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.■ i 
















i'lN 24 1098 


liio-raiiliicul Sktrtoli af WiJIiom Farr, M.D-, D.C-L., C.B., 


- VlJ-XXIIl 

PAltT 1.— PoruLATios. 

Detailed ContenlTt 

lutroduciioti ... 

1. ScopGof Inquiry at First Six CcuMUK)» 

2. Uaion or Itcgutrutiou CouDties 

3' UoQKt 

4^ Numbcra - - _ 

5. Density and Proximity 

6. Sexes . . . , 

7. AgCT - - . . 
B. Civil or Conjugal Comlilioii - 

9. OcciipittioDS 
10. Infiriuilithi 
Jh Economic ViJuu of Population 




Detailed Cootcnis 


1. Mnrriago iind Prtwperity 

2, Murria^s iu &uecca»iive GeDeraliont^ 
;j. Martiago ^uhod:< 

4. AffCB at Marriage - 

tt. Marriagcji uud Kdigioufl Worship 

6 Ci.'Ttified Piacus of WonLi]! 


76 -HO 


Detailed Contents - - - 

Introduction - . - - , 

1. Birth liepstration and Itirtb-mto^ 

2, Fecuuility of Mnrrinpe 

3. Illegitimate llirtUn 

4, Sex Proportion at Deutli 

fl. Dofe-'H of Ulrlh UeppliTi SralisTios of First Bum 
A. Still Itirtfis .... 

- P7-PS 

- 93-1 0(> 

- lOU-104 


- 10:i-Hl7 

■ n>7-nm 
n 2 


PART IV^DrAtiih. 

Detailed Cootentt .-_-.- io9-lto 
iDtrtxIuction ----_-._ U0-]16 

1. Death-rates, their ConetitulioPi Had their &i|fnificancc bb Tifiti of 

Ueallh and Health Progrem . . . _ -116-146 

2. UrtanaDdltiiralMortJilily - . - - - 146-lTS 

3. MorUlUyat DiffcrcDt Affju ----- -179-183 

4. Tnfafit ind Child Mortality ----- IS8-30» 

5. CmiWH of Death (General) I theJr Nomenclature, Cla?<Jsification, and 

Mortality -_-... 209-317 

6. CauFee of Death : Epidemic, Infcctioun, aad Zymotie Di«ea.^« - 317-392 

7. Clas^ and Oef^upatloDal Mortality ----- 393-411 

8. Mctporologj and Mortality ----- 411-417 

9. Mortality in Public InatitutioiU - , , . - 417-438 
10. Marriage and MortJUily ..... 43S-441 

PART v.— Life Tableh. 

DeUilcd CoQtODft --.._-.. 443 

Jnlrodaction - . - - - - ■115-447 
EitractB bcariag upon the Construction, Stgnifieanee, aud Utility of Life 

Tftbles 447-494 


Det«Ued Conteotfl - - - - - - 405 

fntrodncllon .--,,,-- -197-498 

1. ^ckness, and Health Inanranee - - - - - lOS-Al? 

2. ElementaT}' Education . - - - - - 517-5as 
8. Civil Re^Btration of Marriajc^^. BirthSj and Dcathn - - 5S3-531 
4- Cost, end the PrcMnt and Future Economic Value of Man - - 301-537 

5, JtiAk of Fatal Accidents, and Inmrance again^ Death or Injuiy 

through Railway AecidentB - - . . - S37-544 

6. Family NomenclatuTe in England and Wain - - - 545-550 

APPENDIX.— Fabh TBBTiMOtfiAL FuwD - - , - S51-556 

INDEX --.-.*- 597^363 


Tim »ug}n»tiunv wbkU led lu tlus inception of bhio work hw\ \\ivW 
origin m thn Meeting; of the SfLUitary Xcsiiuiie of Gn^nt Brilutn ia 
Gla-^K^Wi i" ♦fuljr I8ft3. 

l*rofe;»or W. T, GainUier, In Jiia Address as Pni^iknt of ila<^ nx-lion 
on " Saniliiry SoJfocc nriil l*ivvrtntive Mi^licinvt" t\vrv\t forcibly upon 
ilic work of WiUiaos Farr iu llw fieM of Sanitary Sck-ncc lie 
su^^eteii ttkut Uio inniitmi; i>liouUI lake eUfps tu ptibliaU u »ele<-lton 
rrom his fitaltBtic-al work*, which oiijufit ^erte aa un eixlLiitQj; ukOLumetil 
of hlj4 fiunc, "TUv iMMt of all |ioMiblc nionmnciilM tivforu the li'sn^ci* 
'* of Im life and cUaractrr Jmvc ceiuied to bt vK Ully present to us," 

ImnK^lialdy iiftcr the AtMrcfiff as CIninnan of tlip Council, 1 
|>iDmi9CiI ihnt thu *ubji-(-t stboiiM buvv Ui^ vari^iul con»iil«ralioD of llie 
C^QUncilf and, tliat if |>0H>iiUe, tlitr proportion »lioitld bo caiTicd into 
rJ1ix!t. In iho following Dccetnber the- ^g£c*tton vFtut con*\iUirt:d liy Uie 
Council : nnd u Coniniilteis cotiTtintiiijc of itjf4i-H« aa Cliairman of Ujf* 
C-ouDoil, Profo«3or Corfield, Dr, CollingrJdse, and Profcwor Itobinson, 
wn.H appoiiiiiM to e<inFifleT and report iipoD tha ponibiHty of cAnjhi^ 
out l)r, (Ini]di>cr'8 proposition. At a later uaeefiog of llie Couudl, 
ihe Ccimmiltrr «ra» 4tmpowonHl to rarrjr out ihc projioml. and lUn 
n)i]Hjir>[in<'[it of Mr. Nool A. ntiin{ilin*y« nH Kdilor vaa Manoticned. 

'n»» jiiiMlcntioii of n dccpawd Acthor^ii work* not Waif afaMilntnly 
provided for by tin? rcgulntionx under wlucli tlio SauiUry Toxtltulu of 
Great BrilAin vhm eetJibtij^lLed, it u-ju Miouf;tit Wtt lo ptib^iMh tJiA work 
by HibjkcHplion. Tlio Cominiltc^t irith l]io »ai^ctit>n of ibc Council, 
uvtted A circular^ in Jane I8^^4| ti> thooc intcreaCcd in ^anilAE^ mwiko 
and Ijnahh |)rogre9«t, ^Ulcb coulainrd tbc following pAragrapbn . — 

" It hn^ bn}; txTvu the source of mxicU rt-^ei nrnvo^^t flludvatn of 
" Vital SiatlMlc»i as im^II as aini»n|> thjtfc piacltcally JntrrnMcil in ihi* 
" brancl) of Sanitaiy Sffi^ccs that the vnJiabkr stlatitttJcal vrork of the 
" bto Dr. Winsam Karrj 0.1S>, F.B.S,, is, from tiiu form and ntAaoi^ 
'* of its jtublicition, not f^rac-rAlly aviulnble. 

■•Tlie^aitary ln4titul» of Ureal nriinin, liavin^ hjul fbodcairtr fot 
'* the publiuaiion of iheGc «tnti:«lk« praned upun iu notice by iboM- 
" c«|Aldo of fonning an opinEou of th« wlvania|;vA to be derived there* 

** from, and bemg fullj impi'eaded with the value of Dr. Farr^R work, 
'* propoaea to publish b Bclection from the official rcportis pnpcrs, and 
" addresses, whieh were coDtributcd by that eminent statistician. 

"Mr. Noel A. Humphreys, of the RpgiBtrar-Generurs Office, has 
" conseoted to undertake the eelcctiou and editing of thiti mcmorijil of 
" Dr. Fair's statistical labours, which ezei'ciscil fio markeil and so 
** beDeficial an effect on the sanitary progrcsH of England during the 
" forty years of his official career." 

The result of this circular was a list of upwards of 500 sabtcHbeis, 
thus assuring the successful realisation of Dr. Gairdner'a ^uggoj*tion, 
which can scarcely fail to confer a benefit upon all intorcsted in the 
Hcience of Vital Statistics and Public Health. 

As an eameet disciple of Dr, Farr, it gave me the greatest pleasure 
to assist in pressing the claims which Ub i?orks liave upon our gmtefid 
remembrance before the Council of the BritJ^jh Medical Association, 
when I was its President, and also before the Sanitary Institute of 
Great Britain. 

AlFJCKD CAlft'KNTKK, M.])., 

(MMirMVN of tin- T'lrMNI- 

of the 



WILLIAM FAUll, M.D., D.C.L., C.B., F.R.a, 

Tbia memorinl voltim^ of selootionfl from Dr. WilUftm Fnn''' tiicrftrj 
work in oonntxion with vital stnti-^tic^ woiilil ha itic(>mi»Ii<ti? williout fi 
lTlnf*Tnii)iiak1 ^k<!idi of i\w auitior. ITie itoiy of bia uncvdiiftil lift^ 
liowcvd'i cnatnly cond^ of n cbronologicsJ \Ui of tlio jiroJudioiw 
ofliiR pt^ti, 

Willimn P»rr vsn^ \x\m ftt K^nlcytA mnalL, imcioaT, and Rmcit« villjign 
of Sl]ro|i»1iiro, on 3O1I1 N6Vi*mbor 1807. His ^lUKKntlior wfttm arnftl] 
ftrmri' in ihnt parish, while Iti^ [Mrirnt'^, who wr*^ in tiumbli* dn^iiin- 
Alaoc^, mi^ilod <!ui-ly m tbeir iiiJirrtuil lilV i^ Don jngiOQ, a strmW town- 
^liip Gix or E(*veii mitc£ frcin Shrewsbury, ileit, while ho was Ftill up 
iDnAnl, h(T wntf Adopted hy Mr. Joflcpb Pr)'Cc, kIihosI tho only well-to-do 
resideDt of ihe ndfEbbourhood. Dr, FArr, in a tkeich of hi* cou-Jy 
Tfloollw lion's to bP ottllixl '*'rhe I-tfu of n ^Ivillcnl Stutlcn*," wtiiob hft 
bOKiui tu 1S33, but (lTl^uJ'lu[mrl:^ly tit-rvr cutopliH^Hl, thu» ^Uudvi to li» 
|>*roikt» nud bi« fjirltotft jrciura :*— *' My taoiiwv wjis youn);, ami T wa* her 
" ilml child. At the ngc of Iwo y<?iu-A I left my p^rontA ; 1 Oa dciI 
" lYmbGiabcr Uviu^ witli iWici* My mc>ihFr waa * extreme in nil \ aKq 
*■ wa« A Wttoum of riolonl ftttochtnoiit &iul ItTinpitr, roliring Ai^d «<k]itary 
" in hoT habitc, of n ntrooj^ miod, flblv and iiictioiyl to suUsiiit or; il^f, 
*' S\w WAS niligtnim from duty and f<^i' onni<'mU'ncjf mth^r tlmn frotn 
<* impnlso or fooling, nnd hnd n. good ileal of Kftpemtition in hor Inrn of 
" mhd. Theehtnwtorof my f«ihor wn* wiry diffpn'Jit ; hnwitifpirtl* 
" uaiurod, ftonsible, RtmigbtforwArJ, a Cbristl/ui m fnjlb, iWling^ and 
^ simplicity of beurt." Although bit dtJ not livo with hin parents afU?r 
he WM two yeuni ohi, he mtut bare hocti ihem freiiurntly, aA they livi^l 
ftt Dorrifisloo aft^r Ihotr mi^jfttiou from Kcniey, at any rat? until tbo 
death of hin lootlioi' in l><4a. ilia father »ptai the hut ycnrt of hid life 
with bb sou, uml died ia 1804 at Dr. Farr'a bouse at Bicklt^, Kent, 

Of h» benefactor and of his childhood^ Dr. Farr thus spoakj ia his 
rccollcctioaj ;— " To hiui 1 owo my «da<^tion, tho uio»t coimtatit and 
■■ tender care, and an rxmnpk of bejievolenoc and inli^grJly. Wonlj 
" that I could aAt\ a monioDtV dtiration to his mcDiory ! When 1 llntt 
" recolkcl Mr. l'ry.-a h<- innMl luvc been bctn-^en 70 arn! f^ je^a^ of 
"* mgB ; bU bcslth was iHicat^ his sc<ii»ets wUb Ike excqdton of U^iinnif^ 


*' w«n* QCiit^, hi* liliDd van vigoroiis anil aciiv-e* Dorringioii » & vilUje 
*' «i(tiac«(l G| miles from Slirrw^ibury. It liei ofi UiO llerflivil Koa^I : a 
■' brook fiowtt thruagb lu meftdowa ; ilie Lawlejfttiit Caradoc il^u in 
** tlic UiBtance, Noptraoo. no iktoloftiioxTmtlatKleil propn(?li>r> Iiv^h! 
** ID it, JosqHi pTjco w» llw ujuuT!^ a» lie vtah iiol otilj^ tlie ridicet, 
*' but 1li« ino»t iufltiGDliul luau i[i tbc |jlac:e. His lioust* vr&f^ conntAiitly 
*^ open to ^li€ poor; W garc ihciii coali^ uiul fooil in irinlrr, pniil the 
■' apotliecury vrlieii ihcy vero tick, cAUtbitsUcd n Onjr ecJiool. »t;|>|)oi toil 
" A Sunday »>chooT, Mttl vtw tbc pnnci|iHl TouqiUt and »tiiy o( a plani^ tit 
** n^ligbufl wursliip, Hlii aciito iiil* lU'cV, lits olToctiMi, hi§ lo\r t^r youfig 
'* cbildroii, his bencvoletici', it^raunol uncIouiUxl to tbc hut. At hnifit< 
" I vfo* B Hpoitcil chiliL 1 nlwAyi took rcftigo btlwci^n Mr. J*r}ix*ii 
" knGOA when Uur wind blew bi;?b. 1 ^Lo not recalLect th€ lim« when 
** ] could nut nuid, juid ufUT iht* ibt[iii;> f^hoi>l wont to I^on^n^ir Kcbonl, 
" tl^L^ii tbe \Mat lu llu! iielgbbuiirhfHjd, :ibuut ft mik' aud n bnlf from out' 
" rt*Mono,'- « • • Xlpp frchfJuliUA^Icr van idK" mid i.-inplj-bcadi^b I 
" IcnniLH) writtEi^ And uccE>iint:(, but did mil ut kU tlLntin^ui^li nijMrlf. 
*^ Tbc rookery and lu^l-poivU I ivmcmbor Jislinctly, but th<^ rvfil U 
*■ eonfu^on. Mr. Pryoc enabled B. Jotioj lo opcu a day Bebonl| I 
" AniniiL^d my tfcliool orTu<wltQD horr. I rr-oil Euglifb ht*>t<"'yi nnA wat 
*' tftugkt KngliJilt ^mmrjmr, gBOgntpby, und Lnriii^ by Mi', Itoyrioii^ i]ia 
" loail dU«*ntTn|; mtn\%Utr. Mr. Rpynon t«k« !*onko credit lo blmaelf 
" for m^ i-nrly instnicrtimi : lllt^ ibongb vory much uid*>blrd lo 
** Mr. Bi^ynon In suv«nd ri^Mp«oi!*» 1 nxii Horry u* *ay tlat I bnnu'd very 
'* Uttlu gntmtnar or Latin froai him'* 

From tiii-Ac fitOH it i:< evident Ihnt Dr. Kurr^n c^iliiciUioniil ^ippor- 
lUQittoH in cliildbood were few, uwd uf n muat elemeoUiry cbivrflcter. 
HiH rral eduejition, nnd hi« ela:r??ieal nn<l iiiitthcmjUiad fUH|nimncLits 
were mainly (Ilk^ lo reiiitiui; and priviUt i«tud}'. Kwu his op|>ortntiilfe3 
for Ti^uliug in Iilk curly ye*rs wore very rescrtcleil, as may l>e jmlged by 
the fulfowtn^ extrHGt from his njcolloclion* : — " Ouv own librurv wAi 
^* limited ; its moat coaHpicuous ornjuiioiit^ wort' * ]lrook'« Gnzettecr/ 
" 'Tbo Wbole Duly ol' Mmi,' * «Hirin> Uefl(*ctions/ Timothy I'riiwtley'n 
'' Folio )iibl<f| liU'l vnrioua old theological worh^ The piclores in tho 
*' old lilbte were u fnvonvitc ^Indy. With whnt ghosMy IVari and yrL 
*' curlofttty, did I look ou tbo griju, grinning, bal-winged devils lor* 
'* im-ntin){ panr Job, and bU wifu motierin'; ibrougli iheni, ' Curst' God 
" ' &nd di<j/ Ailvv leaving iscliool I rrJid jls inuny workti us cnuio iu my 
'* vfuy. To Mr. J. PnliuL-r I tun mucb indeblvd; be leul uie 'Sjuitl)*» 
*" ' Nniurrtl History,' nod ■ Uollin's Ancient History.' To Lfttici a good 
■■ donl of ntl^ntioiL wols puid, and about 1S23 (at 16 jcftre of ago) I 
•' comincnccil Iciirmn^ Hcl^^ew^ whlc-bt with the bclp of * Parkbui'sl^s 
*^ ' DIctionAry/ 1 wta nt liut ablo to rc^id tkcantly. About this time 
" tbft Itooke [ itiul U'ei'if abnost eiEctufiiveiy tbeologiciil, und unnie 
" ivligioni rHendH thought I tnigbt innko n jifaelier of tin? Word." 

He waaao constjmt j\ tl^^voun-r ot" books ibnt bis be nefa*^ tor would 
«y, ■* flo» look ID the glnsn ; wbeu thou waat ft little lad thy Fnce wft» 


** rfH^ aiul L\>u»il, now, wlui t, tUin yellow cli^olc thou biuft i& lU place i 
'< nil U brouifUt on hy thin rcaJing, morning, noon, mkI iklghl I *' Ho 
vx|biVkM«-« li^tt o1>ligiittOfi4 to Ltif rriftnilly lulcivourw with tfio WiUinins 
fnmily of Rytoti: "thoir h^ti'^Ij ri^Anml nml oiulnrgi^l my vi<*^fl, niwl 
" dn^w nir into the jKirUl of iuliniiv thouicht.^' Ho thiui rdroKp^ctivdy 
^mmiuise^ tlic silviuiUgcH uid dianlvanUgea of hia briii^fn^ n^j : — 
" Tbc adtkntiii£c« I cojoyftl* ihr privations uiid Ibc terrors under ^vhich 
** I labour^t), are obvioaf^. In point ofbirlii I wan favoured : my|>arentB 
" iK**rp. bontihy, vigormi^, and njornL My ititdk^ctunl anil in^guiHtiT^f 
'* facuMed wre not 0*velcn>e<i in a fu1>tk- **cliool. Dor by th<? oxninple 
" and cxi:it«D)enl of cultiratcHl miiKl.i nround mo. Left to my»plf my 

l£ hhniiii-t^eclb yenr, jncLiiiatioii,orchiQcetOr aooiabiaAlionof both, 
nt^itcnr to hhve tiit'rt<d bU utteniiun towiirdrt ntCiltCiU fCutty. Ho 
wriiea: — "^klrao npoibecariM ia the neijrbboiirbDOiL scvem! limea 
** expri'ssetl n ni^b to bu^x mo fur » pupil, the objection to which w» 
*■ tli&i Mr. I'ryco caiiltl nut npure me, m iio (kpeodird upon inc lor tlio 
'■ nuuiAjTcmi^iit of bi» buhlnc** ikdhirii. Ik«id»i, tha old gcoIlcmnQ bftd 
'' £»uc)i » Ibiid nltnchiui'Dt to nw, that liu «oiiUl At-jirccl/ ri>l when J >na 
'' out of hh «igbl fvr no trutirv duy. lit Mny lH2t^ Dt, Witbbter oklkd 
" niocidc It tolly ono cwiibig, Tht^ * Eocyclupo^bi Mctropolitiiitn,' and 
'* th«» ' Qullrt4^^!y IC«vjcvr ' vontiiiciDj- no iirticic on 'Conington' by 
" Dr. Ciooeli, wont c^n ibo inblc- TliU imil odi^r mjiit<ii-rt vrorv dJ»oiiftfed. 
" Tbv Doctoi'n wAt m itriking nad originU raiDd. Kud left lui i>iipnNr«.iou 
*^ not to poM hway. I called ojt bini wbco I noxt wout to Shr«w«biiry. 
'* Physic *c*€mofI n fie-ld op^mpil nil nt otco hrforp ro^. Th* pUn 
** Bilgg*st«l wiui faiMblf, pljLUpible, nnd ^i^Ucnt. t wwi to tlady with 
** O. Wobctor, under tb^ doctor, bccomo n drcfiser of Mr. Sutton's al 
" the ihfttuMty, nail bi- nomiuully itpprfnticud t> Mr. Wykc. Oil 
*' \VbJl*Moiidjiy, )u Mny iS'2i\, 1 i^nlkcd lo -Shiewubury and cnllM on 
" Dr< Webster, Throufil ibis ^tiniuier I ec«7 dny walkod to Sliri.'WT». 
" bury, drwj^id paticrU it the Ictinnary, rend with Dr. Wobsler, ntid 
'' rtituroevl homo nt cvi^ninfE, ni*iu^1y 14 mWe* ibcro nm) W'k. As 
*■ winter came on a^»ood bay mart^wa^ ptjit-ba^Kd^uod I rode toShrmirrt- 
" bury every day for two ywin^, Sundays excepted. I ihun becaino 
" tokrably acqujitnloJ wall the manual and prACtical art of chirui^rie. 
'^ Snttoi: was very kiiitl and p^tlciuanly in hw munn^rx. and aJa'nra 
** look ni(< to his prUate i>]>eratiou:i. W^lh Ur. WobHter I studie^l 
" aoatomy in Fife, Wo read Colsu^ and Gregofy'a 4'onspfcta^. 
" Tliu judlcioux and eii1ighlene<l dirocllun, ntid ttie elcratod lone, 
** Dr. Web«tvr g&vt? :o my ^1itdk«p Uid ihu foundation of nil ] ah all 
** fiTcrdo tbat la un«tful or t^ood- Mmny |w»0 itic Qrvit yrans of their 
" flcicutl&c carear under well*liifonniHl inOn-Hirioiia men, few, ind4*vd, 
** under the f<yo of a man of i^tiiiiii*. My iccdical reading vtan mivcd- 
*■ Inntr^ue, Aod wna gmdually prolonged in t1»c frrcininga Ull luidnight. 
>' Witk a CnrlioanriBt from Turin, a Roman pntxioi, Dr. Wcl«cr an<l 
*■ J read Iinlinn^Boccareio, Duite, Arioilo, Tuseot Allkri. My h<^nhh 

"* cotiriikiKHl gowl till Oi^ fliiifimn of IX2H, wh(»n 1 h;t<) Jirnttt hrMitrhitif. 
*■ During my ilhiHu Mr Prycn vrux iriddAliKnlilA in hli* eare for my 
'* rftft)vi>ry." 

Dr. Fair's bendbctor, Mr. Pfyop» who vm a bAcholor, ftod 1^ yom 
of nfte, m^ iici^ccd vriUi pDi^utDonift in Novt^>ur of tk>e same year 
(]6£H},and died ufter a few d&jfl' illnea^ lenvins a Ir^tniey of 50(V. to 
promote thr^ iiliiciition »di1 mlrnncctn^Dt of WiHrnm Fiin^, llieri 21 jean 
at 11(0. H« remoiDed At Dorrin|;too till Ibe foUowlag April, find in 
Uity 183d Mt Shrewsbury for I^odan ; after etaying thcr^ for a frv 
wc^ft 1h> prooMxIod to Utv Turn Unifenuty to p«o«ectil«f ht» medicftl 

Dr, \\\ W Bflln, who etijoyed an inlimnto nnd unln'okifn frieiiflfib^ 
vith Dr. l^iTT of mom thao fifty years durAlioTi, writ^i :— *' 1 first mcl 
** Dfi Farrtn pAriA in th? 1>ogititiin|* of 1^30, when 1 went to fitudy 
" there uAor liAviiij^ |w;(^d my Hurgicol oxMninAtioi] in Edinhiiif^h, iiml 
" took lod^ngs \n ibe Hoitl d6» Grf% where ht, luul Ix-en r<-&iding 
** #ociM timft, Wf^ bccnmo ititimftt^; nnd aLt^ndc^l li;cLurc-^ together. 
" Thiire wns ibcn a j[oo<1 deal of liiul footing amoii^^t thu loirturenL, | 
** rciDcmWr at odo of Liafmnc'fi lecturer m Iji Piti^, m fipe&kin^rof 
■* Dupaytreu of tbo iioti-1 E)if-ti, on tlio bnnkfi of the .Scinp, hi^ CJdkd 
" hlni 'Cc bi^jTAQf] Bu iK^iti do Teau.' TLe revolution of iltily tP^ve ij» 
** a good upj)0rt4iiiity of Jtcctn^ gurjtJiot t^'ouiiilit iiml t1u-lr Lrv'iktinciiU 
" The Hot«l Dieu, La ChAritt^. uud IrftPiClf^, vem fuTi of iiidi i-jlnob.*' 

Dtiitog bis two ycaii>* iw^Utjcc in Taris IJ''» Fhit nitctidt^d IJio 
Uetnrcn of Ordln^ Louis, Dupn^tronf and Liafrnntrmi t-ori^UH hmnnlicj* 
of medioal ntrionot* i of Antral on bj-gich<* j of Gny Luwiic and TKt-nnrd 
on cli«>aaULry; ^f Pouillet on natural pbilfuopby ; of GL)o0<>rv ^t> 
Hi hire, Diimcnl, aod Bliktnvilb, on pcmpuraliv^ nanJtamy and 
pTivi4JrtIngi" ; (;f CiivW "n thv bisfory of nntnral boiV'm*^'*; anri of Ouiittd 
nnd VilUmaiii nn bi*l*iry and litrinliii-p. It woo Jiiring Ibo pmir^o uf 
bin »tudl^ in Pam that ihe uiibject of bygienCp and of mtnlioA] filatiKtirpt 
h«Aring ibet^on, began to attiact hi« j^pecial atleDtloitt nnd to <*ngrOfl[* 
hit* iiih^pi'Slp 

On Wvinu i'nri8i Dr. IVr mid Dr. Umn travelled in SwilKcrltind, 
and thi' bitt*'r writ^:— "I bad innwy opportiMdlirA of studyini^ nnd 
" mlmiring my fiit'nd'ji'characJor, In n diiiry whkdi I kopt of our Torn-, 
*' I Dnd recorded ibnt 'Mth F»rr, wbile of a simple ilispiwition, U 
" ^ nndowvd with a VAatneid of Ideai and a philosojiFiic mind/ He »nTe 
** ©ridence tlien of obsrtrntion ftml resraroli. I well rfnicniln'r tbr 
** flCuDe ftt onr inn al MuHigirvT wbtn, nlla- n wnik (o see ilie ceJebmUtl 
** wAlerfftlt about four miloH awuy, I i-olunit-d wrnry nnd bungry to 
" dinner. To my *iirpriHe, I found the ealrance blocked up by at Itofi 
*' n hundrivl of tho.^o miNerablo b^ingf, Ibe CrClin^, M'Iio inhnbiled the 
*' Vatuls in great iiumberg, On inquiry of the lamllorl In? told mc tliflt. 
" IIh^ grnitemnn fnsido luui comiuitwiocied him to get together aA ninny 
" Cri*li»B fts lir f.'ould»so tbul be inl^ht c-xumine them, AfKl" some 
** dJJUculty, I vred^ud my viuy uii*j tk vwrn^ yvbctv Mr, Fair vrn.-» atnnding 

" with Ji \nbh uift numer^oua Inifp: sUccCh oC jiAjier before liinL, «n vbicli 
<* }itj WRFf Rtjuking tlio 8k*pc« cT Iho <ltirct-(ii>t hon<l4 of wliich 1k^ hnd 
*^ provioujl/ tnlccn thccontoariE vctUcalljr niul horifiontALly by mccrn* of 

On hi** I'^tiirii to KngluTtO, nfUir Nponding n ithort time in Tendon, 
(luring wburK ha npponr* to Jhivcj ofitnEn<*iK*i-il a (*onr*.» of tludy ill 
tJniveisifj' d>!k»gi\ Williitm Purr wont Uavk to Slirewnbury, juid, 
pi-o^nbly throtigli Ififf inflnoitco of hi>^ friortd Dr. Webster, wiw AppoinU^I 
iottmt ifn^nt for the llo^uu Surg**on of th(j CJly lufirmair, who had 
lKM*n tpnnind aix icoDlbs leave for thi> purpose of ohtAiiilng n i^ccoiid 
ijUftlilic^ion- At the clojc of this six months tUe HoiiM" Sui^^" 
n^tumeil, Wt withoul ht^ lutititiooAl qaalincaimD. nnil (h^ Oovemon* 
tf ihc Inftimiirj, obli;^ to appoint a enrgoon witfi the doublw *itiBli- 
AcfttloQ, ii«]iH:tC(l Mr< YnvJIi^y, whose brother is etiU (18W5) View of 
Si, CJiad^, Shn>wvbui'y. That William Fair fulULlei:! his ho^pitAl 
ilutieA to thv L^Titii'O NUt^fiiclioii of th(^ pupUs, limy bti itifeircd frum 
the r«ci that thej pre^onted Uloi, on hi» Imviu^, with a feilver btluII- 
box. At I.Uu Limo Dr. Karr vru willioiit Aiiy nit^ilic&J qunhflcAtion, or 
it is more tban pfobftble that h« wouM Uitvc tweu appoiated to Uio 
THoint |>04U It is imi>os?tihk to regret what trat to him, wo bdiere, the 
caow oF tcn^or&r; disAppoioOneDC, for ha^l Or. Karr btn-u appolntod 
HouaeSdi^geoi] of ibo Shromburjr Inllriiiiuy in tf43L, [bocbniicefl of hi» 
Hnbtequont ilevi4loa to moiliCBl luid %ilal ^tatiAiics would have boco 
cvcoedingty omall. 

Hi9 SlireviTfbury oxjwiicuce would appuar to havo l*^ Dr. Farr lo 
loM no Diorr limn in ciiinlifyinj^ himself for ptnctScc. During thr 
fQU<iiriiif; two ycnrd b« attav]ke<l hitavelf to Uittvtivtfit} CoUt^^e^ wIhto 
ho contJmKNl hw couno of mpdlcal vtodioa, attimdmg tlipo l^ctnrM of 
Oraal, CarAvill, J^nnw, KlIEotAoo, ami oth'>r*, la Mnrclt^ 1832, bo 
|HU#rd hU exaiainAlion for tltii IaH.A. nt ApoVhrrjitiVV HaI), whi-^h 
waa the odIj laedical <iuali6catioa he obtained Ei^tcept tfco honomrjr 
■lcf:m4 aftcrwftnlj< confftrrwl upon him on Ihc grouoil of "high 
urientiGc acxiuinmcntft/' 

Iq 1833, Dr. Knn' married i* Miw Ijincfoi^, of I'ool Qiuiy on lh€ 
Severn, betn'eon Web^bpool And iShreweburj', and ^fttiwanU ruidcd in 
Gnl^on Sli-oetj FirJioy .S<inan% v,-hm' he commcniK^I lh*r practice and 
tencliiiig iif uKMioims To *iiipi>leiii«nt u pi'obably prentrious incoaw 
Ue aboat this timo wrote lor various nkndiinL journals, maiidy an 
Klibji^ot^ conuoclffl with viUl stali^lica. He atUingried to vstabliah a 
COUMO al Lecturos oil wliat h; cMlcl llypi«lo^y, bjt in thi» r«>|Hrct h<< 
waa ahf«it of \m lime, for no ptibLio licensing botly in Ibc L'ijite<l 
Kiat^Uom at ihia timo reco^ifeil <^~cii tho dcairabititj of |ml>lic Ji<ui]th 
kcturvii. Thii fubjpci ninittr of Ibt-^o piuptwoti I<H:turi<;i fomioil :ibt}itt 
\\m ftjut* €»C a loijg wiim of p^ipviA L-onlriliul*id lu llio '* Liincot," 
Br* Waklcy, thu Atundci, pioprictor, and editor of that jouraal, bcin^ 

* 6vu LamH, lob If, l«aJ-«. 


oiM c^ Um Inl to r^oopklM Hio orE^IiiMl Uknt <J ililj* vomig Mdikttt of 

In 1837, iti cot^'unciion wiib Uiu friund Dr. K. DunJtta TkouwoUi ha 
edited Uio ^' BrilUb Antuils of Mndit^inK" H« aUo in llio tmtao yoar 
WraiA bin viilimbK* hrtieloo[i " Vital Slnli^tion" in McCn I loc1i*» Acmnnl 
of thcf Dniii^li Kinpii'f^. THia article, from wliirli miiny oilrnctfi wEll h» 
fouiiJ in thiH ^olumr, t^sitnhlijilif^d hiH ckiir la h forcmo«t plnov nraonff 
ftuthimties iipoa lUiri liiihoLto tiiTg^'ctiHl -iubji^cL AUbougli it ih »ow 
Hourly Imlf n ccnniiy «nc"C chi? ariiclc wa^ wnllen, ihero i^ no oilier 
Itealiw on ihn fiu1>Jci:t (dioruugbly ami sounil]) trcultd in nil 'tis bmnclu<») 
t)i at could be- more pi-o^mbly siudiecl byatudentAof \ital ftlAtUlic^ Tbi§ 
firttele may be nUJ lo be tlic* ru(milatif>n rif n mrw wueocc, lo tbe develop* 
ment of wbieb^ with speclul ivfcronce to the iiuproveiuent of puUlfc 
bc»1(b. Or. FiuT do%-ol<^ the gn-iilm" |«irt of l!iv forly-fivo rao^t aciivn 
yeurt of bis iiulnmiitms Ur©. He aUo cuninbttled in lliia ye^i in the 
ISrlltiU AiiTinU of Medicino ** A m(?thoil of ilcl^rmining the dan^^er of 
** Ibn duralion of dL«ciiHrf<At <-vi'i'y pL'TltuI of tb^'ir pi-ogreH»/' l>itrin^ 
tiLi!i your lie IoaI hlA pxtd fiu'rtd L>r. Web^re^, of Hbrewabnry, who It^ft 
htm IX h'i^ney of 6tK)/> l<igcthcr Vfitli )n> Ithniry, 

Amoijg oilier work under taken ui ibU perlo^I. Dr. Fjut U »aiil to 
bnvi; bccj] cngHgfd by Sir tjnmv* Cturkr in u-vt^l bitu lii iviiMng niul 
pn"|i»riijg fbr pro»?» his woik on ''CoJiHUinptiou," nboiit Ebe nnme? liiti<- 
tliHl Dr, Fun's yuuiig tvifc fell n victiin In thij* d!,'*cfl»c. 

In 18«*>7 the civil rc;;Jfllra(iou of hirthr, deiiUiB, tind mtrriagc^ cmne 
iLto operAtiou, liud Mr. T. IT. LUtor wod Appointed tho lii'St Rvj^iBtmr- 
GenornL Thn nocoi^Aily for ^kilhi-l and scientific ni^AiGiniim in Tlw 
fwmpilntion uf stulistiml IaUim from tho Timrrtot^t*, birih, nnd il(*iith 
t«gijil«r« «oon Iweaine ii|ii>nreTit, nitd William Fnrr wnv TorlTinAlel)' 
•tfleclod tnv tho \\iiKt of Compiler of Alufrflf-lN in tlie n^wly (>rpnleil 
Ctrner&l K/'^iMrr Oflire, He miiloubledly uwtJ [be zi|ipurnfiiif'iil 1o 
the reputation be bad earned in tlie licM of mt'dicnl nnd viul p^ratiitiCA 
by his nitick in McCilWh's work, and hy bi_H connibulimis lo the 
" Luiiet'i," luLil other iiicdic«l pnWicidioii!*. Sir Jnnie* t'lnrk*- ia WitA't-d 
to hftvr i»trongly urged the <'lii!m*i of William Fnrr not only on tlw* 
|i;rouTid of Ilia n'ritin^s but from personal knon'led^ of bi« aMlitieH and 
r[QaltlleatioDs for lilcrary work. The rrstilt of I>n Parr^ appoinlment 
upon Euglinh lilal Btiiliafiei*, and indirectly npou benlili pro^^aa la 
England, most fully jur^tilicd tbc arlectioa, mid it i» now interei!iing to 
read in the Rcgi^lrnr'Gcnerar^ First Annual Report llio nnnoiiD cement 
of the uppuintmeutT uml the reference In *' Mr Farr, a j^enlleniRn of tbe 
'' medical profcsAinn, u-ho^e »cienli]tt< knowlcJgc nnd jnliniatc riei|nnin- 
" tftnce with siati4iii<^l inqniries are ample pledges of hia peculiar 
" ^V\e»* for ilie |>o8r." 

Dr, FwT was appobited to the GoDcra) Regi?iter Office en lUth Jn\y 
X%3!9r at tbi.^ modest salary of 350^ per anniimr and thus ended hia 
ranker as a medical practitioner, which ho had T^carcely Keriously 
GommcDced. The text iO yours of liSs life were aliuoHt exclnsively 

naTionnl Bj'jlcm of vital vlAliviioji, v|ik-li lin.» iwt fifiljp iift|HiWi«'d 
vamlarjr qii««tiontt in Kfij^lfinil in voeU n inunnor ah in ivuHrr rapid 
lifTAlili progiv^<fl nn ftrdRi|klivi}i4H| fni^l, bill wtiidi ht\*, pnifrliailly, 1jci<ii 
luJof ted tn nil tlic cirilijccd countnn of tJiti voiUK 

It^ I83H, tlio jear proocilin? his &p|>oii)linent lo tho Ocnc^al Ut<;n*lof 
O'Eicr, h<T contributtxl a iiotikble paper lo Ww " Lauont " on " Bt'Ui-vu1t!nt 
*" FhoeJh, And Life A^urAGcr ill Health aitdDiMftf^": r *' lli«tory oftW 
** Medic-At I'lXtfefMii'^ii, nnd itt inflii^or^ on Hir- Ptiblit! Healtli" lo 
tbc " Hnti*li Mcilioul Almmiiic"; nnd u |>a|H*c on ""nje Law of 
** Recovery and MortiUitjr tn C'bokm Spa4modi<«'* to tJic ** l^cuicel.** 

'Flu* Kint AiintiHl Report of t)i« RogUtmr-GeuiTft) cocitAiria the lir^t 
of thfti loHg seritfa of Hters, addressed to the Kei^istrar-Ucnenil, on Iho 
Cau4es or Dealh iii Cngbnd Willi referfDCe to thix mmarkttbk ^t'tk'S 
lit' Iflti^Ti! iin ^'ininr'iilly conipotrni and thorouj-hly appreciative pen 
\rroti< of llicoi stA ** Uom fli>t lo \n^l mnrkcd by llio tmrnm IuchI 
*^ tntiT^mWing of Ihtf facts ''^^ Mimr* nia^ierly eornmftjut of nJI lli« 
" retourccs or tneihoil and niimeHcul inveftilgatlon, ihe eame noallbctDd 
" «ad vi^un^iu KngU?di, brvid^Jiifc utit i*\cry iioiv sod nguii, when 
" flliiuulalvd by n cli^v view of xoiiio widci gcnrnilitatloii, into }i(L#a^cs 
" of givat 4^I(H(ucDCC And pan^ pMloMxpby." 

Jo tho ftrnt Hoport wdro ftk«tehed (tut varioii» lle)d» of in v est i gat ion 
wbiob it niuilio^pd thfti tb« r««ouroo« of tho denili rcgittvr might bo 
used for cidighlcning ; (leUU of inTi^fcligittion which nfterwArdif uniler 
Dr. Kjut'« R^tATii of eiihivniion, }i<i|d«id an abimdAnt harvent of 
«cif^titie koowMge. One of ihe fii-nl reijuir«m(^tA whieh l>n Fsrr Ktt 
himself to fulfil ^dA a t^ysiem of i^rjitislicat D04oU»fty. Jn thih lintt 
repart, bawd upoTi t!ic d«<i1liv tu iIk" lir»t ha]f-y«ir of civil rveiatrmtion, 
it wrm pointed ont tlat '< Kaoh dima^te ha^, in ruAiiy toHtancco^ bcm 
** denoted by three or four ler wis &nd eaob u^nn ha^ be«ii applied to 
" OA nuiny diflVrent din'^M'^; vn^nc inoonveaierit i^iaes have been 
•* employctl, or complieaiioTu liavc been re^iftU-red hiHti«d of primary 
^* diaeasOA, The tionienehUuK* ts of a« much importance \d ibin dnpnrt- 
^' ment of iiuiuirv n* wei^bi?< and ineaHiireii in tbe pliynteal H^ieDee&i 
»' nad «houU be ectlkd witbont delay/' 

Tbe flabj«ct« botli of nomrndntcre and classificalion of difleawa 
received coontiiaL ittidj and coDaiflemti^u in thc*^ anona] reports, and 
oat of chaos order ftnd gpiem vere oAolved. 

In connexion with liU oiTlelnl coniHburion« to tht R«^«trar*GenertrH 
fbeponn, *]wvial ri^frieiieo ?houM be EDBideto ibu Supplrmenlanr Reporta, 
dealiui; wiih Tngli^lj moitjdjty HialiMlin dunhg ibe two dec^nuui 
1801-00, and 1861-70. Iliase two Rcjiorta, in thn rf>nn of lettera 
oddrueaed lo tho RegtMrnr^Ornerftl, c*j>ecuiUy the la^, polilialiccl in 
1874, take a very high i^tux antiMig vrhit liavc 1»ccn aptly styled iho 
" i^tati«tic&l claa>ie« of WUiiMm Parr." 

Tbe SnppWmontary R«port, dealinj^ with lb» 10 ;ear« I96l-?4\ maj 
b« da^cribod a« the crowning irfTort of Dr. Farr'v labour al tfa« Geikttfal 

liogulcr OfEco, an Uicra U cctirccly n ftobjoot iu tbn wMc Ar-ld ot 
vilul EttatiAtioA irhEoh Fj uot mor^ or l«M exhMUtiroly diwaiUTil lu tluL 
lii^port hr>lh from ft ihcDreticiil nnd n prn^Jit^Al filAnilpoint. 

It U nrri]leB«, IioviWTi*i\ hrm to dilali) upon thn mnff^U i^r tbtivo 
It«port»^ largo propurtiun of which fomu tliL* hulk uf iho itrxM^it 
Tolmoei ohsfliAnl luul amm^ under ftahjcct-headi^j^e for oanvc&tfQiDu 
«f rdWmee, niul ocmmpitnicd by mn alphiilicticitl lUttcXi. 

TliQ henlili Aspect of mortftlity tfiatifiticg urv from ibe flml the aab 
IttsOQ rhich Or. Fait vooght, ftn<l wsu (<tiiin<*nily miooesefal iu bis 
oodMvoitrs t') trftit wilh Ihe hofp of hir* wrlklrviiml nni] louodly- 
ONUtracted Bjettmt of vital slatinics. Ho struck tbo keynof« of Lu 
'lOyeorfi' work lo tho Geneml lEoghit^r OfliC'? h llu^ following wonls 
to be fiiauii ill liift tirstlettei' to Uk Hrat Auuua) R<-jH>n : — *' DimnMS 
*■ are moro ewly |irc^-L*otcd than cuml, nnrt tJ>o ilrst ftU^i to Htm 
** {JTOvcnlion in ihe diMOovury af llieir 4'xntling ouijk?'.'' Vevv iriQ be 
iiioliucit 1odiH|»ul? the beneflcimt tnflocnw of Ur. Fan's vqrk upon 
health progress, cspccinlly in li>vrD«, but the ituilionty fo which we 
hAVOAhoiXT rclened asaotiod ihftt iut -'jndEreti innLH-nrii (mi iiiflc^iicu 
** thfi source f>f 1^'Tilrh muy not bnvc boeii g^neniUy recof*i]iried) ii|>on 
■* piricDicAlniciliciHC'nuj"Clmvr Ihth vrryfjn-rit. The roimlnnt endcaTour 
** aftvr cxju!Iiii;a:( ot dm^tuoMv lutd pLx-ciBlu» of tiumuiicUuiru in tt4«lf « 
" wbotoioiiio lUBcipllno wUich t^>nct« ui^TllAbly ajtoix ti-cniDiciit," 

Iu or nWuL l^lt WiUuitn Farr mjgratcit from Grafion Slrvc>t to 
Stoke NcivingtOTi, mid oiirly in th<^ fohowmg year roaiTicd hin ]<c<:oud 
vnfpy Mi^ M. P:, Vrbitiall, doiiglitor of Jc^oph WhilUll, of Doul, bat 
pi^iouAly of Shropfhiro. Tbc^ iivuo of ihtu ncoorul mnrria^? (hia firat 
wifb died ditldlcAs) wore eight L*bi]ilri>n, of whom one ton and fotir 
dbughlere nurvive'l him. 

The* i^igM of t'l** "Lmif^ol" contninrd mimy mntn'hiitiotj*! fwni hi* 
pen diinng tlwi fiist few yenr^ of hta an'rrio.t iu tho ficncTnl ((i^i^tor 
OfHce, uad it may ho iioied that id 1839 he delivered aii orallon ou 
medical reform Ht tti<* nntnvcntary iiifs^ting of tlic Hritinh McdtOftl 

Dr. Fan's nnmc i»* ospc^ially ijlcntiflejl wiiii the hulory of llic 
Statistical Society, the foundation of Tvldch vma in fromo mcofiTU'C due 
totlie iuatilutiOQ of th^ STatisticAl Sectiou of the Ttritisli Association 
(of which Dr. Farr wii.t lU-so an actiT<^ member), aud to an aitcmpt on 
the imrt of some of il* members lo limit i\s specific objects of inquiry, 
Tlic Statistical Society was foiin(1e<I ou I5th Match 1^34* and Di\ t'ltrr 
WAS dcctcd a KcJbw in IM39. Hi;* iirnt conlribtition to the Journul of 
iho Society w&t a paper on '' The Mortality of l.uiinticH '* in l*^^ 1, many 
rxtractfl from wbich will U\ fotiud in thix volume. In ISifi Le read a 
paper on " Indueiiceof ScjucIiJca and of thr IViccs <>f Wh^at on llic 
"Mortality of the Fcoi)Ic of Kngljind." In 1840 he read n pnpor on 
t3i9"CiTil Sorrlcc of Kiiglimil, wiih obsrrrationii on tho coiisiltutfon 
** of Fiiiida fur Fntlici'U"*?* Cbihli-eu uiid Wijows." In 1902 n pjipcr 
OQ ** Influciicv of Elvvutiou ou iho Pat^lity uf Chukrn.'' hi id.^3 ■ 

jmpcr on "Fncomr niii] Proppttj' Tmx," fhim ullloh (OIito volirablo 
vxInu-'iH iUid place iu ihv rUluwiii^ nctOfltToiuL lu ISA7 ii |npc*r " On 
" Uie Ptty of Uiulsi^rfr of iho Ciwra."* Iu 1805 a |»nptr on " luCiuit 
" MorUlU/r and on allogcd inoccarMcirs of tlic Cc«*uV Iu l^KKiu 
paper on "MorUjity of Cbildr«n iu tli^ principDl Slal" cf Kuropc'^ 
Ilnviiig filled Ui« ofBof^ of TrvMurcr of tlie Socictj fn>m 185^ to IS6», 
1)0 wax cIi^otM Pr<»fliiluDt in IKTl, nn<l df^liroml iniujcunlAJUrMffMat Uio 
opODing oFth« two tfviMiobi of tlio Socioty la 1971-S un4 1872'^ blaring 
both of whioh }\t* WAS Piv^i^ient. HU 1*^1 coiitrihutionB (o tli» Journal 
of llw SfMiiPlv WT»tvi two pnpnr* on tbr " Vnlitnlion af RaiIwa^ TeJ&- 
** f^iphH, Wii1<^r f 'onipfinir^ Canftl*, nwl nlhrr C^oinmntiftl (W«*rns, 
<* with Pi'o.*jHN?li^'L\ Upferr^l, lEio»wi>ing, Dry^r^A^dtig. or ToniiiriAting 
** ProdtB.*' Thestf>cr* vrcm r<-flfl in 1873 ftntl 1876> TJic sclec- 
tiom ia ibitf VDlutn<» Iiavi^ of ncoffvity livfii nhiiojlt rxc-luxivcly r-onfiiwtl 
to purely filal siatlE4i<!^ and llierelbre iudiidt? lio exIracU Dx«a loaoy 
of IhcM ]Hi|KT>t, vrhicii, allhon^li <ltf9tf*rv(r<lty hc-M in liigh rrpcite^ d#^ 
wtth snbjocta whicEi could not be bo clns^, 

Dr, F&rr luul »o ofHrnl connoxion uilh lh«' (Vn«it«i of 1^41^ n1lliot]f>h 
M» onroCAl ivpro»?ntilio»> on lUu fuliject pi-obnl)l;r com1ncri*d to ibc inquiry 
of thot ycnr including n comploti^ cntnnvmrton of ilic a^^c^ of the people 
whkb luul been omttu^d a1 tb^ pn-uouH CeaMtH, At mob of llir thnM> 
follovricg CcnsuGi^f Uc wim nppoiiiiL^I im Afslfltani C^mQiid«ioner. aul 
DOl only bad tho tiaLixtiojU ooutn>l of tbf> publiKhrtl tnblos buL wrote^ 
Hitlibul iocoM>OJerAbIe GKcqmionfl, tlm vrboJe of lJi« Coiisos Kcport^ 
fo« 1851 1 \^lt mid 1H;i. ihr^ Ibn^c ebibomie reports contuiii «i>[]io 
uf Dr, FnrrN lit-st worlc, nml limvo coiitribvitvd libonUly lo ibo ifclecUoua 
in til in luluuitr. 

In the RcgiMtAr Gcncmt'n Fiftli Anirnnl Itrpoit (dnlod Auj^iul 1843), 
w« p«1jli«lic<l Dr- FftrrV English Life TaUc, Na I, ba«rd on the d^^HlLa 
Cu England and Walcn in IBil, nrid on the Cc»»tiA miiuiorntiijQ in ibcr 
Mine yoar. Tlw objoctions lo oucli n»e of tho mortnbty rotiimx for a 
vingle y^»i%ovmi whon tho popuUlion biuz« is n< Inrgo n^ thnt of Enplmul 
ktui Wflln*, nrr obvioii«- bwt Uiu raliMormoitnlity in ibvt yonrworo GiJfty 
RrKmge ralivv ("^ ^^ iP^tdlH of tito Ltfo Tabfo, No. 1 , weta io rfrnark- 
nble ikgranneal wilb tlioec jiold<?d by his aubaequmt UbiA*, irbirb Wla 
fiv nionr cxtcmlexl lKnM«. Tbc Lrfc Tnbk, >'o, S, n'a« pu1>li«br%l in tlio 
TwcfUi Annual Beporlt d«tpd lOib January 1^J3, nnd wm boaad iii>oq 
ibe doaibs in Uic mtcd ycan« ltt38-^4, and tbe eDumenlcd populuion 
in IMI, tho mifldle of Ibiu iioriod. The Lifv Tnble, No. .1, woti pub* 
IUfa«d fts Jk Beparato Tolnme. on tbo authority of tbtr Registrar Q«neral, 
by 7if<*!«rB, I^ougmnii and Co., tn 1H64. Tbi$ Life Tubli' vnu bafu>il iipou 
Ibe 6,470,720 dcAtba re^ifllcred in Koji:Iand und Wnjen daiiu^' Ibv 17 
years ll<d&-34, uml tbi- two Conmis enumerations in IK41 and IHfiL 
Tb<^ title of ibe vrork wn.i "Tible» of LifHimpn, AnDnitiofi, and Pre- 
" miam«, wilb an iutrtKliKlion by ^\lIliam I'arr/' In tli«i Ltfe Tabb* 
I'ltfi of xhxn volutnf will bo found Dsctracls from this totr^a^ 
Uoo> ik«lit3g wiib Ibc gi}ii«ral conntrtKlion «f tlw lablen, I'boic 

InUrrMcd In ihtta moro l^dinioul vnpM?! of iIk" •nljtcr, hd-I f^^pi^Ullv in 
tboioflnito vnrictjr «r foriirih- ilmllag tvitli (lifll^rvrtt t»nticlit-.t of Ufo 
inoniHnMf, nio»t» liuvrcv<T, ho rotcrrvA tc Iho work ilM^lf, tli<^ iiiiroduttion 
to wliich Itnx bvo<i. Dot luappi'opririli^lj-, <!i-fi?ritio<l m ''h I'ory «i|«gftnt 
tn^nllM?,*' Onlj lbo« officially c^nii^iofod tvitli Dr. Parr In ihfi General 
H>'gE4i(-r Ollk^, anil tvlm worknl on ihU Inhoriou* voliinr (ol moro 
Uinn 7U) fngi^ii) uD:kf tii^ ^uperluleiKlorioo, liuil tlio tiioui^ of (uUy 
nnWtnn^ tho unrenilttikf: Hltviilion he ravo 1o every ilMnil of iJio 
irarV, or t]i<? inlAnm ami itnviiryiiif; inti^ntftc le rnnintniiK^il iu every 
vQtSn^iw. proofw, II H iirtt Gii^f U> for^vt ib** 4<x|>r>-?i4]uii uf Jib 
€eanf«naDCo, b^min^ with pl^ii^un^ ftml triuniphi ii1mo<t childlike in iU 
tU)ftllbct«d *imjilk'iiy,Tvhoii (thiriniij the proijrt'Hs of tLa Lifi^ TMt\ No. 3,) 
lie reached tho ofliw ono moniinjjr wilh n *jiin]\ I'O^f or two of MS., 
cKiDtainiDg oif''<»f UiQ4^ fominlfft irliicli \m\ Ukrii liim ri// 'Ar HryAl to 
work nul. 

Before quitting the »:u1>ject of Dr, Ffln'*N l/tfo Tables rel^rcDce aIiouU 
be miulcto tiiN Health/ DEatnci l^if^ Talilo^ vrhifh viix conlrihuteil in 
JSA^to lb* BojaI Socicly, in ft pni»ct "Oh tlio Coinrtiuclion ofUfo 
" Tables iUuplr««"i hj- ft now Lifw Tabit* of rho llcnirly Diatrktfi cf 
" EuglAnd," TbU ia not (ba place ta fiponk rfthe ^alne oftbiit Lifo 
Tabla na ft etanttnnl of lu^timUy nltuiuvtl linilthiiu^^^ In Eu^laafl. 
Kxtrftclh from ihi* paper find pUcu hi ilic Lifv Tn>.>lo Vast o£ tb!n 
volumt*, VfUcn.* will iiW If foun*! rcforcucn lo olhtr lifo-laLltr work of 
])r. r«iT*^ ptibtiiJicd from lioio to tame in tlic Ucgi.-^trar Ovncnil'» 

In or alroul thi^ y<*ar \^^f>, 1>r. Farr mo%*M from Slokc Nowinglon to 
McHun Plflhio, S(, -Tohn's WooJ, wliore u lnrR<^ t-irclo of fricmla onjoyoil 
faiB ft<«*ioly orul Tir«4[iitiililj', lltf^rr hp TV«iilnil uvitil iSGiX wht?ii bo wont 
to live af nirklpjv ui Kont, Dunng tbft*« ycuTi* tiiu nifiriij whiry ro*o 
vluwly, nnlilin 1655, on ibc urgent ropie*»^nta!ioni i»f Mj^jot (rrabmn, 
who bail bc^a «ppolni0fll It^'jEiMrar Gcmriil in ]H42r in NUCccB^ion to 
Mr> LJHlur. theTn!aj«irv grantc'l him, in eonf^iilcraeioti of hU cm incut 
ftCrviccft in connexion with morlality a«nl ccnfiw •'fntislic?, a j*|jwih1 
aUowaiiCe of 20O/, per anintm, wbirh ntixc^l his saUvj as Super! lUcudent 
of tlic Stiitialicnl l)<'piirtmeiil of tbe G^^m^nil Rcgirtor 01!ice la HOO/, 
We muyborfl slule, (bat at jiabscqucnt pmodK hU siiluiy wiw Unolly 
niiflod, in 1H74 ,to ^^•►/., of wbiHi rWH)/, ^v^v* ia tlir- form of KiJCcial 
allowance for cxo'iitioual servben, Ir may be romarki^l llmt iii» silary 
wouUI probably, nt 1hi» la!*t*iii*iitionfcl chnngp, hat© Ucni fnrthfir 
incrcMi^l except for the fact llmi the salary of thi^ Registrar General, ns 
Ciiicfof the Oflito, iJid not exceed l,20iV, 

[n 1852 was puHisHiHlbia udi-bi'ated Itefwrtupon '* Th** Monnlity of 
<* Cholera in England, IB48-4I*.*' TIjih iiiiduiibttHlly ndilpd mnob, not 
only to oar knowlcdji^ of llic cAirwilion nnd (Luxhoils fur tii-(<tciit]oii of 
Cbolem, but aW to ibc reputntion of ihc auibor, Conaidemblt.' tritrocta 
from ibis Repovt nfp pvcn in tb^ foUowius f^t?^** as also front bin apL-dnl 
Reportoupontliosubiw^uciitcbolcmopidcmica in 186^1und 1K65-6, iu 

which his tlieorlcfi u^^ lotUc cwraotioii ofthU iltceiuc iio<J to itsdiWiailUitiail 
by ine&iu of n polhrt^ wntcr ?tupply* wore to t^Terj' impartiDt mind nwsl 
condaaivii'ly cotTohi>nifeil. His hntory of the oiilbn^k of cbolem in 
Kiwt Lomloii, and of his inveeti^tioos ns lo iXtt cnuHntioii, nnil hi« con- 
ClU!&ionn dmwn from llio n^milu of tlio0t> lOVfsCii^tioQs, form a Luting 
monument of lib a<.-umen, hi^ puwur of imiuciiori, nnd hin |>ativ(it dulrr- 
(d!ntiticin lo daciclnlv the inilh tn ffL(v> of evory JifflcuUy, to Kay uothiDii; 
of the rearLcneciittw whit'b lc»l liini tc rxpmc bimM*]f tioi only to tho r1*<k 
nf iofvcLit;!! iii ihs luidsl of tlii« remiirkAbli* Dutbrvvk, liut to tho iiafi>r- 
giving iinimo^ilj' of thj.iM' JiilirriAUrl/ uuuui.'Ctvil wilh llwr vmlt^l iulerefiU 
oftbi* Londan Wixtrr Compnnic-k Dr. I'Vrr's (liFiutrrr^ncd ncrvic^*--* to 
LondoTii And to »ci«ticv in c<inu<Txion vrith tbechokrn cpidcinic?if And tho 
Inking bonolit«i reuniting tlwroAvnoit ChrOQgli lmprovemi:*rita in fho lunlity 
of tho m<»tro|ioHtnn water lupplj, hftW nof«f bcwti frnflictc^lly api-rocifttt^ 
muoli \&M duty acknowledge. 

Dr, Fnrr ^nxf oivuhnco Mopo th« S«T<rct CotumIlt«« on AjtsorAnco 
A™f>pmtioH-i wLioli ^at during IK52-*S,% and in lRfl3 h*> publtidit^l m 
T>np€r on *' A SyHtrcii of Lif^ As^nrftoco which tiiLy hfi currifid out, nod 
'* wouhl (I) 1)^ (-{piilutile in its 0|»>rntwnj-H ; (2) nfTord ilie bf^st ^rcurity ; 
** (3) N< n'ell adiqauvl to the vrutiU of ihu pw>i>l(', \u» it would jilTiTd iiU 
** the Bdvnntn^:^^ of aa instinitico office tnd eome of thooc- of n brink ; 
'' nnd (4; oporntc At Je^s rbk, Icm exp^aiae, nnd lowr jirrmium than 
" small fifficea; and (5) aJao mako ft con^d^rable mupce of notional 
** rcvcnnp.'* ll WR*, howcr^r, niorc ibwi 10 years before % wrht'iur of 
Goi-ernmctnt inrttirftuce vfza AoHouAly etLtertained by tbe Govanimcnt; 
T>ut Id 1S€o Dr. Farr tvas commis^ion^L to drftw ti)> a ** Memornntlnai 
" for tho n*c nnd gui'Iunti.'! of tbi* Chanci^llor of tbc Ex(!h<*qucjr (W- 
*' K. GWIstoDc), in the dtrolopnieiit of thii Goveniincnl *iyf4t«m of 
" inminuicfT." Thn ttytn^m of Pott Office inmrancc, which cnrni? into 
opCTfttJon In 1^^, was DDtlonbtedJy due in a ^nnt im<ji«nre lo the Inilia* 
tJon of Dr. Farr, whowBiq^li Life Tablf. No. ^, ww ndopK^I rw tb»- 
biM7< for the tabluHof prrmfnms wul who actnl jih ouriAuliiug ntiuftry 
diitinx the I'^rly y«Ar« of lu operation, willt tcant nx^oguitlon lu tbc imy 
of repitiii«nht)oti. While It miifit frix4y Iht culmittod tbkt Goivrmnrnt 
innuninctT Iioa not hilberto altiiJDCtI tbc nucctsa which wna uuticipal^d, 
ila conipanLtivi> rnihiix? most lie attributed to wani of jiid|:mnot in iu^ 
naanagunenl, and in the ly^ulattoti^ by which it i;* controlled, mthcr 
tbon to iLtiy iin-toiindiioitn iti llio cotieojftioii of ihe AcheiuL*, or in lliiff 
tables npoo which rhcx preiiiitimH ttro \iaMsl, 

Dr. Farr look an aetivo part and inti-rnit In ihi? IntvmadonAl Strnti^licnt 
Coongnvwca hehl MirretKively In HruHf^lv, Pori*^, Viennn. Tendon, BitKii, 
F)or«iio^ Tht* ETn^ie, Si. I'rtershTirg, nnd Buda-Pe^tb, Mwwn IH58 
and lii^G. At awst of Uuwr Congrwuw be ntbmdcvl an iln? official 
dvlegat^of fhc Kn^li^h QovcmmeDt, and by hia pcnoual influence aa 
tho founder of Uio Engtiab fiatloDal BpUm of vital Btatiatica contribnlnl 
mntorially to the roznarkablo ftevdopmaDt of Lho doMly alliod AcicmccA of 
vital ttCatiitics and of practical byj^eiw which h%B taken place throughoot 



Ibe ctTUbed worki ilurin^ Uit piv4 rliln^ yi.*ivN ami «pcclalljr 1o 
Ei^toad and OD ilicooattlDOntotf Eiin^ic. The full bvHnng of IX Fiuf*** 
work on hcAltli prugiWH in KngbuuL i]i>d»l)rxmiil hft* mtlovil tiwi i won? 
fullv H|iprvcini«d ud ttue cuntiiKiii ftiiJ in AiuoricH iImu Liiih bwn Uw eve 
io £ogUo4. 

Dr. FWrr contributed manr pa|>c:rQ to ibc Uritinb kud Socio] Seienoo 
AMM>{ftt£oa8. From n pApor r««4 beforo tlio Social ^<*nco Aj«oci*Uon 
m It^JSA, on thu *■ laflacncc of MorfiAgtr oo ili« Mortality oT lli« Frcmeb 
People," <'xtnirtj( i\m\ a plnoc in Ihis rulum^ H« voiitribtitMl a pspPT 
U» tho nHtiHli A8Nr>pijUiori in 1861 rni ** Rpn?nt [m|i^ov<>m^ntJi in the 
Hcaltl) of ilin BnuKh Army." In IStH b<* ilfHvtn^I lui AddreaH w 
I*rf^ickii>t of Seotbn P, (Kooitomlc Scknco ami Statblia) of l|]i> 
Unii:4li A^MKUkiioD ; Miatl m 18GG ao nddrcw o» I'rc3iiili?nt of tim Public 
ll»t»UI) ScK!iJoii of tbi< Social ScLetm Autoclmiou. It wns mainly 
ovrinjE Ui th<T infinrncc of I>r, Firr thaC Xh'ta soction of t)i€ A^AOCiHtion 
vtt» not dineHUkbltHbcd tn 1877, wbi-^n he wroVc a ]>^pvr :i«iti]i^ forih h\» 
considfTrnlion? in favour of iU inaioteiiaiioei He was «u active mfimbf^r 
uf II rommiifrc jipjioirtiixl hy tit* Briti«U Awoelftlion for tbo Promotion 
of Uniformity of ^\'cJ^btA and Mewtaroi, wtdcli mi beturnoi 18<S6 aud 
1874 ; and contribiitoil a p^>cr to Section F. of tho Britisb AsROciaticn 
in \Hi'A9 on Inti^nrntionul Colnagv\ lEc vra.« alio a invrmbcr of tlii! 
Antliropamotric Committee of ibf^ iSriiiiib AHfociution iK^tween 1H7Q 
aiul IMSI; mid in 1876, 1877, and IS78, contributed bis last Ibrws 
papers to Section F- of iliis Anflocitttion, " Chi ihes pTnui»?abillty of 
" adopting II rommon m<.''iwunj of vuluc in the aasos&m^^nL of Dii^ct 
•" Tajiaiion/* un ** Somi.' iJoctrinr.H of FopiiUtton," and on " Iliibln^'s 
" Anatj^iii;ul Mjicbine" lu 1878 lii' aW wniribulud a iw|M=r li> tb« 
Social Scicuc<^ iVs.%ociaiioc on •• [>cnMt/ or rioxiinitjr uf PopulaCiou ; It» 
^ u^lvanta^cs and diHudvnQt&gcn.'* 

ll i« impoiaiblo williiu fliu limitB af tbid abcrtcb to do mate tbiin 
4^iaiorAt<k fK>Di«^ of tbo morv imporfnnt ffubj««td in oonnt-xioTi witb 
vhicb tbn ik1viu<> and luiiAlanco of I>r. Farr -wn*^ from tinip to IJmo 
Hou^dil an4 ^litAtntid by ihi'Governinenl. Ho wiLt a member of ihr 
Cotnmitliw' npjiointed iti IK5R to report on tbo prt-jiamliou of Army 
MiiiUcal SfullHtios, and of tbir lEoynl CommiMion for Inquiry into 
tlic Sanitary Condition of tlie Army iji India np]>ointrd in IK59. Tfo 
gavu Of Jtiunci.: Ijt-fore tbir Itoyal Commiseion on tbo Condltiofi of Miner?) 
la Grora IfrilaiD in tHl>4. and contributed T^crmc vfdii.'^blc Mnti^ticH) 
tnfommlioti tm Uic ndyecl, wblcb wa* fully ado|ib:d and t^ndoi^t^d in 
tiju r*:-|)ort of tbe Comimwiioncrf^ ScUctions from Ibe coDtributioDs of 
Dr. Farr, printod at Icngtli in tlie Apprndix lo tlint Kfjiort, urc re])rf>- 
rinocd JH ilie miction of thin volume dealJn;; wiib (.'laas Mortality. He, 
moreover, ^avo impoilant jmd viduiddc ovidcnco, lull of «tAtiMlicaI 
hformntion^ before tlu' R<iyal Commisnion ok Waltr Supply, and U^fore 
llic Iloyal Satiitixry Coxamuti^ion, both of wbich eat m the yc&ra 1868 
and 186H. Amoiij* other subJecU on which he was a4jlnHriji]]y con- 
aulbed by tbe Govcnunent tnay be mentioned tbo Suj^i^anituation i>f 



ttiff Zll4ftn>jMiJitnii PoIjcv, on -wlunh be prcrpml ho t*J£UAmMv« nftorlt 

Dr. FtarTt notwilhoiliuiding ■ tdight conMitutional icadottry to 
broficbiti^f <!nji>jiXKL nxccptioQftlt^ go^ bcnlth up to thv y^ar 1^*76, whou 
ho viu in hti <i9tli yoar. White eU/^iidm*; Uif ^Uti^licid CoDgnv^ «£ 
Biidn^Fissthv in tho uuttimn of thflt y*tart howovw, be mHToroH &tim »n 
attnnlt of dj^mttoTv. whLoh Ml fiim muck ir«Al;cn«l i umI ia DoocmtKT 
of lli« MiDe jroftr b« l<Mt his t^oond wifv. AJlhiHigh h4> afictrviuxf^ 
4»t^jw<(l fftirly goorl li^Atf1i» thnso vh<i wi>ri> in Lh>^ wfty cif vMving liim 
mnlintinl}/ ^rtuU not fnil to Ah*iiTV«> thftt hi* imtvpf ItiUy ivcorfil'CtI 
from ihf* two ^reru aIiooJu Ii« aufFfrtTil in the antuniD of 1S7G. 

\Vh«ii tfit^ rclinment of Tklnjor Grftliam, ftlW ah vnuri'-ntlj Burcoe»ru1 
mlmldHtmtlon of e\\t\ i>>giatmrion M Rogistmr'f!*nt^raI for noArly 
K^ /(^r^ hi^rnmi^ iminTiii<!nt, Dr. Fnrr not ucm^nNOi^Htily iTnli^rbiitjod 
Imp^v ihiit ho iniEhl be ufpoinled to tlie vaoant t>o&l, »d<1 in I?*?!), wltJi 
ft vi(^w to sparing himBelf the ftti^o of railway Trnvctlin^, wtttclt hwl 
Il-^iiii to Ihi irkftomtr t<> bini, loH Bkklrj, and Hj/flin look up IiSa 
n^sidenco in Lotidoit, in I'orL^^dowD Hoiul, Mftida Vflb. Tltiu stop was 
tiLkrn in iTin pro?<j)t-(^t of prci(oiigt<(l ofHcinl ^Hcrrtee. 

Tim markwt ^uci-r^Kt nhich allendoii tlu^ lutuuuiEtlmtion of drit 
rt-sidtnilioa tn EiigljiDd dnriuj* Uie 40 jeora 1840--^. may bo mainly 
laii-ihuuit to thi- combittcd inflacuco of Mftjor Ornlmin niid Dr. Fnrr. 
Major Omhain poBdeseed iu an eicoptiooal degi'^o the povri>r of 
orptiii£fttii>n» vttxh rnrong InianosA napacltft uid gave doM and labonoita 
eUlrnttoii to detail : ihow combined qnnliGcaUoDJt mftdo him eminently 
filled to hi^ ibe iidmiTiiflmitne chief of UArly 3^)00 rcgUtraiion oflicenf, 
nod of a riMitrnl oHio^ with u ^rtjiff ol ocady 1(10 durkn of diffrrcnt 
^radcfi. Hv felt ibt- dt.'epcst iuioredt Jn the ^uccce« of olvil regiatratiaii 
over which lie no nbly prt^idrvl, and scarcely less inttire^^t in Iho welCbro 
uf tboM who wrred under hJin. Tbo Benrices of Major GnJuun, in 
the uye» of the public, wlio wiB alnguJarty IgDorain about tbe iiiuer 
vrnrkhig of fTovrrnnicut dcpartniontj^ wcm to wnje extuiit ov«r- 
blia Jotted by ttie w«Jl-deHerr«d oHtevm iu wbkJi Dr. Fair's bUnita aikI 
ftcrrlcn, \n utiU^^ing the ro«tiltfl of civil rCf-iatration, iivct« held by tJto 
piiMie nnd the piv-A^^ Not only iilircnd^ hut by a large fodlon of iho 
BngliHli prM^ WH4 Dr^ Fun' rcgurdod lULd spoken of ofcam ikod n^«in 
AM thu Rn9iHtTur-Gen«Tnl. TIk8 louderioy to Ignore tbc ntoro Bii<*nt 
(tnd hiddioa work of 3Llaj<n' CmliADi, whi^'h wa^, howvvc<T, nono tJio Iom 
iiidi[»pcnsa1Ja to the <tun?4?» i>f f ivil ivgiftiiMtifm, on t\w pari aV an ill- 
informed pnhli<) and prean, CAnnot he udniUl^M] a^ any pulltilion of ^o 
iiniiro^iimtiiMr' ntniffdon of the Gov<'niin(>ni fo o^nfi^r on him nt hln 
retirL-iueut muw inftrk of tbHr apprrriniinn of ki \t»i^, ^o dcuyUd, 
M> iLucceflifiil a pu)dio sffrvtce. Under all tho circum^donoci of the 
(-ie<c it 15 vtcnittnt to refer to the mtt^te confit/lc which marked 
the lun^ eourJtmf^ i><Hriftl rchttlons Iwtwoen tllt^^ two cmiiK«t 
public 9efTWlld. Mijor Oniltani fcltt w<* liclM;tiet Kenoinv pride in 
the 0acoeBe and eaEtcudcd u^cfnlnicda, v well is in the ptiliUc 



■fliagwitlion or ih» Chiof of hih Suutfiic^ DopartoiCDt, luid l^ 
tbn 'valadieloi'y conclunioii of htn lont Aniiufll Ropart thas allude* W 
Dr. Fair'tt «orvUn^ i " Lunlly, 1 latut exprtu to Dr, Fairr, wbofo in 
" IS4d 1 htui iho good fortuno to finJ li«ro prftifUng over iho HUiUticml 
** Bmich, mygnrtin^ noknowl^tdgnu-'Dt of (bo impovlttiit wrvipoii luf 
*' hH» evor rtiiK*u rotiik'rvil. H« u lurkiiowUxlj^ vhtYtuglMM:! £uro|H% 
" Ui« United StAl««^ KfLflt IntlieH, and the Colooics aa oni* of the Grai 
■* i>tati(lA oF iho dny. To hU wioiiliRc rc^MrdltA I liUribute nnj 
" rr|>utfttio]i llml tnuy Ij»vc nccfucd to Ibn GcnonJ Bcffutcr Oflioe 
*' of Ent^laod aud WaJes Awn the time 1 ucoepted oflioe iu tbo 
*' I>opftrlincnt*' 

Ou tbo nrtmimnit of ^Iajot GrihjUD in IH79, Dr. Furr upplitx] u> tin: 
Gov«mmeDl to be Appointed aa hia Bacceewr, afkiu); to be allowed Ui 
huld, ovon for a mhort time, tbc po«t of Sogiitrar- General, Mviih which 
liLH name bad beeii do fmiui^ully* but irrrfTni^ourtly, ]dcntifii>d, Th<! ruTuaial 
of tbirf Appointmciit 1o L>r. I'nn, aud liic tipj^oinlment of Sir Drydj^ 
]Iciitiik<T ai Hcjj;t»lTnr-GT?nora], nro iniittcnt of iich Ttccai hntory that 
they need not \jo dir^It upon berc, Tb^ purtlal fuiluro of healtli imdcr 
which l»r. Kurr wiw i^nlTcring al tbo lime, probably »vcigbtd with the 
ttoveriuUf'Ut in itecidiiijt^ not to do what woiiid hiiv*^ \>\^ti a graceful und 
oiagiiiiniinoufi act, in rocoj^nition of tlid diatiQi^'iitBbHt und valuable t^ervioeA 
of Dr, F:uT, Tbi? public imd iljo incOi<:al girofiwjon strongly liyjuju^ 
tlii-i»d with Dr. Furr m Ibe tliHappouLtuienl hv tnh ai llvtj rt^ftnial uf lib 
i<!<|Ui.'>t for proiniitioLt. luiincdlaUrly the drclsioii of Ui« Govuruuiout 
in tlHf nuitlvr was anuouitcc^l. Dr. Fair Htiit iii lib migiiikiLon» and 
Applied ivr Mi|}ciuuuujhliuu, Li a IctCor Ik; uddicBbcd to ikiv *• Tiiiwi*," 
£n r-xptoEiatioii of Uio circum«UDoc» of h'la rvaigntttiou, tUu foUuvring 
IkooaogD oocun : ** Although wamod by tho recent Mtatc of my ho&lUi 
" lIuLt I wjuf m want of rtsl mtbcr tlinii oi' morca^v^l ilutii^a And 
" robponaibilttjos, ] wft« vndui-ed, by lliti bupv of vnlur/^<d oppoiiauiiioa 
^ of ronrlering watslancn in tho appion^'bing Ceii»uf3f and in tbo prooiCH 
*^ tioiQ oF public! boiilth n.n<\ ecLnitdi'y itluti-itit^H, Ut broiim^ a Oftndidftte for 
•* tb« pOHt of Regisi.rai'-G^'nPi'al, KaiHng fo obt-ain llint pran]oti<m» I 
^ oo longer heaStatud to ni^lt that rotirnncnt which ray IVieniA bad 
*' proriously urged xi]toji mo," 

The official caniijr of Dr, F^u'r closed oa tho 1st of Fubroary 1880, 
wbrii liu wan »U(>erunnual4Ml upon an allowance of HOOA p«r anmim, 
and ioon nfter bia reciremexit uniaiMakE^hle ^ymptom^ of eoftening of 
tlio bruin .ict in^ which gradually obscured Ibf* inU-lllguiiCif of hirt highly 
urgani!U<d iuliOWt. H^ died on Hlli April 1883, rather more than tlm-e 
ycani after hi* relirenieiit fr<*m the- public s^orvice. H<* wna burieJ at 
Hromlcy Comnion Church, by the side of bin wife^, wUohl' low, coming 
m it dill at a tirnr; when bis iKvdth had hcnn Hhaken by iltnesH, iulUetod 
upon him a sJiock fi-om wbicb be ?«oerne<l novcr Uiijroughly to rcdovor, 

Tho liritish McHlieal Auaociatiou took nu mirly upjioitnnily to mjirk 
die full AjjpriHimlinn ciit4.>rtJiiTr(-d by tbo general body of the medical 
profca^ion of the eondpicuoUEi talentri and public smrvices of Dr, Farr 


Till? CommiUM of Cuuacil ur Uiti AnwoiMiou iii thv i^pring of 1990, 
0IXI1J bfu^rDrtPur'tteujK-riuiiiuHtloiif paaaud iLl' tbll^jwing rvsolution ;^* 
" Thai Oir- OoM Modal of tin: AAv>cij^t4i>Ei hv* awHtUiHl hy itio CuuiiuttCou 
"* of Council of Ujo Dritiah Mtdico! Adsociiicioii to Williiini Fn^r, ?hU>., 
*' F.IL&, D.CX-i CJt., ad &o orifirMoion of thoir bi^b apprecUUodi of 
" liU long, uiiwvAriwl, asd flUCoCBsful lRb<rur«, m buhmlf i>f tftuLiBti^al 
" lUkcl «ADiUry Hcfon«i> ; aiE u recognition oF ihc light li<- h^ ihrowtk 
** ujx^ti umuy pbj'iiologicul und {>ut]]i>lijgicA] piy>LL<[u», cmd ou iii:oouiil 
•' of thf» i?xlT[U>p*lJnary u^niooA lii» work hn» ro^jferenl to ihe aulvuno^ 
*■ mpnt of ihii hfultli nf tlif tjntii^n." Thft pTi-«<»ntAlinn of l.hfl OoM 
I^IhIjiI UHik pWre at thr 'ISth AimuJil Mi^i-ttnjf of ihc HrittHh Mruliratl 
Aitfi^cii^tlon in iha Si>iinto Hoiiw ntCambridgi^, on t2tb Aujcu^l l^KO. 
I'lic Pntsi<J(?iit cf ih^ Cotineil (Dr. Alfrvd CorpeoTer) addrceaod 
Dr. AcbkEid, who liud bi*o(i depuUd by Dr. Fan% in conjuTqurncc- oi' Im 
illtiBft^i to receive tho medal, in the follofnn<! words: — "Profeieor 
" Acland, you liuvr lH*rji n-f[urutctl by Dr. P^jirr i» rtcpivc» on bis 
^ buhalT, thU Oold MedAl, wbicb it* tbe highest bononr Uiat tlic 
** AnftociAtion lia-H tUw powijr to giv*, or our prciTt^ion lo confer, in 
*' ewivoying il lo him* to wfiora it hoe betn voteU, you will kindly ttilJ 
^ bitn tbU [bin incdnl w voh*d only (or tbr wry higbt^rt wrviccs in Uw 
•* profeEbdou. tie ba* giri^n, io tbp knowledgi:- of all ni*n, ihe*e highest 
" finricott, fmil thi^y buvci U^n lon^c conliniiLsl ; tor ho Iijm given n 
** lif<r-loiig labour to >anilary work and to vital Mfttlstica — hibours which 
*■ in ihemuolvea have had liuh- thftt wa^ fittt^cttvo^ tabouru whidi 
■* bave hrongtit tu him but luirrrn n:wAida : hut diry h^vv. bccfi labours 
•* wbicb ]i(^ at itte fuunduboti of nil iVM.'ardiett iu invdiciU nctoDOtf. It 
^ 1:1 jjt gTL'at gnt-f to l^K-c AT-MNrifliion tliJit Dr. Fiur bfti« bcvu uuubk' to 
■* btf pi^otoat ill pernio, und thit thiP, liko mauy other rcwftnl* iji ]j|^, 
" biu como wlicu lift'i* Inhoiir »-■* ni^orly ili>no ; but it will bi? n f^rcat 
" Bolocc to him, Dr. AcLiuil, tlmt tbM will be c<oavDytf<<l to him through 
** yoUTvalf, thn>a|^ one who U h»l<l in liigU eatirnutioD, vbuAtiuadv tn; 
*< high in public nnd prnfftwioniJ rognrit, who hm 0j^>nl ihit groaltfr 
'' part of btri life to ao i*iid«3*vour to raiHC thi^ >«ttidy <it nnlurnl teJttiM 
" In Oxford, and thun plnci* profeanional ivlnrfltion upon u l>rQhd hnxia," 
Dr. Afibud, in reply, ntjikd ihul bu Wi>ulil ^ tothc ttcj^l of bin nbiTiiy 
*^ coQVOj to Dr. FHn\ the valued friend of tliuu nil, the Gohl Medal 
** wbicb he bad inni remred, and woald inform him that it wan tlic 
** blgheet te^imony whif.b tlit.< profi:^i<>n could ^n- of wUkuh and 
" ref-ard for tlii> great Der^'ices bo luu! lenilered lo tlie juof^ariOD and 
** lo tite country ; indeed, it maM \Mt mut for HcrvrC€S rendered to the 
" world''* Tbo jiriwnUUon waH made aniid ihe loud cbocr? of thow 
preteiit in iJie S«nalo House, which was well ^llod» Hie medal wac 
aeoompADied by an^eitgrcwcd jtoroH ou vellum, br.^nring a copy of lh« 

The folloif Jog arc ■ few of the honorary d4*gre«» ami dmtinctioiu* 
wliieh wore confoiTod upon bim fmm time to time in recogniiion of hitf 
bigb tficfttiic attainmienta, and o»peciaIly for hitk sevvtcts to tho ftcicDoe 


of viul fiUluUc«<, »n(t (o public h^lth- In 1B47 tti4j liooocnr/ iio;^r< of 
M.D, ofFicw York vrikt» oonforrcil upon htva, liv l$li2hoynui cU^tmi 
An HoQorwy Member of Um Institalc of Aotiiario*. Tito distinetion 
of Fcfkiw of the Roj^al Sooloty vrtt^ c<Mftrtvd upon him iu 1H&5 ; 
and in 1857 Out Ki>j"iil M»*<lieal aihI rhinirpical Soc^-iy i-lorteH him sji 
HouoTury Follow in iho fliKlingntibod ronipnny a? Dr. Vir^haw. In iJie 
muhp ye«r tlie honomry 'lr^?ffw of D.C>T-, wh» t'onfi-nvd upou him nt 
OvfWd. Al>oiil thii ttnif^ hi^ nieo renxivH the honour i>r Hertion ns 
Corr69iM>nd]ng Mtmilicr of Utf> Inct^ttiii* of Fmnce. Ten ytan InUrr, in 
dctoW lB(iT, he wju elected ui Hottonu-y Felkw of tht> Klq^ aad 
QiK«a^ Coltefid of Pliysiciaoa in liublin. Lastly, iit tbe timo <S hi« 
nMiremcnl* h<^ w»8, on ihr r^onimi.*nilMioii nf U^ni Itoftcoadi«td, 
gtucttcd n Comfmiiion of the Ci^'il Diviiiou uf tin* Order of iJu! B&tlL 

Aft SOOI1 A* Dr. Pnrr'H Tetifetneni frocn Uie R«ghrr«r-Gonei'iLl'-( Oflico 
hemni(* known, a vpry grnprAMWUng ivrs txpreuni iJioJ I he Of^caahn 
<Mi11tHl for KDnic public rroognilicn of ibi* vvr^tionnl vnino rjf litn 
«TTic<r< Wifh a view to carrying out this |)rtijc?ci ft i 'oniniiltci: ww* 
fofraod, of tihich thi- t^tl of Derby sco-pt^d iho Chnirm&nshfp, tia*\ n 
fubKrlptJon UkC wax Dpi<[i«i3. Tbt* amount !ciji»criU^I weih 1,132/., 
which, ftt I>r, Fan-'* reijuotit was iuvesud in Bank of Eti;;liui4l Stock 
for tbc benefit ol' biv three unmsnied dftugbtcrs in orrlcr lo r^upploment 
tlw very iileiuter |>T(ivi»iou vbicb lie hwl tieeii able to iniikc for their 
^up^iort after his death. On Dr. Fftif^i death id l^SS, the GoTorimittDt 
conlnl>iiW 40()/. to t}n^ Tet^imouiiil Futid, vvhicb vn\s thcQ vioecd, oad 
A© net frocociit* iiivi'*t«l in nocorUmm' with the oxprt-wcd desire of 
Dr. FkUT. In ad Appendix to this volume will bi< hvml t lint of Iho 
flUhftCTihei" lo ttiiH fnnd, and the hnlniic* !*hoo1 of the trca&urerT u» 
ftudiirni im tlie cloiuro of ihu fund. 

That Dr. Fair wa^ a mac of undotiblinl ^ciiiui^ few vrbo »ro really 
ociiiainted trith his work conM lail lo r^co^iM% Thin opinion ta only 
enhTUic^.'tl l>y the knowkdg^^ d" the compBratively (flight educallooiil 
Advantages he enjoyed in Ids youth, ludof the fuct thAt in turning these 
dight iiiHntitusjiH to lie t'nUt*^t account hiy wns in llie truest aonst^ a «lf- 
tau^ht mnij* IIl* was liowcivcr, not only a tliorouj^h inf^tbematiaiftD 
(although no rccoid uxiaUi of hiJt rver baring had any luKtructioEi id 
nunhvnmUi-'B], hut vnm uii rtcci^mpli^ji^il lin^jlsi. 11^ spoke French 
fluently, nnd I'trnl <;tjiiul1^ ;vrll ih(_^ OvrinaUf Itiillaii, and the claasic 
langtia^w. Annpfin:cintivrJ'iieud of Dr<ran*B, wUuaeL-<]Ut|ifimad hlni to 
Ploronco in 1667. wbou tlit: [ntci'iialion^il .StrtllAticAl Curif;iY-b^ wan hdd 
iJicrv, rrmoiJibon* ivilli plciwunr tho r<i-ip4>cirut nnd n1niO[^t iilft'ctJouuU* 
TCgoid in wlifcb ho was held by lb*- ouiiji<.iit sUitif^ticAl dck'^ntc* who met 
lhcro> including M. tjuoti^lct tLnd M, Kngcl. HIh ad^h'GK^» Jubvcrrcd in 
French, upon ihtf mortality from eholeru in EtisL London in 1H6G, 
i1e«onbin^ \U stuUen outbivnk, mid its tvi auddt<n t'e^^Jiation wbt^u tbu 
supply of poUuti'jl wnt«r which wan its calisc ot^iuicJ, mut tiituut^ to witli 
hT«atb]«w at re u lion. 



^<li>ni?d Willi a large tuul opon oind* [fo h&d been ftom hif- j-ootli ii 
great uiid ginieral mwTiTi-, hivL « uitJittnnt ntu) inKatkblrT dcwiri^ tur iafoi^ 
iituliou tTi all braiidit^a of Kuu>vk'tl<;v, anJ bwl a i^iiuitue lore of Uie Uuo 
ajkI l>oau1iful in art anti litcratvre, !!» Look n ItbenU. Sb tlio bnt Mii»C 
ortbnt worJf and brood vigw of oil aociol nnd political probkruitf, £ar hi9 
Iicatt wile Inr^ na wi^-ll im tits niiud, 

ThdKf wbo hiul die privitcgiT aiifl ploiu^iro of bin ii-iondidup, or won 
of UiH ii<Njuaiittiiu<*o, t<igoy imd tmAAttro tbc memory of the man. 4jmie 
npnrt, IWui) t}w in^vitabl^ Hwpecil ATid iidmit»tion they fi^\ fnf htfl 
t;dciif-*i and bU htvio™. With M(*re*^ly *n (*xi>i>ptinin, ,I)r. FWrr hwi 
bw'Q invariably spoken of with rvuptctful nprirvi-ialioi). It would 
he bnrd iad^isd tc bi^liovo thAt be coald hftvo had n priTnti* moEny, 
for be Vi'iiA not ordy i^iMitinJly modwt itn<l tinA-^viiicinji in hiK 
mftnncr. bol be was always ready U) aee and ft]3|>rc«jflti> merit, being 
c^ia^mlly Fn^u froin juidotuiy of tlio snccoaH or su^iclon of thf.* motive* 
of otbers. TLefiC' quuliti«8 madi* bitn i iKHiicwbat Imd judge of cliuritctor, 
aticl <-xfiaW bitn lo impoudon from scbemin;; «]>Gculn1on, vho wi?fc 
d^^irou^ of and too freqiwDtly obtaiDftl hi,4 namr imd rtiipjicirt in thet 
fiirthrmfKX' of i1i?u«tn>nj9 Chuinci&l veDture«, For thii4 wvit of worldly 
wijiilouk, anil of ilue caution in putting his octnnnnl rcputntioa 
anil bin monoy at tlu> mercy of othen, be pai<l dearly. U lio had 
sc<J woTv «clf-ueertioDf not to baj seiflelmeas, and le&s trn^l id 
Jiom, h\* worldly hikkm^is woubl iindoiiht^Uy harp b<t'n grcatfr, but 
his charjietfTr would have been Ihe Ic^ lovcablp. Hy all thooe wlio 
■W4^T< brought into immi-diuiiofllnnl contoetwilb Mni, thp memory of th<* 
"d«mr old Dr." wiU loti^ U< iht'rUlu'd, imil UTiiny n kind woni nnd net 
ftCFr^cUoniUcty rcmcmljoi^il, 

lU' \viX9 flovoUd to btH botiif ti», and loTtiigty indulgcni U» aJI atouihI 
bim. Ho yra* n ddij^btful ani ilclij^btod Itoat^ ntid ntiboiigh, in coo- 
■iLH^nuooo of bia i>xtouai«v aod vaiiod inrormation mid iicijuiix9iK<nt^ blfi 
coil vurHftt ion WAS idwikya weloom«> ln^ vtm not vrUui ii vtilM grout 
tidkc^r, whfkrrafl ha wiui a thoroughly goml H'tJ^iti.^. Uu ko(>D Vf^oynunil 
of and bi» rtvidont parti<>ipb(ion in iho pb^iuinrAa of otbcm, cf^p^vially in Ibo 
pli«ffiini!0 of ohtldren, the aimpKrily of bin im^tc-a, nnd bin ix^orilj powf^r nf 

lf-foTg«tftihiG6B when surroundi.<<l by young pt^ople, wore anicn<f hi» 
DOiit narked Mid pUatitnii chimuitiTriatlca. Kono who knew bim really 
rell will eror forE6l Ibo almost magmcUc effect of liin ctct rendy, 

ontuiM>umtJiorouj(b1y hearty, and mo«t muHJcnl latigh. 

l'brf>uj(h Ufv luB capueity for work, mtid lii# cnoiplotL- i^bawrption 

^th^roln, coaibiQcd with Ihc raiv but invaluablo capaclly for piUriDj* it 

f wbpn bo kft Ki.t stady^ wan alike (be *iourw of n£ton}phmcnt and 

Jraiion ainoD;^ btF* friijuds. This, however, 4lid not i?nttn*1y tavn hilu 

' fivifD iibRrjtt-tnindedne^ which at times waa tlie ciuse of Ainiueniont 

to himnolf at well a» to othen, imd which i:^ held lo he i^cuiable nod not 

labog^ther unnnnnid in those much giTen to deep luenUd Moily. TliHold 

'fnoDdDr. liainiwithn*ftrmcc tolhinnbtwnee of mintl, communicatcB the 

foHowing recollection: **Nu xuftiiy y«ftrp n^ RHcr bnving fjscTit tho 
" prorioaK <]ny nnd night iintlf^r hi* )HiH]iiljihlr' rrmf At ISirkli^, I ticccan- 
" paiiii^d him in % ifvalk Ifi Hromley C-onnion rhiin'li, wlu^re li« liofl to 
*' attfinda vestry m^tin^. ^ith thi? uml^rrstniKliD^ lliat L shoaLd mtW- 
*' vrards nccomfMUiy bim to lown. I nit a long tinu? In church, in fact* 
" I rcjid ihrougTi thc! irbolc ol 8l. Msrl:, without Hwiojc hhi> couie out 
" of the vmtry. I hul UeiirJ oco or two il^>ur* ithui, hut did n<H liik« 
*' much notlos until I Uiouglit the incctiiig wn» a vrry lontK oms 
" WUhini; to ni*kc my ohdcrrutions I w«iit to on« or tiro doorF, hut 
*' hoard no rcBtninw to toy fint gentle, and tli«n loiid knockinfE- I noon 
" rcitlUni) that f TTiw imprucDcd, nod ni»dr J'uj-iodh ntlcmpttf to hrtttlc 
" open the doors, and to ruach thi< high windowv, but irith no roHull. 
" Tliii pTori[iofl wfLP Mnythinj;; hut n |i1(nJnrit One, for tlio chnrvh wflj 
** fiorno ilkHtflnco from iho ro»cl, nnc! no bou«A wkk n(*nr, Aftrr n rna- 
" HtderahV trmn', bow^v^r, I vrnA <1MightM to \\e^r a key inurlfrd in one 
** of tho niitlrlH, nnd n chitrch iLtt^nfTnnt nppoAri>fl, nho rvphtin<H) Ihnt 
" tht; g<iittli'inii]\ luiU UH\ tlio chiircli Vy nnalhrr duor. aildiTig '.hnt it 
** WfU estiroly by uu:idcnt tjiet he hinuitilf had rettimed, having Icfl 
*' ftoniMHng bt'himl. I walkefl qniclly into Broniicy Ktatioa, nrflrly two 
■' miles ciTf and f'3und my woriby Aiendf who h«d losi bis train, vw 
" rendin;; Liicrtniu^ . nnd (evinced no surprise- at my appcnniiK^, nor 
*' nppiinnt TiTcoUuctifni of pri'VifHw cvcob/' 

'rbis slight and imperfect sketch of tbe Uf«p works and charflctcr of 
Dr. FwT la wntl<»[i hyono in who**! i^arlie^t r(*cn>llc'(*tious tip tnofin%r}' of 
bifl ff^mtil face, hrij;ht toiw, and Iiapj7 laugh is MiU vivid, uthI who 
wii* t'ortuujvU* tind privilegrd to ?^pcnd fir L**and 'twenty years in almost 
daily official inU^rcour^ with liini> To those who did not know hlui 
pcHionntly fljc sketch niny ap|>»ir sonu'Wliut piutLally drnwn. It bos 
been writtoTi^ howi^^'iTf in full conltden<\- thai nil tfiosoirkto knew him 
will see no exa^geraiion, tmt only un honest ait^^mpt to do jimioo to liU 
talents, hh work, luid hi^ many tnL'siiiuaUe <juu1itit>a ntt u man. 

Thti iK'i'lniit of Dr, Farr, which fovm* ibr fmntii^pit^ce to this volumo, 
in n.-pioJuci.'Hl from a photuj^rnph tfikun, in lM7f*> hy Mi-*?'Hr?', Loiidfnrdi 
and Co.. of Pall Mall, Londc^n. 

The ErnTou. 





1.— Scope op EwQrinT at Pinirr Six CKMSTftCfl. 

2.'— Unios oil Rbqibtrattun Cou?m»n. 

3- — Hoir£K«. — Definition of a HouBe.— HooiieB building. 

4,^NdHBRB«. — Principle of Popalation. — L&w of Popnlntion.— IncmM aad 
DeoKftfie of Popolntion.^InfluenM of Birlh-rate t^n PopuJ&tion. — 
Censiues nod Popnlation iCogiilerfl. — Penocl in which Population double* 

5,— Dbkmitt ani> [^ROxiMiTT. — Prmimilj- — Density. — Method of pnlnilaling 
Proximity and Deniiitj. 

€-— Skxrs. 

7. — AnK»t- — OntU9 Knumeration of A^^. — Effect of Birth-rale on Ages of 
Population. — Eff^t of Prolongatioii of life on Population. — Factun 
of Popniation .-'Length of a g«Deration. — Centenariana.^ — Mean A^e 
of Popnlatioti. 

».— C'TVIL oa CoKJUoAi, CoKDiTioir. — Age at Marriage. — Dnration nf Married 
Life. — 'Effect of ATterHtEon in the Age at MorriAge.— -ProporliaDH of 
Married Male« and FcmAlev aX Different Age4. — Effect of Marriage on 

9.— OccrrpATiorcB. — Census Enquiry nnd Clawification. — DouUe OceupaiionH- — ■ 

IndufltriaJ Cennus. 

lQ,.^IrrTiRHiTiRii.— Cen^tuit Knnmeration of lofinnitiea. — The Blind. — OccapBtiou»< 
of the Blind.— Dintribution of Blindneu. — Caunef of BlindneiH.— The Deaf 
and Dumb.— Congenital MntiBm.-^BIindaeiM and Deaf-Mati»iai at Groups 

of Agoi. 

11. — EcoNomr VALnK ar VaevijiTios, 

A 2 


rorcLiXtox, u the Datural ba^8 of nil vital ^latUtlcs, oeocasttrily 
i1of»An<l8 proliniiikaiy c»nfiict^milnn in any work dolling with iliHt irubj<vl. 
Our knowLmJgo of tin; nUitliilicjt uT tin- KngUkh poj^ulxtion u nlmoic 
e^cliiHivMy lieritred from th« fnclH ccillcded at ilie tleceunial Cea?iEi» 
eniiiurrniioru, nnil limit inilh in Ibo fniMMbnl otlif^ial rrpcirls. Dr. FiUT 
tuny \w i-jiitl CO havf MihllHliciilU' {m?f<E(Jvcl trvur lliv tlirve Ci^ii?fu>!it.'H jii 
18,^l» 1S61, nnH 1^71. :ihJ lio wrott* iho ^rnvittfr pari of tuictt of fbct^u 

f.hrt^u r^T'^rtH, Tliof<^ wlm liuv*» hail iuirt-w* ft»r xluOyiag iIk-^p ami 
prcociiing CVtimlm rpporlfi mnnot fail lo rccopiiisp the greflUy increiiA^ 
vaJtK? wiiU wbiHi Ih. Farr'n tTillnciicv mvi>:tii>ij iha liiH-r ivpMts. Jt u 
inirv tinbic lUat Ujo inlriVhl uf <-iu:!i C*'i*m* ix^tH>rl f^UiJuLJ he, h\ »;^TVmt 
nicasun*, «upM-^t?Jr'd hy tln) ftpiKv^rant^ tit iho siiw^'piling mport. Et h**, 
therefoiv'. been ihc olycci la llw following '•^locliou to ^boosr only 
tJ»o*e portions a pjicnriiig to po^rw prnctiofll uml ]>crmRu<'ut valiif in their 
rt'UUou to oue (>r uiher ofibo liruiidivB of vluil ^lAi.btkN foniiin;c tho 
***vi'nildifls[kJfiJ» oflliU w^rk, Soni« t'f tW lucAt vnlunMo extracts t!«d 
with llip JBWJinnH |M'iridpW winch jfrtvcriilh<* irtrrca<p of population, atiJ 
with tlie iiifltioriooof mirruiK^-rAles jtmlof birth-rulo^ upou tiuvh incrx^AA?. 
Tiio vnrintioriH in thr proportions of »rx, ngr* Jin<l civil or coojaji^ 
cotidltbrK n.i\y <^»outL-illv ImporunL olum^nu of (::ou$it3 UiviMll^MkraH, 
jtntJ nm ia<ti,-<^>ciMablc> 1u iIm' tiscfnl tfludv of irmrrju^, bifLli, jvirl d<«tH 
nfnliwtii*, SRBrw»lj U'*» iniiH>i1int. iih m liTHiidi of liw* Onniii in<iuiry, 
are tho ocriLpuli'>ii«^ of a popiitntion, whdhrr rif^irril from an imlu»tral 
^tJLnfl|H>iiLl or iu Ibeir marin^ upon itif> Ik-jUiIi and motlolily of tlie 
jvuplc. Tlic nejcc HTti«<a of sol'^Mlim* dvnU with inflrniititse, i»p^liiUj- 
vriUi nlnlltilicfi of blindne** and (U'Ai-niutivm. l^o^Uy comofi aa urtioto 
iipnn i1k^ <*<?onoiDir i^hu* nf populalion. 

ll is iKoe»«ar/ to boar In mind, wilh rogfLinl to alt Ceasua atAtMeat 
that tlicy an*f in Knglaod at uny rate, dimply Uiv uibuliiti'd rMuIta of 
fadPt furEiif<titt<.l by boi^NrljuUl^ro in Iht'ii ACliviIiiU'ri uii thi? riiuititirntioii 
dftv. llic iiiipe<rfocl nliiPAtion of n \nr^t- jkropnriloo of lioiuciholcloTV in 
lhi> ronnliy (licn>«Jii'TLilfrt, w>ctll«il, iDclutlf^ t\n* limil of vtch sppoi^to 
fantily) iiff'^Mutrity ijujxiirs tho aocunkcy of much of tho itifitrmation 
i:olKsiiHl«f'tiiM;cirLllyof (but rvlaiin]C lo occupatiouj.. OthfT cnii^c^i 1«ad to 
iiinociirACii.? In tbc rc4iirn i>r ibo agoe aiiil iiiRroiiltCH vf lliu pc^ulaij^n. 
TliOir« in flvnry iviiKit) to b«Ji«v« ilinc Ihv frLrOi <^11eot«yl M cticli vuc* 
curive eauiooralion ana uioro accnmtr Uiaii iIiom wllectofi at tbo 
prorkov Coosuff bat, whik* abM>laii> jl('CL]nt'^y canMarc«ly he expected* 
tficre b no KPod icround fur iloubtJnjf tbnl, with ordinary caution m iho 
dedaotionn iE> t>r dmyrn frc>m llKni, (VnaiiK fic;iin>? form InmlvroHhy 
haam for viliil *laii«ii<'« of inlinilD taIuc, poliltc^l a* twM au toofd. Tha 
inliereut defects of C«ii9tL9 fi^urea sliouM iioi, bouifvtT, be* Eoj>t nijrUt of, 
e»pecially by iJio«« vrbo claaour for more Ol^iI, tad Mem lo for^c or 

LrAHr I. 

Lo ignon^ Uw unturo of ihts nmcliincn' ^ which « CeonUK ooameraiioD 
in 4*iri*«t«d. (JccupAtioo 8UtisilG& fonushMl in tbv Ceuaiu aeh^duloit 
cut, for ti)al«4)0--, nrvcr bo matU: (o A&avrvr the purpow of a tborougli 
indufttHnl Choi^ih. Tha dilficultivv truiiifj from double aod ind«fiitiu 
rxxnipuiiond, from tht oonFu^OQ between masUrfl and joumevrnm, Mud 
Ww«OD thom octualij ong^oJ in and thMc n^Urnd frocD tdo vnriouf 
oucupaUons. tatui tvnd to depreclato Ibe vbIuc oniiii branch of Cvuvtu 
BUCuiicA|BoLoDga«lbowatAtif^icA (u-« »<Jrlj dt^poodtot upon iiifonnatiuii 
BiipfilMd in hMi9oho1d*nr' itohi'dnti^*. T\n' obMtadMi in tbn waj of 
ttOQuoMfally dedUnfi witli the inforuiftiion thus snppLi«d &re boldly atalcd 
in tli« iMt Census R«poit ( 1H81 ), im<l ^TiDufd 1>o cim'fnily and MJy ^n- 
iddtted bef(>re tbo lime an'ivea for nwkiiLg preparaiioo for tbe iic^xt 
C^oaiM iu 1^1. F'or tbo bont-llt of thocio who m^v be d«Air(>ufl lo iimr 
fbi* fVniiUJi %nr«ii 'fiir IH>*1 m* u baai* fur Ncif-ntflio !nv<rfii1ig»tio(i of 
Uu' vital HUitii^CtGs of urban or mni] !iiiinitarT diMricts durin]* the curreul 
tni^t-DenlAl pvriod, (aiding; wilh Ibo nrxt (Vn-i[j!i in I8S*1, it mny here Im 
KtaU-Hl ibal tluT Ctui&tifl report Fur 18?4] >pv«4 ibr m^jc arid &;;<.- dUcribit- 
lloti of tbo popiitntlon of «A^b urban ard niroJ mmitAry iliafricl «a 
cooMittilpd in llial y**%r. TIk? civil or conjui[al condition of thi* finpulattoti 
0<f each of Die 47 urban sanitary ii]»trict« h&riiig in 1881 a |>(i]>ubii<>n 
«xe<.H?ding ■'SO^OffO pr-i^ton!( in iUm) ^rvn in tbat reports The |>ro|>i>rlio»a 
of M^i, aj^, uud oi>[gu;;»I tviidilJuu cliatij^v m> bJuwly that it nmy bvf 
aaMiTri«xl, witbc'Ett hlTor^lin^ tbc lrii>iinariHi]E«TtA of tb<> calctilaliviii^ l>iiBcd 
npon such ii>>?Eum|tt]on, dml llii; jtrtifMriionn founci to nxiFt at the 
JaM Ci*u-'<ud wifl be maintained instil I89K This aA^unaplion will rcn> 
der it pouibl<r tn -'-HrimaU' iht*. nuuit>tir« of cuiIcb anJ of frmnl<« living 
(»t t-Auh i|i]mqut![kij!nl or l&ij^L't »;;i.--|iL-nud) iu oacb yi^ar, iu t^wry urEtaii 
snd mrail hantlitry ili^mrt, w^ vpU m in rngtiJtrulior omuiliew, di'tlrlH^. 
and Mib rlif<tri(?l» : and aIeh> lo mtinmH? tbn uitmbcni marriH. KinK^-. Add 
widowed in ctacb (owd baring a population of ^000 and ufiwnrda id 
188K— (EniTOii.) 

1. — Soorifi OF EvQumr at ni»r six C^NBt-stt?. 

Vhi: inqnirieB und<;nakcn nt thr Cmi^^n^ of Ureal iititaiii in lft.5l 
wcrv of II uiuvh uiorv iaIuiimvl- cbonictvi' tlma tbunr wbkb bad l)ev^i 
puTwi^d in diti ctrnmn of any provHotia Kni'iuemtion, an will bo npfMirocil 
from rho followiuj; brief Ftiimmnry of rb*- n.'NUll? of each :- — 

TIji iii^l CVd^us taken in ^^01, uiidor tb'^ imjvrin tendon co of 
Mr, itic-kmoE), fJiowcd ibi' iiiunbei' oi' ]H:i->ei])K, dUlinguibbiii^ the m^xov, 
iu tbe vuriijiLfl (Vmnlic^ 1 1uiJcb'i^i)«» aud J'ai~i-<hf:^ nf Grtuht BrElaiOi'— tlie 
miTolvr fkf' HofliHns iviid of thi? FaiaitifA \%y whir^b rlnj-y wcro occupiod, — 
ami a rongb ftUt«meut of thu oocupation;! of tlifr people, tiniler tbr^ thn^c 
daaaes of (I) '' Persians chi(»fly employtii in A:;riru!tnnV' (2) " I'er- 
** «ons diloily euiplovod in 'I^aiit-. Munufaciuros, or Haoiliuialt," nnd 
(3) " AH olWr |Wn*oii* not coHjpmud In thf two pri*tT*iiiij; dnwc*.*" It 
ai*o inchidrd ait abMritel of fJir Parish Hi-giNier-* ftvuii rr^tnrnti mnAu hy 
the Cli'rR)', giving in e«di llunJrvr], or \Vn|>ontake» Ac., of Enjilaiid and 
Wales, ihe number of Jlaptisinti anJ BuriaU at t^vciy b-'nth yvw^ fruni 
1700 to 1780, «nd in cfH^h year nft/Twnrtln, jitkI the number of Marria^.-* 
in cvcty jcar ^tncv 17o3, 

Thi? OiiHua of IHl 1 wm; taken u[Mia tlie name plan aft that miojimd in 
1801, nnd Ibc? «inni [mrlti^nbtrs of inforniHtion were )(\\%-\x: the ooly 
difUirancti bi>ius i!mt in ISU ibc aumlwr of Fainilitrx <xQu\vxtA in the 
tbn.*o nbov«-nK'Uti(fn<si da*Kr> wa>^ ^hown in*tfti'l of, 'as m J8<)lj ihj^ 

numbur of Pcrnong j and id 18II» tbo nnmU'r of lioiipe« htiiitiitt*^ wa* 

»hown aeparal^x '^^'^ (he uumlM^r of otiiei- uriinbabit4*d Hoow^ti. Tbe 


Almlviit'i »f iIh< Pni-ii«li Ur^inti^nt wiuf jilto repvttMdt rbowitii^ \hi: number 
of Bfl|4i^iK BuxmLft, aivl Alorna^ irfaieb bttd oot-urnd in every 
lluiid[i.-«l lit i'lu h oC ihc t4-ii I'lvuxlinte yo^*- 

In l^^l iulWtiuiiioa wiu for thv firvt timo jitei-^mpUHl to bu ■U|>j>rK»l 
nwpectiikj; rbe ,'i(/f.v of the |>o|>ulAibu ; but lu it wiui left opUoiiai, Imtb 
to tbtt Ogiwus Otiictrrii ikrid to thu [larti*'^ tlii:JU«i.-lvos liow for lht< 
InvQvtlgmiciD ftfaoutd be j>urau«I^ thv K^iuru opou tbta |i(»Iiit (which 

ffivro the nhnibc^r# la quJiiqotTiinirLl jicrioiJH up Ut W. Ui^il Uicn4;i) «4 
HM^enntal iiifTviiU) |irorf<(l. la n roiMidtmibli? nxIcnC, ili'lji^itiit lutd 
iin»Ribfactory- Id otht-r n>ft}ici;ts th«^ piirticakrB ioquir^ into at tluM 
( ViHun trc*rr ptvcisely thr MimfT ati in ISU, 

The loquiry of 18;tl i>mt>rftC(-il hevend uililLtioriaJ p&rttciUai^ |irin- 
L'ipnlly in «^]ucIdiilik:>o of %h<^ v«ri»iiM cIajv-^a iitl^ whicli tJtti jKVplr afe- 
liiviftiTd liv thoir diftirivru mTii]i«luiav WbUi- l\w aliuidltCAtion of J8I I 
uijfi ISSI.^-vtK., ihftt of Fiimiliit inio ih<j ihrw.* cIamm o( (I) Tli«ac 
I'tiipioycU chic^lly in Afrnruliiirv: {2) Tlirt^r omplojvd cbit^v in Trndiv 
MHiJuJiK;(tin.-!f, uiul tiiiultinaft ; «uU (3) C>llu*ni iiol ooLiiprianJ lu itm 
two prvotiliii^ olnjw«, — nu* dIDI rdnincd, n furllior HiWivUioR i««ft 
ijijiflo Of ft) /&« Mfttr Popntaiian of ^ j^nri of a^r and npu^rift, 
T1ti» WD9 phoira, in ou^b pari^b, umivr tbe Tollo^in^ hPfliLi : — 

f Occupi<*isciroplojing lubourcw, 
1. A^^ricnltaroJ (kcupi^^r^ out vuiplojiuj^ Ubourcrt* 

(_ TjHboun'r«> «if)j>loj'cH in A juried I tii re. 
^. Emplojod in Mimufttcturo, or ia muking Mbiiuracturmg 

3, KiEipbvcd in Kctikil Trnle, or jh lIiuidicniA an MoalcrK or 

Work men. 
-i* CiipttAlijfU, BankcTiy Prc^onTtMial, luirl otbcr J<]ducnlf(l invii- 
5. Lobounuv tfmployAft in Uboar noi Agrlcaltnnil 

7. Otbcr tnalr^ '20 yoirs of A^p. 

Thi" niinilipr of MtliT S'jTimtM tttuirr 20 w»» ilIxo givvn ; and the 
number of FGmitlc Senaiits witfiout any distmrlioR n« to age. 

Id llie pmtt^U Ab^lnu'i uf lhi< Rutitrnr^ wiut gtvi'ii. ut Ih^ en<l of ewb 
Coutiiy. ■ iJi«tailrd li>i of the paniculur TnuliW or lluidicmfttf iocludod 
in tbo 3rO of tbi> thorts diuiiwf, uiO tbc number of poPM>iiB Qpiplovcd 
In t'uch. 

The inquiry w to tbu a^ of iho population w&d not repeated in 
tH3l b^ytfod ibo duoinction, Abovo mentioDedf of loates adoto «a<t 
under 20. 

At thu CoD*utt (be ftrva of oncli |iari«h a&d toinnhip unt f^ivvn lor 
tho fim tiint% beine tbe rf^ult of n iximputation made by ^fr, Ificknun 
Iroin iutip». 

At ibe(.VnauA c£ IHIt MMtial alh^rutious and it<lditioiifi wcto inlro- 
liiict^d. TliQ uujiibcr of /if«ir/rrj was not givvii, nod the ^ttulonM^^t nh 
u> occapHlionn nvs po( madn, a* brforw. For tnu^ ParUk, oor wm 1)ht 
previoiu dottiticalioD Bdopli-J. T1m< iixguiry, however, embrBccd wveni 
pankuJoTi not IxtfoTT^ uoticed, and ib^ inveMligntn^ ay to ClioMf hitberU> 
^iv«u wtu pur«ii<*d with ^^T^ter miimlvneM Aud ac^tiirkcy. Thus, in 
each ParifJi wa» »l;oivii thi< itutiibvL <ir |>tnofi* who were boru within 
ibr Cojinty^ and of tliju« l>orn vWwIii^rp ; whih% of thi* popuUcioii of 
oach Hundred, vaa shown how nuiay were born id ScotUDdy IrtUod* 
ihc liritiab CiuoDi«ty and in fordgn paria. 

TboAifWof Uiepurirth |)0|iii1iaion w(»n' nbawn in tht- two divieloit^ uf 

'MJ^diT l^O""' Hfid *» lid) jtiitl iij-WiinU": i>i^\ \\u- Aj^H of ibr t'Ulirr 

populMion vA ihu Uouiilrf wiy^ Mhowa» lawU-r CuuatiM, lluudA'ds, and 

8 [PABT I. 

large Towns, in qniuqneDnial periocla. So, tho occupations of tho 
peoplo were exhibited, ander Counties and large Towni, in a very 
eicenBiTe and detAtled daaaiticatioii, in which the precise employment 
(if anj) of every iodiridual perton was statcnj, and the whole population 
was distributed According to their T&riouM pursuitn, Tho population 
of Parliamentary Boroughs woa supplied for the ilrst time; the 
bouodariBs being those assigned in pnrHaance of the Reform Act. In 
other respects the information previously obtained waa again given, 
and the Parish Begister Abstract, though of minor utility since the 
introduction of tho system of General Kegistitttion by Civil Officers, 
was again repeated. 

At the Census in 18SI it was resolved to rxhibit not merely the 
statistics, as before, of Parishes, and, more completely, of Parliamentary 
and Municipal Boioughs, but al&o of such other large (owns in England 
and Scotland as appeared buffieiently important for separate mention, 
and of all the Ecclesiastical Districts and new Ecclesiaattcal Parishea 
wbicht under the provisions of various Acts of Parliament, have during 
tho last 40 'yt;a^^ been ci'eated in England and Wales, Ju addition 
also to the inquiiy concerning the Oecupation, Age, and Birthplace of 
the population, it was determined to ascertain the various Relationships 
(such as Husband, Wife, Son, Daughter) — the Civil Condition (aa 
Married, Unmarried, Widower, or Widow)---and the number of persons 
Blind, or Deaf an<l Dumb- Farther, under the impression that the 
5th section of the Act would authorise such an in(]uiry, the clesign was 
formed of collecting statistic;* as to the accommodation afforded by tho 
various Churches and other places of public religious worship throughout 
the country, and the number of persons generally frequenting them; 
and also as to the existing Educational Estiiblishmeuts, and tho actual 
number of scholars under instruction. It waa, however, subsequently 
considered doubtful whether, upon a rigid construction, tho Census Act 
rendered it compulsory upon parties to aHbrd information upon these 
particulars; and the iuquiry was therefore pursued as a purely 
voluntary investigation. It was not deemed necessary to procure, as at 
former Censuses, any abstract of the Parish Registers for the ten 
preceding years; the general system of Registration of Births, Deaths, 
and Marriages, which bad been for that period in full operation, 
aflbrdiug more complete and trustworthy information jis lo changes in 
the aspect of the population referable to the operation of these events, 
— (Census Report, I85I. Enumeration, Vol- J., pp. ix-si.) 

2, — Union or Ri-:gistkation Cockties. 

The LegiHlature in 1834 * entrusted to the Poor Law Commission the 
power of forming new districts, cfllle<l unions, without any such reference 
to county limits as was obse^^'ed in the constitution of the analogous 
hundreds, sessional divisions, and lieutenancy subdivisions. These 
unions, having staffs of officers, and rating powei-s, were in 1836 made 
the basis of the 626 registration districts in which the births, deaths, 
and marriages have been since registered, and the population enumerated. 
Each of 603 districls comprises one union; and 18 comprise two to 
four, and in the aggregate 40 unions. And as the districts consist of 
sub-ilistrictfl, the aub-dislricla of parishes and townships, so the districts 
were grouped together to form the counties, witii which they were 
made to coinciilo hf^ nearly as was practicable without breaking up the 
fundamental uni^ — the district or union which was presided over by an 

* 4 & 5 Will, 4. cap. 74, S. SG< 

I'lfoli^il iui':1 eP'offUio hoht*!L of giinrtliftne wioMing ^reat ailmiikUlrniJVO 
And nuirij^ pciwcr. The union e<mntii*M lhu« roiMtittttcd dJIfcred IJitle 
ill umiijr iiiauiiK'c^ Pi^m thr oM vouTilit^ «iul iu iki* ufj^rr^U.' only 
Uitni4r<ii tM 1,0£3,'13^ out of ■ pcpulfttion of 22,712,!^ fn>iii oonDly 
to county. Kor tlio take of luAlnUinlnt; Ihif union eoiinii<^ properly 
couAtitiiW lEktAt't. the i^tiiintc? el>jin^)« ivonld involve no ^rant luurifico; 
hut HhouTil it Ih? Iivhl to hv. do^imbti-, tlj4- dijpnrili' might in mx^y 
iDiitai3C4^& 1m.' |;r«Ar.1v iHhI ndvMilnceoii^lv rviliic^xl hj wclUcgntiiilerrfl 
alliiTAtlonii of th<i t^viMing nnionn- Tht- vdhjorf war <iifa^nk(d>-) m tli<? 
O^nsuK Ik-fiort of IS51 : ftiid it vrlll lo irviik-nt Cmm the follovriDj* 
extmet that tbe new ilivimotiA of tho couritrr are betlir suited to 
jidininiiilnitivi) iiurpoK*H tlian tli^ oltl liiviatoiiH (l<<iiding to m 
from a vtint' wnen ihi* |)Oj>iiljif Jon wil' uiK-ivili/^s), nud in unmbor 

**'nieniiii«r iif 1W 4li[*eiM>patiey bel«w«i llio 'wjpHtration counti«4' 
anJ iho oilier couniice nn>ie« frcirnj the cimim^lnnoo that, in tiunv ca^«, 
the bo[jn<bLrlr?A of LU& old cuuutie;^ wiuv rlveni: i>n wtic^b, Kubfwqu&nlly, 
nt fords biid britlgc^f, iinport^nl Iowd* wof^ tW mnrketn an^ C(<ntrc« 
of itifiotin^ for tht* p(>o|»1o of aU \\w narrrrniidint* parish**, The^p lowns 
haw been inildo the eeatrea of th^ iww diKlrict?(, ax nt them it i^ niost 
convi^nif nl for tho gnnrHiani* to mnct^ and Ihr oliic<»r* Jo rt^ifl^. Thaa 
Wnlliu^ford iti ItcilvphLi-e U i(k- tiatiiriil (.'L-ti(n? vf tbi* iliMnet, whlr^ la 
ii«>aH^ lujiially i!U')(l<«1 by ihn Tbam^h ; aiuI tti*fc Tham<si U hTT<o, as ic 
U in n lowrr iii^rt of its rour«i\ I ho eo'jnty liounthirv Mepnratiu** Oxford- 
a!iire from Itorkshirc. The peopTe of Ihe pAri^Uea of B«aaingtoii, 
Ewrlm*^, t.'rovrmiir»h. North Moke, Borrifk-I'rior, W»rb">rouKb, ADd 
Uor(:bo?<trr, on t!ii? u<>rth side of lLi< ilvtr, in O^i'ordMhirr^ m^-ct at 
WulliD^ford marke!, and aro in mnny vraj^ intinuiiel^ HHtiooiatod with 
tbo peopl" on the mnith »idi> of the riiiTr rn BrrktMrt!; h^nco it vraa 
quite jnaiifiable to unite Iho pamhcs so nalnted on both jtide^ of tho 
iliaine« in the Wnlhn^rford iriiion — the WalHugfonl dietricU Tbe 
wboUf ^LiHtricl in pWc<l la th** ' rc-ffifltrjitron coimly ' of Ikrkfi; though 
parr, of It In in iht* old Oiii^ of Of lr>nL [And tbiH ib ren^onsble, for 
tf llu!tG pccfpio are prxiperly naaooiated lu cnr union, tbey should oti 
ID Any ground ■ ho unifrd in ono couDtv. The saine rvmark ap^ieitto 
the dtj" of Oxford, which U now |tiinlnUy in l(M-k»; iht^ wholo of H 
should be lfjin*ferr©il to Oxfor<tjJiire.] lu iIh* Mituf? wny ih^ jeival<ir 
part, of tl>o other dTHereiMneica tic imrniinteil fni-. 1'be ohi v.}\\tas 
l>oundarii-?i olV«& niQ Q«ar towns ; and ib^ilistricta, which Imrenot bwo 
arbitraiilv frnim^d, roT^HJst of (i24 of Uwi towns with thv surcoumling 
pviabfis 3u1>'iLivi<L<Hl t;Llo Knh-di^tHcle; wbile dii* n-gUtrallon oianiif> 
arc aggeogatiM of th<> di><trirl*i wbicb luva ih^or <*imlnil town^i within 
the limit* of the old KhirLf«. In the eonntW which, Hke Norfolk, 
SniFolkt and Emcx, wer« ori^niillv w^lJ dividej, [itilo ehunge haj^ l>eefi 
made: in others tho defbet of the old Knbdiviidonf into oouulicti luut 
ti«wil partinltv muOt^Wd, wilbuut any furlhrr PLuhsiniillid InnoVDllon than 
tbo iubstitutiociof <fM/ncf4 for tbo obsolvto kundrtds^^' (Ccjuu> Boporl, 
ld7l* Vol 4, p- xaomi.) 

3.— HotSE*. 

J}^niti&n qf a Motae^^Wbat is a hoiu^F app«ar« lo br a qn^ntion 
ailmilt^u^of an explicit anitwer. And the oiiU]aer«tor« of th« Unttod 
Kiugdmn were in^trueted lo clnw under dial cacesory errry bal>iintion ; 
fisctl Beponuc housn^ comprising by ilcilnttinn all the Fjxice within lh« 
external and ^jArty wnU> of the bui)<^inp> Thus it becAiiM: ttDjKnsibJc 
to count either »cb room or each ator«y aa a wfkarute hounr, alUiougb 


PAvr 1. 

ft tiii^ht l»c T-('piral<.'tx occupied or ovDinl, r>r might own bnvo attaobeU 

On ilio cottliiwiol, «ftob bot^L, liowAv#<r anoMrouA iha^ Ih< iu otivupim 
or tfnjknbe, a itckonod u oiu; hoitvo: ami the Kiisriish ifnurUoe ww» 
ronnatly sUMtkmed^ after ciucuwion, by kUu ufficml dcUguttti^ uf tbe 
vnriod^ i:oi-«mmeiitMof tbe world m thv London sewijn of tbe luKr- 
iiatjuuttl StAtiBik-Al (.kxif^rvA.* 

SoatUml U iImi ofily coitntry of K<iropt> in wtil^ (liu cEtf^tiAilio^ of 
*'boij»«" luui hilU-rto nllt^rtnl innui^rfiiblr iliflicultw. In I liaL country 
tlic popLilaiJou of 3,062^94 «oul» haft aufllciont ip«ce,^19,63^;»7« 
iu:ixw,^*emn|E »ix ncrcTi nnd more to mch inh^tbiumt ; wliilc Jiolim!* in 
the opcD coutitnr L^pjoj ib« ptrlvct j^cuni/ wfaicb a» apught witliifj %Utt 
waIM (nru-A ctf iW i?ontinenc; y^l StxiftiBli fjuniKat. inMtJ-nfl of tiring 
on ihc rarlb in luirr nir, witft thn nky over tlwir dwdlia^ in tntu\y 
imtnncv^ prefer lyUif; hctuIudi over stratum in J1ata« optiting mlo a 
cnmmon rtnifvnM', — *' n cutuiiiuntinn of the rtmc'i," im it hiu tn^cn 
eihltod,— wlu<rli ivr«iT«fi ihi? or^^utiio c^ubtiiitionA of tlio faiuilicA uii lacb 
floor. In K'\i«rul ot'Uie townn iIk^v, nt ilw v&rions f Vobu^^f* np Ut \H^t, 
coiifurrc*^ the tiAiiU'^ uf honHvn on ibct".* fiftt* wSootm m Uwy ^vonld b<* 
calleil hi Kni^land, //u^ir u tlLe7 woiUd be oClea in FtaDccf And (he 
S«QUJ8b Ci}oimijvi(M]i.-nt, wbo po^ocmi-il nuuijr IocaJ mltnniages. do iwt 
sppcftr l9 ]]a%-« bcou more mccwetfful in L861 tlmti vtc were in ]r45l. In 
l^ttin^ iho Of^tual nnin1>er of bonaeb in Soolland.t ThU mibt Ih' bftrna 
ID mind in comfunng thn Iiouwh of .SootlAnl with tWo of t^of^lAid unil 
of other count i-j 68. 

* M. l-vgiiyt, 111 tiiii rvpcTt of tha nroeeodAup 111 CcuxinrtlCf, obi*fTf>v ^ — '^l^ 
* tvctifin fii tomlh^i- d'jLCcord nir U ufinillon du mot *mAJ«oa/ L-f cmr k'« rajt« 
" intdrkiim «l caiiiiTBcivriitquvi auxqin^ IftiiaJBOD doit Arrc rccoimgcv Kllr a 
*' rvfu*o iiuUiiuatiMii -I'uttnhiKrr ^mjII^ dMtftuttoQ iiu. divcri (.^(agcn dout pitui ^r 

" HTjJciiC oociipu pat *lp» fnmiUp* iti»<iQc(«, rf qu^iU aumicnl na ctcftlj«T «4-]«n^" 

^^Hep- «* Sfil- (\'"y., p- 1^9 

f JohiiKiii ha» been igiioted lit tupport of ihc tinliou, hctd b^ kimiiv pLTvona in 
Sc^ithuiil. A " houK " III- dtflin?"' M ],l) 1 pluOF wlirw a mrui lUim i n pliuT of 
" ImoUHi ftbodu " 1 (a) "'floy oWc of ftboile," *p. Ac. Sow ii Aov* not follow ihut, 
b«(Aiiht a houio U "« |)Jicf- wTitnin ■ moJi lire*," ihni fivry pleu-r > herein m man 
Uvf* ti n hoEi^j lor luiEauoe, a uroi. a hiirgr. a ibip. & ot^li, ^ir a chnuilH^, iii 
doi ■ lioriht tn ili« namplc whlcli .lohmorj qtjoii-*, '* SphttowA iiiua( ii44 Wild 

tlic mnn living' tjiuLer tilt o«d roof, not ni^f^r mualitr mtn't "iIaI." Afniii (bor? 
Ill iliv otli^r (]iLc»tM pfutUgc ^ 

" The 1h>ci wiiU viiiokit> I]k- dovi't witL rifnunntf »tcnoh, 
■■ At* friitn ih?ir hivi-^ mid liiiitri* drivi-n ■wuy." 
llvTv » do^VLuic !■ A **pla«e of abtHlv" but ii ik not* ho^tt In the Coiiua mlm « 
Mill thnn? in n fUflcreoec between {«ll uud hh'tL JobDWD define "i|Ai"i »Dd bo 
viOA ncikUKiated *vh ^coda]ld> jvt hv noffhvro intlnwCtrt Ihit "a flat " '» "u Louhv ''i 
»o ihitl hi* iiuHiontj' U L'iplkitJy Ji^Aiiut tbv vvtvosioa of tho mtjiit tjf ihi< pAJt Id 
llii.' naiMi'<jf The whole cjf » l)uitdbg. 

jr uny di>iilii Tvniniiii on Ibe vulijt^cT, i1 wid bi ditpclk-d ly the fatkiwiTij; ^lUotHlioii 
Irom Hunwi^IT. uhn *it fuJrhfulK tvfWu Ji^hitton'* opinion* ia tlti< Juurt^a] of th« 
Tour ui Ihi' Ih'bridi-v .VftPt citing u cvtuin bnroiifi, ujiuu iho \>i-6\h of vnlkinff 
Ibc Hiri'cU o1 iCdmlmrjfh >l nigbl, bv uild* ^ — " Ihi: piTiI i.'< much jhur<-<j liy thr can- 
*■ tfhifb rb*.' ulugitn-utffv hiivif luWn ii> «^nfgiv<.' thi> Ijinn a^-iimbi tbrovm^ foii] waKrr 
" (roui Ihii wJDilowi; bui. frcin ibr ilruclurv of the I(oL^l:^ in xhv. old (<»wh^ whioli 
" QOUAiBt cf mftUJ M*.»«ii^, ill <'nrh uf vhitb a (;t(fftfn.-[»l Tamili livi'*, and tjji're 
'■ V^iiitf no oav*FOil ■■'wvtc, lh<' mintir hrill mniiiiiii-ii. A Ivoloui Sct^tkoiAu w<]ii]i| 
" blTo wifbutl Mr, Juhimun lo b* nilhiml out irf his flvo ivutwi upon ihiK otuaHion. 
*■ A» yfc mvckvd ilowtv lion;;, bf irttiuilili'd in my vat, ' I *mcll jou iii thu rliirl ; ' 
■* but hv bckpi>wiiN.1gtid ihal iW brpiuilh uf lhi« frrrvl. luid iJik^ h^fliiu^h* of (hh> 

" hiiSMlnK' OIL ovt^h »idp. mode a nobli- appi'arancr.— /Jojitfvf/'* Ar/r ./ ji-ttnnoitt 
CroAt^ft i^ttiOH. p, 3:0. 

J Ki*|KittonO«iHi<of Scotlund. p, xxvii. 


Wc hmvt, in coixhvaihy ivitti ihc practice sinci^ 1801* tOfr tht lika 6t 
iLniformity, o»uaKT.ilcd oi houw^j all thcf dixmct but!ding« wbteb wwv 
inhabited, »A veil «b ijq inhabited bounB, aad bouites btitlditig; ikud after 
thus Avoidiu;; t)io in^vtnonblo tHtHmilli#*i nf iht} ** fljil4." wt* linvi* «ti1l 
inany helrrof^cDcouv *triKrtQrcv4 mixml up vhh hoiiiicH m iho oi-dinnry 
mjom of thai nurd. Tbo liuuse ia a nrisble unit ; it tiiclu<l«4k lu ihv 
OeOfUdthe hui itn Tlii; mixir, tbi^ cniile oji tliv hill, uid tin? pblnco; so 
Ihsl cvprjr one of these ntniirliiit^, itcKl of itiu mt^rrmt'ditttc iiicinsionj and 
e«ttAg<?«. L*t r^kon^l tw ii boiifle. Tho oniiniiry houso vjifiw in sliTif 
»i]d Ktructuro in tovm htllI t^oiinlry, — in lEft culiieal i^jnlvntr, tn itjf 
Ituurthv, iii ili dooiii, iiittl jii il4 wiiidov?^ ; 60 thM, U' give a ix)rre(!t vitiur 
of tlH) •cconmioilntbri wbirh lii>[]>rH nHitrd tho puj>uUti(n], mid uftbi-ir 
Yolue^ «iid <kf tb^jr tsDituvy IrtfliioiKv?, n g{>*.M:iiil inequity U i iidtapefifttljle* 
— (OirDmis Report, 1861, pp- 7-8.) 

Ifotifcn Irmitfittg. — Tbv bourtn huildin;K were tirst cnuiDemt<hl in 
iHll^nnd tK- vniinionitioii \inn bi*rri ?<inoe i«|)eiit4>«l hI «T«ry t.>n>iu*. 
[ii ft country uuder depopulAiion iho old boDM» fdl into <\vcay ; lunny 
honm^s W iimnlmbtt^ ; ftDi! tVn' iic;w hoiu«3 ut a C^dkua mto 
" buildiDg/' And n^ Ui^ ^uf^4lio^, U Kufzlntiil incrf«ring or docrfa^hg 
—decoying or flouriubms — wjw tctiotxtiy >iiDciiaioit duritig tJie latii 
Krviioh war, it ivas thought that lb<< Eiiiidiry Julo tlic '^Isouimm building" 
loiebt wiUt in \IA Hilution.* 

I'pou itmipjiiini; tlii.^ uuinlH<r uJ' "buiTHm builiilng" wtih ibt^ lirUU 
DUCaberc xlnndtn^, thii iXMitt In elicilrd : — In k$l 1 to L bouw bnitdinj- 
ihoro wor« 114 ; in I^U ihv- pri>poriiofi wiM 1 to 105i in 1^6] it wjia 
1 to 14-1. 

ThJF £4f^ms to iniply lliAt ^Jni^i- 1831 ibtii " bdinition of profficnly '* 
boH taken an UDfavouniblc turn. 

Tbft quuCion rcqiiirio* InvcettigAtiitii, mnlx U liy no nicaikfi >o amplu a» 
it fip|>«iirv to be on thi- nurrnte. 

Houias at'ff built lo replace old hotirwft, and to provide for the u«w 
latnilkj^ of the incrciudng popidntJon. If vc JUMiuir, fi>r tbr f^eke of 
iLlu*tration, that 4>»0 hoobc in ILKt Tnlh into dt^cay even y^ar. ^o lUi to 
jt'f|Eiire rrvou^iruetioEi, Ihe 3,431,'hid houAcn of 18^1 would be ir^ucidt 
\>y ibodtf«Hy of 329,1 1<>. in 3JM,41T tn t^ri yv»tr*- biil lb«- liou-t4><; iu 
imi amounted to 3.1121.109, or to <I92.666 in ^xceiv of ihn houMV in 
1851 ; tbt; iitw hou-He.-i aufllcin^ to replace the old houBva, at>i] lo h^ikvc 
the uuomioim nirjilus nin»t npan thiH t^Ktimate hat^e iimouDtcd to 
]^(},7^2^ or to S2,Q7S atiniially on un avcr»i;«. 

Tf ail i^ttiA numlier of houMi ifi bnllt «very year, noil ibey Ivt on an 
avera^ tie nnm*^ number of ytnrs 'hi* nrojjnrtion which Ihc nambcT of 
hon»e:i building ht:ur* to the number of Iioum^ eKhtio;; vill depciul on 
thiMncan' time i( taki<4 lo build a hiiuw. Tbn% if thr hoiiM!» of « pTnuc 
mnofiQt lo l»fH>>i ftod each IuIa 1<X) yoartf, ihu 1,000 housce tfIU be 
krpr o|» by thi? rruci'on of 10 new bouvs evei'y yoar : and irtacb of tbe 
10 houM>i^ ii IxtiiU Im m yvttf Ibc nuiulK*!^ ** building,*' cm-re«|>ondin}; to 
tliou; at ibi* Ou«utf, will, on an averi^e, be 10. If each bouao Ukea 
^ _M.'ju« fui^ Its coiiKimftioHt 20 liotiwobuildlELg wilt fi^uro in the Census 
rvmrn. if ibt* bc»uh*s uro huill in half n year on uii a^rag«^ 6 only mil 
he building', for 5 built in the fir^t half of the year, and 5 in tlia aeeoud 
Imlfof tlir yvnr, m^hv 10 annually. 

The cJian^i^ in the pi^oporiion of the houaca buiUinj; to the subaiatiitf 
liouBua if |Kohftbly tlw coiw«HiicEice of dkc morv rapid •yabsai <rt 
cou^truolioo wLieh ik nuw corriod o<i in ik^ town-', liiui U Iaoum^ 

* l>fi««K« lo Cfiwu* U««ort. tail, p. K. 

12 [part I. 

incliidiDg huts and cottages, as well as ca^ntlen ami palacos, were Ijuilt ut 
tborateof 82,078 a year, then the 27,305 building in 1861 would imply 
that they vcre built on an average tn about 4 months, if the bouses 
were bitiU on sueb n system &s to require 5^ months for completion in 
1831, and 4 months in 1861, thr; difference in the proportion of houses 
building in 1851 find in 1661 would bu aceoiiiitt^l for by Ihia cau€o 
alone. (Census Report, 1861, Vol, 3, pp. 8-9.) 

At each Census since 1811 the number of houses *^ building** has 
been returned. The number increased from 16,207 in 1811 to 27,114 
Id 1841, and rcmuined nearly the same in 1851-Gl, but in 1871 the 
numbers ran up to 37,803. One house was *^ building '^ or being built 
to 114 standing inhabited and uninhabiieil in 1811 ; to 1G5 iu 1831 ; 
to 144 in 1861; lo 120 in 1871. Tbp number of houst^s ^* building" on 
tho CenEus day, as we i>oint<'d out in 1861, depemis not only on the 
number rreeted unnually, but on the time cmploj'ed in the process, so 
that a decline in the number enumemted on one day docs not imply a 
decline in the number of bouses built yearly. The architect there eitod 
IB of opinion (hat houses on an average are built in six months (1861), 
but that is by no means certain. The bouses building vary with tlie 
season; and with the facilities small builders Hnd of obtaining advances 
of money. Rotas we know that houses ari> built in 08 short a time now 
as in previous Censuses, and as the season of the year has been the same, 
it is quite certain that the increase of *^ houses building " to 37,803 on 
the last Census day implies a rapid increase in the number of new 
houseB* This Ls proved, too, by houses inhabited and uninhabited in ten 
years having increased by 596,263, that is at ibo rate of 59,626 new 
houses yearly. But new houses were also built in the same period to 
replace the liousea out of 3,924,199 existing in 1861 that fell to decay 
or were taken down ; assuming, as was done in 1861, that bouses last 
about 100 years, and [>en9li at tbf rate of one per cent, annually, theu 
at the fnd of the ten years 375,223 houses must have disappeared. The 
new houses built in the ten years replaced these houses and added 
596,263 to their number, so about 971,486 new houses have been built 
in the 10 years ; of which about 920,194 inhabited were of the annual 
value of 14,907,143/., and worth at 15 years' purchase 223,607,145/, 
(Census Report, 1871, Vol. 4, p. xix.) 

4. NruBKRS- 

Principte ofpopttlfrtion.^'ThG policy which England, since 1751, ba-t 
pursued in respect to population was directly condemned and oppoaeil 
by an acute and diligent critic, who endeavoured to establish a new 
doctrine, and to deduce, from whiit he designated *Mhe principle of 
" population," the most advei-se inferences. His doctrine has held lueh 
sway for some years in (he works of political economists, and has such 
a direct reference to practice, that we shall notice two or three of its 
fundamental propositions. 

