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Full text of "Visual education through stereographs and lantern slides: school work visualized and vitalized; teachers' guide: 50 cross reference classifications on different school subjects"

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Visual Education 

THROUGH $ 

STEREOGRAPHS AND LANTERN SLIDES 



SCHOOL WORK 
VISUALIZED and VITALIZED 



TEACHERS' GUIDE 

50 Cross Reference Classifications 

on Different School Subjects 

Edited by 62 Leading Educators 

and based on the 

KEYSTONE "600 SET" 



Keystone View Company 

(INCORPORATED) 

EDUCATIONAL DEPT. MEADVILLE, PA. 



LB i 044 
.K 41 



Copyright 1906 

Copyright 1908 

Copyright 1911 

Copyright 1917 

KEYSTONE VIEW COMPANY 

ALL STEREOGRAPHS AND LANTERN SLIDES COPYRIGHTED 
ALL RIGHTS SPECIFICALLY RESERVED 



t$>o|. 



DEC 29 1917 



©CI.A47974 



PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT 

The copyright notice on the opposite page tells an interesting 
story. It records the date of the introduction into school 
work of a set of stereographs and lantern slides specifically 
selected to meet school needs and with cross reference classifi- 
cations to make quickly available the teaching content of the 
set. The other copyright notices indicate the dates when the 
first set and plan, originated by Keystone, were revised and 
improved. 

When the schools first turned to the stereograph and slide as 
the most effective forms of visual instruction materials, it was 
soon determined that the standard sets of Travel Tours then 
in common use for public and private libraries did not meet 
class room requirements. There was need of a carefully 
selected set of scenes closely fitted to the regular course of 
study. The Keystone View Company noted this need and, 
with the help of progressive school people, pioneered this field 
by bringing forth the first school set supplied with the cross 
reference index plan — the Keystone " 600 Set " with the 
Teachers' Guide. 

The success of the first set equalled the best expectations. 
The schools found in this set of stereographs and slides just the 
material needed to make their class-room instruction most 
effective. It was widely used and with the later revisions has 
found a place in thousands of schools. From this extended 
use under actual teaching conditions there have come the sug- 
gestions and improvements that have made the present devel- 
opment and efficiency possible. 

Out of the accumulated experience based on the use of the 
Keystone " 600 Set " in thousands of class rooms, there has 
come the present " 600 Set." It is a thorough revision both as 
to photographic content and editorial work. Thousands of 
dollars were expended to get the subjects our educational 
advisors deemed essential to the set. The whole world was 



iv PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT 

laid tribute that the children in the schools might have at hand 
the best material obtainable. Every continent yielded its con- 
tribution. Three Arctic and Antarctic expeditions were levied 
upon to supply scenes to complete this set. 

While the actual teaching value of the stereograph or slide 
has been the determining factor in its selection, there is noted 
an equitable distribution of the material over the entire geo- 
graphic range. Every state in the United States is repre- 
sented. Every important country of the world is cared for in 
a satisfactory manner. The distribution has been made in 
harmony with the plan of the leading text books on Geography. 
Whatever text is used will be effectually visualized. 

In the former Teachers' Guide the scenes were listed and 
edited from twenty-one special view points. Class room use 
has demonstrated that a set of illustrations of such rich teach- 
ing content as the Keystone " 600 Set " has many more points 
of specific application to the course of study than our previous 
editorial work had indicated. 

The new edition contains 50 cross reference classifications on 
50 school subjects and edited by 62 leading educators. This 
Editorial Board — listed elsewhere — has made a distinct con- 
tribution to visual education. The revised " 600 Set " is quite 
the latest and greatest achievement in modern visual instruc- 
tion material. 

The Publishers. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Publishers' Statement iii 

General Introduction By Charles W. Eliot, Ph.D., 

President-Emeritus of Harvard University v 

Concreteness in Education By William C. Bagley, Ph.D., 

Director School of Education, University of Illinois, 

Urbana, 111 vii 

How to Study Stereographs and Lantern Slides.. ..By Frank 
M. McMurry, Ph.D., Professor of Elementary Education, 

Teachers College, Columbia University ix 

The Stereoscope and Stereograph 

By Oliver Wendell Holmes xii 

How to Use the Stereographs and the Lantern Slides xiii 

Editorial Board xix 

50 Cross Reference Classifications 

Geography 

Introduction By Charles T. McFarlane, Ph.D., 

Professor of Geography, Teachers College, Colum- 
bia University 1 

1 Geographical Classification and Title List.. By Douglas 

C. Ridgley, A.B., Professor of Geography, Illinois 
State Normal University 3 

2 People of All Lands, (Racial Geography) .... By Mark 

Jefferson, A.M., Professor of Geography, Michigan 
State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich 31 

3 Production and Manufacturing, (Industrial Geography) 

By Charles Redway Dryer, M.A., M.D., Geographer, 
Fort Wayne, Ind 45 

4 Transportation By Emery R. Johnson, Ph.D., 

Sc.D., Professor of Transportation and Commerce, 
Unversity of Pennsylvania 73 

5 Markets and Marketing By J. Paul Goode, Ph.D., 

Professor of Geography, University of Chicago 87 

6 Natural Forms and Forces, (Physical Geography) 

By Wallace W. Atwood, Ph.D., Professor of Physi- 
ography, Harvard University 97 

7 Zones and Their Effects . . By Robert De C. Ward, A.M., 

Professor of Climatology, Harvard University 109 

8 Geography by Nations, (Political Geography).. ..By E. 

M. Lehnerts, M.A., Asst. Professor of Geography and 
Geology, University of Minnesota , 121 

9 Earth Neighbors. .. .By James F. Chamberlain, Ed.B., 

S.B,, Professor of Geography, State Normal School, 
Los Angeles, Cal 14 1 

History and Civics 

Introduction.. By Albert Bushnell Hart, Ph.D., Litt.D., 
LL.D., Professor of Government. Harvard Univ.... 149 
10 Foreign Beginnings of American History... By Hutton 
Webster, Ph.D., Professor of Social'Anthropology, 
University of Nebraska 151 



Page 

ii Foundations of the American Nation By Albert 

Bushnell Hart, Ph.D., Litt.D., LL.D., Professor of 
Government, Harvard University 159 

12 Development of Our Nation.. ..By H. Morse Stephens, 

M.A., Litt.D., Professor of History, University of 
California, Berkeley, Cal 165 

13 America of Today — Our Resources — Preparedness, 

By Jacques W. Redway, F.R.G.S., Geographer, Mr. 
Vernon, N. Y 179 

14 Government. .. .By Arthur Norman Holcombe, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor of Government. Harvard Univ. .. 191 

15 Community Civics.... By Arthur William Dunn, A.M., 

Specialist in Civic Education, U. S. Bureau of Educa- 
tion, Washington, D. C 203 



16 Cities of the World By John Nolen, A.M., Sc.D., 

City Planner, Landscape Architect, Boston, Mass.... 219 



English 



Introduction By^ Franklin Thomas Baker, Ph.D., 

Professor of the English Language and Literature, 
Teachers College, Columbia University 243 

17 Literary Subjects and Settings Including Mythology, 

By Franklin Thomas Baker, Ph.D 245 

18 English Composition By James Fleming Hosic, 

Ph.M., Head of JLnglish Department, Chicago Nor- 
mal School 259 

19 Spelling By William Estabrook Chancellor, A.M., 

Author of Evening School Series. Graded City 
Spellers 269 

20 Biography By Charles H. McCarthy, Ph.D., Dean 

of the School of Philosophy and Professor of History, 
Catholic Unversity of America, Washington. D. C... 279 

Agriculture 

Introduction By Charles F. Curtiss, M.S. A., D.S., 

Dean Division of Agriculture and Director of the 
Experiment Station, Ames, Iowa 309 

21 Soils By Alfred Vivian, Ph.G., Dean College of 

Agriculture, Ohio State University, Columbus, O.... 311 

22 Farm Crops By W. M. Jardine, B.S.A., LL.D., 

Dean of the Division of Agriculture and Director of 
the Agricultural Experiment Station. Kansas State 
Agricultural College. Manhattan. Kan 319 

23 Garden, Orchard and Woodlot.. .By R. L. Watts, M.S., 

Professor of Horticulture. Dean Department of Agri- 
culture and Director of the Experiment Station. State 
College, Pa 327 

24 Animal Husbandry By W. A. Cochel, A.B., B.S., 

Professor of Animal Husbandry, Kansas State Agri- 
cultural College, Manhattan, Kan 335 



Page 

25 Farm Management — Farm Machinery By Martin 

Luther Fisher, M.S., Professor of Crop Production 
and Farm Management, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 
Ind. Assisted by Wm. Aitkenhead, A.M., M.E., As- 
sociate Professor of Farm Mechanics, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Ind 341 

26 Farm Home and Farm Life By A. E. Winship, 

Litt.D., LL.D., Editor, Journal of Education," Bos- 
ton, Mass 355 

Nature Study 

Introduction .... By Ernest Thompson Seton, Natural- 
ist and Author, Greenwich, Conn 363 

27 Plants and Plant Associations .... By John M. Coulter, 

Ph.D., Professor and Head Dept. of Botany, Univer- 
sity of Chicago. Assisted by George D. Fuller, Ph.D., 
Instructor in Plant Ecology, University of Chicago.. 365 

28 Animals By Ernest Thompson Seton 377 

29 Outdoor Life . . By Daniel Carter Beard ("Dan Beard") 

National Scout Commissioner, Boy Scouts of Amer- 
ica, Flushing, N. Y 387 



30 Vocational Guidance By Meyer Bloomfield, B.A., 

Director of the Vocation Bureau, Boston, Mass 393 



Domestic Science and Domestic Arts 

Introduction. .. .By Martha Van Rensselaer, Professor 
of Home Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 403 

31 Industries Supplying the Home By Lorenzo Dow 

Harvey, Ph.D., President of Stout Institute, Menomi- 
nee, Mich 405 

32 Foods and Cookery By Edna N. White, B.S., Head 

of Dept. of Home Economics, Ohio State University, 
Columbus, O. Assisted by Lelia McGuire, B.S., As- 
sistant Professor of Home Economics, Ohio State 
University, Columbus, 409 

33 Textiles and Clothing By Anna M. Cooley, B.S., 

Associate Professor of Household Arts Education, 
Teachers College, Columbia University. Assisted by 
Edith P. Chace, B.S., Instructor in Household Arts 
Education, Teachers College, Columbia University.. 421 

34 Household Administration .... By Grace Schermerhorn, 

B.S., Director of Cooking in New York City Public 
Schools 431 

Industrial Arts 

Introduction By Charles A. Prosser, Ph.D., Direc- 
tor Dunwoody Industrial Inst., Minneapolis, Minn... 435 

35 Industrial Design Including Architecture By Ray- 

mond P. Ensign, Supervisor of Design Classes, Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn. N. Y '. 437 

36 Wood — Sources and Uses. . . By George M. Brace, M.A., 

Director Man. Training High School, St. Paul, Minn. 469 



Page 

37 Metals — Sources and Uses By Harry S. Bitting, 

President Williamson Free School of Mechanical 
Trades, Williamson School, Pa 475 

38 Concrete, Stone, Brick and Tile By Charles M. 

Spofford, S.B., Hayward Professor of Civil Engineer- 
ing, Mass. Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 483 

39 Local Industries By Clifford B. Connelley, Sc.D., 

Dean School of Applied Industries, Carnegie Insti- 
tute of Technology, Pittsburgh, Pa 491 



40 Hygiene — Health Habits.. By Michael Vincent O'Shea, 

B.L., Professor of Education, University of Wis.... 501 



Fine Arts 



Introduction.. ..By C. Valentine Kirby, Director of Art 
Education, Pittsburgh Public Schools 507 

41 Drawing — Study of Pictures to Show Elements of Art. 

By Harry W. Jacobs, Director Art Instruction, Pub- 
lic Schools, Buffalo, N. Y 509 

42 House Design and Decoration; Costume Design. 

By Mary J. Quinn, Supervisor of Design, Pratt In- 
stitute, Brooklyn, N. Y 517 

43 Photography By C. E. K. Mees, D.Sc, Director 

Research Laboratory, Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester, N. Y 543 



44 Arithmetic — Visualized Problems. ..By John H. Walsh, 

LL.B., Ph.D., Associate Superintendent of Schools, 
New York City 557 

For the Little Folks 

Introduction By William C. Bagley, Ph.D., Dean 

School of Education, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, 111... 579 

45 Children of the World.. ..By G. A. Mirick, A.M., Edu- 

cational Specialist, Cambridge, Mass 581 

46 Plants and Animals By Anna Botsford Comstock, 

Assistant Professor of Nature Study, Cornell Uni- 
versit) r , Ithaca, N. Y 595 

47 Reading By Charles Madison Curry, A.M., Pro- 

fessor of Literature in the Indiana State Normal 
School, Terre Haute, Ind 605 

48 Some Things We Eat; Some Things We Wear. 

By William M. Gregory, Professor of Geography, 
School of Education, Cleveland, 629 

49 Home Geography By R. H. Whitbeck, A.B., Pro- 

fessor of Geography, University of Wisconsin 641 



50 Travelogue and Lecture Suggestions By Russell H. 

Conwell, D.D., LL.D., Lecturer, President of Temple 
University, Philadelphia 653 

Index 66x 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

By Charles W. Eliot, Ph.D. 

President-Emeritus of Harvard University 

TRAINING THE POWERS OF OBSERVATION, MEMORY, 
AND CORRECT DESCRIPTION ALL TOGETHER 

I have been urging for some years past that American edu- 
cation is seriously defective in that it provides an inadequate 
amount of training of the senses, particularly of the eye. It 
relies far too much on book-work. There ought to be incor- 
porated into elementary and secondary school work a much 
larger proportion of accurate eye-work and hand-work com- 
bined with simultaneous training of the memory and of the 
capacity for describing correctly, either orally or in writing, 
things observed and done. 

The Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pa., manufac- 
tures admirable material for just this training of children and 
adolescents. This Company provides schools with stefeo- 
graphic views, stereoscopes, and lantern slides to illustrate phys- 
ical, political, and commercial geography, United States his- 
tory, nature study, arts and crafts, domestic science, national 
industries, and architecture. The stereographs and stereo- 
scope are used in class-work at regular study and recitation pe- 
riods, the lantern slides for reviews and lectures. < On the back 
of each of the stereographs is a printed description of the 
scene or object represented, which may be read by the pupil 
after he has himself studied the stereograph in the stereoscope. 
Each pupil is expected to remember what he has seen long 
enough to describe it orally in the class, or to write a short com- 
position on it after an interval. The teacher may or may not 
help the pupils to discern and take in all there is to be seen in 
the stereograph. Once a week or once a fortnight the topic 
which has been thus dealt with in the recitation room may be 
reviewed by the teacher before the class by means of the corre- 
sponding lantern slides ; and another composition may then be 



vi INTRODUCTION 

required of each pupil. The stereograph may be used advan- 
tageously either with or without a textbook. If a textbook be 
used, the pupils should themselves come to see much more in 
the stereographs than they find in the book. It is important 
that each pupil should be trained to describe with all the full- 
ness and accuracy possible for him what he has seen in the 
stereographs ; for in this way the pupil receives a discipline 
which is directly applicable all through life in daily work and 
play, in increasing his knowledge, and developing his capacities. 

The process differs entirely from looking passively at moving 
pictures for an hour or two. That looking yields little more 
than a transitory entertainment; for it cultivates neither the 
memory nor the power of correct description. Impressions suc- 
ceed each other so rapidly that few are fixed in the memory, 
and the spectator is not called on for any mental effort of his 
own. Sometimes, of course, strong emotion may fix an impres- 
sion which would otherwise be fleeting. 

At the review with lantern slides, every pupil should be given 
opportunity to lecture for a few minutes on a slide familiar to 
him. Reciting on the stereographs and lecturing on the slides 
will do more for the pupil's enunciation and clearness of state- 
ment than much reading aloud from a book. English composi- 
tions written from memory about the stereographs or the 
slides will always be on subjects which have interested the 
pupils and about which they really know something. 

The material manufactured by the Keystone View Company, 
and sold by them, provides the means of teaching children and 
adolescents to see accurately, to make mental note of what they 
have seen, and then to put into language whatever has impressed 
them. All active-minded and ambitious teachers ought to be 
interested in this method of teaching; for it is applicable to a 
great variety of subjects and in all the grades. 

It is the combination of visual instruction with training of 
the memory, and practice in accurate reproduction in language 
of what has been pictured to the eye which so strongly com- 
mends to progressive teachers and superintendents the method 
which the Keystone View Company's apparatus makes avail- 
able in all schools. 



CONCRETENESS IN EDUCATION 

By William C. Bagley, Ph.D. 

Director School of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. Author* 
"The Educative Process"; "Class Room Management"; "Craftsmanship in 
Teaching"; "Educational Values"; "School Discipline." Joint Author: "Hu- 
man Behavior." Editor: School and Home; Joint Editor:. Journal of Educational 
Psychology. _ .; _ j^^ 

It is an old saying that experience is the best teacher. One 
may, indeed, go beyond this and say that experience is the 
only real teacher. If we wish to learn about regions that we 
have never visited, we study maps and pictures and verbal 
descriptions of these regions, but our study is quite futile un- 
less we are able to translate these maps and pictures and words 
into our own experiences. We cannot understand an event 
in history unless we are able to imagine ourselves in the same 
situation that conditioned the event, and in order to do this 
we must have had experiences which we can recall and recon- 
struct into a likeness of the situation. We cannot compre- 
hend an industrial process unless we can call upon our ex- 
perience to interpret the various phases of the process and 
their relations to one another and to the process as a whole. 
Theoretically, the most effective kind of education is that in 
which the learner is brought face to face with actual concrete 
situations. Theoretically, geography is. best taught by travel, 
inspection, and surveys ; civics by actual participation in social 
enterprises ; industry by actually turning raw materials into 
useful commodities. But there are many difficulties in the 
way of realizing these theoretical advantages of direct learn- 
ing through actual experiences. Not only is the expense in 
time and money often prohibitive, but the very complexity of 
the actual experiences themselves may easily confuse the 
learner ; he is quite likely to be distracted by the multitude of 
details, and the important lessons are then certain to be over- 
shadowed and obscured. 

Effective teaching depends very largely upon the ability to 
choose just the right details that will force home the impor- 
tant lessons; to provide an abundance of concreteness at just 
the right point. The teacher who is really an artist in the 



viii CONCRETENESS IN EDUCATION 

work of teaching must know both how and where to make 
the important details stand out sharp and clear — how and 
where to place the emphasis. Maps, diagrams, models, and 
pictures may be made most serviceable means to this end. But 
they are most useful only when they accurately portray typical 
situations in a way that will insure a maximum of reality. 
The illustrations in the best modern textbooks are usually well 
selected from the point of view of their accuracy, and as a 
rule they represent typical situations. The approach to reality, 
however, is much more closely realized by pictures projected 
through the stereopticon, by moving pictures, and by stereo- 
graphs. The advantage of the stereograph in insuring the 
illusion of reality lies in the fact that the objects pictured are 
seen in three dimensions. In this respect it is superior to the 
ordinary projected picture in which the approach to reality 
is secured by magnifying the size of the objects represented, 
and for elementary education it is even superior to the moving 
picture in which the illusion of reality is due to movement. 
The stereograph also has the advantage of being more readily 
adaptable to classroom conditions than any form of projected 
picture. 

The first need, of course, is for accurate and typical pic- 
tures taken by skillful stereoscopists under the guidance of 
experts in the various fields. This need is happily met by 
the Keystone set No. 600. This set includes a rich variety 
of views, representing a wide range of regions and activities. 
The views have been carefully selected and are systematically 
arranged. 

The second need is for supplementary and interpretive ma- 
terials, and these are supplied by the explanatory text on the 
reverse of each slide and by the Teachers' Manual. With 
these aids, the teacher should find no difficulty in training the 
child to put himself into the pictured situation — actually to 
feel that he is there in close contact with the objects or taking 
an active part in the processes that are portrayed. This real- 
istic translation of one's self into the picture is the first condi- 
tion to be fulfilled in picture-study, and the relative ease with 
which this may be accomplished by creating a three-dimen- 
sional or stereoscopic illusion constitutes the unique advan- 
tage of the stereograph as an educational agency. 



HOW TO STUDY STEREOGRAPHS AND 
LANTERN SLIDES 

By Frank M. McMurry, Ph.D. 

Professor of Elementary Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. 
Author: "How to Study and Teaching How to Study"; "Elementary School 
Standards." Joint Author: Tarr & McMurry Geographies; " Method of the 
Recitation." 

Pictures furnish material for thought as does the printed 
page, and they even rival print in that task. How extensively, 
and often exclusively, do advertisers rely upon pictures for 
attracting customers ! Cartoonists compete with the most 
gifted writers in newspapers and magazines; and the great 
picture galleries of the world quite possibly exert as much 
influence as the great libraries. 

One danger of the printed page is that it may lead to no 
imaging. A little girl who was studying a description in 
geography of a river valley was asked what she saw, as she 
reproduced the facts. She replied that she saw the page con- 
taining the words. There is always this danger in the use of 
books. 

But pictures — particularly those providing for the third 
dimension, as do the stereographs — tend to bring one into the 
presence of the thing itself. A certain pupil who was look- 
ing at a stereograph of a deep gorge unconsciously stepped 
back a few feet to avoid falling in — so actual seemed the 
danger. Such pictures guarantee reality. Since excellence in 
method of presenting ideas is largely measured by the vivid- 
ness with which situations are thus visualized, these pictures 
possess a decided superiority over textbooks. 

This very superiority leads to a serious fault. Since pic- 
tures can do so much for us, they are often relied upon to do 
all; to convey their facts directly on sight, without any effort 
on our part in the way of studying or thinking. With this 
idea in mind many persons give only a« few seconds at most 
to the observation of any picture; and in consequence they 



x STEREOGRAPHS AND LAXTERX SLIDES 

regard pictures more as a means of entertainment than sub- 
jects for study. Teachers, also, assuming that pictures will 
reveal their content at a glance, frequently put no questions on 
them, while printed matter is studied with care. This attitude 
gives pictures a low rank as a means of instruction; for edu- 
cational aids that call forth no effort necessarily bring little 
benefit. 

Even in the actual presence of mountain scenery, or the 
Yellowstone Canyon, or a large factory, one's mind has to 
work actively, if one sees much. One must analyze ex- 
tensively, must raise questions and seek their answers with 
care, in other words, must really study, if one gets much 
profit. Books and pictures, being farther removed from 
reality, require still more effort. The best thoughts in books 
are not in print; they are suggested by the print, provided the 
reader's mind is awake. So the principal thoughts derived 
from a picture do not come immediately into mind; they have 
to be sought. Intelligent visitors to picture galleries often 
stand a half hour before a painting, not merely staring at it, 
but studying it; and they repeat the process day after day. 

Most, if not all, of these six hundred stereographs and 
slides are gems. Many of the ideas that they reveal lie below 
the surface, and in their study some of the spirit of the real 
student is necessary. 

1. In the first place, these pictures should not be examined 
in a hurry. Each pupil should follow his own rate, without 
thought of others, for thoughtful observation is otherwise 
impossible. This suggestion emphasizes method one — in the 
article following — as the plan most desirable among the four 
methods mentioned. 

2. One should not look for " just anything " in the picture. 
That is sure to result in very scattered and superficial observa- 
tion. 

In order to avoid careless observation the theme of the 
picture, as suggested in the title should be noted. Also, the 
statements on the back of the card should be read. Mean- 
while the picture should be examined at first, not so much to 
discover its detailed facts, as the principal questions that it 
answers. These questions should bear on the main theme 
of the picture, and be broad enough to require numerous facts 



STEREOGRAPHS AND LANTERN SLIDES xi 

for their answers. The conception of such questions is not 
easy work; it is real study, calling for some initiative; but 
their nature largely determines the value of the study; they 
are the source of motive for observation, and the basis for or- 
ganization of details ; and as much time may well be spent 
in finding the questions as in finding their answers. 

3. The questions having been fixed upon, the more things 
one can discover that bear upon them the better ; for this num- 
ber determines the thoroughness of the knowledge, and the 
force with which impressions are driven home. On the other 
hand, facts unrelated to such questions should be disregarded, 
because any mention of them would be only an interruption. 
Proper study of these pictures will be distinguished almost as 
much by what is omitted, as by what is included. 

4. One should study a picture — or read a book — not 
merely to know what is there, but rather to communicate the 
results to others, either orally or in writing, or otherwise to 
use them. By this provision a sense of what is valuable is 
kept alive and exercised, and one is much more discriminat- 
ing, in consequence. Unless one is willing to be a passive 
collector of facts, their utilization must be held in mind from 
the beginning. This suggestion emphasizes the importance of 
method four in the article on methods, as a supplement to 
method one. 



Note : — It is not generally known that Dr. Oliver Wendell 
Holmes perfected the stereoscope and designed the present form 
of this popular and effective instrument. It has seemed, there- 
fore, appropriate that we should give on the following page a 
quotation from the writings of Dr. Holmes. The statements 
appeared in a series of magazine articles on the stereoscope and 
stereograph published in the Atlantic Monthly. They are copy- 
righted and are reproduced through the courtesy of Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 

The Publishers. 



THE STEREOSCOPE AND THE 
STEREOGRAPH 

" A stereoscope is an instrument which makes surfaces look 
solid. All pictures in which perspective and light and shade 
are properly managed, have more or less of the effect of 
solidity ; but by this instrument that effect is so heightened as to 
produce an appearance of reality which cheats the sense with 
its seeming truth. . . . 

" We see something with the second eye which we did not 
see with the first ; in other words, the two eyes see different 
pictures of the same thing, for the obvious reason that they look 
from points two or three inches apart. By means of these two 
different views of an object, the mind, as it were, feels round it 
and gets an idea of its solidity. . . . 

" The stereograph, as we have called the double picture 
designed for the stereoscope, is to be the card of introduction 
to make all mankind acquaintances. 

" The first effect of looking at a good photograph through the 
stereoscope is a surprise such as no painting ever produced. The 
mind feels its way into the very depths of the picture. 

" The scraggy branches of a tree in the foreground run out 
at us as if they would scratch our eyes out. The elbow of a 
figure stands forth so as to make us almost uncomfortable. 

" Then there is such a frightful amount of detail, that we have 
the same sense of infinite complexity which Nature gives us. 

" A painter shows us masses ; the stereoscopic figures spares 
us nothing — all must be there, every stick, straw, scratch, as 
faithfully as the dome of St. Peter's, or the summit of Mont 
Blanc, or the ever-moving stillness of Niagara. The sun is no 
respecter of persons or of things. 

" This is one infinite charm of the photographic delineation. 
Theoretically, a perfect photograph is absolutely inexhaustible. 
In a picture you can find nothing which the artist has not seen 
before you ; but in a perfect photograph there will be as many 
beauties lurking, unobserved, as there are flowers that blush un- 
seen in forests and meadows. 

" It is a mistake to suppose one knows a stereoscopic picture 
when he has studied it a hundred times by the aid of the best of 
our common instruments. 

" Do we know all there is in a landscape by looking out at 
it from our parlor-windows ? " 

— Oliver Wendell Holmes. 



HOW TO USE THE STEREOGRAPHS 
AND THE LANTERN SLIDES 

Credit for this chapter on methods cannot properly be given 
to any single educator. It represents the best judgment of 
several thousand superintendents, principals and ieachers who 
for many years have used the Keystone " 600 Set " of stereo- 
graphs and lantern slides in daily classroom instruction. To 
these and other educational leaders is due the credit for the 
development of these effective methods. 

LESSON ASSIGNMENT 

Every lesson normally falls into four parts (1) the assign- 
ment by the teacher; (2) the preparation of the assignment by 
the pupils; (3) the class recitation by the pupils, directed by 
the teacher; and (4) the review, covering a series of lessons. 

The lesson assignment should be definite. Mention should 
not only be made of the exact amount of text to be read, but 
there should also be just enough said to whet the natural 
curiosity of the pupils. Here is where the stereographs func- 
tion first. With the assignment there will also be announced 
that certain stereographs, illustrating the topic in question, 
will be accessible to all pupils as a part of their lesson prepara- 
tion. This at once stimulates interest, and thus the teacher's 
preliminary work is made easy. 

STEREOGRAPHS FOR THE PREPARATION 

Stereographs play their direct part in the preparation of 
the lesson assignment. In this they are well-nigh indispensa- 
ble. The preparation of the lesson is individual work on the 
pupil's part. If he is forced to rely wholly on his textual read- 
ing, many of his conceptions of fundamental facts are sure to 
be hazy. If the stereographs did no more than correct mis- 
conceptions through visualization of the objects discussed, 
their place in the school would be secure. But they serve a 



xiv STEREOGRAPHS AND LANTERN SLIDES 

far wider purpose ; they help interpret the text to the pupil ; 
they constantly add new ideas of a definite character ; they 
create a genuine enthusiasm for the whole lesson and become 
a vital stimulant to thought development. The correct time to 
employ the stereographs is at the point when pupils are grop- 
ing for concrete conceptions of the topic studied. And this is 
during the preparation of the lesson. 

SPECIFIC METHODS 

Various possible methods of successfully operating the ster- 
eographs immediately suggest themselves. The one best 
suited to any school will be determined by class room condi- 
tion. But actual use on the part of expert teachers, covering 
a great number of years, has demonstrated that the best results 
may be obtained by the following methods : 

REFERENCE TABLE PLAN 

Method One — Reference Table Plan. At the time the les- 
son is assigned place the selected stereographs, with stereo- 
scopes, on a table convenient of access to the pupils. The 
stereographs should be limited in number, and carefully chosen 
to supplement the textual assignment. Let the members of 
the class have free access to the stereographs during the study 
periods throughout the day, or the teacher may indicate the 
order in which groups of two to six pupils may study the 
stereographs. Let it be understood that the descriptions on 
the back are an integral part of their lesson assignment. 
When the stereographs are left on the reference table for a 
day or more this method provides for a careful study of each 
view on the part of every pupil. By this plan, each child will 
study the picture for himself, and will fix his images because 
observational time has been provided. 

SEAT STUDY 

Method Two — Scat Study. The selected views are placed 
in stereographs and handed the first pupil in the outside row, 
during the study period. He observes each stereograph in 
turn and passes the stereographs in order across the aisle to 
the first pupil in the second row. Each view thus travels to 



STEREOGRAPHS AND LANTERN SLIDES xv 

the first pupils in every row, and then back to the second pu- 
pils in each row and so on to the whole class. Two or more 
stereographs illustrating the days' topics may thus be studied 
during the regular study period in a systematic, thorough way. 
Each pupil gives to this study only the minute or two that is 
needed to fix his images and read the descriptive text for each 
stereograph. 

[Note — 'A modification of this plan is to have a pupil read the text 
to the class before the stereograph is passed. It permits the handling 
of the scenes more rapidly, but where possible it is best to have each 
pupil read the text as the scene is studied.] 

DESCRIPTIONS VALUABLE 

The descriptions on the backs of the views are written sim- 
ply. The vocabulary is simple and the sentences are short. 
These articles were carefully prepared so that the pupils as 
low as the fourth grade can readily handle them. As an addi- 
tional help the difficult proper words which the pupil needs 
to know are marked diacritically. It is quite desirable that 
the pupils have an opportunity to study this text in connection 
with the examination of the stereograph. 

RECITATION-STUDY 

Method Three — Recitation-Study . Where school plans do 
not give study period time for methods One or Two, the 
Recitation-Study plan gives results that are really wonderful. 
By this method two or three minutes of the recitation period 
are used for an intensive study of the stereograph. A pupil 
places the stereograph in a stereoscope and passes down the 
rows of seats, permitting each pupil to observe the scene for 
three or four seconds. At the same time the pupil gives loudly 
so all the class may hear a statement of facts which he has 
prepared from a previous study of the scene and its descrip- 
tion. In this way both the scene and the explanation may be 
given to a class of 40 pupils in from two to three minutes. 
If five minutes can be spared it can be used advantageously 
and permit a longer observation time for each pupil, but two 
or three minutes will answer. Some may doubt that a scene 
rich in teaching content can be presented effectively in the time 



xvi STEREOGRAPHS AXD LANTERN SLIDES 

stated. These do not fully realize the efficiency of Visual In- 
struction by the Keystone method. 

[Note — A permissible modification of Method Three is to have the 
pupil read the description from the stereograph before passing it through 
the class. Wherever possible the stereographs should be placed on the 
reference table for further observation and study as opportunity affords.] 

RECITATION VITALIZED 

The time for recitation arrives. The pupils are full of the 
subject, and each is eager to tell what he has seen in his stereo- 
graphic observations. The views should be kept in reach, 
because interest begets discussion, and with discussion come 
differences of opinion. Instead of* a perfunctory repetition of 
printed fact, the recitation is now a vitalized thing. The pu- 
pils have seen for themselves. They are anxious to report 
these visual experiences. Much has been written in peda- 
gogical texts about the socialized recitation. The " 600 Set " 
offers a simple, natural way of securing it. The teacher takes 
the role of a director — her proper function. The pupils do 
the work, as they rightfully should, since the recitation is theirs 
and not the teacher's. 

Incidentally, with the new freedom born of visual experi- 
ence, the child himself solves the problems of oral expression. 
Oral composition is more talked about in teachers' books and 
gatherings, than practiced in schools. That composition mo- 
tiving has been solved by the Keystone " 600 Set " is attested 
to wherever the scenes have been put into service. The pupil 
can talk connectedly and interestingly about things he has seen. 
Try it for yourself. Select, for example, the scenes on any 
one industry from the " 600 Set " and let him study them con- 
secutively. He can tell you or write for you the Story of 
Silk, or How We Get Our Bread, and dozens of other themes 
on subjects equally vital to his future activities. 

ORAL AXD WRITTEN COMPOSITION 

Method Four — Oral or Written Composition. This link- 
ing of the oral composition with the work in Geography, His- 
tory, and other regular studies of the course is highly desirable. 
It saves greatly in time and also impresses the pupil with the 
fact that the ability to express his thought accurately and flu- 



STEREOGRAPHS AND LANTERN SLIDES xvii 

ently and in correct English is an essential part of his daily- 
work. Ordinarily the preparation with the stereograph by 
Methods One, Two, or Three will serve equally well for the 
special drill in Oral or Written Composition. This is espe- 
cially true where all will speak or write upon the same sub- 
ject. But, oftentimes, the following method may be used with 
advantage. One stereograph is given to each pupil in the class 
for careful study for a period of from five to eight minutes. 
Each pupil studies his stereograph with the naked eye and 
reads carefully the text on the back. During this study period 
a stereoscope is supplied to each pupil in an outside row. 
These pupils, for a period of about one minute, examine their 
stereographs through the stereoscopes. Each stereograph is 
taken from the stereoscope and retained, while the stereoscope 
only is passed across the aisle to the next pupil and to the next 
until the stereoscope has crossed the room. In this way each 
pupil in the room has five minutes or more for a detailed study 
of the scene assigned him, and an additional minute for the 
study of the same scene through the stereoscope. He thus gets 
a wealth of information ^and an intensely real impression of the 
subject upon which he is to speak or write. 

THE LOWER GRADES 

Properly selected stereographs may be used with much sat- 
isfaction and success by the teacher to make observation lesson 
and story telling vitally real even down to the first grade and 
kindergarten. They are especially helpful in the first steps in 
elementary geography, when the child needs concrete concepts 
of mountains, rivers, lakes, hills, etc. They may assist greatly 
in interpreting the conditions emphasized in home geography, 
they create interest in food and clothing, peoples and customs 
of home and foreign lands and other topics suitable to these 
grades. 

LANTERN SLIDES FOR REVIEW 

When a definite section of the text has been covered in a 
series of daily lessons, there comes the review of the larger 
units of subject matter. The object of any review is two-fold ; 
it gives a rounded survey of the material previously studied in 
detail ; and it corrects erroneous impressions or misunderstand- 



xviii STEREOGRAPHS AXD LAXTERX SLIDES 

ings. In short, it is a re-view. Here is where the lantern 
slides work effectively. Select slides duplicating the stereo- 
graphs which have been used in the detailed study and throw 
them on the screen. Let the pupils explain their connection 
with the review topics — interpret the slides to their fellows. 
In this way the review is not only comprehensive and cor- 
rective, but is a real re-view, a re-visualization and fixing of 
images. Incidentally, the deadliness of the ordinary review 
lesson is eliminated by the introduction of a new aspect of old 
materials. Scenes previously made familiar to each individ- 
ual are now shown to the class collectively, and in a new 
dress. The lantern slide review clinches essential facts pre- 
viously studied, clarifies impressions formed and insures cor- 
rect conceptions through a free interchange of class opinion. 
This review offers an exceptionally fine opportunity for a drill 
in oral composition. 

COMBINATION STEREOGRAPHS AND SLIDES 

Since any form of visual instruction gives results that are 
strikingly superior to acquiring knowledge from the printed 
page, it is not unnatural that the enthusiastic instructor may 
for a time accept the results from any one form of visual ma- 
terial as the final product, thereby missing the far greater re- 
sults that may be obtained by a correct combination of ma- 
terials and methods as outlined above. The lantern slide has 
an important place in visual instruction methods. Experi- 
ence thus far has demonstrated that its greatest usefulness is 
in the class review. The stereograph is peculiarly adapted to 
and most effective in the individual preparation of the lesson 
assignment. Here it is supreme among visual aids. It will 
more nearly stand alone than any other visual material. But 
even the stereograph should be followed by the lantern slide 
review. This combination of visual materials is the answer 
to the question even* teacher so frequently asks herself : How 
can I make my school zcork vital? 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

General Introduction 
By Charles W. Eliot, Ph.D. 

President-Emeritus of Harvard University 

CONCRETENESS IN EDUCATION 
By William C. Bagley, Ph.D. 

Director School of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, III. Author: 
"The Educative Process"; "Class Room Management"; "Craftsmanship in 
Teaching"; "Educational Values"; "School Discipline." Joint Author: 
" Human Behavior." Editor: School and Home. Joint Editor: Journal of 
Educational Psychology. 

How to Study Stereographs and Lantern Slides 
By Frank M. McMurry, Ph.D. 

Professor of Elementary Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. 
Author: " How to Study and Teaching How to Study "; " Elementary School 
Standards." Joint Author: Tarr & McMurry Geographies; "Method of the 
Recitation." 

GEOGRAPHY 

INTRODUCTION 

By Charles T. McFarlane, Pd.D. 

Controller and Professor of Geography, Teachers College, Columbia University. 
Joint Author: Brigham & McFarlane, "Essentials of Geography." 

1. Geographical Classification and Title List 
By D. C. Ridgley, A.B. 

Professor of Geography, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. Author: 
"Important Topics in Geography"; "Home Geography" 

In this chapter is presented the title list of the 600 stereo- 
graphs and lantern slides which actual classroom use has dem- 
onstrated as the most effective for purposes of instruction. 
They are classified geographically by continents and political 
divisions and give 600 references to the important countries of 
the world. (See page 3.) 



xx EDITORIAL BOARD 

2. People of All Lands (Racial Geography) 
By Mark Jefferson, A.M. 

Professor of Geography, Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich. 
Author of "Teachers' Geography"; "Materials for the Geography of Michigan"; 
" Exercises on the Topographic Map." Associate Editor: Journal of Geography. 

153 stereographs and slides to which 154 references are 
made, illustrating the distinguishing features of the great 
races of mankind and their branches and to show the racial 
characteristics and development of the great nations. At the 
same time this classification, by showing homes, clothing, use 
of implements and industrial processes, necessarily differenti- 
ates peoples according to their civilization. (See page 31.) 

3. Production and Manufacturing (Industrial 

Geography) 

By Charles Redway Dryer, M.A., M.D. 

Geographer, Fort Wayne, Ind. Formerly Professor of Geography and Geology, 
Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind. Author: " Studies in Indiana 
Geography"; "Lessons in Physical Geography"; "Geography, Physical, Eco- 
nomic and Regional"; "Natural Economic Geography." 

437 stereographs and slides with 968 references showing 
our industrial resources and equipment. The classification is 
divided into two main parts, the first of which deals with indus- 
tries as units under the subheads, Foods, Clothing, Mining 
and Mineral Industries, Lumbering and Forest Products, and 
Irrigation. In the second part the process is the fundamental 
idea presented under the headings, Collective, Productive, Con- 
structive and Distributive Industries. (See page 45.) 

4. Transportation 
By Emery R. Johnson, Ph.D., Sc.D. 

Professor of Transportation and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania. Au- 
thor: "Inland Waterways, Their Relation to Transportation," 1893; "American 
Railway Transportation," 1903; "Ocean and Inland Water Transportation," 1906; 
"Elements of Transportation," 1909; "Railroad Traffic and Rates," 1911; "Pan- 
ama Canal Traffic and Tolls," 1912; " Measurement of Vessels for the Panama 
Canal," 1913; "History of Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States," 
2 vols., 1915. 

The classification of Transportation presents 345 stereo- 
graphs and slides with 399 references thereto. It makes plain 
the universal dependence of modern life upon means of trans- 



EDITORIAL BOARD xxi 

portation. Every method of carrying, both primitive and 
modern, is illustrated. Human carriers, beasts of burden, 
carts, wagons, railroad trains, water craft from the Chinese 
junk to the great ocean liner or submarine and airplanes are 
shown so classified that the part each one takes in the world's 
work is easily seen. (See page 73.) 



5. Markets and Marketing 
By J. Paul Goode, Ph.D. 

Professor of Geography, University of Chicago. Specialist in Economic Geog- 
raphy and Cartography. Associate Editor Journal of Geography. Lecturer and 
writer on " Commercial and Economic Geography." Author of important series 
of wall maps for schools and colleges. 

156 stereographs and slides showing the ever increasing idea 
which the word " market " may be made to convey. In this 
classification are shown, first, the Primitive Markets where 
trade is direct. Then the Great Market Centers where the 
buying and selling is done for a large territory are seen. Next 
come the Production Centers where commodities are handled 
in such quantities as to establish a World Market, and last 
Regions with a Large Demand for a certain commodity are 
shown to be Markets for that commodity. (See page 87.) 

6. Natural Forms and Forces (Physical Geography) 
By Wallace W. Atwood, Ph.D. 

Professor of Physiography, Harvard University. Formerly Associate Professor 
of Geology and Physiography, University of Chicago. Geologist, U. S. Geological 
Survey. Author of " Interpretation of Topographic Maps "; " Geological and 
Mineral Resources of the Alaskan Peninsula"; "Physical Geography of the' 
Devil's Lake Region," etc. 

During past ages the surface of the earth has been changed 
by natural forces including the atmosphere, ground and sur- 
face water, snow, and ice and internal forces such as heat and 
pressure, and by organic agencies including man. These 
forces have produced the mountains, hills and volcanoes, the 
lakes and rivers, the capes, peninsulas and islands — all these 
actions and results are illustrated in this classification of 218 
stereographs and slides with 372 references.. (See page 97.) 



xxii EDITORIAL BOARD 

7. Zones and Their Effect on Life. Elevation of 
Land (Altitude and Its Effect on Life) 

By Robert De C. Ward, A.M. 

Professor of Climatology, Harvard University. Author of " Practical Exer- 
cises in Elementary Meteorology "; " Climate, Considered Especially in Relation 
to Man." Translator of Julius Hann's " Handbuch der KJimatologie," Vol 1, 
2nd ed. Associate Editor Journal of Geography. 

185 stereographs and slides with 197 references presenting 
the effect of climate (whether resulting from position or alti- 
tude) upon the general appearance of a country, upon, vegeta- 
tion, crops, occupations and dwellings, are the basis of this 
classification. Climatic controls over the earth's surface and 
its flora, and man's mode of life under the limitations imposed 
by climate, are well illustrated in the views selected. (See 
page 109.) 

8. Geography by Nations (Political Geography) 
By E. .M. Lehnerts, A.M. 

Assistant Professor of Geography and Geology, University of Minnesota. 
Associate Editor Journal of Geography 

A classification of 254 stereographs and slides with 382 ref- 
erences, showing the extent and distribution of each great 
nation's possessions, something of the geographic factors in 
each nation's development and the extent of governmental 
freedom existing throughout the world. (See page 121.) 

9. Earth Neighbors 
By James F. Chamberlain, Ed.B., S.B. 

Professor of Geography, State Normal School, Los Angeles, Cal. Associate 
Editor Journal of Geography. Author: " Field and Laboratory Exercises in 
Physical Geography"; "How We Are Fed"; "How We Are Clothed"; "How 
We Are Sheltered"; "How We Travel"; "North America"; "Europe"; 
"Asia"; "South America"; "Africa." 

96 stereographs and slides, with 99 references, dealing not 
only with telescopic photographs of the sun, moon, planets, 
comets, etc., but with those scenes upon the earth which show 
the influences of these earth neighbors upon human affairs. 
(See page 141.) 



EDITORIAL BOARD xxiii 

HISTORY AND CIVICS 

INTRODUCTION 
By Albert Bushnell Hart, Ph.D., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Government in Harvard University 

10. Foreign Beginnings of American History 
By Hutton Webster, Ph.D. 

Professor in the University of Nebraska. Author of "Ancient History"; "Early 

European History"; "Readings in Ancient History"; and "Readings 

in Medieval and Modern History " 

This classification of 74 stereographs and slides has been 
made with the purpose of setting forth the foreign background 
of American history ; to trace its people with their habits and 
customs to their sources in order that American History may 
not be isolated but may be seen in its relation to the rest of 
the world's story. (See page 151.) 



11. Foundations of the American Nation 
By Albert Bushnell Hart, Ph.D., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Government in Harvard University. Author of " Essentials of 
American History "; " Formation of the Union "; " Guide to the Study and 
Reading of American History"; "The Monroe Doctrine"; "National Ideas His- 
torically Traced "; " New American History "; " Salmon P. Chase "; " School 
History of the United States"; "Slavery and Abolition"; "Southern South," 
etc. Editor of the American Nation, "Cyclopedia of American Government"; 
"American Citizen Series"; "Epochs of American History"; "American His- 
tory Told by Contemporaries"; "American Patriots and Statesmen," etc. 

92 stereographs and slides with 123 references. " The pur- 
pose of this classification is to introduce the pupil to the for- 
mative period of American history, extending from the earliest 
discoveries by Europeans to the organization of the govern- 
ment under the constitution of 1787. This naturally includes 
the physical background, the face of the country, then the orig- 
inal inhabitants and finally some of the scenes of their colonial 
and revolutionary history." (See page 159.) 



xxiv EDITORIAL BOARD 

12. The Development of Our Nation 
By H. Morse Stephens, M.A., Litt.D. 

Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. Author: "History 

of the French Revolution"; "The Story of Portugal"; "Revolutionary 

Europe "; " Colonial Civil Service " 

204 stereographs and slides with 310 references "to make 
young people realize that their country has in time past been 
carried on by people like themselves ; to make them familiar 
with social and economic life of the past as well as with polit- 
ical events and let them feel that constitutions, presidents, 
wars, battles, treaties are only the external parts. They are 
of value only so far as they illustrate the great theme of the 
nation's growth, the nation's mind and the nation's standards." 
(See page 165.) 

13. America of Today — Our Resources — Preparedness 
By Jacques W. Redway, F.R.G.S. 

Author: "Manual of Geography." Joint Author: "Natural Geographies"; 
Commercial Geography"; "Elementary Physical Geography"; Redway School 
History"; "Book of the United States" ' 

This classification presents 169 stereographs and slides, with 
202 references which " will lead children to find causes and 
results of political life in economic conditions, and to under- 
stand that history is not the action of leaders but of the mass 
of people." This classification compares our resources with 
that of other countries. (See page 179.) 

14. Government 
By Arthur Norman Holcombe, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Government in Harvard University. Author of " Public 

Ownership of Telephones on the Continent of Europe"; "State 

Government in the United States " 

This classification of 287 stereographs and slides with 518 
references aims to present the topic of government from the 
constitutional and institutional view point. The operations of 
government in many situations and under many conditions are 
noted. One will not fail to note the helpful way in which this 
chapter and the following one on Community Civics supple- 
ment each other. (See page 191.) 



EDITORIAL BOARD xxv 



15. Community Civics 
By Arthur William Dunn, A.M. 

Specialist in Civic Education, United States Bureau of Education, Washington, 
D. C. Author of " Community Civics " 

299 stereographs and slides with 806 references. " The aim 
of community civics is to help the child to know his commun- 
ity, not merely a lot of facts about it, but the meaning of his 
community life, what it does for him and how it does it; 
what the community has a right to expect from him and how 
he may fulfill his obligation, meanwhile cultivating in him the 
essential qualities and habits of good citizenship." (See 
page 203.) 

16. The Cities of the World 
By John Nolen, A.M., Sc.D. 

City Planner, Landscape Architect, Boston, Mass. 

342 stereographs and slides with 1024 references, showing 
the wonderful urban development of the modern world. And 
because this is new, and the city is one of the main problems 
of modern democratic society, this classification analyzes cities 
in their growth and plans, their size and dominant functions. 
Its purpose is to create intelligent control of civic conditions 
instead of passive acceptance. (See page 219.) 

ENGLISH 

INTRODUCTION 

By Franklin Thomas Baker, Ph.D. 

Professor of English Language and Literature, Teachers College, 
Columbia University 

17. Literary Subjects and Settings 
By Franklin Thomas Baker, Ph.D. 

Professor of English Language and Literature, Teachers College, 
Columbia University 

255 stereographs and slides with 448 references. The ed- 
itor, following the idea that the trend of modern education has 
been steadily away from interest in mere words to interest in 



xxvi EDITORIAL BOARD 

the ideas and things which words denote, has selected those 
views which illustrate the literature most commonly presented 
to pupils. The classification emphasizes the fact that knowl- 
edge obtained by the senses, especially sight, is the basis for 
both the creation and real appreciation of literary merit. (See 
page 245.) 

18. Exglish Composition 
By James Fleming Hosic, Ph.M. 

Head of English Dept. in Chicago Normal School. Editor of English Journal. 

Secretary, The National Council of Teachers of English. Joint Author: 

"Practical English for High Schools"; "A Composition Grammar" 

This classification of 469 stereographs with 1008 references 
is made to assist growth in power of English expression. 
" Children in elementary grades cannot speak nor write ef- 
fectively when burdened with the consciousness of form." 
A \ "hat they need is a real audience and something definite to 
say. The Keystone plan fills these needs. The editor has 
grouped together a series of possibilities for interesting com- 
position work, oral and written. The classification includes a 
variety of business letters concerning real business. (See 
page 259.) 

19. Spelling 
By William Estabrook Chancellor, A.M. 

Head Dept. of Economics, Politics and Sociology, College of Wooster (Ohio). 
Financial Writer. Author of "Evening School Series"; "Graded City Spell- 
ers"; "How to Teach Spelling"; "Spelling; Its Principles. Methods and De- 
vices"; "Our Schools: Their Administration and Supervision." 

The editor has prepared this classification of 482 stereo- 
graphs and slides with 895 references to show how spelling 
may be converted from a mechanical process to a living one 
which will train in initiative ingenuity and accuracy. Sug- 
gestions are made for each grade from the third to the eighth. 
(See page 269.) 

20. Biography 
By Charles H. McCarthy, Fh.D. 

Dean of the School of Philosophy, and Knights of Columbus Professor of 
American History. Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. Author: 
"Lincoln's Plan of Reconstruction"; "Civil Government in the Cpited States"; 
" Columbus and His Predecessors." 



EDITORIAL BOARD xxvii 

550 stereographs and slides with 2648 references to the peo- 
ple who have impressed their lives most strongly on the prog- 
ress of the race. 

Listed alphabetically — the Old and New World separately 
— this classification is replete with useful information for the 
teacher or student of History and Literature. (See page 279.) 

AGRICULTURE 

INTRODUCTION 

By Charles F, Curtiss, M.S.A., D.S. 

Dean Division of Agriculture and Director of the Experiment Station, 
Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

21. Soils 
By Alfred Vivian, Ph.G. 

Dean College of Agriculture, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. President 
Board of Education for State of Ohio 

68 stereographs and slides with 76 references, which illus- 
trate the formation of soils, the kinds and something of their 
management. (See page 311.) 

22. Farm Crops 
By W. M. Jardine, B.S.A., LL.D. 

Dean of the Division of Agriculture and Director of the Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kan. 

78 stereographs and slides with 99 references to show what 
crops come from the farm and how they are raised. (See 
page 319.) 

23. Garden, Orchard and Woodlot 
By R. L. Watts, M.S. 

Professor of Horticulture, Dean Department of Agriculture and Director of the 
Experiment Station, State Agricultural College, State College, Pa. 

This selection of 48 stereographs and slides with 49 refer- 
ences enables the editor to present many helpful items of in- 
struction dealing with the garden products, orcharding and the 
timber supply of the woodlot. There is included an interest- 
ing classification on Landscape Gardening. (See page 327.) 



xxviii EDITORIAL BOARD 

24. Animal Husbandry 
By W. A. Cochel, A.B., B.S. 

Professor of Animal Husbandry, Kansas State Agricultural College, 
Manhattan, Kan. 

36 selected stereographs and slides with 37 references illus- 
trate the value of livestock as a dominant factor in agricul- 
ture. From primitive herding to the highly complex business 
of the modern feed lot the important items in animal hus- 
bandry are shown. (See page 335.) 

25. Farm Management — Farm Machinery 
By Martin Luther Fisher, M.S. 

Professor of Crop Production and Farm Management and in charge Department of 
Agronomy, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

Assisted by Wm. Aitkenhead, A.M., M.E. 

Associate Professor of Farm Mechanics, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

This classification of 96 stereographs and slides with 238 
references analyzes and illustrates " the handling of the farm 
and its equipment so as to produce farm products with the 
greatest profit and still maintain or even increase the produc- 
tiveness of the soil." (See page 341.) 

26. Farm Home and Farm Life 
By A. E. Winship, Litt.D., LL.D. 

Lecturer, Editor Journal of Education, Boston. Author: "The Shop"; "Life 

of Horace Mann"; "Great American Educators"; "Jukes-Edwards"; 

" Our Boys " 

124 stereographs and slides with 215 references presenting 
the farm as a home rather than as a business. They show the 
farm home, the farmer's independence, the scientific knowl- 
edge needed in his work, the methods of working and the social 
side of country life. (See page 355.) 

NATURE STUDY 

INTRODUCTION 

By Ernest Thompson Seton 

Naturalist and Author, Greenwich, Conn. Founder and Chief Woodcraft League 



EDITORIAL BOARD xxix 

27. Plants and Plant Associations 
By John M. Coulter, Ph.D. 

Professor and Head Dept. of Botany, University of Chicago 

Assisted by George D. Fuller, Ph.D. 

Instructor in Plant Ecology, University of Chicago 

This classification of 184 stereographs and slides with 358 
references deals with plants, their kinds, their relation to each 
other, and the factors which determine what plants can live 
on a given area. (See page 365.) 

28. Animals 
By Ernest Thompson Seton 

Naturalist and Author, Greenwich, Conn. Founder and Chief Woodcraft League 

143 stereographs and slides with 156 references selected to 
show a great range of animals both domestic and wild with 
something of their natures, habits and their uses to man. (See 
page 377.) 

29. Out Door Life 

Boy Scouts, Campfire Girls, Woodcraft League 

By Daniel Carter Beard (" Dan Beard ") 

Honorary Vice-President, and National Scout Commissioner, Boy Scouts of 
America, Flushing, N. Y. 

356 stereographs and slides, with 369 references which carry 
us on hikes anywhere on the face of the globe. This series 
encourages outdoor life and at the same time shows how the 
imagination and Keystone Views together enable us to travel 
over the world, " to hit the trail back through history." The 
classification suggests many themes and lends itself especially 
as an aid to English Composition. (See page 387.) 

30. Vocational Guidance 
By Meyer Bloomfield, B.A. 

Director of the Vocational Bureau, Boston, Mass. Author: "Vocational Guidance 

of Youth"; "The School and the Start in Life"; "Youth, School 

and Vocation " 

These 137 stereographs and slides with 178 references bring 



xxx EDITORIAL BOARD 

the most helpful thought that everything we use and enjoy is 
the result of our own or some one else's labor, and that to do 
one's work well means skill, thought, effort and sacrifice. The 
classification presents the best possible introduction for chil- 
dren to the vital subject of choosing a life career. (See 
page 393.) 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE AND ART 

INTRODUCTION 
By Martha Van Rensselaer, A.B. 

Professor of Home Economics, and Director of Extension Dept. of Home 
Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Editor and Author 
of " Reading Course for Farm Home " 

31. Industries Supplying the Home 
By Lorenzo Dow Harvey, Ph.D. 

President of Stout Institute, Menominee, Wis. Author: "Practical Arithmetic"; 
" Essentials of Arithmetic " 

This selection of 90 stereographs with 101 references is de- 
signed to give the student of Domestic Science and Domestic 
Art a broad view of the close relationship existing between the 
home and the great world of industry. (See page 405.) 

32. Food and Cookery 
By Edna N. White, B.S. 

Head of Dept. of Home Economics and Supervisor of Home Economics Extension 
Dept. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Assisted by Lelia McGuire, B.S. 

Assistant Professor of Home Economics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

108 stereographs and slides with 111 references, relating to 
foods, their values and preparation for use. This classifica- 
tion ably presents the necessity for intelligent use and conser- 
vation of foodstuffs. (See page 409.) 

33. Textiles and Clothing 
By Anna M. Cooley, B.S. 

Associate Professor of Household Arts Education, Teachers College, Columbia 
University. Author: "Domestic Art in Woman's Education." Joint Author: 
"Food and Health"; "Clothing and Health"; "The Home and the Family"; 
"Shelter and Clothing"; "Foods and Household Management"; "Occupations 
for Little Fingers." 

Assisted by Edith P. Chace, B.S. 

Instructor in Household Arts Education, Teachers College, Columbia University 



EDITORIAL BOARD xxxi 

191 stereographs with 239 references showing the origin and 
manufacture of materials, the uses of the various textiles, in- 
dustrial occupations connected with their production and the 
costumes of various countries both ancient and modern. (See 
page 421.) 

34. Household Administration 
By Grace Schermerhorn, B.S. 

Director of Cooking in the New York City Public Schools. Formerly 

Assistant Professor of Home Economics, University of Idaho; Director of 

Practice Teaching in Home Economics, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

This classification of 53 stereographs and slides with 60 ref- 
erences aims to tie together the work done in Foods, Clothing 
and Shelter, dealing with the subject from the point of view 
of the home maker. (See page 431.) 

INDUSTRIAL ARTS 

INTRODUCTION 

By Charles A. Prosser, Ph.D. 

Director Dunwoody Industrial Institute, Minneapolis, Minn. Author: "New 
Harmony Movement"; "The Organization and Administration of Vocational Edu- 
cation"; "The Meaning of Vocational Education," etc. General Editor "Voca- 
tional Educational Series." National Director of Federal Commission on Voca- 
tional Education. 

35. Industrial Design — Including Architecture 
By Raymond P. Ensign 

Instructor in Design, Supervisor of Design Classes, Pratt Institute, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

These 473 stereographs and slides with 1167 references 
thereto make a classification which brings a wealth of illus- 
trative material for Manual Training classes in Design. It 
shows the advantage taken of Natural Forces, Mechanical 
Powers and Construction, while the second part gives the His- 
tory of Architecture and Architectural Design and Construc- 
tion adapted to uses of every kind. (See page 437.) 

36. Wood 
By George M. Brace, M.A. 

Director Manual Training High School, St. Paul, Minn. 



xxxii EDITORIAL BOARD 

147 stereographs and slides with 190 references which illus- 
trate the place which wood occupies in our life. Its growth, 
cutting, manufacture and uses form the subject matter of the 
classification. (See page 469.) 

37. Metals — Sources and Uses 
By Harry S. Bitting 

President Williamson Free School of Mechanical Trades, Williamson School, Pa. 

Ill stereographs and slides with 120 references selected to 
show the sources, preparation, manufacture and uses of our 
more important metals. (See page 475.) 

38. Concrete, Stone, Brick and Tile 
By Charles M. Spofford, S.B. 

Hayward Professor of Civil Engineering in Charge of the Department of Civil 
and Sanitary Engineering of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and 
Harvard University. Author: '"The Theory of Structures." Member, Fay, 
Spofford and Thorndike, Consulting Engineers, Boston, Mass. 

117 stereographs and slides with 137 references make a 
classification of interest to the pupil, showing the sources and 
processes of obtaining and preparing these four great build- 
ing materials and their uses in modern constructive works. 
(See page 483.) 

39. Local Industries 
By Clifford B. Connelley, Sc.D. 

Dean School of Applied Industries, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

122 stereographs with. 145 references selected to show the 
children the industrial life that goes on about them. The 
views brought together in this classification will give accurate 
ideas of the industrial activities of the communities in which 
they live and make personal adjustment to' industry easier and 
better. (See page 491.) 

40. Hygiene — Health Habits 
By Michael Vincent O'Shea, B.L. 

Professor of Education, University of Wisconsin. Author: " Education as 
Adjustment"; "Dynamic Factors in Education"; "Linguistic Development and 



EDITORIAL BOARD xxxiii 

Education"; "Social Development and Education"; "Every Day Problems in 
Teaching." Editor-in-chief, " The World Book." 

The 72 stereographs and slides with 188 references in this 
classification are made the basis for stimulating suggestions as 
to health habits with regard to outdoor life, work, food and 
drink, hearing, breathing, air and light, fatigue and cleanliness. 
(See page 501.) 

FINE ARTS 

INTRODUCTION 

By C. Valentine Kirby 

Director of Art Education, Pittsburgh Public Schools 

41. Drawing — Study of Stereographs and Slides to 
Show Elements of Art 

By Harry W. Jacobs 

Director Art Instruction, Public Schools, Buffalo, N. Y. 

216 stereographs and slides with 283 references are em- 
bodied in this classification to give a practical view point on 
the subject of perspective and drawing in general. Such sub- 
heads as Parallel Perspective, Angular Perspective, Poster 
Drawing, Pencil, Pen or Charcoal Sketches from Photographs 
to Develop Technique, and Nature show the range of subjects 
illustrated. (See page 509.) 

42. House Design and Decoration; Costume Design 
By Mary J. Quinn 

Supervisor of Design, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. Author: " Planning and 
Furnishing the Home " 

Art in the home brings art instruction to a practical applica- 
tion. Houses and furnishings should be studied and children 
should be taught to judge what is best in a given circumstance. 
Then, too, the clothes of the people reveal their civilization. 
They express the manners, the habits of living, the workman- 
ship, the art of the people. (See page 517.) 

43. Photography 
By C. E. K. Mees, D.Sc. 

Director Research Laboratory, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

223 stereographs and slides with 271 references which fur- 



xxxiv EDITORIAL BOARD 

nish instruction as to composition, perspective, lighting, choice 
of subject and of view and illustrates thoroughly each point ex- 
plained. This classification is a splendid introduction to the 
photographers' art. (See page 543.) 

44. Visualized Problems 
By John H. Walsh, LL.B., Ph.D. 

Associate Superintendent of Schools, The City of New York. Joint Author: 
" Walsh-Suzzallo Arithmetics." Author: "Mathematics for Grammar Schools" 
"New Primary Arithmetic"; "New Grammar School Arithmetic"; "Practical 
Methods in Arithmetic," etc. 

This classification of 235 stereographs and slides with 271 
references lifts Arithmetic out of abstraction (a position which 
it too often occupies) into a vital relation with life. By visu- 
alizing the premises upon which the problems are based, the 
study is made both interesting and practical. (See page 557.) 

FOR THE LITTLE FOLKS 

INTRODUCTION 

By William C. Bagley, Ph.D. 

Director School of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

45. Children of the World, Including Home Life 
By G. A. Mirick, A.M. 

Educational Specialist, Cambridge, Mass. Formerly Assistant Commissioner of 
Education, Supervising Elementary Schools, State of New Jersey. Author: 
" Home Life Around the World "; "A Grammar for Elementary Schools." Joint 
Author Kendall and Mirick Series "How to Teach the Fundamental Subjects"; 
" How to Teach Special Subjects." 

A classification of 199 stereographs and slides with 397 ref- 
erences selected from the point of view of the interests and 
mental capacities of the children who are to use them. Three 
distinct groupings are indicated so that, regardless of the 
method of approaching the child favored by the particular 
school, the material will lend itself readily to the plan used. 
(See page 581.) 

46. Plants and Animals 
By Anna Botsford Comstock 

Assistant Professor of Nature Study, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 



EDITORIAL BOARD xxxv 

Editor Nature Study Review. Author: "Handbook of Nature Study"; "The 
Pet Book"; "Ways of the Six-footed." Joint Author: "How to Know the 
Butterflies." 

This classification of 47 stereographs and slides brings to 
the little people a wealth of material to encourage observation, 
reflection, appreciation and expression. The views are se- 
lected to appeal constantly to the little child's small fund of ex- 
perience for the purpose of comparison or relating what is 
known. (See page 595.) 

47. Reading 
By Charles Madison Curry, A.M. 

Professor of Literature in the Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind. 
Author: " Literary Readings." Joint Author: Holton-Curry Readers 

Most of the poems and stories used in the readers of the 
lower grades as well as the best supplementary readers are 
illustrated in this classification of 484 stereographs with 721 
references. (See page 605.) 

48. Some Things We Eat : Some Things We Wear 
By William M. Gregory 

Professor of Geography, School of Education, Cleveland, Ohio 

It is <the aim of this classification of 129 stereographs and 
slides with 132 references to make real and vivid the elemen- 
tary ideas of life ; to help children to realize the actual condi- 
tions under which we live and how dependent we are upon 
those people who supply our many needs. (See page 629.) 

49. Home Geography 
By R. H. Whitbeck, A.B. 

Professor of Geography, University of Wisconsin. Editor Journal of Geography 

This classification of 297 stereographs and slides with 592 
references has for its purpose the building up of fundamental 
concepts by directing observation to the home region. It 
shows the purpose of the home, the need for home industries 
for supplying our wants, how materials for clothing are ob- 



xxxvi EDITORIAL BOARD 

tained and an understanding of simple industries, of trade, of 
travel and of transportation. (See page 641.) 

50. Travelogue and Lecture Suggestions 
By Russell H. Conwell, D.D., LL.D. 

Lecturer. President of Temple University, Philadelphia 

Oftentimes there is need of a definite listing of lantern slides 
for a review of regional geography, or other school subject, or 
when it is desired to use the slides as program material for 
community meetings to link up the home and the school. This 
classification of 587 slides with 1489 references will prove very 
helpful for such use. (See page 653.) 



s 



GEOGRAPHY 

INTRODUCTION 
By Charles T. McFarlane, Pd.D. 

Professor of Geography, Teachers College, Columbia University 

Geography is " the study of the earth and its products, of 
man and his industries and # of their influence upon each other." 
For most school children the study of geography is confined to 
the early years of school life. It comes at a time when children 
have had but little first hand contact with the world, its people 
and their industries and before travel has made them familiar 
with distant places and people or with the products of the earth 
and the industries growing out of their preparation for use. 
With the mind of the child open and receptive the intense real- 
ity of the stereoscopic presentation insures that the first ideas 
and concepts formed will be accurate, vivid and permanent. 

Failing direct contact with the world that lies beyond a 
familiar horizon children for the most part learn of it through 
the medium of the spoken word, the printed page, or its 
pictured representation. For this reason works on geography 
and travel are usually well illustrated and many of the most 
modern text books in geography prepared for the use of chil- 
dren devote a third or more of their space to maps, pictures 
and other illustrations. 

No other subject in the elementary school lends itself so 
readily to the use of illustrative material or requires more of 
it, and the text book in geography, with its numerous maps and 
its hundreds of pictures is always the most attractive of school 
books. 

Not only do teachers make constant use of the pictures in the 
text-book itself, but they frequently find too few to meet their 
requirements. The result is that most teachers of geography 
are constantly collecting from every possible source pictures 
valuable for study or for class room use during a lesson period. 
Collections of this sort are valuable in proportion as they show 

i 



2 GEOGRAPHY — INTRODUCTION 

clearly and accurately the features or process to be taught, and 
to the degree that some system of classification and cross refer- 
ence makes each picture available for instant use in connection 
with any topic where its use might be helpful. 

The pictures in the Keystone collection have been carefully 
chosen because of their teaching quality and because they are 
susceptible of clear and simple explanation. They are photo- 
graphs and possess the incomparable advantage of the stereo- 
scopic quality. Upon this latter advantage it is not necessary 
to dwell beyond emphasizing the fact that in no other kind of 
picture is there the clearness of perspective — the third dimen- 
sion — that is found in views of this sort. 

The moving picture fails exactly as does the flat photograph 
to show this perspective quality and is for that very reason often 
quite misleading in the impression that it gives. Farther the 
moving picture can not be studied. Even the least inflammable 
of films can be " held " for only a brief time without being 
damaged or destroyed. It flickers on and off the screen with 
no explanation at all or with the briefest of running comment. 
The opportunity for a quiet and careful study of the picture un- 
til its full meaning is understood is altogether lacking. To 
other disadvantages connected with the use of moving pictures 
must be added the cost of equipment and the difficulties and 
dangers connected with showing them. 

To a remarkable degree the collection of Keystone views 
meets the needs of teacher and children. They have been care- 
fully selected for this particular use. They have been grouped 
and indexed by experts. They may be studied at any time, as 
often and for as long a time as necessary. 

The nine classifications immediately following treat the sub- 
ject of Geography from various view points and with consider- 
able fullness. The teacher of the lower grades should note 
especially the classifications " Some Things we Eat ; Some 
Things We Wear " page 629 and " Home Geography " page 
641, also the classifications covering the geographic supplemen- 
tary reading pages 611 and 613. 



1. GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 
AND TITLE LIST 

By DOUGLAS C. RIDGLEY, A.B. 

PROFESSOR OF GEOGRAPHY, ILLINOIS STATE NORMAL UNIVERSITY, 

NORMAL, ILL. 

This list of 600 views is a complete catalog of the " 600 Set " 
with titles given in full. In classifications following this Geo- 
graphical Classification, titles are somewhat abbreviated, or en- 
tirely changed so that the thought of the Editor of any chapter 
may be more clearly presented. In every case, however, the 
stereograph or lantern slide may be quickly identified by the 
serial number which is always given. If the full title and geo- 
graphical location is desired, turn to the corresponding number 
in this list in which the views are numbered consecutively from 
1 to 600. 

The numbers first given are the serial numbers of the " 600 
Set," and run from 1 to 600 inclusive. These numbers are fol- 
lowed by negative numbers. Such a number serves as an ab- 
solute means of identification, The negative number is fol- 
lowed by the title of the scene. In all lists following this one 
the negative number is omitted. 

Teachers and pupils will be well repaid by making frequent 
and careful examination of this Geographical Classification in 
all its main divisions and sub-divisions. A careful study of the 
exact title and geographical location of the individual scenes 
will yield excellent results. The serial numbers may be en- 
tered on outline maps of the United States and of each con- 
tinent, in their appropriate places. Maps in the text-book in 
geography, in atlases, and wall maps, can be used to advantage 
in locating the scenes accurately. The order of the countries 
is that usually followed by modern text-books in geography. 

An accurate and comprehensive knowledge of the scenes in 
this Geographical Classification is indispensable to the teacher 
who expects to make the best use of the numerous lists follow- 

3 



4 GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 

ing this one. Such knowledge is to be obtained by using spare 
moments occasionally in the examination of the stereographs 
in regular order, learning the details of the scene, its exact 
title, and by reading the descriptive matter on the backs of the 
stereographs. Such examination and study will prove a real 
delight to the instructor. By knowing well the scenes of the 
list, and the geographical setting of each, the teacher can de- 
termine instantly the value of any division of the Classification 
in relation to the class work which pupils may be pursuing. 
He is prepared also to select quickly any scene or group of 
scenes that may bear on any topic that may come incidentally 
in school work. The topical index at the back of the Teachers' 
Manual will be found convenient and helpful in linking up these 
excellent illustrations with the teaching program. 

Note especially the careful distribution of these superb 
stereographs and lantern slides over the entire geographic 
range. Regardless of the region studied, you will usually 
find some scene in this " 600 Set " that bears directly on the 
work in hand. This is a distinct achievement which only the 
remarkable collection of negatives possessed by the Keystone 
View Company makes possible. Every state in the United 
States is represented. Surely, this is an important considera- 
tion to the instructor who would present our great nation in 
a comprehensive way. The other countries of the world are 
visualized with a completeness that is as pleasing as it is vital 
to the best instruction. 

NORTH AMERICA 

303 stereographs or slides 

UNITED STATES AND POSSESSIONS 

(Except Asiatic Possessions) 

261 stereographs or slides 

New England States 

24 stereographs or slides 

MAINE — 2 stereographs or slides 

1 (12260) Logs from the forest delivered at the stream, Aroostook 

Co., Me. 

2 (14227) Flashlight of wild moose in a Maine forest. 



NEW ENGLAND STATES 



splitting, 



NEW HAMPSHIRE — J stereograph or slide 

3 (13709) Quarrying granite — Drilling preparatory to 

Concord, N. H. 

VERMONT — ^ stereographs or slides 

4 (13701) Marble quarry, Proctor, Vt— Largest quarry opening in 

the world. 

5 (13706) Chiseling marble — Architectural department, Vermont 

Marble Company, Proctor, Vt. 

MASSACHUSETTS — 15 stereographs or slides 

6 (6172) Old North Church, Boston, Mass. 
Quincy Market and Faneuil Hall, Boston, Mass. 
Old State House from Court Street, Boston, Mass. 
Longfellow's Home, Cambridge, Mass. 
Lexington Common, Lexington, Mass. 
Skilled workmen cutting leather for high quality shoes, 

Mass. 

Lasting machine shaping shoes in a Massachusetts shoe 
factory. 

Drying codfish in the sun — Gloucester and harbor in the 
, distance, Mass. 

Spinning cotton yarn in the great textile mills, Lawrence, 
Mass. 

Copying design on copper rolls for printing cotton cloth, 
Lawrence, Mass. 

General view in large printing room of cotton mills, Law- 
rence, Mass. 

Sorting wool after cleaning and washing, Lawrence, Mass. 

Doubling frame in a large woolen mill, Lawrence, Mass. 

Cut rags after removing from washing drums — Paper 
mills, Holyoke, Mass. 

Inspecting paper delivered by machine, Holyoke, Mass. 

RHODE ISLAND — 1 stereograph or slide 

21 (16773) Skilled workers manufacturing jewelry, Providence, R. I. 

CONNECTICUT — j stereographs or slides 

22 (20301) Weighing and sorting raw silk skeins — Silk industry 

(reeled silk), So. Manchester, Conn. 

23 (20312) First drawing or straightening of fibers — Silk industry, 

So. Manchester, Conn. 

24 (20316) Spinning — Silk industry, So. Manchester, Conn. 

Middle Atlantic States 

60 stereographs or slides 
NEW YORK — 26 stereographs or slides 

25 (16774) Looking down on New York's Skyscrapers from Wool- 

worth Tower (S. W.) over Battery to Statue of Liberty 
and Harbor. 



7 (6180) 

8 (11687) 

9 (11686) 

10 (11680) 

11 (22188) 

12 (22189) 

13 (20221) 

14 (22080) 

15 (22082) 

16 (22083) 

17 (22125) 

18 (22127) 

19 (22068) 

20 (22070) 



6 GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 

26 (14244) Ferry slips and water front of New York City, from the 

Brooklyn side. 

27 (10558) The Great Brooklyn Bridge, New York. 

28 (16760) Old and New City Halls and World Building from City 

Hall Park, New York City. 

29 (1009) Wall Street, the financial center, New York. 

30 (13773) Up Broadway from Bowling Green. New York. 

31 (16751) Many forms of transportation required in large centers 

of population, New York City. 

32 (16752) The Gateway of America — Immigrants landing from 

barge at Ellis Island, N. Y. 

33 (18203) Domestic Art — 'Dining room and living room. 

34 (22165) Convevor with travs of loaf sugar received from drying 

kiln,' N. Y. 

35 (22164) Filling and sewing bags of granulated sugar, Xew York 

City. 

36 (6299) The cemetery at Sleepy Hollow. N. Y. 

37 (13511) Washington's Headquarters at Newburgh on the Hudson, 

N. Y. 

38 (12456) A charming landscape, Hudson River Valley. X. Y. 

39 (13508) Looking up the Hudson River from West Point, N. Y. 

40 (22260) Folding and ironing linen collars, Troy, X. Y. 

41 (22190) General view sewing room — Large shoe factory. Syra- 

cuse, X T . Y. 

42 (22019) Solar method of evaporating salt brine — Collecting, 

draining and hauling salt, Syracuse, N. Y. 

43 (16753) A busy path of commerce in central New York — Four 

track railway, electric road at right, Erie Canal at ex- 
treme left. 

44 (16754) Summer spraying in apple orchard, Hilton, N. Y. 

45 (16756) Washing 1.000 lbs. of freshly churned butter. Cohocton, 

X. Y. 

46 (16750) Automatic machine for filling and capping bottles of milk. 

47 (6708) Picking and loading cantaloupes near Buffalo, N. Y. 

48 (6835) Mouth of Erie Canal. Buffalo, X. Y. 

49 (149) American Falls, summer view. X'iagara Falls, N. Y. 

50 (171) The "Beauteous Queen of Cataracts" — American Falls. 

winter view. X"iagara Falls, N. Y. 



XEW JERSEY — io stereographs or slides 

51 (16730) Picturesque Palisades of the Hudson River, looking north, 

X'ew Jersey. 

52 (16762) The Vaterland — the largest ship in the world (1917) — 

and other German ships seized when war was declared 
April. 1917. Hoboken. X. J. 

53 (22110) Drawing warp for weaving silk cloth in extensive silk 

mills at Paterson, N. J. 

54 (22111) Weaving room in the famous silk mills at Paterson, N. J. 



MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES 



55 (22112) Machine weaving dozens of fine taffeta silk ribbons, Pat- 

erson, N. J. 

56 (16717) 1500 hens (White Leghorn) in laying house — Corning 

Egg Farm, Bound Brook, New Jersey. 

57 (16749) Milking scene in modern dairy, Plainsboro, New Jersey. 

58 (22096) Firing tableware in the noted pottery center, Trenton, 

N.J. 

59 (22097) Artists decorating porcelain ware, Trenton, N. J. 

60 (1007) In the surf, Atlantic City, N. J. 

PENNSYLVANIA — 24 stereographs or slides 



61 (6342) 



62 
63 
64 


(6322) 
(6523) 
(6531) 


65 
66 


(6414) 

(6420) 


67 


(6421) 


68 


(6365) 


69 


(20058) 


70 


(20352) 


71 


(16729) 


72 


(11404) 


73 
74 

75 
76 


(195) 

(20048) 

(20049) 

(7052) 


77 


(7057) 


78 
79 
80 


(7064) 

(13204) 

(9648) 


81 


(22128) 


82 


(7090) 



Confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers 
forming the Ohio River, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Plant of the blast furnace, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Modern pig iron machine at rest, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Emptying cooled pig iron from molds into car, pig iron 
machine, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Filling molds with steel, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Steel ingot on the " table " of the " blooming " mill, Steel 
Works, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Red-hot steel beam from rolling process being cut into 
lengths by buzz saw, Steel Works, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

General view of ovens — Loading coke into the cars, 
Connellsville, Pa. 

Filling shell with nitro-glycerine, preparatory to shooting 
the well — Oil field in Pennsylvania. 

Shooting well with eighty quarts of nitro-glycerine. Oil 
field, Pennsylvania. 

Wagon used to haul ammunition to Admiral Perry on 
Lake Erie (1813) — "prairie schooner" type — Craw- 
ford County, Pa. 

A June carnival — Dancing around the daisy pole, Craw- 
ford County, Penn'a. 

Culp's Hill, Gettysburg, Pa. 

Stripping coal at Hazelton, Pa. 

Miners going into the slope, Hazelton, Pa. 

Miner drilling and laborer loading " black diamonds " in 
the rough, anthracite mining, Scranton, Pa. 

Loading cage with car of coal at bottom of shaft, Scran- 
ton, Pa. 

Tandem automatic slate picker, Scranton, Pa. 

Shipping coal — Coal breaker in background, Ashley, Pa. 

The Old Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Spinning room, winding bobbins with woolen yarn for 
weaving,- Philadelphia, Pa. 

General view of the erecting shop, Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 



8 



GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 



83 (16761) School gardens as a practical educational method — 

Showing Boy Scouts and Camp Fire Girls, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

84 (22291) Coining presses, Government Mint, Philadelphia, Pa. 

South Atlantic States 

27 stereographs or slides 
DELAWARE — 1 stereograph or slide 

85 (6952) Gathering peaches, Delaware. 

MARYLAND — 1 stereograph or slide 

86 (6881) "Shucking" oysters, oyster house, Baltimore, Md. 

DIST. OF COLUMBIA — p stereographs or slides 

87 (224) The Capitol, Washington, D. C. 

88 (16770) Pres. Woodrow Wilson, reading message to joint session 

of House and Senate, Congressional Chamber, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

89 (16763) Supreme Court Room, in the Capitol, Washington, D. C. 

90 (895) From War, State and Navy Building — White House, 

Treasury, Pennsylvania Ave. and the Capitol, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

91 (8025) The White House, Washington, D. C. 

92 (16768) The Cabinet Room, Executive Annex to White House, 

Washington, D. C. 

93 (16769) From Washington Monument east to Capitol over Agri- 

cultural Dept. grounds, Washington, D. C. 

94 (22290) Making paper money, Bureau of Printing and Engraving, 

Washington, D. C. 

95 (8046) Congressional Library, Washington, D. C. 

VIRGINIA — 5 stereographs or slides 

96 (8038) Washington's old home, Mt. Vernon, Va. 

97 (20197) A mountain of oyster shells to be placed as bedding for 

young oysters, Hampton, Va. 

98 (14196) Pocahontas pleading for the life of John Smith — En- 

acted by the survivors of the Pamunkey Indian Tribe 
at the Jamestown Exposition — Opening Day, April 26, 
1907. 

99 (14219) Some operations of the Life Saving Corps — Jamestown 

Exposition. 

100 (14158) Great warships in Hampton Roads, Va. 

WEST VIRGINIA — J stereograph or slide 

101 (184) Harper's Ferry, West Virginia. 

NORTH CAROLINA — i? stereographs or slides 

102 (6309) Overlooking the Blue Ridge Mountains from Mt. Tox- 

away, N. C. 

103 (6208) Burning charcoal, mountains in western North Carolina. 



SOUTH CENTRAL STATES 9 

SOUTH CAROLINA — 2 stereographs or slides 

104 (20010) Flooding the rice fields, South Carolina. 

105 (13751) Hoeing rice, South Carolina. 

GEORGIA — 2 stereographs or slides 

106 (6194) Along the wharf of Savannah River, Savannah, Ga. 

107 (13747) A turpentine farm — Dippers and chippers at work, Sa- 

vannah, Ga. 

FLORIDA — 4 stereographs or slides 

108 (13740) Harvesting Indian River pineapples, Florida. 

109 (314) Old Slave Market, St. Augustine, Fla. 

110 (13749) Alligator Joe's battle with a wounded 'gator, Palm 

Beach, Fla. 

111 (9175) Sponge market, Key West Harbor, Fla. 

South Central States 

16 stereographs or slides 
KENTUCKY — 2 stereographs or slides 

112 (20092) Tobacco field in Kentucky. 

113 (16741) Cabin in which Abraham Lincoln was born, Hodgensville, 

Ky. 

TENNESSEE — 2 stereographs or slides 

114 (6923) Lookout Inn, Lookout Mountain, from where seven states 

can be seen, Tenn. 

115 (16738) Mining phosphate and loading cars near Columbia, Tenn. 

ALABAMA — 1 stereograph or slide 

116 (16737) Steel furnace in Alabama's great iron center, Birming- 

ham, Ala. 

MISSISSIPPI — J stereograph or slide 

117 (9506) Picking cotton on a Mississippi plantation. 

ARKANSAS — / stereograph or slide 

118 (16771) Harvesting peanuts, Marianna, Arkansas. 

LOUISIANA — 2 stereographs or slides 

119 (12479) Cotton! Cotton! Cotton! Levee, New Orleans, La. 

120 (16757) In the Mississippi Delta at head of passes, north from 

Pilot's Tower to Cubit's Gap, La. 

OKLAHOMA — 1 stereograph or slide 

121 (16727) A metropolitan view — Looking north from the Colcord 

Bldg., over the City of Oklahoma, Okla. 

TEXAS — 6 stereographs or slides 

122 (20054) Spindle Top — An important oil region near Beaumont, 

Texas. 



10 GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 

123 (20354) Crude oil stills and can factory, Port Arthur, Texas. 

124 (9508) Awaiting their turn at the cotton gin, Greenville, Texas. 

125 (20109) Cotton gin, Greenville, Texas. 

126 (16579) General view of the Alamo Plaza, San Antonio, Texas. 

127 (13756) "Making a drive" — on the Paloduro Ranch, Paloduro, 

Texas. 

North Central States 
5Q stereographs or slides 
OHIO — 8 stereographs or slides 

128 (6697) A comprehensive view of unloaders at work on the ore 

docks. Conneaut. Ohio. 

129 (6705) A trainload of coal for Lake Superior consumption, Con- 

neaut, Ohio. 

130 (13665) Tapping a sugar-maple tree, Portage County, Ohio. 

131 (22054) Many forms of crude rubber, Akron, Ohio. 

132 (22058) Building up an automobile tire in rubber plant, Akron. 

Ohio. 

133 (22060) An interesting scene in the manufacture of rubber boots 

and shoes. Akron, Ohio. 

134 (22001) Method of placing material in furnace, plate glass works, 

Rossford, Ohio. 

135 (22009) Inspecting plate glass after grinding, Rossford, Ohio. 

INDIANA — 3 stereographs or slides 

136 (16712) Modern methods of corn harvesting — Cutter and binder 

at work on an Indiana farm. 

137 (16755) "When the frost is on the pun'kin and the fodder's in 

the shock " — Indiana. 

138 (21576) A champion team of Percheron draft horses at work on 

an Indiana stock farm. 

ILLINOIS — io stereographs or slides 

139 (2337) In the heart of the great shopping center, State Street, 

Chicago. 

140 (20250) The world's greatest live stock market, Union Stock 

Yards, Chicago. 111. 

141 (20252) The last process in dressing beef — Washing with boiling 

water, Chicago, 111. 

142 (20256) Splitting backbones and final inspection of hogs before 

placing them in the refrigerator rooms, Chicago, 111. 

143 (20257) Trimming and skinning hams before pickling, in prepara- 

tion for the market, Chicago. 111. 

144 (20259) Making link sausages with the aid of machines which 

stuff ten feet per second, Chicago. 111. 

145 (18341) Shearing sheep with power driven shears, Kirkland, 111. 

146 (18335) Marshall Joffre, Viviani, Chocheprat and Fabry — French 

War Commission (1917) — with Gov. Lowden and State 
officials at Tomb of Lincoln, Springfield, III. 






NORTH CENTRAL STATES 



11 



147 (6399) Loading oats in the field, Illinois. 

148 (20118) Building dikes to protect the city from the flood, East St. 

Louis, 111. 

MICHIGAN — io stereographs or slides 

149 (16716) Harvesting celery blanched by boards in Michigan's 

famous celery fields, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

150 (22141) Assembling Room — chassis ready for engines — Cadillac 

Automobile Plant, Detroit, Mich. 

151 (22142) Experts testing engines in the Cadillac Automobile Plant, 

Detroit, Mich. 

152 (22143) Employees leaving the Ford Motor Company Factory, 

Detroit, Mich. 

153 (22014) Packing salt into barrels for shipment, St. Clair, Mich. 

154 (16731) Greatest canal traffic in the world — Busy scene in the 

ship canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

155 (22037) A mile underground — loading and handling cars with 

copper ore, Calumet-Hecla Mines, Calumet, Mich. 

156 (22044) Pouring molten copper into ingot molds, Calumet-Hecla 

Mills, Lake Linden, Mich. 

157 (22049) Loading 1400 tons of copper on boat, Houghton, Mich. 

158 (11941) "Nursed the little Hiawatha, rocked him in his linden 

cradle." 

WISCONSIN — 3 stereographs or slides 

159 (16709) Group of modern dairy barns and herd of Holstein 

cattle, Lake Mills, Wis. 

160 (16711) Harvesting and loading silage corn in Wisconsin's famous 

dairy region. 

161 (16732) Reclaiming swamp land — digging ditch with tractor and 

laying drain tile, Wis. 



MINNESOTA - 

162 (20033) A load 

163 (6965) 

164 (6978) 

165 (16708) 

166 (16725) 

167 (16703) 

168 (11942) 

169 (11943) 



8 stereographs or slides 

of logs at the Kettle River Landing, Minnesota 

Pineries. 
Steam shovel at work, showing how track is laid, Burt 

Mine, Mesabi Range, Minn. 
Looking between ore docks No. 2 and No. 3, Two Har- 
bors, Minn. 
Holstein cattle and attractive dairy barns and silos, near 

Moorhead, Minn. 
Potato digging machines at work in the famous potato 

region of the Red River Valley, Moorhead, Minn. 
Scene in the busy northern metropolis, Nicollet Ave., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
" Brought forth food and set before them, brought them 

water from the brooklet." 
" From the wigwam he departed, leading with him 

Laughing Water." 



12 



GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 



IOWA — 4 stereographs or slides 

170 (16700) General view of the great power dam and locks in the 

Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa. 

171 (16701). Fifteen large generators in a row, supplied with power 

from the Great Dam at Keokuk, Iowa. 

172 (16715) Hogs in rape pasture, Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Ames, Iowa. 

173 (16719) Choice Shropshire, Oxford and Cotswold sheep in pas- 

ture at Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

MISSOURI — 3 stereographs or slides 

174 (9518) The magnificent Eads Bridge, St. Louis, Mo. 

175 (16714) Busy scene in the Ozark apple region of Missouri — 

Picking, sorting and packing in barrels. 

176 (16704) Shaft house, smelter and tailing pile, zinc and lead mines, 

Joplin, Mo. 

NORTH DAKOTA — i stereograph or slide 

177 (16740) Threshing wheat in the Red River Valley, North Dakota. 

SOUTH DAKOTA — ,? stereographs or slides 

178 (16733) Plowing rich prairie soil with tractor, South Dakota. 

179 (16734) Making a good seed bed. Tractor drawing double disc 

and 3 section tooth harrows, South Dakota. 

NEBRASKA — 3 stereographs or slides 

180 (16735) Manure spreader followed by tractor plowing sod near 

Omaha, Neb. 

181 (16748) Handling alfalfa hay with hay loader on the farm of Wil- 

liam Jennings Bryan, near Lincoln, Neb. 

182 (16718) Mounted Sioux Indians in "full feather" leaving camp, 

Nebraska. 

KANSAS — 4 stereographs or slides 

183 (16736) Thrifty and contented hogs (Poland China) in rich al- 

falfa pasture, Effingham, Kansas. 

184 (20201) Corn field, Kansas. 

185 (16710) Splendid Hereford cattle in Kansas feeding pens, show- 

ing open air feeding shed, Manhattan, Kansas. 

186 (12475) Round-up on the Sherman Ranch, Geneseo, Kansas. 



Plateau States 

28 stereographs or slides 
MONTANA — 3 stereographs or slides 

187 (13638) Copper smelters and mine, Butte, Mont. — the richest 

mining district in the world. 

188 (13641) Cowboy, bronco corral and camps, banks of the Yellow- 

stone, Montana. 



PLATEAU STATES 



13 



189 (12269) Lordly monarch of western wilds — actual snapshot of 

wild elk, Montana. 

IDAHO — i stereograph or slide 

190 (6157) Sheep grazing on range, Idaho. 

WYOMING — 7 stereographs or slides 

191 (13579) After winter's first visit — gap of the Golden Gate, Yel- 

lowstone National Park, Wyoming. 

192 (13588) Angel Terrace, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. 

193 (13589) Commotion in the Devil's Ink Pot. A moment of erup- 

tion, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. 

194 (13584) "Old Faithful," queen of geysers, Yellowstone National 

Park, Wyoming. 

195 (13581) Rocky Mountain Divide, Yellowstone National Park, 

Wyo. 

196 (13594) A beaver dam, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. 

197 (13577) Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone National Park, 

Wyoming. 

COLORADO — 8 stereographs or slides 

198 (20213) Cultivating a field of beets, near Greeley, Colorado. 

199 (20214) Harvesting wheat raised by the " dry farming method/'' 

Ft. Collins, Colorado. 

200 (2403) Phoebe's Arch, Palmer Lake, Colorado. 

201 (2410) Cathedral Spires, Garden of the Gods, Colorado. 

202 (8008) In the heart of the Box Canyon, Colorado. 

203 (8080) Stamp mill and gold concentrator, Ouray, Colorado. 

204 (8082) Ute Indian and family, Colorado. 

205 (8014) " Dismantled towers and turrets broken ! "— Clift 

dwellers' palace in the Mesa Verde, Colorado. 

ARIZONA — 5 stereographs or slides 

206 (13516) The famous log bridge spanning a chasm 50 ft. wide, 

Petrified Forest, Arizona. 

207 (13520) "Behold the realm where the Colorado flows!" Grand 

Canyon, Arizona. 

208 (13660) On the Bright Angel Trail, Grand Canyon of the Col- 

orado, Arizona. 

209 (13522) Uncouth vegetable growths of the desert, Arizona. 

210 (16742) Reclaiming vast areas by irrigation — the Great Roosevelt 

Dam near Phoenix, Ariz. 

NEW MEXICO — i stereograph or slide 

211 (16775) Spineless cactus — A valuable product for semi-arid re- 

gions, New Mexico. 

UTAH — 2 stereographs or slides 

212 (2454) Salt Lake City, Utah. 

213 (2459) Ogden and Wasatch Mountains, Utah. 



14 



GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 



NEVADA — i stereograph or slide 

214 (16759) A silver mining camp nestled in the mountains, Nevada. 

Pacific States 

28 stereographs or slides 
WASHINGTON — 6 stereographs or slides 

215 (20031) Great chained log rafts, containing millions of feet of 
lumber, on the Columbia River, Wash. 

Port Blakely Mills — largest in the world, near Seattle, 
Puget Sound, Wash. 

Shipping lumber, Washington. 

Harvesting in the Great West — combined reaper and 
thresher, Washington. 

Looking down a deep crevasse of Paradise Glacier, sum- 
mit of Mt. Rainier in the distance — Rainier National 
Park, Wash. 

Seattle, looking southwest from the Hotel Washington, 
Wash. 



216 (13618) 

217 (20027) 

218 (11623) 

219 (14135) 



220 (13617) 



OREGON — 7 stereographs or slides 



221 (13635) 

222 (14103) 



223 (6228) 

224 (13567) 

225 (13796) 

226 (13624) 

227 (13625) 



A splendid view of Mt. Hood, Ore. 

Crater Lake, Oregon. When a volcano has been quiet 
for centuries the inside slopes become weathered 
enough to support life and the crater may be filled with 
water and become a lake. 

Line of sand dunes, Columbia River, Oregon. 

One of the great trees that grow in the rainy north- 
west — -showing method of felling, Oregon. 

Hydraulic mining, Oregon. 

First haul of the season — salmon industry, Columbia 
River, Ore. 

Butchering salmon — interior of a canning establishment, 
Astoria, Oregon. 



CALIFORNIA — 15 stereographs or slides 

228 (5022) The Sierras, from Glacier Rock, Yosemite Valley, Cal. 

229 (5007) The Fallen Monarch, Mariposa Grove, Yosemite Valley, 

Cal. 

230 (16743) Market St., Twin Peaks in the distance, San Francisco, 

Cal. 

231 (13299) Remarkable earthquake fissure in the Sobrante Hills, near 

Berkeley, Cal. 

232 (16676) The great American bison that once roamed in countless 

thousands over our vast prairies, Cal. 

233 (20215) A combined steam harvester which reaps, threshes and 

sacks the wheat, Cal. 

234 (16744) Harvesting almonds, San Joaquin County, Cal. 

235 (16746) Luther Burbank's spineless cactus, Santa Rosa, Cal. 



OUTLYING POSSESSIONS 



15 



236 (16747) Tokay Grapes — In a California vineyard, Acampo, Cal. 

237 (13546) More than 10,000 acres of navel orange groves, San Ga- 

briel Valley, Cal. 

238 (4300) Orange blossoms and fruit, Los Angeles, Cal. 

239 (13528) Just out — baby ostriches on the Cawston ostrich farm, 

California. 

240 (13532) Los Angeles pigeon farm, Cal. 

241 (13555) San Gabriel Mission, Southern California. 

242 (16667) Submarines in the foreground and battle-ships and tor- 

pedo boats in the background, San Diego Bay, Cal. 

Outlying Possessions of the 
United States 

(Except the Philippines and Guam) 
ig stereographs or slides 
ALASKA — 4 stereographs or slides 

243 (9195) Preparing to climb "The Golden Stair" and Peterson's 

Trail, Chilkoot, Pass, Alaska. 

244 (11518) Drying fish on the Yukon River, Alaska. 

245 (9374) Placer mining near the Yukon River, Alaska. 

246 (11530) Gold miners and dog team north of the arctic circle, 

Alaska. 

PANAMA, C. Z.— io stereographs or slides 

247 (20857) Rubber tree, showing scars from cutting — Palm tree 

with palm nuts. Panama. 

248 (20877) Looking down on the City and Bay of Panama, from 

Ancon Hill, Panama Canal Zone. 

249 (13320) Dwellings erected for employees of old French Canal 

Company, Colon, Isthmus of Panama. 

250 (20889) Site of. the Gatun Lock, looking south from the lowest 

lock towards Lake Gatun — Panama Canal Route. 

251 (21740) Excavations measuring 500 ft. deep in Gaillard Cut, 

Panama Canal. 

252 (21783) North over Gatun Locks and sea level entrance to Panama 

Canal, Atlantic Ocean in the distance. 

253 (21784) South over Gatun Locks and Gatun Lake, Emergency Dam 

in position — a busy scene on the Panama Canal. 

254 (21781) U. S. S. Missouri — The first battleship to pass from the 

Atlantic to the Pacific through the Panama Canal. 

255 (21786) Hospital grounds and Ancon Hill from Hotel Tivoli, 

Panama. 

256 (21787) At the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal — Showing 

fortified islands, wireless tower and breakwater. 

PORTO RICO — 2 stereographs or slides 

257 (10252) Overlooking the harbor, San Juan, Porto Rico. 

258 (10264) Cutting the sugar cane, Rio Pedro, Porto Rico. 



16 



GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 



HAWAII — s stereographs or slides 

259 (10154) Luxuriant vegetation in the Mauna Loa Valley, Hawaii. 

260 (10161) With the flag goes the public school — Royal School, 

Honolulu, Hawaii. 

261 (10156) Pretty hula girls, Honolulu, Hawaii. 



PHILIPPINES — See 
GUAM — See Asia. 



Asia. 



NORTHERN COUNTRIES OF NORTH AMERICA 
23 stereographs or slides 
CANADA — J/ stereographs or slides 



262 (13895) 



the 



263 
264 
265 


(13882) 
(13987) 
(16061) 


266 


(16037) 


267 
268 
269 
270 


(10625) 
(20927) 
(20932) 
(20941) 


271 


(20944) 


272 


(20916) 


273 


(16316) 


274 


(13830) 


275 


(13802) 


276 (13806) 


277 


(13837) 



Basin of 
Canada. 



pag- 



" In the Acadian Land, on the shores of 

Minas." Nova Scotia, Canada. 
Indian basket weaving, Prince Edward Island 
View from Dufferin Terrace, Quebec, Canada. 
Iroquois Indians who participated in tercentenary 

eant (1908), Quebec, Can. 
Fifth Royal Highlanders of Montreal in a military 

parade at Quebec. 
The wharves. Montreal, Canada. 

Winding bobbins in linen mill — Linen industry, Canada. 
Weaving the linen fabric — Linen industry, Canada. 
Beets stored in sheds with V-shaped bins having canals 

underneath to carry them to washing drum. 
Beet pulp and juice flowing into large iron tanks, where 

it is subjected to diffusion by water. 
Scraping the hair from the hides roughly by machinery — 

Tanning industry, Canada. 
In the thriving metropolis of Western Canada — Main St., 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. . 
A treacherous crevasse in Victoria Glacier — Mt. Lefroy 

and Mt. Victoria in distance, Canadian Rockies, 

Canada. 
-Among the wonderful ice peaks 

Glacier. 
Mt. Sir Donald, the Matterhorn of 

Alps. 
Western terminus of Canadian Pacific Transcontinental 

R. R., and Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, B. C, Can. 

NEWFOUNDLAND— 2 stereographs or slides 

278 (16317) The fisherman's quarters in harbor at St. John's, New- 

foundland. 

279 (16318) Eskimo dog team on trail, Hopedale, Labrador. 



of the Illecillewaet 
the North American 



SOUTHERN COUNTRIES OF N. A. 



\1 



SOUTHERN COUNTRIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

24 stereographs or slides 
MEXICO — 11 stereographs or slides 

280 (10800) Mexico's principal harbor, Vera Cruz. 

281 (10809) Home of the peon — the adobe hut, City of Mexico. 

282 (10803) City of Mexico, the ancient Tenochtitlan of the Aztecs. 

283 (10910) Soldiers' Monument and Castle of Chapultepec, City of 

Mexico. 

284 (10871) Ancient mode of threshing in Mexico, Pyramid of Sun, 

San Juan Teotihuacan. 

285 (10842) Filling pig skins with juice from maguey plant used in 

making pulque, the native drink, Tacuba, Mexico. 

286 (10888) Carding room, cotton mills, Orizaba, Mexico. 

287 (16106) Rich Gold and Silver Mining Center, El Oro, State of 

Mexico, Mexico. 

288 (10865) The sacred shrine on Cholula Pyramid, and "Old Popo- 

catapetl," Cholula, Mexico. 

289 (16100) Henequen, the wealth of Yucatan, from which sisal hemp 

fibre is produced, Mexico. 

290 (17787) Mexican musicians and dancing girls in national costume. 

Central America 

5 stereographs or slides 
GUATEMALA — 1 stereograph or slide 

291 (12872) Escuintla and the twin volcanoes Fuego and Acatenango, 

Guatemala, C. A. 

SALVADOR — 1 stereograph or slide 

292 (12860) Tortilla making, Salvador, C. A. 

NICARAGUA — 1 stereograph or slide 

293 (12835) Golden and luscious mangoes, the favorite fruit of the 

natives, Nicaragua, C. A. 

COSTA RICA — 1 stereograph or slide 

294 (12804) Harvesting bananas, Costa Rica, C. A. 

West Indies 

10 stereographs or slides 
CUBA — 5 stereographs or slides 

295 (20518) Havana Wharf, Cuba — Unloading coffee from Porto 

Rico. 

296 (9078) General view of the wrecked battleship Maine. 

297 (10236) Cutting tobacco grown in the shade of banana trees, 

Province of Havana, Cuba. 

298 (9072) Farming scene, Province of Havana, Cuba. 



18 



GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 



299 (9415) 



Santiago and the harbor from the Spanish Block House, 
Cuba. 



MARTINIQUE — i stereograph or slide 

300 (14355) Natives fascinated by the fierce and magnificent sight of 

a volcanic eruption, Gros Morne, Martinique, F. W. I. 

JAMAICA — i stereograph or slide 

301 (9991) A cattle ranch in Jamaica, B. W. I. 

GUADELOUPE — i stereograph or slide 

302 (14439) Coffee pickers at work, Guadeloupe, F. W. I. 

DOMINICA — i stereograph or slide 

303 (14455) The eccentric growth of cacao pods, Dominica, B. W. I. 

SOUTH AMERICA 

38 stereographs or slides 
BRAZIL — 8 stereographs or slides 

304 (20838) Lower city and harbor, Bahia, Brazil. 

305 (21822) Avenida Rio Branco from Hotel Avenida on a holiday, 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

306 (21821) Children of illustrious Brazilian families in an American 

private school, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

307 (21851) Tropical view down the slope of Santa Theresa toward 

the harbor, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

308 (21847) Scene in Rua 15th of November, the principal street, 

Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

309 (21848) Municipal Theatre, one of the handsomest play houses 

in the world, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

310 (20817) Method of drying coffee, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

311 (20816) Carts loaded with coffee leaving the plantation, State 

of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

URUGUAY — 2 stereographs or slides 

312 (20829) Plaza Independencia showing " Portales," Montevideo, 

Uruguay. 

313 (20827) Great dredge by which the harbor is made navigable, 

Montevideo, Uruguay. 

ARGENTINA — 8 stereographs or slides 

314 (20824) Entrance to the harbor, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

315 (20840) The Government buildings from the balcony of the 

Bourse. 

316 (21809) Four o'clock parade of society in Palermo, a suburb of 

Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

317 (20844) Argentina's famous cattle on range, La Plata, Argentina, 

So. Am. 

318 (21875) Majestic Iguazu Falls, Argentina. 






SOUTH AMERICA 



19 



319 (21818) Italian settler and family, vineyards in background, Men- 

doza, Argentina. 

320 (20850) Two typical means of transportation — the high cart and 

the gig — Alta Gracia, Argentina. 

321 (21817) Along the Mendoza River in the Andean Foothills, Ar- 

gentina. 

CHILE — 7 stereographs or slides 

322 (21861) Charming Inca Lake (Laguna del Inca) nestling in the 

Chilean Andes. 

323 (21860) Station from which the train climbs 5000 feet in a few 

miles to the summit, Juncal, Chile. 

324 (21843) Cathedral and Plaza, Chilean woman in native dress, 

Santiago, Chile. 

325 (22369) Nitrate for agriculture and for war being sacked by 

natives for shipment, Chile. 

326 (21865) The harbor and city, Valparaiso, Chile. 

327 (21836) Goods arriving at docks for shipment, Valparaiso, Chile. 

328 (21874) Indians on the Strait of Magellan near Punta Arenas, 

Chile. 

PERU — 6 stereographs or slides 

329 (21867) Across the Plaza in Arequipa to the famous volcano, 

Monte Misti, Peru. 

330 (21811) In the heart of the rugged Cordilleras Mountains, the 

Cofa Bridge on the Oroya Railway, Peru. 

331 (21871) Natives near wall of Incan Palace — most remarkable 

monument of ancient Peru, Cuzco. 

332 (21869) Tractor with cable drawing harrow and pulverizer to pre- 

pare soil for planting sugar cane, Lima, Peru. 

333 (21868) Replanting the sugar cane in a large hacienda near Lima, 

Peru. 

334 (21870) Refining silver in smelter at the famous mining center of 

Cerro de Pasco, Peru. 



BOLIVIA — i stereograph or slide 
335 (21866) Famous Copacabana Church near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, 
llama in foreground. 



ECUADOR — i stereograph or slide 
336 (21872) Charming Spanish maiden 
Ecuador. 



balcony, Guayaquil, 



COLOMBIA — i stereograph or slide 

337 (21873) Quaint scene in streets of Barranquilla, Colombia. 

VENEZUELA — 4 stereographs or slides 

338 (13314) La Guaira, Venezuela, showing fort bombarded by the 

British in 1902. 



20 



GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 



339 (13315) In the narrow streets of La Guaira, Venezuela — native 

method of distributing milk unadulterated. 

340 (13307) National University and Halls of Congress, Caracas, 

Venezuela. 

341 (13309) The city baker making his daily rounds, Caracas, Vene- 

zuela. 

POLAR REGIONS 

(Except Alaska and Norway) 
5 stereographs or slides 
ARCTIC — 2 stereographs or slides 

342 (13325) The twin ships, Windward and Eric — Peary expedition 

in 1901 — at Nuerke, 800 miles from North Pole, 
Greenland. 

343 (13329) Eskimo girls and part of Crew S. S. Eric — at Upernavik, 

northernmost Danish trading post, Greenland. 

(See also 246 Alaska and 413, 414 and 415 Norway) 

ANTARCTIC — 3 stereographs or slides 

344 (13326) Hauling snow for water supply. Belgica Antartic ex- 

pedition. (1897-99.) 

345 (13328) Commander Adrien de Gerlache, leader of the Belgica 

expedition. (1897-99) on skis hunting seals on South 
Polar Pack. 

346 (13327) Roald Amundsen, discoverer of the South Pole, inspect- 

ing ice field near glacier, Antarctic Ocean. 



EUROPE 

142 stereographs or slides 

Great Britain 

36 stereographs or slides 
ENGLAND — 16 stereographs or slides 

347 (3028) Landing Stage, Liverpool, England. 

348 (2101) London Bridge over the Thames River, England. 

349 (2111) Tower of London, London, England. 

350 (3002) Westminster Abbey, London, England. 

351 (3004) The Bank of England, London, England. 

352 (11301) The House of Lords, London, England. 

353 (6146) The regulator of the world's clocks, Greenwich, England. 

354 (3009) Birthplace of William Shakespeare, Stratford-on-Avon, 

England. 

355 (3012) Anne Hathaway's Cottage, Shottery, England. 

356 (3010) Shakespeare's Memorial Theater, Stratford-on-Avon, 

England. 

357 (13149) Harvesting wheat in Old England. 






GREAT BRITAIN — GERMAN EMPIRE 



21 



358 (21561) Whitefaced Herefords — an English breed of beef cattle 

of worldwide fame. 

359 (21200) A nightingale on its sheltered nest. 

360 (3015) York and its Cathedral, England. 

361 (13120) Lake Grasmere and Village from Red Bank, Lake Dis- 

trict, England. 

362 (13123) Rydal Mount, home of Poet Wordsworth, Lake District, 

England. 



WALES — J stereograph or slide 

363 (2702) Fairy Glen, Bettws-y-Coed, Wales. 

CHANNEL ISLANDS— J stereograph or slide 

364 (21522) Jersey cattle, the most famous product of the Island of 

Jersey, Channel Islands. 



SCOTLAND — p stereographs or slides 



365 



(2610) Princess Street and Waverly Gardens, Edinburgh, Scot- 
land. 

366 (12711) Highlanders in native costume at the great Forth Bridge, 

one and one-half miles long, spanning the Firth of 
Forth, Queensferry, Scotland. 

367 (12703) Historic Stirling Castle, Scotland. 

368 (12704) Wallace Monument, the national memorial to Scotland's 

daring chieftain, Stirling, Scotland. 

369 (2607) Ellen's Isle, Loch Katrine, Scotland. 

370 (21501) Aberdeen Angus, a noted breed of beef cattle developed 

in Scotland. 

371 (21502) A beautiful and productive type of dairy cattle (Ayr- 

shire) originating in County Ayr, Scotland. 

372 (12700) Burns' cottage, room where the poet was born, Ayr, 

Scotland. 

373 (12702) A highland home, Scotland. 



IRELAND — p stereographs or slides 
(2517) Queenstown Harbor, Ireland. 

Patrick's Bridge, Cork, Ireland. 

Blarney Castle, Ireland. 

Lakes of Killarney, Ireland. 

Peat from Irish bogs, High Street, Killarney, Ireland. 

Suspension bridge, Kenmare, Ireland. 

Sackville Street, Dublin, Ireland. 

Royal Avenue, Belfast, Ireland. 

Giant's Causeway, side view of basaltic columns, Ireland. 



374 

375 (12605) 

376 (2503) 

377 (2500) 

378 (6110) 

379 (12600) 

380 (2504) 

381 (2508) 

382 (6854) 



GERMAN EMPIRE — 12 stereographs or slides 

383 (6131) The Reichstags-Gebaude, Berlin, Germany. 

384 (10303) Royal Palace, Berlin, Germany. 



22 



GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 



385 (10331) Band of Cuirassier Guards marching to the Parade 

Grounds, Berlin, Germany. 

386 (2011) Hamburg from across the Elbe, Germany. 

387 (10336) Market place and cathedral, Nuremburg, Germany. 

388 (10376) Making hay in the highlands of Bavaria, Germany. 

389 (10371) Kleber Place, in the heart of Strassburg, Germany. 

390 (10352) Toiling in the vineyards — picking the luscious grapes, 

Rudesheim, Germany. 

391 (10335) Moonlight on the Rhine, Bingen, Germany. 

392 (10339) The great bridge over the Rhine at Bonn, Germany. 

393 (2002) Market, Cologne, Germany. 

394 (18000) Zeppelin flying over a German town — Lower valley of 

the Rhine. 

BELGIUM — 4 stereographs or slides 

395 (6121) In the vegetable market, Brussels, Belgium. 

396 (2084) Milk cart, Antwerp, Belgium. 

397 (10115) River Meuse and Pare de la Citadel, Namur, Belgium. 

398 (21577) Belgian draft horses — A world champion in foreground. 

HOLLAND — 5 stereographs or slides 

399 (2056) Water Street, Zaandam, Holland. 

400 (2050) Steamer docks, Rotterdam, Holland. 

401 (6436) A Dutch fishing village, Island of Marken, Zuider Zee, 

Holland. 

402 (6435) Quaint street in a Dutch village, Holland. 

403 (12201) Dutch farm hands milking Holstein-Friesian cattle near 

Rotterdam, Holland. 

DENMARK — 3 stereographs or slides 

404 (13080) Queen Louise Bridge. Copenhagen. Denmark. 

405 (13076) Frederiksholms Canal and Thorwaldsen Museum, Copen- 

hagen, Denmark. 

406 (13077) The Krystal-Gade and the Round Tower, Copenhagen, 

Denmark. 

NORWAY — stereographs or slides 

407 (13414) The Lotefos, Norway's most famous waterfall. 

408 (13408) In the fair and fertile Jordal Valley — Buerbrae Glacier 

in distance, Norway. 

409 (13496) Carding and spinning wool — Snow capped Mt. Boerte- 

nose in the background, Telemarken, Norway. 

410 (13420) Making the "flat bread" of the Norwegian peasant, Nor- 

way. 

411 (13422) Milking the goats, Hardanger Fjord. Norway. 

412 (13467) Grindstones which convert the blocks into wood pulp, 

Paper Mills, Skotifos, Norway. 

413 (15770) Laplanders milking the reindeer, Norway. 

414 (15774) Midnight sun, North Cape, Lapland. 

415 (15768) Floating whale station, Spitzenbergen, Lapland. 



SWEDEN — FRANCE — SPAIN 



23 



SWEDEN — 5 stereographs or slides 

416 (13009) The Vassa Bridge, Stockholm, Sweden. 

417 (13003) The Council Room, Royal Palace, Stockholm, Sweden. 

418 (13015) Dalecarlian girls at home, Skansen, Stockholm, Sweden. 

419 (13017) Women weeding a field of sugar beets, Sweden. 

420 (13029) Custom-house scene and harbor of the enterprising city of 

Goteborg, Sweden. 

FRANCE — J i stereographs or slides 

421 (11741) Bird's-eye view of Paris from the Arch of Triumph, 

France. 

422 (1641) Avenue des Champs Elysees, Paris, France. 

423 (11787) Flower market on St. Michael's Bridge at 6 o'clock a. m., 

Paris, France. 

424 (1603) The Grand Opera, Paris, France. 

425 (3104) Notre Dame, Paris, France. 

426 (18080) Aeroplane on scout duty with French troops. 

427 (10732) Glacier des Bossons, Chamonix, France. 

428 (10734) Mer de Glace (sea of ice), from the Montanvert, 

Chamonix, France. 

429 (6102) The Cathedral, near busy docks, Marseilles, France. 

430 (11760) A seaside paradise — Cannes, France. 

431 (11766) Women washing clothes, Nice, France. 

MONACO — I stereograph or slide 

432 (11754) Monaco — The Prince's Castle in view. 



the 



the 



SPAIN — 7 stereographs or slides 

433 (15808) Commodious harbor of Barcelona, looking towards 

Columbus Monument and custom-house, Spain. 

434 (15814) General view of Burgos, Spain. 

435 (15800) Panorama of Madrid, showing fete celebration in 

foreground, Spain. 

436 (967) Alhambra Palace, Granada, Spain. 

437 (15834) Picking Valencia oranges, near Valencia, Spain. 

438 (15828) Andalusian carts coming into town, Almeria, Spain. 

439 (966) Rock of Gibraltar, England's only possession on mainland 

of Europe. 



SWITZERLAND — io stereographs or slides 

440 (10770) To the clouds by rail — Mt. Pilatus, Switzerland. 

441 (10798) Braving Alpine perils — on the top of Mt. Pilatus over- 

looking a sea of clouds, Switzerland. 

442 (10781) The Kapellbrucke crossing the River Reuss, Lucerne, 

Switzerland. 

443 (6130) The Wood Carver, Meiringen, Switzerland. 

444 (10750) Lauterbrunnen Valley and the lovely fall of the Staubbach, 

Switzerland. 



24 



GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 



445 (10702) A mountain chalet, Grindelwald, Switzerland. 

446 (10703) Blowing the alpine horn, Grindelwald, Switzerland. 

447 (10705) Grindelwald on market day, Switzerland. 

448 (10765) Looking at the Matterhorn from Rifrelbnrg Hotel, 

Switzerland. 

449 (10793) Goods for the High Alps, near Zermatt, Switzerland. 

ITALY — to stereographs or slides 

450 (1901) Rome, the Eternal City, from the balcony of St. Peter's, 

Italy. 

451 (11200) The Tiber, Castle of San Angelo. and St. Peter's 

Cathedral, Rome, Italy. 

452 (11234) Colosseum, the "King of Ruins," Rome, Italy. 

453 (1970) Mount Vesuvius in eruption, Naples, Italy. 

454 (1972) A Neapolitan team, Naples. Italy. 

455 (16830) Street scene in tenement district, Palermo, Sicily. 

456 (1952) Florence and River Arno. Italy. 

457 (6482) Grand Canal, Venice, Italy. 

458 (1941) The Cathedral, Milan, Italy. 

459 (6459) Beautiful Lake Como, one of the loveliest spots in the 

world, Italy. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY — 7 stereographs or slides 

460 (15614) Marie Theresa Platz, Innsbruck, Austria-Hungary. 

461 (15610) Public Square, looking toward Schlossberg, Gratz, Austria. 

462 (15607) Along the Danube Canal in the very heart of Vienna, 

Austria-Hungary. 

463 (15655) Traffic in the busy Graben, Vienna, Austria-Hungary. 

464 (15656) One of Europe's famous avenues, Andrassy Strasse, Buda- 

pest, Hungary. 

465 (15609) Polish school children, Zakopane, Galicia, Austria- 

Hungary. 

466 (15611) Natives in market place, Serajevo, Bosnia, Austria- 

Hungary. 

SERBIA — 1 stereograph or slide 

467 (17300) View of junction of Save River with the Danube-Hun- 

garian city of Semlin in distance at the right — ■ from 
heights of Belgrade, Serbia. 

BULGARIA — 2 stereographs or slides 

468 (17207) Street scene showing peasant woman and sidewalk coffee 

house, Sofia, Bulgaria. 

469 (17218) Native market scene, Ruschuk, Bulgaria. 

ROUMANIA — 2 stereographs or slides 
47Q (17200) The great railway bridge over the Danube River at 
Cerna-Voda, Roumania. 



TURKEY — TURKEY IN ASIA 



25 



471 (15658) Roumanian mother and children, on the bank of the 

Danube, Roumania. 

TURKEY — 3 stereographs or slides 

472 (10953) The famous Galata Bridge and the Golden Horn, Con- 

stantinople, Turkey. 

473 (10963) Market at Stamboul end of Galata Bridge, Constantinople, 

Turkey. 

474 (7178) Street scene in Constantinople, Turkey. 

GREECE — 6 stereographs or slides 

475 (964) Athens and Acropolis, Greece. 

476 (7127) The Royal Palace, soldiers in national dress, Athens, 

Greece. 

477 (7134) Excavators at work, Old Corinth, Greece. 

478 (7155) Ruins of Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece. 

479 (7170) Treading out the grain, threshing as in olden days, 

Greece. 

480 (7171) Shepherds and their flocks on the Argive Plain, Greece. 

RUSSIA IN EUROPE — 8 stereographs or slides 

481 (6652) Fish wives of Finland — a busy scene on the quay. 

482 (6656) Senate and the Academy on the Vasili Island, Petrograd, 

Russia. 

483 (6549) The Kremlin, Moscow, Russia. 

484 (6644) The great bell market at the Fair, Nizhni Novgorod, 

Russia. 

485 (18105) Market day in the crowded Jewish quarter of Warsaw, 

Poland. 

486 (18104) The Krestchatik, the principal street of Kief, one of the 

famous old cities of Russia. 

487 (18103) Quaint dairy maids delivering milk in earthenware jars 

suspended on poles, Kief, Russia. 

488 (18101) Plowing with a primitive native plow — How the Russian 

peasant tills his leased fields. 



ASIA 

67 stereographs or slides 

Turkey in Asia 

10 stereographs or slides 

ASIA MINOR — 3 stereographs or slides 

489 (10969) Looking up the Bosporus toward the Black Sea from the 

heights above Scutari, Turkey in Asia. 

490 (10975) Circassian native types of Asia Minor. 

