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Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae 


















The object of the present work is to make available for 
students of Irish Hagiology and Ecclesiastical History 
materials which have either not been printed before, or which 
are only to be found scattercd through the vast Bollandist 
Collection of the Acta Sanctorum, or in scarce seventeenth 
century books like Colgans Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae, and 
Fleming's Collectanea Sacra ; works which require a long 
purse for their acquisition, and ample shelf-room for their 
accommodation ; and, moreover, do not in all cases come up to 
modern standards in respect of editing. 

The manuscript sources from which the h'ves in the present 
collection are derived are enumerated and criticized in Part I 
of the Introduction. The character and mode of composition 
of the lives, and the nature and value of the information which 
they contain, are discussed in Parts HI and IV. In Part II 
the separate lives contained in these volumes are dealt with ; 
and an attempt is made to determine the relation of these lives 
to other existing lives both Latin and Irish, and of the Irish 
lives to one another, where more than one Irish Hfe of the 
same saint is extant. This has not, so far as I know, been 
hitherto attempted ; and as the majority of the Irish lives are 
still unprinted, I trust that this part of my work may be 
useful to other labourers in this field, and may serve to shovv 
which of these lives are most worthy of attention. Some 
of them I may perhaps be allowed to deal with m^self in 
future volumes. But to print Irish lives which are mere late 
translations of existing Latin Hves can add nothing to our 
knowledge, except possibly as regards the Irish vocabulary 


of the last two and a half centuries. In order to facihtate 
comparison and research I have placed in the critical notes 
dctailed references to the corresponding portions of other Hves, 
whether Latin or Irish, where such exist. 

In the last section of the Introduction I have attempted 
to dctermine, with how much success my readers must judge, 
what elements in the Hves of Celtic Saints are derived from 
thc mythology and folk-lore of the Celtic Heathenism which 
preceded the introduction of Christianity. This also has not 
been systematically attempted hitherto. In this way some 
light has, I hope, been thrown on the nature of that heathenism, 
and yet more on the character of Celtic hagiology. It is 
indeed, as it seems to me, impossible to understand much 
that is contained in these lives without some knowlcdge of the 
secular literature from which I have striven to illustrate them. 
And the advantage of this method of investigation is that by 
it whole groups of miracles and legends find a common ex- 
planation, whereas the w^eakness of the euhemeristic mcthod 
adopted, e. g. by Messrs. Baring-Gould and Fisher in their 
reccntly published Livcs of British Saints, is that a special 
explanation has to be found for each separate legend, and the 
rcsult is as unscientific as it is certainly unimaginativc and 
prosaic. Moreover, by means of this comparison many things 
in these lives, which at first sight naturally cause offcnce, find 
an explanation, if not an cxcuse, of which thosc who are 
jealous for the honour of the Celtic saints may be glad to 
avail themselves. 

The need for this comparison with the sccular traditions 
is one reason why it is dcsirable that editors, even of Latin 
lives of Irish saints, should have some acquaintance with the 
native language and literature. Other reasons are the occur- 
rence in these lives of Irish words and phrases, and of Latin 
cxprcssions which can only bc explained by referencc to Irish ; 
and the intricacy of Irish nomenclature both personal and 


local. These subjects are dealt with in the Indices and 
Glossary. In the Indcx Locorum I have, I believe, identified 
several places for the first time. But morc could probably be 
done by persons having local knowledge to which I cannot 
pretcnd. The foundations of Irish topographical science vvere 
iaid for all time by John 0'Donovan ; others can only build 
upon the foundations laid by him. 

But whatever may be thought of my own contributions to 
these volumes, I trust I have at any rate provided students 
with reliable texts on which they can work with confidence. 

It is a satisfaction to me to think that in the present work 
I have done something towards carrying out the great design 
at which Colgan and his associates laboured with such pathetic 
fidelity amid the storms of the seventeenth century (see p. x, 
note 3) ; though they would, I fear, have gravely disapproved 
of the critical theories which I have applied to these compo- 
sitions. Perhaps I may also be allowed to pay the tribute of 
my reverent admiration for the labours of a later worker in 
the same field, Dr. William Reeves, sometime Bishop of Down 
and Connor : ' Gigantes erant super terram in diebus illis.' 

It only remains for me to add my acknowledgements of the 
many kindnesses which I have receivcd in connexion with 
these volumes. I would thank the Delegates of the Clarendon 
Press for their liberality in undertaking a work which can 
hardly appeal to more than a limited number of students ; and 
I would thank the ofiicials and printers of that grcat establish- 
ment for the skill and patience with which they have executed 
a rather complicated task. To the authorities of the Bodleian 
Library in Oxford, of the Bibliotheque Royale in Brussels, 
of the Royal Irish Academy, of the Franciscan Convent, of the 
King's Inns Library, of Trinity College, and Primate Marsh's 
Library in Dublin, I am indebted for unrestricted access to 
their manuscript treasures, and for unfailing courtesy and 
considcration. The authorities of the two last-named libraries 


further allovvcd photographs of certain manuscripts to be 
taken for my use. To the Provost and Fellows of Queen's 
College, Oxford, I am once more indebted for an even 
larger use of their valuable library than that which they so 
liberally allow to all graduates of the University. To the 
late Mr. Whitley Stokes I am indebted for the loan of 
several photographs of Irish MSS., while Mr. J. G. CKeefife, 
though at the time personally unknown to me, generously 
ailowed me to make use of some transcripts which he had 
made of certain Irish lives of Saints. To Sir John Rhys 
and Professor Heinrich Zimmer my thanks are due, not 
only for the stimulus of their pubhshed works, but also for 
their personal instructions, which in ycars gone by first 
initiated me into Celtic studies. I trust that they may find 
these volumes not altogether unvvorthy of the care and 
pains which they once bestowed upon their pupil, the editor. 

CoRPUs Christi College, 


January 27, 1910. 



Editor's Preface iii 


Part I. The Manuscripts ix 

Part II. The Separate Lives xxiii 

Part III. CoMPOsiTioN AND Character of the Lives . Ixxxix 

Part IV. The Contents of the Lives xcv 

Part V. Heathen Folk-lore and Mythology in the 

LivES OF Celtic Saints .... cxxix 

LiST OF Abbreviations and of Works cited . . . clxxxix 

Vita sancti Abbani 3 

,, Aedi 34 

• ,, ,, Albei 46 

„ „ Barri 65 

„ „ Berachi 75 

' „ „ BOECII 87 



„ „ Carthagi sive Mochutu 170 

• „ „ ClARANI DE ClUAIN 200 

,, „ ClARANI DE SaIGIR 217 

„ ,, COEMGENI 234 

' ,, „ COLMANI DE LaND ElO 258 

* Hitherto unpublished. 




* ,, „ CrONANI 22 

„ ,, Declani 32 

„ „ Endei 60 

,, „ Fechini ... 76 

* „ „ FlNANI DE CeNN EtIGH 87 

„ „ Fintani 96 

„ „ Geraldi 107 

,, sancte Ite 116 

* „ sancti Lasriani sev Molaissi 131 

„ „ Maedoc 141 

„ „ mochoemog 164 

„ „ MocHUA DE Tech Mochua 184 

* ,, „ MOLING 190 

„ „ Moluae (sev Lugidi) 206 

„ „ Munnu 226 

* „ „ Ruadani 240 



Appendix I — 

*ViTA secvnda sancti Brendani 270 

*De sancto Brendano versvs satiri ci 293 

Appendix II — 

Vita sancti Aidvi sive Maedoc 295 

Explanation of the Indexes 312 

Index Locorvm 313 

Index Nominvm 344 

Index Rervm 371 

Glossary : 

A.— Latin 381 

B.— Irish 385 

Addenda et Corrigenda 389 

* Ilitherto unpublished. 



I. Apart from single lives which may be found in various MSS., 
three great collections of Latin Lives of Irish Saints are known 
to me. 

The first of these is contained in a MS. of the Royal Library at 
Brussels numbered 7672-4, and commonly knovvn as Codex Salman- 
ticensis froni the fact that it once belonged to the Irish CoIIege at 
Salamanca (S). 

The second is contained in two sister MSS., of which one, marked 
V. 3. 4, is in Primate Marsh's Library, Dublin (M) ; the other is in 
Trinity CoIIege, Dublin, marked E. 3. 11, and numbered 175 in 
Dr. Abbotfs Catalogue (T). 

The third is contained in two Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian, 
Rawl. B. 485 (Ri), and 505 (R-) ; of which the latter, as will be 
shown hereafter, is a copy of the former '. 

S has already been published in extenso' by the liberality of the 
late Marquess of Bute under the editorship ofthe BoIIandist Fathers, 
De Smedt and De Backer', and therefore none of the lives printed 
in the present work are taken from that MS. Still less have I 

* Keating iised ' an old vellum book' containing lives of saints, apparently in 
Latin, ii. 400. but I cannot identify it with any of the above collections. In Brussels 
MS. 2324 f. 12 v" there is an Irish note by Michael OCIery stating that Simon 
Bearnaval [Barnewall] near Kells had a collection of Latin lives of the follow- 
ing saints among others : Patrick, Cronan, abbot, of the race of Dathi [? Mart. 
Don. Feb. 20], Finntan, bishop [? of Dunbleisc, Jan. 3], Finntan, priest, of the 
race of Conall Gulban [= Munnu], Mide [= Ita], Ebbeus episcopus ^1. e. Ailbe], 
Diarmaid, Brendan f? of Birr or of Clonfert], Cronan [? of Roscrea]. 

- As a rule the MS. is cited as S, and the edition as C S. 

' Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae ex Codice Salmanticensi . . . opera Caroli de 
Smedt et losephi de Backer e soc. lesu, . . . sumptus largiente loanne Patricio 
Marchione Bothae, 1888. The edition is farfromperfect ; it suffers from the fact 
tbat the editors have no acquaintance with the Irish language, a knowledge of 
which is absolutely necessary foran editor even of Latin lives of Irish saints. The 
work was severely criticized by Zimmer in Gott. gelehrte Anzeigen, March, 
1891. Still, it is not diificult for an Irish scholar to correct the mistakes of the 
editors, and with all its shortcomings the edition does make the MS. available 
for students of Irish matters in a convenient form. But for greater security 
every passage quoted from S in the critical notes, and nearly every passage 
quoted in the Introduction to the present work, has been collated with the MS. 


thought it necessary to print lives which, as is the case with some of 
those contained in R' and R^ are mere duplicates or epitomes of 
iives contained in S. Other lives of the same saints are admitted ; 
for the various lives form what Pfere Delehaye has well called ' the 
dossier of a saint ' ' ; and a comparison of them is often most 

For the other two coliections nothing analogous has been done. 
Many of the lives contained in them have never been printed at all. 
Those that have been printed are either scattered up and down the 
great Boliandist Coliection, or are only to be found in rare works like 
Colgan's Acta Sanctorum ' and Trias Thauniaturga ', or FIeming's 

' Les Legendes hagiographiques, par Hippolyte Delehaye, S. J., 1905 ; chap. v, 
' Le Dossier d'un Saint.' 

* Louanii, foi. mdcxlv. 

' ibidem, fol. mdcxlvii. The ' Trias ' is composed of SS. Patrick, Brigit, and 
Columba. In the A. S. the Lives are arranged according to tlie order nf the 
saints' days in the calendar. But Colgan only lived to complete a quarter of 
his task, the A. S. containing the saints belonging to the first three months 
of the year. The scheme of Colgan and his associates embraced much more 
than the Lives of the Saints ; they aimed at nothing less than a complete 
collection of all e.xisting Irish antiquities, secular and ecclesiastical, as may be 
seen from the Preface to the A. S. There is, indeed, hardly to be found in 
the history of literature a more pathetic tale than that of the way in which 
Colgan and his fellow workers (who are enumerated in the same Preface) 
strove, amid poverty, and persecution, and exiie, to save the remains of their 
country's antiquities from destruction. In Rawl. B. 487 f 68 is a very interest- 
ing draft of their scheme : 'Catalogus eorum quae habemus partim parata 
partim paranda ad praelium (sic).' At the head of this stands : ' Vitae san- 
ctorum Hibemiae qui floiuerunt intra uel extra patriam . . . illustratae Commen- 
tariis in quibus omnes occurrentes in eis diHicultates explicantur.' Then, after 
mentioning other items of their programme, the writer adds : ' Haec omnia 
sunt pene parata ad praelum, si adessent necessarii sumptus uel modus dandi 
cautionem impressori de 300 exemplaribus comparandis per cum qui daret 
cautionem.' At f. 74 there is the following note : ' Paucas habemus nostrorum 
sanctorum uitas ex patria latine scriptas, sed longe multas [? plures] ex aliis 
regionibus, eorum nerape qui intcr exteros floruerunt. Vnde desideramus 
omnem uitam alicuius nostratis sancti qui in patria haberi possit praeter se- 
quentes quas ex patria missas habemus.' Then follows an alphabetical hst of 
forty-three Lalin lives, of whicli all except three are to be found in M T, S, or 
R ; and many of them in more than one recension. Then follows a list of cleven 
fragmentary lives, ' unde eas integras desideramus.' Of these lives all but four 
are to be found in S or R, or both. And all thc lives in both lists which come 
within the scope of Colgan's two volumes are there printed by him. In a port- 
folio of unbound papers in the Library of the I.^ubhn Franciscans is a ' Catalogus 
Actuum Sanctorum quae MS habentur ordine Mensium et Dierum ', from April 
to December. This list is evidcnlly a draft schcme for Colgan's rcmaining 
volumes of A. S.; the first three months of the year having been already pro- 
vided for. This list was printcd by Reeves in Proc. R. I. A. vii. 372-3. On 
f. 74 v° of the Rawhnson MS. is a list of thirty-nine Irish Lives of Saints, 
headed ' Accso na bcthada fuaramar as ar ttir', i. e. these are the lives which 
we have got from our country ; after wliich follows a lisl of ihirty-one Irish 
saints, headed ' Agso drong oirdeirc do naomhaibh ar ttirc nach liuaramar a 
m-bethada ; 7 atamaid d'iarraid, mas cidir ', i.e. here is a distinguished company 
of saints of our country whose lives we have not got ; and we are trying to get 


Collectanea Sacra '. One or two have been printed separately -. 
The object of the present vvork is to malce availablc for students of 
Irish Hagioiogy the materials contained in MT and R'. 

As S is only used for the purpose of comparison a brief description 
will suffice. It is a folio volume measuring 33 cm. bya^; written 
in double colunins by a scribe of the fourteenth century. It consists 
at present of a hundred and seventy-five leaves, but several leaves 
have been lost*, and othcrs have been misbound. The only scribal 
note vvhich throvvs any light on the history of the MS. is at the end 
of the Life of S. Cuanna on f. 219' : 'Bennact Cuan«a agus noem 
daroni a cattach fris ar awimaiw inti tuc a gaedailch i 1-ladin in bethusa. 
i. fratris lohannis Mac Kern de Ergallia,' i. e. the blessings of 
Cuanna and the saints who made their covenant with him on the 
soul of the man who translated this life from Gaelic into Latin, i. e. 
Brother John Mac Kernan (?) (= Mac Tiernan or Mac Tighearnain) 
of Oriel. To which a later hand has added on the margin : ' Anima 
quoque fratris Dermicii I Dhunchadha (i. e. Dermot 0'Donohoe) 
requiescat in pace. Amen.' 

M and T are certainly sister MSS., i. e. both copied from the same 
original, but neither of them copied from the other.' They are both 

them, if possible. Many students will have re-echoed the lament of the Bol- 
landist editor of the life of Declan (A. S. July v. 597" i : ' merito cum maiori- 
bus doleo non uulgari tandem aliquando A. S. Hiberniae, a Colgano olim per tres 
tantummodo menses typis commissa, cum cetera promissa sint toties, tantoque 
opere ab eius magistris per totara Hiberniam conquisita.' This was written in 1727. 
' Louanii mdclxxvii. fol. Fleming's tragical death is described in the 
Preface to Colgan's A. S. The work was published after his death by Thomas 
Sirinus, i. e. 0'Sheerin. 

* e. g. the lives of Bairre of Cork, by Rich. Caulfield, 1864 ; the S life of 
Cainnech, by the Marquess of Ormonde, 1853. 

' With the exception of the documents printed in the Appendices, all the lives 
in the present collection are taken from M T or R. 

* The fohation begins with f. 48, so that, apart from other mutilations, forty- 
seven leaves have been lost at the beginning. 

^ Very incorrectly printed CS. col. 937-8. 

^ That they must be copied from the same original is proved by the numerous 
rainute points in which they agree : (a) common errors, e. g. stilam /or stilum, 
Ab. § 10; pariatura terra /or per hiatura terre, Aed §35; Exhach /or Echach, 
Ba. § 2 ; Roraam /or Roma, bis ib. § 7 ; se ridentera /or stridentem, Car. § 32 ; 
scandentes/or scatentes. ib. §51 ; demeritate/or teraeritate, Com. § 34; frustra 
/or frusta, Decl. § 25 ; debitoribus /or crtditoribus, Fin. C. § 17 ; indesperatus 
/or inde separatus, Mochoem. §17; pater/or frater, ib. § 22; profundiosi, ib. 
§ 30 ; habentes sanctura acceperunt/or habitum sanctura accipientes, Rua. § 15 
ad finem. (b) Spelling, e. g. cepta /ot septa, Co. E. § 9 ; cella /or sella, Com. 
§ 34 ; arcx, Mochoem. § 20. (f) Common omissions, e. g. aemulatores, Ab. § 10 ; 
et ait, Car. J 21 ; in Co. E. § 10 a long clause is omitted ; shorter ones in Com. 
§ 44, Decl. § 23. In some cases M has inserted the missing word above the line, 
e. g. Dei, Aed 5 27 ; eum, Fin. C. § 24, &c. In these cases the word in the 
original MS. may have occupied a position in which it was liable to be over- 
looked. (d) Common erroneous insertions, e. g. est, Car. § 31, et, ib. § 37 ; 
mortem eius, Com. § 57 [or it may be that these words should be retained, and 



folio volumes written in double columns and very similar in appear- 
ance, the columns in T being rather broader, and the handwriting 
rather more compressed and upright. T is assigned to the fifteenth 
century in Dr. Abbott's Catalogue. M is an exact contemporary '. 
Both MSS. probably contained the same collection of lives originally, 
but both are mutilated. 

The following table shows the arrangement of the lives in the two 
MSS. as they exist at present. The titles are given in the order of 
M, the figures in the right-hand column indicate the position of the 
corresponding article in T. A dagger suffixed to a number indicates 
that the life in that MS. is incomplete, a double dagger indicates that 
it is a mere fragment. 










[20 ff. 



[ ff- 










Laurence (0'Toole) 





[II ff. 








[19 ff. 










Colman Ela 












Aed mac Bric 





Here T inserts 




Louis olToulouse 





V. s. 
















Ciaran of Saigir 



Ciaran of Cluain 





some word Hke ' expectantes ' inserted] ; enim, Decl. § 38 [due to preceding 
' multitudiHcm']. {e) Wrong ordcr in both, e. g. habitatores multorum de 
gentiUtate locorum, /o> hab. mult. loc. de gent. conuertit, Decl. §3 ; cf. ib. § 17. 
{/) Space left in both, though nothing is vvanting, Decl. § 36. (^ Same mar- 
ginal notes in both, c.g. Aed § 13, Ail. § 15, Co. E. § 27, Mun. § 25. (/;~ Identical 
glosses in both, e. g. Ab. § 3, Co. E. § 27 (' vel Lelas'), Ail. § 42. But on the 
other hand neither MS. is copied from the other. (o) T cannot be copicd from 
M, for it has words and phrases vvhich M erroneously omits, e. g. Ab. §8 
(futurum) ; in Mochoem. §j 24, 34, Rua. § 30, M has omitled vvliolc clauses 
owing to homoioteleuton. {!>) Neithcr can M be copied from T, for similar 
reasons, e.g. Aed § 13 T omits ' in nie " ; Co. E. § 8 ' toto ' ; Mun. § 22 ' poterant ', 
ib. § 25 ' solutam ' ; while in Mochoem. § 34 T has omittcd a vvhole clausc owing 
to homoioteleuton. In Aed § 5 M and T have two dilfercnt readings, both 
wrong, neitlier of which could well have becn copied from the other (edi M, 
egni T,/oy cqui). 

• Rcevcs (I'roc. R. I. A. Jan. 1875) thought that T vvas the oldcr MS. of thc 
two, btit Dr. Macray and Mr. Madan, to vvhom I submitted pliotographs, pro- 
nounced thcm to be absolutely contcmporary, Mr. Madan dating both c. 1400. 



From this it woiild appear that the arrangenicnt of the lives in the 
two MSS. was probably the sanie, with the exception that T inserts 
tlie two foreign saints, Antony and Louis of Toulouse, in the body 
of his MS., whereas M removed them to the beginning, for the close 
resemblance between the two MSS. makes it probable that the life of 
St. Louis was contained in the missing part at the beginning of M. 
The fact that both these foreign Saints belonged to the order of St. 
Francis makes it possible, as Reeves suggested, that the original of 
MT bclonged to some Franciscan house. In the present work all the 
above lives are included except these two foreign saints, SS.- 
Laurence and Malachy (excluded on chronological grounds), 
Flannan (as being too fragmentary), Columba, whose life is a copy 
of Adamnan's well-known work, used by Reeves in his monumental 
edition, and called by him Codex D, and Brendan, whose life accord- 
ing to this recension was included in Cardinal Moran's Acta S. 
Brendani. Happily the two MSS. largely supplement each other's 

From the above table it will be seen that the only life which has 
been lost is that of Flannan ; the life of Carthach (Mochuda) is 
incomplete in both MSS., but by combining the two texts the whole 
can be recovered with the exception of a few lines (v. infra i. 192, 
196 notes). T has suffered the worse damage of the two ; and there- 
fore M has, as a rule, been taken as the basis of the printed text. 
Only three lives, Ailbe, Carthach (or Mochuda), and Declan, have 
been taken from T, though it has of course been collated wherever 
available. M measures 35 cm. by 23^ cm. The last folio (which is 
an inserted slip) is marked f 159 in the old foliation, but there are 
two folios numbered 135, so that originally the MS. contained 160 ft"., 
but 32 ff. have been lost at the beginning, and four in other places. 

T measures 33 cm. by 25 cm. The first part of the MS. contains 
a fragment of some chronicle. The lives begin on f. 28 of the 
original foliation, and this foliation shows that no less than^o ff. have 
been lost in the body of the MS., besides an uncertain number at 
the end '. 

M is almost certainly the MS. which Colgan used and calls Codex 
Kilkenniensls. Reeves denied this, but I think on insufiRcient 
grounds -. It is quite certainly the MS. used by Fleming in his 

' Probably about nineteen, to judge from the correspondint; portions of M. 

- Proc. R, I. A. u. s. ; Adamnan, p. xxvi ; v. inf. ii. 96, 100 notes ; cf. also 
ii. 177 note (Mochoem. § 24), where a sentence, omitted by M owing to 
homoioteleuton, is wanting also in Colgan : and the same is the case ib. § 34 ; 
cf. Z. C. P. V. 454. The lives of the M T recension printed in Coigan's Acta 
Sanctorum are : Abban, p. 610; Aed mac Bric. p. 418; Ciaran of Saigir, 
p. 458 ; Finlan of Clonenagh, p. 349 ; Ita, p. 66 ; Maedoc. p. 208 ; Mochoemoc, 
p. 589; Senan, p. 512. Of these, all except the first two are novv lost or 
mutilated in T. Colgan's statement that Cod. Kilk. contained a life of David, 


Collectanea Sacra, and called by him Codex Ardmachanus. This 
was very ingeniously proved by Reeves'. I cannot discover in the 
MS. itself any ground for either of the names given to it by Colgan ' 
and Fleming' respectively. The former has been more commonly 
adopted. Reeves thought the latter more appropriate, though he 
does not give any reason for his opinion. 

Both M and T were used by Ussher in his Britannicarum Ecclesia- 
rum Antiquitates*, and it is probable that the numerous seventeenth- 
century annotations on the margins of both MSS. are from his hand. 
Ware also had saints' lives of the MT recension. In Chapter XIII 
of his work on Irish Writers he gives a list of saints' lives with their 
'incipits'. Of these, ten certainly belong to the MT recension : 
and the MS. used by Ware would seem to have been our M ". 

ib. p. 430, is probably a slip ; though the life may have occurred in the lost 
portions of M. 

' u. s. ; V. inf. 11. 9 note. 

2 * Vitam [Maidoci] hic damus ex uetustis raembranis conuentu^ Fratrum 
Minorum Kill Canniae,' Colgan, A. S. p. 215'' ; cf. ib. p. 596", ' Vitam Mochoe- 
moci damus ex peruetusto illo codice . . . Fratrum Minorum Kilkeniae.' 

' Fleming printed from M the lives of Comgall, p. 303 ; Mo!ua, p. 368 ; and 
Mochoemog, p. 381 ; and gave extracts from those of Coemgen, Cainnech, 
Carthach, and Munnu, pp. 313-15. His texts are far superior to those of 

' I cite the edition in vol. vi of Ussher's CoUected Works. Of course, in 
many cases it is impossible to say from vi^hich of the two MSS. Ussher took 
his quotations ; where the source is fairly certain I have added an M or T in 
brackets; M* or T* denotes that the passage cited only exists uow in the one 
of the MSS. so indicated ; but the MSS. may have been less mutilated in 
Ussher's time than they are at present. The following lives are citcd by 
Ussher : Abban § g = pp. 348, 429 f. (T) ; Aed § 3 = P- 534 ; § 3' = P- 382 ; 
Ailbe 5§ I, 2 = P- 333 (M) ; § 8 = p. 342 ; § 13 = pp. 342-3 (M) ; § 16 = p. 346 ; 
§ 19 = pp. 432-3 ; §§ 20-22 = pp. 346-7, 427 : § 25 ^ p. 428 ; Carthach §§ 59, 
61 - pp. 475, 532 (M*) ; § 65 = pp. 510-11 (T*) ; Coemgen (M*) §§ i, 4, 28 
= pp. 524-5, 527 ; Comgall § 13 = p. 475 ; § 50 = p. 527 ; Cronan §§ 16-17 
= P- 541 (T) ; Declan § i = p. 333 (T*) §§ 3-9« = pp. 334-5 ; § 9* = pp. 343-4 ; 
I 12 = p. 347 (M) ; § 18 = p. 355 ; § 21 = pp. 427-8 ; Maedoc § 8 = p. 532 ; 
Mochoemog § 4 = p. 472; Molua §§ 28, 47 = pp. 484, 511 ; Munnu §§ 26-7 
= PP. 503-5 (T) ; Ruadan § i = p. 472 ; § 25 = p. 529. 

' The incipits of the following lives cited by Ware are in M T : Finan, 
Carlhach, Ciaran of Saigir, Ailbe ; the following are now only in M : Ccemgen, 
Moling, Mochoemoc, Cainnech. In the case of Cronan (MT) and Munnu ^M*) 
the incipits are the same as those of the S recension, but I have discovered no 
evidence that Ware was acquainted with the S recension. In the case of Senan 
the incipit is the samc in MS. R. But it is the case of Declan which makes it 
practically certain that M was Ware's MS. ; for he notes that the 'incipit'of 
the life is wanting, and he therefore gives the ' cxplicit ' instead. Declan's life 
is 'acephalus' in M, but not in T. At the same time it is curious that Ware 
has not cited more of the lives contained in M. Of thc life of Abban Ware says 
* the bcginning is wanting in nty Notgs\ This probably rcfers only to some 
accidental loss or omission by Ware. It is not true cither of M or T. I have 
found nothing bearing on the history or ownership of eithor MS. before it 
reachcd its prt-scnt placc of deposit except the single entry in T, f. 109'': ' Johnc 
Dillon, his booke. God make him a go^^od man] ' ; cf. infra, p. xx. 



It follows next to consider the two MSS., R' and R', which contain 
the third coilcction of lives'. These two MSS. are also closely 
related, but the relationship between them is different. R^ is not 
a sister, but a daughter of R'. Their close relationship appears in 
many ways. Though both are mutilated to some extent, it is evident 
that both contained when complete the same collection of lives. And 
the recension of the various lives is in both MSS. identical, although 
in some cases (e.g. Coluinba, Brendan of Clonfert, and Finnian of 
Clonard) that recension is highly individual. The order of the lives 
in the two MSS. is very different, but this is due to the fact that in 
R' the lives have been rearranged in the order of the calendar for the 
convenience of reading in choir or in refectory. The following table 
shows the relationship of the two MSS. as to their contents. The 
first column gives the lives in the order of R', the second the date of 
each saint's festival in the Calendar; the third column gives the 
order of the lives in R', while the fourth gives their order in F, 
which, as I shall show presently, is the seventeenth-century transcript 
of the greater part of R' used by Colgan for his Acta Sanctorum. 
As before, a dagger indicates that the life is imperfect in the MS. so 
marked : — 







March 17 




June 9 




June 9 





Jan. 16 




June 17 




Colman of Dromore 

June 7 




March i 



Finnian of Clonard 

Dec. 12 





Feb. 15 





Feb. I 



Brendan of Clonfert 

May 16 




Ciaran of Clonmacnois 

Sept. 9 




Molaisse of Devenish 

Sept. 13 




Aed mac Bricc 

Nov. 10 or 16 




Enda of Aran 

March ar 





March 13 





Jan. 20 





[March 30] 





April 4 




Bairre of Cork 

Sept. 25 




Munnu of Taghmon 

Oct. 21 




Laurence of Dublin 

Nov. 14 


' For a more detailed account of the contents, character, relationship, and 
history of these two MSS., see an article by the present vvriter in Zeitsch. f. 
Celtische Pliilologie, v. 439 ff., of which I have not hesitated to make use here. 









Oct. II 




Colman Ela 

Sept. 26 




Columba of Terryglass 

Dec. 13 




Finan Cam 

April 7 





April 15 




Fintan of Clonenagh 

Feb. 17 





Dec. 19 




ComRall of Bangor 

May 10 




Maedoc of Ferns 

Jan. 31 





Dec. 18 



Here in its present condition R' ends ; but the table of contents 
shows that originally these additional lives followed : — 







Sept. 12 




Ciaran of Saigir 

March 5 





March 8 





Jan. 15 









Molua of Clonfertmulloe 

Aug. 4 




Boetius or Buite 

Dec. 7 



If the lives be taken in the order of the numbers in the third column 
it will be seen that the object of R- 's rearrangement of the lives is to 
bring the order into conformity with the Calendar'. Beginning with 
the national apostle, Patrick, on March i7,the livcs follow one another 
in the order of the saints' days up to St. Gerald on March 13. The 
last three lives, SS. Finan, Laurence, and Colman of Dromore, are 
out of place ; they were probably omitted accidentally, and added at 
the end when the mistake was discovcred. The life of St. Moling 
(June 17) is slightly out of place. It should foUow instead of preceding 
St. Baithine (June 9). 

F follows to a large extent the order of R', but Patrick, Columba, 
Fursa, Brigit, David, Laurence, and Colman of Dromore arc omitted, 
and many of the lives are displaced for no apparcnt reason. 

' It is interesting to note tliat the lives of English saints by John of Tyne- 
mouth which wcre arranged by him in tlie order of the Calendar, were 
rearranf;ed. probably by Capgrave, in alphabetical order. This inarks the 
difference betvveen a book of devotion and a book of rcfcrence ; cf. Horstman, 
i, p. ix. The present work is arrangcd alpbabctically. 


Of the lives enumeratcd in the above table the foUowing (in the 
ordcr of R') are included in the prescnt work, Nos. 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 
17, 18, 19, 29, 39. The following lie outside the scope of the present 
vohimes, Nos. i, 2, 7, 10, 22. The following are omitted as being 
identical with lives contained in C S, Nos. 3, 5, 6, 21, 30, 34, 35, 37, 
38 (No. 19 would have been excluded under this rule, but it is 
imperfect in S). The following are excluded because lives of the 
same saints are here given from the M T recension ; but in all these 
cases the R version has been carefully compared, and anything of 
importance which it contains is given in the critical notes : Nos. [5], 
12, 14, 20, [21], 23, 24, 26, 27, 28. [30], 31, 33, 34, 36, [37, 38]. The 
bracketed numbers had already been excluded on other grounds. Of 
the remaining four lives, No. 4 (Fursa) is practically identical with 
that in C S, though the phrasing differs a little ; No. 25 (Columba of 
Terryglass) hardly differs from C S except by abbreviation ; No. 32 
(Flannan) is a shorter and possibly earlier recension than that in 
C S, which is in the very worst hagiological manner. C S is 
incomplete, but it did not seem worth while to print the R version 
on this account *. 

No. 8 (Finnian of Clonard) difTers from C S mainly by way of 
abbreviation ; but the author of the recension has incorporated a 
shortened form of the tract : ' De tribus ordinibus sanctorum Hiber- 
niae,' which occurs separately in C S and elsewhere^ He has also 
inserted an account of Finnian's reception of the last sacraments at the 
hand of Columba of Terryglass, which is taken from the S R life of that 
saint'. There are other minor differences between S and R which 
make it possible that R is not taken direct from S, but that both are 
independent abridgements of an earlier life*. 

But besides these general points of resemblance between R' and 
R'', the two MSS. agree in the most minute points, often in the most 
obvious mistakes '. These, however, might only prove, as in the case 

^ The following summary of the missing part will suffice to show its worthless 
character ; Flannan and his companions land on the coast of Gattl, The king 
of the Frmiks was at war with the king of Burgundy. The only son of the 
king of Gaiil had lost an arm. Flannan heals him. . . . The fame of the cure 
of the king of Fraiice spread through the whole Roman Empire, and made F.'s 
way plain. The pope, John, goes out to meet him. He btays a year at Rome, 
and receives from the pope 'sacros ordines, pontificalem infulam, et licentiam 
predicandi' . . He sets out on his return. Fourteen leprous monks ask to 
join him. (Here C S resumes after the lacuna.) R' f. 159, R- f. 164. 

^ Fleming, u. s. p. 431", notices tbis insertion. 

' C S cc. 457-8. For another instance of R's incorporating additional 
matter sce i. 223, note 4. 

* That S is in this case an abridgement of an earlier life is shown by §§ 5, 12 
(C S cc. 192, 196). 

^ e. g. ignorantiam ybr ignominiam, i. 43 note ; cuIpa/o>- lupa, i. 65 note ; 
prebeat/or prebebat, i. 78; benedictionem ybr -onis, i. 98; regiorum/or regio- 


of M and T, derivation from a common original. But the fact fliat 
many of the peculiarities of R' can only be explained as misunder- 
standings of the text of R} make it practically certain that R' is a 
direct copy of R'. The commonest form of error is a wrong 
expansion of the contractions with which R' abounds*. But, curiously 
enough, the most conclusive evidence that R' is copied from R' is 
furnished by a Jife which now no longer exists in R', viz. the life of 
Boetius or Buite. This is obviously imperfect in R"; it ends in the 
middle of a sentence : ' panem latum preparauit, et butiro superficicm 
eius,' i. 97. It is not mutilated in R", and on the verj' next line 
another life begins : ' Incipit uita Sci. Finniani de Cluain Yrard." 
Now the table of contents of R' shows that the life of Boetius was the 
last in the volume. Evidcntly therefore when R- was copied, R' had 
lost the last leaf, or at the least the last page had become so abraded 
from being the outside of the MS. as to be illegible'. 

In the Library of the Franciscan Convent at Dublin is a paper MS. 
containing thirty-three lives of saints of the R recension'. The 
colophon * shows that it was copied in 1627 by John Goolde, Warden 
of the Franciscan Convent of Cashel ' ex authentico transumpto uetu- 
stissimi manuscripti pertinentis ad Inis na naom supcr Loch Rij ' 
(Saints' Island in Lough Ree). It is practically certain that F is a 
copy of R''. It shows the same imperfection in the life of Boetius, 
and the most minute agreement in smaller points. Any differenccs 
between the two I regard as being due only to the error or caprice 
of the scribe, or to his attempts to correct the niistakes of his 
original '^, or his own misrcadings of that original". It is equally clear 

nem, i. 103 ; duxistis/oj- dimisistis, i. 106; apertus /ur aptus, i. 112 : desperauit 
_/b/' disparuit, i. 214 note ; chornata /or ornata, ii. 68; licentia_/br lclitia, ii. 266; 
progcnle /or pergente, ib. ; hostiam /or hastam, ii. 245 note ; ocuM /or olim, 
ii. 266 note. Common omissions, e. g. ii. 67 1 Corbanus autem > ; ii. 264 ' rege) ; 
ii. 134 (a uhole iine omittedi. Wrong insertions, ii. 68 !cnim"i ; ii. 139 1 in). 

' Tliis character of R', combined vvith its non-calendarian arrangement, would 
roakc it an inconvcnient book for reading aloud. Ahnost every column of R- 
affords instanccs of the statcraent in the text. 1 give a few examples ; orationibus 
yb»- omnibus, i. IiB; habitum dantes/or habundantcs, i. 127; aliquod /or aliud, 
i. 131 (tliis occurs frequcntlyi ; popularem yo;- papalem, ii. 71 ; corruptum /or 
corporum, ii. 132; declinationcm/brdemonem, ii. 265. R- also ignores lacunae 
in K' and copies straight ahead, e. g. 1. 84, 85 notes. 

^ This fact inter alia 1 provcs that R' is a good deal older than R'. 

^ Sec the table given above, pp. xv, xvi. I call this transcript F. 

* Printcd in full, Z. C. P. v. 452-3. 

' Tliis bcing the case 1 have not thought it necessary to give the readings 
of F except where thcy secmed of interest as illustrating the origin of cditions 
of any of these livcs printed in Colgan or in the A. S. ; e. g. Beracli. £nda, 
Fechin, Mochua, Tigernach. The notes to Ihcse lives will lurnish on cvcry 
page proot' of tlic stalements madc above, e. g. Ber. §§ 3, 19 21, 23. Wliere F 
agrees with R' against R^, tliis is mcrely duc to thc fact that the true reading 
was easily recoverable by conjccture. 

' Thus in Ber. § 15 thc text has : ' inuocato nominc Dei uiui insutSauit in 


that F is the transcript used by Colgan in the preparation of those 
lives of the R recension which he editcd, or intended to edit, in his 
Acta Sanctorum ^ Several of the lives have chapter divisions and 
marginal notes, and these, as Reeves suggested ^ may very lilcely be 
from Colgan's hand. 

R' is a smali folio, size 23cm. X i4cm., written in double columns, 
and, as I have said, in a very contracted hand. It contains now 
i6o ff. How much is lost at the end it is impossible to tell exactly, 
but probablj' twcnty-four ff.' In the body of the MS. we can 
show from the ancient pagination and foliation that nineteen leaves 
have been lost. The gatherings are for the most part in twelves, 
though some have been interfered with by mutilation and other 
causes. It contains some very interesting marginalia '. 

R' is a large folio, size 37 cm. x 25-7 cm. in double columns. It 
consists at present of 221 ff.', including ten leaves at the end which 

eam ' [sc. niiiem] ; F misreads 'uiui' as ' niui ', then alters it to 'niuem', and 
omits ' in eam *. 

' The close conformity of CoIgan's text with that of F may be easily seen by 
reference to the lives cited in the last note but one. The lives actually printed 
by Colgan from the R recension are Berach, A. S., p. 340; Enda, p. 704; 
Fechin, p 130 ; Gerald, p. 599 ; and he cites or alludes to, thouf h he does not 
print, the following lives of the same recension : Ita, Flannan, Maedoc, Fintan, 
Finnian, David, Ciaran of Saigir, Aed mac Bric, Brendan, Brigit (v. Z. C. P. 
V. 448-53 !. Of these David and Brigit are not in F. For David Colgan used 
a different MS. ;A. S. p. 425] ; of the life of Brigit he may have obtained 
a transcript later, as the Trias Thaumaturga came out two years after the A. S. 
Among the books found in Colgan's chambcr at his death was ' Vitae Sanctorum 
tx Cod. Insulensi', Gilbert, in Fourth Report on Historical MSS. p. 612". 
This w;is probably F. R- seems to have been less mutilated than it is novv 
vvhen F was copied from it. The only serious difficulty in the way of the 
above theory is this. Colgan's edition of the life of Enda is incomplete at the 
beginning ; * caput unum uel alterum inter schedas nostras est casu deperditum,' 
A. S. p. 710^* ', cf. ib. p. 43'': 'reliquas notas in hanc uitam [Molibba] uideat 
lector in addendis.' They do not seem to be there, so probably they were never 
recoveredl. But in F the life of Enda is quite complete. Perhaps the transcript 
was itself transcribed for press, and the first leaf of the copy may have been 
mislaid. For the soiution of an apparent ditBculty as to the fragment of 
the life of Attracta printed by Colgan. A. S. p. 278, see Z. C. P. v. 451-3. As 
Colgan e.xpressly says, ib. p. 710", that the ' Codex Insulae omnium Sanctorum ' 
was a ' codex membraneus ', it is clear that he does not give that title to F, as 
js sometimes loosely done, but to the MS. from vvhich it was transcribed. 

^ Proc. R. I. A. vii. 372. 

' The lives novv wanting in R' occupy about 18 ff. in R^. Although the page 
of R' is so much smaller than that of R", it holds nearly as much, ovving to the 
contracted liand in which R' is writtcn. We must also allow a little for the 
fact that as shown above, p. xviii) tlie life of Buite was already mutilated at 
the end when K' vvas copied. As the gatherings of R' are mostly in twelves, 
we may suppose that two gatherings of twclve leaves have been lost. 

* The most important of these are printed Z. C. P. v. 444-6, and need not be 
reprinted here. 

' The foliation only shovvs 220 ff., but there are tv\-o ff. numbered 85 a and 
85 b respectively. 



contain a copy of Aengus' Fdlire, which was bound up with the saints' 
lives in the sixteenth or seventeenth century. The gatherings, 
allowing for leaves lost by mutilation, are nearly all in eights. At 
the head of the hves a space is often left vacant for the sainfs 
pedigree, which in some cases has been added ; sometimes bj' a nearly 
contemporary, sometimes by a much later hand. The scribe is fond 
of adding at the end of the lives : 'cuius meritis deleatur culpa 
scriptoris ' '. In one instance, the life of Fursa, he has given his 
name : ' cuius meritis deleatur culpa Mathei Y Duibyr. Amen ' '. 
But of this Matthew 0'Dwyer I have, unfortunately, found nothing. 
R" also contains a large number of interesting entries^ The fact 
that one of these entries is the obit of a prior of Saints' Island* 
strongly confirms the view that R' is CoIgan's Codex Insulensis^, 
Inisensis^ Codex Insulae Sanctorum', Codex Lochriuensis*. 

The history of R' and R^ has been throughout closely connected. 
If R- belonged, as there is reason to believe, to the monastery of 
Saints" Island in Lough Ree, it is probable that R' belonged there 
also, and that R^ vvas intended to supersede R' as a lectionary. In 
both MSS. are entries relating to the Dillon family °. In the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries R' seems to have been in the possession 
of therelated families of 0'FarreII'" and Moriarty, the formerofwhom 
may have acquired it from theirkinsman the prior of Saints' Island". 

' i- i5i> 273 ; '■- 21. 75. »63, if^9. 252. 269. 

' A note on the margin of f. 5 r° calls attention to this : ' Matheus O Duibidir, 
ffar sg>'tobtha an leaba;V so m»;- ata and 7 het/ia Fursa,' i.e. Matthevv CDwyer, 
the scribe of this book, as it stands here, and vafi the hfe of Fursa. A variation 
of the phrase occurs at the end of the life of Aed mac Bricc, where we find : 
' cuius mcritis deleatur dolor capitis scriptoris huius uite,' i. 45. The reason 
for this no doubt is that in the body of the life is narrated how St. Aed took 
upon liimself the headache of a man who sufTered intolerably from tliat com- 
plaint, Hence no doubt he was the special refuge of simiiar sufferers. 

5 Z. C. P. V. 447-8. 

* Obitus Flerdy ffili Nimee y Ffergaill, qui fuit prior in Insula Sanctorum, 
Anno Dni. isiiij (1504 1 — or, to give him his Irish name ' en toutes lettres ' — 
Flaithbertach mac Conmidhe ui Fergaill, prior of Oilen or Inis na naemh, Saints' 
Island, in Lough Ree. 

» A S. pp. 346", 353'', 422", 430», ^63'', 599, 723". 

• ib. 130. 

' ib. 71, 215'', 216", 397", 422", 704, 710" (omnium Sanctorum, ib. 34" ; Tr. Th. 
p. 526). 

> A. S. p. 397\ 

' One of whom at one time also owned T; see above, p. xiv. 

'" There seems to be an entry relating to the death of an 0'FarrelI also in 
R' f. 36 v" ; see Z. C. P. v. 445. 

" Z. C. P. V. 443-8. The fact tliat the name of Cormac Og Moriarty occurs as 
owner both in the body of thc MS. and also in thc Fclire of Aengus now bound 
with it, makcs it possible that it was in his timc that the two parts were joined 


Both MSS. belonged to Sir James Ware ' whose arms are stamped 
on the binding of R'. Ware died in 1666 ; and both MSS. subsequently 
belonged to Henry Hydc, the second Earl of Clarendon, who probably 
acquired them, as Dr. Macray suggested, during his Irish Viceroyalty 
(1685-6). Both found their way into the collection of the Duke of 
Chandos, at whose sale in 1747 both were bought by Dr. Richard 
Rawlinson -, among whose treasures they came into the Bodleian, 
where they now repose. 

As to the date of the MSS. the experts differ. Hardj' assigns both 
to the fourteenth century ; Dr. Macray in his catalogue assigns both to 
the beginningof the fifteenth century, but would now put R' c. 1350'. 

' In chap. xiii of his Irish Writers Ware gives the incipits of the following 
lives of the R recension : Aed mac Bric, Ailbe, Bairre, Baithin, Berach, Boetius, 
Brendan, Cainnech, Ciaran of Cluain, Ciaran of Saigir, Coemgen, Colman of 
Dromore, Colman Ela, Columba of Tir da glas, Comgall, Enda, Fechin, Finan, 
Finnian, Fintan, Flannan, Maedoc, Mochua, Molaisse, Moling, Molua, Ruadan, 
Samthann, Tigemach. (Eleven of these lives have the same incipit in S, but 
there is no reason to suppose that Ware knew that MS.) For his account of 
these hves Ware clearly used R^, for in a volume of his Collectanea in the 
British Museum i.Cod. Clar. 39 = MS. Add. 4788) there are extracts from 
saints' lives clearly made from R'; for Ware has copicd in extenso the life of 
Boetlus as it exists in R-, noting its deficiency ; he further notes : ' ad finem MS. 
de vitis sanctorurn habetur Calendarium Hibernlce.' This is the Felire of Aengus 
which now, as we have seen, forms part of R^. In his extracts Ware also cites 
the R lives of Gerald and Ita, which he has accidentally omitted in his printed 
work. Moreover three of the above lives, Ailbe, Boetius, and Ita, do not now 
exist in R', and as R' has Ware's arms stamped on the binding, it must have 
been as incomplete then as it is novv. Ware has also copied some of the obits 
from R-. Ware follows the mistake of R' and R^ in calling Mochua Mochua of 
Balla, though the life clearly belongs to Mochua of Timahoe. Colgan was more 
cautious. In F the word Balla is crossed out, and a marginal note is added : 
' sed hic est alius ab illo Ballensi.' 

Ussher also used the R recension, though less frequently than M T. The 
beginning of the life of Enda is alluded to by him, Works, vi. 533 ; Fechin 5§ i, 
3, 10, 12, 22 = ib. p. 538 ; the life of Colman of Dromore (R' f. 50", R- f. 210" 
= C S cols. 827-9 §§ I, 3, 4; is cited ib. p. 529 (here Ussher's text is nearer S 
than R, and at p. 475 he cites the S life of Mochuda (Carthach) as ' alius 
scriptor') ; the R text of Ciaran of Cluain is certainly cited ib. p. 525, for Ussher 
has the false reading ' sylua ' (R; for ' insula ' (S), v. infra i. 207 note. The 
passage from the R text of Cainnech's life given in the note to Cain. § 41 is 
cited by Ussher at p. 526. Ussher no doubt borrowed R' or R-, or both, from 
Ware ; cf. Ware's letter of Sept. 21, 1627 : ' It is the least token of thankfulness 
I can show for the many favours I so often receive from your grace's hands, to 
let you have the view of all such old manuscripts concerning the affairs of this 
kingdom which corae unto me ; especially knowing the good useyour graveand 
deep judgment may make of them ' (Ussher's Works, xvi. 461). 

2 Who apparently got them both, together with a Register of St. Mary's 
near Dublin, for the sum of ten and si-vpence ; see No. 3852 in Rawlinson's 
copy of the Chandos Sale Catalogue with prices affixed, now in the Bodleian. 

^ Even this date (and a fortiori Mr. Madan's date for R') would be fatal to 
Colgan's theory that the lives of the R recension are due to the pen of Augustine 
Magradoigh or Magradin, a canon of Oilen na Naem or Saints' Island, one of 
the continuators of Tigernach, whose death, in his fifty-sixth year, is entered 
in the continuation of that Chronicle at the year 1405, where lives of saints are 


Mr. Madan, who most kindly went into the qnestion at mj' request, 
was inclined to place R' in the first half of the thirteenth, and R- in 
the first half of the fourteenth century. Certainly, as we have seen, 
there must be an interval of some years between the two. 

It remains to say a few words as to the character of the three 
collections, S, M T, and R. The lives in S are curiously disparate in 
character ; for whereas some contain extremely primitive, not to say 
savagc elements ', others are late and meagre epitomes ^ while others 
again show the degenerate verbiage of the professional hagiologist''. 
The primitive characterof some of the materials used by the compiler 
of S is further illustrated by the early form in which many of thc 
Irish names of persons and places appear ; and by the retention of 
Irish words and phrases which the other recensions, as a rule, have 

M T represents a literary recension of earlier materials fairly evenly 
carried out. Things likely to cause difficulty or scandal are toned down 
or omitted', and style and matter are more homogeneous than in S. 

R represents a still later stage. The object of the compiler is 
homiletic, 'to the use of edifying.' His sources are nearer akin to S 
than to M T. Often he retains the S text practically unaltercd. In 
other cases lives already evidently abbreviated in S are still further 

mentioned among his works ; cf. 0'Curry. MS. Mat. pp. 74, 75. Colgan says, 
e. g., A. S. p. 710: * saepius monuimus authorem uel coUectorem uitarum . . . 
in Codice . . . Insulensi fuisse Augustinum Magradin'; cf. ib. 602. This idea 
Colgan says that he tooU from Ware (ib. p. 430"). But I cannot find this in 
Ware. Ware says (ch. xi) that Magradin ' writ the Lives of the Irish Saints'. 
But as he places all the lives of the R rccension under ' Biographers of an 
uncertain age', he implies that they were not by Magradin. In A. S. p. 113" 
Colgan cites the R text of the life of Ciaran of Cluain as Magradin's without 
any other reference. (That it is thc R text is provcd by the false rcading 
'silua' for 'insula', which Ussher also has.) 

' e. g. Aed mac Bricc, Comgall, Finan of Cenn Eitigh. See the Introductions 
to these lives, infra. 

2 e. g. Carthach, Ciaran of Saigir, Coemgen, Cronan, Moling, Baithinc, 
Macnissi, &c. 

' e. g. Flannan, Mochulleus. 

* In the lifo of Ailbe S § 50 = M § 43 (infra i. 61) is an Irish verse, which 
in S is fairly intelligible ; in M T it has become hopelessly corrupt, in R it is 
omittcd. In the same life the interesling word diherc S § 36 is omitted both 
by M T and R, infra i. 58. notes. There is a similar case in the life of Caiimech, 
S 5 45i V. infra i. 165-6, notes. Per contra in the same life § 33 l — S § 41) the 
horrible practice of the Scandinavian wiltings of tossing children on the points 
of spears is rightly callcd ' pall-cheid', i. e. the foreign art, in M, whereas S 
reads ' gial-chcrd', a word meaning hostageship or obligation, and therefore 
quile iiiappropriale here. Again, in § 39 ( = S § 47') the Irish word domdelh is 
omittcd both by M and R i. 167, notes) ; vvhile in § 9 ( =i S § 12) the Irish phrase 
ofwelcome is given without translation in S, with translation in M, and is 
omittcd altogether in R. 

' Sce the Introductions to thc lives of Abban, Ailbe, Cainnech, Finan, and 


shortened, especially by the omission of names of places and 
persons'. The process of expurgation is carried further than in 
M T'. The additions of R are sometinies explanations of things 
which might seem obscure', but by far the greater number of R's 
insertions are due to the homiletic purpose of the compiler, and 
consist of pious or moral reflexions*, scripture quotations and 
paralleis, especially paralleis to those miracles vvliich niight cause 
difficuUy or incur disbelief^ But the compiler of R not only 
abbreviates, expurgates, and ' farces ' his materials, he also conflates 
them. The insertions in the life of Finnian of Clonard have already 
been noticed °. In the life of Coluniba he conflates materials vvhich 
exist (in part) separately in S '. But his great achievement in this 
line is the life of Brendan printed in these vohimes, and here he has 
earned our gratitude by preserving for us materials vvhich exist 
nowhere else *. 


Vita Sancti Abbani abbatis de Magh Arnaide'. The life here 
printed is from M, f. 138'', collated for the first tvvelve sections with 
the sister MS., T, f 135'', the remainder being lost in T owing to 
mutilation. There is another life in S, f. 140'' (C S, cc. 505 ft"). Our 
life vvas printed by Colgan A. S., pp. 610 ff., probably from M ; and 
also by the BoIIandists, A. S., Oct. xii. 2760'., from Colgan's text 

1 See Z. C. P. V. 440-1, 

^ Thus Fin.<>n § 13, toned down as compared with S § 16, is omitted by R 
(cf. ib. § 16, notes") ; ib. § 9 = S § 10 is much more expurgated in R than in 
M T ; so Munnu§ 19; v. notead loc. ; cf. Z. C. P. v. 441-2. Unfortunately, R also 
' expurgates ' things of great beaut}-, i. 150, 215, notes ; infra, p. xciv. 

' Z. C. P. V. 442-3 ; cf. i. 37, note 13. A curious instance wliere R has mis- 
understood the S text is given in the notes to Fintan § 16. Here S reads 'in 
relitjuis sanctorum ' ; R takes this as = in reliquis sanctis, and paraphrases 
' cum aliis qui orabant ' ; but M's reading, ' in cimiterio,' shows that ' reliquis ' 
is for ' reliquiis ' in the sense of the Irish ' relic ', a burying-ground. 

* A curious instance is cited in the notes to Ailbe § 47. 

^ These characteristics of R's manner may be seen in several of the lives 
printed in the present collection ; cf. e. g. Berach 55 9 ad fi"" 10 ^^^ ^n. ; 
Enda §§ 4 ad fin., 7 ad fin., 14, 17; Fechin § 8 ad fin., 14; Gerald § 11 j 
Mochua § 10. 

« Above, p. xvii. ' Z. C. P. v. 435-6. 

' See the Introduction to this life, and the references thcre given. 

' There are pedigrees of Abban in LL. 352" ; L Br. 20' ; Rawl. B. 502 f. 51"' ; 
Fel.- p. 228. In the Calendars he has two dates, March 16 and Oct. 27. The 
latter is the date of his death, as the lives show. Colgan gives his life at the 
former date ; Fel., Mart. Tall., Gorman, give him at both dates ; Mart. Don. only 
at the former. The pedigrees make him son of Laignech, whereas the lives 
call him son of Cormac. The latter is probably due to a confusion, perhaps 
intentional, with his family name Mac Ui Cormaic, under which name he appear.^ 


collated 'cum codice Hibernico Dubliniensi ' ; by which is probably 
meant not an Irish life of Abban, but merelj' a Latin life written in 
Ireland ^ Anyhow the text is of httle value critically. Some of 
CoIgan's errors are corrected, but others, thougii glaring, are retained, 
and new ones are added. 

The S text is shorter than that of M, but cannot be derived from it, 
for it contains a section (§ 39) which is not in M, while in § 40 its 
version is clearly more original than that of the corresponding section 
of M (§ 45), which has been altered so as to do away with Columba's 
confession of blood-guiltiness *. On the other hand M retains the 
Irish verses in § 3 which S omits ; and the reference to the author of 
the hfe in M § 26 ad fineni is clearly more original than the corre- 
sponding notice in S § 21 ^ Hence S and M would seem to be 
independent recensions of the same original. 

The M text has been largely ' farced ' for homiletic purposes. 
Thus the introduction is clearly a later addition. The Hfe (like 
many other hves) began originally with the words : ' Fuit vir vite 
vencrabiHs' in § 2*. The homiletic character of §§ 10, 29, 48, 53, is 
obvious ; and the same atmosphere pervades more or less other 
parts of the work. Indeed on a first reading this homiletic motive 
was so unpleasantly prominent, that I doubted whether the life was 
worth reprinting. Further study, however, showed that underlj'ing 
this ecclesiastical whitewash were features of great interest. Apart 
from the valuable topographical details as to the foundation of groups 
of churches in Munster (§§ 22, 23), North Leinster (§ 27), and South 
Leinster (§ 28), the mythological importance of the life is considerable. 
It seems clear that a cycle of stories connected with the Celtic 
Water-God has got attached to this saint ; perhaps through some 
vague idea that his name was connected with ' abann ', the Irish word 
for river. This character comes out not merely in the incidents 

in the churches dedicated to him in Scotland, Forbes, Calendars, pp. 299 f. He 
is invoked in the ancient Irish Litany L L. 373", L Br. 23'': ' Tri 1. fer graid. 
firriglaich [fir riaglach L Br.] cach hae, do Gaedelaib lotar i n-ailithri i n-oenscnud 
im Abban mac hiii Cormaic,' i. e. (I invoke^ the thrice fifty men in orders of the 
Gaels who went on pilgriraage in one company (lit. synod") with Abban. This 
is evidcntly an allusion to the incidcnt related in § 19 of our life. Tlie next 
invocation is : ' Tri 1. ailither ailc dollotar la Abban in h-Erinn di nieraib 
ROman 7 Letha,' i. c. thc thrice fifty other pilgrims who camc with Abban to 
Ireland, of tlie men of thc Romans and of Latium ( or Annorica]. Colgan would 
identify these with the hundrcd and fifty companions of Abban in §34, which is 
less certain. 

' In A. S. May iii. 378, the life of St. Carthach or Mochuda, vvhich is eer- 
tainly of the M T recension, is said to be taken ' cx antiquo MS. Hibeniico'. 

2 See notes ad loc. ; and cf. Recves, Adamn. pp. 253 If. 

3 Sce note ad loc. 

« The Bollandists have rightly seen this, and brackct tliis and many other 
passages as interpolations. 


related (§§ 12, 16-19, 24, 30, 52) but in the special power over the 
vvaters which is expressly attributed to the saint '. There are also 
features suggestive of a solar or fire god (§§ 14, 34) and of the patron 
of vvild animals (§§ 7, 31, 35), these last being not impossibly con- 
nected, as in the case of the Greeic Apollo. The Neptune element is, 
however, niuch the more prominent. Where the mythological 
element is so distinct, it is not surprising that the historical element 
should be correspondinglj' vague. Thus on the one hand Abban is 
made the son of a Cormac king of Leinster, who is probably intended 
for the Cormac son of Ailill, vvho died, according to the Four 
Masters, in 435 ; he is also a contemporary of St. Patrick, vvhose 
activity in Ireland extended, according to the traditional view, from 
432 to 492 or 493', and a nephew and pupil of Bishop Ibar (+500, 
50 r, or 504). On the other hand he is a contemporary of Finnian of 
Clonard (+549), Brendan of Clonfert^ (+577 or 583), Columba (+597), 
Gregory the Great (+604), Munnu (+635) and Moling (+697). To his 
biographers these dates vvould occasion no difficultj', as they give 
him a life of 310 or 317 years (§ 17 and note). It is probable that 
he belongs to the sixth and seventh centuries, and that his life has 
been prolonged backwards by local patriotism, the process being 
helped by silently dropping three or four links in his pedigree*. 

The Bollandists suggest that the lives of tvvo Abbans have been 
fused together^ In a sense this is true. But it is an historical and 
a mythological Abban that have been combined, rather than tvvo 
distinct historical personages. 

There is an Irish life of Abban occasionally cited as Ir. in 
the notes. It is found in two MSS., viz. R.I.A. Stowe MS. No. 9, 
p. 205, and Brussels MS. 2324 x 2340 f. 146, both of which were 
probably taken from the same original ^ This contains most of the 

' See the notes to §§ 17, 18. Even in the purely homiletic § 10 the same 
character is maintained, one of the texts apphed to Abban being Apoc. xi. 5 : 
' potestatem habent super aquas.' 

- The Bollandists, following Colgan, understand this to refer to that very 
shadowy saint, Sen-Patraic, or Old Patrick. who is commemorated at Aug. 24. 

' There is appropriateness in making Abban, the water-saint, a friend of 
Brendan the navigator. 

* See above, p. xxiii, note 9. 

^ One, the older saint, the traveller, the founder of the churches in Connaught 
and Kerry, buried at Killabban ; the other, the later saint, founder of the 
churches in Meath, Leinster, and Cork, buried at Moyamey. The two festivals 
are explained in the same way. A third person has also been mixed up accord- 
ing to their view, viz. the Irish monk Abbennus, the mythical founder of the 
monastery of Abingdon, Hist. Monast. de Abingdon (R.S.), i. 2-3; cf. §§ 13-16 
of the life. 

^ The Stowe MS. was written in 1627 by Domnall 0'Duinnin (Dineen). Of 
the fifteen lives contained in it, ten are found also in the Brussels MS. 2324 x 
3340; viz. Abban, Ailbe, Bairre, Carthach, Cranatan, Finan of Cenn Eitig, 


incidents of M and S, but is nearer to the latter', though it is not 
directly dcrived from either. It is probably incomplete at the end •. 
Colgan (A. S. p. 651") says that he had two Irish lives of Abban. 
One of these was certainly the above-named Brussels MS., which 
is one of 0'CIery's MSS.^ What the other one may have been I do 
not know. 

Vita Sancti Aedi episcopi filii Bricc '. This life is printed here 
from M, f. 134'', collated with T, f iio''. Two other Latin lives of Aed 
are known, one in S, f. 108'' (C S cc. 333 fi".), the other in R' f. 97", 
R^ f. 149'', and F. p. 165. The life vvas printed by Colgan, A. S. 
pp. 418 ft", probably '^ from M. 

Finnchua, Fursa, MoLiga, and Senan. Of these, three, viz. Bairre, Cranatan, 
Fursa, are definitely stated by 0'Clery to have been copied from a vcllum book 
belonging to Domnail 0'Duinnin in 1629 ; tvvo. viz. Finnchua and Senan, are 
definitely stated to have been taljen from other MSS. Inregard to the remain- 
ing five, viz. Abban. Ailbe, Carthach. Finan. and Molaga, noihing is stated as to 
thc source whence they were derived ; but probably they also come from the 
Dincen Velhim. But if so, one or othor, or both, of the scribes took extra- 
ordinary liberties with the original. For not only do the two MSS. differ con- 
stantly in vocabulary and phrasing. even while preserving the same sense ; but 
one is sometimes shorter and sometimes longer than the other, while the Brussels 
MS. has two chapters which are in the Latin lives but are omitted in Stowe. 
In other points, too, the Brussels MS. is nearer to the Latin, and perhaps rcpre- 
sents a revision made by some one who had the Latin texts before him. Where 
it is necessary to distinguish between the two MSS. they are cited as Ir. (Du.J 
and Ir. (Br.) respectively. They differ luither in the divisions of the chapters. 
OCurry prints c. 26 of the Stowe text in Manners and Customs, iii. 44, but does 
not say whence he got it. 

* Thus it contains § 39, which, as we have seen, is not in M. 

^ In the Stowe MS. is a note by a later hand : ' ni fes dam an i crioch a 
bhetha,' i. e. 1 don't know whether this is the end of his life ; while 0'Clery 
notes : ' ni fuil Jiiiil sunn ar bhethad Abb.ain,' i. e. there is no finit here to the 
life of Abban. 

' A life of Abban stands first in the list of Irish lives of saints cited above, 
p. X ad calcem, from Rawl. B. 487, f. 74 v". 

* Pedigrees of Aed are given LL. 347'', L Br. 13', BB. 215/, Laud 610 f. 38"^, 
Rawl. B. 486 f. 35'' ; also in the metrical Naemsenclius, BB. 230'' ; he is de- 
scended from Niall of the nine hostages. In the F^Iire Nov. 10 he is called 
'don rigraid', of the princes, which agrees with this royal pedigree, tliough a 
gloss on thc passage interprets thc phrase metaphorically as meaning that he 
was ' de sanctis '. Nov. 10 is his ordinary date in Ihe calendars ; thc Martyro- 
logy of Tallaght gives him at Fcb. 28, and it is at ihat dale that Colgan givcs 
his life. Unfortunatcly thc Martyrology of Tallaght is dcfective for November. 
so we cannot tcll whether it mentioned him again at Nov. 10. Nov. 10 is the 
date of his death in our life. The S and R texts do not give the day, Ihough by 
thcir use of thc vvord 'hodie' in describing his dcath, thcyshow that thcy were 
intended to be uscd as homilieson hisanniversary. A later entry in Mart. Don. 
at Nov. 16 says. ' do rcir a bhethaidh is aniugh ata a flieil,' i. e. accordiiig to his 
life his festival is to-day. The statcmcnt is not true of any of our existing lives. 
If Nov. 10 is his death day, Fcb. 28 may be a festival of dedication or translation. 

" Colgan's text agrees closely with M. In only one instance havc I noticed 
that it agrees with T against M (viz. 'sensit* for 'sentit ' in § 20;. In § 3 
Colgan omits the word 'intcger'. In M this word is written above the linc, 
and might be ovcrlooked. In T it occurs in the text. 


The three recensions M T, S, and R are often very close together, 
shovving that they all come from some coinmon original. And S is 
clearly nearest to this original, vi^hich R and M T have edited 
independently. R is of the two much nearer to the common source 
than M T ; there are the usual omissions of proper names, &c., 
and the usual insertion of ecclesiastical padding, but the only section 
of the S text which is omitted wholly by R is § i8. The M T editor has 
gone to work much more drastically. He omits the most characteristic 
parts of S, §§ II, 13; and the whole of §§ 19,21,22,33,36,39,42-4,49, 
51. He also tones down passages in his original which might be 
likely to cause difflculty or scandal '. The only positive addition 
madc by M T is in § 6 (consecration of Aed as bishop). The M T text 
is therefore of little independent value, but is interesting forpurposes 
of comparison as a specimen of the way in which earlier lives were 
treated by later scribes. The S text itself shows signs of compila- 
tion from various sources. Thus the story of Aed's chariot flying 
through the air is repeated in different forms no less than four times 
over (§§ II, 19, 36, 42); and in all four cases the story is retained 
by R and omitted by M T. I know no Irish life of Aed mac Bricc. 

By origin Aed belongs to Neath or the southern Hy Neill ; and 
that is the main sphere of his activity according to the lives, though 
we find him also in his mother's country, Munster, and in Connaught 
and Leinster. Nothing, on the other hand, is said to explain his 
connexion with Slieve League in Donegal, where his cult still 
survives, unless the incident in S § 16 (much altered in M T § 12), 
refers to that district -. 

' Compare 5§ 9. n, 14 with the corresponding parts of S referred to or cited 
in the notes. In the last-named section the curious story of the birth of Aed 
Slane is omitted, which the S text has transferred bodily from the secular 
literature ; cf Zimnier in Giltt. gel. Anz. 1891, p. 170. In the original story 
(LU. 52'' 10 ff. 1 Finnian of Magh Bile is associated with Aed. [R omits the 
whole section.] It was this expurgated character of the MT recension which 
commended it to Colgan. He says of R ,and the remark is a fortiori applicable 
to S, which Colgan also refers to lower down i that it contains * quaedam . . . 
quae plus examinationis postularent quam apportant utilitatis'. p. 422". From 
the fact that in § 31 the monastery of Inishboffin in Lough Ree is spoken of as 
still existing. Colgan argues that our life must have been written before 1089, 
when that monasterj' was destroyed bj' the Danes. 

^ In S Aed produces a fountain in order to wash the heads of three decapi- 
tated maidens. I have suggested in the Index that this ' Fons Puellarum' may 
be the ' Tobur na m-ban-naomh' or Fount of the female saints, at the foot of 
Slieve League. For the ' tres puellae ' of the S R text, M T substitutes ' tres 
uiri '. and Colgan in his note on the pas.=age says that near Killare in West 
Meath, Aed*s principal church, was a fountain called 'Tobur na b-fear', or the 
Men's fountain. We seem to have here an interesting case of a legend being 
told in two different forms to account for two different place-names. Colgan, 
p. 423*", notices his connexion with Slieve League. and a seventeenth-century 
note in R- says : ' colitur ac apud Sliab Lieghe celebratur diuinis sacrificiis et 


Mythologically he seems to shovv traces, not perhaps very distinct, 
of a fire or solar deity' or hero (cf. § 6, and S §§ 11,19, 22, 36, 42), and 
it is not out of harmony with this that he appears as a tamer of 
animals (§§ 9, 22 ; S § 14), a healer of disease ' (§ 13), and a releaser 
of captives (§§ 23, 25, 38 ; S §§ 37, 49). 

In the historical framework of the lives there is not much to take 
exception to. Aed himself is said to have died in 589. He is made 
contemporary with Ciaran of Cluain, +549 ; Becc mac De, ^553 or 
558 ; Molaisse of Devenish, ^564 or 571 ; Diarmait mac Cerbaill, ^565 
or 572 ; Columba +597 ; and Cainnech, ^599 or 600. Less probable 
is his association in the S R text with Brigit, who died according to 
F M in 525 ; and with Rioc, if the latter was, as the R text of § 31 
and other authorities assert, a nephew of St Patrick ^. 

Vita Sancti Albei archiepiscopi de Imlech *. This hfe is here 
printed for the first time from T, f. 132'' collated with M, f. 135'' bis. 
T is taken as the basis rather than M, because M is unfortunately 
mutilated by the loss of a leaf, f. 137, in the middle. Two other 
Latin lives of Ailbe exist ; one in S, f. 90" (C S cc. 235 ff.) ; the other 
in R'', f. 130''. In R' this life has been lost, owing to the mutilation of 

multifariis graciarum actionibus decimo die mensis Nouembris.' Colgan also 
says on § I that his birth stone with the cavity still existed in his daj' in the 
churchyard of Killare, and was visited with great devotion. 

' This raay have been helped by his name, aed being one of the Irish words 
for fire. 

' On this incident and the quaint explicit of R* founded on it see above, p. xx, 
note 2. This side of his character, though not prominent in the lives, comes 
out in other traditions about him. In a fragmentary life of Brigit in Rawl. B. 512 
he is callcd * suiliag', i. e. professor-Ieech, or mcdical expert (f. 33'^], and Brigit 
goes to him to cuie her headache. And Mi'. Stokes, in a note on the parallel 
passage in thc Lismore Life of Brigit, points out that this conception of him is 
old, for in a charm printed by Mone from an eighth-century MS. ^Hj'mni Mcdii 
Aeui, iii. 181, 182) the following lines occur : — 

Aido mech Prich beniuola posco pura precamina, 
Ut refrigerat (sic) flumina mei capitis calida. 
Curat capui cum renibus, &c. 

And again : 'meum caput ut hberat.' (Lismore Lives, p. 324; cf. R. C. 
xxi. 267 8.) 

' Dr. Todd, however, regards this relationship as a later fiction, basing his 
argument largely on thc chronology of the lives of our saint, Liber Hymnorum, 
pp. 114-16. The name Acd is freguently anglicized into Hugh, and the trans- 
lator of the Annals of Clonmacnois notices that some courageous chronologers 
idcntified our saint with .St. Hugh of Lincoln, p. 91. An account of Aed's 
wouder-working b.ichall enclosed in a metal shrine is in Mart. Don. p. xli. 

' Tliere are pedigrces of Ailbe in LL. ^^g'^, L Br. 16°, BB. 219" ; cf ib. 232" 
ad calccm, Rawl. B. 502 f. s^"", Laud 610 f. 38'', Fel." p. 206. Ilis day in the 
calendars is Scpt. 12, but Mart. Tall. gives him also at Sept. 10. As Mart. Don. 
notes, he is one of the saints celcl>tated in Cuimin of Connor's poem on thc 
saints of Ireland, I. 61 of Stokes' eciition, Z. C. P. i. 59 fT. And. as Mart. Don. 
also notcs, thcrc is a metrical rule attributcd to him beginning 'Abairdain fri 
mac Sarain ', i. e. tcll for mc to the son of Saran (cf. also Mart. Don. Mar. 15). 
This has bccn printed from four MSS. by Mr. Joseph 0'NeiII, ^riu, iii. 92 fT. 


that MS. at the cnd '. The Bollandists (A. S. Scpt. iv. 26 ff.) give 
an historical criticism of Ailbe's liCe ; but they do not print any of the 
above texts '. 

The three recensions M T, S, R all clearly go back to a common 
original. S is certainly nearest to that original, vvhich M T and R 
have independently edited, R being of the two much thc nearer to S. 
R, however, omits many interesting details, names of places and 
persons, and also whole sections (S §§ 35, 37, 40, 44, 50). R also 
makes additions to the text of S, but they are usually of the nature of 
ecclesiastical padding', scriptural parallels, and the like, and seldom 
increase our knowledge. M T also omits whole sections of S (§§ 23, 
26, 28, 38, 41, 44), and it should be noted that, except in one instance'', 
these omissions do not coincide with those of R. M T also omits 
many interesting points in S " ; and both of the later recensions show 
a tendency to tone down or omit points in their original which were 
likcly to give offence or not to be understood ". But M T, like R, also 
makes additions of its own ', somctimes of doubtful value. 

' This life a!so exists in F, p. iii, and among Ware's Transcripts (copied, 
like F, rrom R»\ Cod. Clar. 39 ( = MS. Add. 4788) f. 72. 

^ They knew of the three recensions mentioned above, but say of all three : 
* non sunt nisi quaedam figmentorum farrago, quae risum pariter ac stomachum 
lectori moueant.' They cite a letter from Hugh Ward saying : ' eius vitara 
habeo ex duobus diuersis codicibus Hibernicis et aliis duobus Latinis. . . . Vita 
quam fecit latinam D. Osullevanus ex codice comitis de Birhaven etiam est penes 
me.' The two Latin codices contained probably two out of our three lives. 
Whether the two Irish codices contained two different lives, or only tvvo copies 
of the same Hfe ; whether either or both of these were identical with the life 
which 0'SuIIivan translated into Latin, and with the Irish life mentioned below, 
I do not know. The BoIIandists note that a mass for St. Ailbe'3 day occurs in 
the Missal of Clement XII printed at Paris 1734. 

^ A curlous specimen is given in the notes to § 47. 

* The omission of the story of Conchobar and the Crucifixion, S § 3. But as 
this involves an anachronism of some four centuries, this instance may perhaps 
be refiarded as an interpolation by S rather than as an omission by M T and R. 

^ Apart from smaller omissions, such as proper names, compare §§ 32, 34, 
38, 42 with S §§ 37, 40, 46, 50. In § 7 two separate miracles of S R (S §§ 7, 8) 
are combined into a single narrative. 

^ Thus in § 4 both tone down the skinless coracle of S into a ship in bad 
repair ; in § i8 M T inserts words making the sin of the couple against the saint 
detraction ; in S § 20 it is evidently a violation of the se.x taboo. Compare also 
§§ 14, 19, 31 [where the obscure Irish word diberc is omitted also by R], 35, 
with S §§ 16, 21, 36, 42. Note also in § 38 (= S § 46) how anxious R is to 
explain that the 'inebriation' caused by the sainfs breath was a spiritual 

' Compare e. g. §§ 9, 13, 21, 22, 33 with S §§ 10. 14, 15, 25, 29, 39. Both 
in M T and R Ihere is a tendency to emphasize the inlluence of Rome which is 
less prominent in S ; see notes to §§ 2, 22. In § 37 the omission of the reason 
of the niission sent by Ailbe to Rome, viz. ' ut nouum ordinem celebrandi a Roma 
deducerent', may be due to a wish to disguise the implication that the Liturgy 
used by Ailbe had till then been non-Roman. 


The only Irish life of Ailbe known to me isone contained in R.I.A. 
Stowe MSS. No. 9, pp. g^ff., and Brussels MS. 2324-40^ 139 ff. (an 
0'Clery MS.), both seventeenth-century transcripts of the same (lost) 
original. This is cited occasionally in the notes as Ir. The refer- 
ences are to the pages of the Stowe MS. 

As to the relation of Ir. to the Latin lives there can be no doubt. 
It is an abbreviated translation of the M T recension. The account 
of Ailbe"s birth differssomewhat from § i of M T, but apart from this 
it differs as a rule ^ only by abbreviation and omission '. 

M}'thoIogicalIy Ailbe seems to have attracted to himself some of 
the characteristics of a water deitj' (§§ 3, 4, 16, 20, 27, 45), and some 
of those of a fire or solar deity (§§ 6, 7, 10, 24, 40). His association 
with the wolves (§§ i, 44) is quite in harmony with the latter 
aspect '. 

Geographically Ailbe belongs both byorigin and work to Munster*, 
though we find him occasionally in Leinster (§§ 27, 28), Connaught, 
(§§ 35> 36) and (on landing in Ireland from the Continent) in Ulster 
(§§ 20, 21). 

In the case of Ailbe, as in the case of one or two othcr saints, we 
have to consider the obscure question of pre-Patrician Christianity in 
Ireland ^ ; for Ailbe is represented as active in the evangelization 
of Ireland before the advent of St. Patrick (§ 22). The chronology 
as it stands is frankly impossible. Three dates are given in the 
Annals for Ailbe's death, 527, 534, 542. Even if we take the earliest 
of these, it is impossible that a man who died in 527 could have been 
actively preaching in Ireland for some time prior to 432 '. We have 
therefore to consider whether Ailbe is really an early saint whose 
life has been unduly prolonged forwards, perhaps in order to bring 
him up to the Celtic standard of longevity ; or whether he is a later 
saint whose life has been unduly prolonged backwards. I am 
inclined to think, with the Bollandists, that the latter is more 

' It diffcrs somewhat in § 30 

2 It oniits altogether §§ 26, 36, 43, 45. A rendering cited in the notes to 5 30 
shows that tlie translalor mistook tlie liniim of his original for lignuni. The 
translation mnst be late, as is proved by the word siolla = cella § 28. 

' From this point of vicw it is intcrcsting to notc that Ailbe is the name of 
Macdath6's famous hoimd, Ir. T i. 96 ; Hib. Min. p. 41 ; and ihat thc father 
of our Ailbe in the pedigrees is Olchii [gen. Olchon], thc great hound, or wolf. 

* He appears as thc patron saint of Munster in some verscs LL. 367 lower 

^ The mcntion in §5 2, 3. an<l notes, of British Christian slaves, no doubt 
captivcs like Patrick himself, is extremcly intcresting as indicating one way in 
which thc knowledge of Christianity may have been spread in Ircland. 

^ In view of this initial impossibility it scems hardly worth whilc to analyse 
minutcly thc chronolopy of the vaiious pcrsons with whom Ailbc is s.iid to have 
come inlo relations. Ilerc again the Bollandists call in thc shadowy Scn-Patraic 
to bridge the chronological chasm. 


probable, and that he really belongs to the end of the fifth and the 
beginning of the sixth centuries. The carrying back of his activity 
inay be due to one of tvvo contradictory motives. It may be the 
work of local patriotism and local struggles for ecclesiastical indepen- 
dence, anxious to givc the local saint priority over the national 
apostle ; but it may also be due to the influence of Armagh, anxious 
to show that even thc niost important provincial saints had been 
obliged to accept their commissions from St. Patrick. The latter 
view seems to me more probable ' ; but both motives may have 

The mysterious voj'age of Ailbe to thc Land of Promise (§ 46) will 
be discussed later'-. 

Vita Sancti Barri Episcopi Corcagie^. This life is here printed 
from M, f 132"^ collated with T, f 109". Another life is contained in 
R', f. 118'', R^, f. 137'', and F, p. 124. The latter covers much the 
same ground as the former, but is on the whole later and less 
original. It contains, however, one section, given in the notes to § 9, 
which is not in M T. This is the famous story how Bairre rode 
across from Britain to Ireland on a horse lent him by St. David *. 
It is a question whether this incident was inserted by R from 
a different source, or whether it was omitted by M T ' causa euitandi 
scandali '. The former is more probable. This incident shows that 
Bairre has annexed some of the attributes of a marine deity. His 
full name, Findbarr or Barrfind ", ' vvhite-crest,' points in the same 

' See especially § 22 and notes. ' Infra, p. clxxxiii. 

^ There are pedigrees of Bairre in LL. 352.^, L Br. 20", BB. 223*^ ^cf. ib. 231"), 
Ravvl. B. 502 f. 51 v", Laud 610 fl. 38'', 40''. His day is Sept. 25, at vvhich date 
the Mart. Don. cites 11. 73-6 of Cuimin of Connor"s poem on the saints of Ireland 
in vvhich he is celebrated. It also cites from LL 370 the table of paraliel saints 
in which he is equatcd vvith ' Augustinus episcopus Anglorum ' ; and the Litany, 
ib. 373'', in which the very first invocation is : ' secht noeb epscoip dec ar secht 
celaib di aes raith in chomded i Corcaig m6ir la Barri 7 Nessan,' i. e. the 
seventeen holy bishops and seven hundred men of the grace of the Lord at 
Cork vvith Bairre and Nessan. The Mart. raliaght, LL. 363" gives him an 
alternative date at Sept 26, whilo in the Islc of Barra his festival was held on 
the 27th, Martin Westcrn Isles, p. 99: cf. the very curious account, ib. p. 92. 
His cult vvas vvidely diffused in Scotland, and the Scotch Hagiologists have 
bodily annexed him, making liim born and die in Caithness, and bishop of that 
district, Forbes, Calendars, pp. 134, 240, 275. The Bollandists (u. s.^ make the 
Scottisli saint a different person. The church of Fowey in Cornwall is dedi- 
cated to him. The Gospel of Bairre is mentioned as a relic GG. p. 90. His 
brother, Modichu, figures in a story in Three Fragments, pp. 42-4. The 
Bollandists note that there is a mass for our saint in the Paris Missal of 1734. 

' This incident is also in David's life, C. B. S. pp 132-3, according to which 
Bairre, on his way acrcss, met with Brendan on his vvhale. In Mart. Don. Jan. 2 
Bairre, in a ship, meets with Scuithin walking on the vvaves ; cf. Bi-an, i. 17 ff. 

' This is the form given in tlie Mart. Tall. u. s. Barrfind is the name of 
another marine saint who has given his name to Kilbarron (i. e. Cell Bairrfind) 
near Ballyshannon, the Barrinthus of the Nauigatio Brendani, whose maritime 
e.^cploits stimulated the imagination of Brendan. 


direction, suggesting the white tops of the brcakers'. Though by 
descent a Connaught man, his activity seems to be almost entirely 
limited to Munster. 

The Bollandists (A.S. Sept. vii. 142 ff.) had three Hves of this 
Saint : one, ' ex MS. Hugonis Varaei [? Vardaei, Hugh VVard] Minoritae 
Hiberni ' ; another copied by Bernard Mede from a Corlc Lectionary ; 
the third found among Henry Fitzsimon's papers. Ward's text may 
have been either M or R ; the other two, of which the incipits are 
given, I have not met with. The Boilandists considered them all too 
fabulous to be printed. The present edition is not limited by such 
considerations. Both the M T and the R text were printed by 
R. Caulfield in 1864 (not always quite accurately -) under the title 
' Life of St. Fin Barre '. 

There is an Irish life of Bairre contained in the Book of Fermoy 
f. 59*^ (imperfect) ; in Stowe MS. No. 9, f. i (much injured at the 
beginning); and in Brussels MS. 2324 x 2340 f. 122'. This covers 
much the same ground as the Latin lives, but contains verj' intercsting 
topographical details. It is cited in the critical notes as Ir. There is 
also a later Irish life, an expanded and slightly difierent recension, 
contained in various eighteenth and nineteenth-century MSS.* 

The chronological data contained in the Latin lives are slight. 
No date is given in the Annals for St. Bairre himself. He is made 
a younger contemporary of Brendan "' (^577 or 583) ; he is brought 
into relation with St. David, for whose death the traditional date 
is6oi, though Mr. E. W. B. Nicholson would put it back to 544"; 
with St. Gregory (^604) ; while Fursa (.' ^649) sur\'ived him. The 
Liber of § 13 may be Liber of Aghaboe who died in 619'. These 
indications seem to point to the second half of the sixth century as 
the period of Bairre's floruit. 

' 'Mane' and 'hair' are frequent kennings in Irish poetry for the crest and 
spray of a wave, K. Meyer, Bran, i. 8, note 3. 

2 Some of the mistakes arc due to tiie editor*s following the text of R^ 
instead of the more origina! text of R'. Caulfield's estimate of the date of M T, 
c. 1200, is extravagantly early. 

' These last two MSS. are cited in the notes as Du. and Br. respectively. 
Here again they dilTer a good deal, though copied from the same original ; see 
abore, pp. xxv f., xxx. CoIgan's quotation in tlie noticc of Talmach at March 14 
is takcn from c. 10 of the Brussels copy ; which chapter is also cited, Mart. Don. 
Sept. 24. 

* e. g. R. I. A. Hodges and Smith, No. la, p. 506; King's Inns, Dublin, 
No. 19. 

' A quatrain printed in Fel.' p. 132 associates closely together Bairre, 
Brendan, and Cainnech. 

« Z. C. P vi. 451. 

■^ Moling, suggested in one place on the margin of R' as an alternative 
reading for Eoling in § 14, and adoptcd into the text of R^, is chronologically 
inadmissible, as he survivcd tiU 697. 


Vita Sancti Berachi abbatis de Cluain Coirpthe '. This life is 
printed froin R' f. 58', coUated with R- f. 191'' -, and compared with 
F, p. 275. It was printed by Colgan, A. S. pp. 340 ff. ; evidently froin 
F'. The Bollandists reprintcd it from Colgan without correction, 
A. S. Feb. ii. 832 ff. 

This is the only Latin life of Berach that I know of. Like almost 
all the lives in R it represents a late recension. This is shown 
especially by the way in which the terms Scoti, Scotica gens, Scotia, 
are used to signify the Scots and Scotland in the modern sense, 
instead of Ireland and the Irish, as in ancient authorities. 

There is an Irish life of Berach* in the Brussels MS. 4190 x 4200 f. 
71, which is much fuller and more original than this degenerate 
Latin text of R. Colgan has given some extracts from it translated 
into Latin as an appendix to his edition. And this also is reprinted 
by the Bollandists, u. s. pp. 838-9. The Irish life is occasionally cited 
in the critical notes of the present edition under the symbol Br. 

The historical data of the life are slight. The chroniclers do not 
give us any date for Berach himself. From the persons with whom 
he is brought into contact he would seem to have lived in the latter 
part of the sixth, and the earlier part of the seventh, century. These 
are Aedh mac Brenainn, chief of Teffia +589 or 595 ; Aedan mac 
Gabrain, king of the Dabriadic Scots t6o6; and (in the Irish life) 
Aedh, son of Eochaid Tirmcarna, king of Connaught ^577. The 
Finnian and Ultan of § 19 are identified by Colgan with Finnian of 
Movilla + 579, and Ultan of Ardbrackan + 657 or 663. The former 
identification is quite possible ; the latter seems unlikely. Berach is 
further made a pupil of Coemgen" of Glendalough, who died in 618 

• There are pedigrees of Berach in LL. 347'', LBr. 14'' ; these make him son 
of Amargen, son of Neman ; in LL. 373^* 53 he is called son of Nemall, son of 
Nemangen ; in Fel.^ p. 74 son of Nemnann son of Nemangen ; in the Irish life, 
c. 2. son of Nemhnall i'or Nemhuall) son of Nemargen, and so on the margin 
of R^ ; in Rawl. B. 486 f. 39" he is son of Nemargen ; while Mart. Don., treating 
of his sister Midabair, calls them children of Nemnann. son cf Amargen. His 
day in all authorities seems to be Feb. 15. Colgan would identify him with 
the Berachus, a monk of Columba mentioned in Adamnan's life, i. 19. Reeves 
ad loc. thinks the evidence very insufficient, and so, no doubt, it is ; but the 
identification is quite possible, and he has given his name to Kilberry in Soutli 
Knapdale, Argyllshire ; Forbes, Calendars, pp. 278-9. 

2 In R- there is ihere only"; a little miniature of the saint. This confirms the 
view of the connexion of R- with Saints' Island in Lough Ree. Cluain Coirpthe, 
novv Kilbarry [Cell Beraigh] in the parish of Termonbarry [Termon Beraigh], 
is only about thirteen English miles from Saints' Island, and the scribe may 
have wished to do honour to the local saint. 

^ Cf. notes to §§ 3, 7, g, 12. 19, 25. 

' The notice of Berach in Mart. Pon. is evidently taken from this. 

^ The Mochoem associated with Berach in a quatrain printed in Fel.- p. 74 is 
no doubt intended for Coemgen. So the original name of the saint commonly 
known as Mochoemoc was Coemgen ; see his life § 6, infra ii. 166. 


or 622. The introduction of St. Samthann vvho did not die till 739 
must in any case be a mistake. 

The life does not seem to have any sahent mythological signi- 

Berach seems to be ahnost entirely a Connaught saint '. 

Vita Sancti Boecii episcopi de Mainistir Buite'. This hfe is 
here printed for the first time* from the only vellum MS., R- f. 154''. 
It is obviously incomplete at the end, although there is no mutilation 
of the MS. The explanation of this fact has been given in Part I *. 
The obvious blunders of R- have been corrected, as far as possible 
by conjecture, there being no independent evidence for the text. 
Two transcripts of this life, both made from R', exist ; one in F, 
p. 178, the other among Sir James Ware's papers in the British " 
Museum, Cod. Clar. 39 {= Add. 4788), f. 73 v»'. Mutilated as the 
life is, enough remains to show that it is a combination of two lives 
or parts of two lives. The first ends at § 18 with the death of Buite 
on Dec. 7, and his prophecy of the future greatness of Columba, 
born on that same day. With § 19 begins an account of ' miracula 
Boecii in puericia', what would be called in the secular literature 
of Ireland his ' macgnimartha', or youthful exploits". His maturer 

' Col. Wood-Martin notes a well sacred to him in Dublin Bay, Traces of 
Elder Faiths, ii. 98. 

' There are pedigrees of Buite in LL. 351^, LBr. 19", BB. 221'', Rawl. B. 
502 f. 51P, Laud 610 ff. 38'', 42", FeP p. 256. His day in the Calendars is 
Dec. 7. The Mart. Tall. which is defective for Dec. gives him a festival at 
May 16 ; and the notes to the Felire for that day give as the reason for this 
'quia in hoc die suscitauit Maelcaich transiens amnem siccis pedibus', Fel.^ 
p. 132, a reference to tlie incident narrated § 16, cf. § 28. Again at Dec. 11 
the notes to the FeHre (ed.- p. 258) and a later hand in the Mart. Don. give 
a festival of the ' Eleuatio Boeti ', which commemorates the incident related 
in § 17 ^Reeves' cxplanation in Mart. Don. is quite wrong). The Mart. Don. 
cites from LL. 370" the table of parallel sainfs in which Boetius is equated with 
' Beda sapiens'. It also copies the Felire gloss on his name : * Buite .i. beo, 
no buite .i. teine,' i. e. living, OT fiie. He is brought into curious relation with 
the Ulster cycle of traditions. The missile ball containing the brain of Mcsgegra, 
which caused the death of Conchobar, is said to have been revealed to him ; he 
used it as his pillow in life, and it lay upon his grave after his death ; '7 is 
nemedach gach aen fora racha incind Miscegra ic dol fria bas, 7 ata briathar 
A brcth fodcs a Lagnib, 7 fortamlus doib iarsin,' i. e. and cvery onc is sure of 
heaven on whom tiie brain of Mesgegra is placed at the time of his dcath, and 
thcre is a prophccy that it will be carried south into Leinster, and will give 
them predominance, Meyer, Oiitc. p. 10, cf ib pp. 18-20; M. and C. ii. 107-8. 

^ §§ 4-6 were printed by Skene, Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, 
pp. 410-11. 

* Above, p. xviii. 

^ Ware copics the mistakes of R", and in addition has a lacuna in § 27, 
which sliows that he could not read his original ; F has corrccted the majority 
of R'"s crrors quitc salisfactorily. There seems to be anothcr copy in Brussels 
MS. No. 8967 ' cx MS. Hugonis Vardaei '. As it has the same defect as R^, it 
is doublless merely derivcd from it. 

' This class of tale is rcprescnted in both thc great Irish cpic cycles ; thus 


acts seem to begin again with § 23. As to the rclation betvvcen the 
two parts, § 28 forms a sequel and expressly refers to an incident 
in the former part of § 16. Section 30 (the sojourn in the monastery 
of St. Tiiianus in ' Italy ') is a doublet of § 4 in the earher part. But 
this is the only point in which the two parts, as we have ihem, 

The question of this visit to St. Tilianus is a very interesting one. 
It has been pointed out very acutely by Mr. Nicholson, the librarian 
of the Bodleian, that the 'Italia' of this story is almost certainly 
a mistaice for Walia, and that the Tilianus is none other than the 
famous Teilo of Llandaff, whose name is often written Telianus 
in the book of Llandaff '. He a!so points out that a corrupt reading 
in the life of St. David in Acta Sanctorum, March i, points to a place 
in the ncighbourhood of St. David's called ' Llanerch Beudy' which 
he would interpret as the plain (or clearing) of Boethius. This name 
has not survived, but there is close to St. David's a Caer Bwdy 
which he would similarly explain as Castrum Boetii ; and St. Teilo 
was connected with St. David's as vvell as with Llandaff. A certain 
confirmation is given to this hj^pothesis by the statement of the life 
(§§ 30, 31 )> ''lat Boetius, while under St. Tilian, had the care of bees, 
for the Irish tradition is that bces were introduced into Ireland from 
Wales^ After this sojourn with 'Tilianus' the former part of the 
life takes him to the ' fines Pictorum", where he is said to have 
raised the king Nechtan from the dead, and to have received from 

we have ' Macgnimartha Conchulaind ', or 'Ciichulainn's youthful feats ', a 
section of the chief epic ' Tain bd Cuailgne ', and also ' Macgnimartha Find " ; 
cf. D'Arbois, Catalogue, p. 174. 

' Z. C. P. vi. 447 ff. A marginal note in F suggests a different solution : 
' Lege Titi.ini, qui fuit episcopus Brixiensis' i,Brescia>; and the heading of 
§ 30 is actually altered in accordance with this suggestion. 

* By St. Modomnoc of Tibraghny; C. B. S. pp. 133-4; Fel.' pp. 74-5, 112, 
465; Colgan. A. S. p. 147''. Solinus says of the Irish; ' apes non habent,' 
M. H. B. p. x*. I cannot. however, follow Mr. Nicholson in bringing the 
Pictish king down to South Walcs, and regard that part of the story as belonging 
to the northern castrum Boetii, Carbuddo or Kirkbuddo in Forfarshire. 

* I regard Mr. Nichol5on's conjecture as doing away with Boetius' continental 
sojourn altogether ; nor can I regard the 'Germania' of § 4 as any more 
authentic than the ' Italia'. It may be due to some ignorant scribe who thought 
that • germani fratres' meant ' brothers from Germany '. Or it may be the 
corruption of some other place-name. Mr. Nicholson in a postscript suggests 
that we should read ' uiri de sancti Germani monasterio Ix, quorum decem 
fuerunt [sancti] Germani fratres, et decem uirgines ', i. e. monks and nuns from 
LIancar\'an, the foundation of which was attributed to St. Germanus. This is 
certainly ingenious, and niay be right. These companions of Buite are invoked 
in the ancient litany cited more than once already, LL, ■^ij,' 49 : ' Tri 1 fir ailithir 
dar muir la Buti n-epscop, 7 x. nacboga corrath De,' i. e. the thrice fifty true 
pilgrims across the sea with Bishop Buite, and ten holy virgins with tiie grace 
of God. Here the number of the virgins agrees with the life, but the number 
of ihe male pilgrims is thrice fifty as against thrice tvventy. 


him the 'castrum' in which the miracle took place, §§ 4, 5. This 
king is Nechtan Morbet, who reigned, according to Mr. Skene ', from 
about 457 to 481. From him is named Dun Nechtain, i. e. the Fort 
of Nechtan, now Duinnichen, near Forfar. Close by is Kirkbuddo, 
the Church of Boetius, or Carbuddo, i. e. Castrum Boetii, perhaps the 
' castrum ' of the miracle. 

By origin Boetius belongs to the Cianachta of Bregh ; that district 
seems to have been the sphere of his labours after his return to 
Ireland, and there he founded his principal monastery, called after 
himself Mainister Buite, the monastery of Boetius, now Monaster- 
boice, in Co. Louth. But, as is usual in the lives of the R recension, 
very few names of places have survived. 

Nor are there many personages mentioned whereby the chronology 
of the Hfe may be tested. Tradition may probably be trusted when 
it asserts that Boetius' death synchronized with the birth of Columba, 
and this in no way conflicts with the dates assigned to Boetius' 
death 519 or 523'. This again is quite compatible with the dates 
assigned above to Nechtan's reign. But if Teilo was really an elder 
contemporary of Boetius, the date of Teilo's death, which is placed 
about 563 X 566 by Rees, and in 604 by Ussher ', would have to be 
put a good deal earlier. The St. Moduca of § 29 I have not yet 
identified. Mythologically Boetius shows obvious solar affinities*, 
§§ 3> 7> i7> ^9) ^"'i the story of the healing of the wolf, §§ 13, 14, 
harmonizes with this. And from this and other points of view the 
lifc is of great interest. 

Vita Sancti Brendani abbatis de Cluainferta ^ 1. This life is here 

' Celtic Scotland, i. 134-5. Monboddo, of which the first part is probably 
fiiom, a bog or moss, is in the adjoining county of Kincardine. 

^ If the statement cited by Reeves i^Adamnan, pp. Ixviii f.) from one of the 
Irish lives of Cohimba, that in the year of the latter's birth and of Boetius' 
death Dec. 7 fell on a Thursday, could bc trustcd, this would point to either 
517 or 523 ; the coincidcnce of the latter date with the second of the two dates 
given by Ann. Ult. is rather striking. The probable date of Columba"s death 
is 597. Bede says that he was seventy-seven when he died \,H. E. iii. 4). 
This would make him born in 520, vvhich agrees very fairly with the above 

^ See Dict. Christ. Biog. s.v. Teilo. 

* Here again thc name may have helpcd these myths to crystallize round 
him ; cf. the gloss cited above, buite .i. teine. that hjire. 

' There are pcdigrees of Brendan LL. 349'', LBr. i5'', BB. 218/ (cf. ib. 232''), 
I.aud 610 ff. 38-^, 40'', 41", Rawl. B. 486 f. 35'', Fcl.- p. 132. His ordinary day in 
the calendar is May 16. A calendar printed by Forbes, p. 85, gives liim at 
May 15. The Mart. Tall. at March 22 lias ' Egrcssio familie Brendini'; and at 
that date Colgan has givcn somc cxtracts from his lives, including §§ 12-16 of 
the present life. Zimmer, Z. f. dcutschcs Alt. xx.xiii. 296, 299. understood this 
' egressio ' to refer to Brcndan of Birr, on the ground of a passage in the voyage 
of Maclduin, R. C. x 72. But I am not convinced ; and cven if it bc so, I find it 
ditGcult to belicve that the whole of the lcgcnd of Brendan, the navig.itor of 
Clonfert, has been dcvcloped out of a misundcrstanding of this passage. Why 


printcd for the first time' from R' f. 72'', collated with R' f. loi^ It 
exists aiso in F, p. 50. In an article published in Zeitschrift fiir 
Celtische Philologie, v. 124 ff , I have endeavourcd to point out the 
importance of this R text in the development of the Brendan legend ; 
and to that article I would refer for a detailed discussion of the 
mutual relations of the various authorities, Latin and Irish -. The 
chief points may be recapitulated here. The main characteristic of 
R is that it is a conflation of a Latin Vita Brendani (V B) with the 
ordinary text of the Nauigatio Brendani (N B)' which, however, 
the compiler has edited after his fashion. The V B is followed to 
the end of § 12 ; then the N B is taken up and followed to the end 
of§66^; after which the VB is resumed, and continued to the end. 
The conflation is crudely done. Thus having told from N B how 
Brendan, in a single skin-covered coracle, and with only seventeen 
companions, successfully reached the Land of Promise, the compiler 
takes up the V B narrative, which relates how Brendan, with ninety 

should the story not have grovvn up round the true Brendan ? I also think that 
the relation of the Maelduin and Brendan stories requires further investigation. 
(The two Brendansare associated togetherin our text, § 94, in the life of Ciaran 
of Saigir, §§ 30, 31, in a story in Fel.' p. clxxiii, and in the Brendan story cited 
below from Egerton, 1781, (S:c.) The Mart. Don. cites in reference to Brendan 
11. 37-40 of Cuimin of Connor's poem, and the table of parallel saints LL. 370", in 
which he is equated with St. Thomas the Apostle. In later times he was re- 
garded as a special foe to the Scandinavian invaders ; perhaps he disliked tliem 
as rival navigators, Three Fragments, pp. 262-6. His connexion with northern 
Britain is illustrated by a storj- in Adamnan's Columba, iii. 17, in which he, with 
Comgall, Cainnech, and Cormac Ua Liathain, paid a visit to St. Columba. He 
has many dedications in Scotland, Forbes' Calendars, p. 287. Several writers 
understand the allusions to Britannia in the lives as referring to Brittany. This 
is carried out most thoroughly by Messrs. Baring Gould and Fisher in their 
recent ' Lives of British Saints ' i. 233 ff. They have shown that the cult of 
Brendan exists in Brittany ; but to maintain, as they appear to do, that wherever 
a dedication or festival is found we maj' assume a visit of the saint, seems to 
me very rash. The Brittany view is taken by the translator of the Brussels 
Irish life. In the passage corresponding to § 87 below it is said that Brendan 
founded a church : ' dianid ainm Bleit i ccrich Letha,' i. e. the name of which 
is Bleit in the region of Armorica. Perhaps there is some confusion between 
Tir Etha, Tiree, and Tir Letha, Armorica. And in the name of the church, said 
to have becn founded by Brendan, Bledach, Bledua. Bleit, there maybe a trace 
of the whale. ble<i in Irish. The present life, § 99. takes Brendan to ' the deserts 
of Gaul '. Nor can I regard as more than fanciful the attempts to identify the 
various islands visited by the saint, in some of which we seem to hear faint, 
far-otr echoes of classical myth ; Calypso's cave and fountains §60, Odyss. 
V. 57 ff.) ; the isle of sheep and the Cyclops hurling rocks (§§ 22, 58, Odyss ix) ; 
thc Laistrj-gones (§§57-9, Odyss. x. Ii5ff.\ 

' The Bollandists do not print any life of Brendan,consideringthe whole story 
too fabulous. They give an account of him, May iii. 599 ff. 

^ Subsequent research has confirmed and strengthened the main conclusions 
of that article, though it requires one or two corrections in detail. 

' Mart. Dun. p. 130 distinguishes between ' Muiridecht Brenainn' i,N B) and 
Betha B. (VBV 

' See the critical notes at these points. 


companions in three skin-clad coracles, failed for five j'ears to find 
the blessed island, because, as St. Ita told him, he had sought it 
' on the skins of dead animals '. He therefore returns to Ireland, 
builds a single boat of wood, and with sixtj' companions, after two 
years' further search, successfully achieves his quest ^ However, to 
this very crudeness of conflation we owe the happy fact that the 
R text preser\'es such a large amount of V B which has been sacrificed 
in the work of more skilful compilers. 

The next Latin text to be considered is that of M ; which letter 
also serves conveniently to indicate Cardinal Moran's edition of this 
text, printed in his Acta Brendani (1872). This also consists of 
a conflation of a V B, in a recension very difterent from R, witli 
the ordinary text of N B.'' The compiler of M omits all the travel 
incidents of V B, except the Judas story, and the island supported 
on four feet', no doubt considering that Brendan's adventures had 
been sufficiently dealt with in the text of N B. In this way the 
glaring inconsistencies of the R text are avoided, but mucli interest- 
ing matter is lost. 

The Codex Salmanticensis contains two Latin lives of Brendan, 
f 69'' and f. i8g" (printed edition cc. 113 ff., 759 ff.). The former (S') is 
also a conflation of VB and N B, but of a very simple kind. VB 
is given in a much abbreviated form to the middle of §5^ where a 
highly unskilful transition is made to N B, which is continued to the 
end ; the death of Brendan is given from N B, and no return is made 
(as in R, M, and Capgrave) to the text of V B ''. The latter text (S-) 
is extremely interesting, because it presents us with an edition of 
V B not only unconflated with, but wholly uncontaminated by, N B. 
Unfortunately it has been very much abbreviated, to make it more 
suitable for reading in church or refectory". The text of S-, though 
much shorter than R, is nearer to R than to M ; and in spite of its 

' In Bili's life of S. Macutus (Malo), c. 16, the companions of Brendan and 
Malo number nine hundred and five in a single ship, where pcrhaps ' nongenti ' 
is a mistake for ' nonaginta '. 

' Unfortunately as I think) Moran has removed the N B narrative from the 
middle of thc M text. and printed it separately. For thc points at wliich and 
the mode in which the compiler of the M text makes the transition from V B to 
N B and back again, see the critical notes to §5 11, 66. Whcrever in thecritical 
notes M is cited by chapters, this refers to Moran's text of V B (pp. i-a6) ; 
where M is cited by pages, this refcrs to Moran's text of N B ,pp. 85-131I. 

^ cc. 25, 26. * In Z. C. P. V. 125, note i, line 4, for N B read V B. 

■' There is a long lacuna in S"s text of N B at thc end of § 14. This is not due 
to any mutilation of the existing MS.. the break occurring in the middle of a line. 
Evidently the scribe's ' Vorlage ' had lost one or more leaves at this point, which 
the scribe ' as oltcn) omitted to notice. 

' ' lectionalis modus nuilta cogit nos transilire,' §17; cf. 'multos alios eius 
actus, compellcnte breuitatis angustia, praeteriuimus", § 12. 


sliortness, it has preserved some interesting points which arc not 
in R'. 

The last Latin text to be dealt with is Capgrave^ (Capg.). This 
again is a conflation of V B and N B, made with considcrable skill. 
Liice all Capgrave's lives, it is much abbreviated. The tcxt of VB 
here used is closely akin to R. That of N B differs froni, and is 
in some respccts supcrior to, the ordinarj' tcxt ; but it is not taken 
from R'. 

1 now turn to the Irish sources. Of these the first to be mentioned 
is the Life or Homiiy published by Stokes * from the Book of 
Lismore (L), a MS. in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire. 
This is an Irish V B, unconflated with, but not uncontaminated* by, 
N B. It is probabl}' based upon a Latin original'', though it contains 
some things whicli are not in any of our existing Latin sources'. 
It is not taken directly from any of them. In some points it shows 
an affinity with M ; on the other hand it has many of the travel 
incidcnts of R which M, owing to its mode of conflation, has omitted. 

' See critical notes to §§ go, io2, ad fin. ; and especially the beautiful and 
toucbing account of Brendan*s death, § io2 note, ad init. 

- ed. Horslman, Clarendon Press, 1901, i. 136 fl". For convenience I cite 
tliis compilation as Capgrave, though Horstman has shown that it is really the 
work of John of Tynemouth, and that Capgrave did little be}'ond arranging the 
lives in alphabetical ordcr. 

' This is proved inter alia> by the fact that the Judas episode occurs at the 
ordinary place, where, in R, it is omitted ; see note to § 59. 

* Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore (^Anecdota O.Koniensia, 1890), 
pp. 99 ff. 

' Marks of contamination are seen in the change from ' talam derrit ' of 
1. 3561 (= terra secreta VBl to the ' tir tairngire ' of 1. 3564 (= terra re- 
promissionis sanctorum, N Bj ; from the five years of unsuccessful wandering 
in 1. 3954 ^V B' to seven years in 11. 3609, 3717 (,N B"i. The passage, I. 3609, 
occurs in the story of the whale ; and 1 am inclined to think that the whale does 
not belong to the original V B text at all. It does not occur in S-, the purest 
V B text which we have. If this is correct, then R § 96 would be a later 

* In this I differ from Zimmer's Essay, Zeits. f. deutsches Alterthum xxxiii. 
129 fif. , 257 ff. This Latin original is possibly alluded to in 1. 3740: ' amal 
atberat na scribinn,' i. e. as writings atfirm. 

' One small addition has a curious explanation. In I. 3575, speaking of B.'s 
first embarkation with ninety companions, the writer says : • nirbat cleirig uile ' 
(they were not all clerksi. If 'clerks' means secular clerks as opposed to 
monks, this is an understatement, for none of them were clerks in that sense. 
If it means ihat they were not all clerks in the general sense of ecclesiastics, it 
is untrue. The explanation is to be found in the ninth line of the little poem 
which follows ; ' nochu cleirchiu luid uile ' (^ninety clerks in all they went). The 
prose writer has mistaken the Irish numeral ' nochu ' or ' nocha ' (ninety) for 
the Irish negative 'nocha'. Some of these additions may come from Irish 
sources ; e. g. the story of the calming the whirlpool, L 3617 fi"., is found in the 
Irish Brendan story in Egerton 1781 f. 152'', on which see below, p. xli. The 
whale might also come from this source. 


It is unfortunately incomplete. The latter part as printed by Stokes' 
(from 1. 3880 onvvards) really belongs to the Fis Adamndin, or 
Vision of Adamnan. Stokes and Zimmer saw this, but thcy did not 
see the explanation, which is a pureiy mechanical one. In the 
' Vorlage ' of the scribe the Ffs Adamnain foUowed the life of Brendan 
immediately; owing to mutilation the end of the Brendan and the 
beginning of the Fis werc lost, but the scribe copied on contentedly, 
not noticing that anything was amiss^ 

I come next to the Irish life of Brendan contained in Brussels 
MS. 4190-420011". 224 ff. (Br.). This is an extraordinarily conflate 
work. The first forty-seven chapters consist of alternate slices of 
a life identical with L and an Irish translation of NB'. The re- 
mainder of the life is chiefly made up of matter identical with that 
contained in the latter part of R (§§ 76-105) ; but in this are inserted 
incidents taken from other sources, such as the tales of Brendan 
and Dobarchu (c. 53), and the story of Brendan and the bird angel 
(c. 67J which are found separately in Irish MSS.* 

' And also as found in the Paris MS. and in Stowe MSS. No. ix. (For the 
use of a photograph of the Paris MS. I am indebted to the kindness of the 
late Mr. Whitley Stol^es.) All these three MSS. therefore go back to a 
common defective ' Vorlagc '. 

^ I have pointed out, p. .xxxviii, note 6, a similar instance in the text of S'; 
anotlier occurs in R^ f. 50, wlicre mcdiaeval and modern cataiog:uers have alike 
failed to notice that, owing to mutilation, there isa sudden transition from the life 
of Fursa to that of Moling. If this explanation is correct, it upsets all the argu- 
ments which Zimmer has based on the supposition that the conllation of the 
Brendan and the Fis was intcntional. That it is correct is strongly confirmed 
by the Brussels Irish life to be mentioned next. The first part of this is taken 
largely from a text closely resembling L. The part taken from this source cnds 
preciscly at the point of junction of the Brendan and tlie Fis in L ; after which 
comes this note : ' iste fabule sunt plux 1 plus) ad (ab) aho libro,' i. c. the follow- 
ing additional stories are from another book. Either, then, the compiler had 
a MS. mutilated like the 'Vorlage' of L (perhaps that very 'Vorlage'), and 
noticed the mutilation ; or, if he had a text like L, he saw correctly that the 
latter part had no real connexion with the Brendan story. 

' The translation was made by some one who kncw little of the topography ; 
thus 'SaltusVirtutum', which is the N B equivalent of 'CUiain ferta' (thc mc.idow 
of the miracles 1, is retranslated as ' Leim na subaltaighe ', i. e. the Leap of the 
Vlrtues ; so ' Mons lapidis ' in N B rcpresents ' Sliabh Liacc ', i. e. Slieve League 
in Donegal. Br. retranslates this into ' Sliabh na Cloiche'. It is diHicuIt to 
identify the text of N B uscd in Br. On the one hand it has a defect corre- 
sponding with that already pointed out in the text of S' after § 14 ; on tlie other 
it has the intcrpolation about Machutus, which belongs to that earlier part of 
N B for which S' Iias substituted the text of V B. It is just possible that the 
compiler of Br. and the scribe of S' may both have used the samc mutilated text 
of N B, and that the substilulion of the beginning of V B for that of N B may be 
the work ot" the scribe of S'. 

* Thc former is printed by 0'Grady from thc Book of Lismorc in Melusine, 
iv. 298 ; the lattcr by Stokes from the samc MS. in Lismorc Lives, p. xiii ; cf. 
Mart. Don. May 16; it cxists also in Rawl. B. 512 f. 142". Other chapters in 
Br. which do not exist in R are cc. 50, 61 (= S^ § 16), 66. The Judas incidcnt 


One othcr Irish documcnt niay be mentioned, though it only 
contains a few incidcnts of Brendan's travels. It is found in Egcrton 
MS. 1781 f. 152^; in the Liber Flauus Fergusiorum (R. I. A.) ; and in 
the two Brussels MSS. 5100-4, p. 13; and 2324-40 f. 70''. The chief 
interest of this piece is that the voyage of Brendan is motived in 
an cntirclj' original way. The twelve apostles of Ireland were 
with Finnian of Clonard, when suddenly a wondrous flower appeared 
among them from the Land of Promise '. They all wish to start to 
discover that land ; they cast lots who shall go, the lot falls on 
Brendan of Birr, but he is considered too old for the quest, and 
ultimately the younger Brendan sets out with 158 companions in a 
single boat. Only a few adventures are given, and the piece closes 
with the Judas incident. 

The fame of Brendan as a navigator is of course the predominant 
note in all these stories^ He has, however, annexed also part of 
the domain of the solar or fire god (R §§ i, 3-5, 83). His prophetic 
power is also insisted on (§§ 9, 15, 45-7, 102-3, &c.). 

The historical setting of the narrative, both in the parts taken from 
VB and in those belonging to N B, is free from chronological in- 
consistencies. Of the persons mentioned who can be dated Brendan 
himself died in 577 or 583; Brigit died 525 (F. M.), Becc mac De, who 

occurs separately in Irish in the Book of Fermoy, f. 58". Other Brendan stories 
which occur separately are the story of his birth, LL. 371", printed by Stokes, 
Lismore Lives, p. 349; story of Brendan going to fetch his niother's soul out 
of hell, Bibl. Nat. Fonds Celt. i f. 29'^; story of Brendan, Brigit, and the two 
sea monsters, Rennes f. 74* ; Rawl. B. 512 f. 36" ; cf. Stokes, Lismore Lives, 
PP- 333. 353- from the Franciscan Liber Hymnorum (infra, § 861. Giraldus 
Cambrensis gives a summary of the Brendan story, evidently from N B, Opp. v. 
127-8 ; he mentions a sanctuarj' of Brendan between Knock Brandon and the 
sea, ib. 125, cf. p. 24, and calls the Atlantic, where the Shannon enters it, 
'mare Brendanicum,' ib.31. A far-offecho of the Brendan story is heard in 
Espinosa"s description of Teneriffe (Hakluyt Societj', 1907), who cites from 
'the Kalendar' ; ' Fortunatae insulae sex numero . . . in Oceano Atlantico. . . . 
Hic Blandanus (sic) magnae abstinentiae uir e.x Scotia pater trium millium 
monachorum cum beato Maclonio [lege : Maclouio] has insulas septennis per- 
lustrauit. . . . Maclonius gigantem mortuum suscitat', etc, pp. 28-9. The 
Lections in the Aberdeen Breviary also make Brendan seek the ' fortunatae 
insulae ', Pars Hiem. Proprium Sanctorum, f. 98 v". Otherwise they follovv 
the N B. 

' Cf. Ai!. § 46, and infra, pp. clxxxii f. 

- The view of Zimmer that the original V B contained no travel incidents 
I regard as wholly improbable in \iew of the agreement of R, L, M (cc. 25, a6), 
S' (.§§ 4, 5", S-', Capg. in giving travel incidents not derived from N B. But 
when Zimmer wrote, much of this evidence was not available. That he was also 
wrong in saying that N B cannot be earlier than 1050 has likewise been subse- 
quently demonstrated by the acquisition by the British Museum of a tenth- 
cenlury MS. of NB (Add. 36736;. Moreover, the mistakes in this MS. le. g. 
f. 169 r" 'Munensium' for • Mumenensium ', f. 175 r" 'bonis fratribus septem' 
for 'bis fratribus septem ' ; cf. f. 176 r» 'cum quattuordecim fratribus') imply 
clearly that it is a copy of a yet earlier MS. 


foretold his future greatness, in 553 or 558 ; his namesake Brendan 
ofBirrt57i F. M. ; Colum Cille is rightly represented as surviving 
Brendan, as he did not die till 597. Of the two secular princes 
mentioned, Aed, son of Eochaid Tirmcarna, King of Connaught, died 
in 577, and Diarmait, son of Cerball, King of Ireland, died in 565 or 
572. There is nothing impossible here. The only point in which 
probability is strained is that whereas Brendan is said to have been 
ninety-three when he died, he is made the foster child of St. Ita, who 
survived till 570 or 577. In that case she must have been well over 
a hundred at hcr death. 

Vita Brendani II. (Appendix.) This is from a Bodleian MS., 
e Musaeo iii, and I know no other copy. The MS. is a large folio, 
^Sh^ iiiin-> of about the end of the twelfth century ; it belonged 
formerly to the abbey of Valle Crucis in Denbighshire'. The bulk 
of the volume consists of commentaries on the prophets, but at the 
end are a life of St. Bernard, mutilated at the beginning, and this 
so-called life of St. Brendan. The latter is really a quite pcculiar 
recension of the ' Nauigatio Brendani ', and has never been printed 
before. The MS. is mentioned in Hardy's Catalogue (No. 4661, but 
he gives no description of it, not even the 'incipit' and ' explicit ' 
being cited. In the above-mentioned article (pp. 138 ff) I enumerated 
the chief points in which this recension differs from the ordinary 
'Nauigatio', and indicated the great importance of it, as being 
obviously the Latin original from which was derived the Anglo- 
Norman poem on Brendan published by Suchier in B6hmer's 
Romanische Studien (1875), i. 5558"., and by Francisque Michel in 
1878 ; and the consequent error of Suchier in supposing that the 
points in which that poem differs from the ordinary 'Nauigatio' were 
due to the poefs own invention. The poem was composed about 
1120 ; the composition of the Latin original cannot therefore be much 
later than 1100, and it may be earlier. In the same place I havc 
shown, following Suchier, that the metrical life of Brendan, printcd 
by Cardinal Moran in his Acta S. Brendani (1872), is based on a con- 
flation of the Anglo-Norman poem with the ordinary Latin text of 
the ' Nauigatio '. Ovving to the fact that no other MS. of this recension 
is availablc, I have had to resort to conjecture for the correction of 
the crrors of the scribe - of the Bodleian MS., though these correc- 
tions are in somc cases confirmcd by the text of thc Anglo-Norman 
pocm, which is occasionally cited in thc critical notes under the 
symbol Fr. (French). 

' Libcr Sanctc Marie de ualle Criicis. 

- Onc of the scribe's peculiarities is that whcn a word begins with a capilal 
letler hc frcquently adds the corresponding small letter as wcll ; thus he writes 
Eesse, § 16 ; Vuultu, § 25 ; Vululatus, § 40, &c. ; another is a tendency to writc 
sc- ror s, scocius, &c. 


To this second life of Brendan I have appended from MS. Coll. 
Linc. Oxon. No. 27, f. 2 v" (a MS. which also contains a copy of the 
ordinary ' Nauigatio '), some curious satirical verses, in which the 
story of the ' Nauigatio ' is derided as not merely absurd, but 
positively heretical. As far as I know, these also have never been 
printed bcfore. They have been crowded into wliat was apparently 
a blank page of the MS. There is no title to them. 

Vita sancti Cainnici abbatis de Achad B6 '. This life is here 
printed for the first time from M, f. 124". In T it has been lost owing 
to mutilation. There are two other Latin lives of Cainnech : one in 
S, f. 114'' (C S cc. 361 fl".) ; the other in R' f. i^S', and R- f 143" ; which 
last is imperfect owing to the loss of a leaf at the end. That the copy 
in F, p. 142, does not show this defect is evidence that the mutilation 
is subsequent to the date of that transcript (1627). 

Colgan evidcndy had a copy of M, as he gives § 15 from this 
recension in his account of St. Liber, A. S. p. 566. The Bollandists, 
A. S. Oct. V. 642 ft"., give an account of St. Cainnech mainly made 
up of extracts from other lives. They knew the S life, but judged it 
'prelo prorsus indignam '. They also recognized that Colgan had 
used a different life, though they knew no MS. of it. The S text of 
this life was printed separately by the Marquess of Ormonde in 1853 -. 

The three recensions, S, R, and M, clearly go back to a common 

1 There are pedigrees of Cainnecli in LL. 348*, LBr. 16", BB. 218° ; ef. ib. 
S32''. Hisday in the Calendars is Oct. 11. The Mart. Don. at that date quotes 
from LL. 370" the table of parallel saints, in vvhich Cainnech is equated vvith 
Philip ; Cuimin of Connor's poem, 11. 57-60, and also a poem beginning : 
' A Chainnigh na cana,' of which I have not yet discovered a copy. There is 
an office for his day in the Aberdeen Breviary, Proprium Sanct. Pars Estiua, 
f. c.\xv ; and he has many dedications in Scotland, Forbes, Calendars, p. 297. 
There is also, as the Bollandists say, a special mass for his day in Clement XILs 
Missal (^Paris, 1734^ 

^ As an e.\tra volume of the Kilkenny Arch. Soc. According to the Brit. 
Mus. Catalogue only tvventy-five copies vvere printed. Variants from M are 
given at the end. The editor also prints a fragment from Cod. Clar. 39 f. 55, 
which is merely Sir James Ware"s e.\tracts frora R^. In T. C. D. MSS. iioo 
and 1059 are transcripts of these lives by Bishop Reeves. No. iioo contains 
copies of S and M, the former made from the Marquess of Ormonde's edition, 
with Index and one or tvvo notes. No. 1059 is a transcript of M vvith coUations 
from S and many marginal notes, some of which have proved useful in 
identifying names of persons and places. At the end Reeves rightly pronounces 
the text of S ' much superior ' to that of M. ' The latter is evidently doctored, 
soltened, and expurgated ... I regard the former as a most curious and valuable 
composition.' S almost certainly goes back to an Irish original ; besides the 
Irish words and expressions in §5 12, 41, 45, 47, 52 we have place-names with 
Irish prepositions and Irish terminations : o Birraib, § 35 ; hi MoUib, § 48 ; again 
the ' alius princeps ', ' alia ianua ' of § 47 are literal translations of the Irish araile 
which means both aliiis and qiiidam, the latter being the sense here. So in § 15 
the original scribe wrote ' alterius laici ', vvhich the corrector altered into ' unius '. 
In § 17 the scribe began to write the Irish word bachall, but altered it into 


original. It is no less clear that S is nearest to that common original, 
which R and M have edited, cach in its ovvn way. Of the two R is 
much nearer than M to S. But R omits much which S has pre- 
served, names of places and persons, and also two whole sections, 
S §§38, 41, while inserting, more siio, moral reflexions and biblical 
parallels. M, while retaining more than R in the way of details of 
place and person, omits a much greatcr number of sections, viz. S 
§§ 15. 23. 34. 52, 55-9 ; S §§ 36, 40 ( = M §§ 29, 32), are also very much 
shortened. Of the omitted sections S § 52 may have been cxcised as 
being probably a doublet of S§ 18 ( = M § 14), S § 56 as being likely to 
cause scandal. M also tones down the narrative of S in places ; thus 
in S § 53 Cainnech vomits the gold which Brendan demands of him ; 
whereas in M § 43 he turns bread into gold (compare also M § 7 with 
S § 10). But the clearest proof that M and R are both derived from 
a text akin to S is to be found in the fact that in both there are 
passages which are clearly due to a misunderstanding of the text of 
S. Thus in S § 44 it is told how a robber who put on a ' lucerna ' 
which he had stolen from the saint, was almost consumed by fire. 
Here ' lucerna' either means the same as ' lacerna ', or is a mistake 
for it. M § 36 recasts the whole sentence on the supposition that 
' lucerna ' means a lantern. So in S § 48 ( = M § 41) R alone gives a 
name to the man in question, viz. Maeldub. This is probably due to 
a misunderstanding of the place-name phoneticallj^ written MoIIib ' 
in S ( = Irish, Magh Laithimh, now Molahifle in Co. Kerry). In M 
§39 (=8 §47) the reading of R is probably due to the false reading 
of S 'carius' for 'verius'. M, however, had a text in some poinls 
superior to S. In S §§ 14, 54 are omissions (the latter due to homoio- 
teleuton) which can be supplied from M "^. M has, moreover, one or 
two points of interest peculiar to itself ; the addition at the end of 
§ 24 of an incident which is found in a different form in Adamnan's 
life of Columba, ii. 14 ; and the insertion in § 21 of the pretty story of 
the tvvo vvhite sea-birds hurrying to the help of the infant Munnu, 
who had been cast into the wav'es. It seemed therefore vvell vvorth 
while to print the M text for purposes of comparison, especially as it 
had never been printed before. 

I do not know of any Irish life of Cainnech '. 

' Forbes, Calendars, p. 296, treats the 'hi Mollib' of S (where lii is the Irish 
preposition meaning iVii as a man's name. The fact that the Irish version of 
this tale in the Book of Fcrmoy f. 62"", Book of Lismore f. 68' call thc man 
Cromdub is perhaps a littlc against thc thcory in the te.xt. 

' I have already pointed out, p. xxii, notc 4, that the ^alklicrd of M § 33 is 
right as against ihe gialclierd of 3 § 41. 

' And the only separate Irish tale rclating to him that I knovv is the onc 
already cited answering to § 41 below ; in the notes to thc Fehre is a slory of 
an encounter of Cainnech vvith thc devil, Fcl.' p. 222. 


Mytliologically he seems to have attractcd to himself many of the 
attributes of a fire and solar deity (§§6, 16-18', [S §23], 23, 26-7, 
[S § 35], 34) 36. 39» 44)- This mythological element was no doubt 
what made the Bollandists judge the life to be not worth printing. 
For us it constitutes one of its chief elements of interest. This 
aspect of our saint is illustrated by his association with othcr solar 
saints, Comgall, Columba, and (to some extent) Brendan ^. 

The birth and early ministry of Cainnech belong to the North of 
Ireland. His later ministry is connected with the South. The two 
are separated by a long sojourn in North Britain and the Western 
Isles. This is confirmed not only by Adamnan's Life of Columba, 
(i. 4 ; ii. 13, 14 ; iii. 17), but also b}' the nunierous dedications to him in 
Scotland (Forbes' Calendars, p. 227 ; Reeves, Ad. p. 417). His early 
training was under St. Cadoc at Llancarvan. 

In the historical framework of the life there is nothing to object to. 
Cainnech himself died in 599 or 600. The other saints with whom he 
is brought into contact are Eogan of Ardstraw, +549 or 550 ; Brendan 
of Clonfert, 1 577 or 583 ; Aed mac Bricc, + 589 ; Columba, 1 597 ; 
Baithine, t^QSx 600; Comgall, t 602. Fintan Maeldub, who adminis- 
tered the last sacraments to Cainnech, survived till 626 (F. M.) or 
630 (Chron. Scot.), while Munnu of Taghmon, whom as an infant 
Cainnech saved from drowning, lived till 635. Of the secular princes 
mentioned the three who can be dated also agree with this chro- 
nology, Colman Bec, son of Diarmait, of the Southern Hy Neill, t 587 
or 593; Colman, son of Feradach, of Ossory, t6oi F. M.; Brude, 
King of the Picts, ^584. 

Vita Sancti Carthagi seu Mochutu episcopi de Rathen et Less 
Mor '. This life is here printed from T f 60'', collated with M f. 94''. 

' Probably in § 19 the fire in the original version was miraculously kindled. 

' These four saints occur together in Adamnan's Columba, iii. 17 ; Comgall 
and Cainnech are associated with Columba also in poems printed in Rs. Ad. 
pp. 274, 288 ; cf. Z. C. P. V. 38. In ihe Bodleian eopy of the Amra Coluim CiUe 
is a poem supposed to be addressed by Columba to Cainnech, R. C. xx, 146 ; 
and the poem which precedes it is attributed to Cainnech in Laud 615, p. 47. 

' There are pedigreesof Carthach in LL. 349", LBr. 16'', BB. 218-'' (cf. ib. 232''), 
Rawl. B 502 f. 52'', Laud 610 ff. 40/41'' ; LL. and BB. (both reff.) call his father 
Finall or Findall (^so the ' Indarba Mochuda' in Br. 4190 f. 266 r» : Fel.' and Fel.' 
maUe Findall his brother ; LBr. and our life call him Fingen, the pedigree on 
Ihe margin of M calls him Finan. Laud 610 f. 41'' calls his mother Finmaeth, 
daiighter of Finguine. So possibly the Med of our life is short for Finmaeth, 
and not a mistake for Medb as I have assumed. His day in the Calendars is 
May 14. The Mart. Don. at that date cites Cuimin of Connor's poem, II. 77-80. 
The account in Mart. Don. seems based on the Indarba Mochuda u. s., though 
the number of the community at Ralien is diflerently given, 710 M. D. ; while 
in the Indarba it is ' seven, and seven score, and seven hundred ', i. e. 847 
(so Irish hfe, and S § 15 ; in j§ 20, 59 of our life it is 867J. In the Litany 
LL. 373" it is 700 ; ' Secht cet firmanach ro failgithe i r-Raithiun re techt do 


Both MSS. are mutilatcd ; but fortunately they nearly supply each 
other's defects. A few lines in §64 arc supplied from the Bollandist 
edition, A. S. May iii. 378ff. (B) ; vvhile a few words in §§67-8 are 
supplied mainly by retranslation from the late Irish life mentioned 
below. There is another Latin Hfe of our saint in S f 192'' (C. S. cc. 
779 ff.). This is a very meagre recension'. It contains only nineteen 
sections, as against sixty-nine of the M T text; and almost all the 
interesting details are obhterated. Some of the sections are 'farced'; 
but nothing is rcally added except the antiphon at the end (printed in 
note to § 69). Both the S and M T texts are given by the BoUandists, 
u.s. pp. 375 ff., 378 ff., the latter 'ex antiquo MS. Hibernico'. This 
edition seems to be based chiefiy on M, as B generally agrees with 
M against T where these differ ' ; but T must also have been used for 
the later sections which are not in M ; and B omits the second half of 

Mchutii reim longsi co 1-Lesmor,' i. e. the 700 true monks who were struck 
down (1) in Rahen, before Mochutu went on his course of exile to Lismore. 
There is a good deal about Cartiiach or Mochuda in the Irish iife of his pupil 
Colman mac Luachain ! Rennes MS. f. 75**, for the use of a photograph of which 
I am indebted to the kindness of the late Mr. Whitley Stokes"). Special stress 
is laid on Colman's service in the Leper Hospitai at Lismore, f. 77'' (cf. our 
life, § 59 ; the Leper Hospital at Lismore existed iu the twelfth century, as is 
shown by a story in Tr. Th. p. 445'' ad calcem). But perhaps the most 
interesting passage is the following, f. 78'' ad calcem : ' Dogniter la Colman . . . 
Cell Uird . . . hi Feraib Maigi. 7 is aire isberar Cell Uird fria, ar is inti tosech 
tuarcgabad an t-ord tuc Molaisi leis o Roim, ar roforaith esium ma gabail ind 
uird sin acht co toracht," i. e. Colman built Cell Uird in (the district of) Fcrmoy, 
and the reason why it is called Cell Uird [Church of the Order] is this, that in 
it was first celebrated the order which Molaisse brought from Roine, for he 
[Colmaii] helped the adoption of this order as soon as ever it arrived. This 
seems to refer to the adoption of the Roman Easter, of which Molaisse or 
Lasren of Leighlin was a strong partisan (see Munnu §§ 26, 27, and C. S. c. 794, 
where his visit to Rome is mentioned ; cf. Bede, ii. 113V This tradition that 
Colman, a disciple of Mochuda, was a partisan of the Roman Easter, lends some 
support to Bishop Rceves' view that the cause of Mochuda's expulsion from 
Rahen was the Paschal controvcrsy. There is nothing of this in the Latin or 
Irish lives ; the ' Indarba' lays stress on the jealousy of Mochudas ecclesiastical 
neighboufs, while our liie speaks chiefly of tlie secular princes concerned ;§ 53), 
and of disiikc of the presence of a Munsterman in Mealh (§ 58, cf. S § i6^. 
Reeves argiied froin the words of Tigernach {R. C. x\'ii. 183^: 'Effugacio 
Ciirrlhaigh .1. Mochuto maic Find Raithin in diebiis Pascliae.' ^Private letter 
from Bishop Reeves to the Hon. and Very Rev. H. Brougham, Dcan of 
Lismore ; for the use of this letter, and for othcr information I am indebted to 
the kindncss of the Dcan ; I have also to thank Mr. PoIIard, Vcrger of the 
Cathcdral, for much kind help.) On the Crozierof Lismore see Miss Stokes' 
Christian Art in Irclaiid, pp. 103-4. 

' Tlie writer conlcsses as much, § 5 : ' pre multitudine multa pretcriens, 
pauca perstringens . , . descrpsi ' ; and thc antiphon appcnded shows that the 
epitome was madc for liturgical purposcs, Usshcr, Wurks, vi. 475, after citing 
part of § 59 from our lifc, goes on to quole ' ab alio uitae eiusdem scriptore ', 
a passage agreeing with S §§ 15, 16. He tiien cites 'alius (scriptor) ', whom 
I cannot identify. 

^ See thc ciitical notes. 


§67 which is mutilated in T '. In T. C. D. No. iioi is a transcript of 
the B text by Reeves, vvith collations from M and T. The Bishop 
justly condemns the B text as ' very depraved, especiaily in proper 
names ' ", though the life itself is, as he says, ' most valuable.' The 
topographical and other details are extremely interesting. The 
chronological data of the life are abundant, and for the most part 
consistent and correct. The annals place the expulsion of St. Car- 
thach from Rathen in 636 and his death in 637'. In the life he is 
made a younger contemporary of Ita (^570 or 577), Brendan of 
Clonfert (t 577 or 583), and of Comgall of Bangor (t6o2 Chron. Scot.). 
The other ecclesiastics with vvhom he is brought into contact are St. 
Columba (t 597), Molua of Clonfertmulloe (t 609), Colman Ela (t6ii), 
and Lachtin, abbot of Freshford (t622 F. M.). One of the chief 
ecclesiastical agents in the expulsion of Carthach from Rathen is said 
to have been Colman, abbot of Clonard (t 654), while the chief secular 
princes mentioned in that connexion are Blathmacc and Diarmait, 
sons of Aed Slane, who reigned jointly as Kings of Ireland from 643 
to 665 or 668. If the date given above for the expulsion of Carthach 
is correct, the life is wrong in representing Blathmacc as already 
King of Tara at the time * ; and it is clearly wrong in implying that 
Diarmait succeeded his brother Blathmacc ', for they reigned jointly 
and dicd of the plague in the same year. The other secular princes 
mentioned in the iife and in the annalists are Cairbre, son of Crim- 
than, of Munster, 571 F. M. ; Cathal, son of Aed, of Munster, a son 
of whom died in 665 ; Maelochtraigh, chief of the Deisi, a son of 
whom died in 671 ; Failbe Flann of Munster (^637), Maelduin, son of 
Aed Bennan, of West Munster (t 641) ; and Cuana, son of Celcan, 
chief of Fermoy (t 641 F M). 

* The fact that B has § 64 complete, whereas part of it is twic> missing both 
in M and T might only mean that the mutilation of one or other of these MSS. 
vvas subsequent to Fitzsimon's time. The fact, hovvever, that the text of the 
earlier part of this section in B varies somevvhat considerably from that of M 
makes it probable that the editor had some other souice than transcripts of 
M and T. In § 40 aiso B diverges rather widely from M T. Colgan prints 
§§ 9> 34> 39 of our life, A. S. pp. 475", 631", apparently from M 

^ e. g. Guel/orGuoc, § I ; Glain/orTuaim, § g ; Httus Leamhnae/or Litus Li 
(Irish, Traigh Li, Tralee 1, § 13 ; Mainne /or Muchinne, § 32 ; Farth /or Feich, 
§ 40. 

^ This leaves very little room for the founding of Lismore. The life, how- 
ever, seems to imply tliat he died before the building of the great monastery on 
the site of the present castle was completed, §§ 68 9. 

* The Irish sources agree, however, in this ; and it is possible that the 
annalists have placed his expulsion and dcath too early. In the Irish sources 
Ihe expulsion of Carthach is reckoned as one of the three crooked counsels of 
Erin, the other tvvo being the exile of Columba, and the cutting shoit of the life 
of Ciaran of Clonmacnois ; see e. g. V. Tr. p. 556. 

' The Irish sources avoid this raistake. 


The mythological element is not very prominent. What there is 
seems to point in the direction of a fire myth (§§ 4, 8, 27, 28, 49). 

The reference to the rivalry between nionks and clerks (§ 20 ad fin.) 
points obviously to the controversies of a later date. 

The writer speaks of his hero as ' noster patronus ' (§§ 45, 68, 69), 
and ' noster senex ' (§ 59). He thcrefore evidently belonged to one 
of Carthach's ecclesiastical foundations. As between Rathen and 
Lismore we can have no hesitation in deciding in favour of the latter. 
While the topographical notices of Munster, and especially of the 
neighbourhood of Lismore ', are abundant and precise, no such detailed 
knowledge is shown in the description of Rathen. 

The writer is also much better acquainted with the Southern than 
with the Northern princes of Ireland, as the list given above 
sufficiently shows. 

By origin Carthach belongs to Kerrj', and with that district his 
early life is associated. The central period of his life was spent at 
his monastery of Rathen in the kingdom of Meath. But on his 
expulsion therefrom he returned to Munster and founded Lismore in 
the country of the Deisi. 

There is an Irish life of St. Carthach in R. I. A., Stowe MSS. ix, 
pp. 18 fl'., and Brussels 2324 x 2340 ff. 151 ff., both of which are copied 
from the same MS. This life covers a good deal of the same ground 
as the M T text, but is shorter, though not so abbreviated as the S 
recension. Into it the compiler has inserted (very unskilfully) the 
Irish account of the expulsion from Rathen, which exists as a 
separate tract with the title 'Indarba Mochuda a Raithin' (Brussels 
4190x4200,^.266; imperfect copies, Book of Fermoy, f. 34''; Rawl. 
B. 512''; Ashmole 1763, f. 58). In the Brussels copy two detached 
stories about Mochuda are appended,' which occur also in Rawl. B. 
512, f. 142'"', from which one of them has been printed by Kuno 
Meyer, Z. C. P. iii. 32-3. The Irish life contained in R. I. A., Hodges 
and Smith, No. 150, and King's Inns Librar}', Dublin, No. 19, is a mere 
late translation of the M T recension. For this very reason it has 
been useful in supplying the defects of the Latin MSS. 

