
too, is an old-time lantern of the Paul 
Revere type. The original purchaser 
of the small mirror upon the mantel 
could not have had the perfervid Amer- 
icanism of a present-day senator, for 
it was "made in England." A large 
platter and a teapot of pewter give 
sufficient representation of tins ware. 

Suspended over the fireplace are ears 
of Indian corn braided up for drying, 
the red ears among them suggesting 
the osculatory privileges of a bygone 
day. The Museum possesses a flintlock 



musket of the days of the old French 
wars, with powder-horn and shot- 
pouch, but they are not yet installed 
in their position of readiness over the 
fireplace. From a molding at the 
chimney-side hang a gourd dipper, 
wooden, copper and iron ladles; also a 
long-handled skimmer, cooking forks 
and spoons, all hand-made. 

Since the fireplace is only temporary 
it is not yet outfitted with cranes, and- 
irons and the rest of the hearth tribe. 
In this connection we may also note 
the absence of a spinning-wheel from 
the fireside. We have a number of 
wheels, one of which belonged in the 
Custis family, but as our Colonial 
Room is limited in size, all spinning 
and weaving devices are at present 
housed in the Textile Room. 

"kitchen things" 

At one side of the room, conveni- 
ently near the fireplace, is a kitchen 
table made of solid walnut (of the 
familiar drop-leaf type) . This par- 
ticular table is distinguished as having 
served as a desk at the first sessions of 
the County Commissioners' Court and 
the Circuit Court of the new County 
of De Kalb, Illinois, back in 1837. On 
the table is a variety of utensils fa- 
miliar to the colonial housewife. There 
are the candle-molds and the mortar 
and pestle for grinding spices. A tin 
sirup pitcher has been wonderfully and 
fearfully decorated (somewhere along 
the generations of its existence) by 
some would-be artist. There are a 
couple of jugs, a fat one and a lean 
one; a potato masher, which reminds 
one of the time when even common 
folks could afford to eat potatoes and 
potatoes were "mashed" instead of 
"riced"; an old-time hand-made apple- 
parer which always attracts attention 



24 



Visual Education 



because of its evident efficiency, not- 
withstanding its crudeness. Here also 
should be a colonial rum bottle and 
a whiskey demijohn which, with its 
contents, once served as part payment 
in a slave trade; but for the present 
these articles are part of a special ex- 
hibit arranged in commemoration of 
the demise of Old John Barleycorn. 

Near the table is a cheese-press which 
is unusually complete after having been 
unused and knocked about for a gen- 
eration or two. Not only are the main 
parts intact, but also the hoop, the 
cheese-ladder, the cheese-basket, and 
even as ephemeral an article as the 
curd-knife. A tall wooden candlestick, 
with sockets for two candles, stands on 
the floor and is elevated or lowered 
by means of a screw device — doubtless 
the invention of some ingenious Yan- 



kee cobbler who sought to work longer 
hours before the days of daylight 



A COLONIAL BED 

Probably next in interest to the fire- 
place and the things associated there- 
with is the other end of the room, a 
reminder of the bedroom-living-room 
of colonial days. The four-poster bed 
is held together by ropes, which also 
take the place of the slats of more 
modern beds. The wooden bed-wrench 
and peg for tightening the ropes are 
fortunately preserved. The tick of the 
straw-bed is hand-spun and woven, as 
are also the linen pillow-slips. One 
of the quilts, notched at the corners to 
fit around the bed-posts, hangs down on 
all sides so as to form a sort of balance. 
Another quilt is of patchwork of the 




A CORNER IN THE COLONIAL KITCHEN, COMPLETE WITHOUT MODERN 
CONTRIVANCES 



Tin Working Mrs hum Vi>r w.i/.iv, Hi>toky 



35 



<e Wheel" pattern, and was made, by a 
bride of 1826 as a part of her wedding 
outfit. The coverlet is only about two 
generations old, but it was hand-spun 
and woven in patterns of different col- 
ors. The old-time cricket, seen in the 
photograph, formerly served as a 
mounting-block to aid in getting into 
the mountainous bed. A trundle bed, 
to stow away under the big bed, is in 
the neighboring community and awaits 
our going after it. 

The trunk at the foot of the bed 
is covered with deer-skin, with the hair 
left on, and is studded with brass- 
headed nails. In appearance it is 
almost a duplicate of the one that 
stands at the foot of Washington's bed 
at Mount Vernon. On an old, braided 
oval rug stands a rocking-cradle of the 
hooded type, about two hundred years 
old. There are two rush-seated chairs 
which were part of a set given as a 
wedding present in 1785. and a little 
straight-backed rocker which was once 
splint-bottomed, but since has been 
cushioned and covered with a patch- 
work of the log-cabin pattern. A fine 
old grandfather's clock stands between 
two windows, and an ancient mirror 
with a tarnished gilt frame hangs upon 
the wall beside a faded sampler. 

Other things in our Museum will 
ultimately go into the Colonial Room, 
but enough has been told to serve the 
purpose of this article. 

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 

Now comes the individual who de- 
scribes himself as a "practical person," 
saving, "Oh, all that may he very inter- 
esting, you may be able to secure and 
assemble such a collection, but it must 
be remembered that you have a vigor- 
ous institution and a great state back of 



you. Most teachers of history have no 
such advantages." 

The fact is that the institution and 
the state have not been back of us at 
all. Both have been interested and 
both have been willing, but we have 
deliberately sought to develop our 
Museum of History without cost. Fur- 
thermore, we have had no exceptional 
opportunities for acquiring material 
except in the case of a rather extensive 
Chinese collection which figures else- 
where in our Museum. Things similar 
to those we have described as in the 
Colonial Boom, any teacher can obtain 
without money and without price. It 
is the absolute truth that what we have 
clone anyone can do. 

Again, our "practical" friend puts 
in : "Surely the institution has pro- 
vided you rooms and cases." This 
statement is true only to a limited de- 
gree. When the Museum was started, 
eight years ago, we were given a small 
room about fifteen feet square and the 
privilege of using the sides of the cor- 
ridors in the vicinity of the department 
of history. The school carpenter built 
wall-cases on two sides of the room. 
Considerably later a second room of 
the same size as the first was added 
and two more wall-cases were built. In 
addition we obtained tables and a num- 
ber of counter-cases from interested 
friends, and the institution purchased 
some cases second-hand. It was not 
until two years ago that the vacated 
recitation room made possible the two 
special rooms referred to before in this 
article. We feel amply warranted in 
declaring that in almost any situation, 
when one has started the gathering of 
historical material and justified the 
collection by real use, the authorities 
or interested friends can alwavs be de- 



26 



Visual Education 






*j£fa 




BEDROOM 



pencled upon to provide housing space 
and means for caring for the collection. 

It is not necessary to have a separate 
historical room in order to give expres- 
sion to such an idea as the colonial 
muse\un. The sides of a corridor, or a 
corner in a large room, afford oppor- 
tunity to bring into relationship objects 
that were naturally associated in the 
olden times. For six years we suc- 
ceeded fairly well in creating a colonial 
atmosphere under just such limiting 
circumstances. 

The "practical" individual still per- 
sists: "You cannot deny that, in rural 
and village communities,- especially in 
the newer parts of the country, the 
amount of available historical material 
is so meager as to be negligible." Yet, 
even granting the paucity of material 
to be as stated, just a few articles would 



be worth-while. Even one is better than 
none. The school that can afford only 
a single microscope considers itself 
much better equipped for the study of 
biology than the school with none; the 
school with only a half-dozen chemicals 
and a few articles, of equipment has 
made a praiseworthy start toward a 
chemical laboratory. But, as a matter 
of fact, Ave know personally of numer- 
ous tiny communities in which live 
teachers have in a short time collected 
hundreds of articles that have proved 
of immense value in the teaching of 
history. 

Then comes one who assumes to "take 
the joy out of life," saying : "Yes, yes : 
you are interested in a museum and 
you keep it going. But one will come 
after you who will not be interested. 
(Concluded on page 62) 



VISUALIZING MYTHOLOGY 



Grace Partr 

University of Iowa, 

BREATH ES there a moving pic- 
ture director with soul so dead 
who would not thrill to a new- 
idea for the screen? Is there one who 
has not lamented loudly and miserably 
that the thirty-six dramatic situations 
and all the plots in all the books of all 
the countries in all the world are ex- 
hausted?. It will not help that time 
and space are annihilated in the work- 
shop of the motion picture; that in 
Screendom impossibilities become pos- 
sible: that expense is a minor consid- 
eration. The idea alone is the thing. 
The idea-hungry director has not fat- 
to look, however, for a gold mine — 
no farther than his own library — for 
there are possibilities unlimited in the 
stories of Greek mythology. Properly 
filmed, these myths would equal, if not 
surpass, any film dramas yet presented. 
Don't you think you would go to see 
"The Fall of Troy," "The Judgment 
of Paris," or "Demeter's Daughter"? 
There can be no doubt of the "interest" 
qualities of such stories, if filmed with 
dignity and faithfulness of detail — 
which bar out Achilles in "trunks," 
Aphrodite disporting wrist watch or 
ear puffs, or Odysseus with B. V. D."s. 
It may be that such little inconsisten- 
cies are forgivable in "art," since they 
seem fated to occur even in the best- 
regulated movies, but Ave do not want 
them in our educational films. 

THE CHARM OF VISUALIZED MYTHS 

Stories of the gods and heroes of 
ancient Greece are especially fascinat- 
ing to children and, for that matter, 
to us all. How much more delightful, 



DGE bM I 'I'll 
Iowa City, towa 

however, for a child to '"visualize*' these 
classic legends than to pore over a 
book ! If a plan to screen mythological 
tales were perfected, it is certain the 

theatres showing such pictures would 
attract the children; and there is an 
accredited advertising axiom to the 
effect that if you get the juniors the 
parents will come too. 

There is no need, however, of our 
seeking any excuse to entertain our- 
selves with these fanciful creations of 
the imaginative Greek people. In the 
all too strict commercialism of this 
present day, we need the refining' touch 
of their ideals of beauty; we need the 
simplicity and directness for which 
they stand. Part of the educational 
value to the child would be their in- 
fluence in shaping his standard of art 
and heightening his aesthetic sense. 

As a source of pure entertainment 
also, these tales cannot be surpassed. 
They have stood the test for three 
thousand years; they have entertained 
kings and commoners and have been 
embodied in the best of the world's 
best literature. Shall the screen dis- 
dain them? 

"demeter" myth as a type 

A myth that at once suggests itself 
as effective material for screen produc- 
tion is the Demeter myth. This is one 
of the most appealing in the whole 
theogony, based as it is on certain 
elemental principles in Greek life. The 
story is dignified and full of incidents 
that stir the imagination. Besides, 
there is throughout opportunity in 
plenty for those magical "effects" and 



•37 



28 



Visual Education 



transformations that prove 
so thrilling in filmed fairy 
tales. The theme, dealing 
with mother love, yearning, 
renunciation, fruitful- 
ness, the joy of giving and 
the mystery of life, will en- 
list the full sympathy of all. 

Hawthorne has given us 
a delightful, slightly modern 
recast of this story in the 
"Pomegranate Seeds'' of his 
"Tanglewood Tales." Other 
versions are given in 
"Classic .Myths Retold for 
Children" and in various 
Greek authors. The Hom- 
eric Hymn to Demeter is 
especially recommended. 

The myth divides itself 
naturally into five parts — 
corresponding, shall we say, 
to a five-act drama. Analysis 
of the outline proposed will 
show that interest is sus- 
pended until the very close: 
that action "ascends" until the middle 
of the fourth act, when the crisis is 
reached and the "descending" action 
begins. The scenario writer might 
block out the act as follows : 

Act I. Eape of Persephone. 

Act II. Wanderings of Demeter. 

Act III. Council of Olympians. 

Act IV. Journey to Eleusis. 

Act V. Restoration of Persephone. 

No fairy tale calls for anything in 
the way of backgrounds that could sur- 
pass the setting possible for the open- 
ing scene of this myth, in which the 
King of Hades spirits away the "long- 
ankled" daughter of Demeter. The 
Homeric Hymn tells us that this fair 
damsel was "sporting with the deep- 
bosomed daughters of Ocean, and gath- 
ering flowers on the lush mead — the 




RAPE OP PERSEPHONE (PROSERPINA) BY HADES 
(PLUTO) 
Prom the painting by Schobelt. 

rose, the crocus, the iris, the beautiful 
violet, and the hyacinth, the narcissus, 
too. The maiden in wonder stretched 
out her hands, the twain together, to 
seize the beauteous treasure." Then 
Hades rises, straight through the yawn- 
ing chasm, and bears Persephone away 
in his chariot to the halls of his under- 
world palace. 

The wanderings of Demeter to the 
haunts of mortals would give occasion 
for richly set scenes in famous cities 
of Greece. Against lovely pastoral and 
marine settings her frenzied search 
among tillers of the soil and among 
mariners and shore-dwellers would be 
staged. Not only Greece, but the whole 
earth, mourned with Demeter and hu- 
man-interest features for these scenes 
of the drama suggest themselves in 
almost unlimited number. 



Visualizing Mythology 



2 9 



Much could be made of the Olym- 
pian deities, even after the opening 
Council scene from which Demeter 
withdraws in anger. Demeter's jour- 
ney to Eleusis and her treatment of 
the king's sick son provides a startling 
episode, particularly where the nurse 
cradles the royal infant in the fire on 
the hearth in order to make him "age- 
less and deathless." 

In the meantime, Persephone is lan- 
guishing on her throne in the under- 
world beside her lord Hades — Pluto, 
the Latins called him. Here 
the riches that are hidden 
in the earth suggest a scene 
of dazzling splendor. Cere- 
bus, the faithful three- 
headed guardian of the 
palace, is sure to prove a 
favorite with the children. 

The conditional restora- 
tion of Persephone to her 
mother's arms conclude the 
story. 

RESEARCH AND STUDY 
INVOLVED 

The filming of this lovely 
legend, as well as other 
stories of Greek mythology, 
would demand a close and 
discerning stud y of the 
works of Greek literature, 
notably Homer and Hesiod, 
whose pictures of the Olym- 
pians the Greeks accepted 
as final even though they 
were modified from time to 
time by later writers. The 
dwellers on Olympus were but the reflex 
of Greek character and thought — a part 
of their everyday life and experience. 

The director would need to study 
each character with the thought of 
bringing out its background of motiva- 



tion. Every one of these creatures of 
ancient fancy stood for some idea ; 
sometimes an abstract idea, sometimes 
an explanation, in terms of mythology, 
of the wonders of life and nature. Be- 
hind Demeter's maturity of form, corn- 
colored hair, and sheaf of grain was the 
idea of mother-love and fruitfulness. 
Zeus was not reverenced alone for his 
majestic figure, crowned with "hya- 
cinthine locks," nor for the fear his 
thunderbolts inspired, but for a deeper 
reason. He was thought of as the Pro- 




RETURN OF PERSEPHONE. HERMES BRINGS HER 
BACK TO HER MOTHER, DEMETER 

From the painting by Lord Leighton. 

tector, not only of vegetation but of 
the state, and as the essential genius 
of the family. 

With the study of character there 
must be a study of symbols. This was 
(Concluded on page 58.) 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



AMONG the great achievements 
of the cinema must be reckoned 
the breaking down of the bar- 
riers of prejudice, condemnation and 
indifference that have hitherto pre- 
vented authors of repute from contrib- 
uting to .the screen. When such men 
as Sir Gilbert Parker, Sir James Barrie 
and Arnold Bennett not only advocate 
the use of motion pictures but also 
seriously study their technique for the 
purpose of writing scenarios, it may be 
seen plainly that times are changing 
and that the cinema is entering into its 
literary heritage. 

Sir Gilbert Parker, writing ardently 
in "Vanity Fair" in support of the 
movies, calls the film "the irresistible 
thing" because it has come to stay. 
The rapid growth of the film industry 
and the grip that 'it has obtained upon 
the public is the marvel of the age. The 
eminent British author feels that since 
the moving picture is a permanent and 
vital factor of vast significance in the 
lives of countless numbers, the thing to 
do is not merely to tolerate it but to 
elevate it to a high plane of art. A 
good drama may influence thousands; 
a good photoplay reaches millions and 
is circulated in villages and towns 
where there are no theaters and "the 
play is" never "the thing." 

As he effectively says: "Every art 
has its degrading tendencies or com- 
monplace manifestations and all of 
them are many centuries older than 
the screen which has just begun." No 
one condemns music because of cheap 
ragtime, Why then should the motion 
picture as an institution be condemned 
because some directors have not sensed 



the possibilities of the scenes being 
molded beneath their hands. "If the 
same class of intellect gives to the 
screen, in the way of critical attention, 
what it gives to the best book or play 
the screen will rise to great heights." 

Sir Parker lines himself up with 
progressive educators in feeling that 
the cinema is the most effective medium 
yet found for transmitting information' 
on geography, modern history, machin- 
ery, science, manners, etc. He would 
put a film theater in every school of 
every village in the English-Speaking 
world, for what is learned by the eye 
is never forgotten. 

A rather striking argument that he 
makes for the moving picture and one 
that would not greatly appeal to an 
American laboring under the eighteenth 
amendment, is that the cinema is the 
greatest agent for temperance in the 
world. The average English working 
man goes to the public house for enter- 
tainment and to avoid the congestion of 
his small crowded home. The social 
improvement of many English villages 
has proved the cinema to be an ade- 
quate substitute for the saloon. 

The value of the motion picture in 
industry is too universally assured to 
admit of debate. Sir Gilbert empha- 
sizes, however, the fact that the film 
is helping to solve the problem between 
the two great classes of society, the in- 
tellectual, inventing, originating class 
and the intelligent, producing class. 

It is entirely natural for the author 
of such historical novels as "Seats of 
the Mighty" and "The Eight of Way" 
to feel that the refusal of the American 
director to film historical drama is 



30 



LLANEOTJS NOTES 



31 



based upon a wrong interpretation of 
the attitude of the public toward cos- 
tume plays. The pasl is infinitely rich 

iu material for picturesque, romantic 
drama and the time is at hand when 
that fact will be realized. It ma bi 
that the war will help in the realization 
thai the present slips into the past even 
with the thought and that the future 
will be nothing without understanding 
of what has gone before. 

In concluding, Sir Parker says : "The 
him is international. It is more wide- 
spread and effective than music, sculp- 
ture and painting, for its masterpieces 
can be seen in every corner of the 
world." 

• • • 

UXTIL just recently a moving- 
picture scenario has been con- 
sidered much in the light of a 
diagram, necessary in charting out and 
directing the course of a photo-drama 
but entirely inconsequential in itself. 
The extraordinary development of the 
motion picture is responsible, however, 
for a changing attitude. It is now 
recognized that there is a technique of 
writing, peculiar to the motion picture 
scenario, a technique that has to be 
studied to be mastered. Further im- 
provement of the form of the scenario 
now brings us to the point where 
scenarios will be published in literary 
form even as are plays and novels. 
Thus the inundation of the literarv 
field by the cinema touches a still 
liigher mark. 

Europe has furnished the first 
"literary scenario." Jules Eomains, 
creator of the Unanimist school of lit- 
erature, has just published a written 
film of romantic adventure called 
"Donogoo-Tonka." This prodtiction is 
a light satire, however, and has not the 



earnestness of "Die Pest" of Walter 
Basenclever, a young German dram- 
atist, who believes wholeheartedly that 
the film is a mo-i powerful agent in 

bringing the | pie of various nations 

together. The differences between these 
two "art-movies" are marked. In 
"Donogoo-Tonka'" the text and panto- 
mime are intermingled; in "Die Pest" 
all the details of presentation are left to 
the director. There is never a bit of 
dialogue or spoken remark ; the epi- 
sodes are indicated in a single line; 
the scenario is a rhythmic sketch. 

Those familiar with the haunting, 
mysterious beauty of the "Masque of 
the Eed Death'" will be interested in 
knowing that "Die Pest" strongly re- 
sembles this tale of Poe's. "It is a 
ghastly reverie'' on the end of the 
world, but its seriousness and intense- 
ness prevent it from having the almost 
unearthly delicacy that characterizes 
.Poe's works. Its chief significance lies 
in the fact that it is a beginning, an 
attempt to create a new field for liter- 
ary effort. 

The story as outlined in Cur rent 
Opinion- is simple. 

(We quote literally.) "In the year 
2000 the world has become like a para- 
dise. Universal peace and plenty. But 
the world must perish. First act : The 
black pest, spread by rats, is discovered 
aboard a transatlantic liner, attacking 
the crew and the passengers of every 
class. Second, act : The pest, spread 
by a dancer whose gowns have been in- 
fected by the rats, spreads now among 
the audience in a theater in a seaport, 
and thence into the great capital where 
the dancing girl has sought refuge. 
The country is in a state of siege. Great 
alarm on the Exchange. The evil 
spreads into the low countries and de- 
populates the villages. One child alone 



32 



Visual Education 



escapes this horrible death. Third act : 
The pest continues to spread. A scien- 
tist at last discovers a serum. A 
banker buys from him the rights of 
exploitation. Bevealed to himself 'by 
the mysteriously spared child, a stu- 
dent makes himself the apostle of the 
war against the pest. Fourth act : The 
epidemic continues to spread. Every- 
thing is stricken. The inventor and 
his backer continue to work. But an 
accident happens at the very moment 
the scientist is about to apply his rem- 
edy to the stricken. He infects him- 
self and falls. Insane panic. Fifth 
act: Deserted villages, the last living 
beings have gone mad. The banker 
and the dancer escape into a castle 
where Death awaits them and their 
guests. The castle is burnt down, and 
the film ends with an immense dance 
of the dead." 