491 (11156) City blacksmith shoeing buffalo on streets of Tarsus, 

Asia Minor. 



26 GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 

SYRIA — 3 stereographs or slides 

492 (11151) Bird's-eye view of Beirut, Syria. 

493 (7323) Over the roofs, "the street called Straight," Damascus, 

Syria. 

494 (20703) A Sheik and his bodyguard, Syria. 

PALESTINE — 4 stereographs or slides 

495 (7304) View of Jerusalem, from Mount of Olives, Palestine. 

496 (7306) Russian pilgrims returning from the Jordan, on the 

Jericho road, Palestine. 

497 (11071) The threshing floor of Nazareth, Palestine. 

498 (11058) Native women grinding wheat, Palestine. 

Indian Empire 

12 stereographs or slides 
INDIA PROPER — jo stereographs or slides 

499 (12501) Madras and harbor, India. 

500 (12564) The Howrah Bridge over the Hooghly River in Delta of 

the Ganges, Calcutta, India. 

501 (12556) Pilgrims bathing in the Sacred Ganges before the temple 

in Benares, the religious center of India. 

502 (12531) The Taj Mahal, Agra, India. 

503 (12558) Moslem multitudes leaving the Jumma Mosque, Delhi, 

India. 

504 (12560) Abundant and marvelous life of India thronging the 

spacious thoroughfare, Jaipur, India. 

505 (12554) Stately elephants on parade, Jaipur, India. 

506 (12565) Spinning and weaving woolen shawls, Srinagar, Kashmir. 

507 (1263) Inflated bullock skins for ferry boats on Sutlej River in 

the Punjab, India. 

508 (12561) "The Roof of the World "— The majestic Himalayas 

rising in matchless splendor above the sea of clouds, 
Darjeeling, Northern India. 

BURMA — 2 stereographs or slides 

509 (12553) Giant beasts of burden, patient elephants hauling logs 

from the Salwin River, Maulmain, Burma. 

510 (12555) Picnic party of Burmese girls in cart drawn by native 

humped cattle, Mopoon, Burma. 

CEYLON — 2 stereographs or slides 

511 (12101) Colombo Harbor from the landing jetty, Ceylon. 

512 (12566) Grinding gems, garnets, rubies, sapphires and moonstones, 

Ratnapora, Ceylon. 

CHINA AND MANCHURIA — 12 stereographs or slides 

513 (12052) "Queen's Road," the business thoroughfare in Hong- 

kong, China. 



JAPANESE EMPIRE 



27 



514 (12054) A block of tenements in which some of China's floating 

population dwell, Hongkong, China. 

515 (12079) The Yangtze River Valley at Chinkiang, China. 

516 (12076) The Chinese substitute for horse power — manipulating 

a huge stone roller on the streets of Nanking, China. 

517 (14554) China's great river Yangtze, showing Hankow from 

Wuchang, China. 

518 (12093) Conveying salt to the interior by wheelbarrow train, 

China. 

519 (12088) A study of Chinese faces. 

520 (12007) Chinese school children and teacher at the American 

Board of Missions, Peking, China. 

521 (14517) Store of rich Chinese tea merchant, Chifu, North China. 

522 (6631) Chinese farmer boys tilling the soil, near Port Arthur. 

523 (6571) Chinamen sawing timbers for the Japanese Army, Man- 

churia. 

524 (14555) Caravan passing through an ancient gateway in the Great 

Wall at the head of the Nankow Pass, North China. 

Japanese Empire 

ig stereographs or slides 

JAPAN PROPER — 17 stereographs or slides 

525 (14812) The Sacred Mountain of Fuji-Yama, Japan. 

526 (14032) Tokyo, the Japanese Capital. 

527 (14063) Overlooking the rice fields — Mississippi Bay in distance, 

Japan. 

528 (14730) Rice planters at work, Japan. 

529 (14789) Rice harvest — Cutting the straw close to the ground with 

a sickle, Japan. 

530 (14739) A country girl of Old Japan — Among the famous tea 

fields of Shizuoka, Japan. 

531 (14845) Drying sardines on the beach, Beppu, Japan. 

532 (14058) All sorts and sizes — A Japanese shoe shop. 

533 (14727) Interior of a Japanese home — showing method of sleep- 



534 (14045) In the "Land of Flowers," a tea house in Japan. 

535 (14047) An idyllic spot where little Japanese maids delight to 

stroll. 

536 (14746) Silk worm incubator, Japan. 

537 (14744) Gathering mulberry leaves for the silk worms, Japan. 

538 (14748) Feeding mulberry leaves to the voracious young silk 

worms, Japan. 

539 (14750) Silkworm cocoons in their nests, Kiryu, Japan. 

540 (14753) Reeling silk from cocoons, Kiryu, Japan. 

541 (14757) One of Japan's largest modern silk weaving plants — 

American machinery and American .methods, Kiryu, 
Japan. 



28 GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 

CHOSEX (KOREA) — 2 stereographs or slides 

542 (14076) White-robed pottery peddlers on the streets of Seoul, 

Chosen (Korea). 

543 (20601) Charcoal carriers, Chosen (Korea). 

SIBERIA — 1 stereograph or slide 

544 (14519) Boarding the train at Kansk, Siberia. 

East Indies 
10 stereographs or slides 
JAVA — / stereograph or slide 

545 (15983) Fancy Javanese cattle at the Bull Races, Malang, Java. 

PHILIPPINES — 8 stereographs or slides 

546 (10085) " Cascos," the floating homes of many thousands — house 

boats on the Pasig River. Manila, Island of Luzon, P. I. 

547 (10058) Calle Real, principal street of Walled City, Manila from 

top of Parian Gate, Island of Luzon, P. I. 

548 (10056) Cattle used as pack animals and for riding — Mayon in 

the background, Island of Luzon, P. I. 

549 (10064) Filipino farmers harrowing rice fields near Manila. P. I. 

550 (10070) Hulling rice for breakfast — Island of Luzon, P. I. 

551 (10074) Husking coconuts — a familiar scene in the great coconut 

country near Pagsanjan, Island of Luzon, P. I. 

552 (10035) Manila hemp industry — stripping the tree, Philippines. 

553 (10047) Manila hemp industry — interior of a native rope factory, 

Philippines. 

GUAM — I stereograph or slide 

554 (10092) A tropical scene, Island of Guam. 

AFRICA 

30 stereographs or slides 
MOROCCO — 1 stereograph or slide 

555 (17130) Teeming Arab life in the market place, Tangier, Morocco. 

ALGIERS — 1 stereograph or slide 

556 (17000) Harbor of Algiers, Algeria. 

TUNIS — I stereograph or slide 

557 (17131) Outside the fine old gate, Bab-el-Hathera, in the walls of 

Tunis, Tunis. 

EGYPT — 12 stereographs or slides 

558 (9820) Bird's-eye view of Alexandria from British fort, Komed 

Dimas, Egypt. 



BRITISH E. AFRICA — UNION OF S. AFRICA 29 



559 (17020) The Suez Canal from a German liner, looking north, 

Africa. 

560 (9749) The great Nile Bridge, Cairo, Egypt. 

561 (9774) Tilling the soil as in ancient days, Egypt. 

562 (9759) Threshing beans in the field, Egypt. 

563 (6233) Native boys spinning cotton, Egypt. 

564 (9812) Inundation of the Nile, Egypt. 

565 (9781) The Sphinx and Second Pyramid, Egypt. 

566 (9771) Ancient and modern Egypt, Sakkara. 

567 (9718) Colossi of Memnon, Thebes, Egypt. 

568 (9737) Ruins of Karnak, Egypt. 

569 (6242) The great dam, Assuan, Egypt. 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA — 4 stereographs or slides 

570 (17033) Peeling bark for making bark cloth, Uganda, Africa. 

571 (17034) Sisal hemp plantation in blossom, Uganda, Africa. 

572 (17011) The native market at Port Florence, Lake Victoria 

Nyanza, Africa. 

573 (17005) Shipping ivory at Mombasa, Africa. 

GERMAN EAST AFRICA — 1 stereograph or slide 

574 (17018) Dar-es-Salaam, the chief city and port of German East 

Africa. 
• 
RHODESIA — 4 stereographs or slides 

575 (17023) Scene above bridge on the Cape to Cairo Railway, oyer 
Zambezi River, near Victoria Falls, Africa. 

Victoria Falls on the Zambezi River, Rhodesia, Africa. 
Result of a morning's hippopotamus hunt on Mlembo 

River, Rhodesia, Africa. 
Returning with trophies from a big game hunt, Rhodesia, 

Africa. 



576 (17004) 

577 (17012) 

578 (17015) 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA — 6 stereographs or slides 

579 (11979) Gold quartz mining, 10th level, 1,200 feet underground, 

Robinson Mine, Johannesburg, South Africa. 

580 (11881) Imperial Army transports crossing the Vaal River at 

Viljoen's Drift, South 'Africa. 

581 (17026) Taking out the " diamantiferous blue earth" at Wessel- 

ton Diamond Mines, Kimberley, South Africa. 

582 (17008) City Hall from parade ground, showing Table Moun- 

tain, Cape Town, South Africa. 

583 (11994) Millions of South African gannets, near Capetown, South 

Africa. 

584 (10714) Penguins on Dassen Island Near Capetown, South 

Africa. 



30 GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION 

AUSTRALIA AND ISLANDS 

8 stereographs or slides 
NEW SOUTH WALES — i stereograph or slide 

585 (15962) Review of the troops, Centennial Park, Sydney, N. S. W. 

VICTORIA — 2 stereographs or slides 

586 (15900) Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, looking towards the south- 

east from the Exhibition Dome. 

587 (15908) Federal Parliament Building, Melbourne, Victoria. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA — i stereograph or slide 

588 (15902) Kangaroo in the zoological garden, Adelaide, South 

Australia. 

QUEENSLAND — I stereograph or slide 

589 (15984) Range cattle, an important source of Australian wealth. 

TASMANIA — J stereograph or slide 

590 (15903) Elizabeth Street and the Union Bank of Australia, Ho- 

bart, Tasmania. 

NEW ZEALAND — i stereograph or slide 

591 (15978) Looking across Auckland Harbor towards Auckland from 

Xorthcote, New Zealand. 

FIJI ISLANDS — i stereograph or slide * 

592 (15913) Typical natives of the Fiji Islands, Suva. 

'earth neighbors 

8 stereographs or slides 

593 (16764) The Sun photographed through forty-inch telescope. 

Yerkes Observatory. 

594 (16648) The full Moon. Yerkes Observatory. 

595 (16646) Moon at age of seventeen days. Yerkes Observatory. 

596 (16766) The planet Mars. Yerkes Observatory. 

597 (16767) The planet Saturn. Solar Observatory, at Mt. Wilson, 

Cal. 

598 (16765) The planet Uranus and two of its moons. Yerkes Ob- 

servatory. 

599 (16647) Meteor in constellation of Orion. Yerkes Observatory. 

600 (16645) Morehouse's Comet. Yerkes Observatory. 



2. PEOPLE OF ALL LANDS 

RACIAL GEOGRAPHY 
By MARK JEFFERSON, A.M. 

PROFESSOR OF GEOGRAPHY, MICHIGAN STATE NORMAL COLLEGE, 
YPSILANTI, MICH. 

The most common way to distinguish the races of men is by 
the color of their skins. For us the great race must always be 
the white one. The others are the yellow (red) and the black. 
These names are not accurately applied. Black is the best, yet 
black people never are really black. There is greater differ- 
ence of color between a fair Norwegian and a swarthy Italian 
than between the Italian and a black, but the names white, yel- 
low, black stand because of long usage. Races are more ac- 
curately distinguished by the shape of the skull, by the fea- 
tures, and still better by the form of the hair. The Caucasian 
people are marked by the slender prominent nose and by soft, 
wavy hair. Each hair has an oval cross section, and the oval 
form enables it to bend easily. Compare this with the kinky 
hair which, with the broad flat nose and thick lips, is character- 
istic of the negro. The hair is kinky because each hair is flat 
like a ribbon. The yellow and red men have round, rod-like 
hair which is always straight, and high cheek bones. The yel- 
low men also are marked by slanting eyes. Each race is di- 
vided into great families of related people having similarities 
of color, size, shape and disposition. Such are the Teutonic, 
the Celtic, the Slavonic families of the Caucasian race. 

Of the»1700 millions of men today (1917), more than half — 
900 million — are white. They live in Europe or colonies 
from Europe, and parts of India and Malaysia. They are the 
dominant race in every continent, the only race of men that 
have learned to use the forces of nature widely. The only 
race to increase their powers greatly by the use of machinery 
and scientific knowledge. 

3i 



32 RACIAL GEOGRAPHY 

The 600 millions of the yellow race are next in importance. 
They live mostly in Asia and have attained in China and Japan 
a degree of culture only second to that of the whites. Indeed, 
now that they have begun to study western science, it is not 
certain that they are still behind. Japan is today one of the 
six Great Powers of the World. Twenty-five million red men 
in America are closely like the yellow men in physical charac- 
ters, the hair rod-like and high cheek bones as in Asia. There 
is no historic knowledge of their coming to America, but they 
are of the yellow race and doubtless came to the New World 
by Bering Sea. In Mexico and Peru a few of them attained a 
moderate amount of civilization, but doubtless the farming 
Indians of Oklahoma are today the most cultivated individuals 
this race has ever known. 

Two hundred million blacks, in Africa and Australasia, are 
the least progressive race of men. Only in America the de- 
scendants of African slaves have had some aspect of civiliza- 
tion thrust upon them. These brief notes on the cultures of 
the different races find considerable illustration in the stereo- 
graphs. 

1. WHITE (CAUCASIAN) RACE 

The white or Caucasian race includes a large number of re- 
lated peoples with many characteristics in common but differ- 
ing in many ways. The skins of the people of the white race 
are really of a great variety of colors — very light in Norway 
and almost black in India or Arabia. A strong racial char- 
acteristic is the wavy or curly hair — the individual hairs be- 
ing slightly flattened threads. 

The white race is the dominant race. It has attained a 
high degree of civilization through its ability to meet suc- 
cessfully its environment and to utilize the forces and re- 
sources of nature to carry on its work. Our material civiliza- 
tion is founded on labor — the labor of the individual or its 
man-power equivalent in mechanical energy. " The power of 
Greece, whereby she achieved such great things in all direc- 
tions of human progress, was largely based in the first instance 
on the work done by the slaves. On the average, each Greek 
freeman, each Greek family, had five slaves, whom we think of 



VARIOUS TYPES IN AMERICA 33 

not at all when we speak of the Greeks, and yet these were the 
men who supplied a great part of the Greek energy." These 
slaves not only did the work of the nation, but they made it 
possible for the free Greek people to devote their time to the 
cultivation of their minds, thus making further progress possi- 
ble. Through present day control of water, steam, gas and 
electric energy and the invention and construction of many 
mechanical appliances in a modern civilized nation such as 
the United States, England or Germany, each family has work- 
ing for it the man-power equivalent of more than twenty 
slaves. " We have become a nation of engineers pressing 
buttons and pulling levers, oiling and packing, so that the great 
social machine will work smoothly and as easily as possible." 

VARIOUS TYPES IN AMERICA 

In America, " the melting pot of the nations," there have been 
brought together large groups of the more advanced peoples of the Cau- 
casian race, who are building a high type of civilization. 

What peoples colonized America? What other peoples arrived later? 
What nations furnish most of our immigrants today? Give racial char- 
acteristics of each large group that has contributed to our population. 
In what section is the influence of each group best shown? What is 
each contributing toward our greater America? 

94 Making paper money, Bureau of Engraving, Washington, D. C. 

Advanced peoples characteristically occupied in skilled labor. 
69 Filling shell with nitro-glycerine. Occupation calling for knowl- 
edge and coolness. 
148 Building dikes, St. Louis, Mo. White laborers resourceful in 

emergencies. 
166 Potato digging machines, Moorhead, Minn. High priced white 
labor in America made effectively cheap by multiplying its power 
with the use of machines. 
27 Shows engineering skill of the white race. 
170 How the American has harnessed the power of a great river. 
30, 139 Trade centers of a complex civilization. 
31, 43 Handling transportation problems. 
161,180,178,179,181,233,177 Show the white man's application of 

mechanical power and skill to agricultural problems. 
152, 144, 14, 16, 40, 41, 54 Show something of our great factory systems 
made possible by the mechanical skill and organizing genius of 
the white race. 
128 How the inventive genius of the white race multiplies man-power 

a hundred fold. 
250 to 256 Building the Panama Canal. One of the greatest achieve- 
ments of the race. 



34 RACIAL GEOGRAPHY 

60 In the surf, Atlantic City. The pastimes of the Caucasians are 
highly developed. 
226 First haul of the season, Columbia River Salmon Fisheries, Ore- 
gon. Unskilled labor on the frontiers. 
243, 246 Men enduring hardships in search of gold. 

5 Skilled Italian workmen with a heritage of artistic talent. 
266 Fifth Royal Highlanders at Quebec with traditional costume of 
the Scotch Highlands. 

LATIN PEOPLES IN AMERICA 

By far the greater part of the western continent is occupied bj r Latin 
peoples, that is by peoples whose language and customs are derived from 
those of ancient Rome. Latin America includes Mexico, Central 
America, the West Indies and all of South America. 

Portuguese 

306 Well-to-do Brazilian children, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Properly 
Creoles, European by blood, American by birth. Brazil was 
colonized by the Portuguese who are considered typical repre- 
sentatives of the Mediterranean branch of the Caucasian race. 
They are usually short and very dark. 

Spanish 

336 Charming Spanish girl on balcony, Guayaquil, Ecuador. The rul- 

ing minority in Ecuador is of fairly pure Spanish blood. 

337 Streets of Barranquilla, Colombia. Good street scene. 

339 In LaGuaira Streets, Venezuela. A typical Spanish-American 
street scene. 

Italian 

319 Italian settlers, Mendoza, Argentina Republic. These Italians are 
becoming enormously numerous in the Argentina Republic. 
They alone cultivate the wheat for which that country is best 
known and most of the grapes. 

TEUTONIC PEOPLES 

The Teutons are tall, with very fair skins, light hair, blue eyes, red 
cheeks a.nd slender, prominent noses. Most of the people of northern 
and western Europe are of Teutonic blood. The Scandinavians, inhabi- 
tants of Norway and Sweden, are considered the purest types of Teu- 
tonic people. Teutons are very progressive in scientific practical ways. 

Germany 

The Germans are a mixed people. In the North and West, they 
are of the Teutonic type. In the South they are partly Celtic, while 
east Germany is partly Slav. They are scientific, practical, well or- 
ganized people. 



ENGLAND — BELGIUM — HOLLAND — NORWAY 35 

385 Cuirassier Guards in Berlin. The Army on which Modern Ger- 
many has based its hopes — The crowd is kept well back, not 
smothering the troops as they would with us. 

388 Making hay in the highlands of Bavaria. Shows hand labor, typi- 
cal costume, and probably people of the short broad-headed Al- 
pine race. 

390 Picking grapes in the vineyards of Rudesheim, Germany. Women 
at work in the fields characteristic of all Europe. 

393 Market at Cologne. Very characteristic. Note the number of 
women. 

England 

The English are a mixture of Anglo-Saxon, Celtic and Mediterranean 
people, in which the Anglo-Saxon element predominates. The name 
Anglo-Saxon comes from Angles and Saxons, two Teutonic tribes which 
conquered England before the seventh century. As a rule, the English 
are tall and are about half blond and half brunet. They are among 
the most advanced people in the world in government, literature and 
industrial arts. 

347 Landing Stage, Liverpool, England. The grouping of the people 
and their very carriage are characteristic of the English. 

351 Bank of England, London, street life. 

355 Anne Hathaway's Cottage, Shottery, England. The faces are 
small but English, and attitudes and costume are typical. 

357 Harvesting wheat in Old England. 

Belgium 
Only the northern Belgians are Teutonic; those in the south are 
Celtic. 

395 In the vegetable market. Brussels, Belgium. Street scenes and 

life. 

396 Milk cart at Antwerp. A most industrious country. Belgium is 

Dutch in the north and French (Celtic) in the south. 

Holland 

The people of Holland are characteristically Teutonic. 

402 Quaint village street in Holland. Costumes are very striking. 

These people thrive by much industry and cling to old ways. 

403 Dutch farm hands milking Holstein Friesian cattle near Rotter- 

dam, Holland. 

Norway 

Almost all Norwegians are very light skinned, with yellow hair, blue 
eyes, pink cheeks. There are fewer dark ones. Norwegians are al- 
most purely Teutonic. 

409 Carding and spinning wool, Telemarken, Norway. This is the 
home of the fair and tall northern long-headed race. 



36 RACIAL GEOGRAPHY 

410 Making the " flat bread " of the Norwegian peasant. 

411 Milking the goats, Hardanger Fjord. 

Sweden 
The Swedes are very blond, pure types of Teutonic people. 

418 Dalecarlian girls at home " Scansen," Stockholm. These Swedes 

are examples of the fair, tall, northern long-headed race. The 
costumes are characteristic of a somewhat isolated people, very 
slow to change. 

419 Women weeding a field of sugar beets. Much heavy manual work 

and especially for women. 

CELTIC PEOPLES 

The Celts were a short round-headed people with brown or black 
hair and gray or brown eyes. They are very progressive. 

Scotland 
Only the highland Scotch are Celtic. The lowlanders are Teutonic. 

366 Highlanders in costume, by the Forth Bridge, Queensferry. The 
highland costume, preserved in the uniform of some famous 
regiments of the British army, arose in the isolation of the high- 
land glens. 

373 Tea table by a highland cottage. Scotland. (See also 266 Scot- 
tish peoples in Canada.) 

Ireland 

378 Irish coal for sale, Killarney. High Street. There are now more 
Irish in the L"nited States than in Ireland. 

Wales 

77 Welsh types in American coal mines. 

Switzerland 

The Swiss belong to the Celtic family almost entirely and remains 
of their ancient dwellings indicate that this has always been so. The 
Swiss speak German, French and Italian in the various cantons. 

443 Wood carver, Meiringen. Example of the Alpine, broad-headed 

race. 
447 Grindewald on market day. Small, but good Swiss types. 
449 Goods for the high Alps near Zermatt. Well illustrates the hard. 

heavy labor which, when combined with spare diet, stunts the 

mountain races. 

France 

A considerable part of the French people and especially the north- 
western provinces are of Celtic origin. 



LATIN PEOPLES — HELLENIC PEOPLES 37 

LATIN PEOPLES IN EUROPE 

(See also Latin Peoples in America) 

Latin peoples are those whose languages and customs are derived di- 
rectly from those of ancient Rome. 

France 

The French people are a mixture being partly of the Celtic, partly of 
the Teutonic and partly of the Mediterranean type. They are very 
progressive, artistic and thrifty. 

423 Flower market at Michael's bridge, Paris. The French are won- 
derfully pleasant and capable at buying and selling. They are 
largely Celtic. 

146 French war commission — Joffre, blue-eyed Celtic or Teutonic 
type; Fabry, Celtic; Viviani and Chocheprat, Latin. 

431 Women washing clothes, Nice. All the Latin peoples do in the 
open much work that northerners do in houses, which tends to 
sociability and good manners. 

Spain 

The Spanish are almost universally dark skinned with black hair and 
eyes. 

435 Panorama of Madrid. The figures in the near foreground are 
typical. These are of the dark southern long-headed race, of 
medium stature. 

438 Andalusian carts coming into Almeria. Note the bad road and 
the unprosperous people. 

Italian Sicily 

455 Tenement district, Palermo. Life is spent as much as possible 
in the open air, but it is plain that they enjoy life. 

Roumanians 

The Roumanians claim a direct descent from the old Romans. 
471 Roumanian mother and children. 

HELLENIC PEOPLES 
Modern Hellenes differ from the other Mediterranean people only in 
their language which is derived from the Ancient Greek. 

Greece 

The present day Greeks can hardly claim descent from the ancient 

Greeks for their country has been over run by all sorts of people from 

Goths to Turks. They resemble the Latin people in appearance. 

476 The Royal Palace, Athens. The soldier's costume is perpetuated 

by use in the army, as in the case of the Scotch Highlanders. 



38 RACIAL GEOGRAPHY 

Peculiar dress is apt to arise in communities isolated in moun- 
tain valleys. 

479 Treading out the grain, threshing as of old. Old ways of dress, 
old ways of speech and old ways of work are characteristic. 

SLAVONIC PEOPLES 
The Slavs occupy the eastern part of Europe and on the whole are 
not so far advanced as the Teutons, Celts or the Latin people. They 
are commonly of medium height with dark hair and grey or hazel eyes. 

Polish Galicia (Austria-Hungary) 

465 Polish school children, Zakopane. 

Bosnia Austria-Hungary 

466 Natives in market place, Serajevo. 

Russia 

European Russia has a population which is almost entirely Slavonic. 
They are making rapid advances in late years. 

487 Quaint dairy maids. Kiev. 

488 Primitive plow. Old costume, old ways, and little progress. 

496 Russian Pilgrims return from the Jordan, Palestine. Character- 
istic of the simple faith of the Russian people is the great im- 
portance they attach to a visit to the Holy Land and baptism in 
Jordan. 

544 Boarding train at Kansk, Siberia. Russian emigrants. 

PEOPLE OF THE CAUCASUS 
People of the Caucasus are mountaineers, largely isolated from the 
rest of the world. The most prominent tribe is the Circassian noted 
for physical beauty. 

490 Circassian native types, Asia Minor. 

SEMITIC PEOPLES 
Jews, Arabs, Syrians, Armenians and north Africans are Semites. 
They are dark skinned, some of them as black as negroes, but their 
features and hair show they are members of the Caucasian race. 

Syria 

Syrians are not a progressive people. 

491 City blacksmith shoeing buffalo on streets of Tarsus. 

494 A sheik and his bodyguard. A good type of the desert Semites, 
in clothing, arms and mount. 

Palestine 
Palestine or the Holy Land is the southern part of Syria. 



RUSSIA — EGYPT — CAUCASIAN PEOPLES 39 

498 Native women grinding wheat. Such labor as this with the sim- 
plest possible mechanical appliances, is not merely curious but 
characteristic of the Semitic peoples. 

Russia 

In Russia the Jews are crowded into one quarter and so are not 
progressive as in the western countries where they are scattered among 
the rest of the population. 

485 Jewish quarters, Warsaw, Poland. Costumes and faces are typi- 
cally Jewish. 

Eygpt 

566 Tigran Bey and his servant. Sakkara. Both are very black, yet 
their features indicate that they belong to the white race. 

CAUCASIAN PEOPLES OF INDIA 

The Caucasians of India are very dark, with dark eyes and hair. 
There seems to have been a mixture with yellow or black people. 
503 Some interesting types of Caucasian peoples of India. 

506 Spinning and weaving woolen shawls, Srinagar, Kashmir. By 

language many Indian peoples are cousins of the great peoples 
of Europe, and racially they have much in common. But in 
habits they have grown far apart. The people of northern India 
are the lightest in color. 

507 Inflated bullock skins for ferry boats, Sutlej River, Punjab. The 

most curious thing about such a contrivance is that people could 
be willing to put up with a contrivance which served its purpose 
so badly. 

Ceylon 

512 Grinding gems at Ratnapora. The product, we are sure, will be 
of a high degree of artistic skill and finish, but how profitable 
to put a little more thought on the machine ! 

CAUCASIAN PEOPLES OF THE PACIFIC 

Some of the inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific are undoubtedly 
of the Caucasian race as is shown by the head and the hair. There is 
probably a mixture with either the black or yellow race. 

Hawaiian Islands 

The features of the native Hawaiians are often very distinctly of 
the Caucasian type. 
261 Hula Girls, Honolulu. 

AUSTRALIA 

The Australians are really Europeans who have migrated or their 
descendants. They are very much like the people of the United States. 



40 RACIAL GEOGRAPHY 

For the most part they came from the British Isles and are Teutonic 
or Celtic. 

590 Street life similar to ours. 

2. YELLOW RACE 

The skin tint is really very varied even among the " yellow " Mon- 
golians and the " red " Indians. A very strong characteristic of the 
whole race is its straight, rather coarse hair. Each individual hair is 
round and rod-like. That is why it is straight. 

A. MONGOLIAN PEOPLES 
Norway (Lapland) 

413 Laplanders milking reindeer. Practically all the dwellers by the 
Arctic in Europe as well as Asia and America are Mongols. 

North Greenland 

343 Eskimo girls at Upernavik. The Mongolian character of the 
Eskimo and Indian face together with other physical characters 
and habits make it practically certain that they came from Asia. 
The Eskimos of Greenland have a considerable percentage of 
Scandinavian (Danish) blood. 

Bulgaria 

Bulgarians now are of Mongol stock with a large admixture of Sla- 
vonic blood. 

469 Market scene in Rustchuk. The Bulgarians are known to be 
Mongols who came into Europe from Asia and adopted a Sla- 
vonic language there, illustrating how poor a guide to race is 
language. 

Burma 

510 Picnic party of Burmese girls in buffalo cart. Mopoon, Burma. 
The facial character is strongly Mongolian. 

China 

The people of China are typical of the real Mongolians. They have 
the yellow skin, slanting eyes and straight hair. Many of the Chinese 
are very tall. 

520 Chinese school children and teacher, Peking, China. 
522 Chinese farmer boys, near Port Arthur. 

519 A study of Chinese faces. 

517 Villages on the Yangtse-Kiang. 

518 A wheelbarrow train of salt. On a bad road one wheel is better 

than four. 

521 Store of Chinese tea merchant, Chifu, China. Chinese costume 

and street life. 



JAPAN — CHOSEN — AMERICAN INDIANS 41 

523 Chinamen sawing timber for Japanese Army, Manchuria. Illus- 
trating methods of work that seem very inferior to ours, but it 
must be remembered human labor is very cheap in China. A 
steam engine is not always economical there. 

227 Chinamen working in Salmon canning factories, Astoria, Ore. 
Illustrating the modern migration of cheap unskilled labor from 
Asia to America. Were it not restricted by law it would take 
very large proportions. 

Japan 

The Japanese are the most advanced of all the Mongolian people. 

530 Country girl of old Japan in the tea fields, Shizuoka. 

531 Drying sardines on the beach, Beppu. In Japan as in Continental 

Europe women do much field work. 

532 A Japanese shoe shop. These people have worked out a life that 

differs from ours in almost every detail. 

533 Japanese bed. The native way. 

534 Japanese babies. It is reported that Japanese babies never cry ! 

535 Japanese maids in a garden. 

528 Rice planters at work, Japan. Illustrating the great amount of 

hand labor done in the east, and properly so because it is so 
cheap. 

529 Rice harvest with sickle. 

536 Silk worm incubator. 

537 Gathering mulberry leaves for silk worms. The whole silk busi- 

ness depends on cheap labor. 

538 Feeding silkworms on mulberry leaves. The partly closed eyes 

of the girl well show the " slant eyes " of the Mongolian people. 

540 Reeling silk from cocoons, Kiryu. 

541 Modern silk mill with American machinery. This is the Japan 

that has put on European clothes and European ways — the new 
Japan. 

Chosen (Korea) 

The people of Chosen resemble the Chinese more than the Japanese. 

542 White robed pottery peddlers, Seoul, Korea. Native life. 

543 Charcoal carriers. 

Luzon Philippinos 

The Philippinos are brown in color and are probably a variation of 
the yellow race. 

550 Hulling rice for breakfast. 

B. AMERICAN INDIANS (RED RACE) 

The American Indian is copper colored, he has high cheek bones, 
black eyes, and straight, rod-like, black hair. The eyes do not slant. 



42 RACIAL GEOGRAPHY 

United States 

These Indians are tall and straight. They are rapidly disappearing 
because they are adopting the ways of the whites and are gradually 
becoming mixed with the white people. 

98 Virginian Indians re-enacting the story of Pocahontas and Captain 

John Smith. 
158, 168, 169 American Indians re-enacting the story of Hiawatha. 
182 Mounted Sioux Indians leaving camp. 
204 Ute Indian and family, Colorado. The Indian today is at his best 

when he lives apart from the whites. 
244 Drying fish on the Yukon River, Alaska. 

Canada 

263 Indians weaving baskets, Prince Edward Island. The Indian who 
lives among white men today dresses in discarded white men's 
clothes and is degraded at once. 

265 Iroquois Indians re-enacting their past at Quebec. 

Mexico 

The peoples of Mexico, and they are very numerous distinct tribes, 
are of the same race as the other American Indians, the Peruvians and 
the Eskimos. The old Mexicans and Peruvians were the only ones of 
these peoples that live in regions where the soil was good but too 
little rain fell to support forests. Where there were forests the In- 
dian could only live as a savage in the natural clearings. Without the 
iron axe he could not clear the forest away. On the treeless plateaus 
of Mexico and Peru he was able to live entirely by agriculture as soon 
as he learned to bring water from occasional streams. So in these two 
situations he became somewhat civilized. 

280 Mexico's principal harbor, Vera Cruz. More than half the people 

of Mexico are Indians and a great many of the rest are half 
breeds. They preserve their native Indian languages and cus- 
toms in many cases. 

281 Adobe hut of the peon, City of Mexico. The flat roofs show that 

the climate is dry. 

284 Ancient mode of threshing. Pyramid of the Sun. Except for his 

hat the Mexican appears to have adopted white man's costume. 

285 Drawing pulque. Native life. 

Salvador 

292 Tortilla Making. These are especially good types of the Indians 
prevalent through Central and South America. 

Chile 

324 Chilean woman, Santiago. She has a good deal of Spanish blood. 
328 Indians in the Straits of Magellan, near Punta Arenas, about the 

lowest type in America. They live miserably in constant want. 

325 Natives sacking nitrate for shipment, Chile. 



THE BLACK RACE 43 

Peru 

331 Natives in Cuzco. These are descendants of the partly civilized . 
ancient Peruvians but they are today very backward people. 

Venezuela 

340 National University, Caracas. There is a good deal of Spanish 

blood admixed with the Indian here. 
338 LaGuaira. Almost no women accompanied the early Spanish 
" conquistadores " of America. The descendants of the early 
Spaniards and native women are now accounted of " pure " 
Spanish descent. 

341 The city baker, Caracas. Woolly hair often indicates admixture 

of negro blood, for slaves were brought to South America in 
the old days as well as to the United States, though they were 
set free long before our Civil War. 

3. THE BLACK RACE 

There is much more appropriateness in calling this great race black 
than the Caucasians white yet there are considerable variations in tint 
here. The blacks in the tropics have an admirable mahogany tint, a 
warm glow in their skins that is difficult to imagine if you have seen 
them only in the temperate zone. A strong racial characteristic is 
their kinky or strongly curly hair, resulting from the fact that each in- 
dividual hair is flat like a ribbon rather than round like a thread.' 

Fiji Islands, Pacific Ocean 

592 Typical natives. Suva. Note the black, curly hair. 

South Africa 

581 Kaffirs working in the diamond mines at Kimberley. These blacks 
are overwhelmingly more numerous than the white people of 
South Africa and are natives of the country. They are dis- 
tinctly the working class and have no part in government. 

579 Negro laborers mining gold. Johannesburg, So. Africa. 

570 Negro in Africa making primitive clothing from bark. 

572, 577, 578 Negro life under tropical African conditions. 

Africans in America 

These are descendants of blacks brought here from Africa as slaves. 

105 Hoeing rice, South Carolina. The blacks are the laboring class 

of the southern states. They receive small pay and give little 

work for it. 
115 Loading phosphate (fertilizer) from the beds, Columbia, Tenn. 

Blacks as manual laborers. 
117 Picking cotton on a Mississippi plantation. When machines are 

introduced for this, cotton will be much cheaper. 



44 RACIAL GEOGRAPHY 

118 Harvesting Peanuts, Marianna, Ark. About a third of the people 
of the South are blacks but most of the manual labor there is 
done by this class. 

249 Black workers of Old Panama Canal Co., Panama. When the ac- 
tual Canal was dug by the United States, negroes from Jamaica 
as well as whites from Spain were employed but the latter 
were more economical even at higher wages. 

258 Cutting sugar cane. In Porto Rico the intermingling of whites 
and blacks has gone very far and negro blood does not lower 
a man in the eyes of society. 

302 Coffee pickers, Island of Guadeloupe, F. W. Indies. These are 
probably French mulattoes mostly, the turban is the sign and the 
French blood gives them a touch of French taste that is at once 
visible in their dress. The French island blacks are easily 
recognized. 



3. PRODUCTION AND MANU- 
FACTURING 

INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY 
By CHARLES REDWAY DRYER, M.A., M.D. 

GEOGRAPHER, FORT WAYNE, IND. 

This is an industrial age. In recent years, there has been 
a rapid growth in our industrial resources and equipment. 
There has been a marked movement of our population to the 
larger centers where manufacturing on a large scale has be- 
come the rule. Our inventive skill and our genius for or- 
ganization have produced great factories equipped with labor 
saving machinery, handled by skilled workers. Under such 
conditions, production has gone forward at a rapid rate. 
The Great World War has put this vast productive system 
to the strongest test. It also has served to emphasize most 
clearly agriculture, which is not only our greatest industry, 
but also supplies the material for many other industries. 

This set of stereographs and lantern slides contains a very 
considerable range of material dealing with industries. In 
this classification, we are treating Industrial Geography as 
dealing with Production and Manufacturing, leaving for the 
classifications on Commercial Geography to present the 
Transportation and Marketing of products. 

The instructor may wish to present the question of produc- 
tion and manufacturing by the consideration of a given in- 
dustry as a whole. This plan is followed in Part I. Again 
he may wish to deal with industrial material upon the basis of 
the processes concerned. For such a classification see Part 
II. 



45 



46 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

Part I 

A. FOOD PRODUCTS 

1. VEGETABLE PRODUCTS AND THEIR MANUFACTURE 

(a) GRAINS 

Corn 

180 Fertilizing and plowing corn field. 
184 Field of corn, the king of cereals. 

136 Modern method corn harvesting. 

137 Corn cut by hand. 

160 Harvesting and loading silage corn. 

165 Silo which enables the dairyman to feed milk-producing green 

fodder throughout the winter. 
292 Primitive way of preparing corn for the table. 
341 Primitive way of selling bread, Caracas, Venezuela. 

Wheat 

Modern Methods 

178 Plowing for wheat with tractor. 

179 Making a good seed bed for wheat with tractor. 
357 Usual way of cutting wheat with binder. 

199 Wheat in the shock. 

177 Threshing wheat with modern equipment. 

233 Steam reaper and thresher. 

218 Combined reaper and thresher using horse power. 

154 " Soo " Canal, through which millions of bushels of wheat pass 

in ship loads on way to eastern elevators and shipping points. 
48 Grain ships unloading at elevators, Buffalo. 

Primitive Methods 

488 Russian peasant plowing with primitive plow. 

561 Plowing as in ancient days, Egypt. 

522 Plowing in China. 

284 Ancient mode of threshing in Mexico. 

479 Threshing as in olden days, Greece. 

497 Threshing floor of Nazareth, Palestine. 

498 Native women grinding wheat, Palestine. 

Barley 

410 Making the barley " flat bread," Norway. 
566 Barley field, Egypt. 

Oats 
147 Loading oats in the field. 
408 Small field of oats, Norway. 



GRAINS — VEGETABLES — SUGAR 47 

Rice 

105 Hoeing rice, South Carolina. 

104 Irrigating rice field, South Carolina 

549 Filipino harrowing rice field. 

550 Filipino women hulling rice for breakfast. 

528 Rice planters at work, Japan. 
527 Rice fields being irrigated, Japan. 

530 Rice on the lowlands, tea on the uplands, Japan. 

529 Harvesting rice, also showing rice straw hat, Japan. 
See Paper in this classification for use of rice straw. 



(b) VEGETABLES 

Potatoes 

47 Potatoes growing on a truck farm. 
166 Modern potato digging machines, Minn. 

Beans 

562 Threshing beans in the field, Egypt. 

Onions, Cabbage 

469 Onions and cabbage for sale in a Bulgarian market. 

Pumpkins 

137 Pumpkins on an Indiana farm. 

(c) SUGAR 

Beet 

419 Women weeding field of beets in Sweden. 
198 Cultivating a field of sugar beets. 

270 Beets stored to make into sugar. 

271 Beet pulp and juice in sugar factory. 

35 Granulated sugar is made from either beet or cane. 

Cane 

332 Tractor preparing soil for planting sugar cane, Peru. 

333 Replanting sugar cane near Lima, Peru. 

258 Cutting the sugar cane, Rio Pedro, Porto Rico. 
35 Granulated sugar is made from either beet or cane. 
34 Conveyor with trays of loaf sugar received from drying kiln, 
New York. 

Maple 

130 Tapping a sugar maple tree ; showing gathering tank for the sap 
and house where sap is evaporated and maple syrup and sugar 
are made. 



48 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

(d) FRUITS 

Bananas 

294 Harvesting bananas, Costa Rica. 

259 Banana tree used for ornamentation, Hawaii. 

297 The banana planted for shade in a tobacco plantation, Cuba. 

302 The banana planted for shade in a coffee plantation, Guadeloupe, 

F. W. I. 
570, 575 The banana in Africa. 

Oranges 

237 Navel orange groves, San Gabriel Valley, California. 

238 Orange blossoms and fruit, California. 

437 Picking Valencia oranges near Valencia, Spain. 

Pineapples 

108 Harvesting pineapples, Fla. 

Grapes 

236 Tokay grapes in a California vineyard. 

319 Grape vineyards in Mendoza, Argentina, S. A. 

390 Picking the luscious grapes, Rudesheim, Germany. 

438 Hauling barrels of Malaga grapes to Almeria, Spain for shipping 

abroad. 

Mangoes 

293 Golden and luscious mangoes, Nicaragua, C. A. 

Papaya 

259 Fruit of the papaw tree, Hawaii. 

Dates 

556, 566 Date palm, furnishing fruit and wood in many semi-desert 
parts of Asia and Africa. 

Olive 

495 The olive tree, an evergreen tree of the Mediterranean region. 
556 Shipping barrels of olive oil from Algiers, North Africa. 

Peach 

85 Gathering peaches in Delaware. 

Apples 

44 Summer spraying in apple orchard in New York. 
175 Picking, sorting and packing apples in barrels,. Missouri. 

Figs 

489 Three fig trees in foreground, Scutari, Turkey. 



NUTS — BEVERAGES 49 

(e) NUTS 

Almonds 

234 Harvesting almonds, San Joaquin County, Calif. 

Coconuts 

249 The coconut palm in the Panama Canal Zone. 

259 The coconut palm in the Hawaiian Island. 

551 Husking the coconuts and splitting them to dry in the sun, P. I. 

Chestnuts 

70 Group of tall chestnut trees growing from an old stump. Penn- 
sylvania has more chestnut timber than has any other state. 

Peanuts 

118 Harvesting peanuts in Arkansas, commonly classed as a nut but 
in reality a vegetable. 

Pine Nuts 

201 Nut pine, a small scrubby tree with nut-like edible fruit growing 

in semi-arid regions. 
211 The nut pine growing on a hill in New Mexico. 

(f) BEVERAGES 

Cocoa 

303 Cacao pods, containing beans from which cocoa and chocolate 
are made. 

Coffee 
302 Picking coffee in Guadaloupe, F. W. I. 

310 Method of drying coffee, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, S. A. 

311 Carts loaded with coffee leaving plantation, Brazil, S. A. 
295 Unloading coffee at Havana wharf, Cuba. 

468 Sidewalk coffee house, Sofia, Bulgaria. 

Tea 

530 Among the famous tea fields of Shizuoka, Japan. 

521 Store of Chinese tea merchant, Chifu, 

534 Tea house in Japan. 

373 Serving tea in Scotland. 

Pulque 

285 Filling pig skins with juice from maguey plant, Mexico. 
287 Single maguey or century plant, with field of them beyond. 



50 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 



2. ANIMAL PRODUCTS AND THEIR MANUFACTURE 

(a) Dairying, Milk and Butter 

Cows 

159 Group of modern dairy barns and herd of Holstein cattle, Wis. 

165 Holstein cattle and attractive dairy barns and silo, Minn. 

57 Milking scene in modern dairy, N. J. 

46 Automatic machine for filling and capping bottles of milk. 

45 Washing 1,000 pounds of freshly churned butter. 

487 Quaint dairy maids delivering milk, Kiev, Russia. 

339 Native method of distributing milk, La Guayra, Venezuela. 

403 Milking Holstein-Friesian cattle near Rotterdam, Holland. 

364 Jersey cattle, the most famous product of the Island of Jersey. 

356 Dairy shorthorn cattle in England. 

371 Dairy cattle developed in County Ayrshire, Scotland. 

591 Dairy cattle in New Zealand. 

Goats 
411 Milking goats, Hardanger Fjord, Norway. 

Reindeer 
413 Laplanders milking reindeer, Norway. 

(b) Beef 

370 Aberdeen Angus, a noted breed of beef cattle. 

317 Shorthorns, Argentine's famous cattle. 

358 White faced Herefords — beef cattle of world wide fame. 

589 Hereford range cattle, Australia. 

127 Making a drive of Hereford cattle in Texas. 

185 Hereford cattle, being fattened for market. 

140 Cattle at Union Stock Yards, Chicago. 

141 The last process in dressing beef — washing with boiling water. 

186 Round-up of range cattle on Sherman Ranch, Geneseo, Kans. 
301 A cattle ranch in Jamaica. 

580 Cattle (Devon in foreground) as draft animals, later as beef. 
545 Fancy Japanese cattle, the " hump cattle " of Asia. 
549 The water buffalo, an important meat supply. 

Other cattle scenes, 284, 298, 337, 548, 510, 497, 491, 561, 562, 454. 

For hides and their manufacture see topic of Leather in this 
classification. 

(c) Pork 

183 Poland China hogs in alfalfa pasture, Kansas. 

172 Hogs in rape pasture, Iowa. 

180 Group of colony hog houses in distance, Nebraska. 

122 The hog is a good forager, oil district, Texas. 

142 Splitting backbones and final inspection of hogs before placing 

them in refrigerator rooms, Chicago. 



MUTTON — DEER — SEA FOODS 51 

143 Trimming and skinning hams before pickling in preparation for 

the market, Chicago. 

144 Making link sausages with the aid of machines which stuff ten 

feet per second, Chicago. 

By-products of Hog 
75, 76, 77, 155, Lard oil for miners' lamps. 
See also Leather in this classification. 

(d) Mutton 

190 Fine wool Merino sheep grazing on range, Idaho. (Typical range 

sheep the world over.) 
173 Shropshire, Oxford and Cotswold sheep in pasture, Ames, Iowa. 

(Choice mutton types.) 
480 Shepherds and flocks on Argive plain, Greece. 

For wool see section on Clothing in this classification also classi- 
fication Textiles and Clothing. 

(e) American Bison (Commonly called Buffalo) 

232 Formerly an important source of meat supply. 

(f) Deer 

413 Reindeer. A meat supply of growing importance, now shipped 

from Alaska. 
189 Elk, 2 Moose — fast disappearing species of deer family. 

(g) Chickens, Ducks, Geese, and Pigeons 

56 Chickens form an important meat supply. 
401 Ducks along the canal in Holland, valuable for meat, eggs, and 

feathers. 
216 Geese, for feather products, meat and eggs. 
240 Pigeon farm — extensive " squab " production, Los Angeles. 

(h) Hippopotamus 

577 Hippopotamus — flesh much prized by natives. 

578 Natives returning from hippopotamus hunt. 

(i) Sea Foods 

Codfish 

13 Drying codfish in the sun, Gloucester, Mass. 

Salmon 

226 Netting salmon in the Columbia River, Oregon. 

227 Butchering salmon, canning factory, Astoria, Oregon. 
244 Indians drying salmon on the Yukon River, Alaska. 



52 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

Sardines 

531 Drying sardines on the beach, Beppu, Japan. 

Oysters 

97 Bedding for young oysters, Hampton, Va. 
86 Shucking Oysters, Baltimore, Md. 

Fishing in Finland 

481 Fisher women selling fish in Finland market. 

Seal 

345 Seal blubber is an important article of diet in the Arctic and 
Antarctic regions. The oil is used for fuel and the skin for 
clothing and leather articles.- 

Whale 

415 Whale blubber is used for food while the oil and bone form im- 
portant articles of commerce. 

3. INORGANIC PRODUCTS 

Salt 

42 Collecting, draining and hauling salt, Syracuse, N. Y. 
153 Packing salt into barrels for shipment, St. Clair, Mich. 
518 Conveying salt to the interior by wheelbarrow train, China. 



B. CLOTHING 
1. VEGETABLE PRODUCTS AND FACTORY PROCESSES 

(a) Cotton 

Groiving 
117 Picking cotton on a Mississippi plantation. 

124 Hauling cotton to the cotton gin. 

125 Cottin gin, Greenville, Texas. 

119 Cotton in the bale ready for shipment, New Orleans, La. 
420 Bales of cotton on wharf, Goteborg, Sweden. 
286 Carding room, cotton mills, Orizaba, Mexico. 

14 Spinning cotton yarn in textile mills, Lawrence, Mass. 

15 Copying design on copper rolls for printing cotton cloth. 

16 Printing room of cotton mills, Lawrence, Mass. 
563 Primitive method of spinning cotton in Egypt. 

Uses 
For scenes showing uses of cotton see classification on Textiles and 
Clothing also Paper in this classification. 



FLAX — HEMP — RUBBER 53 

(b) Flax 

268 Winding bobbins in linen mill, Canada. 

269 Weaving - the linen fabric, Canada. 

40 Folding and ironing linen collars, Troy, N. Y. 
See also Paper in this classification. 

(c) Hemp 

Manila (Abaca — native name) 

552 Manila hemp — stripping the tree. 

553 Primitive way of making hemp rope, Philippines. 

99, 186, 188, 246, 295, 257, 342, 344, 217 Manila hemp rope in use. 

Sisal 
289 Henequen, from which sisal fiber is produced. 
571 Sisal hemp plantation in blossom, Uganda, Africa. 
357, 136 Show use of binder twine, m^ie of sisal fiber in handling 
grain. 

(d) Maguey 

285, 287 Show the Maguey plant whose fiber is often used for the 
manufacture of clothing as well as twine rope, mats, sacks, 
carpets, etc. The tender heart of the plant can be cooked 
and eaten. 

(e) Pina 

108 Pineapple leaves from which pina cloth is made. 

550 Philippinos wearing pina cloth. 

(f) Bark Cloth 

570 Peeling bark for making bark cloth, Uganda, Africa. 

(g) Coconut Fiber 

551 Coconut husk fiber for making cloth, mats, etc. 

(h) Rubber 

Sources 
247 A rubber tree showing scars from cutting. 
131 Many forms of crude rubber as it comes from the jungles. 

Manufacture 
133 Manufacture of rubber boots and shoes, Akron, Ohio. 

Uses 
46,42,227,130,161,75 Rubber in boots. 

See also Automobiles in this classification. 



54 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 



2. ANIMAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORY PROCESSES 

(a) Wool 

Sheep Raising 
480 Merino sheep on the Argive plains in Greece. 
173 Shropshire, Oxford and Cotswold sheep are often found on small 

farms as they are a better mutton type, being larger than the 

Merino, but the wool is coarser. 
190 Fine wool Merino sheep, Idaho. (Typical range sheep the world 

over.) 

Handling of Wool 
145 Shearing sheep with power driven shears. 

17 Sorting wool after cleaning and washing. 

Modern Manufacturing Processes 

18 Doubling frame in large woolen mill. 

81 Spinning room — winding the bobbins, Phila. 

Primitive Processes 
409 Carding and spinning wool, Telemarken, Norway. 
506 Spinning and weaving woolen shawls, Kashmir, India. 

Uses 
For use of wool in clothing see classification Textiles and Clothing. 

(b) Silk 

Silk Culture (Japan) 

536 Silk worm incubator. 

537 Gathering mulberry leaves for the silk worms. 

538 Feeding mulberry leaves to the voracious young silk worms. 

539 Silk worm cocoons in their nests. 

Silk Manufacture (Japan) 

540 Reeling silks from cocoons by hand. 

541 One of Japan's largest modern silk weaving plants. 

Silk Manufacture (America) 

22 Weighing and sorting raw silk skeins, South Manchester, Conn. 

The United States buys approximately one-half the raw silk pro- 
duced by Japan each year. We also buy heavily from China and 
Italy. Most of this silk comes to us as reeled silk. 

23 First drawing or straightening of fibers — spun silk industry. 

South Manchester, Conn. This silk comes from damaged co- 
coons and is carded and spun in practically the same way as 
cotton and wool. 

24 Roving frame — silk industry (spun silk), South Manchester, 

Conn. 



SILK — LEATHER 55 

53 Drawing warp for weaving silk cloth, Paterson, N. J. (Reeled 

silk). 

54 Weaving room in the famous silk mills at Paterson, N. J. 

55 Machines weaving dozens of fine taffeta silk ribbons, Paterson, 

N. J. For uses of silk in clothing see Classification on Tex- 
tiles and Clothing. 

(c) Leather 

Sources 
127 " Making a drive " on Paloduro Ranch, Texas. 
186 Round up on Sherman Ranch, Kansas. 
301 Cattle ranch in Jamaica. 
317 Some of South America's famous cattle. 
589 Range cattle in Australia. 

185 Splendid Hereford cattle in Kansas feeding pens. 
140 World's greatest live stock market, Chicago. 
580, 298, 284, 561, 497, 454 Ox hide excellent leather. 
159,165,57,403,364,356,371,591,403,339 Dairy cattle finally furnish 

beef and leather. 
549, 491, 474 Buffalo, a source of leather. 
562, 545, 548, 510 Humped cattle of Asia. 
71, 138, 218, 229, 195, 188, 182, 147, 136 Horses. 
183, 172, 122 Pig skin a good leather. 
560, 566, 567, 574, 557, 340, 524 Donkeys. 
124,249,175,311,294 Mule skin an excellent leather. 
190, 173, 480 Sheep skin much used for gloves, etc. 
246, 279, 118, 190, 204, 396, 480 Dog skin used in many ways. 
411,447 Goats; 413 Reindeer; 2 Moose; 189 Elk; 335 Llama; 232 

American Bison; 110 Alligator; 588 Kangaroo; 345 Seal; 505, 

509 Elephants ; 577, 578 Hippopotamus. 

Manufacture. 
272 Scraping hair from hides — tanning industry. 

11 Skilled workmen cutting leather for shoes, Mass. 
41 Sewing room, large shoe factory, Syracuse, N. Y. 

12 Lasting machine, shaping shoes in Massachusetts shoe factory. 

Uses 

71, 138 Harness, a very important use of leather. 

45, 14 Leather is also extensively used for belting. 

98, 158, 182, 168, 169 Indians wearing " Buckskin " garments. 
279, 413, 188, 224, 83, 77 Leather boots and shoes. 
352, 89, 92 Leather upholstering. 
188, 186, 182 Hog skin the usual leather for saddles. 
507 Primitive use of inflated bullock skins for ferry boats. 
285 Primitive use of hog skin to carry liquids. 



56 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

(d) Furs 

345 The seal, an important source of fur clothing. 

343 The use of fur garments by'the Eskimo. 

328, 158 Indians using furs for clothing. 

246, 243, 279 Use of fur caps and clothing, Arctic regions. 

490 Natives of Asia Minor wearing fur caps and coats. 

(e) Feathers 

239 The ostriches supply beautiful ostrich plumes. 
216 These geese furnish valuable feathers. 

C. MINING AND MINERAL INDUSTRIES 

1. ORGANIC DEPOSITS 

(a) Anthracite Coal 

74 Stripping coal at Hazelton, Pa. 

75 Miners going into the slope, Hazelton, Pa. 

76 Miner drilling and laborer loading " black diamonds." 

77 Loading cage with car at bottom of shaft, Scranton, Pa. 

78 Tandem automatic slate picker, Scranton, Pa. 

79 Shipping coal, coal breaker in background, Ashley, Pa. 

(b) Bituminous Coal 

129 A trainload of bituminous coal from the Pittsburgh fields for 
Lake Superior consumption. 

61 Coal on barges ready for river shipment. Pittsburgh, Pa., is 

sometimes called the Smoky City on account of the large amount 
of coal smoke from the various iron and steel mills and other 
great factories located there. 
177 Bituminous coal used in threshing engine. 

43, 26, 347 Bituminous coal used in passenger and freight engines and 
ships. 

(c) Coke (Made from Bituminous Coal) 

68 Coke ovens, loading coke into cars. 

62 Two cars of coke at blast furnace. 

(d) Peat (Irish Coal) 

378 Peat from Irish bogs, High St., Killarney, Ireland. 

(e) Petroleum 

122 Spindle Top, an important oil region near Beaumont, Texas. 

69 Filling shell with nitro-glycerin for shooting the well. 

70 Shooting an oil well. 

123 Crude oil stills and can factory, Port Arthur, Texas. 

256 A reserve supply of the finished product in tank at the Panama 
Canal. 



METALS 57 

(f) Phosphate 

115 Mining phosphate and loading cars, Tenn. — an important fer- 

tilizer. 

(g) Asphalt 

48 Barrels of asphalt shipped from mine, Trinidad Island. 
316 Beautiful asphalt boulevard, Buenos Aires. 

2. INORGANIC DEPOSITS AND INDUSTRIES 
(a) METALS 

(i) Iron 

163 Steam shovel at work, Messabi Range, Minn. 

164 Iron ore being loaded on ships, Two Harbors, Minn. 
154 Ore ships passing through " Soo " Canal. 

128 Unloading iron ore from ships to train for Pittsburgh District. 
(129 shows train load of coal which the ore ships will haul back 
to Minnesota.) 

62 Iron blast furnace, Pittsburgh. 

63 Modern pig iron machine at rest, Pittsburgh. 

64 Emptying cooled pig iron from molds into car. 

Uses 

271 Iron pipe; 350, 354, 534, 306, 365 Iron fencing; 484, 485 Iron 
roof; 63, 64 Cast iron molds; 215, 471 Iron chains. 

(2) Steel 

116 Steel furnace, Birmingham, Ala. 

61 Across the Monongahela River may be seen a steel plant in 
Pittsburgh. 

65 Filling molds with steel, Pittsburgh. 

66 Steel ingots on the " table " of the " blooming " mill, steel 

works, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

67 Red-hot steel beam from rolling process being cut into lengths by 

buzz saw, steel works, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Uses 

82 Erecting shop, Baldwin Locomotive works. 

43 Two locomotives and a modern four track steel railway. 
242 Steel in submarine; 254 battleship; 27, 174, 575 bridges; 139, 25, 
26, 28, 30 skyscrapers; 1 axe; 224 saw; 69 drill; 256 wireless 
tower; 123 tanks; 170 power plant; 187 factory; 150, 151, 316, 
305, 152 automobiles; 250, 252, 253 Panama Canal; 52 steam 
ships; 161, 166, 178, 179, 180 farm machinery and gas engines; 
129, 128, 163 steel cars; 154, 164 freight boats; 177, 218 233 
threshing engines; 84, 94 money making machines. For other 
uses of steel see classification on metals. 



58 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

(3) Copper 

187 Copper smelters and mines, Butte, Mont. 

155 A mile underground — loading and handling cars with copper 

ore, Calumet-Hecla Mines, Calumet, Mich. 

156 Pouring molten copper into ingot molds, Calumet, Mich. 

157 Loading 1,400 tons of copper on boat, Houghton, Mich. 

Uses. 
15 Copper rolls for printing cotton cloth, Lawrence, Mass. 
151 Insulated copper wires used in auto engines. 324, 486, 375, 273, 

590 show trolley wires of copper. 
308, 309 Show S3 r stem of telephone wires, often of copper, especially 
the long-distance wires. 
43 Showing copper telegraph wires. 
171 Commutator plates in generators are copper. 

(4) Brass (Product of Copper) 

92,84,89,21,352 Brass lighting fixtures; 88, 92, 94 Brass fans; 494 
Brass in rifle shells ; 39, 37, 73 Cannon were formerly made of 
brass. 

(5) Bronze (Product of Copper) 
80 The old Liberty Bell. Most famous in world. 
484 The great bell market, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia. 

71 Small bronze bells on harness. 
241 San Gabriel mission showing bells. 

(6) Gold 

243 Some of the 40,000 men who entered Klondyke gold field in 
1898. 

246 Gold miners and dog team north of Arctic Circle, Alaska. 

245 Placer mining, near the Yukon River, Alaska. 

225 Hydraulic mining, Oregon. 

287 Rich gold and silver mining center, El Oro, Mexico. 

579 Gold quartz mining, 10th level, 1.200 feet under ground, Robin- 
son Mine, Johannesburg, S. Africa. 

203 Stamp mill and gold concentrator, Ouray, Colorado. 

Uses 
21 Skilled workers manufacturing jewelry, Providence, R. I. 

(7) Silver 

214 A silver mining camp nestled in the mountains, Nevada. 
287 Rich gold and silver mining center of El Oro, Mexico. 
334 Refining silver in smelter, Peru, S. Amer. 

Uses 
33 Silverware in a well furnished dining room. 

84 Silver half-dollars, quarters and dimes being coined at govern- 
ment mint. 



PRECIOUS STONES — QUARRYING 59 

(8) Zinc and Lead 
176 Zinc and lead mines, Joplin, Mo. 

(b) PRECIOUS STONES 
(i) Diamonds 

581 Mining " diamantif erous blue earth," Kimberley, S. Africa. 

(2) Garnets, Rubies, Sapphires and Moonstones 

512 Grinding gems — garnets, rubies, sapphires, and moonstones — 
Ratnapora, Ceylon. 

(c) GLASS 
Manufacture 

134 Placing material in furnace, plate glass works, Rossford, Ohio. 

135 Polishing plate glass after grinding, Rossford, Ohio. 

Use 

33 Cut glass on dining table, plate glass in mirror and mantel. 

92 Glass in transom, lighting fixtures, ink wells, mirror, clock face 

and covering picture. 
88 Glass in skylight. 

587 Plate glass in Federal building, Melbourne, Australia. 
159 Glass windows in modern dairy barn. 

152 A well lighted modern factory building, Ford Motor Factory, 
Detroit. 

(d) POTTERY 

58 Firing tableware, Trenton, N. J. 

59 Artists decorating porcelain ware, Trenton, N. J. 
33 Finely decorated china on dining table. 

372 Porcelain in Robert Burns' Cottage, Scotland. 

542, 487, 572, 564, 292 Primitive pottery in other countries. 

(e) QUARRYING 

(1) Granite 

3 Quarrying granite, Concord, N. H. — Drilling preparatory to 

splitting. 
95 Congressional Library — white New Hampshire granite. 
7 Quincy market building, Boston, built of granite. 
6 Granite blocks used in paving. 
569 The great dam, Egypt. Built of Assuan granite. 
146 Lincoln Tomb (granite), Springfield, 111. 

(2) Marble 

4 Marble quarry, Proctor, Vt, largest quarry opening in the 

world. 

5 Chiseling marble, Proctor, Vt. 



60 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

87 The extensions of the Capitol building are of Massachusetts 

marble. 
36 Many marble monuments may be seen here. 

(f) Nitrate 

325 Sacking and shipping nitrate at mines, Chile. 

3. LUMBERING AND FOREST PRODUCTS 

(a) Lumbering 
America 

224 Felling great trees that grow in the rainy northwest. 
162 Load of logs at Kettle River landing, Minn. 
1 Landing and scaling logs, Aroostook Woods, Me. 

215 Great chained log rafts, Columbia River, Washington. 

216 Large lumber mills, near Seattle, Wash. 

217 Loading ships with lumber. 

Orient 
509 Elephants hauling logs from Salwin River, Burma. 
523 Chinamen sawing timbers in primitive way. 
For uses of lumber see classification on Wood. 

(b) Turpentine 

107 Turpentine dippers and chippers at work, Savannah, Ga. 
106 Savannah, Ga. Greatest turpentine market in world. 

(c) Manufacture of Paper 

For manufacture of paper from wood pulp, cloth and rice straw 
see Paper under Miscellaneous Industries, this classification. 

(d) Charcoal 

103 Burning charcoal, N. C. 
543 Selling charcoal in Korea. 

For further material on forest products and their uses see classifi- 
cation on Wood. 

4. MISCELLANEOUS 

(a) Haying 

183 Alfalfa, principal hay and forage crop of West. 

181 Handling alfalfa hay with hay loader. 

185 Alfalfa hay in barn. 

232 American bison eating hay in park. 

388 Making hay, Highlands of Bavaria. 

408 Hay put up in racks to cure. 

454 A unique team eating hay, Naples, Italy. 



MAKING PAPER — TOBACCO — IRRIGATION 61 

(b) Ivory 

505, 509 Elephants showing ivory tusks. 
573 Shipping ivory at Mombaso, Africa. 
577, 578 Ivory of hippopotamus inferior to that of elephant. 

(c) Making Paper 

Wood 
1 Printing and wrapping paper are mainly made from wood pulp. 
Timber suitable for paper pulp is fast disappearing in the 
United States. Much paper pulp is imported from Canada. 
412 Grindstones which convert the blocks into wood pulp for the 
manufacture of paper, Norway. 

Cloth {Cotton and Linen) 

19 Cut rags after removing from washing drums, paper mills, 

Holyoke, Mass. 

20 Inspecting paper delivered by machine, Holyoke, Mass. 

94 Paper money from linen rags — the toughest and most durable 
paper made in America. 

Rice Straw 
533, 534, 535, 536 Show rice paper used extensively by Japanese in 
the walls and windows of their homes. 

(d) Making Money 

84 Coining presses, Government, Philadelphia, Pa. 
94 Making paper money, Washington, D. C. 

(e) Tobacco 

112 Kentucky tobacco field showing ventilated tobacco barns. 
297 Cutting tobacco in Cuba. 

(f) Irrigation 

Irrigation is not a distinct industry. But because of popular inter- 
est in this method of production this grouping is supplied. 

210 Great Roosevelt irrigation dam, Phoenix, Ariz. 

198 Sugar beets in irrigated district, Colo. 

104 Flooding the rice fields, S. C. 

105 Hoeing rice, S. C. 

234 Almond trees in irrigated district, Cal. 

237 Some fine results of irrigating orange groves, Cal. 

238 Orange blossoms and fruit, irrigated, Cal. 
236 What irrigation does for Tokay grapes, Cal. 

332 Preparing soil for planting, irrigated district, Peru. 

333 Replanting sugar cane preparatory to irrigation, Peru. 
549 Filipino harrowing rice field after irrigation. 

527, 528, 529, 530 Irrigated rice fields, Japan. 
515, 518 Irrigated land in China. 



62 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

569 The great Nile Dam for irrigation purposes. 
564 Land irrigated by overflow of Nile River, Egypt. 
563 Cotton raised on irrigated land, Egypt. 

(g) Rubber 

247 Rubber tree showing scars from cutting, Panama. 

131 Crude rubber from the jungles, Akron, O. 

132 Building up an automobile tire, Akron, O. 
155,44 Rubber hose. 

See also Rubber under Clothing in this classification. 

(h) Automobiles 

150 Assembling room, Cadillac plant, Detroit, Mich. 

151 Experts testing motors, Cadillac plant, Detroit, Mich. 

152 Employees leaving Ford plant, Detroit, Mich. 
167,305,308,315,316 Automobiles in use. 

For manufacture of Automobile tires see Rubber above. 

(i) Construction 

For a considerable range of industries dealing with the construc- 
tion of highways, streets, bridges, canals, etc., see Part II of this 
classification, also Cities and the various classifications under Industrial 
Arts. 

See classification on Transportation. 

See classification on Markets and Marketing. 

Part II 

In the following scheme, the character of the work itself is made the 
basis for an economic classification of industries and products. 

A. COLLECTIVE INDUSTRIES 

These industries do not create anything which did not exist be- 
fore, but collect raw materials, making only such changes in their 
form or qualities as are necessary to fit them for transportation and 
market. They may be carried on by primitive peoples and by the use 
of simple means or they may demand complex machinery and the 
exercise of the highest scientific skill. 

1. PRIMITIVE 
a. Plucking 

551 Husking coconuts, Island of Luzon, P. I. 

259 Luxuriant vegetation in the Mauna Loa Valley, Hawaii. 

293 Golden and luscious mangoes, Nicaragua, C. A. 

294 Harvesting bananas, Costa Rica, C. A. 
303 Cacao pods, Dominica, B. W. I. 



FISHING — HUNTING — MINING 63 

b. Fishing 

226 Salmon Industry, Columbia River, Ore. 

227 Interior of a salmon canning establishment, Ore. 
244 Drying fish on the Yukon River, Alaska. 

481 Fish wives of Finland — a busy scene on the quay. 

531 Drying sardines on the beach, Beppu, Japan. 

13 Drying codfish in the sun — Gloucester, Mass. 

97 Oyster shells as bedding for young oysters, Hampton, Va. 

86 " Shucking " oysters, Oyster House, Baltimore, Md. 

415 Floating whale station, Spitzenbergen, Lapland. (Whales usually 

but incorrectly called fish.) 

Ill Sponge market, Key West, Harbor, Fla. 

c. Hunting 

2 Flashlight of wild moose in Maine forest. 

577 Hippopotamus hunt, Rhodesia, Africa. 

578 Returning from a big game hunt, Rhodesia, Africa. 

345 Commander Adrien de Gerlache, leader of the Belgica expedi- 
tion (1897-99) on skis hunting seals on South Polar pack. 
110 Battle with a wounded 'gator, Palm Beach, Fla. 
415 Floating whale station, Spitzenbergen, Lapland. 

2. SCIENTIFIC 

d. Lumbering 

224 Method of felling trees, Oregon. 

162 A load of logs, Minnesota Pineries. 

1 Logs delivered at the stream, Me. 

215 Great chained log rafts, Columbia River, Wash. 

216 Largest lumber mills, near Seattle, Wash. 

217 Shipping lumber, Washington. 

e. Quarrying 

4 Marble quarry, Proctor, Vt. — largest quarry opening in the 

world. 

3 Quarrying granite, Concord, N. H. 

5 Chiseling marble, Proctor, Vt. 

f. Mining 

Coal 

74 Stripping coal at Hazelton, Pa. 

75 Miners going into the slope, Hazelton, Pa. 

76 Drilling and loading anthracite, Scranton, Pa. 

77 Loaded cage at bottom of shaft, Scranton, Pa. 

78 Tandem automatic slate picker, Scranton, Pa. 

79 Shipping coal — coal breaker in background. 



64 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

Petroleum 

69 Filling shell with nitrb-glycerin. 

70 Shooting oil well with eighty quarts of nitro-glycerin, Pa. 

122 Spindle Top oil region, Texas. 

123 Crude oil stills and can factory, Texas. 

Iron 

163 Steam shovel at work, Mesabi Range, Minn. 

Copper, Zinc and Lead 

155 A mile underground — cars with copper ore, Mich. 
176 Zinc and lead mines, Joplin, Mo. 

Gold and Silver 

245 Placer mining near the Yukon River, Alaska. 
225 Hydraulic mining, Oregon. 

579 Gold quartz mining, 10th level, 1,200 feet under ground, Jo- 
hannesburg, South Africa. 
334 Refining silver in smelter, Cerro de. Pasco, Peru. 
214 A mining camp nestled in the mountains, Nevada. 

Diamonds 

581 Taking out the " diamantiferous blue earth " at Wesselton dia- 
mond mines, Kimberley, South Africa. 

Phosphate 
115 Mining phosphate near Columbia, Tenn. 

Nitrate 

325 Sacking and shipping nitrate at mines, Chile. 

g. Collecting 

130 Tapping a sugar-maple tree, Ohio. 

107 A turpentine farm — dippers and chippers at work, Savannah, 

Ga. 
247 Rubber tree, showing scars from cutting, Panama. 

131 Many forms of crude rubber, Akron, Ohio. 

285 Filling pig skins with juice from maguey plant used in making 
pulque, the native drink, Tacuba, Mexico. 

B. PRODUCTIVE INDUSTRIES 
These industries assist nature to multiply or create materials which 
would not otherwise exist and are capable of a high degree of scien- 
tific development. 

3. AGRICULTURE 
h. Garden Culture 

149 Harvesting celery, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
47 Harvesting cantaloupes near Buffalo, N. Y. 



GARDEN CULTURE — FIELD CULTURE 65 

83 School gardens, Philadelphia, Pa. 
235 Luther Burbank's spineless cactus, Santa Rosa, Cal. 
211 Spineless cactus — a valuable product for semi-arid regions, New 
Mexico. 

i. Field Culture 

Grains 

561 Tilling the soil as in ancient days, Egypt. 

522 Chinese farmer boys plowing, near Port Arthur. 

488 How the Russian peasant tills his fields. 

178 Plowing with tractor, South Dakota. 

179 Harrowing with tractor, South Dakota. 

180 Manure spreader followed by tractor plow. Sod near Omaha, 

Nebr. 

357 Harvesting wheat in Old England. 

199 Wheat raised by the " dry farming method." 

147 Loading oats in the field, 111. 

218 Combined reaper and thresher, Wash. 

233 Steam Harvester, reaping, threshing and sacking wheat. 

497 The threshing floor of Nazareth, Palestine. 

479 Treading out the grain, Greece. 

284 Ancient mode of threshing in Mexico. 

562 Threshing beans in the field, Egypt. 
177 Threshing wheat, North Dakota. 
184 Corn field, Kansas. 

160 Harvesting and loading silage corn, Wis. 

136 Modern methods in corn harvesting, Ind. 

137 Corn in the shock, Ind. 

549 Filipino farmers harrowing rice fields. 

528 Rice planters at. work, Japan. 

527 Overlooking the rice fields, Japan. 

529 Rice harvest, cutting with a sickle, Japan. 
105 Hoeing rice, South Carolina. 

104 Flooding the rice fields, S. C 

550 Hulling rice for breakfast, P. I. 

Sugar Beets 

198 Cultivating a field of beets, Colorado. 

419 Women working in a field of sugar beets, Sweden. 

Tobacco 

112 Tobacco field in Kentucky. 

297 Cutting tobacco grown in the shade of banana trees, province of 
Havana, Cuba. 

Peanuts 
118 Harvesting peanuts, Marianna, Arkansas. 

Potatoes 

166 Potato digging machines, Moorhead, Minn. 



66 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

Hay 

181 Handling alfalfa hay with hay loader. 

j. Plantation Culture 
Sugar Cane 

332 Preparing soil for planting sugar cane, Peru. 

333 Replanting the sugar cane, Peru. 
258 Cutting the sugar cane, Porto Rico. 

Fruits 

294 Harvesting bananas, Costa Rica, C. A. 
108 Harvesting pineapples, Florida. 

Fibers 

117 Picking cotton on a Mississippi plantation. 
289 Henequen producing sisal hemp fiber, Mex. 
571 Sisal hemp plantation in blossom, Uganda, Africa. 
552 Manila hemp, stripping the tree, P. I. 

k. Horticulture 

44 Summer spraying in apple orchard, N. Y. 

175 Sorting and packing apples in barrels, Mo. 

85 Gathering peaches, Delaware. 

237 10,000 acres of orange groves, Cal. 

238 Orange blossoms and fruit, Los Angeles, Cal. 
437 Picking Valencia oranges, Spain. 

236 Tokay grapes, Acampo, Cal. 

390 Toiling in the vineyards, Rudesheim, Germany. 

319 Italian settler and family, vineyards in background, Mendoza, 

Argentina. 
234 Harvesting almonds, Cal. 

302 Coffee pickers, Guadeloupe, F. W. I. 

310 Method of drying coffee, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

530 A country girl of old Japan — among the famous tea fields of 
Shizuoka, Japan. 

303 Cacao pods, Dominica, B. W. I. 

1. Herding — depends on native grasses, mosses, etc. 
Cattle 

127 On the Paloduro Ranch, Paloduro, Tex. 

186 Round up on the Sherman Ranch, Geneseo, Kan. 

188 Cowboy, bronco corral and camps, Mont. 

301 A cattle ranch in Jamaica, B. W. I. 

317 Argentina's famous cattle, La Plata, Argentina, S. A. 

589 Range cattle, Australia. 

Sheep 
190 Sheep grazing on range, Idaho. 
480 Shepherds and their flocks, Greece. 



STOCK RAISING 67 

Reindeer 

413 Laplanders milking the reindeer, Norway. 

m. Stock raising is combined with agriculture and depends on 
home-grown grain and fodder. 

Cattle 

364 Jersey cattle. 

371 Ayrshire dairy cattle, Scotland. 

403 Milking Holstein-Friesian cattle, Holland. 

159 Modern dairy barns and Holstein cattle, Wisconsin. 

57 Milking scene in modern dairy, New Jersey. 

358 Whitefaced Herefords. 

370 Aberdeen Angus, a noted breed of beef cattle. 

183 Hereford cattle in Kansas feeding pens. 

140 The world's greatest live stock market, Chicago. 

Swine 

172 Hogs in rape pasture, Iowa. 

183 Hogs in rich alfalfa pasture, Kansas. 

Sheep and Goats 

173 Shropshire, Oxford and Cotswold sheep. 

411 Milking the goats, Hardanger Fjord, Norway. 
447 Grindewald on market day, Switzerland. 

Horses 

138 A champion team of Percheron draft horses. 
398 Belgian draft horses. 

Elephants 
509 Elephants hauling logs from river, Burma. 
505 Stately elephants on parade, Jaipur, India. 

Birds 

56 1,500 Hens (White Leghorns) in laying house, New Jersey. 
240 Los Angeles pigeon farm, California. 
239 Cawston ostrich farm, California. 

Insects 

537 Gathering mulberry leaves for silk worms, Japan. 
536 Silk worm incubator, Japan. 

538 Feeding mulberry leaves to silk worms. Japan. 

539 Silkworm cocoons, Kiryu, Japan. 

C. CONSTRUCTIVE INDUSTRIES 

^ These industries use all sorts of materials supplied by the collec- 
tive and productive industries in the construction of things which are 
largely artificial. 



68 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 



4. MANUFACTURING 

The United States Census publishes statistics of 259 distinct lines 
of manufacture and the number of different kinds of articles pro- 
duced runs into the tens of thousands. 

Foodstuffs 

292 Tortilla making, Salvador, C. A. 

498 Native women grinding wheat, Palestine. 

410 " Flat Bread " of the Norwegian Peasant. 

45 1,000 lbs. of freshly churned butter, N. Y. 

270 Beets stored in sheds at sugar factory. 

271 Beet pulp and juice for manufacturing sugar. 

34 Conveyor with trays of loaf sugar.. 

35 Filling and sewing bags of granulated sugar. 

141 Dressing beef — washing with boiling water. 

143 Trimming and skinning hams before pickling. 

142 Splitting backbones and inspection of hogs. 

144 Making link sausages. 

Fibers and Textiles 

For more complete list see Clothing in this chapter, also classification 
on Textiles and Clothing. 

Cotton 

563 Native boys spinning cotton, Egypt. 
286 Carding room, cotton mills, Mexico. 

14 Spinning cotton yarn, Lawrence, Mass. 

15 Copying design on copper rolls for printing cotton cloth, Law- 

rence, Mass. 

16 Printing- room of cotton mills, Lawrence, Mass. 

Linen 

268 Winding bobbins in linen mill, Canada. 

269 Weaving the linen fabric, Canada. 

Wool 

17 Sorting wool, Lawrence,_ Mass. 

409 Carding and spinning wool, Norway. 
506 Spinning and weaving woolen shawls, Kashmir, India. 
81 Spinning room, winding bobbins with woolen yarn for weaving, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

18 Doubling frame in a large woolen mill. 

Silk 

540 Reeling silk from cocoons, Kiryu, Japan. 

22 Weighing and sorting raw silk skeins, Conn. 

23 First drawing of fibers, Conn. 

24 Spinning — silk industry, Conn. 



BARK — COPPER AND GOLD — JEWELRY 69 

53 Drawing warp, silk mills, Paterson, N. J. 

54 Weaving room, silk mills, Paterson, N. J. 

55 Machine weaving taffeta silk ribbons, Paterson, N. J. 
541 One of Japan's largest silk mills. 

Bark 

570 Peeling bark for making bark cloth, Uganda, Africa. 

Cordage 

553 Manila hemp rope factory, Philippines. 
289 Henequen, source of sisal hemp fiber, Mex. 

571 Sisal hemp plantation, Uganda, Africa. 

Leather Boots and Shoes 

272 Scraping the hair from the hides, Canada. 

11 Skilled workmen cutting leather for shoes, Mass. 

12 Lasting machine shaping shoes, Mass. 

41 Sewing room — large shoe factory, Syracuse, N. Y. 
133 Manufacture of rubber boots and shoes, Akron, Ohio. 

Fuel 

103 Burning charcoal, North Carolina. 
68 Making coke from bituminous coal, Connellsville, Pa. 

Iron and Steel 

62 Plant of the blast furnace, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
116 Steel furnace, Birmingham, Ala. 

63 Modern pig iron machine, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

64 Emptying pig iron from molds into car, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

65 Filling molds with steel, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

66 Steel ingot on the "table" of the "blooming" mill, Pittsburgh, 

Pa. 

67 Red-hot steel beam being cut into lengths by buzz saw, Pitts- 

burgh, Pa. 

Copper and Gold 

187 Copper smelters and mine, Butte, Mont. 

156 Pouring molten copper into ingot molds, Mich. 

203 Stamp mill and gold concentrator, Colorado. 

84 Coining presses, Government Mint, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jewelry 

21 Manufacturing jewelry, Providence, R. I. 
512 Grinding gems, garnets, rubies, sapphires and moonstones, Ratna- 
pora, Ceylon. 

Salt 

42 Solar method of evaporating salt brine — collecting, draining 

and hauling salt, Syracuse, N. Y. 
153 Packing salt into barrels for shipment, St. Clair, Mich. 



70 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

Glass and Pottery 

134 Method of placing material in furnace, plate glass works, Ross- 

ford, O. 

135 Polishing plate glass after grinding, Rossford, Ohio. 

58 Firing tableware, Trenton, N. J. 

59 Artists decorating porcelain ware, Trenton, N. J. 

Machinery 

156 Pouring molten copper into ingot molds, Calumet-Hecla Mines, 

Calumet, Mich. 
151 Experts testing engines in the Cadillac automobile plant, Detroit, 

Mich. 
82 General view of the erecting shop, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wood Pulp and Paper 

412 Grindstones which convert the blocks into wood pulp, paper mills, 
Skotifos, Norway. 

19 Cut rags after removing from washing drums — paper mills, 

Holyoke, Mass. 

20 Inspecting paper delivered by machine, Holyoke, Mass. 

94 Making paper money, Bureau of Printing and Engraving, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

5. BUILDING 

Consists in the erection of large, permanent structures such as houses, 
ships, bridges, etc. A great variety of materials is used and work- 
men of many trades are employed, as masons, carpenters, painters, 
plumbers, etc. 

6. ENGINEERING 

The most complex and technical of all industries, has many branches, 
closely related to manufacture and building. It plans and constructs 
engines, machinery, power plants, mills, water works, dams, bridges, 
tunnels, irrigation, drainage and sewer system, roads, docks, canals and 
the very largest works of human design. By means of engineering, 
the great powers of nature, heat, water, wind and electricity are 
brought into the service of man. 

Architecture 

(See classification on Architecture) 

Shipbuilding 

52 Great ocean liners at the docks, Hoboken, N. J. 
100 Warships in Hampton Roads, Va. 



DAMS — BRIDGES — ROADS — CANALS 71 

242 Submarines, battleships and torpedo boats, San Diego Bay, Cal. 

280 Mexico's principal harbor, Vera Cruz. 

314 Entrance to the harbor, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

394 Zeppelin flying over a German town. 

511 Colombo Harbor from landing jetty, Ceylon. 

Dams and Power Plants 

148 Building dikes, East St. Louis, 111. 

170 Power dam and locks in Mississippi River, Keokuk, Iowa. 

171 Fifteen large generators in a row, supplied with power from the 

great dam at Keokuk, Iowa. 
210 Roosevelt irrigation dam near Phoenix, Ariz. 
569 Irrigation dam, Assuan, Egypt. 

Bridges 

27 The great Brooklyn bridge, New York. 

101 Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. 

174 Eads Bridge, St. Louis, Mo. 

348 London Bridge over the Thames, England. 

366 Great Forth Bridge, Queensferry, Scotland. 

375 Patrick's Bridge, Cork, Ireland. 

379 Suspension bridge, Kenmare, Ireland. 

392 Bridge over the Rhine at Bonn, Germany. 

416 The Vassar bridge, Stockholm, Sweden. 

442 The Kapellbrucke, Lucerne, Switzerland. 

456 Florence and River Arno, Italy. 

470 Railway bridge over the Danube, Czernavoda, Roumania. 

500 The Howrah bridge over the Hooghly River, Calcutta. 

575 Bridge near Victoria Falls, Africa. 

Roads 

31 Many forms of transportation required in large centers of popula- 
tion, New York City. 

43 Four track railway, electric road, and Erie Canal. 

71 Conestoga wagon on good dirt road. 
330 Cofa Fridge on the Oroya railway, Peru. 
440 To the Clouds by rail — Mt. Pilatus, Switzerland. 

Canals 

48 Mouth of Erie Canal, Buffalo, N. Y. 

154 Greatest canal traffic in the world, the " Soo " Canal. 

250 Excavating at site of Gatun Locks, Panama. 

251 Excavations measuring 500 feet deep in Gaillard Cut, Panama. 

252 North over Gatun Locks, Panama. 

253 South over Gatun Locks and Gatun Lake, Panama. 

254 U. S. S. Missouri in the Panama Canal. 

256 At the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal. 



72 PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING 

405 Frederiksholms Canal, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

457 Grand Canal, Venice, Italy. 

462 Danube Canal in the very heart of Vienna. 

559 The Suez Canal from a German liner. 

Docks 

106 Along the wharf of Savannah River, Ga. 
128 Unloaders at work on ore docks, Conneaut, Ohio. 
164 Looking between ore docks # 2 and # 3, Two Harbors, Minn. 
267 The wharves, Montreal, Canada. 
347 Landing stage, Liverpool, England. 
400 Steamer docks, Rotterdam, Holland. 
420 Custom House scene and harbor, Goteborg, Sweden. 
429 The Cathedral, near busy docks, Marseilles, France. 
433 Commodious harbor of Barcelona, looking towards the Colum- 
bus monument and Custom House, Spain. 
556 Harbor of Algiers, Algeria. 

For more complete list see Harbors in Transportation classification, 
also Markets and Marketing classification. 



D. DISTRIBUTIVE INDUSTRIES 

These industries are concerned with the circulation or movement 
of people, goods, and ideas. They are dealt with in the chapters on 
Transportation and Markets and Marketing. 



4. TRANSPORTATION 

COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY 
By EMERY R. JOHNSON, Ph.D., Sc.D. 

PROFESSOR OF TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE, UNIVERSITY OF 
PENNSYLVANIA 

By means of transportation men secure the necessities of 
life from the farmers, manufacturers and other producers. 
Goods become useful to those who need them after they haye 
been carried from the producer or makers to those who use 
the articles. In different countries and different parts of the 
world various methods of moving goods from place to place 
are employed. There is still a surprising amount of carrying 
done by men and women and beasts of burden without the 
use of any kind of a vehicle. In those countries where the 
people have enough wealth to enable them to use vehicles, many 
varieties of mechanical instruments of transportation have 
been devised. Less advanced people use simple two-wheeled 
carts drawn by one or more horses or mules, or sometimes by 
cattle, water buffalo, camels, dogs or reindeer. Each country 
uses draft animals that can live and flourish in the particular 
country in question. 

I. HUMAN CARRIERS 

We who live in the United States have become so accustomed to 
passenger and freight trains, auto trucks, automobiles, dray wagons and 
comfortable carriages that we have some difficulty in realizing that 
there are people in Asia, Africa, and the Philippine Islands who depend 
upon their own muscular strength for transportation and travel ; but 
if we were to visit Korea we would see men carrying heavy burdens on 
their back, as is shown by the view (543) of the charcoal carriers, or 
if we were to visit Porto Rico (view 257) we would see women car- 
rying on their heads packages weighing as much as possibly 50 lbs. 
It is only when we go on camping trips to fish or to climb mountains 
that we resort to " packing," but in some countries this is the regular 
method of transporting articles. 

73 



74 GEOGRAPHY — TRANSPORTATION 



A. Burdens Borne on Head 

257 Porto Rico woman carrying burden on the head. 
437 Carrying basket of oranges near Valencia, Spain. 
542 Korean carrying earthen vessel on head. 

564 Egyptian carrying water jar on head. 

572 South African natives carrying baskets on head. 

578 African natives carrying burdens on head. 

504 Natives carrying water jars on head, Jaipur, India. 

B. Burdens Borne on Back 

243 Miners carrying supplies on back over Chilcoot Pass. 

328 Indians carrying children on back, Chile. 

449 Carrying goods up mountain trails, Switzerland. 

473 Carrying basket on back, Constantinople. 

507 India natives carrying inflated bullock skins. 

532 534 Japanese mother carrying child on back. 

542 White robed pottery peddler, Seoul, Chosen. 

543 Koreans carrying charcoal on back. 

530 Japanese carrying basket of tea leaves. 

C. Burdens Borne on Shoulders 

108 Carrying baskets of pineapples on shoulders, Florida. 

175 Carrying basket of apples on shoulder, Missouri. 

266 Fifth Royal Highlanders carrying rifles on shoulder. 

327 Laborer carrying box on shoulder, Valparaiso, Chile. 

463 Carrying burdens on shoulder, Vienna, Austria. 

487 Dairy maids carrying milk on shoulder, Kief, Russia. 

494 Arab carrying gun on shoulder. 

513 521 Chinese carrying burdens on shoulder. 

585 American and British troops carrying guns on shoulder. 

D. Burdens Borne by Hand 

46 Carrying box of milk bottles. 

47 Picking and loading cantaloupes near Buffalo. 
69 Filling shell with nitro-glycerin. 

182 Mounted Sioux Indians carrying spears and guns. 

258 Cutting and carrying sugar cane, Porto Rico. 
261 Honolulu musicians, Hawaii. 

516 Chinese pulling huge stone roller, Nanking. 

518 Conveying salt by wheelbarrow train, China. 

531 Japanese carrying tray of sardines. 

544 Russian traveler carrying baggage in hand. 
555 Arab carrying water, Tangier, Morocco. 
513 "Queen's Road" Hong Kong, China. 



TRANSPORTATION BY ANIMALS — HORSES 75 



II. TRANSPORTATION BY ANIMALS 

In countries where there are only trails instead of roads, articles have 
to be transported by human carriers or by pack animals. As is shown 
by the views, different countries use different kinds of animals for beasts 
of burden. Not only horses and mules, but also cattle, elephants and 
camels have their " packing " to do. 

In large cities, automobiles and electric cars now do most of the 
work that was formerly performed by horses, and to an increasing extent 
farmers as well as miners and lumbermen are using the automobile en- 
gine instead of the mule or horse to haul and carry commodities ; but, 
for the most part, the farmer still uses the horse or mule to haul his 
wagon and to do the hard work of farming. The different kinds of carts 
and wagons used in different countries and the various kinds of sad- 
dle and draft animals are well illustrated by the views listed in the 
following classification. 

A. Horses 

Horseback 

182 Mounted Sioux Indians leaving camp, Nebraska. 

193 Mounted guard, Yellowstone National Park. 

186 Cowboys rounding up cattle, Kansas. 

188 Cowboys roping their mounts, Montana. 

204 Ute Indian and family, Colorado. 

333 Inspecting sugar cane plantation near Lima, Peru. 

385 Cuirassier guards on parade, Berlin. 

464 Mounted officer, Andrassy Strasse, Budapest. 

496 Horseman on Jericho road, Palestine. 

494 A sheik and his body guard, Syria. 

585 Officers reviewing troops, Sydney, Australia. 

315 Officers on horseback, Buenos Aires. 

Horses with Wagons 

7 Market and delivery wagons about Boston Market, Mass. 

42 Hauling salt, Syracuse, N. Y. 

47 Loading cantaloupes near Buffalo. 

71 Wagon that carried ammunition to Perry, 1813. 

138 Champion team of Percheron draft horses. 

147 Hauling oats, Illinois. 

149 Hauling celery, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

167 . Dray wagon on Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis. 

177 Hauling grain to thresher, North Dakota. 

181 Hauling hay near Lincoln, Nebraska. 

195 221, 229 Stage coaches hauling passengers. 

273 Main street, Winnipeg, Canada. 

406 A busy street scene, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

420 Hauling freight, Goteborg, Sweden. 

454 Hauling on the streets of Naples, Italy. 



76 GEOGRAPHY — TRANSPORTATION 

473 A busy street scene, Constantinople, Turkey. 
484 Great bell market, Nizhni, Novgorod, Russia. 

Horses with Farm Machinery 

44 Summer spraying in apple orchard. 

136 Modern methods in corn harvesting, Ind. 

160 Harvesting and loading silage corn, Wis. 

166 Potato digging machines at work, Minn. 

180 Manure spreader followed by tractor, Nebr. 

198 Cultivating field of sugar beets, Colo. 

218 Twenty horses pulling combined reaper and thresher. 

357 Harvesting wheat in old England. 

488 Plowing with primitive native plow, Russia. 

Horses with Carriages 

201 Cathedral Spires, Garden of the Gods, Colorado. 

209 Light driving rig in desert, Arizona. 

312 Carriage team, Montevideo, S. A. 

320 High wheeled cart and gig, Argentina. 

349 Hansom cabs, London, England. 

383 Cab drivers, Berlin. 

424 Carriages, Paris, France. 

472 Carriages, Constantinople, Turkey. 

547 Calle Real, principal street of walled city, Manila. 

560 Carriages on great Nile bridge, Egypt. 

Horse Cars 
473, 474 Horses pulling street cars, Constantinople. 

Horses with Sleigh 
162 Hauling logs in Minnesota. 

Horses Drawing Fish Xets 
226. Pulling salmon nets with horses, Columbia River. 

Horse as Pack Animal 
537 Gathering mulberry leaves in Japan. 

B. Donkeys 

340 Donkey used as saddle animal, Venezuela. 

341 City baker making his daily rounds, Caracas. 
378 Donkeys hauling peat, Killarney, Ireland. 

496 Russian pilgrims riding donkeys, Jericho road, Palestine. 

522 Chinese plowing with donkeys. 

524 A donkey pack train, North China. 

557 Outside the fine gate, Bab-el-Hathera, Tunis. 

560 Donkey pack animals on great Nile bridge. 

566. Tigran Bey on his mount, Sakkara, Egypt. 

567 The donkey as saddle animal, Thebes, Egypt. 



MULES — CATTLE — DOGS — CAMELS 77 

C. Mules 

124 Mule team hauling cotton. 

175 Hauling apples with Missouri mule team. 

249 The mule a good draft animal in warm countries. 

294 Mule used as pack animal, Costa Rica, C. A. 

311 Mules hauling coffee, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

438 Spanish mules hitched in tandem fashion. 

479 Primitive use of mule in Greece. 

D. Cattle 

Common Ox 
580 Oxen used to transport army supplies, South Africa. 
298 Cattle used for farming in Province of Havana, Cuba. 
284 Cattle used for threshing grain, Mexico. 

561 Cattle plowing primitive way in Egypt. 

337 Ox cart, Baranquilla, Colombia, South America. 

497 Oxen working on threshing floor, Nazareth, Palestine. 

454 Ox and horse hitched together, Naples, Italy. 

Buffalo 
549 Buffalo much used by the Filipino farmer. 
491 Shoeing buffalo on streets of Tarsus, Syria. 
474 European buffalo yoked for heavy hauling, Constantinople. 

Humped Cattle of Asia 

562 Humped cattle threshing beans, Egypt. 
545 Fancy Japanese cattle at bull races, Java. 

548 Humped cattle as pack animals and for riding. 
510 Humped cattle hauling pleasure party, Burma. 

Dairy. 
339 Native method of distributing milk unadulterated. 

E. Dogs 

246 Gold miners and dog team, Alaska. 
279 Eskimo dog team, Hopedale, Labrador. 
396 Dog drawing milk cart, Antwerp, Belgium. 

F. Camels 

565 A camel at the Sphinx, Egypt. 

564 Camel at the river Nile. 

504 Caravan entering Jaipur, India. 

G. Llamas 

335 Llama used as beast of burden in South America. 



78 GEOGRAPHY — TRANSPORTATION 

H. Elephants 

505 Stately elephants on parade, Jaipur, India. 
509 Elephants hauling teak logs, Burma. 

I. Reindeer 

413 Reindeer, much used as a draft animal. 



III. CANAL AND RIVER TRANSPORTATION 
A. Rafts 

Long before the railroad was invented, the rivers and canals were 
used for transporting freight and passengers. The lumberman floats 
his rafts of logs down the river in the spring when the streams are in 
flood ; but in the eastern part of the United States and even on the 
Mississippi River there is little rafting at present as compared with the 
past; but one may still see (view 215) enormous rafts of logs on the 
Columbia River and on some other western waters. 

1 Logs delivered at the stream ready for rafting, Me. 
215 Great chained log rafts on the Columbia River. 
507 Inflated bullock skins for rafts, Sutlej River, India. 

B. Row Boats, Canoes, and Yachts 

Row boats and canoes are, for most of us, at the present time, used 
only for pleasure or amusement. Our ancestors used them in their 
everyday business life, and the people of China and Japan still make 
large use of hand propelled boats for business purposes. 

169 Indian canoe. " From the wigwam he departed." 

326 Sailing boats and yachts, Valparaiso, Chile. 

430 Sailing boats and yachts, Cannes, France. 

457 Row boats and motor boats on Grand Canal, Venice. 

C. House Boats 

546 House boats on the Pasig River, Manila. 

457 House boat on Grand Canal, Venice. Italy. 

514 Some of China's floating population, Hong Kong. 

D. Canal Boats 

The slow-moving canal boat drawn by mules or horses may still 
be seen in many parts of the United States, but the mule and the tow- 
path and the small canal have about served their day. 

39 Canal Barges on Hudson River. 

48 Mouth of Erie Canal, Buffalo, N. Y. 

61 Coal floats and stern-wheel river steamers. 



CANALS — RIVER STEAMERS — SAIL BOATS 79 

154 Ships passing through " Soo " Canal. 

252 Ship passing through Gatun locks, Panama Canal. 

253 Gatun Lake showing Panama Canal shipping. 
462 Fishing boats on Danube Canal, Vienna, Austria. 
559 Sail boat and German liner on Suez Canal. 

E. Canals 

For the present and the future the large inland canal, like the Erie 
Canal connecting Albany with Buffalo, or an interoceanic canal like 
the one at Panama or the one at Suez, is the kind required for the 
work to be done. 
154 Greatest canal traffic in world, Mich. 

252 Atlantic entrance to Panama Canal. 

253 South over Gatun locks and Gatun Lake. 

254 U. S. S. Missouri passing through Panama Canal. 
256 Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal. 

399 Water Street, Zaandam, Holland. 

400 Steamer docks, Rotterdam, Holland. 

405 Frederiksholms Canal, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

457 Grand Canal, Venice, Italy. 

462 Along the Danube Canal, Vienna, Austria. 

559 The Suez Canal from a German liner, looking north. 

F. River Steamers and Barges 

The principal rivers of every country will always be great arteries 
of commerce. Fifty years ago the river steamboat was more largely 
used than it is today, because the railroad has taken over much of the 
work that the steamboat used to do. With the growth of population 
and with the increase in the amount of transportation work to be done, 
river steamboats and barges are again needed and we are seeing a re- 
vival of the use of the rivers as highways of commerce. 

61 River craft, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

119 Large river steamboats, New Orleans. 

267 River barges and ocean steamers at Montreal. 

429 Loaded barges, Marseilles, France. 

433 Barcelona harbor showing loaded barge. 

462 Along Danube Canal in Vienna. 

467 River dock, Belgrade, Servia. 

472 The famous Galata bridge, Constantinople. 

473 Stamboul end of Galata bridge. 

546 House boats on the Pasig River, Manila. 

G. Sail Boats on Rivers 

27 Sail boasts under the great Brooklyn bridge, N. Y. 

39 Sail boats on Hudson River above West Point. 

106 Sail boats along the wharf of Savannah River: 

396 Antwerp, Belgium, sail boats at river wharves. 



80 GEOGRAPHY — TRANSPORTATION 

H. Ferry Boats 

26 Ferry boat and water front of New York City. 

32 Ferry boat landing passengers, Ellis Island, N. Y. 

386 Ferry boats, Hamburg, Germany. 

I. River Highways of Commerce 

The views here listed of river steamboats and river highways give 
an excellent idea of the use and possibilities of river transportation. 

51 Palisades of the Hudson River, looking north. 

61 Confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers. 

120 In the Mississippi Delta at Head of Passes. 

170 Great Keokuk Power Dam and Locks in the Mississippi. 

264 St. Lawrence River from Dufferin Terrace, Quebec. 

383 The Reichstags-Gebaude, Berlin, Germany. 

391 Traffic on the Rhine, Bingen, Germany. 

392 Great bridge over Rhine, Bonn, Germany. 
397 River Meuse, Namur, Belgium. 

467 Junction of Save River with the Danube. 

471 On the bank of the Danube, Roumania. 

482 Vasili Island, Petrograd, Russia. 

483 The Kremlin, Moscow, Russia. 

489 Looking up Bosporus toward Black Sea. 

501 Pilgrims bathing in the sacred Ganges. 

517 China's great river Yangtze. 

564 Inundation of the Nile, Egypt. 

507 A primitive raft on Sutlej River, India. 



IV. LAKE TRANSPORTATION 

A. Steamers 

The United States and Canada have, in the five great lakes — Ontario, 
Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior — the longest and best lake high- 
way of the worl^U The traffic passing through Sault Ste. Marie Canal 
connecting Lake Mifigan with Lake Superior exceeds the traffic of any 
other canal in the world. 

48 Lake steamers at mouth of Erie Canal. 

164 Ore boats loading, Two Harbors, Minn. 

154 Passenger, freight and ore boats, " Soo " Canal. 

128 Lake steamers unloading at ore docks, Conneaut, O. 

459 Small passenger steamer on Lake Como, Italy. 

B. Docks 

The freight steamers on the Great Lakes and the docks and other 
terminal facilities of the lake ports exceed in size and efficiency those of 
any other lakes in the world. 



PORTS — WHARVES AND DOCKS 81 

48 Lake Erie docks at mouth of Erie Canal. 

128, 129 At work on the ore docks, Conneaut, O. 

157 Loading 1400 tons of copper, Houghton, Mich. 

164 Ore docks No. 2 and No. 3, Two Harbors, Minn. 

154 Locks and docks of " Soo " Canal. 

253 South over Gatun Lake, Panama Canal. 

459 Beautiful Lake Como and docks, Italy. 



V. OCEAN TRANSPORTATION 
A. Ports 

Most of us are more interested in the great ocean vessels and in the 
busy scenes about the wharves and docks at New York and other great 
ocean ports than we are even in railroads or in lake steamers. Ocean 
transportation is very well illustrated by the many views listed in the 
classification that follows. By studying these views, boys and girls 
who have never visited an ocean port may get a very good idea of ships 
and harbors and of the business of ocean transportation. 

25 Statue of Liberty and New York Harbor. 

26 Ferry slips and water front of New York City. 

27 The great Brooklyn bridge, New York. 

32 Immigrants landing from barge, Ellis Island, N. Y. 

52 Great ocean liners at docks, Hoboken, N. J. 

106 Along wharf of Savannah River, Savannah, Ga. 

248 City and Bay of Panama, from Ancon Hill. 

257 Overlooking harbor, San Juan, Porto Rico. 

277 Canadian Pacific station and dock, Vancouver, B. C. 

278 Harbor and St. Johns, New Foundland. 
280 Mexico's principal harbor, Vera Cruz. 

299 Santiago and harbor from Spanish block house. 

304 Lower city and harbor, Bahia, Brazil. 

314 Entrance to harbor, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

326 The harbor and city, Valparaiso, Chile. 

374 Queenstown Harbor, Ireland. 

433 Commodious harbor of Barcelona, Spain. 

492 Bird's-eye view of Beirut, Syria. 

499 Madras and harbor, India. 

511 Colombo harbor from landing jetty, Ceylon. 

514 Harbor scene, Hong Kong, China. 

556 Harbor of Algiers, Algeria. 

B. Wharves and Docks 

52 Great ocean liners at Docks, Hoboken, N. J. 

267 The wharves, Montreal, Canada. 

277 Canadian Pacific terminal, Vancouver, B. C. 

280 Mexico's principal harbor, Vera Cruz. 



82 GEOGRAPHY — TRANSPORTATION 

295 Havana wharf, Cuba. Unloading coffee from Porto Rico. 

327 Goods arriving at docks for shipment, Valparaiso, Chile. 

347 Landing stage, Liverpool, England. 

420 Custom house scene and harbor of Goteborg, Sweden. 

C. Sailing Ships 

The sailing vessel which fifty years ago carried most of the freight 
that moved on the ocean is now used to a small extent as compared 
with steamers, but fishermen, lumbermen, and some others who " go 
down to the sea in ships " still find the sailing vessel very useful and 
well adapted to their needs. 

Ill Sail boats at Key West harbor. Florida. 

216 Sailing ships at mill for load of lumber. 

217 Shipping lumber, Washington. 

257 Sail boats at San Juan harbor, Porto Rico. 

278 Fisherman's quarters, harbor at St. Johns, N. F. 

295 Sail boats at Havana wharf, Cuba. 

342 Peary's ships, Windward and Eric, equipped with sails. 

344 Bclgica, Antarctic ship, equipped with sails. 

347 Sailing ship in Liverpool harbor, England. 

473 Sailing ships at Constantinople. 

481 Fish wives of Finland — A busy scene on the quay. 

525 Small coastwise sailing vessels, Japan. 

D. Steamers 

26 Water front of New York City. 

52 Great ocean liners at docks, Hoboken, N. J. 

106 Along the wharf of Savannah River, Savannah, Ga. 

252 North over Gatun locks and canal. 

253 A busy scene on the Panama Canal. 

257 Overlooking harbor, San Juan, Porto Rico. 

267 Ocean liners, Montreal, Canada. 

277 Burrard inlet, Vancouver, B. C. 

280 Ocean freight steamer, Vera Cruz. 

299 Santiago and harbor from Spanish block house. 

314 Freight and passenger steamers, Buenos Aires. 

342 The twin ships, Windward and Eric — Peary expedition. 

344 Llauling snow for water, Belgica Antarctic expedition. 

347 Landing stage Liverpool, England. 

374 Queenstown harbor, Ireland. 

415 Floating whale station, Spitzenbergen, Lapland. 

420 Harbor of enterprising city, Gothenburg, Sweden. 

433 Commodious harbor of Barcelona, Spain. 

473 Steam ships in harbor, Constantinople, Turkey. 

492 Harbor of Beirut, Syria. 

499 Madras and harbor, India. 

511 Steam ships at anchor, Colombo harbor, Ceylon. 






BATTLE SHIPS — SUBMARINES — TRACKS 83 

514 Harbor of Hong Kong, China. 

556 Harbor of Algiers, Algeria. Ocean steamers. 

559 German liner in Suez Canal. 

E. Battle ships, Submarines and Torpedo Boats 

100 U. S. Battleship fleet in Hampton Roads. 

254 U. S. S. Missouri, first battle ship through Panama Canal. 
242 Submarines, torpedo boats and battle ships. 

VI. RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION 

Every boy and girl is acquainted with the railroad, but not every 
one has seen how roads are built up high mountains or how railroad 
trains are carried on great bridges across broad rivers. Railroads are 
of many kinds and so are cars and trains. There is a different kind of 
car for each of the important kinds of traffic ; the refrigerator car to 
carry meat and fruit, the box car for ordinary freight, the tank car for 
oil, the hopper car for coal and ore. It would interest any boy or girl 
to make a study of the different kinds of vehicles used by the railroad 
and to point out how the growth of industries of different kinds has 
been made possible by the invention and use of special kinds of railway 
cars. The views here presented will help in making such a study. 

A. Tracks 

43 A busy path of commerce in central New York — four track rail- 
way, electric road at right, Erie Canal at extreme left. 

61 Pittsburgh, Pa., a busy railroad center. 

62 Railroad tracks by blast furnace, Pittsburgh. 
79 Shipping anthracite coal, Ashley, Pa. 

101 Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. Train of coal cars. 
116 Railway tracks, Birmingham, Alabama. 

128, 129 Busy track scene, ore docks, Conneaut, O. 

163 Steam shovel at work, showing how track is laid. 

170 The great Keokuk power dam and locks. 

252, 253 Railroad tracks at Gatun locks, Panama Canal. 

251 Tracks used in removing dirt from Culebra Cut. 

256 Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal. 

267 Tracks on wharves, Montreal, Canada. 

277 Western terminus of Canadian Pacific R. R., Vancouver. 

323 Railway station, Juncal, Chile. 

325 At the nitrate mines, Chile. 

327 Busy dock scene, Valparaiso, Chile. 

420 Custom house scene and harbor, Goteborg, Sweden. 

330 Cofa bridge on the Oroya railway, Peru. 

440 To the clouds by rail, Mt. Pilatus, Switzerland. 

499 Railway scene, Madras, India. 

544 Boarding the train at Kansk, Siberia. 

556 Harbor and station of Algiers, Algeria. 

575 Cape to Cairo railway over Zambezi River, Africa. 



84 GEOGRAPHY — TRANSPORTATION 

B. Locomotives 

82 Erecting shop, Baldwin locomotive works. 

43 Four track railway in central New York. 

101 Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. Freight engine. 

163 Steam shovel at work, Mesabi Range, Minn. 

330 Locomotive on the Oroya railway, Peru. 

575 Cape to Cairo railway, Africa. 

C. Bridges 

50 Steel arch bridge across Niagara River'. 

61 Bridges across Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers. 
101 Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. 

154 " Soo " Canal, Michigan, showing bridge in distance. 

174 The magnificent Eads bridge, St. Louis, Mo. 

330 Cofa bridge on the Oroya railway, Peru. 

366 The great Forth Bridge, Queensferry, Scotland. 

470 The longest railway bridge in Europe. 

575 Bridge on the Cape to Cairo railway. 

D. Cars and Trains 

43 A busy path of commerce in Central New York. 

62 Coke and iron ore cars at blast furnace, Pittsburgh. 
68 Loading coke into cars, Connellsville, Pa. 

79 Shipping coal, Ashley, Pa. 

101 Coal train, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. 

115 Mining phosphate and loading cars, Tennessee. 

116 Birmingham, Ala. 50-ton hopper cars. 

128 50-ton hopper steel cars. 

129 Trainload of coal for Lake Superior consumption. 
157 Loading 1400 tons of copper, Houghton, Mich. 
163 Loading cars with iron ore, Minnesota. 
250,252,253 Show dirt cars, Panama Canal. 

251 Excavations in Gaillard Cut, Panama Canal. 

256 Freight cars at Pacific entrance, Panama Canal. 

267 Cars on the wharves, Montreal, Canada. 

277 Canadian Pacific station, Vancouver, B. C. 

323 Juncal station, Chile, S. A. 

327 Freight car at dock, Valparaiso, Chile. 

420 Cars at harbor to be loaded, Goteborg, Sweden. 

440 To the clouds by rail — Mt. Pilatus, Switzerland. 

499 Madras railway terminal and harbor, India. 

544 Boarding the train at Kansk, Siberia. 

556 Harbor and station of Algiers, Algeria. 

575 Train crossing bridge over Zambezi River, Africa. 



ELEVATED LINES — BRIDGES 85 

VII. URBAN TRANSPORTATION 
A. Elevated, Subway and Surface Lines 

In New York, London and a few other cities people travel on three 
levels — on elevated trains, on the surface of the street, and in subways ; 
and at one point in New York, the railroads have a tunnel under the 
subway, and thus people travel on four different levels. 

27 Street cars crossing the great Brooklyn Bridge. 

31 Many forms of transportation required in large cities. 

43 Interurban line at right of four track steam road. 

139 Street cars on State Street, Chicago. 

230 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

273 Metropolis of western Canada — Main Street, Winnipeg. 

315 Street traffic, Buenos Aires, Argentina, S. A. 

375 Patrick's Bridge, Dublin, Ireland. 

380 Sackville Street, Dublin, Ireland. 

473 Street cars pulled by horses, Constantinople. 

587 Federal Parliament building, Melbourne, Australia. 

B. Bridges 

The tunnels and the bridges required for the use of people who live 
in cities illustrate in a striking way how the genius of man made possi- 
ble the growth of great cities. 

27 The great Brooklyn Bridge, New York. 

50 Bridge across Niagara River. 

61 Confluence of Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers. 

101 Wagon and railway bridges, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. 

348 London Bridge over the Thames River, England. 

375 Patrick's Bridge, Cork, Ireland. 

392 The great bridge over the Rhine at Bonn, Germany. 

397 River Meuse and Pare de la Citadel, Namur, Belgium. 

400 Steamer docks, Rotterdam, showing lift bridge. 

404 Queen Louise Bridge, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

416 The Vassar Bridge, Stockholm, Sweden. 

423 Flower market on St. Michael's Bridge, Paris, France. 

442 The Kapellbrucke crossing the River Reuss, Switzerland. 

451 Roman bridge over the Tiber River, Rome, Italy. 

456 Florence and River Arno, Italy. 

472 The famous Galata Bridge, Constantinople, Turkey. 

500 The Howrah Bridge over the Hooghly River, Calcutta. 

546 Bridge across the Pasig River, Manila, P. I. 

560 The great Nile bridge, Cairo, Egypt. 



86 GEOGRAPHY — TRANSPORTATION 



VIII. AUTOMOBILES 

The automobile is rapidly changing the conditions of life in the 
United States and many other countries. In hardly any large city of 
the world atte the streets without automobiles. Even in Japan where 
the man-drawn carriage, the jinriksha, is still in use, one may find the 
automobile and the electric railway. When one realizes that the auto- 
mobile has been in use only a short time, one must conclude that it will 
not be many decades before the engine will displace muscular power 
as the motor force of the world. 

132 Building up automobile tire, Akron rubber plant. 

150 Assembling room, chassis ready for engines, Detroit. 

151 Experts testing engines, automobile plant, Detroit. 

152 Employees leaving Ford automobile factory, Detroit. 

316 Four o'clock parade of society, Palermo Park, Buenos Aires. 

121 Automobile trucks necessary for quick delivery. 31 Automobiles in 
New York City ; 8 Boston ; 90 Washington ; 122 Beaumont, 
Texas ; 126 San Antonio ; 139 Chicago ; 167 Minneapolis ; 230 
San Francisco; 305 Rio de Janeiro; 308 Sao Paulo, Brazil; 315 
Buenos Aires ; 424 Paris. 



IX. AIR CRAFT 

The gasoline engine has taken transportation into the air and we are 
seeing the organization and development of air craft of various kinds. 
There can be no more interesting study than to trace the growth of 
the methods of transportation. Our ancestors carried their burdens on 
their backs or heads ; their children used pack and draft animals ; we 
employ waterways, railroads, electric railways, automobiles, and aero- 
planes. Nor is the end yet. Our descendants will doubtless greatly 
improve upon our means of transportation. 

394 Zeppelin flying over a German town. 

426 Aeroplane on scout duty with French troops. 



5. MARKETS AND MARKETING 

COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY 
By J. PAUL GOODE, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR OF GEOGRAPHY, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

A market is primarily a place where merchandise is ex- 
posed for sale. To this place comes the merchant with his 
wares, and the buyers with their wants. The most primitive 
example is the peddler with his pack, offering his goods for 
sale. Usually the market is located at a fixed place, like the 
town square or the temple grounds, and often is limited to a 
fixed day. Such primitive markets, where the producer sells 
direct to the consumer, are in evidence all the world round, 
even in the largest cities, where fruit or garden truck, or fish 
or flowers are on sale. 

With the development of modern transportation, such mar- 
kets tend to disappear, but some very old markets, like that at 
Nizhni Novgorod, are flourishing at the present day. 

An extension of the market idea has come into common 
use, where a locality or country is spoken of as a market for 
given supplies, for example when we say the corn belt is a 
market for labor-saving farm machinery, or China is a market 
for American cottons. 

The following stereographs will serve to illustrate various 
phases of markets and marketing. 

I. THE PRIMITIVE MARKET 

In the primitive market the producer meets the buyer, as on the city 
square. The wares are laid out on the ground, to be inspected and 
haggled for by the purchaser. 

572 The native market at Port Florence, Victoria Nyanza, Africa. 
555 The market place at Tangier, Morocco. 

387 Market place in the Cathedral square, Nuremberg, Germany. All 
over the world the market place has most frequently been in the 
87 



88 GEOGRAPHY — MARKETS AND MARKETING 

church or temple grounds, and when only occasional market 
times have been the rule, church days have been chosen. 

429 The cathedral and market, Marseilles, France. 

393 The market square, Cologne, Germany. 

7 Quincy Market, for fruit and truck, Boston, Massachusetts. 

447 Grindelwald on market-day, Switzerland. 

109 Old slave market, St. Augustine, Florida, reminding us of the 
days, not so long ago, when men and women were the com- 
modities to be bought and sold. 

484 The great bell market at the Fair, Nizhni Novgorod. This is an 

annual market, where the caravan trade of all Asia brings its 

wares to Western buyers. It is something like a world fair, 

with grounds set aside for the purpose, and now with many 

permanent buildings. 
339 Distributing milk, in the streets of La Guayra, Venezuela. A 

primitive market method of bringing the commodity to the 

buyer. 
487 Milk maids delivering milk, Kiev, Russia. 

396 Dogs and women bringing milk to market, Antwerp, Belgium. 
341 The city baker, selling his wares, Caracas, Venezuela. 
543 Charcoal peddlers, Korea. The charcoal may be carried from the 

mountain side many miles to the town, to be peddled to the 

consumer. 
378 Irish boys peddling peat on the streets of Killarney, Ireland. 

485 Market day, in the Jewish quarter of Warsaw, Poland. 
466 Market place, Serajevo, Bosnia. 

469 Market place in Rustchuk, Bulgaria. 

473 Market place at Stamboul (Constantinople). 

438 Cart loads of Malaga -grapes going to market at Almeria, Spain. 

395 In the vegetable market, Brussels, Belgium. An example of a 

specialized market. 
423 Flower market on St. Michael's Bridge, Paris, France. A market 

in one special commodity. 
481 A fish market on the quay in a Finland town. Fish is usually 

handled in a market devoted to sea food only. 



II. GREAT MARKET CENTERS 

Here extensive buying and selling are carried on, and goods ac- 
cumulated for the supply of wide tributary regions. The heart of 
every large city is developed as a market center, with extensive store 
buildings devoted to the accumulation and sale of a great variety of 
products. As a rule, transportation advantages play an important part 
in the growth of such cities, and usually a harbor and a navigable water- 
way into the hinterland, are of prime importance. In considerable meas- 
ure the population of such cities is made up of people who make their 
living in the manufacture, or purchase and sale, or transportation and 
warehousing of the goods handled in the market. 



GREAT MARKET CENTERS 89 

351 The Bank of England. For over a century the buildings seen here 
have been the financial market center of the world. The money- 
market is the most specialized and most highly developed of all 
markets. 

29 Wall Street, New York City. The central money market of the 

New World, and since the Great War began, the market center 
of the world's finance. 
26 Waterfront of New York City. Most of the world's great cities 
are on navigable water, and good harbors have had much to do 
in making them great. The harbor of New York is crowded 
with ships from all the world. Congestion of business at this 
spot calls for the many great buildings. 

30 Up Broadway from Bowling Green, New York. A canyon be- 

tween lofty buildings, one of the greatest market streets in the 

world. 
267 The wharves at Montreal, the leading market town of Canada. 
48 Mouth of the Erie Canal at Buffalo, New York. The Great 

Lakes and Erie Canal make Buffalo a market center of large 

and growing importance. 
61 Pittsburgh, where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers unite 

to form the Ohio River. Good transportation and the presence 

of rich deposits of coal have made this place the steel market of 

the world. 
139 State Street, Chicago. The largest retail shopping district in 

America. One store on this street occupies an entire block, is 

sixteen stories above the street and three stories below, and does 

a larger business than all the merchants in the largest city on 

earth could do a century ago. 
167 Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis. The business street in the mar- 
ket section of the city. 
230 Market Street, San Francisco, the shopping center of the western 

metropolis. 
327 Busy scene on the wharf of Valparaiso, the leading market town 

of Chile. 
315 Government buildings as seen from the Bourse, Buenos Aires, the 

financial market center of the Argentine. 
305 Rio Branco Avenue, in the business center of Rio de Janeiro, the 

chief market town of Brazil. 

347 Landing stage at Liverpool. With a range of 31 feet of tide, 

a great floating dock is provided as a landing stage. Liver- 
pool is the world's market center for cotton and for 
wheat. 

381 Royal Avenue, the chief market street of Belfast, Ireland. 

365 Princes Street, Edinburgh, Scotland. The principal market street 
of the Scotch capital. 

348 London Bridge. The upstream end of the Thames harbor, the 

heart of the market section of the city. 
420 The wharves of Goteborg, a lively market town of Sweden. 
416 Vassa Bridge, in the heart of busy Stockholm. 