Thomas Robert Malthus was bom in 1766 at the Rookery in Snrrey, 
amidst a poor and healthy, but not a very intelligent agricultural popula- 
tion. His father, an accomplished speculative man, was one of the 
executors of Jean Jacques Rousseau, and placed youog Malthus under 
the tuition of Mr, Graves, the author of the Spiritual Quixote, and of 
Gilbcit Wakefield, After proceeding to Cambridge in 17H4, Malthus 
became a Fellow of Jesus College in 1797, under the conditions of 



colibacT vrhjcli HtilL Liagi^i' m* ivtitiist of tJi<^ inaiLvitic kj-^Icik in our 
univenatjes^ In ct>iifef{ueDcc, ftppnreDtly, of & fricDdly ciuntrorersy 
wlih lit* r^ithcr, lie %vrotc ttnd pubIi»hod iho find rOltii>n tit liiit '* B^^ay 
^' on PdpulAliuD '* iu I79(^ : «liiH1y with a vi-^v.' lo aombal tli« <Wlrint*« 
of Condorcef and Godwin, who h^ld that t[jc buman nuw wua pcrft^liMe. 
nml WM admncing lowftrdx aii iilc&l »tm^Urd of ox^Hlcncy. lYi* 
pRradi>i ^as at Jirect t^uc wilh Uicir*, a^ the " principle i>1 
*' popi)Jntii>it " rcit'lcrcil vko and tnlmcryr he contcnilc<it tncvitablo 

nlwihiln up iht? lirniu of tho w<»rlJ, or of \\iv. inatirr of whJrh itic world 
ii eou)p<LH(Hl : and in Gn^ut BrilAiO iht^ rito of inci'Ouw !« rviiirdi4 b^ 
llic prt-mAlUK' tnoruUiy, lliu vUv, Ihr |Hi«ipoiitrn<*nl af miirrtn^cjs nnd 
thi? o-'tilinjpy of th« ioli'LHloiitA^ Hut JtlalUiua w«nt fiirlhor in bif« 
floclrifie: ho irmifilorl ilmt tho if^ciraw of m.^nkind i» tin? rh^pf HAiiroe 
of miiWET, Eiml tli»t ptli^nsivn {iluLtincuoi fn'm iiinmaxu.or the n-pre^ion 
of popui&tioii^ iH U> Ih- regarded im Iho fuTidam^nlnl conililton of fauni^n 
liappinc^MU l\rpiTlaf.Ion, hn jirgnrd, i« ncsr^'cvrTly liiiiitfd by the niennii 
(if fub^iiiitcnce £ hul ptipnUtiQii inc^rvodfv naturutly in a guoTni:tri<n| 

pro^rcs?ion» or a» 1,2,4.8 ., whilo HiiVi^lcnce cannot inore^AO 

nt A fiul^r ratio in iho ^amo tiniL- ilnui is i*x|ire4^d by tbc* jirltZimctioal 

progro^ion 1,2,3, I ; coTi.^rqEK^nlly poiuilntioii is clx^rked, and 

i\w cbifTkH vrliicb itpri-ns ihL- Mintrior )jowi-r of jjopulMJun, aind ktfp ii 
on n lovol tviih lUvt inline '>r Hii1)(iiAt'ni>'>, uro »li riu'idvald<* tuto in*>i-a\ 
iTvtrairl [rtcIihiK-y], vice [Iiccnfiou'<nc^], and iriAri-y [f^eninp-*, platri^^> 
i!J»vAiiL«]. Such wus ill nborl his doclrincH The ranks of i^ils urwy — 
Um popninlion of i'wvy rnnntry — arc fnll ; llm »»pp)y of iJ»e commts- 
wiriat irt kim]ti?i] ; tliurvfotr-, the; nmnl-ur cf sonunl ivci uiu rcniftinin^ 
invaHalle, Any iWrtiib^ of tho rUtnihA in fi»uU inniil ha follovrod by 
«n pqnividHit itirrcnM^ in the de&fh« by famiiic uad fcvrr; or, if thu 
deaths rroiu nil cati^vn »r<i to detrrea^e* iti^ number of annual r^cruila 
itni^l he diminiKhrd. Onnnrr had rrc^rnlly diix'iivon'i] an aniidoie lo tlic 

poiann of ?tnadb(jox> It ita.i (Icrbifc'd iniai<^liiirL-ty (o b<i no 1>f'Ocl]t to 
ninnkbiil- "i fi^rl n<i( ibo tili>!lit^i>t donbl/' nity- Mnllliitv. <* tlint if Lh«i 
" t(Uroductit>u of llitt rott-p*>x ?it4inl<l fxUrpaU' i/ir smull-poXy and yet 
" the FKUvaKH ov iiMiniAuiK tuNrrNirK tiik ^AJir, nrr tdiall flmj « 
" vtry jji'ict»|>libk- iliiri^n'n*^*" iu iho irtfrenK^ mortafiiy o/ simic other 
*' <ir$r/ritrt" And i»;:Hin i " IliP "ponitifiti i.f llii> prfrvoiilin* obtvk^ 
'* *eart — ihr tilrnt fhoufjh rrriain dr^irttrtinit of iiff in iarffr /nirut 
** ttntt m'nttrfhcifntt — <rnd iAe rfoir hubilalions tiud tNxujficicnt ftMti cf 
^ munti Iff i/if. fifuv^^ftrrrrt^t ft^pt/fjiii'fit frvnit tnttmnnitt^ t/tr mrnas of 
" tftf&n^f^cr ; iuul, il" I may iimi hh rjprfxsiau trhkh et-rlain/jf c* Jtm 
*^ appmrg xif^ritfff, xup^^Mvti- //ff »KCKh*ilTV n/ <;ai;4T J»nd KAVA01K<i 
" XrifrKUIC^ 'O (iKSTIC^ir ViUAT IR rWliUXh.MKr, If II tVA<TlXO l-I.AOrK 

** were Tn shrfj' ovi' ri>o Hii.i.ioNfl iu J-^gl.iND, imd six icii.iiqxj« 
** m KLYBlClCt it cannot bo d^nibtcd that. iJUt iAr inM/Honn hwi 
" recorcri^J yiuA< Me' drtadfHi a/ocA, tbc prcipLiition of niktiia li> 
<* ttkATil^ 1^'ouUI nn^ nmi-b litovi* i\\m ninal Jivi-r«g(> in rilh<.-r coimtry 
'* diirinii ihr 'j»>ft ccnUiiy/* 

" Wluit pn.acTTU ib<! popidMlLOU of b>rvs and mbbila from ov^* 
*' brooking tbi rartb?" lUriuandKii diHtingnl#bcLl ditcijlct in it chnpt^r 
on ibo bicTvaeo oE mnnkifuLf 

'AJaltlbiu om Popqliktion, IL U. chof^ ittL; aeo alao B. t <haplcri L auid ii^ ■nd 
<b« Kork, ptuttm.- 
t Jobo ti> UiU, r<'li<L?a1 KvoDuniy, i in. 3. 



Dim? at tlio r^jixillnrir^ from the doclriiH' vii> u plnn [or 1l>t- gfwluftl 
uWllliun uf tlie poor Jinv«{^ bj (Ivdarutg ibiil no friiiUk born from uny 

AH tint 19 prcTilifir in tb]« iloctrirrc, all Uiftl is crrroooow, RJid aU tfant 
InA shocked the j^uUlk opinion of tbocfiuniry.i^rnr fince ib« niiincJntioD, 
flow« fktm n flagrsni oT<Tr«i)ztit ; which nii<;hT be pai^oDr<l in » jouug, 
haatj contrnvfT^mlist, but vhonJil wmrcdtr hmvc twen nt one« taken 
into oocodiil uhi^ il wns ilJMWverod in iIm* light of Sir Jathi^h SleuMriSi 
ort^innl atiAlytiml ivnrk tlul bad been Srrt published in 1767** 

»nrl wAji moilirtcl nrul wfWncil, bui idll upheM» liy iSs dE»cIp]c». 

Sir JaiDi^9 StcuAri, vho ivroto bororo Adnm Smithy 1a^«i cl<iwii the 
funduaenU] prinoijilo of MiLJllmtt, but limits It br ■ precoding ovrr* 
ruliox propodlioD. (K) ^^> liod, be inyg, tbo prodttctums fjf ait 
t^unhiert^ g«tieniUy ftpenlciti;;, ih profKtrtion to the numltfr if ik^T 
iiJtahUvMisi ftjid (2.)i ou (bo oClior haiid [kh Maiiluu iLMjerXf»], fA«- 
»iAa£4>£iH/ji fTP« in0</ oontmon/y in pmporii^n to ibtr^bo^. Su^unit lb<tii 
altona that th(< fiXMi <if thi? worm mu^ be dividvcl inlo two portiou*: 
(A.) the natural piN>duco of Ihc cjirth ; And (B.) the portion which Is 
CTt'nled hy huTmin induAlry. (A.) cornvjrondv to (ho food ot' aninMlv, 
mid is Lbu liiult to ffit^ number ■>( NLVjip>h. [H.) U tbv product of 
indiutr^, nnd mrf^afo (nJl ^thnr (hlng» bdn^ v^ual) in proponioEt 
/(^ th€ nuir^n uf rir^liird tnen. Th« whalo of the cbajiUr on I'opuU- 
tion inSteunrt'fi work should be coDsiillotL MftltbuK, it will be 'ib^wn'od* 
bvM H Mghi oi' Ihi^ nnrJpid, and tLruuKbotit hU work contoundn tin* yield 
of tbo UDliltvd c»ttli ttilh the jirotiurr of humwt m'iujlrjf i which 
inCfdaftfta at I^Aflt ak mpidlv lu tbc numbt^ri^ of ^mliu*d mm, nnd will 
incrcwe uniil the rvHoiirvm of acience luv oxhaiuted and thi' wortil tm 

'Vh**^ pnpftalioH that » rnui^irv ^ii>tJiiQH <\ot» not dep«ud i^xctufticely 
on tb« ttcaount of mhtisCtntf t-n^in^ at r\t\y <>o<r tiu>e* l^e produvo of 
a country in HmitAd ^liifflj b^ llm <rhnr]Lrt<>r nf thr inhAhitnnu. For if. 
a^ an ptamplt, iwrnisf^ir m%ilicnx of men from any part uf K(iro|H- 
were put in the |ilace of iIk- people of Gn«t Britain after burvcef, tin* 
vdrionD prodiico would nut lie luuiaiaiiit'd iu ^iic(<^^JiU|,' jeain; An<l 
in tlir^ huuidtt of (jilVru''* of Am^rir-ifi JiLdrntifj, or uf [h(i wretehcxl 
mhnliitanto of T*rra del Knpffo, howrvcr ur^yit thr Jtock rf siibKisl<*nr<» 
m«v be at the begiiinin;: of a ti-ii yeiir_H* oet^uputiuii of these fertile 
i«lzmdis it ift evitlens. th«(, at thi* '■mi* both tin* Mib^-lmrncx^ and lhi> 
per,plp wniild vary with i.lK'ir imbiMiry, but wuuld decbnt", and \k\ 
p^CDfinrfitivtdj To Mu- noluid pmbioo, in<'i>iiHiderablci irx iinioiint, Ftiiuri- 
gtTi*T*iiii>np of Itritonn, if ihrv have jbccnitis Fcicnco, skill, and industry 
-^nd if Ibrj" rin* more nmuiTotid — will n«?e?**nrily profluee inoru than 
llui eouutiy now vield*. 

It docif uijt ftfllciw, a'* the tJn'ory of AEullhtm Af<.<iiiiii4<3, ibiit u dinilnu- 
lion <>t' tbo mioibcT uf thtr pi.>ople \t\ 1$0C> or in iwy uther yuitr would 
have hud for it^ reeidl the division of a Inrgei Hhan" d' finbsistcncfr 
anion^ th<< i^nrrivont; Ibr in tliiit jr^^ar a lailurtr of llm cropft waji 
Ibllowf'd by a ?«vere faiuine, iiltbough the number cf families to bo fed 
wMfl nui bv oiie*hnlf sri tniiuy h?4 lb<^ iiumWr at prr^cnt in thew i?iliuidj9> 
And, ooi»v*»ftidv> the 'ihun* of fni'b jH'r^onV i»ro*liR"i* i** no! dimuii«[l*o<l 
A« llie popiilntioo iDcrcase*^ ; for tin- shuro of ibc piodtjce of cv«ry 
kind thiit fallr^ to a fnniily in tLe most (lopulouH iitate of America u 



moijnipihrably ;^rualci- thun ihn utintt of tkf> IbdJ&tL lixiii1«rV IttaWy 
vthvu tliurc UAA Qot one person U> wory 9(|tiAffv mUt* of tcrrilorv. 

Iti thr- rmtott KlAtc, wtter^ ni>vn live (in llsli, or fruil. f>v gnni^ tW 
[jOEtululion U rarely 1iniit«f1 hy tho ntnoiinl of %LiWi«t«n<v> cxi^tlDg. biit 
directly by the ^kill, iruKutry, niiil cuui'A^'i' of die sarAge ; for luiy 
inaprovemeot Ln the ui4o of tiic nrt, hook, bow, ffpcftr* or wea|M>n bs 
foUowed by An iiuiimM of the tribe; while miyilifniiiutii>nof itncoum^t- 
cr tnAvittry ik follo-n-i^d by i?>Kl4*ndinAl]0ii or riorny. In ih^ piMlomI or 
in the civiiize*i f^ure^ the *ninp ciin«*f<, o|Mrrntintc on n Ijiftz^r ^cnlc, 
prndtici^ t<triH;£» fttiH more Mrikioi;. 

Thi- cbAraclcr of nyry rnco t^f irn^n i* ihr rrftl limit to it-i mimbiTM in 
1hi< world, if JilUivninrL- be* inHito lur aoE^i<knts of |K>?itioTi Aiid time. 

Populikliijii i^ on<.m i>ii1 of thr |)1ao^ vfhcro it i« vtuiird, <it cou1<I he^ 
mo*t prrtibiPtivi* : biif thr pojMilnl ion of llin voHJ in not, m Miihhritt 
ri^sum^ti, Tvilundaiit; and not only i« thc-ro n pnncily of men of Iran- 
TCf^TiiImit g^ntiit in nil i^onnrrlvH, hut U-w prr^onji who hitvt^ oiTASion 
to iui<!lt*rltvko or mho accouipUsli grcwt indii^criAU ixditli-fl}, warlike, or 
olbcr o|H^ationA oTt^r Hnd ihnl iltn mon of nkill, iiiduHtry, *dcI ontiro 
lriu«twi>ttlUnc«--tif whom tUey cj;ti dinpom-t eilhcr in tb« higlmt cir 
tlie lovr«At Oepartmeata — are 9ii|icrabTjndauL Every ma^^ter knoiF» that 
good men — ami rvi'ry initii tlmt jjmul Taiwif-rfl — rtrf \rarrf. 

Tbo idle who will not work^ tW nn^kilfiil who canrtot work, auil the 
primSnal diui>i-A wbcv fjiuiiut hv. ttunUndf an*, howi^vcr, it nuiy lie iidtiiiUti), 
wlu'lbir [lumt'iyiiiF^ ur lV<v, lUwayv n-duodnuL Hut u-t thu dlftuiplvfi of 
MttUhiii^, if there weif '" two iDJIlkms of Micb peojflf in Gmi Bnuiin,*' 
AVouUI not bivr ibi; piibbe vXiH;tit toiler invokLHl for Uivir Llc^ruction, 
iLei1ii«r oAn wc edtntt the vxJidity of Ihe nr;^imcnt of that vriler when 
Ik* hllrmixn to rr>ci>iicili< u.i to tbi^ Idbm of M\'i» by »hi]iv^rvck;<. vxplovionii, 
miAll-poK, clobo hnbitftlioitH oti low *i|vEf, — b^^ tbi^ iguorancv of rnva, tlU) 
fwem of tovna, or tbc blind fury of pcstilcDcc«, — wbkh are fatal to all 
cln«KC« of ibi- mtian. New birih^ tnay rejiair ibi- nnrulions but iirvt-r 
All Ehe places of the deftd- 

Thd K-MumpiioD thai HiibHintenc^ ini-Tca«c4 al a rati? ccrrcj^^Hmdio); to 
ftiiy u:'itbiriiTiii;iJ pru^n-A^on rwrts Oti no Auth<-uii(? otwurvAtiutiA. The 
prodiim of tliis country bw never been vnltKr^I nl nUt^l i[iEvrt-idF<, 
Cupital, howtrver, iDcrea^t^B, it ia aJways tittiudicd, wbi-n term* of years 
are conndered, in a ^otnetric'iU prngr^Aion ; iuhI at (impound intenefft 
ih<> iiu^nwAC 1ft much morv rapid th&o the increuBe of population in JUiy 
Kuru|>«aii i^tftlc-. Thi^ inlArcit of Dioncy, iodicKtEn;; tlic niinual iocrviwr 
of vabie, in ilm ivroduiN^ of propi-rly, uid bmr« n rather elo«p analogy to 
increaae " of the meiaust af tttb«ihU'Dce." At 3 \^v vmi\K. \it}v einnuiu 
ipoood intcr(>st Uk ralun x^f cupitnl ix douhlcil in 24 yeai> ; and Ji 
poptdatiou inurvaeinf^ at 3 ]ier reut>, whicli in nmr ihc nmnml rale, 
doable* In ik* *«rno ilmt^; whilo iu.TUiiil)y tbf* Brilbh |>op(iUtioa Iiaa 
Wivajnl at tb*^ T»tp «f J'S!2?> [wr rnnt. annr^nllv for ib*» fifty yenrs 
IK01-*'! I aiwJ has doiildttl in .S3 yearj*. 'ITiut*— if nr Uik^t ilii* indica- 
tiott— (he incinH "f »ot»i^lpn(rn hnvo inrrenseU fju^l'T Ihnn x\\v nambcrs 
■yf tlw jwopk-: for, whilir thi? fHtiJuhtJon luiri tloiibh-d, xUr vabiror enp^ui) 
tinder tnvotinMiiit iil If |h>i' rent, ntinponml iiil4*rvtt hiLt qiuulrupled. 
Th« l^liODDCE of C>rrnt Bi'ilaini whie.h in xh*- pr>*!u>ni HAft* of crimniere^ 
is aiwdy* TOwrrr/JA/fl tjt/tt M*- '' w^anf ^i/" //a^si^tntft,'^ hw proboUy 
not inor«af«il nl n lower ratio ; nml no om? cnn prrl^d, in tho abaence 
vf tixv uxaet fttclM. ihat the rntio Imn l>evfi ariUiiuetJcal. 

Tbo AMH>tlLon InlU t» lhi> ^ntttioil tbut tho di^apjienTtinee of amall-pMC, 
of ekoler^ <ir of other epitUmia^, miiHt hr followed immodial^'ly by 
nimine, or by nn inere«iM^ of olh*»r ili^eaAOM. The prim-ipir mny hM 

16 [f^&t I. 

of *^ rftbbita" auiJof animala that have no power of creating Kubsistcnce ; 
but its applicatlOD to civilized mcu ia nbeurd. — (Censua Report, 18dl, 
OccupatioEiSj vol. I., pp. iiv-lviL) 

It IS tmc thiLl n\\ plants nod animals liave the power of multiplication ; 
and man in coDfoniLity with tbat law b^s the power of dmihliDg hi» 
Dumbers every twcnty-^ve years under favourable conditions^ and within 
definite limits of space and time, the limit being soon attained without 
the exercise of Bklll nnd industry in supplying tiia wants ; but hid 
strngglea for the means of living, as a race, were ffreatei- at first when 
his numbers were fewer Umn they are now in England. The numben* 
of maokind never Actually increase as the numbers in the geometrical 

series 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 indefinitely; und 

suhsistence never increases as the numbers in the arithmetical seriee 

I, 2, a, 4, 5, 6, 7, U, 9f 10 indelinitciy. But the population of 

a country may increase in geometrical progrejjsion for a certain number 
of years, and so may its subsistence, understanding by that all that 
supplies men^s wants. Mr, Malthus found when he wrote that the 
population of the United States ha<l been said for a century and a halt 
to double it.self every 25 years ; and now it is known by the Census 
that the population, after the year 1790, increuHcd very regularly at 
the rate of 3 per cent- nnnually for the seventy years ending with I860 ; 
at that rate population doubles itsi-lf in 23^ years. 'Fhe increase, 
however, was not ** by procreation only," but partly by excess of births 
and partly by immigration of blacks from Africa, of w!iiles from Europe. 
Population increased in geometrical progression at a certain rate, but 
subsistence also increased in geometrical progression at a faster mtp. ; 
so that the pressure of population on subsistence grew less atjd not 
greater. In the lai^t 10 years pro<luctive labour slackened and the flow 
of population ebbed ; during the civil war English eniigrants returned 
to England ; there was loss of life in the licld, and although for lack of 
a national system of registration it cannot lie set forth in figures, tbn 
marriage and birth-rates must have declined, for the population increased, 
DOE 3 per cent,, but 2 per cent. annunJly between the two Cen^uBes of 
lH6a-70. Yet the produce increased, the wheat fi-om 173 to 288 
million bushels ; the value of all live stock from 21H to 305 millions of 
pounds sterling. 

The increase of produce froni 1850 to IHfiO may be inferred from 
two orders of facts. The numlier of farms rose from 14 to 20 hundred 
thousand, while the aicu of improvctl land from 1 13 grew to 163 millioti 
acres; and the value of live stock rose front 109 to 21M milUons of 
pounds. Popuhitton only increased In tha-^ ten years from 23 to 31 

And in the earlier ycjuw, thougli not i-eeorderl, the produce inci'caseil 
nndouhfedly as nearly in geometrical progression as the population 
counte<l at each census ; ami if the early censuses prove that popula- 
tion increases, the ]X!cent ceiisuses pro^e that subsistence increases in 
geometrical progression. liad Malthus had before him the retnrns of 
produce as well as population in America, he could scarcely have fallen 
into the error of laying it down tluit, while population increases in n 
geometrical, sul>5istenee increases in an arithmetical progi^ession. 

Tliere is a limit to the increa^ of both peoide and produce : but the 
tendency now is, as men endowed with skill, weapons, tools, and 

* Sm Journal of Statistical S<K<[cty, Vol. xxsLvJiu pp. t^-fi\ uiiJ United States 




fAftor thnn populatioD. 

Jd llu'lirtil t.^iilii»n ofhi^ work* Mxlthuit Inp it dowu ihat (I) "popu* 
" Uiicn wuinot increaiH? ^Itboui ihe mpans of subsiftterice,'' Umi (2) 
" fopuljiiioti 'Iw^u invurinbT^ ineroiuif whoro thri'<- ni*<:i Ui<* difuna of 
" HubvtifUiicv ; '' ami (3) " thni iIk' Mipmor jJowi*r of r>«|>iilatii)[i rnnnot 
" kr thcrkctl w'lhoni piXKliicing un^erj or Tice."t Sbtinkinj; from ihe 
expUcit eipiVBiiiouuvKioiiilyimpliuU Lv Lis ju-cumeiii Hint "tlio siiij>cnor 
" jxuvfr ol jjnpiilHiHMj cuikiiui l»c v^'ri:k^'<l wiujijiil pi-ovluvltig mi»erv ur 
" vicr/* \ie k'ii out of m?t?ount Ihe fiicl ihat nt llie prolJAt* age a liugi^ 
proportion of llie wotnen of every civilized population is iiiiniun-icd nnd 
virIaou>; ibiv htihig only ftiirtijilly rc-co^iir^l in ihr i^nhfoqiicnl oditiona 
under tho plirii^ '* moral reali^aitit." In^tend of ^Srnply BiAtii^n ttiui Ihr 
population ih kf^jat down bj heiv fzauncA tliAl diminUh tli<T t^ii'lli" uml 
incNHiw^ iho dofttli^, hi* tifr-H in me In^ fditum tThi vjigm> phrn.'^p, *^ l1i<? 
'* vhockf: which rcprcir^s ihc superior pow4^r of population, mh\ koep ita 
" t-A'ects oil b kvei vriih tijr in«-4iii» of au1>M;<tviia*, an* all reM>lml>lr into 
" tnornl rr,*(raiiil, rice, and rnjs<.^rv,"t 

The thuory lb an miilcactin^ in pi'nciIoR as it in dcJ'(?cllT<f in Ktatrnicot, 
an*l, at oxpri'3^, vrr&uoous iii ffLcU Ii a»iuiiu-H that tlii^ rr?ttmJnl of 
populiition in thi* corncr-Monc of policy. Had llii* principU- iK^n 
ncccpled ]>y the people, iho population of ih^ kirigtWi iiiMi^it of 
nuioutilio}: to thitlj-lwo milliuiiH uould hnvi^ reinniutil, o^i it vtw at Ihc 
liogiriiitTJ^ of <h(i L*ont»ry, eixtvuti millions. Eu^latid, in the pmipiico of 
<Ik* grpat corlinontftl f talt**, woold hnre bcffi now a wconfl-riUo powei" : 
Ult dcpeiidecicitfrt muiit )ia\L* luen Imt ; ht'f (^'IcniieB have- rrniuiTicd 
iinpooplo>d; li^i' lodiutry crip|il^1 for wjmt cf ImmlH; hor commerce 
limited for tvitnt of iiJiipn. T1il< k-gul iDnuraucv of \hv i)«>jj1<? by the 
kiii} a^inpBt d4>ath by binrvalion. lhi> ^Wrx 1o hK^iii the tiile of opiifoniioB, 
the HCtoncc of healing, hvgicuic improvcfuent of every kind, intiAt havo 
]nn;;ui9hed under Iho cold iihudow of thin doctiine ; nnd in ita muue ibo 
mdi-Jivoiir to ifAve the Htcs of childrcti by sanitJiry tnnasiirt^fi i'^ t-vtu now 
dciiou aired ah i^ithti' futilr or mi»ehi«roup. And lof^aonlly il IcmhI;- Io ibo 
poliry of ilopopolAlIofk - fnr if in^i'f«*(' raiiAPK njicery, ^PeTpa«<», hy pafil^ 

of rt*a»oiim;r, chfiBcs happincwi: thi.-i prinrjplc of populHliou heinjz Xhfi 
Fewer the bnppier. It is a polioy thnt dimini-^bt^ tli(< numbei'M of tbo 
wiM- iLTid Ihi- K^^L^I, but lias no e^i*et on ihi* uiiif^b).''^* Faiuilies uiidvr lUiit 
jiotiey ft]i:i out. Cla»4*>s di^tiogiiihhed for pny viiiuc, thai acoopi iho 
rr-Atralnt under vows protidi- for iti oxtinetton. T)io h<-rmilH anil NiitjIK, 
ihat forcTwenI ** widdetl liyw" and children, at (he winie time thru ihoy 
prov)de<l for iheir own eii-rmd hliNi pniriih^ fur Ihe extinction of 
sunciity vn larth ; wbih^ our unh er^ltieB oltervd bj relluwOiijin^ forfiiUNl 
on inHrrbitfe. otiL- of which Mullhut ho^t jii«t aor^uiiv>d at dtrtiib Collogi*, 
a premium on proimcti'd celilmey, they ilircoura;{ed lla- niuUIplieation of 
thiurttbUtil luen.^ Tlio economialM, Ihc iniwrh the philoHophrrH, in llio 
Hinte vray climtnnte prudences no(|uiMl]vec«&av Mid scieiico from Ibo 
raiikn of their mec. Thvy atv \\ke doweii» all bloom. ]x>w pny mukoi 
the offic^rh of the wtitiy and nttvy ptfT-forro MmlthnHiaii?*. tnd di^i>nr:i]{iw 
lli« propAfjalion of prowcnn. Few uHstocredce ai9 twlf-BurHlainin;;;: nnd 
if th«m is a EkAtuml tendency in wcolth to Accumulnte by inlcrfiiiiirtage, 
UiAt may lend to \U di«|icrKioR. 

• ThiTr U n fifipir rrf (hi? fini i^ififin in tlw lihtiify of Ihc Sfntiiticn] Soejfij, 
Il tmM pnMi*b<^d in JTV^iibr icarnffiT lie wha uindc ji fellow of Ji^u) ri>ttr)(«, 
CdUMhrklffc, and wticn li« w 39 jran of Agr. 

t P, «, 

t «tb<deion, Vol. Ih. p.94- 

f la IfvT. ^r Nr^niuit Ui Friuclplot of roUtknl Economy, Sni c<titlou, |t Xi«t- 

^ H 

16 [P4ET I, 

of "rftbbits,"auilofanimalfl that have no power of creatiD|f subsistence ; 
but its application to civilized meu ia absurd* — (CenBus Report, 185L, 
OccupatioDs, Tolp L, pp. liv-lviL) 

It in tnio that all plants aud animal!} have the power of multiplication ; 
and man in conformity with that law has the power of doubling his 
numbers every twenty-nvc years under fiivourable conditions^ and within 
definite limits of space and time, the limit being soon attained without 
the exercise of skill and iadustry in t^upplying hie wants ; hut hia 
Ktrtiggles for the means of liWng, as a mce, were greater at first when 
hia numbers were fewer than they ai-e now in England, The numbers 
of mankind never actually increase as the numbers in the geometrical 

series 1,2, 4, H, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 indefinitely; and 

BubaiBtenee never incrcoiK^ as the numbers in the arithmetical scries 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 indefinitely. Biit the population of 

a country may increase in geometrical progrt^sGion for a certain number 
of years, and so may ila aubsiatencc, umlerslanding by that all that 
supplies men's wants. Mr, Malthus found when he wrote that the 
population of the United i:>tates had been said for a century and a halt 
to double itself eveiy 25 years ; and now it is known by the Census 
that the population, after the year 1790, increa'^ed very regularly at 
the rote of 3 per cent, annually tor the seventy years ending witi» 1^60 ; 
at that rate population doubles itself in 23j years. The increase, 
however, was not '* by procreation only,*' but partly by excels of births 
and partly by immigration of blacks from Africa, of whites from Europe. 
Population increased in geometrical progression at a certain rate, but 
subsistence aUo increased in geometrical progression at a faster rate; 
po that the pressure of population en subsistence grew less and not 
greater. In the last 10 years productive labour slackened and the flow 
of population ebbed ; during the civil war >^Ttg1ish emigrants returned 
to England ; there was loss of life in the field, and nltbough for lack of 
a national system of registration it cannot l>p set forth in figures, the 
marriage and birth-rates must have declined, for the population increased, 
not 3 per cent,, but 2 per cent, annually between the two Censuses of 
1860-70. Yet thtj produce incrcasetl, the wheat ft-om 173 to 288 
million bushels; the value of all live stock from 218 to 305 milliona of 
pounds storting. 

The increase of produce from 1850 to la'iO may bo inferred from 
two ordei's of facts- The numl>er of farms roso from L4 to 20 hundred 
thousand, wliile the ar^rjL of improved \iind from 1 13 grew to 163 million 
acres; and the value of live stock rose from 109 to 218 millions of 
pounds* Population only increased in those ten years from 23 to 31 

And in the earlier yeara, ihough not ivconltxl, the produce increasetl 
undoubtedly oh nearly in geometncal prt^rcssion as the population 
counted at each census ; and if the early censuses pmvc that popula- 
tion increases, the I'eeent censuses prove that subsistence increasea in 
geometrical progression. Had Malihus had bcforo him the i^tums of 
produce as well as population in Ameiico, he could scarcely have fallen 
into the error of laying it down tliat, while population increases in n 
geometrical, subsisteneo increases in an arithmetical progression. 

Thei'e is a limit to the increase of both people and produce : but the 
tendency now is, as mon endowed with skill, weapons, tooN, and 

•See Journol of Statistical iStK'lety, Vol. x\,\¥iii, pp. J-l-fi-; iiml L'uited !5ia(t>0 




rn;<ccr than population. 

Id tbo ilr«t ^Million of Mh work* Multbutt \k}% it down thftt ( J) *' po[iu- 
" Utictn CAiinot incr«rL»e without tbe monntf of aub»ij«(ence," tbnt (2) 
•^ pujiuliiiion docs uivarinblj' incrcMC where ibcix- ar« riic mfiuid of 
" «iibiihtcnr>? ; ^^ 7iti(L f ;t) " that Hm- ^fupcrior pinvi^r of population iiinnot 
" Im; drnkcjl without prtwhicing miacry or ricc-"t Shnnkiup i'rcin iho 
explicit exptvtiSLon wvwlontly iinplit-tt hy Lis urjiiimcni fbat " Ibr nupt nor 
■' puiwer of popnUli<m ennnnt lir* eW'krd witboui producing miwry or 
*' *ic<V bo k'it viU of uooount ibv fuct tb*t nl tJio prolidc ^go ii largo 
propoHion of iho women of evcrj dvilixf^d |K>palHLion la iinmiirHiHl and 
virtuoiiH; thirt imti]^ only j^nrtiiilfy ivc-npiiKtHl xn the ^iibn'tpicnl pclilionM 
nmkr Iho phrn^e *' moral re^ti'sinl/' limlc«<J of tim]>ly efAtin^ tbat tb(^ 
pupuluiz^ii i.n ki*pt down b^ liny cniiM;^ tbiit (iluiinUb biribs nnit 
iiicr*Mur^ tho (Wlbtf, hv iui-*t in tli<> lu.'f ivTjIioit thts vh^up pbrn«t\ ** i!m> 
'* che«kn wbicb rcpif*s llip tiipfrlor |M>wer of |iot»u1ation, *nil koep ila 
" ^IfcctH on a \v\A wiLb Ibc nunna of fiubf^islr-ncv, ani all re-*olTnl»!e into 
" laornl nstmint, vkx, an^l miscry/'J 

Tlic tbuory if na uii»]vadii;>; in puwlk'e as it ia tb^fcctixv in Mntrinciitr 
mill, m^ nxpn^^flpilt prrmi^nim in fiitr ll h>«4(iTtic^ ibut lb»> ri.*\irAint rtf 
popuUltori is iho cornvr-xttmc nf [>o1iry. Hml Tin* prlncipb- b<>rn 
accepted by tbc pcoplon tlio jiopukfion of ibe kingdom tii-iti>nd of 
omouiitiu^j; ia ibirty-two milltPi]?i would ]in\ii rc^maim^it, ti^ ii wil* nt \hv. 
liCf^iiniiif; of fbo century, bi:Lr<.m iiiiilionx, KngtAiid, in Uiv piC]!tt'nc4.i of 
the* grMkt cont]th>ntn] filA(p«, wot'l'l hnvc btx'U now « wcond-iut^ IKiwcv; 
hot dept'fiil^'jiries iun?it li^vo bt'en lost ; her colonies bavo reniaiiietl 
(Ui peopled ; bcr indutiry erjp|di?il for wnnt of lianEU; her commei'co 
liiuUtfd for wunt of *lIip^. Tb« legal inniirauco of the people by t?ic 
Inikd i^aiTiAl i3oAtb bv qtaiTJiti<rii, llio i>tFi>r1>i Ui Mi^in iho lirlr at opidotnicSf 
Uic sciriico of hrnlin^, by^^irnir itiipmvcinrTit of every kind, luuKt litvi^ 
langnisbi^d under ibe co[J ihudow of tbiti doclrlnp ; and in il£ nnme iho 
mdcvivonr to Mive Uie Mw* of ebildreii by ^nnitnry uiuwiurc*ti » even noiv 
dtriivuncc'it hit L-ilbvi fultlL' ur itiJH^Uie^oiJs. A[k1 lu^iv;all| ii Iwda lo tbc 
polity of dopopuliitioTx ; for if iiKTi'Uso cmvri miiory, JoorenM>, by pnrity 
ofreaaonin^t cansL'H bappiiiuaf^; tbf? prmclple of populAtioo hvtug Ibt* 
fcvvr the bnppii-r. Jt i^ n poli<'y ibut liiminislic?! thr nunjluT^ uf ih^ 
wIao and tho ^ood, bnt bn^ no «flect on iho maiw^ Kaiiiilics under Ibis 
policy die oiil. CUAfCi", diMinguinbcd for nuy niluc, tbftt nc<.'cpt Ibt.* 
resitmint nni^tir vowv^ pru^-idi<- for ilH etrinclioo. ThohormiiA«ml »;uiilH, 
lh:it forewi^rit ** wedded lore," and ehiklren, nl lb<- snnir lime thai llioy 
proTidt'd for tbcir own et^-rnjd Uli« proviiled for the extlucliou of 
aanctUj on eanb ; wbUe our imivcrfEiiuit ofl'omi b^ fc1]ow«bi|)ii, AiriMkinl 
on mnrrl&gr, oiio <tr which Matlburi had just u^quii-od at Jidoe Colh<g(.% 
a pn^mitim on proirartt^il rfylilmey, ihvy dtftouni^ed the mult i plication of 
tb^ir ablf'ftt meik.§ The rconoiDJi<Lii> the mWnf, ihe fibilosophors in Ihe 
Mini' way eliniinntt; wuiience, Hcquisiliveno**, find science from Utt> 
ruiiks iif ibc-ir ruct^. Tbi-y nrv IlLu fowcm nil M^jvuIp Low p»y niakoa 
tJu' ofHorrt <if ibfl array nnd navy perforcu MnUbnaiAitri, and dWoMi-ii>c«'# 
tlio propiL^llon of pk'Owi'». Few an»ti>eraeic« ari^ sr)f-"U9(aiikinjz ; nnd 
if tbi;ro h tk naluial tendency in wmhb to accumidaK' by internmma^i^ 
thftt may lead to it» dispertioiu 

• ThoTD ii ■ topy of Uw Gf*t tdiiinn in tbc lihmrjr nf itii* SlMliti^ftl Sotipiy. 
It nii> published m ITlfS>thi- ycainTicr ho wu mni1*j • fpUowof Jmm* rolK-K^, 
CnmtmdKo, and «hcn he «vt 33 v<an of o^k 

ip. 37. 
Dthcdidoa, Vol. L,f.t4, 
Id I7tl7, 5c* >1giiu>ir iu Prtnciplt-i i>f PoHlknl KotHKOnjt 3*id c*tHtou, p. ^iht. 


[p*nT 1. 

Tbo *\Mie ot nations in tlie prownt dny, luul tttf^ liiMor/ nf pwt iJifCSt 
prove thftt the mntntenjioceof iy[iiililin(imb<^tn'H>(i viiilirdiaUttice and pOfMI* 
bUco i«Aeouijil>i.ittt^(l qiK^i<^ii, li has b^u loH liitheclo 1o Ihe Mnao 
fif Ukih tvxtv*^. hinllhim luul the lu^rit of oontrpJin^ ihnt it Atlmltbeil of 

etfltisticd of imtions ID €tery BUf^* of ctnlixaliou ; thjit it «itUivd into 
iJic nnlicina] policy, inOMiiucb ns it vr«i « matter tliat concerncil, lu tlio 
blti}:be^t ilejp'e^ uoi onl/ |inrliculH' mdlviliiiLh, but lh<> wbolo corDmnnitjf 
tlin StAte. Reduce ihr coa-allui^Ejt roll af^i natioD too low, and U cAuiiot 
Ktntgglu with Kiinn^-u against oiltiT fc^rni-t of lifi^ in t^ialuri*: it cAHiioi 
IkoJd lU own in the face of oilict' powi.-rfl ; it can undirttakc po great 
concerted opcratjoiu< ; xulitAry mind» iu reuvjtc dwcLUnf^ are not 
quickened by coUlaiou ^ith other mind* ; ttie lui^niicy of hfn in t<i)iti;nv<l 
on tho cartb,* Add tho chiUKx^ dlmini^bc^l oflbc Hh? of in<rn of p^titas, 
to whom tilt; world vwh j>ro^>9d i» t^H^ dcieuctfd, divcovcrutt ia the 
aiefal arlf, and iriumplis in Ilii€ art aivL Utcr^toro. 

Ill oft'ect^ gf too indiiiT |ieog)le wiUiti;; to irork euu for centurlm^nly bo 
IVlt when the/ are blindly crowdcil in {mt ticuUi- )tpot«, when tbeir Ulxnir 
it not oipuuffCHi, wbon th<^lr w^itUitit^Qfl arc icifoeuri*, wboa th^ir 
dwcUinffaaredeoisHnU w)ieu tbe »up|>ly of eutbiAlHice i a not rendered* 
comitiuoiix, Jirtil within i1uu Vnn'it^ lh|oiJ, by aUing«, by coouiMrcc, bj 
tikiLful dibtribulion, and by wiaelawb: Uieu zjmoUc dlSftob b qmai^ 
()crii>i)i<: fainiiJOvArv fuul, and ihc wr^lchoJ ]>«opJcTni^ oo inndccjooto diot 

Tlie iiv'iU of iiidiacrimitiai« internaairiajr' of imixTfect taatureeftccumti' 
i«to. Krrr>rA oi\ oilh^ v\ti» tit txvw$ or fUif<x.'l an* puniiilied oi itwxorably 
by t^e law of population lu they are by the law of j^i-ariiarion. If irlbM 
of men vill not br<^d riomojilio iknimAlf, or ctiltivatc tbc lu^il, noifhinf cmn 
BuMjLin ibt'in by tli<> «id^ of civilixod nicrs. If mviL and woTiM*n will noit 
work tJ^ey may 0(4 eat. If cinsees of nii>n drlok aleoliol to ejccess ; if they 
coiLHUmc impure water; if tlicy herd in rooktm^; and if tlicy leafl idlo^ 
crbnlnal, viignbond lirc«; tliey pcrlfh. Nature 1^ implacAblo ; ihf> 
dogmdntiofi of the liuiuoo moe ia made dlfBcidt ; it im Mop|H>d by doath. 
The belt r/»ce* in tJjt- (ind ba\« thi? Ic^i ehixnco o£ living m>ni r;<.'aermfon 
to ■^Denttlon. An<3 ftsniiwl ihe wt-ETity cf tbc lilt stnipgJc have lo bo 
fli*t the exGitcmontd of the bti.ttlu, tho' eai^r^y it oull^ f^rth, atid ilie 
porpetaal rcloclfon of lliit?i vadetic;* of tbt^^ ruce for M^rviiul Eti«;Ijmd 
tbronji;h itn crnturioB of hiitory ow«ft aoono of ita groAtne^e to ih,itt 
prinoiplt- : It hiL^ bi't-n M by it ai&y after step up to heigbtH uf glury. 

Tht^ 'trupgU' in » cotLN<;c|tumcc, M^icnco toacbe*. of the cvolutioa cf the 
livitj^ matter of tlie earth Inia higber foroift; niid that evolution ta not 
yet Bt on end. 

Mr. Dnrwtn upplU^ tbo doctrine of Mttlthiitf ^* to the whole veg^tftble 
'* and an ] rial kingdom": and reco^nkiDg **tbe struggle for exiBteoce 
*' aiumigHt all organic b<*ings tlii-nughout the world which inevitably 
" foUo^TB from the high ^ornetri^^al ratio of their incrt^ase," he makes tt 
tholiwia of A vast gon<^raiiRalioii.t Aflor dlscuaain^ tbo qu^tion bi.-' tha> 
roiT(-hide», ''all that wg onn do is to k^cp Ptem^il^ in mind tlint ««ob 
** orgacio being ip striving to increase in a gcouielricul ratio ; that oach 

* Sir W. P«tty, by a colcuhitioa which lie dcscnbcc la one of hiN Emm^ on 
Pdlilical AntbemrliCt but nhi^h ir would hv ^fllcult lo \eiifji lu^cii** in oppoAilloa 
to "*otne wcptics." tbBi two raouniaiti* of Ireland vorc a» weiffhty a* nil lac bodies 
" Ibut IimI ctrr hc4H frxmi tbi.- brginuiii^ of tlie vorM to ihi.' r^nr J<;ho,'' ]k> thU oa 
U tany, lliu vTfi^-hf of tlii: buiiiui law tiiivv a ouu liiui- dtw? itot ckvoc*! GO mtUioQ 
trijf* 1 for oiiljr a lUinU ftvciioii of Ihc mrfiice of the *Mlh «\Uu In the hiffb*^^ tona 

f Ori^'n of Spccip*, Srd cation, IiLtroducdoo, p. 4^ p. 07, Aod p. BS. 

)VI't"l*ATH*!*.] iff 

" n% ftomo iHfriod of lis lifix duniii: v^me ^eison of die >eAr, clariiig caeli 
** generatLOQ <h- At inU^rvHla, \im to slrujrijfle f<tr Urc^ and to i^uficr grett 
" iii&5t ruction. Wlim vrc rrlU^ct on Itiif s(ai^|<lo we oiAy oonsoto 
*' i»ui«clvea wilb tliu ritU bdit-f ilmt tb» Hur iif rijiiuix^ Li not incr^wnni, 
*' that no fe»r is Utlu tlmi Henlh U ^neritlly proin)>l, ^mf thut ih« 
'* vigi>roLi9t ihr hcnlthy, nnH <ln* liii|i|iy *nnirc i%M T\mU'\['W" 

This fltn;ggle reif;ii.-< ov«r the wWv aritni^il kir^loiu ; uitv if^ innn, 
us i» too will ktiovrri. nn oxi^vpLion ; but Mr. Unrwin mcHjifWs the 
|jtiiici|>lc wlikli fttcrithu flie '^txut clirck of ]K>puUtiou to ** ipJMiry/' 
Ifrnrifjn (oo ffirvfl in»ri r^rfAin prf>rr>gnfiveH ; fi-ir n-t w<< Imvv vcwii it 
cuiitroU rertility, thus ndjustiTLjc in Einn- nufl plaice the nwilte lo the 
iitllRile vnri«tie« of lhi3 opeiun;^^ in life, Jind furtlKT^ in hU hmniuiiir inao 
ha!t tt protection agalt^st ili*; ca&nA]tii» »ml miAfoi tunrfi which ovorwhohn 
inferior npocivd. Thr< huinou Jntiiily, iho cliui, tli« Cowrif tUc tril>C| the 
nntioTi, iLi|njr-knnwli?il<!ei>vBn itowthc rUinui of chiMivn, of the atok, of r1i« 
wouiiclt^il^ mid of iliL* inBrm, 1o bolp in tiiui- of Iroublf*, Fw mon rofuso 
to hind irp lh« wounds of tlieir fellow men. (8app1oniojit to 35th 
AfiniiiU IU<p>rt, pp. xv-xvlilO 

f.iir of I'opntaUon.— A popuhHon iocreftscji Jn rc-^nlar geomotrionl 
pi'o^n'p™^'^'! when Iho birttiR csocpd the ckntlin, "nd the i\fcdo oV the 
birthe nnd of itii^ deothn to the population remiunt GfuiKtani, Thnx in 
KngTnnd cwry 100 pcrw>n» living in 1801 hsw! incrciuejl iQ l'^2 in 
1821; and «very 100 persou** livini; in 1821 hiul irjcrfj^q^'d to 132 in 
1811; llic lOOppraoHM living \n l^iOl hiKl, ihiTdorp, Iticrcoswl to 175 
tn lH-ll,{LCLd at tTio ntnoc rnto t^iU maount to SOO in the yciir IK^O, 300 
in the year 1979. The tnean mlo of increSBe wa* '0141 animoUy ; 
Ibul wttft probably the exccMi of thtr births nvi^r iht-. doutli«. Gntiti^ 
tVuit, aninialB nUo, increase in jifeoinetrical progivaeiou ; btif the incrvo^o 
€>f cupluil, m compound imprTiTi^t^ ia ih\* mtxtt fhrniliur cxiunplc oV tliU 
kind of pro;;roHioEi, imd may rondt^r it iutL-lligthlo to tbu |*u]iurft] ruiulor, 
'rhnaatl*4l per cent, increase nnDDally, tOO pTBona became 133 in 
2t> }H>:ir*. ATid 17^ pc^r^onn tn 40 yciir< ; upon Mil* >unie prindple that 
lOiif., pnt out at 3 percent, per annum eonijjonnd ]niere«C itl 1801, vroult] 
buve AinounEi^ to ncnrly ISl/. by the ycftr 1821, nud to 326/. hy 1841, 

Some i^t^Ti^lieul wrii^-ra have given the lOlh p;irf r>r l}i^- irien^ik>u> in 
tOycur^nj« the Anminl r»1e of ]neren.'«<>. According lo ihi*^ inoik' of 
reaeontn^. as ihe popu1alk)n of England incre-^sod 15 per cent, in 
^0 ycnni, it must have increnncd 37) i)er ci^uf. In SOyeai^, and 1-9 per 
<vnt, itDDually ; while tko actual inere^L^o was Z'2 per cent, in llOycmr-j 
anil t '41 per f^ent, tinnunlly ; and, by ibo wLm<T rennoning. mon^^y that 
incrt>iLR'd 226 pel* i<cnC. In -10 years mn-< have Tiomc an inl^frcsl of 
fij per cent- per anniito; while, aa lias been jcitt seated, money bearing; 
an intorvfit of 3 per cent. ]>er lumuin wottld iiicn^an? 225 {icr cent, in 
40 Tears, at compound iutc^ivft. 

Tlie increase in 10 years ih cleriired from ihe increiiw in on« yoar> by 
ranttijdyjn^ 1 + flic nnniial rate of rncreiiHO 10 liine-i into itvelf. 
Thus tlie iuerea^e of Ibe population in one year xens '0141 ; I becamo 
I'QHI in A vcnr; mnd I'OHl, uiultiplied 10 timcH into itflelfT iti 
l'ir»^7 1 20 ttmM, 1"32'IK To obfiiri, tWr«fore, th^ auntial T*f*» 
of increase from ibo increase in llTyearp, the lO/A roo/, and not the 
lOtb port of the decODnial rate of incrvtete ( 1 * 1507J, munt b'i taki?n.* 

" L«t p dnot* tbt poputiktion «t lUiy timo« j** lb* |fopu1atioa Hi nay pKvioiia 

tiiD^I > Gtn uiiujbL'r of IfitcrrcDlnfc yoni tlim i^/ D ^^ '^ ' ^ * ^^ Amuul 

no of iacTfiue. Tbc dlnAiaa of ibe loguiihni of 3 i>r 3 by lb« l^gunibm of r 
iri«o« ihv %umht* of yotc* in vlikb, tif f^af ritir, 1|bc popalntion will doaUe, or 
triple, ttc 

n 2 


[pxnr iJ 

It apjw^ais Llut tboiit 19 til 20 of the xtetopic in this ^ovntry vr bom ^ 
Ed wedlock. In onler, theroforr, to iinrlM'STJind the mte nt liKTMde hy \ 
birth, it will bo lu^^i^iiy lo inquiru liow mum iier*o[»s aro mnri-Utl, bjr ^ 
Imw iiiikiiy ujariittijc t» fure-^ie, ftiMl liovc long mnrrii^ U dtlaj***! 
ftftor pnly-rtT? In iho Iwa liut y.-ar-i rAOh .funcf. 1830-41). 123.405 
women ^-riv m»rri<^l lUinuAlly : lif-nee il h \tri>huh\<y lh/i1 113,361 
woncK-n, who hull nfJt hvm mjirricJ hcfotv, w<Tr« innrrif-*! ftunually nt a 
menu Bf^o of ;f4'o yeant; lur it ^i^^jtai^i from the fiicl^ di'^l in tl|^ 
report ihftt ths llr*l iiknrringc.4 »4" fr(ii:ilr» atv ncnrlv !>!* in lOO of 
thr total nuirrin^N, luni nro »olfmnif^*i nJ th^l moan age- Lei il bo h 
ii«f4umc'<I. for A moment, thnt oH thi> 113,361 wontrn miirncil lI iho 
Hume a^ — 24 ■ -1 yitirf — half a yvtir rnrlii^r or half & yeiir later ; then 
if the number of \roiiien in the popitlAiion h'Iio cnu-n^cl upmi that nuc 
be known, the pro^iorlion mnrri*Hl WJH be hI ohoq ilcnLounlrati^dt ^* I 
ftp[H>urH from the t*nsii« rotunia ihm the number or women ivlioj 
httninnd iho age in qiionion wa« xbout 143,830; nod ]|3.H3() tfi 
to li:*,3GI iw^ftriy as lOO to 79i the resull Uicrefore ij^, ihat 79 in 
100 womi'n ivlio nlUkiii Iho inarriwe o^ (24) nrv niiirrirO, noU thnt 
Si ID lOO arc ii^vt-r mnrriod. It hu bec^n «MUiiiod thiil nil tlta 
nairinges ai'e performed at the Fume uge, to make the prntx^ilion 
more inlclli^bk: hut it in ovidont Umi tlir Ivnun of the proportion I 
between the numbers vrlio <]o oi- do not marry witl not bv maiMiallyj 
a0o<:trd by tbc dtalribiition of the ]icr]>ons ovi^r ihn a^n iodicatnl bjr th« j 

in this inveali^aiion 1 onU lake Ibe firai marriflffr^ lio*^uw Hm* i 
Hxvi marriagp^ i\'pn\;*rut tbc?numWr(>f/»rrjffjiw who marry iiiitiuiilty ; tiMf 
rcrt of the lotnl ninrringes tn a long interval of iSine, hcing ri|M*li1ionfi I 
of the •« of mftirmgr? hy the «Hnic imUvidiinln, nidny of whom in the 
orriinary matrhige i-e^'iKi^'i'ft jii>h pduhicd Iwici* ; f<*i' tbo r<*tnmi* nbow 
that by ix^Diarniigc9« aftout 100 women marry 108 men, nitd 100 nt^m ^ 
113 svomon. 

It I» nut Ml piiKy to tlclirmbic the peoporUon of ra<-u who iTv not] 
marryt but 1 ebiJl givo tbe reeultd of (ho nnrat> kin-l <if rt'iuH>i)in^ 
flpplied lo mcn» a« Hah been npplloil to Indivltlunlx oi' the oilier 8ex. 
Il may \tv iI*^Juceil from t\n\ r«tto i>f thu fir^l to lh<* ff>lnl iiijit'nii;ii^ 
tbnt 123,406 mmTin^t.'^ (th ' avi-ni^e number), imply tlu' nnnual 
iuarricg« ^f I0K,3^rf ntyo^ ami fiom ilicr Ci<n,Mj^ utjMijif^in tb^it ubwit 
I3!f.!j>^(> laeu v^vrc i'ltnuieriited nl Iht^ mvun ngu ('i?5'^ ycmn) nt ivhiuli 

meu ar<* lir^l innrriL-iL ; «o iik;ti of 100 men riiitnieiaii.'<l who uTtnm the 
flvcriige *igo at whith marriage is con^iummat^nl, H2 do marry wnd 18 do 
not murry; tuit the number 132.23(i wa.^ rierivpd itjrt'cily froai iho 
nnndtrr cf nion i^nuincmtccl, und phoidd lie fiii^ic^nti^d. to iududc iW 
infli ^tolillt^rt, bjiilorH, A^-.) AljHcrilT iiiul cni'riiiiiig rni]Tiii>nilton nf. tUiit 

aj(e in greAk'r nnmb-ri^ prol>nbly, tlian Bt nihi-r n;^. If w<? ndtl 
7t*420 to Ihp males enumeraWl, on the n#Huiiiption tlifll ihe narnlM*n* 
of the two SOS*"* living nj tho mwn age of 255 are n^iirly «'ctnn], 
wbieb Js probuhly cho futrl, it will be fonnd ibnt the proporLJon of lUi-ti 
who niarry in 7*1, nr one less tlian flu* |>ro[kOi-rion wJiifh w:t* fonml for 
tho femulc* ^ox, Tim ttctnol iliffrrmce, ir. will he nl>&cTvfd, btiiWL'uti tho 
nuadnr of nu-n and women enttmerati'd who attain ihi- re*ipcclive jmjcs 
lA ] l.i^M ; but l.ldo nf tlir* ninnlfor ii^ nciminto<l fcir by thr diti{mriqr 

iif Eigi.s 'u the worUi-n living nt llir ri;^c ul' :^.^'£ wx'iv 130,(.(^Ot niiil 

not 143,830. 

By rf-'flson of the re-marrnig*j», ihr ubMiluh* niimticT of women who 
tnnrry i)t greater than the ah§olule number of' men: tU<? prni>ovtion Ja 
1000 lo 1 04(!; »iid, huterly, iia l]3^'ir>l spinaUT^ iiml 108,3^6 
bftehelor«T hnvo lieen tnnri'ied iinfiunllyf tlie inniTying woinirri Imvfi Itooo 
^fil6 a year mere numerous than the men; while, as la shown in the 

prett-diit^ para^apli, if thn otuii1>«r of both tt-xen ni ilia aameiM^fN 
»|Uh], the womrii Jiving At ihts a^^ 24^3, according lo thn i^nNEiA 
it'iiim.s wort? 4JW0 mor*J uLiru^^rotti ihun the u'lxmni liviu;! at tliG ItttL^r 
nivfui ngis 25' 5 ywr^r ai which men marry- The ucar ooliiculi^noe 
ufforitHB mmM'kablo example of tho ikocrot wljtiritnicnt* wbicb uxial, 
uiid or Lbc laivH whicU nv;ulttt(t all aoclal comUmtl ionx. Moiv womvu 
jiiv nutmoii titan mwj ; but llic women arc marrk-d at jui wvriic^r ngi.*, 
xvhra ctio nuiubiT of lli^^ni tlviuy; id ^''^'uEcr ihau rJR< nutnbcr of men 
liviii;^ Yil tW h;;;*.' wJa^» mm marry; »v>cLal, at lUe nT^|M>clive n^a of 
tiiurr !«)(<■, ulKHii 79 m I CM) of each n'X nuurry. Of 100 uoim-'i Mniri-"*^, 
8 woit' tviduvK; of lOU uH^ri, 12 wen* i^viduwir?*. It is IikJinitdy 
imiirohiblc tliat a UiMbtuxl aiiJ wife j^hnuld divi ut U)i? fiimr ttickim-nt; Cor 
every Mui'fiuf^*, therofoixs a widow or widowei* will bo uttimat«-Jy Ml; 
aud if the uuiiihcr rtt nuirtiAgo nriil of nk«TT]«1 jicrcKMij rciauinctl 
Klulkiikjiry in Eii^tuiid f^r u t<ul]?lillL>^i^t(' titimbfi- of ^'eur^, iiH 123,40ii 
inarnu;'f**i Uikc place, 12^,-kt4& widows or wiJowflrs wotdd Ije loft every 
yt^ai; iiJiiiit'ly, (11,702 widowri and fil,T(KJ vridow«*JV, or ^ widowti und 
do widowci-sio every L(K> maiTlBgo?, if the dXpecUiion of life in hgih 
dcxd vrvrc ihc trnmc ut the n^ of inarHfifCC, in mKrh fiort that il iui;;lit 
bo stTJolLy inferred, wlieo H ht 100 wutmu marHeil were wSdowH ihiit 
14 in 50 widowji luAi-ii^rd ngniiit nniL bj tho 4ani<t riilo thai 12 in 
SO widowcra msirrkil a^alo. A^ ibo nutaVer of mairia^^ however, h^^ 
iiUTL-napd for ninay j'twr», imU ihi? uxpcdutiuii of life itmouj; wtiUK-ii ut 
tlic iiu|>tuiL] it-^L* in ffTQutor than tht^t <rf uicu, it is probnbk> tltJkt ubout 
1 in 3 wiiloWiTs and 1 Id 4 widows ro-marry. 

The inci that 0I]<^-flflh of ibis people of tliin country who alUuD tl^e 
age of mamugo never marry, and thai the women, chough cajiabU' of 
Itariu^' chHdrcn nt 16» and ccrtAiidy ouhlbf at 17, do not aiurry unril 
Uie^' fettuiu a lUfon a;;e of S4'3. the m^n nnld tbvy are 2-5}, provoft tli«t 
prudence, or ** moral roatrainC' in Mr. Miiltbus'i^ ftmw of >hr ti^nn, 
h lu practical oporatlon in EnfpUnd to au extent whioh had not been 
conf^ivcd. nnd will perhft|w *CAreeU ho eredilwl when ^lal^-d in Dumbc^r*. 

Tha bjrthi of 1,006,13:^ cUiMroiir <»■ ."SOdiOGG annutJly, were 
if^mff-rpd in th» ivro l:^t yi^trH (Jane 1839-1^1), w]ion ihi* mi^jin 
l>opuIaiion (without oorreciion for malei« ab^iiO wait K%716|TT^i The 
jinnual ralcof inorinJity calcuUii'd on thi» [copulation in ibe two ycAr^t 
wai '0:f24-'>. tbe nilu of biftti iXi^O], Uns vj^ivm uf the rsi« of Irlrih 
wjia Ihcrefi^rv '00}>^(>. Jlnt the aitnujd ineti.HiK« in iho pojtiilaliou in 
llx* ]0>(^Bns 1H31-4I, wim -01.1.13, or -OU377 mnrv^ than the l^xc^h 
of Uie rale of lirtli over ih<f rate of morlnlifj will accoiuit for. As 
nearly all tho deathg arc ry^giUmHl, and the number of imnitgrunt.H 
from Ireilaiid aud Scetbmd tan scurt^elv have bwii ;;iTaler ihun IIjo 
cuitgr»(ilH from Kn^land. ibe ralo of birth must liAve bvim '03201 -f- 
*00377 =: '03^78 = i/0224^ * '01333) to account for thv inereate of 
Ibe popnlatiou, unloAa the moil^ility in fhe two ycar« was much bt-low 
the iivir;i)ci\ which thero i« ivibton lo bdierc wa^ the revcnte of th« faett 
AfxXfiUin;; to this a1«t4ui«i]ti lt>C^U0O pi.iwn9 loat 2,24o }tei*oim by 
dt'iiihiE, ^uiiM ^,578 by birlliA, aml» conuHiurntly^ iucrrAKrd 1.3^3 in 
ibe ytTur : 3,^1 of the 3,578 lirtlu having been i^^siotei^d, and 3T7 
v9ra)>M reguf ration. 

The auniiul birtba wl^ A03,0I3IS -f 69,2W s= Jj62»34G : and, nllboiigl) 
the pr<«i#c pi'uiiorltoii of illr^tinitto biriha \» not yet known, I nholl 
a>wumi<. fr[>in l!it inpompUt** infTrntaiirtn in my posMrmioo, lliai 5 [xt 
cent. (?Hrl17) of the cbUdreo wcro ilioffitimate, which wonld imply 
that 534t£2i> ebildn^n wi;ro born aunually in wedlock, ikmuely 4"7 to 

each woman mnrr 

. .A«4,229\ . J « , K /'534,229\ 


[I'Airr t-1 

Thu Uth'i' iM ibe cinuAl, liic fociiicr Uw Incl idmIu uf eliUtuc lUid tvltttlou ; 
For tlio ul-jeot is to shovr tho feciunlUj of womeo in difl^irnt coantrioo 
M ilifUiviiC liincd; Mid tJM iecon4 marriagea of vrouieii nre, in Ihit 
pomi uT view, uuly & uwuun of c-xi«iiillng Lbo pcrioil of i-hiMUrmniii^ u> 
£|4 iiaciii-a] U-nn, imi th^^ cminol, on the att*ra;c<% ^^ *<* fruilfnt nn tW 
BrBt tnitrriftgcA, witli whk^h tbej Aro ooafounfkM)» The ntarrinj^oi 
QcmaW I pei-ccDU annunlljr in tiMt prrvKiiix II jrntr* ; nml, ibouf^ 
wc ilo not know nf wIihi <!iiUt Ihi- piTvmh wi-re luurriol frofo vrlioin Ihc 
ii34,2:21* 1jiii}i?i 4pi'iiii<:^ it ivi>uM rt<iuinlv bi; at n |>cr«oi) tfulKciuiiUj 
r«nu>L<* ti> inif^ly n Iw« niimV^r thnt 1)3,THA. Tha n^tiul Wnmlil^ of 
the mniTiixl vi-oincn of lUi« couulrjr may probablj l>« €Xpro«t>uil 
Acotsr^tt'lr eQou;-h, if a correction Ik- mtdr far the incp^iiM of tnarriaim^ 
And far thf? illvgliltuan^ cUildivn borav boforc and aA«r tnarriaip} bjr 
women who tonrry, »t A chfUrcii l<i cv«r^ woman marHod, «iid 
4'5ohT1t1r»>t) to j^vory wc>dding. The 5 child n*n trptacv tbr 2 pgranta^ 
nix<\ tlto^ pvr^iu who from early ilveth or from otfier circoinatancM 
l)pikr no childri^ri. 

The uuehTht Lif wumvii Uviuj- and (-uiinitfrateit, Jnn«, 18-K), vrwi. In 
tQuad ttumbo-rs I,e3a/K)0flg(«i I.V2fl; l,273/XX> wwl 2J-3i>i 900,000 
•ced 35-45; and th*.i.<*- ihrw* a^un, at wliiHi 3jS(S,000 irom«Ei wtTo 
living may be cuQstderi?d thc> a^efi of chlldhcanii;^, xIkx inhldlc |rcriotl 
being that in wliicli th<' givjucr nurnlHT of childn*;! AVi- produced, 

Thr 3,735,000 vroatvu living in ihu "2 jrj«>. Junt', 1tt39-4], butwi-i-ti 
l.Ti? »gofl 15-45, gavtf^ l>irlh to 5ij'2^^'Ui Hiilibon atinjully : 66 women 
piodaced 10 t^hildrcn rvcry yi'nr : only 1 in 7 women {6"6) at ibo 
child1)i>jirir>> a^e gave birth to a thilil in xho year, Chililron inv ocoa- 
sionidLy boniu nt ir^, or an iiiit.' i» lifo liA 52 ; but if the luothci'S of tbQ 
£62,346 cLUdrcn httA lUI 1)cen ageij L7-'H), ihcri? utouM bavo bc^n only 
1 jkTintial tiiiih to Jt womi-n living of llxat ngi^. It hii« l)e«n oalculnU-^l 
tliAt, on nu avciagf^, 2 jeara mtervtme bL-tvroen Uie birtH ofi^^Trycbibl;* 
or that of 2 womc^n one bM a cbtid every year, Aftor a coiTCction his 
tjeon BiadL' for uuproljtb women, th» dillerenco U-'tvreoa I in 3, and 1 in 
£ or 6, corroboruAcs iHc piwioiiH rcnull, ik[i I ^bovr« buvr mtidi, notwltli- 
Ktaniliog tlL6 incrvflKo of popiiktinn, the n>pro<Jnr^iivrt forco la r^proBotf 
by prude- iicfr. 

The pn^utalion of this country may havo tnci-onsod, and may incr^AMa 
by an uugini^iiInlioD in |Iil» immber of imiiTia;?"?* amlbirllw; or by tk 
fliinmiitiuti in tht iinml"Tr '>f <i<*rtTbflT nnd thi» coiieo<iHyni prulongiilton of 
lifi*, Tlio jinniinl niimW t»t hirUis uiuy W inoroJMi^d in rwn wnyef: by 
an inr^rf'usL' of the nainlicr of |H?rwna murried, anil by c^irlicr marriageat, 
whidi nhnilu^i thf^ intm-val i-lH[>5mg lii^iwrt'n Jiaccemivp guneratiotts, 
Thitb 113,361 women vtciT mriiuully inatTLd (fur flui Hwi time) in each 
of tJia two yenrs ending Juno 30th^ lS4lj wbpn 160,000 wom(.*n nitaiiif^l 
the A^ of 20, If IO,0(H) bi- !tu1]titir1(sl For tiiokne^s infirmity, and in* 
capacities of vjinoii? kmU, b50,(XKI will n-uiiun wliomi^'lit haw married, 
and Unu have augn^eulod tho nutulx^rn marrkii hy one-third (32'7) |H-r 
COuL Tho incrcMc by hirlh, e^tcbiMfvo of JlU<;^itimuLi' cbihircn, m About 
3'4 per cnni- nTinnally : nnd if th« nmrring^s ami lijrtb* be iiit>tvajE<«i| 
one<-lnii>l. or in the above mtio, llie increttse by hirtb will mo to 4*r( 
|jftr cent., loanng, after ^ubtnicling the his* by dv.'atlu (which sbiH be 
•up{M»eki lo leniain stationary at :i'2 pu- cvui.j inblcad of 1'3, thu 

prvai^Dl ruir, 2' 1 p<^r cent. jmfiLiJtUy n^t tho rnit.' of incrr&ac, rmrtcd to ttii]» 
hoigitt hv tl>e \(rt^iU*T numTipi- of inarriud ehiltihrflrii^g vonien, 

1 !)hall ngt »Jiscije.H tlie lili^atv<i tjuo»tioij whether e^rly injirria^ca are 
more fruitful than htte marrJngi^ ; for, if eveu woirn^u vrhn ntui-niil at a 


* Dr. Oran-nlU nnd Mr. r^alidtODf TArl. Printiinj^Sno^ Rvft., 1825, 



inf<nn Ago of 30 ]i[>ivil« muiy i*liilrir«K tm <vontMi murrJiHl ui ^fOy ll vi'Ai 
hft immi^ilmfely |M'rci.'ivi>il uiul fht* nntiujO hiimU'r of liinlw. and tlio 
nilo of incrt-aso, will U' wiilt^y rlUfcrptki itj the Iwij otil^ of dn^miMiflnr^^s, 
It may bi: dLaaumeil Ihat at Ui^' birtji ol' tlimr rhiliJivii llir ago of Itio 
luotlier^ vrill 1>0 {blvftuc<i1 <^tiiillv m both cwic^^^ix ycai'T^ for lunUntCff 
on un nvtfragi*^— h^iin tltv iinic e-f niurriikgi»; the nionn ft|rie al thi> timo 
tlu* ctiiltln'n Are born will cousin ijitt'nily hv. M\ yeant nn4 36 ycM's, The 
iplcrvnl IVtJiD tbc birib oftbo motbtrs 1o (he birtJi of tlii^ diiMrea will Ut 3^ 
ypvn luid 2(i leani; Mid, Bovordmg tu thd muiut tnw, thv ititorval frotD 
the mniTiu^ of the iiioihcr* to l1»« mnrriAM of the children iriQ 1» 
Agnail}' 3li vrarft aikI 211 yMr«. Ktiw, in IhiH rMt^, n|log«|hot- indc- 
IK^mlrntly of the reduction by doAlh In the 10 yiun^ iTthc fsuncoumlxr 
of vromun continue to inju-ry, iLnil if tlic expectation of life ami tlie 
fncuniHly of the womi'u r^nuiin uncbani^cd, the birtlin will bo nm\i 
nbovf- or cK>pros»*^l ln>i«w i}n> |»ri?n»*iil nitnibcr, i» the inTOrst' ratio of 3S 
anil 2t) to ^ At piracot, tbo lutf^vnl Irom gmwrstion lo genomtioii, 
fram tho birdi of Uie parentA to lb<> blnb of \\icit cbiUlrcit, may \m 
M ycum ; in the com of tho cnrly nntrrin^s i^ geuerBtioc vtoull bo 
ri'|iL'oduct-d vM'vv 26 jtai>; gf ibe hitt uinriiaipw, vvfry 30 jttir*; And, 
•B liy t^Ki^ hy^i^otlit'flifs lli« number tiorn iti <-/frJfr 'fmentfion wuold bi> tW 
FHini% llie liitmbur bum la fi f/ittn Hate would dilTrr in the mtio of Uio 
iiitervak which sopumtcd iho gonrrntion*. 

Jf th< juimiul number *^t birlhi pivfiervn tho iMitnc rMtlo to Ibc 
|H>]JuluiioUf H ilectlnu of iho ra.^ of moriuLiEy will nust< tbt? ntlc wlikb 
ri.-giilftTr*>i ibc growth of tW piipuUtion, Kpdnc^, f*:^^ oxAmple, tlw 
anntwl niti* of mortdity fiom 2*245 lo 2'<XX)» and you rtUr tb^ mXv of 
incnaao from 1'333 to l*/»7d pvr cent., nnlc^« '2IJ bo BtmiiltaDeouftly 
ffobtroGled from thn mtf^ of inoreaac by hirib, wbidi would bci likely 
enoaffli to b.-iiipcn Ui imlurc. It i* scurocly n^oeeanry tv »dd, ju u 
«oi-olWy rl«diicibU» from thi* Htatotncnt, tHnt wborci Hn* birth>< nrv >.<riuul 
in two nodoDStOr Id the name iiatiou at tllMant i^'Hodn of time, th<.' 
pi>|tu1aLtOD will bo prnportionnl to tbc ifuration oflife; that wlieru Xhv 
birlliM ttrt- IJX)0 aniuiidty, and tbt* moan durulion of lifi 2-'> y-r*n, ibo 
pojtuWioii will 1*0 2A/KXI ; tmt thnl if tW [|iiintt<»ii of lifr.lw hv auy 
ouvinfl rxtfiiili-^l to ."JO yi'ar*, ibe |HrpuUtic>ii will attimnirly lircoiae 
utalionary at 50,000. 

tYom th<* incomplete registration of birtb», the liuiitc^l nutnlicr of 
f^Otst on wliicb thu age at marrlflce luul tho juroportJou fd first mar- 
riagiSB lire cnlculalcd, tml iha eotnpli^ntioas ariiaag from tho increiww or 
demauo of the po|fnliirif>ii by lijrih, Oezilb, iinmigmtioet. and emi^rnUon, 
I do not advance the prcf^iiLg nnmurical f^talenjenta a^ absolntidy 
currtvt or ddlnitire; and I boixr to beablu lo ix^umo lite examination of 
thvBD impurlAnt »tut>ji.'ct> ut a fuUutj tiuiei wboti iiiorxr uAlvualw uuilc^uls 
hove ikccitmnlnt^^tl and li«vo Iwea naalyicod. N4>nu of tboieqvalifiotlEona 
witit bow^'t-r, inraUihli* the |[ei>erai iiHueiplei : aiHl the farl» pvoie» 
T)ojond all qDc<>tioD, that the |x?pubilion of tlko oouutry is Miaceptiblc of 
an ioiiiien^ cx]]anaion i that 11 i» voluntarily reprc^aeU, and iiKvaye has 
liei-n rtrpranvd. In au client 'iibif'h ha^ not been clearly cunt.viti.-il or 
stated 1 njifl thnt iho menn* ia tlio hiifi^ltt of iialun\ iind of i^ut^li'iy^ lor 
iDcreaMn^ anil flimimnhb;: the population are simple, elScient^ an<I 
qiiito ccmpjalhlr' wIlli our iileuj" of tlio iH^nevoletLOO of the divine 
goremineDi of tho worhL 

Writers up'in popalattoa have, pcrbn]"*^ f^icagvc't^l^'' the influence 
of t)u> inrreut'of |tnpntftli(sa or Ilu< Hti^njiih andproflpt^iy of ntatcv; 
but its im]K>rtaac<r U iiiv)iie.-<tioujLLlo, and il mii^l always be inteTestinc: 
to undefttand tbo biws vhich repiilate the dcidb — the rc|>nxliiciiou of 
iRdiTidualn ; aixl which, in tbr midf-t of ilie biru);^!^ of the anta^onUl 

[VAttT U 

foKVi of itbenfio lUid doalb, tbo looos hy wat, wwU, rice, and offcr* 
«Qfain^ tHrr pcriH-tutty ftiu! life of imlLORft. 

It U ikoi my iDteruiotj — nnti it would be out of nUco heri^^44> iJlttOdip 
iLi- quf?llifn^ whether the iHjfiulutioa of Knj^lajtil m iiKrv&^Eiig lix> faal 
or to^ iktowlj ? wtu>Hi^r any nl^p^ sliotild tte tnlcnn In nccaJor»t<v or 
rc[AiyJ itM i>roi^rMd ? ivbullier Ibc <tovoramL<nt hIiouM Mioouroffo or 
itiscoar^si; |>oj>ulati<>u ; or, uAiir t>1>uiiiiiiK nod publi^ihintf aJl the 
ioronnAtion Uul cm bo procured on xhe nibjoct, lMir« pMime opinion 
»iid privitto prudence to «oiuc to thorr own <xioc1ii«1oei hikI Io tnko 
thtfriron-u coui-^? 1 eliall mwvljr notice vt-ry linc^dy hnir thn mh* «r 
tDcmtJ^o in llir; populrUion t« ruM^I or 1owt.M-cti iuAUocilvi^ly i lu th» 
inilicttti6ii» of nature will bo fouwl valuable giud«9i by t\\ who tc«>k 
to tnlluracr ihtj lypimoiui nnd conduct of mmikinrl. 

AVhcn tbc hlU? of iiicn-wiL- it to bo toircrcd, the umiaI coiifM A]>p«am 
to be to defer to tlic eicleDt require^l llie i^eriDiE nf niArrikgit. Iftha 
BupplioHof ^uUiislt-ticc were cut oH, if floipticeand tndu^rjr wenoutinblo 
to convert ft J^rgcr proportion of the mAltrrial* of nitturt* into food, aiuI 
utl thr Diidct? uiid dduands fjf vniijciniioEi wciv <.'ltj!*ed, fht* [K>puliiiioit 
mif^ht unqvi-.'fltt'ionbly h** hrott^t to m »t«tionary cwudilto^ without 
lEnrrtHsmg till* drftlb^ — Ajr rrducinif the number of mtirriitgrs. At 
prcM^nt on« Afth of tlie women ivbr^iUlnin thu o^o of Sl'3 yeur^ m^vvr 
Dmrry ; if nnc-bnlf of lEto wonieu ivho attain Ih^t n^ nc\'cr uianicdt 
And illi^tiukattj births did not incrc««e, thif blnliA would ultiiimudv uol 
<iX(.'L*cd Ili4- i1;>jtl]ii^, And rlie pnpuli^tloii woejM rvmuri itAtioimry. Itat 
tbe finnic ord wouM bn tdmo^t lut oiTcctiinlly and leas luirdd/ nttaineit, 
tlmo^li rmir-fiflba of ibo H'onK'n who nrrivi'd nt tho >ne;in ngc of 
mftfiift^ tr(?nilriucd lo nmny, if tnninid of beginning to mftny aX 1&, 
none mnii'icd utKk^- *J3. and iIi<t iucud age of mnrHftgo wore t&isrd to 
^tO ji<nr^ ; for thi> inici-vnl from gi^nenilji>ii to gcnGmlion would bo 
thus vx tit Tided, I bu children to a uiurrbgc diininifilicd, luid the Dumber 
ol women nt 30 would Iw rerlueed by ibo loss of Uip younger Uv«i. 
The reduction tuAHtHttuiittry ci^iidilion i» put os nn extremt^ bypoUiotM»l 
CAfv, nnd a« ono nol lilwly lo W i^dled Into rcv|Lii?ition i but it la irvidetit 
Ll:at if the populnliou could Hwia rcduee itself la u sULinnrLry mmlitlon, 
it p<i**o*ayfl etill greater fftcihiu-s for iTflucine the rate of incrtJm^ mtiy 
tiurtiber of d^OQi Mow the present ^Aiidnitli wjiHoul inrtvaunj; the 
luujudity. Ifwe put &ikotbi:i- puixily b^pi^rhclkul Citov, such, for iiutann?, 
tliftl Uio popuUtion of lh4> M>uih midluri'l division of tho kliigilom is m- 
crenAJBg too nipidtj ; lUiit tho compi-titLL*n union}; lulxxiivr* ia thrr>ntotk* 
Ing to btt toowven;- ; th:il IhHr wages will not, \\\ the cud* support tlM'ir 
fAmiUr»; thui reluti^^dy lo the mean* of cniploymeDt nnd ^ubwttence — 
tlic laod, <TJpitnl, nml inJuMriid oQt^rpnsv — xha tnlWdr^uila aru Ukuly to 
be too mimrrouK: wh«E, in 1he<v circunifltjirR't**, would bo tb«<^ur8c 
point^^d out bj o*ium for those clBiBi:^ mo:<^ directly txpoaed to priva- 
tiou to fureni? ? Would it not be lo defer tho piv^ont enrlv iuari'ia"Cfi ? 
And if ihu 20 In ioO women of Jtcdtbrdahirc and Hunliu^ion -bins the 
S3 in Oimbrid^fiAhJi-o, the ^H id NoHhauipLonabirc, th<^ 22 in Uerlfont> 
Bhirip, tlic Vi in lluckinghwnshire, who noiv murry uh'It rige, d^f<'in*d 
Ihii period of inorrb^ until they were ifl, 22, 23, or 24 yeur^ of ngo, 
until they had guned «Hno exiwrJencc of life, und accumulated ^mc 
of tin' lueauH of living. pb}HologisL^ nnd fjconomiala would prohnldy 
l^^r^c in AflViui^t ihnt iht;) inoren^o of \\\ti prudence, ^v]li<'h U ituw iij 
operation, would not — cxecpt in special ^sv^ — hv cjih-uhacni to ih>i^- 
liomte ibo bealfh or intelligeiice ol th^ir f;imilirsp It is well worthy of 
remark nnd of ctrefal eonsldcrnfion, thiit the oHml^^r £>f [leiBona who 
macrj' undi:r age, as well na iliu uuiuber of inarringeH uud of births, is 
much gnater in *ofno counties rhAH in others; but it murt not bo 



thenco inferred thot tliu popuUtion is )ocr«a»tn^ too bat In tbow 
(»E]iili<?4 : for it niAy lirvpjiQn thai a popuUtiou incr^fuiu;^ nl a slow TtiXf- 
U iiicrejMiag tno liLst, niui ibiiE uuollior po|>ulaiion JrK^iXNuilit^ Kt rli>iiMo 
ihe vi'lociiy h liai'ely meeticg tlio i](>mrLiids fur haiuTs juid BktU — m Iho 
liiM'vo»it-lti-lit of 1»W]r> I sUktoJ LfiR uttsiR uf t)iR vmieU mtillnml cotiH* 
1io», tbarvforc, iHMrolj e&^ hn itluslnition of tfio tloctriMv thul, if eiuj' part 
of llie |>0{>u]jiii<:in of tliis country i^ iucrctuint; too tlL»t, ilie mcHDH of 
ri-prc?^toii ftrn THirupV^ would not la- liiU'ili in tbnr opi^rutiofij Ji»d nrr nt 
llic eoniii!and of the iiiim^liate »iilT«ror!?. 

Tb«^ l^tpnlnlion i-i incrcoMd monl natimlly by rcveming tlic pTO<^%« 
Joifi^riljed — bjr wiHiL'r in^tivirl of l»(<»r Tnarrin^'*— wlulo n •onM'wIint 
higiiL-r propoi't.ion of women marry, leaving ftUl n Largo rc&idui^, jq* 
rlutlmg all nfflicU-ii witb bei«<litary mlmetits, and tluu alTorirliiig acojro 
for the eeloction, which U invuriaMy, ihoii^lt pirhnp^ iiL^cnsibty^ 
oXf'rt.-iRi^rl in Ui^c mrissd^ nnd miint Icud to cU-ratc tbo morol nn4 
inti^llcrrluul. 114 woll 1L4 ibe phy^t«'Al fpmlifi^ of tbe mfe. 

Vr, Price, At ibccloso ofllic liwt t^entiirr, cxcilcvl alarm by a forciUy 
*\inwu pictunf ui ih^ do|>opulBtton of the xlDgdom ; nnd no !toon«>r h^d 
ihf ccnsu* defnf>n*initrd thni Dr, Pri'Vs fcuni wf irpopulaiion wcto 
^^oumllctfft, thau llin " icn^codo of |iopuliitiou in a f^coniotrii^nl jiro' 
t*rc4fiiou/* oniiiiciAl<<d in llic tlu^ory of Mr. MaUhu:^, turned lb« ^Inomy 
loixilfOfJingii of spiK.nibilor?' la quite aii upp07<ito diixrclion, Hotli thc^c 
wrilon contribute OMiCiitiallr U> the <kvebpm4-nt of ibe tiue tU«ory 
of piipulniioTE ; btjth tvndrrcd mipci'tant At-rviiTd Ut mtinkiud hy iMr 
invoiti^tLOiii I util l.lto fiiot« ifino^ ^licileil, ftod the furtEic-r |>r04«<7UtLoti 
of ibe inquiries wlitdi they enTDmciicccl, havu shown that wbiJe llie 
Mnvly of tbo ductrluL* of population U Hau^hr wltb [nalruclion, mid 19 
hUg]*eGliTe of pmdoncY, it is oilculatcd to tn»]it[T « ciilnifr coiiGd^noti 
in the ordlnuDCvfl of iintnri.-T mid to cuaEirm our faitb iu tbo denLinh.^ 
of England. Tb»> ->xpftnMori of whirb iho rpprnduclivs foroe iu tliu 
pojnibition is 6UJH'rplibL<% nnd Wk projcr<<:tA of scienco und indn#tryt niubt 
svx ut rodt all dn^d of popopulution ; which b&s appmreatly nevor pro* 
vailml for any lco;ftb of tiiiii; Mnot) l\u' tiuilii^H hiKtoncof ng«a. Tho 
pi>]iuliilLOT>p h has briJii provirj, hna iricn;iL4cd in a f^coinetrical pio* 
irrr-fj^ion vvi^r nnca ihn fir»l ci'iihus in 1801 : acid llii^ nili* of pi-oartwiloa 
}jjL<t bii'ii >inrb that, if it Gontmur* the miinber^ wtJI huvi^ doiiblod lU 
18^0: donbU^ the nunibt-r of tiunilie^i will i^xihi, and mtiHl bo supplied 
with .-luliTiiHU'uccT in England : but tlioiv wHl ideo bo douhlo the nunilxT 
uf inuci to cn?a(o hubf^inlonco imd twpilal for hex ^milioA, to mau fai;t' 
flceE>i, to dr-f^nd Ikt invbtuti< Uati'tli^, to work tin* niinRs nnd mnnu- 
fat'lorie-i^ Lo extend lL« commorve, to oprn nvw rc^zion^ oF colonujiliori ; 
nnd double the mimbvr of minda to discover new irutha, to ronfer thu 
bt'Ui^Llis and tu vujuy tXw fvUcity of vrbicli Luroan uauiiv is imH:c|itihK\ 
If lhi< })ropo«Ition of Loivl Biuxm bc^ Found^ $^ it noiqucstJoiuUly jt<, that 
the ^' tru« graitniwi (of a sUIc) coudist^th fisscutiAlly in popnktion and 
" bi^^roj of men/' lime h»i* coiifinncid lii» pn-»(-icnt n^^jlion, ** thm wut 
■^ cf donht none ot the fr^ai nmnarohles, wliioh in the netnonr of timo 
" han< ruen in the UahitaMi^ world, hoii ao iWir setda and Dc^iiminff 
" 9u Imth tbim (wlati* and kingdom.''* ff thn po|i[]bilion nf England 
bid rvriimue-l »lalionary from th4> a^ of Klisabeth, and bad now 
not cxie«od«d tbo population of EtdKiuni ; or i<vimi if iho iKpulalioii 
had been Btailoniuj front llio time that Maltbu* wrote, the onipim 

* Qf th« Tt^xv UrtAiMvi «f UfMt fttelB, IfOfrf Hacoa'* wnrk«, rob i. p. 50£. H 
ii In be rvgrirlted thM llibcoa did not oooPVlMa >bU t^trn^ t Ec oommtrocH Tvry mtiah 
in ihv manner «f Macbiavelira " Diffiotn.'* ud wa« prubitbly intended to iafuw n 

littit «iani^ into Jmum 1. 



l^ruatitoM- bbonbJ tbit ttfnc ii9VNiliel«aft eoiiM, vrboo ihe ciHuitry w 
MlfficienUy populous, iui<l il «1i0l^d be d<«irAble to rctiwil or ntop'thc 
progrcMf of 2'^pTt1n1>on — tht-^ anklytls ot tlio niArmpoH, Ln]-ni!% auil 
fkiitlm, ID coniiG-xioii wiib the oensuM rotorDv, wiU ^liow, &- Uiu« (won 
alrea4ly pruvt^d, tluit tills tnav Im? cflocl^l withmit Hkiictiif; iho mor- 
Ciilitjr. Thv pviiiciplfi of **iin iticrTraw of (be popuUiiou in f^iHPint'Cricnl 
" progreflftion" faia n<iUiiD}( in it ratal, irteetiHCiNc. im^xotnbl^; utmii n 
rigoroii4 Ani^jpsU i>f l\ut fkcC^, it h netju tliuL il euEubiU of uoLliiii^ 
Uul jLii cxco*c of Inrllis ot-cr the dcfitbt, and 1>0COnw« a oof;Atir«i 
(|uiiu1i(y. or "'a ilt-crc^LAo of jiopuLiiioii in uvom^triciil progress] Qnr" 
if tbo birtJif cewp 1o mAintniii thf^ Hin»> mtb to ihe jioptilAtJoo : and 
tbe Imibs mnj ftlirajTEt btf i-educi^tl npidly ^v rrtAnlin^ tin* prtiod >n<l 
Ituiolwr of mamiif^: ki llinl iliu nmtlji.<itiatit;nl U'rn>r, *Mi j^TViiiulriDal 
'^ pragnsMido<i," 4^ulnllt nliinii nny onri in tUt^ liirht «>f ^Uy. f 4J(> not 
dcilre to disf^mnc^ or uurJcrniLe the itrnriiy fiT tht- fuel, tiuit Llit pcpu- 
lation of EnglnDil bit< iticrc&Mdt ak tlw ceosuso! pro>e, — aod ibu 
«ceOA» of blrtbs over cloaths ltf«vm l«vo«d doubt— in n georaotrioal 
pni^iVMion for 4^ yi^nr*, ftiiO it n riil(T bv whk-l?, It ct^tiiiniKHl, it will 
doiibli* i^vcry 49 j'^ini. Kut whnt Unn vn\\o,\ nn niflny inillton* of 
pavpln iato esislt^iCQ in lOvtuii^r Why Tiuvc tli<' Kii;-li^b LmT<<4B>od 
»o mncli moiv nipidly than afhnr unttaiiK? Uv wImT. fore? hoa Lhe 
bij£h r»t'> of iiict\?uj« boon miainlneiJ ; mid ivhut pive ii the* veloL-iry 
of this f^i'OtnotricHl prvgroMEoii, b«t d»o cr<iitivo nicr^v hh*1 ifiK^JIigcuoa 
of ibc r<ii>iury nml riuy^ ? And can any niir TiMr for tin* roiiduct aiid 
Gitfi of this p^ofjli, if th^y <<lioidd teol ihemeelvf*^ onlled njion io rcnr 
fewer cbildn^n^ — tu marry Inn furly tluui rlunnjc thi' lint lOyoai's ? Will 
not tilt.* tauio lLicirLgi^iK<i' ami energy wlik-h IiktuihuiI, diioiniMi tlic mUi 
of iiiOJ'Ou^ii to any oxtl^^1, when thoy lalc^ tlit form of nfudciaco ? 

i huvi? uidy diHcu!«?(f!il the increofto of Ihii [Kfoplr- ha fnr «« it is 
immedialely <<orirtc'clc<l with nnd ricplnirt<?d by tlic i'e;^i^lerei) mamafEttx, 
birtbK, Jtnd <tf?alh0. Bui I tnay iLluslrut^ ibv firaclii:al bcnring nl tbo 
iiicjniry by vne inferodORr ond by noiirb]^ n fkUnry wliii-b biu jiL-tl]tf|JA 
bful Ht>:n* iiirtinmcp on (b^.' opinions jirul conJncr of pm/'tWI mtn. 

Tbc growth of n poimUliun di^peuda upon tin* ex<*i'jrt of liirtlis over 
drntha ; atiU tbe number of birtba is ro^uhitnl by ibe iiuubrr of iimr- 
dagi^able womrn ; wbcnoe ii foU<»w* ibnt wln-nMhcrL* In n |)i?riiijin(mt 
dcoinml fi>r labour !ii ^idloiiic^, uii^u fin«l i^omca ••hoiibl bo i(idui-ud tu 
immk^iil^ iti oqiinl miml-rfirs. (1olonif-« ciin only Im* ji/mtfed irjf jhrnili^M. 

In Nrw South Wnle* (1841} ibe number of IW fi*ruab-.i wiis 10.425, 
Iho number of freer m^lll^^ 6i;t24 ;• 17,551 of ibc fcnjsilos "ri<l 18,802 
of tbe Diale& were married ; now. If Z0,ooo [k-pkons of v.ub fox KT*:rc 
untlcr tbfl Jigo of 20, it is evident tbat ibo fr*^ iii*^ij >^'cio !•■ Ow five 
■women iilkoro 20 HFiirl}' ok 4(1,000 to 20.0(K>, Mid tXuxX iW. ininkij^niLiim 
of 20|00() inurriHgejibk women inij!;ht double tbc iiumber of ninrri(.*<l 

t»<snonB,"doublo tb<r numbt-r of btrtbi>: wliii:h niu^L <abr-.rwf?*{r rc-maio 
PAS thon ibt.' dtritb^ until fLo t^xuc??- uf nmk^h burt |iv.'nhbci.i, Xbt- pHit- 
Giplc bold:* in ttlt ciJKi^i 'J~h(i nogro moo will firobiild}' tk>( ox[xiri<in<;u 
a higliei' monnltiy in iht^ Wc-^l liidi<vs tlmn cuii Iw replA<^?d by tbo 
blrtbs in fiLTCur»Ui< circuoistanccf^ ;t but Ibc popijlation caii only bo 
m-noitnerttly augmrDtcil by the iiumigruliun of feumlra uikI nmli,^ in 
eqtxal nunibcTP. 

• Mr. rojirt, ill .StftlisdciJ ConipnnioH, ^y C H. Wrltl^ 1643, p. 7* 

and Ibn fbo black popiiliitioa dttn'OBL-*! in ibv Wrtt Indin IftlandA brfort tlidr 

tmmif ip»lii'n I'ntn stuitry.— Arnal^ of Mvilkioc, vol. i, y. 3^1'. 

rvFULATJuV.] 27 

Thn fiilWy to uliKiK 1 ltHV«> rQf4>m>d r(«i» on thin floctniw? *mW 

** lub^isleocB iu ati aritliuielicJi] piXf^n'SAJorif iiiut tuilen-i wuii, iK-ilriK'tivc 

" n^ujits, cvny <iff tbe t'SCtBU of tho iiiiinbi.*m l>ortj — unlcu tlic ouUnt* 
** of I]f<^ and bloot] be lefl i>]>eri — tti« w]i«>l« |)^op1<4 ihmm h» i.*vj>om^i] to 
^ ft »l(iw procciH of flarvAiion/' Thi^ hii^ ia^nn oorifLt^uroil by ]<onio Ibc 
doclrinG of popubuoD. Tbc nalut^ of tbe increaso lu gtoiuetiiail 
Itro^n^a^sloD hjL4 bcm nlrcaily rxinnin^tl ; mid thcrv^ U no rvidrnoo 
wbati^vifr to pruvv Uittt wbilc uupitat incrisiD«i in f^coiiivlrJuiil pro^rvT^fion 
(comnound Interest) the sTibAJ^tBiico %ad |>ower of the peoj>lc of iheee 
ia}AQas tinvi; incrciLocd, or irlll intrren^i^ m uritlimcticid, nnd Jiot in 
Ifcyimttrlcal progTv^MOti. It U not known how iniieh sutisbl^noe baa 
>t](.T^ii3t^l in cb(' luit 10 ynus ; nwi h U prir<- a»pii'i(^iMn to pmittnil lo 
fiuy ibnl Iho riiti? of pL'Cf^CKHiou bn^ bwn. or ^^~dl be iirrlbmclical, if 
nn)'tl]Jn<; more he nieaiU by tb&t form<tIfL than the pkin incoDtrovertible 
fact tbut ib^T iric-iv[i3(4^ of !iubsiston<-(T is limit^'d. Bnt indi<pi<iKb-titl^ of 
UwMn coiL^idurarion^ tmd of any ninttere of coiilroverpy whicli il woithl 
hv iDCuiiicniviil to fkilrrit to hfXi\ llic luirt:< iu the \<n:\ tons j»trt <it' itiio 
pn|K-r ili'^po><^ *f tin* fnilriry, — wbiob, if tt t^aiiiiol Iw <<uiployo<l by any 
buL tbo ci0:<t dcpmrird to ^vmclion fTie dc^imolioix <^f lif^ nii;,'hl tliicken 
the sccdof tronie in amebonLttn^ ihe puiflir beiitib, hy Ir^n^ltn^ n rolonr 
to tbedmvlfulnolion ihnt tbc ex(f^« or iKipulation in the oimho of ull 
tbu mijHTy incUlpiilnl to our comlilion or naturcj and thai the |>o|iu* 
lation mi^ht at ihe siune lime be ilimininheii and &.ive<l from ^UrvHlion, 
by erpidomic iIem it«i^?i, unbt^thy cmployiuciitA, or fH'Kini^ilijd locntilici^ 
What ai"? iLe facts ? An luerL-nfle of Uie deaths can ocdy diminish the 
jHipulnlion if rhc oumbrr of bii'ihc rvmnin AtnUoiiary. it luut lavjo 
btiovrn llint tlu> jiumbt^r of btrlhd niBy bo incrawpcil lo jlp iocrvdiblc 
vxicnl ; experienw baa proveil tb*t the J»irtbs nlmn*l invnnabty iiK^roiiW 
wbon t])« morl&lily iiicr<^sft<; ami it will Ixr reni, in tit* Tabja^of i\m 
Krport, tbjif where tbo moriAtliy is greatct^U ih»^ birlli^ are niof^i 
putia<roii4 nud tlii^ population trt incix^anini; nifi-t miiiillT. An inm-Hnr 
of Ihn mortality \a tlif^rt-fijn* iir; ^pevillu for ivhkMiiiihbi^ au 4.Hpiilibrjuui 
tH-'tnm-ti FiuliM-<i(>D(.'i^ M\d population. I'tic taunv in lirir, 1h<t doctrines 
uf l>opulnti(in are Mndied. t]i^< inoix* doepJy mn«t hv Ua\iivsK^*\ U|Hm ibu 
mind tbo MUTiHliitfib uf human Jif«, and of Uiej fob.'^^UHrdii hy which il 
hua hwiL euirounilcil by Gud nnj tbo Uvr*. (Fourth Annual lU-poii, 
pi^ 133-46,) 

li Ih not intended to diMfUH^ hcrv wb.-ii bd« hceu Muuelinic-s called tbi! 
^w »/" /^'/u/a^ioH, fnrlbcr tbau btirl!y to vUtc how the increafw of 
]]oputatioii 'k]ivnHi* on mnny vloin«^nr.4, tvhfcb vary ihtiil prodtie« mriou^ 
rue>uLt» — fioukelinii?« iiJcntical in t\w meit^ nambcirs which they pUMeni 
at the GOQKU^* hut dilTc-iuut utidt-r all other aspectt. 

The numbon^ and con»ci|uently thr? incrnau* or ilccr^AKCt of people lu 
a civllifjcd c<Kitrtnr, dop«nd upon tli^T fe|;c nt mori-u^o jkuJ the agr nf the 
piin>nlH wbi.*n their ebildrfo aie iKirn — the numbers vi\k* uiiirry, tho 
rerliUly of the marriiigC'-'^ — thi* ilni'nticci of lifrr — iiu* iidnily nt tbc 
Qtimtlon flowinr into or out of the country. TUeae acta moie or Icav 
InfiKiicc each otb«T, anil tu tlic pn-«itnt natc i>f >intiHtlc4d obn'rvjilioD, 
ibc pn^ciso effect of a cba»|cc in uiy oru? of tb<Mii hivi>lviri^ f>lJi«r» 
c^nnut brT determined, U will be -^utllcieat to indicate the eflbel of a 
cbaufre in Cfioh cU'JniMit, wliib? ib(< olhci-* n^uiuin <'on;tni:t, 

1. Tho iiitutierA of tbc popidrdion hear a dontiitc roUtton to the 
dufatioo of life, or to the ukau lifvtiinv. Thus, if ihv uivatt IIIHiaio of 



n popcilatioti h 30 j-««i^, tboo if Uto btrtbi wt 100,000 m year sntl 
rainntci tiotforrn, the fH>pTiIutio[i win be 30 time* 100,000, or 5,000.000. 
Now, Ihe birtlis rvimining tJio mmc. In ihr lifKinio b« Knidimlljf 
exU'iuk'd toiOyenrs; !*«'ii the popuUtion wJI bfK^nme 4,iJ0'M'^''-> ; or 
If tlir liri.*iinv.- 19 Extl!T1<1^^1 to JU^ jcAni| ibn popoUlki>n, from iho cxicn- 
jaon of I'rft* ulonn, will rim) rrE>m tkrr^ toJOrW millions. Tho iloalJiK, 
U|>oii tliiH liyiiothev^ii^ will l>e o^uaL to llie birtlk!^; and ihc »Amc iu 
iMtmlM-r wli^n Ihn prif mini ion i* firr^ &>« whiii it ia fnur, or fArer intllloiiri. 
It Is |irol>&l>Ioi ihat thf mean liri.'iiiiie of ihc greAt hutl/ of the potMilaiion 
did inrrc^si' from tlir- vrar 1901 lo 182t,wli&D the iiictvnap of pojinlHlion 
wiiH fi^'Mrnl in (Imit BniAiii. 

2. Tbe icliti'i^l from the birth of ono genemiion lo tlie birth of ihioir 
di:»cotkiIant» i^f tlio E>i?Tifruli<>ii followlriif, beiiM ikbvo » ileDuite irUliuii 
to the niinkbcr^t whicli inci^a*i^ a* iht* IntfrvfllU sliortcin'l, Tlni*, IT 
the pnjiiikitLQii Ixicrcn$o« At Ibo mto of l'32d onniiitlly, nnd if tW ioicr- 
veniu^ tiuH- fi\mi ;:i-uenitioii tofieaeratioo la 33j )«<u's, it Tolluwa tlml 
tho incrcMO from gencTation to gononUlon i* -55 p*r ocnt. ; or thiU t^vi^ry 
XjtiM womeD arc aticoi^ded, at Uie int^rial of :V6^ ycarv, by |,S,>3 
w^OJon ; L'voiy /tf^o couples ninle adiI frmAlc, by ihrrr. If ihi^ iiili^rval 
is cuntniotod, and ibe in<!n?a« fn»ifi 1,000 to 1,^:4 t-ikv^ pl^rv in 30 
years, tUo iiikiiiud rnto cf popuUiion increaaN, eimply on this ^rooiul. 
from I ' 320 lo 1 ' 477 per ccnU ; amb it?4 wi^ aftiumc by hyjtotlic^K tliAt 
tbe birlbft ami Ibe lifetime TOinain iIig same, tbt? ])0|>iil]iltoii would bo 
ultiJUMli^y oiic-iiiiitb jArl inoiv niknieious (ban it wat imd^r tb<^ former 
c^nditionj). Enrly m»i'nJigp*i bav^ tb« t-lfpt?L of shorlcniii); ibt* inl«rr»l 
betvreeu ^i^DtnUiont^* ami tend in ibiH way to increrue the popuUtion. 

3, An tncrcMo in the fortilily of mjimag(-?< will oviilciLily OtttiMi un 
iii<:r«n«o in tbe popnialion. 

\. Jn ordinary- linu-.i, u Ui^ pro|io(itOin of tlic mriiTUijK^Ablc womco 
of every country are nainarriL^d, jind iIk* inont dltj-i't ruction on lh« 
popntitrioh i« produccii by i[m\- -^niiTing the mnrmd «tft[p, Tim* in itm 
Sontb KiL^teni DivieioniCompriflittg Surrey, Kimi, Sun-^e-Xt Hnim, ftrij 
JWkr*, ibc miwljcr of women tif l)ic rigc of 2C nihl nndcr the ii;^0 of 45 
miiounli>d. III thf: Inst tTonsupt, lo :ifX),20b ^ cf ivbom 1{JJJ,S0C wi.t^* wivc», 
Mill 120.403 wore piptnstors or widow<4. -19,997 binba w^-i-e ri?gi«toFOii 
in iJie wim*^ ronnf ii't donn^ the ycnr \^vS), or 10 cbildrcn woro bi'ni in 
ISiiU (o cviTv .>H woiii(?n living in 1K5L tJI' tlio children, 4G.7()hI were 
born in wixilockb 3,21)2 weiv Ijorn oul of wi^dWk ; cc>nH^[Ui-ntly, 30 
wivcE boro in tbc yvnx /«■» childr^^n, and of r^GG unrnari-icil woiuon oF 
tlie name aire ^20-45) tea also gav? birth lo children. A ebaniie in ihc 
matninonml condition of a brgi- ftroporlioii of ibe 120,103 iininurd«<l 
womcn^ oul of 290.20U women nt the chiJd-benring age, wonM have 
an immediate clfcct on tbc nnmbcta of the popuUtion; and, if continued 
by inerf'iwifig the rnto of birth to iho Itvin;- through HUec.^*Wi-o 
Eeat-nitionK. would opei'Htc on pepoUtinn like a rise in tbe rate of 
lEilere^t on the incronae of capiuL 

i5. The rffpiit of tiiigrniion on fbeninnlx'r*or ihe iwpnlalion i« evident, 

it is prcbuble, that ihe imuu^rulion of E]'j?-b hus conttihuted lo tho 
inrreaNe ^f fhf> popidation in Kngbinrl ; ninl it i^ rertfun thnl rbi^ «aii^]-a* 
tion from thi^ United Kingdom eontrihnle.s l.ii^ely to th?* increiiK' of Ibo 
|>oputafion of ibe Uniled Staler^, The eniiifraiilH arc' :l Heif-iH'i'^H^timling 
body in healthy ellmnlrii; und they ineret?!' ftx^U-v abroiid ihau tim 
^en(>nd poptihilion at homo, ne Ehc-y eontuiii an cxfo^ of tht? (fopidution 
at the repnxluciiveuge; .su thai, if their oitnihei'H are udded lo;^otlioi-, 
it JB etrtaiii that we get in the n^rc^al<^, a unmber much bdow the 
number of eurvivoi'^. The populatloD of the UniU-d Kin;^1oni, iJJclndinf; 
tlio onny, navy, und mcrcbuni n.vjuvii, wm ^i,2T2,L8T in IbSL^ and 

about 27,7S1,A4^ m 1A51 ; bcil, in tli« inUrvAl, 2,6A.>.747 pnri»nt 
DTnigrrtt^'ci, who, if Bio^ply sUded lo ihe [lopuLalioa of ih*? UniKnl 
King<]om. mnkc thf sorvivor* mul clirarcntUuU of lln> mi>\<, vriltiin ihr 
Bi-msU Isles in 1821, novv 3a,-*lO,5y*5, 

0. FitinU^, lln> iiumborfl <»f iho pci|iubtion nro incroiutod hy an iibiiii' 
(lance of th*' iirerp-ymrifK of lilV • ami rciiu-iKl by fammi% opidfrnics, nn<1 
pulilii! e^ljimiltti?, jitfoc-tiuj' Uie food, iniluHtry^ and life of lU^ nation. 
The jri'.'itilriirf^ of the muLdloages — iha fAiuiQO, Lhe inilucnxu, ntitl th« 
uh'jk-ra of iuO(U*['u iirut?t— ^re ezunplcj) of ona dwwoC iht^^if r(;;i:tici(r*i : 
the »oouriiy, itEid frci^<lom wliich Kngtand ha^ Iflilcirly ciiJoj'ikI, aro 
cxjimplo* of the IjerioliGinit ufft-ct of Aiiottt^r cludH of iul1uuucc% nut ouly 
on l\v^ Iinpptn^s of the people, but u.\fO on tbe numberK vtUUh the 
«uii[itry can HUf^lain nt tiouv^f and can eaiKl libroad to cultin-titJ^ posae^ta, 
anil iiibt'iU otlirrr I»iiil». 

All lliott* canncw afl<*ctlufc tho incrwiift of iba poputntion of fJwat 

Itnldio, riDti* preciHi? eUent to which mcIi operate*, will uhimatelj 

, be known hy means of a corLticiuons n^riiw of Huch obwrmtum^ it.'* hnv* 

f'be&n Goroni«Q0^1 at this ceu-^tu.— (Census Repoil, 1^31 ; I^numui-atiou, 

Vol r^pp. xxxl-liO 

Incr^tut anrt Oteremt of PopniatioH^ — ^l*he nntuml incrmso of popn- 
Ittlioii, iti»I«M<] uf pnM>^('iJin^ at tlir utitnl i^Htc of flboui 1 '^, ivuiihl, it in 
fifLiJ, liG in tbc cnil I 'H pci- L^cnt. nnnnulty ; \\ woftM |^ on luilcjlnti^tlv, 
nuif ^'ouUl double llio populaiioc oTory 3d yeArs ; at tbo luitnml rati^ 
octnall/ ptwailiiif:, upi>n tfiU hyp(it)ic>ir' thi' ])opiiUtiun will double t(«plf 
ia fifi yearA. Thi>* f|ne«ioii has, iherefore, 1<" l>e diwnsMMl 

Mr, Mitlthu* calctdatfd tliAt the iinri^jtroini'd pnuoipic of {Hipiilniion 
wonM fill nul {>idr tho cnrdi willi iri*^ri, bnl people* ull fht- pbuu-ls of nil 
the auoj* thill sliine in the visihk iiniv».T*r.* And hitierly tho l*f<?*idciit 
nf tbt' HtHitlU Officer* of LoTulion, findinj; that xhv pirtportion of thildrcn 
Ihatdk- iimlerTlvryeArsof n^eln moivibiin 40pfTCont, cf lh« tMal dcatlm 
in Knf;brtd »ud Woloji, rciu&rks;t — '* If ^^^^ Vp-ori? not tfOj the incrrttw 
" of |M>pululion wotild be pi^odJ^ioiiH ; for it is the rneai^i wWreby thn 
** nnnunl «xcvf» of births ovit iU^iiUis U kt-jit dcnvti (o ihr miM>nDhli» 
** proportion of \2' 8 per 1,0U0 of thv pqnilmiion. If it r«tfurhoil to 18 p(-r 
** 1,000 • * llii? populution would bo flotiblc-d tu rothcT Ut^ itian 40 
*■ yt^r». CoiiiiJ«r for s inoineint iho cnnM^iiucmoitg of ihip, • • Id 40 
" y^i"!* th<r poptilntion of England and WhUh u'onld l>f o^-^r 45|0OO,l)OQ 
" • • in 120 jmre • • it uonW be near 182,000,000. • • Tbid 
•' sort of ihin*: ^oiild never Ut^l ; for in ftliont 240 yt^v^nt Khv ixipuUtiori 
*^ of UiigWid uiid Walufi, uukas it waa expoik'd io Fiu;;^ llU1.!BU^ avouM 
'* rCACh t'^ miller ttior^ Ehnr^ l/iijO n^illion^, and il voidd hn rtA thii^Lly 

" placed ovpr thr wholLMuiiintry !uit is in J^«idon*l tilt j>ri*j*^nt moment." 
At X\\y rule here eolletl ■' tvasoiiaUlc," llic (Kiptdniion by the bypothi^i'i 
would douhlo ilju^lf «*vvry 64} \ears'*<> l-hHt Ibu liiae in which llu? drt^ndinl 

* Maltha* bad ilu Gdlovlng pmiyr ta adc tdidoii cr hiA Foltticil G«ouomy ; 
"If aoj pCfvoO wOl Uk* t]l0 tieiblAlo lahV^ the iMtlcitblion. hv Will Kvtbdt if ib*-- 
iWMMarift of y\H «oa1d bo obtuaed wilhoul l^mii; ud ilii> uumiH r of p<<o|>l^ «>alil 
bt doablfil cTcrj £5 jror*, ihc |H>pubitlon vlijfli fut^ilil biivt bMn pixxluccd frnm ■ 
mijijfltf p«ir •iiicr th* Cbriftiifta era would hnrc bont Aufflcltnt, not only lo fill tbo 
T«rih ()Qltc foil of people, lo that Ibor should *f ^nd apon «TtTy »qnar<i j'^nl. bat to 
Rtl «ll (In pUoc*! of our solftP *y*lcm m llic uoic »«.V' "'^<* '**4 »nlj ihcm, bal nl) 
tlx^ plnnou rvtolnDfr rouud the *tar« nhii^h arc Tiiiblc to the luked e>i'* ku^ik^iv 
nu h "f ^tin to b« ft ma, aad to have m miny plancn bvlonjEiog lo it m our mm 
hiL*/' [Qi^tation from MalChu*' ■< I"riticlp1i?» ■>? ralilicAl Ecaaooij-*" p, V^T, Sn 
tli>d«in ot% " I'opuliilioa.'* pw 4M. I do not find the pasuicc in the ^co»d «ditioa 
of tlic'THacipIn"]. 

t On the ItiUnifttitfU «r Sraiury CoadUkMi. Oy U. Lctbcbj, H.B., pp, 3iK2U 


[r^irt I- 

cAlA^rophe wouUI or^rwhelifi thin nation coulO oDly h& det^rr^ 87 yetTB 
Uy thi> coniinuoil Horaduin urrifio*. On « pn? wilh lhi» ix l>r. Price** 
illu^trAtioD <\i tiio jtowv^r uf cotupoimd inlorwl : " Ouo iieuuy put oiiC tit 
" Wit Sjivioijr'j* birth lo Hto per ccin. campouDil inti^rctl woiiW in iIms 
^* jmr )T91» huTo mcrciwul to a ffr«tcr *iura tbAn woaltl He pontiunc^l 
" in tiir4>c bunilr^d nUllioDS of «aHlidt, all oolUl gaiiL"* 

Tlicro in cvitluntfysoiBOthiiig^ngiLlftrljr eeductiTc in th^^ applicntJon« 
of ihc ubbtmct docinno cf Bcriett in geometricuJ progrwBion to Jketunl 
UdAi cv..n Ju»ik>' BlaGh«l«i»laledlry geoQWtricupivgivvrioaioiiMke 
lb* foUovijig -stBt^uicat !** 

■■Th? riopnrino nf )b««J ooDtmgvinhj !■ MiflciimtT5 plflin tncl abviom | bot it I* 
*' ai Utefirtt nrw tUUm»iUnff ia ecnMider the numtrr <^ lirical HMC^tlort tMfk 
'* rvTtf ntiiu h*it, vllbiD no f^fj OTCM blUUbCT of ilcf-rfot ; ftud m BURf dJflMBB 
'■ Ttl<>0'1« i< 1 mftn ta>rl lo contain m hii Trin«, x lie hnih tiiKwl an^nfnn. OT lfaM« 
" he hatli ttfQ iu tb» lirr^ ABOcnding degree, }uf ohq cmffiilf ; he bith Four fu 1I19 
" fivound, th« prruU of hts fkihtr and The piireiita of bl» moUier ; h« hnili vtyTil In 
" tlbv iWtH, thr pBri>iiti of hi< tvo grnnilfhlhcr* nnd tKO gnuidmmhen : ind by ili» 
" miTi« Trik< of progmeiuD. be hnth an Imndral uii] Iffvnij-vi^lilh in Ihv KVcolh 1 
" n ilmu^iui'l Bu<] l«*i-ii(y-fciur in the («mh ; ontJ n( tbv (vi<iiLfrtb drv^T'OPi orUitf 
" >li>«lnncp of I^TDtf jtrnftiktinns every miin hiiih abovr n miViim 0/ ancf^ra. Aft 
" oommuiL irJIhirvlic will dEnnou^tm^p." Tfain u further npluiufil in the tiolc, 
" TUiii vUE wvtu Miijtrix'tiu to ihtHf wli'? an: uuu^ukiDlvd with thif uicmwlng 
" pc^wis of pPojT^eBiTc mimhorf ; but u ixL][ubly eiidcDt froto th« fbUowinv UUu 
*' of s gieccD«lrlcal bro^mT^ion, in \vhiFh tb<.- fint term U f. aud th« d«noiSoMOT 
" nIw 1| CTp tu 0p«ut ifiur? jtiffJLiiriblyt \K u viidciil* Ajr thni nch fif ui liaa tii«> 
" amcattori in llie first dojrrtv I ib« rjiiuibi^r of vrhom in douhTcfil ni «i^«rynmov^^ 
" hvcnanr^ tucb of our uiorBtun has uLao tiro iniiDcdiat«< uici^Ature tjf hin own. 

Numbrr of 

KoDibcr i>f 



LbcaJ Deicroct. 











































" A Bhortcr method of findiitg Ihc nnmtpr of Aucpvk>rv \\ any l'vi-ii d'-grty ih bj ' 
" ■qiiA»n^ ihft iiuDiticr of nnc«iilora nt half tlmt nHmbf^ "f <lpf r*o<,f Tlmn 1ft (Ifaio 
" Biunlvr of auct'slori nt fout df^f;rer<) it th« fiiEur« of 4. Ihi.- nuinhor of niict^ton nStr 
'• two ; VA6 is the tquitt- uf l(j i UJ.S-IO ot 1160 a tinii thr numfier t>f iinrt^inrn at ^ j 

[CbiityV Blackvtonv'a CoDinictJtAm-<tf, aut Kdtlioi>, Vol. V. pp. l'o3-:£0|. 

Mr. MaltLitti argues th^t population, if untv«irrAtn(-i]. >viH rlouMe itiwlf 
fiTrr/ twi'nty*f]vr year*] ; but \ti it bo nA^nmc^d tlmt the 4ool>ling |>cric(l 
m Iow<v, or i^xxsX to 33| yenra — tlitkt is the ineUiU Intui-v&l bittweon two-' 
gTTicrations — nccordnig to the common rrtikc^ning, ilj^m, ln^^nniog nt ono 
v«idof th<! series, a poir lEi 40 aoeh pcriotie (1«333 y^nre) ^vill yic-hi ntoro 
tluia a intiHon millions of (hv-scfinOanls ; ami iH^innlug nt the oilier ond> 
and pfocredingr bnckwiinlg, ooeorriing to Mr. Jiifctiw IliAckatont- cacb- 
'Icm-^Mihim hris moiti Ihmi n million milHotiH t>r ancestora ! 

Tho frtllat-y tltHi ili-ttivi-a BhtcT^tilune in (hr Wier ai*e b thy wnnt o£ 
cominutty in cho lav? of the i^i^rir^ ; a mnu ho^, it ii true, four utjiv^tors ' 

• Prlc0*« Ohumtioii* nn Itoreftiinnary Ptynientji, tciL 1. p. 314^ 
t L«-t a a int ternif n Ili« unm1i«r of tt^rmn, nod r th« rati: ; Ihcn crldoiilljn^ 
OJ' 1 r* = or . 
2 Which Imphctt nn anouaJ ratv orincri<aB« of s-si per crtit^ 



in Ihc ffdcoDil Upfftyc^, li(H::iLjf(C tlio mniTiflgo of brotLei' nnd »I»t4?r te pc»Ui- 
bit«d and thtrre is a fttnlctn oi' four bloods; but am llu^ miLrriago of fir»1, 
»iH'ontl, (1(1(1 evi^ry onlt'r of OL>ii}tin» U iwrniiltcil un^ler iMh Inw, no more 
ibati four luiceoEoTfi ttro in<lii^e(i«Abla to Iho foiiictb man In drH^rul ; 
without ihe proliibillon llie whole of the hninAn rnro might f^t'Idrntly bn 
trocctl I'p lo two luu'cslors — and two bloods, Tbo mind i& W [>n 
thron^fa the fli^t aiupt ^^ Hlack^tone wjlh, to lli€ Lixfirinirc iUid tM<'jkiit« 
a mnn bA.<i n rcttbt-r nml » morlicr, nnd 2 enLUilfntbers nntl 'J ^ranLlTUOthera 
^hni imi-fi bAvvK f^Tvat j;mud(utUors unap-o»tgrftadmoth(!rs, mid m> on; 
which is nnt neoemry. nnd if purau&l far enoagU liroomea iii3prDhiibIi>, 
ub.Ktinl, im|>Q*MbIc. 

'i*hc b}'pothe«iFf of IncreAte of populaiioii in g^otootrieal progr^ssioii 
hml Xh'vh m1rjmE;<!cl biion*,* but MjUiUu* in big prucilcfll Applieai.ion^ of 
it. ttro»^ht it homo to tUc public mindj niid 1c?d to further rrscnivh^^ 
nnd to exciting coQtroi^r«Je«. Godwin — a uiau of gt^iuua — nhoi^ wurlc 
oil l^^TtTiral 'lustiec hiul .<cLijfjfi\Ht/*<l th<? coiUrornr^iAl r-.-waj^ of MidtltTi-i in 
L7^^, nnswf-rei:! it in his En^uirif conrcrninff Popn/atiort^ aud SaiiE<*r 
I'olkctr^d a grcnt manv fjb'l:^ m lii--« wijfk.f *V\ic fjifU n( llic Uiii|ju»Jil of 
iho ronpetlive writi.-i** wt-ro rmmurutis, but thoy vrcro inoomptctPf and in 
Knglaikil the r;tnlLsticftl fact« wo now pofis«fifl respecting the ooQJit;;at 
coiiriiiion of the tncn lunl woimni H>iu^ at ihr H^vcnd ngi^ wcro then 
t^ntiri'Iy lilut^tit, lu* thr information tn tho early ceitsuwA waw mea;;mi 
All tlml im fiu-Lhoi' t«uutud now in tho KngliAh Birth Sobciuln tu i-Umr 
i][i ihiH Titnl qitp-«lirin rorirluHlvt^lv it llu> t>ntry nf i1i« '^ff^'v of t1i« tnulhur 
(lud fiilW Ht tlw? birth of their childrHif and th^ ordrr of ihi* birllisl 
Inttonil (if iliHcuasjnjf llio |jriikd|i]>^ of |«pidation aii4 i)u* hy]n{hmtn of 
IncrtutMT in fEeotai^c»1 pn'o^^-estron — wtiich it» »utliont have ivduccd to 
abflurdilj'- — I propose to iUiie om>ugh of wluil io known to prove that a 
rprhietion in tiif* r»te of mortAltty cah be Attendeil hy none but the niOHt 
KubilAry offecU to thr nation. 

Population if^ 6ii9t4hined when tbe Mrt1i§ eiiial the doAthn in tliA Mune 
tinio ; vihvtt tbu dtutli!* eacuiHl tho hlrthr^ popiilotion ikvtinc»>, frud when 
t1i4) births eii:^«>iJ tbe duatJut papulnlioii incn«a^c<d. Mi^^mtion is hcri^ 
left out of A47cnnnt Tbr batont^c U nffcelcd hy (be ehan-rj.'s in Murb of 
two vHrinbles; thuH, if the |>opu1ation ^if Eu>cUml wa* ?*«rtlicmjiry the 
lU'jithK won M be lit till? rnte of ^''H7 percent., the birtlkK 2'4-4T aliia; 
thi: dlrVerL'iKv i« sfro ; but tlitr pupuhLtioii iuciVhM'4, ti» vrv hav« ni^en, Tsa 
llv^ drjithjA luv At th^ rnte of 2'243, nml lb<> birthn not only Hiiird but 
xnqictvi the di^lbic in tn^ty UK) of ]X)puUtiou by 1 '^iJl, wlitoh i» tlKU^e* 
fore the natural inci'eAtp. The mean Lifetitac in Engbnd is 41 ycitrs. 
.ShouM it baL^mt- itn Iod^ itH it ir* in i\\c he»ltbi4-«t diMrintit it will be 
49 yeurr^i Ami i[i?(ti.-ud of 1 di-Ath ami 1 hirlii tc* 41 liviti^ there will he 
I i^eath and I birth fr. 19 lirin^^ the tniter impljinp Art (innual rat^ of 
S'fKl. An im^i'OHde of the ytiu> men livr iuvolreit n decronvc of the 
ftntiiial moruJity, but not Dcce^^rily Miy increAso tif popuUtioD ; for the 
hirlh-mt« luny full to an eriutvaknt extent. 

The dvAt1i-mt<i of a popuUtion It uudor control, but uot to tbc mtoo 
extent ii» tho l«rih-nite, which drponc^s on voluniary n^anriA^ hud 
feriiUly, which bAve hitherto been imr^^tloiLHly if^^htteil so ikt to meet 
generally the dcmaud for nion. 'Iliu^, ED;>]aTid has tui iocronfling 

■ Vulii&TfV, itttt tptina it ■« hi* <rpiiiEan tbiil lliu ponulikiiati uf Kuropa hftd triptcd 
■bee lh* lim^ of t^Ariirnupie, iiUa vlih hit foci«ir« common M-nic ; "J'afdit 
" iripl^ otc'nt tMftUttnip; c^r un a« propsfff on progremoo g^omArlqup. Tont 
" Im oBhmUi tm'on taklt »ut cttlt pr^tendm* mulCiplicbBlan toai 4h cllialrw 
" nh^urdM." Ihet. PhOoMrphi^ty An^ Pufiuhtifin. 

t Godwin oa Popuhiioa, tflSi). S^Ldltr on U* of PopuUiioti, t Vol*., \WK 

X Ddo< hi ite BiiR&MBn uf our Aumi^aIIaii Coloiilv*. 


[faqt t. 

Industry anil a v^i cotoniaJ empire (0 [>«0p1c, 90 tliO t>irth« nre 
nTinMTOtK. Tti Frnrw thf* ctcAlh-mto in Iho t*Ti }cani wrj* 2"36t 
ibErrriii;; & Ijnli- 4O' [2 in exc?cfft) from lluil <>f EnjEltviiO : bnt ihr birlli- 
ralr nji* onlj d'(i3 In Frniicc iitHcufl uf 3'&1 t%^ U wim im Ki);;)iiutL 
Frnnw* ImH no rolonml i1<-in»nfl for pfiptilntion, nml »o ihc ]U>f mint ion 
WM» Doi iIt^)ro*^Hi>i1 Iry i Uif^li deAili-niEr* but tiy luw MrCh-ruU*. Thi< 
iocrcBM? of |x*jiiilHti<m WHS only 0"27 p**r cml, p<*r finnnm, 

3liiny «N^ioH of aiumnU Imvt?, ui^ Ibe ^i^otagiojil ii^coMh df %h<* 
wi>i'Ui ftWw, pcrishinl; iiml man coiilrl tjevi-r hn\e Mir^ivrO tlir> |nrrilp of 
hiH rjiHy hUtnrir. to suj- iiotliiTi« of Iiih prrh ijctortc, lif' hud hi* racft not 
beoii ert<lowci1 with a ri^««rvj^ of rc'|>roiIncllvi? foriv HuHldonl to ropAir 
t}u? rfcnrreiit nriiflf^i? of fjuiiinov, wurs, nfiil ptiiffn^ft. At ihc pri^mit 
hour in En«;lnml half of ihe woiDen of ibo ohtlil-lxmrln}; ofrnt nn* 
nikninri-I<'<l ; nncl tliougli thi' iximunl liirtbh mninlnin tvi «ctiukl <zcv«s 
<>vrr ihr *li'uUiN, l!if»y are lcej>t down it* Imlf t!n"!r pofwiblo nmntior. A 
flow of proHtKTitf in tfif* coimtry \^ immp<Hjiiofy foIlon-e<l ami xnftrkoti 
by the Iriiimrh ofV vhole flfttlwf lunrrui^--*- The Tuin of sn inituflry 
or the il*r)jn4«iioii of a inwlt- tmjilJc^ % ttHf£i)at)oii <?f mjtrriii>;t>. TlK-rn 
Arc IIioiE^nnti^ of «>u|j1«4 nltvnya on tbo look-oaf, rcndy to f'lnbnrk a« 1I10 
pn>»{Ms^f5 bri^lilen. 

It hM bc«<ii ohsc^rvctl that after the niva;:e3 of pk^i'S llic )kinh4 
inci^iiM>, Mj tho aehmg Vf'iHs ure IrlU**! tip ns rr^gnrdi nTriv nninlHTs- 
UijiiiT viiMrijiry i-oitdilluii^ mi iiiLTi^ibht'il ik-uih luk' h a\lvinW-i\ by hii 
hioL'tvifituI Lirib-mto, »o ns *ilhpr to riLikinhnn the j»opnlflti<>ii lEnliormry 
ur hiCiviLMa^, un.'oi'diii^ la Ibt? exip,'Hcii.'H uf i\n- fOM-, Tins Iri otily 
pG'^iblc within ct*rtiLin limits for an e-eciwvt* dmih-rair is nili^ndoa 
with Auch wusio iliat U carmoi be overtaken by ihi- HrtJis; the popkihi* 
i'wn Jcclincft, in- I* only si]«tAincd by iiimE^ritljoii. Wc buvo thi> mcniiFi 
of (^luMi»li]ii]{ this biw by Engtitb obw-i-valions, — (^nppl^mcnt to 
ZMh Annual Ifcpoil, pp. ix."3cii.} 

Influenrf of Binh-rrtlr upon Pujudatimj, — The hirihft ajfain. iir? 
under control U> an extent which hasnol. yet beati duly iipprechiteil, hnt 
\n now nm<I<frcd clmr by Ihe census Thix will bo vho^vn hy an 

rXAimiialion of thi-i fii<:l0, Lc^nvjii^ unrcjziatctvfl 1>ir(hH oul <if iK'irouiit, 
the ti«imh<>r of rhilih^n lygiJitftreil Ji« hoin In wfiiWIi ihirin^ rho f^n 
ynirf* IS6J-70 wfls 7,0i:VWl; lh<' wivrs, all belwein the a^i-» of lo 
aiiJ o^f wertj nion* than three millions onu hundrei] Bnd fifty Ihouftaml, 
And thi; numbrr of nntnniTbd xvomcrn i)f tho-^e agps wjia lull two millinn 
;iwrn hutkdri-'d un'l niouty ihutiHuuili wh>> tore only 4<>7,00() chiUreti in 
the ten year*. Itiii ns \\\v- prraltT part of Ihe <^hil(lrfn of ihifi (^nntry 
arc boi-nt by wumeii of the aj^e 2l)-40 wo ma^ laLe iheai hero ct* tho 
liBsis of calculation, nnd then to cvc^iy 100 wivt^ of thnl ago 35'87 
cliihli'iui wfj-o bom annually (18(il*70) : whih? to irvi'xy li>0 r«|iinM<^m 
axjd widows lining of jhe enme wge only '^-'M childi-^ii w»;re horn, Bwt 
in J871 tho nuffdKT of wives enntnrraled al ibo agr 20-40 wag 
2J,ihO,99I, who at the alovo rnfe ^oiild givti hirib lu 74(j»452 children 
in the ycnr. And the number of apinsters nnd widows of the sumi^ Age 
\vn--« I^^^dtSnOf ^ ho, if iuiLrrih.Hl with the Mimu fcHiliLj- na ihe wivejs 
would ID ihnt year have borne 510,559 ehihlivn, bor ui the iietnnl 
re;:ielereil rntc only bore 47,540 cbihlren, lea\in|r 46,^,010 over. 

Tile innrrieil women arv to some extent a ^elecIeJ ehtsi^, nnd no, 
striking oir:j3:f,y;il from thi' unmarried women d" the np' 20-40, nnr<- 
ao^ ti^f\ 3;XHX),(XK) married ur murriti^iible women, living thrmj^h 
1f461'-7(\ whit ivt thi ntlA a^rnnlly^ oh^rved among (Ijo wlvn^ would hnvfi 
borne 10,751,000 ildldrun, iuslejwl of 7,5 00,0%. 

At the l.-irtli rale cited, to ercry wife of 20-^0 & child ig born nearly 
every three jrcurs (2" 8) j biUin wiuft counCveti i\veT(veiv\\lt\lwvvulbeiwcon 




C4kt:li bii'th appi-OiwUca ^1 jcarn, ftnd loolcod at phy«iolog!cal[y it uigljt. 
afler allowjog for wives with no cl^iMren fto! oth«r dmwbucks ^ 
roilnooil to two y^i^* wUiii:b, vfiih the* liilJiiioiiar tunrria^es, wouM liave 
tbrj udVcl of dvLiMiu* (bu iiuiub.'L' uf birlbs, 'Hji^n? ir*, lliinvforfT, lut 
ilouHt thnt Rvan in llnglnn^ Uio numtkor of birehi In M'^lJock nrbiiiFri of 
Cruai «xiMm4Lou, miil wttuU ivoeive il in \ha event of t;*'u>ir d<.'JnnTiit« on 
tbc ro:«L>uri<i» tA \hr nniikin to fill up \ti nuilu from lossi?^ in w*r-, from 
UiG raVRgea oTa decimaiiu^ |>W!U«, from ibu v$liix of ii j^nejit cniijcrAticr ; 
or to meet «Djr oxCrftorctln^ry O^vcliJjf incut of cotnuurico and itidu»ir^. 

Tbon, m$ oa\y 7H,22^ nf tbp joiiiif; woinr^ of th<» tijint 15 In $1 nr«i 
wives, offlgc* ranging In numbt-r frum 1 SI at t^ la -13,632 at SO, ihn-o 
rtjdidiiM n further n^^ervi; of ],2lt>,7i3 mivSib-nM nnmarrieil ; «o tbat 
Koglan^ \i in imcb fenlto In ru'^affimir Aominutn, nad hold^ nu ample 
rwcrvo lo rn/wt vrhntcvuF Ur;aiandA may bo made upon hor bjr f^^ i^ fl^o 
fdlurr. (CoDiU-H Report, 1871, vol- 4-, pp, xv.-xvi-) 

Ct:ni'i*e4 and Pvjrail-iiityn lie^Uifrt. — ^In tlic iotcrvaU b^lw^rco ino 
C^musoi ihi^ti \* a f^ontinnn] inHow mm\ outflow nf pnoplaof nlT ^i^c^ 
^rao eiiicring ihe ^atc» ns Ti&itors, aonie ap? settlers, come as new-born 
infuatd; arvl otb^r^ leaving iL a-h intwHers i^ t-iui^raals, na iinKtc-ngnr^ 
10 ilint "qniintry fn>m whoso bofU'Do Do tratclbr romrnf.'* If we bad 
Imd eucU rvsi^tcrB of population oa bftvo botu rtoommpofled hy lh<5 
Slittistical Con^re^ HtArlin^ from tb& nominal \i%i of ibe C&iuus of 
\SH\t ttiCT uumbn'i* w!iQ camo into tbi> country in uny waj would bn 
ivld«d to tho r^^iiitor, and ibo numbers who Ii?lt would Iw siruuk off: tlio 
tllJTvrcJLct! butivc<?ri tbi^ lacomcr^ aat\ ibi* ijLit^cji?r», wldt^l to tUc iiumbofit 
4>f H61, Hh'>iild, wWi ihu bftlunco U jdtruck, dqujil ihv popiilariou of tlio 

l*afortuEi:Ltrly* no aacb popukttoa Tef^bUr exbta ; but it doe^ uol 
Fallow tliAt vi bavc nn mcan« ord«t«niitnine npprr^xlmiitcl/ iho inwjird 
«itd oulwrni'd nnnemeHl of tlw pcojjlt', Slntiblica h in !iomi5 rvepecta, in 
tU« prt'U^oT *^*^y$ defiling wilb m>»ri ]W** irigonotnfttry H-taling with lici<^4 
and anf 1c-H, nblc to di^duce from ccrtiiu xivt-n data othfT^ of which there 
15 txo tribci'; IVonia liasi* of obfiorvod facifOth^r raot^curt bo dclormined ; 
ihxi< by at^M'i^ of the Bnglbb Ltfe Tttble, i!i« nuntbtT of persona 
oourn>-mtod At tlie ^cv^tvt i^cd^ tho oarabcr of pcnoiiB bitrii iu otbf^r 
couritri(*4 at Kn^«-^ve Ceanufet, aud tb(< number of Enj^li^b birtb in 
otbcr parUi It U pos?tibl? lo dirtormino lh<t incomo anil outgo of people 
frooi the Koglish mid Wt-Uh divi.niou« of thea« iilaodfl. 

For iheejL-LCt dei^rniltiation, accurate en uin«^rnl ion si of tbt; popiilatloht 
oomplote n-gitteiv of births oad do-ilbc, nod trtc rvlann of aIL oiaiffrantfl 
and immiKmrit-s an^ n>qnin;d. We may aisuia^ eIial tbe enuiaerailoa of 
tin* yii[ni\M\Oii WhI^ ralber moro coiit|>leto i& IS7I t.bnn m 181)1 or 1^1; 
but tbi^ itth\ he \M out of accoimi. Th^ birlbn have been mc^re fully 
n^iiU'ivd v-^vvy yi.iir Mn<v thr Act viim<* into opr-nuion in IS3T, yrt 
SOBW ant vUll iiib«od ; biil th*^ brrttu ia tbo pri-ix'-tin-; ti>]i yeart cuti l^o 
vpfy nconm'ely calculated frofn tli<^ numl>prof tbcir KLjrvirors«<nunioniled 
anrfcr ten yp,ir* nf agf on tho C<*nK"i» Djiy, Ttiut bai ai^oordiTij^lj l^fCa 
dom\ a:td tho caVuliitM can >ip comparc^ii with Ove rcgi*E**njd nunib«ri 
la Uio tbivft duoconia, 1811-71. (Oeosai Bqwrtt l^lt Vot. 4, 
p. xKiil) 

Ttii< (IrtiiTly n^riHi-jl rvnuIrR nf t\w «i^tb (l><*vvTini9l OiMHa*t Ahnwthtt 
oa tlie 3ril April 1871 lb>; total (lopuUtaon dt KnjcUnd and Wnle^ w«i 
32,7l2^0<j, hating iiicre&f«d by 2,646,043 mraoD:*, or at tiM rate of 
l^'VJ por ts^uu fiiKo tkt Csutti of 1861. ThLi the lar^cot dec«aiiU1 
IncrcA^ rotft'irfll/ na well a« ototvally, that hau tak^oa ^laAft *a»a^ 


[TAfrr t. 

1B81>41 ; an^l eomc» t\\ lea&t, of tbe cjiu9«a vLicli Iia\c led to ibU arrest 
<if the IcMlrJiCv of (ho |ic>puljtlIon In Jncixit^c jii \U<i J<<cimMijg rutv 
obHTVf^il from \H\i lo Isfr] will iio dmtlit liv I'luiriilut^il wlu-ii the? 
aD&lyMa of tho comlilioius occupations, imi.1 birllj-plaeeg of iLe i)»p]e fii 
complel^cl, Jtnt tlic ciri>ct of a purticulji^ olum^ or sk-i of cunrtva in 
nugtnotiling or diinLnlF^hihg Ihc rato of laoninsc Wtwocn anv j>c<dod« caa 
nt iho clmovt bo tmcod upproximuUty >o long a^ tl]e mr^mn^c, birth, nnd 
deftdi refpstera, &n ob^luualy defi^cttvL' record of rmigrnuoi]. uii uiliro 
kImcdcc of knowledge rcftpccliiig immigralioD^ itnd n C(?v«us Inki^n once 
cnL}' in every t^D jt^ar^v are t[k4.<aolt*avaitabl6gulcI». The luu^n^at of rli^ 
irublic At Iftrg*,' in KinTiMicji) in^iur; ia iia j*t ondcv<.-loi*cd aiifKciciitlj' lo 
jaaiity an nttf-inpl (o rifuMiOi n Pnpulntirn Kr^iOrr.* or it ii^c^nnl of ibo 
migration of every person j^oiiij:; inlo or eottjiiij^ from ScoLlund, Ireland. 
or clM'wlicri^ lif^yond sen* ; nnd it m of liul<* n^t* to t^pioiilnli^ npor 
tbc neuriie^ or i^cnioterieee of the protialilliiy of <>b[Ainhig GtaiiuicB 
complete inou^li to dcmoiifitmlo thv pArl |Jlfl^^-l1 by rixcb of ihci mnn^ 
fhc1<Tn t^OTicoitiod in producinft n grGWlh or [Itcliiti* of Ibe popuEalion. 
(34th Anomil Kp|>on, p. vii.) 

Pniad iu vrAiVA Poputatun doubles iUrl/,^ — Tbo rate at vrhicli tlio 
popalalion of Cireat Britnin increased front I^IU to 1851 la <ucb, tbat 
if It coEitiouc to prciAil unifcrmly ihc populMiou irjll ilonbLc itself 
uv4-ry 52'S yonr*; In Eti^Umd nnd W&Jc-s tbc |K-r)od of doubling on 
ibc Hime byixjfbcviK ia ^1 jean. (Census Keport, 1851 ; Eanme- 
ntion, Vol. 1^ p. xxx.) 

Proirimity^ — Tbe populnlion may be looked at in another point <if 
vi«fw. EvpT^ ]vT>-oii \f- in direct or indircrf cnmniuni^iion vriib other 
pi^raoDd Kurroundin^ him \ Acd tbo czlcni, intlmnei', and nuuibcr of thv 
relations betvi-en foople defieod sery niueli upon the Jef^reo of their 
proximitj^. If tb« }it^niooF, boii»4^ vilbi^itf town«^ nro Iwioe n« far 
apart fiom each other in one country ae tucy are in another, tbe force 
and intcrnfrtion of the two cotUEnunilirff will dttTrr to nn inconroivoblo 
C0cl4Mit- Proxtmtty can b^ ^vprcMcd v'ltb Ibo «ninv procmoa na dcnjtitj 
of population, upon tie Eamc hTpothesis of l^quaI distribuiioDi and ita 
rrlidivv viilao in di^ercnt couDtricn aTid diMriciA i? ^quallv intereatio^ 
Tlm§, the pe<iple of Enj^land were, on an nverago, 152 yarnt niiundfr & 
IW)1, and lOw jordfl luundfrr in 1851 i lh<! moiui distnncc npuri of ihcir 
liouivA waj S6-t j'ardtt ic 160K flnd 252 yards in 13/j1. On tbe line of 
proximity dcpi-ndtt tlii: di^anc^f which aa mnmrrNtcr, or tL lueaoosger 
who baA to <-aII at every bouse, tntTels on bis inlFWJon. A mefiatogdr 
tci rHivcr 1«000 Irtlcni at 1,000 bouj*cA of ovriofic proaimity in ltK)l 
wonid iniTid2(l6i[iile-i(.'V>^<>0OyarflH); in tK5], to drli««-r l/KK1ltll4>rs 
at l,OGO houBoti of nverR|!e proximity be would iravM only 143 milei 
(£62/)(]0ynrdH). Tbc populatiou on tbe mine area ha* donblad; the 

* FoputHtinn Tfc^ert are kn>t ia 8«('<k». Uvltnunt. mid Kollaad, By a decree 
of Ilia MfO^tj the King <ifluly,4ati^ 4th Aprl l<^'3,ft r^iii«t«r of ihc Axed popu- 

lotion ia fo 1ic rvIaliUibcd in tint cuuDfrj : j| ih fo cvDftlil Ktt llilic fLT^S ^u' rrlflUng 

lE> hon>A, oue t& fomiUca, and on^ Co tadividDAl*^ For f»cIi prrton tbc rtjrlitltr \t to 
•how tho name, uuname-i aad**rx ; ihe ofunr" of bin parrnts ; lh« place and d&t« of 
hiabirtlii b» ciTil euadition, vtlujlhfr ■in^li', BQorrivd, or v^itotror, aiid if mttrrivd 
dw aaoae <d hit «tfv^ vhcfiorcbautf^^ of coaUition bciitg itidy potitdup; hj»r«nk, 
protodoa, or oecapatinn ; hurtadcccci hti declared dnldomicUc ; andarcftr<ac« 
to l&o Iblio ralalina fo Tafi^t** nndar vfaJeh ho vlU b» i^ntxA Inioribad, 

t becalm Primoplrof Pmt4ii^, taai parif-rnph Imi on« on |i, 15: atid Itvr 
c//>pa£aAm, note lo p. IV, far lomftln lo calculate ibc auniber of yenra is vMeh 
■ |wpiiliil]On will ft^Hthla itAf^lf', 



proxiinilj lin« incvctitOtWllio wpiuwtion luu dimmUlicd — ii> iHo rfttu> 
of 3 10 2. In theLonilon ilivision ilio nienn proximily in 1W)1 wui 
21 ^ftrd.H, in IS.S] ii wa* 14 )-AriJ^ lli^ pr>pLiUticii oti the aaaie ar^ 
increaa^d US per cvnu^ or in the proponitm of lOfi lo 246; the 
difficultj- of pergonal commuiiicntbii, of ilclivtiing Icttorp, }iui^<cl«t 
goodH, to *v#r}' |iei>oi] — L^xi^f^fvieil hy iriiiltipiying the 6ht*T\ro from 
person to pchmdh into tbo ntiiiibn>— incrtnsr'd fttily 57 pwr c^nL, or in 
the prcportion oT 100 to 167. (Cen^ue Report^ 1861 ; Enumeration, 
Vol. 1. p- IL) 

Density. — Dcmity JiaplJeji de^e of |>roxlini1j of people to wicli othir ; 
bnt. U xnay bo cotivcnicnt lo cspix'V" csplicWy tbi* imporiAiit rfbiiivo 
of Df^rncstf, cpf fir>](*hboiirIi<KK] wbich ttiffbrf ^o rnuclii not ^>iily in foreign 
couiilrle^^ An<l in colonies but \u Kngl^h couutJes. TEio prnxiinitT miy 
bt* h^vc givvn in ii frw illustntive lastance^. It i» doituoeil by dividing 
fint tJio nrea of a coantrj' br tbe population. >'ow the lu-rrii^ Ktf 
Kuglniiil bclnjj u()ii?(tuiit uitd ibi: pfiimlniion invri'imus. tbe ntimbcr 
oT kerM to n p«rAon Ib contitiuftlly diminiihtug; thus Uie numVr i>f 
ncrc« to a person vm 4' 12 in 1801 and 1*64 m 1^1; and Koinj; back 
to a period foir nliidi tiii>r4> in n probable c^timaU* of population, tbe end 
oTKlixAbcih's rv^ (1600), th^ro were then 7"T1 Jirrc* of Inod to cacb 
person liviug. Th« ftpcrt-e of lnj^d to tach person in (be Uircc *uccomIvc 
ppriodt Wf^nv 7'71, 4' 12, and 1 ^fi4 ftcrea, and ibt? praximity csLpuvvcd 
in yard* wru 208, 163, an(l %. 