• • • 

THE following abstract is taken 
from the New York Times of 
October 25, 1920 : 

"The use of motion pictures in 
schools as an aid to instruction is 
steadily increasing in popularity 
throughout the United States, accord- 
ing to an investigation recently made 
by the Bureau of Education. Out of 
5,500 elementary schools and 4,500 in- 
stitutions of high grade, covered by the 
investigators, it was found that 6,400 
schools in the country are equipped 
with machines for projecting motion 
pictures, and of these 3,720 are ele- 
mentary schools and 2,600 are high 
schools, normal schools, colleges, etc. 

"Of the 10,000 schools included in the 
investigation, 1,000 have standard size 
projection machines, 484 have made or 
will make arrangements to install ma- 
chines immediately, and 2,025 schools 
have arranged to show the pupils edu- 



cational films outside the school build- 
ings. Of the latter group, 62 per cent 
use theaters, 30 per cent use city, com- 
munity or club halls, and 8 per cent use 
churches. Of the remaining 6,491 
schools, which have no projection ma- 
chines, 67 per cent have electricity and 
have halls with an average seating ca- 
pacity of more than 300 each, suitable 
for the exhibition of films. Twenty- 
five per cent of the schools do not have 
electricity in or near the school build- 
ings, although facilities for exhibiting 
motion pictures could be arranged. 
Eight per cent of the schools could 
obtain electricity near the school 
buildings. 

"A summary of the information re- 
ceived from the 1,000 schools which 
have installed projection machines as 
to the sources of available funds for 
securing the films, shows that money 
is received as follows : Twenty-five per . 
cent is raised by subscriptions among 
the pupils, 20 per cent is raised by 
charging admission to community 
gatherings, 10 per cent is appropriated 
by the state, the county, the city, or 
the School Board, 18 per cent is de- 
rived from the various private school 
funds, 17 per cent is received from mis- 
cellaneous associations, school improve- 
ment associations, entertainments, etc., 
and 7 per cent is received from personal 
contributions. 

"Commercial film companies and ex- 
changes furnish films to 55 per cent 
of the schools which show pictures. 
Thirty-three per cent receive films 
from Government departments and 
altruistic organizations and 9 per cent 
from industrial manufacturing con- 
cerns. A large percentage of the 
schools receive films from more than 
one source." 



M [Sl BLLANEOUS NOTES 



33 



From "the Inner Movie," Current 
Opinion : 

BE respectful to your imagination, 
for it is one of the powerful forces 
that mould your character and con- 
trol your destiny. The images your 
imagination creates, the visions of the 
future that dwell with you continually 
must of necessity influence you, and in- 
fluences are the stonemasons of character. 

Your imagination produces vivid, ro- 
mantic dramas — with you as featured 
player — that show the gratification of 
your desires, wise or otherwise. If you 
screen for yourself intimate pictures of 
failures and disillusions, very likely you 
will he the one and have the other. If 
your internal moving pictures, however, 
register a successful, optimistic person in- 
action, ten to one that is what you 
will be. 

Censor your own productions; cut out 
those reels which lower your self-esteem; 
give extra footage to scenes of cheerful- 
ness and prosperity. Learn to do your 
own booking; don't let wrong habits and 
degenerate inclination dictate to you th* 3 
dramas that are to be run by that licensed 
union operator, imagination. 



INTERESTING evidence on actual 
workings of visual instruction in 
France appears in an article by Mon- 
sieur Boysy-von-Dorsenne in the Paris 
Magazine for June 10, 1920. It is entitled 
"Le Cinema dans les Ecoles," with the 
sub-title, "An educator of which the 'Be- 
fore-war period' did not dream and 
which the 'After-war period' does not 
sufficiently encourage." 

I am a frequent visitor, says the writer 
at the film lessons conducted by M. Col- 
lette at the school for boys in the Rue 
Etienne-Marcel. I am giving a modern 
touch to my education and, although I 
am far less quick in observation than my 
young comrades of 8 to 12 years, I am 
enriching my mind with "things seen," 
and thereby filling the gaps which have 
always existed in my real knowledge. 

When the professor had given a few ex- 
planations about rice culture, with black- 



board drawings, the cinema "spoke," if I 
may use the term. 

On the screen a Jap, knee-deep in a rice 
field, was cutting rice, a handful at a 
time, and laying it on a rack beside him. 
The picture lasted three or four minutes, 
sometimes moving slowly, sometimes re- 
maining entirely still. Then the lights 
were turned on and M. Collette put the 
customary question: 

"What have you seen in this picture?" 

Instantly a score of hands were raised. 
The answers came one at a time, as the 
teacher indicated. 

"He cuts the rice with a sickle — with 
the very end of the sickle — he is buried 
to the knees — he cuts the rice without 
taking a step for it would be too tiresome 
to lift his feet at each stroke — he lifts up 
the heads of the grain with the back of 
the sickle — this is so the grains will not 
be dragged in the mud — the rack is an 
overturned basket — he binds the sheaf 
with a — a — a thing." 

"A thing? What thing?" 

"A thing of twisted straw, Monsieur." 

"I know, Monsieur, it's a 'band,' " vol- 
unteers a young sage. 

Then followed the processes in the 
preparation of the rice for market, husk- 
ing and winnowing. The picture showing 
a Jap using a fan to separate the grain 
from the chaff made a pronounced "hit" 
with the children. "That raises a lot of 
wind," said one pupil, "all the leaves are 
waving near him; further off they are 
motionless." 

I had not noticed that point myself and 
said so to M. Collette. He replied, "Oh, 
they notice about everything. Last Mon- 
day, when I was showing them a lantern 
slide, — a still picture of the Valentre 
bridge at Cahors, — I asked them in which 
direction the river was flowing. Notice, 
now, that the picture was not moving and 
consequently they could not see the cur- 
rent." 

"It flows from left to right," said one, 
"because the pier of the bridge is sharp- 

( Continued on page 57) 



WHAT SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS 

THINK 



VISUAL instruction has secured a Arm 
footing in the program of the progres- 
sive school today. 

John H. Phillips 
Birmingham, Alabama 



THE possibilities seem to be unlimited 
for work in this field. 



Lee Byrne 
Fort Smith, Arkansas 



WHAT new improved tools and ma- 
chinery are to industry, is visual 
instruction to education. I believe in it. 
Ira C. Landis 
Riverside, California. 



VISUAL instruction has a large place 
jn education and I believe in the near 
future it will become an established 
method. 

(Mrs.) Elizabeth Hinton 
Grand Junction Mineral, Colorado 



work of the text. When people realize 
that as much can be learned from a pic- 
ture in an hour as from the printed page 
in a month, they will not be slow to uti- 
lize the picture. 

G. G. Bond 
Athens, Georgia, 



THERE is no doubt in my mind that 
visual instruction which supplements 
the other forms of instruction will prove 
a most valuable aid in the work of the 
schools. 

G. P. Randle 
Danville, Illinois 



IN my opinion visual instruction by 
the methods suggested in your letter 
has a very important place in the public 
school work of today and no school or- 
ganization is thoroughly equipped should 
it be short along this particular line. 
E. J. Bodwell 
Ames, Iowa 



VISUAL Education has a most vital 
place in our modern educational sys- 
tem. It creates added interest and fixes 
knowledge. 

E. C. Fisher 
Rock Island, Illinois 



THERE is no educator today who does 
not see the great advantage of visual 
education. It affords one of the quickest 
and clearest mediums, of instruction. It 
has come to stay. 

S. 0. Weldey 
Hanford, California 



THE moving picture will be an indis- 
pensable feature of the school work 
of the future. Regular courses will be 
made out for work in Geography and 
History. These courses will parallel the 



I AM convinced that visual instruction 
by means of the materials you mention 
is of vital importance in the education of 
our young people. Boys and girls in our 
schools are deluged with words, words, 
words, mostly meaningless to them. 
Frank Smart 
Davenport, Iowa 



VISUAL Education will afford a new 
channel of progress in education. 
Nature's original way is to become the 
new pedagogical method. The natural 
method of presenting subject matter to 
the mind of the learner is through visual 
means. The open-minded teacher certainly 
welcomes everything new in visual edu- 
cation. 

M. E. Pearson 
Kansas City, Kansas 



34 



W'jiat School Superintendents Think 



35 



<<QEEING is believing." Sight memory 
O is lasting. Visualized subjects are 
more accurately acquired and more 
readily retained. Every schoolroom should 
be equipped with apparatus for visual- 
izing every possible subject. 

T. C. Cherry 
Bowling Green, Kentucky 



AFTER considerable investigation, ex- 
perience and observation, this is to 
endorse without qualification the at- 
tempt to teach all the school children 
very largely by the use of vision, by the 
consistent and systematic use of the 
stereograph, the moving picture, and 
other means whereby pupils may receive 
knowledge through the sense of sight. 
W. J. Avery 
Alexandria, Louisiana 



VISUAL Education will become a 
more and more important factor in 
education. The modern school plant will 
be equipped for visual instruction. Ap- 
paratus and materials necessary for 
visual instruction will be supplied to 
every well equipped school. 

Harvey Cruver 
Worcester, Massachusetts 



THERE is no doubt of the great value 
of visual instruction in the education 
of pupils in the public schools. The 
great difficulty thus far has been that the 
material was not properly selected and 
organized in such a way as to correlate 
with other instruction given. When such 
is provided and properly organized, visual 
instruction in my judgment will take its 
place as one of the most efficient means 
for public education. 

Ira Cammack 
Kansas City. Missouri 



MUCH has been said in the past few 
years relative to changing the school 
curriculum to meet the changed condi- 
tions. I believe visual education is one 
change that will make it possible for us 
to meet the changed conditions. It will 



cost money, but visual education will 
certainly prove to be a saving of time 
and money through greater efficiency. 
-/. -1/. Bickley 
Clovis, New Mexico 



I HAVE no hesitation in saying that, 
in my opinion, visual instruction, 
wisely directed, so as to blend amusement 
and instruction in proper proportions, 
holds a very important and a very valu- 
able place in the mental and moral train- 
ing of youth, especially of those who are 
strongly eye-minded in their mental 
operations. 

James S. Cooley 
Mineola, New York 



THAT which enters through the eye 
"sticks." Visualize is to vividize. 
Smith Hagaman 
Vilas. North Carolina 



A LITTLE experimenting with stereo- 
scopes, slides and films has demon- 
strated the tremendous advantages and 
possibilities in visual education. One of 
our Normal school teachers is specializ- 
ing in training teachers in the use of 
such material. 

Schools in general have made only a 
beginning in it and few fully realize its 
many advantages. Visual education 
makes for greater clearness, definiteness, 
certainty, and effectiveness of informa- 
tion. It has . unlimited possibilities in 
the school room. 

Marie Gugle 
Columbus. Ohio 



IN my opinion the value of visual in- 
struction can scarcely be over esti- 
mated. The best teachers have . always 
been ready to help illustrate the point 
with a sketch or diagram at the black- 
board. All such teachers rejoice to have 
placed at their service the pictures, slides 
etc., of an educational nature and the 
happiness of the children exceeds that of 
the teachers. 

J. A. Jackson 
Clarksburg, West Virginia 



A DEPARTMENT OF BEGINNINGS 

This department is intended as a clearing house through which the schools 
which have already made a beginning — however modest — toward visual instruction, 
may pass on their experience for the benefit of others. 

If you have made a start in this direction, it is because you believe in visual 
methods. If you believe in visual methods, you will be glad to encourage others 
to take the forward step. Therefore, send us an account — a few lines or several 
paragraphs — of your efforts, your experiments, difficulties and successes. 



//r-piHERE should be projection ap- 
paratus in every school building, 
-*- both for slides and motion pic- 
tures. In the Champaign public schools, 
an excellent motion picture equipment is 
installed in the high school auditorium 
seating a thousand persons and its cost 
of about $700 has been paid and a re- 
serve fund of $260 accumulated in four 
years, without any cost to the district 
except for the electric current used. In 
one only of the nine elementary schools 
has a smaller machine been installed, this 
also without cost to the district, except 
the expense of cutting a wall and setting 
accordion doors between two rooms to 
provide a hall and projection distance. 

"In addition to the geographical, scien- 
tific, historical, and literary information 
that can be given through the open eye 
by the use of such equipment, an 
auxiliary value is found in the oppor- 
tunity for training of children in proper 
decorum in assembly, regard for the 
rights of others, etc. 

"The use of stereoscopic views is 
another of the most valuable means of 
bringing clear information to the mind 
by the eye route. These views approach 
reality far more closely than any other 
form of picture. Of these, four buildings 
in Champaign possess full sets, these also 
having been acquired without expense to 
the public treasury. 

"If any individual or parent-teachers' 
association or other club can be found to 
invest in or guarantee the original cost 
of such equipment, good entertainments, 
giving more truly educational pictures 
than the commercial theaters and at 
nominal prices, can be made to pay the 
whole expense with no loss to anyone 



and profit to the children and the com- 
munity." 

W. W. Earnest, 
Supt. of Schools, 
Champaign, III. 



"W 



E have been using motion pic- 
tures in our school for the 
past year and believe that the 
results are good. Our pictures come once 
a week, Wednesday afternoon and eve- 
ning. They are shown in the auditorium 
of the high school at a cost which just 
covers expenses. We usually run a series 
of ten pictures and then skip a week or 
so before we begin a new series. We are 
making use of the Ford Educational Pic- 
tures in addition to the regular film. 
Just at present we are running a series 
of Edison pictures. Our chief difficulty 
has been to secure films which are sat- 
isfactory to young people. It has been 
our aim to put before the students pic- 
tures of a high class nature so that they 
will be able to distinguish the better 
pictures from the cheaper ones. The 
number of people, both children and 
adults, who view these pictures leads us 
to believe that the better class of pictures 
are more desirable than the poorer ones. 
We charge five cents admission to each 
performance and have on the average of 
about eight hundred who see the picture. 
Ernest J. Reed, 
Principal, Senior High School 
Adrian, Michigan 



a. -i 



I OUR years ago, I became in- 
terested in the equipment of 
Underwood and Underwood 
called 'The World Visualized for the 
Classroom,' which is an organized body 
of illustrative material of school subjects 
arranged in a most convenient and prac- 



:}(> 



Department of Beginnings 



37 



tical way. The type plan is used, making 
it possible to illustrate a great variety 
of topics, and to develop in the child a 
direct connection with the actualities of 
the earth and the multitude of activities 
of man as related to it. 

"We placed the entire equipment of 
stereoscopes and stereographs in the 
school. The Teacher's Manual, edited by 
Professor F. M. McMurry of Teachers' 
College, was a most helpful instrument 
in the preparation of single lessons and 
of series of lessons planned according to 
the Herbartian method, both in type and 
in project form. The equipment is of 
untold value and is in constant use. The 
great interest in the stereographs con- 
tinues unabated, because they present the 
facts so clearly and impressively through 
individual and intensive study of the 
picture. * * * 

"I am enclosing you sample project 
lessons which are for use with the 
'World Visualized' equipment, and which 
have been employed quite successfully 
by the teachers of the grades. This is 
the kind of lesson plan used in most 
classrooms here in the school, and I am 
sure that with the added value of the 
motion picture results will be obtained 
that will be of immeasurable good. 

"I thought you might be interested in 

them as showing that we mean to take 

advantage of all illustrative material." 

DOGS 

(For Second Year Students) 

Aim : 

To teach the kindly friendliness of dogs, 
and their care by man. 
Preparation and Presentation: 

1. Dogs owned by children : 

Collie. 

Terrier. 

French Poodle. 

Greyhound. 

Bulldog. 

Spaniel. 

2. Duties : 

Carrying mail. 
Tending sheep. 
Drawing loads. 
Watching houses. 

3. Appearance : 
(a) Head. 

Size. 
Eyes. 
Ears. 
Nose. 



(b) Body. 
Size. 
Coat. 

a. Shaggy 

b. Smooth. 

(c) Feet. 

1. Number. 

Number of toes on back feet. 
Number of toes on front feet. 

2. Method of walking. 



Pet dog of an old soldier. 
A little girl and her faithful dog. 
A dog of the Far North. 
Esquimaux sledge dogs. 
After a hard run with the pack. 
The little dog in Norway. 
A dog in Lapland. 

A dog drawing milk cart in Holland. 
Dutch dog team. 

"World-famed monastery and dogs at Great 
St. Bernard Pass. 

Application: 

a. How we should treat dogs : 

Kindly. 

Gently. 

b. Result of good treatment : 

Watch dogs. 

Helpers. 

Friends. 

A TRIP BY WATER AND LAND 
(For Fourth Year Students) 
Aim: 

A review showing — 
Great Markets — people, natural resources, oc- 
cupations, transportation by water in tak- 
ing a trip from Philadelphia to Minneap- 
olis. 

Preparation: 

Map of United States, showing — 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, New York, 
Mississippi Valley, Mississippi River, 
New Orleans, St. Louis, St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis. 

Clothing needed for climatic changes, as 
shown in stereographs on Philadelphia, 
Blossoms, Florida, Palm Beach. 

Presentation: 

1. Trip to New Orleans — 

(a) By rail from Philadelphia to New 
York, then 

Stereographs : 
Ferries. 
Steamship. 
Statue. 
Harbor. 

(b) To sea: 

Looking back at New York. 
Bridge. 
Warcraft. 
(Concluded on page 70) 



THE FILM FIELD 

SOME months ago, in response to numerous inquiries from schools having 
projectors which stood idle much of the time for lack of usable material, 
Visual Education undertook to supply information which would enable 
such schools to get satisfactory programs as needed. This information has been 
found valuable by many schools, and the department will, therefore, be continued. 
The number of "educational films" produced by the professional motion- 
picture companies is increasing, and the quality is steadily improving, We shall 
list fifty to one hundred each month. Any exchange or producer listed in this 
department will gladly send full information on their service in general or on 
any particular film. 

In general, films should be viewed by qualified judges before shown to 
school children. 

HOW TO USE THESE LISTS 

Select titles which interest you from the List of Films. 
Note the bracketed name or names following the title. 

The names printed in Italics are Exchanges; address of the branch 
nearest you will be found in the Eeference List of Commercial 
Film Exchanges (beginning on page 41). 
The names printed in Eoman are Producers; address will be found 
under Eeference List of Producers (page 56). 
Always write to the Exchange when given — otherwise to the Pro- 
ducer FOR FULL INFORMATION, MENTIONING VlSUAL EDUCATION. 

LIST OF FILMS 

(In offering these selections, Visual Education in no way guarantees the value 
or suitability of the Alms. This can be done only when we have personally viewed 
the picture. The list represents merely the most careful choice possible to make 
from data given out by the producing companies. Only the films reviewed by our 
staff under the department "Films Viewed and Reviewed" should be considered as 
having Visual Education's recommendation, qualified or unqualified, as the case 
may be.) 

All entries are 1 reel (1,000 ft.) in length unless otherwise specified. 

TRAVELOGUES AND SCENICS place in his oriental scenes for atmosphere 

THE PASIG RIVER. (Burton Holmes) An interesting picture! 

(Famous Players-Lasky) What the Thames PARIS FROM THE SKY. (Educ. Films 

is to London, the Pasig River is to Manila. Corp.) Eiffel Tower, the Place Vendome, the 

a stream of beautiful shores for recreation Cathedral of Notre Dame, are among the 

and commercial enterprise. places glimpsed from the clouds. The reel is 

VISITING THE SULTAN OF SULU. s P nt : the last P art Portraying many kinds 

(Burton Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) of birds. 

That the Sultan of Sulu is real and not TOURING THE MISSIONS OF CALIFOR- 

merely a comic-opera figure is proved be- NIA. (Educ. Films Corp.) One-half reel, 

yond a doubt in this very unusual and in- Showing the Catholic missions of the Golden 

teresting reel. State lying from north to south along the 

THE REAL STREETS OF CAIRO. (Bur- E1 Camino Riel of historical significance, 

ton Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) The OUR EGYPT OF THE SOUTHWEST, 

real streets of Cairo are ways thronged with (Educ. Films Corp.) A picture made by 

merchants and camels and devotees and Newman, showing how the Hopi, Taos and 

veiled women and everything else that a Navajo Indians fill the days in the process 

motion picture director is always certain to of what they call living. 

. 38 



The Film Field 



39 



SEVEN LEAGUE BOOTS. (Chester Out- 
ing) (Educ. Films Corp., Winter sports 
in Switzerland furnish the material for this 
reel. . Although the views presented have 
been frequently photographed, their beauty 
and interest are sufficient to make them al- 
ways welcome to picture audiences. 