90 GEOGRAPHY — MARKETS AND MARKETING 

386 Hamburg. The leading market city of Germany, head of ocean 
navigation on the Elbe. 

400 The docks of Rotterdam, one of the world's great markets. 

421 View of Paris from the Arch of Triumph. Paris is one of the 
world's great central markets, headquarters for fashion in the 
finest wearing apparel. 

433 Harbor of Barcelona, the most active market center of Spain. 

457 Grand Canal, Venice, one of Italy's most important market towns. 
For a thousand years Venice was the leading market of the en- 
tire Mediterranean. 

462 Barge landing on Danube Canal, in the heart of Vienna, the great 

central market of Austria. 

463 View on the Graben, a busy shopping district of Vienna. 

464 Andrassy Street in the market center of Budapest, Hungary. 
486 The Krestchatik, the principal market street of Kiev, Russia. 
526 View in Tokyo, Japan, the largest city, and a great merchandising 

center of Japan. 

513 Queen's Road, the leading business street of Hong Kong, the 

market center of South China. 

514 Scene in the native quarter. Homes of the boatmen who handle 

the freight in the market of Hong Kong. 
546 View in Pasig River, Manila. These boats, called " cascos," are 

the homes of boatmen who make their living handling the 

freight in the great market port of Manila. 
511 The harbor of Colombo, Ceylon. A port of call for the south 

Asian trade, and a great trans-shipment market. 
501 The temple grounds at Benares, India. Visited by many thou- 
sands of pilgrims, and an important local, native market. 
492 View of Beirut, Syria, the most important market town of Asia 

Minor. 
558 View over Alexandria, in the delta of the Nile, the leading market 

city of Egypt. 

III. PRODUCTION CENTERS 

For various reasons, certain localities have become centers where 
raw materials or manufactured commodities are handled in such 
large quantities as to establish a claim to importance as a world mar- 
ket. Some cities come to buy and sell certain commodities so exten- 
sively as to become the price making centers for the whole world. 
Thus London for many years has been the world market for wool, 
tea, ivory, diamonds, and money; Liverpool for wheat and cotton; 
New York for coffee and of late for money; Giicago for meats, and 
so on. The following stereographs will help to an understanding of 
the tremendous concentration of interests represented in great city 
markets. 

140 Union Stock Yards, Chicago. The concentration of railways at 
Chicago has focused the " Corn Belt " and the Great Plains into 



PRODUCTION CENTERS 91 

the largest live stock market on earth. The value of the pack- 
ing house product is over a million dollars a day for every 
day in the year. 

143 Trimming hams in preparation for the market. Chicago packing 

houses. 

144 Making sausages. Meat thus prepared is sold at the ends of the 

earth. Chicago is the world market for provisions. 
317 Cattle on range near La Plata, Argentina. So many cattle are 
raised on the farms and ranges of Argentina that Buenos Aires 
is becoming a very great market center for packing house 
products. 
159 Dairy cattle and barns, Lake Mills, Wisconsin. The region west 
and north of Chicago has come to be the dairy center of the 
country. 

45 Working 1000 pounds of freshly churned butter. Elgin, Illinois 
is the butter market of America. 

57 Milking scene, New Jersey. The milk industry is extensively 
developed near all large cities in temperate lands. In our 
country the greatest development is near New York, and Chi- 
cago. 
240 Pigeon farm at Los Angeles, the primary squab market of the 
whole country. 

56 White Leghorn hens. Corning Egg Farm, New Jersey. There is 
so large a demand for eggs in our great cities, that special 
poultry farms are established to furnish the supply. 

13 Drying codfish in the sun ; Gloucester, Massachusetts, is the lead- 
ing primary fish market of America. 

226 Salmon: The finest haul of the season on the Columbia River. 

The salmon run up the glacier fed rivers to spawn. This 
makes the Puget Sound region the primary market for the 
world's salmon. 

227 Butchering salmon. Astoria. 
97 A mountain of oyster shells. 

86 " Shucking " oysters. Chesapeake Bay is the largest oyster pro- 
ducing water on earth, and Baltimore is the primary oyster 
market. 

531 Drying sardines on the beach, Beppu, Japan. Fully one-half the 
food of the people of Japan comes from the waters, and the 
shallow waters are the largest producers. So great fish mar- 
kets are established in Yokahama, Beppu, Kobe and other such 
ports. 

Ill Sponge market, Key West Harbor. The shallow waters on the 
west shore of Florida are the largest sponge producers in our 
country, and Key West is the primary market. 

521 Store of rich tea merchant, Chifu. For centuries China has been 
the leading tea producer in the world, and Chifu, Shantung, 
Amoy and Canton have developed as large tea markets. 

302 Coffee pickers, Guadeloupe, W. I. Many tropical lands produce 
coffee, but the price is set in the largest buying market, which 



92 GEOGRAPHY — MARKETS AND MARKETING 

has been in turn, London, Le Havre, Hamburg, and is now 
New York. 

310 Drying coffee in the sun, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. This region 
produces about three-fourths of the world's coffee, and Santos 
and Rio de Janeiro are the leading primary markets. 

319 Vineyards near Mendoza. Soil and climate here favor the grape, 
and Spanish and Italian immigrants have brought their vines 
and skill with them, making Mendoza, in the Argentine Repub- 
lic, a large grape and wine market. 

236 Tokay grapes, at Acampo, California. The grape thrives so well 

all over California that the State furnishes the lion's share of 
fresh fruit, raisins and wine for the whole country. 

390 Vineyards at Rudesheim, Germany. The river valleys of Europe 
from south Germany to the Mediterranean furnish soil and 
climate adapted to the grape, and local primary wine markets 
have developed over the grape region. Such markets are 
Bordeaux, France, Oporto, Portugal, and Xerez, Spain. 

149 Harvesting celery, Kalamazoo, Michigan. A cool climate and peat 
soils, such as a drained marsh or old lake bottom, invite the 
growth of celery. Kalamazoo is so favored as to become the 
leading primary celery market in America. 

237 Navel orange groves, San Gabriel Valley, California. This most 

favored state leads the country in production of citrus fruits as 

well as grapes. 
112 Tobacco field in Kentucky. Soil and climate conspire to make 

Kentucky the leading tobacco state, and Louisville the leading 

primary tobacco market. 
42 Solar evaporation of brine for sale at Syracuse, New York — the 

leading primary salt market of the country. 
153 Packing salt into barrels, St. Clair, Michigan. The salt deposits 

around Bay City, Michigan, have made that place the market 

second in importance for salt in America. 
258 Cutting Sugar Cane, Porto Rico. Sugar of tropical origin has 

furnished the most of the American supply. For this reason 

the chief importing city, New York, has become our chief sugar 

market. 

34 Conveyor .with trays of loaf sugar. Because of being great ship- 

ping centers, Philadelphia and Brooklyn have become the largest 
refiners of sugar, and New York the chief sugar market of the 
New World. 

35 Filling and sewing bags of granulated sugar. 

294 Harvesting bananas, Costa Rica, Central America. The various 
lowlands adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico and the Western 
Caribbean Sea are so well adapted to banana culture that the 
American demands for this fruit has made New Orleans the 
leading banana market of the world. 

289 Henequen, a century plant, whose leaves produce the hard fiber 
known as Sisal. This is the twine most used for binding grain, 
the world over. The world market for it is in Chicago, the 



PRODUCTION CENTERS 93 

headquarters for the manufacture of reapers and other farm 
machinery. 

552 Stripping the leaf stalks of Manila hemp (abaca, native name) 

from which the best rope making fiber is made. It is grown 
only in the Philippines, and Cebu is the chief world market. 

553 Making rope from Manila hemp fiber at Manila. Manila hemp 

fiber is the best known material for cordage. The world's 
largest buying market has been London, but is likely to shift 
to U. S. A. 

506 Spinning and weaving woolen shawls, at Srinagar, Kashmir, India. 
The pastoral people from northern India to the Hellespont have 
marvelous skill in the making of shawls and rugs. Important 
local markets have developed at many points. 
40 Folding and ironing linen collars, Troy, New York. Troy is the 
chief linen collar market of America. 

538 Feeding mulberry leaves to the silk worms, Japan. Nearly one- 
half of all the farmers in Japan rear silk worms, and Japan fur- 
nishes over one-third of all the world's export silk. Yokohama 
is the leading primary silk market. 

541 Interior of a silk weaving mill, Japan. The cities of Kyoto and 
Osaka are important markets for manufactured silk. 
22 Weighing and sorting skeins of raw silk. The U. S. A. is the 
largest buyer of raw silk in the world, and New York is the 
buying market. 
54 Weaving room, Paterson, New Jersey. Most of the silk of 
America is manufactured in Paterson or other towns near the 
central market of New York. 

239 Ostriches on the Cawston farm near Los Angeles, California. 
Southern California and Arizona have the hot and arid condi- 
tions to which the ostrich is adapted, and local markets for os- 
trich plumes are developing there. 
21 Manufacturing jewelry, Providence, Rhode Island. Providence 
has become the great center for jewelry manufacture and sale 
in America. 

117 Picking cotton. Nearly two-thirds of the world's cotton is pro- 
duced in the humid lowlands of our southeastern states. 

119 Cotton bales on the levee, New Orleans. Great primary cotton 
markets have developed in Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, Mem- 
phis, Galveston and New Orleans. 
14 Cotton spinning mill at Lawrence, Massachusetts. One-half of 
all the American manufacture of cotton is in New England, and 
a number of market cities for cottons have grown*up there, as at 
Lawrence, Fall River, and Boston. 

272 Scraping the hair from hides, Canada. The leather industry has 
developed in places where hides are easily obtained, and where 
tanning material is plenty. So the oak and hemlock forests in 
Canada and the U. S. A. have developed the leather industry 
and centers like Boston and Philadelphia have become great 
leather markets. 



94 GEOGRAPHY— MARKETS AND MARKETING 

11 Cutting leather for high quality shoes. Lynn and Brockton, 

Massachusetts, are shoe markets for a world trade. 
41 Sewing room in a shoe factory, Syracuse, New York. 

532 A Japanese shoe shop. Shoes or clogs in Japan are made of 
wood, and made by hand. So each town has its own market for 
shoes. 

131 Crude rubber as it comes from the jungles, or plantations. Para 
is the chief primary market for wild rubber. Singapore and 
Colombo are rivals for the primary market for plantation rub- 
ber. London has been for many years the world's central mar- 
ket, but New York now takes first rank. _ . 

133 Making rubber boots and shoes at Akron, the manufacturing mar- 
ket of America. 
17 Sorting wool, Lawrence, Massachusetts. The manufacture of 
wool has been so well developed in southeastern New England 
that Boston is the chief wool market in America. 
81 The bobbin room in a Philadelphia mill. Philadelphia is next to 
Boston the greatest wool market, and is the leading carpet mar- 
ket of the country. 

224 The Puget Sound and western Oregon regions have the best cli- 
matic conditions for forest growth, as shown by this great fir 
tree. 

216 Port Blakeley Mills, near Seattle. Because of the rich forests 

great mills are developed, and the Puget Sound region comes 
to be the greatest lumber market in the world. 

217 Shipping lumber, Washington, U. S. A. Much of the lumber 

for foreign trade goes from this market by sailing vessels. 
215 Log rafts. Much of the lumber for the coast trade is towed in 

great rafts. 
509 " Elephants a haulin' teak, in the slushy squdgy creek." Burma is 

the world's chief market supplying teak, and the elephant is the 

best lumber jack. 
412 Grinding billets of wood into pulp for paper. The most of the 

world's paper now is made from wood pulp, hence the primary 

paper markets are in the forest lands, Norway, Canada, and the 

northern states of America. 

19 Cut rags, for paper. The best paper is made from linen rags, and 

Holyoke, Massachusetts, is the chief manufacturing market. 

20 Inspecting paper, Holyoke, Massachusetts. 

297 Cutting tobacco. The best tobacco in the world is produced in 
western Cuba, and Havana is the market for it. 

325 Sacking nitrate, Chile. The world's primary nitrate market. 

573 Shipping ivory, Mombasa, Africa. The world's supply of ivory 
comes largely from central East Africa, and Mombasa is the 
primary market. The world market is at London. 

58 Firing table ware, Trenton, New Jersey, and East Liverpool, Ohio, 

are the leading pottery markets of the new world. 

59 Decorating porcelain ware, Trenton, New Jersey. 

79 Coal breaker in the anthracite region, eastern Pennsylvania. The 



REGIONS WITH LARGE DEMAND 95 

anthracite fields cover but 480 square miles, but furnish almost 
one-quarter of all American coal. 

129 Shipping coal, at Conneaut, Ohio. The region of eastern Ohio 
and western Pennsylvania and West Virginia furnishes about 
one-half of all the American coal. Pittsburgh is the chief 
bituminous coal center. Much coal is shipped westward from 
the Great Lakes ports. 

128 Unloading iron ore from a Lake Superior boat at Conneaut, Ohio. 
Most of the iron ore in America comes from the Lake Superior 
basis, and travels by boat to meet the coal and coke of the 
northern Appalachian fields. This provides for an important 
series of markets in iron and steel from Detroit round the 
south shore of Lake Erie to Buffalo. 
62 A blast furnace at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Because of the rich 
deposits of coking coal in the vicinity, and the supply of iron ore 
from Lake Superior, Pittsburgh has become the greatest iron 
market in the world. 
65 Filling molds with steel, Pittsburgh. For reasons above given 

Pittsburgh is the greatest steel market on earth. 
82 General view of the erecting shop of the Baldwin locomotive 
works, Philadelphia. Because of the splendid development of 
the Baldwin Company, Philadelphia sells more locomotives than 
any other city in the New World. 

150 Assembling Room in a Detroit automobile factory. Detroit is the 
world's leading automobile market. 



IV. REGIONS WITH A LARGE DEMAND 

Certain regions are spoken of as markets for a given article. 
Thus America is spoken of as a good market for diamonds ; the great 
prairie plains as a market for farming machinery; the populous orient 
as a great market for cotton cloths, and so on. There is endless op- 
portunity for illustration here, and only a few of the many possible 
illustrations are suggested below. 

203 Stamp, mill and gold concentrator, Ouray, Colorado. We think 
of the mining regions as great markets for rock drilling, crush- 
ing and milling machinery. 

334 Silver smelter, Cerro de Pasco, Peru. The countries along the 
Andes Mountains are all good markets for mining machinery. 

252 Gatun Locks, Panama Canal. While the great locks were build- 
ing, the Panama Canal was a good market for Portland cement, 
and for excavating machinery. 

407 The Lotefos, famous Norwegian waterfall. Because of her many 
waterfalls, Norway is a fine market for hydraulic and elec- 
trical machinery. 

178 Plowing with a tractor, South Dakota. The great plains, smooth 
and fertile, invite the use of labor-saving farming machinery. 



96 GEOGRAPHY — MARKETS AND MARKETING 

561 Tilling the soil in Egypt, as it was done in the days of Moses. 

Egypt is looked upon as a promising market for labor-saving 
farming machinery. 

179 Tractor drawing double disc-harrow, and three-section tooth- 
harrows. South Dakota. 

181 Handling alfalfa hay with hay loader, Nebraska. All our great 
lowland farming area is a boundless market for farming ma- 
chinery. 

136 Harvesting corn with a cutter and binder, Indiana. 

177 Threshing wheat, Red River Valley. All our wheat lands are 
good markets for harvesting and threshing machinery, Fargo, 
North Dakota, is a great market for farm machinery. 

284 Ancient method of threshing in Mexico, a promising market for 
American machinery. 

479 Treading out the grain, Greece — A market opportunity for 
American machinery. 

497 The threshing floor, Nazareth, Palestine. Another market op- 

portunity for American machinery. 

562 Threshing beans, Egypt — a potential market for American ma- 

chinery. 

498 Native women grinding wheat, Palestine — a market for better 

devices. 

431 Washing clothes, Nice, France. A possible market for electric 
washing machines. 

519 A Chinese crowd looking at the camera. It suggests an endless 
market for American cotton cloths. 

503 Mohammedan crowd before the Jumma Mosque, Delhi, India. A 
great market for cotton clothing. 

523 Chinese sawing lumber with pit saws. A market opening for 
modern saw mill machinery. 

330 Cofa Bridge on the Oroyo Railway, Peru. The need of railways 
in South America makes a great market for American, steel rails, 
locomotives and rolling stock. 

518 Conveying salt by wheelbarrow, China. There is a great awaken- 
ing in China and a demand for railways — a great market for 
American manufactures. 

516 A stone road roller pulled by human muscle, Nankin, China — 

. a market for modern steam rollers. 
28 Great buildings seen from City Hall Park, New York City. Large 
cities are great markets for structural steel, building stones and 
cement. 
87 The Capitol at Washington, D. C. The making of such beautiful 
monuments creates a market for marble and other fine build- 
ing stones. 



6. NATURAL FORMS AND FORCES 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 
By WALLACE W. ATWOOD 

PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOGRAPHY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

The use of the stereograph is nearly as good as direct per- 
sonal observation in the field. In many cases the views se- 
cured by the photographer are better than one might happen 
upon while in the same region. The views here listed have 
been taken with great care, and selected as the best of many 
thousands. 

The teacher of geography always aims to give the general 
physical features of the region that is being studied, and a sys- 
tematic use of these views will help greatly in giving definite 
and accurate images. The classification following is in ac- 
cordance with the best text-books, and should prove convenient 
to the teacher. 

In studying an individual view the student should have in 
mind several questions, namely: 

(1) What does this view best illustrate? 

(2) Are the land forms of solid rock or loose material? 

(3) What may be the origin of the loose material? 

(4) What special land forms are shown here? 

(5) How may these be best described? 

(6) What places have I myself ever seen that are like this one? 

(7) How have the physical features affected the settlement and 
the activities of the people in this region ? 

(8) Is there anything in the view that I do not understand and 
must ask the teacher? 

A full course for children in the study of geography might 
easily be framed about this series of 600 views. The lesson 
growing out of a single picture may often lead to a real and 
vital interest in a foreign land and a foreign people. When 
once accustomed to using these views the teacher will find that 
they facilitate the giving of a strong and effective lesson. 

97 



98 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

They raise problems in the child's mind, and call for original 
thought, thus vitalizing the work. 

I. FORCES WHICH CHANGE THE SURFACE OF 
THE EARTH — WEATHERING — EROSION 

During past ages the surface of the earth has been changed by va- 
rious natural forces, including the atmosphere, ground water, surface 
water, freezing and thawing, snow and ice in the form of glaciers, and 
internal forces such as heat and pressure, and organic agencies in- 
cluding man. These forces have produced the various natural fea- 
tures of the earth's surface which include mountains, hills, volcanoes, 
lakes, rivers with their shores and banks, oceans and islands, capes and 
peninsulas. 

A. ATMOSPHERE 
i. Wind 

The action of wind is brought about because of the dust and sand 
which it carries. 

166 The wind will raise the dust. 
178, 179 A source of dust. 
68 Coke ovens produce dust. 
300 Dust coming out in clouds. 

563,565,209,211 When the wind blows the sand flies. 
223 The wind will pile up sand as it does snow. 
477 Old Grecian city buried by action of wind. 
565, 567 These faces have been worn by wind driven sand. 

2. Chemical Elements 

These include oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. 

27, 379 The cables which suspend the bridge are painted to prevent 

rust. 
43 The steel rails will rust away. 
253 These steel boats are always painted to prevent rust. 
9, 10 Houses and fences painted to prevent weathering. 
37 The shingles treated with creosote to prevent decay. 
113 The weather has cracked the old logs. 
10 Weathering will gradually dim these words. 

36 The lettering on these tombstones is nearly worn away by wind 
and rain. 

3. Temperature 

The freezing of water in the crevices of rocks breaks them in pieces. 
330 The mountain is being broken to pieces. 
51 Frost and rain are breaking off the rocks. 

200 The pillars become roughened by wind and rain. 

201 The soft materials have been loosened and washed away. 
207 The hard parts are the least affected by weather. 



UNDERGROUND WATER 99 

4. Fantastic Features Due to Weathering 

197 The huge piles of rocks stand like sentinels. 

200 A gateway to the fields beyond. 

201 Spires reaching towards the heavens. 

205 Nature has furnished a roof for a whole village. 

5. Talus 

207, 208, 323 Show talus piles or cones as result of weathering. 

6. Sand Dunes 

223 Sand dunes, the work of winds. 

B. UNDERGROUND WATER 

This is the water which has run down into the soil and is not seen 
on the surface. 

1. Sources 
These are rain and snow. 
1, 162, 542 The melting snow will sink into the ground. 

2. Conditions for Producing Underground Water 

104, 105 Water flows slowly here and sinks in quickly. 
83, 178, 179, 419 Water will readily enter these soils. 
38, 70, 224 Forests aid in forming ground water by holding rain until 

it can soak into the ground. 
72, 173 Sod holds rain until it soaks into the soil. 

3. Disposal of Ground Water 

1, 169, 173, 195 Small streams get considerable of their flow from 

springs. 
192,193 Hot springs — this water is too hot for animals or plants to 

live in. 
194 Geysers — every hour a million and a half gallons shoot up. 
161 Getting rid of too much ground water. 

4. The Work of Ground Water 

193 The heated water brings minerals from the depths. 
192 Deposits left in form of basins. 

206 A petrified tree which lived ages ago. Underground water grad- 

ually took away the wood and left in its place particles of quartz. 
38 Underground water dampens the roots of plants and makes them 
grow. 

C. RUNNING OR SURFACE WATER 

1. Source 

Running water comes from rain, snow, ground water, ponds, lakes 
and glaciers. 
191 The stream in the valley is being fed by the snow, 



100 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

542 Melting snow often forms streams. 

195 Snow melting to form the ponds and streams — the beginnings of 

rivers. 
154 Water from Lake Superior. 
264, 265 Water from the Great Lakes. 
322 The beginning of a river in this glacial lake. 
276 The stream begins where the glacier ends. 
408 The source of the stream is the distant glacier. 
448 Streams begin in these valleys. 

2. The Work of Running Water 

Erosion 

576 Some rocks are broken sooner than others. 
244 The loose soil is making a gradual slope. 
341 A recent rain has hollowed the street. 

49, 50 The rushing water wears off the edge of the hard rock. 
318 Continual pounding of the water breaks the rocks. 

407 Plunging down a mountain, water deepens its path. 

197 Nearly one-third of a mile deep has the water worn this gorge. 

363 The tiny brook wears a deep path. 

206 Formerly covered with soil. 

207, 208 Broad and deep the channel has been made. 

Depositing 

509 The slow stream deposits its load. 
467 A winding river will fill in its curves. 

408 Fertile soil washed down from the mountains. 

120 At their mouths rivers may deposit their soil in the form of deltas. 



D. SNOW AND ICE 

i. Valley Glaciers 

276, 279 A bank of snow begins a glacier. 

448. 427 Snow the year around is needed for glacial formation. 

275 Layers of snow changing to ice. 

446 Natural home of the valley glacier. 

428 The great sea of ice — crevices by the hundred. 

408 The distant valley filled with a glacier. 

219, 274 These crevices are often 100 ft. or more deep and are due 

to an unequal surface over which a glacier moves or to different 

rates of movements. 
361 The valley has smooth curves as the result of glacial action. 
274, 428 These stones and soil were torn from the mountains. 
276, 408 Glaciers in melting produce streams. 
361, 369, 377, 459 Glacial lakes surrounded by hills. 






ICE FIELDS — HEAT AND PRESSURE 101 

2. Ice Fields and Continental Glaciers 

A. Conditions of Formation 
345, 346 Fields of ice about the poles. 

344 A real field of snow and ice. 

342, 343 Near where the ice fields begin. 

B. The Work of Ice Fields 
38, 379 No sharp ridges in this glaciated area. 

361 A hollow where a glacial lake was formed. 

47 Soils for gardens have been left by glaciers. 
137, 147 The fertile fields of Indiana and Illinois were made largely of 

glacial drift. 
159 Wisconsin's famous herds feed where the glacier once existed. 
161 Some glacial lands need to be drained. 
361, 369, 377 Glacial lakes often have sloping shores. 

73 Small hills showing glacial action. 
262 The rolling landscape formerly covered with a continental glacier. 

C. The Effects of Glaciation on Human Affairs 
137, 147 Fields of grain on soil of glacial origin. 
159 Dairying on glacial lands. 

47 Glacial soils are productive. 

357 tolling fields of grain in glaciated region. 

48 154 The Great Lakes, of glacial origin, are important waterways. 

E. HEAT AND PRESSURE 

i. Sinking of the Earth's Crust 

Internal heat and pressure helps to change the earth's surface. 
256 The distant islands were once hills. 
39 The sinking of the land drowned this valley. 

2. Raising of the Earth's Crust 

A. Mountains 
102, 322, 323, 408, 460, 508 Mountains are usually formed by elevation of 

the land. 
330 Irregularity in strata is due to internal forces. 

B. Volcanic Action 
222, 291, 300, 525, 548 Volcanic action sometimes forms mountains. 

3. Earthquakes 

231 An earthquake has cracked the soil. 

526 Houses are low so as to withstand the earthquakes. 

F. ORGANIC AGENCIES . 
284 Vegetation is tearing down the mound of stone. 



102 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

111 The land here is built of skeletons of corals. 

3, 4 Man is changing the face of nature. 
74, 250, 251 Man digs great valleys. 
163 The big steam shovels make big holes. 

II. NATURAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH'S 
SURFACE 

A. RIVERS AND VALLEYS 

i. Young Rivers 

Young rivers flow rapidly, have steep banks, and cut deep channels. 

195 The very beginnings of two rivers. 

228 The river has hardly found its path. 

363 The small stream wears a deep path. 

49, 50 The water flows rapidly by. 

407 Young rivers and young mountains are often companions. 

207, 208 Digging for ages but still young. 

2. Mature Rivers 

These are rivers with a moderate current, sloping banks, and usually 
a straight course. 

39 The stream flows slowly. 

580 Such rivers are often shallow. 

392 Here the Rhine is broad and calm. 

391 Mature rivers are often great waterways for commerce. 

170, 174 Across the smooth Mississippi. 

101 Where two rivers peacefully meet. 

3. Old Rivers 

Old rivers flow slowly, often in winding courses. 

509 Low banks are characteristic of old rivers. 

106 Boats are usually common on such streams. 

517 The broad slow-moving stream of China. 

470 A famous bridge over the wide Danube. 

467 The river in its winding course. 

4. Drowned Rivers 

These are rivers in which the bed has sunken so that the water is 
deep, often forming estuaries at the mouth. 
39, 51 Deep enough for the largest ships. 
100 Battleships find plenty of room here. 
264 The largest ocean liners travel in this river. 

B. LAKES 
A lake is an inland body of water. 



LAKES — COAST FORMS 103 

i. Some Lakes of Glacial Origin 

361 England; 369 Scotland; 377 Ireland; 459 Italy; 48, 154 the Great 
Lakes of America. 

2. Lakes of Non-glacial Origin 

222 The top of the mountain sunken, the peak an island. 
212 A city built on an ancient lake floor. 

3. Effects of Lakes on Human Affairs 

48 Grain from the west in these boats. 

128, 129 Coal and iron are shipped by boat on the lakes. 

154 Ship loads of produce from the west. 

157 Copper is carried on the Great Lakes. 

C. COAST FORMS 

1. Beaches 

A beach may sometimes be defined as the sand or gravel along the 
sea-shore between high and low tide. 

60 Bathing along the beach is very popular. 
430, 439 Sandy beaches are good landing places for small boats. 
432 Beaches may be rocky or sandy. 

13, 531 The beach is a good place to dry fish. 

2. Coastal Lowlands 

401 Nearly as level as the sea and not much higher. 

248 A low plain below the hill. 

531 A flat country with mountains in the distance. 

3. Drowned Coasts 

The land along the coast sometimes sinks. 
382 The small islands growing smaller yearly. 
374 The sinking of the land often makes harbors. 
307 The distant harbor was once a valley. 
299, 277 Deep water is characteristic of such harbors. 

4. Sea Cliffs 

Some seashores are very rocky. 
439 A steep sided rock standing in the water. 
432 A sudden drop from the castle to the sea. 

5. Capes 

A cape is a portion of land projecting into the sea. 
414 The mountain projects to form the cape. Such a high mountain- 
ous cape is called a promontory. 
248 Reaching out toward the ocean. 



104 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

6. Peninsulas 

A peninsula is a body of land almost surrounded by water. 
432 The Castle of Monaco is built on a small peninsula. 
256 The wireless tower is on the peninsula. 
248 The lower part of the city is built on a peninsula. 

7. Isthmus 

An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger portions 
of land. 

432 Only room for a narrow road on the isthmus to the castle on the 
peninsula. 

8. Harbors 

Harbors are indentations in the coast, often at the mouth of rivers, in 
which boats may anchor. 

591 The city is built near the harbor. 

556 Railroads and steamships meet at the harbors. 

511, 52 Ocean liners and harbor boats. 

25, 26, 27 One of the busiest harbors in the world. 

374 A big harbor well protected from gales. 

313 Harbors are made deeper by dredging. 

499, 574 Poor harbors. 

492 An old commercial city on the Mediterranean. 

489 Several cities along the banks. 

278 A fisherman's harbor near the greatest of fishing places. 

307 One of the best harbors in the world. 

430, 217, 257, 277, 280, 299, 304, 314 Other harbors. 

9. Bays 

A bay is a body of water partly surrounded by land. 
248 This breakwater is built out into the bay to form a harbor. 
492 The bay at Beyrout. 
527 Mississippi Bay, Japan. 

10. Straits 
A strait is a narrow portion of water connecting two bodies of water. 
489 The waterway connecting the Black and Mediterranean Seas. 
439 Entrance to the Mediterranean. 



D. ISLANDS 

An island is a portion of land, smaller than a continent, entirely sur- 
rounded by water. 



ROCKY ISLANDS — PLAINS 105 

i. Flat Islands 

25 The islands in New York harbor are not much higher than the 

water. 
99 Barely out of the sea. 
401 An island of Holland. 

2. Rocky Islands 

369 Ellen's Island in Loch Katrine. 

256 At the entrance to the Panama Canal. 

382 Small rocky islands near Ireland. 

E. PLAINS 
i. Coastal Plains 

These are plains near the sea coast made by uplifting the ocean bed. 
108 This was formerly the bed of the ocean. 
122 Oil is frequently found near the sea. 
105 Along the coast are miles of plains. 
104 Level fields with water are needed for rice culture. 
289 Coastal plains are often of sandy soil. 
399 Land so low that the sea is held by a wall. 

2. River Flood Plains 

Some of the most fertile fields are found in the broad valleys of rivers. 
136, 233 River flood plains of the U. S. 
317, 321, 332, 333 River flood plains of South America. 
408, 419, 467 River flood plains of Europe. 
509, 515, 518, 529, 549 River flood plains of Asia. 
561, 564, 580 River flood plains of Africa. 

3. Compound Alluvial Plains 

Several rivers help to make this type of plain. 

237 Fertile lands are in the valleys. 

467 Two rivers uniting form large plains. 

4. Delta Plains 

These have been formed by continued deposit of alluvial soil at the 
mouth of rivers. 

120 This land has been gradually deposited by the Mississippi. 
500 The Ganges carries and deposits acres of soil. 
558 A city built on a delta plain. 

5. Lake Plains 

Bottoms of former lakes form alluvial plains. 

47 Fertile soil of a lake plain. 

166 An old lake bottom growing potatoes. 

149 A very fertile soil is required for celery. 

139 A great city built on a reclaimed lake bed. 



106 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

6. Great Western Plains of U. S. 

Formerly covered by a great inland sea. 

181, 183 The Nebraska and Kansas plains are noted for alfalfa. 
186 Cattle grazing on the semi-arid plains of the west. 

198 Sugar beet growing requires fertile level land. 

199 These great plains are often very dry in summer. Good culture 

makes them productive. 

126 A level part of Texas. 

121 A level town in Oklahoma. 

7. Glacial Plains 

These are plains formed by ice fields or glaciers. 

136, 137 The great corn fields of Indiana are glacial plains. 
161 So level that water does not run off readily. 
488 Agriculture on the glacial plains of Russia. 
147 Illinois field of oats on the glacial plains. 

8. Plateaus 

A plateau is a tract of high level land. 

218 Some elevated plains produce good crops. 

190 Some elevated plains are good for grazing only. 

209 Some elevated plains are deserts. 

9. Effects of Plains upon Human Affairs 

85 Picking peaches on a coastal plain. 

105 Rice is grown where the land is flat and wet. 

127 Grazing on the semi-arid plains. 

136, 137, 147 Productive fields on fertile plains. 

140 From the rich plains of the west. 

166 Potatoes require fertile soil. 

F. MOUNTAINS 

1. Young Mountains 

These are characterized by having rough pointed peaks and are be- 
lieved to be of recent origin, geologically considered. 
213 These mountains are being rapidly leveled. 
447, 448 A young mountain with a sharp peak. 
445 Snow will not stay on the steep slopes. 
441 These mountain paths are difficult to climb. 
440 A dangerous road to travel. 
276 Sharp ridges characterize the young mountains. 
427 Time will smooth the roughened peaks. 
323 The slopes are becoming less steep. 
322 The valley is filling with the broken peaks. 
508 Mountains above the clouds. 






OLD MOUNTAINS — HILLS — DIVIDES 107 

2. Old Mountains 

These are characterized by having rounded peaks worn off through 
ages of time. 

102 Mountains rounded like the waves of the sea. 
361 The mountains have been rounded by glaciers and washed into 
the valleys. 

38 At one time mountains, now a rolling landscape. 

39 The round top hills sloping to the river. 

3. Mountain Ranges 

102 This view of the tops of the Blue Ridge shows very clearly the 

idea of a mountain range. 
213 The Wasatch Range rises behind Ogden. 
243 The Coast Range in Alaska was a great barrier to gold seekers. 

4. Mountain System 

All the ranges and highlands that belong to one highland form a sys- 
tem. It is impossible to show a whole system in one- picture. 
508 This picture of a little part of the Himalayas may help you to 
imagine ranges behind ranges, peaks behind peaks extending 
for hundreds of miles. That would give you some idea of a 
mountain system. 

5. Mountain Peaks 

221 Mount Hood, Oregon, in the Cascade Range. 

276 Mount Sir Donald, the Matterhorn of the Selkirk Mountains in 

Canada. 
445, 447 Peaks in the Alps Mountains. 
448 The Matterhorn, Switzerland. 
508 Peaks of the Himalaya Mountains. 

6. Volcanic Mountains 

A volcano is an opening in the earth through which lava and gases 

are expelled. 

300 When the heated matter forces its way out there are tremendous 
explosions. Rocks are blown to dust and thrown miles into 
the air. Great quantities of steam and of broken rock are 
thrown out. The lava or melted rock flows down the side. 

453 Vesuvius. A volcano builds up a cone about the opening. 

221 Mount Hood has been quiet for so long that the cone has become 
weathered. It is cut by many valleys. 

288 Popocatapetl, an active volcano in Mexico. 

291 The twin volcanoes of Guatemala. 

548 Mayon has had many destructive eruptions. 

525 Fuji-Yama, the sacred mountain of Japan. 

7. Divides and Passes 

195 Water from one pond flows into the Atlantic, from the other into 
the Pacific. 



108 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

322, 323 The dividing ridge of S. America. 

243 Between the peaks to the gold fields beyond. 

251 Cutting the mountains in two. 

8. Effects of Mountains on Human Affairs 

287 Mines in Mexico. 

187, 214, 243 Mining in mountains. 

408 Small farms in the mountains. 

411 Dairying in the mountains. 

413 Reindeers are found in the mountainous north lands. 

440, 441, 48 The traveler frequents the mountains. 

287, 187, 214, 243 Mountains are very often rich in minerals. 

408 Small farms in mountains. 

411 Mountaineers often follow dairying. 

440, 441, 48 Travelers delight to climb mountains. 

243 Mountains act as barriers, making communication difficult. 

325 The Andes make the west coast of South America dry and so the 

nitrate remains. Rain would carry it away. 
440 to 459 The Alps shut out the cold winds and make Italy warm. 
499 to 508 The Himalayas cause the rains to fall in India, making 

that land wonderfully warm and fertile. 
440 to 449 Mountain people, such as the Swiss, are usually liberty 

loving people. 
506 They are often backward in their civilization. 
See also classification on Zones. 

9. Mountains of the World 

102, 219, 221, 243, 274, 276 Mountains of N. America. 

322, 323, 326, 330 Mountains of S. America. 

388, 408, 409, 427, 428, 436, 440,441, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 460 

Mountains of Europe. 
508, 525, 531, 548 Mountains of Asia. 

For Zones and Deserts, see classification on Zones. 

10. Hills 

479, 480 Mountains worn down to hills. 

496 Old Palestine with its rolling hills. 

497 Soil from the hill has filled the valley. 
530 Hillside covered with tea plants in Japan. 
262 Forests of Canada in a hilly country. 
127 Low hills may be used for grazing. 

73 Battlefields are often in hilly districts. 

11. Mesas 

These are small plains on the tops of mountains or hills. 
475 The distant Acropolis with a flat top. 



7. ZONES AND THEIR EFFECTS 

ELEVATION OF LAND (ALTITUDE) AND ITS 
EFFECT ON LIFE 

By ROBERT De C. WARD, A.M. 

PROFESSOR OF CLIMATOLOGY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Climate itself cannot be illustrated by means of photographs. 
The effects of climate, however, upon the general appearance 
of a country; upon vegetation, crops, occupations, dwellings, 
etc., may perfectly well be shown in this way. A picture of 
the general climatic conditions is thus obtainable. In the 
following list, those photographs have been selected which fur- 
nish the more obvious illustrations of such climatic controls 
over the earth's surface and its flora, and over man's mode of 
life under the limitations which climate imposes. This broad 
view of climate in relation to man needs emphasis in any 
study of geography.. The basis of the classification is that 
generally adopted by climatologists in their description of the 
climatic zones, and of their subdivisions. The classification 
is therefore based on climate, and the views are not subdivided 
on the basis of political divisions. Views of cities are not 
included unless they have some more or less distinct climatic 
interest. For such general views, reference should be made 
to the Geographical Classification. 

It must be borne in mind that there is usually a gradual 
transition from one climate into another, and for this reason 
many views might equally well be listed under two headings. 
Furthermore, the zones of climate are not separated by any 
rigid boundaries. 



109 



1 10 GEOGRAPHY — ZONES — ALTITUDE 



I. THE CLIMATIC ZONES: THEIR CHARACTER- 
ISTICS AND THEIR PRODUCTS 

A. " THE TROPICS " 

i. The Equatorial Belt 

The dominant characteristic of the equatorial belt, (i.e., the inner 
portion of the tropical zone within about 10° or 12° of the equator) -is 
the prevailingly high and uniform temperature throughout the year, with 
no seasons in our sense, and a generally heavy rainfall, coming normally 
in two rainy and two so-called dry seasons. In some districts, however, 
rain falls throughout the year, and the " dry " seasons are only slightly 
less rainy than the " wet " seasons. These double rainy and dry sea- 
sons are easily modified by other conditions, as by the topography, alti- 
tude, and, as in the Indo-Australian area, by the monsoons. There is 
thus no rigid belt of equatorial rains extending around the world. The 
high temperatures and heavy rainfall produce a superabundance of 
vegetation, unfavorable to human occupation. The population is gen- 
erally sparse, and at a relatively low stage of civilization. The life of 
man as a whole is controlled by the rains. The difficulty of travel and 
transportation, and of clearing the forests, operate to retard the advance 
of civilized man. The hot damp climate is generally unfavorable for 
settlement by people from cooler altitudes. The foreign whites are few 
in number, but are the driving power in the development of these 
equatorial lands. 

572 Natives of equatorial Africa, in typical costume. 
247 Rubber tree, showing scars from cutting, Panama. 

131 Crude rubber, one of the most valuable products of the rainy 
equatorial forests, especially in Brazil. 

570 Peeling bark for bark cloth, equatorial Africa. 

573 Ivory from the African forests, Mombasa. 

294 Bananas, one of the most widespread and valuable food plants of 

the tropics, Costa Rica. 
293 Mangoes, an important food of tropical peoples, especially in the 

East Indies. 

571 Sisal hemp, valuable fibre plant from equatorial Africa. 
255 Maintaining health in the tropics, Panama hospitals. 
249 Village scene, Colon, Isthmus of Panama. 

337 Narrow streets in a tropical city, providing shade during much of 

the day, Baranquilla, Colombia. 

338 Where heating plants are not necessary, La Guaira, Venezuela. 

251 What the intelligence and energy of the northerner have accom- 

plished, Gaillard cut, Panama Canal. 

252 Completed Panama Canal, cut through tropical jungles. 
254 What the Panama Canal has made possible. 



THE TRADE WIND BELTS 111 

2. The Trade Wind Belts 

About one-half of the earth's surface is within the trade wind zone 
for part or all of the year. These belts, therefore, include a considerable 
variety of climates. The seasonal range of temperature is relatively 
small, but is greater than in the equatorial belt. The control over man's 
life and activities is to be found in the rainfall. The windward (east- 
ern) sides of continents or islands in the trade winds are well watered, 
especially if the land is high, while the interiors and leeward (western) 
slopes are dry. Where the trades blow directly on shore the year around 
the rainfall is usually fairly well distributed through all months but 
is heaviest in winter. During the summer, over much of the trade wind 
zone, the migration of the belt of equatorial rains into higher latitudes 
brings a tropical rainy season, whose duration and intensity vary with 
the distance from the equator, and with other controls. Where the 
trade winds blow over continental interiors, far from the ocean and 
also beyond the reach of the migrating belt of equatorial rains, pure 
deserts are found. These deserts may even reach the sea on the lee- 
ward side of a continent, as in western Australia and northwestern and 
southwestern Africa. When high mountains border the western coast, 
as in Peru, the trades are rainy on the eastern side of the ranges, and a 
desert prevails on the leeside. Vegetation in the trade wind zone varies 
closely with the rainfall. . The transition from wet tropical forests, 
through savannas, to the desert marks the transition from abundant, 
through moderate, to deficient rainfall. By reason of their altitude, 
tropical plateaus in the trade wind zone have a more temperate climate 
than the lowlands. Their vegetation and their crops clearly indicate 
this. Man finds in the trade wind belt more favorable conditions for 
work and development than in the perennially hot muggy belt of 
equatorial rains. 

(a) Windward continental lands and tropical islands with generally 

abundant rainfall 
307 The picturesque environs of a city in the southern tropic, Rio de 

Janeiro, Brazil. 
304 A tropical port, Bahia, Brazil. 

257 Harbor scene on an island in the northeast trade winds, San Juan, 

Porto Rico. 

258 Sugar cane, an important crop in moist, warm tropical and semi- 

tropical lowlands, Porto Rico. 
298 A Cuban farm. 

302 Picking coffee in the West Indies, a trade wind zone product. 
295 One of Porto Rico's most important crops, coffee, being unloaded 

at Havana, Cuba. 
297 Cuban tobacco, growing under the shade of banana trees for pro- 
tection against the sun. 

303 Cocoa, a characteristic product of the damp lowlands of tropical 

America, West Africa and the East Indies. 
301 Cattle on the rich grass lands of Jamaica. 



112 GEOGRAPHY — ZOXES — ALTITUDE 

300 A west Indian landscape : Martinique. 

259 Papaya trees growing in the mild tropical climate of the Hawaiian 

Islands. 
592 Natives of the Fiji Islands, in the southeast trade belt. 
291 Scene in Guatemala, Central America. 

(b) Leczi'ard continental lands, with climate often tempered by alti- 
tude, and summer rainfall ranging from deficient or light to abundant 

287 Characteristic vegetation of the semi-arid Mexican plateau. 
282 The bare hills around the cit}' of Mexico. 

288 Irrigated and cultivated fields on the Mexican plateau. 

285 Drawing sap from a Mexican agave, " century plant," to be made 

into the national drink, pulque. 
284 Threshing on the Mexican plateau, where many temperate zone 

cereals can be raised. 
281 Adobe hut a cheap and serviceable building in a land of relatively 

little rainfall. 

289 Henequen, a species of agave, yielding sisal fibre from which bag- 

ging and cordage are made, Yucatan. 

575 The open country of southeastern Africa. Cape to Cairo Rail- 

way, near Victoria Falls. 
580 Fording the shallow Yaal River, in a district of light rainfalls, 
South Africa. 

576 The rushing waters of the Zambezi River, fed by the heavy equa- 

torial rains, Rhodesia, Africa. 

310 Sun-drying coffee during the winter dry season on the Brazilian 

plateau, State of Sao Paulo. Brazil. 

311 Carrying Brazilian coffee to the railroad. 

589 Cattle on the grass lands of southern Australia. 

(c) Leeward deserts, shut off from rain-bearing winds by mountains to 

windward 

330 The bare mountain slopes of Peru. 

333 Planting sugar cane on the irrigated coast desert of Peru. 

332 Preparing soil for planting sugar cane, Peru. 

329 Snow-capped mountain rising above desert plateau, Peru. 

335 On the dry Bolivian plateau. 

o25 Nitrate mines in desert region, Chile. 

3. Monsoon Regions 

The continental lands and islands in the monsoon belt are character- 
ized by marked seasonal changes in wind direction. The rainy season 
comes when the winds blow onshore ; the dry season when they blow 
offshore. The rainfall is generally abundant, often excessive, and as 
a rule follows the vertical sun ; i.e.. the summers are rainy while the 
winters are dry. Over most of the greatest and most typical mon- 
soon area, that of India, eastern Asia and the adjacent Islands, the 
summer (rainy) monsoon is prevailingly southwesterly or southerly. 



THE SUB-TROPICAL BELTS 113 

The northeast trades blow in winter, and are known as the dry mon- 
soon. Some places on eastern coasts or slopes have their rainy season 
in winter, with the northeast monsoon. There is often no sharp division 
between trade controls and monsoon controls. 

547 The shady side of the street preferred, Manila, P. I. 
546 House boats, well protected against the hot tropical snn and the 
heavy tropical rains, Manila, P. I. 

549 Rice fields on an island in the monsoon belt, Manila, P. I. 

550 Hulling rice, the most important cereal grain of hot and rainy trop- 

ical districts, Island of Luzon, P. I. 

551 Coconuts, a characteristic tropical lowland product. 

552 The raw material for hemp, one of the leading Philippine exports. 

553 Making hemp rope, Philippine Islands. 

554 Tropical forests, Island of Guam. 

574 East African seaport, in hot, damp coast climate. 

508 Where the mountains reach above the snow line, Himalayas. 

B. THE SUB-TROPICAL BELTS 

These are marginal belts, between trades and westerlies, and share in 
some of the characteristics of both types of climate. They are far 
enough from the equator to be free from continued high temperatures, 
and near enough to be spared extreme cold. Their rainfall is controlled 
by the stormy westerlies and, in some districts, by the inflowing damp 
continental winds of summer. The former control gives winter rains ; 
the latter brings a summer maximum. Where both controls are at work, 
there is rainfall throughout the year. Except in the latter case, the 
rainfall is usually rather light. In districts beyond the reach of effective 
winter rains, as in Egypt, for example, there are deserts. The sub- 
tropical belt may be subdivided according to the controls and seasons of 
rainfall. 

i. Districts with " Mediterranean " Climates 

These districts have mild winters, warm and dry summers, and win- 
ter rains from the cyclonic storms of the prevailing westerlies, which 
give generally sufficient but not abundant rainfall. Because of their 
small ranges of temperature, their abundant sunshine, and their general 
freedom from severe storms, these districts have long been well-known 
and popular health and pleasure resorts. This type of climate is mainly 
limited to the western coasts of the continents, and to the islands off 
these coasts, in latitudes 28°-40°. The area over which these conditions 
prevail is exceptionally wide in the Eastern Hemisphere, and reaches 
far inland there. The fact that the Mediterranean countries are so 
generally included in this belt has led to the use of the name " Medi- 
terranean climates." Irrigation is generally necessary in summer. 
Olives, grapes, oranges are characteristic plants. 

430 A favorite resort on the Mediterranean Riviera, Cannes, France. 
432 Monaco, on the Mediterranean Riviera. 



1 14 GEOGRAPHY — ZONES — ALTITUDE 

459 Lake Como, a well-known health and pleasure resort. 

495 Jerusalem, and its olive trees, typical of Mediterranean climates. 
497 Threshing in the dry season, Palestine. 

496 The bare hills and bright sunshine of Palestine. 

493 Streets of Damascus, roofed over as a protection against sun and 

rain. 
489 General view of the Bosporus, showing characteristic vegetation. 
475 Athens, Greece, with cactus and scrubby vegetation in foreground. 

479 Threshing during the dry summer in Greece. 

480 Sheep grazing on the lowlands of Greece. 

436 The irrigated slopes of Granada, Spain. 

437 Oranges from irrigated lands, Valencia, Spain. 

434 The open tableland of Spain, Semi-arid and treeless. 

438 Bringing the famous Malaga grapes to market. 

236 Vineyard in the " Mediterranean " climate of California. 

237 Southern California orange groves, on irrigated lowlands. 

238 Orange blossoms and fruit, southern California. 
234 An almond orchard, California. 

233 Harvesting in the dry summer of California. 

239 California ostrich farm, a reminder that the climates of south 

Africa and of California are similar. 
326 Valparaiso, Chile, whose climate is much like that of the central 

California coast. 
319 Italian grape-growers, Mendoza, Argentina. 
321 Scene on the Mendoza River, Argentina, a district of semi-aridity. 

2. Semi-arid and Arid Districts 

These are subtropical lands which are too far from the westerlies to 
receive more than scanty precipitation from the cyclonic storms of 
winter. Egypt is essentially a part of the desert of Sahara. Its north- 
ern portion is overlapped by the southern edge of the stormy prevailing 
westerlies. 

564 Overflow of the Nile, Egypt, resulting from the heavy spring rains 

in the Abyssinian mountains. 
566 Palms — producing fruit and wood in semi-arid and arid regions. 

561 Agriculture in the irrigated Nile valley, Egypt. 

562 Threshing beans in the Nile valley, Egypt. 

563 Spinning Egyptian cotton. 

569 How the Nile water is conserved for use in irrigation, Assuan, 
Egypt. 

3. Sub-tropical Lands with No Dry Season 

These districts are in sub-tropical latitudes in the southeastern por- 
tions of Asia and of North America. They receive more or less rain 
in winter, from the cyclonic storms of the prevailing westerlies, but 
usually have their heaviest rainfall in summer, with onshore winds 
of the monsoon type. The rainfall is abundant, and the winters are not 



TEMPERATE ZONES — WINDWARD COASTS 115 

severe. Among the economic products are cotton, rice, sugar cane and 
tropical fruits. 

117 Cotton, a typical crop on the warm lowlands of Gulf States, 

104 Flooding rice fields, South Carolina. 

105 Lowland rice, South Carolina. 

107 Gathering turpentine in the long-leaf pine belt of the southern 

states. 

118 Peanut harvest, Arkansas. 

108 Gathering pineapples in semi-tropical Florida. 

C. THE " TEMPERATE," OR INTERMEDIATE ZONES 

The so-called " temperate " zones occupy about one-half of the earth's 
surface. They are belts of prevailing westerly winds ; of frequent 
cyclonic storms, especially in winter, and of changeable weather. Sea- 
sonal contrasts in temperature are marked, and over the northern con- 
tinental interiors reach extremes greater than those found anywhere 
else in the world. Rainfall, which comes chiefly in connection with 
cyclonic storms, or in thundershowers, varies greatly with distance 
from the ocean and with topography. Bold windward coasts in middle 
and higher latitudes have generally heavy, even excessive amounts ; 
leeward coasts are less rainy; continental interiors are still drier, and 
may even become deserts, as in Asia and southwestern North America. 
Over much of these zones, rains are distributed fairly uniformly 
throughout the year, but on the western (windward) coasts the win- 
ter is the rainiest season, while over the interior lands most of the rain 
falls in the warmer months. The seasonal changes of the temperate 
zones stimulate man to activity. They develop him physically and 
mentally. They encourage higher civilization. 

The " temperate " zones include a great variety of climates and of 
crops. In the southern hemisphere this zone is far more " temperate " 
than in the northern, and really merits the name. 

i. Windward (West) Coasts 

These have mild winters, cool summers, and abundant rainfall, 
fairly well distributed through the year but coming mostly in winter. 

224 Great trees in the rainy forest of Oregon. 

215 Lumber from the rainy forests of the northern Pacific Coast. 

379 A scene in the Emerald Isle, Kenmare, Ireland. 

378 Peat fuel, a product of the cool, damp climate of Ireland. 

369 The trees and lakes of rainy Scotland. 

373 A highland cottage, Scotland, well protected against cold and rain. 

361 A picturesque bit of western England ; the Lake District. 

357 Wheat on the lowlands of eastern England. 

358 English beef cattle, raised chiefly on the rainy western lowlands. 
407 A Norwegian waterfall, characteristic of the rainy western moun- 
tains. 

328 Indians in cool damp climate of Straits of Magellan. 



1 16 GEOGRAPHY — ZONES — ALTITUDE 

2. Continental Interior and East Coast Lowlands 

These have large seasonal ranges of temperature and sufficient to 
abundant rainfall, fairly well distributed through the year but com- 
ing mostly in summer. The winters are colder and the rainfall is less 
abundant than on the western coasts. 

50 Effects of severe winter cold, Niagara Falls. 

542 Snow on the roofs, Seoul, Chosen. 

60 Sea bathing during the hot summer. 

38 Characteristic summer landscape in the eastern U. S. 

262 Nova Scotia, a favorite resort for American travelers on account 

of its cool summers. 

148 Dikes for protection against a spring flood. 

178 Plowing the soil, South Dakota. 

179 Making a good seed bed, South Dakota. 

184 Corn ripening in the long and warm summer of Kansas. 

136 Harvesting the corn, Indiana. 
160 Silage corn for cattle, Wisconsin. 

147 Oats from the fertile fields of Illinois. 

181 Gathering the alfalfa crop, Nebraska. 

166 A potato field, Minnesota. 

85 Delaware peaches. 

175 Apples from the great American apple belt, which reaches from 
Missouri to New York. 

44 Spraying the fruit trees, New York State. 

47 Cantaloupes from New York state. 

137 Indiana pumpkins. 

112 A Kentucky tobacco field. 

172 American hogs from the great central plains. 
13 A climatic element in the cod fish industry. Sun-drying the fish. 

162 Logging in winter when the hauling is easy, Minnesota. 
1 Products of our eastern forests, Maine. 

130 Tapping the sunny side of a sugar maple tree when the sap begins 
to flow in the spring, Ohio. 

390 Vineyards of the Rhine Valley (Germany), a sheltered climatic 
oasis favorable for grape culture. 

419 Sugar beets, a profitable crop in the relatively dry and severe cli- 
mate of Sweden. 

530 Japanese tea, growing on protected mountain slopes in a district 
with warm rainy summers. 

527 Rice, an important crop on the lowlands of Japan, where the sum- 
mers are rainy. 

529 Japanese laborers in the rice fields ; the hats furnish protection 
against rain and sun. 

537 Mulberry leaves, used for feeding silk worms, Japan. 

317 Cattle on the alfalfa lands of eastern Argentina. 

413 Milking reindeer, which replace domestic cattle in northern Nor- 
way. 






HIGHLANDS — POLAR ZONES 117 

522 Tilling the soil on a Manch,urian farm. 
488 Plowing on a Russian farm. 

3. Continental Interior Highlands 

Semi-arid or arid, and with marked seasonal ranges of temperature. 
The moister portions are used for agriculture; the drier, for grazing; 
the driest are deserts, except where irrigation is possible. 

186 Cattle on the grassy plains of Kansas. 

127 Cattle drive on the Texas plains. 

165 Modern dairy barns on the northern plains, Minnesota where cat- 
tle are sheltered against storms and cold. 

188 Bronchos on the western plains, Montana. 

183 Hogs in alfalfa pasture, Kansas. 

190 Where little rain falls, but sheep find enough pasturage. 

218 The immense wheat fields of eastern Washington. 

177 Wheat grown in the fertile soil and favorable climate of the famous 
Red River valley, North Dakota. 

199 Wheat raised by " dry farming " methods in Colorado, where 
there is insufficient rainfall for crops handled by ordinary 
methods. 

198 Sugar beets on the irrigated fields of Colorado. 

209 Where irrigation is necessary, Arizona. 

210 Where the heavier rainfall over the mountains supplies water for 

irrigating the desert lowlands, Roosevelt Dam. 

211 Spineless cactus, a new crop in our semi-arid southwest. 

212 City on an irrigated desert ; Salt Lake City, Utah. 

213 An irrigated desert, supporting a city, with bare mountains in the 

background, Ogden, Utah. 

4. " Temperate " Zone Mountains 

These have successive vertical climatic zones, marked by lower tem- 
peratures and generally heavier rainfall than the lowlands, grading into 
" polar climates " above, with snow and ice, if the altitude is sufficiently 
great. Vertical zones of vegetation correspond with the vertical cli- 
matic zones. 

For more complete statement see classification, Elevation of Land 
(Altitude) in this chapter. 

D. THE POLAR ZONES 

The " temperate zones " merge into the " polar zones " where the 
mean temperature of the warmest month is 50°. In general, on the polar 
side of this limit, forest trees and cereals do not grow. The tempera- 
tures are always low ; the winters are long and severe ; the summers 
are short; precipitation is light and mostly in the form of snow. Life 
is hard. The food supply is scanty and is obtained mostly by hunting 
and fishing. Population is sparse. 



1 18 GEOGRAPHY — ZONES — ALTITUDE 

279 Winter in Labrador. 

342 Ships of Peary expedition, 1901, Nuerke, Greenland. 

343 Eskimos in summer clothing, and part of Peary's crew. 

344 Hauling snow for water supply, Belgian Antarctic expedition. 

345 Traveling on skis on the Antartic ice. 

346 Amundsen, discoverer of South Pole, on Antarctic ice. 
246 Alaskan dog team, and drivers. 

245 Placer miners protected against mosquitoes in the Alaskan summer. 



II. ELEVATION OF LAND (ALTITUDE) AND ITS 

EFFECT ON LIFE: THE VERTICAL 

CLIMATIC ZONES 

From the life standpoint, the most critical change that takes place 
with increasing elevation above sea-level, as in going up a mountain, 
is the decrease in temperature. If this decrease continues long enough ; 
i.e., if the mountain is sufficiently high, " polar climates," with snow 
and ice, are found in the upper slopes and at the summit. Vertical 
zones of vegetation, and of animal life, correspond with the vertical 
zones of climate. In the tropics, there may thus be a gradual transi- 
tion from the dense forests or the cultivated products of the warm 
tropical lowlands, up to higher levels where " temperate zone " fruits 
and cereals are raised, and then, farther up, through forests and be- 
yond the tree line until polar conditions of life and of climate are 
reached. In highest mountains of " temperate " latitudes the vertical 
succession of climatic and of vegetation zones is similar, but the lowest 
zone has a temperate flora and fauna, and the vertical range of climates 
is therefore from " temperate " to polar, instead of from tropical to 
polar. A few thousand feet of ascent on a high mountain will there- 
fore give, in a very short vertical distance, the same series of zones, of 
climate, and of vegetation, as are met with in going a distance of many 
hundreds of miles, from lower to higher latitudes, near sea level. 
For high latitude and its influence on human affairs see classification, 
Earth Neighbors. 

508 The mighty Himalayas, at whose base tropical products are raised 
on the warm lowlands of India, and whose cold summits are 
covered with eternal snow. 

329 Monte Misti, 19,200 feet high, in southern Peru. Its summit is 
snow covered during the rainy season, while flowers bloom and 
snow never falls on the plateau, 10,000 feet lower, above which 
the mountain rises. 

548 A tropical mountain : Mayon, Island of Luzon, Philippines. 
Rice and tobacco are raised at its base. Farther up, on, its 
slopes thrives the plantain tree, from which Manila hemp is ob- 
tained. (See also 549, rice fields on the lowlands of Luzon.) 

284 Threshing on the Mexican plateau. Temperate cereals are raised 



THE VERTICAL CLIMATIC ZONES 119 

here, while at the lower levels, where the temperatures are 
higher, tropical products alone can be cultivated. 

311 Taking coffee to market on the Brazilian plateau. This plateau, 
2000-3000 feet above sea level, has ideal climatic conditions for 
coffee, and, because of its elevation, is a far healthier place of 
residence for white men than the hot lowlands of the Amazon 
Valley. 

243 The rush to the Klondike (1897-1898) across the snow-covered 
Chilkoot Pass, Alaska. The heavy snowfall on many mountains 
makes them difficult to cross in winter. 

221 Rising above the snow line, Mt: Hood. The vegetation in the 
foreground illustrates very clearly the contrast in the vertical 
zones of climate. 

228 The snow-capped Sierra Nevada Mountains. These mountains 
rise above the irrigated and fertile fields of California, to snow- 
covered heights which have given the range its name. See 236, 
237, 238 showing the fruit industry of California. 

276 The snow-fields and glaciers of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. 

195 Owing to the considerable altitude, temperatures below freezing, 
and snowfalls, occur in the Yellowstone National Park even 
during the tourist season. 

191 Freshly-fallen snow in Yellowstone National Park. 

102 The Blue Ridge, a " temperate zone " mountain range of moderate 
elevation. Many lowland crops will grow here. The upper 
slopes of such mountains (103) are still largely forested. 

388 Haying on the lower slopes of the Bavarian Mountains. Hay is 
often an excellent crop on mountain slopes, where climatic and 
soil conditions are less favorable for cereals than they are on 
the lowlands. 

427 Glacier des Bossons fed by the snows of the high Alps, Chamonix, 
France. Glaciers not infrequently come down from the cold 
upper slopes and summits of lofty mountains into the inhabited 
and cultivated valleys below. 

444 The trees and flowers of the valley, and the eternal snows of the 
upper mountain slopes, Switzerland. A striking illustration of 
the close proximity of very different vertical climatic zones. 

445 Swiss .mountain homes : The roofs often weighted down with 
stones to prevent damage by high winds. Wood, for fuel during 
the long and cold Alpine winter, is piled against the house. 

448 The impressive scenery of the Swiss Alps : The Matterhorn. 
This mountain rises far above the fertile and inhabited valleys 
and lower slopes. 

446 A glacier among trees and fields, Switzerland. From the eternal 

snow and ice of the high Alps, glaciers often descend so far 
.down the slopes that they are surrounded by trees and grass, 
forming a striking picture of contrasted climatic conditions. 

428 Famous Mer de Glace (River of Ice), Chamonix, France. 

460 The thickly settled lowland, with favorable climate, and the de- 
serted mountains, in the Austrian Tyrol, Innsbruck. 



120 GEOGRAPHY — ZONES — ALTITUDE 

408 A fertile cultivated valley among bare and rugged mountains, Nor- 

way. Oats are raised in this valley, while the mountain sum- 
mits are seen to be snow-covered, and trees grow on the lower 
slopes. In a rainy climate, like that of this region, it is difficult 
to dry the grass for hay. The grass is put in thin, narrow piles, 
held up by poles, so that the wind can blow through it. 

409 Snow-covered mountains rising above a pine forest, Norway. 

322 A lake, high in the Andes, near the snow-line, fed by melting 

snows, Laguna del Inca. 

323 A station on the Transandean Railroad, between Chile and Ar- 

gentina far above the cultivated lowlands and valleys. See 324 
taken at a lower level, and showing a considerable contrast in 
climatic conditions. 

525 Fuji-Yama, Japan. This mountain, 12,400 feet high, is snow- 
capped in winter. At its base and on its slopes there are culti- 
vated fields. 

213 Bare mountain slopes in a region of deficient rainfall, Wasatch 
Mountains, Utah. Compare 102 and 388 where, with heavier 
rainfall, there are tre'es. 

413 The rugged slopes of northern Norway. Here, although the ele- 
vations are small, the climate is too severe for farming. The 
people (Laplanders) occupy themselves with hunting and fish- 
ing, and keep herds of reindeer. 

430 Moderate elevations used as building sites, Cannes, France. The 
slopes of the hills along the famous Riviera district of France 
and northern Italy are much used for health and pleasure re- 
sorts, and are often dotted with beautiful residences. 






8. GEOGRAPHY BY NATIONS 

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

By E. M. LEHNERTS, A.M. 

PROFESSOR OF GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY 
OF MINNESOTA, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Political geography is one of the difficult subjects to teach 
because of its variableness. Mathematical geography is as 
fixed as the sun and the earth ; physical geography is, in its 
laws, unchanging, but political geography changes continually. 
Boundaries change, colonies are gained and lost, governments 
are overturned and reorganized. Political geography is as 
changeful as man. 

Governments today are world-wide. They rule great 
ranges of classes and people and must be adapted to innum- 
erable conditions. It is interesting to note the extent and dis- 
tribution of each great nation's possessions and the funda- 
mental principles of the government which must fit them all. 
Perhaps the greatest tendency in modern life is toward 
democracy. It seems to float in the very air. Great nations 
are giving even to their far-off colonies some participation in 
the ruling power. Notice, for instance, the Dutch in Java, 
the Australian Commonwealth, the Americans in the Philip- 
pines. All the world is learning that government is for the 
benefit of the people " deriving its just powers from the con- 
sent of the governed." 

With textbooks, paging and distribution of material are 
necessarily fixed, and the world-wide application of one gov- 
ernmental system is difficult to be shown. But stereographs 
and slides can be combined and recombined. For instance, 
when a child can see 130 stereographs picked out of 600 he 
will have visual teaching that the British Empire includes one- 
quarter of the globe, and when he studies the different parts 
of this Empire, he will know better than words can tell what 
is the result of British rule. 

Best of all, these Keystone Views give us people in their 
daily life, and children will surely get from the pictures that 
government helps to make life what it is, and that, in turn, 

121 



122 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

every man helps to make government, not for himself alone, 
but for countless men, perhaps half way round the globe. 
The stereoscopic views and slides can be used to help children 
to realize the importance of the individual in the welfare of 
the nation. 

THE UNITED STATES AND ITS POSSESSIONS 

The United States has made such rapid progress in area, population 
and wealth, that it is frequently spoken of as synonymous with Amer- 
ica The reasons for this remarkable growth and development are 
many and complex and include geographic, historic, economic, indus- 
trial, racial, military and other causes. 

The geographic location of the United States constitutes a great and 
far-reaching advantage, and one which will become more and more im- 
portant as the nations of the world develop and their needs increase. 
Not only does the United States occupy the best part of the continent, 
but it is so placed on the globe as to lie between the populous regions 
of Europe and Asia and within favorable commercial distance of most 
of the countries of the rest of the world — an advantage made all the 
more effective by the possession of excellent harbors on three coasts, 
the Atlantic, the Gulf, and the Pacific. 

Nature was generous when she endowed the United States, fertile 
soils and favorable climates produce unequaled agricultural wealth; 
great forests furnish building material and fuel ; abundant water powers 
offer unmeasured energy which will work for mankind long after coal 
is gone- unrivalled deposits of minerals and ores pour out vast and 
varied treasures. These and many other bounties of nature stimulate 
man to greater effort and reward him better here than in any other 
country on the globe. 

It remained for man to multiply nature's gifts; and this he accom- 
plished by means of inventions. Improved farm machinery and meth- 
ods of agriculture greatly increased the yield per acre and the output 
of the country ; the roller mill, cotton gin, and better machines for the 
manufacture of flour, cloth, etc., increased the demand for the raw 
products and their value and usefulness in the finished state ; railways 
furnishing quick transportation brought producer and manufacturer to- 
gether, opened otherwise inaccessible regions, and, together with the 
waterways, made for national union and prosperity. Add to this the 
influence of the school, the newspaper, the telegraph, and the telephone, 
and consider that this is a land of peace and good will to all, that it is 
a land of liberty and the home of a happy and prosperous people, and 
its remarkable growth is seen to be but the logical result of many and 
powerful causes, which, continuing to function in the future, are des- 
tined to bring even greater prosperity and happiness to the nation. 

The government of the United States is a logical development of 
English law and custom along democratic lines. Its fundamental ideal 
is self-government and individual responsibility. Wherever the stars 
and stripes float, there the people must rule themselves. In the Philip- 



UNITED STATES 123 

pines the people are being trained for self-government either for inde- 
pendence or real union. This ideal of the United States has been an 
inspiration to the world. Other countries have followed more or less 
closely where America leads. 

87 The United States is governed by laws made by Congress. 

88 Congress consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 

91 The laws are enforced by a President. 

92 A Cabinet of ten members chosen by the President advise and 

assist him. 

89 A Supreme Court which passes on the constitutionality of a law 

is a distinctive feature of the United States Government. The 
federal government makes the laws which apply to the entire 
United States. 
8 Each of the forty-eight states has a legislature which makes state 
laws, and a Governor who executes them. Also, each state has 
a system of state courts. 

28 The people of the United States believe in self-government; so 
each county, city and township has its own local government 
which has almost entire control of local matters. 
4, 16, 28, 29, 65, etc. The people of the United States elect nearly all 
the officers of the federal, state, and local governments. Each 
officer represents the people. Any man may become an official. 

243 to 246 Alaska; 259 to 261 Hawaii are organized territories. Each 
one has a governor and judges appointed by the President and 
a legislature chosen by the people. Hawaii asked to be admit- 
ted to the United States. Citizens of territories are citizens 
of the United States with all the rights and privileges. 

87 Each territory has one representative in Congress who may take 
part in debate but has no vote. The laws passed by the terri- 
torial legislature may be revoked by Congress. 

257, 258 Porto Ricans are United States citizens since 1917. They 
elect their own legislature. They have a representative in 
Congress who may speak from the floor but not vote. Their 
Governor is appointed by the President. 

546, 547 The Philippines also are governed largely by themselves. 
They are represented on the council and have their own legis- 
lature. They also have a representative in Congress without 
the vote. The Governor is appointed by the President. 

548, 549, 550, 551, 552, 553 The Philippine common people are back- 
ward. It is the intention of the United States to educate them 
so that they may develop into a self-governing people. 

554 Guam is governed by a naval officer stationed there. 

295, 299 Cuba is a protectorate of the United States. It is a republic 
with its own president and congress. It may not make any 
treaty without the consent of the United States, who in turn 
guarantee protection and a stable government. 



124 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

MEXICO 

280 to 290 Mexico is in form a republic with a government modeled 

after that of the United States. _ 

281 284 285 The common people of Mexico are very ignorant, so 

that popular government is not so easily carried on Also, the 
Mexican people are a mixed race of Spanish and Indian blood. 
Lacking the centuries of evolution they do not handle the demo- 
cratic ideals of government so readily as do the people of the 
United States. This is true of all Latin American countries. 
281 282 283 The city of Mexico is the capital of Mexico. Here 
Congress meets and here the President resides. 

CENTRAL AMERICA 
292 294 The common people of the Central American states are so 
' ignorant that the governments (republic in form) are very 
unstable. Revolutions are very common and very destructive. 
The common people have little share in the government. 
247, 248, 256 The State of Panama is progressing rapidly, owing to the 
United States' occupation of the Canal Zone. 

BRAZIL 

Brazil is almost as large as the United States and has a population of 
about 24,000,000. The language of the country is Portuguese. It is a 
federal republic with a constitution based upon that of the United 
States. 

306 308 311 The people of Brazil are mostly of Spanish, Portuguese 
or Italian. There are great numbers of Germans in the south- 
ern part The people of the interior are mostly Indians. 

304 Bahia; 308 Sao Paulo. Only the coast cities have any real sys- 

tem of education. 

305 307 At Rio de Janeiro, the capital, the President resides and here 

the national Congress, consisting of a Senate and House of 
Representatives, meets. The government is almost entirely de- 
centralized. 

ARGENTINA 
Argentina is one of the most progressive countries of South America. 
Lvincr in the temperate zone with good grain and grazing land it has 
attracted European immigration. The Republic has very liberal immi- 
gration laws. The constitution is modeled closely upon that ot the 
United States and the entire system of government is almost identical 
with our own. 

314, 316 Buenos Aires is the federal district. 

315 The government buildings are where Congress meets to make the 
laws of the nation. A President, Senate, House of Representa- 
tives have almost the same power as in the United States. 






CHILE — BRITISH EMPIRE 125 

317, 319, 320, 321 Local governments are subject to inspection and 
regulation by the federal officials and judicial authorities. 

CHILE 

The Chilians are sometimes called the " Yankees of South America." 
They are a progressive people, rapidly advancing in commerce and in- 
dustry and in government. 

324 Santiago is the capital of the Republic of Chile whose constitu- 
tion is patterned after that of the United States. 
326, 327 An active trade furnishes communication with the rest of the 
world and is the main reason for Chile's progressiveness. 

328 There are numbers of Indians not yet touched by civilization. 

PERU 
332, 333 These pictures show that Peru is using the newest farm 

machinery, a sure sign of progressiveness. 
334 Her rich mines have attracted men from all over the world and 

here again we see modern machinery. 

329 to 334 Peru is a republic,, formed on the United States as a 

model. It has a President, a Congress with two houses and a 
Supreme Court of Justice just as we have. Local affairs are 
under the control of the federal government. 

VENEZUELA 

339, 341 There are very few pure whites in Venezuela and very few 
pure negroes. Most of the people are a mixed race of Spanish 
and Indian or negro. They are mostly very ignorant and so the 
government laws are poorly executed. In general the courts 
are dilatory and ineffective. 

340 Halls of Congress. The government is a republic, modeled after 
the United States, but not so successful in its administration. A 
president and Congress are the head of the government. 

338, 339, 340, 341 Only the large cities have any educational advan- 
tages. 

THE BRITISH EMPIRE 
Great Britain 

The United Kingdom of" Great Britain and Ireland comprises an 
area of 121,390 square miles, or about the size of the state of New 
Mexico, and contains a population of 45,400,000 or nearly equal to one- 
half of the total population of the United States. 

The British Empire contains 12,800,000 square miles of land and 
439,700,000 inhabitants, or about one-fourth of both the total land area 
and the total population of the world. Approximately half of these 
possessions are situated in the Northern Hemisphere and half in the 
southern ; and so widely distributed are the various portions that almost 
every variety of climate and soil occurs, and almost every kind of 
product and natural resource can be furnished. 



126 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

The geographic foundations for the growth and development of this 
vast empire were laid in the geologic past when, in the fashioning of 
the earth's surface, two islands, now known as Great Britain and Ire- 
land, were set apart from the mainland and so placed in the seas as to 
be in the center of the land hemisphere of the globe and opposite and 
nearer to North America than was any other portion of Europe. Na- 
ture, which had previously stored great coal and iron deposits in the 
larger of the two islands, then indented their shores with good har- 
bors, stocked the surrounding seas with abundant fish for food, and 
planted great forests in the part now called England. 

Each of these provisions of nature had an important bearing on the 
history of the British Empire, but their influences developed very 
slowly. At first, owing to the weakness of the Britons and the strength 
of their enemies, the water barrier was not sufficient to protect them 
against invaders. Romans, Angles, Saxons, Danes and Normans came, 
conquered, and left their impress. But the island position in time de- 
veloped a sturdy seafaring people, fishermen, traders, explorers, brave 
navigators, and daring sailors destined to become the masters of the 
seas, a distinction which they attained by the destruction of the Spanish 
Armada in 1588, and again renewed by their victory over the French 
fleet at Trafalgar in 1805. 

The discovery of America by Columbus in 1492 was an event of far- 
reaching importance for the British Isles. Heretofore they had occu- 
pied an unimportant position at the very end of the known world. 
Thereafter instead of being on the outskirts of Europe, remote from 
the commercial activities of the Mediterranean and the continent, they 
became the geographic center of the land hemisphere of the world, a 
point of vantage whose importance increased as the nations and coun- 
tries of the earth developed. 

Britain's nearness to North America, her love for adventure and ex- 
ploration, her remunerative attacks on the gold-carrying galleons of 
Spain, and the lure of the imagined wealth of the New World, stimu- 
lated her seamen, shipbuilders, explorers, navigators, sea fighters, and 
colonizers, and raised England in less than a century from a second- 
rate maritime power in 1492 to the supremacy of the seas in 1588. We 
may, therefore, date the first steps in the building of the British Empire 
from the time of Queen Elizabeth and the founding of the American 
colonies. 

Another factor of immense consequence and one that must be con- 
sidered in connection with the island position and world central location 
of the British Isles, is the fact that the oceans are not land-enclosed 
but are all connected with each other by water. Because of this 
continuity of the oceans, the sea routes led to all lands in all parts 
of the world and were safer, quicker, and cheaper than land transpor- 
tation, and, indeed, for centuries the only transportation that could 
reach many of the distant countries. 

Gradually the tide of trade turned from the Mediterranean to Eng- 
land's ports; her ships of war held the seas and her vessels of trade 
carried most of the world's merchandise. Growing colonies sent raw 



GREAT BRITAIN 127 

products and demanded manufactured goods. Manufacturing estab- 
lishments grew up and flourished, and, thanks to British skill and in- 
vention and to the possession and low cost of coal and iron, Britain's 
factories soon surpassed those of any other country. 

The growth of so large an empire was necessarily slow and not in- 
frequently disputed by rival nations. But over all her continental com- 
petitors Great Britain had one immense advantage — her geographical 
position as an island with no land boundary to guard. The effect of 
this was seen in three ways : The British were often able to hold aloof 
from continental wars and to increase their foreign possessions and 
trade by sea, while their rivals were busy on land fighting one another ; 
secondly, the British have for several centuries been able to safeguard 
their islands by means of naval power and so have saved their country 
from the wasteful destruction to which the other nations of Europe 
have been so often exposed; and, thirdly, naval supremacy having 
guaranteed the safety of her shores, Britain found it unnecessary to 
maintain a large standing army, and was thus enabled to turn a larger 
proportion of time, energy, and wealth, and almost all of her entire 
man power toward the development of industries and trade. 

A greater danger than either the Spanish Armada or Napoleon's fleet 
at Trafalgar threatened Britain's maritime supremacy at the beginning 
of the 19th century. All ships were built of wood and England's 
forests were exhausted. It had become necessary to buy and bring 
timber from the Black Forest, via the Rhine, and from the Scandinavian 
countries. It is doubtful whether Britain could have competed suc- 
cessfully with the shipbuilding of other countries had it not been for 
the discovery that steel and iron made better ships than wood. Great 
Britain fortunately possessed vast coal and iron deposits near each other 
and near the sea, and found herself able to build more and better ships 
and at smaller cost than any other nation. Her supremacy of the seas 
remained assured. 

While geographic factors and historic events formed a favorable 
foundation for the growth and development of the British Empire, the 
credit for its accomplishment is primarily due to the British people. 
Indeed, it is doubtful whether any other nation similarly placed could 
have accomplished as much. The vast empire was not only built, but 
it was built so well as to hold together in stress and storm, although 
composed of diverse peoples and scattered over the whole earth. In 
this remarkable union is reflected the British genius for colonization and 
government. 

The English language is spoken by more people than any other Euro- 
pean ^tongue. The sun never sets on the British Empire; for her 
possessions encircle the globe. Britain is mistress of the seas, for her 
ships of war have ruled the waves since the days of the Spanish 
Armada, and her vessels of trade have carried the bulk of the world's 
merchandise since the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In times of war and 
of peace England's power has extended to the remotest parts of the 
earth. 



128 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

347 Liverpool; 348 London. The many harbors of England made her 
a seafaring nation. She developed a great merchant marine 
and a great navy. She became a great maritime power, " Mis- 
tress of the Seas." 

262 to 279 Canada and Newfoundland ; 301 Jamaica ; 499 to 508 India ; 
513, 514 Hongkong; 558 to 569 Egypt; 570 to 574 British East 
Africa; 575 to 578 Rhodesia; 579 to 584 South Africa; 585 to 
591 Australia and New Zealand. These possessions are so scat- 
tered that every variety of climate and soil occur and almost 
every kind of product and natural resource. The English lan- 
guage is spoken by more people than any other European tongue. 
Many of these colonial possessions are completely self-govern- 
ing, organized with a constitution modeled on that of the United 
States. This was the lesson England learned from the American 
Revolution. England has gained and held many of the strategic 
positions of the world. This in part accounts for her expansion. 

439 Rock of Gibraltar; 558 Alexandria; 559 Suez Canal. These 
strategic positions give England control of the Mediterranean 
and most of the trade with Asia. 

561, 569 The Nile. The occupation of Egypt gives an entrance from 
the north to the heart of Africa. 

582 The possession of Cape Colony allowed the British to spread out 
over and absorb South Africa. This was the key which enabled 
them also to control the trade of this part of the earth. 

513, 514 Hongkong is a British possession and a strategic point for 
influencing affairs in the East. 

301 Jamaica furnishes a naval base and a strategic position from which 
England finds entrance into Western affairs. 

347 Liverpool, Eng. ; 351 London, Eng. ; 365 Edinburgh, Scot. ; 375 

Cork, Ire.; 381 Belfast, Ire.; 266 Quebec, Canada; 585 Sydney, 
Australia. British people as a whole are noted for independence 
of character, for sagacity, courage, enterprise and perseverance, 
and for respect for law and love of justice. These sterling quali- 
ties have enabled British manufacturers, merchants and ship- 
builders to gain preeminence over all other nations in trade and 
material prosperity. 

348 to 352 London is the capital or governmental center of the British 

Empire. 

352 The King and House of Lords remain a part of the British gov- 
ernmental form but the real power is held by the House of 
Commons elected by the voters. The British Empire is really a 
democratic government retaining a monarchic form inherited 
from past ages. The king holds his place by the good will of 
the people. 

365, 366. 367 Scotland united with England under the crown when 
James VI of Scotland inherited the English crown and became 
James I of England. 

352 The Scotch have members both in the House of Commons and in 
the House of Lords. 









INDIA — AUSTRALIA 129 

374,375,377,378 South Ireland has wanted home rule. 

381 North Ireland has objected to home rule. 

380 A convention held in Dublin (1917) with representatives from all 
parts and parties of Ireland is to decide its government. 

363 Welch people have all the rights and privileges of English sub- 
jects. 

Canada 

262, 264, 267, 273, 277 Canada has a Governor-General appointed by the 
King of England, five years, also a Parliament of two houses. 
Senators are appointed for life by the Governor-General. The 
members of the House of Commons are chosen by the people. 
The lower house has the real power. 

262 Nova Scotia; 264, 267 Quebec; 273 Manitoba; 277 British Colum- 
bia. Each province has almost complete local government. 

India 

499 to 508 In India fewer than 6500 British officials rule over three 
hundred millions of men. 

503 Delhi is the capital. All the states of India are under the rule 

of a Governor-General in Council. The Governor-General, 
oftener called the Viceroy, represents the British sovereign and 
has supreme civil and military power all over India. 
501 Buddhists ; 503 Moslems. The Council has had both Buddhist and 
Moslem members. An attempt is being made to give the natives 
some representation in their own government. 

504 Minor officials are largely natives. 

506 Kashmir. Native states, as a rule, are governed by native princes 
with the help of British political officers appointed by the 
British government and residing at their courts. These rulers 
possess armies and revenues of their own but are not allowed 
to form any alliances. 

509, 510 Burma since 1886 is a part of British India with a Lieutenant- 
Governor and Council. Formerly, it was an absolute monarchy 
whose king was called " The Lord of the White Elephant." 
Australia 

585, 586 The people of Australia are mostly of British origin. 

585 New S. Wales; 586 Victoria; 588 South Australia; 589 Queens- 

land ; 590 Tasmania. These states with West Australia make 
the Commonwealth of Australia proclaimed Jan. 1, 1901. 
587 Melbourne was made the capital of the Confederation until a new 
capital in a federal district could be built. Here the Australian 
Parliament meets. Parliament consists of a Governor-General 
representing the King, a Senate and House of Representatives 
elected by the people. The government is modeled largely after 
that of the United States. 

586 Melbourne; 590 Tasmania. Each state has a complete local gov- 

ernment of its own. 
585 The Commonwealth of Australia maintains an army and a fleet. 



130 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

New Zealand 

591 New Zealand also has a Governor-General representing the Crown; 
a Legislative Council chosen by the Governor in Council and a 
Legislature chosen by the people. New Zealand has made many 
experiments in government ownership and other socialistic ex- 
periments which have been very interesting to students of gov- 
ernment all over the world. 

Egypt 

558 On Dec. 17, 1914, Egypt became a British protectorate. The 
Khedive who sympathized actively with the Germans in the 
World War was deposed and Hussian Kemal was made ruler 
with the title Sultan of Egypt. 

559, 569 For many years the British had practical control over Egypt 
and has done much to advance the welfare of the people. The 
Great Dam at Assuan is an example of what England has tried 
to do. In the change Turkey really lost nothing but prestige. 

560 Cairo is the seat of government. Here the Sultan resides. Eng- 
land sends a High Commissioner of Egypt who is in reality a 
Viceroy with governmental power. He works through the 
Sultan and his Council. 

561, 562, 563, 564 Egypt, under Turkish rule, has made very little or no 
progress. It remains to be seen- what England can do. 

British East Africa 

570, 572 The British have a nominal control also of Uganda and other 

lands lying between Egypt and South Africa. In this market 
will be seen the marks of British rule. The change from sav- 
agery to civilization is necessarily slow. 

571, 573 The country is a source of present wealth and will develop 

as civilization progresses. 

Union of South Africa 

580 The treaty of peace which ended the Boer War was signed, May 
31, 1902. This gave the Transvaal (the Boer Country) to the 
English. In Dec. 12, 1906, the Transvaal was granted a self- 
government. The experiment succeeded. 

579 to 584 The Union of South Africa was proclaimed, May 31, 1910. 
This Union was planned and made by the people of the Trans- 
vaal, Natal, Orange Free State and Cape Colony. It was granted 
without change in the proposed constitution. Such things show 
the democratic tendencies of the British government. 

582 Capetown is the meeting place for the parliament but Pretoria is 
the seat of government. A parliament chosen by the people and 
a Governor-General representing the King of England form 
the government. Each state has a local government of its 
own. 



RHODESIA — FRENCH REPUBLIC 131 

Rhodesia 

575,576,577,578 Rhodesia is under the control of the British South 
African Company. They have a Council with six members 
chosen by the Company and seven elected by the people. Provi- 
sion is made for the entrance of Rhodesia into the Union of 
South Africa but it is not yet considered ripe for self-govern- 
ment. 

THE FRENCH REPUBLIC AND ITS DEPENDENCIES 

France comprises 207,127 square miles and 39,602,000 inhabitants. 
Her foreign possessions aggregate 4,100,000 square miles and 45,000,000 
inhabitants. 

The geographic position of France is more favorable than that of 
any other European country except Great Britain. France is located 
in the heart of west-central Europe and is, therefore, connected by land 
with the nations and industrial centers of the continent. She possesses 
an adequate number of good harbors, and her shores face both the 
Atlantic and the Mediterranean. This gives her direct access to the 
world's most favored ocean routes to both the Far West and the 
Far East. 

France lacks the insular security of Great Britain, but is fortunately 
almost encircled by natural boundaries. These promote national unity 
and provide a first line of defense for the country. This is particularly 
true of the Pyrenees, Alps, Jura, Vosges, Rhine Highlands, and 
Ardennes. But important breaks and passes occur, such as the Valley 
of the Rhone, the gap at Belfort, the opening between the Vosges and 
the Rhine Highlands, the gorges of the Moselle and the Meuse, and the 
plain of Belgium. These openings facilitate railway and road connec- 
tions with the rest of Europe and furnish excellent commercial routes 
and military highways. 

The mineral wealth of France is considerable and has materially aided 
her industrial development; but the latter would be far greater if her 
coal and iron deposits were larger. Much of the coal now used in her 
factories must be imported. For this reason the iron and textile indus- 
tries of France cannot equal those of either Great Britain or Germany, 
which supply all of their own fuel. Fortunately, the coal fields of 
France are scattered, and, though small, are most productive in the in- 
terior where importation of coal would be more difficult and expensive. 

The internal development of France has been favored by the compact 
shape of the Republic and by the character of the surface which is 
seldom seriously interrupted by mountains or impassable districts. The 
soil, -too, on the whole is more fertile and the climate more favorable 
lan that of her neighbors. The roadways are among the best in the 
world and are regarded with just pride by the people. The rivers and 
:anals furnish a network of waterways, and, together with the railways, 
Furnish ample means for transportation. 

123, 424 Paris; 431 Nice, France. The people of France are thrifty, 
generous and brave. They are noted for their bright intelligence 



132 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

and for their sociability and hospitality. They are typically 
polite, cheerful, lively and frank, yet earnest of purpose and 
energetic. They are a refined and patriotic people whose long 
history is replete with accomplishments of the very highest 
order. 

421 to 425 Paris is the capital of the French republic. Here the Presi- 
dent lives and the meetings of National Assembly are held. The 
National Assembly is composed of the Senate and Chamber of 
Deputies. The officials of France are chosen by the people or 
their representatives and are responsible to the people. 

429 to 431 The local governments of France are under the central 
power. The government is highly centralized. 

427, 428 The Alps form an important barrier or natural boundary in 
the southeast and the Pyrenees separate France and Spain. 

426 The fact that there is no adequate natural boundary between 
France and Germany has led to many wars and the maintenance 
of a standing army. 

429 Marseilles ; 430 Cannes. France has harbors on the Mediter- 
ranean Sea and on the Atlantic Ocean. This gives her access to 
the world's most favored ocean routes both to the Far East and 
to the Far West and leads to her desire for colonies in Africa. 

556 Algieria is a French colony ruled by a Governor-General assisted 

by a Council. Laws for Algieria are made by the National 
Assembly at Paris. The country has advanced and prospered 
under French rule. 

557 Tunis was declared a French protectorate in 1881. The native 

Bey is the nominal head, assisted by a Council of nine ministers. 
Seven of these are French and two are natives. The real ruler 
is a resident Commissioner-General sent by the French gov- 
ernment. 
555 Morocco is an African sultanate under French protection. A resi- 
dent Commissioner-General sent by France represents the rule 
of that country. French rule means progress, civilization and 
greater personal security. 

SPAIN 
At one time Spain was the greatest colonial power in the world. 
Her foreign possessions included practically all of America from Oregon 
to Cape Horn, and Cuba and the Philippines were hers. An autocratic 
government alienated her colonists and the example of the United States 
incited them to seek independence and self-government. Spain fell 
back into the position of a minor power. 

434, 437, 438 The Spanish people are brave, proud and indolent. The 
spirit of adventure and conquest which incited them in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is no longer seen. Spain's gov- 
ernment is now a limited monarchy in which ideas of democracy 
are steadily growing. 
435 Madrid is the capital of Spain. The government is in the hands 



SWITZERLAND — BELGIUM — HOLLAND 133 

of an hereditary king. The legislative body or Cortez consists 
of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. Voters are all males 
over twenty-five who are in full enjoyment of their civil rights 
and who have been citizens of a municipality: 

SWITZERLAND 

443, 445, 446, 447 Switzerland has the most democratic government in 
the world. The Federal Council is the chief executive of the 
federation. It is elected triennially by the Federal Assembly, 
which is chosen by the people. The president of the Federal 
Council is the President of Switzerland. 

BELGIUM 

Belgium is what we call neutralized territory. That is, it was recog- 
nized as a nation whose independence all the great powers had pledged 
themselves to respect and to preserve. It, in turn, was pledged to strict 
neutrality and could make no alliances. When Germany asked permis- 
sion to go through Belgium to France, neutral Belgium refused and 
later resisted their forcible passage. The other great powers were then 
bound to assist her. The violation of neutralized Belgium was one of 
the main factors in drawing other nations into the war. 
395 Brussels is the capital of Belgium. The government is a limited 

monarchy under a king and Parliament. 
397 River Meuse and Namur. In this region occurred some of the 

severe fighting of the World War, resulting in the conquest of 

Belgium. The restoration of that country is one of the main 

issues in the making of peace. 

HOLLAND 

Holland is a little country with a wonderful history. Hemmed in 
the lowlands at the mouth of the Rhine, its greatest prestige has come 
from the sea. Hollanders, or the Dutch, are great sailors and traders, 
their ships being found in every port in the world. As a people they are 
frugal, industrious and clean. They are very independent and very 
brave, maintaining their national life with great courage. 
399, 400, 401, 402, 403 Holland is a limited monarchy with a king and 
Parliament. The people are intensely loyal and interested in 
their government. 
5 Java is a Dutch possession. It is governed by a Governor-Gen- 
eral and a Council. The government as the Javanese see it, is 
carried on through a network of native officials to whom the 
foreign rulers are " elder brothers." There is a daily conference 
between the Dutch and the native chiefs and the Javanese lan- 
guage is always used, the Dutch not being allowed. In the ad- 
ministration of justice the Dutch are subject to laws of the 
Netherlands while the natives are under their own laws. Nearly 



134 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

everywhere in the modern world, we see the principles of self- 
government being applied. 

DENMARK 

Denmark occupies a strategic position at the entrance to the Baltic 
Sea and has in Copenhagen a very fine harbor. Both Germany and 
Russia have wished for the possession of this little country, yet neither 
one has been willing to allow any one else to have it. The importance 
of its position has safeguarded its independence. 

404, 405, 406 Copenhagen is the seat of the Danish government. Den- 
mark is a constitutional monarchy with a king and Rigsdag, or 
national legislature. The Rigsdag consists of a Landsthing, or 
upper house, part of whose members are chosen by the king, 
part by the largest taxpayers and part by the people ; and a 
Folkething, or lower house, chosen by the people. Voters are 
all male citizens over thirty years old not engaged in menial 
household service. 

'NORWAY 

For many years Norway and Sweden were united under the same 
king, each with a parliament of its own. In 1905 they separated, Nor- 
way choosing a prince of Denmark for its king, with the title Haakon 
VII. 

407 to 415 The people of Norway are wonderfully industrious and 
thrifty and very democratic. Women have complete suffrage 
and may hold office. The Storthing or parliament meets annu- 
ally in Christiania. 

SWEDEN 

416, 417 Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government, which is 
a constitutional monarchy. Here the king lives and here the 
Diet, or parliament, meets. The Diet is divided into two houses. 
Only males with property qualifications have full suffrage in 
Sweden. Women have municipal suffrage. 

ITALY AND THE ITALIAN COLONIES 

Italy has an area of 110,623 square miles, almost exactly the size of 
our State of Nevada, and a population of 35,240,000, or about equal to 
one-third of the total population of continental United States. Her 
colonies, Eritrea, Somaliland, and Libia total 595,000 square miles and 
1.379,000 inhabitants. 

Italy's favorable position in the Mediterranean has played an im- 
portant part in the remarkably interesting history of the kingdom and 
its distinguished cities. Even today they find themselves well placed 
both for sea trade via the Mediterranean and its outlets, and for con- 
tinental trade over the railway routes through the Alpine passes. 

Italy's mineral resources are too meager to favor any considerable 
development of the heavier manufactures such as iron and steel; but 



GREECE — GERMAN EMPIRE 135 

coal can be brought in ships from England for less money than it costs 
to send it from Pennsylvania to Duluth, water power is available, and 
raw materials such as silk and cotton are near at hand. For these 
reasons, the textile industries are rapidly growing. Moreover, certain 
events are pending which will tend to bring back to Italy a part of her 
former commercial prosperity and political prestige. These events are 
the rejuvenation of Russia and the probable opening of the Dardanelles; 
the awakening and development of the countries bordering the Medi- 
terranean. Italy's resolve to conquer the lands bordering the Adriatic, 
and her larger plans for naval control of the Mediterranean ; and, above 
all, her renewed self-confidence, intensified patriotic spirit, and increased 
national aspirations. 

450 to 459 Italy is a constitutional monarchy. Today she is showing a 
renewed self-confidence, an intensified national spirit and in- 
creased national aspirations. 
450 Rome is the capital. Here the king lives and here the Senate and 
Chamber of Deputies hold their sessions. Males over twenty* 
one who can read and write are voters. 
454 Naples; 455 Palermo; 458 Milan; 457 Venice. Italy has a splendid 
location for trade. 

GREECE 

475 to 480 Greece too is a limited monarchy, but the people are in con- 
trol. King Constantine, who opposed the wishes of the parlia- 
ment and the people, was deposed and his second son was made 
king in his stead. The democratic tendencies in Greece are very 
strong. 

THE GERMAN EMPIRE 

The present German Empire was formed in 1871, at the close of the 
Franco-Prussian War, by the union of the North German Confedera- 
tion and the South German States and the addition of Alsace-Lorraine. 
Since then the Empire has acquired extensive colonies in Africa and 
the Pacific, and in 1890 obtained by cession from Great Britain the 
island of Heligoland. The total area of the German Empire in Europe, 
before the war, was 208,830 square miles, and its population in 1905 
was 60,641,000. Its colonial possessions before the beginning of the 
World War comprised approximately 1,000,000 square miles of terri- 
tory and numbered about 12,000,000 inhabitants. 

The German Empire occupies a less favorable position, geographically, 
than either Great Britain or France. It has only one coast line and 
that faces northward, away from the commercial regions of the world. 
This coast is flat and sandy, often bordered by dunes or marshes, and 
there are no natural harbors except the estuaries of the rivers flowing 
into the North Sea and the lagoons at the mouths of the rivers flowing 
into the Baltic. Moreover, only a few of the harbors are of sufficient 
depth for ships of largest size, and most of the Baltic ports are closed 
by ice in the winter months. It is not improbable that Germany, ham- 



136 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

pered by these disadvantages, would like to extend her coast line along 
more favorable shores. 

On the landward side, geographical factors are more favorable. Ger- 
many is the most central of the larger countries of Europe and is, 
therefore, a natural distributing point for the continent. Her climate 
is good, and her soils are on the whole productive and capable of sus- 
taining a dense population. Her varied and extensive mineral deposits, 
especially her rich coal and iron mines, furnish the basis for great and 
thriving industries and manufactures. Her numerous rivers and canals, 
aggregating over 9,000 miles of interior waterways, carry not only mer- 
chandise but men and ideas throughout the land, and, like the railways, 
form a geographical and commercial bond of union for the Empire. 

The German people are industrious, frugal, and thrifty, and are 
characterized by devotion to family, love for country, loyalty to king, 
and obedience to authority. Intellectually less quick and versatile than 
the French and Anglo-Saxons, they 'are more persevering and thorough 
and, during the last quarter century, have made more rapid progress in 
the sciences, especially applied sciences, than has any other nation. They 
have produced many eminent poets, writers, philosophers, scientists, 
inventors, and captains of industry, but have been less fortunate with 
their statesmen. Patronage of the fine arts has long been one of their 
national characteristics, and in music especially the Germans have 
exercised an influence far beyond the borders of their Empire. 

In education, industrial, commercial, political, and military and naval 
activities the German people evolved and developed a centralized system 
and organization of great efficiency but out of harmony with the demo- 
cratic spirit of other countries. This system, which has come to be 
called the Prussian system, combined with over-reaching national as- 
pirations and ambitions and the clashing of economic and racial inter- 
ests, resulted in the Great War. 

383 The Reichstag-Gebaude. The German Empire is nominally a 

limited monarchy. The legislative body consists of the Reichstag 
elected by the people and the Bundesrath or Federal Council. 

384 The German Emperor has the executive power and is increasing it 

continually. He is responsible to no one. The chief executive 
officer is an Imperial Chancellor appointed by the Emperor and 
responsible to him instead of to the people's representatives. 
The governmental secretaries are responsible to the Imperial 
Chancellor. This makes the Emperor practically independent 
and gives him autocratic power. 
386, 387, 388, 389, 393 The local government is almost entirely under 
the central power. Education, police, sanitation are national not 
local matters. 

385 Every man in the empire devotes three years to military training, 

which is compulsory. The country has the strongest military 
power in the world, systematically built up with a view to world 
conquest and rule. 
394 Zeppelin. The army is equipped with the latest inventions. 

386 Hamburg. Germany has only one coast, a northern one facing 






AUSTRIA-HUNGARY — RUSSIA 137 

away from commercial regions of the world. This coast is flat 

and sandy with harbors only at the mouths of rivers. Germany 

wants more coast. 
440, 441, 442, 446, 448 The Alps form a natural boundary on the south. 
397 Belgium ; 399 to 403 Holland. Germany opens to the west through 

Holland, Belgium and France. 
468, 469 Bulgaria ; 472, 473, 474 Turkey. She has steadily extended her 

influence southeastwardly toward the Black and Mediterranean 

Seas. 
574 German East Africa as well as other colonial possessions were 

captured by the Allies in the World War. England gained most 

of them. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 

Austria-Hungary is really a union of two countries under the same 
king who must be crowned in both countries. The two countries are 
very jealous of each other, keep themselves as separate as possible and 
have a common administration in only a few matters such as finance, 
war, foreign and commercial affairs. They use the same money and 
the same scale of weights and measures. 

462, 463 At Vienna the Emperor of Austria is crowned. Here the 
Austrian Reichsrat meets and makes laws for Austria. The 
Reichsrat consists of a House of Lords and a House of Deputies. 
464 In Budapest the King of Hungary is crowned. Here the Hun- 
garian Reichsrat meets to make laws for Hungary. It is divided 
into a House of Magnates and a House of Representatives. 
466 Bosnia; 467 Serbia; 470, 471 Roumania. Austria-Hungary con- 
stantly encroached upon her weaker neighbors, trying to make 
them parts of the Empire. 

TURKISH EMPIRE 

472 r 473, 474 Constantinople is the capital of the Turkish Empire. It 
is a place of such strategic importance that no nation has been 
willing to allow any other to have it ; so the weak Turkish gov- 
ernment has been maintained. The government changed from 
an absolute to a limited monarchy. 

492, 493, 494 Syria is a part of the Turkish Empire. 

495,496,497,498 Palestine also is a Turkish province. The Jews and 
Christians of Palestine have suffered from the cruelty of the 
Turks in the World War. 

RUSSIA 

The Republic of Russia comprises 8,754,680 square miles, an area a 
little larger than the mainland of North America, and a population of 
176,000,000 or nearly as many people as live in North America and 
South America combined. Of this great total, 2,095,680 square miles 
and 140,841,000 inhabitants belong to Europe, and the rest to Asia. 

Many geographical and political factors combined to retard the in- 



138 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 

ternal development of Russia, such as her great size and inadequate 
transportation facilities; her unfavorable northern and southern bound- 
aries ; her severe climate ; her rivers, ice-bound in winter and of little 
value in summer because flowing into non-commercial seas ; her vast 
marshes, deserts, and tundras ; her lack of commercial seacoasts and of 
all-year open ports ; her large number of poorly assimilated races and 
tribes ; her former bureaucratic and repressive government ; her difficult 
language ; and her deficient educational system. 

Russia is making strenuous efforts to rid herself of her most serious 
handicaps. New and capable leaders are organizing a liberal and pro- 
gressive government. The educational system is being placed on a par 
with that of other countries. Transportation facilities are being im- 
proved as rapidly as possible. Agriculture is being advanced. Mines 
are being opened to pour forth the enormous mineral wealth of the 
country, including inexhaustible supplies of the most important ore and 
fuels of today — iron, coal, and petroleum. 

Russia is a young nation, not so much in years as in emergence into 
liberty. She is a prolific nation, having doubled her population within 
a century. She is a peace-loving nation and may yet become the decid- 
ing factor in the accomplishment of a permanent peace — the hope of 
the world. 

481 Fins; 486, 487, 488 Slavs; 485 Jews. Russia is peopled by many 

races speaking many languages who have never been assimilated 
into one nation. The Fins are Mongolians. The Jews have 
been persecuted in every possible way. 

482 Petrograd is the capital and seat of the absolute government. 

The Czar was the head of both Church and State. In response 
to a popular demand, a Duma, or popular assembly, was given 
the people and many reforms were made. It was soon found 
that these were never intended to accomplish anything. In 1917 
a democratic uprising forced the Czar to abdicate and a new 
government was formed. 
482 to 488 Russia as a whole is making herculean efforts to adjust her- 
self. New and responsible leaders are organizing a liberal and 
progressive movement. 

CHINA 
China is another nation in a state of change. For centuries it re- 
mained stationary and only lately has awakened to move forward into 
modern life. Dense ignorance and the bondage of custom made change 
very difficult. 

513 to 524 The Chinese Republic dates from Feb. 12. 1912, when by 
edict of the Empress Dowager, the infant king Pu Yi abdicated 
the throne. Yuan Shih-kai was made President and in 1915 
dissolved parliament and announced his intention of becoming 
emperor. 

519 The Chinese rebelled, some provinces seceded and a revolution 
took place. Yuan Shih-kai died shortly. 



JAPAN 139 

516, 518, 519, 521, 523, 52*4 These pictures will give some idea of the 
tremendous change which must take place before China becomes 
a self-governing nation in the American way. The American 
government is the ideal toward which the eyes of Chinese states- 
men are turned. 

JAPAN 

Japan is a limited monarchy whose royal family has held place for 
more than two thousand years. In the last sixty years, Japan has made 
wonderful progress in arts and industries as well as in government. 
526 Tokyo is the Japanese capital. The Mikado or king is the chief 
executive. A legislature of two houses makes the laws. There 
are strong democratic tendencies which strive to make the 
ministers responsible to the representatives of the people instead 
of to the Mikado. Tokyo, Osaka and Kioto have local gov- 
ernments. 
527, 528, 529, 530 The Japanese people are patient and persistent. They 
combine cheerfulness with quick-wittedness ; are versatile ; they 
have enterprise and originality as well as unexcelled powers of 
imitation. They are industrious, clean, kind, calm and brave 
and their women have always been free. 






A SUGGESTION 

The preceding chapter, "Geography by Nations," affords an effective 
means of visualizing the extent of dominion of the leading nations of 
the world by a grouping of the stereographs and lantern slides. An 
interesting class review or a program for a community meeting may 
be had by showing the slides of the various regions with the pupils 
giving the explanation in accordance with the Keystone plan. It is 
suggested, in addition, that the work may be made still more effective 
by having the pupils, who give the explanatory statements for the 
slides, dressed in the costume of the country being presented. The 
presentation of the British Empire, for instance, by pupils dressed 
in the costume of each division of the empire will do more to visualize 
the extent and nature of that government's activities than any amount 
of reading from text. It would be helpful also if the pupils, before 
presenting the slides, would display to the audience wall maps and 
graphic charts showing the extent and relative proportion of land area, 
population and principal products of each country. 

For additional stereographs and slides emphasizing the extent of the 
leading nations, reference should be had to the Keystone View Com- 
pany's General Catalog, covering a world-wide series of travel tours 
and miscellaneous subjects. 

The Publishers. 






9. EARTH NEIGHBORS 

By JAMES F. CHAMBERLAIN, Ed. B., S.B. 

PROFESSOR OF GEOGRAPHY, STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, LOS ANGELES, 

CALIFORNIA 

Morning after morning for unknown ages, the sun has ap- 
peared in a blaze of glory in the eastern sky, and in the eve- 
ning has disappeared with equal grandeur in the west. Night 
after night throughout the centuries people have marveled as 
the worlds have wheeled majestically across the sky. The 
Psalmist gave expression to the influence of these wonderful 
sights upon his life when he said : " The heavens declare the 
glory of God." 

But even to primitive man these phenomena were something 
more than wonderful spectacles. Some of the relationships 
between certain of the heavenly bodies and human affairs, 
were very early recognized. For many centuries people have 
realized their dependence upon the sun. Their daily lives 
have been in large measure ordered by it. The moon has 
illuminated man's pathway at night, and the stars have guided 
his wanderings upon the water as well as upon the land. 

The great telescopes of today, the spectroscope, and pho- 
tography have done much to enlighten man regarding the 
earth's neighbors. Many facts as to distances, dimensions, 
rotation, revolution, density and other conditions have been 
learned. 

Astronomical geography is one of the most important as 
well as one of the most interesting phases of geography. The 
range of the subject is great, including such topics as the 
form of the earth, rotation and revolution and their results, 
latitude, longitude, the zones, the tides and the solar system. 

The educational value of pictures as applied to human 
geography is generally recognized. As applied to astronomical 
geography it would seem at first thought as though only pic- 
tures representing the heavenly bodies could be used. This 
is far from being the case. There are many scenes in the 

141 



142 GEOGRAPHY — EARTH NEIGHBORS 

Keystone " 600 Set " showing the influences of the earth's 
neighbors upon human affairs, a study of which will prove 
very valuable. 

I. THE SUN 

The sun is about 93,000,000 miles from the earth and it is more than 
a million times as large. It is in a gaseous condition and highly heated. 
It furnishes us with both light and heat. Without the sun it would be 
impossible for animals and plants to live on our earth. 
593 The sun, our most important earth neighbor. 
414 Midnight sun, North Cape, Norway. 

A. SOLAR EVAPORATION 
(i) Solar Evaporation as Related to Industry 

Solar evaporation is a very important process, as it is related to 
human life in many ways. The farmer makes use of solar evaporation 
in curing his hay and grain. Through this process the California 
rancher dries peaches, prunes and apricots, and converts grapes into 
raisins. In many parts of the world fish are spread out in the sun- 
shine to dry, and much of the salt that we use is obtained through 
solar evaporation. 
13 Drying codfish in the sunshine. The evaporation removes the 

water from the fish and the salt penetrates them. 
42 Solar method of evaporating salt brine. 

147 Bundles of oats that have dried in an Illinois field by evaporation. 
199 Wheat drying in the shock. Wheat, like other plants, contains a 
very high percentage of water. If the wheat were stacked with 
this water in the stalks and in the kernels, the grain would spoil. 
244 Drying fish on the Yukon River, Alaska. 
310 Drying coffee in the sunshine, Brazil. 
531 Drying sardines, Beppu, Japan. 
325 Drying nitrate and sacking for shipment, Chile. 

(2) Solar Evaporation as Related to Cloud Formation 

High temperature, low humidity and a rapid movement of the at- 
mosphere favor evaporation. Thus, indirectly, solar evaporation is re- 
sponsible for precipitation. 
213, 276, 377, 452, 476 Cloud forms result from evaporation followed by 

condensation. 
441 Overlooking a sea of clouds, Switzerland. 
508 Looking down on clouds, Himalaya Mountains. 
282 On the hills we see shadows cast by clouds. 
102 Double layer of clouds. Fog differs from clouds only in being 

close to the ground. 
264,442,451,525 From all bodies of water, and from land surfaces as 

well, water is constantly being removed in the form of vapor. 

The process is called evaporation. 






SOLAR ENERGY 143 

208, 218, 255, 301, 574 High temperature, wind and a dry atmosphere 

favor rapid evaporation. 
193, 288, 291, 448, 450 As the air rises it cools and contracts, and the 

particles of moisture are crowded closer and closer together. 

Finally the moisture becomes visible in the form of fog, cloud, 

mist, rain, snow or hail. When this occurs, the air is said to 

have reached the condensation point. 
257, 408, 444 Clouds are both a result and an indication of weather 

conditions. Sailors, farmers, mountaineers and others who live 

out of doors much of the time are close observers of cloud 

forms. 
414, 321, 258, 368 When clouds obscure the sun we receive less heat 

from this neighbor of ours than we would if it were clear. 
181, 357, 38 A cloudy day checks evaporation, and the farmer's hay 

or grain which has been cut and left in the field to " cure " 

does not dry rapidly. At such a time the wet clothes hung on 

the line dry slowly. 
308,314,422 Cloudy days are not the most enjoyable for excursions 

and picnics. 

(3) Overcoming Effects of Solar Evaporation 

Where solar evaporation is excessive, plant life is restricted, and 
the forms that grow under these conditions are adapted to store water 
and to reduce its loss. In many desert and semi-arid regions man has 
constructed reservoirs in which water is stored for the irrigation of 
these lands, which thus become highly productive. 

For Conditions Unfavorable for Plant Life, Water Relation to Leaf 
Forms, Light and Heat Relation to Leaf Forms and Food Storage see 
classification Plants and Plant Associations. 
209 Cactus plants so developed as to store water. 
210, 569 Storing water for irrigation. 

198 Cultivating field of sugar beets. Frequent cultivation checks the 
movement of the water from the soil to the surface. This re- 
duces the loss from evaporation. 

B. SOLAR ENERGY 

Although so very distant from us, the sun influences our daily lives 
in many ways. In fact if it were not for the sun, neither plants, ani- 
mals nor human beings could exist upon the earth, for the sun furnishes 
the heat upon which all life depends. 

Light is another blessing which we receive from the sun. But one- 
half of the earth can receive light at a given instant, and as the earth 
rotates upon its axis, there is a constant succession of day and night. 

(1) Influence of Solar Energy Upon Color of Skin 

The color of the skin is dependent upon certain pigment cells de- 
posited under the skin to protect the tissues from the rays of the 
sun. Everyone is familiar with the way in which the skin is tanned by 



144 GEOGRAPHY — EARTH NEIGHBORS 

even a brief vacation in the open. Long ages of exposure to the hot 
tropical or sub-tropical sun and especially under conditions of primi- 
tive life with the practical absence of clothing, naturally produced a 
deeply pigmented skin as found in the Black Race and to a lesser de- 
gree in other races. See classification on Races. 
261' Hula girls, Honolulu, Hawaii. 
562 The dark skinned natives of Egypt. 
572 Black people of tropical Africa. 
578 Natives of Rhodesia, Africa. 
592 Typical natives of Fiji Islands. 

(2) Effect of Solar Energy upon Dress 

280, 284, 285 Workmen dressed in white because of high temperature. 
503, 505, 506 Effect of solar energy upon color of garments and nature 

of headdress, India. 
529, 528, 530 Effect of solar energy reduced by use of wide hats, Japan. 
551,552 Filipino workman. Little clothing is needed where solar 

energy is great. 
572,592 Effect of solar energy upon dress of African and Fiji Island 

natives. 

(3) Protecting Plants from Excessive Solar Energy 

So intense is the heat and the light of the sun in the tropical zone, 
that some of the plants require shade for their most successful growth. 
297 Growing tobacco in shade of banana trees, Cuba. 
302 Picking coffee grown in the shade of banana trees. 

(4) Releasing Solar Energy of Past Ages 

Heat and light from the sun, and a supply of moisture, are essential 
for plant growth. Plants, therefore, represent stored-up solar energy. 
Much vegetation that thrived in past ages has been converted into coal 
and petroleum, thus storing vast amounts of solar energy. 
378 Peat, the first stage in the formation of coal. 

74 Stripping coal at Hazelton, Pa. 

76 Miner drilling and laborer loading anthracite coal, Pa. 

79 Anthracite, soon to release its solar energy by burning. 
129 Coal from Pennsylvania to be shipped westward. 

69 Filling shell with nitro-glycerin — oil field in Pennsylvania. 

70 Shooting oil well. 

122 Oil derricks near Beaumont, Texas. 

123 Crude oil stills, Port Arthur, Texas. 

C. INFLUENCES OF HIGH LATITUDE UPON HUMAN 
AFFAIRS 
Temperature decreases as distance from the equator increases. The 
climate in high latitudes is therefore very different from that in tem- 
perate and tropical regions. Because of this difference, the indirect 
effects of high latitude upon human life are very great. 



FORM OF EARTH — CHANGE OF SEASONS 145 



246 
343 



279 
328 



344 



346 



345 



Relation between latitude and life in northern Alaska. 

Costumes of native Greenland girls. It has a cold climate. Very 
heavy clothing is needed, and this is in large part made from the 
skins of animals. 

Eskimo dog team on trail, Hopedale, Labrador. 

Indians on Straits of Magellan near Punta Arenas. The latitude 
is so high that the sun's rays always fall very slantingly. The 
weather is therefore chilly even in the summer. 

Hauling snow for water supply. Belgica Antarctic expedition. 
1897-99. 

Roald Amundsen, discoverer of the South Pole, Dec. 16, 1911, in- 
specting ice field near glacier, Antarctic Ocean. Occasionally ex- 
plorers spend a winter or two in the icebound polar regions. 
Their vessels freeze in solidly as you see in view 344. The men 
secure some food by hunting, but they must be very careful not 
to get severely frost bitten. 

Showing a method of travel in polar regions and also a seal. 



D. FORM OF THE EARTH 

Until after Columbus discovered America, few people believed the 
surface of the earth to be curved. Now we know the earth is round and 
that night and day are caused by the earth rotating on its axis once 
every twenty-four hours. 

100 Curvature of the earth's surface shown by appearance of distant 
ships. By observing this picture you will see that all of the 
nearest war ship is visible. The one at the left of this one and 
farther away, appears to be much lower. The more distant the 
ship, the smaller the part that can be seen. 

Since approaching and receding ships on all of the oceans 
present this appearance, this is taken as a proof that the sur- 
face of the earth is curved. Objects upon a very level plain ap- 
pear and disappear in the same fashion. 

E. LONGITUDE AND TIME 

353 Chronometer by which the world's time is measured, Greenwich, 
England. 



F. CHANGE OF SEASONS 

You have observed that during the winter the sun appears lower in 
the sky than it does during the summer. In winter the sun's rays fall 
upon the northern hemisphere more slantingly than they do in sum- 
mer. Because of this we receive less heat from the sun during the win- 
ter (although closer to it) than we receive during the summer. 

The change of seasons which occurs year after year with never fail- 
ing regularity, is due to the changing relations between the earth and 
the sun. As the earth rotates upon its axis, it is' also revolving about 
the sun. When the sun's rays fall most directly in the northern hem- 



146 GEOGRAPHY — EARTH NEIGHBORS 

isphere summer occurs in that hemisphere, and winter in the southern 
hemisphere. 

49 American Falls in summer. During the summer the trees at 

Niagara Falls are in full leaf as you see in the picture. The 
grass is green upon the island, and flowers are in bloom. 

50 American Falls in winter. Winter works a wonderful transforma- 

tion at Niagara, as it does in most other places. The trees lose 
their leaves, the grass dies and is buried beneath the snow, and 
ice forms where the water does not flow too swiftly. When the 
snow is quite wet it clings to the branches of the trees as you 
see in the picture, and sometimes breaks them. 

II. THE MOON 

The moon is much nearer to us than is the sun, and yet its distance 
from the earth is nearly ten times as great as the circumference of 
the earth at the equator. 

Besides furnishing light to the earth at night, the moon is the chief 
tide producing power. Tides are related to the shipping interests in all 
parts of the world. You see, therefore, that the moon is related to our 
daily lives in more than one way. 

A. PHASES OF THE MOON 

For explanation of the Moon's Phases see descriptions for stereo- 
graphs and slides. 

594 The full moon. 

595 Moon at age of seventeen days. Taken three days after the time 

of full moon. 

B. LUNAR ILLUMINATION 

Like the earth, the moon receives its light from the sun. A part of 

this light is reflected, and when the side of the earth upon which we 

live is turned away from the sun, the moon illuminates it. 

391 Moonlight on the Rhine, Bingen, Germany. Traveling upon the 

water, as well as traveling upon the land is made much more 

enjoyable because of the light furnished by the moon. 

C. INFLUENCE OF THE TIDES 

Twice each day the water in this, and other harbors on the sea coast 
rises and falls. This regular rise and fall of the water is called the 
tides. The tides are caused by the attractive power of the moon and 
the sun, the moon being the more important of the two. 

The difference between the height of the water at high and low tide 
is called the tidal range. The tidal range at Liverpool is 31 feet. 
347 Landing stage. Liverpool, England. It is a floating pier, and it 
therefore rises and falls with the tide just as the ships do. Be- 






PLANETS — COMET 147 

cause of this, goods and people can be easily loaded or unloaded 
at any time. 

III. PLANETS 

Eight large bodies and many smaller bodies revolve about the sun. 
These are called planets. The eight large planets named in relation to 
their distance from the sun are Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, 
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. 

A. MARS 

Mars is one of the most interesting of our neighbors. It is not so 
near the sun as are Mercury, Venus and the Earth, but it is much 
nearer the sun than are the other planets. A day on Mars is almost 
exactly the same in length as a day on the earth, but the year is 
nearly twice as long as ours. 

596 The planet Mars. See descriptive text on view. 

B. SATURN 

Saturn is immense in size. It is more than nine times as far from 
the sun as is our planet. It is interesting to know that the day on 
Saturn is less than half as long as our day, but the year is equal to 
about twenty-nine of ours. 

The rings shown are composed of countless meteors which are in 
reality very small moons. These extend outward to a distance of 
about 50,000 miles from the surface of Saturn. In addition, the planet 
has 10 larger moons. 

597 The planet Saturn, one of our distant neighbors. See descrip- 



tive text on view. 



C. URANUS 



This planet is at a tremendous distance from the sun, about 19 times 
as far as are we. It is faintly visible to the naked eye, however, which 
tells us that it is of great size. Uranus has 4 moons or satellites, two 
of which are shown. Comparatively little is known about this very dis- 
tant neighbor of ours. 

598 The planet Uranus and two of its moons. See descriptive text on 
view. 

IV. COMET 

Comets have been observed for many centuries. The people of olden 
times regarded them as fore-runners of evil, and as late as 1860 great 
numbers of people in Europe were terrified because of the appearance 
of a very bright comet. In one country a statement was issued to calm 
the fears of the people. It read as follows : " The star threatens ; 
trust only God. He will make all right." Are you not glad that you 



148 GEOGRAPHY — EARTH NEIGHBORS 

can enjoy the beauty of the heavens, and that you do not believe that 

evil will follow the appearance of a comet? 