It will lii> noticed tlint tbr ililTiniltipA tS intcrr'ommunientlon betvine&D 
all the individunts of a popuJution do not tncrfasi> n« miirh la ita 
nuiulmrd ; fordf tbv poputiiliou of a trouiily hus uikivum^X fuur-fuld 1h« 
flialAnoe to bo fr»volb*d hy a ni('Hi«i)g<-r prootrJiikg frc>D] p*r»on f»'» ppivori, 
or from hoitac to hoii^e, ie cnlj doubled ; and n;oiicinL]y tbc dlMniioe to 
be travelled in goio^ from person to |]cr>on in two eiitial c^rautics ia 
invffwdj a« Ww Fqunr<- mot of tJia numbere on tbe same ana. Thia 
bttfl HD tmpuftAiit branny on crcry hind of iotorcouimtinicali^u. Tlic 
dUtjinre to be tntvHTed in g<iitig fritm porM>n to pvr«on in l\n^liind nnd 
Wide^ if lh« 9.060.9^ fMrnone* livini- in llio middle of ibc >fui IHOl 
bmj been rquilly diitributt^d woold bave been 76J,U8G miles; nvbilo the 
dlsiaon to be tr&Tellcd in TbltiQi^ the 22,T^2,el^ living in tbe middle 
of 1871 vould only bava beeu l,^.t^,^£3 mt]c«. 

Ill* ro**n dialnofw frtm hoD»e to hcuHt in ISOl wbi 3(i4 vttrdu; in 
ItfTl only 221 jardv. On ibo bypo4li«ns of uniform diHlribiilion tlio 
Stance to be Iratellei) by a poeinun, for UisLauee, in n.^itin^ nil ibe 
faoufM would bavi- bc«n ^2^^,744 niil» tn IWl, and only 531>,^45 njilea 

in lanx. 

1l will l>0 ^en bnw oiiieb tbc coriocnltntion of tbc people in boufta 
diiniiii»bc« til? distance to be Irnvellt^i it t« rediioi'd in llie intio that 
tbe iquBTo root of the t^uuibn- of piTM^px to % bou^ bmn tn nnity. 

The concenirMtion of hotirten in citir# while it incrtastv the proiiniiiy 
of maiwc* of the proplt dlmbiUbea the di»<tnnceft to be ira^elkd In 
viHtUng tb« lioujacE of tbotfo citins abd it the ^ame time cconon>ifc> llir 
ronaoetiii^ rrart* vad all ihe oilier ohAnoH* at cocnmumniion. ((^Vniua 
Report, Ib71, VoL 4, p. xxviii.) 

Mnhtifi flf' r^irnJaliitff Dtntiiy urat Proritntiy. — Lot ibe aUHi of « 
place be cxnnwed by A in any ^pei'fielal uiutf<, Mid the popniatfon 

by P t tbeit -k ^ t> = mcnn |>o]>nlAlion on iboic eev<:n1 unil». T1ii« i» 

freiivrally called tfai< dviipjty c-f popuiatloitf and by 3kl, Piony il e fp4 dAc 
popnIaitOD. Il enable* vf to e3EpT«««wfih ptcvliic& Ikcnotiotrvccavayfd 

r 2 


when we say tiiis country U populous, that is tbinly peoplc-d, that is a 
desert i the value of D in tho Intter case being zero. 

We have taken a square mile as the mt^asuriDg unit of area in the 
table, which implies that although the number of people may differ on 
ov«*ry squai'c mile of a country, eiill on an average of the whole the 
nnmber is tis there staled. Thus the populousness of the several 
countries cnn be compared. 

Now, instearl of dividing the populaiion (P) by the area (A), we maj' 

divide the nrea (A) hy the popnlationf and then p = n = the mean area 

to each per^iin. It may be called, for the sjike of convenience, llie 
areality of the population ; it is tlje mean numher of acix^e or hectares, 
square yards, or any other units expressed hy A, to each unit of popu- 
lation- a = jj, so a is the reciprocal of D. Divide the area by the 

Houses (H) and we have „ = o' = areality of Kouses. 

The neariK'Ss of house to liouse or of ()crson to pi-rgon varies In every 
pait of a country, but naauming that the menu nrcnlity ia given, the mean 
proximity of crLch person can be at once determine*], ns the proximity 
varies in the ratio of the square roots of the areality. 

Thus the areality of the populatiou of England in 1S71 ifi expressed 
by 1 '64 acres, or of 7,928 square yards to a |>erson ; in 1801 it wns 
19,934 aquare yards to a person ; and the proximity of person to person, 
which was 96 in 1871, was 152 iu 1801. 

Assuming that there were flve persons to a household in 1801, and 
the same numl>er in 1871, then the proximity of the households is Found 
by multiplying tho proximity of persons by the st^uare root of 5, It 
would be 339 in 1801, and 214 in 1871. 

Again, as persons are grouped together in houscF, houses arc grouped 
together in towns, and if the areality of towns is determineti by the 
same convention as in the case of persons and houses, the p]x>ximity of 
towns can be determined by the same method. 

The g^erat formula for proximity when the areality p = a is 

given ia — 

/cos 30° a 4 2* i 

— T = c IB a constant, and log c = 0'031S347. 

NoT£. — The degree of proximity may be expressed by taking contact 
aa unity and dividing this unit by the distance from pei'son to person. 
(Census Report, 1871, Vol, 4, p. xzviii.) 

6, Sexes. 

Sex proportion of Populatiotr.* — The enumeratiou of the populAtioii 
of England nnd Wales at the ^aiious Cen^iusea shows that there is an 
excess of femnles living over males living, and it is noteworthy that thia 
excess is grenter now than it was some years ago. 

" Thifl lubject^ vith special reference to its effect upon the death-rate of a popuiation, 
viu diacuaicd 'm a paper hj Ihe Editor^ read before the Statistical Society in 1ST4 on 
" 7^ ralue of I^atb-ratci ai a Te*t of Saaitary ConditioD." 

Number of Malm uviso to cvctj 100 Fbscalm livtw (exrtusivc 
ofthc portion of tie Army, Navy^aod Mercbftnt 8<«invti abrond). 

Cciuai Ttfkis. 

Ucttaor ll»lt-41 






. IBAI-Al 


^ 1061-71 


wi-ei - - 


Thoit to ct^^y JOO HofiiCD living in Kii^rljinil .uu\ W'ah^ %i <bd 
CtemasM of 1B:21 and 1B31 the tatrtto prc]>OTUoaii1 aimiWr of cbco Uvine 
wft«96'd5, hilt thi^ niimli^r ML in 1811 nn^ 18>^[ lAfkt-dO^ aikL Ct^\ 
ttllirurlhfTtii lf»>l ima IHTI lod-4 96. 

This diap&rity in tbe proporUon of moles iui<1 females living t« AUri* 
liutoblv U} till; li]j|>lKTr mle of morluliiT, ai»1 tii« uuob gntnlor «uou»i 
of omi^^lioii ftmoo;; mntfv tbAji natODg fttiukke. Tliv <>ait^m1ton r<<tort»i 
of 1877 hIiow the rdntive proportion of ibf? jfjvi of Miiiirraiils <if 
EnffiuA oriffim; w)jt-ii tht^ DAve been |>ullislie<l for « Mrrict^ of ycnra 
they will ibron' Florae ]i<:ht on this inlert^liDf- [loiot. The* numN^r of 
oude FinigTtinl--« uf En<fii*ii origin iu 1977 iriw 39.b20, uuO of foiunJe 
33^dS. (10th Aimml ECi*^rt» p, XX.) 

7. AiiKft. 

-Th<« ngiw of Iho Brilir^/i hoptilxtiou 

Cf^AittJ KnumerfttwM of Agtt^ 
n-cre lir»t retotnod in 18:;i : in 1801 and 1811 "ago" formctl do hrnd 
of inquiry. In 1821 thouiflvcn to tho question of ugcv^re *'purpo»L'1y 
" li^i o|itM>Da1, bvib tt-» rt';,'anUn^' ttie r^tnmliiff ofllcvr, itml tlie [K^rMti» 
•* to whom tho qiic^lion wiw to ha ihojhxmI by nim," Y*t xhc returns 
of «gM> umler ibU votuulju>' inquiry, cmbrsccd 8 nicths of iho [fcr^jn^ 
ciuiniflrated ; nod where uo rclnro?! wie uaao it w&.*< ;i|.jAn'»tly the 
fiwlt of Uic over!«<:ni, mtbci thnn of tJiOpvoplC; for tlK< oii>is^on was 
tiul In inilUiduftl rttunus but lu wbob pnrivbvtf vnil ii,<wti»lu}xi. Id 1531 
iIk number of nulM of 20 yiwrH of >i^ ahA iipw«rxli« WHt< <]<*m]uitlo<l i 
junl ibe Enquiry «3tteii Jed no funhcr io tliin dtrcctjon. In 1851 the nune 
and ag« of each person w^ro vriitcn \h a ^hedutc, ^itlier by lti«* bciul 
of Um &mJlyor by iht* enumcnitar; nn iiidcel luid been clooo, witli n 
Ihtlc Icia a<x\inkC7, in 1841. 

Thi> ftg«!ft of 52,56^ rtgrmiilH a»i1 ollifi-fl wcri* not wtflfffd in 1841, und 
ntiirly oa miajr b|cw of ibe xame eWoi« trvre, iirulttbly, otniiu^l in 1831 \ 
but lu ii i» ncoMMry for the pur|xi<C¥ of cnlcuUiutn to <ll^trib«t«r tbe 
nnnibtrv pr^pwtkmwjf ovtr tite ftcveml ]vtHod-» of life, li was dteened 
mottt conTCcicnt Co nrrr oni ilitv distribution At once, by iaserting tlk«ir 
pTOhtf^le ngi>s 111 tli<! boiid^ii. vritii iliminc^ivi* miirk% 1o tmlifntc' ihr inlrr- 
polntioD. With thifiqualiikniioD, tho DUmbcrs ai Ibey wtro returned, 

of mtlcs And feaia1o» ^epAmU*!^, atxl^r 5 j^esra or a^ of J^ ytarn aocI 
under 10 ^VMrit, attid for cM:h nubwrjucnL ([uuu|tieiiuia] itrrtiort of llfu 
uj> to 100, lira giv«n id tho TaMon for each uf thi* 1 1 di\-ttikinSf th4> 
52 eountied, lh« 634 r^giMtrstioD diftiricU, tliv 2,190 lub-dUlritid of 
Eq^ttivJ niii] ^Val«-t; for lUe two difiAioua, lb« 32 eAiiDtt««» «a^ »Dnio 
loims i>f Scotland ; ond for the I^ltiuU in tti« Hritish 8civ. 

2k1r. Ilu'knmn uotitxnl iW in IftSl oud LS31 ilio number of nudc9 
ttmtier i»p*niy yoar« of ago an<1 tho number of itiMniy yimn of Bg«r an j 
«pmr<I« vcrr ncirlj ciiuiU : tm] thifi |4^>i>onion htw niaoe been Kjgxrdwl 
■3 invarUble, or it hua beeji »6mQe<l that the naaUa of the a^ of 
AfVjUyaad upwtLrd* an> t^qiuU in number to a fourth part of ihe whole 
populalion. TIk Oensuv of 185 ]> bowcvur, reri-&lii a v^r^ diflbretit 
mat« of thing4. (Con«tift R^jkort, 1^1 ; (Jccuiwtioiis Vol, 1, p. ri.) 

\n I^^jI tbc procifto n^ at tl»o bul blribiUj of tyjich pcnwii In tbia 
couiiiry v;aE, unnJor the LVcuu* AcI, for the fitvt lima JumaaiUhl; iuid 
the opLaioa which wo eDtert&infJ, of iho probable s«Deial aoCttrat^ of 
theretumii wilbia welMefincil lin>iu,i> conlinoMt brtlin (abutar rtaulta. 
The in«-aii age of the fomalcj^ ft* the/ nre reiurned id Englnnrl, cxceedA 
the mcdu Ji^ i>f tlte mnlca hy icn wt^ntht ; rio tlial Ibc icoUcnov hi 
women U> ant\tT*^iute ihcir flg«e Iiaj* onk oporiit^d on L^omj^brativdy 
small Dumbers ; and there ia ao doubt of tbetr general InuhfulDess. 

A comjmriM>n of the aencs of niicDbi>rH living al difimi[it kgo*, and of 
the DQiiibere of males and fcmaki^ at thf^ mhic Ag«^ conlirm4 ibi« view ; 
but it indichtrjL, at ccrtfun Ages, ttomc cridoat iDb-atotcmt^nt-i, wh]<;li it 
QomparL^on with the r^turna of ag«» in 1841 euftb1«a ub to ralonlot* and 
ilHlno. r^n^on^ of tho age of 20 in 1851 Biu«t have iKwn 10 jvora of 
af^ in IHll, Olid pcrsoa-i of tho age of S5 m IH3\ must have be«n of 
Uie ng^^ of to in IMl ; and aji tln^r^ h* n ccrtaiD nninbGr of loivm by 
floatbr it U dvidtrut thid^ dcludiii^ iho c.<ff«<]tg of migmliotip the numbcra 
at the ngc 20-2o in 18AI must be less thAo ilie numbers Uving at ihn 
i^;ea lO-la in 1841, of nbum tlmv (lfO-2.>) uro lh^ uiUural nurvivore. 

What an? tbc 4la(einentK whic>|) i Iq nbatrnct^ of agen express Y 
ltJ4K Thenumlx^r of gjrl«, nge Itl-t^, wai - 1,003,119 

Ifi^l. The numbrr of jonng womCDf Age 20-2A 

wTi?, ns sUir«d in th« n^ritrm - • KO.^>4S6 

Now, M l)iB lirs^l numlier oonlit nflvcp biivo bwoIIpii in the ton yrmriB to 
lhi< in»<,nkitudc of the? second, wc are driven to ibv liyiHjtht^^U tbat ill IN-I t 
and IS.jl the h^ads of Willies returnee] wviral thoiii^nnrlg of Indict of 
till! higUt^r a^ea at Ibe n^c of 20-2-3 ; and Uie hyiKith^&ia U eonllrnuMj 
bjr conijiAi'iiig tilt? illmiriiFfLcd numbura returned at tlw o^'O of Sd-ZS ia 
18*^1 wiih thi^ nnmln'iv* rftiirnod iw 20-2,^ in ISlt, whm' it U f-vid<ini 
that the luiler number la In di^Hdeucy as much aa the former number is 
ia cxcoMi. 

ttdl. ThenumbtT of young womon of the age of 

20-25, OB nUtviI in the rrlurns, was - 9T3,b£l6 

ISfil, The nnmbi^r of women of the age of 30-35, 

as £tntcd io ihe reioms, wa^ - - 768,71 1 

(Ceu$ns Heporl, 18ol ; Occii|>ations Vol. I, pi>» xiiii-iv,) 

^f€ri of Birth liaU on Ages of Popuiation,— If the iiumberH of births 
in ench yeJir wen^ oqnal^ and if all mvn \ivfi] a hundred or any otber 
delinilir number otycarfl, the numbers Ifml. at a Ccdsub, would be found 
tiviuf; ul each n^-v, would b« cquul ; so ihe old lueti would bo aa 
numt^roat ui tTjo ^oung mt'n, and hh fho eblldivn, i'\ tbi> pc^prdalioo. 
The icroni dl^pariiy in the actual number* living at the five asc* «hotva 

(N^cUuivolv ihfll few i>f thft pMjpte of tliitf eouiiiry Imva hitherto livwl 
ilie natural lifetime. Tbas to « Awirfrerf tk^fu^and cUiMiv^n ut»t jronog 
proplo iinilcr the agQ of 20 tbvuv >u'u onljr G3,J199 of the stcontt og^ 
(20-40)1 36,S95of tbo third aff^ (40-$0>| 14,803 of th«/«ttrfA tf^ 
(60-80) ; ana 1.355 of ihi_fiflh affC, 

Tlic whole of ihuHci iliG^reuces iBi hoverer, not d(io to prooiabirs 
(lc4Ltb, but 10 the gradual JDcroaso of btrtb» (Ccn^uH K«|>ort, LS5i ; 
OccupatiOD!!, Vol. \, p, xrl,) 

Tlie populiition ia now younger than it woqH b« by the natural 
ilnnilard ; but as one of tho causes of the 'lepTV^^ioii ot n^ npv^riue* 
wilb more foivc ic oilier couulrioa wlioro ihc tnortuliljr is gimltr^ Ibo 
people ivouU b« oa ftti r»Tc»nLge oWer in Greut Brilnm thnn fllwwhpre, 
were it not for tho iutcrfcrcnco of the incrcnwc of birth* within llwj lut 
buudrecl jwiw, hy which the proportion of children and young penon^ 
ha» been so much irtoryiLKorl that it ma^ ho ciucHttoociJ A'hvtiUr the 
puoplc of anj country in Europo nro 00 youa;; tk3 Ihu p<}op1a of Eogland 
and Scotland, 

Tht Eagli^iLiff Tabic i^imbleK njt to «how what iho ilistdbution of 
the population wouhl hnve been ui ltf51 Lf the mortality h»d reitiaiiie<I 
uuifunuly U.I ihi- hjiqi? ral^ and tlw birUi-i Iiad hvt^a iilmt\witiry. To 
too porson- ui iig*^ «ii<l«r 20 year* the prripcrli^xii* at foiir vicenaUl 
oges, comntrnciijg at 20. '10, 6(), nnd SO 3'car.«, wouM, aiJon tills hypo< 
th«eU) be 81, 63, 33, and 3; while tho Actnal proportions are 69, 37, 

One pniciical cousequenco may be hniac^Llatcly dcduco<1 from tbi» 
fact : — Allbfiiigh ihv birtlu of Qnrat Britiuu und llii? mortality romnin 
stntioaarjt the population will ^ on incrtaAing ; for the Mine duuUwt 
of birthfi wbicli, nithin tb^ 20 yean ld3L**^l have pitHlucod penous 
niidei' 20 yisir» of a^i\ will produce nearly an equul number lu the next 
SO yoopfs ; but the «urviv->r« at the ages 20-10 will bo uuny loorc llian 
ihv nnmliT-r now living ni th[^<o «gM ; Mid th<i nnmhcm at i«iJi nurorcd* 
ing ace will increase uutll tbe populatiou ultimately amounts to firtijf- 
ont time^ the births- 

Tlie nr«t Oii^uff of Grx^Jkt Britain, U will be recoUcete^l, vm talcon 
in 180L Thv ugoi of tbu populatioa vrvw tint dUcncutiAtod m 1^3t. 
Oaly Eh portion of the deaiths nad births in England were rcturuei}, tiA 
bnriaU and ItupliAin'* according to tbe riie^ of tlie Cburxdi of Kngbuid, 
up to m37tvrben the Act for tho Eegistr^icn of Uirths, Drath», nnd 
M»rrii^ei came into ojicratic^n, Kvcii nlncci tbjtt dale a ct-rtuiu mi(>]b(;r 
ol biith#bait e«ci^ed nitration, mid ibu (hecouaU of the ImmigrntioEL 
aademijEratioiiare iccoiapletc, so that, thrDugh tbe want of data, the 
inristigAtioa of the pixifoimd ebanj^o ihai btu l^een wrougbt in the 
eonetitutjon and dbtriEintion of the population as to age is attended with 
cxtraerdinoty diflSouUy. The? gcnciul nature of the cbAUgc can, how- 
ever, be sall^fketorily explntiioil. 

Aaeumo that a small cominnait; of 4.114 perMiDs haa been suslalaed 
for a louft Mriod by 100 annual btrtha, and ihaC the mortality hM boeu 
Eudi tlint the numbers ni each years of nffo. fh>[n tbe first to tbe tenth, 
•re fciuud at a cvamia to be 90, 83, 79,^6, 7A, 74, 73, 72, 71» 71, aiid 
atowly dimiaiftb, ao chat there are 66 in tbe 21at year, o3 in the 41tt 
year, and so om <l«cr^sing to tho Iwt age. Now, let ilw biitha from 
any can w suddenly iner^ate, aud inateat of LW bo ^) anminlly, tboa 
the ptipulatioD will mcTLn^ir, and if a c^^iiiiu* i» ukcn at the end of 20 
rears it -rill bv fuund that tho population under SO yoara of ago i«, 
Instead of l,4k9, twice tbftt number, or 2.809. While the ntimbcra <A 



the popu1«tU»i under ,Um age o( SO ycnra woe to iliu uqnibero of 
iIk Hgc of 20 jctra uid upwnnU at live fixnt cconi* aa 1,-H9 lo SpG65, 
tliD proportion! Bt (Iw vooond ovu^nt will bo u S,t9U lo 2,665. Th« 
biriba remaiuiii^ ibc aumn, if » ibinl cchhiv ia tskca At the end of forty 
jcnrs tliL- nttml>t;iH uiulcr 20 jcoth will b« fouiul to bt* vtill tlir muucb* 
At Hie flccoiiil cemUB (2,^}>H); but i\w ikiiinber> jit tltc ogo ru-IOwitl 
be JoiiUci), aiiil iimtcocl of 1^04 be 2,408. Tbc proportiocial nombcrs 
uniliT — Aiid ul or nlSove S?0 7««ni of ji^e — will be ■« 2y898 to3,S69* 
Miijilly, ot the cod of n croturj iLc population will oonni?! of 8;2SS 
|M-rflODnr of ffboDi2,&!^ will be under 2(> jreimt^ii|;i', iitid &.331I will be 
of ihv ago of 20 yt^nrt aiul upniui])^ Tlie |H>pu|jilToi: nt rtwh ttgv will Ixr 
hi tb^T ofigitioj propurl [(f UB e bat iJI tbe parla cf v;hi<<h llu.' vbcl« ALiniboi* 
Ia euiupu^d will le (EoubUd, Tlic distcrbaDCe m the propar tit n4 of the 
youlbftil and the luluU pf'iiiitattou will be i;r<al«At for votnejtmn iftfir 
tliQ increase of birth?! ccmmrnc<'^ and will gnuIuaLIf ^imppnr aa Uie 
frrivc ofpopiilatloa ikilviukctu, tiatwct \hv numlmi' cf births iucn-jintwref^ 
yvai\ und niAiutAiitfl lb<- ]H>pulAl]^n lu nii inienoeJjut* ktji^< bt^twcen tbi> 
tir^t Mftta aAd tl^P lA#t cliHng:^ in ibo illu!<trotiou* Thft community will 
in -HUCOiwiTe jtfricKis coutiiiii am excels of b«ya ; of boy* ittttl y<rtilli» ; of 
hc^-«, yoiiths niid Tounp mctii ot' pnuinv in Iho fiint <0-EU), «reond 
(fiO-40). lOid thirJ (4CMiO) n^v ; i%ti<i ihv ^nrtnt temper^ eircngtb, mn^ 
itiielWlfial iriAii* of ihit |v<jitilat}(in will ^xhllkir, to (he «»jeft of ibe 
attentixT obivrrrr, cotTo«|i(i]idiiijjr cb«n^v> Somv »urb ^'hanfitf w Uint 
here ^kdcheil bat Uken plnce in Gi^ut Brit&iu ; but tbe iiicii»i» of 
biriliJ, Ki tint gmduni Id tlifi litest ceDlury, IjHa k^icv prcicc^'dcd at a mte 
accelerated but rariubli^ in the e<*vmil (.'U^0O» of tho popubition urtd id 
lli»>diffefeiit pnrLsof lh<* Ikiiixb l%\*^f, (C^nnw iteport, 1851 ; Occu* 
pations, ViJ. Ij p|i. xix-xx.) 

Efft'tt ff Profortgaiiott tif iJfv fln Piipuifitlnn. — The proloDgiitioil oF 

the life <'f ireiitrntion*, m well ns ibc incriuhw of btriliK, tend* to incrnvse 
Ibo numbers liviDj: jii one lime; ibiit i^ the nuniben of the ropuUtioti, 
'J'hnii, of 1CH,),(>00 L'bildren boi^i in Liverpool, odIj 4-4.797 live to the 
p^ of £CI| irbiTi' ta Siim^y thai up.' tM AtlniDed bj 70,9K£ out of tbe name 
niimhi^r fif children lioiit t ihe prjihixhlo lirMimn i* iJx-iit fi y^-ars in our 
utilic^thiti^E tnwo?i, 52 }\t^t^ ill 8«c'i"<y, atiii otlii-r cximpurntivrly healthy 
partn.' In Miinchcstcr, wh^rc the morUlity is high. 100.000 annual 
birtb* only ■•uMaiiIt ul tin? wk^'h 20-10, n uiiib^ poinihitifii iJ 38,919; 
inliilc In all Eiii*!mi'l ftnd WhIui*, wbvre Ihf «»<irt*ilily Jt* iio>v imicb lower, 
thn unittf iimuiicr nf UirlliK prtxlncen a eonulnnt forci* of r>],2l<'S mo» nt 
tlvjl iLge; and ut other ogea timilar di^pHiEiit'^^ in Ihe niinitK-rft lUlii^ 
C3ii#U Now, ttio mortality wi;> imt mueh Ic^k in nil Knglnnd foriDorty 
limn it U iu>vv iii ?kI^llcbr^lvr ; uiiJ the p'tvit diiiiitiotioti iu ibv inurtuliLy 
of Knfjlpod evldi^&lly took plairc &i tucb a period of tli« la^ and prej$<*via 
eeiituru?^ »s Itfl propyrlic«uilly mrrrc MurvJvort at ibc* wgi-^ 20-40 in 16^1 
than At tbc conx->jpcindin^ nge^ Id H21. for tbe daii;^rs and lot^of Itfe 
inruri'ed by i\w ^DeratlouH horn in the 40 yeur* 171^1-1^01 wcro 
^renter ibjin iho*o which were encouiilffcd \jy the ^f^uor&tJoti^ bom io 
IHII-^I. (Ccnsuii Rpporf, IS5I ; Oct^upationn, Voh I, pp. xxii-xxHi.) 

Focior^ g/ PofiwttUwii**—ht»\h\^ jiuitiigiuiioi] uui uf account, tlic 
numbers fbund by the Census living in fiji? ix>oiitry nt any age depcutl 
on two totfilly diBlinet fucrcrs : (1) on ibe numhrrs 1»orn in ihe year of 
their birth, nnd (2) on the numbers cf them tbal \a) die or {^) leave iho 

* Sfc Regi^cinir GprirrBra^ti BrporF, Bvo. pp. 46.47^— In Maucht«ter tOO.OOO 
diLlilrnt Iwtn urcr^lHccil Io nbout half thit numbtr (^19,010) in «■'«■ yriirj#—ltf|[^ 
trsr (ienemr* Tth lltport, p, A34- 

coiiulry belweeu llie (Into of Lirtb nijJ tin* Onto of inuirkcrulbn. The 
iD<?An ilgrvi of a |>opuljicion luii/ ttiertfoix^ be reduced in thi'ee vruji : (1) 
pioit ob^iou^j bj^ o high mlts of mortalUj ^horicnlcifE (lieii- ]iivif» 
inaqmiirh riJ4 niimWr^ llvrng ni tlio itdvfttioo<l ag(*>i vlll nil thcrc^bv W 
itHliicr^l; (2) liy ilie cmignttton of ni|iilt« in rniduo uroportiOD; and 
(3) lei^s cbvioufilj bul as certnltily bv incrOftsc of (lirlln, (vr ihch ibc 
QouibcT'it [It ndvjkDcud ngri nrv fi^wTT ibiin tlji*j^ >hoiiM he Ir proportion 
nintpl^ bt'OA^ie^c tht* Dutnbrx? uf children born joar* »p>i of which ndult? 
nrr> fhf> Hurvivors, were fi^wrr ihan llo cbildrCTi boni in w-rint yisnm. 
Thus ibe8(W,72:J nu-n of t\u: nge of 50-fiO m the your J^7l are tbu 
durrivot* oflbr 1,6J^^,573 bf>vp of ibo ngc of O-IO vbon ihe Cenaufl rf 
Iti^l wuHliitvu; niid if ihe bovB wf iliui t-nrlr iijii* Imil ntnguntcd in 
1821, Ai* ih<-y JUl in 1671, lo'2,ft!W>,209. lhe*S06,72*2 nun of 50-60 
woiitil bavr hoi^n n»ir<r*! in the »nini* pVi^portion to nbout 1,400,000, the 
expoctM nuuiVr of aurvivtng men At ttint age half n ccotury bence. — 
(CensaH lU^porl, 1871, Vol. -1. pp. ili-xiii.) 

Length of a Generation, — The Egj'piiADir oi" Ihe Grtelt!-- (Siwo^-fred 
tbnt tbci'c wikti niL arcrugr hilcrvAt t>t a hrtmhed j ivirv bi'luri'tu lbt< 
birtbft of cbilitivn Hod tho biiihs of their ^niit griindfnlh<-r> s or that 
tbt' inEo-rvnl in n^ccndmsn gournlogicai tiMe from the birlh oflbeAoii to 
Ihe birlb of the falber was abcut 33f jear», ThiiL t*ix]4*, called a 
generation, hftjt Ix^eo found to agrc^^ with modern otiservoriOD ; '^but," 
Sftjw Sir leoiic Nt-wiou, i*bo fu1o|it« the eo]u]>ii(&ii«D, *' if thr- tcciotilug 
" i.f gi^rwrHti«nii j>rnej>rd hy flio i>bWt koeia, ih^y tire Ahoiler, so th>t 
" llire« of ili«m muj be i^eckoDV^l at about 7^i or ^ yvixx*i and tJkC 
^ reigns of kings are «till shorter, b«cati50 kiuj^ are ^uco^cd uot 
'' uuW bv tbdr uM«at aoiin but wmetiouL^ by thdr brochem; and 
** eoniotini\^ iboy Aro vlntn or doposedp uxl sucoeoiloti hy otburo of an 
" ti\\3ik\ or grrnli^r n£r, CfpcciAllj m cWtiro or iiirbtiVnt hingflom^." 
"Kiu^is r«igii/* be ndd^, "one wiib anotber, abotit 18 or 3fO jcurs 
" ftpiocc." Many of ttiv irroiK of tbeancioRt chronologki^ luxwi- from 
iLtj i-L>ufu»i(>u> uudcr ihv iviiii '* i;i<ui;nilioii/' %A iht- loii^ €om]>h'-t4- 
tifc cf cnait with th« |K>niou of tbnl life <'3Cti>ndIn^ to l!i« i'irib of the 
iiett KeQcraiion; or with tht' rtiip^ig yvar^ ofkws* xw lim^ of violeucp 
ai»l on^n of aimrchy. Oi-' tier ut ion ?t ovcrlnp oacb crfhcr to tl:H1 a man 
vho com]>1ct«t bt» life live« nrarly fX>J y«ftr» cohlem|iora:H-'iu>Jy wiib 
bin children^ 33| jt^^r-n with bU jcmDdcblMrra, unit idahv irai? niib 
tbi- ;.'i-i*aI fjrandL^hildrtii of the eldcttl b<-^1nebe^ I't his funiitv: h\% 
dircrl iitHiamccextcniU lo tbc «c«conH, ihiM nnd fouith gi-ueralicins.— 
(CiTiiMi^ R<>porE. 1851 ; OceujKiuons, Vol. !• pp. iv-xvi.) 

Crfttentiriaat. — Munv in^fai^O's arc cited of m^n Living bi ibc luicicnt 
wurld more than a bmidreil }^*^ri; and Lcrd Hacon in hi« Ili^itory of 
Lif^< nnd Dciilb, qaotM m u Inci uitque<f4ioa(Nl ibiit a Ftw yrorA before 
hi wiT-to, a morrin dmnro waa ivrfbnnpd in IforiH'onUbin*, nl ib« Alar* 
|caai«s t>y <^l^t men, who«e n;fea in the ai^^'te^^ate anumnted to eight 
bitfidrcd jrcir*- No pi>putou<< village in Kngland was ihnj without a 
man or woman of foui^core >'cars uld. In ih^n^vmlceiilbaniury, wmc 
tliQO after Itnocn wiuLo, twd Ko^lifbinon jLn> ri>|jorti d to bn^v dioj ux 
Bj^o greater tbaa dnioftt any of thoJie which havp tx^^n Mtnin<>d in <>iiier 
Dation*. AecoHing lodoctimente which are pnnled mlbt.* Pbilu^opbiciLl 
TraBsacti^sm of tho Kovid Socii^ty, 'l1ioma& Parr Ihcd 1^:^ vi^iih and 
9 nionths, llcriry J(^iiKin» 1'^^ j^^iew Th« evidence lu \\ihvk vxtta- 
ordiDnry ioslancc^ t». howcrcr, by no ittMiu eorcliUiivo, lu it ovid<rntly 
mta cbic^fly on unciTlain imdition, and on the very fallibta memorial of 

■ Xo«iobU Work*, Mn. V. ^u 91-W. 


[rxKT 1. 

interate old men : for ihei** !■ no inaQtion of documentor^ 9Tideiw;e in 
FUT^ oMtCi luid tilt} InTibt lUio bock to « period b«for« tb« fMrifffa 
rf^islen were iiulliutod b(^ Croravrell id 1438, 

Unlit ihi? «y^c«ia of Romntion and tlw CenAu luive b«ea for manf 
y«&ra tn openOioD, iho eridaaoe of «itr«aie agCA oaM roaain iodeoUivo; 
but lh«r^ cut bo now do dotibt Uimt waai^ of tho tiruQiy-ooe mtlliucia of 
people in Grwttl Bnlojti bnvu Lrcd ■ rm^if ry ; npiirA m^iy ihtr^fart A* 
ccjuid^rtd ihe rircatt ofli/nc in tthicA AitmctH iifc gofj tkr^isgh aU the 
jvAoM* of itt >^ro/HfKH«.— (OoAoi Itofiortf ISol : OooupotioiM, Vol, 1^ 
pp, ix-m) 

In Urn BAport of 1851 ir« qiiMtuxiffd tlie nJuo of th« eridenoe 
ftlkf;»l b sup])orc of sorao hbtOfkal inataacc^ of eiircmG 1'>n^^vlt7, %u4 
«ui<^ ih<n l\u: iii-4taiii:cx inrortiglted t«nd lo sbonr tbut while a oorlaiQ 
iiumljer of iodivMimU In »Qb^QenUoh lite, m tLeAQcl«Qt« dbcovcredf 
100 y«irv (teoeulum) or mora, Iho ttnnib^T of *uc)i gum u QxaggorAto J 
among ibf^ ilUtflnit^ in ever/ ooantiy w1i4!re UirUi rcifisi^ra arc not kept. 
It must TiOi^ liowevei, be Mfriimed for a oaooQent to be itap(n*ibt« that n 
small remiiftDtODl of a vayt numbirr of people fUoijM livifover n cmtarj. 
Tfic pn^Uftbtlttjr E» tbo othei^ wav i fiw uud'_-r an rL^cvrtnincil law tbe 
umnli«i-i of n iroodmtion fall o^ at n mio of tnortalUr ccntioually 
increasing, but jieldbg a tM-ie* ofln«H t^mninatiag at do Jeflnito point ; 
ami man go^ through ^uccesEiro cliangef, which aro not completed in 
lois tbau u liucdred yf'!^^ Co irbtch term a perfect Ufe may id ogos to 
COm«apt^roiLiiint4-. Ml lUnt U bcro m^Ist<Td on Efi th^t these ox^op- 
tioiMil m«lAnnk4 nra mw rnro, Lndr<»qiitri>thi>aiippf>rtof •IrangOTidonoe, 
wSilcb JtboT^d only b^ accepted after bamg imdergoiio Iho fwrcliing 
orlticlam of compntont inquirvnt. The Consn* ilaolF, bj recording tho 
Dffca evc^y ten yenrs, leadfl to check the dbvpoaltloii to put on the dUI 
<3l life oa 0^ ndtancc^ niid it U probably to thin that muat bo a9orib<Nl 
the progreasln diminution ftluon theyanr IB4I of r^ftorded centenarlaDS, 
rather thnn to any dadine of their actual numbers. Tho nontooB of the 
ap^ of 100 and iipvraida wht*n ilu< ng^H wctv Sr^t n^lurtied amoQtit4xl in 
Iddl to 211), and In 1941 lo 249; In the two Ceu?ii&c« following lo 
215 ood SOI; tn 1^71 the number fell to iOO, to 11 m^n and 119 
women. Many of th^si^ mm and women muHt have be«n bom beforo 
1771, — before Lord Llverpixil, a prime minl&ter now historic, waa bom 
— in ihiT tidily purl of ilia rel^n of (itorgo HI,; and i» thoso years Ui© 
births ci^rulaW i^xoi^^^disil un- blrLh^ provloua (o 1721^ of which iht; 
ocuto(iiiriari!4 of 1 8:2 1 vn>re the Burviv^rs- 


XiTVBBK» nRTuaMKD of thc u%o lou *ucl apHarU. 













Toiftl ' 






HOTD in or tiHorr - 









The rogiiilrj" i>f tJuptifuwn in iIjp ohurcli jiiictj ibr «ix(c«n[h otimiry 
and the civil lU';;iDirntioii of DirtliH in opcralrixi aiuco IS37 lmv<i lc<i W 
A more exact knonli-Jgc of llic sg^ of iho popultilion m Kiiglnn^i than 
in wnit* otlivr ci>u(itncf<, ami If ihe i>«ople lia4 »U Iici;u lAught to read 
tmJ vnii€, ibo ages would havo no cloabt hc«ii roturaed sa acoiirat*^ly as 
tlicy hsktti bt^cD in t^wrOcn. As it w^ a curtain cxcom bis b«vn tbrowo 
ou tkiMltfcemuAl your^, oO, ^i '^i '^i^^^ a<> on* ki tlio t*x[X}n>a oi' ili<» 
contiguotiB Age^ Th<^ inequAli^cs nro reciiiiM m the frrA4tiAl«d 
table, wh>^re tbe tumbers aro diAtiibul^d at ihc aoveral Agc» by the 
method ofdiSerencc»« which lAk^a into account Iho Uw of tbo jecre- 
mciit oftbcliving in BiiglAnd, cither by ft^orcmigruilon, Tbcniunbcr^ 
between iho ngo^ of 1Ji<-2k'i, Anri nv<«ry Mirofvivp clfyL^nnin'l, kgreo wUh 
thoBO rctnn^cd, for mo atti^mpL luin bi'^^a mjL<l<: to correct Any but 
ftccidi'Dbi] mi-'UkeH,— (CcnBM Ucjiort, 1^71, Vol. 4. p|». x-xl) 

Tlic iDlcrc^t wbioU fitlitchvtt to i'adea of re|>ut«d i^t^ntirniirianiKm h&s 
induced nic to brjnj; t<>golbvr tuto uoi^ viiviv Ihir piii'ticniKrH of ouch ctt*C9 
as were T^^corded in tho dooih ri^gistrnt of IftTI. From lim© to riniL' 
I havi- to nnnniiucv in tny Weekly, Quarloriy, and Annual It^^ports ihc 
dc&tbfl of pereon» whow ago« at rtaied in {ht tr/^htrrsy amount to or 
«xci4-d lOO jeam. It wiU not be deemed «up«riluouti bjr thoso who 
take ftOl« of tho newfrpapor corrv^pondono* wbi«li «o fryv^ufrntiy fblton 
tht' iinnounccTUicnt of A CAM cf txtivmt^ b>n£e^'ily, foe me lo remind 
th« public ^3tX the district rcgifrtmrf bftvc no authoriij, oven if thcjr 
had till- in^AiLi and Ute tdsure for «o doiajf lo tuve^tJ^atc tlir truth or 
otlitTi'>vu*c of iliC ftulciuont) a» to Age mode hj tbc legal iuforuiuita of 
dMthi; th<; infomftntjt nro nioiio n.*<<pOQ>ithli' for the corrcctmaiu of 
lho»c Kluiements. A« a mosl able ftiidp&in^UiliDg writer upon lhi« 
sabjoct in bb recent wurk rtmarka : "Th& RegiftLvr-GouorAl htu no 
■* alt«niAtivfr but lo tvU the i«le as it ii told to hlm.^ lu LK7] th« 
de«lU» of G& iivt-airn^ wr^re rc^iMercd at ilic following '^^^\ '*» ttatnt 6y 
Me infrrmantM; 27 at 100, IT at 101, 10 at I03» j at 103, 3 nl 104, 
d lit 10:>, 2 At lOG, 1 at 107, 1 At 108, and 1 M 109 yeArs. Of tbcAe 
rupuC«d ccRti-nnrijLtLri 'J^ u-^re roAlee AQd 14 r^rnudt^M, From ISGl to 
1971 iuclubite iho ro^sirrcd d«Aihs At U>0 (««r« of Agtr and upwanU 
bnVG amoUDlcd to ^SS, iiAnioly, 231 maletH >a^ ^^ fcmAlct; »o thattivi 
an avenge 21 men and AT women go to tbeir eravea ex^iy y<>Ar with 
Lbu reiiown of tenlt^mrianMm Atiochtuj; to ibmr iDCtuonw* Aud the 
Cenaiis returns shew iliAt About IW) (irnons oat of tli^ <;otire populution 
would, on cnijincrntion, rvtuni ibcmMlTeo tt« li^kvln^^ Mtoiurd tliuir 
huudrodlb yeei' of lifo l lh« aannal tAl« of motlAttiy Al (liii ndviinooil 
staee would thervforo bo about 43 iter <«iil 1!>- iUo J^ngliub Lift* 
TaBIp the morfality At tbu ages 100 i^nd upwards would bo ^ por 
ceal.f and that implies ll6d(Alhy annmdir uut of 200 Imng, Tberr 
it evidence^ Ibat U -vWd be uuoafe to nlt^finpt to draw aat pred«i? 
cou4>lnftbori ka Io thp limitfi of Iho diamllnn of hiiniaa Hfe trom thi> 
anveriJMMl ^IntcnK^t^ of iitdiridunbt to tlie doAlb n:f[Lst«rA; all that 
mav bu said with certAinty i» that insiaucej Aueh aa that of Jacob 
Wtllinm Lonin^f, wbu?H- dt-Mtb in ltf70 ai ih^ ogv of 103 yean wa?i 
clt-'Arlf i-TtAblL-iktsl \if ducuiiiontikr}' ovi^b^c^* aubmitl^xl and puUi«bc<l 
in the Weekly RoliirnH vhow tlmt \h%t limit of lifr in not nb«o]tit(> nt lOO 
ycjir^ btfwcirr cxet^iitioiml may be the case* io wUicb it in exoix'dod. 

It la worthy of noh* that tho txprrienco of \M*^ Aiwirancc Sotrii^ticv 
ia thiB cvtiulry supplii^ unlv wtv i-xuinpLu of on intfurvd Ulo outiijdoil^g 

• *' lluouui Ijongctity," bj- W. J. Hoviif, F,8.A. 

t Mr, 'IlkotlU Eire* riAiiipls of 90 i-ah inmrif^^trd hy him : 4 nnl; o/ Ihesf 
iiifBfiliKitiivbodcinoiusmUf ecntiitftrUnft; 4 v^rDitoablfnl; 3>arv tiih^r dliprovud 
al«olHt«ly or «ro ibovn lo be AAva|ipomd by ^roof* 


[fakt I, 

il« hunJivlth jf^Tf nmnt-U lh«t of Jacob WiUimaa Ltming abwroreftrro^ 
to. The (Iif1k'utiice9(tlci><lm^ Ml inn^Migalion of OMnof rcpoiod C!>en- 
lenAriuii»nArc nodoiibt coii^ktaljlL^ but tlwf^iiMlionu'ooe of KMntlflc 
toportance.— (^4ili A»niul R4>pon, |)p, xvilt-xix.) 

Mfon Affc of J'opvhtion. — Tlur aic«n ago of the KiifjUsh population 
htm ivmutied coh»taiil1v nik.'^ IS6I at 2G'4 vcntf. Tlii* U lk<- bnmo 
r««u1t Hd i« ohiinciiMl )>y aiHIiig up iho ig«a of ^rerj p«v«04u Uviix;^, And 
diiidiog l^r 1l^ lotal number of Midi |iitrvon«^ Tba m^Mi sfje of malejt 
yrat le» than the moto a^ of ((inftk* b^ O'H of n j^car. Tot ilitt 
mcian age of tti« whIoi na» 26*0, oj the fciiial<'ft S6'& ycai^ Tlie 
■can 1^ ID Englai^d i>f iho ppuplfi ol SO j^am and u|twnM.-« rcinaiiMrii 
tlS»> r^ry roiiAlAiit ; it vra» at Ijio t1irM> !n>it C«iiaiifn 40*4, 40-7, unit 
40-8 y^'drjw 

Tli€ fact to obMTve u thftt tli<t peo|>]o of EDgland, wbidi calli lieni^ir 
Old, an* yaun^ tli^n the peopte of many otbcr <*outitrii4, nod ci-rtninly 
jputiger tlaii ibv i>copk> of tlk^ co»i)trl«ft of »i»gtmil<m, not Uiauou ]I^ 
\fi Mioricr^hul bivaiific tii<i birtb^v inMcad of tvmaJninir fiinitr^imry, mw 
conliiiuullj iQci'pftsing, and iDfuaing loutbful blood into the people. 
Tliif oinjgnktioii of adults jlUo invbio:* \iiv miun a^i? of Ihofo kfl. 

Tbc ineau natimd mgts of ibe poopte Uvbg. doduc^nl tri'm ilir Life 
T^iblo, ID ActtuDy 32*1 pars— of lb« iDaI«« 3t *77, of iUl> ft-iniiK-ri 33' 33. 
Tbat irouM Im^ Uic actiud ae« of Ibc popnliition biu! ibi-Tx' Xtovn na 
iniffrutjoa and had the births remained coustaul. — (Ceiisub Hc^pciri, 1B7I> 
Vol. 4, p. ziii.) 

fc*. Civil or Cowjcq*i, Conditio:*.* 

Ajft at Mcirriage. — MarHago \9 ibo inBtituilon hy nbicb llio popiilA-* 
tioo Is primATity regulated i and while it in tbc groat luljutl^^r of tJic 
ntiiiibat^ it iH af tbe aiuae time tlie gvanttaii mid ilic oibimior uf ili« 
{■eneratioDA to c<vmc> To tbc unm of Death all coptribat^^; but wrt!i 
iho Hntmaltoiafriagesand thebirtbs tbe p^i^t mjia* of ihr |>i>|iuhttion, 
tho jouug anil 1^4' old, have tiotbing dircctlj^ to do- Th«3o ercDts uro 
nnckr ihc control of nboul oue fourth part of tbo population in the 
lu-itiii* of lifo. llie Wtilily of nmrriages ht diHi^ruiiiiiil firit bj uaiiifw, 
and, ]]j the Accond jilftc-^, by ll»» age (if women at inarrif^^, as in 
etideni, in &j3ite of all controreisy. If tbe inarna^-e iig<- of womrn 
Utfcomv 20, or 30, or 3ij, the mmibL-r of jcai'* of manbigo and of 
cliildron to n ninrriD^f ohun^^-n ; ho dooK ibt' irit4.*rvBl bclwo^D gt'lKTra* 

tiou!!. uBd tbv pioluiliiiuy ihni tha parfrntb will both llrti 1o rear aud to 
launch iboir ollVprin;^ in the world under favournljlf auspice* 

M^nnnd wcnion intermarry atallugf? ; 1>ut eight in lei^ of tbEr brideH 
Aud briJo^rooms at their lir&t marriage nri- bctwi^m the i"^r> of 20 aiitl 
30, u-ht>ri gro*lh i>i eomplp-t^d iiinl ihe fradio Imi uitniiicJ maturity^ 
the intMui n^c of both aoxe* at tbcir flrrt marrJA^Q is 25 — the brido- 
grooma beiug 2oj. ihf triJfs 2^^[j, £cci>rdlag lo the rt'gi>*tfr»i- The rt^al 
d:»}>nrity l« probuMv afn^tit a year. 

Mkaa Aop: of 1 

*£n»o?[a ubu Mauuii:!' m IBGI - 

■1»H flhovo ihc Af,« of 

J YcftTA, 








lEr Mid ailWHnJii ' 


12 -yi 





Fdt fnrtbvt tiirwiulwumtgupoa KAtUiirt gf iavrin£c. «e« Van II-, pp, e7-45. 



Mntsi AoB oTP««*<»r«Livtii« In UT1,«1>vt« tlio A^ all& Vur*. 

A'>r. BMlulon. DiHil«»k irijf>wpi. 

SiS Wi»*fc Wid*im. 

«i^1a. ! »»• "■>• »»■'«' 



lU-90 M-SO 


|<'o*Bii»s Hfpi>ri, 1873, Vol -l.p. xriii.) 

Duration o/* Married Life. — llie meau rimu ilmi ii ooupk of Foch 
lives i^firvivc* cau W csiU'uhiU^i -, xl in 2J \^iai% tlint \a iZlo pi«bablij 
iliimti^^n of tEuirrk'cl lifo, (lunn^ wliicli chiMrcn cJijt^j- the protection or 
l>oili (»apenl« ; who may, thi-irfiim, hulh Ptpi^rt tci *ctf* lliolr (ir-(( ■iiriiviiig 
rbilJ Alliiin l\t^ loenu n^ uf iimrriiij;<>. But thi-vv it tbp fiirtbcr uieaD 
lifMiTup cf the fiurTiiring iKiront, wJiidi iti tbo ca«e of iLu Tinher ja 9'44 
ytvir^i, of thv inoCJier 1 1 ' 31. Tb<? <lunitiou x>{ rlu' lor^t^^i Jifr U 47 ' 84, 
<luHii-£ which bolb pnronUi or odO| mn^ bo cx[ii.'ctcil to flurvivc* aod ro 
Joob iillcr ih« intmutfi of their rbildrnn. 

Tbe |>n>|>oriiufi5 of llit.^ marri^ii:! coupl&a to tbe vridoni;rit %uA viflon'» 
witiiliJ 1h< tf-xprc^MTiI bj'tb« Abuv*- numbc*r9 ; ihcfo would lie to2T marrjed 
4:oupl(** f) >^id«Tver« nnd II wiiLovrr^; wWrtMia ru cronu^quciicv of 
rv-mniriHp* iIil* u^rtciol 0llT]1bl^r of «ri<Towem is Ic** ihAu 3, of wiJovre 6, 
lo 27 uiiirric'l couples. Tliis diiruption of families bv (lie lUwth of «n* 
pni'c^nt imil by tbesurriMil of unolbiT, «url ibr rrpnration by re-inarriage, 
'%Tt uf 50 inut^b i^ocml iirporlniLoe ihnE by wny of I'urtlic-r illniftmlion ii rany 
bo itieoitortccl (tmt to ^^4<^7(t2 couple Hmt mnrricd at Thf* Mime pges &0 
mtvr vn1o> iftbiMv v«r» no re-marriHgw) lli^r^ woiiL! b*< living t,oi4tT69 
i^Mo^rers ntid 1.2~i7,7^!l vi<low» ; but in (he nctnikl difrTribution inch txr^ 
nuiitWo b^i* ibf^FW tttlcH bj lysmairiit;;^- tbiiL tbe cxMltn^ widonrtrB iro 
3tfS,202. ihi? wido^^'ft 879,173, Bml tin- timniwl couple*, n^prt^^otod hy 
wivi^ living, 3,0m<537. lUo latter invluding, tburf-forc^ Urge uumbera of 
re'iunrrioi vidritrs. 

Tb^* mrau a;£l' of Uier married popolfttloa » 4 1 ' 85 yMi% find tbe menii 
tt<ic at marriftjcr bc^iuji :fl;"70 jmrv, tho mcwi tCTni of «xblitig mnnied 
lltu 19 10 ' l^ jvar^ Upuii nu sv«nis^ btisbiLudji nod wms huve lived 3H> 
loD^ tOgPlbpT. Tbinlprm in railucnl bjUio Incrauvof lunri-i'Af-^ji fnifllng 
tW pro|H<rlioa of tbo younf:«r umrried coupW lo thcwhulo: for llic 
mean x^ of ibv ttiiU7i<^ At (ht- nbov* mos by Ui« bu^-UaU fjifc Tnb'« 
would be 44'^J aiid tbe meAu term ofexUliii^ union* t7'63 year*. 
— (C«tifU9 ni.-|Mi)i, IB71| Vul. I, p|f. xviiJ-xix<) 

Efftri of AiitratiOA im fAtf i<4ye af Mnrrui^e. — 'I'lw ftgo of innrriago 
being of (iHiiif* liuitortoitcf^. Il iimy be iitlcivatitg lo fIiovt w]nt tbe 
Qjf<>cl r4Mx\- groAl »lti5r*lioti wauld be, Aueh for ln«t«ti^ev <>^ Arinlotlc, 
one €l lie greatest tiftlunili^iU \\\»x eier |j\vd, propoM^I : for c<frlftiii 
reaAHi^ hi> biys it down ilinl ibr mrui vljould mnrrv ai 37, tlx; iromnu hi 
18. Tbe effect of Ibis would be lo rerluce ibf jtiiul mrwi innrria^re lif** 
iXtMt to Si year*, while tliQ widowcfA woxild W 4, ibt^ w^duw-i 18, to 2-4 
nuuried wmpb-i. ; 7»o tbe proportion of widowa woirld bv imginciitrd 
to flin extmordiiMiry exl^oi, aud orpbaiif, and ?»li]l more fstliorleAS 
i^bildri'ti, would be uuJtipUod. ThU wouM i^erjously lUlcct tbe Dunar« 
of (114' 'ifptpring of racu tnsrriage^ <iapeciaLly lucou;; free workmen 
nikd orluant^ All \aXv mArringt^n incr<«»<* tho pm|>nriional iioaibcr of 
orpbttOfl. It b evident 1 hen ll-nt tbe f.robk<ni U uiut'li mnrp cciiuplei: 
tfaio tho«o eeonotnbb who fnke din people to tiktk for marrytog c«riy 
ImiglDe; and on the theory of Lbe ^uirival of the fittwt it is probable 

[FART f. 

lliat nalure'd mtny Bolulions of tise problem fu 10 tic rati^ rmiratilc sue 
to mnrrj yir^i), if nol liir bext^ bt Icftnt u gixxl rc«t>tl» •« Aristotle^ 
rtftto ill Mb Rqjubtit.' naFrila iLut iho L'llixt'iin tli^uM b« Hvk ulTAivriug 
of wcoDon of 20-40, of men of 2,'S-^Jt, vrbic-h in tn cloto *ooordftti«c> 
with cxisUnj; liicU. (CrriMti* Ri^porl, IHTl, Vol. 4, p. xix.) 

PrpjxortUnM of Matrifd Mtilt9 and Ftmeif^ at dkfferCfU t^^eu — 
WiiboQt the VADCiion of the- lawn of phj^>Qolo|^, or of Gotnmoii aetuvc, n 
cLtI lOM-y — but in llie prea^-nl tkr raTvI/ iloM^nuirrv ml th« Bg» of 12, ■ 
bov at iho flg« of 11, tindi'r the cxiitiiiff Iniv^ of KngUn^I; biit the 
conseBl of |ttrc!D[5Aii<l gnanlkLisiBrflqiiirodm o>crUit] i-a^i>4wLere dllicr 
inrtv htu iiot lacunvd Uk* i^ec of lttt-:ity-oDv ; uii4 \\\v pr>pQnJoniil 
DumlivrA of eilht-i' W}'B i>r girU wbo marrjr tJtidtir Ihc 11^ *2Q U bappUy 
snmlL TI1C mr'ai)a^at«faicliiaflrrug<r«im>^r«/c4rjlrmct«4 in EngUtiH 
ftDil \^'iilr!i xa 2^}- 8 jcara for Daal«», nii<l '24 -ti yi^am for ftnuJoft; whU<> 
54 in ev^TV hmtdrfd liriiU-*, Rnd 54 in i^vcrv hundnd l>rhle^rooin», ar« 
20 uuJ uud<^i- 'J^ jiFom of ugL^ An Uju mairiofita [tubsia on hii nvvrng« 
ftboni ^7 yoArH, thf iitiinl.^na lutil proportiooa of pertoju in th^ nmrried 
•l&to incnriuic* 111 \%^t »u1tiidc<^, until tUej are rtducvd by Ui« mpiil rlit«o- 
lulioQ of mornft^iff^* by rlenth. ITiiis wulcr 11m> bki> of 20» of \W jouth* 
only 0*4 An- niuTii*d ; %i 20-?£ th« proportiou ftmoiL<<t mea ri&(-t to 20 j 
At 26-30 to 54 i Hi 30-S5 (o 71 i «t 36-40 to 7t4 ; *t 4i>-46 to 80 i lU 
4fi-J0 toSl^iii 100 lit mrli Ag(> r^Hpi^nrf«ly. Tlf^ propoi-iinrift! number 
of men In lh(- lu^rriert MAle doclintMt bfc<^r 65 and (>0 rfttli^r mjiiily, ira 
that «t ihe tifth np? of 80 and uptviuxts ooly 37 of 100 men bavo vivm. 

Wilh r('»f»p<'i To womrn. the propnrlionB lUfltr from tliiwi above j for 
al l6-:20 Ok' marrk'il rtrf« 2' ^ |icr cent, of iho wh<ik- uumbor of that mm 
livinK : At 20-12.'* iho i)ro(x»rtionw Hv to 3rp p(*r rciiL ; nt 2j5-30 to 57; 
M 30-3Jj (o 70; al 85-40 lo 75 \y^? ccfit„ wbicb itith*' bi;:brAt pioporlifin 
«ir«r attnineflf it^ iimong women it nrrtr happens tltni \viQVf tban 3 in ^ ut 
any age &r« iu th« mmrivU blate, while i:ir men 4 ui 5 at tbe agt- 40-.W 
ar« marrioi). 

At thu age 4CV-45. of 100 wnmoii 74 nro mjiiri<Ml i Jitid tbi^ proportion 
falU to 'j2 per cent, itC ilio a^ 60-65, and to 12 pi-r CL'Ut al Uic lUlh sgo 
of SO niul upwurd^, for then only 12 in n hundrcti women harp 

Tb« proporctonftl BumN^B of rho por«(mA in tbo mnrrlt^fl ntnt^ at 
adYftuccd af[ot iirc simiuincfl by n-marrm;;oH of wii}o^'i^r?> and widows; 
and as the widow* tpinnrry miicb l**-wj fn^'ju^'ntly ibniL wiHow^re, tlio 
compan^n of the relative pro^jortious of tb^ nuiri it^d tu botb 4ex<*Jt kIiows 
tbttL vridcrwi'O tiijoy n portion of ibi' mftnicd lifr of me^i of d6i tuiU n 
v<>iy ronaddcTiiblc pn*portion of ihi' ituirri<f] liff.- ftftrr tlio ftg<T of 55, — 
(Onmifl Kepon, \%^\ ; Occnpetions, Vol. 1h, p. xixi.) 

Effect of ifftirHafft on Popuiution, — Tit every pari of Oirat Rritnin a 
Irt]K*' numbw of mvw jiiic] notn^n who Hvp to advanceil u^m never uiarry- 
Oftla' population al ilic nf;r« of 20 iind tipnnjtlsi, about 1 iii /m moo 
and 1 in oVA/ womra maybe lelerivd to ihit caK^ory ; or in (Jivat 
ijritain on^'in ttn of tlir htrvitorx of the young wwu iio^ Jiving, and 
ont in ftj^Af of iW mirvivtifH of the youug wouk^o iwa \\\-m^, will dii? mi 
bnchetorB nnd npiiiHt^r* if ibey livo in tb<> Ago t>'( GO aud upn'ard* ; 
betides the ffi'eot mimbers who dit* unmnrrit^d at younger vLgeek 
Celibacy, n.H well as maningo wiIho*H cbil<3roii, is therefore lo Iw 
eonaldered the natund rtate of a portion of ibe poptdution ; for under no 
eircuraMuiccfi that can ht eoncri^td \i'i\\ ib( wboli* of tbo jivojdo niarry* 
CeHluu dtitioft of t1ie n^o^t Pifilled nn wrll lU of tbt^ bnmMenf l^md in iW 
world ar« moHt cfficit^nily pu-formed by theM clna»ea \ and although the 





propoflitioo, Ibfti "flw I r*l >ictks»&d ©I" gnnlcM wcrit for ! tip public 
" Luvt^ pLCvtHtlcil fitni fl;u uujiiunicil ur ctiJlUlt'^f* luvii " max uot btr 
kL>i>TtiT«ly lixot BK it 111 pot by ll^ccii* i tlj(-v Itavo uni)u<vlioiiAl>1y 
rottlrrbutcd ibcir full fb»i<e 1o fublio woik^. utbirb <jfti-ti &b^Mb i)w 
f oners of the miml to en extent tbni would cmbfirrat^ bim tliat in 
''nife atil cbi]dr<'ii baj& givtn lc*^iig» To forcunc." Tbi-Ti* ih nUo 
tvidtnil)* & Uic<r ntiiJiltr oT 1:-olb tcv^fb In lUh cW« ^b<i fioiu iufinuiljr 
ind di»CAie*, <"ilbfT ncqinic^ cr herrdtlnF^', winnol martf. find h-'UIC wbti 
bA^c a lore) dismdicalloD to m&niti^^ 

Tic Brilixb (nipiilntion conlntiDt n jfrfnt rc-yervrof more ibnn n mniio& 
iTiiiiinnitd lutn, (itkI of more iIjao a niilliori unmarriiJ wc&Kiu i;i ibc 
priino nflifr, wi;h iw h^julv tiioic of vonngf-t ngts ; oiid if ibc ubolr of 
ibr pt>pu1(iti<?a ^vcro ti^rrk^d ttit biilLs in Gn-tit BHtain vrould K'4?'3 
limi^t »8 TitimrroiiK n% ihfy stf {/" Mrj/ ^^tti^ /Ar nxnr pri*prrriir>» ta (hit 
irit'cs at tli^fcrrjit agra as Uuy do non;, 

Fiom ibe time of iliinpe Mbieb tb« Ccoi^at divdofn it is evldeui Uiat 
iho itTi^ngtb, tbv rjLlc i>f iiicir'Jife, und ibo coluitxAliC^u now procoaUiug 
CAD be fiu^tmnerl by ibe tntinin^.^ of oul}- k prt of tbe popolatiODs 
hence it folbtts, ihnl if bj nnj- judic!<mji ukuh? lie inciciiM^ <.f the 
hiCLtiabl^' crimiaab i^^'^- in^ni?. idlolie, or iinbaiiiitlj' oruauirc^d \^txi» 
cf tbf rcijHulnliciX) cvu Lr ;nilbviit crorlty repro^M.d, nntliT fl F}'»tCPi 
of lellgiMJS dijciplinc, lo a greater exUuC iban it is al fTeaenl 
l»v Ibt n?kt'litiii tbnt |irrvttjde>, moi'c or lo-f, iht wholes njsKm of 
Kngllrb tnarnpgf*, — iho chaiaoftr AJid good <|tiii1[tle» <>f iIk' ra^< 
will be iiumnwuinblj- improvnl. v^tibout (^binrking the lidc of popu* 
lution or ibe fncacBfie of tuimber^. Dilberto llie floieer ^t lite 
British yotitb bnvc Wro in igiioiance rci^t to tbt nllui'ial InmU of the 
Irijpit'Jt vtbi?n> cur mtD rauiiuL Uvf^ or wrbcre it ihnvilubly di'f^i-tivnttesi 
v^hit^, ill d^-ltni^ct^ of llie pncc^plw of fJiyriotof^-^ ond of iliodot^trliKin 
ibut ATT incttlc-atrd od tb« bn^Hlt-n of ibe infc-rior auinialA bj tbe Bojal 
Af-rieuUnnl SocieTy.— eonnett bftve been thrown broadcftit over ecme 
ol ibe lieabbkit colonies in ibe world, and may iiovr, wlihotri due 
preeiiLlIon^ tnnlllrily At booic, IJkc tbe y*>rftf/* in Frnnco, am! jiro\e « 
] i-nvi-n of Aodal tliAonUr :iiid diwrj^nimlion. 

"Yhf pTOpATtion of rhiMmi to a mnmAge} ut\i\ eon:4or|Tiriiiily iho pojvti- 
TniioD, MXt refnilaied, aol fto mudi or vo immediuidy by tbe tiiimbi.*T» of 
ibe peopio WDO marry b? by \h^ trffr at tthirA mdrrifige is tontracM, 
lljc molbeiv nud faibi^m of ucailv bnlf of ihe rhTldren uow bom arc 
uudoT 30 yt^rt of Age i ADd if aII ibe wcin«>D who AltAin ilie Age of 30 
tb<*iild SkArtT, nnd none 'b<7uld nrnrry before that ftgr ia at1aiiird» the 
biifb;* wotdd d«Une to about lwo*lbiJ^s, and if ibe mArriA|-e age wwe 
poMpADcd to 6^ ibe Uilbii would fall to one^tblrd pArt of tbeir present 
nimib^r ; to iLv |!opiilxUt>ji m imld ntpidly decIlLu ; Jirsllj, bi^tniuM; Ibr 
numWr of bii'lbfi to fAch genrnition w<ittM grow Irrcin ; nnd, ^ocriodly, 
brcAUM\ as fli« inU^nal bvlwH-ii ibe A»VfAff of Kuect-Mive iccnciittioDfi 
W(uM iucroAFe. ard ibe duration of Hfe by by]>nibr«i? icmatn rbe aAine, 
Ibe nuuibfrv livitig lonfi-nij^oraueouKly, in oiler wonlt^, tbtr population, 
w<^uld be fuilbcr diniiTii^lu^d. Tbe nge At vbicb Jtrtf marriAgc^ 
lak* plAO(» n(>cf*»nrily tiiHt-s ii<^ori1ins to cireom-^nnecji iu dJIffTrefit 
popu^tioDfl and itJ difTeKnt cla^^f oribefiime pcpuJalion ; in tbe eldest 
I mvl yourgeit Fon' of noMr fi<milii:s ; in llii' t«rioufi ri>ing or decliidng 
prorec«]ons; amoDg skilled aniTant, and labi>uii^r#^ — (Census Beporti 
l&Sl ; OccvpniioiiP, VoL I., pp. xli^^Tii.) 

BaooB^I«a4y-*VlU' On Mmkge and Single TJfe 

48 ' [part I. 

9- — OCC L'l- ATION 3- 

CvHsus Inqitir;/ and C/nssf/ictitioti, — In IHOl, at llie first Cen^uB, tliia 
bi-nndt of inquir}' wiw wry sJiJiplc. Thu total inijjvilalioii of EnjrluDd 
an<1 VVnlc=» cxflii-^ive of anuy, nnvj, anU incrcbiuit Hoannjii, wa^ simpl^' 
clu^^-HCrl iinJf-r llirco hcails, after excluding 44;!,'2.1'i not rctiirne^l us of 
any occupation ; Uivnt-ly, 1,713,2S9 persons fliiHly umiiloyod in ngri- 
culture i 1,H43,3j-3 /terdo/t^ chii: fly employ el iu Ir.itli', miTinfiictul\.s or 
baniUc'vaft I A'lJ 1,S73,103 pernonn not einplmx'l In either of tlic 
preceding w.Lv^, In^'/luliu^ ItroKilily cluldi-cti und indefiiiitL' Dumbern of 

In l'^ll-2l-31 for families w<to su!»<ntiiti»d : tbus in 1821 
it ftppo.irod tliul St7,9ij7 j'^tmilies were returned i\< i-lik-fly employed in 
agrieuUure, l,l->i>,97o a* ehiefly cmployeil in crude, manufacture, or 
haudieruft, arvl 4'*5,4&1 a^ not romj>ri:4ed in eiflier of ih*" two great 
classes. In l^'il a furth'T important srep was taken in the right 
<lireetlon ; ili'Mle^ective elmractor of the cliisiilioation by famtliea grew 
evident; .-o tliti soverul o."cupntiona of maU'^ of !^0 years of Rgn and 
upwanlia employeil in retail frude oriu lmn.Iii.mi!":, n-* tiiii'^ti-ror workriicii, 
were separately rerurned. 

In 1841 tin: natne, age, sex, Ac, and oceupniion were retnmed ns n 
"eueli m:in's di^^rriprion of Iiimself," and tbe ivsiilis wrre published in 
Alphttbetieal Tnbl.-s, with a synop&ia nnder a few head', showing Ihe 
DiimW of m^des and females nnder 20 and al»ovc 20 yeni-s of age- 
In 18'j1 spediil iii!*tnictionj wore girtn to the ennmerfttors; tlieso 
were extcntbrd a^ain in 1861 and 1871, so as to gunnl a;j;a'nst mistakes 
and va^iipnusf*; and in the three Iteport? the iw'o sexe* have Wen 
clad^ficd under tUeir respec;ivc occn])ation^, with distinelions of age. 

The cIn->:ficaliou by faniilies is of some use in simpU- ]Hipulatianfi, 
where labour i^ not much divided; but in KngJand the niemlx-i^ of the 
same fam!lj', — tbo husband, wife, and childTcu — hv*^ often engaged in 
different occupaiionSf even wlien the ehihhvn ure at home. Our classi- 
fication is in principle a cfussificatiott of' earh imlivititiaf tinder hit 
principal occupation Oil the Censusday. The diPtinclioii of a;^ enabloft 
US tocompiire the number iiving in each well-dermei) occupation ivith 
the number dying registered at the correspondijig ages; and thus to 
determine the iiiSuenee of employment on iLenilLh and life. The age ia 
important in another way, iH showing whether the [tersous employed in 
any pnrticnlar manufaeturc, or trade, or profe^aion^ are children, young 
men or old ; and by the relative numbers at early or advanced ^es, nt 
what period pi"ofessions are entei-ed, or whether Ihey arc increasing or 
decreasing. It thus increases ihc value of the return of oceupatious 
tenfold ; yet singularly enough. England is the only coujitry where thiB 
attempt at a complete classification of t!»e population accohling to occu* 
pations and age has been carried into effect. This is pr-obably in pari 
QUO to the mechanical difficulties of the analysis, which can only be 
executed adequately by a number of well-trained derks. In France the 
population was for some time classed in large groups, as formerly ju 
England, showing the number of individuals living directly or indirectly 
by Ihe several profei^isions. This is uo doubt an interesting view of a 
population, but to carry it out would be a matter of no ordinary difficulty 
in EnglaT]<l, where it would not be easy for either man or woman lo 
retuzn the precise nunbor of individuaN living on his professional 
earnings. And there would necessarily be many nion, women, and 
children living on the earnings of more than one individual of more than 
one profession ; so that tbey would often he returned twice. 


Intf'i'e^tinf; xis thU inrormfttioa tnl^hi hf, \f it ch^uIiI bo obtftinptt witli 
i4>]frHl]fT ftucuniry, it m of inlinilcl} le.Hs tjiIiio ibAii A return of ifaA 
iiidivHliiub in cnrfa tH.'pnrnte occDpation. the lotiim in qurt«lli>ii, 
lfu> foivn of thp nrniy w<iii]i1 not 1m> Hltown. itinvmucb ii» tlu» wives «iul 
chiklrt^ii would W (<onfo[mdTCl with llir Holilioni adU offlcera ou whom 
Ihvcoiintry rolioa for ilH derooc^". TLiji Matit hia been fi-ll ia Kraiir*f», 
unci iu iht^ Irmt <.Tpti»«» the (K'I'«»iij< itinrctly tngf^d in the neTenil 
lirofo'^i'iiiH uii* ilintin;;inFiliL-il fiviin thvir «9-47nlU!<i fitiniliiw, Ifui to ivhlAJn 
ibifi inri>]innlIon the Ui^i^rt ^f i}»*» pi-nplf^ in lhi> M^vml EknjftvMionn huv6 to 
bo uuiri^crHL— (Ci?iMii» l£r*pnr[. 1871, VnU IV'., pp. xxxvJil-tx.) 

OiftiffU ofcitpatiour, — DiiuUli*- M^riipntiotu uTt; KM grcAt A Jtnitrco of 
ilifticiilty a.* tho vnryinf* Jo^^c*; of Iho AubdiviaioD of laboar Iu ihc 
maiiitlJiL'[urii]g cvml oUji^i' iJiMricLv. Hu" »nmc< poiiton h a incinbiTrof 
pikL-tj»toi.<iJl, a um^hivttlff n Inuilcil jimpricturf iui'1 an occupier uf luii'l : 
in A lowflp rjTvl*!, nn iimkoopOT' nui\ a fnvnii>r ; n uutltMi^v rtm^ a l*n>wi»r ; 
a tifclic-nuriJi in llic N<iL-«<>n, n fiiniter or a liiltoiirn^ iu llie rn.-it mf f ho y4^ir. 
Thp cnmnc-r^foi's wcrp inslrud^^l to Ihta off«ct, ihat **;* person followinj; 
" more limn uni' ilisitiurt trAilr mny iiu-tett hlH occupaiioii« iti Iho ori/rr 
" rjf /Arir irfipor/aiict^i" »iii| Iu iho clanilicAllon tJifi first occvipuiiuu 

1'hi> wliole ffopitlntjixi tutil to Ix* p-<iMp() til iwiw, and every nmn hftd 
(o bn r<*riTn-i1 ti> ^^^mi- unr h<n<t, :dt[ii>rtgh hi* tiiiKr might hv pn^cd in 
rwdoccupntton^ ; lutt ifa c\i^* TlnnsoniclJmQSObtaSns inope coniiiituriili 
than it doflcncM, it on llio other hanil often nimtAimi count^irhalntkciog 

Thr> Qrat an«l moat obvEonAdi?4tribniion or the population in into th<i 
turo fcri'Al groups nf (1) thoifc who work, unil of (2) ibou* who pro- 
fc-Asedly bavi-' iw dt^llulu* uocupatluu. Aftor » duo corrtvtioii htm hevn 
tnat\a for l\w iH^rwMiH ^rho ai'o inllrni or who havn rfrtirvd m mtvnnri^'d 
age frchin thi-ir trndpA r>i* prolViifinnH, ihi^ nitfnbtT of th^ IMIit cIuki in 
ihiH coimlry will not \w fouud in he numeroni, 

tt Hould hi^ out of |>1aei' hen' lo inn^rt ii uivqui^iltou on tho princ ijilef 
of chk^ntlk'JLtLUii I 1u udvinpl lo fiUow iho im|iriH^Ti(7ibli.' Lintiiti' or Ibo 
imporfaclionE of oilier elowScfttioAH ; nnd ia vSn<ti<>a1e Ia nil iU diitniU 
the arron^m^ut that Ijl^ been Adoptetl. But tlii? arrBri^iriiiciii piMseennA 
orut AdvAnlag^ tliiit should not b< ovri-fooki-d : it iH noL n mti^^ nrnukgv* 
iiieut on pap<T such Hi thnt of the pooplo fnio pro<litcc-r8, dUlrlbuiors, 
Ani.1 <'i>n)'iini(.'-['»^ ; but nn AiiiMigi'rkii^i't in wbicb it hiu l>oen found piuc- 
tieable to litiil A plnrp for every nnc of tin* twi>nl}'<orH< millions of peoplir 
ill Great Britain, And in vhivh wo cah pa^ tbom rnpidly and ib^tinctly 
m mviow. (CVngiii Rt^iHirt, ia51, f.Jf^cupntionfi, Vol. I,, |ip, Ixxxii-iii.) 

Inditafriat Crams.-^A Conau;^ ia Ihc mofit OKtondH «fftm\ md a« it 
ha* bvt'n unihrrHioud in woini^ I'DmilrtOis t'mbrjwc-i an iiiuim-mUon of the 
visible property and of Iho nnnnal prwlurtT - ii tticlndcf, ihrn^fore, 
indmtfial luid nKrieulturai Mtjk(Iitie--». iii« pnwnt Oefiiut wii« ri<«tfU)tMl 
by ihn Ati. to an t-tiuuii^ratiua of ihi? populntioa nrid of corlAin circniiu- 
ttanoM ill«strAtivo of thf-ir condition And rKenfmtictctH. No attempt 
coutd tiierefora be made to i<nntnviiilo the numUT of manutiieloriM, 
»bo[>i% or Bopanto piojicrtlot hi the couutr^^ ; t>^i( in iH>niiuxit)n with 
(><>ciipnlioa it WAV tbcuffbt dtmirablo to diieiinguivh nniHl(<i^ From mvii^ 
aji<l fur thin fiur[>o«e to Ordc the maiiterj in Irn^le nnd mnnnf»c(nm to no 
dbtln|Eit)#h thciTi«c!vi4 by writing ** iiiiL'f l4<r " after itw uam^ of th«ir 
re«pev(ive occnjalionn, and by mldin}* the nirmhrr ofmrN on itur Ousiia 
day iu ihvir employ. I'^arnacm, who ivn^ m*i»tcrt of m particnlat occnp»* 
tion, wcrw rcqtiml^^d lo Kate how mtin^ 'It^v of tfiati they ttO'^npiNl, 
Atul ^ott martjt hhonr&rt tluey em|>1oyed, witli a vww of giTinf^ & 



deatiltoMBPMili Itie l^in *' frnvur," util of Uyinf ttiK rmindAiimi uf a 

G*rc<rul and Laboriout rcviKion on ilu- »|h>i : bul, in the nliwiiiw i»f (Iiim 
revifdout iho rLHtirna furukb ififonumtioii of 90 mijL-h iiit«n*«t on a tuMt4>r 
so iiDp^rtortly iin^U^rHCMwl, thuc it waa rlioiitcltt pro|»er in \9Si to 

the tiJttnWr of LutioiimrA tbnt wt^rc pmpU>j'c(). 

Thi; n^inrii of lUu mA>iin-fl in indvt ia tinporfect; all tbi* niAHUrt* kftve 
noi *to rolumed ibem^'lvo^ ; nnd it cfto tmly Iw rviudoml MiiiipjH'* in 
Un^ cv4*nl (if ilir C<*i»n^ bfiu^ cx(cncl«il tu an Imiuky iuto tlvr J lulu^try 
«>F tbe counlxy. (CoruHA llc|>oiir 1861, Vd. 3, p> 39.) 


Oem^n/i cHrtmcfaiifm trf infirmltit^ — An iaf|iilf| into Ui« numbcrr* 
aS lh<* Bliri<| niiil of Itif* Ur^f-BnU-DiirnU in Orenl Itrihun wn^ inH[iUii4>4 
fur iJio firtt time* nt titc Ceiinus of 1851> NolwilJiHlaiitliuj^ iht* tffMt 
Inti^rcM AtliU'hin^ U» XhvMt crbusos botli in a «(i^in1 an<l b pliVMoIogicnl 
|Kjini of \Icw, tliu siAiitftka of bliruln*'^ an<L ilrAf'iiiuteiHin in lliin 
fynantr^ have not hillurrCo MlrKnced bcyontt cstiimUo* oihI conJnctureB 
founik^I c-hif llr n|un n*turnA obulni'd iii fi>mxn HtAt<^^ 4>r ihr limtu^ 
i!3(|>eHerioc< of a fuw pnlklic intliliiltiJtiH. Uirnt i]i^<lvnni!i;(i»4 liuvit 
fvsnliiut fi'uni l\\\f^ i*n(iiv )J«i#n<N} of ftiilhcrillL- iiifoniintion, mil onhr to 
siX'k'iy !ii liirji*:. Imi iwin' iT>^iccU3lr u> rl«-*c »fllk-ii;i| jn'iiHun's 4>n wIm)0<t 
bdialf tbo np|imU&»ilcfrorl-iof pliiluutiiixkpy, unaiippoito^l \.y n. rof^'rcKKW 
to fn^U illuHtrative of ib<*Li' uumTK-n< nnd coiiiUtLou, lirkVtr lust mnoh of 
tliHr ii]|pnili-i1 eHL-ct. 

UHorc mrtu'ing iIjp rbicf ri'juilt" of tb** Jnrjuiry, it may be pri^tor 
In ncnlr* Uii^ tumb' iij ulikh llio Informulioii wnn m<ipiin«J, Tlio plan 
iu]opli*<l wii** iIm v<»ry Mrnplfl on** of inHniUn;; in \\\c ■MIoUM-tiuld^rV 
"Sclic'liib*" !«'fl nt c'wry bcms*^ to Iw tliltd up wilb iIlq iMpiii^l 
purtkubirfl rebiliu;: 10 lU inmules acoluniiL iji wiikb wii^ to Ur writtcu 
thif vronl *' Blmd" or " IVnf-niiLl-numb " ri^nini^t the name of niiv 
mvmtxT of lbi< faiuily ao a01ice<'i). In ihc iiorformnnco of bis du1ji*?% lUe 
ontim^riilor M'fu roqnirf'if \i\ n»o iJi^^ iitmoM rnii' lo pivvi^nt r>mi««iati*, 
und wbcn such wen; dt^tcet^l b** wiw lo »upply i\\^ infective inforniaDoHi 
eilber fi-om bis om» knowknl^c or iho atatotnenb of unnJibk pi^r^n^ 
til fur ii!« br might bi' nbU-. Owing lo thv flilHriilir of o«^4vnainln» tho 
ciEivlvnce of «bimbno4 in emi^inc InfaiK-iV, ibt.- numljor of rn.iL-? iviurncd 
imil^r ibat luMil miMi tu'ct^^urlly l*e ^UgfiMv ileflulenl : but us iiu molivp* 
are ftppHrent lo irnhicc an mtenlionul suppivtslon of fiu*U nsimfly weU 
krwjivu Iteyond Ibi' limifs uf tbr boiiHcbolJ, it may In? pieanmed ilmi tho 
j'HuiMft (jf lliu JliirnI ti»il l>(.mf-itiiU-l3nmb, nlrlioiiifb snlytTi in common 
with ibo other brunches of ibo inqtui-y, to at-oidiintiil omJA^don*, are oik 
ibi* n'bolu lolerftbly ronipU*te. 

It n'nn not tbt^iif^bi iWirahlf* to \X\\i-H i\w nttcntion of ibo poTMma 
mnkinjf mid rolle<?tJng Ihti Cmiautt n^lurnn from the gront and osseiitiftl 
polnia of tbo general '■ilvjik'HiIlom by any jillt^mpL tr> cbiniu, with ri^p^CC 
lo tbfRe sp^cifil fbk^ip^, informntton its to tlti* cirdim^lnnon of th^iir 
nfBiolion — ?<ucb nd ivheihc-r it wn^ <Mfn^-nitnl or nrtinired ; nor wiis it 
found prncticiblo at a luler pericNi to entirr upon a fnribor inveHljgn^oii 
of the cases in rel^reni^t- to these and otbri' ipicKiiitns of undoubted 
interest. Id li^elrmil, ihe CVnsiis Oomuiiesiontr- hnO fortunately pn 
ditHcnlty in i^nrfruin^ th(^ atilkjoi!!. to \t% full oTtc<Dt. Hy mrark!4 i^f ihi^t 
tulniirably organizeil body, ibe CunFitubulAry foi^r, and cniinuntly ludrrl 




|)aid ffn*at ntumrion Xo the sHb.iecU iht^y were cnahkd AucoeNtPiUty to 
ioWoVi up oadk cAde : un*} ihrv hAvi- k^mtMMlicHl rhe rc«ah< in » Report, |)ri'sinti-ct to rsrii Anient, wliioli fornix mi vxlrtimvljr valitabli- 
vun trill uLiu» on u bmuch of vital ■UiUcicn hiUinlu iruinpariLCir^^lj 
iin'>KpIor«(l.* (On.oiis Kqvirl, 1851, Oi^f^iTjuitlonis Voi. I^ p)k cviii-Jv.) 

TS*r nfittfl. — 1u Givnt Britnin and t\u: U\nMtiU of lln? nri(i!*Ii Svmr^ 
thpTft am 2l,4**7 jJcr-'oua — H,:373 tunlo-t nn>l 10,21 I foiiuiK'f — ivttimed 
HI* t'^Uilly liHml, T\ui niimLcr in Eni^lnn-l athI Wales i*j 18,306 of V-th 
ttcxos ; in Sci^rLind. 3,010: imd in iho iHlitmU of 0»* British Si^ii, IT I 
prrion*. Tl«\s<* ntimk^r^ fnrnUh n proporiJon relatnelv to tho wliolo 
l>ctpiibfctu»n of I Mind in evrtv 975 per»onn in tircAt Itiimiii, 1 iu ev*Tjf 
971J ill Kvi^lnml iii\A Wnli--', I in 9m in Srtthind, mir] I in 837 in t\te 
Chniini^l Isliiikd.H ami iho Ixloof Mim> 

Tlic^ rdjlt^ tn\m\x ol riLVoumbU' cotnpnri^oa with tlie it^AliVQ 
immln-Tx iu IivIuikI, wliioh, ncvording lo ihn Crtinu*, nrc 1 In cvtt^ f^i 
iuUn\t[Uui\f*. In Ihe \cvA portiODH of GnrofH*, ooinpridn^ TCcl-pinii, 
Hnnovtr, pnrl« df <irrmn»y, nml ihe jilaina rf Ixkmhnrrly nnJ Ofninnrk. 
the (iropTlion ia vtHfed to bt I blinil in <'v<»r/ 930 irihn)>f(mils — but 
Kirjjiilljr <li!T<'rin|r from lUc Hvorn^ of Ureut Hrifnin. In raorr- HrvnlPd 
rj'^Kjjik ilir |i(\i|iuri ic»ii Ih l.'UEl^zOl'^Lbly luwrr i but iu Norwiij it ift fuuiid 
lo In* I ill flV4"iy 4«2 iiih»l>iti.(i(>.,t 

In rvTi(^wiii<c :ho iliMrihntiun of the RlimI or^ lh(* diftorent |wrtB of 
(fiTAt Krifjiih, if. ^hoiili 1m* rememhereil that the inhtitniion^ which bnro 
liueii 0-^1 ail 1 4)1 ed for ihe nHM-tiiion nnd utHirucriua of |Hn'tton'* iJt'pnved of 

»i|;lit nrr }iHn1>^l in ihc |tri[ici|>iJ cUk'H uiid ti>Wu>*, Wh<"ic, how<?vcr, 
fli« townt tin* v^-iy liir>^>. the Uitntdpn of thptf* ••itrthlithnuiitH only 
h]t;;htly uflc<"l the pro|Hfriion which xlv Blind boar to the ijenertl 
|iu|nihaii>iL. TIiqm in London, n&twitli>lnnrlin^ tho numbc^r oF ciim*h 
bron;;hi frorn olhet- {.Arts iha |nxi[wrtJoii is 1 Ibni In fv^rr l,02i> 
iuhabibbat>u Olht'r lur|;c towoa |tiN>rCiit tht^ tVUovrln^ rt-?«Ldl> ; — 

Mancheffierr • I blind in every 1,107 tnlmbilnuta. 

Livcrjjool - I „ „ y99 „ 

Birmini^ham - I „ „ 1,IS1 

Lt^S - - I „ M 1.203 

Sheffield - - 1 „ rt l»H' ^ 

It hiLM boon <;onora1ly oouaJdei-<?il, and i^ no doubt 10 a certain ox1«nt 
trne, tlint rrovticfl dwHIingM and oihor cimim^nrM ntt^^ndnnt i]|ioii 
ileiiM^ pojjulattoim, \iy imtucin^ ditieMe^i of Uie orKntit^ of ^l^yiU bavo 
canned nffri^ileraniouut of bl]ii<lne^ tnto^nKthnn in ninJ [nciditic*. 
It luu»l>u bi'i-'iL tbou;;bt that blindui'iu Iias l>e«u tncn-'awd by many of 
lh(t i-mjjIovnK'iitf folUvrvd in ])0|fidou« niniiufji«t tiring loirnH, But 
whiitL*vin- may 1« thr influ(*iicc-« prevailing in tuwnH, ft 1$ cli*w from the 
i^turns tbnt a int^<.-h hirr'et [iro|H:trt]OLi of blind |>or*iionH Ik foniid in 
nghrtillund ihnn in inunmaolurin;; nnJ mintni^; connticji. for t-xani^Io, 
in WiUn, Dw***'*, IX-ion, CWn wall, and SoinorM^t tlK-iv »• an avc-i-»p' of 
1 blind in ovrry 758 inliuUiiunlu ; in Kwf»:t, Suftnik, nn<l Norfolk, 1 in 
H8S ; and in tlio northtm i^nn1ii*:i of ScolUnd, whit^h tnolndtf the 
llE;:hUniN, I in 823, The lii^hc$t proportion. I in 665t is ob«rrvpd in 

*Thi.< Ri'pnrt 14 «DtiO(d,— <■ Onm* nf Ireland for ib« Yfar IS51.^Pai1in, 
llrjHjttua die 9IUEIII ufDiMNiar-" 

t C«B*iu of Iirlaod^^IUfon «n the &tMiai of Di*c<u«, f^ 41. 



[part I. 

York-*lnre, West Ritliik^ - 
Cheshire and lAiii^n^^hin' - 
Durham > 

In Btrikitig contract with thow lut; tho fnllowrng mnnufncturm^Er or 
mining countiRs ; — 

L hlin<1 in cvt^rj 1,231 iiihHbitftuta* 

1 " » l.Hi7 
1 ,, „ 1,163 
1 „ „ 1,082 

Conclufiions nufftvounihlc to tho rural districts phoulil not, howerer, 
be 4l4-<liict'i1 From n mrrr coinjurison of \l\o HHtid to thr |»}m]atioii 
living dt all ngrs> Blindnrss is a common ijillrmif j of cictrcme old a^, 
ami an examination of the jt^-^ of the Itlind nhows Hint [irarly unc-liair 
of the (lersoijs ileprivetl of si^ht mv alKivi; GO jcnrs of jy^f. It IoHowh, 
thei'olbre, Muit iu thost; localities hi whii'h the lHi';n-''»t nnm1>ei^ of old 
men and women are living, the Wgoat proiioition id' ihe Ulind will be 
found. In the j^eat fouls of mnnuFiicttiritii; industry the |io|mhLtiou 
^nerally is much youu^r than in mo^^t of the ngricnllnral eounlice, 
where, a.1 ^,hown iu a former Fieetion of tlil^ Re[tort, |icrsou>i id lary^ 
numheritf, and especially- reniuleH, art! liviuix, in eireuuxHtauces favoiii'able 
to lon^vily, at very adv^nceil a^e-. Thus, in the eounttes jirenenfing 
the highest and lowest pn>i>ortiomj of hlmd |M>j-sons, tlie inllnenco of age 
in fluffieiently apparent : — 



per C^t. 

pVT Cpnt 




of Itliitd aged 

Hi ail jiges to 

HfTed G(i Yi'tiTti 

Cit YimrH 

One Blind. 

iind upwards. 

and upwnnU, 

Ucreford _ _ _ , 




Wilts, Donet, Dtvon, Cornwall, aod 

Sorneraet - - - - 




Kse«x, SuffoUc, oud Norfulk 




NoTClitrn CounticB of ScolbnJ 
Yorkshire, West Ridiiig _ - - 





43' 1 


Cheflbire aud Lauca^hirc 




Durham - - - - , 




Staffordshire _ . - 

fi-u ■ 



The pn>|>ortion of the Blind o^red GO and upwards to the persons 
iivitig who have atlained that age, kUowb how close a connexion exists 
between blindness and adviinced years : — 

PROPOETIOK of Bl1NI> PrUHONS tO 100,{X)0 /triflff. 


To lao.aoo living at 

ATI Ap-n. ' Cn to eu. 

fiO Jind 

2,01 » 



Hereford - - - 
Coruflall _ . _ - 
Dt-ruM . . - 
Dorw'l - - - _ , 
Somerpi-t . _ _ _ 


YorkftLire, Wv^t Riding 







So, in oLt<*r ccmittiors ftocordiDj;; to lJi« proportion of M nnri jonng 
peiMins living, n ^f«ti?r or \ef» nmount of 1iliD4n«s8 is ;-eDerany 
nb»'rvi-i1. but, wliilo Uic ijupiilioti of o^ Ja of gmix ImporiAnci^ in 
iii\i-Htig»tiuj{ llif <)Ti!<lnt)ultuti <>r blfnJoftia, it vrill not ^xplAia nil tbc 
vjiriationw |irvA(^Til<-i1 in thv returns «** in some Loc-ililipH othT inflii«*iic«a 
ftft* fU"ililI<vM til vf<frk, 

Iti 1li<jfarly vcjirs nf IIFc iIh> numbers of thr UlunJ arc not largo. Of 
thv 21,487 bUml |H-rfti>n» in (irejU UritaiiK ojilv 2-?l2?>. i»r leM thnn 
1 1 ]»or rt*iit-, iirv iitm1*t 2t) jr™""* wf nj-o — « t-ircnriiMtunw tontliu;; to ahovr 
th^tt rJtH'> <^f blin^ln^M iil birih iirv nni v«rj c-omm<in- Ri^lwccn 30 and 
t>\J yvMA of u;;a ihurc arv ^,4^f> pt^rfioiii^ or about 3!* jui uenU of lli« 
wh<'K> Diimbrr; wliib lOJU'J [MTwns, or 47 |hm' crnt-, nrr at the 
iuIihucimI u^'^ nbuvc 6^, Tlii^av fucla jmul lu tlio L-vnolimiuii lluil 
blinclooctf ill tasuty eam^s utny Iiavq ariAOO »» » nalnrnl intirouty ftttvniljuit 

Of ibt- pr^DM in Great Britain a4uniod its Miml ll,273are inuJea 
niul tlVil4 fcnuili>, AGcidciib nni] iIirmlwk iXMiJlti»g in loou of vif;lit 
auxi muic likt-ly to uupq m tlio i:iu pi 0^101:11 la fvlluwvil bj tiui1i« tliou 
in tlinor- of roniali^ii- Tbn |irxk|K>rthjrih tint 1 10 mnlcM to KM) fdiihttis U\ 
Grnat Bntaui, uml 1 13 iujJ^> lu UKJ fonuJeti in Hnj^bimJ mnil WmIw. In 
ScoltuDt) till- IVtiijikTis reliirniNl iljtri-i- hut slightly from tho ihaIck, u ici^ult 
jUMbuIily iriioi>al»k- to lUv irrajJOuOvi-auco of uffod women in tlmt i:uuntry. 
CompuvJ tfjtli tlio ^^iim'aI ])ujnilAtiuP, wu fiiiil |o evvrjr LOjAXMnin^ 
in firiTiiL ISi-iUiii HOitiuIl-a ari<) O-A trmalo^t blind, in Kiirlnntl tlicr 
proportion i^ nearly the same. To e^cry 10,000 iahabit^n1« ol ScolUmI 
there ore 10' T nirilet and 10^2 friimlc^ Uiml. Thi^ ituN<s gi-ncnilly 
i<Xi--4.«rd tilt* fiMhiiluF* uatU 70 )>^urti of si^l- b ull^tiiivil ; fruiii lliai |>ciiix1 
ol' ]jf( tJit^ tilind troLiicn ai« inuclt morfr ounu^roiis. 'Flic lii^propoi'iion 
of fr-iii»lMt al all ages in giy^ntc%l in Monnioutli?<hirv, Devon. (V>rnwatl, 
lU'ivfoi'il, iutO Hmitin^tlou. Tbo lri«b rtituriih >fiow a |irt>]korlLoci of tbe 
jH'Xivi Ihr (frnvLT--*;^ of tW olK^TrtM in (irvjtl llntiim, rmni4-lv, 1 1 L ft-in^W 
to loo itiuluA. (Cc'iisua Itt-'jiuit, ISi^tSti OjctijHtljuj]?! Vol. L, pju i'ia— lii.) 

i^etifxttwi-t of the iilind, — The niiii'QS <lo not n^liuit of a n;»Jd 
diHliiictioii lictwc^n Uki i.-Riplo_vin«ni# followcil by iIil' Kllml Aikd thoi* 
HitliH>^iiOi)t1/ nnqnirpii by ihpni. riiAtfliim* iiri> rornmon of btimT jtcrNunH 

liriinjcpnj{a^*kl in puninJt^ apjiarcnlly ignite iru'oinpiUibTu vritli Ioi^a of 
viMOii. The cinploymcikts taught in tlic iHiJ^titiifiomi tV tho itlin*! are 
usually bnnktt'makipjft ^aok »nd twx, makia;^, Urritiiojit:, liinl muiuc. 
MuevL of ibi' oilier oo<vip«tious ilctJiilcd til tho TntfliTt tuuat bo rt^^rdcd 
na thaM> fo1lowt>it prtrion* to blindnpw. 

The parent 01^ prc^ioiia ctTniiutloaa of tfie Bl>ii<l hii\*c bct^n clAsninvH 
iu TablL'?! for ctkch sei^ <li0tingr)i»liiD;^ tbc n<;m ini|iiinqi]enniaL perio(Uv* 
TliU vffliciioni ii v^Ul U; nv.'n, in uul ojnfnicil dik-fly Iv iHuiiiriilnr 
vlwBOH and tnuJ^^i, but cxii^ aii)OtLg>it nil mnkn, uiiil Ivr a j;r(^At viLTivty 
Df €mploynient& No&o of'thi^^^at bninclkon <if niiiiuifaclnrin^ inilu-ilry 
•iWn to Ih: pcciiliurly liablu tu it; iiiUoud tJit.' amall iiumboi'! letniniHl 
A^n&t cotton, lin^n, »lk, wooJIcn-clnth, iron, aittl eorUtonwam arf 
rctaarkoblv, wbun the inunouBo am^iit^t (if labuur rjupkijrDd in iliuau 
inumifiMrturc* U con*iidi-rt>l, FnclOTy worker* aiv, how«v*r, ujos^tl/ 
young pei^oDfi; and nouo would bu ctuiilojetl in ilic midst of [nachintfry 
with auT dileil of Tiaioii. 

Amon^t the items wbJcb present \-\tv Inrgt^Jit ntimlM>r» in ttie obfttifi* 
(^iitjon of (MiiptoyincDUi arc Agricoltaral labourers, of whwD tlkt^iv on; 
[M>7 ; LaboLirei's uot tidiorvifiO di^aen^i^d. 51*J; CbrlKOM Prnnionpra and 
Soldiers 586; Gmnwieli Fuwontrv. 70 1 Fiirincrii, fi06; J>»Dcatic 

* ^*Q Bummar^ Tnblv*. C«ntiii« llvpoTti ItSI. pp. owiUccoix. 

StrriiDU {vhl^y tcmmlts)^ 439; Wmrcrs 295; Conl iniiiirf>. 111.5; 
Copper RDil Lend mini^re, tjSi Siooe and LlmeMtoni- <|ium-uT. fiL <Jf 
iho c^AM (Ic^tcnbctl ft^ " Aniuii(<ukU " (iit<l " lining on Alpii " Uiirr arc 
I,0fi2; mill 2,fl^.i Miri'l Puupfiii are ivhimnl tn workliouHu vitLntil 
Any ttalL-ineiil ii> t€ previoua occujtaiiou. Of ibe BLin^l fol!owiii|- 
Ciiiplo}'iiJt-i]l» prv*unM-<1 to li«tp tM^*ii lUijiiiiTfl itn<*r Ium uI' «i^'1il iJictD 
HTV — [im^kmUA ttit*l U'ucliei^ of luunk'. O^fo; iiiiU, Buckfuj;. lUitl i>t;l 
Enakcti^ 1^ ; luid knlutrs, 92. Willi n^pccl lo i.BSH nukW unA 6.D60 
feuoIeH, uu rcluru* r^.^jx^cUiig tUoir &r:iuHl or pn-^iouH ]mt><uitft nro 
ina<)c. (CcJiMUf llc|>or(, L85L, OcrniiatioiYi-, Vol, L, p. cxii.} 

ihtlribuiicH of BUn^tttMA. — lllmiliirKi it i* fioppiYunl lH>rvni«tt 
gTAilunll; more pi>?vaVni AA %h^ equutor ifl npjjroocrlied fi'oin Uic |Mile>), 
null tixi'tt nili<i» i>f itm bUail to tho siffbtml luvr cvfd biTn a*^i^Tti-J to 
^irt^r<^ni parall«N of latitude. No nifflcleut dAiu exisc* Iiowetvr. W nnjr 
coriitiD conclusiont of tliia tintutvi (ul4 nllIiougL tho ])r<*VHl«nc«! of bliiirt- 
neM 111 tropioil tounJriw S» v^iU known, -ni' lM?li<'io tlnr f»pi ntiijr 1m? 
■Acribt'il kti vn\y9f9 which cxcrdfe a inoro powerful influence than 
chmaie. Jn onuialrit^ ithera th« (nnKM<?i i>f ihp people nrc hndly M liixl 
lod^i], whrrr Miiiilury Iuwa wr iH^rr^Ai^li^i], jiu'l whi-iv iherv fb IUll« 
tcnowlcdgL^ orophthaltTirc nurRery, Mindii^** irill nIwny*bo cofnmMi, nn4 
it will bo hllle ino^Iifiwl liy ihe drctunnumceA of mere Vi^in^phicwl 
pCJtitkiD. Ju ihc *ulijoiiird ThHIc wo give Ihe lalesl MAti«lics aeceeBibU 
to ua rdattu:; (o for^-ign eouotriefl mid to a f(*w of our colonial powM^K* 
iiiOJi«. It wiU bv oliitvrvcd ilmt tuXorwrny ihc ratio i» aahighaM 1 blind 

Ratio to PortrtATiox of Ihe tiuxt) Iti i1k< UDderiiieiitiobPil rounttiM. 
(From tUo KitjKirt i>n the Stntij* of l)t>ienw \i\ Ireland, l>^61.) 


Kalio to 

Fupi lint ton, 


Knl)o to 


1 m 510 


1 inl.4i« 


1 r. M* 


1 . lAM 

^voy - - - - 

1 „ W 

Di^nmark ... 

1 ^l,«l 

I^citaioiiE . - 

1 „ hh: 


I N U7» 

Friiu"C , » - 

I ., t*s« 

HoFliui^ - 

I - l,MS 


I „ 960 

nui'^nhursh . - - 

1 ,. l.T^o 

t^Tirland unrl Widci 

t M p;9 

I'ruwia * - • 

I a I.T:4ff 

1 ., 00* 

NoMi S^^otlik ■> ' - 

1 « l,7tf» 

ll«»Ku Dircniit^dt 

I ^\:im 

I'rii^cc Kilivard'i Idimib. 

1 „ 1,»IK1 

BolgiuTii - 

1 „ 1/J3J 


I „ U»« 

8fc)ii-tny • 

1 »i.M'^ 

L'oirod SvflVv 

1 ^ f ^TO 

Siiet^cn • - * 

I .. 1,4» 

to vvtry olO iidiahilHrtlr', or ncnily two lo one oa vijtu\t\\t*i^ with Gri-al 
B^itJiin. Ill Uif AiiimeiKi Stnten tin- nitio ■■rhlJiiil lu ihe wholfi popti- 
hitioTi i» 1 in %Mi\ niiil nf blind xlnvcs loiih xhixt^^T ' i" I^t'ilH : in M^vernl 
of ihe soiirhern Nintes bol^eeri 2S Eiiid >1^ de;rn'i.ti of hhf itude ibe jjropur- 
tlon h njEi<:h lowor, tcnilin^ to ^liovv ihnt rlitufiir Ilfis ticn^ hoi) li(t1t< or no 
direct influcricc, Hut il mu^l bo borno m mind ibul in thu UnittMl 
Sihtiik «n«I in KTvt'ral of our own eolonit^s, where Iht' poopic are Iwfioly 
recruil4:d by lb" imiingrjilion of young »nd hojillhy jH:r?*ojis, ihc blind 
will nntnnilly ^e tn w low ratio lothe reHt ot tlic pripulnlion. reritoiiH 
lRl>onnng undrr dvprivnllmi of tighl, Hkn ihr ^ick, ihr m^iimi:^d. and the 
dot^reph, rni^ly cmi^ruli- ; und, iiprirt from this ciiTurnFitniiec-, lliu oom- 

pitmtivrl/ smoll projiurtWn of ogcd jiei^Da iu tho |}opulhtion of the»u 




cuiiDtrieit will ^uindentlv iicniuni IW ihc laooiiHHli*rHKli» tiumbnrn of the 

Willi niganl to tbe dibtritiuiion of llw bUiwl in dilT«reni |wtH uf 

Wniely. titut thiK iifUii-rioti i^ mon^ (wmmon in iho ruivl ^liittiicls ihuii in 
those cbioflv' ilovoiod to manurftc-turmf;, inliibg* Buit ciiiiim4*rt-idT 
iu^ualry- For fTvamiilt*, in lh<' sumli-wpwtcni miintifs, r*mi|iri[iing 
Wills, IJorwl, Devon, ami {.'onwr.xW, ilie Bvernt'^ i»ruiiov(ioii ih 1 bitml 
In 793 iij1isl>itArilfi ; in iVii^<jL>iU'in romiiics f K»rK»,SufFoik. nml NuiTi^lkj 
it k I m Ml)?, nt\*\ in North Wjilr-^ I in SJSO : iTiv* piH* of »1k* rwMnlr/ 

bciinf for tlia mo*l puil iierimlruml nniJ r>ft«toml. Oh ihc olhcr hiunl in 
|]i€ Dorlh'We^lerik counllva (C-li'^flhin? and JjiutrH^hire) ibe mtio fulU to 
I ilk 1,2<S3; in York, Woxt Hiding, it H t in J,^ffj ; In Diulmm 1 in 
lfS>>2; and in Di^funUlnrv, wlirrc' ^oang jicnN^nPf ui>; |ar;^-ljr iTTiLpl<j^uil 
in tW slraw'plwf mftTuifftcturo. 1 in 1,325, lint lo wliatcver csuiK-fr the 
Utjih rntioH in tlir iL^rinillttnil counting arc <luo, it ia inrrfum iL^t tlie 
crowded dwcllingfi niid (lefoctive MiniUiry AiT&ngi^DJcnts of lar^c towni^ 
t'yiubiijwl with IIk- iKTirujititiim!! ununlly curriL-i! an iimong>t donsc masB(*a 
ol' p<^fip1e, skiv oxtroniMy ri>iidndvi< to dif^Ciwi''^ K^suUing in lo** of '•i^Uu 
Tlin toiviT pn^pi>Ttion>i obKcrved in the m Ann furfii ring itnd miriinj^ 
dl»1ncr« mnst ili«ri?rc*ro l>f mntrilv »4iTt1>ed [u iannigratlon, and the 
Cuiupiirative yunlhrutm-?^ of Ibt* pnpiibUion in lh<>sc Inoaliiii^. I^oli* of 
iil;i^lil licin^ f^rcHllv indLK'nrid In :ip;v<, |mrt oT ihe i^xiri'Ns of liliiiiit |>in'M>nA 
iu llic rupn! dUtncis i^ owinji; to ibf Kiel thai tin*)' cuntniti n Urpcr pro* 
porlionnle niimttorof |>ei>*oiih in AdvmicocI life tbikn the towns and manu* 
riicturin^ r][Hii'i[-r» ; while the immigmnls into tlx* ljill«-r art* cbicflv 
yonii^ pi'i'wii? ^'ho lftt>Dni- tindtr no physical disalillty lo ipiOffere wllli 
ihcir i^mplojuKELt in ihc f^tclorkt^ Id don^otljc service, of in Irndc iki 
iip|>]*('nii<^*H imd vrcirk-ivyiplc. (Caumi« Iti^mrt, IW6I, Vol, 3, pp, 43-1.) 

CatUffji of ffiiitfirrcst.—'Vhtr mode of fro^y^luro odopttnl in tjiking lh<7 
Censtu precUidi-'d tli^ enumrrut^ini fnitn pauaing in ibe ]>erforniiknce of 
ihi-ir Appoinleil task fnr ihc ptiijto^e oF mnking ^pt^i^inl iiiquirii^K, which 
would w of grwii ini«'iv-<t if tlicy could bo evidently Cflrried oiil, in 
ivfbroiirt" lo iht" blind ; Midi ns ihv cniun-i oC ilnrir inHrmiij aad iho 
pq-riod of liftt At which it eiiuiniiMK'od, tli^ir ctr<;tJntAlAnc4iK willi i<ogJir<)to 
instruction, And their m'Tanis of xnp|K>rl. An ulU-iupt vcust nn<\i\ tor ihu 
Hr^l lini4f, uponlhiA occo^on, to HficerUkin the exlent of Gongeottal blind* 
nctf-, by iiK<iin;( of an m«trnetit)n in Uk- ilou«v)u>]d<:*r> ^chedukf to ibc 
e0Wt Ihttl pFTSuikB ^HrttJ Jroiu t/irth wvrv lo W v>div«cnlM(l ^ btiL wlittbor 
lh«< iiiforiiialion ihTin r>T>tainvd m^y 1>c r1^gnrd^d im lolcrably <nmp1plr tind 
vMliKfitct^ry ^'e nn; not pit^|>Ar«^ to Kny. It np|>c-4ira that ihe timu " bum 
btiud " i? often applied lo ehihlrx^n luting ihoir M^ht in the rnrly y<?4ir* 
nriir(*n^ irvll t\s lo tb<w* neltully blinct rrombirib; Aiitl iHxIonbi ibe 
iJitltixntf is plight Lclwtcn ihoM.- who ntvcr bvlnOd the liglil liod ilioj^o 
u'ho li»>-l ih** fiwnhy of \i>iir>n lh>f'»rr they Inn I n«nil it long mongb to 
lu'f^tjin* |icrnmHent iin|irvwi<inn< To wlint eAteiil th« vagne fni|jloyment 
of thi« tvrni, ih[)» »Hnetione<l hy pitpnlnr luftgr nnd ^imihirily of ccn- 
(liliivn, bJLS tfffLvtr-(l tbi' vjthw nt Ihu atulifilio of tht- boiii blind, wv Hte 
itfinhle Ivnil^; hnl it in not iiii|»i'<>bnhUi ibnL ubdri »a\tMi ol' tbo pi^i'innri 
ninkin^ the* rrinrnn wonlrl n>n llu Hords in n popular mtiisc (lb*'rs would 
rcMrict Itiem to ihdr Itlcrul mt-aniii;;. and tlnil [mjicrfecl infoimatton 
would be: the rcnill. 

Siiiitll']N>x hw utidvubtc^Uy hi-L'n onu uf tbc moMt prolific CAUXvof 
b1indiiov4 iu Kngluid. Qf 1,156 pupilH mwit'Hl into tho Liverpool 
Nchoot fnim tT91 lo lS6<f, no k--«« thain 260, or more than oDe «ixlh, tre 
Hiud to bnvo be«n blinded by ^ull^pox; snd of the pupih wtmillcil io 
Ibo I^rndott iKyZnni m Inrgo i^nnmrtton hii-l b<.'Ctt <\e\w\xt»i ^ ^^^x'w <»=* 


frAnT L 

MUD* clisdABp. FiiTQlriil oplilhnlmia, wtih wlitrb lliM n^w-horn iiirnDl I* 

rrr<|iKnUjr »ltfKkcrl ■ few dnvr^ nl\k-r V^ti)!, i« > ahnrivc r|ui<'klj' alrMriiC- 
tl*<f of *i^Ht iirilHHv Hiriwla^H hy i-:ui>rik1 lf>'iUnw>nt, Uttn)r oUtor rorm'* nf 
^liiBMe rc»tiU in ihU ntloimiy : but Itupjiily xho RnuL luvmiott Iiia4«* in 
the kuowW;(e of the uiatonij of (he i^yt^ baic ennbltxl sLti)^'oiui In lii-jil 
sacectKfiiHy mwiy of llie htmtrLiml (Huwn of bllt»ilitcw\ jiiiU to n<Klun< 
nifilii in cuAt'n wliicb. ii«t munjr jcftrtt n^n, wc>uUt have Ih.<cd cottnd«irv>l 
1w^ieliw8. If nil di«*ft»j»*i of ihe eyi? cwinot \m Trnc^l In ihrtr origin, 
tberc ciu lie 110 (totilit tlinl tlie hulk of llH-in, wlini iiol alinboiAb1i< in 
tdvBiicttd a^ wc inilu^cd liy Iho unhcallblncM «f ilnelliD^ ilif' waiiri 
of cUnnlintsB, IkuI or iii%uirK'iciil r«HJ, nii4 i4bi<r naili-lnvwti c«a.<*rH 
pby«toal ilotoriomlioii, wt rv*A\ n* by m^ry 4Uwrri|»lK'n «!' *w^i^wt>rk 
iiivolvin; n c>mHi(iomblr Mmiii <ifi ibu orgA&» of y'ihoii, niirltirr ihail tif 
the atuctoit, tb'^ iK'<Ntleiiviiiniui, or iIk^ m«clviuc. To Ihtiie uiii]oubi4^ 
ctiues of Minibji'Ai niiui bi- lul^l^d tbi^ vnriom accMk^fets to whicl> nil 
olftM^v. unil the ijftljwiriiig cliUM^a id |inrticuliir. ftn? rvuetAutly cji|HJH<tL 

TAr J><vtrnjKf /^omi^H'-IiL Gixnl Bri[»ii) l^i-'V-^.l M<m>ilfl(6,8MttialeB 
&ml J$»6f>l> TtinAl^'H) juv N'tui-iiKl 09 IX«f'iiiiiM>(tmb. Of lhk» niunU^', 
10^14 HTi' in Kii::limf], 2,l->5 in SoollnnJ, nnd 81 in th^* Islandfl lu th«* 
Britiflb Sifth. Till' |tro|iorliiin wbiHi tiir 1J«vkf-mi<bDiimb U-nr to thv 
geiionl iiotNjJAlioj) in Givnt ISntlnn, i$ ] inrvrry J, 670, in Hii^liLud I in 
1,7^ iuScutUuU 1 ill 1,310, anJ tii ibu ]-<tjii]i|a J in L70I. TlivMr 
nunib<?niut<l }»)^l^Hi<^ii>< wotiUI bo "b^btly iik-i^-'l-^iI ir lUIowniKv vcrc 
nude for Ibi* omiv*ion of infunU, wilb r«i|¥Tt lo nbciB, o^iii;;; Uj U»e 
dimcully of uvct-n&inttij;; tho exif«1vuct* of d^-afDit^ «tKl (vnm^qMrnt 
mutpifm Lu thi- fij^t yiiim of life, the rrturiki i\t\^ ittinvoidnl'l)' Lm|>orfec*t. 
Thr kl^vi-- uuiiibrrn will iIktcFotv bv rr<T-ivi-i] ne ud uuiU<r*Bl»traii^nl of 
1hi< Aflunl nlAtc of l)rrif-(iiinibiii>K)i Tlut nu lli<> ^inK< iltfiTCt of iicc«v>aty 

rxitfiA in the rcturtm of cthtT c*)iii]frii?(, no iTrnniN>»!v conclQ»40Dfl wiJI hv 
fomeifl intm wng tbt^in for the pur[iovc4 of rom|KinM>ii. 

Accunlinf^ t*> ifit* ciOMt rt^t-i'Hi rc-iunts tin* nviTi^ proportion of tlit* 
Di^flf-and-lJumb lo tVf pomiUlion of Kiiroj* |-cnt-ni|ly is Iburid to h<i | 
fnorifry l,£!Vt pf'r!<(ui«,* In nr>l1niiil, lUI^'tum. hikI fillii?r ntnkH prwont- 
iDff chiefly A rtil siiffaCP, tl»^ pPOjx>rlioi» :<«muth ^mft^k'rthn^^ tci NoriTMy 
Ann 8witeerlniul ; inflis'*!, in some ol'ihr Swif> cn^ilori-', iilit-rc <-r«tiiiiMin 
is prevnJeui niuong^t ihc ui^uiiiaio |Hl^'^t!.'', then? if* I l>rar'muii:' in CT©ry 
906 inhAbitunlr-. In Trolund, tlto nvintgi' ih I tii I,3H0 |>i-rwii9 ; anil in 
tbft U»it^ StiiC<<q of Anti-rii^i, wlip-n- bovrovor, ilw rciturnH urr ndoiKinl 
to be v^ry dofrclivo. I to 2,366, 

• Eatio to PorvLA^^o^ of the Dmr and DtiMii in the unikT-ni^-niiijiif I Couiitriu*. 


Itftiio to 


Itatio to 

8*rOj - • - 

IV-iliiliPIlL * * - 


hrlfltlll , . - 
Nui ^ny • • - 


IVuBfia - _ - 

TniuU Kingdom 

1 u titi3 

1 „I,ow 

1 ., l,iiio 
1 >»I.RII 

1 „1.»00 
1 M M3a 

Kii^ljLiid stDti Wnloi 

TTfiincc - • - 
Ilavurla - - - 
r>erini)itlt * • • 
rtclt'iiim - * 
UolJimil . . - 

1 in 1,450 
1 .. l^SO 
1 |> 1»Mo 
1 » >>'171 
1 >. 1*774 
1 I* i.oa<f 
1 «,5I77 
1 « V,714 



I;OiikiDjcut the (lirtlribititon of Hie D»f-etid-Hvaib or^r lliefaceof 
j.iiflionil <li-*irj<'N, c?^|h?ci»ll_v ivtic-H' (h* tourttf/ i"- hiHy, Ihmi m Iho*^ 

nf SomtniiiK whioli iiirtiiil-' llu* wild jirii] inoiitiluinoii't ri*;{if>ii of tlit* High- 

ftiiiilN. ^ircTiuni ili^ liL^flif^Ht aV4>ni<zr, — I in l.Lo^of lite- i>opii1)ition ; ihcn 
ihr Simth-U'r^U't'ii l)ji-»ii>ii ttf Kn^luml, wilJi 1 in It**fl3: followrd Uy 
i\w SiMKhi^Ti Coiiutit> uf Scutlnml, i in i,4H0; uml (1m Wi-I^li l>ivit,inu, 

])i\iMonH<rf KtijiTl'ind and ttii- Noiili4<]'[i Voualtv^ ijt Svtitlniid i^LiiiUiln llio 
larpv*4t [»ro[Kn tiouJii nnuilur of Wind in-n^iOif. 

CWiii^, moHl uf w|]i>in nw lh'3il-nmUv^ hw fotind in tMim^ of ih^ae 
toonlitii^A ; llii' iliuwA^ of vrtr(iiiii«iii i* iil^Eti iic<%im|iiuiinl bjr inrtitiU 
iinWc-iJity hi n ji;i*<'iitvr or k'-u d^i^tH.^ 

TIh* ]*n>|>urlLuD of ]>t«f*[Fiul<-4 Is lotvpht in lliv* N<trrlien:i I>iri?^ofi of 
Kn^jlnnd—] in 2fi6S iiihnltiUiniA ; iiiiil i[i tfic N1trLh•Wl>H^Tn Divihiou 
(CUc?»liii't aad Laacoaliirt*), wberoA nearljr »iDik:u' ^tvora;^ [l^c^«iU — 
I in 2,0U. 

Atthouifli mM u f^-iLvrnl |irliiC]plL> u p-oiiU^r (K-^i-t? of |.irt*mlotioy of 
Dr-iif-dumbntrAH f^emr^ to €xitt in niml nnd tiiU> Uioulilk^ntliHii unidtit 
tnlan jind iiLnitirai'tUftn;: iWfpuln tiling jrt i<X(V|ilJi>n« ore n-murki'd oil 
ii|>|ilyiii;: tliU i(rsC to tin' i^miniit'A, and (li*; nmaD^'r bulvUivju^ctn^ wim- 
|n»?iii^: Ihcm. TK' followiii;^ Kiif;^U»K coimtiw, for vxtuDjdc, |)«xwol 
^vjdfly ditlVtvnl roHulu, tii-iLii'i-ly lit Ih' 4>xplHiiii>d ijy « rvftrreikcv to ttii^ii* 
phf^icKl or gfo^rH|i1iloil ^xH'utiui itir> :** 

f^ibit ] di>iLl'-»D(l-<lum1i til vvery S^Q^l ifihuMUaitn. 


Mumnioutbribln; - 1 

Di*r|u«m ■- - L 

[ hiniinevloD - - I 




- I DvEJ-AJid-Domb in I've*!}' 1,()M iBbnbitauib- 
• 1 n .. 1,275 

The ix'latiw iiuaitnirv of ii^v t^xti*- Ato lo nU countri<r« much mori: ill*- 
prEijiOTliomiliF muonjr>l Lin* Dvuf-imd-Dumb Ibna umonp^t th' Blfiid. In 
tlri'jU lltiliijn jinil in Kn^biiul an<l WuW iberc arv 131 mnlo Dwif-mutcft 
u> too fuin^li'H ; til Noirtlniid the >ncrc|Uulity \^ H>n]eu-hAt grcAlcr, ilhuh^It, 
12-'^ tj loo fi^'itwU-.*; in Uir Inl»ijil?i iu liui DritiiJi Siiii?i llM'h> nri' 121 
lll«U■<^ to lOO fviuidttt.. I'ho lri»li Botum^ giv« tikd rrrchtcd prflporiion 
of III Kmnlt'tt lo i(XI bbiUii. 

Ill cviry 10^K)0 of ihr ^ui-nJ |w|mliiUon of endi acx in Ciml BrilHiiii 
U-7 imili-n ji»U o"A Ivinuton arx< IJeAf<4iuil-Uunib. But vhUetlw relurnn 
fur lilt' v^bulc ui^uiilry i-xlii^'il i\ Uir;:ci' pixi|Kfrlioii of msliT^ ibr rrvi<i>i' 
ottnin^ m wtini^ lo<<iiIiliviH ; thuii in Rrrkt>, Lti^Hord, Sdojtt Di-rbv, iiii4 
Moumoutlu niorv fv<maW iire muineil lluiri iiinlf'4 nslativcly (o tho 
mnnWi^ litln^ of iiich N3JI. 

Dfibo ]3,.^^3 DqaMuuIC*, o:iljr 7»3, or 6-3 per cvnt^ bad rcAcbf4 
G<> yoii> of Ago, — n fnct *bvwitig die unfuvoiimblo pMilioii of thb cUfu 
jui rrgiinlH Idl^rlb oflifo; wtiilo tlium nndi-rSOyoiirit of Ag^s although lb* 
DumMnftTo iii]f|iic«iLonab1y UeiicieDl, amoauled to 47 per c«ii1* Tbe 
incomptftU-itp:!* uf tli^ ix'bimtf for tb<t ytAJit of c&rly lUe^ iirising from Uic 
utict'rtainly wbJcb uiuM oAiai wiib rtupvci lu iiil'ai]U> and lliv lukltirftl 

5S [''AKT >* 

ImlUponllion of |tnroiiifr I" form ■ iMtnfiil cviicliiMoii on tli« »uliji<ci 
whili' lh« olif^liiodl ;*ivuiidd for doubt ovint,hM BlrOAilj bvrii udvcrtcil lo, 
A ruitgli i?!<tiiimU- of the omitawus fcoQi ihLi CAUite may b« nwdf! hy 
iiMiimiM;; Lti<> I><-iif-[imtm andrr A yiiu-ji nr ii^> «> bo»r llio mmo |>rc»< 
portion to tin- ^'eiiU'Rii popnUlton of tlit iAta*t mpi m Ih:- per^oiiM igt^l 
iS f(«f> (intl upHiitiln i'Ctw to ibr rt#iili>c of iIm* |rir|>ijbuii>r>, TlierD uvrv 
in Grc«t BfiUiu, of -S jrcani uf agi^ aud upuarl*, l^^^S^JM |ier>tMi«, uf 
wbocn 1 1»903 were dc*f -anti -dumb. If a like |)rD|KirliouvxiAl«^] muonv^t 
tlu* |iopulitliot] m>der o jri-ira rif M^' (2,7364^'j9 pt-rKOiifi), 1,H<>| lK?j«C- 
mutes. inAlcail of J^\ would bavebrcrn rcttini*^ under the tirnl qiiin* 
qncnbifil ]>criod of fi^. The jiddrtioii of 1,241 o»i<c3 would tium' iIm? 
|K»roontjij;e of cho«e iindpr 20 yfvr* of «^i- lo 33, and thai of t)>r< ajycw 
iil)Ovc 20 to 48: liut V Ihr amM.»ic4i» nxxild not Ijp wi rre<)u<-Dt In llie 
fourth nnd lifth yimr^ of a^ u lo the uartkr ruan , tbi- aiij>j>o*cd nnmhrT 
to be added is probably Ico Urg<'- (O^nxii^ l<^i>ori, I9'>lf OccufBtiun^r 

Vol. 1, pp. cxiii-xv.) 

CortfftninU mutUm. — Vtijr \i\\\^ Fiu<.-<^eA* Mduded tltv JHIempI to 
ii4cui'lAin At ili« Consul* \hc niiTnlHir of ooiigcYnllftl cinMjti uf Duttf-inutiBin, 
\\y tiki^nnH of iia iD»tn]Ctio& iu llir hou.><L«bot<lnfii' nrhnliik bi th^* 4.»lli>(< 
tfant ])er?onfl d^af^an^l-dntDb '^ from birth ** 0h<iuM be no <lt4rril>od. In 
many inflAncru the fact vu^ dulv noiril, hal it wn> rvidrnt ihnr in nutij 
othi^rd lhi< ttiBlrut-'tiofi bad i'>cA|)tid iioiii.i\ or tlu: person fdliu^ ii|) im> 
roluru ^t\H unftMo ii> ^ivi? rho infonnAtion. Kr^n th« ptchoduW of mof^ 
thui one iii^rilEition Fur the ^\a»Ti tiadcr con^drrntion werv iilt^ifEtriher 
dleiit on tliin poini, A^ incompI«1e fraiti*^tir» would be* oJ' no rakir, wo 
CODsidervd thc^piiTtiuJinlbriiiution iicji w<fr1b ihi: bd>our«f rAlmrting. in 
Insliiudt wbcre « ('unluT iii\"lig*t(wi ofiierj' caw of l>«dHiuD)bnc»s 
rottmoid at tlto CotiMUst wna miulr by llur eo«iiit»biiUrv and po3ioo, ll1u<^1l 
diflictdty vTJL^ <-xpfirIeuecd in ucertiuiiin;z wlwlbcr llto indivirhiaU wero 
born deaf or not. From n liu-gr number of factn derived fmin tJic 
cx;Ti-n«ni!o of various tiiMiturioas fh Europe uid Aim-nca, roilcclM with 
mucblubour hy Mr. D, Buxlon, IVliic]]ik] of thr Liverpool School for t]i« 
neAf-nnH-Djimh, timt gcnib mnn hn^ nrnvr-d nt Iho fniicliinon that it ia 
hopi'Icm At pre^t-m fo ex|>ecL lo est^bliali any lixcd r^titi hHwMii cafwa 
of con^cnitAl dtnfrjcxf: ftnd tho^ ii'hich liAve rcsuUf^ from aocident or 
from ilijTAM acquired lifter binb- .\notbi>r wHtcr, who \* conneticd 
with tliG I^ndr>n -Sch<fol for th« D{«f-AriiU]>iiiib, ^taCiv^ lh»t out of 3,050 
wclbftuthetitiCHrf^l nuHw within hi?<own kiiowhylge, 2,241 wen-Afrf-^rfro/^ 
759 fL^oltofl from vaiiotia dbeftA^a, and with ri-sppti to fiO no po^li%'«f 
iaforinaTioD conUl be oMaimnl; nnd adding to these llie rranlta of 
2, fl^hS other case B in dilFereiii ioblilutioiis and coutiiric*, he ronebitlex 
llinl i\\v iK'tuJiI piv|KmdorttDc<' ifl ahotJt <>0 {H?r rvnt. ou iho nidc ol' tbo 
cengt'nitaU2f d<f{t^ wl»i!i- (0 ptrr ci^nt, ni-*' uciidrntaHj; tif^f. 

'i"h<'<'iiu?*i^of couj^eiiiiJfcl irtiili&m have engji^l thf* at tent ion of rniinctit 
pliyaioio-jisls nml pBihQbgist?^ but Ibey hiv f.\\\\ tnvetopcil in much 
oli»eiirity. Unt' Uiiiij; appcuis ct-riuin, ilmi iUv orearne di-fi^ct wideli 
ii?jiult» in roaJ d^^afnuttt from liirlh i*- iiKi-jijr^ incitmlilf. AtuoD^f tho ui<Vft 
cortiinon cAtues fUffiigiied for tho npix'iiniDcr' of congenital 'leafnem in 
families nre Tri^ht and morbid ujciilul iinpre^niotL^ uu iIk* part af llio 
muthcr during <;e^tation, connanjfiiintty nf the parentM, and the irans- 
uii.^ion of tlie defect iradf, i>r 'if llit.- piT-il!fs|v?siUon to it, fi~(ini j>iironLa to 
%Mv oiFupring. (Ct-riHus Kopr»r|, \HU\, VoK ^, pp. oS-T.) 

lUindntaa and itevf muliiiN <ti gro^pf of' a^r^. — -On com paring ili^ 
agea i^f rh« Dciaf-jLnd'Damh jtnd of ih<* lUind with thorw of ihe geucrvU 
popiihitioit, the most opposite reaultx nre Khown with rerifnret lo xhi^bv 
two cUfitfea. In the ca«c of the HIintI, ih*-' tininhi-re tHcreaxc at vach 



pcricMl irom infancy to old age, afttT o') very rupidlj, ruu] ncHily in llie 
Himo ratio MI* tl*(r gotiervl luoitttlity. Of tlic ilcaf -Had- dumb, the highest 
proportions aro ut the pcriodx of age ranging between 5 nnd 25 yeni^t, 
and ihu numbers then grndiialty diminish nn the ag<*s Eidvaucc. 

PHoroKTiuN or the Bmnp und the JJEAK-ASD-DiMn at hifferknt A^bs 
to the Male mid Fkm.ij.r Population in 186L 

Ykahb of Age. 

To cvory JtHt.OOO living at cichflfic, tht' proportion of 







All AtiBH. 

11)4 'R 






\7 5 

21-9 1 




















73-3 1 




ea 7 











64-7 1 





59-9 J 







f15 unci apwardH 



6t-5 1 



The increase in the pro^>ordon of the BUnrI iit the higher ngc8 is the 
rcBult of the &<1ditional numbers every year becoming IdimL And the 
rate of increase afler puberty is ^vcrned by the sBino law as i]mi which 
governs other HicknesH. The facts relating to deaf-and-dumb children 
under the age of o ere from their natui^ imperfectly recor<lc<l. The 
diminution of the proportion of the Deaf-nnd-Bumb alter the age of 15 
can only be aecounteil for by their mortality being at a higher ra1« than 
that of the general £>opulation, (Census Report, 1861^ Vol, 3, p» 580 

!!• Economic Valub of Poi'ulatiok.* 

Various attemptti have been niude to estimate the amount and the 
increar^ of the capital of the United Kin«:(loni. The most recent 
attempt of the kiud h»E been ina<lo by Un: t-hirf of the t^tatLsttcal UejiarU 
ment of the Board of Trade. The value of the most irnjxtrtant part of 
the u^itul of the Unitt-ii King^lom and its increase liavt; yt-t lo b« 
determined ; I mean the economic value of thu population iliitelf. To this 
J propose to call aUt^ntion briefly. 

Am lands, houiics, railways, and the other eatAgories in tht; income lax 
M^hedules urc of value, becauKe they yiehl annual iM.-turns- si}, for the 
same reason) and on ibe same priuciple, the hjcoine of the j>opu]ation 
ilerived from pay of every ki[jd for pi-ofessiooal ur other senices and 
wagetj can be capitalized ; not precisely, it is true, unless the income of 
every person living were returned at least as nearly as the incomes 
subject to incoTnc tax ; but Hufiicicntly near to the true value to show 

* 8ve atao" Cosi, nad the Pr^seat atid Fature Economio Value of Man ", pp. 531-7. 

iTxn I. 

tliHl the ^mlIuo i^r the |iopdilioii itecJr Is Uie inw^l imfKMlnfil fnt-ior in llm 
woiUih of llut countrj. 

It will Iw miflicivnl lo ilvU- bvrv lluit llii.' cnfrjlolijiilion of pvtioiml 
ilRYiinr'H nlwnyii prom^ilH ufi>n llto ilpt(>fiiiinali»l> ot tho |H*0Ft9iil VaIuu •! 
jkiij' Aj^r of tlic t'uiufv tjiiHUui t^nUHift lU tij^t nnd nit lutiiro ii£ct0; 
Imdcv iiio vnJue uf fuiuix? v»ges riMS fioai tile djU« of birlti, wfaon it W 
tt n^tnbli- quiititil} ; i.i t]iu;b(«i in Llie luboQiini^ dMues at tlw sg» of 25 ; 
«ntl ilcdiiHB ad iif^u «JfuiM^t<, uotii in ^Ktrvtui- v^r, wUco uo vragcn uiv 
^Mrnt^i, ft i1iiiiijiju>4rsi. The liiiti^ liy l)h' t.ifi- Tnlil^ nrn moot nuaicrcHM 
in i:bfl(lhwril, juxl jna^unlly fjUl olf lilt lhr3- nir nil vxlinrt ; nrni so ia 
i1k' jiTfjHilAtJon cnnmcnUoil aI the (V^nhun the minibcr>i iU^liDc /ntin tbo 
fti--i vuir l<» <lu? tittiiuftrr >t-u of a^c Whih^ tlir ml«wi of wiip^ rive 

mpiilljr U-**t\\ fiirtli li> tlii? »*^v of ihmiiIumxI, anil Allrrnr.irilB ili.'clmt', ibo 
niiiiil>i-n4 livinj^ <-ikn><!Jiiirly (W!ino. TAltiiig % boriPM <^ olii4<rvuticiOH oii 
llm wit;^:^'! r>f [L;*iicuttiirul Uboun-nt* nomt* vran u^ ut Oidt^rvni «|^t»; 
tlcU'imirin;: tlicir vnluc U/ n IJfc TAhlo at five [K^r <'cnt. mto of iiitcrc«t 
fur cadt 11^ : iiml uiiilUpiyinf{ xXw numb«*rb li^hi^ liv ihCM T»1aet, it bi 
fiiuMil tlifiL ihr %t\.i-At\ ff<tt^ vjiloi^ ftt hII ii(*m U 3lDA Ilttt llio mc«n 
vnlni' of th^' MiWilonoe ol' tlio lulwMintr nji olnUI nnil lunii^ Jfioniiicteil 
by tbe Nimo mt>rlro(K w alwul 199^, ; and (It^ludio^ llii* amn from :}4<W,, 
(Ix-u- rcmnin 150/, a* Ihp mean ni'l vnliie of the iimU* i>fi|inlalion, tmli* 
timlul by tln'a stjiniJunl at thv ayncH(tttra{ ttiloitrrr, Vtt rxU-utl U»c 
v^Jun ht the? H'holo p<'j>nlikfii>ii, in<lu(ling feaukv, Um AliLiiflitnl mif;lit be 
iowcrrri rnmi 1^)/, Ui 1 iO/. u 1i<vii|. 

Tbin nmltiplying the i>opu!ation of the Unit^ Kin^om by 1 Iti vta 
buvc ju< the aggri;gab* vnlnc X<Vi^^ inillioii; ihi# indii'ljng only tm 
mufih of lhi< iiii^oiiku t\^ n|iproA[tii.^t-P iti luinuul utiiouul to tli« wngos of 
jtfji'K-LjItiiiul Inlionivn. Only il trnknlt iinrt of it in Mubj»cC <o im¥*Tioinopt 
nn^kr the iucomo fiix TichL-iluU^. Titc gtv^is a:^<!tfniriil un<!er the 
income lax alfordK IIk^ means ot cv^^timAting the valut^ of incomes 
crx(M<rdinp: ICNV. a your ondt^r tSt^hi^dulot l>. luiil K.; excluding coDi- 
|ituiioB, mine*, aqiJ worke, thix protitn utid aaUiritfs natuaota lo X214 
millmn a yv^r, t^ whirh About i'S^ million ti ytwr niuy }>" nrMe«i for 
i neon jud above <30/. nnd billow MM)/, a tfrni'; thn£ ninliinK tliv 4k|Egrc|pUe 
of &ach LUcomc'6 £30f> million h year; which whi-n the iiB«eaaiaeilUflf 
K (fHrmcr*^) Are Addo<l biTOimvi £^7Z milltoti a yrur. Drilnoi the 4«i{^ 
of tbia rovi>nt]o ati <Tu« to cxtcmni <Mipi|id, a.m\ m roquirtxl foir tun 
nmH^^iy siiNl^nATLee of ffirniern, li'mleMincn, nnd |>iiilWioiLa] men nad 
there rcinjiiii £186^ initlioii a year ud purr pn>]lt; which cAnnut ho 
eupitall£ei1 tiH a |>er|x-tiiity inastlUKh Afl the inlE-io^t is liuiiLcil by tho 
livt'H (if the |ii-iHlt](.vi<i», hut tiiking life contiii^'uiicion into Account amy be 
cinjifnjij?i'il lit ton yi'un*' pnh:hA>'o. This makt^s tho vubio o^ tb4.-aQ 
inconn'* il,865 million. Allowing £255 itkillioii for the j^mt of tli« 
uicomen of About u itiilliou pcojiti? puyiuv tlio income lAx pi^vioutiiy 
\iiIuoiI io tLci3,64U millioD, and for other t1lf<Iuction^ X1>(>I0 milljoa 
rvnmiii, wljk'b, iiddtd to the £3^040 aulJion Ali^iiuly obtaioud, ioiiIeo 
£5j250 million.t 

Thus by cA|ii[nli/ing llic winiings t«s, iralnncs. wngp* nf thti profes- 
NonAl, tntn'Cantili% tnuling, luul working cIubm?*, £5,250 uiillion Kro 
olrtAlned Af au apikroximaiion to tbc value winch ik inhrrrnt in tlie 
p«0|>lci and mjiy be fairly nddod to tijf- (:npital in laiicl, housefly cuttle or 

* ^«c Juurial of tlic StaiUllcnJ :Sock'(y> Vol. xvL, p|i> «2*4a Eitncta fratv ilib 
|ui|Hr will hi' foitiul nn ftpr J>a|-.7 of thin vt^luiiif- 

t Mr. Gif&n iiiiiki-4 thi' «ii1(ici>f tlto tJipiuU in other form ■ jL^.^M tiiQlbu i making 
with tlic «nln« <if tii^ popid«tion ttnlf, 41;1.75u imiUoD> fkt JwrmU uE thv 8t>iiiB. 
riuU »cH-iolj,Vvl. xli., i'p. l-iJL 




fttoc-k, tiiicl DtlkLT iii¥OatmeuUi Th« iLOiouni woulil bo increaaerd by 
IttktDg i»U> lu-eounl<» Hue of lAiigi^A, nnil tin? iiici^mc oniitlvcl in Hit 
retiiniA of Scbcjolo D> With an iit<l»pirial Cour?Lm tux ftocimte e^Lmiali; 
call he madi- of thU tn^ut imfiix'LiiJif, jmv( ^f Iho mpiial of I ho cottnlry. 