IN AND OUT OF KONGO SAN. (Chester 
Outing) (Educ. Films Corp.) A trip to a 
strange and picturesque Buddhist monastery 
in Korea. 

PILGRIMAGE THROUGH THE CLOUDS. 
(Chester Outing) (Educ. Films Corp.) 
Mount Fujiyama, the sacred mountain of 
Japan, is the end of this pilgrimage, which 
takes you through many places, not at all 
like Main Street in your own home town. 

FACING DEATH ON THE BLUMLISALP. 
(Burlingham Travel Picture) (Wm. L. 
Sherry Service) The Blumlisalp is one of 
the famous ice climbs in the Bernese Ober- 
land, Switzerland. The photographer of this 
picture show-s you his spectacular, precipi- 
tous ascent to the summit. That he had a 
miraculous escape from death during the 
climb does not decrease the thrill for the 
spectator. 

THE PILATUS RAILWAY.. (Burlingham 
Travel Picture) (Wm. L. Sherry Service) 
The trip on this 7,000 foot cog railway is 
most sensational, with its changing pano- 
rama of the glorious Bernese Alps. 

NIAGARA (Prizma) (Select) The awe 
and wonder inspired by this vast mass of 
falling water will never lessen, although 
many such well done pictures make us in- 
creasingly familiar with its aspect. 

MAY DAYS. (Prizma) (Select) Scenes 
that the title suggests with views of lovers 
and love-making that also come with the 
spring. 

A TREK INTO SWAZILAND. (Prizma) 
(Select) This trek carries you far from 
things civilization considers important, into 
the heart of South Africa and shows you 
how the uncivilized live. 

THE ROOF OF AMERICA. (Prizma) 
(Republic) A journey to the Continental 
Divide in Northern Montana, with glimpses 
of glaciers, mountain lakes and picturesque 
trails. There are also brief views of the 
Black-feet Braves, 

THE CLOUD. (Post Nature Scenic) 
(Famous Players-Lasky) A remarkably 
beautiful reel containing many views of 
marvelous clouds, quiet waters and fair land- 
scapes. A picture of superb photography. 

AS FANCY PAINTS. (Post Nature Scenic) 
(Famous Players-Lasky) Another one of 
the scenics that are setting a new standard 
for photography and selection of content. 

CELEBES. (Post Travel Picture) (Pathe) 
Among the sights unfolded in the thousand 
feet of this picture are the Customs, the 
hoisting of an automobile and horse on to 
a ship, a funeral procession, ah open air 
barber shop, together with other things upon 
which a Malasian is accustomed to gaze. 

IN HIGHER SPHERES. (Ford Weekly) 
(Goldwyn) Physically, not metaphysically, 
the title means, for you are taken by this 
reel high up into the mountains where the 
scenery is gorgeous, but the temperature re- 
markably low. 

NASSAU. (Ford Weekly) (Goldwyn) A 
picture that gives a clear idea, not only of 
the important places in this quaint city, but 
also of the daily life and customs of its 
inhabitants. 

THE RUINS OF DAMASCUS. (Atlas 
Film Corp.) Excellent views of this city of 
great antiquity. 

A GLIMPSE OF TRIPOLI. (New Era) 
This fascinating city of North Africa cannot 
fail to furnish interesting scenes ; there are 
also views of Ajaccio, the birthplace of 
Napoleon Bonaparte. 

COLORADO. (Beseler) Two reels. No- 
whe're can there be more magnificent scenes 
for the potographer's art than in this great 



western state and as many as possible of 
these wonderful places are crowded into these 
i wo reels. 

ST. AUGUSTINE. (Beseler) The oldest 
city on the American continent, a city of 
great historical interest with its old Spanish 
architecture. 

INDUSTRIAL, FILMS 

GRAZING INDTSTRY IN THE NA- 
TIONAL FORESTS. (U. S. Dept. of Agric.) 
Cattle and sheep grazing in the National 
Forests of the West. 

CEMENT AND CONCRETE TESTS. (U.S. 
Dept. of Agric.) Showing how cement is 
tested in briquettes and also how scone slabs 
are tested for bridge building. 

WHEAT, TRANSPORTATION AN 1 > 
STORAGE. (U. S. Dept. of Agric.) The 
moving of the crop from the northwest plains 
to Duluth, from thence by freighters through 
the Great Lakes to Buffalo and then to Balti- 
more for over seas shipment. 

HOME GARDENING. (U. S. Dept. ot 
Agric.) Two reels. These reels were for- 
merly entitled "Feeding America from Its 
Own Back Yard" and present the proper 
methods of caring for city and suburban 
vegetable gardens. 

HOW IRON ORE DEPOSITS ARE DIS- 
COVERED. (U. S. Steel Corp.) Three reels. 
This picture, besides showing how iron ore 
deposits are located, gives much valuable 
information on how the ore is mined and 
transported. 

ORE DOCKS AT CONNEAUT HARBOR. 
No. 4. (U. S. Steel Corp.) Showing in de- 
tail mechanical unloaders and the methods 
of handling the ore both by steamship and 
bv rail. 

COKE OVEN OPERATIONS. No. 5. (U. S. 
Steel Corp.) The manufacture of seamless 
steel tubing and cylinders. 

TRIPLEX METHOD OF MANUFACTUR- 
ING STEEL. Nos. 14 and 15. (U. S. Steel 
Corp.) An industrial picture of great value. 

FOR THE FUTURE. (Ford Weekly) 
(Goldwyn) Pictures of a Self-supporting In- 
dustrial School in Michigan snowing the 
various occupations that are of profit and 
interest to its inmates. Printing, gardening, 
shoe-making and cabinet making are among 
these occupations. 

IN FOR A RAISE. (Ford Weekly) (Gold- 
wyn) There are two divisions of this film, 
the first part showing the mixing and can- 
ning of baking powder ; the second part, the 
making, cutting and packing of macaroni. 

OUT OF WOODS. (Ford Weekly) (Gold- 
wyn) Pictures from a Canadian lumber 
camp, the cutting of the spruce, the prepar- 
ing of the roads, transporting of the logs, 

MEETING THE WORLD'S' DEMAND 
FOR SHIPPING PACKAGES. (Famous 
Players-Lasky) Felling trees, sawing logs, 
making barrel heads, baling the heads, mak- 
ing staves, softening the bolts, etc. This 
reel ends with a cartoon. 

FROM COCOON TO KIMONO. (Burton 
Holmes) (Famous Players-Lasky) All the 
steps in the silk industry artistically shown 
by that king of voyageurs, Burton Holmes. 
'THE WOOD WORKERS OF ST. CLOUD. 
(Educ. Films Corp.) One-half reel. This 
film illustrates the old fashioned methods 
used in St. Cloud in making such things as 
the rail for the back of a chair and a bowl 
fashioned from a block of wood. The fact 
is also brought out that the work is entirely 
original, for stencils are never used in the 
decorations and each nattern is different. 

THE PINK GRANITE INDUSTRY. (Com- 
munity Motion Picture Bureau) The quar- 
rying- of this unusual stone. 

TUNNELING UNDER THE EAST 
I! I VKIi. \'l AY YORK m '(immunity Motion 
Picture Bureau) This film shows the meth- 
ods employed and the plant necessary to 
drive a tunnel under a body of water. The 



40 



Visual Education 



methods employed are explained by dia- 
grams and maps as well as by actual pic- 
tures. 

PEN POINTS OP PROGRESS. (Pathe) 
The goose quill and the steel pen precede a 
detailed explanation of the making of foun- 
tain pens. 

MAKING RIFLES FOR THE GOVERN- 
( Pathe) An exposition of the many com- 
plicated processes necessary before a rifle 
is ready for use. 

TRUCKING THROUGH DIXIE. ( Univer- 
sal) A truck test tour through the South. 

PRODUCTS OF FLORIDA'S LOWLAND. 
(Beseler) Cypress logging and the celery 
industry furnish the material for this reel. 
All the steps in lumbering, the felling of the 
trees, sawing of the logs and the transpor- 
tation are shown. There is likewise a full 
exposition of the raising of celery. . 

SOME OF CALIFORNIA'S QUEER 
FARMS. (Beseler) There are many kinds 
of farms in California, but two of the strang- 
est are an alligator farm, with thousands of 
little reptiles, and an ostrich farm. The pic- 
tures of the latter include the feeding of the 
birds and the plucking of the plumage. 

COTTON INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTH. 
(Beseler) Transported below the Mason- 
Dixon line, you see the cotton boll plucked 
from its home on the bush and carried 
through a series of experiences that leave 
it a finished product. 

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE FROM BEAN 
TO CUP. (Hershey Chocolate Co.) It is a 
long way from the bean to the cup and there 
are many interesting processes in between, 
which this commercial film well shows. 

ABRASIVES. (The Carborundum Co.) A 
picture made in the mills of the Carborun- 
dum Co. to show its methods of producing 

THE VARNISH INDUSTRY (Murphy 
Varnish Co.) Few people realize the steps 
that are required in the making of varnish, 
but this commercial film should be illuminat- 
ing as to the process. 

MARSHAL FIELD & CO. (Marshal Field 
& Co.) The gigantic wholesale and retail 
business known as "Field's" has no peer the 
world through. Such a picture showing vari- 
ous phases of its activities cannot fail to 
interest. 

BIOLOGY AND THE NATURAL. SCIENCES 

LIFE OF THE SPIDER. (Educ. Films 
Corp.) One of Ditmars' fascinating studies, 
and one so full of difficulties as to make 
the picture a remarkable photographic 
achievement. 

EVOLUTION. (Educ. Films Corp.) A 
comparison of the animal life of centuries 
past with the animal life of today is a 
subject of unusual educational value. This 
film is from the Ditmars' Studio. 

THE HUMAN EYE. (Carter Cinema Co.) 
A scientific reel showing the care necessary 
to preserve good eyesight, the structure of 
the eye and the disastrous results of abuse. 

CUBE AND SQUARE ROOT. (Carter 
Cinema Co.) A comprehensive study of 
cube and square root taught by animated 
cartoons. 

THE PITCHER PLANT. (Beseler) This 
plant, a native of Asia, Australia and North 
Borneo, is shown catching water and insects 
in its curious cup. 

THE CULTURE OF BULBOUS PLANTS. 
(Beseler) A colored picture showing such 
beautiful flowers as the hyacinth, tulip, nar- 
cissus, martagon lily, -water iris and dahlia. 

MUSHROOM CULTURE. (Beseler) Prepa- 
ration of the soil, planting of spawn, speci- 
mens, etc. 

CHUMMING WITH CHIPMUNKS. (Gold- 
toyn) How acquaintance with chipmunk is 
made — not such a difficult thing as might 
be imagined. This picture was photographed 
by Irene and Wm. L. Tinley of the National 
Association of Audubon Societies. 



BEAR TRAPPING. (Universal) The 
photographic record of a bear hunt, thrill- 
ing enough, but which ends happily without 
tragedy for the bear. 

"BIRD LIFE STUDY — PART 1. (Pathe) 
Strange and unfamiliar birds parade before 
your eyes, among them the South African 
ostrich, largest of all birds, South American 
rhea, fly catcher, starling and tit. 

PREVENTING SPREAD OF THE GIPSY 
AND BROWN-TAIL MOTHS. (U. S. Dept. 
of Agric.) Four reels. Showing these moths 
in all stages of development, their depreda- 
tions on trees in New England, together with 
methods of fighting them, inspection of tim- 
ber to prevent the spread of the caterpillar ; 
spraying of trees, etc. 

AN OCEAN RECLUSE. (New Era) This 
is a split reel, the first half showing the 
weird hermit crab, which needs only half a 
house. The second half is an intimate and 
effective study of bees. 

CRYSTALS. (Atlas) Their formation 
with specimens illustrating their great 
beauty. 

WONDERS OF MAGNETISM. (Atlas) 
Demonstrating how different types of mag- 
nets work. 

THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY. (Society 
for Visual Education) Herein is depicted 
the life process of butterflies in general and 
of this one in particular. It explains also 
the necessary adaptation to environment for 
preservation. 

MID-SUMMER WILD PLANTS OF THE 
CENTRAL STATES. (Society for Visual 
Education) In this reel familiarity with 
the general shape of the plant is sought to 
develop and maintain interest in plant life 
and to assist in keeping observation acute 
and vigorous. 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. (Society 
for Visual Education) 2 reels. These two 
reels, the first of the coastal plain and the 
second of the Appalachian Highlands, show 
the surface features, industries and manu- 
factures. 

GREAT PLAINS. (Society for Visual 
Education) This reel shows the surface 
features (treeless plains, bad lands, sand 
dunes), resources and occupations, cities. 

WEEKLIES, NEWS ITEMS AND RE- 
VIEWS 

PATHE REVIEW 76. (Pathe) Pathe- 
color, views of the Rocky Mountains ; Dit- 
mars' film, rabbits, oyster fishing, dance. 

PATHE REVIEW 73. (Pathe) Pathe- 
color, scenes from Portugal ; Novagraph 
film, hat juggling slowed down eight times ; 
Pathe-color, ghost flowers ; standard size 
baskets, short measure baskets; travel- 
augh. 

PATHE REVIEW 65. (Pathe) Pathe- 
color, scenes from Switzerland, Novagraph 
slow motion photography, wrestling ; use of 
gas masks in mines ; Ditmars' study of two- 
humped camel ; Chinese love dance. 

NEW SCREEN MAGAZINE 88. (Univer- 
sal) A boy, ten years old, catching forty- 
five pound fish ; manufacture of postage 
stamps, up-to-date modes ; our friends, the 
cat and dog. 

NEW SCREEN MAGAZINE 77. (Univer- 
sal) Ingenuity and skill of man who has 
lost both of his hands ; exposure of tricks of 
spiritualists, scientific experiments with li- 
quid air ; the California poppy. 

CHAS. URBAN'S MOVIE CHATS 24. 
(Kineto Co. of Amer. ) Pictures from a lum- 
ber camp ; artificial manufacture of ice. 
farm scenes with interesting views of domes- 
tic animals ; a home for stray cats. 

CHAS. URBAN'S MOVIE CHATS 14. 
(Kineto Co. of Amer.) Training of boys 
for the navy ; exposition of the making of 
a can of condensed milk ; strange instances 
of animal friendship. 
CHAS. URBAN'S MOVIE CHATS 12. 



Film Exchanges 



41 



(Kineto Co. of Amer.) American soldiers 
on a visit to the Chateau district of Chinon : 
demonstration of electroysis of metals ; views 
of a mischievous monkey. 

PATHE NEWS 87. (Pathc) Train wreck, 
Radnor, Pa. ; return of Prince of Wales to 
England ; gun testing at Fort McArthur ; 
school pageant in Sydney. Australia ; grave 
of Roosevelt ; Republican torch light parade, 
New York City. 

INTERNATIONAL, NEWS, VOL. 2, No. 
72. (Universal) Mineola, L. I., army avia- 
tors arrive from Alaska. King of Spain re- 
views his private guard in Madrid, Spain ; 



raising of Italian superdreadnaught sunk in 
Taranto Harbor, 1916; views of Harding and 
Cox ; fire in Milford, Mass., etc. 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS, Vol. 2, No. 70. 
(Universal) New auto track opened at 
Fresno, Cal. ; football game between Colum- 
bia and New York University ; Pacific fleet 
in manoeuvers ; alligator farm, St. Augus- 
tine, Fla. ; U. S. largest airship ; views of 
world's series, Cleveland. 

BRAY PICTOGRAPH 450. (Goldwyn) 
The evolution of a flower ; raising and feed- 
ing goats ; blue ribbon winners ; cut cartoon. 



Reference List of Commercial Film Exchanges 

(Address all inquiries to the nearest exchange) 



AMERICAN RED CROSS 

Atlanta, Ga 249 Ivy St. 

Boston, Mass 108 Mass. A v. 

Chicago, 111 Pioneer Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio Plymouth Bldg. 

Denver, Colo 14th and Welton Sts. 

Minneapolis, Minn 423 5th St. S. 

New Orleans, La. .Wash'gt'n Artillery Hall 

New York City 44 E. 23d St. 

Philadephia, Pa 134 S. 16th St. 

San Francisco, Cal 864 Mission St. 

Seattle, Wash White Bldg. 

St. Louis, Mo Equitable Bldg. 

Washington, D. C 411 18th St. N. W. 

FAMOUS PLAYERS-LASKY CORP. 

Albany, N. Y 33 Orange St. 

Atlanta, Ga 51 Luckie St. 

Boston, Mass 8 Shawmut St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 145 Franklin St. 

Charlotte, N. C 28 W. 4th St. 

Chicago, 111 845 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 107 W. 3d St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 811 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1902 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1747 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 415 W. 8th St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 2024 Broadway Av. 

Los Angeles, Calif 112 W. 9th St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

New Haven, Conn 132 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La 814 Perdido St. 

New York City 729 7th Av. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 128 W. 3d St. 

Omaha, Neb 208 S. 13th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1219 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1018 Forbes St. 

Portland, Me 85 Market St. 

Portland, Ore 14 N. 9th St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 133 E. 2d South St. 

San Francisco, Calif 821 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 2017-19 3d Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3929 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 421 10th St. N. W. 

FIRST NATIONAL, EXHIBITORS CIR- 
CUIT, INC. 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 35 Piedmont St. 

Chicago, 111 110 S. State St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 402 Sloan Bldg. 

Buffalo, N. Y 215 Franklin St. 

Dallas, Texas 1924 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1518 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa. . .Garden Theatre Bldg. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind...24 W. Washington St. 

Kansas City, Mo 317 Gloyd Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif. . . .833 South Broadway 

Louisville, Ky Nat. Theatre Bldg. 

Milwaukee, Wis 402 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 

408-18 Loeb Arcade Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 126 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La. .Tulane Av. & Liberty St. 

New York City 6 W. 48th St. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 127 S. Hudson St. 

When you write, please men 



Omaha, Neb 314 S. 13th St. 

Philadelphia. Pa 1339 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 414 Ferry St. 

Richmond, Va 904 E. Broad St. 

St. Louis, Mo. .New Grand Central Theatre 
Salt Lake City, Utah... 136 E. 2d South St. 
San Francisco, Calif.. 134 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2023 3d Av 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

EDUCATIONAL FILMS CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga 61 Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 10 Piedmont St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 327 Main St. 

Chicago, 111 220 S. State St. 

Cincinnati, O. . .N. W. Cor. 7th & Main Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

501 Standard Theatre, Prospect St. 

Dallas, Texas 2003% Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1435 Champa St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 100 Locust St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind 9 West Market St. 

Kansas City, Mo. .5th Floor Film Ex. Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif 732 S. Olive St. 

Louisville, Ky National Theatre Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 407 Loeb Arcade 

Milwaukee, Wis 501 Toy Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 128 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La 330 Camn St. 

New York City 729 Seventh Av. 

Omaha, Neb 1312% Farnum St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1309 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh. Pa 119 Ninth St 

St. Louis, Mo 617 N. Grand Av. 

San Francisco, Calif.. 168 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2014 Third Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

FOX FILM CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga ' Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 54-56-58 Piedmont St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 209 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 845 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 514 Elm St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1907 Commerce St. 

Detroit, Mich Mack Bldg. 

Denver, Colo 1442 Welton St. 

Indianapolis, Ind 232 N. Illinois St. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 734 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 First Av. N. 

New York City 130 W. 46th St. 

New Orleans, La 723-25 Poydras St. 

Omaha, Neb 315 S. 16th St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1333 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 121 Fourth Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. . .46 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Calif.. 243 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2006 Third Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3632 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 305 9th St. N. W. 

GOLDWYN DISTRIBUTING CORPORA- 
TION 

Atlanta, Ga HI Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 42 Piedmont St. 

tion VISUAL EDUCATION 



i2 



Visual Education 



Buffalo, N. Y 200 Pearl St. 

Chicago, 111 . 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 216 E. 5th St. 

Cleveland, O...403 Standard Theatre Bldg\ 

Dallas, Texas 1922 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1440 Welton St. 

Detroit, Midi .Film Exchange Bldg. 

Kansas City, Mo 17th and Main Sts. 

Los Angeles. Calif 912 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis. Minn 16 N. 4th St. 

New Orleans, La 714 Poydras St. 

New York City 729 7th Av. 

Omaha, Neb 1508 Howard St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1335 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 135 E. 2d South St. 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

St. Louis, Mo 3312 Lindell Blvd. 

Seattle, Wash 2018 Third St. 

Washington, D. C 714 11th St. N. W. 

HALLMARK PICTURES CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga 51 Luckie St. 

Boston, Mass 46 Melrose St. 

Buffalo. N. Y 86 Exchange St. 

Chicago, 111 5 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 215 E. 5th St. 

Dallas, Tex 1814 Commerce St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 506 Sloan Bldg. 

Denver, Colo 1435 Champa St. 

Detroit, Mich 5 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 4th Floor Boley Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif 643 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 406 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 16 N. 4th St. 

New Haven, Conn 130 Meadow St. 

New Orleans, La 348 Carondelet St. 

New York, N. Y 130 W. .46th St. 

Omaha, Neb 1222 Harney St. . 

Philadelphia, Pa.S. E. Cor. 13th & Vine Sts. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 414 Penn Av. 