600 Morehouse's Comet. See descriptive text on view. 

V. METEOR 

It is believed that a meteor is a fragment of a disintegrated comet 
moving at a very great speed. When it approaches our planet near 
enough, it is pulled by the force of gravity to the earth. When it comes 
in contact with the earth's atmosphere, a great heat is developed by 
friction and the meteor burns up in whole or in part before striking the 
earth's surface. 
599 Meteor in constellation of Orion. See descriptive text on view. 



HISTORY AND CIVICS 

INTRODUCTION 
By ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, Ph.D., Litt.D., LL.D. 

PROFESSOR OF GOVERNMENT IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

The old fashioned view of history is that it is made up of 
the heaping together of a multitude of units ; it is supposed to 
be like a wall built of bricks and stones of varying size, every 
one of which must appear in the face; history should be 
something that can be memorized and recited like a multiplica- 
tion table. Wide-awake and modern teachers and writers 
nowadays look on history rather as a grouping of materials 
of many kinds, which are so laid together that all are used in 
the wall, while only the most striking are selected out of the 
immense mass and placed in view. 

This idea of what might be called " composite history " 
carries both pupil and teacher away from the notion that his- 
tory is simply a succession of personalities and events. His- 
tory of the modern type takes account not only of the leaders 
but of the mass of the people, notes not simply episodes but 
tendencies. To the true historian of the United States, Con- 
gresses, Presidents, Constitutions, statutes, legal decisions, 
wars, battles, sieges and treaties are only the external part; 
they are of value only so far as they illustrate the great theme 
of the nation's growth, the nation's mind and standards. 

The proper aim of all teaching of history is to make young 
people realize that their country in times past has been carried 
on by people like themselves. That involves making them 
familiar with the social and economic life of the past, as well 
as with political events. Modern historians recognize that the 
first necessity for a civilized community is that people should 
be able to make a living in the midst of a varied and confused 
life. Often the characteristic things are the everyday pur- 
suits. Raising corn is a more important part of the nation's 
activities than making rifles. The district school, as an insti- 
tution, has had more influence on the United States than the 
Supreme Court. The modern teaching must therefore touch 
many sides of the national experience. 

149 



150 HISTORY AND CIVICS — INTRODUCTION 

Word descriptions do not carry young minds very far. 
Hence nearly all school textbooks of history contain maps 
and illustrations. Flat pictures always require an allowance 
for perspective and proportions. The stereoscope, especially 
in the stereographic form of the Keystone Views, which 
brings out the detail in amazing clearness of perspective, is 
especially adapted to school use. The units of the slides or 
views can be combined and recombined so as to illustrate a 
great variety of interests, scenes and processes. 

For history, the Keystone system is especially convenient 
and helpful because it helps to weld together in children's 
minds the scene and the event. The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence means twice as much when the Liberty Bell stands 
out in relief. The economic side of slavery is emphasized by 
a picture of negroes working in the cotton fields. Our great 
dependency, the Philippines, is brought home to us by a few 
stereographs of the life of the Filipino peasants. 

Civics is a subject notoriously hard to make clear by pic- 
tures. It is worked out more in men's minds than in such 
episodes as the attack at Gettysburg or the capture of the 
Alamo. Nevertheless the application of government can be 
freely illustrated, in a great variety of subjects, such as the 
control of territory, the encouragement of agriculture, the 
limitation of fisheries, mining trades, and transportation. 

The method within which the Keystone Views can be 
worked has been developed in detail by the Committee of 
Eight of the American Historical Association, 1909. As the 
report puts it : " In order to secure satisfactory results, even 
a scholarly and sympathetic teacher needs suitable tools. * * * 
Books, maps, charts, objects, and pictures are absolutely neces- 
sary — the child craves more life. He likes movement. He is 
especially fond of the dramatic, the picturesque, the personal, of 
deeds of daring, of tales of heroism, of thrilling adventure. 
He cannot grasp the meaning of events, nor can he appreciate 
causal relations ; but he can understand certain simple facts, 
elementary ideas, the universal truths symbolized in stories, 
incidents, and episodes ; and these facts, ideas, and truths 
appeal in a moving way to his emotions, his imagination, and 
his will. To this end free use should be made of pictures, 
photographs, scrap-books, and blackboard illustrations, and 
something should be done with games and dramatization." 



10. FOREIGN BEGINNINGS OF 
AMERICAN HISTORY 

By HUTTON WEBSTER, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF 
NEBRASKA, LINCOLN, NEB. 

The views in this section have been selected with the pur- 
pose of setting forth what may be called the foreign back- 
ground of American History. It is difficult to realize that 
all history is related, and that in order to understand the 
story of any nation we must trace its people with their habits 
and cusoms to their sources. 

For example, America was settled by people from Spain, 
England, France, Holland and other European countries. 
Every one of these nations derived its civilization largely from 
Rome and Roman influence can still be seen especially in gov- 
ernment. Now Rome, in turn, took her ideas from Greece. 
But civilization did not originate in Greece, for the Greeks 
learned very many things from the Phoenicians who had 
been influenced by the people of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley 
and by Egyptians who occupied the Valley of the Nile. 

Pupils in American History who follow only the course of 
events in the New World in the last four hundred years some- 
times fail to see that American history is really a continuation 
of a growth which had its beginning many centuries ago in 
the Old World. Each nation modifies what it receives to 
suit its own ideas and needs, and yet, in one sense we may say 
that the history of the United States and of every other mod- 
ern nation began with the beginnings of civilization. 

I. THE ORIENT 

Civilization first rose in the valleys of the Nile and of the Tigris- 
Euphrates rivers. The Egyptians and Chaldeans were therefore the 
teachers of the ancient East. Their arts and sciences spread by con- 
quest, trade and travel, entered Syria and Asia Minor and in time be- 
came the common possession of the Oriental people. 

151 



152 HIST. AND CIV.— FOREIGN BEGINNINGS 

a. Egypt 

561, 566, 564, 565, 567, 568 Here we see the beginning of art and archi- 
tecture. The first pyramids were made of sun-dried bricks. 
About 3000 b. c. the Egyptians learned to cut blocks of lime- 
stone with their copper tools and thus they put together the 
first stone masonry. 

558 Founded by Alexander the Great in 332 b. c, it became the chief 
commercial city of the Orient where sea routes and caravan 
routes converged. Alexandria in ancient times was also a re- 
nowned seat of learning with a library and museum which at- 
tracted scholars from all parts of the civilized world. It was a 
central point from which learning of all kinds was spread over 
the world. 

b. Syria 

Lying between Egypt and the Tigris-Euphrates valley, Syria was 
overrun and conquered at various times by both people, so united both 
civilizations. The northern part was the home of the ancient Phoeni- 
cians, the first sailors, the first commercial people of the world, and the 
makers of the first alphabet from which all other alphabets have been 
derived. 

The southern part of Syria was occupied by the Jews from whom 
came our ethics and our religion. The Bible, both Old and New Testa- 
ments, was written by Jews and today the Bible is a direct influence in 
modern life. Today many Jews and Syrians have found homes in 
America. 

492 Beirut was one of the most ancient and important of the Phoenician 

settlements. It formed a center from which Oriental commerce 
and culture spread westward over the Mediterranean. The mod- 
ern city is connected with Damascus by a railroad across the 
Lebanon Mountains. 

493 Damascus, the " Pearl of the Orient " is one of the oldest cities 

in the world. It is frequently referred to in the Bible. It was 
situated on the old caravan route by which trade was carried on 
between India and China and the countries of Europe. When 
Southwest Asia was taken by the Mohammedan Turks, this cara- 
. van route was closed to Christian Europe. Then came the search 
for a different route to India and China which resulted in the 
discovery of America. 

495 David, king of the Hebrews, chose for a capital the ancient for- 

tress of Jerusalem, which occupied a strong position on Mount 
Zion in the hill country erf Palestine. Here he fixed the Ark, 
the sanctuary of Jehovah, and here his son Solomon raised the 
famous Temple, and here occurred many events in the life of 
Jesus, his trial and crucifixion. From David's time to the pres- 
ent Jerusalem has been a Holy City, first to the Jews, then to 
the Christians, and, finally, to the Mohammedans. 

496 The Christian religion with its high moral standards has had a 

wonderful influence on the life of the nations of the world. 



THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD 153 

497 In the background the village of Nazareth, looking much the same, 
no doubt, as it did at the time of Christ. 

c. Asia Minor 

The culture of the Greeks and later the Christian religion spread 
through the countries of Asia Minor and later over Europe. 
489 The Greeks were the first to plant colonies on both sides of this 

narrow strait which separates Asia from Europe. 
491 Tarsus at the time of Christ was an important center of Greek 
learning and culture. Here lived " Saul of Tarsus," afterwards 
the Apostle Paul, who carried Christianity to the pagans, or Gen- 
tiles, of Asia Minor, Macedonia, Greece, and Italy. 

II. THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD 

Oriental civilization passed at length from the East to the West and 
centered in the basin of the Mediterranean. The situation of Greece 
at the threshold of Asia, with its best harbors and most numerous is- 
lands on the eastern coast, enabled the country early to receive and 
profit by all the culture of the Orient. Italy, on the other hand, looked 
away from Greece and the Orient toward Gaul, Spain, and northwest- 
ern Africa. Hence civilization, moving slowly toward the setting sun, 
reached Italy from Greece only at a late period of ancient history. 
Eventually, however, the extension of the Roman Empire over the bar- 
barian peoples of western Europe widened the area of the civilized 
world to the shores of the Atlantic. 

a. Greece 

Some writers go so far as to claim that every good thing in our west- 
ern civilization came to us through the Greeks. Literature, art, govern- 
ment, science, architecture, philosophy, all were highly developed in 
Greece and have come directly to the modern nations. Very many au- 
thorities claim that the Greek civilization was the best the world has 
known. 

475 In art, in literature, in science and in philosophy, the Athenians 
were teachers of the world. In Athens were the most perfect 
examples of architecture and sculpture ; drama, oratory, phi- 
losophy and poetry reached a degree of excellence that has never 
been surpassed. In Athens democracy was born. 

477 Next to Athens, Corinth was the most important commercial city 

in Greece. The Romans destroyed it in the second century b. c, 
but it was rebuilt by Caesar in 59 b. c. and became one of the 
great cities of the Roman Empire. At Corinth was established 
one of the early Christian churches. To the members of this 
church St. Paul wrote two letters which, under the title " Epistles 
to the Corinthians," form an important part of the New Testa- 
ment. 

478 At Olympia in southern Greece, the Olympian games in honor of 



154 HIST. AND CIV.— FOREIGN BEGINNINGS 

Zens were held every fourth year. Many splendid buildings in- 
cluding the Stadium for athletic contests, the Hippodrome for 
chariot races and the temple of Zeus, covered the site. Only 
Greeks were allowed to compete, but people from all over the 
world came to the games. Here treaties between nations were 
read, poems were recited, artists came to exhibit and to study 
the athletes as models and goods from all over the world were 
displayed for sale. When these visitors returned home they car- 
ried with them bigger and broader ideas, better knowledge of 
people of other countries and so civilization spread. 

b. Italy and Sicily 

Sicily was settled by Greeks and for a long period was the center of 
trade and learning in the west. It was finally conquered by Rome and 
became the first Roman province. 

During the Roman empire, the other cities of Italy were overshadowed 
by the dominant power of Rome, but during the middle ages such cities 
as Florence, Milan, Genoa kept alive and fostered learning and indus- 
trial arts and transmitted them to the modern nations. During the 
middle ages, Venice, Naples, Genoa and others were the great commer- 
cial centers of the world trading with the Orient. Very many great 
navigators, as Columbus, the Cabots, Verrazano and Amerigo Vespucci 
were Italians. When the trade of these citfes was interrupted by the 
capture of the eastern routes by the Turks, they began to think of other 
routes and this resulted in the discovery of America. 

455 Palermo is the largest city and the commercial center of Sicily. 

From this port start most of the Sicilian immigrants to the 
United States. In medieval times Palermo was even more im- 
portant than now, for both the Moslems and the Normans made 
it the capital of their possessions in Sicily. 
454 Naples, the ancient Neapolis, was one of the first Hellenic colonies 
in Italy. From the eighth century b. c. onwards it formed a cen- 
ter of Greek culture and even today it possesses a large Greek 
population. Many Italians sail from Naples to make their homes 
in the United States. 

456 The Florentines in the Middle Ages were renowned for their bank- 

ing houses and manufactures. Florence was one of the cities 
which perfected banking systems and book-keeping. In Florence 
lived the Italian scholar Paolo Toscanelli to whom Columbus 
wrote for advice as to sailing across the Atlantic to Asia. 
Toscanelli replied with a letter and a map. Amerigo Vespucci 
for whom America is named also was a native of Florence. He 
lived in Cadiz, Spain, when Columbus started out. In 1501, in 
the service of the king of Portugal he made a voyage in which 
he touched South America. Verrazano, a Florentine navigator 
in the employ of France, sailed for America in 1524. 

457 During the Middle Ages, Venice became the greatest city of the 

Mediterranean region. She had many possessions and ships of 
every nation crowded her quays. Her merchants went every- 



WESTERN EUROPE 155 

where and her sailors were among the best in the world. Marco 
Polo whose writings had so great an influence on Columbus, was 
a Venetian. Also John Cabot the discoverer of the continent of 
America was a Venetian citizen in the English service. 

c. Rome 

The countries of modern Europe, with the exception of Russia, are 
parts of the old Roman empire and a very large part of law as we know 
it is derived from the old Roman law. The French, Spanish, Portuguese 
and Italian languages are almost purely Latin while English is, roughly 
speaking, about half Latin. 

Rome became also the center of the western branch of the Christian 
Church and from Rome came the influences which christianized the peo- 
ple of Europe. Every day, in untold ways we feel in our daily lives the 
influences of Rome. 

450 No other city fills so large a place in the world's history. 

451 St. Peter's is the largest Christian church in the world. It was 

partly to extend the Christian religion that Columbus made his 
voyages. 

d. Constantinople 

472, 473, 474 For many years Constantinople was the head of the Roman 
Empire and the Christian Church. The Emperor Justinian at 
Constantinople finally had the codification of the Roman law com- 
pleted. When the Turks captured Constantinople and the east, 
merchants of Venice and Genoa were compelled to look for other 
routes to China and the Indies. 



III. WESTERN EUROPE 

Within what had once been the Roman Empire new European nations 
grew up and rose to importance during the Middle Ages. At the close 
of medieval times came the discovery and settlement of America, a con- 
tinent whose aboriginal inhabitants could offer little resistance to the 
explorers, missionaries, traders, and colonists from the Old World. 
The Spanish and Portuguese in the sixteenth century followed by the 
French, English, and Dutch in the seventeenth century, repeopled 
America and brought to it European civilization. Europe expanded 
into a Greater Europe beyond the ocean. 

a. British Isles 

Many of the early explorers, like Drake, Raleigh, John Smith, were 
Englishmen. The original thirteen colonies of the United States were 
settled mostly by people from the British Isles. They brought with them 
their English ways of living, their English learning and religion, and 
especially their English theories and practices of law and government. 
These ideas had a new growth in America, new icjeals developed and 
now American democracy is spreading all over the earth. 



156 HIST. AND CIV.— FOREIGN BEGINNINGS 

347 Liverpool is the world's principal seaport and the terminus of many 

steamship lines, including those to the United States. The com- 
mencement of the prosperity of Liverpool dates from the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. 

348 London Bridge, London, England. 

350 In Westminster Abbey were crowned the kings who ruled the 

English Colonies until 1776. 

351 London during the nineteenth century was the money center of 

the world. 

352 Here and in the House of Commons were passed the Navigation 

Acts, the Stamp Act, the Townsend Acts and all the other bills 
which led up to the Revolutionary war which separated the 
United States from England. 

353 A view showing the large chronometer clock by which the world's 

time is measured. As is well known, British and the majority of 
foreign geographers reckon longitude from the meridian of 
Greenwich. 

354 Shows the house, restored in 1857, in which was born the poet 

whose genius transcended national boundaries and made him a 
citizen of all the world. The three-hundredth anniversary of 
Shakespeare's death was appropriately observed in 1916 in the 
United States. Many of our early colonists came from homes of 
this kind to live in the wilderness in America. No doubt many 
early settlers in their log houses were homesick for the homes 
they had left. 

355 The cottage stands in substantially the same condition as when 

Shakespeare courted here his future wife. It is still occupied by 
a descendant of the Hathaway family. 

360 York, the ancient Eboracum, formed the capital of the Roman 

province of Britannia. In York Constantine the Great, whose 
conversion to Christianity paved the way for the triumph of that 
faith over paganism, was proclaimed emperor. Most of the very 
early colonists came from York. 

361 It must have been hard to leave a developed country with its homes 

and cultivated fields and come to a perfectly new, wild land. 

365, 366, 368, 372, 373 Among the early settlers in America were many 
Scotch people. With their thrifty ways they made very de- 
sirable citizens. 

374 Queenstown is a port of call for American mail steamers and an 
emigration station of the British government. The terrible 
famine in Ireland in 1846 started a great emigration movement, 
and between that date and 1905 nearly five million people left the 
country. Most of them came to the United States. In recent 
years, however, the number of Irish emigrants has greatly de- 
clined. 

375, 378 There are said to be more Irish in America now than there 
are in Ireland. 

380 The Northmen, or Vikings, as they are often called, conquered a 
considerable part of Ireland during the ninth century. The first 



HOLLAND — FRANCE — SPAIN 157 

cities on Irish soil, including" Dublin and Limerick, were founded 
by the Northmen. 

b. Holland 

New York was first settled by the Dutch whose influence is still felt. 
From among the descendants of these Dutch settlers have come very 
many of our prominent men, as for instance, Theodore Roosevelt. The 
Pilgrims before coming to America had taken refuge in Holland. 
399, 402 Thrifty, industrious and clean, the Hollanders have helped in 

the development of our country. 
400 Among Dutch seaports Rotterdam is second in importance only to 

Amsterdam. It was a Dutch vessel that brought the first slaves 

to America in 1619. 

c. Norway and Sweden 

The first people who came to America were Norsemen, led by Eric the 
Red, in 1000 a. d. They made no use of their discovery however. The 
cold climate and poor soil of the Scandinavian peninsula caused the 
people to become men of the sea. A greater influence came to America 
from the Northmen indirectly through England and France. Great 
numbers of Norwegian and Swedish immigrants have settled in western 
New York, Minnesota and the northwest. They are very prosperous. 

408, 409 Typical scenes in the country which sent out the Northmen. 

418, 419 Between 1638 and 1647, Swedish people established five or six 
trading posts along the Delaware; but as the home government 
made no provison for their defense they were easily captured by 
the Dutch in 1655. 

d. France 

Cartier and Champlain were the first French explorers. People from 
France first settled Canada and the Mississippi Valley. Indeed the laws 
of Louisiana are based upon the French code instead of the English. 
France sent money and men to help in the American Revolution and 
later, inspired by the example of the United States, set up a republican 
form of government. 

421 Paris in Roman times was only a little settlement on an island in 
the Seine. The Romans called it Lutetia Parisiorum, the capital 
of the Celtic tribe of the Parisii. The city became the capital 
of the French kingdom in 987, when Hugh Capet, founder of the 
long-lived Capetian dynasty, became king of France. 

422, 424, 425 French people coming to America brought with them 
French ideas of architecture, art and science. Paris was the 
capital, the residence of the French kings who ruled so auto- 
cratically. French colonies in America had almost no self gov- 
ernment. 

e. Spain 

No European country has had greater influence upon the western con- 
tinent than Spain. The early discoverers and explorers were nearly 



158 HIST. AND CIV.— FOREIGN BEGINNINGS 

all Spaniards or in the Spanish service and that nation obtained control 
of the lands from California to the Straits of Magellan. Later Spain 
lost all this territory yet it is still called Spanish America because the 
Spanish language and customs prevail and the ruling people are either 
wholly or in part of Spanish blood. 

433 Shows the monument in honor of Columbus. Barcelona was an 

important city in the Middle Ages. Its merchant ships traded in 
the North Sea, the Baltic, and the Mediterranean. The dis- 
covery of America struck a blow at its prosperity, by trans- 
ferring commercial supremacy to the seaports of Western Spain. 
In the nineteenth century the city became again a leading center 
of Spanish trade and industry. 

434 Burgos, showing the Cathedral. 

435 Panorama of Madrid. 

436 The Alhambra is a wonderful building in Moorish architecture, the 

palace of the ruler when Granada was the capital of the Moorish 
kingdom in Spain. Columbus followed the court of Ferdinand 
and Isabella to the camp before Granada. He was in time to 
witness the surrender of the city. He beheld Boabdil, the last 
of the Moorish kings, sally forth from the Alhambra and yield 
up the keys to a Christian king and queen. Ferdinand and 
Isabella then listened to the plans of Columbus. 

f. Germany 

387, 388, 389, 390, 393 While Germans were not among the discoverers 
and explorers of America, German settlers began to come at a 
very early date, especially to Pennsylvania. Today a vast num- 
ber of American citizens are of German descent. 

383, 384, 385 The German autocracy and militarism have compelled the 
United States to enter the World War. 

g. Africa 

570, 572, 577, 578 The ten million negroes of the United States did not 
come from a civilized country as the white people did. At the 
time of their emancipation and enfranchisement many of them 
had not advanced very far in civilization. Here is a background 
for the " negro problem " which will take the best thought and 
work of the best people of both races if it is properly solved. 






11. FOUNDATIONS OF THE AMERICAN 
NATION 

By ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, Ph.D., LittD., LL.D. 

PROFESSOR OF GOVERNMENT IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

GENERAL PURPOSE 

The purpose of this section is to introduce the pupil to the 
formative period of American history, extending from the 
earliest discoveries by Europeans to the organization of the 
federal government under the constitution of 1787. This 
naturally includes the physical background of American his- 
tory — the face of the country, then the original inhabitants, 
and finally some of the scenes of the Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary history. 

A. LAND 

A necessary foundation for the study of Colonial and later American 
history is some knowledge of the land in which we live, its scenery, its 
products and its capacities. The Keystone Views are rich in this kind 
of illustration. 

(i) Surface 

279, 117 Every kind of climate is found in the American Continent giv- 
ing a wonderful variety of productions. 

262, 38, 73 In the east, most of the land is undulating with broken 
country and numerous low mountains. 

102, 101 The eastern mountains are usually rather low, parallel ranges 
with flat tops. 
1, 2, 70, 103, 107, 130 The whole area was originally heavily wooded 
except comparatively small " intervales " or flats. 

113 Trees had to be cut away. The early settler's home was the log 
cabin. 
2, 189, 196, 232 All over the country wild game was very abundant. 
The beaver was especially sought. The settlement of Canada, 
the Great Lake region and the exploration of the Upper Mis- 
souri country were largely influenced by the trade in beaver 
furs. Wild animals were valuable for food both to the Indians 
and the early settlers. 
38, 39, 51, 101 A plentiful rainfall causes full streams, but very few 
of the eastern rivers cut through the Appalachian Highland. 

159 



160 FOUNDATIONS AMERICAN NATION 

43, 48 The Mohawk River flowing east from the Lake region to the 
Hudson, made a valley through which a canal and railroads have 
been easily built. 
264, 265, 267, 157, 48, 154 The St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes with 
the canals which have been built form one of the greatest inland 
waterways in the world. 

49, 50 The most wonderful of all waterfalls, lying between Lake Erie 
and Lake Ontario breaks the navigation of the St. Lawrence 
system. Many interesting events of Colonial history are con- 
nected with these two lakes and falls between them, such' as 
Champlain's and later La Salle's expeditions, Hennepin's visit 
and the French and Indian War. • 

61, 170, 174, 120 The Mississippi River valley contains nearly a million 
square miles of land. The soil is fertile, climate suited to the 
growth of vegetation and communication was easy. No other 
land of its size is so well suited to the uses of mankind. 
3, 4, 69, 70, 76, 155, etc. A vast mineral wealth underlies a large part 
of the country. 

27,13,25,26,52,100,106,264,267 Splendid harbors encouraged com- 
merce. 

(2) Trees 

1 Timber was one of the important products of the New World. 
Masts and materials for ships and houses were exported from 
early times. New England built ships which traded in every 
port of the world. 

107 The pine trees of the southern states yielded rich supplies of tim- 
ber, turpentine, tar, etc. 

103 In Colonial times all the iron was smelted from charcoal made in 
such pits. 

130 Also the Indians taught them to make maple sugar. 

175 Apple trees brought from Europe were planted by the colonists. 
You can hardly imagine how they waited for the first fruit from 
these early trees. 

(3) Agriculture 

147 The early colonists brought grains, such as wheat and oats, with 
them and they soon became staple crops. 

137, 184 The Indians showed them how to plant and raise corn, the 
native American grain. It became a principal food. 

112 Tobacco was the principal money crop of the South in Colonial 
times. In order to get a monopoly of the American tobacco 
trade, King Charles I called a General Assembly to meet at 
Jamestown. The holding of this assembly established the prece- 
dent for summoning legislative bodies in all the colonies. 

104, 105 Rice was a staple crop in South Carolina in the Colonial pe- 
riod. The planters greatly desired slaves for work in the rice 
fields. 

117 Cotton also was raised but it did not become very profitable until 
the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793. 



ORIGINAL AMERICANS 161 

173 This picture may remind us that in Colonial times every household 
raised its own wool which the women spun, colored, wove, and 
made into garments by hand. Wealthy people imported fine 
cloth. 

185, 183, 173 These can not be called Colonial pictures but they will 
make us remember that the colonists raised their own animals 
for meat and milk. They made their own butter. Corn meal 
mush a«d milk was a highly valued article of food. Every fam- 
ily salted its meat for winter use. 

258 Throughout the Colonial period, sugar cane was an important 
product of the West Indies. Great quantities of molasses were 
Drought to New England as the raw material for rum. When 
the English parliament laid a tax on molasses, the Americans 
smuggled. 

B. ORIGINAL AMERICANS 

(i) Eskimos 

343 The Eskimo race is probably not Indian in origin. With some ad- 
ditions of modern woven goods the dress of the Eskimo nowa- 
days is about the same as when the Northmen first came into 
contact with them. 

(2) Indians 

(a) American Indians 
American history has been much affected by the native American 
tribes. There were probably never more than a few hundred thousand 
Indians in the area covered by the United States. The Indians seem at 
first to have been friendly and usually it was the white man's treachery 
and cruelty which changed the Indians into bitter enemies. Most of 
the tribes have died out; others have been exterminated or assimilated. 

98 A modern staging of the celebrated story. The saving of John 
Smith saved the Jamestown colony. 

265 The Iroquois lived in what is now New York. When Henry Hud- 
son was on the Hudson River he made friends with these 
Indians. At the same time Champlain was exploring Lake 
Champlain and he killed a few Iroquois thereby making them 
enemies of the French. These Indians always sided with the 
Dutch and English against the French and helped to prevent the 
French from gaining control of America. 

263 These people do not look much like the " savages " of Colonial 
history. The tent of bark or skin was the home known to most 
of the Indians in the northern part of America. 

204 This picture shows the outfit of brave, squaw, papoose and dog. 
Horses were brought to America by the European settlers and 
were adopted by the plains Indians. 

182 The powerful Sioux tribes ranged from Minnesota to Montana; 
down to 1876 from time to time they waged war against the 
whites. 



162 FOUNDATIONS AMERICAN NATION 

(b) The Indian of Poetry 

Modern impressions of Indian life have been much affected by the 
novels of Cooper and the poems of Longfellow, both of which were 
carefully studied from the life of modern Indians. The Indians in their 
formal speeches are really poetic and love the similes and comparisons 
which the novelist and poet put in their mouths. 

158 " Nursed the Hiawatha." A pleasant picture of outdoor infancy. 
169 " From the wigwam he departed." The conical Indian wigwam 
made of skins or cloth, sometimes of bark, is a comfortable little 
house. The canoe is one of the important American inven- 
tions. 
168 " Brought forth food and set before them." Some Indians still 
wear the magnificent feather headdresses enjoyed by some of 
the tribes. 

(c) Indians Farther South 

In the southwestern United States and thence farther south, can be 

traced a more elaborate and advanced state of life. Coronado in 1540 

found the ancestors of the present Zuni Indians living in stone pueblos 

such as are still occupied. 

205 Cliff palace in the Mesa Verda. Among the most interesting 
memorials of the Indians are the cliff dwellings, evidently built 
when the inhabitants were hard pressed by enemies in the open 
country. The more important groups of such dwellings are pre- 
served as national monuments. 

290 Mexican musicians and dancing girls. Probably most of these 
people are of Spanish descent, many of them mixed with native 
Indians. The customs of Spain and of the ancient inhabitants of 
Mexico are mingled in these people. 

292 Tortilla making, Salvador. These people are probably wholly or 
nearly pure Indian. They are of the same stock as the native 
Nicaraguans and Panamanians. 

331 Natives near wall of Incan palace, Cuzco. These Indians are di- 
rect descendants of the Peruvians who were conquered by 
Pizarro in 1528. They are standing under one of the most mag- 
nificent walls ever constructed by human hands, a wonderful ex- 
ample of the wealth and skill of the ancient Incas. 

328 Indians on the Straits of Magellan. These people, though a long 
way from the United States, are connected with the early his- 
tory of America because their ancestors were found by Magel- 
lan in his famous first voyage around the world in 1525. 

C. EARLY HISTORY 

299, 298, 301 On his second voyage Columbus sailed along the south 
coast of Cuba. Also he discovered Jamaica in this same voy- 
age. 

278 In 1497, John Cabot anchored off Labrador or in some harbor 
of Newfoundland and claimed the land for England. 



EARLY HISTORY 163 

256 In 1543, Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama somewhere a little 
south of where the canal now is, and saw the Pacific Ocean for 
the first time. In reporting this discovery, he recommended 
that a canal be dug connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

280 Cortez landed in Mexico and named the place where he landed, 
Vera Cruz. 

282, 283 Cortez with his small army captured the city of Mexico. 

228, 209, 207, 241 Cabeza de Vaca, Narvaez, Coronado and other Span- 
iards wandered through the southwest and claimed it for Spain. 
Coronado described the "crooked back oxen" (232) which he 
found. 

108, 109, 110 Through Florida, Ponce de Leon sought the fountain of 
perpetual youth. 

120 De Soto with his six hundred knights wandered from South Car- 
olina to Arkansas. De Sota was buried in the Mississippi River 
and his men voyaged down the stream to its mouth and back to 
the Spanish settlements in Mexico. 

263 Jacques Cartier, the first great French explorer, found his way 

through the Strait of Belle Isle and landed on Prince Ed- 
ward Island. He then returned to France. 

264, 265, 267 The next year he sailed up the St. Lawrence till stopped 
by the Lachine Rapids. He passed the bluff where Quebec 
stands and gave the name Mount Royal to the high hill at whose 
base Montreal stands. He stopped to barter for furs at the 
Indian villages which occupied both these magnificent sites. 

262 As early as 1604 French people settled in Acadia, now Nova 
Scotia. 

264 Quebec was founded by Champlain. It was attacked by the Eng- 

lish several times and was finally captured by Wolf in the 
French and Indian War. 
61 Pittsburgh, Pa. This position was a strategic one in Colonial his- 
tory and fierce battles were waged between the French and Eng- 
lish for its position. 
100 The first English settlers passed through Hampton Roads. 
98 If it had not been for the resourceful leadership of Captain John 

Smith, the colony at Jamestown could not have survived. 
113 The first homes were log cabins of the rudest sort. 
96 This is the type of home occupied by rich planters of a later day. 
112 Tobacco became the chief source of wealth, and was largely used 

instead of money. 
117 (see 572) Negro slaves were first brought to Jamestown in 1619. 
25, 39, 51 When Henry Hudson first entered this great bay and river, 
it presented a vastly different appearance, for it was all wild 
country. 
13 New England was rich in harbors and lumber so the New Eng- 
enders became fishermen and sailors. 
8 The Old State House has been the historic center of many stirring 
scenes. From its balcony the repeal of the Stamp Act was 
proclaimed and at the end of the Revolution peace with England 



164 FOUNDATIONS AMERICAN NATION 

was proclaimed from the same place. Directly in front of it oc- 
curred the Boston massacre. 
7 Faneuil Hall was called the " crade of Liberty" for in it before 
and during the Revolution were held important political meet- 
ings. After the massacre at Boston citizens under Samuel 
Adams met in Faneuil Hall and demanded the removal of British 
troops. 
6 From the tower of Old North Church was hung the signal lantern 

which sent Paul Revere to rouse the minute men. 
10 Here the minute men first opposed the English soldiers. 

" By the rude bridge that arched the flood, 

Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, 

Here once the embattled farmers stood 

And fired the shot heard round the world.'' — Emerson. 

9 When Washington was sent by Congress to take command of the 
Americans who were around Boston, he established headquarters 
in this house. 

80 Old Liberty Bell in Independence Hall, one of the most prized 
possessions of the nation. Independence Hall was erected 1729— 
34. In it the Continental Congress met, Washington was made 
commander-in-chief of the American Army in 1775 and the Dec- 
laration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776. 

39 West Point was the American stronghold on the Hudson. Bene- 
dict Arnold made an attempt to give it into the hands of the 
English. 

37 In this house built by Jonathan Hasbrouck, General Wash- 
ington wrote this famous letter of rebuke to Colonel Lewis 
Nicola who on behalf of several army officers suggested that he 
assume the title and office of king. 



12. DEVELOPMENT OF OUR NATION 

By H. MORSE STEPHENS, M.A., Litt.D. 

PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 
BERKELEY, CAL. 

More and more we are coming to realize that the political 
life of a country is very largely controlled by its economic de- 
velopment and so wars are not considered the chief subject 
matter of history. Children are not now expected to learn 
long lists of battles and dates, nor to remember isolated politi- 
cal facts. Instead, they are led to find the causes and results 
of political life in economic conditions. These views are espe- 
cially rich in suggestive material which will help children to 
understand the causes and results of historical facts. 

I. EARLY NATIONAL PERIOD 

A. POLITICAL EVENTS 
1784-1846 

96 After the Revolutionary War, Washington retired to his beloved 
home, Mt. Vernon, where he lived the life of a contented planter. 

29 On the 30th of April, 1789, Washington took the oath of office. 
He stood on the balcony of the old Federal Hall, whose site is 
now occupied by the New York Sub-Treasury building. New 
York was the temporary capital. 

90,93 In 1790 the place for the capital of the United States was 
chosen. The plan for the city was drawn by L'Enfant, a French 
architect. In 1790, instead of the streets and buildings shown in 
these views, there was nothing but virgin forest. 

91 John Adams was the first president to occupy the White House. 
At that time the city of Washington contained the White 
House and Capitol, both unfinished, and two or three big bare 
boarding houses. 

87 When Congress met for the first time in the capitol, the roof was 

lacking and a huge canvas tent was spread to protect the law- 
makers. The first capitol was burned in 1814 when the British 
captured Washington. 

88 Nearly all the great lawmakers of our country have sat in this 

room. Here Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, 
165 



166 DEVELOPMENT OF NATION 

John Quincy Adams have worked. Here were discussed the 
Alien and Sedition Laws, the Missouri Compromise, and here 
has been read every President's message except Washington's. 

89 The Supreme Court is the unique feature of the United States 
government. No other nation allows a court to declare a law 
null and void. The great Chief Justice John Marshall, by his 
decisions greatly built up the feeling of nationality in the 
United States. 

92 Cabinet meetings have had wonderful influence upon United 
States history. Differences of opinion concerning a United 
States Bank were held by Hamilton, the first Secretary of the 
Treasury, and Jefferson, the first Secretary of State. The peo- 
ple of the country also divided on this matter. In this way 
the great political parties of the United States originated. 

38 From 1784 to 1846, the United States was mostly an agricultural 
country with few large cities. 

71 This was the usual method of conveyance. 

B. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES 
1789-1846 

During this period the United States was an agricultural country. 

Fields were small for they must be planted, cultivated and the harvest 

gathered by hand. There were in the beginning almost no factories. 

Practically all work was handwork. 

104, 105, 112 Tilling fields like these fostered slavery. 

117 At the beginning of this period little cotton was raised because the 
work of removing the seeds by hand was difficult. 

125 The invention of the cotton gin made the raising of cotton im- 
mensely profitable as a gin could clean a thousand pounds a day 
while a man could not clean more than one or two. Negro la- 
bor became very valuable to the planters, so the gin fastened 
slavery on the United States. 

124 After the invention of the gin, cotton became the chief product of 
the South. 

119 In 1791, America exported 189,000 lbs. of cotton. Nine years 
later in 1800, we exported nearly 20,000,000 lbs. The gin made 
the difference. 

109 Slaves were bought and sold. 

409 This is not an American picture, but during the early period Amer- 
ican women spun their yarn on just such wheels. They also 
wove their yarn into homespun cloth. There were no spinning 
or weaving mills in America. 
14 Parliament made laws forbidding the exportation of machinery or 
of patterns for machinery. In 1790 Samuel Slater, an English- 
man, reproduced Arkwright's spinning machinery from mem- 
ory. In 1813, Francis Lowell and Patrick Jackson made a 
weaving machine in the same way. From these beginnings 
arose the great textile industries of the United States such as 









SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES 167 

are shown in this view. Mills work best with free labor. 
These manufactories in 1816 led to the first protective tariff. 
Later the North and South differed over tariff as in 1828. In 
1832 South Carolina nullified a tariff law as the South did no 
manufacturing. 

71, 106, 27, 217 One of the great difficulties of the age was transpor- 
tation. Wagons and sailboats were the only methods of carry- 
ing. Flatboats were found on the rivers, especially the Missis- 
sippi, but they could not make a return trip. 

61, 52, 26, 27, 39, 48 The invention of the steamboat in 1807 stimulated 
production by furnishing means of transportation to market. 
Steamboats on the Great Lakes, the Ohio and the Mississippi 
encouraged settlements along those waterways. The first steam- 
boats were very primitive affairs. 

48, 43 The Erie Canal enabled western farmers to send their produce 
to eastern markets at cheap rates. It made New York the 
largest city in the United States. Many other canals were built. 

25, 26 New York, Philadelphia and others began their wonderful 
growth. In 1800 New York had 60,000 inhabitants and Phila- 
delphia 70,000. In 1830 New York had 200,000 while Philadel- 
phia's population was 167,000. 

43, 129, 128 In 1828, began the building of railroads which brought 
every part of the country within reach of markets. The rail- 
roads were important factors in settling the west. 
198, 181 The invention of improved plows, harrows, planters, culti- 
vators, reapers and all sorts of farm machinery that could be 
drawn by horses enabled men to plant large fields with less 
labor. It vastly multiplied the working power of men on farms. 
357 Though found in England, this is the type of reaper and binder 
first invented in America. Such machinery made slave labor 
unnecessary, so you see the North and South developing along 
different lines. The North with its factories and machinery 
favored free workers, nationalism and protective tariff. The 
South with its agricultural products raised by slaves opposed 
the tariff and favored states rights. 

103 In the early days wood and charcoal were the only fuels used even 
in locomotives and steamboats. Steel was melted in charcoal 
furnaces. 

74, 75, 76, 77 , 79 The substitution of coal for charcoal was a real eco- 
nomic revolution which affected all the industrial life of the 
country. It made the modern blast furnace and the quick mov- 
ing steamboat and locomotive possible. 

61, 139, 152 Cities began to grow in this new western land. 



168 DEVELOPMENT OF NATION 

II. WESTERN PERIOD 

A. POLITICAL EVENTS 
1846-1898 

The invention of farming machinery together with the steamboat 
and railroad led to the settlement of the West. Northerners and 
Southerners flocked to these fertile fields each trying to claim the land 
for freedom or slavery. That brought about the Missouri Compromise, 
1820, the doctrine of popular sovereignty, the Omnibus Bill of 1850, the 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case 1857, and finally 
the Civil "War. 

182, 204 This western country was the scene of many Indian wars 
before it became settled. In 1876 Gen. Custer and his entire 
force were massacred by Sioux Indians at the Little Bighorn 
River. 
232, 189 Game abounded everywhere. 
196 Trapping was profitable. 

214 The discovery of gold and silver immediately brought seekers for 
wealth. Little mining camps were established in mountain val- 
leys and the historv of the Far West was begun. 
192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 200, 201, 202, etc. Men explored and penetrated to 
all parts of the country. For the first time its diversity and its 
extent were realized. 
221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226 The United States gained possession of 

Oregon and her northern boundary was settled. 
212, 213 L^tah was settled by Mormons. 

139, 167, 230. 121 Cities sprang up everywhere because there must be 
trading centers in mining, grazing or farming regions. 

i. Mexican War 

281,284,285 The Mexican peon or peasant has not changed much. 

126 The Alamo was used as a fort by Texans and Americans to de- 
fend themselves against the Mexicans in the war for the inde- 
pendence of Texas, in 1837. Every one of the defenders was 
killed. " Remember the Alamo " became the battle cry of the 
Mexican War. 

280 Vera Cruz, Mexico's one seaport was captured by General Scott. 

283 The victorious army pushed on toward the capital and stormed 
the Castle of Chapultepec. 

282 The Americans then captured the City of Mexico and dictated a 
peace. 

198 to 214, 228 to 242 All these views show lands that were ceded to 
the United States by Mexico at the end of the Mexican War. 

2. Civil War 

We have seen how economic conditions caused the North and South 
to draw apart. Slavery caused the South to lag behind the North in 
its industrial development. 



EASTERN 169 

104, 105, 112, 117, 124, 125, 119 , Such labor could be done very cheaply 

by slaves. 
96 Washington's home is a type of the homes of the rich, slave hold- 
ing Southern planter. 

113 Lincoln's home was a type of the homes of the poor whites. The 

poor whites could not compete with slave labor. 
47, 38, 137 Types of small farms in the North with free labor. 
14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67 Manufacturing in 
the North, the South had no manufacturing. This led to differ- 
ent ideas as to tariff, sovereignty, slavery, etc. 

101 John Brown's raid persuaded the South that they could not ex- 
pect justice from the North. 

120 The capture of the Mississippi River divided the Southern states. 

119 The capture of New Orleans by the North decided the English not 
to recognize the Southern Confederacy. 

100 In Hampton Roads was fought the great naval battle between the 
Merrimac and the Monitor. These were the first ironclad war 
ships. 

114 On Lookout Mountain the battle was fought above the clouds. 
73 The Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point of the war. 

106 Gen. Sherman marched from Atlanta to Savannah, then turned 

north and fought his way into North Carolina. 
94 Great issues of paper money were put out during the Civil War. 

105, 108, 115, 117, 118, 119 These views show free negroes, made free 

by the 13th Amendment, made citizens by the 14th and given 
the vote by the 15th. 

B. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 
1846-1898 
i. Eastern 

The Eastern part of the country is the manufacturing center. During 
this period manufacturing developed as never before. Corporations 
were formed, these grew into trusts and the wealth of the nation began 
to collect in the hands of the few. On the other hand, laborers com- 
bined into unions, demands were made for shorter hours, higher pay, 
better working conditions. There was labor agitation everywhere and 
the strife between capital and labor was very bittef\ The antitrust 
laws were passed, trusts were prosecuted, an income tax was im- 
posed, child labor forbidden. In 1886 there were 1,572 strikes. These 
conditions dominated the political life of the period. 
32 One of the great problems of these years was immigration. 
5 Skilled Italians. 

75, 77 Very much of our unskilled labor is done by foreigners. 
227 Chinese and Japanese laborers have come to our shores in con- 
siderable number but are now excluded. 
3, 4, 5 Stones of all kinds are being quarried. 

14, to 18, 22 to 24, 53 to 55 Thousands of workers ■ find employment in 
textile mills. Here always rises the subject of protective tar- 



170 DEVELOPMENT OF NATION 

iff. The Walker, War, McKinley, Wilson and Dingley tariffs 
were passed to regulate tariffs. 

58, 59 In New Jersey and Ohio pottery works have become an im- 
portant industry asking protection. 

40 Garments made in factories are taking the place of homemade 
articles. Laws had to be made against sweatshops. 

62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 82 Work in steel mills is hard and dangerous. 
The mills are owned by vast trusts and the men are highly or- 
ganized. Steel mills grew up within reach of ore and coal. 
They employ vast numbers of foreigners. 
74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 129 The substitution of coal for water power makes 
most of the industries of the United States dependent upon the 
coal supply. A strike of coal miners is a national calamity. 

69, 70 Oil was discovered in western Pennsylvania in 1859 and has 
become one of the greatest sources of wealth in America. The 
first great trust was the Standard Oil Co. 

44, 45, 46, 47, 56, 57, 85 Farming is also an important work, for farm- 
ers produce the food upon which all the people must subsist. 

25,26,27,28,29,30,52,61,139,167,230 In places like these is carried 
on the business of the United States. 

26,27,31,43,48,52,61 Perhaps the development in transportation, and 
exchange is the most wonderful of all. Such marvelous im- 
provements have been made. Air brakes, couplers, electric mo- 
tors and countless other things have revolutionized life and law. 
The electric street car makes the great city possible. Through 
interstate commerce laws the national government has found a 
way to regulate trusts. 

2. Southern 

Since the War the South has become marvelously prosperous. 

These views show the results of free labor. 

112, 105, 117, 124, 125 Cotton and tobacco still furnish the chief wealth. 

118 Peanuts are a profitable crop. 

122, 123 Vast oil fields have been found in Texas and Oklahoma. 

127 Texas also has great districts devoted to cattle raising. 

Ill Sponges are a source of great wealth. 

104, 105 Rice is a very valuable crop. 

86, 97 Almost the whole oyster supply of the United States comes 
from the Chesapeake Bay region. 

107 The pine forests furnish vast quantities of lumber, tar, turpen- 
tine. 

110 Alligator leather is valued. 

116 Manufacturing is beginning as there are large deposits of both iron 
and coal. Some cotton mills are prospering. 

106, 119 Because the South carries on a great trade, selling raw ma- 
terial and buying its manufactured goods, it is still a low tariff 
country. 
85, 108 Fruit raising has become a source of vast wealth. 



WESTERN 171 

3. Middle Western 

This part of the country has every kind of industry. Here are found 
the great fields where food, both animal and vegetable is produced, and 
there are many great cities, centers of manufacture and commerce. 
As grain fields, ranches, mines and cities grew, transportation became 
of increasing importance, Granger Laws and the Interstate Commerce 
Act resulted. Corporations and trusts were established and there were 
great contests between capital and labor. 

147, 177 Millions of bushels of grain of many kinds are produced. As 
grain or flour it is shipped to all parts of the world. Specula- 
tors were able to buy up food and make prices high. 

173, 172, 183, 185, 186 Immense numbers of animals are raised in the 

great Middle West. 

140 These cattle are shipped to Chicago, Kansas City, Omaha, and 
other cities where are located the greatest meat packing estab- 
lishments in the world. 

141, 142, 143, 144 All this preparing and packing is done under govern- 
ment inspection for these packing houses furnish a large part of 
the meat of the nation and of Europe. Laws regulating the 
preparation and purity of foods came as a result of such indus- 
tries. Meat trusts were formed. 

175 Apples and other fruits are produced. 

134, 135 Wonderful plate glass is made at Rossford, Ohio. 

133 Akron, Ohio, became the center of the manufacturing of rubber 
goods in the United States. 

155, 156, 157, 163, 164 Immense mines of copper and iron ore were dis- 
covered in Michigan and Minnesota. These were controlled by 
trusts. 

128, 154, 157, 164 These ores greatly increased lake traffic. 
63, 64, 65, 66,67, 78, 128 Wonderful labor saving machinery of all kinds 
was invented during this period. 

174, 154, 148 Bridges, canals, dikes made transportation safer and 

easier. 
139 Cities like Chicago with their millions of people engaged in all 
sorts of industries are centers of labor disputes. The strike of 
1894 in the Pullman Car Co. is an example. 

4. Western 

In 1846 the Rocky Mountains formed the western boundary of the 
United States. In 1898, the country extended to the Pacific Ocean. 
225 The discovery of gold caused the first rush to the Far West. 
214 Little mining camps were located in the mountain valleys. 
187 Soon other metals were found in great abundance. 
216, 233 Gold is not the only wealth of the region. The yearly wheat 

crop of California is greater in value than the annual output of 

gold. 
188, 190 Mining is not the only source of wealth. Great herds of 

horses, cattle and sheep are raised and agriculture is developing. 



172 DEVELOPMENT OF NATION 

121, 220, 230 Mining, cattle raising, farming necessitate the growth of 
cities. Oklahoma, Seattle and San Francisco are fine examples 
of the western cities that grew up suddenly. 

C. EXPANSION BY SEA 
i. Alaska 

Alaska was purchased in 1867. 

243, 245 Gold discoveries. 

246 Methods of travel. 

244 Fisheries and forests are valuable. 

2. Cuba 

Cuba is a United States protectorate, not a possession. 

297, 298 Typical scenes in Cuba. 

296 " Remember the Maine " became the battle cry of the Spanish 
American War. 

3. Porto Rico 

257, 258 Porto Rico was taken by the United States in 1898 but not till 
1917 were Porto Ricans made United States citizens. 

4. Philippine Islands 

546, 547 The Battle of Manila came May 1, 1898. After the Spanish 
were defeated the natives revolted and had to be subdued. 

548, 549, 550, 551 The islands are very rich in natural resources, but 
the common people are backward. The question of the inde- 
pendence of the islands presented a serious problem. 

552, 553 Hemp rope is a valuable product. 

5. Hawaii 

The Hawaiian Islands were admitted in 1898. Previously admission 
had been refused. 

260 Public school, Honolulu. This is what the United States does for 

all her people. 
259 Beside being an important coaling station, Hawaii is very rich in 
vegetable products. Hawaiian pineapples and bananas are the 
best in the world. 

261 The native Hawaiians are superior to the natives of other Pacific 

islands. They are believed to be of Caucasian origin. 

6. Guam 

554 The island of Guam also came to us from the Spanish American 
war. 






MODERN PERIOD 



173 



III. MODERN PERIOD 
1898-1917 

The last twenty-five years of the history of the United States are 
described as years of marvelous social and economic development. 
People lived securely, they were prosperous and progressive. Men's 
minds turned naturally toward the problems of the improvement 
of internal conditions. Trusts were controlled in part ; labor was en- 
couraged ; new inventions have revolutionized industry. There has 
been a great growth in democracy marked by such issues as the initia- 
tive and referendum. 

Suddenly a change came. In the period from 1910 to 1917 the great- 
est political changes yet known have come to the United States. By 
the Spanish War, the nation was forced out of her isolation into inter- 
national diplomacy. Her acquisition of the Philippines brought her 
into relations with Japan. Still her development was largely economic 
and industrial. When the World War began, the United States tried 
to remain neutral. Gradually she was forced into the war and a new 
era in history has resulted. She will never be able to withdraw from 
world affairs into which she has entered. 



280 to 341 An organized attempt is being made to cultivate friendly 
relations with Spanish America so that the Monroe Doctrine 
may develop into a Pan-American Doctrine. 

247 to 256 On Nov. 18, 1901, a treaty was made with Great Britain 

abrogating the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty and providing that the 
Isthmian canal should be under the sole jurisdiction of the 
United States. 

337, 249 In 1903, a canal treaty with Colombia was signed but the 
Congress of Colombia refused to ratify it. The rights of the 
old French Company were purchased by the United States. 

248 On Nov. 3, 1903, the state of Panama revolted and seceded from 

Colombia. And on the 18th of November the United States 
and Panama made a treaty by which the United States is to 
have sovereignty over the Canal Zone ten miles wide and to 
safeguard the independence of Panama. 

250, 251 In 1904, the United States began work on canal. 

250, 252 In 1906, Congress decided upon a lock canal. In 1907 it was 
in charge of army engineers. 

247,251,253 The main obstacles to the completion of the canal were 
the Chagres River and the landslides and the pestilential climate. 



174 DEVELOPMENT OF NATION 

250 to 253 These views give an idea of the great engineering works 
done under the leadership of Col. Goethals of the United States 
regular army. Gatun Lake is an artificial lake which takes care 
of the sudden floods of the Chagres River and provides a part 
of the waterway. 

255 Major Gorgas of the medical department of the United States 
army has practically eradicated malaria and yellow fever from 
the Canal Zone. This proves that the tropics can be made 
healthful places where white men can live and do good work. 
It opens the whole tropical belt to development. 

254 On August 15, 1913, the Panama Canal was formally opened. It 
makes it much easier for the United States to protect both her 
coasts. Also it shortens trade routes by thousands of miles, 
saving time and coal. It will especially stimulate trading be- 
tween the eastern and western coasts of both North and South 
America and will help to promote Pan-American friendliness. 

243 to 246 In 1901 a dispute between England and the United States 
concerning the Alaska boundary line was settled by arbitration. 

520 In 1900, American troops allied with troops from Japan, Russia, 
Great Britain and France 18,000 strong, marched to Peking to 
rescue the legations besieged by Boxers. 

280, 289 Since 1910, Mexico has been in an unsettled state. Rebellion 
has followed rebellion. Presidents Diaz, De la Barra, Madero, 
Huerta, Carbajal and Carranza followed each other with bewil- 
dering rapidity. American lives and property were destroyed 
and many Americans demanded intervention. 

280 On April 21, 1913, the United States seized, and for some time held, 
Vera Cruz. 

282,283 In February, 1915, Villa captured Guadalajara. In March, his 
forces captured Mexico City. 
88,315,305,324,335,291 Ambassadors and ministers from United 
States, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Guatemala and Uruguay 
met and recognized the Carranza Government. 

126 After promiscuous shooting across the border and an attack on 
Columbia by Villa's men, American troops under General 
Pershing were sent to the border. The American headquarters 
were at San Antonio. 

209 Through deserts of this kind Pershing's men followed Villa. 

466 On June 28, 1914, Archduke Ferdinand and his wife were assas- 
sinated at Serajevo, Bosnia, by a Servian student. 

460 to 467 On July 28, Austria declared war on Servia ; then Russia 
began to mobilize her troops and soon the whole of Europe was 
involved in war. 
25, 52 The United States as a neutral was engaged in carrying on 
trade and suffered from both sides. 

242 American submarines. Because her north coast was blockaded, 

Germany took to submarine warfare and persisted in sinking 

vessels without warning, a clear violation of international law. 

52 This view shows an ocean liner. On May 7, 1915, the ocean liner 






EASTERN 175 

Lusitcmia was attacked without warning and many Americans, 
women and children, lost their lives. 

384, 526, 282 The German Imperial Government plotted to involve the 

United States in war with Japan and Mexico. 
88, 87 On April 6, the United States Congress, acting upon informa- 
tion furnished by the President, declared war upon Germany. 
52 In this scene, we have the Vaterland, the largest ship in the world, 
and several companion ships owned by Germany and her allies, 
interned at the beginning of the war (1914) and taken over by 
our Government, April 6, 1917. 

385 Some of the trained soldiers of Germany. 

394 Zeppelin flying over a German town. 

426 Airplane on scout duty with French troops. 
83, 137, 147, 166, 184, 177,178,179,198, 199, etc. The United States felt the 
necessity of feeding the allies and the nation turned toward 
agriculture. No plot of land was too small for a war garden. 
94 Liberty Bonds, prepared in the Bureau of Printing and Engrav- 
ing, were issued. $2,000,000,000 was asked for, $3,035,226,850 
was subscribed. Immediately afterwards the Red Cross asked 
for $100,000,000 and received $114,000,000. 
64 to 67 Steel workers. A selective draft bill was passed, by which 
men who would least cripple preparatory work at home could be 
selected for the army; for instance, steel workers are needed at 
home to make munitions. All men between 21 and 31 registered 
on June 5, 1917, and the draft took place July 20 following. 

146 Missions from France, other allied countries visited America to 
plan the largest cooperation. 

421, 422 Paris; 426 French army. On June 13, 1917, Gen. Pershing 
and the first contingent of American troops reached France and 
joined the allied armies. They received a wonderful welcome. 

482 to 488 In the spring and summer of 1917, the Russian people over- 
threw the Romanoff Government. The entire country was dis- 
organized and chaotic. A commission from the United States 
headed by Elihu Root visited Russia. 
26 New York City; 52 Ocean liners; 106 Savannah; 119 New Or- 
leans. An embargo on food stuffs and war materials was de- 
clared in order to prevent such materials reaching the enemy. 
No ship could leave an American port without a special license. 

166 Potatoes; 199, 219, 233 Wheat. A food control bill was passed 
August 11, 1917, and Hoover was made head of a commission 
with power to control prices and supplies. The price of wheat 
was regulated. 

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1898-1917 

Eastern 

94, 84 Never was the country so prosperous and a supply of money so 

needed. 
75, 76, 79 The anthracite coal strike in Pennsylvania in 1902 was the 

first time a President had intervened in a dispute between capital 



176 DEVELOPMENT OF NATION 

and labor. Today such a strike is no longer a private matter 
between men and employers but it is a matter belonging to all of 
us since it affects us all. 
229 Congress authorized the President to withdraw timber and mineral 
lands from sale. If this wise policy had been begun a generation 
before, the timber, water power and leases of mineral lands 
would today furnish enough revenue to run the government. 

69,70, Oil; 112 Tobacco; 14, 15 Cotton; 65, 66 Steel; 129 Coal; 140 
to 144 Meat. The Government is actively engaged controlling 
trusts and companies of all kinds that there may be more equal 
distribution of wealth. 

43,61,129 Acts were passed (1901, 1906, 1910) extending the power 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission and further controlling 
railroads. It is now generally conceded that regulation and con- 
trol of railroads are necessary and fully within the power of the 
Government. 

55. 54, 17, 18, 14, 15, 16 Modern inventions make finer and more beau- 
tiful cloths. 

57, 46, 45 Butter and milk are important articles of food. Local gov- 
ernments are interested in cost and cleanliness. 

34, 35 Modern methods facilitate all work. 

47 Market gardens are necessities and very profitable. 

83 Children are taught the value of the home garden. All sorts of 
vocational training are being taught. 

56 Even the price of eggs is of national importance. 
7, 25, 61, 139, 220, 230 Nowhere is the modern life so complex as in 
the city with its problems of reform. Municipal commissions 
and city managers are new devices for better city government. 
Men are devoting their whole lives to the solution of civic 
problems. 

43, 129, 88, 89 In Sept., 1916, Congress passed the Adamson Bill regu- 
lating time and wages of railroad men. This was done to pre- 
vent a railroad strike that would have brought ruin to the coun- 
try. Transportation is not a private matter since in our com- 
plicated system the lives of millions depend upon the transporta- 
tion of food. 

32 The immigrants are now carefully sifted by laws shutting out all 
but the most desirable. In 1917, a law was passed requiring a 
literary test. 

Middle West 

The same growth has taken place in the Middle West. To facilitate 
the movement of materials of trade, Reserve Banks were established, a 
Farmers' Credit Bill was passed. 
170, 171 The conservation of fuel is being accomplished by using natural 

means for generating power. 
151, 150, 152 The automobile has revolutionized local transportation 

and farm work. 
131, 132 Rubber manufactures are necessary to modern life. 



MIDDLE WEST 1/7 

156, 155 Minerals are produced on a scale never before known and 
they are reduced by modern methods. 

165, 185 Modern life demands cattle raised and cared for in the clean- 
est, most healthful way. 

136 Corn is now largely cut by machines. 

177 Threshing is carried on by steam engines. 

179, 178, 180 Even the horse has given way to a great extent to the 
tractor that never tires. All these increase the acreage that may 
be cultivated. 

191 to 197, 228, 229, 219, 222 In the Far West mineral and forest wealth 
are so great and private ownership so wasteful that the United 
States has turned its attention" earnestly to conservation. Rec- 
clamation also has been carried on by the government. National 
parks have been set aside to preserve forests, scenery, fish, 
game, etc. 

215, 216, 217 The forests are melting away, so conservation came as a 
national policy. In May, 1908, was held at the White House a 
conference of State governors, congressmen and others. This 
resulted in a widespread interest in conservation. 

199 Dry farming methods for wheat. New methods of farming are 
tried. 

218, 233, 235, 236, 237 New machinery has made the cultivation of a vast 
• acreage possible and scientific culture has produced bountiful 
results. 

210 In June, 1902, Congress passed an act by which the proceeds from 
the sale of public lands in sixteen States goes into a special 
irrigation fund. Local enterprise would find it difficult to con- 
struct such stupendous works as these dams by which thousands 
of acres of dry land have been made productive by irrigation. 

187, 203 Modern economical methods of ore reduction are in use in- 
creasing our metal production and at the same time conserving 
the supply. 

117 In 1916 and 1917 there was a noticeable movement of negro laborers 
from South to North. This presents an economic problem of 
importance. 

148 In East St. Louis, 111., 1917, there was a terrible fight between 
blacks and whites and many on both sides were killed. The 
race question is a difficult one in the United States. 

88 Congress. On Sept. 8, 1917, at 11 p. m., whiskey ceased to be 
manufactured and its importation was prohibited, as a war 
measure, through a law passed by Congress Aug. 10, 1917. 



178 DEVELOPMENT OF NATION 

Note : — This page to be used for record of current historical 
events. 



13. AMERICA OF TODAY — OUR RE- 
SOURCES — PREPAREDNESS 

By JACQUES W. REDWAY, F.R.G.S. 

GEOGRAPHER, METEREOLOGIST, UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, 
MT. VERNON, N. Y. 

America today is one of the most interesting countries in 
the world. It is well worth while to consider our resources, 
our development in many lines and how we compare with 
other nations of the world. America is the richest country in 
the world. Other nations have called us money mad; but all 
this wealth is strength. Today we are not looking at our re- 
sources so much with pride in our wealth as with patriotic 
joy in our strength. 

The first years of the twentieth century have witnessed a 
great centralization of power in our national government. On 
the other hand people were never before so widely interested 
in the government or so watchful of it. These two opposing 
tendencies will probably check each other. 

OUR WARS 

10, 80 The Revolution gave us political freedom and established us 
as an independent nation. Our Declaration of Independence 
has paved the way for civil liberty in all nations. 
71 The War of 1812 gave us commercial independence on the sea and 
throughout the world. 
206 to 214, 228 to 242 The Mexican War brought an important addition 
to our nation, giving us several additional states in the South- 
west. 
73 The Civil War established economic independence and eliminated 
human slavery. 
296, 546-554 The war with Spain made us a great world power. 
88, 92 On April 6, 1917, after vainly endeavoring to avoid the step, 
our congress declared that a state of war existed between us and 
Germany. 
87, 242, 426, 146, 385, 394 What will the World War do? It is under- 
taken to make neutrals safe forever and- to make democracy 
possible throughout the world. It is a war for world freedom. 
179 



180 HIST. AND CIV.— AMERICA TODAY 

100, 254 A greatly enlarged navy has been provided for and is being 
built. In this connection it is well to remember that the iron- 
clad battleship — the foundation of modern navies — was in- 
vented in America and the first battle between ironclad battle- 
ships occurred in American waters. At the close of the Civil 
War we had the only armored navy in the world. 

242 The submarine was also an American invention, the first practical 
submarine boat being built by John Holland of Paterson, N. J. 

426 The airplane — the "eyes of the army" — was invented and 
largely developed in America. The experiments by Prof. Lang- 
ley of Washington, D. C, were followed by the triumph of the 
Wright brothers of Dayton, O. The airplane service has proved 
an important factor in the World War. 

RESOURCES 

The United States is the greatest agricultural country in the world. 
Extending over so wide a range of country with such varied climate and 
surface, its products are diversified. The Mississippi Valley alone 
contains nearly a million square miles almost all of which is suited 
to the uses of man. There is no other land of its size on the sur- 
face of the earth so admirably suited to the purpose of mankind. 
President Wilson's appeal to the farmers and gardeners of America 
resulted in an increase of one million bushels of foods being grown in 
1917. " War is no longer a collision between two armed forces; war is 
a contest of economic resources. The man at the forge or the man 
with the hoe is as much a soldier as the man with the sword." 

83, 115, 161, 178, 180, 179 All living things require food, plants as well 
as animals. Plants take their food out of the ground, and the 
first principle of farming is learning to put back into the soil 
what the plant takes out of it. This is called " fertilizing the 
soil." Plant crops take from the soil nitrogen, lime, potash, 
and phosphoric acid and all these must be returned. In the 
large farms of the United States all this is done by machinery. 
Draining, ditching, plowing, fertilizing, harrowing and planting 
are done on a scale that was not dreamed of a century ago and 
which few countries attempt to duplicate even now. The 
foundation of this country's strength is its food supply. Presi- 
dent Wilson has said " upon the farmers of this country rests the 
fate of the war." 

Wheat 

177, 199, 218, 233, 357, 488 In 1915 the wheat crop of the United States 
exceeded 1,000,000,000 bushels while the whole world produced 
3,750.000,000 bushels. Very nearly 600,000,000 bushels are 
needed for home consumption. For the five years from 1910 to 
1915, of the total world's crop, the United States produced an 
average of 19% ; European Russia 17% ; India 9% ; France 8% ; 
Austria-Hungary 6% ; Canada 5%. 



RICE — OATS — MUTTON 181 

Oats 

147 There is not much commerce in oats, the crop is consumed as fod- 
der where it grows. In 1900 the United States raised 809,000,- 
000 bushels of oats; in 1914, 1,153,000,000. 

Indian Corn 

184, 136, 137, 184. The American maize or Indian corn crop of the 
United States has reached 3,000,000,000 bushels. Not much is 
exported but the demand abroad is steadily increasing'. In nor- 
mal times the value of corn in the grain rarely exceeds half a 
cent a pound. Converted into meal it is worth five or six 
times as much. Corn products include spiritous liquor, glucose, 
confectioner's sugar, oil and smokeless powder. The United 
States produces 71% of the world's crop; Austria-Hungary 6%; 
Mexico 5%; Argentina 4V 2 % ; Roumania 2y 2 %; Italy 2V 2 %. 

Rice 

104, 105 The rice crop of the United States is small and does not meet 
the demand therefor ; indeed, if the world's crop were doubled, 
it would find consumers. Ordinarily, rice commands about the 
same price as wheat — pound for pound it is more nutritious. 
India raises 45% of the world's rice; China 22%; Japan 12%; 
and the United States less than 1%. 

Cattle 

127, 186, 185, 188, 140, 141 The cattle product of the United States 
formerly allowed a very large export to western Europe ; 
now, the export is comparatively light — about 50,000,000 pounds 
in 1916. The production is likewise decreasing. This is due 
in part to the decreased acreage of grazing land, but quite as 
much to speculative methods of handling the meat business. 
Twenty-five percent, of the world's cattle are raised in India ; 
13% in the United States ; 8% in European Russia ; 7% in Ar- 
gentina ; 6% in Brazil; 5% in Germany; 3% in France; 3% in 
Great Britain. 

The Hog Industry 

172, 183, 143, 144 There are two reasons for the great commerce in 

pork; it contains a greater amount of fat, one of the essentials 
of food, than any other merchantable meat ; it is more easily 
preserved than any other. As a result, the preserved meat finds 
as great a demand in tropical countries, where fresh meat spoils 
in a few hours, as in cold regions. The United States produces 
the most hogs. 

Mutton 

173, 145 Because of its tenderness and rich, meaty flavor, mutton is 

a favorite with the gourmet and epicure. In thickly peopled 
regions of the cold temperate zone, the sheep is grown for 
meat ; elsewhere, for its fleece. English mutton and Canada mut- 



182 HIST. AND CIV.— AMERICA TODAY 

ton are largely a product of climate. In the same way, the 
merino sheep is a product of arid climate. 

Dairy Industry 

45, 46, 159. 165, 57 The milk supply of a large city must be de- 
livered daily, and, in most large cities, the production is super- 
vised under rigorous measures, in order to insure purity and 
cleanliness. Milk is consumed near by; but little is transported 
more than one hundred miles. That which is to be kept more 
than sixty hours is " condensed." Butter may be kept in cold 
storage for several months. American cheese is now a matter 
of export. About 300,000,000 pounds are produced of which as 
many as 100,000,000 pounds have been exported in a single year. 

Poultry Industry 

56 The yearly value of the poultry industry is about as great as that 
of the wheat product. Most of the commerce of the industry 
centers about the large cities. The demand for " squab " or 
young chickens is so great that the prices of eggs have ad- 
vanced materially. Eggs from China recently have become a 
steady import. 

Fisheries 

13, 86, 97, 226, 227 Cod off the Atlantic coast and salmon during the 
spring run in the rivers and estuaries of the Pacific coast form 
the most important catch. The cod is salted and suncured ; the 
salmon is cooked and canned. Both are articles of export. 
Any sort of small fry, especially herring, in a can with a French 
label is " sardine " and Russian caviar is the roe of American 
sturgeon. Much of the cod export has gone to the West Indies 
since the early days of the Massachusetts settlements. The 
oyster may be classed among the luxuries, but the demand there- 
for is growing with leaps and bounds. The oyster beds of the 
northeast coast of the United States, where the bivalve is culti- 
vated, are the largest in the world. The fishery products of the 
United States exceed those of any other country. In 1915 they 
were valued at almost $70,000,000; Japan was next with $63,- 
000,000; England and Russia each had $50,000,000; France and 
Canada each $333,000,000; Scotland $19,000,000; Ireland 1,000,- 
000 and Germany $10,000,000. 

The Sugar Industry 

34, 35, 258 Of the cane sugar, India produces 26%, Cuba, 23%, Java 
15% and the United States with her dependencies 12%. Of the 
beet sugar Germany makes 30%, Russia 21%, Austria 20%, 
France 9% and Belgium 3%. 

Iron and Steel 

The United States leads the world in the manufacture of iron and 
steel. Her annual production of iron ore is about 62,000,000 long tons. 



COPPER 183 

Just before the World War, the United States produced about 41% 
of the world's pig iron, Germany 24%, Great Britain 12%, France 7%, 
Russia 6%, Austria-Hungary 3%, Belgium 3%. 

61 Half a century ago Pittsburgh was an ideal location for iron mills 
for the ore and coal were almost within a stone's throw of each 
other and the three rivers offered transportation at a very low 
cost. Even though most of the iron ore now comes from the 
region of the Great Lakes, Pittsburgh's nearness to the coal 
and coke supply makes its location important — it is the greatest 
iron and steel center in the world. 

163, 164, 154, 128 With facilities for transportation such as are shown 
in these stereographs, a ton of iron ore can be mined and loaded 
at the Lake Superior mines and transported to the smeltery 
nearly a thousand miles away for less than four dollars. 

116 The Southern Appalachian ore fields are scarcely touched. This 
ore is especially adapted to the making of steel rails. Those 
made by the open-hearth process usually command a higher price 
than those made by the Bessemer process. 
62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67 Pulling a lever starts the ponderous machinery 
that operates the various processes. The huge machines seem 
to have almost human intelligence. Brains take the place of 
brawn, and one man exerts a power that is rated by the thou- 
sands of horse power. 

103, 68 No fuel, or reducing agent, equals charcoal in the smelting of 
iron ore. The charcoal burns the oxygen out of the ore, leav- 
ing free, molten iron. Charcoal, however, is limited in quantity 
and is expensive; so the wits of man were called upon to make 
an artificial charcoal — the substance commonly called coke. 
Fat coal is dumped into " ovens " and heated to whiteness. 
Thereby, the liquid and gaseous chemical constituents are driven 
off. One of the by-products of the coke oven is coal tar from 
which nearly one thousand substances of commercial value — 
dyes, drugs and explosives — are made. Coke ovens are con- 
structed on the side of a hill, if possible, so that the coal may 
be dumped into the oven from a railway at the top and the coke 
shovelled into cars running on a track below the ovens. In 1913 
more than 46,000,000 tons of coke were used in the United 
States. 

Copper 

155, 156, 157, 187 In its importance to humanity, copper ranks next 
to iron. In 1913 the world's production of copper was 2,198,732,. 
130 lbs. of which the United States produced 56%, Japan 7%, 
Chile, Peru and Bolivia together 7%, Spain and Portugal 6%, 
Mexico 5%, Canada 3J^% and Germany 2 l / 2 %. The demand for 
copper is far greater than the supply. Most of the output is 
used as a conductor of electricity; a great deal is used in car- 
tridges. It is the chief ingredient in brass and bronze. 



184 HIST. AND CIV.— AMERICA TODAY 

Zinc 

176 Zinc is not so abundant as copper but its ores are found in nearly 
every country. In 1913, the United States produced 346,676 
tons; Germany 312,075; Belgium 217,928; France and Spain 
78,289; Great Britain 65,197. Alloyed with copper it makes 
brass or bronze a metal combination indispensable in the con- 
struction of machinery. 

Gold and Silver 

245, 225, 203, 246, 287, 214 Gold and silver have been standards of ex- 
change ever since history began. Gold is generally found pure, 
silver, in combination. In 1912, the world's output of gold was 
valued at more than $466,000,000. Of this Africa supplied about 
45%, the United States 20%, Australia 5%, Mexico 5%, Russia 
5%, Canada 3% and India 3%. Of the world's production of 
$147,900,000 of silver, Mexico provided about 32%, the United 
States 20%, Canada 13%, Germany 6% and Peru 4%. 

Coal 

61, 74, 75, 76, 77, 129, 79 The coal fields of the United States are. most 
extensive and also the most productive in the world and this 
results in the tremendous output of iron and steel and the vast 
manufactures, the most productive in the world. Of the world's 
annual production of $1,443,000,000 short tons, the United States 
produces 39^%, Great Britain 22%, Germany 20%, Austria- 
Hungary 4%, France 3% and Russia 2%. Pennsylvania pro- 
duces nearly all the anthracite of the world. 

Petroleum 

122, 69, 70 The ordinary substance known as petroleum or coal oil has 
a world-wide commerce. The United States produces 65% of 
the world's supply; Russia 16%, Mexico, 7%, Roumania 4%, 
Dutch East Indies 3%, Austria-Hungary 2%, India 2%. 

123 Gasoline and petrol are the most important factors in the distillation 
of crude oil. These are used for running engines. The best 
steam engine rarely utilizes more than one-fifth of the heat or 
power which the steam-making fuel contains. The internal com- 
bustion engine does twice as much work with less than half the 
fuel. 

Water Power 

49, 50, 197, 170, 171, 228 In the future the greatest available power in the 
world will come from falling water. In the early industrial his- 
tory of our country water power was used for manufacture but 
the mill had to be built at the fall. Now the power of the falling 
water is changed into electricity which is carried to the factory. 
The power of Niagara Falls operates the street cars of Buffalo, 
Rochester, Syracuse, and Utica as well as of Hamilton, Toronto 
and other Canadian cities. The cheap and abundant power 



MARBLE — GRANITE 185 

of Niagara Falls makes possible certain products essential to 
modern industries. Chief among these is carborundum. It 
is the basis of most of our grinding machinery in our great 
automobile factories, munition plants and machine shops. Ni- 
agara Falls gives us our aluminum supply. It gives us also 
products which added to steel give it a hardness that makes it 
wonderfully resistant — so hard that when used on the point 
of a modern shell, it will pierce the armor plate without being 
deformed itself. The water that runs over the spillways at 
Keokuk, Iowa, and at Roosevelt Dam near Phoenix, Arizona, 
is not wasted ; its power is turned into electricity. 

Lumber 

The proportion of lumber used for building as compared with stone 
cement and brick is decreasing. Nevertheless the present rate of cut- 
ting is three times the annual growth. The timber covered area in the 
United States is estimated at 500,000,000 acres or about one-fourth of 
the country. The Southern Pacific and Northern Pacific railroad com- 
panies together with several lumber companies own about four-fifths 
of this; the rest belongs to the nation or to states. The United States, 
Canada, Sweden, Norway, Russia and Austria export lumber. All the 
others import it. 

1, 162, 215 These pictures demonstrate each the solution of a prob- 
lem : namely, how to get the logs to the mill in the most inex- 
pensive way. In each case, it is solved for the particular lo- 
cality. 
216, 217 The lumber mills of Puget Sound and vicinity supply not 
only the lumber requirements of the Pacific coast but also a 
large demand in China and Japan. Both of these countries have 
been greatly denuded of forest trees, much to their detriment. 
Transcontinental railways depend largely upon the Puget Sound 
mills for their heavy timber, especially long pieces, such as are 
shown in stereograph 217. See also stereographs 224 and 229. 
130 The maple furnishes not only sugar; the lumber ranks among 
the most valuable cabinet woods in the country. 

Marble 

4, 5 Marble for architectural ornamental work is world-wide in use, 
and for carved work is probably more extensively used than any 
other stone. Fine-grained white marble free from blemishes 
commands very high prices. 

Granite 

3 Probably most of the granite now quarried is used in the con- 
struction of government and other large office buildings, being 
cut into ornamental blocks at the quarries. Thus prepared it is 
often shipped long distances. In the rough, it is no longer an 
article of commerce to any great extent, concrete being a cheaper 
and equally durable substitute. The quarries of the White 



186 HIST. AND CIV.— AMERICA TODAY 

Mountain region furnish most of the granite in the eastern 
states. Red and dark gray granites are abundant in the wes- 
tern Highlands. 

Structural Steel 

25, 26, 31, 174, 253 A building of brick or of stone reaches the limit 
of height with the sixth or seventh story. With a frame work 
of structural steel girders and beams, the height may be readily 
carried fifty stories, or 500 feet. The buildings in 25 and 26, 
the railway viaduct in 31, the bridge in 174, and about every- 
thing but water and shore line in 253 show the engineering possi- 
bilities with steel as a building material and the impossibilities of 
modern commerce without it. America excels all other nations 
in its manufacture and use of structural steel. 

Lime 

97 Shells of oysters and other mollusks are used also in surfacing 
roads and in making lime of a very superior quality. Most of 
the lime is made by burning limestone in a kiln. 

Concrete 

210, 252 " Portland " cement is now made artificially by burning lime- 
stone and clay in much the same manner as in lime-making. 
Mixed to a still mortar with water it hardens — 'becoming so 
hard indeed that it turns the edge of a steel drill. The cement, 
mixed with sand and broken rock is the " concrete " of engineer- 
ing science. Concrete has almost wholly superseded rock in the 
construction of viaducts, dams, and bridge approaches. The 
Panama Canal locks and the masonry of the various irrigation 
projects are built of concrete. In 1900, the United States made 
8,500,000 barrels of Portland cement; England between 7.000,- 
000 and 8,000,000; France 3,000,000; and Germany 30,000,000. 

Glass 

134 A fine white sand is the first requisite in the manufacture of glass ; 
other ingredients are lime and sulphate of soda. These are 
melted into a transparent fluid mass by means of gas blasts. In 
the United States most of the glass-making establishments are 
located in places where natural gas is abundant. 

The Cotton Industry 

117,119,124,125 The United States produces more than five billion 
pounds of cotton yearly. About one-third of the crop is made 
into cloth in the mills of the United States. Raw cotton is ex- 
ported to nearly every country in Europe and American cotton 
cloth is used by practically every people on the face of the earth. 
The United States raises about 62% of the cotton, India 18% 
Egypt 7%, and China 6%. England is the greatest manufacturer 
of cotton cloth. In 1914, England had in operation 56,900,000 



WOOL — TRANSPORTATION 187 

spindles, the countries on the continent had 43,200,000, while the 
United States had 31,840,000. 

The Wool Industry 

The scoured wool produced in the United States averages 136,500,000 
lbs. a year and yet there is practically none for export. In addition to 
this the United States imports 8% of the world's supply. France im- 
ports 25%, Great Britain 22% and Germany 20%. Australia is the 
greatest wool growing country, producing 30% of the wool, and Argen- 
tina is next, with 15%. 

Naval Stores 

107 The southern pine yields turpentine, pitch, and wood tar. 
Formerly in the days of sailing vessels, the two last named were 
used in calking the seams and joints of sailing vessels, and in 
preserving the fixed parts of the rigging. Therefore, they were 
called " naval stores." Nine-tenths of the world's supply came 
from the United States. Turpentine is the solvent for the oils 
used in mixing paint. 

The Tobacco Industry 

112 The United States is probably the foremost country in the value 
of its tobacco crop. One item of the industry is the manufac- 
ture of snuff. The world's supply of this material is made in 
the United States. The redeeming feature of the tobacco in- 
dustry is the revenue to the United States Treasury that comes 
from the various taxes imposed on it. 

Educating a Nation 

83,260 Education is the foundation of a nation. Since each citizen 
of a democracy has a share in the government, every citizen 
should be educated. United States in 1915 had 7.7% of illiterate 
people, England had 1% and the German Empire only 1/50%. 

The Material Foundation 

19, 20 Print paper is an essential of public education. The circula- 
tion of some of the daily papers reaches about half a million a 
day; and the strip of paper on which the daily issue of the 
Nezv York Times is printed would reach from New York to 
Denver. One great magazine, founded by Benjamin Franklin, 
issues more than 2,000,000 copies weekly. The yearly edition of 
a popular textbook in geography would make a stack twice as 
high as Mount Everest. 

Transportation 

71, 186, 298, 138 Our forefathers employed the ox team, the saddle 
horse and the prairie " schooner " to transport themselves and 
their belongings to the west. 



188 HIST. AXD CIV.— AMERICA TODAY 

246 In Alaska the dog team still is the best means of transportation to 
be had. 

43, 129, 82, 61, 31 Today the continent is only five days wide instead 
of three months wide. The legitimate business of the railroad 
is to carry goods of all kinds from the producer to the con- 
sumer. In late years the problem of transportation is of na- 
tional importance and so more and more the United States is 
legislating for railroads in such ways as the Adamson Law of 
1916, the Interstate Commerce laws and so on. The United 
States in 1912 had 241,199 miles of railway all under private 
ownership while Germany had 37,995 miles, 34,623 owned by the 
state. Austria-Hungary owned 22,046 of its 27,570 miles ; Rus- 
sia in Europe owned 21,659 of its 37.008 miles; France owned 
5,510 miles in 30,685 and England's 23,350 miles were under pri- 
vate ownership. 

26, 100, 48, 154 Because of Bessemer steel, twin screws and oil-driven 
triple expansion engines the Atlantic Ocean is now five days 
wide instead of five weeks. At the beginning of the world war 
the United States found her foreign commerce almost stopped 
because the English ships, the carriers of the world, were with- 
drawn from the trade. The United States realized that she 
must own her own merchant marine. It was through attacks 
upon her shipping that the United States was finally drawn into 
the war. 

52 On April 6, 1917, these and other interned German warships to the 
number of 91 with a total capacity about 629,000 tons were taken 
over by the United States. Three days later 14 Austrian in- 
terned ships were seized. This gave a total of 105 additional 
ships for carrying supplies and troops to our allies. To meet 
the drain of the German submarines on the world's shipping we 
have undertaken a tremendous building program for both steel 
and wooden ships. 

Some Trade Routes of the United States 

Easy routes over which the commodities of commerce can be carried 
to markets are quite as necessary as the market centers and posts them- 
selves. Some of the great trade routes, like the Panama Canal and the 
Suez Canal are world factors rather than national factors in commerce. 
Many of the trade routes and railway lines of the United States lie 
along old Indian trails — trails originally made by the bison. 
25,32,39,51,38,43,48 The route from the mouth of the Hudson to 
Albany, thence through central New York to Lake Erie at 
Buffalo is one of the world's great trade routes. From Buffalo 
to New York City the aggregate lift of freight is but little more 
than 400 feet. Because of this almost dead-level grade, the Erie 
Canal and the New York Central Railway practically fix the 
freight rates between the Mississippi Valley and the Atlantic 
seaboard. 
154 The Great Lakes are situated at different levels. The surface of 



TRADE ROUTES 189 

Lake Superior is 601 feet above mean sea level; that of Lakes 
Huron and Michigan 581 feet. The rapids in St. Mary's River 
were an obstacle to inter-lake traffic. The completion of the 
canal locks in the river opened a route over which more freight 
is carried than on any other canal in the world. Two canals, 
one on the Canadian, the other on the American Side, connect 
the lakes, the American Canal has two locks. Navigation of 
canals and locks is free. Ore from the Lake Superior iron and 
copper mines constitutes a large proportion of the freight. 
61,119,120 At the close of the last French and Indian War the ac- 
quisition of Fort Duquesne where Pittsburgh now stands, gave 
to the American colonies an open trade route to the mouth of the 
Mississippi River. Owing to the system of jetties which, by 
constricting the width causes the river to scour its channel to a 
greater depth, the river below New Orleans is now deep enough 
to be safe for ocean steamships. 
119,120,148,170,171,174 The Mississippi River drains wholly or in 
part twenty-eight states. The trunk and tributaries afford about 
fifteen thousand miles of navigation. Up to the time of the 
Civil War the Mississippi was the chief means of communica- 
tion in the Central United States, the traffic between Buffalo 
and Chicago excepted. After the Civil War, the tremendous 
growth of the railways took away the greater part of its traffic. 
Within the first decade of the 20th century there has been a con- 
siderable increase of river navigation. 
148 The amount of sediment brought down by the Missouri and its 
tributaries is more than the Mississippi can carry away. It is 
gradually building its bed higher each year. In order to off- 
set this, it has been the custom to make artificial banks or 
" levees " to keep the river between banks during high water. 
All this has tended to make the navigable channel narrower, 
thereby impairing the value of the river as a traffic route. The 
problems of the control of the river are in the hands of the 
Mississippi River Commission. 
248 to 256 The first proposition for a canal across the Isthmus of 
Panama was presented to the Spanish Government shortly after 
Balboa crossed the isthmus. In 1903 the state of Panama en- 
tered into a treaty with the United States, permitting the con- 
struction of the canal and granting sovereignty over a strip of 
land five miles on each side, officially named Canal Zone. The 
construction of the canal was regarded as a military rather than 
a commercial project. Its construction shortens the route from 
New York to San Francisco by 9,500 miles and to China and 
Japan by nearly 8,000 miles. The ports of Chile and Peru be- 
come near neighbors of New Orleans. 



190 HIST. AND CIV.— AMERICA TODAY 



Note : — Since history deals so largely with economic ques- 
tions, the teacher will be pleased with the wealth of economic 
material contained in this " 600 set." Where a more extended 
treatment is desired, the Keystone View Company's General 
Catalog listing thousands of stereographs and slides should 
be consulted. It is especially complete in the presentation of 
our great industries. This catalog is free and will be sent upon 
application. 

The Publishers. 



14. GOVERNMENT 

By ARTHUR NORMAN HOLCOMBE, Ph.D. 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF GOVERNMENT IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Every one of the views in the " 600 Set " illustrates some 
aspect of government. Every person shown in these views is 
the citizen or subject of some state. Every place is subject to 
the jurisdiction of some state. Everything is subject in some 
way to the operations of government. The student can profit- 
ably exercise his ingenuity in discovering in those views which 
seem most remote from government the evidences of govern- 
mental activity. Agriculture is often greatly aided by govern- 
mental assistance. This may be accomplished either directly 
by governmental irrigation works or agricultural experiment 
stations and colleges, or indirectly by bounties or protective 
tarifTs. Similar relations often obtain between government 
and industry. Moreover, factories and mills and the machin- 
ery of industry in general are subject to governmental regula- 
tions designed to protect the health of employees and may be 
inspected by governmental officials to make sure that they are 
safe and wholesome. Highways are built and kept in order 
by governments of some sort and all the instruments of com- 
merce are regulated or operated by some public authority. 
Certain of the views, however, suggest the existence and activ- 
ity of government much more directly than the others, and are 
selected for special consideration under this head. 

Compare the following views of different kinds. 38, 118, 
147, 180, 181, 184, 186, 198, 199 Country views. 6, 7, 30, 31, 
93, 139, 152, 167 Villages and cities. Notice the number of 
people and their activities in each picture. In villages there is 
greater need for community enterprise than in the country. 
In cities such needs are still greater. 



191 



192 HIST. AND CIV.— GOVERNMENT 

I. LOCAL GOVERNMENT 
a. Towns or Townships, and Counties 

10 Lexington, Mass. The common expresses the original character 
of town life. The New England town is the simplest form of 
self-governing community. 
7 Faneuil Llall and Quincy Market, Boston, Mass. Boston town 
meetings were formerly held in Faneuil Hall. A New England 
town meeting is pyrely democratic. In most other parts of the 
country, local government is representative. The market is 
comparatively unimportant as a communal enterprise. Compare 
with Quincy Market these markets in foreign cities ; 387, 393, 
395, 423, 555, 572. 
96 Washington's Home, Virginia; 104, 105, Rice fields, South Caro- 
lina; 112 Kentucky. In Virginia and other southern states 
people settled on large plantations and lived far apart, so 
county government with the courthouse as the center naturally 
developed. 
38, 39, 47 New York; 68 to 71, 75 Pennsylvania. In New York and 
Pennsylvania between New England and Virginia a mixture 
of county and township governments grew up and this plan is 
followed in the majority of states. 

130 Ohio; 136, 137 Indiana; 147 Illinois. Ohio, Indiana and Illinois 
naturally followed New York and Pennsylvania in their method 
of organizing. 

177 North Dakota; 178, 179 South Dakota; 181 Nebraska; 184 to 186 
Kansas. 

198, 199 Colorado; 210 Arizona; 218 Washington; 233 California. 
The Far West where people have large farms and live far from 
each other finds county government best suited to its needs. 

b. Incorporated Villages and Cities 

28 New York City; 167 Minneapolis; 121 Oklahoma; 139 Chicago. 
A city receives its charter from the state. As a city grows, its 
needs grow. Therefore the government in the cities is far 
more complex than in the towns and in the country. The nature 
of the community needs in the cities is more fully illustrated 
by the views listed under the head of Community Civics to 
which reference should be made at this point. 
27 Brooklyn Bridge. Most conspicuous among municipal under- 
takings are the public works and among these are bridges. 
348, 366, 392, 472, 560 With the Brooklyn Bridge should be com- 
pared some of the principal bridges in foreign cities. 
309, 397, 423 These views show noteworthy public works in for- 
eign cities. 
260 Hawaii; 309 Brazil. Schools, theaters, etc., are often owned or 
aided by municipal, state or national governments. 
7, 8 Boston; 31 New York; 139 Chicago. Boston, Chicago and all 



STATE GOVERNMENTS 193 

cities and towns find that the continual use of streets necessi- 
tates their paving. 
6 Boston. City streets must be lighted and good water provided. 
7, Boston; 30 New York. There must be traffic laws in cities to 
prevent blockading the streets and building regulations to insure 
safety and to prevent fires. 

31 Transportation, New York. City governments grant franchises 
to street car and other transportation companies. 

95 The Congressional Library is especially for members of Con- 
gress. Each city needs a library. 

28 New York. The old City Hall was too small and a larger one 

had to be built. Most cities own their own city halls in which 
are the offices of -the city officers and the city business is trans- 
acted. 

II. STATE GOVERNMENTS 
8 The State House or Capitol as it is called, in most states, is the 
seat of the state government. There is scarcely a view of agri- 
culture, industry or commerce in the United States in which 
there is no suggestion of action by state government. The 
teacher might well encourage the pupils to study the views 
listed under the heads of Agriculture, Production and Manu- 
facturing, Transportation, and Commerce for the suggestions 
they contain of state governmental activity. The views which 
most directly illustrate state government are the following : — 

172, 173 Agricultural Experiment Station and State Agricultural Col- 
lege, Ames, Iowa. 

18 Woolen mill; 41 Shoe factory; 67 Steel mill, etc. Industrial views 
showing machinery equipped with safety devices. 

14, 16 Cotton factory; 40 Collar factory; 133 Rubber works. Work- 
rooms built in accordance with factory laws and subject to 
inspection by state officials. 

43, 48 New York. Means of transportation, owned or regulated by 
the state government. The steam railroads are subject to 
regulation by the national as well as by the state governments. 
Agriculture and industry of course are also subject to the 
action of national as well as state governments. Indeed the 
joint operation of state and national agencies is one of the 
striking features of our government. 
152 The Ford Motor Company factory and other great corporations 
receive their charters from the state. Also each automobile 
must carry a tag to show that it has a state license or permis- 
sion. 

44 Spraying of trees to destroy parasites and diseases has become 
so important that very many states send out men whose duty 
it is to show exactly how spraying or other agricultural work 
should be done. 

29 Wall Street, New York. Banks are examined by the state in 

order that the people's money may be secure. 



194 HIST. AND CIV.— GOVERNMENT 

224 One of the great trees that grow in the rainy Northwest. Very 
many states are now devoting a great deal of attention to for- 
estry. 
6, 8 Boston; 29 New York; 167 Minneapolis. A city receives its 
charter from the state. A state government controls local gov- 
ernment within it. 

III. NATIONAL GOVERNMENT 

a. The American Federal System 

93 Washington. The study of the national government is introduced 
by the general view of the national capital. It is located in 
the District of Columbia or " federal district " which is in a 
special sense the property of the nation. 
282 City of Mexico; 421 Paris; 435 Madrid ; 450 Rome; 475 Athens; 
526 Tokyo. The appearance of Washington should be com- 
pared with that of other national capitals. This comparison 
should be made the occasion for a general explanation of the 
different types of government, monarchic, aristocratic, repub- 
lican, democratic, centralized and federal. 
96, 113. These early homes of our two greatest Presidents strikingly 
illustrate the democracy of American government. 

b. The Division of Powers 

90 The principal government buildings : The White House, Treas- 
ury Building, and Capitol, viewed from State, War and Navy 
Building. 

A closer view of the principal government buildings leads logically 
to a consideration of the three main branches of government, the legis- 
lative, executive and judicial. 

/. Legislative 

87 The Capitol, Washington, D. C. The legislative or law making 

power of the United States belongs to Congress. The powers 
of Congress are enumerated in the Constitution and therefore 
they are limited to those mentioned. 

88 The Senate and House of Representatives in joint session in the 

Representative Chamber listening to an address by the Presi- 
dent. Congress consists of a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives. A bill must be passed by both houses before it can 
become a law. The distribution of power between the Senate 
and House of Representatives is different from that between 
the upper and lower houses of foreign legislative bodies. 
340 Caracas; 352 London; 383 Berlin; 482 Petrograd ; 587 Mel- 
bourne. A comparison of the buildings occupied by the national 
legislative bodies of different countries may be made the oc- 
casion for a comparison of the powers and importance of the 
people's representatives in different countries. 
84, 94 Coining presses and the Bureau of Printing and Engraving 



JUDICIAL — EXECUTIVE 195 

were established by the authority of Congress, for Congress 
may coin money and emit bills of credit". Also it may punish 
counterfeiters. 
26, 52, 106 Congress regulates the foreign commerce. 
25 New York; 106 Savannah; 119 New Orleans. It is forbidden to 
make any law favoring the ports of one state more than the 
ports of another. 
48, 129, 154 It also regulates the interstate commerce. 

385, 426 French and German armies. Congress may organize and 
maintain an army ; but no appropriation for army purposes 
shall be for longer than two years. 

100, 242, 254 American warships and submarines. Congress may build 
and maintain a navy. 

243 to 261, 546 to 554 Congress has complete control over the terri- 
tories and dependencies of the United States. 

90 Congress has entire control of the city of Washington. 

283 Mexico; 296 Wreck of the Maine; 385 German troops. Congress 
has the sole right to declare war. It was Congress who de- 
clared war upon Mexico in 1845, on Spain in 1898, and in 1917 
Congress declared war upon Germany. 

247 to 256 Panama. A treaty with a foreign country must be ratified 
by the Senate by a two-thirds vote. Thus the Senate ratified 
the treaties with Panama which gave control of the Canal Zone. 
89 Supreme Court; 92 Cabinet room; 25 Port of New York; 32 
Ellis Island. All appointments made by the President must be 
ratified by the Senate. Such appointments include judges of 
the Supreme Court, Cabinet members, collectors for ports, im- 
migration commissioner and many others. 

2. Judicial 
89 The Supreme Court room. The Capitol. 

The judicial branch of the national government is crowned by 
the Supreme Court, which meets in the room at the Capitol, 
once occupied by the Senate. The teacher should explain the 
special political powers of our Supreme Court and its peculiar 
importance in our system of government. 

3. Executive 

91 The Executive Mansion or White House. 

The executive branch of the national government is under 
the direction of a single supreme magistrate, the President, 
whose chief duty is to see that the laws are executed. 

283 Mexico; 315 Argentina; 367 Scotland; 384 Berlin; 432 Monaco; 
436 Spain ; 476 Greece ; 483 Russia. The White House should 
be compared with the executive mansions or palaces of other 
countries. This comparison may be utilized for the purpose of 
showing the difference in the powers and authority of the chief 
executives of different countries. 

146 French War commission ; 100 American fleet ; 247 to 256 Panama 



196 HIST. AND CIV.— GOVERNMENT 

Canal. The President is commander-in-chief of the army and 
navy. Panama Canal is an example of one kind of army work 
as it was planned and its building was supervised by army 
engineers. It is also guarded by army men. 

88 President Wilson reading message. From time to time the Presi- 
dent must present to Congress a message in which he tells 
the condition of the country and what Jegislation he thinks is 
needed. 

92 Cabinet room, executive annex to White House. The President's 
principal advisers are the heads of the ten great administrative 
departments, known collectively as the Cabinet. They meet 
with the president once or twice a week in the Cabinet room. 
The distribution of power between the President and his ad- 
visers is different from that between the chief executive and his 
constitutional advisers in many foreign countries. 
417 The Council room in the royal palace at Stockholm, Sweden, sug- 
gests an interesting contrast. 

c. The Work of the National Government 

Most of the work of the national government is apportioned among 
the ten departments and is carried on under the supervision of the 
members of the President's Cabinet. The departments are: (1) The 
Department of State, (2) The Treasury Department, (3) The War 
Department, (4) The Department of Justice, (5) The Postoffice De- 
partment, (6) The Navy Department, (7) The Department of the 
Interior, (8) The Department of Agriculture, (9) The Department of 
Commerce, and (10) The Department of Labor. 

1. The State Department 

296 When the battleship Maine was sunk in Havana Harbor, the 
American and Spanish governments dealt with each other 
through the State Department. The State Department is really 
our department of foreign affairs. 
13,278 Fishing — suggesting the work of the State Department in 
Newfoundland fisheries dispute. How does the U. S. claim 
fishing rights around Newfoundland? 
32 Ellis Island. Questions of immigration bring questions for the 
State Department. 

227 Especially the immigration of Chinese and Japanese has been 
difficult to handle. What was the difficulty? 

345 Sealing in Alaska has given difficulty to our State Department. 

50 Niagara. International bridges, such as the one at Niagara, are 

arranged for through the State Department. At Niagara Falls 

the amount of water that each nation may use for power is 

determined by international agreement. 

247 to 256 The State Department handles negotiations when new ter- 
ritory is acquired. 

338 La Guaira, Venezuela. When a European nation gets into diffi- 
culty with an American nation, our State Department guards 



TREASURY DEPARTMENT 197 

American interests as determined by the Monroe Doctrine. 
What was the Venezuela affair? 

577, 578 American hunter in Africa. When American citizens go 
abroad, the State Department issues passports stating such 
citizenship. There has been much trouble with Russia over her 
refusing to recognize passports of American Hebrews. 

558 to 569 Egypt is governed by Great Britain under an agreement 
among the state departments of- the leading European nations. 

146 French War commissioners at Lincoln's tomb. The State De- 
partment attends to arrangements for entertaining representa- 
tives from other countries. 

352 London; 384 Berlin; 421 Paris; 450 Rome; 463 Vienna; 482 
Petrograd. The State Department maintains ambassadors at 
the leading capitals and consular representatives in all im- 
portant cities throughout the world. 

383 to 394 Germany. When a war is declared by Congress, the State 
Department makes the announcement and states the reason. 
52 Interned German steamships — presenting serious problems for 
State Department. 

2. The Treasury Department 

29 United States Sub-Treasury, Wall Street. The Treasury De- 
partment receives and pays out all the money of the United 
States. In order to do this, there is a treasury in Washington 
and sub-treasuries in various large cities. 

84 The Government Mint, Philadelphia, Pa. The Treasury Depart- 
ment has charge of coining money, according to rules made by 
Congress. 

94 The Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The Treasury Depart- 
ment has charge of the engraving of paper money, bonds, post- 
age and * revenue stamps and all such things issued by the 
government. 

90 The Secretary of the Treasury controls the construction and 
maintenance of public buildings. 

99 The Life Saving Service is under the Treasury Department. 
347 Customs House, Liverpool; 420 Goteborg, Sweden; 433 Custom 
House, Barcelona, Spain. These suggest operations of the 
Treasury Department of other governments. All . the customs 
houses of the United States are under the care of the Treasury 
Department. 

3. The War Department 
266 Highlanders ; 385 German soldiers. The Secretary of War has 
control under the President of the military establishment of 
the United States. He buys uniforms, food, munitions and all 
sorts of supplies and keeps the army in readiness to meet that 
of any other nation. 
25 New York Harbor; 256 Entrance to Panama. Canal; 100 Hampton 
Roads. The War Department fortifies and guards the ports of 



198 HIST. AND CIV.— GOVERNMENT 

the United States, the Panama Canal and all places of strategic 
importance. 
39 West Point. The War Department has charge of West Point 
where officers are trained for the United States army. 

250 to 256 Panama Canal. Fighting is not the only work of the 
United States Army. The Panama Canal was planned and its 
building was supervised by the army engineers under Major- 
General Goethals. 

255 Hospital at Ancon, Panama. Army surgeons and medical men 
under Major-General Gorgas exterminated yellow fever and 
bubonic plague in the Canal Zone and reduced malaria and 
typhoid by fifty per cent. 

210 Roosevelt Dam, Arizona. The engineering work of the reclama- 
tion service of the United States is done by the army engineers. 

257, 258, 546 to 553 Porto Rico and the Philippines. The Secretary of 
War directs the Bureau of Insular Affairs which supervises the 
civil government of Porto Rico and the Philippines. 

394 Zeppelin; 426 Airplane. The W r ar Department must keep up to 
date in everything that pertains to war. These machines used 
in war for the first time, have proved very destructive in the 
European War. The United States is building many airplanes. 

266 Fifth Royal Highlanders of Montreal; 426 French troops; 585 
Australian troops and American marines ; 385 German troops. 
The American army joined the entente allies in fighting the 
Germans. 

4. The Department of Justice 

89 The Supreme Court room. Here the Attorney-General and other 
representatives of the Department of Justice argue their most 
important cases. 

5. The Post-office Department 

43 The mail cars on this train are under the supervision of the Post- 
master-general, who has charge of everything connected with 
the postal system of the United States. The " postal savings 
banks " are under his care. 

6. The Navy Department 

100 Battleships in Hampton Roads, Va. The Navy Department con- 
structs, mans, equips and operates all vessels of war. 

254 U. S. S. Missouri in Panama Canal. The Panama Canal doubles 
the defensive power of the United States navy as ships can now 
move quickly from one coast to the other. 

242 Submarines, torpedo boats and battleships. Like the army, the 
navy must have the newest, most effective ships and appliances 
known. Germany's " ruthless submarine warfare " was the 
cause of the entrance of the United States into the World War. 

585 Grand Review at Sydney, N. S. W., in honor of the visit of the 
American fleet. In 1908 the United States fleet made a trip 
around the world, stopping along the way for friendly visits. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 199 

554 Guam and other small islands are governed by the naval officer 
who is sent there by the Secretary of the Navy. 

7. The Department of the Interior 

245 Public lands of Alaska. The Department of the Interior through 
the General Land Office, controls the nation's public land. 

182, 204 Indians who live in tribal relations are under the protection 
of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. By act of Congress, reserva- 
tions have been divided among the Indians living upon them, 
who then become taxpayers and citizens of the # United States. 
No naturalization is necessary. 

191 to 197 Yellowstone Park; 201, 207, 208 Grand Canyon, Col.; 219 
Ranier National Park; 228, 229 Yosemite Valley. National 
parks and monuments are under the control of the National 
Park service. 
12, 14, 16, 18, 63 to 67, etc. Machinery protected by patents issued by the 
Patent Office of the Department of the Interior. 

172, 173 State Agricultural College assisted by funds administered 
through the Department of Education. 

210 Roosevelt Dam, Arizona. The Secretary of the Interior has the 
direction of the reclamation service of the United States. This 
dam should be compared with the great dam at Assuan, Egypt, 
569. 
76 Coal mine; 208, 207 Canyon; 231 Earthquake fissure. The Geo- 
logical Survey is an important part of the work of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior. 
74 to 79 Coal mine, Pennsylvania.; 155 Copper mine, Michigan. The 
Bureau of Mining under the Department of the Interior works 
for the improvement of methods of mining and for the safety 
of miners. 

The only important activity of the Department of the In- 
terior not represented by any view is that of the Pension Office. 

8. The Department of Agriculture 

93 Here we see the grounds of this Department. It supervises ex- 
periments in agriculture and issues bulletins giving helpful in- 
formation along these lines to the nation. The work is divided 
into many bureaus. 

138 Percheron horses; 159 Cattle; 172 Hogs; 173 Sheep, etc. The 
Bureau of Animal Industry encourages the raising of the best 
animals. 

140 to 144 Stockyards and packing houses are under the Bureau of 
Chemistry which enforces the Pure Food and Drugs Act. 

175,198,211,108,83 The Bureau of Plant Industry studies plants, 
their cultivation, diseases, parasites and introduces new and 
valuable plants. 

9. The Department of Commerce 
The work of this department is divided among the Bureaus of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, the Bureau of Lighthouses, the 



200 HIST. AND CIV.— GOVERNMENT 

Steamboat Inspection Service, the Census Office, Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, Bureau of Fisheries, of Navigation and of Standards. 

25, 26, 27, 31, 39, 43, 48,61, 79, 119, 139, 154, 157, 164, 174, 215. These will 

give some idea of the scope of work of the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce. 
13 Codfish, Massachusetts ; 226, 227 Salmon fisheries. This is the 
material upon which the Bureau of Fisheries works. 

26, 164, 154 Every view of dock or harbor or ship will illustrate some 

phase of the Bureaus of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection. 
353 Greenwich* is in England; still this regulator of the world's clocks 
suggests the work of the Bureau of Standards. 

10. The Department of Labor 
The Department of Labor was established in 1913. 

11 to 20, etc. These and innumerable other views will illustrate the 
work of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which collects and pub- 
lishes information on all subjects connected with labor. 

62 to 67 Steel workers. It especially studies the relation of capital, 

(29) Wall Street, to labor. 
152 Automobile employees. It investigates hours and wages. 

82 Locomotive workers; 128 Dock laborers; 132, 133 Rubber indus- 
try. It tries to discover means of advancing the interests of 
laboring men. 

74 to 79 Miners. The Department of Labor tries to adjust labor dis- 
putes such as the one which caused the coal miners' strike in 
1903. 

32 Ellis Island. It has charge of the Bureau of Immigration. 

83, 204, 187, 236, 249 Also it includes a Children's Bureau which is to 
work for the welfare of children, especially trying to abolish 
child labor. 

11. Other Activities 

95 The Congressional Library, for the benefit of Congress and the 
nation, is not under the direction of any cabinet officer. 

43,48,129,154,157 The Interstate Commerce Commission regulates 
commerce between the states. It may even fix rates. 

29 Wall Street, New York, is the seat of some of our greatest bank- 
ing houses. The Federal Reserve Board was created to unite 
banks and make money move more easily from the great finan- 
cial centers to places where it is needed. 
282,283 Mexico City; 305 Rio de Janeiro; 315 Buenos Aires; 340 
Caracas. The Pan American Union has for its purpose the 
cultivation of friendliness and cooperation among all the coun- 
tries of both North and South America. 

Since the entrance of the United States into the World War, the 
Congress has passed several acts giving the National Executive powers 
unheard of before. 

The selective draft was used to obtain soldiers for the army. This 



GOVERNMENT OF TERRITORIES 201 

takes men of a specified age, who are able to be taken without crippling 
industries upon which the war will depend. 

The President declared an embargo upon a list of goods, in order 
to control their trade and prevent their reaching the enemy. 

A Food Commission was provided Aug. 11, 1917, which shall con- 
trol the entire food supply of the nation. The use of grain for the 
manufacture of distilled liquors is forbidden and the making of beer 
and wine can be controlled. 

All these are innovations in American government. Whether they 
lead to permanent chajiges, is a matter of great public interest. 

d. Government of Territories 

243 to 246 Alaska is a territory under the control of Congress. It 
has wealth in minerals, forests, fish and fur. Territorial gov- 
ernment should be explained. 

260 Hawaii is a territory and its people are United States citizens. 

e. Government of Dependencies 

257, 258 Porto Ricans are now citizens of the United States. They 

are largely self-governing. 
546 to 553 The Philippines are looking forward to independence. 

Now they have a share in their government. Their people are 

not United States citizens. They are rapidly advancing in 

civilization. 
554 Guam is governed by a naval officer. 

f. International Relations 

295 to 299 Cuba is a protectorate of the United States. She is com- 
pletely self-governing but may not enter into any treaty or 
agreement without the consent of the United States. 

280 to 341 Spanish America. The Monroe Doctrine declares that any 
attempt made by any trans-oceanic power to extend its influence 
in America will be considered an act unfriendly to the United 
States. 

338 La Guaira, Venezuela. This does not mean that the United States 
will prevent a nation's demanding and getting justice. 

352, 384, 421, 450, 463, 482 Communications with foreign countries are 
made by the State Department through ambassadors or minis- 
ters maintained in every capital and consuls in every important 
city of the world. 
13, 278 Fish ; 345 Seals. The United States has urged arbitration as 
the best method of settling difficulties. Disagreements concern- 
ing fisheries, sealing, boundaries, etc., arising between the 
United States and Great Britain have been settled by arbitration. 



202 HIST. AXD CIV.— GOVERNMENT 



IV. AMERICAN IDEALS 

80 The Old Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, Philadelphia. Pa. 

25 The Statue of Liberty. The Gateway to America, New York 
Harbor. The idea of liberty has a double meaning to Ameri- 
cans, — national independence from and freedom for the people 
under fixed laws which they have had a hand in making. 



15. COMMUNITY CIVICS 

By ARTHUR WILLIAM DUNN, A.M. 

SPECIALIST IN CIVIC EDUCATION, U. S. BUREAU OF EDUCATION, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

" A characteristic feature of community civics is that it fo- 
cuses attention upon the ' elements of community welfare ' 
rather than upon the machinery of government. The latter is 
discussed only in the light of a prior study of the ' elements of 
welfare ' and in relation to them." 

" The aim of community civics is to help the child to know 
his community — not merely a lot of facts about it, but the 
meaning of his community life, what it does for him, and how 
it does it, what the community has a right to expect from him, 
and how he may fulfill his obligation, meanwhile cultivating 
in him the essential qualities and habits of good citizenship." 

"Community civics applies this point of view to the study 
of the national community as well as to the study of the local 
community." (" The Social Studies in Secondary Education," 
Bulletin, 1916, No. 28, p. 23, U. S. Bureau of Education.) 

(The following classification is based upon, and follows the 
organization of, Dunn's " The Community and the Citizen," 
copyrighted and published by D. C. Heath & Company.) 

i. What is a Community? 

38 Hudson Valley. A group of neighboring farmers may be a com- 
munity. 

7 Boston ; 28 New York. Or the community may be a city. 

8 Old State House, Boston. Each state in our Union is a com- 

munity. 
87 to 95 National capital. Our nation is a community with its cen- 
ter at Washington. 
7 Quincy Market, Boston; 387 Market place, Nuremburg, Germany; 
395 Vegetable market, Brussels, Belgium. The country and city 
communities have certain interests in common. 

2. The Site of the Community 

25 to 31 New York City. Nature seems to have planned the Hudson 
River as the site of the greatest city on the Atlantic coast. 
203 



204 COMMUNITY CIVICS 

217 Seattle, Washington; 386 Hamburg, Germany; 230 San Francisco, 
California. Cities spring up where there is a good harbor. 
61 Pittsburgh, Pa. The junction of two navigable rivers is a good 
situation. 

167 Minneapolis, Minn. Manufacturing towns often grow near the 
falls of a river. 

264 Quebec, Can.; 267 Montreal, Can. The head of an estuary is a 
fine location for a commercial city. 

139* Chicago. A rich region must have a center for trade. 

174 St. Louis, Mo. Where natural routes cross, will be found a city. 

119 New Orleans, La. The fertility of the soil attracts people. 

214 Mining camp, Nevada ; 187 Butte, Mont. The presence of min- 
eral ores will cause towns and cities to develop. 

216, 217 Seattle, Wash. An abundance of forest products will cause 
the growth of a community. 
61 Pittsburgh, Pa. A river and its branches may divide a city into 

parts more or less distinct with different characteristics. 
31 New York City; 43 Busy path of commerce; 48 Mouth of Erie 
Canal. 

154 Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. If it were not for the wonderful devel- 
opment of transportation and communication it might have been 
very difficult for our great country to hold together. 

3. What People in Communities Are Seeking 

60 Atlantic City, N. J. ; 72 June carnival, Pennsylvania. Men desire 
life and health. 

29 Wall St., New York City; 139 Chicago shops; 351 London Bank. 
The desire for wealth is very strong. 
342 Peary expedition; 575, 576 Victoria Fall, South Africa. Men 
want knowledge. It is this desire that led Peary to the Arctic 
regions and Livingstone to the heart of Africa. 

90 Washington ; 95 Congressional Library ; 360 York and its cathe- 
dral ; 422 Champs Elysees, Paris, France. Men take pleasure 
in beautiful buildings and streets. 
6 Old North Church, Boston; 425 Notre Dame, Paris; 451 St. 
Peter's, Rome; 458 Cathedral, Milan, Italy; 503 Jumma Mosque, 
Delhi, India; 501 Pilgrims bathing in Ganges, India; 568 Temple 
of Karnak, Egypt. The religious desire is characteristic of man. 
In every community there are certain things men do to gratify it. 

60 Atlantic City, N. J.; 387 Market place, Nuremburg, Germany; 
466 Market place, Serajevo, Bosnia. Men desire companion- 
ship. 
260 Hawaii. The school trains children for citizenship. 

6 Old North Church, Boston; 29 Trinity Church, New York City; 
458 Cathedral, -Milan, Italy. The church helps men to live har- 
moniously. 
8 Old State House, Boston ; 87 to 95 Washington, D. C. Govern- 
ernment establishes and enforces laws for our common good 
which all should willingly observe. 



HOME AND COMMUNITY 205 

4. The Family 

214 Mining camp, Nevada. In the far west there are mining towns 
and in the north, lumber camps composed almost entirely of 
men without families — the community is liable to be lawless. 

139 Chicago. There are thousands of unfortunate homeless children 
adrift in our great cities. 

519 A study of Chinese faces. It is largely in the drifting homeless 
population that the disorderly and criminal classes are found. 

113 Lincoln's birthplace. The early settler cut down trees from the 
forest and built a log house. 

488 Plowing with primitive plow, Russia. 

497 Threshing floor; 498 Grinding wheat, Palestine. "The grain 
was threshed by hand and ground into meal in a homemade 
stone mill." These primitive ways of working are no longer 
used in the United States. 
2 Moose, Maine; 189 Elk, Montana. For fresh meat they had to 
depend chiefly upon game from the forest. 

409 Spinning wheel, Norway; 506 Weaving shawls on hand loom, 
Kashmir. A spinning wheel and hand loom were set up in 
the house. 

281 Home of peon, Mexico ; 298 Farm home, Cuba ; 362 Wordsworth's 
home, England; 373 A highland home, Scotland; 410, 411 
Homes of peasants, Norway. The family remains one of the 
most important means to provide for the wants of its citizens. 

5. The Home and the Community 

96 Washington's home, Mt. Vernon, Va. ; 181 Bryan's farm, Ne- 
braska. There is no kind of property that gives such satisfac- 
tion to the owner as does a home. 

61 Pittsburgh, Pa. In large cities where people are crowded to- 
gether, they may resort to low lands where it is unhealthful 
and in danger of floods. 
455 Tenement in Palermo, Italy. These tenement dwellings involve all 

sorts of evils. 
339 La Guaira, Venezuela; 514 Hong Kong, China. The unsanitary 
conditions invite epidemics of disease. 

10 Common, Lexington, Mass.; 51 Palisades, N. J. Parks and play- 
grounds are being established. 

6. The Making of Americans 

32 Ellis Island, N. Y. Thousands are coming every year. 
162, 166 Minnesota. There are sections of the Northwest where al- 
most the entire population is Scandinavian. 
135 Rossford, Ohio. Glass makers are often Belgians. 
227 Interior of canning factory, Astoria, Oregon; 519 A study in 
Chinese faces. In 1882 Congress passed a law known as a 
Chinese Exclusion Act. 
72 Children dancing around Maypole, Pennsylvania; 117 Negroes, 
Louisiana; 175 Apple pickers, Missouri; 187 Butte, Mont. All 



206 COMMUNITY CIVICS 

persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens. 
Children under twenty-one become citizens by the naturalization 
of their parents. A foreign woman becomes a citizen if she 
marries a United States citizen or if her husband becomjes 
naturalized. 

7. How the Relations Between the People and the Land Are Made 

Permanent and Definite 

204 Ute Indian, Colorado. The hunting life of the Indian made a 
fixed dwelling place undesirable. 

178, 179, 180 Prairie lands, South Dakota and Nebraska. Our nation 
has come into possession of vast territories that would be useless 
if they were not occupied. 

180, 181, 184, 185 Farms in Nebraska and Kansas. Most of this 
land was sold and settled under the Homestead Act. 

136 Modern methods of corn harvesting, Indiana. After the Revolu- 
tionary War, settlers began to enter the Ohio Valley and claim 
land for farms. 

209, 210 Desert and irrigation dam, Arizona. It has constructed reser- 
voirs and a network of canals. 

229 Yosemite Valley, Cal. Another part of the public land consists of 

the national forests. 
213 Ogden, Utah ; 220 Seattle, Wash. Governments may compel prem- 
ises to be kept clean. 
6, 7, 8 Boston; 28, 29, 30 New York. Within certain limits cities 
do not allow wooden buildings. 

230 San Francisco; 31 New York City; 139 Chicago; 273 Winnipeg, 

Manitoba. Communities may grant the use of their highways to 
private corporations that render important public service, such as 
street railways, telephone, and telegraph companies and water 
and gas companies. 

8. How the Community Aids the Citizen to Satisfy His Desire for 

Health 

292 Tortilla making, Salvador, C. A.; 411 Milking the goats, Hard- 
anger Fjord, Norway. Life and health were almost wholly de- 
pendent upon the efforts and the arrangement of the family itself. 

10 Lexington Common, Mass. ; 33 Dining room and living room ; 37 
Washington's headquarters, Newburgh, N. Y. ; 57 Modern dairy, 
Plainsboro, N. J., 373 Highland home, Scotland. The most im- 
portant precaution against disease is cleanliness. 

10 Lexington, Mass.; 28 New York City; 51 Palisades, New Jersey; 
93, 95 Washington, D. C. ; 126 San Antonio, Texas. Of great 
importance in large cities is the system of parks. 

52 Docks, Hoboken, N. J.; 514 Hong Kong, China. Any ship that 
enters our harbor may bring with it disease from the slums of 
Europe or Asia. 

61 Pittsburgh, Pa.; 187 Butte, Mont. When a factory pollutes the 
stream that runs by it, it threatens the health, not only of the 



COMMUNITY AIDS THE CITIZEN 207 

immediate community, but also of other communities farther 
down the stream. 

141 to 144 Meat packing houses, Chicago, 111. Laws were passed pro- 
viding for the inspection of meats put up. 

295 to 299 Cuba ; 247 to 256 Panama ; 546 to 553 the Philippines. They 
have caused such dread diseases as smallpox and yellow fever to 
disappear almost completely from regions occupied by our army 
in Cuba, Panama, and the Philippines. 

9. How the Community Aids the Citizen to Protect His Life and 

Property 

6 Boston; 29 New York City. Now every large city is supplied with 
water from a reliable source. 
526 Tokyo, Japan. Seven-eighths of the fires that occur are the result 

of a lack of proper precautions in building. 
214 Mining camp, Nevada ; 89 Supreme Court, Washington, D. C. One 
of the most sacred rights of a citizen is the right to a fair trial. 
8 Boston. The police of a city patrol its streets at all times. 
6 Boston ; 461 Gratz, Austria ; 463 Vienna, Austria ; 486 Kief, Russia ; 
273 Winnipeg, Manitoba. Another important arrangement for the 
safety of property and life is a system of street lighting. 
43 Busy path of commerce in central New York; 31 New York City. 
The thousands of people who travel on the cars each day are at 
the mercy of those who run the trains. 
74 to 79 Coal mines, Pennsylvania. In the year 1911, there were 2,719 
men killed and 31,334 injured in the coal mines of the United 
States. 
100 Hampton Roads, Va. ; 242 Submarines and battleships, San Diego 
Bay, Cal. 254 U. S. S. Missouri, Panama Canal; 585 American 
fleet visiting Sydney, Australia. The navy is another means of 
national protection. 
25, 26 New York Harbor ; 128 Conneaut, Ohio ; 164 Ore docks, Two 
Harbors, Minn; 242 San Diego Bay, Cal. The national gov- 
ernment has done a great deal for the protection of life and 
property by improving harbors. 
99 Life savers, Va. Every year the life savers perform deeds of 

heroism. 
119 New Orleans, La.; 148 East St. Louis, 111. The national govern- 
ment has constructed levees. 