Tlie mitiimiim v:Lliir oC Urn iiopuklimi of Uk* ('niloil KinK<Ii>m. mi'ti, 
women, and cMldren, la 1^9/. n Ju'jul; HiAt ia tlio viklue inbt^rcnl id 
tliem oA u prudiKttivr, iiumi^/-(^irtting rutu'. 'I'Jitf iu<-i>m(*x iliit^tlj' uudor 
K-tjiHluIr^ l\ t;.» anil ](., riud3 llio invim \h\mc from 110/. Up JoU/. (««« 

AiciLiu. it luusi Ll' l>orm< in mind tlint tho valne uiulm' Sdiodiilc A- in 
drpi>m|i^iit Upon tiu' (Kipiilntioii ; whc^ro tli(*rr* L« Itilte populnliou bnd 
ilftoif EM of Irttk* valiit<. TJjr iricTva^e i>t' Ilit' vliIul- of Jiout^i* |»ri»|K'i-tj b 
i]ii'i;cilv ilitt* lu iIki tiiuivuflpd ;tutiibc<r*> And c»rniii;i« cf tlji.- tijlmlii(;kiLi«, 
TJk' nJlttiiy* judd no |irol7t wliorc Ihcrn U nti po\tithti*m. The* prodU 
of qnari-ic's, iniiieii, irouvoilcM (Sclnslnl*) D,). >^*\ olher cnjiL-eiriH im 
mninly ilne to Ibo j^kiU luid imlustry of Uif* mftnlt^nt and mm who vrork 
ihcm. Uiiou the othf^r IiatkI Hlo |rrodacU of hiiuian indtistry are 
mulUfilicd ft himdrctlfold l>j Ujo loolh, n>jic1iinf-rj, Mt^nm |kiwcl-, AoduU 
fW ii[)pliiMti?<ni wliii^h rupitnl (*ommjiml» ami rrjiroM^tit^t^ Should iIm 
popnintion oe' a t^onnrry i]ecuy» lUc vjdiit> of itn cajjiiiil mi^bt sink (u the 
itLjii?Jiinic |MJ)tL, 

WJuiT, 1 w^8h fiirtJicr lo point OLil \s Uuit (lui'li)*; the 3J»J yenrn this 
ofiico hiu oxinUrd ihon> hnvcf Iki^^d nddod lo tho population of tho IT^ftod 
Kiniplom 7.619,7oJl jKHiph* who. vu\itM a.-* land if* viJuc^d hy iht* nntiiinl 
yield oi' npt prolit, conhliliilo au Jidditioo nf X1,212 milhoii to the wi^nlili 
of Th^ imtion* 

'J*hc ^'iilno of httioui^— lluLl iH of working men — rnric*» ah*} t% giiuiTi.^nt 
whi^ro th«>ro in lhi> jci'oAlott fAnility for pi^olUablo uiw, ttatl vhcrv il u in 
i;i-mlt>^t U(-ouuid. Thus a Urj:"^ slnsau of th^ popaliilioh of Ku^laud 
noW8 fo llio Motiopoh^ i mill Kuj^biid im to IIk* L' niictl Kin^om uliat 
the Melropoliit ih to Knglmid. .So the populntiuiiH uf lre<l;iTMl utid 
Scotliuid rtuw into Kb^luiuL. Mhf:<rv ihi^j flud more irrofitulflo ouiplvy* 
(iH'Lil, mill iirv of moro rnluo thnn th*y nrc nt bomn 

Fi>r thi' ?r4Arne und othor Ten.>^UH hirj^e brmieK of tho populnlion of the 
Coiled Kiu^^dimi pjvvmhI lain ihe i.'ckoiiit-M imd ihu UqiUhI Shit^v*; duritig 
fh<* ihirtT-Qmo nnd n holf ycnr* (lti,"$7-7ti) the pjicfiti* of hirllirt over 
rk-iilh-1 iriLi nearly 16 millions, of n'tiioh iimrly H million--< aii^iuojitcd 
thi^ niitk>4 of Ih^ popiilaliuii nt ^omo, und more thftri H mJtIfoiiH vi^llhil la 
other IniiJs ; clindly in the loiiUt of ihc ohi ICne'li-'-h r^tot^k of \he 
riiiUtI Shiti-^ and in the Colonit?-* tfXtemUu;; from C^na^ in Aiuericai 
111 Afrim ond to Anp<trnhula. 

Of iho 8,OI3^<>7 pcopio who most Iiav*^ loft thu cotiTitry, only nhcul 
tiwHo,itOO arv aoconnt^l for by tli«> EuuKrulion CofucniF^MJuneis, who^e 
i-j-luntft wrrr imp<*rfctl in two wayn i thoy noillier inrlml>! ihr whotts of 
ttie emi^f^ittA uor recogniMd omignrntu raturuinj; recently iu laixe 

Tli<> pjikiffTVktM arv cl>io4y adulU nuwn^Ml owl tiimiArtWt UbO mon 
Ifroatij eKoep4iQff the woroea in Dombcr. A few mfantA aoooniuaaj 
thfir ]tarciitJK Valuins the emifn^isli: m iho n^ni^nltuml Ubtmror^ iwt« 
bi*ca vnlu^ at homo— iakm),' a;:e uad Venice into fLCCt>niil — the vaIuo of 
MnJ)cnmti la ]A7G waf< 17^/. |H-f ht«d. 

If we niity vvtilun* lo apply thi* irtjLnclard to the vholf* |ti>HcHl h will 
fol!»w thiit t]>f moiioj vjiItiL- of ihi' 8,(XXl,0iJ0 (icoi^lo tlint left Hn^fland, 
Scothmd, luul In-kiDd in ihrjTnn* 1^7-70 wn> £l40l) millfou, or on lU) 

* 9*^ Cvuiuc JUginn, 1ST1, vbvre th[« vm lint d^nooMnlAd ; and ttialEtaiJua 


frAVT t. 

nttrmge nbout 3^.000;000/. a ywr. In roaml niimb^nt tnkiit^ into 
nccouitt iHi'Jr ft|Hiti]4)i* li> ettrn WA^fut in fnriir^ jtmt* m the home iKbv 
Uii- nnnujiT ijjiliiMriMi nrmy llini w^nt o<il «ih worlh ut f4nnin^ 
S5,ijn(i^O0Ol Mfkii/ or ihu i*iiii;Enfcnt!« nre <JEilM nrtjuii^i^ nnd <m>»* 

lUitl mrivhAuU; pwawof vhom no ikiiill ran-irsl away « ci-f1«iii atiUNiiiC 
of cii|)ii(il wlii4rh U DOl have l>roiij;hl mio AOLOtiitl. 

Thi^ imlK'V of ihr pcO|»tn of ibln CQitiUry liiut tbu«< li«t^ a polUy of 

lirogft's?-; lue^liml of nwti"^ nr* thcj' wtn? in |H,*17. lh*-y bnvc mldcj 
i^iuf^e llinl jvJLt- f>ii KiL avem^t* of l!^^7!t ■^'OuLh aiimifllly 1>J lli^ |H>tKitui>cm 
At hntuf^, und ^-iit :£tV!f,K<>K vmr; iin4 tlikti^btrrii to mvIc tln-jr luf-htnA 
abroAil iu ciilju' (it'kU uf Inhour The wr>meD, iDT4««d of to (>44t2l4 
dilMfMi, witiu wijtilil juKt n-|iWi' till* |io|Mi|nlicin irtnovinl hy tlfnlhit, 
linve ^vpu l>irtb to 1,039,9^7 uiwiualiy, M n crrtiiiQ Imh of tlwHr own 
lives wiib Jiilc^rmiiitHivl rorrown nnd jojs such an b^all mollior^ in 
mrin^ chiMrrn: wliiK* llio dkmi iiiMtcn'l of rxiK'n^liii^ ilw wtrnto fif 
tb^ir s^itlTiH on tUeiiv^lvi'T< hnrv ilfvoted a Iai^' Minn? lo Mioir wJi^ort iiuJ 
fitmllio ; Ixv'iiitfTitlmlriL* wchjtTt! Pt*i-ii, itimU'ruikl irmlll) pf iJift oiintrv 
lutt iiiorcn^til, d« ilk* iiution biu, vnlhoul voh<|ueHDf* toriilorjr or l^vyin^ 
lifsnr <;f>nn'ibuiion8 on \t» l;Lir»|>e^iQ n«j;cl>^<ir^ 

TIm* valu* of imn \uni"» with tln^ir c«niiiLjr** i*"^J''l» 'Hffi-r rouviOrniMj 
in Ihp coJoiircs Trom tlio f?iinkin;>H of o^ricnluiml l«boiiront nt linm^ ; uud 
Oft llic ^bolo brfoM- iIk^ civil wnr tlw emi^ruitA lo llin UmMHl Slato^ 
^T liiulu^r u'lijceK, mid ni llm vnrrt^ liato ^to h bibber vobn- lo tli» 

It mny hv i*Qn\eti(\K*\ llmt i*rpi|rmti«i in t lox* Lo llie mother <M>iiblr]r, 
It b«em8 fio. It is like The i"\]>ori of prorionA j-ooOr for which th«ra> b 
no rdorn. ISnl *'X]j<'rk-in'<- provr3 ilutl ^imultmiooiiAlr ^th tbi-"< f^rai^nt- 
llon ihi^rr* him Won a |irrii1»poiiH IrK-rvn^^ of t1ii> capifal of ibe ntunlry, 
mporinlty in rnci*nl y^^nr*. Wa^^ hiivr riuMi, nn<i iht? vaIuo of th« 
[h.Wji'^e- hjM riH<?ri in pro[>ui-lifin. In Norfolk, wlier^ wufp*it Are iiiU^r- 
mtHliniu bi'twfinj ilic rnl'^ in the north mid touth, the I'isu* htx Rppnrvutljr 
boon ahuut SO |ict oodI. i ^o n lihli niuy hv mtiSod to iho ostinuiUni vAlut 
of tbi- workman. AVhm iho iiiari leaves tlio t1TIjl;;g wheif hi- wnH liom 
Mu\ \nv^i\, he IrNLVi\'< ihv mnrkci. d|h-(i Iu bin Ti-IIowk; he removes to a 
field u'hcre bis work i^ in deinnud, mid carrfei* hiH fortuiio wilU bim. 
Jl iM ihe *«me when lie 4-iut^niii-f< In ihi^ cohmluf. tiji. jiiuvnt> in 
rooritii; him hnve expriuWd thoir gitiiis jii iho ^'iiy luoit flgr«vBhl<t io 
tbetUA^Iveti. 'Vltf-y iitvconan ATprn^o live children* iu.^ttud iff two or 
thrpc, or nonr. Tukiiij; n wititir vifw, the frni^unts rn*al<* jfcrtidf^ of 
prinmry nsc wiili n'liich in exchange Ihey «uj*ply the mother country ; 

ibey have amt to [iiifjhiml in the -IU ytnrr* vfhcnt, coUoii, nool. gold |w 
lbl» vnbie of hmidredt of niilliimn. Wlinl in of nJill moiv vilid impor- 
tnncf-, tlipy t£^■^^vr inlo new nnllonh ; Ihoy multiply discnverif,'*: ; br 
CoidVilerAliou tliey will he ro ttio An;£lo-S&xoii i-nco (inT|>osts of mr^n^ti 
atrtiss th»< Allnniie, in thi^ I'lielHe, in Ivmfli Afrion, inid in AnictriilA^iA 
on tbe ffank of Tndiri. And, moi^eov^Ti to ull it ie< nn ndmnlngr to «pr«k 
& wide liprejwl lan^rnnpre. and ihnu to be in nocisl, Hternry, nnd Hcieh»ifl(* 
communion vHlh millioTH of tlu^ «Ainc nteiv The Increfu^ing ntind>ers 
enable ihem, advanced rti* they aire in thenrts, in the r^ciencen, and in 
civil government, lo do move fur lliu* ^>oil of kindred iiie4.'!<; nnil to 
endow them with iidvatilH^^en whiofi eonld tioC be atuiiiiitd in other vr^y^ 
for ceoluriei*. They ^vcrn [ndin. 

The i-coieimii- valine of a population depetida very much on thoir 
comnmiul over the pcnvfr« of nature; which they ncqiiire hy rducATion. 
l*uL b|[bnrijin>i in pus0t?9Mun of die livud, lUe miiif^s, tbe niunufac lures, 
ihe muchtueA, the ^bipK, ihv friiinnphjtrit position of those ielonda on tbo 



w?» lirt^vt^cn two coniiu<*Tit^ luul v\iM wonltl h^ llii> rrsiilt? Aiiorhcr 
Ar^iu Minor, Kgypt, or Syrift ? 'rho betti^i' ediicAtcd the KuKlir^li |)voplf< 
1>ei:<ktPi<, the tnore fkilM Ihc^ will tH^omo, »iid ibe inure* ^nTunblr In i\n 
fvoruniio si^nHis Uwry wtU \tv, Tb« i*l':<vi*r ArliMin ik worth movie Xhnn 
the ru<lti kboui'pr. Now tho iirt of rcjulinf; and wniing tboir ov'ii 
litn^ii^' i-t by 110 iiLfiaoH proof cif rfim|>1<.^ie etluMlion, or of nay 
t^-liiiicHl ti-«iniD^, biit it i« n piviof llml men in posHMiou or it tire 
prL'|mrii>^ lo enirr on tlio licri(»Re r>f tliouglit, unit knowWg**, rtikil 
M-iilimt'tkt, u-hicOi iiu^n rif nil tt^a hivi- ht'<\nvtitW'\} fo inAiikiint, ami 
which Ik rn«1iriiic<<I iti the wrilfm of hh Aitiuiniltlr* lunpingc* 

hi {Ki7 not mono fWk ^8 in I0() men uinl wumtii jjo?vye!ised tliiv atl : 
l>f]t rhrn> litw 1ict-a pn>gr<^H, unit I huvit }xiir t>y y<-Jir ufiNidMtin«Ly noti^l 
fhr rn^jrenuti of thctf trumlwi> in thr SL> jiMtT?i, m> tfial 1 uin now nb]<' to 
K^^inrf, lliAt i]i4l(tnil of 5ft, riffkiy-o^r ill n lioii^ivil write their iiAnien (n 
(he inurrinK^i ]Vj£j«l«ri<. 

It in cvidnit ihil ihei'c ai'O other elomenta on ^liicU tlieM^nOQtJc 
Tiiliie nf t1u< wurktiiji; ijo|jiiUtU!n i1('|xmi<Ih ; and foreniovt Jimoni; thvm 
vTniiil huivlth nnd long Itfr. Thi- lon-^vr mon llv<^, uriJ iIh' !i(r\>ii;^ir ificy 
iiN% ih^ more work tlii^y enii i1(k Kpidfmir ilifit'f^j^ jn rendertrif^ hf<>, 
rendL-t' wajji**, inM.*curu. Thi«*<! ilWosc-t nn' tnttH fiitul iti e-iii<*H wliither 
the |)o[tiihilii>tL — lo ^ireurr nil the ailvunt»^-> of thr divinJon of Inlxiiir— 
\\ii\K Ih^'ii <joij;^i>*<'riiiog L-\ri-y ^vat In iiicrenffi] tiiititU-in : \illu^r> huw 
1if<>oiiic pupviloiiM or h»vi^ grown into tAwnn; mo iIic {lopoluiJOJk hiir t>ei>ri 
arrowing tk-nser. And thut by a Ji?rinil<? luu', i>lhtr tliiozft iK-iiijz i^iuid, 
K-nda to ineren^o wi.'Atiiet<s sickin*^, mid tnortAlily. There have been 
conn trmcr ling n^c'ncifii in operhtJUEi in thb ffarty-muv y«an<. AMalic 
cholera viii-'i <-piil>'mic in EiLi^Und tu IH^I—^^ iorttEen/,n rdttiwrd aC 
intciA'ji1>4 in lK:4It, m3T, mill JHIT; nni\ Inid tbon>inoih of tlio |v>( mini inn 
l"w: in ISJS-!I the tlioleni r]ndt.'niie in Kn^^liinit nml Wiilsn uLuik* wufi 
fatal XiyJifi^'lhiTt i/tt'«siirtii pcftpir ;* if » rnva^cj* In every eorner of the 
kinjEiloiii' weL'V denoiibed; Urn ooud^tioas of ir.-i djMiMit'm and fafrdity 
were hrougbt to bghl, and iW fiiriUcr lni'e-srigatio*ia i>r thi- ^lighler 
ppiilemio-^ of IHh*4 and lJ*IMi pn*v*' that ibii* plxgiio ii4 nndrr thn ranttol 
u\' science- Other cpidemie-s luive hiTice been fatal cHpeciullyio cbildrea, 
and \\'\vr hat ^tjiick ut piintv^ and (Kt-rn ae( well it!» |tr<nj<[inU ; but upon 
the wh[iU< ihc ^<nt xjinolU^ ditH^i-sx'ci tmvr U^'n qn*dti*d, ria^'uc in itil 
Anrioiji fonn» hart bi'cn kvpt nt hay by a Bi-rii.-ft of dcfi'nc4?ii bn«nl upon 
minute precautioDs, In eom*^ f^pidi^mirs 1 found il nt-et'tsaiy to iiublinh 
daily particulotv rt«|H'^iinj( d(«lb% in thr MHro|>oliH. Hy poouin^ t^nch 
iDquint-*!, j'i>ar atlcr yi^or, not only tuany i>f Ihc cahsi'h thAl lEiduec* 
•lckni**o< am] dv^roy life havv Uh'u tbucui i-rii], but oliM^natioii^ nf tbr 
tAWtr kind hnvr vhown that thfir n-rnnvid ban htu^n follow<^ by h<-idlb 
and longer, more vi»orou9 life. The Hx^nomie valne of the populAtlon 
of M'Vi'nil towns Iio-h Un'a incri'itfiil by HJinitary nn-aflun-*, Tlir truths 
cfilabhshed, the faei* a^O'ttainod, the n-metbe* diHcoveri-d in ifap Ihirty- 
nini^ yrmrv padt &wnit (heir full ndminitlrntivc applirations in ibr yi^n 
to follow- and the BAvingx of lime wa^tni Jii fiLclcnf*!^tt, iih wi-ll nn of 
prrrioui^ lireA prematiirelj loft in yonlli and mjuihood, ivill enhance the 
valui- nf th<- population to au incaleuluble e\li'DL Thi' famines stt fatal 
in fndamt niv not likely to ti^ur; jiarl ot thr popnlntJon ha^ emigrnted 
lo H^n^lund «!' to Auii-ricu, fend the intvl1ig<<ot InadowniT--* of Itvlandi 
through llie extension of thf Poor Law, now insure lht<ir eoiinlrymeii 
fl^iuHt di*ath by sUu-ir«iioi^ The wmie bvm<flci(-riL law ban in Uwi 
ihitly-uino ywir? lavn o^iendtHl to ihr Jli^rhlarLdn of ^^eollau<^ Bveiy 
iinpix>vt*iurnt in lieallli ivcvrded luakrs it dtvrer and deiwr that llir 

* Kegifltnr GcnenU'* Itepon on Mortality of Cboivni in 181^9- 

64 [part I. 

gloom of sicknesa uid premature d»th 6ieB away before nnitfttj 
ineaaui'CH ; and wben the quntitteil licallh officen whom the Unirersitien 
ni^ ofTerin^ to examine, are in Nuitnble potiitions nodt-r pnlighteiieil local 
authorities nlJ over the country they will Jto doubt prove oa efBcient in 
preventing ae their medical brethren are in trcitting sieknefvu Thi- 
result on human happineM caddoI be calculaUHl ; but a future loduatnal 
Census will show in a vptj definite Bhai>e itM effi^t in raising the 
economic value of tho population, Tlifl mean lifi^tiiue by the Engliah 
Life Table K 4086 ycara; !^ the Ilenlthy I-ife Table it i*i 490 yeam, 
which in attaiunble in every well organized Stftli*. U is fair to auume 
that if a fiClh |>art be uddetl to iJie nk<-an Itftrtiute, ai h^ast a fifth part 
will be added to the worth of a living and tuWui'inf; population, l.^pon 
tlkifl e^tiiiiulo £1,050 miHion will tK' jidihnl to the ecniioniic value of the 
popuUtion of the kingdom. Ilx value will incn-aM' wilh its nuinhen, 
and so will the \'aUie of its fmigrating thousnndH. — (:f9tl) Annual Iteport, 
pp, vi-x) 






1. — MAHKLAas Asi> PaoHPBRiTT. — C&iuea of FlactaalJoni io Ihe Marriago-rmte,— 
Moniage-ntej Form of Marriage, and Commerciat Proflperitj,-^Deprestioii 

of the MarrLage-rato bj the Cotton Famine.— ^Snnunary of Flactn&tioni 
of the Marriage-rate, 1B89-7T. 


■1,— AoBA At Uaariaob. — StaUmenl of Agea in the Marriage Begistet, — Muriage 
of MLnors^^Marriage-ntea of fiaohelorij Sf^nstcn, Widovert, and 

5. — Mjlakugks ufj> Biuoiocfl Wobahef. 

6, — Cbbtipiad FLAcaa or Wonamr. 




rARRiAnc fitntialicd pofldnae viiluo ui\d intcmit fri>m scvcml pointivof 
view. Apnrt from thi-lr ri'lhUftn 10 tttid itidu^iice upon th* birth-niK and 
thrir L[il1uen<?e upoD ih^ incrcMe of populoliou," ihi^c^ stolifltice throw 
lumfiii Hgiu Mpijn vnriotis social and pokilic&l probleuu, Harriftg^-ntca 
diriH:tlj^ nflorO a itustworrliy l".**i i>f our natiL>ikal w^-IUJuMug, Dr, Fait 
Cftlled l.hcm a VjnramL^lct of iinlioDal pronpurity i anil inUitvotlj tlio 
?hfjimjigc Rtsi-Hier nupplJca tUe moat relUbJe mL^twari' of the pro^reM <if 
EWmcDCuy K^lacnlion. 

AUhou^b, w appoira from somo of ihe foUowiit^ extraota from 
R«.-l>orL» wrItU'n by Dr, Farr, »totUtio bivwd ii\n>n morp or lew rHukblu 
rt'iiimv bnvo boon eouslrtiot^d for wrlW pt^rioiU, in»iTi*^> »lA|islic9 
of a neiilly !ru*twortby chiimct<n- (k|j\ ic Knglumi ^n>m tbn passing of 
Uie Civil RrgUtmlioD Aci in 1^37. 'Ibe Ki?);t-inir*GeDer«l's Annual 
Reports conlaiu tolcmbly tinilomi j4«ti!itio» iv-taliiiji; 1otb(;46yraiv I83H- 
88* And there i? do go(>d gn>un(J_for iJoiibliii;: iLut \\i<> ro^^iatrulion of 
mBrrlaguft lin« ht*-t\ fnirly (*ompleU» tbroiigboui that pcri^Ml. Tbo 
marruiji^e-r&tp, tlut if^ ihc prupoi-tjou of pc<rT<iQA morrii-i) iu Eu^lAnd itnd 
WaW, duT^rttr ihe^^45 yenrs has rangwl WtB<^e4?n L7'!>pcr IfiOO poTDuua 
UviDgin l^-Vi^nud H'-i iu 1^79; ibL* uu^ttu vmual rati- iu tfir whole 
pcTLod bcinj^ I6'3 pi^T 1,000, A Giiivful coJh»>i«.li.*naion of ihih lon^Aoncti 
of aujnual nl«& fully juatilies Dr. Farr'« <lr»criprion ol ihe marriu^ rate 
m* Ih*; buromtliT of DatiODal pro&jjerjty- Periods of comiuerciii] 
proiiprrily or inlUtion nn* coiiiii^li ncly iiLHrkod by high DUirrittgr rAtee, 
and tlici^e ul dt'ptvB^ioii ua cu]i>istcii(lj hy low rakta* The rt<liUii>ii, 
how«vor, WlwK>n tho prici> of wliofil atiA th? mnrrLUffD^nriQ hoa not bfi«ia 
«o ptf-rsiiilinHly mwiiiaiti*-! Ill n-cent years, and ii ba4 b?e[i pcaiiW out 
ID Ibe latter Annnal Hrporte of Ihc Kr^fltmr-frrDind ihut tho [oarriap^- 
mb* ia KnglniMl movtn in ^ more constant relaHon witb cbe lunvQiit 
liud va1uf^ of Dntisb i?x|)t>rtft. 

Thi> itimplo pmpnrtion of pprfiom nnuri^ to Ui# lohU popuUti^n, 
wbUtT it A^nriU n tnirly acciinil4? meiuur;* of the mnrrij^fomte to any 
nalfoD or oouimuniiy in a Hrri^ of yeare, cannot be traalfvl m m m^ana 
for cowpariaff the respective marriugt^nuvn in iliflbrcrot nations or 
oomoiaiiUlva in whicb ibo proportiona of »rA, ik^ and cocjug*] condi- 
tion may pivjwnt Vfvy widi* diltnivnnftA. In <}ril*r in nbrtAi^ tb<' vffoet 
of Ibis diatuibinf; influeuce, mairfaee-ratdi for cuin[iarntivc purpjs«a 
Hhoidit lie linked upon th<? 4*fitimiil4;d niimb«T« of bacb(?lor8, BpiiiHt^rH, 
widowef>i» jiud wiftuWH mpLH'tiwIy Urizii; at ilillVrrrnt ^7x>ujwi of 
a^*M. FxHinpU* of ih^' mTlhodu ndopUiil by Dr-, I-'ait for tbia pur- 
pO«e willlH' found on pp. 7H-Sa Tlic- Ctnnu^ Etrportfor I.S81 ihovrt, 
lb<' roqiiireil numlx^rs enumfrniHl tn couiitiivt, and in each of the urbaa 
•unitary JialncU Imvingnl Ihr^ ilatif of tlu* CcQuiia a poptilation excQ€<linf; 

*<>ii MffMSO-^l (knd 41-17 of i*9n I, dvftlbjr will (br i^AtifiicH of Populailon, 
viU be touiid leiml i^xtnoU Ixirint npon the Inflaouoc of mATrbitit on ih« increase 
ef iNfpuUliuo, and dtadotg BtaonJIj iHll the •r«liil(c« «f its rttiL 4T couju^ 

E 2 


50,000 ]>or£OiLE. For fiimUcr |iopulut[un4 tlii' uiilcuhilioii of duUiUed 
mitrrjnge stfltieticfl would be upeicsH lubour. Tho iifp* proportJonB of a 
populaiion, and Rbo the proportions of the sjogle and the muried, 
cbmtge sv bIovI^ (except in rare aiflon), that for all pmeticat purpoaea it 
mny pnfclj be assumed that during a eurrciU iittrrcenj^itl period euch 
propoitioQS remain the ^ame as thone fouiul to prt'vaii ni the lAflt 
Cfiisu^. The amount of error involvi^tl in such an A^9iiui|ition would 
be too small to geriously detract from tliu value of niarria^* rales bnsed 
upon uumben estimated by thia method, 

Ono of the most uD^atififactbry features in the marriage statistics 
pitbH^lie<] bj' the Registrar- General U the slill incomplete return of the 
ages of i>ersona marrle^l. It appeam from Ihc last publisbed Acnual 
Export relating to the jear 1883, that in £9,562, or 14-3 per cent, of 
the 206,384 marriages recorded during that year the Rge of one or both 
of the persons wa» omilted fi-om tht; regiater by the officiating minister, 
the Miformation in the age column being only "minor," or " full age," 
as llie case might be. Such a defcription of the age U uDibrtunatelj 
indirectly sanctioned by the RegistriLtion Act, and so long as ibis is tue 
case it is to be reare<l that the return of ngcs will be incomplete. The 
omissions are practically coutined to Church of Kngland marriagee^ 
and im dif&cBlty anses in obtaining thia det^inible inronuation in all c&aes 
(with mre eiiceptions) recordcil by the civil legiMtrnrs of marriages in 
disaentjD^ places of worship aud In register o6Bees. 

The last few extracts in ihie i^ection bear upon the changing pro- 
poriioiittl rtlfttions between the Church of England and other roligioua 
denominations, ^s exemplified by the marriage returns, and by the 
^egisl^T^* of certified plates of worship and of places certified for 

The educational statistics based upon the signatures in the Marriage 
Register will be fonnd in Part VL, at pp, 51 7-22.— (EiHToa.) 

1. — Maebiage and Pbosperity. 

Caus£s of Ff actuations in (he Marfiage-ratt. — Tlie number of mar- 
riages ju a nation perhaps fluctuates independently of extiTnal caases, 
but it is a fair deduction from the facts that the Marriage Returna in 
England point out pencils of prosperity little Igfs distinctly than the 
funds measure the hopes and fears of the money maiket. If the 
one is the barometer of credit, the other is the Imromet^ of 
prosperity, present in pait, but future, expected, antiei[iated, in ttiU 
greater part. 

(1.) Aa a war diminishes the marrlnges by engaging great numbers of 
men at the marriageable age, an exee^a of marriages naturally follows 
peace, when the militi'a, soldiers, and tailors, with Kmnll {>ensions, are 
discharged. This is seen Iji the peace of Paris, the peace ofAmietis^ 
and the peace at the close of the last war. Manufactures und commerce 
in England have hitherto entered into renewed activity on the cessation 
of wars : markets are thrown open, and great numbers of people obtain 
employment, which has more to do with the increase of mHrriages tban 
the mere discharge i>i great nnmbei's of men from the public serrtce 
sad pay. 

(2.) The growth of domestic animeds is affected by comparatively ftw 
■vicispitudes ; and there is little fluctuation in the supply of meat. But 
the crops of grain in a country vary largely ; the prices vary still more ; 
while the wages of the bulk of the population ha\c a limited range. 
Years of plenty are years of prosperity for the people ; and the marri^ea 



4iicn*&(c, wiih A ftHV exooptionA. ^hcn |)r>)ri»ans nrt^ cliaip. A« 
kIjuimUlii':!; i» uue of tho mw e a tliftt luiiUiplj', Utriii'tli ia out? of tUu^ii tUut 
dimimflU iho nara}>er of faarrui^*tt. 

i^,i Tbi^ mlnbli^^liTDont of new, or the cxtftn'^ioii of olrl, i^mploymi^nti 
pTOCDntJ'9 nmrriaj^^; ih« ootloti nvinafziclur'^^^ ilie caualo of iho U^t 
century, the niLWAp of the prcsont dny, nr* t^xiiinj)lE?N. lu fact, an 
incr^Mi^ in tU^ir iuoootva ia tnkcu bjr th« ;-vu<rruhljr of p<>optt* fur tTie 
br^hnin^ of potvnninl j^roflperity^ nnd in foltow«Hl hy n multitude of 

(t.) The perToi]icAl epideiaica c»f spoctilatioD iir« Accompanied hy an 
IccreAH? of fOiirrir^es. Oreat numb&ra of jiKjple, of all olaaflee, (uiicy 
UiomaolnKi gi'i>wiitg w<-a)thy wliH/i^hjirivtArcni^iiig; and in clio suiuUUn^ 
LniQftaetLon!! of ih»* fttoek Kif^hnngo, if srinw are ruiued, oluun iiru 
«nricbei1. The Af>pnro<i]t improvemGni in Ihe portion of cho ariaII 
captluli^, l!u» iiicr*y»sed wa^'i of tht wrorkiDg cla-^ses, wlicii? the -■*^>ecti- 
IaIIou involves the vtnploynmdt of labour, aihI |H.-rh»^!( tUe »>piril of 
vp<?ciUntion ilndf, land xutkny to cmliArk in mntrlmouy. 

(.S,) The nnlion U «omi>timr.>< octrAonliuAnly SHOguiafr. Astatoaoifln 
of g^ius, Vikv Lord ChalhAm, nc the hfad of alfaii'ff, prodoocs tbe samo 
contidoiice ia a c*iunlry as ihc- prc<M>riC4^ of a Ctt»r, Napoleon, or 
WetlingtoQ, oik an nruiy. Gn^l victoLJCn, (lie Jot of poco, liU'g'? flnan- 
citil or ]iotitlcn1 mi^Aviirv*, ii4?w fllsciovcHiM in soi^nt^^^ aeu Appli^ttioafl 
of ilu* fK>wirr« of Daturt>t the opening of kin^<loiris and contin^nU to 
commerce, rkiMi public f«r*liQ^ to n NtAEe of exaJtaiioD Ion;; beforo* the 
«li2liu<jit tnzpTOTemciit in the mitehH) coadition of thff fiopuljition U 
rcftliasod by those mcAsurca thni »ro tikcly to bavc uliinant^ly tbnl vfl^oti 
Such periodft of public? i^^ukltatloti are Almoet invnmhiy Ac<xtTiipAnied by 
an incnsi-T in ihe number of rnArriAge?^. 

Id tine, tlie ^veai durEiuLtionn in die tuArnAj^? of En^laml afn th^ 
results of poEtcu nt^cr war, abiiridjiiicn Aft^^r dtwrlb, liigh wagiM aHer waiU 

of uitiplcyini.'iil, fipixulalioii after languid L^nkxpriflO, COnfidfiACV tiXicv 

tlhlTithU QAtLouAl tniiQiph^^ al\^r tjatioiial di^a^teni. 

Th? causes ibal incn^HMr nxu\ lb* caij*03 thai diminish marnai[i^ diflcr 
ill t-ncr^iF ; IhcT mlTnit of vflrioiii comlnnniinn* ; tfioy aomrlirn©* hciitrn-' 
lix« Mud) 0tljvi' ; uiid lh« utttTi'iAgoa cj&pr«f9 ilw reaull of all thi>!ie forces 
en tbv public conduct of tho woplo. 

I bhai] uow iiKiutre vervbnullyintothc vAlueof tht^M&rrin^c Relui-ns, 
Aiid of ollior inr^a>urrd of public pn>»[hTity. An itien<A%r in thu <:oQ- 
suuiplion of iDall, liopd, wine, spirits, coSee, !«», (tu<?nr, nnd lobaccOt 
from which about 29,000,000/. of Ui^ rcvnnnc of tho nouatry are d(ii-i\'od, 
impli*'^ an incrcAJiff in tho D<|K*nditurt' nnd wa^^of l)i*^ urorkine poopin; 
AA ftn inoreMe lo Uie JaiportA of r&w silk, cofton, wool, tallow, Aod 
timber, IA an c vi doner grnor ally ofmon^nctivu niAAufacturin;; catcrpriso. 
The MArria-,*!? Keturna express the mue fAcc». Xow it is InTAviably 
obiorvcd, that nny extraordinary iacrcAAC of marrin^co, or any aognwn- 
tetJon ID iherori-'dirupEioii t-ith«r of the comfort-^ atiniTilania. or ncaw- 
AATiM of life, not ain-ays wiiliin tho TOai?h of th*? gn\il mww of the 
popnbtion. is foUikw^ by a oorrevjiOLiding falUag off. Tbo skip minMl 
ou tbi' cri;*! of thr* wavc i*^ ii-tt ^urf-r to pliiiigo thAH this pro^porti^^ to 
fialtdid^. " Eiiting nod dnakinj{, lanrrymg and ^iFtri.' -^irnakgo," 
prcsr^'^t A gi'oal hjalof leal catastrophe; and it ia o^d^^nr jnni rh^ facta 
ttlittuiy AildiKVil, that thongU n nation nay be ritini;, h n<i\iic bi-buvct 
th« vriiBC timl wbor to he more on their guArd, more alert, or uicri-v libi»l 
ill pvit)^ K^fod oounacl*, tliaa vhen thouaaodA of tlic pcopk are letting 
tip ia bii^iinen*, nMahltihiafe IkraUivA (for et^r^ mnrHa^ in th^ foiinrlii* 
tion of a family), and consuming an unnfual amount of Itixiiric:^ Hiia 
" prosperity " may be ihc dAivri of progreM, or the riotouii fijrcritimcr of 



ratn. To ilUiin^iioU th^ two kliKb* of "proqwrity" if dHBcalt, but 
not impo^^iMv ; auci In llic naiiOfknl lifo lh#)r ttxiy hiyrmj» litt<nalnpled 
in diflm'rii prnponionK nl flifTornnt lim*** Th^ n»n«l rrtiir*n in lli^ 
Cfifris appean lo be iLt!^. Cih|>linl ftctatnuUto until tbe ciithy of th« 
flarpluv in tbo onlinwrr buTcinrs;! of tb* couDtiy y\t\^9 littlv pro5t- Th© 
tbrut^ ffrocer, tbe furiiiL-r, Ujl> <xition-i*plai>er, Kff the tn«rcliMit, wiilt bin 
rouliiM' ^\fllom nnd lin^iind mnrlKil, Uridf thtil h\9 burfams vrfU htmr HO 
morn cnptiAl, Inj^nuJIy U taxM to ifiFroTiT nfv courof^ of ffinploT- 
mcnt nii<1 prtxltictioii- The di^ccvery, oAer mnny failures u idAilc- 
The CBpitu), liivw1*d in llnf ui^w miDn, ftRtories <^kivatioci, ^monrcef 
yield* Iat^o profli*. Tlil« geM iiOu«4 »bru»d, Mwti cngHfiil iti inveblvil 
m similiu' unfUrTAkinift, or imfUrtAlcings »D^|g«iH«<d hy iho ni>« f-rlnctplo. 
OapiUtl is tbm) drawn fixjin rll ^ntplojooila %i ton- f>rtifit^ KiLpeclA- 
liot» ftn> ntw^. Tnule^mcci ktid tDM^batitH uk^ cni>iliU from ilii?ir 
itSDil buetoesK to embark Tor tbe new Kt Domdo. FrufoHitooiU iii«i> KDd 
iiitcui1*ntH nnlkipntfr adiI invent mrl of tbcir IicodK'-^ Titf public 
enthu*<riiMii U fannod b}' nofirtnciptd iibnrppri;, Smp atifl pAprrtnoney 
niTord extraordinary ftdtlij^'f for specnkiion- Meu with no OApiial buy 
ami A«ll HbATf!*; nee willi liittc capital ffo Ix-yviiul Uicir timtu ; jumI men 
of kr^re cApfm] undcriabe re«poiuJMIiiLe?< 10 wlijcb no caj>liai isoqumi* 
Lnrgc numbers of pooplf nro (employed. Wngrt, wil*rir*, fc«^ fljr About 
in every dirw^lion. ** Knttn^r "fid drinking, marrying And stix-xag in 
mnrrin^,'" po on ac nn ncoekratcd raio. All tliii; AcrtesoF faotttn in the 
rouefh juirly eiditnAlo.'t of drbdite confoumtcd with ^llLnlAntiA] progrcBd 
im<fer uie Damo of ** proflpeiity." It is s^deni, however, that ilie ne-vr 
foiu-eo of rirodnctioQ rcmninfl 1brot)|;b alt : tbftt Oia fimt inv»rin4!nEe mre 
exeecdinglj- profimble: und ihnt in ih^r *nd tbe !>p<^<ulatioii bi*conaft>i a 
purr; dost fuet ion <^f CApitnl; for a itation, like an indMdiial, can rtin 
ibrou^b iiH iropcrly by th^ WAate of tbe lioldcri^, thfiir want of prmimco, 
UK*ir Jm|irovidcn<-ir in jJiijm^ WHgc^ wbk-b iJn- prod M of t>rodncliou wiIJ 
notropay, Of- by tbe u^fmvii^nt c^ponrliinre of wnrs. ibf oQlygT*»t 
upcculfttioiie ilk which jfuvf-nimeurn bavf; biibei-ln on^a^j. The (wrmcr 
may be nmniiig onr biN tnnd, fb<* pxwfr rodiicijjjs: bin stock, the cotton- 
»pinntr lettmjf hin mnchiiwry full io pK^cfs tur want of rt!pums thu car- 
pcuU'i' >ieUinf; hi* UxAv^ >v1iib' f.hi^ix^ ii^ itn ith^re^^- io their <xjji<ndituna^ 
or 4iTcn tboir iopomo, if by fbip t*T(n in und^rrstood tbt* «^r|da0 <if tb« 
cMnh ifceiptft orer tbe oult^oitjos <jf ordinnry bupdnesfc in aiiy ^xea yoar. 
Tbe capital of a countr)- — ilfi fertile soil — il& hoi>cs, enltUr, nnd proviaiciu 
*ilH macbiuny AUd tools — iia hou£e»<f »<hip.s LuildiL^, funiilure, goods* 
nn;ii:bnDd]£e, eiWirrT gold — (be slov Afcmnnlntions of a ihou^^nd tqwh, 
*acb *'l>flBring fniit in it* kind/' with skill nnd Inlxnir ptrrnnlly renewing 
and eitcndiDg itself — raay b*" waited ymr by yo*r, broii^bt low, ancl 
destroyed : nnil wbilt.' \ht deKtrnclion is going oti, i]w exjMTntiiturc ofthft 
nation inAv be incrcafling insieail of duniniBbing. Tlie prodlgsi is ceo- 
v«rliii^ it* fMaie into ftii anntitry for » |ihi>r1 t^nn. 

Thr rMHon of thr^ depr<'*.*if)n tbnt jnvnmbly follows a i>^rio<l of pma- 
pcrily in in tbe nalnre of ibings. Kettlib may be eoddenly destroyed i 
bill a fiaddcn crrfition of wenllb is impow-ible ; for it is llif produw* of 
»ktll natl liibcur.and though ^ViW mitvtb prr t(//iunt In InvoiHionsbumAn 
Izibour Aflvancctf pIowIv, a& g^norntti^n IbllowtJ g<'ii(!r(itjf>Ti. Whore A nevr 
forrt! like fctcAtn in plnced at mnti'fi dr.iposAl, it« mfrodiiction to profitAbl» 
u&<-n is slow. But in the crisis of *' prosperity" a naiioa believe* itaelf 
rich tbiit th(T year before foniid it a hard thing to live ; ai;d on this high 
piieb regalaleti it* rxi)i*nditure. For uian^a coiii>e i? iletemilncO by 
opinion; end opinion ouinformi^d by *ciotice is full of dcJufiions, wny- 
wahI, and prone to exag^emiien. The hAppy Bgriculttiritit bns l>em 
Inown to lie dxHlurbtd by tb« ferlibty of Egjjil, sbftke befoi-o the nietlo 





of thct wb^jit w»v1b(; eret the i^Jainfi of Ihinc-iii^- or ITiduih, nud he over- 
whelmed Id Itnaghmllon hy the csdl^^ produce of the vast rall^^^ of 
^« MissbsippL The " coram cTCUkl tnicd/' on the otbcr tiAucI, full of 
i]0»g:iDntion. in excited bj tbe mddeti opminf^ of ^^nt trrritorinn ta 
tmile: witness tliccfl«:t of tfao trcAtrwith Fraoco in J787;lbeo])ejUDfif, 
as it U edled, of ttie Continent of Kuro])«, at lli<^ pi^Jtce of Amirnn, uxd 
tbc pcac<.' of IdH i Hi^! opening of South Anwrlca b^ Mr, Cftoiting iu 
1^3^5 ; th« npuiting of AiiiA roccbtlj tbrough iho lodiu nD<) Chin*- 
Conunerce Bees th^se vnst c<»iittn€iit« covered with cu!<tocnerft ; M» hands 
to work, froigbK her *hm, aoti, as i^hc csp«:ct«, fiiKis millioiifl id waot of 
h«r WAi^s BJi^ i|nSte wtiling to accept them ; but vutout auythiDg of 
tdIuc ihnt thcj uro «blc or TvjIHng to givn In cxctuuigfi Jbr the ucvr 
iiDlricf) coti:modLlto« ; tii«n, wh«th«r cjvlhxcfd orMXYSgti, Imvinjt gcncraUjr 
ways enough lo ilibporo of ihcir tDoomo* Emd litUe Ml to ciperimeni iu 
new |iliM«ure». The mi'tclaiidiz^ he4^omo» a dru^. It b >t>hl fi^r a 
fhiction of it«co«t {irlce, or given owny; nnd in i>*'n&lii«g often f^pda 
tbofrerniA of a divlnnt Aituivtrndi^. SomciiatiYccotnmo4iij^i7< dwplflccd, 
or the iiK^n^fr}' of the populalitra u BrlmEilnlefl to piYxlur^o ext^hangeahle 
ttitick* for a profitable comiuorco. 

In the inrariflble decline following an Uicrea»6 of niarriajce^ they havo 
iiev«r fiilien hack to the orioruial Dumbvr^, Fopulition hnn mcrMitd 
fui^tcT than the maniagetf* The fwno may probaUy bo aaid of the 
DHcrgiPE nnd prcnluctjrc powora of tto country. And if it in tr«o that 
Jepre^lon alwujs follows ^prosjierify,^' the ooovei'fle Lh cqtmlly true, 
Tl]4' ngr^cuUui'C of Knglajiii,by in]prov<-iticint« iu \u rDv\h<»h, nnd iiv i-x* 
tetii4Joii in breadtli to Jandpf before unciilti rated, b&s, through ^'ood and 
\hu\ tftnbi.\ii», lUitiih aij<i abuiidantf*, steadily ndvanctd. IklniiufR^durci^, 
aiiji-'d hj Quw pomn^ and machiDCi, )tiiv« naado ittil) tnorcf proj^nnw - and 
commercti llirough |>efiodfl of languor and paroiy^nji* of bpcculniion, hoA 
juc^(<Jt^MI, i^nlijgUtunott byociencf^ hairing atcommaad maJlipli<sl fudlitiea 
of rcceiviQj; informatioD, as neil il6 new a^nta of JDiercoiatDuniaition 
witli the worM. And ihu* England hae hitherto held on h«r way 
ihroucb agefi : «<>nienme« pro«|>enty hits shone on her^ and ali rbe wioda 
liiivi^ biTii faToniabU> ; then henvrn Iiaa bnci^ ctonclcil, or tho gnlf-sttrcania 
of time have carriod her aadci or adversity haa faunfi^ oTer her; bntr 
ftniidfit all the vioiraitudet unii chances of tho voyage her true onward 
glorioLi>i coureo 1ui« UiU bocin hcM. 

Afr. Pilt, in )766, eviimfitcd ibo populalioa of England and FrsiKv mt 
H niillJoiiA »hd 24 millioiia. Tlie power an-d wealth at ihe diH[ic«nl of 
Irotb coiiutmv h&5 im'ri>ftHril in a faj^ttr rntio than ihnir popnlni'ion. Tbi- 
population of the United Kingdom was about 16 millions of France 27 
milltona, in IdOl. In IMfl ih^ popalMioti of ibc L'nitwt Kingdom wna 

M^npuoB lUXK to Kkoiani}, 




Ltriod 19 On« annual 


Adhiu] Kif* 
Wottcn Brtng. 

WouKU llrlnr 















57 1 


A] t 



IS a 

lU A 






72 ^^^^ [PAttT It. 

■boat i^tj Tuillloa)! ; of Fnuwn about 3d mitlion*, TIm; inmww m tlw 
rolntirc !itr<.*D;{lh of thi« empire^ frotn Cbo time of Clialbiuu oiil I'ltt^wheti 
Englftod had to hire Heiwiafii or other cnerc^nAriee. is imnwBSe. At the 
prWMit tiiD'' tl>irre an* not \t*nt ihtui 7 tDitliun'i u( m*^ in iImnw i^Oftn ; 
and S miHiorks of dqpd well able to tieftr )irra& 

It £» n rj|u:t widl wortlijr of atimlion ibnl the proportioD of iDftrrngtiA 
to ibe fetoale [K>|fLtWloii bAs progivMivelj dioilDi^hM fVovi I'7t6por 
QCfit. in the 10 jroATB 1796-I>^A, to 1'533 ]i6r onol^ in tli<T 10 jcara 
1836-45. The i>roportio(i of tnarnaj^s to tlte ^lulaiion in each iM.'nod 
oF 10 ^ears i« sfaowQ in the «ccoiDf»aii}'in);; Tabic. While the ii»m«geB 
inoreaio in prosj^eritj, it ia a ^nerihl rult* tbut the proponkm of 
iu&rnng«i» (o the popitlalbit JinrTt-a^^ as iIh> inortalUj wwrcaae*; unil 
that mnrrifl^ lafcoa place btcr lu life bcoom«« longer (8tli Annual 
B4^porc, pp. 26-30-) 

yfarrwffr-ralCt Form of 3farriafff, nnd ContMrrciai Proiptrit$f,^ 
The marriigefi afi'>r hanm ir^re aa jfrv to t-vi>T7 ct;« bjr licenoo, Tlw* 
propoitiOD of laarriugt::! nftrT banim i'> tliw^f 1p^ IicH^ntH* i» kix tban it 
Ikoa evf*r b«icu iu &njr jtcm'^ trxcfrj^t lb-17. nucv iH-41 ; and it is critletit 
tbnt [irowiirp nf ihp high prirrn of provinionji^nnJ of othor cimim- 
utanoc*, depretfseif xht^ |KM>rvr cIumm of society mon^ itinii (he rliaacn 
wbo tisuall}' marry by licence. Upoo compating ibe proportional Dam- 
ben of murriages bj liconoe 'oad ftftcr banas, it apptnm that whm Dw 
price of wheal ia low or cDodorato tbo proportSou ol' iiuuTiafiC« b^ bmnu 
prdpondrmtpA to the great^^at ext«nt- 

Tr atay bo tuvumccl ihnl the marrtn^M hy Uc«n4>^ fapiwwat thft 
marriiLfcci of the higher aiid middle cljbsva cf rt^cicty, and that thoae 
aft^r baiJiis rcpr^^nt the nrarriiigea AtaoDgH artiiaaa and liiWirerK 

If the facta for ibe H )*earB an flrr&ngied ia the ord«r of the prioes 
of wheat, it is seen rJuit tl]<^ mamages among the higher olafsea wero 
roUtivc^ly niLbor tiioro frcqut-nt in the iJvo vcnr» wh<in ih* price* woro 
bi^he^t thau in the Ave yeara when the pHfvs wirn^ lowt^ ; whil^? th<i 
taarrintfTfr w^re nio^t frequent among the claMea who marrj br baoDo, 
when the prices of wt^t were low ; juid aa tbe»e elasicH arc llw tnost 
natnirrous they rcguhite the ^neml re«iiit. 

Tbei'e is less tliicluuiion m the marriu^'a of the rich tluui in tht 
marrlue^Of of the poor, and tho r\H> hna hitherto not boon Biaiidtauuous 
in tht^ two cta^^s : so ihot the ctilTerenee in ihr pi'opurtion nf mniriaffea 
by baiin* iiiid niRrriigcs by licence ia a Tery sensitive teat of the 
corditiotk of the lower cUflsea, 

The coflC of tb? mnrri^o ticmce i« oq ui average u)>out ^ri., while 
the UE^uul fee fin- the publtcuiJoii of bannpi h one shilling; and tbe othei' 
tnarnAge feoa vnry in the mww diroctiou, btit not in the same proportion. 
If wo ('xclti<le the p4tninns married **Dot a<^cofdmg to the rJies of th* 
" E.Htab]i^hed Church/' — who Jire sufficit-nlty wclliTpre*fnti'd in ro^ipect 
of wcaJUi by those who /iro married in the church by licence, and after 
baand^ttiu popuULjon in ilm? yoluntjirUy divided into two gi~ral cbi-'^sea, 
(1) those wlio are willing lo pivy 50t. for a lioenoer *^*^ (^) thooo who 
maiTy Ai'lcv bunrifi ; the ntimbcrj; of the two dtaaea on an average of 14 
yrais being lo each other as on/.' to o"35- Thr-w fnctji uil'uni Hotn^ 
guide Id c*titnrt!iDg the rrJncivc numl>er*j of two grenl cinsfwf of sociehr, 
whicU arc wull markctl, but arc Hot divided by npccillc nome*, Tbo 
lieeQCH <-o4ii idviiK 54,01)0/,. the pnbTicatioTifi of bflnui not leM thaa 
^,400/. in titc year, (I7th Annual lUport, pp. ii-iv,) 



Ihgli \mfvs of wlKMit ilupn^sf nuirnu^i^ ninori^ tho dMIU (flvu cut of 
aix) who marry by banEu, lo a g;ivat«r oxtt?nt r.baa the/dOfir08S marrlago 
nmong ihc rfmniriLn^ ^ixth of tho poople marr^iD^ \ty licence. Coti* 
floqiiMilly, fus ihu JLiKiu;^ nveriiga priw? of wlienl vrjiH highuT (74*, firf.) in 
)85o tlmn it WM in any of tho If y«ar« since 181^1, the proportion of 
nmn-in^es by ^nns Lo Uie marmg«d by Hcenci^ ^boulU b<^ lovrer thftn it 
wad lu nnv ^f tliorsv years. ThU j« fouiiil to be tbc cjl«c, luid ibi^ pi^- 
portion mis I'^ftS mnrrti^*?t by bttiina, tf> L [tiHrriag« by licunt^ In 
\SSy Tlio prindple llutt was annoanccil in tbe ja^t report. Is tbu^ 
cotilirmed bv tbe experience of Another yev. (I^tli Annual Report, 
p. Hi.) 

The projxtrtjou of luuntA^^s by baun^ lo Ifio^ by ticenc^c ns S'2i to 
one* WbcAt wnrt nt ah Avcn^;c price of oSs. 3ct.j wbii^h may bo tcrmoil 
" intormRHiAt/v'* 11/ comparing graii[-3 of jt^r.f, di^lmguisbeit lU ileokr, 
«bi>ap, ami utodi^rAt^ II vrill be soco ibnt tho*o wbon mo'li^tat© prices 
ruled wnv nto<t fitvonrjibb in tto gunonil opiiiiou at Lhe uumarriod foi- 
luyuig ibu foumhliou of Oome^lio e!*lHb1UliiLtint<'. Tbo ytav 19C0 bW|>f;(L 
to ronflnn tbiit iobhIe, 1( /tt^cjicc and Mantis in- bvWon m tbo rtspwjtivo 
bwlgi^s of ciipiial and labour, it may 1» !ilio>/D that in year* of middle 
:Lnil low priocjt mnrriajfe wju mc^^t h^oquont in the working cl«.-id(!-s ; in 
yt-avA of higb pricffic wai mastlrequeDt in tbe mi'ldleftnil upper clii#«c8; 
but ill iht* '* iulprincdiotJ?" priced year of I8fi0 the mnrringc-x-titc was 
roniArkubly w«11 moiDlnin^ nmon^t neli Antl poornlike. (^Unl Anniinl 
Report, pp V,) 

aLsljtre iIlo mariiai'es, whWh wero 6,315 an^l 6,127 in tim thini qnartor 
of lS60-i roqiectively, decliuwi t» 5,-175 in ihai cf la-i; ye*r. The 
following nre »ocae of tbo nion? iiaportnnt distnola tr Ibat coimly, with 
fbt! nurubi;r of tQnrrlogvu in the quAiivr vnilin^ (JOib Sr-|jt«mbor of eocli 
of the \n< ibreo yeam : — 

lAAOu lACI. 1069. 













SfllfoH - 




Mancbfutor - 

* 1,194 

• 1,157 

- 1,018 

A«hton • 

























Tlio TnarrlAfceH in Hlockport^ in Cliesbire, «bow a cImu- dtHMtim la 
1862: llio} were 2f'l, 301, and 20L It b>ui Ixn^n ^jtPil i hat Ash ton- 
vnder-L}TifT ataud* ut ihu top of llio Dcuk^of pHuptrisiu i virn\ if marrlflfnu 
mre ex}H.vilvil to bi* fc»w<«t whcr^ ctUrroM u groateni, tho roturos folly 
Jiutifj' ihat cxpt^etation. In A^btnn tbede^rMM ou the two previoiu 
tnmnen was do leas than 39 per cent. Ne^t in re-<ipoct of dGcrea^e a 
Stockport, irlMre it vra* ,"^1 p«i' oetiu lhe marria^ of ltoeti<Ia]o 
(l«crc»»i-il 23 per i:t-»t, i of Cboiley 2i4; «J Lcl^h24; of UlAckburu25: 
of OUbiim 21; cf Uollon 20- <st Bury 19; o»' MaiK*bp»tor 13 1 of 
Salfond nod of llaslngd«n 1 1 p«r ceol. In I'fef I0J» a»<l Bumlfy they 
4eci-eaMd 10 per c«iit.» nml in Wigui tlio docrMUo was 9 per cent. 


[tmki u* 

hcirllOA tibowi'Tl ft tt]j|Elit Jncreote, WIimi tii« uvHim^ n'ltim* f^T tbe 
3-var sru r<jn}]'kti'^ lli«-j^ mftv W contpftrtd wilhtbcAtnounl o4' p«U|korum, 
r;nm<»lv, iht^ propnHion vrhkli thr prnfino n-lif'Vi-<l frank Ulo iovH tmiibm 
imd lli« fuvdfl of IMif-f ('fliDinitUfCB iKire to ibo vrbo4e jwpolilJOQ. 
(2£Ui ArniDol Itrporl, pp. niix-xxjc.) 

Summart/ 0/ Fittrinofiont of tht Marriag^-raU, lf*3f*-77.— Some of 
Cfaeeeaoral canw^i which hnvt cotttrilxiU-iJ to ibn flucltialioQ in tbo 
auDtba' of uiMriigea in Ed^IaaO uiil Wrdei Ourlni; ibe pAfii ibirij^^nioe 
ytjvr^ m«ij W rcfi^miil 10. 

Tn tlw Ion j'<*n», l6SlU4t4^ preriMHng t!i^ iwtioi! wln'ti ibo Ad 
relating to fret' tiaJe cMii« Into oji^ratk'n tho nrcia^cr prict' ol wbcnt 
wii^ tiigh, 5^j<. 7r/' |»r quortci', ktiiI then were grcnt BacttintionM io ilie 
maniiifpe rate. 

Tn \\n^ flnt ilvc jciir> of the d«cadc ibeuvrrvgc fiico cf wlu^il fell 
gnicluttUj- frcnx 70/. Be/, por iiuarter in IftSD lo 60*, IJ. per (juafler id 
1843; btjt Ih*- bi-pcfl im*! {""^viMXlsof lb* pcopi*' wcrr (lc|inTiafcil, »o tbt 
mnrrSage-raUr declin^^l froiu lj"9 iu IKSU to lfi-2 in IMS, Tbo mmi 
nc-l<:woiiljv cvdttr of ihi- ixTlQtl vii?ro tbc Cliiuiinl HoIa m 183!), and lh« 
torn'out of ooKon ftpinncm and great gmwtvl diMma in 1HI2. wliciu th« 
depTvcsion micbe^ a cnii8 ancl mpr«M«j itself in Ibe kireM marriage* 
nilo (i4'7) recorded «tn(H- thr cominonmncnl of civ it T<'gi»tritiOD, 
PreTiousJi' to It^ tbo counli'^ had Buffered from four aucceasiTv ImmI 

lo fli« n«oncl half of lboil^id^(1H'14-4$)tb« tnnrrinffe-i-alc roa«, but 
Ibe potato dJ»ease in Kn^land nnd IrctaJiff, nnil ibrce deficient harre^t^ 
ID 1815, 1B46, ttfid I1S4H, topHbir wilb a oom||lt'r(^m) panic, 1>rD4)jG:iit llic 
ratedoirDto 1^ 8 in 1^47, ibe yvar wben llVA)iMXX)/, were vof«l for 
(be Italic!' trf the Irifb who were njffrriiifi ffom famitic. Diinng tlirac 
(en year-i jnat reviewed (IMG— 18) ibe c^imrtiljr of wbear Tm]Hiiied into 
tbcUmtci) King<loin,and retained for home cou»iiiDptIoo»tieTcr exceeded 
12,000,000 cwU. 

la Ibr five yvnxv l&49-5r4 ibe cn«nti ninrriofrc-rniir vaJi btgh ; jt 
inereaMHl from ](1'2 in 16'ld lo 17'5 in JH52, and notwitlisUmHnt; rb« 
vm deflcient barvr^ in lSfi3t ibe rate row to t7'£^ in iliat your, TTiifl 
ia Uie bigbcf^l niarf]0ge-mle OD record. Dtiring ihtA prn^Mi (18-19-^3) 
Ibo duty on corn was reiiuced to I*, per quarier ; gt»ld was diacovercil 
in Aunlmliu, ibo gn-fil t^xbiUition wiLiupnicd, mid tjwinx (o frt'c lra<lt- 
|]L«<|tJimtity i>r forcrtgn vbvat imporri>ci Iw^giLTt to infrn-jiH* ; iu 18^3 it 
rcacbcd 20,013.000 cwtii. s Ibc ht^iimpj prim rf wbwil was low, and in 
1661 nWbi-il a minimum price of 3d«. 6J. per ijuaner. 

Tb* 6\c jears 18^4-8 witne^aod arme t-vcntft of gn>Ml iinportands In 
18^4 iberi- vni> nn exfrviuvlv gtiod bnrve«tf but wnr wn^ ileelaitd a^JitM 
KustfiD, nod ibtj your 1857 wn* lueoioi-Dble f<>r tbe Indinn Dinting nud 
for a gi^at commercial panic ; all iLc^e i>TeDlb bavl n c!L<pr£?«i»g AlTeot 
on the proitjicctti of iht? couimunitj', nrd ibo mHrnji^-rate declined from 
i7'2 in 1864 lo 165 in 18o7 And (notwithslaziding n ^lood liArivKl) to 

fn tbc decode 186i)-68 tbc ftriDunl niMiingfi-riitG wfi» IG'S. In tbc 
6rfi[ live yeuiv of tbis {>eriod, uilbon^b provision.q viere fiboAp, tho 
inarui^^*mte fell lo 16-3 in 1801, and to 161 in 1862, wb en gr^at 
dj8lre»(T prevailed in ibn collon distriel* of LnncaRbire, owing to ibci 
teiuporJiry dihiuption ol ibe United Slater; in boih tbe^ jrears tbe 
biiTNol V'li^ difjcient. For tbc firfil three ycma ( 1864-6^ of the weond 
1tx«trCr ibp lOttrriuge-Tai*' ww* bigb, and the pri<!e of wbeal ccrnipamtivply 
low, bnt tb^ eOecta of the rinderpest which broke out in 1>l65. und 
wat not frtampcd out w na epidemic tintil about the middle of 11^67, ami 



ibe px-Ml moni^titi^' jiimic iu Lo&doni In 1866, K>or) miul«^ Ihe-ir imprewiOD 
uo iLu iHic^ tLinl it Ml fitjii; 17 {» In I8G6 t» tC-^ in 1867. miil Iv IG- 1 
m IftGS, lh# y*'#ir of lh*» Ahjvci&uin w^nr. Thoywir IS66 wiu tnamorablct 
Jift ibi' comma uceim^tit of u period of ci^iuuieK'it^ dqjrwsioji whkh ]a»ivil 
iriilil tlie DUd of 1 870- From ihr yrnr If^, owln^ to Ibe ruragcs of iho 
attil« plajpi^ U>ib bet'f and cnuUoii ro»e cout^idcrubLy in |ince, Iu each 
of lh« du«« jrcATtt JSGA"? the bni'MT^I vta* deilcicni. 

Tbr m'xt five yours llWfl_73, rmiiiiriHKl two (I86&-T0), when tmdn 
WAS dull mod tbe marrb^-mti! vns low. Id 1669 i\w duty on corn 
c<?aM<df but i:i thiK Aiid tbu fcJlowing four jr«mr» tbo!i«rvi.'9t vah deficient. 
In ihe last tLrec yooTfj (1871-^) of ibU lastrr ttiocoontry irri^-ed ; ibe 
yoar IS71 witpt^xwd ji rciDorkablo nw in pric^^fi uud in ttio wp^ga of 
lubotir. iiud eommi-*r(H> iinil nmnofiiGture?i recovt^red from l\\v lati^orof 
\\w ]>revioU8 Avti }cik]> ; bu< a vi^nr or two jtftc rn-jinU n rejicttou »o-l in, 
wajfea wti'e jfnuUy redut'ed. lUid ilicw three ywir* of pro*f»eril7 were 
fallow ml b^ four j<-av** ( l!^74-7T) of comuit^ciAl dlfncuhW and nlA^iin* 
tion m iradu, Tbvri* wiu tat nbujidanl liurvo^t in 1874, litit tn 187^7 
tlie baivt?^ were tinotisfocioiy, trade wa8 doprc^^eH, vdnLeA Vr«re 
pruTolnnt, nnd commfrreiol Imilnrcw weii^ cxp^miiccd. All Ibin mim 
ox|.n?fvMMl in th« marring^-rftte of ihe country, whicb roM^ from l^'Oin 
imO and 161 in 1870 Uj 107 iu 1871, 17'5 ii^ lb7i!, 17(>in 1873, 
nnd r^^n lo IT'l in 1874. to 16'8 in 187£, to lA'? in IHTC, i«ni1 to 15-ft 
in ]877. The murrin^fv* in tlie Wt ten jearv cxpcricno^■«1 nearl)' n* 
great GuctuAiion-H u> llioy did in thedocndu |>reTiouKly to the introdu^tiOD 
of f rw tmd^- 

Tlio graduul inortMiBO Iu Uie B^ppty of foroigrn whcAt, n fov yifurti tifWr 
ihp dutj on rr^ni vffnt- rndncvil, is rr^unrkiible. Thus tlitr niiinbrrof ewt^j. 
of wb(*t imiiortwl into ibe Umied Kingdom to every 100 of popttlatiou 
in the ftvi? yvM-6 1854-^ wiw 54. wbercM in the five ywir* 185R-63 the 
pr(i|K>rlionn] numlitr wh» 94, 

Itx k\iv four ytnrf I86S-6 wWn dio pricv of wbmt wtu low, thoro wua 
n eonndermblo function in t\j*- (fiin^lil? iniporle<l, but in ]H$7 wbrn 
ibe \jtWv n»e to 64^. 5*/. per quarter, ailer two or tbrw deficient 
ItftrrL'jil)!, A new iinpctfia wfu sivi^n to tbe itngiortulion uf com, and tbe 

forvjgv 8Up|>ly vl\\\ fiirtltiM {(irrrAjK'd ; tlir AVfri^T nnmWr of ewl^^ 
imiHHinl in iho 6vi^ \*^n 186$^73. to ev^ry 100 ofpojitilntion, viu ISl, 
and in 1874-7 it wu 144. 

In 1877 tbe numtx-r of owts. imporfed for lioDoe eoofrumptioR u-a» 
no leMi than fl3,fl47,^ft2 or 159 cwtH. to eveiy ICK) of population, 
jin cnooDOUji incrcMc compikred with the quantity in 1840 (S,£9'i,4S8 
ewtn-) imroediaiely before free trade wnA in opemtion. — (40l1i Annual 
Report, pp* xii-xiii.) 


It nnny b** of intprrst ut mrtdnm that Owrr jji a cotnplrli* wriea of 
Returns d Knglinb marria^c^ from the year 175& down to the preaont 
[lay ; nnd it npttean \ 1 ) tliat OD an avemge of Ib^ 6 i-ear^ ot wbich 
17«M U tbt* luiddbr }-ear, JlS,660 men and ihc tman Dumbef of women 
mAfTicid nnniiAlIyi <^f tbnt on Bt Bvprflffi« of tbe 6 yoar^ of ivb&cb 
1791 iff the Diiddli? year, 72,947 men and aa many women EuarriMt 
nnnnally; (ft) that in tbo 5 yean of which 1824 ii^ the middlo, 1<M,I80 
men aad the aaiue number Cl moaen ntarrifd; while (4) in the 6 yean 
1»^5^ the marri^ee ro*e to 1&8,868, Taking these intcivnU of 
33 yaarv to r«pru>ent the intonaLi butwreii Ibt- marrM^r** of ttacOfMitvo 
geoemtloaiB. it will be noticed, that tbe nurabem run in sueb piropor- 
tions that eaclt couple nuirrlL-d in tbe firbt generaiton left twu ixtuples 

chU'lfpn- Thui 52fi^ tutJijr^ li>ft Ic invry 7:^,347 -oni, 104.180 
^/ftOiboos awl l5S,8fiS ;-r«t-^rnKUoiu, coniequisnU/ ibfi jjEmiU- 
gnudf&lli'frH worp only or|uni in iiunitH>r iooQi;-ihirl jkirt of iJiv' numtier 
of llir-ir dim:t mtikt dMO^ndsnin io tLn tbiril doj-re^^ Tliiii luippciitf 
only in fnrrr«>tng popnlatMiift^ ami it i* pn>lMh1o tint \n ihe four ^tuv 
nttiood prcceJin^ itie 3rfiirl75Giio ettcb in€f|iii]flr oiU^vl. An tticrri^^o 
of |M|>iiktio» im]>lic4 ft proronii4 wcUl ino.liricatiojt. — (SStU AnatUil 

tJuliki> bifth iLDil di*nili, murritij^ U a voIimUry a«i, and if moii ao 
will, nil ihe iturrlH;;«f uf n ix>uulrj i&ay U* otlcbrnU^l iti any ^inftlu 
nv>nth of tli«i )'«nr. llul bnmttt vill i» iofluoncKd by inouvv^i, tUid tliv^ 
appear to nprrntc all tUrouxb thi^ acaaoii^ of llie year wilh vwiiibta 
forcf*. In London thi* «lo« of i\\t^ «<»nv>n Ainoii^ th*^ hi^^ber elftisea Is a 
matrimouij^ e[K>cb ; amonf; t>u> workiojr clasA<>» die fcHliTnU of WhiC* 
fiUQiiitu t%t\<\ CliritiniiU, nnd the »ea»oti of Loat I'xorl Mini^* iufliivnc?fi^ 
AA flo iSt- t<*rmii Oif MTvio^ wliieb vnry in tlilTiM^nl poiioliii*- TKo 
igvnialitv <ii^ ^prin^ U p«rc«pCib1e; liut LmcolnHbii^e U ibc only county 
ut T7bicb iTie »*prin^ w«ddiqgi vxc!ed the nutuion w^ddinjf* ia itiimWr. 
Thi! nccuTDuUtWt of aatuain supply a 9tcr« of food and ibe barvccit 
vrof^^s of tk^ ^'ounv >i\vainFi in Ax^cnUuml clifttrict* arc ofli^ii wi-nrly 
inrnctf^d in thu turniinrt^ ot' a cocb^ : ii hutt ninwiy bmn Kliovn that 
wi>rkpe<^lid are infla«^nced in manrla^ by economic conditions arul 

Xi might Ijif kiippowd tliut lanrrln^vv Uikc pbice In^^ffVivuily un any 
-Iny of the wtM?It- But it in not ho. t'ow mari-utgc* arc cclobrati-d ah n 
Friday. Now Fridriy was in former times the dny whfob wonhl Ike 
espociaLly devoted to ihe^ cclt^HratiouK, at \k imjilicd by the natnca 
£J)>J KrMcm of the I^tixi^; nod FrJdav, tbe day ot th« 8axon goddew 

Tbi* dny Wft* ohoi*»n by tbe oflfly clniroli. p^Hinpj partly in opposi- 
tion to rJLjTinitm, as a [iay for uamnl mortiflcaUoii ; it waa lb« flay of 
tbe crudiixion of Christ; and hence the A^aive Fridny of the Snxom, 
ujd tbd dity c^pecinlly under ibi; sUr which iutrologef« held vtm muit 
fortuani«, fell iriio the catcg'iTY of " unlucky dnya," ftcAmin will uot 
ftftrl, wotTinn will not weil, nn n Fridny so willingly a.4 on other?! dji^-s of 
the week. Tbe Sun, Moou^ and Siitnrn linvn gninD*] by this ailly 
ftUpcrvtition. Ohlf the weddings are celebrnled on Sunday nad 
Monday; .Sutunbiy b^tr^ more Chun iU avttrngi* mimbcrT ami in this 
aOLithL^rri aa w«ll ah thi> northern vounlli'd lli" SittunlAy iniLma>*vi^ txra 
the most nnmeroiu. E(<unoiny of lime i^ an alleged motive for Sundny 
weddin^p (27th Annual Report, pp. xiv-v.) 

4. — AuBS AT Mareiagr. 

Strtft^mettt ^Affra in fke Marriage Hf^tH^r. — The marrii*ff& I'egistArs 
ought in all ca^es to »how the precise af^ of the parties married, but in 
^.5fOOS oat of the 190,112 marriages registered in 1871 the age columa 
was iKled in with the words "ot full age," "miDor,"or "under n^fe." 
By law lh<T clorgy iiro requir^ lo register marnngce aceordiaj^ to Iho 
form of llie Schedulo annexed Io the Act ('3 & 7 W. 4. c> B<5), in whicb 
form the exomple ^iven. iusteail of stattiig tlie pro'^isn age of one or both 
ofthc parties, describes the min as ''of full age" and the voman as 
'■minor" only. And ia the varlier year* of nrgiritrafioci the nlfrrgy 




were perhape uot ummnirally ilispoaeU Xv ismxcm iln'titM^Ur^ mUi » 
bwe ODnrormAtLon to lh< loiter of tn« Iaw without r^guixl lo liic r«|iiir6- 
nionU oi HlAtiitticnl nml tr^U invmij^ntinn which nt'pdj^ tv int>rA lifvrii] 
interprelAtion of iho spini of tb&t luw lo mlisfv, I( in ffniiifyma 
hcwerar, to find lli^il wtit^r^nx hi IHol Ihfr proponion of ca^« iu vrbidi 
lUa precipe iigi"8 of tho j»;ti-lieB uiunleil w^i-t- not Muted iimonnt^M] Xv 
C3 pnr t^Mit, of tho total luoi'nagf* rfgiHifftd, iftn voatj lutcr it had 
fa]ltit\ 1«37 |M?r cent.. lU lKi7-70toa2 jurr (rent,, mid 'iti 1S7I to 29 per 
cent [iixfattc?^ of iiniv[]|inj>ncs« on the part of Iride or bri<le;;room to 
UlvuJge their a^ii nuisl of coitrbe be uuiid putt il, but it mn)- be hop^d 
thnt gi-A^Mnlly thrv will ccaw Io occur mt oouijuuu miih^ g^'ta ilic bettiM' 
of n vain wiJi lo hid* ttiut whioh bt ■Jivndy pi-ohnbly no eotwl to iIm- 
clvr^/man ar regUtraiion officer* who^e avocatiuti^ mMN-<ovpr, woukl 
most likcljr prc^ilJHpuw iUtm lo rc^rd nil Mi<-b mjutfrt of dct^iL 
frODl A gencrai point of viow raiber than aa aQ(?cii[i;; adv parllcuLnr 
. indiriduftl. FDrtfacrmori^, if clergymen and rc-£i*trai> mAdc It u nilr 
' to pnt dw <iuoption n-t lo Age in the Form "Whnl wnn jour ng^ laM 
** birthday ?*' inp-t^-nd of '* Arc you of full age ?" the luarriaj-e r^lurus 
would noon exhibit udiiniimlion in Ibe number uf cji^^^ of uiiiipcciGoii 
mgt\ The tmporionci,^ of CM>mjdcti;>tnliHtic:^ of The 'igE? ni marriage in 
d<.-lvriiiinii];* tic t«lfttivt- fecundity of populatioD la obvious. — {.Htb 
Annual Report, p. x.) 

If jill tbi* agr^ were tvturnedT it would affoiil the dk^aeu or dctri^ 
niijjiu;^ with gi^aku' accuracy ibn mcai< a^e iiT iiiauijij^v In Eu-;laud, 
tho probnhlfl durnlion of ibc joint lit-cn of Im^iUincI nnd wit*-, Ih** nnnwal 
rnie of marriage nt diSerent Bgtfb, and EDiwy oib«r importaut Boct&l 

Tbi^ returns are lesA imperfect now iban ibef netc In ltf5d, when 
tb*f aj.-cw of both |Hii1ic» li^em iiol returned in IS p<T cent, of iho lolal 
nuLrrfftgvA, whereat in ld74, 1^6 per cent, was tht< propoi-tionnl number 
ofcaiea oflnperfect rctvrnft, 

Yorkshire nuppLied the grealeat |>ropcrtioual nuruber of perfect 
returns, but ev«^n in tbU counif the ttg^n of both pariieH were uot 
lUia^d in the marrl^go rcgintrr In II iaettm^vtf out of tvcfj' 100 
nmrriiL^i'^- In Waks And in the ^I'onbein couniieG of Durbaui. 
Noi'lliumbi^rtaad, CtJUiU-rbnd, and We»i morbuKt, the pro|ioTlion per 
Cfiit. of imperfect ivtuin* w^s 15, in Ijinouhirr and Che^ihim 18 per 
ceut, Thr gii^iip cf cuuuiit-n iurtiiehtu;; mj iitipnT'Ct rL'tui'u» wen^ 
ttic Souih Midliuid, 31 pi.-r c^nrt,, tbeS"ith-eiudem, Kiuti>in, and South- 
W4<sl<-]'m 28 per cent. But it in in Ijoadou ibat thtr rtlumn wen* motit 
imperft^l, for thtrc thi' a*:t-f wereoniilted bjr (he O0ic;ntiiig Alinieter or 
Ki'gihCmr of luarriagw \o the eitenl of 53 |M-r ceui. — (37lh Annupil 
R*-jvc>rl| pji. jd-xii.) 

3/arriafff of J/iJior*.— It U uccewiwj to bciu in mind thai ib» iijci* 
fact laal the pi-oporiion of niarHutieft uud**r ige in higher in one 
populittien tlniu in ntjoiber abecluti*!}- proves tbiil the dl&posiijoii to 
early Litarna^e difietv only ivhrn th<r proporttoual numbera of unmarrii't] 
wcmen under and tbove 21 ycar« of a^ i* Ibe wiar ; for the real 
r^Lilivc teniieDcy to mrl) marnap^ i» nuattired in ivtc pepidationa, by 
dividing th«- nnnual marriag^ft of minors in iboFw^ populotiotiiS by the 
nniahera Imng uuiiArTiod «t the correvpomtinff i^t^.— <19tb Aiiijuol 
Bt^rt, p. Ti,) 

The proportion of <'hjbLr«:<ri to a mannAgt- ii. to a gic-U oxtont, 
de|Ki)drnton the apat which mnrria^t- h cod trailed, and the tDarriage 
ivgiflfon f^f ■ naliom tuntuh the nH-niiv of deurmiDii^ ibia n^* Jfi 


[rAnr it. 

'EBf^d aiDd W«loa of S01,2G7 inArTmgi?« r^jflst^r^ In 1872 Uie &j*i-a 
of both potliea vrrrc npc^cillnl iq H^JlT iiinUnc*^, itboul Avr- 
w>vr^iilhr4 i>r th<< ioIaI ritimlx^r, Tfi^ ni<s«n »f^ lU mtrrkgr of thsMv 
U5,5Q7, induiling tiro t\'-ti)Arri<Kl, wai '27^9 yrr^n for iiiuci,Blid M'7 
years for wonun, 

The^ prciponioii of jrotmg pcopU* who nuny ItiM novvr b«rii lo lilgb 
OB it Wis in lS7lf, uid tliv propoTlton Iua been ^nulaally incrviMDg 
sin«p th^ (wmmtinivrW'nt of rv>giMralion. In {HS\ \a ev^iry 100 
muriftfct'A S'OZ dirI] ami 15*75 wotniMi w-n> amtpr 31 T^ttr« of iig«v 
wWe in 1872t ^'00 of iho meo ami 22-32 of the 'vromen wewe 
luiuum, 1>ut ihia iucrvoniDic tiaidrticjr lu oulj^ marriage Jim QOC 
affvcWcl tTi« Tii.:<Aii lupt at nuuria^ to oaj ftppiv«ijihJi- i^xt^al. for 
wbrlu rh>? dicaii ngr oTbftchHon* in 1951 wai 2^'8yemn, and of spiELvtera 
24*6 vuAra, tbt> 4gi^ in 1973 werr ntvrlr the sniDO, vis>t 25'7 aod 
24*3 7efkri. 

Bj in^nm uf the CenuiA rrtartis n-lntiTii; v> iht- n^p^a ui«l ovnjngiil 
oonclition tif thi» pwiptflt [ atii '<nn1>1>-<1 i^n hhow ili** nnoiw] nXv of 
marriaK*- "^ <i^b y<*ar of affr nndr-r 21, in r«ch of thr thrM pf^riods 
J6.5a-.'>:f, 1860-62, and 1870-72. 

MAnttiA<;ft-aATfts of BAcmLOit9« WnK)^eiE8> SpmsTica#, kml Wtoowsv 
jUAKD u=fE>ieu 31, in IS50-2, ia 1R60-2, nnd in 1870^. 


raOPOKTIO!* MAttrKU to lUP i.iV:Ilf^, 



Ti>tixJ Men. 

H(hfl*Ur>^ . WidoiTi 1 wSSoi 

AisoALLT IV im 3 Tk«b« l^M'^a. 

Total ftioU U> 
uid uihIl-i Si j 




- 1 - 


4nrTT»LLT IV Ttri 3 Tkibs laVHn 

uul unrliv If] i 











7 '1171 




1 oil 


& TI* 


AsTUltt-t I* TUl 5 VltMU IfiTO-TS- 

And undfTllJ 









ID *nU under 31 










X'^i^— TUp lVp(>i|]nricji] ikr the al>ii'0 ,^(n tarm tw.-r> ilodnrad frixn Uio trnMiLftl^t T«hIi>B 
thowinx Ok .MLiuini^a QUdbera tmrj^nteiuib ywr M sa publUbni m wch fli tbc CdatuB 
R#[Kirt< nf 1*hM. lmi. ind lATL In k ^irlAiTi irumivr df,«uc« the An Vt Mifflin !• not 
TVtunu<h furK^miiio: I'w ii^Kfltfc nTiniuvl nLhiiLt>or of Jflnan mjurtodln tno 3 jevt t>Ot>-Tfl 
irviijuwMm mid lljCt Womfl^. but ui febulract cf ths lniULnD«1ii vMdIi the mw oT lh>«li 
pvtlM Mvn ktiitvd Hily pmduc<!il l^ttl Uen Kiid U.T3I Vomcii i tho «£a of «Do nr both cf ths 
ffmiplM idVTiMt^nthrt nthiir rwM bolnc dJilinm1iJi*il liLtbf^ mftfriwc fwiitor* »tf ttir< i-nn* 
"^ WtiW 'Un^lur Ajrt*. k/u" Th« numbf ri ol Uoii mnE Womoji wiKmvwvMJM lUlodhiro 
bWTi pni|>arlioiuil1>Etiilrtbiit«d0WthodlCrrrvat period* or ■««, 



To MC^rtuin tht' incn^iuKsl iMipoiltloa io Oftrl/ nvimAgi* more 
OccunU^ly Uiv nutubi-r of uumAirl«d womoa liTJnf: uadrr 21 jnpam of 
Hgtt at 'lltffi^Tit piTioilri must hp tAJcen intn ncwxiut. ThU ha* U.«d 
dotK-in till' nbiirt' UiMrrUml by divStliug tlu* uvm^n onniutt mjirrin^Qfl 
cf minors by iho number* inKiaiTied at, correal ponding ages, th^ rcaoh 
abow& tbat, nmouj: niru iiTutcr 21 yrJirs uf uge, iDurrlogo wiui comraetml 
by 7-6 ill 1,000 Kvins >n 1S50-52. by i»'5 in l«{;0-6^, nml by ll'S ui 
lt^70-7S : jmil rhnt i^nrly nllinruir-s ftuiong womi'ti an<[rt 21 yi^tn-n nf Hge 
wyretoiitracti'.lbv 24 3 iii 1,000 in ISfiO-^, by 29"(i in 18tiO-«2, wid 
by 341 in 1870-72. 

Tljtrre irt tliifrefvrc, buyQiid doiibtf lui iticrva»iii^ u-uOc-acy to early 
mAniogu omong fh<i young peopU of thU country. — {ZMh Ananol 
K''Port, in*, xi-xiu.) 

Marna^r^rafft of Biichehrt, Spi/intrrs. SMdmari, tind Witloxei,-^ 
A new fnbU i* intnniuocil lu'low, in tvlnch Lbi' immlH'^r of miirrijigi?» of 
bociitloi^. of spmalor^ of widow<TrBr ami of widoirs rtftpectiretj b 
ci>ai|jiiivil wilh ibt^ uiimbrra of tbo fuur cl»a»«*a EfCtumcmt*^! ut Uif' 
C(!niinii ill 1851. Thid Ubio aiippU««ft taoro uli(ifaoti>ry mtHLduroof the 
ratfiof marriniE*-- diim thet ordisiurr comporiMQ of the mntriiuros witL 
tbi> tio|mlu|ji>ii, intlujng & variable proportion of children. Tim* of 
lfi;(XJ bm^lii-lurA in Kiij^limtl, 5.^ nmrriod, aitd ibi* propaiiions nuig«<<l in 
th(! couutica rruni t^2 itj th'^ Surrt^y pc-rtioEi of Loiidoa to 36 in 
Hr"ri>f<-»rdHhirt>. and to ^ in Cuml»ftrlnnrl, Of 1,000 Bpirmt-^n* in I'ji^Und 
61 mnrriiil, nnd ihj- proportions nin^tl from S2 in SlaflonlHbim to 36 in 
Cumberlaiiti. It appi^nm tbitt tlir^ nmrtlngca In London an; in a bi^h 
projKirlion to ibf iiiHriiagwible p^in of (Jie populailoti, iind tlmt tlwr 
proportiuu lo thfi fiiirrouiidiii^ coaotioe of Surrey, ^fUUIIiwi-x^ imd 
Bfimx, i* conv^mriy below the avrra^-, A oertnin pruporttoii of ihp 
marriagai of ihv country people are apparently conli-oclcil iu the (owoa ; 
nod in Uio rioi'tik of Kngluid, it wnei a^hown iu tbo but n^port, tUnt grrat 
Dumbenof Uia population of the norUiern countrlea nmrry, or pret^^od 
to nUTT^r otvr tbo boirdora id Scotlaod, wb«ro tbo Uw of naniagv i« 
Htill \xx a looue anil uusatlafactoty dtaie. 

AxKVAL MiitRur.K.RhTE in l^/il of BACQBT^OBa, SpiKamta, 
WiiKiwiat^, juid Wiuows, at Dikfuuvxt Ac^uf, to 100 enumerated 

iu 1851. 










a o»« 





9 000 

aow • 










B&- - 





8^ - • 

4 A^A 

3 TWO 


T aia 

40- - 



14 0T& 

4 3U 






»- - 



A Til 





3 «1I 


eo- - 










HK, - 





»- • - 





itrv auil Lk|>HAnli 





.V<ilr.— Of lb-- Ii4,SM maiTiiiir««iOlcmnW4.^ 10 1: ■ ■ i:J iMh ptinii."^ were 

*|ftl«(l lit onij^ A^'14' cti>«w. For llita Eabli) ihir in ' ' •• ^liiuli lt>? a^es Ttt^ 

nol tlat«il bavv brvn di*tribtJtn1 10 the vnrioa* Jign, iu ma j^Topcriinm sbnwa m tbe 


[PAST a* 

Tbo «oco«npftHj-iiif; Table stiowis for tiK-fti«l tiiui' »|i|)ixxtii)aU'lj' tlic 
raUr of miirrMfftA At ditfvivnt o^^, ntid viK ulinit ctf nuuty ua«ifal 
applicatiotktf in the ftoblioD of questic^u of paj>uUtiori, m m4l as in tbe 
calcalntion of rati?« cf iomvmnce imdvr ciTUiin coi^tiii<,'<-iKW< It viU 
be nclic^d Uial i:£7 per 1,(KIU of Che apioMen of thi- n^ of 30-24^ 
Bitrricd m the vi.-Ar ; hiiiI thai marriage wui conlrocit'tl hjr 3 Jn ItOOO 
spinalvni of tli« vdvitnci-fl age of .55-60.— (lith AoruiU fi^port* 
pp. 6-80 

AVidon^n arc more iDcLiticd 1o m&rry tltiui lnch«lora, Bjr thfr 
nii»i->icd 1«blr, stliuifiii^ tbtT avmtgc winufti mie uf (mmngi* in xhf 
ihrcv vcjLi-B IH70-72 «< tiicli of 14 jwrUdfl ct iico, it viti W oI^mttoi] 
that rniA iltspantj of dUpc«i1ion i» mofnt rt'Uinrkjddit id old nidowcrs 
and old hiicui^Iorn. Al (^^■4 35"H^ to i-vi^ry buolK-lor who i&nrriril 
4 widowern rcmftrri<-d i >»I mgw -ItMA, ^ widowrw ri'MiiimG-l to overj 
Ijucbdor wbcj uivtttt.-d. Ab b^v wlvancL-s tliin dieiiwitj' incjru^u, aud 
atagas £0-'5£ tJiv ivl&tivf> proportloDS wt*n* I l^ioWlor to7 viilowrra; 
at lw-65. 1 bocbrlor to 8 w]ilnw«r« ; an<l ut 65-70, 1o e^vr^ bAch«lor 
ivho maniod 8 widowers ramaii-ieJ. Th«»e uv marriagca out of equal 


1ViDun'« at DiFFCKBXT A<*K9, in th^ TuRKc Tkau.'^ 1870-72. 
















iO- - 


13 780 

S9 vn 




10 4I» 

:io 2mi 


50- ■ 


5 oo: 


1 0-606 



3 008 



*o- - 


a 400 








iO- - 



7 333 







«0- - 








1 185 


70- - 










BO and npwnrdt 





^'ole^ — Of thfl KYL'ngv annuut numtwr of marriigi-t (I91,(i| I) in ibu Ihnc jom 
1970-73 tht! if^s Of boUi pnrttrK wciy hrJtM in 106,1^4 cutii. For tli» tabk Ifao 
mnrHoge^ in Kbiflb rh« >gm tritD imt tt»t«4! haw htcri djAinbufc-l f«> the various 
■gn m the proporliDD »hcvii in the Plnrtil ea»a. 

Widovs also m/u-ry in Ligbi-i- pro|mi1ioii« ihnn i^pinBlei-e ; thua nt 
Bgei» 15-20, tn eveiy spinslcr who Didi-ritJ 2 wiilowe remarrw^d; nt 
a£ea 20-25 and 25-3t) Ih*.- dis|Jiiritj' wiis not «o gTfut, but at wga 30-35, 
nm\ up (u 05, tbt ivIhli\L- pK*|i(>rlion0 wetv iiIkjuI tlit* fuuii^ us wt ngea 
15— 20, for lo flvtry npiuster who nuurieil 2 wiJows rt Uiui-ntd, — (3<>lH 
Aunuul RcpoH, pp. xii-xiU.) 



5- MjiitRiAOKs JIM> RntMiouK AToK^nir. 

It will tw of>tM*r\'ed tbat the inuriuges lu rog])»r«reU p1iu?oe ftM?n?Qse<l 
fnim2,97Gt<> lo,240» ■>r AvfJbM in U jcai^ ^ vrilUih Uio liwt 7 vmrn 
tht\ mnrrijL£Oi> in Llomnxi Catholic ohnpels rnt^ri^etcil from '2^2H0 Xa 6j5^3. 
Alul in A Ditire mpid wio Lhau Uie inaTi-jag«fi iu other rc^stei^d plncr< 
of worship. 

From riULiriL» wUicL worv piix^aiod nl llm hst Onsus, il vm» oMi- 
maUJ lluit on SunJay, Murch 31*1, IS.Sl, tlw tolnl oHinbLT uf pcrBOnti 
who uttendwl plwrc* uf puWic worship vas T,2c>l.032," Upon coin- 
pnrlii? th(t mnrrijii'r* with thr number of nlli-nOcintH iiL ilit!V'Eviir phLi:«4 
of Kri^pocu worahipf tbia general result m obiftiTied :^Thnt nmon*; irio 
UoDion Catliolica the pfj^i^ns vrhi* nuuri^d tvcirc in ihc proportion i>F i>ri« 
10 «vi?r7 2S atlc^iiliuiK whiltr uinoiijf [Iil> mnni)>er< of Ui** CJitirHi of 
Cn^jclaiid and ot other n-lipioii? clrnoinitntion«, cxocnt .lows and QuukiTs 
iiu;r& nvanoue miirrio^ U> every 2o atteiidanta, Ihe Ucts sbkud tha^ : 



PcTtoni minicd 
Ld 1050. 

Art^udarru ax 

PIbcp* of Public 

Wonhip on 

March 3Mb lefth 


Chtirch o^ Kij^ud ftnd 
other ChrinWan boclit* 

(c*ilua^<i of (Junkera 

V 231,170 9.690 

1 !»a*l 

Ifwp divide t)i^^ Pty^n^iant^ into twn dMK-» a vi^rj difTtrrctit rL-xuIt ia 
obtfllD«d : 


iu l«AO. 

AUoruJftQtt St 
PUco ^»f Pafclic 

Worship oo 
ajtrchaoib itiai. 

Gntfdi 4if BnKland 


I- IV.Vl^ 

3,T 73,474 
8J 40.9 1 a 

1 to U 
1 EO Itt3 

Tlic DuinU^i' ^>f pt-noQA miirrit^ in IHT^O iif tlii> diurch^^t wm to tlio 
auiiibcr of nttCDdaals od t.bc On5ii< Siinihiy m I toll; while llM 
nunilxT ot pcru>uA nianied ai tlio chajiHH u-jh to iho iiumlier of 
alti-ndnTit4 w< 1 lo 101- l*h<» whob> ol' ihia di^urepiuK^j- c^n etiorcclj bo 
ficiy»Tiiit«l for by thr nttcndimoiT of m(*mlirr» of lln« (.^hnri'h of Kn^^Und 
al the chapeU, or by lhi» inarria^'e of raoial»efs ofdHseulin^ ffoi\;jrogTi- 
tio»« acoortling lo Oio ritfi* of tJie ChtircU of Kn^land : hiil it wlniits of 
no doubt thai from the luflueace of lau^ e*ittom, uf opiitlun, or of a 
prAfmvfica for tho judU^oii*, adrairahlc, and w<TU-iwtAfiliH)i4Td innrHdj^ 
MTvicO of the Churcli of Bnglanil. ra-nt huii^Ih^ta of Ihc* p^-ople who 
lubituoll; attcml olht^r placea of worship resort to the chiirofie^ to 

8a [pjtBr If. 

The ilU^utere ulso complain, ivilh jtiMioe, thai m mAirying accorxliDg- 
lo thtir own ritps they arc fauhject lo rc^tnetioDs ami unDeceBmry 
aniioyancefl ; tbc notices of Ihcir marrifl^cs are read before ttoarda of 
focr law guitrdians, and th<.ir tiiaTTm^« in tbe regipter offices have 
often to be performed in the woikbouscs, which, it niu^t be admitted^ 
us they ofTer no plc-D«tnt associations, open no very inviting avenue to 
the temple of Hjiut-n. 

The Quakers attentled to the number of I8,l72 at their 371 places of 
worebip, containing 91,559 sittings, on the Census Bundaf (March 80tl], 
1851) i but in the year 1850 only 138 of the Frlen^ls married according 
to their own forms, so thai there is still an unusual reluctance to many 
amonp the male or femalo memliera of this remarkable flect,'which, if it 
iH neither sustained by hereditary accetisious nor proselytes, ■will 
eveotuaUy decline in Eufiland, 

The Jews present quite a diflcicnt aspect - fhey marry m considerable 
numbers (520 were niamcd in 1^50); but tbc number who attended 
their synHp:ogues On Saturday wns only -4,150; so that there was ODft 
Jew married to every 8 who attended. Sfarriage appears to be common, 
but polygamy, though it in allowed by tbe law of Moset-, is, I am 
informed, not practised by the Jews in any country of Europe except 
Turkey. (13th Annual Keport, pp, iii-iv.) 

0. Cebtified FLACi^a or WOseniP. 

The Toleration Act of \QHH ^ve Protestants frt'cdom of meeting for 
religious! worship at certiii<'d pliioes ; in 1791 tbe snme advantages were 
extended to Roman Catholiet^ ; in 1812 it was enacted that no Protes- 
tant congregation of more tbnn 20 persons should meet unless tbe place 
of meeting bad hecn certititd to the bishop, archdeacon, or the quarter 
sessions ; and in 1852 tbc certificates were directed to be sent to the 
Registrar- General. Ihe Act 18 & 19 Vict, c. 81, only enacts that *' all 
'* places of religious worship, not being churches or chapels of the 
'' £s(ablUbed Church, should, if the congregatiou shuuld dcbire, but not 
'^ otherwise, be cerliticd to tbe Registrar-General." Thua the certifi- 
cation is no longer indir^pcusablc, and the intolerant restrictions on 
religious worehip are now entiiely abolished iu England, 

Certain legal advantages attach to tbc rogisiiation of places of 
religious ivorthip, for it jdaces them under the cf^peeial protection of the 
luw; and it i^ indispensable to the solemnization of any marriagep, 
except tho&e in Established Churches or iu Repister Offices, 

A leturu i\a3 | rocurcd by tliis office of all the plaits that had ever 
been certified since the pfis&ing of tbe Toleration Act in 1688 to 
COlh June 1852, eo far as tsisting documents supplied the information [ 
and from that return it appeared that 54,804 places had been certified in 
the 164 yeai-B. In tho first years, down to the end of 1690, 930 places 
were certilied; 143 aa permaneut, 706 as temporaiy buildingH. Of 
ibeee 239 belonged to Quakers, 108 permanent and 131 temporary 
buildings. The places of Wesleyan Methodists first appear in l741-fiO 
in tmall numbers and as temporary buildings; but increase rapidly in 
1791-1800, and then go on until tbeir numbers in Ihe end amount to 
3,901, of which 2,035 were chapela or permanent structures. The 
other buildings arc registeied chiefly as belorging to Proteatant 
Dissenters, consisting no doubt of Presbyterians (including Unitarians}^ 
J ndepen dent y, find Baptists. Of 13,950 Ihe particular denomination is 
not specified. 


The following eummary toble gives the priDcip&I results : — 

Places of Wokshif returned aa having been Cebtlfied m each 
Decennial Pebiod from 1688 to 30tb Jnne 1852. 

Decennial Periods. 

rUc«a described as 

Total dumber 
of Placet 
certified in 






R(H>ms, or 

otherwise as 






or otherwise 

as Permanent 



1688—1690 - 
1701—1710 - 
1721—1730 - 
1741—1750 - 
1761-1770 - 
1781—1790 - 
1801-1810 - 
1821-1830 - 
18B1 — 1B40 
1841—18^0 ' 





















































There appears to have been no means of striking anj of the ^4,804 
certified places off the record ; but great numbers of them disappeared 
in the progress of time ; and at the Census ot 1851 returns as to accom- 
modation and attendance were obtained from 20,400 places of worship 
then existing and not belonging to the Established Church of England ; 
17,000 were returned as separate buildings. Of these separnte buildings 
only 3,228 were on the marriage registers of 31st December of that 
year. The number registered for marriages on the last daj of the year 
1865 was 6,362 ; and at that date 16,819 places were on the register of 
places for religious worship. The Quakers and Jews are not required 
to register their places of worship as such. (^28th Annual Report, 
pp. TJi-viii.) 

F 2 





1.— BiRTi! Ukqiatiuteox and BfRTH-ftATBS. — UJnh U«gfilntioD, 1837-76. — 
Blrth-ntes amoDg Married Women^ ISSl. — Birth-ratea unocg Married 
and DnoMTried Womeo, 18^1-57, — Birtb-nleH wnoDff Married and 
Unmarried Women, 1872. 

■J. — FBctJMDiTr OP Miftfi I AVE --'Births to a Marriage, KngLtuid aad Scotland, 
1856-6U- — Birtha toaMarriBge, 1S64 «i)d 1874. — Birth-rates and Feciinditj 
fo European Statei^— ^Fecucdtty of Married Women m European Stalea,— ^ 
Fecundity in France. ^ Poiaibte tncreue af Fecundity and of tha 

•i. — ILLEOITIMITB BiBTHft.— Kegistration of lUt^timate Births^ 1«4B. — Hegiitration 
of Uiegidmah- Births, 1871-— True Measure of Dlegitjmacy.'^tll^tiiDacj 
and earty Marriage. — Proportion of ILIogiiimate Birthi, and of Spinatcn, to 

Females aged 30-40. — Decrease of Illegitinucy. 

4. — Sex P&qpoatio:t at Bibtq. 

J- DEfn<7ra of tob Birtb Rboibtbr: Statutios or Fiaii Bobk. 

6.— Stiu- Biktmi. 


Bmru stalifilicf arc fmportnnt mainly ou account of ihe inSueoce of 
tho birtli-ratc ui«n tJie increase, and upon tie sex and ag^ distrilmlioii 
of tho populatbn. Population, mnrnng?, birth, and doalfa ntutibtics are, 
indoeij, so ijUcrao|>QQjftnl, that no one of throe braoclioa of vllfll ^bili^lic* 
<^»D bf? eflicici^ly linndlej without a rrill ^cqiinmtimoo witb th« main 
priDciples nnd bearings of thoin alt. Birth ttrtliitie^, including thotf 
of Ultrgiiiuiacy, iDoreover, poMcaa a bocUI interesl «q)art from Iheir 
moro piii^/ frCiitisUcul vi^uo ttHtiti^ fruxc th« rvUtitja tbej lou' to 

Prior to ths operatioB of tho Civil R?^iatrfttion Act of 1837* do 
triistworthy Mnh MalistLCi cxistod; Inde^ thin* wf^re not p<xu:lblef 
sijiQO no machinery for their collection cxint^d, htoax 1837 vre posfloas. 
howovor, faii'lf c^iuiplote antional birth atntiilicf, which thoro b good 
f^iijuad for bdjuvuig to bo invr^aalcgly accurato rear Hy yonr. In tho 
oarllor year^ of rogietTAtioa a cooflid«rabl«, bat UGknown, ncimbDr of 
bintit wcT\i noi rvoonted, and D;. Farr ciiim^t^ (tte« p. 89^ itni ih\% 
dcliciency iiverag^d tlvo por cent, of the births occttrring during the 
3^( j'<^(> cudJiig witb IH70, oil tbv lusaiJiptSon thi4t tho Miuiil mean 
ficiuuul birth-rntv during thht perio-i Whi>j not lowor Ltiin 36 par 1,003 of 
Xhtj pi>putalioii. The Births and Dcatht R^^i^LTdtiou Act of 1874 flr^i 
nude thij i^-^ftlriLtion of birtlu coEnpuUorVr and, witU'^at taking too 
nu3guin« a ricr/ oflln; pn:scnt coUilitJon of binti rc'giMratioa. there u no 
goodreiuou tod<»ubt tn«t tho proportion of unrecorded births l^ noir 
not onljr much smilbr than the five pdr L^enT. e4tiiavLC«^) hy Dr. Fjur prior 
to 1^76t but ab»olut^ty very -ini-dL It h probable that tho binha which 
DOW romaln unre;;iscered oi'e for th« moU pirt iU«gLtiiD:ite. The roceat 
sUady decline in the praportfon of registered births otiL of wodlocli 
io, however, probubly, dui.' to ulhur eau-Kfl^ and altould uot bo fUtnbutod 
to incniAilii^ dcficieticy in the re^iHtratlon of §u«h birih^ ikS iboro are 
trustworthy ^routi<U fur bolie\-ijig that a# with legitinaate, so with 
illegiiimate btrthi^ Iho proporlion uore^atered is oo^derably tmalter 
than wuz» tho caao in the oony daya of civil rcgtsiratlon. 

The bLFth-ralo cAUuJ»to>l hv iho u^uul mo^od, that is the piopoTijoia 
of rog:L«teTvJ binhs to the popiilaiion at all a^e^ it a nufflcieni approxl- 
mutiou to a true birth-rate lo aniwor tnost of ihe staijstical purpoMa for 
which a birth-rate a a^jplied. This ci'ude hirth^nte is, iodcodf anlfl- 
eiently t^ll»l^*oflby wboo the objeet la to comparij tbo rnies preralting 
diiHng a wni?* of yoim in the taoio popuUtiou. Whoa, bovoror, it h 
^Iwired to compAr« the birtb-ratett lu two or more cotacn unities, In whfeh 
th« s«x andage dUtributtoQ of tho popuhttloa may prOMOt conaiderable 
ailftorenc«qf, it U necaaury to calculate tho nitoa by a caoihod wlucli ejioil- 
aaloa thv diiturbing mducDco of thooe dillvrttuc«». Thi« maj be eOGMted 
hy calculniiTjg tho proportion of regte«v«d birthi to the ttumbor of 

88 [PABT Ill- 

women a^l 15 to 45 (the ages at wlilcli moat children are bom) 
e&timaled to be liviDg in the community of vhieh it is deiired to 
asccrrtLin the birth-rale. The Censaa Report for 1H81 nhows the number 
of femnlee aged 15 to 45 enumerate^] in that ji'ar in ejicU urban anc) 
rural sanitary <Hstrjct ai well as m each rcgisinilion county, dietrict, 
and ^ub'dietrict. The age imd sex proportion of n i>opuktion changes 
very slowly, iimX, except in those cuaes where the rate of increaM: of 
population by immip^tion irf very abuorniiU, it mny Sav all practical 
puj-poses be iissuineil thnt those proportiuns remain constant during a 
current interccneal perio<l. On the busis, therefore, of the n^jc- and eex 
proportlunH prevailing nt the lost Cenau» the numlier of femidee living 
between the ogen of IS M\t\ 45 may be estimated fur each year betw««n 
two enumerations; and upon this numlier u birlh-rateT tnis^twurCby for 
comptn^live purpose^ may \te calculated. 

If the birth-rate amoni; man-ied and nnmariinl v/oiiien, resifectively, 
be required, it will be necessary to estimate, in a similar nmnuer from 
the more recent Cenr^us inromialion, the numbeis of married iinil 
Bnmarried female:? living at these it^'s in the (xipulaiion to be tiealt 
with, Tlic proportion of legitimate births to married women, and of 
illegitimate biiths to unmarried women, will thu^< give true legitimAle 
and iUegittmate birth-rates. It ir^ obvious, however, thot such detailed 
fitatihtics could Tiot be trusted for eompamtive purposes uiden^ they 
related to a jK^pulation sufficiently large to avoid the iiievitjibli^ accidental 
flueluatious incidental to all small jiumbi^rs. As a matter of fact, more- 
over, (he Census Report does not give the neces^iy inforuialion for 
estimating the number of man'ied and unmarried women, except for 
regi^niition countiis, and for all urban sanitary dijjtriots having at the 
time of the last Census a popuhiiion exteedini^ 50,<XJ0 jWTsons, 

The number of births to a marriages nffoi-^ls a fairly tiustworthy teat 
of the fecundity of a nation or community. It is priii'ni, liowover, thtit 
th]F<; test can only be usefully applied when the ]}OpuIatiou to he dealt 
wiih is wiiffieiently large to yield trustworthy results, and when both 
mari'iago and bij-th statistics ara available for a fairly long senea of 
years. The law regulating the lej^stration of mairirtgcs, moreover, is 
unfurourable to the colleetion of accurate marriage ^lBtisltcs for any 
area of which the boundaries do not coiTcspond with those of regiatra- 
tion districts. Practically speaking, therefoic, truTsiwoi'thy statistics of 
fecundity cannot be calculated for smaller ai^eas of England and Wi^e« 
than registi-aiion counties. This, however, is the less to be regretted^ 
as the main use of fecundity statistics, that is^ of the pro^wrtioo of 
children to a man-iagc, is for international coniparison, and for detecting 
any cTiange in the degree of pi^lificncss prevailiug in a nation in a lou^ 
series of years. 

Tn the sub-division of this Part dealing sjiecially with illegitiinaGy 
(it was fouml impossible to exclude all reference to this subject in the 
Bub-division " Birth Registration and Birth-rates '*), some valuable 
GJtracts will be found dealing with the influence of early maiTtages, of 
the proj>ortion of spinsters in the jx^pnlation, and of elementary edueai- 
tion, upon the proportion of illegitimate births. Some of these ejctracte, 
although necessarily fragmentary, are as valuable for what they suggest 
as for the information they contain. Extracts leanng uiwn the mort^tj 
of illegitimate children will he found in the section dealing with infSDt 
and child mortality. 

The last three sub^divistons deal briefly with Sex Pi-oportion at Birth, 
Defects of the Hiilli l^gister, Statistics of First Born, and with Still 
Bi rtlis . — ( Editob) . 


1. — BiuTii RitaueTKA-noit A»n BiitTn-tiATU, 

Birth fffffisiftitioA^ 1837-76. — I propose cow to givo n bri^ accoont 
of ihcT n^gistrnn! aiUlirion* to llie populmioii «1iice In Jiilj l»37, when 
civil it^^ifilmlion Ix'pin ; niiil to <lclcriniiio itn nrjirlj' ah T nm alilo how 
fnr iht iiiiTnbor of HiJ!Jn*n rtgislcrcil fnlla short of th« rmmbi'mf clitlttrm 
bom ilUv^, Tlif? iatiU pixiVf? thftl the dpfecls w^rc Himiiii^hing before 
ihc Inw vejw cnforpcd '*v jM.-nitHifa; und now wjih <lutf \i;;ilnm'i' ihe 
rej^ifitrntlon of birihu »h wt'll &« of ilenth^ will, 1 Wticve, hv in EugLiukd 
0^ compl4^U> iw il in in anv olhi^r countrj^ in Kuropv, 

Looltin/ back frtitn live fii^t catuplct^ year uf rei^stration 1c the bsii, 
iho iiBDual birlbB were 463 J^7 in 183^ ftn4 8»7^8 in 1876; nud the 
iitw liirrhHucmiiJlj' recorded from Isl Jo[/ 1«3T on ibe natioiiAl rpgifllore 
yrvie 20.129^900. Then; wciv in ibc Hr^t yvnx 30' .1 l»rth:t fr-^Litcrcd to 
t*v<-rj 1,000 inhnbibinl*, in t\ii* IfLKt vtvir36*B: And uttur bllowiTig for 
auy nature] iucreasc of tho mtc in tlic intcrrni, nr any d^ficieacy of 
rc^HtriLti'in in tliA lift yrur of all, I am iitcli^ed 1o tlunk the actual 
bhlh-iafe of lining clildr^n wns 3G pcv i.iKKi dnripg tho 39^ ywiri of 
ctvfl rc;;i&trAtiDn. At thit rnto bestdcD tlic l!6.1:JE>,fK)1i b^rlbn rrgtfler^i 
1.441p<i03 birihb i-fmaincd iiDrcgi*<tpred« or ubout 5 in 100. 

Tbi> births wun^ diminttihed by l7,07!»,OIt* dc-nihn, ^rhich nftcr 8ub- 
triirtinn U'W an <*\c''*-'* in the nuinlwi"* nddcd to the t»>|>i]lMion of 
)0,1D2.I!>I ; Bbrjttf l,£00,GO{) uHfr*.- ihun tlii* iocrvniK' ut ll».< iKrmt? pupu- 
Iniion di^it^iTitnod frr>m th« C«nKUA<>f. Thr' l,20O,430f> miiHi Iiavc loft 
Ivn^ljinil by cmitirulion in cn^t-sri of UntmgvniUm. TIicrt were id 
E/ii/ItiHii awl MW^'fl in lite middle of 1837 nbont [^J03,T7^ jXTOpIo: 
und nl tlnrcriid uf lKTt> mor« liy 1^,2^ KKt^^ oi^w i^onurci, making la the 
Jtf'^T^^nti' '2A,3il'f,QG0 u>hnbifAnt» on 3I«I Drc^inbtx 1876. 

Thp *migniiio»t from Scciland and In-Und Imn b^mn in fiTopoHion to 
ihcir pf>puhdit>ixmori-exien^vi' tlian ibeemijri-fllioii frcni EngUod ; and 
Certain number* of ihw popuUiion of En^Und lux^ rf St^nich or Inidi 
birtb or de-4ceTit Coii[M>(|uontly a? ilio ]Kip(ilaiioEi En Ireland— not the 
Tr1*h yM>oplc — docivnsed» the inpTeoflo of tho popnintinn in (ho U?fmta> 
Kixv.i^riu u-3-1 lesA tliiin tlie inoren^e of llie pofinlntiun dnriiif? thr oaiDe 
timr it! Knghin<i tiinl Wnlrs. Thu increa£«^ of ftopuIjiTioii in ihe Cmtkd 
KiwuiH>)i, oxchieivp of iho itJond* in tho l}nti:>b scm, in Ihe 3!i'5 yearn 
wns T.(>I9,7A9. I leave unt of account hrzv ilif? uumbvm of ibc army* 
niiw. mid lEK'rpbnnl ^finii?n fibrf^adt ihe Rn^lUh, Sor^tri, nud Irivh 
rc^idin^ in olhrr conntiavH, aa v-tiU nH thi? inimcn»i< num1>er of living 
nmlgranl^ aud tboir dewendanta in the ColcntM and in thfr I'nited 

The [iDpuluiioQ of ibo Cyit£i> Kjnoix>bi iiJcrMv*(d in the 39 y^ara 
1S37-1876 ot iHe ruto of 29 ppr oenl. ; and in (hn bfit fen yciuvnt tho 
ratt' of 10 percent. The JocreoM^ in iholn^t tc*ri y*^r* was at the ml<- of 
0*94 percent, poraoauoi. It wa« 66 per aninim during thtj whole 
39 yejira. — {39ih Anntiat Report, pp. v-vi.) 

Hirth-mtts among Married fiomm^ 1^51, — The motlu^r* of all Ibc 
children that are born iu the cuuntiy aro Ix^twrra lZi4- aj^4 of lo und 
£J ; and the grv^ari-r |>nvt of thf-m ai« brrtv^n the A^pv of 20 nntl 40. 
Tho Isngliih nchinluk ]» defroijve, ai it dor* not nbow ibo n^ of ibo 
futlier Atid Laother at tho birtli of the child ( but il may hv mfcrro<I from 
tfui 8w(td)»li rrluraii that Dot more thnn 1 in 8 women who boar children 
in utidcr iho a^D of 20 or atxtve Ih^ D|C« of 40. 

Il fippciu-ei thai in 1851 tl>cfc wvro in KtigUnd mid Walea 2,^^ 3,^94 
miirrint wonieu undi^r ibtf age of Ao, and Xhmt tlie children born olir« in 
wciUock were 573365 ; h> thai 22 in 100 bore living duldrcn. The 


[I'-uiT m. 

namlier of uacnarrUd n-DtiKni, — «pin«ter« ami w'uhvft iDclu4)>c,^-of tUo 
fl»noage(15-fi3) woi 2»449,4j'J^; aoil a« ih^ numbrr of cbUJr«n bom 
mii of wodJvck wAf 12,000, U vrouM A{>pr«r ibM lo lOOof ihom I *7 
ohMdntn wtftnr> liom, TIio iiroporiion oF diililrc^ U> 100 mftrrwi iroinea 
4iuiderlii« AX^ of iiS raoj^ between 19' 73 la Hfrefordiibire vid 25*56 
t& Darham ; Ui« praporiba of cLildreo lo 100 anmvricd women 
(ft|0 l<V-5'j) raogea Iwtweeik 1 12 Id Deit>[i aiiJ :f'tiS iu Norfolk^ 

BiRTii^ io WKDI.OGK. i^iciitb^n^l ia 1851 to 100 Marriod Womea, 
a,<^\ l&-5itt to Ke^ftratioQ CouatJt.^, 



C>>uutiv« ID or^vr ftt thtfir 

tu 100 

C«umM« in m^m of tbdr 








MoutDVUltiahJfT ' • 

n 4 


London * . - 


ESCULAND xjta W'xi^K* 

SI 5 







Surrt^' , - - , 


Ni'rlh Itidio^ 




llii?k ingbuDiUre 


G[u»ii'jttiHrBliir* - ' . 


Cb*ih^ - 

tS T 

Ecihl HMin/ (wilh York) * 


H«rtfordiblii« - 


HoTVt \Vol« - - , 




SurutT'f 'h ll i IV 


Dcvttvtthlru ... 


Iloraiulim^ , * , 




?Voi(Litpbuin«hirc * - 


SoaihWnk* * 


Ili-rt»hlr>' * * - • 


llantingdniiBhln * 




LdvcBienbirr - . - 




13' a 

SllNKliK - - - 

31 -» 

W««ttnorltiid . * . 


tiltlTrilk - - - - 




UuEUfid - ' - 


BftlAjriUbtrv - • * 


]». rhvihir* • - - 


Coruwall - - - 

24 -fi 

VVrliAhirt - 

as- 1 

l^vcAPihJre . . - 


OJtfufcbhirv m ~ . 


Wc»( Ruling 








Liurtinni , - , 



The OTimWrof women oF the ii^ (20-40) In Bnj^buid aud WiUr.* at 
llic tinwj of tht Oqhus, w»s 2t^56,39S ; of whom \;1\9,IH'2 were 
uii[D[iri'U<d, l,OOV-l'i wpi-c ra^rrird. And If IJ-iW? t>er CL-at, of the 
children aro dv-iuot4>d, bclon^ln^ a? il may be inforrcd, ti> tbo women 
under 20 aad above 40, it vrtll fuDow ihnt to wfry 100 woiTiffn of tho 
•ga SO— 10 about 11^-9$I cliildren nre bom aiiQimlly, io evety 1()0 
ttiimarr}«l vomeQ 2-90?, and to everj 100 mamul womca 31-413 

Thc4u fncif may wdl cidai tho appreberuione of thoso who ont^rutin 
ftD^ dread of ih^j dofiopiikucu of tbe kingdoui : uud thny pruju?ut m an 
encouraging aspect tio gn^t ro«Durc<vt of t)te l^n^^lUh population for 
i!oli>i]imtioi) or for war, — {Hth Annual K^^port, p. xilu) 

BirtA'f^iet amon^ Marrtffi and UnniftrrUd IVomen, 1841-57. — |q 
forming an «?t1iiiiutf- eithiT of the pnitidcnc^ or of tbu sXtAA of public 
mornh in h rodHiry, the number of chiWrun boi'n In Wi_vll*>ok muat be 
ooaiparcd with the iiumbr:r of mnrrti^<] women ctt childhoaring agc« ; auil 
ilk lik« mtttnor the nam^KT i^f cbildrf^n horn oat qf frrti/acA muvt h^ 
eCTn|inroij witJi the Duoibor of uam&rriod womeQ oE tbo same ages. 




I b&Tc Uithi*rta fhowa tlic pro|i:>rtioa of Uicthi to A&il oiil of w.>llock 
toth« p^iKilalioQ of tlie 90T^>rk1coqnt;e«; an J tlio iKrlli^nk* Im^ bx'u 
foanH lo itifl^ coosdonkbly. Bm tlut niu^ \^ ovidi^ntly rt'^iiUt^i to a 
Inrg^ cxtont, firatty bj tbe prop^trtioti^l nmabor of wom^n m the aorcr&t 
omintiet h .■t.iri<i>TL ihe Ag.'K of [^ AnA S5, nn^ soeondlj i>y tb» QiiaibeTA 
living in the nurnn^* ittat^ nt ihow a^<>9- 

Iit corieei^uence of the arraii^timi?4iU mnie nt tbe lut CeQsns ttie 
ratio of Ic^dmciUf liirlh->» to aicLrrmt ivoiai-n, arid of illvj^timnte birlba to 
unmiLrrLo.l wam^n, (run n<>w bo ilollnikiU itiiUirmtnvJ for «Mh oou&l)^* 
from U»e rctiirnn of thirlpen jfm^ includinff «x yenr* briforc and rix 
;f£&ra afUT lie Corifus year. 

ia 100 M»in-'l Wi>tn*'Ti ni^ .1 1 

%—'* 'f, in n^'L.'i'.Ti'jit Ktri < 'l>iiii 




Conritif* in ord^r of tb*ir 

to 100 

Coimti#*tD onlprof llifrlr 

lo lUO 


Binh nin. 


K«rfolk - 



91 '6 



CamtniilgiuhTre - 











10- « 



OlouACAlcnbire * 


MidaiHTX - 


EitOLisra i?ii> Wat.w 


NoriL Walp* 






.SanBtx * - - 


IforihAutptonfiliire « 


Eiwl Hilling (vilb York) - 



Bcrkiihin - - ^ 


W*rwicLahinf • 




CiinibrrrtAiid * p 


Siirr^j _ - , 






Konh lUd^fif; 


WiJtsliiic • . » 






XAnhnmbcFloui ' - 


E«« , • - 


Wf^tmartADil * 


N<iiiJit|:fmLnhtjir» - 


Vftta HidinjE 


Ttiifl<*"'liihir* - - 

91 '3 

Sofifli WaIa 




CorctwnU . - * 


OxfliifV . - • 


Lafteanbtiv - 


Burkinghvnahtro - 






Durbim - - . 


Tbe proportion of vomi-n of tW puorpcrAl n^ tWUvn mii^b in ilxn 
mvntfact unuff, miniujff and A^riculcoral counties ; tind wttiU- tito 
proportion of vromm living married ni thf? ngi.' of 3l)— IQ, to ttn 
tiMmarrir*f, U ten in ivo «ouiili«a (Nfidi1k*4i.'V. rWpa-m<»lrop<iliLuiif And 
WcstinorlMid), nn*\ only cfcfyw in North VValvs, n<'v-on, Surr*iy, 
OIuucTfit*T,, Salop, HiToforii, Cumbirlan*!, tho pmpcirlion in 
four coriTitivn, Mnnmoiifl^ Durhnm, St^fTont, and II itnun^lonj is 
Htniiifen miuriiMl -wromco of ibe a^ 20-40 to ten unmarriMl iftmicii of 
ibe PKm^ s^. 

The DumN'r of ODTnarrwl ircrnrn of tho flgo of 15 and uu<lvr th« aj^ 
of ^ may be dirtttM tnto nearly two equal portions ; tbe ofto of woiQftn 
€f tbo 0^ «»f 20 nxv} uDilir 40, ibi< otbi-r of WQTixrn »bova or bdoir tbat 
p*>rto<l ; aikI (tni Swoaliith rrtunLs abow UulI tbo motbcT* of iho ffrvat 
iDajoriiyorckil<ln^nnT<c120and ODdcr 40 yefira of aft*. I h&w, th^Tv*for«, 
to dvC«mi]»o tbr^ ri>btivtf* birtb-ratci, couipoivd tbo birtha n»pecttre]y 
(1) vritb Ihc numW of wiimcu of tbe a^<> of Iti-^^ and (dl) with tb9 


uunber of wcmaoo ot iJio n^ 2(M0. Th« eountiet, orrtngnl in the two 
cnlni^ iUdbcL In oeartj ihe Mtno refiativi^ pwitton*. 

TliUK in D«voa«htre one child lo cifrhi^n born aIitc in illrgitinubto f 
vhlU ill XorfiJk m^ iti ^vi*ry Htw c^iiMron Itom ftlivo i« ilUfglticnfilv ; 
nnd hi Dvvod «/rrrn nnmarritd ^f0mrn uut of ],000 of ib<> Age lfi-^& 
how cbiMn<» unnunUi'; wtiile iij Norfolk iteeni^'/it^ rml of 1,U00 
iminArdi?<l woiiKrn of tlie i^iuc sj^ U>tv liTirt;; trlijldra^n Aikniialty. It the 
itli-gttii»Atk- cbiMrvn Wl boon the <:hLli]r4T|i uxrlqdit^clj of woiw-n of 
l{w 0^' 20-44>, theii lli« propurliuti of »urli wo4n«tn nitiHt har« h<*i-ii ^1 
aiinaally in Devon anil 50 in Xoffolk out of vvvrr ifiOO; in niiio 
coiinti^v ItHH iljiiD .10 : in twciUj' oonDllifl 30 nn4 £ms tlian 4(1 1 in 

Th4- mininy; aHintirf StnUotil unci PurLjoD, tho border coantSoff. 
|[i*]vriiti), Saio|>« Anil Cnmberl&DiJ, ili« Duiitib conntW. >rorro]k. 
t^uffolk, NDlttngbnxu. L>-rt'}-, [j<:ii%*^lcr, and tlw niAnufiioturinf^ counUc» 
in ft iMi degne* BvdfonI, York, Che^t^', anti L4Lnrajili<r, Lnv^ hd L*xee«s 
orwonaen fltunwied^^ft prolific ; whtlRall tW Cvlcj<r |H>|>iil»ih>ii oocupj 
fin inlormMltnie plft»*; ftnil lli«* popiiliitimi stoijlh of th^ ThnmoA Kba |b« 
smdl^l propoHioti of tinniBrnccI womci bearing c hi ldri<u. 
Ahtiual Berths oat of Wedlocje, rvffi*l<*rrtl during lh« U yetr» 
ltHS-57 to 1<X> t*ninntri<Nl Wonwn, a^d ]f-6S, in R^^n^AntioD 



Couniic* in ur^r of their 

1X1 |IX» 

irouniie* m oitler of tbrir 

[o ruo 




WonwTj . 

JxiiUloii * « ■ 










Dcrlubin . * . 




H»nfard4hirv - - • 














JtntlnndHhira - • 












CbtMhirv - - 

1 9fl 

Kcoi - 


Wnl Hiding 




Dnrluun * « 




IMfordflbir* • * 


Uv&tDChilbabtrc « 




Exot^nn A^i> Walv» 


North lllillnif 





siiiiToa - 


NonhWii]» - 




Emvx _ . . 


Suffnrdjibin* - - - 

a -so 



Nbtlinghiinikbin; - 


Kmi Itiiiiig (wUh York) • 


djnib«rliiiiil - ^ . 


1 SoMih WnW 

I'Tfl , 

Norfolk - 

a -53 

Tliese iiibiir* (icst'rvt- to bo studied by prrMin^^ living in cbc several 
Jocalitic-*! in coiiiKiXK'n with nil ibt- ctrcuumtancod ; a» tijere can bo no 
rlmilft g^nornlJ/ uf ibi-- iiLihJiP^iiii:}^ iil' tUc L-blhhi^ii WrJt (mt, i^f we\Uock^ 
nnv %ni/t^ than tbore can of tba dt^rnngcmctiU proJuci'd lu fninUioA hy 

W by, it limy bi> irKjUirc-l, *Io Ucrnhfjitv in Norfolk, Aud Wcrvn in 
Dt-vou, ho»r cbil[lrt.-n nnnunlly cut ol thc^ same uambci' of itnmatTicd 
women; utd vbal Jtrc iIk* con^qucnccs to ilie popnbition of the two 
ocundo^ dUticguutbcd in sat^b din&rent wnys. 



Tile |>ro|)orlion of lt*^itinm(f^ cliUdrcn l>onie hy womeu of uU iSRi^st 
nnniiuUy fn l,C)00 mmTiinl wnmrn living of iIlc »^^4 under 40 i« 392 
In Corimall, <12l in Xodblk, which is^ tlmi^ ala) iti aiK)thor vjiy 

For nil Ku^lfttKl l.OOO murriMl wouwu cf l1u! ojct! I.5-.S.5 hnvi^ 220 
rhiltlrviiuiLiiuully ; 1,(K)0 UDJnarrip(l woinciii biivf* IG children an mud ly, 
or oi\f IB JunrfecH of tht-iu id f'ljMWril to the same* dioncti <jf l^tuiring 
cbiliJifio MA miirriril women, — (^(hh AiinunI RrjHirl, \tp, xiv— Xi'I.) 

liirth-ratvs muant) NiarrUd ttmi tiawnrritd tf^r}m€i^ l**72- — Tlie 
its^t-nl Ccrtmia tcturDs t'oiilirn) pn^vioua (}c<luctron9, nnd abovr rliat fhmntk^ 
Willi n bi^h proportion of iiiiii'rii.''1 woini^n Ht tti^ cliiM^hcAriii^ 'W"^ 
htivr the nii;ht«<t hirth-mlc ; \liu* o( i^very JOO woni>tn Wvint: at the 
Bg^ ]5-l^j 111 Diirlijtni. '>0'9 were marrlod, and In ^talTunl oG'3, wbile 
in I>evoii The jjixftMirticm wM ttnly 45'2, in Dnrwi IV'O, and In 
HfTvJonI 4T'3. Of cvi'Tj- KK) w<>inwi livStig lu l^ngUinil nnd Wiik#, at 
Uk« ngc?( l*V4A, 49'fi, nearly hnlf tlir number, vrprt» inHrriH. 

Tbe Appendix lo tbc Ceimue Rqwrl of 1.^7! coniivmti somo tnti^rcsetin^ 
rcnuiln f-vMiing ntH>n tbix i^ninl,* nnd iboA^« iliiit in tlio conntiea con- 
tAluli»g Uio a^rlcuJUiTHl lUbtrSciH tlK> blnb-mft- ift ^'tiiirnUy low, while in 
thMO coan1io« wlii>n tbo jifrwil milling h)diii^lHa»^ nf lW c<iui3lrj ura 
ctire'uA on the birlli'TAU- U hrch: (buti ibt- proiiorliiitiiil number of 
Ic^itimntt* birthit iinnniiUy in urc T^n ycAr?; I861w0i lo every 100 
ni&njeil woin^rii aged I6^&t% in the countipft of Ptu^biuii and .Stafford, 
tvn* 2'i^^ nnd 24-6 ruipcc lively, while in the cotinfic* of Devon, DorM-L 
iumI llrn^ford, llie ^roifOrticnM were oiilj" 2r2, 21'7, and 19-7 

If ih(» ratio of iiie^m&ie birflt to spineleri tiiid widow;! o^d l-^^jS 
bo oorniwreU iti lbe» counties tbc tvanlu nrc nonily equally Htrik&ng ; 
the ^Tcrof^c finnnAl pumbtrr of illi-^iiimmc tirtlsH to « very 100 onninfrlcid 
women being 2*'2 hi Dofbam and S'4 in Siaiford, while tn tVvon, 
Dor*vt, And llertfonl, ihe proporli<^n» were T^, 1 '<% and 2'0 per 
cent, — (35th Amiudl Beporl, p. xvi.) 

2. Fxci/miry of Mariiuija, 

Births id <i marriafft, KH^tand ami ^icmiand, 1850-60. — Thtt 
BMrrlagif*! la a t^nlvadAr year gi^i^ rim to btrlbii \rbioh ar-c rcgi'*«'rt'd 
jrear after year fur £0 j^eara. Tbe birtbs to xh& 1*37.723 luiLmigi^ in 
tbe year IS'ii* cmdd only U' ilrtcrm:m%l by lollowing the families and 
COiintini^AlllliecbUdrenunlo iheetid. 'V\w divniou of tbi- Aum of ilt« 
ebildivii \t\ iUx? MiiLiTiAgi:* would Acctirnldy expiofw ibc frcundily, aa U 
b«« bnon called, oX marrnitiv. If the aimiud inarriagei do not incr«AM> 
or tleertft^e in number ibroucl^ ^ teritt of 3re«ri, the dtibiun of the 
■nniial Hrtbs 1>y i\» annual tuarria^s of tbe aairn^ yeim expres^i^ tbe 
fecundity pretty acenrately ; but tbenmrringeain England are increasing 
rapidly i con^vijucnily the 740^276 bjr(b» ixpstvred in ihn jt:iir IbiM 
moat be divided by tlie luarriagefi of aome ^srlit^r yi'Ar to gnt «a 
^ipioxicaation to tbe fecundity. A« the mge of tbo molbcra in unfor* 
Innatdj not recurdHi, tbe latenal in Eugland a unknown wbicb 
luterraota b«t«rcai iIk; mean a^^ of marriu^^ and thr< Dienn agn of 
the molhera wkea llieir chitdrciL nre bom i olherwiN* thnt iulvrval 
would indicate tho calendar ycnrs with which tbe birlb* of tbe year 
1^4 ^touli] be compared. 

* 8«e Tol- IV. CcMtta of England and IVates lan^-^ritml Bcpon, TiUt il« 


[part lU. 

But the mterral in Sweden betnecn the mp&n Age of molhore at 
iDarringc (25' 8 years) acil their tuean ngc at the btrlhe of Iht-ir children 

}31'7} is bIx years; and the interTal in England cannot difler much 
rom six year?. HeDce^ if ihe legitimaie Mrtha of ;d^'«n yean are 
divided by the marria^8 of bjx years carlk-r date, the quotieut will be 
the proportion of chiULren to a marrioge within elosc limits. In 
England the birtha tLu6 dclcimincd to & tnan-ingc were 4-2JS6, 4'301, 
4*304 in the yeara lb62, IHGd, and 18G4. In ScotJaud the hirths in 
1862 to the average murriageb of s\x year^^ eirlier date (XH66, ItloO, and 
I8fi7) were 4"C94. The nuniber of children to a niarria;^ thuH apj>efln4 
lo be greater in Scotland than id England, und this in held to Ih' a prcof 
that married wcmen are more proline in Scotland iLuii in Kng1ai:d. 

Proceeding upon another ba^is the annual number of legitimate 
children registered in England was 626,500 in the five years 1856-60 ; 
when the average number of wivea of the age 15-55, determined directly 
from the CcnEns returns of ISSl and 1861, was 2,845,374 ; consequently 
100 wives bore 22'0 children annuatiy. In like manner it is found that 
100 unmarried women bore on on average l"? illegitimate children; 
that is 17 children to 1,000 women. 100 women, including the married 
and the unmarried, bear 12 "3 children onnuaHy on an average,* 

In Scotland, during the same years, the following proportions were 
found to exist ; 100 wives bore 24 * 8 children anDualty, 100 Fpinstera or 
widows bore t'9 illegitimate children; and 100 women bore I2'0 
children legitimate or illegitimate. 

jibe wives of Scollond, as well as the spinster?, are apparently more 
prolific than the eorresponding elosses inEDglaucI; and yet taken col- 
lectively the wcmen of £nglan<l are more prolific thuu the women of 
Scotland. 1,000 Enplisb women (nge 15-55) bear 123 registered children 
annualJy ; while 1,C00 Scoteh wcmen bear 120 children. The difference 
is Blight> but it in in favour of the English women, 

This appears, at firbt i^igbt, to be contradictory and j>aradoiical. It is 
explained by the circumstance tLat the proportion of reeogniEed 
wivea in the population is much lewer in prcpcrl:on in Scotland 
than it is in Kngland, and as the fecundity of wives is to that cf 
spinsters a^ 13 to 1, a siight difference iu the proportions alters tbe 
hiith-rates of the two populations. The difference in this respect 
between England and Scotland is great: in England 52 in 100 women 
of tho age 15-65 are wives, 48 only are spinsters and widowa j in 
Scotland the proper ticns are reverse dly 44 receguiied wives to 
56 spinsters and widows. 

1856-60,— Wives and Spikstees and Widows, aged 16-55, in 
England and Scotlanp, 

j^MD OP 

1 OF Hakkieu 

1 AXD U?f^ABH[ED WOllW. 

fflTCB - 

BplUBtcn and VIcIotb 



! Esotisn. ScoTLASO. 

MS7>7«t j£ 1. If HI 00 

100 '00 

\ I 
ftSl337* j 383.^71 i Kfl" 
2^i^i^ 1 4S3,7W "' 17-71 


* The propori^ona are Mifhily difTercot in Iht- ytars 18C2 nad 1864; hut the 
BrFUineTit nmainH unaffected. 1 he tame rcmaTk npplitit lo rhr propoitJoiia of birlhs 
lo iromen of age ao-io. 


By iillcrin^' tlie proiforLioQS in Soollaml, Tor inrUiJico, hy tTOB^^riiTiiii; 
^7,609 woniim troic iho rank^i cf Ui^ unmafiiuil to IJie muiriefl wonu-n, 
ami Lj' lr&ii»fcrriii^ ^,130 diil<!ivti frvin ilic iniik* <>r t)ic illr^itUnotr lu 
Uic l<^tiii)at« cbildrcii^ tho frcutiility of vfoUMiD — of tL-.« vrivu noil of th« 
niiiriBlerv— of Sc^otUiid, bovomob ibe eame o£ the ff^imdily of th« corre* 

cctiLf xpimiuni tuitX widc/vtst 1'07^; io^e&d ot 24'790 and 1"916 per 
cent* • nixil irhcu tlic tmij»fcr i* inuij<s tbc proporiicDS reiQiUQitig f4iU 
tliow n leu <oE<rrM of woiiH-n h\iDj{ id iho xiftia ^ nMrru^ la ScotUtiil 
tbao in Kujtiaml. Lee m puali tbu inquiry a lilUe furdicr. 

CouruiATii-K FKcLiti>tTy of EycLi&ir «□() Soorcu Wohkn of ilio 




To 10* WeUEj. 

To 100 Wro. 1 



SooIImhL . 



tftgtiu.J_ ^ jpOtiMld^ 


14 HI 





11 Ut 








14 -Wl 



















14 on 





*'Th<T^i0Au impotUnt (tifiliuctiou between ibe bw ofScotlnMl ilu<1 
ihflt of Enpbnil u|ion tl»c poiut of liTgitinialion hy Tniirrin^, iLo former 
UtfiltiHiiimy ail ih< cMtdttH of tht: partitt f/orrt otforr ILe uiarnjii^o, thO 
Ifiltcr fo^itlinotiag </n\y ibosc irUo irvic bom after tbo mm ui|^c, * • • 

*^ It b»jt bei'ti an 0riiHb]i4bfNl nil«i biuI principle df llii- law of SK:otlAn<l 
fcrftomc C«-nlurii.<» Lbnt tfAcit a man and a tnmittt arc ottct^ iawfaUj/ 
marritd atl the children 6orii of such parents, whether btym 6tfore the 
pKbiif r4'Ie6r<tfif/n or open ihctaralton cf ^tich mttrrmffe, cr afier Up are 
rf No//y to tft eaieettttyJ th<ir U-yiiimaft children. • • • 

" It is ^nerally ntiiicd in Scotrb AUtbonti«« to rwt <wi n prreutnptmn 
or fiction, bj vhicb Jt ia beM thai th^re ircu from tht bt^inrnm^ of the 
intrrefittne of the parties^ or at the iimt when thg child tw« tfeffotten^ a 
consent to mafrimtmiai ttnion itUetjtatrtf, itotviihAtandinjf that the 
entttraet vewv not frrmaUv tomplHttt or arovtd to th§ wortd ^at lh<t 
Census for cxnmpln) until a hter ptriod."* 

Tbo leffiltmAtioti of children bom out of iredlock bv MbMqneui 
mfiirijigtf i« nomrwhfit difli^rrnt in Krxknce i it <lepcnd» on ib^ decision of 

■ ShuSfurfl, La« of MsmaK*"' Pl>' ^^^l-^^ lit « vof« b* ftdd« i *' Ltfplitnbiion orr 
tvWyui-itJi miUrimoni%m li admic^il^wiib di^izrttit moditctdoM, not only by \ht Jaw 
of Scinl<md, bat ia /VaiMrf ^iriit, F^rlwcoK Grrmany, mid moti ottirr a/w$trtc* tm 
iuvm/if. ll pTDtftiU m Itktf iA*tfMwi O-^x Scri^ajf tkr /tU ^ Mtm,p Tt>-:a^, 
Catrntfy^ u»d Jrrm, Lqwct Camadtlt S^inl Zmcia, Tt-imda^, Jjcmcmra, JVrritM', 
lbs Chv vf Oottd H*jp€, CV|/ofl, uid lb? Jlfuvri'i iw. Il it ui>i Bdmliicd by lb« law 
of bifluid, or ot her oltrrr immubuoqii hi ibc Wot Jndii^A and Norib AsitHriA. at 
by ihelAWof bcUod. It pirv^il* in the SlBt«a of FVrMrrHl, JfarirAin J, I'tn/rnitf, 
M«rjFfa, ^MimOt Miuiu4ppi, ZoHwnid, JTi-ufKriv, i/iuonr/^ /d Ad na, uid'O'h^ 
bnt iM« ilk th« afA«r ^roJri or AmerlcL'' 1 Burfiv on F«rci(a law, I0I."_ 

96 [part nr, 

thir parents miller tho OoJc Napoloon, wliich nonrly ^'XprcsBea the state 
of the law on tlio cotittiioiit of EuropL< «mco ihc tiino of th»- Romani- 

" Lea enfAn!^ nt's hors mnriAge nutref qiu; ceux n6n iVnn commerce 
]nce3tiieu7. on aUult^rii) poiirr/mt etre Ugilimis par Ic mariaffc jrvd- 
seqaent de Unrs pPt^ ct tnere, lorxque ceux-ei lea anrotit Ugatcmeni 
reconHHs avtint Icitr mnrtage on qu^ih lex rtconnaiirottt dans facte 
meme de reicbrationJ' — Crtle Civile, Hvn? i. floclioii 331. 

En^lnml etnncU iilino^t alone amon^ the fiTJlizeil imtjoim of Europe in 
refusing leptimntton, cvt-Ti at the wish of tlie pnronts to offspring ^*orn 
out of wodlock : tiiid ctmogQS of the law might bo dc[]mnilcil not only in 
kinihiesa hut in ju^rict^ to the chihln^n, if there wi-ro no ^rcftt counicr- 
vnilintr oilvftntnjT^^-^ on \\»' side of English Inw. Such iiilvnntA^a are 
lielievoil lo exi^t. 

Out of l,(H>y chiMvi-n whose births arc regiiten^l iu England GZ are 
Illegitimate; oni of 1,000 registered in Seottaiid H9 are illegiiimuto 
(1850-00); i\m proportion of bastards iu an eqimi number of children 
of the two coumiies is u.'^ 3 in Enghind to 4 in Scotland, Is this to be 
ascribed to the givnicr ignorance of Scotch women f* By no laeana. 
la it due to differences of religious belief or zeal ? \o one pretends 
that in this respcet the people of Scotland are at all inferior to (ho 
]>eoplo of ICngland. \Vc arc thus driven back for an explanation to 
differences of the laws. 