St. Louis. Mo . 3318 Lindell Blvd. 

San Francisco, Calif. . . .86 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2010 Third Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

METRO PICTURES CORPORATION 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 60 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 327 Main St. 

Chicago, 111 5 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 7th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio 404 Sincere Bldg. 

Dallas. Texas 1924 Main St. 

Denver, Col 1721 California St. 

Detroit, Mich 51 Elizabeth St. E. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 820 S. Olive St. 

Little Rock, Ark 106 S. Cross St. 

Minneapolis, Minn. ... Produce Exch. Bldg. 

New Haven. Conn 126 Meadow St. 

New York City 729 7th Av. 

New Orleans, La Saenger Bldg. 

Oklahoma City, Okla....l27 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb 211 S. 13th St. 

Philadelphia. Pa 1321 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1018 Forbes St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 20 Post Office Place 

San Francisco, Calif 55 Jones St. 

St. Louis, Mo 3313-A Olive St. 

Seattle, Wash 2002 Third Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

PATHE EXCHANGE, INC. 

Albany, N. Y 398 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 7 Isabella St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 269 Main St. 

Charlotte, N. C . 2 S. Graham St. 

Chicago, 111 418 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 124 E. 7th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. S. E. 

Dallas, Texas..' 2012% Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1436 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 316 W. Locust St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind . . .52-54 W. New York St. 

Kansas City, Mo 928 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 732 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 174 2d St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

When you write, please men 



Newark, N. J 6 Mechanic St. 

New Orleans, La 936 Common St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Oklahoma City. Okla....ll9 S. Hudson St. 

Omaha, Neb 1417 Harney St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 211 N. 13th Si. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 938 Penn Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. . .64 Exchange Place 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash , . . . .2113 3d Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3210 Locust St. 

Spokane, Wash 12 S. Washington St. 

Washington, D. C 601 F St., N. W. 

REALART PICTURES CORPORATION 

Cincinnati, Ohio Film Exchange Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio 942 Prospect Av., East 

Denver, Colo 1742 Glenart Av. 

Detroit, Mich 303 Joseph Mack Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn . 801 Produce Exch. Bldg. 

Omaha, Neb 1216 Farnum St. 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 2012 Third Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3626 Olive St. 

REPUBLIC PICTURES 

Atlanta, Ga 148 Marietta St. 

Boston. Mass 78-90 Broadway 

Buffalo, N. Y 269 Main St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio Main and 7th Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio Belmont Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1905 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1753 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 1612 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 736 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis. Minn. . . .Produce Exch. Bldg. 

New York City 126 W. 46th St. 

Philadelphia. Pa 1315 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

San Francisco. Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 1301 5th Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

ROBERTSON-COLE DISTRIBUTING 
CORPORATION 

Albany, N. Y 733 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga 146 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 39 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y ..... 315 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 220 S. State St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 224 E. 7th St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 750 Prospect Av. 

Dallas, Texas 1807 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1724 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind Ill W. Maryland St. 

Kansas City, Mo Gloyd Bldg. 

Los Angeles, Calif 825 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 301 Enterprise Blflg. 

Minneapolis, Minn.. 309 Loeb Arcade Bldg. 

New Orleans, La 815 Perdido St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Oklahoma City, Okla 7 S. Walker St. 

Omaha, Neb 1306 Farnum St. 

Philadelphia, Pa • 1219 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 121 4th Av. 

San Francisco, Calif.. 177 Golden Gate Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3623 Washington Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 12 Postoffice Place 

Seattle, Wash 1933 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

SELECT PICTURES CORPORATION 

Albany, N. Y 679 Broadway 

Atlanta, Ga 148 Marietta St. 

Boston, Mass 69 Church St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 176 Franklin St. 

Chicago, 111 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. .402 Strand Theatre Bldg. 

Cleveland, Ohio 306 Sloan Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas 1917 Main St. 

Denver, Colo 1728 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Indianapolis, Ind ... 224 Wimmer Bldg. 

Kansas City, Mo 920 Main St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 736 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis. Minn... Film Exchange Bldg. 

New Haven, Conn 19 Portsea St. 

New Orleans, La 712 Poydras St. 

New York City 126 W. 46th St. 

Omaha, Neb 1512 Howard St. 

tion VISUAL EDUCATION 



Film Exchanges 



43 



Philadelphia, Pa 1308-10-12 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1201 Liberty Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3617 Washington Av. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 160 Regent St. 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 308 Virginia St. 

Washington, D. C 525 13th St. N. W. 

UNITED PICTURE THEATRES 

Atlanta, Ga 104 Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 48 Melrose St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 86 Exchange Place 

Chicago, 111 5 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 215 E. 5th St. 

Cleveland. Ohio 506 Sloan Bldg. 

Dallas. Texas 1814 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 1435 Champa St. 

Detroit, Mich 55 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City. Mo 22d and Grand Av. 

Los Angeles, Calif 643 S. Olive St. 

Milwaukee, Wis 172 Toy Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn 16 N. 4th St. 

New Haven, Conn 130 Meadow St. 

New Orleans. La 610 Canal St. 

New York City 1457 Broadway 

Omaha, Neb 1222 Harney St. 

Philadelphia. Pa 13th and Vine Sts. 

Pittsburgh. Pa 414 Penn Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3321 Lindell Blvd. 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 58 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Calif... 86 Golden Gate Av. 

Seattle, Wash 2010 3d Av. 

Washington, D. C 916 G St. N. W. 

UNIVERSAL FILM MFG. CO. 

Buffalo, N. Y 35 Church St. 

Butte, Mont 52 E. Broadway 

Charleston. W. Va 607 Deydoh St. 

Chicago, 111 220 S. State St. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 531 Walnut St. 

Cleveland, Ohio 850 Prospect Av. 

Columbus. Ohio 294 y, N. High St. 

Denver, Col 1422 Welton St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 918-920 Locust Av. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Evansville, Ind 

Fort Smith, Ark 307 Garrison St. 

Indianapolis, Ind 113 W. Georgia St. 

Kansas City, Mo 214 E. 12th St. 

Los Angeles, Calif 822 S. Olive St. 

Louisville, Ky 407 Walker Bldg. 

Milwaukee, Wis 172 2d St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 719 Hennepin Av. 

Oklahoma City, Okla 116-118 W. 2d St. 

Omaha, Neb 1304 Farnum St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 938-940 Penn Av. 

Portland, Ore 405-407 Davis St. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. . .56 Exchange Place 
San Francisco, Cal. . . .121 Golden Gate Av. 
Sioux Falls, S. D... Colonial Theatre Bldg. 

Spokane, Wash 16 S. Washington St. 

St. Louis, Mo 2116 Locust Av. 

Wichita, Kan 209 E. First Av. 

VITAGRAPH 

Albany, N. Y 48 Howard St. 

Atlanta, Ga Ill Walton St. 

Boston, Mass 131 Arlington St. 

Buffalo, N. Y 86 Exchange St. 

Chicago, 111 207 S. Wabash Av. 

Cincinnati, Ohio.... Cor. 7th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland, Ohio 2077 E. 4th St. 

Dallas, Texas 1900 Commerce St. 

Denver, Colo 734 Welton St. 

Detroit, Mich 63 E. Elizabeth St. 

Kansas City, Mo 17th and Main Sts. 

Los Angeles, Cal 643 S. Olive St. 

Minneapolis, Minn 608 1st Av. N. 

New Orleans, La 420 Camp St. 

New York City 1600 Broadway 

Omaha, Neb 1111 Farnum St. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1227 Vine St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 117 4th Av. 

St. Louis, Mo 3310 Lindell Blvd. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. . .62 Exchange Place 

San Francisco, Calif 985 Market St. 

Seattle, Wash 115 Olive St. 

Washington, D. C 712 11th St. N. W. 



BUREAU OF EDUCATION 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Qualified Sl.-ito Distributing Centers 

Agricultural College, Miss....C. H. Tingle 
Mississippi Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College. 

Ames, Iowa Charles Roach 

Iowa State College 

Ann Arbor, Mich W. D. Henderson 

University of Michigan 

Athens, Ga Roger N. Hill 

University of Georgia 

Austin, Texas Wm. R. Duffey 

University of Texas 

Berkeley, Calif Leon J. Richardson 

University of California 

Bloomington, Ind F. W. Shockley 

Indiana University 

Boston, Mass James A. Moyer 

State Department of Public Instruction 

Boulder, Col H. R. Spangler 

University of Colorado 

Buffalo, N. Y C. E. Cummings 

Buffalo Society of Natural Science 

Burlington, Vt Guy G. Bailey 

University of Vermont 

Charlotte, Va Charles G. Maphis 

University of Virginia 

Cleveland, Ohio W. N. Gregory 

Cleveland Normal Training School 

College Park, Md C. S. Richardson 

Maryland State College of Agriculture 

Columbia, Mo C. H. Williams 

University of Missouri 

Columbus, S. C Reed Smith 

University of South Carolina 

Eugene, Ore John C. Almack 

University of Oregon 

Fayetteville, Ark A. M. Harding 

University of Arkansas 

Gainesville, Fla B. C. Riley 

University of Florida 

Iowa City, Iowa. O. E. Klingaman 

University of Iowa 

Knoxville, Tenn Charles E. Ferris 

University of Tennessee 

Lawrence, Kan Harold C. Ingham 

University of Kansas 

Lexington, Ky Wellington Patrick 

University of Kentucky 

Lincoln, Neb G. E. Condra 

University of Nebraska 

Madison, Wis Wm. H. Dudley 

University of Wisconsin 

Minneapolis, Minn J. V. Ankeney 

University of Minnesota 

Missoula, Mont E. O. Sisson 

State University 

Morgantown. W. Va L. B. Hill 

West Virginia University 

Natchitoches, La L. J. Alleman 

State Normal School 

New Brunswick, N. J W. M. Demarest 

Rutgers College 

Normal, 111 David Felmley 

Illinois State Normal University 

Norman, Okla J. W. Scroggs 

University of Oklahoma 

Philadelphia. Pa Chas. R. Toothaker 

The Commercial Museum 

Pittsburgh, Pa J. H. Kelly 

University of Pittsburgh 

Providence, R. I Walter Jacobs 

Brown University 

Pullman, Wash F. F. Nalder 

State College of Washington 

Raleigh, N. C .'. . .AV. C. Crosby 

Bureau of Community Service 

Reno, Nev Charles A. Norcross 

University of Nevada 
(Concluded on page 56) 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



44 

THE SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 



327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



OFFICERS 

President, Rollin D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 

Vice-President and General Manager, H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation 

Secretary, F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 

DIRECTORS 
V. H. Arnold, Victor H Arnold & Co., Chicago 
W. W. Atwood, President, Clark, University 
W. C. Bagley, Columbia University 

C. A. Beard, Director New York Bureau of Municipal Research 
H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation, Chicago 
J. M. Coulter, University of Chicago 
F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 
W. F. Russell, University of Iowa 
R. D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 
V. C. Vaughan, University of Michigan 

GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD 
Mrs. Harriet H. Barry, President of National Federation of 

Better Film Workers Los Angeles, California 

J. H. Beveridge, Superintendent of Schools . . . . . Omaha, Nebraska 

Mrs. Florence B. Blanchard, Chairman Motion Pictures 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs. Chicago, Illinois 

Mary C. C. Bradford, State Superintendent of Schools Denver, Colorado 

M. L. Brittain, State Superintendent of Schools Atlanta, Georgia 

E. C. Brooks, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. .... .Raleigh, North Carolina 

J. C. Brown, President State Normal College ..St. Cloud, Minnesota 

Violet P. Brown, Chairman Public Health and Child Welfare, 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs .Kankakee, Illinois 

T. W. Butcher, President Kansas State Normal School .Emporia, Kansas 

C. E. Chadsey, Dean of College of Education, University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 

J. A. C. Chandler, President of College of William and Mary. . .Williamsburg, Virginia 
H. W. Chase, President of University of North Carolina. . .Chapel Hill, North Carolina 

L. D. Coffman, President of University of Minnesota. ... Minneapolis, Minnesota 

S. S. Colvin, Professor of Education, Brown University . .... .Providence, Rhode Island 

F. B. Cooper, Superintendent of Schools. Seattle, Washington 

L. T. Damon, Professor of English, Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 

G. H. Denny, President of University of Alabama .University, Alabama 

E. R. Downing, School of Education, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

E. C. Elliott, Chancellor of the University, University of Montana Helena, Montana 

Mrs. Albert W. Evans, Chairman of Education, Illinois Federation 

of Women's Clubs „ Chicago, Illinois 

David Felmley, President of Illinois State Normal College. . Normal, Illinois 

T. E. Finegan, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. . .Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 
H. W. Foght, President of Northern Normal and 

Industrial School Aberdeen, South Dakota 

C. Fordyce, Dean of Teachers College, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 

J. Paul Goode, Professor of Geography, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 



The Society for Visual Education 45 



GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD (Continued) 

Mrs. William H. Hart, President of Illinois Federation of 

Women's Clubs Benton, Illinois 

V. A. C. Henmon, Director of School of Education, University 

of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 

A. Ross Hill, President of University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri 

V. A. Jessup, President of State University of Ioica .Iowa City, Iowa 

D. B. Johnson, President Winthrop Normal and 

Industrial College Rock Hill, South Carolina 

C. H. Judd, Director of School of Education, University of Chicago. . . .Chicago, Illinois 
J. A. H. Keith, President of 'Normal School Indiana, Pennsylvania 

F. J. Kelley. Dean of College of Education, University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 

J. R. Kirk. President State Teachers College Kirksville, Missouri 

O. E. Klingaman, Director of Extension Division, University of Iowa. .Iowa City. Iowa 

L. C. Lord. Eastern Illinois State Normal School Charleston. Illinoie 

Shailer Mathews, Dean of the Divinity School, University of Chicago Chicago, 111. 

P. E. McClenahan, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Des Moines. Iowa 

Mrs. F. J. Macnish, Chairman of Civics, Illinois Federation 

of Women's Clubs Oak Park, Illinois 

G. E. Maxwell, President of State Normal College Winona, Minnesota 

R. C. McCrea, Professor of Economics, Columbia University 

New York City, New York 

C. A. McMurry, Geo. Peabody College for Teachers Nashville, Tennessee 

Mrs. Myra Kingman Miller, President of National 

Federation of College Women New York City, New York 

S. C. Mitchell, President of Delaware College Newark, Delaware 

Raymond Moley, Director of the Cleveland Foundation Cleveland, Ohio 

Paul Monroe, Professor of Elementary Education, 

Teachers College, Columbia University New York City, New York 

A. A. Murphree, President of University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 

G. W. Nash, President of Washington State Normal School. . .Bellingham, Washington 

George Norlin, University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 

R. M. Ogden, Professor of Education, Cornell University Ithaca, New York 

C. G. Pearse, President of State Normal School Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

M. C. Potter, Superintendent of Schools Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Josephine C. Preston, Superintendent of Public Instruction Olympia, Washington 

J.-E. Russell, Dean of Teachers College, 

Columbia University New York City, New York 

A. A. Slade, Commissioner of Education, State of Wyoming Cheyenne, Wyoming 

H. L. Smith, Dean of College of Education, Indiana University . .Bloomington, Indiana 

C. L. Spain, Deputy Superintendent of Schools Detroit, Michigan 

Thomas Taggart, Former U. S. Senator from Indiana French Lick, Indiana 

A. O. Thomas, State Superintendent of Public Schools Augusta, Georgia 

A. S. Whitney, Professor of Education, University of Michigan. . .Ann Arbor, Michigan 

H. B. Wilson, Superintendent of Schools Berkeley, California 

J. H. Wilson, Director of Visual Education, Public Schools Detroit, Michigan 

J. W. Withers, Superintendent of Schools St. Louis, Missouri 

W. C. Wood, Commissioner of Education Sacramento, California 

G. A. Works, Professor of Education, New York College of Agriculture at 

Cornell Univertity Ithaca, New York 



46 



The Society foe Visual Education 





COMMITTEES 


COMMITTEE ON AMERICANIZATION 


H. G. James, 


W. F. Russell, Chairman, 




University of Texas. 
Austin. Texas. 


University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
Guy Stanton Ford, 

University of Minnesota, 




D. C. Knowlton, 

The Lincoln School of Teachers College, 
New York, N. Y. 


Minneapolis, Minn. 




T. H. Reed, 


Albert E. Jenks, 




University of California, 


University of Minnesota, 




Berkeley, Calif. 


Minneapolis, Minn. 






Frank 0. Lowden, 






Governor of State of Illinois. 




COMMITTEE ON GEOGRAPHY 


Springfield, Illinois. 






C. E. Merriam, 




W. W. Atwood, Chairman, 


University of Chicago, 




Clark University 


Chicago, 111. 




Worcester, Mass. 


Raymond Moley, 




M. J. Ahearn, S. J. 


The Cleveland Foundation, 




Canisius College, 


Cleveland, Ohio. 




Buffalo, N. Y. 


Martin J. Wade, 




R. D. Calkins, 


United States District Court, 




Mt. Pleasant Normal School, 


Washington, D. C. 




Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 


W. W. Willoughby, 




C. C. Colby, 


Johns Hopkins University, 




University of Chicago, 


Baltimore, Md. 




Chicago. 111. 
Elizabeth Fisher, 






Wellesley College, 


COMMITTEE ON BIOLOGY 




Wellesley, Mass. 
H. E. Gregory , 


John M. Coulter, Chairman, 




Yale University, 


University of Chicago, 




New Haven, Conn. 


Chicago, Illinois. 




T. M. Hills. 


(Other members to be announced 


later) 


Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio. 






C. A. McMurry, 


COMMITTEE ON BOTANY 




Geo. Peabody College for Teachers. 
Nashville, Tenn. 


John M. Coulter, Chairman, 




L. C. Packard, 


University of Chicago, 




Boston Normal School, 


Chicago, Illinois. 




Boston, Mass. 


(Other members to be announced 


later) 


Miss Edith Parker, 
University of Chicago, 






Chicago, 111. 


COMMITTEE ON CIVICS 




A. E. Parkins, 
Geo. Peabody College for Teachers. 


Chas. A. Beard, Chairman. 




Nashville, Tenn. 


Director N. T. Bureau of Municipal 


D. C. Ridgley, 


Research, 




State Normal School, 


New York, N. Y. 




Normal, 111. 


F. G. Bates. 




C. 0. Sauer, 


Indiana University, 




University of Michigan, 


Bloomington, Indiana. 




Ann Arbor, Mich. 


F. F. Blachly, 




Miss Laura M. Smith, 


University of Oklahoma, 




Geo. Peabody College for Teachers, 


Athens, Okla. 




Nashville, Tenn. 


R. E. Cushman, 




R. H. Whitbeck, 


University of Minnesota, 




University of Wisconsin, 


Minneapolis, Minn. 




Madison, Wis. 


H. W. Dodds, 




L. H. Wood, 


Western Reserve University. 




Kalamazoo Normal School, 


Cleveland, Ohio. 




Kalamazoo, Mich. 


(Continued 


on page 54) 



The Value of Morale in Industry and Some 
Means of Developing It* 



By F. R. Moultox 



ur pHERE 



HERE are, roughly speaking, 
essentials for the suc- 
cess of an industry besides 
competent management. They are (1) 

capital, ( 2 ) raw materials, (3) labor, 
and ( 4 ) a market for the products. If 
any one of the four is lacking for a 
considerable period of time the' indus- 
try is ruined." 

The managements of industry pro- 
vide capital. They also take extraor- 
dinary precautions as to raw materials. 
"We find, for example, manufacturers 
of automobiles acquiring iron mines, 
and steamboat lines for transporting 
the ore ; tire manufacturers buying rub- 
ber plantations in South America, and 
cultivating their own cotton fields in 
Arizona; paper manufacturers buying 
up spruce forests in Canada; producers 
and refiners of petroleum acquiring 
leases and, titles to petroleum fields in 
all parts of the world; and similar 
things in every great industry." Only 
when such precautions are taken can 
immense and highly efficient industrial 
organizations be created and main- 
tained. 

"Equal or greater attention has been 
given by the industries to developing 
and preserving markets for their prod- 
ucts. * * * One of the chief means 
is advertising. Locally considered, our 
mails are clogged with circulars and 
follow-up letters, our papers and maga- 
zines are half-filled with advertise- 



ments, our elevated trains and station 
platforms are covered with invitations 
to buy, our landscapes are (lotted with 
billboards, and our night sky is ablaze 
with electric signs. More broadly con- 
sidered, great sales agencies are built 
up not only covering our own country 
but also extending into 'foreign lands; 
our government maintains a consular 
service all over the earth which helps 
protect our commercial interests; we 
hear of the importance of subsidizing 
a merchant marine ; the question takes 
on an international political aspect in 
reciprocity treaties, in the doctrine of 
the open door, and it has even been an 
important cause of war."' 

"The most important essential for 
industry is labor, whether its impor- 
tance is measured by its cost, or by the 
difficulty of maintaining a steady and 
efficient supply of it, or by the dangers 
of violent explosions within it." 