10. The Relation Between the Community and the Citizen in Busi- 

ness Life 

11, 12, 15 Factories in Mass.; 142, 143 Packing houses, Chicago; 151 
Detroit, Mich. With the introduction of machinery the division 
of tasks has been more complete. 

14, 15 Cotton mill, Lawrence, Mass. ; 22, 23, 24 Silk mill, Manchester, 
Conn. ; 132, 133 Rubber factory, Akron, Ohio ; 134, 135 Glass 
factory, Rossford, Ohio. In well organized factories, each work- 



208 COMMUNITY CIVICS 

man devotes his entire time to producing one small part of an 

article. 
136 Indiana; 184 Kansas. In some parts of our country, corn is the 

chief product. 
117 Mississippi; 119 Louisiana; 124 Texas. In other places, cotton is 

the leading crop. 
85 Delaware; 108 Florida; 236, 237, 238 California. Some parts of 

the country are given over to fruit raising. 
127 Texas; 165 Minnesota; 185 Kansas; 188 Montana; 190 Idaho. In 

some parts of the West cattle or sheep raising takes the place of 

farming. 
74 to 79 Coal mining in Pennsylvania; 155 to 157 Copper mining in 

Michigan; 176 Joplin, Mo.; 187 Butte, Mont; 225 Oregon; 214 

Nevada. In some parts of the country mining is the principal 

occupation. 
1 Maine; 162 The pineries, Minnesota; 215 to 217 Washington. In 

some places lumbering is the chief occupation. 
13 Cod, Gloucester, Mass. ; 226, 227 Salmon, Astoria, Ore. In other 

places the people are occupied with fishing. 
14, 15, 16 Lawrence, Mass. One region becomes famous for its cot- 
ton manufactures. 
22 to 24 So. Manchester, Conn. ; 53 to 55 Paterson, N. J. Other 

regions become famous for their silk manufactures. 
47 Buffalo, N\ Y.; 149 Celery fields, Kalamazoo, Mich.; 177 North 

Dakota. The gardener who gives his whole time to raising 

vegetables receives in return bread from wheat raised in the 

Dakotas. 
1 Maine woods; 224 Oregon. The history of our country has been 

very largely a story of the clearing of forests. 
161 Draining land, Wisconsin; 210 Phoenix, Ariz. Some of the land 

had to be reclaimed for agriculture. 
155 Copper mines, Calumet, Mich.; 163 Iron mine, Michigan; 116 Iron 

mines, Alabama. There were mines to be opened. 
26 New York Harbor; 52 Docks at Hoboken, N. J.; 129 Conneaut 

Harbor, Ohio. 119 New Orleans, La.; 106 Savannah, Ga. The 

history of the country has been greatly influenced by the growth 

of commerce. 
19, 20 Paper mill, Holyoke, Mass. ; 62 to 68 Iron mills, Pittsburgh, 

Pa. 82 Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa. The growth of 

manufacture has determined the growth of the nation. 
6, 7 Boston; 25 to 30 New York City; 139 Chicago; 167 Minne- 
apolis. 174 St. Louis, Mo. ; 220 Seattle, Wash. The growth of 

cities was remarkable. 
230 San Francisco, Cal. ; 212 Salt Lake City, Utah; 213 Ogden, Utah. 

L'nited States history is the story of the building of railroads 

and steamboats and telegraphs and telephones. 



GOVERNMENT AIDS THE CITIZEN 209 

178, 179 South Dakota; 11, 12 Shoe factory, Massachusetts; 30 New 
York City. 139 Chicago; 29 Wall St., New York City; 87, 94 
Washington, D. C. The men and women who are today work- 
ing on the farms or in the mines, in factories and shops, in 
stores and offices, or in any other lines of business, are as truly 
doing their country a service as those who hold the offices of 
government. 
20 Paper factory, Holyoke, Mass.; 40 Collar factory, Troy, N. Y. ; 
152 Ford factory, Detroit, Mich. The employer is responsible 
for the welfare of those who work for him. 
11, 12 Shoe factory, Massachusetts; 82 Locomotive works, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; 62 to 67 Iron mills, Pittsburgh, Pa. No man's busi- 
ness belongs to himself alone ; it belongs to the community. 

132, 133 Rubber works, Akron, Ohio; 11 Shoe factory, Massachusetts; 
14 to 16 Cotton mill, Lawrence, Mass. The community has a 
right to expect honest goods. It has the right to expect good 
workmanship. 
29 Wall St., New York City; 351 Bank of England, London, Eng- 
land. By far the greater part of the business dealings between 
individuals, between communities and between nations is car- 
ried on by a system of credit. 

ii. How the Government Aids the Citizen by Controlling Business 

Relations 

8 Old State House, Boston; 11, 12 Shoe factory, Massachusetts; 14 
to 16 Cotton mill, Lawrence, Mass. When men wish to or- 
ganize as a corporation it is almost always the state that gives 
them authority. 
26 New York City ; 52 Ocean liners, Hoboken, N. J. ; 48 Erie Canal, 
Buffalo, N. Y. ; 106 Savannah, Ga. ; 43 Busy path of commerce, 
Central New York; 154 Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.; 164 Two Har- 
bors, Minn.; 170 Keokuk, Iowa ; 217 Shipping lumber, Washing- 
ton. Congress was given power to regulate commerce with for- 
eign nations and among the several states and with the Indian 
tribes. 
84 Mint, Philadelphia, Pa. Congress was given power to coin money. 

386 Hamburg Germany; 422 Paris, France; 433 Barcelona, Spain, etc. 
Congress has established a consular system. 

527 to 529 Rice, Japan; 530 Tea, Japan; 310 Coffee, Brazil; 317 Cattle, 
Argentina; 412 Paper, Norway; 419 Sugar, Sweden; 488 Wheat, 
Russia. The consuls investigate the products and manufactures 
of the countries to which they are sent. 

357 Harvesting wheat, England. Consuls try to create a market for 
United States products, in those countries whose resources are 
limited. 
52 Hoboken, N. J.; 347 Liverpool, England; 307 Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil. 314 Buenos Aires, Argentina ; 386 Hamburg, Germany. 
The consuls try to stimulate friendly business relations between 
our country and all the world. 



210 COMMUNITY CIVICS 

43 Central New York; 48 Erie Canal, Buffalo, N. Y.; 61 Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 

154 Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. An Interstate Commerce Commission 
with authority to inquire into the management of common car- 
riers. 

122, 123 Oil region, Beaumont, Tex. In 1890, passed an anti-trust law. 

141 to 144 Meat packing, Chicago, 111. In 1906, a Food and Drugs 

Act. 
93 Washington, D. C. The Department of Agriculture, the Depart- 
ment of Commerce, the Department of Labor are means of na- 
tional cooperation. 



12. How the Community Aids the Citizen in Transportation and 
Communication 

71 Wagon, Crawford Co., Pa.. It cost $125 to haul a ton of goods 
from Philadelphia, Pa. to Pittsburgh, Pa. by wagon. 

112 Tobacco field; 124 Cotton gin, Texas; 147 Loading oats, Illinois. 

149 Celery fields, Kalamazoo, Mich. ; 162 Minnesota pineries. Ninety- 
five per cent of every load by train, steamship or express must 
be carted over a highway. 

195 Rocky Mountain Divide, Wyoming; 221 Mt. Hood, Oregon. 
Where there are hills the cost of hauling is twice as much as in 
level country for only half as much can be hauled in each load. 
48 Mouth Erie Canal, Buffalo, N. Y. ; 61 Pittsburgh, Pa.; 119 Levee, 
New Orleans, La.; 157 Houghton, Mich. The invention of the 
steamboat gave a great impetus to water transportation. 
43 Railroad train, Central New York; 129 Train load of coal, Con- 
neaut, Ohio. The rapid use of railways checked the use of 
rivers. 

128 Conneaut, Ohio; 157 Loading ore on a boat, Houghton, Mich. ; 164 
Two Harbors, Minn. The commerce of the Great Lakes has 
steadily increased, and is today of enormous proportions. 
48 Mouth of Erie Canal, Buffalo, N. Y. The Erie Canal is still an 
important highway. 

154 Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. One of the largest of these is the canal 
at Sault Ste. Marie., 

248 to 256 Panama Canal. The greatest canal ever undertaken is the 
Panama canal. 

277 Western terminus of Canadian Pacific, Vancouver, B. C. Steam 
railways revolutionized transportation. 

43 Electric railroad, Central New York. Another important step is 
the recent growth of electric interurban railways. 
7 Boston; 31 New York. The question of transportation in cities 

is an important one. 
6, 7 Boston ; 29 New York City ; 422 Avenue Champs de Elysees, 
Paris, France. 



WASTE AND SAVING 211 

90 Washington, D. C ; 152 Detroit, Mich. First in importance is the 
street itself. Streets are for the use of the people. 

339 Narrow streets of La Guaira, Venezuela. There are ordinances 
to prevent storekeepers and others from blocking the sidewalks 
with boxes or otherwise. 
31 Many forms of transportation, New York City. Life in cities has 
been revolutionized by the development of rapid transportation 
by electric trolley cars, elevated railways and systems of sub- 
ways. 

273 Winnipeg, Manitoba; 28 World Building, New York City. There 
must be exchange of ideas. We have a postal system, the tele- 
graph and telephone and the newspaper. 

13. Waste and Saving 

216 Port Blakely Mills, Puget Sound, Wash. In a well managed saw- 
mill the waste is made into tool handles, chair rounds and other 
small articles. 

122, 123 Oil region, Texas. From what was formerly wasted in re- 
fining petroleum are now produced paraffin, vaseline, dyestuffs, 
etc. 

210 Roosevelt Dam, Phoenix, Ariz. The reclamation by irrigation of 
vast areas of waste land. 
93 Washington, D. C. In the Department of Agriculture there is a 
bureau of soils. 

172, 173 Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. The national government 
cooperates with state governments many of whom have agri- 
cultural schools. 

224 Great tree, Oregon. Our forest resources have been sadly wasted. 

222 Crater Lake, Ore. ; 228, 229 Yosemite Valley, Cal. The national 
government has set aside a large number of national forests. 
49, 50 Niagara Falls, N. Y. Niagara Falls and other sources of 
water power have been harnessed to generate electrical power. 

14. How the Community Aids the Citizen to Satisfy His Desire 
for Knowledge 

260 Public school, Hawaii. Education is not only a privilege ; it is a 

duty. 
95 Congressional library, Washington, D. C. There are thousands of 

libraries all over the country. 
172, 173 Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. A number of states provide 

state universities. 

15. Civic Beauty 

64 Pittsburgh, Pa. ; 163 Burt Mine, Minnesota. Hills are cut away 
for the resources they contain. 

61 Pittsburgh, Pa.; 216 Port Blakely Mills, Puget Sound, Wash. 
Streams are lined with ugly and noisy factories and clogged 
with refuse. 

63 Pittsburgh, Pa. ; 68 Coke ovens, Connellsville, Pa. The sky is ob- 
scured with smoke. 



212 COMMUNITY CIVICS 

191 to 197 Yellowstone Valley, Wyoming; 228, 229 Yosemite Valley, 
California. Much natural scenery may be preserved by the crea- 
tion of national and state parks as in the case of the Yellow- 
stone and the Yosemite. 

49, 50 Niagara Falls, N. Y. Niagara Falls is in danger of being 
transformed from one of the greatest wonders of nature into a 
mere sluice for the turning of mill wheels. 

37 Washington's headquarters, Newburgh, N. Y. ; 91 the White 

House, Washington, D. C. The place to begin beautifying a 

community is at home. 

9 Longfellow's home, Cambridge, Mass. ; 10 Lexington, Mass. The 

first essential to beauty is neatness and orderliness. 

373 Highland home, Scotland. There is almost always a spot for 

vines and flowers to grow if only in window boxes. 
354 Shakespeare's home, England ; 355 Anne Hathaway's home, Eng- 
land ; 360 York, England; 422 Paris, France. Whole squares 
and whole streets present an unbroken view of beauty. 

83 School gardens, Philadelphia, Pa. School children transformed 
vacant lots, barren, disorderly places into beautiful flower and 
vegetable gardens. 
305 Avenida Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The street is public 
property. 

28, 29, 31 New York City; 337 Street in Barranquilla, Colombia; 351 
Bank of England, London, England. In cities good pavements 
are perhaps the first essential to beautiful streets. 

90, 93 Washington, D. C. ; 339 La Guaira, Venezuela ; 341 Caracas, 
Venezuela. In the matter of clean streets, prevention is better 
than cure. 

90, 93 Washington, D. C. ; 222 Crater Lake, Ore. Among the most 
beautiful objects in nature are trees. 

71 Crawford Co., Pa. What is more beautiful than a country road 
lined with trees? 
220 Seattle, Wash. A great deal of monotony is produced in our 

streets. 
273 Winnipeg, Manitoba. Telegraph and telephone poles are un- 
sightly. 

93, 95 Washington, D. C.J 126 San Antonio, Tex.; 312 Montevideo, 
Uruguay. 316 Buenos Aires, Argentina; 324 Santiago, Chile; 
329 Monte Misti, Peru. 340 Caracas, Venezuela. All cities 
have their systems of parks and boulevards. 

28 New York City; 220 Seattle, Wash. Small parks with grass and 
trees, flowers and fountains which may bring a little pleasure 
into the lives of those who seldom enjoy the fresh air of the 
country. 

63 Pittsburg, Pa. ; 273 Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Smoke, like the 
network of wires, has been assumed to be a necessity. 



HOW CITIES GOVERN THEMSELVES 213 

7, 8 Boston, Mass.,; 31 New York City. As wires are disappearing, 
so is smoke. 
405 Copenhagen, Denmark. Art' museums are being established. 
90, 93 Washington, D. C. Cities themselves are more thoughtfully 
planned. 
212 Salt Lake City, Utah; 220 Seattle, Wash. One of the first steps 
toward making good citizens is to give them pleasant sur- 
roundings. 

16. How the Community Aids the Citizen to Satisfy His Religious 

Desire 

295 Havana, Cuba; 324 Santiago, Chile; 335 Bolivia; 109 St. Au- 
gustine, Fla. The Spaniards made their conquests in the name 
of religion. 
6 Old North Church, Boston, Mass. The Pilgrims came to find free- 
dom of worship. 
87 Capitol, Washington, D. C. Congress can not make any law re- 
specting the establishment of religion. 

6 Old North Church, Boston, Mass. ; 29 Trinity, New York City ; 36 

Church at Sleepy Hollow, N. Y. ; 109 Old Spanish Church, St. 
Augustine, Fla.; 212 Mormon Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Our government allows the greatest personal liberty in religion. 

17. How the Cities of a Community Govern Themselves 

87, 95 Washington, D. C. Government is the servant of the people, 
not their master. 

96 Washington's old home, Mt. Vernon, Va. ; 181 Farm home, Lin- 
coln, Neb. The state prescribes the rules for family relations. 

11 Factory, Massachusetts; 159 Barns and cattle, Wisconsin; 160 
Corn crop, Wisconsin. 188 Ranch, Montana. The state pro- 
tects our property, etc. 

28 City buildings, New York City. Local governments are merely 
branches of state governments. Their duties are chiefly ad- 
ministrative. 

7 Town Hall, Boston; 28 City building, New York City. Matters 

of local interest are in the hands of local government. 
43 Transportation, Central New York. Matters of more general 

interest are regulated by the state. 
87, 88 Washington, D. C. Laws are made by the legislative branch. 
91 White House, Washington, D. C. The enforcement of these laws 

is intrusted to the executive branch. 
89 Supreme Court, Washington, D. C. If any question arises as to 

the meaning of the laws, it is finally settled by the judiciary. 
28 City Building, New York City; 88 Congress, Washington, D. C. 

The right to vote for representatives in the government is a 

privilege prescribed by state constitutions. 
243 to 246 Alaska. Women in Alaska have the right to vote. 

8 Boston ; 29 New York City ; 109 St Augustine, Fla. Difference of 



214 COMMUNITY CIVICS 

opinion makes political parties. The party may be a local party, 
concerned with such a question as paving a street. 

117 Negroes, Mississippi. Parties' may be national, arising out of 

some great question, as the extension of slavery. 
88 Congress, Washington, D. C. At first the representatives of each 
party in Congress used to nominate candidates for President 
and Vice-President. 

110 Negro, Florida; 117 Negroes, Mississippi; 124 Cotton gin, Texas; 
204 Ute Indian, Colorado; 227 Canning factory, Astoria, Ore. 
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be 
abridged on account of race, color or previous condition of 
servitude. 
9, 10 Colonial houses, Massachusetts. In colonial times, the right 
to vote was denied to those who did not own a certain amount 
of property. 
6 Old North Church, Boston; 29 Trinity Church, New York City. 
In colonial times, it was common to deny the vote to all who 
were not members of the church. 

198 Colorado; 218 Washington; 233 California; 184 Kansas; 210 Ari- 
zona. Colorado, Washington, California, Kansas and Arizona 
have women suffrage. They all are progressive and prosperous. 

18. Changing Methods of Self-Government 

87 to 90 Washington, D. C. Few of the people actually take direct 
part in the government — not many citizens can hold office. 

96 Mt. Vernon, Va. The. men who will best look after community 
business are most often men who have large interests of their 
own. 

88 The Capitol, Washington, D. C. The choice of a good President 
depends on the choice of a good man. 

25, 26, 30 New York City. In large communities, it is difficult to 
know the various candidates and their merits. 

88 President Wilson, Washington, D. C. ; 146 Lincoln's tomb, Spring- 
field, 111. To secure united action, there must be organization 
under leaders. 

87, 88 Washington, D. C. The defeated parties should have rep- 
resentation and their views should be considered. 
220 Seattle, Wash. The " recall " is used especially in the west to 
remove officials who are not properly fulfilling the obligations 
of office. 

75, 76 Miners, Pennsylvania; 107 Savannah, Ga. ; 115 Columbia, 
Term. ; 147 Farmers, Illinois; 152 Factory men, Detroit, Mich.; 
161 Farmers, Wisconsin; 167 Minneapolis, Minn.; 175 Farmers, 
Missouri. " The initiative " and " referendum " are methods by 
which people themselves take direct action in law making. 
These are types of people. 
117 Negroes, Miss.; 227 Canning factory, Astoria, Ore. The chief 
argument against the " initiative " and " referendum " is that the 



RURAL COMMUNITIES 215 

people as a whole are not sufficiently informed to vote upon im- 
portant laws. 

89 Supreme Court Room, Washington, D. C. Party feeling should 
not be allowed to enter into some appointments, such as judges. 
253 London; 383 Berlin; 421 Paris; 462 Vienna, Austria Hungary. 
In some foreign countries, young men go into training for pub- 
lic service. 

11 Factory hands, Massachusetts and 152 Detroit, Mich.; 103 Farm- 
ers, South Carolina; 124 Farmers, Texas; 144 Packers, Chi- 
cago. In our country, the feeling seems to prevail that every 
citizen is competent to hold an office if he can get it. 

19. The Government of Rural Communities 

6 Old North Church, Boston. In early New England, a town was a 

little village with its surrounding farms governed by all the free- 
men who belonged to the church. 

7 Town House, Boston. The town meeting, held in the town house, 

chose the officers and levied the tax. 
96 Mt. Vernon, Va. ; 104, 105 Rice fields, South Carolina; 117 Cot- 
ton plantation, Mississippi. The South was rich farming land, 
so the colonists scattered to large plantations and county gov- 
ernment developed. 
38 Hudson Valley, N. Y. ; 47 Farm, Buffalo, N. Y. ; 61 Pittsburgh, 
Pa.; 71 Crawford Co., Pa.; 69 Oil fields, Pennsylvania. New 
York and Pennsylvania, lying between New England and Vir- 
ginia, developed both township and county governments. 

165, 166 Country, Minnesota; 178, 179 Country, South Dakota; 190 
Sheep range, Idaho; 188 Ranch, Montana; 180, 181 Country, 
Nebraska. The country system is more practicable in the West, 
for the population is widely scattered. 

25 to 31 New York City; 139 Chicago. Some counties are occupied 
wholly by large cities. 

237 to 240 Los Angeles County, Cal. The present law in Los Angeles 
County provides for the election of not more than three officers 
in one year. 

228 to 242 California. By state law in California each county has the 
right to adopt its own charter. 

20. The Government of Cities 

6 to 8 Boston; 25 to 31 New York City; 61 Pittsburgh, Pa.; 121 
Oklahoma City, Okla. ; 139 Chicago ; 167 Minneapolis, Minn. ; 
212 Salt Lake City, Utah. 213 Ogden, Utah; 220 Seattle, 
Wash. ; 230 San Francisco, Cal. The growth of cities in the 
United States has been very rapid and they have brought many 
serious problems. 
61 Pittsburgh, Pa.; 139 Chicago. American cities are constantly be- 
ing made over. 
128, 131 to 135 Ohio ; 228 to 242 California. Some states as Ohio and 
California allow their cities to draft their own charters. 



216 COMMUNITY CIVICS 

28 City Building, New York City. City government is most com- 

monly vested in a council and mayor. 

21. The Government of the Nation 
87, 88 Washington, D. C. Congress shall consist of two houses, a 

Senate and a House of Representatives. 
88 President Wilson, Washington, D. C. The President is the chief 
executive officer. He may convene either or both houses ; he 
must give to them his message. 
92 Cabinet room, Washington, D. C. The President with the con- 
sent of the Senate appoints the Cabinet. 
384 Berlin ; 435 Madrid, Spain ; 526 Tokyo, Japan. The Secretary of 
State maintains relations between the United States and other 
countries. Through him government notes are sent and treaties 
such as the Panama treaty are made. 
448 Switzerland; 452 Rome; 578 Hunter, South Africa. Through him 

the rights of Americans in foreign countries are looked after. 
282 City of Mexico ; 338 La Guaira, Venezuela. If any of the inde- 
pendent countries of North or South America get into trouble 
with any other nation, our State Department, acting under the 
Monroe Doctrine, is an interested party. 

29 Sub Treasury, New York City; 84 Mint, Philadelphia; 94 Public 

Buildings, Washington, D. C. The Secretary of the Treasury is 
the financial manager of the national government. 
29 Sub-Treasury, New York City ; 87 Capitol, Washington ; 90 Pub- 
lic Buildings, Washington, D. C. ; 95 Congressional Library, 
Washington, D. C. He controls the construction and mainte- 
nance of public buildings. 
99 Life saving service, Va. The Secretary of the Treasury has charge 

of the life-saving service. 
39 West Point, N. Y. ; 90 Navy Building, Washington, D. C. The 
Secretary of War has control, under the President, of the mili- 
tary establishment of the nation. 
25 New York Harbor ; 120 Mississippi mouth ; 148 Dikes, East St. 
Louis, 111. He administers river and harbor improvements. 

257, 258 Porto Rico; 546 to 553 Philippines. He directs the Bureau 
of Insular Affairs, which supervises the civil government of 
Porto Rico and the Philippines. 

100 Hampton Roads, Va. ; 242 Submarines and battle ships, San Diego, 
Cat; 296 Wrecked battleship Maine, Havana Harbor; 254 
U. S. S. Missouri in Panama Canal; 585 U. S. fleet, visiting 
Australia. The Secretary of the Navy superintends all mat- 
ters pertaining to the construction, manning, equipment and em- 
ployment of vessels of war. 

554 Guam. Guam is governed by the United States naval officer sta- 
tioned there. 

191 to 197 Yellowstone Park; 220 Crater Lake Park; 228, 229 Yo- 
semite Valley, Cal. The Secretary of the Interior has charge 
of public lands and care of national parks. 






GOVERNMENT OF THE NATION 217 

12, 14, 16 Machinery patented, Massachusetts; 62 to 67 Machinery- 
patented, Pittsburgh, Pa. He has charge of the giving of pat- 
ents. 

182 Sioux Indians, Nebraska; 204 Ute Indians, Colorado. He takes 
care of Indian affairs. 

210 Roosevelt Dam, Arizona. The Secretary of the Interior has 
charge of the reclamation service. 

75, 76 Coal miners, Pennsylvania. He promotes improvement in 
methods of mining and safety of miners. 

38 Farms, Hudson Valley, N. Y. ; 85 Delaware; 104, 105 Rice fields, 
South Carolina; 118 Peanuts, Arkansas; 147 Oats, Illinois; 166 
Potatoes, Minnesota; 175 Apples, Missouri; 199 Dry farming, 
Colorado. The Secretary of Agriculture promotes the general 
agricultural interest of the country. 
224 Great trees, Oregon. He administers the forest service. 

71 Crawford Co., Pa. He assists in the development of good roads. 

43 Central New York; 48 Erie Canal, New York; 52 Docks, Hoboken, 
N. J.; 61 Pittsburgh, Pa.; 106 Savannah, Ga. ; 119 New Or- 
leans, La.; 154 Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.; 217 Washington; 13 
Cod, Gloucester, Mass.; 226 Salmon, Astoria, Ore. The Sec- 
retary of Commerce is to promote the commercial interests of 
the nation at home and abroad. He has charge of the Bureau 
of fisheries. 
4, 5 Marble workers, Proctor, Vt. ; 11, 20 Factory hands, Massa- 
chusetts ; 53 to 55 Silk workers, New Jersey ; 63, 65, 66, 68 Men 
in steel mills, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; 74 to 79 Coal miners, Pennsyl- 
vania; 82 Baldwin locomotive works, Philadelphia, Pa.; 131 to 
133, etc. Rubber factory workers, Akron, Ohio. The Secretary 
of Labor is charged with the duty of fostering, promoting and 
developing the welfare of the wage-earners of the United States. 

32 Ellis Island, N. Y. He has care of the Bureau of Immigration. 

89 Supreme Court Room, Washington, D. C The judicial power of 
the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court and such 
inferior courts as shall from time to time be established by 
Congress. 
243 to 246 Alaska; 259 to 261 Hawaii. Alaska and Hawaii are terri- 
tories. 
257, 258 Porto Rico ; 546 to 553 Philippines. Porto Rico and the Phil- 
ippines are dependencies. 



218 COMMUNITY CIVICS 

Note: — This p a g e f or teachers' notes. 



16. CITIES OF THE WORLD 

By JOHN NOLEN, A.M., Sc.D. 

CITY PLANNER, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT, BOSTON, MASS. 

The city looms big in the modern world. Not only in the 
United States, but in every progressive country, population is 
increasing very much more rapidly in cities than in rural dis- 
tricts, especially in England, America, and Germany. Man 
has entered on an urban age. Already 80 per cent, of the 
population of the United Kingdom dwells in cities. 

In the United States the growth of cities is one of the most 
striking facts, as the following percentages of the cities' popu- 
lation here given illustrate: — In 1880, 29.5 per cent, of the 
people of this country dwelt in cities; in 1890, 36.1 per cent.; 
in 1900, 40.5 per cent; in 1910, 46.3 per cent. Today we may 
safely say that virtually one-half of the population of the 
United States is a city population. In contrast it may be 
noted that a hundred years ago only about 5 per cent, of the 
population of this country was living in places of 8,000 in- 
habitants or more. 

The growth of population in cities is directly reflected in 
their greatly increased wealth and influence. The city has 
become one of the main problems of modern democratic so- 
ciety, and is already the most accurate measure of our civiliza- 
tion and culture. 

Cities, like people, have temperament and personalities of 
their own. It has been said that American cities are all alike. 
To some extent this is unfortunately true, when we compare 
our cities with those of the Old World. Yet what different 
types are represented by a comparison, for example, of New 
York with New Orleans, of Philadelphia with San Francisco, 
of Boston with Washington, of Chicago with San Antonio. 
The natural distinctiveness of cities due to origin, history, 
tradition, topography, climate, dominant function, or what 
not, should be looked upon as a characteristic to be preserved 

219 



220 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

and not destroyed. Indeed, a main part of the problem of 
planning and improving cities should be to protect, develop 
and enhance this peculiar quality which each city may, or 
should, have. Thus its buildings, its streets, its parks, its 
monuments and its water-fronts may become at once an ex- 
pression of its higher life of service, and of its individuality. 
The building of cities is now one of the great constructive en- 
terprises upon which mankind has seriously launched, and 
one full of possibilities for good. 

The ancient city was mainly military, while the modern city 
is primarily industrial and commercial. The study of cities 
from early days to the present, especially in this industrial 
age, is full of interest and profit. In fact, it is essential as a 
background to the understanding of man's development, and 
as a basis for an efficient participation in modern life. 

Part I 
THE GROWTH AND PLANNING OF CITIES 

A. CITY MAKING 

The modern movement for city planning in the United States may be 
said to have begun about 1890, with a special stimulus along certain 
lines in 1893 through the influence of the World's Fair at Chicago. 
A large amount of city planning, much of it of a high order, was done 
earlier. In no sense, however, did it represent a movement — it was 
not widespread, and it was not continuous nor persistent. 

Notable examples of earlier city planning are: William Penn's plan 
for Philadelphia in 1682, and the plans for other Pennsylvania cities, 
like Reading, for instance, which were connected with it; the plan for 
Williamsburg, Va., in 1699 ; OglethdVpe's plan for Savannah, in 1733 ; 
the great plan of L'Enfant for Washington, D. C, in 1790. 

The ideas of most significance in the modern city planning move- 
ment are : The increasing dependence of the individual upon the pros- 
perity of the city as a whole ; the importance of planning, not merely 
for the routine requirements, but also for those of the future ; and the 
necessity, for reasons of economy as well as success, to co-ordinate the 
planning of the various features so that the improvement to be carried 
out will be well related, one to another, far-seeing and permanent. 

i. General Views of Cities Showing Character of City Plans 

25 View looking down on New York's skyscrapers. 

26 General view of water front, New York City. 

27 View of river and Brooklyn Bridge, New York. 

28 General view of old and new city halls, New York City. 



CIVIC LIFE CENTERS 221 

30 Broadway from Bowling Green, New York City. 

90 Pennsylvania Avenue from White House to Capitol. 

93 Panorama of Washington from monument east to Capitol. 

126 General view of San Antonio, Texas. 

212 Salt Lake City, Utah. 

230 General view of Market Street, San Francisco. 

248 Looking down on the city and bay of Panama. 

264 View of Quebec from Dufferin Terrace. 

282 City of Mexico. 

304 Lower city and harbor, Bahia, Brazil, So. Am. 

326 The bay and city, Valparaiso, Chile. 

338 La Guaira, Venezuela. 

360 A glimpse of the old city of York, England. 

365 View of the heart of Edinburgh, Scotland. 

375 General view of Patrick's Bridge, Cork, Ireland. 

386 Hamburg, Germany. 

387 Market place, Nuremburg, Germany. General view. 
389 Kleber place, in the heart of Strassburg, Germany. 
401 View of a Dutch fishing village. 

421 Bird's-eye view of Paris from Arch of Triumph. 

422 Avenue des Champs, Elysees, Paris. 

434 General view of Burgos, Spain. 

435 Panorama of Madrid, Spain. 

450 Rome from the balcony of St. Peter's. 

457 Grand Canal, Venice, Italy. 

472 General view, Constantinople. 

473 Market and surroundings at Stamboul, Constantinople. 
475 Athens and the Acropolis, Greece. 

483 The Kremlin, Moscow, Russia. 

492 Birds-eye view of Beyrout, Syria. 

495 View of Jerusalem from Mount of Olives, Palestine. 

526 Tokio, the Japanese capital. 

558 Birds-eye view of Alexandria, Egypt. 

586 Melbourne, Australia. 

2. Places in which Civic Life Centers 
Including Monuments 

28 New York City — old and new city halls. 

87,90,91,95 Washington, D. C— The Capitol, White House, etc. 

126 San Antonio, Texas — Alamo Plaza. 

220 Seattle, Wash. — park and boulevard system. 

283 City of Mexico, Mexico — soldier's monument. 
309 -Sao Paulo, Brazil — Municipal Theatre. 

312 Montevideo, Uruguay — Plaza. 

315 Buenos Aires, Argentina — government buildings. 

324 Santiago, Chile — Plaza — also capital city. 

340 Caracas, Venezuela — Halls of Congress. 

351 London, England — Bank of England. 

352 London, England — House of Lords. 



222 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

356 Stratf ord-on-Avon, England — Shakespeare's Memorial Theater. 

360 York, England — cathedral. 

365 Edinburgh, Scotland — Princess St. and Waverley Gardens. 

368 Stirling, Scotland — Wallace monument. 

380 Dublin, Ireland — O'Connell statue. 

383 Berlin, Germany — Konigs Platz. 

384 Berlin, Germany — bronze statue of Frederick the Great. 
387 Nuremburg, Germany — market place. 

389 Strassburg, Germany — Kleber Place. 

393 Cologne, Germany — market. 

395 Brussels, Belgium — market 

397 Namur, Belgium — Citadel Park. 

404 Copenhagen, Denmark — Queen Louise Bridge and park. 

416 Stockholm, Sweden — monument. 

421 Paris, France ■ — Eiffel Tower. 

423 Paris, France — flower market. 

424 Paris, France — Grand Opera House and Opera Place. 
433 Barcelona, Spain — Columbus monument. 

435 Madrid, Spain — Fete grounds. 

450 Rome, Italy — Plaza of St. Peters. 

460 Innsbruck, Austria — monument — Maria Theresa Platz. 

461 Gratz, Austria — public square. 
463 Vienna, Austria — Graben. 

466 Serajevo, Bosnia, Austria — market place. 

473 Constantinople, Turkey — market place. 

476 Athens, Greece — Constitution Square. 

482 Petrograd, Russia — park by winter palace. 

485 Warsaw, Poland — market. 

502 Agra, India — Taj Mahal. 

503 Delhi, India — space before Mosque. 
535 Japanese garden. 

555 Tangier, Morocco — market place. 

560 Cairo, Egypt — great Nile bridge. 

582 Cape Town, South Africa — parade grounds. 

587 Melbourne, Australia — Parliament Building. 

3. Historic Buildings and Other Places of Unusual Interest 

6 Boston, Mass.— Old North Church. 

7 Boston, Mass. — Faneuil Hall. 

8 Boston, Mass. — Old State House. 

9 Cambridge, Mass. — Longfellow's home. 
10 Lexington, Mass. — common. 

25 New York City — skyscrapers — Statue of Liberty. 

28 New York City — Old City Hall. 

36 Sleepy Hollow, N. Y. — cemetery. 

37 Newburgh. N. Y. — Washington's headquarters. 
49. 50 Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

73 Gettysburg. Pa.— Culp's Hill. 

80 Philadelphia, Pa.— Liberty Bell. 



TRANSPORTATION 223 

87 Washington, D. C. — Capitol. 

91 Washington, D. C. — White House. 

95 Washington, D. C. — Library of Congress. 

109 St. Augustine, Fla. — old slave market. 

113 Hodgensville, Ky. — cabin, Lincoln's birthplace. 

146 Marshall Joffre and French Commission at Lincoln's tomb. 

154 Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. — greatest canal traffic. 

208 Grand Canyon of the Colorado, Ariz. 

241 San Gabriel Mission, Southern California. 

264 Quebec, Canada — view from Dufferin Terrace. 

300 Martinique, French West Indies — volcano. 

349 London, England — Tower of London. 

350 London England — Westminster Abbey. 

353 Greenwich, England — Royal Observatory. 

354 Stratford-on-Avon, England — Shakespeare's birthplace. 

355 Shottery, England — Anne Hathaway's cottage. 

360 York, England ■ — cathedral. 

361 Grasmere, England — lake and village. 

362 Rydal Mount, England — Wordsworth's home. 
367 Stirling, Scotland — castle. 

369 Ellen's Isle, Loch Katrine, Scotland. 

372 Ayr, Scotland — Burns' cottage room. 

376 Blarney Castle, Ireland. 

377 Lakes of Killarney, Ireland. 
382 Giant's Causeway, Ireland. 

391 Bingen on the Rhine, Germany. 

425 Paris, France — Notre Dame. 

427 Chamonix, France — glacier. 

436 Granada, Spain — Alhambra. 

439 Gibraltar. 
445 to 448 Alpine towns and villages. 

452 Rome, Italy — Coliseum. 

453 Naples, Italy — Vesuvius. 
458 Milan, Italy — cathedral. 

472 Constantinople, Turkey — Golden Horn. 

475 Athens, Greece — Acropolis. 

478 Olympia, Greece — Temple of Zeus. 

483 Moscow, Russia — Kremlin. 

502 Agra, India — Taj Mahal. 

525 Tokyo, Japan — Fuji-Yama. 

565 Sphinx and Second Pyramid, Egypt. 

567 Thebes, Egypt — colossi. 

568 Karnak, Egypt — ruins. 

4. Transportation 

Cities are vitally dependent on transportation. It to a large extent 
determines their location and affects their growth. Local transporta- 
tion for people and merchandise is an important. problem of city life. 
See classification on Transportation. 



224 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

5. Factories and Mills 

11, 12 Massachusetts — shoes. 

14, 15, 16 Lawrence, Mass. — cotton. 

17,18 Lawrence, Mass. — woolen. 

19,20 Holyoke, Mass. — paper. 

21 Providence, R. I. — jewelry. 

22, 23, 24 South Manchester, Conn. — silk. 

34, 35 New York City — sugar. 

40 Troy, N. Y. — linen collars. 

41 Syracuse, N. Y. — shoes. 

42 Syracuse, N. Y. — salt. 

53, 54, 55 Paterson, N. J.— silk. 
58, 59 Trenton, N. J.— pottery. 

81 Philadelphia, Pa. — woolen. 

82 Philadelphia. Pa. — locomotives. 
124,125 Greenville, Tex. — cotton gin. 
131, 132. 133 Akron. Ohio — rubber. 
150,151,152 Detroit, Mich.— automobiles. 
227 Astoria, Ore. — salmon canning. 
268,269 Canada — linen manufacture. 
270,271 Canada — beet sugar. 

272 Canada — leather. 

286 Orizaba, Mexico — cotton. 

484 Nizhni Novgorod, Russia — bells. 

506 Srinagar, Kashmir — shawls. 

512 Ratnapora, Ceylon — grinding gems. 

532 Japan — shoe shop. t 

541 Kiryu, Japan ■ — silk. 

553 Philippines — manila hemp. 

B. THE ELEMENTS OF CITY PLANS 

1. Streets and Roads 

In building a city the first act usually is to lay out some kind of a 
street system. The importance of a street in the city plan rests in the 
fact that it is the channel of all the ordinary means of circulation and 
public service, that it is essential to the profitable development and use 
of property, that only through the opportunities it offers can there be 
any broad or attractive expression of municipal life, and that only 
through a comprehensive, well ordered system of main streets can the 
functions of the city be performed with economy and efficiency. City 
planning means first of all. adequate facilities for circulation. The 
greatest problems are those of main thoroughfares and street railways 
considered in connection with the framework of steam railroads. Such 
a system should be planned for every town and city that hopes for a 
well ordered and satisfactory growth. 

6 Typical street of old Boston affording interesting view of historic 
North Church. 



STREETS AND ROADS 



225 



29 
30 

31 

90 

121 
139 

167 

230 
273 

305 

308 
337 
351 

365 

380 



Wall Street, the financial center of the United States. Picturing 
view of old Trinity Church on Broadway, at end of street. 

Looking up Broadway from Bowling Green, New York City. Note 
narrow street, high buildings and resulting congestion of street 
traffic. 

One of the chief problems of the street in large cities is that of 
transportation. A good example of the use of surface cars, ele- 
vated railroads and subways (note entrance). 

Comprehensive view of Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C, 
from the White House to the Capitol. Notice Treasury Build- 
ing and Post Office. 

Clean, wide, well paved street in Oklahoma City. High building 
(in foreground) is unnecessary in city of this character. 

State Street, Chicago. Wide street with ample sidewalks for 
shoppers. High buildings and inadequate transportation system 
have brought unnecessary congestion to the " loop district." 

Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis. A worthy center for retail trade. 
Like Fifth Avenue, New York, it is free from street rail- 
ways. 

Market Street, the main traffic way of San Francisco. A notable 
street in location, width and terminal views. 

Main Street, Winnipeg, Canada, has the generous width of the 
prairies and the unfinished character typical of new cities of 
rapid growth in Canada and the United States. Compare with 
Avenida Rio Branco (305), a South American example of bet- 
ter city planning methods. 

Avenida Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A new street laid 
out through the heart of a large city. Notice details of street 
works and character of buildings. High standards of street 
planning and suitable laws make this kind of improvement prac- 
ticable in South America and Europe. Contrast American 
streets. 

Rua 15th of November (Independence Day), Sao Paulo, .Brazil. 
Narrow business street in the old Portuguese section of the 
city. In the newer parts the streets are wide and beautiful. 

Quaint scene in one of the streets of Barranquilla, Colombia, 
South America. An example of street and buildings well 
adapted to local needs. 

Threadneedle Street, London, England, with view of the Bank of 
England. A typical example of an important street intersection 
in the old city of London. Note irregular street lines and 
building locations and character of street traffic. At times this 
great center of business is very, very busy. 

Princess Street and Waverley Gardens, Edinburgh, Scotland. 
The finest street in Scotland and one of the most beautiful in 
the world. A unique street composition, representing skill and 
planning worthy of the highest praise. The monument of Sir 
Walter Scott is notable as the dominant artistic feature. 

Sackville Street, Dublin, Ireland, a street widened a century ago 



226 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

when Ireland had its own Parliament. The great statue there 
is that of Daniel O'Connell, the Irish leader and beyond is the 
memorial monument to Admiral Nelson. 

381 Royal Avenue, Belfast, Ireland, a broad modern street, typical in 
development of this northern Irish metropolis. Compare with 
street views in the United States and South America. 

399 A street of water, Zaandam, Netherlands. This is a public high- 
way. Note houses facing on the canal. 

406 Krystal-Gade, Copenhagen, Denmark. This street, its traffic and 
flanking buildings are characteristic of Denmark. The most in- 
teresting structure is the Round Tower of Trinity Church, the 
view from which is very fine. 

422 Avenue des Champs Elysees, Paris. One of the great streets of 
the world. It symbolizes the magnificence and nobility of 
France. No description is adequate. It must be seen. 

455 Street scene in Palermo, Sicily. In Southern Italy and Sicily the 
people work and play in the streets. They are sociable and love 
to gather, talk and carry on their occupations (sewing and lace 
making) outdoors. The street scenes are always picturesque. 

457 The Grand Canal is a main street or thoroughfare for Venice, 
just as the Champs Elysees is for Paris, Unter den Linden for 
Berlin or Fifth Avenue for New York. 

463 The Graben, a busy street in the Inner City, Vienna, Austria. 

Note uniformity of buildings and regularity of sky line. 

464 Andrassy Street, Budapest, Hungary. Regular, almost monoto- 

nous development of a long straight business street. Everything 
orderly, clean and neat. 

468 A good example of street life in Sofia, Bulgaria. The people en- 
joy being outdoors. The sidewalk coffee house, the picturesque 
costumes and the easy going character of the men and women 
shown in the picture are indications of habits of life different 
from our own. 

474 Street scene in Constantinople, Turkey. Compare with Sofia, Bul- 
garia, and Vienna, Austria. 

486 Krestchatik, principal street of Kiev, Russia, a city of 500,000 
people. Compare with European and American city streets, no- 
ticing differences in construction and use. 

493 View over the roofs of Damascus, Syria. The large semi-circular 
pipe-like construction is the steel covering over a narrow street. 
It furnishes protection from the sun. 

504 A spacious thoroughfare in Jaipur, India. Jaipur was built in 
1728 by a native ruler of the same name, who had ideas on the 
planning and building of cities. He laid out his capital care- 
fully after a set plan, the main streets being all 111 feet wide 
and straight. The cross streets are also straight and at right 
angles to the main streets just as many streets in American cities 
are. The streets are all paved and curbed and have broad side- 
walks. All this makes Jaipur look like a western city. The 
merit of such a development is questionable. Streets should be 



BRIDGES AND VIADUCTS 



227 



laid out and developed to meet the needs of the people and not 
in imitation of other places. 

513 Queen's Road, the busiest street in Hongkong, China. It of- 
fers many interesting contrasts to streets of Europe and Amer- 
ica. 

516 Street construction in Nanking, China. Men take the place of 
animals or motor engines in such work because they are 
cheaper. 

542 A street scene in Seoul, Korea. Everyone wears white, even when 
the house-tops are covered with snow. Note that there are no 
wheeled vehicles and consequently no roads fit for them. The 
strength of the nation is in the coolie's back. 

547 The Calle Real, or King Street, Manila, P. I. Narrow, uninter- 
esting street. 

557 Gates at one of main streets of Tunis, Africa. On the streets 
within, one sees camels, donkeys, medicine-men, snake-charmers, 
water-carriers, Mohammedan women with veils over their faces, 
fierce Arabs, French soldiers, Jewesses in white trousers, and 
Turks in bright pantaloons. 

590 A street in Hobart (pop. 28,000), the leading city and capital of 
Tasmania. Much like an ordinary small modern American city 
with its telegraph and trolley poles. 

2. Bridges and Viaducts 

Bridges and viaducts span bodies of water or valleys or roads, thus 
affording passage and conveyance for people and goods. There are 
many types, the principal being arch bridges, suspension bridges, girder 
bridges, and sometimes mixed types. The choice of type for any par- 
ticular location or purpose depends largely upon the cost, the strength 
or permanence desired, and the appearance. Masonry bridges of the 
arch type, where suitable, are ordinarily preferred for appearance. 
27 Suspension Bridge, New York. Built at cost of fifteen million 

dollars. It required thirteen years, 1870-1883, to construct. 
61 General view of bridges at Pittsburg. The Allegheny and 
Monongahela rivers unite to form the Ohio River where Pitts- 
burg is now located. It has more bridges than any other city in 
the United States. 
101 View of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Bridge at Harpers Ferry, 
W. Va., situated at the confluence of the Shenandoah and Po- 
tomac rivers. 
170 Great power dam and locks in the Mississippi River at Keokuk, 
Iowa. This dam, with the power house, lock, dry lock, sea wall, 
and ice fender, all made of concrete, have a total length of two 
and one-half miles. The lock is 400 feet long and 110 feet 
wide. 
174 Eads Bridge, St. Louis, Mo., costing over ten million dollars, with 
sections for railways to pass over it. It has also driveways for 
vehicles, and walks for foot passengers. The high arches pro- 
vide the necessary clearance for large river steamboats. 



228 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

210 The Roosevelt Dam, near Phoenix, Ariz., was built by the United 
States Reclamation Service. 

330 A railway bridge in Peru. An engineer from the United States 
laid out this railway, solving the problems of tunnels, bridges, 
curves and cuts. 

348 London Bridge. Every day more than a hundred thousand peo- 
ple walk over this bridge, and more than twenty thousand ve- 
hicles cross it. There has been a London Bridge since 1209. 
The present bridge, completed in 1831, is 928 feet long and 63 
feet wide. It consists of five granite arches. 

366 The great Forth Bridge, spanning the Firth of 'Forth, Queens- 
ferry, near Edinburgh, Scotland. 

375 Patrick's Bridge, crossing the River Lee, Cork, Ireland. It is 
constructed of limestone. 

379 Suspension Bridge at Kenmare, County Kerry, in the west of 
Ireland, not far from Killarney, and in the same scenic district. 

392 Stone and steel bridge over the historic Rhine at Bonn. 

397 Bridge at Namur, Belgium, over the River Meuse, the natural fron- 
tier between Belgium and Germany. 

400 View of the docks, and the bridge, lifted to allow vessels to pass, 
at Rotterdam. Economic and attractive development combined, 
as in all Dutch cities. 

404 The Queen Louise Bridge leads to Copenhagen proper to the north 
part of a section called Frederiksborg. Along either side of the 
stream are parks and beautiful, broad streets. Note fine ap- 
proaches to bridge. 

416 Bridge in the very heart of Stockholm, connecting the old cen- 
tral town of Staden with Norrmalm, a northern suburb. Rivers, 
if properly bridged, unify a city, and provide facilities for de- 
velopment on both sides. 

423 St. Michael's Bridge, Paris, is one of the chief passageways from 
the Latin Quarter to the larger part of the city that lies on the 
right bank of the Seine. The flower market is shown as it looks 
at six o'clock in the morning, and the universal love of flowers 
by French people of all classes is here illustrated. 

442 Chapel Bridge, familiar to all travelers, crossing the River Reuss, 
Lucerne. A roofed bridge which winds across the river, fur- 
nishing a most convenient connection. The tower near the cen- 
ter of the bridge is the old Wasserthurn. 

450 River Tiber, and its bridges. Also see 451. 

451 Note character of arched bridge over the Tiber, with retaining 

walls and embankments. Also the Castle of St. Angelo and St. 

Peter's Cathedral. 
456 A succession of bridges across the Arnd at Florence. The most 

interesting of all is the one in the foreground, the Ponte Vecchio, 

providing communication between Uffizi and Pitti Palaces. 

Broad and handsome quays called Lungarno skirt the river. 
470 The big railroad bridge over the Danube at Czernavoda, Roumania, 

one of the centers of heavy fighting in the European War. 






WATERWAYS AND HARBORS 229 

472 A busy bridge connecting Stamboul, the seat of the Turkish gov- 
ernment, with Galata, the business center of the town, toward 
which we are looking. The high tower in Galata is used as a 
lookout for fires. 

500 The Howrah Bridge over the Hooghly River, Calcutta, India. 

560 Drawbridge over the Nile, Egypt. Traffic across the bridge is 
mixed, and there appears to be no regulation or order. 

3. Waterways, Water Fronts, and Harbors 

The proper development of water frontages, harbors and docks is es- 
sential to practical city building. The most obvious division of the 
waterways is into wide and narrow. The former comprise the large 
lakes, the ocean with its wide straits, bays, and other frontages, broad 
rivers, and in general, all those waters on the borders of which vessels 
can be moored at right angles to the shore. Narrow waterways con- 
sist of canals, canalized rivers, and some narrow frontages of the ocean. 
It may be said in general that the width of waterway is not so im- 
portant as its continuation as far as possible into the upland. Many 
narrow waterways, like those at Cleveland and Chicago, for example, 
carry great tonnages, thus serving the industrial districts which they 
tap. 

The development upon the upland determines to a large extent the 
type of the adjacent water front structures. Three types are of great- 
est importance: (1) The commercial, providing for large manufac- 
turing and shipping interests; (2) the residential, adapted to the lo- 
cation of beautiful homes and private estates; and (3) the recreational 
use of water frontages for park, boulevard and other recreational pur- 
poses. 

Cities that are fortunate in also being ports should base their city- 
plans upon the peculiar opportunity that the port affords. Mistakes in 
planning and development which exist at most of the older port cities 
of the United States should gradually be corrected, and new improve- 
ments undertaken with reference to a preconceived design. 

The water front constitutes one of the chief features of any city lo- 
cated on navigable water. Therefore the proper correlation of water 
carriers with other forms of transportation is of the utmost importance. 
Both beauty and utility call for development in accordance with a plan 
that recognizes the need for unity. Experience teaches that develop- 
ment on the basis of unity is possible usually only where the policy of 
complete public ownership prevails. 

25 View of part of New York water front and Statue of Liberty 

from the Woolworth Tower. 

26 The water front of New York City from the Brooklyn side, 

showing the shipping and buildings of lower Manhattan. 

27 View of the East River and the Brooklyn Bridge, New York. 

32 The gateway for immigrants to America at Ellis Island, New 

York. 
39 The Hudson River has great variety of scenery, some of the 



230 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

finest being in the neighborhood of West Point, as shown in 
illustration. 
48 The Erie Canal has been a source of commercial wealth to Buffalo 
and other cities located on its banks. 

50 The water front of Niagara Falls and the Niagara River have 

made important contributions to both the wealth of the country 
and the pleasure of its people. 

51 The Palisades of the Hudson are a form of natural scenery whose 

preservation depends upon public ownership and control. 

52 Many of the docks of the great Trans-Atlantic liners are located 

in Hoboken, across the river from New York. 

60 Atlantic City, N. J., is the most popular all-the-year-round seaside 

resort in the United States, with more than a million visitors 
yearly. The chief attractions are the beach, the Board Walk, 
the fine hotels, and the equable climate. 

61 Pittsburgh owes its importance as an industrial city partly to its 

water front, and the means of communication which it furnishes. 
99 Operations of the life-saving corps at the Jamestown Exposi- 
tion. 

100 Warships of the United States in Hampton Roads at the time of 

the Jamestown Exposition. 

101 The water front at Harpers Ferry, West Va. 

106 The Savannah River is given over to commercial development. It 
is one of the first ports on the Atlantic seaboard in the amount 
of cotton which it ships. 

110 One of the terrors of our Southern rivers, as shown here at Palm 

Beach, a famous resort, is the dread of alligators. 

111 The harbor of Key West, Florida, is an important sponge mar- 

ket. 

119 New Orleans is a fair example of the many levees on the Mis- 

sissippi River where cotton is one of the staple shipments. 

120 The Delta of the Mississippi River, Louisiana, where pilots are 

taken on the large river steamers. 

148 One of the great national problems is the prevention of floods, 
by far the most damaging being those caused by rivers. The 
view shows the common way of keeping the waters from 
spreading, the banks or dikes being made of bags of sand. A 
city plan should include preservation and protection of all flood 
channels. 

154 Ship canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, providing for the greatest 
canal traffic in the world. 

164 Part of the transportation system of the Great Lakes. Two Har- 
bors, Minnesota, owes its importance to its heavy shipment of 
iron ore. 

174 View of the Mississippi River at St. Louis, showing the great 
span of the Eads Bridge. 

210 Lake formed by the construction of the Roosevelt Dam near 
Phoenix, Arizona, which backs up the Salt River for sixteen 



WATERWAYS AND HARBORS 231 

miles, and holds enough water to flood over a million acres to a 
depth of one foot. 

217 A view of Paget Sound, Washington, showing shipping of lumber. 

242 View of the great bay and harbor of San Diego, with submarines 
in the foreground and battleships and torpedo boats beyond. 

248 The bay of Panama with the city in the foreground, near the 
Pacific end of the Canal. One of the oldest cities in the Wes- 
tern world. 

257 An interesting view of the harbor of San Juan, Porto Rico. 

278 The harbor of St. John's, Newfoundland, the most important fac- 
tor in the development of the city. 

280 The harbor of Vera Cruz, the principal port of Mexico. 

299 The bay of Santiago, Cuba. The harbor is a first class one, with 
very deep water and entirely landlocked. 

304 Harbor of Bahia, Brazil, So. America, with a portion of the 
lower city in the foreground. 

313 Harbor of Montevideo, Uruguay, So. America. Illustration shows 

dredging operation to deepen channel and make harbor navi- 
gable. 

314 Entrance to harbor of Buenos Aires, Argentina, So. America. The 

Plata River is shallow, and dredges are kept constantly at work 
to keep the channels open. 

326 The bay and city of Valparaiso, Chile. 

347 The harbor of Liverpool, like many other great harbors of the 
world, has been made good mainly by the work of man. It is 
built on the broad mouth of the Mersey River, which is con- 
stantly dredged to keep a channel deep enough for the big liners. 

374 Queenstown Harbor, Ireland, is the port of call for the city of 
Cork, fourteen miles away. The harbor is large and safe. 

383 View of the River Spree in Berlin, Germany, with the Reichstag 
buildings located on its banks. 

391 Moonlight on the Rhine at Bingen, Germany. 

399 A view of the canal in Zaandam, Holland. 

400 Fine steamer docks on the Rhine, Rotterdam, Holland, one of 

the world's great ports. Ship canals connect the city with the 

ocean. 
405 Frederiksholms Canal in Copenhagen, with a good view of the 

building development along its banks. Note especially the 

museum of Thorwaldsen, the sculptor. 
420 Harbor of Goteborg, Sweden. The business character of this 

port is indicated by conditions on the docks. 

429 The new harbor and docks of Marseilles, France, large and well 

protected by a breakwater two miles long. 

430 The Gulf of Napoule in the Riviera, showing Cannes, " a seaside 

paradise," on its warm banks. 
432 A view of the Mediterranean and Monaco. The most widely 
known city of this principality is Monte Carlo, the famous gam- 
bling resort. 



232 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

433 The harbor of Barcelona, which makes it the busiest city in Spain. 

457 A view of the Grand Canal, Venice, which discharges its waters 
into the Adriatic Sea. 

489 Interesting view of the Bosphorus toward the Black Sea from the 
heights above Scutari, Turkey in Asia. 

501 The Ganges River before the Temple in Benares, India. 

509 The Salwin River, Maulmain, Burma. 

511 The harbor of Colombo, Ceylon, which has been largely made, a 
long breakwater being constructed to afford the necessary pro- 
tection. 

514 A busy seaport, Hong Kong, China, with a view of fishermen's 

houses. 

515 The Yangtse River at Chinkiang, China, the third longest river 

system in the world. See 517. 

517 Another view of the Yangtse River, and of the picturesque towns 

and villages which cluster densely on its banks. 

518 A Chinese canal. A great deal of Chinese traffic is carried on by 

the canal system or on the river. The Grand Canal runs from 
Peking to Hangchow. 

525 View of Fuji-Yama, Japan, from the water. 

556 The harbor of Algiers, which is a natural bay protected by break- 
waters. The port is equipped with modern machinery, railway 
switches, derricks, etc. as in Europe. 

559 The Suez Canal, Egypt. It runs through level, sandy country, as 
shown in the view. Compare with the Panama Canal, 248 to 
256. 

569 The Great Dam of the Nile at the head of the first cataract of 
the Nile, six hundred miles above Cairo. 

574 The port of Dar-es-Salaam on the coast of Africa, five hundred 
miles south of the Equator. Dar-es-Salaam is the capital of 
German East Africa. Note beauty of palm trees. 

591 Hauroki Bay, showing the harbor of Auckland, New Zealand. 
The stereographs or slides presenting more definitely views of docks 

and harbors are as follows: 25, 26, 32, 52, 106, 111, 119, 154, 217, 242, 

267, 278, 280, 299, 304, 313, 314, 347, 374, 400, 420, 429, 433, 511, 556, 

574, 591. 

4. Parks and Playgrounds 

Every city worthy of the name has public parks and playgrounds of 
some sort, and they are now recognized as a necessity of city life, a 
part of the city plan, just as streets and schools are. They contribute 
to the pleasure and health of urban populations more than any other 
recreative feature, and furnish the most necessary and valuable antidote 
to the artificiality, confusion, and feverishness of life in the cities. At 
the present time the value of parks and open spaces in towns and cities 
is very generally appreciated. It is recognized that such facilities as 
parks afford are not only desirable, but increasingly necessary; in 
fact, indispensable. In a vague way there is approval, too, of a large 
increase in both parks and playgrounds. But few even of the more 



PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS 233 

progressive communities appear yet to understand with any clearness 
that these open spaces in cities are of great variety; that they are, or 
should be selected and developed by experts to serve essentially different 
purposes, and that the failure to appreciate this fact and to keep it con- 
stantly in mind leads to great waste and inefficiency in our public 
grounds. 
10 Common, Lexington, Mass. A good example of New England 

open space, usually reserved in the center of old towns. 
28 City Hall Park, New York. A valuable breathing space in the 
great metropolis. It affords an excellent foreground to public 
and semi-public building's. 
31 Small parking spaces, even room simply for a few trees at street 
intersections in a large city, are decidedly worth while, as here 
illustrated. 
39 The scenery of the Hudson is among the finest river scenery in the 
world. 

49 The Falls of Niagara, and part of the State Park Reservation, are 

more frequented, probably, than any other small park in the 
United States. 

50 The American Falls, Niagara, showing the beauty of their winter 

scenery. 

51 Palisades of the Hudson River provide the most striking topo- 

graphical feature of the Inter-State Parks of New York and 
New Jersey. 

72 The general carnival represents a combination of wholesome play 

in an annual event of great beauty. 

73 Culp's Hill, Gettysburg, an illustration of a military memorial 

park. 

83 School gardens are one of the most practical forms of educational 
outdoor work combined with the zest of recreation. 

90 All of the public buildings of Washington are surrounded with 
well planted open spaces and parks. 

95 The Congressional Library, Washington, has a well designed en- 
vironment. 

126 The Alamo Plaza, San Antonio. Such plazas, with buildings 
round about them, are to be preferred to the more usual Amer- 
ican method of putting public buildings in the center of open 
blocks. 

191 The National Parks of the United States are the largest and most 
beautiful parks of any nation in the world. They are being 
made more and more accessible to visitors. 

191 to 197 Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. One of the most 
frequented National Parks. 

201 Cathedral Spires, Garden of the Gods, near Manitou, Col. A 
place famed for its beauty and mineral springs. 

207, 208 Grand Canyon. A place of indescribable beauty. 

219 Crevasse of Paradise Glacier, Mount Rainier, National Park, 
Wash. 

228, 229 Yosemite National Park, California. 



234 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

290 Dancing in national costume is one of the favorite pastimes of 
Mexican people. 

305 Park-like street in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

306 Children of illustrious Brazilian families. 

312 Open space or plaza in Uruguay, typical of South American cities. 

316 Palermo Park, Buenos Aires, with view of afternoon drive or 
parade, common in many places. 

329 Plaza in the formal style in Arequipa. Harvard University has 
built an observatory near this place. 

389 In almost every German city the important public buildings and 
the principal stores are arranged around open spaces which are 
usually parked, as here illustrated. 

422 The principal boulevards of Paris, especially the Champs Elysees, 
are so constructed and planted as to become parkways leading 
from one important point in the city to another. 

435 It is important for every city to have one or more well located 
open places to be used for fetes, fairs, and other public cele- 
brations. 

455 The recreation of people in Southern Italy is confined largely to 
the public streets except on special holidays and Sundays, when 
they visit the more distant parks. 

482 The advantage of ample open space around the government build- 
ings at Petrograd is here well illustrated. 

510 Burma. Every country has its picnic customs. 

520 Chinese school children, Peking, China. 

534 Japan is a fairyland of flowers, especially when the cherry trees 

are in bloom. The tea houses are always given a lovely setting. 

535 Japanese gardens have their own style of picturesque design in 

which the question of scale is given special consideration. Beau- 
tiful results are secured in the smallest possible area. 
588 Zoological Garden, Adelaide, Australia, combining scientific inter- 
est with outdoor recreation. 

5. Public Buildings 

Public buildings constitute an essential element in a city plan, and of 
first importance is their location with regard to the city as a whole. 
They may be grouped in one center, or in various centers, according to 
the plan of the city and the local requirements. They are usually 
rightly placed when grouped in locations that will suit economic condi- 
tions, and when they are readily accessible to the public. 

The location of public buildings is bound up with the general struc- 
ture of the city. This means especially the street S3 r stem and the sys- 
tem of transportation, which is largely governed by the street system. 
While building groups may be advantageously placed on prominent 
streets in a rectangular system, or composed with principal intersec- 
tions in the system of streets, yet for the more important groups the 
best location is at a focus of a number of streets. 

7 Quincy Market and Faneuil Hall, Boston, Mass. 

8 Old State House from Court Street, Boston, Mass. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS 235 

28 Old and New City Halls and World Building, from City Hall 

Park, New York City. 

80 The Old Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

87 The Capitol, Washington, D. C. 

88 House of Representatives (Interior), Washington, D. C. 

89 Supreme Court Room in the Capitol, Washington, D. C. 

90 From War, State and Navy Building — White House — Treas- 

ury, Pennsylvania Avenue and Capitol, Washington, D. C. 

91 The White House, Washington, D. C. 

92 Annex to White House (Cabinet Room), Washington, D. C. 

93 From Washington Monument east to Capitol over Agricultural 

Department grounds, Washington, D. C. 

95 Congressional Library, Washington, D. C. 

96 Washington's old home, Mt. Vernon, Va. 
109 Old slave market, St. Augustine, Fla. 

260 With the flag goes the public school — Royal School, Honolulu, 

Hawaii. 
309 Municipal Theater, handsomest playhouse in the world, Sao 

Paulo, Brazil, So. Am. 
315 The government buildings from the balcony of the Bourse, 

Buenos Aires, Argentina, So. Am. 
324 Cathedral and Plaza. Women in native dress, Santiago, Chile, 

So. Am. 
335 Famous Copacabana Church near Lake Titicaca, in Bolivia. 
340 National university and halls of Congress, Caracas, Venezuela. 

349 Tower of London, London, England. 

350 Westminster Abbey, London, England. 

351 The Bank of England, London, England. 

352 The House of Lords, London, England. 

354 Birthplace of William Shakespeare, Stratford-on-Avon, England. 

355 Anne Hathaway's cottage, Shottery, England. 

356 Shakespeare's Memorial Theater, Stratford-on-Avon, England. 
360 An interesting glimpse of the old city of York with its cathedral, 

England. 
362 Rydal Mount, home of poet Wordsworth, Lake District, England. 
367 Historic Stirling Castle, Scotland. 
376 Blarney Castle, Ireland. 

383 The Reichstags-Gabaiide, Berlin, Germany. 

384 Royal Palace, Berlin, Germany. 

387 Market place and cathedral, Nuremburg, Germany. 

405 Thorwoldsen Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

417 Royal Palace (Council Room), Stockholm, Sweden. 

424 The Grand Opera, Paris, France. 

425 Notre Dame, Paris, France. 

436 Alhambra Palace, Granada, Spain. 

382 Senate and the academy on the Vasali Island, Petrograd, Russia. 

501 Temple, Benares, India. 

502 The Taj Mahal, Agra, India. 

503 The Jumma Mosque, Delhi, India. 



236 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

582 City Hall, Cape Town, So. Africa. 

587 Federal Parliament Building, Melbourne, Australia. 

6. Residences and Homes 

The variety of houses due to climate, wealth, education, work, habit, 

or other causes is here well illustrated. 
9 Craigie House, Cambridge, Mass. Home of the poet Longfellow. 
A fine example of the Colonial style of architecture. The land 
opposite the house has been acquired as a public memorial park, 
thus keeping open forever the view of the house, and also the 
view from the house to the Charles River and Soldiers' Field 
beyond. 

113 Cabin in which Abraham Lincoln was born, Hodgensville, Ky. A 
humble but well constructed log cabin. The Lincoln Farm As- 
sociation has built over the cabin a beautiful Greek Temple. 

205 Cliff Palace in the Mesa Verde, Col. Homes of the cliff-dwellers, 
the ancestors of our Pueblo Indians. Interesting architectural 
ruins. 

249 Dwellings erected for employees of the old French Canal Com- 
pany, Colon, Isthmus of Panama. Contrast the more recent 
dwellings constructed by the United States Government under 
the direction of such men as Gen. Goethals and Gen. Gorgas. 

278 Picturesque and irregular quarters of fishermen in the harbor 
at St. John's, Newfoundland. These are similar to the homes 
which fishermen establish for themselves in New England and on 
other irregular shores. 

281 Adobe hut, City of Mexico. Home of the peon, the peasant of 
Mexico, descendant of the Aztec. The adobe or sundried brick 
is in use widely as a suitable building material throughout the 
Southwest. 

299 Simple but homogeneous character of homes in Santiago, Cuba, due 
to the uniform shape and material of the buildings and the har- 
mony of the tiled roofs. 

336 White houses with red tiled roofs in the best residence section of 
Guayaquil, Ecuador. Beauty of street view due to simplicity 
and harmony of buildings, the attractive balconies, and the oc- 
casional variety due to church spires. 

338 The houses of La Guaira, Venezuela, fit the slopes of the hills. 
The city is small, and the population composed mostly of ne- 
groes, Indians, Spanish, and half-breeds. 

354 Shakespeare's birthplace in Stratford-on-Avon, Eng., is a two- 

story house, typical of English village architecture, with a small 
garden back of it. 

355 The Anne Hathaway Cottage at Shottery belongs now to Great 

Britain. The building is almost exactly as it was when Anne 
Hathaway lived there. Fine example of English farmhouse with 
heavy timbers and thick thatched roof. 
362 The neat, mellow, vine-clad, characteristic English home of Words- 
worth at Rydal Mount, England. 



TYPES OF CITIES 237 

372 Room in which Robert Burns was born. House consisting of two 

rooms, now owned by the Burns Society of Ayr. 

373 Peasant home in the Scottish Highlands. The walls of these 

peasant houses are made of stones' or bricks, and the roofs are 
' of thatch. Simple as they are, they are very pleasant to the 
eye. The walls are covered with vines, and each cottage has its 
garden. 

389 The apartment houses in Strassburg, Germany, and in other Ger- 
man and Continental European cities, are the characteristic 
homes of the people. Compare with cottage homes in Eng- 
land. 

402 Village homes in the Netherlands, with characteristic neatness, but 
no planting. 

455 Picturesque street scene in tenement district, Palermo, Sicily. 
The Italians here seek the same sort of housing. 

457 Beautiful Renaissance Italian homes on the Grand Canal, Venice, 
full of art and beauty. A fit environment of the civilization of 
the time. 

514 The boat-homes of the Chinese in the river or sea towns. People 
are born in houseboats, and their fathers before them. These 
boats are much better to live in than are many of the land 
houses of the lower class of Chinese. The larger ones are 75 
feet long and 15 feet wide. They usually have three rooms,— 
a hall room, a living room, and a sleeping room, — which are 
again broken up for use by means of screens. 

526 The native skill of the Japanese is evidenced by their happy com- 
bination of use and beauty. This view of Tokio, the Japanese 
capital, shows the buildings close together, the houses low, and 
the roofs of heavy tile. 

542 Homes of the Koreans. Note white robes of men even in winter, 
with' snow on the roofs of the houses. 

546 The " cascos " are the floating homes of many thousands in the 
Philippines. Compare with 514. 

Part II 
TYPES OF CITIES AND CITY LIFE 

Cities generally owe their existence to geographic influences, and 
such individuality as they have is due largely to topography. The 
chief topographical characteristics determining cities are the harbors, 
rivers, hills and plains. It has taken decades of urban development 
and of mistakes to impress upon the cities of the United States the 
necessity to respect and conserve these natural forces, to which they 
owe not only their form but often their very life. 

The classification of cities according to type or character may be 
conveniently considered under two heads: (1) Types distinguished 
by the size of the city; and (2) types distinguished by the dominant 
function of the city. 



238 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

A. CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE 

i. Cities of 1,000,000 Population or More 

25 to 31 New York; 80 to 84 Philadelphia; 139 Chicago; 314 to 316 
Buenos Aires ; 348 to 352 London ; 383 to 385 Berlin ; 421 to 425 
Paris; 462, 463 Vienna; 472 to 474 Constantinople; 482 Petro- 
grad; 500 Calcutta; 520 Peking; 526 Tokyo. 

2. Cities of 500,000 to 1,000,000 Population 

6 to 8 Boston; 61 Pittsburgh; 86 Baltimore; 152 Detroit; 174 St. 
Louis; 347 Liverpool; 386 Hamburg; 393 Cologne; 395 Brus- 
sels; 433 Barcelona; 435 Madrid; 454 Naples; 458 Milan; 464 
Budapest; 485 Warsaw; 499 Madras; 513 Hong Kong; 517 
Hankow; 520 Peking; 560 Cairo; 585 Sydney; 586 Melbourne. 

3. Cities of 100,000 to 500,000 Population 

9 Cambridge; 21 Providence; 41, 42 Syracuse; 48 Buffalo; 76 to 78 
Scranton; 87 to 95 Washington; 116 Birmingham; 119 New 
Orleans ; 167 Minneapolis ; 220 Seattle ; 230 San Francisco ; 267 
Montreal; 281 to 283 City of Mexico; 304 Bahia; 308, 309 Sao 
Paulo; 312, 313 Montevideo; 324 Santiago; 326, 327 Val- 
paraiso; 365 Edinburgh; 380 Dublin; 381 Belfast; 387 Nurem- 
berg; 389 Strassburg; 396 Antwerp; 400 Rotterdam; 404 to 
406 Copenhagen; 416 Stockholm; 420 Goteborg; 450 to 452 
Rome; 455 Palermo; 456 Florence; 461 Gratz; 475, 476 Athens; 
492 Beirut ; 493 Damascus ; 501 Benares ; 502 Agra ; 503 Delhi ; 
504 Jaipur; 506 Srinagar; 515 Chinkiang; 516 Nanking; 521 
Chifu ; 556 Algiers ; 557 Tunis ; 588 Adelaide. 

4. Cities of Less Than 100,000 Population 

13 Gloucester, Mass.; 14 to 18 Lawrence, Mass.; 19, 20 Holyoke, 
Mass. ; 37 Newburg on the Hudson ; 49, 50 Niagara Falls, N. 
Y. ; 52 Hoboken, N. J. ; 60 Atlantic City, N. Y. ; 106 Savannah, 
Ga. ; 109 St. Augustine, Fla. ; 122 Beaumont, Tex. ; 126 San 
Antonio, Tex. ; 128, 129 Conneaut, O. ; 148 East St. Louis, 111. ; 
149 Kalamazoo, Mich.; 154 Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.; 155, 156 
Calumet. Mich.; 170, 171 Keokuk, Iowa; 176 Joplin, Mo.; 187 
Butte, Mont.; 212 Salt Lake City, Utah; 213 Ogden, Utah; 242 
San Diego, Cal. ; 257 San Juan, P. R. ; 260 Honolulu, Hawaii; 
264 Quebec, Can. ; 273 Winnipeg, Man. ; 277 Vancouver, B. C. ; 
278 St. John's, Newfoundland; 280 Vera Cruz, Mex. ; 299 
Santiago, Cuba ; 336 Guayaquil, Ecuador ; 337 Barranquilla, 
Colombia; 338, 339 La Guaira, Venezuela; 340, 341 Caracas, 
Venezuela; 360 York, England; 392 Bonn, Germany; 397 
Namur, Belgium; 399 Zaandam, Holland; 430 Cannes, France; 
434 Burgos, Spain; 436 Granada, Spain; 442 Lucerne, Switzer- 
land; 466 Serajevo, Bosnia; 468 Sofia, Bulgaria; 484 Nizhni 
Novgorod, Russia; 489 Scutari, Turkey; 495 Jerusalem, Pales- 



CAPITAL CITIES 239 

tine ; 509 Maulmain, Burma ; 547 Manila, P. I. ; 555 Tangier, Mo- 
rocco ; 573 Mombasa, Africa; 574 Dar-es-Salaam, Africa; 582 
Cape Town, Africa ; 590 Hobart, Tasmania ; 591 Auckland, New 
Zealand. 

5. Cities of Rapid Growth 

A list of fifteen cities that have greatly increased in population, or 
grown up in an abnormally short time, as the result of some special 
circumstances such as industrial development, or popularity as a place 
of resort. The results of such sudden increase have not always been 
good, on account of the difficulty in providing adequate facilities, the 
increase of speculation, and the difficulty of getting proper attention 
to municipal problems at such times. 
25,26 New York City; 60 Atlantic City; 61 Pittsburgh; 116 Birming- 
ham; 121 Oklahoma City; 131 to 133 Akron; 139 Chicago; 150 
to 152 Detroit; 167 Minneapolis; 187 Butte; 220 Seattle; 230 
San Francisco ; 273 Winnipeg ; 582 Cape Town ; 585 Sydney. 

B. CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO DOMINANT FUNCTION 
1. Capital Cities 

This classification includes not only the great national capital cities, 
but also some examples of capitals of kingdoms, small principalities, 
and states. A state or section should show interest in its principal 
city when it is sufficiently unified to have a true consciousness of its 
own unity, to feel a pride in its own ideals and customs, and to 
possess a sense of its distinction from other parts of the country. 
This should be true of most American States, yet the state capitals, as 
cities, have not as a rule been developed in this way. In Europe the 
attitude of the people is quite different. The capital city of almost 
every kingdom, petty principality or dukedom, which corresponds much 
more closely to our state capital than to the national capital, is em- 
bellished with splendid palaces, spacious gardens, museums, wide 
streets and promenades, art galleries, fine sculpture, theaters and opera 
houses. Such embellishment has proved a source of new wealth, and 
it is well known that travelers spend millions of dollars and make long 
visits to these cities, thus justifying in another way the wisdom of 
this enlightened policy. 

The list includes some places which were formerly capitals, because 
these places have still in their buildings, streets and parks the char- 
acter of capital cities. 

6 to 8 Boston; 87 to 95 Washington; 121 Oklahoma City; 248 
Panama; 260 Honolulu; 264 Quebec; 273 Winnipeg; 305 Rio 
de Janeiro; 315 Buenos Aires; 324 Santiago, Chile; 340 Cara- 
cas; 348 to 352 London; 365 Edinburgh; 380 Dublin; 383 to 
385 Berlin; 389 Strassburg; 395 Brussels; 404 Copenhagen; 
416 Stockholm ; 421 to 425 Paris ; 432 Monaco ; 435 Madrid ; 450 
to 452 Rome; 455 Palermo, Sicily; 460 Innsbruck, Austrian- 
Tyrol; 462, 463 Vienna; 464 Budapest; 466 Serajevo; 468 



240 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

Sofia ; 472 to 474 Constantinople ; 475 Athens ; 485 Warsaw ; 493 
. Damascus, (long the capital of Syria) ; 495 Jerusalem (formerly 
Jewish capital); 503 Delhi, India; 504 Jaipur; 506 Srinigar, 
Kashmir; 511 Colombo, Ceylon; 526 Tokyo; 556 Algiers; 560 
Cairo ; 574 Dar-es-Salaam ; 586, 587 Melbourne ; 590 Hobart, Tas- 
mania. 

2. Resort Cities 

Some cities have been built up principally about a resort, and have 
the features peculiar to their class. Sometimes they have been beau- 
tifully developed, but more often in the United States they have de- 
pended for their prestige and popularity upon climate, or some natural 
feature. They are certain to abound in hotels and in other provision 
for tourists. 

This classification includes not only cities that are visited for health 
and recreation in a limited sense, but because of their " sights," and 
interest for tourists, especially in the case of American cities. Only 
a few of the European cities have been selected, yet nearly all of them 
could in one sense be classified as resorts which are visited by tourists. 
6 to 10 Boston and vicinity; 26 to 30, 51 New York City and en- 
virons; 49, 50 Niagara Falls; 60 Atlantic City; 87 to 96 Wash- 
ington; 110 Palm Beach; 291 Acatenango, Guatemala (winter 
resort) ; 354 Str.atford-on-Avon, England ; 391 Bingen on the 
Rhine, Germany; 421 to 424 Paris; 427 Chamonix, France; 430 
Cannes, France ("a seaside paradise"); 442 Lucerne, Swit- 
zerland ; 450 Rome ; 456 Florence ; 457 Venice ; 459 Como ; 460 
Innsbruck, Austrian-Tyrol ; 463 Vienna ; 464 Budapest ; 475 
Athens; 502 Agra, India; 525, 526 Tokyo; 556 Algiers; 560 
Cairo. 

3. Financial Cities 

The following cities are noted as centers of the world's finance. In 
most countries these are apt to be the governmental centers. In the 
United States the seat of government was intentionally separated from 
the city in which trade and commerce dominated. 

25 to 30 (esp. 29) New York City; 84 Philadelphia Government Mint; 
90, 94 Washington, D. C, Treasury building; 351 London, Eng- 
land; 383, 384 Berlin, Germany; 421 to 424 Paris, France; 463 
Vienna, Austria ; 482 Petrograd, Russia. 

4. Cities Noted for One or Two Industries 

Nearly all modern cities of any considerable size are industrial. In 
many cases they have been developed around one or two special indus- 
tries. Sometimes these industries are the result of natural resources 
or advantages in location. At other times they have resulted mainly 
from the knowledge and initiative of individuals or industrial cor- 
porations. 
13 Gloucester, Mass. — fisheries. 14 to 18 Lawrence, Mass. — textiles. 
19, 20 Holyoke, Mass. — paper; 21 Providence, R. I. — jewelry; 



CENTERS OF RELIGIOUS INTEREST 241 

22 to 24 South Manchester, Conn.— silk ; 40 Troy, N. Y— linen 
collars; 42 Syracuse, N. Y. — salt; 53 to 55 Paterson, N. J — 
silk; 58, 59, Trenton, N. J.— porcelain; 61 Pittsburgh, Pa- 
iron and steel ; 74, 75 Hazelton, Pa. — coal ; 76 to 78 Scranton, 
Pa. — coal ; 82 Philadelphia, Pa. — locomotives ; 86 Baltimore, 
Md. — oysters; 106 Savannah, Ga. — turpentine, cotton; 116 Bir- 
mingham, Ala. — iron and steel; 119 New Orleans, La. — cot- 
ton; 122 Beaumont, Tex. — oil; 128 Conneaut, O. — iron ore; 
131 to 133 Akron, O.— rubber; 134, 135 Rossford, O.— glass; 
140 to 144 Chicago, 111. — packing houses ; 149 Kalamazoo, Mich. 
— celery; 150 to 152 Detroit, Mich. — automobiles; 153 St. Clair, 
Mich. — salt ; 155, 156 Calumet, Mich. — copper ; 164 Two Har- 
bors, Minn. — iron ore; 167 Minneapolis, Minn. — flour; 187 
Butte, Mont. — copper; 220 Seattle, Wash. — shipbuilding; 257 
San Juan, Porto Rico — coffee and cigars ; 273 Winnipeg, Mani- 
toba — agricultural products, flour; 295 Havana, Cuba — to- 
bacco;. 308 to 311 Sao Paulo, Brazil — coffee; 381 Belfast, Ire- 
land — linen, shipbuilding; 432 Monaco, Monaco — Monte 
Carlo, gambling ; 484 Novgorod, Russia — bells ; 495 Jerusalem, 
Syria — olivewood, mother of pearl; 506 Srinagar, Kashmir — 
shawls, rugs; 512 Ratnapora, Ceylon — "The City of Gems," 
precious stones ; 579 Johannesburg, S. Af r. — gold ; 581 Kim- 
■berly, S. Af r. — diamonds. 

5. Centers of Religious Interest 

There is a tendency for religions to manifest unusual strength in 
special sections, or to become more dominant in particular cities. The 
following list illustrates this tendency. 

6 Boston, Mass. — a center of Congregationalism, Unitarianism and 
Christian Science. 
80 Philadelphia, Pa. — Society of Friends, both Orthodox and Hick- 
site. 
212 Salt Lake City, Utah — Mormonism. 

365 Edinburgh, Scotland — City of Knox and Presbyterianism. 
450, 451 Rome, Italy — center of Roman Catholic Church. 
472 Constantinople, Turkey — Mohammedanism, Turkish Sultan its 

head. 
475 Athens, Greece — site of old Athenian shrines and Panathenaic 
procession. 

482 Petrograd, Russia — center of Greek Catholic church. 

483 Moscow, Russia — Kremlin, former center of Greek Catholic 

church. 
495 Jerusalem, Syria — former Jewish capital, center of early Chris- 
tian church. 

501 Benares, India — sacred shrine of Brahman religion, also birth- 

place of Buddha. 

502 Agra, India — Taj Mahal, temple and holy place of Mohamme- 

dans. 

503 Delhi, India — holy place of Mohammedans. 

560 Cairo, Egypt — center of Mohammedan education. 



242 CITIES OF THE WORLD 

6. Coast Cities with Ports for Ocean Vessels 

See notes on Waterways, Water Fronts and Harbors, and special 
comment on views under The Elements of City Plans, this classification. 

7, 8 Boston ; 25 to 32 New York City ; 52 Hoboken ; 230 San Fran- 
cisco ; 242 San Diego; 248 Panama; 257 San Juan; 260 Hono- 
lulu; 277 Vancouver; 278 St. Johns, Newf. ; 280 Vera Cruz; 
295 Havana; 305, 307 Rio de Janeiro; 313 Montevideo; 314 
Buenos Aires ; 326 Valparaiso ; 337 Barranquilla, Colombia ; 
338, 339 La Guaira, Venezuela ; 347 Liverpool ; 374 Queens- 
town ; 380 Dublin; 381 Belfast; 404 to 406 Copenhagen; 416 
Stockholm; 433 Barcelona; 454 Naples; 457 Venice; 472 to 474 
Constantinople; 475 Athens; 499 Madras, India; 511 Colombo. 
Ceylon; 513, 514 Hong Kong; 526 Tokyo; 556 Algiers; 574 
Dar-es-Salaam ; 582 Cape Town. 

7. Cities on Navigable Waters with Ports 

See notes on Waterways, Water Fronts and Harbors, and special 
comment on views under The Elements of City Plans, this classification. 
80 Philadelphia — Delaware R. ; 106 Savannah — Savannah R. ; 119 
New Orleans — .Mississippi R. ; 170, 171 Keokuk — Mississippi 
R. ; 174 St. Louis — Mississippi R.; 220 Seattle — Puget Sound; 
264 Quebec — St. Lawrence R. ; 267 Montreal — St. Lawrence 
R. ; 277 Vancouver — St. of Georgia; 348 to 352 London — 
Thames R. ; 386 Hamburg — Elbe R. ; 396 Antwerp — Schelde 
R. ; 400 Rotterdam — Rhine R. ; 482 Petrograd — Neva R. ; 500 
Calcutta — Hooghly R. ; 542, 543 Seoul, Chosen — Han R. 

8. Inland Cities on Lakes and Rivers 

9 Cambridge, Mass.— Charles R. ; 48 Buffalo, N. Y.— Lake Erie; 
49, 50 Niagara Falls, N. Y.— Niagara R. ; 61 Pittsburgh, Pa. 

— Allegheny, Monongehela and Ohio rivers ; 87, 90, 91 Wash- 
ington, D. C. — Potomac R. ; 128, 129 Conneaut, O. — Lake Erie ; 
139 Chicago, 111.— Lake Michigan; 50 to 152 Detroit, Mich.— 
Detroit R.; 153 St. Clair, Mich.— St. Clair R. ; 134 Sault Ste. 
Marie, Mich. — " Soo " Canal ; 164 Two Harbors, Minn. — Lake 
Superior; 174 St. Louis, Mo. — Mississippi R. ; 213 Ogden, Utah 

— Ogden and Weber rivers ; 273 Winnipeg, Manitoba — Red 
and Assiniboine rivers ; 360 York, England — Ouse R. ; 383 to 
385 Berlin, Germany — Spree R. ; 387 Nuremburg, Germany 

— Pegnitz R. ; 391 Bingen, Germany — Rhine R. ; 393 Cologne, 
Germany — Rhine R. ; 395 Brussels, Belgium — Senne R. ; 397 
Namur, Belgium — Meuse R. ; 421 to 425 Paris, France — Seine 
R. ; 435 Madrid, Spain — Manzanares R. ; 442 Lucerne, Switzer- 
land — Reuss R. ; 450 to 452 Rome, Italy — Tiber R.; 460 Inns- 
bruck, Austria — Inn R. ; 462, 463 Vienna, Austria — Danube 
R. ; 48 Moscow, Russia — Mosque R.; 501 Benares, India — 
Ganges R. ; 502 Agra, India — Jumna R. ; 503 Delhi, India — 
Jumna R. 



ENGLISH 

INTRODUCTION 
By FRANKLIN THOMAS BAKER, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, 
TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The trend of modern education has been steadily away from 
interest in mere words. This is the meaning of the great de- 
velopment in museums, shops and laboratories in the equip- 
ment of our schools. We have come to realize that merely 
to hear or read about a thing and even to be able to talk or 
write about it, is no guarantee that the thing itself is known 
and understood. In the case of material objects, really to 
know involves to see, and, if possible, to handle and to use. If 
he is to have even the foundations of an education, his range 
of concepts must include many things that are far removed 
from his immediate environment. If he lives in the great 
Mississippi Valley, for example, we try to help him gain some 
idea of the sea, of the great mountain peaks and ranges, of 
cataracts like Niagara, of lumbering in the forests of the 
North and East, of life and industry in the East, the South 
and the Far West. We count it necessary that he should pic- 
ture to himself many of the scenes of historic or literary in- 
terest in Europe, the strange and teeming life of Asia, the un- 
couth and meager civilization of Africa. Since he cannot go 
to them we must somehow bring them to him. And here is 
where the miracle of pictures comes in. 

Most of us feel that stereoscopic pictures give the illusion 
of reality better than flat pictures. The sense of distance, 
the size of mountains, the depths of precipices and valleys — 
as in the Grand Canyon — often seem incredible for the first 
time when viewed through the stereoscope. 

How does all this apply to the study of English? In the 
first place, literature makes its appeal to the eye oftener than 
to any other sense. It presupposes in the reader a long 
record of seeing things. The shapes and colors of clouds and 
mountains, of flowers and birds and animals, the forms of 

243 



244 ENGLISH 

trees and the look of lakes and streams, the customs of 
strange peoples, the houses and streets of cities, the great 
centers of commerce with their wharves and depots, — all these 
are frequently assumed to be a part of the reader's stock of 
visual memories. And so the reader's grasp of the content 
is fijmer, if the text recalls these memories. 

But how if this assumption is mistaken and the reader 
has no such picture in his memory? Here the help of pic- 
tures is virtually a necessity. Think how little the pupil could 
get, unassisted, of a description of a cactus-covered desert. 
Though the appeal to the eye is far from being the only ap- 
peal that literature makes, it is so frequent as to be almost 
fundamental. The stereoscopic picture is the most vividly real 
of all photographs ; therefore, with some satisfaction to our 
sense of the fitness of things we remember that the present con- 
venient form of the stereoscope was invented by a man who 
combined the interests of science and literature, one of our best 
known American authors — Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

The Keystone Series helpful as it is as an aid in reading 
literature, has an equally obvious value in teaching composi- 
tion, oral and written. Something to say, something real, 
definite, interesting and detailed enough — this is the prereq- 
uisite to any profitable work in expression. One may get 
such material by reading and by being told. But he will get 
it still better if he can also see. The details in a picture or 
in a series of pictures on the same theme; the companion or 
contrasts of scenes and actions ; — such assignments make ex- 
cellent composition lessons. A friendly rivalry among the 
members of the class, to see which could find the most in a 
given picture, or to see which could recall the most pictures 
of a given sort, or to see which, in the judgment of his class- 
mates, could give the best account of a picture, — such a con- 
test would also be an excellent basis for a lesson in language. 

The teacher will get the best results from these pictures : 
1. If she learns to know the whole scenes so well herself 
that any opportunity of using them will come to her mind 
automatically. 2. If she makes a point of having the ap- 
propriate picture seen by the class, either through the stereo- 
scope or on the screen while the interest is fresh. 3. If she 
encourages the habitual resort to the series by the pupils, 
just as she would encourage " browsing " in the library. 



17. LITERARY SUBJECTS AND SETTINGS 
INCLUDING MYTHOLOGY 

By FRANKLIN THOMAS BAKER, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, 
TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

A little inquiry into the exact nature of the images in chil- 
dren's minds will usually yield some startling discoveries. We 
shall be amazed not only at what isn't there, but at what is 
there in mistaken form. There is not only so much that they 
do not know, but they know so much that isn't so. Of course, 
we realize when we come to think it over, that it couldn't be 
otherwise. Their experience is limited, much of it is second- 
hand and faint or inaccurate in the impression it leaves, and 
they have had as yet but a short period for correcting their 
impressions either by reflection or by checking them up through 
further impressions. 

In teaching literature we find constant need of helping the 
children to fill in and correct the images that are commonly re- 
ferred to in the poems and stories they read. We must be 
careful about what we take for granted. How many children 
there are who have never seen the ocean, or a mountain, or a 
forest, or a great city ! How very few who have any image 
of the Parthenon, or Westminster Abbey, or Notre Dame. 
How few who have any lively conception of any kind of life 
outside their immediate environment! 

One of the values of literature is that it does enlarge the 
bounds of our minds through vicarious experience. But for 
many experiences the literature alone is not enough. Pictures 
are needed to help us build up the images. Through pictures 
and poems and stories of the sea, an inland boy often gets so 
good an idea of the sea that when he comes to it for the first 
time, he finds it just as he expected it to look. And if he never 
sees it, he may yet have some notion of what it is like. 

The 600 pictures in this series have, quite properly, been se- 
lected mainly for their geographical value. Few of them are 

245 



246 ENGLISH — LITERARY SUBJECTS 

only literary in their interest. But yet, as will be seen from 
the selections that follow, a very- large number of them may 
help in explaining references and pictures in literature and in 
making it interesting. 

The teacher must use her own judgment as to the plan of 
using them. Sometimes it may be best to show the pictures 
before the reading, sometimes after it. She will need to dis- 
criminate between what explains-,. aff*rf or example, the Poca- 
hontas picture, or the Turpentine Gathering, and what merely 
adds interest and reality as, for example, The Old North 
Church and Washington's Home. The former kind might be 
shown before the reading, the latter after it. 

The best use of these views is probably that made by the 
pupils on their own initiative. If the pictures stand in the 
room, free to the pupils in their free hours, they will go to 
them again and again, and come to know them in the thorough 
way that is possible only through repeated use. 

HIAWATHA — A SAMPLE LESSON 

The lesson is on Hiawatha's Childhood, beginning — 

" By the shores of Gitche-Geemee, 
By the shining Big-Sea-Water," 

and ending with the line, 

" Called them Hiawatha's Brothers." 

INTRODUCTION BY THE TEACHER 

This introduction will explain briefly and clearly that Hiawatha was 
the hero of an Indian tribe on the shores of Lake Superior (pointed to 
on a map), which the Indians called Gitche-Geemee, meaning Big-Sea- 
Water ; that Hiawatha was good and wise, and learned many things 
that helped his tribe — to catch fish, to make a canoe, to write letters by 
pictures, to grow corn, etc. 

He lived in a wigwam. What is a wigwam? Here let the children 
see picture 263. Tell them that these Indians are looking out over the 
St. Lawrence River, but they may make-believe it is Lake Superior. 
Don't hurry them. Lead them to see what the Indians there are doing, 

— weaving baskets. A little exchange of experience about Indian wares 

— not too long drawn out — will be very helpful. 

The class may now read the first ten lines. What parts of the lines 
were shown in the picture? Were the pine trees and the firs shown? 

Read the next twelve lines. Do they see the babe in his cradle? 
Have they ever seen a cradle? An Indian baby's cradle? Now show 
picture 158. Do they note that it is at the base of a huge tree? 



BIBLICAL SCENES 247 

(The song, The Naked Bear, has been printed by several people. A 
version simplified for schools may be had by writing to The Macmillan 
Co. — The Little Owlet song is issued by several music publishers.) 

Read the next twelve lines. Who has seen a comet? Show picture 
600. Wouldn't it be likely to set these simple-minded folk wondering? 

" Warriors with their plumes and war-clubs." What did Indian war- 
riors look like? Show pictures 168 and 182. 

Explain the reference to the " northern lights." 

As the rest of the lesson is read, explain such things as the speaking 
of the water and the pine tree, etc. 

The line " How the ^^eti^Duilt their lodges," will naturally call 
out picture 196, and the reference to the reindeer picture 413. 

Such reinforcement of the intuitive basis must not, however, be al- 
lowed to smother the main idea of the selection : Hiawatha learning 
the secrets of nature from his old grandmother, Nokomis. 

JOSEPH ADDISON 
The Spectator 

350 Westminster Abbey. 

593 to 600 " The spacious firmament on high." 

ANTI-SLAVERY POEMS 

101 Harpers Ferry, " John Brown's body lies a-moldering in the 

grave." 
109 Old slave market. 
105, 107, 117, 118, 119 Types of negroes. 
570, 572, 578 Negroes in Africa. 

BIBLICAL SCENES 

491 Tarsus, the city from which Paul came. 

493 Damascus, said to be the oldest city in the world. The 
Bible refers often to life " on the house tops." 

495 Jerusalem, from the Mount of Olives. In many ways, an- 

cient Jerusalem looked the same as this. 

496 The Road to Jericho, where the Good Samaritan found the 

man who had fallen among thieves. 

497 The old Hebrew law forbade the muzzling of an ox while 

threshing. 

498 " Two women shall be grinding corn. The one shall be 

taken, the other left." 
561 to 565 " Out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 
No doubt Moses saw things very like these. 

WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT 
30 The Crowded Street. 

1, 162, 195, 224, 229 The Forest Hymn. 

2, 72, 102, 198 The Gladness of Nature. 
44, 175 The Planting of the Apple Tree. 



248 ENGLISH — LITERARY SUBJECTS 

2, 72, 195, to 197, 228. Thanatopsis. 
444, 599, 600 Hymn to the North Star. 
221 Upon the Mountain's Distant Head. 

ROBERT BURNS 

366 " A man's a man for a' that." 
72 To a Mountain Daisy. 

367 Bannockburn. 

368 " Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled." 

372, 373 The Cotter's Saturday Night. The Brigs of Ayr. 
My Heart 's in the Highlands. Auld Lang Syne. 

JOHN BURROUGHS 
175, 44 The Apple. 
359 Tragedies of the Nests. 
1 A Taste for Maine Birch. 

LORD BYRON 
The Siege of Corinth 

477 Excavators at work at Old Corinth. 

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage 

450 Rome, The Eternal City (canto IV, stanza 78). 

451 The Tiber (canto IV, stanza 79). 

452 Coliseum, the King of Ruins (canto IV, stanzas 128, 145). 
457 The Grand Canal, Venice, Italy (canto IV, stanza 1). 
475 Athens and the Acropolis (canto II). 

JAMES FENNIMORE COOPER 
The Spy 
37 Washington's headquarters at Newburgh, N. Y. 

MARY MAPES DODGE 
Hans Brinker 

399 Streets in Zaandam, Holland. 

400 Docks in Rotterdam. 

402 Scene in a Dutch village. 

EDWARD EGGLESTON 
Stories of American Life and Adventure 

98 A white man among the Indians. 
169 The making of a canoe. 

136, 137, 160, 184, 292 Some things about Indian corn. 
530, 534 Tea; 302, 310, 311 Coffee. The coming of tea and coffee. 
415 Stories of whaling. 

49, 50 A story of Niagara. 
182 A prisoner among Indians. 



WASHINGTON IRVING 249 

207, 208 Descending the Grand Canyon. 
232 Buffalo. The lazy lucky Indian. 
243 to 246 Adventures in Alaska. 

JOEL CHANDLER HARRIS 

Uncle Remus Stories 

105 Hoeing rice, South Carolina. Mr. Harris got his stories from 

the southern negroes. 
107 Turpentine farm near Savannah, Ga. 

117 Picking cotton. A good view of the southern negro in a 

well-known situation. 

118 Harvesting peanuts, Marianna, Ark. 

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE 
Niagara Falls 

49 Summer view of the Falls. 

50 Winter view of the Falls. 

WASHINGTON IRVING 
Sketch Book 
350 Westminster Abbey. 
38 Hudson River Valley. What Rip Van Winkle saw when 
he woke from his long sleep. 

51 The Palisades of the Hudson, looking north. 

36 The cemetery at Sleepy Hollow, near Tarrytown, N. Y. 
Irving is buried here. 

Stories from the Alhambra. 

436 Exterior of Alhambra Palace. 

Astoria 
226 Columbia River, Ore. 

HELEN HUNT JACKSON 
Ramona 
241 San Gabriel Mission, California. 

RUDYARD KIPLING 
Captains Courageous 

52 An ocean liner such as Harvey started on. 
13 Drying codfish in the sun, Gloucester, Mass. 

Just So Stories 

577 How the Rhinoceros Got His Skin. 

588 Old Man Kangaroo. 

505, 509 The Elephant's Child. (110 An alligator is very like 

a crocodile.) 
565 How the Camel Got His Hump. 



250 ENGLISH — LITERARY SUBJECTS 

Moti Guy, Mutineer; and Toomai of the Elephants 

505 Elephants on parade. 
509 Elephants at work. 

Kim 
499 to 508 India, its life described in Kim. 

LUCY LARCOM 
Hanna Binding Shoes 

41 Shoe factory. Lucy Larcom herself worked in a shoe fac- 
tory in Lowell, Mass. 

If I Were a Sunbeam 

72 Children in sunshine. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN 
113 Lincoln's birthplace, Hodgeville, Ky. 

73 Gettysburg Oration. 

87 Inaugural Address. 

HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW 

9 Longfellow's home, Cambridge, Mass. In this old house 
stood "The Old Clock on the Stair." 

Paul Revere's Ride 

6 Old North Church, Boston, where the signal light was hung. 

7 Quincy Market and Faneuil Hall, Boston, where Paul Revere 

often attended meetings. 
10 Lexington, Mass. The minute men roused by Paul Revere 
fought the Battle of Lexington. 

Evangeline 

262 " In the Acadian Land, on the shore of the Basin of Minas." 

Nova Scotia, Canada. 

Courtship of Miles Standish 
409 Spinning wheel such as Priscilla used. 

The Ropewalk 

553 Manila hemp industry. 

The Children 
72 " In your hearts are the birds and sunshine." 

Hiawatha 

158 The Indian infant. 

168 Indians receiving guests. 

169 Indian man and girl in canoe. 

263 Indians weaving baskets. 



PATRIOTIC LITERATURE 251 

184 The feast of Mondamin. 
189 Hiawatha hunting. 

JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL 
Vision of Sir Launfal 

72, 102, 38 "And what is so rare as a day in June?" 
428, 448 " Down swept the chill wind from the mountain peak, 
From the snow five thousand summers old." 

OUIDA 
Dog of Flanders 

398 Belgian draft horses. 

Nuremburg Stove 

387 Old Nuremburg. 

PATRIOTIC LITERATURE 

10 Monument to Minute Men, Lexington. 

80 Old Liberty Bell, Philadelphia. 

87 The Capitol, Washington. 

91 The White House, Washington. 

96 Washington's home, Mount Vernon. 

242 Submarines, battleships, torpedo boats, San Diego, Cal. 

254 The battleship Missouri. 

100 Battleships at Hampton Roads. 

WILLIAM PRESCOTT 

Conquest of Peru 

331 The Incas. 

Conquest of Mexico 

282 to 285, 288 The Aztecs. 

MRS. NORTON 
Bingen on the Rhine 

391 Moonlight on the Rhine, or Bingen. (Bishop Hatto's Tower, 
by Southey, and Longfellow's Children's Hour will be re- 
membered here.) 

ROOSEVELT AND LODGE 
Hero Tales from American History 

96, 9, 37, 29 Washington, by H. C. Lodge. 
119, 120 Battle of New Orleans, T. Roosevelt. 
126 Remember the Alamo, T. Roosevelt. 
100 Hampton Roads, T. Roosevelt. 

73 Charge at Gettysburg, T. Roosevelt. 
113, 73, 91 Lincoln, H. C. Lodge. 



252 ENGLIStJ — LITERARY SUBJECTS 

WALTER SCOTT 
The Lady of the Lake and other stories of Scotland. 

365 The famous monument to Scott, on Princess St., Edinburgh 

(pronounced Ed-in-bur-ro). 

366 Highlanders in costume; as described in The Lady of the 

Lake. 

367 Stirling Castle. The residence of the Kings of Scotland; 

mentioned in The Lady of the Lake, canto VI, st. 
XXVIII. 
369 Ellen's Isle, Loch Katrine. In The Trossachs (or "bristled 
country"), near Edinburgh. Made famous by The Lady 
of the Lake. 

The Talisman 

495 Jerusalem, to regain which city the Crusades were made. 

496 The Jericho Road often traveled by Crusaders. 
497, 498 Scenes in Palestine. 

494 A Sheik showing dress of the Saracen. 

Kenilworth 

348 London Bridge. 

352 The House of Lords, London, Eng. 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE 

354 His birthplace, Stratford. 

355 Anne Hathaway's cottage. 

356 Memorial theater in Shakespeare's honor at Stratford. 
382 Sea Dirge. 

SAMUEL FRANCIS SMITH 
America 
See classification on Reading. 

1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, 25, 38, 61, 71, 72, 87, 88, 90, 91, 93, 110, 117, 127, 
178, 182, 188, 190, 198, 207, 208, 215, 221, 224, 242. " My Coun- 
try 'tis of thee." Let children see that all the country, far and 
wide with its diversified life is " my country." 
51, 197, 228 "I love thy rocks and rills." 

1, 102, 224, 229 "Thy woods and templed hills." 
51, 207, 228 "Let rocks their silence break." 

ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON 
Inland Voyage 

396 A scene on the streets of Antwerp. From the docks of this 

city Stevenson and his friend set off in their canoes for 
their trip through Belgium into France. 

397 The river Meuse and Namur have been made by the war 

almost as famous as Antwerp. 



JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER 253 

ALFRED TENNYSON 
Bugle Song 
377 Lakes of Killarney. These are the lakes celebrated in Ten- 
nyson's Bugle Song. 

The Brook 

363 A wooded glen in Wales. 

J. T. TROWBRIDGE 

138, 159, 165 Farm-yard Songt 
426 Darius Green. 

CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER 
Being a Boy 

130 The sugar camp. 

STORIES OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 

96 Washington's home. Stories of his home life. 

61 Confluence of Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers. Story 

of Fort Necessity and Braddock's defeat. 
9 Longfellow's home. Washington taking charge of the American 

army at Boston. 
37 Washington's headquarters at Newburg. Washington's refusal 

to think of being a king and his farewell to his army. 
29 Wall St. Washington as President. 

JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER 
The Corn Song and The Huskers 

184 The corn that Whittier knew was the shorter kind grown in 
New England. 

136 " There wrought the busy harvesters." 

The Pumpkin 

137 "O, fruit loved of boyhood." 

The Barefoot Boy 

488 " Barefoot boy with cheek of tan." 

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH 

361 Lake Grasmere and village. Wordsworth's home during 

his early residence in the Lake District. 

362 Rydal Mount, the later residence of Wordsworth. 
72 To the Daisy. 

359 The Nightingale. 



254 ENGLISH — LITERARY SUBJECTS 

SPYRI 

Heidi 

445 A Swiss cottage in the Alps. The one in which Heidi and 
her grandfather lived was humbler and smaller than this. 
441 On the top of a mountain. . 
444 A Swiss valley. 

447 A Swiss village. 

448 A famous Swiss mountain peak. 

449 Some Swiss roads. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

342, 346 Among the Icebergs, Dana. 

452 Androclus and the Lion. 

494 The Arab's Farewell to His Steed, Caroline E. S. Norton. 

484 The Bells, Edgar Allen Poe. 

375 The Bells of Shandon, Francis Sylvester Mahony. 
450, 452 Ben Hur. Gen. Lew Wallace. 

73 Gettysburg. 114 Lookout Mt. The Blue and the Gray. 
Frances M. French. 
243, 246 The Call of the Wild, Jack London. 
513, 515, 519 Chinese Stories such as The Poet Li or Woo of 

Hwangho. 
38, 451 The Cloud, Percy Bysshe Shelley. 
99 The Coast Guard, Emily Huntingdon Miller. 
27 Crossing Brooklyn Ferry, Walt Whitman. 
415 The Cruise of the Cachalot, Bullen. 
98, 158, 168, 169, 182, 204, 244 Customs of American In- 
dians, Lewis and Clarke. 
359 Don't Kill the Birds, Colesworthy. 

376 The Goves of Blarney, Frances Sylvester Mahony. 

282, 369, 38, 39 (jreat, Wide, Beautiful, Wonderful World. 

264, 265, 266 The Heights of Abraham, Parkman. 

451 Horatius at the Bridge, Macauley. 

10, 130 How the Leaves Came Down, Susan Coolidge. 

98, 158, 168, 169, 182, 204, 244, 263, 265, 328 Indian folk stories. 

50 Jack Frost, Miss Gould. 

594, 595 Lady Moon, Lord Houghton. 

71 Lake Erie and Commodore Perry. 

32 The Making of an American, Jacob Riis. 

88, 242, 260 The Name of Old Glory, James Whitcomb Riley. 

359 Ode to the Nightingale, Keats. 

241 San Gabriel Mission, The Angelus, Bret Harte. 

246 Stickeen, A Dog Story, John Muir. 

264, 39 Story of Benedict Arnold. 

98 Story of Pocahontas. 

441 f 444^ 445, 446 to 448 Tell, to His Native Mountains. 

10 The Tree, Bjornson. 

415 Two Years Before the Mast, Dana. 



SONGS — MYTHOLOGY 255 

415 The Typee, Melville. 

109, 117, 119 Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe. 

137 When the Frost is on the Pumpkin, James W. Riley. 

71, 10, 224 Woodman, Spare that Tree. 

178, 179, 72 Work, Cary. 

SONGS 

366 The Bluebells of Scotland. 
117 Dixie Land, D. Emmett. 
38, 373 Home Sweet Home, John Howard Payne. 

347 to 361 Isle of Beauty, T. H. Bayly. 
495 Jerusalem, Bishop Reginald Heber. 
377 Killarney, J. W. Balfe. 

348 London Bridge, F. E. Weatherby. 
429 Marseillaise, Roget de L'Isle. 

511 The Missionary Hymn, Bishop Reginald Heber. 

382 The Song of the Sea, B. W. Procter. 

88, 242, 260 The Star Spangled Banner, Frances Scott Key. 

391, 392 The Watch on the Rhine, Max Schneckenburger. 



MYTHOLOGY 

The mythology of the ancient people, especially the Greeks, the 
Romans and the Scandinavians, was a nature worship. The primitive 
men took the forces of nature which influenced their lives and against 
which they were powerless and personified them, made them into dei- 
ties. The gods and goddesses were not at all perfect; they were only 
men and women of a larger size and more powerful, yet with all the 
weaknesses and foibles that belong to humanity. 

The primitive man looked about and saw the changing face of nature 
(480) ; they saw that even the best works of man are destroyed in long 
ages (478) and they personified time in Cronos or Saturn, an old, old 
man with white beard and hourglass. They told us that Cronos de- 
voured his children. Look at (477, 568) and tell what they meant. 

Next, man looked at land (479) and sea as in (432) ; they saw the 
clouds (451, 452) bringing rain with thunder and lightning; they 
vaguely realized law and order and so they invented a supreme being, 
the father of Gods and men, whom all must obey. The Greeks called 
him Zeus; the Romans, Jupiter; the Scandinavians, Woden. 

The Temple of Zeus (478) was at Olympia, where were held the 
Olympic games. Here was the gold and ivory statue of Zeus carved by 
Phidias, so imposing that it was called one of the seven wonders of the 
ancient world. 

From early days marriage and motherhood (471) have been' con- 
sidered the most sacred relations of mankind. This was personified in 
Hera, or Juno, queen of heaven, wife of Jupiter,- who watched over 
marriage and mothers (455). 



256 ENGLISH — LITERARY SUBJECTS 

Pallas Athena, or Minerva, whose temple, the Parthenon (475), was 
the chief ornament of the Acropolis, was the goddess of wisdom, of 
skilled labor and of war. She sprang from the head of Zeus fully 
armed. Can you explain why? The olive tree (495) was her gift. 

Aphrodite, or Venus, goddess of beauty and of love, was born from 
a piece of sea foam (382). Flowers sprang up wherever she stepped 
(444), and shepherds sacrificed to her for increase of their flocks. 

The sea, changeful and treacherous (432, 382, 414, 415), so often 
destroying their small and frail boats, was Poseidon, or Neptune, who 
rode in a chariot drawn by dolphins and held a trident. All seamen 
offered sacrifices to Neptune. Each river (391) had its own river god, 
all of whom were under the dominion of Neptune. 

Hephaestus, or Vulcan, was the worker in metals. Down in the 
bowels of the earth (453) he worked, and the smoke of his forge came 
from the mountains (300). He made the first plowshare (488) and the 
first sword (385, 426). 

The sun (593, 414) so bright and beautiful, bringing light (451) and 
health and growth (480), was named Apollo, god of light, of music 
and of medicine. He was always represented as a beautiful young 
man. While exiled from Olympus, he tended the sheep of Admetus 
disguised as a shepherd (480). 

The moon (594, 595) with its milder silvery light (391) was Diana, 
goddess of pure young girls and of the chase (2, 189). She was always 
a lovely maiden with bow and quiver and a fawn near by. 

The ancients knew war, cruel and destructive (385, 426). So they 
made Ares, or Mars, god of war, big and strong and cruel and some- 
what of a coward. 

Pluto, the god of the underworld, ruled over the dead. His were 
the mines (76, 155) and minerals (579, 581) ; and so he became the 
god of riches. Today men who are very rich are called plutocrats. 

Hermes, or Mercury, the messenger of the gods, rode on the wind 
(451, 478). He was always represented as a slender youth with wings 
on cap, shoulders and feet. He is thus described in Hawthorne's story 
" The Miraculous Pitcher." 

The people might plow and sow and reap, but unless the heavens were 
kind, all their work was nothing. So they made Demeter, or Ceres, 
goddess of golden grain and of harvests (199, 479). She is always a 
stately woman with a sheaf of grain and horn of plenty. 

Her daughter Persephone, or Proserpina, is the wife of Pluto. Six 
months she is down in the realms of death and the world is cold and 
barren (50). Six months she is with her mother and the world 
smiles, rivers flow and plants grow and bloom (444). See Hawthorne's 
story "The Pomegranate Seeds." 

Bacchus, or Dionysius, was the god of the vine and of wine (236, 
390). 

Hercules, the Greek hero, killed the Hydra on the Argive Plain 
(480). Here, too, he fought the Nemean Lion. While on his way to 
get the herds of Geryon and bring them to Argos, he split the Rock of 



MYTHOLOGY 257 

Gibraltar (439), letting the Atlantic join the Meditterranean. With 
the Argonauts he sailed through the Bosporus (489). 

The Cyclops were giants, children of Uranus, the sky, and Gaea, the 
earth (479, 480). Each had one eye in the middle of his forehead. 
They forged the thunderbolts of Zeus. Volcanoes (300, 453, 525, 548) 
were the chimneys of the shop where they labored under the direction 
of Vulcan. 

Through the Bosporus Strait (489) sailed the Argonauts, led by 
Jason, in their search for "the golden fleece"; and across it fled Io 
in the form of a heifer chased by the gadfly. 

Bellerophon, who captured Pegasus, was a hero of the Old Corinth 
(477). 

The Argive Plain (480) was the home of Io, and of Danaus and his 
fifty daughters. Danaus first dug wells in Argos. 

The Hyperboreans were a mythological people who lived in a land 
of everlasting day and perpetual spring, where sorrow and old age 
never came. It was far to the north, beyond the north wind (414). 

Romulus while a baby was set adrift on the Tiber River (451) by his 
uncle, Amulius. Rescued and reared by a shepherd, he became the 
founder of Rome (450, 452). 

The Scandinavians personified the cold and frost (408, 409) as 
malicious giants against whom the friendly gods Woden and Thor were 
ever in conflict. This was a representation of the difficulties which 
the people had to overcome. This struggle is very clearly shown in 
view 408. 

Woden, or Odin, was the supreme deity of the later Norse mythology. 
He was a god of agriculture (408) as well as of wisdom and poetry. 
He was sometimes worshiped as the sun god (414). 

Thor, the thunderer, was the terror of the giants of the ice and cold 
(408, 409), with whom he was constantly at strife. He was always in 
the vigor of youth, and had a red beard and was the strongest of all 
gods. Why would the thunderer be the terror of the giants? 

Frey or Freyr is the Scandinavian god of peace and fruitfulness 
(408). To him were addressed prayers for a good harvest. He 
wakened the earth from the sleep of winter (407) and dispensed golden 
sunshine (414) and summer showers. 

Frigg or Frigga, the wife of Odin or Woden, was the goddess of the 
sky (593 to 600). She presided over marriage and domestic life (411, 
410, 409). The constellation of Orion (599) was known as Frigga's 
distaff (409). Friday was named for her. 

Freya or Freyja was the Scandinavian goddess of love and beauty 
(418). She was supposed to be the sister of Frigga and later was 
worshipped in place of Frigga. 

The ancient mythology comes to us in many ways. The worship of 
the sun (414), the moon (391, 594, 595), of Woden and Thor, Frigga 
and Saturn gave us the names of the week. The stars still bear the 
names of the gods given them thousands of years ago. Mars (596) , 
the god of war, and Saturn (597), still shine for us as they did for 



258 ENGLISH — LITERARY SUBJECTS 

Homer. When Uranus was discovered in 1781, the old mythological 
name was given to it. 

Orion (599), one of the brightest and most easily distinguished of 
our constellations, was known to Job, and was mentioned by Homer 
about 3000 years ago. Orion was a great hunter set in the sky by 
Artemis. There is a multitude of legend about him. The Scandina- 
vians called this same constellation the distaff of Frigga. 



18. ENGLISH COMPOSITION 

By JAMES FLEMING HOSIC, Ph.M. 

EDITOR OF " ENGLISH JOURNAL," HEAD OF ENGLISH DEPT. IN 
CHICAGO NORMAL SCHOOL 

Success in teaching children to speak and write English 
depends chkfly upon two things, good sense in assignments 
and emphasis upon one difficulty of form at a time. A proper 
assignment arouses in the pupil a desire either to entertain, 
inform, or persuade the members of his class and to gather to- 
gether the material for the chosen purpose. 

It is here that stereographs and lantern slides are found dis- 
tinctly helpful. They visualize the topic, they suggest possi- 
bilities, provide material, and open the way to investigation. 
Not only so; they also assist the young speaker in presenting 
his ideas by providing a focus of attention and by illustrating 
his points. Most important perhaps is the arousing of the 
pupil's interest so that he puts his energies into the work. The 
principal of a large city school was addressing a group of 
teachers in a neighboring city on the topic of visualizing school 
work. Being asked what influence his Keystone Set of stereo- 
graphs and slides had on his dull pupils, he replied that after 
he had used the set he had no dull pupils. He stated that the 
so-called dull pupil was usually one who lacked interest in his 
work or who had difficulty in getting knowledge from the 
printed page. The stereographs aroused an intense interest 
and the picture gave him the facts quickly. Having some- 
thing definite to tell, he was just as eager to tell it as were the 
others. 

In using the " 600 Set " to assist his class to grow in power 
of English expression, the teacher should bear in mind that 
composition is a process involved in all subjects, particularly 
in the study and class discussion of geography, history, and 
literature. To a considerable extent, therefore, his most ef- 
fective employment of the pictures for English work will con- 
sist in directing a fuller and more orderly presentation of ideas 

259 



260 ENGLISH COMPOSITION 

in those subjects than is commonly the practice. Particularly 
should he plan individual and group activities so that the 
pupil reciting or reading a paper may be actually telling his 
fellows something that they do not already know. 

For the Composition class itself may be reserved topics 
lending themselves to more extended or more literary treat- 
ment than is suitable for the history or geography class, and 
particularly the composition class should provide for instruc- 
tion in making outlines, writing clear sentences, and similar 
matters of necessary technique.. Often a study begun as geog- 
raphy may wisely be concluded as composition. In all classes 
oral errors should be judiciously corrected as made, though 
not at the sacrifice of the train of thought being followed, the 
aim being to train the pupils in habits of correct English. 

The usual classification of composition topics according to 
the forms of rhetoric is worse than useless for purposes of 
elementary composition. Children cannot speak or write ef- 
fectively when burdened with the consciousness of a form to 
be illustrated. What they need is consciousness of a real au- 
dience and of something definite which they wish to do for 
that audience. Hence the suggestions which follow have been 
grouped as a series of possibilities for interesting class work. 
Many other possibilities will readily suggest themselves to any- 
one who begins to follow out those here put down. There 
should be no attempt to develop organization in a series of 
written paragraphs below the fifth grade. 

GIVINGACCURATE INFORMATION 
Obviously a large number of the scenes convey geographical or 
other information. To put this into words requires care as to clear- 
ness, accuracy and sequence. If only the stereographs are available, 
each child may be made responsible for a brief oral explanation of a 
scene, drawing his material from the description on the back and, if 
possible, from other sources. In the higher classes the best results 
will come from having each pupil, or a group of pupils, gather a fund 
of information on a subject illustrated by one or more of the stereo- 
graphs and then present it at length, either by reading from a paper or 
talking from an outline. 

In case lantern slides are at hand, the pupil may speak or read 
while the picture -is thrown upon the screen. His classmates should 
be encouraged to ask him questions. 