Vita Sancti Ciarani abbatis de Cluain meic Nois*. This life of 

' See especially §§ 64-9; and Index Locorum, s. v. Ath Medoin. 

^ Whence printed by Stokcs, Fel." pp. 92 IT. 

^ These are followcd by an account ' do mhacuibh ua Suanach ', which also 
contains a good deal about Mochuda and his pupil Colnian mac Luachain (v. s.). 
A part of Ihis occurs Ki 1 ' pp. Ixxxvii f. Thcre is a rule attributcd to Mochuda 
in L15r. 261% also in Y. B. L. col. sai, and T. C. D. No. 1285, H. i. n f. 125''. 
It was printed, with translation, in thc Irish Ecclesiaslical Record, vol. i. 

* Therc are pedigrees of Ciaran LL. 348'', LBr. 16". BB. 218" (cf ib. 232''), 
Laud 610, f. 38'', Fci.- p. 204 ; cf. LS. p. 1 18. Herc also thcre is extreme dis- 
crepancy as to tlie name of the saint's father, Bcodan, Bconaed, Bcoaed, Beoan, 
Boctan. His day in the Calcndars is Scpt. 9, at which datc Mart. Don. cites 


St. Ciaran of Clonmacnois is taken from M f. ^^^''ff. It probably 
existed originally in T, but has been lost owing to the mutilation of 
that MS. It has never been printed bcfore. Two other Latin lives 
of Ciaran are known to me ; one in S f ■]■]'' (C. S. cc. 155 ff.), and the 
other in R (R^fgi^^ff., R' f 127' ff.). The liie in S is obviously 
incomplete, though the scribe has written ' finit, Amen ' at the end 
of §14. As far as it goes, it covers nearly the same ground as M, 
though the order is slightly different, and it contains a section (§ 14) 
which is not in M. R has much that is peculiar to itself ; and these 
sections are given in the notes. Where R coincides with M, it 
furnishes a greatly abbreviated text, and it omits § 7 altogether ; 
though it adds, tnore siio, scriptural references and moral reflexions. 
There is an Irish life of Ciaran, which has been printed by Stokes 
from the Book of Lismore, compared with one of the 0'Clery MSS. 
at Brussels '. This is probably based on a Latin original *. That 
original, however, did not correspond with any one of our three texts, 
for the Irish life embodies points which are peculiar to each of them, 
and further contains much of great interest which is pecuiiar to itself. 
Possibly the composer of the Irish Hfe was an eclectic, and took his 
materials from various sources '. The Irish life is further useful for 

11. 25-8 of Cuimin of Connor's poem, and the table of parallel saints, LL. 370, 
in which he is equated vvith St. John the Evangelist ; the Mart. Don. also 
compares him with Christ because of the age at which he died, and the trade 
of his father. The late tale, Imthecht na Tromdaime, Oss. Soc. v. 84, makes 
Ciaran himself a famous wright or smith. The story of his baptism, § r, is given 
in Irish in Fel.^ p. 128 (cf. V. Tr. pp. 104, 305, 318) ; the story of his successor, 
Oenu or Aengus, § 26, in Fel.- p. 48 cf. C. S. c. 898;, where also he is brought into 
close relations with St. Fechin. For other stories of Ciaran and Oenu v. ib. 
c. 460 ; R. C. XV. 491. For §§ 15, 17 cf. Fel.^ p. 202. He has many dedications 
in Scotland, Forbes, Calendars, p. 496. 

' Lismore Lives, pp. 117 ff., with translation and notes. 

' This seems to be shown by the fact that it contains the sentence (M § i ad 
finem) about Ciaran"s baptism by the deacon Justus ('congruum erat, ut iustus 
a lusto baptizaretur '), though the play of vvords is entirely lost in the Irish. 

' Lines 4361 ff. of the Irish life (L. S. p. 130) are eited in Mart. Don. Jan. 7. 
There are separate Irish stories relating to Ciaran, contained inT. C. D. N0.1319. 
H. ii. 17, p. 239 icf. V. Tr. p. 556, Fel.^ pp. 202-4') ; another, printed by Stokes 
from Brussels 5100 in R. C. xxvi. 368. and by 0"Donovan in Journal of Kilkenny 
Arch. Soc. 1858, p. 453 from Egerton 92 f. 30", is also in B. of Fermoy f. 51" 
and B. of Lismore f. 45' ; the story of the man whose head fell oiT at the fair of 
Telltovvn for svvearing falsely by Ciaran, is printed in Silva Gad. i. 416 from 
LL. 274" 9 lalso in Ravvl. B. 512 f. 140" ; Liber Flauus Fergusiorum, Pt. l. A. 
f. 10'' and ib. D. f. 6'' ; Dublin Franciscans A. 9 (31, p. 32'') ; it is also alluded 
to by Tigernach, ut infra. A metrical ■ Riagul Ciarain ' was printed by the late 
Prof. Strachan in Eriu, ii. 227-8 from R. L A. 23 P. 3. The attribution was 
probably intended for our Ciaran, but there is nothing in the rule itself to prove 
this. There seems to be a good deal relating to Ciaran in the tale called Echtra 
Leithin in R. L A. 23 G. 20, p. 378, but I have not examined it. The MSS. 
seem all to be late : 0"HanIon, ix. 200. 220 ; Olden, Church of Irelaud, p. 115. 
There is a curious story of Ciaran and Colman mac Luachain in the life of the 



the criticism of the Latin text, and is occasionaily cited in the notes 
under the symbol L (Lismore). Many incidents in the life are of a 
conventional type, but on the whole it is of great interest. The 
account of Ciaran's death, § 32, rests probably on genuine tradition. 
It is httle in the taste of later times, with its discouragement of relic 
worship, its human shrinlcing from death : ' Leave my remains,' he 
said to his monks, ' hke the dry bones of a stag upon the mountains. 
Better for j'ou to share the life of my spirit in heaven, than to hve a 
life of offence near my bones on earth.' And as death approached, 
he asked to be carried into the open air, and gazing at the sky spoke 
of the dread upward path on which his soul must speed ; which 
recalls the 'need-fare' of the dying Bede '. How Httle likely these 
things were to be invented is shown by the fact that the author of the 
R recension omitted them, doubtless because he considered them 
unworthy of a saint. 

The historical setting of the life, so far as it can be tested, is not 
inconsistent with knowii facts. Ciaran is niade a pupil of Finnian of 
Clonard, who died in the same year as himself, 549, but this is quite 
possible, as Ciaran died at the early age of thirty-three^. The other 
saints with whom he is brought into contact, Enda and Senan ', do not 
afford any criteria, as their own chronology is unsettled. That he 
was a contemporary with Coemgen of Glendalough who died in 618 
or 622 is unlikely. But the whole story (§ 32 ad fin.) is probably a 
later insertion *. In § 31 we seem to have a conflation of two 
divergent accounts ''. The only secular ruler mentioned in the life 

latter, Rennes MS. f. 86''. For the fulfilment of an alleged curse of Ciaran, v. 
F. M. ii. 1096. He and Cainnech are brought into relation with Columba, 
Z. C. P. V. 38. In Mart. Don. at May 10 is a reference to a lile of Ciaran which 
1 have not yet identified. 

' See my Bede, I. Ixxix, clxi ; cf. Aur. Leg. pp. 446, 748, Bro. 

^ Tigernach says, in his thirty-first year, and in the seventh year after the 
foundation of Clonmacnois, R. C. xvii. 138-9. In Fcl.- p. 204 is an extraordinary 
legend that Ciarans life was cut short by the intercession of the saints of Ireland, 
who wcre jealous of his power ; this was one of the ' three crooked counsels ' 
alludcd to abovc, p. xlvii, note 4. The story may have grown out of the words 
attributed to Cohimba in § 33. It was witli relerence to this that Ciaran is said 
to have composed llie poem beginning — ' Au frim, a ri richid rain,' which is pre- 
served in LL. 374'" 19. and Brussels 2324 f 84, and citcd by Mart. Don. Sept. 9 : 
cf. Cormac, Trausl. p. 48. Another quatrain attributed to Ciaran is cited by 
Tigernach u. s. and Fcl.- p. 202. Of the hyinn which Columba is said to have 
composed in his honour, § 33, some fragmcnts arc prescn.'cd at the bcginning 
of the Irish life, and are put together by Stokes, L. S. p. 355 ; cf. Colgan Tr. 
Th. p. 472". This visit of Columba to Clonmacnois cannot have becn imme- 
diatcly after thc dealh of Ciaran, as the lifc seems to imply, for lona, to which 
Columba is reprcsented as returning, was not founded bcfore 565 ; it may be 
the visit recorded by Adamnan, i. 3. 

^ Cf. Enda, 5 26; L. S. p. 71. * It is found also Coem. § 28. 

' Sec iiotcs ad loc. 


who can be identified certainly is Tuathal Maelgarbh, vvho died in 
543 oi" 549. which is quite consistent. The tale called ' Baile 
Mongain' synchronizes the death of Ciaran, the slaying of Tuathal 
and the accession of Diarmait '. This, if correct, would fix Tuathal's 
death to 549 as against 543 ^. 

Ciaran was born in Connaught, though his father belonged to 
Meath, according to M, being obliged to migrate owing to the 
oppressive taxation '. Connaught was also the chief sphere of his 
labours till he settlcd at Clonmacnois, which is just within the borders 
of Meath, and he is the patron saint of Connaught 'without any 
division ' according to some lines preserved in LL. 367 lower margin, 
and Rawl. B. 486 f. 44*. 

The mythological element in these lives is comparatively slight, 
and we may therefore infer perhaps a larger historical element than 
in some other cascs. 

Vita Sancti Ciarani episcopi de Saigir*. This life is here printed 
from M f. io6''. In T httle more than the two first sections are 

' Bran, !. 56. 

2 The Annals of Ulster give both dates, 542. 548 (= 543, 549, their chronology 
being a year behind the true chronology). Ciaran and Tuathal are brought into 
connexion in anothcr story, R. C. xxiii. 430. I cannot identify with any certainty 
either the Ainmire (mac Colgan) ofTara, § i, or the Crimthann of Connaught, 
§§ I, 2. 

' According to R his father belonged to Dal n-Araide. A third version is 
given in a note appended to the pedigree in LL., LBr., and BB. The text in 
LL. 349" is as follows : ' ro bai ar tiis a athair i n-daere i m-Bretnaib ; tanic 
iartain i n-Herind co cenel Conaill asside ar imgabail cisa truim Cornach 
[MS. Cornac ; in BB. this is still further corrupted, in LBr. it^ is omitted 
altogether] co ro genair Ciaran ic Raith Chrimthaind i m-Maig Ae,' i. e. his 
father vvas at first in ser\'itude in Britain, and came thence aftei-\vards to Erin, 
to Cinel Conaill, to avoid the heavy.tribute of the Cornish, so that Ciaran was 
born at Raith Crimthaind in Magh Ai. My correction involves the verj- slight 
assumption that the mark of contraction is a mistake for the mark of aspiration, 
and if accepted might raise the question whether some at least of the Cornish 
dedications to St. Pieran may not belong really to this Ciaran, and not, as is 
generally assumed, to his namesake of Saigir. 

* There are pedigrees of Ciaran in LL. 352'', LBr. 20"^, BB. 223/ (cf. ib. 232"), 
Rawl. B. 502 f. 51''. His day in the Calendar is Mar. 5, though one calendar 
(Forbes, p. 83) gives him at Mar. 6. The account in Mart. Don. cites the 
parallel table of saints LL. 370", in which Ciaran is eq.iated with St. Clement. 
For the rest the account is taken from the Brussels Irish life of Ciaran men- 
tioned below. AU the references tally vvith the numbers of the chapters of that 
Hfe. One instance may sufEce : ' Do athain Ciaran a choimtionol do Dia 7 do 
Carthach. Betha Ciarain cap. 34,' i. e. Ciaran commended his convent to God 
and to Carthach, Life of Ciaran, c. 34. In c. 34 of the Brussels life Ciaran's 
dying vvords to his monks are : 'aithnighim do Dhia 7 do Charrtach . . . sibh,' 
i.e. I commend you to God and to Carthach. This Carthach ^§§ 13, 15, 24, 29) 
is celebrated at the same date as Ciaran in the Calendars, they occur together 
LL. 367'', Fel,- p. 86, and are treated together in the A. S. u. s. ; c. 25 of this 
life is also cited, Mart. Don. July 7, and this is a chapter vvhich is not in any of 
the Latin lives of Ciaran, For the birth and baptism of Ciaran cf. F^l.- pp. 86-8, 



extant, the remainder being lost owing to the mutilation of the MS. 
This life was printed by Colgan A. S. pp. 458 ff., probably from M. 
There is another Latin life in S f 197" (C. S. cc. 805 flf.). In R' this life 
has been lost, ovving to the mutilation of the MS. at the end. But 
it exists in R' f. 199''. The text of R is identical with that of S, 
agreeing sometimes even in obvious blunders. Occasionallj* R yields 
a better reading than S ; but it also has mistakes of its own. The 
only important point in which R differs from S is that at the very 
end of the life, after the final Amen, it adds a section corresponding 
to M § 15 which is not in S. Colgan also printed the S version, 
u. s. pp. 467-9, with the title 'Alia Vita seu lectiones officii eius', 
dividing the text into twelve lections. He mentions the Codex 
Insulensis, p. 463'', but does not use it, and in F, pp. 237-44, the life 
is neither annotated nor divided into chapters. The BoIIandists, 
A. S. March i. 389 ff , give the S text with an appendix of extracts 
from M, which are merely reprinted from Colgan. The SR text 
is much shorter than that in M, omitting much that is interesting, 
and adding hardly anj-thing. We have in addition the life of 
Piranus in the Noua Legenda Anglie, who is merely Ciaran of Saigir 
in a British dress '. This is cited as Capgrave from Horstman's 
edition, ii. 320 ff. Like all lives in that collection, it is much ab- 
breviated, and some of the Irish names are hopelessly bungled^ 
But in spite of these drawbacks, the text is of great interest ; as it 
was evidently epitomized from a text which contained a great deal 
more than any of the other Latin lives'; the arrangement of the 
matter also differs considerably. 

Three Irish lives of Ciaran of Saigir are known to me. Thc 
first is at Brussels among the 0'Clery MSS. 4190 x 4200 f. 144. This 

Misc. Celtic Soc. pp. 18-22, from the notes to which it appears that his cult still 
survives in the island of his birth, Cape Clear. 

A note in Fel.^ p. 90 mentions a work by Cairnech Moel, called *Imirce 
Ciarain ', i. e. Ciaran's journey or pilgrimage, as e.\isting at Saigir in the 
writer's time. It has probably long since perished. Ciaran is invoked in the 
Litany LL. 373'* 63 : ' in cuic fir dec lotar la Ciaran Saigre,' i. e. the fifteen men 
wlio went with Ciaran of Saigir. I have not identified thc incident referred to. 
It might be tlie journey to or from Italy in § 3. 

' According to tlie usual interchange of /> and c (qv) in Brythonic and Goidelic. 
There is no doubt as to the identity of the naraes. Whether the writer is 
justified in identifying Ciaran of Saigir with tiie Pieran wlio gives Iiis name to 
Perranzabuloe and other places in Cornwall (D. C. B. s. v. Piranus, Baring-Gould 
and Fisher, ii. 135-8") is much morc doubtful. This life tal<es the saint from 
Ireland to Cornwall bcfore his death and buries him at Pcrranzabuloe. Of this 
there is no trace in thc Irish sources, which do not record cven a temporary 
sqiourn in Brilain. I have suggcsted above, p. li, note 3, that possibly thcse 
dedications bclong to Ciaran of Clonmacnois. 

^ e. g. Cohingus tbr Aengus, Cota for Cocha, Bruneta for Brunecha. 

' The most interesting addition is perhaps the story of the king who has the 
power of slaying with a look, § 23 note. Cf. Balor of the Evil Eye. 


is also the most interesting. Both in arrangement and in the addi- 
tional matter inserted it has a very close affinity with Capgrave's 
text ; it cannot hovvever be taken from that text, as it contains some 
things which are not in Capgrave'. The inference therefore seems 
justified that it is translated from the same text which Capgrave 
epitomized'. The second Irish life is in the Stowe MSS. (R. I.A.) 
ix. 222 tf. This for the most part covers the same ground as M, 
but is shorter, and has some points of difference. The life printed 
by 0'Grady, Silva Gadelica, i. i ff. ' is a mere eighteenth-century 
translation of the M text, and is of no independent value whatever. 
The first and second of these lives are cited in the critical notes as 
Br. and Du. (Dublin) respectively. 

In the case of Ciaran of Saigir we are once more brought face to 
face with theobscurequestion of pre-Patrician Christianity in Ireland. 
The three other saints whom popular tradition regards as anterior 
to Patrick, Ailbe, Declan, Ibar, are all brought into the story. The 
King of Munster, with whom Ciaran has most to do, is Aengus mac 
Nadfraich *, whom Patrick is said to have baptized. On the other 
hand Ciaran is brought into relation with a number of saints of much 
later date, with Ciaran of Clonmacnois and Finnian of Clonard (both 
t549), with Brendan of Birr (^571 FM) and Brendan of Clonfert 
(r 577 or 583). It may be from a vague sense of these chronological 
difticulties that the biographers of St. Ciaran give him a span of life 
varying from 200 to 400 years^. But the question arises, here and 
elsewhere ", was the life of a post-Patrician saint prolonged backwards 
by local patriotism and desire for ecclesiastical independence ' in 
order to make him anterior to the great national apostle ? or was the 
life of a pre-Patrician saint prolonged forwards in order to bring 

' cc. 25. 30, 31 have no parallels in any of the Latin lives ; cc. 2", 19", 20, 
22-4, 29 only in Capgrave. 

^ The translation is late, as is shown by the occurrence of such vvords as 
seipflj chapel ; seirbis, (divine) service ; sttipcr, supper. It is not impossible 
that the Latin original may yet be found. For a ludicrous mistake of the 
translator see notes to § 6. 

' From Egerton ii3 f. 513; it exists also in other eighteenth and nineteenth- 
centurj' MSS. 

* Another king of Munster, Ailill is mentioned, who is apparently the son 
and successor of Aengus ; for Carthagus, who in §§ 13, 15 is called 'nepos' of 
Aengus, is in § 29 called ' filius regis Cassyl '. This title shows that it is not 
any Munster under-king that is meant. But I cannot find an Aihll, King of 
Munster, at this time either in the annals or in the Hsts of kings. Mart. Don. 
makes Carthach the son, not the nepos, of Aengus. On the battles of § 16 
cf. F. M. ann. 478, 489, and notes. 

* Over 200 Capg. ; nearly 300 S and R ; 300 M ; 400 Br. So in the so-called 
life of St. Maignenn (a quo Kilmainham), Silva Gad. i. 37 ff., that saint is raade 
to converse with persons vvhose obits vary in date from 549 to 787. 

' See pp. XXX f., Ixi. On Patrick and Ciaran cf. V. Tr. p. 76. 
' In Fei.^ p. 86 Ciaran is called ' episcopus episcoporum '. 


him into relation with some of the later famous saints of Ireland? 
In the present casc the latter view seems to me more probable. 
The fact that the title ' first-born of the saints of Erin ' attached itself 
to Ciaran seems to me to have weight in this connexion ', though 
homage is done to the Armagh tradition by malcing Ciaran not only 
submit to Patrick on his arrival, but also receive authority from him 
in Italy prior to his arrival in Ireland. On the other hand, the story 
that Ciaran in extreme old age put himself to school under St. 
Finnian of Clonard, seems an obvious device adopted in order to 
include Ciaran among the pupils of that famous teachcr. On the 
whole, therefore, I am inclined to regard Ciaran of Saigir as being 
really a fifth-century saint. 

But if the historical relations of the saint are obscure, his mytho- 
logical affinities are clear and important. He is unquestionably the 
hagiological representative of a solar and fire deity or hcro (§§ 8-11, 
19, 24 and note, 25, 29, 32, 33). With this, as in other mythologies, 
is combined the character of the deity that protects and is the patron 
of wild animals (§§ 2, 5-7) ' ; and the description of the saint's first 
monks, ' brother fox,' the badger, the wolf, and the doe, reads like 
a page from a mediaeval 'Jungle Book'^ 

In locality Ciaran is the patron saint of the Osraighi'; they form 
his 'parochia'; and to this day the boundaries of that ancicnt tribe 
form the limits of the diocese of Ossoi-y (§§ 16, 28). 

Vita Sancti Coenigeni abbatis de Glenn da Loch''. This life 
is here printed from M f. 64''. In T this life is wanting owing to the 
mutilation of the MS. There is another Latin life of Coemgen 
in S f.203'', (C. S. cc. 835 fi".), and in R= f. ii6<=. In R' the life has 

' A collect for his office cited A. S. Mar. i. 390" begins : ' Deus, qui B. Kie- 
ranum pontificem ante alios sanctos in Hibernie insulam misisti.' 

* He was also a great keeper of cattle according to Fcl.- p. 88; cf. §§ 10, 

II, 21. 

' The attempt of the authors of the Lives of British Saints (ii. 124) to 
cuhemerize these charming ' jungle-folk ' scems to me as unscientific as it 
is prosaic ; and this detect runs more or less through all thc work. 

* Cf. Three Fragm. p. 190: ' ro chuattur Osraigiie i muinigin naoimh Ciarain 
Saighre ma buaidh . . . do bhreilh do Laighnibh," i. e. the men of Ossory put 
their trust in Ciaran for winning victory over thc Leinstermen (,who on their 
side rclicd on Brigit). 

' There are pedigrees of Coemgen in LL 351', LBr. 19«', BB. 221» (cf. ib. 
232"), Rawl. B. 502 f. 51P, Laud 610 flf. 38', 40'', 41''. His day in tlie Calendars is 
Junc 3. The Mart. Don. at that date citcs Cuimin of Connor's pocm, 11. 49-52, 
and the table of parallel saints LL. 370, in which he is equated with Paul the 
Hcrmit, no doubt on account of his asceticism. At the same date is commemo- 
rated his convert, the robber Glunsalach (lit. Foul-knee, a name perhaps given 
to him, as Reeves suggests, MS. T. C.D. 1098, from hisdevotion after his conver- 
sion. There is a curious story connccting Coemgen [Cheuin] and Glunsalach 
[Glunclach] in Capgr. ii. 201-4'. Coenigen is invoked in the Litany, LL. 373'', 
where Glunsalach also occurs, and in the hymn bcginning ' A Brigit bennach 


been lost owing to the mutilation of thc MS. at the end. S and R 
arc identical, agreeing sometimes cven in obvious niistai:es ; some- 
times S has thc bctter reading, sometimes R. The S R recension 
is very much shorter than M, containing only sixteen sections as 
against forty-eight. It has, however, one incident which is not in 
M (§ 8 in S ; given in a note to § 8), and has preserved the name of 
the pricst in § 5 (= S § 4) which M has omitted. The Bollandists 
printed this life, A. S. June i. 310 flf. (B), from a MS. furnished by 
Hugh Ward, probably a transcript of M.' They used however three 
other 'compendia' : — («) 'unum permodum minoris elogii'; (b) 'pro- 
lixius ex MS. commodato nobis a R. P. Henrico Fitzsimon ; . . . 
cuius auctor ad conquirendas fabulas uidetur fuisse studiosior' ; (c) ' ex 
Codice Sahiianticensi.' Of {a) and (b) I have found no trace. An 
extract from (b) is given in the notes to § i on the authority of B'. 

Three Irish iives of Coemgen are lcnown to me, (ij a prose life 
contained in Brussels MS. 2324 f 274, and occasionally cited in the 
notes as Br. It is clearly imperfect at the end, and Michael 0'Clery 
in his colophon spealts of it as ' this little fragment '. This is an 
exaggeration of its defects, as it contains eighteen sections ; (ii) 
a metrical life contained in the same MS. f. 278'; (iii) a life partly 
in prose and partly in verse. Of this I have found two MSS. : 
T. C. D. No. 1346, written by Hugh 0'Daly in 1725 ; the other, R. I. A. 
24 M 38, written by Laurence Mac Anallaigh (?) in 1765*. Liiie other 
Irish lives it has been interpolated with a view to enhancing the 

ar set', I-L. 308'' 8 (cf. Moling, 5 19 sub fin.l, and also in Broccan's Hymn to 
Brigit, LH.2 i. 115. His education by Bp. Eogan is mentioned in the life of the 
latter, C.S. c.916; the apparition of Patricli, § 22, is in LH.' i. 6; cf. Col. E. § 25. 
The allusion to the Dublin Danes in § 29 may be noted as a mark of lateness. 
For Scottish dedications to Coemgen see Forbes. Calendars, p. 302. 

* In T. C. D. 1098 is a transcript of B by Bishop Reeves, with collations 
from M. There are a fevv notes, almost all taken from B. At the end is a shoit 
sketch of Coemgen's life, containing some interesting topographical information. 

- {b'i also contained a collect for the saint's day, cited u.s. p. 311'; the life 
was therefore probably intended to be used as lections. 

' 0'CIery, in a colophon (ib. f. 286), expresses a very unfavourable opinion 
of it : ' These poems, which are called a Life of Coemgen, I copied from a book 
written for Fiacha 0'TooIe, and from another old book belonging to Domnall, 
son of Donnchadh 0'CuiIemhain ; and it is plain to all who read them that they 
are disgusting (go snlac/i, lit. filth^-), though for my part I am ashamed to confess 
it.' I do not quite know why O Clery should be so vehement in his denuncia- 
tion of this life. It contains m the main the same incidents as the other lives, 
neither more nor less legendary. It is poor poetry no doubt, but the same is 
true of most compositions of the kind. He e.xpresses himself even more strongly 
about the metrical life of Caimin of Inis Celtra : ' very disgusting, lying, too 
short in some places and too long in others, and a great deal of it utter nonsense. 
But I make my excuse that it was enjoincd on me to follow exactly the old 
book,' ib. f. 273. This last life I have not read. 

' The order of the chapters in this MS. is somewhat different, and the language 
has been modernized. 


privileges and securing the property of the community concerned. 
Both (ii) and (iii) purport to be the work of a monk of Coemgen 
named Solam or Solomon. The two lives are very closely connected. 
They cover much the same ground, and the incidents follow each 
other in the same order, even where that order is clearly wrong. 
Several of the stanzas of (ii) are quoted in (iii) ; and this no doubt 
accounts for their being attributed to the same author. Therefore iii its 
present form (iii) is later than (ii). But I do not think that this is their 
original relation. The prose narrative of (iii) could not have been de- 
veloped out of (ii). Rather (ii) is a metrical summary of the narrative 
of (iii) ; then some later editor of the prose life inserted stanzas from 
(ii), and with the stanzas transferred also the name of their supposed 
author. There are many points of considerable interest in (iii), and 
it is very greatly to be wished that some earlier MS. of it could be 
found. It is cited sometimes in the notes as Du. I cannot see that 
either (ii) or (iii) have any direct relation with either of the Latin 
lives ; and (i) has sonie sections which have nothing corresponding 
to them in the latter^. 

In the historical setting of the life there is nothing to object to. 
Coemgen himself died in 6i8 or 622, at the age, according to the 
lives, of 120 or 130; which probably indicates that he did live to 
a considerable age. He is made contemporary with Berchan, who 
is probably the Berchan alias Mobhi Clarainech, t 545; with Ciaran 
of Clonmacnois, t 549; with Colman, son of Carbri, chief of part of 
North Leinster (^576 F. M., where he is wrongly called King of 
Leinster) ; while Faelan, the son of this Colman, Coemgen's pupil, is 
mentioned in the annals at 6a8, and died apparently in 678". Others 
with whom he is brought into relations are Columba, '^597; Aed, son 
of Ainmire, King of Ireland, + 598; Cainnech, + 599 or 600 ; Comgall, 
+ 602 (Chron. Scot.) ; Brandub, King of Leinster, +605; and Munnu 
of Tech Munnu or Taghmon, 1635. Berchan and Ciaran died rather 
early to be contemporaries of a man who survived to 618 or later ; 
but even here there is no actual impossibility. The life is, however, 
very legendary. In his mythological aspect Coemgen scems to be 
m^jinly a protcctor of animals, both wild and domestic (§§ 3, 7, 9, 16, 
19, 24, 27, 32) ; and one or two miracles which are generally asso- 
ciated with solar or fire deities have also become attached to him 
(§§ 5, 18 note, 35), a not unusual combination. He seems to be 
exclusively a South Leinster saint. 

' In the Mart. Don. p. 144 an Irish life of Coemgcn is mentioned as being in 
the possession of Domnall Carrach of Annaghmore in Wexford. I cannot say 
which liic this may have becn. 

' Three Fragmcnts, p. 86. 


Vita Sancti Colmani abbatis de Land EloK This life is liere 
printcd for the first time from M f. 129'", collated with T f. 106'. 
There are two other Latin lives of Cohnan Ela, one in S f. 123'' 
(C. S. cc. 415 ff.), the other in R' f. 135", R= f. 139'', and F, p. 130. R' is 
imperfect at the beginning, and R^ in the middle^ All three recen- 
sions are sufficiently aliice to malie it certain that they have some 
common source or sources. S is the fullest, and, on the whole, the 
most original ; but it is possible that some of the sections peculiar 
to S have been transferred from lives of other saints to vvhom they 
refer'. R is much nearer to S than to M T, but is shorter. Its 
omissions as compared vvith S sometimes coincide vvith those of MT, 
and sometimes not*. MT has, however, some original points, and 
as this text has never been printed, it seemed worth while to give 
it for purposes of comparison. The Irish life (so-called) in the 
Brussels MS. 2324x2340 f 219 is a very curious composition, but 
stands in no relation to any of the Latin lives. 

In thc historical framework of the Latin lives there is nothing 
impossible. Colman himself died in 611. He is made contemporary 
with Columba, 1 597 ; Aed, son of Ainmire, 1 598 ; Cainnech, t 599 or 
600 ; Brendan, son of Cairbre ^, Chief of Hy Many, t 601 ; Aed 
Slane, t 604 ; Gregory the Great, t 604 ; Molua of Clonfertmulloe, 
t6o9; Mochuda, t 637 ; while Dimma Dub, t 659, vvas his pupil. 
It is, however, impossible that Colman should have been the pupil 

' There are pedigrees of Colman in LL. 352/, LBr. 21", BB. 223'' ad calcem 
(cf. ib. 232"), Rawl. B. 502 f. 52''. His day in the Calendar is Sept. 26, which is 
the day of his death according to § 360^ this life. Mart. Tall. gives him in addition 
at Oct. 3 i ' Colman Ela nat.' ^natus, or natale, or natiuitas). The account of his 
parentage in Mart. Don. Sept. 26 is taken from the Irish life mentioned below. 
His association with Columba is borne out by Adamnan's life, i. 5, ii. 15, and 
by the dedications in Scotland to Colman ( Forbes, Calendars, p. 3051. In the 
life of his namesake, Colman mac Luachain, he and the latter and Colman 
Comraire ^Sept. 25 1 are associated together as the three Colmans, Rennes MS. 
ff. 79*^, 80'', 86" ; so Book of Lecan, f. 183''. To Colman Ela is ascribed the 
authorship of the tract ' Aibgitir in Chrabaid, or Alphabet of Devotion, printed 
by K. Meyer frora four MSS., Z. C. P. iii. 447 ff., cf. ib. i. 496 ; § 10 of this occurs 
separatcly with the title Cosc Mocolmoc, LS. p. 135; § 11 occurs separately, 
Brussels 5100, p. i, 2324 (. 67", under the title ' De uitiis latentibus umbra 
bonorum operum '. The Felire compares him to St. John, ' ara ecna y ara oge,* 
for his knowledge and purity, Fel.^ pp. 196, 212 (cf. our life § 15 and note) ; 
and in the life of Mochua, §§ 2-4, infra ii. 184-5, 's a curious story how, as 
a punishment for his pride of learning, he was aiBicted with total loss of memory 
until restored by Mochua. 

' The fact that F does not show this defect proves that this mutilation must 
be subsequent to 1627. 

' e. g. -S §§ 12. 25, 28, 38 ; the exploit narrated in S §§ 39, 40 is attributed to 
his namesake, Colman of Droraore, in the life of the latter, C. S. cc. 481-2. 

* M T omits S §§ 10, 12, 13, 24, 25, 28, 35, 37-40, 42; R omits S §§ 24-6, 
31.37, 4I-3- 46. 

' So S, probably rightly; M T with less likelihood connects the incident with 
Brendan's father. 


of Finnian of Clonard, t 549, if Colman was only in his fifty-sixth 
year' when he died, as Tigernach states^. The anachronism is due 
to the tendency to make all the famous saints of Ireland proceed 
from the school of Finnian. 

The action of the life begins in Ulster, then centres in North 
Leinster, especially Leix, with excursions latterly into Connaught. 

In the M T text there is little or nothing of special mj-thological 
significance ; but in some of the sections of the S recension charac- 
teristics of a fire or solar god or hero are traccable (S §§ 24, 37-9 ; 
cf § 24 of our life). 

Vita Sancti Comgalli abbatis de Bennchor'. This life is from 
M f 90'", collated with T f 57''. It was printed from M in FIeming's 
Collectanea Sacra, pp. 303 ff.* It was reprinted in A. S. Maii, ii. 
582 ff"., from Fleming's edition compared with ' MS. antiquum '. This 
MS. must have been a good one ; for many of Fleming's mistakes 
are corrected, though other mistakes are made. and liberties taken 
with the text. There is another Latin life of Comgall in S f 191*^ 
(C. S. cc. 773 flr.) and R' f 153^ R^ f 100«, F p. 46. The text of R is 
practically identical with that of S. The latter is, however, imperfect, 
owing to the loss of a leaf in the middle ^ The S R recension is 

' The Mart. Don. says that he was only fifty-two when he died. 

2 R. C. xvii. 169. 

s There are pedigrees of Comgall in LL. 348'', LBr. is', BB. 218» (cf. ib. 
232''), Laud 610 fT. 38'', iio'', Fel.- p. 130. His usual day in the Calcndar is 
May 10, though the Aberdeen Breviary givcs him at May 12 (Forbes, Calendars, 
pp. 116, 308). The Mart. Don. at May 10 cites lines 17-20 of Cuimin of Connor's 
poem, and also the table of parallel saints LL. 370", in which Comgall is cquated 
with ' lacobus apostolus' i,it is not slated whicli ; the other ' lacobus apostolus ' 
is coupled vvith Finnian of Movillal. He is mentioned in the litany LL. 373*" 
43 ; ' Cetheora mili manach co rath De fo mam Comgaill Bennchuir," i. e. 4,000 
monks (^the life, § 13, says 3,000) with the grace of God under the yoke of 
Comgall of Bangor. A metrical rule attributed to him has bcen printcd by 
btrachan from four MSS., Eriu, i. 191 IV. ; a quatrain said to be by him is in 
Fcl.' p. I.x.s.w. The rule of Bangor is celcbrated in a hymn in the Bangor 
antiphonary (ed. Warren, ii. 28) ; in another, Comgall is enumeratcd first among 
the abbots of Bangor (\h. 33^ while a third is dcvoted entirely to his praisc (ib. 
16-19; cf. ib. 55-7, 69-71, 81-2. I. ix, x). A writing attributed to Comgall 
seems to be cilcd in Magnus 0'Donncirs Irish life of Columba, Z. C. P. v. 64. 
H's association with Columba is borne out by Adamnan, i. 49, iii. 13, 17 (with 
Reeves' notes ; cf. V. Tr. p. 58) ; and he has dedications in Scotland, Forbes, 
u. s., p. 310. (The lections in the Aberdcen Breviary relate only to ComgalPs 
birth and childliood.) A dispute between Columba and Comgall is alluded to 
in the Amra, R. C. xx. 254, 434. Kcating cites a life of Comgall, i. 52 ; but 
I cannot say which it is. 

* That M was Fleming's MS. was conclusively proved by Reeves ; sec notes 
to § 17. Extracts from the S version are given in Flcming's notes. 

" The S R recension is also printed in A. S. u. s. pp. 580-2 from S and two 
other MS. furnished, one by Henry Fitzsimon, the other by Hugh Ward. 
From the extracts given in the notcs the lormer secms to have becn nearcr to S, 
the lattcr ncarer to R. The part ol thc A. S. tcxt which does not come from S 
closely rcsemblcs R. 


very much shorter than the text of M T'. It contains, however, some 
sections peculiar to itself, and of these such as are wanting in S are 
given in the notes to the present edition ^ Of the great interest 
of the life from the mythological point of vicw as bcaring on the 
cult of the Ccltic Sun-God^, something will be said later. 

In the historical setting of the life there is not much to criticize. 
Comgall died in 602 (Chron. Scot.), at the age of eighty, according to 
S R, or ninety according to Mart. Don,, which comes from Tigernach, 
R. C. xvii. 163. He is made contemporary with St. Finnian (here called 
Findbarr) of Movilla, t 579 ; with Brudeus, who is probably Bede's 
'Bridius filius Meilochon', King of the Picts, ^584; Columba, ^597; 
Cainnech, 1 599 x 600 ; Sinell of Movilla, t 603 ; Fachna, son of Baetan, 
King of (Jlidia, t 626. The bishop, Lugaid, who ordained Comgall, 
§§ II, 13 (cf. § 19 note), was probably not Lugaid or Molua of Clonfert- 
mulloe ; for the latter was a younger contemporary, 534-609, and in 
his own life is made a pupil, of Comgall *. That Comgall was a pupil 
of Fintan of Clonenagh, who died in 603, is unlikely ; as in that case 
Fintan must have been over a hundred whenhedied^ It may be 
a mistake for Finnian of Clonard, t 549. 

I know no Irish life of Comgall, though § 21 seems to postulate an 
Irish original ; and an Irish version of § 46 is known (v. note ad loc). 
Comgall seems to belong entirely to Dal n-Araide, and he is celebrated 
as the patron of that district in the verses, previously alluded to, 
which occur LL. 367 lower margin, and Rawl. B. 486 f. 44''. 

Vita Sancti Cronani abbatis de Ros Cree ^. This life is from 

' That it is a mere summary appears from S § 6 : ' aliaque perplurima . . . 
fecit mirabilia." 

' Hardy, Cat. i. 191, cites Harl. 6576 ff. 337 ff. as a life of Comgall. It is in 
reality a copy of the shorter recension of the Visio Tungalli or Tundali. In the 
Index to the volume Tungallus is miswritten Cungallus, and Hardy (without 
e.xamination) has taken this to be Comgall. 

^ §5 5. 7. 8, 10, II, 13, 15, 17 note, 19 and note. 39, 43, 44, 46; cf. the read- 
ing of Fitzsimon's MS. in I5 : ' sole clariorem filium pariet, qui huius orbis 
tenebras suo fulgore fugabit ' {A. S. u. s. p. 582"). 

* Lug. §§ 15-24. In Fel.^ pp. 180-2 is a story how MoKia, though Comgairs 
pupil, became his confessor; but it is a stronger measure to make hira ordain 
his master. Lanigan's suggestion i^ii. 65-6) of Lugaid of Connor, who died, 
according to F. M., in 537, would not be quite impossible if Comgall was really 
ninety when he died. A Lugaid bishop of Lismore in Scotland died in 592, 
Ann. Ult. ; Reeves, Adamn. p. 371. On the mythological significance of the 
association with Lugaid see below. 

^ This would be no difficultj' to the scholiast on the Felire, who gives Fintan 
an age of a hundred and thirt}--five at his death, Fel.2 p. ■76. If Comgall was 
really ninety in 602 it is not impossible, as Reeves thought (Eccl. Ant. p. 269), 
that he should have been baptized by bishop Macnisse of Connor, vvho died 
in 514- 

« There are pedigrees of Cronan in Laud 610 f. 39", Rawl. B. 486 f. 35". I 
give that of Laud with readings from the pedigree on the margin of M ; ' Cronan 
Rosa Cre mac Odrain [Obrain M], m. Domargein [Domaingein M], m. Fuiric 


M f. 88^, collated with T f. 55-. There is a transcript of it by Bishop 
Reeves in T. C. D. No. 1096. It has not been printed before. There 
is another Latin Hfe in S f. 174'' (C. S. cc. 541 ff.). This is obviously 
imperfect at the end,though there is no lacuna in the MS. The hfe 
printed in A. S. Apr. iii. 580 ff. is the S text ; but it has the last three 
sections, which are wanting in S, in a text practically identical with M. 
The editor obtained them from Father Thomas 0'Sheerin, the 
editor of Fleming's Collectanea Sacra. In the introduction he notes 
that Ussher cites a difierent hfe of Cronan ', but expressly says that 
he had never seen this. 

The two recensions, MT and S, are clearly derived from a common 
source, and equally clearly MT is nearer the original. S not only 
omits whole sections, but obliterates names of places and persons. 
I have not met with any Irish life of Cronan. 

Thc annalists, so far as I know, do not give us any data for fixing 
the chronology of Cronan's life ; nor are there niany indications in 
the life itself. He is made contemporary with Finghin, King of 
Munster, +619 (v. F. M. i. 253 note), with Fursa, ^649 (?), and with 
Mochoemog, ^656. He probably lived, therefore, in the latter part of 
the sixth and the earlier part of the seventh century. By birth and 
labours Cronan belongs to Munster, and especially to Eile, though 
he began his ecclesiastical career in Connaught. There does not 
seem to be any special mythological element in the life. 

Vita Sancti Declani episcopi de Ard Mor -. This life is here 
printed from T f. 66'' collated with M f. 101". The former MS. is 
slightly, the latter more seriously, mutilated at the beginning. The 
probable reason for this mutilation and the means by which it has 
been made good are stated in a note ad loc. The life has been 
printed by the Bollandists, A. S. July v. 590 ff. The editor says that 

[PhurigM], m. Olchon, m. Imraith [AmraidhM], m. Eoluirg. [m. DergMarfrf], 
m. Eirc, m. Abannaig [Sabarrnaig M], m. Findchaim, m. Feic, m. Imchada 
Uallaig [Finncada M], m. Conla, m. Taidg, m. Cein, m. AilcUa Oluim.' His day 
in the Calendar is April 28. Mart. Tall. says ; ' Cronan . . . qui prius Mochua 
dicius est.' But Mocluia is tlic later hypocoristic name, as in tlie casc of his 
namcsake of Clondalkin : ' Mochua, . . . qui Cronan prius dictus cst,' Fcl.-' p. 182. 
Fcr another casc of thc intcrciiange of these names v. Maed. § 34. 

' Ussher, Works, vi. 541, cites parts of §§ i5, 17. With § 17 cf. a diflerent 
version in Car. § 61. Cronan is mentioned also in Lug. § 52. For the Book of 
Dimma, to which the legend in §9 refers, see Miss Stokes, Early Christian Art, 
pp. 23-4 ; Christian Inscriptions, ii. 100-2. 

2 There are pedigrees of Declan in LL. 348«, LBr. 15'', BB. 218'" (cf. ib. 231''), 
F^l.* 170, Rawl. B. 502 f. 52''. They differ considerably as to the name of 
Declan's father. Fcl., BB. 231'', lil<e the life, call him Erc ; LBr. calls him 
Koss or Russ ; LL. and BB. 218'' call him Ernbrand [cf. Icel. Jarnbrandr] ; 
while Rawl. gives a conflate form Ercbrand. Dcclan's day in the Calendar is 
July 24. The account in Mart. Don. at that date is based on the Irish version 
of his life. According to a note in F6\.- p. 112 (April 7) Dcclan was the first to 
introduce rye, 'segal' (= sccale), into Ireland. 


he got the text from thc Irish Franciscans at Louvain, ' ubi etiam 
nunc seruatur, iitteris llibernicis exarata, ut illam ex antiquissimo 
codice desumpsit. . . . frater iile Michael Clery . . . Apographum 
nostrum . . . quoniam errata multa et plures habebat lacunas conferri 
Romae curauimus cum alio exemplari integro, quod erat in Collegio 
Sti Isidori cum ibi degeret Franciscus Haroldus . . . qui nobis haec 
Acta per se . . . emendata . . . restituit anno i679qualia nunc edimus.' 
At first I was inclined to identify this Louvain MS. with the MS. of 
the Irish life of Declan, now Brussels 4190x4200 f. 171'. This is 
written by Michael 0'Clery, who says (f. 193) that he copied it from 
'an old book ' (seinleabhar) belonging to Eochaidh lii Ifernain (Eochy 
Heffernan) ; though as the date of this latter was only 1582, the 
' antiquissimus ' of the Bollandist editor would be an exaggeration. 
As this Irish life is an almost exact translation of the Latin life here 
printed, it niight very well have been used for the Bollandist text. 
It is, however, against this view that the BoUandists state that the 
Irish verses in § 21 were not in their ' apographum ', but were taken 
from the St. Isidore Codex ; whereas they are in the Irish life. The 
St. Isidore MS. I have not traced. The MSS. relating to Ireland, 
formerly in the Franciscan College of St. Isidore at Rome, are now in 
the Convent of that order on the Merchants' Quay at Dublin. But 
I have found no life of Declan among them. The Bollandist text 
is occasionally cited as B. Where M and T differ, B is nearer to M 
than T. In T. C. D. No. 1098 there is a transcript of B by Reeves, 
with collations from M and T, and some topographical notes which 
have been useful in identifying one or two of the places mentioned in 
the life. Dr. Reeves speaks not unjustly of ' the wretched text of the 
Acta Sanctorum', and of the life itself as ' inestimable '. It is indeed 
of great interest. 

Here again the question of pre-Patrician Christianity meets us, and 
much of what has been said in the introductions to the lives of Ailbe 
and Ciaran of Saigir applies also here. Declan, like Ciaran, not 
merely submits (after a struggle) to Patrick on the Iatter's arrival, 
but takes directions from him in Italy as to his own place of settle- 
ment. The absence of any reference to later saints inclines me 
to think that Declan really is a saint of early date. 

St. Declan is exclusively a saint of the Munster Deisi, and his 
labours are mainly confined to them and the adjacent parts of 
Munster. Once he is taken to Meath (§ 26), but only that he may visit 
the ancestral home of his race, the Deisi of Tara. 

The topographical notices of Ardmore are of great interest. To 
those who have visited the spot the tradition that the promontory 

' It is found also in three laterMSS. : R. I. A. 0'Daly, No. 25, f. 22; Hodges 
and Smith, No. 150, p. 109 ; King's Inns, Dublin, No. ig. 


was once an island (§ i6) will not seem incredible, for the land to the 
North and West hes low, and a very slight depression would bring 
the sea over it again. The site of the ' little hermitage' (desertulum) 
of Declan (§ 38) is marl^ed by the ruins of a later church still called 
Teampul an Diseirt, i. e. thc Church of the Hermitage, or Dysert 
Church, near which is St. Declan's Well. And the cultus of the 
saint is still a living one to-day. The tradition of a special connexion 
betvveen Ardmore and St. David's (§ 15) probably rests on fact, for 
the latitude of the two places is almost exactly the same. 

The journeys to Rome (though the writer modestly restricts 
himself to three, ib.) ' to learn ecclesiastical manners' (§9) bear 
obviously the mark of a later age, while § 36 seems to reflect the 
period of the Danish invasionsS though some piratical attack from 
the opposite coasts of Britain is by no means impossible. 

1 know of no other lives of Declan beside this Latin life and 
the Irish translation of which enough has been said already. It 
is cited in the notes as Ir. 

The mythological element is not very prominent in this life. 
Where it does appear it seems to point decidedly to a water deity 
(§§ II, 15, 16). This is interesting, as the same characteristic, as we 
have seen, is strongly marked in a saint of a neighbouring district, 
Abban of Moyarney in County Wexford. 

The introductory matter is imported bodily from Irish secular 
legends, chiefly from the stories of the ' Expulsion of the Deisi ', 
'The Death of Medb', and ' Medb's Three Husbands' (see notes to 
§§ I, 2). It is curious that the horrible story of the birth of Lugaid 
Sriab n-derg should have been chosen as the proem of a work 
obviously intendcd for homiletic purposes (§§ i, 20, 38)''. 

Vita sancti Endei abbatis de Arann'. This life is taken from 
Ri f 103", collated with R^ f 90", and compared with F p. 291. 

' Another clearmark of lateness is the mention of ' canonici ' in § 26. But 
the life seems based on an earlier one, of which it is an abbreviation ; cf. 5 38, 
'omittentes plurima.' Such as it is, however, it is the only life wc have. 
There is no trace of a hfe of Declan either in S or in R. 

2 Both the namc and epithct, Lugaid of the red stripes, show that we have 
to do wilh a solar myth. The name Lugaid is a derlvative of Lug, the name 
of the Celtic Sun-God ; and tlie red stripes ^' tres rubri circuli ', 5 i) which he 
bore are no less obviously solar in origin. 

3 There are pedigrees of Enda in LL. 347'', LBr. i^", BB. 217" (cf. ib. 231°), 
Rawl. B. 486 f. 35'', but they are all sopliisticaled in the way e.xplained below. 
His day in the Calendar is March 21. At that date Mart. Don. cilcs hnes 93-6 
of Cuimin's poem, and gives a very mythical anecdote, the source of which 
I havc not traced. Gigniat, the hero of it, is evidently the Gigncus of our 
life, §28. In Fel.'' pp. 70, 112 Enda is one of the thrcc 'athlaich' lit. e.\- 
warriurs, i.e. warriors turned monks of Ireland. Enda is introduced into 
Magnus 0'Donnell's life of Columba (Z. C. P. v. 82-6), but chronological con- 
siderations make this practically impossiblc. 


From F it was printed by Colgan, A. S. pp. 704 ff. ; and from Colgan 
by the Bollandists, March iii. 269 ff.' I know no other lifc of Enda 
either in Latin or in Irish. 

Like almost all the lives in R it represents a very late recension ; 
and is clearly conflated from difterent sources. Thus the story 
narrated in §§ 20-3 is expressly given as an 'aliter' version of 
§ 19. Even Colgan distinguishes it by italic type ', and characterizes 
it as ' minus authenticam, ne dicam plane apochrypham '. The 
Bollandists omit it altogether '. Moreover § 32 is clearly a doublet 

' The critical notes furnish abimdant proofs of the statements in the text. 
For a possible explanation of tlie fact that Colgan's edition of this life is im- 
perfect at the beginning see above, p. xix, note i. The edition in the A. S. does 
not exhibit this defect. The editors note that CoIgan's edition is 'acephala', 
and state that they obtained their own copy of the life from Hugh Ward. 
Colgan, A. S. p. 710", says that a life of Enda was in the possession of Dr. David 
Routh ^or Rothe), R. C. Bishop of Ossory, and that an otfice for his festival was 
in use in the county of Galway ; but he had not seen either of them. In R' 
§§ 1-16 are divided for reading on a festival of nine lections. Lections are also 
marked in R-, but differently. 

* In F it is underlined throughout. 

' In Laud, 6io f. 40", there is a short Irish version of this story, though it 
differs from our text in making Pupeus go to Aran, as it would seem, only after 
£nda's death : ' Faelchu, qui nominatur Pupu Airni, mac Faelchair, mic Fadalaig ; 
7 ba ri Osraigi Faelchar mac Fadalaig ; 7 is uad Sil Faelchair la hOsraighib. 
Ocus is ime atberar do Pupu .i. Papa, o rogab abdaine Roma tareis Grigoir Roma ; 
7 foragaibsium a abdaine, 7 dochuaid a n-diaigh taisi a maigistrech co hAraind 
iarthair Eorpa. Conad hi an tres relig angel Airne, reileig teglaig Pupu mic 
Faclchair mic Fadalaig,' i. e. Faelchu, who is called Pupu of Aran, son of 
Faelchar, son of Fadalach ; and Faelchar was king of Ossory, and from him are 
the Sil Faelchair (seed of F.) in Ossory. And this is why he is called Pupu, 
that is Papa, because he took the abbacy of Rome in succession to Gregory of 
Rome. And he resigned his abbacy, and followed the relics of his master to 
Aran of the West of Europe (i. e. Ireland). So that one of the three angel 
cemeteries of Aran is the cemetery of the household (i. e. monastery) of Pupu, 
son of Faelchar, son of Fadalach. But according to a note in LL. 373, lower 
margin, Pupu's original name was Nem mac hiii Bim, and he was also called 
Cailbe ; so Fel." p. 150, where he is further said to have been a brother of 
Ciaran of Saigir. (In the life of Maignenn, Silva Gad. i. 40, he is called m6r- 
Phopa papa. i. e. Great Popa the Pope !) The Northmen called the Irish 
anchorites whom they found in the Islands ' popes ' (see the Cleasby-Vigfusson 
Dict. s. V. papi), and it is possible that the whole story may be the invention of 
some one who only knew the vvord Pope as tlie title of the head of the Roman 
Church. There is a reference to Enda in LL. 349" : ' Domma Droma Ddthe . . . 
ise congab Disert n-Ennae iar techt do Enna dar muir' ; ' Domma of Druim 
Dothe . . . it is he who occupied Disert Enda after Enda had gone across the 
sea.' This need not imply more than Ihe visit of Enda to Rosnat or Whitern, 
which is common to both the original and the interpolated parts of the text, 
though in the former the abbot of Rosnat is called Maucennus and in the latter 
Wonend i_i. e. My Nennius). This again indicates the diBerence of the sources 
used, but thc person meant is the same ; cf. Cod. Sal. c. 915 : ' uir sapiens 
Nennyo qui Maucennus dicitur.' (On the attempt to identify Nynias of Whitem 
with an Irish Moinenn or Monend see Bede, ii. 128.) The statement of the life 
that Enda visited Rorae and brought back foreign disciples, §§ 7, 8, 28, derives 
some confirmation from an early sepulchral inscription found in Aranmore : 


of § 26', though the compiler disguises this by attaching the incident 
to a supposed later visit of Ciaran to Aran. In considering the chrono- 
logical framework of the lifewe may neglect these later insertions. 

It is curious that though Enda was such a popular saint, the 
chroniclers give us no dates in connexion with him. The evidence of 
the life points to the latter part of the fifth and the earlier part of 
the sixth century as his period. The grant of Aran is said to have 
been made by Aengus mac Nadfraich, King of Munster, who was 
killed in 490 or 491 -. Ciaran of Clonmacnois, + 549, is his pupil, while 
Darerca or Moninna, the abbess of Killevy, + 517 or 519, is a friend of 
his sister. So far all is consistent. He is, however, made a son 
of Conall Derc (or the Red), chief of Oriel, who died in 609. Zimmer 
has with great acuteness pointed out ' the origin of this mistake, 
which is common to all the later authorities on Enda. It is due to 
an ignorant attempt to identify Saint Enda with Enda, son of Conall 
Derc, one of the three Ui Corra in the tale ' Imram Curaig hua 
Corra'<. The oldest authority, the Martyrology of Tallaght, gives 
Enda's father as Ainmire, son of Ronan of the Cremthanns (a district 
in Meath), whom the later authorities make his maternal grand- 
father ''■. 

By his false pedigree, therefore, Enda belongs to Oriel, but by his 
true pedigree to Meath. His work, however, is almost exclusively 
associated with the Aran Islands. 

There does not seem to be any special mythological significance 
in the life as we have it. 

Vita Sancti Fechini Abbatis de Fauoria''. This life is here 

'vii Romani,' Petrie, Round Towers, p. 139 ; Christian Inscriptions. ii. ai. On 
the topographical data of the hfe of Enda there are some intercsting notes in 
0'Flaherty's lar-Connaught, ed. Hardiman, pp. 79 fi". ; Colgan, A. S. pp. 714-15. 

' Yet another version, Ci. C. § 21. 

2 There is a different version of this incident, Ail. § 25, the motive of which 
may have been to assert tlie ccclesiastical jurisdiction of Munster over the Aran 
Isles, as the grant by Acngus asserted the socular jurisdiction of Munstcr. 
Later thcy werc subjcct civilly to Connaught, and ecclesiastically to Tuam. 

' Keltischc Beitr. ii. 206 ft'. There is a Conallus Rubeus (Conall Derg"» in 
tl-e lifc of Molaissc of Devenish, 5 14. Whether this is intendcd to be the chief 
of Oriel who died in 609 I cannot saj'. As Molaisse died at the latest in 571 
the identification, though not impossiblc, is unlikely ; see p. Ixxiv, note 6. 

* Printed by Stokes, R. C. xiv. 22 ff. 

' LL. 372'' 25 (on which Mart. Don. scems to bc basedl makcs Ainmire chief 
of the Ards, co. Down ; while Fcl,- p. 100, and a pcdigree insertcd in F, make 
liim chief of Fcrrard, co. Louth. LL. and M. D. call Enda's mothcr Acbfind, 
while the pedigrce in F (likc the life^ calls her Brig. F howcver makcs Conall, 
Enda's alleged father, bclong to thc Cremthanns. Colgan, p. 711", would correct 
thc Mart. Tall., and read : 'Ennae . . . m ac) [Brige ingine)] Ainmire,' &c. 
The Martyrology of Gorman calls Enda's father Conall of Cloghcr. 

» Thcrc are pedigrees of Fcchin in LL. 352", LBr. 21", BB. 223'^, Fel.' p. 48, 
Rawl. B. 503 f. 51", Laud. 610 (T. 38'', 39'', 39', 41'' ; in the last citcd passagc he is 


printcd from R' f. iii'', collatcd with R^ f. 178', and compared vvith 
F p. 220. This life was printed by Colgan in his Acta Sanctorum, 
pp. 130 ff. ; and by the Bollandists, A. S. Jan. ii. 329 ff. Reference to 
the critical notes will show that Colgan certainly took his text from 
F, though he has numerous independent mistakes of his own. Many 
of these are corrected in thc Bollandist text (Bi, for which two MSS. 
were used ; one derived from Hugh Ward, the other from Henry 
Fitzsimon. The former was either F or a copy of it ; the latter, 
which has disappeared, had marked peculiarities of its own, e. g. the 
omission of §§ 7-9, and the unexpurgated recension of the story in 
§ 13'. I know of no other Latin life of Fechin. 

The life is clearly an abbreviation of a longer work, and seems to 
announce itself as such in § i. It is also no less clearly incomplete' 
(there is no account given of Fechin's death), though a false appear- 
ance of completeness is given bj' appending to the last prose section 
(21) a short poem on his miracles and two hj-mns'. It is to be noticed 
that neithcr the poem nor the hymns are based on the R text which 
they supplement. 

The poem alludes to a story of the release of a captive which is not 
in R, though parallels to it are found in both the Irish lives, §§ 24, 
41-2 ; while the second hymn contains a similar incident taken from 
the first Irish life, § 21, but not in R. Both the poem and the second 
hymn have the miracle of the raising of the Queen of Leinster, 
while the hymn has another incident, the healing of a blind man, 
neither of which is to be found in R. or in either of the Irish lives, 
though thej' occur in the conflate life which Colgan compiled from 
three different Irish sources and translated into Latin * (§§ 45, 30). 

These three lives are described by Colgan as follows : ' unam 
fusam ex Codice Imaciensi [i. e. of the monastery of Omey in the 

called by the hypocoristic name Moecca [Mo-fhecca], cf. Mochoem. 5 29 ; Fel.'^ 
u. s. These, like the hfe, make him son of Caelcharna ; but the metrical Naem- 
senchus, BB. 231" ad calcem, calls him ' mac Cillin '. His day in the Calendar is 
Jan. 20. The Mart. Don. at that date cite.=; II. 21-4 of Cuimin ofConnor^a poem, 
and also alludes to the Naemsenchus u. s., and to the LL. table of parallel saints 
in which Fechin is equated vvith Anthony the monk ^1. e. the Egyptian ' founder of 
Asceticism '). For some interesting notices of places connected with St. Fechin 
see 0'FIaherty's lar Connaught, pp. 106, 112-15, 120-1, 279 f, ; Petrie. Round 
Towers. pp. 4246". His 'bed' is mentioncd in a poem cited by 0'Curry, 
Jlanners, ii. 119 f. Fintan Maeldub. (' cf Cain. § 45) is said to have been his 
disciple, Fel.' p. 224. He appears as Vigean in Scolland, Forbes, Calendars, 
pp. 456-8. 

' See notes ad loc. 

' Colgan rightly calls it : ' breuis et mutila actorum eius epitome,' A. S. 
p. 140''. 

'' The statement, ii. 84 note, that the BoUandists do not give the two hymns, 
is true as regards their text of the life : they give them, however, in their 
introductorj- remarks, a fact which I ought to have noted. 

* A. s. pp. 133 fr. 


island of that name' (Ir. Imaid Feichin) in thc extrcme west of 
Galway, oft' Achris Point], quam eiiis compilator . . . indicat . . . 
desumptam esse ex alia latina ; . . . aliam habemus stylo plane uetusto 
et magnae fidei, sed principio et fine carentem ; tertiam uero uetusto 
et cleganti metro Ixxiv distichis constante' (pp. 139, 140). 

In Rev. Celt. xii. 318 ff. the late Mr. Whitley Stoiies printed an Irish 
hfe of Fechin from the unique copy in MS. Phillipps, 9194 ff. i ff. 
This life is really made up of two lives'^, the first cOmprising §§ 1-28, 
the second §§ 29-49. The tvvo parts are clearly separated by a scribal 
note stating that the preceding life was translated from the Latin by 
Nicolas the younger, son of the abbot of Cong, and that it was tran- 
scribed by 0'Duffy in the year 1329'. The second life is imperfect 
at the end, and has no real beginning. though a homiletic addrcss is 
prefixed to conceal the defect. Both iives contain poems which Mr. 
Stolces has omitted *. 

I am inclined to see in these two lives the two first of Colgaas 
enumeration. The double coincidence that the first is expressly 
stated to be translated from Latin ^, and that the second should be 
imperfect both at beginning and end, is too striking to be accidental. 
Both lives contain a good deal that is not in R. And they have not 
very much in common. The foundation of Fore (§9= §§32-3) and 
the niission to Omey (§ i7 = § 35) are almost the only points at which 
they overlap. But the incomplete character of the second life nialces 
it impossible to argue safely as to their mutual relations. 

But after we have deducted from Colgan's conflate life all to which 
parallels can be found either in R or in the two Irish iives, there still 
remain several sections (8, 14-21, 24, 29-30, 38-42, 45-7) which have 
nothing corresponding to theni in our existing litcraturc, and must 
therefore be supposed to have come from Colgan's third source, the 

' 'ex qua (insula) accepimus codicem Hibernicum uitae S. Fechini,' A.S. 
p. 141". 

' Called above the first and second Irish lives respectively. 

' Cong, north of Loiigh Corrib, called Conga Feieliin in Irish, was founded 
by St. Feciiin. Who Niciiolas the younger, son of tlic abbot, was. I do not 
know. An 0'DufTy (Diibthach ui Dubthaigh) died as abbot i.f Cong in 1223, F. M. 
Other entries connecting the same family witli Cong will be lound at 1150 
and 1168. 

* Tliis is to be regretted. Tiresonie as these poems are, they sometimes 
contain phrases which throw liKht on the corresponding passages of prose. 
See some of the phrases cited p. c.\l, note 4 ; tlK)Ugh thc scribe of the life 
of Molaisse of Devenish, printcd in Silva Gad. i. 17 H'., omits one poem on 
grounds similar to those urgcd by Mr. Stokes : ' we omit the rest of the poem, 
bccause there is nothing in it but what has been already given ; and it is 
better as it stands (^i. e. in prose) than in such bad poctry.' For the original 
Irish sec ib. 32 note. 

' Tliis lost Latin original may have bcen thc same life as that from which 
Ihe R text was abbreviated. 


metrical life. Of this, so far, I have discovered no trace, unless 
fragmcnts of it are containcd in the omitted poems of the Irish lives '. 

Both in R (§ 12) and in thc second Irish life (§ 29) the authority of 
Aileran or Aireran the Wise, who died, like St. Fechin himself, in the 
grcat plague of thc latter part of the seventh century, is citcd as an 
authority for the hfe of Fechin -. I know no other evidence that 
Aileran wrote any such Hfe, and certainly no trace of it exists. In its 
present shape R is vexy late, for it contains miracles vvhich are said 
to have occurred after the coming of the English (§§ 18, 19). 

The historical franievvork in R is sHght. Fechin's ovvn death of 
the plague in 665 or 668 seems vvell established ; though none of the 
lives, as we have them, give the extraordinary story found in the life 
of St. Gerald (§ 12), how that plague was brought about by his prayers'. 
He is made contemporarj' vvith Diarmait, son of Aed Slaine, joint 
King of Ireland, vvho died in the same plague, and vvith Guaire Aidne, 
the hospitable King of Connaught, vvho died in 663 or 666 ; vvith 
Caeman Brec, abbot of Russagh, ^615; vvhile Columba, ^597, fore- 
told his birth thirty years before. In the Irish lives more persons 
are mentioned, but I am not concerned vvith their accuracy now. 

The mj^thological affinities of Fechin are clear. He has undoubt- 
edly taken on some of the characteristics of a solar hero (§ i, mother's 
name Lasair, i. e. flame ; §§ 4, 7, 13, 17, 20 ; cf Ir. §§ 5, 15, 21, 41 (?), 
46). There is nothing in the uaine Fechin, which is a diminutive of 
fiach, a raven *, to account for this accretion, vvhich must be due to 
some other cause. 

Geographically Fechin seems to belong partlj' to Connaught and 
partly to Meath. 

The miracle of piercing the hill between Lough Leane and the 
monastic mill, vvhich is here (§ 4) ascribed to Fechin, is in the Irish 
life of Mochua of Balla attributed to that saint'. 

Vita sancti Finani abbatis de Cenn Etigh". This life is here 

' This is quite possible. \Ve have seen in the case of Coemgen (above, 
p. Ivi) that an earlier prose life may be interpolated from a metrical life which 
is merely an epitome of itself. 

' The Irish life calls Aileran's work a compendium. In Colgan"s conflate 
life, § 47, Adamnan's authority is cited for a rairacle of which it is alleged that 
he was an eye-witness. Adamnan died in 704, forty ycars after Fechin. 

^ Indeed j 29 of Colgan"s conflate life seems rather to contradict it. For 
other instances of Fechin's cruel prayers or curses see Irish Life, ii. §§ 30, 43. 
Colgan omits these, but gives others, §§ 16, 17. 

< See Fel.5 p. 48. 

' L. S. 11. 4679 flf. It is mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis, Opp. v. 134, who 
says that no woman was allowed to enter either the mill or the church of 

' There are pedigrees of Finan in LL. 350" (cf. ib. 353" 35), LBr. iS** 
(cf. ib 21'' , BB. 221" (,cf. ib. 231''). His day in the Calendar is April 7. The 
story of his birth, which in the lives is toned down to a vision, is given in 

e 2 


printed for the first time from M f. 84'' collated with T f. 51''. Two 
other Latin lives of Finan exist ; one in S f. 103'' (C. S. cc. 305 ff.) ; 
the other in R' f. 142'', R= f 205'', and F p. 257. The Bollandists had 
the S text before them, but judged it too doubtful to be pubHshed, 
'donec plus lucis effulgeat'.' Colgan prints §24 of the M text in his 
account of St. Mochellog at March 26 (A.S. p. 749), and promised to 
give the whole hfe at April 7. So he would probablj' have printed 
the M text -, though he had also the R recension in F. 

The three recensions S, R, and M all go back to some common 
original. S is certainly the nearest to that common original, vvliich R 
and M have independently edited and abbreviated, R being niuch 
the nearer to S of the two. R omits many interesting details which 
S has preserved, especially names of places, &c., and leaves out 
wholly §§ 6, 16, 19, 33 of S. On the other hand R ' farces' the text, 
more suo, with much ecclesiastical padding, biblical parallels, and 
such like. The omissions of M are more numerous, §§3, 12, 15, 17, 
19, 22, 25, 31 of the S text being all excised, while for § 35 a diflerent 
incident is substituted. The greater originality of S may be seen by 
comparing S §§16,21,35 with M §§13, 16, 26 respectively '. The 
comparison afibrds an interesting study of the way in which primitive 
ideas or customs which gave offence, or were not understood in later 
times, were graduallj' obliterated in successive editions of thcse lives. 

Two Irish lives of Finan of Cenn Etigh (Kinnity) are known to me. 
The first (Ir.') is found in R. I. A. Stovve MS. ix. 53^., and in Brussels 
2324-40 f. 135 (an 0'Clery MS.), both of which are copied from the 
same original. This life is clearly a translation from the M text. 
Not only docs it contain exactly the same matter in the same order, 
not only does it retain at least in one placc Latin words * taken from 
the text of M, but in more than one case the text of Ir.' can only be 
explained as a mistranslation of M °. 

a much cruder and more primitive form in Fi\.^ p. 112, where also the origin of 
his nickname of 'Camm ', i. e. the crooked-eyed, or squinting, is traced. He is 
said to have been the first to introduce wheat into Ireland, ib. Nine Icctions 
are marked on tlie margin of R^. 

> A. S. Apr. i. 656". 

' We have sccn how, in the case of Aed mac Bricc, Colgan prcferred the 
expurgated and less original text of M, above, p. xxvii, note i. 

' On the first of these incidents, the sending forth of souls in slcep to visit 
distant places, which in M is toned down to a vision. whilc R omits it altogether, 
see below, Part V, p. clxxii infra. Convcrsely in S § ai the ' water of cursing' 
in S is toned down in R, whilc M § i6 omits it altogether; sce notes ad loc. 

* In ^ 7 it has ' do choimcd tabernam panum ' = ' custodiebat . . . tab. panum '. 
M is the only Latin text which has this phrase. 

' A striking instancc of this occurs in M § 17. This rclates how Finan's 
brother came to him in grcat trouble bccause he would forfeit his land, ' nisi 
precium septcm ancillaruni . . . redderet,' i. e. the price of seven fcmale slaves 
(Ir. cumal), a well-known unit of value in Irish law, a 'cumal' being equal to 


The other Irish hfe (Ir.^) has bcen printed by Mr. Stewart 
Macahster in Zeitsch. fiir Celt. Philologie, ii. 550 iW, from a MS. in 
private hands '. It is later than Ir.' ; and is clearly based on a text 
closely akin to R. Of thc eight or nine sections of the S text, which 
are omitted by M, Ir.'' retains all but one, which is omitted by R also. 
On the other hand it omits the same four sections of S which are 
omitted by R, and one additional one (S § 4) ; but, what is most con- 
clusive, it agrees with R in points where R diflers both from S and 
M ; thus in M § 16 ( = S § 21) it has R's toned down version of ' the 
water of cursing"', and in M §17 it gives the distance between 
Kinnity and Corcaguiny'. 

Mythologically Finan seems to have attracted to himself features ot 
the sun and fire divinity (§§ i, 2, 4, 5, 7, 18 f (S §31), 24 (S §35) ; and 
his connexion with Loeh Lugdech iCurrane Lough), Lug being the 
Celtic Sun-God, is possibly significant. 

Geographically Finan seems exclusively a Munster saint. His 
chief monastery is Kinnity on the borders of Munster and Meath. 
But he is also closely associated with his native land of Corcaguiny, of 
which he is the special patron (§ 16). But throughout the south-west 
of Ireland there seems to be considerable confusion between our saint 
and his namesake, Finan Lobar, or the Leper. Thus the connexion 
of our saint with Lough Currane * makes it probable that to him 
belong the church and monastery of St. Finan on Church Island in 
that lake. Yet the festival of St. Finan is kept in that neighbourhood, 
as I was informed, on March 16, which is the day of the Leper saint, 
our saint's commemoration being on April 7. So the monastery of 
St. Finan on Inishfallen, Killarney, is popularly assigned to the Leper, 
but may belong to his namesake. On the other hand, of course, the 
acts of two St. Finans may have got combined in the lives. 

The chronological data are slight. The annals give no year for 
Finan's death. Not many persons are mentioned in the lives, and of 
them almost the only tvvo that can be dated are his much older con- 
temporary, Brendan of Clonfert, who prophesied his future greatness 

three cows. The translator misunderstands this phrase as meaning ' the wages 
due to work people', and recasts the whole incident in accordance with this 
idea. The mistake could not have originated in the text of S or R, which have 
simply ' vii ancillas ' for • precium vii anc' 

' It is found also in Brit. Mus. Egerton iia f. 510; R. I. A. Hodges and 
Smith. Nos. 12 and 150 ; King's Inns Library, Dublin, MS. 19 ; all late MSS. 

2 See above, p. Ixviii, note 3. 

' The only point in which Ir.-difTers (except by way of abbreviation"! from R 
is in M § 10, where for Loch Leyn (Killarney) Ir,- has Loch Luidheach 
(Currane). The S text has the latter name lower dovvn in the same section, 
where R omits it. Ir." may be taken from a MS. intermediate between S and 
R, but much nearer the latter. 

' In Ir.- he is called Finan of Loch Laoi ( = L. Lugdech) ; in Mart. Don. he is 
called 'of Kinuity and Slieve Bloom', Apr. 7. 


('^'577 o"" 5S3) ; 3""^ Falbe Fland, King of Munster, who died 637. If 
these indications may be trusted, he would secin to have flourished 
in the latter part of the sixth and earlier part of the seventh centuries. 
He is referred to in the Hfe of Brendan, i. § 5, a reference which bears 
out his solar character. 

Vita Fintani abbatis de Cluain Ednech*. This life is taken from 
M f 74". It probably existed in T, but has been lost owing to the 
mutilation of that MS. There are two other lives of Fintan, S f 99° 
(C. S. co!s. 289 ff.), and R' f. 148", R= f. 194% F p. 285. M and S 
cover much the same ground, S being perhaps rather nearer to the 
common source. M has, however, points of interest pecuhar to itself. 
R is nearer to S than to M, and follovvs S rather closely, though it 
omits and abbreviates according to its wont. The M text was printed 
by Colgan, A. S. pp. 349 fi". He promised to give the R text at Nov. 
15''. The text in A. S. Feb. iii. 17 ff. is taken from Colgan, and 
repeats his most obvious blunders. The editor has, moreover, intcr- 
polated passages from S. The result is a conflate text which is 
critically worthless. I know of no Irish life of Fintan. 

Fintan died in 603''. The saints with whom he is brought into 

' There are pedigrees of Fintan in LL. 347", BB. 231", Rawl. B. 502 f. 51"', 
Laud 6io f. 38.'^, Fel.^ p. 74. The pedigrees make liim son of Gabren, while 
the hves call his father Crimthann ; see ii. 96 note. His sister, Dicnait, 
is mentioned LL. 350, lovver margin. He is brought into relation with 
his namesake, Fintan or Munnu of Taghmon, in Fdl.^ p. 226. His day in 
the Calendar is Feb. 17. The Mart. Don. at that date cites thc LL. parallel 
table of saints in which he is equated with St, Benedict, and also a vcrse from 
the notes to the Fehre at the same date. The stone on which he was baptized, 
if turned thrice, ensured a safe return, Fel.' p, 76 ! sec, however, p. clvii, note 6; ; 
cf. Fel.' p. lii, where it is stated that in old books he was called Uindunus. He 
has a dedication in Scotland, Forbes, Calcndars, p. 349. There is a vcry 
interesting reference to him in the often-quoted Litanj- in LL. 373"^ 39 : ' Monaig 
Fintain meic hiia Echach, ni chathitis acht lossa in talman 7 usci ; ni thalla an 
arim fria lin; viii Fintain dib,' i. e. Thc monUs of Fintan, great grandson of 
Eochaid, who ate nothing but herbs of the earth with water ; there is not room 
to enumerate them by reason of their number. There were eight Fintans among 
them. This agrees wilh the statements of our lives as to the extreme rigour of 
Fintan's monastic rule, §§ 4, 5, 19, aa ; cf. especially § 7 : ' cocus nichil habebat 
parare fratribus, nisi olera agrestia, sicnl firqiieitlcr.' 

2 * Eius praecipuum festum, quod est forte translationis, celebratur Nov. 15,* 
p. 355'' ; ' quo aliud eius celebratur festum,' p. 353''. I have not, however, found 
him at that date in any calendar, except the draft calcndar drawn up probably, 
as we have seen, p, x, note 3 supra, with a ^-iew to Colgan's later volumes, 
which never saw the light. 

' 'Quies Finntain filii nepotis Eehdach,' Ann. Ult. 602 (- 603); ' Quies 
Finntain Cliiana h-Eidhneach, filii nepotis Eachach,' Tig, in R. C. xvii. 164. 
Fintan is said in the S Ufe, §§ i, 3, to be ' genere Maccu Edagh ', ' maccu 
Echtach ', and Eochaid is his great grandfathcr in the pedigrccs. He is also 
called Maccu Echdach in the Litany cited above, and in the life of Columba of 
Tir da Glass, C. S. cc. 451-3, which contains an account of his settlement at 
Clonenagh parallel to §5 3, 4 of our lifc. Colgan prints this account, pp. 356-7, 
but his text does not agree cxactly cithcr with S or R. 


contact are Columba, t 597 ; Cainnech, t 599 or 600 ; Colman Ela, 1 61 1 
(if Colgan and Reeves are riglit in identilying the Columbanus of § 21 
vvith him). His master, Columba of Tir da Glass, died in 549, while his 
successor, Fintan Maeldub ', dled 626 according to the F. M. The 
secular princes mentioned in the life do not seem to furnish any 
chronological tests '^. 

Tlie sphere of Fintan's influcnce seems to be exclusively Leinster. 

There appear to be touches of the solar hero about Fintan (§§ 6, 16, 
21, and perhaps also § 17). 

Vita Sancti Geraldi abbatis de Magh Eo'. This life is here 
printed froni R' f. 108'', collated vvith R- f. 203'', and compared vvith F. 
p. 251. This hfe was printed by Colgan, A. S. pp. 599 fif. The critical 
notes give abundant proofs that CoIgan's text rests on F, though he 
iias many mistakes of his own. The Bollandists print §§ 7, 9-16, 
Mar. ii. 290-2; but their text (B) is a mere reprint of Colgan, with 
whom they agree even when he differs from F. I know no other 
Latin life of St. Gerald, and no Irish life. 

The life is extremely fabulous*. Gerald is made the son of a non- 
existent king of England, Cusperius, and his v\'ife Benicia^. He 
becomes a pupil of St. Colman, and afterwards abbot of Winchester. 
The Colman intended is Colman vvho was sent from lona to succeed 
Finan as bishop of Lindisfarne on the death of the latter in 661, and 
who retired to lona and aftervvards to Ireland on the defeat of the 
Celtic party at the Synod of Whitby in 664. Yet according to the 
life he succeeded Columba as abbot of lona, and was expeiled by a 

* Fintan of Clonenagh and Fintan Maeldub occur together, LL. z^-j'^ ad calcem ; 
also Fel.^ p. 224, il' this be the same Fintan Maeldub, as Colgan thinks. I have 
already pointed out (p. hx) the improbabihty that Comgall of Bangor, vvho 
died a year before Fintan at the age of eighty or ninety, could Iiave been his 
pupil, as Comgairs hte asserts, unless, vvith Fel.^ p. 76, vve give Fintan himself 
a most abnormal longevity. 

2 Unless Colgan be right in thinking that the Colum son of Cormac of § 1 7 is 
Ihe Colraan son of Cairbre son of Cormac, styled King of Leinster, who died 
in 576 according to F. M., which suits very well. 

' I have lound 110 pedigree of Gerald in the Irish sources, and if he was an 
Englishman, ihis is not surprising. In the life he is said to have died on 
March 13, and this is his day in Mart. Don. and Mart. 0'Gorman. The Mart. 
Tall., however, at March 12 has 'Garalt Maigi Eo cum sociis'; while the 
calendar of his own church, Mayo, ' nisi error transcriptoris irrepserit in 
numeris,' piaced his festival at Mar. 10, Colgan, A. S. p. 604**. He and his 
'socii' are invoked in the Litany LL. 373'"; ' ccc ar trib milib im Garald 
n-cpscop, 7 im 1 noeb Luigne Connacht, congabat Mag Eo na Saxan,' i. e. the 
3300 vvith Gerald the bishop and fifty saints of Leyny of Connaught, who 
occupy Mayo of the Saxons. A chronologically impossible legend about Gerald 
is in Hy Fiachrach, pp. 138 flf. For his brother Berikertus cf. Fel.- pp. 256-8, 
and Pctrie-Stokes, Christian Inscriptions, ii. 52-3. Another brother, Balanus, 
is identified by Colgan with Bollain of Tech Saxan, Mart. Don. p. 362 (Sept. 3;. 

* ' plures, eosque grauissimos, errores quam paragraphos continet,' BoU, 

* This may be a reflexion of the name of the kingdom of Bernicia. 


conspiracy from theabbacy', though it was under Cuimine Ailbhe, 
the seventh abbot of lona, that Cohnan actually camc to England. 
He is made archbishop ofall England, but is expelled by the prelates 
and clergy, who conspire against him as a forcigner. He goes to 
Ircland, and is followed by Gerald and his brothers. GeraId'smother 
had died, and his father had contracted an ilHcit union with another 
woman - ; and this was one reason why Gerald desired to leave 
England. But the Irish chronology is as confused as the English 
history. Gerald's connexion with Mayo ' makes it possible that he 
was an English follower of Colman. Colman's first monastery in 
Ireland, Inishboffin, vvas not, however, founded till 668. Yet Gerald 
is represented as already abbot of Mayo when he attendcd a meeting 
at Tara which preceded the outbreak of the plague in which thc two 
kings, Blathmac and Diarmait, St. Fechin of Fore, and others with 
whom Gerald is brought into relation, perished, whose deaths are 
assigned to 665 or 668. He is also brought into relations with Ra- 
ghallach of Connaught, who died in 649 or 656. The Aillill and Cathal 
mentioned in §§4-6 are probably the son and grandson of Donnchadh 
Muirsce of the Hy-Fiachrach line, who died in 681, while Donnchadh, 
son of Cathal, died in 768*. This would be about right. Gerald's 
own death is placed in 732 ; so that if he really followed Colman from 
Britain after the events 0^664, he must have lived to a very great age. 
This, however, is not impossible ; but it is impossible that Adamnan, 
who died in 704, should have ruled the abbey of Mayo for seven 
years after the death of Gerald. 

The life has no special mythological significance, but there arc 
some curious and interesting things in it, especially as to the relations 
between thc Druids and the Christian teachers. 

The extraordinary story of Fechin's death is discreetly omitted by 
the biographers of that saint. It is found, howevcr, in the Libcr 

Vita Sancte Ite Virginis". This life is from M f 109°. It pro- 

' This may be an echo of the troubles of Adamnan at lona over the Easter 
question, and his sojourn in Ireland, 697-704, possibly in consequence of those 
troubles, Bede, H. IC. v. 15, 21 and notes ; Keevcs, Adamn. pp. liii f. 

- This sounds like a reminiscence of the incestuous marriage of Eadbald of 
Kent, Bede, H. E. ii. 5. 

' Magh Eo na Saxan, i. e. Mayo of tlie Saxons. 

* See the genealogical table in 0'Donovan's Hy Fiachrach. 

' L. H.^ i. 25 ; Fechin's dcath in thc plaguc is mentioned in the Irish life of 
Molaissc, Silva Gad. i. 20-1. So in tiie Cypria, Zeus consults Themis as to 
sending a war to diminish thc superduous population, Monros Odysscy, p. 347. 

' There are pedigrees of Ita in LL. 348'', Laud 610 If. 40', 41", Fel." p. 44 ; 
cf. BB. 231''. Her d.iy in the Calcndars is Jan. 15. According to the Bollandists 
some authorities, which I liave not identilied, give hcr day as Jan. 14, othcrs as 
Jan. 35. The Mart. Don. at Jan. 15 cites lincs 41-4 of Cuimin's poem, which 
lay stress on her rfile as foster-mother of the saints of Ircland. It also gives 


bablj' existed also in T, but is lost owing to thc mutilation of that MS. 
There is another Latin life of Ita in R- f. 169'', F p. 212. In R' it has 
been lost owing to the mutilation of that MS. at the end, but the 
table of contents shovvs that R' once contained this life. The M 
version was printed by Colgan, A. S. pp. 66 ff., who seems to have 
taken more than his usual liberties with the text. It was also printed 
by the Bollandists, Jan. i. 1062 ft"., who have corrected some ot 
CoIgan's mistakes. They also give readlngs from a copy of the 
R text supplied by Hugh Ward. 

M and R cover much the same ground, though R is shorter' and 
certainiy less original. M itself maj' be an abbreviation of a longer 
life (cf. § I : ' breuiter enarrare cupimus,' ' alia . . . propter breuita- 
tem omittimus '). It professes to have been written in the second 
generation after St. Ita (§ 28 ' cuius filius adhuc viuit'). In its 
present forni the life cannot be so old ; but it may be based on earlier 
materials. I know no Irish life. Ita, in Irish Ite, or (with the en- 
dearing prefix »10 'my') Mite or Mide'', belonged by birth to the 
Dcisi', but her active life was spent among the Ui Conaill Gabra, 
whose patron-saint she is (§§ 8, 33, 36), and whose name survives 
in the baronies of Conello, co. Limerick. For her death and the 
almost coincident death of Aengus or Oenu of Clonmacnois the 
Ann. Ult. give two alternative dates, 570 and 577. For the death 
of her foster-son Brendan the same authoritj' also gives two dates, 
577 and 583. Her other famous foster-child, St. Mochoemog, did not 
die till 656*. The battle of § 33 was fought in 552, v. s. Ita is also 
made contemporary vvith St. Coluniba, t 597^ The life seems to 
aim chiefly at exalting her powers as a prophetess^ There also 
seem to be solar touches' about her legend (cf §§ 2, 23, 31). 

the storj' of her asceticism which is found separately in the Book of Lecan, 
f. i65 v°, col. 2, and Fel.- p. 44, where occurs the story (told of other saints, 
Moling § 24 ; Mart. Don. p. 254 [ = Z. C. P. v. 495] ; Fel.' p. 102 ; Aur. Leg. 
p. 46}, how Christ used to appear to her as a little child. Her angel, §§ 3, 6, 
10, II, is called Mithiden, Fel.- p. i8a. The war of § 33 and the prayers of 
Ita are recorded in the Annals, Tig. R. C. xvii. 140; Ann. Ult. 551 (= 5521 ; 
F. M. 546; cf. Keating, iii. 56. Ita's mother. Necht, is mentioned, LL. 372'' 38 ; 
her father's namc in the pedigrees is Cennfaelad. These names do not occur 
in the lives. 

' It omits altogether §5 '3, 13, 26, 35. 

- In the siniple form her name appears in the name of her church, Killeedy, 
i. e. Cell Ide ; in the compound form it appears in Rosmead, co. Westraeath, 
i. e. Ros M'ide. Cf. Colgan, A. S. p. 71'' ; F. M. ii. 1147. 

' The life opens with a short account of the migration of the Deisi from Tara, 
of which a long version is given in the life of Declan. 

* She is mentioned frequently in the lives of both, see Index s. v. Ita. 

' Colgan would idenlify the Columbanus of § 24 with Colman Ela (t6ii). 
Certainly the latter was associated with Columba, v. s. p. Ivi, note i. 

' In Mochoem. § 15 she is called ' beatissima prophetissa, sancta Yta'. 

' In the Felire she is called ■ in grian ban ', i. e. the white or fair sun. 


There is a brief life of Ita in Noua Legenda Anglie, ii. 543-4. I do 
not think it is derived either from M or R. It has preser\'ed the 
saint"s original name : ' Derithea, que alio nomine Itta uocatur.' So 
tlie Martyrology of Donegal says: ' Deirdri a ced ainm.' i.e. Deirdre 
was her first name (Jan. 15). Deirdre was the name of the heroine 
of the ' Sorrowful Tale ' of the sons of Usnech. 

Vita Sancti Lasriani seu Molassi Daminse'. This life is here 
printed for the first time ^ from R' f. 94'' collated with R' f 135". It 
exists also in F p. 31 ; but this has not been compared in the present 
case, as no question arises here as to the genesis of any printed 
edition. The life was evidently compiled as a homily to be read on 
the saint's festival, Sept. 12 ( j i) ; and it seems to be an abbrevia- 
tion of a longer life (§ 34). But though abbreviated, it is more 
substantial than some other lives of the R recension. Its chief 
interest is, however, mythological. The saint shows unmistakable 
characteristics of a solar or fire deity (§§ i, 7, 11-13, 17, 21-2, 25, 27, 
29), The accretion of this eiement is probably due to the saint's 
name, Lasren, which means 'flamelet', a diminutive of 'lassar', 
flame. And this element comes out even more strongly in the Irish 
life printed by CGrady^ in Silva Gadelica, i. 17 ff. 

In the historical setting of the life there is little to object to. Lasren 
or Molaisse* himself died in 564 or 571. He is made contemporary 
withCiaran of Clonmacnois and Finnian of Clonard, who both died in 
549; with Becc Mac De, + 553 or.558; Brendan of Clonfert, t 577 
0^583; Columba ", t 597 ; Baithin, t 598 or 6oo^ The only point to 
criticize is the statement that he was a fellow pupil ('collactaneus') of 
Maedoc of Ferns vvho survived till 626 (§ 20). I know of no other 
Latin life of Molaisse of Devenish '. 

' There are pedigrees of Molaisse, LL. 348", LBr. 15'. BB. 218'' (cf. ib. a^a''!, 
Rawl. B. 502 (. 51°, Laud 610 ff. 38''. 40*^, Kel.- p. 206. His daj' iii tlie Calendar 
is Sept. 12. Thc account in .Mart. Don. at that datc is taken from the Irish life, 
Silva Gad. i. 17, 22. It also cites II. 33-6 of Cuimin of Connor's poem. For 
the shrine and bachall of Molaisse cf. Silva Gad. i. 87. 

' Colgan printed § 20 in A. S. p. 222". 

' From Brit. Mus. Add. 18205 ; it exists also in Brussels MS. 4194 f. 96 ; 
and there is a bad paper copy by 0'Rcilly in R. I. A. 23 A 43. The lifc is 
cleaily incomplete. It has appendcd to it a curious account of the wanderings 
of thc Dartraighe, which has no rcal connexion with it. 

* On these hypocoristic names see the Prcfatory Notc to the Index Noniinum. 
' According to other authoritics the Molaisse who decided tliat Columba 

must leave Ireland on account of his share in causing the battle of Cuil Dremnc 
was not our saint, but his namesake of Inismurray, Recvcs, Adaninan, pp. 252, 
287 ; cf. R. C. XX. 254, 434. 

• The Conallus Rubeus of § 74 is possibly intcnded for Conall Derg mac 
Daiminc of Oriel (t6o9\ who has been foisted into the pcdigrecs of St. Enda, 
and that is the view of thc Irish life, and of Fel.- p. ao6 ; but see p. Ixiv.note 3. 

' In L. H.^ ii. 220-1, C. S. c. 791 is rcfcrred to ; but this is a life of Molaisse 
of Lcighlin, as the vory first setitence shows ; it is also implied ^wrongly) that 
R. I. A. 23 A 43 is a diflercnt lifc from that printcd by 0'Grady. 


Vita Sancti Edani siue Moedhog episcopi de Ferna'. This life 
is here printed from M f 51"^ (M). In T this hfe has been lost owing 
to mutilation. This recension was printed by Colgan, A. S. pp. 208 fi'., 
and by the Bollandists, A. S. Jan. ii. iiii fl". CoIgan's text is cer- 
tainly taken from M or a transcript of M (cf. the reading ' biculei " et 
anli ' in § 54) ; and the same may be said of the Bollandist text. The 
latter is, howcvcr, not a mere reprint of Colgan, for many of his errors 
are corrected, tliough one or two new ones are also introduced. 
Another life of Macdoc, nearlj' coincident in matter and arrangenient 
with M, exists in MS. Cotton, Vespasian A. xiv.' f. 96 (V). It is, how- 
ever, an earlier recension*, and out of it the M text was probabiy 
developed". It has been printed in Rees' Lives of the Cambro- 

' There are pedigrees of Maedoc in LL. 347*, LBr. 14^ BB. 217" 1 cf. ib. 231"), 
Rawl. B. 5oa f. 51', Laud 610 R. 38'', 40*", Fel.- p. 54. His mother, Ethne, is 
mentioned LL. 272'' ad calcem. His day in the Calendar is Jan. 31 prid. Cal. 
Feb.\ which is the day of his death. Even V, which wrongly gives • prid. 
Cal. Mart." as the day ot' his death and festival, witnesses to the other date by 
the story in § 56 (= M | 57, which turns on the nearly coincident dates of 
the fcstivals of Maedoc and Brigit. the latter being on Feb. i. But in two 
Welsh Caiendars used by Baring-Gould and Fisher (Brilish Saints, i. 70) 
Maedoc occurs both at Jan. 31 and Feb. 28, and by a duphcation of his name he 
is called Aeddan Foeddog. The account in Mart. Don. Jan. 31 seems to be 
taken from the Brussels Irish life, cc. 3, 4. A curious local legend as to his 
birth and baptism is given by Reeves in Proc. R. L A. viii. 441 ff. He has 
dedications both in Wales, British Saints, u. s. i. 126, and in Scotlaicd, Forbes, 
Calendars, p. 403 ; Reeves, u. s. He is mentioned in tiie Litany in LL. 373*" 60 : 
' in da ailittiir dec dollotar la Moedoc Ferna dar muir,' i. e. the twelve pilgrims 
who went with Maedoc of Ferns across the sea ; perhaps a reference to the 
journey in § ii of our life. On his shrine see Miss Stokes, Early Christian Art, 
pp. 106-7. 

^ V's reading *brensei ' is still more enigmaticaL 

' This is a MS. containing chiefly lives of British saints. The occurrence in 
it of a life of St. Maedoc is accounted tbr by the intimate connexion of Maedoc 
with St. David's, cf §§ 11-13, 17, '9. 20, 32. Similar considerations account 
for the occurrence of lives of St. David in Irish MSS., e. g. R' and R-. This 
connexion is also iilustrated by the curious and obscure story given in Fel.' 
p. xxxix from LBr., and in Fel.' p. 54 from Rawl. B. 512. It occurs separately 
in LL. a^s'. 

* The MS. also is a good deal earlier, being dated by Dr. Warner c. 1200. 
Marks of the earlier character of V are to be Ibund i^a in the preservation of 
various Irish names of places which M has omitted, e. g. Brentrocht, Fothart 
campi Itha § 19, Dail Aradii, Dail Riata § 54, Eclidruim § 29, &c. ; li) older 
forms and expressions, e. g. Daro cella § 56, as against the Kyll dara of M. 
' Saxones ' is used for the Teutonic inhabitants of Britain, according to general 
Celtic usage, §§ 17-18; M has the mucli later 'Anglici'; {c) the conception 
of the manner in which Maedoc checked the advance of the northern army, § 24, 
is much raore primitive in V than in M. The curing of the paralytic by saiivaj 
V § 55, is obliterated in M. The 'clericus quidam ' of V § 57 has become a 
* canonicus ' in M § 58. If we could iix the date when canons were introduced 
at Ferns, we might have a terminus a quo for the date of the M recension. 

° There is interesting textual evidence that the M text was developed from 
a text like V in § 31. There V has : ' [bos] tribus uicibus clamauit . . . et tribus 
mensibus ueris apud illos arauit.' M has altered ' tribus uicibus ' into ' ter ', yet 


British Saints, pp. 232 ff. Tliat edition, however, is so inaccurate', 
and the recension is of such great interest, that I have printed it 
entire in an appendix'. Apart from the instructive relation in which 
it stands to the M text, V has two other points of great interest. 
(i) It is certainly taken from an Irish original. This is shown not 
only by the (very corrupt) Irish verses in § 57, and the scraps of 
Irish in §§ 12, 21, but bj' various Latin words and phrases which can 
only be explained as hteral translations from the Irish ; thus ' aliud ' 
for 'quoddam' (= Ir. araile), § 14; 'amicus anime,' i. e. confessor 
(= Ir. anmchara), § 20; 'complosis manibus,' as a sign of grief 
(= Ir. Mmchomairt), § 43; 'relaicus,' ex-layman (= Ir. athlaech, ex- 
warrior), § 47; 'certamina,' battalions (= Ir. catha), § 54^ (ii) The 
V text is unquestionably the basis of Capgrave's' abbreviated life 
of Maedoc'' (ed. Horstman, i. 18-22). I am incHned to go further 
and say that the compiler of that life actually used our MS. V*. Not 
only has he an incident which is in V and V alone of all the Latin Hves 
(§ 18"), not only has he the same erroneous date as V for Maedoc's 
death (' pridie Kal. Mart.,' instead of ' pridie Kal. Febr.'), but the 
facts that he agrees with V in the incorrect form of the name of 
Maedoc's father ('Sedia' for 'Sedna') § i, that his reading in § 42 is 
probably due to an attempt to correct the defective text of V, and the 
way in which he has tried to deal with the difficulty created in § 20 
by V's misreading of 'mater' for 'mac', prove that he must have 
used either V or a MS. so closely related as to be practically idcntical 
with it'. 

Besides V, M, and Capgrave two other Latin lives of Maedoc are 
known to me ; one in S f. 133" (C. S. cc. 463 fl'.), the other in R' f 154'', 

the superseded reading has influenced his own text, for, by a shp of the pen, he 
has written ' tribus uicibus ' for ' tribus mensibus ' below. On the other hand 
the M text was not actually derived froin our V, as is proved by the fact that in 
I 33 there is an omission in V due to homoioteleuton, which can be supplied 
from M (V. notes ad loc). 

^ The followini; examples are taken from a single page (237) : ed. in ualle, 
MS. in uallem ; ed. quodam, MS. quadam vbis) ; ed. eidem, MS. ei Dcus ; ed. in 
fuga, MS. in fugam ; ed. latvuuderi, MS. latrunculi ; ed. nosccrent, MS. 

^ I should have preferred to print the two texts parallel to one another ; but 
the fact that some of the incidents occur in a ditferent order in the two MSS. 
made this difficult. 

^ All these peculiarities have been smoothed aw.iy in M. 'Ihat the scribe 
of V knew no Irish is abundantly proved i^rt) by the extraordinary corruption of 
the verses in § 57 ; by the facts {/>) that lie has twice misread the Irish con- 
traction for tfiac a son, as tuatcr, §§ 10, 20 ; and \^c) has wrongly divided the 
place-name ' Inber Crinithain ' as Mn Bercrimthain '. 

* As to the use of this narae for the Noua Legenda Angliae see above, p. xxxix, 
note 2. 

° Owing to the close relation betwcen V and Capgrave, I have placcd the 
referenccs to Capg. under the V text, not under M. 

' So Horstman, i. 18. ' See notes ad loc. 


R' f. 180'', and F p. 264. R' is iniperfect owing to the loss of two 
folia in the middle. S is an abridged recension, made from a text 
nearly akin to M. It omits M §§ 6, 14, 25, 30, and epitomizes §§ 11-13. 
R follows S very closely, but abridges still further, and omits in 
addition M § 55'. On the other hand there is none of the eccle- 
siastical padding which is so common in other parts of R. 

Of Irish lives of Maedoc two are known to me, a shorter and 
a longer one. The shorter life is contained in R. I. A. Stowe MS. 
ix. pp. 132 ff. (cited occasionally as Ir.). This is clearly an abbreviated 
translation of a Latin text ; but I cannot identify the original with 
any of the Latin lives mentioned above. The MS. is of the seven- 
teenth century. 

The longer life seems to be mainly a translation of the M text, 
but has long interpolations, many of them poems, relating especially 
to the ecclesiastical dues payable to Ferns^, genealogical and other 
matter. In one or two places it is cited as In' Of this the oldest 
copy is at Brussels among the 0'CIery MSS. 2324-2340, f. 168 (a.d. 
1629), and there are eighteenth-century copies in T. C. D. and R. I. A.' 
This is no doubt the Irish life cited by Colgan in the notes to his 
edition of M. He ascribes it (p. 215'') to Gillamochuda 0'Cassidy, 
and the poems in it are ascribed to that writer in the MSS. 

The mythological interest of the life is considerable. Maedoc 
seems to have gathered to himself many of the attributes of a fire 
or solar deity or hero (cf. §§ i, 3, 12, 38 (V), 39, 45)*. This is not 
surprising, for his name in its simplest form, Aed, is one of the Irish 
words for ' fire '. With this is joined, as in other cases, the character 
of a protector of animals (§§ 5, 7, 12, 22, 25, 30, 31). But besides this 
we seem to find in him clear traces of the water-god, which is less 
easy to account for (§§ 10, 12, 20, 21, 31, 32, 47). It may be due 
to the prevalence of the worship of that deity in South Leinster, of 
which we have already found evidence in the lives of Abban and 

' Possibly on account of an historical inaccuracy which it contains. Ciimascach, 
son of Aed mac Ainmirech, is represented as falMng in an attempt to avenge the 
death of his father, whereas it was the father who died in attempting to avenge 
tlie son, Ann. Ult. 596, 597. 

2 In this respect the life presents a strong analogy to the life of St. Caillin in 
the Book uf Fenagh, ed. Hennessy. 

' T. C. D. 1297, H.ii.6, and 1406, H. vi.3; and R. I.A. 23041 and Reeves, 32. 

* Note also his association with Molaisse of Devenish, another solar saint. 
55 8, 9. Moling, who has the same character, is said to have been his pupil, 
Fel.2 p. 152, and to have held his see, Maed. § 58 ; Moling, § 8. In a poem in 
which Finn is said to have foretold Maedoc's birth, he is called not only ' son 
of the star', cf § i, but ' maisse greine tar cithu, . . . in lassar borb bratha', 
i. e. sheen of the sun athwart showers, the raging flame of doom, Acc. Sen. 
p. 74. 


The chronological setting of the life is on the whole consistent. 
Maedoc himself died in 626. The other saints with whom he is 
brought into relations are Molaisse of Devenish, t 564 or 571 ; Ita, 
+ 570 or 577 ; Columba, 1 397 ; David, 1 601 (traditional date) ; Molua 
of Clonfertmulloe, + 609; Munnu' of Taghmon, +635. Ofthesecular 
princes who come into the story Ainmire died in 569 or $16', Aed, 
son of Ainmire, in 598, Brandub of Leinster' in 605. In the case of 
Guaire Aidhne, the free-handed King of Connaught, there is a diffi- 
culty *. Maedoc's visit to him is said to have been thirty years before 
the king's death, § 37. But Guaire did not die till 663 or 666; and 
taking even the earlier of these two dates the visit would fall after 
Maedoc's death. The Damairghid or Bos Argenti mentioned in 
§ 10 cannot be the man whosedeath is recorded Ann. Ult. 513 (= 514). 
But Damairghid is a mere nickname, which may have been borne 
by more than one person. 

By origin Maedoc is a Connaught saint, but the chief sphere of 
his activity is in Southern Leinster. 

Vita Sancti Mochoemog abbatis de Liath Mochoemog\ This 
life is from M f 80^ collated with T f. 49", in which, however, the first 
fifteen sections are lost by mutilation. It has been printed by 
Fleming, CoUectanea Sacra, pp. 380 ff., by Colgan, A. S. pp. 589 if., 
and by the Bollandists, March ii. 280 ff. The Bollandists say that 
their text was taken from Codex Kilkenniensis (i. e. M), furnished by 
Hugh Ward, and compared with Colgan. Fleming is much nearer 
to the MS. than Colgan, while the Bollandists generally follow the 

' In Coniiac's Glossary, p. 29 (Transl. p. iio), a quatrain on Munnu is ascribed 
to Mafdoc; in F6\.' p. 226, to Columba. 

2 There is therefore no impossibility. as Baring-Gould and Fisher allege, in 
the statemcnt of the life, § 4, that Maedoc, as a ' paruulus ', was a hostage at 
the court of this king. 

' The story of Maedoc freeing the soul of Brandub is alluded to in the Rulc 
printed in Reeves' Culdees, p. ga ( = LBr. 11"). This story occurs in our life, 
6 26, in tlie form of a vision ; in 5 43. and in §5 39, 40 of the -S lifc of Colman 
Ela iC. S. cc. 437-8) as a resuscitation from Ihe dead ; while in the Book of 
Lecan, f. 183'', it is represented as a condict with demons icf. Reeves, Adamn. 
p. 205; Cain. §§ 10, 22; Coem. § 44; Ruad. § 29). Thc refcrence in thc 
Culdcc Rule is nearest to C. S. cc. 437 8. 

* In Ihe Chron. Scot. there is a double entry of the death of Maedoc of Ferns, 
at 625 and 656. The origin of this error is in Tigernach, R. C. xvii. 178, 196. 
On this vcry slcnder basis Baring-Gould aud Fishcr build a vcry elaborate 
theory of two bisho]>s of Fcrns, both called Maedoc, holding thc sce at an 
interval of thirty years, whosc acts have bcen combincd. 

^ Tiierc are pedigrces of Mochoemog in Rawl. B. 502 f. 52A Laud 610 ff. 9", 
38", Fcl." p. 96; cf. BB. 232'. His day in thc Calendar is March 13, where 
Mart. Don cites a verse on his supposed lengtli of lifc which occurs on the 
margins of LL. 353 ad calcem. 357", whcrc, howevcr, the rcading in both cases 
is 414 years, not 413 as in Mart. Don. Hc has dedications in Scotland, where 
hc has been changcd into a fcmalc saint, Kcvoca,and a lcgend has bct.n invcnted 
to malch, Reeves, Culdees, p. 34 ; Forbes, Calendars, pp. 374-7. 


latter. There are, however, places in which all three editors agree 
against M ; and the explanation probably is that they all worked 
from the same transcript of M which had already departed somewhat 
from the original, much as F has departed from R-. Fleming- 
copied this transcript exactiy, while Colgan, followed by the Bol- 
landists, introduced further changes into the text. Colgan latinizes 
the sainfs name into Pulcherius. I know of no other Latin life of 
Mochoemog ; but in the Brussels MS. 2324 x 2340 ff. 289 flf., is an Irish 
life, which is unquestionably a translation of the M T text ; and of 
the two, it is nearer to T than to M '. Its readings are quoted as Ir. 
They are sometimes intercsting and important. 

Though by origin a Connaught man, Mochoemog spent his life 
almost wholly in Munster, and especially in Eile. As to the chrono- 
logical framework of the life, Mochoemog himself died in 656. The 
Irish authorities (v. s.) give him the fabulous age of 413 or 414 years. 
But he must have lived to a great age if he was fostered by St. Ita, 
who died in 570 or 577 ; indeed, if he was vvith her twenty years, 
as § 8 alleges, he cannot have been less than 100 years old, and in 
any case must have been about ninety'. If he died about 656 at 
an advanced age, the persons mentioned in the life whose dates are 
known could all have been his contemporaries ; Cainnech, + 599 or 
600; Colman, son of Feradhach, Chief of Ossory, t6oi F. M. ; Com- 
gall, t6o2; Molua of ClonfertmuIIoe, ^609; Lachtin of Achad Ur, 
t 622 F. M.; Fursa, who went to Britain about 630; Failbe Flann, 
King of Munster, 1 637 ; Dagan of Ennereilly, t 639 F. M. ; Cummine 
Foda ', 1 662 ; Fechin of Fowre, t 665 or 668. 

There seem to be touches of the solar hero about Mochoemog*, 
and some of the persons with whom he is brought into contact, 
Comgall, Lugtigern, Molua, by their names, or legends, or both, 
suggest similar associations. 

Vita sancti Mochua abbatis de Tech Mochua". This life is 
printed here from R' f. 114'', collated with R- f. 93'', and compared 
with F p. 42. It is given by the BoIIandists at Jan. i, 'ex ueteribus 
MSS.,' supplied by Hugh Ward, though Mochua's proper day in 

' It is a coniparalively late work, as is shown by such words as seirbhis, 
(divine service ; privileid, privilege ; maih's, mahce; suiper, supper. 

' If we suppose the ' four hundreds ' of the Irish authorities to be a mistake 
for ' four scores', his age at death vvould be ninety-three or ninety-fuur, vvhich 
vvould suit very vvell. 

' Cummine, ]\ke Mochoeraog, is said to have been fostered by Ita. If so, he 
also must have lived to a great age. 

* §5 7. 12, 29, 32 note, and perhaps 5 34. 

' There are pedigrees of Mochua in LL. 347'', LBr. 13'', BB. 215' (cf. ib. asi'), 
Ravvl. B. 502 f. 52", Laud 610 f. 38", Fel^ p. 262; cf. Acc. Sen. p. 67. His 
mother, Finecht, is ."nentioned, LL. 372*^ 29. His day in the Calendar is Dec. 24. 


the Calendar is Dec. 24 '. The Bollandist text (B) is probably taken 
from F, with vvhich it agrees closelj', as thc critical notes will show. 
The life is headed both in R' and R- ' Vita Sti Mochua Balla ' ; though 
the whole tenor of the life, with its frequent references to Timahoe, 
the name of the saint's father (Lonan, § i), and the day of his death 
(Dec. 24, § 12), show clearly that it is the saint of Timahoe, and not 
his namesake of Balla that is celebrated*. 

The hfe, Hke many of the lives of the R recension, is a very sHght 
performance. Nothing is told of the saint's earlj' life'; bej^ond 
his birth, his settlement at Timahoe and afterwards at Derinish, 
and his dcath, little is narrated except three anecdotes ; how he 
cured St. Colman Ela of his sudden loss of memory (§!) 2-4) ; how he 
cleansed St. Munnu of his leprosy (§§ 5, 6)*; and how he provided 
fine weather for a whole year while St. Cianan was building his 
stone church of Duleek, the first of its kind in Ireland (§§ 8-10). 
St. Patrick and St. Molua of ClonfertmuUoe are also mentioned. 

The date of St. Mochua himself does not seem to be given in the 
Annals. Molua died in 609, Colman Ela in 611, and Munnu in 635. 
These facts would seem to point to the early part of the seventh 
century as the time of Mochua's floniit. But apart from the mention 
of St. Patrick, which might be explained as meaning no more than 
a resort to the See of Armagh", St. Cianan, who plays an important 
part in the narrative, is said to have died in 489, which would throw 
Mochua's date back by about a century and a half°. 

The mythological element in the life is not very prominent. The 
sainfs power over fire (§ 4) and over the weather (§ 8) maj' be 
reminiscences of a solar hero. 

By origin Mochua is a Connaught saint ; but his principal mon- 
astery, Timahoe, is in Leix ; and his subsequent abode, Derinish ', 
is in Oriel. 

1 The origin of this mistake is as follows : In 5 12 it is said that Mochua died : 
*anno iiitc sue nonagesimo, ix" Kal. lan.' (i. e. Dec. 24'!. Tlie Bollandists mis- 
read this ' anno . . . nonagesimo nono, Kalendis lan.' The Bollandists also give 
at Jan. i a Latin Translation of the Irish lifc of Mochua of Balla, which Colgan 
gives rightly at March 30. 

' On this mistake see .-jbove, p. x.\i, note i. It has misled not only Sir James 
Ware, but Mr. Whitley Stokes, Lismore Livcs. p. 360 ; and has caused the scribe 
of R^ to place the life out of its proper order ; sec thc table, p. xv. 

' He entered religion in mature life ; hcncc in the notes to the Ffilire he is 
called ' one of the threc ex-laics, or ex-warriors (athlaechjof Erin ', FSI.- p. 112 ; 
cf. 5 I : 'triginta annis laicalilcr uixit.' 

< Cf. Lug. § 53, Mun. § 25, Mart. Don. Oct. 21. 

' The connexion with Patrick, however, cstablished itsclf in tradition. In 
Acc. Scn. p. 67 Mochua is called an 'athlaech' of Patrick's company ; and 
Cailte givcs a metrical pcdigree of him. 

° Had this difficulty occurred to his biographer, he would no doubt have 
made Mnchua live the rcquisite number of centurics. 

' In Fcl.^ p. 262 Dair Inis is misprinted Dair Mis. 


1 know of no other life of Mochua of Timahoe, whether in Latin 
or Irish. 

Vita Sancti Moling episcopi de Tech Moling '. This life is here 
printed for the first time from M f. 70''. In T it is wanting owing to 
niutilation. There is a seventeenth-century transcript of the life, 
MS. Brussels 4190 fT. 59-68. It is quite worthless. Apart from absurd 
mistakes, the scribe has taken great liberties with his original (see 
e. g. note to § l). Another Latin life of Moling is contained in 
S f. 199«' (C. S. cc. 819 ff.), R' f. 50", R- f 124", and F p. 39. S and 
R present an identical text, agreeing sometimes even in obvious 
niistakes. The S R recension is very much shorter than the M text. 
()f thc thirtj' sections of M fifteen are wholly unrepresented in S R, 
while others are much abbreviated. The order also of the common 
sections is very diflerent in the two recensions. On the other hand 
the S R text has preserved some things which are not in M (see notes 
'o §§ 1-3' 9i 13' 25). An English translation of the M text with 
notes was published bj' Mr. P. 0'Leary in 1887. The notes contain 
some interesting details of local topography and legends. 

The BoIIandists have printed the S text, A. S. June iii. 406 fF. ; but 
they had ' alia acta decessoribus nostris olim communicata a R. P. 
Henrico Fitzsimon', from which some extracts are given at the end 
of the S life. These belong to the M recension, and are very 

The Brussels MS. mentioned above contains, ff. 48-58, an Irish 
life of Moling which has recently been published bj" Dr. Whitley 

' There are pedigrees of Moling in I.L. 351', LBr. 19'', BB. 221' (cf. ib. 232"), 
Laud 610 f. 39'', Rawl. B. 486 f. 36'. As to his parentage and his own original 
name. see notes to § i of our life. His day in the Calendar is June 17. The 
account in Mart. Don. at that date is based on the Irish Hfe, cc. 2, 6, 13. In the 
notes to the Felire at Junc 17 are found several stories relating to Moling. These 
and others are found separately in various MSS., LL. ^^^''-aSs'', Rawl. B. 512 (f. 
64 v**, 141 v, T. C. D. J319, H. ii. 17, pp. 397-8, BB. 256**, Brussels 2324 ff. 65-7 ; 
5100, p. 2, Liber Flauus Fergusionim. I. B. f. 10'', II. E. f. 12'', Dublin Franciscans, 
A. ix. 3, p. 30. Several of them are embodied in the Irish life. There is a story 
about him in the so-called life of Maignenn, Silva Gad. i. 43-4. A local variation 
of the legend in § 11 is given by 0'Hanlon, vi. 720. According to the Accallam 
na Sen6rach there was a Moling Luatli in Finn's comitatus. He occupied Ross 
Hrocc (the later St. Mullins^ and its water-course ^taeidiui, and it was after his 
slaughter bj' the sons of Morna that Finnprophesied of the later Molins-, Acc. Sen. 
pp. 74-6. Finn's prophecy of Moling is also in the tract Borroma, LL. 297** 12, 
where he is called Moling Faid, or the prophet ; while in another verse, cited 
Mart. Don. p. 326, he is called one of the four prophets of Ireland. Moling of 
course plays a leading part in the tract Borroma, ovving to the famous equivoque 
by which he cxtorted the remission of the tribute from the monarch Finnachta 
i§ 19 ai)d note I. Several poems ascribed to Moling are in MS. Brusseis 5100; 
and have been printcd by Stokes in Anecdota from Irish MSS. ii. 20 ff. His 
cult seems to have existed in the Isle of Arran. Scotland, wliere there was a 
sacred stone of his used for ordeals, and to cure stitches, Martin's Westem Isles, 
pp. 325-6. 



Stokes, Rev. Celt. xxvii. 257 ff., from this MS. and the so-called Liber 
Flauus Fergusiorum, novv in the R. I. A. This life has no direct 
relation to either of the Latin lives. To some extent it covers the 
same ground ; but even in these cases it gives a very difterent 
version of the incidents. 

The text of M, as we have it, cannot be older than the middle 
of the twelfth century, for in § 6 the ' Baile Moling ' is cited, which, as 
0'Curry has shown (MS. Materials, pp. 420-1), must have been 
composed between 1137 and 1167. The Hfe is, however, of consider- 
able interest. The writer's account of the pilgrimages to St. MuUins 
in his own day, and the wading in the water-course (§ 9) may be 
noted*. Mythologically, Moling seems to combine the character of 
a solar or fire deity^ (§§ 3, 4, 17, 19; cf. Irish Life, §§ 21, 29, 31) 
with that of a patron of animals (§§ 16, 21-4, 27), a combination 
which vve have found elsewhere. The historical framework is very 
slight. Moling himself died in 697. His contemporaneousness with 
Finnachta ' the Festive ', King of Ireland 675-95, would be fixed in 
tradition by the famous equivocation by which Moling is said to have 
secured the abolition of the Borromean tribute from that monarch. 
If Moling exercised episcopal functions at Ferns, it can hardly have 
been, as the life, § 8, seems to imply ', in immediate succession to 

' Tliey are described in Clyn's Annals under the j'ear 1348: * Conuenerunt 
uiuliquc . . . episcopi et prelati . . . magnates et alii, et communiter omnes 
utriusque sexus ad peregrinacionem et vadacionem aque de Thaht Molyngis 
^Teach Molyng) . . . slc ut multa millia hominum simul illuc multis diebus con. 
uenirc uideres ; quidam uenerunt deuocionis affectu, alii, sed plures, pestilencie 
metu, que tunc nimis inualuit,' p. 35. I owe this reference to Mr. O Leary, u. s., 
who describes in an appendix how he had seen the same thing himself. He 
also traces in a note the exact line of the water-course. A festival held on 
July 25 is bclieved to be the anniversary of its original completion and consecra- 
tion. St. Colman mac Luachain is represented in his life as performing this 
rite : Muid Colman do imthccht tbidin Moling . . . 7 ro imthig hi,' i. e. Colman 
went to perambulate Moling's watcr-course, and perambulated it, Rennes MS. 
f. 85'' ; cf. 0'Hanlon, vi. 720. The incident narrated in § 16 left its mark 
on the local topography. The townland Tempul na m-Bo (Church of the Kine) 
takes its nanie from a church, of which the ruins can still be traced near the top 
of the big hill, which St. Moling is said to have built to commeraorate the event. 
Funerals, says Mr. 0'Leary, used to stop here, and unbaptized infants were 
buried here. In regard to the book of St. Moling (§ 4 ad fin.) which is still in 
T. C. D. Library, with its ancient covcr, Mr. O Leary remarks that it was long 
in the custody of the Kavanaghs of Borris Idrone. See on it Profcssor Lawlor's 
Chapters on the Book of Mulling, especially pp. 13 flT. On the topography of 
St. Mullins see ib. pp. 183 ff., where a plan of the existing ruins is given. and 
a paper by Mr. ffrench is referred to, Journal of Ro3'al Soc. of Antiquaries of 
Ircland, part iv, vol. ii, 5th series, p. 377. 

^ In a poem in the notes to the Fclire he is called ' nem im grein, . . . grian 
gurois ricliid niieb', i. c. the heaven around the sun, . . . the sun which warms 
the sacred hcaven, Fcl.- p. 156. 

' The words of the life do not necessarily mean this. The question is dis- 
cussed, A. S. u. s. pp. 407-8. 


Macdoc, vvho died in 626 (v. s. p. Ixxviii). He is said to have exercised 
hke functions at Giendalough, § 6, but it is not stated that this was in 
ininiediate succession to St. Coemgen. 

Vita Sancti Lugidi seu Moluae abbatis de Cluain Ferta Moluae^ 
This life is taken froni M f. 112''. The last eleven sections are also in 
T f. 92", but the rest has been lost owing to mutilation. Two other 
Latin Hves of this saint are known to me. Both are contained in S ; 
the first (S') at f. 94' (C. S. cc. 261 ff.), the second (S=) at f. 202" 
(C. S. cc. 879 ff.). With the lalter is practically identical the hfe in 
R- f. 126", F p. 99. In R' the life has been lost owing to the mutila- 
tionofthat MS. at the end. The M text was printed by Fleming- 
in his Collectanea Sacra, pp. 368 ff. The Bollandists (A. S. Aug. i. 
342 ff.) give the text of S' ; the editor, however, cites Fleming and 
S'. He mentions a fourth life contained 'in MS non admoduni 
antiquo' belonging to Fitzsimon. This I have not identified. The 
relation between the three texts is curious. S' and M each contain 
a good deal that is not in the other. Where they cover the same 
ground they resemble each other strongly, S' being as a rule the 
more original. It is probable, therefore, that they are independent 
recensions of a common original. The S' R text is a much abbre- 
viated recension, evidently made for homiletic purposes (cf. §§ 21, 35, 
41). But it cannot be taken from either S^ or M, for it contains 
several of the sections which are peculiar to S' and M respectively. 
It has also preserved one or two things which are not either in S or 
M. It may be an independent epitome of their common original. 

From the nij'thological point of view as bearing on the cult of the 

' There are pedierees of Lugaid or Molua in LL. 348". LBr. 15", BB. 218", 
Rawl. B. 502 f. 51''. His mother Sochla is mentioned LL. 372* 32. In the 
pedigrees, as in the lives, he is inade son of Carthach ; but he is often called 
Mac Oche or Mac Coche i the scribes being uncertain whether the c belonged 
to the end of mac or the beginning of the following name). The latter form 
occurs in our lives, Car. § 18, Maed. § 20, Mochoem. §§ 10, 29, Munnu, § 25; 
the former occurs LL. 3-/2^ 32, Fel.^ p. 180, and elsewhere. Our life, § i, treats 
Coche as a nickname or alias of the father ; in Fel. u. s. an absurd etymological 
explanation is given both to the name Molua (which is simply a hypocoristic 
form of Lugaid, § 44^ and to the phrase ' mac Oche '. In the LL. pedigree and 
in that on the margin of M the great grandfather of the saint appears as Corc 
Ocha. Mac Oche is therefore probably a mistake for Maccu Oche, great grandson 
or descendant of Oche, and is the sainfs family name. The saint's clan is 
Corcoche, § i, i. e. Corca Oche, or the tribe of Oche ; and the Corc in the 
ancestor's name is probably a wronsr abstraction from this. His day in the 
Calendar is Aug. 4. At that date Mart. Don. cites IL 141-4 of Cuimin of 
Connor's poem, though doubtful whether it applies to this Molua or not. It also 
cites another quatrain, contained in the notes to the Felire, illustrating MoIua's 
relations with St. David, Fel.'' p. 182 (§ 381. His tenderness to men and animals 
established itself in tradition, § 53, cf. Mochua § 5 ; Mun. § 25, and is illustrated 
by the beautiful legend of the little bird lamenting his death, Fel.^ pp. 56, 182. 

' 55 38, 39 are printed by Colgan, A. S. pp. 221'', 623''; in § 39 he reads 
Emenus for Ernenus, probably rightly. 

f 2 


Celtic fire ' and sun deity the life lias very great interest ; §§ 2, 3, 
13 '0. '5' 17 •Tid notc, 23, 35 and note, 53, C. S. c. 282 (§ 53, not in M ). 
Of this I hope to say more later. 

Molua's sphere of influence is partly Munster and partly Ossory. 

In the chronological setting of the life there is not much to criticize. 
The date of Molua's own death is given as 609. If he was, as 
asserted, a pupil of Finnian of Clonard ^549, his life must have been 
a long one. That he is made a contemporary of St. David would not 
cause difficulty according to the commonly received date of David's 
death, viz. 601, but it would be otherwise, if that event is to be moved 
back to 544, as Mr. E. W. B. Nicholson contends (v. s. p. xxxii). The 
other personages who can be dated cause no difficulty. If the 
Molaisse of § 31 is the abbot of Devenish he died in 564 or 571 ' ; 
Comgall of Bangor in 602, Maedoc of Fcrns in 626, Munnu in 635', 
Dagan in 639 (F. M.), if this is the abbot of Ennereillj'. 

I know no Irish life of Molua. The 0'Clerys, however, seem to 
have had one, as appears from the list in Rawl. B. 487, f. 74 v", 
alluded to above (p. x, note 3). 

Vita Sancti Fintani siue Munnu abbatis de Tech Munnu*. This 

' Note that in pedigrees Molua's grandfather is called Daigir, i e. Blaze. 

^ 1( the abbot of Leighlin be meant, he died in 639. 

' This would be twenty-six years after Molua's own death, not twenty, as 
§ 53 statcs. Munnu's own life gives the interval as twenty-four years, which is 
very nearly right. 

' There are pedigrees of Munnu, LL. 349.'^(cf. ib. 364, top margin), LBr. 15', 
BB. aic'' ad calcein, Rawl. B. 502 f, 51*', Laud 610 (. 40/, Fel." p. 226. His 
mother Fedelm is mentioned, LL, 372'' 19; cf. Rceves, Adamn, p. 21, His father, 
Tulchan, was a druid, according to Fel,^ u, s,, which is interesting if true, With 
this statemcnt may be connected a curious passage in 0"Donncirs Life of 
Columba (Z, C, P, v, 38I, Christ is represented as saying to Munnu : 'do ba- 
dhais at drai an uair do bi tu og,' i, e. thou wert a druid when thou wert young ; 
for, as we shall see, thc profession of druid was frequently hereditary, Munnu 
is a h3'pocoristic name, contracted from Mo-fhinnu, Cormac, Glossary, p, 29 
(Translation, p. iio; cf. Fel.' p. clix), whcrc a verse is cited which occurs also 
Fcl,'' u, s. His day in the Calendar is Oct. 21, at which datc Mart, Don, cites 
a verse on his leprosy, the source of which I have not traced. It gives the 
numbcr of his monks as 230. In the Mart. Tall., LL. s^-i^ ^"^ ^^P niargin, their 
number is given as 233, and a list of thcir names is added, which do not however 
amount to 233, There is an interesting reference to Muiinu in tlic 1-itany, 
I-L, 373'' 47 : ' Tri I fir itiarlir fo m<im Munnu meic Tulchain,' i, e. tlie thrice 
fiftj' true inartyrs under the yoke of Munnu, son of Tulchan. Thc martyrdom 
intended is, no doubt what the Irish call ' white martyrdom ', i, e. asceticisra 
as opposed to ' red-martyrdom*, the mart^Tdom of actual bloodshcd, This 
agrees wcll with tlie traditions in thc lives and clsewhcre of thc rigour of 
Munnu's monastic rule. In thc parallcl table of saints, LL. 370, citcd Mart. 
Don. u. s., he is compared to Job. This is no doubt on accouiil of his lcprosy 
and tlie patieiice vvitli whicli Iic bore it, § 25 ; tlie comparison hardly fits his 
general charactcr, sce below. The story of Ihe cure of liis lcprosy by Mochua 
(Mochua. §§ 4-6) finds no support in his own lives. He has dedications in 
Scotland, Kccvcs, Adamn, p, 22 note ; Forbes, Calendars, p, 416, The Icctions 
in the Abcrdeen Breviary, Propr, Sanct,, Pars Lstiua, f, cxxxi, are reprinted in 
A, S, u, s. pp. 341-2. 


life is taken from M f. 127'', collated for tlie lattcr half with T f. 105". 
Thc fornicr half has been lost in T owing to mutilation. There are 
two Latin livcs of Munnu in S ; the first (S'j at f. iio" (C. S. cc. 393 ff.) : 
the second (S'^) at f. 137'' (C.S. cc. 489 ff.). Tliere is also a life of 
Munnu in R' f i2i^ R'' f. 148", F p. 157. R* is imperfect at the 
beginning '. Of the four lives S' is clearly the fuUest and most 
original. But it and the M recension have a common source. S' is 
closcly allied to M, agreeing with it in omissions and arrangement 
as compared with S' ; S" also agrees with M in calling the virgin 
to whom Munnu abandoned Tehelly, Emcr, whereas S' and R ca!l 
her Ciar (Kera, Kyear). The R recension is nearly identical with S*, 
but is still further abbreviated in certain parts, and has not been 
padded with nioral and religious commonplaces as is the case with 
many of the lives in R. It cannot, however, have been taken direct 
from S", as in some cases it has preserved a better reading ; and. 
as has been stated above, in an important point it agrees with S' 
against M and S^ The life printed in the A. S. Oct. i.\. 333 ff. is S', 
but the editor mentions S^ and notes that a different life (which is 
no doubt M) is quoted by Colgan ^, Ussher, and VVare. The M text 
has never to my knowledge been printed ; and this fact, and the 
fact that it forms an important link in the transmission of the legend 
between S' on the one hand, and S" and R on the other, justify the 
inclusion of it in the present coUection. I know no Irish life of 

In the historical setting of the life there are no inconsistencies. 
The persons of known date with whom the saint is brought into 
relation are Brendan of Clonfert, ^577 or 583; Columba, ^597 ; 
Cainnech, t 599 or 600 ; Baithine of lona, + 598 x 600 ; Comgall, t 602 ; 
Molua, t 609 ; Molaisse of Leighlin, + 639 ; while Mochoemog, who 
is represented as surviving Munnu (§ 29), died in 656. As Munnu 
himself died in 635, this is quite consistent. The synod on the 
Paschal question mentioned in § 27 must be the earlier of the two 
South Irish synods held on that subject, as the S' version clearly 
shows that the result was indeterminate ^ The date of the earlier 
synod is probably 630 (Bede, ii. 125). And generally the historical 
element in this life is larger than in some others, and we get an 
impression of Munnu as a real man, and not merely a peg to hang 
miracles on ; a man of somewhat harsh and hasty temper, but 

' That F has not this defcct shows that this mutilation is subsequent 
to 1627. 

* Colgan quotes §§ i, 5 of our life, A. S. p. 452", and §59, 10. ib. 606". 
0'Clery knevv of a Latin life of Munnu in the possession of Simon Barnewall, 
V. s. p. ix, nole i. 

^ ' Unusquisque faciat quod . . . rectum sibi uide.itur,' S' § 30 ad finem. 


placable and conciliatory when the momentary irritation was over*. 
Both here and in the Hfe of Molua he is contrasted with that gentler 
saint'. The action of the life is almost entirely in Leinster. 

There does not seem to be any special mythical significance in the 
life of Munnu. Stress is laid on his gift of prophecy and his power 
of reading the hearts of others ; but these may be only exaggerations 
of real spiritual gifts. Attention may be called to the very intercsting 
passage on the Land of Promise (the Tir Tairngire of the Irish) given 
from S' in the notes to § 28, which is of some importancc in connexion 
with the Brendan legend. 

There is no trace in these lives of the curious story found in 
the life of Cainnech (§ 21) how Munnu's father, Tulchan, retired soon 
after Munnu's birth to the monastery of lona, and was bidden by 
Columba, at Baithine's suggestion, to drown his infant son. Columba 
is brought into relation with the infant and youthful Munnu, but in 
a very diflerent way (§§ 2, 5 ; cf. Reeves, Adamn. p. 99). The story 
of Munnu's wish to be admitted to lona after CoIumba's death (§ 7) is 
in Adamnan, i. 2 (Reeves, pp. 18-23 and notes)'. 

Vita Sancti Ruadani abbatis de Lothra *. This life is taken 
from M f. 86'' collated with T f. 53". There are two other Latin lives 
of Ruadan ; one in S f. 106" (C. S. cc. 319 ff.), the other in R' f 145", 
R^ f. 97% and F p. 14. M and S have clearly a common source, 
S being in some cases nearer to that source. The M text has, 
however, points of interest of its own, and as it has never been 
printed before, it is given here. The text given in the A. S. Apr. ii. 
382 flf. is S; the editor notes that Colgan has printed § 29 of M 
In Trias Thaum. p. 461", but forbears to cite it, ' ne scandahim gignat ' ; 
he also omits the corresponding sections of S (23 and 24), ' ne 
scandalo foret.' 

' ' Si aliquem hospitem uerbo aspero et repentino salutasset, nunquam come- 
debat cibum, priusquam hospes illc leniter placatus esset ; et dicebat : "Ego 
preterita hora carnalitcr filius Tulchani ; nunc uero spirituahter fihus Dei sum." ' 

S' § 34. 

* Mun. § 25 ; I.ugf. § 53 ; cf. 5 7 note : ' natura illius aspera est ' ; Mocliua, § 5. 

^ Despite this clear testimony, the lections in the Aberdeen Brcviary, u. s., 
not only make him a monk at lona under Columba, but rcpresent him as dying 
and being buried at Kilmun in Argyilsliire. 

' Thcre are pedigrces of Ruadan LL. 350/, LBr. iS"", BB. 220" (cf. ib. 232''), 
I.aud 610 f. 39", Rawl. B. 486 I. 34''. His day in the Calcndar is April 15, at 
which date Mart. Don. cites the LL. table of parallel saints, in which Ruadan is 
equated with St. Matthew. Thc rest of the account is taken frotn the Brussels 
Irish life, c. 10. The account of Ruadan's miraculous tree occurs also in the S 
life of Finnian of Clonard, CS. cc. 202-3. On his bell sce Stokcs-Petrie, 
Christian Inscriptions, ii. 94, where it is also stated, on thc authority of Ware, 
that a shrine containing one of his hands was preserved at Lorrha till the 
dissolution. The othcr hand sccms to have bcen at Canterbury ; sce the curious 
note in M, cited infra, ii. 240, uote i. 


The R text is a shorter recension of S. There is an Irish life 
of Ruadan in Brussels MS. 4190 x 4200 f 193 ff., and in R. I. A. Stowe, 
i.K. p. 287 '. This seems to be derived from a Latin original. It does 
not, howcver, agree exactly with either M or S, though it is nearer 
on the whole to S. It is cited occasionally as Br. 

The Chroniclers do not seem to give any date to Ruadan. He 
must, however, have lived in the si.xth century. He is made a pupil 
of Finnian of Clonard, 1 549 ; and the other personages of icnown 
date vvith whom he is brought into contact are Diarmait mac Cerbaill, 
King of Ireland, who reigned, according to Ann. Ult., either from 
544 to 565 or from 549 to 572 (and this would be fixed in tradition by 
the famousquarrel of the saint with this monarch) ; Brendan of Clon- 
fert, +577 or 583 ; bishop Aed mac Bricc, + 589 ; Colum Cille, t 597 ; 
Baithine, ^598 or 600 ; Cohnan Ela, t 611. 

Ruadan's principal monastery, Lorrha, is in Ormond near the 
northern end of Lough Derg, but his activity seems to have extended 
into many parts of Ireland both north and south. 

The life is very mythical, but does not seein to have any very 
distinct mythological significance. 

Vita sancte Samthanne uirginis -. This is the only Hfe of 
St. Samthann known to me, whether in Latin or in Irish. It is here 
printed for the first time. The text is from R' f. 150'' flf., collated 
with R- f 161' ff. It exists also in F p. 206. The life, lilce most 
of those in the R recension, is slight, but contains points of consider- 
able interest ; and the sainfs replies to the questions asked her as to 
the attitude of prayer, the relation of study to devotion', and the 
efficacy of pilgrimages, show a spiritual insight and a width of view 
which are too often absent from these compositions. The chrono- 
logical data are few, but for the most part consistent. Samthann's 
ovvn death is assigned to 739. The ' rex Kennedus ' of § 7 is probably 
Cinaed,son of Irgalach, Kingof Ireland,t 728; the' Rechtabra regulus ' 
of § 21 may be either Rechtabra ua Cathasaigh (CCasey), chief of Ui 

' The life in the tvvo MSS. is practically the same, though they differ some- 
whal in phrasing, and a little in arrangement. To the Brussels copy are 
appended two stories about Ruadan. For the use of a transcript of the Dublin 
copy I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. J. G. 0'Keeffe. Irish stories bearing 
on the famous cursing of Tara by Ruadan are cited in the notes to § 15 ; cf. also 
Lismore Lives, pp. xxvi, 404" ad calcem. He occurs in the Visio Tundali, Noua 
Legenda Angliae, ii. 311. 

' There are pedigrees of Samthann in LL. 350'', LBr. 17', BB. 220'^ (cf. ib. 
331'), RawL B. 502 f. 52", Laud 610 f. 38", 38.^^, Fel.^ p. 260. The name of her 
father is variously given as Diaran. Diamran i^so life), Diamaran, Dimaran, the 
pronunciation of which would not differ very much. There are some obscure 
verses on her, LL. 365 top margin. Her day in the Calendar is Dec. 19. 

^ Cf. Aurea Leg. p. 106 ; ' uidit quemdam sedentem atque operantem, et 
deinde surgentem et orantem. Erat autem angelus Domini ; et dixit ei " Sic 
fac, et saluus eris''.' 


Tuirtre near Lough Neagh, ^ 734, or Rechtabra, son of Dunchu, chicl 
of Cremorne, t759- Dairchellach or Tairchellach 'niagister', § 24, 
is probably the Tairchelltach 'sapiens', who died in 760 (Ann. Ult.). 
Fland, son of Conla (§ 13), is not mentioned in theannals, but Aelghal, 
son of Fland, son of Conla, chief of Tethbha, died in 770 according to 
F. M. ; which suits very well both as to tiine and place. The miracle 
of § 17 connected with Niall Frossach, King of Ireland 763-778, is 
probably to be understood as having taken place after Sanithann's 
death. The only chronological absurdity is that perpetrated in § 26, 
vvhere Lasrianus or Molaisse, the founder of Devenish in Lough 
Erne, who died 564 or 571, is represented as alive at the time 
of Samthann's death in 739. The name is probablj' the insertion 
of some ignorant scribe, who knew only one abbot of Dcvenish. In 
§ 10 this abbot is spoken of merely by his title, and no name is given. 
St. Samthann was of Ultonian descent ; but her work is chiefly 
associated with the district of Tethbha in Meath. There she was 
fostered by the chief of the Cairbre-Gabhra, and there in later life 
she founded Clonbroney ; though for a time she was prioress under 
St. Cognat at Urney on the borders of Donegal and Tyrone. This 
is probably historical ; but the life shows decided traces of the 
influence of solar or fire myths', and it is just possible that the 
accretion niay be due to a fanciful etymologizing of the sainfs name 
as Sam-theine, i. e. summer-fire. 

Vita Sancti Tigernaci episcopi de Cluain-Eois^ This life is the 
only life of Tigernacii known to me whether in Latin or Irish. It is 
here printed from R' f 116'', collated with R- f. 95", and with the 
imperfect copy in S f. 86'^ (C. S. cc. 212 ff.) which breaks otT niutilated 
in the middle of § 13 ; and compared with F p. 21. S and R must 
have some common source, as they agree occasionally in obvious 
blunders'. On the whole the text of S is superior to that of R. The 
hfe was printed by the Bollandists, A. S. April i. 401 ff., from three 

' §§ I. 2, 5 and probably §§ 7, la, 22; in the pedigrees one of her ancestors 
is called Trichem, which seems to mean a spark (cf. § 5 ' in specie scintille 

* There are pedigrees of Tigernach in LL. 351'', LBr. 19'', BB. 221' (cf. ib. 
232"), Laud 610 ff. 38/, 41^, Fcl.'^ pp. iio, H2. His niother, Derfraich, is 
mentioned at LL. 372'' 25, and her pedigiee is given among those of tlie saints 
in LL. 347-'^, LBr. 14", BB. 216'' (cf. ib. 231"). A tale about her is in the notes 
to the F(5lire, Fel.^ p. iio, where also there is a diflerent version of the incident 
in § 2, and a vcrsu ascribed to Tigernach is cited. A Titiernach, possibly 
our saint, is said to have assisted in the redaction of thc tale called the Death of 
Muirchcrtach inac Krca, R. C. xxiii. 430. His day is Apiil 4. The Hollandists 
give him at April 5, for which datc I know no authority earlier than Adam King 
and Dcmpster, Fotbes, Calendars, pp. 148, 196 ; thc latter gives a Tigernach 
abbot at April 4, and a Tigernach bishop at April 5 ; cf. ib. 452. The Hollandists 
cite various foreign martyrologies which I am not in a positJon to verify. 

•* e. g. Moncnsiumyc^/' Momonensium, § 8; ingcrentybr iungcrent, § 10. 