It IS quite certain fliat many of the children i^egij^teixd as illegitimute 
in Scotland will he legitinrnted by the subsequent Tnairiago of their 
mothers; the number is not always recorded ils the iiicrc fact of marriage 
re^dar or irregular let^itiniates offspring ; but assume the numbers to be 
2,130 out of 0,272 illegitimate births, then it follows that an indeHnite 
number of (he women returned at the Census as spinstori' tn Scotland 
are living in a. state of quasi -marriage described in the books, and fairly 
expecting if ihcy liave ehililren to see those children legidraated by 
subse<tuent marna;:co ; they are kept in nu uncerlain i^tate, hovering 
between concnbinivije an<l mairiage, to which there \a nothing corre- 
aponding in England, and they would nearly aU, if they lived under the 
English liw, be CKpUcitly marrie<L If the numbers of these women 
are taken at <57,00^, as has been before explainer], and added to the 
wives of Scotland (age ]o-o5), the numbei'a of wives de prtcacnti and 
wives defuirtro wiU be 4 10,879, giving birth to 97,113 children aDniuillj, 
leaving 42(5,18.3 spinsters and widows corres|JondiDg to the same class in 
England, and giving birth to the same proportion of illegitimate children,* 

*ljet the fbcundity of wlvch nge \5 — 5S la Eaglaud be Ihus exprcsBCfl by^ 
Jegidinate children in a year 

wives lix'iDg in a ycmr *" ■' ' 
illcffitiaiate children 
an.! that of onmnmod woruea by ^pi„,ur. and'^idon . = *■ 

And fbrScoiIuDd pnt I = legitimate births in corrcepoading year, home by v wives 
of BffC 15— &5i il^o i ^ ilTr^timate hirths by » tipinslers aud widows of §anici age, 

l^en to ohtaia the proportion (y) of ipiDi-tcra to be trati<<fcrrcd ta wireB^ and of 
illegitimate births (-r) to be tf-aoAfcrred to Che LegilimatCf ia order ti> make the 
feoimdhy of the correBpooding cia^^cN equal to tho»u of £a^[and, we have thBie 
Equations of Condiljoa : 

C2)and)-^^ = ^ =t -01676 

Am ■ cImh thtt*e n'omtm in tliu prvuuplU oivgo UivQ wmpflrvlirulj 
Tew children. Tor the fi-uilful m^rvy, ttnd llie mirruitfu) 09 ■ ralo remain 

OUker «xplaoatiODs an? coftcejvable, but timkr tliio li/pnTNo^L4 it i» 
not jicccMarj to Auumc tlutt Uiorc ix ftnj' o^-ntJ^l ilitll-rt-Dtr in tbo 
orgwiiai|i«n. llit* r«cumUty, or tht virtue af llio w^hm^n living oortL and 
sonih of iiw Tweed, Tlie lAtra are diffeivot. The- j-isuli Hwnj» lo fell 
ill favour of Uic £ugli»1i iiuirriugG Inw, i%n\l a^ainf^C l<';;Ll^tiiHli<>ij hy 
«ibfor|Uenl mania^i iiiasmucli a^ the beueiil to vxbliu^' illcgiliamce 
diildren it piirciiiuHxl hy multipltontiun of Ui«tr nuinbat?, tmccrcaJn 
conf)cxir>n» fH*(wv^'n IIm al^i^v^ «tid t^xtonntv diwu^juiiirAtiou of funiijj 
lifi*- — (Z7tb Annual lUpoit, pp, xx-xiiv,} 

hirthw to fi mitrnai/e, ]HGi etntf ISTl. — AMauinlii^ Ihiil tlw inicrrn] 
^eiweon th« mean dgo ol' inarri^o Aiid the ni'uiri n^o of tht^ motli«T>( in 
Kiigljuid in C jatti^ ttiuD the legitinmU? liirtlis in IH* I ilit ti\vt\ Uy ihu 
ar4-r»f;c nuciilHrr of iitarriiigo^ in lliv- ihrvtj j^OArtt ]8l!T-f)wil) jeito tlio 
•verage number of 1>lrlti» tn « imc-rijLj;!.' — I"J^7. In Ibe ywir I8fil tht 
]Ui>por(iuujil uumbcp waa l*3(), so to ovvrjr U*l) iniirriagrH in Kn^laiid 
\Uevc arc i*ow l-i7 ImhIi^ wtiun^a;' U-n jvaps ago there nv-re KW, or :i7 
hite. This ifi no JouIjI v"in;( to ftOmo impToremcnt in tb<* n^^Mritititi 
<if birtliN. Tbi> Annual nrfinb^^r fif t(i^ifinin1^ hirthh< T<i t^wry I06 mnrric^l 
vronwo ni^fd 15 "iid undtir .>5, in tin-. 10 ychti lW31-7(», waji :;!^'3j. 
— (37lU Autiual Kepori, p. xiv,) 

ItirtA-mtrA ami FciantM^ it* I-*uriiptiiH States. — Itio b[nh« ff^is- 
Ut'cd ill Kji^Uf>il tiro, in prorHJiii^^n i*> lli^ [tujuiluliun^onO'Scvniih jmrt 
moi'c rumeroTi^ Ihmu in E-tmia'. nnd Odc-wvvntlj j>Arl I«sa than m 
iVn>^:^^ To 3,'i2-j iiitiabitmita 100 Iririfta arc unnually n^i^UTcd iu 
PrarR't', 1 13 in Kjitflrtiii!, 133 In Pru>^iii, 136 in AiiP^Eiia. JAl ilk KuH-tia. 
Tint huaII iiunilrvr or biitliH In Friuicc ia iiot »cirpuiilc<l for hy amy 
tliflViviktru in th« |>Tn[>nrtiAn of lhi» |i^rittiin n>ariiL<r1, vrbu krv in fuel 
more »uinrr<Hi» in Fraia'nr Iboit 111 anjr other «iuatrj fnira whitt I baic 
ben'n able to (irocurc relumj". It ii]>prAj-A ibat I06 Froncb wive* bad 
11 rhildrni, lilO rrue«mu wiw* 21 chiUlrr-n jrtiHy; or, fn other icriii% 
717 vrivin boro miimjdl/ \W diildivn in Fnm«(% 132 vhilLbrn in 
I'niAaiu. If the births stic <liviih*i) hy tin* jmnuAl mnrrijkf^ ibHiliHik 
plac« M*vrn yritm U'IVl', lherL< w«t« ^''S3 births (iu tv^^illoclc) ti? a 
iimrritt|cc in ['I'ltnc, ]'(K> to a innriui^- hi VniKtm, mhI -t'3-l to m 
tnarhaff' in Au^lHit ; 1^20 iv a lu^irrin^- in lOi^buKl, azal. If 11 oorreotfon 

Iw iiiiulc for fiml tiuUTiiL^^^At 4'T1> l« v^'i»ij' /irn prrtn^li^ mArrio<|. Tbr 
lofal aimiud biilltf! in Kit^lnml, divtilcd hy itic |>rrM>n4 in-trriel H'vi-ii 
ycai« Irf'rwrtS K'^'* **" *■" n*i'R4J:e *>'I2 cbildjen \v eirrj lm» pdvoris 
tijjirTle<l ; mi^, a^ Di*ny illp}pUmviU' chiMri-n aro lh<» oir*iinn;» of Eiiiurletl 
|M*i>oiin lavrorr. duriii;:, or ntXrr nijirnii^i Ibir numlivr of cliiUrro to 
ovviy two p^rHoim inurii*'!! in lOiitflund Tnn*t lie boiwevii i'7D uih) j'12, 
or little short of ^rv, Jibtiut tUre(^ tif which Jitt^dn tbcage oT inarringtt 
to rr[iUcic t!i4T tnxi pcirt-Ma anil ibiMi? who hint no ofTHpnu;; ; tbv Aurplua 
melbn;; the numfxr of tbr i<xi>1ing tnhjibttniilt of thu i^Jiind^ or liowing 
v(C ill cmi^TfltitNi.— (dtb AuuiiaI lUrport, |r, jtJtxJ) 

/%ev"''Vj' of itttrrUfi tr^mttt in KnrofM^iM Strtff^. — Throii;^ tha 
e&urtaj of tli« t^itperinttrrK^MiU prcnidin^ OTi^r ihf Jtlntirtt^jkl if«|litrttaeDto 
or the r^pecti^i? iCtitopean Sijitt'^ I am rnublod to puMiHb for tbo yenr 
I87G MJinc vt)[>roximatLi r\<f<ultis ihowioje th« <iMKnp«ratiT€ ftcandltj^ of 
nuuTicd woinCJ.1 in the di^nnil Slatei* 



I pointed out iu the 27th AhiiuhI Kcport,* tliiit to aK^-rtnin the number 
of births to u mnri'in^ (unless the iniirriji<re-Tnte is fihilioiiary) the nnnuiil 
birtlkft nbould be divided by the atitiuhI tJiArrtii^'s of sonic previous year. 
In tite following rtHidls it Ijils t>ccn tkFsnmod, in the ub^nce or more 
prei'iEW iiifoiinAtiont thjit the interrid beli^X'i-ri Ihf^ me^ni itgi' of mothers 
At mjirrin^, unci the ineiui h^ ut tbe births of their chlMrcti, in tlio Kumo 
in England inid in other eountiirtir ns it ia in Sweden, viz., aliouL biy 
yeHLB, The le;ritimrite biillis in )H7<> hiiVf tlLeiefoni 1>cen dividei.! by 
ibo WHrriji<rt>:4 of y]x ycniA ciirlivr ihi(<'. 'J^hus in Sweden tlie Tiiimlicr 
of legilinntic births in the year m7(>f tn the arcrttfffi inniuat nnmbor of 
marria^^*^ in six ycniji einlier <Iide (I*^^*p l^*T<», 1H71} vtu* 4-H^, so the 
number of ehiidt'eri to i\ nifinin;:^ ■■■ Swrdun jiji|ieAE-s to be iieurly the 
sjime us (he nunilier in Kn^land, vh., I -tMi. 

In Itidy the proixiHionHl numl>er of births lu ii nmrriiip3 waa 
apparently hi;;hcM, -J- 15 ; but rliirs i^ pnibidily owiii<; to the fiiel tbut 
£uJ the uiarriii^s liiv not at |in-4cnt n'^fstercd. L'niiff^ia titiukdtt next ill 
order of grcutest ft'uuiidity, and ibe |irO|iortiiiiud iiiTinber wus 4'92, Iil 
tlie Netherlamls it was 4'V3, nearJy the Mtmo ua it was in Sweden. 
Jti Bel^duni it WAH 4'4S, tienrly tlie Ntnie ii» it wa^ in Spain; in Denmark 
it ffiL4 low (i'2t}, and in Aiotriu still lower (373), while it was 
lowest in Fnuice, vi^., ;r42. 

CowrAK-^TiVK Fkcimhtv ill ditferi-nl Euitoi-kAN States, 





In JL Miirriii^e. 





rmstiii - 


Sweden - 



4 K3 


Etieland - 
iteijiiiiDi - 










Aiifclriu - 

3' 7:1 


fnin^'C - 


( HJlh Aniinril liepeH, p. sxxvii,) 

Fecundity in France. — In France, Hceordiii;; to the lust retams of 

1863-09, the |jroi)oi'tion of children hot jnnnlly to 10() wives of 16—^ 

waa 15. 


A(iH» \i-:^t. 

Aois aj-M. 1 


BiHhKlo 1 lilnhnto 

t<V1 DllllTicll 1 imi UllDlBlTJf^ll 


Birlhn to 

imi iiiiiii«nicd 

n union, 


Walks. { 

* p. XI. 


Kiin-ii».] Mi* 

'Xhuj, nt iho FVencI) rut?, the En^lifli vrivr» trould hvve borai* 
niiniX»T|y in l8til-TO mily 47.'>,n*K Hiilili-Cii, n-hpn-ci* fhcir Inwful 

dnMivii wilunlly rrisiMrrtHi iM'TH' T0J.,1(X»» 47-^.91*1 hirtlis. woultl not 
\iiivi: n\A\Ke*\ iIiL- 47!J,i:>{) annual tinxli^li dt^thn in ibc jwrioil, »o the 
fFD|iii1»iion, wiilioui Hiiv I'liiii^Mikm. woulO hnv» rk-vljii«ij. In fraiiuc 
morn women mun^ liiiHi iu K»;;]im<], Atnl |]iuu;*b they ha^c fewer 
rhiMivii !**» lamil^. tlifr |iO[iiiljjtiL>iL in notsc'ii^tljly tli-olintiiX' 

Tbia ifi IV (jiK'SltotL of iimirlHrr.-i tvlicb iin.^ not much ^H'H)-€d Hlht?]' Wnv 
by til c direct action ot tfio woallhy, ilko iMrip-iLlilk', or ibv bJjfbly culti* 
vn(uiL Jt itiru1vc---4 Ihi; nii.nijLitii'i] nyMfniunk- |jiilii7 iif Iwo lu^isiis of 

rniacr, witb few 6i?ll1ril colonic*, on ibo «>iio huiiil; of Ibt X'roU^fl&Dt 
workm*-!!, 1a1>uijrt-rN mlm-rs, iLrlE/jtii<(, wnl :niii'itiM> of Kii^bkiiit, wilb 
Mitst cakinirtl [losj^^ysionis on ihe otiicr. The Hio.i»1 |>olky in botb casc-s 
may |Hrifiu|j9 1k» coiisiilvrvcl o|>cii to Li-iiMirv, niid yvl iirojr not bu irithont 
vfnc1i(-]i(iiiii In tin- i.'ir(<iiiniiliiikCL<4 uf ibi- ttvn natioiiK [f Ihv Frvijch 
parriii lL^k)i how mniiy of hi> cbiMrcii li^ivc a cbikitcr of n fivrlibontt on 
ft |mrcol of llie di'ur luti-L Irr [ovis »» ivi-1l^ iintl ro^uhid-^ hta t'Eunily 
av-ouri1iii;:ty, he- a|>pcnJ'» T" huvr \Ug n<inrlion i>r Ihr "diool of ccoiiouithU 
foiiiiilol l>y an Kti;;liF-hl]inii i while fiu ihv Kii^^lish bhIo wri coiitvt)d« 
with till* tkcla ff^T^alcKl hy tht> (.Vniin^^ in rLir liAf^d^^ Uiut lht» Kn^liOi 
peo]rle have iusiinctivoly |iur4uoil n ^rrr^t uml u'isr palicy: theybftve 
irtciviiscil jit vnmbk i^aLoe; by incrcjL'^m;; rng^iiUy hiutx chu liwl cciilmy 
tbey luiveexuifH Kii^liutrl to n belf;ht overtopi>e(l by iii> other power; 
ihcy have ]H-<-iihi| i"ulc»aH-fr i tbf-y b*ir |>)nLHi^fJ wido in [K'r|>cl«ity lli« 
En;!liMli rmi^ : niiil rhcy bnvr cXf^triiKil n ^tVMl tutrt in tbn gnv&rninoiit 
of the finest rvxiciMH of tbo viuth. Tbnt they bu^o done under gi-e«i 
iliricrnnii^cmrnu hihI ftl ;riwit fiiiriTiov*. Malthu^ loUl ihcm at ibe 
htr^'^nnioj; of the- crnluiy thul by <he pviuciplt of |K>pu1aUoa they >»«r« 
incrcAi-iti-; in p^^v^inirlrlciLl |>rfi;;tv>^ioTi ; ihnt ihi>y nei'O lhii« ]X-r[wtuidlv 
[iiv.^^iii;; Upon ibt- ncnn^ <if ^^nViMrni-f, vrbicb nK:ri*a?«il in Arithmeticfll 
progr*'tBio)i ; tbal llns wn.\ ihv hit-vttable chu>« of raiaety, of ivhich tbc 
only nn1i)j;iiUun--( nvn* ilei^truiiivo diM^i^iM i-nltirij; down Lbrrr iiuiulicrnp 
<'r llir illniiiiiilio^i of miiixut'gvii mid bli'lhaby pru*lciicvi.^(Cvu»UT^ lt«|»orlf 
lt*7l, Vol. I, pp. xvi-tii.) 

Po^fi^ic inmtue of fWumdity ttntt t^ iAc Hirih-raie. — To lOO 
nmrrifiL uomcn ngnl l.^-o.^, 22'47 lit-in^ childrvn hip born ^nmmllji 
Ntiil to 100 unmitrrk-il wonicti t" living rhiMi^ii uro nimunlly bom- 
V^pon tbu hypoih^r^i^ ibiit jl^ tunny untmirn^t wouicrt niu^t cateris 
punbits^ lie hviiij; irtt-^uU^ily lo t^try child hoiii otitot tvrdliK^k \\x ihrro 
Aix- wive** I" ri-ri-ff rMtl buttj tn ^t'cdtock, ihon I8ti,ll20, or 1 io 13 vf tljc 
iinmnrrirfl wrtniiii, miul he livinj< mi ua ni eonlribule mb much to the 
liirthn Jid jiu cipial miiiibei of ituitTied wt-mcn. A cortMiii cW-^ of cjk>c4 
countcruLtLco the hclicf lliat thi'^ mituhni^ and prupovtioufi aiv uuder- 
frtated^^thcH, ibni ibey uri^ ovet^iAtciI — hyi^ucb it by|Mjilic:d.-(. but us 
ihu nkotlit-rft *A *u innny jvt pr'tbidily 7 hi H ^.^hUdrvu UJ-c of the Mc-oud 
ftge (20^40) nbrji ItX) murried mimeu Iulv<^ 'M chiMr«ii aunaally, it will 
follow Ihut ^2,tHXl Ldiiblroti oi«. <^f wclh»cfc inuv \x Iwrncr by nbcut 
\m~t'£i YTOtnen of Hint npc (20-40), or by ulxmt" 1» (cxwrlly y I2J)) iu 
vvery UKJof ihc l,24^lHi umudu-ried uonutt. Nculy 1 in 11 iimy ^>g 
*lruclc oflftho lUl i>f -piiwU-rtt l»y thU citiniHUv whith ■pjH^nrs on thf^ 
whole., lo bo of thi- two Unj nwirr^l appro ?i hum ion Uj tlie trnlb ; Uiu5 
Icjivinj;. odt of 1^248,1^2 uiniwn-hHl wv^niru 1,111,454 lining iu celibacy 

• Tln! Atrni|:c Annml Iff itiumtt bifibft iu BTiglud J»6l-T<» ww« To4,0oa» wliiUt 
Rt tbo Vntu;h Mrtli-nilcB Ibc Gsfliib uiimed wotatft »jp^ 19-Sfi vouM Imvp boni« 
«TA.1'4H cbildrca. 


100 [part oIm 

in tbo |irtifko cl lid« (20*10), ng/tlnitt 1^744,!M4 womn, lUinu-lj 
1.60»^.2l*> wiT« uid 136,72H wnmm who nr^ iM wivgt, wfao bo»r 
children. Noh*, unme <yMice|>ttoii of Oi^ volunlAry oofitml tbat b exi^r- 
citted o^*ef llie Dumbcraof ih'^iiopuljuiotimjiy tH-oHainnl Uy non«»(l«Tiu|- 

tliAl UlC biithn arc prci>ortionnt 1o (be ttuiubi r oi D»rric<l n-OQHfBt who 
nt 1hi« »)jEri miif \mi rai-*Hl in tli« |iro|iorlton of 2 to 3 l»^ the simple 
irnaf<CL-r 10 t1i<>ir ranksor » fiorlioTi nf ific IJII,'|-S4 unniArntO ; ntid, 
furthrr, liuit lut imiviiw? o( tho ru^nml birtlin by o»fl Ujird imr* or bjr one 
liaifvtHiH certainly doublr Uiu ntc nt ivlkicl lite mmljiiiun hkfi JiH-n*«sttd 
for ibfi but holTcotilury, Vov Uiu Bitki* of niiujiliiyitig tin- ^laUHniTnt, the 
whole oi llifT t>irtli^ huvr^ lM?en Hero rprcrrcfl lo ibc wooini of the nge of 
20-40; but it id uvlJ kootrn iJul in Auionm^ivnl numtHrra pf womoo 
tniirry tmd boftr cljitdt^ii mC <lie i^^ uudi-r 20, when in Orejt ItriUiin 
mdy tSfiOT ate wive*, nwl rai^ru Umu » mitiiffn yoMfff vomfH ure 
■pourtcrv. {CcQinu Kc|>Qrt» 14S1 : 0?vu]>ulioti», vuh I, i^. xliv.) 


RfSuirtUioH of JlUffitimtUc ftinJtA, l»4S.--*Tlie Abtimcts Uve 
bofn oxtciidi^d, jind piieNL^iit Itcliirii_s of tbt^ rifbl oiuiruij^ to which I 
lutvc ulj-eady juivoHrd, nixi xlur Hniiiul mimUT of ilkgitJlDHlc cliil^Eren 
i^ibtetcilf— ii|X'iJ kvlijch S proccH.ll to oflor ii few rvmuLrkfi. Tlii^ Arnt 
«tli»mpl to ii5C4-iLiJii IIk- iiiTmlur (if illpgilJmHt^ cliifdn>i] in ICn^Und vhh, 
I b<^liere, inwleikt thi? CVruui* of lS31,wln;n Mr. Uickm^i obutiiii.Hl, 
from tbo oQiciiUing iuiui-ilL-rb uf rliurcbo?> uiid L-1m|h.'h in Kn^-buid mid 
Walet^, Kotiirn* ti' ilh-gilJaiau- iliildrua born in iliur ivu'Utie^ or 
cl«npclri<xi during tbi.' jc»r IS3CI, Tlw IoIj^I [iiimbi-U' rctunu'd wi« 
30,03fl, of nbom 10,117 wrn; nudnM, 11^92 f«<iiiJi1(v<, Mr. RiclEm«n wiu 
of o|riiioii ihjit tim rclum wim lU'CiinUe; furt, frdin wnnt ijf uiiiromiiLjr 
ill Dunkiu^ the Botiirn, inimy of the oflUmtftig luiiiiALerii mciy^ly »l«liiif; 
the numlcTH hapiiscd \n tlicir cliuivbivt »iid Llmpcl>, in>u^A4l of n?conling^ 
a« I'L-qiiCfltod, tJio iiuml'or A^-ri (icL'ord'iij- lu the beat informutioii thcj 
<^oiild obLaiD, 1 think iiu -^^ul reliaaoc ciui bo pljuoJ on iUl* LOfToctii<<wi 
of'tho^r Ifi^tiini<. In wliich (j|i]iiif>n 1 jun I'ualinnM, iia tvfcrrir* to a 
Kettiru of iIlL>;^i(iiiLi1e cbildrcii wlioso bupliHni^ wvio ii i^j-iicn^d by the 
cler^yintii iji the wvend |«ri-dH'> «f I^tnu'iifihtjift ihu IVt^ii Riding of 
Yoa'UsUire. Norfolk, Surn-y» "tid llFiY^fordrdiire, <ttiri)ig ibo jr-^ir |S,H|, 
pn^c<nt«rd to ll»c Hoii^c of Commomh in Mjircli 1845. No flpocific 
rorurcncc i* muAv. to Illej^itiuiiiU' t lirldrc-n rn Mil< Krgislnitioii Act ; notl, 
nfl it is not stnt^l on tho fnro of iho RcKislcr of l!irthi« whi*thc*r ibc 
childrciL regisl€?rH ur<? or hip not Ujiu in wi-ilWk, tlic fiHtMupl lo ilci^i^ 
mine tlii* poini riinnot silunyH bi- HiKV4.-s*.fiil : btil prrjit cwv*' hM Ixwn 
tfikcn in fnuninj; tliiH Ab^lnior, and in ^'Tery iloiiblful (u-^ct iln- ikfld bring 
cliia^i-^ iLH logitimiilc, I wxn ooiitid<*nt iLhi the Abatmct now r?ubmitted Lo 
you cunnot in nny \]fjvr lie uoiicofvcil to oTcr^ljile the nnmbrr of illc- 
gtlEinfitv children bnin in Kn^fUnJ. In thi; coniilry ibbLmta 1 vCr no 
rojisnn ti> flvipjuwt^ fbiit illogiliiinifrc-hildipn »s(^ri|>c n?p$f rntion in jnv^Hl^r 
proporlloji th^n children born in wcillock: but, when the ffioiliticf in 
popnlouN dwtriotrt for the (.■oiictulment of birtb'. from ihi' re;ii«t.rjjrH^ 
Aud the iiikpnnlty wiib which n womMti muy titj))p<]Sf Ai\- run iLxnumir 
n iiJiiTiCi or givf !bo cHimc* ol" » fulhrv, «n^ con^'id^^Tr*! iu ^onriexion 
with dirt rrlraiif'ly fimdl niTnil»<T nf ilbgUimntn rhildrpn ivgiwlrrivl in 
\i\f\ Motr^pobs, Liverjjool, *tnd >omo odier larifo oitu-^, 1 fi-j»r ihiit we 
inUMt w4 dtiwi^ lilt" uniiibCT of illc^ilimnti^ rhiMrpo in llio AWriict 
119 nji under- hi^lomont. The uUeiition of Ibt? rr^ii^lrun* hjt« bceu 
(jjcc'iwily din^ctcd to th<^c polnt^i, iuid they nro rtqnircd to ocqu^tit cvcTT 

MftTOS.] 101 

jiifnirniiTit ihut any Mr** ■intMftOiiI wiirully mflil^v bj h^r rtawoting Any 
piirlJciilAr lo lie [(<eori.W in iho register, wi]\ i^udcr )i^ iwhli* lu the 
puiiis Ohd pminllu's cf iK^rjury; llii?)' nro r>l«o iiiiilrucl^ to tltwourngi* 
th« piicrj' of the QiLmes ot piUiLUvv rmlieiH m llio Ki-jisier Kaok?* of 

Tlii" iiiitnln-r nf ijl^'gillmnlo rliil*tj-i»TX ivgUtrrinl in 1>^12 nmntintM to 

34,79<>, hIul'L is 14,757 — or Tl por f!*'iit- — more ihiin tht? immljcrn iu 
Mr, Rickmiiik's IMurtis of 1830, Tlio jiopiilatTon iiicrojuu>tl onlj- 17 por 
crni. in the 12 )'oiif:^ 1 »m ilbfHj.ttTtt lo ooit^iU^r Mr. Uickmim'fl 
Hctiirnn itf ilol^ciciit fo n mudi *;iv«ttfi- vxUnl tWi lU">j' wore «u)>p£if^ 
lo Ih- nt lli(> (mrioil liC tliPtr piiMrciLti^ti ; lint, with el carivrlim> fnr 
iW mcrcaeo of p>pu]Hciofi, th« liun^U^rd in thi' Abfiiiiu.'t for 1W12 wouW 
only }uLV4> oxc^TiJi'il |ho!*r in Mr, lCit;kEiuii/)i IMiiri^K r<>r 1H30 li/ U,^KK) 

be auci'ibml la mi ACturd lEicroav^' rii tho pcv>|)<>i-I ion of tllouEiliiiiHti^ <^lkikWu 
i)unn>[ t1)(* opor.-itiun nf ilml iiiijHirlfLht ch:iii;r<^ in tJii- Vnar Lilw. urUirh 
ihtv^wtlko chnr^ oF mdnliutiiiLg tJji'ir il1i-;;itim^1c i>nVjirui;- u|ioii the 
inotlKH'H. Htil to wliiifcifrr ojin^p 1li<^ inrrf^iwi* may t«* lu-urritx-d, flic 
rrliiiivc iiiiiiiWr? of l<*^tlit]inte iimt ille^iiiuiaTti Inrtlja ;ui<l Ui^iliHina 
ri^fui'Dod III IS^Ound ISI2» mI^ow in llm hitli^r yi*ur n n^laiiv^ d* well 
nfl mi uK^obio i^xce-^ or illcifithiuit'* cliiMiYii. (tilJi Anniinl lU^pfiri, 
|>p. xxx.-jcxxi.) 

li^ffitirniioii of llUffiSimntf liirthtL, 1^71- — f 1l<>f£itimnlr> hii-tliti tn tbo 
nnmbor ^if 4 1,775 wrto M-nisfcrwl in IS71, ninmnUinK '** ''''^ P"" <^Tit- 
oflho |i>lnl birthn iv^mlci'eit. Twi^nly joiiri* ngo (bfy won* clnw ii|iiiu 
7 jier i."**!!!, oftlii? loiEil birlli^ ; in Uir 10 jfurs l85l-(Jti they nvcrnjcfil 
6^^ prr oi-tii. ; hi tht* tlilLowiii^ JO ^onrs C' 1 |it'r vonr. : uri tJuil ftvun 
wliHtrvcr pjiiiKr- iht^rr bafi bc^ii n gn^Iunl nntl iinirili^rmpb*!) Hilling olT in 
those rvi^MiiYs of hiinum fmilty. I biivo no grotiuO^ for su|)|i(jsiiig tbnt 
1h<^ general ilimtiiution i[i tho ilkgitimnto birib-i'^itt' is crni^rd by Any 
increiL-v irj thr i>iuin«ion^ Ui regic^ttJi't on ibo contrary, I Ibiiik Ibul nn in 
tbo«i^ oUtmoutti ufn-giKlniflon vrliiib w<- huTO lh« nicatm of iicvMiralL>lj 
obnerviii^, un<1oulilr<l progroui in tbc <Iirc<-tioii of erector coiitpk'Uin«^ 
hoji Iftkcii pifico, it is Fair lo a^^iinif^ with iv>h|>oc( to tb>^ r(3f;iAtralioti of 
jll^'^itinmlL' birlbH ihAi At nny rale tjo nion> of Xh.**\M ni'i< Wt xi^'bt it now 

thiMi irt iWuiri' yt-iii'», In Lumtt^ll liltk* <ii' no virintioii in ihtr ti\\i: of 
itk|^tJTn]ili> bliijj biii^ rnkf^n i^Xwt" xi\ 211 I'^utrfi ; it nuionnN tn iihoni 4 p^r 
ct-rit, of all ili<* f.irltif", u'bicb J* markmlly !^*j tbmi tbo nvprnjro for llw 
whole coonlrj, [jartly for reasons, no ilonhi, whitb will W Mifliciciilly 
obviotJK to liJI who Eiri^ fEiniiliar witli lifi- in ^wul ti\kf-\t bnl wInHi do not 
lie within my province lo ilitcut^. (34lb Aituual Repori, p. xvi.) 

Tnte tn€*iaHTt if iUrt^timaty,—1n :^v(^n Gountief^ i-xdittdro of llio 
tnitir<ifK)1rliin I'ljimtfo-s llii* proportiou of birtliH <nit of wMltodc im Iom 
ibim ti 111 ino birlli; unmr-lr, >>'.! in Mnnniortth, A'4 in flnvoii, U-Ti in 
CorDirmll, r»-7 in Durbimi. A'8 in Mm RxtitiruHi-oitCiliUm purt of 
Miibllcii-x, 5"fJ in Efuntinplon^ 5'J) in Warwick ; in six ronnticfi iho 
pr<i|iorlioii uf ill<'j;itintEili' birthr^ ■■sn'oN i> in 100 birtli**, nunic^ly, It" 1 in 
\W>-ttnorIjijiil, t)' A in Xultm;;lii(iik, {>'fl iri S]>rO|>'*hii^ 10'^ in llerrfonl- 
iibin>, lO'Ti in (^iml^rlAnil, nnH lit in Norfolk: m> thnt in NuKolk 
1 in Oof lbecbib!h>ii, nn4 iu Devon 1 iu HJ, are l»orn ont nfwoillock, 

I'hvfte n;tnrn«< f^how tbnt ^*^l iWH^ttncvs oxiit in ibt^ maiuierti of 
ilifU'i'i^iit cuonti(--< ; iui'1 Ihry iintlfiubti-illy itniily \urii"tl('»« iii ibe -ftAt^ dt 
tW fEtmily i-oliilii^iiM, ifiiht- hociul i-i|i>mtion tA ohihiri>», find In lh4i mofml* 
of \\it iMVkpIr, Rut ii miHt not 1n> immnltAtt ly jl«<«iuhI, il-i bi» btm 
fwmetiui*-* ilonr, in cotnparing Ihe counti^-* of Kn^htrnl oiiil Wutcs any 
Dion* thiin in cxunp^ring Ibc rertult^ of our n;tnrn* with those of oUujt 


[l-Atrr 111. 

^outitrii'V, tliHt lli« relAtlvr inorutily of ilii> i}»[»ijUtiou h vxjin'Ti^iL hy 

Thf- nliitivr pro|)oriioiLM ur tin* unmAnivMl moiovn who ^avi' biith Ut 
cbiiiJni) in (h<- voir 18ol jm-«- -Jiown in ihe uriiKX<^il Tjtbit;, 

Jllin-ilft om of Wkm,ock. ri>>:iM<Tnl ui IH.5i, to UK) llninarri<-0 W(jm«i, 

iigcd \'i-o5, til llr;;i*ilniliun C'VU iili<.<*. 




A):i> lit 


Bv'v *'r 






lo IDi> 

H 0111011 




in ««lcr«f their 



in ordiT *»rtl"'Jr 





















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1 -Jio 








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llrLni|>ihIcv - 




3 <<» 








Dott<(>hLie - 



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Nuftlinmptu(i>lkir«^ * 








Mitbmoi t ihxh^ro 






KitgUs'l nn-X Wnli^ ■ 



f^brobih'trc - 




Wijrciff^ Unhi r*i 






8oLUh \V»I"'* 






J^CrkHliLlV - 


3 A 




N.irih Wn!*« 






Wil^-.l.^n.■ - 













Ext'luiliiiK IaiiiiW foni vi*'iv, n^ iIk* rvtwrii'* nn- picpluibly imprrffct, 
ii mny In- iJifi-m-*! ihul ^merullj- llii' tinnuuTlnl wuuii'U in xho muTitii-H 
*ciotU of The Thnmi^s <N>nipriims ihi" iK-ncj-nilruiT* fj" th^ oM Sjixoii 

I^Opiilmionf hnvo r<:-w illogttjnmto cliiliUui; WhIi'^i H|»nil>4 next in llier 
>if<jkli-: th'- 'AVhI MiJIuMil. tlu' Norlli Wi-^<Tn, niul lli- Snntli MillAiul 
counties tTivvj-in^ ilio mvr «f llir ^tncienl Wmeiu, jHv^nnl W* FnvoLiruMi* 
r-MitlH : whili* in Yorksbin-, rbo Ni>illk< in i»niiti(% tlu- Noilb MiillumL 
I'fjuiili""*, nnil |ini1k<iibLi'lj^ Ihc l%»vtt'iH cuiiiilit-ji, uoAvnng Iho uix-n of 
thc^ nncjciif Dnuir^b jjopuhilioii, lYu- numlM-r rrf ill'^iliiniit<- cbibli'Oii is 

Thc womin of tlw ronnlifs in whicb ibi^rt- aif ri*\vc.»t ilUgitlnmle 
cbiULrrii up|.K-»r to I-' tlif' U-i lUoHn-r.'* uimI iionsi-wi^'i*^, Jis oMmt ibinp* 
Ir-iil}^ 4H|uhI, iIk'J' Io^>' Ji'ttaj tif rluii i.-1ii|ibi'ri in lufuiicy Uuiu Ibi- wttjnrn 
ol' count ii'^ wlkiTi- iniiny fLiIilr<'ii avo born onl of w.'JIot'li, 

Willi lb'- iuci-^ in Un'?'"" tiibles IWuig ilmn, il will Ik- fur i\\c cliTgyoml 
for olhfr m(>in1 ini|iuii'i'? in f-Ac'li ooimly to iuvt'sligutt' ibi' cnUMis of ihi* 
discreii&ucie^ wbich ihiy ■libcluM^, ami lo tt^ci-rlnin how tbt <'xipfimg f'vile 
on be mo^t rflicociou-^ly nnU Aiiccfrafullj- ItrntcHJ, To rncililMu nuch 



iii(iuii'ti'?s vrliich ^houI<l h*' 4>Uliornt<^ mid not \i^ oonlliied to a ^lugle eUss 
of cim^s >^li<' <'otintHv'4 nre m-rucitf^'jl in Xh^. iiUt^ve Tablt- in tiio onlrr 
tbut tlie (iro|XjrtJoti of inolht?rAi>r ilkgititnul^ chiUlren of Ihr tigv 20^40 
lini[' lo 100 unmitrnt'il women cif Lhc rwkinc: ug*^; commi-'itciDg with thi« 
r^aniit-K ill whiHi i\u- piviporlion fn lo\p*'^t. A oolumn U iul<lr<j1 showing 
ihi' Hhite of I'k-uu'Diriry I'llucAtton jiiiiou<( th>- womi.-(i who mm nVil, IhiHe 
ihrnwin^ icidin'ot light on th^- »t:iti- of iituCMLtioii <if thi- uniuunitHi womisn 
m cAcfi couriLv. (Hib Anuiml Roport, p[>, xiil-xivO 

Utegifitnocif find iCdHif Marriage. — Tin* nvcrngp Annual iiutnlK»r of 
Hiildn a Until uiU el unilin'k in iI»l' 10 ywir^ IH4(>-*V>, to I'virjr 

lb<' Di'opoilkdjiil luimlpT fell (<i 1-7^, Jaftwiug u «Wiv-u«>u of .V3 po(o»'Hf> 
Tur incn-a-^iDg nuD»l>ev of mrly loaiTiii^ dot?» ui>t uppuii^ to ao^ouiit 
for llii' iIi-cr<%viDg mlt* of ilh'tfitimiu^y in En^hiniL 

Art tilt i|]u^iiTai6u in cohNniiiiiion tif rlii^, laki* lli^' fuur eoEinlifi- of 
CuntrH'L-]mk<t, Nuifvitk, tidlop, mii[ WrhtmoihrnJ, wliirti hiu\ i\\t- hi^hi?! 
prquirtioiue porcmt. of i^lnldnni Jioni out c»f wi'4h>tk in Ihn lOy^varn 
186^-T-l ■ the lat'tm annnal iiiio of ttkfiitiiuacv \\\ t)ii->i- fimr coimtit-a 
Wfui 9'it, and the mrjni jiu-|H>rlioiml numlxr who innrrit-d iinilor s^ 
lo {{%) miiniagcr^ in l4ti<>-7-> Wii4 5'7 ibr tn^ri, uml 17'^ for woiut-u ; 
whciviM m the oouiitica or jmrtA of countiOA of MiUdlrM-x f i^xlrii-mrtro- 
jkolii'm). Sarivjr (i-xU'A-iar-ti'o]K>1]tftu). London, ami Mtjumoulh, whrtro 
ihr |)i'ojxirt]on jht ^cnt. of rhiKlrcn lK*ni out of wnllock wa* lowe§l — 
4 "I por Ci'jil., Ibr i>roporliouiil umiiW vho miu-rieil nihlcr agi* lo 
100 mamttge>« in Jr<J<V74 wils A-0 foi tm-ri, nml 16'2 for ifotui'iu 
(3Slh Anniinl tti^port, p. xxvii-) 

I'roporfion of liUffitimatr Utrrkt <in^ af SjrtAitfTS to Fematt^ Qffed 
20-4**. — Thr rchilioii bctw-i^n the iUo^Itimalr birth* nnd lU- piopor- 
tiomd nitm1>i-i' <if •<jiin^ti-i's in difTt'ii^iil oonntio.-c i^ 5<t.riltiu^ly t-xhihiti'il if 
tbi' toniilie^ jov jirran^-d in (Eroup"^ in thr* ord^' of the iilK' cf 

Chdilrrn born 

l^roponlon of 

Hut um'viJliKk 

SpiufllGO ftyi 

Onortt ttv 

In eyerj tUO 

3U-I0 to (vory 

RaoiATMATiosr Cortrma. 

tiring «i ihc 
fiUne Airu ID 



Ifll GroapofTcn > 



3ait 1>roup ofTru 



3ni iiroup of TvU - • 



■Ich Gtuup of Tcu • * 



iih Group of Ml • 



[A UM-fiil Liibh' iu thi' i'lDfli Ki^jiurt <oti [^i^f xx» ) ^how^ tl**- propor- 
tion cjI i1lf>£[tiiJiiK7 ill li-ac-h KnjJiU^h rouulj- in the U-a }t*uT> t tt^'O-Otf, in 
th»' li'U jt'ftTw lftGtt-7'i, wjd in ili** yriir |K7*>, uUa i\u- decrttwi" pii" ivnt. 
in lM7ti wmimnul ivitb tho nnvn proportion in lh(tO-7S ; nnri ihc pix>' 
portion of >piTiit<T« fi^t^i 20-10 To females of the snm'* np-* in IS7I.] 
(:illth AinjrLal Ki-porf, p. xxyL] 

DtcrtrtseoJ' Hffffi^macy. — A isr^ativiluction in ihr mk of illr^Himacy 
lliis lakrn phtov during thi* ImhI L4>J yttm < r<-ekojim;( fn^m ihe iuii.ldh' of 
eaeli of 1 111* pfituitH IH^'-lj-i and lt<7^T) : th»^ ivitucciou pvi' «vnt. 
rt^aclit'd 3n in l44'ic<-i<t>-r>'hin^, 3r> in Chi^tlnri: arid NottU)|tlnm>«hirri» 31 Id 


I PART m. 

Drvbytiliin* otliJ lb>* North RiLlJn^ of York, Xt in li!«^rx uml LimoiiOiiroT 
$2 in Souih W'itlc^ uat\ Willjtihiie, ^1 m l}t<rk8lttrt^^, and 30 ui Diirliiiin* 
Iiidnnl, in ll]<- wfiotr of Kiij<ljiiul mid Wali'^ tJi<' Ml in tlii' 16^ y*-ar9 
wiH not U'^H ihnii 27 |>i'r <*'-tit. flOtb Aitiiuul UL-jiorU (■- xxiiz>) 

4, Sex Piuhihsti'in at UiriTii, 

Scr proporthn tfi Dirtft^ 18U.^J b1iow<I in tli.* Foiirlli Annuul 
Rf>[Kirl tltiLt \}\*- \\vi\\u\jUiMi u\ \ioyn X^^ ^JrU fKirn in Knjfknil wih lO,4Sfl 
to 10,000. Tbr iiiftth<^nijit.i<-ftl <|uo,Hti(>nM amiii^'tnl vriih tlu- j>ropoj'1t»ii 
tif tbo irxpK titirn iKivr bini invcjd i<rr(t>^ I >iy I^j>l7tt% I'oi^iuu, Habl»i^>i% 
:inil otbi^r [li^tTngnUli>'<[ jiliiEnM>|>Ii<-r:4 - jukI <itu< irf Ibi- rryiilu which llUH 
Il^t^af^h'd inof<t Attonliau riiiil cnnt<-il m<i«l ii|i>>OLibaiori is, that. tJir [»ra- 
porliaii iif >iDy>i i?L gri'iilr'tiL nmoiif; bjziLiiniiti' i-liilibvn. fn Kiniin-, fWr 
i[ihtHnc>', lli^ boVH ikiv In llu- j(n Ih iHirri im 1€U'4 Io KKJ-O; but zdiioiiif 
itL'^itTinnt^- dufiln-n tln' pi\>|)oHioi) i-JM-ll r-* i(Hi O, 'Wu^ |)r>'f<i-nt 
Bvttiru givi.'?* a ri'Htilt t-x.iicl]y tbi' ivrt^rx- : ul' LIli- li^j^itiniuli- liti-ihH tbc< 
toy* uro to to tlii> j;nU a* l<X5 "4 to l(>0 ; <^f dN-Bitimnt*- birth* ihu 
br>yflarrT lOl^- to 100' ; iind, soi.iU oh tIk- mimbF-rx »iv, tLr mtiixliflVr^t 
littlr iu Ihf two fjmutx'i'*. It i.-s 1 bi'lVv^-, iL<<iuini'rT iii \\m} Ktt'iicU 
Rti'hiniH thnt fotmiiliri^' clLihlron Jirr illc^'TimnlUi If ft In.' lrui% im f*: 
Afjilrtt hy lUtf-t' jic<|u:iiiil>'il >villi llir iijutlur, Ibnt tu»M/ vf ttti- i.-lijklri'ti 
'i'tit to ihi* i\-\\M\*\\\iifi lio''|>itiib in Frrtiir** •-\v ihi- .iflVpnu;i of mnm'il 
p<-op[i\ who ]inili»lil)' ztliiMttloii fl iii^tiiw projioHion i>f ^'lrl-if(mn boyn, 
it will f>llnw n), thiit llip pi-i>|ii)r-tiun ol" i-hflib-cn l>i>ni out of wdlock 
iu iJV'M'ly til'' »^»mi' hi Kii;;lnu*l mm hi Fit-TKh* ; niiU (I*), tlini lb*? iufi'ri'ncc 
froni til'' l^.^n'llH 4iri'-i)iiliiM-nUl Stui* :^ b^iviii^ r<mn<Min}j; lio>>|iil»U rin |t^ 
flu- n-hzivr juj^kkmiiinnff* ^f Ti-inKh'^ ;inu>n^' imlnr:*! i-liiMnn i* ialljinoiifl, 
(5th Autiujif KrpoH. |>|). 10-1 L) 

Sfx Prfiportion ui liirfh, I83S-H3, — Moi'e ho.ys thuii girl« arc boru 
every jeai' in Knj:W'l *^»*l Wulri*- hi 1^77 ibe lnij'8 tver*! in ilio 
|»rtn»ortbri ill ICJJMi In <'Vi!Ty UX) ^'irU. Tlir- |im|iMiic)n-* of the wxe?* 

iirt' pcrhnj)^ ic^^iitatrJ Uy ftuimr niUunil IrLn in itiM-ij^lioii initi]i^<]iAlcly 
pmf^rlifig, iH' £l| Hoim- wirly *^ta«j<* "f, intrn-uK-nn*- Irffr ; |»rnhnlily -tL-^vnil 
othiT t'nn«(-» aljtn rxfrl uu-ay inlliKiioe, m*eli il* ihi- Hui'ial ^l»tUH oinl 
rclaiive a^« of the Ttaront^ «t innrria^'c Thr* cxcx'w in th>' lirtliH rf 
uinIov uvcr Itiow or fonmh** is* tw^Uc^VL'fl lo Ik- j;rpHU'r [Mimnj; ilrsl-l.oni 
children than It \a nmong thon^ l>oi'ti »rt4TrvvAr<T>'i 

To \vhthh'\i<r inflinnri'rt \\m- relathv |im|if>rtinn nf flu- *PXfA nl birth \% 
dutv it is Wfll known Ihni an oXL*ess tit ihc [niuiber of \\tyy% horn pi^vftiU 
not only in Euijbiml hul nnHing nil KurojH'im im-o^, 

Dr. Ilunillon jind othfrr* buvi* culhflwl fiiclo wbic'li thr*jw unnie Uf^hl 
on tbiH int^rrf^Min); ru1>j<'Ct. In lh& menntinio T wj^b t^ druw nttcntion t<i 
Ih'* ivmarkiibli? fnnt llial ihi^ exv^»fi in l!ie tiro)K>t-tioTiAl iiumbfr of lioyn 
born to pIrU honi in Kiii^bmd nnd \Vali>** b kes than it wjm, a* will bi- 
w\*ii liy Ihc BuhjoiTU'd tAMr, 


t« evrrjr luti t'tfumtpw buru. 

lBth<jlor«nil«38^7 - 


J, ,. I»««'77 ' 
6 VwkTt l(»7l^«E9 




(40th Annunl Rv^port, p. xxL) 



5.— DirwcTa of Bihth RRcisrtm: Stati>tk:» of Firit "Rous. 

Two *;iHVP ilrrccU ill Ili<? rc;jiM*'r?* of the tImlM KinK<toiii di*pru'e 
Ihcm of iiHiclt or tlu'ir utilitj'iw jM-ili^nv-"*, mii) iw ri*t*oriN r,f fnci* fur ihe 
AOluti^tL of iht* grv-M pt^jlih'iu.iot jiopnlnlki). Kt^ilJtrr tlii?a;;ror molbii'it 
fl( tlio Hirlh'? of f*K?li ofTUoir tihil*liTH, norllir rtnlernf Uirlhjft riH^onW ; 
flo llint llio number of r.btkln'ti tH)nu* ly wciirir^ii nt diHt^rt^nt a^pn, iind in 
till' coLirBo of Uioir livi.'*-, citnnol le AiccrUhicd* Thin dii-focC was KM|.-]>li<4l 
111 ilir flr.-tt .idiodulis of ihv i^i^oU-Ji A<-U hnt \}w importani piirU iif rlii^ 
oohoduk* woiv uiifoiUiTmlvly ilir«v>ntiiiu<^il nfli^r 11S3j. ])r, Stnrk tiinu*<l 
eome of the pivcioas r<*si»itfl of thnt ycar'^ ri^^t^irallon to Acixriiiil : niiil 
Hii hn^ Dr» nimcun in hU viilimMi* work nn FocMiiLlitv. Dr. Diinejti) 
(»i'orfP from vnrioiiA wairrf"* thiit. the inoiinlily in iho ffrsi iii-einiftiiey la 
Ip thftl in HuLai^(]iifln1 j'iVK"nni-'K-f* aciu-ly U'* Iwii l-i Dnf»; nn*l from llic 
Jttlii i»** hnn i^olic^ofi'il il Tjiay be nHMimiAil, ntilil fnrfht^r o^MTiutiun*" luv 
maxK thnf :(l30Ut 1 win* iti 8 or 10 » >Ji'ri!(». 

Iliiw <inj w<- ilou-nulm- ihe numlpr of firtlborn chiUtnn in KfijelAOil 
anniL^lly i' It mLl^l rviiU^iiUj^ ln^ai' xiinn rHulion to Ihu ninrrin^>'. Nn\r 
ihi' iiiinnnl nnnilicr of lc;-irimutr thiMrrn in flw ^ix jitii-* It^OL'-'iT waa 
69^.^07, 1^11^1 i1h* iiiHiiml ninrimg-'k in ifi(> mv jYtni-4 I A.i(>-(il, willi ivhiHt 
they may W fnirly crimpnr<*il, wrn* 1(>2,6S1, of whith H7t8()4 urert- 
miirriagi'H (if hphisteis : so tlial iho Mrlhn loa mnrrin^^ Are4'270- llii^ 
births (o 4^ch n'omun iniirrkil nit^ 4' 7n4>, TIk* liirlbK tn encb [uvH-n^ni 

wifi" — if r-nly i;i3,0S-t, it nhtf In ien wivr*>| hn\c living; cUiMiv-n^* 
iiiuhI Ih- ^''2'29. CxtTlhi^i\nvn^\y i\ti fnniili<>< ronoM **{ lOiO, Ini^. lbrK>, 
four, lip ta tfii nr nion:< i^liililrrnT anil i-vcry fumily htt< imr tirf^t-tioru 
cliiM. it ti* oviileut xhnl thr- Hr^t-honi cFuMr<'n In ir^^illock wiJI hr to the 
loial rblldrpii no born iw 13-5,021 Ic* f><W,5tf7 ; oris 1 fo .1-229- WV 
can from lhfr-io {ii'0|H.irtionfi iiifrr ibut a^otit \U ptr c<-tit. of ihi' itiiMivn 
in \vi^i]lii(<k nve firnt-biiMi^ bnt to nt^t the niimlx^r of uonit'n I^K>urin|j i\t^l 
eliiNfirn* ibf* molhrr* nf the rluKlivii boni i^ul nf wf^Wk mii*t li* 
hniii^hl into nt^c'diinf, ami some corinttioii'i must Ik' mmle. lliSt* Wi«h|< 
UuD<', (I irili b<- fiiuml lUnt rb<- ;tf60(> ileiiliiziI L|(.'jiib--i in i-bihlbinh (hiring 
the dix Viurff J86*i-y7 i"ij»ly nli'iui -If^ 'h^jilbfc to llV^^ ■l-^liv-Toil : nail 

if, ni JH toUTiil by itlUcr nbii^rviLtion*, tin- ninrfAlfty in lii^t ildivcrie* is 
prO|ior(ionaIly lo tbi- imirULlily in *«bHi?f|in'Tit ilobvoncA as 2 to I, th© 
inoLfaliiy nujong Kn<;:lieh mothiT* will In- ^0 in 10,00(1 U>t flr*1 rbtl'Jroa 
mill 40 for >»b?KH]iiciit ilrliivnnr, tnki^n in llio ajE^rt'^ti.'. 


T© ^i the niimbrr o{ ^firMrvrn childreu by wof A*r from tbr loMi 
numbfrr *^f thiUlj**ii < ln'rn in xf'iIIfH-k lo *r n-i\rn ; M 0'9 or 
•nj iroi^tiou r be tb' ro-f-flifiint i*f frrlilily, ibrn it i» rndonl that 

fv = Ip' ss number of pivcnMint wivca out of « wivci^ — ;* = 



= / = irj'fwt — ■^<*'^8" nnmbprof ebiMn-n in the family of n ftrliU* 

uotherj nuulf up of foniLlioH ooutiioiinilf'i] vnrlnii^V nf 47dc, two, thrv« 
... Bv i.'biUn<n; niilom th«* wifa luw tWorr mnmiign tiornr* rhrhlf^t 
ei'ery family ibijn coti^tilQtcd haa twre^urtly ono /frf/Wn clitlil lo 
inotb(.'r ■ and the numWr <)\'Jir»tkmff m tltir lrgiiiniat47 1>irtbH nf a yc«r 

are ibu« cUieiDiiiiabte, tA ihey ss ip* ^ -^. 


[I'AKT 111, 

Lot ^ include the motliera iMtlier Qiumtil or T^iugle Uying in c-hllii- 
birch. Then to complete the eatimute of the tirstborik tfae cbiJdrcu 
born out of we^Uock must be brought into ftccouuL ; tbeir uvei-agc 
numbers in tbe six yeara were 46,181. What numbers of chtldi^en in 
the aggregute <Io tbetie motbt^rs bear out of weillock F N«>t two pi-ob&bly 
on nn avei'age; and if the proportion of tbe firstborn ikinong the 
children h tnkcn at two m three it will imply that two such women bear 
on an average tbree illegitimati" cbildren; that two-thirds of the 
illegiiimato are firatbofn. 

Annual nianii^eM in the 6 years I806-6I - 1(>2,(>82 

Husbands maiTying for first time - 139,931) 

Widoworw - - - - 22,752 

Wives marrying for first lime - 147,805 

Widows - . - • 14,877 

Children born annually, 1862-67 - - 741,778 

III wedlock - - - - CJ>5,597 

Out of wedlock .... 46,181 

(d) Annual ilnaths of mothers by childbearing in 

the 6 years 1862-67 - - - 3,600 

Annual Bjrth9 in England in tiik Six YcARa 1862-67. 


Vi^ri hA*-n 

Set ond boro 

Cbildreo bora. 1 


(u + i) 




ChiLilren born 




Jt [estimate 



30,788 ? 

IS^93 ? 

To determine from the Englisb returns the mortality from child- 
birth, on tbe asHumption that the ftr^ child-bearing is twice as fatal as 
those following, we have this equation : 

2xa -\- xh ^ d ^ deaths by ebildbirlh 

1 1 ^ — i- 

2(/ + A 

= 003975 = 


where 2a' represents the rate of moiialiiy in the first pregnancy, a 
represeuta the number of sucb cbildbirths in the given year, and b 
= the childhirths of all other orders from second to last inclnfiive. 



Thv nhflvo rvHAoiiing Hit|»[>lieii u» witb the luOAnK d un:<- wiring thiji 
<|ikrMioii nppriixi mil Illy: Wlmt i* th^ proporliotjof Umboni lo Tn<ilhi-rd 
iiL tho popuktiojj? Amoiij; llitr pm-(iuii of iho pojxtlniion hum m 
V4titl>t-k nt*urly 1 in o, or t!> iji 100. »rv fii-sit>oiii» Tliin prupoiii^n 
oouM oiil/ Ih* iliHlui'Lioil lo lujy extent liy r^mitrAtion or }iy » (JilTorciicr 
l^>(wi'on lliP fill* of truirlnliiy mnting llift liivllKJtii lui.i titc <i]li4-qiien1 
\nnu vhiUinu uf fnmilic^. 'lUv im}\Krn\i>n^ nraong thm ohiMr^n not 
lw>rii in WHiIcck vt<ni\d !« very illtTtiGiil : im*l iLcrr l» reiiaon lo Wlicvt- 
lh.1t ihi- cjiiuallieK of iii5uicy cni liown ibeir itnmlion^. 

The nHi»ber of int^ii cxcvsmIh the imuihci' of wmiicii who luftri'y more 
i[\tu\ oiKt* : ticnoe Lbo proportion of llr^tWn diihtivn 1o UAal thilhvn 
of fictherH jri ks-s (ban l!ie proportion at* ffKiliorn chil<!rrn to mothers, 
Thu« thc^ jnoan minim] tiiioIn.-!' o1' chiMrou Iwi-n in wi'Jloijk in EnffUnil 
(18^2-67) wii!« l]r^.VM>T ; rhc>i]4«iinnrinn1 ticiinbi-r til' nmntugci^ (I^5fj-^J) 
uaH ]&i,6-S2; likut l-i iU:?,<>tS2 uii-n nmrrk^l iG^.tiyi ^tomen in tboK* 
)Tar« ; now ir wo ili\~ii](^ t)9<^o07 hy tW annnnl iinnilxr of ImsNimU 
uuinyinir <>tK* or more limes in lb<-ir livtw, nnmely, aliout 139,930, thi* 
m*'itM uuniL>o^ *A k^gitininte chiliiii^n liy one tvife or moie li> i-ui^U 
Uij-^IhiimI if* 1 "5J7I. 

Tlitj^p il' t]ii.> fnflier** niarryicig tit 2d, ii^l 34 whi-ii (hoir 4*liLMren nnr 
iionv iliviile llieiv propi-rly i^tiually nmocij; Ibitr le^ftlimali- cinhlron, niul 
nine in ten fnrbr'is hzive eliiEdrt^ji, lh<r nine fjilliers will Imve i*n nti 
nvi*rag<? /j'^'i olilldixri, urni will Ipziti^ nt denlh. taken ni Ilic n;fQ of tH, 
atrouL ;t ebilJrcn, :m> ihr prop<:rty will h^ iliviU^l inio 3 ]iniird^ on nii 
ar«rnge. Tbi* U exelurtito of tUe ■4uh-<)ivlF<ToriA of the ]irO[ierty of 
eliiltlW* fatberp. 

In Frmu-o ibt^ |>roportii>ns of chilUit^n nre nmeU lower; to Pa<Ji 
biiFilMtnfl only C*'(i37 Hiihiren j»re Ikorn to his on" or m*ire mnrrlap;e^ ^ 
ikmL hikiog tjine in it-n aa ferlile, tbc nveni^c family will t oniiii-t fif 
4'n4l Hjihiivii ; <o. 1flkiit(? ibe proportions lo Mirvive u^ lUf' Hiime, the 
property will only V- Oivi^letl into ino pareelH, 

Tile Hni^tlMrn to rmbei^ in HK) ol the jiopnlniiuM vill be 13 m 
Kngluinl. 2't ill I'Vflni'p; our in Jfvr or *i.p in l"in;^jrin«l, one in Jbur io 
Fmiie*^, i--> a llrslhoni cbilJ- 

S^oourl'boru children aro (vvrer in nuniber ibftn Grilborn: and fintt* 
liorn=lA-'r-honichihlnu. (30th Aiinonl Heport, pp. 222-45,) 

6. SnM, UinTiis, 

In ilio ca?« of children born alive— or who hrcailie — Uotb the binli 
nnd doailiare r^gi^invd, bui Mlli-bnrn diildrra art* not rugi»1rrrfj in 

lender tbe pioviiion.'i uf the now ItegiMrjilIoii Aet no bli]l-l>oni 
chiLdnni, bnwi^rr, KhouUl lie InineiE wilbont a ffrtifirtttft ^tAtW tbiit 
ihi^y were »!JII-bornT si;;ned eirber by the ivi'isleii^d niedicnl prjietuioner 
wbo wjiri ia atitmdance at liie biilb, or by one nbi> bail r\nnibiril ibe 
body. In (bo 0b»cnc-c of n re;£i«lereil inedieiil pmetili^^ovr u deelnrdliuii 
bu to he innde by tb^ niiduiTe oc lonie other iicrfoi) 4|iml)fl<Hl lo pire 
8ueb infonnntion, Ntaling iliat ibi' eKM wa» uot ioni nliviv 

SlJli-bori) c 111 bir I'll, tliererorCf are by flic new Inw rcrrifirit as michi 
allbuuf^li tbi-y iiiv iiof. ri-;;ihicicd. In Knglaiid the proper ti«n ol' »till* 
(xjiik ebiblren lo tolnl birlb^ i* vu|i(>0!Ard to lie ubont 4 |ipr rent., but. itiia 
iM nmvrlTiiiL 

In Fninn*, nnder ihe prcivitioi^^ of lb** Code Ndipoleont cbildri-n wbo 
dii* (eilhrr ulter or before birih) before repMniUoiip an* n^cor(^ed a-* 
slill'born. Pr. Bcrlillon cfiimiilcs that 22 in 100 of the cbildrvQ 


yJ6 [PART in. 

registered in France as atiU-born breathett, and fluc)i children in England 
would bo rc^Htered among the births and deaths. 

Tho number of deaths registered in France in the year 1875, 
excluaive of 8o-cal1cd utill-born, was 845,062, and the deathrate was 
23 ' I per 1000 of population. 

The number of BtilKborn children re^atored under the pi-oviaionn of 
the Ccilo ill tho same year was 43,834, a deduction of 22 per cent. 
(9643) from whicb, represents the correctM number of Ntill-born diildi^n 
in France in 1875, viz., 34J9i. 

Including the estimated number of live-born cbildi'on (0C43) the 
deaths in France in 1875 were 854,705, inntcml of »45,OG2, and the 
eorrected death-rate, therefore, waa 23'4 instejul of 23*1 per 1000. 

In France in 1875, the eorrecte<l proportion of still-born children to 
every 100 live-born children was 3 6. In Belgium the proportion in 
the years 1860-65 was 37- (38lh Annual Keport, pp, xxv^vL) 






1, — DfilTn-RATXS, TllttU CONBTtTUTWK, A>'l> TUtlR ^llifriFlCANCtl AS TESTe OF 

11 BALTii Ani> HEALTH FfiouREflfl. — Life iLiid Death in EugJuid,^ 
Decennial Mortulity KeporlK.— Local Dcalh-nti^. — Uibturyof Death-rates. 
— *Tho Lav of Murtolily anil Dcalh-niefl at uU ages. — ffigiuficance of 
Death-mtefl. — Relntion between Dirtk-rates and Dcaih^ates. — True l>eiilh- 
rates and Frobability oS Dybg. — Method for CDnipiirin{r Local with 
StoniiuTd Death 'Tates.—Progrew of Fublie Hijalth poAsible.— Probable 
decrease of Mortality. -'P^SBibilitieK and DLfflcolticfl of extending UiiDiaa 
life^ — Progre^B of Mankind in Health. — Sanitary Work, and Decline of 
Mortality. — Arortality and High Prices of Wheat. — Cotton Famine and 
Mortatiiy in Ijipca^in.*, 1862. — Murtalily and Water Supply, l^ndon, 
— Area, Kievaljon, and Water Supply. — Maic and Female Mortality in 
London, lS6S.-^Relative Mottultiy of Males and Females at Bertn Age- 
periods, ill Kight Groups of Dislrieta, I8G1-T0, 

>-^UujiAL AND Urhan MoBTAi^i-n.— Low Death-niti-s and Healthy I'iNlrictfi, 
1841-50. — Healthy District Mortality. — Kxeeptionnlly nealthy l^HtticlHi 
lB4\-7t}. — IfeaHhy ami UnhenLthy DiBtricIs 1038-14.— KicccuItc 
Mortality in Towuw.— Excttsivo Urban Mortality, London, J83B-44,— ArcBj 
Kleratioa, and Density of London, iSfiS. — Exec!>AiTe Urban MortnUty s 
Manchester compared with Sarrey, 1H3H-44.— Loss of Life in large Towns, 
1851-60.— CuiL^ei^ of Excewive Urban MoHatity.-^Diricafiefi of Town and 
Conntry. — llelation between Density of Population and Death-rate. — 
KHeciH of Density of Popalation on Health.^Improvement of Heahfa In 

3,— MoRrAMTT .^T DiiKifitKM A OKP.— CoTttus AgCfi, und Af^i-K in Death 
Itegislere — AgcT Cnriblitiilion t>f the ro|mlation.— MoruJity nt Groups of 
Ageniii Kngland, C»rlihk», Ili'lginm, and Kwiilen, — Mortality of Malcn nnd of 
Females, n( Groups of Age^ IH^IW— IJ. — Jlortulity of MaU-s and nf FrmiilciK 
at various Agc-periwie, 1P38-62. — Mortality of M)ilv»< and of FemaJen at 
GronpH of Ageis IB3S-71. — PropoHionn] Mortality at diflircnt Age- 
periods .'^Mortality of Males and of Fcmalcfl nt various Af;e-periods 


4. — I^tAST x^D CiEiLT) MoRTAiJTY.— Mortality of Children.— Mortality of 
I nfuntji. ^-Mortality of Infiinli* umler nne year, and it'' caasos, — Child 
Mortality in London, 1 730-1 830.— Mortality of Illegitimate Infunis, — 
Mortality of Infunts in each month of the First Vi-ar of Apr; Knghmd. 
lleaUhy DUtrictf. nnd Livi'rpool.— Mortnlity of Children Cn^5), in 
llcyi^traiiim Di^lriet>i. I Rjl -CO.— Mortality of Children (u-j). 1861-7n. 
<— Mortality of Children iu European titalCK. — Infant Mortality and Ceiu^us 
cnnmeratiun of Children. 


Ayti Mt>nT-iT-iir, — [mporTniinf- rif lUxitlrTirinii of C«iuct of Itfdtb, — > 

AeginCrvlinaof Cnuiriof Duitli : Kt|Jji]iiiiflr7Si4U-ini-til, — PrjidimL til^lit^ 
uf K<i;^Ut^roil CaiiM^ of nmik— AnnljAiA nf Chu^c* or Dvnlli,— ]£«{:ihir«i- 
tion fif Ciiutt" of Dvaili ; I'cftflh HHrl Iinin-rfwtirjrip, — ftijiti»lic*J ?i otology. 
— Atinlj»iii *>f Mutbitl |'hciiojui7Dki ; NoMiciiL-UturV' — Tlvjiuri vm iIh' Ni>uH*n- 
clfttaiT mid Stariniical Clji«itlv'iiti(Jii of IIiiciugb-— ^lAliiricul CliihijncAtiun 
of Itogiileicd CaiiRT^ «f D*:iah-— WIml arc r4ii#t4 of tJ^ih? — KiKtr^ry of 
KcHitiraimn nU'X CliiM>ilim(i»n 'if CllO^^* of JJvalk UitlT-Ti,- -Mtiiiciil 
Curttllcjiiuii I'f C"ii(<(^> of Dtntli, — Coiiif>u]-i>rjr Mij<tjcbl (!i;r|JnoiiLtiun of 
CjiMPHp- of ni-Hili.^-C^iOMJ^ "f iVriiti ill Iiii|ii(.'kI ('rtJii'*. — Mnrbilitjr from 
J'lilhui", lUiil fmni DifLfiac^uftliL' Kiv|iii»lOT7 Or^'Atm, — I'lirrfrtTil MurUlilf, 
JB47-^4, lU^filnli'tvd i^l«■l>c^^l Morlaljlt, ud<I MortulJlj in lAiDS-tii 

— Mofliilil^ Tet\tii AIcoIioHmh. — Violiiit UvjlIIis tu l.iraj'^n, Eii{;]jlu<I. aod 

Jorrign LV^inlnr*, print lu 183li,—CtnviH'i»»' lirluni" of Viok'iit Omthbt 
IBA-i-&.— ViolvDl Df^tli^ ill Minw wnri oti Ibil^vnjB, 1 811 3-7^.^ Icier- 

Dndonul ^tutiiiii^e of Violc-iu Uc!Aihs Ii)r3-c. — stH(i«tic« <if &uici(lc», 

1»99>. — ilonavr <tr i^uk-i(J<?i>, IVM-fiS^ — Caiihi-a of l>vatb in tliu MvirO' 
polift, lfl'J9-|63.S- — Cttime* of llcn'h tt DtlTurvTiI Agn— Aye* m 1>fH(h from 
l>iflvrciit DHcnw*,— Kffccl of (he Ilxiiticlion of imj- Diacaec ou ihu Uurtiliotj 
of Lifi.'.— l!:tomiiiiio Kllivi of Dciith- hj Oiffi-rvhl I)i*cn*v»,— rnriicdart 
given itt Ibc' ][T}-ip<lrjir OrTirr;!!'^ AuunaJ lUpoiiit conctnutig CAiut-i of 
Dcnih in Kog^Iubd mad in l<>JuituH, 1bA7-?£^ 

Iaw« of I'^iuleriiic^^ — Cuu>*4- uud KfliTt "f 7,yawi\^ Wi-.ttOBf. — EfT'^ct of 
EptdtflDiCh ori Muitalilj io nubHH|UeML Vuiib. — iBllmujtn Kpniemic, 1847.— 
— Chokra l'ii>idi:Miif, IW4K -y,— bt-x AloriiHitjr fn.iii Litoltirji, lW4n^:'.— 
Cholctn M'»tUlitj til niflVrciil Agva, IB4H-9. — iJuruljoii uf Cur^H vt 
Cht^Ltn, lK4H-U.*'<.Thori.-m K|iiiU'tniL'>i uf IK:!U1 it\v\ |H|H^y i-«mLkiir<^.— 
Th« ThAiiK-i, Uir Woun- Supjitv, and lUc ChoU-tii KpirU-.miet jj-^ii-f.— 
Klov«lioii and Cbderp MorULilj in LoihIoii. 184M-0.— Ciiuditiojiiiukdrr 
TilicU Cliolcni Ln mor^t Katil.— Hl^c am*} Tiopri'M of ibu t liolor* i:|orlvmic< 
lltC»U-4.— Ihk.'hI rntulil^ ofCKi^lcn*, |BSa-l.— Spu on J Agi- Miirlalily frou 
Chnlnni. IKi3-4-— K^vulioo anJ Cliok-m Morljililj, L 8^:1-4 .—Wi>ti<r 
Supply anJ Cbokm Morality, lfl5i"H — Four L'boStm KiiMrmio Ic 
Enf{UiiU.- — (liolc^rd in Lumloti, 18G6,— Orij^i" i^ml Chlim^s uf Oiulrn,^ 
rocoLiMtion of Cbi>U'ri in KiuL Lundoii, IStiO.— ClioJvnk lu l\iv Kt-\mt1 
Wm1frit]<lH of l.btuloii. isei>,->^i^ii.-niltic ElcmcnU of CbokfBt KpUUnoic 
of ||L<LA.— trvcr Mortality iit Diffin'nr A^cv. 

7.— Ci-v*» J&!"» OoctiM-ioNAL Mt'HTMiTv.—L'la-B MoTlnJity I KhigB ^kI 1\vtk. 
- Mortuliiy of Mak-fl i'n^H|ivd in J>]ff^rcit1 Oi^nipuiionCf iK^L'-^MorlnUfy 
tif M^kii engaged in UeBltchI GL'cu|ialii)itA, L&ni-^ mv\ l^; I,-— Mnrljihly 
v( MiiKTri, lK4l^^fia Hnd Ifieo-tl.^Morbklily ru Ibc Ru^vnl Not; und in Ot^ 
MomiTililr Mnr'iiiP- 

S^^^BTKOAm-oo V AM^ Moiti Ai.iTr,— Intiucucc of ('linmic^— loAnciicv (if Svu^ona, 
**WeiiLfit.'r jLud A1ortii1il;i i Siimnji-r i^uarti^r* l^&U^ — Mi'lonrukgy nml 
Htwkb,— Low Winter Tcmprmturo wid TublJc Jkillb, LonUon, IB55aucl 

p^-3JontAi.i rr ij( I'tiitu^; Kmitt rn>vv— ^Mofliililj in McliYkiwhUiJiH Wnvk 
bou8c% 1&B7,— rri*on ASoHulUy,— Mortality tn IVililii: I u slit ul ions.— 
IWfiliLl 'fVvataii'nt uf IhfiCliotjsi ])i»i'[tkC«-— MoilAliJy of 1iiiuniii-> in 
Avyluiiu^^l'orTfciion ol l^cat DL-uih-rniC'' for Di^aib* m I'liblit! InMi- 
|0.^MA4A.I-ion Al<i» MoiiTjLi.ttip --Iii11u<:^iii!^ of Mmrrngv ou lH«r Movtuliry ul tbc 
ii'runcb Puopk-. 



It tao^ roiifi<lviit1y Uv it>-^iimW tWl \\tv iiiq^I iciportanl brAncli of 
^iul >tAUHlio8 i& tbni which fk^l^ with ik^iith*- And i-at?J4 uf ittort.Abty. 
TfciU in not only the moat c^iiiiiph'ii hciiiich i»r thv AiihjrcU therefore 
deiuamtiuj^ llio more cnixful ^tm]y, hiil lh« ititfiU'Di-c of hejiUh nn ihr 
hmikitn nici' in ?«> ficiwi^irnl fur ;;ovU ur tril thnt slaitntk'^^ of iWuIha MUit 
iia|(3 of iikorlitliLy tuv|i]iii' lli<'ir ;;ri*]iU'-^l viiluu from lJu*ti' nocopliUion iw 
trublworthy imhcjiliom of public h'jiltli. 

'\'\u' [HiMir c(>nnileuui- in iht uh^ of <U':ilh-'riikH jih » tj*M of hcihli or 
SOJiiUry iromlitioTi may I"' fnirly nlU'ilruirt] lo ibo ejlucfttionitl influcrtc? 
of Dt. TrtrrS ^ttilirilicul work, intWisbi.-'l iliinng n Xoti^ ?iciii> of ywii-s 
m ihi' Ri*j»THlTMr-(jL*iii'i[iVM WWHy, (^iiaiHi'ilv, «"*! Animal l{c|KiriM. 
B^ ihn il^'Rlh-riite hrfr nlhidrrl to i^ inrnnt tfn' propLii'lk'ii of jliuiuhI 
<li^nlh<- (nl nil ii;^rM uikI fivm iJI i-utiMrH) lu ihi- |}u|mhition 3l1 nil aj^'s, 
Aueinp1« hiiTr, il IJ* Trtii', Ixvn miiilc »t rnnous liriR'S dm-lii^ ilii^ jml^I 
l»j yc-ftr« to ik'ory or ikptvinnttj Um vuhiu of VfXinl hiw Ihvh i--nll«-d ihc 
'* nAlimiAl Fi^j^ilvm '' i>f (1i<alh-ml4*<^ Tlio oi^xiHflioii to ihin ^YKlcm mtij 
besjiiil lo ha\G cxiUmuuU^l whvn llu' bihO>i, I^thchy, then Tieaiilent 
of thi' Metropulitiih He^lh omcer^' Arc^ociiiiion, uiiuft, in oiio of hi^f 
PrB«iileiitiul A(M<xkh<4, hiri noiorbiiH iituirk on the «yHtvni of moriiililjr 
rtntiMicD iuiliiUcd by Dr. Farr, nni\ nijoptrxt by Iho IV^rrtlrnr-G< ilimiiI 
hi hijt r«'|ioTtH, Pr. LHhoby. with itKirv w lesH justrfioalion, iIiiieopiI 
ii» hT> linppcul^-iTi in ihii* niUu-.k on Dr. Fhit"* syidtm. Dr. RtimH'y, 
Dr. Raraoiii'v "r. E» J. Wi^on, lh\ Syjon, Mr» W. Koy?<tori, jini] 
Mr- Amlri'iv VTaU. In ihj* ri<c-«iilviilia] AtUhi-», Dr. Lcrclicby wi-iU *«> 
I'm- n< to Ji'iiy thnl n hij-h il<^iTb-nil« was riwcHinrily itii evil, imtl 
Miiil Ibul "jin incrtuHC iti lln? lato of morlabiy id oftm h «;t" o^ 
" prwipiTily, for « biaU dcalb-nilc meuun a hi^h bJrtL-ral(\ ami Jt 
" ln;iti birlh-rHtL- U tlio iiivariAblL' c^oiic^miUujt 4jf prOMjMriiv," I'll? 
uiaIii f^r^tUDU (tf Dr. l^'thi^bj^'r* nlfjuk *vi*v nn riiljjv luisooiict-ptioii of 
the rvlAtiun:* b^twotii biilh-nstvi nml 4«ulh*rmtc». It ih w^ll hnown 
lh»t tli€ r«oorOul tlenlh-ratp« in |K>i>n]ntionH huvius bi^h 1>irlb>rflt«8 
arc iilmoi^l invnnnbly highir th«n Ibftu; ptrviiilin;; in ircipuljilit^is in 
whiL-li the hirth-mlft- are low. From Ibm olx-^m^l tru-t \h\ lA'ilwhy 
mill iflbvi"*' aMniiH'd ibnl the bi^b ilcntb-i'olen wrrr Jui- to ihr lij--b birlh- 
ml*"*, by iTim^iTiK ii"» un^lnr prijjxirtiuii of Vfnin;! rhiLtrt^ii in tin- |K>jmhi 
tioo I iviiti'^ vWtUUvn beinj- inevital»1y lijiblf lo a bij(h mte of momibty. 
Di'. Fnrr hud sgiiiii vnit n^znin pointi^il out ihc fnlbicv of ibf^ nf^iimjilioit, 
■ml sbown ibui pc^pulationa hnitn^' hi^h bu-tb-ruirn fOiouhl, >Hfiitsry 
condiiioji'^ IiHng (f[iinl, bnvc lower iit>atb-mli':« rlino |K»pit]ni ioiiF* bi«viiig 
low hjtib-mlr». An nimlogy i?i now ■hno«t ni-^^twry For n? aiAtitiK 
tlmt itiiN ii4 ibic to the rol]ow]ji<j fao1>. A hinh birlh-^mlv implirc an 
CKPftioiially lar^' |>iu|H.>rliou ul }'o\iii]{ iidnllfl in n |HipulBtioi^ and 
coii^ti^ntly «kii unihjly «mnll proponbn of ddcHj^ fx-ri-onH; il ihcrt* 
fori* ioipKoH All A^ (liBttibution i>f lb<T pupuUlioik ^blch \n cxctcdinBfy 

lis [rAUT tr. 

^'^^yCPtfsUo tp tW ilcKib-nite, A lo^v 1iiitbnati% on tb« othfr bnn^l, 
*M]>lieaBii nndiilj sniAtI proportimt of young a'IijHs ^o*^ Decftttsnly a 
Iai';;^' |ir<i|wrtLOn of mlult per rsoiis ; tlic< a^ tliMnhi^lioa ^rf nui;l] h 
population i*y 1liervfon>. vry tii\fnvtiitrn\>\v to ili« <k-»1h.r4ip. In 
explicHtrou of lliu E'A<7t timt hi^ti liirilj-mUr^ nrc <:<c[terall^ fouiul co- 
ok tf;U-nr Viilh liigb j|i-utb-mte^ il Is only no>cd<4r>' in point mif tliat 
Ih*^ ftj»;:roj;;ftlii>i] of yuunj; mbiluwliidi picnliic*^ U\*^U l>irIti-rAr4is only 
tfiUi:w pljkcc in i^Hwii diatriclni uinl lluit il i->) tbc iirlnm (k;c^rc-^»i loir, 
iinil fKit tb« liil^h birlb-mf^ tbftf I'fviilu from il, ivliich trnrtw- Ihi^ hi^h 
«lt'jilli-ral»'- Tht' fnllrtcy iiivulrtnl m ibct (i.^uiiinptbfi Ibul hi;ili birth- 
riLlvit <-jii)>4' bjj;Ii iltviib-i^tj^ Ap|>Gat>< still h> liuvu ImK^^iti^ nlLriicriouA 
lor some mo^licnl oilicpi'?* pf hrnlib, nuxiour^ w iiccotini Ibr rxc^i'^ivo 
morUkllty m urbftu ili^trk-tr, but it h^w injvcr been nutbarita lively put 
foi-wiird sinea tbit iliaeomOlure of Dr. Lctbrby a itl(jL<!k. 'Hia i^Rtrcv^ 
vovsy it* now matUT of hinory, but tluw iutrnwt*^! in the *ubJ4?ct will 
liml Ih. Ltalieliy's pupcv in Llio TrausiK-tioob vf Uiu Ali<lnf|Ni)]tAn 
Heultb OflIcf?i9 AHw>uiutltjn, jvnO n nrply thtn'cU, iu a puptt' rt^ by 
iho Kditor of lhi» volume btfoi-t? ibo Slutijctioid Society, in Vol. 37 of 
the Journal of ihjU Socioty, 

In till- llr«t «iib-rlivi:^;in of ibift Piirt wril bo found a iwleclioii fixnn 
Ur. i>'jirr'ri wrttiiiKH beurlJig u^ion tbu Hj^tiilk-uucu of d<vi[li-m(ors »nd 
upon ibu vMj^iou^ diMLiL^hiu;^ iiilIuviJCrT^ tltM iiiiLIUiUwi^^^iiiuit Uiu vulut* of 
x\w cruiEc ilc>nth-rutc! us jui uccurafv lc«t i-iibci of mortftlily ar t.4 h^mlfli 
coudicioii. FnniL wimt bju been wrttttti jdxiw- it luiiy hi- (tK^unud (but 
rural ileutb-rMca^ by Ow ni'UoJinl fty^U-inij :ijv soiiifwbftV over^aUU-d, mid 
llijU mUm r«U'?» by tbr Nuoi; Ny^tt'iu au'o iiniler-^lulnl. Conscqi^eiUly, h 
i:uiit[>ttri'*oii ui' riir;il and uibau ilcittli-r.iti'.'^ uii]cl>* Uiv ruloa b(< cuinvttil 
ffpr llie clitliToiicr* of iigr-caiiMtitntitjn in tUtt two jxipidn J Ions, cijiiNdt-rably 
imdoTiitnte^ llui GU*OM of mortal'ty dnu to urbiiri nggn^giuion Hud 
iiibMuiUiry conditioii. 

The iitfco^ity foi- audi comolioiis mid nomv ol tiif ia<-l.hoch by wiilcli 
dwijr muy bu lundoi nrtr ilf^lt With m twiuy of ibci exfivictn in tbr 
followinjif pnj^. Htfoni j>i'iH'{nHlfng to t^nri'oi'f dmlb-rAt^-H Tor <fiil<<rtiici'« 
ok' isi\K iLnd Aj^* pLXipurtiojitt it in utx'ivuary to fix upon loint' sltindan] 
TrJtU wbicli ii8cful cpinj>aritTOii may bo miu]e. Tbi^ I^fii Tjddi' ij« th<- 
only tactbcul tlifU ^'ivon tnu' niii-n of iiiorljdity, from whiob idl diH- 
lurbiDjc irilliiVJiccA of bl-x un^l rip.^ pri>[>L>r(.ion0 h»vo 1>c<in nliminjitcd. 
Il IlitMvfojv ftjifituTrs dohiriible to iw^ lifo tiiMo ikuth-rak-s uh tbo 
hUniiard for com ju prison. XIil' twIc^ of niorudity ;;JvttL by JJr. FAiVit 
Kngiidb Life Tftble, iio. 3, aud by hii« llo'dthy ]>tfiti'icL Life T^dd^^ 
silp|^lii^--< two MK'b [tlimilard^; Ibr fuiUK-r if tbt- mnui doaLh-ruLu in 
Kn^lnud iiii'l Wulcv dnrn^ iIk* 17 yontv I^S-o4 be tlio dvaitvd 
standard ; urul ihty lultcr il tbf? bi;.'bt:r btaiuliiril. baxn] on ibe iiiorLaltty 
iu 6^ !Lrlf^<(i'd bi-jdtJiy ilihliict^ .^Liould rcconimcjul itveJi' for Adoption, 
llie ap{dica1ioji of tbc^^c flaniUiid tifc iAh]e deatli-mU^a of lu^es and of 
ft'inaJc^al tbiTMJViruln^u-jH'nvilB to titu jn~ofKn'd"ii;d rriiiulxTS living alike 
uuiin H^Lf-jK'riftiU of cjich sex n'ill hliow the tiuuibi-i' of <]<4ktli» ibnt wouM 
occur in any (jiven ]K)j>uliLtiou if »iUch life tiMv mU's pruvude^l at tUtj 
f^ct'crtd ngi-^ptf<riodh. 'I'bu u^^nvjcaUu nmnbur of dojith« (jdcidfLfcii by 
liiiti mrtbiHi, divided by the popoLalion nt nil Hgcs, would pve what may 
bu odknl ibij' ncintal Jojith'ialv, in aci^ordnnc wilh »nv icljonlmd 
(ulopU'id for ihir puriuHi" of (;om|iari«oii. The ditf^reuou lioiwota luch 
riomial nitc.-* and ibo n*conJed dcfltbraU's *bow liow much iho recorded 
d^alb-rntefi differ irom tbo »uridard of conipjiriMon, idVr due nllownna' 
hw been miidt' for vnriaUona of sex nud age pi-oporliouh. ihi^ method 
WU9 adopU'd iti Ibo (iuikm* rfifcrred to Above, which wa« read 
b«fore tho Stntinticid f>ociety in nntwcr to Dr. l^Elwliy'i attack upon 



Dr. Fiirr'it hj»u»i of oioiUliLy mUcikIli^ in Docvmbi-r 187J.* In ib^ 
taotv iocc*ol paper, rond beTore ihe Niue Societv iu April 1883*, will bv 
foutiil Uic uLilliiic of Bitatlicr Ltfo Tabk buMid upon tlie iDortallijr 
uacpi^ritiiuo iL Kik^tiknO lUiJ V^'iiK-n ilitriDf^ (be five yx^r* 187s 80, uvWci, 
untici- llie iiitlueiJCL] oL' iiupro>vil ^idultai}' ui-^aniMtJou. iui<l JjK-a^oAt^d 
pullir. ijitnvsi ill limllh maMcrs du6 in gnwt mudwic lo tho I'ulillc 
lleftlili j^ctH Lif 187!^ xul lS7o, a vrell-niafkec] doctiue m tbc- luiliMijj 
iJetilh*rnl« liftd liilU »l lU' Thlik ikltuiiU jiH lujirtluT j^Ukijiliud fur ibo 
L'iiluu]«tioii of corrvi'li^l rulvn. In ihe UcgUinii'OL-ii<.'nirA UcccuniiiJ 
S^ppkinciif Ut 11k- 4>^lb AiiuuaI K«f>orL, ilciJin:; with lLc LaorUtlity 
aUliatk'A n( xUr U-Ti yvkVf l>47l-^ yet Jiiigtbcr Hf»hibril tvi <^ini|Airi801i 
tfiiu topfull bjrI>r,Oglc»Uit siicceaflor of Ur, Furr, TbiiSbUitiiliirdidbaent 
ii|H)ii i!L<t pii^jiti iW:h-r4tlP^^ in Knglnnil itntl WjiI^^jiI V2^^4iip> of a^v^ 
i|uriii<{ tli4^ lO y4.\ii>i l^l-80. llii.-ne ntW IrL'iijg iiilv] iri thii rvporl for ibo 
conblTLiclioQ tpf a Lifo I'ubli?, tlio rosiilti» of wiiich uic thciv ccHupareil 
vritb l]i<)*o i>r Ih-. KiirrN Kttglinh Lifi* Tabk^ Nu. 3, biiacfl ii|M>f] ibo 
morialiiy m ihc JT yettr^ l83^t-^4, 

Tbc wcouil Muli-itivirtioii vf ibU E'^rt in <lcvot«*l to thmv selections 
ilniliii^ rt]HHri»l1y vtiiU runil ami iirbiiii DiorlJility, uiiil nrilli the ^3tcn»A 
of iiil^ui niti^ (liitT ti> agpf^lion or ileoHty <.*f i>opnUtii:Mi in towaSi 
Ur, (''iiir Wft* |»iiiUiUy iUl* Un*t ^ iul HUf uticiim lo (lisw'vi'r iiml |ii'i<*iM*ljr 
x» jfoiiii. uni llio n'UuLrkAlily i^wiaIjmii irhiiioM Ijciwcoji ctccii^itj of popu* 
liilioii aiiii iut>rt»1ily. liulvisl, hv fmiiiil tbo tvliilkon eo crrnaUknt tbnt 

b(> &t>leil il it Ijiw of tiiui'tjility, ;i teem, luwd^ei'. ojveii i*> Mome 
[>Uj(Hiuin, liiiK^ it tuny vJUNily hr. [trouH\ iluU it m poftiibln f(^r a high 
ilffgri.'c ol i[i?ii^itjr ul [H>pi]bitiMii tr j>n.'vni], tvilhout ilfl prvducm^ Uie 
^.\4.Tfd tif iiioi'j'tliijr tvhirh llicwui^ " hiw " MiggvM:* Ul-bvijicviuibki rv»uU 
of oicb ikMiiily, Oao 4>f ibv auaa oh^cethoa ur^^iJ by ilin nppQnotita 
of tbe "ikuiiuMul Hy»ieiu" to the '* use of ileatb-rstefl na a tual ofauuilurjr 
" coii^litinn w iluri th^y (jikc n*> oognifwncr of viirying ihosity rf 
** i^puUtioii, iif iLo tjiiulLly of llu^M^ uoootjmKMblion, of CKcupulioUt of 
** wocii'} o^iJiJItMin, Ac-r ill iliHc-Ji'nl |Kr|>u]rtt iv>tiN An if, fvfMtvth, itniM 
" wore not ihc m»ia CitiiiM.1 of the varyiujc hnalth cs^mliliou* of popti* 
" UtioRs, of whfch iho ilc»lh-iiUG has bo«i] ht> genttrjiDy uot:«pteilNB 
^ II InjhtsvoHhy lest. SiiuiEary nulUontiu* iif kin-ns ui which tli« 
" (tfin*ity of po]nilj»li<tfi i# gnvil» tlw hlr^-ew imd <»iiru ttMfovf, t'n^wdoil, 
** 4uj<l iU-vi.Mitrl<tt<<l, nad iu vrliicli large pii>[jortioiis of Ibr pofiiilution 
■' follow iiiLhi--ibliy (>CL-u|]HFioiift Mu\ U-loiig l4> th*- pu'X'i-t cLivtfh iif ociohTt 
** mv hriivily hjimtit^appcHl ill tlii^r biMllh n-^punMbilitic^, but lbi> 
" di-jillirah' of Mieh lowu-Uu m»lou llmt accotiiil «fforxl Ii4«iic«tmtle 
" immtTifnl (r^tH of Unir hviilib cfiinliLion/'t 

Tbi' HlW't i>f tU'iiiiitv npoh lh»' il-^alliiuU in, h<>w*'%cr, bi-yvml <lii>)>iilct 
and ilie |>i-i'\i-ntiun *>f muJi iiRj^rcgiilioii iuid ovtr-eruwdiuj* in tuwii!* iia 
in driiimLiitiU to bniUli JHMt ibf Niini' liin« oni' of lln- niofl imjiortatJt 
«m1 moAi ililliculi pri>bli-ui-s Uir tHiloLKui of which in bi^iui; dilij^eully WMi^t 
by Lbedoirlopuirulof Htniiiu')' M-ieii(X'utilorgiuiiN4tioit. It should id nvy^ 
bv horm- in mirid thai ihe d(kit1i'iiht4^> in urbnu pMpuUtiouib «l «ll ufp^s 
a0 bns (tn^ii ixftliuni'il Afxi\i*, tmLf^a eoitvctf^d fur ditlL'reuc**^ of ago 
iti><n bill too, invjtriAbly midirsLth' tbrir ml moiudiiy. wbil'- for tin* 
vHint- rvuaoiifl the dtiilh-fnti'* m ruriil Ui^trtclt^ iinJcvi corivctKl, ov«r- 
t4mU: xhva truv uoiUUity* 

* The Voluo c>f Dcatb-nlcs n t Ttvl (^ SamtaiT CoDdilbiu Jooi^ of SlAtiMical 
S'lciutjr, Vvl. x\\vr\., p, iA7-;i ; and ili« llrrml Dtctiut^ in lliv Kn^^lvL Dcalh-nUt 
Hiid IH vfkvt. upon lfa« Diimlim ot lAU. ilonnul of iLc &f»1tflli«Al Bodtf^. 
Vol. xlti., pp. ]M»-9>3. Both th«c |«f>«r» »^r* ooulifhutod hy ihr Kdiur of tkn 

t ivf paper rtut, bj ibt IMitoi ^r iltk «<o}uaiii, rI tUv Binaniuhiim Coogn^a cf 
the XioiaiMl AnoaktHtQ lor ihc rromoikiu uf ^^lbI S:inu:«, tiqiUtuber IBM. 


[wTiiT in 
WhiU-. 1;on'i*ver, xhn mu'ort^tv} tU^lU'tnle n\ nil »;jfl!4 is For com- 

i^fcrn^d to, i)ofLih-n\lcn nl j{i~<>u]is of np^s nri* fmiclKJillv fivo iWm such 
iihjoHion^i. Tlu' ]>ru|t4>r|infiH »r Jmt.lm iinrW Wwt* ^onrtt of h>!i-> to ^ht-j^iii- 
living nl ihoifc tt^-*. or, "-■* llicy nn? u*iiully niiii wnivrtly c^iillnl, |Ii»t 
<1i^h'r»1^u of olilldr^ii xjtuhv tivv ycurT* of ago, wbcllior In inlwui ur in 
runil Oi^trict«, nrcr inmworthy for Cfimpnrniivi- ]>tLr|K)M--i, lu an.- llic 
<liMit1i-rnU'n at oUicr f^inujK <^ '^n^- 8<.n'i-i'iil of the vxlriul'H in Uic 
foUowing pii^'tu iWl ^irli tliin ^tihf^rr., imrl pnifit mtl ilm impnrfiiTirr f>r 
Happr-mt'iilij)^ thi< di^iith- nito ni nil ii^rs hy ilr^iilli-raUa nt gi'Oti|i.^ of 
a;^. No fieulrli oJJJeof's iv|ii>rl <^huui'1 be <li"cm»?<l coniplelo witliont 
rnXKA of im^iTuEIty ul. ^nmp!^ of ngt-jy, unnw\y\ Om propurliuiir^ uf (Ii--urhF« 
ut vuch ;;ruijp3 of u;^xv 1o tiK* i^liin;ft1>M iluuiIwi'm Uvii};- ni On* h-unii' 

groopft of ^^i"'- Ilnv il iimy W iioticoil IhiU ilicrc urr two false 
nuithodH l>y whtoh nmtiy ln'^illli wflirui's -wk lu sliow lIh' varjiiig inictt 
of mortaliiy im tlwir *lis1viL-t= at <liff**rvni n;^c-|ioriuds i1ic rtiH of 
ttiL-Bo fntHu tiKrlUoiU in ihv cjikulnlioii of ilic piu|H>rIlijri of dcnttiB n1 
v»rio(i4 •;^>'|>oritHU lo flu? «li'iilTi? ri( nil »gi'«. Tln^ h^ooihI ih \\iv wilcu- 
bittoTt vf the i^i^oiKilllon <)f thr- (!t.-:it1j> nl vnrioiis ii;^'-i>i'ri<Hl« Ui ihr 
pujiulai]{»n ttt n\\ aj^fH. Tho r>r>ttlu of tiutli Lhi'St f:ib(< iiiiiliodt^ ii|-i- 
iJniiV- in 11 wtill ^riAi^'r- di-gi'i.v to nil thiMlJAliirbiiiginflm'mN-^of vamtimi^ 
ttt ii;;L-^4liatribiitioii. wbich di'jin-cintf' tlir mlar of rincoiTi'cUd rlL'tith- 
Tittf^ >iT rill 11^-4 for com|iHnitivi- |iiirjiriH4-h. Th^' ivcultJi hy tlh-xt- r.vrii 
mi'tlinil!« iLrpt^itiT fur moiv n|H>n th'' iii(>|Htrtion» of jn rsouH liiin;; uL Llir 
vnriouh iii^L--)>frioil^ tbin iiiion tli*' r»U' of mortality pnvitilin;* »t siicIl 
Hp'*|M'i"ii»iiri, and Hi'f llnTi'fiiri" vii1iic-l(9(« iis li'&is of inh- mortjdily. Tin* 
iiiiinlji'r nf ii^i-porrods wliu-h it ig d'oimbl*' to itdopt in ln-rdtlj ri'|rtirto, 
with 11 view to throw liglu u|>oii flu- *«onfjiry cnwlitioii ofujiy fx^pidHtfori, 
liiiHt unduly di-prEid upcrii tbi< unumnt itf pnpulrLLion to U^ il^^^dt witli- 
If tbk.' po|iidjuion h*- Ainall, fivi.- Hj^r^iKTiodp woidd Ijf Mjftich'iit, ii^ loo 
gn-iil n sobilivisioii i^l" ilii- jiit[iiibuiott wutdd iifli^ci Llii' vidiU' of Ou- ri\tv^ 
for compHmlivi.' poi'jH.iKi'«, Thi'fi- u-^'in-riml^ iiii({til, ihi^ivfori.', vm-y 
from Wv*' U}tUi- tvilnniloptrd hy Ih" It-giftlriir-luiujalfor ?dl KnghinJ, 
and its wvi-nd ccimiicfii, zicooi-din;.' Ut tin- iK>|Mt1jitiiiii of the dislrict In ln' 
dr»ltwith. As liH? pivvioM^ly birn 8t/it«d, Un- Ci-nhiis Report for 1881 
jjivirH, ij] voL 3, Ihi' aii^-rt f>r ilu- rniiini'i-iktt'd jH)]]iiliitinii of I'cicli iirbiiiL 
Hud rintti[ sjJiiitfhry dtHlricti us {."oUp^titiiF^d in iSttl, ii> twi.*iity quiiiqni-nniiil 
period?. As, for aW pnicifc"! T'^rpoHi-s H mny br o*snm"'d ihnt thi* 
|>t^|Kirlional jigi' dif^lribriticrti llirU ptt'Viiil<'il »i i\n- l/i8l Ci'iisiis b:LA hincc 
ho'n mninTiuniit, no ivnl dtttic*iiUy hLinilH m Ihr wjiy of i>?iinmtin|; the 
iiuinln'r uf ^h'l'stin!^ liviu;^ nl oiiy n;;i^-j»'rifMl in nuy tan'tltMy diairici lu 
Huy y-i\ty <ii iif cidnilritiii^ ihi- tiTUoml nili> fif Timrl^iliry nl nny jigi'-]H'noil, 
"rjiipt m<-llioil of unnlyMitisr h i?»ittli'nit<' ut jlII np^s t-* jibw)lulf*ly nn:(^!tNiry 
in oidi-r tliHt U'u-' iirid iudi^puuddi^ inft-ri-UL-^'M itiiiy be dniwu tbiix-frum 
flu lo tho mtiiljiry c^'UdTtion of ihc |H>pidiition. 

Aa f''?fa of Nifiitjiry condition the di>iU»-r*iti'fl uf iiiinnL-" undri- oni- 
y»'rtr, :inil of diildivn nruh-i' flfi- yiiiiv <il' ft^», jrn* iin»ri' iiiipotiAtit tluni 
tln' ndi'.'< Jil nny olIic-T j^roiip* of u^^f^M 'J'hc I'ji1<- of inorljdfly of intuntfl 
uitdi'i' one yejir of zi^r uiiiy Ik* fiieji^iircd i-flhi'i' hy tlir jirupoilion al 
n-[7onU<d di-jith^ nt this n**v to ihi< f^iiinnt^^il nrtmbiT i»f irifnnih living ut 
ilir antni' H^s c»r by tlio pi"o|M>rtioti of diutbs ilimUt ool- yviiv to thr 
fovisti-ri'd liirlltfl* Ii]votit!;^iti<jii his nbown, bi<vniid donlil, tlud the iii^'^ 
of yonnp chddrcn mv very inrnnYrtly ntiinjvJ ni f hr CVnsiis rnimK*rii- 
ii<in, owiii" lo tliQ ^Hifnd virid iiKlisciiniriijit'- mi*v i>r two uu'thuds for 
dt'9CMbt]i|f j^r. At th'.' CcTiMif* iTHUin-mtions rJn' number'^ of infant> 
UJkdiT orn? yom- of njji- r»ri' 'vrt«inly iinfli'i"— l4il<*»l, iW (hero is good 
ground for bi^'Ui'Vtu^ that imuiy iurmil^ in thi-ir finst yvnv of agt nre 

Du ^Tnt,] 


niiiruvd us oj^-d cmi< yvnri C^ul ii ^malli'r ntimbpr fu ihi^ir m^coiiO yvar 
of Ji^.f ftTT? rviiiTiinl n» H*fi'd lw'<) j-iiirwi ami *ti tin. 8niiii^ hav^- «oii^1it 
lu cKpltiin Hi*- iU lit- if' my of intunl-^ rr-iiiiTii^l a( lln- Ci'ii-u> lo uniifo^iuTiK 
ill th*- I'miiiifiuliwii ; Ijut J)r- F«rr, ini ;;rournt?i wliicli •rt' fully ili-^rnbi-il 
ill till- i<xlnicl>4 i>h p|i. 2<H*-^1', Hi I 111 ti J 1*1 1 ihi- <t>-<icr»»rK<v 1<i oohf>t"iiMk 
ht'lWH-ti ilio frtirri'Eit ynir «il »{:v jiiul ilx roinpli-liil w«i> <»i' Hlr n^cLri' 
ihnii tv JictiifilvniiK-virkK. Thi'iuolMiliIily of lli>' Irrilh of lbi^ UAHumjilioii 
b* MJ|i]Kii'i>'il hy ibi* fnct iIjaI, ^a fur hn aiti b*< loci ribiiud liy invi'vij* 
pillion, iIh' <l"'tivii*iH'j' mtkUt iKir jriir is prDciiciitly hiliitioil br llit 
I'Xi^i'Tik /if tlii- nitmlH-iv rTiiiFLi>'i-tli'i! ftl th*' kucrii^iliiiff n;^'^ lw<i, linn-, 
uniJ four y<«r', iiiu.-<iikiKb a^ iht-n- itppi'm- lo b.- mi ;^Knl ki^"ii>*1> f<*i' 
Hii|ipfi9(]n^ thht ihf toinl niim1»-r fif'diiMrtMt rniini<T&k-f[ ni)di.-r Hvt: yvAV^ 
of ni*e in JHlcti-iii. On nocmiiu ut Uii> ilriicii^ncy in ibi- 0'D?»nf« iiiiuit<i-r?< 

of iiifimlx itndrr oii<- y^-ur of fi^'t tl^'' iii<>rljL|i(y of ibo**' lulkiiU ijn 
liKiLMLivd in Ik iaf>rii^ trii>tv:orlhy mnnnrr by thi> |kmpoi-tioii nf di-jjlUf^ 
iiDc1i>r otii- yt'UT to ri-^iHUivd biElliK ilmti by tJit* iiKihtxJ of i-aliiitattn^ tbt- 
riiimbi-n* living nf tliw n^'r from Ihi- *mumi'ratcil ntimbi-rH. Tlir corivc! 
ii|i[>licjjllLiii iif rbi> mi^tbiHl h lo <1i%-iilr r1i>- ;ti':itb^ uuib-r oix- vi-ht nf ti^* 
in u givii) y^'jir by tli<' ntonn uumlHr <if birllii- Vi'^nIii'4'<3 Jii iIimL und 
the pTt-Ci-iiiTif: yvAT. A.-s bowi'riT, tin- Htiinbcr^ of births In a jK>^>til»ition 
du iioi viiry ^-iiy <'-<nisi4l»'r»l>ly from ynr lo yrsr, the simpU-r «n<l vi>ry 
Uhtmlly fkdojilrd iiiiiboil is lu um* iIii< j^ix^imriioii oi linuJiH iiuili'i- uui' 

Tt<ni to ri<^i:<t«Tii:| LJitlm In Ilir mlii»i' v^-nr ii> A in*-ii>ii4'r of iiifAnl 
tuorhitity : n»il for nil pniclioul piir}VM-« lliU tfiinpb- rni-lbud f;iv4-> 
iv-'iiks wbirb !H'*' ^ufBch-ritlv Ini'-lworlJiy. 

'J'bi- flriuh-ruli; cf tbildn-ii nmtrr live yi^rs of iip* Mioiilil iiiv«Hablj 
b»- caIciiUiImI rtpori iIm* t^Miniflii^Hi iiiimlH.T of ctllUri'ti living: at ibi-x* 
ikf;i---<. Tbir> OtMlh-mlf- of chiKlrcii AffnrM]* uti niTiiltiablc li-^t of ibi- 
BtiEiilury f'Oiulitiuii oF n jM^imlnTioii, mid I** for lbi>* |iiir|Hi-« muri- Liii]HiilJUit 
tlinii Ibe <1i.'a1h-mtt- al nuy "UbH-qurni aiuv-|icrii:Hl. A^ Imh nhttuiy In^ni 
poiiiti,'d out, all iitUinpt.t lo judgr of tW moriiilily of duliln'ii by ihi.- 
poportioii of 4l*iillis of cblUlrcii IoloCJlU^<alhs or^votj by ihr pix^iwriion 

of ib'iiUi^ c^ chiLiln^n lo llu- [KipnliitioiL ut nil itgi'*, vntt only t^-oil lu 

Ij^W^lOll^^ illfri'l'IK'i.'h. 

lu iiU vibH-ft Ji) wbicb till- ]iopiibitioij ili-alt wilb ].<« MilHt^ir-ntly bri)£t' 
to yivM irii».twonby ii'^nU*, tb<:- (bwib-inus of iii»iN> »n-l of rriimb'«N 

fOioIiIiI I>- utkuluird .-4-]MiniMy, hol only at nil np'j» (vrliitb rnlirf* hIjoiiUI 
Im- p^vli in ull rt'|H>rl»), but iil Jl\c i-r iiinn* ^ixiti|>^ itf nfsyn. Thv n-biliva' 

iiiorifilily or ibi' tvfj m-\i<v oftni ihrniVH li^tit ii|h>ii tin- oiDtw-* of 
IIm-liuilioik-1 in niti-?i ul murlubly, iiinl vrbeniAiT tbr n-hiljvi- m<rrtrtllty 
of tbi' two «i-X''>< «briWH Hbiii^iiimt pni|>oi1ioiis it i> lii^imlib' biriUiT Ui 

aliMlyH-- ibi- tlioitiibly by I'liUolaliu^ tulr^ for ui;jtl>'-- iio<l ftrr friiviU - iil 
Vnrii>iiH ii>«i>-|HM-irHTx, Si-xi<rJil nf llii' '-xtr:)!'!** rii Ui<' Ibird ^ii'tioii nf tnUn 
Full (M-f pp. ITH-HS) LifFonI vnlriiiUti- nifrrniMLlioii Imirinte it|Htn ibt 
luoriiiljly oF imdrs mid of fttimU^ ut dllFrri'iit :i^*^. 

Thi- lidb And >ixLb MTtion.-i i?t' lb[> I'Aii *U*nii* witb ^vrir^r* oE ili«Tb, ii^ 
rvlmiK'd fnr ibr piir|Hjni-i^ of Uk- ii<ilivn»1 fliTitli r<';-inlrrt t'/ iiir-(li<i<i1 
pr»('titioiif»rK jki>(] by t^rDnt^rr*. 4^ui>4-s ol' lU-jilb in ibr ilrwtb r<-;ci>4<T 
Aiv mH^'vMirity liltb* mh^m' ibfui Ibi^ moiv or )i-?« liii-«twoilby ^im'^i- 
of n liir;.t^ t-oily nF iiiori' or b>h <-kilb'il idiM^ni'i^, t'Xi-i'pt in tbi- Kpnii 
|irti]iiiili(iii uf cji^T^ in wbii'b tluw -jrii-fl^^rH art ttir "ibvTnt''d or 
ininliHotl by pitni mtfi'-m rjtnm'umi't"it^. StMtMu^ ti€ voii*^^ of «l*kilb 
ftbaiiM thonlbiv W cr^inplkil wilb nintion, und nilbuiil ntiy jtU^'inpl al 
over trbittonitioii of di'lnib Slit) x'fjili'i' niniioii ^liould be iihhI hi 
dmwiiif: infi'i'Hic^'* niid d4<iliif^ltQn> fmm h ('oii][mni--oii of tin- ii->tjlt» for 
II pltSt^ of >t'jin^ Cbiiii^^^ ot iJifUii-'tK'biliio' iind <f tbi.-**Jfli(itiuii m\*] 
mal4'i-iii1ly lo ihv difflcullitfW in Uh- wny nt lu-cful cofn|unKuti of miiqU 

tpABT t^. 

Htittl-^tic'H f<*r (lilfrivEit pt'rio.K of v'tir^. "I'lu^rr ij* ho fw^njii to tloiihl 
thiit tlif qTiuUry ol tbiMHAlf-rml \t\it.vf\ itl itiv diH|K]S4rof ibf lUf^btriLr 
OirjiiT«l 7<^r hy jr^vir by Mn'ilio*! ixm-liTinm-ih mit) i*oit>ii'-r* for imlfuiial 
t4Atii>li«iJ ]Hiqriy4>t, U Mi>»ilit7 iinpi'iniiif^, iin<I ilMiac 4.MtirioTi bi» Dljhpr\-tt| 
in lh«* iiM- Iff the- -tliili^tic'K com)>i(i.'>l t'ltun tbi> mjili'i-idl iIk-v ma^ Ih« 
mwle 1<i M ntU^r v;ihiiiMi' p*-v\ in^ ih fricilituriri;; llu* *>oliitioii til' ilu^ uintiv 

f-lnti>^i<^Ll urnrk i« n 4.'on'r'i.t mu\ «tT:ii'l1y ii]i[uirlinl a^t illicit iirii nl' Ilii< tnlilt' 

of the m»l*'['iiiK jivjiihibU' ji* lin' bjihij* ol" inilctiluth^ri. Th*- ivieclH'ii of 
till motrTiiiU (hnt uii< rhit Ix'ynrKl u\\ fiti'>\tu-'ntu wmiM l\ilii!l/ n-r^hicL tbf 
held ot' htHtrMk'Jil r*'si^rch, whili", on thfl oilh-r ImTiil, lln' pid^ifiw of 
i^loliisiivikl 4.1^ Icf ih liiniloi*"<l v»ilH<'i" tlum ii-lv(im"«*rl by thr loo cnnfiilt^iit 
iiFM- of iTMti-n^ilF* itiKrivnlly jiriil RtLLlI^ ilt finHivi-. Much VJL]ii»b|i< woik 
iu«y bi- *loi>*" with ilr-fi^c-iivi- nj:iftiiHls if lln-ir il<IVcl> In- ki'jit Mo^ilily in 
vfrv, Iflilb 111 i\U' tuilculjLlirjn uf irrtiillH jukI in ttuikbi^' <li-iii|L'liiiith tlirtv- 
froin. 'l^c ukui>>i tJiK willi whicli Hr. Fjut NjhI in tviirk m^iilv flOy 

nnd imW«itif^l>l<- Hliiti.'itieiHn ; tint whiV hi' vva^ nbU- fifttn liuit< lo tiin^ 
fo im]>it>%'r- ibt.- qiiiilitj' of Iih injihn'ml,«, frw will tiijnnv to i)i-ny tlir 
i»lilt:< of Ihi' ii'srilb Iro ili'iivi-il fntm nucIi tU-tVcliVT- iiMU'riJil^^, <^ivii in 
ibf mi'ly yi^d^ of bU ,-H<rvii:«< in (lu- Sijiti:«l ii-nl DijuirtuiixiL itf tbi' <>i'j>i-i.i.k 
K<'^*tl''i' (>l1if*<«^ tvbicb fliit*>if rroiii IK3H. In vitnl ^tiilihlri-* fill ^tii^lmtv 

iTiii^l li.-n]'ii (o nHi< iiii|M-rlV(.'i njnti'i'inis jmd jri-t tt> »-mj-il,fiH U*v n^ |H>t^ibK 
lieiiinMl fjiiUirioij^ n-NiilL-c, 1i i^ nl Jill tiin<"i iin|Hii'i^int not lu cmu^sil 
llitT imfK'rrrrliorih of miUt'iiiih t\*-H\i wllh, hiil mtln'i- lo i^ruw Atli-nlUtu 
Ui tWin ill MK'b niAiiiiiT no lo pivmiotc thi- iic?v:i'b'i'iilLi>iL ttf tbi-ii irmovAl. 

TW pTtnirU in tb}'* th'cIuhl riipi>^- ov-t n wiili' lii'lil, jOk«l ni'tv-v«rilj 
iiicbi<lr' H ci.»risi<t"'iiiblr niitnbc r ihnU, nfuc tbi- Injisi' of ycaj'^, air mor*- 
vuhiabli- tor ibf'ir Mi-^j^i'Miwrn^KH tlmii t\tv Um' lu-hiul finrL.-* ihcy 'H't foiiU, 
Tbr itintihi k'h of moriAlriy lixim %\tf *vwtn^ i-ywaiw au*\ <'|iub iiiic fliscuw'H 
bn> vulimiib\ bowi'Vi-r. Fi^r rrf<'n-iici< flllr|>ofl<-^. Tbi- r^b-i-tidii:' from 
Itr. Fnrr'H (/liolfrii Ki'tiorU form inii>oif]iiil <'onh-ibiition!N in i\u- \i\><-Utyy 
of epidemic <TisinM- in Krpbml, iiuil coul'l iml Uiwt' l»o»'ii omitlad from 
Uiis volumi-, allb(iiif:h iht-y nri- not nM ^triclly ^tiitifttii^jtl. 

Tbr L'oncbidiry; [mg<^ nf thin IVi nro tb-voc^l lo Ht'b'rtiunH bi-ariD^ 
upon clnw and ouru|HLlioniil mortnltty, Tiii^ti-i>rulo^^ niifl niorlnbty, 
inoi'tjdiLy ill iii-tiiLutiini^i mid the iuflui?ocQ of niurrt«gu on tnorliility. 


,t?t Tkkt^ or Ur.AMii AMI* IIkaltii riiOiMtt'-^Ti. 

Jjjr tuid DraiA iit Engiand. — Uow tbt |x'Opl'^ of Kii;;lnn'f lirr U 
one of ihp moat liuportAnt f|ucHtioua that can 1>e (rf^rMitltrr*^! i and liuw — 
of SfhtiX cniiws nnrf nl whnl a.^K» — ^tbny dii* i>i MCiHv.'tdy of b>B ncr<>junt ; 
for il ia tl»* cumplrmont ^ \\\v primiiry (|iirKtrn(i Iwirhitig mpn how tn 
JJve a louder, hcviltbier, ai}d ImppiL-r life. 

Tlio viifil tjnit^i lo In' s|MsniJly druiU wilb iin" tmrs-onn bviog and 
fi^ncJUH dyiu)^ in ibo Umi y^jii^ l^iL-TO^ only ilt^Lingnii^hfiij^ Ihi^m hilo 
ttniU r^piiucnling ti^hlf^ itii<l fomnEon of diOiiivnl ]'Q and ovonpn) iorii^ 
!n;tini£ \\tv. ytwv aft<T ycnr by vnnoiiH cniiw*, in aUiul 627 dis'rirts 
txti^ndjng from the bordp-rr? of Scotland lo llie Kiiglinh Cbaimel and 
from Ihe Irish Sea to the Ucirimm Uwhtl 'I'ljc dejUba in lb«' spreral 
cUmo ba¥C lo bt.- compHi-tril with tliL' |iajiulaliuii i^uuiiicfbtvd nt thrctf 
dftc«oDial r*onMmieiN, in cotreflpotiding gronpH. 



Tho bDgf«ri«# of TablctoStetaroCroipect cttendinif m^er tlie ion 
vear^ und m la contiuuritloii of & «eriet embnwiug tlbn previou» leii 
yvuii, with which it b vo[0|Mired. 

The primnry o1ijo<^t in 10 flclorminA whAt Ihc t1rAtli-l4>1t* U nl iho 
ji<*to«Ll ii^ref, ami ulml ih*- taii-nft^ or lJ><> Itw-i or ilft- «rt, uu*W differifnt 
circiiniKl£in''ni. The iEn|)orrA»cG of Uiis ilc-lvrmiriAtidri will become 
ftppuretil bv onuaiemirLk^ wmt- of di^ li-liilions ihu moi-^ijiir [>riir]i lo 
oth«<i' oniric of fnrlv 'Flici^e Ir- n rrUlioit lu'twixt iliTitli uj<i ^irkntM; 
ftud lo t."Voty ilenih from orory «»"»c itictrc U im nvoniff^ niiiikbor of 
allAckfi or «k-kiiOH4. &»d ft *j)i*(jifii' iiuriiWrof pL-rHuii'i iin'iipiu^rtntrd for 
work. Di'fLili is iUc f^xtinclinii of jmiii. Thcro i^a ii.-lAtti^>rj befwivi 
death, lu'^ltli, and t^iter^y of body i^n^ mtitd. Tlu-i^ ih n i^laiioii Iri^iwtxt 

c1«:!iilli, l>irlbr niul muTtii^r. 'llLorr Jf^ a rctiiliuu lif-Cvti^tl il<i«lU An*\ 
nutional prliiiiuy : iiirifilK^rn turn lTii« liJo in tlin «lru|fg1o of popultiion*, 
aod 1I10 moAt mortal ili<' out. Th^^ro Im a iclnliorj b4!twixt the roriQA of 
dnilli «Tid nionil oxccllfm'c? or iiiftmi/ ; nwa i!r.ili'c>j lhc<m«r1v(<rt ilirt'Ollj 
or ibelv fallows uniier ike mo»l v^loU inoniaL conditions ; ihey may di^ 
by Itidulicoiicr in pxcouiv, by idlcnrfin, i>r by impr&viilrtihoc. IXntk i> 
met eBpi^ciiLlly in priiiif^vnl riu'^i not ortly in ■vtriflf<'t!« ;r!t.h r:ich othiT, 
bitt iiirci»fliVt?twith(i(hrrrnrc« fifrtiiiinftl* — ilircc'tly with jrifwt cniT-ivoroils 
quftdhil^'ilii ov rrvi-|jinj* pniiwinftn^ i^rju'iiLf, jinil iiultn'^'tly with fociJ- 
footi'il miimnh, vJiLf^i'd bir^l^, i%ihI miiltirmhrLfiiiK [rinortA, l>lighli[ig w 
oOikF^uiKiJn^ (ott*\. Divifti irt idFu> vrri->ii^jr by It'W Ixit otgiinrncii punwutc* 

Uk the boiJ>. U iH ht.ill mioi-4^ lm|tM*iil)y llio i^^nth of t-l^-ninifiu')' fiiole* 
culr* (n iiuuIh) vrbtcJi, tlmij^h of no n^i'd^fiiiiird rorm, rfidcntlv ihrivo^ 
propognU', <Il<> in the budi«« of ravu, diMnte^rmtJikc; or devitabKiiif; lli«ir 

Then* i# Kmdly 11 rx'liilion twtwixt tlMtlk And tht* niMin lifelimo of 
miHj ; if a tifo |tti^i»2 lhr<iiij:h a ;;ivei( time \a repiYseiited by a line, 
ikulh iit tli<i miiiil of tt-nniuitlMm n-n birlh i-i tk«* poiiit of ongin. And * 
gtiwratioo of moit burn togolhcr in re|>re^(nteil hy an indelbiite iiuuiber 

of Eiut^fa iific'i of lil'i^. Tbc! (lAtiirol lifrCimr oV mtw is & crntuiy; lliat agf 
u]ii1(<r ordii>Ary ^undiliouA j^i, ii>i thv RtniHOflrK rrmiii'k^lt attaint^l by at 
l^iLft OM- \n i<vi<ry ron^jdeiidflR f^net«t](in« und Ihey Tiiade it their 
M>ciilum : W4 In fhnt time are posK-il lhrouj>ii »ll ilie phunea of cIiildlii>od, 
youlht ninnhoo^l, malurlly, and moimmt^ntal n^l Thi* inrruHtrriiron 
ill llh^ hvfdihii.'Hi dintricC^ of Knj^hkinl — «rtrl m tko hr«Nhiis>1 miik^-^-U 
44 yiffirf-'. ftnd w«^ havf mi rrldeiirr thnl nndiT llii^ mo«^l fArourable ron' 
ditioii> it i-xci-ed^ oO y«ai'». A<^iun]ly imlividiukl lik' iin«H in diimtioii 
Krotti a second to a ceninry. And the ndation 10 hf sbovu hero is 
l}Mwv«n till* dying hy Jilfi'reui (-uiuHT^i iind iIk* liriujif at irvery 'tn^ of 
the morth of A ^]K<ni1i'>ik lbi»iipjli Iimitv 'llif> uj4*Hii lifiHimv of a goo^ 
ntioii mny be ttir nanie, and yt^ the Hovoml lifMjmi^ of thp iudividuaJs 
of whirb it IN eompoHMt may lary iiiGnit^ly : under the nclual laws of 
inorlAlity^ ^real iiaralier« die in inlkncy, fftw i[i Mlolpvc^niLf^, m'>n* in 
inunhoo*!, mjd, >ftrr infHiivy, Lhf }cn-iit«*-'it uundjpr liy ibr Knjfliiih TBbln 
bi lh« nfT^ of trveatjf-ihrer, iho numlier* horn hiivtii^ fidl»it in tlie pr«»- 
portion of t«<n born alivf* (o two lhi>n unrviviiiir. Il U eridi^nt tb^t an 
Miiit^ tevclulion in tlie lifi* of ihi* human nuv would follow if ever}- 
per^Q bom livcil tJie afrmp* blrtinvr of tif^y ymm, or if half Ibu dt^ihfl 
liap|fri»Hl in infaucy mid lit.' cihrr bnlf at ib^- ctu\ of 100 yeai"* or at nny 
very ftilTfti)i<hl ik^>. WhM v^ <ilrti>rv« lu-rnihlly w tJuil in eiTtnin can* 
ditions tli« mean Jttptiino ainkit to linlf it« MnndaM letigtli; m^ i^^i 

* Thii ciomiiotind fit f^ion wotdn nppr^fi ti> br prcictAble to *' ilcvth-raic " or 
■*4eHh-ttx;" II 14 t<|uifAlnti TO " nir odnonalitj." 
t &«« Odaiii Kvport ol l«6l, VuL I., p. W. 

riB Lpart it. 

thipi i*thc HMiiU of ilv tiijK'l* nirtitJilily in {]w firsr firt* VMirs, of lW 
ri?(]iice<l inovitvlit)' in puloU^ju'r-iire, uiwt »1' llii- iurrea7<itt)! iiiurrnlity iii maik* 
Jjwid up |i> tlir ultiiiuLlv imii of lifi* : fow ulil |jeBj|r]o niici itiji^ a:j<l Tc^w 
iljiii;: tlii^n-lorv »fk4-i' loiirhf^nrc* yfl*iii-i. t^jHfciiiUjr in micU uiifAVDuniLIu 
ctiriililionx iw rxUt in 1.iv<<r)KHr]. 

(Iii.W ilii' cxiHin^ Hi ft tf? of lhin<£^ ol' (iHrccwfiiiiwnt IJvi** of <'vfTrjr 
gcnrmtiou n <-4<rUiik imml^iT die?" ftl *'\<-rj' a^ cJ' pftU!^"*j^ lob** invoi* 

1^2pittftl uu<lut l^vu lii'HfU ; — ilin^r Alf] or^AiiiojJ, iuoluilliifl; iIUc^ilvh uikL 
injurlff^ 1 nml r<>inri|p nutl nnljreot, rijiiiH-fv. llip- cehiv-h rti tUa*** tWtni'W* 

mill injiirif'-v Itrfon- i-iid-rli^;; u|K>Lk ilu* iiiVf^-tigftlion two pivlimiriAtT 

pp. 3-4.J 

Vte^ntiiiit Afortiilli*/ Hfpnftt. — T\\v Ji>tormmnt!ciii i>f the Uw of 
niurlnlitv TiH|uiri.'^ »u extoti^ivv ai^fft ^>f oLi-«orvAikifik, boili in -<[iuci< and 
timt't Ur t'liiiiiufklr nciHili^oiJil |n^i1»i1'LtluMi,-i, Ami Uu.- i^»»4i:« itfT^viid^ 

i>r pcrM>ii» ill iliHt^ri-til uLviipiLtimkh, niv *o ^^rious lliAt v\o taii only ln>pcf 
tn imravd lilt ii' intliionLi* Ity » fr,.||,Lj-„l mmlvi-i ol' ihi* piM^iuminui in 
UiirpivLii plfltv- Tlirouj^ti a 3i.'i'iCh of veaif^, 

A^ hrlpa lunanh tliin uimljwp sen^iiil writ-r ur"l\ilik?* Iiii\r nppmrod 
in rho Ap|H]iiilici.<H to lli« Ar »l ltu[Kir(>', 

Thi.* iliviniori of t\\** ("tjiiiiM')' I'^^r t^^itlmliim ]»iii'|in>iitri 1^ Iiilhi^iI iijiuq 
iJie JWr f*iiw [^iilori4 whi<'li Iftirr Iciwn^ in \\%*'\\- ivijiro, un<i 0<ir ral- 
cuiitliun^ bave s*une jri^innnJIv l*> bIiow iIk* iitL>rl»lilv in iWdinirHh "I* 
F'"glnn<l itnU Wulr*'* Tlir Nintti Kopi^rl ^lijtunl ilir- rnrcJi of niuitaliry 
of DiMm uuil rcuiiili-^ III ojK-'li ot' H^'V4'nltf ti |jijrLi>iN uF lili^ nii4 nl nil ■ijc*'^ 
m the i'l'^v^n hitiMon^, in 40 i-niintitw <^>r Kn<;hinil ; tli^ ifin^o i-iiling^ iA 
V^ork-^hii'i- ; ill Xorlli luiil Sunth Wiili-s ; nml in JJ*J1 (>rDn|<'t of jli<<1rirls> 
Ttic cftk-iilnliojiH woix* foiimlr-il upon I J 10 living iil w^v- umuii'iviltHl »l 
tliL* CViiHiM (if Id*^!, nml iLpmi i\\v iU*ueIi8 nt tin.* snim- \\p^% in ilie M'vrti 
y<^ftrs J«aH-44, 

Arjuiii, ilift SixEi'pulli Krt>oi-t conlnini TnhW of ilu- iVnHity of \\w 
pupnlitioii. nhil ofllio aininjil inortiitilv. 4nriiig llio li-n ji^jir^ ISll-lKAL 
Tlio mIoM of moil^ility »r(^ (U'(liU'<<il fVom tht* iv^i^inrj i]pHtlk!» in th« 
ten yeiiiv i9tl--V>. tinJ IVoui iln- pi'puhtli»n<( i-riiinirnili-ihu tin' (Vn- 
bNAH of Jk4l ftii'l IK')), Tlii< fuc'tH n.H* priiiii>it ill -Mnil hi \\\v 
TliirhT-ntli Rc^pinl. Tlf rnrr<*»poinHiia flH'I-^ for ilic yonrf' IS51-(i(* 
will Ik- f'^nnd in Tlie Twcnly-lliinl Ui<|>ori. 

i'lir pivA^ikt volnmo >Ilowh rln* iinniuil nif<^ of inorriilily [ht UXXI in 

hII tlii- ilinli'ii;lis i*Oiioii<->, ftOil tliviw<»n» uf Kn^Iiuul iluiiii-; null ofthi' 
lU-OL^nniiuU ).S4l'.'iO mul lK.'l-f>f1. Ir nUn ^'^hililrK ir* iin >-liilu>m|H 
senVs ofTtiblostlie il-ftlti^ »uil llie ^a^■ of inmiiilily nmonj; nmle^ ihuI 
n-nmh's of ilir a)^4- mnW 5 y^nn*, 5-10, lO-lo. i:j-20. 20-25, 2o-3,*, 
35-45, 4.J-55, ^5-tiS, Gri-7i. "o-K,*^ f*tl auiL iipwanls ; as wtll hh tin* 
mii-<c-4 of Ucfhlb nt nil nj^cs, 

U IH itliown in i\%<- IiitroiIuLlJnn tn thr Knglisli Lifc^ Tthlc tlini tlii> 
mvjin of the pfipnl(iti<>n.« nl Ur' W;!ini)ijig 7init <-inE of » f>eiiinl b -''omO' 
wLiit iibjw iliG unritn niimlx'is living ihroiiE^lL iljf [x't-iitil, when tlic 
|hipiihli<rii of ^1 iMi^liivt hii-n'jij^'* in {^fonn^iinil piti^ivHr^Kiii, iiuil ihni 
€jouft4Hpii'iitly whi-ii thi- lU'UtliK of suoli a *listrifl nri- iltviilvil Ly \\\f living 
tbiiB d<"l'TniLni'd iXw i|Uoti<'nt \^ rntlu'r tuj small; m> i\\i-, rntr oj inortntity 
in lln* priwnt wiirs ufTabli'S is slightly nn*U'rstat<*il In tln^ tUHliiUfi 
incri-nmng in a gt-umeliiuil rnlio. Tin- lnt>4>nrirf obUiiJiing tin- yi'nrs i>r 

liAr by inii^nirioii noulil huvi- fh-i^n Ih-^iiuJ tlic ('Oin|mm iif Llii< fuivr »1 
OUI* lUnpi-^iil ; \\%u\ •i\\v\\ i<iToi> il4 Iui^l- hi^^^iL nit'Mf itiru'd ^n- of titld' 

Ifniclionl iin|h>t1nnco ill ili-nltJif: >vlib tli<- limiMl [ium1ur>i uf cvt-n large 



ili&trIoi», fiulijrri fo varioii.4 local Jimi iiHianci^ fr<\m mipniiou mhX other 

Mvorogcs. Some ihoocurai^urt in llio sUktvmriit *if ihruf^i^fi iJm^ intr-iTprc 
Willi xhv vi*^n\i^, but lo a K-^ 4<xli-rit llian luiglii iil Hrf^t lie giip|xifii*d : 
niul ihoy will not intcrtVn- vi¥«ritliilly wilh tht^ L'timimiivonn fn b(* tjniwn 
Ijc'twi'uj tW rAli-s ^f niorlAlily iti iIh' VAriuus town jiiiil (.TiitrJry cH^lricU 
of tlj(- kiiigiJom. (BiL|)|>lviE»:tkt lo SiJili Aunujil I'i'ikjiL) 

/,(*(// iUnth-rtiU-H, — Tlip ilimth-rair fi»r hZn^-bind (iij IKO-I), »* Inw 
Ih'i'ii Hliit'^l) Wru- 2'3^IG |h't- Ci'Til.; Uilf wliili' iLin lU «lio\t'ji 1i^ llio Tnt>l>^fl 
10 Ih^ i\\i' inlr fnt' ttio wholi' krii^toiti, if may not Im^ pr<i!iM.4y tliut ivliioh 
mini iix ;iiiv ».f!ii^ii!kljU' pitil ijf tl. UeikT^ily of [K}|>iilurt<»ii, jjurtty niiU 
imparity cif c-Jirili, wnTi'V, imd jor^ umLlh iiiul iJinnty, \\\v j^i^ulu^ii-uL 
Blruutiiir uf II <li?iI(LL'l,— rlii'?ii' utid <^lh(.'i~ ■■li'iiiruL^ uf livjiJili sml ^icklll-.v^ 
£a x\\*-\y' tnSMwUM eoniliijLatioiifi, iI<i[>H'(hihI ihc nnoiijilUy to oik^ |>laoe, 
rHi&oil if in nnotUi-r. Thi* fiitlowintc mtir* iii liirtrrt-ut vottpiies uifly Im? 
!u*Wli<l, Uiou;;h llu'Si\ ii:^ inu^l \yy u]>viuiis, ai^' dt-rivf'il I'luin populntioLin 
tivmg eiu'Ji in (-iix'iim<<tiui(N-M iiJmuMi m itivH'^iluHl u; ilioat- of Lh« 
OQUiilTV 1" lir" vthuU- oxti-'iil. uml tli4<ivf»n< ilo hc>| fiiriii^h \\\i- i-xii'<1a<< 
4-a;ikm|Ji>i* tliiiT iLi4liii^iti*U tt^i> Suay tnwn fi'OTii lli(< Immli^L Biit iht* 
(lilTca-miGr^ uvi* iM*ri-rtln^Jn».-' ViTjr roiir<ijLi'ul>le f» wfow inftiaii<y* ; 
Wi'sliciorlftiiJ ''[ipplicil, umoiigAt ik}l tin- Kii;sli»li roiiii1]--!i, lln' In-st 
i-xampit* 111' he-klthy cuutliiiikiL, rlic rulft of moruibiy in it Living Im-h 
I'ir20^ f«H' ill ilu' TnbU, it sliOTiltl U^ in4'nlii>iinl, tli*^ WdriL couniii-*: 
nn> not iliutic^S^iiithivl^ liiit un* rnrniiil in Iwo (■'^"^U^N Nurili amLSoiirh 
W[iKs. 'I'hi! ii*-xt Kiwe&r laC*- w«s 1 ■9nt\ ivhich pnvikiliil in tlio ixrnk* 
iD('li'n[M>liijii] jHiiLion ^^^^Ll^Try. — (^7th AnuniLl Ki^(>o]'t, p|>. \xx-i.) 

ilntor'j nf Ikalh-rotfA. — I'hi* hijsiory of il^fttU-ratca in l!w» railom 
townn otkd ilL-clrirls of KujjUiiil hm biH'ti rccordetl in \\w anniuil H^port* 
for H |H.*rioil rxli'ti<1!jig u\>'r ^ yt^fiiii, mut fix>ni tiaic !■> fiiiit- if liitf betrii 
|ioi»t<'d mil ibaT Iho iihrlation^ from ■ncli (TiiilurMik;,' cftn"*'* na hox and 
ntfi* iir<' €oiinm-<1 wJEliiu eompuniliv^l.v njtnnvr limiU^ — n«j><*i-ijJ)y Ibu 
(*U'm<'nU of sfXf iiml ilo not nHWl Ib*^ genrrul nii>i'fjtUty of pcr^fons ot all 
tiycv to sucb «n r'xtinl aa lo Jtifii-rfrii' ivitb ii* vjilur w n muv 

IwVioMor of till- piwal<-Ncr of coli^irionA pn-juiliclnl to lifr; ainl 
ruJNMjt iikvc^Fij^tionH Uiiw o<inFiriii<Hl rbU. Am) i^bown XUnt thf mtio nf 
Utsilbi to |JO|>ii1afion attititiffru may 1»i' t&k^ui, a^ n fjiir iJiUicjilion of 
tW KftnilAry canililiou of the population. Wbciwrr i\w gi'n«-iiil 
murtiilitj \^ bi^li, ii^i<-ncW »rr lo be* IuiuljI iil work iiLifuvoi-uMo lo 
hf^nltb, Atiil tbi- town or ilUtiict rcipin<^ tb<' ulic*nlion of lb-> luirdloial 
ofBn>r of WjiIi)^. hut rtAtt*4f* liuv<' long ponKiiltri^ii lh<- K''[*''rftl iWlli-niti? 
aA ooly n prfliukiniry lo»it, lo >>e follow<'*I np bv rurtht-i- rcwuivh iM^lnting 
to thr inortnlity of childn-n and ntlult^ m ditlr'ri'nt ngi-?t, luul by cliHf^rtrut 
ill<<e&«e». — (3<>ib Annual JEiport, pp. xiii-xir.) 

The Ijiir of Mortiiliiy and Ih/iih-rates at att Affes, — Jn ft |iopuU- 
tion mpiiUy incrcaaiu|^, tllHiui~ln<i1 Ly HikMiigmlioJi itt Kim^tnlifni, and 
Unblo tolltictufttionA in lb<^ rail of morinJily, tho Uw of mortnlily. iMiil 
coDSc^ueDtly tbo diirRtton of life, or tbe «x|M<ctutioiL of Ui't: nt <liflt'rent 
Of^M, caa only K- de<luee<l wllh noy »pprxHki;b to noiur^cy from two 
MTii>s of fftct?* ; (t), Ihci jKipulation L'xlHtinK ai atinuf^, quiDqiif-nniftl, or 
tletvk^tiial {k^HoiIb uf tilV% uiJ (2)* tbo >l<ulb7t at iho coi-rvtiponiiu^ '^'■' 
— {4lh Annunl lf«poM, p- 17.) 

Tlie morlalilv of lli« varloit*) popubtioiLi of llw* worid is gtn^tfllly 
ntfttt'd an onv In w> mnnyr or a* w tuAiiy |H^r i^*iit» or p<^r 1,000 pv^r 
luinxiui. Tlic Utlsr rcffikU b Ibo rtilio of tl»f*l«ilbs At all a^s lo the 
living at ftll a^rnk. 


120 [PABT IT. 

Kow !t 19 eviflpQl that tbf proiiorl.ion of deAllifi 1f> a |;iveti nmnbn- 
living vArJo^ to n gm-nt rxiirtti with the o^oh of tho hving ; i:i Ihr flrvit 
fir^ ycar*iof Ago th* morulilv ih ftl thi' rnto of 7"243 percent. W boys, 
a th^^ Hgo rif 1C-f5 Tl M>'4ftft, i.t;!5-f>A it U 3-rW5, nt T/i-8*^ U U 
14*607 iwr or'iil. The inortnlity '»f tho two i«<^x« iil»*o vftrif^ sso tliftt* 
iodopemUntlj' uf orliit ritu^i^t i>r variftiion, fhe inortnliry of diflereDt 
popalalionn will ililTcr a^i>nhnff ft« th[*y i-on*iBi of niimU-iH tn ^^l^ioui 
proportionn hi Iho itf^ nt wLieh tho moil^hty is Li^h or low. 

Wbeti llie poptilntinii ih HiTtlArrit^l Sy m) iirMfitnn nnnuitl num>t»>r uf 
biilh«, tlw inimber living at tiiirh a^o is n^giiUtml mldy hjr thr Inw of 
mortality^ rr*iIu<iDg llie nunilx-i-A )'f^ai- by yi'ar, uiiiii 4*ach unuunl 

Thf-luwi if niortiililr in»y rury infmitrlr, il in coDCi^ivablo, so ui to 
jiiOd llii' HUiiit- ini-ftii lift liiiu-, nnd iho Hkiue rati:' of morUiliir^ Thii^ by 
the English I^fe TaMv l,a)fl,i)l«l rhildnen bom n\\\» tVw oH" «o as to 
leart .*urvivrtr* iu rvi*ry yejir of ajr^ up f^ the H»9IU, when ihr ht^i of 
the geirrraiiori ilk-s ott"; Un?n"'nh lirHijii*' U4fJ-S.jM, and 1 in 40"85(*, or 
2 ■4-17 p^r cont- of tho (wpublmn xo oonMiliHod die uonimlly. If tvury 
oiwof Lho l.(HK>.0(H) children Hveil 40-858 yews, nod tWM nt the end (*r 
th« I'Tm, the iD^n hteiimc wonTd bi^ 4085^ xc*rs >ntl it will be 
rrhli-iic lluif tbc nir^rhdily wi^uld tieia ihernk^ nf I in 4<)K5H, m- 2 "447 
|>er ceul^ ptr titiuiiiiK Yet hi>w ililfi^rttnl uw »\\ Itk* cijuuiUFiUuii.'Vs ? 
How i^ilf^rfnr am the condition* of oxintenoo ? How difiW^nt i« tfa« 
l*w of mniinljty ? 

Themte of moHaliiy in Enplnnd wiw »ot 2"447. I<"l 2' 215 poroett, 
per ftnTmm. dunn^; ihr jierioi) wht^n tht* fuefs wrji? c»H*'eti;d u|H)n vhicli 
the Tnblu i<i buatj, Tliue I in 44'^1 dlej ; vrliiL« lh« lueEin lifetime wan 

AMKnnintr rhi* ikn^vnlrnci* of thi< ^mo law ofiriortAllty, ihr mtr t'ulcj* 
lated OD the meiin }>opula<>ori, nnd fho d»ithff at all q-^l-h. ia louer in a 
ri^>idly in«jvQvini: p<i[»ululi(m Thnn it tft iuiiftbLtioiutiy |utpululion,lTe<-jiu^^ 
lh<^ luoitiilily Ai ulJ of^fz from Jibont 4 lo o4 i« luwcr tbac fho mean 
moHikJily -^f rh^ wbnl^ nnrmftl prijinlEUion; And whilia /h rttmilAr inoreai^o 
of popidation iiAtthiTlToct of itKii^uiinz thu projioclion of cbildiTn uudttr 
4 yeiir*of flffe, whodie offquickly, it baa abo the effect of rtill further 
mCTGdJ^ing liir proportion r*f t1i<^ living nf tho n;^LH -| \o M, nfiil uf 
(limini^hin^ fbr propoHion^ of tht' oM people, nliooe rafo of uiorliilily ia 

Iq the benllby di&tricM uf En^Uiml the normul innrtftliry U 2059 for 
uuilo^, nut] 2'0"i'2 f'lr fi-inflle* by tlie Life Table ; while it is I "72 for 
mnle? nnd I 73^ for h^tiuili-?^ n.n tU-ditr^d from tlie rnlio t,i' di-iilhjt jU hII 
0^0 to tho living; iit all of^t^. Tbi-i i.t rfic ruto of 17 (Wili-t pvr l,ODO of 
me popuhiliotk. \vhii:h iii ^^o ifUeu uitA ^lo fnirly quoted, a? u ^tuudard uf 
oompnrisnn n|tpl]nddr ro irjnt-jiMing popiijjitron^, 

TiM^K' Uaiioth*'!' iibtnrbaiice of fho pi-uporiioua hviug at ageamore or 
less tnortii], by immi^rniiion nnd hy c*mijn>nr.n. Thnw thf ^nrnd eflor-t 
of immij^Hon iQtf> Iowum ic lo rodnco tboir rntea of mnrtnlify, by 
increasinsT Ihi' proportion of fho living nt ave*< of Ie?HK ilmn tlie mwin 
mortaliTv of th*- per^plo of rh«* plnci', Tb*- hnlk of th*' cmf^^iitH to 
&>wn^ (rom Ih^* cfjaii!:"y «iv probably iu jfooj bi^nll.h. bur n onrtain 
nuujlK'i' of t-\ck T^-MfiTt ti.o till- I'xwn hn*,prlnb ; a\if\\ ihr i>HnT tijinih <if ibr 
fmigiTtnlH, "omi" flm p->moim)|iiivc^ tif<iJtir<r h<'iihh in tht- t*ouMry and 
abrcwd, or n'Irirninp homj- lo die; hui Ihc i'mi(fnii)t.i nrr h'-sa tiunuTouft 
in iht' a^jfiv^Til*' thftij immi^rranls nnd *o fir hnvo 1-*^^ effect on th** 
morTnlily.--(Snp|iU"m-'iir fi« 2jib Aniiunl Kiport, p, xxv.) 

Si^nifit^at^re of Dtoih-raits. — Tho rate:? of mortahty publieb«l in 
tbc NViekly Iti-iurun hnviLig hvA^xi miKiindi'ixUKH) in M>mi- qunitirrB, it 



populatifMi imply. 