Among the stereographs and slides most useful for informational 
talks or papers are the following: 



COMPARATIVE STUDIES 261 

Airplane 426; Agriculture 47, 105, 108, 136, 178, 181; Animals and 
birds 2, 110, 111, 359, 509; Bank of England 351; Cities 27, 28, 90, 61, 
8, 139, 167, 230, 248, 282, 340, 421, 432, 450, 457, 475, 558; Dairy cattle 57; 
159, 165, 339, 356, 364, 371, 403; Fishing 13, 86, 97, 415, 481, 226, 227, 244; 
Glaciers 219, 274, 275, 276, 342, 408, 427, 428, 446, 448; Harbors 25, 52, 
106, 242, 277, 278, 280, 299, 304, 307, 313, 314, 326, 338, 347, 374, 386, 42Q, 
429, 430, 433, 473, 492, 511, 514, 556, 591; History and Literature 
(American) 6 to 10, 25, 37, 39, 71, 80, 87, 88, 61, 91, 95, 96, 101, 109, 
205, 243, 248 to 256, 296; (European) 349, 350, 354, 355, 362, 367, 372, 
376, 425, 436, 439, 450, 451 to 458, 462 to 464, 466, 470, 472, 475, 477, 478, 
482, 483, 485; (Asiatic) 493, 495, 497, 500, 501, 502, 503, 524, 527, 547; 
(African) 558, 559, 564 to 568; Immigration 32; Interesting sights 49, 
100, 382, 415, 453, 524; Industries, Misc., 103, 112, 443, 536, 541, 44, 107, 
573; Irrigation 104, 105, 210, 515, 527, 528, 530, 549, 564, 569; Lumber- 
ing 1, 162, 216, 217, 224; Manufacturing 11, 12, 16, 20, 21, 24, 35, 40, 41, 
42, 59, 62 to 68, 84, 94, 116, 412; Mining 70, 74, 75, 76, 77, 115, 155, 581 ; 
Midnight sun 414; Regulator of world's clocks 353; Stock raising 127, 
185, 186, 301, 317, 358; Submarine 242; Transportation 43, 48, 253, 575, 
580; Zeppelin 394. For additional subjects see Index. 

Consider particularly the possibility of orderly explanation of the 
processes shown in the following: Almonds 234; Automobiles 150, 
151; Bananas 294; Bark cloth 570; Basket weaving 263; Bread mak- 
ing 410, 292; Butter 45; Charcoal 103; Coal 74 to 79, 129; Coconuts 
551; Coffee 302, 310, 311; Coke 68; Copper 155, 156, 157; Corn 184, 
136, 137, 160; Cotton 117, 124, 125, 119, 14, 15, 16; Diamonds 581; 
Dredging 313; Electric power 170, 171; Ferry boats 507; Farm ma- 
chinery 181, 180, 179, 178, 166, 161; Fish 244, 226, 227; Glass 134, 135; 
Granite 3; Hemp 552, 553; Hogs 183, 172; Houseboats 546, 514; Hydrau- 
lic mining 225; Iron 163, 62, 63, 64; Ivory 573; Leather 272, 11, 12, 41; 
Making money 84, 94; Marble 4, 5; Markets, 7, 111, 387, 393, 395, 423, 
447, 466, 469, 481, 485, 555, 572; Milk 57, 46; Nile River 564; Oil 122, 
69, 70, 123; Oysters 86, 97; Packing houses 141 to 144; Paper 19, 20, 
412; Paper money 94; Pineapples 108; Pottery 58, 59, 487, 542; Rice 
104, 105, 528, 529, 549, 550; Rubber 131, 132, 133; Salt 42, 153, 518; 
Sardines 531; School children 83, 260 465, 520, 306; Silk 536 to 541, 53 
to 55, 22 to 24; Steel 65 to 67; Sugar 130, 198, 333, 258, 270, 271, 419, 
34, 35; Suez Canal 559; Tea 530; Tobacco 297, 112; Transportation 509, 
449; Wheat 199, 177, 218; Wool 190, 17, 18, 81. For additional sub- 
jects see classification Production and Manufacturing. 

COMPARATIVE AND GENERAL STUDIES 
Older pupils may occasionally bring together sets of scenes which 
present striking contrasts or suggest modest generalizations. Projects 
of this sort involve much more thinking than ordinary accounts of facts 
and require correspondingly more mature powers of expression. They 
are, of course, all the more educative for this reason. Note for ex- 
ample the following: 

Engineering feats 27, 170, 171, 174, 210, 253, 250; 256, 330, 366, 440, 
441, 444, 569, 575; How machinery helps 14, 18, 24, 45, 46, 78, 79, 81, 



262 ENGLISH COMPOSITION 

82, 233, 128, 136, 144, 161, 163, 166, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 160, 218, 269, 
272, 286; How people travel 31, 43, 52, 71, 154, 246, 320, 399, 454, 457, 
507, 544, 546, 548; Nature's wonders 49, 50, 51, 70, 191, 192, 193, 194, 
231, 196, 197, 200, 201, 202, 206, 207, 208, 209, 219, 221, 275, 453, 222, 
228, 229, 276, 318, 382, 407, 408, 414, 427, 428, 508, 576; Our great 
cities 6, 25, 26, 28, 30, 121, 126, 61, 90, 139, 167, 187, 212, 220, 230; What 
our government does for us 87, 91, 88, 89, 92, 142, 84, 94, 95. For 
additional subjects see Index. 

STUDIES OF VOCATIONS 

It is now agreed that older children should learn a great deal about 
various occupations before the time comes to choose one. The " 600 
Set " will enable the class to center attention upon each of the fol- 
lowing : 

Dairying, 46, 45, 57, 159, 165 ; Engineering 27, 170, 171, 174, 250, 251, 
252, 253, 254, 256, 154, 210, 559, 569; Farming 178, 179, 180, 177, 199, 218, 
233, 136, 137, 160, 184, 147, 166, 181, 104, 105, 112, 297, 117, 198, 211, 258; 
Fishing 13, 86, 97, 226, 227, 244; Fruit raising 44, 85, 108, 175, 236, 237, 
238, 293, 294; Lumbering 1, 162, 215, 216, 217, 224; Manufacturing 11, 
12, 14 to 24, 34, 35, 40, 41, 42, 53 to 55, 58, 59, 62 to 68, 81, 82, 94, 103, 
116, 123 to 125, 131 to 135, 150 to 153, 263, 268, 269 to 272, 286; Mining 
74 to 79, 115, 155, 163, 176, 187, 214, 225, 245, 246, 287, 243 ; Oil 69, 70, 122, 
123 ; Stock raising 127, 138, 140, 172, 173, 183, 185, 186, 188, 190, 301 ; 
Truck gardening and markets 7, 47, 111, 149, 387, 393, 395, 423, 447, 466, 
469, 481, 484, 485, 555, 572. For additional subjects see classification 
Vocational Guidance. 

RECREATIONS 

People should play as well as work. The class will profit by com- 
paring the various ways of spending leisure shown in the stereographs; 
viz.— United States 38, 49, 50, 51, 60, 72, 83, 114, 169, 182, 191 to 197, 200 
to 202, 205 to 209, 219, 221 to 223, 228, 229, 236; Hawaii 61; Canada 
265, 276; Mexico 290; Argentina 316; Greenland 343; England 361, 
366; Holland 402; Norway 407; Sweden 418; France 422, 424; Spain 
435; Switzerland 446, 448; Italy 455, 459; Austria-Hungary 464; 
Bulgaria 468; Roumania 471; Asia Minor 490; India 505; Burma 510; 
Japan 534, 535; Java 545; Rhodesia 577, 578. 

DISCUSSION 

Several of the scenes suggest topics about which people hold different 
opinions. By using stereographs or slides, class conversations may 
easily be developed into orderly oral discussions, with speakers on each 
side; for example — 

Which is the most valuable natural resource? Coal 76; Iron 163; 
Copper 155; Gold 225; Silver 214. Which is the most valuable crop in 
the United States? In the world? Wheat 218; Oats 147; Corn 184; 
Cotton, 117; Rice 105. Which is the most valuable vegetable in the 
United States? In the world? Potatoes 166; Beet 198; Onions 469; 









THE STORY OF IT 263 

Tobacco 112; Peanut 118; Celery 49. Which is the most valuable fruit 
in the United States? In the world? Peaches 85; Apples 175; or- 
anges 237 ; Pineapple 108. Which is the most valuable fighting ma- 
chine? Airplane 426; Battleship 254; Submarine 242; Zeppelin 394. 
Which is the strongest building material? Most useful? Most valuar 
ble? Wood 216; Stone 210; Concrete 253; Granite 3; Marble 4; Iron 
62; Steel 66. Which feeds the most people in the United States? 
In the world? Wheat 233; Corn 136; Rice 550; Potatoes 166. Which 
is the most valuable animal to man? Cow 159; Hog 183; Sheep 190; 
Horse 138; Mule 124; Dog 246; Elephant 509; Camel 564; Goat 411; 
Reindeer 413; Chicken 56. Which is the most valauble for sugar? 
Maple 130'; Cane 258; Beet 270. Which fiber is the most useful for 
clothing? Cotton 119; Linen 269; Silk 22; Wool 17. Which canal 
carries the most traffic? Cost the most? Most valuable to the United 
States? Most valuable to world? Panama 253; Suez 559; " Soo " 154. 
Which is the best breed of draft horses? Percheron 138; Belgian 398. 
Further subjects for debate may be had as follows: The Indians badly 
treated 182; Village a good place to live 445, etc. For further sug- 
gestive topics see Index. 

THE STORY OF IT 

Some pictures at once suggest a story, anecdote, or historical ac- 
count. Let the pupils vie with each other in holding the interest of 
the class by their narratives in the case of the following : 

Old North Church 6; Old State House 8; Shaping shoes 12; Im- 
migrants 32 ; Sleepy Hollow 36 ; Newburgh 37 ; Erie Canal 48 ; Culp's 
Hill 73 ; Liberty Bell 80 ; Pocahontas 98 ; Harpers Ferry 101 ; Old slave 
market 109; Wounded alligator 110; Lincoln's cabin 113; The Alamo 
126; Marshall Joffre 146; Hiawatha 158; Hiawatha and Minnehaha 
169; Sioux Indian 182; Nova Scotia 262; Castle of Chapultepec 283; 
Battleship Maine 296; Santiago 299; Perry expedition 342; Roald 
Amundsen 346; Shakespeare's birthplace 354; Wallace Monument 368; 
Ellen's Isle 369; Bison 232; Luther Burbank 235; San Gabriel Mission 
241; Gatun Lock 250; Anne Llathaway's cottage 355; Stirling castle 
367; Highland home 373; Blarney castle 376; Nuremburg 387; Milk- 
ing goats 411; Constantinople 473; Threshing in Greece 479; The 
Kremlin 483; Sacred Ganges 501; Taj Mahal 502; Faneuil Hall 7; 
Longfellow's home 9 ; Skyscrapers 25 ; West Point 39 ; Pittsburgh 61 ; 
Hauling ammunition 71; Capitol 87; Congressional Chamber 88; White 
House 91; Congressional Library 95; Lookout Mountain 114; Cotton 
119; Cliff dwellers' palace 205; City of Mexico 282; Incan palace 331 
Tower of London 349; Westminster Abbey 350; Rydal Mount 362 
Burns' cottage 372; Notre Dame 425; Cathedral 429; Alhambra 436 
Gibraltar 439; Rome 450; St. Peter's Cathedral 451; Coliseum 452 
Mount Vesuvius 453; Neapolitan team 454; Tenement district 455 
Florence 456; .Grand Canal 457; Cathedral 458; Danube Canal 462 
Vienna 463; Andrassy Strasse 464; Serajevo 466; Czerna-Voda 470 
Galata Bridge 472; Athens 475; Excavators 477; Temple of Zeus 478 
Petrograd 482; Damascus 493; Warsaw market 485; Mount of Olives 



264 ENGLISH COMPOSITION 

495; Nazareth 497; Howrah Bridge 500; Jumma Mosque 503; Nankow 
Pass 524; Rice fields 527; Manila 547; Alexandria 558; Suez Canal 
559; Nile 564; Sphinx 565; Egypt 566; Colossi 567; Karnak 568; Army 
Transports 580. For additional subjects see Geographical classification. 

PUTTING YOUR READER THERE 

Making another see and feel what he would see and feel if he were 
present at a certain place at a certain time, is not easy, especially if 
you depend upon words. Nevertheless, the pupils will enjoy trying to 
picture a few of the scenes. Warn them to use concrete specific words. 

Suggested Subjects: Unloading logs 1; Charming landscape 38; 
West Point 39; Palisades 51; June Carnival 72; Washington 93; Mt. 
Vernon 96; Blue Ridge Mountains 102; Marshall Joffre 146; Draining 
land 161 ; Sioux Indians 182 ; Broncho corral 188 ; Indian family 204 ; 
Wild elk 189; Yellowstone 191; Angel Terrace 192; Illecillewaet 
Glacier 275; Mt. Sir Donald 276; Tower of London 349; Oranges 238; 
Ostriches 239; Pigeons 240; Chilcoot Pass 243; Placer mining 245; 
House of Lords 352; Submarine 242; Zeppelin 394; Royal Palace 417; 
Taj Mahal 502 ; Japanese home 533 ; Iroquois Indians 265 ; Stratford on 
Avon 356; Loch Katrine 369; River Rhine 391; Woodcarver 443; Fuji 
Yama 525; Milk cart 396; The Lotefos 407; Spinning 409; Making 
bread 410; Picking oranges 437; Blowing Alpine horn 446; Packing 
goods 449; Neapolitan team 454; Shepherds 480; Bell market 484; 
Dairy maids 487; Ferryboats 507; Elephants hauling logs 509; Picnic 
party 510; Making roads 516; Wheelbarrow train 518; Chinese farmer 
boys 522; Chinese sawmill 523; Gathering tea 530; Drying sardines 531; 
Jap tea house 534; Japanese park 535; Hulling rice 550; Threshing- 
beans 562; Sphinx 565; Shipping ivory 573; Hippopotamus hunt 577; 
Diamond mine 581. 

"HIKING" REPORTS 

Oral or written reports of scenes visited, observation made, and ex- 
periences enjoyed on "hikes" offer a splendid basis for English com- 
position. These stereoscopic views are so vividly real that in studying 
them one may well feel himself a part of the scene. He can thus write 
on the story of the " hike " with all the reality of the actual visit. 
For definite selections for this purpose see topic of Hikes in classifica- 
tion on Outdoor Life. 



BUSINESS LETTERS 

The Keystone " 600 Set " provides scenes which suggest 
business activities in practically every phase of life in all parts 
of the world. The thoughtful study of the stereograph by the 
pupil arouses interest, and stimulates his imagination to deal 
with the subject as though it were a real experience. The ac- 
companying text supplies the necessary facts. The sugges- 



BUSINESS LETTERS 265 

tions herewith given call for letters which direct thought into 
channels of practical application and at the same time furnish 
the basis for an excellent drill in the use of correct English. 

28 World Building. Write a letter enclosing a check or money order 
for a year's subscription to the New York World. 

79 Shipping coal. Write an anthracite coal company in Ashley, Pa., 
and order a carload of anthracite coal (chestnut) to be sent to 
you in August. 

52 Great ocean liners. Write to a steamship company at Hoboken, 
N. J., and ask for a position as wireless operator on one of their 
boats. State age, qualifications, experience. 

47 Loading cantaloupes. A boy's father gave him a piece of land 
upon which he raised Rocky Ford muskmelons. He sold 50 
boxes of the fruit fresh and of standard size to a commission 
merchant in Pittsburgh, Pa. Write the letter in which he of- 
fered the fruit for sale. 

56, 1500 Hens. Write to the Corning Egg Farm, Bound Brook, New 
Jersey, enclosing one and one quarter dollars, for a setting of 
selected eggs. 
Write to the Corning Egg Farm, Bound Brook, N. J., and order 
100 dozen eggs at fifty cents a dozen. Enclose check. 

45 1000 lbs. of butter. Offer to some wholesale dealer in Buffalo, 
N. Y., this 1000 lbs of buttei ."~eshly churned from sweet cream. 
Tell that it will be done up in waxed paper, in cardboard boxes, 
each box containing one pound. 

55 Weaving silk ribbons. Order from Marshall Field Co. (view 139) 
five yards of ribbon like enclosed sample. Also enclose check 
or money order. 

11 Shoe factory. Write to the Lynn Shoe Co., Lynn, Mass., and say 
that you are a skilled shoe cutter, and ask if they have any 
places open in their leather cutting department. 

38, 39 Along Hudson River. Write to a Hudson River Steamboat 
Co. for rates from New York City to Albany. Ask for illus- 
trated booklet and enclose stamps. 

44 Spraying in apple orchard. Write to the Agricultural Department, 
Washington, D. C, and ask what is best to use for spraying 
apple trees in the summer time. 
Send a sample of a diseased apple tree to your state agricultural 
department. Ask what is the matter and what you can do for it. 
Write to a farmer you know saying that you have gone into the 
business of caring for orchards and would like to spray and 
trim his trees. 

58 Firing tableware, Trenton. Write to a pottery company in Tren- 
ton, N. J., and tell them that you received their letter of the 
10th of last month saying that the goods had been shipped. 
Tell them that the shipment has not reached you and ask them 
if they will try to trace it. 



266 ENGLISH COMPOSITION 

60 In the surf, Atlantic City. Write to the proprietor of a great 
hotel in Atlantic City to reserve for you two rooms with 
baths, for the second week in July. You want rooms overlook- 
ing the sea. 
69, 70 Oil well. Write to an oil driller living in Oil City, Pa., and 
ask him what will be the earliest time when he can drill on 
your farm 10 miles north of Oil City. 
2 Wild moose. Write a letter to a guide in Moosehead, Me., 
asking him about arrangements and expenses for a two weeks' 
hunting trip through Maine woods. You wish to hunt in No- 
vember. 
82 Baldwin Locomotive Works. Write a letter to yourself from the 
general superintendent of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, ask- 
ing you to call at his office as soon as possible. 
85 Gathering peaches. Write to a man in Woodside, Del. Ask 
him if he will have any peaches like those he sold you last 
year and if so, how many. 
88 Joint session Congress. Write to your congressman asking for 

some government seeds. 
90 View from State Building. Write to the State Department, Wash- 
ington, D. C, giving your age, stating that you are a natural- 
born citizen of the United States that you wish to go to South 
America, and asking for a passport. 
21 Manufacturing jewelry. Write to a jewelry firm in Providence, 
R. L, asking for designs and prices for class rings. The rings 
are to bear the initials of your school and the year when you 
graduate. 
25, 30 New York. Write to a great hotel in New York City asking 
to have reserved for you an outside room with bath. Give time 
when you will arrive and leave. 
115. Mining phosphate. Order a carload of phosphate from Colum- 
bia, Tenn. 
118 Harvesting peanuts. Your father gave you 100 lbs. of peanuts. 
W r rite a letter to a firm in Little Rock, Ark., offering them for 
sale. 
127, 186 Paloduro and Geneseo ranches. Write to some man on the 
Paloduro Ranch, Palodura, Tex., and offer him a place as 
superintendent of your ranch at Geneseo, Kan. 
130 Tapping maple tree. Offer a commission firm in Cincinnati 150 
gallons of maple syrup. Say that it was made from the first 
run of sap, is of standard weight and of the finest quality, put 
up in gallon tin cans and that your price is $1.50 per gallon. 
Order the syrup to be sent to you by freight. Enclose a check 
for the amount. 
132 Goodrich rubber factory. Ask for a position as bookkeeper in 

the Goodrich Rubber Co., Akron, O. 
138 Percheron draft horses. Write a very nice note requesting some 
one to pay you the remaining $125.00 which he still owes on 
the team of Percheron draft horses which he purchased from 
you on June 12 of last year. 
Write the answer to the above letter. 



BUSINESS LETTERS 267 

142, 144 Packing house scenes. Order from Swift & Co., Chicago, 
111., 500 lbs. of fresh sausage and 1000 lbs. of lard. 

143 Trimming hams. Order from Armour & Co., Chicago, 111., 500 
lbs. ham and eight hind quarters of prime western beef. 

150 Assembling room, automobile plant. Write a note to a man you 

know asking him to set a time when you may call and show him 
an automobile you are selling. 

151 Cadillac automobile plant. Send a note to the Cadillac agent in 

your town telling him that your new machine is not acting right 

and ask if he will send a man to attend to it. 
166 Digging potatoes. Write to a firm in Minneapolis describing 200 

bushels of potatoes and offering them for sale. They are large, 

smooth, of the Early Ohio variety. 
172 Hogs in rape pasture. Your father promised you half the money 

obtained from the hogs on the farm. Write to the agricultural 

department of your state for information concerning the raising 

of hogs. 
Write to your state experiment station for bulletins on same 

topic. 
175 Picking apples. This boy has ten barrels of apples as his own. 

Write to a commission house in Chicago describing variety, 

method of growing, picking, sorting and packing. 
178, 179 Tractors in operation. Write to your agent in Watertown, 

S. Dak., telling him that at the beginning of the next month the 

price of all tractors will advance 5%. 

180 Case tractor. Write to Case Tractor Co., Chicago, 111., for 

catalogues. 

181 Case tractor. Write to Case Tractor Co., Chicago, 111., saying 

wheel on tractor broke and you are sending it to be repaired 
or replaced. 

184 Corn field, Kansas. Write to a real estate firm in Atchison, Kan- 
sas, asking if they know of a good farm for sale. You wish a 
good grain farm. 

184, 136 Corn fields. Write to the director of your corn club saying 
that you planted one acre of corn, doing the plowing, harrow- 
ing, planting, cultivating and harvesting yourself without help. 
Also state that your yield is 125 bushels of shelled corn. 

190 Sheep on range. Offer Cudahy & Co., Omaha, 10,000 sheep de- 

livered at railroad in Grangersville, Ida., Sept. 1. 

191 Yellowstone National Park. Write to Superintendent of Yellow- 

stone Park for trip books. 

198 Cultivating sugar beets. Write to a beet sugar company in 

Greeley, Col., asking prices per ton for raw sugar. 

199 Colorado wheat field. Write' to your agent in Fort Collins, Col., 

asking him to buy and ship to you in Chicago, all the wheat that 
he can get up to 100,000 bu. 
220 Bird's-eye view of Seattle. Write to Traffic Manager of the 
Northern Pacific R. R., Chicago, 111., asking for information 
concerning a trip to Alaska. 



268 ENGLISH COMPOSITION 

234 Harvesting almonds. Write to a commission merchant in San 
Francisco offering 20 sacks of large, thin-shelled almonds for sale. 
236 238 Orange trees. Order from a firm in Los Angeles 100 boxes 
of navel oranges and 50 barrels of Tokay grapes. 

239 Cawston ostrich farm. Order four natural ostrich feathers at 

three dollars each from the Cawston Ostrich Farm, Cal. En- 
close check or money order. 

240 Los Angeles pigeon farm. Send out several letters to people in 

Los Angeles, Cal., saying that you are able to furnish squabs, 
and say that you will deliver them on Wednesdays and Satur- 
days. Describe squabs and state your price. 

264, 265 Quebec; 267 Montreal. Write to Canada steamship lines, 
enclosing 2c postage for map and guide for trip down St. Law- 
rence River from Niagara to Quebec. 

289 Sisal hemp field. Write to your agent in Merida, Yucatan, telling 
him to buy and ship to you 1000 lbs. of sisal hemp fiber. 

310, 311 Sao Paulo coffee scenes. Write to the American Consul in 
Sao Paulo asking information as to coffee crop, prices, etc. 

314 to 321 Argentine views. Write to the President of the Pan- 
American Union, Washington, D. C, asking for pamphlets giv- 
ing information concerning Argentine. 

546 to 551 Philippine views. Write to the Commissioner of Educa- 
tion, Washington, D. C, asking for a position as teacher in the 
Philippines. Give your qualifications and experience. 



19. SPELLING 

By WILLIAM ESTABROOK CHANCELLOR, A.M. 

AUTHOR OF EVENING SCHOOL SERIES, GRADED CITY SPELLERS; 
HOW TO TEACH SPELLING, ETC., WOOSTER, OHIO 

Teachers will find it particularly advantageous to use each 
day for the spelling lesson the stereographs that have lately 
been used in Geography, History, English, Nature Study, etc., 
and thus correlate the various studies and at the same time 
profit by the interest aroused by the views. 

Until a few years ago, there were no spelling books upon 
the market in which the objects were illustrated with all the 
name words presented. Even now, there are no books that 
completely fill this requirement. Yet in the Keystone " 600 
Set," it is possible to find at least one instance in which almost 
every important noun in our language is called for. Very 
many of the familiar action words are also illustrated in these 
views. To a considerable extent, this is true for adjectives 
and for adverbs also. A notable case of associating the word 
with the object named is that of the very large number of 
cities of which views are given. To present spelling in this 
fashion is to convert the mechanical into the living. 

The pupils themselves may build up spelling books for 
agriculture, for geography, for history, for manufacture, for 
commerce, and for many other lines through the use of these 
views with the accompanying descriptions. Making to an 
extent their own textbooks carefully a page or two every 
week is a new device of no small value in training youth in 
initiative, ingenuity and accuracy. 

Especial attention may be called to the pronunciation and 
diacritical marking of many difficult words upon the backs of 
these views. It is, however, advised that in giving the spell- 
ing exercises along the lines previously suggested, syllabica- 
tion and diacritical marking, important in regular spelling 

269 



270 ENGLISH — SPELLING 

lessons, be subordinated to spelling narrowly denned, which 
means getting the letters in their right order in words. 

It may be suggested that letter-writing by one pupil to an- 
other in the same class about these views affords an oppor- 
tunity for practising spelling. Such letter-writing is some- 
times extended between the schools of a city or of a county 
and even to schools at great distances. 

An exercise of this character might be conducted com- 
petitively by a teacher who asked the pupils to pick out their 
favorite view according to the taste of each, and to write to 
him a letter telling what the pupil sees in his chosen picture. 

Before the class that has access to these 600 views, the 
world in its glory and wonder, in its variety and fascination 
lies open. It is a marvelous panorama. To describe it ade- 
quately would involve more than ten thousand words, which 
happen to be several times as many as any boy or girl really 
needs. From view 10 with its inspiration to patriotism to 
view 599, with its revelation of the infinite universe of the 
stars, from the delightful humor of view 522 to the tense, 
grim toil indoors of view 156, from wild life to city crowds, 
from Indians and Patagonians to palaces and thrones, this 
" 600 Set " runs the gamut of human interest ; and there is 
scarcely a word of importance in American speech or litera- 
ture not to be used naturally and logically in discussing at 
least one scene here. No one is ever the master of a word 
until he knows both how to use it and how to spell it. 

Any teacher may take these views and write for each of 
them one by one in the course of a year of teaching from one 
to twenty words, and in the end have a spelling book of at 
least 600 words and for the highest grades perhaps several 
thousand, for every one of which the pupils will have, through 
class use in spelling, a definite correlate in reality. Indeed 
the pupils themselves will make the book, and in the end it 
will be a spelling-book of the highest value to all who have 
made it. 

Moreover, the preparation of such a class book with an 
individual book perhaps not so large, for each pupil will tend 
to keep the views themselves in memory and to make their 
meaning plain and permanent. 



THIRD GRADE — FOURTH GRADE 271 

EXERCISE I 
For Third Grade 

Take view 46, Machine for filling milk bottles and capping them. 
Ask the pupils what they see in it. They may name objects, and 
they may tell of actions in sentences. In part, this will depend upon 
the way of teaching English and other subjects, and in part it will 
depend upon their grade and age. A Third Grade Class might re- 
port somewhat as follows, viz. : 

The men have rubber boots on. 

I see milk in bottles. 

They are wearing white overalls. 

The floor is wet. 

I count four men. 

Also dairy, pipes, boxes, handles, caps, clean. 

These words may then be taught orally, viz. — bot'tle, box' ' es, iloor, 
clean, etc. 

Suggested Subjects: 44 Apples; 294 Bananas; 209 Cactus; 303 
Cocoa ; 302 Coffee ; 72 Daisies ; 236 Grapes ; 237, 238 Oranges ; 85 
Peaches; 118 Peanuts; 108 Pineapples; 137 Pumpkins; 83 School gar- 
den; 571, 289 Sisal hemp; 530 Tea; 110 Alligator; 196 Beaver dam; 
232 Buffalo; 57, 127 Cattle; 565, 564 Camel; 56 Chickens; 13 Codfish; 
279 Eskimo dogs; 509 Elephant; 189 Elk; 583 Gannets ; 216 Geese; 
411 Goats; 183 Hogs; 398 Horses; 588 Kangaroos; 335 Llama; 2 
Moose; 239 Ostrich; 86 Oysters; 584 Penguins; 413 Reindeer; 226 
Salmon; 345 Seal; 173 Sheep; 111 Sponge; 415 Whales. For other 
suitable subjects see group For the Little Folks. 

EXERCISE II 
For Fourth Grade 

Take view 359, A nightingale in its sheltered nest. Talk about this 
richly suggestive scene of the parent bird in the deep thicket of 
leaves, grass and twigs. The nightingale has the most beautiful song 
of all birds. Read part or all of the description upon the back of the 
card. Then ask the pupils to write down all the words that the 
scene suggests and have them read their lists. Girls generally de- 
light in pictures of this kind. A Fourth Grade Class might write 
down all these words, and more, viz. : bird, nightingale, leaves, thicket, 
eyes, grass, twigs, protect, damp, cool, bright, shelter, safe, sing, many, 
love, dark, light, small, parent, deep, mother, father, male, female, 
different, fly, hear, eggs, babies, stems, plain, clear, see, find. From 
whatever words the pupils give, a few may be chosen for drill at the 
end of the exercise, for example: Leaves, shcl'ter, different, clear. 

Suggested Subjects: 1 Log pile; 113 Log cabin; 96 Mt. Vernon; 9 
Longfellow's home; 205 Cliff dwellers; 281 Adobe hut; 214 Miner's 
home; 299 Cuban home; 30 New York; 224 Great tree; 162 Hauling 
logs; 215 Log raft; 216 Sawmill; 3 Granite; 5 Marble; 178 Plowing; 



272 ENGLISH — SPELLING 

179 Tractor; 166 Potatoes; 149 Celery; 270 Sugar beets; 218 Thresh- 
ing; 199 Wheat; 56 Poultry; 57 Dairy; 165 Dairy farm; 159 Dairy 
cattle; 183 Hogs; 185, 140 Cattle; 258 Sugar cane; 302 Coffee; 303 
Cocoa; 105 Rice; 294 Bananas; 236 Grapes; 237, 238 Oranges; 175 
Apples; 108 Pineapples; 190 Sheep; 226, 227 Salmon; 111 Sponges; 97, 
86 Oysters; 292 Corn cakes; 141 to 144 Packing house; 117, 124, 119 
Cotton; 17, 18, 81 Wool; 145 Shearing sheep; 268, 269 Linen; 55, 22 
Silk; 11, 12 Shoe factory; 246, 279 Dog teams; 169 Indian canoe; 42 
Four track R. R. ; 87 Capitol; 88 Congress; 89 Supreme Court; 91 
White House; 92 Cabinet room; 95 Library; 94 Paper money; 266 
Soldiers; 39 Hudson River. For other suitable subjects see group 
For the Little Folks. 

EXERCISE III 
For Fifth Grade 

Take view 83, School gardens as a practical educational method. 
School gardens are helpful in educating boys and girls in raising 
vegetables and fruits. Here we have a scene in Philadelphia that 
shows Boy Scouts and Camp Fire Girls doing garden work. A Fifth 
Grade class might prepare a long list of words to be placed upon the 
blackboard. Go around the class asking each pupil in turn to name 
one word for spelling. The list may include these words, viz. : children, 
plants, hoe'ing, slip' pers, bare' foot, huts, cloaks, poles, to ma'toes, 
rows, boys, girls, kha'ki, beans, peas, white, tan, braids, hair, work, 
liftle, sign, troop, trees, play, cat, paths, wat'ering can, stand' ing, veg'e- 
ta bles, money, save, earn, help, use'ful. 

Erase the list. Repeat the words one by one, and test the pupils 
in oral spelling. Make a note for future use of each word misspelled. 

Suggested Subjects: 7 Boston; 25 New York; 33 Dining room; 38, 
39 Hudson River; 49, 50 Niagara Falls; 56 Poultry; 57 Dairying; 58, 
59 Pottery; 60 Atlantic City; 61 Pittsburgh; 69, 70 Oil; 72 Daisy 
pole; 73 Gettysburg; 74 to 79 Coal; 80 Liberty bell; 84 Government 
mint; 85 Peaches; 86 Oysters; 87 Capitol; 88 Congress; 91 White 
House; 96 Mt. Vernon; 101 Harpers Ferry; 104, 105 Rice; 107 Turpen- 
tine; 108 Pineapples; 110 Alligator; 111 Sponges; 112 Tobacco; 113 Log 
cabin; 117 Cotton; 121 Oklahoma City; 131 to 133 Rubber; 134, 135 
Glass; 138 Horses; 139 Chicago; 140 Stock market; 141 to 144 Packing 
house; 147 Oats; 149 Celery; 150, 152 Automobiles; 153 Salt; 172 
Hogs; 173 Sheep; 182 Indians; 187 Butte; 189 Elk; 191 to 197 Yel- 
lowstone Park ; 210 Roosevelt dam ; 226, 227 Salmon ; 234 Almonds ; 
236 Grapes ; 239 Ostriches ; 240 Pigeons ; 242 Submarines ; 246 Dog 
team; 253 Panama Canal. For other suitable subjects see Index. 

EXERCISE IV 

For Sixth Grade 

Take view 80, The Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, Philadelphia. 
Tell as much of its story as suits the grade and conditions. Ask the 



SIXTH GRADE 273 

pupils to write down whatever words it suggests to them. Call for the 
words, and write upon the blackboard : 1. Those reported by several 
pupils ; 2. Those misspelled ; and 3. Important words within the com- 
prehension of most in the class. From the entire list, select several to 
be carefully studied. These may be taught both orally and in writing. 
A Sixth Grade Class might report these words, viz. : 

1. Liberty, frame, bell, staircase, crack, motto, rang. 

2. Independence, Philadelphia, support, proclaim, inscription. 

3. Freedom, nation, country, exposition, inhabitants. 

The teacher might select these words as being required by the class 
and suitable to learn at the time when the lesson is to be given, viz. : 
liberty, motto, proclaim, country. 

This is enough material for a fifteen or twenty minute lesson; 
longer lessons are not usually profitable. 

Suggested Subjects: 184, 136, 137, 160, 292 'Corn; 357, 199, 177, 233, 
218, 284, 479, 497, 498 Wheat; 147, 408 Oats; 105, 104, 549, 550, 528 
527, 530, 529 Rice; 47, 166 Potatoes; 562 Beans; 137 Pumpkins; 419, 
198, 270 Sugar beets; 332, 333, 258, 35, 34 Sugar cane; 130 Sugar 
maple; 294 Bananas; 237, 238, 437 Oranges; 108 Pineapples; 236, 319, 
390 Grapes; 293 Mangoes; 259 Papaws ; 85 Peaches; 44, 175 Apples; 
234 Almonds; 551 Coconuts; 118 Peanuts; 303 Cocoa; 302, 310, 311, 
295 Coffee; 530, 521, Tea; 285 Pulque; 57, 339, 487, 46 Milk; 45 But- 
ter; 159, 403, 591, 371 Dairy cattle; 411 Goats; 413 Reindeer; 25 to 
31 New York; 80 to 84 Philadelphia; 139 Chicago; 314 to 316 Buenos 
Aires; 348 to 352 London; 383 to 385 Berlin; 421 to 425 Paris; 454 
Naples; 458 Milan; 464 Budapest; 485 Warsaw; 499 Madras; 514 
Hong Kong; 517 Hankow; 520 Pekin; 569 Cairo; 585 Sydney; 586 
Melbourne ; 9 Cambridge ; 21 Providence ; 42 Syracuse ; 48 Buffalo ; 78 
Scranton; 87 to 91 Washington; 116 Birmingham; 119 New Orleans; 
167 Minneapolis; 220 Seattle; 230 San Francisco; 463 Vienna; 482 
Petrograd; 500 Calcutta; 526 Tokyo. For other suitable subjects see 
Index. 

EXERCISE V 
For Sixth Grade 

Take view 501, Pilgrims bathing in the Ganges River, before the 
Temple at Benares. This view also lends itself aptly to oral or writ- 
ten dictation as indicated in the Exercise above. It is also well 
adapted for study according to the method in Exercises I, III and IV. 
The dictation might be something like this, viz. : 

To the Hindoos, the Ganges is a sacred river. Every year, hun- 
dreds of thousands of pilgrims come to its waters to bathe that their 
sins may be forgiven and their diseases cured. At Benares, there is a 
great temple with many steps leading down to the river. Near the 
banks, the water is shallow, and the pilgrims go out upon floats from 
which they jump into the stream for purification. The richer men 
and women keep parasols over their heads to protect them from the 
blazing hot sun. The temples, domes, steps, windows and multitudes 



274 ENGLISH — SPELLING 

make an impressive sight to European observers. This passage is 
suitable for Sixth Grade. 

Suggested Subjects: 370, 317, 358, 589, 127, 186, 301, 185, 140 Beef 
Cattle; 183, 172, 122 Hogs.; 190, 173, 480, 145 Sheep; 577, 578 Hip- 
popotamus; 531 Sardines; 481 Fish market; 345 Seal; 415 Whales; 
117, 124, 125, 119, 286, 14, 15,16 Cotton; 268, 269, 40 Linen; 552, 553 
Manila hemp; 536 to 541 Silk; 74 to 79 Coal; 68 Coke; 378 Peat; 
122, 69, 70, Oil; 115 Phosphate; 116, 65 to 67 Steel; 163, 164, 128, 62 
to 64 Iron; 187, 155 to 157 Copper; 243, 246, 245, 225, 579 Gold; 581 
Diamonds; 512 Gems; 505, 509 Elephants; 103, 543 Charcoal; 107 Tur- 
pentine; 412 Paper; 532 Japanese shoes; 402/403 Wooden shoes; 345 
Skis ; 263 Wigwam ; 92 to 95 Washington ; 37 Newburgh ; 52 Ho- 
boken ; 60 Atlantic City; 106 Savannah; 109 St. Augustine; 126 San 
Antonio; 128, 129 Conneaut; 148 St. Louis; 149 Kalamazoo; 156 Calu- 
met; 176 Joplin; 212 Salt Lake City; 213 Ogden ; 242 San Diego; 267 
Montreal; 281 to 283 Mexico; 308, 309 Sao Paulo; 312, 313 Monte- 
video; 324 Santiago; 326, 327 Valparaiso; 365 Edinburgh; 380. Dublin; 
381 Belfast; 387 Nuremburg; 389 Strassburg; 396 Antwerp; 416 
Stockholm; 6 to 8 Boston; 61 Pittsburgh; 152 Detroit; 174 St. Louis; 
347 Liverpool; 386 Hamburg; 393 Cologne; 395 Brussels; 433 Bar- 
celona; 435 Madrid. For other suitable subjects see Index. 

EXERCISE VI 
For Seventh and Eighth Grade 

Take view 296, Wrecked battleship Maine, showing mine explosion 
results. 

There are two useful forms of dictation, one oral when the teacher 
dictates sentences and requires the pupils to write them down a few 
words at a time, the other written when the teacher places the dicta- 
tion upon the blackboard, has the material studied, and then after eras- 
ing, reads the material slowly to the pupils, as they write. For 
Seventh Grade, the latter is a good method for occasional use, while 
the former may be tried for not too long a passage in the Eighth 
Grade or Junior High School. 

The sentences used should not be too complicated nor too long. The 
following form is suggested for the grades indicated : 

Upon February 15, 1898, the battleship Maine was blown up in the 
harbor of Havana, Cuba. Great indignation was immediately felt 
throughout the United States against Spain, which owned the island. 
In the war that followed, our country was successful. But nothing 
was done until March, 1912, when the wreck was towed out of the 
harbor and given an honorable sea burial in deep water. 

Note : We may indicate the name Maine as the name of a ship either 
by printing it in Italic or by quoting it, using punctuation marks, like 
this, " Maine." In writing, we may either underscore the word or quote 
it, as in print. 

Suggested Subjects: 6 Old North Church; 8 Old State House; 9 
Longfellow's home; 10 Lexington Common; 14 to 16 Cotton mill; 22 to 



EXERCISE VII 275 

24 Silk; 25 to 32 New York; 37 Newburgh; 39 West Point; 44 Spraying 
apples; 45, 46, 57 Dairying; 48 Erie Canal; 52 Ocean liners; 56 Poultry; 
60 Atlantic City ; 61 Pittsburgh ; 62 to 64 Iron ; 65 to 67 Steel ; 68 Coke ; 
69, 70 Oil; 73 Culps Hill; 74 to 79 Coal; 80 Independence Hall; 84 
Mint; 87 to 95 Capitol; 96 Mt. Vernon; 100 Hampton Roads; 109 St. 
Augustine; 113 Lincoln's cabin; 117, 119 Cotton; 120 Mississippi Delta; 
127, 186, 185, 140 Cattle ; 139 Chicago ; 141 to 144 Packing houses ; 146 
Marshall Joffre; 154 " Soo " Canal; 170 Keokuk Dam; 176 Zinc; 187 
Copper; 190, 173 Sheep; 191 to 197 Yellowstone Park; 205 Cliff dwell- 
ers; 231 Earthquake; 242 Submarines; 243 Alaska; 249 to 256 Panama 
Canal; 273 Winnipeg; 274 to 276 Glaciers; 290 Mexicans; 296 Battle- 
ship Maine; 325 Nitrate; 328 Indians; 331 Incan palace; 338 La Guaira; 
342, 343 Arctic; 344, 346 Antarctic; 348 to 352 London; 367, 368 Stir- 
ling; 383 to 385 Berlin; 394 Zeppelin; 404 to 406 Copenhagen; 416 to 
418 Stockholm ; 421 to 425 Paris ; 426 Airplane ; 432 Monaco ; 436 The 
Alhambra; 439 Gibraltar; 448 Matterhorn; 450 to 452 Rome; 462, 463 
Vienna; 466 Bosnia; 475, 476 Athens; 482 Petrograd ; 495 Jerusalem; 
502 Taj Mahal; 508 Himalayas; 524 Great Wall, China; 525 Fuji- 
Yama; 546 to 553 Philippines; 558 to 569 Egypt; 579 to 584 South 
Africa; 585 to 589 Australia; 593 to 600 Earth Neighbors. For other 
suitable subjects see Index. 

EXERCISE VII 

The purpose of this exercise is to arouse in the pupils a desire to 
accumulate a vocabulary. Give each one in the class a different stereo* 
graph. Then let the pupils have five minutes to see which ones are 
able to write and spell the largest number of words suggested by the 
picture that each one has. 

Suggested Subjects for Second and Third Grades: 72 Daisies; 105 
Rice; 110 Alligator; 117 Cotton; 140 Stockyards; 190 Sheep; 204, 263 
Indians ; 226 Salmon ; 229 Trees ; 232 Buffalo ; 239 Ostriches ; 279 Dogs ; 
336 Ecuador ; 341 Baker ; 396 Milk cart ; 398 Horses ; 402 Dutch street ; 
410 Flat bread; 431 Washing clothes; 443 Wood carving; 446 Alpine 
Horn; 507 Ferry boats; 509 Elephants; 522 Plowing; 530 Tea; 531 
Sardines; 533 Japanese home; 542 Peddler. For other suitable subjects 
see Index. 

(For the second and third grades, a variation of this plan would be 
to make teams of three pupils each and see which will win. Put into 
each team at least one pupil who is especially proficient in vocabulary 
and in spelling.) 

Suggested Subjects for Fourth and Fifth Grades: 6 Boston ; 10 Lex- 
ington ; 42 Salt; 50 Niagara Falls; 60 Atlantic City; 71 Prairie 
schooner; 76 Coal; 98, 169, 182 Indians; 108 Pineapples; 127. 186. 548 
Cattle; 130 Maple sugar; 188 Horse ranch; 191 Golden Gate; 194 
Geyser ; 206 Petrified forest ; 209 Desert vegetation ; 215 Lumber ; 218 
Wheat; 231 Earthquake; 236 Grapes; 243 Chilcoot Pass; 246 Alaska; 
290 Mexicanas ; 294 Bananas ; 335 Llama ; 340 Caracas ; 367 Stirling 
Castle; 373 Highland Home; 394 Zeppelin; 413 Reindeer; 426 Air- 
plane ; 439 Gibraltar ; 445 Chalet ; 491 Buffalo ; 505 Elephant ; 514 Hong 



276 ENGLISH — SPELLING 

Kong; 537 Mulberry leaves; 550 Rice; 577 Hippopotamus; 588 Kanga- 
roo. For other suitable subjects see Index. 

Suggested Subjects for Sixth and Seventh Grades: 27 Brooklyn 
Bridge; 44, 175 Apples; 94 Money; 107 Turpentine; 111 Sponges; 113 
Lincoln's birthplace; 117, 119 Cotton; 142 Packing house; 149 Celery; 
168 Indians; 177 Threshing; 184 Corn; 197 Yellowstone Park; 202 Box 
Canyon; 205 Cliff Dweller's Palace; 210 Irrigation; 221 Mt. Hood; 222 
Crater Lake; 249 Isthmus of Panama; 276 Mt. Sir Donald; 288 "Old 
Popocatepetl"; 291, 300 Volcanoes; 325 Nitrate; 349 Tower of Lon- 
don ; 363 Wales ; 366 Highlanders ; 385 Soldiers ; 399 Zaandam ; 421 
Paris; 432 Monaco; 441 Mt. Pilatus ; 472 Constantinople; 483 The 
Kremlin; 496 Jerico Road; 498 Grinding wheat; 528 Rice; 535 Jap- 
anese maids ; 524 Wall of China ; 425 Paris ; 540, 541 Silk ; 546 House- 
boats ; 549 Harrowing Rice ; 576 Victoria Falls ; 582 Capetown. For 
other suitable subjects see Index. 

Suggested Subjects for Eighth Grade or Junior High School: 5 
Marble; 12 Shoes,; 26 New York City; 49 Niagara Falls; 55 Ribbons; 95 
Library; 120 Mississippi Delta; 126 Alamo Plaza; 131, 132, 133 Rubber; 
135 Glass; 156 Copper; 180 Tractor plowing; 195 Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park; 207 Grand Canyon; 219 Mt. Ranier; 242 Submarines; 252 
Panama Canal; 275 Glacier; 281 Adobe hut; 330 Cofa Bridge; 348 
London Bridge; 353 Greenwich; 354 Shakespeare's birthplace; 365 
Edinburgh; 407 Lotof os ; 414 Midnight sun; 417 Stockholm; 444 Lau- 
terbrunnen Valley; 450 Rome; 452 Coliseum; 457 Grand Canal; 458 
Milan; 475 Athens; 477 Corinth; 504 Jaipur; 502 Taj Mahal; 506 
Srinagar; 508 Himalayas; 511 Colombo Harbor; 516 Road making; 
554 Guam; 568 Karnak; 599 Meteor. For other suitable subjects see 
Index. 

These have been chosen because they appear to offer in each case 
a large number of opportunities to present nouns and adjectives learned 
from the studies in preceding grades. 

EXERCISE VIII 

There are many cards that may be use* in pairs, in trios and even 
in larger combinations for spelling lessons. The scenes and individual 
objects in these grouped cards suggest by their likenesses and differ- 
ences many words for spelling. One exercise might be this, viz. : 

Make teams of a considerable number of boys or girls each ; assign 
to them places at the blackboard, and hand to each team a pair or trio 
of cards with the same general subject for the cards in each group; 
and see which set of pupils can write the longest list of words in a 
given period of time, say five minutes; with only words correctly 
spelled to be counted. 

This exercise can be extended by having the pupils upon the previous 
day make their own pairs or trios of cards to be upon the same gen- 
eral subject, as for example: 
49, 50 Niagara Falls. 
49, 50, 197, 225, 228, 318, 407, 444, 576 Water falls. 



EXERCISE VIII 277 

See the Index for other combinations. 

Of course, to be fair, each group should be allowed the same num- 
ber of cards; and it may be wise to draw lots to see which set of 
cards comes to each group of pupils. 

Other views likely to arouse much interest in spelling are these, viz. : 
67 Steel; 84 Mint; 87 Capitol; 122, 123 Oil; 144 Meat; 150 Automo- 
biles; 161 Ditching; 162, 216 Lumber; 163 Iron; 170 Keokuk Dam; 175 
Apples; 176, 225 Mining; 178 Plowing; 179 Harrowing; 189 Elk; 228 
Yosemite Valley; 230 San Francisco; 244 Fish; 257 Porto Rico; 261 
Hula Girls; 306 Children; 324 Santiago; 328 Indians; 339 Milk; 342 
Greenland; 343 Eskimos; 372 Burns' Cottage; 376 Blarney Castle; 390 
Grapes; 397 Namur; 412 Paper; 419 Sugar beets; 424 Paris; 425 Notre 
Dame; 453 Vesuvius; 456 Florence; 479 Threshing; 484 Bells; 487 
Milk; 492 Beirut; 495 Jerusalem; 497 Palestine; 543 Charcoal; 585 
Soldiers; 586 Melbourne; 594 Moon. For other suitable subjects see 
Index. 

In general, every view in the " 600 Set " may be profitably and in- 
terestingly used as the basis of a spelling exercise of some kind. In 
the case of many of these views, tests show that several ten-year pupils 
were able to prepare a list of over one hundred words for each of a 
dozen views within a period of five minutes. 

There are very many ways to teach spelling beside those in the 
spelling books. The process may be turned about in using these views 
by asking pupils to find stated objects in the scenes — for example, 306 
shows the object balustrade — then spell or write the word. 



20. BIOGRAPHY 

By CHARLES H. McCARTHY, Ph.D. 

DEAN OF THE SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY, AND KNIGHTS OF 

COLUMBUS, PROFESSOR OF AMERICAN HISTORY, CATHOLIC 

UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

By biography is here meant the lives of noteworthy persons. 
This department of literature, which is quite distinct from 
history, is both ample in scope and important in content. For 
youthful readers its benefits are obvious. These may be no- 
ticed under two heads, namely, form and subject matter. If 
in the scheme of education the paramount objects are the cul- 
tivation of expression and the formation of character, the 
study of biography will greatly contribute to those ends, for in 
reading the lives of great men one sees a record of actions that 
are to be avoided and a report of exploits that are worthy of 
imitation. 

The foregoing observations are well illustrated by the Key- 
stone Views. A picture of Sunnyside or a scene on the 
Hudson at once suggests Irving, an author who has given 
Americans two splendid biographies, namely his " Life of 
Columbus " and his " Life of Washington." If one is inter- 
ested in literary art, the form of these biographies, while not 
faultless, is admirable. He who is learning to write will find 
Irving an excellent model for imitation. 

In' the Burns' house at Ayr there is no suggestion of luxury 
or scarcely of comfort. In the view one gets the impression 
of sordid surroundings. Neither at Ayr nor Massgiel is there 
much to attract the muses, yet Robert Burns was one of the 
greatest of lyric poets. What if his landscape often looked 
dark and dreary, there was always the sunshine of the heart. 
Men of genius are not only superior to discouragement but 
even in seasons of tempest they create an atmosphere of never 
fading summer. 

In a life of Burns the student will learn that in his labors 
in sterile fields the poet followed the plough tail or swung the 
scythe thinking of good verses or of spirited prose which only a 

279 



280 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY . 

short time before he had read. The youth or maiden who 
carries in his pockets a volume of good poems, as Burns gen- 
erally did, will improve in taste, in expression, and in ethics. 

But while poetry and history stimulate the imagination and 
refine the feelings, a study of the lives of great men will serve 
to make clear the causes of material as well as spiritual prog- 
ress. American boys and girls should become familiar with 
the lives of the great men connected with the discovery and 
colonization of the New World, with the development and 
independence of the English colonies which became the United 
States, and with the remarkable growth of that favored Re- 
public. 

No American should be unfamiliar with the main facts in 
the life of Columbus, Calvert, Washington, Lincoln, Penn, 
Franklin, Hamilton and Jefferson, Marshall and Webster and 
our other noted men. 

It is in the study of biography that we find out what it was 
that distinguished Columbus from Cabot, in what respect 
Washington was different from the other patriots of seventy- 
six, and why Lincoln overshadowed the truly great men of the 
era of the Civil War. Differences there were between the 
greatest and the great, and these appear in the record of their 
lives. 

THE NEW WORLD 

Abbott, Lyman, preacher and editor, 1835 — . Born in Boston (6 to 
8). Home and seat of greatest activity, New York City (25 
to 31). 

Adams, John, second President of the United States, 1735-1826. 
Active in the events which led up to the Revolution; attended 
meetings in Faneuil Hall, Boston (7) ; acted as lawyer to de- 
fend the British soldiers implicated in the Boston massacre 
which took place in the street before Old State House (8); 
seconded the Declaration of Independence and signed it when 
passed (80 Old Liberty Bell, Independence Hall); represented 
the United States in Holland (399 to 403) in 1782 and was Min- 
ister to England (348). He was Minister to France. In Paris 
(421) 1783, signed the treaty which ended the American Revo- 
lution; took the oath of office as Vice-President of the United 
States in 1789, while standing on the balcony of the old federal 
building which stood where the United States Sub-Treasury in 
New York now is (29) ; was the first President to occupy the 
White House (91). 



THE NEW WORLD 281 

Adams, John Quincy, sixth President of the United States, 1767- 
1848. He was appointed Minister to Holland (399 to 403) in 
1794; in 1797 became Minister to Berlin (383 to 385); in 1803 
became a United States Senator (87); under President Madi- 
son was Minister to Russia (482); in 1815 was made Ambassa- 
dor to England (348 to 352) ; in 1817 became Secretary of State 
(92) under Monroe and formulated the Monroe Doctrine; in 
1825 was elected President of the United States (91); from 1830 
to the end of his life was a member of the lower house of Con- 
gress (87, 88). Here he preserved the right of petition, the 
greatest work of his great life. 

Adams, Samuel, American statesman, 1722-1803. He was a secre- 
tary of the Massachusetts Colonial legislature which met in 
the Old State House (8) and opposed the Townshend Acts. 
While here he drew up the famous circular letter. He pre- 
sided over the town meeting which met in Faneuil Hall (7) 
after the Boston massacre (8) and carried its ultimatum to 
Governor Hutchinson. When Gen. Gage sent British troops 
to Lexington (10) on the 18th of April, 1775, it was to arrest 
the " traitors," John Hancock and Samuel Adams, who had 
taken refuge there, as well as to seize the powder. He was a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence (80 Liberty Bell, 
Independence Hall); was a member of Congress which met in 
the old federal building in Wall Street (29); from 1794 to 1797 
was Governor of Massachusetts (8). 

Armour, Philip D., American manufacturer and capitalist, 1832- 
1901. In 1863 he became a partner in a pork-packing business 
(143). This picture, taken in the Union Stock Yards, suggests 
but a small part of their business (140). 

Arnold, Benedict, American Revolutionary general and traitor, 
1741-1801; was wounded in a brave attack on Quebec and 
forced to withdraw (264) ; was given command of Philadelphia 
(80) where he earned the reprimand which so greatly embit- 
tered him; plotted to surrender West Point (39) to the Brit- 
ish; spent his last days in London (348, 349, 352). 

Balboa, Vasco Nunez de, Spanish explorer, 1475-1517. From a 
mountain top in the Isthmus of Panama, Sept. 25, 1513, Balboa 
obtained the first sight of the Pacific Ocean (256). 

Bancroft, George, American historian, 1800-1891; was made col- 
lector of the Port of Boston by President Van Buren (6, 7, 8); 
while Secretary of the Navy (92) under President Polk, the 
Naval Academy at Annapolis was established; ordered the 
American fleet to seize California (228 to 242) if hostilities 
witli Mexico should break out; as acting Secretary of War, 
ordered United States troops into Texas (122 to 127); in 1846 
to 1849 was Minister to Great Britain (347 to 362). He lived 
several years in New York (25 to 31). In 1867 he was Minister 



282 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

to Prussia; in 1868 to the North German Confederation; and 
in 1871 to the New German Empire (383 to 385). 

Blaine, James G., American statesman and author, 1830-1893; born 
in Pennsylvania; member of Congress, first in the House 
where, for six years he was Speaker, later a Senator (87, 88); 
Secretary of State under President Garfield and also under 
President Benjamin Harrison (92) ; in 1884, ran for President 
but was defeated (91). Blaine's "Twenty Years in Congress" 
was a valuable contribution to our historical writings. 

Bolivar, Simon, South American statesman and lover of freedom, 
1783-1830. Caracas was the native city of Bolivar (340) ; in 
1815 he was forced to retire to Jamaica (301); in 1819 was Presi- 
dent of what is now Colombia (337) and Venezuela (340, 341), 
having driven out the Spanish; freed Ecuador in 1822 (336); 
in 1822, drove the Spanish from Peru (329, 330, 331). A part 
of the country under the name Bolivia (335) in honor of Boli- 
var, separated from Peru. 

Borden, Right Honorable Robert Laird, Canadian statesman, 1854 — . 
Premier of Canada (262 to 277). 

Brooks, Phillips, Episcopal Bishop of Massachusetts, 1835-1893; was 
born and died in Boston (6, 7, 8). 

Bryan, William Jennings, American statesman and orator, 1860 — . 
The farm home of Mr. Bryan (181) is near Lincoln, Neb. He 
was a member of Congress (88) from 1891 to 1895; ran for the 
presidency three times (91) and was defeated; member of 
Wilson's cabinet (92) up to the time of the trouble with Ger- 
many. 

Butler, Benjamin Franklin, American soldier, 1818-1893; in com- 
mand of New Orleans (119) after it was captured by Union 
forces in 1862; in 1864 was in command of New York City (25 
to 30) ; later was a member of Congress (87, 88) ; died in 
Washington (90). 

Calhoun, John C, American statesman, 1782-1850; served first as a 
United States Representative and later as a United States Sen- 
ator, won great honor and fame in Congress (87, 88) ; was 
Secretary of War and later Secretary of State (92) ; as Vice- 
President he presided over the Senate; resigned the vice- 
presidency to become an active Senator (87) ; worked earnestly 
for the annexation of Texas (122 to 127). 

Carnegie, Andrew, American capitalist and founder of libraries, 
1837 — . Is a native of Scotland. Early in his career, he was 
interested in oil (69, 70) ; amassed a great fortune in the steel 
industry in Pittsburgh (62 to 67) ; is very philanthropic. 

Champlain, Samuel de, French explorer in America, 1567-1635; be- 
tween 1591 and 1601 visited the City of Mexico and Spanish 
America and suggested to the French king a canal across 
Panama (282, 291, 294, 248, 256) ; in 1603 explored the St. Law- 
rence River to the Lachine rapids (263 to 267) ; on July 3, 



THE NEW WORLD 283 

1608, began to lay the foundation of Quebec (264 to 266); 
spent part of each year in Paris and there married (421 to 425); 
in 1611 established a trading post on the site of Montreal 
(266) ; made many exploring excursions, discovered Lake Cham- 
plain, saw Lake Huron and the Niagara Falls (49, 50) ; on 
Christmas day, 1635, died in Quebec (264). 

Clay, Henry, American statesman and orator, 1777-1852; Represen- 
tative from Kentucky; four terms Speaker of the House (88) 
Senator from Kentucky; won the name, " the great compro 
miser" (87); defeated for the presidency three times (91) 
Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams (92). 

Cleveland, Grover, American statesman and President, 1837-1908 
in 1860 was mayor of Buffalo (48) and in 1870 sheriff of the 
county; in 1882, was Governor of New York State (25 to 50) 
next a lawyer in New York City (25 to 31); President of the 
United States (91) in 1884 and again in 1892; sent United States 
troops to settle a railroad strike in Chicago (139); withdrew 
from the Senate the Hawaiian annexation treaty and that 
country remained independent (259 to 261); asserted the Mon- 
roe Doctrine in the Venezuela boundary dispute (338 to 341). 

Columbus, Christopher, Italian navigator, discoverer of America, 
1451 ?— 1506. He followed the court of Ferdinand and Isabella 
to Granada (436) and was present when that city surrendered 
to the Christians; in his first voyage he discovered Cuba (295 
to 299) where he landed on Oct. 26, 1492; returned to Spain to 
the court which was then at Barcelona. There is today a great 
monument to Columbus in Barcelona (433). On his third voy- 
age, he discovered South America and skirted along the coasts 
of Venezuela (338); in his fourth journey, sailed along the 
coast of Central America (293, 294); touched at Jamaica (301) 
where his vessels had to be beached. Columbus died in Spain 
and his body was buried in Santo Domingo. In 1796, his re- 
mains were transferred to Havana (295, 297). 

Cooper, Peter, American philanthropist, 1791-1883; worked and won 
wealth and fame in New York City (25 to 31) ; built the first 
American locomotive, a very rude little contrivance, very un- 
like the one in this picture (43). 

Cortez, Hernando, Spanish conqueror of Mexico, 1485-1547; came 
into this harbor and called the place Vera Cruz (280) ; con- 
quered the entire country of Mexico (283); ancient Aztecs 
worshiped their gods on pyramids (284, 288). 

De Soto. Hernando, Spanish adventurer and explorer. 1500-1542; 
in 1514 explored the Isthmus of Panama (247, 248, 256); in 1528 
explored the coasts of Guatemala and Yucatan (291, 289) ; was 
in Pizarro's expedition in Peru (331); governor of Florida and 
Cuba (108 to 111. 295 to 299); on May 12, 1539. sailed from 
Havana harbor (295); was buried in the Mississippi River and 
his men succeeded in reaching its mouth (120). 



284 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

Dewey, George, American Admiral and the hero of Manila Bay, 
(1837-1917). A United States warship, such as made up the 
fleet commanded by Admiral Dewey (254). At the outbreak 
of the Spanish-American War, Admiral Dewey sailed from 
Hongkong (513, 514) to Manila- (546, 547); his attack on Manila 
was the first in the chain of events which resulted in the acqui- 
sition of the Philippines by the United States; lived in Wash- 
ington (90) serving on various boards connected with naval 
affairs. 

Diaz, Porfirio, Mexican general and former President of Mexico, 
1830-1915. Chapultepec Castle, the President's residence for 
twenty-four years (283). The capital of Mexico which sur- 
rendered to Diaz in 1867 (282). Tvpical Mexicans under Diaz 
(281, 284, 285, 290). Died July 2, 1915, in Paris (421 to 425). 

Drake, Sir Francis, English courtier, naval officer and explorer, 
1540?— 1596; made many voyages to the West Indies (295 to 303), 
several being plundering expeditions; crossed the Isthmus of 
Panama and saw the South Sea, praying that he might " sail 
an English ship on that sea" (247, 248, 256); entered the Rio 
de la Plata (314); sailed through the Strait of Magellan (328); 
entered the harbor of Valparaiso (326) and destroyed Spanish 
ships; rounded the Cape of Good Hope (582, 583, 584); is said 
to have been the first man to bring to England the potato 
(166) and tobacco (112). 

Eliot, Charles William, American educator and writer, President 
Emeritus of Harvard University, 183-1 — ; born in Boston and 
his life was closely, associated with that city (6, 7, 8). 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, American poet and philosopher, 1803-1882; 
born in Boston. Many of his lectures were given there (6, 
7, 8). 

Endicott, John, American Colonial Governor of Massachusetts, 
1588-1665; Governor of Massachusetts in Boston (6, 7, 8). 

Evans, Robley Dunglison, United States admiral, 1846-1912. After 
his father died he went to live in Washington (90, 93) with his 
uncle. Upon his recommendation, steel was adopted for the 
construction of United States vessels (100, 242, 254); spent 
some time in the mills at Pittsburgh, Pa. (61 to 67) testing 
and inspecting steel. In 1891 in command of the Yorktou'n in 
Valparaiso Harbor (326, 327), he demanded an apology from 
the Chilians within twenty-four hours or he would fire; the 
apology came and he got the name " Fighting Bob Evans "; 
he was in command of one of the ships in the battle of San- 
tiago (299); was put in command of the American fleet on its 
trip around the world (585); left Hampton Roads (100) on 
Dec. 12, but because of illness retired when the fleet reached 
San Francisco (230). 

Farragut, David Glasgow, noted American admiral, 1801-1870; on 
Feb. 21, 1862, sailed out of Hampton Roads (100); on the night 






THE NEW WORLD 285 

Of the 23d of April, 1862, broke through the obstructions and 
ran up the Mississippi River to New Orleans (119), which sur- 
rendered April 25. 

Ford, Henry, American manufacturer, 1863 — ; went to Detroit in 
1887 and organized the Ford Motor Company in 1903; now has 
20,000 employees (152); in Pecember, 1915, organized the " peace 
expedition " which went to Stockholm (416 to 418) and Copen- 
hagen (404 to 406) but had no results. 

Franklin, Benjamin, American statesman, diplomat and philosopher, 
1706-1790. Old as these buildings are, not one of them was 
standing when Benjamin Franklin ran away from Boston in 
1720, yet he took a large part in the struggle for freedom with 
which these buildings were associated (6 to 8). In 1762 he 
was sent to England (348 to 352) on behalf of the colonies to 
oppose the Stamp Act and other oppressive legislation; mem- 
ber of the Second Continental Congress and signed the Dec- 
laration of Independence (80 Liberty Bell in Independence 
Hall); in 1776 Minister to France and succeeded in making an 
alliance with that country; also helped to make the Treaty of 
Paris (421 to 425) which ended the Revolutionary War; in- 
vented the lightning conductor and made many discoveries in 
electricity (159, 165). 

Fremont, John C, American explorer, general and statesman, 1813- 
1890; born in Savannah (106); made four expeditions to Cali- 
fornia and Oregon (221 to 242) and planted the American flag 
on the Pacific Coast; served as Senator from California (87); 
was Governor of Arizona (206 to 209). 

Fuller, Melville W., Chief Justice of the United States, 1832-1901; 
was a prominent lawyer of Chicago (139); made Chief Justice 
of the United States Supreme Court (89) by President Cleve- 
land; in 1899 went to Paris (421 to 425) as a commissioner to 
settle the dispute over the boundary between Venezuela and 
British Guiana. 

Fulton, Robert, inventor of steamboat, 1765-1815. At the age of 
twenty-two, Fulton went to London (348 to 352) to study paint- 
ing; spent seven years in Paris (421 to 425). While here he 
invented a submarine which French, British and American 
governments refused to adopt; in 1806 returned to New York 
(25 to 30); in 1807 launched the Clermont on the Hudson 
(39). 

Funston, General Frederick, American soldier, 1865-1917; in 1890 
special agent for the Department of Agriculture (93) ; accom- 
panied expeditions to Alaska (243 to 246) and the British 
Northwest (274 to 276); in the war with the Filipinos he cap- 
tured Aguinaldo (546 to 553); in 1914 commanded the expedi- 
tion which took Vera Cruz (280) ; in 1916 was with the Amer- 
ican army on the Mexican border (126, 211). 

Garfield, James Abram, President of the United States, 1831-1881; 



286 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

member of Congress (87, 88); President of the United States 
(91). 

Garrison, William Lloyd, noted American, abolitionist, 1805-1879; 
was dragged through the streets of Boston (6 to 8) by a mob 
that threatened his life because of his anti-slavery utterances. 
Negroes for whose freedom he spent his life's work (111, 117, 
118). 

Goethals, George Washington, American major general, army en- 
gineer, builder of the Panama Canal, 1858 — ; born at Brooklyn 
(27); in 1880 graduated from West Point and in 1885-1887 was 
assistant professor of military engineering (39) ; in 1907 took 
charge of the canal zone (247 to 256) and when the canal was 
completed was its first civil governor; in 1916 was chairman 
of commission to hear and pass on questions arising between 
railroad employers and employees (43, 129). 

Gordon, Rev. Chas. W. (Ralph Connor), American preacher and 
author, 1860 — . Scenes in the Rocky Mountains (274 to 277) 
where Connor did mission work and about which he wrote. 
Winnipeg (273) where he is a minister of the Presbyterian 
Church. 

Gorgas, William Crawford, Major General, American expert on 
sanitation, 1854 — ; from 1898 to 1902 chief sanitary officer of 
Havana (295); from 1904 to 1913 had charge of sanitary ad- 
ministration in Panama (247 to 256), exterminating yellow 
fever and bubonic plague and reducing typhoid and malaria 
over 50%. 

Grant, Ulysses Simpson, American general and 18th President of 
the United States, 1822-1885; educated at West Point (39); 
served in the Mexican War (280, 283). On Nov. 24, 1863, Gen. 
Hooker, under Gen. Grant, seized the top of Lookout Mountain 
(114). Grant's presence at Chattanooga inspired the Union army 
with boundless enthusiasm. Down this avenue (90) his victorious 
troops marched at the end of the war. He became Secretary 
of War (92) under President Johnson. He served two terms 
as President (91). 

Hamilton, Alexander, American statesman and financier, 1757-1804; 
educated in New York (25 to 30) ; on July 6, 1774, attended a 
great meeting in the fields (now City Hall Park) (28) and made 
an impassioned speech which brought him into notice; was 
with Washington at Newburgh (37); was a member of Con- 
tinental Congress meeting in old Federal Hall, New York, and 
served as Secretary of the Treasury under Washington (29); 
vigorously supported the constitution under which our govern- 
ment now works (87 to 93); while Secretary of the Treasury 
he advised and effected the purchase of West Point (39); un- 
der him the mint in Philadelphia was established (84). 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, American author, 1804-1864; held a posi- 
tion in the Customs House at Boston (6, 7, 8); President 



THE NEW WORLD 287 

Pierce made him consul to, Liverpool (347) ; made many visits 
to the Lake District, England (361, 362) ; in Italy, especially 
in Rome (450 to 459) he found the material for " The Marble 
Faun." 

Hay, John, American statesman, diplomat and author, 1838-1905; 
private secretary to President Lincoln (91); was secretary of 
the United States Legation in Paris (421 to 425) and Charge 
d'Affaires in Vienna (462, 463); Ambassador to England (348, 
349); was First Assistant Secretary of State under President 
Hayes and Secretary of State under Presidents McKinley and 
Roosevelt (92). 

Hoover, Herbert C, American mining engineer, 1874 — . Mr. 
Hoover was the first student to enter Leland Stanford Uni- 
versity. After graduating from the geology and mining de- 
partment he took work in San Francisco (230) under Mr. Lewis 
Janin. His work in mining took him to California (228 to 
242); Oregon (221 to 225); Idaho (190); Wyoming (191 to 197) 
and Arizona (206 to 210). After a few years in Australia he 
was invited to become director of mines in China (513 to 524) 
and was there during the Boxer uprising. As junior partner 
in a London (348 to 352) house from which one of the partners 
stole a million of money, Mr. Hoover insisted that all claims 
should be made good. He was made head of the Belgian 
Relief Service (395 to 398). In August, 1917, was appointed 
United States Food Commissioner (104, 105, 118, 147, 166, 177, 
184, 218, 233). 

Howe, Samuel Gridley, American philanthropist and reformer, 
1801-1876; born in Boston (6 to 8); later devoted his life to the 
education of the blind in that city. Stirred by the poems of 
Byron, he served as a surgeon in the Greek struggle for free- 
dom (475, 480); studied medicine in Paris (421 to 425); in Ber- 
lin (383, 384, 385) engaged in helping Polish refugees he was 
secretly imprisoned for several weeks; was interested in the 
plans of John Brown but disapproved of Brown's raid on Har- 
per's Ferry (101). 

Howells, William Dean, American writer, 1837 — ; in 1861 to 1865 

• consul at Venice (457) ; from 1866 to 1881 editor of the Atlantic 

Monthly in Boston (6 to 8) ; from 1886 he has lived in New 

York (25 to 30) where he became connected with Harpers 

Magazine and did much literary work. 

Huerta, Victoriano, President of Mexico, 1854-1916. Huerta was a 
full-blooded Mexican Indian (285); in 1913 as President in 
Mexico City (282) he arrested half the deputies and dissolved 
the Mexican Congress; then the Americans took Vera Cruz 
(280) and Huerta left for Spain (433, 438); returned to New 
York City (25, 26) ; was arrested trying to return to Mexico 
by way of New Mexico (211). 

Irving, Washington, American author, 1783-1859;" was born in New 



288 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

York and loved to write about it (25 to 31) ; wrote a biography 
of Washington for whom he was named (9, 37, 93). These 
places which he knew and loved so well furnished the back- 
ground for such stories as " Rip Van Winkle," the " Legend 
of Sleepy Hollow," etc. (36, 38, 39). For some time he was 
secretary to the American Legation in London (348 to 352) ; 
from 1842 to 1846 Minister to Spain (435) ; had his home in the 
Alhambra (436) and wrote its history and the legends con- 
nected with it. While in Spain he collected the material for 
the biographies of Columbus and Mahomet. He spent his last 
days at his home on the Hudson River (38) and lies buried 
in the cemetery at Sleepy Hollow (36). 

Jefferson, Thomas, writer of Declaration, third President of the 
United States, 1743-1826; wrote and signed the Declaration of In- 
dependence (80 Liberty Bell, Independence Hall) ; was Secretary 
of State under Washington (92) ; Vice-President from 1797 to 1801 
(87) ; President for two terms (91). Scenes in the Louisiana Ter- 
ritory which was purchased by the United States under Jeffer- 
son (118, 119, 120, 170, 172, 173, 187, 188, 189, 198 to 205). 

Lansing, Robert, American statesman, 1864 — ; lawyer in New York 
City (25 to 31) ; in 1915 became Secretary of State under Presi- 
dent Wilson (92). 

La Salle, Rene Robert Cavelier de, Sieur, French explorer, 1643- 
1687; came to Montreal from France (266); discovered the Ohio 
River (61), at what point is not known; passed up and down 
the Niagara River more than once (49. 50) ; went down the 
Mississippi River (148, 170, 174) in 1682. The Delta was 
reached April 6 and the men, divided into three bands, went 
to the Gulf (120). Ordered to Paris, he was received with 
favor (421, 425). 

Laurier, Sir Wilfred, Canadian statesman, 1841 — ; attended McGill 
University at Montreal (267) ; was a member of Quebec Legis- 
lature in 1871 (264); from 1896 to 1911 was Premier of Canada 
(262 to 277). 

Lee, General Robert E., Commander of the Confederate Army, 
1807-1870; graduated from West Point (39); married the grand- 
daughter of Martha Washington (96); became assistant to the 
chief engineer of the army at Washington (90); took charge 
of the defenses of New York City (25); arranged the batteries 
in the attack of Vera Cruz (280) : at Chapultepec received 
promotion for bravery (283) ; in 1852 was superintendent at 
West Point (39) ; commanded the United States troops which sup- 
pressed the John Brown raid (101); commanded the Confed- 
erate troops at Gettysburg (73). 

Lincoln, Abraham, emancipator of slaves. 16th President of the 
United States, 1809-1865. No man could have had a much humbler 
birthplace than Lincoln's (113). He was once a member of 
the House of Representatives from Illinois (88); was twice 



THE NEW WORLD 289 

elected President (91); his Gettysburg oration was one of the 
great speeches of the world (73); his Cabinet containing Se- 
ward, Stanton, Chase and- Welles was a wonderful collection 
of great men (92). Lincoln, the lover of freedom, even yet 
inspires men of all nations to work and fight for democratic 
ideals (146 Joffre at Lincoln's tomb). 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, American poet and educator, 1807— 
1882. Longfellow's home (9). 

Lowell, James Russell, American poet and educator, 1819-1891; 
Ambassador to Spain in 1877 (435); Ambassador to England 
from 1880 to 1885 (348 to 352). 

Magellan, Fernando de, a Portuguese; was an explorer in service 
of Spain, 1480P-1521; was in Rio Janeiro (305 to 307) in Decem- 
ber, 1519; in February, 1520, reached the entrance to the Rio 
de La Platte (314); was the first European to pass the straits 
which bear his name (328) ; visited various islands in the Philip- 
pines (546 to 553) and there was killed. 

Marshall, John, most famous American jurist, 1755-1835; congress- 
man in the old federal building when the United States cap- 
ital was New York City (29) ; was Secretary of State under 
John Adams (92); by Adams was appointed Chief Justice (89) 
of the United States which position he held thirty-four years; 
refused to become Minister to France but was sent to Paris 
(421 to 425) as a special envoy. 

Maximilian — Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph, Archduke of Austria 
and Emperor of Mexico, 1832-1867; belonged to the royal fam- 
ily of Austria, was placed in Mexico by the French (462, 463). 
Chapultepec (283) was his palace. The people rebelled, Mex- 
ico City (282) was taken and Maximilian was executed. 

McKinley, William, 24th President of the United States, 1843-1901; 
member of Congress (87, 88) ; was elected President, the gold 
standard being the important campaign question (91). On Feb. 
15, 1898, the Maine was blown up in Havana Harbor and this 
brought about the Spanish War (296). Admiral Dewey sailed 
from Hongkong to Manila where he defeated the Spanish, May 
1, 1898 (514, 546, 547). On July 3, the battle of Santiago was 
won by the United States (299). As a result of the Spanish War, 
the United States acquired the Philippines (546 to 553), Guam 
(554), and Porto Rico (257), and Cuba (295 to 299) became inde- 
pendent under United States protection. During the Spanish War, 
he urged the annexation of Hawaii (259 to 261). 

Meade, General George Gordon, 1815-1872; American soldier, in 
command of the federal troops at the battle of Gettysburg 
(73). 

Montcalm de Saint-Veran, de, Louis Joseph, Marquis, French offi- 
cer, 1712-1759; lost his life on the plains above Quebec (264). 

Montgomery, Richard, American Revolutionary general, born in 
Ireland; 1736-1775; led an unsuccessful attack on Montreal 



290 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

(267); with Arnold was repulsed from Quebec hence Canada 
remained an English territory (264, 266). 

Muir, John, American geologist and author, 1838-1914; made care- 
ful study of the Yosemite Valley (228, 229) ; also explored 
Alaska glaciers (243, 244). 

Peary, Robert Edwin, American explorer and discoverer of North 
Pole, 1856 — . After many years succeeded in reaching the 
North Pole (342, 343). 

Pedro II — Dom Pedro de Alcantara, 1825-1891; Emperor of Brazil 
(304, 311) from 1831 to 1889. Died in Paris (421 to 425). 

Pershing, John J., American Brigadier General, 1860 — ; graduated 
from West Point in 1886 (39) ; took part in a Sioux campaign 
in Dakota, 1890, and later was commander of the Sioux Indian 
Scouts (182); was military attache at Tokyo in 1905-06 (526); 
was in the Santiago campaign in the Spanish- American War 
(299) ; was a military commander in the Philippines (546 to 553) ; 
was in command of the troops which pursued Villa in North- 
ern Mexico and of the first American troops that went to 
Europe in the World War, arriving in Liverpool July 8, 1917 
(347). A special train carried him to London (348, 352). On 
July 13, 1917, he, with his army, went to Paris, where they 
were received by a detachment of the French army (421, 426). 
The Avenue des Champs Elysees, down which Pershing went 
to the Place de la Concorde (422). 

Pizarro, Gonzola, 1505?-1548, and Francisco, 1470P-1541, Spanish 
conquerors of Peru. In Panama with Balboa (247 to 256). 
Conquered the Incas. Gonzola Pizarro died in Cuzco (331). 

Poe, Edgar Allan, American poet, 1809-1849; born in Boston (6 to 
8) Jan. 19; entered West Point but was expelled (39); did liter- 
ary work in New York City (25 to 30). 

Ponce de Leon, Juan, Spanish explorer, 1460?— 1521 ; in 1510 was 
made governor and empowered to conquer Porto Rico (257, 
258); in 1513 discovered and explored Florida (108 to 111). 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, English explorer and colonizer, 1552-1618; first 
attempted to colonize America and gave the name Virginia to 
the new country (100, 98); first introduced the use of tobacco 
(112) into Europe; was beheaded after a long imprisonment 
in the Tower of London (349). 

Rankin, Jeannette, American, first female member of Congress, 
1882 — ; born on a cattle ranch in Montana (188); studied music 
in Seattle (220) ; later was a student in the School of Phi- 
lanthropy, New York City (25 to 31). In 1916 she was elected 
member of Congress from Montana (87, 88). 

Revere, Paul, American patriot, 1735-1818. Attended town meet- 
ings in Faneuil Hall (7). Old North Church (6) where the 
signal light was hung. Lexington, toward which he rode, rous- 
ing the minute men on his way (10). Old State House (8) 
where the Massachusetts Assembly resisted the English 
tyranny. 



THE NEW WORLD 291 

Rockefeller, John D., American oil magnate, capitalist and phi- 
lanthropist, 1839 — ; first went into the oil business on bor- 
rowed capital (69, 70); in 1872 organized the Standard Oil 
Company and later the Standard Oil Trust (122, 123); his im- 
mense fortune has given him tremendous influence in the finan- 
cial circles in the United States (29). 

Root, Elihu, American lawyer and statesman, 1845 — ; in 1899, was 
Secretary of War for McKinley; in 1905 on the death of John 
Hay became Secretary of State (92) ; in 1906 attended the 
Pan-American Conference at Rio de Janeiro (305 to 307); vis- 
ited the capitals of many other South American countries and 
helped to create a friendly feeling between them and the 
United States (314 to 316, 324, 325, 340); in 1917 headed the 
United States war commission sent to Russia (482 to 488). 

Roosevelt, Theodore, American soldier, author and 25th President 
of the United States, 1858 — ; born and reared in New York City (25 
to 31) and was police commissioner; in 1882 to 1884 was on a 
ranch in North Dakota (188); from 1895 to 1897 was Assistant 
Secretary of the Navy (90). The navy was ready for the war 
of 1898. With his Rough Riders he took part in the attack on 
Santiago (299) ; when he returned he became Governor of New 
York (25 to 50); as Vice-President presided over the Senate 
(87); on the death of McKinley became President (91); when 
the anthracite miners of Pennsylvania (74 to 79) struck, he in- 
terposed and secured arbitration; in the Boxer rebellion in 
China, sent United States troops which united with English, French, 
Japanese and German troops to rescue their representatives 
who were besieged in Peking (520). Under Roosevelt's orders 
our fleet made a trip around the world (585). In his adminis- 
tration treaties were made and work on the Panama Canal 
(247 to 256) was started. He encouraged reclamation and con- 
servation (210, 224, 232). After his term as President he went 
hunting in Africa and doubtless witnessed scenes similar to 
these (577, 578). On the way home he was entertained by the 
German Kaiser (384), visited Paris (421) and was the especial 
representative of the United States at the funeral of Edward 
VII of England (348). 

Saint-Gaudens, Augustus, American sculptor, 1848-1907; born in 
Dublin, Ireland (380); came to New York City (25 to 31) when 
six months old. Here he studied and here is to be found 
some of his best work. In 1869 he went to Paris (421 to 425). 
Also he studied in Rome (450 to 452). 

Santa Anna, Mexican general, 1795 ?— 1876. In 1822 he was com- 
mandant of Vera Cruz (280); attacked San Antonio and cap- 
tured the Alamo in the war for Texan independence (126); 
was more than once President of Mexico (282); spent many 
years in exile in Jamaica (301), Venezuela (338 to 341), Cuba 
(295 to 299) and the United States. 

Schurz, Carl, American general and author, 1829-1906. Carl Schurz 



292 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

received his early education in Cologne (393); lived in Paris 
as a correspondent for German newspapers (421 to 425); in 
London (347 to 352) was a teacher; participated in the battle 
of Gettysburg (73) ; in 1861 was United States Minister to Spain 
(435) ; was Secretary of Interior for President Cleveland (92). 

Scott, General Winfield, American general, 1786-1866; on April 26, 
1847, captured Vera Cruz (280) ; on Sept. 13, won the battle of 
Chapultepec (283); on Sept. 14, entered the City of Mexico 
(282); ran for the presidency (91) but was defeated; on May 
29, 1866, died at West Point (39). 

Seward, William Henry, American statesman, 1801-1872; in 1849 
was elected Senator of the United States (87); under President 
Lincoln and President Johnson was Secretary of State (92); 
negotiated the treaty for the purchase of Alaska (243 to 246) 
and after retiring from public life visited that country. 

Sherman, General William Tecumseh, noted general, 1820-1891; 
graduated at West Point (39) ; took part in the three days' 
battle at Chattanooga (114); his famous march to the sea 
terminated at Savannah (106). 

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, American poet and banker, 1833-1908; 
war correspondent for the New York World in the Civil War 
(28); secretary to Attorney-General Bates in Washington 
(90); entered Wall Street (29) as a broker and banker. 

Stuyvesant, Peter, last Dutch Governor of New York, 1602-1682. 
The Dutch were attracted to this location by the beautiful 
harbor (25, 26, 27). The Dutch governors allowed the people 
of New Amsterdam no self-government. Stuyvesant was espe- 
cially autocratic (28). This is the older part of New York 
City (29) that was occupied by the Dutch. 

Taft, William Howard, American statesman and 26th President of 
the United States, 1857 — ; the first and probably the best Governor 
sent to the Philippines (546 to 553) by the United States; Secretary 
of War (90) under President Roosevelt and so had charge 
of the beginning of the Panama Canal; was President from 
1909 to 1913 (91); under his administration the Panama Canal 
was largely built (248 to 256). The Payne-Aldrich Bill passed 
by Congress (87) and signed by the President caused wide- 
spread dissatisfaction. 

Tarbell, Ida Minerva, 1857 — . Was associate editor on The Chau- 
tauquan from 1883-1889; studied in Paris (421 to 425) from 
1891-1894; editor on McClurc's Magazine from 1894-1906 and 
since then on the American, living in New York City (25 to 
31); in 1917 was appointed, by President Wilson, a member 
of the Women's Committee of National Defense with head- 
quarters in Washington, D. C. (90); author of "Life of Lin- 
coln" (113, 146) and of the "History of Standard Oil" (122, 
123). 

Taylor, Bayard, American traveler, author and poet, 1825-1878; a 
newspaper man on the staff of the Neiy York Tribune (25 to 



THE NEW WORLD 293 

31) ; as a special correspondent of the Tribune went to California 
during the gold excitement (228 to 242) ; traveled through 
Egypt (558 to 569) and Syria (491 to 494); crossed India from 
Bombay to Calcutta (500 to 508) ; was with Commodore Perry 
when he first entered the ports of Japan (527). His descrip- 
tion of his travels in Norway is one of his most interesting 
books (407 to 412). From 1862 to 1863 he was secretary to the 
American Legation to St. Petersburg and later Charge d' Af- 
faires there (482). He lived many years in Germany, married 
and died there. In 1878 he was Minister to Berlin (383 to 385). 
Verrazano, da, Giovanni, Italian navigator, 1480?-1527; born in 
Florence (456); in 1524 sailed to America with the authority 
of the French king, and was probably the first European to 
enter New York Harbor (25). 
Warren, General Joseph, American soldier, hero of Bunker Hill, 
1741-1775; physician in Boston (6) before the Revolution; took 
part in the meetings at Faneuil Hall which were held by citi- 
zens in protest against British tyranny (7). In this work he 
was closely associated with John and Samuel Adams. In 1775 
he was a member of the Provincial Assembly. Twice he made 
the speech on the anniversary of the Boston Massacre, which 
occurred in front of the State House (8). He contributed 
largely to the success of the Battle of Lexington (10). 
Washington, George, " father of his country " and first President 
of the United States, 1732-1799. This is the home Washington 
loved. Here he lived and died and now lies buried (96). When 
sent to prevent the French from getting possession of the Ohio 
country, Washington built Fort Necessity near the confluence of the 
Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers (61). It was near here, 
too, that the battle between the French and the English under 
Gen. Braddock was fought. When he assumed command of 
the American army before Boston, he made his home in this 
house (9). The Declaration of Independence was a momen- 
tous event in the life of Washington. He was no longer fight- 
ing for his rights under the English government, but for com- 
plete independence (80 Liberty Bell, Independence Hall). He 
made many visits to West Point (38, 39) and conducted cam- 
paigns about the Hudson. Fortunately he was near and 
reached West Point shortly after Arnold's treason. In some 
of the operations about New York, he had his headquarters 
at Newburg (37). It was here he addressed the dissatisfied 
soldiers who suggested making him king. The New York Sub- 
Treasury stands on the site of the old federal building from 
whose balcony Washington took the oath of office (29). In 
his administration, Congress chose the site of the nation's 
capital (90). 
Webster, Daniel, American statesman, 1782-1852. Daniel Webster 
studied law in Boston (6, 8). Later he removed to that city. 
Many times he spoke in Faneuil Hall (7). Served many years 



294 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

in Congress as Representative and later as Senator (87, 88). 
Twice he was Secretary of State (92). He opposed the annexa- 
tion of Texas (122 to 127) and the Mexican War (283). 

Wilson, Woodrow, educator, historian and 27th President of the 
United States, 1856 — ; Governor of New Jersey (51 to 60) ; elected 
to the presidency in 1912 and again in 1916 (91) ; took up the cus- 
tom of reading his messages to Congress (88); in September, 
1916, the Adamson Bill was passed to prevent a strike. The 
President signed it and the Supreme Court declared it consti- 
tutional. It was the beginning of a new policy and an example 
of extreme centralization of power (43, 129, 88, 89). On April 
6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany (383, 384, 385). 
Ruthless submarine warfare was the immediate cause (242). 
The President advocated government control of all resources. 
No other President has taken so much power as has President 
Wilson (184, 166, 177, etc.). Commissions were sent from Eng- 
land and France to help cooperation (146). 

Winthrop, John, first governor of Massachusetts, 1588-1649; re- 
sided in Boston (6 to 8). 

Wolf, James, British general, 1727-1759; killed at Quebec (264). 

Wright, Orville, American inventor of airplanes. 1871 — . (426). 

Wright, Wilbur, co-worker and inventor, 1867-1912. From their 
inventions have come the airplanes in use everywhere today 
(426). 

Young, Brigham, American leader of Mormon Church, 1801-1877; 
in 1840 went as a missionary to Liverpool (347) ; in 1848 he led 
the Mormons to Salt Lake City (212) and selected the site for 
the Temple; in 1849 he was made Governor of the Territory 
of Utah (213). 

THE OLD WORLD 

Abraham, Hebrew patriarch about 2000 b. c; lived a nomadic life in 
Palestine (495, 497, 498). 

Alcibiades, a native and statesman of Athens, 450-404 B.C. (475). 

Alexander the Great, Macedonian general and statesman, 356-323 
b. c. He quickly reduced Greece which rebelled upon his ac- 
cession (476 to 480); greatly admired Athens (475) and sent to 
it some of the spoils of war; conquered Syria (492 to 494) and 
Egypt (561 to 568); founded the city of Alexandria (558). 

Anthony, Mark, member of second Roman triumvir, and general, 
83-30 B.C.; spent most of his life in Rome (450 to 452); listened 
to philosophers in Athens (475); in Egypt (558 to 569) he lived 
with Cleopatra and there died. 

Aristides, a Greek statesman and general, 550P-467 B.C.; was born 
and died in Athens (475). 

Aristotle, 384-322 b. c, the teacher of Alexander; was a philosopher 
at Athens (475). 

Augustus, Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Roman emperor, 63 
b. c-14 a. d. Rome (450 to 452), of which Augustus said, "I 
found the city built of brick and left it built of marble/' Au- 



THE OLD WORLD 295 

gustus made Egypt (558 to 568) a part of the Roman Empire. 
Bacon, Sir Francis, English statesman, Baron of Verulam, philoso- 
pher and author, 1561-1626. Bacon was born in London (348 
to 352) and held many high offices there. He was impeached 
before the House of Lords for having received money for 
grants of offices and privileges (352) and sentenced to £40,000 
fine and imprisonment in the Tower (349) during the pleasure 
of the king. 
Balboa, Vasco Nunez de, Spanish explorer in America. See New 

World Biographies. 
Balfour, Sir Arthur James, English statesman, 1848 — ; was a mem- 
ber of Parliament in 1874 and Prime Minister of England in 
1902 (347 to 352). Was head of an English mission to the 
United States in 1917. 
Beethoven, Ludwig van, German composer, 1770-1827. Beethoven 
was a native of Bonn (392); his early life was spent in Cologne 
(393) ; he studied in Vienna and there lived many years and 
did much of his best work (462, 463). 
Bismarck-Schonhausen, von, Prince Otto Edward Leopold, cele- 
brated German statesman and diplomat, 1815-1898. Berlin (383, 
384) is where Bismarck was educated and had very great in- 
fluence; he was Ambassador to Russia (482); was Ambassador 
to Paris (421 to 425); he built up the German army (385). 
Bjornson, Bjornsterne, Norwegian author, 1832-1910. Copenhagen 
(404 to 406) where Bjornson studied. Paris (421 to 425) and 
Rome (450 to 452) were frequently visited by him. Bjornson's 
writings contain wonderfully real Norwegian people and places 
(407 to 411, 414). 
Browning, Robert, English poet, 1812-1889; long time a resident of 
London (348 to 352) ; spent most of his married life in Flor- 
ence (456); died in Venice (457); buried in Westminster Abbey 
(350). 
Bruce, Robert, deliverer of Scotland, 1274-1329. From such homes 
came many of Bruce's men (373). "Scots wham Bruce hae 
often led" (366). Stirling Castle was a Scottish stronghold 
and near here at Bannockburn Bruce defeated the English 
(367). 
Brutus, Marcus Junius, Roman politician, 85-42 b. c; was born and 
lived in Rome (450 to 452); escaped to Athens (475) after the 
assassination of Caesar. 
Bryce, James, Viscount, British statesman, diplomat and author, 
1838—; was born in Belfast (381); lived in Washington (87 to 
95) as English Ambassador. 
Burke, Edmund, British author, orator and statesman, 1729-1797; 
was born in Dublin (380); contributed largely to the improve- 
ment of t$ie government of India (500 to 507) ; prepared the 
way for the abolition of the slave trade (570, 572, 578). The 
Revolutionary War would never have taken place if Burke's 
policy of reconciliation had been followed (80, 10). 
Burns, Robert, Scotch poet, 1759-1796. Burns' cottage, room where 



296 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

the poet was born (372). Such homes inspired "The Cotter's 
Saturday Night" (373). "Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled," 
wrote Burns (365, 368). He visited Edinburgh (365) where he 
was well received. 
Byron, Lord, George Gordon, British poet and traveler, 1788-1824; 
was born in London (348 to 352); spent much time in Italy 
(457) ; visited and wrote about Constantinople (472 to 474) ; 
espoused the cause of the Greeks in their struggle for freedom 
and died in Greece (475, 470). 
Caesar, Caius Julius, Roman general and statesman, 100-44 b. c. 
Rome still contains many buildings that were there in Caesar's 
time (450, 451). He attended games in the Coliseum (452) 
and there gave great spectacles to win public favor; led his 
army across the Alps into Gaul (427. 428. 441, 444 to 446. 448. 
449) ; captured Marseilles (429) ; spent some time in Egypt 
(558 to 568) where he secured the throne to Cleopatra. 
Calvin, John, French reformer. 1509-1564. Calvin was educated in 
Paris (421 to 425) ; went to Strassburg when expelled from 
Geneva; in this city (389) he married. 
Carlyle, Thomas, British essayist, historian and philosopher, 1795- 
1881; was educated in Scotland, lived and worked in Edin- 
burgh, (365). 
Cato, Marcus Porcius, Roman censor, 234-149 B.C.; lived in Rome 

(450, 451, 452). 
Chamberlain, Joseph, British statesman, 1836-1914; was born in 
London; was a member of Parliament and held high govern- 
ment positions (348 to 352) ; one of the commissioners sent to 
Washington (87 to 91); as colonial secretary was interested in 
the passage of the Australian Commonwealth act (585 to 589) ; 
visited South Africa (579 to 582) after the Boer War. 
Champlain, Samuel de, French explorer in America. See New 

World Biographies. 
Charlemagne, King of Franks and Emperor of Rome, 742-814; was 

crowned in St. Peter's at Rome (450. 451). 
Charles VIII, King of France, 1470-1498. He ruled in Paris (421 

to 425). Took Naples. Ttaly (453, 454). 
Charles XII, King of Sweden, 1682-1718. Capital of Sweden (416, 
417). Besieged Copenhagen (404 to 406); unsuccessfully led 
his army against Moscow (483); fled to Constantinople (472 
to 474) after defeat at Polatva. 
Chephren, Egyptian King, about 2700 b. c; built the second great 

pyramid (565). 
Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 106^3 b. c; celebrated Roman statesman 
and orator; lived in Rome and attended games in the Colos- 
seum (450 to 453). 
Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, 69-30 b. c; ruled in Egypt (558 to 569); 

lived a short time with Caesar in Rome (450 to 452). 
Columbus, Christopher, discoverer of America. See New World 
Biographies. 



THE OLD WORLD 297 

Confucius, Chinese religious teacher, 551-478 b. c. Scenes in China 
where Confucianism is a prominent religion (513 to 524). 

Constantine the Great, Emperor of Rome, 272-337; ruled Rome 
(450 to 452); made Constantinople (472 to 474) capital of the 
Empire. 

Cortez, Hernando, conqueror of Mexico. See New World Biog- 
raphies. 

Cromwell, Oliver, Protector of England, 1599-1658. He became 
ruler of England when Charles I was beheaded in the Tower 
(349). Cromwell interfered by force with the actions of Par- 
liament (352). Jamaica (301) was captured by the English 
under Admiral Penn while Cromwell was Protector of Eng- 
land. 

Dante, Alighieri, Italian poet, 1265-1321; born in Florence (456); 
spent some time in Rome (450 to 452) ; sent on a mission to 
Venice (457) and fell ill when returning. In 1309, he was sup- 
posed to have visited Paris (421 to 425). 

Darwin, Charles Robert, English naturalist and author, 1809-1882; 
attended college in Edinburgh (365) ; made scientific studies in 
Martinique and Jamaica (301, 300) ; made studies of South 
America (307, 304, 321); is buried in Westminster Abbey (350). 

David, Hebrew poet and king, about 1100 b. c. He built Jerusalem, 
"the city of David" (495). Views of the country over which 
David ruled (496 to 498). Damascus, subjugated by David 
(493). 

Demosthenes, Greek statesman, world's greatest orator, 384 or 385- 
322 b. c. Athens (475) where Demosthenes opposed Philip. 

De Soto, Hernando, Spanish adventurer and explorer. See New 
World Biographies. 

Dickens, Charles, English novelist, 1812-1870. London (348 to 352) 
where Dickens lived and whose life he portrayed. He is buried 
in Westminster Abbey (350). » 

Disraeli, Benjamin, Lord Beaconsfield, English statesman, 1804— 
1881; born and died in London (348 to 352); acquired control 
of the Suez Canal for the English (559); proclaimed Queen 
Victoria " Empress of India " (499 to 508) the first time that 
title was used. The Transvaal (579, 580) was annexed by 
England under Disraeli. In 1878 he entered the House of 
Lords (352) as Earl of Beaconsfield. 

Drake, Sir Francis, English courtier, naval officer and explorer. 
See New World Biographies. 

Edward the Confessor, King of England, 1004P-1066; built West- 
minster Abbey (350). It has been remodeled. 

Edward II, King of England, 1284-1327; crowned and deposed in 
Westminster Abbey (350); defeated by Robert Bruce at Ban- 
nockburn (367). 

Edward III, King of England, 1312-1377; crowned in Westminster 
Abbey (350). 

Elijah, Hebrew prophet, about 900 B.C.; warned Ahab the King in 



298 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

Jerusalem (495); the Jericho road (496) along which Elisha 
followed Elijah until he was translated. 

Eliot, Sir John, English patriot, 1592-1632. Tower of London in 
which he died (349). 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, 1533-1603; imprisoned in this tower 
(349) by her sister, Queen Mary. Here also her mother had 
been beheaded. Crowned and buried in Westminster Abbey 
(350). Traitors were hanged from London Bridge (348) in 
Queen Elizabeth's day. Virginia (100) named in her honor. 

Ferdinand, 1452-1516, and Isabella, 1451-1504, King and Queen of 
Spain; took the Alhambra Palace at Granada (436); became 
rulers of Naples (453, 454) in 1504. 

Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria-Hungary, 1830-1917; born at 
Vienna (462, 463). Early in his reign, 1848 to 1849, Hungary 
fought for independence but was defeated. Later the Austria- 
Hungary state was formed (464, 463). Scenes in Lombardy 
which Francis Joseph was compelled to cede to Italy in 1866 
(458, 459). 

Frederick I, surnamed Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, 1121- 
1190; in 1155 marched to Rome and was crowned in St. Peter's 
(450, 451); took Milan twice, the second time he razed the city 
(458). 

Garibaldi, Giuseppe, Italian patriot and soldier, 1807-1882; born at 
Nice, the son of a sailor (431); took part in the struggle made 
by Uruguay (312, 313) against the Argentinean dictator, Man- 
uel Rosas; joined the Revolutionary government at Rome (450 
to 452); he and his wife fled in a small fishing craft to Venice 
(457) and his wife died from the hardship; fled to Tunis (557); 
later lived in New York (25 to 31); in 1860 helped in the re- 
volt of Sicily and entered Palermo (455) ; entered Naples (454) 
with only one or two friends to prove that he. was a liberator, 
not a conqueror. It* is largely through his efforts that Italy 
as a nation was unified (450 to 459). 

Gautama (the Buddha), philosopher and religious teacher of India, 
middle of sixth century. Followers of Buddha bathing in 
the sacred Ganges before the Temple of Benares (501) where 
he began his preaching. Views in India and China where the 
teachings of Buddha have had the greatest influence (499, 500, 
504, 513 to 524). 

Gladstone, William Ewart, English statesman, 1809-1898; born at 
Liverpool (347); as member of Parliament, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, British Premier, he was for nearly half a century 
the greatest man in London (348 to 352). 

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von, German poet, 1749-1832; studied 
law at Strassburg (389) although he lived his life at Weimar; 
Venice (457) and Florence (456) received only short visits, so 
eager was he to reach Rome; remained a year in Rome (450, 
451, 452); also visited Naples (453, 454) and Sicily (455). The. 



THE OLD WORLD 299 

Rhine valley and German people figure largely in Goethe's 
writings (389 to 393). 
Goldsmith, Oliver, British poet, born in Ireland, 1728-1774; at- 
tended Trinity College in Dublin (350); ran away to Cork 
(375) because he was involved in a college riot; in Edinburgh 
(365) studied medicine. The last years of his life were passed 
in London (348 to 352). In Westminster Abbey there is a 
monument to Goldsmith (350). 
Gordon, Charles George (Chinese Gordon), English general, 1833- 
1885; in 1860- took part in the capture of Peking (519, 520); in 
1872 was sent to Bulgaria (468, 469) as British Minister for 
regulating traffic on the Danube; was invited by the Khedive 
to be governor of Sudan (560). He was killed at Khartum. 
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, 1594-1632; born at Stockholm 

(416, 417). 
Hadrian-Publius iElius Hadrianus, Emperor of Rome, 76-138; 
born in Rome (450 to 452) ; made Trajan governor of Syria 
(492, 493); he loved and spent much time in Athens (475). 
Castle of San Angelo was the tomb of Hadrian (451). Visited 
the Colossi at Memnon (567). 
Haig, Sir Douglas, English general, 1861 — ; in 1899 and 1901 was 
in the Boer War in South Africa (580); later held a command 
in India (499 to 508); in the World War has had charge of Eng- 
lish troops in France (426) succeeding General French. 
Hastings, Warren, British statesman, 1732-1818; at the age of 
eighteen he went to Calcutta and later became the first viceroy of 
India (500); served as member of the Council in Madras (499); 
was impeached before the House of Lords (352). 
Henry III, King of England, 1207-1272; rebuilt Westminster Abbey 

. (350). 
Henry VI, King of England, 1421-1471; crowned King of England 
in Westminster Abbey (350); crowned King of France in Paris 
(421 to 425) on Nov. 6, 1429; imprisoned in the tower (349). 
Henry VII, King of England, 1457-1509; crowned in Westminster 
Abbey (350). The coasts of Labrador (278) and Newfound- 
land (279) were discovered by jfohn Cabot in Henry's reign. 
This was the foundation of the English claim on America. 
Henry VIII, King of England, 1491-1547; born at Greenwich (353); 
crowned in Westminster Abbey (350) ; made Wolsey Arch- 
bishop of York (360) and put into his hands almost supreme 
power. The Tower (349) where Anne Boleyn was beheaded. 
Hindenburg, Paul von Beneckendorff und von, German general, 
1847 — . In 1916 Commander-in-Chief of the forces of the Cen- 
tral Powers (385). 
Homer, Greek poet, between 900 and 1100 b. c. Homer described 
the life of the ancient Greeks (475 to 480). His poems were 
the foundation of Greek education. 
Horace, Quintus Horatius Flaccus, Roman poet, 65-8 b. c. Horace 



300 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

lived and wrote in Rome (450 to 452); studied the Greek poets 
in Athens (475). 

Hugo, Victor Marie, French novelist, 1802-1885; spent much of his 
life and died in Paris (421 to 425); lived in Madrid in 1811 and 
1812 (435); fled to Brussels (395) but was later expelled from 
that city; during his exile he lived in Jersey (364). Notre 
Dame Cathedral which plays so large a part in Hugo's writ- 
ings (425). 

Huxley, Thomas Henry, English scientist, 1825-1895. Lived in 
London (348 to 352) where he held position in Government 
School of Mines. Jointly with Tyndall he published a book on 
the movement of glaciers (427, 428, 446). 

Ibsen, Henrik, Norwegian writer, 1828-1906. The Norway he de- 
scribed so wonderfully (407 to 409, 414). Scenes in Rome 
where Ibsen lived a long time (450 to 452). 

Ivan the Great, first Czar of Russia, 1440 ?-l 505. The Kremlin, the 
citadel of Ivan's capital, Moscow (483). 

James I of England and VI of Scotland, 1566-1625; born in Edin- 
burgh (365); in 1603 was crowned King of England in West- 
minster Abbey (350). The settlement of Jamestown was made 
during the reign of James I (100, 98). 

Jesus, 0-33. Jesus grew to manhood in the city of Nazareth (497); 
traveled from Jerusalem to the Jordan, no doubt by the 
Jericho Road (496). "Two women shall be grinding corn. 
One shall be taken and the other left" (498). He was often 
in Jerusalem (495). Lt was in this city he was tried, con- 
demned and crucified. 

Joffre, Joseph Jacque Cesaire, Marshal of France, 1852 — ; in 1915 
had command of both the French and English armies in 
France (426); in 1917 was special representative from France 
to America (146); later, in July, 1917, he welcomed General 
Pershing and the American troops to Paris (421 to 425). 

Joseph, Hebrew ruler. Scenes in Egypt to which Joseph was car- 
ried as a slave and of which he became the ruler (565 to 568). 
Irrigation and farming in Egypt (561, 562, 564). 

Josephus, Flavius, Hebrew hfstorian, 37-? a. d. ; born in and lived at 
Jerusalem (495); after the fall of Jerusalem he lived in Rome 
(450 to 452); Governor of Judea (496 to 498). 

Joshua, Hebrew judge; led the children of Israel into the promised 
land, Palestine (495 to 498). 

Kitchener, Horatio Herbert, Earl Kitchener, British soldier, 1850- 
19115. He was born in county Kerry, Ireland (377, 378); 
served in Egypt (558 to 569) and became second in com- 
mand of the Egyptian army; captured Khartum and conquered 
the Sudan; went to South Africa as Chief of Staff to Lord 
Roberts; was in command of British forces in Boer War (580, 
582); was Commander-in-Chief of the Indian army (499 to 
508) ; in the war with Germany and Austria was lost in the 



THE OLD WORLD 301 

North Sea, his ship being destroyed, doubtless by a German 
submarine acting under orders from Berlin (384, 385). 

Knox, John, Scottish reformer, 1505-1572; preached in Edinburgh 
(365). 

Lafayette, Marquis de, French patriot; aided American Independ- 
ence, 1757-1834; friend of Washington, made a journey to Mt. 
Vernon to show his respect (96); an honored guest in Wash- 
ington (90 to 93, 87); was also warmly welcomed in New York 
(28); died in Paris, 1834 (421). The grandson of Lafayette, 
the Marquis de Chambrun, was one of the French war commis- 
sioners sent to the United States in 1917 (146). 

LaSalle, Rene Robert Cavelier, French explorer. See New World 
Biographies. 

Li Hung Chang, Chinese statesman, 1823?— 1901. Scenes in China 
where he was practically next to the throne (513 to 524). In 
1896 he represented China at the coronation of Emperor Nich- 
olas II of Russia (482, 483); made a tour of the world, visited 
Germany (383 to 385), France (421 to 425), England (347 to 
351) and the United States (87 to 95). 

Livingstone, David, British missionary and explorer, 1813-1873; 
born in a humble Scotch home near Glasgow (373) ; explored 
the Zambesi River (575); discovered Victoria Falls (576). 
Scenes in the region where Livingstone explored and worked 
(577, 578). Buried in Westminster Abbey (350). 

Lloyd George, David, English statesman, 1863 — ; opposed the Boer 
War (580) ; on Dec. 6, 1916, was made Prime Minister of Eng- 
land (347 to 352). 

Louis IX, King of France, 1215-1270; ruled in Paris (421 to 425); 
while on a crusade was captured by Mohammedans in Egypt 
(558 to 569) in 1250; remained in Palestine (495 to 498) until 
1252; went to Tunis (557) on his second crusade. 

Louis XVI, King of France, 1754-1793. Paris (421, 423), capital of 
France and center of the French Revolution. Was marched 
down Avenue des Champs Elysees (422). 

Luther, Martin, German reformer, 1483-1546; writings were burned 
in Cologne (393); made visits to Rome (450 to 452). 

Macaulay, Thomas Babington, English essayist, historian, poet, 
and statesman, 1800-1859; member of the House of Peers (352); 
member of the Council for India (499 to 508). 

Maccabaeus, Judas, Hebrew patriot, second century b. c. ; fought for 
liberty of Jerusalem (495); appealed to Rome (450 to 452). 

Magellan, Fernando de, Portuguese explorer. See New World 
Biographies. 

Marconi, Guglielmo, Italian electrical engineer, 1874 — ; invented 
the wireless telegraph now used all over the world (256). 

Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, 1755-1793; born in Vienna 
(462) ; was taken down the Champs des Elysees (422) to prison 
and death. 



302 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, claimant of English throne, 1542— 
1587. In Stirling Castle (367) Mary when a baby eight months 
old was crowned Queen of Scotland. She was reared in France 
(421 to 425), married to the Dauphin who died in 1560. Edin- 
burgh was Mary's capital. Here she was honored as queen 
and to Edinburgh (365) she was brought as a prisoner; was 
mother of James I. 

Maximilian, Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and Emperor of Mex- 
ico. See New World Biographies. 

Michelangelo Buonarroti, great Italian sculptor, painter and ar- 
chitect, 1475-1564; studied and worked in Florence (456). 
Rome contains much of his best work (450). St. Peter's church 
shows much of his genius (451). In 1529 he fled to Venice 
(457). 

Miltiades, Greek general, died about 489 b. c. Athens (475) the 
city of Miltiades. 

Mohammed, Arabian religious teacher and founder of Moham- 
medism, about 570-632. Views in Mohammedan countries 
(472 to 474, 503, 506, 555, 556, 560, 566). 

Moltke, von, Helmuth Karl Bernhard, German statesman and sol- 
dier, 1800-1891. Received his military training in Copenhagen 
(404 to 406); resided and died in Berlin (383 to 385); re- 
organized the Turkish army in Constantinople (472 to 474) ; 
directed the siege of Paris in 1870 (421 to 425). 

Montcalm, Louis Joseph, French officer. See New World Biog- 
raphies. 

More, Sir Thomas, author and chancellor of England, 1479-1852; 
was beheaded in the Tower (349). 

Moses, the Hebrew lawgiver, about 1500 b. c. Scenes in Egypt 
where Moses was born and grew to manhood (561 to 569). 
Scenes in Palestine toward which he led the Israelites (495 to 
498). 

Mozart, John Wolfgang Amadeus, German composer, 1756-1791; 
lived and died in Vienna (462, 463). 

Napoleon Bonaparte, French military genius and Emperor of 
France, 1769-1821. Notre Dame Cathedral where he was 
crowned (425). On May 15, 1796, he stood in Milan's Ca- 
thedral (458). Scenes near the Battle of the Pyramids (565, 
566). Entered Vienna (462, 463) in 1805; entered Berlin (383 
to 385) in 1806; closed the port of Hamburg to British trade 
(386); took Madrid (435) in 1808; found Moscow on fire Sept. 
14. 1812, and was forced to retreat (483). Near Brussels the 
battle of Waterloo was fought (395). 

Nelson, Horatio, Lord Nelson, English hero of Trafalgar, 1758- 
1805. Very near to Alexandria was fought the Battle of the 
Nile which prevented Napoleon's getting control of Egypt 
(558). He retired to Naples (454) after the battle of the 
Nile; gained a great naval victory at Copenhagen (404 to 406). 

Newton, Sir Isaac, English mathematician and scientist, 1642-1727, 



THE OLD WORLD 303 

a great astronomer; by ingenious experiments with his tele- 
scope made discoveries with regard to light (593 to 600) ; 
is buried in Westminster Abbey (350). 

Nogi — Count Nogi Maresuke, Japanese general in Russo-Japanese 
War, born 1849. Scenes in Japan (525 to 541) from which Nogi 
drew his army. Chinamen sawing timbers for the Japanese 
army (523). 

Okuma, Count Shigenobu, Japanese statesman, 1838 — . Tokyo, 
the Japanese capital, where he lives (526). 

Patrick, St., Apostle to Ireland, 373P-463?; fleeing from slavery 
in Ireland was taken on board a French ship and carried to 
Marseilles, France (429). His bell is in the museum at Dublin 
(380). 

Paul, the Apostle (the first century) ; born at Tarsus (491) ; be- 
came prominent in Jerusalem (495) first as a Jewish teacher 
and later as a Christian one; was converted while on his way 
to Damascus (493); preached in Athens (475); preached and 
wrote letters to the Corinthians (477) ; appealed to Rome (450 
to 452) for trial and probably was executed there. 

Pericles, Athenian statesman, 495P-429 b. c; greatest statesman of 
Athens. Many of her most beautiful buildings were built un- 
der his directions (475). 

Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, founder of St. Petersburg, 1672- 
1725; born at Moscow (483); founded Petrograd and made it 
the capital of his Empire (482). 

Peter (Simon), Hebrew apostle (first century). Scenes in Pales- 
tine where Peter followed Jesus (495 to 498). He was taken a 
prisoner at Rome (450 to 452), where he was probably executed 
by Nero. 

Pisistratus, Greek tyrant, 605-527 b. c. Pisistratus ruled Athens 
(475). 

Pizarro, Gonzola and Francisco, Spanish conquerors of Peru. See 
New World Biographies. 

Plato, Athenian philosopher, 427-347 B.C.; lived in Athens (475); 
traveled in Egypt (560 to 568). 

Polo, Marco, Venetian geographer and writer, 1250-1324; belonged 
to a noble Venetian family (457) ; spent many years in China, 
which he described in his book (513 to 524). 

Pompey — Cneius Pompeius Magnus, noted Roman general, 106- 
48 B.C.; lived in Rome (450 to 452); annexed Syria (492 to 494) 
to the Roman Empire; also reduced Jerusalem (495); was 
killed in Egypt (558 to 565) and his head was given to C?esar. 

Ponce de Leon, Juan, Spanish explorer in America. See New 
World Biographies. 

Ptolemy I, King of Egypt, died 283 b. c. Scenes in Egypt where 
he ruled (558 to 568). 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, English explorer and colonizer in America. 
See New World Biographies. 

Rameses II, King of Egypt, maker of the first treaty known in the 



304 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

world, 1340-1273; had a part in the building of the Temple of 
Karnak (568). 

Raphael Sanzio, great Italian painter and sculptor, 1483-1520. 
Earliest work was done in Florence (456). St. Peter's and the 
Vatican contain much of his work (451). The cathedral of 
Milan contains some of his masterpieces (458). 

Rhodes, Cecil J., South African statesman, 1853-1902; in 1870 went 
to South Africa (575 to 584); in 1871 went to the Kimberley 
mines (581); became Prime Minister of Cape Colony (582); 
was investigated by British Parliament concerning his share 
in the Jamison Raid (352). The one aim of Cecil Rhodes's 
life was to extend British rule in South Africa. Rhodesia (575 
to 578) was named for him. 

Richard I, the Lion-hearted, King of England, 1157-1199; crowned 
in Westminster Abbey (350); Jerusalem (495) and the Holy 
Land (497, 498) for whose freedom from the Saracens he 
fought. 

Richelieu, Armand Juan du Plessis, Duke, French Cardinal, 1585- 
1642. Paris (421 to 425) where he was ruler in all but name. 
In Rome (450 to 452) Cardinal Richelieu was consecrated. 

Roberts, Frederick Sleigh, Lord Roberts, celebrated English gen- 
eral, 1832-1914; Commander-in-Chief of the Queen's forces in 
the South African war between the English and the Boers 
(582, 580); Commander-in-Chief of the forces in India (499 to 
508). 

Robespierre, Maximilien Marie Isidore, French Revolutionist, 1758- 
1794. Paris (421 to 425) the scene of the French Revolution. 

Rubens, Peter Paul, celebrated Flemish painter, 1577-1640; as a 
child lived in Cologne (393); studied art in Venice (457); also 
studied in Rome (450 to 452); was sent to Madrid on a diplo- 
matic mission (435) ; in London conducted diplomatic business 
so successfully that he was knighted by Charles T (348 to 
352); spent most of his life and died in Antwerp (396). 

Rubenstein, Anton, Russian composer, 1830-1894. As a child he 
lived in Moscow (483); studied music in Paris (421 to 425); 
studied music and spent much of his life in Berlin (383 to 385); 
began teaching in Vienna (462, 463); lived and died in St. 
Petersburg (482). 

Ruskin, John, English author, art critic and reformer, 1819-1900; 
born in London (348 to 352) ; traveled through the Alps and 
Italy (427, 428, 440 to 459); Visited the Lake District (361). 

Saul, first King of Israel, about 1050 b. c. Scenes in Palestine where 
Saul ruled (495 to 498). 

Savonarola, Girolomo, Italian preacher and reformer, 1452-1498. 
Savonarola's life work was given to Florence (456). 

Scott, Sir Walter, British poet and novelist, 1771-1832; born in 
Edinburgh (365) where he is honored by a great monument. 
Stirling Castle (367, 368). Everything that pertained to Scotch 
history or romance was a part of Scott's life. Ellen's Isle 



THE OLD WORLD 305 

(369) described in " The Lady of the Lake." Highlanders (366) 
such as these figure largely in Sir Walter Scott's writings. 

Shakespeare, William, celebrated poet and playwright, 1564-1616. 
Shakespeare's birthplace (354). Anne Hathaway's cottage 
(355). Shakespeare's memorial theater (356). 

Sienkiewicz, Henry, Polish novelist, 1846 — ; born in Warsaw, Po- 
land (485) ; in 1876 visited California and wrote a description 
of the country (228 to 241). Rome under Nero (452) is the 
theme of his greatest novel, Quo Vadis. 

Smith, Donald Alexander, Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal. It 
is due to Lord Strathcona more than to any other man that 
the Canadian Pacific was completed (267, 273). 

Socrates, Athenian philosopher, 469-399 B.C.; did his teaching in 
Athens (475). 

Solomon, Hebrew poet and king, about 1000 b. c; built the temple 
in Jerusalem (495); Israel (496 to 498), the country over which 
he ruled. 

Solon, Athenian lawgiver, 639?— 559 B.C.; reformed laws of Athens 
(475). 

Stuyvesant, Peter, Dutch Governor of New York. See New World 
Biographies. 

Thackeray, William Makepeace, English novelist and art student, 
1811-1863; born in Calcutta (500); studied art in Paris (421 to 
425); lived and wrote in London (348 to 352). 

Themistocles, Greek statesman, 514P-449 B.C. After the battle of 
Marathon, he persuaded the Athenians to build a fleet (475). 
He induced the Greeks not to retreat to Corinth in the Persian 
War (477). 

Thorwaldsen, Bertel, Danish sculptor, 1770-1884; was born and 
lived in Copenhagen. Some of his best work was here (404 to 
406). He studied in Rome (450 to 452). The Florence Acad- 
emy appointed him a professor in 1840 (456). 

Titian Vecelli, noted Venetian painter, 1477-1576. In Rome (450 to 
452) Titian met and studied with Michelangelo and Raphael. 
In Vienna (462, 463) are some of his greatest works, the " Ecce 
Homo," etc. In Florence (456) some of his best work is to be 
found. 

Titus — Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, 40-81. Emperor of 
Rome (450 to 452); destroyed Jerusalem (495). Mt. Vesuvius 
(453) in eruption buried Pompeii and Herculaneum in his reign. 

Togo, Count Heihachiro, Japanese soldier and statesman, 1847 — . 
In 1873 he was a student at Greenwich (353). In 1904 he was 
in command of the fleet which bombarded Port Arthur (522). 
He was a Japanese representative at the coronation of King 
George (350). 

Tolstoy, Count Lev Nicolaevich, Russian author, reformer, phi- 
losopher, 1828-1910; lived in Petrograd (482). Scene in Russia 
where he lived and wrote (483). 
Trajanus, Marcus Ulpius, Emperor of Rome, 53-117. Scenes in 



306 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

Rome where he ruled (450 to 452). Damascus (493) which he 
incorporated. He added Roumania to the Roman Empire. 
Roumanians (470, 471) today call themselves " Romans." 

Tyndall, John, British natural p'hilosopher, 1820-1893. Studied the 
movement of glaciers (427, 428, 446) and wrote about them. 
Climbed the Matterhorn (448). He lived many years in Lon- 
don (348 to 352). 