There are two aspects to the question 
of maintaining a supply of reliable and 
efficient labor. One aspect is internal, 
the other is external. The former in- 
volves such problems as teaching the 
worker his particular job and develop- 
ing in him a loyalty to the organization 
for which he works. The latter is con- 
cerned with such questions as the im- 
portance of his work to his fellowmen, 
a sincere belief in the fundamentals of 
the present organization of industry 
and society, faith in our political insti- 



*Abstract of a paper on the subject of Industrial Education, prepared for 
fall convention of the Society for Industrial Engineers, held at Pittsburgh, 
November 10-12, 1920. 



L8 



The Society for Visual Education 



tutions, and loyalty to our country. 
Much has been clone in the former line 
in many industries, but only a little in 
the latter. Yet the latter is far the 
more important. 

It matters little how skilful a man 
may be if he desires to overturn our 
social order and to destroy our gov- 
ernment. Eevolutionary ideas have 
plunged whole countries into unspeak- 
able woe and have been largely 
responsible for some of the worst 
strikes and industrial struggles we have 
experienced. They are appallingly 
costly. The strikers themselves esti- 
mate that the laborers lost more than 
$100,000,000 in wages in the great steel 
strike. The loss to their employers 
must have been comparable, while that 
to the millions who depend directly or 
indirectly on the steel industry was 
much greater. This single illustration 
indicates the magnitude of the prob- 
lem. It is folly to ignore it. 

What can be done? Employers of 
labor can enter on a systematic cam- 
paign of education of the employees 
and their families — education in the 
fundamentals of the history and of the 
government of our country; in the eco- 
nomic, commercial and industrial ge- 
ography of our country ; in the 
evolution of our industrial order; and 
in the advantages of great aggrega- 
tions of capital. This campaign must 
be carried out with perfect fairness and 
strict adherence to the truth, and with 
the frank admission that employers are 
often in error and that there will un- 
questionably be an evolution in indus- 
trial relations. 



How can this be done? It can be 
done by developing and maintaining 
entertainment and educational centers, 
where, in connection with diversion 
and amusement, the lessons which it is 
desired to teach can be constantly 
driven home by means of posters, pic- 
tures, slides and moving pictures. That 
is, the object is to "sell" this country 
and its institutions, and the methods 
to be employed are essentially the same 
as those which are successful in selling 
soap or gum — namely, to keep certain 
ideas always before our people. The 
cost of doing this is not excessive. In 
fact, it is trivial in comparison with 
what is spent on securing unfailing 
supplies of raw materials and on adver- 
tising. An examination of the question 
shows that marvelous things can be 
accomplished at a cost of only one 
dollar per year per employee. 

The direct returns to the industries 
will be much greater than the cost, for 
if the morale of the workers were im- 
proved so that they were only one per 
cent more efficient, even then the in- 
crease in their productivity would 
amount to twelve or fifteen dollars per 
year. And what is much more im- 
portant, the benefits to our country as 
a whole would be immeasurable. 



Announcement 

We regret to announce that, on ac- 
count of heavy work, Dr. Otis W. 
Caldwell has resigned as a director of 
the Society. 



Tn i: nii i my fob V 1-1 ai. Him i A.TION 



49 



Some United States History Reels of the Society 
for Visual Education 



TO understand our country's history, 
to appreciate the institutions and 
ideals which today constitute the 
basic elements of American nationalism, 
it is essential for the student to have 
clear conceptions of the large movements 
that have brought about present condi- 
tions. Though he be able to recite his- 
torical facts with exceeding glibness and 
accuracy, no true knowledge of history 
is his unless he can read into those iso- 
lated happenings a larger meaning than 
appears on the surface. He must be able 
to fit them into a concrete whole, to in- 
terpret them correctly in the light of the 
whole background against which they 
transpired and of the subsequent de- 
velopments to which they contributed. 

One of the most important educational 
applications of the motion picture con- 
sists in this very matter of conveying to 
every learner, both clearly and quickly, 
the significant "sweep" of great move- 
ments. On the screen the essential fea- 
tures of a whole period of development 
can be compressed within a short space 
of time; and individual events of striking 
dramatic quality, that before stood forth 
with such vividness as to fill the entire 
scene, fall into their rightful places and 
are seen in their true proportions. 

The animated map is a supremely val- 
uable device for achieving such a bird's- 
eye view of an entire period, and the 
introduction of "scenics" at certain points 
insures sufficient concreteness to make 
the map meaningful, without distracting 
the learner from the central theme of 
the lesson. Such maps have been utilized 
to their fullest advantage in the series 
of United States history reels that have 
been developed by the Society for Visual 
Education. 

* * * 

IN building the first of these films, 
"French Explorations in North Amer- 
ica," the salient features of the great 
French movement of exploration and ex- 
ploitation have been treated in such a 
way as to provide the pupil with an essen- 
tial background against which to view the 
early development of our country. The 



French happened to be the first settlers 
in the only region that offered easy access 
from the Atlantic seaboard to the interior. 
Once established at Quebec and Montreal, 
the open gateway to the whole central 
valley of the continent lay before them — 
and the door was shut to the English. 

But the very advantages afforded hy 
their geographical situation and the easy 
profits of the fur trade brought disadvan- 
tage, for the French were lured into ex- 
ploring and claiming more territory than 
they could possibly hold. Trappers, 
traders and missionaries flocked to the 
New World rather than settlers; forts, 
posts and missions were established in- 
stead of homes, farms and factories which 
make for a permanent hold upon the land. 
* * * 

THE second reel, "English Settlements 
in North America," is the counter- 
part of the first, taking up the prin- 
cipal English settlements in the order of 
their development, the gradual expansion 
of the colonies, and the barriers that 
hindered their free growth to the west. 

Of large importance in the study of the 
colonial background of our national life 
is a clear conception of the way in which 
the ideals of self-reliance and local self- 
government brought from England found 
a favorable field for growth in American 
soil. Each colony developed independ- 
ently of the others, and for a long time 
quite free from interference by the mother 
country. Thus, the Anglo-Saxon genius 
for self-government had full scope. 

Both the French and the mountains 
blocked the westward expansion of the 
colonies. But in the century and a half 
of intensive development within that nar- 
row ocean strip to which they were lim- 
ited, a firm foundation was laid upon 
which to build a great nation. Farms 
were being cleared that would have re- 
mained wilderness could the earlier set- 
tlers have passed easily to the richer 
lands of the West. Institutions were sta- 
bilized that would have been impossible 
had the population been widely scattered. 

Such is the background supplied by the 
first two films in United States History. 



50 



The Society for Visual Education 



FRENCH EXPLORATIONS IN NORTH 

AMERICA 

Purpose of the reel: To picture the extent 
and character of the French occupation of 
North America, as a background for the 
study of the first of the great events that 
brought our country into being. 

That event was the French and Indian 
War, which determined that the new nation 
was to be English and not French. The 
struggle between France and England for the 
possession of North America, by giving the 
Scattered English Colonies a problem whose 
solution forced them to think and act to- 
gether, bound them in closer union, and 
proved one of the most significant of the in- 
fluences that combined to transform English- 
men into Americans. 




CANOES ARE CARRIED AROUND ROUGH 
WATER 
At Detroit, a point of military advantage, 
fort and trading post are built. The ani- 
mated exploration line continues along the 
St. Clair River, through Lake Huron and the 
Straits of Mackinac, and along the western 
shore of Lake Michigan. Other lake routes 
are pictured. But since the French have 
come to the New World as trappers, traders 
and missionaries, they leave the lakes and 
push resolutely into the interior. Animated 
maps trace their progress, until their thin 
line of forts, missions and trading posts 
stretches from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf 
of Mexico. They found few settlements. We 
see LaSalle, and the map visualizes his fa- 
mous journey to the Mississippi via the Chi- 
cago, Desplaines and Illinois Rivers. Ruins 
of an old fort near St. Louis tell of the 
French dream of empire. 





CARTIER CROSSES TH10 ATLANTIC AND 
DISCOVERS THE ST. LAWRENCE 
RIVER 

In an animated drawing, a vessel sails 
from France to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
As the gulf narrows, the ship gives place to 
a moving line which traces the route of these 
daring French explorers up the St. Lawrence 
River. The map points out Quebec and 
Montreal, and then upon the screen looms the 
great hill which Cartier christened "Mount 
Royal." The animated line follows the route 
up the Ottwa River, overland to Lake Nipis- 
sing, then by water to Lake Huron. Little 
by little the French explore the Great Lakes 
region. We are shown a detail map of the 
Niagara River and Father Hennepin's quaint 
sketch of Niagara Falls ; and then the scene 
is pictured for us by modern motion picture 
views. Moving pictures show how the ex- 
plorers pass rapids and waterfalls by "port- 
age." 




THE REGION EXPLORED BY T! 
FRENCH BEFORE 1750 



THE SI EUR DE LA SALLE PUSHES ON 
TO THE MISSISSIPPI 
The western routes were developed first, 
because the Indians there were less danger- 
ous than the hostile tribes of the East. 
Gradually, however, the animated lines of 
travel and trade progress eastward, until 
they reach the eastern shores of Lake Erie 
and the head waters of the Ohio. At strategic 
points in the Ohio Valley, forts and posts are 
built. Here the French are standing at the 
very back door of the English colonies, block- 
ing their growth to the west. It creates a 
situation which is bound to bring about a 
conflict for the possession of North America. 
By 1750, as the map makes clear, France is 
laying claim, by right of exploration and 
occupation, to all of the great central valley 
of our continent. 



The Society tor Visual Education 



"1 



ENGLISH SETTLEMENTS IN NORTH 
1MERICA 

Purpose of the reel: To set forth the 
main facts of the English settlements <m<l 
of colonial development. 

While the French were exploring: the 
interior, aided by the ready routes pro- 
vided by the St. Lawrence gateway and 
by the low portage between the Great 
Lakes and the Mississippi Valley, the 
English were held to the seaboard. The 
Appalachians, formed a barrier averaging 
300 miles in .width between tidewater and 
the Ohio Valley. But the English colonies 
were growing rapidly, and settlers began 
to push into the hills. It was only a ques- 
tion o-f time before they would feel the 
urge to sweep over the last ridges into 
the rich country beyond. 




IX 1620 A LITTLE BAND OP LIBERTY- 
SEEKERS FOUNDS PLYMOUTH COLONY 

There are pictures of the landing of Hen- 
drik Hudson, stern old Peter Stuyvesant- — ■ 
the Hudson River- — the Dutch church at Al- 
bany — the Van Rensselaer Manor House. 
The moving line enters Delaware Bay and 
stops at the Swedish settlement of Fort Chris- 
tina. As the English absorb these various 
settlements, the names "New Amsterdam," 
"Fort Orange" and "Fort Christina" fade 
out, giving way to "New York," "Albany," 
"Wilmington." By animated shading the 
map shows us the English settlements 
spreading inland, until they reach the 
foothills of the Appalachians. We see, 
pictured types of the homes the English have 
been building — cottages, mills, substantial 
brick mansions — all evidence of the perma- 
nent quality of the English colonization 
movement. 





THE FIRST ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IS 
MADE AT JAMESTOWN IN 1607 
The animated map brings a moving line 
to the location of the first English settlement 
in America — Jamestown, 1607. On the screen 
flashes a portrait of doughty Captain John 
Smith. We see a view of early Jamestown 
and the ruins of the very church where these 
Virginia settlers worshipped. By another line 
moving westward from the Old World, the 
map visualizes the coming of the Pilgrims 
in 1620. Touching first at Provincetown, at 
the tip of Cape Cod, they settle finally at 
Plymouth. The Scene of the historic landing 
is pictured on the screen. Other colonies 
are planted — Boston, Windsor, Wethersfield, 
Hartford, Providence. Exeter. After this the 
animated line takes us to the settlements of 
the Dutch — New Amsterdam, at the tip of 
Manhattan Island. Fort Orange, up on the 
Hudson. 




FRENCH EXPLORATIONS AND ENGLISH 
SETTLEMENTS BY 1750 



THE BARRIER THAT LIES ACROSS THE 
PATH OF THE ENGLISH PIONEERS 
The Appalachians block further westward 
movement. Animated maps and scenic mo- 
tion pictures show how tremendous is - the 
barrier. There is but one easy pathway open 
to the West — the Hudson-Mohawk-Oswego 
route. The animated map outlines it in clear 
detail. We see the English following this 
route, building fort and trading, post at 
Oswego on Lake Ontario. But the French 
control the Upper Lakes and the Mississippi ; 
they are also in the Ohio Valley. All gate- 
ways to the West are closed unless their 
hold upon the interior can be loosened. Ani- 
mated maps picturing French and English 
areas of control again visualize the problem ; 
and a title— "This situation caused the Eng- 
lish and French to fight for control of North 
America" — leads up to the third reel of the 
series. 



52 The Society for A^isual Education 



SCHOOLFILMS 



THE Society for Visual Education — a 

national organization of progressive 

American educators — was formed to 

advance the cause of visual education. 

In its series of SCHOOLFILMS it is 
developing screen courses that truly 
merit the title of "educational films. ,, 
Prepared by teachers for teachers — de- 
signed for school use exclusively — work- 
ing hand in hand with the textbook — 
vitalizing the lesson — making through- 
out for better citizenship — SCHOOL- 
FILMS embody the best that America's 
most eminent educators have yet brought 
to this new movement in education. 

SCHOOLFILMS are planned, pro- 
duced and edited under the personal 
direction of the organizers of the Society 
for Visual Education. That means 
they are 

Definitely correlated with the 
course of study 

Pedagogically sound 
Authoritative 



See N e x t Pa g e. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 



The following courses in American History, Geography, 
Civics, Nature Study and Hygiene and Sanitation are now 
being distributed, and additional SCHOOLFILMS are being 
perfected as rapidly as a strict adherence to the Society's 
standards permits. 



Foundation and Settlement 
of the United States 

French Explorations 
English Settlements 
Struggle of French and English for 

North America 
Breaking Through the Appalachians 
The American Revolution 
Settling the Ohio Valley 
The Louisiana Purchase and the 

Lewis and Clark Expedition 
Trans-Mississippi Trails 
Across the Rockies to the Pacific 

Economic History of the 
United States 

Steamboats in U. S. History 
Canals in U. S. History 
Railroads in U. S. History 
Conservation by Irrigation 
Immigration 

Significance of the Panama Canal in 
U. S. History 

Civics 

A Citizen and His Government — 
Parts I and II 

What is Government? 

Representative Democracy in the 
United States 

The Growth of a City and Its Prob- 
lems 



Physical Geography 

The Earth and Worlds Beyond 
Formation of Glaciers 
The Work of Rivers 
Study of Low Shore Features 
Study of Bold Shore Features 
Formation of Caves in Limestone 
Formation of Volcanoes 
Formation of Geysers 
Formation of Coral Growths 

Regional Geography 

New England — Parts I and II 
Middle Atlantic States — Coastal 

Plain 
Middle Atlantic States — Appalachian 

Highlands 
Southern States — Parts I and II 
Central Plains — Parts I and II 
Great Plains 
Western Plateaus 
Rocky Mountains 
Pacific Mountains and Lowlands 

Nature Study 

Where Plants Live 

Life-History of the Monarch But- 
terfly 

Midsummer Wild Plants of the Cen- 
tral States 

Hygiene and Sanitation 

Getting Acquainted with Bacteria — ■ 

the Smallest Plants in the World 
Waste Disposal in Cities 



Each reel is accompanied by a Teacher's Syllabus containing outlines, 
questions, supplementary information for after-the-showing comment, and 
full instructions for the most effective presentation of the film. 

For prices and other details regarding SCHOOLFILMS 
write direct to headquarters 



The Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

327 South La Salle Street, Chicago 



When you write, please mention VISUAL, EDUCATION 



M 



The Society for Visual Education 



COMMITTEES 


(Continued from page 46) 


COMMITTEE ON HEALTH AND SANI- 


G. S. Counts, 


TATION 


University of Washington, 


V. C. Vaughan, Chairman, 


Seattle, Wash. 


University of Michigan, 


F. N. Freeman, 


Ann Arbor, Mich. 


University of Chicago, 


E. R. Downing, 


Chicago, 111. 


University of Chicago, 


M. E. Haggerty, 


Chicago, Illinois. 


University of Minnesota, 


Simon Flexner, 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


Rockefeller Institute, 
New York, N. Y. 


V. A. C. Henmon, 

University of Wisconsin, 


F. M. Gregg, 


Madison, Wis. 


University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln, Nebr. 


Ernest Horn, 




University of Iowa, 


Ludvig Hektoen, 


Iowa City, Iowa. 


John McCormick Institute for Infec- 




tious Diseases. 


W. A. Justice, 


Chicago, Illinois. 


Director of Visual Education, 


E. 0. Jordan, 


Evanston, Illinois. 


University of Chicago, 


T. L. Kelly, 


Chicago, 111. 


Teachers College, Columbia 


Wickliffe Rose, 


University, 


International Health Board, 


New York, N. Y. 


New York, N. Y. 


W. S. Monroe, 


M. J. Rosenau, 


University of Illinois, 


Harvard University, 


Urbana, 111. 


Cambridge, Mass. 


P. C. Packer, 


C. E. Turner, 


Board of Education, 


Mass. Inst, of Technology, 


Detroit, Michigan. 


Boston, Mass. 


Rudolph Pintner, 




Ohio State University, 
Columbus, 0. 




COMMITTEE ON HISTORY 


H. 0. Rugg, 

Lincoln School of Teachers 


Wm. C. Bagley, Chairman, 


Columbia University, 


College, 


New York, N. Y. 


New York, N. Y. 


G. S. Ford, 


E. K. Strong, Jr., 


University of Minnesota, 


Carnegie Institute of Technology, 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 


S. B. Harding, 




University of Chicago, 




Chicago, Illinois. 


COMMITTEE ON TECHNICAL 


Miss Frances Morehouse, 


EXPERIMENTS 


University of Minnesota, 


F. R. Moulton, Chairman, 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


University of Chicago, 


Joseph Schafer, 


Chicago, 111. 


University of Oregon, 


W. A. Cogshall, 


Eugene, Ore. 


University of Indiana, 




Bloomington, Ind. 
A. H. Pfund, 




COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL EX- 


Johns Hopkins University, 


PERIMENTS 


Baltimore, Md. 


William F. Russell, Chairman, 


H. B. Lemon, 


University of Iowa, 


University of Chicago, 


Iowa City, Iowa. 


Chicago, 111. 



The Society for Visual Education 



75he 

Industrial Film Division 

OF 

The Society For Visual Education 

Equipped for the Production of Every- 
thing in Motion Picture Photography 

Making a specialty of nigh-class films for Welfare and Interorganization 
Purposes — Sales Promotion — Advertising — Industrial Education 



"OEING an organization of specialists in 
-*-' the making of industrial motion pic- 
tures, this organization, combined with 
the Society's unusual research facilities, 
guarantees productions of genuine power, 
quality and effectiveness. 

The Animated Cartoon Department 
has new and original methods in anima- 
tion — the result of extensive experiment — 
to offer users of industrial films. Any 
type of animated drawings can he sup- 
plied, from the simplest forms to the 
most intricate study of technical processes 
or mechanical devices. 



The Society will make surveys and submit scenarios 
and estimates without charge or obligation 

ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO 

SOCIETV FOR VISUAL EDUCATION 
Industrial Film Division 

327 South La Salle St. CHICAGO 

When- you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



56 



Visual Education 



FILM EXCHANGES 

(Continued from page fyS) 

Salt Lake City, Utah W. P. Reynolds 

University of Utah 

Tucson, Ariz Frank Lockwood 

University of Arizona 

University. Ala Jas. Thomas 

University of Alabama 

University, N. D A. H. Yoder 

University of North Dakota 

Vermillion. S. D J. C. Tjaden 

University of South Dakota 
GENERAL, ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Boston. Mass 84 State St. 

Chicago, 111 Monadnock Bldg. 

Cincinnati, Ohio .... Provident Bank Bldg. 

Dallas, Texas Interurban Bldg. 

Philadelphia, Pa Witherspoon Bldg. 

Salt Lake City Newhouse Bldg. 

San Francisco, Cal.116 New Montgomery St. 