TIk tJiU* of mortnlity Ulfl'f'r' in n p^-n^mtioit an it pnM^ Ihrougb 
vllffr'triit it^vs, U is m ixifnnt'y vrry bi^li, i" boyliuwl vny ]on% throtigb 
iiiaii[iH>rt il ii"fiviis-?j*» «ui1 «K fiH'ii ■V^i'-'nil jtiIo thi- vmI* of i-vim im 
nipiill^ n^pi-WjiTiii hv llin wi^irind iiwny of tiIhI ft^rn', Tli*» ini^aii rnt© 
ID l^u^lriud hns Ix-eii for fomJ- vi-tirv '22 uthiujiI di-»1bi< ^> l,0()lt L]\iiijj i>r 
all Af^x. Tlii^ nit*' inni*'* in 183 in 1,01.*'* '" Ihr Jtrtl ycti' <^ life s 
only Ift ill ibi' flftli, *i in tin- liiitli, o in tJir ^ixir* nlfi, 8 U\ ihv Iw^'uiy- 
fii^f ji^nr i'K lifi'i J.T in tIh- fi^i-iy-liriul ^.'I'str, 1*1 in lh<» lifly-rn-Hr. y\-*%V\ 

33 hi tin- i<ixty-lirsl, 7i* in ih*- *i'V*'n I v-fimf, \Ci^ in ibi- i-iKlily-Ui'*! yenr, 
307 iri thi.' iiinety-lji^l y'-ai uF \\U: lt\.ti\\\U hikI txjjd uii<ler 4 y^'ux of 
a^t I'XTX^nniN' a nuirtatiii/ above thr itvrru^r raU, iinil «i) f/A iwcm ^/' fA^ 
a^ of 54 ufif/ i/pwiifel.t i whilr buj a ntid nifik at o jtnn uf n^- ui<l 
bi'lrtW 54, */##■ ff^ fftJt ihi^n ihf orrr/rfre rah*. In thp .?i*nntry jukI in 
cIlU'S uiiJ< r ihi' «4im(< Ktnitnry conililtoiiH thU miivi-r^l liiw prrvniln; 
iufaDl^ and old pi^ojilo diL^ r^tl' ui«(v i^pidlj"; \hjv» Am\ ^Irls ah woU t4 
nuni nDi] wornon hi ihr prJtnr nf lif^% Ii'h.h rn|ndly thiiTi llir NTi-ntgi^ ntd'^ 

Th^pr^neral nttt^ of morfslily, a% xhty wv u^nsiUy kifi^q. miij diilVr 
the r» -for*' in two jn>|mln!ioii<, oii'n-Iy lu-rmi«' iIil* um- 4V>nlnTi]<< mon* of 
tin- pf^pnlMlbn iiinlf*r :* mid ftl>o\v 55 lli«n ^hv ofWn Whnn rho birtlkd 

rxi;i<i'it ibi* <kzilbp, fllrct is (o iorri-C'**- ihi- niim^HT of cbildit^n 

vindi'i' 5 yi-Jirn <if Mgi» j mul il ih oonc(-iv»Vil^ llint it in>vii.v in tlit-Hi- 
Inquiri^ nwy m«h b> the conHiwion, ibiii iho ^'ffi'ci vf an rxo-v* of 
biitlu ijt lo incn'<L«c tin* Ki-tifral nilf '*f mmtalily : wbtn-rt" it is fomul 
by otveivaiiou to lijivr iW conirwry ^-iTj^ct Tlic mortnlily of j> jiopidn- 
lion Vfitb uD nxcr.M of birtbv oier di-ullin ib lowrr thnu lUi? moi'tfility of 
a «tationiLry pc.ipiLliiiif^ii trhi^tv tlii< Miih'* nnd lUtiilhi ftis- (^qutiL Aod 
the rraaon on roAt^tion i« ohvion^. Tbr binbK (mIco plnci^ steadily yf-^r 
by y<-ar in a dty : and if ll^-y aiv in <^a:cef** nf tin* d4-fiflii» they ibrow 
inin tr nnt only ndilitionnl rtnldrnt nndr-r A }vn]<4 of n^, bnt nha 
ch>ldii7ii anil jiihdl^ jdiovr ihnt a^\ imd b«iio<- Uktp i-i /r^d fAnn /Ar </»<- 
prnpni^fifn of' otii ttrtipfi' in flii' wbitli' iNkfiiil^ltmi ■ hoiirv* hiMk fbc 
mortality npprui-?^ ticinw wbul il wimM 1»- \i\ tlir sA(m< pnptilnli^ni, under 
ill* s»n»*t smitiijy ooi>*Hlianrt, if (hi' Mrtli^ and death* wfiv uquhI. Jn 
all Enjrbind tbr- births urv t4> tbi' dentlis uh 3 lo 2; aud Xh\% ho^ llu^ 
rffk.H of riHliidM*- iho rHli> or nuu-tnlie/ t'' 'i'} in 1,I4V)h By l\%^- Bii;-libU 

Lift* Tiibl^, in wbifh ilip iw*o|dff of ibtt'.-mit iip'" ari? dii4Hb»liHl i** thf*y 
w<Hit<1 hf if rht* birclii and dirath^ wi'if ot>n^b»[iih' eipiul, (hi- t(irr*'t-l miL- 
1ft Toniid lo U.- 2^ in I.OOO. In Li^irnool wh^ii the mt** ol' morCnllty 
wiL« 3l, tluM-f>frrd4-it mif' wa9 39; in lli<? smi'-y4*ar tbr hiIf for ljondt>n 
vrnj SI, thi.' L'orror-E«4l mh< 27. 

Immigralion Uai th^ effect of n^lucini: llio ^i^nri'w] rale of nioniiliiy ; 
afl it ^vr4>IIa Ihi* vxo<<w «>f pii'?utii<t ut n^^^ of loiv mnrliilily. 

Tbo mtos oF niorbilily a>i tlii^y urc ^'n^'tally eilJ^d, whoii the iM>ptiU- 
lion b iicviifiitdy delrrniim'-lj uiv for nU tlii* i:\\Ai-f in the w«<<41y tiihk'ii 
bi'lovr tlv i™* ra('-H I itnd whfii (hi* ditT^*ri>Hi?^ in tin* r>(r> in Iwo iriticn 
uro gr(*al, ir is ccrl^in Ibiit (hi* i^niiM U* PsplniiLiMl liy nny dilTi^i^iiccs 
of tbc afciTH i>r tbi* lw<i iH^mbtionn. 

A sinstiui>n1 ran- .if morfdiiy id>o\'r 17 in \,OM\ nlva.v<^ implies 
unfiivoumbK* -uinitiity i-ondltioiii : ibr I>kiidoit rnle of 24 is mud^rftioty 
;(oud : loiy mtr Blxntv- 3(1 impliMH 4iiniratr «vntibi^>n« bigbly d^rii^livo 
to bnmnn lifr. 

Whrn atiy city experirniT*--! w bijfli^r rate ibnn tlie BToragi*, it 
^lould nlwaya tic a nutur of ^orioti't iifiairy tOkA concira lo Jl5 


J2S [pAHr i\\ 

Ah ro Uio Mjfiiillciiiic^' of wDokly niti<A of moruility ilie t'oltutvio^ 

mli»t tl^xi timuil 111 ^( Town ^Uovf Umt from ••onio caufe or olUet 
Uir (li-ntlli^ tuv fircjuohr, and tficr rrriid. 

2, Thest' rai*'T» iin*" below il**- true nil*« tii all l)i6 Iowiia of ilie 

ovrr ili'ntlkFt; wliirJi hii» l\\t^ ufP-et. of inri^flxiiitf ihc* pnnwirtion 
iit ilie |}Q^u|jitio]j liviu^f tit Hi^es when \Ut' morluliV}' \^ lieloip tlii- 

3. The ux(e--N« i>r iimiiiKmiion over ^'oiigruiioji upci«i^ iti ihe ksiuc 

-I. An otr^u nf fnmalp^ in n Xnwn iWiKvs lU f^iirml nUo nf_ 

3. Thf-ri^ IS nil inflnx of |i:Li[cniA iit!x> llnapiuU in lownn, but 

ibh in |ir«lwi1jly mijro ih^iii cinjiLifl^ibnlfl^cinl bv ib<* n^riivinciit. uf 

6' A Kiiibi[-n mill liir^<* jul^Liliuit iit liirllM in n f^iii^lc' yrnr wmiM 
buxr llm fil'fvi of Hli^liily mi.HJiBy^ ibo froiuiul moilhliiy lu lli^it 
year ; bul ifk' t^ujipoxjiion oi' ''iicb »il niMtlion in Kn^b^b ciiii-s 
i?i brwli'»: iht* luw b^Ti' i** ix cun.-ilual rn'c?*n of liiHb?< over 
fk^ktbtE. tvliivll ktH-pji up u OOiiKlnftt oxO0tr4 of loiiri^ im*] iitiJdlp' 

iiir(\i lives, 
7. A LiFl Titble roii&l.inciixl in iJir iiHiml wnv ^bown ibc- lnir> uvcriifi^ 
rnio of iLiorbUity, nii<] the lueau duivktioii oi' llfo; ibe Ivvo foci* 
bc^iit^ hiilisHilubly cunni^cUnl. 'Hki* cornvt mnriniiiy nf our 
woTil cilW wjiA 1 iij 25| iu our b^iillhi^vt dirtiriut" tt wa* I m 
uO: the duration of bfe wnii ^o mid oO yvnva iiiiilor llu' <^cdq 

Dh a can]>ari?^ii of the txae rarest wilb the nti«8 efl1ciilAt«il u\ the 
u?ii[fi| ivav will nUow ibitl the Iiilt^r iJiTtrrt t'xbUjif ibv n'bilivr 
furjibty of itiffei-i-nt. eilk** wiib MiHicu-hl iiuouriity ^>r nil oi^lumry 
purposes. Tbey bnve no fallfteioiis uieniiing, 
9. Inrilbud of N'tludng thr ili<iUh-['iktc of lowni^ on llie iin>uutl ihat 
IheJr birlU-rAfe ia Jii^b, ibtf rcv(<r3*e kIiohM be done to g<*t Ui^ 
conrctctl tlcAtb'rnl^. 

Irt, The tnio i](«ntli-niti* in nil Kuylnrhl lina Ijoiivtt-n tlii' <bmtb-riLl<> nml 
ihe biilh-rat*' c-Hlt^uliLirU in tbc- umiaI way; n M:clb of tlie 
difTirrf^ncif jidlinl ta ihf dmlb-rnU- i<^ ni^irly it?< pro|)Or rorriTlinJii 

11. Tb*' eflii&es of iIji? Jifteri-nc*'** (ff (he nUi'B of noriiibiy nre vniloup, 
ond in cv<*ry cA-^c deirand cnr^'fiil inv.-flii^nnliou on th*- ."■jiot 1\v 
the town authorities,— (Wri-kly Kotmn, ^tfo, 12. !K70.) 

Thfi slf^ilic^anre uf tbe deatb-ijit*' bft^ be^-n rrfcjuently yxpluined, but 
M it b not yrt »}>pnivntly iindertlood by jdl wbo employ if, n fe\T word* 

OU the aubjf^ct tnny Iw uf u.ic. 

Tbe pAiI^b clerkn of Lutidori, iit tbe iiiittiLner prr»brdj1y of Rlixa1>etli'4 
govornmcnt, U^gnn tbe weekly bills of chi'isfonin^>^ nod buriali tti Jo9^, 
uuil tbesorie;j was coultiiuetl uuinlcrrupti^^dly frum ibe year ) 603. At 
tlret ihc pliigiie wnsdiatingiUHhed, and ibea other diaenww und eiwudiit'.^. 
Tbc* Average diNitbe bmig known the mere rise or fnll of tbt* wi-okly 
imn^burH gave a ^od iDdicAltou of ibo vjjryin^; moLlaUty of tbe peopK 
vilhom aay Morence whiitever to tbe populdtion- 

Thc R^iHtrai' Genei-ul iu the year iA|0 look up tb6 tradllfoniit 
LouiUm W^'t^kly Bill, (*xt4.^m1ed U, nn<l hns t^inco mndp tt uompl^^lL- Ijy 
incliidinK *"tl* Loudon 20 inorv grc?ftl towna of tlio United Kiiig^JoiDt 
rbc ivbok inlmbitcil hy nearly eifrlit million peoiile, liy perwvH-iiig 

HpjjIZoiaionp The TOIiiniH Lnvo al Wgih Ix'eii procnroil wpciltly from l]w 
print-ijml oilk'?^ of Kumpr^ Imliu, ant{ Aoimtiii. A^ tlic rJtici niiU lowna 
t^nijr ju ^jMilfitiujJt tu tUMkt' cijin]i»L'tM>» I'dr^ibli: i| urns ii»(.'i?«nr)' to 
nbow not only tlio uumtwr of dnntJi*, I>u1 ltu» praportktii llio iltjutliH lim^t 

10 (4 tixf'fl nuinlKrr 4kl llm liviu^, tor cuuvt-nirncr lumlr 1,()0() ; luul, 
riirrJier^ aa ht tin- cJiK-itlnlioii ot «iiuj>]r< iiilcre^t, li> «how not nbur the 
nifv JH |ii-i- wivk, bill j>vr aiimim. TliiH i>4tli(- iHitli'ntttwkM ii ii)>|H'ar» 
in Uw pii'M^itt |iiiU1im1ion. 

It iv t^vUiviit. jii tlki> fliftt jiWi^ ihnt it the^ vryHrklj 4t«AtIi!i nw corrccliy 
rrj-onloil, Ibcir Huctiifllion* in n (own Hill sliow ils varying Htjik'H of 
iiiorinlity; n\u\ if llic [iciniliktiuik^ uf tuwris, winch AcMont Itnclimfe 
mooli, riin 1)0 ciiJci]|)ti''<1 nppidviinHfMy n* llir nit^* of iiicr<'«.'*e vary 
littJt-, iliQ il(?aiJi-Jvli- will?!iljuw 1L.1 umuUciortULl buw taiidi llir umrTntuy 
of n ToiAn vni'k'H trttta tli** mortality of olhor luwtio in niiy p<irik-uW 
w*^fk, 'I'liP (ViiRiis i* only lukcti every ten years ; Iwt the loc^il 
aiitliorili<>4 hnro it klwnt.-^ in lh«ir povivr to ilH4<ruti]>e nht^ili r tlu*towii 

11 itkcrrii'^mii; or iW-rrii^in^ at Mk iisnal ritfr, ^<i llmt no (ir<>r of nay 
aiu>;fiilLii]-' iK'L'd l>iMi>iuiiiUtcUin rlii-t-HiiiiinUMif ihi' |>opulfltioii, r:<|Kvijilly 
wWri' thr |hh|ni!!iii^rL i^^ lnr)r«, Thii^ in I,»iMl<kiL iH-fvii' tlii< lWiMi4of 
L^^TI v-iif inLt n, rhi- [Hipnlotiitn vrn> r^tiniaUd hy ihr Hc^rjnlmr OctienU 
Ht i),'J<l7j)iUi ariil il wiu fonii4 liy cniiiiK-iation iit lUc (.Vuaui Ut bo 

TIm- ili'Hili'nitL' IK ji fjuri : nnythin^ bryoml ihi* i« nn hif<-rcaoo, fti 
^cMJit;; wbt'llii't iJk' muHiitiry if- iiiuvti (fM-iiti-r ttmii rt •iboulit W, nml 
wbi'llier \\\e n\emsk^ jH'jvtnWiy of oni^ town id gre»ik>r ihjin lUo uKJrlJility 
vf iinotbrr town ilifliTrng fr^n it Imf liltli^, nil tlir a-Hiturci's of ^talisiioal 
fcirne^ IkAvi? to l>e brotJt^lU into r?<iuiMlion. The ilUtribui ion iif tbi« 
fiopiilaLion ai'rijnlin;^ ^^ J^" ^^'1 ^^^ iiiin \ir- cliflcrcnl, iinil tlkii^ tins lo be 
iiikcii info acrdiuit, Th(> d<^Alb^ frf ninl<.<« juiiJ fvnmEt^ii liavf fo l>o com- 
parvil with tlie ix»rrc>|tonilin^ ms^ai\ popularion livii>£; Jit diff^roiit |>criiid» 
iif lifo; ftnil from fKi? ilealb-mri-t viiryiiij^ in i-iu'h pi^inlt ibr vaiinlions 
of tbr taw of mnririlJIy n'jlh n^n t^n bo ^cloriTiiiieil. Tilts bt^ii])^ ilotip^ 
a |«ifi- Titblo fitr flif* |tit|juLiiTii>n nf ltj<r plmv «'tio 1>r riiu*(inic1nt, i^Mtwinv 
iho UMnn lifi'tinto from nbirb %Ut* norninl m^^rtrJil; ^'f tin- |Hy>plo mn W 
lU'leimiiW, The t^tatf iMe Avtv.'f ibr ^lopiitalKin liviiifr nt i^ncb yi:iurur 
ng4T lo n ^von tiuinhrr l>orti, ami th<* menu ng^ of ttie livinf^ 

PoiTM^ia:*, Dkatii^ 


SfKltTALMT \K-r 1,000 at 



l*enioi>s vT Aoc, in 

LofdDOX lutt 




1jOM)ON. I 




in 141 \rBni ItAI-nk 

Aft)rC4i' UL^nriun im 1,QQ0 Livlnjr 
iluniiir llie Vmta IftdlM. 





Bf aIcl F<inn|cd^ 

Ukl'L FiniftL^-*. 



















ft- 10 

to 41 










41- W 


1H » 


1.1' M 
IP' 17 






Tlie prfcedin^ t4b1n sbowa tfto menn morlAlliy of like po|iiilAliijD of 
iMnnlnn nl 12 ilj{^ in ihe ten jrarH tS61-70, ci^mjnrril with ilicr rtilo iti 

UtHiLirhinif oUmtinU liAVA trt 1w> ftinafiT^rorl : fliir* n of^rlnin nnitilier of 
pnJitnilK tM^nl from tli<f ooiinlry Iri Lominn for inrjllrnf nHvicvv Jip r-illiiriii 
pri^Aic lioiiws wodchtjiiFvs or lio><|>it»lH, anil a i^erNuTi tmml>er of im- 
muniivl youti^ ('onmm[>livp p(^|il(' rrfiirn linmr to the {'oiiiitry lo dJt^; 
tb^w two c-ijrmit^ |>rrh|j<jl>Iy iK'ik1rii1ix<* f'uch ollirr» imil it would ho unvnfc 
ui alfi^mftl rt rftTMVtion <»iilii*r wnj- on |ln> nonmnl. 

Thrchii'fdiMiiHiingfK'mi'nt in thrc^ountiy i^^ tUi^cxtri'-^*- ofbiithK ov»-r 
lienUi.^ wliicb ha.'^ liif *'tfi-L<t of JiLcri-iLsjn^ tbrniA-^<^(if yonu;; fH^t^ib- bviiijii; 
» ngt'f tvhi'ii ihf miiilMiy U low ; nnd Ui uildilion lo « Jinw of blittiK 
m toirn-v lbi> iintni^'urjtfi al onrly nj;r-< huvi^ iht- munv i-fl\-<'t. Thi^fUnitU- 

rnt*' iMic in iTH>ir Ik hAo^v v.hat th'- d^'Htlj-ruti' wauM Im- iu ilii* aaim* 
po)mlntioii normnlly «m'*litnl<^i! ns rf^nrtU ii^^i*, 

Jiui Ibt' ctiditib.inct'f I'lvtni Ib^-no ainl from nil oUirr iulrinHii^ rMiif^f< 
KCtiti^ on ibc <b^al1t'r»l<~| *o I'lir a* in y-i known, nn* not ^rtnl ; tliii^ ti) 
ftll KnfEbiiifl tb«.' rru(b- rLnnunl ilititb-rot^ for 3^ yr-mv ii^ '22 '4 |iit 1»000» 
wliiN' tb'* com^lrd i-nt»f by die Lifi* Tubli- I«y4"5. Tin' cjinb- ilealli- 
rate in Tciwnv nmlrrntati'>« thi* morlalfty. Hut i^^ fjir ua wi' know tht^ 
unfErrraitnjf iloft) not exo-e^l 3 or 4 fh'r l,LKXJ ; an<l iIiih Ik nol con- 
^i^^i-rnll^■ wb<'n \\f find Ih*' nviia;;*- di-iilli-irtti" ol' 30 y«'in» (18-11-70) 
varjiiig from 15 in '^Jb-nduU- (NortJmml**'rbind>, to ti'i in London^ 27 iu 
Itinnififihjuii dihlncr, Jtml 31) in Uviipool. AdO 2 Ui dt-nfUb, 3 ttf 
London, <t to Blniiin^bninr nud 3 li> LivtTjMnd, ntnl th*- innrtjdiiy, 
roiT'^fii'd ri|>[ii'oxtniiihvi'l} ^i mh to nmko it thi< tuoi'tality ul n \nypu]ni\i>ii 
Doimnlly coic^liiritid an in h^-^ luid x'X, Ixeonit M 17, w7p ^O, and 3f>» 

It wdl \w* nlim-i-Vi'd [brit l|v' i-oiT^vEiciii jl|L-i->« t\u^ n'liifivt- Ii-v4 tbnii t!i(> 

ftb*f«lut<< moiijiliLy, nrnl tlinl lor inuiio^liati' pnirtlctil pni'iH.iK'-^ Ibereltilire 
crudt^ morlAlity en a anX^^favUivy i^miU\ 

Jti dt^euUn^r on the iXiKt rvlativr inonnliiy of tliH^i^ lowim tUt? 

i^KttrvalivhM ^b«>nld rxti^ml iJVrr ftlioUt l-n y<^Ar>T mi im t^o ^I't mi wt'i'AG^r 
not mnrl) ili<ilrirlH'd by ir]>iilc'mi(^-«. 'V\u^ mhrN nf modjility nnd thr 
CKii«<^oril'-ik'b At conrcnlcht Mit<Hvul.-<ufaiei pJi^ubl al>>o be deteiaiitied, 
umi be miirl'- tb*' bojciH of ib(* LifV- Tflblc^ 

And if il in diaii'aldi.^ fo invrHii^Ut* lh»' fim«e*i of any d*fr*Tejice4 jn ib<' 

moilidity, ilf d4^]i>ily <>i' |io|iiibitii»n, tb*' ^?.-i1> r-.'ii(>|dy, ib-^ diuiim^', UMif 
llir ot'criitN'ioM/fl will iifilnirdly Im' t»krn info fU'riinnl. 

A Tolnini- in now in )>n'piLT'n(ji:>ii ^buiviii;; fur rbc muleTt mid fi uiub-A of 
till'J djHlrtot> n1' KnjrliMid imd Wid^-T* flv- ndvs <»t' niottidity, iit th*s »«ine 
afif* Jt^ nri* >ln*wn for LoiJitt>Ei. 

!l miiy iIjuh b" MuniiikAr-ily «lnti'd fbiil ^ 

I, The crude rnb' of inoiinliry, wlifrb i« tbr- innportioii tli>- detithw 
Ixiir To i]ji' ]io|ndjiiion, in n ilelbiilr fact^ nnd hIiciwi tlir vmiulion?* 
ill ihe nioilwlitj' ol' Lcindnn or of nny olbei icwp, i'lX'in w^.^'k tO 
wii-k| yrnr to yiiu'. 
S, Tbfi ti'ui' till*' ofrjicirtftlity and iTn- t»onn lifijinit* uf it ]>eapto 11tIi)(|; 
iu a towij or n coiiiilry cun oidy b<- diirnnint^d by im^nnn of a 
Lif4' Tnbit*, Mw\i iirt tbat which liua btn^n corwtTUCtt-d far £ngtuml 
nnd Wak'fl. 
3. Av iiif fK>|intnl)aii of EngTuid ir* iuvn-ii^iua by tbe txcy^ of Trjitlif? 
over iloolb" (3 birfb* III '?. d^itfih). mid tlie intivn*"' i-i -ttill greniiT 
in lowus hy ibr cx<^r?« of llii-ir immiiTrntion ov^-r cmiKHdioi), the 
imnihi-r of fjeopJo is in t'xces-' fit i\j^"< wlu'u tin- luuitidify l^ low, 
ao tbed*^ih'niii' \'% l»dnw wbnt it uotild he if lb«- numbers of 
po|m]oliou nl dilTl-unf jjiTiod- of bfi wori- in Uh' som*' proportiou 
Ail tlit-y would bi< if tbe bifihrt v^finalb^d tW ii44ittia in huriiUr. 




4. TUq bl»oluh* mm-UiiiLy, a* iii'r\tv*\ from n Ufa Tablo prc^il^ 
can^U-uot^, is higlwr in KdjeIuiuI, wfavrv \\w (>o[>Liliilti>n im 
incrpHhing, lliHtitUi-crmlrdmlh i«ki^, to which 'J. ;4.oj-4 (j^t i.UUO 
»hoiil(] t"' culcli^i iu tljrr sevrnil tlulricU to ;^ llic nbaolulr 

5i The ilt'Hlli-riitv, wlnob i?i n f^iH- ;;niil(* ir» judsinj: ai' tin- vwr>iii(j 
mi'F'tjLlily of tiki' jriiiiti} [ylnjcVf t> aIm] » ?»r>' ;'ijul4' in jucLgin^ i>l' tht 
rrtaiitf tHmtniitj/ *jf luwnr*. \Vlirr<jv<i' tin." mrotnlity rxci-cdft l7 

ill IfOOO lUirt' in ijiucli oiiijiUiry wuik li> Ik- ilom-. 

{Weekly Keturn, N«. -la, 1874,) 

fittntian Arittrrn Hirik'Ttitt-n antt itrath'waltit.-mJTU*- nntiitiit ti'im of 
ImniAJi lifr »f>|K'iu> t(i Ik- a ^antlreti y^tra; ami ouL of tlitr nnniuil 
;*pn(?rflimTiH Mirci-ssixi'fy havn hi Kn^fUmt jiiul Wiili-^ » frw ^oTiUkry 
imlivUliiuU BUiifji IJhiI limil'th^ ffc^-i', tin- ivM droppinx "A y^'Uf *iy }'i*hr 
Hfl u^.- n<lviiiic<rti ; -^- tliiht llio Hitman lilVliino t^ iit |>r>^>H'ii| culv 41 yci^^' 

U'r-vrry firrvnn li-iin livr^il LIHI ycitm, luid lUi- immm) Uirtliia wi-h' vntuil 
yi'ur iiri.rywir, Uu- murUilfly n'uLild ln-nl tW iitmual nih* uf I in UfO, or 
of 10 in l,(KK);Hiulif *-\*iy |n'i>-ni livid 11 yi^nrs, il is c»t<\'i<m!S llinl, lEif 
UirUi^ In-luii i'litiiJ, tiK' luod^lkjr n oiilil Ix^ ut ilir niu? of I i\t*ui\i anuunWy 
Til 41 living. Ktr rnlht^r m^ro thiut 2l ^Icntli^t in 1,0(K> livfn^. 

[f Iho liii'tlm cotiHUiitly i-xci^etl till' dt^Ltbn in niimlM r, ii|h»n lliie 
by[x>i}ie-sis i^^ mc^rLnliiy rv^tiiainiiig tlic »4Lnic, allliou;:^ tLr* im-aii 
(lutaiioTi of hlb remains 41 >ear^ tlio mtviii cnorliihLy will W hclnw I io 
4l — hvktvi 24 ill I.CKXK Auil LIjc Mhnko priJiKiiciitii in tiur. ttiuu^^b tliL' 
nretini^fi of iit4ivMiiiJ» vary frnm O Ia 10l>yivii-fi : fbii* tli^npli xhi- mi^nn 
lift-lime n 11, thr InvlliH exi'ieilinj* tin* doAtha »lii) iti^iirji.-iiii^r, tbo 
mortiilily in ]'Ih;;1ii»(l nnd Wnlris i« 1 in 15, or mnit.-i- more thnu 22 
unitujU dt-atliK In l,CKK> UvjD}:. 

Till; mt'- of iriui Ulilv imimi^ cliildivu 4iuil Aiiioii;; uit<u iipcl wumttn of 
(liiTfTf^nl 11^4, vEkrit-ii; ho that ihi^ marlidity (73 in 1,000) of t'ljiMivn 
iinclcT ft yi'iii'T-or "P' i^ai lu-wrly tliwt* tiuits tlu- nverM|£i- nlo of tlwivluili- 
popiibirii.iii, Mfhih* union;; lH>y3 imil j^irls of ihv npc (KV-15)^ ihr moilHlily 
}n n\ ihc mionf 5 hi I/HKi, or ohiy uiK-f<Pt)rih tfr ori»-fillh of nik^^^i^rirml 
nilt- ; ikii^l llio morljiliTV I'f'lumikM Ix-Vrw tlii- »v\Ti)tf^< milil llit? a^i*. of ZrS, 
lull IjfWiiiJc'i nhir tliAl alp- iiiiidi nhovr tbc- hwnipv Thr |h^|iii)iirii>n in 
wljich tl]<^ auiiilaI namtirr id^ biiilis iiicrriisrs <xiii1mtiH an niuliir' |tio|>or- 
iii>i] t>f cliJUIrv^D^ ot youUit, and uF jH-rK»iifi id luidjllr \igy ; und tbi^rt'^all 
ifif llijit till- rji[^' «r jiKfitaiily 1h /f-jii tTiim it would 1k' if llir |iMpii]aiioii 
wu>> in llu' pit>|M>rtia[i« Ihbt wotild driwi froiii ad i-qmJ tiuuibcr ci iinuual 

Tbcdenlh^ lo 1,UQ0 1ivm<! in dISpivDt diitirteb wilt, thfTTTfnn<, vary 
ro>oroo cxU-nt, nt*cordih^ nn il»r |>ti|iubilioii i« con^MiUttiil of iDon} or 
jiwtuf tlii- eliildn-iLur nituJi^ nl lb? it^-tt Uiat tr3|wrii<tKv a ndiitiv<fly hi^ 
or A lour mil' i»f innrlnbty. 

Jltit nllouin^f fur ihf- dfx'iiiuHUuu'i^ tImL lUi^ aiuiufJ ilt^dba lo 1,000 
Uvin;- in Cii^^luiid #Jjoubl b*^ IrK^ ibjiii llioj' wmild Uf if tbi- birl|j> did uui 
Inm-jLHe, tbf< uh^rUlily ul' dilfoi-i^ni ilistriot^ vuiiiw willi tbt- ittl!tH^'nt 
di'^« of bi-idth fii till' [11 >ji Libit ivu. (Uilh Annual lte|>(i(i, |>. xi\,} 

ArraDgii>g thv dHri<;U of Kaglaud in Ihr oiilci' of tbeir tucirtalityr it 
b fbuud llwi ibi^ aiiiiiirLl iiiucltdiiy in ihe vanonci :;nHi|iEi ningiv froin the 
nUeof 15 lo39 iw^r l/KHh tbo hlrtb.r«U> fhwi 31> to -10 (k-i 1CKX>^ snd 
it ii aepn ibrf, in ilir nrxt Tflblr, a* tbc 'Imili-mtf inciyn»>os tbi> Uirfh- 
nitvr luere«Aes ft iIjaI tu nH ib^ dlnlrict^ with n uiurlAlity unflcr 2.S per 
1,000 tb« nAtUL-jil iiiciY4Hc or pi>|>n]iilion i,-* very con^tiuit. Tbo motiJity 
incmuvff i*iili ibv duiit>att uf ibf (wpnlatitMi i and thim vwry additiouftl 
dmlh lit nioc by hi nddiltoDid birtli. 



BT lY- 

DKssiTif of rorrnTiox, Dihtim:mi., IliieTii-n^n:, Ex'.K^^^»f IliuTim 
m-er liKiins, and Incuka^k i>f P*»PUL-vnoi* jitr l,00t» TEKj-uKfi 
ririNOt in Komi Grciti|>Hd of Dic^lrid* urrfing^d fn iK? Oriler of 




To IjlVO PlTWlS Lm>( 



In iiitililk-nr 


AvtrnKP Anniiiil 

itttlliM. Rirllm iniT 
1 l*rtkl\v^ 





M 1 IS'IT 171 

All * 1-98 1 ItKi 

t SI ]£tK 
1 ;:" ri,vai 






an HVi-ruf"uniiuhlmDrIii)ilvniniriTii;fnml£l{i U pnrl.Bnrit liy iliv macrMnto r"piilittton rf th«ii 

in ih-. Iir?<t 7il4i^e uf the rk'alv, llmt i« in lIki ol Ii^jlIUi)^ iH?<lr]ct^ ttiir 
TleutZi'Cato \6 tti'7, ih^ blitli-ratc 30~ 1 ; In ilm ^eevriil iiti'ji.e llir duutU* 
rjtt4^ 19 \0"2f the Ijirih'rntp 3-'2; in thv lliird ^t^i^c thu ilo;itli'rulo ia 
'J2'0, the liinli-raFO :ii?'fi : in Mii* Tourtli sUgi- tin- ilt^Htli-mt^' ih 2^-1, 
lln birl!i-rak- is 38'l. Thi' ualitrul iiicivjihi.- of [jopulmmi m nidi of 
ihosr foiii' >l«g<'^i ^»^]gr^ I'l'oiu 13 Ui KJ'6, or is wvimllj' 33 "I, 13 "0, 
i;i'(i, 130- WIkii iIk" iiiuiiultLy rnm1i*<H ilicyf^lfA itttfjr rlir- (loiilh-nHo 
i& 27"ft, till' bii-lli'rHU" 3J*'I : and nftet Ibnt |>oiiii, wliil*- t|jo ■l-iilli-iuU' 
incrcsiMx^ ii> -32'o in MiiiKli*'-iir imil38"(i in Livorpo<.»l, dio l>irili-ni[c 
rrctnlv^ lo ;>7'3 and :J7"6, and thvrr is u ilii.'M7t«' uf jiH[i;^H|n>y, 
|Ki])n]ri1>irii, which \i' it ilioid'E ;fii uii nii^lil imd ih n rli^vh^/i-^' ot 
{Rijjidjitiuji ill j^inujii-ii ichI |u(ji;:iv><^icjii, 

Sliotild til*- <l<mth> in \\if di^lricK wIuti' lli*- iiiuilrilil)' ih '2'2 'O (ht IOOD 

K' ridiii'i d by naniuj-y miiittuvi'* u» r!iL' '^umi- Irvrl ii> in tlu> liisirii-f^ wht-rt- 
tIk- luuiljdih i-' 19^^, tbc hirtli>^ iiiigiil 1>c rcMliit^c^d in tln' Minn' nr u 
XiVH^^T df*:riv, nnmi*ly, fnjm -J.»'*i lo i*?';i; and >l3onid tin- ilrnni-r^itti 
hu hr\Mi^Iu dL>wu I" 10"7» 1^1' biiiii-iMt- iiii;;lil Uv rwlucfl, ii^ iti tl**t 
lir-Allhn^t distrirU, tn vIO ' 1 ; tin- dL'ani>< fiillin^f ^'.1, (lii> liiiilik ru'timlly 

Ml A*A piT l,UUt>, JL<< ^hoxv^ in tUc Uilfli\ 'Hii^ Full of l\\<- h'tvth Vi\ie< is 
oWi^T"! in tbc wxistin;; (.■ircumst/mct's oJ' ihis ooiintry ; il nminlaiiin an 
imtforiu itiai'VM' in dfMrict'* umkT dilliTi-ot blw^ oi' niorijdlly, but it is 
tii't Am^i<>'j)ty v<Ht?«eqni'HOp uf u n^iluctMl ibnUi-roICi 'ind tfi in itie optriioii 
of llu' |iiirlit-s i-onoerri*.-d, Uif»ir pri>>iiiTl> api' ^<Htd, ftuy iiiarry jiiid 
procrvtile ctiildrtm ut tlioMiinc rnte lu brfoiv; in rbjit crixu ihy popuUtion 

iiirri'Mrii^ fo^^kr 1 wh(-n^-i in & ilf|irfvv<i-il rmiOition i*ic Inrihh fnll off finiil 
'J'litir Mki'n< in n» itMaltnhUTroftnirtloii tviwri'ii ttti- ;;m4|i.tttL iviliii'tioit 

cif lliu moi'Ulilv <>r lEii- wliolc kihgfltan r.i> lli<^ mif of 17 pt-r 1,00(> rithil 
(hi- mor<' nuiid inrrt'Hm- of pn|inliition ; Im^tuiim' \\\v biitti-i'iiii* litny of 
ilT<t-ll tnll 1i> tbo Irvel 'if iliut iiow i^ro^'milin;; in tlii' 1i<<ullhii<<t <li?<lru'ls 
ikiiit h'itvc Ihc incmtw; "f" pojHiIfllian jt* it wu*, Stnti'j"Uii':i an- not tlu-H, 
\\y ul»iiniii>; ciEiw of finn^a^ uf |>o|ivitnUoii in <■ ftinlLir iCf'^iini'liicHl 
|hn»gin^»*-ion, to h>* lU'liTi-^'d fnmi lln- iioH<**L wni'k in wliicli tlicy cnh 
t^i^g*-; tor it i< crrtniri llinf |i(ipii]Eai<hu a'* it iinpruw in Knghiitil will 
tioi [mTi.'aMi' feMer ilmn lb' rrquirvnuiif?' ff ioiliwlry in till iLh 
l"i>nn> At Jiomi? or the new invuiug?- of coluniaL t-ntt'Tpiw Abroad. 

<if y(«r?i out irt' 1,000 Hiildn-n burn simuliaowu^ly, MS die iti [hi^ twtltv 
montlix fnllowtng the dftlc of blrtli. the probabilit}^ i>r dying is cxprv^H^'l 
liy tho fruclioTi Q' H9 ; thnt i-t the ^ealh-rhanrc of a ni^w-boni infiint 
inifli^r the gii-i'n Iilw mf morlAhty. Ah HTtl ^f th?m Horx'lve, (I'S^I U iVt 
fiwlioii to cx|iro*i ih*» probAhilily nf living; il U Ihvi itfr^rhitncr^ 
Now ' 85 1 + ' 149= 1 =lif*wliimo'"+<kttlh-ohttiia'- 

Thin pnrliiibility is <in<'ii cxpn?T,-un] iha-f; tlic chiinc^ are 3-^1 to I41> 
thai a iiov-borii chiht will lite n y^^Jir, 'Tlii> valui.< of Xi pnyiiblu if (hu 
I'hild ^houhl livru ywir ih 17»- t£"8*'il); the \'o)iir oi £1 pn^jililt; on tbu 
iU»lh iif tilt- i-hilil i.'« :ix, (i- 1411) ; ihr- f!lia»<!t'ft b favour of life bt-tng 
;;r«iti.'i limn thcchamrs in lavoiir of ilcRlh. 

Thi< livi.^ uxfiy W Icnikinl ni with h uVw Ui tli^rrrmim' thu pr™?<Ivm'y 
of lilt* lifv-for(*o - which Jt <iicli ii^ the jxvn'nl i'jis(>, ihnt 851 live uul 
uf l,iXX> itnring otiL> rovotntioLi of XhQ tMirrb : nl thv.^ a^' f>f 20 it !« 
Kucb that *)92 out of l,*XK) nu» live n yair. Thf* pii>p(>rtiuiiB vury 
imilcr vnryiii^oomlilionss but thc^e vnnutiousdonotucciiratcly ilonoCvthc 
vitftl Un-c<i, which h otljr oorrcilly imnffiirwl on the scaU of mort*iliij/, 

Th.' Miitrtnliry i>« iti>t4.<riiiiTi«*l by lh<" rnlio whit'li ih^* iWiTlk hi-nr to the 
yrHr* tif lifr, " 'f ht' men living* nml the lime ffxpr<^s?ie*l in vcan*. 
'* iiiulliplicd into vnAi other, protino- the yoaix of life wilji which the 
>" ileaths Are c^ompitn.'vl. A ^^t^tir of hfn in tho lif<^imi* unii/'* U lk 
rc^ravcnt«<1 by t^iic pvrMru living thnju^rh a ^oikT^ r^r W lwi> ptnKinn 
living tbivngh hulfA ypiw, A ipgimoiit of an nv^nig^^ htirn^iU of l,nf)0 
men iliirii^ ihn^^ y«irs n^pn-wiibi S,000 ycai>» wf lifo ; anrl if tlie 
ikwihfr iti t&> three yeare are 60, Ihf^ rate of mortality i» tbtte cxprtKM;d : 

M ^ ----— = 'Cd; i>r Uic mortaliiy jo aaiil to bv nl the rato of S per 

cent, pel annnm. The 10() yi-ani ol' lifv an* n liM-4 iiniiriiay ; juhI ^ it 
iw fo^iul iTiat Hiiilei- varifMU L'irconiHtJHice*, ainl at diflcivnt n-sv^^ the 
raif T*Th« from t lo 2, 3, -<, -1 n|i lo W, ihi« kctiUt mtip* i« mrn^ni^ 
ibr lifc-Corci', or tho 4»mpl<?minil«ry *U»Blh-roivt\ in Iho uino way aa tbt» 
oiuitixrad<^ Tu^te of tbc tbcrmoinelor £vr\'e>i to measure heal, 

A fhemiuinetiT U not ii L-on^-^nirnl mi^-^un.* of bt.-vit nnK^nt nt all 
li*fln|>c*nUurM It contains ibe oaiiw ijuaiility uf meiruiy, ami nnl«rM each 
ihunw moas^uiv^ (kjuiI p\|mqmoo^ of iSr iiK-rcurv. If tbc nifreury 
oacaM'v a c<irivotion i> rcv]uin*il togiii.* iho i-^pmiHir^n of tv|jiAl iiuknlltitta 
c-f inerrury at i^very *le:-ive of tern | Mi rut n re, lu oh^cni'li^K vrilh ibe 
bATonHrterp IhiT mcntntr i-< jMlJnut^'tl nt both cnib, ho a^ to give the e»Ct 
height of tht cdumn Above Ihe mercury in it« well. 

* SiY Inrnylnciiou tii KiiKllsii UK- T*bk-, pp. xiv to xa s cxkimm ftos wbidi «ill 

Uv fyuiiJ oil pp. 4fl5-tt^ 


So^io determmi^ ihc laie of mitnAtiir on a atron^li of l,iH>»[iieii 
joincU l>^ no rvrt uii", it b mi:!-*,^! v lo iiiku thwr meAn »uvagUi during 
ihc wliuti> pcHo<] of ut>4<i'vMioi]: for if cnu mull die* ai the i^ndofii 
f(e>'k, !>9f>oii[y icranin jUVrw.tnl-) cx|iiwmI In lUk. luid if lb<t nuinlirrK 
nr^n-diKTiil iiC v^ml>k' inurrvjil* lo 090, f<> 9^.5, to HI I, U> 700, U» 6lH>, 
Aii^l duon, U f« tviil<dDC tltai the j^(<ur.« «f JiTt' in ibi^ Nimc linir will Iw 
lew ilum tliu yi^u-A of life !ii a rc|;iiM«tkL whioh abuil<^ x iwriiit f(«' e\ery 
CAMLuUjr. Ail tlmt ia nnjuiiivi in *;iioli <a*i.v !■& lo tnkt> th<' obi^vr^nltotiM 
»o Sf^ to llive the uut' yi?in\ ol' liJu ; mid iht: ratio whjcli lh*'?u- yt^urv of 
life lH.'4r to tlip ilif^Uis is llur (.-v.k-I (iit-uftui-c^ of ihio mortalirv, It i.- 
frvlili'iii, on rill' iiluT luiiiilf iliui Hijcli it miitFiiirj:' i-^ riot M]|iplii'il hy ■ 
rompnri^iFj) of till' lUvklhi- in ii v^wr, W isvtmitk-, (■> ibe ll\ iij<- uf Llji? 
bi j^iniiin^ of IliJit ymr Tlit- rrxiilu byihm tnciPiud nro -jjIj >-tnc-tl/ 
coni|)Uiu1»Jc' u'Ijoii iW <lt*iir]i> aiv iti tlic Mkuin I'rojiuiuoii luiii oecur in th« 
Minii' prrii'flA of ilio y<'ttr 

By tin." t^n^'lMi Lifi^ T«l>lc l,i)00 infimi* fiillow>-d Ihiv^tis:'! l^iiir fir>t 
ycoc of ug^ yield itomly 0">;i yKwt-^ v^ lifu ; »n<l (lut mifitnlij/ i!^ ul llit 

frfir annum. Tb« |»ri.»lmL(Jily .^f ilyirig im "l-lfl^lOli; and H\t>u iW 

c-ri'urif'oiiFf jtK«um]»tJ»n llmt Uti;- i>i Ihv n^tv lif nuriialily it w^^nlrl hi* 
J1'tl-i9|M'r cent. fHi' aiiuinn; Iiiw byl'6U) Ibmi tlkt* li'iK* latt.-, widk 
^lii<'l] it filioitld iii'Vi'i' Iti* toiil'omi'lv'd, 

Al olbor iiiJi-H tiiaii lIjl' lii>i yi'iir Ibi' mtu of itiuiUiIUjr wivi.'^ 1^» give 
iho |ii^)lKd>i1ity »r liviiij^ a. yvm-, ami tlini MUj>|ili<-^ ihtj fiirMl»rm'rit(t1 
HeiiK'iit^ of a I'.ifo T»bl(<. 'JV- OiH^rrncr bt'turn-ii thi< ndr of inoi htljly 
(mi)j nnd Uie pmbabibty uf dyin^ ( «), b<*coitii's k'wi iik |>ro[ioilioii «■> lh<r 
lwofrin:tii>i)>LliniiiiUb; for [i[w*ii the liy|H>lhr'ii'i Ibnr tin* iliwrh^ inn 
yi-«r iicciir id mjuid liifvr\aU in llii- ycjii, Uji.- rJaUvu uf/^nml m la Uiu> 

(Sii|i|ili'iiic'tit bi 2.'itli Ariiiiia] Ke)>oi-[, \i\t, W~x.) 

nit inMtiL*' of jLM'rrfjiMirii;; whut. \\\n %-aXv of nuirtJilify Wdiibl lie aTimn^ 
men living; in the mo^t fikvoiicnble sanilury conditions; odicrwij?*? 
oWrTnlions I'oi' it t^niu of yonrn on u eoMeiilcnibk- iiutiiU<r of tiri-'li 
|XM-HonB would -iopply a hUndard rate witU wliich otJier rat*s could Ijc 
(<oiii]mi ■ d. 

In tlir nliM'fi<ri< nf Mich Ji KtATultu'd^ iIk- ilfi-r.riDtH iif Knglanil In wbidi 
the mortiLlity i^atc iLirl ntit i'Xcei-d 17 ujumnl lU-athfr In 1,000 living, have 
bocii H'ltvUM n,'^ l\v- hiisib of ii iir^w life Libl^ wbicli ivill shmlly li< 
pnbli^bt'df ax ibt^ lu-iii'est u|ipn.txii:ijiiitni viv cHri obULiit ti> u rable 

rrprcai'iJlinjr tbf hiimnii tixrt- iir tlir noniuil r*!*!".'. 

Tb<* 5lb rohmm in I.Iht niindnl tjiLk ^Ikuws Ibc* vaU-^ nf moiiulity id 
J2 d]irrn-ii( Hgi'x ill tbt' dittlricU of Knvhind w\\\A\ wc i-aU, Ibr ibu -ati* 
of diftliuclioii, hi-nllhy* Tln.i suniUry coiidiliom iii'o oU(?n ^ii^feclivo, but 
llic <li?fcct^ luv coiinf crrljaUiK^i-d ; b<i fbuL thi? dUtduts beliif^ mitch I<:sh 
uidioidtby ibao the avon^g^^ may Ik- mo do?fi^iiat<-d. 

It will b<? ubf^^rved ibjit if ibn |K>ptilnticin (Sfi37-\f*83) be midtiplied 
by 17, *iid till' prc)dmr Ih- ill^idiil by l,0(KJ, fbr n'NUlliiig number 
00,.'15d) will ivpre^^ni Uk- HLJUUai ir-aihu Lhat would Uik-:~ plucr in 
J^Tulon if ibi' iiJorUUity wi'ir ul ihv. xnXv of 17 in 1,000 aijuudly. Tbi* 
uf.tuul rutc uF in<jrlfdity !il tborw ibDlrivtr* vru 17'72 iti 1,000 tn Jot, 
and 17-33 is 1,000 feionU^. 


^H UBTeou for ooamiring tho R.ito of Mortautt in Uiv llRALTiir 1 
^H UiSTRTCTjf of LxoLAKD, With Uit? Rai4>H pi'L'^vilini; in oth«r Disu^cU ; 1 

^H Li'M>i>:t ^ivi-ti Its AD cxnaipU\ 1 


1 '.■ 1... Uiri"*l 



Aamiftl Unthi 
in Ili« A Yean 


Mortkliiy in 

Aninit] nor- 

.-.. .11 I.I i.rmi 

li^'i^.U."!^ ll til* 

MoTlklktr tud 
hoen till' idtiiji* 





« « 





































































flflfelliT UTV 






























































»— asiM 





*»— 1 ItJWS 






»»- ina 


■nw ->mi 


M vkI u|»' F 

AE]A«M . 

Prrtofti - 



-4iait *wad 




'oan *-om« | ivilo 



'Onu *-Oim 1 W.TT9 

* T^ia Hiha r^eof luonvHfy llul vaiitd pnvBiL in Ih' liiKllh^ iliitritiit kldlt a^H If Uii« 

dSklnbuLiciti ol Uw tvQ wntc Ihn mtac u tbey war* in Laiidfin In IKVl. 


Hill ih^ popolailoD ^xp<^neuct^i1 vtry difTi-Tvni rates of mortatity at 

1 diffort'iit Ajf-'s* Htui ih<^ pr^portjonnl numbi^n liviji^ in Lomlon lU ih'? 

1 vjiriotti iH'noiLt of lif*^ in not lb*' wimr uh it U ni ibi> country JUlrh*ts, 

which itr-jid oiil »^ini;;rant«. London ih fiUpporT<^i1 partly by immigrant 

au<l ]>qrily by birlhs. Il liaa bi'Qct? iic l'Xci<^hltl- iiunabL*r of |x^optc in 

lUc priijii' i>r lift-. A<N:onling]y, tt ij4 fi>iliL<l ihjtl with thi^ K>pulH(iou aa 
it wjui clUtrtbiiCotfl it) IS51 thir vnnunl ^Iftttk* in LoDtioti woj d noi 4fxe(S^cl 

33,170, or rho vTiniiMl morlaliiy woiiUl bo i:> in 1.00i> if thi* rati« of 

inoriiiltty m t-aoli uf thi? 12 |icriod^ of iifo irtre tho mm** aa ibooe 

provailtEiff in the ht^ii^tby distnct«. 

Kxumplr; Tbr number of boyn iiutli^r ft ymr* of a^i* wju 147,300; 

the AniiLia) ntU^ of mortality in thi> h««Uby i)UlHct4 wji» *0434S ; and 

multiplying tln^ two fnicltOQ» to^Mhor, 147,390x *(Mild^i;3(S7 tWlha 1 


_ J 


fpAUT IV, 

vrfaich wotilrl hiiv^ hjippj^m-il in Lnndon liji<l tbttmorlnlily bn^D tt IIim 
WDUf ratL< t\» it WAS in ijie lieahii)- iliTitricU, 

By coniinuin^' ibc proo<^*j the nnmlHTB in column C nrvi obtAUiCjU 
MuuuuLin^ ill th*Mi^gr^;>ihte ro 30,17?: tlie mcritalliy m LouUon eboutii 

lhen?fore have bet-n .^ -j'^^igg = •<'1'^2 cr 16 in 1,000. 

All townn liki^ Mvcrpool, Glasgow, ftihl MHiichesUr, havv on PTCHW 
of rUul |Mirl cf th<< |wpu1»tion wliidi txpi-rU'iiect^ on BOoonnt of age* 1ei8 
tlun the )ivor»;;o mte of niortfllfty. A pmt of tlit* mortabljot ihv lowns 
ia tliiTVfojT* luurked by Ihia cir4*timfllJmL*i'- 

Ao<l tbc effect of m corrwtion for u^e aiKb wi luia bc<?n ^'mploji'd in 
thp RogiHfmr Oonfml'v Ti>i>i>ri4 mIl^ixv^ rlmt. lli<> riimhr-r nf tfttn/tttirol 
dceUhx Lf alvrnyv un<lcrstat(-<i hy ci^iiipimni^ ihi- loia) iNitUp with tlui 
ilea£b>4 wbicb wouM 1aki< plurct iit the rat« of L7 in l^OOO. 

It 15 «)LOwn fn th«- XnbU^ thatT on iiu nv^ruj^e, 57.-'^r<2 per^on^ flitnl in 
Lomtoii Bmiujiliy ^turing the firt' yt^u-w 1849-53, whorrAn^ tlio iWtbn 
■honld not, ut inXeA of mnrlAlit}' lUf>D prcYulinfr in ci'rtniii itHtritrfA of 
Kiij£luit>l* bttvo excrt^lM 30,179; conwquently 21,403 UDnfiUiral dealhn 
tooi pUcp f>v<-rf yeur iti Louflon. Il ^rill bt* the* oflim of the l^oiird^ 
of Wwk* lu rtwlum; ilns ilitndful sa.vtaii:& of i\tv io tht^ luwi'4t |H>int, 
ftnd thus ro (loMrv^ w*IJ of their oomifi-y. 

In Liverpool, by the nnm*^ ineihin\, it in ToUjhI tbul 11.41 H livi-j w<-n< 
lost ID the jeaf 1^67, In vxw^ of tbt' d^ntbs af tbo IK-Alfhy rule?. !□ 
MAadh^bT tilt* Nicknonii nn<t mortiility nro nlflo «^ctf<asive. (^HKb Annual 
Bepoi-i, \>y. 174-60 

i*roffrr-Mt of I*uf/ltr JteaUk po8»iblt. — Mutthub maiDtaliiinl at onw 
limi.' lli«l ndcin^l'i to pm»i'iJl tiic invngr* of rptdrminLl di*iv*fcfi ju-c 
hopo1c», inmmijch ah tbi* population ulwnjn jirewr-* on ihv inf^nnn of 
Aiibdfitt'no.-. Now puptklniuiii \h di-pi'iubnt on two r»u:loi*«, tb^- 'jvuviy 
birtbs of children jinil ihr number t^f yi-iira tlk« diildri'ii live ; and if 
subsLafciicv is limiit-d, popututkm ia alto llmticd- Tho population of 
Cngbind miiv hf. I^se, \r\\\ au\ ncvi^r bi^ p^otcr, tbon tb^ eiibebtcnoc it 
cjin ooinmaml. It b* not, bowcvi-r, nii*i"KWuy ibat tb^ flLb8ish'nc»« it*t*lf 
«boijId he produced in Ertj^lauil ; olber productit of tbo rume exebiiiigetibb! 
vulne Oiui in the pn-^cnl slatr of trun*i>orl in the world alwuys be 
convrrtrd into Aiibfll»ceiieL\ Manchc^ttr livi» ij* wi'll ii« n Gouiity 
consisting; of fn[-mer>^ and lUrricnltnrftl Ubourcrv. A nnlroo fbc<D i« not 
"aibh:ie<L. cribbi'd. conlinnb b^ itA acivs; it cah create on one uori^ of 
bind pro(lu<s> wtjiih tb<^ np-icuUund pn>ducl» of & thou^uid ncres. 
Subaistj^nce i^ a lii£iiti--d bul not a tbied quantity. \Xa extcnj^ioii may 
keep (Kiev witb Ibc cxtoii^irin of pupulaLion. TUc^ii (bo biitb^ of tike 
pr^Giit iLuy mtfliL-r.' \t> tiu><lhiTi n populiilion miieb larger (bjiu tli*.- popn* 
Intion i?xijitinp; nnd yet the birthe niigbt be increased by one-third, na 
will be evidtnL wbi'iMF !?• tonwdcivd tbbt more tliaii 2,00O,0O() wonii^n 
of tlic age of ld-of» Ai'e anmnrricd, ai^d that ihe .^ij^XXi^OOO \\ocnen of 
Ibul agf murried, ''or otherwise to tbe same extent us aiarrit^d women 
** bennn^ rbildren/^ Iwar on au averji^^ only ?2 obildn^n annually to 
<ivf^y 100 wt^mun. The roproduolivo power.of tb<- nhtioo is tbus uodpr 
" i-eslroinl,'' lis Mr, MuUUu^ tilled it, and tbe experiv^^nCT of Franc'e implies 
thai witbfiut dimintiihiii^ iht- number of persons in llit; murrjed [state Uiv 
annual birtbo inny bert^ fall *ory ^uDBidc-rably I'olow tbo preecnt 
QUisberft. Then tht-re in the gi'eat opening of emigmtion. Yasl regionii 
of AfD()rica, AuNtratiJi, Asiii, Jtud Afriio^ are unpeopU-d, or arc |>eoplcd 
W miaettlcd unproductive savagee. Colonial ^etllcmeutfi, plantations as 
&1CUU culla ibrm, crv* tb« iiXovy of England. OUier rm:e* luive trnn- 
fiontly conquered tbe nutuins of tbu UJirth ; Eu^dand bus planted 

deatha] IftL 

£iiglt«bn]cTj on cominonte fiom wltkh linkC cvnnot dUloil^t^ Uuaa 
Th«»t< uktilutioQB e&ll perpotuallj^ for r\<criiiU. 

To tlfVful, thojx-foiv, tuiy ill coiiMHiut^iicev jVoDi jirrtvidDg cpidciak^ 
or to lugnv on a prion groundi ihat it b impoDibJo in cppoailion U> 
nature U> aavo life* to prolong life* to nlreuKtWn. fliwl in every rc8p€«t 
to Lmprorc the Englbh nici^, in iUogicU: for give tkitm litAJtci, mid if 
ibo incivfi^ uuiiit'Cr>t CAnuot be hUalaliieil en f.iib»ietonco by their 
indu:itr/ within the nhona of tboMj ifJnuili, tbc btrlba will uatuniU/ 
decline: Imt the naiurtl n^itii.-du<« ui> iiicniLsi^J iiidiiBtry to coiiiTnaiid 
IJnxluco from ikbrond, anti cmip-ation to eo»k after lubnT^tvnce ou tb« 
faat tnofl-oocAuic lenitorje^, 

Thc« tbi* very couiliiio^is whicli dimhii^ti the numbers kiltLnl iu tb«9 

bAtt)ooriif(^ dtmiTiish tilt' numbers of wouodt'd ■ ondudwcry biii^lu Jt^aih 

hy Yiolence implies ibt injuiy or mutilatioa of eurvivors so nciiri3' M 
tbe xyrnoUo dl-H^HtMi U'avi^ irri^]wriibK' Irncc^ in ihb h\lut\, iUe tie&f, the 
tvcflk in body or l>rain. By I'emovJng the <liecovrrP<l cnUH*« of dt-aiJi 
you ul thv wuie tinii^ rcinovo <.'onditJi>iis irltich pri^vt-tit iliv prv^rv^A 
towird* perf«ctioH of Iho Eii^li^b niCf, Wv luive, ih^ivfor*', eTi»rytbiii|r 
b> hope, imd iiclhing lo dr^hd from mooffurof of public htnlih and of 
public safety. (30th Annual Repoit, pp. 210-110 

Prohabir Decrease of Mortality. — There aiv many obfltaolce to tho 
mnitnry proyr«'fi& of a nutiont iind it U »-videiil that at prtvent they can 
cnly be ovi^rtomc in part: but lliorc Js do around for d»?spjiir. Tlirre 
lias lHf«ii progrtHB, Tbi- nieiia liA;tJUit? of aotereJx"H aud pevrn ia 
prolonged; it vi%h in piul ages nnivh flhorter tlian (be lifotiiup of tho 
imhcallhy InlxmriM'ii in the cttio^ cif to-(Uy> The mcrtnlity of (he ciljr 
ofLondou wa8 at the rate of 80 p«r 1,000 in the latter half of tho 
vcvontctnlh cenl(irT» *^0 in th^ rightci'Utb, apdnat 24 ta Ibr prtvent day. 
Tbu murl4klily iu tLv libcriii's uf \hv city ofLoadou vrithin and without 
tho wnlU w:l« in the four plngno yeftrs LM)3, 16^5. !a'^, ir>a.'^, fit tho 
rate of 24, M, l.t, aud K* per c<"nt. In Uie dty jiIoik' 00.472 f>enions 
died of phitfUL' in tiic four cpi<lcmicv, and A^,0O4 of olbcr diHca:^^ Tlitr 
ennm<'ratrd popnlatlon of the city wiia 130,178 in 1ti3I. In the clioleni 
cpiflcmio yonr of IS-IG the morliility ^om all caukts in tbc metropolis 
w&H only 3 per cenL Aui) in the but tvro i-ittdeuii<» tbi^re wad a further 
di^;liitc. Tbuei it ii a.i c^rliitn that thi) higa morlalilr cftn Ih-* mluci?d 
by hygienic A{>|jlianc<'f^ dowu to a certain limit a$ it i^ that humati lifo 
cnn U' mcrifict-a, 

Tho niudy^iis of the catLv?* vf llio niorlalit;f rtinderA it <ill further 
evftiiin ihftt the nt-tnal iridrlalily of iht* irountry ma U- ndneed, Many 
of the ilc^troycti^ aro liftible, nod con be controlled by individuaJ^ by 
compaaltat ^u^ by coipotutu bMlit^i, xuch lu exploeion» io coat n.ine8, 
drowniiLiE in <-nuby ships, railway coUUion^, jioiMniagH, impurlii<.v of 
ff^ator, p«midouK dirlVt floaiii^g duite, jtymotio conUgioo*, ctowdiuga 
in lodginEH, iniHDaDa^emeiita of cliildien, neglecta of the Mck, And 
abauduiinii-nU of the hclpltvs or of tlic agi:d jKMir. 

Furtbrrmorc, inrtmlinfi: thi^ London district of Hampilcad, \hviv: are 
dftj-foiir large tracts <if Kii^latid heuI Wal^ which actuaily i.i|>eni.'i)c« 
a tDorlality at tbc t^U- of on})' hcvrrjln-n ycr 1,000 — Xtrm hyjirr ilun ibo 
avi'nhgi- roortatily prr 1 ,000 of thi.' wbclr i-ountry, trKH by Un thait ia nine 
districtis ukI Irm by ttorntjf^^eo than the tnorlality reienin^ for ten ycar» 
in Lirerpooh Nov ibo bimlthy diHtric-t» Imre a ^nbnous soil, ftnd 
supply ilir inbabilant4 wilt wal^ni geucmUy frcu from orgunic itn- 
puHtiw- TIj*- pvopli? aro by no nwana Wfidtby i tho ;,*tvu1 nutMi of llu^m 
are lubouren aitd workpeopJo on lovr vagr'fi, whosi' faiLihc!* get few 
hunrnv* And very randy tMto animal food Thoir cothigea axe c1<-an, 

1 S 


[PAET tV. 

but tLt^ i:i>tn«linu« crowrUHl, nnd itnpiiriti«Hi AhoiimL { lh4> aanilju-y 
«hortcomiritfH kht pAtpnbte. 

It will Dot> tlieivrorc, hv piu-lnn^ tl>> «tanJflri] or health too lii^rli t^i 
AHHort lUni ftiiy oioefls fif morUility m Kuj^IihU ih-^imu <>vL*r /" tfi«M«/ 

dnrtkt lo I'viTj' l,(XjO]ii iji>: th hii €xct^» ul>1 lIik- I<> tin.' luviljilily i(kci«lcut 
to hnmnii nifiir^', l>ui. tf> fcH'H^n onii9i^ to he rf|H>ll(il, nt\d hy liygti«Tibi* 
escpedti-iilK oonqLiori-il. 

Ii is ri;:hi to Mal^ tbfti tlir reovl is gn^ai'-r lUan the hp|»reat moiiidily 
of tlir^i< iliflTriotM ; Ihc^y nr? mcreafflii^f, nii^l contain an iinilu4> prnixrlioit 
of |X7pulaiiui] ul the yi-iiiu^T ItuuUliii-at u^*^, so tliut » <M>rrL'clii>i] lor %\i\n 
mAkfH fho niMiftlJly £0 inntt^tiiX of f 7- Thnl h tho mirk of thr-ir Klalionnrj' 
mortality if ihr pf»piilALi<m nrrro Ktatiotjury, if births ix|tiiUlcil <U^i^ mad 
Ihera were do iiii;;Tatiou. 

The nicwn inminl fb'aths ftC the rato of 22'4 in 1)u- ton y^r» 1861-70 
wiTi' 479.ioO in Eii^'lnud; mid lm\ ihe i-aii* of rnorTalit^ l>«cn 17 tlio 
Annual il-urli' «vc>iiM ni>t Ilavij CAOt^i'^ril 3l^>1>GL7 ; h> iho (>vorp1ttH duo to 
the operation nf ciku^rs i^iiisting, Imt li^^-^ ilr^truclivc in tho limlthiVr 
districts wn* 1 lo, 11133. The hope of eavini; tiny nuiuher of the»^ 1 15,833 
livci BnuTinltv hv liygicttii- mrri^tires is i-nough t<' (ins the umbilion of 
wery ^ooil Tunri vf\ut luAleyvn in baiufln pro^r««tt. ($uppli?iiii:'nt to 
35th Arinuat Report, pp. riij-ix.} 

PmMititits und Difficuhins of exttnttin^ Hitnurn L^r, — The Laws 
of hf'-" ftj'o *>f tho liighcat po3*iibk interest, even if iho kjiowl<?il^ of 
tluKHC law^ ^I'o men iici nmrr fiowrr ovrr tbc cour?*^ of huinari i^xi^u^uoc 
thnn the mrtcornlogist widda over the florms of lhi> atmosphorf, or the 
j^ti-onomcr oier the revolutioriii of the hea^-ena, But aU limtian luwa 
pnicci'il on thv linlii'f liuu iltc tiviu t>f iuiltvitliuiU Aiid of coiiiminiiiii:^! 
(jnu. wrlbiu ceriaiii limrts. be ri'^luled for ^ood or for evil ; aitd DJt 

latterly ihi^ hua been giti?atiuit<!d, it l>ecumed ii«OHS?utrr lo diicua^ tho 
problem — can lifetime \n* prolongi'^l by a ktiowli?<l^fl of the caii*o ttiat 
cut it short, or hy any mcAriH within a narion's jiowor ? 

To Uve long IS tt ttatriral ofipimtioo, aod in ilio vnily ytsir^ of the 
njarvolloufi srietioe of €lii*n»ip*try fh^ nlchr^iulatH '*oo^hT willi a^ much 
vdour aa they ^ouglit the phiiosophor'* stone for nn clinr vU/c to confer 
on mac perpetual prime -, ihey promised liinv by ita discovery, immor- 
UJity mwfi pnrth. Ttn? iwB^ibility of thi* kghiiti to iiavo bni^n an nncient 
bolit!^ lor in one of tho oldcaL It^nd? man biul Wcu told llmt \ir should 
not dlB — that h** «hoid<i live fcir ever. Ami it hml in h nom*^ ^iTOunilfl, 
or it ctfull iievL-r bave led the liret Bmooii. Deacarte?*, Frardtlio, and 
CoDdoroct to intimAt^ that human hfc mipht l>o iM-olon^fd tndetluitely. 
The forcQAf lu wrll ah tte CLfiiNtitui'nU uf ibe Imdy, uri^ in irnrh ludostruc* 
tiblo; hilt they nro fu|^livo, ntid Are por-p^tujdly p^^Mii^^ one i^f th« mtin 
of ^xJatiiig generationit into other fonn^: the (tftmt^ of conKciousDcsjt 
sfajn^^ in one life only for a while. But ihe alrbeiniBlJ^ were ri^hi when 
they saw rirtaes in miaerul^ tiod trees to j>rolt)ni{ i\< well as to flhortvii 
Life; t<j check disease and lo set tht boilj frtu* ; fvr if niert'ury, uj>uJiiCr 
unttaiony, iron, polAsh^ ^dn, mngiietinj phos|il'."rii«, t'hlonne, iodinfl^ 
Nnlphur, [u thoir various hv\\a aad aoidt«; if vtrychniu, itniiiiue, opiuiu, 
chloroforni, nilier, ipccaciiaohn, camphor, an<l alcohol, will kill, they 
vill al^D cnreEn the huDd» of the skiUul. Surgery too has its great 
tnMiLipk<i. Ttjcrnpcutic» li not a do1iLsii>jj, ihc llcnl-T is a rmlity. Dot 
no <lrng mn ilo Twori? than |irol»tig lifo for a tinie ■ thii man raised from 
the jfrave dit^A in ibo end. Lifo can h& Icogtiiened hy regimen — by 
di«*tetici, wliieh CVUu^ says enga^d in hi^ day the rnoft eminent 
prof'**orrt of niedlelne in Itonw, becauH? It is ilio mo^t poteni nrd 
philo^ophiudr dealing in n^mcn of Tnicd and body, and medicinally 



coQtn>Uiii^«Umfiiit,iur, vk(>p, anJexa-cific, The influence of ibcoxternal 
vrorld of &iv, wat^r, soil, ^d cUoial'e on bealtli aiul length of life vra» 
pl<ic<*d Iroj'oriil iloiiM tjT thr* ^vii timtijic- nf Hi[i[)ucntti.'i!. AikI Mo«90 
httd belon iiiciil^t«<l tnc« oxdualoa of the nick by zjnaotic di^vsiffco from 
thoCongre^lion, In theM> Wror t]im pdi^not^ tiMi gon4> Hirther, and 
ahowQ uiifler uhul I'oiulituinji thu luclimi* U long or ftiort ; aih) the 
Gckocc of lifoi yet only in its infancy, will niako further pro^res^ and 
aoWe mauy prcblumn ht(h(^u> held lo Uv iii»>1nblv, velwn hy^kTio b 
ctiltirntoi] in nil Ibt^ meitii^ol Bchtn.«ln. Th« i^ciiiu^f of Jigriciiltinv, ol 
engiueering, of imliiati-jMini of commerce 16 growing cTory ywir, and 
handling new povtsr in n«w macbiJioft. la Anpp\yii)g new menus of 
exifttenccTT ami biniKhing fntnl impiiriiicJt. 

D<i»cmt i^ cufj, nmi ojiwunl molion uver a level rond is uut difficulli 
but « vary st«{> upwanU to a higlvr sttMt* iniooiinten ob$tAt'I«« ; ami uaiii^ 
)D lUeimproveoK'nls of Iht^ hurnuu nun:. Of this n fi^w rxniap]E*ji are 
matructive : — vmall-pox » a fatal di^cn^ and after it had been leiimC 
that a coilder type could bt? induciJil anificiallyr iWtuI to few of the 
inocnUlcd, the pi-nrtict' was iiitrodiicod in Loiiiioa, and naa publicly por- 
form^l in thf» yntir* )74(>-(i3 on 3434 pcfwmn nt thp uranll-pf^x bonpitftl ; 
only 60 of whom il ia saiil ditd of Uw iliscaae.* Tlj« mortaliiy varied m 
diOeri?nt |i1aei>H, but it wa.t nowhere considerable- Wbnt np|ienred :to 
woil lUirtl lo ju:^iJfy Lady Mary Woriley Moi]ta;*ue*b extittntiou wboii 
shu loArnt in Turkey that ^ ingrikfting '' rocdorcd nmall-pox hftrial4?*s ? 
" £ am iHvtriot enoiigU/' sh^ wrot4> In 17 IH. " lotnke puin^ to hvUin this 
*' tiEwful invention into fashion in Kn^land," Bnt it wa< founil after it 
WR§ brought that the di.>athd from ^mall-pox iel Loiiiion, couipA^ed with 
ibc dcuth?^ from idl oeKt c»uj«*?s Aiid aImo lhenb«olutc moriAlity, uu-ifTUKod 
connidL'nibly whun iuuctiWion cuuinion. Larffi* nambvn of 

chiUlrcn au<l tiduJt^ remaioeil nnprcfteeted, &nd inoculation kept the 
varioUiiit alivo in an irtifidal imrscry. luoruliaion iai now made lllefcal. 
A^uin, ho»(p]tftt« were op«nod to rcceiva people attacked by lhi« dreadful 
di«i<iww, and to nfford tbom tfic ndianUigc?! of watchfol nttcndnnv'c and 
nkilfut fldricA, Thin was earriM nnt in Tendon; but lh<T inoHalitj? of 
the patieata in the hospital waa doubli^ the mciftality by the ili«caa4 
out:nde-t Ilerr wax another appnrent failun*. But vaccination waa 
a great ailvance on Inoculation ; the danger of tbo cpei atiou n-a» tymXe 
in^ikudontbleT and courpox. nnltkn miuiU-|>ox, n<ivi*r ^Mtcrsi^l abroiul 
the !H<eUa of diwwu*. In I77I-KU sfnalUpox in Tiondon waji ihn cnuau ol 
lOD ia CTcry 1000 deaths in 1^^31-^of 27. in 18t;]-70 of ll.aod io 
tbti abaolute aiortaliiy by Ihi* divcaau them vrai a Inr^^ rrdnctioa. In 
the la^t twu deccnaiada, 1S6I— 70f the mortality per tUOtOiKI bv suuiil-pox 
romninod alationEtn' in London at 3B. In all Kngknd tUit morlAlity p«r 
100,000 by Mnull-^>x declined from 22 to 15, or to the extent ofC: but 
poptiUlion growing ilens^r the morinlity by !]car1et fevei' ro*o from 88 lo 
t^7, thoa iJicrMfling ^, or one and half t'lmeft ah much nn the mi^rtality by 
0niaU-[>oi dccrvii»cd. The mortality bj meanh^ iliphlli-.xitt. iu»l 
whoopiu£-i?Dug[i id*o ini^nHued^ V»('oination dimininhed ibp cbnaceA of 
taking; flinaIl*pox, and though it did not afford abuoliite sttnirity, it 
reduced thedaugei of itd attack*. But, density of pnpid^tkin inerf*aafng> 
other xynoclc principle* Bf)|)careil to timl in ^is abaence fi«cr H.<iope for 

* E\tirlllju4 PtWi Dr. Jurin. whn i^vpurv! ■ tabln showlBg llietf na\ nf 44* 
bioculMod iTith cffe^fri ft d^l : Ur. Moam iavculattd 55S4 p^nvmi, nf whom T3 dUd , 
Dr, Gregory Mt do«n ihii niioruliiy ai a itt 1000, hj aaiur&t uunll'i'ni ttid 
KtvtAlIfy per 1000 fttiAcli I'd ritifv* firini l,Vk tdflOO. 

t Tho uiorUUly in tbo Siiiiill-pi'\ llof|iitjil va» at the rati? af 3t3 pfr cent, 
in 171^-4^ fm- t«34 of MAG |iaii<^ni« d&ed. For Ufor raiumi aw l.ttUi to the 
lt«gnlr«r GMivrsl !■ ApfWnjdLi la 34ili Anntial HtpArt. 

trAKT IV, 

ihcir dfMToctiv^ opnrntionT^ In quenching iiun flttiQCs at one point the 
good work is begun but it U not ended. Can iyiD04ic di^eftieaoF alt 
kintlfl Dover be i^ucciclicd ? 

Oat of pily fur j-oor <^1tildron Fotindlrng hofpilttit vr^re on;«tod, tntt 
ibc bRblei nearly all periebMl, ftnd a proater nuinbt^r ihas fiver wtre 
ftlubiiOcn<Hi. Hud these hoApiUlK auece^ed the mceol c1»1d abftncLcnnig 
iBfsn matt hflTi.^ bpen mulnplleii. 

Another example 19 offeree] bj tJio dndnai^ of totrn*. In London tho 
ffttnl refuM vthicfi lind b^en retained In th« hrjuwv wiwi cmive^'^il hy 
water into ihc drnin* «nd int*) llic Tlinm^ : and thm wnji sti Bdruiw on 
ibe |m-vion*i sUte t>f chin^; but lli* scwew were clmrgred H-ith icrt- 
pnritic»; Uu-y piu hoUAos by thiir pffliiriii in connniiniruticin wlih «?acb 
othvr^ and pourod Kymotic (^cini^ia into iIil- wut'>Td which were dts- 
iribnted hy <;'>mpanies to the houses of both the wealthy and theindjgenl. 
And wen M tlio prtrfcrnt boiir the icwagi? is pumped into the Thunie*;, 
which tt polluleA and obfltnicts, loAcsd of being df«tribu(c<l over the 
Iniiil to ^hich it bdunga^ Tbi^ aame difficulty in dbpuuii^ uf Bcwage in 
enoountored in all English towna, 

la th© ittrly ajrcs th^ Knjr1i«h popalalion wa* «catt«r«d in slight dwell- 
ings o^'Or wood«, mezuta, and nndruincJ mar^hUnd, where they sulTvred 
from a^cMj rhentiiatiHmH, luid famine fevprK ; ii* the people multiplied 
Ihey a^BombleU in citina aekI partook of n fow cf the odrantagcci of 
eivili^ndnn : hut f.h'» ihct^iuip nf dnnjiity hmnght npw dAniVe-riv anrt, a« 
the proximity iif hoMM's ixpoAOil townH to conflajinitionit, il Inid thi-ir 
inhfitiiljinN open To il^viuttiitir^ mAJiulies nn'l to d«*rucffve pc«fik^nce6. 
The pH>|)lir ^ocktfU in iKiinbtrw tu Lunduii in Ihi' m^nn of Henrj^ Vlil^ 
4>f EliKnliorb, [ind of JjkTiLOA, uhil tJKi i^wtiiTJnf* hickucvM nndfevernnml tl>e 
erictiljk] pb^iiR drcrim^af^d eIkt popnljition. Tiie KcKtorntinn bronghl 
countrv I'/intilie^ Id ihe nieiiocxjHs, :iiul the plii^fti^ nijule it^ ever* 
tn^inoi-ublt^ &w(Hip, Th« [miimlM'tiire:*^ the mint*, jin<i tU- grr-ut work* 
UiuL i:ii.viie «iLt>«ihU-iiL-r fi.»r thoiiaan4l8, ouilloct'[L in Ioweis ha ill* 
pronJoil with unnilHry nppliftticM lu ill-orgwiiim;<l <nmpfi -, itml thus 
lancaahiru, YortHbire, Durhaiii, S<iu(b Wuh-», jir<> ^till in « liigh ih*grrt 
inMnluhrions. Until the Le^j-Utiiro, led by LordShnftcsbiiTy^ink^rvcned, 
ihe Uvea of young chiUlren and motJiera were tMirlmnmsly siicritol in 
the fnchiiieA mill rjjelos Iletcr it» sevn it^n llie eucceea with vrhicfa 
evil |v>JtofEs the licjiling spriEiR* ^^ indiwtry- 

Tho low whec* of liir^ nnmbei-fl of urlisAnA In towns deprived them 
of (he m^rnn^i of li<-»lihy liln ; bitterly wiigc4 Imve ntr^n, nnd they liad the 
Cijminjinil of those means 10 o Jargei' exlent, but unfoilutiately ibe eon- 
rtamplioii of Bpirite nnri other tftinulants nbsoilicd their wn^:;i<i to the no 
small detrimr*nt of hiudlh. To aweep mu th*^ dusty uud doK> workdbopH 
they »ro npt to ho mnde dmiigbty, so difficult is It to improve iho hi?«lih 

^ OT iivlit?aii?», 

Ii] Ibe biflt iweniy years the towns of England have Increaaofl from 
fivo b»iEidrtd nnd cipbiy to tnnc hundred ftEjd ibiEiy-oi^hl ; thdr popula- 
tion from nine to fourteen milliun^ ; mid thi^ health of the whole 
populntjon of ihi' country has n-mutnod stntionnry. 

breeders reject wwtkly animalt^ from their ^tock, and tbua achieve 
Kuccrv*. By ibi- oniv now Ijiki^n nf iIk' bunibh-nt uivnilii^j' of ihf Iii^inun 
ntoo th(' wiukly, it in wluI, *urt'tvi< i t\n^y inikriy itnd propiigtilf^, »»d thus, 
■a aoniv c(»Dtend, the proportion of inferior orsonJEations is rniaed. 
The imlx^lc, th« drunkard, tlie lunatic, tht- crimmrtl, the idlt^, and idl 
tainted natures were once allowed to perish in fiebls n^yJiims, or gaols, 
if they Wire not directly put to dcuth, but ihfvii* das^r^ ond [heir 
nlTAprii^^ HOW Ui^nre in lur^' iimttiJx-ts iji the popuUtlon. (Supplement 
to 36lh Annuftl Itcporl, pp, v-%-iii.) 

/'n»y/Vff< o/" Mankind in HvaHh- — Tiirg*>t, Priwj I*ri*^5lIo}-, GcwlwJu, 
IukI nriili-u u«i Ihi- (H.-rfix:iibinty oruiun, butCumbrcet pul tbb ductriuv 
forWAinl Willi iii*w ti>tt!v m tli4« rt'cnArkiibl'* work lix Vp'rolvi w)»i1t> 1ic» wa^ 
tiiidrr IIh' ban of proAcriptiQn iti tlii* Iruit bloody iLij^ of thi< Fren^^b 
Rc'VolutioQ,* Any Si^oretaiy oT tfit? Freuch Acftdem^ of Sci^EiCefl is nol 
otkly ditflitigaifihril by cminuDcr in oor bntneh of b^aroing, but 1>y li 
^nrral jicqiutiuftuice with tbi' wbvie circU: of lh« scu'iiccs ^ in vrritiii^ 
on h«mjm |K'rf«^ibilitj', Con<loro<»l, thpivfoTP, did not wrii*:" In ignorttnc**, 
\U ktiev ttic' gT\-iUiif-.-«i of tbe coiu?«-ption I and bad souud^ all ib« 
dcpiIiA. IIi« &rj^m«nt is fin induction drnwii from thir pro|(n%s of 
maiooa tbrou^h ntrto hlAtoricAl epocbs id science, uri, titentuTe uid 
civtliflfttioii ; And trotn tlic grmbiftl ns(- to bi'i^hla IjigHi^r and higher, 
as Willi M from the intrinsic" energy of ljn-ir imtutuiiii? uriiicink-, br 
pr^'dicte in (he Ijut cluptor not <>nly an md^-finito d'-vdopOK-at of lh<^ 
FcieDceHf of thf* nrLH, juiiJ of iiistttulkm^ but of m»u biinnelf io uU his 
faculties. Ik- foj^i'vfi uew di^covorU^fl in nil ttie scit-nct-*^ and in Lbe 
artm, jwicEiog on uLcb oibor; improvi^monts in t!ie ihoory unj pmolico 
oflif^; citmjiUdiii^ iV* f;icuUics by pbudng men.- powirful iDhlrum^Dte 
Rt ila*ir disposid ; wid by their own dnrolopme&t. All i;liw*> by cducM- 
tJoH, by fret' \tadv, by chct]) luw, by simpler mumers, will be raised 
to fi bij^hcr li-vrl ; thi^ clftruca doix^ndL^nt on Ubour, uid locn bnvio^ a 
little cwjiiliil, b)' in.infzmfri.% ami by «o-opi?ra1iou, will «-njoy lulvuntAgiMf 
now only po^ifCMcd by grwit cnpitiilinttf. IVo^cu will Im» uccclrmtet) 
by p(?ir raethodi iii lb«r iMri^ucM; by Dew notations; by the* nppticnlioD 
of Cfdeiilnlion t<j aII bnindu^ ofhtimjin nflnirx; nud by KimpUQL<jicioiLH of 

Eroc<u<f?ifV ill tbp iLTtA. Ti.-iiching both tba boioaui^a luid tli<i &r1« will bo 
kcilitAteiT ; nit^Tj and wonit^i) will Alik<^ cultivAte tbe fli-bU nf imtiirv. At 
pr««^nt ntit a liftielh p»rl of Uic ptn^ple mdnw^d with tJilenbi obtain the 
education n^iiired for tb^ir lii^vcdopmoDt. 

What Coudorci't in 1794 AkHti^hud of thf pn>i;n'*!< of the mrts aud 
)»donc«s biut Alrttuly l>v<?n fulfiUinl. t\w t-kt^tob vrfii>* a prophi^y. But 
he iaeqoallj confident that as plants aikI nninudn buvr b<».'n <li'vi'l(i|)eil, 
so man, nlrrady riclily cndovrtnl, id suaceptible of oif^nic perfectibility. 
The KQgliati and Krt-ncb ar<- nn tnuch in advaDC4< of Ibi* Sfixous juid 
Franks lui ibi-' citttb- ai^d liorH'4 of Icrday t\w abend of tb^rirei. Ttw 
«.>nju>*i will mjw lini.-rr Ih** forrow nion' vigorous tin* in(f>lWlual finJultioN 

inconei'iv»bly superior to what is seen in th[> pivivnt average of ibe 
nice ; man m*iy hv. indeed n 'Miltlt? lower than the ftngt>ls,"- Who tian 
doutM, he asks, thai the progress of cxmMfrtaiirf mtttUinr^X tbciiJ^r^of 
bf.vJtby alimcDt and todginic a rt^gtmcn irbicb will di'vdopo i-ncryy by 
i-KerciAe without wnating it bj exc>«flsi-s ; tb«' ri^mftval of the moHt potent 
eatutt'H of d^OTsdmfoT), nbject poverty and suprrflnou> wcaltli ; will 
prolong the ufetim^ Lif men. itiFiun< more constant health, and more 
robukt couMtitiitJon^. Ii i« cl^w ibat conATinliw nmileinc, n-ndi^rcil 
morvt ■'fflci^ious by rcu^oa and jiocial iJutatuliouA, mual in the long run 
banUb trjiDsmiEsible and conlagious dim'asos as well jis mftladits dufi 
to clitnatc^ dir*l, occu|iation ; nay, thr hop<.' of n-Iief nuiy br rxtendi'd to 
aU other <ltftOji5es whose r«iDote cauBcs may probably be rcco^ised. 
Now, IS It abtian) to a^AUiiii* that Ibis perti-clJbiliiy uf man will go »n 

* EiqiiiM« d^an Tablean Hluoriqne do* Protrbi d« I'Eiprit Hiiiaani. Onvrago 
roaUauDc i)c C«u^orob-t; antedEUoa, I7«T. Cwilorooi. bom I7tb Seplembcr ITif, 

died OD i^th Aprd \7U. In carlj life bt oo-mnM with TnrMi and vu fgir 
mafiy ynin the rcrpoioftl Seartttrr of llui Fronea Aoftdenoy of 8elenoe«. U« vrota 
in fhTour of ftv* n^d* aoil >gatu»t the i^latc inulc vhm probibiiioa and pIatbtj 
VCR rct^o^ud inililEilioSis. 

t MidKme eoHifiiritrif* i» th« ncptie«doTi of T'omurt ; it wUI bvar tniupljuitA* 
tlontaipRaglbh^ He al*o untmiio t«na m<dinnt prit€frti4ric€. fiJibtr Is b«K«r 
than *■ provmtin nifdit-in*^" 


[rABT IV. 

ln'h^Hnli9\j through ^mllow »g«> ? So urffucd Coii<1orfM>1- MihltliUfi, to 
corifiilc !ii5 iloclrino* lulviinotcl ilie principle ni poijut&tiou umkT vrliicb 
la-jDkiini multipli^^. he conU^nJn, ro fiut in gisunrtricnl, vrhilo subsistU^co 

kc|»l dowij hj' " lutwijr/' Titb [irmcipU- of pormklioii — \Uf " wmMc^I 
■* inrf" Ihftt Mihon hfiiEixl — is the looifijiiiitlibk nouri^t^ of humnh 
irivtclivilnoe*! ! Tlie u'oti}' iF> tembTe, 

CoT^tlorGct, ouv oi thL< i-mtiK'rit InuiU of matln-iuuticiiLiM thi-!i oxisting^ 
in FraiK^e, would have ^okil^cl nl ibc liT]»nthrsiH tlint men iacreaiwd :ii 
^1 umclrtciil Aitd xabMnlf^iici^ in iLrithmcUoiil pro^^^aaioitf whni it ha|>priiE* 
timi thi' pbtntA und jtiiiiTiiil^ ott whieli men t'^vd citii Ul in<'iviiM- nr 
doeitti^^ in gieomptricnl j>ropTVflsiou iit fnsu-r rmtrn than nvm. Tht Uw 
tH the- lULioi-. He unliciputtst ihc objection Irom aa bdeflmU.* mcruim', 
lUid Mu™;jo*itfd how it may bo ovcrootm*.* 

Mr. Diimin, »oc<rptiD;c tlio luvrof thi^iDOrcaeo ctf uainuiU m f^oomotritiu) 
pro^[ e!44iori, lu^tttid of viewing it n« & reux>n for nn eurnul eLuu«l*!4til) of 
lufsTHrj, trncc« to the co[i!«<[|i]«-iil »lruj:gk< for exi->(t<'ij<M% iiml tht- Hun'imI 
of llie filU^st, the proflT^ssivo (Urolopmnit of crwition from its lowest to 
lU higlif'-^l. fornix. Ill- conlL^nii?* tbnt living uioUcr iji ih'' inutt wm 
pi>rftVTtibk< < imd tliiv u >iD >rgam«nt for the tnd^Gnik- [i«rfM?tlMiity cf 
men throug:h fiiuirr:* nm, 

Th** gn^il source ortho mJfu-rv of iniinkm<i i^ not ihtir uumherB, bijl 
Vmr intpc-rfectioits nnd ih^- want of coiLtrol on-r ih<i mmlitionA in which 
ihrj" Hvi'. Withniil FiulMrrjuMiii>; oiara^'lvcs wi(h th<- dilKcultioq iho vufet 
fl>c>rtrii.'i* of lifj* |n^"ipnl, lb4>ri» jn ii flf'finili- (swlc h^forf* u*;— to dpti»rminp, 
fioni obMTvntioii, tht* <ioiu-cc-k of lu-iilth, ^ind ili<- direct onitEH-.'t of dmili in 
lh*j two <M>3ce^ ul (Jiffi-Tont ng*^ nnd under dilTercnc conditions. The 
vxw't drtiMin inn lion of ^-vils 'm the flr?! aU-p townrd^ Ihcir rfimnliei*- — 
(Sii|>pti:mc<rit (o 3Stt Aniiuid Rvjiort, p]>. xix-xx^J 

Sanitary WorA, a«rf Dcctiitt of MoriaHiy^ — There nrc mnur di*tricl& 
in Enj^liiml whi^iv tin- f^xtoil i-flVclpi of 1hi' wimilnry lidrairnFitratton of \he 
1^1 20 or $0 ytMirs cnn bi- diviint^tly tmunU Xho^f' in tbi* unnvxt-d tublo 
ni&y be citt-d %a i^xiimplr^i of such inipro\'oin<.'Ut, 

DiSTIEICTV of KNCfLAM> iUid WALhiJ showmg SOmc IsiPltOVKHENT iu lh<' 

Amxcal Kate o^ Woktautt Id ihi^ Trkee Decapes 1W41-50, 
185J-GO. uiid J861-7IX 




IdOK 1S7 

l^l-dOj l^I-iW- tn^l-TQ. 





wiiitiiftipr - < 


HMlfvtxiiT* - - I VilU - 
StnkD nnntfrrfil ■ i Duvon ■ 

Hun - - Vorit 


Crick iiiw.fll 























* TH«tiE<irirt ot SMnhnt-y v*< nlx^llntiM. ibid Urn tulHiUinut uf HAlisburf tniufrrrvil Ui 
111? lljttriei fif Aldn-biJiTp In Ibo ^cu-lAUd, 

* Ci^TLdari;Gl, Esquifice* pp. 3ti2-4. 

-HutiiK,] 137 

Thr iliHlrict of North WiU^liford tJFonU A NtrikiD^ ilUtUIW of tlw 
imporlADt ri?8ulU tbat can be actjuEk^d llircu^h Lealth administratf^n. 
Till- nvi>r»Ki- aitnunl moruUty IHI from 27 pi-r l,O0O in 1811-^0, to 21 
ill l&ol-^t). jiiiil vo 20 in I^bVtO : lu Ok foiii' y.-ars lB71-i, ihp n-ralta 
lire itill morr- rrmnrkablo, tlir mortnlitj bi-ing rcvliiceil iji 17 |>i>r I^OOO; 

Iti Whiti1i'XfV,aHt4<iutj' imprntT-mrnr, in iht^ morNtliiy i>i]t|jio<li^o?rnnl>le 
from 25 lo U<X)0 in J841-A0, and 211 |k'i 1,000 jii ISJL-GU, u> SI |jer 
1,000 in iSei-TO; in t»7l-t llirniti'frii tn i{i ynt 1,0(10, 

III WtAboch mmlnry <(Etpiu~vi]iion vommriici-il rwoti nfliT llit chol«rn 
epidemic of 185-t. Tti 1866 tli" town wiix «ii[fijl)i.-il tvhh [>uiv wnU-r^ iittd 
ext^nsivo m^wrragc work* nrr now ccimplftbH]. Tlu- nnniul (Iwilh-rst^ 
of Ihtj* tUwlriot JiHfl beoQ ix-diicotl from 25 per 1,000 in 1841-50 lo 19 \)Vt 
l,O0(»in 1871-4. 

TIm^ grrut bmd drKitiiigtr workH hnw hiul tfrr^Jil tiifliiMici:? in improvinf^ 
lh<^ bo&ttb of tht- mhabituntd of the Ink ot Elr- D/ tht-ir mtvim ihi* 
iitnifwphere han bwn purifl«cl htkI ilii^l, and the mtnnm {or WinhK-h 
show n murkvil (limiimtion tii tho deulh-ntle fruiiu plithiiiii--*. rhi' nvi-n^re 
aQDual mort«lit/ |>er 1,000 living in the 10 y>.'Hrf^ l@^l-60, U-in^ 20, 
wluriiLH iu thf Iffji /*»m 1861-70 it wuh n-tluc^J to I U- 

Li Orscjtt th? nrmcirkabl? induction in the dciith-rulr daring the 30 
vfflirs 1841—70 h pnrlly iliin Jo ainifftry itnprovfiaeutfi, hut miiinly to llie 
dminiifi^ of tin- land and toiiKequcul dryuo^* of ihe soil. lu Uic four 
years 1871-4 the- morljdity wa* only 17 pf-r l.WK>- The nnniuil nilt? of 
inortnlity from phthisis dt^crt^tit^^ed from 2 8 per 1,000 In 18^1-130, lo l"9 
p<ir 1,000 in 18£U70. 

Bv<f4'r«i}C4» hii« iilremflf 1>e<>ik mAcli^ in nytan r^ my prrTioim rf<porlN to 
th^good c€*(rt<i of <lruiii7i|fi* mid wiiErT Hupply in thi^ diMriclof Sali^Uury, 
Btrfoi-i* ndxy jtuprovemeutA were made, the ;inniial il'-»lh-rot>' in 1841-50 
wne 28 per l,00l», but by tht- ji'ur 18*^5 »n ixtvlU-nt system of ilrninjige 
wiu !n o|»^nitiuiJf and th^ dmtrlct vnt^ inpptii^il with puir uiitv^r, #u the 
hnfinnl rati* v:aa ivduceil tn Ih.5I-flO In 24 ptr 1,000, nnd in th« 
foHowing d^-cadv it waa still further n-duced Ui'io jht 1,iX)U> Tb'- Hij/ 
of tSali^bury, Vp'hb A population in 1871 of 1^,903, np[H<Jtr«. to hi' in a 
pxd wniiftry c'ondinorL, tho iiunuAl monthly In the fonr y««rB 1871-4 
bciag at Uio nito of 21 pvr 1,U0<X 

In WolvptliHinpton the Miitiiiul moiiAUiy hiu fjdU-n from 2ft [M-r 1,000 
in the 10 yeur^ 1851-60 lo 2-1 in tlie four yvais 1971-4. Dr- Love, 
the Medical OHici^r of Hivltli, jkttribulr.t ihirt nrdnction to vnnotis 
jiauitary improv«uentn curried out fiino€ ltfo8- in 1865 the town was 
entirely rc-f>(w^4-rt^l, und n morr wbolp^iorac nntcr siupply ohtiiinctl, but 
mudi Htill remnins to be itonr* to put Wolvrrbaniplon in a good hygif^aic 

I'hc? cnnAC of thtr greut iniprovf^uii'iil bi the hf^llh of CovoiLtry ia 
uttiibiited hy Dr. Fcnicn to the proprsR of wLnicary ^irorlu* 8uch 

improTomfiits bovo K^on ibo mcjina of ri^duuinjc the nniiunl *irAtb-riitP 

from 27 per 1,000 in the 10 yeiin 1841-20. to 25 |>er i«(>00 in Ihe 10 
yvi\n^ 18^1-60, nnd to 21 {ler 1,000 in \hv U) vi^nj l^t(il-70. In (he 
four yeum 1^7 1-4 th« tcortality rose to 24 per 1,000. 'Hms ^as o\^ng 
to nn vplili^mic of sunnll-pox In 1871-3, and <if ftmrlei fcvvr auoog 
obiiaT«n in 1873-4. 

Pr«vtoufil> to Any BAnitarjr improvetnciitjt in Mncrle^Bvkl Hiv mortality 
of this district, lu ]841<~60, WB.<< ut th« annual rutL' of 26 per 1.000. la 
186d-6, t<<wrriigc workf yttr*- rxvcuti^l ; in 1851-2, tbr town Krnj 
provided with ad Innproirv-d wntcr aupply, *nd viiriouh* oihix Minitfiry 
maunred wt'fvi iulopt*Ml, but thi< condition of lilnocloshfit'li] wus fnr from 
Mti^factory, for tlifr norUUilj of dii* di#tnct, In 18^1-<K>, wa^ 25 per 

ipOO. lu Lh^< (ollowiu^ deculLs however, 1961^70, it fell to 23 per 

Ki&^9tija-tijK>»-IIu11 prerfCiitA siiOtli^r oxiuapl** of tEic f^oi>X qITitcIh of 

thiit obolt^ni Vi-'i^n uppAtUu^l^ Aital ta ItMO ; in ph>particn lo popuktioo, 
it^uffviYii more from choL'Tu tlinn nny dUcrict in lb** ktngdoin. The 
anotia] nU< of moriAliij, from uU cuuh^ iu Uie 10}-iNin» Iri^i-^O^ wnsi 
31 p«r ]|000, An lavoAti^ilioii nhow^^d tluil ih«^ ilrHiDflf-n wii4 Wl, ou^j 
thp waiter— ^rrivod i-nliroly frotu Uir rivir Hull — received ikw i«*wn(!** 
i>i mch pLjiciidHs Driffield And Beveiley. The Loc^ Board of Health, 
incofponilM in IH^l, bc^n to ctirry out Aoijiury iiuprowmcntH, niiil in 
(he JO ^vaiB 18oZ-6i>, the laurtutJl^ vft^s ivducifd to 2^ |i>^i- 1,000, lu 
1864 th« rivor walor wjvfl abiiodonod, nnd th*» town nict^i^ird » coi'lABt 
■apply ipf pure vryitnv (mm ihv apHnfS d^ng out of thf clmlk wolild at 
DorringhAm. \Vhnf hji* bc<^o i*0«ct«d is cnctnimgingt but the- mortality 
of Hull luiij be atill further dimiiilAtied> for Ui the 10 yeui^ tb61-T0 tbd 
invrt«UtY vni* 2<3 jwr 1,000, lUtd during iho lour yciix* 1871-4 it wnfl 
S5 p*T l\O0O, 

Thr> iinprrivrmnut in thn lu^ilthof Newport i« nitribtiUfd by Dr. Dathm 
to the f-Kteui^ive nud complete Byptem of ilraitinjre executed chiefly 
hi-tw^cp 18$] Jiiid I^Wf by iQcAns of which xhv ncvrnjir. wji« swrpl JEit^) 
«t lidul rlvertilfuiit thiei.- iiiik<3 rruiu Jl*!i uiuulb. Thv ^iVt^vl uF the dvu'tittt^v 
luift al»o U"»'n flttt'iid^*! wifb tb^- br-m^ficiftl n^sull <-f lowering iho aubn^il 

imiii-r. Tbi' U\vrti mtw rt-Ct-n-ei ii coiwt/uit supply of gvnjU nvkti?r. Tbc 
moi-Uility d'.^clined fVom 24 in lS4l-^0^ and 22 in l96Um, to 21 in 

The mortality <if ibt; dintricL of M*'itbyr Tydfll — Ibr Knml c<Tit.n> of 
the ii'oti mj»uofi4CLui>^ «f South \VjiI<»i4 — ici ltiIl-50, 4inil in 1^51-130, 
Wfts Ht the high uviTnge (ininml rnti'S of 28 nnd 29 |H>r 1,(100 iv*nr'ctirely, 
TImh vtBH Altnbubi'd by Atr. Dyke, the m^^dicjil olBcer uf hejitth^ t<> 
detidont diftinn^, to the nbsence of imy system t4 KCnvenglng, nml t^> ii 
6C&uty »uil iiapuie w»U.'r Btipply. Iti tli4:< ycui' ISOO iht- diuTuu^ wiu 
4!omp[Atd<d, Ami a picntlfiil Eupply of pure wni^-r obcAiot^d, 4o tnnt tb« 
flnnunl rkb' in l.SGl-70 iiviT»igwl only 25 piT )«0()0. TUi- *jiniuiry rtUitc 
of tbfl t<>WD, how>?ver, w^ not witi^ factory , for the inoitiitity lu tbe 
four jiUfH 1671-4 roSi> to 27 l^-f [,iUJO, owing lt> tbi- pn valence of 
MuuLI-poi ill I&I72, of enteric fever iu 1873, imd of con^gjons frvers to 

The iiuprovi'iiK'Tit in Crickbowell U maioly duL> to eimitory arranj^e^ 
mctitv in the urbiin iliatrif^t (^f Bryiiinnitr, whicli hiis been thoroughly 
dr&inod and provMbn! with ail ftmpiu supi^ly of purt- wnler. SAoitary 
iBiprovoiacute* firo in prosfrisB, however, in vjuioiiT. pari* of Crickhowoll, 
The jaorcality in Iht? 10 yt^ps 1841-50 was nt lb*' minunl iJiie of 27 |K'r 
1,000; in the following .l.*cj.«le, 1851-60, it fell to 25 p. r 1,000, and In 
186J-70 there was a further reductiou lo 23 pit- 1,000, nt which rate 
it coritinut^ during lhi» four year* 1971-4. — (d7th Annunl Report, 
pp, is-3ciL) 

Mt/rtatit^ tind Ifigh prices of PFAfat, — The close of the Kith century 
wjL-4 marked by the commencomont of two iinportAiit dcrici of jiuuinticAl 
ohnervutioriR,— th»^ Rf-eorrl of ibe prices of Wheat in Ihe Ktun Book^. 
and iho licniJon Hills "f MtirUilily, — which were continHod^ with 
Kftircely jiny imerruplion, through the J7th and ISib cenlmica. Tbo 
Charnccer m^d nnltirct of these retuniB av^ well kntpwn, Tliu Londou 
Bills did Dct iuoliKlts nil l}w di>Btht4, — pnrithi.^ wcro ^ra<Uintly jiddod^ 
and the populnlioii of the merropoliB oi any limv before INOI i<i un- 
knovni, to tbnt ihe ab»ohito morlnlity cnnnot Ik; dv^urmiDcd. Tho 




Wiiulsar price*, ukcn onlir Ivioe « j-ear, do nol Rive the r«al avom^ 
prices of wEtoiit nil ihc yc-ur througli io London. A compdrUon with 
th0 imeriges drawn tip by tLc Kecetver of Corn Returns, howorer, 
exltibil^ A gcikml n^rc^annt, wbicb ploccA tlicm boj'on<l tli« rccicb of 
tbe <1i<pArnging criticiitm in Iha Report of one of ihe PnrliuitiBntary 

In compdiHng tbi^ two acrioa of ob^ervationa, wiiU a view of aae^r- 
tiLinic^ wh«her Qm^tv in miyconnnion Wtwwrn ihr (jticc* of wheat 
•ml ihv mortality, I bftvc trtki^n pcHodrt of 10 ycara, from 1601 Io 1610, 
16U to 1620, jbc^ op to 180O. And have amAg^ the y^rs in the 
order of the pric<^8, bvgiitntng with tlie highest^ oa in tht luinexed 

RurinLi in 

tbo LoikIuii 



?ri«»Of W^cni 
P«r Qimrtcr^ 

47 o aa.icff 

S9 *»,I47 

97 O ...., U3|««V 

W O .... a4,6l« 

M 10 15«4»4 

Price of WLcAf ^hS"^;" 

na ft M.7a7 

33 O ..,.- VJB9 

, V7 4 ll,9>5 

. 94 II ta,»M> 


1744 34 10 

The doniliA m tli« £ j^uura of highlit pHcen nr^ thon oniDpfU-oil wiUi 
iho d*3ith« in th<? 5 yt^xn of low(!*t pi-ioiw in the Tabli\ mid t!tc i;(Tiii?rn.t 
r^4uh IS tLnl til llie iw^aty d^srcnnial p^rictd^, lhi> deaths were 1,971,076 
in 1br> 9^ jcvint ol^ liigh<^t T>ric<», and 1,930^35 m ih** ^b yaurs of 
low«et prk^- Thr i-xcosa o( d^UiB ic tho jcarrf orbigti«9tt [>ricei>i wa« 
140,241. Thi' mptboil, by tuiing ki-v^toI fihort (^\au\ [wrlods '>^ntninfl 
iii itM'lf tfim-cuoitf* of &1I th*- errors ariniuK from llu^ incivjif« of popu- 
IfttioG, or progrcwiv*' improvomrntJ* in ibp mijiropoli*. And TX!«tin^ only 
on iht? i*elailve number of deaths, yields rt^aultit entirely Independent of 
thi^ ab'oIiit4^ morlAlitj. 

Tbf <?aiiJ^M of « high mwtjdity am mriouTi; but the greatj>r nnnibor 
<>f known cativ^^ nmv be rvferreil to fiv^ hcnd^: 1, exceasive cold or 
liiAt ; 2, pn\'AEion ol' food; % cffluTinl pobon^ jcenentt^'d in inarrtbe^ 
fuul pnminTt. cAm)>fs cities ; and epidemic dlMMtn* ^ut^ti tv* tjkpbu^, j>Wu^, 
«uui)l poZf nod other zymotiu dis^uc^ ; -it mtK^buiiicu.1 uid ch^miciil 
injuries i 6, ^pontntieouv dl?<orLU'r< t« which tht.- ftnicture of the human 
orgoiiMatioQ rvodcr^ it liable. Tbo three fir*i eln»i<% of independent 
cnaaei vary in intt>riT!iity from year to year ; und nh ^at^fi vvUl ■separately 

Srodaee th? edViCt which wo an* invr-Mligjiliiig, namf^lT, nn incrcaJin of 
vojhic, il muHF b« evidt-nl i\iHi tlvirt oftWl vriH not nlwHyn viiry lu priviu 
lion or JiK nn^ ortfi of the cUas of caiiwii. l''or inprlnncei the aweattni; 
sjckneKs ^d to have broken out in R{chinoud'» camp, spread tlirougu 
KnKlnnd, and d«'*iroyr(l great numb<>rf- It wat n poi*«>n in the aif. 
and like other p<»«oiu, its Ikttil octioti viu not ^loppcMl by abundance ol^ 
fi^od, althotigh ilM ram^:««, if mdM by famiDi^, might have been n-odered 
more deadly* Su of the black death in I34t^, tli<* plague in 1665, the 
cholera in 1832. 

Then» low prict-a do not nlwnyH lif^aoli? |»h'Dty, nor high pfici-a 
w«rdty. Anil ifh^i pHoM fnorea«i.> tho monutily, nny groni morlUit^ 
ha« a tendcoey to reducr the |iric<' of provisions. ThuK in 1*M9 *'tlKi 
price of evory kind of ratlJe wan miieb i^c^duci-d ; ihey wondered about 
in heixli without bi'nUmru. Corn of nil kin<U w>a ?«> ahuudiot tlint 

nu *>iie cttivd Io gvlliCT iU" Wutkinuii wtrv n.'i^d.", « ^* g"**! |urt ** of 
thrhm hnving lic^n dMtroyvfl, attd i1<>mjut*l><l high vage*. — See nguintrt 


^^^^^^^^^^^^ HO [rxRT IT. 

TJivM' groni <Jlstjrblng cnuses and the Imperfecliona of Ui« rvuinw 
requEru for ibo t>UminiUion of ihcir cfli>cin n otric^ of ohacn-ntion* *x- 
tL'ndifig through u ci-fitury, TIil* toiicunent tvWeiic*' uf the 17lb onJ 
l(*lb f'«nttirii;s (i|>piiLrv to nn' tn justify the inf^roiiw tlinl Mgh ynwi^ of 
ivheut — I Tiicun ii'lBlivi'ly I»i;;li — irri'spwlin- ol' ilie otber noceflsarie* 
(jf \\£ti^ lirul th(^[i u ti^nilrncy lo lixmar ^le mortnlitj' In Lomlau. 

ftln Took"', ill S»:* viiliiiiblr wjrk un Pri<:4*?s b*u* revirwi-d nil lIil' jeaiH 
of fCATcUy nnd iiigli pi-ices iit (Iji* 18lti »rtcl IDtli <>i'iniji-j.'^. Mr. Took* 
had DO taoory to uipporl on tlilv nii1:qccl ^vhich <lk1 not full tritbin ihv 
wop^ of hie iTorli, I thert-for*.- take the pei'iod.t upon whtcli he has 
Hxci to t^t lh(* rtf^clA oF lionrlb- He iZK'UlionE «€r'rn ptriotU nf vim(>tij» 
cl0gie«a erf dt'iirtL in iLie Il4(h oeuturj*, t^jEclusivt- of 1^00^ wlik'h U ton* 
n<>clf»il h\ IfiOl with rhc 10th century : 17(10 ftn*l 1710 vn?rf» vciai-iK of 
"(rnttl (With;" Id 172:, 1728, 172**. '^j^ooic dnjpieu of d*«lfi" vras 
fril; 1740 vr»* *'ft»li jiK a jx^ar of <fcaiEh ^ ^HhousamU of acres* 
i^maiu^ utiiown Iti 1756 " — Ihert^ wa?* *'u ncurciiy of corn and a liigU 
pric*" of |>rovihi>H^ i" In I70G lh«n5 t*ii* " Je^nirw of prvvi^ikhs i" ihc 
qiurfcrn lowf hi Txindnn wn* »t onn timr n*- hi^^h ii»i l^rf. ? [nt Wltidsfir 
pri cea W4tre Ligbt-sl in 1 7S7 ;] the live yours 1 770-4 an- wiid to hate liwi 
** unprodiicttvi' horvcflts*,'' A tMv pri?p«"nls a comjinrntive view of 
Uie ileaitis n'poncd Iti rlie London hill? U-Core and aWei ihe year» 
m^iiEiont-il hy Mi". Tooki-, Tbo eoiTC*|*oiidctiO', as might Im* *'xccpti*<jj 
bctwPL'n tlir ht^h hii<I Low price*, and high mid tow rale* r>f mortftUly 
is only ^^DeraU 

Mr. llickiaiitE pnH'iii'cd from thn clergy, returns of Iho burin h at the 
Kambllbhed ChurcLe^ foi' each yi^ar from 1780 to 1830. Tbo rottirn* 
an^ iiLcompkti-, but thay serve to show thi' rcbirivr moriHlity all owr the 
couutry iu i^one^'Cullvi.- yvurs. Thus \x<i tiiid tliul ihv '^partial df^^- 
cJCTicy " of the liai'v*:6i of 1794 wjw followwl bv scarcity junl nn iuirn*fl»ti 
of dt^thu m 1795. Th*' Imrvost wus fnvourabU' in 171*3, The price* 
in 1791 W(*rc 53j. 4rf. pkT imprrial qiiarlcr; the burials I&7,740- ItJ 
1794 ihwrt- was a puiiiul dt!rtci*-noy, PriiJiM iu 179fi wero 76*. 6t/. ptrr 
imiierinl quarit-r i burjulp* roAo Eo ^10,339- 

In 1799 and IMXI thfr ^uaoiifi woro "bad," and tbo dearth of IbOO 
and 1801 produot^d ^roat dislresK. CommitteLTt of both Houses of 
Pariianont wt'fi.* appointed to inquire into th*" mean** of supplying the 
peopk- with food ; and with the acarcily a typhus epidt'inic took its riao 
conc'urrt'Ltly, which v/sts iiiiiLiir^ tnfo hy a CoiuiaitLoe of the House of 
Coinuiont. The priOM ADd luriaU rotnrood duriog the tiva yt^rs 
1798-1802 were— 

Ai«nfr« frkftt of <hc WiiiQh<-«icr 

Qiurtvr of Whont. Cfven BiirWt 

Windsor Pricri^ Kctiim^. !n Kd|;Ei&(L 

«. <^. 9. d. 

179* a4 O 50 Jl IST.Ml 

IT» 7a 6 67 A lB9,5Sft 

I6P0 „., Ii7 ^ lU 7 ..>. ao8.oo;t 

IStPl « ia» 6 lit I so4,4a4 

IMH AT » ^...,. 6f (» » ivc'.&ag 

■ "Th* Kiu^'t i^jKii cKv*." "Corn Tracts' ft»d ilhc' oriirinnl iiutboriuM, are 
cllott tiy Mr. Toiikc A litUo ^onfwion in th« dAtt'ft is oppHreutTy ojvuccd bj' the 
djlfIiof i>ril#n miiliiitff thoir jr*ur IvrmiiuiU ia Mjucb- Tboi tho ittnier of 1 TO0| nov 
■tylo, ii tho wmter of 1 709, uU wiyla 

Up to 1S37 the registers of dcntha w&re imperTect, Th<^ raU- ot 
mortalUy coutil oiily Iw oblftitietl ajjpr^xinmti'Jy, The* rr-giitnuion 
tukdcr llio in'w »i^0tcra U c^ompk-K" ; *vnd with the CLM»*it»e» of 1831 
nnO 1H4I, ■rtiitbli'ii itA In i>al(-ulA|p ihr- prnportioii nf dpnlhft m thft 
incr^t^iiLg population of enoli year Taking the lliree first Jinil ilw 
thi^ee Ijut j't-'unt, which niv tho vr*r« of htghi^l nnd lowci^t prices, it will 
he rQDiicI ituiL rLe DUfrtality jti Toi^krthtre, Clitv^liire. J^untHhlre, uikI uU 
EugTunil, WAA higb«At vrhoo tJio pritws of whotit w<-ri' hi^hc^t- 

Arera^tc Annual Dvnlhi la luo^o f J <fac rnpnlbtlon b ttw 
tlizci? y«jfi ubvD tbf iirlcoB of WLmt wc(4 

lljgheal. LovMC 

Toikshifr . - * - «|3a • • SI4T 

Lftnon^hirf audClinbir* - - 37»0 - - S4G8 

Kngljtnl - . . . fl'j7D . gijo 

The difference in th*^!^ rnlJ-i* fmplic* n difcronee of mnny thotiaatidt 
in till; (Ivulli^ uf thti wIloIl- <;oiiuiry. Out uf iht' Namo populntion in 
lAn<A^>«hiro nni) Cht^hirc, for ovnry #4H-<tn d*^ihe in iht* yi^tira of low 
jirio*!* WoAl jtrrMnn difd in the j^ttrs <*f hJifh priww, 'I'hp moi (fllitj* 
WW* htghir in ibe H;frlculti]ral counties id ihe ihite yeftn* whoii tlif* 
a^LTRgT^ price of wlicAt ini:^ htgbr thun in Ibc vi-nrs whr-ti the pi Ice of 
^vluitl ivuB ulKiwod Cu full ueiLrt'r ihe uatuml ^vi-m;;*^ wIjil'Ib piwaiU-tl 
tbroiL)$li lb© two proccdiTJjr pomuricc, Foi' siU Kn^lniid, fiwX of Ihe 
same jM>inil»lioii, tUf funi'nils in tilt- three yeurb itf liijih pners wrn- 
14 lo vvery 13 in tlic three ji^ar* of lower priot^, rtpprojichin^ (lie 
imtiiml ntjmdftnl. ('Journal of Staiwticid Sooietv, VoL IX,, pp, lG3-7») 

Cftihm Frrminfi ttnd mortittUf/ in Laitetahirt I8fi2, A. f^fW of the* 
rt^£t.r;ini wiiLeA«ing u ri^iliirtion of ibi- inortnlifv with tile di0tr«M ^lat 
pn^'juletl in their dli^Iricts nt the Nvme lime Uaw been tempted lo 
^poeulnte <ih the IHcL-s hikI i^ IhtM* dRIinm'^ in the i^nir^c- ut rhejr dutiw 
nrv ill ffL'tpiotit cucumutLKvilkm with djt hdRiunn^^ thv^^T^ thi:ir opimonn 
muy he quolei). Tlie regi?Jtnir of Wj^nn ^litles tfiat more fr<<t<doiD to 
bn^iitlie the fr<-»h &ir, IiiAbilily to iudul;^- in ^pirllnonn lii^uorxt nnd 
better nurting oX rhihlreji, ure helieviNl to hnvc ijnproTed the puhLc 
beultb. The i-ef;if»Inir of Little Doltoti Jiulda itial iIil' Uecrctwc of ilmth^ 
b mnlidy ttuo ro u irr<^1<^r nmouiit of domeNtic 4tiperint4^id<»i]e^. The 
rc-^slrnr of Eltilnie lhiuk?« llmt the even tJ-mpcmtiirr of iht- wenlher nnd 
iacrt'fist'd alteriiicri (mid to jonng childrt-n Imve ejLU-<eil the clecieiisc. 
The regiMnir of Kiiutl Laon (Anhtiui) ultribut^^-i the result lo nbwnce 

cif irpi<kmi'.-?^, UiiMtuvs of the wijilhrr, i7Jil'do<»r i-xrixripir, umli*rtiul CVTv; 
ftlofi lo |>ur]^h TiJief Jind HimntJihV eontriliiitioTiii, \iy mi-iiiiM f^f uhkh 
food hiLH Vk(H-n oUaiued not fuiffleient for ht^ullh Lul tMiough lo initipiEo 
disEreM nnil pn vi'ul hith^ rEo nn iiieri-a*!- of nifirlidiLy, The re^'lMnr "f 
Pn^htoii Htilr-rJifiUlct al»> rt.iers lo ihe K<*d i.-fl'eci of fresh (ur, nur^ii^^t 

and miltlni^'j* of the Wir-nlU*!", rtinl hi- ndd;^: "In llio iM.Tkf i-iiditif; 

*^ AuguM 2hi. 9th. I6lh, 23rd. and 30t^i, I r<-pM.^Ti-.l 30. S.'V 2fi. 24. 
" and 37 d^-jiihs but in the comtipondiKi; w*^eks of IHtil when work 
" WW moi'i* |>Ietitifu1 imd pi'OpU' in iK-tter ciri'uni.'tijint'nt lb*7" were iSO, 
'* 4(\ ^ 4S, imd d7. Tlu- peiiceful and di^uirieil cvuduci of the 
^ op«n4ivw riititk* ihcxn (o iho woncc^t «ym]iuihy Aad f^uppoi-t of ii\ 
" doflsfo.*' lliv rcipstror of Aiieoitu (MAiu-hi-Aiir) inf^onv-iiuvdihia (he 
low mWr cf mortaliljr in ]ii» xitWiritrlct w^ due to the coldo««6of tie 
mimmer, in ^'onhecjneiice of which dtunht^i did nol |nvv&iJ. 

It hoA hrf^o rm-ntly nitkr^l wbi^thtrr Mnnftlii^ii in ^k^pil for the htnllh, 
nnd Att^mptH hntt- bei'O iiuidi* n'ilh indidcivitl iiocei.-f4 lo ih>Lve a dtRleollr 
which has no) itri^en. Nobody will Hrrioiuly contt*fid that inidc^tialo 

142 [PART IV- 

««pplK-h of ftiuil aiwoiiilticn 4- luulu^allU ; U Ih U>o w^^Il known lliat ramiiii^ 
hjjf^ oftoiL uloin iiM Ihonfimid* ; but il in right ut tlu- (rr-v-nf limt? to 
giwnl HgttfuKl t^ilnc'tious froin the h-Huha of morialiiy which c hey do 
not JQhtif)< It Uiu^ \n.i*n BAf^um^l a^ oUioiut tliAt if tbo ilmtli-rnti- in tbi« 
iJifttrvwt^ iltHlrictvH Oix'Miot i^ici*<Ht or fniis below Ihjit which ha^ prevuled 
in tiQiCfl of provitrniyt tbi- rv-ljcf ottfuncd hy thi^ linc-mplorfHl froiD 
f»u1iMe iinil privnfi< «oiir«<*« Iiahj ■[iflic-<><1 li> rnninl^iti th<<m in IK-Jiltli. IIm^ 
al]owaQ(,-es msy or may Dot have b^en ^^ui^ci^nt id ArEioujit> but the 
N^turns* of iiiorliilily fiirDi:*!! no oviihije*' of ihi* fjwl; ihey only .-^how 
thai ej:1r<'iD^ conscqueuces of fiuninc hnvc not yy^t been manife^t^d. 
Rccrrvlion iu ihv op^n air, nodomlion In iii4«t adJ drink, and the du<' 
admin LHlrtiion of iloav-riiic ullln-s are heoeflciiil to Lefiltb, hul if ihey 
htivv hi?c-n t.'onipi'Tii^fttinn for <hr Ion*! of -nngrK thi^- liilili'ft jilH>Tr qnol'if 
are sik'Dt on Iht poi&l. T1ie>4e labh'?< prove that under circiitn^tAncrTi 
rm-ourabh' lo btimnn Ufr thi* mortnliiy in Etiglmid wr^ r<<iliK'i'tl 1il>1 
i^aurli-r, raid tbiil tho dislHcIf of tW cotton munirrmrlurv wt-iv not pri>* 
venlwl by the di^-tress From participating in the b^'n^^fit, ibey cnnnot show 
that if Ijtnenhhire had been pro^ptTUU^ Uie hr&lth of ils |M-i*plr would 
not httvc hcen still Ntler 8nd » finthcr roelnetion of moiialiir obtained. 
It 14 It matter not of Hprcuklion but fnct that wSnUT pppfcmchi-:!, rtnd 
ihAl, ibe eold of winter hw^IIh the biUf* of rnortnlity by jiUftckin^ tFh* 
ohi, th'- yuuiLj;, und ih^ infirm nf midfllr ci^fr, and rt nroiU tn)t l\n- £rift of 
propbeoy fo piedJct that if eold and wbnt, prolou^'v-d and embilf'^nil, 
aUiick n po^^ubilinn with combin<d force*, it mn^t fidl iir* if nndrr an 
armed bott. To aterl or miti^t*.- aucb & rt^^ult. food* ilotbiii;;* beddiii^i 
•lid firinj^ must he dinpenwd by a public or private ebarify that can riso 
to the ^rtaiiiCMi of tho oceaKion. (25(h Annual ]ti*'porl, pp. xxxii-iii.) 

Motiaiit^ and tVaitr Si/ppi^ - f.findtfti.^No olweiiationn extKt 
('tnbmcinp the inbole uf thci phi^ncmxi^iin uf the Viiv of ibi'm.f numboTB of 
botli Fcxes and <ff ditlrrent ages exitndiiig over a cenluij, and severally 
varying in Htrt'Uglh, in nmrality, in intfllet^t. ia iiidiirtry, in hi^Uh, in 
occupation, in elFrctnal production and coi^numptioii. 

But we have now bt^fore ita th^ re8nlt« of ob^>i\a1>on0 on a certntn 
claw of phenomrnnn The birthji, th<i deaths nnd l^c cauw-h of death ap** 
recorded ehorlly after they occur, and au auaJjAis of the ri'gi-iter* hn^ 
bWJ publishcil w<?ekly for twenty -one year*. 

The n^nliA are ns valuable nj^ an cxj^erfnuntnl philoM>pbor conid have 
dcducfd from bii^ iixptrimcut^ if be bad h^^d tlic^ power to i-xpo^iM^ tbc- 
popidalion lr> f^rent vieiumtiides cf Lent and mid, ok' dnrnpncAs :ind 
ilryrii"*:*; to the eban^s ineideulai lo difierL-iiccn in the pricea of fwjd ; 
lo'air nnfl waler of diflervjit dpgrrp?i of impurity; and lo dcstractive 

SoDkO of th^ep rmnlla wer<> pointed ant at the time when lhtf> fa«ta 
were lirvt obBerTed.or in (he nnaua! reports^ and otbei^ will undoubtedly 
be elicited by future tnvesti^tioris. 

TbuK we learn tiuit in tlje f^me eiixMiainlances the aaznc numfxTi' of 
people dip at the Mune age» of ihc mnie dieeaAP», ye^r afkr yv^r ; 
orgitniied bodies betn^ governed by 1aw» as ftxed us those which ^vern 
the Stars in their eoursi^s. 

Certain changes of condiiion^ within mven limiU, produce no 
•|>precjable cHecls ; but beyond those timiia ilie cffeetp are in some regu- 
lated proportion to ihe iiHeneity of the cnn&c-^ ; vuryiug, howtTCr, also 
with the Plate of the bodirM EnhrnitliHl to iheir Piction, as lh evident hy 
studying tlie eflVctw on lb*? two sexes al diftereni a^», 

Thui eice*HVe beat and cold injure bcjilth, and increase the mortality 
in Ibe foririerca^t by giving riife to diarrhtxa, in lh<* latter lo diseases 


of the r^F^Jmlory nrgnn* ; Ibn c^ffto gtiwnUljr borne grvntvxt ia tnftiacy 
ATiil old ofic^ &D<i vuryin;; wttb Bf^o Dt r&t«fl nsgiUoM b/ lavrif. 

Tbc* hum&n body con&iM# princiimny of water, in combt nation vritb 
90vne orgAnicoomjiouDiU And buJih : aiid tbiii comifOuiiO of ox^^n mtut 
bjdroi^ia Ls ]□ voniMtHBl UM foi' <tnnk, alilunor, iLnd dnily iiw> so that 
wnXrv ii* tlw lifr-blood uf cili^fo. Wiiiioui miU-r ilivy caimot cilM, »iid 
AD iu i^uAJiiv ihi^ir Hftlulirity di*[>i-ridH lo ah extent ivhioh t)ut obevrrntfoDA 
oE tveQty-oni- yvAn hAvi; dtkTmint^d. 

The «iipplr of n'Ster in London is derived Tioid sballotr wrJK fix^ui 
ilecp velj#, from Uir New River, luid from Itie River nmiutFa, or us 
tributaries iho Lea Mid tbo Ituvonabouroc. Tbo w«ll wibt«fv urc fouli 
nnd nearly nil of Ihntn havr in swintion nr^smic mnll^r dpnvnl from 
cess})ools. T1j« Thames Uaa during: ibis periMl been Uie greai stewer of 
LondoD, and in thv yea m of l!io cliobrn cpidc^roic* wils found cbarged 
with urgaaic mstier of unt^uf^lionatlo orij^in. Tbo Lambeth Wftier 
CornuAiiy, tb« SouihwArk* ard tbit Chi^liva, in the tii-st epidraiic (tl^l9)p 
vnppiii^d til" South and Went DMritH^ »f London wilb Tbam«i4 water, 
b-om the pan ofib^ river extending from fliingcrfonl to ftome distance 
ikbovc VaiixbuU iCrid^fi.-, nnd tie ebdcnk was ibvu tauU, of ibe l^ble 
ahowa, lo 1-4,12-1 |n-i^inh nt Lurtdi>jj, itad it vu^ ctfunJlj faral In iho 
boxuu!« of Ibt* mmu diitri<-ta nnd strocU tbit vfvro indiicnminnlcly 
supplied by lli^ Lambetb Compjiny. whicb pumpod ita ^vaUr iVom tb^r 
foulest paji of the Tham^M aI Hunp^rronl, and by tlie Souihvntb and 
Vauxhall Componv, ivhicb tonk Jts wot^r higher up tb« river, bnt 
witbia tbc tidal raiif^e. 

It yv&fi shown \n ihf* Cholera ref<>rt (1849), ibatiin 10,000 inTi^bitants 
liTing in tbo rlislricti" Mim>ljcd with wat-^r lalt«n tvam ibo Thames at 
Kew aind Httmnaersmith, 15 died of choU-ra . tbat i>* died of cholera in 
dJ»lrici«i»iippJio<I wiihihewawswof ibo Amw»ll,lhcLfa, luidibr ItaviMis* 
bourne ; and that 1:23 out of tbo samo uumbcr diud of cholcrih in tlie 
difitricla 8tippUef1 nitb ivat4>rf taken from the foul part of the Thatnea 
betwfim Battcmeo and WuUrloo Rrulgt^. ** One, lArre, and ci'jrA/,*' it 
WM adclod In the report, **<Txprc«« the rejative Tirulenoe of the qudlemic 
" ia tbo thiri- cundiliitu*,"* 

Tbo ],junhcth Company, in January lS52f ^'tM^ly t«iii<jv«Hl its Boarc^ 
of a«r*ply *t *>^^ "r '^ ^ P^^i of the TbameB Libovt- Teddiiijcton Lock ; 
another eoinpany Hnf|:er«l on itii oM »i1o: und tbtr opidcoik cholera of 
ItiJH, thereforo, foimd pftrts of the populjilioo of London on the aouth 
•idc of tbo rivfT in vrry different conditions; tbc one ffupplic^l iritb 
v^ry impurn wnff^r by the Southwurk CotiipAny - the oib«r mipplivtl 
with water much )«n impure provided hv the Lambeth CompADv. The 
eoitipani^ hvt bcea ta competition, uicl tJtey afttn jopplii^l ln« Mime 
streets and dtstrrcli^ so their coslomert wcro ne&rly in all rcfpects in tbo 
^ADM^ (lAoilary conditiDEkd, with one exception ^ ngalJott of ibc South wArk 
ivnter contained 3-^ ^ina. of x\ui tivnhvth water IM Kraini of organic 
matter. Tbc dejecUous of ihccholcm Dn1)i>nt« of l^ondoQ were in tie 
Soothwark water in »mnll qnsntities, but in rpianlilica »cifllci«nt lo 
AUguuuit tbu mortality wiprk after vr<ek in every diviHcl ; and iu tive 
a^eckn 2,384 penona diod of clioJerA in -iO/HG houies anf>ptiod with tho 
Sotithwark ^Atcr, whilfl 291 lind dietl in 26,107 hotiaes supplied wilb 
tlie wftier taken higher up the Thamoi. t 

Tbo previouA dednclion wan thxw conhnnctl, and the subfC^neni in- 
veotigAtion by a eoinuitt«« Appointed by the Uoard of UnAlth, lo intjuins 
into tba ddAlhs in every hniite supplieil ^ty tW two eom|iAni^s, pineal it 

* Bvport to Kegiurar OcncTAl <a Cbok-ra In Knglimd LM^U; Ht £xineia on 
pp. tn-AI. 
t Appco^ to A«^rjr (kaend** ITiL Rept^ i *fr Enirads oa pp, 35;-«s. 


[yxMi rr- 

beyoTiil a rioutit UiBt Uft^ taortulilj of cho1(?ni in Lnn'^on wa« angnirntcd 
bj the im^jur* wnU'i- wilh which llio po|»uI]ttl'Ui vtjib Mi|i{>1id. 

It will be mn^rkiHl thul the <fHantUif^t orgsnic rijifter which vjlk so 
CTiiknUy J^lf-^erioiw m iIk* Soutljwark water gmuunU^J, ftocnnlinj: to 
th^ bcA cKiMtng mt-'<hucU <iV cb('mu:iil nnnlym, tn ftTf? (^r.iiti^ in s j;utloti 
in exotMv uf tbiit in tito Lnmbeth wattrr; tbnl in, 2 f;riki[ji in 70,000 
gmiiiFt, or WW part in 35^000. A pflifmn'vho ifrtrnk h ^wtrlfA lti« wiir^^r 
would UiV<^ anljr a ^mm of orKaoie iDaliLT, atid 5til1 few of th« futal 

AnimftU-iiloa nnd macular Ubre havo been fi^uml in wntiT contiumi^jr 
nUnutc qu»iiiiuvA of or^nic mi(C4)r ; It ifl cviJvui, ifii_Mvforc, thul thin 
floiri in ri«'r*. whifih n^oive thft «Dwng<f of lowiia, mn**t i.lWn cAntiii:i 
tJiG <;leineald of fymottc <li«edse4, and can D'^ver Ijo circulated thraiij^lj n 
populalioii Uw w»y l<^npjth of tinn? with i^ntiro iin|>imity. And wal«r 
ootnpaiLiea mnv he {;8»iire*t ihai the purc«i wai^-r t^ ihi? mu^i <<a1ubriOL]Kt 
anTi timt wliioh U llkvly (o rotoin the firmoil hold oil tht) ruArkot. 

It l-t thi--(vfoiv of the ulcDOnl imporuinco to kcrp *-\wt watch tind 
ward cv^r ihp fjiiality of Ibk llnid, which ia now flupplii.'d lo the lu- 
haMtntttsot Lomlorv by companies enjoying a rii'dirjl monopoly iiniirr 
an Acl of Ptfi'liuruhiiil, whii:h boitnil them tu »Jier Ui« ^ourx^i-s of supply, 
or to imppor*> the qualily of the wulcrj after iho following <kt«d : — 

Grand Juii<<tion 
Southwark and Vaiixhall 

En*t J^ndon 
Nvvv Riror 

1856, August 31. 
lK3o^ Ai]j£iipd 31. 
1865, AiJ^iut 31. 
Iti^O, Auj;u»t 3t, 
1837. J""i>30. 

And tliia b dotic much mora oElf'CtLiftlly thnn it could lie by any vexntioiiai 
inftfHJCtiotL of thftxr work*, through a frnraful ppriu<licat nnAlyni* of ibtt 
wntcr nn it in d^livn-cd, by one of the mo4t emmerit cUemit^nl analyMtn of 
tUoday, The publication of the results of the ncnlywH in the Weekly 
Tabloa is [wrbap* of mor*^ mill i/ than the pubhcacion of met^oi-ological 
pbctionicua, ovrr ^vhli^b public fompontc;^ hiinvc no conlrol. 

The improvi^iTi^iLt in the? xvntfir supply of I-onden ^iibii^ ibe period \» 
gr^t Bud decisive ; and it coint'ide.^ with the rinlm-tioii of the morinliry, 
AlliT tbeCcnfiUH the daln will *.-\\^l for cctmparinf; the mteaof inort?ifity 
io the aev? distmtA of London supplied by wrlh nml by tht' Atvvral 
walor compnnie9| with the mortnLlity iu towns wbrrc tbo vritor» nra 
ftofter aixJ puiN^r. 

From the twHve inf)nthly ftnuly&rs of the wnrorw of viarh fiomimny by 
!>r» tt, IX Thoii:Mon iu laGO, it will be observed that tht? qunniitiei of 
orgaDii; mntlRr in the waters supphed by iho Chdswi, Lainl>eth^ West 
Middlnex, and New Riv^r Coinpaniea aie utwrly t<iiiul (1'67 to I'GS) i 
thu Gmncl Junction and the Sootbwark waters contnlii n IJitle more 
impurity (l"7d) ; the Kast London still mori; (['I'D); the Kent water 
is, liowever, tlie worst, and contained 1'99 gniEup*. A luarki^d improve* 
mcnl will br ob»i*rv'*d ia all since Itiul, when thetr ffttal efleds in 
Aggi-nvutiu^ the inurlitlity of cbolirriL ivcro (ir^t disclosed. (2Uri] Auuuiil 
R«^M>n, pp. Kxxiv-viL 

Area^ Elctntiort^ and SVaier Stippltj : London. — Ei^^ht comiwiiilvi siip- 
plii-il llii' p->pvilaiion wirh wnli'r, the lift-bUxHt of cldes^ from iheTliaini^ 
und from it- rrilnilAry tbc L*.^i, .^itpplL^niL^nted by w^lls, Tb*ir Mipply to 
[.ondon mill \l^ i-nvirons aoeurtlitJg to the returns of thu comiianii-H, 
aTDOiint^-d to -153,807 cubic uielres daily, mnkin^ n ton to civry houso 
inliabik-d or uoiubahited ; correcting for the supplies lo Jaciories and to 

ilflilj' to rAch pemon. Tbt* wAt«r ilrAwn fmrn ihr w*lla<*f Lt>o<lori U 
now inrvitm-iiU'raWi' In qui^ntiiy. IV. KniTiklaTurt mro^lnl jinnlyws sh»W 
thi? cotDTMwilio^i oflbi- wnlciTi- Tbr Thouir**, unlik*' iho yrllow 'Hlji^r 
«ui4| lln' tur^iil Arno rushiDs <lown from ih.' Ap[i**nines i* j^iTttK mlW 
'*cUiw" ill *Jf<li»nrjr wr^iaons bul tl civiTlkws, uijd tU hisin Wrt» hruvUy 
AcckIv-I linriTig wtrtUT nil 4L>wu it4 lowr^-t Ii'vMm, Drought fbllovrcKl in 
fftimmpr, hjmop th^* fvimpofiitinn ftf iU wal**w vnri<*!l Iftrgi'-Iy. 

Thi* iiuuitij'^ of Ik'Idr^ with the Bowof^e of ci(t^ tva^ wa^hfiL into tlii> 
trat**rA. On 61) tniiU, /fcv in turh month, lhi^ wat^rr wjw< cU^^lt in 3^ 
!tialiiUL'i.'!i, ^U|fhcl^ lut'biil tri liXtiirbM lu 8, Jkiii! very (urHJ ii; 7 lii^Uuicc^f 
whoii ihnn-n fiom Ih* pipoii of tho five Tbnmoo compunwj^ II (li*»i?rv*« 
not*', i.but lUo wat^n of th^- W<>»1 MidiJUi^'X compaDr w^re in all tbd 
13 trinli' foiKu! c!k\'vrnn<I lnin«{>Arrnt ; [ui<l thnt Uii* ^f^w Rirur wftEt-r 
was only iwict^ foimd ^ti^htty lurbid. The matt«i's reiiilering iho ir^tcr^ 
turbiil ATo ici ttUHjii^nMon. I3r. FrnnktnndN analy V4 rU^I with the matU^r 
ID ftnlution. \h^ foimil tlio !(Oliil imiiiirity Ji>o<i>ti-''il jn thi- Tharnv'A W3it4?r 
r&D^d from 23 to 3S( parw in 100,000, in tho U-a vnxi^r from 21 \o 36 
(>iiTt», In Elif ^UTUQit^r moQthi the wnt4*i'8 utiftin<.st an unu.Hual lU'^n-i* of 
purity. Vpoti Dr. Krnnklrtnil'!* >*c*l*^ thcr ^--wnijr ooutnmiDiition wns 
IQUCS Iv?i4 iti l^^tJS thjiii in tStt; i th^ Wt.<-it Miit>L]<<af>x ami thi.* EntiC 
London coni|>anifs 1.<olh Htood well. (SJSth Annual Report, p. Ixr.) 

Jtfo^An/i Frmuir Mortality in London^ |t*02,— Not only lln* blrtbs 
of nutiC* arr? in I'Sts^w of thctfio of {nomlofl, bnt uIm: thn <lL*(htha of inuka 
almof4t iovariubly ^xi^wtl thofw of femaled* ftml la-nt ywtr the proportion 
in LijH'I'in Hhowcil LOI dt^athft of rnnW to ICK) of tetnalus, which im 
nearly the averA;^> jjroportioa in t^nglartd. Maittandi who published 
hJA IlUtorii of Loudon in I7ddi ?ipcculal«^ on this tw(»fotd ix<fliilt| n'bich 
ho wQjt (*nttbl6d lo dodu^u from this ohrisl^uinga and huHmlv of t\\% 
eeventoonth aikI ei^hteonth centuries ; Aud ho drow tho concliifloD, 
which undoubtedly was orit>neoiu in thooe Innua, aa It w^uM be \u tbo 
prcsantdflj, that the ponnlntinn within the htlli of mortality conratn^d 
A uugority of mtlus. lio frriws : " lloviog tho blUa of morbklily now 
^' hnfofA n)(\ I think it will nnt \w umiiA li nntWoiT^ tW puhlio £n theflo 
^ particulars : 1 . Much the fjreiitvflt pjirt of ni;inkind lu^ of opinion that 
■* ihero nri5 two fcrmali^ to onr mjdc of the hutnaii »p6dea, but ih'ii this 
•* (a » pul|]»bli5 txror U luhUifL^al from the accounts of climtenmgi^ nnd 
'* Utirink from iho jcnr 16^7 lo that of 173S, duriii*: which timu of 
" eighty vcnrn therv opjifuim to Imw bftr<n rhrint^^nM 'iJOJKT luidefi and 
** 585,334 femdos and buried 994,Go6maleaaiid 965.298 female*, which 
" in ih« i'hmt«nin;r' amonnr to 33,f^53 moro nt^W Ihiui femuloG, wltlch 
'* la d| jKtr ttiiit. iL favour of the foriiK-r, [inil in ibe burhil*, JDuLV^, 
** which i« }ihowi]W 3 jior c<-nC. in tiivoorof iho hihUh. TIiih U a dunblo 
" tUmonHtriilicin thnt ih4*rc are conAidcrnhly moro mjilrit thtm fcraalcR." 
II« juliU, thjit -* Ibo nuLJorily in farour of the mnloa ia by our wUurdUU 
^ «ai(l to hor designed by uatun- for tho ttuppurt of tliat pnrtof th4t 
^ hnniun jip<H!io» which iit moro lUhIc to l>f^ dcstroyi'il by nnr tliim tliO 
*' oilier. Bikl lit war i* only Ga<iiinl, nad not pRrpoliiAl, I >ini of opinirin 
*■ that thiH sni>cmmD«rary supply U dv^y^^K-^ by natnro w a oonitaot 
'■ romody agHiotf inctdecaut oontingencit;^ which llw mnlrc vre more 
" obnoxtoiu lo both by land and wjkter than the fi^<aiHl«^*' Tbo aetrond 
provalluLg oplaioti which he imilrrtJ»kc4» to tifuUi is ^^^ *^ "^ *>00 
■' person in a thoiiAHQi] liifa lo Uie aga f>f ncrcnty or r:ghly/* (2^t]| 
Annual Rqiort, \>\>. xltii-ivj 

Hetativr Moriatiiy of Male* and FtmJsU4 at Scwn A^ Periods, m 
Eiffel Gnu/ft &f DiriricU, 1861-70^-ThG following Tuble aftorJa 




TAlimble €Ti<loin«e of Ihe varying mc^idence cf ilio iffeH of tloiuify of 
popntiit{i>u nnJ of iiL'MitnUry voiiililioun uivm imvlcs iiu^ fttniiW living 
at Eeven oge poricvf^ !□ varioua f^oupa of flifttitcis m which }hc aniraal 
nilc <rf mvii4iJity, Uiirlug tliv 10 yc«r«, I^Ql-TO, mngtHl ftcm lA lo dO 
[lOr 1,000. Tlio r4tu« proxiLiliiif; ut 4?ficli aj*^ jionod, in ouc^h K^x* nro 
compiiix'd ttiTli [be roli?^ Ibat nikd in tbc 53 hcjxKhj di^lncl^ in order 
U> nhow lh(^ n>1utive excess nt oicli Ago |Knod, t^ad of ^^^ncb ^cx* tn tli<- 
moro iinhh iilihy tlUUids. 