Venizelos, Greek statesman, native of Crete. His ancestors were 
Greeks whose home was at the foot of the Acropolis (475) ; 
in 1909 arrived in Athens (476) where he became Prime Min- 
ister and almost re-made Greece. In the Balkan wars it was 
his influence that united the Balkan States, Serbia (467), Bul- 
garia (468, 469) and Roumania (470. 471) with Greece (475 to 
480) against Turkey (472 to 474). Later he united Serbia (467) 
and Greece (475 to 480) against Bulgaria (468, 469). Constan- 
tine, King of Greece, married a sister of the German Emperor, 
therefore sided with the Central Powers in the World War 
(384, 385, 476). Constantine dismissed Venizelos from office 
but the people reinstated him and Constantine with his court 
left for Switzerland (440 to 449). The Greeks under the leader- 
ship of Venizelos are allied with England (347 to 362), France 
(421 to 431), Italy (450 to 459), Russia (481 to 488), and Amer- 
ica (1 to 261). 

Vergil, Publicus Vergilius Maro, Roman poet, 70-19 B. c; went to 
Milan (458) (known to the ancient Romans as Mediolanum) 
to study; continued his studies in Naples (454, 453) and was 
buried there; studied and later lived in Rome (450 to 452); 
visited Athens (475). 

Verrazzano, Italian navigator. See New World Biographies. 

Vespasian, Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, 9-79 a. d., Emperor 
of Rome (450 to 452); Governor of Egypt (558 to 568); began 
the siege of Jerusalem (495). 

Victoria, Alexandriana, Queen of England, 1819-1901; crowned in 
Westminster Abbey (350). The House of Lords showing the 
seat of the Queen (352). London (348 to 351) where the 
Queen lived and ruled. Queenstown (374) was named for her 
at the time of her first visit to that city. Was proclaimed 
Empress of India (499 to 508). 

Vinci, Da, Leonardo, Florentine painter, 1452-1519; educated in 
Florence (456); about 1483 he removed to Milan and was em- 
ployed as an architect upon the Cathedral of Milan (458); in 
1499 he removed to Venice (457) ; paid several visits to Rome 
(450 to 452); became court painter to Francis I of France and 
died in Paris (421 to 425), which city has a fine collection of 
his paintings. 

Voltaire, Francois Marie Aronet, French free thinker and revolu- 
tionary writer, 1694-1778; was born and died in Paris (421 to 
425) ; lived three years in Germany, the guest of Frederick the 
Great (384, 385). 



THE OLD WORLD 307 

Wagner, Richard, German musician and composer, 1813-1883; lived 
in Paris from 1839 to 1842 (421 to 425) ; in 1885 lived in London 
(348 to 352); died in Venice (457). 

Wallace, Sir William, noted Scottish military leader and patriot, 
1272?— 1305. His one aim in life was to free Scotland from the 
English (368). Defeated the English at Stirling Bridge (367); 
was captured through the treachery of one of his own men 
and taken to the Tower of London and there beheaded (349). 
His head was hung on London Bridge (348). 

Wellesley, Arthur, Duke of Wellington, British soldier, hero of 
Waterloo, 1769-1852; born in Dublin (380); a member of the 
House of Lords (352) ; took part in the great naval battle of 
Copenhagen (404 to 406) ; in 1812 with his troops occupied 
Madrid (435); served his country as Ambassador to France 
(421 to 425) ; was Plenipotentiary to Austria (462, 463) ; in the 
great battle of Waterloo just outside of Brussels he broke the 
power of Napoleon (395). 

Wentworth, Thomas, Earl Stafford, English statesman, 1593-1641; 
member of the House of Lords and tried by it (352); was exe- 
cuted in the Tower of London (349). 

William the Conqueror, King of England, 1027-1087; built the 
Tower of London (349); the first king of England crowned in 
Westminster Abbey (350). 

William I, German Emperor, 1797-1888; accomplished the wonder- 
ful organization of the German army (385) ; considered him- 
self a supreme power above that of the Reichstag (384) ; said 
he ruled " by the favor of God and of no one else." On 
March 21, 1871, he opened in Berlin the first Reichstag of the 
German Empire (383). 

William II, Emperor of Germany, 1859 — . The Royal Palace where 
the Kaiser lives (384). The laws of Germany are made here 
(383) and here are appropriated the billions of money which 
the Germans are using for the war. These are the soldiers 
with which Germany is fighting. William has made Germany 
into one great military machine (385). Germans did much 
damage with Zeppelins in the early days of the war (394). 
Such scenes do not take place during the war. The Kaiser's 
government has carefully regulated the food supply (387, 393). 
The River Meuse and Namur (397) have been in the front 
of the war. Over this ground the Kaiser's forces have strug- 
gled with those of the Allies. By this war the port of Ham- 
burg (386) is blockaded and foreign commerce of Hamburg- 
is entirely stopped. To retaliate, Kaiser William ordered the 
ruthless submarine warfare which forced the United States to 
enter the war. Over all this land (387 to 393) the Kaiser 
asserts that he is the divinely appointed ruler and that all 
these people owe to him absolute obedience. 

William, 1650-1702, and Mary, 1662-1694. rulers of England; entered 
London Dec. 18, 1688 (348, 349); crowned in Westminster Ab- 



308 ENGLISH — BIOGRAPHY 

bey (350). In their reign the Bank of England was founded 

(351). 
Wordsworth, William, poet, 1770-1850. Lake District where he 

lived (361). Rydal Mount, his home (362). 
Wren, Sir Christopher, English architect, 1632-1723; designed St. 

Paul's and many other churches in London and by many is 

thought to have planned the towers of Westminster Abbey 

(350). 
Xenophon, Athenian general and historian, 434? b. c.-about 355? B.C. 

Born in Athens (475). 
Yuan Shih-kai, first President of China, 1859-1916. Scenes in China 

(513 to 524) where Yuan Shih-kai was first President. 
Zeppelin, von, Count Ferdinand, 1838-1917; German inventor of the 

Zeppelin flying machine used by the Germans (394). 



Note : — The story of the industries is an intensely inter- 
esting one. By means of Keystone stereographs and slides 
the great industries may be brought into the class room with 
life-like reality. This " 600 Set " will be found quite rich in 
industrial scenes but for a more extended list consult our 
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The Publishers. 



AGRICULTURE 

INTRODUCTION 
By CHARLES F. CURTISS, M.S.A., D.S. 

DEAN DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE AND DIRECTOR OF THE EXPERI- 
MENT STATION, IOWA STATE COLLEGE, AMES, IOWA. 

" At the head of all the sciences and arts, at the head of civilization 
and progress, stands — not militarism, the science that kills, not com- 
merce, the art that accumulates wealth — but agriculture, the mother 
of all industry and the maintainer of human life." 

Never before in the history of the world has so much de- 
pended upon intelligent, efficient, and well conducted agricul- 
ture. The great International war has not only brought about 
a marked shortage of food stuffs which is world-wide in its 
scope, but the determination of the outcome and results of the 
war promise to depend quite as much on the industrial forces 
as upon military achievement. Chief among the industrial 
forces of all of the great nations are those relating to the pro- 
duction of food and clothing. Agriculture has taken on a new 
significance throughout the world in recent years. Improved 
machinery, motive power and transportation facilities have tre- 
mendously increased production and widened the market for 
agricultural products. One hundred years ago it was neces- 
sary, under conditions then existing in the United States, for 
about ninety per cent of all of the population to engage in 
agricultural occupations in order to maintain a production 
that would meet the needs of the country and sustain the 
population. Even as late as fifty years ago, about two-thirds 
of the population of the United States was engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits. Today, scarcely more than one-third of our 
population is engaged in farming and, notwithstanding this 
marked change and the tremendous increase of city popula- 
tion, agricultural production has made great advance and the 
farms have, until within the past few seasons, not only yielded 
abundantly for our own population, but a large surplus has 

309 



310 AGRICULTURE 

been exported to foreign markets. The great development 
of the manufacturing and commercial interests of the country, 
coupled with the demands growing out of the war, has created 
new economic conditions that have given to agriculture and 
to food production a new significance and a larger importance 
throughout the world. The agricultural problem has become 
a national problem, not only in the United States, but in for- 
eign countries as well. Government aid and encouragement 
in agriculture, as well as government direction and control of 
the distribution of food products on a fair and economical 
basis, will come about as an immediate result of the war 
conditions, but many of the policies inaugurated will have per- 
manent results. 

There is wide recognition of the need of thorough and effi- 
cient training for agriculture. This demand has become well 
nigh universal. Agriculture and home economics, or house- 
hold science, are now required subjects in the public schools of 
most of the states, but the Smith-Hughes bill passed by the 
present Congress provides an extensive and far-reaching sys- 
tem of federal aid for vocational education that will give a 
tremendous stimulus to industrial education in the United 
States. Agriculture, home economics, and the trades and in- 
dustries are to constitute the basis of the system of industrial 
education fostered by the government under this measure. It 
is probable that this policy will eventually exert greater influ- 
ence upon the educational system of the United States than 
any federal legislation that has ever been enacted. Agriculture 
is a highly concrete, practical and definite subject. Agricul- 
tural education must be based upon principles and practice 
that are scientifically sound, and strong work in science should 
support all agricultural training, yet it is well known that 
agricultural education made but little progress until it was 
definitely connected up with concrete problems, in a practical 
way. This is one of the vital and most difficult problems that 
is encountered in extending agricultural instruction into the 
public school system of the United States. The Keystone 
View Company's " 600 Set " of stereographs and lantern slides 
cover a wide range of most interesting material relating to agri- 
cultural education, and they will be of great service in effec- 
tually visualizing agricultural conditions and processes. 



21. SOILS 

By ALFRED VIVIAN, Ph.G. 

DEAN COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, 

COLUMBUS, O. PRESIDENT BOARD OF EDUCATION FOR 

STATE OF OHIO 

Without the soil we could not be living in this world today. 
The food which you eat could not be produced if there was no 
soil, for the plants which make the food for animals, in their 
turn derive all their nourishment from the soil. So, you see, 
the soil is after all very important to mankind. 

We are so familiar with the soil as it now exists that most 
of us do not stop to consider that it was ever anything differ- 
ent, but it has really taken a long time for Nature to form 
what we call the soil, and in doing so she has employed the 
wonderful agencies about which something will be said in this 
article. 

Most of you know that if you dig down deep into the soil 
you will come to solid rock. Sometimes rock is reached a few 
inches below the surface, and again you must dig many feet 
before you come to it, but sooner or later you are sure to find 
a bed of stone. 

Soils consist for the most part of very fine particles of rock 
(rock powder) mixed with a small quantity of organic matter; 
i.e. the remains of plants which have formerly grown upon 
the land, and which have partially decayed or rotted in the 
soil. The rock powder was formed by the pulverization of 
the original rocks of the earth's surface, the grinding of the 
rocks being due to several forces. 

1. SOIL MAKERS 

(a) Action of Weathering 

The alternate action of heat and cold upon the rock, especially when 
the rock is saturated with water, causes the rock to crack, and small 
pieces to chip off. These pieces in their turn are made smaller and 
smaller by the same action of heat and cold, freezing and thawing. 
Freezing and thawing split the rocks into pieces. 

311 



312 AGR.— SOILS 

191 Yellowstone. Freezing and thawing split the rocks into pieces. 
208 The Grand Canyon affords wonderful examples of weathering. 
322 Chilean Andes. The softer parts of the stone are worn away first, 

leaving the harder points. 
330 Cordilleras Mts., Peru. The bits of rock which are split off slide 

into the streams, and are carried away to form a soil elsewhere. 
382 Giant's Causeway. The waves of the ocean also wear away the 

rocks. 
440 Mt. Pilatus, Switzerland. Note the fine material loosened by 

weathering, which is sliding down into the valley below. 

(b) Action of Running Water 

Running water grinds the rock into flour, especially if the stream is 
swift enough to carry particles of sand or gravel which rub against 
each other and against the bed of the stream until the rock is worn 
away and ground to a powder. In this way deep valleys are some- 
times cut into the surface of the earth, and the fine material is carried 
away to form a soil at some other place. 
49 The water in Niagara Falls is gradually wearing away the face 

of the cliff over which it runs. 
51 Palisades. Running water carves deep valleys in the face of the 

earth. 
197 Yellowstone. This deep valley has been formed by running 

water. 
207 Grand Canyon. The combined action of weathering and running 

water has formed this canyon, which is a mile in depth. 
228 Yosemite. The material carried away by the streams is deposited 

somewhere to form a soil. 
363 Bettws-y-Coed, Wales. When the stream is swift enough to carry 

boulders it wears the rocks more rapidly. 
576 Victoria Falls. Such a rush of water carries large quantities of 

soil making material. 

(c) Action of Glaciers 

Another agency which helps to grind the rocks is moving ice in the 
form of glaciers. As the glacier moves along, it carries with it large 
quantities of rocks, grinding them against each other until they are 
reduced to particles of various degrees of fineness. When this ma- 
terial reaches the melting end of the glacier it is deposited, and the 
finest of the material is carried away by the glacial stream. A large 
part of the northern United States was once covered by a great gla- 
cier. 
219 Paradise Glacier. The northern part of the United States was 

once all covered with a sheet of ice much thicker than this. 
221 Mt. Hood. The glaciers of the present day give some idea of the 

action of the great glacier. 
274 Victoria Glacier. Note the rock material which the glacier is 

carrying with it and which will be deposited at the end of the 

glacier as the ice melts. 



TYPES OF SOILS 313 

275 Illecillewaet Glacier. The ice sheet in some of the glaciers is 

very thick and has great grinding power. 

276 Mt. Sir Donald. The action of weathering^ running water and 

glaciers can all be seen in this picture. 

427 Glacier des Bossoms. Note the amount of material which, has 

been carried down by the glacier. A young forest is growing 
on part of the " moraine." 

428 Mer de Glace. Such a sheet of ice has great power to pulverize 

stone. 
446 Switzerland is noted for its wonderful glaciers. 
448 Showing the sharp weathered point of the Matterhorn with the 

glaciers at its base. 

(d) Action of the Wind 

The wind carrying particles of dust and sand and hurling them 
against the rocks gradually carves the rocks into odd shapes and 
grinds them to powder. 

200 Phoebe's Arch, Palmer Lake, Col. The wind carried particles 

of sand which wear away the softer parts of the rock. 

201 Cathedral spires. Garden of the Gods. The wind carves the 

rocks into fantastic shapes. 

(e) Action of Volcanoes, etc. 

To a more limited extent volcanoes take part in soil formation by 
means of the ashes and lava which they throw out during eruptions. 
The soluble materials brought up by the hot springs, and the mechan- 
ical action of the earthquakes are of minor importance. 
453 Mt. Vesuvius. Some soils consist almost entirely of lava from 

the volcanoes. 
222 Crater Lake. The crater of an extinct volcano gradually being 

filled by the weathering of the side walls. 
192 Yellowstone. The soluble material in the water of the hot springs 

is deposited as the water cools. 
194 Old Faithful Geyser. Note the cone formed by the material de- 
posited from the water of the geyser. 
231 Earthquake fissure. In some few cases the surface of the soil 
is affected by earthquake action. 

2. TYPES OF SOILS 

(a) Classification as to Origin 

Soils are designated as " residual," when the soils are formed from 
the underlying rock without being moved away or as " transported," 
when they are deposited at some distance from the rock from which 
they are formed. 
515 Yangtze River. Soils which are transported by water and are 

deposited in the river valley are called " alluvial " soils. They 

are generally rich soils. 
321 Mendoza River. The flat land near the river consists of alluvial 

soils. 



314 AGR.— SOILS 

262 Acadian Land. The alluvial soils of the lowlands are generally 

very productive. 
408 Jordal Valley, Norway. In mountainous countries only the soil 

in the bottom of the valleys can be cultivated. 
427 Chamonix, France. Soils which are transported by glaciers are 

known as " drift " soils. They usually contain much gravel 

composed of round particles of stone. Note the accumulation of 

" drift " at the foot of the glacier. 
275 Ulecillewaet Glacier. Soils which are transported by the wind are 

known as " loess " soils. A large part of the soils in the corn 

belt of the United States consist of loess. Note in this picture 

the particles of dust which the wind has deposited even at the 

top of the glacier. 
322 Inca Lake, Chile. Lakes are gradually filled by the soil washed 

down from the surrounding high lands. 
453 Mt. Vesuvius. Some soils are formed directly from the ashes 

•and lava deposited by volcanic action. 

(b) Classification as to Composition 

Soils consist largely of four ingredients, sand, silt, clay and organic 
matter. When they contain considerable amounts of organic matter 
they are known as " loams." The individual particles of clay are very 
fine and a soil consisting largely of clay is very sticky when wet and 
very hard when dry. It is the most difficult soil to cultivate. Sand 
is lacking in plant food. The silt particle is intermediate in size be- 
tween sand and clay. Some of the best soils contain a large proportion 
of silt. The organic matter consists largely of the more or less decayed 
remains of plants which have formerly grown on the soil. Soils are 
given various names, depending on the relative amounts of the four 
ingredients which they contain, such as sandy, sandy clay, silty, clay, 
sandy loam, clay loam, silty loam, etc. Soils which are very high in 
organic matter are called peat or muck soils. 
357 Wheat thrives on a clay loam soil with rather a high proportion of 

clay. Farmers sometimes speak of such soils as "strong" soils. 

Wheat must have an abundance of available plant food. 
147 Oats will grow in a variety of soils, but do best in a cool climate. 
136 Indian corn, or maize, thrives on a loose, fertile, well-drained 

soil. It is at home in the silty loam soils, such as the loess of 

the corn belt. 
47 Melons are usually grown on sandy loams. They will stand a 

large proportion of sand. 
149 Harvesting celery. The soils formed in swamps and the bottoms 

of old lake beds usually contain a large percentage of organic 

matter and are called muck soils. They are adapted to celery 

and onions. Such soils must be well drained. 
223 Sand dunes. Very sandy soils are so loose that they drift before 

the wind and are difficult to control. They are also very low in 

plant food. 
183 Alfalfa. Such plants as clover and alfalfa will grow only in soils 






SOIL MANAGEMENT 315 

which contain an abundance of limestone. If limestone is lack- 
ing in the soil it must be added before these crops can be grown. 
Soils formed from limestone are usually very fertile. 

3. SOIL MANAGEMENT 

(a) Clearing the Land 

A large part of the cultivated land of the world was at one time 
covered by forests, and the trees had to be removed before the ground 
could be tilled and planted. 

224 Felling tree, Oregon. Much labor and expense is involved in 
clearing such a piece of land. 

(b) Tillage — Plowing 

The oldest and most important tillage operation is that of plowing. 

The effect is to loosen the soil and to turn under manures and rubbish. 

The plow is the oldest tillage implement, varying from the ancient 

crooked stick to the modern gang plow with its steel mold-board. 

561 The plow of Egypt is as old as the Pyramids themselves. 

298 Cuban plow. The first plow was merely a pointed stick. 

522 The agriculture of China is very ancient, but its plow is still the 
pointed stick. 

488 Russian plowing. This plow is better than the pointed stick be- 
cause it will turn a furrow. 

178 Tractor plow. The modern steel plow turns the soil and leaves 

it in much better condition than does the ancient plow. 

(c) Tillage — Harrowing 

After the land is plowed the harrow is used to break the clods and 
make the surface smooth. 

179 Making good seed bed. The soil should be thoroughly pulverized 

after it is plowed. 
332 Preparing the soil, Peru. Note the fine condition of the seed bed. 
549 Filipino harrowing rice field. For rice the land is sometimes 

harrowed under water. 

(d) Tillage — Cultivation 

Certain crops are planted in rows and the soil is hoed and otherwise 
cultivated between the rows in order to kill the weeds, and to prevent 
the loss of moisture by forming a layer of loose soil on the surface 
("dust mulch"). 
105 Hoeing rice. The hand hoe is an effective implement with which 

to destroy weeds. 
198 Cultivating beets. The horse cultivator covers the ground much 

faster than can be done by hand. 
419 Women weeding beets. Hand weeding is necessary with some 
crops. 

(e) Tillage — Dry Farming 
In regions of scanty rainfall, crops are sometimes grown every other 
year, the surface of the soil being constantly stirred during the non- 



316 AGR.— SOILS 

cropping year so as to conserve the moisture of two years for one crop. 
199 Wheat raised by dry farming method. Dry farming greatly in- 
creases the crop yield in areas of scanty rainfall. 

(f) Irrigation 

Growing crops use enormous quantities of water, 900 tons or more 
to the acre. In lands of insufficient rainfall the fields are artificially 
irrigated and in many places large dams and reservoirs are constructed 
to supply the water. Some crops like rice have to be flooded with water 
during a part of the growing season. 

569 Assuan Dam. This great dam was built to provide water to irri- 
gate the farms in the Nile valley. 
104 Rice land is covered with water during part of* the growing 

season. 
527 Note the patches of rice which are growing in the standing water. 

(g) Drainage 

Some soils contain so much water that the excess must be removed 
by means of ditches or tile drains. In Holland the water is collected 
in canals and pumped out by windmill power. 

399 The canals of Holland serve to drain the land and are also used 
for transportation. 

(h) Fertilizing — Farm Manures 

Constant cropping removes the plant food from the soil, and if more 
food is not added the soil soon fails to produce a profitable crop. 
Much of the plant food removed by the crops can be returned to the 
soil if the manure of the farm animals is spread on the ground and 
plowed under. When the crops are fed in the field, as in the case 
of " hogging down " corn or pasturing sheep and other animals, the 
manure is left on the ground and helps to maintain the fertility of the 
soil. 
159, 165 Group of dairy barns. The manure from cattle is the best 

fertilizer. 
57 The dairy cow is a great help in maintaining the fertility of the 
soil. 
180 The manure spreader is almost indispensable on a farm. 
183 Hogs in alfalfa pasture. A good way to maintain fertility is to 
feed the crops in the ground. This is what is known as " hog- 
ging down " alfalfa. 

172 Hogs in rape field. This field will produce a large crop following 

the " hogging down " of the rape. 

173 Sheep are said to have the "golden hoof" because the ground is 

thought to be more fertile after they are pastured on it. 
480 Sheep on Argive plains. These old fields would be still less fer- 
tile if it were not for the flocks of sheep. 

(i) Green Manures — Leguminous Plants 

Green crops plowed under help to keep the soil fertile. Leguminous 
plants such as clover and alfalfa can by means of the bacteria which 



CROP RESULTS 317 

grow in the nodules on their roots fix the nitrogen of the air and 
when plowed under they greatly enrich the soil. 

181 Nebraska. When alfalfa land is plowed it is found to grow better 
crops than before the alfalfa was planted. 

(j) Fertilizing — Commercial Fertilizers 

In many cases it is necessary to buy commercial forms of plant food 
if the fertility of the soil is to be maintained. This is especially true 
of phosphorus as it is sold from the farm in the grains, in milk, and 
in the bones of animals. Bone meal from the packing houses is used 
to supply phosphorus for fertilizers, but more of it comes from the 
so-called phosphate rocks which are found in several of the States. 
115 Mining phosphate. Deposits of phosphate rock are found in sev- 
eral places in this country. 

(k) Crop Results 

Careful observance of the practices which maintain the fertility, of 
the soil make it possible to produce large crops continuously. 
357 Wheat. England by careful fertilizing still produces large crops 

of wheat, although her land has been farmed for centuries. 
149. Celery. The right conditions of moisture and plant food make 

large crops possible. 
237 The orange growers of California know that they must irrigate 

and fertilize to obtain large crops. 
47 Melons. In addition to plenty of water and plant food such a 

melon crop demands warmth and sunlight. 
108 Pineapples. Such crops are not produced by accident, but are 

the results of following the laws of good husbandry. 



Note — For additional scenes on weathering and soil forma- 
tion see classification Natural Forms and Forces, also the 
Company's Special Catalog on Physical Geography and Ge- 
ology. It is free upon application. 

The Publishers. 



22. FARM CROPS 

By W. M. JARDINE, B.S.A., LL.D. 

DEAN OF THE DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE AND DIRECTOR OF THE 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, KANSAS STATE 

AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, MANHATTAN, KAN. 

All children know that animals require food, water, air and 
warmth but they do not know so generally that plants also 
must have food, water, air, and warmth. Neither do they un- 
derstand the importance of plant life. All animal life, includ- 
ing human beings, is dependent upon plant life. The greater 
part of the food of both mankind and animals is vegetable. 
The meat that we eat is first derived from plants because the 
animals from which it is obtained live on plants. Without 
plants no animal could live ; therefore, the culture of plants is 
the most important phase of agriculture. 

Plants get their food from the soil and the air through 
roots and leaves. The leaves of the plant take food material 
from the air in the form of gas. The water in the soil absorbs 
plant food materials. This water is absorbed by the roots of 
the plant and the food materials are converted into plant tis- 
sues to serve, in turn, as food for animals. The plant secures 
all its water and ash and part of its organic matter from the 
soil through its roots. The soil then is very necessary to 
plant growth. All soils are not alike. By referring to the 
chapter entitled Soils, it will be fourid that soils differ in 
mode of formation and in the materials from which they are 
formed. Soils also differ in fertility and moisture holding 
power, and consequently in their ability to produce crops. 

It is not enough that there be plant food in abundance in 
the soil. This food must be in a form available for plant use. 
It is largely the business of the farmer who produces crops 
to handle the soil in such manner as to provide food in a form 
readily available for plant use. This may be accomplished by 
tilling or cultivating the soil and by supplying plant food to 
the soil. 

319 



320 AGR.— FARM CROPS 



CROP PRODUCTION 

Let us notice the steps in the process of producing and caring for a 
farm crop. 

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL 

The first thing necessary is to loosen the soil so that it may become 
permeated with air and warmth and absorb rain quickly; also that the 
roots of plants may penetrate it easily. This is generally done by plow- 
ing. The soil must not be too loose, however, or it will not retain 
moisture. It must not be too rough or the seeds cannot be covered 
evenly. The lumps or clods must be broken finely and the surface made 
smooth before the seed is planted. A carefully prepared seed-bed will 
contain moisture and food ready for the plant. It will be sufficiently 
warm for seeds to germinate and loose enough for the roots of the 
young plants to penetrate readily. 

The following views show different means of preparing land for the 
planting of crops. 

i. Primitive Methods 
561 Egypt ; 522, China ; 488, Russia. 

2. Modern Methods 

136, 398 The horse is a very important source of native power on the 

farm. 
178 Plowing rich prairie soil with tractor. 
179, 332 Clods of earth should be broken finely. 
549 Even soil of flooded areas should be prepared. 
161 For most crops excessive moisture must be removed. 
180 Fertilizing manure spread evenly on the land and plowed under 

enriches the soil. 
159, 165, 358, 364, 173 The best system of farming includes the keeping 

of live stock on the farm. 
166 Rotation of crops is important in maintaining the fertility of the 

soil. Potatoes leave the soil in excellent condition for other 

crops, especially small grains. This is the same farm as shown 

in view 165, origin'ally a potato farm; the dairy was added to 

maintain fertility. 

PLANTING 

After the soil has been prepared as in view 179, the seed may be 
planted. The seed must be covered deep enough to get plenty of mois- 
ture to germinate it, but not so deep that air will be excluded. The 
young plants soon begin to make use of the light and air in preparing 
a part of their own food. 

CULTIVATION 

Some crops are planted in rows some distance apart and these crops 
require cultivation. Cultivation has a threefold purpose, viz., to de- 






IMPORTANT FARM CROPS 321 

stroy weeds, to conserve moisture, and to make the plant food in the 
soil ready for use by the plant. Cultivation may be done by hand or 
by various types of horse cultivators. Crops planted thickly such as 
wheat and oats, tend to keep out the weeds ; the protection of the 
ground from sun and wind tends to prevent escape of moisture from 
the surface, consequently crops so planted do not require cultivation. 

In regions where there is little rainfall, dry-farming is practiced. 
Under this system land is sometimes planted to crops only one season 
in two years. The season no crop is grown on the land, moisture is 
conserved by cultivation at frequent intervals. Frequent cultivation 
keeps the surface soil in a loose condition so that all moisture that falls 
is absorbed readily and prevents evaporation from the surface. In dry- 
farming cultivation is done chiefly to conserve moisture. 
419 Women cultivating sugar beets by hand. 
105 Another method of cultivating crops by hand. 
198 Most of the cultivation of farm crops is done by means of the 

horse cultivator. 
184 Corn — the greatest cultivated crop in America. 
211,235 In arid regions special crops are produced which have the 

power to grow with little rainfall and withstand long periods of 

drouth. 

HARVESTING 

After the crop has reached a certain size cultivation ceases and it is 
left to develop naturally until it is ripe or mature enough to harvest. 
Methods of harvesting different crops vary greatly as is shown in the 
following list of farm crops and in the classification on Production and 
Manufacturing. 

THRESHING, STORING, MANUFACTURING 

The handling of crops after harvest also varies greatly as will be 
seen by a study of some of the most important farm crops. 

IMPORTANT FARM CROPS 
Wheat 

Wheat is grown most extensively on the fertile prairie soils of 
America and Europe. The United States and Russia are the greatest 
wheat producing countries of the world. The leading wheat producing 
states of the United States are North Dakota, Kansas, Minnesota, 
Nebraska, Washington, and South Dakota. Wheat is used chiefly for 
human food because it is the best grain for making light bread. Wheat 
is usually grown in large fields and most of the work is done by ma- 
chinery. In the following views it will be noticed that the men are 
doing very little work by hand. 

178, 179 Show how the land is prepared before the seed is sown. 
357 Harvesting wheat with the self-binder. This machine cuts the 
wheat, makes it into neat bundles, and ties a string around the 
bundle. 



322 AGR.— FARM CROPS 

199 The bundles are stood up in shocks, and the shocks stand in the 
field until the grain is dry enough to stack or thresh. 

147 Wheat is hauled in this way to the stack or threshing machine. 

177 Threshing wheat. Mountains of straw from which the grain has 
been removed. 

233 In some dry sections wheat can be cut and threshed at one opera- 
tion. California. 

218 Harvesting wheat in Washington — Combined reaper and thresher. 

284 Mexico ; 479 Greece ; 497, 498 Palestine — Primitive methods. 

Corn 

Corn is the king of cereals. The average annual world's production 
is over 3.7 billion bushels which exceeds the yield of wheat, rice, or 
any other cereal. Corn is a native of America. The United States 
produces an average of over 2.7 billion bushels. This is over fourteen 
times as much as any other country in the world produces, and forms 
nearly three-fourths of the world's supply of corn. Other corn pro- 
ducing countries are Roumania, Egypt, Austria-Hungary, Argentine, 
Mexico, Italy, Russia, and Canada. Over half of the corn crop of the 
world is produced in the seven states : Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Mis- 
souri, Indiana, Ohio, and Kansas. 
184 A field of corn in Kansas. 
136. 160 Modern methods of harvesting corn. 
165, 159 Corn put into the silo and fed to stock yields a good profit and 

the manure from the stock aids in maintaining the fertility of 

the soil. 

Rice 

Rice is an important article of food for nearly half of the population 
of the world. It furnishes the principal food for more people than 
any other one crop. Rice is grown only in warm sections. India, 
China, Japan, Siam, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, East Indies, and the 
Philippine Islands produce most of the rice of the world. In the 
United States, rice is grown chiefly in South Carolina, Georgia. 
Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas. Rice, unlike any other grain, grows 
best when the plants are partially covered with water. It is therefore 
necessary that the land be very level so that the water will stand at an 
even depth over the field. Rice may be sown like wheat on well pre- 
pared land and water turned on the field after the plants get well 
started to grow. In some countries rice is planted in mud and water, 
or the plants are grown in small beds and transplanted into the mud 
just as we set out cabbage or tomato plants. The ground is kept cov- 
ered with water until the crop begins to ripen when it is drained off and 
the field allowed to dry before time to harvest the crop. 

In some rice growing sections, water is not left on the field con- 
tinuously. Sometimes there are three applications of water. The 
" sprout water " is applied as soon as the seed is planted and is left on 
only a few days. The " stretch water " is applied when the plants have 
two leaves and is left on about 30 days. When this water is turned off 



OATS — SUGAR 323 

the field is allowed to dry and the weeds and grass are hoed from 
among the plants. View 105 shows a field in South Carolina receiving 
this cultivation. After the plants begin to joint a third and final appli- 
cation of water is made. This is the " loyby flow " and is left on until 
the plants are mature. 

527 Rice fields in Japan. Low level land is best adapted to rice. 

549 Filipino farmers preparing land for rice. 

528 Rice planters at work, Japan. 

104 Irrigation of rice fields from canals. 
530 Rice fields under irrigation. 

105 Hoeing weeds and grass from among the rice plants before the 

water is turned on. 

529 Harvesting rice just as wheat but in many countries primitive 

methods are still used. 

550 Removing rough hulls from the grain before use as human food. 

Oats 

Oats are an important farm crop. They are grown extensively in 
the cooler part of the United States, in Canada and in Europe. 
408 Oats growing in Norway within sight of a glacier. (Note method 

of curing hay in foreground.) 
147 Harvesting oats in the corn belt — Illinois. 

Sugar 

Practically all the sugar of the world is made from two plants, 
sugar cane and the sugar beet. Each of these produce about one- 
half the supply. Sugar cane is a tall, coarse-growing plant raised 
chiefly in British India, Cuba, Java, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Is- 
lands, the United States, and South America. In the United States 
it is grown chiefly in Louisiana and Texas. Sugar cane is started by 
laying a continuous line of stalks in a row and covering them. New 
plants start from the joints and grow to a height of 8 to 15 feet. 
When mature the plants are cut and the tops and heavy leaves re- 
moved. The stalks are hauled to the factory and the juice pressed 
from them by means of heavy rollers. The juice is purified and heated 
to drive off the water. It then crystallizes into sugar. 

332 Preparing the soil for sugar cane. Tractor drawing harrow and 

pulverizer, Peru, South America. 

333 Replanting cane. Young cane plants will sprout up from the 

joints of stalks planted in furrows. 
258 Cutting the sugar cane. 

A hundred years ago the sugar beet contained only 6 to 8 per cent, of 
sugar. By carefully selecting each year and planting for seed those 
beets which contained the highest per cent, of sugar, a type of beet has 
been developed which contains 16 per cent, or more of sugar. The 
leading countries in the production of sugar beets are Germany, Russia, 
Austria-Hungary, France, and the United States. The beets are 
planted in rows and cultivated and hoed as are garden beets. When 



324 AGR.— FARM CROPS 

ready for harvest they are pulled, the tops removed and the roots 

hauled to the factory. Here the roots are sliced finely and the sweet 

juice removed. From this juice sugar is made. 

419 Cultivating beets, Sweden. The young plants require careful at- 
tention. 

198 Cultivating beets, Colo. When the plants become larger a two- 
horse cultivator is used. • 

270 Beets stored in sheds with V-shaped bins having canals underneath 

to carry them to the washing drum. 

271 Beet pulp and juice flowing into large iron tanks where the sugar 

is removed from the pulp by water. 
35 Filling and sewing bags of granulated sugar. 
34 Conveyor with trays of loaf sugar received from the drying kiln. 
185 Cattle are fed on the pulp of the sugar beets from which the sweet 

juice has been removed. 

Tobacco 

• 

As a field crop, tobacco was first grown in Virginia in 1612. The 
world crop amounts to about 2.5 billion pounds of which nearly one 
billion is produced in the United States. Other countries which pro- 
duce tobacco are British India, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Japan, and 
the islands of Cuba and Java. 
112 A tobacco field in Kentucky. 

297 Harvesting tobacco, Havana Province, Cuba. Tobacco must be 
cut and the leaves hung up carefully to cure. The quality of 
tobacco is improved by growing the plants in partial shade, hence 
the companion crop of banana plants. In Florida it is some- 
times grown under sheds with partial roofs ; in Connecticut 
many acres are grown under canvas. 

Cotton 
Cotton is the greatest of all fiber crops. Most of the clothing of 
mankind is made from cotton. Cotton is grown only in warm cli- 
mates. Over three-fourths of all the cotton in the world is produced in 
the United States south of a line drawn from Norfolk, Virginia, to 
Memphis, Tennessee, thence west to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and El 
Paso, Texas. In the United States cotton is exceeded in value only by 
corn and hay. Other countries important in the production of cotton 
are India, Egypt, and China. Much of the labor of raising cotton is 
done by hand. The crop is planted in rows much like corn. After 
the plants are three or four weeks old they are thinned to the desired 
stand. This must be done by hand. The crop is cultivated several 
times and usually hoed. When mature the cotton is picked by hand 
and hauled to the gin where the seeds are separated from the lint and 
the latter put into large bales weighing about 500 pounds each and bound 
with iron bands. 

117 Picking cotton on a Mississippi plantation. 
124 Loads of cotton ready for the gin. 
119 Bales of cotton at the wharf ready for shipment. 



HEMP — FORAGE CROPS 325 

An important fiber crop is hemp which furnishes material for making 
such articles as ropes, burlap, binding twine, and mats. Sisal hemp 
comes chiefly from the fiber of henequen, a plant which grows in the 
Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, and somewhat in Florida and in Africa. 
Henequen is very much like our century plant and grows on land that 
is apparently worthless for other crops. 

Hemp 

Manila hemp is derived from plantain, a tree-like plant (abaca) of 
the banana family which grows in the Philippine Islands. Shawls are 
made from the finer fiber of plantain and ropes from the coarser fiber. 
Our binder twine and much of our other cordage is made from the 
henequen or sisal hemp plant. 
289 Old henequen plants from which many leaves have been removed 

for the manufacture of the sisal fiber. Yucatan. 
571 Henequen plants, showing the tall flower stalks. Uganda, Africa. 
552 Stripping the stems of plantain to obtain Manila hemp fiber. 

Forage Crops 

Forage crops and live stock are two great essentials to a permanent 
system of agriculture. Live stock will consume much rough feed and 
convert it into valuable meat, at the same time producing manure 
which is of great value in keeping land fertile and productive. 
172 Ames, Iowa. Rape makes a desirable hog pasture. 
118 Harvesting peanuts, Arkansas. Choice bacon and ham is pro- 
duced in the south from hogs fed on peanuts. 
183 Hogs in alfalfa. Alfalfa is our greatest legume. It is rich in 

protein — the food which makes young stock grow. 
317 Some of the famous beef cattle of Argentina are grown on alfalfa 

pasture. 
181 Harvesting alfalfa. The modern method of handling hay. 
388 The old method of handling hay, Germany. 
408 Curing hay under difficult conditions, Norway. 
127, 186, 301 The natural forage of extensive areas is harvested by 

great herds of cattle. 
480, 190, 173 Sheep are also used to consume the wild plants of plains 

and mountains as well as the more abundant grasses of our best 

pastures. 
185, 140, 370 Farm crops may be marketed as beef after being fed on the 

farm. 
371, 403, 57 Crops fed to cows and marketed as milk yield a good profit. 
211,235 Spineless cactus, a promising new forage plant for semi-arid 

regions. 

Other Agricultural Products 

166 Potatoes grown in the famous potato region of the Red River 
Valley, Minnesota. Harvesting potatoes by use of potato digging 
machines. 
47 Picking and loading cantaloupes, New York. 



326 AGR.— FARM CROPS 

118 Peanuts, a valuable food product. The pods are removed from 
the vines and allowed to dry thoroughly before marketing. 

137 Pumpkins as an inter-crop with corn. 

149 Celery raised on rich muck land. The bunches after being washed 
and packed are sent to market ready for us as food. 

294 Bananas on cultivated plantation. 

285, 287 Maguey plants from which pulque is made. 






23. GARDEN, ORCHARD AND WOODLOT 

By R. L. WATTS, M.S. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURE, DEAN DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL- 
TURE AND DIRECTOR OF THE EXPERIMENT STATION, STATE 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, STATE COLLEGE, PA. 

I. GARDENING 

The home garden as an economic factor cannot be over- 
estimated. Very many families, by intensive cultivation, raise 
the summer supply of vegetables and part of the winter supply, 
on a very small plot of land. Since the war began, gardening 
has become a war measure in the conservation of food. These 
gardens are giving outdoor work to men who are accustomed to 
work indoors and are doing a great health work. Market gar- 
dening is carried on wherever the produce can reach the cities. 

83 The school-gardens are an important part of industrial education 
and they will occupy a still more important place as the country 
grows older. They aid materially in the food supply, give the 
children habits of industry, and cultivate the art of using the 
hands. Also they cause some to take up farm life and become 
professional food producers. 
47 The cantaloupe or muskmelon is an important trucking crop from 
the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. This truck farm, is on the 
Lake Shore, which is especially adapted to fruit-raising because 
the large body of water stabilizes the temperature, preventing 
the early spring budding and the late frost. 

137 A field of pumpkins. While the pumpkin is not considered a hor- 
ticultural crop, it makes such good pies that every horticulturist 
likes to grow a few for home use. It is also worth noting that 
pumpkins generally command good prices in the larger local 
markets. 

149 The celery industry in the United States has grown to mammoth 
proportions. Some years ago the Kalamazoo district was made 
famous by its extensive fields, but now we find immense areas 
of this vegetable in various parts of the United States, especially 
where there are muck soils for its culture. Celery thrives best 
in deep, moist soils and muck lands seem to provide these ideal 
conditions. 

327 



328 AGR.— GARDEN, ORCHARD AND WOOD LOT 

419 Beets are found in every home garden. Until the plants are large, 
some handwork is necessary to keep the weeds under control. 
The frequent and skillful use of wheel hoes, however, will 
reduce the handwork to a minimum and this is exceedingly 
important if the beets are to be produced more economically. 
The beets in 198 are grown under irrigation. 

166, 47 The potato is for the most part grown as a field crop, but it 
is likewise an essential to the garden. The potato prefers a 
loose, loamy or sandy, well drained soil. There is scarcely any 
crop that responds so well to the heavy use of fertilizers. The 
potato is an important food crop in many countries. It thrives 
best in a cool climate. Dr. Patten, Dean of the Wharton School 
of Finance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania, states 
that the potato was a direct factor in causing the great World 
War. The introduction of the potato to the sandy soils of 
Prussia enormously increased the food supply, which in turn 
was followed by marked increase in population, enabling Prus- 
sia to dominate Germany. 

210 Irrigation. Most garden crops require abundant moisture. This 
may often be obtained by thorough cultivation, thus preventing 
evaporation of the ground moisture. More and more gardens 
are being irrigated by overhead spraying systems. Naturally in 
connection with our great irrigation systems supplying all 
needed water, gardening may be carried on most advantageously. 
The statement is made that if Germany, at the beginning of the 
war, had been generally equipped with the most up-to-date irri- 
gation systems as we know them in most parts of America, she 
would have had no serious difficulty in maintaining an adequate 
food supply. 

423 The city flower markets of foreign countries must be exceedingly 
interesting. Not only are the flowers beautiful but the people 
themselves add to the picturesqueness of these markets. It is 
gratifying to know that flowers are being sold more and more 
on our own city markets. 

II. LANDSCAPE GARDENING 

10 The village people of New England give their street trees better 
attention than do the people of some other States. Note the 
device around the fine old elm to prevent insects from going up 
the tree. These fine old trees throughout New England are 
appreciated and everything possible is done to protect them. 

36 Sleepy Hollow Cemetery. This old cemetery is kept in excellent 

condition. It is an object lesson to those who are careless in 
taking care of the grounds where their loved ones are sleeping. 
Trees, shrubs, and hardy perennials should be used instead of 
tender annual plants, which soon die and disappear. 

37 Washington's headquarters at Newburgh on the Hudson. The 

splendid old trees in the background and vines on the building 
give this old house a most pleasing appearance. Hundreds of 



LANDSCAPE GARDENING 329 

• humble homes might be made just as attractive as this one by 
the proper use of plants and trees. 

90 Part of the city of Washington. The people of Washington are 

proud of their thousands of fine trees and shrubs. The collec- 
tion as found along the streets and in the parks represents a 
great number of different species. 

91 The formal type of gardening as shown in this picture is pleasing 

to a great many people. The fountain in the center of the 
view is a prominent feature of the landscape. 
93 A general view looking over Washington. The student of land- 
scape gardening will be interested in noting the arrangement of 
trees in the foreground. They are arranged in groups along 
the avenues, leaving large, broad expanses without any trees. 
95 Congressional Library, Washington. The curved walks and 
drives of this view help to make it highly attractive. The use of 
curves in landscape gardening is one of the means of making 
beautiful landscape effects. 

169 A bit of water with a canoe and occupants and fine trees in the 
background always present a most pleasing appearance. Note 
the wigwam on the right, which is reflected in the water. 

241 San Gabriel Mission. This old building would not be half so 
attractive without the splendid specimens of palms which beau- 
tify the foreground. 

249 Street in Colon. This would be a very commonplace picture were 
it not for the tall palms planted near the house. They give the 
scene a restful appearance which could be secured in no other 
way. 

259 Papaya trees in Hawaii. The people of tropical regions are fond 
of planting along their walks and streets palms and other tropi- 
cal plants, just as we like to plant maples and other shade trees 
along our streets and roadways. They provide more or less 
shade and make the landscape exceedingly beautiful. 

262 In the Acadian land. When we journey to the far North we are 
attracted by the fine specimens of evergreens. A few well- 
grown specimens as shown in the foreground of this picture are 
essential features in many of the northern landscapes. 

316 A South American Park, Buenos Aires. This view is not unlike 
the ones which are common in the best parks in the United 
States. The broad, sweeping curves and splendid trees are 
noticeable features in this park. 

355 Anne Hathaway's home. The well trimmed hedge and vines on 

the wall add greatly to the beauty of the scene. The well kept 
hedges of England are certainly more beautiful than the bare 
picket fences once so universal in America. 

356 Shakespeare's Memorial Theater, Stratford-on-Avon, England. 

Cattle, sheep, horses and other livestock always add to the beauty 
as well as the interest of a landscape. The contentment of these 
cows is thoroughly in accord with the quiet, and beauty of the 
landscape. 



330 AGR.— GARDEN, ORCHARD AXD WOOD LOT 

360 In England great attention is paid to landscape gardening. These 

trees trimmed so closely and the wall covered with vines are 
typical of the country. 

361 Lake Grasmere. Those who are interested in landscape garden- 

ing will do well to study the composition of this picture. Noth- 
ing can be omitted without sacrificing the attractiveness of the 
view. The massed trees which stand in the foreground, the 
expanse of water broken by the island in the middle, the village 
on the other side of the lake, and the mountains in the back- 
ground, all go to make this an unusual scene. In planting 
gardens and trees, care should be taken not to cut off beautiful 
views. 

362 The home of Wordsworth. A very humble home made beautiful 

by the skillful use of trees, shrubs and vines. This is a splendid 
demonstration of what might be accomplished around thousands 
of inexpensive dwellings. 

376 Blarney Castle, Ireland. This old castle would have little to 

make it attractive were it not for the hedge and trees in the 
foreground. 

377 The Lakes of Killarney. After all, Dame Nature cannot be ex- 

celled as a landscape gardener ! 
386 Hamburg. The water front is beautified by the planting of trees 

wherever that is possible. 
422 Avenue des Champs Elysees, Paris. The French people love trees 

and they are careful to give their street plantings the very best 

attention. 

534 In the Land of Flowers. The Japanese are great lovers of flowers 

and particularly of the cherry blossoms. The " Feast of the 
Cherry Blossoms " is an annual celebration and all the people 
go where they can see and admire the beautiful flowers of this 
tree. 

535 A Japanese garden is extremely interesting to a landscape gar- 

dener. They are especially skillful in dwarfing trees. The gar- 
den is more like a picture, a beautiful miniature, than it is like 
a real garden. 
586 A view in Melbourne, Australia. This is an exceedingly attrac- 
tive bit of scenery in the city of Melbourne. The small lake or 
pond is a striking feature, and there is abundant evidence that 
the trees and shrubs receive the very best care. In the fore- 
ground is another example of extreme formality in the arrange- 
ment of flowering plants. 

III. ORCHARDING 

85 Peach harvest. New Jersey, Delaware, the Lake shore and 
warmer parts of the country produce immense quantities of 
peaches. These may be yellow or white with the pulp free from 
or clinging to the stone. Peach trees are very tender. They 
must be sprayed and pruned and carefully cultivated. They are 
short-lived trees. 



ORCHARDING 331 

108 Harvesting pineapples. This picture gives you some idea of the 
extent of the pineapple industry in Florida. Pineapples are 
grown on a very large scale and shipped. They are largely 
used for canning and preserving. The industry is profitable 
when properly managed. 
44 In order to produce good fruit, trees must be sprayed. A strong 
spray is used when the trees are bare and weaker ones when 
in leaf. The trunks must be kept smooth and clean. 

175 Harvesting apples. Scenes of this character are now common 
in all apple-producing districts of the United States. A large 
proportion of the apple crop is placed in barrels, though many 
of the better specimens are packed in boxes. 

234 An immense quantity of almonds, as well as other nuts, are grown 
in California for market. The student should note how thor- 
oughly this orchard has been cultivated. This is one of the 
main reasons why the California horticulturists grow such fine 
nuts as well as fruit. They give their trees as well as their 
land the very best treatment. 

236 California vineyards. These grapes are the result of intensive 

culture. The California vineyards have become famous for 
their large crops of grapes. Some of the bunches are mam- 
moth in size, as shown in the picture before us. 

319 Vineyard in South America. This view shows the work which 
must be done in a successful vineyard. The vines must be cut 
back and the ground carefully cultivated. There must also be 
supports to keep the vines up with room to grow. 

390 Some very fine vineyards may be found on the hills of Germany. 
These people have found it necessary to make all of their 
tillable land yield maximum returns. Note the thrifty growth 
of the vines. 

237 A California orange grove of 10,000 acres. After seeing these 

immense orange groves of California, one wonders what is done 
with all of the fruit. The most intensive systems of culture 
and management are used in these groves and all possible care 
is exercised in picking and forwarding the fruit to market. 

238 Orange blossoms and fruit. To those of us who are accustomed 

to seeing such fruit trees as apples, pear, peach and cherry, 
it seems strange to see both fruit and flowers on the tree at the 
same time. The large green foliage and the beautiful blossoms 
and fruits of the orange make the trees exceedingly attractive. 

437 Picking Valencia oranges. It is not a difficult matter to pick 
oranges from these low, well trained trees. Our American boys 
would not like to carry such a large load on top of their heads. 

293 Mango trees laden with fruit. The mango is just as important 
to many people living in tropical countries as the apple is to 
people in temperate regions. The trees are evergreen with 
very dense foliage and some of them are very large. It is an 
important fruit crop in southern Asia, India, Brazil and other 
tropical countries. 



332 AGR.— GARDEN, ORCHARD AND WOOD LOT 

294 Harvesting bananas. This is exceedingly interesting to boys and 
girls as well as grown folks who are fond of bananas. They 
are practically green when harvested and shipped to northern 
storage houses for ripening. It is surprising how cheaply this 
fruit can be sold in our northern markets after being transported 
so far. 

530 The tea farms are usually small and require careful cultivation 
and much attention, for the plant will thrive only in well 
manured or very rich soil. Although an evergreen, the leaves 
are useful only at a certain season. This Japanese maiden 
seems to be very happy as she starts out for a basket of tea 
leaves. The Japanese love plants and outdoor life, and all of 
us in America will do well to copy after them in this respect. 

551 Husking coconuts. This beautiful scene of large piles of coco- 
nuts under the trees from which they have been harvested, gives 
us some idea of the quantities of coconuts which are used. 

IV. THE WOOD LOT 

1 Logging in Aroostook Co., Maine. Scenes like this are common 
in Maine and other states where the land is heavily forested. 
The land had to be cleared and some farmers, lacking foresight, 
cleared all their land as soon as they could. 

72 Daisy field backed by woods. Woodland conserves rainfall. The 

rain cannot run off and the trees prevent rapid evaporation. 
The wood lot, then, is important in conserving moisture since 
the united woods of a neighborhood may cover an appreciable 
area. 
74 On bare hills the rain runs off rapidly, swelling the stream at the 
base. This results in sudden floods very destructive to farm- 
ing interests. 
445 The farmer with a wood lot has a constant supply of wood for 
fuel. 

73 Pennsylvania ; 445 Switzerland. The farmer with a wood lot 

has a supply of wood for posts, building material and all the 
uses so numerous on a farm. 
38 Hudson Valley. Notice how the hills are wooded. That pre- 
vents quick drainage of rainfall. The low land is partly 
wooded. The force of wind in the district is broken. Each 
farmer has a constant source of revenue, as the trees suitable 
for cutting are taken out year by year and the others are 
allowed to grow. 
70, 71 Chestnut, elm, maples and other hard woods are increasing 
in value each year. 

107 Turpentine farm. In the South a piece of such timber would 
yield turpentine, rosin and tar, besides a supply of pine timber 
valued in building. 

130 Tapping a maple tree. This work is attended to at the approach 
of warmer spring weather. There is something especially in- 
vigorating and uplifting in working among the trees at this 



THE WOOD LOT 333 

season of the year. Farmers who do not have a maple sugar 
grove might add to their incomes as well as to the pleasure of 
their homes by planting a large number of sugar maples along 
the roadside or perhaps on rough land which is not suitable for 
agricultural purposes. A maple grove is also a source of timber 
and fuel supply. 

162 A huge sled-load of logs. It is surprising how many logs a team 
can haul if there is snow on the ground. 

184 On our prairies and plains timber was very scarce and was ac- 
cordingly valued the more highly. Such a wood as is shown 
in the background will be carefully conserved. 
70, 72, 184 Some states, to encourage the care of woodland, give a 
rebate on the taxes of such land. 

224 A very large tree of the Northwest. Trees of such mammoth size 
are common in California and throughout the Northwest. It 
may interest our readers to know, however, that some very 
large trees may be found in the eastern part of the United 
States. For example, some years ago the writer measured a 
chestnut tree in Montgomery County, Md., which was 12 feet 
in diameter. In 1888 a white pine tree was grown near Lumber 
City, Pa., that measured 100 feet in length after the limbs were 
removed and the spar was ready for market. Sixteen horses 
were required to draw it to the river. The butt of the tree was 
about 5 feet in diameter. 



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24. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

By W. A. COCHEL 

PROFESSOR OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, XANSAS STATE 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, MANHATTAN, KAN. 

History shows that no permanent and profitable system of 
agriculture has been developed without livestock as a dominant 
factor, except on comparatively small farms, when special 
crops are produced. The most powerful nations of the world 
are those which are noted for their extensive development of 
livestock. More than one half of all the expenditures for 
food in the United States are for animal products. The 
problems of maintaining soil fertility and increasing acre yields 
of crops are most easily solved when the by-products from 
feeding livestock are available. The usefulness and value of 
animals of all kinds on the farms is an item to which too much 
attention can scarcely be given. 

DAIRY CATTLE 

57 New Jersey; 159 Wisconsin; 165 Minnesota; 403 Holland. Hol- 
stein cattle are distinguished by their color, which is always 
black and white, for their very heavy milk production, high total 
yield of butter, and low percentage of butter fat. These cattle 
are the largest of all the dairy breeds. 

364 Jersey cattle come from the Isle of Jersey in the English Channel. 
The predominative color is fawn varying from a golden yellow 
to black with brown marking. They are frequently found with 
white markings on any part of the body. They are noted for the 
extreme richness in butter fat of the milk they produce and are 
the most popular of all breeds as family cows and near cities 
where milk with a high percentage of butter fat is called for. 

371 The Ayrshire is a typical breed of dairy cattle, originated in Scot- 
land. They do not produce as much milk as the Holstein, nor 
is it as rich as that of the Jersey. Their milk comes more 
nearly meeting the requirements of the best city's trade, without 
modification than that from any other breed of dairy cattle. 
The Ayrshire is smoother and more thickly muscled than the 
other breeds of dairy cattle, hence are not discriminated against 
too much, by buyers of beef cattle on the markets. They are 
335 



336 AGR.— ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

better grazers and thrive on poorer pastures than the other 
breeds of dairy cattle. 

356 Dairy Shorthorn cattle, England. While the Shorthorn is mostly 
a beef breed, in England considerable attention has been given 
to the development of the Shorthorn as dairy cattle. Perhaps 
three-fourths of the milk delivered to the City of London comes 
from this breed of cattle. Usually stock raisers wish cattle 
highly efficient either for beef or milk production. Many 
farmers, however, wish cattle that will give a fair milk supply 
as well as being satisfactory for beef. The dairy Shorthorns 
meet this requirement. Such cattle are known as dual-purpose 
cattle. 

339 The dairy cow indicated in this view does not represent any of 
the breeds of special dairy cattle but belongs to the ordinary 
common stock of the country. She has the typically long, nar- 
row head, sharp withers and depth of body and wedge shape 
which indicates that her performance at the pail would be 
creditable. 

BEEF CATTLE 

317 The predominate breed of cattle in Argentina is the Shorthorn. 
They are very popular in America and Great Britain. Red, 
white and roan are the typical Shorthorn colors. These cattle 
are the largest of any of the beef breeds, mature early and 
dress out a high percentage of beef to live weight. When 
finished the carcass yields a high proportion of high priced 
meat such as rib and loin, in which the fat and lean portions 
are so distributed as to present a beautifully marbled cut of 
beef. 

358 Hereford cattle originated in Herfordshire, England. The typi- 
cal color is red with white face, a little white on crest and 
feet. They are noted as the best grazers of any of the breeds 
of beef cattle ; they mature at an extremely early age, are 
hardy and able to withstand extremely adverse conditions. 
This has made them the most popular of all breeds for range 
purposes. They are especially heavy in their fore ribs and 
heart girth, also in their loins. 

370 Aberdeen-Angus cattle originated in Scotland. They are black 
and hornless, of the extreme beef type, short legged, blocky, 
thickly and evenly fleshed, mature at a very early age and pro- 
duce when slaughtered, a smooth even carcass of well marbled 
beef. Aberdeen-Angus steers have won more championships for 
fat cattle at the leading American shows than those of any 
other beef breed. They dress out an unusually high percentage 
of beef to live weight. 

127 Texas range cattle have been bred up from a Spanish or native 
foundation by the use of Hereford and Shorthorn bulls, the re- 
sult of the attention to breeding has made the range cattle better 
for the production of beef and more desirable in the feed lots 



DRAFT HORSES 337 

than those that are produced in the older farming sections of 
the country. 

185 The steers feeding in this view are typical range cattle from the 

herds from Texas, branded so as to distinguish them from 
other cattle when they become mixed. These cattle were taken 
out of the pasture on the 15th of August and put on full feed 
of corn and cotton-seed meal, bran and oats, the purpose being 
to put a sufficient amount of flesh on them to have them classify 
on the market as choice beef. They were fed ninety days. 

186 Cattle shown in the round-up are of a mixed breeding and typical 

of the cattle that are » found in the short grass country. The 
improvement being made by the use of pure bred beef bulls 
in herds of this sort is remarkable. 

140 Stock yards, Chicago. These cattle are similar to those in 186 
except that they have been fattened for market, probably on 
the farms in the corn belt. 

589 The range cattle of Australia are similar in type to those de- 
scribed in views 127 and 317. 

301 The cattle of Jamaica are typical of the old-fashioned long horned 
steers of the early days of Texas. The same kind of cattle are 
being produced in Mexico. They are cattle very deep in the 
heart girth, narrow through the crops and loins, with compara- 
tively little muscular development in the hind quarters. They 
are noted for their constitution- and rustling abilities. 

545, Java ; 548 Philippines. The cattle of Southern Asia do not repre- 
sent any of the breeds which are of importance in America. 
They are from the same source as the sacred cattle of India, 
which are used for draft purposes rather than for meat. 

DRAFT HORSES 

138 Percheron horses originated in France, their popularity is due 
to the fact that the French government has encouraged their 
breeding. They are the most widely distributed of all the 
breeds of draft horses in America. They are noted for size, 
quality, and disposition. The predominating colors are grey 
and black. 

166 The potato sections of the United States demand the heaviest type 
and highest priced draft horses that are produced, because of 
the heavy machinery which they must handle and the weight 
of the loads which they must take to market. 

398 Belgian horses are of the extreme draft type, short legged, deep 
bodied, and heavily muscled. They are kept fat very easily, 
which makes them quite attractive. The predominant colors 
are sorrel, roan and bay. They are second in importance among 
the draft breeds in America. 

320 The cart horse must have weight and substance in order for it to 
handle heavy loads without material effort. They usually pos- 
sess some blood of the draft breeds. The picture indicates a 



338 AGR.— ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

horse of less bone and lighter type than is' usually used for this 
purpose. 

CARRIAGE HORSES 

312 Carriage horses have almost been eliminated from the city streets 
on account of the development of the automobile. They were 
usually matched as to color, size, style and action. Typical 
carriage horses were sixteen hands high and weighed 1,250 
pounds each. They were symmetrical, carried their heads 
and tails well and were noted for their beauty of style and 
action. 

195 Horses used on stage coaches are usually very rugged, of a type 
which is remarkable for endurance, quickness of action and 
sure f ootedness. They must be free from all unsoundness and 
extremely well broken. 

CAVALRY HORSES 

71 Cavalry horses are lighter, quicker, and more compact than the 
draft breeds. The best type is from thoroughbred stock and 
has intelligence, speed and endurance. The Government is fos- 
tering the development of the cavalry horse industry, but in most 
farming sections, the heavy draft type is more profitable. 

PONIES 

188 The cow ponies are horses of remarkable intelligence and endur- 
ance. They must be very quick, active and are very sure footed, 
in order not only to perform the service required of them, but 
not to endanger the lives of their riders. They are usually about 
fifteen hands high and weigh from 850 to 1,100 pounds. 

182 The ponies used by the Indians are usually from thirteen and 
one-half to fifteen hands high, will weigh from 750 to 1,000 
pounds, are very tough and have a remarkable endurance. In- 
dians usually prefer the horses of broken colors, with a con- 
siderable amount of white, which makes them more attractive 
to them. 

MULES AND DONKEYS 

124 Cotton mules are very compact, and from fourteen and one-half 
to fifteen hands high, they are quick and active. 

311 Mules are very largely used in the coffee plantations, as they are 
very hardy, powerful and long lived. With inefficient labor they 
are the most useful of all work animals. 

340, 341 The burro or donkey is a diminutive type of the jacks and 
jennets used in the United States for mule production. They 
are patient, slow plodding animals capable of carrying more 
than their own weights on their backs. They are very sure 
footed, have great endurance, are bothered very little with flies 
and heat. 



SHEEP — GOATS — CHICKENS 339 



SHEEP 

173 Shropshire, Oxford and Cotswold sheep. The sheep in this view- 
are of the mutton type as distinguished from the wool type and 
represent the breeds that are most generally used in the farm- 
ing districts of the United States ; they are short of leg, deep of 
body and wide of back. 

190 Merino sheep on range. Range sheep are the most hardy and free 
from disease of all the sheep produced. They are the source 
of practically all the lambs which are marketed from the first 
of October to the first of May. 

GOATS 

411 Norway, 447 Switzerland. In Europe more than in America the 
goat is an important feature of animal husbandry. There the 
milking goats are preferred and this variety is rather abundant. 
In America the milking goat is practically unknown, except 
among the European population in our industrial centers. With 
us the goat is raised for its hair, known commercially as mohair, 
and for its meat, which forms a considerable item in some mar- 
kets. Texas raises more goats than any other State. 

HOGS 

172 The hogs used for pasturing rape in the corn belt of the United 
States are usually of the extreme lard or fat type, as distin- 
guished from the bacon type of hogs. 

183 Poland-China hogs originated in the United States, are repre- 
sentative of the fat or lard type, and noted for their early ma- 
turity, thickness of flesh, good disposition and their popularity 
throughout the corn belt. 

CHICKENS 

56 White Leghorn hens in laying house. Poultry keeping is one of 
the most important phases of animal husbandry. The farm 
flocks of the country produce eggs and meat that equal in value 
some of our most important grain crops. Near the city markets 
the raising of chickens is a specialized industry. No other 
form of animal husbandry appeals so strongly to the back-to- 
the-lander as chicken raising. No farm business is so widely 
engaged in by amateurs and none reports so large a number 
of failures. It is exacting work, requiring great regularity of 
effort and close attention to details. Because of their patient 
care in looking after the detailed work, women are even more 
successful than men in the handling of poultry. 

DUCKS AND GEESE 

216 Puget Sound, Wash.; 401 Holland. Ducks- and geese form an 
important item in poultry production. They are raised mostly 



340 AGR.— ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

for the meat supply, but have considerable value also for eggs 
and feathers. They are water fowls and, if they have access 
to a stream or pond, will forage for a considerable part of their 
food supply. They are not so extensively raised as chickens 
although there are many large duck farms. 

PIGEONS 

240 Pigeon farm, California. Pigeon farming for the raising of 
" squabs " is an attractive phase of poultry raising although not 
so widely engaged in as some other forms of poultry farming. 
Only those specially qualified and with good experience should 
engage extensively in this line. Raising the " squabs," prepar- 
ing them attractively for market and selling on a satisfactory 
basis require considerable skill and business ability. 



25. FARM MANAGEMENT — FARM 
MACHINERY 

By MARTIN LUTHER FISHER, M.S. 

PROFESSOR OF CROP PRODUCTION AND FARM MANAGEMENT AND 

IN CHARGE DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY, PURDUE UNIVERSITY, 

LAFAYETTE, IND. 

Assisted by WM. AITKENHEAD, A.M., M.E. 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF FARM MECHANICS, PURDUE UNIVERSITY, 
LAFAYETTE, IND. 

I. FARM MANAGEMENT 

Farm management deals with the handling of the farm and 
its equipment so as to produce farm products with the great- 
est profit and still maintain, or even increase, the productive- 
ness of the soil. 

Management is different from production. One may grow 
a big crop (production) but he may not dispose of it to the 
best advantage (management). One must decide what breeds 
of live stock he will keep and how many his farm will furnish 
feed for (management), but he must breed, feed, and care for 
them properly also (production). 

It is not sufficient that the crops grown and the live stock 
kept are profitable — they should be the most profitable of 
their kind. Producing milk and butter may be profitable, but 
keeping beef cattle and selling fattened animals may yield a 
larger profit. Corn, oats, and clover is a good rotation and 
may be profitable, but corn, wheat, and clover may yield a 
larger profit. 

Every good manager will study the conditions surrounding 
him in order that he may engage in the type of farming best 
adapted to the soil, climate, labor supply, and markets. If 
the soil and climate are favorable and the markets accessible, 
grain farming may pay better than grazing live stock. 

In the disposition of the crops it may pay better to sell them 
than to feed them even though the manure be returned to 
land. If the prices of corn and hogs are too near alike, one 
had better sell the corn rather than feed it and thereby have 
the risk of loss by disease as well as the loss of labor and the 
grain fed. In the studies made of a great many farms it has 

34i 



342 AGR.— FARM MANAGEMENT 

been found that neither the selling of all the crops nor the 
feeding of all of them gave the larger profits, but that where 
about 40% of the farm income came from the selling of the 
crop and the rest from the sale of live stock and live stock 
products the best results were obtained. It seems that it pays 
best to have some crop, or crops, to sell for cash. 

A great many people believe that the small farm is more 
profitable than the large one, but it has been shown many times 
that where the same type of farming is used on both farms 
the larger one is usually the better paying. A large income 
cannot be made from a small business. A large area furnishes 
the possibilities for big crops and a large number of market 
animals. 

The proper adjustment of equipment is important. The 
machinery, the teams, and the labor should be adapted to the 
size of the farm and the nature of the farming. A tractor is 
not profitable on a 40 acre farm but is quite likely to be so on 
a 200 acre area. Four-horse teams cannot be used to very 
good advantage on the small, but are decidedly useful on the 
large farms. Grain farming does not require much hand 
labor but truck farming and gardening require hand work 
almost exclusively. 

A large labor income is what the good manager strives for. 
The labor income is found by subtracting all expenses of opera- 
tion from the gross income obtained by the sales of crops and 
live stock, and from this remainder take the interest on the 
investment, say at five per cent. In counting up expenses the 
cost of the family living is not included. Also, in determin- 
ing the labor cost, the labor done by members of the family 
and not paid for in dollars and cents should be calculated at 
a reasonable rate and added to the expenses. The labor in- 
come represents the farmer's salary. Beside this he has had 
the use of a house, garden and truck crops, butter, milk, eggs, 
and fruit — all of which has been found to amount to about 
ninety-five dollars per each adult member of the family. 

A. CHOOSING THE FARM 

In order to make a success at farming the farmer must give attention 
to the farm he selects. The farm ought to be well located for con- 
venience to roads, markets, and neighbors. The soil and climate must 
be adapted to the kind of farming which the farmer intends to follow. 



TILLED CROPS — GRAZING 343 

1. CONTOUR 
(a) Tilled Crops 

Perhaps the first thing to give attention to in selecting the farm is 

its contour. 

522,488 Level or gently rolling land is easily plowed even by primi- 
tive equipment. 

178, 179, 332 On level land tractors can be used and thus save horse 
labor. 

180 This land is rolling, but not too much so to use the tractor effec- 
tively. 

198 Level fields make easy cultivation and the loose soil will not wash 
away in heavy rains. 

166 Level land is desirable for potatoes, sugar beets (198), corn (137) 
and all crops that need cultivation during the summer. 

149 Celery is always grown on level land, usually peat soils found in 
regions of old lake beds. 

333 Crops like sugar cane and rice (104, 527, 528) which need irriga- 
tion must be grown on level land. 

147, 199, 357 Level fields make easy harvesting, and usually produce the 
largest crops. 

218, 233 The large level fields of the West permit large machinery to 
be used. This cuts down the cost of production. 

408 A mountainous country may have many rich valleys, but the fields 
will be mere patches and labor saving machinery cannot be used 
advantageously. 

(b) Grazing 

38 This is beautiful scenery, but the land is almost too rough for till- 
age. It would be better for pasturing cattle or for growing 
orchards. 

388 This land is too hilly for any but hand work. Unless labor is 
plentiful and cheap the cost of production runs high. It would 
be excellent pasture land,, especially for sheep. 

301, 317, 589 In sections where grain and cultivated crops are not grown 
extensively level lands are also used for grazing. 

480 This level plain would probably return a larger profit if it were 
farmed in cultivated and grain crops. 

183 If the farmer wants to graze pigs he will select level land so that 
the crop grazed can be one in the regular rotation. 

(c) Fruit Growing 

44 While orchards are usually planted on rolling or hilly lands, level 
land is also well suited and is desirable when large sprayers are 
to be used. Rolling land is better for fruits than level land on 
account of the drainage offered for both air and rainfall. The 
air drainage prevents damage from frosts. 

390 Grape production is nearly always on hillsides, although level 
land is also used (319). 

108 Pineapples need irrigation, hence level land must be selected. 



344 AGR.— FARM MANAGEMENT 

2. DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION 

(a) Drainage 

147, 184 Good crops like these can be grown only on well-drained land. 
390 This hillside does not need drainage. The hillside in the distance 

shows the effect of erosion. 
180 Gently sloping lands tend to drain themselves naturally. 
161 Our rich prairie soils often have to be drained to make them 

highly productive. 
120 The delta lands are excellent for crops but must be drained. 

(b) Irrigation 

104 Irrigation is the opposite of drainage. Lands must be quite level 

for successful irrigating. 
527 The rice field shows how level the fields are in Japan. 

(c) Location 

178 Farm life is isolated at its best and in selecting a farm one 
should give attention to location as regards roads, neighbors, 
and markets. This farm seems to be far from any human 
habitation. 

180 This farm seems to be located near a traveled highway as there 
are several houses in the distance. 

408 In this mountainous country there is little outlet to market. 

147 The nearness of the house adds homelikeness to this farm. 
43 The railroad suggests opportunity for marketing the products of 
the farm. The hauling of crops long distances to the shipping 
point is expensive. 

108 The town in the distance suggests a marketing place as well as 
a shipping point. Unless the grower can ship and market his 
products easily and cheaply he is not encouraged to do his best. 

(d) The Soil 

178 Much depends on the soil for successful crop production. Notice 

how black and mellow this soil is. 

179 And see how nicely it works up when disked and harrowed. A 

good seed bed can be prepared without much labor in such soil. 

120 The delta soils and the alluvial soils in river bottoms are the most 
productive and everlasting that can be found. 

147, 184_ Prairie soils are usually well adapted to producing grain. 

413 If all other conditions were favorable the rocky soil here would 
prevent crop production. 
38 Land like this is best for grass crops, like wheat, oats, and pas- 
ture. 

166 Potatoes do best on a sandy loam soil. 

149 Celery requires a rich muck or peaty soil. 



TYPE OF FARMING 345 

(e) The Climate 

408, 413 After all the climate determines what crops can be grown. 
In this region of snow and ice one cannot expect to grow any 
delicate crops. 

136, 137, 147, 184 These are common scenes in the corn belt where con- 
ditions are most favorable for the production of the cereal crop. 

199 Wheat can be raised in regions of scanty rainfall. 
44, 175, 85, 390 The temperate zone is also the region of large fruit 
productions. 

108 Pineapples, 294 Bananas, and 238 Oranges — grow in the sub- 
tropical or warm part of the temperate zone. 

258 Sugar cane grows best under tropical conditions. 

B. TYPE OF FARMING 

When a farmer gets most of his income from the grain which he 
grows and sells, he is said to be engaged in grain farming; when his 
income is mostly from fruits, he is engaged in fruit farming; and when 
his income is from several sources like grain, live stock, fruits, etc., no 
one of which yields over 40 per cent, of the income, he is said to be en- 
gaged in mixed farming, and so on, the type of farming being named 
according to the source of income. 

1. MIXED OR GENERAL FARMING 

In this type of farming, the farmer raises some of the grains, like 
corn, wheat, oats, rye, or barley; some of the kinds of live stock like 
horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs ; produces hay ; has fruits ; sells milk, 
butter and eggs, grains, and live stock. He has an income from several 
sources. General farming is the most common type because it is the 
safest. All of the farmer's hope of an income is not based upon one 
source, but if one thing fails, it is likely that some other crop will suc- 
ceed. General farming requires a rather large investment. A good 
deal of land is necessary to run so many different enterprises and it 
takes a good many kinds of machinery, buildings, and other equipment 
to carry on the different lines of work. 

136, 137, 160 On the general farm the corn is usually cut and put in 
, shock or in the silo. It is useful for winter feed. The corn- 
binder is a labor saving machine found in nearly all corn belt 
farms. 
172, 183 On the general farm in the corn belt many hogs are kept. 
These are usually pastured during the summer, because this is 
an economical way of producing growth. Rape is used quite 
extensively for such a pasture. Alfalfa is an ideal pasture for 
pigs. It produces rapid growth and economical gains. 
185 Feeding carload lots of steers is also common in the corn belt. 
181 This is another example of large machinery on the general farm. 
The general farmer usually makes a good deal of hay to feed 
his stock in the winter season. 



346 AGR.— FARM MANAGEMENT 



2. LIVE STOCK FARMING 

Live stock farming requires large areas of land because pasture is 

needed. Of course, cattle and horses require more pasture land than 

pigs and sheep. 

127 The large cattle herds are in the West and on rather cheap land. 

186 On the ranges it usually takes four to ten acres of land to fur- 
nish pasturage enough for an animal ; in the eastern part of the 
United States about two acres are enough. 

301 Large ranches of cattle are also found in the tropics. 

317 Argentina has vast areas of land good for growing alfalfa and 
other pasturage. These cattle come into competition with cattle 
in the United States to some extent. 

3. PRODUCTION OF BREEDING STOCK 

On many farms the main source of income is from the sale of animals 
for breeding stock, that is, the sale of well-bred animals to start new 
herds and flocks. The fine stock business requires a big investment in 
animals, buildings, and care. They must be well housed, and carefully 
cared for by experienced men. If they can be sold for a good price 
the farmer will make money, but as work animals, producers of but- 
ter, milk, or wool, or whatever product is peculiar to the class of ani- 
mals, they are little better than high grade animals and these are not 
nearly so expensive to own and to care for. 

For various breeds of farm animals and comment regarding same 
see classification on Animal Husbandry. 

4. GRAIN FARMING 

In grain farming large areas of land are used and usually the same 
grain is grown year after year on the same land. This is contrary to 
good practice in rotation of crops. In some sections the crop is corn 
year after year. On river bottoms which are frequently renewed by 
the deposits from overflows this continuous cropping does not seem to 
do harm, but on lands not so renewed the practice soon shows de- 
creased yields. 
218, 233 The best examples of grain farming on a large scale is seen 

in the large fields of the West and Northwest. 
179, 199 On these large grain farms of the West it may be that no live 
stock at all is kept since all the work can be done by machinery. 
Farming without live stock is disastrous unless great care is 
taken in returning the straw and stubble and supplementing this 
with mineral fertilizers, like phosphorus and potassium. 
177 Here we see large stacks of straw from the threshers. In nearly 
every case this straw is burned instead of scattering it back 
over the land. Such farming is wasteful of the soil's fertility 
and is called exploitive. 



FRUIT FARMING — DAIRYING 347 



5. FRUIT FARMING 

Fruit growing is a form of specialized farming and is done in a more 
careful (intensive) way than grain and mixed farming. Fruit farm- 
ing requires special knowledge of the fruits that are grown. It also 
requires special apparatus for spraying, harvesting, and packing. 
44 The fruit grower has to fight insects and diseases. This is done 

by spraying. 
175 To get good returns from the market the fruit must be graded 

and carefully packed. Honest packing helps to sell the crop. 
85 Most fruit growers give all their time to one or two kinds of 
fruit. There is a lot of work to do in spraying, pruning, thin- 
ning fruit, harvesting, packing", and marketing. 
237 Oranges are grown on a very large scale in California and Florida. 

Orange growing requires very special knowledge. 
236 This grower gives all his time to his grapes. 

390 This shows the extent of some of the vineyards and gives an idea 
of the labor necessary for maintenance. 

6. DAIRYING 

Dairying as a business requires special knowledge of how to feed 
for milk production and how to care for the milk in the way to make 
the best product. A rather large investment is required in cows, 
barns, and land for grazing purposes. In America it rarely pays to 
keep cows up all the time. Labor is too scarce and high-priced, and 
our land is cheap as compared with European dairy sections. Also, 
we cannot get high enough prices for the butter or milk to pay for 
keeping animals on the soiling system. 
159 This shows the large barns and valuable cows kept on this dairy 

farm. It is*one of the most famous dairy farms in the United 

States. 
165' This shows a more expensive equipment. Notice the large silos. 

Silage is one of the most important feeds for dairy cows. An 

expensive equipment means that the profits are cut down by a 

big interest on the investment. 
57 It is a part of good management in a dairy to keep everything 

clean and sanitary. 

7. POULTRY 

Poultry does not require a very large investment to get large returns. 

Knowledge of how to care for hens so as to make them lay is necessary. 

56 There are many breeds of poultry. Most people keep poultry 

mostly for the eggs which they lay. The White Leghorn is one 

of the best laying breeds. 

8. SPECIAL CROPS 

The risk of failure in special crops is greater than where general 
farming is carried on. If the season is unfavorable, the crop may 



348 AGR.— FARM MANAGEMENT 

fail partly or entirely. If it is favorable, there may be so large a 
supply that the market; is flooded and a very small price is obtained. 
When general, or diversified, farming is practiced it is likely that one 
or more crops will bring a good price, or make a good yield even if 
some do fail. Special crops always furnish a labor problem, either a 
large amount is required, or else it must be highly skilled. Also, the 
special crop usually does not furnish regular and steady employment. 
117 Cotton is the sole source of income for many farmers. It re- 
quires much hand labor at harvesting time. 
198 The sugar beet requires much hand labor for thinning and har- 
vesting. The beet crop is a very profitable one. The farmer is 
always assured a market for this crop, because it is contracted 
for before it is planted. 
47 The cantaloupe is in great demand in all cities and growers make 

good returns from their fields. 
149 Celery belongs to the group of truck crops. It requires a special 

soil like peat. 
108 The pineapple also requires a special soil as well as special knowl- 
edge of the crop. This field is fixed for irrigation, thus remov- 
ing any danger or loss by drouth. 
112 Tobacco is widely grown in some states. It requires almost con- 
stant attention to keep the tobacco worms (large caterpillars) 
from injuring the leaves. Special care is required in harvest- 
ing and curing. Large curing sheds are needed. 

C. MARKETING FARM PRODUCTS 

It is not enough that the farmer manage his farming operations 
skillfully. He must also market his products to .the best advantage. 
Profits from farming quite largely depend upon selling at the right 
time. Successful selling depends a great deal upon the quality of the 
article and the way it is presented for sale. Staple articles like the 
grains, hay, and live stock are so widely used and so constantly in de- 
mand that one can always be sure of a market. There is never a time 
when these articles cannot be sold for a fair price. Such articles as 
fruits and vegetables, and sometimes butter and eggs, are frequently 
so abundant that they bring a very low price in the market — often so 
low that the grower is discouraged and ceases to produce them. 

Such products as hay, grains, and live stock do not receive much 
picking over and arranging before being marketed, but fruits, vegeta- 
bles, and eggs need to be carefully assorted and put in convenient 
containers before being offered for sale. Clean, fresh articles, uni- 
form in quality and size, displayed in attractive containers will always 
sell better than articles not so arranged. 

The staple articles are usually sold in large quantities, but the less 
staple ones are sold in small lots. Wheat, corn, and hay, etc., are 
sold in carload lots ; live stock are sold by the head or pounds weight, 
but potatoes, apples, oranges, rhubarb, berries, etc., are usually sold 



QUALITY OF THE PRODUCT 349 

by the small lots. In the larger cities there are usually market places 
for displaying the products and making sales. Sometimes it is in the 
open along the curbstone; other times it is in a covered place. 

7 Many of the large cities have market houses. 
423 This is a curbstone market for flowers. 
395 A market where vegetables are sold. Selling in the market 

usually nets the producer the largest possible return for his 

product. 
140 These animals have been shipped from the farms and will be sold 

to butchers. They are fine animals and will bring the highest 

price paid. 
124 The cotton farmer markets his crop as seed cotton, that is, the 

seed is still attached to the fiber. Many farmers lose a great 

deal because they do not take the seed back to their farms and 

use it as a fertilizer. 
339 This way of marketing milk may insure a fresh article, but it is 

wasteful of time, and time is money. 
396, 487 These methods are economical in that they use cheap labor 

and a small amount of equipment. 

D. QUALITY OF THE PRODUCT 

The quality of the product produced has much to do with the 
farmer's profits. A large yield per acre of crops is a measure of his 
success, provided it has been produced without excess labor and expense. 
Well bred animals are able to return larger profits for their feed and 
care than scrub animals. The grade of product put on the market is 
an indication of the farmer's ability. 
160 The large ears indicate 60 or 70 bushels of corn to the acre, while 

the average yield is near 30 bushels. It took no more labor to 

grow the 60 bushels than to grow 30 bushels. 
199 Here is a 30 bushel yield of wheat, while the average yield is about 

14 bushels. Other things being equal, the man with the large 

yield makes the money. 
181 An alfalfa yield will give three or more crops in a season, while 

clover will not give more than two and timothy only one. 
423 These flowers are the results of the florist's best efforts and will 

sell well. 
236 The fine large clusters shown here indicate a heavy yield and that 

will give the grower a good income for his labor. 
175 In any crop, and especially fruits, there is a considerable quantity 

of poor specimens. These should be graded out. 
112 This excellent crop will probably bring its grower more than a 

hundred dollars an acre. 
149 Notice how good a strand of plants are shown here. Truck grow- 
ing is intensive and expensive work and the farmer must have a 

good stand of plants. 
47 These cantaloupes will sell for a good price. 
198 This crop of sugar beets ought to bring its owner a hundred dol- 



350 AGR.— FARM MANAGEMENT 

lars an acre. Twenty-five or thirty dollars will cover his ex- 
pense for production. 
117 See how thick the cotton balls are on the stalks. This field will 

make a bale to the acre. The average crop is a quarter of a 

bale. 
56 The kind of live stock one keeps and the way he keeps them 

shows something of a man's efficiency as a manager. Here is a 

lot of one of the best breeds of poultry and they are well and 

comfortably housed. 
57, 159, 165 These fine barns and well bred cows suggest successful 

dairy farming. 
358, 364, 370, 398 The very appearance of these animals tells of their 

good breeding. 
172, 183 Note the sleek, thrifty appearance of these pigs. 
185 It pays to feed crops to such animals as these. 
173 These are the kind of sheep that pay. They will produce good 

fleeces of wool and furnish a good lot of mutton of high quality 

besides. 

E. LABOR 

Labor is of two kinds : man labor and horse labor. The efficiency of 
labor is greatly affected by climate, skill of worker, and the use of ma- 
chinery. In the extremes of climate workers cannot do their best. In 
cold regions the worker is not comfortable and the amount of clothing 
worn hinders his movements ; in hot regions the worker must go 
slowly or be overcome by the heat. Workers who have been trained 
to do any kind of work become skillful in performing it and thus quite 
efficient. Some workers know no trade and are not inclined to learn. 
Their labor is usually expensive because of their waste of time and 
materials in not knowing how to labor effectively. The use of improved 
machinery adds greatly to the amount of work which one man can do. 
In many cases one man does the work which formerly took several men 
to perform. A man with four horses to a gang plow, or driving a 
tractor, accomplishes just as much as two or more men used to do with 
less improved machinery. See Tools, Implements, and Farm Machinery. 

(a) Labor and Equipment 

357 A man with a self-binder can harvest as much wheat in a day as 
ten men used to cut with the cradle. 

136, 160 One man with the corn binder and two other men to put up 
shocks can handle as many acres in a day as five "or six men 
working with corn knives and do it more easily. 

181 The scarcity of man laborers on farms has compelled farmers to 
buy improved machinery. The hay loader saves the labor of at 
least two men. 

284, 479, 497, 562 The primitive method of threshing shown here can- 
not be so complete as that shown in 177. Too much grain re- 
mains in the straw and is lost. But the cost of production is 



LABOR AND FIELD CROPS 351 

often less than that under modern methods, because of inexpen- 
sive equipment and low cost of labor. 

177 The work here is completely done but at a high cost of produc- 
tion. The machinery is expensive and the labor high-priced. A 
larger yield per acre must be obtained to offset these costs. 

138 A farm hand will take pride in doing his work when provided with 
a good team and equipment like the one shown here. Such a 
team is able to do a good day's work, too. 

561 One would not expect much pride to be taken in an outfit like 
this, nor expect to do much work in a day. 

549 The water buffalo is a homely animal, but he is the most efficient 
work animal for the rice farmer. 

178, 179, 180, 332 On large farms much horse labor has been done away 
with by using the tractor. One man driving a tractor does as 
much work as three or four men and as many three-horse 
teams. 

(b) Labor and Live Stock 

127, 186, 301, 589 The grazing of cattle can be managed with very little 

labor. The labor cost per head is thus very small. 
190, 480 The life of the shepherd is very lonesome and monotonous, 

but not at all laborious. With the help of a good dog one man 

cares for hundreds of sheep. 
183 Grazing hogs on alfalfa, or clover, is a cheap way of making 

pork. It requires little labor. 

(c) Labor and Field Crops 

528 Rice probably takes more hand labor than any other crop. 

105 Where a large number of workers are employed it is necessary 

to have an overseer or manager to direct the work. 
419 Sugar beets require hand labor for weeding and thinning. This 

makes the beet a costly crop to produce. 
112,297 Tobacco requires much hand labor. 
166 Potatoes require extra labor for picking up at harvesting time. 

117 Negro help is used almost entirely for cotton picking. 

118 Peanuts have to be hand picked and sorted. 

258 Sugar cane is handled mostly by man labor. The cultivation is 

performed by horse labor. 
47, 149 Truck growing requires mostly hand labor. Large areas can- 
not be handled by one man. 

147 Wheat is a good example of an extensive crop, that is, one that 
does not require much labor per acre farmed. The same is 
true of the hay crops like timothy and clover or alfalfa (181). 

(d) Labor and Fruit Crops 

44, 175, 236, 390 Fruit crops require a somewhat higher intelligence 

and skill than ordinary field crops. 
294, 302, 551 Tropical products are gathered entirely by hand, 



352 AGR.— FARM MANAGEMENT 

(e) Skill in Laborers 

396, 487 Women and children often do a great deal of unskilled labor 

and are rated as cheap labor. 
485, 119 In many cities a great many workers are idle and do not seem 

to be concerned about their living. 
105 This is a good example of labor that has to be directed. With- 
out a " boss " not much work would be done. 
419 This is an illustration of how to get an important piece of work 

done by cheap labor. 
47 The harvesting of cantaloupes and other truck crops requires 

more or less intelligence to know when the crop is ready for 

marketing. 
136, 160, 177, 178, 180 The modern farmer needs to have skill in 

handling machinery. 

(f) Keeping Labor Employed 

130 One of the problems of the farmer is to furnish work which will 
keep him or his hired help busy the year around. The sugar- 
camp employs labor early in the spring before the field work can 
be done. 

403 Dairying requires work the year around. 
57 Where dairying is done on a large scale the milking is a part of 

the regular day's work. 
44, 175 Fruit growing requires work practically all year. The winter 
season is taken up with pruning, spraying and making boxes and 
barrels for packing and shipping. 

218 Grain farming furnishes labor only for short seasons. The re- 
mainder of the year there is little to do. 

185 Winter feeding of stock furnishes profitable work for the farmer 
and his hired help. 

II. TOOLS, IMPLEMENTS, AND FARM MACHINERY 

As has been noted under Farm Management, the equipment of a 
farm has a great deal to do with the success or failure of its opera- 
tions. Every farmer should strive to have enough machinery and tools 
to carry on his work effectively. Oftentimes loss is caused by not 
having enough equipment to put out a crop in proper season, or to 
harvest it when ripe. 

On farms of large area and level surface, machinery of large capacity 
can be used to advantage, but on hilly farms and on small areas small 
sized machinery, or even hand tools, must be used. See Labor and 
Equipment. 

1. HAND TOOLS 

529 The oldest tool used for harvesting is the hand sickle. Less than 
an acre can be harvested in a day by one man. Consider how 
much more the farmer in 357 can do in a day. 

388 The rough surface makes hand tools necessary here. The grass 



TRANSPORTATION 353 

has been cut with a scythe (the scythe was the first improve- 
ment over the sickle) and now it is being raked into bunches 
with hand rakes. Note how different this is from 181. 
105 The hoe was the first cultivating- tool and is still used on small 
areas. It is very effective for killing weeds and loosening the 
ground when vigorously used. 
47, 108, 175 The basket is a very useful piece of farm equipment. 
The average mature person can handle a basketful of almost 
any article grown on the farm. Besides the basket is useful to 
gather articles into larger piles. 



2. TRANSPORTATION 

449 The most primitive method of transportation is on the human 
back. This method is laborious, slow, and capable of moving 
only small articles. 

311,396,438,454 The two-wheeled vehicle drawn by one or more 
animals is a great improvement over the " burden bearing " 
method. 

124, 138 The most satisfactory means of transporting about the farm 
is the use of the two-horse wagon. 

147, 177 When the wagon box is replaced by a hay-rack, or " hay-lad- 
der," the wagon is useful in handling bulky material like hay, 
straw, or sheaves before they are threshed. 
47 The one-horse wagon is very convenient on the farm and espe- 
cially on a truck farm. 

162 The sled is useful in handling timber in the forest. 



3. TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS 

488, 522, 561 Very crude types of plows. Only in very rich soil and 
with plenty of hand labor could such plowing of the ground 
produce a crop. 

549 This harrow is much like a big, coarse comb and is adapted to 
the peculiar conditions under which the Filipino farmer works. 

178 Here we see the most modern and up-to-date method of breaking 

the ground. This tractor is pulling three plows and doing the 
work of three two-horse teams and doing it quicker. One man 
can operate all the machinery and is thus saving the time and 
wages of two other men. This outfit will plow about one acre 
an hour. 

179 It would take seven horses to draw the implements shown here 

and they would not be able to do it so quickly either. 

180 Tractor and manure spreader. The tractor is of special value in 

plowing sod. The manure spreader scatters the manure evenly 
over the ground. The manure spreader pulls hard and when it 
is loaded furnishes a heavy load for a team. 
332 The tractor is being used every place where large areas are to be 
prepared for crops. 



354 AGR.— FARM MANAGEMENT 

198 The two-horse cultivator is the most common tool for cultivating 
crops. 

4. HARVESTING MACHINERY 

357 With the self-binder one man and a team do the work of a team 
and five or six men. This is an American binder at work in 
England. See the name Piano on the grain shield. 

136 The corn binder is a much later invention than the wheat binder. 
The corn binder saves the labor of two or three men and a great 
deal of hard work. 

160 This binder has an elevator attached which carries the corn up 

and drops it on the wagon. This saves the labor of two men 

necessary to gather the corn from the ground when it is dropped 

as in 136. 
181 The hay loader is a great labor saver and also time saver. 
166 The potato digger is also a great labor saver. The hardest work 

here is the picking up of the potatoes. 

5. THRESHING MACHINERY 

284, 497 It takes a long time to thresh a crop of grain in this way. 
177 The primitive methods would thresh only a few bushels in a day, 

while an outfit like this will thresh more than a thousand and 

have the grain clean enough to go to market. 
218 This machine harvests the heads of wheat, threshes the grain, and 

drops it into sacks for the teams to haul to market. 
233 Here the horses are replaced by a steam engine. By using a 

tractor for preparing the seed bed and sowing the seed the grain 

farmer can handle large areas of farm land and not have a 

single horse. 

6. MISCELLANEOUS 

161 The power ditcher saves a great deal of man labor. Notice the 

peculiar wheels on this machine. They are called caterpillar 
wheels, and move the machine slowly. Such a machine and two 
men will dig the trench and lay the tile for 100 rods, three 
and a half feet deep, in a day. 
44 The power sprayer enables the orchardist to spray several hundred 
trees in a day. The sprayer is mounted on a wagon and the 
gasoline engine seen at the back forces the spray out of the 
nozzles. 



26. FARM HOME AND FARM LIFE 

By A. E. WINSHIP, Litt.D., LL.D. 

LECTURER, EDITOR "JOURNAL OF EDUCATION," BOSTON 

Marvelous changes in country life have occurred in recent 
years. These have made great progress toward retaining all 
that is best and most wholesome in rural living conditions and 
at the same time they have eliminated much of the drudgery 
and isolation of former days. A new era is at hand. For- 
tunately, most of the labor saving devices not only make the 
work more pleasant but also far more profitable so that the 
luxuries of yesterday are becoming the commonplaces of to- 
day. 

The country will never retain its boys and girls merely be- 
cause they can get a good start in life easier there than in the 
city, nor merely because it is more and more profitable to live 
in the country. Boys and girls must learn to love the coun- 
try in childhood and youth. They must be given real oppor- 
tunity for the joys of childhood in the country. Days of hard 
work must be limited as to hours. Life must not be all 
drudgery. 

Most men who flee from the country safety to city dangers 
are usually ticketed for the city by the poky life they lead 
in the country home. Nowhere is social live so easily made 
safe or so attractive as in the country, and no homes need 
the illustrated weekly and monthly magazines, music and other 
forms of pleasant recreation as do those in the country. 

The automobile is doing its full share to overcome the 
isolation of rural life. It is not without significance that our 
greatest farming states have the greatest number of automo- 
biles per thousand of population. The telephone, the trolley 
line and the daily mail delivery bring the farm into close touch 
with the community, the county and the outside world. The 
self binder, the hay loader and stacker, the silo, the cream 

355 



356 FARM HOME AND FARM LIFE 

separator, the tractor and the whole range of modern im- 
provements make for efficiency and profit in farm life. • 

With families of the same means a country home can be 
made infinitely more attractive than a city home. Nothing 
homey is possible in a large city for a family of small in- 
come, while in the country even with a small income a place 
can easily be made very attractive and homelike. Cleaning 
up and dressing up for the evening meal will greatly help to 
make a country home attractive. Be sure that the whole 
family eat the evening meal together and that all sit at the 
table until all are through. The evening should have some- 
thing especially attractive to the whole family. In summer 
time out-of-the-house social life should be promoted. 

Appreciation of nature is of first importance in the coun- 
try. With teeming life growing and unfolding on every hand, 
there is that intimate association with nature that lifts one's 
mind to the higher and nobler things of life. Nowhere else 
is right living and high thinking so easily attained as in farm 
life ; nowhere else is faith in human nature so significant. 

1. THE FARM HOME 

91 White House, 96 Washington's old home. The city at its best can 
show no lovelier homes than the country. Washington, when 
President, used to long for the time when he could return to 
his country home at Mount Vernon. 
37 Newburg, N. Y., 38 Hudson Valley, 262 Nova Scotia. The quiet 
beauty and prosperity of farm homes such as we see here is 
very attractive. There is no smoke, no dirt, no neighbor so close 
as to be almost in your own house. 

102 North Carolina. Can you imagine anything more beautiful than 
this view which can be seen from this farm home? Travelers 
come hundreds of miles to see it. 

367 Stirling Castle. The nobility of the British Isles, even the royal 
family, have homes in the country. 

362 Wordsworth's home, 372 Burns' cottage. Very many of the great 
poets have lived in the country and found their inspiration there. 

373 Highland home. This simple home in the Scotch Highlands seems 
to radiate contentment and cleanliness. 

113 Lincoln cabin. In the pioneer days of our country, this was a 
common kind of home and some people still think of a farm- 
house as a place without comfort or conveniences. 

147 Illinois. This kind of a farmhouse is far more frequently seen 
than the one above. 

181 W. J. Bryan's home. Yon would expect a great man's farm to be 
up-to-date. This one has a windmill which pumps water for 



INDEPENDENCE — CHILDREN 357 

use in the house and barns. Very many farmhouses now have 
bathrooms and all the sanitary appliances of the best city 
homes. 
236 Vineyard, Cal. Here is another modern farmhouse with modern 
conveniences. When the grapes are ripe the air is full of de- 
licious fragrance, very different from the odor of a city street. 

2. INDEPENDENCE 

The farmer is the most independent of men for his farm supplies 
most of his living. If he is thrifty and wise, his food is the freshest 
and best. 
57, 159, 364, 371 Dairy cattle. The country home is always sup- 
plied with milk and cream and fresh butter. 
183, 172 Hogs, 185, 358 Beef cattle. Very often the farmer raises and 
prepares his own meat. Home cured hams, home made sausage 
and such things are delicious indeed. 
141, 142, 143, 144 Packing house scenes. This kind of work in a 
crowded city cannot be half so pleasant nor so satisfactory as 
raising the live animals in the open, sunny fields. 
56 Poultry. Every farm can have its chickens and fresh eggs. 
83 School garden, 149 Celery field. Vegetables fresh from the gar- 
den have a much finer flavor than those which have stood in 
markets and stores. 
166 Digging potatoes. A farmer seldom if ever buys potatoes. 
47 Cantaloupes, 85 Peaches, 175 Apples. It is very pleasant to pick 
ripe fruit and have it fresh every day. The farmhouse cellar 
is always rich with fruit stored away for winter. 
147 Oats, 184 Corn, 357 Wheat. The farmer also raises grain for his 

family bread and to feed his livestock. 
130 Tapping sugar maple. The Indians showed the first white settlers 
how to make maple sugar. A maple sugar camp in the woods 
in the early spring is a delightful place. 
137 Pumpkins. With his milk and eggs, the farmer must of course 

raise pumpkins for pie and for food for his cattle. 
85 Delaware. 112 Kentucky. 149 Michigan. 136 Indiana. 160, 161 
Wisconsin. 178, 179 South Dakota. Usually the farmer is his 
own boss. He is working for himself and his family and this 
adds zest to life. 

3. CHILDREN 

The country is an ideal place for children. 
72 Daisy pole. Children love the wild flowers and are so safe in 
their play. They roam through the fields and woods. 
359 Nightingale. They see the birds and animals in their native 
homes and learn their ways. 
2 Wild moose; 189 Wild elk; 359 Nightingale; 583 Gannets ; 584 Pen- 
guins. Sights of this kind are never seen in cities. 
83 City school gardens. Country children are not confined to a tiny 
patch of garden. 



358 FARM HOME AND FARM LIFE 

236 Vineyard, California. They share in the life of the whole farm. 
522 Chinese farm scene, 239 Ostrich farm. Children seem especially 

interested in little animals of all kinds. Calves, lambs, colts, as 

well as little ostriches, delight them. 
56 Chicken farm. Very many country children like to gather eggs 

and feed chickens. 
455 Palermo, Sicily. It seems too bad that the little children of the 

tenements cannot play with the flowers and birds in the sunny 

fields. 

4. SCIENCE 

Sometimes farmers as a class have been looked upon as ignorant and 

unprogressive. If that ever were true, it is not so today. It takes real 

mental vigor to be an up-to-date farmer. 

93 Overlooking Agricultural Department and grounds, Washington, 
D. C. In the Agricultural Department trained men are con- 
tinually studying and supervising experiments for the benefit 
of the people of the United States. 

172, 173 Ames, la. Several colleges are devoted to agriculture and 
in them men and women are especially taught the best methods 
of farming. Nearly all our colleges have courses in agricul- 
ture. 
83 Philadelphia. Because the tilling of the soil is necessary to the 
life of the people, and for its educational value, even the pub- 
lic schools are teaching it. 

235 Improving plants already known and developing new varieties 
that will be useful is an important interest of agricultural sci- 
ence today. 
44 Spraying apple trees. Spraying prevents disease and saves mil- 
lions of dollars' worth of fruit each year. 

175 Picking apples. It is nice to sort fragrant apples in the orchard. 

115 Phosphate, 180 Manure, 183 Nitrogen-fixing plants. The sci- 
entific farmer of today studies his soil and applies the kind of 
fertilizer needed. 
57, 159, 165, 364, 371 Dairy cows, 185, 358, 370 Beef cattle, 138, 398 
Draft horses, 172, 183 Hogs, 173 Sheep. The scientific farmer 
breeds his stock to suit the purposes he intends. Men enjoy 
greatly the owning and handling of fine stock. 

161 Draining land. Also the farmer must be somewhat of a civil 
engineer to drain his land where it is too wet, or to lay out his 
ditches so as to irrigate it if too dry. 

5. THE METHODS OF WORKING 

A large part of the farm work of the United States is done by ma- 
chinery. The farmer of today must be a mechanic. 
388 Hay making, Germany. Here we see the old way of making hay. 

When work has to be done by hand, only small fields can be 

cared for. 



METHODS OF WORKING 359 

181 Hay loader, Nebraska. This is the American way. It does away 
with the continuous lifting. 

561 Primitive plowing. This kind of plow has been in use in Egypt 
over 5000 years. There has been no improvement. 

522 Plowing, China. And this is a fair sample of plowing in China. 

488 Plowing, Russia. This plow may not last much longer, as Russia 
is importing great quantities of American farm machinery. 
These scenes show how our ancestors worked. 

178, 179, 180 Tractors. This is the way the great fields of the west- 
ern United States are plowed and prepared for seed. 
66, 67 Steel works. 178, 180 Farming. Driving the tractor in the 
open air and sunshine seems much pleasanter and more health- 
ful than the hot, dangerous iron mill. . 

149 Celery, 68 Coke. These pictures show out-of-doors work but cer- 
tainly the farmer has the best of it. 

529 Cutting rice. All grain was harvested with a sickle in ancient 
times. It was very slow and laborious. The scythe and cradle 
seemed a wonderful invention. 

357 Harvesting wheat. The reaper and binder greatly lessen the 
work of the harvest. 

199 Shocking wheat. Then the bundles must be set up to dry. 

147 Loading oats. Later they must be hauled to the barns to be 
threshed. 

284, 479, 497, 562 Primitive threshing. This way of threshing has 
been used by all primitive people. It must be pleasant, this lei- 
surely work in the open air, but it is very inefficient. 

177 Threshing wheat. The modern American way is efficient. See 
the mountain of straw that may be made into paper, or used 
to bed animals or perhaps be returned to the land as a fertilizer 
— unfortunately, at times it is burned. 
3, 4 Quarrying, 41 Factory, 156 Smelting, 177 Threshing. All these 
pictures show work that is hard for the lungs because of dust 
or vapors. The threshing has the advantage of being in the 
open air where the wind can blow the dust away from the 
workers. 

218, 233 Harvesting wheat. Sometimes reaping and threshing is done 
by one machine. Only the heads of the grain are cut off leav- 
ing the straw to be plowed under. 
76 Anthracite, 155 Copper mining. Who would choose to work in a 
mine underground, when he might be raising corn? 

184 Corn field, Kansas. There is no lovelier sight than a field of wav- 
ing corn. This grain makes a wonderful return to the planter. 

160, 136 Corn harvesting. Corn is now cut and cared for by machin- 
ery making the farmer's work much lighter and the returns 
much greater. 
47, 149 Market gardening is very profitable near large cities and 
very attractive work. 

419 Sugar beets. Weeding done by hand is very tiresome. Yet is it 
more so than shopwork? 



360 FARM HOME AND FARM LIFE 

18, 23, 24, 86 Factory scenes. Here one must sit or stand all day in 
a closed room with the dust and rattle and jar of machinery 
and the discomfort of bad air. 
198 Cultivating beets, Colorado. Fortunately, in America, the culti- 
vator drawn by horses makes handwork less necessary. This 
man seems to be enjoying his work. 

44 Spraying apple orchard. Fruit raising is a most attractive kind 
of farm work. Along the lake shore where this picture was 
taken the air is filled with the scent of fruit from cherry blos- 
som time till apples are gathered. 

85, 44, 175 Apple and peach orchards. Trees are no longer just let 
grow. They are now carefully attended and the perfect fruit 
fully repays the work. 

237 Oranges. Careful cultivation such as is shown in this picture is 

hard work. But in such a place with such a view to rest one's 
eyes, we find hard work in its pleasantest form. 

238 Oranges, 236 Grapes, 234 Almonds. One of the joys of farming 

lies in the fact that the farmer sees the finished product of his 
labor. 
11, 12, 41 Shoe manufacture. These people who are skilled work- 
men do only one thing day after day. The monotony is wear- 
ing. 

159, 165, 185, 358, 364, 370, 371 Well bred cattle. All over the civ- 
ilized world men take pride in breeding fine cattle. 
57, 46 Modern dairying. Can you even imagine what we should do 
without milk? Because the health of the whole people depends 
largely on the milk greatest care is taken that it may be health- 
ful. 

127, 186, 188 United States, 301 Jamaica, 589 Australia. Some men 
love the wild, free life of the cattle or horse ranch with the rid- 
ing and open air. 

173 Ames, la. 190 Idaho. Most farmers keep a few sheep. But in 
the west vast flocks containing thousands roam over the land. 
Tending the flocks was one of man's earliest occupations. The 
life out in the open under the skies brings man in close har- 
mony with nature and with nature's God. Shepherd peoples 
have been notably religious peoples. It was not without reason 
that the Good News came first to the shepherds tending their 
flocks on the plains of Bethlehem. 

104, 105 Rice, 112 Tobacco, 117 Cotton, 118 Peanuts. Negroes are 
especially adapted to the farm work in the south. Their orig- 
inal home was in the torrid zone and they thrive best in the 
warmer lands. 

104, 105, 528, 527, 529 Rice farming. These five views of rice growing 
present vastly different conditions. 

6. SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE 

72 Daisy pole. The country is a good place for children and pleas- 
ure parties. 



SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE 361 

118 Arkansas; 113 Lincoln's cabin. Very many city people think of 
farmers as living in homes like these and under poor condi- 
tions. Nothing is farther from the truth today. 
45, 46, 47 New York. 56 New Jersey. 124 Texas. 165 Minnesota. 
180 Nebraska. 184, 185 Kansas. 177 North Dakota. 175 Mis- 
souri. These and many other views show that farmers are not 
necessarily poor. 

150, 151, 152 Automobile factories. An increasing number have auto- 
mobiles. These carry them so quickly to and from the city that 
farmers may be said to have all the best advantages of city and 
country. 
71 Pennsylvania. Good roads have done much to make country life 
easier. 

166 Minnesota. The harvesting of a crop brings the country people 
together. 

218, 233, 177 Threshing in the country is the occasion for exchange 
of work which unites the farmers and emphasizes community 
feeling. 

188, 186, 127 Men on big ranches become like a large family. 

210 Arizona. 198 Colorado. 236, 237 California. In irrigated districts 

the people live close together on small plats which are in- 
tensively cultivated with the most improved machinery. There 
is a community of interest not known in more favored sections. 
This often results in city improvements for the district such as 
the best of schools, electric lights, etc. 

211 New Mexico. 199 Colorado. 224, 225 Oregon. The sparsely 

settled western communities have a friendliness not known in 
the more densely populated regions. 

178, 179, 102, 103 Distance from cities causes the farmers to club to- 
gether in ordering goods from mail order houses. 
38 Hudson Valley. Farmers in a progressive community are usually 
organized into a grange for social and economical purposes. 

195 Yellowstone. 201 Colorado. 207, 208 Arizona. 221 Oregon. 
228, 229 Yosemite. After the crops are cared for very many 
farm people travel to see their country. 
93, 173 The Agricultural Department, and Agricultural Colleges 
send out men to hold meetings which are very enjoyable and 
profitable. They promote sociability and impart the knowledge 
that makes improved farm conditions possible. 

172, 183 Hogs. Pig clubs are likewise efficient in improving animal 
husbandry and at the same time through the club meetings pro- 
vide social opportunities. 

184 Corn field, Kans. 136 Harvesting corn. Corn clubs have given 
young people a greater interest in agriculture. They make for 
improved farming conditions and afford many social occasions. 
Other products than corn are equally available for club work. 
Canning clubs also serve the double purpose of forwarding the 
work in Domestic Science and promoting sociability. 
96 George Washington after he had been through the Revolution and 
had served as President said he saw no way of doing more serv- 
ice for his country than by improving its agriculture. 



Note : — Keystone Industrial Sets and Travel Tours are 
especially rich in visual instruction material. Thousands of 
scenes covering all important countries are conveniently listed. 
Our General Catalog containing this material will be sent free 
upon application. 

The Publishers, 



NATURE STUDY 

INTRODUCTION 
By ERNEST THOMPSON SETON 

NATURALIST AND AUTHOR, GREENWICH, CONN. FOUNDER AND 
CHIEF WOODCRAFT LEAGUE 

An ideal recreation is one which combines exercise of body, 
brain and senses with profit and interest that begets en- 
thusiasm which creates perseverance; one which gives va- 
riety, outdoor activity and in which, above all things, teachers 
and scholars of all ages can go together, — both of them mak- 
ing discoveries. Surely Nature Study is the one, perhaps the 
only one, that completely fits these requirements, and whether 
we focus our power on animal or plant life, we find oppor- 
tunity for exercise and discovery that never loses its zest. 
For this is a well known secret: The naturalist never grows 
old. 

Because the eye gate is the main entrance for nature lore, 
we find our series of views of prime importance in making 
the acquaintance of the living things of our world. Your 
attitude will have much to do with your pleasure and your 
progress. 

If you wish to enjoy these pictures that set before you the 
ways of the animal world, begin by realizing that the animals 
and ourselves are very much alike. That they have been 
evolving for ages, much as we have done, only we have gone 
farther on the road of mind growth; our faculties are far 
beyond theirs, but their senses, in most cases, are much more 
acute than ours. 

' The hearing of a dog or a fox is far better than that of a 
man, and the sense of smell of these creatures is as superior 
to that of man as the speed of an eagle is beyond that of a 
mud turtle. 

Man has, perhaps, better eyesight than a dog, but the birds 

363 



364 INTRODUCTION 

are as superior to man in this department as the dog is in 
smell sense. 

In touch sense man is well developed, better than most big 
animals, but is probably far inferior to such delicate things as 
mice and insects; the same remark applies to taste. There 
are yet other senses, less generally discussed, such as direction, 
electric sense, etc., in which the animals seem far better 
equipped than we; and the sum total of such observations 
leaves us convinced that both we and our wild brothers have 
struggled along in the ages of evolution, each fighting the 
same battle, only we had the luck to find a higher trail and 
with that reach a plane of higher joy and larger sorrows. 

This thought of kinship enlarges our sympathies, but we 
should not obscure the fact of man's supremacy and his right 
of eminent domain. 

We are justified in using all the animal kingdom for our 
lives and comfort ; but every law of profit, logic, and goodness 
forbids the infliction of unnecessary cruelty or destruction. 

What America is suffering today from the wanton destruc- 
tion of birds and wild life, should be a lasting warning, and 
solemn admonition to repair at once the damage — restore 
again the bird life whose loss is robbing us of our forests, 
or an even larger calamity shall be our inevitable and national 
punishment. 

It was recognition of the close relationship of forests and 
animals that led to their being grouped together as Nature 
Study. An utter novice has no difficulty in telling you the 
difference between plants and animals ; a trained naturalist 
is not so sure. The difference between a man and an oak 
is very obvious, but lower down in the scale we have animals 
which sprout into two and we also have sensitive plants that 
behave like animals ; so that the dividing line is much dis- 
cussed if it exists at all. 

The animal, being nearer to man has usually first claim on 
the interest of the young naturalist ; but, strange to tell, I 
know of some men who began by studying birds and quad- 
rupeds and later drifted away to trees and plants; the reason 
given being : The latter are easier to study ; they do not run 
and hide when you wish to be with them, and they respond so 
much better to attempts to cultivate and propagate them. 



27. PLANTS AND PLANT ASSOCIATIONS 

By JOHN M. COULTER, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR AND HEAD DEPT. OF BOTANY, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

Assisted by GEORGE D. FULLER, Ph.D. 

INSTRUCTOR IN PLANT ECOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

I. PLANT ASSOCIATIONS 

Plants are not scattered indiscriminately over the surface 
of the earth, but live together in definite communities called 
associations. For example, forests, meadows, swamps, are 
plant associations, each determined by the conditions for plant 
life. The factors whose combination determines what plants 
can live on a given area are water, temperature, soil, light, 
wind, etc. 

The most conspicuous plant association is the forest, in 
which trees are the dominant plants. The forest is called the 
climax type because in the history of every region there is a 
succession of plant associations, and the final association is 
some form of forest. A great many areas have not yet reached 
the forest stage. The kind of forest depends upon the region 
and its history. 

A. TROPICAL FORESTS 

Abundance of rain, a continuous growing season, and high tempera- 
ture give the richest and most luxuriant of forests. They have thin, 
broad evergreen leaves ; the trees are often not large but of many di- 
verse kinds, growing crowded together with entangling vines and 
abundant herbaceous plants. 

255 Rich tropical forests are seen near the Panama Canal. 
592 Fiji Islands. The even temperature of the south Pacific Ocean in- 
duces the development of rich evergreen forests. 
247 Panama. The rubber tree grows in such rich forests. Ferns 
growing perched on the trunks of palms are often found in 
tropical forests. 
259, 294, 570 Bananas are among the most useful trees of the tropical 
forests, as they supply materials for houses, baskets, and for 
food. Note their broad leaves. 
307 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Some of the richest tropical forests in 

365 



366 NATURE STUDY — PLANTS 

the world are in Brazil. This view is in a somewhat drier re- 
gion, but the trees are still evergreen. 

B. SEMITROPICAL FORESTS 

576, 577, 574 When the rainfall is not quite sufficient, or some other 
conditions are less favorable, a less luxuriant forest develops. 
Palms often grow in such a forest. 

575 Near Victoria Falls, Rhodesia, Africa. A moderate amount of 
rain in the tropics gives only a poor, often scrubby forest. 

C. GLOSSY-LEAVED FORESTS 

In lands with hot dry summers and cold wet winters, the ever- 
green trees often have hard shining leaves, such as those of the olive, 
orange, and tea. 
238 Oranges; 480, olive grove in distance; 530, tea. 

D. TEMPERATE EVERGEEN FORESTS 

376,377 The climate is so mild in Killarney and neighboring parts of 
Ireland that many semitropical plants grow freely, and evergreen 
shrubs and vines are abundant. One reason for the name " Em- 
erald Isle " is to be found in these evergreen forests. 

E. CONIFER FORESTS 

The cone-bearing trees form some of the most valuable forests in the 
world. The most important kinds are the pines, spruces, and firs. 
They are evergreen, holding their small needle-like leaves for several 
years, and are found in lands of cold winters and warm moist sum- 
mers. 

224, 215, 216 The richest conifer forests in the world are those of the 
Pacific Coast. They are composed of Douglas fir, hemlock, tide 
water spruce, western cedar, and western larch. They produce 
more lumber per square mile than any other forests in the 
world. 

Mountain Forests 

195, 196, 222 In the mountains of the west the most abundant forests 

are often those composed of spruce and fir. 
221,409,427,445 Many mountain sides have rich forests of pine, 

spruce and fir. 

Pine Forests 

162, 221 Pine forests of the northern United States have been valuable 
but are being rapidly cut over. 

Southern Pine Forests 

107 The longleaf or Georgia pine has for several years furnished the 
largest cut of pine lumber in the United States. See also Yel- 
low Pine Forests following. 



FORESTS 367 

• Northern Forests 

1,246 The forests of Maine, Alaska, and Canada are often largely 
made up of white spruce and balsam fir. 

Bigtree Forests 

229 The mountains of California have rich forests of pine and fir en- 
circling the giant Sequoias or " big trees." 

European Pine Forests 

388 Germany has carefully preserved and cared for her pine forests. 

Yellow Pine Forests 

191, 201, 228 On the slopes of many mountains of the United States 
yellow pine forms valuable but rather open forests. See also 
southern pine forests above. 

Pinon Forests 

201,206,211 Even the semiarid slopes of the southwestern United 
States have scrub forests of nut, pine and junipers. 

Scrubby Forests 

200, 201, 228 Scrub oaks often mingle with pines in a scanty forest in 
dry regions. 

Mixed Forests 
162 Evergreen and deciduous trees often form mixed forests. 

Petrified Forests 

206 Trees have turned to rock in the petrified forest of Arizona. The 
climate has evidently changed for at present the only trees grow- 
ing there are scrubby junipers. 

Zonation of Forests 

221, 228, 445 Forest zonation is shown on many mountains and high 
cliffs. Often the more open pine forests are at the base of the 
mountains and the richer spruce and fir forests above. 

213 When the mountain is in an arid region the forests are limited to 
the higher parts, where moisture is secured from clouds. 

408, 409 Sometimes only the lower parts of the mountain are covered 
with forests of spruce and fir. The snow remains too long upon 
the higher parts to allow trees to grow. 

Pioneer Forests 

39,51, 191 Forests often have a difficult time becoming established on 
rocky cliffs and hill sides. 

Arctic Forests 

413 As the Arctic circle is approached the trees become low and 
stunted because of the short season, the cold and the strong 
winds. 



368 NATURE STUDY — PLANTS 



F. DECIDUOUS FORESTS 

In the lands where there is a season too cold or too dry for trees to 
grow continuously, the forests shed their leaves at a certain time of the 
year, usually in the fall. 

Climax Forests 

38, 70, 73, 130, 169 Many rich forests of this type are found in the 
United States. They abound in beech, maple, oak, tulip, chest- 
nut and other trees. 

Oak Forests 

361, 369, 379 Rich forests of oak, ash, and similar trees once covered 

much of the British Isles, and a few bits still remain. 
103, 114 Oak forests are among the most useful. 

Flood Plain Forests 

470 The rich soil of flood plains often has forests of great luxuriance. 

Stream-side Forests 

2, 120, 173 Along the water's edge willows and alders are common 
trees. 

Japanese Forests 

525, 527, 529 The forests of Japan are very similar to those of the 
eastern United States. They contain considerable pine, spruce 
and fir. 

New Zealand Forests 

591 Those of New Zealand are rich, containing both conifers and 
broad-leaved trees. 

G. GRASSLANDS 

Natural grasslands are usually found in regions where the rainfall is 
not sufficient to produce forests. They naturally become the feeding 
grounds of herds of cattle, horses, and sheep. 

Prairies 

178, 179, 180, 181 These are the richest of the grasslands and are 
abundantly developed in the central United States. 

Pastures 

73, 173, 183, 301, 480, 589 Their grasses are both native and introduced. 
127, 188, 190, 589 Scanty rainfall in mountainous regions makes the 
grasses short and scanty. 

Lawns and Parks 

37, 316, 482, 586, 587 These show by their close turf the effect of good 
care and constant water supply. 



CONIFERS — BROAD-LEAFED 369 

Forest and Grassland 

38 This is the usual type of landscape in the eastern United States. 
Farther to the west, in the prairie regions, trees are usually 
found only along the banks of streams as in 182. 

II. DEFINITELY IDENTIFIED PLANTS 
A. TREES — CONIFERS 

162 (lower right), 265 White pine (Pinus strobus) has been the most 
valuable tree in North America, but few large forests of it re- 
main. 

191 (in valley), 200, 201 (on top of ridge), 228 (in valley). Yellow 
pine (Pinus ponderosa), the most valuable pine tree of the 
western portions of the United States. 

107 Georgia pine (Pinus palustris), also called long-leaf pine. Now 
the most valuable pine in the United States, growing upon the 
sandy plains of the southeast and yielding lumber, resin, turpen- 
tine, and fiber (from needles). It is a yellow pine. 

388,407,418 Scotch pine (Pinus silvestris), the most valuable pine of 
Europe. 