Schenectady, N. Y Publication Bureau 

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER CO. 
Distributing- Centers 

Aberdeen, S. D J. C. Thomas 

Industrial & Normal School 

Ada, Okla B. A. Pratt 

East Central State Normal School 

Agricultural College, N. D...R. A. Corbett 

North Dakota Agricultural College 

Alva, Okla A. G. Vinson 

Northwestern Normal School 

Ames, Iowa Chas. Roach 

Iowa State College 



Austin, Texas Wm. R. Duffey 

University of Texas 

Bellingham, Wash J. V. Coughlin 

Washington State Normal School ^ 

Canyon, Texas F. H. Ives 

West Texas State Normal College 

College Station, Tex M. L. Hayes 

A. & M. College 

Corvallis, Ore O. D. Center 

Oregon Agricultural College 

Durant, Okla E. B. Robbins 

Southeast Normal School 

Edmond. Okla J. G. Mitchell 

Central State Normal School 

Emporia, Kan M. L. Smith 

Kansas State Normal School 

Kirksville, Mo T. A. Dalton 

State Teachers College 

Lawrence, Kan... Miss Grace Haverkampf 

University of Kansas 

Madison. Wis W. H. Dudley 

University of Wisconsin 

Pullman, Wash L. R. Lounsbury 

State College of Washington 

Salt Lake City, Utah I. B. Ball 

State Department of Public Instruction 

St. Paul, Minn J. V. Ankeney 

University of Minnesota 

Tahlequah, Okla C. W. Prier 

Northeastern Normal School 

Trenton, N. J.. .Mrs. Kathryn B. Greywacz 

New Jersev State Museum 

Vermillion, S. D J. C. Tjaden 

University of South Dakota 

Weatherford, Okla .5. B. Estridge 

Southwestern Normal School 



Reference List of Producers 



Atlas Educational Film Co., 

1111 South Blvd., Oak Park, 111. 
Beseler Film Co., 

71 W. 23rd St., New York City. 
Carborundum Co., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Carter Cinema Co., 

22 W. 42nd St., New York City. 
Community Motion Picture Bureau, 

46 W. 42nd St., New York City. 
Hershey Chocolate Co., 

Hershey, Pa. 
Kineto Company of America, 

71 W. 23rd. St., New York City. 



Marshall Field & Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Murphy Varnish Co., 

Newark, N. J. 
New Era Films, 

207 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Wm. L. Sherry Service, 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 
Society for Visual Education, 

327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C. 
U. S. Steel Corporation, 

Empire Building, New York City. 



$10 




Brings This Latest Model 
L. C. Smith or a Remington 

TYPEWRITER 

Thoroughly rebuilt in our fac- 
tory by the famous "Young Process. ' ' 
Fully guaranteed. Easy terms. No 
interest. FREE TRIAL. We handle 
all standard makes. Writef or details. 
YOUNG TYPEWRITER CO., Dept. Zk .Chicago 




ETAL ART PINS 



and Rings loaned to Grammar, High, 
Sunday School and College class officers 
or faculty. Make sample selection from 
FREE catalog of 300 designs from 20 
cents to $20 each. 
METAL ARTS CO., Dept. 8, Rochester, N.Y. 



When you write, please mention VJSUAL EDUCATION 



Miscellaneous Notes 



57 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

(Continued from Page 33) 
edged on the left side and rounded on the 
right." 

On another occasion, to some "men in 
miniature" (as Rudyard Kipling says) 
seven or eight years old, M. Collette gave 
a film-lesson on the locust. 

"There are animals which have bones 
and others which have none. Can you 
name examples?" asked the professor. 

On the end of a bench a little fellow, 
about as tall as a table, raised his hand. 
"The Crayfish," he said. Another offered 
"l'hanneton." He should have said "le 
hanneton," and when it had been ex- 
plained to him that the h on that word 
is aspirate and hence prevents elision, 
the vivid lesson on the locust began. 

For little Parisians, it was indeed real 
life of the fields that was unfolded before 
them in this excellent film; from the 
white worm they saw digging his subter- 
ranean galleries, chiseling the vegetable 
roots, and coming forth from the ground 
after three years — to the destruction of 
the pest by the peasants, who were shak- 
ing the trees and putting the harmful 
insects into the fire. 

These children are infinitely sym- 
pathetic to such teaching, their interest is 
intense. Not for an instant did their 
eyes wander. They were genuinely en- 
tertained by the very lesson which was 
teaching them. Fathers and mothers can 
desire but one thing: to see teaching by 
films extended to every school. 

• • • 

AN ARTICLE in the Literary Digest 
for June 26th, quoted from the 
Baltimore & Ohio Employees' Mag- 
azine, bewails the horrible outrages done 
the general railroad system by moving 
pictures, and appeals for a course in rail- 
road instruction which will enable a 
scenario author to distinguish at least 
between a horse car and a Pullman. The 
liberties that directors and authors have 
taken with the basic principles of rail- 
roading made it impossible for railroad 
men to remain sanely in their seats and 
watch a railroad picture through to the 
awful end. For instance, in the movies, 
deep-dyed villains swing themselves debo- 
nairly along the side of a train running 



a a com] 

L\ and 



seventy miles an hour, without even 
disarranging an eye-lash; noble heroes 
leap lightly from car to car, beat the en- 
gine to the switch and save the beauteous, 
unconscious damsel, who is bound to the 
rail and destined by foul machinations 
to be rent asunder. Again, the hero using 
only the left hand uncouples the trans- 
continental flier and toys around with a 
little three hundred pound gangway. 

The necessity for observation of small 
consistencies in regard to the simple me- 
chanics of trains and to the rules of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission never 
occurs to the fevered invention of the 
scenario maker. 

We are told that there is a slight 
change for the better, however, for the 
crimes committed in the name of im- 
agination are not so deadly as of old and 
the public is showing a tendency to de- 
mand at least a simulation of the truth 
in its vicarious cinematical traveling. 
• • • 
COMPREHENSIVE, excellent 
practical plan for the re- 
duction of juvenile delinquency 
by community effort has been prepared 
by 0. F. Lewis, the General Secretary 
of the Prison Association of New York, 
whose offices are in New York City. The 
plan discusses prevention by use of team 
work. It suggests the organization of 
leisure time and recreation as one of the 
best crime substitutes known. Dr. Lewis 
says: 'For the multitude of beginners 
in delinquency, delinquency is attractive, 
it cannot be prohibited by the "Thou- 
shalt-not" method. We can reduce de- 
linquency and crime by setting up 
counter-attractions and equivalents that 
are interesting, useful and constructive.' 
He suggests a canvass of each community 
and gives one hundred questions suggest- 
ing the organization which may be of as- 
sistance in working out a comprehensive 
plan. It is interesting to note that among 
the various agencies is included the Na- 
tional Board as the society best able to 
assist in handling motion pictures as an 
important phase of the whole question of 
entertainment and amusement. This 
pamphlet and the ideas contained in it 
should be utilized in most of the COin- 
(Covtinued on nage 58) 



58 



Visual Education 



VISUALIZING MYTHOLOGY 

(Continued from page 29) 

of the utmost importance to the an- 
cients. All the gods and goddesses had 
their attributes and their symbols. They 
themselves, in turn, were but symbols. 
Such study is necessary to preserve the 
correct atmosphere. Hermes without 
his staff and winged sandals would be 
ridiculous; Poseidon must have a tri- 
dent, and hair and beard that in their 
waving, tangled masses suggest the sea. 
The transcription of mythology to 
the screen will mean visits to libraries, 
art galleries and museums. Compari- 
sons should be made of representations 
of each character by different artists of 
antiquity. Vase paintings, reliefs, 
coins — each of these — will contribute 
its own interesting wealth of fascinat- 
ing details when it comes to the neg- 
lected field of Greek mythology, for 
the benefit of that" wonderful library 
of educational motion pictures which 
is to be the glorious development of 
coming years. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

(Continued, from preceding page) 

munities of the United States." — The 
Bulletin of the Affiliated Committees for 
Better Films for May, 1920. 
• • • 

AN ARTICLE by Muriel Baily in 
the June number of the Pan- 
American Union should be of in 
terest to all devotees of the cause of 
visual education. The article is entitled 
"Moving Pictures in Pan-America" and 
deals generously with some phases of the 
subject not directly suggested by the 
title. 

The value of any visual appeal in gen- 
eral is dwelt upon discursively, but the 
tremendous importance of moving pic- 
tures is emphasized in particular; the 
definite statement is made that the cin- 
ema is to be the agent that will solve the 
problem of social unrest because of its 
gigantic educational possibilities. There 
then follows detailed mention of the role 
that various inventors and moving pic- 
ture pioneers have played in blazing the 
trail that is now a macadamized boule- 
vard to financial prosperity. 

From this point the flow of the argu- 
ment carries you smoothly and lands you 
in South America, where the native is 
apparently arousing himself from his 
perpetual .siesta under the banana tree 
(Continued on page 62) 




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STAMMER M N ° re 

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When you write, please mention VISUAL. EDUCATION 



Advertisements 








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Authors — Every professor engaged in this work is 
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Visual Education 



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COLUMBIA, MO- 
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NATION-WIDE SEARCH FOR TEACHERS 

In order to meet the present emergency, we have again enlarged 
our facilities, and we are better prepared than ever before to render 
professional service to teachers available for any kind of educational 
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seeking teachers. 

With our affiliated Agencies we cover the entire country. 

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E. E. Olp, Manager 28 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago 



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Railway Exchange Building 

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Chicago, 111. 

No registration fee now or later. Choice positions filled 
every month in the year. 

SEND FOR REGISTRATION BLANK 

C. M. McDANIEL, Manager 



READINGS and ORATIONS 

for 

Public Speaking and Contests 

The variety of titles and subjects our 
service covers, and our low prices will 
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waiting for you. 

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IVAN BLOOM HARDIN COMPANY 

3808 Cottage Grove Ave. Des Moines, Iowa 

All orders filled within twenty-four hours. 



HOME 



Courses in more 
than 40 subjects 

kJlUDl res P° ndence - 

(28th Year) Address 



©tj£ Untn^rsitu nf (Ehtragn 

(Div. 29) Chicago, 111 




When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Among Other Things They Say 



From a Colorado Educator: 
"... I have read over your lists of 
committees and feel sure that, with such 
able men to direct it, the work will not 
degenerate into entertaining the pupils, 
but that the original thought which 
prompted the society will be kept con- 
stantly to the front. 

"When we look over the work of school 
pupils and find how many years students 
can spend carrying out the programs of 
schools and yet finish with so little right 
training and so small an amount of ac- 
curate knowledge and such poor habits 
of research and study, one is almost dis- 
couraged. I have always taken the at- 
titude that school should stand to the 
pupils for work, but for pleasant work, 
and it is with the hope that pictures such 
as you describe would be not diverting 
but rather awakening and clearing to the 
mind, that I am desirous of seeing them 
established in my school. ... It 
seems to me that if the films are as clear- 
ing to the mind as I can fancy they might 
be, there should be more time left for 
the training which I also desire for 
them. . . ." 

A. W.' V. (Principal). 
This is what a Kansas attorney says: 
"I enjoy reading Visual Education. It 
is a great publication. . . ." 

C. F. T. 
From a librarian in California: 
"I have seen recently a copy of your 
very interesting publication and hasten 
to send my subscription. As I am a li- 
brarian of a large school it is of special 
interest along educational lines. . . . 
I am sure all who are fortunate enough 
to read one of your magazines will be 
enthused as I have been in Visual Edu- 
cation." I. G. S. 
An Illinois Principal says: 
"I am attending school at the Univer- 
sity of Indiana and am in a class of High 
School teachers, mostly principals and 
superintendents, that is making a study 
of various phases of high school condi- 
tions. I have been assigned to write a 
report upon visual instruction. 

"So much for an introduction. I have 
come across Volume 1, Nos. 2 and 3 of 



your very admirable magazine and it nas 
come to me that you may be willing and 
able to give me some sources of informa- 
tion relative to this phase of modern edu- 
cation. I do not know what plans your 
Society has in relation to this phase of 
school work, nor do I know whether or 
not your timely magazine has come to 
the attention of the men and women of 
this class. They are all, or at least nearly 
all, people who next fall will carry on the 
work of instruction and management in 
the schools of the state. I have so far 
found but little in the library of the 
University relative to this subject with 
exception of your two copies of Visual 
Education. 

"I am wondering if you could make any 
suggestions as to sources of material or 
if you would care to send me any lit- 
erature you have at hand on the matter. 
. . . If I can make the class see the 
value of visual instruction as well as 
your magazine has made me see it, I feel 
sure that some good will result." 

J. W. J. (Superintendent). 
From an officer in the American Social 
Hygiene Association: 

"I am very much interested in your 
May number of Visual Education, and 
find the articles helpful and suggestive 
for my work, which consists primarily in 
producing and distributing motion pic- 
tures on social hygiene. ... I was 
interested in the list of educational 
films. . . ." 

H. E. K. (Director). 
An Officer in a California Woman's 
Club writes as follows: 

"A friend loaned me a copy of the May 
Visual Education and I gladly send in 
my subscription. Cordially wishing suc- 
cess." S. F. (Cor. Sec.) 
Coming from De Soto, Missouri: 
"... I have been receiving your 
magazine for some time and like it ex- 
tremely well. I wish you success." 

L. M. 
From a member of the faculty of 
Teacher 8 College, Columbia University: 
". . . The June number is a corker." 
E. F. 
(Continued on page 69) 



62 



Visual Education 



"Mcintosh Lanterns are Honest Lanterns" 

The Classroom 

is the place for Visual Instruction. No 
more marching thru the halls — no more 
disturbance and skylarking. Just at- 
tach an Automatic Sciopticon 




to any incandescent socket and turn on 
the current. Remarkably efficient — 
extremely simple. Ask for circular. 

Mcintosh Educational Slides 

are used all over the country. They 
are listed in four catalogs: 

A of Agriculture, S of Science, E of 
Industries, H of History and Civics. 
Which do you want? 

McINTOSH ggggSf? 1001 * 

30 E. Randolph St., Chicago, III. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

(Continued from page 58) 
and begging in enlightened style for the 
celluloid reel. 

The facts presented are most interest- 
ing. South America is proving to be an 
El Dorado for American moving picture 
syndicates, for in spite of the enormous 
footage exported annually it is still im- 
possible to supply the demand. All of 
these films, of course, have to be retitled 
in the language of the state to which 
they are sent. Frequently it has hap- 
pened that these subtitles have been 
clumsily translated and the meaning 
thus rendered obscure, but this difficulty, 
like many others, is being obviated as 
the service is perfected. 

Directors also are looking southward 
in their search for new stuff, settings, 
plots, etc. Griffith, notably, staged most 
of his "Idol-Dancer" in Cuba, while 
Prizma has made many interesting 
studies in Guatemala. In Peru an Ameri= 
can has organized a big producing com- 



THE WORKING MUSEUM 

(Continued from page 26) 

He will not use it. It will fall into 
neglect. Ultimately it will be scat-, 
tered." Does a biological laboratory or 
a chemical laboratory cease to be with 
a change of teachers? Is it not de- 
manded of the teacher of physics that 
he maintain and use a laboratory? 
Why should it not equally be demanded 
of a teacher of history that he use a 
museum ? 

Finally appears the stern advocate 
of "hard" pedagogy. "Here is another 
fad," says he, "in which there may 
be a great deal of entertainment but 
little of knowledge." The genuine 
working museum of history is only in- 
cidentally an entertainer. Primarily 
it is a most efficient teacher. The in- 
dividual and class that spend a little 
time in our Colonial Room are indeed 
entertained. They also learn much of 
the past at first hand. Over and above 
everything else; they find themselves 
in an atmosphere which affords them 
an actual experience. They understand 
the past, not because they have learned 
about it and remember it, but because 
they have lived precious moments in 
the actual surroundings of the days of 
yore and therefore they know. Such 
an experience of visual teaching abides 
with the student through life. 



pany which is to export on a large scale. 
The sunny, clear climate there is said 
to be as satisfactory for photographic 
purposes as that of California, while the 
historied, romantic backgrounds are in- 
finite in number. 

It is true that French and Italian films 
are greatly in demand in some parts of 
(Concluded on page 12) 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Adyertisemexts 



63 




Copyright Keystone View Co. 



She Sees the Panama Canal 

The~stereograph makes a vivid and lasting impression. 

Interest and eagerness to learn are stimulated through the daily use of one 
or two stereographs that fit the day's lesson. 

Use lantern slides for recitation and review. 

Let the pupils talk about slides which they have already seen in stereographic 
form. 

Recitations are made a pleasure, and excellent training in English is given by 
this method. 

The Keystone System, made up of 600 stereographs and their duplicates in 
slides, covers all the important parts of the world. 

The Teachers' Guide, edited by a board of sixty-two leading educators, shows 
the teacher just what pictures go with each day's lesson. 

An index, cross referenced, points out several thousand teaching points, vis- 
ualizing geography, history, literature, the manual arts, etc. 



Further particulars on request 

Dept. V, KEYSTONE VIEW CO., Inc. 

Meadville, Pa. 

When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



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When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



ADVBR1 ISEMEN 1- 




tion for projecting iantern slides. 



he 



ii • 99 

enscope 

Price $385.00 



LJERE is the universal machine, — a semi-portable mov- 
* * ing picture Projector which is the superior of any 
similar machine ever made, with a Stereopticon Attachment, 
making an ideal combination. 

Read the following pages 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



06 



Advertisements 



mmmd, 



The Only Portable Machine with which yoi 




IS&1 



This shows the lamp house in posi- 
tion for projecting moving pictures. 



Notable Features to be had 



SAFETY SHUTTER— drops automatically the 
instant the machine is stopped. 

CENTER DIVIDING METAL FILM MAG- 
AZINE — entirely encases the film, and spells 
"Safety First" always. Be sure the projector 
you buy has center dividing metal magazines. 

CHANGING LAMPS— Merely slide the holder 
out. 



ONLY INDEPENDENT MOTOR-DRIVEN 
RE-WIND — The projecting mechanism is at 
a dead standstill during re-winding, meaning 
double the life for a Veriscope. 

INSTANT FRAMING— You never have to stop 
a Veriscope to frame the picture. 

OILING— Most convenient, and as thorough as 
on any piece of machinery built. 



All "Veriscope" Models take ALL "standard width' , 



When you write, please mention VISUAL. EDUCATION 






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can show slides while changing reels! 

You can run moving pictures alone, able to show a few slides (such as 
or lantern slides alone. But its next week's announcements, or ad- 
greatest feature is its instant vertising slides) and thereby hold 
adaptability from one to the other. the attention of your audience 
Think of the advantage of being while you are changing reels. 

The "Veriscope" is equipped to be attached to any light circuit of either 32 or 
110 volts, either alternating or direct. By using a rheostat any 110- volt equipped 
machine can be used on a 220-volt circuit. The 110- volt equipment consists of a 
1000-watt lamp, which has sufficient illuminating power to throw a picture up 
to 125 feet. The 32-volt equipment may be either a 600 (20 amperes) lamp, 
monoplane filament, or a 900- watt (30 amperes), the power of which is sufficient 
to project a picture an almost unlimited distance. The lamp house slides on 
rigid, metal supports. A simple but strong bracket and catch holds it when in 
its "up" position for showing lantern slides. 

For showing Stereopticon Slides. there is a Standard Condenser Mount, — easily 
removable, when not needed, — also a Stereopticon Lens, adjustable both in lens barrel 
and bracket. The Slide-carrier alone can be removed by simply loosening a screw. 
All of the Stereopticon attachments are demountable. The whole equipment fits into 
a compact case for transporting. The dimensions are : 20 inches high, 24 inches 
long and 8 inches wide. 

For projecting stereopticon slides in the "Veriscope," it is unnecessary to have all of the 
illumination that the 1000-watt lamp gives. This necessitates reducing the light, which we do 
automatically with the starting and stopping of the projector. 

When you have finished projecting a film and you shut off the motor, this automatically 
reduces the voltage of the lamp, thus lowering its illumination and reducing the heat that is 
generated. 

After showing slides and you are ready for the next film, the lamp-house is lowered to 
its proper position, when the illumination comes right back to its maximum. This applies to all 
voltages, whether 32, 110 or 220. 

This device is absolutely original on the "Veriscope" and prevents the cracking of slides 
which often occurs from overheating, as the slightest cool draught on over-heated condensers 
or slides will invariably crack them. 



in this remarkable projector 



POSITIVE CHAIN-DRIVE FRICTION COOLING— A motor-driven fan and three ex- 

TAKE-UP — Never can slip, as belts do, but haust ports keep the lamp-house so cool that 

always prevents film from slacking up and you can change your lamp instantly, without 

bunching inside of case. annoying your audience by holding them 15 

INSTANTANEOUS FOCUSING DEVICE— t0 3 ° minutes - 

j Lens can be taken out for cleaning, etc., with- SAFETY ROLLERS — Nothing can follow film 
out removing shutter. down to the reels below. 

films, both regular and Eastman non-inflammable 

When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



G8' 



Advertisements 




Will go through any 
doorway, without tak- 
ing apart — 

The ventilating door in the top, 
as well as the slides over the two 
openings (for the picture and oper- 
ator's look-out) work automatically 
and instantly. The shelf for the pro- 
jector is adjustable to various angles, 
so as to meet the conditions of dis- 
tance and position of screen. The 
cabinet is of 20 gauge iron ; black 
enamelled; with spring-hinged door 
and heavy catch. 

Price $100.00 

Both the "Veriscope" and Booth 
are manufactured bv 



The finest Booth 
ever designed 

In schools and churches, or anywhere else, 
where a booth is needed for use in connection 
with a "Veriscope" Projector, we can furnish 
the finest PORTABLE booth ever designed. 
This is mounted on rubber tired castors, and 
is of such dimensions (78 inches high; 30 
inches wide; 48 inches deep), that it can be 
taken from room to room, THROUGH ANY 
DOOR without taking it apart. This is the 
only booth on the market that permits the 
showing of pictures from room to room and 
letting the various classes remain in their re- 
spective rooms. 