MSS., onc being S; vvhile of the remaining tvvo one vvas supplied 
by Ilugh Ward, the other by Henry Fitzsimon. This edition is 
occasionally cited as B. Ward's MS. vvas probably F or a copy 
of it ; for the text of B often agrees with F, especially in the later 
chapters, where S was not available. Fitzsimon's MS. inust have 
differed markedly from the others. In particular it contained one 
chaptcr peculiar to itself, vvhich is given in a note to § 7. The life 
is somevvhat slight, and the chronological data contained in it are 
few. I have not succeeded in identifying any of the secular princes 
mentioned in it. Tigernach himself is said to have died in 549 or 
550. He is made contemporary with bishop Conlaed of Kildare 
(1520), with Brigit (^525^. M.), and with Duach or Dubthach of 
Armagh (t 548). So far all is consistent '. The only inconsistency 
is the introduction of Monend or Monennus; if, as is probable, he 
is meant to be identified vvith Nynias of Whitern or Candida Casa, 
who is said to have died in 432, and who certainly was alive about 
400 (Bede, ii. 128). Possibly the compilers of these lives knew of 
only one abbot of Whitern, just as they seem to have known of only 
two popes, Celestine, the alleged sender of St. Patrick, and Gregory 
the Great. 

Tigernach seems to be exclusively an Oriel Saint, to the royal 
family of vvhich he belonged through his mother ; though visits are 
recorded to Rome, Britain, Kildare, and Munster. 

The life does not seem to have much mythological significance. 
What little indication there is points rather to a solar hero. 


The foregoing analysis has already throvvn some light on the 
character and mode of composition of the lives. In their present 
shape none of them are very ancient '-. But they contain earlier ^, 

^ The Keranus or Ciaranus, son of Eochaid, in § 5, cannot be either of the 
two well-known saints of that name ; for Ciaran of Saigir was son of Lugna, 
and Ciaran of Clonmacnois was the son of Beoaed or Beodan, the artificer. 
Eochaid was the name of Tigernach's maternal grandfather, so this Keranus 
may be an uncle. Or he may be the Ciaran, son of Eochaid, of Tibrada, men- 
tioncd Dec. § 31, and commcmorated in Mart. Don. at Nov. 10; cf ib. p. 376. 

" The Bollandists suggest with much plausibility that the reconstitution of 
many monasteries by tlie regular monastic orders, which followed tlie coming 
of the English in the twehth century, gave a great impulse to the compilation 
of the lives of Irish saints, A. S. March, i. 390". 

' Cf. what Ricemarc says in his life of St. David : 'hec . . . ex plurimis . . . 
in unum collegimus, que in uetustissimis patrie . . . sparsim inuenta [sunt] 
scriptis," C. B. S. p. 143. 


sometimes primitive, materials. We have seen in many cases the 
process of composition going on under our eyes : the conflation 
of two different recensions of the same or closely analogous 
series of incidents as in the combination of the Vita Brendani and 
the Nauigatio Brendani in our R Hfe of Brendan ; the harking 
back to include another version of the saint's youth ', as in the 
life of Boetius, §§19-20; the insertion of an 'ahter' version of 
certain transactions, as in the life of Enda ; the incorporation 
of separate documents or stories, as in the R lives of Finniaa of 
Clonard -, Bairre *, Ciaran of Saigir'; the 'farcing' of an earlier life 
with scriptural references and religious commonplaces for purposes 
of edification, as in our life of Abban, and many of the lives in the R 
recension ; the abbreviation of an earlier life to make it more suitable 
for use as Lectionsin Choir or Refectory'' ; the translation of an Irish 
life into Latin ^ The uncritical amalgamation of materials drawn 
from different sources is shown by the way in which doublets, 
triplets, and even quadruplets ' occur in some of the lives, a very 
slight difference in form being often enough to conceal from the 
compiler the fact that they are only varying versions of the same 
incident. One very obvious way of expanding the life of a saint 
was to incorporate incidents relating to that saint from the lives of 
other saints ; or again, whether intentionally or not, stories belong- 
ing to one saint are transferred to another saint of the same name '. 

' On these ' macgnimartha ' and their parallels in the secular literature sce 
above, p. xxxiv. 

^ V. s. p. xvii. ' See i. 6g note. * i. 233 note. 

" V. s. pp. xxii f., xxxviii, xlvi, Ixii, Ixxxiii. Cf. i. 139 note. 

• V. s. pp. xi, xxii, xliii, lix, Ixxvi. 

' e. g. Enda, §| 25, 32 ; Ita, §§ 17, 34 ; Samtliann, §§ 12, 22. In the S life of 
Aed mac Bricc the incident of liis chariot flying througli the air occurs four 
limes, §§ II, 19, 36, 42. Tliat compilers did occasionally noticc these things is 
shown by thc way in which the coinpiler of the R life of Brendan omits the 
N B recension of the Judas incident, because the VB version of it occurs later 
in his work, cf. i. 130 iiote. But to this uncritical habit of the compilcrs we 
owe the preservation of much interesting material which would otherwise have 

' Cf Ci. C. § 30 with Ci. S. § 32 ; in the S life of Colman Ela, § 40 (CS. c. 438), 
a miracle is attributed to that saint wliich in the life of Colman of Dromore, § 10 
(ib. c. 831), is attributcd to tlie latter ; a miracle belonging to St. Brigit of Cluain 
Infide (LS. pp. 71-2) has been transferred to the great St. Brigit of Kildare, 
Tr. Th. pp. 540-1 t§ 115) ; and gcnerally there is a tendcncy to substitute better 
known saints for morc obscure pcrsonalities. Luzel, Legendes Clireticnnes, ii. 81. 
(For non-Celtic instances cf. Delehaye, Legendes, p. 23 ; Saintyves, p. 235 ; 
R. C. V. 130.) I have not, howcver, found any instances of those deliberatc 
transfers, with fraudulent change of name, of incidents and even whole 
biographics from one saint to anothcr, which are not unknown in other depart- 
ments of hagiology, scc thc Abbe Duchesnc in R. C. xi. 6-8, 11 ; Delehaye, 
Legcndcs, pp. 105, 1 14-19, 162-4, 255; Baring-Gould and Fisher, i. 137. We 
find occasional rcfcrences in onc life to anothcr, e. g. in Ci. C. § 32 a reference 
to Cocmg. § 28 ; in Lug. § 53 to the life of Munnu ; in Coemg. § 22 to one of 


To some of these processes analogies can be found in thc secular 
literature of the Irish '. 

Of course the main object in the compilation of these lives was the l/ 
glorification of the saint vvho was regarded as the founder or the 
patron of the community in vvhich the compilation was made''; where 
aiso, it may well be, his earthly remains or other outward relics of 
him were enshrined. The life was the pilgrim's guidc-book to the 
sanctuary which he had come to visit'. Subsidiary objects can also 
be traced. One of these was clearly to explain the special relations 
of confraternity, subordination, tribute, &c., existing between different 
monasteries *. Such relations received not only explanation but con- 

the lives of Patrick ; in Br. i. 5 104 to one of Columba. References to lives not 
known to exist are in Ab. § 22, Car. | 27 ; Ci. S. § 25 ; cf. C. B. S. p. 135 : 
' Paterniis, cuius . . . uirtutes in sua continentur hystoria' ; Br. life of Maedoc, 
c. 72 : 'aniail adeir betha Molaisi,' i. e. as says the life of Molaise. It is very 
rarely that a writer alludes to himself, as Ab. § 26 ; cf. C. B. S. p. 143. 

' See Zimmer's masterly essay, Ueber den compilatorischen Charakter der 
irischen Sagentexte im Lebor na h-Uidre (Kelt. Studien, 5% Kuhn's Zeitschr. 
xxviii. 41-; tt. I am inclined to think that the story found in the tale called 
' Imthecht na tromdaime ', or ' Troindam Guairc ', Oss. Soc. v, that none of the 
poets of Ireland could recite a complete version of the famous Tain bo Cualgne, 
and had to go abroad to Armorica to find it. points to a time when the separate 
incidents of that epic were being gradually combined into a whole. The story- 
teller conceives this process as a re-collecting of fragments of an ancient whole 
vvhich had become dispersed ; see Zimmer, Sitzungsb. d. preuss. Akad. xlix. 1114. 
Compiire also the way in which separate incidents get combined in various ways 
in folk-tales, MaccuUoch, Childhood, pp. 11, 455; Luzel u. s. ii. 244. 

- The frequent occurrence of the words, pater or patronus noster, noster 
senex, &c., proves Ihat such lives were composed primarily in and for the 
saints' own communities ; see Car. §5 45, 59, 68-9 ; Ci. C. § 32 ; Ci. S. § 38, 
cf. § 22 : ^ nos latet, quia nemini ex iiostris hoc indicauit ' ; Co. E. § 36 ; (Ilom. 
§ 58; Cron. §§ 28-9; Decl. § 39; Fm. C. §29; Maed. § 59 ^M); Mochoem. 
§ 35 ; Mol. §§ 29, 30 ; Rua. § 30 ; cf. 'peruenientes Imc', Com. § 17. 

' ' La biographie etait comme la legende explicative des reliques que le 
couvent possedait, et qui faisaient sa fortune,' Fustel de Coulanges, Monarquie 
Franque, pp. 9 if. ; cited LS. pp. xci, .\cii. The whole passage is admirable. 

* Moyarny (or perhaps Killabban) with Cluain Immurchuir, Clonfert, 
St. Mullins. Killaloe, and Taghmon, Ab. §§37,46; Aghaboe with Durrow, Cain. 
§ 21 ; Rahen ^or perhaps Lismore) with Bangor and Clonfert, Car. §§ 2, 3,cf. § 11 ; 
Clonmacnois with Scattery, Saigir ^cf. Ci. S. §§ 31, 32), and Glendalough 
(cf. Coem. § 281, Ci. C. §§ 22, 30, 32 ; Saigir with Clonfert and Birr, Ci. S. § 31 ; 
Glendalough with Durrow and Aghaboe, Coem. § 27 ; Ardmore with Beggery, 
Emly, and St. Davids, Decl. §§ 12, 15 ; Aranmore with Emly and Clonmacnois, 
Enda, §§ 21, 27 ; Devenish with Durrow, Las. § 31 (where it is evidently 
intended to make the former superiorl ; Ferns with St. David's, Maed. § 32, 
with Scattery, LS. p. 62 ; with Ardbraccan, Devenish, Drumlane, Fenagh, and 
Rossinver, Br. life of Maedoc. cc. 14, 69-72 ; Leamokevoge with Kilcolman, 
Mochoem. § 15; Clones with Tiprat mac Nenna and Kildare, Tig. §§ 5. 7 note 
(here there is an evident attempt to claim superiority) ; Fore with Balla, LS. 
p. 139. Other instances will be found Fel.- pp. 224, 244; C. B. S. p. 79; CS. 
cc. 229 (§ 11), 893 (§ 4I, 897 (§§ n, 12), 907 (§ 7), 934 (§ 81 ; this last is worth 
quoting : 'hec confraternitas sanctorum erat quoad sutiragia orationum, et quoad 
defensionem subiectorum eisdem populorum.' This defensive alliance was 
probably directed not merely against secular encroachments, but against the 


secration from legends which told of the ties of sacred friendship or 
discipleship existing of old between their respective founders, or 
from traditions of a conimon founder. Other stories seem to be 
inserted to account for the traditional customs or characteristics oi 
certain monasteries S the latter, according as they are good or evil, 
being often ascribed to the blessings or curses of certain saints '. Ot 
another group of stones the motive obviously is to give a title and a 
sanction to the possessions of the community, their rights, dues, 
privileges, &c.'' This motive becomes increasingly prominent in 
some of the later Irish lives. The Brussels lives of Berach*, Maedoc", 
and MacCreiche " are filled with this sort of thing ; the lovvest depth 
being reached perhaps in the life oi Caillin in the Book of Fenagh ', 
in which eternal damnation is freely awarded as a penalty for being 
buried in an adjoining parish ". 

Unfortunately too, the alniost universal idea of these writers was 
that the best way of honouring their saintly patrons was to heap as 
many miracles as possible upon them'. It is true that niany of the 

attacks of other ecclesiastical communities. The Annals of Ulster give frequent 
instances of connicts between monasteries, which the Four Masters discreetly 
omit ; see Ann. Ult. 759, 763, 806, cf. 803 : V. Tr. p. 78 ; wc also find monasteries 
taking part in secular conflicts, Ann. Ult. 775, 810, 832 ; no one will blame 
them for fighting against the heathen Danes, ib. 827, 830. The Annals also 
show us, from the eighth to the eleventh century, many instances of the samc 
person holding the abbacy of two or more monasteries, often belonging to 
entirely distinct foundations ; Connor and Lynally seem to have become 
permancntly united in this way, Ann. Ult. 777, 866, 900, 953, 955, 964, 975, 
1038; other instanccs, ib. 747, 781, 783-4, 788, 805, 808-9, 824, 834, 837, 839, 
844, 849, 867, 870, 879, 881, 887. 895, 903, 920, 922-3, 925-6, 928, 930, 937, 
944, 952-3, 957, 968, 98B, 1009, loio, 1019, 1020, 1025, 1040, 1042-3, 1052, 
1055. 1093. Not unfrequently the office of abbot in one monastery was com- 
bined with a diflerent oflice in another, ib. 868, 874, 881, 884. 890, 906, 923, 
930, 955, 908, 992. It is obvious that such arrangements would tenU to work 
raore smoothly if it could be shown that the communities so connected had had 
some link of union in the past. See Addenda. 

1 e. g Car. 5§ 47, 58; Ci. S. § 31 ; Cron. § 5. 

" The Irish have a technical word 'facbala', lit. leavings, i. e. bequests, for 
such entails of good or cvil. More will be said on this subject whcn we deal 
with this curious characteristic of Celtic saints, p. clxxiv infra. 

' e. g. Com. § 58 ; Dec. § 19 ad fin. (io account for Armagh having property 
in Munster) ; Ger. § 7 ; a particularly gross instance of this kind is given from 
the S text in the notes to Fin. C. § 9 : ' omnis laicus qui comederit butirum 
noslruiii iugulabitur prius quam degerit ' ; cf. C. S. c. 921 ^§ 15) ; R. C. x. 254 ; 
Colgan, A. S. p. 138'' (§ 42). Whole lives were sometimes fabricated with this 
object, British Saints, i. 6; cf. Archacology and Authorily, p. 175. 

* cc. 4, 10, 28. ' cc. 17-19, 689, 71-2. 

' cc. 3, 8, 11-13, 15-17. ' ed. Hennessy and Kclly, 1875. 

' pp. 190 fl'. ; 202 ff., &c. 

' 'porlentosis pleraque acta obscurantes figmentis,' A. S. March, i. 390" ; of 
Ruadan's miraculous tree Ihc Bollandist editor says : ' utinam non magis incredi- 
bilia in Hibernorum sanctorum uitis inuenirentur,' Apr. ii. 385". Even hagio- 
logists occasionally appear consciuus that this elcmcnt may bc overdone : ' tanla 


lives, both Latin and Irish, conclude vvith a list of the superhuman 
virtues of the saint. But this moral tribute is purely perfunctory, 
and is very largely 'common form ''. The real interest of the writer 
is in the thaumaturgj'. Another unpleasant characteristic is the way 
in vvhich spiritual blcssings, including salvation itself, are made to 
dcpcnd on purely material conditions -, on cxternal circumstances and 
acts, such as burial in a certain cemetery ', dying in a certain bed*, 
drinking of, or being sprinkled with, a certain fountain '', reciting a 
certain form of vvords '. Both these characteristics come from the 
pagan amalgam in these lives' which it is one main purpose of this 
introduction to trace. The saint is regarded as a more powerful 
druid, the forces underlying his religion are conceived as magical 
rather than spiritual and moral, and the objects and ceremonies 
associated vvith his creed and worship are only a very superior kind 
of ' medicine '. These points will be illustrated more fully later. 
Meanwhile it may be noted that the very points which give offence to 

fucrunt miracula, ut, nisi merita praecessissent, phantastica putarentur,' Aur. p 449; cf. Ab. I 10; and in the later recensions this element tends to 
grow, Delehaye, p. roi. 

' See Delehaye, pp. 28-g. 

- Colgan has a long note trying to get over this difficulty, 

' l"his is the commonest condition ; and the superstition is probably responsible 
for the crowded condition of many Irish cemeteries to-day ; see Ba. § 13; Car. 
§§ 29, 30 ; Ci. S. § 35 ; Coem. § 24 ; Col. E. § 36 ; Maedoc, § 33 M ; Mun. § 19 
(a less purely material view is taken. Fint. § 13, q. v.^ ; L.S. pp. 67, 79, 82, 104 ; 
C. B. S. p. 124 (.where an attempt is made to save the situation bj' the insertion 
of the words italicized) : 'omnjs qui cimiterio ilHus snna Jiiie sepuUus fuerit, 
misericordiam consequetur ' ; Eriu, ii. 202 ; Cain Ad. § 25 ; Fel.' p. Ixxxvi ; 
R. C. xxvi. 362 iwhere a departed soul is represented as saying that what 
had helped it most was burial at Clonmacnois ; Brussels Prose life of Coemgen, 
c. 10 : ' dorad Dia nemh do gach aon do hadlaicfidhe i n-uir Caoimhgin," i. e. 
God granted heaven to every one vvho should be buried in Coemgen's ground. 
Tlie Rabbis held similar views as to burial in the land of Israel, Edersheim, 
Jesus the Messiah, i. 513; cf. Salmon, Infallibility, p. 218. 

' Com. § 16; dying on the hide of Ciarans dun cow, Ci. C. § 15 (= L.S. 
pp. 123, 127); cf. Ita, § 13; and the curious passage quoted from the Oitte, 
above. p. xxxiv, note 2. 

'• Fel,- p. 198 ; Acc. Sen. p. 37. 

' Invoking saint at death. Col. E. § 36 ; Fdl.' pp. 74. 246 ; reciting saint's liymn 
or part of it. Cain. § 41 ; L. H.= i. 5, 6, ii. 98 ; V. Tr. p. S46 ; Tr. Th. p. 432« 
(§ 9, where also homage is done to moral conditions) ; ib. p. 445'' ( § 76I : prayer 
.at a certain cross, Br. life of Berach, c. 25 ; observing a sainfs day, Col. E. § 36 ; 
Ci. S. § 35 ; maUing certain oiTerings : ' nem donti dogena secht m-broit di.' 
i.e. heaven to whoever shall make seven coverings for it (viz. for the ' bachall' 
of Colman Ela. Iience called the 'bachall cochlach", or cowled crozier), Rennes 
M.S. f. f&^ ; membership of the saint's monastery. Fech. § 15. 

' ' Multa continet admiranda portenta. sed usitata apud gentem illam simplicem 
et sanctam. , . . Quod in gentiiium suorum rebus gestis animaduerti oportere nos 
docuit Henricus Fitzsimon . . . egregio reium usu preditus,' A. S. Jan. i. 45 
(Introduction to life of Mochua). For a secular analogy to some of the things 
just quoted, see Three Fragments, p. 38 : ' ni mhaidh Ibr Laigliniu, da n-dearnat 
a comairle ann,' i. e. the Leinster-men are never defeated if they hold their 
council at that spot. 


the hagiologist in search of edification are often the things which most 
interest the student of mythology and primitive modes of thought. 

A further result of this materializing tendency is that any incidents 
or traits of character which do show spiritual feeling and insight, tend 
to be eliminated in later recensions of the lives. Such things there 
are, though they are not common ; the saying of the young Ciaran 
that the golden rule would alone furnish material enough forany one 
to teach and practise without further reading ' ; the beautiful account 
of his death ' ; St. Ita's teaching on the need of meditation and prayer ', 
and on the works that are pleasing to God ' ; the striking parable on 
the nature of temptation^ ; St. Samthann's answers as to the attitude 
of prayer, and the union of study and devotion ° ; Mochoemog's 
protest against harsh judgements of the departed'; the pathetic 
plaint of CoIman's monks as to the difficulty of realizing the 'glory 
that shall be revealed', amid 'the sufferings of the present time''. 
Beautiful too are MoIua's rebuke of selfishness, and his gentle mode 
of teaching his novices, ' here a little, and there a little '* ; the fine 
saying of Munnu, already quoted, about the difference between the 
natural and spiritual man, between Munnu 'the son of Tulchan ' and 
Munnu 'the child of God''"; and an equally fine answerof Columba to 
those who urged him to mitigate the rigour of his austerity : ' No one 
who sleepeth will be crowned, and no one who is confident can 
inherit the kingdom of heaven".' 

Several beautiful and genuinely religious customs are also 
mentioned : blessing a harbour on entering and leaving it '^, blessing 
the road before a journey ", prayer before entering a house ", and on 
arriving at the end of a journey '^. 

On the style of the lives it is not necessary to say much. It does 
not difter greatly from that of similar mediaeval compositions. There 
are a certain number of words and expressions which are translations 
or imitations of corresponding Irish ones ; these are explained in the 

' Ci. C. § 17 ; omitted in the S epitome. 

^ Ci. C. § 32 ; omilted in R ; cf. the similar story of Brendan, i. 150 note, 
from S^, omitted by all the other lives. 

' Ita, §11; cf. Br. i. 5 86 ; Cain. § 16 ; on ' grace ' before meat cf. Ci. C. § 18 ; 
and Molua*s teaching on the need of confession, Lug. § 30. 

* Ita, § 22. 

^ Mochoem. § 9 ; see a somewhat similar parable in Joinvilie, ch. ix. 

" Sam. §§ 20, 24. ' Mochoem. § 17. ' Co. E. ( 16. 

" C. S. ce. 275 6 (§§ 36. 38 omitted by M). 

'^ Above, p. l.xxxvi, note i : ii. 239 note. 

" This comes from the S R life of Columba, but in S the passage has been 
lost ovving to mutilation. It will be found R' f. 38", R- f. 119" : ' nemo dormiens 
coronabitur, et nemo securus possidet regnum celorum.' 

" Br. i. §§ 15, 17, 36. " Macd. § 7. 

'* Com. § 15 note. 

" Ber. § 6; Br. i. § 30; Com. § 33 ; Mun. § 10 ; Adamn. ii. 42. 


glossary. One marked peculiarity in all the lives is the tendency to 
use the noniinative absolute instead of the ablative absolute ' ; con- 
versely the ablative is sometimes used where a nominative construc- 
tion would be more natural '^. 


We have seen that we must not, as a rule, look for spiritual edifica- 
tion in these hves. Nor must we, as a rule, look for direct historical 
information ^ The Hves must be tested by the annals (as has been 
attempted in Part II), not vice versa. It would probably be rash to 
accept any historical statement on the sole authority of these lives. 
Indirect historical information, however, of very great value is con- 
tained in them *. 

A. And first as to the social life and customs of the people. 

We are struck at once with the prevalence of pastoral as com- 
pared with agricultural pursuits ". The nomad stage is not wholly 
over, or at least not wholly forgotten. The migrations of Desi 
and Dartraighe * are recorded ; the nomadic character of the 
Ui Fenna is traced to the curse of a saint whom their ancestors had 
mocked'. Agriculture is by no means unknown, ploughing' and 

* e. g. Ab. § 5 : ' uocatus ad eos, dixerunt ei' ; Br. i. § 73 : ' nauigantes, . . . 
mors irruit in iabrum ' ; Co. E. § 9 : ' somnus opprimens eum. dormiuit ' T (vvhere 
M has the ablative) ; cf. ib. § aa : ' clamor omnium sanctitatem . . . admirantes . . . 
ortusest'(for'admiranlium',or'omnibusadmirantibus') ; Mochoem. §3 (bis\ &c. 
This construction is found in the Vulgate : ' et e.^csiliens, osculati sunt se in- 
uicem,' Tob. ix. 8. 

- e. g. Br. i. §46; ' exeuntibus fratribus inuenerunt'; Com. § 7: 'crescente 
puero, ipse operabatur ' ; so Coem. § 43 ; Enda, § 33 ; Maed. § 12 ad finem. 

' On lives of saints as religious romances see Baumer, Histoire du Breviaire, 
>• 398. 

* Cf the passage frora Fustel de Coulanges referred to above, p. xci. The 
topographical interest of some of the lives is very great. In some cases, as at 
Ardmore i^Declan), St. Mullins (Moling), Lismore (Mochuda\ I have testcd this 
element myself ; but much more could be done by natives with local knowledge, 
both in this way, and also in the way of collecting the local legends, which often 
both by their likeness and divergence form an interesting commentary on the 

^ Of his own time Giraldus Cambrensis says : ' gens a primo pastoralis uitae 
uiuendi modo non recedens,' Opp. v. 151. 

^ Declan, § 1 ; Silva Gad. i. 36-7 (Molaisse) ; the migration was sometimes 
due to over-population, Br. Grellan, c. 4. 

' Car. § 32. 

* Aed, § 4; Ail. §5 32 note, 34; Car. § 25, cf. ib. § 20: ' sarculis arare'; 
Ci. C. §5 9, 10 ; Maed. §§ 30, 31 ; Fel.- p. 72. The story in Ci. C. § lo implies 
that it was unusual to use horses Ibr ploughing. Their use in war appears from 
Mochoem. § 30. The eating of horseflesh is mentioned, Enda, 5 30 ; Adamn. 
i. 21 ; Irish Moling, § 53 ; but in the first two cases it is regarded as a sign of 


sowing ' and reaping ' ; and all these operations have their appropriate 
miracles. But they are not so numerous as those which have to do with 
the care of cattle, sheep^, pigs', goats, and kine". The country was 
largely unenclosed", and the youthful saint, hke many an Irish child 
since then, gained his first experience of life in herding the domestic 
animals of the family', and seeing that they did not stray or trespass' 
on a neighbour"s land or crops, and that the calves were not allowed 
to filch their mothers' milk '. We hear of a murrain stopped by 

iitter degeneracy, wliile in thc third the saint changes the horsenesh into 
mutton, so that it was no doubt regarded, as iii Norway, as a relic of 
heatlienism : ' t>at er hit mesta Kristnispell . . . at eta hross,' that is the 
greatest violation of Christianity to eat horseflesh, FornsOgur, i. 126. Hakon 
the Good was put to sore straits in trying to avoid compliance vvith tliis national 
custom, see his Saga, c. 18, Dog's flesh is served up as a delibcrate insult, Dec. 
§ 25: Br. Adamn. c. 9, Anecdota, ii. 16. In both cases the fraud is detected by 
the saint. 

' Maed. §§ 40, 45; C. S. c. 228 (§ 7) ; gathered crops, Bo. § 22. 

= Aed, §6; Cain. § 16 ; Car. § 48 ; Coem. § 8 ; Fin. C. § 18 ; Maed. § 36 ; 
Mochoem. § 23 ; C. S. c. 226 (§ 4) ; Adamn. i. 37. Corn after being reaped 
Iiad often to be artificially dried, owing to the dampness of the climate, Ci. C. 
§ 12 : C. S. cc. 378-9 (§ 35, not in M) ; Reeves, Ad. p. 88 note. 

' Br. i. § 23 ; Ci. S. § II ; Coem. 5§ 3, 10 ; Maed. § 5 ; Lug. § 3 ; 'V. Tr. 
p. 12. 

' Ab. § 37 ; Aed, §§ 2 note, 20 (where pigs apparently ' pay the rent ') ; 
Bo. § 12 ; Car. §§ 7-9 ; Ci. S. § 10. The herding of sheep was considered 
more reputable than that of swine, and thereforc the swine of the youthful 
Molua are made to appe:ir as sheep, Lug. § 5. Sometimes this change is made 
by the scribes of these lives, see Lug. § 15 note. For the same reason goats 
are turned into kine, C. S. c. 227 (§ 5I. 

= Ab. § 7 ; Aed, § 22, cf. ib. § 9 ; Ber. § 8 ; Bo. §§ 20, 22 ; Ci. C. § 15 ; 
Fech. § 7. For the making and washing of butter cl^. C. S. c. 283 (§ 59, not 
in M) ; Lib. Land. p. 129 (136). Butler was used for lamps instead of oil, 
Capg. i. 446. 

* Cf. the explanatory note iiisertcd by the scribe of LU. 128 ( = Ir. T. i. 136) : 
' ni bid clad, na hairbe, na caissle, im thir i n-h Ere isind amsir anall, co tanic 
remis mac n-Aeda Slani, acht maigi reidi,' i. e. there was neither mound nor 
hedgc nor stone walis round land in Ireland then. until the tinie of the sons of 
Acd Slane (seventh century), but unbroken plains. In Tr. Th. p. 534" (§ 61) is 
a curious instance of the unpopularity caused by the stopping up of paths 
involved in enclosing ; * omnes . . . uno ore malcdicentcs te, eo quod agricola 
tuos agros sepibus municns, commutauit omnes uias planas . . . in aspcras.' 

' Cain. § 2 note ; Car. §§ 7-9 ; Ci. C. §§ 4, 5, 8 ; Coem. § 3 ; Fcch. § 7 ; 
Fint. § 3 ; Mochoem. § 27 ; Lug. § 2. 

* Ail. § 34 note ; such animals were impounded until the damage was made 
good, Bo. 5 22 ; Lug. § 2. Children wcre also set to guard growing grass from 
straying animals, Fech. § 6. It seems to have been a frequcnt torm ofoppression 
by powerful persons to send their cattle and horses to grazc in the lands of their 
weaker neighbours, Fech. § 6 : Mochoem. § 19 ; LS. pp. 63. 69 ; V. Tr. p. 228 ; 
C. B. S. p. 258 : an intcresting secular parallel, R. C. .w. 481. In other cascs 
the keeping of the chiefs liorses was a legal obligation, Cron. § 24 ; cf. Acc. 
.Sen. p. 130. It seems to havc becn the custom for herdsmen to go round with 
thcir flocks and make a tour of summer grazing ; this was called • cuairt buaill- 
tcchuis ', T. C. D. 1346, H. iv. 4. p. 149 (Cocmgrn). It is obvious that the 
temptation to trespass would bc strong ; cf. Pagan Ireland, p. 238. 

' Miraclcs to prevent this are frequcnt, Bo. § ai ; Lug. § 4 ; C. S. c. 281 


St. Munnu ' ; cattle-reiving, the capital oflence of a pastoral society, 
was frequent", and mutilation of cattle was not unknown'. 

The keeping of bees is mentioned*. 

Besides the ordinary domestic animals, the nionks of lona had 
a preserve of seals °. 

The kilns for artificially drj-ing corn have been already alluded to. 
There were mills for grinding it, at which customers had to take their 

The artisan was in high repute, and occupied a good social position. 
He might in addition be a warrior. Bairre's father was ' faber 
ferrarius ' to the chief of the district', Ciaran the younger was known 
from his father's trade as 'son of the wright"; Mochoemog's father 
was a craftsman in vvood and stone'; the saints themselves were 

(§ 48. not in M^ ; V. Tr. p. 142 (where ' ni dendais a loig ', ' his calves did not 
suck,' is wrongly translated). The usual way is for the saint to draw a line 
with his bachall between the calves and their mothers which cannot be crossed, 
Ci. C. § 15 ; Fin. C. 5 2 note ; C. S. cc. 229 (§ lol, 305 (5 3, not in M) ; L. S. 
pp. 59, 144; Rennes MS. f. 81". (In the Highlands the Glaistig performs 
this useful office, Campbell, Superstitions. pp. i6o, 162, 167.) The ' bachall ' 
keeps cattle safe generally, Ail. § 8 ; Br. Mac Creiche, c. 12 ; N, and K. 
p. 149- 

» Mun. § 8. 

- Ab. § 37 ; Bo. § 12; Coem. 5 10 ; Ger. 5 11 ; ' abactores, quibus semper 
Hispano more tellus Hybernica abundat,' C. S. cc. 655, 665-7. ^ee Addenda. 

* L. S. p. 87 : ' gerrtur a n-indile, 7 buailter a n-aighedairedha,' i. e. their 
cattle are mutilated ^lit. cut ; wrongly translated ' diminishcd ') and their herds- 
men beaten. In C. B. S. p. 42 is a curious instance of the ears and lips of 
horses being mutilated by way of insult and revenge ; this seems borrowed 
direct from the secular literature, Mabinogion, ed. Rhys and Evans, pp. 28 ff. ; 
ed. Guest, iii. 84 ff., 106 ff. The manes of horses are plucked off as an iosult, 
Oitte, p. 36. 

* Bo. §§ 30, 31, where the saint is said to have understood the bees' language. 
Bees, according to the tradition, were introduced into Ireland from Wales by 
St. Modomnoc, Fel,- pp. 74-5, 112, 465 : Colgan, A. S. p. i^^'' (5 17) ; C. B. S. 
p. 134 ; Gir. Cambr. Opp. v. 29. 56; Magh Rath, pp. 34-5. St. Gobnat is 
regarded as the special patroness of bees, Elder Faiths, i. 228. In Eriu, ii. 82, 
is a pretty story from Liber Flauus Fergusiorum, how bees wrought a shrine of 
wax for the Host which a careless priest had dropped. The folk-lore of bees 
is very voluminous ; cf. Grimm, ii. 695-7; '■'• '235; iv. 1496; Aur. Leg. 
p. 28. 

' Adamn. i. 41. 

' ' interuallum,' Lug. § 11 (the mill stops because the saint is not granted 
a turn) ; ib. § 21. There are water-mills, Fech. 5 14 ; C. S. c. 232 § 15 ; hand- 
mills or querns, L.S. p. 122 ; and mills the nature of which is not indicated, 
Ci. C. §§ II, 15. 19 note ; Maed. § 23 ; Lug. § ai ; L. S. p. 60. All these mills 
grind of ihemselves to save the saint trouble. But there are mills which will 
not grind stolen wheat. N. and K. pp. 368-9 ; Colgan, A. S. p. 635" (§ 7) ; Ir. 
Nenn. p. 216 (^ Gir. Camb. v. 133). This last mill refuses also to grind on 
a Sunday. 

' Ba. § 2. 

' Mac in t-iaeir (M^^Intyre), Ci. C. § i ; cf. Ita, § 18. 

' Mochoem. § i ; Ita, § 18. 

rLt.'M.M£R g 


often skilful artisans'. Brendan had goldsmiths working for hlm '. 
Yct for all this there remained something uncanny about the smith or 
wright. He ranked, as we shall see, with druids and others whose 
knowledge was regarded as more than human. A celebrated 
character in Irish mythology was Gobban Saer, or Gobban the 
Wright, who has passed on somc of his characteristics to saints of 
the same name'. 

A special kind of artisan was the rath-buiider, or maker of fortifica- 
tions. \Ve hear of one who aftcr building a triple rath' received as 
his fee as much as the rath would hold of cattle '. We find a rath 
built round a monastery or cemetery^; while the statements that 
a chief surrendered his rath entirely to the saint ' are borne out by 
instances in which we find ruins obviously ecclesiastical surrounded 

* Comgall. § i6 ; Daig mac Cairill, who was scribe as well as artisan, C. S. 
cc. 892-4, 897, 900 (§5 3, 5, 6, 13, 27) ; cf. Fel.' p. 186; Tassach, ib. p. 1 14 ; 
Conlaed, ib. p. 128 ; Gildas, C. B. S. pp. 59, 175. A late legend of Ciaran of 
Clonmacnois in this character, Oss. Soc. v. 84. In Moling § 13 the makingof a 
' liorologium ', perhaps a dial, is mentioned. A large stone was needcd for it, 
possibly as a pedestal. See Addenda. 

^ Cain. § 43, Some monasteries appear to have had hereditary artisans or 
' cerds ' attached to them ; see Christian Inscriptions, ii. 159 ; and we seem to 
have a glimpse of an hereditan,' caste or tribe of goldsmiths in the Cerdraighe 
of Munster, ^^.320*^52 ff., Rawl. B. 502 f. 73", Laud6io f. loi'', Misc. Celt. Soc. 
p. 10. M. and C. iii. 207. Bri Gobann, ' Hill of the Smiths,' got its name frora 
an hereditary caste of smiths, L. S. p. 88. Hcreditary serfs, Ab. § 47. 

^ See below, pp. clxiii f 

* Aed. § 9 note. Giraldus speaks of * fossata . . . plerumque triplicia '. Opp. 
V. 182 ; he atlributes them to tlie Northnien, A famous instnnce is Navan 
Fort near Armagh. Forgall Manach's 'diin' had three ' lisu ' or ramparts, 
R. C. xi. 452. He was a famous mythical character. A yet more famous one, 
the Dagda, was a noted rath-builder, ib. xii. 64 ; cf. M. and C. lii. 14 ff. Herc 
again something uncanny attached to their skill. On the Gaulish druids as rath- 
builders see an interesting chapter in Bertrand, Religion dcs Gaulois, pp. 245 ff. 
He suggests that the original purposeof the rath raay have been, in some cases, 
religious, ib, p. 90. For the skill of the druids in otlier branches of craftsman- 
ship cf. ib. pp. 298, 365, 369, 379. A raagic rath is mentioned Laud 610 
f. 95''" : ' Raith Ailella . . . atcither di chein, 7 ni fagabair i n-ocus,' i. e. the 
Rath of Ailill which is seen afar, and never found anear. So that here, as in 
other cases ^below, pp. clxv ff.), the Christian saint may havc inherited some of 
the characteristics of his druidical predeccssor. 

' We hear complaints as to the excessive fees charged by artisans, Ab. § 42 ; 
cf. Decl. § 30. 

* Ger. § 10; Tig. § g ; C. S. c. 198 (§ i6> : ' fundauit ecclesiam, atquc in 
circuitu eius fossauit ' ; C. B. S, pp. 17, 34 : ' uastus aceruus de terra,' cf. p. 57 
(at p. 44 it is ' castellum ', Ir. caisel. or stone fort). ib. p. 88 ; Rennes MS. f. 79** : 
'claidit na manaigh mur mor tirachell na cillc,' i. e. the monks dig a great 
rampart round the cell. In Aed § 18 the monks dig the fosse round the 
monastery, but in the R text this is done by ' fossatores ', professional rath- 
makers ; cf Enda, § 5 ; and Adilenda. 

' Aed, § 34 ; Car. 5§ 17, 39 ; Muchoeni. § 13 ; Lug. § 28 ; Silva Gad. i. 38 ; 
cf. R. C. v. 443. 


by fortifications apparcntly secular in character'. \Ve hear of 
structurcs madc of wattle - and of wood '. St. Cianan's church at 
Duleek got its name from the tradition that it was the first stonc 
church built in Ireland '. 

Another important artisan was the shipwright. The parallel sagas 
of Brcndan in the ecclesiastical, and Maelduin in the secular, literature, 
whatever may be the relationship between them, both show how the 
niagic of the sea appealed to the magic of the Celtic nature ; and the 
union of the two gave birth to a new class of literary production called 
Imrama or voyages. In the Brendan story we find described both 
the construction of a skin-covered coracle and also of a timber-built 
vessel ', This is further illustrated by the constant intercourse, both 

' F-lder Faiths, i. 277. It is not, however, always easy to distinguish between 
the two ; Book of Mulling', p. 181. We find a chief building a church in his 
own rath, Mochoem. § 12. 

'^ Ci. S. § 5 ; Coem. § 19 ; Mart. Don. p. 176 ; L. S. p. 47 ; Capg. ii. 8x ; C. S. 
c. 596 v§ 37, this is in the twelfth century, but was probably only a temporary 
structureX The Welsh word for to build. ' adeiladu,' lit. to weave, implies this 
mode of construction. It is used nearly m its original sense in the Preface to 
the Dimeiian Code : * Y Ty Gvvynn . . . aberis ef y adeilat o wyeil gwj"nnion,' 
i. e. the White House . . . he caused it to be constructed (woven^ of white rods, 
Haddan and Stubbs, i. 212. The name Cell Cleithe (Kilcliel), i. e. Church of 
the hurdle, implies a structure of this kind, Reeves, Eccl. Antiquities, p. 217. 
We learn of l'atrick : ' fecit ibi aecclessiam terrenam de humo quadratam, quia 
non prope erat silua,' V. Tr. p. 327, which implies that the usual material was 
wood. It is interesting to find that the writer of a later life, influenced by the 
custom of his own day, alters this into: 'quia in propinquo non erat lapis,' 
Tr. Th. p. 25^ ($ 541. Joceline combines both, and speaks of the site as 
' lienorum et l.T)icIum expertem '. 

5 Sam. §§6, 15; Mol. §§ 10, II ; C. S. c. 186 (5 33^, c. 571 (§ 13 : 'oratorium 
. , . de lignis . . . leuigatis . . . opits Scoticum,^ this is in the twelfth century ; 
cf. ib. c. 622 : ' in terra illa necdum eiusmodi [sc. lapideal edificia inuenirentur '\ 
c. 671 (§ 28I; Lib. Land. p. 265 2771. Warren, Celtic Liturgy, pp. 85 ff. ; 
Petrie, Round Towers, pp. 126 ff., 141 ff.,348fl.; Bede, ii. 101-2, where addi- 
tional references will be Ibund. 

' Mochua § 8; Daimliac :,Duleek) means ' house of stone'. Ruadan seems 
to have had a souterrain in connexion with one of his cells, § 15 ; cf C. B. S. 
p. 380. 

' Br. i. § 15. ii. 5§ 5, 22 ;coracle) ; Br. i. § 71 (vessel) ; Brendan and his 
companions seem to have built the former themselves, the latter was built by 
' fabri et artifices '. A timber-built vessel is given as a present to a chief, Fin. 
C. § 10. In the secular romances we have ships of bronze, and silver, Ir. T. 
i. 210 ; R. C. vi. 183. xii. 60. xv. 294 ; Acc. Sen. p. 106 ; Eriu, i. 114. One 
such we have in our lives, Ail. § 46 ; but it hailed apparently from the Land of 
Promise. These craft have their own miracles or magic. Like the ships of the 
Phaeacians ^Odyss. viii. 558 ff. they travel of themselves, Ail. § 4 ; Br. i. § 62 ; 
Decl. § II ^cf. Capg. ii. 22 ; Aur. Leg. p. 2681 ; for a ■ long draoidhechta ', or 
magic boat, cf. Enu, iv. 63. So too ships remain miraculously moiionless, 
Ab. §§ 12, 19. Ou exposure, voluntary or involuntary, in a drifting coracle see 
my edition of ihe Saxon Chron. ii. 103-5. The reterences there might be largely 
added to, e.g. Cain Adamn. pp 30, 43; Colgan, A. S. p. 147" (§ 12); Hy Fiachrach, 

g 2 


ecclesiastical' and secular^ with Britain both north and south ; and 
Britain was for passengers the usual way to the Continent'. Fishing 

* On this see below, pp. cxxiv fi". 

' Commercial, C. S. igt (§ 4^). Gold is imported from Britain, C. S. c. 388 
(5 53' cited Cain. 5 43 note ; unless Sir John Rhys would say that Britain here 
means Hades, as in some culture mj-ths, Hibbert Lcct. pp. 90-1). We have 
mention of a ' marggad gall 7 deorad ic creicc oir 7 argait *, i. e. a market or fair 
of foreigners and strangers selling gold and silver, LL. 215" 19. but it is not said 
whence they came. We hear of ' pure white silver of Spain ', ib. 256'' 49. 
Wine was imported from Gaul, Ci. C. § 31 ad fin. ; cf. R. C. xi. 442; Misc. 
Celt. Soc. p. 12 ; Rawl. B. 502 f. 72**. (On the direct trade tjetween Ireland 
and Gaul see papers by Zimmer in Sitzungsb. d. preuss. Akad. 1909. "i Miitual 
piracy and invasion between Britain and Ireland occur both in the ecclesiastical 
and secular literatures, and hence captives and slaves and political refugees be- 
longing to one island are found in the other, Ail. § i and note ; see above, p. x.kx, 
note 5 ; Tig. § 3 ; C. S. c. 915 (§ i) ; L. S. p. 88 ; Rua. 5 15 ; Lib. Land. p. 3 (i) : 
' captus . . . a piratarum classe . . . solilo iitoic ductus in captiuitatem in Hiber- 
niam '; C. B. S. pp. 97, loi ; Three Fragm. p. 104 ; R. C. xxii. 30, 40-1. 291, 
310, 324 (these references are from the famous tale Bruiden da Derga, the whole 
plot of which turns on the mutual piracy between the two islands") ; xxiv. igo. 
Pirates in Ulster are mentioned C. S. c. 227 (§ 6), c. 919 (§ 10), but their origin 
is not stated ; pirates from Gaul, ib, c. 358 (§ 49^ c. 915 (§ 2V An Irish wright 
is driven by want to settle in Wales, C. B. S. p. 47. A diflicult case is referred 
for decision to Aedan mac Gabrain, king of British Dal Riada, Ber. § 14. But 
we do not find such assertions of the exercise of political sovereignty by the 
Irish in Britain as we have in the secular tales, LL. 300" ( = R. C. xiii. 56) ; 
LU. 126" 16 ff., LL. 171'' 46 ff". ; R. C. x.>civ. 176 ; Ir. T. 11. i. 178 ; cf. Cormac, 
GIoss. p. 29 (Trans. p. iii) ; R. C. v. 200. British kings are said to have been 
buried at Glendalough, Br. Coemgen, c. 11. Even after the Dalriadic colony in 
Britain had thrown ofi" all political dependence on Ireland, it still formed part 
of it so far as language, traditions, and culture were concerned. From the 
dedications to Irish saints in Scotland we have seen that the sea was no barrier 
to them and to their fame. Here again they may have been preceded by the 
druids ; ' dia n-dechaid . . . Riiadan for cuairt clcircechta . . . tainic araile drai 
d' feraib Alban for cuairt bid go feraibh Erenn,' i. e. while Ruadan was on a 
clerical tour there came a druid of the men of Alba on a g^iestiiig tour to thc 
men of Erin, Br. 2324 f. 160 v** ; C. S. c. 903 ; C. B. S. p. 124 ; Ir. T. 11. i. 240 ; 
Kcating, iii. 58. Poetry ifilidecht, ecse\ so closely connected with druidism, 
was also learnt in Scotland, LL. 55'' 12 ; R. C. xxvi. 8. Patrick prophesies 
that ' Erin atid Alba ' will be full of Ciaran*s praise, Fel.- p. 204 ; the clergy are 
the ' cliara Krend 7 Alban ', Z. C. P. iii. 518 ; just as the fians of the Find cycle 
arethe 'Fianna Erend 7 Alban', R. C. xxii. 315 : Acc. Sen. 11. 489, 1661, cf 5526, 
6575. So ' sancti Hibernie seu ( - et) Sencie ', C. S. cc. 644 fi'., where ' Scocia ' 
is used in the modern sense. A powerful monarch cxacts ' the hostagcs of Erin 
and Alba", Magh Rath, p. 4. In the older cycle also it is said : ' ni fuil i n-Erind 
no i n-AIbain 6clach macsamla Conchobair ', i. e. there is not in Erin or Alba a 
warrior who is Conchobar's peer, T. B. C. p. 109. In 1169 Rory 0"Connor, 
king of Ireland, endowed the leclorship of Anuagh with ten cows annually for 
the instruction of the studcnts of Erin and Alba, Ann. Ult. sub anno. Alba was, 
howcver, considercd inferior in ' scelaidecht ', or story-telling, Oss. Soc. v. 106. 
As I have shovvn elsewherc, Bede, ii. 135, it was the Scandinavian invasions 
which first brokc up this unity of Erin antl Alba by driving a wcdge in betwcen 
them. The spiritual and literary union was finally broken by the Reformation, 
R. C. ix. 144. 

' Ab. § 12 ad fin. ; Decl. § 11 ; Enda, §§ 8, 22 ; cf. Aur. Leg. pp 879, 894. 
So in the secular Irish tales ' documlat tar muir, tar Saxoin tuascirt tar muir 
n-Icht,' i. e. they sct out across the (Irish) sea, across tlie north of England, 


both in salt-watcr and frcsh is often mentioncd ; and the way in 
which saints are said to have brought fisli to or banished them from 
certain localities' seems to indicate that the migratory fish were as 
capricious in their visits then as they are now. Fishing rights, then 
as now, caused disputes'''. 

Brewing is not unfrequently referred to'. Besides the stoclc 
miracles of multiplying Hquor or turning water into some more 
generous fluid *, and making fountains run with wine, beer, or milk", 
the saint's wonder-working power is called in to assist the ordinary 
processes of brewing". The Irish saints were certainly no bigoted 
teetotallers. Inebriation in the literal sense results from their 
miracles'. It is an aftcrthought when one writer explains this of 
spiritual exaltation *, or when another Hmits to sacramental purposes 
the wine whicli a fountain brings forth." 

Dyeing appears to be an exclusively female mystery "" ; a currier is 
mentioned who is apparently attached to the monastery ". 

Some occupations are hereditary. We have had a glimpse of a 
clan or caste of metal-vvorkers. Hereditary physicians lasted long in 

across the British Channel, Z. C. P. iv. 45 (=LL. 252""''; cf. Dom Louis 
Gougaud, Un point obscur de rilineraire de St. Colomban 1^1907). 

' Ail. 5 36; i3r. i. § 78 (cf. Moran, p. 11) ; Comg. § 13 note ; Enda, § 29 ; 
V. Tr. pp. 34, 36, 70, 142, 146, 148, 210; N. and K. p. 250. The heathen 'file' 
or poet did the like : 'asbert in fili . . . dochechnad for a n-usciu, connagebtha 
iasc i n-a n-inberaib,' i.e. the poet said that he would sing incantations on their 
waters, so that no fish should be caught in their estuaries, Bran. i. 46 ( = M . and C. 
iii. 175) ; cf. Elder Faiths, ii. 13 ; Martins Western Isles, p. 143 ; Outer Isles, 
p. 241. 

' Comg. § 13 note. 

' Cron. § 23 ; Lug. § 42 ; cf. Martin, Western Isles, p. 192. 

* These of course may have been influenced by Biblical miracles, such as the 
Widow's Cruse of Oil, and the Marriage at Cana ; Ultan's Brigit, cc. 23, 26, 104 
(Tr. Th. pp. 529, 540""). A magic vat which turns water to wine, Acc. Sen. 
P- 13- 

f^ Car. § 67 ; C. S. e. 280 (§ 46, not in M), c. 283 (§ 56, not in M) ; C. B. S. 
pp. 28, 208 ; cf. Grimm, ii. 585-6, iv. 1455 ; Saintyves, p. 396 ; Hardy, Holy 
Wells. pp. 7-10. 

' Aed, § 30 note ; Col. E. § 13 note ; Lug. § 42. 

' Cron. § 23 ; Lug. §§ 6, 10. * Ail. § 38 and note. 

^ C. B. S. p. 130 : ' ad efficiendum dorainici corporis et sanguinis sacra- 
mentum ' ; this limitation is not in the Welsh life, ib. p. 108. Gir. Camb. tells 
ol a similar fountain near Cork ; ' quotidie . . . tantum uini reperitur, quantum 
ad missarum solemnia iuxta numerum sacerdotum . . . sufficere possit,' Opp. 
V. 119. The odour of such miraculous vvine remains for years, Ci. C. § 31. In 
the Maelduin story ihere is a fountain vvhich produces only water or vvhey on 
fastdays ; milk on Sundaj's and festivals of martyrs ; wine and beer on the 
greater ecclesiastical festivals ; an obvious christianization, R. C. x. 50. 

'" L. S. p. 121 ; Bo. § 27, where the Irish word for woad, ' glassen ' or 
' glaisin ', is given. For the exclusion of men frora the house vvhile certain 
specially female occupations are being carried on, see Grinim, iv. 1778. 

" Coem. §§ 23, 43; cf. 0'Hanlon, vi. 52, for the tanneries of Glendalough. 
Tanning is mentioned L. S. p. 28. 


Ireland. One faniily of thcm owcd its origin to the blessing of St. 
Declan ^ Of the influence of the Celtic clan system on the Church 
something will be said later ; we seem to trace it even in the 
organization of robber bands -. 

The poets were an important and powcrful class ^. The power 
which they exercised was due mainly to tlie dread of their satire, 
which was believed to raise actual blotches or blisters on the face of 
the person satirized*. But apart from this, the dread of their libels, 
especially of any charge of illiberality or want of hospitality, enabled 
them to enforce successfully the most outrageous demands. The 
secular literature is full of stories of the tyrannj' which they exercised 
in this way ^ One long story is based almost whollj' on this theme''. 
More than once they were threatened vvith total expulsion from 
Ireland because of the intolerable burden which they inflicted on the 
community. More than once the saints interposed to save them by 
imposing limits on these abuses'. So regularly was this power of 
the poets recognized that it is incorporated among the formal 
sanctions of a treaty'. We have the same sort of thing in the lives 

* Dec. § 30 ; F. M. i. 494-5 note ; lar Connaught, pp. 70-1 ; cf. Odyssey, 
iv. 231 ; Mytli, Ritual, &c., ii. 224 [203I ; Grimra, iv. 1652. On Ihe connexion 
of the physician and druid v. infr. p. clxiii. 

* Ger. § II ; C. S. c. 919; cf. Lyall, Asiatic Studies, p. 164. The technical 
Irish name for these marauders is ' dibergaig; ', and their profession is ' diberg ' ; 
these words occur in the S te.xt, see Ail. § 31 note, Cain. § 38 note. Thc other 
te.xts paraphrase ; cf. L. S. p. 89 ; Rua. § 10. They seem to have worn sonie 
mark of their nefarious trade on their heads : ' sumpsitque cum sociis suis 
signa diabohca super capita .i. diberch,' Tr. Th. p. 27" (§ 731 ; ' signa sumens 
nequissima crudelitatis .i. diberca,' V. Tr. p. 286 ; ' sub stigmatibus malignis . . . 
signa diaboH,' Tr. Th. p, 534'' (§ 67^ ; ' habentes stigmata diabolica in capitibus,' 
ib. 535" (§ 69) ; cf. ' scola diaboh uexilla in capitibus habentes ', C. S. c. 279 
(§ 44, not in M ; vvhere ' uexilla' is perhaps a misunderstanding of ' signa ' or 
of some similar word in Irish). For other quotations from the sccular litcrature 
see Zimmer in Gott. gel. Anz. 1891, pp. 188-200 ; Silzungsber. d. preuss. Akad. 
1891, pp. 304 ff. 

^ For their close connexion with the druids see below, pp. clxi f. 

* Br. Berach, c. 23; Three Glossaries, pp. xxxvi ff. ; R. C. xxiv, 278; Oss. 
Soc. V. 20; these satires affected even inanimate nature, T. B. C. p. 789; 
CCurry, M. and C. ii. 70. 

' R. C. viii. 48 ff. (= LL. 114' 5 ff., a lociis classiciis on the subject) ; xxvi. 
22, 40 ; Ir. T, i. 255 ; Magh Rath, p. 40 ; Oss. Soc. iii. 297 ; Martin, p. ri6 ; 
M. and C. ii. 56, from YBL. 126**. Cuchulainn dealt vcrj' summarily with these 
gentry, T. B. C. p. 273 ; LL. 120'' 44 ff. ; cf. Rhys, II. L. pp. 324 ff. ; Joyce, 
Social History, i. 449 ff. We hear of female satirists, Ir. T. i. 71. 

^ Imthecht na Tromdaime ^Circuit of the Burdcnsomc Company), Oss. Soc. v ; 
see the Introduction, especially pp. xxix f, Buffoons (druithi) actcd in much 
the same way, L. S. p. 358 ; see below, p. cvii. 

' Oss. Soc. V. 20 ff. ; Reeves, Adamn. pp. 79 f. ; Keating, iii. 78-94 ; R. C. 
XX. 38 ff. ; L. S. pp. 309, 312, 

' ' Na druid dia rimsad tria brichtu ; na filid dia n glamad,' i.e. the druids to 
bewitch (?) him with spells, tho poets to lampoon him, sc. if hc broke the treat^', 
R.C. xvi. 280 ; Ann. Clonm. p. 39 ; ' dia fhclllair form fiachaib, filid dia n-air 
7 glaim n-dicind, cainte dia silad 7 dia n-gabail duit,' i. e. if I am defrauded of 


of saints ' ; and it looics in some cases as if the saint's iiospitality were 
dictated less bj' Ciiristian cliarity, than by dread of the tongue of 
satire'. But satire was not the only function of the poets ; wc hear 
also, though less frequently, of thcir panegjTics ', for which they 
received guerdon*. 

Grants of land to the saints for ecclesiastical purposes are of course 
frequent. We shall see reason later to believe that in some cases 
these lands had previously been the official lands of the Druids. But 
we do not hear mucli of the conditions on which land was held*. 
Land is granted as far as the eye can sce on a clear day ", or as far as 
the roar of an ox can be hcard'. Land is divided between brothers', 

my dues, poets to satirize and extemporize lampoons, and satirists to circulate 
and sing ^tlie lampoons) against thee, Aislinge Meic Conglinne, pp. 44-7. Their 
power vvas supposed to work even after death : ' Cnan hiia Lolhcha'i]n primeices 
Erenn do marbad. . . . Brenait a n-aen uair in lucht ro marb. Firt filed innsein,' 
i. e. Cuan CLolhchan was murdered. . . . The murderers became putrid in a 
siiigle liour. TViji' was a pofl's inhacle, Ann Ult. 1024; see Ann. Loch Ce, 
1024, where the punishment is different. For schools of poets, cf. R. C. 
xxvi. 12; Kriu iv. 51 ; for heieditar\' poets, &c., R. C. xxvi. 14 note ; Acc. 
Sen. p. 95; Hy Fiachrach, p. 10; Misc. Celt. Soc. p. 28. For their special 
dress, R. C. x.wi. 12 ; Corm. Glossary, p. 36 (Transl. p. 135J ; Magh Rath, 
pp. 66-8. 

' C. S. c. 796 (§11"): ' tres poete aliquid accepturi, et, si non inuenirent, 
ipsum diffamaturi uenerunt ' ; c. 832 , § 15^ ; cf. c. 332 (§ 16 ' mimi et histriones ') ; 
c. 672 (■ ioculatores,' ' satisfac petitioni nostre, alioquin . . . te uituperando 
diffamabimus") ; V. Tr. p. 204 (' praecones ' = druithi, ib. p. Ix ; Br. Coemgen, 
c. 17 (aos ciuil, i.e. musicians) ; Z. C. P. iv. 296-8. In Br. Berach, c. 23, the 
saint interposes miraculously to save a friendly chief from a poet's satire. 

' 'ar sgath a einigh 7 a naire,' i. e. to protect his honour and modesty, Br. 
Coemgen, c. 15 ; in Br. Maedoc, c. 72, it is said that Maedoc distributed his 
possessions to the poor and needy, and to musicians, players, and mcn of 
iearning 'ar sgath a einigh 7 a uaisle 7 a ionnracais', i. e. to protect his honour 
and nobility and excellence; cf. Z. C. P. v. 42 ^of Columba). Giraldus speaks 
of ' hospitalitatis gratia, quam sancti ibidem [sc. in Hibernia] pro uiribus, iwwo 
lottge sttpra ttires . . . exercere solebant', Opp. v. 126. 

' Ci. S. § 14 : ' acta heroum cantant ' ; C. S. c. 202 (§ 23) : ' uenit carminator . . . 
ad sanctum Finnianum, habens secum quoddam carmen magnificum, in quo 
multa uirtutum eius continebantur.' Sechnalfs h^-mn in honour of Patrick, 
' Audite omnes,' is said to have been presented in this way to the saint in his 
lifetime, L. H.- i. 3-6. 

* See below, p. xcii. Br. Berach, c. 23 : ' is e do rad Rathonn do Diarmait 
i (hachaibh molta doroine do,' i. e. it was he who gave Rathonn to Diarmait 
[a poet^, in payment of a panegyric which he made for him. And when Bcrach 
literally stops the poet's mouth, he says : * ni thi aoir na moladh tar an m-belsan 
tre bitlibe,' i.e. neither satire nor panegyric shall cross these lips for ever. 
We hear of 'tir denma . . . admolta Ulad', i.e. makers of the panegyrics of 
Ulster, R. C. xiv. 412 ad calcem ; cf. Keating. iii. 112. We have an instance 
of a poet entering a monastery, C. S. c. 276 ^j 38"! = c. 885 (§ 21". 

' We have seen above, p. xcii, that many of our legends aim at limiting 
secular exactions in the way of entertainment i,Ir oegidecht), &c , LL. 106'' 13. 

' Cain. § 6 note ; V. Tr. p. 148 ; Capg. ii. 184 ; Acc. Sen. p. 148. In a secular 
tale the grant is : 'an ro siacht a radarc . . . co cend sechtmaine,' i. e. all that 
his sight could reach to the end of a week, R. C. x.wi. 30-1. 

' C. S. c. 800 ^§ 2 . 8 Aed, § 3. 


and granted as a dowry ^ Land hunger existed then as now, and the 
plague of c. 665 was invoked to diminish ' congestion " '. Seizin was 
given by a twig or sod '. The growth of enclosures and stopping up 
of paths has been already spoken of. Roads were built by the 
co-operation of tribes*. The use of wheeled vehicles was constant ; 
and they have their appropriate miracles''. 

In the political sphere we have the chief, who is sometimes called 
'rex' and sometimes 'dux'. Above him is the provincial king, and 
over all the high-king, ' rex Temoriae ', or king of Tara. There is a 
special spot for the solemn inauguration of the chief ; and the tanist 
or future chief is elected during the chiePs hfetime '. The chief s 
rath or fort is frequently for greater security in an island in a lough*. 
Robber bands chose islands as their refuges for similar reasons '. 
Hence, as a punishment, the lough is removed or dried up '", or the 
island with the chiefs house is submerged ". Another fact which is 
explained by the weakness of the royal or chiefly power is the pre- 
valence of a system of exacting hostages as a means of giving a ruler 

' C. S. c. 909 (§ g). 

- Ger. § 12, where also the size of the holding is given, 'seven acres of 
smoothe land, eight of rough land, and nine of wood.' 

' ' craobh sheiibhe,' lit. twig of possession, Br. life of Grellan, c. 3 ; the 
formula ' fot fri (or (or) alt(5ir', altar sod, is common for ecclesiastical land. 

* Tr. Th. p. 522 (§ 31) ; we hear of a 'lebar sliged' road book, or itinerary, 
Las. § 18 note ; bridges are seldom nientioned, Br. ii. § 47 ; C. B. S. pp. 68-9. 

"i e. g. Cron. § 22; Tr. Th. p. 532 (,§§ 51-2); Adamn. ii. 43; C. S. c. 358 
(§ 49, not in M) ; Capg. i. 394, ii. 597. 

* Decl. § 22 ; Tr. Th. p. 25" (§ 60) ; Br. Maedoc, c. 19 ; cf. Hy Fiachrach, 
pp. 100. 108, 425 ff. ; Keating, iii. 10 ff. ; Misc. Celt. Soc. p. 86 ; Martin, 
pp. ro2, 241. The inauguration often took place at the tribal sacred tree ; 
the 'terebinthus regum ' of Coem. § 40. Giraldus' curious account of the 
inauguration of the chiefs of Cinel Conaill, Opp. v. 169, has been hotly con- 
tested. Modern researches into totemism make it possible that a basis of fact 
underlies the account. The office of king's bedfellow is possibly alluded to, 
Tig. § 3. The privilege of holding this office is among the saint's ' facbala ', or 
bequests to certain families, Br. Berach, c. 28; Rennes MS. f. 84'; Acc. Sen. 
p. 217. 

' Ab. § 8 ; for monastic tanistry see below, p. cxvii. Conchobar seems to 
dispose of the kingdom after his own death, Oitte, p. 6. 

' Car. § 39 ; Ci. C. § 24 ; Mochoem. §§ 18 ad fin. 30 ; Mun. § 23 ; C. S. c. 350 
(§ 31, not in M), c. 376 (§ 32) ; R. C. v. 443-4 ; xii. 342 ; cf. Pagan Ireland, 
pp. 216 ir. ; Martin, Western Islcs, pp. 58, 240-1 ; Macculloch, i. 141, ii. 235, 
325. The point on the mainland from which the transit to the island is made 
is called 'portus insulae', Mun. § 23. 

* Aed, § 19 ; Gcr. § 11. 

"> Aed, § 19 ; Ci. C. § 24 ; Ger. § 11 ; Mochoem. § 30 ; V. Tr. p. 84. For 
loughs removed for other reasons, Ci. S. § 14 ; Tr. Th. p. 539'' (§ 96) ; C. S. 
c. 192 (§ 4) ; cf. Ann. Ult. 1054. 

" L.S. p. 143 ; Rennes MS. f. 84'' : ' in inis lit asa tancus dom sarugud do dol 
fon loch co brath.' i. e. Iit yondcr island frora which they came to outrage me 
go under the lough till doom. 


a greater hold on his subject chiefs '. This power was often ruthlessly 

exercised ^ There are traditions of hostages being buried alive '. 

The release of hostages in danger is a regular metier of the saint. 

On the other hand hostages were often kindly used, and treated 

rather as foster-children than as hostages*. Assemblies of the tribe 

or kingdom were held for business^ and pleasure"; and the saints 

seem in some cases to have taken a considerable share in political 

rcvolutions '. 

In the legal sphere, accused persons can clear themselves by 

oaths'; various sacred objects connected with the saints being used 

for this purpose, and for the making of binding covenants, death or 

some other dreadful calamity being the penalty of perjury'. The 

institution called by the Norsemen ' self-doom ' '", whereby an injured 

' Ail. ^ 21 : Car. § 12 ; Decl. § 23 (death of hostages by plague is deplored as 
likelv to excite suspicions of treachery'i ; Maed. § 24 vcf. Br. Maedoc, c. 8 : 
'mar fa giiaithbes ag na rioghaibh 7 ag na tigernaibh an tan sin,' i. e. as was the 
usual custom with kings and chiefs at that timc"^ ; Sam. § 12 ; in Br. Mac Creiche, 
c. 10. in a hst of dues proposed to be exacted, is ' bithghiall ', or a perpetual 
hostage. In Br. Grellan, c. 4, a chief is nicknamed ' Fer da ghiall ', i. e. man 
of the two hostages, 'aga rabatar geill Uladh 7 Oirghiall a n-aoinfecht,' because 
he held hostages of the Ulaid and Oriel at the same time. In the hfe of Molaga 
(Stowe MS. ix, pp. 46-7 the surrender of hostages is treated as practical 
resignation : ' ro iodlaic uadh a gialla uile. . . . Ro fiarfaighsit fir Muman don 
righ, cread far dhiochuir uadh a righe,' i. e. he gave up all his hostages. The 
men of Munster asked the king why he resigned the kingship. There was 
a place at Tara called Duma or Dun na n-giall, mound or fort of the hostages 
(R. C. XV. 281, xvi. 50 , or Carcair i^Prison) na n-g., Magh Rath, p. 8. We read of 
Cuithe na n-giall, or pit of the hostages, Br. Abban. c. 3 .altered into ' prison 
for criminals ', Slowe, ix, p, 206^ ; cf. Magh Rath, pp. 6, 12 : ' geill cacha cuicid,' 
i.e. hostages from every province ; R. C. xxiv. 180, 182 ; Acc. Sen. p. 129. 

* Fin. C. § 22 ; Mochoem. § ig ; Tig. 5 15; L. S. p. 10 ; cf. Adamn. ii. 42. 
' R. C, XV, 319; xxiv. 184. 

* Rua. I 16 ; R, C. xxiii. 404. As a rule children are given as hostages for 
their parents, but in C. S. c. 909 (§ lo) we find parents imprisoned as security 
for the good behaviour of their son. 

* Decl. 5 19 ; Ger. § 12. One cause of meeting would be the inauguration 
of a new king or chief. The assembly, Mun. § 26, seems to be an ecclesiastical 
council ; but secular princes are present. 

* Fin. C. § 13 ; the latter kind of assembly is in Irish generally called 
' acnach ', the former ' airecht ', but the distinction is not a rigid one, and the 
same assembly ser\'ed both purposes , cf. infra, p, clxxxi note 17 ; Br. Maed. c. 35). 
The assemblies of the Deisi are said to have been held by night, V. Tr, p, 208. 

' Coem, 5 36; Decl, § ig ; cf, Keating, iii. 54. 

' Coem. § 10 ; Maed. § 50 

' Bells are very commonly used for these purposes, Ci. S. § 4 ; C. B. S. pp. 60, 
66 ; Capg. ii. 107 ; Gir. Camb, Opp, v, 179 i who notes that oaths on bells and 
bachalls were more frequent than on the gospels 1 ; Lib. Land. p. loi (106) ; 
Br. Mac Creiche, c. 17; hence a bell is called 'mind cotaig ', i. e. covenant 
relic, Rennes MS. f. iSfl. A gospel or missal written by a saint, C, B. S, p. 66 ; 
a saint's knife, ib. ; stone on which saint was born. or which stands near his 
tomb, V. Tr, p, 8 ; C. B. S. p. 69 ; cf. Magh Rath, p, 82 ; Elder Faiths, ii. 65-6 ; 
Martin, Western Islands, pp. 167, 226, 259 ; cf. Hastings, Dict. Bib. v. 128". 
See below, pp. clxxvi f. 

'" Sjalf-dacmi; inlrish= 'abrethfein', 'ariar fein,'one'sownjudgement, orwill. 


person vvas allowcd to assess his own damages or reward, occurs 
frequently in tlie Irish lives ' ; I have only found one allusion to it in 
the Latin lives (Dec. § 19). A chief submits to Fechin by placing the 
sainfs foot on his own neck^. From the number of prisoners 
released by the saints we shall see that imprisonment was a common 
form of punishment. The death penalty was frequently exacted ; in 
one case it is inflicted by drowning, in another by burning', in a 
third by ' crucifixion ', by which hanging is probably meant *. 

In regard to the family we have one or two traces of a state of 
things anterior to the institution of monogamy. A man, apparently 
a Christian, has twowives^. Children are exposed and liilled", or 
sold in the evil days of famine '. Fosterage * is a great Celtic institu- 

' e. g. L. S. p. 87 ; Br. Mac Creiche, cc. 3, 10. It is common in the secular 
literature, e. g. LL. iii''35; GG. §70; Silva Gad. i. 83. 

^ R. C. .\ii. 352, and Stokes' note a. 1. ; (cf. Josh. x. 24 1 ; there is a curious 
form of submission by the defeated party takmg the point of the conqueror's 
svvord into his mouth, Z. C. P. iii. 212-13. 

' C. S. c. 909 (§ 10) ; Ba. § 2. I have already spoken of exposure in a coracle 
as a form of punishment ; and burial alive (which occurs only in the secular 
literature) ; burning alive is nientioned as a punishment in one of the romances, 
but in a very mythical passage, Eriu, iii. 150-2 ; see also Keating ii. 314 ; a man 
is thrown over a cliff by his enemies, C. S. c. 909 (§ 11 !. I have already spoken 
of the cruel command to treat the infant Munnu in the same way, Cain. § 2t ; 
cf. Bran, i. 272; Hdt. iv. 103; and for asimilar test of obedience,Capg. i. 411. For 
a curious mode of detcrmining the person on whom devolved the office of 
avenger of blood, cf. Oitte. p. 24. 

* Coem. § 47 ; cf. Ir. crochad. 

^ 'secundum legem illius temporis,' Br. i. §98; this explanation is not in 
Capgrave, i. 152 ; cf. L. S. p. 90. In the secular tale of the birth of Aed Slane, 
in which, however, Finnian of Movilla and Aed mac Bric play a part, the king, 
Diarmait, has two wives, if not more, and the prelates seem to make no objection 
(L. U.53-4; printed in Silva Gad. i.82-4; perhaps, however, as Mr. Nutt suggests, 
Bran, ii. 83, these prelates have taken the place ofdruids in the original versiou). 
Aed. son of Muiredach, King of Connaught. is represented as resenting bitterly 
Patrick's insistence on monogamy, Acc. Sen. pp. 176-7 ; Finn had three wives, 
and Sanb had seven, ib. pp. 60, 140. Two sisters are married simiiltaneously 
to the same man, R.C. xv. 317; cf. Macculloch, Childhood, p. 9. (For the 
ring in marriage cf. Fcchin, § 8.) In the Irish lives the standard of sexual 
morality is low ; the worst picture in this way is in the Br. life of Cuimine 
Foda. When the fact of his incestuous birth came to light. Ita, a virgin saint, 
is represented as exclaiming, ' nach olc an gniomh e, uair as gniomh diadha 
dcghrathmar e,' i. e. not evil is the deed, for it is a divine deed and full of grace, 
Br. 2324, f. 51 v". 

« Ail. 5 I ; Ba. § i ; Co. E. §26; LL 286'' 47; Brev. Aberd. Pars Hiem. 
Propr. Sanct. fV. 24 v". 26 v" ; cf. V. Tr. p. 355 1 abandonment to the Church, 
and no doubt many infants vvho otherwise would have perished were nurtured 
by the Church ; cf. Br. Berach, c. 26). In Ir. T. iii. 189 the exposure of an 
infant is forbidden by a fair>' ; cf. R. C. xxii. 390 ; Keating, ii. 314. 

' L S. p. 56. 

' In F. M ii. 976 we have a striking example of the way in which the tie of 
*kinship by the milk ', as it is called in India (Lyall, Asiatic Studies, p. 221), 
took prccedence even of the tie of kinship by the blood : ' Amhalghaidh . . . do 
marbhadh dia athair 7 dia derbhrathair lon i n-dioghail a n-dalta, i.Conchobhar 


tion. We find it mentioned in tlncse lives', but generally in thc 
form of fosterage in a monastery ', or with some feniale saint vvith 
a vievv to the fosterling^s fiiture ecclesiastical career ^ We have the 
vvell-icnovvn Irish unit of value, the ctiinat, ancilla, or fcmalc slave '. 
Hot stones or metal balls are used for cooking", and for warming 
drinks". Clothes made of skin and of linen are mentioned ', and we 
have an elaborate description of a type of splendid and of sordid dress 
in thc case of two monastic fosterlings *. We hear of a military 
dandy vain of his hair°, and of another vvho artificially coloured his 
eyelids '", but the standard of personal cleanliness cannot have been 
high when a saint could bid a child kill the vermin in his tunic or in 
his head"; and there was a total absence of sanitary arrangements ". 
Of games ball and dice are mentioned " ; but we do not hear 
either of draughts (fithchell) or hurly, vvhich occur so frequently in 
the sccular tales. We find an Irish ' ioculator' or buffoon at a British 
court '*. 

. . . do marbliadh laisiom ', i. e. Amalgaid was slain by his own father and brother 
in revcnge lor his having slain their loster.child, Conchobar ; cf. Magh Rath, 
pp. 134-5. notes, and ib. p. 294, where is a proverbial saying that two-tliirds of 
a child's disposition depend on its ' daltacht ', or fosterage. The Welsh word 
for ' friend ', n/rtiV/, means foster-brother, Ir. coiiwlta ; the O. Norse frkndi 
means ' kinsman '. Teutonic friendship is based on blood-liinship, Celtic friend- 
ship on milk-kinship. We find a name, patronymic in form, given from the 
foster-lather and not from the real father, Petrie, Tara, p. 118, from B. Lecan, 
f. 306". In Oitte, p. 16, is a curious use of ' comalta ' for children born at the 
same time, though they never see each other. 

' Fint. § II. 

^ Ber. § 9 ; Mochoem. § 31, Mun. § 21 ; N and K. p. 151. 

^ Br i. §§ 3, 4, 8, 71, 92 ; Cain. § 25 ; Ita. § 24 ; Mochoem. §§ 8, 14 ; Sam. § 18. 

' Fin. C. § 17 ; an "ancilia ' freed as an act of merit, C. S. c. 183 (§ 29). The 
ancilla is often mentioned, the male slave very rarely, Ail. §§ i, 3 notes. 

" Mun. §6. 

* Lug. § 17 ; Br. Berach, c. 17 ; Ir. T. II. i. 179 ; so for heating a bath, B. B. 
262" 56. 

' Maed. § 47 ; Mun. % 22, note ; C. B. S., p. 128 ; cf. Elder Faiths, i. iio. 

' C. S. c. 405 . § 24 ) ; the description is omitted in M. In C. B. S., p. 44, the 
coccit/a, cloak or plaid. is mentioned as a specially Irish dress. 

" Coem. §41; women washing their hair, Aed, § 30 ; a wooden comb, C. S. 
c. 176 § 19, which was, however, only used once a year ! 

'" C. S. c. 429 (§ 24) : 'sicut moris est.' 

" Co. E. ^ 34, note ; Lug. § 7, note ; M discreetly omits these details ; cf. 
C. B. S. p. 126. The sheen of a sword gives light enough to catch a flesh worm, 
R. C. xxii. 202 ( = L. U. 90'' ad calcem} ; cf. Dicuirs well-known saying about 
the nights of the Arctic Circle. 

'- C. S. c. ao6 (§ 30) ; Hib. Min. pp. 71-2. 

'3 Ber. § 14 ; Lug. § 27. 

'* N and K. pp. 226-7 ! he makes the usual unreasonable demands of his class ; 
V. p. cii note 6. In the secular tales the buffoon (^druth) often wears a diadem 
(mind~i and other royal trappings, and is treated as a sort of mock Uing, e. g. 
LL. 248''; R.C. xxiv. 144 ; one lucklessdruth gets killed by Cuchulainn under the 
impression that he is the king, T. B. C. p. 411. 


But the chief amusement was war, and a very brutal sport it was. 
Decapitation of slaughtered enemies was constantly practised '. Even 
women were not exempt from this barbarous trcatment '^. The 
fiendish exultation over a fallen foe is mentioned frequently as a 
cause of annoyance to the saints'. The prevalence of war and other 

' Fint. § 13 ; Ita, § 18 ; Mochoem. §§3. 27 ; Mun. § 18 ; C. S. c. 247 (§ 26. 
not in M ), c. 910 (§ 14); Adamn. i. 12, 39. Decapitated persons are raised 
to life again, Aed § 12 ; Bo. § 16 ; C. B. S. p. 47 ; this last is the only Celtic 
instance wliich 1 have iound of the praclice. so common with other decapitated 
saints, ofcarrying theirown heads, a class of lcgends due to sculpture, Saintyves, 
p. 123 ; there are, however, secular parallels, Fled Bricrend^, p. 112 ; Grimm, 
iii. 944. In Br. Berach, c. 29. ninc *dibergaig' kill one of the saint*s monks: 
'7 tangattar iter a chend 7 a cholann.' i. e. and went between his head and his 
trunk, probably to prevent the ghost from walking fthough the Icelandic phrase 
' ganga milli bols ok hOfu>5s' merely means to kill outright, Cleasby-Vigfusson, 
s. V. hbfuS^. Sitting on the head of a decapitated foe had the same object, 
Three Fragments, p. 212 ; vvhile in Iceland the sameend wasattained by burning 
the corpse, FornsOgur, p. 144. Conall Cernach never slept without the head of 
a Connaught man under his knee, LL. 107" 22 ; Hib. Min. p. 55 ; and it was 
one of Fothad's taboos (gessa) ' not to drink without the heads of dead men 
before him ', R. C. xiv. 242. The object was partly to exhibit the heads as 
trophies, partly to terrorize the surviving enemies ; cf. T. B. C. pp. 159, 166, 
177, 243, 395; Cath Finnlraga, pp, 20, 79: Magh Rath, pp. 40, 260-2; Acc. 
Sen. pp. 8. 54,214; R. C. xiii. 60, xiv. 410, xv. 289, 479, xxiv. 62; Oitte, 
pp. 4, 28, 36. 40, 42 ; F. M. i. 500, 502. The heads were impaled, R. C. xiv. 428, 
xvi. 137, xxiii. 416, xxix. 126 ; Eriu, iii. r66 ; Acc. Sen. p. 49 and note ; Ir. T. 
II. i. 176 ; or piled in a cairn, R. C. xiii. 52 ( = LL. 299'' 32-3; ; Oss. Soc. iii. 210 ; 
cf. Elder Faiths, i. 328. The custom was a very ancient one, see the passages 
collected by Windisch, T. B. C. pp. xxiii f. ; and it lasted late, see Marlin, p. 278 ; 
The Heart of Midlothian, c. 52. It is less barbarous when a man cuts off the 
tress of a fallen foe as a trophy (comartha), Br. Berach, c. 23 sub fin. 

^ Coem. § II ; Co. E. §32. where S adds ; ' ut moris erat in illo temporc 
interficere feminas ' ; C. S. c. 342 (§ 16, = Aed § 12, where M has altered the 
' tres puelle' into ' tres uiri') ; ib. c. 832 (§14); Br. Coemgen, c. 18; Cain 
Adamn. §3 : ' ar ba cenn mna no da cich no berthe i tasilbath in tan sin,' i. e. 
for it was the head of a woman or her tvvo breasts that used to be taken as 
trophies in those days. It was tlie Cain Adamnain which put an end to the 
service of women in war. In the old heroic days there were many Irish 
Amazons, such as Ness, the mother of Conchobar, LL. io6'*, and the famous 
Medb, queen of Connaught ; Scathach, the military instructress of Cuchulain ; 
cf. Ir. T. II. ii. 149 ; R.C. xxi. 395. In C. S. c. 247 (§ 25) we have a queen of 
Dal n Araide slain in war ; M (,AiI. § 21) has obliterated this trait. 

^ Col. E. § 8 ; Enda, §2 (' carmen ') : Fin. C. §16, note : ' ne ulularent, si 
uinccrent ' ; Fint. § 13 ; Mun, § 18 and note ; C. S. c. 407 (§ 25' . The ordinary 
Latin term fnr this is ' iubilatio", in Irish ' ilach or nuall commaidmi ', R. C. xvii. 
137 ; Threc Fragments, pp. 40, 206. There is an intcrcsting referencc to obliga- 
tion to military scrvice in C. B. S. p. 56 : ' pergant tecum in cxercitu ad prelium 
trihus diebus et tribus noctibus, ct si amplius tecum ierint, cibabis eos ' ; an 
attacking band all plungc their swords into a murdcred man's corpse, no doubt 
to prevent the blood feud being fixed on any one individual, ib. p. 78 (this 
happens in Irclandi. Invadcrs are accompanicd by a band of music, 'aes 
ciuil,' ' combad leiriti a n-airgni,' that their ravages may be more cffective, 
Cath Ruis,§3( = LL, i^i^s^ff.). For other war customs cf. Oss. Soc. iii. 164, 
198 ; Three Fragments, p. 180 ; Martin, pp. 102-3 For the savagery of war 
cf. T. B. C. p. 643. Thc horriblc practice of tossing childrcn on spcar-points is 
shown by ils name, • gall-cherd,' i. e. foreign art, to be an importation of the 
Norsemen, Cain. §34 ; C. S. c. 928 (§ 9) ; sce Glossary, s. v. 


troubles caused treasure to be buricd '. Trcasure trove belonged 
apparcntly to the king ^ 

The ininiic vvar of the chase vvas highly popular, as is shovvn by 
the number ot" stories in vvhich the huntcd beast is rcscucd by the 

The burial customs of the Irish are vividly portrayed ; the un- 
restrained lamentation for the dead, the kecning*, which is regarded 
as somevvhat hcathenish ', as is also the prolongcd wake^ ; still more 
distinctlj' hcathen seenis to be burial under a cairn of stones, yct we 
find it practiscd in thc case of a Christian '. The pagan custom of 
upright burial is mentioned in one or two of the Irish lives^, but not 

' ' dorat '^in delg] i talmain iar tnaidm air chatha for Ulto,' i. e. he buried the 
brooeh in the earth, after the defeat of the Ultonians, R. C. viii. 52 (= LL. 
1 15"^ ; cf. Rua. § 8 ; Z. C. P. iv. 298. The head of a family reveals his hoards 
to his sons at the approach of death, L. U. 70". There is a story of King Mael- 
sechlainn ob. 862^ burying treasure, and killing the gillie who helped him, lest 
he should betray Ihe hoard, R. C. xxvi. 366. As the saints discovered these 
hoards by their miraculous povvcrs, so the Danes are said to have discovered 
them ' tre geintlidecht ', by paganism, i. e. inagic, G. G. § 69. 

' Cron. § 27. * vide infra, p. cxli. 

' ' ululatus,' Ab. §47; Ba. §8; Ita, §30; ' lamenta,' Br. i. 511; cf. Tig. 
55; C. B. S. p. 47 ; Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 157 ; Elder Faiths, i. 309 ff. ; Martin, 
p. 294; Saintyves, pp. 64-5; the hand-smiting, 'manuum lamentatio,' Ab. 
§ 34 ; ' complosis manibus,' Maed. § 43 (V), Ir. lamchomairt, is penitential rather 
than funereal. 

° 'Consanguinei . . . plangentes fecerunt saeculares exequias,' infra ii. 10, 

* 'peractis, ut moris erat gentilium, diebus septem exequiarum,' C. S. c. 908 
^l 8). St. David, hovvever, is said not to have been buried till the eighth day, 
ib. c. 755. Burial on the day after death seems to be regarded as the rule, Br. 
Coemgen, c. 10. 

' Adamn. i. 33 ; he was, however. a recent convert ; cf. Pagan Ireland, p. 55 ; 
and vve have already noticed the cairns of heads. The underlying idea is pro- 
bably that contained in a letter ascribed to Theodoret (Ep. i8o) : ' Let every 
one throwa stone on his grave.lest perchance . . . he may return toearth ' (cited 
by Salmon, Infallibility, p. 302;. Or it marks the place where the ghostwalks, 
Lyall, Asiatic Studies, p. 16. Tribal meetings were held at cairns, R. C. xvi. 
142 ; and various ritcs performed there, ib. xvii. 143 ; Hardy, Holy Wells, 
p. 42 ; Marlin. p. 151 ; Grimm, iv. 1744 ; Lang, Custom and Myth, p. 203. But 
Ihey also mark the sites of Christian mlracles, Car. § 60 ; Co. E. § a ; Dec. § 35 ; 
C. S. c. 668. Geoffrey of Monmouth regards burial in a hovve or barrow as 
distinctively heathen : 'iussit eum sepeliri, et cumulum terrae super corpus eius 
pcigaito more apponi,' viii. 7. 

* Silva Gad. i. 50; Loegaire assigns his vvish to be buried in this vvay as a 
reason for rejecting Christianity, V. Tr. pp. 74, 308 ; and he vvas so buried, ib. 
p. 566 ; cf. R. C. xvi. 276 ; Pagan Ireland, pp. 106-7 ; Martin, p. 243 ; Mac- 
culloch, Western Isles, i. 141. The embalmingof a body seems to be regardedasa 
heathen practice, and its effect has to be undone by saying mass before the body 
can be buried in consecrated ground, Fel.^ p. 246. This may be connected with 
the curious idea that the nondecay of a body in the tomb is the effect of a curse, 
V. Tr. p.«i54. In Eyrbyggjasaga, c. 34, the non-decay of the corpse goes vvith 
the 'walking' of the spirit: 'varu allir menn hra:ddir viS aptgOngur JJbrolfs, . . . 
foru upp . . . til dysjar hans ; brjbta dysina ok finna JJorblf par bfuinn,' i. e. all 


in any of our Latin lives. Tlie idea was that in deathi, as in life, the 
chief should stand fronting the foe ; and it was believed that as long 
as he did so, the foe could not prevail '. It was a further develop- 
nient of this idea when the dead body ot a king vvas taken into battle 
in his war-chariot '. 

Persons who died suddenly without the sacraments of the Church 
were not buried in consecrated ground ' ; in some places there were 
separate cemeteries for men and women* ; and we hear of a special 
burial place for exiles and women dying in child-bed ^ One of 
Brendan's companions was buried at sea, and the body remained 
fixed as firmly as if buried in the earth ^. A privilege frequently 
granted to saints is that the royal line of the tribe shall always be 
buried in their cemetery''. Linen shrouds were used for burial*. 

Of diseases the one most frequently mentioned is leprosj', which 
seems to have been terribly prevalent ; and the cure of it is one of 
the most frequent miracles ascribed to the saints ". The plague is 

men were terrified at Thorolf s ' walking^ ' ; they go to his cairn, and break it 
open, and find him there undecayed. On the other hand, the incorruption of 
the body is a sigii of special sanctity, especially of chastity, Fel.- p. 244 ; Bede, 
H. E. iii. 8, iv. 17 (19), 28 (30) ; cf. Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 83. 

' V. Tr. p. 566; Silva Gad. i. 50-1 ; so the head of Bran protected Britain from 
invasion. Rhys, A. L. p. 4. An interesting parallel occurs in Laxdaslasaga, 
c. 17 : ' |)a vil ek mer lata grOf grafa i eldhiisdurum, ok skal mik nii5r setja 
standanda )'ar i durunum. Ma ek ^k enn vendiligarr sja yfir h)'byli min,' i. e. 
I will that they shall dig my grave at the door of my hall, and bury me up- 
right; then shall I be able the more carefully to oversee mv homestead. 

2 Tr. Th. p. 551'' (§ 13) ; L. S. p. 46 ; R. C. xv. 296 ; Rawl. B. 502 f. 47^ 

3 Mochoem. § 18 : special cemeteries for unbaptized children may be found in 
all parts of Ireland to this day. 

* e. g. at Inis Murray, cf. Wakeman's Inis Murray, p. 50 ; Z. C. P. v. 28 ; 
Martin, p. 49. 

6 C. B. S. p. 63. « Br. i. § 73. 

' Ci. S. § 9 ; Coem. § 31 ; Col. E § 23 ; Maed. § 26 sub fin. ; Mochoem. 5§ 16, 
32 ; C. S c. 663 : C. B. S. pp. 63, 85. Thus Clonmacnois was the burial place 
of the kings of Connaught and of the Southern Hy Neill (Meath), Ci. C. §28; 
Ferns for Leinster, Maed. § 43; Glendalough for kings of Ireland and Britain, 
Br. Cocmgen, c. 11. where it is said that Glendalough was one of the four best 
' Romes ' in Ireland ; the use of the word roni, riiatn. in the sensc of cemetery, 
comes, as this passage shows, from the practice of bringing earth from the sacred 
city for the consecration of burial places ; Las. § 24 ; Rennes MS. f. 86*^ ; cf. 
L. Land. pp. 3, 80 (1,83). 

* Fint. § 20 note. 

' Ab. 5 39 ; Aed, 5 10 ; Ber. § 16 ; Bo. § 15 ; Car. § 23 ; Com. §5 14, 54 ; 
Cron. § 6 ; Fech. § 13 ; Las. §§10,30; Maed. §§ 26, 31 ; Mochua, §§ 5, 6 ; Mol. 
§ 15 ; Rua. §§ 19. 22 ; Sam. § 3 ; C. S. c. 674 ; c. 823 (§ 10, not in M\ c. 831 
(§9), c. 919 (§§9, II , c. 927 l§8) ; L S. pp. 28, 123; V. Tr. p. 228; Tr. Th. 
pp. 412" (§ 19), 529" (§ 22), s^^l- (« 58), 537'' (5, 80, 538'- (§ 89), 540» (§ 104) ; 
Capg. ii. 354. A place called ' Vallis Leprosorum ', Lib. Land. p. 217 1227); 
cf. Capg. ii. 94. St. Carthach"s hospital for lepers (Car. §59^ has been men- 
tioned above. There are stories of Christ appcaring in the form of a Icper, 
Irish Moling. §38; Brussels MS. 2324, p. 67 ; Dublin Franciscans, A. ix. 3. 
p. 30 ; Renncs MS. f. 83'' ; Capg. i. 3O9 ; ii. 569. This may be based on the 


more than once alluded to '. We have scen that its visit c. 665 vvas 
ascribed to the cruel prayers of St. Fechin ^. 

On schools and education something vvill be said in connexion 
vvith the monastic system. 

B. Of ecclesiastical matters, as might be expected, we receive 
many interesting iilustrations. 

The centre of the ecclesiastical system is the monastery '. The 
abbot is often the head not of a single monastery but of a group 
of monasteries all owning the same founder* or obeying the same 

legend that He who 'had no form nor comeliness ' was actuallya leper ; which 
may also accouiit in part for the fact that lepers were evidently regarded as 
a privileged class. Their demands were as unreasonable as those of the poets, 
and many inslances are given of their frowardness, the most notable being the 
c.xtraordinary story given in the notes to Fech. § 13, cf. the Irish hfe, R. C. xii. 
342 ; C. S. c. 228 (§ 7. ; Tr. Th. pp. 530 (§§ 33-4), 533» § 55 :, 537" i;§ -^g) ; 
Rcnnes MS. f 77''. Some of the stories are very repuljive, but there may be 
a folk-tale explanation underlying them, like the stories of loathsome animals 
restored to human form when kissed or licked, Macculloch, Childhood, pp. 
256-7 ; cf. Oss. Soc. V. 1 10-12 ; and on the prevalence of leprosy in Ireland, ib. 
pp. 72 3 : F.lder Faiths, i. 98. Bathing in human blood was supposed to be 
a cure, Keating, ii. 322 ; cf. the legend of the healing of Constantine. Z. C. P. 
iii. 227 ; Fel." p. 46 ; LBr. 5", and elsewhere. Syphilis seems also to have 
been prevalent. if we niay judge from the frequent mention of the class called 
in Irish * clarainech ', lit. ' board-faced ', Fel.^ p, 222; L, H.^ i. 119; V. Tr. 
p. 8 iin Welsh ' gwyneb-clawr ', C B. S. p. 104. a parallel miraclei; in Latin 
' habens tabulatam faciem ', Car. § 24 ; Maed. 5 16 ; ' oculorum sedibus nasique 
eminentia carens, totam faciem in modum tabule complanatam gerebat,' C. S. 
c. 783 (§ 8") ; ' sine nare et sine oculis natus,' C. B. S. p. 122. See Addenda. 

' In Irish, ' buide connaill ' (see Bede ii. 194-6 and the references there 
givenl; Dec. §§23, 24; Rua. § 8 note ; Finnian of Clonard is said to have sacri- 
ficed himself for the people, ' ar na heplitis uili don buidhi chonnaill,' i. e. that 
they might not all die of the plague (this would be in 549 ! ; cf. the curious story 
of Eimine Ban printed in Anecdota from Irish MSS. i. 40-5, and translated by 
myself in Eriu, iv, 39 ff. In Adamn. ii. 46, iii. 8, the plague is ascribed to the 
dircct agency of demons. In the Br. MacCreiche. cc. 9, 14, are some very 
curious passages in which the plague appears in a bodily shape as a monster 
(peist or cruiiit which is destroyed by the saint. Possibly some of the many 
stories of the destruction of monsters are to be explained in this way ; see 
below, p. cxxxi.^c. 

* Fech. § 12 ; the same story in L. H.^ i. 25 

' On the monastic constitution of the Irish Church see Bede, ii. 133-5 Tthe 
Maronite system seems to have resembled the Irish, Duchesne, Origines, p. 66], 
cf. Wasserschleben, Irische Kanonensammlung. pp. xxxv ff. 135-6; Bury's 
Patrick. pp. 375 If. In our lives also (,cf. Bede u. s.) the Pope is 'abbas 
Romanus'. Enda, § 20 ; C S. c. 242 §15 (altered to ' papa ' in M~i; and David 
and Gildas contend for the ' abdaine Bretan ', the abbacy ;i.e. supreme eccle- 
siastical authority) of Britdin, L. S. p, 75 ; while the devil is the abbot of Hell, 
L. U. 33' ad calcem = R. C. iv. 252). 

* When we hear of the enormous number of monks under a single abbot we 
must remember that they were not necessarily all in the same monastery ; cf. 
Mochoem. § 9 ad fin., of Bangor : ' in quo el in celiis sub S. Comgallo tria millia 
monachorum fuisse perhibentur' ; cf. Br. i. § 71 note ; Mun. ^ 26 ^1500 monks' ■ 
L. S. p. 79 13000") The larger monasteries were continually throwing off new 
swarms, an ecclesiastical ' uer sacrum ', which settled at a greatcr or less distance 


rulc'. Theirinmates forni tlie monastic 'familia' or ' muintir', and the 
district comprising theni forms the monastic 'parochia', 'fairche', 
or diocese'. But the monasteries thus grouped were not always 
locally adjacent, they might be in diflferent provinces ' or even 
divided by the sea*. And they might include monasteries of both 
sexes'. A meeting of the related communities is called 'synodus 
monasteriorum ', and appears to exercise criminal jurisdiction, in- 
cluding the powcr of life and death ^ No doubt many of our saints 

frora the parent hive, Bo. § lo ; Com. 5 13 and note ; C. S c. 906 (§ 6) : ' unde 
emissis sanctorum uelut apum examinibus, multorum genitor exstitit cenobio- 
rum ' ; cf. ib. c. 569 (of Bangor) ; C. B. S. p. 189. Another way in vvhich 
monasteries might come to be grouped logether would be by the lesser com- 
munities commending tliemselves to the more powerful ones. Many of the 
stories cited above, pp. xci, xcii, probably reflect proce.sses of tliis Ijind. 

' Of special monastic rules founded by Irish saints our lives mention Brendan's 
(Br. i. § 10, partly collectcd from other rulcs, partly dictated by an angel, ' usque 
hodie . . . manet ' I ; Cocmgen's .^Coem. § 48, ' sua regula 'i ; I\Iolua's i.Lug. §47); 
Comgalls ^Mun. § 4 ad fin.); Moclita's 1 C. S. c. 905, ^4). Documents profess- 
ing to be such rules exist. Some of them are in metre ; most of them are rather 
coilections of moral and religious aphorisms_ than monastic rules properly so 
called. Several have been printed, Ailbe, Kriu, iii. 92 ; Ciaran ij which\ ib. 
ii. 227 ; Comgall, ib. i. 191 ; Cormac, ib. ii. 62 ; Patrick, ib. i. 216 ; Anonymous, 
ib. i. 192, ii. 229 ; Mochuda, LBr. 261" 1 Irish Ecclesiastical Record, Vol. I) ; 
Maelruain of Tallaght, a Culdee rule, prose and verse, both printed in Reeves, 
Culdees, pp. 82 fi". (Gir. Camb. mentions Culdees. Opp. v. 80"!. 

' Bede u. s. C. S. c. 320 (| 4, omitted by M) ; Br. i. §§2, ii notes ; Car. 5| 11, 
13, 16, 32 ; Ci. C. § 28 ; Enda, § 27 ; Moling, § 6 ; Lug. § 25 ; Mun. § 16 ; ' fairche ' 
is simply ' parochia' in an Irish dress. Within the ' fairche' dues werc coliccted. 
In the Br. Maedoc, c. 72, the saint says : ' O Eirne go Sionainn . . . fairche mo 
chiosa', i. e. from the Erne to the Shannon is the ' parochia ' of my tribute. We 
have a rent or tribute paid in becr, Maed. § 14 {V). 

^ Thus Mochuda at Rahin still has Kerry as his ' parochia ', Car. 5 20 ; Bangor 
has cells and monasteries ' non solum in regione Ultorum, set per alias Hybernie 
prouincias', Com. § 13; e. g. in South Leinster, Mun. §5 14, 16; wheie the 
parallel passages in thc S' tcxt should be consulted. llence it was easj' to send 
a sick monk to another mona.stery of the order for change of air, Com. § 19 note. 
The intrusion of a saint from another locality was, however, apt to excite tribal 
and provincial jealousies, Car. §58 ; Dec. §§ 14, 18. See Addenda. 

* The most salient instance is that of the Columbite monasteries in Ireland and 
Britain ; see Rceves' Adamnan, AppendicesG, H. Molua ^Dulua) is representcd 
as saying that he had to rule communitics in bolh islands, C. S. c. 650. Of the 
later cases of monastcries of diiferent orders held by the same abbot I have 
spoken above, p. xcii. 

' We have monasteries of womcn undcr the supervision of the bishop, Aed 
§ 16 ; Ci. S. I 8 ; Moling, § 23 ; Tig. ^ 18. St. Moninna, ' episcopum adiens, 
sub eius tutela . . . habitauit, uirginibus ct uiduis quam pluribus ibi congrcpatis,' 
C. S. c. 169 (§ 8). AIso undcr saints who wcre not bishops, Ab. § 32 ; C. S. 
cc. 201-2 ,§ 22!:, 898 ' §§ 15, 16). In somc of thcse cases malc and fcmale com- 
raunities werc close together, cf. Magh Rath, p. 10. The proximity sometimes 
caused scandal, C. S. c. 898, and serious moral dangcr, Ci. S. ^ 24. Boetius 
(Buite) wisely placed Ihe two classes of monasteries far apart from onc another, 
Bo. § 10. 

" Col. E. § 22 note, from S ; it is notcworthy that in M thc jurisdiction is 
cxerciscd by the secular arm. 


were also bishops, but they exercised their jurisdiction as abbots, 
iiot as bishops*. 

I have spoiten above of the monastic enclosure. Within this were 
thc common buildings, the church or churches, and oratories, the 
rcfectory, and, a little apart from the other buildings, the schooP. 
Resides these there were the separate cells'. We find a special 
cell for older monks', for ascetics', for a single anchorite ^. The 
'edes' of Coemgen's monks seem to have been movable'; they 
inust therefore have been either of wood or wattle. In many cases 
the cells would be of the beehive type. We seem to have traces 
of a body of penitents living apart from the rest of the monks'. 

One of the most important biiildings was the guest house or 
hospice', for the reception of strangers. The principle that Christ 
Himself was received in the person of the stranger was strongly 
insisted on '". On this account the best site vvas chosen for the guest- 
house, and special lands were assigned for its maintenance ". The 
national character for hospitality ", and the dread of being satirized 
for niggardliness ", made the Irish saintsextremely touchy as to their 
reputation in this respect". Cronan had to move his monastery 
because it was so inaccessible for travellers'''; St. Attracta vovved not 
to settle except where seven roads met '^. 

' It looks like the reflexion of a later time when we find bishops jealous of 
Mochuda's monastic settlement, Car. § 14. The grovvth of anything like dioceses 
was much later. and they were at first coincident with the tribal boundaries, 
cf. e. g. Misc. Celt. Soc. p. 141 note ; Three Fragments, p. 86 note. We have a 
monastery as ' sedes episcopi ', Tig. § 12 ; cf. Reeves, Culdees, p. 29. It is the 
mark of a still later time vvhen we find allusions to the mutual jealousy of monks 
and secular clergy, Car. § 20 ad fin. ; cf. ib. § 53. Late also is the mention of 
Canons at Ferns, Maed. 5 58 M, see above, p. Ixxv, note 4 ; at Ardmore, Dec. § a6. 
Canons are mentioned. C. B. S. pp. 82-4, 168, 258. 

' ' monasterio aliquid secretum adiacet monasteriolum quod scola dicitur,' 
C. S. cc. 893-4. 

' 'per totas cellas,' Cain. § 22. ' Ci. C. § 31. 

^ Mun. I 6. « Mun. § 28 ; C. S. c. 178 (§ 24). 

* Coem. § 25. 

' C. S. c. 404 (§ 22 ; less clear in M ; cf. Adamn. i. 21, 30, ii. 39). For an 
admirable description of a monastery of the Irish pattern see Reeves, Adamn, 
pp. 334 ff. ; cf. Mun. § 17 ; Aur. Leg, p, 880 ; R. C. v. 437 ; C. B. S. p. 34. 

' ' liospicium,' Cain. § 23; Car. § 15; Cron. § 17; Mun. § 12; ' domus 
hospitum,' Rua, | 23 ; cf. Capg. i. 211 ; in Ir. ' tech noiged', house of guests. 
It is callcd ' castelium hospitum'. C. S. c. 459 (^§ 29, at Clonmacnois), which 
probably implies that it had a ' caisel ' or stone enclosure of its own. 

"" Br, i, § 32; Cron. § 19; cf. Lug. § 51. 

" Lug. § 28 ; in the parallel passage, S' § 34, these lands are called erlluch 
(Ir. erdach, airddach, refection), i. e. mensal lands. 

" Ab. § 1. 13 See above. pp. cii, ciii. 

" See the curious stories, Z. C. P. v. 40 (§ 122), 78 (§ 150). 

'5 Cron. § 17 ; Car. § 61. 

" Colgan, A. S. p. 278' (§ 5) ; so in the secular law the houses of the ' briuga 
cetach' and the ' briuga leitech ' must be near the junction of three roads, Laws, 
V. 76, 78 ; cf. Ir. Moling, § 2 ; C. B. S. p. 167. 



Guests were met in procession and conducted to the church ' ; 
their feet were washed^ ; they were escorted on their way, and a 
guide sent with them when they departed'. The ordinary fasts were 
relaxed in honour of visitors*; and a distinguished guest would be 
asked to celebrate ^. 

In the occupations of the inmates manual labour held a large place, 
nor was the abbot himself exempt from this '. There was a regular 
scheme of rotation ' for the performance of the various duties, in- 
cluding the church services*. Then there was study", and the 
transcription of manuscripts. Many of the saints were themselves 
noted scribes^". There is a pretty story how a bird dropped a feather 
to supply Molaisse with a pen " ; and the beautiful account of 
CoIumba"s last days : ' As he was copying the Psalter, he came to 
that verse where it is written : " They who seek the Lord shall want 
no manner of thing that is good '^." " Here," he said, " at the end of 
the page I must stop ; the rest let Baithine copy'1"' CoIumba"s 
reputation as a scribe is further illustrated by the story that it was 
a quarrel about a copy of a manuscript which occasioned his with- 
drawal from Ireland ". Monastic scribes or scribes attached to special 
saints are mentioned '^ But sometimes a monastery had no scribe 
of its own, and had to borrow one from another community"*. That 

' Br. i. § 30 ; Reeves, Adamn. p. 345. The foreseeing the arrival of guests 
before they come is one of the most frequent miracles ascribed to saints ; see 
below, p. clxx. Women were apparently received in the hospitium of a male 
monastery, Mun. § 12. 

' Ba. § 14 ; Br. i. § 30 ; Ci. C. § 23; Com. § 31 ; Ita, § 20. Pre-eminence in 
this act of charity is promised as a special privilege to a community, ' buaid 
fosaici,* Br. Maedoc, c. 7 i on osaic^ fosaic = obsequium, see Bede, ii. 238), 

^ Ci. S. § 31 ; ' ut moris est,* ib. note ; Coem. § 38 ad fin. 

* Mohng, § 18 ; Rua. § 21 ; Adamn. i. 26 ; cf. Ci. C. § 31. 
' Br. i. § 84 ; Moclioem. § 25. 

' Aed, § 33 and note ; Br. i. § 61 (' monachus labore manuum suanim nutritur 
et uestitur'); Car. §49 (baking") ; Col. E. §§ 15, 16; Com. §5 16, 22; Enda, 
§5; F"int. §§4,7; Mochoem. §26; Moling, §§ 9, 25, 29 ; Lug. 5 51 (cf. S' § 621; 
Mun. §§ 17, 28; C. S. c. 200 (§ 2o"l, c. 276 (§ 38, not in M), c. 646 (§ 3) ; C. B. S. 
pp. 34-5. 127 ; Capg. ii. 200. How severe the labour often was. especially 
under a harsh abbot, is shown by Car. § 20; Kint. § 4, and the pathetic story 
in Col. E. § 16 and note ; cf. C. B. S. p. 127. 

' ' circuitus.' Coem. § 8 ; Ir. tirachell, L. S. p. 85 ; Rennes MS. f. 77'' ; cf. ' in 
die suo', C. S. c. 272 (§ 29). This rotation included the boys of the school, 
C. S. cc. ira/a-l ; L. S. pp. 59, 85 ; Three Fragments, p. 74. 

* 'unusquisque sacerclotura in die suo orterfhat,' Fint. § 14 note. 

' I have already called attention lo Samthann*s wise counsel as to the 
union of study and devotion, above, pp. lxx.\vii, xciv. 

i" Adamnan, Ger. § 15 ; Colman Ela, C. S. c. 439 (§ 42, not in M) ; Daig, 
c. 894 i §§ 5. 61, c. 900 i§ 27) ; Baithine, c. 878 (§ 14) ; Adamn. i. 23 ; Cianan, 
Fel." p. 244 ; Gildas, C. B. S. p. 66 ; cf. Book of Mulling, p. 11. 

" Las. § 18. '^ Ps. xxxiii. (xxxiv.) 11. 

" Adamn. ii. 23. " Reeves, Adamn. pp. 248-9. 

'* Fel.^ pp. 90, 168, 302 ; and frequently in the Annals. 

" Ail. t 33 ; Cron. § 9 ; Las. § 11. Manuscripts were borrowed as wcll as 
scribes, Las. §§ 11, 18. 


thc task of teaching this art was not an easy one is shown by 
the story of the boy whosc handwriting looked hke the work of 
a bird's claw'. In Brittany we find a secular prince renowned as 
a scribe'. 

Thcn there was the task of teaching in the monastic school where 
this existed. The most celebrated monastic school was that of 
F"innian of Clonard ' ; and, as we have seen, chronology was strained 
to brcaking point in order to represent all the chief saints of Ireland 
as his pupils. We hear of schools at Bangor under Comgall*, at 
Devenish under Molaisse", at Ros Ailithir under Fachtna", at Kilmore 
under Columba', and elsewhere*. When Ciaran went to Clonard 
he took his ovvn cow with him for his support ", while other stories 
represent the scholars as taking it in turn to beg for the support of 
the school '". A wax tablet was used for teaching the rudiments 
of reading and writing", the Psalms seem to have been the earliest 
subject of instruction '*, and seven appears to have been regarded as 
the age at which education should commence''. Then there was 
tlie daily round of devotion comprised in the celebration ■ ' of the 

' Com. § 29. ' R. C. V. 44t-5- 

' Ci. C. §§ 15-17 ; Lug. 55 25-7 ; Rua. § i ; C. S. c. 164 (5 5), c. 200 (§5 19, 20, 
a description of Finnian's school and its members), c. 209 (§ 34), c. 446 (§ 4). 
Women appear to have been taught in it. Ci. C. § 16. 

* C. S. c. 227 (§ 5). " C. S. c. 891 (§ i\ c. 894 (§ s). 
' Mochoem. § 4. ' Mun. § 5. 

* C. S. c. 646 (§ 3). A non-monastic school seems mentioned in C. B. S. 
p. 258. On Schools in Ircland see M. and C. ii. 76-7, 79-81, 92-3, 149 ; Joyce, 
Social History, i. 408 ff. 

' Ci. C. § 15 ; a similar instance C. B. S. p. 258. An educational endowment 
of ten cows annually, Ann. Ult. 1169 a. d. 

'" C. S. cc. 446-7 (§ 5) ; Three Fragments, p. 74. In the life of Colman mac 
Luachain is an interesting case of a monastery being allowed to compound for 
various services by appropriating one of its subordinate cells as a school, 
Rennes MS. f. 89«. 

" ' ceraculum,' Maed. §§ 7, 39 (glossed by ' liber' and ' uolumen ' in V. text" ; 
one with bronze corners, 'ceraculum cum capitibus ereis,' is cited as specialJv 
sumptuous, C. S. c. 405 (§ 24, not in M) ; cf. Vies de St. Malo, p. 37 : ' scripsit 
ei elementa in tabula cerea ' ; ' tabula cerata,' ib. p. 132. The latter is exactly 
the Irish ' clar ciartha ', L. S. p. 110 ; on such a tablet was probably written 
the alphabet which Comgall had made for ihe youthful Molua, Lug. § 16. 

•2 Cain. § 35 note ; Ci. C. §§ 4.16 ; Maed. § 39 ; C. S. ce. 166 (§ 2\ 190 (§ 2^, 
446 (§ 4^, 916 (^§ 3\ For the use of the Psalter in ascetic practices see Ab. 
§ 32 ; it is sung aiitiphonally on a joiiriiey, Car. § 9 ; cf. Bede, ii. 137 ff. 

" Dec. § 5 ad Bn. ; L. S. p. 85 ; C. B. S. pp. 25-8. 183 ; in Br. i. § 4 the age 
seems to be five. 

'* I use this word deliberately. In these lives the Latin words celebrare, 
celebratio, and in the Irish lives the Irish words celebraim, celebrad. if used 
without qualification, refer almost wilhout exception to the canonical hours, 
and not, as in later usage, to mass ; Cain. § 22 {o( none, where R misunder- 
Stands it of mass) ; Com. § 33 (cel. horas) ; Maed. f 36 ^tierce) ; Mochoem. § 16 
(tierce and none) : Mun. § 4 (tierce and sext) ; C. S. c. 180 (§ 27, mattinsi ; ib. 
c. 910 (§ la, nocturnas cel. laudes). 'Celebrare' alone of mass occurs Ail. 

h 2 


canonical hoiirs of prayer'. We have mention of the reading in 
refectory'', of the rule of silence and use of sign-language', of the 
observance of the anniversaries of days notable in tlie history of 
the community*. Monks were sent out on special missions, as for 
instance to collect funds for the monastery^, sometimes in com- 
panies", sometimes singly'. On the return from such a mission the 
monk prostrated himself before the abbot, and gave an account of 
his doings*. Absolute obedience was the rule'; if a monk was 
rebuked, however unreasonably, his duty was to prostrate himself, 
and remain in that posture until bidden to rise". Several stories 
relate how the attempt to carry out this rule under humanly im- 
possible conditions was rewardcd by miraculous interposition ". 
The need of confession was strongly insisted on'-; there was a 
traditional saying that a person without a confessor was like a body 
without a head '^ 
The life was a very hard one. Apart from voluntary asceticism", 

§ 19 note, and perhaps in Mochoem. § 15 (so understood by tlie Irish Iranslator). 
We have * celebrare missam ' Fint. § 14 notc 1 R\ where M and S both have 
'otTerre'. which is the usual word. The regular Irish word for mass is * oifrenn', 
l.iter * aifrenn ', from Latin ' offerendum ' ; cf. * fri oifrcnd 7 ceilebrad ', Magh 
R.ath, p. 10 ; in Welsh ' offeren '. 

' Besides the references given in the last note we find ' uigiliae ' used as 
equivalent to * matutinae ', C. S. c. 181 ; complines, ib. c. 185 (§ 32^; tierce is 
said after mass, Mochoem. § 16 ; it is also said in ttie harvest field, Maed. S 36 
(^cf. Baumer, Breviaire, i. 227) ; the canonical liours are said on a journey, Mun. 
§ 4 ; or when fishing, Acc. Sen. p. 82. The most elaborate references to them 
are found in the Brendan story at four points of the N B. : (i) in the Paradise 
of Birds (Br. i. § 27, vespers, uigiliae or mattins, tierce, sext, none' ; 1 ii) in the 
monastery of the ' Familia ' of Ailbe (^Br. i. § 33, vespers, compline); (iii) in 
tiie island of the three choirs [Br. i. § 48, sext. none. vespers ' uigiliae matuti* 
nales ') ; (ivi in the island of Paul the Hermit (Br. i. § 76, ticrce, sext, none). 
The last is the only case in which the term ' celebrare ' is used. In i^i) and (iii) 
the psalms used at the diflerent offices are given. I am not liturgiologist enough 
to say whether these correspond with any known 'cursus psalmorum'. I have 
iiot been able to identify it. The whole description is of course highly romantic. 
In Br ii. $ 21 we have 'matutine'. A general term for the canonical hours is 
' opus Dei', Br. i. § 27 ; Maed. § 36; cf. Baumer, Brev. i. 227 ; also • horae regu- 
lares', C. S. c. 903. Molua prescribcs the division of the day into three parts, the 
first for prayer, the second for study, and the third for manual labour, Lug. § 51. 
» Br. ii. § 26. = Br. i. §§ 30. 32-3 ; C. S. c. 186. 

* Co. E. § 29. <■ Ger. § 10 ; cf. Sam. § 16. « Lug, § 18. 

~ Coem. § 43: * monachum niisit, secundum morera antiqui temporis, solum.' 
' Car. I 43. 

' Cain. § 21 (command to drown his child) ; Car. 5§ 49-5' ; the traditional 
example of prompt obedience was to leave the letter o half written when 
summoned, Cain. § 3 ; cf. C. B. S. p. 127. This is cxpressly laid down in the 
Culdee Rule of Kilros (.Culross), Holstenius, Codex Regularum (,1759), ii. 65. 
'" Coem. § 8 ; Com. § 13 note. 
" Com. §5 23, 24, 48; Maed. § 12; Lug. 5 ig. 
'■ Lug. § 30 : cf. ib. § 38 ; Maed. § 20 ; Ba. § 14 : Fint. 5 ai. 
" Fcl.^ pp. 64, 180-2. Penitentials, ' h- ges penitentiae,' are referred to, 
Adamn. i. 22 ; ii. 39 ; excommunication, Mochoem. § 17 ; C. S. c. 874 (§ 6). 
" Car. § 47 ; Fint. §§ 4, 5, 19 ; Mun. § 6 ; that death resulted in some cases 


provisions often failed ' ; and the life, hard at the best, was 
harder under a harsh and unsympathctic abbot -. The abbot's 
authority was unhmited ; even to ring a bell for service without his 
express direction is regarded as a serious offence''. The appointment 
of abbot was often regulated on the analogy of the secular tribe or 
clan. The evidence is most abundant in the case of lona ', but we 
have traces of the same thing in our lives*. And as in the secular 
tribe the successor or tanist was elected in the lifetime of the reigning 
chief, so it was in the monastery. The prior was not unfrequently 
appointed with the right of succeeding to the abbacy, and called 
tanist-abbot*. Of this also we havc instances in our lives'. On this 
officer, who appears under various names*, even more than on the 

from these austerities is not unlikely, Br. i. §77; Cain. § 29; Col. E. § 6 ; 
Com. 5 la. Some thought that the sufferings vvhich Comgall endured in his 
last days were a punishment for the rigour of his nile, Com. § 56. In Mo!ua's 
monastcry fasting till none seems to have been the rule, C. S. c. 285 (§ 63, not 
in M) : 'quare non comedis ? quia hora nona est ' ; cf Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 127 : 
'ad crepusculum.' For a w.irning against excessive asceticism see Ita, § 10 
and note; cf. British Saints, i. 319, a passage very contrary to ordinary 
mcdiaeval sentimenL 

' Co. E. §§ 4, 9; Com. § 40 (a beautiful and pathetic story) ; Cron. § 14 ; 
Fint. § 7 ; C. S. c. 834 (§ I9>. 

• I have already drawn attention to the difference between Munnu and Molua 
in this respect, p. l.xxxvi. See also the references in the last note but one, and 
Adamn. i. 29. 

' Cain. § 22 ; cf. C. B. S. p. 128 : ' patris licentiam uel ad nature requisita 

* See the pedigree in Reeves' Adamnan, p. 342. AII the early abbots of 
lona except tvvo, or possibly three, are of the race of Conall Gulban. 

' Car. § 45 ; in V. Tr. p. 338 this right is expressly limited by the condition 
that there shall be some one of the founder's kin who is vvorthy of the office ; 
Br. Maedoc, c. 72 ; contrast C. S. c. 676 : ' ne quis cognatorum eius . . . occa- 
sione hereditatis regimen ecclesie sue sibi usurparet,' cf. Bede, ii. 262-3. The 
development of the hereditary lay-abbot or ' erenagh ' (Ir. ' airchinnech') lies 
outside the scope of the present introduction. In the metrical ' Naemsenchus ' 
In the books of Ballymote and Lecan, the saints themselves are grouped 
according to their families ; so in Rawl. B. 484 fT. 84 ff. 

' 'Tanaise abb," Ann. UIt.896; or 'the abbofs tanist', tanaise abbaid, ib. 890 
{tanaisc alone in this sense, Chron. Scot. p. 164). The corresponding Latin 
phrase is ' secundus abbas ' {iattaise meaning literally ' second '), and this 
appears in Irish as secnab ; which, however, means simply prior, and does not 
imply the right of succession as tanaise does ; cf. Sim. Dun. i. 22 : ' monasterium 
secundus ab abbate praepositi iure gubernabat ' ; ib. p. 119: ' secundus ab 
abbate, maior scilicet prior constituitur'; cf Enda, § 18. I cannot agree with 
Reeves that the tanist-abbot was only appointed on the incapacity of the abbot 
(Adamn. p 364), though that might often be a motive. \Ve find a prior ap- 
pointed in the abbot's absence, C. B. S. p. 68 (cf. Br. i. § 14), or to take charge 
of a subordinate cell, C. B. S. p. 88. 

' Bo. § 29: ' secundus Boecii abbas ei successit ' ; Br. i. § 14 'prepositus, 
qui postea fuit successor suus' ; Enda, § 18. 

« Prior, Car. § 51 ; Ci. C. § 23 ; Mochoem. § 9 ; Co. E. § 19 ( = yconomus S). 
Prepositus, Ab. § 49 ; Ber. § 7 ; Br. i. § 14 ; Car. §| 45, 48 ; Lug. § 22 ( = iconi- 
mus S) ; yconimus, Maed. §§ 12, 13; Lug. § 21 ; Maed. § 40 (= dispensator 


abbot, depended the daily lives of the monks'. He seems to have 
assigned them their various tasks^, and to have exercised his au- 
thority with no little harshness. Indeed the tyrannical 'oeconomus' 
is a standing type in these Hves'. Anotherimportant officer was the 
cellarer or cook, whose duty it was to provide for the bodily wants of 
the brethren, the guests*, and the poor''. 

The hospice or guest-house had itsown special officer" ; and there 
were minor functionaries', and various craftsmen and artificers 
attached to the monastery*. 

S R) ; dispensator, j'Conomus, Enda, 5 5 ; equonimus C. S. c. 192 (§ 6 = pre- 
positus, R = secnab, Irish lifc. In C. B. S. p. 190 the economus is distinct 
from the prepositus). In a female monastery we have priorissa, Sam. §§ 12,15, 
and dispensatrix, ib. § 2. 

' It is noteworthy that in the Wurzburg MS. of St. Paul's epistles ' guber- 
rationes ' ( i Cor. xii. 28) is glossed secndapid, while in Gal. iv. i this word 
glosses ' actores ' {o\Kovdy.oi). 

' e. g. Ber. § 7 ; Maed. § 40; and many other of the references in the last 
note but one. Hence he is called 'dispensator operum', Adamn. i. 37, He 
also managed the stock and other property of the community, Ab. § 49 ; Ber. 
§ 7 ; Lug. § 22 ; superintended the construction of new buildings, &c., Enda, 
§ 5 ; Maed. § 48. 

3 Cain. § 4 ; Car. § 51 ; Maed. §5 12-13 ; C. S. c. 192 (§ 6) ; C. B. S. p. 38. 
In the ' Aibgitir Crabaid ', or alphabet of ascetic devotion, one of the things to 
be avoided by a perfect man is ' toirisem fri secnabaid ', i. e. opposition to the 
prior, which seems to imply that the temptation to it was great, Z. C. P. iii. 449. 
We hear of an actual war (' bellum ') at Ferns between the abbot and the 
'equonimus', Ann. Ult. 782. 

' cellarius, Co. E. § 4 ( = cocus S, procurator fratrum R) ; Rua. § 14 (= cocus 
S, dispensator R) ; so Ail. § 13. (In Rua. § 10 minister coquine = cocus S, 
dispensator cocus R.) cellarius, Br. i. § 31 ; Ci. S. § 30 ; Cron. § 19 ; C. S. 
c. 834 (§ I9\ c. 916 (§ 3), c. 920 (§ 13) ; custos cellarii, Colg. A. S. p. 610, § 17 
(really p. 520) ; cocus, Com. § 34 ; Fint. § 7 ; Maed. § 22 V. In Coem. § 8 we 
have several ' coqui ' under a ' magister coquine '. In Ci. S. § 10 the Irish lives 
wrongly translate ' prepositus monasterii ' bj' cea/loirand coic. The ' economus ' 
and ' cocus ' are clearly distinguished, C. B. S. pp. 38, 131. 

^ Br. Ruadan, c. 6 ; Capg. ii. 353. 

' ' magister hospitum,' Car. § 47 ; Coem. § 38 ; Mun. §§ 21, 24 ; ' elimosi- 
narius et magister hospitum,' Ci. C. § 23 ; ' magister hospitalis,' Co. E. § 17 
(= dispensalor fratrum, R; uir cui cura hospitum et pauperum erat, S) ; 
' minister hospitum,' Ail. § 42; ' mansorius,' Ba. § 14 (^^ ferligis, in Irish life, 
lit. man of housekcepiiig or hospitality, a rcgular title fur this officer in Irish 
monasteries ; also ' airchindech tige oiged ', i. e. chief of the guest-house, Chron. 
Scot. p. 310). In a fcmale monastery ' portaria hospitalis', C. S. c. 168, who 
clearly had the charge of relieving the poor. In the Cain Adamnain, § 53. the 
secnap, coic, and fertigis are evidcntly the three chief monastic officers. It will 
have been noticed also that the titlc * dispensator ' is variously applied, bcing 
used synonymously with ' magistcr hospitalis ', with ' economus ', and with 
• cocus '. Probably the last is its proper meaning, but in diflcrent monasteries 
the various duties may have been diffcrently distributed, and in the smallcr 
ones a single otficer would have to discharge many functions. See Addcnda. 

'' custos cemoterii, Br. i. § 62 ; decanus monastcrii, ib. ; custos monasterii 
(who rings the bell for service), Cain. § 22. 

' molendinator, Car. § 44 ; faber, Coem. § 14 ; Com. § 36 ; Mun. § 28 ; 
coriarius, ib. §§ 23,43 ; hortolanus, Bo. §§ 16, 28; Adamn. i. 18; N.andK. p. 148 ; 
armentarius, Ber. § 8 ; Fint. § 9 ; see p. xcviii, note a. 


We have seen that the tyrannical oeconomus is a typical character 
in these lives. Another recurrent type is the conceited and tactless 
'conuersus', who is too scrupulous to eat on fast days the food 
partaken of by others', or who by ill-timed criticism and curiosity 
prevents the consummation of a miracle*. The ill-tempered and 
testy monk was also probably not an uncomnion character'; and 
detraction and quarrels were not unknown*. 

The story of Ruadan and the cursing of Tara shows how the right 
of asylum clainied by the monasteries might bring them into conflict 
with the secular povver*. 

Next to its monastic constitution * asceticism is perhaps the most 
characteristic mark of the early Irish Church. We have seen how 
the two met together in the hard discipline of the cloister, but it 
meets us at many points and in many forms, and had a fierce attrac- 
tion for the passionate Celtic temperament. Martj-rdom in the literal 
sense, red martyrdom '', to use the native phrase, \ve do not find in 
the history of early Irish converts, for reasons vvhich vvill be traced 
later, but all the more eagerly did they embrace the other kinds*. 
The worst excesses vve do not find recorded in these lives. Finnchua 
of Bri Gobann is said to have swung himself for seven j-ears on iron 
hooks like an Indian Fakir', and there are various stories of saints 
with animals devouring their flesh'". What we do chiefly hear of 

' Br. i. § 94 ; Ci . S. § 30 ; Enda, § 30 ( ' laicus, ' i. e. a lay brotherl ; Las. § 33 
{• neophilus'; ; Rua. 521 and notes ; cf. Adamn. i. 21 ^a penitent; ; C. S. c. 422 
(_§ 12, ihese are not stated to have been 'conuersae '). 

* Co. E. § 4 (this ofiTender is not called 'conuersus*, but he was * nuper 
ueniens et imperitus ' Sj ; Cron. § 19 ; Maed. § 48 (_' relaicus ' in V § 47, see 
Glossary) ; Sani. § 4 (' nuper de seculo conuersa ') ; cf. Car. § 63. On the 
admission of new members cf. C. B. S. p. 128. iVIonks from other monasteries 
could not be received without the consent of their own abbot, Adamn. i. 6. The 
noviciate lasted a year, Ber. § 6. 

' Br. i. § 100. 

' Br. i. § 102 note ; Car. § 44 ; C. B. S. p. 132. 

* Rua. §§ 15-18; cf. C. B. S. pp. 49-56, 95-6, 140. There was a secular 
analogy Ibr this right ; ' ba comairce laime derce nach bruiden,' i. e. every 
Bruiden lor Hostel) was a shelter for the red hand (man-slayer), R. C. xxi. 314 ; 
of these there were said to have becn si.x in Ireland, like the six cities of refuge, 
ib. 396-7. 

' There is an interesting account of the imporlance of Clonmacnois as a 
monastic model in L. S. p. 118 ; cf. Ci. C. § 21 ; Enda, § 26. For the importance 
of Bangor cf. Keating, i. 52. 

' An ancitnt Irish homily distinguishes three kinds of martyrdom, vvhite or 
bloodless, which consists in abnegation, fasting, and labour ; blue martyrdom, 
which consists in mortification of the will, penitence, and amendment ; and red, 
or literal martyrdom, Zeuss-Ebel, G. C. pp. 1006-7, or Zimmer, Glossae Hib. 
p. 2l6. 

» Cf. L. S. p. 304. 

» L. S. p. 88 ; Mart. Don. Nov. 25 ; Fel.= p. 246. 

'" L. S. p. 89 Finnchua) ; Fel.- p. 42 (^lta, not in our life of her) ; ib. 44 
(Maignenn, and Fursa) ; V. Tr. p. 242 i^Fiacc). 


is prolonged and extraordinary abstinence". The fasting at tlic 
foundation of a new ecclesiastical settlement- is found also in Bede^, 
where it is due to the ascetic influence of the Irish Church in North 
Britain. But fasting was not merely a form of religious asceticism, 
it was a regular legal mode of extorting satisfaction when it was 
refused, the sanction being the dread of the opposing party lest the 
death of the plaintiff with all its consequences should be laid at his 
door*. The classical instance is the contest of Ruadan with King 
Diarmait'\ Here each side fasted against the other, and the saints 
tricked the king into relaxing his fast". But there are other instances 
recorded in our lives'. By an extension of this idea fasting is 
regarded as a means of putting pressure on the Deity*, and is used, 
not merely to obtain a divine decision", but to find out the authors 
of crimes"', and, more extraordinary still, to obtain the destruction 
of superfluous population", or the death of a saint whose influencc 

* Ab. § 22 (where also the Irish * cross-vigiP [crosfigil] is mcntioned, on which 
see Bede, ii. 269, 270 ; cf. R.C. xii. 22) ; Com. § 14; Ita, 5§ 5, 6, 10 ; Br. i. | 14 
and note ; Br. ii. § 4. Sampson of Dol is said to have eaten only three * obla- 
tiones ' (i. e. wafers such as were used in the Eucharist) during Lent, Capg. 
ii. 354 ; Maedoc to have abstained altogether from food and drink during Lent 
'secundum exemplum Moysi et Helic, ymmo . . . Filii Dei ', § 33. This passage 
is interesting as bearing on the threefold Lent of the Irish (cf. Bede, ii. 197-8). 
These three Lents are definitely appropriated in this way, Fel.^ P* 42 : ' corgiis 
Eli isin gemrad . . . corgus Isu i n-errach . . . corgus Moysi is t-samrad,' i.e. the 
Lent of Elias in winter (Advent), the Lent of Jesus in the spring, the Lent of 
Moses in the summer (after Pentecost) ; cf. * in tribus quadragesirais anni ', 
Wasserschleben, Irische Kanonen, p. 187. But thc threefold Lent was not 
exclusively Irish, see Hampson, Medii Aeui Kalendarium, ii. 3, 49, 239, 259, 
324. In Br. Maedoc, c. 76, that saint is said to have kept eight I-ents in the 
3'ear against tbe eight deadly sins. This is no doubt merely the writer"s fancy, 
but it shows what the Irish ideal was. Unfortunately tliis asccticism was some- 
times simulated. St. Guthlac ' dicebat se intcr Scottortim populos pseudo- 
anchoritas diuersarum religionum simulatores uidisse ', Memorials of St. G., 
p. 49 : and sometimes provoked a rcaction : ' utinam post longa ieiunia sobrii 
fuerint,'^Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 172. Animals are made to fast, as in the book of 
Jonah, Eriu, i. 120. 

' Ail. § 29 ; Ba. § 12 ; Dec. § 22 ; Mochoem. 5 14. ' H. E. iii. 23. 

* Cf. Br. i. § 15 ; 'alioquin hic moriemur fame et siti.* 
» Cf. Ann. Ult. 816. 

' Rua. § 17 ; a similar story in regard to Adamnan and Irgalach son of 
Conang in Three Fragments, p. 100. 

' Com. 5§ 45, 47 ; Dec. § 19 ; Maed. 5 35 ; cf. C. S. c. 314 (5 26) : ' si ieiuna- 
ueris septies, non ind»Ige"bi ]tur tibi census ' (Kin. C. § 19 note) ; Chron. Scot. 
pp. 274, 310 12; Ann. Clonm. p. 196; British Saints, i. 17-21. Maedoc and 
Colman mac Luachain enjoin their monks always to cnforce their dues in this 
way, Br. Maedoc, c. 18; Rennes MS. f. 87''; cf. Lyall, p. 210. The same 
method is used against the Tuatha Dc Danann, Acc. Scn. p. 11. 

® This is not exclusively Irish ; it is Jcwish, v. Schilrer, Gcsch. d. jfld. Volkes, 
ii. 412; and Indian, Lyall, pp. 20-1. 113. That it was deemed dangerous to 
ofTend one whose asccticism gave him special influcnce with Heavcn appears 
from Magh Rath. p. 18. 

» Enda, § 19. "> Theft, Co. E. § 28 ; Murdcr, Br. Mochuda, c. 3. 

" Gcr. 5 12. 


excited jealoiisy '. With this are closely connected the (to our ears) 
blasphemous stories, in which the saints are representcd as extorting 
terms from the Deity, and saying what they will or will not accept 
at His hands^, or as upbraiding Ilim because He does not conform 
to all their wishes'. 

Another ascetic characteristic of our saints was their rigorous 
avoidance of the other se.x. This, according to a wcll-known docu- 
ment, was a niark of the second but not of the first order of Irish 
saints*. This view is expressed in the recurrent story of a saint 
hearing the sound of a cow or sheep and fleeing, because the 
presence of cattle involved the presence of women". But this again 

' F^l.- p. 204 ; to obtain the destruction of an object of pagan worship is 
more defensible, ib. p. n8. 

* Ail. §37: Enda,53i: 'ieiunium non soluam donec trespetitionesoptineam' ; 
Maed. § 33; V. Tr. pp. na ff. ; cf. Com. § 31 ; Mun. § 19; Z. C. P. iv. 300, v. 36 ; 
L. H.- i. 6 ; C. B. S. p. 44 ; Br. Bairre, c. 7 ; Br. Coemgen, c. 10. Perhaps the 
most singular instance is in Br. Ciaran of Saigir, c. 30. A monk of Ciaran's 
had committed homicide ; ' go ffiiair se a anam a h-ifurn ; 7 adubairt go m-beith 
se fein i n-ionadh an mhanaigh i n-ifurn, muna saorthaoi do e ; 7 do saoradh,' 
i. e. aud he i^Ciaran) obtained his soul from hell, saying that he would take the 
monk's place in heil, if he were not released to him ; aiiU he was reUased. In 
St. Malo. p. 117, is a curious story of an attempt to compel a saint to help by 
means of almsgiving. 

' Moehoem. § 24 (cf. Capg. ii. 571-2 forthe boongranted) ; C. B. S. pp.i 18-19. 
This is quite the spirit of the heathen, who whips or drowns his idol if it dis- 
pleases him ; and the images of the saints inherit the same treatment, Grimm, 
i. 20, 63, ii. 767, iv. 1282, 1288-9; "^f Hdt. iv. 94, 184. The proces-verbal of 
a formal deposition of a patron saint is given, R. C. v. 137-8; cf. Aur. Leg. 
p, 27. ' In Messina, on this great night of the dying year, a number of men — 
so it is said — who had lost their money at the Sicilian game of sette e mezza, 
came out furious from one of the big cafes just as the Bambino was passing. 
Maddened by their losses, they set upon the Bambino. They insulted, they 
spat upon, they threw down and trampled over the Bambino. These men were 
Messincse, and three days later, in less than a minute, Messina was blotted 
out," Mr. R. Hichens in Daily Telegraph, Jan. 12, 1909; cf. Lyall, Asiatic 
Studies, p. 81. Conversely the Chinese Government decrees rewards and 
honours to deities and heroes who have given satisfaction, ib. pp. 136 ff. 

* De tribus ordinibus Sanctorum Hiberniae, C. S. cc. 161-4, and elsewhere. 
Of the first order it is said : ' mulierum administrationem et consortia non 
respuebant, quia super petram Christum fundati uentum temptationis non time- 
bant.* Of the second : ' mulierum consortia ac administrationes fugiebant, atque 
a monasteriis suis eas excludebant.' This second order comprised several of the 
saints whose lives are included in these voUimes, Enda, Colman, Comgall, Aed, 
Ciaran, Brendan, Cainuech, Coemgen, Lasrian, Lugaid (Molua\ and Bairre. 
Some curious and not very edifying stories are told of the tests to which the 
chastity of Irish saints was successfully exposed. These also have mythological 
afiinities. I have found no trace in Ireland of the abuse which appears to have 
existed in Brittany, of allowing women to distribute the Eucharist, R. C. 
XV. 92-3. 

* ' In hoc loco non ero ; ubi enim ouis, ibi mulier, ubi mulier, ibi peccatum, 
ubi peccatum, ibi diabolus, et ubi diabolus, ibi infernus,' C. S. c. 273 (§ 32, not in 
M ; cf. Coem. §31 : 'mulieresf^ Hac« longe eranta suo monasterio"), c. 271 (§§27, 
28, not in M) ; cc. 882-3 (5 "3) ; Mun. § 10 ; cf. Ail. § 30 ; Lug. § 28. One of 
the precepts of the school of Sinchell was ' mna do mbrimgabail ', i. e. complete 


is not merely due to Christian asceticism ; and the cxclusion of 
women from sacred places' has many heathen analogies^ For good 
or for evil women were regarded as very powerful 'medicine' or 
magic. A woman's milk at her first conception cures bhndness'; 
on the other hand St. Ita regards women as specially obnoxious to 
the attacks of demons'. 

Of another ascetic trait of the Irish Church, its love of pilgrimage, 
I have spoken elsewhere^ It receives many illustrations from our 
lives''. That the quest of Brendan in the earlier form in which it 
appears in the Vita, as a search for a place of retirement amidst the 
ocean waves, as against the later conception in the Nauigatio of 
a voyage to discover the Earthly Paradise or Land of Promise', has 
an historical basis, is proved not merely by the number of Irish 
anchorites in the islands, including Iceland^ who were slaughtered 
or expelled by the Scandinavian wikings", but also by the case of 
Cormac ua Liathain recorded by Adamnan : ' qui tribus non minus 
uicibus eremum in oceano laboriose quesiuit, nec tamen inuenit".' 

Pilgrimage was often enjoined as a penance". In all cases a vow 

avoidance of women, Hib. Min. p. 41. Of Maignenn it is said that he never 
looked at a woman ; * ar ecla in diabail comaidechta do fliaiccsin d6,' i. e. for 
fear of his seeing her attendant devil, Silva Gad. i. 37 ; cf. Grimm, ii. 875. 

' L. S. pp. 72, 90 ; Mart. Don. p. 400 ; Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 80-2, 134 ; Capg. 
i. 217-18, 238, 443; ii. 145 ; they were e.xcluded from half of Lismore, Car. 


" Bertrand, Religion, p. 90; MaccuUoch, Childhood, pp. 317-18; the pro- 
hibition e,xtcnded to fcmale animals, Ir. Nenn. p. 216; Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 80, 
Conversely no male could live in the Isle of Eriskay, Goodnch-Freer, Outer 
Isles, p. 242. 

^ Mochoem. § 4 ; Aur. Leg. p. 96. This specific is effective even in the 
infernal regions, Luzel, Legendes chretiennes de la Basse-Bretague, i. 192-3. 

* Ila, § 24. Women crossing a river prevent the salmon from coming up it, 
Marlin, Western Isles, p. 7. On women and fountains something will be said 
laler, p. clii. 