UfjriuUts hojo^D 



IS-fO tl-fi «« 




*4-M 4T-M 3J 






All ( Wslf" ■ 


---. rMftis- 

Mjn fM»ltt- 




DRiTiEb ciV M41.U 1*11 Ps«ALVi^»iitar5iimlin^hv&>ii- 




















































































































U«t gc Mil UnUi CliiUltcn liTlnjr nnd^r A tT^r* or ii«<] too die ftnuirnJl> )ij thu KvAlthy 
DMrld^ SHiiLlbf Uwirtii-itfii-DiitricLtanasWhilWDUlrit'tof Litirnrwl, 

(Supiilcmcnl to 3J?th Annual Ei*[M>rf, j>. clliL) 
9, KcitAL AM> Urban MoBTALm. 

Xo« Dtafh-rttUs itntt fltaitht^ DittrUta^ 1841-^^0. — Upoii ^'KAOiinliig 
the tables it wrut fnnnfi tlint In ihn^e ilistricls {Eotfibuiy luul Ohntiwe 
ID NurtbuiiileilAiu), Eostf'ortrnr in Sugbc-xJ tbe nnniu^l niortalitj wae at 
the ralo of 15 deuilis in LOGO living. 

Tbv ttunujJ rato of inoi ivlity irna 16 in IjOOO Imuf; So tbc f^narttsrp 
fftllnwing dUtrii't*; HolsttMiihy (Dpvon)j Bnftle, Ciickfiold (Snu^iex), 
RinKJiio (Sun'^y), Hnltwlif&lk-, EasthamprK^iiil GuiMboi^uKh, BootU*, 
Cliiistchnrcb, lUmbkqhm, Ok<'li«mpton, GnrMJtng. Jiuilth, nnd Stcynfog. 

The annual nionalliy was at the rait* of 17 iu 1,000 11 lleudon 
(oompru^tDg Hurrour), Bflford, Southwell, Dorkings lULd in nil fortj- 
aevpn difltriet*. 

Upon gnin^ over these districta it will bo found that the health and 
the circiimBlADOo? of the itopiilntlon by no luenns approach any idcid 
slaadnrd of p<rrft"ttinn. Nalore, bowevtr, doea much for ibi> iiihabjmulf. 
Thi^ fi«»l] air dilutive tbo (TRinnationa from thrirnut^acooe; nnd iufi^ctiou^ 
diaHUMfl Kcv not easily tmnsmittod from prrscu io ptTSon in detached 
honaei. SltU Iho bT-allh of ibp people in ihose dietricle admits of 
improvement ■ and it may bo n^siimed mlh ccrlaiDty, that the morlalitj 
of thfi Entflinh |i"!OpU?j iti very Y«riuble bul geueially f;ivi*urablti 
oouditioxu, dcci not li^iievtiA 17 in 1,000 d^'ot^jj?. 


The doiiilis of 17 iJCTfom* bt 1,000 may tl»i7nilbn> W cunnUt^n-Jf in our 
pTBaout imp-.Tfect etAt«, naiurat doatha; ood &II (be <lf«tlis abcn-e tiiat 
number mmj be rvfitrrct) to urtilloiol euusvw. 

It will gr«iLitf fjicUitnto sAtiiUiry mqiUr^ if n convt^nirtil hcjiIc con bi- 
frHmnl fur ini-«miti'fiig thi< f1p<f^ri-i>4 of ilnEmi;fi\ ami ib-^ ht*^ lifo. vr1ii«h 
Cftch tliiitrki KiiKLnin^ from ib<* vnrious cfltisofl of inwlubrily, Tbo mott 
accomti' T^^iUt- id 4upplji-(l by ibiT Life Tftble; wh[L'}] cjiu only be con* 
ctriicii^il Uy i-x|H^rtiliii^ h ivH'tEtli-nLblr* nmonnt of labour oo ibc ivtarnft 

of ttu'Ii dtdtricit. A iiiiAob aitnpk'r ttcnJu ia Uvrivcil from tbt? tnti.-?i cC 

mortality. Tlm^ tb^ luorlAliiy in (ho dblrlot^ of Engbukd r&Dg^ from 
U, 16, 'nud 17 to 3(i ill 1,()00. 

lf» fu liA« br(.^n {>ropoHr-i!r 1 7 i^ tnlcni »i% ibc tioinf nbovc u'ltioli ntl thi^ 
tnorfAliiy » exce^eivc, 17 will bo the £«ro of Ebia uewscsli?; and ia 
Kngbin<I clirr rcjkk will rnngo ap to L(V or SO <]c-f^i-4>#. TIk-ix- mra 87 
difttrirf F4 cypnnMioiDf; onr dc-nib lit cxo^it-i of 17 annnnlly: ^ b)LVf> two 
d«oth^ nDd 111 him* /AiyiT deaths; and 18 hnvo r/rr^;i or fflf>r^ tl^nths 
Id excrss unntmlly. It mar b« obaerred ibal tlif worlidity iucn^iscs ns 
thodocisitjof rb<Tpopul^iion, or the ni.'fti'nc^ of the people lo *:nch oilier, 
— (I6tli Anniwl K^'poi-t, pp- xv-arvi,) 

IftaifAjf Diitfkt Mortciiiy, — Thr proportion of the dimtliv in m 
givcii tioK- to B pv<-ii populaUon iit not an exact mt^AHure of ita ritalitj ; 
tho nortftHty bmng vory ilifFi^ivnt nt difTi^rf^nt ngM, luul tho projknrlionnl 
numlers of yeung ami oM bi>ui^ di«HiriH>d by vxc^m* or l»irlbs dvit 
ikrQthv, iind by (Mcigmtion, tbc di'fttbji in ttm rfjtLiI pnpiilixtion!< mny vary 
ttoux ilfffierenccs In tbcir coiJi|xr4kIo[i hs to {ip;t, wiibi>ul tn}|rhLii{; apy 
ivhaI ditrvron(^« in fbi> Titalilr. A dUini^Wnc** may nlbo 1h- pro'tiioii 
from dUproptMliutiH in Ulo m-xcs. Ihidrr nrdianry circum^^iincrA lh<< 
aanoalciteof iDOrtalltr, bgn-eveii at &tl a^, uirvca a^ a HntTiCK'ittly 
ftocut&ttf mciuurv ol tbe Mutivr mnilmry oopdtliou ol the popuUlion; 
aiid tfb4.'iv ibiiH h iiPulTlck-ni, tbe munality at quiutjumnial or d<tcvutiial 
poriotU ol' liio mny bc> BcpamtiJy d(»Urauiiod. 

The inonality of England and Wulcs lu 1857 baa bt*n compared with 
tho morUiUiy ol Snj^'lnnd >nU WhUh in tbc ivn pn-mui y<^arf, and it 
my bi- comnnnjd with Ihr morUbty {22'Wi per \,W0) in the 10 jeara 
l&38-^ti. It IS Wlovr thibt j;vct«f*r> But U Umt ttTcrn^ it»df, it autj 
be a^k^d, tbf triur jnlandnrfl ? Wfiat is tbe nntiiinl rate of inortAlitT 
ainonjE £n|illshQiGD, uudtr fWtx>unil)1e mnilarj couditiooa? Cudrr Bucu 
conditions how long do tbeyliie? Uov many of tbecn die aanually ? 
No direct nnnurer can h\^ given to tbt-.'vf i^urTttJou?. No lar^f bcMly of 
£nj:Uabmen ia br<:4ilbtijy |*urc air. li^iiif; oii a ptffi^oilr ?Hjuntl dii^t, IWo 
from all d'liWmrnt, nnd /ree from vice. excrci«iii^ iluly the irJnd aod 
body gi'iitrilion iifli-r gi^uoniliou^ W*- can jioi^i io no inoik'K-ity — lo 
no modi'l cji^tt; ; wv oati disccver no moili^) pari^b tn ibc country. In 
tlitr luallvr of bfultb we hjv all very iviionuil ur ^k-Aivnitely tic^'ligt'Dt. 
Wbot cour»«ii tljcQ mmain nitvn to ibv i»quin-r ? Oiio t^nly. Tli« 
mortality of Ihe dbtrict« of £nelotid In vrbicb tbv wniinry eoiidiiiotts 
«ro tho l«e«i an&rourable, can he employ^ as ihe aiandard m<-uAtin.> 
until hftpi^er tiin» supply ihv real tUmUord of vitality, ^ixiy-four 
diatHctit ill vniBou^ parts of lUv coautry brt< fouuil wbtrrv xha im>rhdtiy 
of tbc- |ic<ip1e rangpd on an avoragc f-xti^ding ov^r Inn y<-nrt from 
JSftttn IQ fitrrntffn dembn in 1,000 lirinii. Tlii^ l» t»ot an accidental 
evvnt; tlw morlalitr only fluctuau^ in sucb pluco* digbtly from ynvr lo 
year^ and thfl dmtn ritte under tbt* pume nrcuninjtjuic^^ will not be 
cxcccdot. TUc poopio dw«U in »ialy-futir <lifr[ncL# exleniliiif^ orer 
47i*~,^l5 acn*, imd tbtnr mimbrr nt ibi- lant fVmiDi win 973,070. 
UndoubU^JIy tbo Mui:Ury conditions in wlikb tbey bve are ^n minny 

K w 

148 ^^^^ [Piw IV. 

ti-nilly toWow Ap-irullifftl pursuifs : an<l 
tbey aiv muiEic-rnil tliinty uwi mi op ri cuiiiitrji', <>fli:ii OD Itl^li ^uund, to 
llmt tlio impviHtk-h vh-hScU thi?y firmlucw aro diiifiprwl nnil ctilnfcd m tli« 
frir ftti<l wal(<r. Hiry ilu not bnvfhe Gocb other'n oxIialfltioiiB ui Lhi^atteB 
nnrf <*hur(^L('?>H Th^-y do nol drink wiH^r *iiin*^(J hy iitipuntii-n. Th«y 
do Qot ilhiik |ioifon in ^iii paloci'H. Tbi'ir iqiikIh uru tioi ovenvrou^ht 
by klbaljiutiou, ^!i»ii>ii, LiiUllrctiiA] iflTort. But vUit ihirir iliruLliii^ 
nnil aiiii'l>I much tli»| ij moul i^omfni^iiluUr you will ilim-ariT many 
sou[x'''iiof :u«ilu>inly, 'Flit' b^Urooma are often small, doet-, cro^deil ; 
per^oDal cle«Til]D<^SF i^ ii*^t luiich ^rufli<^l ^ tlm ilirty pig and Iht! filth of 
various kiDiii lie hoi<4^ iu cbso provimUy (o the hoti««*; itie land ili«re 
19 ItupvrfocfTy licAiiiCil ; in th<i winlcr, clotlini^, fi^cl, luiil Food am 
ffcanllly j-njovfid in a\\ lar^** or impirrtidcnt fnmilIl^*; iiJEi^mnTir^ yiultU 
ItA hnnefid fitiiH ; EuediL'al a^hico is ill Eiipplird or atiflkiiruU Yt<l tbc 
anminl moiiidity jMT LO(XI of tUln iliiIIluu nK-n, 'YCUimi, and cJiUdreJi, 
ytar a/lt^r >t^i', lUivh noi rxccul IT, J» Ei not L'^Mi.iat Uiat iinJcr luora 
ravoimibk iiiiApicoH the dcnth niLc would be ttiW li^fbtt^r? Ui>d<*r nucb 
unitary etJmUtiond ha aa* knowa. ami wiUi all th& njcchauu^d upplmuci-?! 
(?3cUtiiii;, cnti wv not imagine fi comtnumty living u iK^dtbiL^r tife tlum 
tlu-M- iaolaie*! people? 

Wii1iT)iii ulTliiiiing tin pbyNological groatuU ihbl man w/w cr^ntcdlo 
live a dwtinod numU-i' of yv^rs, or go tlrougli a luncn of cliange* 
which are wnly €r>TD|>1i?it«d in eighty, nioetv, or a hundred years 
(rx|>cnoiici? fLiniir^brit ua vrith ft atftndard wliicli <-jin cmty In; ^iiiil to 
he too hB;;h. 17 in KOCNJ is nufplicd tts a fitarkUarrI by cip^rieDc<!. 
Ilfiro wc *liiod upon the ACtubl. Any dcnihs In a people exccmJlng 17 
ill l.OOO nnnTinlly nrf* rtni]atm-»l dealTi-^. If fbe pi^opL^ ireiv &bot, 
drowQpd, burnt, imiMmcd hy jlrvt^lmino, ilK*ii" d^flth* wonlfl not be 
moTo Linnniund tfinik ihv d^Atlis UTonghl clandeFitim-ly by dj?<ep^e in 
cxcc»» of the <j 11 Ota of iiatiinU d<.-Jith; tlmt is, in oxco» of naffHUcn 
dobtbain 1.000 bring. 

But it ni4y be ^aid ibal this sinndard cannot, fhiily be applied to 
dL-tL^rnthie iUe uxcehsive morlulity of Urge (owri.°, wliicli cnn novcr 
boGomo 80 hcfdUiy n^ the oonntry. How Jicalily towrjs may become 
wu do iioL kuui^', II ia only proved lliat \hv pyptitjiiion of jmrls of 
many ti>wiih expt^-rii'ii^ » mortiility little nbox-o tbu tuilurnl ilntidiLnl} 
And tliftt tbe prrralpnt di«c4i^('« nrr refcrablo lo ChIusi?^ ^vblcb oviilt-nily 
froai tlwir nalurt hdmit uf removal. TIk' que&lioTi, Iiuwcvi-r, i» not, Dow 
ibo execs^ivc moitality admit of ri-moir*il ? but, doc* it exist ? — a^id ihoee 
two qatTBtiutiH bavcnolo-^ii^-nl (.uj^iKrctiuti, The exiDtmcu of ibcs c3tcci« is 
«Nlnh1itihiHl }\y rompnnng thi!! Of^tunl mortnlity with (b» Btuiiilaid. Tb^i 
the chief causes of ibe exceanve mcrtalily are now nsctTtninrtl ; and if llic 
pooplc bnvc doiio all lh<7 cnn to remove them, the iL-fti<biJil vjh^vha luny 
be held to be Inevitable. Bui whai is inoviliiMe at me lim^ and in onV 

i»Iacc ia not Iiicvitablo At other liinca ai*d in ytlior fjlatiA. Il is tbere- 
bre of tlir ntmoni imporlane*^ to keep srearfily id vuw tdl (he r>Keefi?ive 
mortality over and aliove ibal which is implK-*! in tlie greni dk^cree ; 
"It i?< appoiiilfHl unto man onee (o die" In LonJou during the 
dlxteeMtb <:fUlorj the jiopidalion livt'il about twc'rily ytur,^ on aL avernge, 
and 5("* died oat of 1,000 living ; concuquciifly iho oxcefi* ovlt 17 wna 
S3. TliHt. fill* pxct*ss VVH3 not iiie^ilaldc is now dcmnnstrated ; for, with 
a givat increase in nnnif>cr, the populnlion now tive^ aUmt <37 yt-ar^, and 
th« mortal icy has rallen lo 23 in 1,(K)0, is the excess oi'H ileaihs a year 
amuiij; every 1,000 living Inovitnblf? This nmuot bu admitted ut n 
moim-ot, if we regnrd only tho imperfect t^iJitc of ihona Htmilary 
armDgemeDls whicb the public auihontii^ of London have witbia ibeir 
power, Xorcftti it bo admitted that the excess of 5 dtuths — or22dentlU 


illBlcAd of 17 — a yevkr in every 1,000 linng is intvllablr in KngUnt uii^l 
Wnks with «.'n<kEic« Ix-foit onr tjefl of tbc sune violitions d ihc Uws 
of riatuiT? in vwry dloirict^ 

Wbeilier ih^ rftti^^CH nilmit or i!o ii*l wlmll of removal, lli* fnrt., llion, 
IK ]n<.'onU*abiliI(\ nnd mu«t not be lo«t fiij^lit of, th^i tht* cxctn* of (1iHith» 
in Knglnnd and WaU's over tlioAe fVoDi vm^st^s whicb eitsi in Mxlj'-four 
dintrictawus 91,6.^2 in ihc n-tir 1^7 ; for -lld.dl^ pL«r>o(if dit^ in that 
ycftr, nnd only nbotit 334^16^ ]Hr»n4 vuntJ linvo t\iv%\ hii'1 lfi:- mi^rUHty 
not rxccedcd llir fJAQ<lnM of 17 (leflthn in 1,000 lidn;:. — 4 2UU Annnd 
l^pori, pp, xwcv — xl.) 

E^rct^fionait^ f/c/M^ Diatrie/g, 1811-70. — Tbi.'MJ nn* Iwo dislrkl* 
in En^Unfl exccplionfllly h^EkULy ; G]«ndn1c awl RoJhltiry • Tbcir 
anrind morEulIiy (lutini: Ihe 3l) yt^ra 184t*70 was aL the Iott ftverag« 
nit*' of l^jM^r 1,000, 

lu Rutbbiurj^, a ihinl of tb^ populnlkm U «'iii[ilii)'^ in h<rollhjr 
oc^i]pnti'>n4 ootineouil xviilt ngriottltiirv. Iliv renurkAbb low fleiktK> 
ntte^ mliijg «l the diEfiTri'^t tt^'f^. Ar>; ftbown In tbe 9nbjoiEi4^iI Ublei 
wWo tliej are cuwptiW with ihe rau« in tho hcdlbic^l |iiirt< of 

1 IlitiLniT Diviticiit TI' 

ttirnmi'Mv jyimwr. 

1 oT KiFTru^ 


KvntJivri, 1 Codttul 

1 ' 

In iIm 





Dsahu to 



t&« !-?(>. 

All Ago* - 









40-4 1 AI-) 





^'9 . 5'S 





4-a ^ a-s 





































7 a mmI iip«ard¥ 




145' a 


*Ja the Hfithbuo rli-trlct lb* tQlAfco of OarbotUe bv ifO btuihium-. «iid 
l>r. Fnak Rlchardtoo itatc* that amraig lh«in n* 57 efatlilmi under 1 4 jran of 
■gf. DnriBc thv liut ]l'> jun no ckiM haJ diciL He p*** utollLcr itHinace ot ibe 
tiliKlT of ebildnn in tlic (xiHib. •* A tunapt uid hXi ibrvr abenhFrdf. aho Iiat« 
" Dc-i^uptcd their prcicnt ■iiiLtticou nooriy 30 joarvv tiATt' imonf tVm 17 cih^tdn-n. 
■• ud Doi a ftin^lv it«iih hu ocontfad to tb«M fbmtlivt- 'ilio tfifaabiimiit bav* 
<■ ^oodaooc of plain tnhiUntial food, txcclleni ai^lipr. gi>oil ntidencm ni a ruJe, 
■' and rtgLilar but nut anrvrr work in a parr tneiajr 4tm<M^hnv t ilwy iro hliblf 
■- ttiitUiffcat ftod gMMisU)' ilMtoaiiaa*. I uh InMcod ta Uie Kcr. A^ l*Puolor, wbo 
" h» b«<« npvanlt of 40 jvm ihc vticpniAt vicflr, Ibr the oormbonilKin of ttr 
" rtatbiio* of tbit Mrisli wbinta I bav« now civm jou,-* 

Soek «x*<«plMi»| cbtca atv wtti in>nhy of atndj ; iiimI onr j-tnjhjr hntth «fll«an 
mtj \mn a luofnt IcMOu of hjotfUD fnan thtM fiiiBcrv aniil ibrpbtfrdt livui( oo lh« 
wuiborn tlOMof ill) CbrTti.-l Hillh^ Dr- Ikn|sii]iTi lUcliftnlion caa »c«rocljr bopt 
thai vbo Moui^rft af bb KjpW will l>« io«>nr ffiic^'mufnl in rvarin^ cb!l4r«0— 4b«lr 
lainbt-lbui tht9r «b«plurd«' «h«i. 


150 [rjjit iv< 

T%\t* dMrici of iiUh^vttry codUins s^vctaI very Inrj^ juicieui p^^ttm. 

4li^l?^l w?r<«r mid oitijiHtc^ 16 towndhipt. The pi>puUUcn of tliu 
pnrUlt a^-cr^i^e^l Tiyxu 1,:^25 iq 1861 to 1.202 \n 1871. when 39 binba 
and onlv 9 drnthK wore rrgii^Cfvrl, so t1i<* Mi1h-rfktt< of the puritlt in 
1 ^ 1 wju 32 - 4 par 1/JOO of p<^t^tiouj whereas the doaib^raui wad bat 
7-5 (wr l»O0O, 

TIm* »iiki> doatbji rf^i0u*Kd darlug tliat jc*r indadod two of infftuto 
itnilcT otiu ofikj^', one of k \iinr^i 3-5 ji^mi, tbrM nffvd ^0 and under 60, 
one ag«d 66 jeare, and anorhcr a;;;ed 92 y^rs. 

In the yenx lQ7i onl; six Jeatbs were re^nforod, and, ownming th? 
pupnlation to Imve bi^n itiUioDATj stLiioc 1871, tb^ mortality was at tb« 
rate of only 5 {kt I/KK>< — (3Ttb Anmial llcpoi-f, pp. zki-xzii.) 

iifaithy and VnhtttUhy IHttritU rf Eit^Und^ 183K-I4, — Altbongli 
&i> rrgitlnr Rcgixlcr* of D<;Mh* w«iv k*rpl bcfon> l]»e tt«forfnAtiun, tJi« 
cliranii'li-« sbow eltarly cm^jiLgh tbut KngUad hiu l»cii poriodioidly 
d«vuatated by famines and pkfEui^ fmiii ib« earliest times, A large 
pi\kportii4i of thi- pitpubilion nf the iidjxiul ha<i bt^n more tban nnoti 
avepl auay by tb^so viKtcatioDs- Tlict jcreni plaguos of tbo alztli and 
Mivcmh coaturif'j^ — >rbich do«trovc<l» ttccoidliig U* Homa oMlmatoa, luiir 
ll»s inlubitiinU *if IIlo Rajil^^rfi rtupirr — c^xu^ndi-d fn Briuiin, Bi??<idei 
iLo Black 0«ith in the fourteenth century, th^ sweating sicknoiaj of the 
aixt^-nlb cenliiir, ard Iho plagttoa of tbo acTvolvoath ocotury, iQrmi* 
natln^ In ibe pla^^uc of lOO^p ilnicrlbod in detail by tiio hisUirianJi — a 
long catalogue of fnmlaiM niid cpidcinica amy bo givxriif wbicb, Uiough 
bfkfly aud [mpertectlj noticed in the chnjiiicJea, were ]iej-liapB not much 

IcvH fntAt. 

After ibt If^voZutioD th« gr^at plaf^uea ecued i but tlie mortality was 
k«pl up b_v iTphU'i, Miudl-iioi, InflucuKa, and otlliir xyiuotjc diw^juicn. 
Tlnj wriiirig'i of M«i'l, rrid^lo, Lind, Bl&nei Jiic\*oti, Priro, and 
I'ncitlcyT— ibu ^iiiutr>' ijuproveaieuiit In the Davy, tbc arm)^, and tbo 
prUoua,— a4 ^oll aa the diFii.-ovri7 of vaocinntton by jEtnut^r,-^HLll con- 
daccd &> tlio diifiision of the Bound doctiiaes of rmbUc ln^alili, and 
had A pr/iclica] pffoct, wiuch, Tvith itn: liupiovcd condilii^n of tbt* poorer 
clftAA-vi, ]pd lo A gn*» r(-ducod luorUlity in tW ppe***tit opntury, Sinco 
ISUJ lb*- i-cttima indicate a retroi^flde movement. The mortality luu 
apparently increafied. InlluetiKu Im* bi-cn «:veral limea epidemic, and 
tb<9 Aamticcbolemrvachcd England, and ctil off poveml iboiivauds of 
ibe iobjkbitanid in tH32. It ri!appc«ri^d nod iirevuilul iif^ia> aa ^ve bavo 
w4*n, with no miti^at^^i Titilcnce^ In 1849. 

Tbe healib of all pnit4 of ibc kingdom if not equallr bad. Some 
district* art? inti^Hivd by epidemics cunsiantly recurring ; tlio pco|>lcr aro 
iiumerbCil in nn Atiuusplieri; that wcnkuDH tbuir powcrv, troubkb tlitrir 
funetionii, end sboi-li^iA tbolr IJvt'd, Otbui- Vjculitica are w fnvfinrablv 
eireumsljuiL^L-d (bat sjreal nuniUer^ attain old ag^r in the enjoyment of all 
their fai;uhle^ aiid Huller raivily from cmdrniic*. Tb* varialious in Uw 
mortality are *c«i in lUo tables of the S'imh Annual It^port. The rate 
of niortrtlity is c&leubilcd on 2, 130,018 dcatlw in tbt? 7 yvars 1S38-44 i 
find rjn iho popMlntion tiik«n ox tbe Ceiitiufj of 1841, in ibe middle of lb<? 
(lOriod. On tracinjr over 324 ?iub-di virions of thi- country, the force 
of dcalb ill males nnd femnh^s of difleretil fi^'Ci), tttL* mu&l n^nkarkabU- 
differfuoL-s nri' diM^ovored. H'^re of 1,U1J(J ^oung children under 5 yeare 
of ft^ y'trly dir, there a ftundrcd and twntty file anniudly; bore, of 
lAWO tnen of nistnri.< age (35—45) w tt^ tl\i.*t th*.'T*^ fiinfl/een iWt*. yt\ar\y ; 
of 1,000 meu of 45-55 years of age ticclvc die in oue district, thirty in 
another; at ibe mor»^ nilvanccd n-'tr^ of tbi.* next dvceunium (55-65) 

ttc^Aiiffoir Jir nninniJlr in oue, JSfi^ in fttiolbor ilUtfict: of I,U0O 
fdiDile^ of all figes without distinction, 14 dio nnnunlljr in thn^c distncts^ 
15 die ill eighteen dislricis 17 (ur kwf) iu fvrij-ci^liL Uisinou. And 
ia ^ron;; uonti-iufl, 1'i in 1,000 f<»inal(u dii> in tivk>nh' di^inctA, £6 in 
IfcOOt) in tljrec districts. 27 in seven dbtrzoU, 31 in two diitrict^. 

Tlie morliility at all ogee, vitboat distinction, dilfcL's much leai than 
tbc tnortAlity of children, pad !«» c-v«ii thftn the itLortnliijr of ni«Q wid 
womvn of tbu age of 3<S and upwrudit \n x\\t Mvi-ro] pvta t^f tlie cuonLrj'. 
The popiilfttion front tlin ngi? of \^ to 35 ia unii4ttli?d ; At thitt ngc the 
emigTfttion of een'nnl^i and nrtij^na from tho country to the loima tftkr^ 
plftc« ; and (u oon&iLm|>tii>Oi tlie dis(«ao th4tQ most fatAl, is nlonr in ito 
course, its victims in maity coftes rertrettt firom Ib« totvn> to tliLir iiarrnts* 
l^oxneo Id ihc Tilla*,x?i to dio. And tho death i» rcgiM^^ixid Tvlirro ic 
happens, not u-hero thp fntAl di^Hsr l>egiiii, no t)inl, nn romimrison, it I* 
told twi<H5 in fWrour of llie towDS ; odcc in b^ing witUdi^wn from the 
(own regirt^r> nnd a p^ooond time in hi^ng add<fd to the counlrj register, 
lu wbldi il doCN not propurly belong. 

Jhd«pond««Uj of «xl«rnol cfluecis acd hy Iho forco of ft nalnrol IaiTt 
the mortalitj rftri^^Ji nt ilifTVt^-nt p«*rtud;t of lifr: to tltat tbi? rat« of 
i^jring in Lvro mixed poputaliomi may dIfFor according to llio vmiyin^; 
proportJOTii of ditldren, }'ounic pt^rsoQS, or old pt*oph^ Tlu^ wrie* of 
tablet* »JiOwi» lb© laV- of utotutilv at »li imti^hU vf life, undi-f flic J«nrii, 
Hi lCK-13, SS-rl^, 45-^r 55-65, and6u~73. It i* vbown in ihu vvtrem« 
cnaos tlial wIk^ei ibe i^erienil morEality ia oithdr high or low, titc tnoriality 
ot n«iarlr nil tbtvc i^c-j( xa high or Jowi and a eoThtUon of tl)« itrholfi 
lOATos litllL* douU on th« ifnestion ol the ivUUto iniMilohrity o! ibo 
vanoQs pArU of ihe country. 

Upon looking gi-ni-*rm]ly at the Ueoltli of ihe populafion, it «itl be 
found ihac people suffer i&M in the ktmI town diKtrict^. LJT«rpoal 
Mid Miiriolu'Ater are the plnjoes erf hIgbMt monality, th^n follow 4ome 
or Iho di>ilricEs of Londf>n, Mcrthv-r Tydfil, Bri<o], Sooth Shields 
Mocclcsfiold, Holl, soTcE'ul diBtm>t4 of Lancadliintr KboOivliii Notlioglum, 
Ijcio^tPr. Stoko-npon-TroDt. WolstwitoQ and UuTslcm, Locds, Newcwtl^ 
oD-Tyiie, BinuitigliAmT Coventry, \Volv<>HiJimi>ton, No wcusllo- under* 
Lynii*, UcTby,S(i]ifbory, Xorilmrnpton, Hriwlf^ird, («il<'shvud, Shix^wjibnry, 
WtilBult, Noiwicbt Cululiv^loi, Shiitdi-'rlLiiidt l^xoi«u', Woixi*4Uir , BcdfoRl, 
Dudloy, E«lli, Ipvwidi, Cnrlislc, Lnn^Muitjn', fninhrirfge, Ajlnabury, 
Motd^ne, CaD(erbur>', Wy^MKobd. Glouocster, Wakotield, and iteodiDg, 

The mortilily i^ not incroiuiDd cqaally at rrrcry Ago in lbo«o di^^tricU, 
And ft varjen con^dembly in the two sexes ; th« retitrofl for cbihlhood, 
Eiuuihoo<1, mil ohl ACTS ioaIc* and fcm«lo3V conipan in proviiiK iIlo 
|tr<*vnh'OrA nf gon^YmJ rftTi«ft* of mi^nTinty Opentillg irilh dilfiiivat 
ilcgri'e^ of inUrD^atr. but with much greater forc3> than in other parla of 
iliG oonntry. 

Il Is probable that unrler any clrctUDfltonoca a Offtaln number of 
childron born will novor mach miilority; thnl in a uuincrouc popuUtion 
there wQl every j4»r 1« dualhn at idl agoji. from mt^rnal or «txt«ma1 
i^nu^-.i. Tji the present stAto of maokitii il is impo^ible to mj how 
■-mall the inevitabh; locu by death i^ a» io every ploco, and amoni: all 
clozBo of (icopk', curtain knonn twurces of ioaolabHty eii^, which 
unqu^stioimhly nooonnt for a part of tho prevalent mortality. Tlio 
annual moriAliiy of mulea and females of all ago* is Eofflend is at the 
rato of ^I io 1,000; m Qleodale, BoUinghstn, aod naltwhlMtle, thno 
di3«t«iGt« of ^oritiiunberlondi the mortality in tbe Mm« teren year^ w&h 
14 in lyOOO. Not to tako an oxtrvmc cof^o, a groop of 21 ntatiatJcal 
distriele Imi tteen formed, und d tnble of tho inf<>n mortality bjw been 
deduced from the wliole; which, oa it represents Ibc lowest tuie^ of 



trAinr ir. 

Udicrto obcvrrttl, onr ft perioit of ^ev^n y<nr^ in u con* 
I populaifiM), may For tba pfcceoK be called ilic mot-rjiliiy i>r min 
from u4tiLnil cnii4c^. The cxo^ui of mormlitjr oror tbU ntaji4ard tn&y 
Ik* iinhciiitntin^tj n-fi>rr«l Ui artilicinl. uonoceftsarjr (<iiiues iu ttUoU Imblm 
fts ihe follovrtng^ doming tbc WA«t>' of lifi^ Ami hc-Altb in -40 town asil 
oily ili^EricT-x. An oqunl papiilritiuii (LOO/X)U) i^ lalu^u at &u aii-esi hdcI 
Jc Will bt* Dbsn-i'VC'il ilml ibr iiiMklabriiy U^IU wUb hkmL i^tTt-cl n^aiiitfC 
Crhillhcod: tlio morliJily iimior 5 yi-iira of ai*c t* roiH^l li-l jx^r cWiL i 
In lanuUocul it i^ raiwil 77» 63. 70 |)0i- cent, al iTiroc n^reK. and in puberty 
ncicl oU) a^ 4j ficr c^nt. Oat of g ffirta numhtr f^' mrUj ul iliflbrCDt 
sge*v the deaibji^ by iiniiaiurRl cau§rs incrcAJro eTcty ycur ; fur ibc tftUe 
fJiov? ibnt ti> lUOfOOO living in ciic:h period, the <\cuih^ ar« 700 by 
antiiiliirnL pumhw at tli<^> ftp< (\r 3^>^^ i atkI ].06(.> iil 45-^.^; I,r>^ nt 
$^S-C)3. The rnte of morlality is ru^etL in n Ivhs mlio, biit to • oiudi 
jnvtM- isxtiMit ill old tbari in middle ^pe, For lUe uftluml luortalJiy ia 
old age iH high. Tbo a1>v)1iiic niinibin' of denthji b grcMt^'tt in iiifbocy, 
an tli« Qumbcr of oM pcrcona Hvini; U vmoM comparotl mith llic ttumber 
of (bHibcn livinp in oveiy popiilnTion: ^o (liRl whether chi- [-nfio of 
inctt«?« un the nnturiLl i'hLc uf morlabty, tlit iLi'tunl inct^aM* in tbr rote 
of morialilj, or ibo namber K'f deAflts l>e r<:'gar<lodt cliiMrea are the 
lao^t cint-IJy trratvd by tlii? dustixfyer. Vrl of cTL-17 IT mi'it nho dit? 
in ii>vrtir<, 7 iit- bv tinnmnriil oftuBtt»i ond of 1,000 Itvinf- d1 tb« ikg« 
of^O* «ri<rn dio; althe a(F<> oF £0, c^evn dio; ftl the ngc of 60, j^r^/c^m 
die ; At th? nge of 70, twcnt^-iir die e\'ery jrear fioin catut? cviOc-ntiy 
cxlci-nal and nimaEnnil. Women csmpc with Iht Icint lo*^; }vt five 
ill ( I cTi- fif!L-"n nuimal d^'albs wt>iiM miT ha|ipi:ti iti bi^lilir plntL'?(- 

AiffNtTAT. IEnl4> of Mfirtftlity pr-r Cknt. [or per lOO.OOO] \u Hoallby and 
Utbi'Sltliy Diatriot^f iiNothr Exci-u cif ^fo^lfLHty dne (o liiilK^althJni.'fls 


hf;UJ.LE(, 1 











































65 7a 

ifia- S'B24 





TIiv tiblc lUHj be read ibun iviihotil rcfvreacf^ to itvcininl |>o[eiTk^ IK loo.<»mi 1>oy« 
tfriPi^ -1^33 die In compuarirclv htullhy plAOn. niid 9,C7e in unhcaltbj plncru, itw 
«Kc^« of lUnihf olArigCAbli- on ih? Intior i« A,3^&. 

It often happens tbot mibciOlhy and hcnilhy viHig<-», ttnit^ls |«mh(fs, 
and towns iirt" tn inimcdinrc- juxCnpoHiioii ; snd oouflifoUr purls of ibc 
nEiiL- tUplrift. The I'JTW* of thiei iidmixlure on ihr ivsults Ik, thfit (Ik* 
nnboftllhy dinlriH* nrt' /<iA twAr«/Mjy. uiid txprnnitL' n lower rate of 
mottnlffy ihaJi (ht-y would if nil tlnC- lir^ihby pnrf^ wrrp rfiminaftd. 
Upon ibe oTbcv lain<l. the hoiilily diHtiitts urc nmile lo np|>eiir lei* 
hcithhy tltnn tljey vronld if llit-j' con^i^ctcLl only of hcnilhy pUc(«, 
hibabitcd by lA-opk in ffuitd urcuitif<tuiioL'»f nndi^r n pi-opir itiuisc of 
diol, di«oipli]i4», snd vxorfifc. Tho diifiTcriico in th^ iiKtriiility <>f tbo 
two ebi!i-w4 of dl^iirlclH U therefcio undci-ftnted- (Cholrm Kcport, 1H10; 
pp . v-viO 



MM Tits.] 


Ejxe^tii!^ MortQlUy in ToiftiA^ — TJic inHni^nco cf m\ waier, food, 
And tcm|in-atiin' nn Iv^Ui oiiil of tlic* otlu'r coDtlftioua wiUt which the 
H^llh of Townp Bill dwils wtn iinphitlicjillv mi1<s1 bO jrc^n ngo by 
Dr. IVko, no rai--tt tb<^or»t in iLis mnltor, bxil tin- ><i(^titiHc founiliT ot 
M»* KriiillAblf* Tn^irnnw S<^cii't>\ AfU-r phowing, frftm a crprnjiHriHon of 
th'< (JnmtioQ of lif>' iu l^otiitoa niiil Hol^ Crtis^ Sl<>pkli«Iin iut<l Sw^^tlon, 
MiiDChi'Ht^r uud Ihc- |»artr^ ^roimil, hiinijin WW- i^ vhort^r by almost 
ODP hiilf in citir^i itiMU in fhi< coautry, he m1i]»; — 

'■ From iliif* cotnpnnKni Xi flpp^-nrs with how mucli trtiih great cUif* 
hftvo bci*n (Nilloil iht' pm^'i'* of urn tile ixid. It most tth<i e(>iiYinc<* nil 
who oan?(iik-r ii. Uuit, iii^conli&g 1o tbo ob^crrutbii at iho 4-E^il of tbo 
Second l'l*jMiy, t! 19 t>v till menus vlricll}' pro{>er to ci>ii^l<ltT <»ur <Iifteo«^ 
Ul ih<r oriKinul inietilion cf onture, Tht^jr nrc, willioiil dciibl. ii^ ^[c^iieml, 
our oviU iTiTiTJoii. Wi-ri* thcnt a cimii(rj^ wIitTv ihi? iububiULiit> l^^il Uves 
ciKintv aatiir»1 uiitl rirtiiod*, f»w of ihi-m vo»IiI «lu' without tnvMnriiia 
out ttie nhok- ptnod of tli^ prctfritt <'xUt4'0«' ■IKiLIimI iIuid; luidde&tli 
vouhl come ujiou thi-m Uk« a sji'tp^ iu coQi^qiu-Lci> of no cihvr caom' 
ili«n grailiMl nii<l ui^iiToidiiblo dccJij. Lrt u^ th< u, ioNtniil of charging 
our Makrr with our Dilirerits, Ir&ru mon; lo uccuM^ and it^proneh 

'■ Tht' rratrni-H of the bnn^fd influvno-- of ^viit towns "lh it has beoD 
now tshibitcil, nrr plnmlj — Fir?l. tliiMrrcgubr n;(j<ir?iof I i f«\ th« luxuries, 
ili-baocheiK'!*. aD4l pt-nikiou? cuFtomH^ which pri^'vnlJ luun.' Iu towdh 
than ilk ilif counlry. 8ccotiillyv tbo fdulnciA <<f tht^ oir in lown^ 
occJLticnnl by undtrunUcieA^t ^n^Kt', tilt- iii-ripii'ntion uud brratb of the* 
iuhahiranE», ami putri'I etraiiD» from dmitiVt chuichvnrdfi, komebiautl 
com ni oil !icwi-ni." 

Thii im]uct]4>Di itrawr^ wiih givnt signciiy from a limitcil tiuml»cr of 
Encl't, (rrnflunlty ACi|mrr(I ^In^jigth; iho 4-x|n-rliiU'iil» iii piwiiA nnd the 
Davy coLllrnierl fti Mr. MJlur, ^iu•x Dr. Vv\v\\ «h'mru?(tnilrit the hi^h 
amrbJity of towii!>,jhiid of nurn^b luiids ; rnitl Mr. KtlmriuL-i m iht- KftHftt, 
jfti-i)iri1 fioiD thf> Ci?DSi]s and the reiarns^ im|H'HecF hh thi^y wrm, of 
the- ]Hiri»lT rr-giM^TH for m\ townsof Englnnd, for LoniKio, tirtd ibe £i-vei-iit 
COuntK'#, M well n» frotu corrrrt miirns for (.iln^gnv. that fhe mormlity 
nt rill «)pw wiU" fi'om ubout 2"8 to 3'0 jK-r c^-iil. in ruw»?* — piwHy 2' 1 
per oi^nt- ill nil KrigtAiKlr nud lui low an 1^7 «r 1 'K in Ai>i(i« coimtit-A. 
Mr. KttinoiuN nho MioH-i-d thut tht- tuortality bcar^ n cvHiiia ivJtttion to 
ttkl;ii''»t- M fiich ag*j. Tor wiry imaun] iSm^i, two |>vrKir^ arc con* 
fitnntly MilTrnng from alckn^^, oC u ht^veiiiy (hat ilifwbin taboonng EDcn 
fruui itork. AitM>iiting lo Mr. NVl^onV ri'Ci-nl oWi-i\fttioiia, ihvtv mrv 
2'o timnlxntly ivfk in Km-tidly Socii-tirji to on*- iii*aih iitnl^-r fiOt (lio 
rrcm-iUi nduirw sfi^rGO i& fl:iv<il*T; ihesfebiie^sin tnfaocy lh nnkiiown, 
But if weiwoimr lluLt 2'o arv «icl; lo one (htifh — aiicl thi> pfotH^rt^on 
certainly does uot iDclml* Hllgbc illni.'Hs or aJl for wlileli ptf>plr itihe 
phytic — ibi' Einmlh^ra <oti[i(iiiiily uLck in London vert 122,000, »nd ihp 
aijuiud aitiicks of hlckur^ tnon- llinn 1,£20<000. liurin;: ib^ ^tvin 
yeare ina^U-M ; the nombrr of nnntijil atljirka would liar© beeu aI ien>t 
d5C,00U l*i^ and ibe numU'r connUQlly wck would liav.- loi-n .^5,000 
li'tWi [f ibi: ht^ilili of I.omloii Imd bi.-4-n lut gooil i-vc7i ftf tbul of L^whihuiiit 
out- of Ihi' dutHcti within Lit ottn liiuils. Thi« virw^Aiid nil llic pdn- 
dpal fac1« known in conuexioti niili the public b^'altb of Kuf^laiid fire 
cliAU!s>t"<l In iW Article Vilai f^Uilivticji, of 31cCul]'icb% ^tnifhiieal 
Accoont of the Rntl^b Kmptn-, which nppi^rcd in If^.t?. The cholem 
i^pidfiniCf folio wmI by ap indticiifn in 1637, tnore fjilal tb^n eholei'Uf 
and im epidiL-mic of ly^vltiiii, kftd drawa atli<nlion to lb^ ntnl^ of public 
budth i Lki< Eti-gT»lndiun Bill ivm brought into opcntiom ; Dr AnwU, 


[rAUT rv. 

j^fSiKiflSA iQr^M VtJ^n- Luw Cirmaiinfioucnt to iiii|UJTu mli> tliu uaoMi of 
fcvcr III fHiHrt of Ix^inl-^n in 183$; Mr. ChAiJwick ('(tndu<1<H) iLii liiquby 
LatoLli^ lK':iUh of m Any tow HI of Itir kingitom in 18^9; fcubKtiiiciitly, 
II CommiUcv oC ihe House of Comtoon^ oT vrMcli Mr. Slan^j v&a diiiir* 
taoDr Goll<-cUTil «>fideiie« tmd drew up a ropon in L940; und in 1443, ft 
Bo^l Coiuiiiie«toQ wns t^polnbotl U> taqnire into tho vrhuL« anbjccl. 
Tho lyipt^rt^ i>r thr fommiittioii ftp(Mnm) in {R44 kud 1845^ — (lOtli 
Atiinuil ]<r|Mjrl, i>j>. xui-xir.) 

of rrcistrntio". lio^vi'V^-r imperfect \i rn^y atiil b**, }»lh rmliM^il thr 
exp^tafioQ hi^M out in thft oprniiig «p*?och of thn niiiust^^r who iDtro* 
duc4]d tfir tni>A.-<ure to p>irtiaraenl, ta n> fnr ih 'ML«ii]hblw Ib4> UoT«rii» 
netix t4j ii^L]uir>.' A i^iicml kii'>wlci1gc of th(- *tAU- of t1»« ]XJpu1utU>D ol 
Ukt eoiinlry,"* In •iirt<^*ttvi' Bi^porl* thr birlli«» doAth^, und ttmrnflgt^ 
liAVe b^ou comparod wilh tbf» popuUtton of itifft^int illriHctfli tbr 

fTcvnlencc of duwmAt lins breo ItacchI in vilHouh i>ftrt9; und th^f irrc- 
ra^ble prool^ of the bigb Tnortnlity in rown* fmlncod Oif Uto Qorern* 
ment to npp^iint a GommiHiati of inquiry, wbich riMiUciJ iit jv Dill 
fKibfaitb^l lo Pttrliiiiiit'Qi Ly Loril Tiiicoln and Sir J.-itnoH (irjitium. A 
new biil for improving tSr b'^nllli of (own* bat bi*«-n pi^pnred ftitd 
brought in b/ tbr Vi^OKitini Morpetb, Lr^nL John Uuss^ll, ami bir Geoi^ 
OroT. Astbl^ Bill N Iikf^ly to oicnpy ib<« ntt'^ntion of PnrllAmnftt in Ibo 
prfMont nt^tion, \\ mny bo uncrfiil to introtluo*.' ht.«iv< khhi* oxtnoU frr>iii a 
aeriect of ailcutaiion^, bused on the Consiis reiura<i of 1841, and tbe 
dimthft re^ftcrt^l during tUo fu^v^^n yi*st\ }S33-14< Tht? tiioti niid 
method) of calciiUtion Are giron nt li^ngth in thf Ninth AnnuAl K«port, 
dvo-i in ihc mniHi timr it will be AuflidL-iu (*j *>bst"rvi' tb"l tbi* obji-cl of 
tbu invir^tig-itlun U lo ■>xhibit tbo mortalilj rit (]inVrt>nt p«rfodd of lifo 
in Cbo div]3(ionK, cotintir-?i, towns, nnd ^rcm^^K of coimLrj difltrictfl into 
whtcb KDft^iind A»d W»K>5 hiivo bE^an dlvidt^'l* Fi'om tb^^e reralu th6 
danitioQ of \\U- ctxw hi'. doiIueiMl. CoL'roctiona \x»\'t betifi nimln for tbo 
iitCT«u«« of |>oj>ulnliun, Jovttltfl in hoiipiLTds itrid otbor dir-rtirbiii^ cjnues. 

Tho inortAlif.T in r*iTnrponl, Mnnchostor, nnd *fttnp othor piflruw biM 
twiMi Iwfon* iuiveru*d to. Tins tablej* show tJje aiorialily of all tlie 
distriofs uowincliidr^^l in the London tabkH of uortjdily. Tb^y filford 
Atuplo mrUi'mU for rt'^uoniri^: but I »UilI brre ocily direct lUton- 
Uou to a Ft^w of tht* iv^jHi^ tiotwiog m^ro iimiivdiiitoly on tho ;;roBt 
qm^tion orihi>hi<nU1if>r townn. r/>ndon (^onULiin^l 1,f)'>(1,000]ob!ibit)Lnl>< 
iL tluT iniildie of the year 1841 ; aad 342,5i>i* deotbs w^re regisUrrod 
wilhin ii-« limits in tho fc<pteii[iijil poriod of whifb IBIl wab th« middlo 
ye»r. Tb*^ duJitbr? un iin avdri^t? vrrrc 4^,9314 niiuiiullr. To I^OOQ 
fomiilofl living nt n!l agcc 23 diMl, whtio to 1,000 nudo? living nt all ngea 
27 dit'd juarly. The* mortality of feiDalw lu the nelgbliouring coiantio*, 
during (he samo ^orcn -^^v^ was from 1$ to 20 ; of m&lea 19 to 21 b 
the l^OOU; Ww morUility of feiDAle3 in Londou was -5, of mrUoB 9 in tbu 
1,000 moro th/m in tb« bcftlihiojil; oonnly. Out of an equal nutnbvr of 
innlov living, thi?ri* wen? 3 deatlu in Irftndon far every 2 in the bealtby 
eouDties. Out of 1,000 boy* nndtr 5 years of age \i\ Surrey, and 
IpOO 11] Sit^«>x, 4hS nnd 5o diud annniLily: out cf 1,0(10 in LoodoD, 
93 died annually. 'Hie mortality of children uadi-r 5 year? of age is 
twic« A5 grjJLt in London oc in tbo a^ljaccnt oountics, incbjillng aoveriil 

* Sdc apocch of lii>rd Juhn Kufitili on Iriii^riDK fon<Il^d the RiEl fbr the Itcgistn- 
liCQ of Binhi, Dtalhi, nnd Ma'i'iiij«.— J/irrnr (*/ Ptiriiamtnt, l^a4i,p. 131. 


Aunaal Hiiaiht at oil 

Aimatl 13fatZ» a:ii!cr5 
Ydan of Age to 

living. living. 



Sntn7 - - - 


llnmixhTrv- • * 

BtrkPhire - 














Tlic eKccM of UeailiA iu Lomlozi b nac the result uf diiubter for tJic 
^^limate differs little from Uint cf Eurromiiling coiintit?^; and eoonct of 
UiD LotHlou (IiPtricU ATi^ not more tii;li<villb>- iZiaii uma^ cuiiutrf 

ham, KkhiiDu ntiti f^^wishom iisdf. Tlif; iinitual morlnlity of Trcnalcs 
WZL9 16; of niAlc^. 18 In 1,(>00, 

7 yvnr* 1S3H-M wore • - . - 342,000 

If tit? loorUIity UiuiDg iho pe^rioJ Iijm! ni>l bc«a 

£n?«tor iJiAn In Levri^fLAnip flie di^ntb« of 
ondnii would hnvt bcCii nlKtit • - - 24-1,128 

Kxccra ofdoitb* in LcDiIon - 97*872 

Hore are 97,000 deatlia in 7 yt&n Tioin cnuae^ pc4jlkir to J^oDdoii. 
O^r dhtricU maj- bo tAk«ii in iIki pliiot; of Li'wisbjuu, but tbo remit 

A rjini:ii1nnihl^ part ortbr* fiwnUlifkn nf LfMidon U rri^nitPil from Ibf* 
counlrVr immi;,-nLtJt.^ etil^irijf cbicflr nl the* tt;:es I J to 35, in « rtAte o[ 
^ood he&llb. Tbo i^ick and weakly probably n^nuin nt botwf; ueny of 
ibe now comers too, nonuLrrferl^ vrbeu latAokctl in London by duw 
confiainption — tint mo^t Istiil diy^ciAKi^ nl tlj<^ "S*"^ ^^ ^^ ^^ — -rcltirii to 
tbdr pv^itA* hfHiM'K to dir ; jtQ ihjil tbo mortjility of Uio ^^At city ii 
nude to app««r in tli^ ntuniA lower at tboie ^ee ibui it in. If ve tnlce 
cbjldrL-n under 5 vfjirf of »gi^, vh^rc nritlKT thuM disturbing cauaai) 
nor ocenjAtioii int^^rft^ivi, tin? delcieriou.-i iittltteiKiJ oil heolth of Loudoa 
in its |>rvBoat aIhIv w\\l n|ipeAr uadijiguuod in nil i1« mngntiudv. 

TJio dwHtbu r«gi>t«rad in London (1858-1-1) 

iHidtr 5yo«rB of sgc w^ri? - . - . 139,612 

Tbed«atbs,if tbemortnlilvbml notlxmi liighcr 
tbuEi in I^wiibHin, would have been - < H(>,$32 

Evc«« n of dcAlhi in Lotidon lunon); chitilron - 58^d0 

Hero urc morr ilinu Hi^flOO cljiMreu dottroy^ In Londoa within 7 of 
iho biAt lOyuirs. 

In tb«^ pliin and nji^Mvllijij; r*ct»— tn ibc d^tjiilotl stJttCTncnt* tluti 
follovr of tlio nioiliility nt cacli ago of Life iu tbc jtcvtiral districts — or iu 
iliD circumstiuK^ ^ thu wverni jkuma vf ibe popuktlon^ it l« difflcolt 
to discover nny vnUd rcitKiEia for <ix«lTidini: T^Audon froia tHo oporutioD 
of tbeinonHQrrof llrT MjiJMtv'* GowmmciJ for "improrljig Ibo Healtli 
" ofTownBiuEiifibiod,'* 

^P ^I^^^^^P 1^ [rAirt IT* 

ThorO fliv, )ififfpv.'i% piri-umslflnriH ju^^nltiir to thp mclropoJl*, which 
preMDt jtiffiiruliit'f, Mini wlik b mu^t le taVm Siito Account. The llulth 
of Towu^ Bill— inih th(T Improvt^mfmt Clnnvv« — propofea toiuwbUlho 
miivor. jLldcnnrii, nnd burgesses of corpornte (ovnfl to prepvro pJins find 

Itup? of ibdr r<^*jioclivr jurUdiclionh ; to \ny out, pavo^ twprovi.% d(3ijwp 
frtreetfi; pr^vuif mftrki-l-pIiitH'j unci tlnujchriT-hoii^c* ; n-mov*! nni8nnoo« 
iiTTil 'Inntfinoii^ iHiiidiiij** ; rc^uIiiU' loiifrir^'^^"^*^ - ewur** ilw vrnii- 
lolion ofpnliilic biiililici;:^; prrvtiil ^taokr nii<l i^xtitigniih fires; !nj 
down fvwurn uiid Ui'uiit liuw^^i procure eupplies uf puiv neuter itDtl 
ftnificiAl li^ht, It propo«CJi to glvo ihii *nini> powers t*t Town CiJU- 
tniwioncT*, livo-ilnrtU of ^vhoui are lu W i-k-cU't! by ihr rnlr-pnycrs — 
OJJC-llurJ to I'L- aE>pomlcfl hy \h?r Mrtj<r*lT — iij unJncoiiK^i'ikteJ Iowiul. 
It prnvulp5 the **o[i»(it[iti-d uuiborities wiib qualilietl oIlTu'rrr'. Tiip Tow^i 
CuuiiclU irt' Towji Comihi^^viitTP vf to ftppuinl n«ncj'-»i>. The Firnt 
ComitiiiAMODcr of Her Mftjc*!}-'* Wood* nnd FoiMt*, imd thrvc* [»tlwr*, 
luv t4> 1>(' "Tho Commi^ioMrsof Healtb and PubUo Work*" to Kfircy 
Otit the Hill — MppfJint Oflipcr;* of IL'nlth, Iii«i)ector^ AiiditJ^rs, (o advitie 
and (0 u 111 tboljocal Authorities* The DUl gives tZie "CommUMoncr^ 
" of Iloaltb ftud I'uMic Work^'* powor lo ccfomo few or utj iinprvvc- 
m«iitJi; ih^y ^n onTy KiijZiger^t tWtn : t^t^rliing enn bo Aone-. whUfnxi iMv 
kcoirledj^ ; eome things Acquire llicir approval, Thf* pecuUftrily of 
London conKiNt^ En thi», that of lis l^^^U^tHXI iiihiibtUinls iti 1^141, 
dtveJlFn^ io 2CJ,000 house', vnlm^J al ft irntjil of ncnrtv 1I,000,000/,* 
ood ftAUtlin^ OD Hi s*i"iiiro mil^ of htDdf — aniy 12l,9lo iin^n, v»nicii, 
luid dn)i]rQn. diA't^lHuff tu U.T27 Lou&e^ valued ai l.SffJ.l^^A. sinnding 
on ati area cf k^^ Llinii n Mrgli^ nqit^mt mile north of tht? Ti^atnc^^ — have 
Ui» lui\llI]tngl^ of Muiiicipitl l»?iitutionpi Tbo re^t oE the Mdrujiolis ]« 
cuvorikcd hy iutiiiiui-TaMc Vi ntiU-.-fc, I'uviug Bounds, Sewrr*" Coiumiii^ions, 
WMor CotnphTjit?Tr, Gut Cr.>m("uriJ<>-, n^id olhor bcwliir^ wliich csoape 
obscrvhTion, atii], i.o acrriJiin i'3iU'nT,rc-*i>tJiiwhiJity. The ComciisuoiK'rs 
nppoiiilcd tu impiirt' Into Miiiuelpal CorponuitJii^ iti 1637^ reported that 
iti Iy3i iho aAscMcd tnxes pnid hy llio City wen* 205.4T6/. j l>y tito real 
of the Mcti'opoKfl included in iLu iVrliumcntary Uoroiijcha, 1,022,131/, 
"With rejijicoi/* ihey nny, "to tli^ iinti«roof thp |Kiiiijlftliun, it w well 
** known thai, on ihc one bund, the Cily conlainw hy fur the most nctive 
" i^mmnr^'id du^liiet of tho metropolis, and ihat it fonue the noilbern 
'• bank of the hjjrhwl p»rt of ilie Thnmc» acci^atiblo to Inixi* v*Micli ; 
^ nnd, on the uihc-rp tliikt it dovF nut couiitiii cipher tho Courts of Laiv, 
■* Ihc? Tloii-k-h of Pjirlliimenl. or fiovernnifiiit Offiers, or. rri*nerAlly 
** tpcnkinij, llie ri'Mdt'nrt^s of the hj^lier or moit.' oimlenl rlft«i'-i/* Tb« 
'* CorpoKilion lleform Ai:rV iu other cities* br(>ugru all the i-iRrl* that 
would p<'puliirh' hf. \Mtm-t\ the lowu inkUiii tLu M^ctpe of the muidctpii] 
Authority. Having " puiotod "Uf liow eHiidl n propoftion of iho meUv- 
" polis i* comprHirnded within Ilir mnnicipnl houndnrr," ti^cy profeflj 
tliem^lveA ** nubble to di^c^/vcr any clivum^tance justifyifj;; ilk< pre^tiL 
'* difitioclion oftliis pni'liculnr distrii^t fium tlie n-M, rxcej^t ilmt in l*ct 
" jl JN aud hod luug hftn hu dLbiiiiguLvhuil."^ Tbe lle^utli of Towna 
BUI. wilhont raiding th<' cjui^^cij^n <if AInnieipnl HoF<rrri, pro|>ofiri; to doal 
tODdedy, but imprittj-illy witli I«gndi>nj h leaved tho Cily in |>ULN>Ki<aion 
of all Its priri1e|>es, and will sppnreDtly give to it the «Ani« mwirrs 
uudcr the Act, and liubjwl it lo the Mime ittspeciion as the tielvrmcd 
Munldpzd Con'"'^'^*'^"' » while ihe rr-^l "f the metropoUn U to Ijc dcftll 

' Detivett from tbc Uettim of Ural Properly iihKhhfil to ih« Fropurtj- and Income 
Tai» fur tUtf Vtuj cnilrti^' April 5i]i. 11^40' TIk nrLiiim! tuljc of property in Loudon 
tatcd for the r*lirf of the i^ior in i»4l wns7,8lu.aur, 

t The ftr«fl of lltf 'Hrntiu^ in Lnndon in not included la iWb ntntement. 

{ Vm CKtricL from tbt' Cvtnmiaitioucn' U«pon, p. U- 



tviib f>ik tie i-nmfs \^cucvu\ piindpnl ns KminGorpomtoi] towns ^lio Act 
liuiii^ |ujL ill cjccciitioa ii/ '-Tdwd Connnassioners, prwacmcd ot root or 
*' pt^fAODuJ Mintoi io tho amonni of »VO0O/., nr rareil in rhn iwlW nf tlip 
** jjoor ufon the annual vnlui.^ of not U-49 ihnn ^0/^ of wlioin onu* 
*• tliird^hjiU bf> from time to lime appolntfd hj tier Majesty, an <i tho 
*' r«(uHiittikg iwo-tliir(t8 slmll be pleclud bjr lUt- r4ii-*-iHiji-rH of the arvtrij 
" p^rifhc4 or plootvt iuclutlisl within hucU JtHli'iii.'' Sacli it n britf 
outliri^ of iW ImpurlJknt nieAAm'o whioh hn^ hnrii proputtirci by Her 
Muj'MljrV GoTernmi-nt lo improve che Hi'iilth of LouiloUi a?* well a% Df 
llio oiher Toi^na of the Kingilom, mid so i» |ml a flop if |>a'<»ibE« to tlit^ 
sluUnc*«, !mfI<.TiH^ «iicl loM of life l>jvtjgUj lo Vi^Ut by iLtj Ri-^siFitiutivit 

lostcoi] of the inhabitiLut^ of Lomlou ■'measuring out the vhole 
" }Knt>l of tlie preiooi existence albttpU Ihem,** il is found th«t, in 
7 y«vrp, I3!),6ri p(>ri>iKtl in infuiicy t under 5 }vut^ of «ge) ; 40|8;i0 m 
youiU (5 ltf25)i 100,145 in ii»ftn)n>ml (25-65); nml tbal on(y52,l*J-i 
otlAinoil ibo ajre of (15 »nd tipwnrds, Insleiid of '* di'ulli looming npnn 
" ibcra like fl *lecp<" wlieii tbe facuUies arednlled by ajjo and pIow 
decay, — \i convulse* Icinl^-r iTifmicy, fulls with Uirntng fi'vur* upon man 
m i\\it priims .-inucclic?) iivray ihv inolher with ihe bflbo ^Hll iipoti liL-r 
brenal. But not lo Iftke an cxuvnn^ vi*^Wf uor to bo loo fnngxiitw* — niid, 
fibovo aU, lo ikvoid any (^xn^gpranctj — Il-i u^ -<?l down htru Ih© deftlhfl in 
London and the tienihfi which woull brkv« bap|iened at difr<>r^ni ngCA if 
thomortaUir lind not Uovn bi;^ber tban it vraa £0 Leivi^buni, wher? sny 
one who will take ihp trouble niny nMHTlflln ihat mnny »bviom and 
CAsily vemovcii ojimcs of inialubrify atill exist. 


Df^adu 111 I^iidoti, 

DcAibt that wouUI 

ha'G b«pptDtd 
!f thcMujiiilii^haiJ 
been ihc **mc »b 

lixcc«A oi lJMih« in 

; J tan hy <xJUin 

iJUcutJAf to Lou lion, 

0— fl 

Si— fi3 

Oj ntitl ujiwunls 






Such ifllhijoxcow of tnortality. Tlie t-.vcess of sickness must hav^ 
b*en Hiill $n<acer, 

jit t}i« Imo or thnw lUL^cLtEi^ti held to oppose the GoviTQtiient 1^11 
for itnj>ruviii^ ihe llej^Uli of Tnu-ns, by boiUcA holding lociil truitia, tm 
ref^rvncQ vu mAd« to tbQ \o$s of life ooiialanllj goin^ on in Ijotidon. 
It appears to hnvt beeo uok-nowu to ihi? .ipeHkere, or to liavt? been takc<n 
forgrwitctil bcoAUAtf' the luorulily b liulv more cbuu half i» bigb in tJio 
prr««m Aft it wnn in the ]7lli oeniiiry, ibjLi tbo biiullli of tbo- rot^trfipdU 
is perfect; that r da gu« baring he&n expelled, typhnn hiuI (on^umpH^>JJ 
miiy bft (okiulf^l. Now tbv plniti truth is ibat one day with ariolher 
134 perwii)* die ilftlly in London ; ib&l the Rn-iit majority uto untlntDly 
d4Mitht>, — ebildroD, fkthor^ malhi^jis *» th« prime of lifi' i and thai nt 
lea^ ZH dif* ilatly la ojceewt of thrr r&ln of moHatity uhirh m^nmlly pTx<- 
vaih« in tbe Immediftlc neighbour liooi}. Z9 |jer>on» are ilMtroyed erer/ 
day in LoikIoq by local eaiue.'<. If ibe^* dcatbi t^iok place on London 
Brjdju^< i>rutNowgatti| would uiy TcnKiblcinun in ibe ciiy opposic nny 
roa^oablo moamiro d«Tbod bj a Minuter of tho Crown to put a •iiop 
to the frigblfid fiacnAce of life ? The city lina coiunnttd lo t^^ N<>w£iii» 

I Ii8 (PABT vr. 

pATtl^ free from Tcvcr— impectcij by an Officer of Lbc Cron'o. Why » 
Uw flL-«asc iMJt uut of criniinob to be aJlovreU to chU*r iukI dcstroj tbe 
labourii^g mnllJlUfk;^ ? Ar^ tJielr lives of le^g valuer But tli« eUf 
ibdfr ii ie mill, js 119 hralilijr jv) U cui bc; th^ Aia)ioiiii<^ bftvu Juiw 
^irrr^'fliiii^ ihnt <^n b^ <loiie. A miDtyter i>r IucJHj oiui mipf^ciil nolbm^ 
whidi the City of Lonilon Iia? not already accoiupli^ht^. Hua ilio 
LorJ Major a^^conaiiietl ibia by [lersoiia] intipt-ctioij ? Ho Juu Ihe 
oon.tcrvancy of tbu tiwftu^ ncni fish of ihfl Thnmcs: and su weighty hax 
Uiia duty lH.-<!a li«ld tLut Ibo first mngutrt^lo otUfldod hy- the cirJo Aucbo- 
nticft pty)Ci>^r|Ei pM'irMlioully to hoUl tonris of i&i4p«fCltoxi and lo o^cvftiuti 
die condition of tbt^- creiatiK*^. If .'■■oric time nfu-r bnrjng been 

To Tbatucft'i bnok* which fViLgTnDt brrcxrs 1\l\ 

uad fteeo lUf wbito ^irans on the river and (he ftsbe^ gliJe itirouj^b tlio 
dear vnli^rs ot\ lundiiig from lib bnrec b<;k)W lVinptr> Bar be vwdd 

Sh(!0 Liinsell under ibe guidance of I>r. Lyiicb, a medical officcT-| sail 
fr. Huu-litiii'ou,* II nurgcon imd rcgiittnir of the «^iiv, tlicj could lead 
tho prcwT^fion 011 lie w»y to N«vgatc>, SmiiLfidd Miirkot, UnandjMljKJi, 
aud tli3 Tower, iLrongh n) leys, and lane*, sad npeoarlB inbabiled by 
dcixeii!'<>f LfOiidi^ii, pr^wLting a far difTercut iiaped ; ilirv would poM 
throngb ntroct^ r'u yvhkh ilio g;tn rmvfy abincs houses saturated vrith 
pf«tJlcrjlinJ vnpcmi'* — ami brcexcs f«titiiiig jcivcta and cxcrcmentkl 
mrvitvr — t^e most fAittl field of fei'«»r in tb«< metvopolia. Tlioj would am 
difle«6e ^Ir^minein tbo oyt^ of chi1dr«n, wfl^tinj; 1b« bodies of womm, 
pfxutniling Ute sli^u^fib of mea. ]f tlioy cuUcil for tb- rvgrnU^rs of 
death for ibc City wiihout tbo wall^ Uicy would hnd in tiicm U,637 
nnmi^* oirQlIcd in tcvcn y*«rTi — five thousiuid of wliitb WduM baTc hftd 
no pUii* there if ibfl " <teliberfll<* conviction " of ibi? Conmiiv<ion of 
Sewurs wcro well fumidiHl tbat the " City of Iitimkm for hcniib, cleAit- 
** linesy, effective diidiiJigOt lighting, and for ^uppl}' oi' wjili^r to itfi 
•■ inhnhtianl?-, cnnuol he surpaiiood." (lOlb Amiitul Kcporl, [>pJx-xvi.) 
Arca^ £/t-pfiihf, ftntf Drnniff itf T^onrien, 1^63**— Tho orvn of Li^ndoo 
11 122 ^unrc iXiWfs <'fiiiAl to n :«<iunrc of a Htilc more than 1 1 intlE«, 
18 kilomeirea 10 the »i4lo. The T}iAmeci and the liden uuhe Lbo griw 
city to iho «n- The ground riso* to nu Hwation higher t.hon llic liiUs 
of ancient Hume, but Ji (.H>n?iiiterub]e pmt uf (lir |>upuluEi<jij ou tbe eoulh 
(lido of ibe river ifl livio^: b^low or at the ]i4V«<] of tho Triniljk" lii^^b-waidi^ 
mark. The avcrngf eU-Miuoa of (he ground at which the poptiUiion 
lives i" 12 (ni.-lre? (=13 yiLrdg). The points below hi^U'waler omrk ou 
the north fidi^ of the Tliamt^^ are in Fidbum, Pimbcir, VVL'?ttmiiiNU'r, and 
iho I>Jc of I>o^B ; on (ht ^uth side in DaLtcjw?rn, Kfriningloij, Cam- 
b«rwoLli B^rTJiondwy, nnd Rotberhillw. Tbo I'lnmslrml mni%<b ha* the 
lowest surface, U\ym 5 to 11 feet Mouj {\\\^\ wnt(>r mnrk. Tbp hi;!h4<^t 
clevaiSons nvc at Eiainptivnil (429 fcrt = 131 niHn?^) in ihc* north, and 
Sbootent Elill {411 fi^'l) and Sydenham Hilt (3G0 feet) In tbe aoiub. 
Theafte of <hc ^'npilfll *ti the empire is im clipficnl rivcv bji>in rottnd 
the d<iTTw> of St. Fjinl\ rjjthLHlml, The po|Hiljilion U uncijilnlly di*- 
trihiitc<i, detiM in tlie centre, I ea? dense in the outside <li§tnc1s, Tbe 
mean density is cxpir^^d hy nearly 100 p^'oplr living lo u bnlarr, 40 
lo an Acre ; \\m pi>pijbtk-u dcusliy of ibc capiiul (i? lOO liiocft fhe de^istly 
of ibc Uniteil Kinf^tlom, The pwipto live in lOO^r?** liouKcia; th<» 
fttreeta are irregular iind often narrow, but tbe elevation of the bonse» 
ia not often *o h'fty Jis to cover tbe stivcis with unhesllhy slindowfi. 
The annual value under county rate fl.'?si'e?'mcuL exceeded 15,tXlU,WXJ/. 
(31*4 Annual Report^ pp- Ixlv-v,) 

* ^ifc Mr- nDif'hinvntL*!^ oocamte account <if tltv vTMcbcd «ufc of ^iitU of tlitf 



183g_44._** T]m* Sf-vcnlh Annnnl Rc-poH, flvo. (^dilicn (pp, ai^0-3:^l<>, 
coniuins rwmr rnlmliiitdii-i whti'Ii?cl in ttslHt[|]pli|;Tiilbc extent to whicli 
limuau life uij>l LonlTh huvc hitherto been f^ocriAccd. Tho ciiJCTikttious 
hftTO be«nmade WiihcAre; tbejr are biiseil upcn th« rmunis of draibs 
for the ect«n jyftra 1838-44, anil tho C<f[i?ni< tftkcn in 1S41, tho Bii(ldl« 
oF tbn pciuifL It Mppcnnb— to ^Ivct n few cxAmpk-ii of ibo rrrtnlfA^ 
(hat Ibe anQiial (k'fttlia in the town Juiricu of MftDchesl^r to l.OtiO mnlcs 
living are 37* in tho cxtrn-mclropolitnn pnrl.i of ^um^j" 19 in EQCO. 
To lake [Kinii^ular agf^, tli^ uuEiLial wcrialjij of Ih^ivs untlur live jeara of 
fgo i8 49 in Suiroj-f 148 in ThlanchQBt^rp, lo 1,000 IiTiti^. 

" Of men of ibe ago of 35 nud under 45, tb« innual mortality !« 1 1 
ID Surrey, 21 in Mancliei^t«r to 1,000 liring. Tbc ci^ornious ^ifltroice 
will be r«acl<-rcU moir Qb\ ioua io seme by tbo simple faeis ; — 

siit«red in 


" Populutiou of ibe Town Sub^Dibincla 

of Mnncfif'ATer ia 18-li 

- 163,066 

" I'cptiltitioii of tbo Extrm-Mclropolilan 
T^iitf^M of Snrrov - - - Ifii.SflS 


DiffE^iico * 1$,1-I5 

'* Tbo populjriion of Surrev cxceedeil ibtit of AluneUtvier, jrl in 
7 ysnr*i 16,000 p^raecj died m Mflutlx-^cr vvcr lunl ft>x»vo ibw <leuthiL 
in Surrey, thn niorlJkJiiy in whicb from ih«> povrrly iif titr lahonrer, And 
■dieter dff^ri^oji of tbe influeuees K> filial in MaiK^lieficr, is bigber thflQ 
it shodd be. Tbcre were 25,523 chiltircn undvr A jcon^ of jigo in 
Surrey, nml lb<? d^iitha *ji cbilitrt^n vf tbui tig« w«re 7^CH ; tbe diildrm 
til UaneLwIer vet<4 2],to2, tho drnibd 20,72t^. In tho 7 ; eart^ 13^3 
ehildrm in Mancbr^tcr alopofell n vacriliu? to known cttUBW^ wbjeh It 
is lielioTCil may l^e removed to a great extent and tbe Tictiiod in 
Liverpool were not iek-< nuin<rou». Otb«r partts and parliculiu'ly the 
tinvrtt of England, wi> aimiltuljr afflicted. 

"U Is found hftm iho relnra* «f tb** 7 yMun lfi:i8-44, that 
ihe tuoitulily of Lir^rpool uud ^lancbesTer. nnd tbe worst jMrta 
of otiier lowna, in mtrly ilewbV* the mortiJiiy of Col«fiibty fftlubnona 

^' It ij» iroll kno'wu thnl tbo <l<'eAying mfittcra of xunr^bcn ^vr Hao Io 
uguf'A, dy«cnti'rTPs» and ffvi^rs; uiwl it is proved flbtiitrjuTlorily by tho 
fitetit eoUect^il under (he ICcgietmtion Act tbnt tbc cjEccj^ivo mortality 
fr<]in diAeiijtcn of tbe zymouc »nd otber ebi^te^, ohavrved in toTrm^, is 
oeejiJ^lone<l by animal ov K-gclitMe polfou*, with irl^k-b the iilmospbcre id 
rhnr;*cd, iii liiflcrx^nl do^rvcis of couccntrwUon,d^c[idin;f oa Aocumolrtcd 
niilt, erowdirig lu dwelbnt^ iiml ivcrkehopfl. ibe elo«eQeet of coiula, 
imprrJVel ^tifiplif^H i>f water, Jind tbc wnut of efHcieDt M^rerv^ Tbe 
liigti temperature of the summer of 1&4IJ, in whieh thf" in«wn t«m> 
pio'EUtirv mngvO TroiD 0^2 to 7^7 fil>ove tlio AVf;iagc during 10 wvtlca 
ont of 13, ■ccelcrHto<l lb« deeoin position, ftnd inortwirrd tli« viniloneo of 
tbefo c^tiTiji] poijMin» na well as of the diEeaH?s wliieh (hey promote*. 
Once grown cpideinUr, ibe di»e»se« contlnnet] to i-Hge (luring the n»t 
of lh« rcflr. Than the mortality of 1846 may Ih* itocooattxl for. If ft 
took pfnee in obt^ltencc to mxty cyclical hiw, or to a gtiM*ml cmoufi toting 
BiiTinltaneoiJtJy in Afiii «nd Etirojie, the givat foH rditaina, ihnt tha 
deaths were i!«arly iwke m ntmerouit in Hl-conitnieCe^l toim, whm 


[PAKT ir- 

tbepoEtfoni^t caiici^ntraEod, na ia iho countij, where Et id diluted aif] 

"Tnei^reci^e ilfgi-co of iuSuence whidi ihe vnrious ajreode^ have 
ui cMnnin;; the hJgli riit>rtAlU^' of toivuf ti* not riL^ilj' deter in in c^t. 
OjkiQtu'^H lUdor n* to tvSiiil frnoti'm of tliv luflLTing ntid Jualh is to bij 
wt iIovTJi to the wftDt of WftKrr or cf t^werage ; crovrdnl lotl^in^, 
narrow fttrtiotH, ilUv'ciiLjliiN^i wi^rksJicp* \ ilie (LtTilJtutmri of HkiUui 
medioal ndvicc i the n^^lcct of ebildreD ; doses of opiuiD .ii>d inronilit nf 
<|Li«clcciy i Ftbuxbtcr-hoiDCA *od taiik chiirchjAnlV*^ (Utb Antiimt 

diMtiibuiod in iIk' iMrty r.ou-n dHl^icl^ ttnt nl liii- riiU'^ of mortiilEty 
prevailing in the hridlhy fit*tncls nt Hovf-n difTerent ftn^M ihc nnmial 
deaths vroiiM have been 38,4^^ in tlie leu v^r^ 1^51-<>0, wlien ilie 
tiio&n pop<i]i^tii>ii wjts 2yS 11(630. Tlio nnuuul >at« of nuirtJilUr in tlio 
two lyixrs would haw IxjeiL 15' 13 ppr !,000. With iIkj *aon? liisfrihu- 
tioQ of popiiUlion in respect Co &ge aaJ ee.x da exisW in the henltfiy 
diHi-ioti, ihf* nKirfality would have Nhmi nt the rate of 17"*jllp^*f 1,0<XI; 
ifflitle ibe into uf h noriimUy couMJtulvd |>opidutJun tiudvr Ilio Miiir- tjiw 
of mortality wouM liuvc bci>n 120' J 1 por i,oi>0. 

Tft« itcUnti m<^vlA\\ty Ui-ihice<) from thd dentlii and tliu population of 
tlie ihirly tlii*tnot< wa< at tht» mtu of 28 "01 in 1 .000 ; dud the corrccl^nl 
Tnortnllly Vp'oulrt exo«ed tlii) numE>er- 

In cuni]irtui>i( ihi' mnruHty of lo^vn and coimtiv <1iHrirt9 togrthcr, 
witlutut diitirictW (if np*, it iniMt >><> borm* in iiiin-i ttinl th*' mi^lviil i-* 
(wmpaiali^T^ly f^voTirnhlc lo ih-? lowns, as the pi'opoiiiftii of the mnfikcil 
morultty i* iu lliem j;ruu!er tluu it is iti tin? country ilisii'icts, 

IhcATiitiudO LiHfiK Tows DisT III CTS io the 10 Yp*rii 1851-60- nnd 
a1>M %\\e Deaths which would huve utcurreU if the Mortauty 
luid liecii At tlii^ suiiie Rnl<r a^ prevailed iti thr 63 Hkaltmit 
DiSTKlCIH (L$<l±^^;5). 

Death • 

KlECPli of 


which Todd huvc 

Actud D?ath» in 


m 10 Vcan 

(Kourrc^d in the 
1 Yooni Ai 

Lo Yean oicr 

Death* At 


TTcalfhy District 

IlcoUhy DUtrici 



All AjEet - 







5_ * 




10- . - 




IS- - 




B5- - - 




8&- . 








aa- - 





47,1 1.^ 



7fi- - 


;f 2,630 


8A atlU upwards , 




The lt'J*s of Hfi^ ill tin* u*o yt*jir* imilcr iho saiiiim-y nrrangemonta 
existing 19 illii'"lrnt'>(l in thu ftliovo Trihle. Thii^, nt ihc rato^ prcralliu-^ 
III Iho *;ver]d ji^^e^ in the healrhy di^itritL-*, the iiimuid doutbs would havo 
iiinouttti^d ill Llie thirty town dijslrictR to 3S»4Ji) ; but the actual nvt-niKe 
amtil>oi- of dtailis was 71,11)1 \ there wm coo^equonlljr an auHual excess 




flf 82,7^>J J«aibs whlcli may be justly juprllterl lo ibe tinfnvjurLble 
4AnftAry i-^rirliriorA iik whirh tfic ptioplv^ lu'i^ mmi ilio.^(Siipp1(.'inoiil it> 

x^xj'gen uTiU tiilrogi^n, <*oiitfLiiis cJtrlimiic lu^iil imd rujiKHjun /nfmiir. The 
uiean proportion of corbauio aciiJ i^ 40 volumes in lUO^OK) volum«'* of 
nir, iniciiriiijg to Ibt yoang^r Saossunj ; wlm al^j ?ttnTf^ ihut it varit".* 
frtiDi 37 to &2 \0h\me9. yir* Cottlbi>i]]i^ hn^ v^iimskt'^i ilio quMithv of 
Air vhirli p[L«u<fc lbr<tnsb tho Iqn^n of n cf orflinArj «iw in S^lioun 
al 267 CTjIiii? feet, of wliicb nmrly 8 per c^ni, by volume, or 21 feeC, ure 
oxehnnercl for rni-bonic ac)<l ;• th^ hulk wnulil Nj cquivnlcnt toacuba 
uf 6 ■ l it-<3L ir, f*-*i-4 tntMC illusti'ttCiiui, UL- ;L^<>UE(l1? thivt o" cid Hvei-acu 
16 <rti1ki^ frot of ili« ^ne nrv> ihi^wn ofT from lh<> uklo iin4 InitgH f>r oaoh 
prit>on. 'to million cubic foct will bi< i-xhulriil ilaily l>y tbo poputiLrinn of 
iha mGtro|>olif, dlstnbutc<I over an area of aboul ),D^1 million square 
feet. Adit thf^ iimoiuif of xhv ftun'i ^-ii« forme] l^y Animuh of ever)' 
k-iuJ,'— fiivs Irtinp^i-^ftEwl muhipljr ibo •'iiiu Uy 100, imviiuuL-b a? re^pim* 
tSon for »fiTiiml h.^ii™ in nit whiv-h raintain^ I or 2 per eeoL of (^arbonio 
ncii] has \*^*.ti found to pi^ucv AEttniiiug cJTi.'CH (Broiightoii), and it 
vrill bo Jc-cH ihnt without effectual monns of ilitporcion ibc nmonnt of 
ttir vlTlaEeil in ibe uietropoUti, bj ihltt v\iamciii aJoue, would be by no 
uioiulf* iiioo»niiffnbl«. 

Ta the I'xcossiiv mortnlily, UiiMi, in towtin, tn be iL-tfriljoil (o ibft 
uccuaiulalioD of carbonic jicld, or of aay flmilur ^ns, which is so riiro 
OS to he Inntyx'iQti* itt open ili^tricts? It was nnlu'^d, wbon it hail 
l>i<eu diATuwred iJijkl trnibuuLC u^id uiix<.'<l iii mt' di*»lix>yed ariiiQnla, unrl 
nftor lEinnv ncci^h^nta in luim^s nnJ closod i-hnmbar?; Uoil hcon trao^d to 
thl5 agt»nt, to aacribr ibr eKcessivu morlftlity of I'^wiis to tho ?iau)e ututr. 
Farther invGstlg^iEion luu^t show, 1 rhiuk, Jint il hiiv but a «inall r^hnra 
in raising iUc murtality of tovii!!^, tlur provision for ita di^ptnttun i.t »o 

The Telociir with which th*i air i-Uih^a into a v»ciram )■ tho Kirna 
as that of a body lliAt htA fallen from a ht*ig:lit uf alKnil 2G,(>0f> ft*(*t 
(nearly livii miU'-s); or, ac^^onling to the Torn ivliiiiti theorem, pulting 
r for veWity, p for tbo rolocity acquiml in one second by a boily 
fulling frf^ljT) juid A for thr bci^bt of tlie hoiiiogcucou^ ^kioh^ column, 
V = ^'S~fiA. As ff = 32-l£> f(wi, and A = 26,000, tho r<>locity in 
lfi9^ feet in a sncond-t ^i>t the bvijtiil of the cotnmii h^ iiiverwly pro- 
portloaaf to the deasity of (ho giu ; iho ivcipioeid of d {= tln^ il^nitity) 
miut tbetefm^ ha put undftr tli<> rmlieJil, in apptjui^^ the formula to auy 
other gHfi btvtdus Aimospbv^ic air, vlikb U taken 1^ unlij'. The 

density of carbonic acid is if =£ l"524 ;an<l r = * /s y ^^ s= 1|049. 

Thts vrlorify with wldeb ejirbonie acid rnnbc* into a tikcuunj is 1,049 
feel n itecoui]. Irs applying tho formula to ditTereut gaaoo, 2g h mij^ht 
remain invariable; d {= tbo density of ibo n«p«ctiYO ^a-^) would 
vjtry, Anil lEie reljici<ja of r (tha velocity) lo e/ (tli« ilonutyl ia emicIi timl 
w would vary n« tlw ii|nflre root of rliP rer-ipi-oojtl of li. The d^^nnity of 
hydro;;eii is 0(i9, and it* d]flrat;ve vch^city ia 4,920 tvtt^ leoond, or 3 - 9 
time* the diflunive velocity of atmosiiheric air, ^'7 timeathat of ojirl^onic 
acid ; liiL> diffusive vdoiity of vnrliOTtie a<*iJ i> ci^Ul'tentlm thi? of air. 

Onlton dia<"<iveml ibiit cartiouic ncid <'tjl<jjed lb* j»pnco occnpicJ by 
hydro;;<-n in Iho KAina proportion aa if no hydroj^rn tmd bet^n prf!H>nf. 

* OrabjMit'* Cheminti^, p. toic. 

t PotMon MtimAU* tbv holgtii of ttu Aimoiphcrlc eoluuit ai ihe iVTajtciacart of 
aiKi, (irvAUiV 0'7a metn, V> b« TP^O m«cr»fi< 


Id2 [rjuiT >v. 

Ho inforw^ thai ^(\jiot (h rot, liJco lir^nMu, pxch<lc *«<*h othT, nnd 
this is »ow nilmilled. Ni> tliiif. if iin air-tfff)it cliamlicr full d' rnrWnic 
ndd {"^mimuiiK'Hlo with Ibc airttho cnmr f^iiAtititr rf nimiU 
flml 1(8 ^^iif into ilio chftthber &8 If no i^iiioiiif^ fi<<ii| i^art woi^ pro#eni ; 
nnil if walcT wi!ii< iiiti'oiiiK-nl, dii' sniuv itTi>otiTit of ai^iii^ii^ ^nnitiii 
woiiUI Ofcwpy the Bjiiuv iLi if TU'tt.lirr gtin were prrwful. Tli<* elEKhc-jfy 
t\n*\ (TriLHity of ite »(nio«T>heiv of Ibe cliniTili^r would tic ihe Rnm of iJio 
deii^iivA and eUAUfilii*.-* of nil iIja gnse* nnd rnpour*. Il Iws Ik-ch 
UHumcd 1ll^^^, toElmpliiy ibCFUUemi^nE, ilintwMle thii ikiTDo«ph«Hc Air 
cotcrod ihc* cftH'onit ftcid gns rfinninrd; Imi it woidd in fncl go out, 
for rbe ^Jime i^iLsdn ilmt flio tiir i*n»'r<-cl in oi-drr to mH the giu*^ 
ivithout mid wiTlLiri in <'(|ijilibnijii]. 

i'rorp*^or Urfihiun Imn invtwti^lod Uio rnt^^H ul wlilch ijasofi are 
tliffxinwl l.broiigJi f^unX] iijirriiire*> nnd porous Mjhiftanc'c T*> under- 
stimi) tlio laivtif (U<^&(s moveim^nt'', ht ui nwniaic ibnl lito Urg« oquti 
spaces, A and B, 1,000 foet Ifing. are sq>arflti^d by h pariiTiop ; that lb« 
one (D) IK n vncunni, liic olhtr (A) dllod witb rnrb<»nic aHH fiu<; vto 
knovr that if the partitioii wL^re rem<fved the jjaa woul<l ni'^L into tie 
Fm|}ty i;biLnibE.*r willi u vcIch'Uv of 1^049 ftct a aocoikI, If iti'' fiurlition 
wcriT pfrriii£*»M4* the f*iiT woulit r&U^r, but at n ■lovr^v rulv, utid <lLfrnt<iit 
gii«c» woiiM enter at liifTerent r&Xett. [f tbo partUJuri wore of stucco 
(drj)^ Hitd A wvve HIM wirh hyilrf>(fi'(i, IS wtlh air, tbi* hyJrogeii niul 
air would botb \viA^ (h[ou;-h the ^tuct^tv aiid if fhe qunntiiic^ of uir on 
one Hdc, niid bvilro^ro on the olhir, were collecUni as iJicj i^Acnpod. it 
vottlcl hv f(U)h<l ihnf ibL' volumo at 1iydro|fp[i thiit piL^^til in n ^priim! waa 
to tint of ftir rifl 3"^to 1. Professor GraTiamascortftinci! cxpcnmr-nfftlly 
ihe i'**lniivir pr4>p(n-iioii- inuiMnitlrci — which be ndl>'d difftttioit votntms 
— of tbepc Jinii oiher ffii^es, nnrt ^tiscove red thai Ihe '* rlinusioii toIuiuos**' 
■were HB the r^ciprocids of the «]Uftn" root* of tbr iltii^iricfH of ihc m-'vcrd 
gAdCA. Tlio ** fillHahion volume" in c-Tidi*iittr ihi- itL4-A8iii-e of the 
rdocily^ 3^^: I is ibe rc-lnnre velocity with which hydm^oti atiil uir 
neli into a vHCuuin; and while the tnlerjwMtioii of ii poi'ong eubstance 
equally rtnnrils the vclodtir^; of |^«es, It leaves the ratio of thvM^ viloci- 
d^i which is as iLo i^qunn* roota of their dr^iisitio?, imuttcrcth Grabfim'fl 
sxMrimental nicihod hiLs llie same rdation to ihe inovement^of ^ust^as 
GnlJleo'» tnclineil plnJi^ :o the fnll of Kibd lriidi<'@ ; it is not only a 
<li«covery but an inbrrunieDt* 

Tbo IVofo^wr rimiai k* t]itu the result of dIiT>i»ion i», tljut gases enter 
«puro \i\ tht' Kuuiv qurmiirit^ ulttmnti?1y aa if no other gaa 4>3ct>-(i*(] la th? 
^ace : but lUal "the iltffunive procera talcea place in diflc rent gases 
" with vtry ^liiTerint iltgrees of rapidity. Tbu.-', the ejlernnl lur 
*' penetrate* into n 'diffusion lube' with velocilies denoti^I bj the 
*' iollowitu; nunib*rrs, 1277, 622, 302, according a^ the diffuaiou lube \& 
** filloil with bvilrogen, wjlb (?ai4ioiiie aciH, or with cblnrinegftp/^* This 
nqatte iu co" form ily with Dal ton's doctrine, thfit ** thi^ r^^Mslance which 
" the ^jarliohvfl of one pas offer to thow ufunotlK^r is of a verv imperfect 
" kiticl, to h(i contparcfi io tht rtsistnnet which $tonr£ in ihe channel of a 
** ^irtam oppose io thejto^ t>f running loatcr/'^ One gap doos uol pa^s 
fbtymgh fliiotber vrifh tbe *flme velocity as it would through npape ; and 
the various rctarrjntfonf of th-? vclocHy of ita pas^ii^^e through differfnt 

fise-x i^ no more a deviniTon from the law ihati the factTneniioned by 
rofessov Graham. — thai The ga^es go more slowlj' through curk iban 
throiiph stucco. Thut the prosonc^^of nir retards the diflanion of vapour 
IN evident from Trfslie** experimenl for freezing wnler under the air- 
puTop, ID which the air i 5 removed to fa<'ih tale the paesnge of vapour, 

* Graham'i Klrmcnts oi Chemistry, pp. T5, 7C* 

f Gmhaia't Kl^'incut*, ami M^uiclicftior Mciuoir^i vol. v. 




from tbo Nurf4ie« of the vmter to tlie aulplmric nc\d. All thtplWDOiuena 
of crapomti^n mto tbo Dini<x<pb«rv ctfl&bliaL Ui« nunc fuct, 1m pouring 
of wrboni** ficiil fram rtor vt'f^wl iiitn nrfitlwr prfives e<]iinll^ well llivt 
the vrlodty of i1» (llO'u^ion is retaviled. 

To form an idea of tho flifpcrBion ffT tbo carbonic acid gatf ^eiuraled 
in townH, ikccordiiij; lo llie Inw in piic-umatk^ anAumn Ibnt l,00OcubEc 
fc«l arc formed ovr eeooii4 1 It will tM> cijual l^ n oiibi' of 10 foct. Now 
if thi« volnnio ofcArbomc flrirl wcn^ in iho t^enirc f>f n riicnum it wonM 
diapertv in vvv^vy ilirectiou Ri a velocilv of 1,041) feei a £vi.<oml. It is 
n^Jurlj the Telocity of ^ound. A parlicip woaUl Hy a mile i» J( socoadni, 
12 uiilcf* ID n minutv. Tliu itluciij uf a "Uipli vriud" in HO tcvl a 
■wcomlt *' ft liurrirano i)ijl( tnurd up li^^i^*' 147 f^t a «oci>nf1-— ou>>-^rf»tilh 
oFtlic rclfKtty wtih whirli cArhouto acid ni!>li(!H Into a vibcuiim* If ihc 
gafieous ^lu) evolved evcrj pocod*! over (he area of llie metropolih wen* 
puw* nir, it woul<i only tnovc slowly awaj, by Uw iinpnln^ willi wliich it 
yna iLroiru off, ar\^ 1>ecaiiH' it Tvoe li^liltr ifuiii tlir Ai(iLOtplii.'iv -, Iml ■<< 
it is Cftrbonic ncidj th« siirroundiog atmotph^rn Iv n vncmim, into which 
its rnab i-< opposed only hy the ^ibaII qtjjuitrty of curliontc m-id ([«?* 
cxiFliDtr, ftnd tht- shi^shne*^ cf the Aerial jmrticii^ The mpiil n moval 
of this giiw from cities U effi^cted by a force much greater imd altog^-ther 
ind(^|M'rjiti.'iit. of ihc winda. It is curried rapidly thioitgh tbc air, imttl it 
i9 rixwl Again hy wgetoliiin luu! txchnngi**! taraxygm, wbirb Hown into 
the atmosph(?i* of citic^s according to the same law, to replace ilw* 
oxygen coiiranied. 

Th^^e re^iitt^ ta^ cOBflrme^ by chemical analysis of the air, Tho 
diflVT^ne^a in tlio c|iiaatity nf rnrlxitiic ncid id W'irit<<r and ^iirDincr, night 
and diiy, an* iisi'i'ibi-d )>y Dumti^ to utoro uf the gas bL-io^: abwirbi**!, 
retmed, and i.iroi]ghl down tiy rain tn cold iban in wAnn wraiher. 
They an- lueKorotogical clnuigGH exteodiag ovtr all tho aiEuo»pbere. 
Chomititft bavo hitli«ru> fnilt^d to dv-li-ct nnr cjicrf« <if carboolc acid ga» 
in cittrs. A eoramisrtoD is now sitting in PnriiL, cogged in ihn an»lyiiiK 
of the alnio9pbi-rc by DumaeV method, wbich in lield to yield iW mo«i 
accurate rc^ltj^. I am not aware that thc^ nir nfnny pbic*; m England 
haa been aujdyied by tbe neir mctbod, but tho ob^eivatioun in utber 
COnDtri<?» 9J10W no diminuiion of oiygcD in tbo city AJr. TbuK ihc 
OKygtn w»a to the nitrfigvh in ihe air of Paris im 230"0 ro 770*0 (by 
weij^ht) i and on Fjaulbom, in SaitwTlacid, W7S7 f^vl abore the lcv<»l of 
the MM, &A 220 7 oxygeit to 770'^ nitroj^^n.* 

* Tlu* pmiiD^vnit id ibt aat^uiDcd Iftble mtc hj weight i Kh^e nt^pKmx* v«paur mnfl 
ctarboDic add v/vn ahtitnoln^ Thev aw nil Ibc cinaljic-a thai hnvc ;o( «f]>»smt in 
the Compltr Iten^ut of lb* F>«Dch instiinL 

Pub * - . - 











Goiflfa , . . • 




Bcm« - - • 




Fnalbom . - . . 




GrVkiiagm . . • 


TTO 1 


Copvnlufvii * - - • 




Korlh 84a - 




;CoTthS« - . - . 




EltJnore ... 




Gu«dvloap« . - - * 




Guadelonpe • • • 




Emhprt^htfft Mir i'A'vt, try M. Lcwjr, Copcoliagcik. Compi«* lUfhUN T' >'- Ati^;^ 

L 2 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 164 [i"*Ri nr. 

Cnrbun^lli^d hjiJrogcn nnd sulplidivli^l hydrf>^Miriiiu|; from ^n^rcM 
npp Wm fl^npi*, nnd nrr ilinjKTflpd moro r/i]>it]ly tlmn cftrWnic Acid: 
T*e»irci4y n irjLOe of fluni cnu br clrhrt rjI. 

Curbonic ttcul nnd <illior noxiouir^ jjnj-*.*? can, as is well knowD, bo eoi>- 
fioed for n lim*^ in veil <^lo«Ocl n|uirtinrtiU, nnd oxyj^wn cnn b(i rxcluclf-dt 
bui Ihc rlif-pcrAivi- fortH^ U i*o ;;re«t, ihut diemi^lw liavu widuiii hiuccewlttl 
hi r1«1<>r(ini; uny ^l^cronon in ibc pH>porCionii of th^> giifWf, ovi*n tn lh<? 
air of iTOwdpiJ hcHpitftK If uny diffrnnrr ovisi It iniiftt bt^ ioniilL nnd 
mipht hiiw It slfpht fffocl on honlrh, but, as Iho exjierienoo of oup 
ColliTifA |in>vi*:«, u'onlil not ntine llir m<tr\a\tty to nnvtliing b<'yoiL<l a 
fhmtJoTi vr40 ^<r c^'ut, ; b^i(L-tir tlit* ci^iLiilrv i^ expu0t-d h? wi-U An tin* 
town populittion to iho irtHuftni^ nf (WljjS(*rioiis gnai?s in thn riono 
diambeiv of small cottafFcv^ 

ft 1*, iheji^ to mnlloi"s suf*peiii1efl m ihe ftimosphi*roof chiea ihfll ihe 
eiceSBive tnortflliiy muM K' Miiti^I. Stnokp is benteii ens, cnrrjinff 
with it tititjurDt fmlidcfi ia exiaifeoAiuu -. the cArh^tJiic uciJ i» b<'uUen<u 
Jfnmdiat^ily hy it* clirttifiicii velocity, nml »lio pariirk'n of *oti<l mullnr, 
Cftrriod lip by \ho ln-atrd nir into Ihft sky, cll-tprrst', Iw^conn* inviwiblis uxn] 
fiUl ai^omid insenHibly, in n olwr atmosphere, or ni ft disuincp when liiero 
i* any wind. If wiiti'jy vt'sides tivc til^o wiisppii^Unt in llu- nir, tbe 
column o/'Binoke n'tforulr* but a little, tarbt^nic ucitl in nb-orlKrl, (be ojirboii 
(mbibea wntflp nnd nir, it mixes wilb tVin wat^iy **1oijH, himI u1) thw 
phenomena of u London fog tuv procbtfwd. Thvsu fof;* fonn upparenlly 
wlien the lem|>Pratiire of Ibc Tbamc^ is bi^j^bor thun ih? lenipiTatnro of 
the air,* whiob is cnlai (or if xhcui be any wind il is rn."flrty Bttiurat*'d), 
tbc fo^ gi^VK ru\]y diwippeatiti^' ns the lt'm|ii?ntttir<> of ibf? air ie twieoil by 
tbp Mm. 

That th*" smake is irriCalinp to the ftir-pAviiif;e^ Injurious to beolthT 
and one of the* causes of ilonth, to whlrh thi> inhribitanls r^f tn^HK nvo 
iDOi^ 4^x|)o?Ld lltun tlie iuhabitttiita of ibe eouittrvi is probable; but U 
i\ii- oiTei'l wi>n^ v^tv c^nnsiiloriiblo it woidd bi^ mo«t rs'idont in tbn *f*Tnso 
fo;E"S wbi-n tbo littnoiphi^n? in loiubM witb *iaolti\ nml is bn'atbr^d for 
aeremt cun^ecntivt' hour* by the population — ram, w^^men. and cbiMron. 
Kow wc buvo m-wr obsri-U'cl any conm^xiori bi'twc^i'n iUr int-n'aw' of 
tlie iimrtttlilv uuO Lbt' Louduii fy;*H, Tbf diwji^'s "^"i'li oio^.'il by 
BRiok« iinii^t ho of ft mfit^bnnical nnlori^, nnd alTvct tb<> bing^ and ntr- 
pas&ege?; it mny ituTftwe tin* pulmonary di->^eases, but will jissm-Mdly not 
proiluce HCJirlaiina, meaalBs, typhus, and otker dise^ws which prcvnil in 

" It nifty \x lltAt^^i In Kcncral," say* Dr, Price, '* ihai wbt-roa* iu 
j^rwit tawn^ thi^ pruportioti of inbabiiantii, dying nnnunlly* is from 1 in 
19 to ) in 22 or 23, and in oioderale towiiB from t in 21 U^ \ in 28; 
in countrv piivisbea attd villiig<"?i, on the conti'ArVi tbi« proportion i^rblom 
exceeds 1 in 40 to 50,"! 

* I belffTo llknC Ell) fompnnitiTc obAcrTal^oDt* hmc Ijiilivrio hvvn mhdf bi Lofiduii 
on ihc icfflpcTntuTT oi ihe air and river; bu: Prafcoor Konrnci hnn Ghowa, from the 
obdorraiiorji of four yvirn jit Lyons, on the oonfluoncc of tlio llhoae ciDi SjiAd^, rhaL 
Tht! tcMipeiataff of tW ri»pf*, frnm Nnvcmtfr lo Marcli, i- i-'onfiiilfraMr hj^bgc tbaa 
the mwm tfrnporn^ur*; of Ihc utr. The fopi sci In In ^oH-mhct. Mflmrologif du 
itofrntr. — (Notp hy Kr<.'in.'h tniiiBhtor. Cfi, M^rfin^, p. 111.) Kncmts reiDnriM 

(li. 113) Uirit "' 'fO Hn, nf liin[iiir!r*tieiit rorhnpi, cxpri^^d in thv open ft»r. will irci^ 
" fmm |i>5 (n 107 Jh^ tu Ehi' ouiirvL* ut ii f?w duyi : a fnai vtA\ known in pn^dc^r- 
'* milin. Identic tlht iJiirlk'k'* i>r«trl»i)n in Wv^Hinn;: frwm thv chUn^oy absorb Jiir und 
" bvcoiuc Iwi^Ticr, NnTurtlmlr**^, ih* wiod may ^iirry tbrm to a di<ttirn!i* i b"l If ibo 
" air be cnlin nod huiuid. the npoi-ifiij Rntvitv of thv pnrtic^* nugmontj rapidJ}r, ihcf 
'' miaglo iu ll>if fo^. mid Fipri^nd ovur llie n(ii|{lilioiirhiHiiL.** 

f FiM AddJliDUkl R«iuij, I7?A- Worku bj' Mr^rgau. StfT«ntb edilian, vol. ii. 
p. 31«. 


The tormw "glWit »OwnV "moi!er«t« lowos" and *' villagos," are 
not ^ulKcit^Dtly apeclflc for our pr^^nt purpoeo; bul ihoi^raerul prin- 
ciple iui»outic«'tl bj' Dr. IVicc i« corri;<t,— tbnt tbi; mut-taTirjr of lowua 
boa n Umk-ncy to incnnav nt ibo mttw tim? *« thoy i^xtond. Tt in ri 
(>articular cnse of the Uw of deiuitj, ITie riiAplfWcriniil of ihc uiiuo- 
splicre of luwus U ofi'ecicti by lucoudiDs culumns anti Uy circimifoFioo; 
it cniitiCdimiuiifh oa [be proportkn of uio fiurrouudin^c iu ili*.- ^ricbiwJ 
biiu^es tlccrcn*cfl. Tlic four fli*L*a of a rwHinry lioii><j* nro oxpoamE to 
iht'oumrnlfi or ihe afmoHphMv? : oF 16 hoiiSi-H built on h)uh1 «qiiar«t, 
in the form of n sqiinrc^ \2 iwx lUc open coiindy, I »ro cotupleWljr 
eiicloKO^l Of 10,001) hou-stL* ou a sipiart urea, 9,(jOJ nro t^ncloswl ; n 
citv '>f 250,000 houses b«iU on oqilitl sqiiaiv*. And in tb«i form uf a 
pqiioTO, »-oLild be surn>undo4l by t>nly \,9Qi\ bou^os fncirtg the count ry> 
Thi* miio of ib« tot«l to ibo exWior booaas biult cu a sqimro Hru, 

if n cxprvnn thr aninbcr on n »l*lc, will alwaye bo -j — ; and lL& 

proportion of tbc exterior hau^s^a will tllriiiuiab rapidly nx tt iiicnaa^ 
in uU olbcr polyf*uiiul fcirma n" wel) od Af|UArc«< Thai la'ia <J]4a<lvantngo 
and thai of drnsiiy caii br> coiiat<»rbnlnii(Tcd ia a^vn hy ib^ fhr.l thit 
vrbili? the populfliion of EiixHsh towus lifth lucren.'icd Itie mortality 
bii* fnlirn in thr Urgcst, below Iho t^taniliii-d iSxod iy l>r, I'rioo <br 
111 oil (.'rale lowuB, 

It in provotl iHtyorul doiibl tbftt, if ibti popid:ilioji 1>o tbf? «aii30 in 
other ix^ripcctA, an itkcrt^avC! of dcDMity implie!< an incrcft»« of mortality: 
and tbaT the ratio oi iucransG in the mortality U im certain roots of the 
<ltrnNty. If ii fuitlior juid more exteiakd inquiry^ into wbirh I have 
iLut lime Uuw to riitvr, abould Cutilirm ibo (riiucipla lUnt tbi.' LuoiialUy 
in towTjfl* ("i ft« ibc> 6lb roots of i1»p donaiiy of ihfi poptilAlion, il will be 
limemou^bto n^ik wby thiit shonid bi? the partictibir rftti*^ Buttlio 
ch^mietfi muet first dlworcr meaTiH of dirl^rmioing the Jeusiry of ibc 
atuioHptkrri- o( orjfiinic matter, which loay be caLli-d ilw* z^mcUc atmos' 
fthfrf^f id didcrcnt Jistricf*, The dontSly uf population v? iii> rtnct 
inivuiiirr. of ihn drndty o( titc zymotic atiaoHphcfrn : nor, ^ubniflinK that 
the uintter is a ]>o]iOf>, doe» the relative deii»]ty of the jiopiiltttiou 
t-xpn»« tliT- relative quamilk'^ inhaltd tnaiivcn tiitio ; if it did, it i)» 
Irnprobabic, and contrary to all nnubgy, that the mortality sliould 
ipcroniHi io tho Himplu mtio of the d<>ite- Th<r exact pfiv'ct of incroodnff 
dort<y of poiBOQ bfta not been accurately deiermiuM: but it ia welt" 
knnwn tbat small 4]uami(tes of ail pmnmA are tjikon with impuuify, and 
Ibnt the Jose of iLraenit?, opiuta, or prusHlc acid caay l>e iuereu^ed up \x> 
a gi\«ti poinl, Dt wbicb lb(> dine«»o produi^ed \t fwrrrc or fatal. Puur 
drop* of prumic acid, dilulwl* may bo tnk^'O with mfcly, wbon four 
(IropH inori? wouUI kill a certain number of peraorttk How largfi, or, 
ntthcr, how i<mnllt tbo doM of matter may bo wbich will produoo % 
ifivmuticdifieafiif II L4 impOMlble touy; bnt if a minaie ililitled charge 
of iTocctfitii'; (vBo^ne lympb) pnxluccd cow-pox, my oiic liiitc iti 100, 
il wotilJ h^ an inti*T«jtting problem to dt^tvrmino, by donhlmg tlie 
<iitaotitv« in what ratio the proportions infecici] tncrwaed. (^th Aimual 
Jleporspp. 411-240 

Tbo Jenfttty of tbe popu[nti'>n m eIio town ilir^iHctB ^tiih Audi in 18^1 
that 3B I pcr^onn live<l on »^ Airir^rrJ acres while in the country di^tne^a 
2y lived on the aamt groumt ; so that 14 were bvin^ in the same 9pa«e 
in towtifi a* waa occiipifd by- one in tb<- conntry. It w.i* ^hown in tbr 
Kultfdttlt Rrporiibat under our pre?(eiiL impvriect viuitsry n^i;inien llicf 

* I f^y ** %amTt9*' becftUfc the Applieaiioa of the formula mvM boTcalioui. 


168 [I'ABT l\\ 

moi'Mly ot the |)0)>u1ation IHcr W B M in proi>oi-ttr>ti lu the i^ojmlfttioti 
incrcii4<^ in d(^»«iiy ; und t^Ufft tflWt con^'fiacntty be nomi' rolntiOD 
between them* 4>Iwxicnt0* 

ThomattiTof wbk'li HHn* boln^ con^Ul U QntW;^)^^ pcrftettul 
chang^^; it aiivnneo« from tbo ^tngrtf of wat^r, air, « Alts i?ar[biatid 
compoiiniU or the other eUmeiit!^ into the vegi^tutilc amX ntiima] 
orgaamtLona of Hfttiirei wher^ it exhibits nil the phenomeDit o^lifl^, la 
thij< highotrt stnte cvitjt I^cai *jt ihv liCAtt, tiVt^xy uiovcmtTiit of ilie limbic 
«vory ftvnMtloa nIoDg thi» nert^B, ^vt*ry oniorion of tbo hou], tsvury effort 
oF the intellect, rfiBchftr^cs n certain nujnhcr cf tttonu frotn \he\r places 
to e*Cftp<> in the brealU and iho BecrctionB ; at length tbi< whole hoAy 
tliesi ait<l m \l» riomcnti* a^t.cndc<l throiigli various degree* to the 
highest life, *o thc;r di??cpn<l gniHuully Aiier dciitU through vikriou» 
ttanEtforriifkiioim to ai(rnU»>r atjifAfl, In a^vernl of th*^& atag^ft lht» 
d^ftying matter httj(, in tli*' *ir, in Uir vmtcr, mkI itt contnct with thi' 
alciu, lliL* pfjwer to harui the living; il hits a teodu-ncy to impre^ il« 
OTffnftction on lh<^lr 'organs; and unditr certain (rircumNtnncw" the foul 
KQltci' h thi.- biNT^th of the' noinomo pvetilouct^. In the air it i» poi.ioo ; 
iindw the farth from which il camp, il «:i>e* throtigh Ttn final *ilag(» of 
disiotegrutiou, Aiif] rtse«, hr the; qubkcning force of need*, again life- 
giving into tho light. 

In confornnty witli » law of itaturc- the orguuic rt'fum Iniheatmo- 
s|iheTe is converted hy oxygon lO a |weutitir stalt> into carbanic add, or it 
A5ai]m<4 the fr^rm of volatile aiiimoina and of other i^ompoundi*. which 
are dispersed; t!ip vi'Wtty of tht? ooriv<M**ion and of the dirtpcrsioii 
bearing a 0>^rtjuii proportioD t<< the qiiAntitj of &uch tnalter, the ajfiiaticu 
of tbe tui't itnil the tcmpi^mturL', Tbi< rcfnao \a araior i* suhjcul Ut 
similar chnngof under iimilar conditiont. 

Men thou are nlwBjB iurrtfUnd^K in air nni3 water, bv an atini>tiphc*re 
of itoiying uialtfT, which is given off from their own U»di^ and from 
Ihe animnts by n-liieh thny ai-e siirrotimied ; the <iaaiilily is in the same 
condiiioas proportioiuv! to their numherfl i but the quantity of Ihla matter 
ina noxioni state iri rcdaood 1r> insi^niHeanoe wlieri h ^ninll nam her of 
men iivo on a Urge area, when thoir dwcllioB:* are on high ground. 
and when all tlw' refuse it laid every day aa it ij* prodncednrider thu 
disinTectint^ earth from which it sprnng. (If^lth Annual Report, 

pp, xxv-vi.) 

J}uefiit$ of ToiPH and Covntrif. — Di^'ert^nt ciasaes of the population 
eiperieticc very didVrvttl rot^s uf mi:'i'tulity> »i;d aufTc^r ililfurccit kiiiila uf 
di»casc». The principal VAUivn i»f tUt-tfO d i iTtiruuccH, bevidtw lh<; dux, nge, 
and hereditary orEnniTation, innrd be iHJU^ht iu three AOureei»— eierci^e 
in ihi^ (irdiimi7 uccupaiionn of life — ibe adetiuate or iuudtsquate !iupp1y 
o( warmih »nil *>( iVicni — jtnd the difiaroaat dcfrree-i of exi>o£ure to 
prriAoiiou^ I'EHui ia ouil lo ttc^Uactive agend«. 

The r()n»:entrftlioii of tho pofmlntion in cities doubW the ilcalh? 
from r^ymotic diseasB^ nad dtseaaes of the nen'oun itvstein ; tht^ ralia 
of deathE4 Imnng been a& I to S' 11^ and I to 2' 13 ; and upon reference 
to iniiiviilual di^cikdt^^ it will be observed tlml the cugmoDtalion in th^ 
biltt;r cltu^s occurs i^iinci [rally in i^uuiulfilon^ and hydi'Qcephalint ;^ 
D^athtt bv eonTulMJmm, ortuntiea j«.'t 17, cttio:^ 3,723^ rutio I :2'7<>; by 
hjdroeeiihalnfi, conntirs -i51*, cities 1,540^ ratio 1 : 2 "75. It faan alrtiady 
liFHMi intimali^l ilial convulfiion h a frequent inlereurn:-nt symptom in 
diarr]in*fi and ^i8easef of the epidemic chss in.inFanle;; it nmy vxiat, 
buwL'vor* iu( nti iuih<|i(.'ndr[it aHVvlion, and in tLul amui.' huji ckmrlj^t m 
wpII iw Uvilrot'i^idinliw, ^ilh which it it ftlhcd, an opidumic pharnotcT. 
A KJintlar' n-niark will Ekpply to paemiirmiu and broddntiH, of ^vhich 




1 : 2'A7. The pulmorinrv induniEiuiion wrft*s in mau/ caaai^ develop^ 
in thr coiir^e of mLVL»!e*v hilluctiJC'^^ An^L Mhfrr iliHonMM of cbo Ar^l cIms. 

the AAu's r>f M ;iiid Oh>, show thiLl unlii-ulLliy f>lbce.i uugiueot the Eatalit}* 
Oftlifiena^ In fUflVrent degrees. IncrMMpcr 

Conntic*- CiU^- cent- bk CU\0f. 

Deatbi by c^u^iimpEiou - ^i^d7 6*135 39 

diihibirth * 217 372 71 

typhus - - I.d64 M06 221 

Ttil* ^'ivt>j( the cIa?willoAiioa a poculijw jimiwiiy* Wlwccvw tbe 
nbtoluln moruUity ia iow, the oiimbcr of iluatlw in tbo opidouue ciMi in 
less thaii iho iiumhnr in dto pnlmooAry ctiflH: aod, on th« oontmry, 
wherever ihff ^kaihs in the firat claaa exceed or eqm\ tliose in the third, 
it rnjij br nfHrin^i Llint tlic abiohilc moHaliiy i* hii-h. 

Titij iKcup-ilbua ill ciliOfl are noi tooix lab^riou? Lluin ogi-icultiirr!', aimI 
tJi^ grpni inftM of iho town poiJulnUon hftv* o^>ii«fA&t exPK^Ua itnd 
•raployin^^ni: thoii- wrjcp* arc liighcir, their ilwolling* aa good, iheir 
clothing a^ wiirm, and their fcod certainly a* sabilAntift! tut tliat of the 
ugrlciilturul lat^ourrT. The Toor I-iw ln<)airy, nod &ucot«flive ParlU- 
m^^tAry Committ-jes, lisiv,"* Hhowu I^iaI iho fumillfl* of ngrtculturAl 
UbouTrrnt 4ii1>4trl upon a miDintuia of untmal ftnod, Mid ail ia^dequnla 
8upidj- of hrpfti! und poialotH, The sourcci of tlift hi^^li^r morUJity ia 
dlioa itf, ihereiVr. in thv insalubrity Df the ailmo*|>herti- Evory human 
behip espirf^ about (iSG aiMc feet of gM dnHy, wWcb If oolL»et«d iu a 
revvivOT, vrould dc4lr(>y other Milmalj* i and iw oonsinnlly pmdu<^ing, in 
a variety of wny*, thn cl^ompofuiiati of aulmat und v^-diblo nuttor, 
ricldihjif ln^is-inrmi t-manalloa-i lo hoLJ^^es work-^ln>i»i«, dirtj #t4-eets had 
bad ^-wer^, Tiic nraoke of fir^vs mid ibir prwJiiuiH of coaihuHlion anj 
alvi [XJi^F^nnn^. All giiseji and elfluvin, lilsr ocl^njffi, aiy dLlfu-iiblc ; 
thry lu>\-» a ct^rUin forte of Jiffuition, whicb I'rofiiMOr Uroham Haa 
€xpre?»iKi iiumerif-ftlty; And all thi< t>manaiLan<4 fVom humau habi1atti>n« 
iu iho o^fru country minj^ie, almojii a« »r»c>ii a^ they o^capo, in the 
currcQt* of ihe Aimotpht^m. But locate, iostcrvl of oue ludivulunl to a 
m|uaru tailv of lan^l (the supposed dcnMiy of pcjpuhition in thf uncal'- 
tirat4id for«ut« of Amoric* and lUq ^lq>p«ft of AhM). 20;),0a(> indEvidiUib 
upon a H<|uaie niik, u ^Idier^ in a c^tnp, and tha pobon will h(^ cr>n* 
cemml^ 20(^)00 fold; inwrsoot tho *pAce in "^very diractiua by 1CI,000 
high walls, whidi overhang tbe narrow strcof* Rtitu out tfie fualLghr, 
attd ialvroo|>i ibe movemeul* of iho aliwwpheri? ; loi Tbr n-jiN.'UTd 
Wf^tflhl^ the olTftl <»r Hkiighforod aaimmU^ tb-* HUh proibic^xl io oviry 
way decay in ibi? houses and oourUs or ^wgnate iu tbe wel slreel? ; 
bury the d«a(t ia the oildAt of the LiTii];>; and tlie atino^phcrro will be 
an active poison, which will deitray, as it did in London foimorly, and 
n^ it dues ui CoDMtnii'iuo^h uow, ^'7 |wr cout, of <ho inhatjiluula 
unnunlly, ani gon^mtn, wb<^a ihe fnm|jurDtur« ii high, reonrringnU^nes 
iu wbicn a fourth part of the entire population will pcrisb. But die 
health will U? a Uttlo laore Impiured by rotiiUiucit u|k>q 1 than upon 100 
i^iunre miie«, if in«M can be derbed for supplying the ^;io,UXI 
iadiriJuAU with 3O0lOO9^O0O cuble foot of pm-e nir doily. And for 
reoioving ihe priot^ipnl Houmw of poiiiaiioiiai i-*)clialation<v Tlio latter 
object 18 partly aecoiapltfthed by i>avedj even &treot«, by the wavoogeTi 
by (in abunlant «ipply of wnirr, hy lar^^v wrll^^oasi meted traMOd 
Hewer«, anil by di>juf?tk' bablt^i of cle^Lntiaei^) ; but U U difflcult to 
pnrccii'o ho^ vohitHo in;purilivL4 can bo rcmorml, and bow a ilrfiain of 
uoeontAniinaUul ^lir can 1h? ttupplied wht^re ihe cKin caanoE heit ihi- uarth 
and air, whei-e thisre are no open ^uares, or the stfveta are narrow, or 


[riiT nr^ 

i|j|nl|iR]lj Rv-pfimtt-Hl hy vourlfs t-r IjlijU id fk/ r?r fic. It wiJl 
ho fonn^ttffnr pariffutt iIiaI th«^ moctalny int^rniiMA r« lh« deiuity of 
tli<! popttlntion incrroKH ; nnJ wIkiv the driiMty mid llir? uilluene^ are 
th<^ Wine, thitt lh« rftif of morifllilj' Jpik-ikU upon ih*- cfticit-iu-y of tin.- 
vMrttlntion, nnd of iIjc mcmi* vrhieh un; t-oiployed for Ihe niTnovul of 
impiiniicN Tbf.' iwxl pfL^ji in tlitf m;(i:inriil it tO cMttl'linh thr»c Ivfu 
f«ct>4 ; wbicli will ha iJoiip hy^ ^.tiowiiig tlmf. in 32 ilicti-i^'lH of oiio Uj;j^ 
cilr tliy mortality iiKTrcRM'^ »'i Hi the inletisilyt uial full? wiih the dimi- 
iju'lion of the caumts to wliich iho exrcwi^*' nicrt^iiily )mv* janf b«>ii 
MMCriheil. 'I'hii nttJttrwiry <lf-ductiou from the i4CJ"iea of Uicls, iben, is 
iIlo' tin? mortjfclitr lia* n tomkiiLy to iiicrcosc Ofl the tbiifcity of lh<* 
pfipulfiTinri ihf^rfAfits l^i*t lli"' 1^ tin health fill (enili^nry i<jin Ih* roniit^f^ 
acted by arfifit^inJ iik*"^^'^!'' 'n oilitr l&nns the mortaliij of ciiic* iu 
EnglsucI niiJ Wales ii^ hijfli, but it iiiny l^e iinroinHural-ly rcducwi. A 
gCOOo, gtnei'ul Ftj'Afeni uf Bt^wera; tLe interaction of the Lleii^f crowded 
dUlncifl of tho incir<.>j>olt« bv a fov spAciouk Mn^c<tiJ i oti-3 a pAi^ in thv 
Ka:«t i^nd oF London woitlii prolmldy diminish tlic ftUDual demthshy 
t^eveial tkousuud^ pi-evL^nf many ycm of Mckne»s> nnd add wvcraL 
ycnn* to the livf^s of the catli^ |M>pulution. Simikr impntiTmfOild 
would have thu jmhw ('ffed»< in the oiIkt dtir>^ of ihv t-iupitc. Thei 
poorer ctasEes would he hcnfftilpd by th<^ae meaBurcs, aiul ihiri poor-rntcB 
wnuld Iw redn**ei] ; bul all this^Ca of Ihe cuuiniuiijlv txv** directly 
inlcresied in iheir adoption, for the f pidemics, whcth*'r innntnzti, tvphii*, 
or rhi:Jcrti, — ?«nialbpox, ticarlulinUi or inou>t]e6, wbich arbc in the ea>jt 
Ciiil of ihv town, do not stay llivi^ ; ihvy (i^vcl Eo Iho »««( cud, nnd 
pi-ovft filial in wido f^r«d1« and (f^iiai^^t. Thn r^gMrr* *how thin; they 
trace dfTWHOses from uabeullliy to liealthy quflrteir*. nnd follow th^m 
from ihc centres of dtie:t in th<? Kiirroujidirjg villngi^^ nnd rcnu)t« 
dwelUugtb (1st Annual Heport, pp. IW-IG.) 

In 1831 the cliy tiopnlation enumerated wa* 3,0Td,262, ihe country 
population ^j^oo,*!?^; wilh the corn«clion?t which hnu< been feti^gested^ 
aA the popuialicin ina^ea^ej^ faster in ciliet than in the country, the 
popuhuion ill 1^3^ would U- nhoni 3,726,221 in the rliy dii^lrjits, and 
nboul 3,o39.£>OM in fhc- ooimtitft. Tho oily Wfta pr-oUibly 1o iha I'unO 
populafjofi at 1 -Oj3 lo 1 TiOO ; and to this extent (u per c(?nt.) the de«Cba 
is the counlJed should he Jingmentetl, tn render the niortality ^hjctly 

DiUTiii^ livTwelveClas^'Sof Kbial Diseases, in Til v urn\ in KnrnI Wslnrts. 



Ru,r«J Dvniiob. 

Efetiinalvd porulAtiod, JuEit 3U, ^i^'^^f - . - 



iv flpidi:tntc,1^iiilemlc,AudCen1ni:ioutD]H-ue« - 



a. . 

l.iriho Nervous l^jBlfiu - - - 



:i r 

Ofihe iCL'tiiimrflTj' Org-j(i» _ . - 



4. S 

Uf the Or^ns of ClrcuJulicu 



5, -^ 

nr Hip ULu:eT4tivv Ijncaiti ... 



ti. ^_ ^ Of iW Unntirj' Orgimt - ■ - 



'- 1= 

or the Ort»»n» of Gcntrmlion 



U' Ilio (JrgHDS or LooomotEon 



iK rhr Tnfei^timvriNir}- ^ijinli'm 



10. ^ 

1 Of UaceitruD Sfat . . ^ 



l-i. Vinlvnl 1>^arh* .... 







Totid Di^Bibs 





Jtc«ictrH til* TO,*IO person* who (IumI e^nmllj- in Or> ^him' nml in ilw 
more scattered popnlmion?, Ibrrp wti» nfi pxccs in ilio ci!j<?5 of 30,(RK> 
(ff^thn; 9,J*T0 from distajts of ilic rpiiktnk clau^ 7i47-* from dl-wascdi 
<»f ihe n<rvou» *y*f*>m, 10,4*1^1 from ^^i^enfle'^ of llii> ro^fiirttfory orguifl, 
and 5,144 froiLi diwnwB of ihi^ Htxt'-ftivc orjcaiif*. The nnnufll me of 
mortality in ibe i'Uie<i wa* 2'7. in the cciiiniies 20 jx-r ceui. ; luj^l the 
moHnHi}' in tlii^ dtif;^ I 36 l<» I'CX) in the- coumicii. The m<^»n 
duration of life in tht^ two ooin of cirGumfltuttoc? wouUI iliffitr ncttrJy in 
llie mlio of ^7 yftiiv nn.l *W) y^.vrft, 

lu vx&minJn^ tht^ sftceiut CJui^es o( ileaDli, ttircit ola^^^c-s innj^ be 
distirigui.^hcd ; ono closfi vhich vrn* *'Xagg^rtii4^\ in cnirH lo the bigh^t 
pilch, n third L-lti^^^ m nlik-h iha uiurinliLy wbh iivnrly the miuo or la 
ciccosfi in ihv ounti^^, nnd ^n inti^nik^ulint* Hiu^«> Tol*OOil«atfa m 
the comitios the di^thj* ont of thr ^flmr fjmoHnt of popnttjfion in iht* 
cilics werp l>y &itbtna, 3'JSO;' emip'JiaSi 2'7\ i couvul^ious ami 
leethin;;, :J"i57; cqdialiH* and hyiVocfphiiliis 2'41 ; hvdrophobin, 
2"37i [mtumonuifc broucliitia, nud pl»?urifly, 109; dotirium Ircmcn*, 
1*08: lyptin-*, i'SH; fcmnll-pox, l'73; benrt dmoiw*, P73i cbihU 
birthfc l"63 : syphihi*, I"59: rhrumntisra* \'6>i; gont, l'5d; hcrtjio, 
1'48 ; purpura, 1^46; euiiden doaths> l'45; livor dut-ase. 1'4^; 
hopatitift. I'3i^: ti-tjkiiu-4, I '32. Thi^ excels of mortnlUy in citicv wu 
baa in ibi- folLowbij; OMr? ; by consuAption 1'24; cr^up, 1*234 
TfoTi<nT d^^thn, 1'17; «(on<?,1'l] ; mcirttfiratioii, I'lO; mAirormfttinnn, 
I 07; iipoplcxy, 1"07; bajmorrbage, r02. Tbu monnlity by tlw 
tiiii-d das* of <;susf# wn& -^renter in tli*- conntic4 tluin in ibt dtips : for 
Ibe mcrtulliy t<i I -00 in ihc cuuntit'a van in ihv ciiie»s hy iwraXyw, 
*V^ i dropny. "lH* ; jnnndiuo, '99; difllirtctf, '4)7; o-nncoi, '9'Ji hydro* 
Ihorax, 'SH ; hematrmpsi*^ '79 ; debility (fns:|nonIiy prtmiilnrf birth), 
'75; nlropby, '75; scrt>fula, '46, Jt will bo useful lo comjiar" all 
the other diecasc.*, bnt» in doing eu, it mtwt hr Uoino in mind that 
Iho di^-iifies in tlit^ <.-|iid«[nio cliijw fluctualu fi'oni vi-ju* luyi'iir: thai 
trhcLi diL* nuinbi-r of cum-^ i» ooTieid«rjkliU! the ivlnlivi^ mfi'iuliLy 14 mott 
cdiTPctly tacprc*we<l, and thul «bt;ht diffi-reuotH duserv*- litflo ntknlion. 

Tho fatality of Bcrofulfl^ jmrpum, cjinccr, slonc, jnundite, dint)el<», — 
chronic dlMikSi^? — in which there nre new deposila, new Ibrmaiion^ or 
vew M!creliutib, i*> iib )£ii^tit in th« counttj' a» In ritii'^ ; dn.>|j?iy cunirn 
Qod'r tb<F «ainf» L^nd, Th^ir exciting f!mii>cA nro r<)mmr>n to tbr^ two 
tinjtmx* of poptdiUton. 

It hjui been proved that Ihe iottn: injuries and dUmec« siW loort- 
d<»dlj in citir* Ihiin in th-'^ country ; which aiay atcoma for tli*- hi^hvr 
iDortidity fruiu Mvknl tl^ntbf bcmin, nnd «omo olhcr CAij»<^f<, PaHij- 
riiion ik an frwjuoinf in ihc connlry »» in Inwn ; whi-ri' il i« nnvri ibf^W-i 
to oftpii followed by puerperal fever aa tc bo 63 per com. more fataK 

ir llifi mortality in iIk' ct>unli<^ ha.* hern triLn U^r nnity, mid all 
aboM: it has be«n lormed eitoer^, it must not t>o uudor&ioud lo imply 
thfit lo>A thftii 70,110 clonlh^ may not bi- rxprcl^NJ to occur out of n 
nopidnlion of 3.i'>.'*?i,90W. The popiiUlioit of the r/inntir*, ^hir^h ]»aT<* 
w«n held t<j represent the* country, iuHndcd Ibe inbsbitam^ of sox'cml 
citic Thv mincai ofCornuuU cuused many denthB ; inid uiyono wlio 
luia viifited ib« ilUveutihklOil dw».-]lias» of U)« pou]\ uud it^ ucqu»lDle>l 
vritJi ihcir HmitcH] comitutnd of c loth i nsTi, Hrin^, nod liUbiiinntiftl Ibod in 
agricutluml district*, cannot oome to that condu-ion Tlie minimum 
de^ee of »ickne«Ls \ehWU a ^voll-oducntwi, sfflncni poupbi would 

* Tht ?A<ia ilvKihi ill ItiP eiljrh frnm Mlhmn wiim tn OAH m 4-liO tn 1 -nO; boi 
tho population iu lh« C«0 cue* VM u I'UAS to POOU ; divido, tli«rvraro, 4'Ca 
by I o:>a, to obuta tbo inu rolaiUc xDOTUiiij'. It wt*. •> It »titr4 to ibc text, 
a auto 1-00. 



1 tte TOUl wMeh thajmnU ni:mbr*r in tlio cirtiunt^lAnoc* 
» to boalili, art imkucnfa ; for tlif iii«joi ii^ uf (tio ricfa 
aad imdrilo cTiumm who«i> Itv«b luvo bomi ob^frvud. Live imocipdhllj ia 
itl-oonfttrocted ottle^ bq*) uv expoaeil Vu tbu ef»id«n>ii^d itenonted 
aiaoDg their utifmppior n^-igfilKxint, It will Iw prurlrnt, ihrrpfore, not to 
epeciilftteupoiia^iiieof tliin^^of wliJclitli0TvsiHi«rfl»irord no ex&rapl«a, 
oj U iiiJty 0imnd pru'Ailoiicnl to Ox moro thikii flfij'nTO voapa for ibc 
nTvn^i' <!iiratiun of humun life; mn<\ it wouM not bu prftrlicAbl« to 
suggest ADj medua ri>r improving! by inkmedlaio m^A^fure^ tbe h«iUth of 
n^cultJirul ilialncU injrt? ulfuctu&l than ih« Imiiruin^inistii oftbo citiot 
In chc-ir o^Ettres from wUcb 00 mziDj di&^^^e^ nuliouv 

Li the i«xoiv»ivc mortftliC^ of cLlic> lacvllulilc ? It Imn not loii^ htjvi 
cutabflnbiH) tn tbi! pabli<^ -lAlufiiction tbnt ihn aiorlJility in iIttumi popa- 
Jatious i4 t?):oM8ive, Tbi5 atmple pixtceAs of €om|mnD^ liie ileaiJis id 11 
glvvn tiiQij out of n giv<^n number livbg Itt n modern diHCMvojy; aud 
liH souiLi itiiUvAbiaU dk<d u; aU u^^ in tb^ U^diitjeit, or aiUMued tho 
higbost iLgdu :□ ihi' unhuAlthu»&t clouon, nud i^pidoniKUi dc«>1*bod tbn 
ouuirj 113 w^-U hi towai. lliyugh 10 lem i^xt^nt, ibc unjiidwl reaH^>u vttks 
bafHixt in iu ntlcmptf to iinrjkVt:! tho intncMtii' (ncis, and to dmw con- 
dueions wbiah ouuld justciyj or atiuiuUu public intorlWynco. If tbe 
Iaw of nnCmo li«i] Iwi^n, tbnt all Uiu inbublCunU of an ni^bc^ltby plACC 
iLtlaiD<--d th« ngv of 40 jnjirs and of a licaUhy pliLoa ibo ogif of 50 
yearft, and th^'n Invariftbly dii^i, thu^ difftrpiicvf it-onld have been i>er^ 
Ccivuil iti two or Uiixo goaunttioiiA: ^ut tbo Inn- of uniarc* vrnn ditT<trvnt ; 
in both ca»e£t infauta dtinl at tbu briuii, men pf-'iiabiTd in the pnnid of 
lifi-, ivnd o\i\ mea grow i^iay with Bf^ ; tbo f>rL>piirlloaji otxlj varied, 
mid Xlh- thfftyrvnct* wiw in Ihi' jtwmffp durntion of lif<5. wbitjh vnried 
from 20 to ^0 yearSf and ret rti'maiiit^ iiDdoci^rminod. It vas probably 
Dot gRU^rruily^ known btiforu Ibo publioatiuti of tbo tir:it Rvjiort, tbnt 
tbo mcnn duiaiion of Ufe wa^ Irotn 2^ to 3LP yeur^ in ibo msi di«tnci% 
liEi-^l from 40 to 50 yonr* in the ii<>rth nud west ibsti'ictn of the 
ini^lropoHH L it in nui tbeivfor^ surprising, lUni tin- n'lutivB im>rt»Uly of 
jvinot^) di«Ti-ictti remained m long uudLacorered. 

Till? lirdi wrJL>-i-H wbn <*4tublit!tb(.t1 sotisfthctorilr tin* lujfU cnorlflUly of 
cltlt'S took A gloomy And porlinps ^ fanMicaJ viow of tbo qn^.^tion, Ollica 
wore ci<^lart]d vorti>;o.'4 of vko, miixvy, dia<'iv30, and death t tbcy worf? 
prucLuimoiP'tbu ^rnvv^ of muakind." The populiiiiou of ibo coiiutry, 
it was aai<lj wa^ ^rawu to tUem to bi.' Hacritlced ; an^ tbo^v wiio cnttin^d 
left oil hope iH?hind, for no r>ros|)<>ot of bi'nilb in cities wa^ beheld. 
Happily tb« fdither appli^^MJou ot ibt; in>.-thod> which iIuisl< vmincut 
writ«rK <imploredf nnd Lhc fncts which the ivgi^tors furnish, uuabl^ us 
to aualyifio tho cmsi.fl uf dyaib in dtii*fi ; and to eiiovr lUal while the 
moTlnlity 10 incrnas'd .t? much as (hey slated, the flppii^h^nHioa.i intu 
i«bich they hviv Ijt'Lravri ^i-tv iil-fuiindinJ wh<-n apphud to thefulnr*'. 
Thori< li rc^i!«ou t^r W(i<^vc lliul Ibu H^^-^ivgHtiuii uf jiuok-nd In townn ie 
ntjt in^-vitiibly disiuiiroui. Ui^altb and lifp mny b© prcierrcd io a dense 
population, provided the doiuitj bt^ nL>l iJirried beyomi ceitain limits. 
Of thin tbf? nnturir of th^ oau^» to which ih^^ Tnortnhly in dcK-, ikS well 
a« the TJipid iuprawm'-ut in ibu h«tiilh ot Lyudcici wiihin the ta^C two 
0<^ntaric^, 1* pivaainptivc- proof ; nitd thu fnvotirftblc condition of sovund 
dislripts of the metropolis |4>uvr» liitJt* room for doubt on ihr snbjeot- 
Tlio city popnlntion of England i?* gi-t'uttfr ihau ihat of any othor country 
of EtJrope. and it incTcaflfts more rapidly than th*^ pupiiktion of the 
rnrnl ilimifrls. In This lli''i-c is noUiing "to r^-gret; U>r if iJio gcni-rftl 
progr<.<M of civiliiati^Q cvuipt^aflattd tlia io«+ of lifo Io ih^ citicji of the 
ftnrii-nt world Rn4 of th.' middb' ftg^-H, ibr mh'nutnj^s of dtii^a are not 
kaa evident in th»* pri-ntnt timi'. (^iid Annnd Eepori, pp. SO'Stf.) 




Tbc g*uer,il punci]ilub t(>THiCclL'*l wiili ihU juibjivl htiv^ llMW tit- 
cussed in tho Appi^i'licu^ n> itivtamr K^iKtria; aqU ihf drcninttftiioet 
were pi>inU-d out, wLioli, it W WJcvoil, inorciiso iUv mrtrfftUlr ^n towaftp 
clti««,an<1 <lffi).ii» |inmilnlion« of rVl^^y kind. The- mim>»nr nf i1i*'illi* hy 
difTeront c»tt«v4 in tlic metropolis, and 24 of iho prificipil lowa or city 
distriora, jLiv now coutm^ted wtlh tlic dcAtluf frooi tliu ^me cnatca in 
COlintic^H uoiitniiiinji: ei k*!-* Jtjuse populatioD^ olik-fty t.'«-ft*j(*d iii agri* 
culture. Thv fi^llowlug tablo nhow* tho aituunl mot-talJly of 1,000,000 
living, ftnd Iho Tt?lntii'n i*xcAw tu tht^ town dtatricU, T(ir vray \i\ which 
the pi^tiltitioD, ill Oie mid<Ue of ibe two ji^^rs (J^nn.'^i-y 1, 1839), WW 
ostJmallKl, h«5 been sirciuly vxpltuntid. The ]iupuluLJ'iri onumoratod io 

18,11 irwf uiaiued lo Iihvi i[icr«u«fd at tli« aoiiw mta a» iu lUe 10 y«»r9 



Kvliiiifiluil Dvftltit 
jon-l. IW. |UiTiroT«r^, 

OniDtiT DbtritrU 
ttwn DiMridi - - 



Tlio dc^n^ity L>f the country districts wnA to thai of tbe iowu< ilx 10 to 
24S, the moriAliij ryu 100 to 144, The munn dumtiou tjf uro in the two 
clfti^c^ of districts difTere nearly 17 yonr*; it is in tlio ppopoition of -55 
yrnir* (count rj ) to ^ ri-nm {toTrnf*). Tlio diaVroikGi' U groalt'i' lUau 
wa« fpvc^n ID tilt.* cii]>*miiltoa fuitrii]t<<l utj thu fii^t^ obfor^d in 1^3$, 
wbcu the deaths in Uri^tol. CUft^ii, anil NjriTicIi were (by i-iror) not 
i^il'trmctcd from thv d<vithfl in the coimti'"! of GloLi^L^^Hterfhiro Aiid 
Norfolk. The mortality in tlic town liisirJri'. however, di^clini^l in 
IHZO inoro ibiiu lh<* [uortidity iu tht- crjuntry districts. A^ ibv pO|ju- 
Iktiou iucrrkj.iL'A fu^ter in tbo tovrn tb>Lu rn the oouiilry diiitricU, tb<* 
dtfllBiwce in the mortAlit^ vas grcAtvr tbna it i?* represented to bo by 
thei0 numb<-r*. 

The diraft««« chiefly incidcnUl t'> cUilOhood arc tirice Ha &tal in Uii? 
tovrn dtHtncta m tLoy nrc in tUo country. 

The deuitha by H><vi-riil dnoawM of oH A^c were Alrnont ^-^^iintly 
ntiai»onj« in tli9 tomu find th« cauntry. ATfthmi is, hovevor, an 

It mncl be home In mind tlut tlic niintbiT of children mid old poopl^ 
iiviitg in xhv lowtia is le« than in the cjuntrj di^triria; wbilo lh« 
number of por^oug ai the taldll^ of Ufo in proportiomdly giymter Eu i\u* 
towQ» thiui in tlw c<mritr)'. 

The follovLQg diseUMt occurring generally between tbe a^e^ of 15 
nnt] 30f wvre fruui ^ to W {Mr cvuL more tital in tlH^- town thnn in the 
Oounlry ilUtrittM. 