427,428,449 Mountain pine (Pinus montana) , common on the high 
mountains of Europe. 

201 (on slope), 211 (on hill) Nut pine (Pinus edules), a small scrubby 
tree with nutlike edible fruit. 
1,262 White spruce (Picea canadensis) a tree of the northern United 
States and Canada, valuable for lumber and for paper pulp. 

246 Alaska spruce (Picea sitchensis) also known as tide water spruce, 
a tall tree growing along the coast from Alaska to Washington. 

412 Norway spruce (Picea excelsa), one of the valuable trees of north- 
ern Europe. Often planted for ornament in America. 

162 (one tree in center) Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) , used for pulp 
wood. 

222,228 (on higher parts) Red fir (Abies magnified), a fine tall tree of 
western mountains. 

191,276 Mountain Balsam fir (Abies Idsiocdrpd), a tall slender tree 
common in the higher parts of the Rocky Mountains. 

216,224 Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), also called red fir and 
Oregon pine, is the most valuable and one of the largest trees on 
the Pacific coast. 

206 Arizona juniper (Juniperus monosperma), a small scrubby tree of 
the arid southwest of the United States. 

229 Bigtree (Sequoia gigantea), the largest and oldest tree in Amer- 
ica. It attains an age of 1300 years, a height of 300 feet, and a 
diameter of 35 feet. 

B. TREES — BROAD-LEAVED 
249,259,551,574 Cocoanut palm (Cocos nucifera), a tree that supplies 
building material (stems), thatch (leaves), fiber (husk of nut) 
food, and drink (nuts). It is widespread in tropical -lands. 



370 NATURE STUDY — PLANTS 

556,566 Date palm {Phoenix dactylifera), a most valuable tree, fur- 
nishing food in many semi-desert parts of Asia and Africa. 

294,297,302 Banana (Musa sapientum), a very broad-leaved tropical 
fruit tree. 

552,553 Manila hemp (Musa textilis), a broad-leaved tree of the 
banana family, whose leaves and petioles yield a valuable fiber. 

120, 173 Black willow (Salix nigra), a common tree along stream bor- 
ders. 

182 Cottonwood (Populus deltoides), grown along streams even in 
prairies and desert regions. 

466,489 Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra italica), a. tall tree of re- 
markably upright growth, a native of Europe but much planted 
in America. 
1, 162 Paper or Canoe birch (Betula papyrifera) , a hardy tree with 
papery white bark. 263 shows the bark of this tree used by 
Indians for tent covering. 
10,37,71,96 American elm (Ulmus americana). 

146 White Oak (Quercus alba) in background. 

537,538 Silk mulberry (Morus alba), a small tree cultivated for its 
leaves, which are fed to silk worms. 
70 Chestnut (Castanea dentata). It often produces shoots from the 
base of the trunk. 

130 Sugar maple (Acer saccharum), valuable both for wood and for 
the production of sugar. 

379 Box tree (Buxus sempervirens), a small tree with glossy ever- 
green leaves. Often trimmed into ornamental shapes and used in 
hedges. 

534 Flowering cherry (Primus pscudo-cerasus) , much grown for or- 
namental purposes in Japan. 

259 The papaw (Carica papaya), a very broad-leaved tree grown in 
many tropical lands for its fruit. 

480,485 The olive (Olca europaea), an evergreen tree of the Mediter- 
ranean region. 

489 The fig (Ficus carica). Three trees in foreground. 

237,238,437 The orange (Citrus aurantium) , a tree with glossy ever- 
green leaves, valuable for ornamental purposes and for its 
fruit. 

209 The Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is one of the largest trees of 
the Arizona deserts. It belongs to the pea family. 
44 The apple (Pyrus mains) is usually seen in orchards only. 
85 The peach (Prunus persica). 

234 The almond (Prunus amygdalus). 

303 Cacao tree (Thcobroma cacao). 

302 The coffee (Coffea arabica) is a small tree with evergreen leaves. 

293 Mango tree (Mangifera indica) bears one of the most highly 
prized fruits of the tropics. 

530 Tea (Thca sinensis) is from a small evergreen tree. 

209 Giant cactus (Cereus giganteus), the giant of the deserts, growing 
to a height of 35 feet. 



SHRUBS — VINES — HERBS 371 



C. SHRUBS 

355 European privet (Ligustrum vulgare) much grown for hedges. 

362, 379 Rhododendrons are fine evergreen shrubs with beautiful 
flowers. 

188, 190 Sage brush (Artemisia tridentata) . 

209 Creosote bush (Covillea mexicano) , one of the small shrubs com- 
mon in the deserts of the southwestern United States. 

D. VINES 

37 Boston Ivy (Psedera tricuspidata) , a hardy vine from Japan, much 

grown in Boston and the New England States. 
354, 362, 376 English ivy (Hedera helix) grows abundantly upon the 
houses and castles of the British Isles. The "Ivy" of litera- 
ture. 
236,319,390 Grape (Vitis vinifera), excellent as an ornamental vine as 

well as for its fruit. 
137 Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo). 
47 Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo). 
359 Gill-over-the-ground (Nepeta glechoma). 

E. HERBS 

37,285,287 Century plant (Agave americana). 

91 Cannas (Canna glauca, C. annaei, and hybrids). 
258,333 Sugarcane (Saccharum oiUcinarum). 
136,184 Corn (Zea mays). 
172 Rape (Brassica campestris). 
297, 112 Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). 
198, 270, 419 Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) . 

72,102 Daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum). 

III. CONDITIONS UNFAVORABLE FOR PLANT 

LIFE 

Although vegetation covers most of the earth's surface, there are cer- 
tain areas in which plants grow with difficulty. The result is a scanty 
vegetation made up of a few kinds of plants that are specially fitted to 
endure the hard conditions. The principal unfavorable conditions ap- 
pear in the following classification. 

A. TOO DRY 

Deserts 

209, 563, 565 Where rain seldom falls only a few hardy plants survive. 

Semi-deserts 

190,200,201,495 With scanty rainfall a scanty vegetation results. 
Small trees scattered widely over the soil use all the meager 
rainfall. 



372 NATURE STUDY — PLANTS 

Dwarf Trees 

535 The Japanese by planting trees in pots and limiting the supply of 
water so that life is barely maintained, produce curious dwarf 
trees. Individuals 12-18 inches high may be a century old. 

B. TOO WET 
161 Too much water is almost as bad as too little, but drainage will 
improve this condition. 

C. TOO COLD 

Arctic Snows 

243, 342, 345, 346 Near the poles the continuous cold excludes all plants. 

Alpine Deserts 

219, 276, 279, 322, 323, 440, 441, 448 Where the perpetual snow covers the 
mountain tops plants are absent. 

Arctic Forests 

244, 413 The cold winds make low shrubbery forests. 

Ice Burden 

50, 191 Snow and ice crush trees and break off branches. 

D. TOO MUCH INJURIOUS GAS 

62, 63, 68. 187 Smelters, coke ovens, and other industrial plants often 
send forth great volumes of fumes and gases. These are de- 
structive to vegetation and wasteful as well, resulting in the loss 
of millions of dollars' worth of valuable chemicals that might be 
reclaimed by proper methods. 
453, 300 Volcanoes emit great volumes of poisonous gas. 

City Conditions 

6, 26, 27, 48, 61 The soil in the city is often too dry as the water is 
carried off in sewers. The houses crowd out plants, and smoke 
and gases destroy the foliage. 

E. TOO LITTLE SOIL 

Rock Plants 

189, 208 Rocks permit few plants except mosses and lichens to flourish. 
A few find a foothold in cracks and crevices and gradually form 
more soil. 

Pioneer Plants 

197, 191, 51 Forests slowly conquer steep cliffs and hillsides, but the 
pioneers have a hard struggle. 



WATER RELATIONS OF PLANTS 373 

On Ruins 

478,281,284 As stone houses, castles and other stone structures fall to 
ruins, plants find resting places in shelves and crevices. They 
aid in breaking up the stones, forming soil and crumbling the 
building to the ground. 

F. TOO UNSTABLE SOIL 
Steam Erosion 

191, 197, 207, 208 As rivers cut away their banks the vegetation is de- 
stroyed. Plants find the crumbling soil precarious footing. 

Volcanic Hills 

453 The ash and cinders from volcanic action make plant life difficult 
and uncertain. 

Sand Dunes 

223 The wind moves the sand so readily that no plants can live. 



. IV. WATER RELATIONS OF PLANTS 

Probably the greatest of all dangers to plants is the lack of sufficient 
water. For deficiency in supply see under Conditions Unfavorable for 
Plant Life. The use and economy of the water supply is largely de- 
termined by the foliage condition of the plant. 

Broad thin leaves lose water rapidly. Such leaves are seen in : 160, 
Corn ; 294, 297, 302, Bananas ; 258, 333, Sugar cane ; 259, Papaw ; 172, 
Rape. 

Tropical evergreen forests abound in broad thin leaves using water 
freely. See under Tropical Forest. 

237, 238, 530 In lands with hot dry summers and cool winters the leaves 
are often evergreen, but have glossy surfaces which prevent the 
rapid loss of water. 
224, 388, 591 When the winters are cold, such evergreen leaves are re- 
duced in size to mere needles. 
249, 259, 301, 574 Palms have large leaves, but they have a hard surface 
which retains water well. 
10, 427 In lands with cold winters, many trees conserve their water 
by shedding their leaves in the autumn. See also under De- 
ciduous Forests. 
209 Desert trees often retain their leaves only during a few weeks 

when moisture is most abundant. 
188, 190 Sometimes, as in the case of the sage brush, the small leaves 
which constitute the foliage are covered with a thick coating of 
hairs that helps them to retain the water. 
209,211,235,281 The greatest economy of water in perennial plants is 
seen in Cacti, with no leaves and thick juicy stems. Some will 
live for more than a year upon the stored water they contain. 



374 NATURE STUDY— PLANTS 

V. LIGHT RELATION OF LEAVES 

From the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere and the water of the soil 
green plants are continually making food. The energy for this manu- 
facture comes from the sunlight, and to obtain this sunlight many dif- 
ferences in leaf size and leaf arrangement show their success by the 
large areas of the earth's surface they cover. 
294, 297, 302, Bananas; 112, 297, Tobacco; 259, Papaw; 249, 259, 301, 574, 

556, Palms. Large broad leaves work well where water is 

abundant. 
247, 255,592 Broad thin leaves seen in tropical forests work efficiently 

every day of the year. 
237, 238, 437 Hard glossy leaves, being able to cling to the trees during 

the hot summers, are often very efficient. 
169, 87, 70 Some trees, although only retaining their leaves during the 

summer, have large broad ones and so possess a good working 

capacity. 
182, 537, 120 Some deciduous trees have smaller leaves but still thrive. 
224, 229, 591 The conifers have small needle-shaped leaves, but by re- 
taining them for years do efficient work. 
161, 173, 175, etc. The long ribbon-like leaves of the grasses cover vast 

areas of the earth's surface, testifying to their success. See 

Grasslands. 
160, 258, 333 Corn and sugar cane expose great areas of green leaf 

surface. 
181, 183,317 Alfalfa is successful with innumerable small leaves. 
571 Rosettes of leaves seen in a favorite type of arrangement. 
556, 564, 566, 574 Rosettes on the top of long stems are probably still 

more effective. 
47 Cantaloupes. Mosaics over the ground are formed by many vines. 
37, 354, 362, 376 Mosaics upon walls give climbers good leaf exposure. 
224,388,591 Small leaves of pines and other conifers let light pass 

through to reach those below. 
209, 211, 235, 281 Cacti have usually no leaves, the leaf work being done 

by the fleshy stems. 

VI. FOOD STORAGE 

The manufacture of food by the leaves of green plants not only pro- 
vides for the growth of the plant itself, but there is frequently a sur- 
plus supply stored in some of its organs. This food takes various forms. 
285, 287 Water storage occurs in thick leaves, such as those of the 

century plant, or in the stems of cacti (209, 211, 235, 281). 
551. Water storage also occurs in cocoanuts and in juicy fruits. See 
Fruits. 

Sugar is stored in fruits (which see) and also in the sugar maple. 
130 Sugar maple ; 198, 270, 419, Sugar beets ; 258, 333, Sugar cane. 

Starch storage is most abundant in cereals and grains (which see). 
166 Starch also abounds in the potato. 



ECONOMIC PLANTS - 375 

Protein storage is most abundant in nuts, such as: Peanut, 118; Al- 
mond, 234; also in beans, 562. 

Oil abounds in: 480, 495, Olive; 118, Peanut; 303, Cocoanut. 

Drugs and flavors are stored in: 112, 297, Tobacco; 530, Tea; 302, 
Coffee; 303, Chocolate; 259, Papaw (pepsin) ; 108, Pineapple (pepsin). 

VII. ECONOMIC PLANTS 

See classifications on Production and Manufacturing, and Farm 
Crops, Horticulture and Textiles and Clothing. 

VIII. PLANTS FOR ORNAMENT 

For classication dealing with plants for ornament see Horticulture. 



Note : — A more complete series on economic botany may be 
secured by consulting the extensive list of industrial sets con- 
tained in the company's General Catalog. This catalog will be 
sent free of cost on request. 

The Publishers. 



28. ANIMALS 

By ERNEST THOMPSON SETON 

NATURALIST AND AUTHOR, GREENWICH, CONN. FOUNDER AND 
CHIEF WOODCRAFT LEAGUE 

I. HORSES 

We do not know whether the horse was first used as a saddle beast 
or as a draft animal; but probably it served as a pack animal before 
it was either of the others. The pack of camp stuff was naturally fol- 
lowed by the human rider, and later some rude kind of drag was in- 
vented. Just as the travois of our Indians was evolved from the tepee 
poles being 1 hauled from camp to camp. But men must have had roads 
before they had wheel vehicles, and that was a long time later. 

In the most primitive form of agriculture the donkey and the ox are 
found in service, but one is too small and the other too slow for the 
best results. It is a remarkable fact that agriculture cannot flourish 
without the horse. 

(A) DRAFT AND FARM HORSES 

It is difficult to believe that the magnificent elephantine draft horses 
are from the same stock as the Shetland pony; but it is generally con- 
ceded that such is the case, and it illustrates what can be done by se- 
lective breeding. 

138 A champion team of Percheron draft horses. 
398 Belgian draft horses, world champion in foreground. 
71 A fine 6-horse Percheron team. 
218 A 20-horse team on combined reaper and thresher. 
166 Three fine 4-horse teams on Minnesota farm. 
147 A good road and farm team. 
149 A good truck farm team. 
136 Percheron horses excellent for heavy work. 

180 Horses still necessary on modern farm. 
42 Percheron draft horses. 

198 A good farm team, Colorado. 
162 Hauling logs, Minnesota Pineries. 

181 Horses hauling hay, Nebraska. 

177 Horses hauling grain to thresher, North Dakota. 
226 Teams used to haul in salmon nets. 
357 Harvesting wheat, England. 
488 Russian peasant plowing. 
497 Horses treading out grain, Palestine. 

377 



378 NATURE STUDY — ANIMALS 

537 Horse as pack animal in Japan. 

167 Draft horses, Minneapolis; 273 Winnipeg; 424 Paris; 454 Naples; 
406 Copenhagen ; 420 Gothenburg ; 484 Nizhni Novgorod. 

(B) ROAD AND CARRIAGE HORSES 

195 Stage teams, Yellowstone National Park. 

221 Typical stagecoach horses on way to Mt. Hood. 

229 Hauling sight-seers in Yosemite Valley. 

201 Taking sight-seers through Garden of Gods, Colorado. 

209 Light driving horse, Arizona. 

312 Carriage horses, Montevideo, Uruguay. 

320 Two wheeled gig, Argentina, South America. 

39 Hansom, best type of two wheeled gig, London. 

383 Cab drivers, Berlin, Germany. 

(C) SADDLE HORSES 

The proudest place of all for the horse is as a saddle beast. Fashions 
may change, breeds may come and go, or other means of traction win a 
place ; but the saddle horse is always in fashion. 

The best saddle horses are of Arabian blood and there is some reason 
for believing that these are of a different wild stock from the heavy 
draft horse. The readiness of man to accept the horse is shown in the 
history of our own Indians. Two hundred years ago they had no horses, 
and within fifty years of getting them, they so gloried in their steeds 
that they pretended the horse had always been among them and was a 
special gift of the Great Spirit in the beginning. 

The cowboy is the heir to the Indian range, and the pony is as essen- 
tial to him as the steed to the Arab or the reindeer to the Lapp. 
473 Thoroughbred Arabian horses in foreground. 
494 A sheik and his faithful Arab steed, Syria. 
193 Government officer on saddle horse, Yellowstone Park. 
385 Band of famous cuirassier guards, Berlin, Germany. 
464 Hungarian officer, Andrassy Strasse, Budapest. 
585 Mounted British officers reviewing troops, Sydney. 
333 South American farmers inspecting work on ranch. 
182, 204 Indians on horseback. 

188 Cowboys roping their mounts in corral, Montana. 
127, 186 Cowboys riding on the range. 

II. MULES AND DONKEYS 

(A) MULES 

There is an increase of mules as we enter the hotter regions of agri- 
culture. Experience shows the mule to be tougher than the horse in 
a southern climate and much less easily prostrated by heat — no doubt 
because its other ancestor, the donkey, is a native of the hot tropical 
deserts of the East. 



BEEF CATTLE — DAIRY CATTLE 379 

175 Mule team in Mo.; 124 Texas; 249 Panama; 294 Cent. America; 
311 Brazil; 438 Spain; 479 Greece. 

(B) DONKEYS 

The patient, plodding, sturdy, sand-loving, water-hating donkey is 
seen in his native best in the following group. (Animals like these 
are also called asses and sometimes burros.) 

574 Donkeys in pasture; 378, 522 as draft animal; 566, 567, 557 as 
saddle animal; 560, 524, 341 as pack animal. 

III. CATTLE 

BEEF, DAIRY AND DRAFT 

A thousand years ago, there existed in Europe the kind of wild cat- 
tle known as urus or wild ox. These are represented today, first by 
the herd of wild cattle preserved in Chillingham Park, second by the 
domestic breeds found now in every quarter of the globe. There can 
be no question that all of our different common strains are descendants 
from the wild ox of Caesar's time ; though there are reasons for be- 
lieving that to a slight extent one or two other breeds have been mixed 
in with it. 

The habits of the Chillingham cattle — as I know to my discomfort, 
for once there they put me in peril of my life — are precisely like those 
of the wild cattle of Texas, their blood kin. 

Owing to selective breeding, these wild cattle of Chillingham are 
now white with red ears and red knees. Yet we often see this com- 
bination on the plains of Texas. On the other hand, we often see a 
dun or brown Texan with black muzzle or legs and whitish under 
parts. This probably was the color of the original wild bull that the 
classic author describes as such a formidable monster. 

(A) Beef Cattle 

Wherever the white man has established himself, he has taken with 
him the horse, the cow, the dog, the cat, the hen, the rat, the mouse 
and the measles ; and by much experiment and selective breeding, 
has in each new climate produced a breed of cattle fitted to the new 
environment. 

There are three distinct kinds of service that the ox kind can render 
to man. First, as a range animal for beef and hides ; second, as a dairy 
animal, producing chiefly milk and butter ; third, as a draft animal. 
370 Aberdeen Angus; 317 Shorthorns; 358, 589, 127, 185 Herefords ; 
186 Range cattle (mixed) ; 301 Spanish cattle; 140 Stock mar- 
ket, Chicago. 

(B) Dairy Cattle 

There are many breeds claiming notice among the dairy kinds, from 
the Holstein, yielding 20 to 30 quarts of thin milk per day, to the Jersey, 
whose 8 or 10 quarts per day is as rich as cream, in some cases, has 



380 NATURE STUDY — ANIMALS 

produced 3 lbs. of butter per day. A combination of the two qualities 
is reached in some measure by the famous Ayrshire cow from the 
land of Bobbie Burns. 

159,165,57,403 Holstein-Fresian ; 364 Jersey; 371 Ayrshire; 356 
Dairy shorthorn; 591 Mixed. 

(C) Draft Cattle 

There are certain great advantages in using cattle as draft animals; 
for example, their strength, their fearlessness in soft ground, their 
simplicity of diet, and the possibility of their being a food supply when 
too old for work, etc., to all of which the chief disadvantageous offset 
is their slowness. 

Common Ox 
580 Oxen in S. Africa; 298 Cuba; 284 Mexico; 561 Egypt; 337 S. 
America; 497 Palestine; 454 Ox and horse, Italy. 

Buffalo 
549 Philippines; 491 Syria; 474 Constantinople. 

Humped Cattle of Asia 
562 Egypt; 545 Java; 548 Philippines; 510 Burma. 

IV. BISON AND BUFFALO 

If we follow the classification of Lydekker, the living cattle kind 
may be divided into four groups ; namely, 

The Common Ox Kind or Round-Horned Cattle, discussed in the 
previous chapter. 

Gaurs, Flat-Horned or Jungle Cattle, found in tropical Asia. 

Bisons, or Woolly Round-Horned Cattle, including the American 
Buffalo and its European cousin the Bison or Aurochs. 

Buffaloes Proper, with rough angular horns and nearly naked skin. 

The famous American bison (commonly called buffalo) has never 
been successfully tamed. Its temper is always morose and the crea- 
ture is subject to sudden fits of murderous rage. This is therefore 
one of the few in the cattle family that decline to become servants of 
man; we may kill him, but not enslave him. 
232 Famous American bison, almost extinct. 
549 Buffalo harrowing rice fields near Manila. 
491 Shoeing a buffalo in a street of Tarsus, Syria. 
474 European buffalo in yoke, Constantinople. 

V. SHEEP AND GOATS 

They have divided hoofs and chew a cud as oxen and cows do. 
There is little doubt that the dog was the first wild animal to be do- 
mesticated by man; but it seems likely that sheep came soon after, 
and as early as the days of Abel, the flocks of sheep were established as 



CAMELS AND LLAMA 381 

a form of wealth. We can trace with certainty the origin of all our 
other domestic animals except the dog, the sheep and the goat. The 
sheep especially has been puzzling, for it has been so long in our 
folds and has been so completely modified by selective breeding that it 
no longer resembles any wild sheep that we know of. 

A. SHEEP 

When we examine the bighorn sheep of America, or its larger 
kinsman the bighorn of Europe, we find, as in most animals, a fine 
wool next the skin, but quite hidden by the long coarse bristles. It 
is believed that ages of selective breeding have worked out the bristles 
and developed the under wool until it is as we see it in our finest 
long woolled sheep today. 
190,480 Merino; 173 Shropshire, Oxford and Cotswold. 

B. GOATS 

When Americans learn a little better the lessons of thrift in daily 
life, they may adopt the goat as the poor man's cow. Such is the solu- 
tion that many a family in Norway, Switzerland and other European 
countries has adopted. For the goat is easily managed and fed. Its 
milk is especially acceptable for infants, and it is doubtful if any of 
our animals yield as high a percentage of profit as the lively goat, so 
valued abroad and so little understood with us. 
411 Milking goats, Norway; 447 Goats, Switzerland. 

VI. CAMELS AND LLAMA 

Although there are no camels in North America, it is generally con- 
ceded now that the camel family originated on our continent and that 
a division took place so that the original home near California was 
broken up. One branch emigrated to Asia to father the humped 
camels of today, while the other went south to South America, where 
they are now represented by the tame llama, the tame alpaca, the wild 
guanaco and the wild vicuna. 

The branch that went to Asia originally inhabited the high, bleak, 
cold steppes of Central Asia; where, according to Prejevalsky, the 
wild race still survives. 

There are two well marked species of camel; first, the one-humped, 
well known in Arabia, which some believe to be its native land. When 
bred for speed, this one-humped camel is the " dromedary " which is 
credited with traveling ten miles an hour and covering one hundred 
miles a day. 

The other species of camel is the Bactrian, or woolly camel of 
Central Asia. On account of its double hump it is called the two- 
humped camel, or, as described by a sailor, it is the "two masted 
ship of the desert." Of course, the masts are not masts at all, but 
magazines. The camel stores up fat in his hump, when living is good 
and lives on his accumulated capital when food is scarce, also, by 



382 NATURE STUDY ANIMALS 

means of a storage plant in his stomach, he can continue for several 
days without drinking. 

The llama was the only domesticated hoofed animal in America be- 
fore the white man came. It served as wool bearer and burden bearer, 
as well as for meat. In our zoological gardens it is noted for its 
readiness to spit in the face of any who annoy it. 
564, 565 Camels in Egypt; 504 Caravan, Jaipur, India. 
335 A llama near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. 

VII. DEER 

Deer are like cattle, sheep and camels, cud-chewing animals with di- 
vided hoofs. Their horns (antlers) are shed and renewed annually. 
There are numerous species and in many places they are an important 
source of food for man and the larger carnivorous animals. The flesh 
of the deer is called venison. The reindeer is an indispensable do- 
mestic animal in some northern regions. Some deer as the moose "and 
elk attain a large size, others may not exceed 18 inches in height. 
The magnificent specimen of American elk shown in 189 is truly wild 
and was secured by careful stalking with the camera. The name of 
the photographer is not given but it should have honorable mention. 
413 Reindeer herd, Lapland; 2 Moose; 189 Elk. 

VIII. DOG 

The dog is a carnivorous animal of the family Canidae, kept in a 
domesticated state by man since prehistoric times until it has become 
the most intelligent of beasts. It is undoubtedly a modified descend- 
ant of the wild species of the genus Canis among which are the com- 
mon wolf and jackal. 

The dog has figured as man's companion in three wholly different 
roles ; first, as an aid in the chase. This was his earliest and his 
highest modern use. His second job was as a beast of burden, a 
draft animal, and his last as companion and watchman and guardian 
of his flocks. 
118 Arkansas hounds. 

279 Eskimo dog team, Hopedale, Labrador. 
246 Gold miners and dog team, Alaska. 
396 Dog drawing milk cart, Antwerp, Belgium. 
190,480 Shepherd dogs with the flocks. 
204, 263 Faithful guardian of American Indians. 
395, 490 Dog, companion to man in all walks of life. 
529 The pet dog of a Japanese rice farmer. 

IX. HOGS 

When I was a small boy, I reasoned out for myself that a pig and 
an elephant must be cousins. For the pig is naked or bristly and thick- 



HIPPOPOTAMI — ELEPHANTS 383 

skinned ; he has hoofs, he grows tusks and the end of his snout is mus- 
cular, sensitive and movable. Yes, he is surely a pachyderm ; and 
when I found that he really was in a large sense so classed, I felt proud 
and happy. 

But our views illustrate the hog not as a zoological exhibit, but one 
of the most important food products of the United States. There is 
not the least doubt that the wise men who forbade Jew and Turk to 
eat pork did it knowing that thereby they would save these people from 
much dreadful disease. 

But we live in a different time. Sanitation is better understood 
now. Modern methods of cookery put the terrible trichinae beyond the 
possibility of harm ; and we believe that robbed of pork America would 
today take a distinct backward economic step and gain nothing hy- 
gienic or ethical to offset the damage. 
172 Hogs in rape pasture, Ames, Iowa. 
183 Poland China hogs in alfalfa pasture, Kansas. 
122 Hogs shifting for themselves, Texas. 

X. HIPPOPOTAMI 

If we call them " river horses," the naturalists chide us for our 
loose and incorrect nomenclature ; but turn " river horse " into its ex- 
act Greek equivalent " Hippopotamus " and our scientific discrimina- 
tion is applauded. 

Next to the elephant the hippopotamus is the bulkiest existing quad- 
ruped. It is allied to the hog. It was formerly found in the rivers of 
most parts of Africa and is still quite common in the more remote 
districts. It is largely aquatic in its habits and can swim well and 
float and remain a long time under water. It feeds chiefly on aquatic 
plants but is sometimes destructive to cultivated crops. 

577 Hippopotamus hunt, Rhodesia, Africa. 

578 Returning with trophies from hippopotamus hunt. 



XL ELEPHANTS 

There are two well known kinds of elephant ; one the Indian, with 
the small ears and four toes on the hind foot; the other the bigger 
African elephant, with enormous ears and only three toes behind 
(both have five in front). Only the male Indian elephant has tusks 
while both male and female of the African elephant have these weap- 
ons. 

It is well to remember that we once had native elephants of our own 
in America. The mastodon was undoubtedly hunted by our Indian 
predecessors, and its remains are found in many parts of the United 
States and Canada. 

509 Elephants hauling teak logs, Burma. 
505 Stately elephants on parade, Jaipur, India. 



384 NATURE STUDY — ANIMALS 



XII. ALLIGATORS 

The alligator is a cold-blooded reptile of the crocodile family. It 
lives in tropical and sub-tropical countries. There was a time when 
the alligator was very abundant in all Florida rivers, but the discovery 
that its hide made a strong, durable and highly ornamental leather 
created such a demand that it is quite possible the alligator may go 
the way of the buffalo. 
110 Alligator, Palm Beach, Florida. 

XIII. BEAVERS 

The beaver is an amphibious rodent. It has webbed hind feet and 
a broad flat tail. It shows great ingenuity in constructing its home 
and in building dams across streams. The beaver dam shown in view 
196 is a quarter of a mile long and is wriggled across to take advantage 
of every bump, root and supply of building material. It was the pursuit 
of the beaver that first opened up the great North-west. Thousands 
of pelts were used for fur and thousands also for felt. In the latter 
case, the skins left over were used as leather. 
196 A beaver dam, Yellowstone National Park. 

XIV. KANGAROOS 

The kangaroo, the creature that walks on three legs (counting his 
tail) and carries its young in its pocket, was enormously abundant in 
Australia at one time and furnished one of the finest kinds of leather. 
It is quite possible that the high quality of this leather may operate 
to save the jumper from extinction. 
588 Kangaroos, Adelaide, Australia. 

XV. SILK WORMS 

China was the original home of the silk industry, and so fully did 
they appreciate it as a source of wealth that every effort was made by 
these astute silk farmers to keep it to themselves. But the secret arts 
of the silk culture were learned by two Persian monks, who went to 
China to confer the blessings of their message and incidentally derive 
such benefits as they could in fair exchange. 

Having learned the methods of raising and reeling the silk, they 
returned to Constantinople, bringing with them a hollow cane in which 
was a quantity of silk worm eggs. This was in 552 A.D., under the 
Emperor Justinian, who did not a little towards giving this industry to 
the world at large. 

Several attempts have been made to introduce silk culture into 
America ; but so far it has not succeeded. Nor is it likely to succeed 
as long as the much larger opportunities of land, lumber, cattle and 
mineral exploitation are open to our thrifty population. For additional 






HARVEST OF THE SEA 385 

information on silk manufacture see description on views 541, 22, 23, 
24, 53, 54, 55. 

536 Silk worm incubator, Japan. 

537 Gathering mulberry leaves for the silk worms. 

538 Feeding mulberry leaves to voracious young silk worms. 

539 Silk worm cocoons in their nests. 

540 Reeling silk from cocoons. 

XVI. THE HARVEST OF THE SEA 

Fishing has always been carried on in all maritime countries and 
has added greatly to their prosperity. Of all fish that are important 
to mankind, the West Coast Salmon has perhaps the strangest history. 
It is hatched far up in the head waters of the West Coast rivers and 
works down to the sea. After three or four years, it returns a full 
grown salmon, goes up the river to some small stream, there spawns 
and dies. " All die after spawning once " ; so that the enormous catch 
of the canneries will have no effect on the salmon's number, if enough 
are left to stock the spawning beds. Jordan and Evermann say that 
the Pacific salmon " is unquestionably the most valuable fish in the 
world." 

The importance of fisheries, in the food supplies of nations and as 
affording large returns for labor can scarcely be overestimated. The 
sea harvest is ripened without trouble or expense to the fishermen. 

226 Netting salmon in the Columbia River, Oregon. 

227 Butchering salmon in cannery, Astoria, Oregon. 
244 Indians drying salmon on Yukon River, Alaska. 

13 Drying codfish in the sun, Gloucester, Mass. 

531 Drying sardines on beach, Beppu, Japan. 

97 Bedding for young oysters, Hampton, Va. 

86 " Shucking " oysters, Baltimore, Md. 

481 Fisher women selling herring, Finland market. 

345 Hunting seals on skis, South Polar Pack. 

415 Whales and floating whale station, Spitzenbergen. 

XVII. SOME STRANGE AND USEFUL BIRDS 

584 The Penguins are flightless sea-birds of the southern hemisphere. 
They have bartered their freedom of the air for a fuller free- 
dom in the water ; for their powers of swimming and diving 
are so wonderful that they live on fish taken in open chase. 

583 The Gannets in this view are a wonderful illustration of birds 
congregating in some favorite nesting ground well protected 
and near abundant food. There are said to be millions of these 
blacktailed gannets on this South African Island. The gannet 
has retained its mastery of the air combined with enough 
adaptation to the water to insure its securing fish for itself 
and its family. 



386 NATURE STUDY — ANIMALS 

239 Ostriches. Opposite the Gannet Island is the mainland of Africa, 

the home of the ostrich, the largest bird alive on earth today. 
Like the penguin, it has given up its hope of flight for some 
other advantages, in this case, great strength and bulk. This 
view was taken on a California ostrich farm, but the home of 
the industry is Africa. 

240 Pigeons. Still more completely domesticated are the pigeons on 

the California pigeon farm. The number of white pigeons in 
this view catch the eye. The reason is simple ; this is a squab 
farm. White squabs being clean and white looking, fetch a bet- 
ter price in the market, so that the squab farmer eliminates all 
dark strains as soon as possible. 
56 Chickens. A similar idea may have to do with the white plumage 
of the Leghorns in this view ; though in this case the eggs are 
the most profitable product of the live stock. 

401 Ducks. In the Dutch village here shown whose mainstay is fish- 
ing, we have in the foreground a side issue of the thrifty fish- 
eries, the ducks that careful breeding has brought to such per- 
fection and made so profitable. 

216 Geese. Their kinsfolk, are seen in this Puget Sound picture. 
Here again in the background is the big industry of the country, 
but in the foreground a side line of feathers. These common 
geese are now seen throughout the new West, showing that 
thrift and all-round development have slowly become the order 
of the day. 

415 Galls. And now, going farther from the land, we have a scene 
that is of regular occurrence at the cutting up of a whale. Not 
less than a dozen species of sea-birds and as many thousands of 
individuals are here assembled, a sight to gladden the heart 
of the bird lover as well as of the artist. 

535 White Cranes. This view shows one of the charming scenes 
typical of Japan, with the little brown ladies in the foreground 
and the big white cranes in the background. One cannot help 
hoping that the overpowering influence of the white man's 
ways will not wipe out these pretty scenes and end by putting 
all Japan in Bowery boots and overalls. 

359 Nightingale. It is fitting to close this bird chapter with one of 
the shyest, rarest, plainest and most famous of all birds. The 
one whose wonderful song has inspired poets and singers in 
all ages, the sweet nightingale, plain brown in her lowly nest, 
brooding over her plain brown eggs, in which there lies con- 
cealed " the music of the moon." 



29. OUTDOOR LIFE 

BOY SCOUTS, CAMP-FIRE GIRLS, WOODCRAFT 
LEAGUE 

By DANIEL CARTER BEARD (" DAN BEARD ") 

HONORARY VICE-PRESIDENT AND NATIONAL 'SCOUT COMMISSIONER, 
BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA, FLUSHING, N. Y. 

Long before there were any skyscrapers, cottages, log, 
houses, " shacks, shanties, or shelters," people lived on this 
earth, and they lived in the open! Our ancestors away back 
there were naked savages, but somewhere hidden in the simple 
brains of these people were the seeds that have since grown 
into wonderful minds, producing great statesmen, poets, artists 
and scientists. 

But the people in those early days had something just as 
valuable as culture — and that is vigorous health. Mainly be- 
cause of the large amount of work done indoors, the people 
of today do not have the vigorous health of the primitive men 
and women. 

The modern trend or desire for the open has produced the 
Sons of Daniel Boone, the Boy Pioneers, from which sprang 
the Boy Scouts of America, the Girl Pioneers, Girl Scouts, the 
Summer Camps, the Camp-fire Girls and the Woodcraft 
League. The primary object is to send the people back again 
to the open, so that they may in a measure regain some of the 
rugged health and the normal healthy condition of the five 
senses possessed by their primitive savage ancestors. 

It is acknowledged that the possession of vigorous health, 
clear farseeing eyes, acute ears and a delicate sense of smell 
is in no wise inconsistent with a highly developed intellect. 
Now the boys and girls of today have the young brains of mod- 
ern men and women which only need schooling and education 
to make as good minds as any possessed by the great people of 
our history. 

Here at school, by the aid of the Keystone stereographs, and 
lantern slides, we can in our minds take hikes anywhere on the 
face of the globe ! We can pretend to pack our knapsacks, 
strap them on our shoulders, grasp our staff and hit the trail 

387 



388 NATURE STUDY — OUT-DOOR LIFE 

back through history. We can spend a day at the pyramids, we 
can hobnob with the Sphinx, we can make a scout camp in the 
old Colosseum, or we can tramp among the cave dwellers of 
America and Europe. What fun ! I envy you young people 
the joy of your study. 

Think of sitting by your camp fire cooking flapjacks in the 
cliff dwellers' house, built in a cleft of a beetling precipice, or 
rolling up in your blanket and going to sleep where Julius 
Caesar slept or where the ancient Greeks fought and worked. 

We can do all this by help of these wonderful stereographs ; 
we can visit Palestine and tramp through the Bible land where 
the Apostles lived and worked, where Christ preached and per- 
formed miracles. We can even take hikes to the places where 
the crosses were set and awe-stricken, with bared heads, stand 
on the ground where Christ was crucified ! 

Imagination is a wonderful thing, and fortunately young 
people have more of this gift than their seniors, so fill your 
ditty-bag full of enthusiasm and imagination and pack your 
knapsack with the facts and scenes found in this wonderful 
series and then start on your hike, anywhere you choose to go. 
We can scale the Matterhorn or climb the Himalayas and 
step out on the roof of the world. We can go to South Africa 
and see millions of gannets and whole regiments of funny 
penquins waddling about like white-vested soldiers. We can 
sail with Peary to the North Pole or travel with Amundson 
across antarctic lands. 

There is nothing we cannot do on this earth if our ditty- 
bag is well filled and we have the help of a stereoscope or lan- 
tern and this wonderful collection of Keystone Views. 

HIKES 

1, 2 Some hunters hike through Maine woods. 

6, to 10, 13 Visitors to Boston take hikes to historical places 

in and about the city. 
14, to 18 A hike through the textile mills of Lawrence, Mass. 
25, to 31, 34, 35, 51 The high school pupils take hikes about 

New York City. 
36, to 39 Boy scouts, having read Irving's stories, take hikes in 

the Hudson River Valley. 
47, to 50. Buffalo Camp-fire girls hike to Niagara Falls. 
61, to 67 A hike to a steel mill at night is an experience never to 

be forgotten. 



HIKES 389 

69, 70 Boy Scouts of Oil City hike out into the country to see a 

well shot. 
73 Old soldiers hike over the Gettysburg battle fields. 
74, to 79 A hike to a coal mine is very interesting. 
80, 82, to 84 The Boy Scouts of Germantown hiked to Phila- 
delphia to see the old bell and mint. They visited several 
factories while there. 
87, to 96 Every American hopes some day to hike over Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
98, to 100. Also every American looks forward to hiking about 
the historic places near the mouth of the James River. 

102, 103 Winter visitors to the Carolina mountains enjoy, and 
gain health from the mountain hikes. 

108, to 111 A winter hike in Florida is well worth while. 

106 Sherman's march to the sea was a famous hike. 

119, 120 Hikes about New Orleans are interesting. 

122, to 127 A hike through Texas shows the astonishing de- 
velopment of that country. 

136, to 138 A party of Boy Scouts saw these scenes on a Satur- 
day morning hike. 

139, to 144 Very many visitors to Chicago hike through stock- 
yards and packing houses. 

150, to 152 Men are always interested in hikes to the factories 
where automobiles are made. 

154, to 157 Michigan Boy Scouts hiked to the Lake Superior 
mines. 

159, to 161 A morning hike along country roads will show scenes 
like this. 

170, 171 Keokuk Scouts hike to the Great Dam. 

174, 148 A hike along the river front at St. Louis, Mo., will show 
how the river must be watched. 

191, to 197 The best way to see the Yellowstone is to hike 
through, camping each night. Professional guides help to 
make such an experience delightful. 

202, 205, 207, 208 A canyon gives its full beauty to the pedes- 
trian who hikes along the winding paths. 

206, to 208 No matter what means of conveyance is used to reach 
these places, the sight-seer must hike over the steep trails 
if he is to see the best of it. 

213, 214 Through such country, over mountains and valleys, hiked 
the gold hunters prospecting for gold. 

219, 221 Enthusiastic mountain climbers hike to the tops of these 
mountains. They claim no exhilaration equals that ob- 
tained by mountain climbing. 

228, 229 John Muir hiked through the Yosemite and made it 
known to the rest of us. Great naturalists must be great 
hikers. 

228, to 242 A winter's hike through California is very entertain- 
ing. 



390 NATURE STUDY — OUT-DOOR LIFE 

182, 189, 191, to 197, 221, to 223 Through this country Lewis 
and Clark made that long - , long hike, exploring the Louisi- 
ana Territory which the United States had just purchased. 

243, to 246 All the people who travel in Alaska hike. Miners, 
merchants, officials all go on foot. 

262, 264, to 269 Every year visitors from the States t*ake the 
trip down the St. Lawrence, stopping to hike through and 
around Quebec, Montreal and other interesting places. 

274, to 276 In the same way travelers in the Canadian Pacific 
take hikes through the lovely mountain scenery. 

280, to 283 From Vera Cruz, one may hike to Mexico City over 
a broad highway built by the Aztecs. Cortez and his men 
walked this road. 

284, to 289 Take a hike through Mexico with Keystone Views. 
It is far safer than a real hike would be. 

291, to 294 You will need "seven league boots," that is Keystone 
Views, for this hike through Central America. 

305, to 311. A hike about Rio Janeiro and Sao Paulo will let you 
see where your coffee comes from. 

324, 325, 326, 327 Boy travelers in Chili will hike from Valpa- 
raiso to Santiago and then to the rainless coast where nitre 
is gotten. 

329, to 334 Imagine following the footsteps of Pizarro. The 
cruel conqueror would hardly know this country as it is 
today. 

338, to 341 Just a little hike today. Caracas must get all its 
imports through La Guaira, the port on the low hot coast. 
Let us hike along and see both cities. 

347, to 352 English people walk much more than Americans. A 
hike through London's famous places is a hike through 
history. 

354, to 356 Every boy and girl will be glad to hike to Shake- 
speare's home and perhaps attend a play in Memorial 
Theater. 

365, to 372 Take your hike with Rob Roy, and Bruce and Wal- 
lace and Roderick Dhu. Over this country Sir Walter 
Scott loved to hike. 

374, to 382 And next a hike through Ireland with proper re- 
spect to the " wee folk," not forgetting to kiss the Blarney 
stone. 

383, to 385 Boy S.couts must hike about Berlin. It is not a pa- 
rade they would see now, but soldiers on their way to the 
terrible war. 

388, to 394 So many people are looking back to the delightful 
time they spent hiking down the Rhine region, stopping 
everywhere to see the beautiful scenery and historic places. 

396, to 397 If today you could hike from Antwerp to Namur, 
it would be a different Belgium you would see, for Belgium 
has been almost destroyed by the war. 



HIKES 391 

399, to 403 A hike through quaint Dutch places will show us 
that Holland, too, is feeling the war. 

421, to 426 Be an American aviator on leave. Hike about Paris, 
and then go back to duty at the front. 

427, 428, 440, to 449 The only right way to see the Alps is to 
go on foot. So take your staff, put on your mountain shoes 
and hike up the mountain roads. Climb the Matterhorn 
and study the glaciers and spend your nights in the lovely 
little pensions along your way. Whole schools in Switzer- 
land make hikes to historical places. 

458, 459, 456, 457, 450, to 455 And when you have seen the 
Alps, hike down into Italy and Sicily. It will take a whole 
vacation to visit noted places in Milan and Venice, to hike 
on to Florence and Rome. You will want to climb Ve- 
suvius. 

460, to 466 Again the " seven leagued boots " to hike through 
Austria-Hungary. This hike leaves us in Serajevo where the 
war began. 

467, to 471 It will take giant steps (only the Keystone Views 
can help us) to hike down the Danube, taking only a 
glimpse of each of the Balkan peoples. Watch out for 
bandits on your way. 

472 to 474, 489 Take a hike about Constantinople and see if you can 
learn why it is the " key of the East." 

475, to 479 All of you, boys and girls, will take this hike through 
Greece, and, as you go, imagination will bring back the ancient 
glory. 

482, to 488 Every American boy and girl living under the Stars and 
Stripes will be interested in this newest republic. So let us 
get a passport at Petrograd, and hike to the old capital at Mos- 
cow and then to the great market at Nizhni Novgorod. Watch 
the oppressed Jews in Warsaw and then hike to Kief. 

492, to 498 How your heart thrills as you take this hike over the same 
roads and stand in the same places where Jesus used to be. 
Perhaps you camp where Richard Coeur de Lion pitched his 
tent or where Saladan had his camp. 

500 Here is another long hike. You must start in at Calcutta low 
and hot and come out on the roof of the world. 

513, 514 A hike in Hong Kong will surprise you. This Chinese city 
belongs to the English. Its name is Victoria and the island 
upon which it is located is Hong Kong. 

515, to 519 A hike in this region is much pleasanter than riding in a 
palanquin. 

519 Through people like these, our soldiers marched to Pekin to res- 
cue the western legations shut up in that city. With the Key- 
stone Views you can hike over the same ground much more 
safely. 

525, to 541 A hike in Japan would include a visit to Fuji-Yama. You 
would go in the tea fields with this gay little girl. You would 



392 NATURE STUDY — OUT-DOOR LIFE 

buy shoes in this quaint shoe store, and visit the little ladies in 
the tea garden. 

546, to 553 On your hike through the Philippines you will see buffaloes 
used as work animals and you may eat fresh coconuts and 
• watch the natives making rope. 

558, to 569 Start in at Alexandria and hike to Cairo. You will lunch 
with the Sphinx, camp in the shadow of the Pyramids. You 
will feel as if you had stepped into the far past until your hike 
ends at the very modern irrigation dam at Assuan. 

575, to 577 Imagine you are with Livingstone hiking through the 
jungle, discovering the Victoria Falls. 

570, to 573 Or with these views hike with Stanley searching for Liv- 
ingstone and visit the savages in their native homes. 

579, to 584 In South Africa you will hike to the gold mines, cross the 
veldts, hunt for diamonds, then hiking south you will see the 
gannets and penguins and at Cape Town take the ship for home. 

585, to 589 Boy Scouts in Sydney will hike to Victoria and Queens- 
land. 

593, to 600 And finally with these views you can hike to some ob- 
servatory and see sun, moon, stars and a comet. 



30. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE 

By MEYER BLOOMFIELD, B.A. 

DIRECTOR OF THE VOCATION BUREAU, BOSTON, MASS. 

The story of the occupations is the story of about everything 
the world holds to be of human interest. Every occupation is 
a lesson in history, geography, civics, arithmetic, English and 
drawing. To have pictures of the world's work before our 
eyes as we go through our school lessons each day is to dra- 
matize these lessons for ourselves in a way our memories take 
joy in; and when such pictures are of the kind the Keystone 
collection offers, the children react to them as they do to noth- 
ing less than an actual visit to the industries themselves. Here 
are pictures in three dimensions, solid, deep, and delicate in 
light and shade. Every child's imagination will supply the 
motion. A film or reel of moving pictures puts a strain on 
the eyes of young folks, the speed of the picture is often- 
times a distraction. The Keystone pictures are the more sat- 
isfactory for the quiet and composure they invite. For the 
reasons just mentioned, then, the use of the set dealing with 
various industries and employments is the best possible in- 
troduction for children to the vital subject of choosing a life 
career. During their early teens they get countless impres- 
sions ; in their adolescence they begin to test out these im- 
pressions in life-experience. A childhood start through such 
impressions and associations as the Keystone views afford may 
prove to be decisive in the future careers of many a boy and 
girl. 

In studying the pictures the thought that is most helpful to 
bear in mind is that everything we use and enjoy is the result 
of our own or some one else's labor, and that to do one's work 
well means skill, thought, effort, and sacrifice. 

These 600 stereographs and slides touch a very wide range 
of vocational activity. In the space available for this com- 
ment only a limited number can be dealt with. The resource- 

393 



394 VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE 

ful teacher will find in the title list and the various classifica- 
tions a great deal of material that will prove helpful in pre- 
senting this subject. 

1. PRODUCTION 

A. FOOD GIVERS 

(i) The Farmer 

Three out of ten of all the people in the United States are farmers. 
We owe the food we eat to the work of these country people; from 
the flour mills get their grain, the textile mills their wool and cotton, 
the packing houses their cattle. Our shoes, clothing, and bread owe 
their existence to the farmer. Agriculture or farming is the basic 
vocation, every other vocation rests upon it. To help nature produce 
the food we need is a wonderful thing to do. A farmer must know 
many useful things, and use his mind well, for whatever mistakes he 
makes may affect us all in our comforts and necessities. A good 
farmer is a scientist, engineer, and business man all in one. There are 
many interesting careers open to those who love the outdoor life, simple 
food, hard work, and the wonders of sky and field throughout the 
changing seasons. 

Railroads, automobiles, the post office, the telephone and telegraph 
have brought to the farmer's doorstep many of the advantages of the 
crowded centers of population and have done away with the isolation 
of the country home. There are libraries, granges, clubs, and many 
kinds of social activities. 

The farmer is independent. He is his own master. He eats the 
food he raises. He is the backbone of our country. 

Farm work is a daily education. There is something new to learn 
every day. The United States Bureau of Agriculture and experiment 
stations are working on a thousand problems for him. See Food 
Products under classification Production and Manufacturing, also the 
Agricultural group. 

(2) The Stockman 

The stockman is a farmer who raises cattle, horses, mules, sheep or 
hogs for the market. His products are in great demand. The great 
range country which cattle and sheep require is west of the Mississippi. 
See classification on Animals. 

(3) The Dairyman 

Unlike the stockman, we find the dairy business near the great cities. 
Xew York is at the head in numbers of dairy cows. Selling milk and 
cream calls for a location within driving distance of many people, or 
near a railroad or trolley line. The work on a dairy farm is exacting, 
but pleasant to one who loves animals. Modern sanitary dairies and 
creameries are fine business establishments with many opportunities 
for ambition. 



MINING — LUMBERING 395 

159, 165 Modern dairy barns; 57, 403 Milking scenes; 46 Filling milk 
bottles; 45 Washing butter; 356 Shorthorn dairy cattle; 364 Jerseys; 
371 Ayrshires; 591 New Zealand dairy cattle; 339 Dairy cow, Venezuela. 

(4) The Poultryman 

Here is one of the great businesses of our country. The eggs and 
poultry of the United States are worth as much as the hay or the 
wheat crop — about seven hundred millions of dollars. 

There are many lines of opportunity to the careful and intelligent 
poultryman. Commission trade, hotels, restaurants, ships, and selected 
homes are some of the markets. A small capital but much assiduity 
are needed for both a moderate or large success in this business. 

56 Chickens; 401, 564 Ducks; 216 Geese; 240 Pigeons. 

(5) Market Gardening 

The back yard is often the foundation of a good market garden busi- 
ness. Potatoes, cabbages, onions, asparagus, tomatoes, cucumbers, and 
melons, carefully grown, neatly packed, and delivered in fresh con- 
dition, have started many a boy and girl on the way to independence. 
Go to your grocer some day and find out where he gets his vegetables 
and how much he pays for them. See classification Orchard, Garden 
and Wood lot, also Marketing and Market Centers. 

B. MINING 

This is work for good students interested in their physics, chemistry 
and mineralogy. Good health and constitution able to stand day and 
night work and periods of strain are needed. Mining engineering is 
fascinating, at times full of adventure, then again come long periods 
of drudgery, poor food and little shelter. 

Graduates of mining schools are in great demand. They earn little 
in the beginning, but if they are resourceful, industrious, and capable 
of carrying heavy responsibility, there is little to stop their advancement. 

Mining work itself is arduous, often dangerous, and yet it is at the 
basis of all our industries. 

74 to 79, 129 Coal; 187, 155 Copper; 581 Diamonds; 245, 225, 579 
Gold; 3 Granite; 163, 164, 128 Iron; 4, 5 Marble; 325 Nitrate; 378 
Peat; 122, 69, 70, 123 Petroleum; 115 Phosphate; 214, 287 Silver; 176 
Zinc and Lead. 

C. LUMBERING 

To. one who has taken a course in Forestry and is willing to start 
at the bottom and work up, the lumbering industry offers large oppor- 
tunities. It calls for an intimate knowledge of trees. The work for 
the most part is heavy and out of doors, but pleasant to one who loves 
the open. For list of views see classification Wood Sources, etc. 



396 VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE 



2. MANUFACTURING AND CONSTRUCTION 

A. IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURE 
The manufacture of iron and steel is one of our most important 
industries, in which hundreds of millions of capital are invested. 
Much of the manual labor in connection with the industry is done by 
foreigners, but many foremen and superintendents are needed. The 
work is heavy, strength and skill are required. The great size of the 
industry makes many positions for a large office and sales force. The 
more skilled workers are well paid and advancement is quite rapid. 
Students with technical training along lines of mechanical, electrical 
and chemical engineering are much in demand. For views see Metals 
in classification Production and Manufacturing. 

.B. STRUCTURAL IRON AND STEEL WORKERS 

This is hard work, oftentimes dangerous, and calls for endurance 
and steadiness. 

The task of this worker is to raise by means of engines the heavy 
steel trusses, girders, and beams, some weighing as much as twenty 
tons each, put them in place, and rivet them fast in order to make the 
skeleton of a building or bridge. 
126 Steel framework for tall building being erected. 

25, 26, 28, 30 New York skyscrapers, the framework of which is steel. 
139, 167, 121, 230 Tall buildings with steel framework. 
470, 174, 330, 366, 392, 27, 50, 500, 575 Bridges. 
421 Eiffel Tower, tallest structure in world. 

65, 150, 334 Structural steel in mill and factory interiors. 

C. AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURE 

This is now one of the great industries of the country, for both 
pleasure cars and trucks driven by gasoline or electricity are among 
the necessities of modern life and trade. In an automobile factory are 
employed designers, engineers, carriage makers, machinists, upholster- 
ers, cabinet makers, painters, and many kinds of mechanics. 
132 Building up an automobile tire, Akron, O. 

150 Assemblying room, Cadillac automobile plant, Detroit. 

151 Experts testing Cadillac engines, Detroit. 

152 Employees leaving Ford motor plant, Detroit. 

D. TEXTILES 

In the manufacture of textiles many rather complicated machines are 
needed. The mills are usually located where much cheap labor is to 
be had, a large per cent used being women and girls. The textile com- 
panies usually pay good dividends. For views see Textile Industries 
under classification Local Industries. 



MASON — ARCHITECT — ELECTRICIAN 397 



E. THE MASON 

The mason builds chimneys, walls, foundations, abutments, etc., by- 
laying, according to plans, bricks, stones, and cement blocks, in orderly 
tiers with mortar between. He works in stone, concrete, cement, and 
plaster. A good mason is one who likes tools, science, mathematics, 
and drawing. Masons and carpenters are the backbone of the building 
trades and receive about the same pay, from $4 to $8 per day. 

3 Quarrying granite; 4 Marble quarrying; 5 Chiseling marble; 25 
to 30 Examples of masonry in New York City; 87 Capitol building; 
95 Congressional Library ; 139 Chicago buildings ; 167 Minneapolis ; 
170 Keokuk dam ; 210 Roosevelt dam ; 230 San Francisco ; 252, 253 
Gatun locks ; 348 London Bridge ; 384 Royal Palace, Berlin ; 424 Grand 
Opera, Paris ; 425 Notre Dame, Paris ; 429 Cathedral, Marseilles ; 470 
Cerna-Voda bridge ; 483 The Kremlin, Moscow ; 502 Taj Mahal. For 
further examples see classification Concrete, Stone, Brick and Tile. 

F. THE ARCHITECT 

The architect plans and designs buildings for the many purposes 
of shelter, comfort, work, recreation, and assembly. There are two 
sides to the work, one the artistic planning, the other the practical 
construction. Each side calls for much training and skill. While the 
earnings are seldom large, and this is true of most professional work, 
the satisfaction for those of artistic taste with a keen desire to draw, 
plan, and construct is considerable. Cathedral, palace, workshop, cot- 
tage — all owe their being to the dreams and the practical skill of 
these men. When you look at your city hall or dwelling, think of the 
long days of planning, sketching, figuring, then painstaking drawing of 
the smallest detail in the office of the architect. See Architectural 
Design under classification Industrial Design, including Architecture. 

G. THE ELECTRICIAN 

The electrical industry, like the automobile industry, is a recent and 
typically American development. American inventive geniuses, men like 
Edison and Westinghouse, have made it what it is. The practical elec- 
trician is a mechanic skilled in work of wiring houses, factories, and 
other buildings for electric lighting and electric power. Electrical 
engineers who are college trained men, well versed in science and 
mathematics, have charge of large constructions, such as power stations, 
electric railroads, mines, telephones and telegraphs. 

There are many avenues to choose in this big field, open to those who 
like hard work, study, and the application of electrical energy to the 
many needs of domestic and industrial life. 

31 Electric car lines, New York City. 

43 Electric R. R. by side of steam road. 

49, 50 Niagara Falls great source electric power. 
139 Street car lines on State Street, Chicago. 
170 Great power dam and locks in Mississippi River, Keokuk. 



398 VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE 

171 Fifteen large electric generators, Keokuk, Iowa. 

252, 253 Electric towing engines and light lines along Gatun locks. 

256 Wireless towers at entrance of Panama Canal. 

308, 309 Telephone lines in Sao Paulo, S. America. 

43 Shows telegraph lines along railroad. 

273, 324, 375, 486, 590 Electric street car lines. 

21, 84, 89, 92 Electric lighting fixtures. 

88, 92, 94 Electric fans. 

H. CHEMISTRY 

As the manufacturing processes in this country become more ex- 
tensive and complicated, the importance of chemistry becomes more 
apparent. It might be classed as one of our new industries but one of 
the most important and one with an almost unlimited future. The 
demand for skilled chemists greatly exceeds the supply. 
68 Coke ovens. Coal tar is a by-product obtained in the manufac- 
ture of coke from coal. From it are obtained many very valu- 
able chemicals. Formerly Germany manufactured most of the 
coal tar dyes and chemicals. Now the United States govern- 
ment is encouraging this very important industry. 

INDUSTRIES THAT DEPEND UPON CHEMISTS 

187, 156 Copper; 15, 16 Cotton; 134, 135 Glass ; 287, 203 Gold; 62 to 64 
Iron; 84 Money; 325 Nitrate; 412, 19, 20 Paper; 122, 69, 70, 123 Petro- 
leum; 58, 59 Pottery; 131 Rubber; 53 to 55 Silk; 214, 334 Silver; 116 
65 to 67 Steel; 271, 258, 35, 34 Sugar; 272 Tanning; 107 Turpentine; 
18, 81 Wool ; 176 Zinc and lead. 

3. DISTRIBUTION 

A. RAILROADING 

This is one of the most fascinating and important of all occupations, 
for the spirit of our new country is summed up in our improvement in 
means of communication. Moving about speedily and easily is the 
secret of the growth of great civilization. 

From the time when James Watt mused over his steaming teakettle 
and its rattling lid to the present mogul engine and the electric locomo- 
tive, the world has been growing into a neighborhood. 

There are many kinds of occupations connected with railroading. 
The engineer is a man of long experience and proved quality. He 
probably began as a helper or cleaner in the round house, then was 
allowed to work as fireman on a yard or freight engine and finally if 
he has been a first-rate mechanic and man he is given one of the great 
passenger trains in charge. 

In the main departments of the railroad are those who look after 
ooerating, with superintendents, managers, foremen, section men, bridge 
builders, signalmen, yardmasters, as well as engineers and firemen. 



MARKETING — BANKING * 399 

Great repair shops are maintained to keep the engines and cars in 
order. 

The traffic department is charged with the duty of looking after the 
passenger and freight business, for a railroad must sell transportation 
if it is to have money. In this department we have also the mail and 
express service, as well as the station agents. 

The accounting department with its corps of bookkeepers and clerks 
keeps track of the immense amount of papers, records, and accounts. 

Railroad workers today are carrying a large responsibility and are 
required to be strong, of good habits, and most industrious. There are 
nearly two million men engaged in this work. See Railroad Trans- 
portation under classification Transportation. 

B. MARKETING 

Each year thousands of high school and business college graduates 
take positions as clerks and stenographers with firms that market food 
products, machinery, etc. Some of these positions offer large oppor- 
tunities. A helpful study of marketing and market centers can be 
made with the " 600 Set." See classification Marketing and Market 
Centers. 

C. BANKING 

A bank is not only a safe place in which to keep money and savings ; 
it is the great means for giving credit or loans to those whose business 
requires funds or assurances that funds will be ready when necessary. 
In this way vety little actual money passes. Bankers are advisers in 
matters of business, investments, loans, wills, and mortgages. A bank 
employs bookkeepers, clerks, messengers, and receiving and paying 
tellers. The cashier, treasurer, president are the highest officials. 
Work in a bank is congenial, and most of the time not very arduous, 
but the salaries paid are not very high except for the top officials, and 
promotions are slow. No one can get work in a bank who is not 
known for trustworthiness, neatness, good handwriting, and skill and 
accuracy in using figures. 

29 Wall Street, now the world's financial center. 
351 The Bank of England, London. 
590 Union Bank of Australia, Hobart, Tasmania. 

4. SPECIAL VOCATIONS 

A. PRINTING 

This work has to do with the manufacture of books, magazines, 
pamphlets, posters, and newspapers, and is one of the great industries 
of America. For neat, rapid, and well trained workers the field is un- 
limited, as the world calls each year for more and more printed matter 
of good quality. 
28 World Building, New York, where one of our great newspapers 

is published. 
94 Bureau of printing and engraving, Washington, D. C. 



400 VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE 



B. TEACHING 

Our civilization is kept together by the work of the teacher, who 
trains the growing generation to take up the work of the world and 
carry it on with fresh energy and ideals and human sympathy. More 
than twenty million children are in our public schools, taught by more 
than half a million teachers. 

The work is pleasant because it means helping children grow into 
fine men and women, but it is hard work, calling for strength, patience, 
constant study, and no end of sympathy. 

As a rule teachers are never paid as well as highly skilled mechanics, 
but their services are valuable for the help they give and the love of 
their pupils, who are started well along in the life career. 

A teacher must take a long course of training and be able to teach 
and to help in many ways. Education is a great science and means 
a lifetime of study and toil. 

83 School gardens as a practical educational method. 

260 Royal school, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

306 American private school, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

465 Polish school children, Zakopane, Galicia. 

520 American mission school, Pekin, China. 

C LIBRARIAN 

This is a new profession and requires more ability than most people 
are aware of. There are several training schools preparing young men 
and women for this important work. To manage a library requires 
intelligence, business skill, literary taste and technical knowledge, as 
well as a personal interest in the needs of readers and the reading 
public. 

95 Congressional Library, Washington, D. C. 

D. CIVIL SERVICE 

This is the channel by which men and women mainly reach the posi- 
tions under our city, state, and national government. Our government 
is a great employer. In New York City alone over one hundred thou- 
sand men and women are city employees. Every kind of occupation 
is to be found in the Civil Service, which means that city, state, and 
nation need about the same kind of help that any private employer may 
need. So we find in the Civil Service positions for clerks, accountants, 
bookkeepers, court attendants, engineer, foreman, stenographer, 
draughtsman, librarian, and about all the trades. If you want to know 
what positions are open, and what you must do to prepare for an 
examination, write to the United States Civil Service Commission, 
Washington, D. C. 

While the compensation is moderate, promotion slow, and opportunity 
limited, the work under the Civil Service is steady, and under good 
conditions. 



CIVIL SERVICE 401 

8 Old State House, Boston. Many state officials are under the Civil 
Service. 
28 New York City Halls, also many city employees. 
32 Immigrants landing. Practically all of the employees of the 

United States government are under the Civil Service. 
84 United States Government mint, Philadelphia. 
87, 90, 94, 95 United States Government buildings, Washington, D. C. 
99 Some operations of United States Life Saving corps. 
100 United States warships in Hampton Roads. 
193 Officers in our national park work under Civil Service. 
260 School teachers in Hawaii and the Philippines work under the 
Civil Service. 



DOMESTIC SCIENCE AND DOMESTIC 

ARTS 

By MARTHA VAN RENSSELAER 

PROFESSOR OF HOME ECONOMICS, AND DIRECTOR OF EXTENSION 

DEPT. OF HOME ECONOMICS, CORNELL UNIVERSITY, 

ITHACA, N. Y. 

INTRODUCTION 

Through a long period of evolution the family dwelling place 
had developed into a diversified manufacturing center where 
all the household arts and industries were carried out co- 
operatively under one roof by the women of the family. A 
girl growing up in that home gradually took her share in that 
labor and through constant observation and actual participa- 
tion gained an intimate knowledge of the materials and the 
processes of manufacture of all the articles used in the home. 
She need not leave her own threshold to be thoroughly 
schooled in every branch of the domestic sciences and arts. 
Such training was passed on from mother to daughter. Varied 
as were the industries of these homes of two or three genera- 
tions ago, the' women presiding there had all the links in the 
chain of production within their own hands and did not need to 
investigate far beyond their own activities. 

When the widespread introduction of machinery brought in 
its wake modern methods of cooperative business, the indus- 
tries of the home were gradually taken over into factories — 
changing the home from a manufacturing plant to an adminis- 
trative establishment where the housewife directs the purchase 
of equipment and commodities produced outside the home. 
For a time educators overlooked these changed conditions. 
Fortunately there came an awakening which resulted in the in- 
troduction of domestic science and art into our school system ; 
and courses of study in home economics have been developed 
in our higher institutions of learning in order to train workers 
who are needed to teach in the public schools and to go among 
women whose advantages have been limited and to help in 

403 



404 INTRODUCTION 

every possible way to organize and standardize the difficult 
business of home-making. 

The need for this knowledge has been impressed upon us by 
the great World War. The international food crisis showed 
that a woman's conserving work is of the greatest importance ; 
that the expenditure and waste of the individual home are inter- 
national problems. Consequently, the need for women to be 
specialized in their province of home-making has been enforced 
upon us and this resulted in starting an emergency pro- 
gram of education along the lines of proper home manage- 
ment. Such a program is basic to right living, and although 
started as a war measure, should be permanent. To this end, 
every means of education possible should be brought into play. 
It is not feasible to prepare women for intelligent direction of 
the highly organized modern home through lectures and text- 
books only. Such knowledge has been too long confined to the 
laboratory and the technical school. It must be made common 
to all the people, that there may be a more intelligent selection 
and use of food, clothing and shelter since these relate to the 
well-being not of one, nor of one group, but of us all. The sub- 
ject of Home Economics then, whether practiced for home mak- 
ing or for earning an independent living, becomes a profession, 
an opportunity for both men and women to place domestic life 
upon a rational business basis. 

Where the girl formerly learned these things in her own 
home, she now needs to have them presented to her as vividly 
and impressively as possible. The stereograph and lantern 
slide series does just this. It- shows all the materials of tex- 
tiles used in the home and for clothing in their original forms, 
cotton growing in the fields, and ways in which it is gathered. 
It shows animals from which various fibers are obtained, how 
these fibers are woven into cloth, and it follows straight 
through to the marketing of the finished product. In the same 
way the subjects of household equipment, food, and home 
building are taken up and each step along the way is pictured. 
The Keystone Mews make the world a practical laboratory 
and the world is none too large a laboratory for this important 
field of knowledge. They give such an exposition of processes 
and labor, that they tie education to living things and where it 
was theoretical thev make it vital. 






31. INDUSTRIES SUPPLYING THE HOME 

By LORENZO DOW HARVEY, Ph.D. 

PRESIDENT OF STOUT INSTITUTE, MENOMINEE, WIS. 

Less than two hundred years ago, the ordinary home was 
an independent unit largely self-supporting. The men raised 
the food of all kinds ; the clothes were entirely of home pro- 
duction. The houses were made of homemade boards or logs 
and even the nails were made at home. 

In these days of specialized industry, the home has become 
composite, drawing its materials for work and comfort from 
every industry and from all over the world. 

The Keystone Views show very clearly how every industry 
contributes to the home. 

WOOD INDUSTRIES 

In the United States most of our homes are made of wood. The 
inside finishing even in stone buildings is woodwork. 

1 The forests of Maine furnish white pine. 
162 A load of logs. Many kinds of hard woods were found in the 

American forests. 
224 Felling a tree; 215 Chained log rafts; 216 Port Blakely mills. 
These three views show how trees are turned into lumber. 
9, 10, 96, 181, 220 Most of the houses in the United States are made 
of lumber. 
107 Houses are protected from the weather by paint which is mixed 

with turpentine. 
88, 89, 92 The insides of the most beautiful buildings are finished in 

woodwork. 
92, 373, 417 Most of the furniture is made of wood. 
412 Some of our homes are decorated with wall paper made from 

wood pulp. 
445 Many homes are heated by wood fires. An open wood fire, once 
so universal, is now a luxury. 

MINING INDUSTRIES 
Most of our* homes seem far removed from mining and yet the 
products of that industry are in use every day. The Keystone Views 
will show this very clearly. 

405 



406 INDUSTRIES SUPPLYING HOME 

75, 76 Our houses and offices are heated by coal. If steam or hot 

water is used, it is heated by a coal fire. 
78 Slate pickers take out the stone, leaving only the coal. 
77, 129 Long strains carry the coal all over the United States. 
68 Coke makes a very clean fire with an even heat, so is very much 
used. 
378 In Ireland peat is the common fuel. 

69, 70 In oil countries, oil and gas are used for fuel and light. 
122, 123 As a result of refining petroleum, gasoline is obtained, also 

dyes for our clothing and medicines such as vaseline. 
115 After fields have been cultivated, they become impoverished. 
Perhaps your own garden or fields have been fertilized with 
phosphates from this very mine. 
155, 156, 157 Practically all the wires which carry electricity into your 

houses for light, for telephones or household use are copper. 
187 Copper combined with brass is used in countless articles in our 

houses, from chandeliers to water faucets. 
176 Zinc is used to cover other metals to prevent rusting. Galvan- 
ized ware is zinc covered. Zinc is also an important ingre- 
dient in brass. 
214, 334 Silver is used in tableware, in photography, in jewelry and 

for coins. 
214, 225, 287, 245 Gold fills our teeth, makes many pens and most of 
our watches and jewelry. 
84 Both gold and silver are made into coins. 
581 Besides their use as ornaments, diamonds are used where hard 
points are needed. The needle in some victrolas is diamond 
pointed. 

METAL INDUSTRIES 

62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67 Try to count the places where iron or steel is 
used in your home. Begin with the blade of your knife, do 
not forget the watch springs, nor the beams in the steel framed 
buildings nor the nails in the heel of your shoe. 
150, 151, 152 Even if you have no automobile of your own, your gro- 
ceries, furniture, in fact whatever is delivered to you will 
probably come in some form of automobile. 

TEXTILE INDUSTRY 
It is a very good plan to let a child take some article of dress which 
he is wearing and trace it back through all the steps of its preparation 
for use. Such an exercise will show him very plainly how the home 
is affected by outside industry. It should develop the idea of inter- 
dependence and the responsibility of each worker in the sum of life. 

Cotton 

72 Crawford County, Pa. These little children are cjothed in cotton 
dresses. The one immediately in the foreground is in a printed 
muslin bought at a store. 



SILK — WOOL 407 

16 Lawrence, Mass. This cloth came from a printing room such as 

this. 
15 Lawrence, Mass. Before the cloth could be printed, the design 

had to be made and transferred to the copper rolls. 
14 Lawrence, Mass. The thread was spun before the cloth could be 

woven. 
286 Mexico. Carding machines straightened the fibers before it could 

be spun. 
119 New Orleans, La. The cotton came to the mills in the form of 

bales. 
125 Texas. Gins had removed the seeds before the cotton could be 

baled. 
124 Texas. Men with horses and wagons had carried it from the 

fields to the gin. 
117 Mississippi. Negroes had picked it, and before that it had been 

planted and cared for. 
72 Crawford County, Pa. So these little children playing so thought- 
fully are dressed by the combined efforts of farmers, pickers, 

ginners, balers, carders, spinners, weavers, designers, printers, 

and merchants. 
184 Kansas ; 166 Minnesota. The starch used in preparing the cloth is 

made from corn or potatoes. 

Silk 

72 Crawford County, Pa. ; 55 Paterson, N. J. The silk hair ribbons 

were perhaps woven in the factory at Paterson. 
53 Paterson, N. J. For these hair ribbons men very carefully drew 

the warp. 
23 Connecticut; 540, Japan. The threads used for this had been 
taken from the cocoon by machinery or else carefully reeled by 
some patient Japanese worker. 
539 Japan. The cocoon had been spun by the silkworms. 
538 Japan. These worms had been watched and fed. 
537 Japan. Men went to the fields for the mulberry leaves which had 

been cultivated for that purpose. 
536 Japan. Other workers had carefully watched the hatching of the 
silkworms. 

Wool 

In the same way, it takes a very great number of people and opera- 
tions to make the woolen cloth you wear. 
506 Kashmir, India. The shawls woven by these people are often 

worth their weight in gold. 
81 Philadelphia. The woven cloth is always made of yarn which 

must be spun. 
409 Norway. It must be- cleaned and carded before spinning. 
17 Before it can be carded, it must be sorted and cleaned. 
146 Each sheep is sheared in the spring. The thick wool which kept 

the sheep warm in winter is cut off. 
173 Iowa; 190, Idaho. To get the wool, sheep must be raised. 



408 INDUSTRIES SUPPLYING HOME 



PAPER INDUSTRY 

One of the great wastes of the nation is in the destruction of old 
cloth, the material from which the best paper is made. The more paper 
is made from rags, the less will it need to be made from wood pulp. 
The manufacture of paper from wood pulp is seriously depleting the 
forests. 

19, 20 The rags in the first picture are the paper in the second. 
412 Paper used in newspapers, wall paper, etc., is made from wood 
pulp. 

FOODS - 

All industries which provide food — fisheries, agriculture, meat, dairy- 
ing, poultry and salt industries — all these supply the home. The chap- 
ter on Foods and Cookery contains a clear presentation of these sub- 
jects. 

TRANSPORTATION 

In these days of specialized labor, people, especially those in the city, 
make very few things for themselves. All their food, clothes, build- 
ing materials, everything is brought to them. So city people are abso- 
lutely dependent upon markets and transportation. 
129 Conneaut, Ohio. The coal which heats your home must come by 

train. 
123 Texas. If you use gas, it is transported by a pipe line. 
119 Texas. Cotton raised in the South must be carried to the mills of 
the North or of England and the cloth is shipped to the users. 
166 Potatoes ; 167 Minneapolis ; 139 Chicago. These Minnesota pota- 
toes will probably feed Minneapolis or Chicago. 
140 Chicago, 111. Great trains bring the cattle to the stock yards. 
141, to 145 Chicago, 111. Other trains of refrigerator cars carry the 
meat to us. 
For a complete treatment, see the chapter on Transportation. 

MARKETS 

7 Boston, Mass. Some of our buying, especially the purchase of 
fresh food, is done in local markets such as Quincy. 
29 New York ; 139 Chicago ; 213, Ogden ; 380, Dublin. Far more of 
our buying is done in stores which are really specialized markets. 
See Markets and Marketing. 



32. FOODS AND COOKERY 

By EDNA N. WHITE, B.S. 

HEAD OF DEPT. OF HOME ECONOMICS AND SUPERVISOR OF HOME 

ECONOMICS EXTENSION DEPT. OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Assisted by LENA McGUIRE, B.S. 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF HOME ECONOMICS, OHIO STATE 
UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS, OHIO 

The World War crisis has clearly shown the importance of 
knowledge of the food problem. Never have the services of 
people trained along these lines been in such demand; never 
has there been such an urgent call for the increase and con- 
servation of our food supply. 

Conservation means first of all prevention of waste. The 
one who selects the food must understand the use of the right 
kinds of food so that the body may make the very best use of 
the food eaten. For this reason people must learn what the 
body needs and what nutrients are in food materials, so that 
nothing will be wasted. Food is also wasted when it is spoiled 
in cooking, so those who handle the food in the home must 
learn how to prepare it. If food is not well seasoned or 
cooked, it is apt to be left on the table and so wasted. If it is 
carelessly handled and not kept clean, it spoils more quickly, so 
for this reason and because dirty foods carry disease, cleanli- 
ness is a necessity. 

The next conservation problem is the saving of surplus food 
(the material that is not needed for immediate use). The 
methods usually employed are canning and drying, and so 
everywhere people are being taught how to can and dry. 

Boys and girls may help in both ways to conserve food. 
Through their physiology they are taught what kinds of food 
to eat — they must remember to ask for what they can eat and 
no more — all food they take on their plates they must eat, so 
that none will be wasted. The boys and girls of our public 
schools can thousands of cans of fruit and vegetables every 
year. They form clubs to learn how and then collect their cans 
to sell. 

409 



410 FOODS AND COOKERY 

I. FUEL 
Fuel is necessary for the cooking of food. 

i. Wood and Charcoal 

Wood was doubtless the first fuel used for the preparation of food 
and even now in many regions it is still our most economical and most 
available fuel supply. See chapter on Wood. 
• 

2. Coal 

It was a great day for the human race when the discovery was made 
that certain stones (coal) would burn. It is interesting to consider how 
much of our material civilization has depended upon the heat developed 
from the burning of coal. The mining of coal is one of our greatest 
industries. 

129 A train load of coal with different sizes in separate cars, Conneaut, 
Ohio. This is the bituminous or soft coal. It burns freely but 
with considerable smoke and soot. 
74 Stripping coal at Hazelton, Pa. The surface dirt is removed and 
great beds of coal, sometimes thirty, forty or more feet in depth 
are found. The coal in this region is the hard or anthracite 
coal. It burns with great heat but with little smoke. 

76 Miner drilling and laborer loading black diamonds, Scranton, Pa. 

This shows clearly the bright, shiny character of the anthracite 
coal. 

77 Car of anthracite coal on cage at bottom of shaft, Scranton, Pa. 

79 Shipping anthracite coal, Ashley, Pa. Showing different sizes 
in the various cars. Anthracite coal is graded more carefully 
than soft or bituminous coal. 

3. Coke 

68 Coke is made from soft coal in something of the same way that 
charcoal is prepared from wood. It is a good fuel, giving a 
strong heat, without smoke. 

4. Peat 

378 Peat is a fuel made by the accumulation of plants in bogs or 
swamps. The bogs are drained, the peat is cut in layers and 
dried in the sun. It is then burned largelv in open fireplaces 
such as are represented by scenes 113 and 372. It is a poor type 
of fuel. 

5. Oil and Gas 

69, 70. 122, 123 These are very useful fuels and are taken from the 
earth in great quantities. They usually occur at considerable 
deoth, wells often being drilled from 3,000 to 7,000 feet deep. 
Oil and eas occur in about the same regions: so in drilling they 
cannot always tell which they will secure. Sometimes nothing 
is found after great expense has been incurred. 



FOODSTUFFS — MEAT 41 1 

Natural gas usually is found having considerable pressure, so that it 
flows freely from the well and through the pipes to the place of con- 
sumption. When the pressure is not strong enough, pumps are used to 
force it through the pipes. 

Oil as it comes from the well is known as crude petroleum. In this 
form it is not of much use for domestic fuel ; but as fuel for the boilers 
of ocean steamships it is much in favor. 

The products secured by refining crude petroleum are of considerable 
value as domestic fuels, the most valuable for this purpose being gaso- 
line and kerosene. These, like natural gas, are especially desirable for 
summer cooking as they may be started quickly, give a good fire and 
may be extinguished when the cooking is completed. 

II. FOODSTUFFS 

No country in the world is so rich as America in the amount and 
variety of its foodstuffs. It furnishes by far the greater part of its own 
food and is able to export great quantities to other countries. It is 
true that the people of the United States, living in such plenty, have 
become very extravagant. With the opening of the World's War there 
came a nation-wide movement to study foods and to use them more 
economically. 

i. Meat 
The people in America depend largely on meat for the protein or 
muscle building foods. No other group of people, except perhaps the 
Esquimaux, eat so much flesh, and it is probable that in many cases 
more meat is used than is desirable. Meat furnishes fat and mineral 
elements as well as protein but contains practically no starch or sugar. 
For this reason, it is usually served with potatoes or some other food 
material high in starch. 

183 Thrifty and contented hogs in rich alfalfa pasture, Kansas. 
589 Range cattle, an important source of Australian wealth. 
185 Feeding Hereford cattle, Manhattan, Kan. Henry Clay of Ken- 
tucky brought the first Herefords into America. They are a 
good beef cattle. Shorthorns are the heaviest of the beef breeds, 
and Herefords rank next in weight. 

140 This is a view of cattle in the pens of the Union Stock Yards in 

Chicago, the meat packing center of the world. This plant was 
begun in 1865. It now covers 500 acres of ground. 

141 The animals are taken from the pens and are marched single file 

into the slaughtering gangways. The various processes of bleed- 
ing, skinning and dressing take place in rapid order. Every 
process is inspected by a federal meat inspector. In this picture 
is shown the last process, the washing of the beef with boiling 
water. 

142 Splitting backbones and final inspection of hogs before placing 

them in refrigerator rooms. 

143 Trimming and skinning hams before pickling in preparation for 

market, Chicago, 111. 



412 FOODS AND COOKERY 

144 Making link sausages with aid of machines which stuff ten feet 

per second. 

145 Washing and tagging freshly killed lambs, Chicago, 111. 

56 Chicken meat is prized almost the world over. 
216 Geese furnish very palatable meat. 

240 Young pigeons or squabs are a delicacy especially suitable for in- 
valids. 

2. Milk 
Milk is a remarkable food material because of the number of nu- 
trients found — fat, protein, sugar, mineral and growth producing ele- 
ments. It has a large proportion of water and is especially adapted to 
the child's needs. " A quart of milk per child per day " is a good rule. 
The care of milk is of great importance because it carries diseases such 
as typhoid, diphtheria, etc. The heating of milk at a low temperature 
known as pasteurization is required in most large cities at present to 
prevent the spread of contagious diseases through the milk. 
159 Groups of modern dairy barns and herd of Holstein cattle, Wis- 
consin. 

57 Milking scene in modern dairy, New Jersey. 

45 Washing 1,000 pounds of freshly churned butter. 

411 Milking the goats, Hardanger Fjord, Norway. A large part of 
the peasants of southern Europe also depend on goats' milk 
and some of the finest cheeses, such as Roquefort, are made 
from goats' milk. 

413 Laplanders milking reindeer, Norway. 

403 Dutch farm hands milking Holstein Friesian cattle near Rotter- 
dam, Holland. The Holstein gives great quantities of milk. 
The Dutch have a great name as butter and cheese makers. 

Various Means of Distributing Milk 
339 Native method of distributing milk unadulterated in the narrow 

streets of La Guaira, Venezuela. 
487 Quaint dairymaids delivering milk in earthenware jars suspended 

on poles in Kiev, Russia. If you want a drink of milk, you can 

be served instantly. 
396 Milk cart, Antwerp, Belgium. 

46 Automatic machine for filling and capping bottles of milk. Closed 

bottles such as these allow clean, pure milk to be delivered. 

3. Oysters 

In nutritive value, oysters resemble milk, having about the same pro- 
portion of water. The difference in price is paid for flavor and scarcity 
and not for food value. There is some danger of transmitting disease 
through oysters if they are grown in impure water or carelessly handled, 
so precautions must be taken to prevent contamination. If oysters are 
cooked too long or at too high a temperature they become tough and 
undesirable. 

86 Oysters are caught by dragnets or by long racks. Shucking con- 
sists merely of removing the shells. This is done by a stroke 



FISH — EGGS — CEREAL GRAINS 413 

of a hammer or a knife. The shucked oysters then go to the 
packing room. 

4. Fish 

Fish is such a perishable type of food that much of it must be pre- 
served before it is sent to market. The most common methods are 
canning and curing. 

Salmon is one of the most valuable of the food fish and one of the 
most important fishery products. The great bulk of the catch is canned. 
Salmon is higher in food value than most fish, due to the amount of fat 
it contains. 

Fish is cured by soaking in brine or packing in salt and then drying. 
In preparing it for the table it must first be soaked to remove some of 
the salt and then is usually cooked in water. Codfish contains protein 
but very little fat and should be served with some starchy food, such 
as potatoes. Fat is usually added in its preparation. 

226 You are here shown the nets which are used for catching salmon. 

227 In this picture the salmon are being prepared for canning. It 

shows the size of the salmon. 

531 Fish are a large part of the diet of the Japanese people. It is pre- 
served by drying. 
13 Codfish sometimes grow to be as much as five feet in length. The 
fish are cleaned, salted and placed on platforms to dry. 

244 Drying fish on the Yukon River, Alaska. Dried fish is a very 
important article of diet among primitive people in cold regions. 

5- Eggs 

The egg industry in the United States is of great importance, the 

amount of money involved being equal to from one-half to one-third 

the value of the wheat crop. They are one of our most important 

sources of food. They are rich in mineral salts, protein and the fat is 

of a type especially adapted to the needs of growing children. A dozen 

eggs may be considered as approximately equal to two pounds of meat, 

and for children and invalids are more desirable than meat. 

56 Hens' nests should be kept clean. In this picture is shown the 

white leghorn in a laying house, Corning egg farm, New Jersey. 

583 The eggs of gannets are eagerly sought in South Africa and in 

the lands bordering the far North Atlantic Ocean where they 

are also found. 

6. Cereal Grains 
Cereals furnish more nutrients for the great majority of people than 
any other type of food material. Some type is raised in all countries, so 
they are easily procured. They are high in nutritive value, have very 
little waste and keep well. They are not palatable when eaten raw and 
so are practically always cooked. 

All of them contain starch in quantity as well as. considerable fiber 
and so require long cooking. Wheat and rye contain a protein sub- 
stance which will hold air and on heating sets and can, therefore, be 
used for making loaves of bread. 



414 FOODS AND COOKERY 

a. Wheat 
Wheat is the most important member of the cereal group, since it is 
best adapted for bread making. The hard wheats produced in the 
Northwest are especially desirable for this purpose. Flour produced 
by primitive methods of grinding contain more of the mineral and 
growth producing elements than the white flour of our markets. It is 
darker in color and much coarser, so that the bread made from it is 
dark and coarse-grained. 

Wheat contains starch, protein, mineral and growth promoting ele- 
ments but is low in fat and water content. 

177 After the wheat is cut and made into sheaves, it is taken to the 
threshing machine. Here the grain is separated out from the 
straw. 
199 This wheat was raised in Colorado by the system called dry farm- 
ing. One of the first requirements of dry farming is to select 
a soil that will absorb much rainfall and hold it. 
218 In the Western States are great wheat fields and most of the work 
of gathering the crop is done by machinery. This picture shows 
the combined reaper and thresher. 
357 The wheat in England is cut in similar way to that in the United 
States, and most of the machinery used has been made in the 
United States. 
498 Wouldn't this be a slow method of preparing wheat for bread? 
Notice the heavy stones used to crush the grain. 

b. Corn 

Corn is a staple article of food in parts of Africa, United States, Italy 
and the Balkan regions. It is a wholesome and nutritious food, high in 
starch, low in fat and mineral salt and while it contains about ten per 
cent, protein, it is not of the type that will hold air and form a loaf as 
does wheat and rye. It also contains considerable fiber, so must be 
cooked for a long time. Since the fat and protein are rather low, it is 
desirable to combine corn preparations with meat or cheese or eggs, 
and add fat of some kind. 
184 The United States produces five-sixths of the corn crop of the 

world. 
136 By the use of machinery the corn is cut and made into shocks. 
160 Sometimes the corn is not taken from the stalk but is cut up by 

machinery and placed in a silo for cattle feed in the winter. 

c. Oats 

The oats used for food in America are served in the form of por- 
ridge as breakfast food. In the milling less of outer layers are removed 
than in most grains, and the greater part of the germ is left, so that 
oats are somewhat richer in protein and fat than the ordinary cereal. 
Because of the starch and fiber they need long, slow cooking. 
147 Oats will grow on soil that is not rich enough to produce some of 
the other cereal grains. The men here seen are gathering oats 
which have been cut with a binder. The grain will be threshed 
from the straw. 



LEGUMES — NUTS 415 

d. Rice 

Rice is one of the staple cereal foods for about half the population of 
the earth. It contains large amounts of starch, very little fat and pro- 
tein. For this reason it is frequently combined with meat, cheese and 
eggs, and fats of various kinds are added in the preparation of rice 
dishes. 

As ordinarily sold, the rice is polished, and this process removes a 
large part of the valuable mineral salt. The so-called brown rice has 
not been subjected to this process and is, therefore, to be preferred as 
a food. 

527 Rice is an important cereal. India produces one-half of the rice 

supply of the world. China produces one-fourth and Japan one- 
eighth. In this picture we can see the large fields. Growing 
rice looks like wheat or oats. 

528 The Japanese farmers are busy setting out rice plants. They are 

set out in fields which have been flooded with water. In the 
United States the rice is sown by drills just as wheat is. 

104 Rice is a water plant, so the fields must be irrigated. 

105 The men and women are busy hoeing rice in a field in South 

Carolina. 

529 In Japan the rice is cut by a sickle. Rice straw is used to make 

mats, bags and ropes. 
550 Heavy mallets are used to thrash out the rice grains. 

7. Legumes 

The legume family, including beans, peas and peanuts, stands next to 
cereals in importance as foods. They are especially valued for their 
protein and should be used, therefore, as substitutes for meat, eggs, or 
cheese. They also contain considerable starch and mineral salt, but all 
except the peanut are low in fat. For this reason fat is commonly 
added in their preparation (viz. pork and beans). Because of the 
amount of fiber present they require long, slow cooking. 

Peanuts are usually regarded as nuts and eaten as an accessory. 
They are very high in food value and eaten in quantity may prove 
indigestible on this account. They should be mixed with other food ma- 
terials and served as a part of the meal. 

562 In Egypt a very old method is used in threshing out the beans. 
118 The peanuts grow in the ground like potatoes. The plants are 
pulled from the ground, dried and then the nuts are picked from 
the roots. 

8. Nuts 

Nuts contain large amounts of fat and protein and may, therefore, 
cause digestive disturbances if eaten in quantity as an accessory to the 
diet. They are also valued for their mineral matter and may well be 
used as a substitute for meat, cheese or eggs. 

a. Almonds 
234 Almond trees look like peach trees. The fruit from which we 
get the almonds is left to dry on the trees. Then the shriveled 



416 FOODS AXD COOKERY 

fruit is taken off, the seed is removed and put into sacks or 

barrels. 

b. Coconut 
The coconut is most familiar to us as food in the grated and dried 
form, and is mostly used in pastry and confectionery. It is very high 
in fat and contains some starch. Sugar is frequently added to it in 
drying. It is a staple article of food for many of the natives in the 
tropics. 
551 The coconut is covered with a thick husk which is removed before 

the nuts are shipped. 

9. Potatoes 

Potatoes belong to the class of starchy vegetables and are valued 
both for starch and mineral salt. They probably owe their popularity 
to their mild flavor which does not become tiresome, and is easily 
varied, and to the fact that they keep well and are usually rather low 
in price. A large part of the nutrients lie next to the outside layer 
and in careless paring may be lost. It is therefore desirable to cook 
them in their skins as far as possible. 

166 Potato digging machines are used to dig the potatoes in Minnesota, 
which' is a leading state in potato production. 

10. Sugar 

The term sugar is usually applied to the sweet substance obtained 
from the sugar cane or sugar beet. There are, however, a number of 
other varieties found in fruits, honey, etc. The product obtained from 
sugar cane, sugar beets and sugar maple is identical, providing it is 
refined to the same degree, and is sold usually under the name granu- 
lated sugar. It is one of the purest food products on the market — 
concentrated food which is easily assimilated by the body if not eaten 
in excess. Because of its concentration, it is desirable to mix it with 
other nutrients in the diet. 

a. Process of Making Sugar from Beets 

419 A large supply of the sugar in Europe is from the sugar beet. In 
this picture we see women weeding a field of sugar beets. 

198 In this picture we see a field of sugar beets. Colorado has become 
the leading state in the production of beet sugar. 

270 The sugar beets are white, large and very sweet. After the beets 

are gathered they are stored in sheds and there are carefully 
washed. 

271 The beets are sliced and the juice extracted with water. 

b. Process of Making Sugar from Cane 

332 Here we see a field in Peru that is being prepared for the plant- 

ing of sugar cane. The cane was brought into Peru by Span- 
iards. 

333 In this picture we see the cane plant and the way it is planted. 
258 When the sugar cane is ripe, it is cut in the same way as corn 



GREEN VEGETABLES — FRUITS 417 

but the leaves are pulled from the stalks. The juice is squeezed 
out when the stalks are run through large rollers. 

35 The raw sugar is brown and moist and, by refining, the color is 
changed and the crystals become larger. Granulated sugar is 
about ninety-nine per cent. pure. 

34 The loaf sugar is made by molding the granulated sugar. In this 
picture we see the large trays of loaf sugar after it has been 
dried out in the drying kiln. 
130 In the northern part of the United States maple sugar is pro- 
duced to some extent. 

ii. Green Vegetables 

Green vegetables are valued in the diet especially for their mineral 
salt. They are largely made up of water and woody fiber and may 
contain small amounts of starch and sugar. 

The types that can be eaten raw, such as celery, are especially 
desirable, since none of their mineral matter will be lost in prepara- 
tion. 
149 Harvesting celery blanched by boards in Michigan's famous celery 

fields, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
83 Garden vegetables of all kinds are valuable food and large quan- 
tities can be raised on relatively little space. 

12. Fruits 

Fruits are especially valued in the diet because of their mineral salts. 
They also contain characteristic flavoring substances and organic acids 
which make them valuable as appetizers. Sugars of different types are 
found in most ripe fruits and a few, such as the banana, contain quan- 
tities of starch. 

The water content is high except in the case of raisins, dates, figs and 
other dried fruits. When these are eaten as purchased and not cooked, 
they form a concentrated food material. 
175 The apple is an important fruit. It contains sugar, starch, mineral 

matter and a large amount of water. 
85 Peaches are regarded as among the most valuable of all orchard 
fruits for evaporating, preserving and canning. 

236 In this picture we see the Tokay grape, which is grown abundantly 

in California. They are large and firm. Grapes are used for 
making raisins, grape juice and various wines. Raisins are 
grapes that have been carefully dried. 

294 The banana is more like a vegetable because it contains a large 
amount of starch. The food value of a banana is high. In the 
countries where the fruit is grown, the natives usually cook the 
banana before eating it. Banana flour is used to some extent to 
make cakes and bread. 

108 Pineapples are planted in fields of sand. The fruit gets its name 
because of its resemblance to the cone of a pine tree. 

237 Oranges are valuable for their mineral salts and the iuice is 

especially beneficial to young children. 



418 FOODS AND COOKERY 

238 In this picture we see the beautiful orange blossoms and the large 
fruit on the trees. 

437 Care must be taken in picking the oranges so the skin is not 
bruised. 

293 The mangoes are reddish yellow in color when ripe and are cul- 
tivated in the West Indies, Florida, California and Central 
America. 
47 The cantaloupe was given its name in Italy where it was first 
grown in Europe. It has become a favorite fruit in this coun- 
try. 

137 The pumpkin is a member of the gourd family and is a valuable 
food. It may be successfully canned and used in the winter 
time. 

13. Cocoa and Chocolate 
Cacao beans are roasted, crushed, the germ and hulls removed, and 

then thoroughly ground, which reduces the mass to a thin paste. This 

paste when cool forms the cakes of unsweetened chocolate. This 

contains some starch and considerable fat, so the food value is high. 

Part of the fat may be removed by pressure and the residue finally 

powdered is known as cocoa. Since the fat content is here lowered, the 

food value is not so high as in the chocolate. 

Both chocolate and cocoa may be combined with milk into beverages 

which are excellent for children. 

303 It is from the fruit of the cacao trees that our commercial choco- 
late is made. 

14. Coffee 

The coffee beverage is made from the ground roasted coffee beans. 
It is nearly all water of course, but contains very small amounts of 
flavoring materials and a stimulating substance knows as caffeine. 
The coffee beverage has no food value except from the cream and 
sugar that may be added. Because of its stimulating effect on the 
nervous system, coffee should never be given to children. 
302 In the wild state the coffee trees grow from 20 to 30 feet tall, 

but if the tree is trimmed back the berries are easier to pick. 

The berries are dark red and inside of the pulp is found the two 

half beans with flat sides together. 

310 The berries are picked, pulp is mashed and seeds are washed in 

vats. The green wet coffee is spread on cement floors to dry. 

311 After the berries are dried — it takes about two weeks — they are 

placed in sacks holding about 132 pounds. 
295 Coffee is shipped dried but green. It is roasted usually in the 
country to which it is sent. Brazil grows about three-fourths of 
the world's coffee. Santos, Brazil, is the greatest coffee port in 
the world. 

15. Salt 

42 Most of our salt is made from brine obtained from wells. The 
brine is placed in large vats. The sun and air evaporate the 



PREPARING AND SERVJNG FOOD 419 

water and the salt is raked out. Salt is used to give flavor to 
food and is often used in too large amounts. 
153 In this picture we see the refined salt being packed into barrels. 

• III. PREPARING AND SERVING FOOD 
Quite as much food value depends upon the method of cooking and 

serving as upon the food itself. It is well known that food eaten 

quietly and pleasantly digests more easily than that eaten hastily or 

where the feeling was disagreeable. American homes are so supplied 

with materials prepared for cooking and means of serving that we 

sometimes fail to appreciate our advantages. 

550 Pounding rice for breakfast. The menu of primitive people must 
be very limited for they cannot get foods prepared for cook- 
ing. These people, for instance, get their rice in the husk. 
Their cooking implements are of the crudest sort. 

498 Women grinding wheat. Instead of the fine flour your mothers 
buy all ready for use, these women must begin their bread 
making with the grain. Their flour will not be white but it will 
contain all the nutritive value of the grain. 

410 Making Norwegian flat bread. Can you imagine the thin hard 
bread of flour and water, baked two or three times a year in- 
stead of the light bread which comes fresh to your table several 
times a week? With so few materials to work with, house- 
keeping is very laborious. 

292 Tortilla making. Cooking though primitive may be clean, as you 
can see. Here again the woman begins her work with the corn 
on the cob. Compare this kitchen with your own and tell 
where you think the better results can be obtained. 

341 The city baker of Caracas is perhaps as clean as many of our 
own bakers. One wishes there were a law in Caracas as in 
many of our own cities to compel bakers to wrap their bread 
in paper before it is carried through the streets. 

372 In Burns' home you see facilities for cooking vastly superior to 

those of the bread makers in Norway or Salvador. Notice the 
table and dishes for serving in this cottage. 

373 A highland home. Tea is being served. Notice there is no at- 

tempt at a table cloth, the dishes are few and simple, yet the 
cleanliness and orderliness, and the evident good manners of 
the two old ladies, make the tea seem very appetizing. 
468 Quite different are these tables with their embroidered cloths set 
out in the street where they will catch dirt and dust. It does 
not seem quite consistent to be eating and having your boots 
blacked at the same time. 

33 Dining room. Not every one has beautiful furniture and china 
and silverware for a dining room ; yet everyone can have a clean 
room and a well set table. Food really tastes better when 
daintily served and eaten in a well-bred manner. 

59 Pretty dishes are so cheap now-a-days that very poor people may 
set attractive tables. Better designs in decoration are now used 



420 FOODS AND COOKERY 

in the cheaper wares. Dishes do not have to be expensive to 
be in good taste. 

534 The Japanese people give ideal service. Notice how simple is 
this arrangement for serving tea, how quiet and cool. The blos- 
soms of the trees furnish beauty. 

152 One of these men carries a lunch box. Thousands of men (62 
to 67, 134, 135) carry lunches every day. A lunch should be 
packed as carefully and daintily as a table is set. Each thing 
should be carefully wrapped in waxed paper so the tired worker 
can get all the possible refreshment from the clean, attractive 
food. 



33. TEXTILES AND CLOTHING 

By ANNA M. COOLEY, B.S. 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF HOUSEHOLD ARTS EDUCATION, 
TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Assisted by EDITH P. CHACE, B.S. 

INSTRUCTOR IN HOUSEHOLD ARTS EDUCATION, TEACHERS 
COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The teacher of clothing and textiles expecting to use the 
" 600 Set " to advantage should have a comprehensive and ac- 
curate knowledge of the various subdivisions of the classifica- 
tion under the headings of Textiles and of Clothing. The 
teacher can then select quickly the best pictures to be used for 
any topic bearing on the particular field. She should notice 
also the classification of this part of the field of household 
arts (or home economics) in its relationship to the whole, to 
the home, its industries, its food and management. It is only 
through having a connected idea of the whole that the pic- 
tures of this group can be used most advantageously. 

The stereographs as well as the lantern slides will be found 
of great help in teaching the origin and manufacture of ma- 
terials, the uses of the various textiles, industrial occupations 
of the textile industry, and the costumes of various countries, 
both modern and historical. This means of instruction en- 
ables the children to obtain a complete visualization of the sub- 
jects which previously the teacher has only described or pos- 
sibly at times illustrated with small pictures or other devices 
upon which she has been forced to rely and to secure through 
her own initiative. These helps are vital to the best instruc- 
tion and pleasing to the children. The views in this set give 
a concrete idea of the fibers and materials used for various 
articles of clothing and the methods employed by the differ- 
ent races of the world in procuring, manufacturing and dis- 
tributing them. 

An interesting comparative study of the methods of differ- 
ent peoples along the lines of textile manufacture is, therefore, 
possible and highly desirable, for it leads to definiteness of 
thought in relation to the peoples of other nations and the 

421 



422 TEXTILES AND CLOTHING 

sources of many of our industrial supplies used in the making 
of clothing and other articles. If woman is to be an intelligent 
consumer of textile materials, she should know more about the 
source of those materials, their manufacture and means of 
distribution, and their relationship to the cost of living. An 
interesting study of the homes of other lands is developed in 
this comparative study of textile manufacture and of uses of 
clothing, and should be valuable to' the children in giving them 
appreciation and ideals for the best type of home in a democ- 
racy, and complete understanding of the way in which the 
races of the world provide themselves with the necessities of 
life, clothing, shelter and food. 

The slides and pictures can be used most advantageously in 
preparation for visits to museums or places of manufacture. 
The things to be seen should be well outlined by the class be- 
fore the visit. The use of the slides makes this familiarity 
possible. The pupil because of this introductory study will 
gain more from the excursion. 

In places where there are no museums or mills, these pic- 
tures are a positive necessity. The depth of the stereographic 
picture gives ideas of reality and action which can not be ob- 
tained from any flat picture however good. In such places the 
" 600 Set " will be a real museum. And even where there are 
manufacturing plants, children as a rule do not go into them. 
They hear them discussed, but do not really know them. 
These pictures will make clear the children's hazy ideas and 
will bring them into a better understanding of the life about 
them. 

I. Textiles 

A. PRODUCTION 

The principal textile fibers belong either to the vegetable or to the 
animal class. There are in addition the mineral fibers as asbestos and 
also certain artificial fibers which are vegetable, mineral or animal in 
origin. 

1. VEGETABLE FIBERS 

These are obtained from various parts of plants — the leaves, stem, 
seed pod, etc. 

(i) Cotton 

This is the soft covering attached to the seeds in the boll. 
117 Picking cotton on a Mississippi plantation. 
124 Awaiting their turn at the cotton gin. 



ANIMAL FIBERS 423 

(2) Hemp 

The leaves and also the stem of these plants furnish this fiber. 

a. Sisal 
571 Sisal hemp plantation in blossom, Africa. 

289 Hennequin, the wealth of Yucatan, from which sisal fiber is pro- 
duced, Mexico. 

b. Manila 
552 Manila hemp industry. Stripping the trees, Philippines. 

(3) Bark 

The covering of trees and some fruits is used for making cloth. 
570 Peeling bark for bark cloth, Uganda, Africa. 

(4) Pina 

108 Pina fiber comes from the leaves of the pineapple, Florida. 

(5) Palm 

The leaves of this plant are very useful for matting and coarse 
textiles. 

566 Some Egyptian palm trees. 
259 Papaya and palm trees, Hawaii. 
249 A street in Panama showing palm trees. 
551 Gathering coconuts, the fiber of which is used for mats and 

coarse textiles, Philippines. 
574 An east African palm tree. 

2. ANIMAL FIBERS 
These are obtained from a great variety of animals. 

(1) Silk 

The tiny silkworm furnishes this fiber. 

536 Silkworm incubator, Japan. 

537 Gathering mulberry leaves for the silkworm, Japan. 

538 Feeding mulberry leaves to the young silkworms. 

539 Silkworm cocoons in their nest. 

(2) Wool 

Sheep of many varieties furnish wool. 
173 Choice Shropshire, Oxford, and Cotswold sheep in pasture. 
190 Sheep grazing on range, Idaho. 
480 Shepherds and their flocks, Greece. 

(3) Hair 

The hair of many animals is used in the manufacture of textiles for 
clothing, house furnishing materials, bagging and other purposes. 

(a) Horse 
This hair is used with others in making a strong wiry cloth known 
as horse hair cloth. 



424 TEXTILES AND CLOTHING 

138 Champion team of Percherons, Indiana. 

147 Loading oats in field, Illinois. 

188 Cowboy, bronco corral and camps, Montana. 

398 Belgian draft horses, Belgium. 

(b) Goats , 

Some goats have long silky hair and others wiry hair. The wiry 
hair is used in making such materials as alpaca, mohair and brillian- 
tine. The softer goat hair furnishes us with cashmeres. 
411 Milking the goats, Norway. 
447 Swiss mountain goats. 

(c) Cattle 

The hair from cattle is mixed with other fibers and used in making 
coarse felts for roofing, covering steam pipes and boilers ; it is also 
used for stuffing cushions and is woven into coarse blankets. 
140 From the Kansas plains. 

185 Splendid Hereford cattle. 
317 Argentina's famous cattle. 

186 Round up on Sherman ranch, Kansas. 

339 In the narrow streets of La Guaira, Venezuela. 

(d) Camel 

Hair from the camel is used in the manufacture of some clothing 
and the coarser hairs for bagging and coarse yarns. 

564 Camels at Nile. 

565 Camel at Sphinx, Egypt. 

(e) Llama 

This animal helps to furnish us with strong lustrous fibers for dress 
goods. 
335 The llama of Bolivia. 

B. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES 

In modern times very much of the work of manufacturing textiles 
is done in great factories where the labor is highly specialized. Hand 
labor still persists where labor is cheap and in isolated communities. 

I. VEGETABLE FIBERS 

The fibers from the plants must pass through many manufacturing 
processes before they are ready to be woven into cloth. 

(1) COTTON 
From the seed pod or cotton boll. 

(a) Ginning 
This process removes the seeds from the fiber. 

124 Awaiting their turn at the cotton gin, Greenville, Tex. 

125 Cotton gin, Greenville, Tex. 



OTHER VEGETABLE FIBERS 425 

(b) Baling 

Making into compact bales of about 500 lbs. for transportation. 
119 Bales of cotton ready for shipping, New Orleans, La. 

(c) Carding 

This process removes dirt and prepares for the next step in manu- 
facture. 
286 Carding room, cotton mills, Mexico. 

(d) Spinning 

Drawing out and twisting fibers together to make a continuous yarn. 
563 Native boys spinning cotton, Egypt. 

14 Spinning cotton yarn, Lawrence, Mass. 

(e) Printing 

Decorating the material by means of a stamped design. 

15 Copying designs on copper rolls for printing cotton cloth, Law- 

rence, Mass. 

16 General view in large printing room of cotton mills, Lawrence, 

Mass. 

(2) LINEN 
This is obtained from the stem of the flax plant. 

268 Winding bobbins in linen mill, Canada. 

269 Weaving the linen fabric, Canada. 

(3) OTHER VEGETABLE FIBERS 

(a) Bark 

570 Peeling bark for making bark cloth, Uganda, Africa. 

(b) Hemp — Rope Making 

553 Interior- of native rope factory, Philippines. 

2. ANIMAL FIBERS 
Animal fibers must also be prepared and woven. 

(1) SILK 
This must be cleansed, twisted and woven. 

(a) Spinning 

The silk fiber may be taken from the cocoon in two ways. It may 
be reeled by hand as is done in Japan ; or it may be made from " waste " 
by machinery, the method commonly used in America. 
540 Reeling silk from cocoons, Japan. 
22 Weighing and sorting raw skeins (reeled silk), S. Manchester, 
Conn. 



426 TEXTILES AND CLOTHING 

23 First drawing or straightening of fibers (spun silk), S. Man- 

chester, Conn. 

24 Roving frame, in which the thread is made, S. Manchester, Conn. 

(b) Weaving 

Making the cloth. 

53 Drawing warp for weaving silk cloth, Paterson, N. J. 

54 Weaving room, Paterson, N. J. 

55 Machines weaving dozens of fine taffeta silk ribbons, Paterson, 

N.J. 
541 One of Japan s largest modern silk weaving plants. 



(2) WOOL 
(a) Sorting 

Wool must be sorted and washed before it is spun. 
17 Sorting wool after cleansing and washing, Lawrence, Mass. 

(b) Carding and Spinning 

Straightening the fibers and twisting them into thread. 
409 Carding and spinning wool, Norway. 
506 Spinning and weaving shawls, Kashmir, India. 
81 Spinning room, winding bobbins with woolen yarn for weaving, 
Philadelphia. 

(c) Weaving — Making Cloth 

The hand made shawls and carpets of the orientals are often won- 
derfully beautiful. 
506 Spinning and weaving woolen shawls, Kashmir, India. 

(3) HAIR 
272 Scraping hair from hides. 

C. USES OF TEXTILES 
Textiles are used for many purposes besides clothing. 

1. FOR CLOTHING THE PEOPLES OF MANY COUNTRIES 
See II. Clothing. 

2. FOR THE HOME IN ITS FURNISHINGS 

33 Domestic art dining room (table doilies, curtains, rugs). 
468 Table cloths woven by Bulgarian women. 

417 Council Room, Royal Palace, Stockholm, showing woven wool 
tapestries and upholstered furniture. 



TENTS — AWNINGS — BLANKETS 427 



3. FOR OTHER PURPOSES 

(i) Paper Making 

19 Cut rags after removing from washing drums, paper mill, Massa- 

chusetts. 

20 Inspecting paper delivered by machines, Massachusetts. 
94 Making paper money. 

(2) Tents 
168 " Brought forth food and set before them." 
263 Indian basket weaving. 
265 Iroquois Indian tents. 
585 Pavilion for officers reviewing troops. 

(3) Awnings 

535 Idyllic spot where Japanese maids delight to stroll; the houses 

have awnings. 
406 Round Tower, Copenhagen. The shops are protected by awnings. 
213 The houses need the protection of awnings. 
100 Awning for boat, Hampton Roads, Va. 

(4) Sails 

27 Sailing vessels passing under Brooklyn Bridge. 
514 Block of tenements, China. People living in boats. 
525 A Japanese sail boat. 

(5) Sacks 
35 Filling and sewing sacks of sugar. 

119 Covering for cotton bales. 

148 Building dikes of sand bags. 

295 Coffee from Porto Rico shipped in bags. 

(6) Blankets 

188 Cowboy, bronco corral, etc. 
158 The Indian blanket. 
204 Ute Indian blanket. 

(7) Trappings 
505 Stately elephants on parade. 

565 Camel trappings. 

494 A sheik and his body guard. 

(8) Umbrellas 

548 Carrying an umbrella on the way to market, Island of Luzon, P. I. 
387 Market place and cathedral, Nuremburg, Germany, stands pro- 
tected by umbrellas. 
501 Umbrellas of India. 
60 Protecting the bathers, Atlantic City. 

(9) Flags and Banners 

260 With the flag goes the public school. 
585 Review of troops, Australia. 



428 TEXTILES AND CLOTHING 

481 Market scene in Finland. 

100 Some of the great warships in Hampton Roads. 

(io) Ropes 

559 Rigging of vessel. 

(n) Fishing Nets 

226 First haul of the season. 

(12) Wagon Covers 

71 Wagon used to haul ammunition. 

(13) Mosquito Net 

245 Placer mining in Alaska. 

II. Clothing 

Modern Clothing of Many Lands 

Clothing of different countries naturally varies according to materials 
obtainable, climate, taste, custom and tradition. In these days of rapid 
travel and easy communication, variations are disappearing. Native 
costumes are being displaced by the style of clothes worn in America 
and western Europe. 
8, 22, 29, 31, 146, 235 United States ; 273, 275 Canada ; 305 Brazil ; 
315 Argentina; 324 Chile; 340 Venezuela; 351, 355 England; 
366 Scotland; 375 Ireland; 404 Copenhagen; 423, 424 France; 
438 Spain; 443 Switzerland; 452 Italy; 464 Austria; 474 Turkey; 
486 Russia; 516 China; 541 Japan; 557 Tunis; 581, 582 S. 
Africa ; 585, 590 Australia. In all these views will be found 
men and women dressed in such clothes as we are used to see- 
ing, varied, in wool, cotton and silk according to use and climate. 
1, 3, 5, 11, 12, 16, 42, 44, 46, 47, 57, 69, 75, 99, 105, 107, 108, 115, 117, 
124, 125, 130, 143, 149, 153, 156, 226 United States; 271, 272 
Canada; 280, 284 Mexico; 295, 297 Cuba; 310 Brazil; 319 Ar- 
gentina ; 327 Chile ; 333 Peru ; 339 Venezuela ; 357 England ; 378 
Ireland; 388, 393 Germany; 437 Spain; 477 Greece; 488 Russia; 
579 S. Africa. Among laboring people also the same general 
type of clothing is seen varying in its material and quantity to 
suit the needs of the people. Notice that the material changes 
with the climate. 
15, 20, 21, 22, 24, 40, 41, 117, 105 United States; 268, 269 Can- 
ada; 292 Salvador; 302 Guadeloupe; 319, Argentina; 338 Ven- 
ezuela; 411 Norway; 419 Sweden; 431 France; 541 Japan; 548, 
550 Philippines. These clothes, even though some of them 
look like caricatures of others, show a similarity which proves 
how very adaptable our clothes are. They may be made of 
any material whatsoever and having no parts hanging loose are 
suited for work. 
65, 66, 156 Men who work in hot places, such as smelting works', 
wear woolen clothing. 



MODERN CLOTHING 429 

246 Alaska; 279 Labrador; 343 North Greenland; 413 Lapland; 328 

Magellan Straits. People in very cold countries must wear 

skins and fur for warmth. Woolen cloth and blankets are used 

wherever they are obtainable. 
481 Finland. This picture was taken in summer. 
409, 410 Norwegian women; 418 Swedish girls. Norwegian and 

Swedish people wear a great deal of homespun wool and linen. 
498, 555 The orientals have adopted clothing light, loose and cool. 

It may be cotton, wool or silk. 
560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565 In Egypt the loose cotton garment has 

been the dress from time immemorial. 
494 A sheik ; 566 A bey. The desert night is so cold that desert 

people must have a woolen coat or blanket in which to wrap 

themselves. 
555 Morocco. Wonderful rugs are woven by oriental peoples. They 

are used for beds, for floors and even for tent covering. 
503, 504, 505, 506 The common garments of the poor in India are 

made of cotton. Wealthier people wear silk and velvets. 
506 Kashmir. The mountain people of India are noted for their 

woolen cloths, wonderful shawls and carpets. 
510 In Burmah, cotton is the common material. 
519, 520, 521 In China, too, cotton cloth is worn by nearly every one. 

Warmth is obtained by padding. 
528, 529, 530, 532, 536, 537 Japan. The working people wear cotton 

cloth often gaily figured. 
535 The Japanese wear a great deal of silk, too. 
570 Uganda. Bark cloth forms the garments for the negroes of 

Uganda, Africa. 
572 The little clothing worn by these people is probably cotton. Cot- 
ton cloth manufactured in America or England finds its way 

into the remote places of the earth and is worn by savages. 
490 Circassians. Here is a curious mixture of the uses of skins, 

woolen and cotton cloths. 



Note : — For a more complete list of Textiles see the Key- 
stone View Company's General catalog. Having pioneered the 
work of photographing industries for class room instruction 
we are well equipped to care for your need in this important 
phase of visual instruction. 

The Publishers. 



34. HOUSEHOLD ADMINISTRATION 

By GRACE SCHERMERHORN, B.S. 

DIRECTOR OF COOKING IN THE NEW YORK CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

FORMERLY DIRECTOR OF PRACTICE TEACHING IN HOME 

ECONOMICS, IOWA STATE COLLEGE, AMES, IOWA 

In House Management, we aim to tie together the work done 
in Foods, Clothing and Shelter, dealing with the whole sub- 
ject from the point of view of the home maker. The many 
problems arise, such as the amount of money to be spent and 
how it shall be divided; the planning of clothing not for one 
but for a whole family ; planning meals that shall be adequate, 
economical and appetizing, at the same time planning for the 
cooking and serving of these meals so that time will be left 
for other necessary duties and pleasures ; systematizing work 
so the family may be better cared for with less time given to 
the machinery of the household; and a study of labor-saving 
machinery together with easy ways of doing work. Very 
often the other Home Economics courses have not provided 
instruction in many of the duties necessary in keeping a home, 
such as laundering, care and cleaning of the house and its fur- 
nishings, marketing, how to keep accounts, and home care of 
the sick. Under these circumstances, the Home Management 
course must teach the essentials of these subjects so that the 
student may appreciate their value and realize their impor- 
tance. 

Practice houses offer the best laboratory for teaching this 
work, but, since they are rare in our public schools, a very help- 
ful substitute may be found in pictures. The stereograph and 
lantern slides will be found invaluable — especially the stereo- 
graph because of its convenience and moderate price and the 
fact that it is the only picture true to life; the pupil using it 
becomes a part of the scene. The following list of scenes are 
helpful not only in suggestions of things to be done and to be 
left undone, but they also show the household problems of 
other peoples. 

43i 



432 HOUSEHOLD ADMINISTRATION 

Buying Food 

Only as we control market conditions can we control the food for 
the family. The following market scenes show native costumes, food 
containers, transportation facilities and buildings. 

7 Quincy St. market, Boston. 
341 The city baker selling his wares in Venezuela. A marked com- 
parison with our modern methods. 
393 A market in Cologne, Germany. 
395 Vegetable market in Belgium. 

396, 487 Milk delivery — very different from our own methods. 
423 Flower market in Paris, France. 
447 A market in Switzerland. 
466 A market in Austria-Hungary. 
469 A market in Bulgaria. 
472, 473 Markets in Constantinople. 
481 A fish market in Finland. 
485 A market in Poland. 
548 Market wares. 
555 A market in Morocco. 
572 A market in Africa. 
582 A market in Capetown, Africa. 

Laundering 

Laundering is an important industry that is being taken from the 
American homes by the city laundry. Even in the country we find 
laundries being run in connection with the creameries, so that rural a? 
well as city people are being relieved of this task. 

40 Folding and ironing linen collars in a collar factory. 
399 The Holland canals offer water supply for laundering. 
431 Washing clothes in a river. A common method of laundering 

clothes among peasant people. 
455 Clothes are dried in the streets in crowded city districts. 

Household Utensils and Methods of Housework 

33 An attractive dining room where the table is laid with doilies. 
This makes the laundry problem more simple. For the busy 
woman with limited income, paper doilies may be used. 

168 A simple dining service used by the Indians. The squaw prepares 
and serves the meal but does not eat with the men of the family. 

204, 534 Japanese and Indian " baby carriages." 

204 Not many sanitary laws are applied to baby's food and surround- 
ings. 

534 Baby pacifiers are not confined to America alone. 

263 Weaving baskets — a household duty of the squaw because they, 
with pottery, were used as household utensils. Now this is a 
pastime for women. 



HOUSE PLANNING 433 

372 Kitchen in Burns' cottage. A good example of the open fireplace 
that was formerly used for both cooking and heating. Note the 
orderly arrangement of dishes. 

409, 506, 540 Textile industries that are no longer done in the home. 

410 Crude cooking equipment of the Norwegian peasant. 

411, 413 Milking. An industry from which most American women are 
relieved. In pioneer days, however, milking the cows was part 
of most women's daily schedule. Compare the open wooden 
pails used in Norway (411) with the modern sanitary method 
shown in 57. 

550 Hulling rice for breakfast, Philippine. Note the heavy, crude 
utensils. All the girls of the family help with this task. 

House Planning 

An important factor in making housework more easily carried on. 
6, 455 Tenement ho