^ Bede, ii. 170-I. 

^ Ab. § 19 ; Coem. § 12 ; Maed. § 1 1 V ; Lug. § 37 ; Mun. § 25 ; C. S. c. 284 
(§ 62) ; c. 459 C§ 28 ) ; C. B. S. p. 5. 

' Z. C. P. v. 125, 130-2. 

' The ' papar' of the Prologue to Landnama B(5k, with their ' ba;kr Irskar 
bjollur ok baglar', i. e. Irish booUs, bells, and bachalls. Ailbe wished to retire 
' ad insulam Tile in occiano positam ', Ail. § 41. 

' e. g. the massacrc of Donnan of Egg and his fifty companions, whose names 
are enumerated LL. 359"; cf. Mart. Don. Apr. 17. 

'" Adamn. i. 6; ii. 42; iii. 17, and Rcevcs' notes. Somc of the incidents are 
strikingly like those of the Brcndan story ; cf. June 21 in Mart. Don.. Fel., and 
0'Gorman ; L. S. p. 28. His pedigree is in LL. 351''; LBr. 19": BB. 221''; 
Rawl. B. 503 f. 51'; I.aud 610 f. 40". For sojourn of saints in thc westcrn 
islands of Ireland ci". C. S. c. 167 (§ 3). On ascetics in islands cf. Baumer, 
Histoirc du Briviaire, i. 107 notes. In this they had been anticipatcd by thcir 
healhen predecessors, Rhys, A. L. p. 369 ; Oss. Soc. v. 65-6 note ; Bertrand, 
Kcligion. p. 261. 

" Br. i. § 82 ; Cocm. § 38 ; Dec. § 6 ; Mochoem. § 18 sub fin. 


of pilgrimage reqiiired thc consent of the ecclesiastical superior', 
who often wisely diseouraged indiscreet zeal in this respect^ The 
lives also iilustrate that home-sickness so characteristic in all ages 
of the Irish exile, which it sonietimes required a miracle to cure'. 

Another point to which attention may be cailed is the strong 
sabbatarianism, to use a modern word, of the Irish saints*. Of the 
Paschal question sometliing has been already said '; of the related 
question of the tonsure we do not hear^. The tendency of the later 
iives to emphasize the connexion with Rome has also been alluded 
to'. This is combined with an almost complete ignorance of any 
individual Popes. Celestine is known because he was the Pope who 
sent Palladius and was said to have sent Patrick*. And Gregory 
the Great occurs fairly frequently'. A non-existent Clement occurs 

' Ber. § 25; Fint. § 12. 

* Coem. ll 12, 21, 29, 30: Com. § 13 ; C. S. cc. 423-4 (5 13, not in M) ; cf. 
Samthann's fine saying : ' Si citra mare Deus inueniri non posset, utique nos 
transfretaremus,' § 24; cf. also L. S. p. ai ; Silva Gad. i. 48; Bede, ii. 281-a. 
On the missionary labours of these Irish exiles see Bede, ii, 170-1 ; Reeves, 
Eccl. Ant. pp. 134-5. Peregyiutts became practically a technical word on the 
Contincnt to denote an Irish missionary, Wasserschleben, Irische Kanonen, 
p. xlvi, cf. ib. xli ; on the Irish monasteries on the Continent, ib xlviii. 

3 Com. §§ 4, 42; Fint. § 13; cf. the pathetic story in Adamn. i. 48 ; and the 
saying in Oided mac n-Uisnig : ' is ferr duthchas ina gach ni . . . uair ni aibinn 
do neoch maithes da med, muna fhaice a duthchas,' i.e. better is one's native 
land than aught else, for there is no pleasure to any one in prosperity, however 
great, unless he see his native land, Ir. T. II. ii. 126. One of the precepts of the 
school of Sinchell was : ' ailithre cen tintud,' i. e. pilgrimage without returning, 
Hib. Min. p. 41. 

* Aed, § 30; Co. E. § 12 ; C. S. c. 282 (§ 51, not in M") : V. Tr. pp. iga, aaa ; 
Silva Gad. i. 53 ; Br. Berach, c. 25. There is a special tract in Irish called Cain 
Doninaig, or tiie Law of Sunday, cf. Eriu, ii. 189 ff. For the mill which would 
not grind on Sunday, see Ir. Nenn. p. 216. 

° Above, p. xlvi, note. 

* That the so-called Celtic tonsure was possibly druidic in origin see below, 
p. clxvi, note i ; V. Tr. p. 509. It is interesting to find the coronal tonsure prac- 
tised by Mochuda at Lismore, Rennes MS. f. 78'- : ' ro tescta a foilt, 7 ro berta 
corne ina cendaib la Mochutu \i. e. iheir hairwas cut, and crowns shaved on their 
heads by Mochuda") ; for we have already seen reason to regard him as a partisan 
of the Roman Easter ; cf Enda, § 6. An additional name seems sometimes to 
have been given at the conferring of the tonsure, Ba. § 4. The passage, Maed. 
§ 1 1 V, which seems to speak of the tonsuring of a secular cbief, I do not wholly 

' Ail. § 22 and note ; cf. Decl. | 15. In the Br. Irish life of Maedoc, c. 14, 
a visit to Rome is interpolated, where our lives (§ 1 1, M and V) take him stra^ght 
to Britain. Saints are carried miraculously to visit Rome, Ber. § 25 ; Maed. 
§ 38; Tr. Th. p. 539" (§ 91) ; Fel.* p. 40. Cadoe professes lo have visited 
Rome seven timcs, C. B. S. p. 56. A proposed pilgrimage to Rorae is divinely 
forbidden, C. S. c. 194 (§ 9), and Finnian is promised that an altar to be built 
by him shall rank with Rome as a place of pilgrimage. Glendalough had the same 
privilege, Br. Coemg. c. i; cf. Br. Berach. c. 30; Lib. Land. pp. 3-4(1-2), 80 (831. 

' Ail. § 2 note ; Ci. S. §§ 3, 7 ; Decl. §§ 9, 18. 

» Ab. §§ 17, 20; Ba. §§ 7, 10, 13; Co. E. § 15; Lug. §§ 40, 47, 54; C. S. 
e- 794 (§ 8), c. 831 (§ II). 


in the S life of Ailbe ' ; a John, vvho might be John V or John VI in 
the S life of Flannan'^. 

More interesting and more actual are the relations with Britain. 
There can be little doubt that one channcl through which the know- 
ledge of Christianity came to Ireland was Britain ' ; and we have 
already noticed one way in which thc knowledge was spread, namely 
by Christian captives carried ofl" in Irish raids on Britain. But there 
were also many voluntary sojourners of British origin in Ireland. 
We hear of Britons, including a British bishop, at Clonfert*; of 
British monks at Rahen °, Lynally*, Taghmon', Clonard*, Ferns', 
Tallaght'"; of a British priest in Hare Island in Lough Ree", of 
British 'peregrini' at Tulach Bennain'^ Several of these stories 
show that this British element was sometimes a source of trouble; 
and something may be allowed for national prejudice and jealousy ". 
Many of the saints in the Irish Calendar, with St. Patrick at their 
head, are said to have been of British origin " ; and many British 
saints are said to have studied and resided in Ireland ; Cadoc under 
Mochuda at Lismore ", Gildas"', Carantoc ", Cybi", Petroc'', Samp- 
son^". There were relations of confraternity between Llancarvan 
and Clonard ; and Llancarvan had property on the Liffey". 

More important from our point of view are the relations of Irish 
saints with different parts of Britain. Of Cornwall unfortunately 

• Ail, §§ 13-15 notes ; perhaps a remiiiiscence of Clement of Rome; cf. 
C. B. S. p. 352 note. 

2 C. S. c. 651 ; cf. the ignorance of the Frankish kings shown in Breton lives 
of saints, R. C. xi. 20. 

^ Another being Western Gaul ; see Zimmer's very interesting essays in 
Sitzungsb. d. preuss. Akad. 1909. 

' Br. i. § 91. This is not surprising considering Brendan's own connexion 
with Brilain. According to the Irish sources Brendan's sojourn in Britain was 
undertaken as a penance after his seven years' voyage ; but according to the 
lives of St. Malo he was abbot of Llancarvan before the famous quest, which 
started from thence, Deux Vies inedites, pp. 37, 46, 132, 139. A British bishop 
named Gabrin is mentioned as residing at Gael in Fir Rois (in Oriel), L. S. 
p. 139 ; cf. Mart. Don. June 24. 

5 Car. § 45. ' Co. E. § 14. ' Mun. 5 28. 

8 C. -S. c. 195 (§ II). » C. S. c. 438 (§ 40, not in M). 

'" Fel.'' p. 226 ; cf. Lib. Land. p. 18 (i6), an unnamed monastery. 

" Ci. C. § 25 and note. '^ C. S. c. 229 (^§ 9). 

'^ Cf. the words addrcssed by two British suppliants to Brigit : * infirmos 
gencris tui sanas, nos autem quasi aducnas ncgligis,' Tr. Th. p. 529'' (§ 25). 

'* e. g. Sanctan, L. H.^ i. 129 ; Mochta, C. S. c. 903 ; cf. Mart. Don. pp. 2, 46, 
200, 204. 342, 346, for a family of British saints in Ireland. 

"■ C. B. S. pp. 35 6. ■« ib. p. 59. 

" ib. pp. 97-8, 100; his name in Ireland is Cernach, and his Acts are said to 
havc had a wide circulation Ihere. 

'* ib. pp. 184 6. " Capg. ii. 317. 

^" ib. 353 ; Lib. Land. p. 17 (15). Sampbon, tliough best known as Bishop of 
Dol in Brittany, belonged by birth and education to Greater Britain. 

2' C. B. S. pp. 78-9. 


we liear but little; Cairnech is said to have been a Cornish Briton', 
the qucstion of the identity of the Cornish Pieran with one of the 
Irish Ciarans has already been discussed', and we have seen that 
Petroc visited Ireland. But considering the close connexion of Corn- 
wall and Soiith Wales', and the constant intercourse between Ireland 
and South VVales, we are justified in assuming that intercourse with 
Cornwall was not wanting, and this is confirmed by the group of 
Irish dedications which we meet with in Cornwall*. In South 
Wales the two chief centres of attraction were Llancarvan under 
St. Cadoc, and Menevia' under St. David. Finnian of Clonard, the 
principal teacher of the Irish saints, was himself a pupil of Llan- 
carvanS as was Cainnech'. Maedoc was a pupil of St. David^s', 
as were Modomnoc ' and Scuithin '" ; while we hear of Finnian of 
Clonard ", Declan ''', Bairre'', and Senan " as visitors there. We have 
seen that the sojourn of Boetius or Buite in ' Italy' probably refers 
to a sojourn in the neighbourhood of St. David's'^ St. David himself 
is said to have been baptized and fostered by Ailbe '". 

' ' do Bretnalb Corn do,' Fel. p. 132; i.e. he was of Ihe Cornish Britons. 
This may be an inference from his name, Cairnech = Coirnech, i. e. Cornish. 
' Above, pp. H, lii. ' C. B. S. pp. 9, 23, 64. 66-7, 129, 183. 

♦ See the map of Irish dedications in Cornwall in British Saints, i. 80 ; cf 
ib. 30 ff. Note also that it was in Cornwall that the three Irish ascetics came 
to land in Alfred's reign, Chron. Sa.x. a. D. 8gi. 

' Cell Muine, in Irish. For an Irish hermit in S. Wales cf C. B. S. pp. 35, 
261 ; e.xi!e * inter Brittones', as a penance, Adamn. i. 22. 

* C. S. cc. 191-5 (where Cadoc is called Cathmael) ; C. B. S. pp. 36, 39, 44, 
85, 88. 

' Cain. §5 3-5 ; here Cadoc is called Docus (cf. note 16 below). 

" Maed. §5 11-19, 32 ; Lug. § 38 ; C. B. S. pp. 124, 130-1, 133. In the Felire, 
Mar. 23, is another Maedoc who is called ' mind n-Alban', i.e. the diadem of 

' C. B. S. pp. 133-4. '" it>. p. 131- 

"' C. S. c. 191 (§ 4). '2 Dec. § 15. 

" Ba. § 9 note ; C. B. S. p. 132. '< L. S. p. 62. 

" Above, p. XXXV. It should be noted that with the exception of Cainnech 
and Boetius all the saints connected with South Wales are saints of southern 

'* Ail. § 19 ; Colg. A. S. p. 426'* (§§ 5. 6"): ' ab Helueo Momonenslum episcopo*; 
' ab Belue Meueuiensium episcopo.' C. B. S. p. I2t (^!) In the lives of Ailbe the 
incident takes place in Brittany, in the lives of David in Britain. The lives ot 
David also take Patrick to South Wales. in oider tiiat he may prophesy of, and 
make way for. David, ib. pp. 1 18-19. ^' the second order of Irish saints it is 
said : ' Hii ritum celebrandi missam acceperunt a sanctis uiris de Britannia, 
scilicet a sancto Dauid, et sancto Gilda, et a sancto Doco,' C. S. c. 162. In the 
lives printed in these volumes Gildas occurs only Br. i. §§ 83-5. I do not 
therefore discuss his obscure personality. The idenlification of Auerech, ib. § 86 
(Ailech, M, S^ , is very uncertain. It has been identified with Aletum iu Brittany 
(Lanigan, Moran) and Alyth in Perthshire ( Reeves) ; but it is conclusive against 
both that S* and R distinctly call it an island. It may be one of the western 
islands of Scotland, where Brendan has left manj' traces on the local nomen- 
clature, Forbes, Calendars, pp. 286-7. But it may be one of the Holmes in the 
Severn estuary ; v. Index Locorum, s. v. Auerech. 


The saints of the north of Ireland tended to gravitate towards 
Whitern, or Rosnat, as it is called in Irish sources'; for instance 
Enda^ Tigernach ', Eogan of Ardstraw*, and Finnian of Movilla^ 
Further north there was a constant intercourse vvith lona and its 
dependent monasteries ", while the nuinerous dedications to Irish 
saints in Scotland', especially in the Western Islands, show that the 
sea was no barrier to them. 

Of direct intercourse between Ireland and the lesser Britain or 
Brittany we do not hear very much*. 

It remains to notice a few liturgical matters ; though, as already 
stated, I malve no pretence to pose as a liturgiologist. 

The Eucharist is constantly mentioned " ; a devout layman receives 
it on days of special observance '" ; Comgall's monks wished to 
administer the sacrament daily to him during tbe days preceding 
his death ", implying that daily reception was not the rule under 
ordinary circumstances. The sacrament was not only reserved, but 
carried on the person " in a vessel called ' Chrismale'''. The chalice 
was mixed ", and the water for this purpose is consecrated '^ The 

' Also Futerna, LH.' i. 22 ; and Magnum Monasterium. 

* Enda, §§ 6, 7, 20. ' Tig. § 4 ; C. S. c. 915 (§ i). 

' C. S. c. 915 (§ I). s Capg. i. 445. 

" Aed, § 36; Br. i. § 87 ; Cain. §5 20, 21, 22, cf. C. S. c. 387 (§ 52, not in M) ; 
Ci. C. §§ 31, 33 ; Com. §§ 22, 31 ; Fint. § 2t ; Ila, § 24 ; Mun. § 7 ; Rua. § 29 ; 
Sam. § 23. 

^ See above, pp. xxiv, xxxi, xxxiii, xxxvi f., xliii, xlix, Iv, Ivii f., Ixv, Ixx. 
Ixxv, Ixxviii, Ixxxi, ixxxiv, Ixxxviii, for instances. The use of Scotia, &c. ,inthe 
modern sense of Scotland, is a mark of latcness, Ber. § 14 ; C. S. cc. 644 ff. ; 
C. B. S. p 56 The life of Flannan. worthless in most other respects, is interesting 
as recording the influence of Molua of Kiilaloe ' apud Orcades et usque ad insulas 
Gallorum ', i. e. the Insi Gall (Isles of the [Scandinavian] Strangers) or Hebrides ; 
and the colonies of monks sent thither by Flannan and his father, C. S. cc. 646, 
656, 676. 

^ C. B. S. pp. i8g, igo. 

' sacriiicium ofterre, accipere, Mochoem. |§ 16, 18 ; sac. sanctum, Col. E. 
§ 18 ; Fint. § 20 ; sac. sacrum, Col. E. § 23 ; Lug. § 52 ; sac. diuinum, Com. § 57 ; 
Cron. § 29 ; sac. dominicum, Fint. § 22 ; Lug. § 52 ; sac. laudis, Mochoem. § 25 ; 
communio dominica, Com. §57 ; Ita, § 20; com. corporis et sanguinis Christi, 
Lug. § 52; corpus et sanguis Christi, Com. § sg ; oblatio corporis et sanguinis 
Christi, Mol. §g; corpus Domini, Br. i. §72; immolare agnum immaculatum, 
Br. i. § 49. When administered to the dying it is called diuinum uiaticum, 
Fint. § 20, Mun. § 29 ; salutis uiaticum, Br. i. § 72 [cf. ib. § 73, ' tanquam sui 
itineris fidus ductor') ; eternum uiaticum, Ba. 5 '5 : cf. C. B. S. p. 62. 

'" ' sollemnibus diebus,' Co. E. § 23 ; in modern phrase, on days of obligation. 

" Com. §57. "^ Lug. §52 and note. 

" Com. § 22 ; Mochoem § 18 ; cf. C.S. c. 286. Ducangc gives other examples 
from Irish sources, s. v. Probably it was regardcd as wliat the Irish called 
a ' path-protcction ', i. e. a sort of charm ensuring safety on a journey, on 
which sce below, p, clxxix. " Tig. § 6. 

" Of Molings watercourse it is said, 'unda de eo consecrata est in obla- 
tionem corporis et sanguinis Christi,' Mol. § g ; the • aqua consecrata ' of Lug. 
f 23 is mentioned in connexion with the mass, but might refer to the cnnsccra- 
tion of the font on Easter Eve ; and the candle may be the Paschal candle. 


words of administration are given ' ; and niass vestments are men- 
tioned'. The office for the dead is called 'psalmos canere". The 
names of departed saints were entered in the missal for com- 
memoration at the time of mass*. A priest must not celebrate in the 
presence of a bishop except vvith his e.xpress permission '. We hear 
of altar vessels of glass °. VVe have seen that the second order of 
saints were said to havc received their ' ritus celebrandi missam ' from 
Britain'. And the remembrance of a non-Roman (probably Gallican) 
form of mass seems involved in the statement that Ailbe sent disciples 
to Romc to bring back a new ' ordo celebrandi ' '. The ritual of 
Kildare seems to have been so markedly non-Roman in character, 
that to account for it the special legend vvas invented that it had been 
obtained from the submarine city of Plea ^. 

Salt was used in baptism '" ; brackish vvater was not to be used ". 
Confirmation followed immediately on baptism ^^ 

The cult of relics was in fuU force " with its attendant evils of relic- 

Senan had a special fount.iin from which water for mass. ' usce oifrind,' was 
brought, L. S. p. 65 ; fire, water, and salt are enumerated as necessary for mass, 
C. B. S. p. 199. 

' Br. i. I 49. ^ missalia indumenta, Ita, § 20. ' Fint. § 20. 

* ' nomen magistri tui Kerani ante nomen magistri nostri precedet nobiscura 
in libro offerendi [in Canone R] ' C. S. c. 460 (§ 29). 

' Ail. § 19 note (= C. S. c. 245) ; cf. C. B. S. p. 120. 

' Ail. § 17 ; Br. i. 1 32 ; V. Tr. p. 94 ; Br. Bairre, c. lo. Glass chalices have 
been found in the catacombs, Archaeology and Authority, p. 414. A legend of 
a glass altar in Keating, iii. 106 ; infra, p. cxU note 3. Squan patens are 
mentioned, V. Tr. p. 313. 

' Above, p. cxxv, note 16. Brendan, on celebrating mass in Gildas' monastery, 
finds that themissal provided forhim is 'Grecis conscriptum literis ', Br. i. § 84 ; 
S^ says that it was ' grece scriptum ', ib. note. The former is possible ; cf. 
Reeves, Adamn. pp. xiv, xx B., for specimens of Latin written in Greek letters. 
For the converse practice of writing Greek in Latin letters there was only too 
much reason in the general ignorance of Greek ; cf. e. g. Muratori, Liturgia 
Romana. i. 540-1. 

' Ail. § 37 note ; cf. C. S. c. 655. We hear of a 'missa Patricii ', V. Tr. 
p. 322. On the struggle between the Roman and Gallican rites in Brittany 
v. K. C. xi. 3. 

' L. H.- i. 113 ; Fel.' p. 64 ; Brigit had wished to obtain the Roman ordo, but 
was prevented each time by a miracle. But, according to Ultan's Life of Brigit, 
§ 91 (,Tr. Th. p. s^g**) she did ultimately obtain it, though on the first occasion 
her messengers falsified the copy. This ' falsified ' copy probably represents 
the pre-Roman ' use ' of Kildare. 

"> Decl. §31. 11 Bo. 52. 

" C. S. c. 165 ; we seem to have baptism by aspersion, Rennes MS. f. 76" : 
' copan usci tucad tar cend an meic,' i. e. a cup of water was poured over the 
head of the boy. Trine immersion is mentioned. C. B. S. pp. 27, 122. There 
is a curious instance of baptism of an unborn child, V. Tr. p. 327. A new settle- 
ment was also consecrated with holy water and salt, R.C. v. 443. 

" Cf. Ab. § 50 : ' plus contristati sunt quod corpus eius a se ablatum est, quam 
quod ipse de hac uita migraret." So a community tries to retain a visitor of 
saintly reputation, ' ar nir ail doib a thaissi do brid do uaitnib,' i. e. because they 
were unwilling that he should take his relics away from them, Z. C. P. iii. 35 ; 
cf. C. B. S. p. 75 ; ' In Afghanistan certain villagers . . . arranged to strangle 


mongering ' and 'pious' thefts'. It is rare to find a protest like that 
of Ciaran of Clonmacnois against this abuse'. We also hear of 
translation of relics* ; and they were carried on the person as a 
defence against enemies^ But besides the bodily remains of saints 
various articles connected with them were treasured as relics of great 
potency, bells and bachalls'', boolcs', articles of clothing', a stone 
pillow', tools and utensils'", &c. Such relics were constantly carried 
about on the circuits niade for the collection of the dues payable to 
the monastery, and served as title-deeds to justify the exactions ", and 

a saint who abode among them, in order to secure his tomb within their lands,' 
Lyail, Asiatic Studies, p. 22. 

' Mochoem. § 33 ; Liig. § 49 ; cf. the extraordinary stories of relics exacted 
trom a living saint, Cain. § 6; Fel.^ pp. 70, 156 ; cf. Rennes MS, f. 80'' : ' ata 
ordu Colmain isin ulaid a n-dorus an tigi n-abad, 7 biid timthirecht angel ann 
cach aidchi luoin.' i.e. there is a thumb of Colman in the monument at the door 
of the abbofs house, and there is wont to be attendance of angels there every 
Monday night. 

^ ' corpus sanctissimum furari,' Ab. § 49 ; cf. Hdt. i. 67-8. 

^ Ci, S. § 32 ; L. S. p. 132 ; see above, p. 1. 

' Co. E. § 37 ; Com. § 58 ; C. S. c. 355 (§ 4^) : ' ne essent [reliquie] inter 
peccatores,' perhaps to remove them out of the reach of the Scandinavian 
marauders, which was a frcquent cause of the translation of relics in all countries 
exposed to thcir ravages. Here.andAed §30note, the saint objected. Translation 
is also discouraged, C. S. cc. 676, 678 ; Capg. ii. 542, 606. It was justified by tlie 
example of Joseph's bones being carried out of Egypt : ' ut daret cxemplum 
mutandi reliquias in temptationibus et transmigrationibus,' Irische Kanonen, 
p, 56 ; cf. ib, 205-6, See on the whole subject Bede, ii. 157-8 ; Saxon 
Chronicle, ii. 192 ; Life and Times of Alfred, p. 144 ; Saintyves, pp. 30-51. In 
regard to Irelandsee Zimmer, Celtic Church (E. T."), pp. 120 fT. ; Stokes, V. Tr. 
pp. cxciii f. Fiachna, king of Dal n-Araide, is said to have bceii a great pro- 
moterofthe cult, Com. §52. For the enshrining of relics cf. Ann. Ult. 799,800. 

* C. S. c. 197 (§ 14) ; probably as a ' path-protection ', v. s., or as a tarnkappe. 
Much of the cult paid to relics is of this fetichistic character, 

'■ On these two classes of relics see below, pp. clxxiv fV. 

' Cain. § 41 note ; Cron. § 26 ; Dec. § 26 ; Enda, ^ 19 ; Silva Gad. i. 31 ; L. S. 
p. 121 ; cf. the famous ' Cathach ' of Columba, Reeves, Adamn. pp. 249 f., 
319 ff. ; cf. R. C. xxiii. 404. 

' Aed, § 16 ; Cain. 5 32 ; Ci. C. § 29 ('quasi diadema sanctuni,' v. Glossary' ; 
Enda, § ig; Silva Gad. i. 21 ; C, S. cc. 176, 184. 

' Ci. C. 5 32. 

"^^ Co. E. § 17 : Fech. § 12 ; C. S. cc. 176, 184 (these relics repulse an invading 
foe) ; R, C. ix. 20, xii. 346 ; V, Tr, p, 86, 

'' ' ad exactionem tributorum monasterii,' Ci, S, § 4 ; in Br, Maedoc. f. 211", 
c. 72, the saint is represented as saying ; ' fagbaim an m-bachaiU . . . d' fagail 
mo chiosa,' i. e. I bequeath the bachall for the exaction of my tribute. This 
is the meaning nf the phrase which occurs frequently in Anii Ult., ' commotatio 
martirum nr reliquiarum,' e. g. 733, 742, 775, 784, 792, 793 (cf. note 4 above) ; 
see also 810, 817. These circuits were called ' cuairt ', wliich i.ftcn comes to 
inean the dues collectcd on such a circuit, or even dues absululely, without 
refcrence to any circuit whatever. Here again the hcalhen druid and poet pre- 
ceded the Christian saint ; see below, pp. clxv fT. Fiac, afterwards Hishop of 
Sletty, was pupil of" Dublhach, chicf poet of Ircland ; 'dochoidside tbr cuairt i 
Connactaib . . . is ancl tanic Fiac 7 a chuairt leis,' i. e. Fiac went 011 circuit in 
Connaught ; . . . at that moment he returned and his ducs with him, V. Tr. 
p. 402. A circuit without mention of relics, C, B. S. p. 194, 


potent forces to repel injustice '. Another use to vvhich these relics 
were constantly put was that of taking solemn oaths upon them ". To 
violate an engagement thus sworn to was an outraging' of the saint 
and his relics, and was sure to bring down condign vengeance on the 
ofiender. It was customary to appoint certain families as hereditary 
guardians or stewards* of these relics. In course of time these 
famiUes came to regard such objects as their absolute property ; and 
in this way niany of them have from time to time come into the 
market, and found their way into private and public collections ^ 


Over the north doorway of the cathedral of Cloyne is a stone 
bearing some rude sculptures vvhich are believed to represent 
heathen symbols of life. The same thing is said to be observable on 
the tower of the church of Saint Clement at Rowdill in the Harris ". 
This is a type and an embodiment in stone of a process which may 
be noted wherever vve can trace to any extent the history of the 
introduction of Christianity among heathen peoples; the incorporation, 
namely, into the structure of the newer creed of fragments of 
materials — 'stones not of this building ' — taken from the old. Nor is 
the process confined to Christianity. Aboriginal tribes in India or 
Africa which have nominally adopted Brahmanism or Mohammedan- 
ism retain their primitive fetichism under a thin veneer of the 
superior religion, and their humble deities are represented as 
subordinate manifestations of some higlier God'. So the earlier 
faiths and customs of the Peruvian tribes survived under the sun- 
worship of the Incas '. Nay, we shall see reason to believe that in 

' Br. Maedoc, c. 68 : ' is iatt so na secht minna batar 'n-a n-armaib cathaigthe 
ag Maedog i n-agaid ecora slechta Aedha Finn,' i. e. these were the seven relics 
which were Maedoc's arms of battle against the injustice of the race of Aed 

' 'ad coniurationes principum,' Ci. S. § 4. Hence the verb 'minnaim' from 
' minn ', a reHc, comes to mean simply to tai<e an oath. 

^ ' sarugud,' which becomes quite a technical expression ; see above, p. cv ; 
and Zimmer, Sitzungsb. d. preuss. Akad. 1909, pp. 72 ff. 

* ' maeir.' 

' See Miss Stokes, Early Christian Art, pp. 59-62, 96-101 ; Christian Inscrip- 
tions, ii. 91-2, 103, 107, 109, iia, 114, 116 ; Book of Hulling, p. 2. 

' Goodrich-Freer, Outer Isles, p. 384 ; cf. Fel.^ 186 (a heathen stone placed 
in the church of Clogher) ; Grimm, i. 108-9, '"? P- xxxw 

■" Lyall, Asiatic Studies, chap. v; A Lang, Custom and Myth, pp. 215-16, 

» Lang, Myth and Ritual, i. 76 [74]. 


Celtic heathenism itself, druidism, its most persistent element, was a 
survival from an older pre-Aryan system. But this tendency, observ- 
able almost everywhere, is specially noticeable in the history of Irish 
Christianity. Nowhere was there less conflict, as far as we can 
judge, between the old and the new. The Irish Church in Ireland 
has no martyrs '. What Harnack says of Asia Minor might be applied, 
without the alteration of a single word, to Ireland. ' Heathenism 
was absorbed without any violent conflict -. It disappears, in 
order to reappear, proportionately strong, in the Church. Nowhere 
else did the conquest and " uprooting " of heathenism cause so little 
difficulty. It was, in fact, not uprooted, only modified ". It is 
possible that in Ireland this result may have been partly due to the 
clan system. Where the chief was converted, the clan in most cases 
would follow ; and conversion in masses involves, almost necessarily, 
the retention of a large measure of heathenism. Even in the case of 
individual conversions, it would often be some single point in the new 
doctrine which first brought conviction*, and it would only be 
gradually, if at all, that the rest of the man's mental furniture would 
adjust itself to the new element. A Jew who in the early days of 
Christianity became convinced that Jesus of Nazareth was the 
Messiah of Hebrew propliecy, did not realize at once, perhaps in this 
life never fully realized, all that such a conviction implied in the way 
of surrender of Jewish customs and prejudices. 

The same thing appears in the attitude of the clergy towards the 
native secular literature. Nowhere did the Church show greater 
tolerance. To the clergy we largely owe the preser\'ation of what 
we still possess of that literature. The two principal MSS., the Book 
of the Dun Covv and the Book of Leinster, both owe their existence 
to clerical influences. The former was written by a scribe of Clon- 
macnois in the first half of the eleventh century", and the special 
recension of the principal secular tales contained in it is probably due 
to Flann, the Lector of the School of Monasterboice '. In the writing 
and compilation of the latter, which belongs to the middle of the 

• 'unde et omnes sancti terrae istius confessores sunt, et nullus martyr. 
Quod in alio regno Christiano difficile erit inuenire,' Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 174 ; 
cf. ib. 179. The present Dean of St. Patrick's informed me tliat when recently 
subjects were being selected for a stained-glass window to be erected in tlie 
cathedral, they had to go abroad to find an Irish saint (Kihan) to represent 
the ndble army of martyrs ; cf. Dec. § 3 : ' poterant ibi esse sine persecucione.' 

' Apart from the contests betwecn saints and druids, of which something will 
be said later, we liear singularly few dctails of any opposition to Christianity. 
See, however, Dccl. § 25 ; C. S. c. 226, § 4. 

' Mission u. Ausbreitung (1903), p. 462. 

• Harnack, u. s., p. 63. 

• Maclmuire mac Ccileachaic, v. L. U. Introduction. 

° Sec Zimmer's Kssay already alluded to abovc, p. xci, esp. pp. 678 fT. 


tvvclfth ccntury, two higli ecclesiastics were concerned'. I have 
already cxpressed niy opinion as to the true meaning of the legend 
of the long search by the poets of Ireland for a complete copy of the 
famous epic story of thc Cattle Raid of Cooley. But it is interesting 
hcrc to note an alternative account of the way in which a complete 
vcrsion of the tale was obtaincd, which the writer of the legend 
gives with cvident sympathy : ' Some, however, assert that it was to 
Senchan that the story was related [by Fergus], after fasting on the 
saints of the race of Fergus. Anci itwoiild noi be siirprising ifit were 
so' '. It seemed quite natural to the writer that pressure should be 
hrought to bear on the saints of Fergus' family, to get them to obtain 
the necessary information from their great ancestor, who, as one of 
the chief actors in the story, could naturally furnish a fuU account 
of it. 

Later dogmas obliged the Irish ecclesiastic to consign the great 
heroes of the Ulster cycle to perdition', though Conchobar was 
saved by his supposed sympathj* with our Lord at the time of the 
Crucifixion*, and an attempt was made to turn Cuchulainn into an 
unconscious prophet of Christ^. But as a rule this side of the 
question is conveniently ignored. 

Even more friendly appear the relations of the clergy to the second 
or Fenian cycle of Irish tales. The longest production of this cycle, 
the Dialogue of the Ancient Men ', owes its name to the fact that it is 
set in the framework of a dialogue between Patrickand Cailte, one of 
the few survivors of Finn's companions. Patrick rescues Caike"s 
relatjves and Finn himself trom the pains of hell ' ; and is constantly 
made to express delight at Cailte's tales, and to request that they may 
be written down'. Even after a very risky narrative, Patrick's only 
comment is, 'That's a complicated story^' Equally marked was 

' See Atkinson"s Introduction, pp. 7-8 ; Todd, Gaedil and Gaill, pp. ix ff. 

' LL. 245'' ; printed in Zimmer, u. s., pp. 433 ff. ; Windisch, T. B. C., pp. liii ff. 
This alternative version resembles that given in the late tale, 'Imthecht na 
Tromdaime,' Oss. Soc. v. 124 ff. But whereas in LL. Senchan fasts on the 
saints of Fergus' seed, in the later version the saints of Ireland generally fast 
on the Deity to force Him to allovv Fergus to appear. 

^ Zimmer. K. B. i. 248 ff. ; Sitzungsber. der preuss. Akad. xlix, iioo ff. 

* See above, p. xxix. note 4 ; Oitte, p. 8. 

' LL. 123" ; Cormac's Glossary, p. 31 : 'et alii dicunt co ro chret Cuchulainn 
o sin,' i. e. and some say that Cuchulaiiin believed from that time forward. 

' Accallam na Senorach, printed by CGrady in Silva Gadelica, and by Stokes 
in voi. iv of Irische Texte. 

' ed. Stokes, p. 117, cf. ib. p. 31. 

* ib. pp. 9, 18, 25. 189. 210, 217. 

' ib. p. 104 ; of the Irish secular stories it may be said generally that they 
are non-moral rather than immoral ; a moral standard, especially in regard to 
the relations of the sexes, can hardly be said to exist. ' The (olk-tale . . . is 
singularly immoral or non-moral,' Macculloeh, Childhood, p. 12. 

i 2 


Patrick's approval of the native minstrel. ' What guerdon dost thou 
demand ? ' he asks of Cas Corach. ' Heaven for myself, for that is 
the best guerdon ; and grace on my art, and on those vvho follow it after 
me till doom^' And just as Cuchulainn was made to prophesy ot 
Christ, so Finn prophesies of various saints^ In other ways, too, 
saints are brought into secular stories', sometimes with a fine 
contempt for chronology and morality*. 

But if in these and other ways the ecclesiastics modified the secular 
literature, which they largely helped to preserve, much greater was 
the influence of the secular story on the ecclesiastical legends. This 
influence may take the form either of direct importation, or of 
conscious imitation, or of unconscious permeation. For the student 
of mythology and early modes of thought the third class is the most 
interesting, and we shall be largely occupied in discussing it. But 
the other two classes show more clearly the attitude of the Church 
towards the native traditions. Of direct incorporation we have 
already noticed two instances, the horrible story of triple incest at 
the beginningof the life of Declan, and the story of the birth of Aed 
Slane in the S life of Aed Mac Bricc. The birth stories of Aed Mac 
Bricc himself and of Molaisse of Devenish ' are merely borrowed 
from the story of the birth of Fiacha Muillethan with change of name*. 
The story of Bairre and Scuithin meeting on the sea' is only an 
ecclesiastical version of the meeting of Bran and Manannan mac Lir*. 

' ed. Stokes, p. 99. Uttcrly alien from the spirit of the older Ossianic literature 
is the late poem, printed Oss. Soe. iii. 230 ff. . in which Patrick is represented as 
forbiddin^ the aged Oisin even to think of Finn, on the ground that such reraem- 
brance is sinful ; cf. e. g. pp. 258, 280. 288, 290. 

^ Acc. Sen. pp. 52, 69, 74-5. This also appears in the later Irish Hves, Br. 
Coemgen, c. 2 ; Br. Maed. c. 6 ; Z. C. P. iii. 544 ; Fel.' p. clxxii ; R. C. xiii. 11. 
Hanmer, according to Keating, i. 48, made Finn a Dane, anticipating Zimraer's 
theory, K. B. i. 

' R. C. -x. 72 (Brendan of Birr, into the Maelduin story) ; xxi. i6a ; xxiii. 402 ; 
Oss. Soc. V. 84 ; Magh Rath, pp. 18, 24-6 and notes. 

* See above, p. cvi. Ollier instances of ecclesiastical matter imported 
into secular tales are T. B. C. p. 355 (Sim6n driii, i. e. Simon Magus^ ; Ir. T. III. 
ii. 190 (St. Paul) ; Magh Lena, p. 4 (Pharaoh's drcams borrowed); Kcating, 
ii. 346 (golden calf borrovved) ; small christianizing touches may often be 
noticed, e. g. LL. 114'' 21, 115" 4, 117'' 6, 123" 4. 

"^ Aed, § r ; Las. § 4 : cf. Tr. Th. p. $2i'' (§ 4). 

" LL. 290" 42 ff. ; Zimmer, Gott. gol. Anz. 1891, p. 169. A birth delayed for 
two years by witchcraft, Hy Many, p. 118. 

^ Mart. Don. Jan. 2; Fel.^ p. 40; C, B. S. p. 131. 

» Bran, i. 16 ff. The pathetic story of Columba and the white horse which 
carried thc milk pails of the monastery, Adamn. iii. 23, is very like the story of 
Cuehulainn's horse, the Liath Macha.and his master, LL. 119'' 3 ff,, 122" ff. ; but 
tltcy are probably indcpendent versions of the same folk-tale ; cf. Iliad, xvii, 
426 ff. The story of thc origin of the name of Cu Cerca, which scems of 
ecclesiastical origin, Cbir Anmann, No. 214, is evidcntly modelled on the similar 
story about Cuchulainn, T. B. C. p. 129; L. U. 61". For the incorporation of 
folk-talcs into sacrcd books, cf. Macculloch, Childhood, p. 452. Sec Addenda. 


And just as we have seen saints transplanted into secular tales, 
so do \vc find characters from the latter appearing in the hves of 
saints '. But this alien material was gradually submitted to a process 
of ecclesiastical editing, vvhich toned down or omitted its most charac- 
teristic features, or tried to justify thcm by finding ecclesiastical 
parallels for them '. And so we find classes of legends as to which 
we may be in some doubt whcther they owe their cxistence to secular 
traditions and folk-lore, or to the miracles of the canonical and 
apocr}'phal scripturcs. Such are stories of raising the dead \ turning 
water into vvinc, wallcing on the vvater, multiplying food, miraculous 
povver of speaking languages, and so forth. Often vve can feel pretty 
sure that in spite of the ecclesiastical assimilation, the substratum 
comes from popular tradition *. 

Celtic heathenism seems to have consisted of tvvo main elements ; 
a system of nature vvorship vvith departmental gods, of vvhom the 
sun and fire god vvas the chief ; and a system of magic or druidism. 
Of these the former vvas a development of the religion vvhich the 
Celts brought vvith them from the original home of the Arj'ans, 
vvherever that may have been ; the latter was the religion of the 
pre-Aryans' vvhom they found occupying the lands vvhich they 

' e. g. Mongan and Cormac mac Airt, Z. C. P. iv. 304 ff., v. 52. The idea of 
'grad ecmaisi ' or abscnt love, ib. v. 26, is also borrowed from the secular tales, 
in which it is common for young women to fall in love with a hero vvhom they 
have never seen ' ar a airscelaib *, because of the reports about him. The same- 
ness of the miracles in the lives of saints is largely due to the sameness of the 
folk-tales to which they are related, Delehaye, Legendes, pp. 8, 29-30 ; Saint- 
yves, p. 230 ; British Saints, i. 7 ; MaccuUoch, u. s., p, 466. We have seen 
above that the form of the secular tales has not been without influence on the 
lives, p. xxxiv, note 6. 

- See above, p. xxiii, and cf. e. g. Bo, § r6 ; Enda, § 4 ; Maed. § a note. So 
in the case of the aboriginal tribes of India mentioned above, p. cxxix, an 
orthodox Brahmanic interpretalion is found for their primitive superstitions. 

^ One or two special cases of interest may be mentioned here ; in the Brussels 
lifeof Berach.c. 29, adecapitated man is raised by havinga rush, ' simin luachra ' 
put round his neck, and tiiis kind of rush is called ' Berach's rush' to this day. 
In the Brussels life of Grellan, c. 3. that saint raises a dead child as follows : 
' dorat tri sriabha forsan ccorp d'ingin a ordan, gur scrett an lenabh," i. e. he 
made three stripes on the body with the nail of his thumb, so that the child 
screeched ; and he was called Eogan Sriab, or Eogan Stripe, ever after ; cf. 
Macculloch, u. s., pp. 80 fl". 

* Of course there are purely biblical rairacles, e. g. druids who, like Balaam, 
ean only bless, not curse, Tr. Th. p. 416" ; the healing of a bloody flux by 
Petroc, Capg. ii. 319. But in cur lives they are not so common. Maed. 5 49 
looks as if it were copied from 2 Kings iv. 29 ; but the vvonder-working bachall 
is, as we shall see, a recurring feature of popular tradition, pp. clxxiv tf. 

' Bertrand, Religion, pp. 43. 123. So in the Scandinavian world the Finns, 
a pre-Ar3'an race, are the chief professors of magic, so that Finn and sorcerer 
are practically synonymous ; see Cleasby-Vigfusson, s.v. Finnar. It is interesting 
to find that the Tuatha Dc Danann were said to have learnt their magic arts in 


invaded, and whom they largely absorbed. The literature shows 
that the latter element was the more permanent. Indeed in a sense 
it may be said never to have dicd out. It appears plainly and 
directly in the legends both secular and ecclesiastical. The Christian 
teachers never took the iine of denying the reality of its existence. 
It was gentile or diaboiic itnowledge, powerfully ranged against 
themselves. But the other element is a matter of inference. Its 
direct exposition was made impossible by the acceptance of Chris- 
tianity. The impact of the stronger creed shattered it into fragments ; 
but many of the fragments floated down the stream of time, and 
recombined in fantastic shapes around the persons of pagan heroes 
and Cliristian saints, who are not therefore necessarily non-existent 
or non-historical' because theyhave formed the nucleus round which 
mythological elements have gathered ; any more than the sponge 
is non-existent, because it has served to attract the particles of silex 
which have turned it into flint. Many controversies between rival 
schools of niythology would be reconciled, if this were borne in 
mind. But the fact that traditions and attributes originally belonging 
to heathen deities have become attached to Christian saints^ accounts 
for the unedifying and incongruous character of many of these 
stories, one or two of which have been alluded to already'. In this 
way the doubtful honesty' and doubtful veracity", the immoral 

the North : 'dollotar a sil a n-innsib tuaiscertachaib an domain do foglaimm 
druidechta 7 geintliuchta 7 fessa diabuil, comtar eolaig as cech ceird, 7 ite 
Tuatha De Danann iarum,' i. e. liis [Bethach's] seed went to the northern 
islands of the world to learn druidism and gentilism and diabolic science, so 
that they were knowing in respcct of every craft; and these are the later 
Tuatha De Danann. Rawl. B. 512, f. 79"*. Elsewhere a druid goes to Icarn his 
craft in Armorica (Lethal, Ir. T. III. 192. 

' Lyall, Asiatic Studies, i. 52, 200 ; ii. 207 ff., 324 ff. ; Delehaye, pp. 212-16. 

2 Saintyves, pp. 248-9, 283. 285 (M. Saintyves' book is largely an exposition, 
somewhat exaggerated in my opinion, of this thesis) ; Bertrand, u. s., p. 32; 
Harnack, u. s., p. 152. The coexistence of the two systems side by side seems 
illustrated by a curious story in the Rennos MS. (. 87 r" ; Cinaeth, chief of 
Offally, wcnt on a love adventure attendcd by his *druth' or jester ; when 
they quitted their horses thc chicf commended his to thc carc of St. Colman 
mac Luachain, the jester consigned his to Oengus mac an Oic ; the lattcr was 
stolen, the former escaped. That the saint should have aided and abetted such 
an adventure was not particularly to his credit. 

' Xcnophanes' old complaint is largely applicable here (apud Sext. Emp. 
ix. 193, citcd Monro's Odysscy, p. 386) : 

irayTa Biois a.vi9T}Kav "OfiTjpos 6^ 'HtJioSos Te 
oaaa irap' av&pwvoiaiv uvfi5(a nal ipijyos (aTtv. 

* Acd, § 20; Ci. S. §§ 13, 31. 

^ MoIing's famous cquivocation on the word 'luan', §§ 19, 20 and notes 
(above, p. Ixxxii"), is a classical instancc ; Col. Wood-Martin gives Irom 
tradition a similar tale of St. Patrick, and an instance from sccular folk-lore, 
Elder Faiths, i. 345-6, 377. 


miracles' and incestuous origins^, the mutual jealousy and spite- 
fulness', the maledictions and vindictiveness of Celtic saints* to a 
grcat extent find their cxplanation. 

Unfortunately the maledictory character of Celtic saints cannot be 
wholly explaincd as mythological *. It is, however, probably inherited 
largely from the druids, and will be dealt with in that connexion 
later in this section (pp. clxxiii f.). 

The elemental part of Celtic heathenism has a!so left its trace in 
certain customs, such as tlie practice of going deisil or righthandwise 
to show honour or bring good luck", while going tuaithbel, lefthand- 
wise or ' widdershins ', is unlucky '. This is certainly a relic of 

> Ci. S. 5 8 ; Ita, § i6 eomitted by R) ; C. S. c. 389 (§ 56, omitted by M) ; 
c- 343 (§ 15. omitted by M) : Rennes MS. f. 87". 

'■^ Tlie case of Cuimine Foda ^C. tlie tal! ) is the most prominent ; I have 
already spoken of the extraordinary Irish life of this saint. above, p. cvi, note 5 ; 
cf. also LH.- i. 16; Fel.-' p. 242 ; LL. 286'' 44. Other instances occur Ba. 5 i ; 
Moling, § I note ; Capg. ii. 105; Delehaye, pp. 71-2. We have seen that 
Decl. § I is taken bodily from the secular literature, in which this sort of 
incident is common, LU. 54"; Acc. Scn. p. 16; Ir. Nenn. pp. 104. 182 (both 
Ihese concern saints) ; F. M. i. 82 note ; Keating, ii. 178, 214 ; cf. Saintyves. 
p. 264; Pagan Ircland, p. 93 ; Bran, ii. 44-5. I cannot, in face of the examples 
given above, agree with Mr. Nutt that these stories 'would be profoundly 
repujfnant to . . . Christian compilers and scribes '. Giraldus says roundly of 
the Irish ' non inccstus uitant ', Opp. v. 164. He is a bad authority, no doubt; 
but if he came across any of the above traditions, he might be excused for 
thinking so ; cf. also Luzel, Legendes Chretiennes, i. 265. 

' Ci. C. § 33 ; we have already noted the legend that Ciaran's life was cut 
short by the prayers of his rival saints ; Mochua, |§ 4, 5 ; Mun. 5 25 ; Capg. 
ii. 203 ; L. S. p. 126 ; Rennes MS. f. 83'' ; saints counteract each other's petitions 
and promises, like the Homeric gods who supported Greek and Trojan respec- 
tivcly, Mochoem. §§ 28, 30; Tr. Th. p. 409''; R. C. xiii. 88, iio; cf. the striking 
scene from Gautrekssaga, c. 7, cited by Grimm, Mythology, ii. 858-9. 

* Bede, ii. 260. 

' Ab. § 53 ; Cron. § 24 ; Las. § 10 ; L. S. pp. 89, 93, 348 (even angels observe 
the same rule, ib. p. 67) ; Br. Maedoc, c. 18. It is very curious that, on the 
ground of this heathen custom. the writer of the life of Caillin tries to turn the 
druid Cathbad into a prophet of Christianity : ' deisiul fognid gach fis 7 gach 
faistine, fodaig ro creided do Crist,' i. e. righthandwise he made every divina- 
tion and prophecy, because he believed in Christ, Book of Fenagh, p. 254. The 
evidence is almost endless : see e. g. Book of MuUing, pp. 170-1 and reff. ; 
LU. 55", 63° 24 ; LL. 119'' 20, 123" 8 ff., 18 ff. ; Cormac, Glossary, p 38 (Trans. 
PP- 137-8) ; Elder Faiths, ii. 52 ; Campbell, Superstitions, p 230 ; Martin, pp. 7, 
16, 20, 116-17, 248. 

* This does not occur in the Latin lives, though it does in some of the Irish 
lives, Br. Maedoc, cc. 18, 58, 69, 78 ; Rennes MS. f. 83'' ; and in the secular 
literature, R. C. xv. 315 ; cf. LL. 119", 49. Another relic of elemental worship is 
the practice of taking the elements as pledges for the performance of covenants, 
&c. This does not occur, so far as I have noticed, in the lives. but it occurs in 
the Ciiin Adamnain, § 22, combined by a curious bit of syncretism with the 
guarantee of the saints. The securities for the observance of this law were : 
'grian 7 esca, dule De arcenae, Petar, Pol, Andieas jc ', i. e. sun, moon, and 
the other elements of God, Peter, Paul, Andrew, &c. It is extremely common 
in the secular literature, LU. 118'' (= R. C. vi. 165, V. Tr. p. 566) ; R. C. xvi. 
32 ; Ir. Nenn. p. 126 ; Magh Rath, p. a ; Petrie's Tara. p. 34 ; Rawl. B. 503 f. 


sun worship, and is of course not exclusivcly Ccltic ; as neithcr are 
those midsummer or St. John's^ fires on which there is a praetically 
endless literature. 

It is in accordance with the pre-eminence of the Celtic Sun and 
Fire God that the solar should be the most prominent mythological 
influence in Celtic hagiology. Those of our saints which exhibit 
traces of this influence are, as we have already seen, Aed, Boetius 
(Buite), Cainnech, Carthach, Ciaran of Saigir, Coemgen, Colman 
Ela, Comgall, Fechin, Finan, Fintan, Ita, Lasrian (Molaisse), Maedoc, 
Mochoemoc, Mochua, Moling, Molua (Lugaid), Samthann, and Tiger- 
nach '^. We have also seen that in some of these cases the attraction 
is probably due to the name. Lug is the Celtic Sun God himself; 
Aed is one of the names for fire ; Buite means heat, Lassar (dim. 
Laisren) means flame, Samthann may have been etj-mologized as 
summer-fire (sam-thene) ^. In other cases no special reason can be 
given. Locality may have had something to do with it, the habita- 
tion or shrine of the saint having been at or near the seat of some 
old heathen worship ; or approximation in the dates of their respective 
festivals *. 

^a' ; Kcating, ii. 230, 240, 244; cf. Iliad, ili. 104, 276 fT., xiv. 271 ff. A fine 
examplc from the Icelandic Code is cited Orig. Island. i. 314 ; ' nu lieldr iOrS 
griJom upp, en himin var&r fyr ofan,' i. e. now may earth uphold the peace, and 
heaven above be its warranty. 

• i. e. St. John the Baptist, June 24 (for the bonfires on this day cf. Aur. Leg. 
pp. 363, 569). In the Irish Calendar, however, the sun festival, Beltene, was on 
May I, Rhjs, H. L. pp. 519 f. Of the belief that these sacred fires preserved 
cattle from disease we have an instance, C. B. S. p. 30. The Celtic wheels and 
crosses are probably another relic of sun worship ; see on both subjects 
Bertrand, Religion, Le^ons viii-xiv. 

" See above, Part II. It is worth noticing how often saints of solar character 
are associated together, Aed, § 33 ; Cain. §§ 14, 16, 27 ; Car. §§ 18, ig ; Coem. 
§§ 17, 27 ; Co. E. § 3 ; Fint. §§ 3. 5, 13 ; Las. |§ 20, 24 ; Mochoem. §§ 8-10, 
25 ; Moling, § 7 ; Mochua, §§ 2-5 ; Macd. §§ 8, 49 ; Lug. §§ 31, 43. The most 
striking instance of this is the education of Molua by Comgall, Lug. §§ 15-24. 
Of course, many of these conjunctions may be quitc historical. 

' Other saints with names suggcstive of solar charactcristics not included in 
this collection are Molaisse of Leighlin, and his namcsake of Inismurray ; 
Daig, son of Cairell (C. S. cc. 891 ff. : 'hoc nomen . . . magnam Jlatiimani 
sonat,' §2, cf. §§ II, 16). Brigifs name is fancifully etymologized ' breo- 
saiget', i. e. fiery arrow, Cormac, p. 8; Fel,' p. xlv ; and certainly her legend 
exhibils many traits of this kind, Tr. Th. pp. 527-8, 533-4, 537^ 539" (§§ 5-8. 
60, 84, 92-3) ; British Saints, i. 265-6. Brigit has, morcovcr, heathen name- 
sakes, e. g. Brigit banfile, i. e. ' the poetess ' mother of the three gods of poetry, 
R. C. xxvi. 30-1 ; and her two hojnonymous sisters, goddesses respectively of 
the healing and mechanical arts, Cormac, u.s. Rhys, H. L. pp. 74-7. This iden- 
tity of name is a great occasion of transfercnce of myths. A classical instance 
is that of Hippolytus, Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathcrs, I. ii. 453 ; cf. Saintyves, 
pp. 339, 341. In the group of Neptunic saints I liave suggested that a popular 
etymology connccting Abban with abann, a river, may have been at work. 

* The policy of Christianizing heathen seats of worship and placcs of pil- 
grimagc has, of course, becn very widely adopted, and on this also thcre is an 


The association of soiar saints witli persons wiiose namcs suggcst 
similar associations is also worth noticing. Thc most striking in- 
stance of this is in the S' life of Molua where it is said that Comgall 
had fifty monks, ali named Lugaid '. Comgall was ordained by 
a bishop Lugaid", as was Coemgen'. Cainnech's father was a 
Lugaid*; Molua had a brother Lugair^ Fechin's mother was named 
Lassar", Daig's sister had the same name'. 

Of miracles apparently solar in origin which recur with greater 
or less frequency wc may enumerate the following* : fiery manifesta- 
tions at, or prior to, birth or during childhood', heavenly light 

extensive literature. cf. Bede, H. E. i. 30, and my notes ; Harnack, Mission, 
pp. 340-1, 475. This is especiallj' the case with sacred wells and trees ; see 
below. pp. cxlix, clii ; cf. Saintyves, p. 331. 

' Lug. § 17 note ; other instanccs of groups of saints with the sarae name 
occur. Ail. § 13 ; Car. 5 50. A very curious inslance occurs in the Irish life of 
Molaisse, where the saint descends to the infernal regions, and delivers ' Manann 
the leper and thrice fifty namesalves of his ', Silva Gad. i. 21. This is a very 
common feature in the secular tales, e. g. LU. 127'' 16 ff. ; LL. 123" 48 fT., 256" 
31-2, 259" 46 ff. ; T. B. C. pp. 851 ff. ; Oss. Soc. iii. 150; Magh Rath, pp. 

' Com. §§ II, 13. ' Coem. §5 10-12. 

* Cain. § I ; cf. ib. 34, Dalua, hypocoristic for Lugaid ; Luigdech, Lug. 5 38 
notc ; Lugtigern ( = Lug, the Lord), Ita, § 31 ; Mochoem. § 10 ; Findlug (= Fair 
Lug), Car. § 34. 

' Lug. § I ; cf. Car. § 34. ^ Fech. § i ; cf. Co. E. § 12 note. 

' C. S. c. 898 (§ 16) ; cf. Lasrianus, Car. §§ 34, 39 ; Ita, § 31 ; Aed, Ci. S. § 9 ; 
Aedan, Car. §§ 6, 25, 34, 35. I add a few references to the secular literature 
where these names are probably significant. Lugaid, Cbir Anm. Nos. 58, 159, 
199. All these have epithets suggestive of fire. Lugaid lamderg, or the Red- 
handed, Mesca Ulad, p. 18 ; so Cuchulainn is called ' dorn-chorcra ', i. e. purple- 
tisted, ib. p. 4. On Lugaid sriabderg, or the Red-striped, see above, p. Ixii ; 
cf. R. C. xii. 127. Aed Abrat, Ir. T. i. 210-11. A group of these names in the 
genealogy of Corca Laide, Misc. Celt. Soc. p. 24, cf. ib. 6, 32. According to 
Cormac, Glossary, p. 2 (Trans. p. 5), Aed is a fire goddess, like Vesta. 

^ I place first references to solar saints contained in these volumes ; then 
references to solar saints in other collections ; e.g. Columba of Terryglass, C. S. 
cc. 445 ff. ; Daig mac Carill, ib. cc. 891 ff. ; Finnian of Clonard, ib. cc. 189 ff. 
(Irish life, L. S. pp. 75 ff.) ; Fintan of Dunbleisc, C. S. cc. 225 ff. ; a most inter- 
esting life of this class is the Irish life of Finnchua of Brigown, L. S. pp. 84 ff., 
which also shows strong Scandinavian influence; the great Columba him- 
self, though for him we have historical evidence better than for any other Irish 
saint, has also attracted elements of this kind ; cf. Adamn. i. 28 ; ii. 7 ; iii. 3-3, 
17-18, 23; on Brigit, see above, p. cxxxvi, note 3. I place iast [in brackets] 
references to non-solar saints in whose lives similar miracles occur, and among 
these I mark vvith an asterisk those cases where the main attributes of a saint 
are of a different character, e. g. those of a water deity. Similarly we stiall find 
miraclesof the latter type in the lives of solar saints. We need not be surprised 
that these different elements should have got mixed as they fioated dovvn the 
stream of time. Here also local juxtaposition may have played a part ; and on 
the way in which one cyele of legends may attract and absorb other cycles, 
cf. Monro's Odyssey, p. 3B3. 

' Bo. § 2 ; Car. §§4,8; Com. §§5, 7 ; Fech. § 4 ; Ita, § 2 ; Maed. § 3 ; 
Mochoem. § 7 ; Lug. §§ a, 15 ; Sam. § i ; Tig. §3 (cf. Saintyves, pp. 247-8) ; 
C. S. c. 446 (§ 3); Finnian seems to have been conceived of fire, C. S. c. 189 
LCap. 1. ai6 ; Br. i. § 3*, cf. ib. | 4 ; Dec. § 4*]. 


accompanj'ing the saint', fantastic fire vvhich does no hurt', Iuminous 
appearances at dealh or burial ', fire brought down from heaven ', 
or supernaturally kindled^, fire carried or handled with impunity", 
the fingers of the saint give light or fire', miraculous extinction of, 
or deliverance from fire', daylight prolonged miraculously '", the 
saint caught up to heaven", the saint and his belongings un- 
touched by rain or snow'^, one very common form of the miracle 
being that a book incautiously left in the open, or dropped in the 
water by the saint, is uninjured by the wet'^; while the stream in 
which he performs his ascetic devotions becomes hot'*. It is prob- 
ably significant that in several cases it is one of these fire miracles 

' Com. §§ 15, ig and note ; Fint. § 16 ; Ita, 523; Mochoem. § 12; Moling, §3; 
cf. Cain. §§ 22, 27. 35, 36 note ; Fech. § 13 ; Fint. § 21 ; Las. § 29 [Adamn. iii. 
21 ; cf. L. S. p. 144 ; Ba. § 14 ad fin.']. 

" Fech. § 4 ; Fin. C. §§ 7, 16 note ; Sam. §§ i, 2; C. S. c. 459 (5 29") [C. S. 
cc. 744-5 ; Capg. i. 222, ii. 192 ; cf. Elder Faiths, ii. 157, 216 ; Outer Isles, 
P. 233I. 

CoL E. § 36 ; Lug. § 53 ; C. S. cc. 461-2 (§§ 30-1). 

* Ci. S. §§ 19. 24. 32 ; Fin. C. § 19 ; Mochua, § 4 ; cf. Cain. § 37 ; Car. 
§ 27 ; Fechin, § 13 [Ab. § 34* ; Ci. C. § 30 ; Dee. § 28']. 

» Aed, § 29 ; Ci. S. § 33 ; Com. §§ 43 4 ; Las. §§ 7. 25 ; Lug. §§ 3, 23 ; C. S. 
c. 897, § II (probably Cain. § ig belongs here) [V. Tr. p. 10 ; Ab. § 13*]. 

* Car. § 49 ; Coem. § 5 ; Col. E. § 27 note ; Com. § 39 ; Fin. C. §§ 5. 26 note ; 
Lug. § 17 ; C. S. c. 8g8, § 16 ; L. S. p. 87 ; cf. Coem. § 35 ; Fin. C. § 4 [Ail. § 40' ; 
Rua. § 23 ; St. Malo, p. 138 ; C. B. S. pp. 29, 186. 261 ; Delehaye, p. 57 ; Aur. 
Leg. p. 571. In V. Tr. p. 88 Ihis is a sort of ordeal]. 

' Bo. § 19 ; Cain. §§ 35. 39; Coem. § 18 note ; C. S. c. 447 (§ 6) [C. S. c. 647, 
§ 5 ; V. Tr. p. 126 ; Tr. Th.p. 408" (§ i) ; Capg. i. 379 ; Colg. A. S. Vita Scnani, 
March 6, § 11 ; Ba. § 14* ; Delehaj-e, p. 57]. 

' Cain. § 6 ; Ci. S. § 24 note ; Col. E. § 27 note ; Fint. § 6 ; Las. § 13 ; 
Moling, § 17 ; C. S. 282 (§ 53 not in M' [Dec. § 35*]. 

' Cain. §§ 6, 18, 28, 40 ; Ci. S. § 9 ; Moling. § 17 ; cf. Fin. C. § 4 (in Car. § 27 
fire protects the saint from his enemies ; cf. Moling, § 17 sub finem). 

"> Col. E. § 24 ; Fech. § 20 ; Las. § 11 ; Lug. § 35 [Cron. § 9]. 

" Aed, § 16 ; Bo. § 17 ; Las. § 26 ; Macd. § 39 ; Lug. § 13. Notc that thcse 
are all solar sainls. 

'2 Aed, § 6 ; Bo. § 7 ; Cain. §§ 16, 28 note, 42 ; Ci. S. § 8 ; Com. § 8 ; Fin. 
C. §§ 2, 18, 23 note ; Las. § 27 ; Mollng, § 19 ; Tr. Th. p. 540" (§ 100) ; C. .S. 
c. 449, § 8; cf. Maed. § 47 [V. Tr. p. 124; Br. i. § 83*, cf. ib. § 6 ; N. and K. p. 321 ; 
Ail. § 10'' ; Capg. i. 208, ii. 319. In the Irish life of Maignenn, Silva Gad. i. 44, 
and in C. B. S. p. 202. this immunity from rain was caused by the saint's 
' cochall ' or ' casula ' ; and in the lattcr case gave rise to the nicknamc ' casulam- 
siccus', the exact opposite of the nickname ' cochall-fliuch ', or wet-cowl, 
which occurs F. M. 1145J. 

" Cain. § 18 note ; Maed. § 12; Moling, § 4 ; C. B. S. p. 39; Br. Coemgen. 
c. 9 [Ab. § 36* ; Ci. C. §§ 23, 27 ; Aiiamn. ii. 8, 9 ; N. and K. pp. 150- i ; C. B. S. 
p. 64 : C. S. c. 832 (§ 13 ; Capg. ii. 173 ; L. Land. p. 97 ^102' ; cf. Acc. Sen. 
p. 107. In V. Tr. p. 284 this is proposed as a sort of ordcal : ' libros ucstros in 
aquam mittite, et illum cuius libri inlessi euasscrint, adorabimus.' Bairre prevents 
snow from melting, Br. Bairre, c. 4*]. 

'• Ci. S. § 29 ; Coem. § 18; Com. § 46; Fech. § 17; La-s. § 12 [V. Tr. 
pp. 497-8. So Cuchulainn, when he bathes, makes watcr boil and snow mclt, 
T. H. C. pp. 167-9,217; LL. ng" 5 ; Ir. T. i. 220. Thcrcisa very eurioustouch 
in ihe lifcof St. Malo, p. 38, that he ncvcr fclt cold cven in thc bitterest weather]. 


performed by a pupil which caiises the master to dismiss him, as 
being too advanced to remain under tutciage '. 

Other miracles which are very possibly solar, and occur more 
frequcntly in lives of that typc, are the miraculous opening of doors 
and bars'' ; and, closely connectcd with these, the nunierousinstances 
of the miraculous release of prisoners '. To the same type may be 
referrcd an even larger class of miracles, in which some noxious 
monster* is vanquished by the saint^; further those in which corn 
and other products grow and ripen in a miraculously short space of 
time", and the stories of saints hanging their garments on a sun- 
beam '. Something of the same character seems to attach to those 
legends in which special greatness is promised to an unborn child 
if his birth can be delayed till the morning, the result generally being 
attained by the mother sitting on a stone which is dinted by the head 

' Coem. § 5 : Fin. C. §5 7,8; Lug. §§ 23-4 and note ; cf. Com. § 8 [C. B. S. 
pp. 30, 186, 261]. The same result produced by a non-solar miracle, Aed, § 4 ; 
Mochoem. § 10 ; C. S. c. 182 ; Rennes MS. f. 83". A secular parallel R. C. 
xxvi. 8. 

2 Cain. § 27 ; Col E. § 35 ; Com. § 51 ; Fint. § 17 ; Las. §§ 21-2 ; Moling, 
§ 17; Fechin, § 22 i,cf R. C. xii. 334, 348 Irish lifej [Br. i. § 83*; Ci. C. 
§ 19 note ; Adamn. ii. 35, 36; St. Malo, p. 72 ; Aur. Leg. pp. 122, 452 ; sudden 
appearance within closed doors, V. Tr. p. 52, may be due to biblical influence, 
John XX. 19, but it has analogies in the secular literature, e. g. LU. 130'' 28 ; 
Bran, i. 3]. 

" Aed, §§ I, 28 ; Fech. § 22 ; Fin. C. §§ iSnote, 22 ; Fint. § 17 ; Moling, § 20 ; 
Mun. §§ 22-3; Sara. §§ 7, 12, 22 [Ci. C. § 19; C. S. c. 104, § 5 ; Ab. § 6*; St. 
Malo, p. 118; cf. Saintyves, p. 243; Aur. Leg. p. 689]. Other instances of 
captives released by the intervention of the saints are Aed, §§ 23, 25, 27 note, 
34 note : Ci. C. § 20 ; Ci. S. §§ 13, 31 ; Col. E. §§ 12 and note, 24, 30 ; Fin. C. 
§§ 18 note, 22 ; Ita, § 32 ; Maed. §§ 4, 51 ; Mochoem. § 31 ; Tig. § 15. 

* Ir. peist, from Latin bestia. 

' Coem. § 18 ; Las. § 21 ; Lug. § 25 ; Sam. § 8 ; L. S. p. 140 ; Br. Colman 
Ela, c. I ; Br. Coemgen, cc. a, 8 [C. .S. c. 832, § 13 ; Adamn. ii. 27 ; L. S. 
pp. 56, 66-7 : St. Malo, pp. 57-8 ; C. B. S. pp. 6, 99 ; L. Land. pp. 24 (23), 
104 (iio") ; R. C. XV. 441, V. 448 ; Capg. ii.354 ; Enda, § 28 ; Ab. §§ 16, 18, 24* ; 
the hundred-headed ' peist ' in Ab. § 18 has an exact secular parallel, Oss. Soc. 
iii. 130. The story in Rua. § 25 secms to be taken from the secuiar literature, 
but 1 cannot trace it. The hero's name, Ferdomuin, ' man of the deep,' seems 
to suggest some analogue of the Beowulf tale. (There is a Ferdoman, an 
Ultonian hero, Magh Rath, p. 84.) For other secular instances cf. Ir. T. 
i. 297-8 (= LU. iii''); Tain b6 Fraich, pp. 146-8, 169 (= LL. 150« 47 ff.) ; 
R. C. xvi. 137 ; Acc. Sen. p. 68. I have already cited the curious passage in 
which a ' peist ' is the embodiment of a pestilence, above, p. cxi, note i ; and 
'pestifera ' is a not unfrequent epithet of these creatures : cf. L. Land. p. 24 (23) ; 
' Serpens . . . gravi affligens pestilentia.' This also is not inconsistent with 
the solar theory, cf. Ihad, i. 43 ff. Present day foll<-Iore in Ireland is full of 
stories of these monsters, often said to have been subdued by St. Patrick ; 
cf. Elder Faiths, i. 377]. 

' Car. § 21 ; Lug. § 26 ; C. S. c. 228 (§ 7), c. 272 (§ 29) ; Br. Coemgen, c 16 ; 
cf Coem. § 34 ; Adamn. ii. 3 [Ba. § 9* ; N. and K. p. 148]. 

' Tr. Th. p. 539" ^§ 32) ; Colgan, A. S. pp. 119'', 499" ; Irish Penny Joumal, 
p. 380". Isolated miracles of a solar character are Car. § 28 ; Cain. § 26; Ci. C. 
§ 20 note ; Sam. §§ i, 5; Fin. C. § 14 note (cf. L. S. pp. 144, 361). 


of the child'. This is a trait borrowed from tlie secular mythology. 
The vvords of Aed's niother are practically identical with those of the 
mother of Fiacha : ' Verily, unless the child come through my sides, 
it shall not come any other way V 

There is a very curious piece of folk-Iore in the notes to the Felire 
at Sept. II. Sillan, a saint of Emlagh in County Louth had a hair 
in his eyebrow which had this remarkable property : ' every one 
who saw it in the morning died at once.' Molaisse of Leighlin 
pulled it out, perishing himself thereby, but saving others. The fact 
that this deadly hair only produced its eftect in the morning, and 
that Molaisse is a name associated with flame, makes it probable that. 
this also is a bit of solar mythology'. 

It is further worth noticing how often epithets and similes are 
used of these saints which, though perfectly legitimate as meta- 
phorical expressions, yet suggest that they are a gradual christianiza- 
tion of expressions vvhich once had a literal meaning*. 

Another evidence of solar and fire worship is to be found in the 
sacred fires kept perpetually burning at various Irish sanctuaries. 
Here too an attempt is made to give a Christian complexion to the 
observance, the fire is lighted at Easter, and so forth ; but of its 
heathen character there can be no doubt °. We have evidence of 
this custom in our lives", but there is much other evidence available. 
The site of St. Mullins is recommended to Moling by an angel, 
because there is 'a fire alive there for thirty years awaiting thee ' ', 

' Aed, 5 I ; Las. § 4 (where note the Christian caveat inserted") ; cf. Dec. § 3. 

^ LL. 290'' (also in Laud 610, f. 95*^^; otlier instances, Coir Anm. No. 273 ; 
R. C. vi. 175-6 iwhere note thc Christian touch inserted). 

^ Fel.^ p. 206; Fel.^ p. cxliv ; which is a Httle different ; cf. Grimm, i. 244. 
Another curious httle bit of solar is the tradition that the inhabitants 
of the small island of Fuda in the Outer HeDrides were invincible by day, but 
powerless after sunset, Outer Islcs, p. 185. 

* Bo. § 17 (' sicut sol meridianus ') ; Com. § 5; Fin. C. § 29 ; Tig. § 14 ; 
Coem. § 21 v' flammisorationum cius urimur'); Col. E. § i (' illuminatio diuina'5; 
Fech. §§ 2, 4, 17; Las. § i ; Fint. § 21 (' facta est iacies eius quasi ignis ') ; 
Mochoem. § 7 ; Sam. § 5. This comes out more strongly still iii thc Irish sourccs. 
Molaisse of Ucvenish is ' a red flaming blaze ', ' a living fire ablaze ', Silva Gad. 
i. 18, 34: Fecliin is a man ' of the brightness of summer ', and his mother is 
' Lasair the blazing ' ; he was lo his earthly parents ' as light to darkness ', K. C. 
xii. 320, 322 ; Moling is ' a blazing flame ', R. C. xiii. 102 ; his countenancc is 
' as red as purple flame ', xxvii. 276, cf. ib. 272. Molaisse of Inismurray is ' in 
cluimderg', i. e. the rcd-plumcd, Harl. 5280, f. 46^; Molaisse of Leighlin is 
Massar di tlienid ', a flame of fire, LL. 372'' 12 (= Mart. Don. Apr. 18). 

' Cf. Kcating, ii. 246-8 ; of coursc in primitive times there was a vcry practical 
reason for prcserving certain fires wilh rcligious carc, viz. the difliculty of re- 
kindling ; cf. MaccuIIoch, Wcstern Isles, i. 208. 

« Ci. C. § 30 ; Ci. S. § 33 ; cf. Lug. § 3. Wc have a sacred fire prcserved in 
a ccmetery, C. B. S. p. 30. 

' Irish Moling, § 31. 


Tlic Irish iife of Maignenn mcntions three pcrpetiiai fires ' at 
Kinvara, Kilinainham, and Inismurray ^. Patriclc proniised to the 
futiire monastery of Berach ' living firc in it till thc end of the 
vvorld ' '. 

It has already been noticed in Part II that in the case of several 
saints the solar character is combined, as in the case of the Greek 
Apollo*, with that of a patron of animals, domestic' orwild". Of 
the latter character the most charming instance is Ciaran of Saigir 
with his woodland monlis, brother Fo.x, and the rest. And the story 
how the Fox stole his abbofs shoes, and the Badger, as being slcilled 
.in woodcraft, wassent to fetch him baclc, and how brother Fox aslced 
forgiveness and did penance by fasting is one of the most delightful 
things in hagiological literature '. Often does the saint interpose 
to save a hunted animal from its pursuers", or renders fierce animals 
tame', or feeds starving wolves out of the herds which he tends^". 

' 'tene beo bithbeo,' lit. fire living ever-living. 

' Silva Gad. i. 42 ; on the last-named cult see Wakeman's Antiquities of 
Inismuriay, p. 55. 

^ Br. Berach, § 4; the promise of the angel to Maedoc that Drumlane should 
have 'one of the three most lasting fires in Vi Briuin ' secms to refer rather to 
the virtue of hospitality, for this was to be ' ar betachad ' , i. e. for entertainraent, 
Br. Maedoc, c. 57. According to Acc. Sen. there were three perpetual fires in 
Ireland, Cashel, Kildare, and CoIumcille's (^? Durrow), p. 148 and note. On 
St. Brigit's fire at Kildare cf. Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 120-2 ; no male was allowed 
to entcr within its precincts. This fire was extinguished by order of the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin in 1220, Brit. Saints, i. 266. A very interesting trace of solar 
worship is preser\-ed by Cormac in his glossary, p. 25 Trans. p. 94;, s. v. iiicielba, 
which is explained as ' names of idol altars, by reason of what they used to mark 
on them, namely, forms ^delba» of the elements they adored, uerbi gratia /oriita 
solis in altare\ With this may be compared the curious note in the Egerton 
copyof Amra Coluimcille of a priest in Tirconell who built a church, '7 dorigni 
alt(iir glainidhe, 7 dorigne delb grene 7 esco,' i. e. and made an altar of glass, 
and the form of the sun and moon, R. C. xx. 428. 

' Cf. the herds of the sun, Odyss. i. 8, xi. to8 ff., xii. 127 fT., 263 flT., 322-3. 

' Aed, § 9 ; Bo. §§ 20, 24 ; Ci. S. § 21 ; Coem. § 7 1 Br. Coemgen, c. 5) ; 
Moling, §§ 16, 21 ; Fel.- p. 88 (cf. Ciaran of Saigir) [cf. ib. 256, where Mac Oige 
seeras to be a sort of analogue of Pan, Columba still bears this character in 
the Hebrides, Outer Isles, pp. 222, 232, 238. In the secular literature luchna 
Echbcl has the sarae function, R. C. xv. 308 ; Acc. Sen. p. 36]. 

* Bo. §5 13, 14 ; Cain. § 36 cf. Z. C. P. i. 64) ; ib. § 42 ; Ci. S. §§ a, 10, 11 ; 
Coem. §§ 9, 16, 19, 24, 27 ; Maed. §§ 5, 7, 12, 22, 25, 30; Moling, §§ 22-4, 27 ; 
Lug. § 33 [Ab. §§ 7, 31, 35' ; Ail. §§ I, 44']. 

' Ci. S. §§ 5-7 ; cf. C. S. c. 456 (§ 23) [a similar story in the Anglo-Saxon 
life of St. Neot, see my Life and Times of Alfred, p. 55]. The fox appears in 
his traditional character also Mol. §§ 23, 24 ; cf. Coem. § 38; Fint. § 9 [L. S. 
p. 121, cf. C. S. c. 918, § 6]. Other cases of aniraals being regarded as monks 
are Cain. § 36 [Ab. 5 49*]. 

' Cain. § 43; Coem. § 19; Maed. § 7 [Ail. § 44*; L. S. p. 121 ; C. B. S. 
pp. 164, 186; L. Land. p. 129 1^137)]; on the other hand Columba slays a 
hunted boar with a word, Adamn. ii. 26. 

' Aed, §§ 9, 10 note ; Bo. § 14 ; Cain. §§ 4, 8 ; Coem. § 27 ; Maed. §§ 12, 30 ; 
Brigit, cc. 32, 109 [Mun. § 13 ; cf. C. S. c. 937]. 

'" Coem. § 9 ; Maed. §§ 5, 22 ; cf. § 25 [Ab. § 7* ; Ci. C. § 5] ; cf. Lang, Myth 


The most curious instance of tliis is in the hfe of Molua' who is said 
to have founded an annual feast for the benefit of the wolves. 
Miracles are wrought on behalf of wolves-, and wolves obey the 
saints' bidding', or execute their vengeance'. Ailbe, like Romulus 
and Remus, was suckled by a she-wolf, and to the end of his life 
acknowledged this ' kinship by the milk ' ; Bairre was fostered in 
the same way°. Colman mac Luachain had a standing covenant 
with wolves". In the secular tale of Bruiden da Derga, the monarch 
Conaire has seven wolves as hostages for the agreement that wolves 
shall not touch more than one calf a year from each byre in Ireland '. 
With these tales may be compared the curious statement of Camden 
that the Irish took wolves as gossips, and prayed for them as if they 
were human beings*. AII this tcnds to show that the wolf in 

and Ritual, ii. i8o [158I. This is always quoted as an instance of the sainfs 
great kindness to animals. The feehngs of the eaten animals do not seem to be 

' Lug. § 33; cf. Moling, § 27, though there the guests are foxes, not 

' Bo. § 13. 

' Bo. 5 14 ; Coem. 5 9 ; Br. Cnemgen, c. 14 ; Fech. § 7 ; Fin. C. 5 24 ; Lug. 
§ 33 ; C. S. c. 390 {i 59, not in M) ; Tr. Th. p. 541'' (§ isg^ [Ab. § 31* ; Ber. 
5 8 ; Ger. 5 6 ; Mun. § 3 ; V. Tr. p. 12 ; C. B. S. pp. 10-11, 263 ; N. and K. pp. 
193-4 ; Capg. ii. 199 [. ; St. Malo, p. 153; Brev, Aberdon. Pars Hiem. Propr. 
Sanct. f, 26 v". In many of these cases it will be seen that the wolf takes on 
itself the function of some domestic animal which it has killed, It is possible 
that some of the stories of wolves tending cattle may be intended to account 
for the origin of the domesticated dog, cf. especially Capg. ii. 200 ; but other 
animals act in the same way ; lions, Br. i, § 85 ; a hawk tends poultry, Tig. 
§ 16I. 

* Ci. C. § 30 ; here it is probably significant that the crime which the vvolves 
punish is that of extinguishing a sacred fire. Other mentions of wolves, Aed, 
§ 22 ; C. S. c. 82B !,§ 2). 

^ Ail. §§ I, 44 ; Ba, § i ; other instances, F<51. ' p. Ixxxv ; Fel.* p. 120 ; cf. 
Coir Anm. No. 213 ; Macculloch, Childhood, p. 277. We find childrcn of Apollo 
by raortal womcn exposed and nurtured by wolves, Lang. Myth aiid Ritual, ii. 
221 [200]. Cii allaid (wolf), as a man'sname, p. clix, note 3. 

^ ' lotar tra chugci faolchoin an dairc, 7 ligsitt a chuaranna . . . on mud na 
con tairisi .i. na con tigi ; . . . 7 isbert friu : " bid sund dogrcs ; 7 in Ila dobertar 
mo ainmsi a n-cterguidhi cugcaib. is cett dib can dcrgad for nech in laithi sin,'' ' 
i. e. the wolves of Ihe forest came to liim and licked liis shoes likc domestic dogs. 
And he said to them : ' Be here continually ; and the day that my name is men- 
lioned to you in intercession, you must not commit raven [lit. rcddening] on 
any one,' Kennes MS. f. 86". 

' R. C. xxii. 166. Hostages exacted from birds and rivcrs, Misc. Celt. Soc. 
p. 4. Blood covcnants with animals, Macculloch, u. s. p. 250 ; Lang, Myth and 
Ritual, i. 138 [139]. 

" ' Lupos sibi adsciscunt in patrimos, quos c/iari C/irist appcllant, pro eis 
orantes et bene precantes, et sic se ab illis lacdi non uercntur,' Britannia, ed. 
1607, p. 791 ; Gibson'sTransI. ed. 1722, ii. 1420, Camden gives as his authority 
J. Goode, an English pricst who was schoolmaster at Limerick c 1566; cf R. C. 
viii. 197. which first guided me to the passage, To this day caiiiieas Chriosd 
(lit. Christ-friendship) is ihe rcgular Irish name for gossipred. 


pagan Ircland was a sacred aniinal, and associated with the cult of 
the sun '. 

But vvolves are not the only animals for whose benefit miracles 
are vvrought'; nor are they the only animals vvho render service 
to the saints. Various dead animals are raised to life ", the most 
common case being whcre animals which have been killed and 
eaten, generaliy for the entertainment of the saint, are restored 
whole and entire*. This is a regularly recurring foll< tale. One 
of the best examplcs of it is in the Icelandic story of Thor and the 
Peasant ^ Where the cooked or eaten animal has been stolen, it 
is often made to notify its presence in the cauldron, or in the interior 
of the thief '. In one case the ear of the stolen animal protrudes 
from the thiefs mouth ' ; in other cases the stolen flesh cannot be 
cooked at all*, or turns putrid at once'. 

The idea of animals helpful and friendly to men is one vvhich is 
very widely diffused in folklore'"; and it is abundantly represented 
in the lives of Celtic saints. Stags plough "' or dravv a cart or 
chariot"; they carry the saint's books", and other burdens", or 

' This would agree with one possible interpretation of the epithet AvKeios 
applied to Apollo. 

' For animals saved from the hunter see above, p. cxli, note 8. Tr. Th. p. 528" 
(5 13^ ; cf. Capg. ii. 4'4-i5- 

' Ail. § ai note ; Bo. § 20 ; Ci. C. §§ 2, 5 ; Fech. § 6 ; Moling, § 22; Lug. § 34 ; 
V. Tr. p. ra ; cf. Macculloch, Childhood, p. 84. 

* Ab. § 7 ; Aed, § 15 and note ; Bo. § 24 ; Ci. C. § 5 and note ; Enda, § 30 ; 
Fin. C. § II ; Mochua, § lo; C. S. cc. 173 (§ is), 205 (§ 27), 230-1 '§ 13"!, 390 
(5 58, not in M\ 910 ,§ i3~: ; Tr. Th. pp. 26" (§ 63), 540'' (§ 113) ; L. S. p. 31 ; 
R. C. xxvii. 286 8 ; Rennes MS. f 83" ; Ir. Nenn. p. 80 ; Capg. ii. 201, 209, 299 ; 
C. B. S. pp II, 78, 260 ; Aur. Leg. p. 450 ; cf. Z. C. P. iii. 4. 

* Icelandic Reader, pp. 204-5: where note the command, found also in some 
of the Celtic instances, not to break any of the animars bones; cf. Grimm, i. 
184-5. A dismembered man is restored in the same way, V. Tr. p. 198 ; British 
Saints, i. iii ; Oikneyinga Saga, i. 279 (R. S.}. Cf. Macculloch, Childhood, 
pp. 93, 102, 109; Myth and Ritual, ii. 37 [13]. 

* Bo. § 24; Coem. §10; C. S. c. 919 (§ 9, this ram had a proper name, 
Bethanus), L. S. p. 12; V. Tr. p. 180 ; C. B. S. p. 203 ; so the flesh of the stolen 
oxen of the Sun bellowed on the spits : ^ouiv 6' ihs ylyvfTo <pojvrjj Odyss. 
xii. 396. 

' Maed. § 50. 

' Bo. § 12; C. S. c. 666 (§ 24~) ; cf. Fel.'' p. 228 ; Ir. Nenn. pp. 216-18; Gir. 
Camb. Opp. v. 117 ; C. B. S. pp. 11, 15, 78, 260. 

» C. S. C.667 (4 25 V 

'" Matculloch. Childhood. chap. VIII. For wild animals acting as shepherds, 
&c., see above, p. cxlii, note 3. 

" Ail. § 32 note; Car. § 25; Fel.* p. 72 ; horses come of iheir own accord to 
harrow. Cron. § 13. 

'- Dec. § 29 ; Mochua, § 7 ; Rua. § 19 ; Silva Gad. i. 59 ; Br. Berach, c. i8 ; 
C. B. S. pp. 10, 38-9, 164 ; L. Land. p. 134 > 142 . 

" Ber. § II ; Ci. C. § 25 ; C. S. c. 231 J 14") ; Rennes MS. f. 79" ; cf. Tr. Th. 
p. 407'' (§ III) ; Silva Gad. i. 39 (a ram; ; L. S. p. 120 ^a fo.\). 

" Mochua, § 10 ; C. B. S. p. 39; L. Land. p. 96 (loi) ; a stag holds the 
painter of a buat, C. B. S. p. 257. 


allow their horns to be used as a book-rest '. Does fumish milk, 
like covvs^; though this is rather lookcd down on as a woman's 

The otter also is a friendly animal, and brings fish for its patron's 
needs*, or dives for the book which he has dropped in the water\ 

Often the saint's place of settlement is fixed by the appearance 
of animals, whether foretold beforehand, or accepted on the spot 
as an omen". His burial place is determined in the same way'. 

' Cain. 5 36 ; Maed. § 7 ; L. S. p 123. 

^ Ba. § 4 ; Br. i. § 4 ; Cain. § 30 ; Coem. 5 31 ; cf. Br. Coemgen, c. 14, Br. Mac 
Creiche, c. 2, where the doe deposits her milk in the hollow of a stone (with 
this cf. Campbell, Superstitions, pp. 22. 122, 156, 162, 179. 185-6, 193 ; Martin, 
pp. 67, 110, 391 ; Christian Inscriptions, ii. 531 ; Rua. § 24 ; Aur. Leer. p. 583. 
Secular parallels, Keating, ii. 178; C6ir Anm. No. 26; Acc. Sen. p. 182 and note. 

' Ail. § 31 ; cf. V. Tr. p. 72 A fawn taltes the place of a calf, C. S. c. 834 
(§ 18) ; so in some of the wolf storics citcd above. The most curious case of this 
kind is in R. C. vi. 187, where a cauldron has the samc elfect ; cf Macculloch, 
u. s. p. 244. This, as we shall see, probablj' rests on the idea of ' sight shifting ' 
on the part of the deluded animal. 

* Br. i. §62, ii. § 50 ; Br. Coemgen, c. 16. This otter was repaid with base 
ingratitude, as the monk tried to catch him and make a purse of liis skin. i^Thc 
otter's skin is supposed to have magical povver, Campbell, u. s. pp. 216-17; 
Martin, pp. 159, 391.) In this conncxion the proper namcs Faeldobhair otter\ 
Maeldobharchon tslave of the otter") may be noted, F. M. i. 302, 308. Tliere is 
a legend of Brendan and a man named Dobarchu (otter) who was turned into 
an ottcr (dobran) by Brendan as a punishment. His doscendants, the tJi 
Dobarchon of Thomond, do not touch salmon (printed by 0*Crady from Book of 
Lismore, in Melusine iv. 298 ; it also occurs in thc Br. Brendan, c. 53. This is 
rather different from the abstinence from tiie flesh of the totem animai, which 
I have not found in the saints' lives, though it occurs in the secular litcrature, 
e. g. LL. 120'* 14 ; R. C. xxii. 20, 24, 26 ; lar-Connaught, p. 27 note). Otters 
did special service to St. Cuthbert, Bede's Prose Lite, c. 10. 

^ Br. Coemgen, c. 9 ; a seal does the like for St. Cuthbert, Capg. i. 217. 
A seal fishes for Mochua of Balla, L. S. p. 144. A wild boar cuts wattlcs for 
Ciaran of Saigir, Ci. S. § 5. One of the prettiest of these stories tells how 
Colman mac Duach had a cock, a mouse, and a fly. Thc cock nsed to crow 
when it was time for mattins, the mouse would rub his ear to wake him when 
he had slept the .allottcd time, and the fly would settle on the line of his Psalter 
at which he left ofl' reading, to keep his place lor him, Colgan, A. S. p. 544" ; 
Keating, iii. 72. 

" Boar, Fin. C. § 8 ; Mochoem, § 14 ; Rua. § 3 ; C. S. c. 199 (§ 18'), c. 909 
(§ 9) ■> V. Tr. p. 190 ; C. B. S. pp. 33 4, 67 ; N. and K. p. 202 ; Capg. i. 249 ; 
sow, C. B. S. pp. 8-9; R. C. V. 443 ; L. Land. p. 77 (80) ; stag, Ber. § 11 ; 
Ci. C. § 25 ; C. S. c. 231 (§ 14") ; wolf ib. c. 912 (§ 17) ; ox, C. B. S. pp. 147-8 ; 
cows, Lug. § 28 ; horse, C. B. S. p. 258 ; dove, ib. p. loi ; cf. also Maed. § 37 ; 
Silva Gad. i. 25. Thisalso is widely dirt'used in folk-lore ; cf. Grimm, Mythology, 
iii. II 39-41, iv. 1646 ; Myth and Ritual, i. 268 1278 , ii. 94-5 (70 11. In C. B. S. 
p. 99 is a curious account of a place of scttlenicnt belng dcterniined by throwing 
an altar overboard, and following where it camc to land. This seemsa Christian 
version of the way in which the pagan Norsemen chose their settlenicnts in Icc- 
land by throwing overboard the piliars of the high-seat and noting where thcy 
driflcd to land, Landnama, i. 6, ii. la, iv. 9, v. 9 ( = Orig. Island i. 21, 67, 188, 
220) ; Kormakssaga, c. 2. The like is done with tlie coltin of a man who dicd at 
sea, Landn. i. 18 (Orig. i. 37-8) ; cf. Dcclan's stone, Decl. § 15. 

' Lug. § 53 ; C. S. c. 107 (§ 9) ; N. and K. p. 1 79 ; V. Tr. p. 252 ; Capg. i, 503 ; 


It is clcar that the idcas underlying many of these stories go 
back to a time whcn no hard and fast line was drawn between 
mcn and aninials, whcn it secmed qiiite natural that the language 
of animals should be understood by men and vice versa', that an 
animal should have human understanding and enter into a nian's 
thoughts^; that covenants should be made with them, which might 
be treacherously violatcd^. 

An idea which recurs frequcntly, both in the lives of saints and 
also in the secular literature, is that a spccial virtue attaches 
to animals with particular ' points ' of colour or markings ; 
red animals with white heads*, white animals with red ears', 

cf. Saintyves, p. 385. Several of these stories have evidently been influenced 
by I Sam. vi. 7 ff., which is expressly referred to in N. and K. So the 
boundaries of the saints' territory are marked out by animals, Br. Ciaran S. 
c. 3 ; C. B. S. p. 187 ; St. Malo, p. 62. ' In the North of India a goat is turned 
loose along a disputed bordcr-line, and where he shivers, there is the mark set 
up,' Lyall, Asiatic Studies, p. 14. Animals track out saints in their retirement, 
Cain. § 43 ; Coem. § 7. Children also determine the place of a saint's burial, 
C. S. c. 108 (5 10). 

' Bo. § 31 ; Moehua, 53; Z. C. P. iv. 294, v. 32 ; Oss. Soc. iii. 64. Contrast 
Herodotus' naive scepticism as to the talking doves of Dodona, ii. 57. 

- Br. Coemgen, c. 16 ; T. B. C. p. 899. 

' For the covenants see above, p. cxlii. There is a curious story how Cormac, 
son of Tadg, violated the covenant which his father made with the badgers, Cbir 
Anm. No. 239 and note ; Three Glossaries, pp. xlii ff. Of the kindred primitive 
idea that there is no hard division between animals and deities I see no trace in 
the Latin lives ; but there is a possible trace of it in the Irish life of Molaisse of 
Devenish ; ' dochuaid co hiflern, 7 cocholl do chroicnib broc ime ; 7 is uadh 
ainranightcr in brocainech .i. mionn maith do mhinnaibh Molaise ; 7 minleadban 
ina laim do toghairm in druith .i. Manann clamh ; co tuc Dia do a hifernn e cona 
tri caoca comanmann maille fris,' i. e. he went to hell with a cowl of badger- 
skins about him ; and it is from that that he is called the badger-faced (i. e. [the 
cowl is] a noble relic of the relics of Molaisse^ ; and a little strip [of the skin] 
in his hand, to summon the jester, Manann the leper ; and God granted him to 
him out of hell, and thrice fifty of his naraesakes together with hira, Silva Gad, 
i. 21. In the curious piece, Baih Briaui, in which the saints of Ireland are 
enumcrated by their nicknames or kennings, Molaisse is alluded to as * in brocc- 
ainech bindcorach o Loch Erne ', i. e. the sweet-choired badger-faced one of 
Lough Eme, Harl. 5280 f. 46 v° (also in Egerton, 1782% We have seen that 
Molaisse has solar characteristics ; here he seems to show traces of an animal 
god. The two are not inconsistcnt ; cf. the Egyptian ram-headed Sun-god, 
Ammon Ra, and the Greek Wolf-Apollo, if that be the etymology of Ai5«ios, 
Myth and Ritual, ii. 126-7 (i°3'' 215 1194), 220 fl". 1 199 fj.). Another possiblc 
instance is the Welsh saint Arddun BenasgeIl,or thewing-headed, BritishSaints, 
i. 167, who reminds us of Hermes and his ' enchennach ' or bird-gear, as the Irish 
called it, Togail Tr6i, 258 ; R. C. xxii. 18. Names like Cendreithi, Cennmairc, i.e. 
ram-head, horse-head, Misc. Celt. Soc. p. 46, Echbel, horse-mouthed, v. s. 
p. cxli, note 5, Cendcait, Cat-head, L. S. p. x.xxvii, Coincenn. Dog-head, Ab. § 22 
note, maypoint in the same direction. A cat-hcaded god, Cbir Anm. No. 241. 

* Ci. S. § 30 ; Enda, § 22 ; Fin. C. 5 12 and note ; Ita, § 26 ; red with white 
foot, Br. Ciaran S. c. 31 ; red in front and white behind, C. B. S. p. 49; red 
hornless, LU. 54'' 29 ; Acc. Sen. p. 198. 

' Ail. § 34 ; Fin. C. § 24 ; Lug. § 28 ; Three Homilies, p. 58 ; R. C. viii. 
54 note ; xiii. 40 (= LL. 2^5^ 25), xxiv. 143, 147 ; Bran, i. 58. 62. Such kine 



&c. The niilk of cows of a single colour had magical proper- 
ties \ 

But apart from all mythological and magical associations there 
seems evidence that the early and mediacval Irish were realiy lovers 
of animals, and that the saints shared this quaHty to the full ^ The 
benevolence of Ciaran of Clonmacnois embraced the whole irrational 
creation ', the little bird lamcnted Molua who ' never had worked the 
woe of living thing ' *. The same Molua had a tame partridge, 
Cronan a tame stag, Moling a tame fox ". Cainnech inflicted a 
terrible penance on a vvoman for cruelty to a dog". The swans on 
Killarney come at the call of Cainnech ', and those on Lough Foylc 
at the call of Comgall ". Swans carry Columba of Terryglass from 
island to island ', or sing to Colman Ela and his monks to console 
them at their work '" ; and seabirds wing their flight to save a drown- 
ing child ". Wild animals would gather round the hermit saints'^ as 
they have done round many an Indian ascetic in earlier and later 
times. Even the blackbird that built on St. Coemgen's outstretched 
hand", or thewren that nested in St. MaIo's cowl" could probably bc 

seem to have been regarded as belonging specially to luchna Echbel, whom we 
have noted as a patron of cattle, p. cxli, note 5. 0'Reilly gives the foUowing 
gloss : earca luchna .i. ba finda odearga, i. e. Iuchna"s kine, that is, white cxen 
with red ears ; cf. R. C. vi. 187, xv. 4^9, xx. 250 ; Corm. Gloss. p. 20 ; Transl. 
p. 72 ; horses with the like peculiarity, Ir. T. II. ii. 191. 

' R. C. XV. 427, 439 ; Ir. Nenn. p. 124 and note xviii : Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 89; 
Kenncdy, Fictions of the Irish Celts, pp. 293 ff. ; cf. C. B. S. pp. 147-8 ; Griram, 
Mythology, i. 54-5, iv. 1302-3. With the uncanny animals in Ab. § 24 ; Br. i. 
§5 72, 75, compare Ir. T. i. 282 ; Oss. Soc. v. 80 (T. A phantom animal is brought 
on thc stage to bring about a man's deserved death, Ber. § 22. See Addenda. 

^ Oftheir fondness forchildren see a beautiful instance, Lug. § 43; cf. Bencn 
and Patrick, V. Tr. p. 36. 

" Ci. C. § I note. * Fel.' pp. 56, 182. 

^ Lug. § 34 ; Cron. § 8 ; Mol. 5§ 23, 24 ; cf. Brigit, c. 127 ; we hear of tame 
cranes, C. S. c. 648 ; L. S. pp. 124-5 ; cf. Adamn. i. 48 ; doves, C. B. S. p. 262 ; 
robin, N. and K. p. 170 ; crow, Fcl. p. 112 ; a cat, wren, and fly, Z. C. P. v. 33. 

« C. S. c. 378 (§ 34, not in M). ' Cain. § 38. 

' Com. § 40 (a pathetic story) ; cf Tr. Th. p. 54'' (§ 127). 

• C. .S. c. 456 (§ 25). ^" Br. Colmaii E. c. 3 ; cf. Ab. § 35 note. 

" Cain. § ai. 

'* Ab. § 35 ; Coem. §§ 16, 24 ; Capg. i. 209 f. (Columban, cf. ib. ii. 5-6. 

" Br. Coemgen, c. 10; Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 116; cf. C. S. cc. 200 ',§ 20), 

453 (§ ^7^- 

" St. Malo, p. 76; thc same story is told ol St. Avitus in almost idcntical 
words, A. S. Junii, iii. 356". For thc wren as ' magus auium ', Mol. § 22, and 
note ad loc, cf Silva Gad. i. 56-7. The wren was cursed by Moling for killing 
his fly, and that is the reason why the vvren is perseculed, Irish Moling. §§ 73-4 ; 
cf. Elder Faiths, ii. 147 iX. For birds rescued by saints, see Ci. S. § 2 ; Mol. 
§ 23 ; C. B. S. p. 262 ; and a quaint story in Capg. ii. 396. With Brendan's 
birds that chant thc hours, Br. i. § 27, cf. Aur. Leg. p. 670 ; Bran, i. 7 ; Acc. 
Sen. p. 202. On the other hand birds have to be silenced, Cain. § 25 ; kcpt ofT 
crops. &c., Ail. § 43 ; C. S. c. 193 (§ 7); C. B. S. p. 170; L. Land. p. 11 (9) ; 
0'Hanl. ix. 283. St. Coemgen cursed the ravens of Glcndalough, Gir. Camb. 
Opp. V. 113. 


paralleled froni the annals of Indian asccticisin. Wc niay well 
believc inany of these things to be true, without supposing them to 
be miraculous ; though we may agree with the spiritof Bede's reinark, 
that the inore faithfully man obcys the Creator, the more he will 
regain his lost cmpire over the creature '. 

An idea common both to thc ecclesiastical and secular literature is 
that souls and other spiritual beings appear in the form of birds ; 
angcis and blesscd souls as doves or swans, lost souls and demons as 
ravens and other birds of evil wing"; while in Paradise birds are 
found among, but seem to be distinguished from, the angels '. 

After this long digression, occasioned by the apparent connexion 
of certain animals with solar myths, we have next to consider the 
influence on Celtic hagiology of the cult of the Celtic water deity. As 
has been already noticed in Part II, the saints which seem to show 
traces of this influence are Abban, Ailbe, Bairre, and Declan ; and 
they all belong to the south of Ireland*. Among miracles which 
seem to be of this character are the following" ; walking", riding', or 
driving^ over water; crossing water on a garment', dividing" or 

' Vita Cudb. c. 21 : ' nos idcirco . . . creaturae dominium perdimus, quia . . . 
Crtatori . . . seruire negligimus.' 

- Br. i. § 26 ; C. S. cc. 182, 446 (§ 3) ; L. S. p. xiii (= Mart. Don. May 16) ; 
V. Tr. pp. 21, 114, 414 ; MS. Materials, p. 530 ; R. C. ii. 200 ; i.x. 494 ; xiv. 32, 
44, 48 ; XV. 468 ; Rawl. B. 512, f. 143"^ ; C. B. S. p. 192 ; Keating, iii. 220 ; A. S. 
p. 31; Pagan Ireland, p. 140; Elder Faitlis, i. 147; Macculloch, Childhood, 
p. 112 ; Grimm, ii. 828, iv. 1571. A bird as symbol of the birth of a saint, C. S. 
c. 189. 

' Seethe Fis Adamnain,§§ 6, 7, in Windisch Ir. T. i. 174-5 ; Rhys, F. L. i. 217. 

* There seem some traces of the same influence in a northem saint not 
includcd in these volumes, Mochta of Louth, C. S. cc. 903-5, 909 (§§ i, 3, 5, 10). 
Brendan of Clonfert comes to some extent under the same category. 

^ As before, I bracket references in which water miracles are ascribed lo 
otlier than water saints, and within the brackets I mark with an asterisk those 
cases in which they are ascribed to saints of the other, or solar, cycle. 

« On the sea, Ab. § 12 ; C. S. c. 246 (§ 22, Ailbe, but not in M), Ail. § 46 
[Com. §§ 15, 35* ; Maed. § 20* ; Moling, § 5* ; C. S. c. 389 (§ 57. not in M) ; 
L. S. pp. 72 3 ; Fel.- p. 40] ; on a lough [Aed, § 23* ; Cain. § 42* ; Coem. §§ 20, 
23, 24*; Maed. § 10 V*; C. S. c. 286 (§ 57*, not in M), cc. 749, 832 (§ 13), 
900 (§ 25*)] ; on a river [Col. E. §§ 11, 12']. Of course this is a case where 
biblical influence is possible ; cf. Tr. Th. p. ^^g'' (§§ 97-8). For instances in 
the secular literature cf. T. B. C. p. 159 ; R. C. xxi. 156; Magh Rath, p. 84. 

' Ba. § 9 note ; C. B. S. pp. 132-3 (also Bairre) [Maed. § 32*] ; cf. Acc. Sen. 
p. 107 ; Iliad, xx. 228. It is possible that some of these stories may have arisen 
from the habit, common to manj' languages, of applying the term sea-horses to 
ships ; dKos tiTTroi, Odyss. iv. 708 ; Anglo-Saxon, y»5-hengst ; Icel. unnar hestr. 

' [Fin. C. § 16 note* ; Maed. §§ 12 (marsh), 21 (sea), 37 (lough)*.] 

' Ail. § 4 [Cain. § 45* note ; Enda, §§ 8, 11 ; Mochua, § 9*] ; cf. Saintyves, 
pp. 254-5 ; Rhjs, A. L. p. 308 ; and Ino"s Kp-qSffivm', which supported Odysseus 
in the waves, Odyss. v. 346 fl". The cases of saints crossing the watcr on stones 
will be dealt with in a different connexion. 

'» Ab. § 30 [Bo. § 16* ; Cain. § 4* ; C. B. S. p. 6a ; Car. § 64*]. Here again 
biblical influcnces may be at work. 



driving back' thc sea or rivers, diverting streams^, or causing theni 
to flood miraculously '; preservation not only in', but undcr thc 
water for considerable periods of time ''■ Colman mac Luachain, as 
a child, was a night and a day under the river Brusna, and the water 
animals came and ran races before him to weicome him, as if they 
would say : ' Welcome to thee, Colman, Lord of this vvater and of the 
land ; thee will we serve for evcr ' ". 

This passage may serve as a transition to the numerous cases in 
which animals for domestic use are produced from the water', to 
which they generally return when their appointed work is done''. 
For good or for evii, very special powers are ascribed to water ', 
among others that of giving revelations to thosc who can understand 

• Ab. § 17 ; Ail. § 45 : Decl. § 16 [Com. §5 24, 48* ; Lug. § 19* ; L. S. p. 65 : 
Br. Mac Creiche, c. 8 ; St. Malo, p. 39 ; R. C. v. 435-6] ; an interesting secular 
instance, R. C. xvi. 76-7 and note. 

^ [C. S. c. 831, § 8 ; c. 928, § II ; in the lattcr case the miracle was wrought 
in order that the noise of the water might not disturb the sick in the monastic 

' [Ci. S. § 18* ; Tr. Th. p. 532" (5 47) ; V. Tr. p. 256. In Ci. C. § 31 notc 
water miraculously envelopes a naked saint to spare his modesty. ] The druids 
likewise caused floods, Ir. T. II. ii. 143; M. and C. ii. 288, Poets and ollavs 
(who, as we shall see, are closely akin to druids) dry up waters by charms and 
satires, and cause thcm to flow by praise, T. B. C. p. 789 ; Oitte, p. 22. Rivers 
rise of themselves against eneraies, like the Scamanderagainst Achilles, T. B. C. 
pp. 194-5 ; Iliad, xxi. 305 fT. The druids of rival hosts contend with onc another 
to cut off or restore the supply of water, Keating, ii. 320. The cases of water 
drying up if touched or used by impure persons will be dealt with in another 

' Ab. 5 17 [Cain. §§ 6, 21 and note * ; L. S. p. 65] ; a good secular parallel, LL. 
126'' 14 ff. For prostration on thc water see above, Part IV, p. cxvi. A saint 
thrown into the watcr without being wetted, Maed. § 47*. 

^ Ab. § 30; C.S. c. 909, § 10 [Com. § 23*; Cron. § 3; Rua. § 13; Brev. Aberdon., 
Pars Hicm. Propr. Sanct. fl'. 24 v", 26 v° ; Fel.- p. 244] ; cf. Iliad, xxi. 238. 

^ Rcnnes MS. f. 77" ; a picture which recalls Iliad, xiii. 27-8. 

' Sea [Maed. § 31*; Rua. §18; C. S. c. 673]; Lough [Cain. § i notc*; 
Cron. §24; R. C. xii. 346, 348 (Fechin)*]; River [Ci. S. §31*]; Fountain, 
L. S. p. loi. Cuchulainn's famous horses had come i^rom loughs and returncd 
thither after his death, LL. 121" 32(5"., 121'' ^ff.; cf. Pagan Ireland, pp. 166, 
304; Elder Faiths, ii. 127-130, aai ; Campbell, Superstitions, p. 136; Martin, 
p. 157. The water-horse and water-bull arc rather to be classed with the 
' peists ' discussed above ; cf. 0'Flaherty's lar-Connaught. p. 19; Campbell, u. s., 
pp. 203 ff. ; Outer Isles, pp. 205, 404 ; MaccuIIoch's Wcstcrn Isles, ii. 185, 
though somctimes even these monsters arc made available for agriculturc, 
Grimm, Mythology, ii. 490. See Addenda. 

' Ab. § 52 [Enda, § 22]. 

" The plague cannot cross nine waves, L. H.- i. 25 (for the special virtue of 
the ninth wave cf. Ir. T. iii. 189 ; LL. 13" 39 ; Grimm, Mythology, ii. 600 ; 
iv. 1461); watcr protects against ghosts, &c., Campbcll, Supcrstitions, p. 50; 
Outer Isles, p. 231 ; Rhys, A. L., p. 358 ; F.Idcr Faiths, i. 280 ff., ii. 24 ; I.yall, 
ii. 297. Maelduin and his companions found a lough which rcnewed youth, 
R. C. X. 78. On the other hand, water is the hauntof cvil spirits, Grimm, u. s., 
ii. 497 ('malignus spiritus . . . qucm Neptunum uocant ') ; Macculloch, Western 
Islcs, i. 283. 


its meaning'. Of thc legends, so Crcquent in many quarters *, of 
subaqucous cities, thc only instance vvhich I have fjund in Irish 
hagiologj' is the story of the submarine city of Plea, in which the 
anchor of Brigifs messengers was cntangled, and whence she 
obtained her ' ordo ' '. 

Closely connected with this subject is the cult of fountains, and the 
number of sacred wells cxisting in Ireland to this day * shows how 
widcly diflused that cult was. It is not, of course, exclusively Celtic, 
nor cven exclusivelj' Aryan ''. It is also one of the departments in 
which the christianization of localities and customs originally heathen 
can be most clearly traced °. In Adamnan, and in the lives of Patrick, 
we have express mention of fountains which were worshipped by the 
heathcn '. We have what looks like a libation to a fountain*; in 
another case the manacles of a criminal are loosed by the hands of 
the saint beneath the fountain ', where, clearly, the saint has taken 
the place of a water-nymph. Sometimes the christianization of the 

' L. S. p. 29 ; for a most interesting secular parallel see R. C. xxvi. 8 ; here 
a spell has to be chanted over the wave before the precise import of the message 
can be grasped ; cf. Magh Lena, p. 40. Divination by smiting the sea with an 
axe, Orig. Island, ii. 425. 

- Rh^s, F. L. ch. vii ; these stories are possibly based on facts in some cases, 
0'HanIon, v. 407. 

' Sce above, p. cxxvii. Foragood secular parallel to this detention of a boat 
by subaqueous folk, cf. Z. C. P. iii. 243-4 ; R. C. xv. 294 (and for miraculous 
detention of ships cf. Ab. §§ 12, 19; Ail. § 3); cf. Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 92; 
Elder Faiths, i. 221 ff. There was a sublacustrine smith under Killarney, R. C. 
XV. 451 ; cf. Grimm, u. s., ii. 495. In the Welsh life of Beuno a king is turned 
into a pool as a punishment, C. B. S. p. 16 ; the Morrigu does the like with 
spells, R. C. xvi. 65. Of offerings to water deities something will be said 
presently. The demand of a druid for a human victim to still the raging of the 
sea (Mochta, § i, C. S. c. 903) may be modelled on the Jonah story. 

* ' Probably there cannot be less than three thousand throughout Ireland,' 
Pagan Ireland, p. 143; cf. Bertrand, Religion, pp. 330-1. 

^ ' Sacred wells are among the oldest and most ineradicable objects of 
reverence among all the Semites, and are credited with oracular powers,' 
Robertson-Smith, Religion of Semites, p. 135 ; cf. ib. pp. 166 ff. The literature 
on the subject is very extensive ; for Ireland a tract by P. D. Hardy, ' Holy 
Wells of Ireland,' Dublin, 1836, may be consulted. It is written from a strongly 
Protestant point of view, but contains curious records of local customs ; cf. Ir. 
Nenn. pp. 196-7, 210, 220; Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 84-90 ; Pagan Ireland, pp. 93-4, 
142-5, 157 ff., 361 ; Elder Faiths, ii, chap, 3, For Scotland, cf. Martin, pp. 140-1, 
C29 f,, 242, 253, 276-7 ; Outer Isles, pp, 394-5. For Man, Rhj^s, F. L. i, 332 ff, 
For Wales, cf, ib, i, 354 ff. ; British Saints, i, 112-13, 147, 183, 188, 193, 196, 
216, 298, For Gaul, Bertrand, Religion, Lcfon xv, 

' Delehaye, Legendes, p, 200 ; Saintj-ves, pp, 227, 281, 

' Adamn. ii. 11 : ' fons . . . quem quasi deum stolidi homines uenerabantur ' ; 
V. Tr. pp. 122, 323 : ' honorabant magi fontem, et immolauerunt dona ad illum 
in modum dei.' 

' C. S. c. 280 (§ 46, not in M) ; cf. Hardy, Holy Wells, pp. 31, 55 ; Delehaye, 
p. 192 (lakes) ; Elder Faiths, ii. 189 (stream) ; Martin, p. 28 ; Campbell, Super- 
stitions, p. 244 (sea). 

» C. B. S. p. 206. 


spot was effected by building a church or chapcl ovcr or near it '. 
But the commonest way of cfTecting this was by ascribing the 
origin of the fountain itself to the miraculous intervention of thc 
saint. The most frequent modc of production was by the saint 
smiting the ground with his bachall or pastoral staflF^, generally 
with the butt end of it. But in one case the fountain is produced by a 
distant cast of thc sainfs crozier', which reminds us of thc fountains 
produced by the arrows shot from the bow of Buddha or Mithra '. 
But there are many other modes of production ; from a saint's blood', 
or tears °, by a word ', by the sign of thc cross - , by the saint"s prayer 
or blessing', by the blow of a horse's hoof'", by water poured from 
the sainfs bell ", as also by the more prosaic process of digging '-. 
Sometimes the fountain is produced by or on account of an infant 
saint, to supply water for his baptism '^. These sacred fountains havc 
various vvonder-working quahties. Most of them havc healing pro- 
perties, either general or special '* ; thej' miraculously support 

' V. Tr. p. 8; C. B. S. p. 65 ; British Saints, i. 147 ; cf. Capg. i. gg, 364 : 
Bertrand, Religion, pp. ig8, 208, 212, 332; Macculloch, Childhood, pp. 76-7. 
It may well bc that in some cases these chapels are themselves adaptations of 
earlier heathen shrincs, ib. p. 206 ; Saintyves, p. 153. 

^ Ail. § 16 (hcrc the biblical parallel of Moses smiting the rock has clearly 
been at worl? ; so Z. C. P. v. 28 ; Aur. Leg. p. 860) ; Ail. § 34 note ; Col. E. § 7 ; 
Fin. C. § 15 ; Rua. § 22 ; C. S. cc. 105 (§ 6), 793 (§ 4) ; Colgan, A. S. p. 525'' ; 
Irish Moling, § 6g ; Rawl. B. 512, f. 32'' 22 ; Rennes MS. f. 82'' ; C. B. S. pp. 61 , 
65, 130, 150, 169, 186 ; R. C. V. 441 ; Capg. i. 112, ii. 184, 317, 566 (non-Celtic 
instances, ib. i. 97, gg, 284) ; cf. Br. Mac Creiche, cc. 11, 12. 

' Mart. Don. p. 28, Naile of Inbher Naile ; cf. Capg. ii. 184 (cast of a stone). 
In Keating, ii. 320, a druid produces a fountain by thc cast of a spcar ; cf. 
Grimm, Mythology, iv. 1454 (cast of an axc). 

' The Buddha story will be famihar to readers of Kipling's Kim ; for Mithra 
cf. Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurclius, pp. 605-7. 

^ Decl. § 16 ; C. B. S. pp. 17, ig, 126, 201 ; Capg. ii. g^, gg, 235. 

^ C. B. S. p. 171 ; cf. Grimm, u. s. iv. 1455. 

' Br. i. § 7 ; Com. § 31. « C. S. c. 191, § 3 ; V. Tr. p. 8. 

' Ail. 5§ 20, 32 (in S the well is discovered by tho cast of a stonc) ; C. S. 
cc. 169 (§ g), ig3 (§ 7) ; Adamn. ii. 10 ; C. B. S. pp. 26, 67, 130, 262 ; Capg. 
i. 208, 46g, ii. 103, 353. Conversely a noxious fountain is produccd by a sainfs 
curse, C. B. S. p. 30 ; while noxious fountains are made wholesome by the saint's 
blessing, Adamn. ii. 11 ; C. B. S. p. 123. Hot springsand volcanoes arc believed 
to be connected with hell, Br. i. §§ 58-g ; Gregory, Dialogues, iv. 30, 35, 55. 

'" C. B. .S. p. 260 : cf. Grimm, ii. 584, iii. ^38. 

" Rennes MS. f. 84». 

n Col. E. § 33 ; Tr. Th. p. 530« (§ 32% p. 336" (§71); d"- Fech. § 5 ; Macd. 
§ 27. In anothcr case the site of a fountain is revealcd by .m angel in a dream, 
C. B. S. p. 73. The curious story in Enda, § 11, in which fountains are pro- 
duced from the urine of animals, has an exact parallel in the secular literature, 
Silva Gad. i. 234. 

" Bo. § 2 ; Car. § 6 ; Com. § 6 ; V. Tr. p. 8 ; C. B. S. pp. 121-2. 

'* Rua. § 22 ; C. S. c. 105 ; L. S. p. 81 ; Br. Mac Creiche, c. 1 1 ; C. B. S. 
pp. 8, 17, 65, 126, 160: Capg. ii. 421; R.C. v. 443. So with cortain loughs and 
pools, Mun. § 8 ; Br. Farannan, c. 9 ; Br. Coemgen, cc. a, 8 ; thcse healing virtucs 
arc increased by the addition of vvater from the Jordan, C. B. S. p. 67, a chris- 


life' ; they give oracics or auguries^, thiey cause a magic sleep ^. 
Some fountains on being drained ensure a favourable wind : ' On tiie 
northiern coast of this island [Inismurray] is a well calied Tobar na 
cobhrach, i. c. the wcli of assistance. When the islanders or inhabit- 
ants of the opposite coasts are too long detained on the island by 
tempestuous weather, thcy drain this well into the sea, and repeat 
certain prayers, by which the storm will immediately subside through 
the miracles of God and St. Molaise who blessed this well '•. 'When 
any foreign boats arc windbound here [Isle of Gigha], the master of 
the boat . . . gives the nativc that lets the water run a piece of monej', 
and they say that inimediately aftcrwards the wind changes". To 
these instances thcre is a most exact and interesting parallel in the 
Bookof Llandaff with reference to a fountain sacred to St. Sampson". 
Other fountains contain wonderful stones ', or sacred fish '. Thej- 

tianizing touch ; cf. Hardy, Holy Wells, pp. 31, 49 ; Bertrand, u. s. pp. 197-9 ; 
Macculloch, Childhood, p. 77 ; a fountain cures barrenness, Luzcl, Legendes 
Chroticnnes, ii. 84. In the secular literature we have fountains which not only 
heal wounded and blind men, but even raise the slain, R. C. xii. 94, xv. 462 ; 
Cath Finntragha, p. 7. 

" Br. i. § 25, ii. §51. 

' Ir. Nenn. p. 196 ; Martin, p. 7. A fountain turns to blood whenever any 
of the clan is about to be slain, Z. C. P. v. 32. 

' Br. i. 55 28, 36 ; ii. j 29. 

* John 0'Donovan in\Vakeman's Antiquarian Remains on Inismurray, p. xii. 
Mr. Wakeman himself says : * it is probably some years since a rite so very 
pagan in character was practised,' ib. p. 126. 

* Martin, p. 230. 

' ' Nautae illius gentis Armorieae, propter uentum consuetum ad naues illorum, 
ut in directum nauigare possint ad rectum iter ubi uelint, consuetum habent 
illum saluificum fontcm purgare, et sacpius ac saepius per interventum sanctl 
pontificis [sc. Sampson] Dominus largitur precarium illorum, id est uentum ad 
uelum nauigii, ut cum gaudio gradiantur per aequoreum iter,' L. Land. p. 103 
(109% Mr. Wakeman. u. s., explains this as a libation to the Celtic Sea-god. 
It may perhaps be imitative magic ; the weakening the fountain weakens the 
opposing elements : just as, converscly, the stirring up of the sacred well on the 
Lycaean Mount by the priest of Zeus stirred up the rain clouds, Lang, Myth and 
Ritual, ii. 190 (169) ; cf. Elder Faiths, ii. 105. For other means of obtaining 
fair winds, ib. i. 305 ; Martin, pp. 109, 166 ; Grimm, i. 425, ii. 637-40, iv. 1472-3. 
In lona a favourable wind was obtamed by placing Columba's books and vest- 
nients upon the altar, Adamn. ii. 45. 

'^ ' lapilli tres limpidissimi cum fontis scaturigine ascendentes et descendentes 
more artauorum a iaculatore proiectorum . . . sibi ad inuicem obuiabant,' C. B. S. 
pp. 202-3 ; ef. St. Malo, p. 50 ; 0'Hanlon, ii. 582. • At Cranfield (Antrimi, 
there is a spring . . . consecrated by St. Colman. . . . Pilgrims go to it on May 
eve. They empty and clear the well in the twilight [this is the 'purgare 
fontem ' of the last note], stay all night about it saying a certain number of 
Paters. &c. In the moming tficy find small . . . stones of an amber colour in 
the bottom of the well, which . . . will preserve those that carry one of them 
. . . from any loss by fire or water,' Richardson, Great FoIIy of Pilgrimages 
(1727), p. 65, cited in Reeves, Eccl. Antiquities, p. 88. 

* y. Tr. p. H2 ; L. Land. p. 253 (264) ; Capg. ii. 214 (three fish which always 
remained three though the saint had one every day for his dinner) ; cf. Enda, 
§ 22 ; Rua. § 14. Such sacred fish, if caught, cannot be dressed or cooked, 


show their resentment at any indignity or pollution by drj'ing up or 
removing'. Many of them object to be mcddled with bywomen". 
But a fountain will sometimes remove, not out of anger, but in order 
to follow or guide a favoured saint '. 

Very frequently a sacred tree ovcrhangs or grows by thc sacrcd 
fount ' ; and on these are hung the shreds of rags, etc, left by the 

The cuh of sacred trees is of course a widely extcnded form of 
nature-worship*. We have already noticed the trees, probably sacred 

C. S. c. 232 (§ 16) ; Z. C. P. iH. 562 ; cf. Religion of Semites, pp. 172-8 : Hardy, 
Sacred Wells, p. 31. In the secular literalure cf. Acc. Sen. pp. 66, 217 ; Ir. T. 
iii. 195; Elder Faitlis, ii. 88, 92, 96, 108 ff. ; Pagan Ireland, p. 159; Martin, 
p. 141. In the year 1061 Aedh 0'Connor sacked Kincora, ' and stopped up the 
fountain, and ate its two salmon,' no doubt as a deliberate outrage to the 
inhabitants, F. M. ii. 880. 

' A fountain dries up because 'quidam laici post cfTusionem sanguinis ex ipso 
. . . biberunt ', C.S. c. 280 (§ 46, not in M) ; cf. C. B. S. p. 28; Acc. Sen. pp. 103, 
209; Elder Faiths, ii. 65, 88, 96 ; Ir. Nenn. p. 196 note. A well dries up if a 
dog drinlis of it, Martin, p. 34. In heathen estimation thc approach of a Christian 
was pollution to a sacred Ibuntain, Grimm, u. s. i. 77. Water from a sacred 
well will not boil if used for ordinary cooking, Capg. ii. 89; Martin, pp. 7, 277. 
Wells also show their anger by flooding, C. B. S. p. 76; Ace. Sen. pp. 102-3. 

^* St. Cranatan's well at Killuragh dries up in summer because a woman once 
washed dirty hnen in il (private information) ; an exact parallel is cited from 
Pausanias, Elder Faiths, ii. 88; cf. ib. 27-30; Pagan Ireland, p. 142; Christian 
Inscriptions, i. 10 ; Martin, p. 242 ; Religion of Semites, p. 168 ; Macculloch, 
Childhood, p. 317 and reff. ; Capg. i. 99; R. C. xv. 315 ; Grimm, u. s. iv. 1789. 
1812. A woman is struck with barrenness for bathing in a fountain, C. B. S. 
p. 205. On thc othcr hand, a man is punished for using a wcll specially 
appropriated to the othcr sex, British Saints, i. 335. 

' C. S. cc. 905-6 (§ 5) ; Mochua of Balla, on lcaving Bangor, took with him 
a fountain to guide him to his ultimate dcstination ; he wished to settle at 
Tehelly, * 7 nir IiAadh, ar ni ro thoirinn in topur,' i. e. and he could not, 
because the fountain did not descend ; ultimately he settled at Balla, L. S. 
pp. 139-41 ; cf. Capg. i. 129 ; Cormac, Glossary, p. 31 ; Transl. p. 121 ; cf. 
Grimm, ii. 599 (a very charming story). There are somc marvellous fountains 
mentioned in the curious Irish tract, Tenga bithnua, or Ever-new Tongue, 
§§36-9, Eriu, ii. 112-14. The source of this tract is not known, possibly 
some lost apocryphal apocalypse. 

* Br. i. § 26; St. Malo, pp. 50-1 ; N. and K. p. 153 ; L. S. p. 71 ; CHanlon, 
ii. 578 ; cf. the fountain and grove and altar, Odyssey, xvii. 205 fl". ; Driver's 
Genesis, p. 154. 

^' This is a phenomenon found all over the world nearly ; cf., for Irish examples, 
Elder Faiths, ii. chap. 3. It is doubtful whethcr the underlying idca is that of 
an offering to the deity or saint, orof leaving bchind on the rag thc diseasc, &c., 
of which the pilgrim came to be healed. Of course small ofTerings of many 
kinds may be found at any sacrcd well ; sec an article by the present writcr in 
the Guardian of Dcc. 23, 1903. For other traces of Well Worship, &c., cf. 
0'Flaherty's lar-Connaught, pp. 53-4; Bran, ii. 214-15, 217; Rhys, H. L. 
pp. 105-6, 186-7, i9'i 216-17; snd Miss Stokcs, Three Months in the Forests 
of Francc, pp. xxxiii, 25, 39, 46-51, 122, 140, 176-8, 223-4, 229. 

" For its prcvalencc among the Semites scc Rcligion of Scmitcs, pp. 185 fT., 
195-6, 335-6. Herc, too, thc rag-hung tree is frequent. For some raarvellous 
trccs cf. ■fenga bithnua, u. s., §§ 49-54. For Ireland, see Oss. Soc. v. 152-5; 


tribal trces, at which Irish chicrtains wcrc inaugurated ; and wc find 
a hazel asaplace of judgemcnt '. Giraldus speaks of trees, especially 
ancient yevv-trees in cemeteries, plantcd by Irish saints*^; but I have 
not come across any instances in the livcs. Ruadan of Lothra had a 
marvciious lime-tree vvhicli distilled sustenance for him and his 
nionks-' ; and therc vvas a similar tree on Inis Celtra^. Trees furnish 
auguries to saints ^ ; but tlic oracular trce of Rahen was thc abode of 
a dcmon '. Druids prctend to pass through trees, though this is 
nierely a case of glamour ' ; but a tree really opens and conceals 
fugitives '. A hazel tree heals all discases ^, and a plane tree tests 
perjury'". To cut any of these sacred trees or groves is sacrilege". 
In many vvays the trees do homage to the saints ; their leaves make 
mclody for Coemgen '-, they lie down to give him passage, and lift 
themselves again when he has passed". Fallen trees are raised " at 

Magh Lena, pp. 94-6 ; Magh Rath, p. 234 ; Elder Faiths, ii. chap. 5. For 
Tcutonic instances, Grimm, i. 7^ fl'. ; ii. 474, 648 fi". For classicai instances, 
Ramsay, in H. D. B. v. 1 13-14. For India, Lyall, Asiatic Studies, pp. 12-16. 

' C. B. S. p. 72; cf. above, p. civ, note6. - Opp. v. 135, 152. 

' Rua. § 14 ; C. S. cc. 202-3. * C. S. c. 453 (§ 16). 

'' Maed. § 8. ' Ber. § 20. 

' C. S. c. 353 (§ 39, Aed mac Bricc, not in M); Cain. § 11. 

* Sam. § i8 ; cf. V. Tr. p. 556 ; Capg. i. iii ; Aur. Leg. p. 900; Delehaye, 
p. 39 ; Saintyvcs, p. 267. At Killuragh is a white-thorn sacred to St. Cranatan. 
In old days people from far and near, when going to America, took a little bit 
of it vvith them, as it was supposed to ensure a safe journey (private information). 
For the virtues of hawthorn, cf. Grimm, u. s., iv. 1618. 

» C. S. c. 451 (§ 12); cf. C. B. S. p. 69. 

'" Mart. Don. p. xli, the reading is doubtful. In C. B. S. p. 14 is a tree 
which killed Englishmen but spared Welshmen, an extreme instance of Welsh 

" ' Do gheall Caoimligin iffern 7 saoghal gerr da gach nech do loisccfedh 
lirach no crionach na cailledh sin go brath,' i. e. Coemgen promised hell and 
a short life to any one who should burn cither fresh or dry wood from this 
forest for ever, Br. Coem. c. 9; Forannan ordained ' gan uiret deilcc bruit do 
bhuain da fhiodhbadh ', i. e. that not so much as a cloak-pin should be cut from 
his wood, Br. Farannan, c. 9; Anecdota, iii. 6. A raan who tanned his shoes 
with bark from Columba's oak was smitten with leprosy when he put them on, 
L. S. p. 28 ; cf. Z. C. P. iv. 310. Of a tree at Tombrickane 0'Donovan says : 
' the peasantry would not cut any part of it for fuel, because they believe that 
the house in which any part of it should be burnt would soon meet the same 
fate,' Supplement to 0'ReiIIy, s. v. bile ; cf British Saints, i. 220 ; Martin, 
pp. 69, 141 ; Grimm, Hythology, ii. 648, iii. 1085 ; Lucan, Pharsalia, iii. 430-1 : 
' si robora sacra ferirent, In sua credebant redituras membra secures.' We 
hear of a tree of vvhich the chips, when cut, would fly back into their place, 
Fel.' p. 204 ( = V. Tr. p. 556). "The grove of Zeus Lycaeus might not even be 
entered, Pausanias, viii. 2, cited by Lang, Myth and Ritual, i. 259 (268). The 
hanging of the heads of animals taken in the chase on trees is probably a reiic 
of tree-vvorship. Aur. Leg. p. 448 (life of Germanusl. The name Melcruinn 
(probably = Mael-crainn, i. e.slaveof thetree), Coem. § 38, points the same way. 

'^ Coem. § 19. 

" Br. Coemgen, c. 9 ; cf. Ci.S. § 18 ; a tree bows down to form a bridge across a 
riverfora messenger of Cadoc.C. B. S. p. 79. A tree removed bodily, Ber. § 20. 

" Car. § 60 ; Cron. § 22 ; Fin. C. § 12 note ; Mochoem. § 22 ; Rua. § 20 ; cf. 
Sam. § 19. 


the bidding of thc saints ; fruitlcss trees bear fruit', sour fruits are 
made sweet'-, and fruits are produced or preserved out of due 
season^; a dry stick becomcs a green tree, and blossoms, and bears'. 
Certain trees have magical propcrties. Of the rowan vve do not 
hear so much as we might expect from its prominence in the secular 
mythology. In the Irish hfe of Berach is a very curious account ol 
druidical divination by means of hurdles made of rowan '. Hazel 
also is more prominent in the secular than in thc hagiological Htera- 
ture \ 

' Ber. § 9 ; Coem. 5 34 ; Maecl. § 54. 

- Mochoem. § 23 ; Adamn. ii. 2. 

' Ber. § 9; Car. § 21; Cl. S. §16; Coem. §34; N. and K. p. 227. An 
interestlng parallel from the secular llterature in Oss. Soc. v. 50-4. 

« Car. § 66 ; Col. E. § i ; C. S. c. 737 ; L. S. pp. 57, 71 ; Tr. Th. p. 529" (§ 18) ; 
Br. Macdoc, c. 4. Most of thcse instances rcfer to thc wood held by thc mother 
of the salnt at thc time of her delivery. (So Leto grasped a palm or ohve when 
she brought forth Apollo and Artemis, Lang, Myth and Ritual, il. 319, 237 [198, 
218].) In L. S. p. 57 the wood isrowan, and Mr. Stokes suggests that the object 
was to ward off wltchcraft. A very common form of thls mlracle is where thc 
saint sets his bachall in thc ground and it becomes a tree, Mochoem. § 18 ; N. and 
K. p. 153 ; Capg. I. 1 12, 250, 362-3, 425 ; 11. 57, 184 ; Aur. Leg. pp. 432-3, 576 ; 
cf. ib. 866. A javelin hurled by Cohimba bccomes a holly tree, Z. C. P. v. 52. 

' c. 33 : ' doraldh iEdhan frla dniidhibh : " fionnta libh, cia doroine na ferta 
sa" . . . ; 7 dochuatar na draolthc ara ccllathaibh caerthainn 7 tuccadh dano 
nua corma doibh,' i. e. Aedan [mac Gabrain, cf. Bcde, H. E. i. 34] said to his 
drulds, ' find out who has done these wonders ' ; and the druids went on to 
their rowan hurdles, and new beer was brought to them.' This is illustrated 
by a passage in Keating, 11. 348-50, who says that this was the most potent 
form of druidic dlvination, and was only resorted to when everything else had 
falled : ' is eadh donidis, crulnnchliatha caorthainn do dheanamh, 7 seachadha 
na d-tarbh n-lodhbart do ieathadh orra, 7 an taobh do bhiodh ris an bh-feoil do 
chur i n-uachtar diobh, 7 dul mar sin , . . do thogairm na n-deamhan do bhualn 
sccal diobh,' i. e. this is what they would do, namely, make round hurdles of 
rowan, and spread ovcr them the hides of sacrificcd bulls with the fleshy 
(or inner) slde uppermost, and so proceed to summon the demons to extract 
Information from them. And hence, adds Keating, it bccame a proverb to say 
of any one who has donc his utmost to obtain informatlon ' go d-teld ar a 
chliathaibh fis', i. c. that he has gone on to hls hurdlcs of knowledge. Wc 
find saints called Mac Carthainn and Der Carthainn, i. e. son and daughter of 
Rowan, Mart. Don. pp. 70, 218, 268 ; LL. 351'' ad calcem, 353'' 7 ; V. Tr. p. 158 ; 
two brothers called Carthenn Mor and Carthenn Bec, i. e. Rowan the Great and 
Rowan the Llttle, ib. p. 168, cf ib. 206; and another pair called Calrthenn 
Finn and C. donu, i. e. thc Falr and the Dark, L. S. p. 93. In the secular 
Ilterature rowan protects against magic (sec last note, Keating, i. 202 ; Elder 
Faiths, li. 155-6; Scott, Blaek Dwarf, Introduction, and Ihe Scottish Rhyme : 
Rowan, ash, and rcd Ihrced 
Keep the dcvils from their speed. 

Lang, Custom and Myth, p. 149 . 
But it is also very powcrful magic or mcdiclne, LL. 120"; a ' peist ' haunts 
the roots of a rowan, Ib. 250" ; for rowan bcrries cf. Oss. Soc. iii. 1 10-12 ; the 
smoke of a fire of rowan Is potcnt, Rawl. B. 502 f. 72'' ; so a fire of blackthorn 
is used in ordcals, Ir. T. lii. 190. 

' For the healing propcrty of hazcl see above, p. cliii, note 9; cf. N. and K. 
p. 172 (a branch of hazel ignited by fire from heavcn) ; L. S. p. 71. For the 


That Ireland was in old days an aniply wooded country is shown 
by many passagcs in thc iives ', Connaught being particularly famous 
for its timber'; and this evidence is confirmcd by the number of 
buried forcsts vvhich are continualiy being exposed to view', and also 
by the topographical nomenclature of the country *. 

The cult of stones is probably not to bc regarded as part of Celtic 
nature-worship, but rather as due to that pre-Aryan population to 
whom we owe the megalithic monuments of the world''. \Ve find 
numerous traces of this cult in our lives and other documents. 
Various stones are regarded as sacred because of their association 
with certain saints*', though in many cases the cult is probably much 
older. Sometimes the stone marks the site of a martyrdom ' ; oftcn 
it has served as a vessel to transport the saint across the ocean when 
othermeans of navigation failed*; even more frequently it shows the 

ramous ' Hazels of Knowledge ' see R. C. xv. 456-7, xxvi. 18, note 2 ; Ir. T. iii. 
195. Three gods of thcTuatha De Danann were Coll, Cecht (ploughshare), and 
Grian (sun), Keating, i. 222. Rhys, H. L. p. 569, takes the first to be the Irish 
word coll = destruction ; I think it is probably coll = hazel. Of the idea of 
a life-tree, i. e. a trec with which the life of a human being is bound up, I have 
not found any trace. There was a magic tree at Ess Maighe of which the 
rellexion could be seen in the water, but the tree itself was invisible, Ir. N. 
p. 220; cf. Grimm, Mythology, ii. 509. 

' Car. § 60 ; Fint. § 20 ; Mochoem. §§ 13, 22 ; Mun. § 17 ; Sam. § i8. 

- Br. i. § 71 ; Sam. § 16. ^ Bog-pine is alhided to, Sam. § 16. 

' In the Index to the Census of 1851 there are nearly a thousand townlands 
bearing the name of Derry (Ir. doire, an oak wood),either alone or with various 
additions. Several place-names begin with Fee- or Feigh- (Ir. fid, a wood). 
The majority of names beginning with Kill- are no doubt from Ir. cell, a church ; 
but quite an appreciable proportion of them are derived from Ir. coill, caill, 
a wood. Gir. Camb. speaks of ' siluae immensae', Opp. v. 141. Of the site 
ofArmagh a story-teller says : 'ba caill in tan sin,' i.e. it was all wood in 
those days, Ir. T. II. i. 178. The denudation began in Elizabeth's time, Elder 
Faiths, i. 37-8. 

' Bertrand, Religion, Lefons, i, iii : cf. Rhj^s, H. L. pp. 205 ff. ; Religion of 
Semites, pp. 204-9; Lyall, Asiatic Studies, pp. 7, lo-ii, 17; Lang, Myth and 
Ritual, i. 195 (203), 256 (266), 265 (275); ii. 284 (265): Custom and Myth, 
p. 223. The custom of dressing rude fetish stones mentioned in several of 
these passages may be compared with the dressing of rude images of saints ; 
cf. Outer Isles, p. 121. Fetish stones to which homage of this kind was paid 
tiU within recent times existed on Inishglora and Inishkea, Elder Faiths, 
ii. 67-8, 106-7. For various marvellous stones see Tenga Bithnua, u.s. §§ 43-7, 
R. C. xxiv. 374-5. For Teutonic instances. cf. Grimm, u.s. ii. 645, iv. 1476-8. 
For pilgrimages, offerings, &-c., to megalithic stones, slightly, if at all, chris- 
tianized, see Bertrand, u. s. pp. 45-6, 53, 64, 66, 398-9. In Fel.^ p. 186 is 
mcntioned a stone adorned with gold and silverand worshipped by the heathen. 
It was built into the church of Clogher (above, p. cxxix, note 6) ; cf. Kristni- 
saga, c. I. 