Acme Moving Picture Projector Co, 

1134 West Austin Ave. Chicago, 111. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisements 



Zenith Safety Projector 



T A/E offer this machine to you with 
confidence in its merits because of 
the many letters we have received from 
SATISFIED CUSTOMERS, some of 
whom write as follows: 

"We sincerely believe it to be the finest 
machine of its kind on the market. We 
have used it continuously for months." 

A pastor writes — "We are enthusiastic 
about it. It does everything you said it 
would, and even more." 



A large Industrial Company writes: — 
"Demonstration of the Zenith was made 
at 105 feet with very satisfactory results." 

If you are at all interested in having 
motion pictures and want the best, you 
also want the best available machine to 
project them, we have it in the ZENITH. 
It is a machine of proven value. 

Write us about it. Send for literature to 



RUTLEDGE & COMPANY 



35 S. DEARBORN ST. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



AMONG OTHER THINGS THEY 
SAY 

(Continued from page 61) 

A felloxo producer says: 

". . . Yours is the most vital step 
that has yet been taken in the rignt direc- 
tion, as far as education is concerned, 
and remember we are all with you. Wish- 
ing you success," M. C. C. 

From a prominent Chicago woman 
practicing law: 

"Thank you very much for the copies 
of Visual Education which came this 
morning. I shall see that they reach peo- 
ple who will read them with apprecia- 
tion. 

"I am very much interested in the 
announcement that there will be a depart- 
ment for reviewing films of an educa- 
tional nature, put out by commercial 
companies. I think this a splendid plan, 
and should be glad to assist in further- 
ing it. 

"The growth of the magazine is en- 
couraging to note and I think you are to 
be congratulated on its excellent make- 



■ip. 



P. W. S. 



An editor of a southern agricultural 
journal says: 

"Please let me have a sample copy of 
your magazine, as I have been intensely 
interested in visual education for a great 
many years. I was delighted to learn the 
other day that some school people are 
seeing the value of this natural method 
of getting an education." 

J. S. (Editor). 

Heard from an Illinois Superintendent: 

" 'I'm Per You.' We will need it in our 

Community High School next year. 

Therefore and 'hens' I am enclosing a 

money order for one year's subscription." 

L. K. F. (Superintendent). 

From the Secretary of the National 
Committee for Better Films: 

"As a member of a school board of no 
mean state, namely, New Jersey, I am in- 
tensely interested in questions of courses 
of study and the day by day application 
of methods in the education of the youth. 
I recognize that many of these methods 
have stood the test of time but I also rec- 
ognize that some educators are a trifle 
'hipped' on certain schemes which may or 
(Concluded on page 70) 



When you write, please mention VISUAL, EDUCATION 



70 



Visual Education 



'^>cf)ool Cffictencp i§>crb ce" 



Jllotum 
$tcturebom 

Demands 

AS TO MACHINES— That you secure the best for 
you, to meet the special needs of your particular school; 

AS TO FILMS — -That ycu have a means of keeping 
in touch With the many sources oj service that are open 
to you. 

The Demands Met 

It is our ambition to cater to those who realize tha' 
the subject of Motion Pictures for Schools is one big 
enough for a highly specialized attention, and who 
therefore wish to have the benefit of expert advice 
from a firm that is in a position to be impartial in 
recommendation. 

We shall endeavor to get whatever you may want, 
on the basis of SATISFACTION GUARANTEED OR 
MONEY BACK. "Tell us your troubles." 

& S>. Bum $c Company 

EXPERT LIBRARY BUILDERS- 
MOTION PICTURE SPECIALISTS 

€tmcattcmal department 

(SUBURBAN TO CHICAGO) 

DOWNERS GROVE, ILLINOIS 



DEPARTMENT OF BEGIN- 
NINGS 

(Continued from page 37) 
(c) On ocean to New Orleans, places 



Atlantic City. 
Charleston. 
Savannah. 
Pelican Island. 
Palm Beach. 

2. Arrival at New Orleans : 

Delta. 

Shipbuilding. 
Hauling rice. 
Shipping cotton. 

3. Trip up Mississippi River : 

(a) Stop at St. Louis. 
End wheeler. 

On levee, products. 
Cornfields. 

(b) Minneapolis. 

(c) St. Paul. 
Hauling logs. 

St. Anthony Falls. 
Ore mining. 
Miners at work. 
Iron steamer. 
Application: 

Write an account of your trip to a friend 
at home. 

E. B. Pendlebury, 
Supervising Principal, 
Ellwood School, Philadelphia 



AMONG OTHER THINGS THEY 
SAY 

(Continued -from page 69) 
may not bring satisfactory results in 
character and also in ability. 

"To perform the particular work in the 
world, that boys and girls are called upon 
to accomplish in their own limited sphere, 
the motion picture has an important part 
to play, and it will do its share only after 
a most intense study of the elements 
which go to influence the child's mind 
and the child's will. 

"Perhaps I am a trifle 'daffy' on the 
influence of the indirect and also of the 
practical methods of reaching boys and 
girls 'where they live.' I have found that 
handling tools, making trips, playing 
games, seeing people and seeing nature, 
when the attention of the child is cap- 
tured, all have remarkable effects. This 
method of education is not systematic 
but is co-ordinated by the children in re- 
markable fashion. As a substitute for 
actually seeing people, nature, processes, 
etc., the motion picture has a valuable 
place. 

"This letter comes no nearer sugges- 
tions of methods than the former one. 
Some day, however, as an ignorant lay- 
man I shall like to sit down with edu- 
cators and work the thing out system- 
atically. 

"Wishing you abundant success in your 
work of stimulating thought along these 
newer lines in education." 0. G. C. 

From a Minnesota Club Woman: 

"I ran across a copy of Visual Educa- 
tion at the Public Library at a most 
providential time, for I had just finished 
a hot discussion with a very capable 
elderly English teacher who opposed the 
use of moving pictures in education. You 
can imagine my surprise and pleasure in 
seeing Visual Education on the rack in 
the reading room, for it is the first mate- 
rial I have found that covers the ideals I 
have been working for in my educational 
talks. . . . 

"If I can be of any assistance in this 
great progressive movement, let me get 
in before the tide comes in. . . I as- 
sure you I will consider it an honor to be 
of service. . . . 

"Yours for a more practical educational 
system." E. L. S. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



II 



$ 



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«» Zenith Portable* 

MOTION-PICTURE PROJECTOR 



c/l STANDARD MACHINE 
~/20/^ makeshift! 

A novice cam 
operate with. 
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Incandescent Mazda Lamp and 
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Sold, at one half the 
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FOR UNIVERSAL USE because its | 

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^'ZENITH PORTABLF'kas universal motor, alternating 

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Each part and every machine is honestly built and fully {guaranteed. 
me ZENITH meets every Projector recjuirement-in the World ! 

Terms if necessary 

<fl few good Dealer and Distributor territories still open 

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SOLE REPRESENTATIVES 

^oftfie 

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202 South State Street Chicago 





When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Visual Education 



Movie 



MAKERS OF 

Ml 



Screens 



for 

School Class Rooms and 

Assembly Halls 

Our children's eyes deserve pro- 
tection by the use of the best 
screens made. 

DA-LITE screens will prevent 
eye strain and double the intensity 
of your pictures. 

Mounted on HARTSHORN rollers and 
made from the best muslin — in gold or silver- 
tone — DA-LITE screens may be rolled up out 
of the way when not in use. Rolling does not 
crack or blister them. 

DA-LITE screens are used in the best theatres 
and schools, where perfect projection is para- 
mount. 

Why not use them in yours? 

Write for samples. 

DA-LITE SCREEN & SCENIC COMPANY 

922 W. Monroe St. Chicago, III. 



PROJECTORS 







Write for any intormation you might 
desire on the taking or projecting of 
motion pictures. Gladly given. 

VICTOR STEREOPTICON 
Projects pictures from 10 to 120 ft. from 
the screen, fitted with special upright 
nitrogen lamp, ready for action at any 
ordinary lamp socket. Special price of 
$48.00. Metal case for above, $5.00. Acme 
Model 11, the most Standard Portable 
M. P. Projector today, 1,000 ft. capacity, 
motor driven, special Nitrogen Bulb 
Illumination, special rewind. See Bass 
for immediate delivery. Price, $200.00. 
Acme Generator for use with any auto- 
mobile where electric power is not ob- 
tainable. Price, $150.00. 
Acme Junior, made especially for school 
room use. Price, $135.00. 

DE FRANNE M. P. CAMERA 
Field and Studio Model, 400 ft. capacity, 
forward and reverse take up, regular 
and trick crank, automatic dissolve, 
Tessar lens, a complete high-grade 
camera, ready for action, at $225.00. 
Get the Bass Movie List at Once 
BASS CAMERA COMPANY 
Dept. V, 109 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

(Concluded from Page 62) 
South America, particularly in Costa Rica 
and Colombia, but elsewhere the use of 
American film predominates; as in Bo- 
livia, for instance, where 95 per cent of 
the film exhibited is of American make. 
Nowhere from Tierra del Puego to Panama 
is the cinema unpopular, the theater un- 
attended. 

' Dramatic tastes vary in different parts 
of the country, but romantic drama and 
wild west stories seem to be universally 
enjoyed. Mexico, most peculiarly, is re- 
ported to revel in scenes showing a 
naughty little derringer puncturing hu- 
man anatomies in vital spots. News re- 
views and educational reels are very 
favorably received, however. 

The various governments are learning 
that it is to their advantage to back mov- 
ing picture enterprises and in many cases 
are responsible for the manufacture of 
films expository of their industries and 
the geography of their country. In Hon- 
duras, the theaters are requested to fur- 
nish a certain number of performances 
per month free to the public. The city 
of Buenos Aires shows pictures daily to 
all immigrants, maintaining them free of 
charge for one week at the Immigrant 
Hotel. Pictures are used to keep labor 
contented in remote mining and farming 
districts. 

In concluding, Miss Baily gives a gen- 
eralized account of the work done by 
churches, schools and museums in the 
United States in circulating film and thus 
promoting the spread of universal un- 
derstanding. The Bureau of Commercial 
Economics, in particular, is doing a most 
valuable work in supplying films to the 
South American and Latin- American 
states. Business concerns strongly advo- 
cate the use of American films in the 
southern continent, having found that 
where pictures of our ideals, environ- 
ment, customs, etc., are shown, the way 
is made easy for their sales work. 



HOME STUDY %**?& ^& 

sional degree Courses. Ninth year. Catalog Free 
TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE, Washington, D. C 



When you write, please mention VISUAL, EDUCATION 



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A New Projection— The Homalographic 

Better for Teaching Purposes 

The Homalographic Projection is an equivalent, or equal-area 
projection ; that is, there is no distortion of area. For this reason 
it is greatly superior to Mercator's Projection for teaching purposes. 
The ease of study in comparative latitudes is maintained ; the whole 
earth's surface is shown ; the continents and oceans are given better 
form than is possible in the older maps ; and, best of all, the truth 
is told about areas. There is now available for your use a desk 
outline map of the world for the continents (lOIHe) and one for the 
oceans (lOlHo) on the Homalographic Projection, at five cents each; 
and a wall outline map of the world (301Hc) at forty cents. 

A large and well-balanced series of outline maps is also available, 
and we shall be glad to send you a price list on request. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 



5791 Ellis Avenue 



Chicago, Illinois 



SUMMER work for Teachers should be both 
profitable and congenial. If you are in- 
terested, write us. We will send you our idea 
for pleasant and very profitable occupation 
of part of your time this summer. 

VISUAL EDUCATION 
327 South La Salle St. Chicago, 111. 



HOME 
STUDY 



Courses in more 
than 40 subjects 
are yiven by cor- 
respondence. 

Address 



n 



(28th Year) 

®b? $tuti* rBttu of (Ehiragn 

(DiT. 29) Chi«fO, 111. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Visual Education" 



Are You Earning What 
You Should? 

A Simple Test That Tells 

By C. A. BARRY 

you hope for if you are not up to par 
physically. 

Nature's Gravest Error 

We instantly heed the warning 
clang of a street car gong or the 
shriek of an automobile horn. We 
know that they warn us of impend- 
ing danger. 

But the greatest tragedy of Nature 
is that she gives no outward warning 
of impending physical disaster until 
it is almost too late to help. If we 
were warned by intense pain when 
the first sign of Diabetes, Bright's 
disease, or other serious ailments ap- 
peared — we could correct the trouble 
easily. But Nature does not give us 
pain until we have abused our bodies 
to the limit. 

And for this reason, thousands of 
men and women are living every day 
with a serious sickness and do not 
know it. It is as though your home 
burned down without a sign of smoke 
or flame. That is why men die "sur- 
denly." They have been passing on 
for years but did not know it. They 
thought that pain was nature's only 
warning — but they were wrong. 
Heed These Warnings 

We cannot afford to wait for the 
warning of pain. Then it is usually 
too late. But there is a way to deter- 
mine exactly "how you stand" phys- 
ically, at all times. Thousands of 
business men — and women, too — are 
making sure of active, vigorous 
health, mental alertness and the prac- 
tical certainty of adding from ten to 
twenty years to their lives. They are 
assuring themselves of greatest suc- 
cess in business through 100 per cent 
health, energy, vitality, through the 
service of the National Bureau of 
Analysis. 

The details of this health-guarding 
service are fully treated in our little 
book, "Why People Die Too Young." 
Your request will bring this little 
book, gratis, with our compliments. 



Some men believe they are worth a 
great deal more money than they are 
getting. Others know in their hearts 
that they are not worth what they 
are paid. But this concerns only 
those who really feel underpaid. 

The trouble with most of us is 
that we use only about one-tenth of 
our available brain power. And we 
earn about one-tenth of our possi- 
bilities. Let us see what the reasons 
are. 

No one questions the close rela- 
tionship between health and effi- 
ciency. We know that we cannot do 
our best work when we are bothered 
by a cold, a bad stomach, or an ache 
or a pain anywhere. But few people 
realize that they are below par phys- 
ically most of the time. Only on rare 
occasions have they the energy, "pep" 
and vitality needed to win in the 
daily fight for more than a mere liv- 
ing. And on these rare days they 
tackle each job like supermen. Work 
melts before them as snow before a 
blow-torch. And they wonder why 
they cannot feel that way always. 
Like Steam for the Locomotive 

But nearly every day they are han- 
dicapped by insidious, unknown, un- 
seen forces which are tearing them 
down; destroying their brain capac- 
ity and keping them below par in 
earning power. Yet, they "feel fine." 
There may be no pain, no aches, no 
outward warning of what is going on 
within. Only their pay envelopes 
show that they are not using all the 
energy they should. A locomotive is 
powerful only when steam is utilized. 
A human being may have a million 
dollars' worth of brain — but if he 
lacks the energy, the force to put it 
to use — he is like a locomotive with- 
out steam. 

You can never achieve your great- 
est success unless you use all that is 
in you. And you never use all of 
your brain power; realize on your 
experience or reach the position that 



NATIONAL BUREAU OF ANALYSIS, Inc. 

Suites E-V, Republic BIdg. CHICAGO, ILL. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Advertisement.- 



New Outline Maps 

The following list of new outline maps is in the Goode Series of Base 
Maps and Graphs. They are 21 x 15 inches, and are suitable both for teach- 
ers' wall maps and for students in filling in data. 

201HcW The World (continents, Western half): Homalographic projection. 

201HcE The World (continents, Eastern half): Homalographic projection. 

201PN The World (North polar hemisphere): Lambert's projection. 

201PS The World (South polar hemisphere): Lambert's projection. 

202 North America: on Lambert's azimuthal projection. 

203 South America: Sanson's projection. 

204 Europe: conic projection. 

205 Asia: Lambert's equal-area projection. 

206 Africa: Sanson's projection. 

209E LTnited States of America (Eastern half): conic projection. 

209W United States of America (Western half): conic projection. 

215 Europe, Northwestern: conic projection. 



Eight cents each net, postage extra. 

Orders for 50 maps of a kind or 100 assorted are subject to 

a 20 per cent education discount. 

Complete description of the entire series will be furnished on request. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

5791 Ellis Avenue Chicago, Illinois 



THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF 

The Mathematical Association of America 

Is the Only Journal of Collegiate Grade in the Mathematical 
Field in This Country 

This means that its mathematical contributions can be read and under- 
stood by those who have not specialized in mathematics beyond the Calculus. 

The Historical Papers, which are numerous and of high grade, are based 
upon original research. 

The Questions and Discussions, which are timely and interesting, cover 
a wide variety of topics. 

Surveys of the contents of recent books and periodicals constitute a valu- 
able guide to current mathematical literature. 

The "Topics for Undergraduate Mathematical Clubs" have excited wide 
interest both in this country and in Great Britain. 

The Notes and News cover a wide range of interest and information, both 
in this country and in foreign countries. 

The Problems and Solutions hold the attention and activity of a large 
number of persons who are lovers of mathematics for its own sake. 

There are other journals suited to the Secondary field, and there are still 
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Send for circular showing the articles published in the last six volumes. 

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"When you write, please mention VISUAL, EDUCATION 



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HOME 



Courses in more 
than 40 subjects 

STUDY s£sSr 

(28th Ye»r) Address 



\? HHnivt rsitu nf ©hintnn 

(Dir. 29) Chic»EO, HI, 




Notice 

the Slip on 

Page 39 



SUMMER work for Teachers should be both 
profitable and congenial. If you are in- 
terested, write us. We will send you our idea 
for pleasant and very profitable occupation 
of part of your time this summer. 

VISUAL EDUCATION 
327 South La Salle St. Chicago, 111. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL. EDUCATION 



4 

SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

OFFICERS 

President, Rollin -D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 

Vice-President and General Manager, H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation 

Secretary, F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 

DIRECTORS 
Frank A. Vanderlip, Chairman, New York City 
V. H. Arnold, Victor H. Arnold & Co., Chicago, Illinois 
W. "W. Atwood, Harvard University 
W. C. Bagley, Columbia University 

C. A Beard, Director New York Bureau of Municipal Research 
O. W. Caldwell, Lincoln School of Teachers College, Columbia University 
H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation, Chicago, Illinois - ' 

J. M. Coulter, University of Chicago 
F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 
W. F. Russell, University of Iowa 
R. D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 
V. C. Vaughan, University of Michigan 

GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD 
Mrs. Harriet H. Barry, President of National Federation of 

Better Film Workers Los Angeles, California 

J. H. Beveridge, Superintendent of Schools .Omaha, Nebraska 

Mrs. Guy Blanchard, Chairman Motion Picture Committee, 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Chicago, Illinois 

Mary C. C. Bradford, State Superintendent of Schools Denver, Colorado 

M. L. Brittain, State Superintendent of Schools Atlanta, Georgia 

E. C. Brooks, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Raleigh, North Carolina 

J. C. Brown, President State Normal College St. Cloud, Minnesota 

Violet P. Brown, Chairman Public Health and Child Welfare, 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Kankakee, Illinois 

T. W. Butcher, President Kansas State Normal School Emporia, Kansas 

C. E. Chadsey, Dean of College of Education, University of Illinois. . . .Urbana, Illinois 
J. A. C. Chandler, President of College of William and Mary. . .Williamsburg, Virginia 
H. W. Chase, President of University of North Carolina. . .Chapel Hill, North Carolina 

L. D. Coffman, President of University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota 

S. S. Colvin, Professor of Education, Brown University . . Providence, Rhode Island 

F. B. Cooper, Superintendent of Seattle Public Schools Seattle, Washington 

L. T. Damon, Professor of English, Brown University . .- Providence, Rhode Island 

G. H. Denny, President of University of Alabama University, Alabama 

E. R. Downing, School of Education, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

E. C. Elliott, Chancellor of the University, University of Montana Helena, Montana 

Mrs. Albert W. Evans, Chairman of Education, Illinois Federation 

of Women's Clubs Chicago, Illinois 

David Felmley, President of Illinois State Normal College Normal, Illinois 

T. E. Finegan, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. . .Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 
H. W. Foght, President of Northern Normal and 

Industrial School Aberdeen, South Dakota 

C. Fordyce, Dean of Teachers College, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 

J. Paul Goode, Professor of Geography, University of Chicago ,. . .Chicago, Illinois 

(Continued on page 49) 



Adv 



Psychology 



Is the science which treats of the mind, its functions, 
conditions of activity, development and essential nature. 

The controlling factor in every business situation is mental, and \\ 
science has now demonstrated and verified by exact observation that \ 

HEALTH, HARMONY AND PROSPERITY 

are the result of correct thinking. The Master Key is one of the 

most remarkable little books ever published concerning the 

value of this wonderful science. A copy will be mailed 

to any address without cost or obligazion of any kind, 

CHARLES F. HAANEL 
262 Howard Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 



THE PRIME REQUISITE 

of a base map is legibility. This calls for proper distribution of emphasis 
in the lines used. The coast line must be broad enough to show dis- 
tinctly that it is a coast line as compared with other irregular lines, such 
as rivers. Rivers should be drawn with care so as to present the char- 
acter of a river. Neither coast line nor rivers are simple wavy lines. 
Even in the simplest base map, therefore, a good draftsman will be ac- 
curate in preserving the character of the real coast line and river. 
Then, too, the one who is to use the base map must be able to sketch 
in readily any sort of areal distribution. For this reason the map must 
provide in the frequent "parallels and meridians and the accurate detail 
of rivers and boundaries, the necessary reference points by which the 
desired areas may be easily located. 