' Ci. C. § 4 ; Dec. § 32 ; L. H.- i. 62 ; cf. Reeves, Adamn. p. 330. 

' Col. E. § 32. 

« Ci. S. §23; Enda, § 15; Las. §23; C. S. c.652 (§9),c. 654 (§ "l.c.^ss^^ 4) ; 
Colgan, A. S. p. 135'' (§21, Fechin) ; V.Tr. pp. 446-9 (cf. Todd, Obits, pp. x.\ff.): 
C. B. S. pp. 6-7, 191, cf. ib. p. 171 ; Capg. ii. 94, cf. ib. p. 206, where an angel 


print of his feet or knees ', or traces of the punishment of thc enemies 
who have opposed him ^. We have already noticed in another 
connexion the instances of stones hollowed by the head of a new- 
born saint^ with their secular parallcls ; and there are other stones 
held sacred because of their connexion with a saint's birth', or 
baptism ^ The holed stones which occur so frequently are accounted 
for by legends that they were pierced by thc sainfs finger'. These 

detaches from Ireland the portion of land on which Modwenna and her com- 
panions stood, and sent them on it across to Britain. The infant Haedoc was 
conveyed to baptism from the island in which hc was born on a flag-stone, 
which continued to act as a fcrry, Br. Maedoc, c. 3 (= Mart. Don, p. 32 ; for 
a local variant of this legend see Proceedings R. I. A. viii. 441 ff.). A stone 
conveys Declan's bell across the sea, Decl. § 15 (on this stone see Pagan 
Ireland, p. 310 ; Elder Faiths, ii. 233). A stone which he had miraculously 
consoHdated out of sand follows St. Patricl^, Tr. Th. p. 39" (§ 30) ; cf. V. Tr. 
p. 72. Maclduin found on an island a pilgrim who had come from Ircland on 
a sod, R. C. ix. 494. In LL. 354'' 53 ff. four saints cross the occan on a flag- 
stone and cast lots for it afterwards. 

' V. Tr. pp. xlvii, 90, 414 ; Z. C. P. v. 26 ; C. B. S. p. 121 (marks of the hands 
of the sainfs mothcr at the time of his birth) ; Capg. i. 217, 425, 443, ii. 194 ; 
Elder Faiths, i. 80, ii. 256 ; 0'HanIon, iv. 31 ; Hy Fiachrach, pp. 9, 10 ; British 
Saints, i. 1 1 r, 183 ; a stone which St. Magnus had used as a ferry shows marks 
of his feet, Martin.p. 367 ; cf, Rua. § 14. This is awidely diffused pieceof folk- 
lore, cf Deleheye, pp. 48 9 ; giants and heroes have preceded the saints in thus 
leaving traces of their exploits. Elder Faiths, i. 163 ; 0'Curry, M. and C. ii. 263 ; 
MaccuIIoch, Western Isles, ii. 271. The footprints of Cuchulainn's son Conla 
when he wrestled_ with his father gave its name to Traig lisi (the strand of the 
track) in LHster, Eriu, i. 1 18. Cuchulainn himself left the print of his feet on the 
doorstep of the palace of Ctirbi mac Daire, Ir. T. i. 299. For Teutonic instances 
see Grimm, u. s., i. 241 ; ii. 645, 656 ; iii. 1022 ; iv. 1381, 1483, 1612, 1703. In 
the hagiological sphere the climax is reached in the legend that thc footprints 
of our Lord remained on thc dust of the mount of the Ascension, and that if it 
was attempted to pave the spot, the stones flew up into the faces of the work- 
men, Aur. Leg. p. 319. 

2 Ger. § 9; Irish Moling, §70; C. B. S. p. 260; Capg. ii. 420-1 ; N. and K. 
p. 149. 

' See above, pp. cxxxii, cxxxix f. ; Aed, § i ; Decl. § 3. \Vc find a child's 
head struck on a stone for luck, Keating, iii. 52, 

' Dec. § 3 ; Mun. § i (snow would not lie on this stone) ; Z. C. P. iii. 556-8 ; 
Br. Berach, c. 5 ; V. Tr. p. 8. A saint is born holding a stone in his hand, 
which has various marvellous properties, Ger. §§ i, 7 ; L. S. p. 2 ; cf. Z, C, P. 
iii. 558. Here too thcre arc secular parallcls, e. g. the stone on which Conchobar 
was born, R. C. vi. 177 ; Eriu, iv. 22. 

^ Z, C. P. iii. 560; Fel.* p. 76. 

« Fech. §§ 7, 8 ; Tr. Th. p. ^^i" (§ 119) ; Grimm, i. 155 ; C. B. S. p. 69 ; 
Bertrand, La Gaule avant Ics Gaulois, pp. 151-4. Stones are split by a saint's 
bachall, Enda, § 24 ; or by his cursc, Macd. § 35. Conversely a split stone is 
miraculously mended, Mol. § 13. Stones and trces become uscless on being 
cursed, V. Tr. pp. 80, 194. A not unfrequcnt miracle is the removal of im- 
movablestones,Acd.§ 18; Col.E. § 30; Mol. § 12 ; cf. Aed, § 33; Coem. § 24; C.S. 
c. 829. A standing or pillar stone (Ir. coirthci is mentioned Ab. § 23; such 
cccur as grave-stones, Oittc, p. 6. The fact tliat sevcral cf these sacred stoncs 
arc supposed cither to cure, Hardy, Holy Wells, p. 33 ; Bcrtrand, Religion, 
p. 66; or to cause barrenncss, Z. C. P. iii. 562 ; cf. Acc. Sen. p. 224 ; seems to 


sacred stoncs havc various marvcllous propertics ; thcy hcal discases, 
cithcr dircctly, or by the watcr which collects in thcir hollows ', or in 
vvhich they have bccn washed '. Stones set up by saints cannot be 
moved '', and thcrc are stones which if removed always return to 
thcir place''. Going 'deisel' or righthandwisc round certain stones 
ensures victory^ to turn them thrice ensures a safe return". We 
have noted elsewhere stones that detectcd perjurers'' ; but they test 
other crimes also ", and give oracles and grant petitions ' ; they 
produce rain, and cause a favourable wind". 

Of the cursing stoncs " which occur so often in local tradition I 
have only found one instance, viz. in the later Irish life of Maedoc. 
This stone was left by Maedoc to protect his church from oppression. 
If the stone was turned three times ' tuaithbel ' or widdershins against 
the oppressor, hc would die within a year '-. 

Scvcral of the birth stories of the saints seem to bc connected with 
nature-worship, and may find a place here before vve pass on to 
examine traccs of the second or magical element in Celtic heathenism. 
Somc of them have been noticed already ", and parallels from secular 

shovv that they had originally a sexual significance. That barrenness, as among 
the Jevvs, vvas considered a reproach, appears from Sam. § 21 ; C. B. S. pp. 40-1. 
It is frequently cured by the saints. 

' Aed, §§ r, 18 ; Dec. § 3 ; C. S. c. 933 (§ 4") ; Adamn. i. ,1, ii. 33 ; C. B. S. 
p. 48; N. and K. p. 234 ; Br. Mochuda, c. 8 sub finem ; cf. Eriu, iv. 54 ; Elder 
Faiths, ii. 69 fT. ; Pagan Ireland, pp. 153 flf., 308 flf., 412; Murray's Handbook 
for Ireland, ed. 7, p. 218 ; Martin, pp. 225-6. GeoflTrey of Monmouth says of 
the stones of vvhich .Stonehenge vvas built : ' mystici sunt lapides, et ad diversa 
medicamenta salubres,' viii. 11. 

" Ger. § I ; Z. C. P. v. 26 ; this especially assists women in labour ; cf. Martin, 
p. 22. A stone vvhich drives away melancholy, Z. C. P. iv. 328. 

' Mochoem. § 29. 

* Capg. il. 194-5; Nennius, ed. Stevenson, p. 60 ; Ir. Nennius, pp. 120, 220; 
Elder Faiths, ii. 60, 65, 88, 211 ; Pagan Ireland, p. 307. 

° Decl. § 25 ; Acc. Sen. p. 122 ; cf. Martin, p. 241. 

'' Fel.^ p. 76, where this stone is said to have been the baptism stone of 
Fintan of Clonenagh, Feb. 17. I suspect that it really belonged to Fintan 
Corach, Feb. 21 ; for one e.xplanation given of the epithet ' corach " is that it 
was derivcd from the ' cor ' or pledge vvhich he gave, that he would return 
from his pilgrimage, vvhethcr alive or dead. 

' Above, p. cv, note 9; lar-Connaught, p. 121. 

' V. Tr. p. 72 ; Ir. Nenn. p. 212 ; Pagan Ireland, p. 306 ; Acc. Sen. p. 224. 

° Acc. Sen. pp. 148, 224 ; R. C. xv. 281 ; Pagan Ireland, p. 306. 

"■ Ir. Nenn. p. ig8 ; Martin, pp. 59, 166. We hear of musical stones, R. C. 
xxvi. 146; Bran, i. 11. 

" That is stones which being turned ' widdershins' brought a curse on the 
pcrson in respect of whom they were turned, Pagan Ireland, pp. 150-3 ; Elder 
Faiths, ii. 58 ff. ; lar-Connaught, p. 120 ; Macculloeh, Western Isles, i. 14, 
ii. 158 ; Hardy, Holy Wells, p. 31. 

'* Br. Maedoc, c. 69 ad finem. Evil spirits are imprisoned in stones and 
rocks, Coem. § 21 ; Mochoem. § 21 ; Tig. § 8 ; C. S. c. 230 ; Fel.'' p. 94. A soul 
believed to dwell in a stone, Kristnisaga, c. i. 

" See above, pp. c.xxxii, cxxxix f. 


sources adduced. In most of thesc cases the story of the sainfs con- 
ception is toned down into the form of a vision. But the original 
tradition was doubtless meant to be taken literally. Thus in the case 
of Boetius (Buite), Maedoc, and Ciaran of Saigir a vision was seen at 
the time of their conception ofa star falling into thc mother's mouth '. 
But in the case of Ciaran a poem preserved in thc notes to the Felire 
niakes the falling of the star an actual fact'. The mother of Finan of 
Kinnity saw a vision of a fish of the colour of red gold cntering her 
mouth''. But in a poem in the notes to the Felire Finan is repre- 
sented as born of the actual intercourse of a ' red-gold salmon ' with 
his mother when bathing in Loch Lein (Killarney), and the attempt 
madc to give a Christian complexion to this, no doubt original, form of 
the legend is of inconceivablc cruditj' \ 

In all the legends which have to do with the beginnings of Chris- 
tianity in Ireland the druids meet us at every turn as the chief, if not 
the only, opponents of the new faith ^ Druidism was of course not 
confined to Ireland", or even to the British Isles'. It was very 

1 Bo. § I ; Ci. S. § I ; Maed. § i. In the last case the father sees the vision 
of a star, thc mother thc vision of the moon cntering her mouth. The mothers 
orThomas a Beckctt and Willibrord had visions of the latter kind, Capg. i. 470, 
ii. 447 ; cf. R. C. iii. 452; and Hdt. iii. 28: AtyvuTtQi Xtyovat ae\as (irt t^i' ySoDv 
(K Tov ovpavov i:aT'taxitVy Kal fitv (K Tovrov TiKTftv rov^Aniv^ Samthann appeared 
as a moon at the timc of her death, .Sam. § 26. 

2 'intan soes a gnuis fri nem, docher rctla i n-a gin . . . is de . . . atbert 
Luaignc ni m-ba mac," i. e. as she turned her face towards heaven a star fell into 
her raouth. . . . Hencc it vvas that Luaigne( = Lugneus.Ci. S. § i) said that he was 
not his son, Fel.'' pp. 86-8. An instance of conception by firc has been already 
given, p. cxxxvii, note 9. Somcthing of the same kind may undcrlic Br. i. | i, 
wherc the mothcr dreams that her bosom is fuU of gold and that her paps shine 
with rcsplendcnt light ; cf Capg. ii. 103. The following may pcrhaps contain 
a trace of naturc-worship. Several mythologics havc many-brcasted deities, 
who symbolizc, pcrhaps, thc productivc powers of naturc. The bcst known is 
' Great Artcmis of the Ephesians ', Myth and Ritual, i. 254 (263). Now in the 
Welsh Achau y Saint, wc find tlic inothcr of St. Cadvan given as Gucn tcirbronn, 
Gwen of the threc paps, C. B. S. p. 266, who appcars iii a Latin dress in Cap- 
grave as Alba Trimanimis, ii. 558. In LL. 349" 16 and 372" 59 the mothcr of 
certain saints is callcd Derinncll cctharchichcch, or of the four paps. In thc 
sccular literature we have a woman, Admacr trecliichcch, of the three paps, 
Rawl. B. 502 f. 73'' 13, and a man : ' DiJil cichcch forsambatar iii cichc,' i. c. 
Didil of the paps, on whom wcrc three paps, ib. f. 73" ; cf. Lugaid cichccli, L. S. 
p. 63 ; Mochua cichech, Mart. Don. June 4. ^ Fin. C. § i. 

' F(5l." p. 112; cf Capg. ii. 452; Saintyvcs, pp. 221-2. This may be totc- 
niistic, though, as I havc alrcady stated, I have found little tracc of totomism in thc 
ccclesiastical literature. In Fel." p. 246 is a curious story of a saint bcing con- 
ccived owing to his mothcr drinking thc ink of Comgall of Bangor ! Coemgen 
is said to have bccn born witliout his mother suflrering any pain, Br. Cocmgen, 
c. 4. This is probably Jcwish-Christian,see Edcrsheim, Lifc and Times, i. 188. 

' Scc abovc, p. cxxxiv, and bclow, p. clxv. 

' According to C. S. c. 172 (§ 14^, thc district of Murthemnc (in Co. Louth) 
vvas a spccial stronghold of magical practices : 'gens . . . arcium magicarum 
pericia pre aliis . . . gcntibus imbuta.' It appcars from LL. 263'' 17, 18; TBC. 
p. 673, that druids had a prccmincnt position at thc court of Ulstcr, taking 
prcccdcncc in somc rcspccts evcn of thc king. 

' For druids in Britain scc abovc, p. c, note 2; and C. B. S. p. 121. 


strong in Gaul, thougli Caesar says that the hcadquarters of the 
system vvere in Britain \ Whcthcr thc druids thcmselves vvere of 
Celtic descent or not, it is novv gcncrally acccptcd that druidism is 
pre-Aryan, part of that grcat magical systcm of thouglit which spread 
vvestward from some Eastcrn ccntrc, possibly Babylonia ". There is 
evidence that the craft vvas often hereditary ' ; it was freely practised 
by womcn *. Considering the opposition of thc druids to Christianity, 
it is, not unnaturally, on their malignant powcrs that stress is chiefly 
laid. They overlook a place and curse it, making it unfruitful '" ; thcy 
raise storms^; thcy bercave men of their senses''; thcy cause 
glamour or sight-shifting ' ; their spells kill a Christian king', and 

I Bell. Gall. vi. 13. 

" See Bertrand, Religion, Lefons iii-vii, xi.\, xx ; MaccuUoch, Childhood, 

P- 473- 

' On hearing of the death of his father Diarmait, the poet-druid, his son 
Ciiallaid at once goes to the place wherc he had been killed : ' da fegadh 7 da 
mallachad,' i. e. to overlook it and curse it, Br. Berach, c. 23 sub finem; 'boi 
drui amra . . . i. Nuadu . . . boi mac . . . oc Nuadait .i. Tagd . . . driii amra dano 
Tadg,' i. e. there was a notable druid, viz. Nuadu, and he had a son namcd 
Tadg. Tadg also was a notable druid, LU. 41'' ( = R. C. ii. 86-8) ; cf. R. C. xxiii. 
422 ; Coir Anm. No. 287 ; Grimm, u. s. iii. 1107. 

* Ber. § 10; Coem. §§ 31, 33; R. C. xxvi. 156. We frequently hear of the 
'bandrui', or female druid ; R. C. v. 198, xxix. H2 ; 'bandrai do Thiiaith de 
Danann,' i. e. a female druid of the Tuatha de Danann, Acc. Sen. p. 208 ; ' tri 
ferdruid 7 tri bandruid,' T. B. C. p. 331, i. e. three malc and three female 
druids. From the LU. te.xt, ib. note i, it vvould appear that the latter were the 
wives of the former. We hear of a ' bantuathaid', or witch, vvho vvas of fairy 
lineage, a banshee, R. C. xxiv. 178. From the close connexion of the poet, 
'file,' aud the druid (see below, pp. cl.xif.), we may mention here Fedelm ban- 
filc, i. e. the poetess, LU. 55'' 11, and Brigit banfile, who was the daughter of the 
Dagda, Corm. Glossary. p. 8 ; Transl. p. 23 ; R. C. xxvi. 31, note 2 ; cf. Elder 
Faiths, i. 353 ; Grimm, iii. 1038-41, iv. 1617-18. 

5 Br. Berach, c. 23 sub finem (quoted above). That their maledictory func- 
tions vvere inherited by the Christian saints see below, pp. clxxiii f. ; cf. Tac. Aiin. 
xiv. 30 : ' Druidae . . . preces diras . . . fundentes,' cited by Bertrand, Religion, 
p. 260. 

' Capg. i. 202. 

' Br. 2324 f. 53: ' draoi a athar fein ro imir siabradh 7 ealadnacha draoi- 
dheachta air, . . . go n-demadh oinmid 7 amadan de,' i. e. the druid of his 
[Comdan's] own father plied witchery and druidical arts upon him, so that he 
became an idiot and simpleton, Life of Cuiminc Foda. A sainfs curse has the 
like effect, Keating, iii. 90. 

' Cain. § II ; C. S. c. 353 (§ 39, not in M). On glamour or sight-shifting see 
below, pp. clxix f. 

" LU. 50'' 34 fl". ; F. M. i. 116. According to Las. § 15; and V. Tr. p. 54; 
they vvere not above resorting to poison. Other attempts at poisoning, Ail. 
§ 12 ; Moling, § 7 ; L. S. p. 2 ; V. Tr. p. 182 ; C. B. S. p. 131 ; L. Land. pp. 13, 
23 (II, 22); cf. L. H.2 i. 107 (= L. S. p. 333). We hear of poisoned arms in 
the secular literature, but not, as far as I knovv, in the ecclesiastical, T. B. C. 
p. 423; R. C. vii. 292; Cath Finntr.igha, p. 32; Keating, ii. iio; 0'Curry, 
M. and C. ii. 347, iii._ 131. We do hear of one horrible heathen custom, 
'hastam quinque acuminum [Ir. sleg coicrinn] in sanguine innocentium ritu 
gentili consecrare,' C. S. c. 918 (§ 8). This, like the tossing of children on 
spears, maj' have been a ' gall cherd ' or invention of the Scandinavian wikings. 


their incantations are constantly mentioncd', as arc their various 
forms of divination'. They declare auspicious and inauspicious 
times ', they are expected, liice savagc mcdicinc-men, to discover the 
authors of crimes ' ; they interpret dreams and omens ^. There is a 

' It is worth noting that in Ir. T. iii. 191-3 ' dichetal filedh' and ' dichetal 
druadh *, i. e. incantation of poets and ot' druids, scem used as identical terms : 
' dicetla druad,' T. B. C. p. 793. A poet's incantation drives fish away, Bran, 
i. 46 ; we have seen that saints do the same, above, p. ci ; druids and poets, 
by their 'brechta' or spells, bind Cuchulainn hand and foot, Ir. T. i. 226; a saint 
does the likc, Rennes MS. f. 87''. Druids cause a magic thirst, R. C. xxii. 315 
(Bruiden Da Derga), and it is curious that a saint subdues an opponent in 
exactly the same vvay, Br. Mac Creiche, c. 12 sub finem. Incantations by 
a witch to destroy life. (*oem. §§ 31, 33 ; cf Cain Adamnain, §46; R. C. xv. 
300, 311. 326 ; Outer Isles, p. 243. A druid sings spells against Senan to drive 
him out of his island, L. S. p. 68. But druids and poets are not thc only persons 
who make incantations; cf T. B. C. p. 309, note 5, where Cuchulainn himself 
uses one. In Vatnzdsela Saga, c. 47, of a wizard laying a storm, it is said : 
' hann gekk andsaelis [Tysvar, ok mEelti irsku,' i. e. he went widdershins (Ir. 
tuaithbel) thrice, and spoke IHsh ; which shows that Irish was regarded as 
the language par exccUence of magical formulae. A spel! to heal a wound is 
sung by a Christian student, Ir. Moling, § 35 ; cf iiraOiS^ 5' ai/ia KiXaiirui' 'EaxfSoy, 
Odyss. xix. 457-8. On spells, &c., cf. Grimm, iii. 1035, 1223 ff. ; Anthropology 
and the Classics, pp, 93 f1', 

" One of these, divination by rowan hurdles, has been already mentioned, 
p, cliv. 

' Aed, § I (propheta M, astrorum peritus R) ; Ci. C. § 28 ; L.S, p. 24 (the 
diviner is here called ' faith ' = uates, but it is clear that heathen divination is 
meant ; on druid and prophet see below, p. clxii) ; T. B. C, p. 131 ; R. C. vi. 178 
note, ix. 458; Magh Lena, p. 160 ; cf ib. pp. 72-4 ; Z. C. P. iv. 290. That the 
druids were sometimes bribed to give the answer desired on these point.s, sec 
Magh Lena. p. 158. 

* ' A cind dona druidib 7 dona filedaib, mani fintar cia dorbne,' i. e. their heads 
off the druids and poets, unless it be discovered who done this, Z. C. P. iii. 
5 ; cf. T. B. C. p. 73 ; M. and C. iii. 243 ; Hdt. iv. 68. Of a poet it is said : ' is e 
ro toimsedh cach n-dicclta,' i. e. it is he that would conjecture every sccret 
thing. To this function also the saints succeed ; see below, p. cl.xvii. 

^ Ci. S. §1; R.C. xxiv. 174; MaghLena, p.6 (modelled on Joscph"sintcrpreta- 
tion of Pharaoh's dreams). In Acc. Sen. p. 89 a dream is interpretcd by a poet. 
For saints .ind clergy as interpreters of dreams see Las. § 32 ; Magh Rath, p. 10. 
According to Magh Rath, p, 12, ' the venom goes out of a dream after a year,' 
i. e. its fulfilmcnt need not be dreaded after the lapse of that time. There was 
a form of divination by magically induccd dreams, called 'imbas forosnai '. or 
thc knowledge which enlightens, Cormac, Glossary, p. 25 : Translation, p. 94 ; 
LU. 55'' 13 (practised by a 'banfile', or poetess) ; ib. 125'' 10 (= Z. C. P. iii. 
255). Of the samc kind was the ' tarb-fcis ', or bull sleep, Ir. T. i. 200, 213; 
R. C. xxii. 22 ; Grimm, iii. 1 1 15, iv. 1744. ^ very similar process is describcd 
by GeotVrey of Monmoulh, i, n; cf Martin, p. iii. Another form of divina- 
tion, called 'teinm laegda', is probably rabdomancy, Cormac, u. s., and pp. 30, 
34, Transl. pp. 112, 130; on both thcsc cf Zimmcr, Kelt. Beitr. iii. 148 If. Thc 
lattcr sccms to bc thc same as tlie ' flesc filed ', or poet's rod, of Cormac, p, 14 ; 
Transl. p. 42 ; and the keys of poetry (cochra eccsi) of Z. C. P. iii. 458. note 18 ; 
'con dernai (in dnii) iiii flcsca ibir, 7 scripuid oghumm inntib, 7 foillsighthir do 
triana eochraib ccsi 7 triana oghumm, F.tain do bilh i sith Breg Leith," i. e. so 
the druid made four rods of yew, and wrote an ogham on thcm, and it was 
revealed to him through his kej'S of poetry and through his ogham that Etaiu 
was in tlie fairy-hill of Bri l cilli, Ir. T, i. 129. We hear of divination by clouds, 


druidic hedgc ', some magic obstruction to keep off an enemy ; and 
tlie saints erect the same sort of barrier by the sign of the cross^. 

But the druids were very much more than mere medicine men. It 
is probable that they really had superior knowledge, and all superior 
knowledge tends to be regarded as magical in primitive times^. 

That they had literary attainments is shown by their close associa- 
tion and frequent identity with the class of poets. Several passages 
have already been cited which illustrate this. The two words are 
often used interchangeably in different recensions of the same text *, 

T. B. C. p. 791 ; Acc. Sen. p. 211 ; Ir. T. II. ii. 133; III. 476; and a curious 
forni of divinalion by a chessboard {fithcheli and water, Oss. Soc. iii. 180. We 
have already seen that water, if incantations were sung over it, would give 
answers, above, pp. cxlviii f. ; there is also divination from the sound of the wind, 
I.L. i^^** 41 ; 253^ 49 ff. ; Ir. T. iii. 468-71. Keating further enumerates the 
notes of birds, reflexions in the water, and, most powerlul of all, the rowan 
hurdle, as instruments of divination, iii. 348-50. 

' 'airbe druad'; see the passages coUected by Stokes, Togail Troi, p. 129; 
and add to them Ann. Ult. 560 ; R. C. xvii. 144 ; L. S. pp. xxviii f. ; Silva 
Gad. i. 79. From these last tvvo passages, which refer to the same matter, 
it would seem to be a magic mist, but I am not sure that this is the meanlng 
in all cases. There is also a druid's knot, ' snaidm druad,' apparently some 
magical defencc of fortresses, Acc. Sen. pp. 27, 281. Curoi mac Daire had 
a magic vvheel which defended his fortress, Keating. ii. 223 ; but according to 
the earlier texts the fort itself revolved with incredible swiftness af^er sunset, 
Ir. T. i. 295. 

* Maed. § 24 ; cf. Aed. % 21. The curious process mentioned in the note to 
Maed. § 15. of doing a thing with one foot, one hand, and one eye, has clearly 
some magical significance, but I do not know what it is. It occurs frequently 
in the secular literature, T. B. C. pp. 73, 75 ; R. C. xii. 98, 307, xv. 431, xxi. 156, 
xxii. 41, 59. The Fomori were a one-footed and one-handed race, LL. 5" aa ; 
cf. Macculloch, Childhood, pp. 290, 301. 

' In many languages words which primarily mean knovvledge or power tend 
to suggest an idea of magical knowledge. In Irish cumachta, povver. has often 
thissecondary meaning; e. g. 'ba fer cumachtach . . . , co teighedh a n-ilrechtuib", 
i. e. he was a powerful man, for he could go into many shapes, i. e. was a shape- 
shifter, Coir Anmann. No. 205 ; edlas, which in Irish means knowledge, especially 
knowledge of the way. guidance, is in Scotch Gaelic a spell ; and it is beginning 
to acquire this meaning in Irish, see next note but one. So Irishyfii, science, 
cf. 'ag foglaim fessa 7 druidechta ', i. e. leaming science, and druidism, R. C. 
xii. 56; cf. Ber. § tonote ; Grimm, iii. 1034. 

' Thus the ' artis magice peritus ' of Berach, § 13, is in Br. Berach, c. 23 : 
' primeicces 7 ardmaigistir druidechta,' i. e. chief poet and high master of 
druidism. In the ' Death of Conchobar' the ' driii ' of the LL. text becomes 
tlie ' file' of the Edinb. MS. ; while in the Liber Flauus text he is ' fili 7 drai ', 
Oitte, pp. 9, 10, 14 So Z. C. P. iii. 458, and notes 9, 14, 18. In Magh Lena, 
pp. 8, 20-2, not only are poetical effusions attributed to a druid, but after the 
second of these it is added : ' the poet (eiges) asked for a truce . . . and Conn 
granted it, and the rfrM;V/ returned to Eogan.' The persons of druids and poets 
were sacrosanct. hence their use as ambassadors, Magh Rath, p. loo : Oss. Soc. v. 
p. xxi ; cf. Diodorus, v. 31, given in Holder, AltceltischerSprachschatz. i 1322-3. 
It is noteworthy that Diodorus couples together here the druids, whom he calls 
^ptKinfOifioty and ol fi(\qjSovyTt^ TToiTjTai. 

rtUUMER i 


or even in the same recension ', or they are coupled closely together '. 
The druids are also largely identical with the prophets'. We find 
Becc mac De called both ' propheta ' and 'magus'*; the earliest 
biography of Patrick makes the foretelling of future events the chief 
function of the 'magi'^; druids are constantly represented as pro- 
phesying"'; they prophesy of Christ ^' and of Christian saints, fore- 
telling their birth', their coming», thcir cmincnce '", their place of 

' ' cetri druid isna cetri ccthrachaibsin. . . . It iad na cetri filid ocar foglaindsit 
Tuatiia De fios 7 eolas,' i. e. tiiere were four dntiiis in the four cities. . . . They 
are the four poels with whom the Tuatha De (Danann'> learned science and 
knowledge, R. C. xii. 58 ; ' ba drai 7 ba banfile isi Dub,' i. e. this woman Dub 
was a druid and a poetess, R. C. xv. 126. So : ' bandrui 7 banliccerd,' druidess 
and female rhymer, xvi. 34. In Oss. Soc. iii. 48 a druid is not only called 
' eolach', knowing, but also nicknamed 'duanach', i.e. a man of poems ; cf. 
ib. V. pp. xvi f. ; Kcating, iii. 58 : ' file Albanach d'arb' ainm Labhan Draoi,' 
i. e. a poet of Aiba, called L. the Drtiid ; cf. T. B. C. pp. xl ff. When, however, 
Windisch 'ib. p. 793) says 'es ist der Verdienst der jiingeren Handschriften, diese 
Stande {dnii, file, &c. ) >ieben einander hervortreten zu lassen ', he seems to me 
to show a lack of historical sense. In early times various functions are com- 
bined in the same person ; specialization comes later. To apply to earlier times 
the ideas of a later day is no ' merit ', but the contrary. The classical passages 
are collected by Holder, Sprachschatz, s. v. driiida. See Addenda. 

* ' d'acallaim a druad 7 a filed,' i. e. to consult his druids and poets, Acc. Sen. 
p. iio; cf. R. C. XV. 311. 

' Irish /diM = uales, which latter means both prophet and poet. Ferchertne 
is called ' rofhili faith', i. e. a great poet and a prophet, R. C. xxvi. 50; of 
Marban it is said : ' ba naemh, 7 ba 1,-iidh, 7 ba fili,' i. e. he was a saint, a 
prophet, and a poet, Oss. Soc. v. 88 ; of Moling. ba fili, ba faith, ba fissidh (man 
of science), Ir. Moling, § 76 ; while of Lugaid Mor it was foretold : ' bidh drai 
bidh faidh, bidh fili,' i. e. he will be a druid, a prophet, a poet, Misc. Celt. Soc. 
p. 74 ad calcem. 

' Las. I 28 ; so Z. C. P. iv. 320, v. 50 (of the same). 

^ V. Tr. p. 273 : ' omnia scire ct prouidere . . . antequam essent.' 

* Medb goes to consult her druid : ' d'iarfaigid fessa 7 fastini de,' i. e. to seek 
knowledge and prophecy from him, T. B. C. p. 27 ; ' mbrfiss,' ' morfastine,' and 
' druidecht ' (great knowledge, great prophecy, and druidism) are coupled 
together, ib. 181; cf. Magh Rath. pp. 166, 172; Magh Lena, pp. 38, 154, 158; 
R. C. xxi. 154. Very often a druid like a saint) foretells the future of a child 
before or at its birth, Ir. T. i. 69 (the ill-fatcd Deirdre) ; LL. 126" 41 ff. (Ai mac 
OUoman); Rawl. B. 502, f. 72'' (Eithne Uathach). 

' Oitte, p. 14. " See next note but one. 

° Aed, § 34 note ; Z. C. P. iii. 544, 548 (Columba); the most famous instance 
is the alleged druidical prophccy of the coming of Patrick. V. Tr. pp. 33-4. 

'•* Ci. C. § I ; Ci. S. § I ; Las. § 4; C. S. c. 800. In many cascs these pro- 
phecics take the form of an exclamation ' currus sonat sub rege ', wlien a chariot 
is heard approaching, in which sits the prcgnant mothcr of the future saint ; so 
Ci. C. 5 I note ; Macd. § 2 ; Tr. Th. p. 527" 52) ( = L. S. p. 35" ; cf. Yi\.^ p. 256. 
In other cascs this prophecy is attributed to an ecclesi.istical person, clearly 
a later attempt to christianize the legend, Com. § 5 and note ; Mochoem. § 5 ; 
C. S. c. 929 '^§ 12); cf. Maed. § 2 note ; so also in the secular litcrature : ' fuaim 
n-echraide fo rig rocluiniur," i. e. I hcar thc sound of horses under a king, R. C. 
xxii. 49. One explanation given of the name Mog Ruith is * magus rotarum, ar 
is a rothaib donith a taiscelad dniidhechta ', i. c. the whcel druid, for it is from 
wheels that he used to make his druidical prognostication, Coir Anraann, 
No. 287. 


burial '. AIl this shows once more how far the Christian Irish were 
from regarding the power of the druids as an unrcal thing^. Again 
the druid was sometimes a brchon^. The title ' faith-brithem ' or 
prophet-brehon, is givcn to Lugaid Corc*, and exactly the same title 
is given to Columba'. More frequent is the identification of poet and 
brehon '. The druids and the physicians are also closely connected, 
and here too we find the compound ' faith-iiaig ', or prophet-leech '. 
Of druids as rath-builders something has already been said". We 
have also seen that something uncanny attached to the smith's art in 
popular fancy '. This is to some extent explained when vve find the 
smith closely associated with the druid. Patrick in his famous hymn 
prays against 'the spells of vvomen '", of smiths, and of druids'". 
Manannan is calied '- ' druid, artisan (cerd), and chapman '. Sithchenn, 
the smith of Tara, vvas 'a man of (magical) science, and a notable 
prophet' ". 
There is a famous character in Irish mythology, Gobban Saer, or 

1 C. S. c. 199 (5 18). 

' 'L'liglise tout en les anathematisant a toujours cru a 1'efEcacite de ces 
pratiques,' Bertrand. Religion, p. 404; cf. Ger. § 9. 

' Sce Caesar, B. G. vi. 13 : 'eorum . . . iudiciis parent.' 

* Rawl. B. 502, f. 72''. 5 R. c. XX. 140. 

" Amargen Gliinmar was ' rig-file 7 rig brithem ', i. e. royal poet and royal 
brehon, Mtsca Ulad, p. 2: cf. ' breth bertait brithemain 7 filid in chuicid ', 
i. e. the judgement which the brehons and poets of the province shall deliver, 
R. C. xiv. 430. The Irish tradition was that from the time of the above 
Amargen the judgements of Erin were in the hands of the poets until tlie 
incident of the • Colloquy of the two Sages ', i. e. Ferchertne and Nede, when 
the terms used by the two rivals were so obscure, that it was resolved that 
judgement should no longer be in the hands of the poets, Ir. Texte, iii. 186 ; 
Laws, i. 18. The Colloquy has been printed by Stokes, R. C. xxvi. 4 ff., and 
is certainly obscure enough. 

' Conchobar's court-physician was Fingin faithliaig, T. B. C. pp. 610, 729 ; 
he could tell from the smoke issuing from a house the diseases of the persons 
within, Oitte, p. 8 ; there was a faith-liaig in Munster, who with his pupils 
could tell from the groans of a wounded man the exact nature of his hurt, 
LL. 329** ( = Silva Gad. ii. 493). The faithliaig occurs frequently in the satirical 
tale Aislinge Meic Conglinne, where the editor, Prof. Kuno Mcyer, aptly quotes 
Plin. Nat. Hist. xxx. 4. 13 : ' Tiberii Caesaris principatus sustulit dritidas eorum, 
et hoc genus ttattttn ntediroriimqtte^ ; cf. the iajpo^xavTis of Aeschj'lus. Meyer 
also cites LL. 200" 2, where we have a man who is both brehon and faith-liaig. 
For the close connexion of medicine and magic, cf. Grimra, u. s., iii. 1150-a. 
According to Keating, i. 92, the druids were genealogists also. 

" Above, p. xcviii, note 4. * Above, p. xcviii. 

'** So in a poem attributed to Columba the poet includes women among the 
magic influences of which he niakes no account. Misc. I. A. S. i 6. 

" V. Tr. p. 50 ; L. H.^ i. 135. « R. C. xvi. 276. 

" ' Sithchenn gaba bai i Temraig ; ba fisid side 7 faidh amra,' R. C. xxiv. 194, 
196 ; ' every great smith was chiefly famous for his spells and divination,' Rhys, 
H. L. p. 317 ; Elder Faiths, i. 266-7, ''• '°7 '• Campbell, Superstitions, p. 246 ; 
and the very interesting remarks of Bertrand, La Gaule avant les Gaulois, 
pp. 336 fT., 313 ; for a combination of smith and leech see Martin, p. 183. 




Gobban the wright, to vvhom popular traditions assign many raths 
and buildings in Ireland'. He appears in our lives. In the Hfe of 
Maedoc he is christianized into a man whose hands were blessed by 
the saint, so that he became a skilful wright, and completed the 
church of Mochua, which the angels had begun -. In the life of 
Abban he is smitten with bhndness by the saints because of his 
excessive charges '. The namelcss 'famosus artifex ' of our hfe of 
Moling becomes ' Gobban Saer' in the Irish hfe^ There are several 
saints named Gobban in the Irish Calendars, one of whom, Gobban 
Finn, or the Fair, seems to have attracted some of the characteristics 
of the Celtic Vulcan. Angels are said to have dug the rampart of his 
church ° ; one of his churches was called Tech-da-gobha, i. e. house of 
the two smiths *. He is called hypocoristically Mogoppoc in a Ust of 
homonymous saints, where there is another saint called ' Mogopp6c 
artifex ', unless the epithet has got misplaced, and belongs in reality 
to Mogoppoc Finn '. 

Cathbad the Druid was also a famous warrior ', and Diodorus ' lays 
great stress on the influence of the druids in war. 

In the hfe of Gerald we seem to get a ghmpse of a druidic school 
or coUege ", and it is quite possible that some at least of the later 

' Petrie, Round Towers, pp. 348, 385, 404 ; Reeves, Eccl. Ant. p. 285. 

2 Maed. 5§ 46, 48. ' Ab. § 42. 

' Ir. Moling, § 34; cf. ib §§ 41, 46-50; and 0'Donovan, Supplement, s. v. 

'- Fel.2 p. 256. « Mart. Don., Dec. 6. 

' LL. 368^20, 23; cf. Christian Inscrlptions, ii. 23-4. For a reference to 
fiobban Saer in the secular literature, see R. C. xvi. 76-7. A kindred character 
is Goibniu, the magic smith of the Tuatha De Danann, on whom see Cormac, 
Glossary, p. 32 ; Transiation, p. 133 ; R. C. xii. 88 ; * fiss Goibncnn,' the t^magic) 
science of Goibniu, occurs in the obscure St. Gallen Incantation printed in 
Gramm. Celt.'^ p. 949. There were traditions of a magic feast of liis ; no one 
who partook of it ever suflfered pain or sickness afterwards, Acc. Sen. pp. 177, 
189, 327 ; Oide Clainne Lir, § 13 and note ; Rhys, H. L. pp. 90, 319. 388. The 
name of Goibniu is probably connected with Ir. goha, a sinith. Gobban may 
have been connectcd with it by folk-etymology ; but the double b or f> is ag.iinst 
a real connexion. One of the daugliters of the Dagda was ' I^rigit bc goibnechta, 
i. bande ', i. e. Brigit the woman of smithcraft, that is a goddcss. Cormac. p. 8 ; 
Transl. p. 23. On the contiiient St. Eligius or Kloi is thc hagioloi^ical Vulcan, 
Luzcl, Legendes Chretiennes, i. 94, 99 fi. See Addenda. 

" LL. 106" 9; R. C. vi. 174. Scathach, the military instructrcss of Cuchu- 
lainn. was also a ' faith ' or prophetcss, R. C. xi. 448. Compare the inllucnce 
of the German priests in war, Grimm, i. 90. 

^ u. s. p. clxi, note 4. 

'" ' famosus magus, qui multos sue artis habebat discipulos,' § 9 ; cf. Hy 
Fiachrach, p. 98 : ' Cnoc na n-druadh ainm ele don tulaigh sin, tre bheith do 
draoithibh Dathi righ Ercann innte ag faghail feasa 7 eoluis,' i. e. Druids' KnoU 
was another name of this hill, owing to the druids of King Dathi bcing there, 
acquiring scicnce and knowlcdgc {thcse two passages refer lo the samc locality) ; 
and we hear, not luifrequently, of the pupils of famous druids ; e. g. Cathbadi 
and Dil, Ir. T. i. 325 ; Kawl. B. 502, f. 72'' ; and thc forraer is represented as 
head ofa regular school, T. B. C. p. 131. 


schools and monasteries of Ireland were direct successors of these 
ancient diuidic institutions'. 

We have already seen how great was the influence of the druids 
at the court of Ulster •. We hear of an Irish druid in Wales who was 
also a ' satrapa ', and had an ' arx ' or rath of his own '. To this position 
the saints and the ecclcsiastics of the new faith largely succeeded. 
But thcy did not supplant their rivals all at once. For a time, at any 
rate, the two systems existed side by side ; there seems clear evidencc 
of the presence ot druids at the courts of Christian princes'; and 
it is evidently regarded as a mark of special virtue that a Christian 
chief refuses to consult druids^ But it was not only to the position 
of the druids at court that the clergy succeeded ; they succeeded also 
to their property. We have seen ' how the ciergy imitated the 
circuits and collections of dues made by their predecessors ; they 
seeni also to have taken their land ; the process probably being that 
when a chief was converted to Christianity he transferred the 
mensal lands of the ministers of the old religion to the ministers of 
the new religion. It is surely not vvithout significance that so 
many of the contests between saints and druids are stated to 
have had reference to the possession of land '. In the regulation 

' See Bertrand, Religion, Lefons xix, xx, ib. pp. 388-9. We find women 
cducated by druids, V. Tr. p. 92, 

' Above, p. clviii, note 6. 

' C. B. S. p. 124 ; on the political influence of the medicine man, cf. Lang, 
Myth and Ritual, i. iog-17 i^io8-i6'); Custom and Myth, pp. 236-8. 

* Ber. § 15 i^Aedan mac Gabrain, king of the Scottish Dalriada : * rex suum 
uocat ariolum ' ; in the Irish life the king has four druids, cf. Tr. Th. p. 416", 
§ 38^ ; Mochoem. | 13 1 the chief of Eile, who is clearly regarded as a Christian, 
has ' suus magus "t ; Moling, § 19 (Finnachta, King of Tara : • sui magi ad regem 
uenerunt ") ; cf. Magh Rath, p. 46, where the druid is called ' the king's bard 
and poet, a man of ^magical) science and a notable druid ' ; ib. p. 166, where it 
is said that the king of Ulster was imper\'ious to the advice alike of his druids 
and of his clergy, showing clearly that the author saw no impossibility in their 
co-exislence at the same court ; see also Petrie, Tara, p. 123 ; Oss. Soc. v. 58 note. 
On the replacement of the druidsby the clergy, cf. Bertrand, Religion, pp. 278 ff. : 
'les eveques ont remplace les druides,' &c. Perhaps it is due to this that the 
writer of Accallam na Senorach is doubtful whether a certain Gedech was a 
bishop or a druid : • Fert in druad, risa raiter Fert in Gedig issin tan so .i. Gedech 
espoc do muintir Patraic, . . . no dono Gedech drai Medba 7 Aililla,' i. e. the 
Druids Grave, now called Gedech's Grave : Gedech was a bishop in Patrick"s 
retinue, or it may be Gedech was a druid of Medb and Ailill, p. 216. Keating 
asserts that the king's confessor took the place of the court druid, ii. 342 ; cf. 
■ Todd's Patrick, pp. iiSfT. 

^' Ci. S. § 14. * Above, pp. c, note a ; cxxviii, note ri. 

' Ber. §13: ' magus uendicabat sibi ius hereditarium in terra, quam uir 
Dei . . . possederat'; in the Irish life, c. 23, the land is said to have been 
conferred on the druid-bard in reward for a eulogy composed on the chief; 
Ger. § 9 ' magus . . . uendicans sibi ius hereditarium in eadem terra '. Mochta 
founds his monastery of Louth on ' magorum possessio ', C. S. cc. 905-6. (The 
incident in Ci. C. § 25 may originally have been of this kind ; cf. also C. B. S. 


of ordeals also the clergy seem to have inherited the functions of the 

A stock mode of bringing about the conflict between the druids and 
the saint is for the druids to object to the fire kindled by the saint, 
on the ground that wherever the smoke of the fire goes, the power 
of the saint will extend. The classical instance is that of Patrick 
and the druids of King Locgaire ; but parallel instances occur in our 
lives and other authorities ^ It must not, however, be supposed that 
the issue of these conflicts is in any way represented as the triumph 
of spiritual over magical and material religion. Rather it is regarded, 
both by the populace and by the druids themselves, as the triumph 
of a more powerful kind of 'medicine' over an inferior species'; 
and it must be admitted that thc biblical story of the contests of 
Moses with the magicians of Egypt gave colour to this point of view. 

pp. 124-5.) In Colgan's Latin version of Magnus 0'Donneirs Life of Columba 
is a curious legend that when the saint first settled in lona the druids there 
tried to balk him by pretending to be Christian bishops, Tr. Th. p. 411" (§ 11). 
A druid voluntarily gives up his ' hereditas' to Brigit, ib. p. 541" (§ 123"). It is 
possible that in some cases the transference of property from the old to the new 
faith was eftected, not through a change of persons, but by the conversion of 
the 'sitting tenant' to Christianity. Instances of the conversion of druids are 
mentioned, V. Tr. pp. 102-4 ; Ger. § 9. 

1 In Ir. T. iii. 192 the ordeals by red-hot iron and by the water of incantation 
are expressly represented as druidical ; the lot, ib. p. 191, is worked by incanta- 
tion of the poets, which is nearly the same thing. The ordeal by fire is pro- 
posed, Mun. § 27 ; fire and water, V. Tr. p. 56 ; by boiling water, C. B. S. 
p. 192. The lot is the simplest kind of ordeal. The Cain Adamnain, § 46, 
prescribes that the names of the suspected parties are to be placed in a chalice 
on the altar, and the one on whom the lot falls is the guilty one. When the 
opponents of the Celtic tonsure gave it a druidical origin they were probably 
quite coriect, though when they traced it further up to Simon Magus thcy were 
on more doubtful ground, V. Tr. p. 509 ; Rhys, Celtic Britain-, pp. 73-5. 

^ V. Tr. p. 42 ; Ger. § 9 ; Las. § 14 note (= Silva Gad. i. 25) ; C. S. c. go6, 
§ 5 (cf. ib. c. 801) ; C. B. S. p. 124 (cl. ib. p. 9, where this omen is interpreted 
by a Christian chief in a friendly sense). For a secular parallel see R. C. 
XV. 297. Perhaps, as suggested by Messrs. Baring-Gould and Fisher, Brit. 
Saints, i. 323, the rcal objection was that lighting a fire symbolized a formal 
settlement and taking possession. The mude by which the earliest Norse 
settlers in Iceland took possession was ' fara eldi um land ', to fare with fire 
round the land, Landnama, iii. 6, v. i. 3. One curious dcvice which the druids 
and hostilc princes are reprcsented as adopting against the newcomers, in 
order to drive them avvay, was that of seiiding abandoned women to annoy 
them with thcir impudent gesturcs and behaviour, C. B. S. pp. 124-5 ! L. Land. 
p. 95 (100) ; Book of Fenagh, pp. 114 ff., 128 (here there is a confusion between 
drnitlw, shamclcss women, and druids) : to this there are analogies in the secular 
literature, T. B. C. pp. 166-7 ( = LL. 67'' 35 ff.) ; R. C. xiv. 4 18 i^ = LL. 1 10" 30 ff.) ; 
LL. 119" 2 ff.; Mesca Ulad, p. 53 ( = LU. 20'' 11 ff.) ; cf. Ruad. § 8 note; Rhys, 
A. L. pp. 179-82. 

^ A striking instance from New Zealand is quoted by Lang, Myth and, 
ii. 56 (32). Thc destruction of magical properties, Acts xix. 19, is, as Harnack 
says, an incident with fevv parallcls, Mission, p. 211 note. 


Indeed many of the accounts of Patrick's conflicts with the druids ' 
have evidcntly been influenced by the narrative of Genesis. Many 
instances of the druids being beaten by the saints at their own 
thaumaturgic weapons occur in our hves and elsewhere". Hence 
the saints are regarded as druids, and their miracles are ascribed 
to magic ^. When Columba contending against the enchanted mist 
is represented as saying ' my druid who will not betray me is the 
Son of God ' ' the phrase may be understood metaphorically '^, but 
there were plenty who would have accepted the phrase quite 
literally '. 

We have already seen instances of practices which the saints 
exercised, or were believed to exercise, in succession to the druids. 
Some others may be mentioned here. Like medicine men in all ages 
they were expected to detect ' and punish crime. As regards punish- 
ment, one of the commonest forms is that the criminals remain 

' V. Tr. pp. 44, 54-60, 92, 130, 138 ; cf. L. H.' i. 105 ; Acc. Sen. p. 42. 

' Aed, § 20; Car. §§ 21, 66 ; Las. 5 17; C. S. cc. 753-5 ; L. S. pp. 68-9 ; 
Adamn. ii. 11, 32, 34 ; Br. Mac Creiche, c. 12 ; C. B. S. p. 98 ; cf. Lang, Myth 
and Ritual, i. gi, 112 (^89, iii); Grimm, iv. 1281. And these contests of the 
druids with the saints were but a counterpart of the contests which rival druids, 
or the druids of rival tribes, had with one another, Cbir Anm. No. 76 ; 0'Curry, 
M. and C. ii. 11, 189 f., 213, 278, 280; Elder Faiths, ii. 108. Columba discomfits 
thc magi by chanting Ps. xMv i,xlv) ; Patrick hisenemics, afler the defeat of the 
magi, by chanting Ps. Ixvii (Ixviii), Adamn. ii. 37 ad fin. ; V. Tr. p. 44. 

^ Coem. § 47 ; Enda, §15; C. S. c. 801, § 3; Capg. i. 443, ii. 115, 202, 287. 
It is interesting to find that the part which the life of Moling, § 19. assigns to 
Finnachta's druids of explaining to the king the deception practised on him 
by Moling as to the remission of the Borr6ma is in the secular tract Borrdma 
ascribed to a saint, Adamnan, R. C. xiii. iio; cf. Pagan Ireland, p. 303. The 
charge of magic was often brought against the early Christians : ' cji lacobus : 
'■ Nazarenus sum." Et ille : " ergo magjis es ",' Aur. Leg. p. 800. 

* ' Sluagh doching i timchill chairnn 

Is mac ainbthe notus mairn ; 
Is e mo drai nim mera 
Mac De, as lium congena.' 
i.e. A host that raarches round a cairn, it is a son of storm that betrays them ; 
this is my druid who will not betray me, the Son of God, He will take my side, 
R. C. xvii. 143 (Stokes divides ' nimm era ', from ' eraim ', to refuse ; but ' mera ' 
is clearly related to the ' mairn ' which precedes ; cf. * nit merad .i. nit mairnfed *, 
T. B. C. p. 133 (= LL. 64'' 25"i. The same expression occurs in a poem attri- 
buted to Columba, Misc. I. A. S. i. 6, where also there is a contrast with the 
false druidism of the heathen. 

' As Clement of Alexandria calls the Logos 07105 i-naSo^, Paedag. i. a. 6, cited 
by Harnack, Mission, p. 82. 

' Cf. Harnack, Mission, pp. 97, 104 ; Grimm, iv. 1614. In many of Luzers 
Legendes Chretiennes de la Basse Bretagne, our Lord is introduced simply in 
the character of a travelMng magician ; cf. Outer Isles, pp. 214 (T. In Acc. Sen. 
p. 72 Cailte addresses Finn as * ar m-breithem, ar n-druth, ar n-driii ', i. e. our 
brehon, our jester, our druid. These last two words are often confused in MSS., 
and indeed in some of their cases they come very near each other ; an example 
has already been given, p. clxvi, note a. 

' Ita, §j 27, 34. 


immovable in the act of committing tlie crime, until tlicy confess 
and receive release and absolution from the saint ' ; or the instru- 
ments with which they are perpetrating their crime cleave to their 
bodies ; thiis a bar adheres to the shoulders, an axe to the hands 
of those who are using them''. Clothes adhere to the feet of women 
who are washing them against the saint's protest '. A treacherous 
host, bribed by a cauldron, betrayed Patrick to his pursuers ; the 
hands of the traitor and of all his family clave to the cauldron, till 
Patrick released them *. Another frequent punishment is that the 
criminals wander fruitlessly round and round, often returning uncon- 
sciously to the scenes of their misdeeds ^ I believe, however, that 
these stories owe their origin not to popular tradition, but to a fanciful 
interpretation of a verse of scripture ^ Often the misdoer is 
swallowed by the earth', or is turned into stone*. 

1 Ab. §§ 37, 41 ; Aed, §§ 12, 21 ; Ber. § 14 ; Cain. § 5 ; Car. § 27 ; Ci. C. § 7 ; 
Col. E. §§ 13, 14 ; Com. § 51 ; Cron. § 15 ; Enda, § 4 ; Ger. § 9 ; Las. § 14 ; 
Maed. § 13; Mochoem. § 16; Mun. §§ 22, 23; Rua. § 15 ad finem ; C. S. 
cc. 2o6-7 (§§ 30, 31), c. 279 (§ 44, not in M), c. 389 (§ 55, not in M), c. 669 
(§ 27\ c. 801 (§ 3", ; Silva Gad. i. 30; V. Tr. p. iio; Z. C. P. v. 84 ; Tr. Th. 
P. 538" (§ 88); C. B. S. pp. 31, 133; Capg. ii. 319, 570; St. Malo. p. 86; 
L. Land. p. 128 1136"). Some of these stories have probably been influenced by 
I Kings xiii. 4-6 ; Zech. xi. 16. In Rennes MS. f. 87'' Colman offers to his 
friends either to bring mist over the eyes of their enemies, or to bind their 
hands. The latter is chosen. In Lug. § 4 the arrest of the threatening hand 
is ascribed to an angel. In Capg. ii. 317 one saint fixes anotlier saint in this 
way. Soil from the magical Inis Tuile [? Thule] caused tlie hands and feet of 
those vvho trod on it to adhere to the ground, Oss. Soc. iii. 188. This class of 
miracle also occurs in non-Cellic lives of saints. e. g. Capg. i. 14 ; Aur. Leg. 
pp. 18,42, &c. Animals are also struck motionless, Lug. § 4; ci'. the stories 
of calves separated tVom their mothers, and animals saved from hunters, above, 
pp. xcvi, note 9, cxli. 

^ Ab. § 33 ; Col. E. § 12. 

^ Maed. § 27 ; cf. Capg. i. 190 ; Grimm, iv. 1349. 

* L. S. p. 6 ; V. Tr. p. 22 ; there is an intcresting parallel to this in the 
Mabinogion, ed. Rhjs and Evans. pp. 50-1 ; ed. Guest, iii. 150-1, 171-3. 

' Br. i. § loi ; Coem. § 26; Com. § 17; C. S. c. 179 (§ 24"!, c. 911 (§ 15); 
C. B. S. pp. 177-8 ; cf. Magh Ratli, p. 234 ; Campbell, Superstitions, p. 25. 

* Ps. xi. (xii.) 9 : ' in circuitu impii ambulant ' ; cf. Bo. §11;' tmpii . . . recto 
itinere ire putantes, tota noctu in circitittt monasterii atnbulabatii ' ; Cain. § 37 : 
' illi . . . noM potuerunt transire, sed per circitiliim . . . anibiilabaiit ; ' Br. i. § loi. 

' Bo. § 21 ; Dec. § 32 ; C. S. c. 796 (§ 11'), c. 833 (§ 15); V. Tr. pp. 36, 130, 242 ; 
L.S. pp. 9, 139 (cf. ib. p. xxviii); C. B. S. pp. 43, 46, 160, 176-7, 193; Rennes MS. 
f. 84''; Br. Grellan, c. 4. The biblical parallel of Dathan and Abiram is often 
cited in these stories, and niay have inHuenced them ; but the same povvcr is 
attributed to the druids, 0'Curry, M. and C. ii. 217. Stories of criminals 
melting like wax, C. B. S. pp. 173, 201; cf. L. Land. p. 109 (116"), havc 
probably grovifn out of Ps. Ixvii. (Ixviii.) 3 : ' sicut fluit cera a facie ignis, sic 
pereant peccatores a facie Dei.' Thieves trying to cross a river find it boiling 
hot, Capg. ii. 200. 

8 Decl. §§ 32, 36; C. S. c. 673; B. Fenagh. p. 116; Colgan, A. S. p. 138" 
(§ 40); C. B. S. p. 178; ef. ib. p. 64, vvherc the criminals are vvolves. This 
punishment occurs frequently in foik-tales, cf. Martin, p. 9 ; and the curious 
tradition in 0'Donovan's Supplemcnt, s.v. laimscch ruad. 


Another magical power which is constantly attributed to the saints 
is that of causing ocular illusion, glamour, or sight-shifting'. Thus 
laymen appear as clerks ' and a man as a woman carrying an infant ', 
and so are passed by their enemies. A man or a horse is talten 
for a log of wood *. A standing stone is attaclved under the idea that 
it is a man'"; soldiers slay one another, each man thinking that he is 
aiming at St. Moling". Misdoers flee at the approach of fancied 
enemies', or because their own homes appear on fire", or because 
their opponents seem to be three times as numerous as they really 
are '. Invaders think that thcy are burning and slaughtering ; in 
reality they are doing no harm, and the severed heads which they 
seem to be carrying off by the hair turn out to be lumps of rotten 
wood, or sods of earth with grass growing from them '". A prisoner 
who in fact has escaped is thought by his captors to be still 
in their hands, or even to have been put to death by them ". 
Analogous to this is the case of a favourite youth who seemed to be 
present witheach of threebodies of monks whodesired his company '^ 

' This form of magic plays a considerable part in the Icelandic sagas, and is 
called * sjonhverfing ', lit. sight-turning; this has suggested to me the term 
' sight-shilling ' as a convenient correlalive to the accepted term * shape- 
shifting ', the former being conceived of as a subjective delusion, the latter as 
an objectivc fact. The tvvo are sometimes confused, e. g. Ail. § 31 and note ; 
C. S. c. 279 ^§ 44"). That it was regarded as a malignant power is shown by 
the fact that it is produced in some cases by demoniac, Br. i. § 70, and druidic, 
agency, Cain. § 11 : C. S. c. 353 ^§ 39, not in M) ; Adamn. ii. 17 ; and that it 
was one of the charges against Kentigern's mother that she ' visus immutat, et 
sensus alienat ', N. and K. p. 167 ; cl. also V. Tr. p. 300. In a Latin life of 
Patrick sight-shilting is learnedly called ' illud genus caecitatis . . . quam 
Acrisiam nuncupant Phisici ', Tr. Th. p. 104''. 

* Col. E. § 23 ; cf. R. C. xxiv. 56. 

* ' andar leo ba banscal he, 7 naeidi for a muin,' i, e. it seemed to them that 
he was a woman, with an infant on her back, Rennes MS. f. 88". 

* Coem. § 13 ; Rennes MS. f. 87°. 

' Br. i. § 6; Ci. C. § 31 note ; Three Fragments, p. 196 ; Magh Lena, pp. 30-4. 
These things occur even in grave Chronicles; cf. Ann. Ult. 1167, where the 
Cinel Eogain mistake a brake of sallows for their enemies. Ajax slaughtering 
the defenceless herds under the idea that he is slaying his enemies is a classical 
instance of sight-shifting. 

' Ir. Moling, § 70. 

' Maed. § 51 ; C. S. cc. 792-3 (S§ 3, 5) ; cf. R. C. xii. 92, xv. 446. 

" Fin. C. § 16 note. 

' 'dobersa taidbsi tri cath fort,' i. e. I will put the appearance of three bat- 
talions upon thee, Rennes MS. {. 87''. Of Manannan mac Lir it is said : ' if he 
dreaded an enemy, he would of one man cause to seem one hundred, and that 
by art magic,' lar-Connaught, p. 263. 

>» Ail. § 31 ; Cron. § i8 ; Tig. § 10 ; C. S. c. 379 (§ 44) ; Tr. Th. pp. 521» (§ 23), 
534 (§ 67) ; cf. R. C. xxiii. 413-16. 

" Sam. § 12 ; Tr. Th. p. 535« (§ 68). 

*' Lug. § 18 and notes ; so Bran, the famous hound of Finn mac Cumaill, ' was 
seen as three dogs, intercepting the deer at three passes,' Campbell, Supersti- 
tions, p. 31. For sight-shifting on the part of animals see Maed. §§ 7, 33 ; the 


So when rival clans were in danger of coming to blows for the 
possession of a sainfs body, a car drawn by oxen bearing the 
precious burden appeared to be accompanying each of the contend- 
ing parties, and thus bloodshed was prevented '. Lastly Bishop 
Bron and his company on their way to Kildare are lost at night- 
fall in a wood. But it seemed to them they had reached their destina- 
tion and were received by Brigit and her maidens with all goodly 
hospitality. In the morning they awoke to find themselves in the wood, 
and the real Brigit came with herattendants to lead themto Kildare''. 

Again serpents ' and vermin * of various kinds are expelled by 
saints, as magicians charm away lice '', or Irish poets were believed 
to rhyme rats to death '. 

Many of the prophecies ascribed to saints have a striking analogy 
with the phenomena of second sight ; foreknowledge of the coming 
of guests', the knowledge of events taking place at a distance, such 
as the danger or death of friends, the movements of travellers, the 

stories alrcady cited in which wolves, &c., act as calves to bereaved cows 
probably rest on the same idea. 

' Ab. §52 ; Enda, § 11 ; V. Tr. p. 256; Breuiarium Aberdon., Pars Hiem., 
Propr. Sanct., f. Ixiv. r** ; the writer modestly calls this 'res non frequenter 
audita '; R. C. v. 457. In one case no less than three corpses wcre thus pro- 
vided. But subsequent miracles showed that Llandaff had secured the genuine 
article, L. Land. p. iio (117). 

^ This resemblcs the common folk-tale motive of a party lost at night-fall 
coming on a house, not known to have existed there before, and being sumptu- 
ously entertained ; in the morning the house has vanished, and they find that 
they have becn sleeping on the ground, Ir. T. i. 137-8; iii. 318-23; R. C. vii. 
2960"., ix. 486, 492 ; cf. Capg. ii. 451. An amusing case of sight-shifting is in 
Aur. Leg. p. 48, which has been borrowed by Hrotswith, the learned nun of 
Gandersheim, in one of hcr Terentian comedies, Ker, Dark Ages, p. 180. 

' The classical instance is, of course, Patrick expclling scrpents and other 
reptiles from Ireland ; cf. Tr. Th. p. 102. But Columba did the like for lona, 
Adamn. ii. 28, iii. 23 ad init. ; cf. Capg. ii. 563 ; Bede, H. E. i. i and notes ; 
Keating, ii. 18 ; Martin, p. 161. 

■■ Br. i. § 79 ; Colgan, A. S. p. 138» (§ 39, fleas) ; C. S. c. 193 (5 7, sparrows, 
serpents, and fleas) ; Gir. Camlj. Opp. v. 120 ,,rats) ; Cain. § 24 i^mice). Giraldus 
says that in Ircland therc were ' mures infinitissimi ', 3'ct thcy would not livc in 
Aran, u. s. pp. 61, 84 ; certain of the Hebridcs had the samc peculiarity, Martin, 
PP. 50, 380 ; while cats will not live in others, ib. p. 381 ; cf. Lang, Myth and 
Ritual, ii. 222 (,201) ; Grimm. iii. 1129, iv. 1784, 1826. 

'^ Grimm citcs the trial of a family of magicians who were supposed to have 
an hereditary power of doing this, iii. 1068. 

" See Proc. R. I. A. v. 355 ff. ; Oss. Soc. v. 76-7 ; 0'Curry, M. and C. ii. 87-8 ; 
Campbell, Supcrstitions, pp. 225-6. 

' Ba. § 14 ; Cain. § 23 ; Coem. §§ 30, 36 ; Decl. § 34 (attributed to angelic 
revelation) ; Enda, § 10 ; Fin. C. § 27 ; Fint. §§ 2, 12 ; Ita, §§ 20, 24, 31, 35 ; 
Moling, § 27 ^in tliis case the guests werc animals) ; Rua. § 29 ad finem ; Tig. 
§ 2 ; V. Tr. p. 98 ; cf. Ci. C. § 29. According to the Amra, this knowlcdge never 
failed Columba, ' ni doficed sede nach n-dam ccn a remfhis', i. e. no company 
evcr rcachcd him without hisforcknowing, R. C. XX. 140; cf. xxix. 120. Martin, 
on landing in Rona, was assured by thc nalivcs that they had * had frequent 
apparitions of your person ', Western Isles, p. 20. 


outbreak of war, or the perpetration of crime', the prevision of 
a man's destiny ', of the dcath which threatens him', his place of 
burial ', ivnowledge of his hiddcn quality ", of his guilt or innocence ^ 
Alcin to this' are cases in which the actual faculty of vision is 
magically or miraculously extended '. This power also is transferred 
by the saint to others by physical contact '. Sometimes the vvhole 
world is seen spread out before the seer '". The faculty of hearing, 

' Br. i. § 104; Cain. §§ 10, 44; Coem. § 14; Col. E. § 27; Com. § 30; 
Fint. §§ 8, 12 ; Ita, § 34 ; Maed. § 42 (an exaet parallel to this in Gregory's 
Dialogues, iii. 14) ; Mun. § 12 ; Capg. i. 215 (represented as a dream) ; Tr. 
Th. p. 535* (§ 71) ; Adamn. i. 7, 12, 22, 28, 29; Br. Grellan, c. 4. 

- Col. E. § 19; Fint. § 10; Maed. § 34; Mun. § 12; cf. ib. § s.where theprophetic 
sight is accompanied by a genera! ecstatic state. In other cases the person's 
future destiny or past actions are divined Irom the sound of his voice, Cain. § 41 ; 
Ci. C. § 26 ; Col. E. § 8 ; Enda, § 2 ; Fint. §§ 13, 14 ; cf. Br. Coemgen, c. 12 : ' ro 
athain for a ghuth 7 for a dheilb go n-derna drochgniomh,' i. e. he knew by his 
voice and form that he had committed a crime. I cannot give anye-xact parallel 
from the secular literature ; cf. Ir. T. i. 300 for a slight analogy. 

' Col. E. § lo ; Com. § 30 ; Cron. § ii ; Fin. C. § g ; Fint. §§ 9, 17 ad fin. ; Ita, 
§§ la, 32 ; Maed. §§ 13, 36 ; Mochoem. §§ 17, 26 ; Adamn. i. 21 ; Fel.* p. 116. 

* Car. § 30 ; Lug. § 37. 

' Ita, § 24 ; Adamn. i. 44. Akin to this are cases in which the names of per- 
sons never seen before are intuitively known, Br. i. §§ 13, 61 ; ii. §§ 49, 55 ; 
a secular parallel, R. C. i.x. 490. 

' Ita, § 27. Parallels to almost all these instances may be found in the cases 
of second sight coUected by Martin, pp. 300-35 ; cf. Outer Isles, ch. 15. The 
faculty is shared by animals, Martin, pp. 306-7 ; Outer Isles, p. 105 ; it can be 
transferred to another by physical contact, ib. p. 70; Martin, p. 305. A phan- 
tasm of the dying, C. S. c. 106 (§ 8). 

' Indeed, it is sometimes difficult to draw the line between them ; e. g. Z. C. P. 
iii. 248. 

' Maed. § 30 ; C. B. S. p. 1 19 ; Br. Berach, c. 30 ; in Bcr. § 25 this is a vision 
seen in sleep ; in Fech. § 12 in ecstasy. 

" How thoroughly consonant this is with the traditions of secular folk-lore may 
be seen from the foUowing comparisons ; in Rhys' Celtic Folk-Iore, i. 230, is a 
story of how a man, by standing on a fairy's foot, is enabled to see the fairy 
mansion beneath theground (cf. Macculloch, Childhood, p. 315). So Aengus mac 
Nadfraich, by laying his face on Enda's feet, is enabled, by the elevation of the 
ground (a semirationalizing touch which is not in the parallel version, Ail. § 25), 
to see the isle of Aran, though many miles away, Enda, § 13. (Even closer 
parallels in Capg. i. loi [— Sim. Dun. i. 298], ii. 413 ; but these are non-Celtic.) 
So the sight of the future world is given by contact with the saint, Z. C. P. iv. 
308. Other knowledge is also conveyed by contact, as in the pretty story of the 
little boy who resorted to Aengus, the author of the Felire, to help him to learn 
his psalms : ' " Come here," said Aengus, '* and put thy head on my knee, and 
go to sleep." He did so ; and the boy arose afterwards ; and Aengus said : 
'•repeat thy lesson, my son." The boy repeats more than the i^appointed) 
lesson,' Fel.^ p. la. In a story given in Rhys, u. s. i. 170-1, the magic sight is 
conditioned by standing on a sod from St. David's churchyard. For the miracu- 
lous elevation of ground to suit the saint's convenience cf. Cain. § 39 ; V. Tr. 
p. 93 ; L. S. p. 143 ; L. H.- i. 5 ; C. B. S. pp. 112-13, 139 (here the elevation 
is caused by the saint standing on the ' sudarium ' of a youth whom he had 
raised from the dead) ; St. Malo, p. 39 ; N. and K. p. 217. 

'" Maed. § 52 ; Adamn. i. 1 ad finem, i. 43 sub finem ; Capg. ii. 311 ; Gregory, 
Dial. ii. 35. Our Lord's temptation on the Mount has probably had influence 
here, Luke iv. 5 ; cf. Grimm, i. 136. 


or the carrying power of the voice, is similarly extended by 
a miracle '. 

Yet more curious are the cases in vvhich the saint causes the souls 
of men to go forth from their bodies in sleep, and visit distant scenes'. 
That the soul in sleep goes forth from the body is a verj' primitive 
behef; and hence comes the idea that it is dangerous to wake 
a sleeping man suddenly ', not only lest the souFs travels and acquisi- 
tion of knowledge should be interrupted *, but also lest the absent 
soul should be unable to find its way back to the body \ Sleep of 
a supernatural character is causcd in various ways, sometimes by the 
saint's prayer ', or by his breath ', sometimes by liquor that has been 
blessed by him ', sometimes by drinking of a charmed fountain ', 
sometimes by music '". 

' Ab. § 31 ; Br. i. § 5 note ; Cain. § 13 ; Car. § 41 ; Coera. § 43 ; Mun. §§ 21, 
26 ; Sam. § 23 ; C. S. cc. 917, 920 (§§ 4, 13) ; R. C. -xx. 176 ; Adamn. i. 37 ; 
L. S. pp. 25, 102. For a secular parallel see Ir. T. II. ii. 125. 

^ Com. § 42 ; the most interesting case of this is in C. S. c. 310, § 16 : ' rogauit 
populus Finanum ut e.\irent uidere agonem. Quibus ait : " Maneant corpora 
uestra iuxta me, et exeant anime uestre ". . . . Dormientibus . . . illis iuxta 
sanctum, exierunt anime eorum ad stagnum longe, ubi uidcrunt agonem ; . . . 
et reuerse sunt . . . ante uesperum anime ad corpora sua, et narrauerunt omnia 
que facta fuerant in agone, sicut erant." In the M text, Fin. C. § 13, this has 
been toned down to a vision seen in sleep ; cf. Ber. § 25 ; Forbes, Calendars, 
p. 347, from A. S. March, ii. 439. 

^ This idea occurs constantly in the Icelandic sagas. Restlessness in sieep 
(lata illa i svefni) showed that the soul was undergoing special experiences, and 
made any premature awakening exceptionally dangerous, Njala, c. 62 ; Flatey- 
jarbbk, ii. 216. So in Irish : 'arigsitar Ulaid anisin, 7 asbertatar ara n-duscide. 
*' Acc,*' ol Fergus, " nachin gluasid, res atchi," ' i.e. the Ultonians noticed this, 
and .said that he ought to be awaltened. ' No,' said Fergus, ' do not disturb 
him, he is seeing a vision,' Ir. T. i. 208; cf. Z. C. P. iii. 6. 

' This idea appears Bo. § 3 ; cf. Aur. Leg. pp. 446, 749. In Tr. Th. pp. 538-9 
(§ 91) the sainfs soul goes forth not in sleep, but in an ecstatic state. 

^ 'aithnit dia muinteraib nar foghiaister na cuirp. air dia n-gluaister, ni thic- 
fadsum chucu semper,' i. e. they enjoin their attendants not to move their 
bodies, for it' thcy were moved they would never come back to them again, Ir. 
Nenn. p. 204. In this case the souls, while abscnt, became werewolves ; cf. Gir. 
Camb. Opp. v. 101-6; Grimm, ii. 829, iii. 1083 : Lyall, Asiatic Studies, ii. 164. 
A charge of being a werewolf was brought against a Breton saint, Ronan : 
' Ronanum . . . aliquando conuerti in lupum, et non solum caedem exercere 
pecorum, uerum etiam filiorum liominum,' R. C. xi. 243 ; but no Celtic saint is 
actually represented as a shape-shitter, so far as I am aware ; this was too 
heathen an art to be attcibuted to aChristian ; cf Ir. T. iii. 235 : ' suithi gennt- 
lechta la cechtar de, ... 7 nus delbdais in ccch richt,' i. e. they both had the 
learning of gentilism, and could shift into any shape. The druids practised this 
art, LU. 54'' 36 (T. Saints, however, change criminals into animal shapes as 
a punishment, V. Tr. p. 248 ad calcem ; L. S. p. xiii. 

' Capg. ii. 202. ' Ail. § 38. 

' Lug. § 10 ; cf. R. C. ix. 486, xi. 448, for secular parallels ; this was the 
result of a spell : ' do chuirsi bricht suain forsin fin,' i. e. she put a sleep-spell 
011 the wine, R. C. xxiii. 420. 

' Br. i. §§ 28, 36, ii. § 29; Rua. § 14 nole ( = C. S. c. 324). 

'" Br. i. § 69; Ci. S. § 14 ; C. S. c. 446 (,§ 3, twoangels in theformof swans} ; 


Another druidic function which the Celtic saints inherited only too 
completely was that of malediction '. The most notable instance in 
our lives is th,e great cursing match between Ruadan and king 
Diarmait', which ended in the desoiation of Tara'. There is 
a similar contcst on a smaller scale in the Irish life of Cranatan'; 
and a very striking secular parallel in the cursing of Emain Macha', 
the seat of Ulster royalty, by the druid Cathbad, on account of the 
murder of the sons of Uisnech ". But there are many other instances 
of saintly curses'. It seems to be regarded as extraordinary self- 
restraint if a saint does not exercise his maledictory powers on 
the slightest provocation*. The practice is expressly defended in 
the Irish canons' by the examples of St. Peter'", of St. Paul ", and 
of St. Thomas in his apocryphal Acts ". The left hand was held 
up in cursing, whereas the right was the hand of blessing ". Finan 
gives his own tribe holy water to drink for the cursing of their 
enemies '*. In the ofl-cited life of Colman mac Luachain is a very 
curious instance of a curse by which the members of the person 
cursed are distributed among the various saints of Ireland""'. Comic 
curscs somewhat of this kind have descended to the present day 
in children's games in Ireland '". By judicious interposition a curse 

V. Tr. p. 254 (angelsV In the Br. Mac Creiche, c. 14, an anfel's song sends a 
' peist ' to sleep. This sleep-inducing music is very common in the secular 
literature, Acc. Sen. pp. 13, 98, 280 : Ir. T. iii. 197 ; R. C. ix. 488. It is caused 
by the snng of birds, R. C. xvi. 39 ; M. and C. ii. 276 ; especially of shape-shifted 
birds, Ir. T. i. 207 ; R. C. xiii. 10 ; Oide Clainne Lir, § 20 ; by the song of mer- 
maids, R. C. xv. 433, xvi. 31 ; by the shaking of the mieb iida, or branch of 
peace, LL. 1 1 1" 45 ( = R. C. xiv. 426), 177'' 15 ; Ir. T. iii. 193 ; Bran, i. 3 ; Oss. 
Soc. iii. 212 ; M. and C. iii. 313 ff. Its technical name is ' suantraige ', or sleep- 
strain, LL. 269** 11 ; the other two kinds of magic music being 'gentraige', 
laughter-strain. and ' goltraige', weeping-strain. On these three see LL. 249" 
i7ff. (= Tain Bd Fraich, pp. 140-2), 288'' 14 ff. ' = Silva Gad. i. 311"); R. C. vi. 
183, xii. 80, 108 ; M. and C. iii. 223 ; cf. Rhys, H. L. p. 606 ; Macculloch, Child- 
hood, p. 31. On the fondness of Irish saints for music see Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 
155. He says that Coemgen's harp was preserved as a relic. 

' Bertrand, Religion, p. 260 ; British Saints, i. 13-17 : cf. Bede, ii. 260. 

' Rua. 5 17; Cuimin of Connor says, quite truly, ' Ruadan loved cursing/ 
and hc tiieans it as a compiiment, Z. C. P. i. 66. 

■' Magh Rath, p, 4. * Br. Cranatan, c. 2. 

■■^ Navan Fort, near Armagh. ° Trans. Gaelic Soc. i, iv. 130 ff. 

' Ab. f- 37: Er. i. § 80; Car. § 58; Fech. § 6 note ; Br. Colman Ela, c. 4 ; 
Renncs MS. f 88'' ; C. B, S. pp, 15, 16, 18, 29, 39, 63, 184-6 (we have a collec- 
tive curse by the whole monastic community, ib, p. 132) ; cf. M^gh Rath, 
pp. 18, 28, 232, 270, 

' Ab, 5 1 1 ai1 finem ; Decl, § 19 ; cf. Ba. § 15 ; Bo. § 4, a very curious passage. 

' Wasserschleben, pp. 88-91, '" Acts v, 3-10. " i Cor. v. 5. 

'" = Aur. Leg. p. 33. ^' Decl, § 36 ; Fel,- p. 200 ; V. Tr. p. 326. 

" Fin. C. § 16 note, from the S text ; toned down in the other versions. 

'5 Rennes MS, f. 87 v°, 

" Oss. Soc. v. 107 note ; cf. Campbell, Superstitions, p. 133. 


is transferred to inanimate objects, a stone, or a tree'. Sometimcs 
the imprecation is that the hand or arm with which the evil deed 
was done may fall off^ Sometimes the curse takes the form that 
the persons cursed, or their descendants or successors, shall always 
do or suffer what they are doing or suffering at the time of pronoun- 
cing the curse '. Thus the descendants of nine robbers are never to 
exceed nine *. Conversely, as a blessing, the Ciarraighe were never 
to have less than the numbers in which they went to meet Mac 
Creiche^ Curses and blessings which thus descend from generation 
to generation are called ' facbala ', the leavings or bequests of the 
saint. They occur most frequently in the Irish lives^ The life of 
Mac Creiche is full of thcm, and they formed matters of hard bargain- 
ing between the saint and his admirers. The annalists record the 
supposed fulfilment of a curse through many generations '. Curses 
and blessings are given from a height, in order that they may fall 
with full effect on the objects at which they are aimed*. The curses 
and blessings of rival saints sometimes came into awkward conflict". 

And so the new creed inherited not merely the material, but also 
a good deal of the spiritual, properties of the old ; and the saint 
was regarded as a superior kind of medicine man, with his bachall, 
or pastoral staff, and bell as the chief instruments of his art •". The 

' Maed. 5 35 ; C. S. c. 874 (§ 6^1 ; V. Tr. p. 218 : Elder Faitlis, i. 275 ; cf. 
Magh Lena, p. 120 ; Elder Faiths, ii. 57-8 ; Campbell, u. s., p. 19 ; Outer Isles, 
p. 235. Transference to an animal, as in the scape-goat and Hdt. ii. 39, does not 
occur in the lives ; cf. , however, LU. 54*^. Diseases are transferred to other 
persons, Aed, § 13 ; Fel.'' p. 44 ; cf. Capg. i. 472; or to inanimate objects. L. S. 
pp. 143-4 ; Colgan, A. S. p. 147'' (§ 17 = Stowe MS. ix. pp. 51-2) ; cf. Elder 
Faiths, ii 50, 95 ; Campbcll, u. s., p. 238. So the dangers of one saint are 
undertaken by another, Las. | 20. 

2 Col. E. § 2 ; Maed. § 43; Mochoem. § 18; V. Tr. p. 162; L. S. p. 77; 
Adamn. i. 36 sub finem (cf. with this Ail. § 14 note). Dr. Reeves suggests 
that Job xxxi. 22 may havc suggested the idea. f"or some curious matter as to 
the use of the Psahns for purposes of malediction see Hib. Min. pp. 44-6 ; 
Three Fragments, pp. 78 S. = LL. 307". Both these documents have to do 
with Adamnan. 

3 e. g. Car. §§ 32, 45, 55 ; Maed. §§ 18, 23: Fel.= pp. 146, 198. 

* Ger. § 11; so Br. Adamnan, c. 9, in Anccdota, ii. 16; Martin, p. 264; 
Outer Isles, p. 58. 

^' Br. Mac Creiche, c. T7. 

^ e. g. Ir. Mohng, §§ 28, 30, 33 ; a curious instance in C. B. S. p. 43. 

' F. M. ii. 1096. 

* Ber. § 10 ; Lug. § 50 note ; L.S. p. 55 ; Br. Berach, c. 23 ' tficcbaidh mii . . . 
go mulLich an tsleiphe, go iiaicer uaim ferann Beraigh, co ro mallachar e ', said 
by a dying druid, i.e. 'carry me to the top of the hill that I may sec thc territory 
of Berach, aiiti cnise it' ; cf. Balaam, Num. xxii. 41, xxiii. 13, 27. But it is not 
only saints and druids who exercise this maletiictory power. In the great cursing 
scene, Rua. § 17, it is evidently assumed that the l<ing's curses arc as certain of 
fulfilment as those of the saint. For otlier prophecies by secular pcrsons cf. 
Fcch. § 15 ; Ita, § 9 ; Maed. § 4 ; Lug. § 27 ; C. S. c. 374 l^§ 35). 

" Mochoem. § 30. 

^" ' Bockr Irskar ok bjullur ok baglar,' i. e. Irish books, bells, and bachalls 


wonder-working power of the saint's bachall occurs constantly in our 
lives. We have already seen how it discovers or produces fountains, 
and, when planted, grows into a tree, also how a line dravvn with 
it separates calves from their mothers. But it does much more than 
this. It raises the dead ', it heals diseases '^ ; it drives baclc a flooding 
river or the sea'; it divides the sea*, or supports the saint in it^ It 
splits rocks, cuts stone, and cleaves the ground''. It pierces a moun- 
tain for water to flow through ', and leads a stream uphill ". It 
brings down mountains on the heads of the enemies ', or defeats 
them by its own power'". It keeps off enemies like a 'druid's 
hedge'"'; but it also pacifies enemies, and reconciles them to one 
another'-. It subdues wild animals" and monsters", and keeps off 
ghostly foes'\ It deflects the bough of a tree"; it flies through the 
air and extinguishes a fire ", and comes of itself when lost ". It saves 
a prisoner from execution ", enables a captive to pass unseen through 
his enemies^", and protects from shipwreck" It catches fish''', and 
discovers goW. Finally it overthrows idols", and expels demons^'. 
Bachalls are themselves the subjects of miracles-''. 

were what the Irish anchorites left behind in Iceland, when they were driven 
out by the hcathen Norsemen, Landnama, Prologue. 

' Br. i. § 91 ; Coem. 5 38 ; Col. E. § 37 ; Maed. § 49 ; C. S. c. 918, § 7 ; L. S. 
p. 126 ; Br. Maedoc, c. 72 ; Capg. i. 502 ; St. Malo, pp. 62, 148 (a dead animal 

" C. S. c. 103 (§ 4), c. 198 (§ 16) ; C. B. S. p. 359 ; Capg. i. 502. 

' Co. E. § 21 ; Dec. § 16; C. B. S. p. 169; R. C. v. 423, 444 ; Capg. i. 501. 

* Capg. ii. 566 ; cf. Rennes MS. f. 84''. = Ab. § 17. 

* Enda, § 24 ; V. Tr. p. 78 : Capg. i. 443. 

' Fech. § 14 ; R. C. xii. 344 ; L. S. p. 139. 

* Capg. i. 298, ii. 205. ° C. S. c. 193 (§ 8). 

'" L. S. pp. 92-3 (this bachall was called ' cenn-chathach', headed 'cathach', 
a name literally meaning warlike or warrior, and often applied to relics used as 
battle-standards, the best known being Columba's famous Psalter, Reeves, 
Adamn. p. 310 : a bachall of Columba's called ' Cathbuaid ', or Battle-victorj', 
is mentioned, Three Fragments, p. 230. A hazel cross given by Caillin was 
the cathach of the Conmaicne, B. Fenagh, p. 194; we hear of a 'cathach 
larlaithe' in Tigernach 1134 (R. C. xviii. 152, cf. ib. 153, where cailmirc should 
be cathaigh\ ; cf. Br. Grellan, ad finem : ' meirge catha na cloinne mo bachall,' 
i. e. my bachall as the battle-standard of the clan ; so Rennes MS. f. 87''. 

'' Maed. § 24 ; on the ' airbe druad ' see above, p. clxi. 

'- C. B. S. pp. 190-1 ; in this respect it represents the crdcb sida, lit. bough of 
peace, of the secular tales ; e. g. ' atracht Sencha 7 ro chroth in craeb sida 6sna 
sluagaib, combtar sidaig ', i. e. Sencha arose. and shook the branch of peace over 
the hosts, so that they were peaceful, LL. iii" 45; so Ir. T. i. 281 = LU. 
•03'' 33 ; LL. 177'' 15 ; it is called ' craeb sidamail ', the peaceful branch, Bk. of 
Fermoy. f. 62''. cited by 0'Curry, M. and C. iii. 317. 

" C. S. c. 873 (§ 5I ; Capg. ii. 199. 

" R. C. V. 448 ; St. Malo, p. 58. '^ Cain. § 27 note ; Maed. § 26. 

" Sam. § 19. " Dec. 5 35. 

>» Cain. § 25 (cf. Adamn. ii. i^") ; Z. C. P. v. 56. 

'» Ail. § 35 note. 20 Xr. Th. p. 433' (§ 13). 

2' N. and K. p. 152. 22 Cain. § 13. '^' Br. i. § 90. 

'♦ V. Tr. p. 90. 26 c. S. c 103 (§ 3). 

-' Fin. C. § 4 ; Sam. § 17. 


The bachall seems to be regarded as the most characteristic mark 
of the Christian missionary*; saints bear it when they appear in 
visions'' ; and it is borne by female saints as well as niale'. It seems 
sometimes to have been carried by a special minister *. Saints 
exchange their bachalls as a marlc of affection and confraternity '. 
We hear of their being enshrined in precious metals * ; and several 
of these enshrined bachalis are still in existence''. The biographer 
of St. Kentigern notes correctly the character of these primitive 
bachalls, not spiral-headed like the later crozier, but a simple staff 
with a crook '. Several of these bachalls had special names ; Mochoe's 
was called ' in Etech ', or the winged, because it flew down from 
heaven ' ; Colman EIa's was called ' in cochlach ', or the cowled, 
because of its drapery '", Mochua of BaIIa's was called ' in buide ' ; 
or the yellow, because to it the saint transferred the yellow 
plague which was afflicting the Sil Muiredhaigh"; but the most 
famous was the Bachall Isa, so called because it was believed to 
have been given by our Lord Himself to Patrick, which was used for 
the collection of the dues of Armagh, and so was a great object 
of contention between rival claimants of the see "'. Bachalls, like 
bells, are used for cursing", and for the administration of solemn 

Scarcely less potent than the bachall in working miracles is the 
saint's bell. It raises the dead '^ ; it keeps away or cures diseases 
and plagues of men and cattle '* ; disease is transferred to it ", and 
it restores sense and speech to a dying man ". It checks murderers ", 
repels enemies'", or causes them to be swallowed up". It destroys 
monsters", and disperses demons''. It keeps cattle from straying", 
and suckles a child^". It speaks with a human voice"', or remains 

' Cf. ' hic est baculatus modicus." ' o baculate,' Cain. §§ 37 note, 38. 

- Maed. § 26; Sam. § 16; St. Malo, pp. 117-18. 

' Sam. § 16 ; Capg. ii. 199. 

' 'baculum tenens apud Columbam,' Cain. § 21 note. 

^ V. Tr. p. 82 ; N. and K. p. 232 ; L. S. p. 62 ; Rennes MS. f. 86''. 

" Sam. § 17 ; C. S. c. 679. 

' Miss Stokes, Early Christian Art, pp. 96-105. 

* ' Non sperica. sicut nunc temporis est cernere, sed de simplici ligno tantum 
reflexa,' N. and K. p. 184 ; cf. ib. p. 343. 

9 V. Tr. p. 40. '" Rennes MS. f. 87''. " L. S. p. 143. 

'2 V. Tr. pp. 28-30 ; L. S. p. 7 ; Gir. Camb. v. 180. '» Magh Rath, p. 38. 

'* Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 179 ; cf. the swearing on the fftcrjnTpovj lliad, x. 331, 

'■■ Rennes MS. f. 81'' ; C. B. S. p. 60 ; R. C. v. 446. 

" Br. Berach, cc. 12, 18; Br. Mac Creiche, cc. 9. 17; Rennes MS. f. 78''. 

" Colgan, A. S. p. 147'' (§ 17I. '* Br. M.ic Cruiche, ad finem. 

" Macd. § 19. -" Br. Mac Crciche, c. 17 ad fin. : Rcnnes MS. f. 82°. 

'-' Br. Beracii, c. 27. '" Br. Mac Cieichc, cc. 9, 16. 

« V. Tr. p. 114 ; Z. C. P. v. 54. " Br. Mac Creiche, c. 11. 

2' Capg. ii. 105-6. . " C. B. S. p. 60. 


miraculously dumb'. It flies through the air by itself, and when 
stolen is miraculously restorcd'. A bell of Molaisse vvas called 
'the fugitive', from its habit of ahvays flying back to its master'. 
A stock miracle is that a bell remains dumb until the place destined 
for the saint's settlement is reached, and then it sounds again^ 
Bells ring of themselves ' ; there is a mysterious bell on Croagh 
Patrick, which is heard, but never found'. Munnu's bell was rung 
only as a passing belP. Like the bachalls, these bells were used 
for collecting ecclesiastical revenue', for cursing offenders'", and for 
tlie adniinistration of solemn oaths". 

Naturally these bells were treasured as relics "' ; several of them 
are still in existence ". Some of them were said to have been made 
by the saints ". Many of them have special names, some derived 
from the colour of the metal of which the bells were made, which 
was generally iron '•' ; others from their size, tone, or condition "^. 

> C. B. S. pp. 59, 175. 

' C. S. c. 229 (§ II'), c. 935 (§ 9"!. ' C. B. S. pp. 179-81. 

* Las. I 32 note ; cf. Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 120 ; Colgan, A. S. March 8, Metrical 
life of Senan, § 17. In Aur. Leg. pp. 579 ff , a bell, when stolen, loses all its 
svvcetness of tone. 

' Ci. S. §§ 3, 4 ; Mochoem. § 14 ; L. S. p. 87 ; Br. Bairre, c. 12 ; an exaggerated 
form of this incident is in Rennes MS. f. 78"^ : ' tabair siu clocc doib cin tengaid 
and ; 7 ait illebrae acu he, is and bias a n-esergi 7 a fognam.' i. e. give them 
a bell without a tongue in it ; and the place in which they shall hear it speak, 
there shall be their resurrection and their service ; cf. Ab. § 28 ; Mochua, § 12. 

" Z. C. P. V. 86 ; Br. Maed. c. 15 (cf. Capg. i. 483, ii. 730 ; Aur. Leg. pp. 750, 


■^ V. Tr. p. 120. ' Mun. § 19. 

' Ci. S. § 4 ; Br. Mac Creiche, c. 15 ad fin., c. 17. 

'• Car. § 58 ; Rua. § 16 ; Br. Maedoc, c. 58 sub finem ; Z. C. P. v. 54 ; L. S. 
p. 311 : Magh Rath, p. 38. 

" See above, p. cv. '- Ci. S. § 4 ; Dec. § 10 ; Br. Berach, c. 9. 

" Miss Stokes, Early Christian Art, pp. 57-66 ; Reeves, Eccl. Ant. pp. 369 fT. 

" Ger. § 15 ; C. B. S. p. 59 ; C. S. c. 893. For saints as artisans see above, 
pp. xcvii f. 

" V. Tr. p. 248 ; C. B. S. p. 59. 

" ' Dub," black,and ' glas ', blue or grey, are frequent elements in the names 
ofbells ; Duibin Declain, the little black i^bell^i of Declan, Dec. § 10 ; Dub labar, 
the black speaking (belh, C. S. c. 229 (§ ir); Dub duaibsech, i. e. the black, 
execrable (bell\ Z. C. P. v. 54 (no doubt from its use in cursing; Cuchulainn's 
spear was called Duaibsech, the execrable, LL. 177'' 5^ ; St. Moenacan's bcll was 
called ClogGlas, B. Lecan, f. 76'' ; several bells are called Giassan. the little grey 
(bein. Z. C. P. V. 82 ;'where cloc, bell, is translated as if it were f/"f//, stone^ ; 
Rennes M. S. f. 77"*; Br. Berach, c. 27 ; a bell called 'hir-glas, i. e. longiim 
fuluum ', R. C. V. 446 ; another called Finn-clocc. i. e. the white bell, Br. Maedoc, 
c. 58 ad fin. Sorae bells were called Bdban, lit. little cow, i. e. calf, perhaps 
from their small size, Bbban Coeimhgin, L. S. p. 133 ; B. Molaga, Stowe MS. ix. 
51 ; others, Findfaidech, i. e. melodious, from their tone. Br. Mac Creiche, c. 7 
?nd passim ; Rennes MS. fif. 81'', 84", 87"* ,here two saints exchange their bells, 
both bearing this name') ; we have bells called Beman, lit. little gap orbreach, 
from thcir cracked condition. B. Brigte, V. Tr. p. 114; B. Mochuta, Rennes 
MS. f. 78''; others called Glijnan (lit. little knee, but the reason of the name is 



And in the same way other objects and formularies connected 
with the new religion came to be regarded as having not a spiritual 
and sacramental value, but a magical and material force. Thus 
a saint's gospel-book causes ' sight-shifting ' ', prevents cattle from 
straying', restores speech to a dumb boy'. Water blessed by 
a saint acts as a love-charm*. Special virtue is attributed to his 
spittle, which cures diseases" and wounds", turns earth into salt", 
becomes gold', sphts rocks', makes an ugly man handsome'", pro- 
tects a fugitive from his enemies ". 

The mere breath of a saint lias miraculous powers ; it kindles 
lamps''', cures dumbness", takes three different colours'*. 

obscure'), Colgan, A. S. p. 743''; Tr. Th. p. 431" ; Gerran Churaigh. ib. T? little 
short bell of the coracle) ; another obscure name is the Bardan Ciarain (? Ciaran's 
little bard i, Ci. S. § 4 ; bells named from trees, cymbalum buxi, Las. §22; 
Bethechan, lit. little beech, V. Tr. p. 248. For the bell named 'Cloc robaid 
Blathmeic ', see Car. § 58 note. 

' * dar leo do bensat a chenn de . , . 7 ba sop sescca boi i n-ait a chinn acu,' 
i. e. they thought they had cut his head off, but it was (really) a wisp of sedge 
which they were holding instead of his head, Br. Mac Crciche, c. 3. 

2 ib. c. 12 (f. 91 v"). 

^ ib. f. 92 v°. In Com. § 22 the sainfs ' chrismale ', i. e. the vessel in which 
the reserved sacrament was carried on the person, is taken by the heathen Ibr 
his God. 

■* Tr. Th. p. 531'' (§ 45") : ' the priests sprinkle holy water into the bays as an 
iiifallible means to procure plenty of herring,' Martin, p. 29 ; cf. Grimm, iii. 1237, 
iv. 1591. 1771, 1775- From Lug. §25 note it would seem that love-charms were 
made from the hair of the person on whom they were intended to work. The 
idea underlying this, that the possession of anything closely connected with a 
pcrson, hair, nail-parings, &c., gives the possessor magical power over that 
person is, of course, very widely diffused, Elder Faiths, ii. 85-6, 201-2; Mac- 
culloch, Childhood, pp, 125, 144-5, 213, 343. Love spells on nuts, R, C, xv, 333; 
by washing in watcr in which magic herbs have been steeped, Acc, Sen. p, 28, 

'^ Com. § 10 (blindness cured ; this shows biblical influences, cf Capg. ii. 561^ ; 
Maed. § 55 V ^this is a very curious instance, and has been obliterated in the M 
text, § 56) ; Rua. § la ; Fin. C. § 2 (here it is the saliva of the sainfs mother 
during her pregnancy) ; C. S. c. 834 (§ 17"! ; St. Malo, p. 75 ; cf. ib, 63 (dumb- 
ness cured) ; Com. § 14 is deserving of notice. because the saliva is that of a 
fasting person, to which special virtue is ascribed in folk mediciiie, Elder Faiths, 
ii. 193 5, 285-6; Grimm, iii, 1173. iv. 1664; R. C. xii, 156-7; Irish Moling, 
§ 37. But spittle had also a malignant efficacy ; * Fergus Glutt . . . sputis 
uenenatis maleficorum hominum obiit,' Ann, Ult. 738 ; so F. M. 734. The 
parallel entry in Tigernach looks like a bit of rationalism ; ' Fergus Cilut . . . 
7 is e bes donidh, seledha imdha do chur asa bei. conidh dibh fuair bass,' i. e. this 
was his custom, to be constantly spitting, so that he died thercof, R. C. xvii. 
242 ; cf. Hastings, D. B. v. 554". 

" .St. Malo, p. 154 ; in Dec. § 20 the wound is healed by the sign of the Cross ; 
but in the Irish life we read ; ' tucc sele fuirre, 7 do bi slan,' i. e. he put spittle 
on it, and it was healed. 

' Der. § 31 ; here, conversely, the Irish version omits this touch. 

^ Com. § 38. 

• Com. § 47 ; V. Tr. p. 218 (a very curious instance) ; here also it is fasting 

'» R. C. xii. 328 Fechin). " Rcnnes MS. f. 88». 

" Ab. § 13 ; Ci. S, § 28. " Lug, § 1 2. '« Tig, § 4. 


Christian psalms and hymns act as charms of various kinds, 
especially as magical protections on a journey, either making the 
protected persons wholly invisible, or causing them to appear in 
a different form to their enemies '. The ii8th (iigth) psahn is used 
in this way, no doubt because of its commencement, ' Beati im- 
maculati i'« iriVz^'; so for a similar reason the hymn beginning 
' A Brigit, bennach ar set', i.e. O Brigit bless our path'. A hymn 
of Diarmait of Inis Clothrand* is headed ' celltair dichill ' or cloak 
oi concealment, tantkappe^. But the most famous poem of this kind 
is Patrick's Lorica, which caused him and his companions to appear 
to their enemies as deer". It is headed ' fded fiada', often absurdly 
translated ' the deer's cry ', though the right explanation was given 
as far back as the days of CCurry' and 0'Donovan'. This also 
means a tarnkappe, a magical mist or darkness '. 

A Christian hymn also acts as a charm against fire", or poison"; 
or makes barren land fruitful'". A verse addressed to a saint protects 
sheep from wolves ". 

' The technical name for these spells in the secular literature is ' coimge 
conaire ', lit. path-protection, Magh Lena, p. 36 ; so a poem ascribed to Columba 
is headed ; ' is coimge donti nod get)a ag dul ("or sed,' i. e. it is a protection to any 
one who shall sing it when going on a journey, Misc. I. A. S. i. 3. Many of 
Coluraba's poems had these virtues, Adamn. i. i ; cf. Tr. Th. p. 409" (§ 3^ 
Other names are * bricht comga ' = a spell of protection ; ' celtar comga,' a 
cloak of protection, i. e. tanikappe, T. B. C. pp. 359, 367 (the latter brought by 
Manannan mac Lir from the Land of Promise) ; cf. ' bricht draoidheachta ', 
' celltair draoidheachta,' spell or cloak of druidism, Oss. Soc. iii. 166 ; Keating, 
ii. 222. 

' Co. E. § 33 and note ; for the special virtue of this psalm in freeing souls 
from torment see LL. 278'' 26-8, 286" 22-3 ; L. S. p. x. For other cases of 
freeing souls from torment, which in some cases is effected gradually, see Br. i. 
§ 100; Ita, § 29; Sam. 5 13 : Z. C. P. iii. 33-4 ; Mart. Don. p. 66. For souls 
resmed from demons, see Cain. §§ 10, 22. 42 ; Coem. § 44 ; Rua. § 29 ; B. Lecan, 
f. 183^. There is a different version of this incident in C. S. c. 438 ^§ 40). In 
this the loss of the soul is inferred from the fact that no grass would growon the 
grave. As soon as the rescue was effected the turf grew luxuriantly. Grimm 
cites a German superstition : ' Itisluckj' when a grave turfs it^elf over,' iv. 18 12. 

' Moling, § 19 sub finem. At the conclusion of the hymn a cloud falls between 
the saint and his pursuers. 

* Mart. Don. Jan. 10. 

^ LBr. 262" 27 ; cf. ' celtair diclithe ', R. C. xxv. 348. 

° V. Tr. pp. 46 ff. : cf Coem. § 37. ■" Atlantis, iii. 386. 

* Supplement to 0'ReiIIy, s. v.fedh fiadh. 

' T. B. C. p. 551 and note ; Acc. Sen. p. 143 {fia fiad^ : ib. p. 221 {felh 
fi/htiais, cf. • fiad draidechta', ib. p. 209) ; L. H.- ii. 209. The expression still 
survives, apparently, in the Hebrides in the form ' fath fithe', R. C. xiv. 78. 
The idea that the three last verses of a hymn of this kind had the efiicacy 
of the whole appears Cain. § 42. The references on this point bave been col- 
lected by Lawlor, Book of Mulling, c. 7. 

1» L. S. p. 305 : L. H.2 i. 87. " L. H.' i. 107 ; L. S. p. 333. 

12 1 1" ymnum quem fecisti ca>ita siiper aquam, et de illa aqua agros tuos as- 
perge '' . . . [et] ex illo die ager suus fructuosus factus est,' C. S. c. 202 (§ 23). 

" ' gebsiu an randsa impa matan 7 fescar, 7 nis tomlet na conu altae iat co 

m 2 


Material objects connected with the saints act in the same magical 
way. A sainfs tunic, or girdle, or cowl, acts as a tanikappe or 
cloak of darkness', making the wearer invisible, or rendering him 
invulnerable'. Rain is produced by a sainfs garments and books', 
or by carrying his relics *. Earth from a saint's grave expels demons ", 
and calms a whirlpool", and dew from the same source heals 

brath,' i.e. sing this verse round them morning and evening, and the wolves 
shall never devour them, Rennes MS. f. 82"^. Ofanother cffusion in honour of 
the same saint, Colman mac Luachain, it is said ' gach duine gebus so, 7 fon 
gebthar, nocha cuirfither he, 7 ticfa slan dia tigh, 7 dligid Colman screpul de % 
i. e. every one who sings this, or over whom it is sung, shal! not be overthrown, 
but shall return safe to his home, and Cohnan claints a screpal [a certain weight 
of silver or gold] fwni liim, ib, f, 88", A sainfs genealogy recited has the 
same effect, Outer Isles, p, 231, 

' Coem, §39; Mun, §22; R. C. xiii. 84; L. S. p, 308. The fact that a woman 
bears in her womb a future saint acts as a tarnkappe to her, L. S, p, 85, The 
cowl of badger skin in which Molaisse of Devenish visiled the infernal regions 
and rescued 150 souls is doublless, as Dr. Farnell suggests to me, a tarnkappe, 
the badger being a nocturnal animal. (Silva Gad. i, 21, cf. supra, p, cxlv, note 3,) 
For secular parallels cf, R, C. xvi, 274, xxv, 348; Oss. Soc. iii, 70, 150; Klder 
Faiths, i, 365 ; Grimm, ii, 462-3, 870-1, iv, 1418, 1629-31, Bertrand cites 
Tacitus, Germ. c, 45 ; * Aestii matrem deum uenerantur ; insigne superstitionis 
formas aprorum gestant ; id pro armis omiiique tutela securum deae cultorem 
etiam intcr hostes praestat,' We have instances of persons passing unseen 
through their enemies without any special charm being mentioned, Aed, § 28 ; 
Cain, § 40 ; Ci, C. § 19 ; Tig. § 15. The magic mist whirh is raised bydemons, 
Cain. § 39 ; Z, C, P, v, 52 ; or by druids, to prevent a saint from finding the 
land which has been granted to him, Rennes MS. f, 83''; is also raised by 
saints, notonly against secular foes, ib, ff. 84'' ad calcem ; 87'' (cf, C, B. S, p. 51 ; 
Ci. S. § 20 ; Moling, § tg ; Irish Moling, § 67 ; Sam, § 18) ; but also against a rival 
saint of whom they are jealous, ib, f, 83'', The magic mist, or ' mist of druidism ', 
occurs constantly in the secular literature, R. C, xiii, 114 ; xxii, 33; Ir, T, iii,3i8; 
MS, Materials, p. 618; Keating. i, 212, ii, 82, 

- Ger, § 4 ; Mun, § 22 ; C, S. c, 8g6 (§ 9) ; Adamn, ii, 24 ; Capg. i, 201 (R, C, 
xiii, 84, L, S, p. 308, given in the last note, may possibly belong here) ; this is 
analogous to the ' congancness ', lit, horn-skin, which confers inviilnerabiiity on 
the heroes of the secular tales, especially Ferdiad, T, B. C, pp, 317 note, 439, 
553, 563 (cf. ib. p. I53\ There is a Congancness mac Oedad, Oitle, p, 26, who 
can only be killed by red-hot spikes bcing driven into the soles of his feet, His 
promised bride plays the part of Dalila in wheedling this secret out of him, 
A Coemgen Congancness mac Degad occurs in thc Dindsenchus, R, C, xv. 445. 
For magically protecting clothes, cf. R. C, vi, 183 ; Grimm, iii, 1099; iv, 1631, 
In Car, § 13 is a very curious process of makinga man invulnerable by walking 
over him ; cf, C, S, cc. 659 f, 

^ Adamn, ii, 44 ; cf, St, Greeory's Dialogues, iii. 15, 

« L, Land, p, 81 85^ ; St. Malo, p. 109 ; the saint's image is bathed in some 
countries with the same object, MaccuIIoch, Childhood, pp, 76, 220 ; Bertrand, 
Religion, p, 207. Martin, p. 59, mentions a cross which was raised when raiii 
was wanted, and lowered whcn enough had fallen, 

' R. C, xxi. 162, 

• Ci, C, § 3 ; dust from the grave of a saint is scattered round the whole of 
thelerritory granted bya chief, L. Land. p. 157 165^ The idea underlying this 
ceremony is iio doubt that of consecration b^' contact, In the same way earth 
or relics are brought from Rome or Palestine for the consecration of ccmcleries, 
above, p, cx, note 7. The same idea scems to undcrlie the incident in Mochocm. 


diseases '. Licking a saint's garment caiises a covv to give a miraculous 
yield of milk^. Tlie saint's girdle cures diseases', represses lust*, 
causes a trec to fall in the right direction". Ilis cowl vvorks cures", 
as does his blood '. 

We have seen that saints in many legends have taken the place 
of heathen divinities. In the same way angels have evidently taken 
tlie placc of fairies'. They perform just the services which popular 
lore ascribes to friendly sprites. They clean the hearth", grind the 
mill"', transport books, bells, barrels, boats, and timber", pull oxen 
out of a bog", remove stones ", reap crops", coUect fish '°, recover 
lost property", and even hold races to amuse a saint's disciples". 

§ 18; a man has to be buried in unconsecrated ground ; the sainfs ' bachall ' 
aud ' chrismale ' are buried with him, to give partial consecration till the body 
is removed to a consecrated cemetery. The same idea is found in other con- 
nexions, Fin. C. § 25 ; Z. C. P. v, 64 : cf. Aur. Leg. p. 406 ; and has probably 
given rise to the general practice of depositing relics in a church at its consecra- 
tion. Possibly the same idea underlies the curious cases in which part of 
a person's body seeras treated as equivalent to the whole, Cain. §§ 6, 7 ; C. S. 
c. 451 ^§ la) ; cf. Fel.' pp. 70, 156; Rennes MS. f. 80" ; Campbell, Supersti- 
tions, p. 243 ; Ir. T. iii. 362, 419. 

' Fel.^ pp. 94, 274. In some cases there was a real analogy between a Christian 
and a heatlicn rile ; there is evidence for some kind of heathen baptism in Ire- 
land : ' tangadar druid baidsidhe in maic i n-geintliucht, gur chansat an m-baithis 
n-geintlidhe fair,' i. e. the druids came as baptizers of the child in gentilism, and 
sang their gentile baptism over him, Coir Anm. p. 392 ; other references are 
given by Stokes, ib. p. 423. Some of the early Fathers, when confronted with 
similar analogies, regarded the heathen rites as invented by the devil with the 
deliberate intention of bringing discredit upon Christianity. 

^ Coem. § 7 ; cf. Capg. ii. m ; in Ir. T. i. 72 this effect is produced by music. 

' Car. § 38 note ; Cron. § 24; Tr. Th. p. 531 (§ 46); cf. Bran, i. 69: ' as 
amlaid do bi an cris, 7 ni gabad galar na aincis an taeb tar a m-bith,' i. e. thus 
was that girdle, so that neither disease nor pain could seize him round whose 
ioins it was. 

« Car. § 38 ; C. S. c. 907 (§ 8). 

" Sam. § 15. ' Ger. § 13. ' Cain. § 20 ; Tr. Th. p. 529'' (§27"). 

* The hostility of the fairies to the new faith is shown by the condition made 
by a fairy mistress : 'cen na clerig do thoidecht i n-oenteach rium co brath,' 
i. e. no clergy ever to enter the same house with me, R. C. xxiii. 398 ; cf. 
Grimm, ii. 459. Thomas Wrigiit in 1844 laid stress on the close connexion of 
saints' legends and fairy tales, St. Patrick's Purgatory, pp. 79 S. 

» V. Tr. p, 14. 

'" Ci. C. §§ II, 15 ad finem ; C. S. c. 916 (§ 2) ; L. S. p. 25. 

" Com. § 37 ; Enda, §17; Fin. C. § 10 ; Maed. § 48 ; C. S. cc. 187, 192-3. 

'■ Bo. § 26. " V. Tr. p. 236. 

'^ Ail. § 9 ; Car. § 48 ; cf. Campbell, Superstitions, p. 97. 

'» Com. § 41. '6 C. S. c. 350, § 33. 

" ' araile fecht ro batar a manaig ac buain cruthLnechta] . . . ; ro airigsim 
bron forro .i. an laa rogniatt oenachTaillten . . . Uoronesim . . . ernaigti, co 
langcatar aingil cugcisim focettoir do neim ; . . . 7 rognisitt tri grafne oenaich 
do,' i. e. one day his monks were reaping wheat; he noticed that they were 
depressed — it was the day men were celebrating Telltown Fair. He prayed, 
and angels came to him at once from heaven, and performed three races for 
bim, as men do at fairs, Rennes MS. f. 86'' ; cf. p. cv, note 6. 


Less incongTuous is it when they teach a little child', or play with 
him and take him with them from earth for a timc - ; vvhen they mark 
out the site of the saint's monastery', erect a cross', join with him 
in the ceremonies of the Mass ', or take part in his consecration ^ ; nor 
will those who have seen the great masterpieces of Irish illumination 
quarrel greatly with the tradition that the artists were inspired 
by the instruction of an angeP. Many of the saints of Ireland 
were blessed with angelic visitations" ; the most favourcd of all being 

Another point where the secular and ecclesiastical traditions meet 
is in the beliefs connected with the Tir Tairngire, or Land of Promise. 
From the Christian side came the name itself, and the figures and 
allegories connected with the entry of the Israelites into Canaan, 
the legends connected with the quest of the earthly Paradise from 
which Adam was expelled. From the pagan side came the Celtic 
doctrine of the Happy Other-world '°, the land of the living ", the 
land of the (ever) young ". How much the latter idea has prevailed 
over the former seems indicated by the fact that I have only noted 

^ Lug. § i6 ; C. S. c. 904, § 2 ; Capg;. ii. 107. ^ Lug. § 13. 

3 Mun. § 17. ■• N. and K. p. 233. ' Com. § 18. 

° Ail. § 14. ' Gir. Camb. Opp v. 123-4. 

* Ab. §§ 35, 45 ; Ail. § 9 ; Mochua. § 5 ; Lug. § 53 ; Mun. § 25 ; the form of 
story in which the saint complains of the unwonted absence of his angelic visitant, 
occursfrequentlyin Breton llegend ; cf. Luzel, Legendes Chretiennes, ii. 12, 17. 68. 

' Adamnan's third book is devoted almost exdusively to this subject. For 
Patrick's attendant angel see V. Tr. Index, s. v. Victor. Moreover, the angcls 
work under much the same conditions as fairies ; e. g. they must not be watclied 
at their labours, Maed. § 48 ; Tig. § 13 ; metrical life of Seiian (Colgan, A. S. 
March 8) | 11 ; Adamn. iii. 16. This ischaracteristic also of some of the miracles 
wrought by saints, Coem. 58; Cron. § 22 ; Mun. § 29; C. S. c. 188 (§ .^4) ; cc. 
339. 352 (§§ II. 36not in M); c. 389 (§57 not in Ml ; c. 648 (§51; c. 9ii(§ 14); 
Tr. Th. p. 537'' (§ 82 I ; L. S. pp. 124-5 ; Forbes, Calendars, p. 342 ; Aur. Leg. 
p. 860 ; cf. ib. p, 925. In sevcral of thesc instances blindness is inflicted as 
a penalty for seeing the forbidden thing; cf, R, C xv. 315; Rhys, Folk-lorc, 
i. 98 ; Grimm, iv. 1589. Anothcr point in which the benefits of the saints 
resemble those of fairies is that thcy are liable to berendercd nugatory byintcr- 
ruption, or by some ungraleful or tactless speech, Car. § 13; Co. E, §§ 4, 25 
(cf. L. H.' p. 6:, 28 note ; Dec. 5 16 ; Sam. § 4 ; C. S. c. 922 ;§ 16; ; Hardy, 
Holy Wells, pp. 29, 34 ; cf. Campbell, Supcrstitions, pp. 99. 151, 153. Once 
more the gifts of the saints resemble those of the fairies, in that, in the case of 
the unvvorthy, they vanish altogether, or return to thc worthless elements out 
of which they h.ive been made, Aed, § 20; Ci, S. § 13; C. B. S. p. 49; V. Tr. 
pp. ai-2 ; cf. Early Faiths, i. 188; Luzel, Legendes Chrctiennes, ii.152. 

'" See Mr. A. Nult's elaborate essay on this subject in The Voyage of Bran. 

" Tir na m-Beo ; this phrase occurs in a Christian scnse, L. S, p. 77 ; for the 
pagan sense, cf. LU. 120" 8 fT. ; 'dodcochadsa , . . a tirib beo, ait innabibas no 
peccad ; . , . domelom fleda biiana,' yc, i. e. t am come from the lands of the 
living, where there is neither death nor sin ; we consume perpetual feasts. 
The ' sinlcssness ' is no doubt a Christian importation. 

" Tir na n-6c ; the jdea, though not the name, occurs in the Maelduin story : 
' ni toeth aes foraib,' i. e. age shall not fall upon you, R. C. x. 64 ; cf. V. Tr. 
p. 38. 


one instance in the Latin lives of Irish saints in vvhich the phrase 
'Terra Rcpromissionis' is used in its iiteral sense tbr Palestine'. 
In the other sense it is the object of the quest of Brendan according 
to one forni of his legend '. It occurs in a very interesting passage 
in the S life of Munnu ■ ; the voyage of Ailbe at the end of his life 
is evidently to be understood in the sanie way, and the vine sprout 
vvhich he brings back vvith him is parallel to the mystic flovver vvhich 
in one version occasions Brendan's voyage*. 

Primitive society is often entangled and hidebound in an elaborate 
system of taboos or prohibitions ; it is not therefore vvonderful that 
certain of these taboos and the evils resulting froni their violation 
should have come to be stock motives in particular types of popular 
stories. The Irish secular literature gives many indications of the 
existence of taboos, or, to use the native vvord, 'gessa,' a vvord 
which goes through a very interesting series of meanings, which 
cannot be investigated here, because of the taboo in its strictly Irish 

1 C. S. c. 926 (5 5V 

* See Essay on the Brendan Legend, Z. C. P. v. 124 fl. 

' Mun. § 28 note ; here, as in the Nauigatio Brendani, the quest is connected 
with the Slieve League district in DonegaJ, Z. C. P. v. 129. 

* Ail. § 46 ; here Ailbe returns after a few hours' absence in the mystic ship. 
But according to the Litany, LL. 373'' 4, it would seem as if there was another 
tradition that Ailbe remained permanenlly in the Land of Promise : ' Cethrur 
ar ficliit de Jlumain lotar la Ailbi for fargi do athascnam tiri tarngiri, filet and 
i m-bethaid co brath,' i. e. the twenty-four from Munster who went on the 
ocean with Ailbe to visit the Land of Promise. who are there alive till doom. 
In the Nauigatio Brcndani the monastic family of Ailbe is found in an island 
which has many of the characteristics of the Land of Promise, though not 
identical with it ; but it seems to be implied that Ailbe himself is dead, Br. i 
§ 31 ; Moran, Acta Brendani, p. 104. In the Brussels life of Mac Creiche, c. 8, 
we seem to have yet another version, which I do not wholly understand : ' As 
as an b-port sin dochtjaidh Ailbhe do Thir Thairngire i n-dail an moirsheisir ro 
fhaidh da mhuinntir issin fairge siar. . . . Is ass dano raghass moirseiser do 
mhuintir Ailbhe 7 Meic Creiche do Thir Thairngire. Is ann dano raghus Ailbhe 
co n-a mhancaibh dochum Tire Tairngire dia laithe bratha,' i. e. It is from this 
harbour that Ailbhe went to the Land of Promise to meet the seven of his 
family whom he had sent westwards on the ocean. It is thence that the seven 
of the family of Ailbe and Mac Creiche will come to the Land of Promise. It 
is there further that Ailbe wiil come with his monks tovvards the Land of 
Promise at the Day of Judgement. The Isle of the lamily of Ailbe comes also 
into the story ' Imram curaig h-Ua Corra,' which, as Zimmer has shown, 
Keltische Beitrage ii, is a late ri/aciniento of earlier materiais. Here the 
• family ' say : ' is sinn muinter indara curaig do Ailbe, co fuilem i n-ar m-bethaid 
annso cu brath,' i. e. we are the company of one of Ailbe's two coracles and we 
are alive here till doom, R. C. xiv. 56. In the Litany quoted above we have 
further: ' Da fer dec lotar la Ailbe dochum n-eca,' i. e. the twelve men who 
went to death with Ailbe, I.L. 373'' 56. Are these the crew of the other 
coracle, lost at sea ! Compare the words of Columba of Terryglass : ' in 
nouissimis temporibus populus meus cum meis reliquiis de hac petra migrabit 
ad terram repromissionis in mari,' C. S. c. 455 (§ 21'). In T. B. C. p. 367 Tir 
na Sorcha, Land of Light. and in Eriu, iii. 156 Tir na n-Ingnad, Land of 
Wonders, are used as synonyms for Tir Tairngire. 


form I have found no trace in the Latin lives, and only very slight 
traces in the Irish lives '. Of the folk-tale type of taboo a few 
instances are to be found, which are cited in the note'. 

Closely akin to this is the idea of sacred places which are not 
to be polluted by blood' or any crime*. The mere use of a coracle 
covered with skins of dead animals is sufficient to account for 
Brendan's want of success in his quest". So the sleeping of an 
unauthorized person in a sainfs bed is a grievous presumption ° ; 
aud things placed on an altar are thrown off when it is used as 
a common table'. 

Lastly there are a number of stories which may be classed together 
as being of the fairy-tale type. Broken articles are instantaneously 
mended*, a cloak divided, like St. Martin's, for charity is made whole ' ; 
food and other articles are consumed and yet remain intact'", or they 
are changed into other things". The form, complexion, height, and 
age of persons are altered, sometimes for the better, sometimes 
for the worse'l Even sex is no obstacle to the saint's power ot 

1 L. S. p. 91. The instance in c. 13 of the Br. life of Ruadan is borrowed 
bodily from the secular literature. 

- Of the theft taboo \ve have a clear instance in the Brendan story, Br. i. 
55 19, 20; ii. §§ II, 13 ; cf. the parallel incident in the Maelduin story, R. C. 
ix. 478. The offence recorded in Ail. § 18 was, in the original form of the 
slory, almost certainly a violation of the sex taboo ; cf. Capg. i. 190; Gregory, 
DialogUfS, i. 10. We find it in the O. T. i Sam. xxi. 4, 5, and elsewhere. 
Of the food taboo I have found no clear instance in our iives. A modified form 
of the theft taboo is seen in those cases in which saints in giving up their 
abodes to other saints forbid their followers to take any of their possessions 
wilh them ; the violation of this order brings condign punishment, Ail. § 28; 
Cron. § 16; Enda, §8; Mun. § 12 ; C. S. c. 171 (§ 11'. 

' Cf. Acd, § 24, where note that it is not the murder in itself, but shedding 
blood in the neighbourhood of the saint which is punished ; cf. Aur. Leg. p. 75 ; 
Rehgion of Semites, p. 156. The stain of innocent blood can never be oblitcrated, 
Capg. ii. 419: and the appearance of drops of blood is a presage of slaughter, 
C. S. c. 658 (§ 17). On these last two points see a paper by myself in the 
Guardian of Dec. 23. 1903. 

* Car. § 5 (^criminals cannot live there) ; L. S. p. 114 (criminals cannot be 
buricd there, cf. Ir. Nenn. p. 216). ^ 13r. i. § 71. 

6 Maed. § 58 ; cf. ib. § 33 (M ) ; Capg. i. 66 ; ii. 257 ; contrast Rennes MS. f. 86" 
ad calcem : * luid Colman . . . co Glais Naeidcn do coblidhi for ieppa Mobi Clarc- 
naich,' i. e. Colman went to Glasnevin to lie upon the bed of Mobi the Flatfaced. 
' C. B. S. p. 99. » Ail. § 17 ; Ci. C. § 14 ; Fin. C. § 26. " Sam. § 3. 

"> Aed, § 15 ; Ail. § 13 ; Coem. § 8 ; Co. E. § 26 note ; C. S. c. 436 (5 35, not 
in Mj ; L. S. p. 60 ; Capg. ii. 318. With these may be compared the instances, 
above, p. cxliii, of eaten animals being restored to life. A secular parallel, Oss. 
Soc. iii. 220. 

" Aed, § 31 ; Ci. C. § 20 note ; Lug. § 38 ; Rua. § 21 ; C. S. c. 368 (§ 15, not 
in M) ; c. 422 (j 12, not in M) ; Tr. Th. p. 532'' (§ 54), p. 541" (§ 132) ; Colgan, 
A. S. p. 138'' ^§ 42). A secular parallel, R. C. xxiii. 408. 

'- Ber. § 19; Com. §49; L. S. pp. 9, 97; R. C. xii. 328 (Fechin); V. Tr. 
p. 152 ; B. Fcnagh, pp. 82, 118; Brev. Aberd., Pars Hiem.. Proprium Sanct., 
t. 24 v" ; Tr. Th. p. 434'' (§ 20) ; Br. Maed6c, c. 1 7 ; Renncs MS. f. 81''; Capg. 
ii. 200. The parents of Molaga were mysteriously rejuvenated, in order that 
they might produce that eminent saint, Colgan, A. S. p. 145'' (§ 5) ; cf. Mac- 
cuUoch, Childhood, pp. 72, 90 ; Hdt. vi. 6x. 


transmutation '. Gold is made out of tlie most unpromising materials, 
not only out of bread' or seed', but out of sweat *, spittle", and 
mucus'. It is vomited by a saint ', turned up by animals', or found 
in a fish's belly'. This last instance leads naturally to a very 
common type of story^" in which lost or stolen articles are found in 
the interior of a fish ", especially the key of the shackle with which 
the saint has bound himself, swearing that he will never be released 
until the key, which he throws into the sea, shall reappear". The 
idea of food which has the taste of any dainty which the individual 
eater may desire is verj' conimon, but niay have been derived from, 
or at least been influenced by, Jewish-Christian sources, for the 
Rabbis had the same fancy with reference to the manna in the 
wilderness". Hands blessed by the saint become skilful, though 
they have never practised the craft before '*, or been conspicuous 
only for vvant of success in it'^ Iron blessed by the saint is in- 
capable of wounding'*. In the Irish lives of Columba is a weird story, 
to which I know no parallel anywhere, of a consecrated sword in 
the presence of which no one could die. 'This was the grace that 
was on it, that no one could die in its presence. And a certain man 
asked for that sword ; and it was sent to him. A whole year the 
sword was with him, and all that time he was neither alive nor dead. 

' Ab. § 25 (Colgan defends this at great length) ; Ger. § 5. A very curious 
instance occurs in the Dindsenchus. Liath of Daire Leith had three daughters : 
Muidset dia fothruccud, ... 7 mar sillset foraib fodesin, batar i n-delbaib tri fer 
co n-a n-ulchaib,' i. e. they went lo bathe, and as they looked upon themselves 
[i. e. saw their reflexions in the water] they were in the form of three bearded 
men. Two of them died, the third was restored to her natural form by 
St. Sinchell the Elder, R. C. xv. 424 ; cf. Mol. § 15 ; MaccuUoch, Childhood, 
pp. 157, 186, 386. 2 Cain. § 44. 

' Maed. §45 ; Lug. §36; L. S. p. 128. In LU. 117'' 11 ff. (= Z. C. P. iii. ai8) 
sand is turned to gold. ■• Z. C. P. iv. 298. ^ Com. § 38. 

' Fech. § 13 ; Mochua, § 6 ; Br. Colnian Ela, c. 6. 

' Cain. § 44 note ; in Acc. Sen. p. 151, gold is vomited by a dog. 

* V. Tr. pp. 21, 94. ^ Irish Moling, 4 40. 

'" Saintyves, pp. 134-6; Delehaye. p. 38; Luzel. Legendes Chretiennes, 
i. 88, 90, 262, 266. " Tr. Th. p. 540'' (5 112) ; C. B. S. p. 64. 

'- Cain. § 15 ; Tr. Th. p. 559'' (^§ 63) ; Brev. Aberd., Pars Hiem., Propr. Sanct, 
f. 25 v» ; Hy Fiaehrach, pp. 36-41 ; Br. Mac Creiche, c. 6. 

'^ * Carnes ille . . . tanquam manna alterum, . . . verse sunt . . . in saporem 
ciborum quibus iibentius quisque discumbentium refici solebat,' C. S. cc. 816-17 ; 
Tr. Th. p. 538'' (§ 891; L. S. p. 125 ; C. B. S. p. 165 ; cf. Silva Gad. i. 28. 
Secular parallels, R. C. ix. 486, 490 ; Acc. Sen. p. 153 ; cf. Campbell, Supersti- 
tions, p. 55 ; Rhys, A. L. p. 312. For the manna, cf. Wisdom, xvi. 20-1 ; and in 
Irish, LBr. 257" 77. In R. C. xxvi. 164 we have a fountain which was of the 
temperature which any bather desired. This may be derived from Nennius, § 67. 

'* Br. i. § 73 ; Com. § 36 ; Maed. § 46 ; Rua. § 11 ; A. S. Apr. ii. 547 (§ 17) ; 
C. S. c. 892 (§ 3), c. 910 (§ 12, here it is the mouth that is blessed, to make 
a skilful singerj ; Tr. Th. p. 536'' (§ 76) ; L. S. p. 27 ; V. Tr. p. 200; cf. Aed, 
§ 4 note. I cannot produce any secular analogue. 

" Com. § 29 : 'puer discebat scribere ; sed . . . quod scribebat, uix agnosci 
poterat, utrum manus hominis aut ungula auis illud depinxerat.' For miraculous 
grace of penmanship in a saint, cf. C. S. c. 439 ^§ 42, not in M). 

" C. S. c. 875 ;§ 10) ; Adamn. ii. 29, 37. 


Then the sword was taken from him, and he died at once'.' In- 
animate things travel by themselves -, especially articles inadvertently 
forgotten by the saint^; and implements and other things perforni 
their functions automaticallj', without any human hand to guide 
them*, or they continue to discharge their functions although the 
effective part of them may be wanting'. So thc saints themselves 
are transported from place to place in an incredibly short time, or 
cause others to be so transported ^ And as space is thus marvellously 
traversed, so also is time. Mochoe, abbot of Nendrum or Inish 
Mahee, went into a wood to cut wattles to build a church. A bird 
' more beautiful than all the birds of the world' came and sang three 
strains to him. It seemed that he was listening only for one bricf 
hour ; but the bird was an angel, and each strain represented the 
lapse of fifty years ; and he returned to his monastery to find that 
no one knew him, and that an oratory had been erected to his 
memory'. Lastly may be recalled here the stories in which moral 
properties are ascribed to inanimate things, the miil which will not 
grind stolen wheat, or work on Sunday, or when the saint is ill- 
treated ' ; the vessels which burst when milk is put into them 
contrary to the sainfs wishes'; the cauldron which would not boil 
because it was the price of the sainfs betrayal '". 

' L. S. p. 27. 

2 Aed, § 33 ; Ail. § 28 ; Co. E. § 22 ; Enda, § 9 ; Ita, § 18 ; C. B. S. pp. 41-2; 
C. S. c. 935 (^ 9) ; sometiines articles are conveyed by sea or river without 
failure to their destinalion, Ci. C. § 29; C. S. c. 172 (§ 13"), c. 753 (§ 15"!; 
Tr. Th. pp. 540-1 (§§ 115-16); Capg. ii. 419, 420; C. B. S. p. 201; R. C. 
V. 445 ; St. Malo, p. 42. 

' Cain. § 25 ; Las. § 22 ; Maed. § 20 ; Tig. § 7 ; C. S. c. 424 (§ 13) ; C. B. S. 
PP- 133-4. 136; Colg. A. S. p. 147" (§ 12) ; cf. DecL § 15. 

' Some instances of this have becn given above, C. S. c. 232 (§ 15) ; L. S. 
pp. 60. 122; a magic spear which slays by itself, Hib. Min. p. 78. 

^ Aed, §§ 4, 5 ; Bo. § 23 ; Com. § 9 note ; Lng. § 20 note ; in the text this has 
been toncd down and rationalized ; C. S. cc. 159 (§ i r\ 358 (§ 49, not in M), 899 
(§ 20) ; Fcl.- pp. 200. 244 ; cf. Grimm, iii. 11 12. Here also bclong the cases in 
which saints voyage in coracles without any sUin covcring, Ail. § 4 note ; Colgan, 
A. S. p. 147" (§ 12) ; L. S. p. 71 ; Fel. Dec. 8; Mart. Don p.82; Hy Fiachrach, 
p. 38 ; N. and K. p. 152 ; C. B. S. p. 186. 

« Col. E. §.s 5, 9; Fin. C. §§ i6 note, 17; Ita, § 20; Maed. §§ 9, 38; 
Mochoem. § 25 ; Tig. § 13 ; C. S. c. 742 (§ 71, c. 912 (§ i8\ c. 931 (§ i). The 
biblical parallel of the transport of Habal<i(ul< ;from the apocryphal Bcl and the 
Dragon) is sometimcs cited ; v. Index Nominum, s.v. Abachuch. 

' Mart. Don. p. 176 ; less extreme cases, Cron. § 9 ; Tr. Th. p 534" (5 63) ; 
cf. ib. p. 44" (§ 72) ; Luzel, Legendes Chretiennes, i. 82, 222, 240, 249. For 
secular parallels see Bran, i. 31-3, 168, 206; R. C. xxiv. 146. Sir John Rhys 
cites several Welsh fairy-stories with the same motive, F. L. i. 151 IT. The 
most popularly known instance is Rip van Winklc. 

' Lug. § II ; N. and K. pp. 368-9; Colgan, A. S. p. 635" (§ 7) ; Gir. Camb. 
Opp. v. 133 ; Ir. Nenn. p. 216. 

* Fint. § 4 ; cf. the vesscl which breaks for lics, and rcunites for truth, Ir. T. 
iii. 191, 197 ; cf. R. C. xvi. 52 ; contrast Grimm, iv. 1693. 1777. 

^" Tr. Th. p. 69". This is a variant of the story of Ihe cauldron to which the 
hands of the treachcrous host and all his family stuck fast, above, p. clxviii. 


On the other hand many things in these lives which are regarded 
as miraculous may be explained by perfectly natural causes ; the 

I place togethcr here a niimber of miscellaneous parallels between the hagio- 
logical and secular literature forwhich no place has been lound in the foregoing 
sketch ; the secular references are divided off from the others by the mark ||. 
A man with a monstrous and unnatural appetite is cured by the saint, Tr. Th. 
p. 540'' (§ 110= L. H.' i. 123) ; Fel.^ p. 92 ; R C. xii. 334 ; || LL. 106'' 27-9 ; 
R. C. xvi. 37 ; Coir Aumann, No. 40 ; Magh Rath, p. 22 ; the cure of such 
a ' hunger man ' (Ir. fer gorta) is the main thcme of the satirical Irish piece 
'Aislinge Meic Conglinne (ed. K. Meyer) ; cf. Irish Penny Journal, p. 189. 
The saint drives his chariot over a man who had offended him, Aed, § 5 and 
note ; L. H.' i. 5 ; Stowe MS. ix. p. 48 ; || LU. 69" 23 : 'talleci inna slechtain, 
co n-dechaid carpat Kergusa taris co fo thri,' i. e. he prostrated himself. and the 
chariot of Fergus went over him thrice. A monstrous eel entwines itself round 
the loins of a criminous clerk as he crosses a river, Sam. § 1 1 ; || The Morrigu 
or Badb in the form of an eel entangles Cuchulainn's feet in order to bring about 
his destruction, T, B. C. p. 315 and note ; cf. OCurry, M. and C. ii. 280. (Hence 
the phrase of Scotch Gaelic, ' Buarach Bhaoibh,' for some kind of eel or laraprey, 
i.e. the Badb's spancel, cf. Campbell, Superslitions, p. 219; Outer Isles, 
pp. 192-3.) The man who could slay with a look, Ci. S. § 23 note ; || LL. 
267" 6; R. C. xii. loo, xxii. 312 (Cormac, Glossarj', p. 28, derives milled, 
destruction, from >ni-silled, mis-Iooking). An infant speaks before birth, Ba. 
§ a ; L. S. p. 85 ; L. H.^ p. 99 (cf. Ir. Nenn. p 202 and note) ; Three Fragments, 
p. 50; or immediately after, Ba. § 2 ; Col. E. § a6; Silva Gad. i. 19 ; cf. Dele- 
haye, p. 59; || LL. 126" 30 ff. ; Ir. Nenn. p. 208; Ann. Ult. 884; cf. Ir. T. 
i. 67, 69. In Hrussels MS. 2324 f. 46 is a piece entitled : ' cetbriathra Bicc 
meic De iar n-a breith focedoir,' i.e. the first words of Becc mac De immediately 
after his birth. As Becc was first a heathen prophet and afterwards a Christian 
saint, this instance may be credited to either side of the account. An infant 
declares its own father, Ail. § 23 ; Tr. Th. p. 53" (§ 39) ; N. and K. p. 146 
(cf. Aur. Leg. pp. 710, 751 ; the object of this miracle always is to clear some 
cleric of the charge of incontinence) ; || Nennius. ed. Stevenson, p. 30. Weapons 
fall mysteriously from their place on the wall, Com. § 45 ; || LL. 119" 15 ; 254" i. 
The idea that a human victim is necessary to make a new building secure, L. S. 
p. 30 ; Reeves, Adamn. pp. 203-4, 417 ; |1 Three Glossaries, p. xli note ; Nennius, 
ed. Stevenson, pp. 31-2 ; Pagan Ireland, pp. 212-13 ; Elder Faiths, i. 303 ff., 
376 ; Religion of Semites, p. 159 ; Lyall, Asiatic Studies, p. 19 ; Grimm, 
iii. 1141-4; Anthropology and the Classics, p. 82. Pretended sickness of 
lover, Ci. S. § 16 || Oided Cloinne Lir, § 14 ; Campbell, Superstitions, p. 131. 
Shaving a man's hair as a form of insult. and miraculous re-growth, Ci. C. 
§ 31 note ; || Eriu, ii. 22 ; LU. 52'' ( = Silva Gad. i. 83') ; Keating, ii 224 (loss 
of hair is inflicted as a punishment, the hair growing again on repentance, Aed, 
§ 30 ; Coem. § 41 ; cf. C. B. S. p. 42). Showers of miraculous food, Ail. § 15 
II Coir Anm. No. 124 ; F. M. 716, 759. Sea beasts fighting, Br. i. § 86 ; || Ir. T. 
iii. 237. There are several other parallels to the Brendan story in Bran : the 
island supported by four feet, Bran, i. 5, the birds singing the hours, i. 7, the 
hundred and fifty islands, i. 13. Here again the resemblance of names may 
have helped the mutual assimilation of the two legends. 

I have alluded above to the curious tale called the Vision of Mac Conglinne, 
published by Professor Kuno Meyer in two recensions in 1892. It is a highly 
satirical compusition, and on re-readirg it during the progress of the present 
work I cannot help thinking that its salire is directed largely against the lives 
of Irish saints, and those eleraents in the secular literature which have influenced 
the hagioiogists. The following enumeration will show how many of the points 
discussed in PartVof this introduction are included in the wriler's parody : — 
an enormous appetite and its cure, pp. 2. 44 ; spells on food, p 4 ; oaths by the 
elements. p. 4 ; poets' vituperation, which is used as a legal sanction, pp. 8, 44, 
148; going deisel, p. 10; voice heard at a great distance, p. 12; 'gessa' or 
taboos, p. 14; accomplishment of a journey in marvellously short time, p. 22; 


production of fire from a stone', or from tvvo pieces of wood'. Loss 
and recovery of speech ' or memory * are not unknown phenomena. 
There are authenticated instances of males suckhng'. One at least 
of the alleged raisings from the dead reads merely like an ordinary 
fainting fit ' ; while in all cases of nervous disease the mere expecta- 
tion of a cure might have a powerful curative effect. 

Again it should be borne in niind that many of the customs and 
modes of thought discussed in this section are in themseives neither 
pagan nor Christian, but simply human. The heathen rite or formula 
preceded, and in many cases influenced, the corresponding Christian 
observance or expression. But the attempt to discover heathenism 
everywhere in Christianity has been carried in some quarters to 
very uncritical lengths'. 

But the persistence of a heathen element alongside of, or in fusion 
with, Christianity suggests some serious reflexions. It is one more 
illustration of the truth that 'the past never wholly dies*', one 
more proof of the ingrained conservatism of man's nature, of his 
slowness to 'expel the savage from his temples and his heart". 
It shows us that it is not enough for a religion to conquer man's 
intellect ; it must subdue and bring into captivity all the dim instincts, 
emotions, and aftections of humanity, which reach back into a past 
compared with which the earliest recorded history is a thing of 
yesterday. And so we learn lastly a lesson of great patience. In 
the world of spirit, as in the world of nature, the mills of God grind 
slowly. We in our little lives of a span long crave for immediate 
results and dramatic successes. But God, it has bcen finely said, 
can afford to be patient, for He has eternity to work in. 

a stone heated by an angel sitting on it, p. 30; pedigrees (mock) inserted, 
p. 32; angels sent to raect a soul, p. 40; fasting on persons, pp. 40, 56; 
bargaining, pp. 44, 54-6 ; visions and Iheir intcrpretation. pp. 66, 149 ; tlie 
* faith liaig ', or prophet-leecli, p. 74 ; the story acts as a path-protection, and 
confers many othcr blessings,pp. 110-12 ; magic mist, p. 151 ; an evident parody 
of the Brendan story, p. 152; the rclation ol" the clcrgy to the secular tales, ib. 

' Ci. S. § 33 ; in the Dublin Irish life the words are ' ro ben a caisre teincadh 
aisde ', i. e. he struck its spark of fire from it. 

2 Las. § 7. 

^ Ab. § 38 ; Fin. C. | 19 ; Ita, § 19 ; cf. Campbell, Superstitions, p. 109. 

' Mochua, 5§ 2, 3 ; c(. Gir. Camb. Opp. v. 181. 

' L. S. pp. go, 348 ; in Ber. § 4 the saint is suckled at his foster-father's ear. 
According to the Br. lile of Colman Ela, c. 5, onc of that sainfs brcasts yielded 
milk, and the otlier honey; cl. Eldcr Faiths, ii. 44 ; MaccuIIoch, Childhood, 
p. 109 ; Orig. Island. ii. 649. ^ Mochoem. § 23. 

' The acme is perhaps rcached when Hampson in his very useful and 
interesting work, Mcdii Aeui Kalendarium, says, following Dresser, tliat the 
observance of Passion Week (a strict fastj is derivcd from the Bacchanalia, 
a riolous feast, ii. 310. 

• Bcrtrand, Religion, p. 14. " Lang, Myth and Ritual,' i. 340. 


For the Lives contained in the present volumes the following abbreviations 
are used : — 

Ab. = Abban ; Aed = Aed ; Ail. =Ailbe(Albeus') ; Ba. = Bairre; Ber. =Berach; 
Bo. =Boecius; Br. i = Brendan, Vita Prima; Br. ii=Brendan, Vita Secunda 
(Appendix'); Cain. = Cainnech ; Car. = Carthach (Mochuda); Ci. C. = Ciaran of 
Clonmacnois ; Ci. S. = Ciaran of Saigir; Coem. = Coemgen ; Co. E. or Col. E. = 
ColmanEla; Com. = Comgall; Cron. = Cronan ; Dec, or Decl. = Declan ; Enda = 
Enda; Fech. = Fechin ; Fin. C. = Finan of Cenn Etigh ; Fint. = Fintan ; Ger. = 
Gerald ; Ita = Ita ; Las. = Lasrianus ' (Molaisse); Lug. = Lugaid' (Molua); Maed. 
= Maedoc (where necessary the two te.Kts are distinguished as M and V 
respectively ; where these letters are not added, the references apply to both 
te.\ts); Mochoem. = Mochoemog ; Mochua = Mochua ; Moling or Mol. =^ Moling ; 
Mun. = Munnu l^Fintan); Rua. = Ruadan; Sam. = Samthann ; Tig. = Tigernach. 

Aberdeen Breviary = Breuiarium Aber- 

donense, a vols. 4to, 1854. 
Ace. Sen. = Accallam na Sendrach, ed. 

WhitleyStokes; in IrischeTextelV, 

i, 1900. 
Adamn. = Adamnan's Life of Columba. 
Anecdota = Anecdota from Irish MSS., 

ed. Bergin and others (3 vols. have 

so far appeared"). 
Ann. Clonm. = Annals of Clonmac- 

noise, ed. Rev. Denis Murphy, 

Ann. Loch Ce = Annals of Loch Ce, 

ed. W. M. Hennessy (R. S.), a vols., 

Ann. Ult. =Annals of Ulster. ed. W. M. 

Hennessy and Rev. B. MacCarthv, 

4 vols., 1887-1901. 
Archaeology and Authority, . . . Essays 

. . . edited by David G. Hogarth, 

and ed. 1899. 
A. S. =The BoUandist Collection of 

Acta Sanctorum ; many vols. foljo. 
Aur. Leg. = Aurea Legenda lacobi a 

Voragine, ed. T. Graesse, 1846. 
B (in thecritical notes) = TheBoIlandis 

text in the Acta Sanctorum. 
Baring-Gould and Fisher, v. British 

Baumer, Brdviaire= Histoire du Bre- 

viaire par Dom Suitbert Baumer, 

traduction franfaise par Dom Re- 

ginakl Biron, 2 vols. , 1905. 
BB. = Book of Ballymote, published in 

facsimile by R. I. A., folio 1887. 

Bertrand, Religion = Bertrand, La 
Religion des Gaulois, 1897. 

B. Fenagh = Bookof Fenagh.ed. W. M. 
Hennessy and D. H. Kelly, 410, 

Book of Mulling = Chapters on the 

Book of Mulling, by H. J. Lawlor, 

Br. (before the number of a MS. or the 

life of a saint) = Brussels. 
Bran=The Voyage of Bran son of 

Febal . . . Kuno Meyer and Alfred 

Nutt, 2 vols., 1895-7. 
Breu. Aberdon. v. Aberdeen Breviary. 
Brigit = UItan's Life of St. Brigit 

in Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga, 

pp. 527 ff. 
British Saints = Lives of the British 

Saints, by S. Baring-Gould and John 

Fisher (2 vols. out of 4 have ap- 

peared), 1907-8. 
Cain Ad. = Cain Adamnain, ed. Kuno 

Meyer, Anecdota O.xoniensia, 4to, 

Campbell, Superstitions = Supersti- 

tions of the Highlands and Islands 

of Scotland, by John Gregorson 

Campbell, 1900. 
Capg. or Capgrave = Noua Legenda 

Anglie, by John of Tynemouth, John 

Capgrave, &c., ed. Carl Horstman, 

2 vols., igoi. 
Cath Finntraga (or the Battle of Ven- 

tryl, ed. Kuno Meyer, Anecdota 

Oxoniensia, 410, 1885. 

' In the case of these two saints I have abbreviated their real rather than 
their hypocoristic names, for fear of their being confused vvith one another and 
with St. Moling. 



Cath Ruis = Cath Ruis na Rig, ed. 

Edmund Hogan, R. I. A., Todd Lec- 

ture Series, iSga. 
C.B.S. = Lives of the Cambro-British 

Saints, ed. Rev. W. J. Rees, 1853. 
Christian Inscriptions = Christian In- 

scriptions in the Irish Language, 

collected by G. Petrie, and edited 

by M. Stokes, 2 vols. 410, 1872-8. 
Chron. Scot. = Chronicon Scotorum, 

ed. W. M. Hennessy ^R.S.), 1866. 
C<5ir Anm. or Coir Anmann (Fitness 

of Names), ed. Whitley Stokes, 

Irische Texte III, ii, 1897. 
Colgan, A. S. = Colgan, Acta San- 

ctorum Hiberniae, folio, 1645. 
Cormac, Glossary, in Three Irish Glos- 

saries, ed. Whitley Stokes, 1862. 
Cormac, Transl. = Cormac's Glossary, 

translated by John 0'Donovan, ed. 

Whitlcy Stokes, Irish Arch. and 

Celtic Soc, 4to, 1B68. 
C.S. -Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae ex 

Codice Salmanticensi, ed. de Smedt 

et de Backer, 4to, 1888. 
D'Arbois, Catalogue = Essai d'un Cata- 

logue dela Littirature Epique dellr- 

lande, par H. D'Arbois de Jubain- 

ville, 1883. 
D. C. B. or Dict. Christ. Biog. = Dic- 

tionary of Christian Biography, 

4 vols. , ed. Wm. Smith and H. 

Wace, 1877-87. 
Delehaye, Legendes = Les Legendes 

Hagiographiques, par Hippolyte 

Delehaye, 1905. (There is also an 

English Translation.") 
Duchesne, Origines = Origines du Culte 

Chretien, par L. Duchesne, 3™" ed., 

1903. ^There is also an English 

Elder Faiths = Traces of the Ekler 

Faiths of Ireland . . . by W. G. 

Wood-Martin, 2 vols., 1902. 
Eriu = Eriu, the Journal of the School 

of Irish Learning, Dublin, 1904 ft". 
F. V. Introduction, pp. xviii f. 
F6l.'^Fdlire of Ocngus, ed. Whitley 

Stokes, R. I. A., Irish MS. Series, 

vol. I, 4to, 1880. 
F6l.* = The same, ed. Whitley Stokes, 

Henry Bradshaw Society, 1905. 
Fled Bricrend2=Fled Bricrend, ed. 

George Henderson, Irish Texts 

Society, 1899 (the first edition of 

this tale was given by Windisch in 

Irische Textc I ). 
F. M. - Annals of the Kingdom of Ire- 

land by tlie Four Masters, ed. John 

CDonovan, and cd., 7 vols. 4I0, 

Forbes, Calendars= Kalendars of the 

Scottish Saints, by A. P. Forbes, 

Bishop of lirechin, 4to, 1872. 
FornsOgur, ed. Vigfusson and Mobius, 

G. G. = Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh, 

The War of the Gaedhil with the 

Gaill, ed. J. H. Todd (R. S.), 

Gir. Camb. Opp v. = Giraldi Cambren- 

sis Opera, ed. J. F. Dimock 1 R. S.) : 

vol. V, 1867, containing the Topo- 

graphia Hibernica and the Expu- 

gnatio Hiberniae, is the only one 

Gott. gel. Anz. = Gottingische ge- 

lehrte Anzeigen. 
Grimm = Tcutonic Mythology by Jacob 

Grimm, Eng. Transl. by Stallybrass, 

4 vols., 1883-1900. 
Harnack, MiEsion = Die Mission und 

Ausbreitung des Christentums . . . 

von Adolf Harnack, 1902. 
H.D.B. or Hastings' D.B. = Hastings' 

Dictionary of the Bible, 5 vcls., 

1898- 1904. 
Hdt. = Herodotus. 
Hib. Min. = Hibernica Minora, ed. K. 

Meyer, Anecdota Oxoniensia. 1894. 
Hy Fiachrach = Genealogies, Tribes, 

and Cusloms of Hy-Fiachrach, ed. 

John 0'Donovan, Irish Arch. Soc, 

4to, 1844. 
Hy Many = The Tribes and Customs 

of Hy-Many, ed. John 0'Donovan, 

Irish Arch. Soc, 4to, 1843. 
I.A.S. = Irish Archaeological Society. 
Ir. Nenn. = The Irish Version of Nen- 

nius, ed. J. H. Todd, Irish Arch. 

Soc, 4to, 1848. 
Ir. T. = Irische Texte, a series edited 

by Windisch, Stokes, and others, 

1880, fl'. 
Joyce, Social History = A Social His- 

tory of Ancient Ireland, by P. W. 

Joyce, 2 vols., 1903. 
Jubinal = La Legende latine de S. 

Brandaines . . . par Achille Jubinal, 

Keating = Keating's History oflreland 

(Foras Feasa ar tirinn), ed. D. 

Comyn, and Rev. P. S. Dineen, 

3 vols., Irish Texts Society, 1903-8. 
L (in critical notes", v. L. S. 
Laud = Laud Collection of MSS., Bod- 

leian Library. 
L.Br. = Lebar Brecc, or the Speckled 



Book, published in racsimile by the 

K.I. A., folio, 1876. 
L.H.' = Liber Hymnorum, ed. J. H. 

Todd, 3 Parts, Irish .Arch. and Celtic 

Soc, 4to, 1855-69 (imperfect). 
LH.*=Liber Hjmnorum, ed. J. H. 

Bernard and R. Atkinson, Henry 

Bradshaw Soc, 2 vols., 1898. 
Lib. Land. = Liber Landauensis, or 

Book of Llan Dav, ed. i, Rev. W. J. 

Rees, 1840 : ed. 2, J. G. Evans and 

John Rhys, 1893 (the pagination of 

both editions is given . 
LL. = Lebar Laigen, or Book of Lein- 

ster, publishedin facsimile by R.I.A., 

folio, 1880. 
L. na g-C. = Leabhar na g-Ceart, or 

Book of Rights, ed. John 0'Dono- 

van, Celtic Soc, 1847. 
L. S. = Lismore Saints, i. e. Lives of 

Saints frora the Book of Lismore, 

ed. Whitley Stokes, Anecdota Oxo- 

niensia, 1890. 
LU. = Lebar na h-Uidre, or Book of 

the Dun Cow, published in fac- 

simiie by R. I. A., 4to, 1870. 
Luzel, Legendes Chretiennes, = L6- 

gendes Chretiennes de la Basse 

Bretagne, par F. M. Luzel, 2 vols., 

Lyall = Asiatic Studies, by Sir A. C. 

Lyall (as a rule the and ed., 1884, 

in I vol., is referred to, but occa- 

sionally vol. 2 of ed. 3, 1899. which 

contains some additional Essays, is 

M ^in critical notes), v. Introduction, 

p ix. 
Macculloch, Childhood, = The Child- 

hood of Fiction, a Study of Folk 

Tales, by J. A. Macculloch, 1905. 
Macculloch, Western Isles, = A De- 

scription oftheWestern Islands of 

Scotland, by John MaccuIIoch, 3 

vols., 1819. 
Magh Lena = The Battle of Magh 

Leana, ed. Eugene Curry, Celtic 

Soc, 1855. 
Magh Rath = The Battle of Magh 

Rath, ed. John 0'Donovan, Irish 

Arch. Soc, 4to. 1842. 
M and C. = v. 0'Curry. 
Mart. Don. = The Martyrology of 
Donegal, ed. John 0'Donovan, J. H. 

Todd, and Wm. Reeves, Irish Arch. 

and Celtic Soc, 1864. 
Mart. 0'Gorman = Martyrology of 
0'Gi'rman, ed. Whitley Stokes, 
Henry Bradshaw Soc 1895. 

Mart. Tall. = MartyroIogy of Tallaght, 

in LL. (and ed. by Rev. Matthew 

Kelly, 1857). 
Martin ^ A Description of the Western 

Islands of Scotland, by Mr. Martin, 

2nd ed. 1716. 
Mesca Ulad, ed. W. M. Hennessy, 

R. I. A.Todd LectureSeries, i88g. 
M. H. B. = Monumenta Historica 

Britannica, vol. i (all published), 

folio, 1848. 
Misc. Celt. Soc. = Miscellany of the 

Celtic Society, ed. JohnO'Donovan, 

Misc. I. A. S. = MisceIIany of the 

Irish Arch. Soc. vol. i, 410, 1846. 
Moran = Acta S. Brendani, ed. Rt. 

Rev. P. Moran, 1873. 
MS. Mat., V. 0'Curry. 
Myth and RituaI = A. Lang, Myth, 

Ritual, and Religion, 2 vols., ed. i, 

1887 ; ed. 2, 1906 (the paginationof 

both editions is given). 
N and K = Lives of S. Ninian and S. 

Kentigern, ed. A. P. Forbes, Bishop 

of Brechin, 1874. 
Naemsenchus, Metrical genealogies of 

the Saints, in BB. and Book of 

0'Currj', M. and C. = Manners and 

Customs of the Ancient Irish, by 

Eugene 0"Currj', 3 vols., 1873. 
0'Curry, MS. Mat. = Lectures on the 


History, by Eugene 0'Curry, 1878. 
0'Haherty, larConnaught = A Choro- 

graphical Description ofWest or h- 

lar Connaught, by Roderic 0'FIa- 

herty, ed. J. Hardiman, Irish Arch. 

Soc, 4to, 1846. 
0'Hanlon = Lives of the Irish Saints, 

by Very Rev. John 0'HanIon, N.D. 

(9 vols. and part of vol. 10 had been 

published at the time of the author's 

recent death). 
Oide Chloinne Lir, or Fate of the 

Children of Lir. Reprint by the 

Soc. for Preservation of the Irish 

Language, 1883. 
Oitte = Death Tales of the Ulster 

Heroes, ed. Kuno Meyer, R. I. A. 

Todd Lecture Series. 1906. 
Orig. Island. = Origines Islandicae, ed. 

Vigfiisson and York Powell, 2 vols., 

Oss. Soc. = Transactions of the Os- 

sianic Society (vol. iii. 1B57, con- 

taining Toruigheacht Dhiarmuda 

agus Ghrainne, &c., and vol. v, 1860, 



containing Imtheacht na Trom- 

dhaimhe, &c.). 
Outer Isles = Outer Isles, byA. Good- 

rich-Freer, 1902. 
Pagan Ireland ^ Pagan Ireland, an 

Archaeological Sketch, by W. G. 

Wood-Martin, 1895. 
Petrie, Round Tovvers = The eccle- 

siastical Architecture . . . [and] 

Round Towers of Ireland, . . . 

by George Petrie, and ed. 1845. 
Petrie, Tara = The History and An- 

tiquities of Tara, by George Petrie, 

Trans. R. I. A., vol. xviii, 4to, 

R', R-, V. Introduction, p. ix. 
Rawl. = RawhnsonCoUection of MSS. 

in Bodleian Library ; of these Rawl. 

B. 502 has been published in fac- 

simile by the Clarendon Press, ed. 

Kuno Meyer, folio, 1909. 
R. C. = Revue Celtique, 1870 flf. 
Reeves Adamn. or Rs. Ad. =Adam- 

nan's Life of St. Columba, ed. Dr. 

Wm. Reeves, Irish Arch. and Celtic 

Soc, and Bannatyne Club, 4to, 

Reeves, Culdees, = The Culdees of the 

British Islands^by Dr. Wm. Reeves, 

Trans. R. I. A., vol. xxiv, 4to, 1864. 
Reeves, Eccl. Ant. = Ecclesiastical 

Antiquities of Down, Connor, and 

Dromore, by Rev. Wm. Reeves, 

4to, 1847. 
Religion of Semites - Lectures on the 

Religion of the Semites, by W. 

Robertson-Smith, new ed.. 1894. 
Rennes MS=The Irish MS. at 

Rennes (cited for the Irish Life of 

St. Colman mac Luachain ; ed. by 

Prof. K. Meyer in preparation). 
Rhjs, A. L. = Studies in the Arlhurian 

Legend, by John Rhys, 1891. 
Rhys.F.L. = CelticFo!klore,Welshand 

Manx,byJohn Rhys,2vols., igoi. 
Rhys, H. L. =The Hibbert Lectures 

for i886, on Celtic Heathendom, by 

John Rhys. 1888. 
R. I. A. = Royal Irish Academy. 
R. S. = Rolls Series. 
S. (in critical notes), v. Introducticn, 

p. ix, 
St. Malo = Deux Vies incdites de 

Saint Malo, ed. Dom F. Plaine et 

A, de la Borderie, 1884. 
Saintyves = Les Saints Successeurs 

dcs Dieux, P. Saintyves, 1907. 
Silva Gad. = Silva Gadelica, a Collec- 

tion of Tales in Irish, ed, Standish 
H, 0'Grady. 2 vols. , 1892. 
Sim. Dun. = Simeon of Durham, ed. 

T. Arnold (R, S.), 2 vols,, 1882-5. 
Skene, C. S. = Celtic Scotland by 

W. F. Skene, 3 vols. 1876-80. 
T (in critical notes), v. Introduction, 

p. ix. 
TainBoFraich.ed. J.O'Beirne Crowe, 
R. I. A, Irish MSS. Series. 8vo, 
vol. i, 1870 i other eds, in Z. C. P., 
iv. 32 fT, : R. C. xxiv. 143 ff,). 
T. B. C. =Tain B6 Cualgne, ed. E. 

Windisch, 1905. 
T. C, D, = Trinity College, Dublin. 
Three Fragm. =Three Fragments of 
Annals of Ireland, ed. John 0'Dono- 
van, Irish Arch. and Celtic Soc, 
4to, 1860. 
Three Glossaries, v. Corraac. 
Three Homilies = Three Middle Irish 
Homilies, ed. Whitley Stokes, Cal- 
cutta, 1877. 
Todd, Obits, = Obits and Martyrology 
of Christ Church, Dublin, ed. J. H. 
Todd and J. C. Crosthwaite, Irish 
Arch. Soc, 4to, 1844, 
Togail Troi (or The Taking of Troy), 
ed. Whitley Stokes, Calcuita, i88a. 
Top. Poems = Irish Topographical 
Poems, ed. John 0'Donovan, Irish 
Arcli, and Celtic Soc, 1863. 
Tr. Th. = Triadis Thaumaturgae . . . 
Patricii, Columbae. et Brigidae . . . 
Acta, ed. J. Colgan, folio, 1847. 
Trans. Gael, Soe. = Transactions of 
theGaelic Society of Dublin, vol. i, 
1808 (lall published). 
v, l. = varia lectio. 

V. Tr, = Vita Tripartita, The Tripartite 
Life of Patrick, ed. Whitley Stokes 
(R, S,^. 2 vols., 1887, 
Wasscrschleben, Irische Kanonen- 

sammlung, 2tc Aufl,, 1885, 
Y. B, L, = Yellow Book of Lecan, pub- 
lished in facsimile by R. I. A., 
folio, 1896. 
Z.C.P. = Zeitschrift fOrCeltische Philo- 

logic. 1897 ff. 
Z. f, deutsches Alt. = Zeitschrift fQr 

deutschcs Alterthum. 
Zimmcr, Celtic Church,=The Celtic 
Church in Britain and Ireland, by 
H, Zimmer, translated by A. Meyer, 
Zimmer, K. B. = KeItische Beitrage, 
von H, Zimmer, in Z. f. deutsches 
Alt,, vols. xxxii, xxxiii, xxxv. 


Vita sanrti ^iibani ^i)t)atis tir JHag ^rnaitir r. .38' 

Incipit Vita Sancti Abbani ' Abbatis^ 

i. In occidentali* plaga tocius orbis est insula possita, cuius 
nomen Hybernia dicitur. Eadem ucro insula est magna ct clara 
atque ainena terra, in qua continentur maxime quinque prouinchie, 
in qua etiam nulla bestia venenosa, nec genus vllum serpentinum 
Iiabitat ; set terra sana est, morbis carens, habitabilis valde, fructifera 
in diuersis fructibus, tam in aquis, quam in terris et lignis. Habita- 
tores autcm eius bino nomine nominantur ; id est ab Hibero flumine 
Hibernia vocatur, et ab Hibernia Hibernienses vocantur. Scoti vero 
a Scota, matre eiusdem gentis, dicuntur, que fuit filia regis Egypti. 
Quomodo de Egypto ipsa venit ad Hiberniam, causa breuitatis omit- 
timus, quia satis inuenitur de illa in libris, qui narrant, quomodo in 
primis tcmporibus habitata est Hybernia^. Cultores vero Hybernie 
probati sunt in fide catholica, et in dogmatibus ecclesiasticis ; et plus 
omnibus nacionibus hospitalitatem sectantur. 

ii. De illa° silicet gente maximum sanctorum agmen sibi Deus 
elegit ; sicut veritas in euangeho ait : ' Alias oues habeo, que non 
sunt ex hoc ouiH".' Et alibi: 'Multi venient ab oriente et ab occi- 
dente, et recumbent cum Abraham ',' etc. De quorum collegio fuit 
vir vite venerabilis', Abbanus nomine, quem Deus preelegit, ante- 
quam natus fuissef; quia multi sancti viri per multa tempora, ante- 
quam natus esset, predicauerunt ipsum nasciturum. De quibus" 
sanctus Patricius arciepiscopus, tenens portum in australi parte 
Laginensium, id est Hua Cennselaidh'", cum venisset ad predicandum 
in Hibernia, dixit : 'Tres filii" vite | eterne de gente Laginensium f. 138" 

' In M the stroke of the second b is often placed so near the first b that there 
is no room for the loop of the latter, so that the name looks like Albanus. In 
other cases a later corrector has deliberately altered it to Albanus. But 
instances in which the first b comes at the end of a line, wliile the second h 
begins Ihe next hne, show clearly that the name is Abbanus ; in T it is always 
so written, and I have printed it so throughout. The editors of S print Albanus 
throughout. - On the lower margin M inserts an Irish pedigree of 

Abban, which agrees very nearly with that in LL. 352". ^ = S § i. 

* i. e. the Lebar Cabiilii, or Book of Conquests ; a well-known work, which 
exists in several recensioiis. ^ = S § i. ^ John x. 16. ' Matt. 

viii. II. ' Fuit virvite ven. was probably the original commencement of 

the Life ; the prologue about Ireland and the Irish being subsequently added. 
' = Ir. c. 3. '" Chens- T. " Nota tres sanctos maiores Laginensium 

T marg. 



nascentur, quorum nomina vocabuntur Abbanus, Coemgenus, et 
Molyng^ Ipsi maiores sanctorum Laginensium erunt; et per merita 
eorum, quamuis nondum nati sunt, Deum modo rogabo. Quia illi 
\enturi sunt lucerne clarissime hominibus, pia opera et Deo placita 
ciarificaturi, et propter eos conuertam Laginenses ad Christi fidem, 
set non modo ; quia Deus predestinauit mihi prius ire in aquilonales 
partes Hybernie, et postea ociosius venire ad Laginenses, quia ipsi 
beliigeri sunt.' Nomina vero aliorum, et quomodo predicauerunt de 
sancto Abbano, propter breuitatcm omittimus, nisi quomodo in hora 
natiuitatis eius predicauit de eo' sanctus Ybarus episcopus. 

iii. Sanctus' ergo Abbanus de claro genere Laginensium, silicet 
de Dal Macscorb ', ortus cst ; cuius pater vocabatur Corniacus, qui 
erat rex Laginensium. Mater autem eius vocabatur Mella, que fuit 
soror Ybari episcopi. Illa uero mater nimiis partus doloribus 
tenebatur. Cum tempus parturiendi Abbanum venisset, episcopus 
Ybarus vocatus est ad sororem suam pene mortuam. At illa videns 
eum uenientem versum sequentem Scotica lingua dixit '" : — 

Easpoc Ibhair dom chabhair'; 

Ise raiter" mar urra"; 

Cuinngheadh dilgeadh mo cheanadh ' ; 

Romghabhsat idhun ghura '". 

Et cpiscopus alterum eadem lingua dixit : 

Easpoc Ibhair atarradh " ; 
Rotghabhsat idhun '- gura ; 
Bera abb " uasal amhra ; 
Rotcabhra righ nannula". 

' -ling T. 2 deo/orde eo T. ' = S § 2; Ir. c. i. ' Mhachscorp T. 

'' On margin of M : rann annso, i. e. ' this is a verse.' * espoc Ibhuir dom 

chobhuir T. ' se raitir T ; se ro fidir Colg. from Ir. (Br.') ; ' railir ' is con- 

tracted for ro fitir, ' knows.' ' mo runa Colg. from Ir. (Br.) ; and the Latin 

rendering 'secreta' shows that this is right. " Cungedh dilguidh mo 

chenadh T ; dilgadh mo chinadh Ir. (Br.). '» On this line M and T both 

have the follovving quite erroneous gloss : idhun .i. pura. gura .i. ut sim .1. 
ut sim pura. The whole verse may be rendered : 

Bishop Ibar to my aid ! 
It is he who knoweth my secrets ; 
Let him ask forgiveness of my sins ; 
Sharp travail-pangs have overtaken me. 

" for atfharrad, whicli is the reading of Ir. "* idhain Ir. (Br.) and so above. 
'■' niac Ir. Colg. ; which is also confirmed by the Latin rendering 'filium'. 
" na n-dula Ir. Colg. The whole may be rendered : 

Bishop Ibar is bcfore thee ; 
Sharp travail-pangs have overtakcn thee. 
Tliou shalt bcar a noble wondrous abbot; (o/-son) 
May thc king of the elcracnts aid thee ! 


Isti versus possunt sic latine interpretari. Regina 'in' primo rogauit 
episcopum seientem secreta eius, iit orarct pro ea, et pro rcmissionc 
sibi peccatorum. Et episcopus in secundo ipsam a Deo adiuuandam 
a doloribus suis predicat, et sibi filium nasciturum altissinium et 
mirabilem esse coram Deo et hominibus. Statim ucro regina sine 
uila tribulacione sanctum infantem genuit ; et in illa hora baptissatus 
est, eratque plenus gratia Dei. Diligentissime sanctus puer Abbanus 
a nutritoribus suis nutritus est, putantes eum regem esse post patrem 

iv. CuM ' autem beatus puer potuisset ambulare, ad ecciesiam ibat; 
et ibi, quasi senex religiosus, assidue orabat ; grauiaque ieiunia 
fortiter in infancia sustinebat. Et ita permansit usque ad obitum 
suum, studiosissimus in vigiliis et ieiuniis, atque orationibus -, et' in 
elymosinis, ac in dilectione proximi, et in ceteris diuinis mandatis. 
Verbaque scienter diuina, ut loqui potuit, omnibus hominibus predi- 
cabat*, quasi fuisset peritus in scripturis. Et vere erat peritus in 
scripturis ; quia a natiuitate sua Sanctus Spiritus eum docebat. Sua- 
debatque verbis et operibus homines, ut hoc caducum seculum 
despicerent, et sequerentur Christum crucifixum pro eis; et sibi vitam 
eternam a Deo postularent. 

v. Parentes' autem eius et ceteri homines mirabantur de vita et 
moribus eius honestis, dicentes ad invicem : 'Nescimus qualis est iste 
puer, qui nec didicit apud ullum hominem, et opera religiosorum 
seniorum facit, et studia doctorum docet.' De hoc contigit, ut alii 
aduiantes ei, alii vero volentes placere menti eius, alii autem temp- 
tantes eum, si sibi placeret regnum terrenum habere, vocarent eum : 
' O rex,' et loquerentur ei de regalibus rebus, et promisissent eum 
regem futurum | post patrem suum. Puer sanctus, audiens homines f. 139" 
talia verba de se loquentes,increpauit eos, dicens : 'Miseri homines, 
cur me regem dicitis .' quia non solum non ero rex, set nullam aliani 
curam secularem habebo ; quoniam volo seruire Domino meo lesu 
Christo, qui dat sibi seruientibus regnum indeficiens.' Pater autem eius 
et mater, scientes quod ipse hec verba dixisset, vocatus ad eos, dixerunt 
ei : 'Fili, curnon vis esse propagator regni post patrem tuum ? Plus te 
oportet equitare, venatum ire,iam vti ludis militaribus, vt, cum senuerit 
pater tuus, tu exires ante Laginenses contra alienos pro patria certare.' 
■ Ouare ', inquit, ' vvltis prohibere me famulari Deo Patri omnipotenti, 
Creatori celi et terre, qui Vnigenitum suum propiciacionem pro toto 
mundo misit; et Filio eius, qui obediens fuit Patri usque ad mortem ; 
et Spiritui Sancto, qui suis donis illustrauit humanum genus ? quia 
vaticinatus sum a famulis Domini, Dei miles, et non miles huius seculi. 

' = S 5 2 ; Ir. c. 2. 5 et oratione T. ^ atque T. * pred. omn. 

hom. T. = = S § 3 ; Ir. c. 3. 


Ergo scitote me famulum semper sanctc Trinitatis, id est, Patriset Filii 
ct Spiritus Sancti.' 

vi. Cum' autem audisset rex eum loquentcm talem sententiam, iratus 
iussit eum constringi et cathcnari cathenis, donec hec vcrba mutarct. 
Et iurauit rex, nisi puer promisisset quod ° esset secularis, martirium 
acciperet. Compulsus uero sanctus Dei a facie regis, cum esset 
paratus ad martirium, hylaris magis ac magis voce magna clamabat : 
'SeruusDei' ego sum ; a cuius seruitute potestas huius mundi me 
separare non potest.' In sequenti etiam nocte, cum esset in custodia, 
omnia vincula eius diuina virtute confracta sunt, et, circumstantibus 
custodibus, solutus inventus est. Moc cum nunciatuni esset regi, non 
iussit eum itenmi ligari ; set motus pietate, et rogante eum regina 
flebili rogatu, Hberum illum dimisit. 

vii. CuJi ' ergo omnipotens Deus famulum suum Abbanum ad 
ecclesiam ad discendos ecclesiasticos mores cum licentia parcntum 
suorum adducere uoluisset, ut, sicut dignum est, esset prius sub 
niagisterio, qui a Deo predestinatus est^ pater et magister multorum 
futurus, hoc miraculum, quod audituri estis, patrauit per eum, ne plus 
contra uoluntatem sancti pueri parentes 'sui' retinerent eum ; quia 
noluit ire ab eis nisi cum licentia et benedictione. Quodam dic cum 
aliis pueris coetaneis suis exeuntibus ad ludendum in agro sanctus 
Abbanus perrexit, et cum alii luderc cepissent, ipsc seorsum exiuit, ut 
Deum adoraret. In loco quidem stetit, in quo circa eum vituli ville 
fuerunt. Tunc venit misera luppa cum catulis suis de silua propinqua 
per vitulos, et steterunt ante eum. Videns uero piissimus puer 
miseriam eorum, et cos macilcntos ' fuissc, motus miscricordia precepit 
eis, ut comederent vnum de vitulis. Statim luppi irruentes, occiderunt 
vitulum, ef comederunt velociter. Nonne mirandum est, quod luppi 
esurientcs per suam escam, et non tangcntcs, ad sanctum vcnirent, et 
vituli, videntes deuoratorcs suos ad sc uenientes, non fugerunt a ser\'o 
Dci ? Tamen non est mirandum, quia Deus subiccit iumenta famulo 
f. 139'' sibi seruienti pro duabus causis. Pro vna quidcni, ut ipsc | plus arderet 
in amore Dei ; pro alia, ut dimittcrctur ipsc liber ad seruicndum Deo. 
Saciatis autem lupis, ire ceperunt circumeuntes eum, ct quasi bcne- 
dicentes ei pro suo prandio. Tunc contigit, ut pueri, dc ludo ccssantes, 
ct' querentes dominum suum, vcnirent ad locum, in quo erat sanctus 
puer"; videntesque"' luppos cum crucntis capitibus sanguine vituli, 
accussare et increpare atrocissimis" vcrbis sanctum pucrumcepcrunt. ''' 
Pastorcs ucro vlularc, et sc laccrare prc timorc non ccssant, dicentes 
quoil non viueret vituli mater. Porro Cliristi milcs, audiens quod non 

' S. Ir. u. s. = ut T. s Dei dixit T. < = S § 4. ^ pred. est a 

Dco T. " -lentcs T. ' et bis T. * ccssantes et om. T. " om. T. 

'" viJcntcs igitur T. " atrosissis T. '- fecerunt T. 


viuerct vac[c]a post mortcm vituli sui, ct pastores timoratos, motus 
uiisericordia orauit ad Dominuui, dicens : ' Dominc Dcus meus, qui 
lccistihanc creaturam dc nichilo, reuiuilicaistum vitulum.ut ueniat viuus 
ad matrem suam.' Hec et hiis simiHa sancto pucro diccntc, signauit 
signaculo crucis Christi cadaver, et ilico ante omnes qui erant ibi, caro 
ct pellis ossa nuda inducrunt, eratque eiusdem coloris et magnitudinis 
quahs prius fuerat ; ct surgens de terra, cucurrit ludens et mugiens' 
nd aiios vitulos. Pueri vero videntes hoc magnum miraculum, pro 
viribus suis ad castcllum cucurrerunt, et nunciauerunt regi, quod 
factum fucrat. Audicns rex tale miraculum per tilium suum factum, 
in corde suo gauisus est, et ante omnes regni sui principes - cum rcgina 
inatre eius decreuit eum cum licentia omnium, sicut placuit anime sue' 
stabiiis pueri, semper Dco seruire. 

viii. PosTE.-v ' sanctus Abbanus a parentibus suis ad sanctum 
Ybarum ' episcopum, germanum matris sue, adductus est ; et gloriosus 
pontifex suscepit illum gaudens. Non ideo tantum ^ sanctus epi- 
scopus gavisus est in adventu eius, eo quod filius regis et sororis sue 
esset, set quia eum plenum Spiritu Sancto esse sciuit, et pium patrem 
futurum ' multorum ser\'orum Dei, et hominum exercitum multum 
conuersurum per eum de iugo dyaboli ad Christum. Videamus, 
karissimi, ne simus in concupiscentiis huius seculi, sicut nec iste 
sanctus fuit ; quia sanctus Abbanus regis filius erat, et a patre suo 
ligatus est constringi in hoc seculo, etpene ad martirium estadductus; 
atque cum esset electus rex post patrem suum a toto regno, puerulus 
et indoctus, res caducas ex corde suo spreuit, et Christo famulari, 
sicut promisit, compleuit '. Igitur oportet nos eum preponere nobis 
in' exemplum, ut fugiamus hunc mundum, et cum eo mereamur 
habere dominicam promissionem, qua dicitur : ' Qui vicerit, faciam 
eum '" columpnam in templo Dei mei,' " et cetera. Diuina misericordia 
nos adiuvante, sermonem modo vertamus narrarc de vita sancti 
Abbani, et de miraculis que Deus fecit per eum. 

ix. DuoDECiM '- annorum erat sanctus Abbanus, quando venit ad 
sanctum Ybarum episcopum, ut Deo nutriretur sub magisterio eius ; 
et cum eo in sanctitate et lenitate, atque in mira conuersacione 
multis annis vixit. Cepit namque statim in scripturisproficere", non 
solum in diuinis, set ceterarum artium, sicut mos est iuuenum in 
iuuentute aliquid gustare de dulcedine et astucia disciplinarum 
auctonim ; ita ut mirarentur ceteri de profunditate scientie, sapientie, 
atque eloquiorum eius ; set'* tunc ipsi non debelrent de sapientia f. 139' 

' Here there is a change of ink, and probably of hand in T. - princ. 

regni sui T. » sue oni. T. * = S § 5 ; §§ viii-x = Ir. c. 5. ^ 15. 1 

« tam T. ' from T ; om. M. » sicut compl. prom. T (inepte). ' om. T. 

'» ei T. " Apoc. iii. 13. "* = S § 5. ^ proficecere T. '* de prof. 
sapientie eius et eloquio ; set T. 


eius mirari, quia in domo patris sui puerrulus et indoctus, disputans 
cum omnibus, de divinis scripturis testimonia proferebat, docente 
se Spiritu Sancto. Et ab eodem Spiritu semper inspirabatur diuinitus. 
Innumerabiles enim' sancti monachi, clerici, et sancte moniales' 
in diuersis locis per totam Hiberniam tempore illo sub magisterio 
sancti Ybari erant. Set beatus episcopus Ybarus in famosissimo et' 
optimo suo monasterio, quod vocatur Beag Erinn*, plus habitabat 
quam in aliis locis, quia multum locum illum ° diligebat. Illud uero 
monasterium in australi parte Hua Cennselaidh " est possitum in 
insula mari vallata'; et insula et monasterium vno nomine dicuntur, 
id est Beag Erind ', quod latine interpretatur " parua Hibernia '". In illo 
autem monasterio reliquie beatissimi antistitis Ybari iacent, et 
honorifice coluntur, atque ipse locus honoratur ab Hyberniensibus 
pro nomine sancti Ybari ualde ; " quia ipse vnus erat egregius 
dispensator diuini dogmatis de prioribus predicatoribus, quos elegit 
Deus, ut Hibernienses de gentilitate ad fidem Christi'^ conuerterent. 
Ibique clara et maxima miracula per eum non cessant a Deo ostendi. 
Ipse uero de gente Ultorijm ortus est, que est quinta pars Hibernie ; 
set Deus illum Laginensibus largitus est, ut in regionis eorum humo 
sanctissimum corpus eius iaceret; et ut hic, et in futuro, sufTragio 
ipsius defenderentur. 

X. RoGAMUs" et adiuramus vos, fratre karissimi, in Christo lesu, 
ut omnia, que audistis, et audituri estis patrante Deo per famulum 
suum Abbanum, omni credulitate credatis. et nichil in eis dubitetis, 
scientes scripturam dicentem : ' Omnia possibilia sunt credenti ".' Et 
sicut dicit lacobus apostolus : ' Postulet in fide, nichil hesitans".' 
Et in Apochalipsi dicitur : ' Potestatem habent super aquas '^' Et 
beatus Petrus apostolus dicit : ' Quis est qui noceat uobis, si boni 
[acmulatores] " fueritis ".' ' Humiliamini sub potenti manu Dei, ut uos 
exaltet ".' lohannes apostolus dicit : ' Omnis, qui habct spem in 
Domino lesu, sanctificat se, sicut et ille sanctus est'".' Et Dominus in 
euangelio in aure apostolorum credentibus in se: 'Amen, amen, 
dico uobis, qui crcdit in me, opera que ego facio, et" ipse faciet ; 
et maiora horum facict. Et quodcunque petieritis Patrem in nomine 
meo, hoc faciam -'.' De hoc autem testimonio nemo potest dubitare. 
Hinc lohannes apostolus dicit : ' Si testimonium hominum accipimus, 
testimonium Dei maius''' est "*.' Ideo ergo, dilectissimi clientes, vobis 

' autem T. - sanctimon. T. ^ et in T. ' Becherinn T. '' ill. loc. T. 
' Chensealay T. ' vall. mari T. * Bec h Erind T. ' int. lat. T. 

'" insula uero . . . sita est . . . iuxta villam que dicitur Loch Garmun, aiid. S. 
" Nota quod reliquie sancti Yba[ri] sunt in insulade Bec h[Ennd] queest prope 
Vasfordia[m] T marg. " Chr. fid. T. " Not in S. " Mk. ix. aa. 

'^ James i. 6. '« Apoc. xi. 6. " om. M T. " i Pet. iii. 13. " ib. v. 6. 
'" I John iii. 2. ■' et om. M. " John xiv. I3, 13. -' magis M. 

" I John V. 9. 


omnia sunt credenda, que Christus per se credentem, et custodientem 
omnia eius mandata a natiuitatc sua usque ad obitum suum [fecit] '. 
Ad hcc igitur narranda, et erga ea vos prcmonuimus, ne sit dubium 
vobis in eis, Deo suffragante, nos modo stilum- conuertimus. 

De ambulacione eius super mare 
xi. QuoDAM " tcmpore sanctus Ybarus cpiscopus, cum esset in 
supradicto loco, volens se presentare sedi apostolice, decreuit Romam 
adire, ardens peregrinacionis dcsiderio pro Christi amore. Et iussit 
sibi nauim cicius cum omnibus necessariis suis preparari. Audiens 
autem beatus Abbanus quod sanctus Ybarus se peregrinum esse 
uolebat, venit, et inclinauit se ante pedes eius, rogans eum cum 
suspiriis, | ut sibi hcentiam eundi sccum in peregrinacione donaret, f. 739'' 
ardens sanctus adolescens simili ardore amoris peregrinandi. Sanctus 
autem Ybarus, et qui sub eo erant, vno animo optauerunt beatum 
Abbanum in loco Ybari episcopi* esse, si ipse non rediret ; videntes 
eum plcnum Spiritu Sancto, et signa magna a Deo per eum facta ^ 
Decreucruntque eum omnes cum episcopo, ut in illo monasterio 
maneret, donec episcopus reueniret de peregrinacione. Rogaue- 
runtque eum omnes cum episcopo, ut hoc uotum et consilium admitteret, 
et quodcunque ei iusserat episcopus, libencius faceret. Sanctus 
uero Abbanus nullo modo precibus eorum adhesit, set indubitanter 
in peregrinacione se profecturum promisit. Tunc sanctus Ybarus 
iratus cum indignatione a se iussit eum abire, et promisit coram 
populo, quod non dimisisset eum secum in naui ; set tamen, cogno- 
scens bonitatem et felicitatem eius, non maledixit ei, nichilque asperum 
sibi euenire uoluit, quia sciuit eum inspiratum esse a Spiritu Sancto. 

xii. PosTEA sanctus pontifex cum omni populo perrexit ad locum, 
in quo nauis erat parata ; et valedicens populo, cum preordinatis di- 
scipulis in nauim intrare cepit. Adhuc vero erat sanctus Abbanus in 
comitatu, et iterum rogavit pontificem pro peticione eadem, atque 
iterum sanctus etiam antistes respuit eum cum iuramento secum 
venire. Hoc audiens seruus Dei, tristis redire et flere cepit. Sanctus 
vero episcopus, ut vidit eum reuertentem, flentem et lacrimantem, 
valde amans eum, reuocauit eum ad se, et dixit ei : ' Fili mi, 
pone capud tuum in sinum meum.' Ut ille uero posuit, statim 
dormiuit. Ipso autem dormiente, episcopus caput eius super 
terram posuit ^, iussitque populum reuerti in domum suam ; et ipse 
cum comitibus suis nauim intrauit. Famulus autem Domini in illo 
loco dormiens, solus dimissus est, et omnes recesserunt ab eo. 

' om. M T. - stilam M T. = Both M and T have the heading to this 

section ; while M in addition gives the word ' quodam ' in exceptionally largc 
letters, showing that a new beginning is here made ; §§ xi, xii = S § 6; Ir. c. 6. 
* bisT. ' perfecta T. ^ repoposuit in ter. T m. pr. 


Interea sanctus Ybarus iussit nauis gubernatoribus operam dare ad 
nauim gubernandam ; et cum gubernatoresanchoram in nauimtulissent, 
eleuatoque sursum uelo, et inspirante vento ab aquiione ceperunt 
nauigare. Tunc nauis velociter currere cepit, tendens ad mare 
magnum. Alii quidem fratres, volentes scire quid seruus Dei faceret 
post dormicionem suam, longe ab eo steterunt, et respiciebant eum. 
Completa autem hora, ipse surrexit de sompno, statimque mare 
aspiciens, vidit nauem vclantem et natantem longissime a terra in 
mari, ita ut vix potuit discernere quod nauis esset, uel nubes. Tunc 
diuina dispensacio cor eius trino amore impleuit; id est amore 
peregrinacionis, amore pii magistri sui, atque maiori amore silicet 
sancte Trinitatis. Et tunc intentissime ex profunditate cordis sui 
ad Deum orauit, flectens genua, et dicens : Domine Deus omni- 
potens, qui in Trinitate permanes et vnitate concordie, subueniat 
mihi volcnti tibi famulari misericordia tua, qui eduxisti populum tuum 
per mare rubrum et lordanem siccis pedibus, cui seruiunt omnes 
creature tue, fac me, quidquid de me vis, facere ; set in nomine tuo 
atque dilectissimi Filii tui, Domini mei lesu Christi, Sanctique Spiritus 
intrabo nunc super mare, confidens in dono pietatis tue.' Hec et hiis 
f. 140° similia dicens, cucurrit' | in marc, et dixit". ' In manus tuas, Domine, 
commendo spiritum meum \' Exiuit velocissimo cursu rectoque 
itinere post nauem, non respiciens post tergum, nec ad dexteram, 
neque ad sinistram, set ante se ; et angeli Dei concurrere cum co 
per mare videbantur. Predicti illi fratres videntes hoc, precabantur 
Deum assidue pro eo, glorificantes Dominum, et sibi gratias agentes, 
atque renunciantes coram populo ; et omnes qui hoc audierunt, 
Deo gloriam dederunt. Nauis itaque in medio maris stctit in loco, 
in quo fuit quando sanctus Dci super mare intrauit ; et non inde 
exiuit, donec ipse ad eam peruenit. Gubernatores siquidem 
et discipuli episcopi, videntes quod minime nataret nauis, hoc 
indicauerunt episcopo. Tunc repletus cpiscopus diuino Spiritu, ait 
eis : ' Signate vos, fratres, signaculo crucis Christi, quia modo videbitis 
maximum miraculum factum a Deo. Ecce cnim famulus Domini, 
qucm non dimissimus nobiscum in nauim, currens supcr vndas, 
commitantesque eum angeli Dei, cito adueniet.' Adhuc episcopo 
loquente, viderunt eum ad se velocissime venientem ; alii dicebant 
quod curreret, alii quod uolaret, pre uelocitate cursus, quia angelica 
conductionc confortabatur. Cum autem peruenit ad nauim, valde 
gaudcntes, et pre gaudio flentes, acceperunt eum ad se in nauim. 
Ilico soluta est nauis; et postca cum omni screnitatc nauigauerunt 
usque ad Britaniam. 
xiii. PosT* hec die quodam perambulantes famuli Dei, sanctus 

1 curritT. 2 dicit T. ^ p,, xxx. 6. <=S§7;Ir. c.7. In Ir. 

tlie incidents of §§ xiii-xvii takcplace at Padua in Italy. 


Ybarus et sanctus Abbanus, cum commitibus suis in ausfrali partc 
Britanie, peruenerunt ad quandam ' ciuitatem gentilcm, ct deditam 
ydolis. Intrantibus vero iliis forum ciuitatis, mirabantur ciues de 
habitu et loquela eorum. Alii putabant cos fantasmata csse, alii vero 
homines de terra longinqua. Statim dc ipsis ante regem ciuitatis 
verbum fuit, et rex iussit eos ad se deduci. Et cum venissent, rex 
interrogauit eos vnde essent, et quo ircnt, et que fuit causa iteneris 
eorum. Tunc promissione dominica completa, qua dicitur : ' Linguis 
loquentur nouis -,' dixit ei sanctus Ybarus episcopus : ' Si genus 
nostruni queris, Hybernienses sumus ; si ad quem locum pergimus, 
Romam ; si causam, vt ibi Deum omnipotcntcm orcmus pcr merita 
apostolorum, martyrum, confessorum, et virginum, qui in illo loco 
post diabolum superatum ad regnum celeste migrauerunt.' Set 
quando rex audiuit episcopum dicentem Deum omnipotentem, ait : 
' Quis est Deus omnipotens ? ' Tunc episcopus, plenus Dei gratia, de 
Patre, et FiKo, et Spiritu Sancto diligentissime predicauit. Rex 
iterum ait : ' Quid dicis de diis nostris ? ' Episcopus respondit, dicens : 
' Non est nisi vnus Deus ; set cogit vos dyabolus adorare simulacra, 
que manibus vestris construitis. Deus autem noster, qui fecit celum 
et terram, mare, et omnia que in eis sunt, super vniuersas creaturas, 
quas fecit, tonat ; et non solum qui hec viderunt, set qui in eum 
credunt, signa magna in nomine eius faciunt.' Tunc ait rex : ' Facite 
igitur signa in conspectu meo modo, quia vos creditis in eum ; et nisi 
feceritis, decollabimini iudicio meo, ct canes et uolucres comedent 
corpora vcstra.' Ait episcopus : ' Si ergo fecerimus signum in nomine 
Dei nostri, tu credes' in eum ? ' | Promittente rege credere, iussit ei ^.'140* 
episcopus, ut peteret signum. Et rex dixit: 'Vnus ex vobis sine 
igne set sua hanela candelam accendat, ut ante me ardeat.' 'In illa 
uero hora sanctus Abbanus lassus a via dormiebat'*. Accipien'te' ergo 
sancto episcopo candelam, et non valente eam accendere, appropin- 
quanti sibi de suis dedit, et ipse non valens, simili niodo alter ab altero 
usque ad extremum accipiebat, et candelam non accenderunt. Videntes 
autem lictores quod non potuissent accendere, evaginare gladios 
ceperunt, iubente rege, volentes eos percutere. Tunc dixit eis 
episcopus : ' Expectate paulisper, quia non nobis hoc donum Deus 
donauit, set illi dormienti, quoniam, nobis nauigantibus, ipse suis 
pedibus super mare ambulauit, et nostra nauis eum in medio maris 
expectauit.' Steterunt 'autem' illi, audientes hoc uerbum. Esperge- 
factus ergo sanctus Abbanus de sompno, signans se signaculo sancte 
crucis, ante omnes sua hanela candelam accendit. Flamma vero eius 
lucidissima erat ; mirum dictu nullo modo passa est extingui, quousque 

' Here ends T mutilated, at the end of a fold. - Mk. xvi. 17. ' credis 

m. pr. ■* in illa . . . dormiebat, on margin. 


consumpta erat tota. Pagani iam videntes talia miracula, tremefacti 
sunt in semet ipsis ; Christiani vero gratias Deo dederunt. 

xiv. In diebus ' illis vxor regis eiusdem graui dolore torquebatur, 
et in illo die, quo sancti viri in ciuitatem que dicitur Abbaindun vel 
Dun Abbain venerunt, mortua est : set sedente rege pro tribunali et 
iudicante, nesciens adliuc suam uxorem mortuam fuisse, venit ad euni 
tristis nuncius, et indicauit ei. Statimque audiens rex, perrexit ad 
corpus eius uelociter,et fleuit amare ; et postea, diuinaspirante gratia 
in se, reuersus est ad sanctos Dei cum gemitibus et flebili uoce, 
rogauitque eos, ut in nomine Domini Dei sui uxorem suam a morte 
suscitarent, promittens se indubitanter credere in Deum, et cum illa 
baptizari. Tunc ait sanctus Ybarus ei : ' Illum, qui candelam ante te 
hodie sua anhela accendit, duc tecum, ut oret pro ea. Sibi enim 
tantam gratiam, ut meretur, dedit Deus mortuos suscitare.' Interea 
rex adduxit beatum Abbanum ad tectum triste, obuiantes sibi turbe 
vrbane funebria carmina canentes. Intrans Dei sanctus domum, in 
qua erat corpus exanime, salutauit ex euangelico imperio illam, et 
orauit ex intimo rogatu ad Dominum, ut ostenderet ibi potenciam 
suam ad reginam suscitandam, et ut tali testimonio gentiles ad fidem 
conuerterentur. Ipso ita orante, anima eius in suum corpus intrauit, 
et statim in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus sancti, vir sanctus 
iussit ei, ut surgeret ; et sine moraad uocem eius illasurrexit. Atque 
sanctus eam viuam ante omnes viro suo reassignauit. Illa uero 
testificata est, que a sanctis sunt predicta, vera esse ; et clara testi- 
monia de gloria Trinitatis perhibuit. In hora uero illa rex et regina 
baptizati sunt ; et, ipsis iubentibus,omnes qui ibidem erant, similiter, 
totaque ciuitas de errore ad vitam veritatis conuersi sunt. Ecclesia 
uero Dei ibi edificata, et ecclesiasticis viris a sancto pontifice ordinatis, 
famuli Domini omnia ydola et simulacra ipsius loci habentes in sua 
potestate fregerunt, et igni tradiderunt. 

f. 140' I XV. Eodem'' tempore ferus erat ualde venenosus et incognitus in 
illis regionibus in territorio ciuitatis ipsius ; et pene obsedit ciuitatem, 
et magnam partem regionis deuastauit. Similis quidem forma et 
fortitudine leoni erat, set rabies eius intoierabilis apparuit, quia 
p.ovincialis exercitus et rex cum militibus suis sepe contra eum 
certauerunt, et nichil ei nocere potuerunt, set ab ipso solo supcrati sunt; 
et in vniuersis temptacionibus trecentos homines occidit. Homines 
uero non valentes sibi resistere, recedebant ab eo ; et quocunque 
ucllet ire, secure ambulabat, et in propinquo eiusdem ciuitatis magis 
habitabat. De hoc illi, qui tunc effecti sunt Christiani, qucrimoniam 
fecerunt ad sanctum Abbanum, ut talem dyabolicam bestiam in 

» = S 5 8 ; Ir. c. 8. 2 ^ S § 9 ; Ir. c. 9. 


nomine 'Christi' de terra expelleret. Famulus Dei audiens hanc 
miseriam, cum hominibus scientibus vbi esset bestia, perrexit ; et 
indicantes ei locum, in quo erat, reuersi sunt ab eo timentes, et 
velocius currentes. Continuo enim leonalis bestia furens de sua 
spelunca in agro odorans hominem ibi accedere, venit ; et miles 
Christi inermis contra eam audacter ' accessit. Erunipens uerobestia 
in viribus suis et in omni impetu obuiauit seruo Dei ; et ipse signo 
crucis Christi e contra signauit, dicens : ' O diabolica radix, tibi dico 
in nomine Domini mei lesu Christi, depone venenum tuum, et morere.' 
Ad hanc vocem ferus in terram cecidit, et expirauit, atque apparuit 
mortuus. Homines autem illi ualde gauisi sunt, audientes 'et videntes' 
eum esse mortuum ; et inde gratias Deo egerunt, atque firmiores in 
fide erant, glorificantes sanctum Dei. 

xvi. Iterum - ipsi homines ad sanctum Abbanum de bestiishabi- 
tantibus in stagno quod[am] ante ciuitatem eandem, que erant ualde 
venenose (quia in tempore eorum, qui tunc vixerunt, centum 
homines occiderunt ; numerus vero peccorum non est presto), 
aliam querimoniam fecerunt, dicentes : ' Adhuc magnifica nomen 
Christi ante nos cui per te credimus, liberando nos ab istis 
bestiis, que manent in stagno illo, et cum ad horam currunt 
in terram, et homines et peccora occidunt.' Volens uero Dei 
famulus nomen Christi magnis rebus illis ostendere, abiit ' cum ipsis 
ad stagnum, et solus ante omnes in aquam intrauit, et statim aspere 
bestie cum horridis vvltibus festinantes venerunt ad eum ; et videntes 
vvltum eius angelicum, omnes impetum deposuerunt, et mites steterunt 
ad pedes sancti. Ipse siquidem iussit eas secum ire in profundo laci, 
et ibi constituit locum eis, ligans eas, ut in eo habitarent usque ad 
finem mundi. Et de piscibus laci omni die annonam eis constituit ; 
et ab illa hora usque in hodiernum diem inde non apparuerunt, et 
nemini nocuerunt. Set ex illo loco, in quo sunt ligate bestie, motus 
tocius stagni adhuc in septimo anno in signum virtutis videtur. 
Redeunte uero sancto Dei de stagno, populus videns eum incolumem 
de immenso periculo venisse, Deo gratias egit, glorificans sanctum 
virum; et gaudens reuersus est in ciuitatem cum ipso. | Interea f. 140'' 
sanctus Ybarus et sanctus Abbanus dimittentes ibi fundatores ecclesie 
et cultores uere fidei, acceptaque a populo licentia et benedictione, 
Romam perrexerunt, et vota sua ibi soluentes, reuersi sunt ad 

xvii. Tribus* vicibus sanctus Abbanus in peregrinacione pro Christi 
nomine Romam perrexit. Quodam igitur die contigit sibi esse in 
littore maris orans, et benedicens Deum ; vidit ingentem vndam 

' aucdacter m. pr. ^ >= S § lo ; Ir. c. lo. * MS. abbiit. * = S 

§5 II, 13 ; Ir. c. 12. 


de niedio maris ad se iam dirigentem, et in altum in modum collis 
surgentem, et minantem propinquam terram transire. Hoc sanctus 
videns periculum, recordatus verbi Domini dicentis : ' Cum audieritis 
prelia, nolite terreri '.' Timetur quidem uere plus quod videtur, quam 
quod auditur, et terribile prelium fragili humanc nature fuit, videre 
abyssum tumentem, et non fugere eam ; et forte fuit sibi stare contra 
vndosum certamen. Vir beatus, eleuatis manibus in celum, baculum 
suum sub plantis posuit; et nichil curans de suo periculo, rogauit 
Christum, ne mare terram habitabilem humanis vsibus dissiparet. 
Quid plura ? Vnda preter Htus non attigit, set Dei famulum stantem 
super baculum secum traxit in pelago. Cum esset in medio mari, 
horrida turba demonum venit ad eum, clamavitque vocibus horridis, 
dicens : ' Miser homo, hora hac in hiis fluctibus mergeris, et corpus 
tuum comedent belue ; et iiiiuriam, quam fecisti nobis, conuertendo 
gentilem populum ad Christum, et frangendo simulacra in quibus 
habitabamus, occidendo et ligando bestias, que ex nostris insidiis 
occiderunt homines, vindicabimus in te.' Sanctus autem intente 
psalmos et diuinos ympnos canens, nichil eis adhuc respondens, et 
circumuallabant eum ex omni parte, minantes ei vitam auferre, et 
dicentes quod ipsi eduxerunt eum ad hoc periculum. Tunc sanctus 
ait eis: 'Magnus 'e'st Dominus Deus noster, et magna uirtus eius -; 
vos autem nichil virtutis habetis, set ex insidiis seducitis mundum.' 
Interea suauissimum carmen auditum est ab angelis Dei, de celo 
venientibus et dicentibus : ' Mirabilis Dcus in sanctis suis'. Vos 
igitur, infernales habitatores, a famulo Dci rccedite, et ne inquietetis 
eum ; quia vobis nusquam placuit.' Expellentibus uero angelis Dei, 
recesserunt demones. Tunc angelus Domini accessit ad sanctum 
Abbanum dicens : ' Multis usque ad finem mundi nauigium tuum 
hodie, famule Christi, proderit.' Sanctusait: 'Quomodo?' Angelus 
respondit : ' In ueritate Dei tibi dico', quicunque inuocauerit nomcn 
tuuni intrans in nauem, dicens ter in nomine Trinitatis: 

Curach Abbain ar a lind 
Muinnter fhinn Abbain ind '. 

de illa nauigacione non mergetur, set incolumis ad terram perueniet.' 
Ita interpretatur latine quod angelus dixit scotice : ' Nauis Abbani supcr 
aquas, familia pulcra Abbani in ea.' Tunc sanctus Deo gratias egit 
de ista promissione magis, quam ipsum a pelago liberari. Et dixit 
angelus ad eum : ' Per trecentos et dccem " annos a natiuitate tua usque 
ad obitum tuum viues, Deo militans tanto temporc sinc crimine ; 
{. 141 " ct multa I monasteria in honore Domini edifficabis, et patronus 

' Luke xxi. 9. ^ Ps. cxlvi. 5. ' Ps. Ixvii. 36. * tuc Dia nert for 

muir duit, iiach tuc d'aoiii necli riam Ir., i. e. ' God lias given thee powcr ovcr 
the sca, such as He ncver gave to any one beforc.' ' Thc Latin translation 

givcn of this vcrse is quite correct. " et xvii. S. 


multorum eris in die iudicii. Ilac vice venics Romam, et reuerteris 
ad Hyberniam ; et iterum tercia vice venies Romam, et tunc ordinabit 
tc Gregorius, pater apostolice sedis, presbitcrum • et abbatem ; et 
postea reuerteris ad Hyberniam, et in multis locis sub tua cura 
lamuli Christi erunt.' Angelo hec prophetante, cicctus est sanctus 
de vnda in terram ; et peruenicns Romam, reuersus est ad Hy- 

xviii. QuoDAM ' quoque die sanctus Ybarus episcopus, et sanctus 
senior Patricius, et sanctus Abbanus in vna naui in stagno Garman 
nauigantes, apparuit cis monstrum bestiale ct incognitum de mari, 
.habens centum capita diuersis formis, ducentos oculos, et totidem 
aurcs ; et extendit se usque ad nubes, et aquam de labio emincntioris 
capitis, quod supcrabat cctera, alte in nubibus ciiciebat ; et fecit 
ingentcs fluctus.per totum stagnum, ita ut pcne mergerctur nauis. 
Quamuis autem dicitur stagnum, verius est fretum maris maximum ; 
et invndacio marina eo longius invndat cotidie in flumen Slane, quia in 
stagno Garman fluit Slane ; et in eodem loco in pelago uadunt, et 
nauigatores videntes tale monstrum, timuerunt ualde. Tunc sanctus 
Ybarus et sanctus Patricius surrexerunt, et orauerunt contra 
dyabolicam bestiam. Sanctus autem Abbanus sedens tacuit proptcr 
humilitatem ; ct tunc diuina vox dc celo ait illis : ' Non est vestrum 
modo orare, set Abbani ; quia per orationem cius forma dyabolica 
auferetur a vobis, qua se dyabolus finxit, ct vcnit terrere mentes 
vestras, ct naucm vcstram mergere, ct socios vestros secum ad infima 
ducere. Idcoquc oportet Abbanum pro vobis modo orarc, quia 
virtus eius scmper supcr aquas prodcrit ' : et quod Deus promissit sibi 
stanti super vndam maris, hoc complebitur in euum.' Tunc velociter 
sanctus Abbanus orauit contra monstrum, signans signaculo crucis 
Christi ; et ilico illud quasi mortuum apparens, cecidit pars in aqua, 
et pars in terra ; et statim sedati sunt fluctus, ct stagnum uel fretum 
serenum totum apparuit. Siuc stagnum siuc fretum dicetur, salsam 
aquam continet. Sct nauis sanctorum, ipsis Deo gratulantibus, ad 
optatum portum pcruenit. Mirum dictu, nil inuentum cst de corpore 
monstri diabolici, in aqua, vel in terra, postquam a sanctis capita eius 
numerata sunt, et intenderunt turpitudinem et terribilitatcm ipsius ; et 
in hoc apparet quod dyabolus fuit. 

xix. QuoDAM* tempore sanctus Abbanus vidit tres naues paratas 
transniaritare, et, naulo dato, in vna earum intrauit ; ct tres naues 
simul navigabant, atque in hiis tribus nauibus centum quinquaginta 
clerici erant, volentes omnes peregrinare. Set vnusquisquc eorum 
per se erat, et non habuerunt magistrum ; et ecce venit magna 

' sacerdotem S. ' = S 5 13 ; Ir- c. ii. ^ huic sancto dedit Deus 

uirtutem specialem in mari S; cf. p. 14 aote 4. * = S § 14; Ir. c. 13. 


tempestas ad eos, et mare mouebatur a profundo ad summum, et 
orauerunt omnes ad Deum, et tempestatem Deus misertus abstulit ab 
eis. Et cum mare serenum esset, retente sunt naues in medio mari, 
et non natabant ; et omnes videntes naues immobiles, turbati mente 
f- 14' ' fleuerunt, non dubitantes mortem ibi pati ; | et nescierunt pro qua 
causa talia paciebantur. Tunc uox Deiait illis: ' Idcircoangustia hec 
tenuit vos, quia non curastis vnum ducem liabere, vel esse sub 
magisterio vnius ; set ego dabo vobis pium et mansuetum ducem, ut 
Moysen, qui vos de hoc mundo ad regnum celeste secum perducet ; 
inter vos ipse est, et uocatur Abbanus.' Ad hanc vocem illi non 
cognoscentes eum, et ipse non indicans se illis, miserunt sortem in 
nomine sancte Trinitatis, ut scirent in qua naui ipse fuit, et sors 
cecidit super nauim in qua erat sanctus Abbanus ; et viderunt angelum 
stantem super eum, et indicantem ipsum esse Abbanum. Statimque 
centum quinquaginta clerici vnanimiter acceperunt eum suum magi- 
strum ; et promiserunt Deo monachi esse semper sub eo. Tunc solute 
sunt naues, et prospere ad terram nauigaverunt. Sanctus uero 
Abbanus cum discipulis suis Romam perrexit. 

XX. Intrantibus' siquidem illis Romam, occurrit eis vir bonus, qui 
consuebat Christi peregrinos in domum suam recipere, et adduxit eos 
secum ad cellam hospitum ; habebatque procuratorem peregrinorum, 
qui fuit pius et sanctus ; et ipse procurator recepit eos gaudens, set 
per omnes ad sanctum Abbanum perrexit, et salutans et adorans eum 
humiliter, honorificauit ipsum, ut dignum erat. Et omnes mirantes, 
interrogabant eum, dicentes : 'Cur honoras eum pre omnibus nobis .' 
Non est multum nobis senior ; et nec vestes eminenciores habet.' 
Ille respondit : ' Testis mihi Deus est, quod angelus Domini mihi eum 
ostendit, et iussit fieri, quod feci.' Et illi Deo gratias agentes, 
retulerunt ei quomodo coacti sunt ut essent discipuli eius. Interea 
sanctus Gregorius sanctum Abbanum ordinauit presbiterum' et 
abbatem in conspectu suorum monachorum ; et benedictione accepta, 
vir Dei cum suis discipulis recessit. 

xxi. Sed ' quod factum est, sancto a Roma recedente, non est 
pretereundum, set dignitati vestre narrandum. Tunc duo duces ad 
dexteram partem monasterii sancti Petri contigerunt* eum magno 
exercitu accedentes preliare. Videns vir sanctus aciem belli, et 
lanceas directas ante se, et vnumquemque illorum comminus litigare 
accedere, de tali opere doluit, et orauit ad Deum pro eis, signans eos 
signaculo crucis Christi. Quid plura? Statim acccpta dilectione pro 
odio, omissis ° armis omnes osculabantur se invicem, et duces et sui, 

' = S § 15 ; Ir. c. 14. ' sacerdotem S. ' = S § 16 ; Ir. c. 15. 

* conting- m. pr. ' MS. am-. 


ditati sancta benedictionc, in vita sua amici fuerunt. Omnes audientes 
et videntes tale niiraculuni, Christum glorificauerunt in suis peregrinis, 
et magis ei ' qui liberati sunt. Vir uero Dei cum suis fratribus post 
hec ad llybcrniam pcrvenit. 

xxii. PosTQUAM " sanctus Abbanus cum donatis sibia Deo discipulis 
in Hiberniam vcnit, multa loca in lionore Domini construxit. In 
regione quidem Connactorum in campo Cc, id est in campo Triudi '', 
tria monasteria construxit. Hiis constructis, diinissis in eis suffici- 
enter viris catliolicis, ad regionem Muminensium' pcrrexit. Et in 
occidcntali parte Mumenie, id est in regione Corcu Dhvibhne, con- 
struxit mona|sterium quod dicitur Ceall Achaid Conchinn.^ Hocf-i^i' 
edificato, dimisit ibi fundatores ecclesiasticos, et prophetauit, quod 
ipse locus a sancto Finano abbate nominaretur, qui tunc non fuit 
natus ; et ita factum cst. Et postea venit ad confines Muscraighi et 
Eoganacht ; et construxit ibi, in terra siquidem Muscraighi, mona- 
sterium quod vocatur Huisneach ^, et ipse locus a viro Dei sanctissime 
virgini Gobnaid ' diuino instinctu cum suis omnibus donatus est. 
Deinde sanctus Dei aduenit ad terram Hua Lyathain, et ibi cellam, 
que dicitur Ccall Cruimthir*, prope ciuitatem Cul Collingi ' edificauit, 
et alios ex discipulis suis ibi dimisit. Et transiens inde in confinio na 
n-Desi et Feara'" Muighc ", iuxta ciuitatem Brio Gobain cellam, que 
scotice vocatur Cell na Marbhan, id est cella mortuorum, edificauit. 
Ibi fidelibus viris manentibus, sanctus vir aquilonalem plagam montis 
Crott", in regione Muscraighi, perrexit ; et ibi ad radices ipsius 
montis magnum et regularissimum monasterium, quod uocatur Cluain 
Ai'r'd Mobhecoc, construxit. Sanctus silicet Abbanus inde recessit, 
et in eadem regione monasterium, quod uocatur Cluain Findghlaise, 
edificauit. In predicto uero loco, id est Cluain Aird, vir beatissimus 
et religiosissimus Becanus in vita mirabili usque ad suum obitum 
permansit, totumque cursum vite sue in lacrimis et ieiuniis triduanis, 
in orationc assidua, in flectionibus genuum, in lamentacionibus 
manuum, et in vigiliis noctumis duxit ; ipseuero locusex eius nomine 
nominatur. Qui etiam fecit sibi crucem lapideam foris seorsum, et 
cotidie diluculo in prima parte diei, quamuis esset vel serenum, vel 
turbida aut frigida vel calida, crucifigens se ad illam crucem, totum 
canebat psalterium ; que modo in magno honore habetur. Omnem 
seriem vite eius, neque miracula que in nomine Domini fecit, hic 

' MS. eo. ' = S § 17 ; Ir. c. i6. ^ ;„ campo Ehe [lege: Che], id est 
in c. Triuidi S. * go crich Eachach Coincinn a g-crich Chorca Diiibhni 

Ir. i. e. to the territory of Eochaid Dog-head. in the territorv of Corkaguiny. 
' Cill Aithfe for Magh Coincinn Ir. « Burnech S ; and'Colgan notes on 

the Huisneach of the text : ' rectius uocatur Boirneac' ' Gobnith S. 

' Cill Cruimpir Ir. » KilcuUen, seventeenth-century marginal note in M, 

which Colgan incorporates in the text ; Cell Chinni S. 'd MS. neara. 

" Nenese et Fermuege S. ^- Crait S. 


non scribimus, quia in vita eius scribuntur ; set hoc audacter dicimus, 
quod nuUum religiosiorem eo audiuimus, necque pulcriorem ct 
regulariorem suo monasterio [locum] vidimus; et istud monasterium 
a multis uocatur Ceall na n-Der, id est cella lacrimarum, eo quod 
hominibus ibi a Deo penitentialcs lacrime postulantibus per merita 
beatissimi patris Becani donantur. Sanctus uero Abbanus, constructo 
monasterio Cluain Finnglaisse, pertransiuit flumen Siur, etin occiden- 
tali parte campi Femyn monasterium, quod dicitur Cluain Conbruin, 
edificauit ; eoque edificato ad aquilonalem regionem Mutnonie, id est 
Hely, perrexit. 

xxiii. QuE ' gens adhuc incredula erat, et ydola adorabat. Siqui- 
dem contigit, ut totus populus ipsius regionis in vno cctu cum suo 
duce esset, quando sanctus Abbanus illic peruenisset. Tunc sanctus 
Dei predicauit eis de regno celorum, et suadebat illis credere in 
Deum, et baptizari in nomine eius. Dux ait ad virum Dei: 'Quis 
est Deus ? et quid facit hodie ? ' Vir sanctus respondit : ' Deus est 
conditor celi ct terre, qui fecit celum et terram, mare, et omnia que in 
f. i.;i ^ eis sunt ; et quod cotidie facit, hodie facit, et quod hodie ] facit, cotidie 
facit, celum et terram gubernat, et que in eis sunt ; et omnia sua 
elementa sibi seruiunt, homines saluat, et humiha conspicit.' Hec et 
his similia sancto dicente, dux temptauit eum, interrogans de longis- 
simo lapide qui stabat in terra ante se, dicens : ' Dic mihi ueritatem 
huius rei, ut sciam si tuus Deus est, sicut tu narras de eo, vel si es 
verus eius seruus.' Sanctus ait : ' Vt scias quia ita est, interroga, 
quod vis.' Dux ait ; ' Ostende nobis que pars huius lapidis maior est, 
in terra, an super terram.' Vir Dei dixit : ' Equaliter constat in terra, 
et super terram.' Dux uero non credens hoc, set putans quod sanctus 
tale verbum dixit, ut quasi ipsi non potuissent scire qualiter fuit, 
iussit totum populum terram effodere, et inde lapidem educere. Et 
populus efibdit, et cum magno labore et sudore lapidcm eduxit, et 
inventum cst, quomodo vir sanctus dixit. Et tunc mirantes, et vno 
animo credentes, baptizauit eos famulus Dei Abbanus. Ipsa vero 
villa in qua fuerant, Raith Becain - vocatur, id est atrium Becani ; 
eamque et multa munera argenti et auri et aliarum rerum dux et 
populus vnanimiter sancto Abbano in honore Domini obtulerunt. 
Tunc angelus Domini venit ad virum Dei, dicens : ' Munera horum 
ne accipias, set precipe, ut pauperibus ipsi diuidant ; villam vero tene 
ad vssum seruorum Dei.' Postea sanctus benedixit illam plebem 
promittentem sibi seruire usque in finem seculi ; et ipse est patronus 
ipsius gentis. 

xxiv. Eo' tempore in illa regione inaudita bestia, et ualde 
» := S § i8; Ir. c. i6. ' Raech Betain S. s ,^ S § 19; Ir. c. il 



venenosa, et incognita forma, erat; id est cattus magniis ut vitulus 
anniculus, ignitum capucl habens, hanelam igncam.caudam flammeam, 
ingentes dentes, vngulas longissimas. Et de hoc ante omnes quidani 
subulcus, qui ibi erat, querelam fecit ad sanctum Dei, dicens : ' O 
famule Domini, qui plebem a Deo tibi creditam Jiberasti a cultura 
dyaboli, defende candem a catto dyabolico, qui mortificat plures 
homines, et peccora, regionemque istam deuastauit, et milites non 
possunt ei resistere, necque moIos[s]i, quia a toto corpore eius arma 
vincuntur quasi a[daman]tico' lapide, et est modo in via qua tu vis ire. 
Vir sanctus respondit : ' Scio quia ita est, sicut tu asseris ; et scio 
quod est in via qua volo ire ; set in Christi nomine dico, quod ab hac 
die usque ad finem seculi nulli nocebit.' Et inde sanctus descendit, 
iubens cathenas sibi adduci ; et venit ad ripam fiuminis Brosnay -, et 
statim occurrit ei bestia ignifera et formidabilis. Commites autem 
viri Dei valde timentes, solus ipse accessit contra bestiam. Bestia 
uero, ut respexit vvltum sancti, quasi domesticus cattus gaudens in 
aduentu domini sui, venit ad eum, inclinans se ad pedes eius. Hoc 
videntes commites sancti, expulso timore, venerunt ad eum. Sanctus 
uero apprehendit monstrum, et traxit secum ad lacum propinquum, 
et ibi eum cathenis ligauit. Et in septimo adhuc anno aliquod signum 
de eo videtur in ostensione virtutis. Hoc facto, tota regio illa repleta 
est magna leticia. 

XXV. I Quidam' homo, senex decrepitus et diues ualde, de nobiliori f- 142 
genere regionis Hely, non habens filium, nec fratrem, neque nepotem, 
duxit in senectute vxorem ad querendum heredem. Et illa peperit 
sibi filiam, et ea ducta est ad sanctum Abbanum, ut baptizaretur ab 
eo ; et ille senex, pater suus, venit cum ea, et dixit ad virum Dei : 
' O homo Dei, audi miseriam meam.' Et narrauit ipse sancto audienti 
omnia, que supra diximus. Sanctus ait illi: ' Filium habebis.' Ille 
autem risit, dicens : ' Mulier nichil pertinet ad me, nec ego ad eam : 
quia plenus senectute et doloribus sum. Ideoque, famule Domini, 
scito quod femina in mea cura non erit plus.' Sanctus ait: ' Mihi hoc 
placet ; set expecta paulisper, et potestatem Domini videbis.' Tunc 
vir Dei baptizauit filiam ipsius ; set cum duceretur de lauacro bapti- 
smatis, fuit filius.' Et ait sanctus patri eius : ' Ecce filius tuus.' Et 
ille gaudens multum, et omnes qui erant cum eo, dixit ad sanctum 
virum : ' Ipse, et semen suum post se seruiat tibi.' Vir sanctus 
respondit : ' Ouamdiu ipse et semen suum mihi seruiat, regnabitur 
ab eo regnum istius regionis.' Et ita est. Ille quidem homo cum 
filio suo reuersus in domum suam, de tali prophetia in corde suo 
gaudebat. Sanctus uero circuiuit regionem illam predicans, et 

' MS. atico cl". TBC. p. 534. 2 Brosnigi S. ' ^ S § 20 ; Ir. c. 19. 

* Marginal note in seventeenth-century hand ; Metamorphosis. 

C 2 


construens ecclesias. In ipsa siquidcm regione ipse volebat suam 
vitam finire. Sed angclus Domini vcnit ad cum, dicens : ' Propera 
ad fines Laginensium, quia predestinatuni est tibi a Domino, ut sis 
ibi resurrecturus ; et ibi in honore Domini loca edificabis. Dimitte 
autem liic inter istos edificatores fidei.' Ita siquidem sancto ordinante, 
et benedicente populo flenti et danti sibi licentiam non voluntariam, 
cepit ire viam suam. 

xxvi. TuNc' vir bonus, qui multum sanctum Abbanum diligebat, 
vcnit ad eum, dicens: 'O dilecte Dei, quidam ex regali genere istius 
terre adhuc est incredulus et infidelis, qui est heros ct tyrannus, qui 
scmper occidit et rapit, et viuit in latrociniis ; qui etiam te querit 
interficere, et ipse misit exploratores scire viam tuam, et te expectat 
in insidiis. Ideo, domine, remane hic per aliquot dies, ut possitis per 
aiiam viam euadere. Quamuis enim milites tecum irent, ut incolumis 
peruenisses in aliam provinchiam, timeo si sit cedes virorum in 
conspectu tuo.' Tunc sanctus ait ei : ' Sis tu benedictus Deo, quia 
sermo oris tui prudens est, et dulcis. Sed hoc dico tibi in Christi 
nomine; ego noui quecumque de eo mihi narrasti, set in eo comple- 
bitur prophetia que dicit: " Ex lupo efficietur agnus ; " fihus enim 
electionis est ipse, quia cor eius compungetur a Deo, quando me 
videbit.' Et benedicens viro illi, sanctus perrexit in viam suam. 
Supradictus uero tjTannus ex insidiis contra virum Dci surrexit, 
accinctus armis. Videntes autem commites sancti Abbani viruni 
armigerum, tyrannum horridissinium in incessu et habitu, cuin siinili 
turba militum, valde timuerunt, et vnusquisque eorum hinc et inde 
cepit se abscondere. Vir autem Dei, fide armatus, intrepidus viam 
ibat. Ilico autem, sicut prophetauit de eo pridem sanctus, ille - arma 
sua posuit super terram, et venit humiliter ad Christi famulum, 
f. 143 ' inclinans se ante eum, | ct rogans cum lacrimis se baptizari. Tunc 
vir sanctus baptizauit eum cum suis. Et illc vir vnicuni habcbat 
filium, et adduxit eum, et baptizatus est. Ille siquidem vir habitum 
sanctum accepit, et mansit cum sancto Abbano usque ad obitum suum 
in conuersacione felici ; et gesta sanctitatis eius narrantur. Vir autem 
sanctus dixit ad eum : ' Filius tuus filios et filias generabit, et de 
semine eius principes et potcntesciuitatis mee, in qua cgo ipse de hoc 
seculo ad regnum ccleste migrabo, erunt.' Et ita factum cst. Ego 
autein, qui vitam bcatissimi patris Abbani collcgi et scripsi, sum 
nepos ipsius filii, quem sanclus Abbanus baptissauit, et de quo 
prophetauit '. 

xxvii. PosT* hec sanctus Abbanus cum suis discipulis fines Lagi- 

' = S § ai ; 5§ xxvi-xxix are not in Ir. ' MS. illa. ' For this 

sentence ' Kgo . . . prophetauit' S lias 'Unde compilator uite huius nepos 
illius fihi fuit.' * = S § 22. 


nensium intrauit, et venit in plebem Hua Marchi'; et ipsa plebs 
honorifice recepit eum, et ualde gauisa est in aduentu eius. Et vir 
sanctus benedixit eam diligenter, et multis diucrsis languoribus ibi 
sanatis, et miracuh's perfectis, inde recessit in plebem Hua Midhi'. 
Ibique magnum monasterium construxit, et propter honorem eius in 
eodem loco ciuitas edifficata est; ct monastcrium et ciuitas vno nomine 
!-cotice vocantur, id est Ceall Abbain, quod interpretatur latine cella 

x.wiii. Peracto ' iam ibi multo tempore, venit angelus Domini ad 
sanctum Abbanum, dicens ei : ' Vade ad regionem Hua Cennselach, 
et manebis in loco vbi de celo audies sonum cymbali post occassum 
solis in campo Midhi ; quia ibi migrabis ad regnum celorum. Set ex 
eo loco in aliis locis in eadem regione monasteria et cellas ediffi- 
cabis, quia multum tempus restat adhuc usque ad obitum tuum. Et 
in eodem loco in honore tuo ciuitas erit, in qua migrabis ad Deum.' 
Postca sanctus Abbanus benedicens gratia Dei ciuitatem suam, Ceall 
Abbain, et benedicens populo et clero eiusdem, et constituens viros 
sanctos ibi manere, et alios secum eligens, iter suum ad fines Hua 
Cennselach direxit. Et angelus Domini ostendit ei locum, sicut prius 
sibi dicebat. In quo loco sanctus Abbanus vitam mirabilem duxit, et 
maxima mirabilia in nomine Domini fecit ; et ex eo cellas et mona- 
steria per circuitum eiusdem loci construxit. Magnum siquidem 
monasterium prope flumen Berbha, quod uocatur Ross meic Treoin *, 
in quo iacet beatissimus abbas sanctus Emenus, Druim Cain 
Ceallaidh °, et Camross, et alia loca in honore Domini in eadem 
regione, sicut predixit sibi angelus Domini, edifficauit. 

xxix. VoLUMUs iam, fratres, dignitati vestre narrare pauca de 
miraculis, que in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti sanctus 
senior Abbanus fecit a tempore quo ciuitatem Magh Hirnen^-n^ 
habitauit usque ad obitum suum. 

xxx. QuoDAM " die sanctus Abbanus cum turba multa discipulorum 
ad flumen Berbha venit, et non inventis vehiculis, steterunt super 
ripam fluminis. Sanctus autem senior seorsum ad Deum orabat. 
Tunc videntibus omnibus, flumen diuisum est in duas partes, et 
siccum vadum apparuit. Pars superior altius et altius surgebat, et 
pars inferior quasi sine motu stetit. Hoc videns vir sanctus, iussit 
omnes ire ante se ; et omnibus euntibus siccis pe|dibus, sanctus f. 142 ' 
senior posterius transiuit. Erat autem in comitatu eorum quidam 
infantulus, qui videns calculos pulcerrimos in profundo, post tergum 

' Phonetic for hUa m-Barchi ; Hua Barchi S. ^ Hua Mudi S : thls is 

again phonetic writing for hUa m-Budi. ' = S § 23. < Mac Troin S. 

' Chin Chellich S. « corrupt for Mag Arnaide S. ' = S § 24 ; Ir. 

c 20 (where the river is the SuirJ. 


sancti stetit, coUigens eos, et ncmo vidit euni ibi manentem, quia 
sanctus iussit omnibus, ne post se aspiccrent, set ire in viam suam. 
Ipse tamen sursum ad celum respicicbat ; et ut pes eius de uado 
perrexit, flumen cucurrit iter suum. In loco uero in quo infans fuit, 
quando flumen descendit, ibi mansit sub aqua, et nec inde potuit ire. 
Sanctus vero senior cum discipulis suis viam suam ambulabat. Cum 
autem puer quereretur ad comedendum, non cst inventus. Omnes enim 
usquc ad ipsam lioram putabant cum in eorum comitatu fuisse ; set 
omnes dixerunt, quod non vidissent eum.postquam in flumine secum 
descendit. Sanctus senior ait eis : ' Ne inquietetis vos de ipso; quia 
a Deo custoditur, et ego crastina die de flumine ante vos eum educam 
incolumem.' Vir sanctus reuersus mane ad flunien, solus in aquam 
accessit, et inde extraxit puerum incolumem. Puer autem non soluni 
viuus erat, sed vestimenta sua sicca fuerunt ; aqua enim non tetigit 
eum. Ipse uero puer omnibus narrabat, quomodo angelus Domini 
consolabatur eum, et quomodo ab eo predictum est sibi, quod per 
gratiam sancti Abbani defensus est, et quod ipse educeret eum de 
aqua, et quomodo aqua ad se in illo loco non intrauit ; et ipse hinc uel 
inde transire non potuit, donec apprehendit eum. Omnes hec 
audientes Deo gratias egerunt, et suum famulum sanctum Abbanum 

xxxi. Alio' quoque die pastores custodientcs armentum sancti 
Abbani in villa, quam habebat in regione Ronani, volentes ludcre, 
dixerunt ad invicem : ' Ludamus nos ; et peccora sua et suorum mona- 
chorum sanctus Abbanus custodiat.' Postea iocunde pastores lude- 
bant, nil curantes de peccoribus. Ludentibus uero pastoribus lupi 
irruerunt in armento. Irruentibus autem lupis in eo, sanctus senior 
Abbanus sedens in cella inter fratres, alta uoce dixit : ' Diinittite et 
custodite.' Fratrcs audientes hanc uoccm, ct nescientes pro qua 
causa hoc dixit, interrogabant eum dicentcs : ' Pater, quid dixisti ? ' 
Sanctus ait eis : ' Ne asperi modestos occiderent, hoc dixi ; set ab 
aliis scietis ad quos dixi.' Nemo tamen eorum adhuc, quid dixit, 
ausus est interrogare euni. Diuina ucro potcncia lupi uoccm sancti 
sedentis in cella sua longe per aera audientes, non solum peccora 
dimiserunt, set eadem usque ad obitum suum custodicbant. Postea 
diuulgatum est per totam illam regioncm, quod lupi armentum sancti 
Abbani custodiebant. De hoc in eadem regione in proverbium 
habetur adhuc, id est iurantes per nomen istius sancti dicunt: ' Per 
Abbanum, qui fecit lupos custodire uac[c]as.' Tunc fratres scientes 
quod dixit sanctus iiiter cos : ' Dimittite, et custodite,' Deo gratias cge- 
runt. Et videntes prophctiam pcr suum scniorcm esse complctam, 
que dicit : ' Lupus cum agno habitabit ■ ; ' quia illi non solum ad boues 

' = S § 25 ; not in Ir. (Du.); a short version in Ir. (Br.) c. 15. ■ Is. xi. 6, 


mites facti sunt, set ad cetera animalia. Et nec unquam necesse fuit 
alius pastor csse cum illis peccoribus, nisi tantum lupi, quamdiu 
vixcrunt. Non mihi minus mirandum esse videtur, quod nemo f. 143 ' 
Christianus inventus est, qui noceret illis in vita sua, per gratiam 
eiusdem viri Dei, quam ipsi luppi suam escam non tangere. 

x.x.xii. Alio ' tempore sanctus Abbanus suos sanctos sodales habi- 
tantcs in regione Midhi- visitauit. Et ipsi audicntes eum in suam 
patriam venisse, valde gauisi sunt ; et multi corum de locis suis in 
occursum eius venerunt. Et sanctus Abbanus rogatus [est] ab eis, 
ut inter eos ad tempus maneret. Duo enim monasteria in eadem 
regione fundauit, vnum in orientali parte Midhi, quod Ceall Ailbe 
uocatur, in quo sanctissima uirgo Segnith sub cura sancti patris 
Abbani sanctas uirgines Deo nutriuit ; et alterum in aquilonali parte 
eiusdem regionis, quod dicitur Ceall Abbain, in quo maxima a Deo 
mirabilia per eum patrantur. Deinde beatissimum abbatem Finna- 
num visitauit, et ab eo honorifice sanctus senior susceptus est. 
Quem quidem Finnanum sanctus Abbanus baptizauit, cum esset 
infantulus. Ipsi propinantes sibi invicem pocula salutaria diuini 
dogmatis, sanctus Finnanus in suo monasterio mansit ; sanctus autem 
Abbanus ad sua reuersus est. 

xxxiii. Quod.^m' tempore Cormacus filius Diarmoda, rex Hua 
Cennselach, Camross, cellam sancti Abbani, predauit, volens familiam 
cius de ea expellere, et villam ipsam in sua potestate habere. Satel- 
lites uero eius predantes villam, ipse stetit in platea. Duo siquidem 
satellites de sancti cuuula magnum vas * lactis optimi et quatti 
tulerunt, et posuerunt vectem per ansas eius, et inter se ad plateani 
portauerunt. Set cum voluissent illud deponere, nullo modo potue- 
runt, quia vectis [vjolis eorum adhesit, et cum rex et alii omnes hoc 
vidissent, timuerunt valde, putantes sibi omnibus malum contingere, 
quia nouerunt se sancto Dei iniuriam fecisse. Et inito consilio, rex 
et omnes duces et principes nuncios miserunt ad sanctum Abbanum, 
ut veniret ad eos. Sanctus autem vir ex suasione fratrum cum multis 
perrexit ad regem. Tunc rex inclinauit se ante sanctum, et rogauit 
eum cum omnibus, ut solueret miseros a ligno, quod cuti eorum pro 
sua culpa adhesit ; et promiserunt se facturos quodcunque sanctus 
postea vellet. Videns ipse quod corda eorum compuncta essent, 
signauit lignum, et iussit portantes illud deponere ; et statim ad 
uerbum eius solutuni est uectis cute eorum, et onus depossuerunt. 
Tunc rex, et omnes qui ibi erant, videntes tale miraculum, et volentes 
satis placere sancto seniori, non solum suam cellam, set totum opidum 
sibi et Deo vnanimiter obtulerunt. Illud enim opidum scothice Find 

' = S § 26 ; not in Ir. ' Midie S. ^ = S § 27 ; Ir. c. 21. ♦ miach 

tomais Ir. i. e. a bushel for measuring. 


Mhagh vocatur, quod dicitur latine lucidus campus. Et sanctus senior 
videns eos deuotissimos esse Deo, ipsam gentem et semen eius in 
eternum, et regem, et omnes reges futuros de semine eius, preter 
dissipatores ecclesie Dei, diligenter benedixit. Et rex et populus, 
accepta licentia et benedictione a sancto Dei, et accipientes eum 
patronum suum, cum gaudio reuersi sunt ab eo. 

{■ 143" xxxiv. Alia' quoque die, sanctus senior Abbanus | ad monasterium 
suum cum centum quinquaginta viris reuersus est ; set in die ad 
monasterium peruenire non potuerunt, quia spacio longo ab eo nox 
cecidit, et erat illa nox tenebrosa, et frigida, ac densa nebulis. Illi 
uero, non potentes pre tenibrositate ambulare viam, sedere ceperunt. 
luniores siquidem senes suos frigore opprimi timebant, quia nox 
pluere minabat. Tunc apparuit angelus Domini de celo, habens 
candelam ardentem et lucidam candore auri, et obtulit eani in manu 
sancti Abbani. Sanctus uero tenuit eam in manu, et cum eo omnes 
viam suam ambulauerunt. Et illa candela ardens in manu viri 
sancti, non solum illi viam illuminabat, set magnum spacium in 
circuitu eorum satis lucidum fuit. Et ita cum claro lumine ad ciuita- 
tem pervenerunt. Cum autem peruenisset in propinquo ciuitati, vir 
sanctus nuncium misit. ut templum sibi apperiretur, volens illam 
candelam super Dei altare ponere. Stans uero sanctus in choro ante 
altare, et orans, iterum angelus candelam de manu eius accepit. 
Tunc senior sanctus, et omnes qui ibi erant, gratias Deo pro suo 
dono egerunt, dulciter eum laudantes. 

xxxv. Sakctus- senior Abbanus in silua descrta designata loca 
habens a fratribus, [diebus] 'constitutis ibi habitabat, in quibus ieiuniis 
et orationibus vacabat, et Deo placere uolebat. Inter ipsum locum ct 
monasterium sancti Abbani, silicet Magh Arnoide, lere plus quam 
vnum miliare constat. Ipse locus uocatur Discrth Cendubhain ', qui 
solus de fratribus cum sancto ibi ingredi solebat. Ideoque ille locus 
ex nomine eius nominatur, quia ibi vitam suam post obitum viri Dei 
duxit, et in vita eius curam ipsius loci habuit ; et in eodem loco fere 
diuerse siluarum ad virum sanctum Abbanum veniebant, et nullus 
earum venientes vel redeuntes alteri noccbat'*; et angeli Dei ibi cum 
eo loquebantur. Quippc cum sanctus esset in deserto loco, angeli 
Dei venerunt ad eum, quia a die quo angeli per mare in iuuentute sua 
eum duxerunt, angelus Domini in quocunque loco fuisset, cotidie 
loquebatur cum eo. 

xxxvi. QuoDAM " quoque die vir sanctus in eodem loco foris euan- 
gelium legebat, et erat liber apertus super lapidem ante eum ; et 

' = S 5 28 ; Ir. c. 23. 2 = s I ag . 55 xxxv xxxvii are not in Ir. ' from 
S om. M. ' Cheducani Desertum S. '• auesque sibi iocundissime 

canebant S. ' = S § 29. 


rediens dic illo ad monasterium suum, oblitus est libnim apertum 
supcr lapidem, et illa noctc nix maxima supcr totam regionem 
Hybcrnie fluit, set tamen gratia Dei donauit sancto viro, quod nulla 
gutta niuis super librum necque super lapidem necque in atrio, in quo 
ipsi erant, cecidit. Mane autem facto, sanctus senior, recordatus 
librum, ualde doluit de eo, et misit nuncios, ut sibi portarent eum. 
Nuncii uero invenientes siccum librum,et lapidem atriumque intactos, 
cum magna velocitate ad virum Dci redierunt, ostcndcntes ei librum, 
et narrantes que viderant. Tunc sanctus Abbanus gauisus est, et 
omnes, qui crant cum eo, gratias Deo egerunt. 

xxxvii. Alio ' tempore quidam homo nobilis et - latro de finibus 
Osraighi venit cum suis satellitibus, et rapuit magnum gregem 
porcorum, quem sancti Abbani monachi habebant. Ille siquidem 
latro I filius sororis sancti Bercani abbatis ' erat. Et sanctus senior f. 143 ^" 
Abbanus, rogatus a monachis suis, post porcos ad fines Osraighi 
pergebat, visitans beatum Bearcanum; [et] ab eo honorifice susceptus 
est ; et sanctus Bearcanus cum beato Abbano perrexit, ut rogaret 
filium sororis sue, ne retineret porcos sanctorum ; et timens quod 
sanctus Abbanus eum merito malediceret. Ille uero malificus homo, 
ut uidit sanctos ad se venientes, decreuit in corde suo, ut manu sua 
sanctum Abbanum occideret ; et cum essent ambo sancti sibi com- 
minus, eleuauit manum, ut sanctum iugularet Abbanum, [sed] sanctum 
Bercanum iugulauit. Vidensque quod ipsum iugulasset, iterum 
cepit sanctum Abbanum iugulare, set ilico manus eius arefacta est. 
Sanctus autem Abbanus, videns famulum Christi sanguinem fun- 
dentem, et pene morientem, ualde in corde suo doluit, quod causa sui 
sanctus Dei occideretur. Et accessit ad eum in Deo confidens, et 
tenuit vvlnus manibus suis, et statim sanguis stetit : et stringens* 
vvlnus inter manus eius, cicatrix ilico apparuit. In ipsa silicet hora 
sanctus effectus est ualidus, et confortatus, quasi nunquam esset 
vvlneratus. Ille uero miser homo, videns manum arefactam sibi, et 
auunculum suum sanatum, inclinauit se ante pedes sanctorum, et egit 
penitentiam secundum iussionem sanctorum ; statimque manus eius 
sanata est, et ipse quod rapuit integre restituit. Tunc sanctus Ber- 
chanus et sanctus Abbanus firmissimam fraternitatem inter se et suos 
monachos uenturos usque ad finem mundi fecerunt. Eandem etiam 
fraternitatem alia vice cum sancto Brendano et sancto Molyng, et 
sancto Flannano, et sancto Munnu, et cum aliis multis firmauerunt. 
Salutantes et osculantes se invicem, ad sua reuersi sunt. 

xxxviii. Alio'' tempore quidam bonus sacerdos aliquo casu amisit 
loquelam, et effectus est mutus. Hunc amici eius adduxerunt ad 

' =S §§ 30, 3t. 2 sed S. 5 abb. monasterii Cluaiii Munuir Chuir 

(lege : Immurchuir) S. • MS. signatus. ' = S § 32 ; Ir. c. 23. 


sanctum Abbanuni, ut eum curaret ; sanctusque Abbanus senior 
pomum benedixit, et porrexit,sacerdoti, ct iussit ei commedere. Ille 
enim cum pomum comniedit, ilico loqutus est, et gratias agens Deo, 
ante omnia psalmos cepit cantare ; et reuersus est cuni gaudio ad 
domum suam, et se ipsum ac suum locum, atque omnia que habuit, 
Deo et sancto Abbano concessit '. 

xxxix. QuoDAM - tempore leprosus quidam, audiens quanta mira- 
cula sanctus Abbanus in nomine Domini faciebat, venit ad eum, 
dicens : ' Famule Christi, cui tantam gratiam Deus donauit, ut omnia 
miracula possibilia tibi sint, rogo ut meam miseriam respicias, et me 
pietate diuina ab ea eripias.' Tunc vir sanctus ait : ' Pro diuina 
pietate mundaberis.' Et orans pro eo, signauit eum signo sancte 
crucis, et ille mundatus a lepra, sospes apparuit. Tunc omnes, 
videntes tale miraculum, gratias Deo egerunt ; et ille qui mundatus 
est, glorificans sanctum Abbanum, suis viribus gratias Deo peregit. 

xl. QuoDAM ' tempore, cum esset sanctus Abbanus in campo, qui 
• scotice dicitur Magh na Taibhse, latine uero fantasmatum campus, 

adductus est ad eum homo paraliticus, qui erat cecus, claudus, 
mancus, surdus, et mutus. Et rogauerunt amici illius sanctum Dei, 
f- '43 ' ut curaret | eum ; et ille homo nobilis erat. Videns vir sanctus 
hanc maximam miseriam, misericordia motus, et a populo rogatus, 
ut oraret pro eo, respexit ad eum, dicens : ' Domine mi lesu Christe, 
istum paraliticum tua potencia salua, ut omnes, qui eum nouerunt, et 
de eo de cetero audient, te Deum* omnipotentem cum Patre et 
Spiritu Sancto tantum sciant.' Hec et hiis similia sancto dicente, 
homo ille miser ante omnes se circumdantes omnibus suis doloribus 
sanatus est ; et Deum magnificans, loqutus est, ambulauit, audiuit, 
et vidit, et binas manus habuit, atque totum corpus cius in pulcri- 
tudine versum est ; quia deponens infirmitatem, quasi filius regis 
pulcer apparuit. Ipse, et omnes qui ibi erant, multum Deo laudes 
dederunt, ipsiusque sanctum famulum honorificantes, per quem 
Deus in vno honiine talia miracula fecit ; quia scx miracula in co, 
Deo permittente, sanctus patrauit, id est, lumen ceco, gressum claudo, 
auditum surdo, loquelam muto, ambas manus manco, et qui venit 
deformis, formossus recessit. 

xli. Alio° die contigit, ut duo duces conuenirent cum suis exer- 
citibus in vno loco prcliare; ipsi enini crant inimici. IIIc ucro locus, 
in quQ conuenerunt, scoticc Achadh Huabhair" vocatur, quod in- 
terpretatur latine ager superbie. Vix uero illis prode[u]ntibus, et 
omni orna'tu bellico preparato, tam appropinquabat alterutrum, ut 

' Here Ir. (Br.) inserts a sliort version of § xl. which Ir. (Du.). omits. 
2 = S § 33 ; Ir. c. 24. ' = S § 34 ; not in Ir. (Du.). * MS. wrongly inserts 
Paircm. ^ = S § 35 ; Ir. c. 35. " NuauirS. 


lancce eorum ante se mixte essent inuicem. Tunc sanctus Abbanus 
per eundem locum iter agens, vidit eos, et dixit : ' Domine mi lesu 
Christe, tua maxima potencia prohibe ilios, ne tanta multitudo in 
iocunditate diaboii perinaneat, ct ut pacifici recedant tua bonitate, 
qui pleni rixa suasione diaboli venerunt.' Ad hanc silicet vocem 
ilii retro trusi sunt ab invicem, quousque spacium fuit inter eos, et 
inde non potuerunt se mouere, donec sanctus Dei pacem fecit inter 
eos. Et ipsi mirantes quod sibi accidit, et vidcntes sanctum Ab- 
banum ad se venientem, cognouerunt quod ipse miraculum fecit in 
eis. Et cum pacifici essent, et soluti, gratulantes Deo et sancto 
Abbano, atque gratulantes in cordibus suis, ad sua loca letantes 
reuersi sunt. 

xlii. Quidam' famosissimus artifex et peritissimus in omni arte 
lignorum et lapidum erat in Hibernia, nomine Gobanus ', cuius artis 
fama usque in finem seculi erit in ea. Ipse iam, postquam displicuit 
aliis sanctis in superflua artis sue mercede, lumen oculorum amisit, 
et erat cecus. Hic uocatus est ad sanctum Abbanum ; et dixit ei : 
' Volo edifficium in honore Dei edifficare, et tu age illud.' Ille ait : 
' Quomodo possuni agere, cum sim cecus ?' Dixit ei sanctus : ' Quam- 
diu illud operaberis, lumen oculorum habebis, set tibi postea non 
promitto.' Et ita factum est. Nam ille artifex apud sanctum Dei 
illud opus in lumine suo operatus est ; et cum esset illud perfec- 
tum, iterum lumen oculorum amisit. 

xliii. Alio ' die, cum sanctus Abbanus esset iuxta stagnum, quod 
scotice dicitur Loch na Corr, id est stagnum gruum, quidam homo 
mutus a longe ductus est ad eum, ut curaretur ab eo. Vir autem 
sanctus videns illum, ait : ' Domine Deus omnipotens, qui bruto asino 
humanum eloquium tua pietate dedisti, cum | necesse sibi fuerat, da f. 143 "^ 
homini huic, quem plasmasti, suam loquelam, ut magnificetur nomen 
sanctum tuum in eo.' Et conuersus ad hominem, dixit ei : ' Dico tibi, 
O homo, in nomine Domini mei lesu Christi, aperi os tuum, et 
loquere.' Statimque homo ille aperiens os suum, loqutus est, gratias 
agens Deo, et magnificans famulum eius. 

xliv. QuoDAM* die pastor armenti sancti Abbani loquens cum eo, 
dixit ei : ' Domine, vac[c]a pulcra nimis in armento tuo est, et ipsa 
per multos annos a natiuitate sua vsque hodie sterilis est.' Virautem 
sanctus benedixit illam, sedens in cella sua ; et dixit pastori : ' Hoc 
anno duos vitulos parict, qui mites et domiti hic manebunt usque ad 
mortem meam ; set post obitum meum non longe apud uos manebunt.' 
Et ita factum est secundum vaticinium viri " Dei.' Set quod ipsis 

' = S § 36 ; Ir. c. 26. 2 Golb- altered to Gobb- S. ' = S § 37 ; 

Ir. c. 27. * = S § 38 ; Ir. c. 28. 


bobus accidit ', sancto migrante ad regnum celorum, posterius 
narrabimus, quia ita decet.' 

xlv. Alio ' quoque tempore beatissimus abbas Columba patrem 
sanctum Abbanum visitauit \ volens certificari per eum, si dignaretur 
maiestas diuina monachos sibi commissos misericorditer saluare, 
dicens ei : ' Pater sancte, indica mihi clemenciam diuinam erga 
fratres nostros, quorum curam gerimus, pariter et ora pro ipsis ; 
nouimus cnim quod angelus Dei loquitur tecum cotidie.' Sanctus 
autem Abbanus multum rogatus ab eo, ait ei : ' Ego siquidem cum 
omni diligencia orabo pro eis, ut dignetur Deus facere eis misericor- 
diam.' Postea sanctus Abbanus ad secretum locum, in quo consueuit 
Deum orare, et angelus Domini ad se venire, perrexit ; et ibi cum 
labore corporeo et intencione cordis pro eis ad Deum orauit. 
Sanctus autem Columba, sciens quod sanctus Abbanus ad orandum 
perrcxit, ipse post eum exiuit, volens videre eum orantem ; et stetit, 
prospiciens illum occulte. Orante uero sancto Abbano, apparuit ei 
angclus Domini, dicens : ' Sufficit quod nunc fecisti, Abbane, quia 
Dominus Deus tuus donauit tibi quod petisti ab eo.' Sanctus ait ei ; 
' Nichil aliud peto modo a Domino Deo meo, nisi requiem animabus 
illorum quorum curam gerit ^ sanctus Columba.' Angelus dixit: 
' Requiem habebunt, et ideo missus sum tam cicius ad te, quia 
supra vires corporis tui pro hiis laborasti.' Et hec dicens, discessit ab 
eo. Tunc sanctus, Deo gratias agens, inde ad fratres descendit ; set 
sanctus Columba ad fratres ante eum exiuit, et narrauit eis, que 
angelus loqutus est ad sanctum, ipso tamen adhuc ad eos non 
veniente. Et cum venisset, et inter fratres sedisset, dixit ei sanctus 
Colum : 'Dic nobis, quid tibi a Deo indicatum est de nostris militibus.' 
Sanctus autem Abbanus, nolens indicare quod angclus loqutus fuisset 
sibi, sic ait : ' Deus miserebitur illis.' Sanctus Columba ait : ' Cur 
nobis celas, quod angelus Domini loqutus est tibi ? Nam sic et sic 
loqutus est tecum. Ne mihi, ' queso,' pater, irasceris, quia ego 
audiui et vidi hec' Tunc omnium fratrum clamor factus est magnus, 
laudantes Dcum in sancto suo Abbano ; et gratias Deo agentes, 

' MS. accipit. ' Here S inserts a section (39), telling how Abban foretold 
to a hiindred and fifty clerics their luture course of life and place of death. 
This = Ir. c. £9, with whicii thc Irish life ends, probably imperfectl^'. 
^ = S § 40. * qui . . . di.xit : ' Ideo ad te . . . uenimus, ut ores pro 

animabus illorum qui occisi fuerunt in bello commisso nuper nobis suaden- 
tibus causa ecclesie . . . ' Sanctus senior . . . respondit : ' Propicius sit eis 
Deus, et ego libenter pro eis orabo' S. This is certainly more original. 
In M the story has been altered so as to oblitcrate CoIumba's confession 
of blood-guiltincss. '' requiem illis animabus quarum curam habct S. 

The alteration of 'quarum curam habet ' [i. c. thc souls of the slain] into 
'quorum curam gerit ' [i. e. CoIumba's monks] is in conformity with the change 
made carlier in the section ; but the word rcqiiieiii, twice repcated, betr.aj's thc 
original vcrsion. 


sanctus Columba cum suis, congratulantibus fratribus, ad sua loca 
reuersi sunt. 

xlvi. Alio' tempore sanctus Abbanus, postquam reuersus est 
sanctus Brendanus de nauigio suo querendo terram repromissionis', 
volens eum interrogare de mirandis rebus, que vidit in occeano, | f. 144 ' 
adiuit eum. Sanctus autem Brendanus, iubente sibi angelo Dei, in 
occursum beati Abbani cum magno gaudio uenit. Sanctusque 
Abbanus interrogauit eum omnia que voluit , et sanctus Brendanus 
cuncta mirabilia, que inventa sunt in occeano, diligenter ei narrauit. 
Et per aliquot dies vna in diuinis colloquiis et in angelicis visitacioni- 
bus permanserunt, et fraternitatem, quam superius diximus, inter se 
et alios sanctos, et inter posteros suos semper firmiter firmauerunt. 
Benedicentes autem Deum, et orantes pro se ipsis, et osculantes se 
invicem, vnusquisque eorum in osculo pacis ad sua remeauit. 

xlvii. Quidam' homo nomine Conallus in regione Hua Cennselach 
in propinquo monasterii sancti Abbani habitabat. Hic uero bonus et 
studiosus bonis operibus et elymosinis erat, et amicus sancti Abbani. 
Nomen quidem eius loci Seanboith Ard vocatur, quod latine interpre- 
tatur vetusta cassa aita. Iste homo quodam die incidit in suos 
inimicos, et ligantes iugulauerunt eum, et occiderunt. Filii uero 
eius et pueri corpus mactatum et laniatum in domum suam tule- 
runt. Vxor vero eius et filii nuncios miserunt ad sanctum senem 
Abbanum,ut discipuli sui corpus illius ad se perducercnt ad sepelien- 
dum in suo monasterio, quia sic voluit Conallus viuens. Vir autem 
sanctus, audiens quod Conallus occissus esset, nimis doluit in corde 
suo. Et ipse senex et decrepitus cum magna turba ad afferendum 
corpus sepeliri in suo monasterio perrexit ; atque cum ad villam 
pervenissent, vxor illius et soboles, et omnis familia magnum 
vlulatum ante virum Dei fecerunt ; et ipse sanctus, videns miseriam 
illorum, motus misericordia, cum eis fleuit, dicens : ' Cur factum est, 
mi Domine, ut vir bonus et clemens, et factor piorum operum et 
elymosinarum, subitaneam mortem, effusso sanguine suo, patere- 
tur ? ■ Tunc iussit omnes tacere, et adiuit locum, vbi corpus fuit, 
atque orauit ad Deum ex toto corde suo, et post orationem conuersus 
ad corpus, ait: 'Tibi dico, Conalle, surge, et loquere nobiscum, quia 
Deus animam tuam mihi donauit.' Ad hanc vocem corpus illius 
motum est, et postea surrexit, benedicens omnibus. Et vir sanctus 
assignauit eum viuum et sanatum ante omnes a volneribus suis. 
Tunc Conallus omnibus narrauit, quomodo demones contendentes 
atrociter animam suam, et angeli ' Dei ' defendentes cam fortiter, 
summus angelus desuper uenit ad eos, dicens : ' Istam animam iubet 

' = S § 41. - post vii annos peregrinationis sue de mari S. ^ = S 



Deus iterum in suo corpore aflerri ; quia suus famulus, sanctus senex 
Abbanus, eam sibi donari a Deo petiit; et omnis familia celi eius 
orationem intendit.' ' Et postea animam meam,' inquit, ' angeli Dei 
adduxerunt ad corpus meum ; et ecce ego viuens sum per orationem 
sancti patris Abbani.' Et tunc Conallus omnia, que habuit, id est 
filios et filias, seruos atque ancillas, cum sua regione Deo et sancto 
Abbano obtulit ; cuius senien et regio usque in hodiernum diem in 
seruicio monasterii sancti Abbani constat. Et omnes qui ibi stabant 
in Dei laudem clamauerunt, talibus dictis et factis gaudentes. 

xlviii. In' hoc loco, fratres, terminum ponimus miraculis, que 
f. t44 ' sanctus pater Abbanus in sua vita perfecit. | Quamvis enim, quamdiu 
vixerimus, scriberemus et scrutaremus eius miracula, non tamen 
possibile nobis esset in nostra vita perficere ; quia ipse in longissima 
sua etate in nulio die fuit, quo non fecit aliquod dignum ad scri- 
bendum. Set tamen adhuc volumus aliquid breiiiter scribere de eius 
obitu, et quomodo corpus eius beatissimum terre est collocatum. 

xlix. Ipse'' igitur quodam die, cum appropinquaret sibi tempus 
migrandi ad regnum diuinum, conuocatis ad se aliquibus fratribus, 
diem obitus sui indicauit eis. Prepositus uero sui monasterii, ct 
procurator omnium rerum eius intus et foris, de ciuitate Ceall 
Abbain ortus fuit, que est in regione aquilonalium Laginensium, 
quam primuni locum in terra Laginensium sanctus Abbanus fun- 
dauit, cui soli preposito ipsam horam sue solucionis patefecit. Tunc 
ipse prepositus' corpus sanctissimum beati viri furari, et perducere 
ad suam ciuitatem, si potuisset, decreuit, et nuncios ad suam ciui- 
tatem, ut populus eius colligeret sccuni aquilonales Laginenses, et 
venircnt in occursum eius in die et per viam, quam nuncius eis* 
indicauit. Et ipsi inde gaudentes, ita fecerunt. Set ipse prepositus 
boues, quorum superius mencionem fecimus, sub cura sua habuit, 
quia ipsi in vssu monasterii, sicut prophetauit vir sanctus de eis, 
antequam nati essent, quasi monachi fucrunt; et nec erat necesse 
ut illi ad opera cogerentur, sct ipsi libcntcr ct mitissime veniebant; 
et sanctus pater et fratres cos diligcbant. Et in nocte qua sanctus 
pater se migraturum ad celum predicauit, prcpositus illos duos boues 
iuxta plaustrum in signato loco collocauit ; et angeli Dei illa nocte 
visibiliter virum Dei visitabant. Scicns uero prepositus ex ore viri 
'sancti'" ipsam horam suc migracionis, iussit omnes fratres ad sua 
lcctuia ire, ct rcquiescere interim, preteramicos suos. quibus eandeni 
rem ostendit. Et egredientibus sanctis fratribus paululum requic- 
scere, ilico anima sancta pii patris inter choros angelorum ad regna 
celestia ascendit ; et statim prepositus cum suis amicis corpus eius 

' = S § 43. " = S § 43. ' dccicuit piiim furlum faccre S. • MS. eiiis. 
' sancti m, sec. 


sanctum dc nionasterio abstulerunt, ct posuerunt illud in plaustro, 
iilis bobus in eo subiugatis. Et ipsi boues, scientes suum onus, 
congruo cursu viam carpere cum suis commitibus ceperunt. Tunc 
angelorum exercitus de celo descendit, canentes dulciter circa corpus, 
et radii lucis ab eis lucentes viam omnem illuminabant, quasi radii 
solis orientis, uel occidentis cum sercnitate ; et ita fuerunt toto 
tempore, quousque corpus vcncrabilitcr est iiumo collocatum. Duc- 
tores autem corporis cum illa luce angelica velociter ambulaucrunt. 

1. CuM ' autem fratres post interuallum temporis surrexerunt, 
perrexerunt ad locum in quo patronum suum dimiserunt ; et non 
videntes eum " ibi, omnia claustra monasterii scrutati sunt et non ' - 
invenerunt. Tunc cognouerunt quod prepossitus eum ad suam ciui- 
tatem perducens euasit. Et ipsis flentibus et lacrimantibus, et cam- 
panis pulsatis, omnis populus ciuitatis ad se collcctus est ; et cum 
hoc esset narratum, conuersa cst tota ciuitas in merorem. Itaque 
plus clerus et populus contristati sunt quod corpus eius a se ablatum f. 144 ' 
est, quam quod ipse de hac vita migraret ; quia se liberandos ab 
omni malo, et se augendos in omni bono non dubitabant, petita 
gratia^iuxta reliquias tanti viri, sicut liberati sunt ab ipso inter eos 
viuente. Et inito consilio, plures nuncios in circuitu per regionem 
ad australes Laginenses miserunt, ut venirent sequi patronum suum, 
et pro eius recuperatione contenderent. Statimque populus armatus 
cum fratribus contendere sanctum suum perrexerunt, et unusquis- 
que in regionibus, ut audiebat tale factum, ilico sine mora post 
populum pergebat. Et cum convenirent hinc et inde turbe multe, erant 
multus exercitus ; et postea ad corpus cum impetu magno per- 
uenerunt. Et tunc populus alterius ciuitatis cum exercitu aquilona- 
lium Laginensium ibi conuenit ; et ipsi multo plures erant, et para- 
ciores australibus. Sancti uero monachi, clerici, et boni homines, 
et sapientes, qui erant ex utraque parte, videntes maximum esse 
periculum, iusserunt ambos populos in suo statu expectare, et corpus 
in medio iteneris eos collocare, ut considerarent, si eos pacificare 
potuissent. Et ipsi longe altercantes, nullo modo potuerunt perficere 
pacem ; quia exercitus aquilonalis dicebat : ' Iste sanctus nostram 
ciuitatem de agro signauit, et nos primum populum in hiis regionibus 
accepit ; et nos eum nostrum sanctum et patronum in eternum 
accepimus. Nosque atque nostre vxores, et filii cum filiabus, et 
serui cum ancillis, usque ad infantes in eum speramus in omni 
necessitate ; et prius nos omnes moriamur, antequam dimittamus 

' = S 55 44, 45. ' The words ' ibi . . . et non' are inserted by 

the rubricator, vvho has deleted the word nec after eum. ^ MS. petitam 



li. PopULus ' autem ciuitatis Magh Arnoide cum australibus Lagi- 
nensibus ita dicebat : ' Iste itaque sanctus a Deo ad nos missus est, 
et per multos annos apud nos vixit : et monasteria multa et cellas 
in nostra regione edificauit, et ipse est noster sanctus et venerabilis 
pater, qui nostram ciuitatem similiter construxit ; qui post multa 
miracula apud nos ad Dominum migrauit, et per eum semper adiu- 
uari a Deo speramus ; et scitote quod nos morti prius omnes tra- 
demus, antequam reuertamur, eo a nobis absente.' Ad hanc uocem 
ira principum et militum vtrorumquc arsit, surgentes in furorem 
magnuni contendere, et rixare conantes. Tunc autem monachi et 
clerici, quibus non licebat bellare, seorsum exierunt, vlulantcs et 
flentes, et fusis lacrimis dicentes : ' Heu, heu, Domine Deus, cur 
concedis maximam cedem tantorum nobilium virorum circa corpus 
famuli tui, qui in sua vita multa bella prohibuit ? ' Armati autcm 
exercitus iracunde in magna inimicicia ad invicem appropinquabant, 
festinantes contendere acriter circa corpus. 

lii. O MAGNUM - et maximum miraculum tunc a Deo per merita 
sancti sui patratum est ! Ecce enim velociter duo boues cum 
plaustro et corpore ad populum aquilonalem perrexerunt, et duo 
boues ciusdem coloris et magnitudinis cum simili plaustro et corpore 
ad populum australem venerunt. Tunc sancti, qui erant ex vtraque 
parte, et omnes alii, sedati quam cicius, videntes mirabile factum, 
et letantes dixerunt: ' Ecce modo apparet, qualia et quanta merita 
habes apud Deum, sancte pater Abbane.' Populi quidem multum 
f. 144 "^ gaudentes, | et glorificantes Patrem, et Filium, et Spiritum Sanctum, 
sibi gratias agentes, et sanctum suuni magnificantes, in maxima 
leticia cum magno honore in suas ciuitates uenerunt. Et omnes 
male habentes variis languoribus in ciuitatibus adducti sunt ad 
reliquias, et sanabantur omnes. Ipse siquidem reliquie cum honore 
debito in hymnis et laudibus post missarum sollempnia scpulta sunt 
honorifice. Ipsi uero boucs, qui reliquias portabant ad sepulcra 
sancti domini sui, per homines exierunt, et rectc ' tribus vicibus illa 
circuierunt, et postea mugientes per ciuitatem ad riuos propinquos 
cucurrerunt, et multi de ciuitatibus secuti sunt eos, volentes videre 
quid illi acturi essent. Boues vero ante omnes in vada riuorum 
intrauerunt, set inde postea nunquam hominibus apparuerunt ; et 
dicuntur illa vada scotice singularitcr Ath Daimh dha Cheilt *, id est 
vadum boum se abscondencium. Tunc notuin cst quod sanctus de eis 
viuens dixit : ' Non longe post obitum meum apud vos mancbunt.' 
Apud rcliquias sancti Abbani magna ct innumerabilia miracula co- 
tidie perficiuntur, sicut ipse fecit in vita sua. 

• = S § 45. - = S § 45. ' This probably means ' riglit-hand-wise '. 

Irish dciscl. * Alh Deib Dichlit S ; read : Alh Dam Dichlethi. 


liii. SANCTfs ' autem pater Abbanus iustus cum mundicia mcntis 
ct corporis, mansuetus, ympnidicus, sapicns, vas electionis, plenus 
Spiritu Sancto ; leo in diuina virtute et potencia, columba in man- 
suetudine et lenitate, serpens in prudencia et astucia contra demones 
cum suis insidiis; et mitis humilis scruus, laborans in seruitutc Dei. 
Post longissimam etatcm, ut sua scribitur [in vita], in senectute 
venerabili, post diuina mandata a natiuitate usque ad obitum com- 
pleta, post ydola et simulacra destructa, post multos conuersos de 
gentilitate ad fidem, et baptizatos in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus 
Sancti, post ecclesias fundatas, post leprosos mundatos, post cecos 
illuminatos, post surdos et claudos sanatos, post mortuos suscitatos, 
post omnes morbos adiutos, felicissime se.xto kalendas Nouembris 
inter clioros angelorum ad regna celestia migrauit, vbi premia cterna 
sibi cum omnibus sanctis prestantur. Et te, Domine Deus, Pater om- 
nipotens, per merita sancti confessoris tui, sancti Abbani, deprecor, 
ut me et omnes tuos fideles hic et in futuro tua potencia ab hoste 
maligno eripias; adiuuanie dilecto Filio tuo, lesu Christo Domino 
nostro. Qui tecum uiuit, et regnat, in vnitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus 
per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 


1 = S § 46. 

Vita. sancti ^ctJi cpiscopi ftlii Bricc. 


i. Beatissimus Edus ^ episcopus filius Bricht * de nobiliori 
Hybernie genere, id est de semine Cuind Cetcathaidh '', qui in 
summa pace et maxima fertilitate " Hyberniam in Temoria viginti 
annis regnauit, oriundus fuit. Mater vero Edi episcopi de Mumenia', 
id est de regione Muscray Tire, orta est, que iam erat satis nobilis. 
Cumque illa esset vicina partui super sanctum Edum, quidam ' 
propheta' venit secus domum illius, et dixit ille suis: ' Est mulier 
istius domus pregnans, cuius tempus ut pariat uenit. Si igitur infans, 
quem in vtero habet, cras nasceretur hora matutina, magnus esset 
coram Deo et hominibus, in celo et in terra ; cuius nomen et 
memoria per totam Hyberniam maneret per seculum.' Hoc audiens 
quedam puella, ilico uenit, et retulit domine sue, incipienti tunc 
parturire.'" Illa ait : ' Vere, nisi per latera mea venerit ", non 
egredietur ex utero meo, donec illa hora veniet.' Et sedit'^ super 
petram, mansitque in ea sedens usque ad horam matutinam contra 
dolores parturicionum. Hoc magnum mirabile fecit Deus in natiui- 
tate sancti Edi infantis. Nam cum mater eius hora matutina fatigata 
esset, capud infantis super petram cecidit, et fecit concauuiji in ea 
secundum similitudinem capitis : et usquc hodie ille lapis ita cauatus 
manet, et aqua que sit" in eo concauo, languoresomnium credencium 
sanat. Et accepto baptismi lauacro, sanctus Edus in Mumenia, in 
regione matris sue, ab infancia sua usque ad etatcm iuuenilem in 
seculari habitu alitus est. Parentes enim sui volebant ut ipse secularis 
esset in vita sua; set beatus puer Edus, spirante in co diuina gratia, 
conseruauit se integrum anima et corpore ab illicitis actibus " 
secularibus. ^ 

ii. Quodam'^ die ambulans bcatus pucr Edus solus in hcrcmo '", 

' On lower itiargin of M is a short pedigrce of Aed agreeing exactly witli 
that in LL. 347 ''. ' S. Aidi cp. qui dicitur JEdh mac Bric R. ^ = S 

§§ I, a; R' f. 97", R= f. 149'*. * Bricc T ; Brichii R', Bricii Ra. 

5 Chedcliathi T ; de nepotibus Neill, S R. ' caritate T. ' Memonia 

T, and so always. ' quia T. ' astrorum peritus R. " proilure 1". 

" nisi anima mea de corpore exierit R' ; exigerit R'^. '^ iUa T aM. " fit S. 
'* om. T. '^ = S § 2 ; R' f. 97 '', R' f. 150". '^ grcgem porcorum in 

siluis querens [cum quereret R] S R. 


inven in quadam ccllula [in] secrcta et remota insula duos sanctos 
seniores' abbates, silicet Brendanum Byrra et Kainnicum- legentes 
euangciium sub umbra arborum ; ct loquentes sibi invicem sancti, 
viderunt sibi proximantem puerum. Quem vt vidit sanctus • 
Brendanus, surrcxit in obuiam cius ; ct cum gaudio susccpit eum. 
Sanctus autem Cainnichus increpauit bcatum Brendanum, eo quod in 
adventu ignoti pueri surrexit. Cui sanctus Brendanus ait : ' Nonne tu, 
Cainnice, vides cum eo quod ego video .' ' Sanctus Cainnicus dixit : 
' Vcre nichil cgo video cum eo.' Brendanus ait : ' Ecce ipse est 
plenus gratia Spiritus Sancti, et exercitus angelorum comitatur eum 
vndique ; | quamuis est hodie puer secularis, tamen episcopus sanctus f. 134 ' 
ct magna columpna ecclesie erit.' Postea sancti et beatus puer Edus 
benedixerunt se invicem, et cum gaudio ipse reuersus est ab eis. 

iii. Beatus^ puer Edus a nullo magistro est doctus in puericia sua 
in liberali arte, nec in literis eruditus, nccque in regulis ecclesiasticis 
limatus est, usque ad tempus adole'sce'ncie sue ; set, sicut superius 
diximus, inter plebeos homines 'integer' corpore et anima Dei gratia 
nutritus est in Mumenia. Cum igitur esset adolesccns, perrexit ad 
patriam suam, regionem Midhi, ut partem de paterna hereditate 
qucrcret. Sct fratres sui nullam partem dederunt ei, nani inter se 
statim post obituni patris eorum, ipso puero in aliena patria manente, 
diuiserunt ; set hoc cognatis suis dispHcuit. Hoc videns beatus 
iuuenis Edus, quandam puellam, filiam cuiusdam hominis potentis, 
rapuit secum ad Momoniam, ut per hanc iniuriam fratres sui aftlicti, 
hereditatem suam sibi darent pro illa puella. Rapta puella, venit Edus 
cum suis commitibus secus monasterium* sancti episcopi Ilundi°, 
qui relinquens seculum monachos regebat. Vidensque sanctus senior 
Ilundus episcopus foris Edum interuallo a turba remotum, et angelos 
Dei cum eo, ait vni de discipulis suis : ' Vade, et dic illi adolescenti, 
qui est separatim in itenere, ut ad me paulisper declinet.' Audiens 
beatus Edus nuncium sancti Dei, humiliter venit ad episcopum. Qui 
dixit ei": 'Quare queris, fili, per vim hereditatem 'paternam' ' 
terrenam? Ecce enim habes patrem, cuius hereditas est celum et 
terra, omnesque creature ; qui dabit tibi hereditatem multo maiorem 
ct meliorem in celo. Noli ergo per iniuriam querere mortalium 
terram, set hanc dimitte puellam ad parentes suos liberam, et pone 
collum tuum sub iugo Christi.' Respondit ei beatus Edus dicens : 
' Quodcumque dixeris mihi, pater, ego sum paratus facere.' Et tunc 
remissa est puella ad domum suam ; et omnia, que beatus Edus in 
seculo habuit, voluntario animo reliquid, et mansit ipse cum sancto 
Ilundo in monasterio suo, omnibus iussionibus eius obediens, et literas 
et scripturas apud eum assidue addiscens. 

' et T add. • Kannicum T, and so iii/ra ; Kennechura S. ' = S § 3 ; 

R' R' u.s. * cellam S R. ' lllandi R. « 0:11. T. ' pat. her. T. 




iv. Alio ' die sanctus suus magister beato Edo dixit : ' Fili, quia 
fratres sunt occupati in aliis rebus, perge ad arandum nobis hiis 
diebus.' Respondit beatus puer Edus : ' Onini tuo imperio ero 
obediens -.' Quadam die venit ad eum quidam nuncians ei vnum 
bouem defuisse sibi in aratro suo. Tunc beatus Edus, misertus 
indigenti, dixit precedenti aratrum puero : ' Resiste interim, frater.' 
llle expectans, pius Edus soluit bouem de suo aratro, deditque illum 
indigenti. Ipse iani postea in tribus bouibus arabat ; et bos ex vna 
parte iugum portabat, et altera parte potestas diuina iugum mirabiliter 
sustinebat, et trahebat. Simili modo cultrum suum sanctus Edus alii 
indigenti homini dedit ; et ipse postea sine cultro cepit arare, set 
diuina potencia terrani ante eum scindebat. Tanta miracula videns 
sanctus episcopus Ilundus per beatum Edum alumpnum suum facta, 
dixit ei : ' O fili, magna miracula facis ; ideo debes magister esse, et 
non discipulus. Vade igitur ad regionem matris tue, et construe 
ibi in Christi honore cellam.' Respondit sanctus Edus, dicens : 
f- 134 ' Oportet I me, pater, facere siquid iusseris.' Tunc beatus Edus cum 
quibusdam discipulis sibi ' assignatis perrexit, et fundauit mona- 
sterium, quod uocatur Enach Midbreuin * ; ibiquc mansit multo 
tempore, et magnas virtutes fecit. 

v. CoNGREGAUiT ° aliquando rex Mumenie magnum exercitum, 
volens ut nepotes Neill redigeret ad regnum suum. Hoc audiens rex 
nepotum Neill, perterritus est ; et colligens ipse exercitum, misit 
sanctum Edum, ut illius anni pacem rogaret inter maternam et pater- 
nam gentem. Set sanctus Edus pergens ad castra Muminensium ', 
rota currus sui in via plana fracta est ; et currus altera rota sine 
impedimento currebat sub sancto Dei, sufiultus nutu diuino. Turbe 
hoc ualde admirantcs, sanctum Dei cum gloria ct honore receperunt; 
set tamen pacem a rege non potuit ' impetrare. Et rcdiens sanctus 
Edus a rege ingratus, ilico carus regis consiliarius mortuus est, et 
terra deglutiuit duos equos suos. Tunc rex, timore perlerritus, 
reuocauit sanctum Edum, et exiens in obviam sancti, tribus vicibus 
prostrauit se' ad terram coram viro Dei. Et ait vir sanctus regi : 
'Tres° reges de semine tuo erunt.' Ait ei rex : ' Habes, pater, pacem 
huius anni.' ' Semper', ait sanctus, ' habebo pacem a te, quia potestas 
tua^^non maius crescat.' Et rogatus sanctus Edus a rege et populo 
eius, suscitauit virum illum et vnum equum ; alterum vero equum 
dimisit in terra ; et repleuit stagnum aque illum locum, quod scotice 

' = S §1 4-7 ; R' f. 98 ", R- u.s. ^ et pcr meritum sancte obediencic 

factus cst peritus ac pcrfcctus in arte arandi R add. ' sibi disc. T. 

* -bren S. <* = g §5 8, 9 ; R' (. 98 '', R^ f. 150 '. " Memon- T. 

' non pot. a regc T. * sc ante cquorum pedcs, et curnis cum cquis exiit 

trans regem S. ' ' Quia tribus uicibus . . . te prostrasti, trcs rcges erunt 

de genere tuo ; et quot uices hoc fecisses, tot reges essent de genere tuo S. 
'" uestra supcr gentem meam [dc cetcro R] non erit S R. 


iiocatur Loch Gabre, latine vero stagnum equi.' Tunc a multis nomen 
Christi per sanctum Edum magnificatum est. 

VI. PosT HEc' sanctissimus Edus uocatus cst ad regionem Midhi, 
patriam suam, et ordinatus est episcopus ; et aliquando in Mumenia 
adhuc conuersabatur, et celias ct monasteria in vtraque regione 
edificauit. Habens' quodam die sanctus cpiscopus plures messores, 
pluuia magna descendit super terram* ; set nulla gutta pluuie cecidit 
in segete sancti Edi, et videbantur gutte huc atque illuc sparse 
euitare' segetem, quasi aliquid timoris haberent. Et videntes hoc 
miraculum, gratiam Christi cum Edo magnificabant. 

vii. Quidam'' diues in Mumenia carus amicus erat sancto episcopo, 
qui multas oblaciones et terram ei obtulit. Cui promisit sanctus 
pontifex Edus, dicto rogante, sacrificium dare, termino vite eius 
adveniente.' Set ille diues mortuus est, sancto Edo longe ab eo 
absente. Hoc videns sanctus' Edus spiritu, cepit velociter venire 
ad eum ', et misit ministrum suum ante se, dicens ei : ' Vade cicius 
ad mortuum, et dic in aure eius, vadam ego illuc, an ipse ad me 
veniet ? ' Et ilico mortuus ad uoceni nuncii pontificis sanus surrexit, 
signansque se, venit ad sanctum Edum episcopum, et dixit ei 
sanctus : * Vis adhuc in hac vita manere, an nunc ire in celum?' 
Illeeligens tuncmigraread celum, accepit communionem" dominicam 
de manu sancti Edi episcopi, et ibi dormiuit in pace. 

viii. Perueniens" sanctus Edus episcopus ad cellam sanctarum 
uirginum, ille susceperunt eum cum gaudio magno. Ille uirgines 
parantes cenam sancto episcopo, nullo modo tunc potuerunt invenire 
ei alium potum nisi aquam. | Et dixit eis pontifex: ' Afferte nobis f. 135 ',1)» 
aquam de puro fonte.' Et benedicens sanctus Edus antistes aquam, 
inde vinum dulce et forte factum est. Et gratias agens sanctus 
pontifex, de illo vino cum suo populo saciatus est, et sancte uirgines 
cum suis. Et tribus vicibus gratia Dei per sanctum Edum episcopum 
vinuni de aqua commutauit. 

ix. HoMo'^ quidam" habens multa animalia ante se in via, aliquo 
euentu fugerunt ab eo turbata ; et nec potuit ea colligere. Cum ille 
miser fleret, venit pius episcopus Edus per viam ; cui ille homo 

1 edi M ; Egni T. - Post hec . . . edificauit om. S R. ^ = S 

§ 10 ; R' f. 98'', R- f. 150''. * quod cum uidisset Aidus, signauit aerem, et 

SR. add. 5 de- S T. « =S § ii ; R' R= u.s. ' veniente T. 

* episcopus T. adii. ' According to S R the saint came to an impassable 

wood, whereupon his chariot rose upwards and traversed a long distance 
in the air. '<> sacrificium S; uiaticum salutare R. " =S § 12; 

R' 99", R2 f. 151 «. 12 ^ s § 13 ; Ri f. 99«, R2 f. 151 «. is quidam, 

cui ars erat fodere terram et muros ciuitatibus circumdare, [quidam fossator 
agrorum R] . . . fecit triplicem murum circa arcem . . . , que uocatur Raith 
Bailb [hoc est, arx balbutientis uel muti, add. R]. Quo . . . peracto, merces 
reddita est ei, plenitudo scilicet huius arcis de peccoribus etc. S R. 


flebiliter dixit : ' Domine episcope,perdidi' animalia mea sine causa.' 
Tunc beatus Edus episcopus misertus illi, descendit in terram, et 
orauit'' Deum ; vnde peccora illius hominis de diuersis locis reuersa 
sunt ad eum, et nec vnum siquidem de illis defuit. Postea illc 
iiomo benedicens sanctum episcopum cum peccoribus suis mansuetis 

X. Iter' aliquando agens sanctus opiscopus Edus* invenit duos 
leprosos in via, et dedit elymosinam petentibus duos equos currus 
sui. Et discipulis suis episcopum propter hoc increpantibus, dixit : 
' Hic expectemus quosdam viros qui veniunt longe post me, ducentes 
mihi duos bonos equos °. Et offerentes illi homines equos sancto 
episcopo, caritatem et prophetiam admirabantur sui, gratias Christo 

xi. Veniens" sanctus episcopus ad monasterium sanctarum uir- 
ginum, quod dicitur Druim'' Ard, cum gaudio magno susceptus est 
ab eis. Intuens* eas vir Dei cognouit vnam earum tunc cecidisse 
in peccatum. Tunc illa sciens quod nouerat peccatum eius sanctus 
episcopus, confessa est culpam suam coram omnibus, et egit peni- 

xii. Ouidam' latrones decollauerunt tres viros^" in via, per quain 
illo die sanctus episcopus Edus ibat ; set illi latrones diuino nutu 
retenti sunt, et nec se inde potuerunt mouere, donec peruenit ad 
eos sanctus episcopus. Et increpans eos sanctus pontifex, illi corde 
penitentiam egerunt ; et vir Dei suo uerbo soluit illos. Volensque 
vir sanctus capita lauare occisorum .suo cruore, aquani non inuenit 
prope. Tunc benedicens frontem terre, fons lucidus crupit, qui usque 
hodic ibi manet". Copulans sanctissimus Edus episcopus capita 
illorum occisorum ad corpora sua, dixit alta uoce eis coram omnibus : 
' In nomine Domini mei lesu Christi modo surgite ad nos.' Vnde 
ad verbum episcopi illi surrexerunt leti et sani, bcnedicentes 
Christum et suum pontificem. 

xiii. HoMO '- quidam, qui paciebatur magnum dolorem capitis venit 
ad sanctum Edum dicens : ' O sancte Dei, affligor ualde dolore 
capitis ; ora pro me.' Cui ait pontifex : ' NuIIo modo poterit a te 

' ecce niercedem magni laboris una hora perdidi S. fpcrfidi R' R^. ) 
2 orans M T. s =3 § ,4 . ri f. gg6^ RSu.s. < per siluam Elo S. 

o adliuc indomitos, et slatini mites . . . facli sunt S R add. « " S 5 15 ; 

R' u. s. R- f. 151 f'. ' Drum T. * intuens antem . . . uirginem, . . . 

nidit quod uterus illius partum gestans intumcsccbat. Et cito surrcxit illc sine 
clbo, ut ab isto loco fugeret. Tunc illa . . . pcnitentiam egit. Sanctus autem 
. . . benedixit uteruni eius; ct statim infans in utcro cius euanuit S R. 
" =S § 16; R' f. 99 ■', R- u.s. '" In S R it is three virgins from the 

monastery of Dnmiard who are murdered. " manens, Fons puellarum 

uocatur S. '= =-S § 17 ; R' u.s. R' f. 151 '. 


dolor iste exire, nisi in me ' superveniet ; set premium magnum 
liabebis si pacienter sustinueris.' IUe respondit : ' Domine, dolor 
supra vires est.' Sanctus Edus' ait: ' Dolor capitis tui, o homo, 
veniat in capud mcum.' Et ilico dolor desccndit in capud sancti 
pontificis, et homo ille sanus exiuit, gratias agens. Suscepit igitur^ 
Christi famulus dolorem alterius in se ipsum, ut proximum adiuuaret, 
et 'vt' pro Christo martirium tolcraret. Et multi postea'', inuocato 
nomine sancti Edi ^, a dolore capitis sanantur, sicut in hac re pro- 
batum est'. 1 Quedam sancta virgo' habens nimium dolorem capitis, f. 135(1)' 
inuocauit nomen sancti Edi,posita longe ab eo ; et ilico sana facta 
est a dolore capitis usque ad mortem suam. 

xiv. Regina ^ regis Themorie, id est Diarmada filii ' Cearbaill, 
Mugain nomine, que de Mumonia est orta '", sterilis erat, et non 
habebat prolem ; rogauitque " illa sanctum Edum ut haberet filium. 
Dixitquc ei sanctus : ' Habebis, domina regina, filium, qui erit rex 
gloriosus.' Et illa peperit " filium, id est Aedh Slane, qui fuit rex 
magnus Temorie, natus per orationem sancti Edi episcopi". 