Goode's series of Base Maps and Graphs provides in a high degree 
the quality of line and accuracy of drawing required. The most care- 
ful student will not be disappointed. 

Send for description and prices (0 



THE UNIVERSITY OF 

5791 Ellis Avenue :: 



CHICAGO PRESS 

:: Chicago, Illinois 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Visual Education 




trices 
Cut to 
Nearly 
Half-^ 
and Why 

With greater 
production 
and huge finan- 
cial resources, 
The Oliver Type- 
writer Company is 
the pace setter. 

Its officials seek to 
relieve the public of a 
useless tax. In the past, 
it has cost $36 to sell 
typewriters through an 
expensive sales force — ■ 
high rents for offices in 
many cities — and other 
frills. All are wasteful from 
an economic viewpoint. That 
is why Oliver Nines are shipped 
direct from the factory to the 
users — on free trial. This permits 
us to sell machines to you for $64. 
You get the saving. 

This plan, we feel sure, is in keeping 
with modern demands. All will wel- 
come such a sincere effort to reduce 
the High Cost of Typewriters. 



Be Your Own Salesman and Save $36—* 

New Oliver 
Typewriters for $64 

Let US send you a brand new Oliver Nine — the world-famous 
typewriter — for five days' free trial. Keep it or return it. 

That is our plan in a nutshell. Our new plan — besides saving 
you $36 — makes it easy for every one to convince himself of Oliver 
superiority. No red tape — no money down. No salesman need in- 
fluence you. No need to ever pay $100 for a typewriter again. 

This is Our Offer 

No money down— easy monthly payments 

Maker and user deal direct. You are your own 

salesman. You pay yourself the $36. Own 

this master typewriter at the rate of $4 per 

month. The Oliver Nine itself must convince 

you. It is the greatest, the most durable, 

the most successful typewriter ever built. 

No finer can be bought for any price. It 

is a twenty-year development. 





There is no need now to ever pay $100 
again for a new typewriter. The Oli- 
ver plan gives everyone an opportu- 
nity to own an Oliver. And at the 
lowest time payments. 
This is the same machine used 
by the largest concerns. It has 
all the latest improvements. 

For speed and fine work- 
manship it can't be 
beat. 

If, after a trial of five 
days you are 
not satisfied — 
ship it back at 
our expense. 






Over 800,000 Sold 



Do not confuse 

This $64 Oliver is our 
latest and best model. It 
is not a special model — 
but the identical machine 
that was $100 before the 
war. Reduced selling- ex- 
penses saves you $36. 

Some of the big concerns 
using Olivers are: U. S. 
Steel Corp., Standard Oil 
Co., National City Bank of 
N. Y., Montgomery Ward, 
Pennsylvania R. R. The 
Oliver is famous the world 
over. You can now own 
one for 13c per day. 



13 cents a day 



Easy payments of $4 per month. This In addi- 
tion to our cutting the price in two. Could any 
one go further? Yet we offer this free trial without 
obligation on your part. The plan is daring — but 
we believe discerning people will respond. 

This is the first time in history that a new, never- 
used $100 typewriter of the latest model has been 
offered at the price of cheaper or second-hand ma- 
chines. It is cheaper to own than rent. 

No money down 

Simply send in the coupon properly filled in. 
There is no red tape — - no collectors — no bother. 
Keep the Oliver for $4 per month. Or return it. 
It is up to you. Mail the coupon today. 



It»< 



Canadian Price, $82 

OLIVER 

Typewriter (pmpan^ 

49C Oliver Typewriter Bldg., Chicago, IU. 



FREE TRIAL COUPON 

THE OLIVER TYPEWRITER COMPANY 

49C Oliver Typewriter Bldg., Chicago, III. 

□ Ship me a new Oliver Nine for five days free 
inspection. If I keep it, I will pay $64 at the 
rate of $4 per month. The title to remain in you 
until fully paid for. 

My shipping point is 

This does not place me under any obligation to buy. 
If I choose to return the Oliver, I will ship it back 
at your expense at the end of five days. 

□ Do not send a machine until I order it. Mail 
me your book — "The High Gost of Typewriters 
— The Reason and the Remedy," your de luxe cat- 
alog and further information. 

Name , : 

Street Address 

City State 

Occupation or Business 



Advertisements 



Movie 



ma;<erg of 

ISM 



Screens 



for 

School Class Rooms and 

Assembly Halls 

Our children's eyes deserve pro- 
tection by the use of the best 
screens made. 

• DA-LITE screens will prevent 
eye strain and double the intensity 
of your pictures. 

Mounted on HARTSHORN rollers and 
made from the best muslin— in gold or silver- 
tone — DA-LITE screens may be rolled up out 
of the way when not in use. Rolling does not 
crack or blister them. 

DA-LITE screens are used in the best theatres 
and schools, where perfect projection is para- 
mount. 

Why not use them in yours? 

Write for samples. 

DA-LITE SCREEN & SCENIC COMPANY 

922 W. Monroe St. Chicago, 111. 



INDUSTRIAL ART TEXT BOOKS 

-1 Series of Text Books for Children 

By 
Bonnie E. Snow and Hugo B. Proehllch 

Why Not Adopt Them? 

The Industrial Art Text Books Are Practical. 
The Industrial Art Texl Books relate 
Art (Drawing) in the Elementary ;- 
to the life of the child and the community. 

The Industrial Art Text Books Are Pedagogical. 
The books give the child an opportunity 
to work out his problems for himself, 
thus educating him through his own 
mental activity — not through the mental 
activity of the teacher. 

The Industrial Art Text Books Are Usable. 
The Industrial Art Text Books are now 
used successfully by hundreds of thou- 
sands of children. 

PUBLISHED IN TWO FORMS 
Regular Edition in Eight (8) Parts 
Shorter Course in Four (4) Books 

The A. S. Barnes Company 

Laidlaw Brothers 
Educational Publishers 



1922 Calumet Ave. 

Chicago 



30 Irving Place 

New York 



HOME 



Courses in more 
than 40 subjects 

STUDY -- d — or * 

(28th Year) Address 



®ije 3lttttt*r£tiy of flHjiragn 



(Div. 29) Chicago, 111. 





CAMERA PROJECTORS 

NEW AND USED 

BARGAINS ONLY 

Send For List or Information 

CAMERA EXCHANGE 

26 W. Quincy Street Chicago, II!. 



Lantern Slides 



FOR EVERY 
PURPOSE 



Send for bargain list of educational 
sets. Over 15,000 slides at 10c and 15c 



Stereopticons 

Standard Slide Corp. 



All makes — tell us 
your wants. 



209 W. 48th St. 



New York 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



Visual Education 




ABOUT 

SCHOOLFILMS 



HE Society for Visual Education — a 
national organization of progressive 
American educators — was formed to 
advance the cause of visual education. 

In its series of SCHOOLFILMS it is develop- 
ing screen courses that truly merit the title of 
"educational films. " Prepared by teachers for 
teachers — designed for school use exclusively — 
working hand in hand with the textbook — vital- 
izing the lesson — making throughout for better 
citizenship— SCHOOLFILMS embody the best 
that America's most eminent educators can bring 
to this new movement in education. 

SCHOOLFILMS are planned, produced and 
edited under the personal direction of the organ- 
izers of the Society for Visual Education. That 
means they are 

Authoritative 

Pedagogically sound 

Definitely correlated with the 
course of study 



Current courses are listed on the opposite page. 



Al>\ EBTISEMENTS 



The following courses are now being distributed, and addi- 
tional SCHOOLFILMS are being perfected as rapidly as 
the Society's standards permit. 



American History 

Course I 

Foundation and Settlement 
of the United States 

French Explorations 
English Settlements 
Struggle of French and English for 

North America 
Breaking Through the Appalachians 
The American Revolution 
Settling the Ohio Valley 
The Louisiana Purchase and the 

Lewis and Clark Expedition 
Trans-Mississippi Trails 
Across the Rockies to the Pacific 

Course II 

Economic History of the 

United States 

Steamboats in U. S. History 
Canals in U. S. History 
Railroads in U. S. History 
Conservation by Irrigation 
Immigration 

Significance of the Panama Canal in 
U. S. History 



Civics 



Course I 

A Citizen and His Government — 
Parts I and II 

What is Government? 

Representative Democracy in the 
United States 

The Growth of a City and Its Prob- 
lems 



Geography 

Course I 
Physical Geography 

The Earth and Worlds Beyond 
Formation of Glaciers 
The Work of Rivers 
Study of Low Shore Features 
Study of Bold Shore Features 
Formation of Caves in Limestone 
Formation of Volcanoes 
Formation of Geysers 
Formation of Coral Growths 
Course II 

Regional Geography 

New England — Parts I and II 
Middle Atlantic States — Coastal 

Plain 
Middle Atlantic States — Appalachian 

Highlands 
Southern States — Parts I and II 
Central Plains — Parts I and II 
Great Plains 
Western Plateaus 
Rocky Mountains 
Pacific Mountains and Lowlands 

Nature Study 

Course I 

Where Plants Live 

Life-History of the Monarch But- 
terfly 

Midsummer Wild Plants of the Cen- 
tral States 

Hygiene and Sanitation 

Course I 

Getting Acquainted with Bacteria — 

the Smallest Plants in the World 
Waste Disposal in Cities 



Each reel is accompanied by a Teacher's Syllabus oonta 
questions, supplementary information for after-the-showing 
full instructions for the most effective presentation of the fil 



ig outlines, 



For prices and other details regarding SCHOOLFILMS 
write direct to headquarters 

The Society for Visual Education, Inc. 

327 South La Salle Street, Chicago 



SOCIETY FOR VISUAL EDUCATION, INC. 

327 SOUTH LA SALLE STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

OFFICERS 

President, Rollin D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 

Vice-President and General Manager, H L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation 

Secretary, F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 

DIRECTORS 

V. H. Arnold, Victor H Arnold & Co., Chicago 

W. W. Atwood, President, Clark University 

W. C. Bagley, Columbia University 

C. A. Beard, Director New York Bureau of Municipal Research 

O. W. Caldwell, Lincoln School of Teachers College, Columbia University 

H. L. Clarke, Utilities Development Corporation, Chicago 

J. M. Coulter, University of Chicago 

F. R. Moulton, University of Chicago 

W. F. Russell, University of Iowa 

R. D. Salisbury, University of Chicago 

V. C. Vaughan, University of Michigan 

GENERAL ADVISORY BOARD 
Mrs. Harriet H. Barry, President of National Federation of 

Better Film Workers. .. Los Angeles, California 

J. H. Beveridge, Superintendent of Schools Omaha, Nebraska 

Mrs. Florence B. Blanchard, Chairman Motion Pictures 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs. . .Chicago, Illinois 

Mary C. C. Bradford, State Superintendent of Schools Denver, Colorado 

M. L. Brittain, State Superintendent of Schools. . .. . .Atlanta, Georgia 

E. C. Brooks, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Raleigh, North Carolina 

J. C. Brown, President State Normal College ..St. Cloud, Minnesota 

Violet P. Brown, Chairman Public Health and Child Welfare, 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Kankakee, Illinois 

T. W. Butcher, President Kansas State Normal School Emporia, Kansas 

C. E. Chadsey, Dean of College of Education, University of Illinois. . . .Urbana, Illinois 
J. A. C. Chandler, President of College of William and Mary. ..Williamsburg, Virginia 
H. W. Chase, President of University of North Carolina. . .Chapel Hill, North Carolina 

L. D. Coffman, President of University of Minnesota. . . .Minneapolis, Minnesota 

S. S. Colvin, Professor of Education, Brown University . .... .Providence, Rhode Island 

F. B. Cooper, Superintendent of Schools Seattle, Washington 

L. T. Damon, Professor of English, Brown University. ..... .Providence, Rhode Island 

G. H. Denny, President of University 'of Alabama .University, Alabama 

E. R. Downing, School of Education, University of Chicago. .Chicago, Illinois 

B. C. Elliott, Chancellor of the University, University of Montana. . . .Helena, Montana 
Mrs. Albert W. Evans, Chairman of Education, Illinois Federation 

of Women's Clubs. .... .Chicago, Illinois 

David Felmley, President of Illinois State Normal College. ......... . .Normal, Illinois 

T. E. Finegan, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. . .Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 
H. W. Foght, President of Northern Normal and 

Industrial School. .Aberdeen, South Dakota 

C. Fordyce, Dean of Teachers College, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 

J. Paul Goode, Professor of Geography, University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 

(Continued on page 46) 



Amn EB l l-l 



i,9 




© K. V. Co. 



Ninety per cent, 
of our education 
comes through 
the eye. 

— Emerson. 

Would you 
rather see a 
scene in Holland 
than read 
about it ? 



WATER STREET, HOLLAND 



TEACHERS: Would you be interested in 
showing your pupils just what they are study- 
ing about each day? 

The Keystone "600 Set" of Stereographs and 
Lantern Slides correlates with your course of 
study. 

There is a picture for every day's work. 

All your experience proves that the picture 
serves best when accurately fitting the daily 
assignment. 

Pictures selected by Authorities in Geogra- 
phy, History, Literature, etc. 

They have prepared a Teachers' Guide, Fully 
Indexed to point out the pictures for each 
day's lessons. 

"As Easy to Use as a Dictionary" 

Write Department V for further information. 

KEYSTONE VIEW CO. (Inc.), Meadville, Pa. 



When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



70 



Visual Education 




$1,000 SAVED! 

That's the record of many manufacturers, merchants, banks 
and churches who use the Rotospeed for printing form 
letters, typewritten, hand written, drawn and ruled forms. 

t% STENCIL DUPLICATOR 



pays for itself in a few days Easy to operate. Simple in 
construction. No type, no trouble, no muss. Matches 
typewriting perfectly. Prints complete letter with illustra- 
tion and signature with one operation. 

Wriicjor samples, booklet and free trial offer 
THE ROTOSPEED CO., 413 E. Third St., Dayton, Ohio 



MISCELLANY 

(Continued from Page 39) 
to provide information on many practical 
subjects not commonly taught in schools. 

To establish community centers in the 
grade and high school buildings of the 
country. 

To secure from Congress, appropria- 
tions and legislation to pay one-half of 
the expense of supplying moving picture 
machines, films, and books of instruction 
to schools, the remaining half of the ex- 
pense to be met by the school authorities. 

To make such buildings and picture 
apparatus open at all times (when not in 
use by the school) to various organiza- 
tions, civic, commercial, social, etc. 

The plan of operation is to have the 
government provide a book of visual in- 
struction in two volumes, treating vari- 
ous subjects, arranged in question and 
answer plan and providing for lessons 
of 30 or 45 minutes' duration. Music, 



health, physical development, art, drama, 
vocational training, agriculture, horti- 
culture and animal husbandry are among 
the many subjects comprehended in the 
outline. Films that will aid in character 
building and developing thrift and in- 
dustry are to be emphasized. 

The national appropriation requested 
for the first two years is $5,000,000. This 
amount is based on the cost estimate of 
$3,250 per school for installing and pro- 
viding the complete visual equipment of 
machine, films and books of instruction. 

Mr. B. R. Inman of the Indiana State 
Chamber of Commerce is the president of 
the Association;- the vice-president is Dr. 
W. F. King, of the Indiana State Board 
of Health; the secretary, Charles A. 
Greathouse, former Indiana State Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction. 

• • • 

WHERE the foot of the Hun 
pressed, the green grass grew not 
again; but where the cinema 
leaves its mark, there is gone forever all 
artistic perception, all dramatic instinct, 
and all creative ability. With bitter 
tears, critics and authorities on the 
drama are lamenting the growth of the 
moving picture industry, which is forc- 
ing the legitimate drama to an untimely 
and cruel grave. An article in the June 
number of Current Opinion, anathematizes 
the moving picture,— likening it to a cel- 
luloid serpent that is slowly but surely 
strangling the native theater. It has in 
its folds theatrical producers, who keep 
a surreptitious, sticky left hand in the 
moving picture pie; its devilish lure is 
heard by young authors, who keep their 
weather-eye cocked on the studios; its 
lightest summons will cause actors to flit 
with ungraceful haste to the gleam of the 
Cooper-Hewitts. The American public, 
stupefied by the fumes emanating from 
rank celluloid and sunk in shameless 
lethargy, permits unmoved these viola- 
tions, while critics telescope the heedless 
heavens for a liberator. 



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72 



Visual Education 




Pictures Have No Language 

Yet They Tell the Story Better Than Words 

Whatever the mother tongue may be, pictures are 
readily understood. 

However eloquent the orator, his words are strengthened by motion 
picture illustrations. 

Children, to whom text-books are dull, find quick interest in motion 
pictures that carry the same ideas. 

The American Projectoscope 

"The Portable Motion Picture Machine Without an Apology" 

This perfected Portable Motion Picture Projector is designed 
especially for Schools, Colleges, Churches, Clubs, Lodges, etc., wherever 
there is need for an educational medium that tells the story better 
than words. Weighs only 25 pounds and carries like a suit case, always 
ready — no "setting-up" to be done. Built for wear; error proof — - 
run it forward or backward, you can't hurt it. As easy to operate 
as a phonograph, any school boy or girl can do it. Uses standard 
size films; any section can be shown as a 
"still" — as a stereopticon view — where de- 
sired for technical study or discussion. 

Attach it to any electric light socket or 
to the battery on your auto. Exceptional 
lighting device gives clear, bright pictures 
at 8 feet or 80 feet. 

Eliminates eye-strain and conserves 
mental energy. 

A combination of Simplicity and 
Efficiency. 

Write for our attractive booklet on the 
"American Projectoscope" 

AMERICAN PROJECTING COMPANY 

SAMUEL S. HUTCHINSON, Pres. 

6261 Broadway Chicago, Illinois 




When you write, please mention VISUAL, EDUCATION 



Ali\ Kill [SEMENT! 



The Value ot Visual Education 

Here is a significant observation on the way the mind works. One 
may look many times at a map and not have its essential details defi- 
nitely fixed in memory. Yet if fie makes the map or fills in the data of 
distribution with his own hand — works over the map, using and direct- 
ing his muscles — the map or the details of distribution so studied may 
be fixed indelibly in his memory. That is why good teachers are using 
base maps in their classes, and why the pupils take to the work with 
pleasure. 

Very little of the student's time can be spent profitably in »wki>ig maps. 
Most of the profitable manual work with maps has to do with entering on a 
base map certain data of distribution which are to be specially studied. 

Goode's Series of Base Maps and Graphs, made from the best 
drawings, on good paper, with good ink and presswork, meet the 
needs of the most careful and thoughtful teacher and student. 
Write for description and price list to 

The University of Chicago Press 

5840 Ellis Avenue Chicago, Illinois 



THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF 

The Mathematical Association of America 

Is the Only Journal of Collegiate Grade in the Mathematical 
Field in This Country 

This means that its mathematical contributions can be read and under- 
stood by those who have not specialized in mathematics beyond the Calculus. 

The Historical Papers, which are numerous and of high grade, are based 
upon original research. 

The Questions and Discussions, which are timely and interesting, cover 
a wide variety of topics. 

Surveys of the contents of recent books and periodicals constitute a valu- 
able guide to current mathematical literature. 

The "Topics for Undergraduate Mathematical Clubs" have excited wide 
interest both in this country and in Great Britain. 

The Notes and News cover a wide range of interest and information, both 
in this country and in foreign countries. 

The Problems and Solutions hold the attention and activity of a large 
number of persons who are lovers of mathematics for its own sake. 

There are other journals suited to the Secondary field, and there are still 
others of technical scientific character in the University field; but the 
monthly is the only journal of Collegiate grade in America suited to the needs 
of the non-specialist in mathematics. 

Send for circular showing the articles published in the last six volumes. 

Sample copy and all information may be obtained from the 

SECRETARY OF THE ASSOCIATION 

27 King Street OBERLIN, OHIO 

When you write, please mention VISUAL, EDUCATION 



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Catalogue and Publication 
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When you write, please mention VISUAL EDUCATION 



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The Power of Your 
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Why Forfeit It by Using a Large 
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After all, it's personality— your power to create 
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Think of the obstacles to teaching which come 
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Visualizing Historical Characters 

Robertson's Geographic-Historical Series 

The series consists of sixty large maps, size 3*4 feet long and 2^4 feet wide, 
lithographed in beautiful colors en the strongest paper known to the trade, and 
mounted on an iron tripod which makes them very durable and attractive. 

The series illustrates and correlates the entire range of American History 
from the time of the Sagas up to the present moment. By a series of beautiful 
maps and illustrations, events formerly meaningless and devoid of interest are 
amply illustrated and vivified. Time, place, and the personality of histori- 
cal characters are so indelibly pictured in the minds of the pupils as to re- 
main with them all their lives. 

Geography and History go hand in hand, and the only true way to teach 
history is to employ geography. 

The authors of Robertson's Geographic-Historical Series are the first 
ones to combine the two branches in a thorough and practical manner. 

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