XV. Venit" beatus Edus episcopus ad quasdam sanctas uirgines, 
que erant sub cura sancti Kyarani'^ abbatis'". Ille uirgines habebant 
cenam paratam beato Kyarano, patrono suo '", quam dederunt sancto 
Edo episcopo. Sciens autem episcopus uirgines esse in angustia, 
cum esset sanctus Kj-aranus prope, dixit eis'*: ' Ponite vassa cibi 
vestri etpotus, sicut fuerunt" antea, et erunt plena simili modo.' Et 
sic inuenta sunt. Et cena reparata a Deo per gratiam sancti Edi, 
iterum tradita est sancto Kyarano a beatis uirginibus ■". 

xvi. Aliquando " venit sanctus senior Edus ad cellam aliarum 
uirginum, et sedit super petram ante ostium celle. Et raptus est 
sanctus episcopus in celum ante omnes, et post duas horas dimissus 
est supereandem petram ; et ualde vniuersi illi mirabantur. Casula''- 
uero '^, quam tunc beatus pontifex dimisit in illam cellam, petentibus 
uirginibus, usque hodie ibi manet cum magno honore-*. 

' in me om. T. - tunc T. aM. ' om. T. * liis m. pr. ^ Both 

in M and T is a marginal note calling attention to this. ^ probatur T. 

' Nam sancta Brigida S ; cf. Lismore Lives, p. 324. « =S § 18 ; not in R. 

'' 61ia T. '0 orta est T. " et rog. T. 12 genuit agnum, quasi ad 

consecrandnm uterum sterihs ; et iterum piscem argenti ... Et iterum genuit 
filium etc. S. " Here S § 19 ; R' f. 99'', R- u.s. inserta story of Aed'sjourney 
through the air, an evident doublet of S § 11; cf notes to § vn sicfira. '* = S 
§ 20 ; R' R2 u.s. 16 Ker- T, and so m/ra. '« artificis fil. S ; Kerano 

Cluaynensi R. " scilicet ouem coctam cum paucis panibus et uasculum non 

grande boni hcoris [ceruisie R] S and practically R. " colhg it e hec omnia 

ossa ouis consumpta [? -te] etc. S R. '■' fuerant T. "> Here S §§ 21, 22 ; 

R' {. 100", R- t. 151 '', insert two stories (a) hovv a gospel book was sent 
from heaven to Brigit for Aed ; (6) how a building was permanently roofed 
with snow. ^i ^ g 5 23 ; R' R2 u.s. 2a .Ja,n m. T. ^^ o,n. T. 

" permanet in testimonium uirtutis S R. 


svii. QuiDAM ' crudelis miles virginem quandam rapuit, volens 
eam habere uxorem ; set cum illa peruenit ad domum illius viri, 
ilico mortua est uirgo. Hoc audiens sanctus Edus, perrexit ad 
illum, increpans eum de sua audacia ; ipse enim egit penitentiam, et 
obtulit se episcopo in habitum monachalem ; et postea fidelis 
monachus fuit sub cura episcopi. Et ait sanctus Edus episcopus 
uirgini mortue : ' Surge, filia, et ueni nobiscum ad cellam tuam.' 
I!Ia ilico a morte surrexit ; et congratulabantur omnes in Christo 
cum illa. 

xviii. FoDiENTES^ aliquando fratres' circa monasterium sancti Edi, 
invenerunt saxum quod nulla vi de suo loco potuit deponi. Videns 
hoc sanctus Edus, imperavit saxo ■■ coram fratribus, ut descenderet in 
alium locum ; et ilico ad uerbum sancti episcopi saxum in alium 
locum descendit. Quod sanctus Edus benedixit, et sanitas quibusdam 
apud ipsum a Deo per benedictionem sancti episcopi datur. 

xix. Erant'' pessimi latrones in insula in medio stagni, qui 
niultum regioni per circuitum nocebant. Et uolebat sanctus episco- 
pus Edus eos inde expellere, et non potuit. Quibus dixit : ' stagnum 
istud erit mihi obediens.' Et sequenti nocte illud stagnum de suo 
loco in regionem Connacthorum * exiuit, et stetit ibi in quodam campo ; 
et vocatur Loch na h-Aidche' scotice, id est stagnum noctis, eo quod 
in nocte peruenit illuc. Sic enim quidam propheta nomine Becc * 
dixit : ' Stagnum aque huc veniet nocte propter imperium sancti^ Edi 

XX. HoMo '" quidam cogebatur a domino suo, quodam mago, reddere 
debitum suum, id est gregem porcorum. Et" venitad sanctum Edum, 
f- 135(1)° |ut ipse sibi inducias a domino suo peteret. Magus autem hoc" 
noluit dare. Cui ait sanctus episcopus : ' Ego reddam tibi debitum 
pro eo.' Accipiensque ille magus porcos a sancto pontifice, exiuit 
gaudens ad domum, et clausit suile super porcos. Mane autem suile 
clausum invenit, set mininie porcos. Tunc sentit''' quod nil valet 
magica ars contra Christianitatem. 

xxi. Venit '^ aliquando dux Tedbe " deuastare quandam " plebem in 
regione Midhi ; et rogatus [est] sanctus Edus ab incolis illius plebis 
occurrereei,etpaceinab eo querere. Hocaudiensduxait exercituisuo: 

' = S § 24 ; Ri f. 100 6, R= u.s. 2 = S § 25 ; R' u.s. R" f. 152 ". s Quidam 
uiri fecerunt fossam circa etc. S ; quidam fossatores R. ^ saxa T. '' = S 

§§ 26, 27; R' f. 100'', R- u.s. «^ Connact- T. ' L. na h-Iche T. 

* Bec fihus Deieth S. » ont. T. i» = S § 28 ; Ri u.s. R^ S. 152 ^. " o>n. T. 
" sensit T. " = S § 29 ; R' i. 100 <^, R- u.s. From this point to the end, 

and also in the first section of the next hfe (Ailbe), the illuminated initials at 
ihe beginning of the sections are omitted in M. Evidently the illuminator 
here turned over two leaves, and so did the foliator. " rex Thethbe S ; 
princeps . . . Tedph[e] R. '* quendam T. 


' Eamus uelociter, priusquam sanctus Edus episcopus ad nos ueniet.' 
Hoc sciens vir Dei signauit contra illos. Illi auteni ingredientes iri 
quendam fluuium in confinio illius plebis et regionis Tedbe, equi 
eorum stcterunt immobiles in uado, donec peruenit ad eos sanctus 
episcopus. Quibus ipse ait : ' Reuertimini, boni homines, ne deterius 
uobis fiet ; quia nec vos nec equi vestri hinc longius ire poteritis.' 
Tunc ilH agentes penitentiam, soluti sunt, et uacui redierunt ad sua, 
glorificantes sanctitatem beatissimi Edi episcopi. 

xxii. Ambulans > in via sanctus senior Edus, occurrit ei quidam 
homo tristis dicens: ' Domine, decem uac[c]as habeo ; et ecce modo 
omnes vituli earum a luppis deuorati sunt, excepto vno.' Cui sanctus 
episcopus ait : ' CoUige hmum quod meo baculo adheret, et mixtum 
cum aqua asperge inde vac[c]as et vitulum viuum. Hoc faciens, 
dihgent eum uacce ualde, et dabunt lac suum.' Et sic factum est. 
De quo homo ille cum suis multum gaudebant ; quia non de vitulis 
dolebant, set de matribus et lacte earum. 

xxiii. Parentes^ vnici filii' venerunt ad sanctum Edum, rogantes 
eum "ut' ipse quereret illum vnicum filium, quem rex Midhi ■" in 
vinculis tenebat ad perdendum eum. Et perrexit cum illis sanctus 
senior ad insulam stagni Lebayn °, vbi erat rex ; set non permissus 
est sanctus episcopus in insulam. Erat enim edictum a rege, ne vir 
Dei introduceretur in insulam. Hoc sciens sanctus Edus, calcauit 
aquam quasi aridam terram, et' ambulauit siccis pedibus in insulam 
ad regem. Videns rex maximum ante [se] factum miraculum, dedit 
vinctum sancto pontifici. Dei seruus benedicens regi, donauit illum 
liberum Deo gratias agentibus. 

xxiv. Crudelis' homo et infelix aliquando iugulauit alium iuxta 
sanctum Edum. Cui auriga sancti episcopi dixit : ' Pereat manus 
tua, et cadat a te ; quia non dedisti honorem sancto Dei.' Et ait 
sanctus episcopus Edus : ' Bene dixisti hoc* misero homini; nam in 
hac hora mortuus esset, nisi hunc sermonem dixisses. Quando enim 
homo vult vindicare, Deus non vult ; ideo iam quia hoc dixisti, Deus 
dedit ei inducias huius anni ad penitendum ; set completo hoc anno' 
in hac die morietur.' Et sic factum est '". 

XXV. Beatus " senex Edus episcopus perrexit ad ducem Bai- 
thenum'^, ut liberaret quandam feminam liberam, quam dux cogebat 
ut esset ancilla. Cui dux superbus dixit: 'NuIIo modo dimittam 

I = S § 30 ; Ri f. loi ", R= f. 152 ". 2 = S § 31 ; R> R2 u.s. ^ He was 
a ' unicus filius ' because he had murdered his brother S R. * Neill S. 

6 Lebuin T; Lemdin S. « om. T. ' = S § 32 ; R' R= u.s. * fecisti 

huic S. " anno hoc T. >« Here S § 33 ; R' f. loi '', R= f. 152 <* tell how 

Aed recovered a brooch which had been thrown into the sea. " S § 34 ; 
R' R- u.s. '2 regem Baiethene S. 


eatn.' Cui vir sanctus ait : 'Si videres suadentem tibi hoc, statim 
dimitteres eam.' Dux ait : ' Vere dimittam eam, si videro eum.' 
f- 135 (") ^ Sanctus ait : | ' Non poteris sustinere terribilitatem vultus eius.' Dux 
autem grauiter postulans, sanctusque signauit illum cum suis; ap- 
paruit ilico demon ante eos ', et exterriti sunt, et facti sunt uelut 
mortui ; et vix orationibus sancti episcopi ad uitam reuocati sunt. 
Et sic mulierem illam a seruitute liberauit. 

xxvi. Intrans'' sanctus Edus episcopus domum cuiusdam militis, 
in qua erat furtum'; dominus autem domus gauisus est in aduentu 
sancti senis. Colloquentes invicem, ille miles vidit sanctum Edum 
semper intendentem in angulum vbi erat furtum ; et interrogans 
virum Dei cur inspiceret semper illum locum, dixit ei : ' Noli in- 
quirere, fili.' Ille miles magna prece postulans, ait ei sanctus : 
' Furtum ibi est, et demones supra lambentes illud, et ludentes in 
eo.' Ille ait : 'Ostende mihi illos, domine episcope.' Sanctusait: 
' Noli videre tetros * demones.' Postulans autem ille moleste, ostendit 
ei vir Dei demones; et cum vidit ipse species demonum, morti 
appropinquauit ; et vix oracione sancti consequtus est vitam.^ 

x.xvii. QuiDAM ° dux de Mumenia resistens in aliqua re sancto 
seni Edo ', dimisit repente lumen oculorum, et effectus est cecus. 
Postea ille agens penitentiam", magnas oblaciones et agros obtulit 
sancto Edo ; et ilico, orans vir ~Dei'° pro eo, aperti sunt oculi eius, 
et lumen suum recepit. 

xxviii. Cura" sancti senis Edi erat multum ad liberandos homines 
de carceribus, et de seruitute iniqua. Quesiuit a quodam rege iuuen- 
culam quam invide dampnabat ; set rex renuit dimittere eam. Reges 
enim immites et asperi sancto Edo erant ; set diuino nutu coge- 
bantur facere uoluntatem eius. Et ait sanctus illi iuuencule tunc 
presenti": ' Sequere nos, filia.' Illa iam ad hanc uocem secuta est 
sanctum Dei. Set nullus de exercitu regis vidit illam sequentem 
sanctum Dei per medias turbas. Et veniens vir sanctus de castris, 
misit illam ad sua liberam. De hoc rex cum aliis multum admiratus 

xxix. HoMiNES^' maliciapleni occurrentes sancto Edo in via regali, 
que dicitur Slighe " Assail, occiderunt vnum de familia eius '^ ante 

' illos T. '^ = S § 35 ; R', R^ u.s. ' According to S R the women of 

the house vvere malcing 'pulmentum', and hid it on the approach of Aed. 
' thetros T. ^ Here S § 36 ; R' f. loi "^, R' f. 153 " iusert a third version of 

the story of Aed*s chariot flying through the air. "^ = S § 37 ; R' R^ u.s. 

' qui ancillam sancto Dei liberare nolebat S. ^ dimisit ancillam, et S ndd. 

' o;n. T. '» = S § 38 ; R' R= u.s. " -te T ; M m. pr. '^ Here 

S § 39, R' f. loi'', R'' u.s. insert a story of a Druid seeming to pass through 
a tree ; cf. Cain. § xi. " = S § 40 ; R' R'' u.s. nouem uiri S. " Slige T ; 
Sligi Assil S. '^ aurigam sancti S R. 


eum transeuntcm, quem ipsc diligebat. Et relinquens vir sanctus 
viam iliam, vcnit inde tristis in magno mcrore, et stetit in alia parte 
campi'; et ccce- angelus Domini apparuit ibi, dicens ei : ' Nisi de 
loco illo ita huc venisses, terra ante te omnes illos^ deglutisset ; 
et ignis» ibidcm esset accensus, qui 'in'extinguibilis permaneret 
usque in° diem iudicii' in signum vindicte ; tamen morte pessima 
illi cicius' peribunt.' Et sic contigit ' illis omnibus. 

XXX. VoLENTEs' qucdam mulieres" capita sua lauare in dominica 
nocte, dixit eis sanctus Edus : ' Quid wltis facere?' Dicunt ei : 
' Nostra lauare capita volumus.' Quibus sanctus ait : ' Nolite facere, 
quia dominica nox est.' Ille iam non obedientes sancto'' episcopo, 
lauerunt capita sua. Mane autem surgentes, tota coma de capitibus 
earum cecidit. Hoc videntes fleuerunt, et venerunt tristes ad sanctum 
Edum, et penitentiam egerunt coram eo. Benedixit eas sanctus 
pontifex, dicens : ' Vestram portate ignomeniam '- hodie ; et crastino 
die lauantes, nouis et mirabilibus comis tecta erunt capita vestra.' 
Et sic factum est.'^ 

xxxi. I Venit" sanctus Edus episcopus" ad insulam Bo Finde, id f. 135 (a)« 
est vac[c]e albe, que est in Stagno Righ '^ ; suscepit eum sanctus 
Ryoch " abbas illius loci'* honorifice. Monasterium enim clarum in 
illa insula est, quod e.x nomine insule nominatur ". Et posuit ille 
abbas cenam magnam de carnibus ante sanctum episcopum. Beatus 
uero episcopus Edus nolebat cames comedere, et benedixit illas 
carnes, et panes et pisces'" et mel e'x'inde facti sunt. Et videntes 
hoc miraculum comederunt illa cum episcopo, gracias Christo 

xxxii. Visitauit" sanctus episcopus Edus sanctum Henanum''- 
heremitam, qui habitabat in-^ loco ubi nunc est clarum monasterium 
in honore eius, quod uocatur Druim -'' Rath ; et rogauit beatissimus 
Henanus sanctum Edum, ut sumeret caritatem apud eum ; set tamen 
nichil habuit nisi holera et aquam. Hoc videns sanctus pontifex, 

' Midi S add. ; qui Midensium dicitur campus R. - et ecce bis m. pr. 

^ illos omnes T. * turris igneus S ; t. ignea R. ^ ad T. ^ iudiciicii M. 
■ nona die S R. » -tingit T ; M m. pr. '■> = S § 41 ; R' u.s. R^ f. 153 \ 

'" mul. qued. T. " beato T. '- -min- T; ignorantiam R' R^. " Here 
S §§ 42-4. R' f. 102 ", R- u.s. insert tliree stories : (n) a fourth version of 
Aed's chariot flying through the air (the occasion here is an attack on Aed's 
monastery of Enach Midbren) ; (A) after his death shavings from his cross 
cause wort to ferment properly ; (c) an attempt to move his rehcs from Enach 
Midbren is miraculously frustrated. '* = S § 45 ; Ri f. 102 ^ R- f. 153". 

'j episcopus Edus T. '« Ri T. " Rioc T. is qui fuit sancti Patncii 

nepos, erat enim fiUus sororis eius, R add. ; cf. LL. 354 " 22 ; 373 " 27. '" erat 
autem . . . in tempore quadragessimali, S add. ■" pisses T. =' = S § 46 ; 

R' R- u.s. -'- En- T ; sanctum Dei Enoc [Dynocum R', Dynotum R-] 

Drommo Rathe S R. -^ om. T. -* Drum T. 


subridensque, ait ministro sancti Henani : 'Vade, frater, ministra 
nobis cibos sufficienter.' Et reuertens ille frater' ad quoddam holus 
offerendum, invenit coquinam suam omni genere ciborum plenam. 
Omnes hoc ° videntes et audientes, dabant gloriam Deo, dicentes : 
' Mirabilis Deus in sanctis suis^.' 

xxxiii. Abht^ sanctus senex Edus episcopus visitare bcatissimum 
Lasreanum ", qui regebat plures monachos in insula posita in stagno 
Erne, quam Scoti nominant Daimh Hynis ^, id est insulam boum '. 
Et inuenit sanctus Edus beatum patrem Lasreanum et fratres suos 
foris laborantes ', dixitque eis : ' Quid ego operis agam uobis .' ' Sanctus 
Lasreanus' ait ei : 'Opus tuum est, ut moueas hoc hgnum de loco 
suo.' Lignum illud erat maximum et uetustum in terra. Tunc 
sanctus Edus " in Christi nomine imperauit ligno, ut discederet de 
loco suo. Lignum illud ingens " ilico eleuatum est in simihtudinem 
auis, et transiliens proiecit se in mare. Et videntes hoc miraculum, 
laudes Deo dederunt. 

xxxiv. Incipiens " sanctus Edus monasterium in quodam loco edi- 
ficare '3, angelus Domini dixit ei : ' Non debes hic cellam edificare.' 
Sanctus Edus ait : ' Vbi igitur debeo ? ' Angelus respondit : ' Castel- 
lum illius hominis tibi a Domino datum est ; ibi iam per te anime 
multe in celum ibunt.' Hoc audiens ille diues homo", id est dominus 
illius castelli, displicuit sibi multum ; et iurauit quod nunquam sancto 
Edo daret suum castellum. Quodam die, intrans sanctus episcopus 
illud castellum, fugit homo ille de castello suo, ne videret sanctum 
pontificem. Et statim graui infirmitate percussus est usque ad 
mortem. Sanctus Edus dixit suis: ' Adducite eum ad me.' Et cum 
adductus fuisset, ait ei sanctus: ' Confide in Doinino, et age peniten- 
tiam.' Tunc ille diues obtulit Deo et sancto Edo illud castellum cum 
suis. Vnde ait sanctus Edus : ' Elige modo hic esse viuus et sanus 
ab infirmitate ista ad tempus, an nunc ad celum migrare.' Ille eligens 
ilico ad celum ire, accepit "* sanctum sacrificium a pontifice, et ibi obiit 
feliciter. Et in illo castello sanctus episcopus instituit monasterium, 
quod ex nomine sancti Edi'" uocatur". 

' minister T. 2 j,o(. o,„_ -f. ' Ps. Ixvii. 36. * = S 5 47 ; 

R' f. 102'', R- u.s. = Molasi Dam Insy S; Molassium [Malachium R'] 

abbatem de Dam Ynis R. ' Bohinnis .i. bouinam insulam T. ' bouium 

M m. pr. 8 Euccidentes siluas, ut terram insule exercerent S ; and 

practically R. » Molasy S ; Molasius R. "> Edus sanctus T. " illud 

lign. ing. T. '^ ^ g ^ ^g ; R' u.s. R^ f. 153''. " priusquam maiorem 

ecclesiam, que nunc est, edificaret S add. " ille homo . , . audiuit a quodam 
mago, quod domum suam . . . clerico aduenienti derelinqueret, et ideo . . , 
hostia concludi iussit, ne . . . introiret. Alio autem die, nullo uidenti . . . , 
sanctus Aidus venit in casteJlum S ; and practicaljy R. '^ cepit T. "^ i. e. 
Rath Aedha. " Here S § 49 : R' f. 102'', R" f. 154 ", relate how Aed freed 
Finan ('de genere Amolngith ' S) from 'quidam de Gallis' [pirate de terra 
Francorum R], 


XXXV. Cisterna' venenata per hiatum terre^ apparuit in illa 
regione ^ et fumus de ea egrediebatur, qui mortiferam pestem homi- 
nibus et iumentis faciebat. Tunc habitatores illius regionis rogaue- 
runt I sanctum Edum episcopum, ut eos adiuuaret de illa pestilencia. f. 135 (a)' 
Et pcrrcxit vir Dei cum eis ad ilkun locum, et benedixit in Dei nomine 
illam cysternam ; ct ab illa hora fumus ab ea euanuit, et nichil postea 
nocuit. De hoc in illa plebe gaudium magnum factum est, gratulantes 
in Deo per sanctum suum *. 

xxxvi. Promisit '^ aliquando beatissimus episcopus Edus vni fratri 
se roganti secum simul ire in celum, ut ueniret secum ad regnum 
Christi. Et cum veniret dies exitus sanctissimi episcopi Edi de hoc 
seculo, dixjt fratri : ' Prepara te, frater, ut migres mecum ad celum.' 
llle autem tunc noluit de hoc seculo migrare. Adueniens quidam 
rusticus ipsa hora ad visitandum sanctum senem Edum episcopum, 
dixit ei : 'Vtinam mihi diceres, sancte episcope: "Veni mecum in 
paradissum ".' Cui ait" ecclesie pastor, sanctus Edus episcopus : 
' Prepara te', bone homo, et iace mecum in hoc lecto.' Ita agens 
homo, leta mente cum beatissimo Edo episcopo feliciter illa hora obiit ". 
Hoc sanctus Columba Cylle ' in insula Hya '" videns spiritualiter, 
dixit fratribus suis : ' Opus magnum et firmum modo fecit frater 
noster, sanctus senex Edus episcopus. Ecce eniin peccatorem et non 
merentem ducit secum in celum, nulla demonum vis valens sibi 
resistere.' Et beatissimus pontifex Edus cum suo rustico post Cristum 
cum suo latrone inter choros angelorum suauia carmina canencium, 
quarto Idus Nouembris" migrauit ad celum '^ Regnante Domino 
nostro lesu Christo, cui est magnificencia ab omni creatura cum 
eo'dem' Deo Patre et Spiritu Sancto, qui sine fine viuit et regnat, per 
omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 


' = S § 50 ; R' R- u.s. - pariatum terra M T. ' in Munster S R. 

* Here S § 51 ; R' R- u.s. insert a section on Aed's virtues. It is mere common 
form. * = S § 52 ; R' f. 103", R- u.s. * ait sanclus T. ' si uis, 

laua te S R. » ob. hora T. ' chille T. i» Hia T ; Ye S ; I R. 

*' hodie S R. '- ubi sine merore regnabit in eternura. Cuius meritis 

deleatur dolor capitis scriptoris huius vite R-. 

Ib^fta saticti ^liiei ardjirpiscopi trc Jmlcct 

• '3^ Incipit Vita beatissimi patris 


ir i. Albeus' episcopus virorum Momenencium' pater beatissimus, 
et totius Hibernie insule post Patricium secundus patronus^ ex 
orientali parte regionis Cliach ^, que est in Memonia ', ortus est. 
Pater autem illius vocabatur Olcnais', qui apud regem Cronanum " 
in regione Artrigi ' habitauit ; ibique regis ipsius ancillam nomine 
Sanclit '° occulte affidauit, et cum ea dormiuit. Sciens vero Olcnais, 
pater sancti Albei, ancillam a se concepisse, timensque regem, ne 
occideretur, fugitiuus eftectus est. Postea autem illa ancilla genuit 
filium suum sanctum Albeuni. Videns quoque rex Cronanus filium 
ancille sue, ait : ' Iste puer iam genitus, natus de ancilla, sub mee 
culmine domus nequaquam habitabit, nec inter meos filios erit 
nutritus.' Et precepit rex seruis suis, vt occideretur puer. In- 
spirante autem Spiritu Sancto in seruis illis, non occiderunt puerum ; 
set sub quadam petra posuerunt eum, ibique reliquerunt ; vbi 
nomen eius usque hodie adoratur. Sub petra autem eadem fera 
lupa habitabat, que sanctum puerum valde adamauit, [et]quasi mater 
tenera inter suos catulos leniter eum nutriuit. 

Quadam autem die cum illa fera bestia ad querendum victum in 
siluis vagasset, quidam vir, nomine Loch'h'anus filius Lugir ", naturali 
bono perfectus'^, videns sub petra illa puerum inter catulos, extraxit 
eum, et secum ad domum suam portauit ; statimque fera reuertens, 
et puerum absentem cernens, cum magno anelitu velociter secuta est 
eum. Cumque Lochanus domui sue appropinquasset, fera tenuit 
pallium eius, et non dimisit eum donec vidit puerum. Tunc Loch- 
anus ad feram dixit : 'Vade in pace; iste puer" nunquam amplius 
erit inter lupos, set apud me manebit.' Tunc fera illa, lacrimans et 
rugiens, ad speluncam suam tristis reuersa est. Lochanus hic filius 

^ On the margin of M is an Irisb pedigree of Ailbe, nearly identical witii tbat 
in LL. 349'^. 1 he name in R is always written Helueus. ^ =S §§ i, a ; R^ 
f. 130 ' ; Ir. p. 97. ^ Mu- M. * alter Patricius S. => Elyach M ; 

Any Cliacb R. " Mumenia M. ' Olcneus R ; Ocbu mac Diila Ir. 

« ciiief of Ara Cliacb Ir. » -gbi M. i» Sandith M ; Sant S. 

" Lugbyr M. '- pro- M. " pucr iste M. 


Lugir quibusdam Britonibus', qui apud eum in oriente Cliach - 
fuerunt, dedit sanctum puerum', et ipsi diligenter nutrierunt eum ; 
nomenque ei dederunt Albeus, eo quod viuus sub rupc* repertus 
est. Et gratia Dei erat cum illo. 

ir ii. Post° hec venit quidam Cliristianus sacerdos' missus a sede 
apostolica ad Iliberniam insulam multis annis ante Patricium, ut 
fidem Christi ibi seminaret'. Hibernienses autem tunc fucrunt 
gentiles ; et non receperunt eum, nec crediderunt sibi nisi pauci. 
Cum ergo venisset ille ad Memonenses', inuenit sanctum puerum 
Albeum foris orantem, aspicientem in celum, rogantemque assidue 
ut ostenderetur | ei ' vera credulitas, dicens : ' Oro ut sciam creatorem f. 132 « 
omnium, et credam ei, qui fecit celum et terram et omnes creaturas ; 
scio enini quod omnia elementa sine artifice facta sunt, nec humanus 
artifex potuit facere illa'".' Cum ergo hanc orationem sanctus puer 
Albeus orasset, sacerdos ijle" de propinquo audiens, salutauit eum, 
et, secundum sui cordis desiderium, docuit eum de hiis omnibus, et 
baptizauit eum, ponens illi '^ idem ^ nomen, Albeus. 

ir iii. Postea " autem Britones illi, nutritores sancti Albei, volentes 
ad patriam suam exire'*, beatus Albeus cum illis vsque 'ad mare' 
ambulauit, volens transnauigare cum eis ; illi autem precio dato 
nauem ascenderant, et Albeum ire secum nolentes, in portu solum 
reliquerunt. Illi autem toto die vento et fluctibus maris iactati, 
rursum "* ad eundem locum retrusi sunt, vbi dimiserunt eum. 
Videntes autem illi sanctum puerum in portu, et scientes causa 
ipsius circumiactatos esse periculose inter fluctus, assumpserunt eum 
in nauem, et simul prospera nauigacione vsque ad Britanniam 

ir iv. Deinde" voluit beatus Albeus Romam pergere, vbi diuinam 
scripturam disceret. Cumque ad mare Icth '* peruenisset, quod est 
inter Britanniam et Galliam, invenit viros volentes nauigare ; et non 
diniiserunt eum secum. Tunc vnus ex illis dixit ei, irridens eum : 
' Vade " in illam nauem, que ™ est ante te.' Nauis autem illa erat 

• Christianis R arfrf. ; qui in famulatu fuerunt S add. - Elyach JI. . 

' Ir. p. 98. * i. e. Ir. ail a rock ; and beo, living. ^ =S §3 ; 

R- f. 130''. * uenit Palladius S (which omits ihe mission from Rome) ; 

sanctus Pallidus (sic) a papa Celestino ante Patricium missus R. ' Here 

S inserts the story of the eflfect of the narrative of the Crucifixion on 
Conchobar mac Nessa. the fanious king of Uister, wliom it raakes contem- 
porary with Palladius ij'i ; cf. LL. 124" 46 ff. * Mumo- M. ' sibi M. 

^^ et ideo adrairari cepit in hiis, sicut fecerunt quondam summi sacerdotes 
Hephi in Egypto R adj. " Palladius S ; s. Pallidus R. '^ ei M. 

's idem illud M. '* = S § 4 ; R= f. 131". '5 a suo famulatu 

fugientes S. '" sursum T. " =S § 4 ; R- u.s. '» mare n-Icht M ; 

mare n-Ict S ; mare quod inter Angliam et Galliam est R. '^ Ir. p. 99. 

20 que circa se pellem non habet S. 


vetusta et fracta multis diebus. Sanctus Albeus statim ad vocem 
eius' nauem illam ascendit ; et'' mira nauigacione et recta Dei 
gubernacione cepit transmaritare. Tunc vir ille post eum clamauit, 
dicens : ' Noli in naui mea nauigare.' Nolens Albeus in naui esse sine 
licentia nauigatoris, expandit cucullum suum super mare, seditque 
super illud, confidens in Domino ; et" benedixit nauem, et sola 
reuersa est ad dominum suum. Albeus autem super cucullum suum 
sedens, oransque sanctam Trinitatem, mirabiliter trans mare peruenit ■*. 

ir V. Post ^ hec sanctus Albeus peruenit ad quandam stacionem 
vbi fuerunt exercitus Romani ; et fama illius ante eum ad illos venit. 
Tunc illi temptantes eum, duxerunt tres viros ad eum ", ut curaret 
eos ; vnus cecus, alter surdus, tercius mutus. Sanctus Albeus videns 
miseriam illorum, diuinam clemenciam rogauit pro eis, et sanauit eos 
ante omnes. 

ir vi. Videns'' autem Deus quod indigne sanctum suum temptantes 
fecerunt malum, misit niuem magnam super omnia castra eorum. 
Tunc omnes clamauerunt ad sanctum Albeum, coartati nimio frigore, 
ut auferret' illam plagam niuis ab eis. Albeus vero misertus, eleuata 
manu benedixit celum ; statimque sol lucidus apparuit, et calificauit 
castra ; et omnes cum gaudio benedixerunt Dominum et sanctum 

[TJ vii. Tunc^ venerunt tres fortissimi leones de siluis, et irruentes 
in castra, vnus ex eis occidit virum vnum ; et" duo occiderunt duos 
equos regis. Volentes quoque deuorare eos, acceperunt eos inter 
dentes. Tunc fugerunt omnes timore leonum. Videns autem 
sanctus Albeus hanc miseriam, dixit leonibus : 'Quamuis istos 
occidistis, nobis non videntibus, cadauera tamen coram oculis 
nostris nolite comedere.' Statim vero leones obedientes illa 
corpora de ore suo proiecerunt ; et [ad] "^ sanctum Albeum 
velociter leones adcurrunt mites, et, quasi veniam postulantes 
f. isa^^de illis occisis, sancti Albei pedes | humiliter lingebant. Orante 
autem sancto Albeo, vir ille mortuus surrexit viuus. Tunc dixit rex 
ad sanctum Albeum : ' O sancte Dei, scio quia nichil tibi impossibile 
est per Deuni tuum ; rogo ergo te, ut in nomine omnipotentis binos 
equos meos, quos valde diligo, resuscites.' Audiens sanctus Albeus 
illum rogantem in nomine Dei omnipotentis, signo sancte crucis sig- 
nauit equos, et ilico surrexerunt. Bened[ix]itque leones, qui linge- 
bant pedes eius, et suis comis quasi linteo peregrini sancti Albei pedes 
leniter tergebant. Rex dixit sancto Dei : ' Fac " leones istos, ne huc 

1 illius M. ' et sola nauis nauigabat in mari, et mare non intrauit in 

illam S. ' om. M. ■■ ad terram Francorum R ac/<i. ^ = S § 5 ; 

R2 {. 131K 6 eos M. ' =S § 6 ; R2 u.s. « afl-- M T. » = S 

§5 7, 8, R-u.s., which divide this into two separate miracles. '" Ir. p. 100. 

" 01«. T ; in M added above line. '- Eice S R. . 


itcrum veniant.' Tunc beatus Albeus ait ei : ' Noli eos a tuo con- 
spectu vacuos dimittere ad loca sua. Ecce equi tui de ore eoriim 
erepti sunt, volentes eos comcdere, Dco pcrmittentc. Tribue ergo 
illis modo prandium^ ut scmpcr recedant a finibus tuis.' Tunc rex 
ait : ' Non habeo modo in promptu, quod vellem sibi dare.' Tunc "^ 
assumpsit sanctus Albeus prcfcctum regis secum in montcm sibi 
propinquum ; cumque ibi Dominum orasset, ecce nubes magna a 
culmine celi descendit vsque ad terram, et ipsa nubes attulit aptum 
prandium ' leonibus. Tunc di.xit sanctus Dei leonibus : ' Ferte hoc 
vobiscum in hcremum, et ibi comedite.' Et ita fecerunt leones, sicut 
dictum est illis. Tunc clamor populi in altum eleuatus est in hoc 
maximo miraculo, vna voce Dominum et sanctum Albeum benedi- 
centes. Sanctus autem Albeus benedixit illis omnibus cum rege, et 
recessit ab eis. 

ir viii. Post* hec sanctus Albeus perrexit Romam ; ibique apud 
Hilarium episcopum diuinam didiscit scripturam. Ibique ^, fratres 
carissimi, maxima et miranda miracula virtus diuina pro sancti 
Albei arciepiscopi commendacione ^ amore, atque honore, et pro 
edifficatione fidelium suorum hoc modo aperuit. Cum autem apud 
predictum Hylarium episcopum in vrbe Romana in virtutum pro- 
uectibus commorabat', hoc primum obedientie preceptum a magistro 
accepit, ut sues in propinqua sihia pasceret'. Silua uero illa cunctis 
omnino animalibus" incommoda sine fructu vel aliqua gratia erat. 
Deus'" autem omnipotens suo seruo, sancto Albeo, hanc gratiam 
dedit ; nam sues illius omnibus annis sine fructu lignorum valde 
pingues fiebant. Cum autem sanctus Albeus cotidie veniebat ciui- 
tatem, ut ibi apud Hilarium legeret, baculo suo depingebat terram 
circa sues ; et vestigium baculi sues transire non audebant, nec fures 
nec bestie eis nocere poterant. Et factum est ita quanto tempore 
fuit ipse pastor suum. 

ir ix. Quodam" anno sanctus Hilarius segetem maximam" habuit, 
in qua'' seminati sunt centum modii. Et cum tempus messis ad- 
venisset, et seges valde maturasset, messores non inveniebantur, ut 
metterent segetem. Tunc sanctus" Hilarius Albeo dixit : 'Quere, 
fili, messores, ut non perdamus segetem fratrum.' Ad uocem autem 
magistri statim sanctus discipulus surrexit, et venit, ut videret segetem. 
Tunc iam pene nox apparuit'^; tota mens sancti Albei semper erat 
ad orationem ; et ibi ipse orauit | longe. In'^ prima autem vigilia f. 133 " 

' centum equos S R. ^ i^. p joi 3 e^ ipsa nube centum equi 

eruperunt S; and practically R. * =S § g; R f. 131 ". * Et ibi M. 

' recora- M. ' -raret M. * tribus annis S R add. ' anim. omn. M. 

"> T vvrongly makes a new chapter here. " == S § 10 : R- f. 131 ''. 

'« ? -mum T. '3 quo T ; que M. " ? -to T. '= -rauit T. " Ir. 

p. 102. 



noctis angeli Dei ad sanctum Albeum venerunt loquentes cum eo ; 
et in illa nocte ante eum messuerunt segetem totam ', et in vnum 
locum ordinate congregauerunt. Cumque vidisset sanctus Hilarius 
hoc miraculum factum per suum seruum et discipulum, magnificauit 
nomen 'Domini', et sanctum dis[ci]pulum Albeum benedixit. 

11 X. Alio" quoque tempore messores multi apud sanctum Hilarium 
congregati sunt, et in diuersis segetibus separati. Cum vna turba 
eorum seorsum fuit sanctus Albeus. In illo autem die pluuia' magna 
erat post horam terciam diei; et omnes sunt* a messe sua impediti. 
In segete vero, vbi erat Albeus, nulla gutta pluuie cecidit, set sol 
lucidus eis fulgebat tota die ; et omnes qui viderunt hoc, magnifi- 
cabant Dominum, benedicentes sanctum Albeum. 

1f xi. Quodam' autem die sanctus Hilarius ad beatum Albeum 
dixit : ' Ecce ligna nostra non sunt fructuosa in hoc anno, et ponia 
non habemus.' Tunc sanctus Albeus dixit : ' Orare contra voluntatcm 
Dei non est mee miserie, set bonorum hominum ; et qui fecit omnia 
ex nichilo, potest dare nobis poma sine fructu lignorum nostrorum.' 
Audiens Deus Pater omnipotens humilitatem sententie sancti Albei, 
iuxta verbum propheticum eius pluit super monasterium " habun- 
danciam pomorum, in tantum ut totum monasterium inter rauros 
pomis mire magnitudinis repleretur; saporque mellis erat in eis. 
Et omnes qui viderunt hanc rem mirabilem, Deo gratias egerunt, 
admirantes sanctitatem beati Albei. 

ir xii. Vir' quidam de familia sancli Hilarii causa odii et invidie 
pateram vini cum veneno porrexit sancto Albeo. Tunc beatus Albeus 
repletus gratia Sancti Spiritus' et prophetie, labium patere deorsum 
inclinans, vinum in patera fixum stetit, et venenum in terram cecidit; 
statimque illud venenum in serpentem versum est ; et serpens ille 
videns virum qui sancto Albeo venenum dedit, currensque ad eum, 
intrauit in' illum ; et statim mortuus est. Videns sanctus Albeus 
illum mortuum esse, recordatus est dominici precepti quo dicitur'": 
' Redde bonum pro malo ; ' orauit pro eo, et suscitauit eum ante 
omnes. Ille homo magna testimonia locutus est de sancto Albeo; 
et serpens ille reuersus in venenum est", ne plus noceret homi- 

ir xiii. Videns'" sanctus Hilarius magnam sanctitatem sancti Albei, 
et maxima mirabiliaque fiebant per illum a Deo, et ipsum ''probatum 
esse in omni sapientia, misit illum" ad dominum'^ papam, ut ab eo 

' -tum M T. 2 = S § II ; R2 u.s. ' fluuia T. < stini 

after sua M. '^ =S 5 '2 ; R'-' "-s. ^ ciuitatcm S R. ' =S § 13 ; 

R^ u.s. * Sp. Sancti M. '■* per S. '" Ir. p. 103. " cs^ before 

1« M. " =S §5 14, 15; R2 f. 132". '3 oin. T. " eum M. '= Clemen- 
tem S R. 


ordinaretnr episcopus. Et sanctus' papa gauisus est in aduentu 
eius; mansitquc apud eum vno anno et quinquaginta diebus. Tunc 
autem viri sancti quinquaginta de Hibernia post sanctum Albeum 
Romam perrexerunt. Cum ergo' venissent, vbi erant sanctus' papa 
et Albeus, deditque eis papa cellam seorsum, et misit sanctuni 
Albeum cum eis. Multi erant* ex ipsis vnius nominis, id est duo- 
dccim Colmani, ct duodecim Comangeni', et sancti" duodecini Fintani, 
et bcatissimus Declanus cum ccteris'. Misit ergopapa* eis sanctis 
hospitibus pulcerrimos palnes, vinum, oleum, ct cetera bona cibaria. '■ 133' 
Tunc sanctus Albeus ad sanctum Declanum et Colmanum' dixit: 
'Quis ex vobis erit noster cellarius" in hoc prandio ?' At illi dixe- 
runt : ' Nos omnes sumus lassi, et non possumus ministrare.' 
Statim autem sanctus Albeus surrexit, et ministrauit eis, gaudens 
in corde suo, quia voluit ipse ut niinistraret. Tantam gratiam Dominus 
lesus Christus sancto Albeo dedit, ut talem cibum invenirent fratres 
cotidie apud eum, qualem quem" misit eis sanctus'- papa. Sanctus 
quoque Albeus etiam fratribus suis cibaria omnibus noctibus diui- 
debat, et postea pauperibus, ita ut dimitteret omnia vasa vacua ; ct 
in " crastino die inueniebantur plena ; ita et de '* potu permultos dies. 
Audiens sanctus papa tale opus, Deo gratias^'' egit ; sanctum '" auteni 
Albeum et fratres suos honorificauit. 

ir xiv. Alio" tempore rogauerunt multi sancti summum pontificem, 
ut sanctum Albeum ordinaret episcopum, ct niitteret eum ad Hiber- 
niences" predicare ibi, quia illi fuerunt adhuc gentiles. Sanctus " 
papa ait : ' Vellem ego ordinare eum ; set ^" piget me ponere manum 
meam super capud eius pre magnitudine gratie spiritalis quam sibi 
Dominus omnipotens largiter donauit. ' Valde displicuerunt hec 
verba sancto Albeo, et noluit accipere gradus, quia mitis et humilis 
corde fuit. Iterum sanctus ■' papa ait *- : ' Fiat quod vultis ; set non 
possum hoc agere usque ad natalem -' diem apostolorum Petri et 
Pauli ; quia ita constituerunt mihi angeli Dei, mecum loquentes ; 
et nos videbimus angelos Dei benedicentes eum in die illa post 
ordinacionem suam.' Hec vero prophetia sancti pape completa 
est. Nam in die natalis apostolorum Petri et Pauli angeli Dei in 

> om. M. ' aiitem M. ' om. M. < eraiit aftcr ipsis JI. 

5 Coemgeni M ; Domongenii S m. pr. ; Comgeni Sm. sec. ; Modomnog, Ir. ; otii. R. 
« oiii. M S R. ' et beat. . . . ceteiis oni. S. « Clemens S R. 

' filium Derane S njd. ; Colm. et Decl. M. '" cocus S ; dispensator R. 

" o»!. M. 12 o,„ ivi_ 13 o»i. M. "o;«. T. '^ gratias Dco M. 

J« Ir. p. 104. " =S § 16; R= f. 132«. 18 -ses M. i^ Clemens S. 

-" manus mea inter te et celum introire non potest ; et si manum meam supra 
caput tuum posuero, ipsa manus . . . precissa cadet in terram pre magnitudine 
etc. .S followed closely by R. 2' autcm M ; Clemens S. " ait : ' De manu 
angelorum episcopalem gradum accipies ; angelus enim Victor . . . ordinabit te' 
S R. "3 sacrum M. 

E 2 


conspectu beati pape et omnis populi sedis apostolice benedixerunt ' 
Albeum ; consummata benedictione ipsius, omnes qui viderant 
hoc, dederunt gloriam Deo, benedicentes cum angelis sanctum 

ir XV. Post' hiec dixit sanctus Albeus' apostolico^: 'Vbi comedet 
hodie iste populus ?' Sciens vero papa quod habebat beatus Albeus 
cibum et potum sine defectu in cella sua, dixit ei : ' In die ordina- 
cionis tue oportet te nos omncs reficere.' Albeus dixit : ' Non est 
hoc difficile Domino meo lesu Christo ; et ipso adiuuante ego vos 
reficiam.' Tunc omnis populus secutus est sanctum '^ apostolicum 
ad hospicium. Deus autem omnipotens pluit quinque ymbres sancto 
Albeo in cellaria sua; id est, ymbrem mellis, olei, piscium, panum 
candidissimorum, vinique mirabilis. Et" de hiis affluenter populus 
Romanus cum sancto papa gratia Dei saciatus est tribus diebus et 
tribus noctibus, laudantes et benedicentes Dominum,et honorificantes 
seruum eius, sanctum Albeum. Hec est cena ordinacionis sancti 
Albei. Per multa quidem tempora apud Romanos sanctus Albeus 
habitauit, et illi valde eum diligebant. 

ir xvi. Post' hec sanctus Albeus a sede apostolica missus est ad 
gentes, ut apostolico more euangelium Christi illis predicaret ; et 
magna plebs de gentibus per illum Domino credidit, et baptizati 
sunt. In illa autem plebe aqua defuit. Tunc beatus Albeus plebi 
misertus quod essent sine aqua, quia illi inde' miseriam paciebantur 
magnam, perrexit ad' montem sibi propinquum, ibique inveniens 
saxum magnum, baculo suo" percussit quatuor vicibus illum. Statim 
autem quatuor flumina de saxo illo" exierunt, et illam provinciam" 
per quatuor partes terre repleuerunt. Tunc illi videntes hoc magnum 
f. 133'' miraculum per hominem factum, | per quem crediderunt Deo, gratias 
egerunt Deo, et firmati sunt in fide catholica. In illa autem regione 
sanctus Albeus monasterium construxit, in quo reliquid sanctos 
filios Guill". Benedixit autem totam illam regionem, et recessit 
ab eis. 

ir xvii. Deinde'' sanctus Albeus venit ad ciuitatem que vocatur" 
Dolo moir", in extremis finibus Lethe" ; ibique sanctus Albeus cum 

' sanctum add. M. ^ =S 5 17 ; R^ f. 132^ Here M and T have an 

identical marginal note, calling attention to this incident. ^ dompno 

M add. ^ Clementi S. ^ dominum M, which consistently omits the 

epithet sanciiis before papa. " Ir. p. 105. ' = S § 18 ; R' u.s. 

* om. M. » o>K. T. 1» OJH. M. " illo saxo M. " .(-hiam M. 

" Guyll M. 1* = S § 19 ; R2 f. 132^ i» que uoc. oiit. S ; lecte, 

Dolo moir is gen. '* mhoir M. " ad quandam ciuitatem R (omitting 

all the place-names). 


populo suo in hospicio fuit. Cumque episcopus illius ciuitatis, 
Samson nomine ', corpus Christi offcrre coram populo cepisset, 
accidit ut caiix eius et ampul[l]a simul frangerentur. Tunc episcopus 
contristatus est valde, et" tocius populi clamor in ccclesia ortus 
est. Tunc sanctus Albeus intrauit ecclesiam, causamque murmuris 
istius interrogauit. Cumque cognouisset causam murmuris eorum, 
accepit ipse fragmenta calicis et ampul[l]e, et benedixit illa ; et 
reintegrata sunt, ita ut nullum fracture vestigium remaneret in eis. 
Et omnes qui viderunt hoc, glorificaverunt Dominum per seruum 
suum sanctum Albeum. 

U xviii. In' illis quoque regionibus vir et mulier pessimi peccaue- 
runt in sanctum Albeum, detrahentes ei coram omnibus sine causa*. 
Pro hac causa ad penam ducti sunt, et occisi. Audiens autem Albeus 
quod illi occisi essent, valde contristatus est. Accessit vero ad eos, et 
orauit pro eis ad Deum, et suscitauit illos a morte ante omnes ; quia- 
pro honore eius traditi sunt morti. Tunc onines dederunt gloriam 
Dco, videntes magnum miraculum. 

ir xix. Eodem^ tempore sanctus Albeus invenit in quadam ecclesia 
sacerdotem stantem ante altare, et volentem offerre sacrificium ; set 
non potuit, quia tenebatur lingua eius. Tunc Albeus circumspiciens 
populum qui erat in ecclesia, vidit inter eos quandam mulierem 
pregnantem. Tunc spiritus prophetie repleuit sanctum Albeum ; et 
dixit sacerdoti : ' Ideo"^ non possis loqui, quia voluit Deus vt audiretur 
prius fama de illo infante, quem habet illa mulier in \tero suo. Ipse 
enim electus Dei erit, clarusque episcopus, et vocabitur Dauid. 
Modo' signum habebis in hoc, quia cum audierit populus presens 
hec verba, cantabis clara voce.' Cum ergo audisset populus hanc 
prophetiam, sacerdos* cantauit missam ; et omnis populus vna voce 
benedixit beatum Albeum, qui hanc obscuram questionem per Dei 
gratiam reuelauit. Postea autem ille filius natus" est. Pater^^eius 
dedit eum sancto Albeo, ut nutriret eum Deo. Ipse est Dauid, 
sanctus episcopus", cuius reliquie requiescunt in ciuitate Chell '^ Muni, 
que est in Britania. 

1 XX. Post" hec sanctus Albeus, quasi apis prudentissima, cum 
mellis onere ad suam patriam, Hiberniam, Deo comite reuersus est. 

' Samson nom. om. R. - valde et bis T m. pr. ' = S § 20 ; R- u.s. 

* The words 'detrahentes . . . causa ' are not in S R, and are clearly a 
later addition. They are in Ir. ^ = S § 21 ; R- u.s. cf. C. B. S. p. 120. 

' Ir. p. 107. ' modo enim M ; ' Sacerdos enim coram episcopo non debet, 

nisi illo iubente, celebrare.' Cumque mulier illa extra ecclesiam esset, statim 
saccrdos ciara uoce obtulit etc. S ; and practically R. ^ sac, on margin 

after nihsaiit M. * bis M m. pr. "> Et pater M. " est enim s. D. ep. M. 
'» Ceall M. '3 = S § 22 ; R2 f. la^-J. 


Cumque venisset ad mare, benedixit illud ; et cum serenitate magna 
sine ulla offencione in naui vilissima ipse et omnis populus suus 
trans mare nauigauerimti ; et in aquilonali parte Hibernie portum 
tenuerunt. Ibi autem, iubente sancto Albeo, vnus de familia ipsius, 
Colmanus- nomine, cellam edificauit, que dicitur Chell Ruaid'. 
Cumque locus non haberet aquam, sanctus Albeus quendam ibi 
lapidem benedixit in nomine omnipotentis Dei, et ex eo aque riuulus 
statim prorupit. Tunc sanctus Colmanus ad Albeum dixit : ' Modica 
est aqua ista.' Cui Albeus ait : ' Ouamuis modica' est, semper non 
deficiet, et riuulus eternus erit usque ad finem mundi huius'.' Vn- 
f. IJ3'' de I nomen fluuii " dicitur Buanann Chille Ruaid', id est indeficiens 
riuulus Chelle Ruaid". 

T xxi. Postea' rex illius regionis, que dicitur Dal Aride'", et de 
illa gente origo sancti Albei erat, bellans contra Connachtos" illis 
diebus, ipse versus'^ [est] in fugam magnam, et tres filii eius" occisi 
sunt. Habensque corpora illorum, venit ad" Albeum dicens : ' Ecce 
ego, miser homo, veni ad te, sancte Dei, vt mihi auxilium prestes ; quia 
audiui quod facis magna mirabilia.' Ille autem rex vocabatur 
Fintanus, et gentilis erat. Cui Albeus ait : ' Si tu cred[id]eris, et 
baptizatus fueris, diuinum auxilium rogabo pro te et filiis tuis.' 
Tunc rex credidit, et baptizatus est'^ Sanctus vero Albeus accessit 
vbi erant filii, et orauit pro eis ad Dominum lesum Christum. 
At illi viui " surrexerunt ad patrem suum ; et illi omnes firmati 
sunt in fide Christi ''''. Tunc Albeus illos benedixit, et ait eis : 
' Quia vos credidistis in Christum, superabitis inimicos vestros.' 
Illico autem ille rex secundum verbum sancti Albei perrexit ad 
bellum contra Connactos, et vindicauit in eis iniuriam suam ; accipi- 
ensque obsides, cum triumpho magno ad domum suam gaudens 
reuersus esf . 

ir xxii. Sanctus'' vero Albeus circuibat totam Hiberniam, predicans 
baptismum ; et multos ibi ™ conuertit ad fidem, set non omnes ; quia 

' According to S R they crossed on foot. ' Collanus S. ^ Ceall 

Ruaidh M ; Cell Roid S. ' madica T. ^ huius raundi IVI. ^ fluuius T. 

' M re|ieats the name : Bvanan Cille Ruaidh on the margin in red ; Buanan, 
id est perpetuus R. » Celle Ruaidh M. = = S § 25 ; R^ u.s. '» Dal n- 

Araidhi M ; Fintan Find S rttyf/. ; nomine Furudranus Albus R a(/</. " gentem 

Connactorum S ni. pr. ; Kyanactorum S m. sec. ; que Kyannachta dicitur R. 
'^ Ir. p. 108 ; versus est ipse M. '^ et regina S add. ; et uxor R. 

" sanctum M add. '^ S R say nothing of the kings heathenism and conver- 
sion. '^ om. M. '^ et crastina die reginam resuscitauit S; and 

practically R. " Here S §5 26, 28 ; R- f. 133" tell how Ailbe raised (a) the 

Dalradian chiefs fatlier, who had been decapitated ; [b) tvvo horses of Aengus 
mac Nadfraich, king of Munster [at Pisalbe S; ? Lis Albe or Inis Albe]. 
" = S § 29 ; R'^ u.s. '^" Here there is a lacuna in M, caused by the loss of 

a leaf. 


voluit Dominus omnipotens ut beatus Patricius episcopus, qui • post 
Albeumin Hiberniam venit, conuerteret omnesad fidem Hibernences. 
Et ita factum est. Nam Patricius episcopus totam Hiberniam a gen- 
tiiitatead fidem et baptismum conuertit. Cum beatus Albeus audisset 
quod Patricius regem Memonensium, Engussum filium Nefrich, con- 
uerteret ad Christum, ac esset cum eo in ciuitate regali Casel, venit 
ut eos salutaret. Rex autem et Patricius gauisi sunt in aduentu 
Aibei ; et ille est gauisus eos videns. Ibi vero accepit Patricium 
magistrum suum ' sanctus Albeus ; quia valde erat humilis. Tu[n]c' 
re.K Engus et Patricius ordinauerunt ut in ciuitate et cathedra sancti 
.\lbei esset arciepiscopatus omnium Memonensium semper. 

ir xxiil. Quadam die quedam mulier que * oculte ' peperit per 
adulterium, ducta est ad beatum Patricium, ut indicaret quis esset 
pater filii sui ; et illa noluit indicare. Tunc beatus Patricius ait ad 
sanctum Albeum : ' Angelus dixit mihi, quod per te ista questio 
soluatur.' Dixit sanctus Albeus : ' Per verbum angeli tibi obediens 
ero.' Et ait : ' Ducantur ad me omnes viri qui habitant in una villa 
cum ea.' Et uenerunt omnes nisi vnus. Dixitque sanctus Albeus eis : 
' Est in agro vnus, qui non venit vobiscum.' Ille vero auriga erat ; et 
mirati sunt omnes de tali prophetia. Veniens* ille, adductus est 
infans ad sanctum Albeum, et baptizauit eum. Dixitque ei : 'Vade 
modo ad patrem tuum, et ostende illumnobis.* Statimautem surrexit 
infantulus, et perrexit ' [a]d ' aurigam, et dixit ad populum : ' Hic 
est pater meus.' At ille homo confessus est, quia verum testimonium 
dixit infans sibi. Tunc omnes dederunt gloriam Deo in reuelacione^ 
questionis huius. 

ir xxiv. Quodam' die cum Albeus | et Ybarus' episcopus am- f. 134'' 
bularent per campum Femin, venientes ad ciuitatem Casel, ut 
alloquerentur ibi Patricium episcopum, et Engusum regem, dixit 
sanctus Albeus ad Ybarum : ' Tu* prior precede, pater, ante nos ; et 
saluta homines more dominorum.' Cui Ybarus' ait : ' Si melius 
fuerit, fiat.' Tunc angelus ad sanctum Ybarum dixit : ' Non tuum est 
precedere, set Albei.' Precedens sanctus Ybarus quasi vnum gressum 
lumen oculorum amisit. Tunc ipse dixit Albeo : ' Benedic oculos 
meos, et videbo lumen.' Di.\itque sanctus Albeus benedicens oculos 
eius : 'Deus vnus, Deus trinus, sanet te, et reddet tibi lumen oculorum 
tuorum.' Statim autem aperti sunt oculi eius, et lumen vidit. Postea 
vcro, precedente sancto Albeo, venerunt ad Casel. 

' Ir. p. 109. ^ 'na anmcharaid do Ir., i. e. as his confessor. ' Tunc 

Patricius obtulit Albeo omnss uiros Muminensium, ut esset eorum patcr, et 
regera Engussum in manum Albei S ; . . . tradidit potestatem suam Helueo 
super Momonenses. sicut ipse recepit a papa super omnes Hibernenses etc. R. 
« Ir. p. no. 6 reual. T. « = S 5 31 ; R^ f. 133^ ' Ymar s! 

' qui senior es R add. ' Ymarus, . . . qui erat senior S. 


IT XXV. Cumque' sanctus Albeus reuerteretur de Casel, occurrit ei . 
Enna ^ abbas dicens : ' Reuertere mecum ad regem, et quere mihi 
ab eo illam insulam, id est Aru ', ut in nomine Domini faciam ibi 
monasterium.' Tunc reuersus sanctus Albeus ad regem, salutauit 
eum, dicens : ' Illam insulam positam in occiano maris da nobis, ut 
edilicamus ibi monasterium.' Rex ait : ' Non vidi, nec audiui, qualis 
et quanta sit illa insula ; et ideo * nemini eam dabo, ut prius sciam 
quomodo sit.' Tunc virtus diuina fecit regem videre totam illam 
insulam per longa spacia terrarum ^ ; et sciuit qualis et quanta fuit. 
Tradidit autem rex sanctis insulam Aru ; et sub sancto Albeo sanctus 
Enna construxit ibi egregium monasterium ; et sub vno nomine 
nominatur et insula, id est, Aru. Et magna est illa insula, et est terra 
sanctorum ; quia nemo scit numerum sanctorum qui sepulti sunt ibi, 
nisi solus Deus. 

TT xxvi. Sanctus " Albeus ad visitandam sanctam Brigidam, que fuit 
in Campo' Liphi, perrexit ; et mansit apud eam aliquibus diebus, 
vacantes misteriis Dei, et loquentes diuina verba inter " se ' cotidie. 
Cum autem in oracione essent in vno loco aliquo die sanctus Albeus 
et sancta Brigida, vas vitreum de celo plenum vino iactatum est inter 
' eos ' ; set propinquius fuit sancto Albeo. Accepit autem Albeus 
illud, et dedit sancte Brigide. Tunc gratias egerunt Deo. Et venit 
inde beatus Albeus ad fines Memonensium, accepta licentia a sancta 

T xxvii. Cum ' ergo venisset sanctus Albeus in propinquo fluminis 
nomine Berua, quod est in terra Laginensium, vir bonus, id est filius 
Dara', vlulans et lacrimans venit ad eum, dicens : ' Vir Dei, miserere 
mee miserie ; ecce vnicus filius meus modo in flumine isto mersus 
est ; et ideo cor meum valde torquetur. Rogo ergo, ut in nomine lesu 
Christi, cui credimus, ores pro eo ; et spero quia Deus suscitabit illum 
pro te.' Audiens sanctus Dei hec verba, et videns miseriam eius, 
commota sunt viscera eius misericordia, et dixit illi : ' In fide tua 
rogabo pro eo ; et Deus faciat, quod sibi bonum esse videtur.' Tunc 
sanctus Albeus flexit genua, et precatus est Deum diligenter; et, 
iuuante Deo, ille viuus et sanus ante omnes surrexit. Vnde dicitur 
ille locus vsque hodie Ath Dara ', id est vadum'" Dara', vbi ille 
mersus est. 

f. 134'' 1F xxviii. Quodam" tempore cum | esset sanctus Albeus in loco qui 

1 = S § 32; R' u.s. ' Endeus Arne S. ^ insulam Arne S. * Ir. 

p. iu. 5 distabat enim a Caselo plus quam quinquaginta railiaria R adcl. 

(about 84 English or 67 Irish miles). * = S § 24 ; R^ f. 132'' ; not in Ir. 

In S and R this section is preceded by the story (S § 23 ■) how Ailbe supplied 
Brigit with shecp. •> Currech S. s = S § 27 ; R^ f. i^s". » In T 

this word might be read Clara ; in S it is clearly Dara; and so in Ir. 
10 vadus T. " = S § 33; R* f. 133^ 


dicitur Cliiain Damdaim', venit ad eum sanctus SinchelP, ut sibi 
locum qucrcret sanctus Albeus" ad habitandum. Tunc sanctus 
Albeus ad cgrcgium discipulum suum Quennan* dixit : ' Deus misit 
ad nos sanctum Sinchell ; et demus illi locum nostrum cum omnibus 
que habemus ibi ; et Deus prebeat nobis alium locum pro eo.' Tunc 
assignauit Quennan sancto Sinchell totam ccllam cum omnibus que 
ibi erant. Postea venit inde sanctus Albeus ; et precepit suis disci- 
pulis ut nichil secum tollerent de illa cella. Vnus autem puer' occulte 
rapuit inde vnum vasculum eneum, non curans de precepto sancti 
Albei. Cum ergo venissent ad quendam locum, dixit sanctus Albeus 
illi puero: ' Cur fecisti furtum nobiscum ? ' Tacente illo, dixit ei 
bcatus Albeus : ' Da mihi vas quod furatus es de uasculis sancti 
Sinchel.' Tunc ille inclinans se ad pedes sancti, posuit vas ante eum. 
Accepit autem sanctus Albeus vas in manibus suis, et '^ iterum posuit 
super terram. Valde enim doluit inde sanctus Albeus, quia longa via 
fuit inter se et illum locum de quo vas sublatum est. Videns quoque 
Deus omnipotens anxietatem mentis sancti Albei fuisse in feruore 
caritatis, fecit illud vas volare per multa spacia terrarum, vsque ad 
locum suum. Omnes qui viderant hoc miraculum Deo gratias 
egerunt ; sanctum vero Albeum timuerunt, et Christum amauerunt. 

ir xxix. Post' hec venit angelus Domini ad sanctum Albeum 
dicens: 'Veni, et sequere me, ut ostendam tibi locum resurreccionis 
tue.' Cumque venissent ad locum vbi nunc est sepulchrum sanctis- 
simi Albei ', dixit angelus Domini ad eum : ' Hic sepelieris ; et in hoc 
loco maxima ciuitas in honore tuo erit ; et hic per te multa miracula 
Deus faciat post obitum tuum, et in vita tua.' Et hoc dicens, euanuit 
ex oculis eius. Ibi sanctus Albeus triduanum ieiunium egit^; et 
expleto ieiunio dixit sancto Cehennan'": ' Vade ad dextram tuam, 
et quodcumque inveneris ibi", affer tecum.' Exiens vero ille, 
invenit prandium a Domino missum ; id est panem candidissimum, 
et partem piscis assati ; et sumentes, gratias Deo egerunt. Deinde 
venit angelus ad sanctum Albeum, et duxit eum secum ad locum vbi 
nunc est crux egregia, que vocatur crux angelorum, eo quod fre- 
quenter locuti fuissent angeli ibi cum sancto Albeo ; et dixit ei : 
' Sede hic, et edifica ecclesiam Deo, quia in hoc loco magna ciuitas 
erit in nomine tuo, sicut predixi tibi, que vocabitur Ymlech Ybuir.' 
Et factum est ita sicut dixit angelus. 

' Cluoin Daymh qui est in Ethar Liki S; Cluain Daymh prope (luuium . . . 
Liphy R ; Cluain Daim Ir. Tlie reading in Ihe text is probably due to ditto- 
graphy. - Sinkell Camni S (read : Camm). ^ Ir. p. iia. * uni 

ex suis . . . episcopo Kyenan S ; Kennano discipulo suo R. * ep_ Kyenan S ; 
ep. Kyennani R ; pueriliter agens R aUd. * possuit illud ante ianuam 

ccclesie S R. ' = S § 34 ; R- u.s. « Fert n-Ailbei, ad orientalem 

partem Imlachi S; Fert n-Eaylbi R. » Ir. p. 113. '» Kyenan S. 

" iuxta ripam fluminis S R. 


1[ XXX. Quodam' die filia illius hominis, cuius regio fuit ille locus 
quem signauit angelus sancto Albeo, seminauit iacintinum^ ibi contra 
voluntatem beati Albei. Sanctus autem Albeus ^ nolens ut venirent 
mulieres ad opera sua tam propinquius ad se et discipulos suos, 
orauit ad Deum ; et illud iacintinum versum est in linum *. De cetero 
vero nec illa nec alius contendit agrum illum contra voluntatem 
sancti Albei. 

1[ xxxi. Quodam ^ tempore ambulans sanctus Albeus in ° terra Hua 
Carpre et Hua Conu[i]ll, venit ad quasdam virgines, que eum hilariter 
receperunt, et obtulerunt ei suum locum, id est Acah Cumrech '. Ille 
vero sanctimoniales nutrierunt quendam puerum, nomine Cum- 
menus ', filium Echdach ; cuius' vita fuit contra Deum et contra 
sanctas virgines. Nam quando virilis fuit, recessit a virginibus, et 
effectus est latro nimis, et arrogans in sua milicia. Rogauerunt ergo 
f. 134 ■" sancte | moniales sanctum Albeum ut predicaret verbum Dei illi, si ^" 
potuisset conuertere eum de errore suo. Predicans Albeus illi diuina 
verba, ille dixit : ' Dimitte me ire hodie quocunque voluero ; et cras 
ego faciam quod mihi dixeris.' Habens licentiam, ille exiuit illa die 
cum sociis suis ; et visum est illi quod invenirct suos inimicos in 
agro, et decollauit, ut putabant, "capita' eorum, [et] detulerunt secum. 
Set cum reuersi essent, viderunt ligna in manibus suis, que visa sunt 
prius capita occisorum esse ; et similiter ipsa corpora ligna apparue- 
runt. Ille homo ait " : ' Scio quod Deus fecit per sanctum Albeum, 
ut ambularent contra nos ligna in forma hominum ; et ideo que dicat 
mihi Albeus, faciam.' Et inclinauit se ad pedes Albei, et obtulit ei 
agrum suum, et dignus effectus est postea. 

ir xxxii. Alio '^ tempore venit sanctus Albeus ad quendam heri- 
mitam qui vocabatur Mac Chire " ; et ille dixit Albeo : ' In hoc loco 
prope non habemus aquam.' Tunc Albeus et herimita foras exierunt, 
et, orantibus illis, fons clarus a terra erupit, qui ibi pluit vsque 'hodie'. 
Gratias agentes Deo, recesserunt inde sancti '*. 

ir xxxiii. Sanctissima^^ virgo Scletha" filia Mec Chier" misit nun- 

' = S § 35 ; not in R. ^ holus iacintinum S ; roslin Ir., i. e. flax seed 

(vide Cormacs Glossary s.v. ross). ^ iacintina uestimenta odiens, et seculi 

ornamenta respucns S. * j doroighncdur croinn gin torad don lionsin Ir., 

i. e. and that flax was turned into barren trees. '' = S § 36 ; R f. 133'' ; not 

iu Ir. « in regionibus Fithgente S. '^ Aiketh Kerech S ; de Achad 

Cayrach .i. de colle ouium R. ' Cummine S. ^ qui uotum pessimum 

uouit, scilicet dibherc S ; qui factus est princeps latronum R. ^" ut diabolicum 
illud uotum relinqueret S ; ut malam suam uitam emendarct R. " sanctus 

Helueus fecit hec, et delusit sensus nostros R. ''^ = S § 37 ; not in R. 

'^ ad ciuitatem Ultani, ut ibi uisitaret alumpnum suum, scilicet Mac Creky S ; 
above read Mac Criche. " Here S § 38 ; R- f. iss"* add how Ailbe sent two 
stags to plough Ibr S. Squieth filia Mechair [Squilha R], at Firt Squethe S. 
15 = s § 39, R- U.S., Ir. p. 114. '^ Squiatha S ; above read Scietha. 

" ingen do Mac lair Ir. 


cium ad sanctum Albeuiii, ut ipse mitteret scriptorem ad eam ad 
scribendos libros quatuor euangeliorum. Misit enim ; et scriptor 
scripsit duos libros ; et postea infirmitate correptus mortuus est. 
Audiens bcatus pontifex Albeus quod ipse egrotaret, statim perrexit 
ad illum, et invenit cum mortuum. Orans sanctus Albeus et sancta 
Scletiia pro eo, dixit ei sanctus Albeus : 'Surge modo, frater ; quia 
Dcus donauit animam tuam nobis, ut scribas alios duos libros evange- 
liorum, quos non scripsisti. Set ' scito ' quod statim postea morieris ' '. 
Ad hanc vocem surrexit ille ; et postquam scripsit illa duo evangelia, 
ilico- mortuus est. Corpus autem eius duxerunt discipuli Albei, et 
sepelierunt in monasterio Albei, quod est in ciuitate ipsius Ymleac. 

•T xxxiv. Sanctus' vir, Mundanus nomine, in cuius honore est illud 
monasterium, id est Tuam Dindach *, duos boues ad arandum a sancto 
Albeo postulauit. Misit autem Albeus ei duos boues pulcherrimos 
albos, auribus rubris. Boues autem recto itinere, nemine ducente, 
perrexerunt ad Mundanum°. Sicque omnibus annis ad sanctum 
Mundanum ° boues, nemine ducente, tempore arandi veniebant ; et 
post araturam similiter reuertebantur ad Albeuni. Contigit vero 
quodam die, vt quidam homo illos boues vellet iugulare". Cum autem 
cleuasset ille manum, fracta est lancea in manu eias ; et quedam 
particula exiliens de lancea fregit oculum eius. Tunc ille egit peni- 
tentiam, et obtulit agrum suum sancto Albeo ' ; exieruntque boues 
incolumes ab eo*. 

U XXXV. Alio' tempore cum sanctus Albeus in regionibus Con- 
nactorum ambularet, tunc rex illius regionis '" voluit occidere quen- 
dam vinctum, qui apud eum erat ligatus. Tunc misit Albeus vnum 
de discipulis suis " ad regem, ut vir vinctus sibi a rege dimitteretur. 
Rex vero spreuit nuncium sancti Albei, et iussit illum vinctum cruci- 
figi"'. Ille autem nullo modo crucifigi potuit ; et eodem momento 
filius regis mortuus est. Tunc vocatus Albeus ad regem, dedit ei rex 
hominem illum et agrum, ut edificarentur ibi ecclesie Dei ; et rogauit, 
ut suscitaretur filius suus. Orans sanctus pro filio eius, statim sur- 
rexit viuus ; et ibi multi crediderunt in Christum per sanctum Albeum, 
et baptizati sunt. 

ir xxxvi. Erat " in eadem regione Connactorum fluuius sterilis, 

* set . . . morieris om. S R. ^ S and R do not make him die at once. 

' = S § 40 : not in R. * Modan, qui habitabat in Thoira Dindach S ; a 

tTuaim iochtair Ir., i. e. at Lower Tuam. ^ Modanum S. ^ because 

they trespassed on his land ' iuxta insulam Ybdan ' S. ' et uocatur Inis 

inTn^a n-Dam S, i. e. the isle of the oxen. ^ HereS^^r: R^ f. 131** tell hovv 
Ailbe with his staff produced vvater from a rock at Enach Daulrigi [Dalrigi R]. 
' = S 5 42 ; R^ u.s. " Ir. p. 115. " do chuir easbudh dia muinntir 

Ir., i. e. sent a bishop of his retinue ; cum baculo suo S R aiid. " Tunc 

baculus Albei circa uirum uinctum datus est, et . . . nuUo modo etc. S ; and 
practically R. *' = S § 43 ; R- u.s. 


f. 134 ^ pisces non habens. Gens autem | illa rogauit nctum Alb um ut bene- 
diceret in nomine Dei viui illum fluuium. Benedicens sanctus Albeus 
aquam in nomine Patris omnipotentis, ostendit^ eis quinque loca in 
flumine, ut in ipsis facerent capi pisces. Ex illa autem die nimia 
piscium copia est fluuius repletus. Et illa gens firmata est a sancto 
Albeo in fide catholica, et construxit quinque cellas in honore sancti 

ir xxxvii. Quodam ' tempore misit sanctus Albeus duos sanctos 
viros, id est Lugith et Sailchin ', pro aliqua causa ad Romam ^ et cum 
eis bonum ministrum, Gobbanum nomine, in cuius honore est mona- 
sterium quod vocatur Cenn Sali '. At illi dixerunt sancto Albeo : 
' Nobis fiat a te peticio nostra; id est, uf a Roma salui et leti ad 
Hiberniam reuertamur.' Tunc promisit illis ' sanctus Albeus in 
nomine Christi, ut ita venirent. Factum est autem nauigantibus illis, 
minister eorum Gcbbanus' mortuus est in naui. Tunc sanctus 
Lugith ''' dixit : ' Nos cibum non gustabimus, donec fiat nobis, quod 
promisit Albeus in nomine Christi.' Cum autem tribus diebus et 
tribus noctibus ieiunassent, minister Gobbanus reuixit, et dixit illis" 
multa testimonia de sancto Albeo, et ait '^ : ' Animam meam propter 
promissionem sancti Albei iterum in corpus meum Deus misit.' 
Postea '' autem salui et leti de Roma ad Hiberniam reuersi sunt. 

ir xxxviii. Alio" tempore sanctus Albeus exiuit in finibus Osargi", 
et requieuit ibi solus tribus diebus et tribus noctibus. Rex autem 
illius regionis "■' in quarta die venit ad eum ; et salutans, optimus odor 
de ore sancti Albei egrediens" inebriauit regem; et opressus sompno 
dormiuit tribus diebus. Postquam autem " surrexit rex, dixit ei 
sanctus Albeus : ' Adhuc non fecisti triduanum ieiunium ; et ideo 
hoc contigit tibi.' Rex vero se religiosum esse ita fuit"; 
illum autem locum, id est Ymlech -", Scanlan °' obtulit sancto Albeo. 

ir xxxix. Ambulans''' sanctus Albeus in eadem regione ambulabant 
cum eo quedam sanctimoniales, id est Bige'^ et Betach -''. Contigit 
autem vt infirmaretur quedam sancta monialis ^^ apud illos in via ; 

^ -dens T. '^ Here S § 44 tells how Ailbe marked out the foundations of a 
house (not in R). ' = S § 45 ; R' u.s. * L. et Keilchenne, qui sunt 

hi [ = in] Formuig S. ^ ut nouum ordinem celebrandi a Roma deducerent 

S ; and practically R. ^ cum eis cocum . . . scilicet Mogopoc, qui est hi 

[= in] Kin Sali S. "^ ' ut . . . Hibernia sine dolore et morte fiat, donec 

. . . reuertamur ' S. * Here M resumes aftcr the lacuna. ' cocus 

eorum Gopbanus S. " Lughaidh M ; Lugidius S R. " Ir. p. 116. 

12 om. T. " post T. » = S § 46 ; R» f. 134''. "> Osraighi M ; 

ad Durn Arann S aM. ; Dayri Arand R. '» Scanlanus [Scaln- R] Magnus 

S R add. " spiritualiter R add. " 01«. T. " 7 do imthig a n-ord 

iarsin Ir., i. e. and went into orders afterwards. ^** Ymleach M ; Imbliug S. 

" Scannlain M. =2 = S § 47 ; R" u.s. «s ? Brige M. " Bethach M ; 

Bithech et Barrach S ; Brighe 7 I3erach Ir. ^» sanctimon- M. 


que importune qucsiuit lac, ut gustaret. Non' invento ibi lacte, 
viderunt ceruam euntem de silua, et vocauit eam Bige^: et cerua 
cxpectauit initissime. Aitque Bige ' ad quandam sanctimonialem : 
' Vade, et niulge ceruam, et de lacte eius sanabitur soror nostra." Et 
statitn ut gustauit uirgo lac, valida surre.xit. Tunc murmurauerunt 
discipuli sancti Albei contra virgines in hoc miraculo*; et venit 
angelus Domini ad Albeum, dicens ei : ' Ne " sis invidus contra virgines * 
Domini, sicut sunt discipuli tui. Nam si volueris, ut mons iste de 
loco ad locum exeat, statim obediet tibi ; et nichil impos[s]ibile est 
sub celo in miraculis tibi.' Et ait : ' Christus, filius Dei, ita promisit 
seruis eius; et tu es seruus Dei probatus.' Et hec dicens, recessit. 
Virgines, et ceteri qui erant ibi cum sancto Albeo, gratias Deo 

ir xl. Quodam' die venerunt hospites ad sanctum Albeum, et valde 
erat frigus. Sanctus autem Albeus audiens eos | frigidos esse, f. 135° 
misericorditer dixit ministro, qui fuit ante eum : ' ToIIe cito prunas 
ignitas ad hospites, et misericordiam in nomine Christi faciamus 
illis.' Pius discipulus ad verbum sancti magistri, non habens va- 
sculum in promtu, accepit prunas cum manibus, et posuit in sinu suo. 
Prestauit vero gratia Diuina illi, quod non solum manus et vesti- 
menta non sunt combusta, set nec quidem extremos vestis pilos 
ignis attigit. 

ir xli. Sanctus' iam Albeus volens fugere homines, et videns se 
honorificatum esse apud homines omnes, et cum essent plurima 
loca sub eo, ad insulam Tile' in occiano positam nauigare decreuit, 
ut ibi viueret Deo secrete solus. Set nutu Dei Engus '", rex Casseil ", 
hoc prohibuit ; nam ipse rex ordinauit custodes custodire omnes 
marinos portUs'-, ne sanctus Albeus fugeret ab hiis quos per bapti- 
smum et per predicacionem Dei filios fecit ^'. 

1 xlii. Quodam " tempore venit egregius et sanctissimus diaconus 
Nessanus ad sanctum Albeum, ut interrogaret eum de^quibusdam 
questionibus. Mos erat sancto Albeo ut ab hora nona vsque ad 
terciam diei sequentis remaneret solus, vacans diuinis orationibus, 
et nullus audebat ire ad eum, excepto ministro hospitum ". Cum 

' et non M. 2 Brige M. s ^^ M. * hoc audiens Ailbe, . . . ipse 

similiter . . . mulsit ceruam S add. ; and practically R. 5 Minima miracula 

feminis relinque, et illa aspicere noli ; feminarum enim propria sunt. Nam si 
etc. S ; and practically R. Mr. p. 117. ' = S § 48 ; R= u s. not 

in Ir. « = S § 49; R- f. 134«:. 3 romine Tele S ; nomine Inis Cele R; 

an oilen Tile Ir. 1« Aen- M. " Cassel M. « nam omnes p. mar. 

ipse r. ordinauit custodire M. " Tunc Albeus xx" duos uiros in e.^iiliura supra 
mare misit [sine rate Rl S R add. » = S § 50; not in R. 15 utrum 

oblationes hominum acciperet. an repelleret S. '« ^^i^^ teachtaire Pe Ir., 

i. e. except a mcssenger of God. 


aiidisset beatus Albeus a ministro quod veniret Nessanus, dixit ei : 
' Vade ad Nessanum et liunc versum Scotica lingua canta ei ; et cras 
ego loquar cum eo. Et ille uenit et cantauit : 

' Danae Dee nis frithchoirthi, 
Selba forru niscorthi ; 
Attoberthar na gabae, 
Sech ni[t] muide nu[d] chele.'' 

Crastina autem die sanctus Albeus et sanctus Nessanus locuti sunt 
de misteriis Dei, et questionibus quas Nessanus querebat sibi solui. 
Accepta ergo licentia post aliquos dies sanctus Nessanus perrexit 
viam suam. 

^ xliii. Alio' tempore grues multe in vnum agmen collecte sunt, 
et valde nocebant hominibus, commedentes multum fenum et grana. 
Tunc plebes de plaga illa magna clamauerunt ad Albeum, dicentes : 
' Adiuua nos, quia grues deuastauerunt regionem, et in nullo eas 
compescere possumus. Tunc Albeus audiens rem inusitatam, misit 
ministrum suum, nomine Buiairnen', ut grues in custodiam deduceret. 
Exiens ille grues velut oues ante se abigens, in custodiam reclusit. 
Sequenti autem die exiit sanctus Albeus, ut salutaret grues, dicens: 
' Recedite a finibus istis, et dispergite turbam vestram in diuersis 
locis.' Statim vero obedientes, huc illucque in gronnas diuiserunt 
se, sicut dixit eis sanctus Albeus. 

H xliv. Quodam* tempore homines illius regionis, id est Arath % 
cum suo duce venacionem fecerunt, ut lupos a finibus suis repellerent. 
Vna autem lupa direxit cursum suum ad locum in quo erat Albeus ; 
et", sequentibus eam equitibus, posuit capud suum in sinu sancti 
Albei. Albeus vero dixit ei : ' Ne timeas ; quia non sojum tu libera- 
f. 135' beris, set catuli tui venient ad te | incolumes.' Et ita factum est. Et 
ait Albeus' ; ' Ego apud vos nutritus sum in infancia ; et bene fecisti, 
quia in senectute mea venisti ad me. Nam ante me cotidie ad 

' I give this verse from S in wliich it is less corrupt than in the other two 
MSS. It may perhaps be translated thus : ' The gifts of God, do not reject 
them ; possession of them, do not refuse it. What is oflered to thee, thou 
raayest receive; only thou are not therefore greater than thy fellovv.' (This 
translation is partly due to Zimmer, Gott. gel. Anz. 1891, p. 168.) It will be 
seen that the verse is an answcr to Ncssan's qucstion in S ' utrum oblationes 
hominum acciperet, an repelleret % which M T have obliterated. In M T the 
verse appears as follows : ' Donneitheach nis frithcor, 7 sealba [sealbaidh M] 
for tun no scuch otliar tart nangaba seach minnide in cealla [sealla M].' Both 
MSS. give the following Latin gloss interliued : ' id est, ne inuenias cor tuum 
ad periurium, et posside liin, id est ueritatem ; id est depone a te morbos pecca- 
torum commissorum ; i. e. preterita peccata mitiga et diminue, uel plange in 
cella tua' — which is all the merest guesswork. ' = S § 51 ; R- u.s. ; not 

in Ir. ' Buairnen M ; Briarne S ; Briarneum R. < = S § 53 ; R- u.s. 

■* Ara M ; gens Arad S ; populus Aradensium, id est illius terre que Ara dicitur 
R ; Ara Cliach Ir. « Ir. p. 118. '' Et ait A. o»<. T. 


mcnsnni ' pancm commedetis, et ncmo nocebit vobis.' Ita lupi cotidic 
veiiiebant- ad sanctum Albeum, et commcdebant' ante eum ; et postea 
reuertebantur ad loca sua. Et nemo nocebat illis ; nec ipsi nocebant 

11 xlv. Cum * esset sanctus Albeus in finibus illius regionis, id est 
Corcumruad', habebat sedem iuxta mare, in qua orabat ad Deum, 
et Dei mirabilia cerncbat. Inundacio maris cotidie circa scdem Albei 
veniebat, et in altum surgebat ; nec tamen in sedeni vbi erat sanctus 
Albeus, intrare audebat. 

ir xlvi. Alio ^ tcmpore cum sanctus Albeus sedisset in eadem 
regione' super ripam maris, viderunt nauem eream habentem circa 
se velamen, de occeano ad se venientem, vocesque cantancium in 
choris ' audiebant in ea ; procul autem ab eis supra mare illa nauis 
stetit. Tunc misit sanctus Albeus vnum de discipulis suis, ut salu- 
taret eos ; set nullum responsum datum est illi. Similiter omnes, 
vnus post vnum, nauigauerunt ad nauem ; et nulli eorum responsum 
est de naui. Postrenio autem beatus Albeus in suis ficonibus super 
mare ambulans perrexit ad eos, et apertum est velamen ei ; et in- 
gresso sancto nauem, statim reuersa est in occeano. Discipuli vero 
Albei videntes hoc, fleuerunt valde ; donec angelus Domini dixit 
eis : ' Nolite contristari ; seruus Dei, patronus vester Albeus, reuer- 
tetur ad vos.' Commanentes ibi fratres fere tribus horis, nauem ad 
se venientem iterum viderunt. Descenditque statim Albeus de naui, 
portans in manu palmitem cum fructu ; et honorifice habebatur 
palmes ille apud Albeum tribus annis. Postea' istum'" palmitem 
angelus Domini abstulit a" sancto Albeo, dicens : 'Miles Christi, 
Albee, vade ad ciuitatem tuam Ymlech ; quia tempus migrandi tibi 
de hoc seculo venit, ut ibi '- sepelieris, sicut dictum est tibi a 

11 xlvii. Tunc " beatus Albeus venit ad ciuitatem Ymlech ; et statim 
dolore correptus est. Letus autem erat sanctus Albeus ; omnis vero 
populus, et omnes Hibernenses tristes erant". Tunc perhibuerunt " 
angeli Dei apparentes ante omnem clerum, quia sanctus Albeus tota 
Dei mandata die noctuque '° compleuit. Sanctus quidem Albeus, 
postquam multos populos baptizauit, et conuertit plurimas gentes 
ad fidcm Christianam, et ecclesias multas construxit in nomine 
Domini ; et postquam crucifixit se ipsum in vigiliis nocturnis, in 

' cura nostris fratribus S add. - uen. cot. M. ' cum fratribus S R 

add. * = S § 53 ; R- f. 134'' ; not in Ir. ' -ruadh M ; Corchum- 

drueth S. « = S § 54 ; R- u.s. ' in finibus Corchudruoth S; 

Corchumrad R. * choriis T. ' Ir. p. rig. '» illum M. " oni. M. 

'2 om. T. " = S § 55 ; R- f. 135°. '» erant tristes M. '^ pro- M. 

" nocteque M. 


ieiuniis triduanis, in orationibus as[s]iduis^ inter angelorum choros 
suauia carmina canencium migrauit ad Dominum lesum Christum, 
cui est honor et gloria, in secula seculorum. Amen. 


' Into this character of Ailbe R inserts the following curious disquisition : 
Archa . , . teslamenti noui et ueteris luit. In ipso enim, tanquam in archa illa 
mistica, erant due tabule uirtutis prudencie in euitando malo et operando bonum 
erant. Similiter uirga correccionis quantum ad equitatem iusticie in eius corde 
erat. Similiter urna aurea, que significat temperanciam, que plena erat in 
corde eius manna spirituali, id est fortitudine, que necessaria est in perferendis 
molestiis huius uite. 

Vita sancti .ISarri rpiscopi (Corcagic 


i. Sanctus^ Dei electus atque dignus pontifex Barrus de gente 
Connacthorum ' silicet de nepotibus Bruin* ortus est. Comes 
siquidem nepotum Briuyn ' in adulterio genuit filium nomine Amar- 
genus', et assumpsit eum in comitatu suo. Ipse enim commes' post 
ebrietatem deceptus, similitudine Loth, cum sua filia concubuit ; et 
ipsa duos filios peperit. Et vnus eorum in ampnem proiectus est, ne 
scelus hominibus appareret, quod Deum celare non potuit. Alter 
uero, id est Amargenus, bestiis in deserto relictus est deuorari. 
Diuina autem providencia luppa'' eum nutriuit, donec adultus fuit. 
Postea autem subulci lustrantes deserta siluarum inuenerunt illum, 
et adduxerunt secum ad mansionem suam ; et forma nobilissima 
apparuit ipse. Interea adduxerunt eum ad commitem, qui fuit pater 
ipsius. Et cognouit commes, quod filius suus esset ; et diligens eum, 
assumpsit, sicut predictum est, in commitatu suo. Deinde causa 
verecundie, iubente sibi patre suo, venit ipse filius, Amargenus 
nomine, in provinchiam Mumenensium, et in australi parte 
Momenie*, id est in regione Hua Liathain', habitauit. Et ibi semen 
eius creuit in gentem magnam, vt non potuissent manere in vno loco ; 
et diviserunt se per diuersas regiones Mumenie. At quedam pars 
eorum ad terram ducis Raith Luyn '" venit, et de ea sanctus silicet 
Barrus oriundus fuit. 

ii. Hoc " signum mirabile Dominus fecit propter sanctum Barrum, 
antequam nasceretur, dum adhuc in vtero matris esset. Pater enim 
eius Amargenus faber ferrarius ducis Raith Luin '" erat, et ipse dux 
Tyagernacus " vocabatur, qui fuit ex nepotibus Echach ^^ filii id est 
Cass. In regione autem " ipsius ducis quedam puella satis pulcra 
crat, quam ipse volebat habere concubinam ; et precepit ut nemo 
assumerct " eam in vxorem. Quod edictum Amargenus faber, valde 

' Barrini R^; no incipit in R' ; in M on the lower margin is an Irish pedigree 
agreeingvery nearlywiththat inLL. 352/. 2 T f. 109" ; R' f. ii8<*, R= f. 137'*. 
' -actonim T. * Briun T ; Y Bruyn Ratha R' R^. s .gen T. « comes T. 
' culpa R' R2 (!). 8 Momonie T. » Liahain T ; Hu Liathan R', Hu 

Lithan R=. 'o Raithm T ; rig Raithlenn Ir. " R' f. 119", R2 f. 138". 

'■ Tig- T ; Ir. gives his pedigree. 's Exhach M T. '< om. T. 

'» sumeret T. 


eam amans, contempsit ; accepitque eam vxorem, et dormiuit cum ea. 
At illa concepit ab eo sanctum Barrum. Hoc audiens supradictus 
dux, iratus est nimis ; et uocati sunt ' ipsi ' ad eum, et ait iuuencule : 
' Quis te duxit vxorem ? An ex ' adulterio occulte concepisti ? ' Illa 
respondit dicens : ' Non in adulterio, set iste me duxit vxorem, et ab 
eo concepi.' Tunc dux, ira plenus, iussit illos alligari ; et precepit 
f. laa^^suis seruis rogum maximum facere ex lignis | aridissimis, et illos 
ambos in illum ^ proiicere. Set diuina potencia hoc prohibuit ; nam 
elementa 'obedierunt' Deo, repugnantes inter se, ne factum illud 
consummaretur. Ignis enim extinguebatur in mirum a lignis aridis- 
simis quasi humidis lapidibus. Hoc Deus fecit gratia sancti infantis, 
qui clausus erat in vtero matris sue, quam illi comburere volebant. 
Hoc facto narrato ante ducem, illi sunt presentati ad eum^ Tunc 
sanctus infans Barrus ex utero matris sue clara voce loqutus* est, 
dicens : ' O dux, opus sacrilegum et nequissimum facere disponis ; 
si plus laboraueris ' in tali opere, cito morieris, et in infernum ibis.' 
Tunc dux, nimis timens, dixit seruis suis : ' Expectate paulisper, 
ut videamus quid sibi hic wlt, et ut sciamus quis est, qui loquitur 
nobiscum.' Et sciens ipse veraciter, quod infans de vtero loqutus'' 
est ad eum, dimisit illi parentes suos liberos, quia Deo non potuit 
repugnare ; et omnes qui ibi erant, magnificabant Deum in talibus 
miraculis. Deinde post breue spatium genitus est sanctus et mirabilis 
infans Barrus; et gratia Dei plenus apparuit. Et statim supradictus 
dux venit humiliter videre eum ", et petere benedictionem ab eo. 
Itaque sanctus infantulus salutauit ducem, rogans eum benefacere 
parentibus suis. Et postea siluit vsque ad tempus congruum 
infantibus loquendi ; et que petebant parentes eius a duce, reddidit 
dux eis omnia. Deinde illi reuersi sunt ad regionem suam, id est 
campum Dunteon' cum suo filio gaudentes, et nutrierunt filium 
suum diligenter ; et boni mores mirabiliter in eo apparuerunt '. 

iii. Eodem' tempore tres anachorite" de Mumenia" in regione 
Laginensium fuerunt, qui aliqua causa cogente ad regionem suam 
reuersi sunt ; et uenientes secus domum Amargeni, patris beati 
Barri, declinauerunt ad eam, et ibi nutu diuino illa nocte manserunt ; 
et videntes puerum elegantem, dixit vnus senior ex eis : ' Pulcer est 
puer iste facie, set pulcrior est vera fide. Scio quod electus Dei est, 
et Spiritus Sanctus habitat in eo. Vtinam esset nobiscum, et legeret ; 
quia gratia Dei fulget in facie eius.' Hoc audiens Amargenus, pater 

I in T. = eum T. = -tati illi T. * -cutus T. ^ -aberis T. 

• qui, antcquam esset natus, minas infernales ei fecit add. R' R'. ' This 

might be read Diniteon ; Dunteon T ; Achad Durbcon Ir. (recte). * Bishop 

Mac Cuirb baptizes him by the name of Liian Ir. * R' f. 119'', R'' u.s. ; no 

new paragraph in M or T. ^" Named Breanuin, Lochan, and Fiodhac Ir. 

" Memonia T. 


jlliiis, dixit eis : ' Si vvltis, ducite eum vobiscum, et legat. Nos cnim 
sumus parentes eius, et oflerimus eum Deo.' Seniores responderunt, 
ct dixerunt : ' Non modo vcniet nobiscum, quoniam ' longius volumus 
ire, et iterum huc reuerti, et redire in regionem - Laginensium ; et 
tunc euntes, perget nobiscum, quia iam est hoc a Deo.' Et ita factum 
est. Nam alio die sancti seniores predicti reuertentes, beatum puen.mi 
a parentibus secum asumpserunt in tempore estatis. 

iv. Venientes' autem in illo loco qui Scottice dicitur Munchyll 
Monaidh*, sitiens puer, multum fleuit, et quesiuit potum lactis. 
Tunc videntes ceruam prope in monte, vnus senior illorum dixit 
ministro suo : ' Perge ad ceruam iilam, et muige eam, et potum lactis 
duc puero ab ea ; quia sanctitas pueri faciet eam " mitem tibi.' At 
ille confidens in verbo senioris, perrexit ad eam ; et ilia ante mini- 
strum erat mitissima, sicut ad vitulum suum ; et mulsit | ille ab ea vas f. 133" 
plcnum lacte, et duxit puero, et ipse bibit, et extinctus est sitis eius. 
lila siquidem hora et in eodem locodixit alter eorum commitibus suis : 
' Modo aptum est, vt, vbi fecit Deus tale signum mirabile pro hoc 
sancto puero, illic ipse alphabetum legat, et tondeatur*' coma' eius in 
nomine Domini.' Et ibi legit alphabetum, et mirati sunt omnes, 
qui ibi erant, de ingenio eius ; et tonsus est secundum verbum sancti 
senioris. Quando autem tondebatur, dixit senex : ' Pulcra est coma, 
quam habuit iste seruus Dei.* Alter dixit senior: ' Bene dixisti, quia 
nomen eius mutetur, et vocabitur Findbarr'; tamen non ita eum 
nominabunt, set tantum Barra.' Ipse enim prius uocabatur Locanus'; 
et modo ab omnibus Barra vocatur '", sicut prophetice senex dixit. 

V. In " eodem quoque die sanctus Brendanus senior septem mira- 
cula preclara in Christi nomine fecit. Et cum esset in eodem monte, 
id est Munchylli'^, vbi sunt cruces Brendani, amare fleuit, et postea 
subrisit ". Discipuli autem eius videntes eum ita esse, mirati sunt, 
dicentes: ' Pater, indica nobis cur nunc fles, et nunc subrides.' Et" 
sanctus senior respondit dicens : ' Indicabo vobis, o filii karissimi, quia 
ideo subrid[e]o, quod propter quendam puerulum, qui nunc prope 
nos consistit, Deus fecit magna mirabilia, et adhuc plura faciet. Ipse 
Barro" uocatur, qui magnum honorem habebit apud Deum et homines. 
Ideo autem contristor, eo quod non impetraui a Deo, quod ab eo rogaui 
oculte modo^'' ; set illi sancto puero donauit, ipse non rogans ; id est, 

' qui T. = -ne M. ' R' R^ u.s. * Munchilli Moni T; Sliabh 

Muinchille. 7 Ros Choille ainm eile do Ir., i.e. Slieve M. and R. C. is .-inother 
name for it. ° illam T. « -detur M T. ' comma M T. * et 

vocabitur a coma pulcra, quam in sacrificio Dei obtulit, Finbarrus .i. pulcra coma 
R' R-. ' Lochanus R' R- ; T marg. '" For ' tamen . . . vocatur " 

R' R- read : unde a nonnullis uocatus est postea Finbarrus, ab aliis Barrus, et 
inde communiter in Hibernica lingua Barri. " R' f. 119"^, R^ 138'' ; no new 
paragraph in M T. " -chilli T. 's -rissit M. " om. T. >6 Barra T. 
'* modo occ. T. 

F 2 


ut concederet mihi manere in mediis istis' regionibus" pacificis, vbi 
potuissent monachi mei esse cum pace post obitum meum. Quia in 
confinio est habitacio nostra, et frequenter ibi erunt lites et bella ; et 
bene Deus meus sedem pacificam prebuit illi puero, qui ipse multum 
pacifice viuet.' Et dicens hec verba sanctus senior Brendanus de 
beato Barro, recessit in viam suam. 

vi. Seniores ^ autem predicti cum suo puero Barro in regionem 
Laginensium exierunt*; et construentes cellam in eadem regione^, 
preceperunt ei signare et benedicere eam. Renuens autem ipse hoc 
facere ante eos, dixerunt ei : ' Non ita erit, set tu signabis cellam 
nostram ; quia omnis locus quem tu signaberis * benedictus erit, et 
habitabitur.' Tunc signauit cellam eorum que dicitur Cyllin cantiliz'; 
et mansit ibi apud suos seniores, et legit apud eos. Creuit quidem ibi 
corpore, set plus spe et fide et caritate, patiencia*, modestia, humiH- 
tate, castitate °, et ceteris virtutibus '". 

vii. CuM " autem peruenisset ad etatem maturam, tunc venit Roma '^ 
sapiens vir et sanctus, qui fuit alumpnus sancti Gregorii pape, et 
peritus in reguhs ecclesiasticis. Illi autem '^ sancti seniores, magistri 
sancti Barri, miserunt eum ad illum, ut disceret, et legeret apud ipsum, 
qui venit Roma". Venit autem sanctus Barrus, accepta benedictione 
et licentia suorum seniorum, cum aliquibus discipuhs, legere et 
discere apud illum. Contigit autem, ut quidam vir bonus immolaret | 
f- 133'' agrum ei '^, in quo edificaret cellam in nomine Domini. Et signauit 
vir Dei cellam ibi, que dicitur Cul Caysseal'°, et dimisit ibi di- 
scipulos, qui eam edificarent, et manerent in ea. Et benedicens illis, 
perrexit in viam suam. Et eo iter agente, occurrit ei vir potens, 
dicens : 'Vir Dei, veni mecum adiuuare in Christi nomine miseriam 
meam.' Eunte autem eo cum illo, adduxit ad cum vir ille fihum 
suum cecum, et filiam mutam''. Tunc vir sanctus, videns miseriam 
eorum, benedixit eos plenus fide, et statim salui facti sunt ante eum. 
Locuta est enim " filia ' clara uoce, et respexit filius lumine claro ; 

• istiis M. ^ Here Ir. inserts theboundariesof thethree territoriesasked for 
by Brendan : O Abhuinn ni6ir go Laoi, 70 Laoi go Bandain, 7 o Banduin go 
Cl^ire 7 go Baoi Bhdara, i.e. from the Blackwater to the Lee, from the Lee to 
the Bandon, from the Bandon to Cape Clear and Beerhaven. ' R' R^ u.s. ; 

no new paragraph in M or T. ■■ go Belach Gabrain, ait Cill [meic] Cathail 

aniugh Ir., i. e. to Gowran Pass, where is Kilmacahill [the church of the son 
of Cathal] at the present day. ^ reg. ead. T. ' i. e. signaueris. 

' Chell inn Cantilir T: 01«. R' R- ; an obvious corruption of the Irish name 
Cell mic Cathail. » et pac. T. " et cast. T. "> bonis T. " Ri 

f. iig"*, R' {. 139°. " Romam M T. " om. T. " Romam M T. 

'5 eiagr. T. " Caisseil T; Chuil Cassin R' R^ (recte) ; Cill Chaissin an 

Osruidhibh, 7 as uirthe tugthar Cill Barra . . . aniugh. Ir. (Du.) i. e. Cill 
Chaissin in Ossory, and the name Cill Barra is given to it to-day ; Cul Caissine 
Ir. (Br.). " fihus illius erat mutus, et filia similiter R' R^. 


ct rcddidit cos sanos parentibus suis, quasi niehil mali antea pate- 

viii. Post' hoc miraculum conuencrunt in vno loco sanctus Barrus 
et dux Fyachna'. Consalutantes ipsi se invicem, audierunt de pro- 
pinquo loco ploratum lugubrem magnum. Tunc dux ait ad uirum 
Dei : ' Contristor ualde modo, sancte Dei, quia vxor mea nunc mortua 
est. Iste enim vlulatus manifestat eam mortuam esse, quia supra vires 
infirmabatur.' Sciens vtique sanctus Barrus, quod Deus resuscitaret 
eam per orationem suam, dixit duci : ' Lauetur domina nostra in ista 
aqua, et viuet.' Tunc vir sanctus orans benedixit aquam, et portata 
est aqua benedicta ad ductricem mortuam', ut lauaretur ea. Cumquc 
lauata esset illa aqua, quasi de sompno graui sana surrexit. Tunc 
dux Fyachna' immolauit sancto Barro locum illum in eternum, qui 
dicitur Raith Hyrair*. 

ix. DEinde* quidam homo potens temptauit beatum Barrum'', 
dicens : ' Volumus aliquod signum mirabile a te videre de mirabilibus, 
que Deus perficit per te cotidie.' Vir Dei respondit, dicens : ' Potens 
est Deus facere quecumque voluerit.' Tunc tenipus vernale erat, 
et ipsi foris sedebant sub vmbra arboris nucis. Sciensque vir sanctus 
quod ille temptaret diuinam potenciam, in se occulte orauit ; et ilico 
nux, sub cuius vmbra erant, fluit' in sinus eorum nuces maturissimas, 
ita ut pleni essent. Tunc sanctus ait : ' Sentite potentiam Dei in 
tali facto.' Vir autem Llle fecit voluntatem serui Dei, agens peni- 
tentiam *. 

X. Post' hoc pervenit famulus Dei Barrus ad virum sanctum 
predictum, et apud eum legit 'euangelium secundum Matheum 
apostolum ", et regulas ecclesiasticas, sicut ille a Gregorio papa" 
accepit, et didicit. Et postquam legit hos libros, dixit ei magister 
suus : ' Ego nunc volo 'a te' accipere fenus laboris mei.' Sanctus 
Barrus respondit, dicens : ' Tibi dabitur, si ego habuero.' Ille sanctus 

' R' f. 119'', R- 138" ; no paragraph in M or T. - Fi- T; Fyechna R' R= ; 
Fachtna Fergach mac Coelbaidh Ir. (Br.). ' Fi- T. ■■ Irthair T ; 

Irthir R' R-. ^ R' f. 120", R- f. 138''. ° 7 ase ionnad iona rabhadar, 

a n-Doire Coille Ir., i. e. and the place in vvhich they were was D. C. ' sic 

MSS. ; ?pluit. * Here R' R- insert : ' Alio tempore, 'post'quam limina 

visitauit apostolica, redeundo ad propria, declinauit ad sanctum Dauid, ut 
benedictionem eius hereditarie possideret. Cumque ad tempus cum eodem 
sancto viro, Dauid, Barri maneret, timens ob suam absentiam imminere suis 
discipuUs periculum, peciit a sancto episcopo Dauid equum. in quo equitare 
solebat, ut celerius itersuum perageret, Quo concesso, acbenedictione optenta, 
equum ascendit, et sic super eum mare confidenter [intrauit], et usque ad 
Hiberniam peruenit. Equum vero prefatum in seruicio fratrum secum retinuit. 
Set in memoria miracuH discipuli eius fecerunt equum eneum, qui usque hodie 
apud Corkagiam manet.' *R'R-u.s. "> quatuor evvangelia et epistolas 

PauU R' R!. " om. T. 


magister dixit : ' Id volo a te,' ait, ' ut in vno loco in die iudicii 
resurgamus.' 'Sic erit,' inquit Barrus, 'ut dixisti; in vno enim loco 
consepulti erimus, et resurgemus^.' 

xi. PosT^ hoc vir sanctus Mac Cuirp', prefatus magister, Romam 
perrexit ad magistrum suum Gregorium, ut gradum episcopalem ab 
eo acciperet. Cui sanctus Gregorius dixit : ' Gradum episcopalem 
a me non accipies, quia dignior me est, qui te consecrabit. Te enim 
et sanctum Barrum in loco resurrectionis vestre angeli Dei con- 
secrabunt episcopos.' Et ille amonitus hiis verbis, reuersus est ad 

xii. iNterea* sanctus Barrus, angelo sibi iubente, «d regionem | 
f- 133 '^ Mumenensium perrexit, et ibi cellam que dicitur Achad^ Durbhcon' 
edificauit. Illic angelus Domini venit ad eum, dicens : ' Non hic est 
resurrectio tua.' Deinde vir Dei venit ad cellam Cluane', et fundauit 
ilhc ecclesiam ; et mansit ibi, donec venerunt ad eum duo alumpni 
sancti Ruadani ', querentes locum vbi manerent. Tunc sanctus Barrus 
reliquit eis suum locum cum omnibus qui ibi erant, dicens: ' Manete 
vos hic, et ego ibo ad alium locum querendum, quia non hic 'est' 
resurrectio mea.' Angelus autem' Dei venit ad virum sanctum, et 
duxit eum cum discipuHs suis secum a loco predicto ad locum, in 
quo nunc est ciuitas eius, que dicitur Corchaidh i", et dixit ad eum: 
' Mane in isto loco ; erit enim hic resurrectio tua.' Postea sanctus 
Barrus illic primitus ieiunauit triduo, et incessanter orauit, volens 
benedicere suuni locum ieiunio et oratione. Tunc vir plebeus, nomine 
Aedh, filius Comgalli, de nepotibus Maic Hyer", querens uaccam 
fiigientem ab armento ut secum crearet, venit vbi erat vir Dei cum 
suis. Illa autem vacca nutu Dei affuit ad sanctos viros, et peperit 
apud illos vitulum. Ille vir hoc videns, miratus est; et interrogauit 
eos, dicens : ' Quid hic facitis ? ' Sanctus Dei Barrus respondit : 
' Hic sumus querentes " locum, in quo Deum rogaremus pro nobismet 
ipsis, et pro illo qui dedisset nobis in honore Domini.' Ille 'ager", 
in quo ipsi erant, illius hominis fuit, qui venit ad eos post vaccam. 
lUe' autem Spiritus Sancti gratia inspiratus, dixit eis : ' Ego, sancte 

1 Here Ir. inserts a very interesting list of Bairre's fellow pupils, and of 
those who commended their churches to him. ' R' f. 120'', R' f. 138''. 

3 Chuirp T. * R> R= u.s. ^ AcladT. ^ Duibhcon M ; Durbcon 

R' R^; Duirbcon T ; Cill Achaidh Durbcon; ata cuas annsin .i. Cuas Barra a 
ainm, 7 ata linn maith ana fharradh Ir., i. e. the Church of A. D. there is a cave 
there, called Barra's Cave. and a good pool of water near. ^ Cluene T ; ad 

locuni qui Cluan dicitur R' R- ; tainic . . . tar an abhainn budhea go Cill na 
Cluaine Ir. , i. e. he crossed the river southwards to the Church of the Meadow. 
» i. Cormac 7 Baoithine Ir. ' Sanctus aut. ang. T. " Corcliach T ; 

Corchar R' R=. " Mec Chier T ; meich Tyri R' R» ; do Uaibh Ciarmaic Ir. 

CDu)do Uibh micTair Ir. (Br.). '- oiH. R' R^. '3 ager illeT; ' ager 

in quo , , . ille ' on marg. in M ; homoiotel. 


Dei Barre, tibi offero in honore Domini hunc locum, et vaccam, quam 
Deus ad vos adduxit, habere.' Tunc vir Dci, gratias agens, bene- 
dixit illum cum semine suo ; et ipse gaudens reddiit ad sua. Famulus 
autem Domini ibi mansit sanctissime in vita mirabili vsque ad obitum 

xiii. Denique' non post multum tempus'' vir sanctus Mac Cuirp*, 
magister beati Barri ", a Roma reuersus est, et venit ad sanctum 
Barrum, et susceptus est ab eo honorifice ; et narrauit ei omnia, que 
dixerat sibi sanctus Gregorius Rome. Hiis auditis, plures alii sancti 
venerunt de aliis ecclesiis hanc promissionem videre ". Et ordinato 
die' intrauerunt omnes in ecclesiam, et orabant, expectantes diuinuni 
misterium. Ita ipsis orantibus, ecce angeli Dei descendentes apparue- 
runt sanctis ; et leuauerunt sanctum Barrum et sanctum Mac Cuirp 
sursum secum, et consecrauerunt eos ibi episcopos ; et dimittentes 
ipsos iuxta ahare, perhibuerunt eos episcopos esse. In signum 
huius uirtutis ibi tunc iuxta altare oleum e terra prorupit multum, 
donec venit trans ficones eorum qui ibi stabant. Ibi onines gratias 
Deo agebant pro hiis mirandis rebus, glorificantes sanctos, quos 
angeli consecrauerunt. Post hec in illo die sanctus Barrus episcopus, 
et sanctus episcopus Mac Cuirp, et alii clerici cum eis signauerunt 
cimiterium ecclesie sancti Barri,que vocatur Corchach*; et postquam 
consecrauerunt illud, promittentes hoc in nomine Domini dixerunt : 
'Omnis quicumque in humo huius cimiterii sepultus fiierit, infernus 
super eum post diem iudicii non claudetur.' Tunc rogauit sanctus 
episcopus Mac Cuirp ' ut ipse in illo cimiterio primus sepultus esset, 
et audita est oratio eius. Ipse enim statim dolore correptus, feliciter 
obiit ; et cum honore a venerabili episcopo Barro et aliis clericis 
sanctis primus sepultus est | in cimiterio Corchaighe. Ipse fuit f. 133 '^ 
sanctissimus vir et sapiens multum, discipulusque " sancti Gregorii 
Rome, et magister sancti Barri ; et ipse cum suo alumpno sancto 
Barro ab angelis Dei consecrati sunt episcopi". In illo autem loco 
sanctus Barrus usque ad obitum suuni mansit ; et ibi in honore eius 
maxima ciuitas creuit, que eodem nomine vocatur, id est Corcach ^-. 
Et multi sancti fuerunt ibi discipuli eius, de quibus hiis nominibus 
aliqui'^ nominantur, id est Fachtna filius Monghich'*, et Mocholmog'^ 
fihus Gilliain"", et Mocolmog'^ Cainnich''' et Fachtnanus, et Fergus, 

' tainic iarsin Aodh mac Mianaidh, 7 ro iodbhair do Barra Coill [Foithrib Br.] 
n-Aodha a Muigh Tuath Ir. add,^ i. e. there came afterwards Aedh son of 
Mianach, and offered to Bairre Aedh's Wood in Magh Tuath. ^ R' f. 120', 

R- f. 139". ' temporis T. * Cuyrbius R' R^. " bea. B. mag. T. 

*» videre cupientes R' R-. "^ die assignato ab eodem sedis apostoHce nuncio 

R' R\ * -chac T. « Curbius R' R^. '» qui discipulus T. " -tus 

est episcopus T. '- Corchac T ; Corchaya R' R*. '^ ahi T. '* Morgg- 
ich T. '^ Moclomoc T. " Gillein T. " Cainn Eich T ; Mocholmog 

rogabh Ceann Eich Ir., i. e. M. who settled at C. E. ; therefore Ceinn Ekh is 
probably the right reading. 


et Conaire^ et Silennus'', Segenus ', et Trienus, et Liber episcopus, 
et alii multi'. Ipsi propter sanctitatem suam adducti sunt in aliis 
locis ; et sua loca et se ipsos suo sancto magistro Barro obtulerunt ; 
et loca eorum vsque hodie successoribus sancti Barri seruiunt. 

xiv. Sanctus^ Barrus post obitum sui magistri, episcopi Mec 
Cuirp, nesciuit quem haberet patrem confessionis sue. Proinde 
cogitauit adire sanctum senem Colingum^, ut haberet eum patrem 
confessionis sue, aut interrogaret illum si hoc ipse' noluisset, queni 
alium deberet habere. Et periti dicunt quod ille sanctus senior 
beatum Barrum baptizauit. Sanctus siquidem Colingus, inspiratus 
spiritu prophetali, preuidit aduentum sancti Barri, et dixit ad familiam 
suam : ' Sanctus hospes cum beatis commitibus hodie ad nos venient ; 
preparate iam in adventu illorum hospitum balneum et cibum*.' Et 
postquam illuc' uir Dei [aduenerat], receptus est cum honore ; ac 
mansorius sancti Colingi dixit ad beatos hospites, salutans eos : 
' Sanctus senior, magister noster, valde letus est in aduentu vestro. 
Soluantur '" calciamenta de pedibus vestris, ut lauentur aqua, et postea 
balneate.' Respondit sanctus Barrus, dicens : ' PIus placet nobis 
prius salutare senem, quam balneare.' Ista verba ministro mon- 
strante sancto Colingo, respondit dicens : ' Dic tu beato Barro, ut 
lauentur pedes eius", et hac nocte sumat caritatem nostram ; crastina 
autem die pergat ad cellam suam, et illic eum salutabo ; nam in 
septimo die veniam ad eum, et nos ambo invicem ibi salutabimus, 
quia sic placet Deo. Talis enim vir non debuit tantum laborem 
sustinere propter me ; et ideo non videbo eum, donec ego laborem 
habuero propter eum tam magnum.' Et ita factum est. Nam sanctus 
Barrus crastino die reuersus est ; et in septimo post eum sanctus 
Colingus venit'^. Veniente iam sancto Colingo in ecclesiam Corcha- 
ghie " susceptus est honorifice '* a venerabih antistite Barro. Et statim 
procidit ille senex'° ante pedes episcopi, dicens : ' Quidquid modo 
dedero tibi, promitte mihi accipere.' Et promisit ei episcopus. 
Tunc ille sanctus senex ait : ' Ecce corpus meum, et animam meam '", 
et locum, Deo et tibi offero in eternum.' Hoc audito sermone sanctus 
episcopus amare fleuit, dicens : ' Heu, non id cogitaui in mente mea, 
set me cum loco meo Deo et tibi oflferre.' Respondit sanctus senex, 
et dixit: ' Non ita fiet ", set, sicut ego dixi, sic erit ; carior enim et 

1 Conair T. - Sinell Ir. ^ Finghen Ir. * The list stands thus in 

R' R* : Factnatheus et duo Colmani, scilicct Colmanus mac Lenyn et Colmanus 
cognomento Cham, et Facthnanus, et Fergus, et multi alii sancti uirL The fullest 
list is in Ir. , which gives interesting details as to the churches occupied by 
these disciples. ^ R' f. 120'', R^ 139'. '^ Eolang Ir., audita fama sancti 

Eolyngi R' R'' ; on margin of R', Moling. ' ille T. * prep. eis hospicium 

et alia necessaria R' R^. ' bis M m. pr. •" -uentur M T. " ut 

sumat caritatis a nobis obsequia, R' R". '^ ad ciuitatem Corcagensem R' R^ 

add. " .age T. " honorabiliter T. i^ Eolyngus R' R». « om. T. 

" fiat T. 



maior es apud Deum quam ego ; set fenus huius oblacionis postulo 
a te, id est in vno loco resurrectionem expectemus.' Sanctus Barrus 
respondit : ' Illud tibi prestabitur'; set questio mea, pro qua ego ad 
te exiui, non est adhuc soluta de patre confessionis mee.' Sanctus 
Colingus dixit ei : ' Verum | confessorem, verumque amicum anime, f. 134 ° 
qui est Christus, habebis. Ipse manum tuam modo de manu mea 
accipiat, et purissimam confessionem tuam exaudiat-.' Quod sic 
factum est. Nam ibi in illo die, presente angelorum et archangelorum 
turba non modica, fidelium autem hominum ac sanctorum choro 
circumstante, Christus Dominus manum beatissimi pontificis Barri 
de manu sancti senis Colingi ^ accepit*; atque audita pura confes- 
sione, dimisit^ luxta crucem autem'^ que dicitur crux Colingi 
factum est hoc. Ab illo' vero die usque ad mortem sancti Barri, 
visu carnali* manus eius propter nimiam claritatem suam aspici non 
potuit, et ideo manica circa eam semper erat. 

XV. CuM ' appropinquaret exitus beati famuli Dei Barri de hac vita 
ad veram lucem, nunciauit paucis ydoneis discipulis quod moreretur 
in sua ecclesia'", que dicitur Corcaidh". Sciens autem ipse ubi 
moriturus esset, perrexit ad cellam Cluaine^- ad sanctos viros 
Cormachum " et Buchenium, quorum memoriam superius fecimus. 
Vir sanctus simulauit quasi visitare eos. Spacium enim septemdecim 
annorum erat a tempore quo beatus Barrus ecclesiam Corcaich '■* 
edificauit, usque ad obitum suum. Postquam autem peruenit amabilis 
athleta Barrus ad cellam Cluaine '°, et salutauit supradictos sanctos, 
statim infirmitate comprehensus est, et accepto eterno viatico 
corporis et sanguinis '° Christi, vbi nunc est crux in medio celle 
Cluaine'*, circumstante sanctorum turba, suum spiritum felicissimum 
Deo emissit. Corpus autem eius, collecta diuersi habitus hominum 
multitudine, cum honore debito adductum est ad suam ciuitatem, 
Corcach, et honorifice sepultum est in ea. Et postea reliquie eius" 
a uenerabilibus episcopis, abbatibus, monachis, clericis, sanctimonali- 
bus, et multis wlgarium hominum venientibus turbis, eleuate sunt, 
signis eas commitantibus, et cum psalmis et ympnis et canticis spirit- 
ualibus in loculo" argenteo sunt condite. Hec preclara silicet et 
miranda valde signorum dona Deus sancto Barro donauit, que non 
sunt frequenter audita. Gratia enim Dei prestauit illi loqucionem 
ante natiuitatem, dum esset in vtero matris sue, et statim post 

> prest. tibi T. 2 om. T. » Eolyngi R' R\ < ag ulaid Eolaing 

Ir. add., i. e. by EoIang's monument. ' in pace dim. R' R-. According to 

Ir. Christ was taking Bairre direct to heaven, but Eolang entreated that he 
might not be taken yet. ' ont. T. ' illa T. * uisus carnalis M T. 

' R' f. 121'', R- f. 139''. '" quod cito esset recessurus, non tamen in ciuitate 

sua R' R2. 11 Corchac T. 12 ClueneT; de Cluayn R' R\ '3 -macum T ; 
cf. p. 70 note 8. '< -chach T. '= Cluene T. " corpore et sanguine T, 

" multis iam perpetratis miraculis add. R' R''. '* loco T. 


natiuitatem loqucionem apertam ante congruum tempus loquendi, 
et immolacionem ei a potentibus hominibus ante baptismum suum, 
et signorum largiorem gratiam sine imprecacione ; et angeli semper 
ducebant eum quocunque ibat, et in commitatu eius sepius erant, 
et quod episcopalem gradum ab eis accepit ; et Dominus manum 
eius de manu Colingi sancti senis, multis sanctis testibus aspicienti- 
bus', accepit". Sanctus uero episcopus Furseus, cum esset in ciui- 
tate Corcaighe'', vidit scalam auream iuxta tumulum viri Dei ad 
suscipiendas animas ad regna celestia; et vidit sum[m]itatem illius 
scale pervenire ad celum. Vir felix Barrus magnus et mirabilis in 
celo et in terra, qui fuit stabilis in fide ut Petrus, doctor egregius ut 
Paulus, virilis ut Andreas, supplantauit vicia ut lacobus, plenus gratia 
Dei ut lohannes. Quid plura ? omnes virtutes perfectorum virorum 
'•'34 in se hauriebat ; id est, humilitatem, obe|dienciam ; pacienciam, spem, 
fidem, caritatem, et cetera. Ipse pater sanctus ideo regnum celeste 
merito promeruit, et eterni regis conspectum silicet post multa 
miracula patrata, post certamen certatum, post cursum consum[m]a- 
tum, post fidem seruatam *, vii Kal. Octobris fehciter inter choros 
angelorum migrauit ad Dominum. 


EPiscopi Corcaghie K 

' accipientibus M. ^ percepit T ; R^ R^ adti. : sl consecratione autem eius 

usque ad transitum vii anni fiuxerunt. ^ Corcach T. * cf. 2 Tim. iv. 7. 

^ -cagie T ; no explicit in R*. 

Vita sanrti Brrnrfji at)t)at(s tir (flhiaiu 

Incipit uita sancti Berachi' confessoris et abbatis 

i. Inter cetera que Dei plena potentia, infinita sapientia, perfecta f. 58° 
bonitas in creaturis huius nascentis mundi ab ipsius exordio tam 
niagnifice quam mirifice perfecit, ipsa in se "incomprehensibilis 
dcitas summe et excellenter in sanctis quos ab eterno predestinauit 
atque preordinauit, specialiter relucet. 

ii. Regnum ' siquidem Hibernie insule ab ortu solis longius existens, 
ipsius incolas, ydolatrie cultui diu inherentes, per plures sanctos 
gloriosos, in quibus Dominus suam uoluntatem mirificauit, uoluit, ne 
perirent, uisitare. Inter hos enim sanctos post sanctissimi patris 
Patricii transituin surrexit in finibus Conactie de genere regali uir 
preclarus et magni apud Deum meriti, Berachus nomine, qui uelut 
nouum sidus refulgens obscura queque tollebat, et uiam ueritatis' 
errantibus in regione umbre mortis ostendebat. 

iii. Fuit* enim homo a Deo missus, qui uiam Domini preparabat 
in huius mundi | heremo. Ipse etenim populum culturis demonum f. 58'* 
deditum'' pie uisitans, nunc increpando, nunc exhortando, nuncque 
niiraculis coruscando, ad fidem Christi perfecte conuertit. De ipso 
quoque potest dici illud prophetie : ' populus qui ambulabat in 
tenebris uidit lucem magnam*.' De hoc enim sancto uiro beatus 
Patricius spiritu prophetie plenus prophetauit dicens. Nam cum ter- 
ram, in qua uir Dei nasceretur, ex more uisitasset, nec tamen cultores 
eius a gentilitatis errore omnino conuerteret ; discipulis hoc admiran- 
tibus, quare monitis et sanctis exhortationibus tanti predicantis non 
obedirent, Spiritu Sancto edocente fertur prophetando dixisse : 
' Sinite, fratres, sinite ; in breui post me uenturus est, qui hanc 
plebem uita et doctrina illuminabit, qui et de hoc genere hominum 
nascetur, et hic potens erit ; non solum gentem hanc, quam ferocem ' 
et indomitam conspicitis, verum etiam innumeras alias plebes suis 

' R- f. 191''. In R= there is a little miniature of the Saint, and an Irish 
pedigree in a later hand. • =Br. c. 2". ' on erasure. * = Br. 

cc. 2", 4. 6 debitum R> R». « Is. ix. 2. ' frontera R^ ; quam 

furentem, quam indomitam F Colg. 


sanctis documentis uelut agnos mansuetos ad Christum conuertet.' 
Et hoc totum euenit ut propheta egregius prenunciauit. 

iv. Huius' uiri sancti pater Vendalus" mater uero Finscriad' 
uocabatur. Hii licet inter nobilium cateruas essent educati, et 
terrenis rebus nimium locupletati, omni tamen mentis studio, spretis 
ydolatrie cultibus, celibem uitam actjtare satagebant. Hunc enim 
cum in primeuo iuuentutis flore genuissent, in natiuitatis ipsius 
primordio* qualis futurus' esset diuinitus premonstratur eis. Nam 
illa nocte qua matris uterum exiuit, sanctus Fregius* circa mediam 
noctis horam post laudes matutinales cellam exiens, et versus fines 
Conactie oculos dirigeret, circa locum habitationis parentum eius 
conspicuum lumen conspexit, ac si globus ignis extitisset. Admirans 

f- 59" quoque uir | sanctus quid hoc signum portenderet, quodam de suis 
ad se accersito, ait : ' Ad domum Uendali generi mei progredere, et si 
forte soror mea partum edidit masculum, ad me cum partu ' eueniat.' 
Nuntius uero iussa patris Fregii complens, ad domum parentum pueri 
nati ueniens, speciosum ualde infantem cum matre reperit ; ac uolun- 
tatem hominis Dei eis indicauit. Auditis quoque nuntii uerbis, mox 
infans ad sanctum Fregium ducitur. Conspiciens autem uir Dei 
infantem donis Dei luculenter preuentum, gratias diuine pietati 
reddens, ait : ' Hunc,' inquit, ' infantem ad ecclesiam perducite, ut 
lauacro salutis abluatur, et sic Christo capiti ' adiungatur. Cumque 
ad locum baptisterii adduceretur, a sancto Fregio requisiti parentes 
quo nomine infans uocaretur, respondent : ' Ipsum Berachum ° uocate.' 
Eo uero baptizato, et hoc nomine ei imposito, ait sanctus Fregius : 
' Recte hoc nomen ei est impositum, nam beatus erit, et locus eius in 
celis permanebit.' Infantem in Christo regeneratum mater secum 
conabatur detinere, ut silicet lacte proprio tenerius aleretur, quam 
cum nutrice alia alieno. Set sanctus uir Dei hoc non permisit, 
dicens : ' Scias, soror mea karissima, quod huius pueri sollicitudinem 
amplius non subportabis. Mecum enim in Christi nomine remanebit. 
Potens est enim Deus, qui ipsum creauit, ut ad perfectum proueniat 
incrementum membrorum absque ministerio lactis mulierum.' Quod 
et rei probauit euentus. Nam cum a uiro Dei diligenti cura educare- 
tur, solitus erat, ut matris mamillam, sancti Fregii auriculam sugere 
dextram. Sicque factum est nutu illius, qui mel de petra potens est 
producere, ut contactu auricule uiri Dei puer cresceret, 'tan'quam 

f. 59'' omnem lactis materni"' ex|uberantiam haberet. 

' =Br. c. 6. ^ Nendalus F Colg. ; Nemhnall Br. ; the pedigrees differ 

as to the name of Berach's father. ^ Finscad F Colg. ; Finmaith Br. 

' R' f. igi"*. ^ futurus 0111. K'' F Colg. ' cruimther Fiaoch 

Br. i. e, Fraech the priest. ' cum partu ad me R'^. * capiti om. R^ 

FColg. ^ According to Br. c. 5 his baptismal name was Fintan ; Berach 

(' pointed ') being a name given to him on account of his acuteness. R seems to 
connect berach and beattis. '" -ne R' R^. 


V. Peractis siquidem infantilibus ' annis, literarum studiis traditur 
imbuendus, in quibus magno animi ingcnio et intellectus capacitate 
de die in diem proficiebat. Hic siquidem doctoris sui, sancti silicet 
Fregii, vestigia sacra diligenti animo amplectens, nunc studio nunc 
orationi ac Dei laudibus uaccabat. Sub tanto quoque doctore 
proficiens, eius uota - Deus ex alto prospiciens bonis operibus 
sanctum' decorauit, ut uix in terra similis putaretur ei. 

vi. Postquam' uero ad annos peruenit discretionis, parentum 
suorum consortium eflfugere satagens, licentia doctoris sui habita, 
ad partes Laginie angelo comite properat, vno eum comitante 
ministro. Ad ciuitatem quoque Glendacolensem '' perueniens, sub 
sancto Kymino, monasterii Glendacolensis preclarissimo abbate, 
se subicit discipline. Cum ecclesiam oraturus ingrederetur, ecce 
sanctus Kyminus pre foribus eiusdem" ecclesie consistens, preuidens 
in spiritu quante conuersationis futurus esset, eum intuens fratribus 
dixit : ' Ecce seruus Dei ; eamus, ut salutemus eum.' Quem cum 
salutassent, causam sui itineris ab eo querunt. Quibus di.xit : ' De 
finibus Conactie usque huc veni, cupiens omni desiderio sancti patris 
Kymini parere preceptis, ac sacre doctrine pocula ab eo haurire.' 
Quo audito, sanctus abbas Kyminus gratias Deo egit, ac eius pro- 
posituni commendans eum benigne suscepit, atque sacre religionis 
habitum ei tradens, normam bene uiuendi edocuit. 

vii. Anno' siquidem probationis in nouitiatu elapso, professionem 
ex more iuxta ordinis obseruantiam compleuit. Qui deinceps ob 
sanctitatis meritum et propositi stabilitatem ab omnibus commenda- 
tur, et in'|ipsius monasterii prepositum communiter' assumitur. f. 59« 
Set uir Dei sollicitudinem tanti officii patienter supportans, ministerium 
sibi traditum iuxta datam sibi a Deo gratiam conuenienter administra- 
bat. Nunc enim necessitatibus fratrum prouide intendens, nunc 
pauperum inopie pie subueniens, interdum culture et aliis laboribus 
ipsius monasterii insistebat ; sicque curam quam suscepit, tanquam 
strenuus dispensator, cum summa diligentia peragebat. Sub ipsius 
enim cura bona monasterii de die in diem crescebant ; de quo omnes 
gratias Deo et sibi referebant. 

viii. Posti" hec euigilante monasterii armentario minus caute erga 
curam armenti sibi commissi, ecce lupus e uicino loco predam 
expectans,rapido cursu irruens uitulum cuiusdam vacce in lactis copia 
superhabundantis secum tulit, atque comedit. Protinus mater uituli 
horribiles mugitus dabat, ac huc illucque" discurrens, quasi insana 

> -talibus R'. 2 r2 f. ^g^". ' -tus R^ R'. * = Br. c. 9. 

' -lochensem F Colg:. ^ illius R' F Colg. ' =Rr. c. 11. ' et iii 

bis R'. ' This vvord is much contracted in the MSS. ; F Colg. substitute 

' illo renitente '. '» cf. Br. c. 13. " illudque R^. 


ferebatur. Set uiro Dei orante, res mira accidit. Lupus enim, 
amissa feritate, ad mugientem uaccam reuertitur ; ac more uituli se 
mansuetum ofrerens, eum vacca lambendo lac habundanter prebebat'. 
Sicque factum est ut Dei uirtute feritas lupina in uitulinam conuerte- 
retur mansuetudinem ; ita quod non ut lupus, set ut uitulus, in posterum 
uacce seruiret. 

ix. Non ' multo post tempore filius regis ' Laginie ', qui cum sancto 
Caimino ° a pueritia fuit nutritus, tam graui infirmitate detinebatur ", ut 
uitalem uideretur exspirare spiritum. Ad quem sanctus Kyminus ' 
accedens ait : ' Heu,' inquit, ' mihi misero, nam non habeo quod dolori 
tuo possit mederi.' Cui puer infirmus ait : ' Ad refrigerandum 
calorem intolerabilem, quo interius exuror, pomis et accidolis opus 
mihi est pro remedio sanitatis opportuno.' Tunc sanctus Kyminus 
f- 59'' accersiuit | sanctum Berachum' ad se, dicens : ' Mi frater Berache, 
cito, si placet, egredere ; et tecum defer, que anima languentis huius 
pueri desiderat.' Tunc Berachus iussionem patris Caymini complere 
desiderans, ascendit in uicinum collem ; et flexis genibus Dominum 
orauit, ut desideriis infirmi subueniret. Sciens quoque se in oratione 
exauditum, salicibus vicinis in nomine Domini imperans, ait : ' In 
nomine Domini nostri lesu Christi, qui omnia creauit ex nihilo, fiat 
ut hii salices poma producant, et terra accidulas germinet, ut sciat 
omnis populus quia tu es Deus solus, potens cum Patre et Spiritu 
Sancto omnia ex nihilo creare.' Et subito flores produxerunt salices, 
ac speciosa poma postmodum protulerunt. Similiter in hiemis algore, 
cum tunc terra esset sterilis et arida, dedit copiose accidulas. Collectis 
quoque herbis cum pomis de salicibus productis, gratias Deo, cui 
omnia sunt possibilia, egit, ac ea sancto patri Kymino optulit. 
Cumque hos fructus mirabiles uir Dei infirmo puero conferret, 
mox sanitatem recuperauit. In hoc miraculi insoliti signum fertur, 
quod usque ad hec tempora in eodem loco^ salices ibi crescentes 
poma producunt, que infirmis sepe conferunt sanitatem. Hac in re 
omnipotentis Dei magnificentia debet deuotissime uenerari, qui tam 
mirabiliter extra nature potentiam ostendit suam inexhaustam suffi- 

X. Quodam"' alio tempore uxor" regis Lagenie, maligno eam 
excitante spiritu, eundem regis filium cogitauit arte maligna''' ut 
perfida nouerca interimere. Timuit enim quod proli sue preualeret, 
ac eam contempneret, si post obitum regis regnaret. Ascendit ergo 

' se prebeat R' R'. ' ^-Br. cc. 14, 15. ' R^ f. 192^ * Faolan mac 

Colmain Br. add. ^ Caymano R^ " cepit laborare F Colg. ' Cayminus R*. 
* suuni baculum F Colg. ; and this is apparently the reading of R^. ' in hoc 

loco eodem R^; in loco eod. F Colg. "> = Br. c. 16. " named Cainech, 

according to Br. " magica F Colg. 


cum aliis concionatricibus' magice artis peritis cuiusdam collis 
summitatem, ut adorando demones ab eis impetrarent uel filii regis 
mortem, uel membrorum eius mutilationem. Set desiderium pecca- 
tricis regine | periit; quia Spiritui Sancto, qui in sancto suo operaba- f. 60" 
tur, contraire- non preualuit. Dei enim uirtute instigante, uir Dei 
ad uidendum peccora cundem locum ascendit, ac, Deo sibi reuelante, 
quidnam' ibi regina ageret, didicit. Quamobrem uir Dei ad orationis 
pre'si'dia conuolans, Deum celi deuotissime rogauit, ne malignantium 
mulierum incantationes puero innocenti preualerent. Et exaudiuit 
Dominus sanctum suum, puerum innocentem defendendo, ne magica 
ars ei preualeret. Set qui uindictam accipit'de iniquitate malorum, 
laqueum portantibus' fecit cadere in laqueum. Sicut enim quondam 
terra deglutiuit Dathan et Abiron propter malitiam suam, sic simili 
pena has magicas concionatrices " cum regina terra absorbuit. 

xi. Post' hec, cum iam omnipotens Deus vitam sancti huius super 
candelabrum in domo Dei ponere conaretur, ut omnibus radios lucis 
sue immitteret, ecce uir Dei in noctis uisu angelicum accepit respon- 
sum ei dicens ' : ' Cras mane occurret tibi ceruus ad fores monasterii ', 
quem, sarcinolis appositis, sequaris recto tramite; et in loco quo 
requiescet, ibi et tu fac requiem. Nam ibi erit sedes tua, et memoriale 
tuum in posterum.' Mane igitur facto, ceruum ad fores monasterii 
reperit ; et sancto Kymino ac fratribus uocatis, quid in uisione sibi 
fuerat ostensum, enarrans, licentiam eorum cum benedictione 
recepit'". Apposuit igitur sarcinolas suas super ceruum tanquam 
super domesticum asinum. Eum gressu mansueto precedit ; et uir 
Dei cum suo rninistro " laudantes Deum eum secuntur. Ab hoc igitur 
itineris labore non cessant, usque quo ad locum, qui hodie Cluayn 
Charpi dicitur, peruenientes quiescunt. Et cum ibi ceruus onus 
suum deponeret, paulisper requiescens, ab oculis | uiri Dei disparuit. f. 60 *■ 

xii. Tunc^- sanctus Berachus gratias Deo agens mandat ministro 
ut locum querat oportunum, in quo solitarii possent Deo seruire. 
Cumque minister locum aptum ad manendum requireret ", reperit 
octodecim corpora in terra palpitantia, ac si eadem hora essent illi 
uiri occisi. Duo enim filii" regum hostilem inibi commissere 
confiictum, sicque in conflictu eodem cecidere totidem uiri. Horrore 
igitur ac terrore minister attonitus, ad uirum Dei reuertitur, nuncians 
ei quod uiderat; silicet agrum quendam ad inhabitandum aptum'^ 

' concinn- F Colg. ; con a bantracht cumachta Br. lit. with her vvomen of 
power, i. e. magical power. ' R^ f. i92<^. s quanam R= ; quaenam F Colg. 
* accepit R' F Colg. » F has port- corrected to par-, which 

Colg. reads. « concinn- F Colg. ' =Br. c. i8. * dicens ei 

R- F Colg. 9 manast- R'. i» obtinuit F Colg. " named 

Maolmollach or Maolmothlach in Br. " =Br. cc. 19, 20. " -rent R-. 

" Donnchadh of Tara, and Tipraite, son of Tadg, of Cruachan, according to Br. 
" R' f. 192^. 


nisi quod sanguine nouiter occisorum corrumperetur ac fedaretur. 
Cui uir Dei^ait: 'Tu quidem ignorans nomen loco illi imposuisti^ 
Ager enim corumptus in posterum uocabitur,' quod in Hybernico 
CToyn Corpi' dicitur. Corpti* enim in Hibernico sonat corumptum, 
vel mortale peccatum. Tunc uir Dei ad locum accedens eundem, 
Deum pro occisis illis suppliciter rogauit, et resuscitationem eorum 
promeruit. Resuscitati igitur ad uiri Dei pedes se prosternunt ^, 
ac gratiarum uota Deo et sibi persoluunt. Filii quoque regum, qui 
inter ceteros erant resuscitati, in posterum uite sue tempus se mutuo, 
ac si essent duo germani, diligentes, usque ad finem Deo fideliter 

xiii. Fuit^ in regione eadem vir magni honoris inter gentiles, qui in 
magice artis peritia erat ualde peritus'. Hic enim apud illos quasi 
numen celeste uocabatur, ac in reuerentia habebatur. Idem magus 
vendicabat sibi ius hereditarium in terra, quam uir Dei ex miraculo 
ibi facto possederat. Audiens enim quod uir Dei ibi inhabitare 
proponeret, festinus ad locum accessit, et suis machinationibus et 
magicis artibus turbare [e]um incepit. Verbis enim eum ' contume- 
f. 60 " ijosis afificiens', ipsum a suo proposito subuertere | satagebat. Set 
homo Dei nec minis nec terroribus quatiebatur; set tanquam murus 
inexpugnabilis constanter permanens, opus, quod inceperat, Deo 
commendabat. Tandem magus sanctum ad examen regis conuocat ; 
in cuius presentia allegat quod iure suo naturali" nemo priuari debet, 
nec ipse terra sua natiua. Cui constanter uir Dei respondens, ait : 
' Pater tuus Sathanas a celesti hereditate deiectus, ad yma miserabi- 
liter (^orruens, profunda petiit inferni. Tu ergo tuo similis patri 
dignus non es hanc terram Deo dedicatam possidere ; quin potius 
in hereditate infernali cum patre tuo diabolo comparticlpabis.' 

xiv. Hiis aliisque rationibus coram rege decertantibus, de precepto 
regis ad Edanum filium Gaurani, Scotice gentis regem ", mittuntur, 
ut^'' questionis mote litem determinando diiudicet. Cumque iussu 
mittentis principis ad opidum regis Scotie uenirent, magus gressu 
ueloci uirum Dei preuenit, ac pueris regie aule ad pilam ludentibus 
in platea ait: 'O iuuenes nobiles, hunc miserum pauperem me in uia 
sequentem cernite, et a uestro conspectu, quo dignus non est, proicite. 
Non enim decet nobilitatem vestram ut per vos transitum faciat.' 
Cuius.'monitis iuuenes lasciui parentes, in virum sanctum impetum, 

^ Dei ofii. R2. 2 tu loco quem ignoras nomen imp. F Colg. ^ Coirpthe 

FCoI.g. * altered to Corpi R^. ^ proslrauerunt R' F Colg. " §§ xiii- 

xvi, xix-xxiii = Br. c. 23, whicli is much fuller, and more origina!. "^ Called 

in Br. Diarmait, chief poet and driiid of Aedh son of Eochaid Tirmcarna, king 
of Connaught. ' eum om. R^ F Colg. " afficiens 01«. R^ F Colg. 

'" naturali oin. R^ F Colg. *' go h^dan mac Gabrain, go righ Alban Br. 

" et Ri R2. 


vnanimitcr fecerunt ; atque quidam^ex eis lapides in eum proiece- 
runt, alii ' alapis percutiebant, alii vcrbis contumcliosis ei impropera- 
bant. Set Dei uirtute factum est ut pedes iniproperantium terre, 
quam calcabant, sic fixi inhererent, acsi lapides grandes immobiliter 
permanerent. Mago uiro, cum esset cult[i]oribus uestitus indumentis, 
hostium palacii ' regalis statim aperitur. Set uiro sancto Beracho 
tanquam despectabili ac vilibus pannis induto clauditur. ] f. 60^ 

XV. Cumque uir sanctus sic spretus prope portam staret, et massam 
ibi dc niuibus confectam conspiceret, inuocato nomine Dei uiui insuf- 
flauit in eam, et mox congeries illa niuea instar lignorum aridorum 
flamma vechementi exuritur, ita ut edes uicina* porte inciperet comburi. 
Talium itaque signorum notitia ad aures regis cum perueniret, illum 
magum ea fecisse putauit. Ad quem ait : ' O bone uir, scimus te in 
magicis artibus potentem, et quod numina'' deorum tibi parent ad 
nutum. Vade ergo ad pueros et eos solue, et ignem similiter 
extingue, ne eius incendio periclitemur.' Cumque magus hoc nequiret, 
licet attemptaret, rex suum uocat ariolum, mandans eidem ut cito 
egrederetur, et quenam essent hec signa agnosceret ". Qui cum iussa 
rcgis compleret, et quis esset horum signorum factor addisceret, 
ad ' regem reddiens, ei nunciat, quod vnus sanctus de Hibernia, 
Berachus nomine, qui cum in omni opere bono sit potens, a pueris 
illusus esset, et ad fores curie regalis sederet', et quod ifi Dei 
omnipotentis virtute hec signa fecisset. Quo audito, rex ad uirum 
Dei accedens, eius pedibus prouolutus, veniam petiit de offensis, 
et eum cum honore debito admisit, qui talia fecit signa. Insuper 
rogat, ut pueros soluat, atque ignem extingat. 

xvi. Hiis iam peractis, sanctus uir causam sui itineris ac magi regi 
per ordinem enarrauit. Rex igitur, consilio cum suis inito, senten- 
tiam questionis huius in se suscipere pertimescens, ad arbitrium 
Odonis nigri', regis silicet Brefnensium, et Odonis principis Thef- 
feorum ^" ipsos decreuit remittendos. Promisit nihilominus amplas 
agrorum possessiones sancto Dei, si" secum in regno suo uellet 
permanere. Set uir Dei renuit hoc, nolens | deserere locum a Deo f. 61" 
sibi deputatum. Duo quoque leprosi et tres ceci sanctum ibi 
secuntur, clamantes importune, ut sanitati restituerentur. Qui 
miserorum infirmitati compatiens, in Deo suo confidens aqua bene- 
dicta leprosos aspergit, et mox mundauit ; et loca'- oculorum cecorum 
eadem aqua lauit, et statim sanitati pristine restituit. 

xvii. Responso" siquidem regis Scotorum accepto, uir Dei et 

' R2 f. 193". ' MSS. aliis. ' pelacii R'. * uincta Ri R-. 

5 munera R-. « MSS. -rent. ' et ad R=. « sedet R- F Colg. 

' Aodh dubh mac Fergna Br. '" Aodh mac Brenainn ri Tethba Br. 

" sancto Deo si bis R^ m. pr. '^ R^ f. ig^!». 's — gr. c. 10. 



magus, alta pelagi remigantes, ad propria remearunt. Tandem per 
Midencium terram iter agentes, ad quendam locum qui nunc Cell 
Berayciii nominatur, perueniunt. Tunc uir Dei labore itineris 
fessus, domum cuiusdam diuitis, qui ibi dominabatur, subintrans, et 
se sitis angustia grauari pandens, potum sibi dari familiam ^ ex- 
hortatur. Set licet septem vassa medone plena iam pro rege terre 
villicus prefatus haberet parata, viro tamen sancto repulsam dedit, 
asserens quod pro eo potum non habuit paratum. Cui sanctus : 
' Queso omnipotentis Dei potentiam, ut sic fiat, prout ore tuo es 
locutus.' Tunc sancto recedente ^ rex 'ad'uenit statim, ac potum 
sibi propinari postulauit. Cumque pincerna vasa per ordinem pro- 
baret, et Dei uirtute uacua reperiret, nil aliud quam aranearum 
telas in eis se reperisse regi nuntiauit. Qua de re hospes plurimum 
contristatus, regi nuntiat, quod cuidam uiro ad se uenienti, ac potum 
in Dei honore petenti, denegauit ; et quod in hec uerba prorumperet. 
' Dixit : " Sic fiat, prout ex tuo ore es locutus." Dixi enim quod pro 
eo potum paratum non habui.' Quo audito, rex statim agnouit, quod 
sanctus Berachus fuit, qui hec uerba sibi dixisset, et quod in penam 
potus sibi denegati' eorum vassa fiebant vacua. Tunc rex ministros 
suos statim in equis velocibus post sanctum misit, ut ad eum re- 
f. 6i ^" ducatur cum honore, qui sine ho]noris dignitate recessit. Precibus 
quoque supphcantium condescendens uir sanctus reuertiturad regem, 
a quo cum gaudio est receptus. Ad pedes uero eius rex procidens, 
ueniam de commissis postulauit. Sanctus itaque regiis devictus 
precibus, inuocata Dei potentia, stans supra uassa vacua, infundens 
benedictionem, liquore pristino sunt repleta. 

xviii. Quam ob rem rex multas sancto donauit ibi terras. Ibi 
quoque uir Dei construxit in honore Dei omnipotentis cellam ad 
cuius constructionem rex reddit ^ necessaria. Et licet magus mali- 
ficus tantis uirtutibus coruscare'' uiruni Dei conspiceret, flecti tamen 
non potuit ut in Deum crederet. Potentes adeo contra eum pro- 
uocabat, ut non sanctum, set malificum, eum estimarent. Quod tamen 
. uir Dei patienter sustinuit, ut per patientiam uinceret maliciam, et 
Dei expectaret de mago iudicium. 

xix. [Tunc ' uir Dei et] niagus presentiam illorum iudicum adeunt, 
cupientes diffinitiuam audire ab eis sententiam. ludices quoque 
timentes offendere partes, uiros sanctos petunt sibi assessores, silicet 
sanctum Finnianum et Vltanum, et sanctas virgines Samtannam et. 

^ Dellbe Raych R^ ; R^ has erased the top of the d meaning to aUer it to c, 
but has left the wrong division of the words ; Disert Beraigh Br., which places 
the incident in a dilTerent connexion. ■ ^ famulam F Colg. ' reddnte R', 

reddeunte R- ; recedente F m. sec. Colg. * -gari R' R^. ^ dedit R* 

F Colg. « -cantibus R^ f. 193". ' = Br. c. 23". 


Athracteam, cum aliis prclatis, uiro;inibus, ac uiris sanctis. Magus 
ucro demonibus immolat, nomina deorum suorum' inuocans, ut eum 
in suo certamine contra tot sanctos viros ac sanctas- defendant. 
Tunc iudices cum aliis in vnum conuenicntes, cum magna uirorum 
ac mulierum multitudine' ad iudicium audiendum properant,ut finem 
rei uiderent. Vnus quoque ex iudicibus, silicet Odo niger, qui rex 
Breffnensium* dicebatur, ait : ' Heu milii intelici cum sim turpis et 
niger corporc, quod inter tot honestos uiros ac muheres debeani 
comparere. Quid enim mihi nunc prodest generis nobilitas, aut 
diuitiarum opulentia, cum a tot hominibus habeam obprobrium mee 
turpitudinis ? | Vadam ', inquit, ' ad hos sanctos, quorum uirtutem f. 61 ' 
noui esse admirabilem in sanandis infirmorum corporibus, ac suf- 
• fragium pietatis eorum implorabo, ut pusilli corporis mei deformis 
statura° conuertatur in elegantiorem * ac maiorem staturam.' Cum- 
que presidium omnium horum sanctorum nominatim imploraret, ad 
ultimum se ad sanctum Berachum conuertit, flagitans obnixe ut 
desiderium suum adimpleret. Ad quem uir Dei ait : ' Fili, rem 
insoHtam tibi petis a nobis dari. Set, ut experimento sensibili adiscas 
potentiam Dei nostri esse infinitam, et ad omnia queque' uult esse 
paratam, cuculla mea temodo indue, ac fidem Trinitatis in corde 
amplectere.' Cumque rex* iussa uiri Dei' compleret, ac se ueste 
eius indueret, super gremium sancti recumbens, graui est sompno 
soporatus. Pro quo dormiente uir sanctus per unam horam Deum 
exorat, ut staturam ac formam corporis eius mutaret. Tunc a sompno 
exurgens, se agnoscere non poterat, eo quod longam staturam tunc 
se habere sentiret, qui paruus homuncio ante erat ; et speciosam 
formam se habere conspiceret, qui ante deformis ac niger erat. 
Ministri quoque"', qui eum comitabantur, ipsum agnoscere recus- 
sabant, quousque signis euidentibus se miraculose sic transfiguratum 
asserebat ". 

XX. Magus^- quoque perfidia^' atque inuidia plenus iudicium coram 
tot uiris bonis subire recusauit. Dixit quoque magus, quod in loco 
qui Rathin " dicitur, et non in alio subiret iudicium ; et hoc ideo 
promisit, quod ibi erat arbor quedam excelsa, in qua, ut fertur, 
diabolus responsa dare consueuit infidelibus. Arte enim magica 
inclusus ibi, cultoribus suis, que poterat, responsa dabat. Credens 
enim ut, presidio demonum fulcitus, ibi facilius" posset iudicum '* 
sententiam | pro se flectere, et propter hoc sub arbore demonibus f. 61 ** 
consecrata iudicium " subire uoluit. Cui iudices aiunt : ' Quia illuc 

' suorym bis R'. ^ mulieres sanctas R' m. pr. ; mulieres erased. 

' -nem R^. ■■ Breffen- R* F Colg. ^ statura . . . maiorem om. R- 

(homoiotel.) ; F and Colg. read : ' ut pusilli corporis mei reforment staturam.' 
• R' lias releg- for in eleg-. ' quecunque R- F Colg. ' res R' R- m. pr. ' Dei 
om. R2 F. '» R2 f. 193''. " -bant R' R^ '^ = Br. c. 23^. " .^i^^ ri 
" a Rathann Br. i^ faciculus R^ " -cium R^ F m. pr. " -cum R=. 

G 2 


nobis eundi accessus non patet, tu qui arte magica es imbutus, 
radices arboris illius solue, et illam ad nos ducere festina, ex quo 
in ea confidit anima tua. Aliter enim equum et vere iustum iudica- 
mus, ut si sanctus Beraclius in nomine Dei sui in hoc tibi preualeat, 
ut silicet possit arborem adducere, tu ipse subcumbas.' Tunc sanctus 
Berachus, assumens secum uiros sanctos ac uirgines, prostrantes se 
in oratione fere usque ad quatuor horas diei permanserunt prostrati. 
Tunc nubes caliginosa vniuersum populum operuit, et ecce arbor 
illa, quam magus desiderabat, per aera virtute orationis sanctorum 
ad eos uolitabat, tanquam alter Abacuc ad Iacum'leonum vbi Daniel 
orabat. Ibi quoque miraculose arbor illa in terra est transplantata, 
atque firmiter radicata. De hoc signo insolito populus qui aderat 
admirabatur, et Deum, qui in suis sanctis est mirabilis', collaudabat. 

xxi. Post'* modicum uero tempus lux inmensa de celo refulsit, 
ac in admiracionem omnes duxit. Facto autem silentio audita est 
uox angeU de medio fulgoris dicentis : ' Hoc mandat Dominus, iudex 
magnificus, quod magus ^ perfidus est victus cehtus.' Quo audito 
vehementer omnes sunt stupefacti ; et iudicium angeHca uoce pro- 
latum sin[e dubio] ' se recepisse protestantur ; set et iudices ipsi, quod 
non est opus in hac causa humano labor'ar'e° iudicio, ex quo diuino 
est satisfactum. Magus quoque nec voci angelice nec arboris trans- 
plantacioni mirifice ad credendum est motus, quin immo, more 
f. 62" furentis bestie furore repletus, in uerba contumellie ac blasp[h]emie 
prorumpere non formidauit. Asserebat enim non fuisse verum quod 
in aere intonuit verbum, set esse p[h]antasticuni. Vir itaque sanctus 
moleste tulit quod magus uoce malefica dixit. Vnde, oratione ad 
[D]eum prius fusa, coram omnibus dixit: ' Videte, fratres mei, quid 
malificus iste* agat, qui nec Deum timet, nec angelum uel hominem 
reueretur. An non dignum est vt ultione diuina feriatur, qui signis 
diuinis credere renuit'? Nunc igitur omnipotentis Dei clementiam 
obsecro, ut miser ille maledicus officio lingue sit " priuatus, ne in 
Deum viuum et verum verba blasphemie valeat amplius proferre, 
quousque penitentiam de commissis uellit peragere.' 

xxii. Et quod sanctus optauit celitus euenit. Magus enim vindicta 
Dei correptus loquelam amisit. Antiqui enim hostis laqueo con- 
strictus, iam penitere noluit *, set se in quodam loco secreto abscondit, 
a ceterorum hominum communi cohabitacione segregatus ; vbi per 
totum annum deorum suorum flagitabat auxilium, set non inuenit. 
Expleto quoque anno quo se sic occultauit, ecce venatores regis 
ceruum quendam insequentes, ad habitaculum magi peruenerunt. 

1 Ps. Ixvii. 36. ^ = Br. c. 23". ' magnus R'. ■• Here there is blank 
space in R^ ; R'^ ignoring tliis wriles sinse ; se F Colg. ^ labore R^ m. pr. R2. 

« R2 f. 194". ' renuitur R> R=. ^ sic R^. ^ uoluit R> R- F m. pr. 


Magiis quoque clamore ac strcpidu venatorum commotus, per fenc- 
stram respicit, quid tantus tumultus portenderet, scire cupiens. Set 
nutu Dei accidit, \t uenator hastam post ceruum ' aptare cupicns, non 
ceruum set ipsum magum in frontis uertice uulnerauit. Et sic, fracta 
ccruice, miserabiliter miser interiit, et ceruus nusquam comparuit. 

xxiii. Non post multum uero temporis spacium post liec supradicti 
magi nepotcs circiter octo conuenientes consilium fecerunt, ut uirum 
Dei occiderent ; et sic sanguinem fratris sui vindicarent. Ex eis vero 
quidam existimabant fore iustum opus in sanctum irruere, et | eum f. 62 
mala morte dampnare. Alii autem, si hoc fieri non posset, annuunt 
monasterium ipsius incendio deuastare, et sic eius habitatio fieret 
deserta. Set superna pietas, que suos nouit semper protegere, hoc 
peccatorum desiderium non permisit impleri. Nam miseris sanguinem 
innocentem effundere cupientibus infortunium tale mox contigit. Terra 
enim sub pedibus eorum se aperiens viuos eos transglutiuit, sicut 
quondam Dathan et Abiron absorbuit. Vnde adhuc est ibi puteus 
ualde pro[fundus] - et horribilis, qui ab incolis loci illius puteus in- 
fernalis uocatur. Ex eo enim, ut fertur, immensus fetor ascendit, ita 
quod pre nimio horrore uix ei aliquis appropinquare audeat. 

xxiv. Non ' est pretermittendum hic qualiter quidam impii, numero 
duodecim, venerunt quadam nocte ad monasterium uiri Dei ; et, vt 
hberius ualea[n]t predam secum deferre, vnum ex fratribus', qui 
super bonismonasterii custodiendis inuigilabat, occiderunt. Cumque, 
capta preda boum silicet monasterii, per quoddam vadum saxosum 
transire uellent, factum est Dei uirtute, ut haste, quas manibus 
tenebant, saxis uadi firmiter inhererent'', ac manus ^* eorum similiter 
hastis ; et sic immobiliter in medio fluminis stabant, tanquam lapides 
inunobiles essent. Quod factum est, cum ad notitiam uiri sancti 
celitus peruenisset, multitudine monachorum secum assumpta, ad 
locum, ubi defuncti fratris corpus iacebat, festinat ' ; et prece a[d] 
Dcum omnipotentem fusa, occisum fratrem ad vitam resu- 
scitauit. Ad miseros quoque fures propter scelus suum hgatos 
postea accedens, eos misericorditer absoluens abire permisit. Qui ad 
pedes viri [Dei] se prosternentes, sub ipsius monitis in posterum 
religiose vixerunt. 

xxv. Fuit* in uenerabili collegio sancti patris Berachi monachus 
quidam ', qui sine consensu sui superioris votum emisit peregrina- 
cionis, I videlicet quod limina apostohca nouiter visitaret. Hic cum f. 62"= 
propositum suum adimplere omnino desideraret, de eius recessu pius 
pater, eo quod eum tenere diligeret, plurimum anxius erat. Vnde 

' tergum R- m. pr. = a blank in R' ; ualde et hor. R^; ualde Iior. F 

Colg. 3 ^ Br (.. 29. ' named Sillen Br. >> inherent R^. « R^ f. 194*. 
' -nant R^ F Colg. « = Br. c. 30. » Colman Cael of Cluain Ingrech Br. 


excogitansquomodo eum auoto sue peregrinacionis retrahere ualeret, 
ait : ' Mi frater, cellam nostram ambo intremus ante ingressum tui 
itineris.' Quod cum complessent, clauso hostio, per tres dies et 
totidem noctes ieiuniis et oracionibus ibidem vacantes, tandem 
discipulus sompno est oppressus. Quo tandem euigilante, sompnium 
quod uiderat enarrare uiro sancto curauit. ' Uidi,' inquit, ' me iter 
peregrinacionis arripuisse, in qua iuuenis quidam ualde decorus se 
mihi in itinere sociauit ; et, marinis fluctibus transactis, recta uia 
eodem comite me ducente Romam perueni, et per ordinem peregrina- 
cionem, quam uoui, cum predicto iuuene ad nutum uoluntatis mee 
peregi. Idem ' quoque iuuenis me per eandem uiam usque huc 
perduxit ; qui cum magna hilaritate a me recedens, dixit se angelum 
Dei fuisse ; et insuper asseruit, quod peregrinacionem, quam ego 
voui, complete peregi.' Quo audito, Altissimo gratias reddiderunt, 
qui uouentis desiderium adimpleuit, et caritatis ardorem in sancto 
Beracho augmentauit. 

xxvi. Postquam ^ uero sanctissimus pater Berachus tantis miracu- 
lorum prodigiis coruscaret, fama sanctitatis eius per prouinciam 
Hibernie diffusa, ecce ad eum ex diuersis terre partibus ' confluunt 
diuersigenerislanguidi ac infirmi, ut sanitati ualeant restitui.' A quo 
quicumque fide integra sanitatem poscebant ', eam optinebant ^ Ipse 
enim in ' se mire perfectionis et sanitatis'' erat, et prepotens in 
eiciendo demones de obsessis ab eis. Hic'' multis preerat monacho- 
1. ^a^^rum gregibus, quos, Dei opijtulante gratia, perfecte rexerat, ueluti 
abbas preclarus, sanctitate uite enitens, et luce sapientie refulgens, 
et caritate feruida flamescens. Ipse quoque aspectu erat deCorus, 
sermone facundus, predicatione mellifluus, in oratione deuotus. In 
iudicio uerax, in iniur[i]is sibi illatis pacientissimus, in morum 
disciplina rigidus, in conuersacione mansuetus. Cum igitur hiis et 
aliis polleret uirtutibus, cernens mortem corporis esse vicinam, armis 
se celestibus muniens, astantibus fratribus benedicens, ac Deo 
animam suam recommendans, signo se salutifere crvcis muniuit, et 
sie in pace dormiens, beatam animam suo reddidit Creatori. 


Deus, qui beatum Berachum abbatem in terris fecisti magnis 
coruscare miraculis, concede propicius eius hic nos precibus adiuuari, 
et eterna beatitudine cum angelis adunari. Per Dominum. 

1 Idem . . . peregi oi>i. F Colg. (homoiotel.). « =Br. c. 30''. ' Here 

MSS. insert ad cttm again. * possebant R^. ^ -bat R'. ^ sancti- 

F Colg. ' R- f. 194". 

Vita sancti Borrii rpisropi Dr IHainistir 

Incipit vita sancti Boecii episcopi' ^- 'j'* 

i. [De ortu et conceptione sancti Boecii.] 

Sanctus pater et electus Dei pontifex Boecius, generosis ortus 
parentibus, prius gratia quam natiuitate mundo innotuit. Ea enim 
qua conceptus est nocte, parentibus eius secretis in locis propter 
inetum pyratarum sub diuo uigilantibus, steHa igneo fulgore coruscans 
e celo descendens uisa est os matris intrare. 

ii. De clericis, qui diuino nutu ad baptisandum eum 


Postquam autem puer noster natus est^, a quo baptizaretur 
parentum animos non mediocriter solicitabat. Tunc enim pauci erant 
sacerdoteE ; et qui' tunc erant tales, remoti ab ipsis erant. Interea 
ignotos quosdam clericos nauicula uectos in portu propinquo appli- 
care conspiciunt. Ad quos infantis pater letus et festiuus accurrens, 
interrogat si eorum quisnam baptisinatis sciret per[a]gere officium. 
Et respondit ille qui primus et principalis inter illos fuit : 'Ob hoc,' 
inquit, ' huc nos misit Deus, ut natum paruulum baptizaremus. 
Ipsum quoque huc ad nos adducite.' Quo adducto, iubet ille aquam 
afierri. Pater infantis ait : ' Ecce fluuius ad manum.' Et ille : ' In 
simplici,' inquit, ' aqua baptismi misterium debet agi.' Erat enim 
tunc marinus accessus fluuiali aque immixtus. Et respondente patre 
aliam non esse in propinquo aquam, iubet uir sanctus manum infantis 
terre applicari. Et cum factum fueraf*, ut ille imperauit, confestim 
fons purissimus mellei saporis ex eodem loco ebulliuit ; qui ob insoliti 
miraculi signum usque hodie MelHfons nominatur. Denique uir ille 
sanctus, paruulum aqua perfundens, totum baptismatis ordinem com- 
pieuit, eumque Boecium nominauit. Vnde et prophetico spiritu loquens 
de puero "^ ait : ' Magnus,' inquit, ' hic erit apud Deum et homines ; et 
erit uita et doctrina precipuus, multisque preerit et proderit.' Et hiis 
dictis, et puero et parentibus eius benedictis, enauigauit ipse cum suis. 

» From F. MS. set. ' MS. qui et. < MS. fieret. ^ MS. 



iii. De profectu pueri, et miraculis que Deus per eum fecit. 

Puer autem crescebat et confortabatur in spiritu^, signorum fre- 
quencia emiccans et miraculorum. Quodam enim [tempore] mater 
sua misit eum pro uitulis adducendis domum. Et cum hora debita 
non rediret, parentes uehementi dolore contristantur, et querentes 
puerum gemitus ac clamores multiplicant. Et quia lucerna tam 
ardens et lucens latere non potuit, ecce igneam columpnam de uicino 
f. 154« arundineto usque ad ce|lum surgere conspiciunt. Et quia multis 
eum clarere miraculis ante nouerant -, puerum ibidem esse non 
dubitauerunt. Accelerantes quoque ad locum ipsum, inuenerunt 
dormientem. Quem cum a sompno excitarent, ipse eos reprehen- 
dendo ait : ' Inprouide,' inquit, ' fecistis, me a sompno excitantes. 
Angeli namque Dei me docuerunt huc usque psalmos ceterumque 
officium ecclesiasticum ; et si usque ad hanc diei crastine horam 
a sompno non excitarer, perfecte sapientiam addiscerem.' Ad que 
mater ait : ' Ne,' inquit, ' fili, ob hec contristeris ; quia ad plenum te 
Deus docebit.' Cui ille : ' Uerum,' inquit, ' dicis, mater ; sic enim fiet.' 
Post hec puer Boecius cum parentibus domum rediit, et erat sub- 
ditus illis'. 

iv. Qualiter in Ytaliam perrexit. 

Ut igitur plenius aquas sapientie salutaris hauriret, et peregrinus 
existens, Deo securius deseruiret, natale solum deserens, nauem 
ascendit, et Ytaliam perueniens, sancti patris Tyliani monasterium 
ingressus, ibi monastice uite disciplina et sacre scripture scientia 
adprime eruditus *, humilitate et mansuetudine omnibus acceptabilis 
erat. Transactis uero aliquot ibidem annis, diuino oraculo admonitus 
est repatriare. Accepta igitur benedictione atque licencia sancti 
patris Tyliani, et misso^ cum eo ipso sancto seniore Codro, qui furias 
eius in malignantes temperaret, datisque eis sacris uoluminibus et 
uestibus, necnon et sanctorum " reliquiis, trigesimo peregrinacionis sue 
anno iterum regressus est. Fama uero eius in itinere deuulgata, 
iunxerunt se ei quidam uiri sancti de Germania, numero sexaginta, 
quorum decem fuerunt germani fratres, et decem uirgines. Per- 
uenientes itaque ad mare nauem ascendunt, et prospero nauigio in 
Pictorum finibus applicuerunt. 

• V. Qualiter Nectannum regem a morte resuscitauit. 

Contigit autem tunc temporis Nectannum illius terre regem viam 
vniuerse carnis migrasse. Ad eius quoque exequias inuitantur et 
illi, ut scilicet super defunctum regem uigilarent, et pro ipso ad 
Dominum orarent. Cumque domum in qua exanime corpus iacebat 

I Luke i. 80. ' MS. nominauerant. * Luke ii. 51. * MS. -dicionis. 

' MS. missus. ' MS. sociorum (wrong expansion of contraction). 


pcrucnirent, ceteris exclusis uir Dei Boecius se in orationem dedit. 
Complcta igitur oracione, ecce defunctus a mortis faucibus resurrexit. 
Stupent omnes ; iuctus in gaudium uertitur ; et Deus in suo sancto 
glorificatur. Deniquc re.\ castrum illud, in quo factum [est] miraculum, 
cum omni sua possessione beato Boccio contulit. Quo ipse in cellam 
eonsecrato, qucndani suorum ibi in custodcm reliquit. 


Post Iiec ad Hybernicum mare peruenit, et ibi nauem ascendit ; 
in regione Dayl Riata nomine portum tenuit, ubi regis eiusdem terre 
filiam iam defunctam resuscitauit. Qua propter et rex terram ei 
optulit, in qua ipse ecclesiam fundauit ; et relicto ibi presbytero 
quodam de suis, in paternum solum, id est Kyanacteorum, gressum 
direxit. Et, cum regem adiret, eum, quia gentilis erat, non admisit. 


Pernoctante igitur uiro Dei cum suis ante castellum regis, dextera 
Domini fecit uirtutes *, atque suos a niue profunda, que illa nocte 
faciem uniuerse terre cooperuerat, sic prote.xerat, ut non solum eos 
non tangeret, uerum etiam uicina eis loca non attingebat. Rex uero 
crastina die [a] preposito suo^ hoc quod factum fuerat audiens, promtus 
ad sancti uiri pedes prouolutus accessit. In satisfactionem delicti 
sui locum illum cum omni possessione sancto uiro donauit. Ipso 
uero fundato monasterio, uerbum salutis per uniuersam predicauit 
regionem. Regem quoque suosque familiares et alios quam plurimos 
lauacro salutari ipse baptizauit. 


Post hec homo Dei ad fratres suos carnales uisitandos properauit. 
Et cum illuc peruenisset, quendam nobilem ibi defunctum oratione 
facta uite pristine restituit. Hic uiro Dei amplam terram ad inhabi- 
tandum donauit ; que a nomine dantis Campus Dornglays uocatur. 
Denique in terram Kennacteorum ad suum monasterium remeauit. 

ix. Qualiter angelus monuit eum ire ad terram 

Transacto autem ibidem aliquanto tempore, in Bregnensium fines 
ire ab angelo admonitus est. Itaque Nectano episcopo illic relicto, 
cum sacro suo coUegio uiam suam aggressus est. Ad terram igitur 
illam angelico premonitus oraculo perueniens, a rege terre Eugenio 
filio Cassii honorifice susceptus est ; et prediis sibi ab eo coUatis 
> MS. Dail iraU. 2 Ps. c.Kvii. 16. s ^5. prepositi sui. 


celebre monasterium, quod a nomine ipsius sancti Monasterium 
Boecii usque modo nominatur, ibidem edificauit. Ibi quoque ipse 
cum suo sacro collegio bene uiuendo et instanter docendo multos 
ad emendacionem uite prouocabat, et celestium donorum imbre 


Plurimis itaque ad eum confluentibus, seruorum Dei in eodem loco 
multiplicatus est numerus ; ita ut de horreo frumenti puri ibi collecti 
multa monasteria tanquam multi agri replerentur. De illo enim 
f- 155" monasterio tanquam de plantalrio bonorum omnium multi uiri sancti 
creuerunt, atque pastores perfecti effecti sunt animarum, in caulam 
dominicain multas animas tanquam oues mansuetas adduxerunt. 
Monialium quoque monasterium in remoto fieri a loco uirorum ipse 
ordinauit, ne in aliquo fama castitatis lederetur. Impossibile est enim' 
ad plenum dignis hunc uirum laudibus per singula describere. 


Quodam tempore uenerunt fures, et abstulerunt caballos qui erant 
necessarii ad usus fratrum. Impii quoque recto itinere ire putantes, 
tota nocte in circuitu monasterii ambulabant. IIIu[ce]scente uero die 
quod accidit admirantes, culpam suam recognoscentes, ad beatum 
uirum uenerunt, et semetipsos pro forefactis reddentes, monastico 
habitu ab eo suscepto, reliquum uite sue sub iugo regularis discipline 
eius Deo deuote seruierunt. 

xii. De aliis latronibus qui porcos monachorum 


Alii etiam latrones porcos monasterii furtum abstulerunt ; quos 
occidentes decoquere ' proposuerunt. Set cum die integro ignem 
incessanter cacabo subponerent, carnes ad uesperum adeo crude 
fuerant, ut in principio apparebant. Quo uiso miraculo, corde 
compuncti ad uirum Dei confestim accurrunt, et pro tanto facinore 
sibi satagantes, se suosque posteros eius dominio ac dicioni subdi- 

xiii. Qualiter sanauit lupum vvlneratum. 

Die quadam fratribus ad negocia monasterii exeuntibus, et beato uiro 
solo in claustro residente, ecce lupus adueniens uitulum vnice vacce 
fratrum occidit atque comedit. Fit clamor et uociferationis tumultus 
in loco. Quo audito, sanctus uir exiit ad uidendum quenam sit 

' MS. dequoquere. 


causa clamoris. Interea lupus uallum transiliens sude suflbssus est 
in pede ; et sic miraculose pro forefacto est detentus, quod ncc fugere 
nec mouere se potuit. Accurrit pius pater, opem indigenti lupo coUa- 
turus. Quod lupus percipiens, feritate deposita, aures submittit, ac signa 
mansuetudinis, licet insolite, pretendit. Set pius pater red[d]ens 
bonum pro malo, sudem de pede lupi leniter extraxit, ac crucis 
signum uulneri inprimens, confestim illud sanauit. 


Deinde lupus nemora peciit, et postmodum hynnulum quendam 
adducens, uiro Dei se presentauit. Quem ipse signo crucis signans, 
de fero mitem reddidit'; eumque orbata uitulo vacca ut proprium 
vitulum adamauit. 


Aiiquando accidit quod cum afflictorum patronus Boecius cuiusdam 
femine rogatu ad liberandum eius filium, quem rex terre Bregnen- 
cium, Euchodius" nomine, in uinculis tenuit, perexisset, leproso 
cuidam postulanti alterum equorum, qui currum eius portabant, 
eidem dedit. Cumque currum cum altero equo ascendere attemptas- 
set, ecce admirande pulcritudinis equus colore glaucus adueniens, se 
currui per omnia mansuetus subiugauit. Denique cecus quidam 
claudum portans post ipsum uenit, quorum uterque sollicite postula- 
bat sanitatem. Quibus miserorum pater benigne locutus est dicens : 
' Si,' inquit, ' quicquam aque in currus orbita remanet, membra uestra 
exinde linite.' Quod ipsi conplentes, confestim optatam sanitatem 


Cumque vir Dei ad Boannam flumen peruenisset, marino refluxu illud 
extunc exundabat. Tunc predicta femina sibi occurrens uehementer 
de tardacionfe itineris conqueritur, dicens: 'lam,' inquit, 'modo de 
filii mei uita despero.' At pius pater a pietatis ope retardari moleste 
ferens, et in Patre misericordiarum multum confidens, accepta de 
manu aurige uirga, flumen in nomine Domini percussit, et statim 
iter rectum habuit, sicut Moyses quondam habuit per mare rubrum. 
Cumque quo uolebat ueniret, rex prefatus obuiam ei ueniens ipsum 
honorifice salutauit. Cui interroganti causam ipsius aduentus homo 
Dei exposuit. Et rex ait : ' Domine, si homo ille quem petis uixisset, 
uoluntarie tibi eum concederem. lam enim decollatus est.' Tunc uir 

1 MS. rediit. 2 MS. -dium. 


Dei ad corpus eius accedens, matri iubet caput aptare collo. Quod 
cum fieret, ipse orat, et cum omnium astancium admiracione is, qui 
ante decollatus fuerat ', incolumis et sanus resurrexit. Cunctis igitur 
hoc miraculum cernentibus, laudum [sacrificium] cum preconiis 
ofFerentibus, committante eum resuscitato, ad sua remeauit. Homo 
uero ille reliquo uite sue tempore ortum monasterii e'x'colebat. 

xvii. De raptu eius ad celum per scalam auream. 

Talibus ac tantis beatissimus pontifex Boecius, sicut sol meridianus 
eftulgens, licet corpore habitabat in terris, animo tamen et deuocione 
conuersabatur in celis. Cumque aliquando die Kalendarum mensis 
Maii cimitherium monasterii sui perlustraret, celestium desiderio 
[injeffabiliter exarsit. Et ecce subito, tanquam alter He[I]yas, ab 
angelis in quadam scala aurea in celum assumptus, secreta que non 
f. '55 nouerat | audiuit atque vidit. Quod cum fratribus innotesceret, ad 
locum, quo ille eleuatus est, concurrunt ; et, multiplicatis gemitibus 
flentes, conqueruntur se inopinate a patre suo deseri, antequam eos 
confortaret ac benediceret. Taliter igitur in'ter' se conquerentibus. 
atque miserabiliter plangentibus, sanctus pater ab angelis reductus 
ad eos descendit, uitrea rota uultui suo apposita, per quam deinceps 
uidens non uidebatur. 

xviii. Qualiter prophetauit de sanxto Columba, et de eius 
transitu de hoc mundo. 

Extunc usque ad vii. idus Decembris cum discipulis suis deguit, 
eos instanter admonens, et secretorum celestiu[m] que uiderat 
relacione recreans, et de futuris temporibus multa prophetans. 
et ipso sanctissimo die obitus sui de sancto Columba spiritualiter 
uaticinans ait: ' Hodie,' inquit, ' natus est infans, cui nomen Columba, 
qui coram Deo et hominibus gloriosus existet ; quique post triginta 
annos abhinc huc ueniet, et meum sepulcrum reuelabit, ac cimi- 
therium designabit ; et super hunc locum [et] eius habitatores bene- 
dictionem suam infundet. Post hec, fratribus cum benedictione 
paterna confortatis et Deo recommendatis, dominici- corporis et 
sanguinis communione percepta exitum suum feliciter muniuit ; 
et sic ab angelis assumptus, spiritum rcddidit Deo, qui viuit et regnat 
per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 

xix. De miraculis beati uiri Boecii in pueritia; et primo qualiter, 

adueniente inundacione, et igne extincto, accendit quinque 
digitos suos, ex quibus fuit reaccensus ignis. 

Quadam autem uice, cum inundacio fiuminis et marinus refluxus 
' MS. inserts et. 

= c<' 


concurrerent, ct cioniuin in qua puer erat cum eius utcnsilibus 
inuadcrent, totus* ignis in eadein domo fuit cxtinctus, adeo ut nec 
scintilla eius uiua rcmanerct. Puer uero puerili more esuriens, 
a matre peciit aliquid ad comedendum. Cui mater respondit : 
' Quare,' inquit, 'tu non preparas ignem, et nos tibi parabimus refe- 
ctionem.' Qui mox ad ucrbum matris surgens, insufflauit in dexteram 
manum suam, et ecce quinque digiti manus eius ut quinque cerei 
continuo succensi sunt. Quibus accensis, ignis subito accenditur, ex 
quo sibi refectio preparata est. 


Quodam tempore cum mater eius ad mulgendas uaccas properaret, 
et ipse eam more pucrili [al]loqueretur, ecce vna uaccarum, quasi 
ceteris elegancior, subitanea percussa [plaga'], decidit mortua. Tunc, 
cum puer a matre lac ad bibendum | quereret, ipsa in eo diuinam f. 155 
habitasse uirtutem intelligens, respondit : ' Illam,' inquit, ' uaccam 
mortuam resuscita, ut de lacte eius ualeas recreari.' Puer uero 
materne iussioni obtemperans, manum suam super mortuam mittens, 
a morte eam statim resuscitauit. Quod cum fieret, de resuscitata lac 
concupitum ipse inuenit -. 

xxi. De uacc^ alia, que fuit absort.\ a terra propter 


Quadam autem die mater pueri benedicti misit eum pro uaccis, ne 
accessum haberent ad uitulos. Cumque puer matri obediret, ecce 
vna uaccarum, que arctius uitulum suum diligebat, contra voluntatem 
ipsius ad uitulum conabatur accedere. Tunc puer, humanum senciens 
aliquid^, ad uaccam ait : 'Possibilius,' inquit, 'tibi sit a terra deglutiri, 
quam ad uitulum attingere.' Et statim terra aperiens os suum 
uaccam illam inobedientem transglutiuit. Et huius miraculi signum 
usque hodie in eodem loco manet. 

Xxii. QUALITER aceruum bladi per vaccas perditum conmutauit 
IN aceruum puri grani. 

Cuin quadam uice uacce patris eius segites cuiusdam conuicini, 
qui uocabatur Conallus filius Euchodii,. intrarent, et frumenta eius 
uiolarent, uillicus eiusdem Conalli secum detulit, et in custodia 
detenuit. Quod audiens pater pueri Boecii, Bronachus nomine, 
filium pro uaccis requirendis destinauit. Qui cum se predicto Conallo 
presentaret, ait ad eum : ' Pro uaccis,' inquit, ' deliberandis missus 
sum ad uos.' Cui ille : ' Si,' inquit, ' poteris, ut aceruus farris perditi 
fiat granum purum, uaccas poteris reducere, et non aliter.' Cui puer 

• F marks that a word is wanting ; but does not suggest anything. ^ MS. 

aduenit. ^ MS. a''. 


ait : ' Numquid habeo eas pro Deo ?' At ille : ' Non.' Ad quem puer : 
' Non est lioc quod petis impossibile Deo.' Quo dicto, domum rediit. 
Uillicus uero Conalli mane sequentis diei surgens, uidit blada perdita 
in granum purum redacta. Quo stupefactus miraculo, rediens ad 
dominum suum, narrat que uidit, dicens : 'Non est,' inquit, 
' impotens puer, cui lieri dedisti repulsam. Aceruus enim bladi, 
sicut petisti ab eo, conuersus est in aceruum grani puri.' Cui Co- 
nallus : ' Male,' inquit, ' erit nobis, si non satisfiat ei.' Et tunc Conallus 
cum suo uillico ad ptlerum properant, et humiliafites se, uaccas sibi 
deliberant. Post hec Conallus sepedictus donauit sibi duos campos 
ibidem, et opidum suum nomine Raith Conaill. 

f. 156" xxiii. De vasse fracto et lacte rema|nente in vasse. 

Accidit vero uno dierum, cum quidam portaret uas lacte plenum 
ad monasterium uiri Dei, et portitor onere pregrauatus hinc inde se 
moueret, uas amisit suum fundum ^. Quod senciens homo ait : 
' Beatus,' inquit, ' Boecius adiutor assit.' Quo dicto, cepit fundum 
uassis in manu tenere, et ipsum uas in dorso portare. Res mira 
accidit et insolita. De lacte enim illo nec gutta aliqua ex uasse 
cecidit, donec hoc ad monasterium uenit. In huius enim miraculi 
memoriam nomen loci illius uocatur in Hibernico Achad na Derba, 
id est, colhs muTc^tJri. 

xxiv. De uitulo ab eo resuscitato. 

Quadam alia uice accidit quod quidam latro uitulum monachorum 
secum tulit. Cumque pius pater pro restituendo uitulo ad domum 
latronis accederet, et tunc maliuolus ille carnes uituli decoqueret ; 
timens argui super furto quod coinmiserat, assumens arma contra 
uirum Dei, conabatur seuire, et ait : ' Quare,' inquit, ' huc uenisti ? ' 
Ad quem uir Dei ait: ' Ad querendum,' inquit, 'uitulum quem 
abstulisti, ueni.' Et ait latro : ' Non est uerum,' inquit, ' quod 
asseris.' Quo dicto, uitulus coctus in caldario dedit mugitum, quasi 
furti et mendacii proditor. Quod cum latro audiret, feritate deposita, 
et armis abiectis, prostrauit se in terram, et ueniam petens, se et suos 
in seruicium sancti Boecii in sempiternum concessit. Ad quem uir 
sanctus ait : ' Hoc admitto, salua uituli restitucione.' Quo dicto, tunc 
precepit uitulo in nomine [Dei] ut resurgeret ; et statim surrexit 
viuus de caldario ; quem uir sanctus adduxit secum ad monasterium. 

XXV. De cipho celitus sibi misso. 

Cum quadam uice uisitaret suos monachos, in loco cui nomen Luin- 
nach, in aduentu eius multi fratres exhilarati, caritatiue ipsum 
1 MS. infundens. 



hospicio susceperunt. Tempore uero refeccionis, cuni iam potus 
portaretur, et nec ciphus, nec aliquod uas, de quo potus posset pro- 
pinari, haberctur, confestim homo Dei suspiciens, et in Dcum omnium 
bonorum largitorcm confidens, hunc ciphi defectum ei supplendum 
commentauit ; et ecce exaudiuit Dominus seruum suum. Nam 
uasculum quoddam de electro optimo, non tam in eorum penuriam 
supplendam quam in consolatoriam utilitatem, in sinum sancti patris 
dilapsum est. 


Quodam alio tempore cum rediret uersus suum monasterium de 
loco fratrum qui erant apud Mellifontem, sic enim locus uocabatur, 
occurrit ] ei puer quidam, qui boues cum curru regebat. Cumque in f. 156'' 
itinere simul transirent, uenerunt ad quendam laticem in cuius pro- 
fundum boues usque ad colla deciderunt ; ex quo ipsi propria uirtute 
eos extrahere nuUatenus potuerunt Tunc uir Dei ad solita oracionis 
suflragia se conuertens, et illi qui se tanquam bouem in ara crucis pro 
genere humano imniolauit, exorauit ut in tanta necessitate sibi sub- 
ueniret. Et ecce subito angelicum affuit presidium, cum quo facillime 
de profundo latice traxerunt currum et boues. 

xxvii. QuALiTER BoEcius uiR Dei adiuuit' mulierem, que defecit 


Cumque ad castrum Euchodii, regis uirorum Bregnensium, pro 
liberatione cuiusdam captiui uenisset, ecce occurrit ei uxor cuiusdam 
uiri, Mend nomine, que conquesta [est], quod color, quo clamidem 
regis consuerat intingere, illo anno deficeret. Quandam enim herbam 
ortensem antiqui habebant, nomine glassen, ex cuius succo tincturam 
pannorum suorum faciebant. Anxia igitur mulier ob defectum illius 
herbe, sanctum uirum obnixe rogauit ut eius necessitatibus sub- 
ueniret. Qui dixit ad eam : 'Omnes,' inquit, 'herbas, qui sub isto 
curru sunt, euelle ; insuper et uiride gramen ^ adde, et in nomine 
Domini commisce, et nihil sordidum inmittas.' Quo facto, mulier 
tantam tincture copiam habuit, ut omnibus pannis tocius patrie 
colorandis sufficienter haberet. 

xxviii. Qualiter ortolanus* ITERUM recidiuauit, et caput 
EIUS decidit de collo. 

Cum ortolanus monasterii, quem ipse mirifice resuscitauit ', se 
nullum dampnum monachis in suo seruicio facturum obligaret, quadam 

' MS. inuenerunt eum. " MS. adiuit. ' MS. grai/amen. * For 

' ortolanus ' the MS. reads ' per eum '. F is correct. ^ See § xvi. 


uice, cum in orto persisteret, vxor eius cum filio extra atrium stantes, 
aliquid de orto exposcunt. Quibus ortolanus respondit: 'Non audeo,' 
inquit, ' sine licentia aliquid uobis dare.' Et addit mulier: 'Non 
oportet,' inquit, 'timere, set da saltem de porris filio tuo.' Deuictus 
ergo homo precibus supplicantis, proiecit eis de porris extra ortum. 
Et tunc cum uir sanctus sacrificium salutis in oratorio suo immolaret, 
Spiritu Sancto reuelante didiscit, qualiter ortolanus transgressor uoti 
fuit, et dixit : ' Decidat,' inquit, ' caput quod est super collum tuum 
in hac hora super terram.' Missa uero celebrata, sanctus uir pulsauit 
ad ostium signum, et, conuocatis fratribus, ait: ' Ite,' inquit, 'post 
ortolanum, cui nomen est Moelcaych, quia in hac hora decidit caput 
' eius de collo propter dampnum | quod fecerat fratribus, eo quod 
dederat porrum eorum uxori et filio sine licentia. Ite igitur, et 
adducite eum, et sepelite, et orate pro anima eius.' Quod et factum 

xxix. De federe miro inter sanctum Boecium et 


Fuit autem fedus quoddam spirituale in'ter' sanctum Boecium et 
sanctum Moduca, ut quicumque monachus indueretur cum sancto 
Moduca, apud sanctum Boecium gratiam consequeretur remissionis 
peccatorum ; moniales cum sancto Boecio uelande apud sanctum 
Moduca consimilem consequerentur gratiam. Quadam autem die 
accidit quod quedam monialis quendam de monachis pro uestimentis 
suis lauandis adueniens, illa nocte propter intemperiem aeris ex- 
pectauit ibidem cum eo ; [et] quia impossibile est, quin palea igni 
approximata ardeat, hinc temptatio monacho sugessit, ut monialcm 
prope se iacentem cognosceret. Cumque eam carnaliter cognosceret, 
et mulier conciperet, mox horrore facinoris contriti, ad medicum 
animarum, Boecium, properantes, peccatum pure confitentur, et ab 
eo cum penitentia condigna absolutionem merentur. Quibus uere 
contritis, consolando eos ait : ' Ex hoc,' inquit, ' bonum eueniet. Nam 
uir ille qui de immundis mundos facit et iustos, de conceptu tuo, 
O mulier, faciet futurum abbatem ac successorem mihi in monasterio 
meo.' Nato ergo puero tempore debito, ac batizato, Nemanus uocatus 
est ; qui secundus ' sancti Boecii abbas ei successit ibi. 


Post hec transtulit se uir sanctus ad Gallias et postmodum ad 
Ytaliam, et deinde ad famosum ac religiosum abbatem Tilianum 

' MS. s. (which elsewhere is the abbreviation for ' secundum '). F, not 
understanding this, reads : ' qui puer S. Boecio Abbas successit ; " thus oblitera- 
ting an interesting fact. For ' secundus abbas ' see Glossary. 


noniine ut ab eo* disceret sapientiam et moruni disciplinam. Cumque 
ad ipsum sanctus Boecius perueniret, Tilianus abbas cum gaudio 
eum suscepit, et in uisceribus caritatis nutriuit. Et quia obedientia 
cum ucra humilitate est fundamentum omnis operis uirtuosi, pater 
abbas dedit ei custodiam apum monasterii, ut eas diligenter custodiret 
atque nutriret. Quam obcdientiam uoluntarie ipse admisit, et illibatas 
eas custodiuit^ Uixit quoque filius uere obedientie sub disciplina 
tanti patris cum magna morum [integritate] et honestate. 


Quadam | uero die cum ad uisitandas apes more solito aduenisset, f. 156'' 
audiuit magnum tumultum in aluearibus cum eis. Cum propius ad 
explorandum, si quid aduersi eis accideret, accederet, causam mur- 
muris sine enigmate intellexit. Quod cum magistro suo intimaret, 
et ille fratribus exponeret, quidam ex eis uolens experiri si ex sonitu 
apum posset homo experimentalem habere scientiam, panem latum 
preparauit, et butiro superficiem eius^ . . . 

' ad m. pr. - MS. -dlsset. ' Here in the middle of a sentence the 

Life ends ; though there is no mutilation in the MS. For the explanation see 
Introduction. F notes : ■ aliqua desiderantur.' 

Vita prima sancti 13rcntiaiu abiatis tre 
(Eluain jFerta 


i. Fuit ^ uir uite uenerabilis, Brandanus nomine, qui tanquam aurora 
rutilans peccatorum tenebras' a multorum cordibus fugauit; et in 
mari uiciorum errantibus ducatuni infallibilem ad portum salutis 
prebuit. Hic de Kerraigensium genere ortum duxit. Pater eius 
uir erat fidelis et prudens, Fynlogus nomine ; mater uero dicta est 
Cara ; ambo secundum precepta a sancto Erco episcopo eis tradita 
caste uiuebant. Cara uero mater eius, antequam filium benedictionis* 
pareret, sompnium uidit ; scilicet sinum suum plenum esse auro 
obrizo, et mamillas suas ingenti luce splendere. Cum'' sompnium 
mirificum sancto episcopo Erco intimaretur, spiritu reuelante ait 
marito eius : ' Vxor tua pariet tibi filium, potencia quidem magnum, 
f. ■j^" sancti|tatis splendore mundum irradiantem.' Concepit mulier, et 
demum peperit promissionis filium. 

ii. Eo^tempore contigit quendamproplietam, Beccmac Denomine', 
in uicina cuiusdam potentis' domo hospitari. Cumque propheta de 
futuris ab hospite interrogaretur, securus respondit : ' Hac in ' nocte 
nascetur versus mare infans quidam, qui dominus tuus futurus erit ; 
et non solum tibi dominabitur, uerum etiam multis aliis.' Audiens 
ille diues futurum dominum, crastina die illu[ce]scente aurora, dili- 
genter quesiuit, ubi^" puer sit natus. Inueniens uero preciosam 
margaritam, in ulnas, tanquam alter Simeon iustus, humiliter sus- 
cepit ; et sacrificium tanto domino ofterens, triginta uaccas, que eadem 
nocte tot uitulos pepererunt, donauit, ac dixit: 'Confiteor,' inquit, 
' te alumpnum meum ac futurum dominum ".' 

iii. Ad " sanctitatis huius infantis mox editi [iVidicium] accessit uisio 
mirabilis quam sanctus episcopus Ercus nocte natiuitatis eius uidit. 

> R2 f. ioi"=. The incipit is not in Ri. = = M c. i ; S^ § i ; S^ § i ; 

L. 3305 ff. ; Capg. i. 136. ^ R* f. loi''. < MSS. -dictionem, altered to 

-dictum. ^' MSS. cui. ^ = M c. 2 ; S^ § 2 ; L. 3341 ff. ; Capg. u. s. 

' est adii. R'. ' maic Arddoe maic Fidaig, LL. 27 1": filius Airde M ; 

LL. calls him King of Ciarraige Luachra. " erased in R^. '" ut R^ 

'^ et gaudens reuersus est. Cuius regio et genus est hodie in parrochia sancti 
Brendani adJ. M. '^ = M c. 3 ; S^ 3 ; L. 3354 ff. ; Capg. i. 137. 


Intuebatur enim totam illam rcgionem, in qua natus est puer, luce 
immensa splendcre', et angelos in uestibus albis pcr aera circum- 
uolare. Illc uero mane exurgens, uenit ad locuni ubi puer erat natus ; 
eum in manibus accipicns, leuauit, et dixit : ' Homo Dei, suscipe 
me monachum tibi parentem. Homo Dei, letentur et exultent in tuo 
aduentu corda hominum, et maxime meum.' Et genu flexo, fundens 
lacrimas ad Deum orauit. Exurgens * quoque uir Dei ab oracione 
infantem ' baptizauit, Brandanum eum uocans, eo quod multus in die 
baptismi eius ros esset*. Set et ros ille temporalis designabat rorem 
illuni spiritualem quo anima pueri sancti perfundebatur ; et celestium 
donorum dulcedine perfruebatur. 

Postquam uero in domo | parentum compleuit annum sue ablacta- (■ 73' 
tionis infans benedictus, episcopus Ercus eum secum adduxit, ac 
cure sancte uirginis, nomine Ita', commisit. Hec enim uirgo multos 
sanctorum Hibernie ab infantia nutriuit. Vno quoque dierum, cum 
infans ad annos fahdi et sermonem exprimendi peruenisset, nutrix 
sancta intuens uultum pueri letitia perfusum, ait : 'O sancte infans, 
quid sic prouocat te ad ridendum^?' Et respondit: 'Quia uideo 
te semper mihi loqui, et alias tibi similes, que plures sunt numero, et 
me letificant, tenentes in manibus '.' 

iv. Cumque * per quinquennium apud virginem ' nutriretur, ac bonis 
moribus informaretur, ad se eum episcopus adduxit, atque litteras 
edocuit. Puer autem crescebat, et a Domino confortabatur, et bonis 
moribus exenipla ^" sanctitatis ostendebat. Magister " enim supernus, 
qui intus eum docebat, feritatem creaturarum siluestrium ad eius 
nutum domabat. Cum enim puer existeret, et more puerilis etatis 
lac concupisceret, et aliunde liquorem desideratum non haberet, eo 
quod sanctus episcopus Ercus uaccas non possideret, ipse confidens 
in eo, qui pullis coruorum eum inuocantibus dat pastum '-, Deum 
orauit, ut ei in necessitate posito subueniret. Et quia oratio uiri 
iusti penetrat celos^", ecce una cerua cum suo hj'nnulo de monte pro- 
pinquo " cotidie ueniens, tanquam ouis mansueta effecta, copiam lactis 
necessitatibus eius prebebat. 

Habebat'^ quoque germanam uirginem, nomine Brigam, quam 

' MSS. -dore, correcled in R'. - R" f. 102". ' octauo . . . die, 

add. S- ; L. says that his original name was Mobhi. * This is the reading 

of R- : in R' it has been altered to ' eius vuUus in die baptismi eius ut ros esset.' 
The meaning of the text is that the writer deri%'es the name of from 
the Irish word ' broen ', a drop. ^ in suo . . . monasterio quondam dicto 

Cluain Credal, modo uero Ceall Yte, id est Cella Yte, iuxta radices raontis 
Luaciira in regione Hua Conayll Gabra M ezdd. ^ uidendum R^ m. pr. R'. 

' Postquam . . . manibus oiii. Capg. ; ' Vno quoque . . . manibus' om. S-. 
' = M c. 4 ; S* § 3 ; L. 3393 ff. ; Capg. u.s. ' sic K' ; oiii. R' m. pr. ; eam 

R^ m. sec. '" extra R' m. pr. " S- omits the rest of the section. 

" Ps. cxlvi. 9. " cf. Ecclus. XXXV. 21. " monte Luachra M. ^^ Capgrave 
omits the rest of the section. 


intime diligebat; quia, etsi natura sanguinis reddebat eam caram, 
gratie tum iDustracio faciebat cariorem^ Hac enim gratia interiores 
pueri occulos illuminante, faciem sororis aliquando uidebat similem 
aspectui lune splendentis, et faciem magistri sui, sancti silicet Erci 
f. 73 " episcopi, quasi globum | solis aspiciebat. 

V. Cum- uero puer esset decim annorum, die quadam sanctum 
episcopum ad docendum plebem sibi commissam iterum comitatus, 
ad locum predicationis peruenerunt. Descendente vero uiro Dei de 
curru, ut uerbum uite in cordibus audientium seminaret, currum cum 
ceteris utensilibus cure discipuli commisit. Cumque psalmos Deo 
suo deuote caneret, inuidens inimicus bonis eius operibus, puellam 
quondam nobilem incantauit', atque ad ludendum cum eo concitauit. 
Ad currum quoque puella regia accedens, puerum Brandanum sup- 
pliciter rogauit, ut eam currum ascendere, atque cum eo ludere 
concederet. Quod uerus castitatis amator abhorrens, ne silicet 
colloquia praua mulieris animam eius corrumperent, mox ut disce- 
deret imperauit. Que cum monitis eius non acquiesceret, uerbis 
increpatoriis corripiens ait : ' Quare huc uenisti, maledicta inter mu- 
lieres? Ad propinquos tuos reuertere, et cum coetaneis tuis digneris 
ludere.' Et cum redire non acquiesceret, accipiens flagellum eam 
uerberauit. Et quia uexacio dat intellectum^, licet tristis, reuersa est 
sic confussa ad suos. Finito uero sermone, reddiens episcopus ad 
currum, increpauit puerum dicens : 'Quare,' inquit, 'percussisti uir- 
ginem non cognoscentem malum ? Penitentiam igitur age de tanta 
temeritate et culpa.' Et respondit uerus humilitatis professor, di- 
cens : ' Paratus sum, pater, quodcumque dixeris implere. Dic ergo 
quod uis ; et ego complebo illud.' Audiens autem pius pater filii 
ad obedientiam pronitatem, ad tempus distulit de penitentia in- 
iu[n]genda mandatum. Cumque ad propria redirent, et cuidam 
spelunce in itinere appropinquarent, senior ait discipulo : ' Mane,' 
inquit, ' in hac spelunca usque ad sequentis diei mane.' Specum" 
f. 73'' igitur protinus | Brandanus intrauit, et usque ad tempus a patre sibi 
diffinitum celestium speculator eifectus, orando atque psallendo per- 
mansit". Magister uero, discipulo nesciente, prope locum contem- 
plando sedit ; atque angelos inter specum et celum per totam noctem 
descendentes et ascendentes, ut alter lacob factus, uidit. Tanta 
deinceps vvltum sancti Brandani Deus claritate illustrauerat, ut in 
faciem eius, tanquam esset alter Moyses, preter sanctum Fynanum 

^ et post tempus ipsa sub cura sancti Brandani Christi ancillas nutriuit add. M . 
2 =M c. 5 : S'' § 4 ; L. 3403 S. ; Capg. i. 137. 'i R- f. 102''. * Is. xxviii. 19. 
^ speluncam Ri m. sec. R^ " atclos tra foghur gotha Brcnainn . . . mile 

ceimeann for cech leth L. add., i. e. and the sound of Brendan's voice was 
heard for a mile in every direction. 



cognomcnto Cham, qui similem sortitus est gratiam, homincs intendcrc 
non ual[er]cnt. 

vi. Non ' est hoc pretereundum qualiter, quodam alio tempore 
sui conies niagistri in itinere eflectus, laycum quendam conuiatorem 
ab irruentibus ininiicis orando liberauit. Ambulantibus autem simul ^ 
in itinere, ecce inimici illius hominis ex improuiso occurrunt eis. 
Quos cum ille uidisset, ad patrocinium sanctorum confugiens, ait : 
' Sub umbra alarum uestrarum me protegite ". Ecce enim hostes 
mei* appropinquant, qui me occidere cupiunt.' Cui puer Brandanus, 
tanquam mons Syon in fide stabilis, ait : ' Vade,' inquit, 'homo, 
ad lapidem istum stantem prope uiam, et non timeas' a facie inimi- 
corum ; quia potens est Deus de lapidibus filios hominum facere si 
uoluerit.' Ad lapidem uir " ille deueniens, et lapidi uiuo Christo 
tanquam scuto inexpugnabili se committens, ac de orationibus san- 
ctoriuTi confidens', euentum fortune expectabat. Ouid plura? Sanctus 
puer Brendanus, uelut alter Moyses in monte contemp[Iationis] * 
positus, manus puras in oratione contra Amalechitas illos eleuauit, 
atque uirtutem eorum ene[r]uauit. Dans enim uir benedictionem 
suam super hominem simul et | lapidem, apparuit persequentibus f. 74" 
lapis ut homo, et homo ut lapis. Delusis ergo oculis persequentium, 
inimicum suum capitalem occidere putabant ; set in ueritate lapidem 
prope eum percutiebant. Sed hoc uir Dei in uirtute illius fecit, qui 
uxorem Loth in statuam lapideam conuertit, apud Luacayr. Lapis 
uero, ab inimicis illius hominis sic percussus, usque in hodiernum 
diem ibidem, quasi corpus sine capite, in prodigium multis patet. 
Videns uero pius pastor Ercus cecitatem cordis et oculorum illorum, 
motus pietate, duritiam cordis eorum increpans, ait : ' O homines, 
penitentiam agite, et uidete quia lapidem percus[s]istis et partem 
eius pro capite inimici uestri portatis. Ipse uero abscessit.' Tunc 
uiri illi, numero septem, penitentiam egerunt, et usque ad diem 
mortis sub regula sancti episcopi Erci in seruicio Dei perman- 

vii. Alio " tempore cum sancti uiri in monte quodam, silicet Luacra 
nomine, simul sederent, et senior siti in calore estiuo pene deficeret, 
discipulus defectum magistri moleste ferens, terre licet pre nimio 
estu aridissime in uirtute illius, qui aquam de petra durissima 
affiuenter produxerat '", imperauit, ut aquam dulcem produceret. Et 
'-tatim ad verbum eius terra fonte[m] edu.xit, et usque hodie in testi- 
inonium sanctitatis Brandani aquas uiuas transtillat". 

> = M c. 6 ; S- § 5 ; L. 3435 fi". ; Cipg. u. s. 2 £;„,„] autera R-. ^ pg xvi. 8. 

I * R2 f. 102'". 5 o«(. R=. 6 ubi R2_ 7 o,„ R2 8 erasure in 

I R' ; R- Iias only ' contemp'. ' = M c. 7 ; S- § 5 ; Capg. u. s. '" produxit 
ac R-. " et dicitur fons Erendani M add. 


viii. Post' hec puer bone indolis Brandanus, flagrans amore 
sacrarum scripturarum, ac diuersorum gliscens uidere exempla- 
sanctorum, optenta magistri sui licentia, cogitauit primo ut sanctum 
episcopum Erlatheum uisitaret'; ac postea alios sanctos terre. 
Set' antequam ad sanctum lerlatheum peruenisset, ad sanctam suam 
nutricem nomine Itam perrexit, ut benedictionem eius hereditate 
possideret. Que ait ei : 'Vade,' inquit, 'et sanctorum regulas, qui 
f. 74 f" eas opere compleuerunt, addisce. | Noli enim discere a uirginibus, ne 
scandalum incurras ab hominibus.' Sancta igitur Ita, Spiritu Sancto 
reuelante, alumpnum premuniuit, quod laycus quidam occurreret, qui 
inter sanctos Dei computandus foret. Cumque Brandanus in uiam 
suam pergeret, ecce, ut predixit sancta sua nutrix, obuiam habuit 
quendam uirum in itinere, qui Colmanus filius Lenini uocabatur. 
Cui sanctus Brandanus ait : ' Age, homo, penitentiam, quia Deus 
uocat te ad salutem, et eris ut columba innocens in conspectu Dei ^ ; ' 
et ideo uocauit eum Colmanum, quasi columbe manum, propter 
operis innocentiam. Erat enim hic Colmanus filius Lenini uita 
atque doctrina inter sanctos precipuus. Ipse enim fijndauit eccle- 
siam Clonensem, que ^ cst hodie cathedralis ecclesia, et famosa in 
partibus Momonie. 

ix. Post' hec Sauctus Brandanus peruenit ad Sanctum larlatheum 
in Connacia tunc commorantem. Cum hoc sancto uiro ad tempus 
commorans, doctrine salutaris pocula sitibunde hauriens, permansit*. 
Cepit autem et ipse inter cetera dona Dei prophetie spiritu pollere. 
Aliquando namque, Spiritu reuelante, sancto pontifici lerlatheo locum 
sue sepulture predixit sic : ' Non hic,' inquit, 'resurges pater; set 
alibi " erit resurrectio tua.' Cui senior ait : ' O sancte puer, quare 
multa archana Dei in te abscondis ? Scio enim quod Spiritum Sanctum 
habes, et multa potentia in te latet. Tu ad me uenisti ut addisceres; 
et ex hoc nunc meus magister eris. Accipe ergo me monachum et 
discipulum tibi de cetero. Dic ergo locum resurrectionis mee.' Cui 
Brandanus ait : ' Versus orientem proficiscere, et ubi rote currus tui 
rupte fuerint, ibi oratorium construe et mane. Illic quoque una 
tecum multi resurgent in gloriam '".' Ascendit pontifex sanctus 
currum ; et iter aggrcdiens non longe a cella sua fracte sunt due rote 
f. 74 " currus ; et ibi constructum est monasterium, cui nomen | Tuaym da 

1 = M c. 8 ; .S2 § 5 ; L. 3449 ff. ; Capg. i. 138. ■ ext« R» ; ex' R^. 3 R2 f. 
102'*. "* S- and Capg. omit the rest of the section. ^ et clara columna in 

templo eius M nM. « MSS. qui. ' = M c. 9 ; S^ § 6 ; L. 3484 ft'. ; Capg. u. s. 
** 7 rosfoglaiinsium na huili riagla Eirennclia aicisium L. a{{{/., i. e. and learnt 
under him all the Irish (monasticj rules. ' aliter R". '" gloriosam R^. 


X. Post' hec sanctus Brandanus', uelut apis argumentosa, ex 
diuersis sanctorum exemplis uirtutum colligens flores, in corde suo, 
tanquam in alucari quodam mellifluo, mel caritatis et ceram humili- 
tatis recondebat^ Recedens ^ quoque a sancto pontifice larlatheo, 
peruenit ad campum Ae, vbi angelus Domini ei apparens dixit : 
"Sume* cartam, et scribe tibi vivendi secundum uoluntatem Dei 
normam.' Scripsit ibi Brandanus, angelo dictante, regulam ecclesia- 
sticam ad custodiam uite religiose necessariam, que usque hodie in 
nonnullis locis manet. 

xi. Eodem ^ tempore uolens Dominus uirtutem sancti Brandani 
coram multis ostendere, ecce defunctus eflferebatur iuuenis ad 
sepulcrum, parentibus et cognatis miserabihter eum plangentibus. 
Quorum lamentis compaciens, uir pietate plenus ait : 'Nolite flere, 
set pocius in Christum confidite, ut, sicut prius dedit spiritum 
uitalem, ita et modo dignetur resuscitare mortuum.' Et accedens ad 
locum, orauit; et statim qui mortuus fuerat, resurrexit. Mirantur 
omnes qui aderant, et conuerso in gaudium luctu, uniuersi qui 
aderant, et maxime parentes iuuenis, exultant. 

P^st hec homo Dei ad regem terre * peruenit, atque honorifice ab 
eo susceptus, optulit ei locum quemcunque in terra sua ad inhabitan- 
dum preeligeret. Set uerus mundi contemptor, huius uite fauoribus 
e.xtolli non appetens, hoc renuit ; set et benedictionem pro oblato 
dono refundens, occidentalium Conacteorum regionem', tanquam 
fame nirtutum suarum occultator, perrexit. Decurso autem illic 
aliquarto tempore, plurimos ad Christum uerbo et exemplo conuertit, 
multisqae cum discipulis ad sanctum episcopum Ercum est reuersus. 
Exultat nutritor in aduentu alumpni ; set et cognati omnes et noti 
ineftabil) repleti * sunt gaudio. Denique a sancto pontifice | discipu- f. 74 •* 
lus, donis uirtutum ante a Christo pontifice promotus, ad sacerdotii ' 
gradum est sublimatus '". 

xii. Illias" uero precepti quod dictum est Abrahe : ' Exi de terra 
tua et ccgnatione tua'^' non immemor effectus, peregre proficisci 

1 = M c. 10 ; S"- 5§ 6, 7 ; L. 3542 ff. ; Capg. u. s. 2 R"- f. 103^ ' =Si § i- 

* summe Ri. ^* = M c. 11 ; S' § i ; S= § 7 ; L. 3546 ff. ; Capg. u. s. 

* in loco nonine Cruachu habitantem S- add. ' sic S* ; regiorum R^ R-. 
' om. R-. » prebiterii S-. " Here M adds : 'accepitque sanctus 
Brendanus, cum esset sacerdos, habitum monasticum sanctum. Et multi relin- 
quentes seculum hinc inde venerunt ad eum, et fecit eos sanctus Brendanus 
monachos. Deinde cellas et monasteria fundauit in sua propria regione, sed 
tunc adhuc non plurima; quod cum ueniret de nauigio suo querendo terram 
repromissionis sanctorum, tunc parrochia eius per diuersas regiones Hybernie 
dilatata est.' Then comes a new rubric : 'Hic incipit de nauigio sanctissimi 
patris Brendani.' After which the ordinary te.vt of the Navigatio Brendani is 
inserted. " =S' § 4 ; S^ § 8 ; L. 3556 ff. ; Capg. u. s. ■= Gen. xii. i. 


ardenti uolebat desiderio '. Cuius humilitatem ex alto respiciens 
Dominus, tale ei in sompniis dedit responsum : ' Brandane, exaudita 
cst postulatio tua ; fiat tibi secundum desiderium cordis '^ tui.' Quo 
letatus oraculo suos seorsum relinquens ascendit in montem longe 
a mari positum ' ; directoque in equora prospectu, insulam uidit 
amenissimam, Christi seruis peraptam, sibique multum placentem. 
Ibi quoque triduo ad certificandum quod uiderat ieiunauit. Iterumque 
illi dormienti uox de celo insonuit dicens : ' Sicut iBraelitico populo 
terram pollicitus sum, et adiutor affui, ut ad eam pertingeret ; ita tibi 
insolam, quam uidisti, promitto, et opere complebo.' 

xiii. ' De ^ promissione tanti doni gratias Deo egit ; ac fusis diutis- 
sime lacrimis, ad suos, Spiritu Sancto consolante, reuersus est. 
dicens : ' Fratres mei amatissimi, et comilitones mei, consilium auobis 
quero ; quia cor meum in hoc est fixum, ut terram promissionis 
mihi celitus ostensam cum sollicitudine queram. Ipsa est enin * 
terra sanctorum de qua sanctus Barrinthus ' locutus est nobis.' Vt 
autem fidem de historia dictorum a sancto Barintho de eadem terra 
faciam certiorem, aduertendum est hic, quod idem Barrinthus ', in- 
stigante eum Spiritu Sancto, cum ad uisitandum sanctum Brandarum 
ad locum, qui Saltus uirtutum Brandani dicitur, quadam uice adueniens 
dixerit. Cum enim. in colloquiis mutuis delectarentur, sanctus Bar- 
rinthus in terram se prostrauit, ac lacrimis ubertim faciem irrigauit, 
atque diu orauit. Sanctus uero Brandanus eum de terra eleuans ait : 
' Pater sancte, cur tristiciam habes in presentia tuorum fratrum ' .' 
Nonne ad consolationem nostram uenisti ? Debes ergo in conspectu 
f- 75" tuorum I letari pocius quam tristari. Refice ergo animas nostras, et 
de diuersis Dei miraculis, que uidisti et audisti, narra nobis.' 
Expletis exhortationibus Brandani, sanctus Barri[n]t[h]us cepit nar- 
rare de quadam occeani "> insula dicens : ' Frater meus Temocus ", 
pauperum fugiens laboris sollicitudinem, perrexit in sollitarium 
locum. Ibi quoque inueniens insulam quandam in mari'- coatempla- 

' postulauit a Domino ut sibi daret terram secretam in mari ab hominibus 
semotam S' ; and practically Capg. ' R^ f. 103''. ^ in montcm Aitche S^ ; 
i sliab n-Aidche L. ' With this section R passes to the text of the Navigatio 
Brendani in a recension of its own, which extends to the end of § Ixvi. infra. 
Capgrave also passes to the N. B. about this point, using a texl somewhat 
diflercnt from, and oilen superior to, the ordinary recension. S' makes the 
transition to the N. B. at a shghtly later point. For the ordinary text of the 
N. B. I refer to the pages of Schrader's Sanct Brandaii, 1871 fSch.), and 
Moran's Acta S. Brendani, 1872 (M). The best printed text of the N. B. is that 
of lubinal, 1836. Unfortunately it is a very scarce book. Where there is no 
difference in the te.\ts of the N. B., it is cited as N. ^ Schr. p. 3 ; M p. 85. 

« enim est R^. ' Barrinchus R'. * locutus est . . . idem Barrinthus 

om. R' (homoiotel). ' cur in presentia tuorum fratrum tristiciara habes ? R". 
>" occenani R' ; occennani R". " Mernoc M ; Mernocatus Sch., Capg. 

'* iuxta montem Lapidis N. 


tioni celestium satis aptam, eam ad inhabitandum preelegit. Post 
multum uero temporis ceperunt multi monachi undequaque ad 
illum confluere. Cunique multos in Christo fratres ibi acquisisset, 
et Deus per illum multa miracula ostendisset, tandem ego illuc 
properaui, ut eosdem uisitarem. Cumque a loco eorum itineie 
trium dierum distassem, in occursum meum, Spiritu reuelante, 
cum suis fratribus ipse properauit, et in osculo sancto salutauit. 
Et cum ad heremitorium eorum uenissemus, ex diuersis cellulis 
occurrentes^ salutauerunt- nos in caritate non ficta. Et licet multe 
essent eorum ibi mansiones, vnanimis ' tamen erat conuersatio in 
fide, spe et caritate ; et vna ecclesia, et vna refectio. Nichil enim 
aliud in cibo uel potu ibi ministrabatur, nisi radices herbarum et 
fructus arborum, et potus aque ad sitis sedationem. Fratres uero post 
recreationem a Deo acceptam, et completorio dicto, secundum eorum 
consuetudinem ad suas cellulas redierunt, expectantes ibi gallorum 
cantum. Et cum ceteri se sic sopori uel contemplationi j dedissent, f. 75* 
ego et frater meus Ternocus perlustrantes insulam, ad litus maris 
versus occidentem peruenimus. Et cum illuc deuenissemus, nauicu- 
lam quandam paratam ibi inuenimus. Et tum dixit Ternocus ad me : 
" Pater, ascendamus nauiculam, et nauigabimus contra occidentem 
plagam ad insulam, que dicitur terra repromissionis sanctorum ; quam 
daturus est Deus successoribus nostris in nouissimo tempore." 
Ascendentibus igitur nobis nauim atque nauigantibus, nebule nos 
cooperuerunt undique, ita vt uix proram aut pu[p]pim nauicule potuis- 
semus uidere. Transacto igitur quasi unius hore spatio, circum- 
fulsit nos lux ingens, et apparuit nobis terra spaciosa, herbis*, floribus, 
et fructibus copiosa. Exeuntibus igitur nobis de naui, cepimus 
perambulare insulam, et vsque ad quindecim "^ dierum spatium sic 
laborantes, non potuimus finem illius inuenire. Nichil ergo her- 
barum ibi uidimus sine floribus et arborum sine fructu. Lapides 
uero insule omnes preciosi sunt. Porro decimo quinto die inuenimus 
fluuium ab oriente versus occidente[m] tendentem. Cumque con- 
sideraremus hec omnia, dubium nobis erat quid agere, uel quotendere 
debeamus. Cum uero ad tempus nobiscum deliberaremus, placuit 
nobis fluuium transire ; set timentes aliquid sine nutu Altissimi 
incipere, expectauimus diuinum responsum. Et quia diuinum con- 
silium expectauimus, | ecce subito apparuit quidam uir magni splen- f. 75 " 
doris coram nobis, qui nos propriis nominibus appellans, salutauit, 
dicens : " Euge boni fratres ! Dominus reuelauit uobis " istam terram, 
quam daturus est suis sanctis in fine temporum, Est enim medietas 
istius insule usque ad istud flumen. Non licet ergo uobis transire 
ulterius. Reuertimini igitur 'ad' locum' vnde existis." Et cum hoc 

' sicut examen apum N. 2 r: f jogc 3 .mus R-. < et adj. K"-. 

' XV R' ; decemquinque R*. « nobis R^. ' R- f. 103''. 


dixisset, ego interrogavi eum vnde esset, aut quo nomine uocaretur 
ipse. Qui ait : " Cur me interrogas vnde sum, aut quo nomine uocor ? 
Quare me non interrogas de ista insula, quam uides ? Sicut enim 
illam modo uides, ita ab initio mundi permanet ^ Vnus annus semper 
est in hac insula, et vnus dies, dies sine obscuritate tenebrarum, quia 
Dominus noster lesus Christus" lux ipsius '." Et postquam hec 
omnia perdixit, confestim reuersi sumus pariter qua* uenimus ; et 
predictus uir nobiscum usque ad litus niaris, vbi erat nostra nauicula. 
Ascendentibus uero nobis in nauiculam, disparuit ille uir ab oculis 
nostris. Post hec nos per predictam caliginem transeuntes, deue- 
nimus ad insulam deliciosam, ubi fratres nos expectabant. At vbi 
fratres nos uiderunt, cum magna letitia exultabant de presentia 
nostra, qui ante plorabant de absentia, dicentes : " Cur, patres, oues 
uestras dimisistis '' sine pastore errantes in hac insula ". Nouimus 
enim abbatem nostrum a nobis frequenter discedere, set nescimus in 

f. 75'' quam partem. Aliquando enim sine nobis | immoratur per unum 
mensem,aIiquando per duas ebdomadas, aliquando per unam." Cum 
hec ego audissem, cepi illos confortare, dicens : " Nolite, fratres, 
putare aliquid in hac mora nisi bonum ; quia reuera ' vestra conuer- 
satio ante portam paradisi est. Huic prope adest insula, que uocatur 
terra repromissionis sanctorum, vbi nec nox imminet, nec dies 
finitur. IIIuc enim aliquando properat abbas uester Ternocus. 
Angeli quoque Domini custodiunt illam terram. Nonne ", inquit, 
" cognoscitis ex odore uestim.entorum nostrorum quod in paradiso Dei 
fuimus?" Tunc fratres respondentes dixerunt : " Abba, nouimus quia 
in paradiso Dei fuistis ; set nos, ubi sit, ignoramus. Nam sepe 
flagrantiam uestimentorum abbatis nostri probauimus ; frequenter 
enim odorem suauissimum usque ad quadraginta dies uestes eius 
retinebant." Tunc ego ad fratres dixi : " Illic ego cum fratre meo 
Ternoco per tot tempora fui sine cibo et potu.'' In tantum autem 
eramus repleti gratia spirituali, ut a fratribus reputaremur musto re- 
fecti uel madefacti. Quadraginta quoque dierum numero commoratus 
[sum] cum fratribus* ibidem. Postea, accepta benedictione abbatis 
et collegi[i], reuersus sum cum sociis meis ' ad cellam, ad quam 
iturus sum cras^", Domino me protegente.' Hiis auditis sermonibus, 
sanctus Brandanus cum omni congregatione fratrum prostrauit se in 
terram, Deum glorificans, ac dicens : ' lustus Dominus in omnibus 

f. 76" uiis suis, I et sanctus in omnibus operibus suis", qui reuelauit tanta 
mirabilia seruis suis. Et benedictus Deus in donis suis, qui nos 
hodie refecit spirituali sic refectione.' Post hec dixit sanctus Bran- 
danus : ' Eamus ad refectionem corporis et ad mandatum nouum, 

1 -nebit R'. » om. Ri. ^ ippius Ri. * qui Ri R^. 5 ^ic N ; 

duxistis Ri R^ ^ silua M. ' recidencia R''. * dierum . . . 

fratribus om. R=. » R^ f. 104''. ^» tuas R». " Ps. cxlv. 8. 


silicct caritatis.' Transacta igitur nocte illa, mane cum bcnedictionc 
fratrum rcuersus est sanctus Barrinthus ad cellam suam '. 

xiv. Tunc'' Brandanus ait ad suos : 'Quid uobis uidetur? aut quod 
consilium uultis dare ? Terram enini promissionis sanctorum, de qua 
locutus cst nobis sanctus Barrintlius, in corde meo proposui querere.' 
Cognita uero patris uoluntate, quasi ex uno ore omnes dixerunt : 
' Abba pater, voluntas tua ipsa est et nostra. Nonne parentes nostros 
propter te et Deum dimisimus, et hereditates despeximus, et uolun- 
tates nostras et corpora tradidimus in manus tuas ? Itaque parati 
sumus, siue ad uitam, siue ad mortem, tecum ire. Vnum tamen est, 
ut queramus Dei uoluntatem.' Vnanimiter igitur consentiunt, ut 
quadraginta dierum numerum in ieiunio et oratione complerent ^, 
et sic spiritualibus armis protecti terram promissionis quererent. 
Transactis igitur quadraginta diebus, salutatis fratribus, atque pre- 
posito monasterii recommendatis, qui postea fuit successor suus in 
eodem loco, profectus est homo Dei ad occidentalem plagam cum 
quattuordecim fratribus ad insulam quandam nomine Aru, vbi tunc 
manebat sanctus Endeus cum suis fratribus, cum quibus moratus est 
uir Dei Brandanus tribus diebus et tribus noctibus. 

XV. Post* hec accepta benedictione sancti Endei et suorum mona- 
chorum' profectus est Brandanus cum suis ad partes Kerrigie, ubi 
parentes eius demorabantur ; non tamen ut ex carnali affectione eos 
salutaret, set ut commodius ibi^ nauem prepararet. Applicuit igitur 
ibi ad pedem montis, I in loco qui modo dicitur sedes Brandani, vbi f. 76 ^" 
figens' tentorium ad tempus inhabitauit. Tunc sanctus Brandanus 
cum suis, preparatis ferramentis, preparauerunt nauiculam leuis- 
simam costatam atque columpnatam' ex pino arbore", sicut mos 
est in illis partibus, et cooperuerunt eam choriis bouinis rubricatis, 
et hnierunt omnes iuncturas pellium exterius, et submiserunt ex- 
pensas quadraginta dierum, et cetera utensilia ad necessitatem nauis 
pertinentia '". Parata ergo sic naui, atque uelo posito, sanctus Bran- 
danus fratribus dixit : ' In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti 
intrate nauim.' Cum fratres confidenter intrarent nauim'', et solus 
Brandanus staret in litore benedicens portum, ecce tres fratres 
supei-uenerunt de monasterio post eos. Qui statim proni ante pedes 
uiri Dei corruerunt, dicentes : ' Pater reuerende, concede nobis tecum 

' i. e. Cell Bairrfinn (KilbarronV ^ Sch. p. 5 ; M p. 89 ; here some MSS. 

of N. interpolate an account of Macutus (S. Malo^ as one of Brendan's com- 
panions. ^ ieiunium xl dierum semper per triduanas agere N. * Sch. 

p. 6 ; M p. 90. 5 et sanctorum suorum R^. « sibi R^. ' fingens R' R^. 
* R- f. 104''. ' ex uimine M ; ex silua Sch. ^" Here S' § 5 begins to 

adopt the text of N. B.. thougii it is a somevvhat different recension from 
the ordinary one. " intrarent nauim confidenter R-. 


ire, alioquin hic moriemur fame et siti.' Cumque uir Dei uidisset 
angustiam cordis illorum, dixit eis, ut nauim intrarent. Et cum esset 
prescius futurorum de hiis que uentura erant, ilHs prophetando 
[ait] : ' Scio, fratres, quomodo huc uenistis. Iste frater bonum opus 
operatus est ueniendo ; quare Deus preparauit sibi altissimum locum. 
Alter uero ueniam, licet Deum grauiter offenderit, consequetur'. 
Set tertius pro sua obstinatione dampnabitur''.' 

xvi. Ascendens' autem Brandanus in nauim, extensis ueHs cepe- 
runt nauigare contra solstitium estiuale ; habebantque prosperum 
uentum, nec fuit eis necesse nisi uela tenere. Post quindecim* uero 
dies cessauit uentus ; et tunc fratres ceperunt nauigare usque duni 
uires^ deficerent. Videns autem homo Dei eos multum sic laborare", 
cepit ipsos confortare dicens : ' Fratres, nolite sic labores uestros 
expendere. Dominus enim adiutor noster est, atque nauis nostre 
f. 76"^ gubernator. Mittite | ergo remiges et gubernacula intus ; tantum 
dimittite uela extensa ; et faciat Dominus de seruis suis et de naui 
que uult. Timete ergo Dominum, quia bene placitum est Domino 
super timentes se'.' Cumque iussa patris discipuli complerent, 
reficiebant se ad uesperam. Hec* enim erat consuetudo eorum se 
semper ad uesperam horam reficere. Cessantes uero a labore remi- 
gandi, aliquando habebant uentum ; set ipsi ignorabant in quam 
partem eos ducebat, uel ex qua plaga ueniebat. 

xvii. Consum[m]atis^ uero quadraginta diebus sic, et consumptis 
uictualibus, et de nullo alio'" nisi de Dei adiutorio sperantibus, ap- 
paruit illis quedam insula ex parte septentrionali" ualde saxosa et 
alta. Cum uero appropinquarent ad litus, uiderunt ripam altissimam 
sicut murum, et diuersos riuulos descendentes de summitate insule 
fluentes in mare. Cumque fratres pre altitudine rupis non possent 
inuenire portum, ubi commode applicarent, tunc fame et siti uexati, 
acceperunt uassa sua, ut de aqua preterfluente ad refrigerationem 
sitis sumerent. Quod cum uidisset sanctus Brandanus, aquam eis 
interdixit, dicens : ' Stultum est que agitis, fratres ! Quia enim Deus 
noster non uult nobis ostendere portum intrandi insulam, ideo non 
faciatis de eius aqua tanquam de aliena re rapinam. Habete ergo 
patientiam ; quia Dominus noster lesus Christus, qui sperantes in 
se non delinquit, post tres dies ostendet seruis suis portum, et locum 
aptum ad tempus manendi, ut reficiantur corpora nostra.' Cum 

' -quitur R' R'. - aptissimum locum ; uobis autem preparauit detrimentuni 
et iudicium M ; teterrimum iudicium Sch. ^ Sch. p. 6 ; M p. 91 ; S' § 6. 

* X. S' ; Br. ^ uenientes R-, probably a wrong extensipn of the criginal 

reading in R^, whicli is now iHegible, having beeii tampered with by a later 
hand. ^ -rantes R^. ' Ps. cxh. 11. * hoc R^. " Sch. p. 7 ; 

M p. 92 ; S' § 7. "* oin. R\ " septembrionali R=. 


autem circuissent per tres dies insulam, tertia die circa horam nonam 
inuenerunt portum, ubi erat aditus unius nauis. Et uidens sanctus 
uir portum oplatum, surrexit, ac bcnedixit introitum. Erat nam- 
que I petra inscisa cx utraque parte mire altitudinis, sicut murus. f- 76' 
Asccndentibus uero fratribus de naui in terram, premonuit eos pius 
pastor ne quid de suppeilecti[li] nauis secum ferrent. 

xviii. Porro' ambulantibus eis per ripas maris, occurrit illis quidam 
canis, qui ad pedes sancti Brandani deueniens, signa, que solent 
canes in aduentu dominorum suoruin, motuacgestucorporis ostendit. 
Videns uero honio Dei, tanquam alter Thobias, canem signa pacis 
pretendentem, ait suis: ' Nonne bonum nuntium donauit nobis Deus 
noster.' Sequamur ergo eum.' Secuti sunt autem canem, qui pre- 
cesserat eos usque ad opidum quoddam quod erat [in] insula. 
Intrantibus ergo illis opidum, uiderunt aulam raagnam et spatiosam, 
stratam lectulis et sedibus, aquam etiam ad pedes lauandos paratam. 
Cum uero sedissent, precepit uir Dei fratribus, ne quicquid de 
suppellecti[li] domus sibi toUere usurparent. Et ait: 'Cauete, fratres, 
ne Sathanas uos" in temptationem' deducat. Video enim, quod 
suadet uni ex tribus, qui post nos de monasterio venerunt, de furto 
pessimo. Orate * igitur pro anima eius ; quia caro tradita est in 
potestatem Sathane.' Porro domus illa, in qua residebant, erat quasi 
inserta per parietes in circuitu de uasculis diuersi generis metalli 
appendentibus, frenis, et cornibus circumdatis argento. 

xix. Tunc Brandanus ait ministro, qui sollebat apponere panem 
coram eo : ' Fer prandium quod nobis misit Deus, vere pius, vere 
bonus.' Surgens quoque frater ad ministrandum, inuenit mensam 
positam, et mapam desupcr extentam, et panes miri candoris 
secundum exigentiam esurientium ^ et pisces similiter. Cumque 
omnia essent para|ta, benedixit sanctus pater prandium " celitus f- 77* 
missum, dicens : ' Qui dat escam omni carni, confitemini Deo celi'.' 
Residebant ergo fratres, atque cum Dei timore ac amore panem suum 
commedebant. Sic et de potu, quod opus erat, bibebant. Finita 
uero cena cum gratiarum actionibus atque diuinis laudibus, dixit 
pius pastor fratribus : ' Requiescite nunc ; ecce enim singuli lecti 
bene strati pro singulis. Opus est uobis ut membra uestra repau- 
sentur post magnos labores.' Cum autem fratres obdormissent, uidit 
sanctus Brandanus Sathanam in specie cuiusdam Ethiopis nigri 
ferentem frenum in manu, et uocantem predictum fratrem ut tolleret; 
quod et fecit ; nam frenum rapuit, et suadenti locum temptationis 

> Sch., M u. s. ; Si § 8. » nos R^. 3 jji f jg^J « orante Ri m. pr. R^. 
' -ensium R', -encium R^. ^ brandium R^ ; the scribe was beginning to write 
' Brandanus'. ' Ps. cxxxv. 35, 26. 


dedit. Quod cum homo Dei cognosceret, de lecto surrexit, et usque 
in sequentem diem orationem protelauit. Mane autem facto, cum 
opus Dei in laudibus peregissent, festinabant ad nauim. Ecce mensa 
apparuit, sicut prima die, per omnia parata ; et ita per tres dies et 
totidem noctes preparauit Deus prandium seruis suis. 

XX. Post ' hec sanctus Brandanus cum suis cepit iter uersus nauem 
agere. Dixitque suis: 'Videte, ne quis ex uobis aliquid de substantia 
huius insule secum tollat.' At omnes dixerunt : 'Absit, pater, ut 
aliquid furtiue ablatum uiolet iter nostrum.' Tunc sanctus Brandanus 
subiunxit : ' Ecce frater noster, quem predixi uobis heri, habet 
frenum argenteum'^ in sinu suo, quod hac nocte per suggestionem 
diaboli incaute furatus est.' Et cum hec frater ille audisset, proiecit 
frenum de sinu suo, et prostrauit se ad pedes uiri .Dei, dicens : 
' Pater, peccaui ; ignosce mihi, et ora pro anima mea ne pereat.' 
Quod uidentes fratres, confestim prostrauerunt se in terram, de- 
precantes pro anima illius. Et eleuans eos pastor pius de terra, ecce 
f- 77 uiderunt Ethiopem paruum saltare de sinu fratris illius, qui | uoce 
magna ac lugubri dixit : ' Cur me, uir Dei, de habitatione mea expellis, 
in qua per septem annos habitaui ? et modo alienum me facis ab 
hereditate mea.' Audiens hanc uocem, preco ueritatis, Brandanus, 
ait : ' Precipio tibi ex parte Christi, Cui ego seruio, ut nullum hominem 
leseris usque in diem iudicii.' Et post hec conuersus ad fratrem 
predictum, ait: 'Sume corpus et sanguinem Domini, quia anima 
tua modo egredietur de corpore tuo, et hic habes locum sepulture 
tue. Propter enim contritionem tuam et precum nostrarum in- 
stantiam remissa est iniquitas tua. Frater quoque tuus, qui tecum 
uenit de monasterio nostro, in inferno habet locum sepulture.' Itaque, 
accepta eucharistia, tanquam itineris tuto uiatico, egressa est anima 
fratris de corpore, susceptaque est ab angelis lucis, uidentibus fra- 
tribus. Corpus uero eius sepulture ibidem traditum est a fratribus. 

xxi. Post ' hec uenerunt ad locum ubi nauim suam dimise- 
runt. Ascendentibus igitur illis nauim, occurrit eis iuuenis quidam, 
portans cophinum plenum de panibus, et amphoram aque dulcis. 
Qui dixit eis : ' Sumite benedictionem de manu serui uestri. Restat 
enim uobis adhuc longum itcr, usque dum inueneritis consolationem. 
Ab isto enim die usque ad pascha non deficiet hec panis et aque 
annona.' Accepta igitur boni nuntii benedictione, nauigabant per 
oceanum, quo Deus uolebat eos duci. Post biduum uero se semper 

• Sch. p. 8 ; M p. 94 ; S' 5 lo. « r2 f, jo^o, 3 Sch. p. g ; M p. 94 ; 

Si 5 II. 



xxii. Et ' cum sic ^ per diuersa occeani loca ducerentur, quadam die 
uiderunt insulam quandam non longe a se distantem. Et cum cepis- 
sent remigando laborare, ut ad insulam attingerent, immisit Deus 
uentum cis optatum, ut non esset necesse eis sic laborare. Cumque 
prospere in portu insule applicuissent, precepit homo Dei fratribus ut 
exirent, | ipse uero^ post eos. Et cum cepissent circuire insulam, f. 77° 
iiiderunt aquas largissimas manare ex diuersis fontibus plenas pisci- 
bus. Dixitque tunc Brandanus fratribus : ' Faciamus hic opus Dei, 
sacrificantes Deo agnum immaculatum ; quia hodie cena Domini est.' 
Quod cum fecissent, manserunt ibi usque in sabbatum sanctum. 
Perambulantes quoque insulam illam, uiderunt diuersos greges ouium 
albi coloris in tanta multitudine, ita ut* uix possint pre densitate 
gregum terram conspicere. Tunc Brandanus dixit fratribus : ' Acci- 
pite de hiis gregibus ad diem festum, quod ^ necesse est. Domini 
enim terra et plenitudo eius^.' Qui, iussa conplentes, acceperunt 
vnam de grege ouem, et hgantes per cornua, quasi domestica ouis 
sequebatur eos, donec ad locum ubi uir Dei erat uenirent. Iterum 
mandauit pius pastor vni ex fratribus, ut ad gregem accederet, et 
agnum immaculatum de eo afferret. Festinauit frater iussa complere, 
ducens silicet secum agnum immaculatum. 

xxiii. Et' cum parassent omnia hec ' ad opus crastine diei, ecce ap- 
paruit illis uir predictus, habens in manibus sportam plenam de panibus 
subcinericiis, et cetera que erant necessaria. Et cum hec possuisset 
ante conspectu[m] uiri Dei, cecidit pronus super faciem suam tribus 
uicibus, dicens : ' Vnde mihi est, O margarita Dei, ut pascharis in istis 
diebus sanctis de labore manuum mearum ? ' Sanctus uero Bran- 
danus, eleuato illo de terra, et dato osculo, dixit : ' Fili, dic nobis, ubi 
uult Dominus noster lesus Christus ut celebremus sanctam suam ' 
resurrectionem.' Cui respondit predictus uir : ' Pater, hic celebra- 
bitis istud sanctum sabbatum ; uigilias uero et missas uestras cras 
in illa insula, quam uidetis, | celebrare debetis. Sic enim uultf. 77"* 
Dominus, qui disponit omnia suauiter.' Et dum hec dixisset, cepit 
obsequium famulorum Dei humiliter facere, et omnia, que necessaria 
erant, in crastinum preparare. Paratis ergo omnibus, et in nauim 
allatis, dixit ille fidelis procurator ad sanctum Brandanum : ' Vestra 
nauicula non potest modo amplius portare ; set ego transmittam 
uobis post octo dies que necessaria erunt usque penthecosten.' 
Tunc sanctus Brandanus dixit: 'Vnde tu nosti vbi manere possimus 
post octo dies?' Et ait : ' Hac nocte eritis in illa [insula] quam 
uidetis prope, et ibi cras, usque in sextam horam ; et postea nauiga- 

' Sch. p. 9 ; M p. 95 ; S' § 13. 2 et sic cum R=. ' R- f. 105''. < om. R". 
6 quem Ri R". 6 pj. xxiii. i. ' Sch., M u. s. ; S' § 13. 8 hoc R-. 

9 bis R". 


bitis ad insulam, que non est longe ab illa contra occidentalem 
plagam, que uocatur paradisus auium ; in qua manebitis usque ad 
octabas pentecostes.' Iterum interrogauit eum sanctus Brandanus de 
ouibus illis, quas uiderunt in insula, quomodo potuissent tam grandes 
esse. Erant enim ita magne sicut boues. Cui ille respondit : ' Nemo 
colligit lac de ouibus in hac insula, nec hyemis tempestas eas molestat, 
et in pascuis semper die noctuque morantur ; et ideo maiores sunt 
quam in uestris regionibus.' Post hanc niutuam collationem, atque 
benedictionem acceptam, profecti sunt ipsi ad nauim, et ceperunt 
nauigare ad insulam eis preostensam. 

xxiv. Cumque' ad eam uenissent, cepit nauis stare, antequam 
portum potuissent tenere. Tunc Brandanus precepit fratribus in 
mare descendere, et nauim cum funibus usque ad portum optatum 
ducere. Quod et factum est. Illa uero insula erat multum setosa-, 
absque ulla herba, et in litore eius nil harene inueniebatur. Porro 
pernoctantibus fratribus in oratione et uigiliis in insula, solus 
f. 78" Brandanus remansit in naui. Ipse | enim sciebat, que et qualis esset 
insola. Non enim in ueritate erat insula ; set Deus omnipotens, cui 
omnis creaturaad nutum obedit^, fecit cete grande dorsum suumsuper 
mare eleuare, ut esset locus aptus' seruis suis nocte resurrectionis 
sue ad inhabitandum ^ Ideo ergo homo Dei noluit fratribus indicare 
qualis locus 'erat', ubi nocte illa permansissent, ne perterriti in fide 
hesitassent. Mane igitur facto, precepit pius pastor sacerdotibus 
omnibus, ut singuli missas cantarent, quod et fecerunt. Cum uero 
pater reuerendus in ipsa naui missam celebrasset ", interim fratres 
ceperunt carnes et pisces quos secum duxerant de'' alia* insula 
extra nauim portare, ut sale condirent, et etiam in parte decoquerent. 
Quod cum fecissent, posuerunt cacabum super ignem ; cumque ince- 
pisset cacabus super ignem' bullire, cepit illa insula moueri. Fratres 
uero motum insule percipientes, ceperunt currere ad nauim, implor- 
antes auxilium patroni sui. At uir Dei singulos per manus trahebat 
intus ; et sic, relictis omnibus que parauerant in insula, ceperunt 
nauigare. Porro insula illa ferebatur in occeanum, et ipsi poterant 
uidere ignem ardentem per duo miliaria in mari. Tunc sanctus uir 
aperuif eis secretum suum, [et] quid" esset illa insula indicauit, 
dicens : ' Fratres, an uos admiramini, quod fecerit hec insula, silicet 
mouendo se sic per mare ?' Et dicunt fratres : ' Valde enim admira- 
mur, necnon et ingens pauor inuasit nos de motu eius.' Et dixit eis : 
' Filioli, nolite expauescere. Deus enim in hac nocte reuelauit mihi 

' Sch. p. 10 ; M p. 96 ; S' § 14. « fetosa R^. ' -diuit R=. * apertus 

R^ R2. ^ habit- R^. * Here there is a long: lacuna in S' extending to the 

middle of § xxxii infra ; therc is no indication in the MS. of anything being 
wanting. ' R^ f. 105''. " aliqua R^ '■• om. R". '» apparuit R'. 

" inquid R' ; and prob. R' m. pr. 



per uisionem sacramentum huius rci. Insula enim non fuit in qua 
permansistis, set prior omnium natantium piscis, qui querit caiidam 
suam scmper iungerc capiti, et pre | longitudine sua non potest. f- 78 ^ 
Nomen quoque eius Casconius '.' 

XXV. Post'' hec inucnerunt quandam insulam ualde deliciosam, 
herbis floribus et fructuosis arboribus plenam. Cum uero portum ad 
intrandum quererent, inuenerunt a parte meridionali insule riuulum 
dulcis aque uergentem in mare, ibique nauim ad terram miserunt. 
Descendentibus ueroillis de naui,precepit fratribus sanctus Brandanus, 
ut nauim per funes contra impetum aquarum traxissent, quantum 
plus potuissent. Erat autem flumen illud tam latum sicut longitudo 
vnius nauis. Fecerunt igitur fratres sicut mandauerat eis pater, 
tralientes nauim usque ad fontem uiuum, vnde flumen descenderat. 
Tunc Brandanus ait fratribus : ' Ecce Dominus noster lesus Christus 
dedit nobis locum ad manendum in sua sancta resurrectione, vere 
bonus, uere misericors. Fratres mei, si non habuissemus alia, que 
nos corporaliter recrearent, solus iste fons sufficeret nobis in cibum 
et potum.' 

xxvi. Erat ' autem super illum fontem arbor mire altitudinis, 
cooperta auibus candidissimis*, que tantum cooperuerunt arborem, 
ut uix humanis oculis possit ad plenum conspici. Cumque hec uir 
Dei conspiceret, cepit intra se cogitare, que causa esset, ut tanta 
auium multitudo foret in una arbore congregata. Et in tantum sibi 
sua cogitatio tedium generauit, ut etiam lacrimas pro reuelande sue 
dubitationis ministerio effunderet, dicens : ' Deus, qui renes et corda 
scrutaris^, et absconditorum es reuelator, tu scis angustiam cordis 
mei. Deprecor ergo tuam maiestatem, ut mihi digneris per tuam 
magnam misericordiam reuelare tuum secretum, quod me latet de 
auibus hiis. Non,' inquit, ' Pater, de dignitate mea aut merito in hac 
parte confido ; set clementie ° tue | enodationem scriptuli huius f. 78 " 
dubitationis committo.' Hec cum apud se uir celestium desideriorum 
loqueretur, ecce una ex auibus illis uolabat de arbore, cuius ale 
rcsonabant contra nauim, sicut tintinabula quaedam ; que sedens 
in summitate prore nauis, cepit expandere alas in signum letitie 
interioris, et placido' uultu aspicere in uirum Dei. Statimque 
agnouit uir Dei, quia recordatus est Dominus deprecationum suarum, 
et ait ad auem : ' Quia,' inquit, ' seruus Dei es et nuntius, ideo narra 
nobis, vnde uenistis huc, aut per quem multitudo illa permaxima 
avium coUecta sit in unum ibi.' Et ait ad eum auis : ' Nos sumus,' 

' lasconius N (recte ; from Ir. iasc, a fish). ' ^ Sch. p. ii ; M p. gi. 
» Sch. u.s. ; M p. 98. * R^ f. io6'. ' pg. vii. lo. « -sie R' ; -cie R\ 

' placito Ri R2. 


inquit, 'de illa magna ruina antiqui hostis, qui ad plenum ei non 
consensimus. Et quia ex parte peccato eius consensimus, contigit et ' 
nostra ruina. Deus enim iustus est et uerax et misericors. Ideo 
per suum iudicium misit nos in hunc locum, vbi penas alias non 
sustinemus, nisi quod presentiam Dei uidere non possumus. Tantum- 
modo enim alienauit nos a consortio aliorum, qui firmiter steterunt. 
In sollempnibus quoque diebus et dominicis accipimus corpora tfilia 
qualia tu uides, et commoramur hic, laudantes Creatorem nostrum. 
Et sicut ceteri spiritus, qui mittuntur per diuersas aeris partes atque 
terrarum, ita et nos discurrere possumus. Tu autem cum tuis 
fratribus habes unum annum in tuo itinere. Adhuc restant sex anni. 
Vbi enini hodie celebrasti Pascha, ibi onini anno peregrinationis tue 
similiter celebrabis ^* ; et postea inuenies que posuisti in corde tuo, 
silicet terram repromissionis sanctorum.' Et cum hec dixisset auis 
illa, leuauit se a' prora, et cepit uolare ad alias. 

xxvii. Cum' uero uespertina hora appropinquasset, ceperunt omnes 
aues, que erant in arbore, quasi una uoce cantare, percutientes latera 
f. 78'' sua cum alis, atque | dicentes : 'Te decet ympnus in Syon, et tibi 
reddetur uotum in lerusalem ^' Et semper repetebant " predictum 
versiculum, quasi per spatium unius hore. Videbatur quoque fratri- 
bus, quod modulatio illa et sonus alarum esset quasi planctus quidani 
cum suauitate. Tunc sanctus Brandanus ait fratribus : ' Reficite 
corpora uestra, quia hodie anime uestre diuina refectione satiate sunt.' 
Finita uero cena, ceperunt fratres opus Dei peragere ; et postea 
quieuerunt usque ad tertiam noctis uigiliam. Euigilans uero uir Dei, 
cepit fratres ad uigilias noctis sancte' excitare. Et cumipseinciperet 
uersiculum : ' Domine, labia mea aperies, et os meum annuntiabit 
laudem tuam ',' tunc aues unanimiter alis et ore sonabant, dicentes : 
' Laudate Dominum, omnes angeli eius, laudate eum, omnes uirtutes 
eius*.' Similiter ad vesperas per spatium hore cantabant. Cum 
autem aurora nocti finem daret, ceperunt omnes cantare : ' Et sit 
splendor Domini Dei super nos'",' equali modulatione et longitudine 
psallendi", sicut in matutinis laudibus. Ad tcrtiam quoque horam 
cantabant hunc versiculum : ' Psallite Deo nostro, psallite regi nostro, 
psallite sapienter'^.' Ad sextani uero horam canebant : ' Illumina, 
Domine, uultum tuum super nos, et miserere^l' Ad nonam dicebant : 
' Ecce quam bonum, et quam iocundum, habitare fratres in unum".' 
Ita quoque reddebant aues die et nocte laudes Deo. Ibi uero per 
octauas festi ipsi in laudibus Dei remanserunt. 

' et contigit R^. ^ r2 f. ,o6\ 3 ad R' R'. * Sch. p. 12 ; M p. 99. 

^ Ps. Ixiv. I. « reciproca&ant N. ' o/«. R'. * Ps. 1. 17. * Ps. cxlviii. z. 
" Ps. Ixxxix. 17. " -ti R' R'. " Ps. .\lvi. 7-8. '» Ps. Ixvi. 3. 

'* Ps. cxxxii. I. 


xxviii. Peracta' autem festiiiitate pascliali dixit sanctus Brandanus 
suis : ' Accipite de aqua fontis istius uobiscuni.' Ouod cuni fratres 
complessent, ecce predictus uir, cum quo triduo fuerunt ante pasclia, 
aduenit, ferrens secum in nauicula sua cibum et potum sufficienter 
pro eis. Allatis quoque omnibus de naui, coram uiro Dei locutus est 
ad eos sic : ' Fratres mei, habetis hic sufRcienter usque ad diem 
sanctum pentecostcs. Et nolite- bibere de | hoc fonte, fortis namque f. 79'' 
est ad bibcndum. Dicam enim uobis naturam eius. Quisquis bibcrit 
ex eo statim irruet super eum sopor ; et non euigilabit usque dum 
compleantur viginti quatuor hore. Dum enim manat' de fonte, habct 
saporem* et naturam aque.' Hiis dictis, accepta benedictione sancti 
patris, reuersus est ad locum suum. Ibi uero manserunt usque ad 
festum pentecostes. Erat enim eis delectatio atque refocillatio suauis 
cantus auium. Die uero sancto pentecostes uenit procurator pre- 
dictus ad illos, ducens secum que necessaria erant ad diem festum. 
Cum autem simul discubuissent ad prandium, locutus est idem pro- 
curator dicens: ' Et quia,' inquit, 'restat uobis adhuc magnum iter, 
ideo accipite de hac aqua in uasis uestris, et de pane quem potestis 
obseruare •'■'. Alio uero anno ego uisitabo uos, Deo concedente.' Et 
cuni hec dixisset, accepta benedictione a uiro sancto, reuersus est ad 
suum locum. Finitis uero festi octauis, iussit uir sanctus suis, ut 
nauem pararent, ac de fonte uassa sua implerent. Et cum omnia, 
[que] precepit procurator, parata essent, tunc predicta auis concito 
uolatu * uenit, et resedit super proram nauis, et ait, quasi confortando 
eos contra maris pericula : ' Noueritis quod vbi anno preterito in cena 
Domini fuistis, ibi similiter hoc anno eadem nocte eritis. Et sicut 
nocte dominice pascalis fuisti super dorsum Casconii ', ita hoc anno 
tali nocte eritis. Inuenietis quoque insolam post octo menses que 
vocatur insula familie Heluei", in qua celebrabitis natiuitatem Domini.' 
Et cum [hec] predixisset auis, reuersa est in locum suum. 

xxix. Tunc' fratres ceperunt uela extendere et nauigare. Aues 
quoque predicte cantabant, quasi una uoce, dicentes : ' Exaudi nos, 
Deus salutaris noster, spes omnium finium terre, et in mari longe '".' 
Igitur per latitudinem | magni maris ferrebantur per tres menses ; f. 79'' 
nihilque poterant uidere, nisi celum et mare. Quadam uero die 
apparuit eis insula non longe distans ; et cum appropinquassent ad 
litus, traxit eos impetus uenti a portu ; et ita quadraginta dies nauiga- 
bant in circuitu insule, nec poterant portum inuenire. Cumque 
fratres pene deficerent uiribus, ceperunt Dominum deprecari cum 

' Sch. p. 13 ; M p. 100. 2 R- f. io6'. ' manant R' R-. ■* soporem 

R' R^. ^ et panes siccos quos potestis obseruare in annum alium N ; 

et pains ses, cest bescuit Jubinal p. 73. * ueiatu R' R-. " lasconii N ; 

see p. 113 note i. ' Ailbei, Albei N; see p. 46 note i. ' Sch. p. 14 ; 

M p. 102. '" Ps. Ixiv. 6. 

I 2 


lacrimis, ut adesset clementie sue pietas sibi' in adiutorium. Et 
cum per triduum in orationibus et abstinentia sic permansissent, 
apparuit illis portus- angustus^ vbi quasi nauis* unius erat locus. 
Ibi quoque apparuerunt duo fontes, quorum vnus erat turbidus, et 
alter clarus. Porro fratres festinabant cum uasculis, ut haurirent 
aquam. Quod uidens pius pastor Brandanus ait illis : ' Filioli, nolite 
talem rem hic agere sine Hcentia seniorum, qui in hac ^ insula com- 
morantur. Aquas enim quas sine consensu senioruni uultis surripere, 
cum eorum licentia poteritis optinere.' Et sic aquam concupitam 
fratres per imperium patris dimiserunt. 

XXX. Cumque '^ de naui exissent, occurrit eis unus senex mire 
grauitatis, cuius facies erat magne claritatis, et capilli niuei coloris. 
Hic tribus uicibus in terram se prostrauit, ante quam uirum Dei 
osculatus fuit. Sanctus uero Brandanus eleuauit eum de terra. Et 
osculantibus' se inuicem, tenuit senex manum sancti Brandani, et 
sic euntes, ibant ad monasterium. Et cum essent ante portam 
nionasterii, stetit sanctus Brandanus cum suis et dixit seni : ' Cuius 
est istud monasterium ? et quis preest illi .' aut unde sint qui moran- 
tur ibi ?' Et cum sic diuersis sermonibus senem interrogaret, nullum. 
tamen responsum ab eo optinuit, set tantum manu silentium insinua- 
bat. Vt ergo homo Dei secretum silentii* per signa agnouit, fratres 
,79= amonuit, dicens : ' Custodite | ora uestra a silentii fractione, ne isti 
in alico molestentur per multiloquium uestrum.' Et, hiis^ dictis, 
ecce undecim fratres de monasterio occurrunt eis cum crvcibus et 
ymnis, dicentes : ' Surgite, sancti, de mansionibus uestris, et profi- 
ciscimini obuiam ueritati. Locum sancti'fi'cate, plebem benedicite, 
ut nos, famulos uestros, dignetur Dominus in pace custodire.' Finito 
uero uersiculo, osculati sunt mutuo se in osculo pacis. Deinde fratres 
de monasterio duxerunt eos ad locum orationis '", ut primum omnium 
regnum Dei quererent >' ibi. Post hec abbas monasterii cum suis 
monachis ceperunt lauare pedes hospitum, cantantes : ' Mandatum 
nouum do uobis'',' et cetera. 

xxxi. Hiis" finitis, ducti sunt hospites ad refectorium, ubi in uisce- 
ribus caritatis cum magna maturitate ac silentio " recreati sunt ex 
panibus miri candoris, et quibusdam radicibus incredibilis saporis. 
Inter duos enim vnus intiger ponebatur panis a seruitore, qui mini- 
strabat in mensa ; similiter et potum de aqua fontis. Tunc quoque 

' R2 f. 106''. 2 portum Ri Rl s angustum R^ (not R'). < auis 

R' m. pr. R-. ■'' in hac oin. R^. " Sch. ; M u.s. ' -labantibus R' m. pr. R^. 
' decretum loci illius N. ^ om. R^. '** sicut mos est in occidentalibus 

partibus add. N. " Matt. vi. 33. "* John ^iii. 34 ; cf. the service for iVIaundy 
Thursday in the Roman MissaU " Sch. p. 15 ; M p. 103. '* R* f. 107". 


abbas monasterii cum magna maturitate' ait : ' Ex hoc fonte modo 
euni bona uoluntate potestis bibcrc, cx quo ante sine liccntia uoluistis 
haurire. Ex alio enim fonte, silicet turbido, quem uidistis, lauantur 
pedes fratrum, quando indigent ; omni vero tempore calidus cst. 
Panes uero, quos in mensa nostra uidetis, nobis ignotum est vbi 
parantur, aut quis ad cellarium nosirum portat. Certum tamen est 
nobis, quod ex affluentia bonitatis Dei- nobis ministrantur per ali- 
quani subiectam sibi creaturam. Nos quoque, qui sumus hic, uiginti 
quatuor fratres dc conuentu, cotidie habemus duodecim panes quales 
uos uidetis ; ita quod inter duos semper unus ad refectionem sufficit. 
In magnis uero festiuitatibus et dominicis dupplicatur annona panis, 
ut ex residuo suo possit quisque cenare. Modo quoque in aduentu 
uestro dupplicata est pa]nis annona. Et ita per octoginta annos f. 
nutrit nos Deus, a tempore silicet Patricii, et sancti Eluei ' patris 
nostri usque modo. NuIIa uero senectutis signa aut languoris inertia 
nos molestat ; set, ut uidetis, sine alico impedimento die noctuque 
Deo seruimus. In hac etiam insula, in qua sumus, non indigemus 
igne ad preparandum cibum nostrum, nec ad nos calefaciendum ; 
nullum enim frigus aut estus nos hic contristat. Cum uero tempus 
uigiliarum matutinalium uenerit, lampades nostre, quas nobiscum 
duximus de terra nostra, diuina insufflatione accenduntur, nilque 
minuitur usque in diem''.' 

xxxii. Post ^ hanc uero dulcem collationem tribus uicibus biberunt, 
pulsauitque abbas signum ; et fratres cum silentio atque grauitate 
a mensa surgentes, ad ecclesiam cum laude diuina properant". Post 
alios uero duo sancti uiri incedebant. Cum igitur intrassent in eccle- 
siam, ecce alii duodecim fratres exierunt de ecclesia obuiam eis, 
flectentes genua coram sanctis patribus. Tunc sanctus Brandanus 
ait ad abbatem monasterii : 'Abba pater, cur isti non fuerunt refecti 
simul nobiscum ' ?' Et respondit abbas : ' Ideo non fuerunt nobiscum 
recreati, quia non potuit nos simul mensa nostra accipere in vnum. 
Modo uero hii reficientur, et nihil eis deerit. Nos autem intrantes 
ecclesiam dicemus uesperas, ut et fratres nostri post nos similiter 
possint cantare.' 

Cum officium vesperarum terminassent, cepit sanctus Brandanus 
considerare, quomodo ecclesia illa esset edificata. Erat* enim qua- 
drata, et tante longitudinis quante et latitudinis, habens septem 
luminaria ; id est, tria coram_altari quod erat in medio, et bina ante 
alia duo altaria. Altaria uero erant de cristalio, et eorum uascula 
simihter ; silicet patene et calices, et urceoli, et cetera uassa, que 

1 hylaritate N. ' diem R' R=. ' AUbei N. •• hanc add. Ri m. sec. 

(wrongly). 5 Sch. p. i6 ; M p. 104. ^ proparant Ri R^. ■' R^ t. 107". 

' Here S' § 15 resumes after the lacuna. 


pertinebant ad cultum diuinum ; tt sedilia uiginti quatuor similiter | 
f. 80" in circuitu. Locus quoque ubi abbas sedebat erat inter duos clioros, 
et ipse semper incipiebat sanctum officium. In monasterio uero illo 
nulla uox aut strepitus ' audiebatur, nec aliquis sine consensu senioris 
aliquid attemptare presumebat. Siquis uero ex fratribus aliquod 
opus necessarium faciendum haberet, coram abbate humiliter genu- 
flectebat -, affectiones cordis per signa conuenientia demonstrans; et 
tunc pater abbas, accepta tabula et graphio, scribens ibi uoluntatem 
suam, fratri postulanti ad legendum communicabat. Cumque hec 
omnia sanctus Brandanus diligenter considerasset, ait ad eum pater 
abbas : ' Pater mi, iam tempus est, ut reuertamur ad refectorium, ut 
omnia fiant cum luce.' Et ita fecerunt, reuertentes ad refectorium. 
Finitis uero omnibus ^ ibi, que necessaria erant pro refectione cor- 
porum, omnes cum magna maturitate ad completorium properabant. 
Cum uero pater abbas inchoasset uersiculum : ' Deus in adiutorium 
meum intende*', et dedissent omnes similiter honorem Trinitati 
semper benedicte °, et totum officiuni completorii in feruore spiritus 
cantassent, fratres omnes egrediebantur ad cellas suas, ducentes 
secum cum reuerentia hospites, in quibus Christum credebant se 
hospitio collocare. 

xxxiii. Abbas " uero monasterii cum sancto Brandano remanserunt 
in ecclesia, expectantes aduentum luminis. Sanctus uero Brandanus 
interrogauit patrem abbatem de silentio 'et' conuersatione fratrum ; 
quomodo silicet tam districte silentium tenerent, et in humana carne 
uiuendo ' tam arctam uitam tenerent. Et respondit pater abbas cum 
magna humilitate ac reuerentia : ' Pater mi, coram Christo meo con- 
fiteor, quod octoginta anni sunt, postquam uenimus in hanc insula[m], 
et nullam humanam uocem audiuimus, excepto quando Deo nostro 
cantamus laudes. Inter nos enim nulla uox excitatur; set tantum 
f. 80* per signum digiti aut oculorum | quod necesse est exprimitur, et hoc 
fit solum a maioribus natu. Nullus uero nostrum sustinuit alicam 
infirmitatem corporalem aut spiritualem, postquam uenimus ad lociim 
istum.' Audiens quoque sanctus Brandanus talem uiuendi inter 
homines niodum, cum cordis deuotione in hec uerba prorupit, dicens : 
' Mi pater, an licet nobis hic uobiscum cohabitare ? ' Et respondit 
abbas : ' Non licet ; quia non est Dei* uoluntas.' Et addidit dicens : 
' Et cur me, pater Brandane, de hac re interrogas ? Nonne reuelauit 
tibi Deus, antequam huc uenisses, qui(J te oporteat facere ? Te enim 

1 -dus Ri R=. '^ -bant R' R^. ^ orationibus R*. ■■ Ps. xxxvii. 23. 

5 subiungunt [incipiebant] istum uersiculum : ' Peccauimus, iniuste egimus, 
iniquitatem fecimus. Tu, qui pius es-pater, parce nobis, Domine [es, miserere 
nobis, Christe]. In pace in idipsum dormiam ' &c. N ; Ps. iv. 9, 10 (one ot the 
Psalms for Complinej. . « Sch. p. 17 ; M p. 106; S» § 16. ' R'^ f. 107^ 

» om. R2. 


oportet ad patriam tuam reuerti cum quatuordecim fratribus tuis, quia 
ibi in monasterio tuo preparauit Deus locum sepulture tue. Duo 
uero alii qui supersunt, vnus peregrinabitur in insula anachoritarum ; 
altcr uero morte turpissima apud inferos condempnabitur.' 

x.x.xiv. Cumque* hec inter se loquerentur, ecce, uidentibus illis, 
quasi sagitta ignea dimissa est per fenestram, que omnes lampades 
ecclesie illuminauit. Cum uero luminaria^ illa accenderentur', pre- 
dicta sagitta confestim reuersa est per eandem uiam. Iterum quesiuit 
sanctus Brandanus. a quo extinguebantur illa luminaria* mane. Et 
ait ad eum abbas : 'Veni, et uide sacramentum Imius rei, de qua 
queris. Ecce tu uides candelas ardentes in medio uasculorum. Ex 
eis tamen nil exuritur, nec diminuitur, nec mane ulla ignis fauilla 
remanebit; quia spirituale lumen est.' Tunc sanctus Brandanus ait : 
• Quomodo,' inquit, ' in corporali terra potest ardere lumen spirituale 
ucl incorporale ? ' Respondit senex : ' Nonne uidisti^ rubum ardentem 
in monte Sjmay ? et tamen remansit rubus illesus ab igne''.' 

xxxv. Vigilantibus' uero sic sanctis per totam noctem usque mane, 
sanctus Brandanus licentiam proficiscendi petiit. Cui ait senior: 
' Mi pater Brandane, tu debes nobiscum natiuitatem | Domini cele- f. 80 ■= 
brare, et usque ad octauas Epiphanie remanere.' Acquieuit tunc 
Brandanus precibus supplicantis, mansitque usque ad tempus as- 
signatum a patre. Transactis ergo festiuitatibus preassignatis, beatus 
Brandanus cum suis, accepta annona de monasterio", ac benedictione 
sanctorum illorum, Deo gubernatori se suumque iter committens, 
nauiculam suam ascendit. Ferebatur quoque sic per occeani deuia 
queque usque ad initium quadragesime. 

xxxvi. Quadam ° uero tunc die uiderunt quandam insulam non 
longe ab eis distantem. Ouam cum fratres uidissent, ceperunt acriter 
nauigare. lam enim fame et siti pene defecerant, quia ante triduum 
uictus et potus eorum consum[m]atus esL Cum uero ad insulam 
peruenissent, sanctus Brandanus portum benedixit, ut sic securius 
insulam ualerent intrare. Transeuntes autem per'" insulam, inue- 
nerunt fontem lucidissimum, ex quo diuersi generis pisces discur- 
rebant in mare. Tunc pius pastor ait fratribus : ' Animaduertite, 
filii, [et] intelligite, qualiter consolator noster, Deus, dedit nobis hic 
post magnos labores consolationem, atque quieti locum. Accipite 
ergo de piscibus quantum sufficit ad nostram'" cenam, et coUigite 

' Sch. ; M. u.s. ; S^ § 17. ' illuminaria R-. ' -derent R-. * illuminaria R-. 
^ lcgisti N. * At senex ait : 'Legi.' Et ille dixit : ' Si sic, habe fidem Dei 

semper, quoniam uigilantibus usque mane datur corona ^ add. S'. ' Sch. p. i8 ; 
M p. 107 ; S' § 18. s R2 f. 107'*. « Sch. ; M u s. ; S' § 19. " om. K-. 


de herbis et radicibus fontis quas Dominus seruis suis ' preparauit.' 
Et cum discipuli secundum mandatum magistri omnia complessent, 
ait iterum eis : 'Cauete, fratres, ne supra modum utamini liiis aquis, 
ne grauius corpora uestra uexentur.' Cumque fratres uim precepti 
patris in aqua bibenda non aduertissent, set quidam ex eis singulos 
calices, alii binos, aliqui uero ternos bibissent, mox in eos, qui tres 
biberunt calices, irruit sopor^ trium dierum, et in eos qui duos, 
duorum, et in illos qui unum, unius noctis ac diei. Sanctus uero 
Brandanus sine intermissione deprecabatur Deum pro fratribus, | 
f. 80^ quia per ignorantiam contigisset eis incidere in tale periculum. 

xxxvii. Transactis ' autem hiis tribus diebus, dixit pater ad filios : 
' Fugiamus, karissimi, istam mortem, ne deterius nobis adueniat. 
Deus enim dedit pastum pro necessitatibus nostris, et uos fecistis 
inde detrimentum uobis. Egrediamur ergo de hac insula, accipientes 
de piscibus quantum necesse est per triduum usque in cenam 
Domini ; similiter et de radicibus quantum sufficit per hoc triduum, 
et non plus.' Onerantes uero nauem de omnibus, secundum quod 
iusserat eis pater Brandanus, ceperunt nauigare in occeanum contra 
plagam septemtrionalem'. Post tres dies et noctes, cessante uento, 
factum est [mare] pro nimia tranquillitate quasi coagulatum. Tunc 
Brandanus iussit suis ut remigare cessarent, et Deo gubernare^ 
nauim permitterent. Cumque fratres hoc facerent, ferebatur nauis 
per diuersa loca occeani circiter uiginti dies. Reficiebantur uero 
semper post triduum. 

xxxviii. Quadam" autem die apparuit illis quedam insulaa remotis' 
ualde, ita quod quasi nubes quedam uideretur eis. Dixitque Bran- 
danus ad suos : ' Filioli, cognoscitis uos insulam illam ? ' At illi : 
' Non cognoscimus, pater.' Tunc ipse ait : ' Ego eam' cognosco. 
Ipsa est enim illa insula, in qua altero anno in cena Domini fuimus, 
vbi bonus procurator com[m]oratur.' Ouo audito /ratres ceperunt 
laboriosius remigare, ut citius possint ad locum quietis peruenire. 
Quod cum pius pater uidisset, ait : ' Nolite, fratres, sic membra uestra 
laboribus inordinatis uexare, set Deo gubernatori nauim permittite 
dirigcre. Dimittite ergo sibi nauim gubernare, quia nuncquam deserit, 
nisi prius deseratur, nuncquam deficit, nisi homo sibi seruiendo 
deficiat.' Cum hiis monitis acquiescerent fratres, appropinquantes 
f. 8j ■" ad litus insule, occurrit eis in nauicula \ idem procurator, et duxit 
illos ad portum, vbi preterito anno descenderunt de naui, magnifi- 
cans' Deum, et osculans pedes singulorum, incipiens a sancto Brandano 

1 otu. R^. - b:s R'. ' Sch. p. 19 ; M p. 108 ; S' § 20. * septrionalem 
R2 51. i^ R» f. 108"; gubernante R2. « Sch. p. 19; M p. 109; S' 3 21. 

' a longe N. " eum R' R^. s .ficens R' R^. 


usque ad ultimum, diccns: 'Mirabilis Deus in sanctis suis, Deus 
Israel, ipse dabit uirtutem et fortitudinem plebi sue, benedictus 
Deus'.' Et finito versiculo, et ablatis de naui utensilibus fratrum, 
extendit tentorium, et parauit balneum ; erat enim cena Domini. 
Post hec induit omnes fratres nouis uestimentis, et sic fecit obsequium 
per triduum. Fratres uero ibidem passionem Domini cum magna 
diligentia cclebrabant, c.xpectantes ibi usque in sabbatum sanctum. 

x.\.\ix. Finitis' autcm officiis diei sabbati, immolatisque hostiis 
salutaribus Deo, atque cena consum[m]ata, dixit idem procurator ad 
eos : ' Ite, et ascendite nauem uestram, ut ualeatis celebrare domi- 
nicam resurrectionem, ubi anno altero ' celebrastis, ibidem usque in 
sextam horam commorantes, et postea ad insulam, que uocatur 
paradisus auium, peruenietis, ubi anno preterito tali tempore fuistis 
usque ad octauas pentecostes. Asportate quoque uobiscum omnia 
que necessaria sunt de cibo et potu interim. Ego enim cum Dei 
adiutorio uisitabo uos altera die dominica.' Onerauit uero ipse nauim 
cibo et potu, prout potuit capere. Post hec, data mutua benedictione, 
ascendunt nauim, et ceperunt nauigare' usque ad aliam insulam. 
Cum appropinquassent ad locum ubi ascendere debuissent, apparuit 
illis^ cacabus, quem altero anno ibi dimisserant. Tunc sanctus"' 
Brandanus, descendens ' cum suis de naui, cepit cantare ympnum 
trium puerorum usque in finem. Finito autem ympno, uir Dei 
amonuit fratres, dicens : ' O filioli, uigilate et orate, ut non intretis 
in temptationem'. \ Considerate enim, quomodo Deus subiugat im- f. 81 ^» 
manissimam bestiam subtus nos sine ullo impedimento.' Cumque 
ex uerbis patris essent filii in fide confirmati, ita [ut] non timerent' 
tante bestie motum, in laudibus Dei noctem illam usque ad matutinas, 
sparsim per insulam orantes, continuauerunt. Mane quoque in unum 
conuenientes fratres, singuli sacerdotes hostiam salutarem Deo usque 
ad tertiam horam offerebant. Tunc uir Dei Brandanus agnum im- 
maculatum Deo optulit, dicens : ' In altero anno hic resurrectionem 
Domini celebraui ; ita et hoc anno propono celebrare.' Postquam 
uero omnia, que ad reuerentiam dominice resurrectionis cedebant, 
ibi consum[m]assent, profecti sunt ad insulam auium, sicut in alio 
anno fecerunt. 

xl. Appropinquantibus" quoque" ad portum insule omnes aues 
de insula humanis uocibus concorditer uociferantes dicebant : 'Salus 
Deo nostro sedcnti super tronum, et agno'-.' Et iterum : ' Dominus 

' Ps. Ixvii. 36. 2 Sch. ; M u.s. ; S' § 22. ' altero anno R'. * R^ f. 108*. 
s illius R2. 6 g„ R2_ 7 .(Jes R*. « Matt. xxvi. 41 ; Mark xiv. 38. 

' limuenint R^ " Sch. p. 20; M p. iio; S' § 23. " iliis add. M. 

'^ Rev. vii. 10. 


Deus illuxit nobis ; constituite diem sollempnem in condensis usque 
ad cornu altaris^' Et hec uerba repetebant quasi per dimediam 
horam, usque quo uir sanctus cum suis resedissent in suo tentorio. 
Cumque ibi festa paschaha usque in octauas pasce peregissent, ecce 
predictus procurator aduenit die dominico in albis, sicut promiserat, 
portans secum que ad usum pauperum Christi erant necessaria. 

xli. Et'^ cum ad mensam sedissent, predicta auis sedit in prora 
nauicule, sonitum faciens expansis alis sicut sonitum organi magni. 
Et tunc uir Dei agnouit, quod aliquid sibi indicare uoluit. Fratribus 
uero aurem intente ad uocem auis prebentibus, ait eis : ' Deus dis- 
posuit uobis' quatuor tempora, usque dum finiantur septem anni 
peregrinationis vestre. In cena enim omni anno debetis esse cum 
uestro procuratore, | qui presens est ; in dorso uero belue pasca 
celebrabitis; set in hac insula nobiscum usque in octauas pentecostes 
remanere* debetis. Apud uero familiam sancti Helbey'' natiuitatem 
Domini celebrabitis. Completis quoque septem annis peregrinationis 
uestre, periculis multis antecedentibus, inuenietis terram repromis- 
sionis sanctorum, quam sollicite queritis ; et ibi habitabitis quadraginta 
diebus ; et postea educet uos Deus ad terram natiuitatis vestre.' 
Sanctus Brandanus, ut hec audiuit, in terram se prostrauit, gratiarum 
referens suo Saluatori actiones. Hiis peractis, reuersa est auis in 
locum suum. 

xlii. Porro* procurator, finita fratrum refectione, ait ad eos : ' Deo 
concedente atque adiuuante, reuertar ad uos in die aduentus Spiritus 
Sancti super apostolos cum expensis pro uestris necessitatibus 
oportunis.' Accepta igitur benedictione sancti patris Brandani et cete- 
rorum fratrum, regressus est in locum suum idem procurator. Porro 
ipsi ibidem manserunt ad tempus prefinitum eis ab eo.' Consum- 
[m]atis itaque diebus festis, precepit uir Dei suis, ut se ad iter 
prepararent, ac uascula sua de fonte implerent. Cumque omnia, que 
necessaria erant ad nauigandum, pararent, ecce aduenit predictus 
procurator cum naui sua onerata cibo et potu ad eos. Et mittens, 
que attulerat, in nauim, osculatis singulis fratribus*, reuersus est ad 
insulam suam. Post hec nauigantes per incerta occeani loca per 
quadraginta dies, uitam duxerunt in laboribus. 

xliii. Quadam' die, cum sic nauigarent, ecce apparuit post illos 
bellua marina"' mire magnitudinis, de naribus suis undas expuens, ac 

• Ps. cxvii. 27. 2 Sch.; M u.s. ; S' § 24. ' quatuor loca per N add., 

probably rightly. " R2 f. 108-. ^ Heluey R' ; Ailbei N. « Sch. p. 21 ; 

M. p. III ; S' § 25. ' procuratore add. R' m. sec. (wrongly). * il eut 

pris pais k tous Jubinal p. 83. ' Sch. ; M u.s. ; S' § 26. " maxima R'. 


inarc sicut seua tempestas commouens, que uelocissimo cursu ad eos 
deuorandos properabat. Et cum, uisa hac terribili maris turba|tione, f. 81 '^ 
fratres in se turbarentur, sanctus Brandanus in Domino suo semper 
confidens, ait : ' Nolite e.xpauescere, uos qui estis modice fidei. 
Nonne Petrus apostolus super undas ambulauit, quandiu non dubi- 
tauit ? Mox uero, ut in fide titubauit, submergi incepit. Deus ergo, 
qui defensor noster est semper, ipse liberabit nos de faucibus huius 
bestie. Et non solum a conatu huius belue nos defendet', set de 
omnibus periculis huius maris.' 

xliv. Et" cum bestia appropinquaret eis, antecedebant ' unde mire 
altitudinis eam ad nauim, ita ut ex hoc esset fratribus pauoris maior 
occasio. Tunc uenerabilis senex*, extendens manus in celum, ait: 
' Domine, libera nos, sicut liberasti Dauid de manu^ GoUe gigantis. 
Domine, libera nos, sicut liberasti Danielem de faucibus leonum in 
lacu. Domine, libera nos, sicut liberasti lonam prophetam de uentre 
ceti magni, cum esset ibi tribus diebus et totidem noctibus.' Finita 
uero oratione, ecce alia belua ab occidente ueniens, ignemque ex ore 
euomens, ferocissimum iniit contra aliam conflictum. Tunc sanctus 
Brandanus fratribus ait : ' Uidete, fihoU, magnalia Dei omnipotentis, 
et attendite obedientiam quam Creatori exhibet creatura. Modo, 
karissimi, expectate finem huius belli, quod bestia pro nobis contra 
bestiam pugnat, et nil nobis nocebit, set et materiam laudis Dei nostri ' 
ministrabit.' Et hiis dictis, bestia persequens dirupta est in tres partes 
coram altera reuersa est post uictoriam ad locum unde uenerat. 

xlv. Altera* die uiderunt quandam insulam ualde amenam ar- 
boribus plenam. Appropinquantibus autem ad eam, uiderunt 
partem illius bestie occise in litore maris. Tunc sanctus Brandanus 
ait fratribus : ' Ecce,' inquit, ' pars illius bestie, que nos deuorare 
cu|piebat ; modo uero eam deuorate, et de eius carnibus reficia-f. 82» 
mini. Longo enim tempore in hac insula morabimini. Leuate 
ergo nauiculam nostram in altum, et querite tentorio vestro locu