QnmtiT. Tnirtw- 


RbmiDitillaiD • 







S : 

TO - 


172 [PAET IF- 

The Mndon^ to oomnpiion waa ificri>ft»ed Z4 per oeat, m tTplius 
^5 por 0€<nt.t in the torn dUtrictn t l>ut a^ tbo abnoloto mocitttity fron> 
conjiuniption la tUreo limc^ &_- ^i-ear a^ from l/iibuft in lovrn3(, nrt^l umMy 
four cJiDc^ {3'73) il^ grc^iit in iL<t country, itio esoc«e i^ Urivth? by 
coiuucnptioD, caused bj ihe iosulubriijr of lowiis, is ^i-ntcr timu tlie 
«XO««M of (IralliTC bj tvphun — a fact wliicli fu# ItUhvrnu Ihrii orurloLikcd. 
Tbiu, 21^004 Juiitbi from cuii sumption occurrcU iu iJio potintrj', 32,436 
in the towu di-tnda: ihv exce^ azaouut^ to 8,3-12 (lc-utli«; G,402 
deaths from Ij|>hu9i occurn-d in thecountnr, 10,S52in tli«> tovrn di-Ltriot^i ; 
the excess amounted to 4,-l^0 deaths* The differenco immure coir^^j 
<^xbi1/il«^l by a oomporiMin of the Ukorialil^ from thi- two iIihiima* 

The fudd vboiv tli4- pi^prk'ty of the onliuary meUiool lutviiii to uLiofr 
peraoRA of a coii^umpfive Imbil in a pure atmop^pheitt ; but tbo> miliuto 
ngnniKt. M*iidin^ th«m to roMde in ibc coiitinvnial tcivrn*, id lunnv of 
mtldi the mortality 19 nd high 110 it w m Itetbnal (ir^en and Wiiit<-* 
cbnpcL Purftmvuib (mismcnstruatioD), though riiix^ly fainl, h n ¥rry 
cdinmoEL ilifteaw, and one which greatly cinbiin-]iH4t-< i})o nioJioAl pi^o- 
liiiooer, Th(< f/icl« in t1i« tnble poiut out the utility of ibe couniry 
wiaenii^'Iibices to p>nii«Dtd afltlcC«a wSlh the cuukpliiiiit in citif*^. The 
excess of (t?iitt]r< by thtldbirth in the town dimtricCv i« p^iriking. Out of 
nonrly tbv ™m«> tjuiub«r of d<?liv*-nc?, tK>9 mothpre; dieJ in ibc country^ 
1,560 la the toWTt dtMrict^ 

lli^ €wu?iv?i of the triccuiiTv mortftltly cjf (i>wuk lire well known; and 
it i^iiuut be too frequently repeated, that ibej udoiit of n-incival to ft 
^rcAt oxrtfni. 

The- morbilLty ii^creii^c**) v/ptens ptrri6tiij luj thL^ d^nifily of ibc <>fi1uvuU 
poifon KenenLted in cities Anil not *xnct\y a« the dentily of tht- iwpuln- 
tioti. The iinLjceiice of the iuhabiiurit-*«, or an iIIn^1^ldl^ncy of pi'oper 
food^-cvcu when n»>t wiirird 10 Uic- extent of ?*fnrvnlioii or miniue^ — -uan 
aljw n <l™d*?d yifctt on tbr pnjdiKjtiuti oj' fflluTiul puiv>ii', n> well &a t>n 
tbe tendency to dfucnson of ovitj kind. Hence the mortvbty in uot 
nliir«y» greut^t in the dvu-tt-M |Mn'(> of ritif^v*. 

Tbi« principle cxplnint the (tictt^ txjat, jilthou^h ihf morlidity i« in* 
ctwiwhI 44 jitT caiiln bj the prestnt cMtidiiionof tb<- lownji in England,—' 
wh^rt the ptxiportioLi of tuvvn p4>pidiitiou \» greater th«in iu noy oUjer 
country in Kiirnpe, i>wopf lUIgium,— <th^ morutlity of tha nHlion bos 
boon iiinch below tlio uvi-ui^jr during ihe wbolr oi' th<^ pn'scnt c^'Uiurv i 
apd, up Co the pr^^nl daVi the cxpectAtien of iife remuiu.% higher in 
England than iu thu re<l c»f turopt'^ Tbr ludnFtry mid in tcllip^ence that 
hnvu crvtitcd I1<jiinthiiig lowi^e \MV<i uta^homli^tJif l\tvugL not tv> rn-puily 
th ihcy tni^ht hnrc di>iic, the stnitory condition of ibe piTiple, (3rd 
Annual Report, 9S-101.) 

liefntifm between Dftititj/ nf Population and Ikat/t-ralv, — II is Wtdl 
t^Ubllibed that the uiorraltEy of Ihe populfllzuna of cifii^s is genoi^lly 
higbrr tbnn the motluliiy of ]ico|jIe in Uko «'oiinrry> j\nd it baa been 
pbowi) m the* aiintithl ItiTpnrtH thut tht^rL* 1^ n ijonatiint relation bt.-tw(.^n 
the density of Ihe pepnlnfion and ihv uiorfatlty. Thin bus been furfhcr 
tcs(''d hyiirmngtng nil fbi.Mlitiri(![s itt rbi- onlcr of thrir nioiUlity duriag 
the ten year^, and Ibcn dctH^riniiiing the density of tbeJr popuUtion. 
A Tnblu |j['CM^ut:» n nuunuxry vii^w uf flic rvMjlta, 

Tho gc'Dc-rul lEi'^rlality of ihv (£^l disfricts ntugi^d from n rate of 14 to 
33 d«atud iu 1M*U hrirj;. If tho facts nre arnni^cd in the gre»t groups, 
tbc following rc.Htilt U obtained : — 

1. When? the mortality wos 14, 1^, or 16, the populntioD was in tUe 

proportion of ftC! pcraona to I Biiu^ire mik- 

2. Wheru ibH luoriidity ^H'* 17, 18, or ll*, fh<? popuUtJon wa* 172 
per?HDns to a M|uaro milo. 

1^ J 


3. ^Vlir*r« the morUlity wtut *10, 21, or 22, tho populntloD wim of tho 

i1rii>il/ «^[i(T?#cM>l \>y 2A!i iv n ^qunm mils. 

4. WJi^pe tho mortftlily wni ttl tli^ ™l« of S3, 24, or '2Z, the population 

6, An<l where tlio nto nf mortnlitj^ v^^ 2*> nmi iipwariis. the avi^m^n 
ilttiiiiy wnd cxprc^etl by 3^199 porjaus to a w|unrn mxle. 

TliiM in lh*«f flvp ATonp^ !>w»r(» ■■ n consuiDt, incmuv> of inorUlicy 
mniiinj; pimlk-l with tJie iiicreMe of Uensiiy. 

Not oaiy id ihhi ihe tnm^ in ^at>rroup^ lint tb<* ^laroe kw rcion^ over 
ihc two scpie* of THrion^tlic rnii** of cl<'nih« lo rhc livin;? btkI flie niio 
of Ihe living to iho *rca of Utid on w^hlcli ila-y dwi-U — when th(^ groups 
Kre miiTlipllfvl Anil rli^^ rAi^rn niv mihrUvFiW «n ni t^ ;^i^x> ri^e tooomo 
dixturl^nnci'; wliioh nlmostt invnrtttbty uilmil« of cxplttnnii^n. For it 
Jmji]>cDs vlien tliore i>( A dL«cr«piiJicy thnf the ]>opulatioh jr* Jailgcd on n 
fLmnll poritnn nf iTii; nma of ft wiilv diMrit-'t, nml m that cnw tho deiuity 
of Ihc part in wlitch iho people tjwcll m not A<.'fTiirnU*l}- oxpnwl(^i by lli« 
mefhori hi'te emplnjeiK When Ihr groups nro larfTi-r, llw effiTrtji oflhrco 
p^Tliirbftlionn aiv it^oA viaiblep as th« dJHiurbiiij: aiucfev nciitmlise CAch 
oth«r to twiDc extent. 

The popubuiciti uf thf- ilifiiMor Ubirieu diffci'M Tii mnuy rvupoota IVom 
ibrki of th« thinly [«opU'd diMrIct« of the oonnlry { but th<.'re can bo (lO 
doubt tJmt nere proximity of thn dwelling!* of the people done not 
nuC£sst;rily invohe a bigb n»<e of moitiHti\ When any xymotic miller, 
«uch »s vnriolinr, st^arlntinini', or t^phmc tind-H iu wuy info n Tilidg<> or 
sln-cl. it in imn*^ likt^ly 10 pnss fixiin UoiL!*ir i*? h<iij»r lliau it is where lUe 
pi?oj>li' lire hrunghl l*wa fiv^ootitly into <*r>n»ftcj. TJie nthitliition* into 
the itir nrv lhick< r Bnt if im n<teqmite waiter supply, luid suffick-nt 
arrjujjc«mcDta for ilnaiiAgc nnd clrnTi^^ing itre eorured, H9 llwy curi be hy 
conibiiuUion in town^, tbo i-vila whii^h nov make deijBi> diictrfctv M> f^tal 
may be milignleil. lui^er^U ionic i>f lh<^ dmw ilir^tiidfl of I'lltci nrr tn 
thf? prMAnt dny oriropamtt^-iely Kidnbiioiiii. (SiippTeni<^nl to ihe 25lb 
Anaiiftl Report, pjK xxxiiUt.) 

^fflt^i* of l^rnjiiiy t\f Poftuliition oh ffMiIth.^-fht^ ti-rni tf^um iraptiM 
fnnaicipidfrdi^'t'riinicnt itml imlLj-iiml or^funiHuiion. ItuF il will be co»- 
Tenient lo di*cai-d f**r !h<» mon^ent every oihcr i-onrti<ien«ion vic<^pl the 
density of the pipuhlion. lliis i>* nhowu by divi^liii;- Ihe i>opuJalJon by 
ibo ^oMJiri niiloH <"f nren ou wbii-b ilu-y Mi-e liriiijf Ttii™ hn?' boon done ; 
nnd ibiTf^ tu foiind to he n j^fieni] rehilion 1n?iwf-i'n the mortnliiy antl 
thfi density t J iIk- populttiioti. Thus in ilie headthy dwlrirt^ durioj; 
1861-70, Tlwre were* 16G person': lo a wpmrn mile ; in all Kn^laiid, 367 ; 
hi Lherjirjolf 4>.'J.82^. And iblb Jni^jlit-v tliui tbe mtfan proxitniiy of 
por»im to pir>ion in tbe three gmiipn wiin 147,90, itn4 /ynrdn; tho 
proximity beinj^K" ihe HqiiAn- root cif the doubly.* 

TIjv d^ii-HJiy of populaltou w u^anlly eAlculaled awiiunr* ihot the 
fttimbrr^ lire diKlHbn led eT^^nly fner the iirciii: bul Ihin in fvareely ever 
ibe caT« ; fur the Bii^li*Ji town» and di^iriels indiide oprn »|\uv« iinbiifll 
Oft, whieh eondiii^e to tho fi-eo n^mtion of f ho pUoo, but in vory tliffbi^nt 
degree*. Tn i^oine diHlrietH the preiiit-r pari cf llie popularion m erowde<l 
Oh a portion, while Ihe rest i« thinly »^nnered over the remainder of 
Ibeirareift. ThiiFt the denniiy of ihe popitlatbn of Umdon ik cxprened 
by 25fi7t i>crvon» to a i^tiarc niiK^ but ihe tUio^ity of iho CoDtml 

• p — pr&woiily hi yard* — — -_ « -i— ^ (vbcrc D ** ^'opulatloa (4 >iiniiuie mllft.) 
3* D* 

See cxtmrt oa HP- SA-36. 

ilifltncU it \07,7iiil-. of yCt^tminBlpr laX^**- Id ^lO fJuU-'livtrtd of 
Wcjclmih^er, Biririok Slii'<*;, lite dcntilly id 27ti,587, while in ILitnp- 
tt^aA il i8 7i3]^< The ^roximilv in London U |]'8 TarcU; anil of the 
denMHt fiub-diE<lnVl of Lciiidon (Berwick 8cnvt) 3*6 ynrdf^ Tli<^ 
M«M]ahr«t(r diPlHct lH«id<L*« tie iIoum; pitru codUuii?^ much open couDitj'. 
Ij|>nn die oibcr h^iKl. Eftrmiool, Binnina;1iftca, and Hri^tol flitilri^-fci 
corapHae ibe dunMM puu of tbe tOTrn» of tliow naiDM ; ilw tiyvtm^ Md^ 
moro cxtonsTc^i Tho locvt dirifiioait of tli^ kJDg;doin faAv^groiviL up: 
ibej an- piulti|]lk-it unuec^fvariiv ; lL]«jr iu«i m) (^ouflieiiujc nnd llir iinmc* 
nrn M> confuting ihut il i° Jiffiailt to r^^n ihmi v-ilhoiit i.-rt-uliDg mift* 
appn^liiMJMoo. We mny hopr t(i dy ■jirn' (Uy Applied to t^iH 

ftale of tliii)^-. Ill lh(^ lucaDttDR « < i i' ti ^.t tiji.' Hi.'j^i-tnLr Gi^nt--mrK 
|{cporl« will br'4tT- fn mmd, tluit i^hmru rt>titifTrminoi]:< vrilfa wiioDfl ata 
iviun'cci (o m]|r?«< Una tooliaiy is alfltt-d. 

In ilieTparelSOJ-TOthcpoptilniiooof »fiftvrni|ic cii^^trlcl wii5M,565; 
iho aauunl biHh» l.Ifl'J i tlic flontTis 775 - thi^ 03cor#« of bji1h« |37. 

To iuvt'otigulc m&i-p oscficllj' llic ri^lntion VtwccrniSi.'n&il} *?( popatntiou 
and ihe niOTtnlity, whirli we know lncriw«'i* in Mimc^ propnrtioa In 
dcnwty, tlie <li.-Uicij luive l>eoii "T^uped iti tlio orJiT of ilit? mortality m 
all igea- Tbc group*: nix: cighton ;conjinciidngwilh ii m^rtnlilj' at 15, 
Aiitt niwc^iKlin;; Ui 3!l, 

The area, populaiioi»t Uinh)*, iJeaihs Axd mi^nnlln' <jf each group have 
bc<^n ■UiCTinra^^d ; und ivc &hown iti the TubbFi. Tho irr«^ii(nritic4 lUni 
nviy ptimnniHt^i ia ilfui1iiL|; with aiugle diHinct:^ nre in \mtl t-flu»-d ; oiid 
the ^leijeral result ■» <hnt in nil the Irhigv [rrgup^ tbc ilonsity amJ tW 
mortidit)' follow Uk- Him*- *>rdi'r. 

In Ibe Appctidix i<* tho Fifth Kcpoil I ^nt1<-avoiii'od to « how that 
within ecrUiin limifa Owvv wa^ u di-flnilt' rtlulluii iM'tn-eea dmi?!>itj of 
poptilulton Aiid inrprtaliiy. And it wa» found that tho morUilitj of 
dislrietB Hid not nicrm!**! as tlieir density, but u* lh<? ilth root of their 
dcculty. Tims the femnlc moriAlity of St. Jnme^ We^tiniDKlcr difttriul 
wa* "CSH^i itit lirnnilj- was H5,6rj9 [H^rfoiH to ii sqiiaro mile; ihf* 
Uro^ify of HU Ctor(;e n»uov('i-MjuaiX' Uni»j; 39,01H, What wan tl»u 
mortiutty ? By cAloulniioti from the density it should hnvp bw»n '0172, 
find it was -0171. • The sanio rcktion ciirfod belwef^n the mortnlily 
luid flie d(?naiiy of population in other dislrictn nf |j(>ncTon. 

A hir^cr bftsis i« now Hn|iplii>d by Ibir fjicisof lOyt■Ill-^ leconiiici in ull 
ihc di&tridw nf Kn^laiid and Walrs, They huvi^ bt^m niTanged in the 
Table?" ; and with lfu» rvwull, tbM in every >;hju]i the mortjdilv iin:iTiiHt> 
wilb tho dfpnty, but bnppily not in th.> dii^x-I prnporlion i»f lbi> di^ntiity. 
London hii-* bt-en cxdudcil in ih*? following f'AlcnUfion*, Thim in the 
345 dinrids with a rnorlalily of 19'2 tho dvosfly was 18(J perw>n* 
lu a !M|mir« mde l in the !» diMnctJ' with a dcnHit}" of 1,49ii what was 
Uie moitrtb ty ? In (be flrat place it waa not txprewed by the proportion 
iS6 ; 4,-199 " 19*2 : -r bul. ^^y tliU |n-o]-»f»HioTi ii<>»rly — 

(180)*": (4499)'"' :: lS)-2:*= 2SI 

The accompanying 'lablo shows a c<knipnrison iHiiw^en the actuiil aud 
th« calcnlAleii niorlality. 

• Sew RrgUtmr Gvcpftti's FifU» ll^-pori, Appendix, pp. Jao-^SJ. The coaeiimtioii 
of tbc above lini Jihtricti baa i\ttcc Icca chtuigcil. dee Lxincri oa pp. IGl-A. 




Ajsm'ai. Ratb of MoRTALmr par l,COO, id SiTeo Groujw ol DlMnd* 
»r Kiigland uid WaJe> (eiclosSr^ of Louden), «il(I xhe Mortality' 
iledtitW from th« Dciudti^ of PcpululTou tu ikow GrxfUpi, 


.V iimliffl- (if 




rDtmnim • 







cliuiu Ot C 

















111' 76 

ID' in 
» « 

EH cm 

hijclicr mnrtAtily al %ny olher ^oup, D and lY being llie (Ieii?*ilj off 
populAtiOQ m the two groiipK, thoD 

/D'\» /D'V 


Th<» morthJity cf dtstricts ift nearly as the 12ih rooi of llieir don&iiie^ 

Tfi*^ Murliug point h('i]i|^ Ij)' 16, the cnloiilnteH rnfc^ (h?c rol. 6) in 

thi> ntiK'r grniJpiE an Jnliirtd by tJio furiniil& fnmi llir ^tensili^K a« i^vimi 

m cohiiDD S i/»T lakioi^ llie nbore Tulnr of j», find p niiiJ p' ii> ihr loran 

proximity of p(«r»cii Ift person, vf havt^m' = iw [ S ) So tho niorlnlily 

of dtffirki* is ijciirly ji> llii- Olh rotit of ibf? proKiinitiotiy 

T]ii< mbk' muy be r^ail tbu^: — In 47 ififtricte bnvirjf A4lcn«itf of 
IfTld perilous lo a fqiiirr^ tnil*-, ii jiroxtmif^ of -16 yarli^, tbe atiuuHl 
moHidily (iS^i^^O) ntn^c] fiom '24 lo S^^thc ^VA^-t mortality n-ii« 
24-fXk— per IJKNX Tlie niorUilily mlciilRtrd from tW of (1h- aifi 
<iuFtricf» boring n moi-ltlily of lfi'16, u doDFiily <T 186 persona [oa 
Bqnare mile?, nap 22'0?, thtu dTfTvring from tbe nctoul tnorUillfy by . 
only 012. -^ 

U will be noticed Ih&t there I» not mu<-h <tiiTi^rrncc in Ibn density 
of i^uujB r hih! II., ftiitl yet ibo mortftlily iu group I. i« mu<*b low^r 
ihao ihe ru'irtfllity in grpup II. It oiny therefore bo inferrc-d thai there 
«re mnny more nruall towns in group Ij. ilmn in group ]., anil in those 
Mnall towns the rPocI* of n hi^h«r donaly are felt, whf'reiift in ktodj* !• 
iho jK>puliitJou it* iiiuro evtrily disljibulcd oror ibe oreo. W<ri* th« 
popiiUliou aggri*gnted to the lUimo exl^nl nn it in in gronp El., it U 
jHoluxMe that tic uioriaUiy would ftpproatimate to lft'90- 


Tlie dislrictft boinj; grouped iu rUe orJer of iJie uortality tli<! ilen^tjr 
o£ poptilatina is nlwjiys fwind to incixww wiJh thn mort^ilitj, bwt iuotb 
mpkll/. The grenrei- ite iii-oximity of man to niAii Ibo greater U tlio 
tnorlAlil/, Tc pIioiv how fftp ihc oiFpcf <^f tIj*' fiiTi*'-^ of morUlttr varw 
ill fWsc iiii>I oj^n tliiitriH'* nt iliffiTrrul i4?psin ilwEvfnBri***lUofollinring 
Table* hnvo 1(^d fnmicd. The 5&3 clisti-icis are arraii;!;ed in w-ven 
gn>upH ; uDilur whiclt llic inortalil}' of muli-* ;iti(] ff<iDiilr'» U jpveti nt 12 
mgkfL QiiIt ilio LjoiIoii ilititricte bavo (reL*Ei exduit^nl. atiil ihui on 
ttfX'Oiint of Ibc difficult;' of dintribiitin^ iho doAlbn nr difiVrcnt n;;<4 i:t 
lioHpitiilH over tb<^ distntf--* ro which iho/ pnoporljr bi-Wg, 

The m-irtallty yer l,(KW wnrff/- (he ago *>f jSi'€ ^«ii*« \s in Lbe fl*ven 

No. of group - - I. If. IIL IV. W Vi. vn. 

Foi-fomnlea - - ■ 34 44 58 76 89 J06 134 

„ mica • * - 41 ^1 6« 8S lot IIB 145 

Exoeftd^^ mortAltt/nrmnl«d 7 7 10 12 12 12 LI 

Meftu of males nndfeniiUes 38 48 63 82 93 112 140 

It vj'l] br nuticisl ihit the ifroupB an- uunibvi^ in th« onltf r nt their tloaaitj, 
Xo, I. tifftng (lj« IcMl dfdHi nnd Ko. VU, thi> moHt tU-nHv 

Atitir cxaminiDf; tbe iiioi-uJUy &l tbtr rariou-i ag«0 in ibu hoA-on groups 
ot dilTvrtrnf ■1(^ii'-tVEi>^i fbia gniiftral 1»W mny o4> iltidnc't^! I'l^iii th^ ft^ett. 

As iHe morlnlitvof miilff* and fcmnlK?* iinTrti.^* at all a(ro» with ihn 
dt'Tixit^ of p'>pid"tif»i\ HO it incieasc^ at ovcrv group of iige-^. but in voiy 
diffeivat proporiioiis ; inonL in owrly (-hildtiooil (<J-5) ; U*a>.t nt th& tWd 
(|umqutitJuiAl agc^ lo*-t!0 nud 2t}-2^, wlu^u immi^'iniil^ oiil«r tuwn.i; 
HfiotWr mniiTnum beih^ HftHi(»*d jit thn "ge^ 45— 65, immrdijifply nftor 
rcproibjutioii cenae?'. At ihe flift-s of Cj and upward? tins I'ffcct of 
d^Di^ity it! iriciv-asing the niorlAlily iliminihhe*. The effect is noc cod- 
*i*Icirfthlo flt any flgf after 36 iu the ^43 dUuicifi (gi^ap II.), tmvin^ a 
deo^iCy of ItiG pci-soQA to n w|UAro mile; there ihc chief cffvct Ut 
ptVHhiced in childhood. 

In thp IS7 fli<t.rirU, hiivJii;; ii di*nsil.v of 379^ ihi* efCffl of df^naily id*tor 
the age of 16 rcmnins ncni'ly uniform, mid iacrpa:*i.'S ihy niortftlily by 
about one-Hfth part. 

Ill the 47 difitTicts having adt^n^ity of 1,7 IH, the mortAlityi* doubled 
in childhood; ami in niUe<l by about a half at iheagea 45-6G. 

London, ihoagh with a density of 25,671 pcr^na to n square mile, 
foUowa for <3hildliooj tbc auioc law as the 47 dbtritU^ tbe mortality 
i-4 dorddt.-d : thmi nt liio agi^H 4't-i3o it U -cliH liigln-r than in the 
■17 ilislrict*, for the mortjdity being tnercnsed hy ucarly ihrei^fonrth^ 
ap[iro:LcbeH tht mortAlitj' of thB 9 di^^trlcts- Dnt Lortdon preheats ibis 
exeeptioaid f^tct; ihi: morialityal ibea^tsg L>5-20 jind 20-2>S fshekiar ihu 
mortality in the budibic^t didtnct^- The cnurtQ of this will be discuseed 



Jkosha^u f>t M(>»TALrTY at covh of Twelve Agc-P«rio4b in Sorwi 
Groups vf DistncU experiencing fUlferent Kat^ of Mortality nt all 

k.iFi 1 1 <i ' 







Vumbor of rijLrirte^ 

onc«rt&nt7 ■ 01 







l^nsAa prr mt. ON TDB OjhTia 0* TUX FirtT-Tiinii Usautdt Dntiticrf. 

Am. Xom 

> - . . 

UK - • 
UK - . - 


aft- . . - 

as- ■ • ■ 

M- • • • 

It- ■ - 

1 UflDdiLpmnli- 













































MHW wi *j f p^-' wiiiih, nil (IIP r»i" m fciini Fivi^^f '.fi i*'"i 'II *iir ■■* ii««i4ii7 v.«iiir» i ■> f,Ti 

dMrWflhkT^nff 4 ifi^niiiltly iL ^iriuvtor f1~OLt <>Oil'Hr"«rr^T«t-in#waBi In l>tivrpi»l 

llittlO'l Mri^niit. inovyvh or out of thir Mmn numbiTn of Gliildim ItrtDir^ ita* deftlln mv 
Vrvrvn tlirr' luiil foiir iTiii^w <unf la LIva^tMilM lltdjrarr in itir llrqlihj^ DlMrieiit 

Tho a<*ro!ii^»nnyinjrTal»li* sHovp^^ in ncontpuriktiroviaw, how diffprvtitly 
the varioti« cntL-<E«s uf iDf>rtatjly opc^rati* at rlifTerviiL n^m la thi* right 
group! of ilibtricis. Thi« U malaly doe [o the varying [lowera of 

Tho i^xjMi^uii' "f i-hildrr-n, of men nmt viriiiK^ii in [Ik; priai^ vS Jifv. uiiil 
of fiM jit-<)plr* ti> i^nuvvt oF ilvath, vnrii^ in JilTin-nr r^iri^umitam^i^fl j Imt 
ilLaovirlear, after everv ftlluwattcc ha< bcc-n maiJr', fhfii rliepowt<rol 
lYttii^tin^ the noxious iiiAm-nc^s nl work in iIk' ihitke^ pf?oplefl «li»lrku 
h |rrea(c«i ar piilwrij', Irn^^ in cbildhoud and In manhoTKl. 

The following; Tul>tc nliowH ihiv iiioro clitarlv; for it pliowi* aieKch 
as^ out of wW numbein liriug there arc 100 tlcath* in the bcnllliy 
(imTicffl i and ihm in oUht colnmci^ buw many dip in tJie flo^'en oiher 
](rou]>M>f di-<(infT^oul of ih-j p*ara* nnmTiirr* Wviiif^^ Thu> Ici 10,050 
pcrwn* llYiiiff af tht? itgr t*r 3.^-*.1 only lOOOk* luiunullir lii ibv hmllliv 
liiiftnVt^ i iikI LO-1. 121, 13:2, 163, S14. »ii.l ^2 in mx otho} proiijw uf 
distrJciA, In Lonilon tho dcvElii out of tbv ^nme numbers art 15U 



UKf-Ativ* MoRTAtrrv, 1861-71), at flatU ©r Twelve At^e-fcrioth in 
Eijfbl Groiiprt i>f I>i<r:<-tis llip Dwhn tt r«di Af^ \u the 53 
ttenlEliy Disiricth t»eSnff ifpreBeined by lOa 

Vftypn-LiMO -J 

)k If 




t« tc 


Prra^iaa to «11P tq. iil4« 











hnoa» » ^Pta fn Ootnifm a. 


T^ In 
Dit^ laidoa. 











AD A upwnnia 



















































C'llUIIIhH ■ 1 








Tb» l^blc mihy bv iwul thua.— Oiit ot tAHH Children U^nat <inil»r ti't- yior* nt mH\ lOa itUf 
UmwHy Sn Uw HiitlUi; DUlTicUi ISAlnfttf PMrlc^t* lutlnf nt?s oF lavtUliiE; j«f IStoSO: 
, «Mln HanfJinloTUiifttiKii «iil^«wiii Ijtprpoil l)»trlcL 

FenOAl^ ehiUIren vrilh a li>w4-r abrtnlule inurrnlily tlum iiuikii nndctr 
fircynx.t i>r agr suffer n'lutiv*'lj^ in everj grouji mt*re than Jnulw in Ihe 
den^r dL^iricI^^ Ai iv-tO ilic luonntity iif nittlen ic^ bul Blighlly io 
rxcc«i^ and at nil oihrr ns;c- Uiu miilt;^ arv th« gn>al«6t Bul!«^r« irota the 
tm^iiitniy (wulitions. Their occtipattons come into plfty. — (Supple- 
menl lo 36th. AunDnl Ficport, pp. xxiii-v,) 

JtapTOvement f/ lUttHh in TfUftH^^ — AUhctigli llir Ijiito mny be 
(lisTiknl wlipn citip!* will br nsbt^nltlifiiln* nir»l ilxNlrit'U, or ibeiijlV'rH>rU}" 
whic!b mir Ent^linh poel npcnl>e(l to " the lown '' as The bnndiwork of 
mnn biconir ujuch k'lsnppNn'ni lu fiuiDt uT Nilubnty iburi It i?m pi-t^fwui, 
it cuvmiot bi.* <^tiv*'lior>0(l ibni btr^^ jJOfnilutionh bnvv ovto uow ivlviuitfl^on 
»f nature favourable ro hc^ilib wbicli villages do mit pf^^rw, Tlw 
high4*Kl uilnlfmblc bcallU if prabably lo Ui Ht>ugbi in a happy comb! da lion 
of boCb fitftt«« — r«j in urlt€. The words of an excellent |wpulnr wrilor 

IIJ4IJ ^lUW Io br no <hvo]|], hut t, WL-ll-fouiKUfl Ciptcint iciii i In- btlk'W« 
that wv iilihtl i;llLiTiurely oMuin ■* a ooiitp1e(i> in tei-puo el ration nf ciiy and 
■* country, a complete fu'iwi cf their »lifl'crenl modes of life, uod a 
" CombiratioEi <jf rhe aUvntita^eft of both, mit-ii as no coutiliy in th« 
" world lins ev^r fccn/ • Itut it amy b« askt-il, wbotb^r it n for- 
bidctcii bj thin lft*t rxijrewion Io iLcctpt as i\ perfect mo^lcl even 
Ni;bu(?]]ndiicr^ziir\ Pith^lon, which the 'Lii^linguisb^d tvriter himself baa 
cxtclle<l. (2drd Ajmuul Kcporl, p. xxi*) 



3, MoitTALtrr at DirrEBcxx Aats. 

Cmstit A^ett amf Affe« in Dt^th iteffisters.^Wiih rMpcct to Uic 
fDbdJTtoioti is tUe ttr«l jpja, it mtut bo c-bMxved ttmt more than a llllh 
of the whole niimliQr <>f ilvurhd m^nl«i«ij lo Ibo ^nr iMirliit^ June 90, 
IHSS, nnraulr, 7I,WSH, mii oV 3:i:.,0j6, ntv ondrr [ yctiT of ii^i* • lUl di* 
Jiiilinotioiiof muutlidul thatourly jtoriuJ will exbibil oircuni^timcctmon! 
importnnl wiih rw[>rct to Iho ox|iecta(joti of life, than chat of yi?arft at 
Uur pL'rioib ; and Ibat the «x|iccrtutioQ of life on ihe day of Uirth dJATcTO 
grcAlljr fri>ni tluti At ftin, throe or oven ono month oliL. It 4|>pcorod to 
nuf^ thurt-foiv, thnt »uoh <ji*bnctionii Aiighl not to l>c or^rUn^keJ ; rdcI 
that the Abstract fibould be fntued rather with ref^reiKV to the a«* 
cc-rtaiucd rutio-i of morialily tbnn to An tmmX tVivmon of th<- {leriods of 
age. Afrer the fii^t vear^ \lm ratio of mortaliiy mjMI/ drclmc:*; and 
ihi* Jcer«iio ia ihown \iv tho ii-niimcrnlioo of doath* for «M?h of ihtf four 
fulluvviiig ytain*, (t mny. purhup*. Im* ibou^lit lUat thia enlxllvision 
ought to have l»MMi hjQilcred more mmui^, imil thnt i have f>a.-«sed ioo 
abrupLt)' from the six-fold iliviHon iil ihc lirnt yvnr to tbe oxbibilion of 
wlickb; j'i;ftr?i liiinKiliAtrly nfterviai^. Dui< 1 inu*l >t«u* lo iv|jly tv auj 
«uoh objection* thnt tlio l^gifi^ni do dqI onnbU mc^ to divt^tt^ tltt* r^iint 
aflDr tlki^ expiration oiihp Aret* In ca^ea of d«Ath tinkler 1 y/>Ar of ai^ei, 
thf^ numljer of loontli*, and oftwi of daysi, ia Htattnl « ith [ireciiion ; but 
whore the npe cf the chiM hwcxcvicd^xl l2monthjiii '*0no r^^r" is ofieo 
the onl/ cnfry in the cL>tDiii]] brfwUd "Age," kavlnf; i* doublful to 
what p<-r1od Wfween (he end oif th<< lirelfiTi and of thc< t^rrtiiy-fonrth 
month the d«atH ii» to bo referred. The Mmo obMTvation la mUI mote 
extensively apdicnble to d«aih?» af^er tht^ aooond year. 

After tho Bftfa ytflr, 1 hmvc combined tho RfftK in quini^urnQlal 
periods A Hjfitem wotcb, ivftpr much coDsidorati«n, 1 de^ta^^il pr**f*'rnhln 
to that adopted In lhi> ahHirArr-4 for the ^ni year of rf«n»lniiioti, a^iv\y, 
of stating tAR numTior i>f ilcntlL* at cJicb ^tcccff»ive ytnr of a^\ 

To the >1atom«Dl of deailu al eacli ^icicceesire year» it might be 
objtiHrtLiJ thnt it wua di-bi^ivr, anil luLHumcd nn ap|H.-iiraucf' of miitutc 
aoouraov wliich wila not founded on frutl). ThU obj^tion U not 
applicablrf to 1b<t n"|)on(*d as*^ erf i^hildrcn. Their recent birllii are 
(rM>h iu the r^olloclion of llH>ir parents or (-uanhnns and ihrir Jtge is 
mated wiib tiiffidcnt ^'cnntrv. Hut it t* not ao wUb re<pecc 1o the ngcs 
of penfi>iia fir admnced iu liftfi many of whom, <v*p«:iftlW omong Ibc 
poorirr Hasc**, am iirtiorant of ihfljr i>ift<H agfl, nnA wlw-n tki^y die. Iwive 
M> n>conl which frinbh-.-* th<'ir Kur\ivinjf reUtlvea to stale their a^j* with 
precuion. An i-vidrnce of iho viigueneM altendiiiir (tattniftile of n^c i* 
" llie tendeney to ft|)csik in r^miid DDuit>ent " notieed In the pn^ofArc to tlie 
Al>^<TAcl of tbi- Popuhtlon for 1831, !^ tcndiii<ry crttii*lnic fi grert; appnivtit 
exom of mortaliU' tn ihf* il(*«nnnfy period* at 30 and upwards. ati<t of 
which tho following reoi^irkabje hivlancea loay be foLiai3 m the Ahitmci 
of A^d pnhlifliol tn iht^ preface lotbo Population Alwlract for 1S31, 
exira';led from burial regiitU'ni iu Eoglund ftiicl WsIm for IS y*^i> :^ 

Aan. Aim. Awn. Agnu- A<««- 

2« >«;«30 I 39 U4,7;8 I 49 S'Mf>» I M» Sa.TffX I «9 ««.0«ft 

ao £1,037 I 40 as^is I ao aa^u? 6q 43,v7a I to »J»» 

31 lA^I I 41 «O^0 I 5t 9i>^ll I «] S6,0H4 | Tl S3.lf| 

ETpi'rii'nce luwi nbnwn that ihi'i inr^nvetneaa alao oxi*t« in thw aiMo* 
m&nlft of Agea in ibe reffi^iinitinn of ileiiltis, w will ftppfiAr iifma reference 
to lli« ahUi^cU for tbo year ending June !iOf IS38. 

An atntract of death's at every «ucce»fbe yoar of a^u is ibtfrefivrv, 
eoufcfuicdly IncoTTOM; aji*l, in Mating ih\; I am staling a tironj; r*».v>n 

J Iglim I if I iinliiiiiiiin 1 . for Uy exhibiting 5i]ch an ntiHtrxct, I should 
coraniit n Fnuft whicli I dei?m it moi^t imporiRiii lo avoid,— ihut of 
iwiumjTig (biT dHunivc appramikcn of moic minute occurncir tliitn ocIoaUj 
pyUIi*, By 47aiii1>tiitDj{ tliG d™ilii III <Hl)V-r*Mt lig^i, after till* flflh rmir, in 
qtiicqucnnifi] ilivi»ioD«, not only an^ cm>n flod irr^ulftnliesi mjitcriHtlv 
liimiiiislifi), but tlie alislniiCts an* rendered iii » f*^mi more utoftl, 
roorc {;ciniluf<lvr to ibt* ralHlmcni of ;ho'c practlc-nl objoctH for 
whii^li ixtcU nMmcU Are principcill/ com|)iIcd. (Snd Anmatt) Rci^ort, 
rp- 12-13.) 

^iniaiitiU-d lo 5o liotirl/ i>n nn «v^rftgf, or to nine 'IciiUw rverjr Ua 
rainutea;* but it ift uot &o ruut-li wilb Uiese <lcrHtlia lu tbcioi^^lre* ihat 
\\\is inqtjirj i< ranremf^il At with tbc uumlx!!'* living ut evcrj' muriKTiic of 
di«dtfi-;i;iiiLiju.1p Ujwn [be sUtc oi" (bt tui'mv-imt piiUiuno lUmg ibc 
mckrlnbty i]o|ki>iubi ; oiil nf Owm lb** niliiin«»ly lEcnlb fli>w?. Now llw 
populiklW incro^iW ; ami thirt tncrcjttt^-i nbirti ]» u conttnviution of Ui« 
proco-JW ibm bft* b'^en K*^iug on for a ctouiry al Niimblc ratc*^ ba« 
produced Iflii?? nltorutioti* in Ibe prfifjorlkm* of Ibc 21,3rt*>,24S livin;; al 
diflcrciit ftc^*H Tbtr« iLiu»l bti «u. Tb<:ra wen? 7,G^(J/^33 Wribp In ihc 
fi*n yifirs iHfil-TtX i>f wbi^b tbr> »*hildrpn iindiT tii4>«i:r- of t^n pnommatrd 
at cJie WHiiiniiiii of It*71 wito llio mmrorai. But aL llw ftame Censu« 
.W/>2a |iin'*.>D!< of tht* ago of 70-SO oxisteJ ; niid they wrT« tlie 
surrivorior tbe cbilihvn bom ill Ihi* tun yenrs 1791-1800, wbii:b, ll U 
prclty ciiain, did nol irxwsrd 2,08t*.43O in imoiWr. Hml the. t-bildixn 
boMi tbi*n been ah mnny aa in 1861-70^ ibp living nt 70-SO would have 
bocn laisc-J in ibnt propoiliou to l,S^9<J,8^0. And so of other ngw<, 
Kow aimibir but not tlu? Mime flUr-mlioiis in die propovtio»r< bavH takcD 
pliicEj In I'Vi-T}' ilUlrli^L of (tii? kingdom. How VMi tldv difficull/ in 
iD^Ciluling ju^t coinpui'iaoua bo obviatoil ?^ 

As tie mortaliiy — and tbe fulnl <liseu*oa — varj- with ogft it is evident 
iJiat tlje popnlatTOfi and the di^ntlL^ muat bo dmi3e<l into a rvrtatn 
taiDiber ol (^n^spomiitig gi'oupa in onler \o dctennmo Uk' inoriality and 
tb<T lain] dL»tfAi>^fi iir(.'tK'b giMup ; ui^ ciin iIkm prutvud lo I'Oiiipni'c ibc 
nxU'f of tnorulity nnd of iltaerwc in tbt s^vpral cliHtriots of tbo fountiy. 
(SupplHui-'iit F4> 'io\\\ Aiiniml Report, p. xx.) 

Morifilitj/ at fff^tips of figpi JH Fnffla%\Jf Carlittr, Btiffium, amd 
fiii/fhrltri, — Tlie dt-atJis at (biTi^rciit ug^n are ^ closoly foiiuceie*! wilb 
bi-abb and vrlib fhc^^ri-iLl nppareni changes in Lbedimnini-s orihiArnnnlrr, 
ihatwc sbftll here prear/ii a eomparaliv*? view of ih^ rai*.- of moriality 
that piovmb'iJ in Eogl&nd, Ciirli?lc, Belgium, nnd !>we<icn, from nit 
ailicle ill tfjt" Britnth Mttlival Ahtatxae f*ji' lft3(^. 

Ht-ro it upfioiM's iliQt ibi' inortjilitv of thr wbnie Enclit^b i>opii]aiioii> 
bct^A'CciE ihc agcM of 20 and 40, wn> liij^bi^r (bun in ]{i>l^'initi and 8w(<d<*M, 
wbilu ib*^ niartfllxiv III I'mly lift* wh,** rain'b Ujwit; mifl if ibi' CarlJsk^ 
ob^erratiotiH i.*vvr approKimulu'ly roprvn^niod tbc uiorhility of En^Und, 
the wiMe of life in tbc live yeai<» of infancy ha^ almost dimiub<|Lt-<l one- 
Iitdf dnrin^ ibi* \\\^l 1(K) ^euj?*, OtbfT oWrvalJimr* Mipjwil this* 

Contiaj'T In ibe Sweilish obsi^nttlioos, tbu niorJnliiy of fpiiinle^* bptwei?u 
till- n^«!d i>r 10 uiid 40, ;-4 bibber ibiiii ibtii uf uiuk-rt : if U oiilr in (*tiil<l- 
bood. and uftw iU<* iiOlb yi-ur, tbnt ihe morinlity of fenmbs U lower ibaii 
tbai of malis. {MeCnllocb^ Atciinnl of tW Brilinb Empire, article 
Vital 8lali«iies Vol. :j, pp. Sja—i.) 

" The hourly birilu were SG j of 14 evorv Icii luinuies. 

t Sev A popLT on *'Tbe Valuv uf UtulViaiti; b/ Mr. fiofl A. Uiuapbttjl*" 
— Joonuil of Stnriaticid Society, rob jocztii. 




Death-ratss per 1,000 Prv^tOKA livin* in Kkiii.iki>, SwFhcx, Abil 


EuflADd BUd Wak*. 




18 r«ni,18]3-^. 



91 V«an, 




UbIm. 1 Fcmafai. 
















14 -» 






























40 — 





















Tn — 

101 'ft 









ITS* 6 











Al'07e 90 







Alt igt9 







Mtttiaiity ftf M<ths and of F^maUt ai Croufn of Atjt-Sj 1^38-41. 
— '!!»« following; taWe is VftluAbli- iv< -Jmwing \\u: r*it.^ uf nmnHlfLy of 
eot-b 80X. at 17 proupj* of ag<t7(, iluna;; iJic (ir*t w'veii j*'m> cf Ciyil 
BcgiiitrHtiou in Eogrnrul aiM Wales* Thv l^^uren An* eKpemlljr itWul 
for cvoi |u4nrM>» wiih ibc tak-a piTTAiling in coore rt^eiit pcritfdK. 


(10i.[iiiUt«<l to thti 
Middlvofrhc VtarO 


Males. PbnutlA*. 







uiu,a4i Slft.o^i 
915.349 914^50 

mfi^Ti siu^e 
203,4fl2 sna^ms 

£Ul,i>&0 9IH^«3 




33.30 S 



t, '39-1 
9- 431 



l.04«,9:o l,05«,7?l* ! 

&r'\ ■ ..,il7 
i^or . . .r, .,\M^ 
l,17&.lSt iM;^»49 



















I '249 


93 and aptvurda ^ 
AUtgv4 «pfoifi«d 





97 -533 

r,76s,M« kiu>«io 

1 ,S34,7li 1 




Mot tp¥oiflcd 

All iir* ■ 

_ 1 










lliai i&cr vill *(r^ waQ ■» ili« Imm c4 TbUbb for ub li)r lii» OOctn. 

k urtilafti rt a* harwcnBlfpidtoi a mUitM|i«n,ftB6 4bHim«| 

<20tli AnuQil Report, p. 2(H.) 

[vxm IV. 

Morittlifj/ of Maits <md Ftttmks at t>tiritfiis Jyr-;>^rNw/«, l&S8*62,«^ 
We]i«T«^ from ihv ilireeCi'Dttiiwsof 184), JK61^ ftiul )861, in which ihe 
SgfE of ibo pQ|»aljaioii vrorv uiLUWtrrulvil, tliv ihl'^uib uf ikfiirruLiiuii]^ vrry 
nuwly tbti numbers living iu ^'Och of tho lur^<ntJ-fi7<l yMii^ (183H-GS) 
darJa^ wfaii^h Ihc rcgiMrntion of cl'ttihM \\k* btvn iti opemttoiL 

'TliA ^piKilictttion of tbo aiuabers livtjjg &i <«cL r?cpar&Le ) c&r of i^ iJ^ 
eicopt as 11 mattor of ciirioi<ity, utterly ii.'^i'U'.'ws f«r iti fiw fir?it (»Iaoo gr«t 
Dumbi-r^ of Ibo people do not kiiQvr ibtrir rx&cl n^v williii; a yesnr »r iwo, 
■;)<l til ibo ■<eci>nd plA09 tb« nctunl riumb^'C^^ nl <^fl*^ii jr-tiV of n^- llovlttniA 
con^iclernbly from vAriotiTf cituni's hdil j\n nitiiiiiO (.Vri--<uv uloin.* t^oiild 
!«Dpply tbe inie numbers lit^iog foreacb ycnr. Lly colbvtin^ to^tbet all 
the imtnbtr* n^lunii^J in oacb five ycAn of a^ unOor IUt^cii, uud in L'tuli 
Itn jmrn iifK<rtbuttij;o,;^roij|i9 of population iij^ obiAiiMl elC tbo CciiF?Li?io«, 
of fliifficii'ni mngiiiindp tn nllijw n* In lUtcmiim^ tbi* yffKVn ai Iffi*, nrut ihn 
ratr i»f roortjilily ul MWzh Unporlant period of Hfc \m eatb uf tbi- tweiily- 
Uvp p'nrji. "lb** wi'igbl of Ibe rcMUl:* if* iiipvi'flM'd Ijv tb«* I'Xlrmlcil arru 
uT ob^ervurlou, ^hEvb oov«r> ibc wholv of Eo^latiU au<t Wa]i.-?>T foi^ a 
<| (I Art or of a i^jnturv. 

Tbe iltuii)i> ^ar>- <!on^cI('rably in number in tbe Tarbu» gmujk^ • tbus 
UDd«r tho age of ^ tlu' iiutnber of hoy^ dyiDg rangod from 70,000 m 
lOOjOCX) annually ; at lb*' age 10 and uiwk-r'lo, (he ocalba of boy^ningpd 
From 4,200 lo 0,100 i irbilc at coob of tbi" doreiuihil pinoila afUi wjudai, 
from 15 to 85, ibc niuDbcr of acnih* miiff^l fi^om 10,000 Eo 21,000 j m 
the deroiinium. frotii ftJj to 95. tbe numbers iA\ to 4,000 or 3,000 ; um! 
for i>5 n[i(] uj^wardx iirc; about 200 to 30<J moa, and t^'icc lu many 

The tnoTlabty of tUc two .scxci cbtlcrA coHMiIirably At diffcrcat ngcj ^ 
tbuH in iho fir^t fivo reurvi of life tht» <.'vor»is <if rnorfnlif i' tiriioog hoyiover 
tliAt of girU N in ihf niiio of 7"2Ui ainl 6 "216, or 1000 per writ,; id 
tUo Dexc pi4'lod 11 i^ ouJy sli;^hfly iii i.'\ce3^; Vni from tbt- ii^< uf 10 to 
SSaa^l Jd, lb' youa^ ivomurj die in a gncjiier proportion thnn youug 
mon, iliO <<uu-u of vrlitch it tri iin|»rt[ml to in^'entijcDto ( at tlit* age of 45 
find upiT&rits tbo women die at a lower rait^, and lira longer aflerwarda 
Than tDi-n. 

Tbe roenn mortaliry among Ikjjs cf 1C-I5 isat tbo rnto of 5 in 1,000 £ 
of yuini}; mt-a in tbv uexl ten yi-uni (tj-^A) tbe mortality la wjiuewhat 
loM ihan % ID 1,000, imd id thv I<illo\ring dtcviiTiial perioffe (be tiiLinberfi 
dying per 1,000 nin np to 10, 13. 18,31. >ind 67 (at the* age 70=65 
-75), 147. :503, and 436, wbicb is tbe rate carrying off tlu? old men of 
95 and Hpwnrd'*, 

The mt^rlntit^ nuK'U;^ woriion gvcH llirmif^b aimihir vAriolJona, 

It will \i*' cdiin»rv*vl tliJit ibn nifn-lnlity ftt tbf^ flAin(> poriiiils fif lifo 
CI]]etuaf4Hl. Thus whil*^ the mtwi nioHulily nf ho>"s imdiT five ytuirs of 
ng^* wa^T^JK., tfi(*ir mortftliiy in tbe yenr lt46 wnf ns biph a* 7"781j 
aud JD 184o a:* low aa 6"fl»3 per cent, Tbf* oini wo* -^ft.^ above, tbe 
other '233 below ibo ftvorago, ujvking the total i-auge io iho rat4 

Geoerally at \<]\ Aft^-s, from 5 lo C5, Uu- iiiortjdily wiij* hij^bea in tho 
vwir of ibc ^rait tbolcni epidemic (1849), aiid lowett in Ibe yeats 1W56, 
B60, mid 1»01- . 

The. mortality rnio never falls so mneb below tbe monn morlfllity 
u* tt it ruiiLC*l aliLivi' it by epidemics esprfinlly. nnil vhile tbe abeolntc 
difference of the rates \% naturally gi'eale?*! at the advanced agw^ wh^ 
the rates lbetnr*eivi*i< nre high, the relafivo ris*- And lall ia grenteat m 
ehildborxl nhi-v v Hgv* of 5 j'ruis Hjjd uuiler 15, wlieti llio liymutlc 
diHj-ti<4'« of ihni 11^* atv ino«t praviih»nt. VVom<in r>f tho i.^^ of Io und 
nn^ler 45 wtn- cut olT ui great nntnbcr^ id tbo cbolura yean- 



Tlui follovring nro «je*iDpl«8of tho fluctonlionH of tbo mtca of mort*JTtjr 
hi ibti Iwciity-fivf jcairt*. 

TLo mejiii aiiriual morlAljtj of m^ii of the o^ 2^-^S wiu '976, but 
Ihe JDurtiUiiy ol unm of Umt agi! in 1FH!J w&a 1-2-36, and m lEUO it waa 
M l<ift ut -^77 per ovuU Tliu riLiigt^ WM *3u9 i til the OBC cajic it wii» 
morr thdii 2fi p^r cool, nbovo '^S, tatd in tlw otiior 10 per wnt. b«low 
thai okorlulity vaiv. 

Tim mcjm iihiiual moHality of men of 55-C5 wit* 3'13f3, Ijut in 1849 
die rMo wa£ 3-(>.j3, iu ltf50 it waii S'UTi'; ibu^ Ibe raage yvnA '674 in 
Iho tw4»iily'flvo vcflrw. 

Au iDMirjWii^r iiifif-j' tipan ii krgo iinml>i*r of thuHi Iivoh of 55-65 would 
pn}- lit the rate of 31 poticiea m hOuO during ordinuJT pnTs but it mixv 
pay on 37 or ^iCl i]t-nTli:« in ^ojuii of liigb or low itLortiiUty. Tli«^ ralnlivo 
AnctUHtion \ir grvster wfaen small uiiinbersarc oonL-erDc^J.-^^^Ui AncmnI 
Itepi^rt, pj>, xvi-xviii.) 

.^foriaiitif of Mate* and Feituii^s iti GroHp4 of A^ct^ l»38-7l.— The 
moat iinpctrtnni dcdtictioit^ id thiA Report Arc draira froto n comporiaoii 
ol'ttie re^lrttored fn^l« witli the populAllon Mitinit>rftl4v! ; ftud tiAvIng now 
detcrmuiinl by tJw analysis of the Cea^^u? returns not only iho oumbew 
living, bill ihetr n|;e-(, 1 am 4hl« to ibow tho inoriftliiy of per^oaa of both 
^xcsnl l^dilfi-rvnt ^roiip« of agwfor CAch of ihc 34 ytTAp^ H:)^187l. 
ThxA U one of the moat imporiAnt norio* of fftfita rvlutiiig ti> tho Ufo of n 
iMtion ovrr pabliahei! : an^ it la worthy of n>[aark thnt iho mortnlily 
ftt the several ft^ for the 34 ymr« dinrt^ littlt from tho tnoilJ^iiy of 
Iho 17x001^ 1838-S4. ThemortnliEy of maled at allafOfi wiu2'.'i3 p«r 
oeiil^iD 1639-54, anil 233 por oeni, in 1^39-71; of femnlea for lh« 
Mmo periods 'J'lf> nnd :^')5, 

AtvngaL MoKrALiTir per Cent, of Males And Pcmnli^ in RtigUud anil 







18S«-54. 1888-71. 
(1? Tflin.) (34 T«dJ*.> 

ALi,A«n - 




■»5 A opvinU 


1 as 

1-17 I'lfi 

AU. AoE«. 






VA Jfc upvrarda 




80- 14 




80 88 









.Vofr.^Thr l^blc maj- be reod itio* ; — l>r AJ&1(« <f tho A^ 18 And andrr :i5 tlia 
r»tc of iDoriiltty /ifT o^Hf. wn* ] '00 in 1? rnr^ IMsni-n^t t "4^4 *V1> Ift 44 /«aTv 
]SI«-7l,>nil«ofor(^hFrag«. Tbo ntc* of'morlalUjIkir 1888-84 ■r««afc«iiifro«i 
ilif Koglith LifcXatrlc. pp iTLil-xxi ihsnin for 1088-71 ve tbo arhbcwMloU 

niMfet of Ihe H*T«r«l tBl«« fbr #»ch of lh« 34 y«m- 

194 [rAHT ir* 

Tho ^<4MHiMttMBjnp <^^ ^^i^B ^'^ mortiUUj- at ilii^ agts wheii 

of tJiP Bolid fouGi[Mioti of ibc En^Eitli Life Tnble, which wb* ouloulntt-J 
on iho F^opuluiioti Htin*: ut iwo Ceubuaes, and oti 6i470.720 deaibfl; lor 
the riiIcK arc \rt c^mjplKr itc^onl n-itU tho mU-^ dediiood fi'tint flic Living 
at four l'onHu&«4, and from 14,330,^11^ <leAlli-s i]iririi]giti?^1jmg tlie 
niinil)f» llvinj? at 12 a^c--* iiilo which hnmaii lif<^ U Uivideil in \>Mr 
Ulitcfir idAncv ^ing iin lon^' conbMiUd wiUi tJitf aovt-n ng^s of the olit 

The mi»n lifetime of the En^li^^fa pcontc ih hy 1ti<> mhto 40'86 j'car^ 
Tlinc JH the avern^ Dnmhcr of v^are clii]dn?n bnru in En^lfLnd live. 

It 13 gmtifying to ma ttt the cd<1 of 34 yearn to K* nlib to uiy thi^t 
oii<» of Ih* olijcfU for which rrgistnuioii wu-^ ffiubltahc-d has be^n 
occomplishiHl, luid that thr expectation^^ held out in \he following 
puveiigiT of the first Ki^porl from ibia olHce haw been realiae^l : — 

" The ivcomnii?ndatioti <>f the Report '" [of tbc IScicct Comtnittff* of 
the House of Com^10ll^ uu FrieiiJly Socictle* in 1^*27^ iKiiutinjrout t!it* 
insiiffidwicy of tiie dftU hiihcriocolloolod, and Iho copinuiioU'ry natiirft 
of f ho M^vrral lifo Tublr-Ji foutiiUd on thrtm], ^ thai mt'^tunrpn bv tu.\opXni 
" for [uaIciDg*itTi oceui^ie and oxteo^ve ooUectioo of faciV whereby 
" tntiy bo facilitJiti'd ^ tho Mution of aU quwtUmf^ dcpc-ndin^ upon tho 
" 'duration of huuuui Vttv/ If^ «C I(^iij;th carried inlo i.'tri<i.'t ; Hrupk< 
*< inAt4>riAlf4 thiifi condoHnu i^ nm^ltrtriLlo Th« oondiiion of ihi^ working 
" <■!»»*<*, ori* now artordi-ii in ihu crrtJIiod copir?* of rr^*t*Ts dvpo»tt4sl 
■* in the Gcr^crnl I£ej^iater Office, and each year*!* accumiilntion will 
■• incrf.-AMtj ilio vnUie of Mich rwjord*, hy aLignK-^ntmir fhi? nnuUtfr of 
" facts u]>oa TvUitb I'AkiihilEOn inay br bi-ou^^lit (u bear/'* 

The Natioiml TuLdc; ia, h wiil Ixr necn, a nnfc ba,«U for the Ji],&uianc4' 
of livoM, aa ft inoUidt^H all ihtt popubiUon ; Aod in the doffn^e that i>«rvoUK 
livinir in nnfavonntbl" condiliom, or Inbouring nndpr iliwaws are 
Dxdudt*d, will be ibe pro|>oi-iioD of j>rolii3 depi^ndenc on the morialiiy.— ' 
(^34'b Annual Report, pp. v-vi.J 

Proporiionai MoTtatiifi tit tfifftn-e/it Ayt-Ptrioth. — If wv tiikc tlie 
general m<irtnUtTof the popnlafion froio the Koglisli Life Tjiblc, it i* at 
the lattf of 24 47 per l,O00 of ilie living til all a^ia; und Ihu moruJiiy 
i« mjuk* up of d<^Atha ocviiirin^ at rli<< age^ nbown in iIlo nntiejc&iL lubk ; 
that In 0"4i al the oge 0-^, *2~-St2 at the affe 5-25, /ind 602 at tbfj ajrc 

Aft Ibo births inrronse cvm- year m En^Limd, the populnlirin and tlio 
dijuth» m ihi' earlier a^c? :Lr*< in tiiiduL- proportion; thm^ ibt- geticral 
morUdity, iH^tpnd of 24 47 por 1,000, hpoomps 93-4.^ for years 18;i8-;54: 
but for U-u ytars 18.jMjO it was 22-17, and of tb« T2'\7 dtaths not 
k«a th«ii 8'96 nr^ childroii tioder .5 y(*ars of n^, wbik only 3 '70 Aro of 
the age^ 6^-85. 

The gonarnl niorlidit;-, ivcilnjut diatiiictW of n;;i-, ia to n cooaiilcrabE^ 
oxtftnt madr np of oI^lEl^vu*!^ dp^Ltb*^ nnd ii« vnrintiori in dilTnrffnt 
diatricL"- dt![>eml-"* larp^ly upon ihi* dcnupnt- 

In tlii^ hc'aUhy disti-ioT,*, wheit the j'encrnl mortality waj» at the mil* 
of 17 '53 d".'atli5 in 1,000 living, 5" 29 of the siiii) deaths wwu of ululdien 
tirict^r livtj yeni^ »^f ngo- 

Tn tliirJy lar<;e town cli*U"ict9 tite gcnti-al morraltty was at the rati* of 
2^<01 deaths to 1,000 living: and 13-U4 of tho doatbn were tboec of 
children ntidnr -5 years ofiiije. 

• Fint Rrport of Rcgi^ttnir Gracnl for year ending flOtli June 188*, p. IS, 



PB(»p(>jniox nr Dratiis nt difToi'ftit Aj[e£ lo 1,000 Living nl nil Ag^^ 


(183^54). 1 V'*»^*-^^/' (I«j|-ft0). 1 tlMfl-A3), 


Alt AoHP - 

0- - 

fi_ - 

35- - 

es- ■ 

85 nnrI up warily 


M'l: 1 M'Ol 1 17"TIS 





13 :m 


V «5 



■ ■* 
/ 1 

Tlio toUl i-lifrL'niicd Irotween tbo raie^ oF moriiilitj', in (be Lni'gt.- 
Town ftiiiJ Hcallhy Ui^irictf^ i" 10"-IS ; of whidi 8-06 Is ni^voimtrd for 
liV tbi' (Inttli?^ iitiiUr r> yvai's oS u^v* Of nil Kii^l^TKlk jiful ilic litraMij' 
<llatnctA, thft difl**rt>n*'o in ilu' morlnlily ia 32" 17— I7'i'5^ = 4"6*l ; of 
which lbccljildrtfii's<W;ahsiU!<?ou«t for 3-6I> ='J-!W-5'29. 

Tlib pnncij>lp niuhl be borne in mind, >l^ wdl n* the <liMarbiino«»4 
which are [HoiIul-^ hy rhe iiicreiise of blrih*, and by cnEj-tattOD, by 
boeptlnU dud lijr luiiAiIe lu'vliiuis "^ Mudyln^ ihc »i'Hc» ■>f ThMo^ 
evhilnlinf; for inch tlUtrU'i ihc (bmwiy flf tin- popnUtiod. nnd fbt? mti**; 
of mortnlily \ier l.O(Xl lijrlD;; each of the Ion joar* 1841-^ atid 
J86l-J>(>; or iln! menu rutc in Ihc twiTntj year^ It4l-(j0, 

Th« two Ili^-; poi'kHls i^i\S\ of teu yeArs^ and (he #i/.^ uf rht' dktricxy, 
justify MH ill iti^lilnling n <h>iii pirisctit between Ihoir ruion of ninrinlity. 

In ihs wlifiLe kiiigdi>m tliK raorinHiy wan near iht^ ?<um« mitf in etu^h of 
Hit decenniiu — (Supplement to 2rjtli Auniul itcpori, p. xxvii.) 

.\ffirtafity qf Mates and of Frnmht at rvirioua Afft Ptria/j^ IMfp|*7(J. 
— Tiw vitality is :rtea8urod oitlior l>y Ihf jeai"*i of life «ut of which friie 
d^.h occurs, or by the \\viiiU oat uf u m/ji/ of lif^^tTm*'- TliU-'* in 
Eti|;lAiid, accorliiig to inv life. [«bl<^ I hi -11 living dic« numiAUy, The 
tUatb out of a UDit of lifcliiiLo la '02447. A? uua itnpiio.-< ihnt :?'4l7 
div ii] u ye^r oui of VjO liring. Iho mortAliiy i« miM to be :i'447 |>c*r 
cenr, nnnimlly; or, t« ^pi?;tk in rouii'l numbers, 24 Iil WKK). Mnke tb? 
number* liviiij^ coriM^nily simtntncd 1,0(X>. then il' ^4 die in k yt*iir Utf 
tUtMii inkM'viil }n-tw<<i-n i^ncli dtatb in l^ dnys; luid if a doif.h tNPcttr oul 
of the I.OOO cvL^iy V4 diiytt tlie r»ti> of morinliLy will W rtlanli^d, iijf 
it 14 in invert* proporLiott lo ibe intrrvnl bctvce^i each do^ttb. IHiA 
f&»ter pcoph^ dio in a cily ibu greftti^r is lu mortality. Tliui^ k:iv two 
of Ibroe rarjrtl>k» being lixod, the ntnlit/ if measured by tbc ranatioii 
«f tho ibiiiL 

For till* rut*- «/'w*>r/*t/*'/v— eippesfliNl lirii^fly Uy iAr mfr'ality — tTivolvcs 
three elcmt^Eit^ — (.iim\ n^^lbcr^ living, numbers dyirt^ ; lh<' i\mv btJn^ 
fivi^l at a y^ar, &iui ibe ii\]'n<! throuj^h that Etmc at I'-^vhtcii iiuiy h(< 
cnlled a ycur of lii'r — \\iv rvXc of Tnurtnlity i:i a frn<.1ioM, vtwiy fou' 
vi'i'tible into a wW<T DuniWr by niultipl; iii^t; ibia fmctiou tuto 1,000, or 
any ^rCAler numhpr. llf^rc thtr rnin nC tlitlcTrernl iigei> >a as 
tbe niortnliiy of the; livin;: at iboH> huci^ Tliu^ taking lb<.- \\oy* of 
England (1361-70) undpr Ave yc4tr» of mgc in ont group, ii U fouod 
tbnt iho inortalily rrua nt ihc rarv of 7 316 |ivr tviit. pti^ niiuttin; lltvn 
boyd of (Iio «gtf of •> At>4 u(ul«r 10 die at iJui lower ntto of ' 8 lo* i and 

" By a mere chaa; c of ibo pUm of tbe decimal point to tbe nghl ibii m*\ of 
couivt berond wB'IV (#r 1,000- 

boya of lO-lS AB tUey eoter puberty die at tbe i^lHI lowor rate of '446, 
in llie ncit live vcMOf of Ago Lho nwruUity i>f youUi Hibm; nnd itt 20-25 
tlie mortttlftjr l-i "54^, Dtsorlj tlic whul' ri# tlmt of bojs 16 jt^ra vouugor; 
throdgh miuihooj the inorfjility Hst^n slowly up tA ^-300 cit tlifi nge 
55^^ ; lind lU offji ndvanoeaf «liU moru unti] hi S3 arti npwArdx 
it i^ nt ihe rate of 31'357- The morUility of fcmabs go«s througb 
Aslmilur cjcle; d^ctroding to n mtuimum ni thu Gi~hI grt^l cxbauj^ of 
fonutttivo cnoTgjr In pviboTly, oiul lln>n tL-condiug witli ftgo imfil •wb^'Hiinf" 
liFd is c^nrcd'tM into f li<^ oiKor forces of luaurit. The Uw imjjlio»i lint an 
IhcrtMiHiQ^ and tlmu a coritinuully Jeore&Hing power of sj^tjiimiig vilAlity. 

Bui ttw \a,w vaincs with the coniljlions uf exiBlejtce; uiui tbuugh 
tlti-t»v ci^uditkuiH vary iiifliiiUilj — «uiik' t^t^iug fiivoarablo and oLlufrs 
uiillivxiurablo lo liT^— cheni ftr« large mnK?ett of tike pojuiljitiotif whol^ 
rttEEionri niid citivs» whore the renillH oF till tbo a^ucitsa in operutiori 
difi«r widely, 

Ttkk.r for i:xiiin[d(; the groiip of o 1 di^trii'ts crxKed healtliy for tho Mkis 
of fliBttriotiou, Hud liere ii n iouud tljul cbo «iiijuhI luorCaLity ^cr conr. 
of boyii niid^r flvn yi^Ats of ng« wnn i'246, of girb 3'^l. Turn to 
iho ^idirici of I«lverj>ool* ; the morlahty of boys \vaei )4 4Tot of ((■''la 
J3'42!>. HcL'e It id evident that »oiii<? prc^rijint cr.\C(.-|ktioDd cnu«c^ 
of duidli iu« iQ operatSoit in tliitt aecood city of En^laut), Wliai an; 
thceo v4u»f^? Do tbi^y a<Imit of romovnl? If tlii^y ilo iulnitt of 
rptnnvnl, i* fliu H^iriu^tion of life lo hcitllciwivi to go im ind<*f!mtnly? 
It h UtUJiii that of J(f,000 children buru iih've in Li^erpijol ^t^tXi 
live livo yesm ; a niimlicr thai in tbo hi^idlhy iliritriut,-< e:nuM bc- 
proriJeit Ijy 6,<H4 nnnual bii'ilis. Thl?i pi'iX:re4UioiJ uE <:btl(li-eu to 
potiisfa -fio MKin— fbo flnjfnrin^ of tho litllo victims — Iho iiorrotrji «nd 
Oxpttiaoa of tht'ir pai'vnLt — ikru ad dt'^lorablt* ai thi>y am warctefuL. 
In Liwrpool Hw d«alh of cliildron id eo tVoquent and drciidfiil, that 
B spedal Myrdvm of insLnaiJCv bas beeti (levied to provide them vrilli 
Cofflaa and burial coroiuouieeii The in^cbei^ whca )^llo lijuku lU tier buby 
in ajdtc<d to thmk of its death, and to |iruvidu by ibiuranco nut for ila 
dothee but foi' iis shroud and otber L-eremunifl. There are oa»63 wh«ro 
A wrctchM parent ha» itisiinHl Lbu lifer of her baby, and ivaliHCfd money 
by the imiisa^^hou ; but there i§ no ?<tatiHical evidence to show that 
ihii* i« A #y«lomatIo trftdo: ralber the rovoiito ; all that in vertaia ib Lhni 
tbo fhiMnv ara brad in Kiu^b unfuvoiinitilo ^itul unnaturu! (*oDditions 
that ihey iwriab lu eicesMve numtwrs. The extent to which the several 
cauvcs cootribuUf to ibi^ir dcvtrnetion reiluiroa furthor iuwatigation ; 
but eoouffh la known to jiieiifjr the belief that sach caufw^ may be to n 
ccnnidcrablc oxtont rvmovt^d, 

Tli«a the Micrifice of the livea of men nL tbi.^ most |in>f!iictivu Age», 
from 35 to .5-5, h almost oqunlly grw« ; tW deaths out of the same 
rmnibera livint; av*^ us thret \\\ the Liverpool distrii-n to every om iu 
the imtiiral fiU\w of \\i^ wojkiiig |K>puUiiiou ^f t^xti.-nsivu discricts of iha 

The tboarianiLs of families of the Liverpool dii^trict are of various 
grades, and live in very di^cr^^nl aaziiUry conditions; some may lie as 
healthy a^ groups of fumiiieti unywhcrtr el^ and oiboi!* inny suffi?r to 
the ifjttrerjti>'^t extent; but the gaacind i^-^ult 114 msv^u in ibo Tublf, which 
may for the moment rojirOBuut the unht^tUby cbuftft^b. att the otbei- Table 
rtA>re0eat» the healtby claaws, of the nntioD. Erci-y f^rcnt city la« in it 
a bit of Liverpool. Between the extreme* of mortality, high and low, 
lies aaeries of inlermodLalc rar.cs, and Hk* nggrt'gnl** of thc'wbole maa^ 
1m oxproflBcd in tho ratv!i for alE EiagU&J. 

* 'r\\t! Uvrvuijh at Livcni^ioUxti^mls over 4 pirt &f Wouc Drfby. Tbe Dtttriel 




AvKitAiiK Axxual Uatk of MoinALitr per C«(it., 18(31-70, nt tlifTorerjt 
Auk?* in Pifit-okk Ukalthy DiKThicrfl, in tlic whok of KsutAND 
mid W\LKfl. In LoxiHix. juiJ in AlAXciiiUTEfi Dud LiVuitrooL 




15 1 








1 no 



a us 


1-fla 1 a iw 


» vvt 





1 MA 


11 WfT 

10' ^f 

IS lit 


10 Til 






1^ MTx 









A- 700 

otbH- I'tbln, rLfiUffl/- Uti itrL uiil KlruT'i Nortouj Oil tmsonl 01 Itiffhr i-njiliiUtj. Uic lOMJJ'f le 
Loii4ciM nnO tlif Ibi Lt I^j IlirfiiiniEluiiUv 

Tht nliovo lnM« MSthtU ihe i-nlvs* of iiiurtidiljr «f maJon And fomalov 
reep€^Tf1y, aI 12 v'r<rup? of Jif*es|in Londoti, contrasted with ibt.' x'i\i*s^ 
nt iXxii »aine ^ivu|>^ of ii^^a m ^l HuUth^ dl^ti'ccUi, mwXX Kn^IiiEtd, in 
tL« dimiHct of Munclic^cTt And in llio di»Erict of Llverjiool. Arniu;fed 
in Hw or^lcr of moilAJity at nil ojfcf* &h in Iho Tftblc, it will I'c nodod 
thai Lomloii muL^ Dt<xt hi Jtlt Kojclaud. MAOoheitt«r fullowing, iid:I 
Liv<*rtiool ^UimlinjE IjpiI, witL Lho high rate of 4*097 dcatht p«r CODU of 
males and 3 '636 of tVmale^ 

If wii tvkf? i^ KR-»t lovru di»inct?> in difleretit |iiu1« of lho ktngilotn — 
iripludinc Mftn«1ie4lvr — und i:oi]ifi<Lr<< (li« r«f«« of isoHaIiI^ m\ difforvinf 
Ages wtib tbe moi'lAlit}' nt tho »iuiio iMfvfi of tlie 17 p>»c town districT^. 
iacluiUnfrt ieatdet ihe* 1J> diatiicu precedhi;;. fjvvr|K>i>t ^ud London, 
thff mt^H will bo found to dilTiT iJUt btlH ftnd IhM in ttin^ngb London 
bcinjz inclnOi-'d in ibe 17 iowhb whiob cx>iitAin on ib*? avi?nhgc of tlic 
t«n vwir* l?^l-7l n*i Ut*H tlinn 4,!lWL2ii8 inhaUiiiinu. nr tit-ujl^ ft fouitlj 
of thr |>o|>n]uli<in of IinielAnJ Atul >Vidm, Tbt^ narot vi?ry fairiy reproeenl 
the deatL-lax which the Girent elly {>opniatiouB of tlnj-lnud iiovr piLj^. 

Tlw c«i9Ga lUat tnnkc thi? niU?» ot murinlity tili'v niuy t;o eoDsidcre 1 
under two lic«d» — 

(L) Caii*c« inh<Tr(T)t in thft populfition iIaoI^ such, for eun)|^»i ut 
i^j: and <rjr^. 

(20 Cau»«v oii1»u1o the populAlion, nuch jm nir, wit<*r, food, clothing, 
dwclhLgs, oi' 9uk\i KruuifM of ranbwt ^8 ai'e invoTved in rcsidouov 
■nd Illation of lho wv<irid pnrU ti> i>acli oThor in tiin<« nnd fififtc4u 

M«r« ]nApe<-tioii of thu Tabhvn 49* 50, 51, mtHMiKlim under the fUst 
head tvro tiling*; (d) that tho moiijJit/ of mal^ ovoryvrhorD excet'd^ 
rhe mortahlynf f(?ni»left at notiily All a^«: (6) titat the inorlabcj b nl 

n iL^tiiiriiiinn nl iLc tjcc lO-liV; Aitd incfVcuH:* in l^^t djji-clir>ii«i, «a wo 
'■«pproao(i t>irlh. And «« vru I'^c^di* to longlbeniTi)^ age. 

Uudvr ilie Hocoud [k^iuI il U cfilahlifh^il hy the fucL? ibnt the morUlily 
ID oil the i^rcAl towa» it> high >t DOarly ill ages : and alzm thai itc rmUi 


rf aifjjidBSrjrf tho popvblionu in miws udcIgi- a11 (|i^ WjiI cnnditloiin 
VBffmmmfy fn tne suco iireciion t^ llw Dioi-mlifr nt titcir w>vc*rol 
pt^Hodnof Ufo. Tn fitcl tfa« causf^H <i( ii'Mitubrit^ utfL-ci jii-uplr* of nil 
D^a; ijut it will bo uliown h<*roEift«r ihnt thoir olToili^ difl^r in iJitj^rw at 
different ag^is — (Suppl^meDt to 35th Aimau] IC^port, pp, xxi-ii,) 

I. IWAST ANII Cllll-!> MonTALlTT. 

Mortaliti/ of Chitdvtn. — It must iilso br burnc in min4 thnt tW 
propoHioDs of tho ilenilifi of cMMren. fhou;*h showing a hi^'b mortaliijr 
In «omr pttiL^i'* at cHfiiirwcvi] with tlint uf otiicrvi iniiKC not Ix* rc^gnrdcil 
no truu uritcriuun of \\%\* conipnnifiv(> inortalil}', unlostf thu proporlioott 
of llvin? clilMreD to living adull£ w«ro in tfioee diflVrent places tb* 
mm*^^ NeilhtM' mint ii l*c- iuppo*sl tlmt llui pn»pf»r1ion of' cbildreri 
dytbg cut of l,t>00 (kiilh'i jir nil Hgc?. wbolher griveii for tho wbolo or 
Tot anv juxrt ui* Kn^-liuul luid Wnk-B, will oH^ril thf lat-MUi.-' tif iT*prc«*inif 
«orn?oOy lli^ ]*r.'poitioii of wut'h di^'iirlj^ (^ tfiu living ii'»j»tilttrii»n. Tht* 
wouU not be tlu" onw* unW^ ilio jiopiilMtion wcrr siaiiimnry, fho dcnthit 
T>oiu;; (^^jiial il> tljc liiiiS^; but in Kn^lnnd uid Wrtloi tbi' number of 
birth' cvrcntl^ f^xciiHJM llmt »t' Ihr- fiaitli^ aa will nppi^r from the 
following abttractQp Kvcm tliuii;:1i the iT^dtratiou of biftba is bcUI 
dvflororil (arid ibflto iti r(>nain to tkelii'-ve thnt fhp nnmbfr n'^iur^refl i» 
ever^' oiu- of tbe l!d divJuionh fnlU jihort of tb^ nctnnl nnmbpr), yot, 
even with ihi? Admitted probnblc dofkrienoj, the number of births if 
npplkd AJ* nil olrmcnt of i^nlciibitionf will jihovv » morlnlitv much I<*m 
than it Appi^rirs in tli<> Cornpririttivv Ti^blo of Dcsitbfl. Ncithc^r of ttiOAi*, 
hoWf*v*»r, cnn ht* (ireH^ilpd n>j <yn'r(»ct i ftrid evfri the |*ropoflion of death"* 
nndar I yi^nr to 1,00() rt^^fislerod bjilbs is n littk hi^hr-r thiiii i\\c truth. 
— (SndAnuunl IU'[>ori. p. 16.) 

MorloHty ttf Infnntn. — Ari thtfro ftrc difli(iultii?a in dH<*rmimng tho 
&gos of thi.- ohli?-«i people in i]ie populnbon, bo there bi« gi^eat difHeultiM 
ID determining the roC^* of mortality among infanl^, from \\\c wAiit of 
i^iw'lly obst^rt ed facts- TIik infauti* in tht- fii'sl ycur of llfn hiy* to sonnj 
extent mitotl im witli infnntu in the soeond year of ago; nnd their num- 
bers HucrtiinU^ mriu year loyejir, owing to iluct"jLtiou& in thu births, and 
tho mortality from Jtymolit and other discJViH"ir,aothflt the ywirs orii^fanc 
lify ouiinot l»r ncourntoly detUiccHl from deceDDial enmaorntioni of tho 
infnntA li\'m{; at Iheihtteof the Census. A^in, themortnlitydiminlahea 
ao rapidly ati«r thi* datf.^ of birth, and nt suoh vnrinn* niCn* unikr 
differtint coudiiioris« that it is necesfiary to subdivide the tir«t yefii- into 
montU»T nnd ^vun (Uiy^t to g^t re^ollfl cxnctly ::(fui|>arnble. Tbt sLill- 
born childn^n m Englniid ure not n.*j^ttcr»l ; and u curtJiin DumbL<r of 
infants that brcnthi^ tor a short time are, it is believed, to save ihe burial 
fece*, interred as the nLill-bora ju-e buriuJ, nnd so escape ri'Lji^Jralioii* 
Upon Ibc other hnml, thr denthfi of premaiuro childi-en tK>rn abvf nrc 
rcffistcrcd ; mid tbcy aMiomitcd lo 4-5^14 out of 620,340 dcnths of 
infnnts iirnltr I jt-ai of n^-e fn tbi> *i\\ yt'iirs (lRiN-63) ihnr fbey hn^^ 
been distinguished from infLinl* iljinj; of debility- Tin? reeo^jnisi^d 
proporfimi ifl 7'di<^ f><^f cent., so that to obtain the mt^ of morlflllis 
among ehildren bom at iht fnli trrm of ninn mo/i/Avi, ihcprpaiftturc 
childivi>| if vrc hnd the- mcMiti^s ahoulil l^o intrude out of Ibc no^ount bolJi 
of thit living and dyin^. This i.^ impoft^ibie tn iho present fifnie oF 
stadstica] ob^er^raiun, Buc it hrippi-ns ilj^a tbf^i<4; dmthH of premature 
ishildren vvxw n^ prolwiblj' mon* ibaii a fjuflicionl set-off difninst the- 
Infant* of full tt-im clyin)c riocni and uM-upiu^r rt'^rj^irnnnti. 

The t^ff^ of man in rwckonerl from (U<i ^ui" *A birth i btil Viofoi'a that 
date the fcotus ha* live<l it* Jntni-iilerinc life, atid the infllant in whioli 
tlu) »pC'rm-cell and £erni*c«U int^uiUigle ia the trutf liino of the embryo's 



i>H;;jn< Rcepecling llio rule nf <*ml)rvi>nic lunrtiJilj ilui'eU liLllij <lvl!tiilo 
informution ; bttl it in f»robabTo thnt ai tlu? inortAliiy m iho tirst your of 
brciihii^;; tifL' rit|i)iJl^ incifw^M^ a* wc proceed Imckmit'dA from (he 
Iwclfih to thn tliiriJ, accohJ, nnil Hnl nio»!h. th^«Am*? Uxv prt'vniU Hiiring 
frmbrjonic life, unCil we airiro at the d**-9U-iiriion of ftn immrnAc propor- 
tion of ihp n^ntiaUyioa (tnd ovn wlut'li uri* |iroi ukd lo secure liie con* 
tiuuniion of ihe specif^, Tlih qviestion wnll <li?w-r\vs thiMUCi'mfon of 
tho <)bj*ictn(i ftodi-tj', and U iniimnlclj connwlcJ with Abfirtion*, 
iDUi?arT]njri*<« and FitLll'l>irl1i?t,^ 

E»ai.i»a hiFK TABf.E for o»ch Morjth ot the t'ir^t Ymr of A^^, ntid 
Annufl] ]tit« of Morbvlity per t^nt. of Children in e«cb Motilli imdor 
I Yt^rofAge* 



LlTi3(t> It »mtU lite 
*iia of tach Hijfilh 

SfabtL of Ap(^ 

ll0llTJkl.tTV ;i(ir tViit, 

■ 11 i^i^Vi H-jtieIi t]rirl*Tr 

t T*ar of AjtTi. 





Bcfth 1 




Rn^i. Gir:* 





9- 144 
























13- MT 









TVott — tliEv Tiil»l0 vnk faTn»lAl-^k 'nani iti'< f^-pmvlnl Ulrrli« «fi.l fmuu lit'- t>T«|lui niiivb^v^ 
Id Iho IT Vmrv l»>i-lUk luulchr ^ iianiit1i>. M :i nrul LinJ'^r H mmtUiv feiil bC H tnruitbi (ud umJvr 
t jMtt itf^ Sntt 1^ Tnliti- >' II . p iTiii nf Kivtktli I'tfi" lahl-v) fir t.iXA.OAn pmnnii Inrq. ittiwf 

«L7«T wtmMnl'^ ^n'l Ln.TU) vrn« IVlnAhBi MMX tt1« UtIiw t-t ihrfvM tJ IfinBHUiid umnES. 
ftiULlhf Onllii in ilmi ninnlli»i»itPi>1T.1flS,ofvbom VJHO vmv Mml-^ and 7.SH irera Kousalm, 
Tlip ^«««4r Bfllo^r Vflorttli1;r Ci'mnt. of Infimli iimlpr I monCh vH U'1% vir.. MjiIm A4'Ai)1. 

Tho aniie\^^<l Tjihir from thf Knpli?h Lifo Talile shows [1j^ **iinmlrci 
tiumlir-i> of nmfrt« nml li^nak** siirrnin); vitcli mmilh, ami the ftimunJ 
nir^ of niortaltfj iu lAcI^ ittoulli. 1( will \n* obMncd tbat tbf rale of 
mortnlili ntpirlly ilerllnn* nionih hy month ; nnd ihAi the moHnlify of 
boy« In ever^' inonth i^xceeila l\mt of 'j^iT\sf nu xUm ivl ibi- mi) of the tirsi 
j««r th<t iinmlwr of bny» d<K'i* not gn-ailf cxt*ivi! ibc number cjf girl*. 

The iuort«IHy of Inianis Iu Fnnioe vta» such in Ibr lirnf, y<^r ns lo 
r«du<o l^X)f>,000 to SSOfOC^ Acf^ordwg to ibn rKpi'i-ronco nci^iiircii by 
folloirinic the birth* in IS.SG-^ for Ihr^ ]2mcin1t)--« follovviti^- Tbcd«ttihM 
w<Tre J7il^5. and iho prxAnbiliiy ofdyins0.l7i)935> 

* Dr. GnnriUf hv lh« taunt of hnving onlEi^l nifniii>n to th* impofiuico o1 Ui« 
•ubjcct- En hU fffpt>tt ^ Iftf Pr4icticr it/ Mvltci/fr^ ^t tAt Wftlminttrr Goktrd 
2Aur''tJtrxfy>r)r i8l1S b«ih(rw<Hl Ibai if 4<h» pn-fiiiaiit iiinrrinl «oni«U vhoNfiplM 
■* iLo 1>iafK'iiiAr7 Iffl h*4 mib^rriwl uritbin Ihr pn-vicm* Icn jran oo* l4D«ar 
more & Iu all 305 llm**. Tbe }f^ womcii had p^4-n birCh Arttitijx tho iinto Itm of 
jam lo A^ Uvp ohtldna, 9'>3 dvrd «miF>ry(iii. k7^ of iSr womro hail not lui^rorrk^ 
fttaU; and Dr. OrmnirnU tli)*« dot *»y Ui liow loaAt litiri^ chii'lr^ii thpy hid givi.-p 
hanh. (Klh«3o.l iiiiMvri«0«t 16( ooourred in Iho fint 3 looiitha of pirfEuincs 
63 iu ^« luouilii, «sd M Ul 1^-* mnudi*. (pp. 33'4a-> 


CrxiiT IV* 

Tlie French r«tariis ihow tli« deetlis in ibe HrsC we«k of Ltfe ; and liy 
tb« rviuriLi (iT J8^6 thr murtollt^ uwi lit tin- rntc of J^ |x'r cvmu. pcrr 
iinnimi in tli<r (irar kvl-d ita^'p. 120 in iho ^I'oooil rcvcn <Iay>i and 54 in 
Hie sixCec n day» roL]owin<r. l^i^ nientt births Wfro ^'Jr.S?^ ; ttiQ deaths 
in thi' three porioJj* wtir 27,lK):i, 20,517, &ud 2o.f>lrt, mnkinjr 68,1*7 
denlbs m Iho liret monlh of life. So o»l [>f ^OOU,(XK1 UrUi* 29,1SI die 
in ihc Gmi >vri.*k, 23,129 in ihu :<ccon(t ^eck, uad 22^36 iti tUb sixteot) 
il«yB fotlo^'ing. 

In Knglruiil fuid IVftic* ibo doAtha of 2,374,370 int'nnlH in i)n' fin^E yiwr 
of agi- wi^re rej^ni^red in the 26 years 1 83 8-63 : and of lbi?i numbfU' 
1,3£8|287 wrrf^ buy*, J/>-f.^.092 wcrv^rbi. Tbo di^ntlM M llir fitDWAg« 
K'l^iHtoTt.^ iu tli« l«ii j<ar-< 186 1-60 were 'J!>f5,630: of bojH 657,^13* luid 
nf gIrU 430.417- Ni-nrly I0»\000 infrtnln dini Artnuidl^; in tHp 
pra|iorlionof ul)i>ui56 bays lo H girU. (£iip]>1«mem lo S5Ui Anmiiil 
Report. p|j. v-vi.) 

Jfortality of Infantt umfer orw ^tnr^ and itx riti^MS. — Tbu liijjb mlt> 
cf Snraiil TrioHnlity ao[iLiiiii<-« to c»ocupy Uio f^urriOAf iiltnniiiiri of mjidicnl 
HinlistA. The di-atli-rntp of infantA* in Kri^brnd iiivl Wnli-*. m IST-^, 
vha \^H per 1,000, or 4 pta' 1,000 ft1)0X'« thenwriu^L- nktc in ilio lOyesi'Fi 
IBtJl-TO. ThiF< implir'^ tJuit tbc mortnlify among inf/mlA t,% mi-rKu^infc. 

Tbu ^ulijujued TftMo bUuvth ttiu d^fliib^tiite of tnfuit'* ti^na all 
«4iuft«di in 19 lArg» lotvD^. Tli« )ji^b<'>«'t mt4<H in 1975 prvrftilftd in 

Uom-ALiTT OF CuiLtiBTLX DUiler OxK Ykak or A(.iic from All CauMi> 
in Ei^blj'L'n Lnrgt Ti>wtis iSTO-TJ- 


under Onv Year 1o ^vrry 1,000 iltrthi nDpitlend la 

M or 

Boaocoua, &c. 

6d Weclm in cacIi Vi^r 


£J umber 






ID lh«] 



Poriamoiilti - 





\At MM 







15A l«I 


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U3 l«4 







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L[Ti*rpool • 








• Ilj The rlpflTh mip rtf mfiuiW llirougliout fhii Rv|>orf , ii iiii&Dt tin: |in>tt«TiI(iDal 
tiumWr of dvallu vt ^biMrcu iindtrOQcjear ora^lu ctbtj 1/iftO birtli*. " DoBlh- 
Tiile" uader I b aHVd for ii* >horU)L<u iuaimd <»rtb« maro cormt trnq " probability 


li'icMt r, 245 pif l/X»0,Liieipool 21(1, Nurvrk-L 210, Dnklfonl 200, 
>'o<iin;:tiaia I9£», te«d« l^7» J^irrainj-baui IW, osd Hull I9t. 
Torii^nioulh JiJid the io^unl raip, 13^ ]>«r 1,000. 

WLji4 un* till-- mo>i4^ of «lilcIi liigh Jem I- nit i,-* of InfkntH in (urge 
lownt ? Tbi« 18 u <|U4<j^ioQ of vimJ ii«.^>oiua)4?e, luid to ttf^f^i in ginnf h 
^Ati^nurtot^ a&taW«t, tliv avorspo aiiuunl ilt^throle-iof inbiits from r^cb 
of t^lc-vcn cmiwsL, in ll)c thrive yi-ar* l^T*'*-^ Itartt Itccii rjUcukiiil fur 
IS lurgo town** Tlie rceiults arc vfaovru in tbo aubjvint<d tabic. 

MoiET.tLiTY i^r Ciiif.MEiL\ iiiKlrr OvR YtAif of Ao£ froiH dificivni Cai:»i3 ia 

lavt'At. 9Ct*MiBi 

1 M iHrtrun of CntUiuor t 

<D litftrn*. 

BoBorOKft. tei 

llu»# JMftv 1H A-X Ut «t>«y l/l 



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tt'l U'l 




IW* ll»-|f 


W-ll 11 T 

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i«'o 1 a~£ 

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V ) w* ' M-' 

i:-4 rv 

* Tbc rvnlU for the Bhetn IrnvtoiruA uq diT^mvil rnm iHitni* ««jit>'ii4 t* t1w)l>'I:'«l OHloen 
of UttllK. A4fw«i pncttcahUaiffitrtivn In nMntncUilurB hai^liofii iij>iifl<n. 

till B'wWd. In ilH Ibi^ raf Ig*-*, 'h* — — of dmlh of MH tnfU4> iI'Amt cauLj trmnv 

WmL\ vntb iLOt tUt«l In llridfl ilinc :i4ftrL tr. K«t>vrtnrt, Uiv fluMlninidrttl ot Ui« HMMM 
Drpuliamt of Iho »rii?nl K^fiiltr UlLlrc. r-tSn Mir^h. ft1«|i* Ifeat 11 fvima ti^ >%mao^ I^M Ibo 

'■ nro^lng ondfT tbff aft of I." Hm btnbv. t-nt of nbkli ilic <J<ptU imdn I jm 
tif aff«Cpc<nmHliji tWjmr IKT&. v*m diom riglaUicd tn ibr ivo >iai> l»*4 «»d 



thv DMSii ntiivbfr uf bitihi ifi ]t74-T£: W *■ 

lli« Hrvn fittmWr diAprwl bo IStlTv fr(a> tb« hoijUaI uitmU'T, iti4> hivth* i*i ih* t«ar 
Ih;A A?rc u^td ID ilijiirln^ (Lj- ictulit tcltt^Bf; ig ftfisl niLti*tiit> In <i lojb^inf; 
ib« Lt^ih-MU« If ir^fivtiH ii tft» ttiti fcurxt piott moiiitv rh iif|>Ij it< iiuaibtr ot 

C.Vh»«. >«il i> bvtIf'Vtil ib<)>r frvr^ not alavia M<ui*t«1y Triviticd. 7b< praftvce 
tomtliiun Witi^ to pui t!D«p cbilrltOD Ir Ibr li|>t, ^cdc^, tiiri lUid j-can ol >g* Ab 
1. ?. A. Incrrn4 iif it, I. 9, a c*i<iiLn nniiDlifT rf thiMrvK in llr Enl rnrr i4 rgf, vbu 

192 IrA^ 

The tabk deeervef^ eiiroriil Mu^ly, f&r ihe agonolM wbieli ildEtrojr 
infkDt lifbnn tunn}, luid :lii^;r TM-y in dinn-int Joc«tlti«?t. Some of llie 
imncipat ohukicw siv ifapropcr und iiUfulHciont fooil, bad matmgQmcnt, 
tide or opinft>?. nejrkxf. L'ftH}' mumoj^n, &nd ^k^liitiiy uf JcoUi^mi l>iit 
whtttervr limy ha ibt< Kpi^iftl a^ndr^ tki Mork which nrc fO prrjudicinl 
to iu^i lite, h mutt be Wmo in eujjiU thtti a tii^b il«aib-rftle la in a 

In townA :tiich u^ SunJcrlanil, Wolvnhjkmploi), ami Nc^cu«ilu-Li|ion- 
Tyno, wlirn? tlic! rrou aihI 4^(>fll mining ]ndn!tfnr« pnirtpor, nml uhc^i^i the 
rtinrrtAS^^ of minor? aro tn ^xccsSp tniflDana^menl lliivti^li igu^nricc in 
prohfllilj on«i>r the caiL«cH of n high infant cIc^iith-Tiilc, tvhil^r in lournn 
tiiich ns Olilhan^t Nor^icJi, .Sftlfard, Noctln^am. Lced^s Leic£0terf and 
Miirtchrflicr, wheri' thi? women nro more or let* cmplojcil ata^ fVom 
hnini* in tbi- mniiufnoCUfL' tX iL'Xlile &hHce, if ift prol.ftfjlr thnt ono of tite 
cauBe*i^ of the high rutt* <-.f uifnnt mottnUly is laatcrnal negl4*cL In t\xo 
hnnlwAi^ manutBciuriti^ tuwuti, plkI ub Sht-'tficM ami Hiraiinghnn], 
conipaniivrty thvr vrmnvn nrt- rniptovcd i» the fuctoricj*. 

Afl rcglLixl» illf^gilitiiBU- infantas ^^^ chiof caunes of th« hig}\ uorluUiy 
tf« no (loiiM improptT food nnd ni^Wt ; hut thcilenlh-mlft of chililr^u 
bora out of wedlock will be diaoussed furtJit^r on. 

The can?** of dcMh which nr* more <lir^*cily thf^ rcisiik of nefflect and 
muKinaiiftgrinemt are convaUions, dlarilio^iL, unU unophy. 

Jn 8t-olIii[id, ^nfnut muttjtiity in uot ^xi hl^h ^^ il i-n in Kui^lnnti In 
tho lOytiu-'i lW>l-70, rhp ftv<>i>^o itncmtl d<gitli-fnli- vn^ 154 |xr 1,000 
in Engian'l, nnd 121 in Sciilljind, aiul it is rcmnrkaMc ihat the exQt9S £n 
iho nunih<*r of dunibn from couvulsions, diarHurA, nlrophy^ ind |>m* 
inftturo biith, lurcmntA ftir iimrl} th(* whole of rhp ditt'erence in Ih* hij-h 
mto of infant iiiurtitUtjr \a England, C4>n]pftrcO with ihut of ^rollnnd. 
Thu nnnihor of dpaihi of infnnta in England, in the 10 vvnrfl 1861^0, 
frc*m con V 11 Uiun^ u'l^ 209,320, uml from diiirrhcTfu 119,430. In Sratland 
ihe rewpectivfl numhcrt woro 6,801 ond fi,l50. The births legiskTcd 
during !h* same pL>n*>J in England weri; 7,5ft(J,l}90» and in Scoti^nd 
lpl2Dt«dl' ThiiH the Avom^ annnul dr«th-ntt? of InfauT'S in l&CHwO, 
in Unglnnd, from onnvi3!*ions w*m 27'ft, and from diHi-rha* 15"** piir 
1,000, whavto in .Seoikn-l (hit reapwiivo dcnth^mtu^ wore only 5 ' 2 mtd 
6'5 por 1,'XX). In ihi? n\>ovo laMc, average jliiiiuaI i-ates of ink'aut 
morrnHty h TCngiund mid !^cuihknd un- ^hgwn from r^ach of clevt^n caufii^s 
of death. 

The cuuoo of tlii'< h!^h mortnlity uf iuftrntu from couruUiona And 
diarrhcea in Kn;£land, c^mprin^l with Scotland* is suppowd to be due to 
bud fub<liiiL\* 

Ckimparrd with Ihi* flfic!«ii English towns the inortnTity cf infaolfi from 
nil cnui» in thfl city of Glitsgow in tho Ihrue ytars 1^73-75, wa* i."om. 
paniliv^ly low, vijr^ 163"3 pnr 1,000 hirih*. Ordy Poit»moiilh ond 
London liJivo a lower ralQ vt infant niorluHty. The dcAth-rates per 
J ,00D in i\w city of Gla.*i;ow from each oj SfV(?ral t'niist"< were on follou-^t : 
mmclri* t 3, st-arlrt fi'V^r 3-4» whoopiog^cnnch ^'j, dian-bcral dise^'cs 
J3"l, lun^ dif«?asL'» 37-7. ulrophy and di^biliiy 23-6^ pivmatuie hirth 
li'9, fir«ver O-Ti, sm:ill-|x.T I '0, t^ronp and diphthr^rla 2 "3, connuniptinn 
2Zt ncr^'oti* disoitncs 25'4. and from olht.-r cnuws 27*0. 

The Mioflaltty in ihc mining Jind manufai- luring Iowum of Kngland 
from coQvuUion?, diaiThn^a, urroiihy, add |>rt*nifliurc l>irtli to^llier, wm 
6tt per 1,000 in Oldham, Id "Sheffidd 87, WoUcrhaniploit 89, 
SalfoM 09, Birmiiighnm tOl, Mnni^hr^liKr 102, Snndt^rUnd 103, 

* Sc« Fftprr by Dr. Bltirk, M.D,i F.R^.E', 0J^ lo trvatmi-ni of juUdi* in Ncoiland, 
in Vol. XXlX.orthc Joamal of tho Statiiliril SocivLy, pp. 13^17. 


U't^iU 106, X<>wMwIle-(ipon-T>-no 1 12, Nonncli 125, NoUinj-I»am 130, 

No conijiamoii, howovor, of liirnot morUliiy, £q iliffercni towDA 
?iliuiitd ins mtulv wiilioNt tiK»kJiig lo ili" rH>.-u[ttlioiis oflUi^ women, 

In nrvpii of tbfFfcc liflrcji lowiia, wompii avc riDplovrd in ^c^^nlcr or lei^ 
numliion^Kl tW millK nnd liL<.-(^ri«4. in Xt^xulf iitiiiiiifni:liin>it. In OMiiftm, 
iIm^sp ioTir cHn4i>» of dwith (ronvnlitiocs liiJurljati* atmi>liy. aiwi pn^ 
miituix< birth) i^firt?^'Exi«M oiilj IH prr t^ofiU of ilio lotiil morUililj of 
iiilikDl^. In NnlfonI, Iho pro|>oitfnti wsk 54 |h*t i-cii).* in AianeJl^3(llT ^3, 
luiU in Lccda 6^1. In Nttrvricbt XoLUn;;hiun, bu4 I^i(.yotcr rer(pcH;ttv<;Jir, 
tli*'*«s fmir fWiue* ivpr*st*iiloil fiG, ti*'i, niii3 71 |»*^r fi^iit. cif |hr» fnlnl 
raorftltty orinl'nni*. 

Tiirniiijf to ll^' luiiiiri:;, uml lianLwiLi-^ umnuriuturlriff lonrtis tlir*o 
f"Ur o»UMC> rrpixv'M^nloil '17 }»-v rrnt. of the W>tAj tnorlatiiv in Sh<-^lfi(*M, 
uml M in Wo[vi'['h»riii>U>n »nil hinnin;£limn. In Nrvrtrn^iV' npnii-Tvnr 
au*l SurKkrluiul ilu- re^pfy-livc j^ropoilJoii-t were Jiighi.-r, vtr.., -VJ ntiil 
61 pi^r cent. 

Ill OUIWn, lliA rMd* of Infant mofrnKly vr^ liigli, ^ii-. 1^0 r>f r I^OOO • 
tlbe fiXCAii is Tilt iloti^t. piirlty owinj^ l» itio mn11ii^r« Ii4^in|r cmpl^^jeil iit ilio 
inilU, Aljit^tt llirt'^* ivo4>kr^ or u hloiiIIi l^ thp ■v<^riL;;t' liiii*- iht-y nMtinin 
nt hmntr rfcor Uj^t birili iil n oliilil. [>i-. SriTlon i'(*coinme^i4ls rjtL> 
c*inlitir«hini'iil of r1»j iiiicwTii^* for lUo liritc-r jkroirctLou oL' iiifaiiti iliirJiJfc 
t1ii> Iii»tv4 t\tf\ ntn ilcpi'ivml nf inftlrrmit riiEv>. It U iv>Tiinvk[|Tktvi tluif, 
nlllioiii^h ihr pr<i;toilK'M uf iromrii. uffi'tl ^1 yi'^ti'i iiml Lt]>wnr\U, rmpldyni 
ill lr^til^ tiiJiniiFiiof iirp> w;v^ lii^tM^^I in tliin lown, 3J6 ]ier l,OtH>, yH llti^ 
nuiTof inrntit morinlrty w^im i^latlvi-ly \o\ct^ ilutn in any ui' ihr oth^r ^^ix 
14'XtiU* mannfucturin^ fownr'. The nn^rliilUy from Iving JiM?flsci wiw 
^xc#^Hlvl^Iy hlgli In Oltlbnin, 

111 Norwic-li, tlif* iV'filh'fnlrj of infaTitH wiu ItigliM' thnji m Ol<11iam, 
lo'iixK 1)^3 [H.>r 1,1)00. r\v prnpi^ilioh of wi>m^n employed Ui k<Klilo 
in»niirAotnrrj( vm* \ovfor in thU (»wn timn lu uiiy i*f Ibr i>lhnr' ; ic tva^ 
.5^ per 1^000 Ij^in^. Ilr. Crov^^i rc|tor[p4 ilmT miuli iL'nonniLv pj^rniU 
4Uii<in^ till: |h>oii^r i^Xtv^ttt-n 11.4 to ilio propter vray of n'ltiiiL^ infuiiEx, »iiiL 
tUtJi iipp-urn fo 1h* liorn^ otil liy lli« n^ultpi, for ilio iiir»rlalily from 
alri>j>l]y wns nt llit" li<:lt nilr of (iS ])Ct K1XK>: it i^ iln- hi^lK^t rate JVoin 
tWw c»ii«r in liny U'thi- ViUfX'U large town^ 

In SiJfonl, ilifi rate of infaitt motlality (liHvrvil from tliHi iii 
Uftttcbwior. In tlir fonn«M' tin- nii^ wu*4 tS4; m ih*: t^ittiT it wam 
198 pf3r 1,000, Thi> pro|mr|tfin of iv^aivu t^mployi^t in ihr Idlik* 
nkftTiufikj:lnrf«, in lloflo two town*, wiik ]^2 p<r IJKKI. In SilfuriU 
Dr. Tnllmm n^piiri* llmt Ibcr ln;;h 0<>HllL-ral** wow cliii>fljr iIup I» thi- 
iDOlliors lenviiig llii'ir off^^pHn^ h»ui nfti-r liinlit ii> «r<lvr l^> wi^rk »t ll»(> 
coUon mill^ : lliHr infont% i\\u^ tn";;U'c|i-il, mhui iVIl iiii i';im pri-y tu rim 

In Sctlfi-rd, (lie inurlfJily IVoiu tlluL-rh^^n, ittiO in MniidjtuLl.^r fixim 
mnvulhion* >u<l lun^r <ll^»-A.'<4-t. wum liijJElier flinn the mcftn for iIk; fiflivn 


li> Notlin^^isnn, the mortality of inrniiih^ Tench<*<l thr lii];:!) niU* of 
:j<X) Iht 1,(IN), TliP |iro|M>rtion rf womm i-nyu^**! in it-xlilo niiinu- 

f irlLii rA \Tn;< ul^u liiK^* vi/'.. 2M* \tvr J«0O(X l>r\ f^tiiKq) ctuk-n lliiit 
nIthuLiKh ih^ itiviili-rnto of uifnnln wnii nixirily rm^nnftDliHl by nijirrinl 
tvi>inrii \n-'\i\ti ilui>i i-nit>lo>ivl« hf vi of nfiiMi4>n iW InfiJiU Wrn* not 
dirprivinl of uiatt-rnal eare in Notiii>ij;hAiii ti> ilii^ wnip ciLtcnl a?i lliry 
weie iti tfotnt* olhvT n^^ollril textile lUAUutiicturiUfC lowim. Ut iLo 



[lURT IV, 

KtnmiKiit wx! PiioroRTiow jut 1,000, <»r FhiiALvn 20 Vkaic.h of Aiii: 
vid L'PM'4ili>!( omployprl (I) in Tkxttik Af AvrFACTTUKe aihI {a* in 
HoL'SEiloLb 1>iTii-A, nee^ivlinic to llm (Vhaiu i>f J^Tl ; toj-clier 
wills ibr nii<i of Inkant Mohtimtv lw7»-5 t in llw' Skvkw 
FAcnmY Towns, and in roK-r^jji'irnc, nnd l^>xi'<jx, arning<Hl in 


FtfDiiJniiii iWrmcif ^f*«HiL u|mfiUU IBTI 

rVfulM ' ETumlitr niniffva in 


Tu 'Tm7 ],<Wl Ikvlllfi 

Th0 |rn>i;'>n ion 

ObH - 


lV>rinnovlh • 
IajhUijii • • 




































In LgchU, iho ralo of iidAnt morljdity ni» »h high ih 201 per 1,000, 
llic propi^lioi) of noiiicn eui|iU>}-'Hl in It'Xlik- iiiiuiufHCture.'t ivaa 93 pf^ 


Ill LHoi-ntiT, infftut mnruliiv wa^ greatly in oxorw, lii<jik|c nl lli*» rftl« 
of 217 l»in MTWJ, Till' i>ri»|'»orTii>H <-f wtuin'ii ompU»)Ml in u*Alik 
iuaiir»ciun.> wiw 11^2 jut 1,{)0(1k Of th** :i,a<;H wumt^n working iu llu^s<^ 
fnbrirH, l^K^c wei-t *'n<jMtro<l in hoMerv inuiiuluctiiri\ TJii* mtir <if 
{tifiiiiT tnoi'Utliiv from itiiin'hixii nml u[i'<>ii]iy iu Loicvstcr ^iia v<xcc''d' 
jiTvHj high, vi/-, .';4'5 uiitl ^)'7 i»-r 1,000 Uirlliii. 

Infiini iiiortalil^ was lower;! in I'ort»m<H)[li. nw] lIuMWlli-rftie from 
car/i of ihe ricn-ii rauM^v in lhi« loM^n tviu laut-r than thu moan fin- tlm 
HftcoD towiifi, except fton) tc<?[hLiij!, the inoruilijy IVoni wlik'b v/ma xhe 
Hfttni* HP thit mf^it ; froiii diaiihrraf Aitcl from Itibrrciiltr tliMoasoB, ibo 
mortdilv mort^dcd the nirnii. 

In Liverj>oo1, iho denfli-rato from lung diteafi^s wjih ^xt^ef^v^, 
39'4 per l,0(X), or HM per 1,000 uhovt; thu- nu-an, ThtMnoHolity 
from InriK diM-aM^a wn»^ b1m> vm In^^Ji '" ShefliclU, OUlhnni, Iaw^ 
London, MmkchOAti^r, wnl Wokci-humptori. 

Thi" Vis^y tiLortulify from nirdocntion in Birminglinm nnd Lm^ritool 
Lltumudrt the Atienrion of Iho roronciit. 

In thr fnctorv lownH of NuMiii^rhAm, Li^etl^n^ L^icN-^Mtcr, luid (Jl'lham, 
(hu Miortslhi^ fiiiiii pit'itmlurv liiitb >va^ vxii*f«ivL']y hi^h, 




Caiiskh of Isr^^T MouTU,iTY in Towiu in ihf "!1iroo Years 1873-^. 

C40*«fla» DRArA- 





PoKnvorrii LiviKracL. 











at iUr 












T. . «. 

AIL OaV^M ' 

Siwrtlcl Fcvpr • 
l^etldnR • • • 

UliurDlwn - • 
TiilkwiiTir iHwaim • 
.^irojihy Mitl Uciiillcj 
Fn-iiialun' BirlU 

\^n\ ItSV -w* 




1M0 iai-n 


!«»-» -M'C 









■a — 1*4 

sa 1 + I'* 

«'o on 
«'« + 1-* 

as, *fl* 

«"7 + i-» 

tt-T -K-l 

fl'i - e-8 

I'J - Oil 



+ S-* 
t VI 

* IM 

- •■« 

* l-fl 

» r? 

4- ro 

- i"» 

3' A 


U A 

I -a 






■* S-Q 

- 11* 

+ i'O 

- r* 
" *■* 

+ a-* 

In tho above tnMo tcoU, 6, 7, omi S) tht* dcntb-ralc^ from cJioh of tlm 
i-Ifven wwjj*^-H 111 tlii»e aiM-eo texltle munufactiirEii); iowhk in thr 
nx^f^n^'^*'^ ^^on*!'^'^'*' *''^^ llio«* in l^iiidnrL, nuft thi; n^iilt^ indicAio 
in a slrikin[c niunnor tliai— over nnd Abow n ccruiln jtro^rljon *»!' Ilitt 
imniAlrty tvliidi mi^j t^c nUrilrutAblc Ut mditlVrt'iit AiniUit'v AiTAii^ftiiuil't 
— llii> citni^r-tt moiil ffltH] l(} iiiFnnl lifi.* in FnrEorv lovvnw, jincl wliirh nra 

inse^iAmlili' fi'om hud nuiviii); JLitd FtM^Hng, Arc ilifLrrhaio, con viiUirf 1131, 
flni.1 Atfoptij. The niortiilily from uruTniilun* t>irth wiis nUci in excess 
ITiiw IliL' rtsi>e<riive JoHili-rnTes of InfaalA in I^iiiton, *ml in the i*«icu 
foclorj (<>wfM, wC'Vf^, fnjin iliorrlkCDa ^'4 lunl :U'1>,Jrom cnjiiul^iourt 
18'A mn\ 27"4* from ntvophy 20-<5 nnil 40"9, fi*om pri-imilnro Lirlh 
104Ana 13'8 |>er 1,000, 

The *1*'ntli"mliv< in tlir .-Miven faclory lowus from whooprn^-i^ouj^lit 
tcetbingi liiDg-dSftoawBj tnl-rrcLiliir iliw^nvn, iui*l siifforntion, wrrc lower 
tliAn Ihoso in Loiulori- (-3Sth Afinual Uopqt-t, pp. xl-xlvi) 

VhiM Moriaiity in London^ 1730-1^30. — The methoil pursued fn 
oblAinin^ ibc ToIlo^Efig i'cauUa ia iincxovptjcuinbU', nrul dojnonfiimleA 
thftt fof thi* Iftsl rootury tJK> morUilify oP elii[iln-n In Li>iu|An hlw 
eonNinjiily Wen on (lie deelinc 

Births ai^il \\i<^ Dcatiis mtdcr 5 Vouy of Age, nocordiuK to eIik 
>' l^mliMi Hills cf Morialiu/' for 100 years, in g PvricKh i>r 
20 Yciii's «aclii and tbo ^uuitna i^ruKi utidci- 5 Vcuri out oF 
100 boni,* 

Total BirA* * 
4T«m - -J 

1T«>*4R 1 ITOfK-W. 

mo-^B. 1 I70«^ietitt. 



]>3,i»4 1 ]»t),05e ia9^;t 

1 1 


DjIm pvr Cvnt-' 

1 1 
;4'A 65-0 1 »l*i 41-3 


BT 2 

\9$ [rAKT lY. 

la iht 20 yi^rn, 17MU40, out of lOO born, 74*fl died utifliT tli* rngp 
ot ^ jcM». Dm-mpE llw 2« ><*i-fl, »M(l-2l», only Zl'H iliol out uf 
tfa^ flarw* niimlirr. Thia IhMi^ in fioiit n imfirr of Mr^ KdmoinN, U» 
vbOfv iiivraltfiAlIons of llio Kti^linU |»ujmmiioii relariis wi- >liiill Imvi? 
f reqDCiitJjr to refer. 

If liatf the ohililrrn fonnMyt^il oiT nt lui oorly t^e m Englnntl 1m> 
uow reanvl, nml form (^art of ilif> ailult |K>|>iilarior ; whiU* llit^ Himtml 
■IcntJia Irt'tncHD 2l»find .10, in«lrAJ of lniii^ 7'6, or i*-l.'<r H-D |Jt*r 
1,000, ax in 1'ar]i<iH Hi>l^inm« niiil Sv.'i<>li'ii, Aro 10' 1 : it will iiirfH^r 
liuit u vjuil ijuiuIkt of wi^^iiklv cI*iMr4*n an*- ctctj- yi-iir mtruclucei) mio 
Ihr Kii^litl) |Ki|mljaiu(i« ntiJ ibiLl, iiiiU'h« proper lavtma lir Uikon Lo 
foriify iJio t'<*nNl)tuTlc>u In inuhlio^-hl, i.ho rtlatiri' vigour will iiut iiii-'ri'iui* 
In iIm^ *amp rnlio ^u. thr popnULtinii. ( McCuUoch'w AtwuunI of llii* 
Britisti Kiupirc, Artirli? Vilul SufitftiiTfV Vol. 2, pp. ^43-4.) 

Mortality of Uiri/ifirrutte In/unit. — A* rlio luw of bftitnrtlv WB** 
eaaeDtlfJLj n1iorL*d Uy iho dow poor Inw, liiL"* bron a^nin nmcndo't iu ono 
cf lU niowt important priDciplc^i^, nnd hn^ Inlti-Hy uEtmctcil n yotxl dml 
of puTifiL' nlti-iiliun, I iiiivi*i fh&n^lit it ri^lit fn Mthtuit to yoii n gcrK^rel 
AbritrjK'f of llto miml^ier of itlegitimnfi* fbil'lr<'n rr^is1cn.'(l in Eiij>liiDd, 
amt lo [loiut fiuf M>nH- iif lliir purlUMilnr^ fu Li- altviulr-il to 111 tlrniviticr 
iofi^renceHfroni ii?i4»]t-s oolli'Cli?tl nn<lcrft gn-nr v.irirlj' i»f ciiTuni8l4»uceH. 
But fht^ movir imporlnnl innlt*-r, in n poLitiotil point of vinw, in ihi* 
i^nndition or thr illi-^iiiimli* rhtlOr^ii tlw*nN(*lv*'H. If tin* moriJillly nvN- 
not greftlor nuiong llieni tbnn Jimonj: Irgilimjifr rTiilclnrn, ovcry flfkecnlU 
]]irr>a^n in England mnst In* of ill**jfiiiuiuTi- L-xInicfion, Hut the morlnliT)' 
of i}l«*;;llttii:a'' cliililrvn 1^ :i*- tn oUu-v (ikiuiti ii<n, no doulrl ^ri'atly ftboTo 
i1>o nvprjisr ', for, iridiont nny oriino ivhnfov^r of hi* own, iho ill*- 
ffitiTD&lr rhild ia tiUvii cspiirt'd to *lHng! t>, liar<ltihii)», mn! igiiofnJny from 
hifl infniicy ; tho Inw prononntri tiiin //Vi/m tiutiii/s ; he, ii(>vort1u'K'?*s 
j^oflijp-fl in Kn;-lunLl the iDiirior morciofi of the Foreitjo KimniJIing 
Ilo^pIlAT, ftnil ill onr ^ivnti to^vn^t jtnd ooKmic han proliuUiy ;i 1irlti>r 
ohAn<*o of iiltAihitijf iho rtnlion to vhicli hi« ptmorml oonrJii<^t may 
I'dtillo liiri] timii ill Hiiy other tonnlry in Kurojie, 

To taak:^ llic st^itistJoal informAiioii rr^peoting illegif.iiuate rliildrcn 
K4 cornplHt' ns* it mi^^ht hi\ iIji^ iij^i' ami oct'U]Hilion cif tlir moihorfl 
*ihould he iiHL'erlniiioil, ftr4 ndl £ui Ino proportion (jf cliildnii who rin- 
fonimlly rHT<ij£iilbi?it by tlir* Ihllirrs. [ conoLudc my rrmurL^ ij|kjii this 
vubjc^ct wilh lhi< jijilioiL^LiH (>W>ri-ntionF< of oni.' nf llii.< »liJv*ii ntjitiftiintt 
wriluri" of tik*: pvc*int (1h>- '^Tho proportion of ilkt^tiinfiEe uhildrin 
" ctmnot HJ^rr^' as n sluuilrtril of morality i iicvuilholrsji n ri-inarkaMe 
" frrtpicnry of BuHi childi-i^n i,* n'ilhoiit dontit in innny roKpiTi?^ u ^'ivat 
" e^il. The ThTuHiihUi fntf that tlio mortulity nnioii;; ihc. jIlt^^idiioiUT 
*' \» fnr smildr thfiu nmon;; tho tfigttimnfr, aiod Ihnr iimiiy morn of rhdio 
■' are atilJ-horn, showfi oWrly (Mioti^ch how much more nnfuvonridilo 
^ their pciHiiJi>n 18 from iho Ttrst. Who can doiihir tliril. fliirr hiin^in^ 
" up in intieh liTinlir and nutrr: difllnilt ? thfi cjiisieucu of n vUwt 
" of men, In^uijcI i<» ^wit*ty hy U'w or no family tic-*, i« rot » nijiiti.'i' of 
** indifferenpe to llie SUiU' V Tlie isrvn\ iiwyorily <if fmiiullin^ji nn» 
" illeiritiuiufo, whidi tif itw^lf ^hows liow liule, &» n seiteml rrrlf^ Ihc 
*' moihei^ CMii or mIII eniv for tlicx* i-irrUlren, It m Iw^yond 'Umid thiil 
■' fi"Wi:r ini'jriTinmliT rhiUrrii f-rt'W ii|i In mMni'liy ; lliiif tln'v ;^l 
" through lilt- wijHJ with tuvto \vinth\v (lino chitdn^n hnin m ut^ikhu-k ; 
" ihni more of thfia nvc* jioor ; mv\ that ( tieii-rore iimiv of ihi-m lnvonic 
" crijuinMtf- Jllt-giliinPhev in in ilnelf un iivil to 11 mnn ; nni] the SuHe 
" flhoulU Kcok t> dmiiiHfth the number of ihtde lirlhs, und cnrefully 


^^^^^ ftKATRS.] 197 ^^^^^^^^^^^J^^ 


^H " inquire lo wlint circum^taociw any iDcreMO iti to bo A#crikw(l"* 

^H (6tli AiiuiuL lt«|>or1, [kp. xxKvit-riii.) 

^H Tit tlic ItTfl jreatrf 1871-^% intaul inorUtlity was eicemively hi$ch in th« 

^^M d'lstricln of I^ici^lcr, Lirri'ihoi^l^ and Pi^>«toiif vrliAro ihn tr»pontiv«) 

^^M THios vvi^'o 22iK 'Z'Z'^, Mi<) 2'J? iK-r 1,001]. itnd nrt (h'- <ti^nlli-nar» umong 

^H illf£riiirn»le inlimu iskuown tobe higb«r tlian \i \^ ainonf- IcgitimMv 

^H infuiiu, it Witt lieli(>vtMl thnt iJio riUo of iUtigiiimjiuy In IH7I-^ (ilie 

^^1 nuinlicT of <ihiMi\Ti horn of wodkock li> 4>vi.Ty l,iJi.i\> brnhN) woultl 

^^M boar oom^ Tvli»tioa to inl'mit inoi-Ulity, but duoh is aal ihn cum^ tho rat^ 

^^1 of ille^itiruuL'y ju Letctuti^^r mid ti\ LivoqHHil biding 41 [iev 1,000, wliiLe 

^H ill Pfv«t<in it VTJIH 71 ]>er 1,000. 

^H DKArti-i«Aiii;a i>f Ltfi4;iTJMAT», »uJ ot iLucoiTm.vLK l?(rA>rtf; Fw 

^^M iftllfjl;^^- of MARlCM'lrri of MifJOlC* tO Tilt A L MakKI AC^Kfl, auc 

^^1 Ill.i:«'1TOUtk H[Jnu?( lu J,CXI0 Uiutii.-«, in twi^ntyiWr ilinHcU 

la iivit ycaVA 1871-0- 

DiEjirn* ov 



t-vill. I^li- 

irf*«iii- j iiiiwiii. 

nulr niiil mill* mid 

inato 1 oatt 

of UAriiBitrt of 



litfqnu Infant* 

ttifHin 10 
TVI*I HurUfFf.. 


of JlMrioV 



Uic^u. Ill>«»t 





BirthL BMhft. 


1 r 




UOJL 1 W|;[||lirL 

Tiriirs UUnicti wkth Iliaii Katib ol Intatt AloNiALfrr. 

IirW«i*« - • 


NS 1 f» 





UvvrtimH • 


II* wd 





i;>v»i*ni - 


ao tf(i 





RaiUunl • 


»« , Ul 


17 3 



KvUiiiiLliHa - 


nri 191 


U 1 





im m 





Ktfwlilfqr ' • 


ifit ■ m 





<tiii«liuniUir1i - 


wfl sot 


ro 1 it't 


iUtvitUM • 


iw ia 


i7':i i wa 


IU^IIiuhImi • 


wa ui 


1B'« 1 MM 



iM m 


Uvtt * * 


",1 ■"__ 


1S0 , 2a a 


TwBLVS DnrsicTfl villi Lov Eitm of tWAn HonTAUTT. 

















Ai't\>ia\ . - - 
























K>«iU*o|lI - 








Wcllkrrliy ■ 
















Jli^riniiiT ■ 








Rjchmmid - 


m 1 it« 





llmnml • - 


l» UA 





H>fV.rL |t>rboroufh 


Ul U4 





Mnui . < 




fV 1 t^P 



* llAudbucb dcT PopalMloalallk TOD D< C^. BcTdouIU, pp. lAU-l. 

^^m m k 1 


19B' [I'ART ir, 

Tlit' reMiIl>" in Uie precwling Tublo ^i^vr iHaI thy rnr« of )]l€;:itiiniicy 
In-Am tiu irluiion l» UiL-ileiUi-ruttf t.if iufunlK, utiil ti U n-initrku3i]c- tfinl 
ift<^ vliHirk-ts wiih A hi;;U taUi o\' inttiM moilaliiy nro ^eiiontlly lliofie 
i«ilh u vompoTAtiviTly low fitUt of illt^jfitimMT^. amL r'Vr ftrta. Ttktjs iii 
tht! twtTlvo urlmii dialritl^ wichnbi^li uu'iiu (Wlli-ntlu jluium^ irifAnU, 
in l^rU-S.of liKl i«?r I.IXJO, tbcnit<- uf iflvplimiMy wa** 61 |K>r \,V00, 
•whik- in iln* twdve rural UUtri^jts, wi\\i a comimnitivdy low mi'^in 
i1i?Hl.ti-iHU- aiji<>Ei'; idOiJiLiL vf 1 10 por l,[XX)r lUc ruU' uf tJIr^ilimiLfy wik« 
77 |K^i- I.OOO, 

]( t« nol rTninvtt-Hhlo tluK » «oi-lutij niLiiiU^r of ilkgitimttto HiiMrvii 
are roistered a* loffifinmtc in towns while in ihc counliy tlioy nm 
t'lHTnctly I'OgisU-TOfl a* illi-^ilxmiiti'T llu eir*;uunUmcos conm<ctH wilh 
elieir birUi Ining too will-krjowo tn nllow "f nny fttlec r**|>refir-riUlioii 
U-iiJK omJi! ; aamv illt^giliiiiuic liirihs Imvc nij Ouubi iwjnpod regiFilriliuu 

For i^ch o( tbi> 21 iliHtrlctfl ia llin TMv, tho nmnljor of dcaifiM of 
iiiriiiiimiitiT infiinfn wcio Hlslnwti'd from tlu- dt^iilli rt'giwtm'H for ib« 
ycjir 187*5» Tin' n'*iillf urr iu^tmclivc; and 1 hojw rIboido fitluro limo 
l^ |kul>]l-(h -JEiiilur it^A'* tur tiiitli of lh«> ^1 irgintiution dirtricm in 
Kjt^latjil mill VVidL'>. 

IVciify-f^iur iti%(ricu hiivc bfon strlt^drd ix^ \'\\xm\>\M%, ontof 031, 
%-rx.f tvri^lvo wilL a hr^h rnlii of infiint iiiorlnliiyt mid rwclri.- with ft 
c am paT<A lively low rulr. Hnd n *pleclion hewn ninilc fioTu (lie* 2,194 
nu/t-iiixtrirtSf Jl is pr*d«lib That iti^nlh^rAtt-n Ouuld huv« Iwh^h n<vtowud 
ciecccling oveii tliose in hpi^'calrr, Liverpool, nnd rrrrfoHn 

'J'ltriiing Uj tUt-^e resiitU in ih(.- 'I'ldde il will be m3(-ii thfil the ilcnf.h- 
ruU'i III L87o, iktiu^ii^ UlrgUidiftlr iiifatil^ tn Livi-rpool, \tii» i^lb ptr 1,000, 
and i>i Pi-cMtoEi 4'IS por 1,000 ; dniildc llio mt«R uinong tho lo^iLimaUt 
iafaaU. which wi*re 205 and 214 rosiioctivelv. The iiicnii dcjali-ratM 
ill Iht.' iwrtvo nrhan di#tnVt>, niiiong lh*j hgitimntc, niid ilogiliDiHle, 
were 1^2 wnd 3HS renpHrtivelv. 

In tho urhandi^h'icL uf Hndrnrd Ihomoilalily nmcn^ Legit.imiLl4> infuntB 
vrm l&T prr 1,000, ivhcivnn ninotig t\w ilh'j^iliniutt' il wnn .HT ]K'r 1,000 ! 
or nt.^iirlj' ihixv linn'i lu- hi^lij ikud in DrifU^^ld the respeolivc rftlt's wcrv 
IGSaiid 5f>Gper 1,0IX1 1 

in iha nii'Jil distiirty, %vhcr<? diL- doath-rjitcit nf iiifniils y.-erc not so 
high, thi- ineiui irorl^lity of the ille^^timttti.' wjw rnthor inof^ than doiiblc 
Ibnt of ihL' Ipgitiiimte. The me»n lit^jilh-intrx in Ihc twelve roml 
tlinlricLp, ill t\\v JC'UI lt^75, wiJi'u y? pui 1,000 iuuoii^' the- le^^^irnntc, and 
t!30 per 1,1)00 »EiK>>ig the illo^fitimalo. In Ki^ikIiiI tlio niortnliiy nmonj* 
h^gitjimiti.' tiif^nb waif only 91 pi*r ) AX1« whih* aiming iLk^t|Ltiimi1f' infanln 
il WHS ^29 jftT l^OOO, or nwirly iour tiiocs ns bi^'h ; and in Stmtlord-oa- 
Avou the lOcipectivt raU?s vftre QU and SW^ i>rr 1,000. 

It will ho observed in tho Table Ibat in the diatricU whore Unjre win 
Hii ^'Xitir;«< of oiiHy iJiiLiTiH^r^s lii*' innrr.rLlily of hifAiilA Uuiti \\\ wucllock 
WJis (*oiii|iiirnfivf-]y lii^h, Thiia iho moiin iiiiuiil iiiorlnlity in thu twt.d^-D 

iirhnn di<4lrrct^, in the yurn' 1H7<^. wilh VJ2 per 1,000, and the mviiii 
jn'oportion of ^vh who mnnird uimUt ii^c f.o I'.O inmnn^L'S in lhc£o 
(liairietH wiu* 28, whei'eitK in ilie twelve nira^ di^lriels wliet'o Llie mean 
iiiFHril iiicjiddLty wa^ 97 pt-r 1,000, ihc propoiLtoii wnrt OJily IH. 

Dr. R«c?fll» llu' Mcdiewl llenlth OllleiT uf ihi- city of Glnsgow, has 
fntn]Hhi>d the puriiiinlui'M, r*ihiting to (hti dojiih-rulo miiong Icgilimato 
imd itivgilimntr i[irnnl!< for that city, whtcU T nithjoin, niid which conHrrD 
lUo resuUiH uWrved in the 21 di^tricls in England. 





McmTAUTr of LK^HiniATK Hihl l].i.RraTniATH Uiakts So IbG 


LMm«iiEl>rABm '"irr^.*" !*»»»"* 


nf 1 fw 

mrrlit^ lllrtlik. 



Mfl 1*1 
»u^ lis 
»9I lU 




t/m ^ lu 

Tho niiml>or of logftimnlt; (lirtU* in Ku^tunJ nml Wiiles, in IMT/*, *«£ 
tiO!),71M<: ilio number of illcffilininto hiilhs wa# 40,813, ^ iIb(> loutl 
Dtimbcr of cliiMroii burn witK HoO,f>07, and llie ui^vrlnlih' in ihcir lir^ 
year of m<^ wa.* lo» per 1,000, 

Siiii-<u it Uft'4 been lui^rtniiicd thi\t tiki* mortiJitj^ nmoiig Ulcgitiniulo 
iTi/Antfl tH nlHmt iloublr thnl nmong tlit* K^j^iflmitie, Oion fnim llir fni'^tp 
proportlona obsorvoil iu Ihe twelve urlxin luut in ihc tw*U'(^ nirwl 
dutiicti, it follows lUat tbe liv^s vf 7,020 illc^ilimncc inr»Qt^ were 
sacrificed ibroiigh negkct .incl imprffiwr ft^cKl in ibv jwr 1»Tj. Tbis 
10 on tbr* HTianmplitm tbiU iho <loiilb-mt47 uiuotij- ilkj;iiimalo tnrurild 
Kbniilcl h** (1ji< KUmo n* llml tvbicb prvvjulipd among le^itjriiJi(t< infniitfl, 
TU., 148 iKT I.OCHJ, 

Hul tlir ^tK'ralfloAtb-nit<* of infafitj*, insEcnd of belo^ lijS |>ct 1,000, 
ftbould nc li^iAl br liA lutv ar^ Ibrit In humu i>f Lli«i boiiltbir^i jmliI^ i>t 
Kngliaid. \iy lbi> hoiillh^v ilih-iricL life ubltr it wiem unlj ill per 1,000, 
If III ix^i' 1.000 bo toktn n* a shmdnni nifi-. For ibi' prwoni, wliidi U 
47 fuT 1,000 Kwi tbau ibv nlo Tor all KngUml, thou ao hfj- tliait 
40fl97 ileatlis or Infants ot^cnm-tl in It47i\ in C3icei«« of tbo mimlier Umt 
vroubl bftvi^ 1>c>r» iv^ifttf.-n.'il «l lliij lati* llut |ju^vaik'd in ibt; ItcaliJij' 
diii1ri«t». (3Blb Anniidl K^port, pp^ ilvi— rlii.) 

^fo^ta!ittf of laftmts ai rae-k Month af the Jir:it ^tar of Ape i 
Eittfi'tiui^ Hciilthjf iUttricH, and Lit^trpnoL — Ac4M>ntJtiK lo Ihr lifo 
(4ttik% uf U^OfOOO cbi1<hvii lK»ni in ihc bnullby i]ii<rrirL-« i^r Kti^lEi«ii|, 
fKk..1.S9 aro ulirn ni t]u< <-nc1 nf Lbu flrsi laomb, ti^m\ bn^ini; dii^il in t\w 
UtM\n\. or tiar ^anu* numt>4.'i' tiorn in Livci~|>oob only ^K'»'il n^rt' aliiu 
at (be cotI rif till* Jinif nifrntb, <^,4411 bavin;; dii<i1 in tbt* iatcrrvaL 

Al tTic- end uf lUv H'trimd numib, !>>f,tTM arr Mlive En tb<T laiilliijr 
tliplri<-r»', \jiiit tinvingOioi in Ibnt aioiitb ; in LivvrjM:K»| ftJ^OltA iirc? livin^^, 
2,4f>:i hn'Jriff (lirvl tit ibc' iDoiitb; aii'I i>u on unltl «l ibc n^jEO of sctvn 
DKnitb^ Iho nnmbcr* living in' ri-tlucc<l ic 91;!*a!i in llic btuillh)- ilt»lnd«, 
jitiil to Hit^l^ »n Li^crpoolp 

In tUv bwUb/ ^liMlicl^ ib.- rxioilnlitj- mpidlj tlnrrrjidrts montb by 
inonlb. Tbti« ibe m« wum -118 {hhi- lOOil living nnili^ oa« montb of 
a^. 144 at one uioDlb of age. 102 fK iwn ini>i)tb--s 76 aI Ave moiilbH, 
71 at kIx nioiitbs «■"! ^3 at 1 1 miaiUiB u( a|;c. 


[part ir- 

Lil'i: T.tiil.ft Ami AxxUAL Dii:AT»['R.vTK for each Mi-ictii nf tlio Fiuyr 
Ykak of A<>K, in Mmh llK^r-rnir DiMiiicm ti Kstii.xyv and 
Waix?^; ill HnuuiNu a3<u WAE.t(a j;i-iicr»lljr; uixl i» llir Dit^TUiCT 

1>f l,TVKItP«X>L. 









uiil jU tba ciiil oT utlt 
lloitlfa of Ailtt. 




PiiAtiu ill cwh M until 

4;f AjlEL 

A\I1 ^]' IClTK»V 

neb MottfiDr Afv. 












OUilfl. Uiiii.rvt.j 

111 ^ Br I In 

ttVttm. iT«bln.*;l1ulrk'L 






























a?-itt Cfifl 

n ooi^ 



VotS-— Bx aivHne tbu iL^ iuikL uito (fJaAi Id Uti nrelil Lti m''h nl Ehv Wt IhriW roLiinuji^ the* 
rrmifU vil! fjiTTMuit llif RuriuiU nil'!»f in^trUUHx ijtt liKHL 

* Urn 9m\r[i}tantitl lu £<«liitnr fl^ih-mrfe ifiaih AiitiiinJ lhi|iorl< p- v)i. 

111 Uver|>oot tliu moHaliry vf}t^ fi72 {»'■' IfHK) iiiidor niiir month of nf^, 
917 "I OIK- Liiriiitli, 2'2T HI lx/f.1 tiKiiiUi'', anil 204 ni lirt- rnoiitU?*, aft**!" 
\irtij<.'h fi^<-. tho inoi-tnlTt/p iiutciKl af ilccEVTA^in^f ii>i in lh<' Lraltliy ilii^tt'iolei, 
int.ieii»c^ lo 2i>-5 -il hix monlliH, 21G at i-ight monili>, 242 at ten months 
jiiiit ^f>0 i&L elvvi'D iQontli^ oi ngc. 

So nnfjivoHHfcbkMo i(ir»iitlife im- fV iin.viniUry conditions of largp 
ii>wn»— os|KH<mll}' Liverp'Ktl— Ihnt uoi only in ifn' mortality lit PKnne 
tnuiiili> 1-r age IwIlv ai liiglj li.** it h in llii.' Iioaflliy ilf'JirfctJi, h\it AL 
7 mmiths of sigo and iipwiii-ilH it iv tlu'Co litnuA u« liign. Tho mortal ilj- 
of inf'AJils by lung disi'iiM-^ is* liigbcr in Livi-rpool than in any olhi-r 
Iwge town. 

Tlio niorlilJty of chiMivn under oce year of age is 111 per 1000 in 
lliu liiullliy dinii'ict.^ ni Kuglttiid, ntid 'J'J^ in IJvcijiool, but the nito nt 
tHcti jihiotIi of H^e tlilTvo L'Lii]>i<lrj-ablyt decir&^iL^ i'a|ml]y froiu hinh, un 
wfill lh> »-(*<'ti by ri^fpifiico lo tijo nbova Tnblc. 

Tliv biilijijiiiO'.L Tflbit' -ihuu-^ iu II -iti'ilciii^ infiiincr liow iquejIi ilopciid^s 
al the etATlic^if potui of life^ nlit'tliL'i- infanU brrulhc llio poi«onnil »ir of 
luge Uivrns, nr ihv fiwili puiv ntnio^pliciu of h^ilthy diaLncltt. 


NiTMiiKK and rnm\)KTioN' oTDRArns At dif^tcrk.m &r>NTiii> of At^K 
lo JIKX) liiBTHA ill ibc 11k\ltjit Ih^TKtcis aud id LtVEnrooL id 


1 >J. ^LtlA, 



[a LlvcN 


TotAlniiiJrr ! jc*r- 

II . - * 
1 - . - 
S - - - 
5 - - - 

4 - -. - 

r. - - , 

G - - - 
7 > ■ - 
H - - . 
■J - ' - 

11) - - - 

n - - . 



11 0-3 







1, 014 






^ 4 



15 '« 






n^Wl in UtotpotI. 

TluiB in Litcqiool tbo inorlJility of cbililreti ud<J«l' otie year of Jign 
w»'« At tlie ntlt; «>f 229 iK uiUh jx-r ICKK), o;^ ot' which ^loiuhs w«ro of 
inhuU andtr oiw moiilh of n^^o^ 24 of ctic uioiith of ngi-, auJ ao od for 
t'ni'li luoiah Iff ugt* iu llic TtabUs 

Ju t\w bifilthj diMricH ihc luoruUit}' of rbiUli-cn under uno y^ir vt 
11^ wiiH ttt lliu mir or Lll ttonllw |ter 1(XK>^ 39 of wllicb deaths n«tv of 
infftiif^ umkr one mcoith of a;^, And 13 cf one mootJi of rk«. 

Ttn* rlitlln-mv, tli«rcforff, in thu mteof moriAlity of clitUlrcn umUfr 
one yciir i.»f ugn-- m l4v<'rpo«^l, niiif in Ihi? licAltliy <li^lricK ^n» I18><rf 
trbirli, 1-t in\nx? b}^ <kw1b) umlei^ oiu- luoiitli ot ii)ft\ S Uv duitUi* hi iwo 
monUv< uf A^ luid BO on. (3^ih Aniiitid K«ih>H, \>\>* iJviii-L) 

MorUilUfi nf' Vhilrtrvn (»>-^) rn HffUtrafMn DUtrtcU 1851-GOh — 
liL'nrh in rTiiMlimnl U un umiMund o-\x'n(, jnit*tnmcli «< Iht: iv^Anr »<cn«i 
(if (UnrlujiUK'nl y4 cho liiiitiun >UiHiiiio fiXHLi i\w y^vnn-twU tv Uie 

!)«tiTiwt tniiti in hi* priniPr uimT in lim Ibml dts^itiinif >^liigo of rue i^ienivi Ih 
nh^ri-uplod, Itui lifo »t idl h^h d(?|>cniU n^jon i^ n»ny ronililionM, umI 
U cxpuMOil U» HO tnkJiy riKkjs [tiKl ont of ^itvn numbcrn livJn;; Kinjo die 
at every ti^, luiil iro cau only lake for a pi-iiciit-nl ^tl^I<U^d tbo loweai 
Aiidu-rtii^U--U rnl'v of morlAtUy. 

T\um in llm 1)3 llridthy DiAlrlcln ot KngljmJ tKr uiniint mi^iiAJUy nf 
liojfi uodff fivi> yoorn of a^ m oa aJ tho mio of 4 '348, mid of girla 9*720 
per rpni. ; iW nn*an K'ing 4 (134. 

TKmtff'ffffkt dSftirlci*' h*ro Iwen *e1eelwl, showing tbo U*w anneml 
riU« of nu>rU]it]r 3'34ft for tlio mciiti of ibornles of ibo iwo aoireei tbc 
bojrs dyinj^ nt tho rmto 3'A76, tlitt ^*irL< nl ihc i^o 2' 120. 

SOff [l^AET IV- 

Tho twpnty-i'iiihi iUi*lrk'lf; nn- roimd in »ll Hh" irginim of Kuglfmil 
Hiiil Wrilcv», litim i)r* iiaicti^rn tiiuil>> <ji Nurlltutubcildiiil lu ilie New 

Thi.* mtirlulify wjui nt ihc iintmul ral4< of 2',1l7 in Kplliiitflum ^ 
2'«j03 for Iwys 2 '040 for girl». Th\H i-nle ia only (-U};liily t^xi-OL'tit^l iu 
lliQ ndjoiniii/ (U:«rri4-t of Hoililntry, ni^o o» tJit- lonkr of ^ortb- 
uiiiWrlaiMl i null Iii EKuutlu iiorlli of ibc DmJduu uu cliiJ cuubt of 

'Hie mr:irUlit,v amon;; l1i« rotDilio--* of the BrJltvli PeeruEO W tK-on 
invealigntei] wtlU mudi <.-ai'o en<l Abiliiy ly Mr. A< II. Builey iinil 
Mr* A. Dftv.' 'i'hoj confined Ihcir invtfHii;;aiioiifi xo ibi.i j>wti«, ihv 
childri-n of ["Cri-^, niul tIr' eliiMroti of ibc clJt'tfl. *onM of [*cvrh Ijviuj; m 

wn- 4:2W2 : 2,283 nialfe\ i»u,l l.ftfW f-nmliw, 

TLo morrwlii)- of jicciV cliildren under five yL^ar*. of Bgc wiw at ttid 
rmeof2'(X)9 |ker uenu; aniorig boyn uud^r Ave yeup« of uge 2'227t 
girls lftS2. 

Thcnumhi*!' i>f fiK'tM fnr tltc pecrtigi* i?* vmnll ; ns the rlciilli,-^ of l>oy>4 
vreiv 27 tj of {prln 196 ; or 470 In the 4g;;ri'gAt<-, For Belllnghimi Uw 
dmih-^ of Imvt in trn jcjirs wri-e only 113, c<f girl* H2 ; 194 in the 
n^'i^nlv- VUv i!i?'tm-t«uf rho l4nn.-^tiinji-l«lily nn-vi'i-y ihiiilj j)po|>lv!il, 
hut thore ih no raA>«>n io fOHiiecf ihiil any of rhf d<tfHii< ui<e iiDriigiph*t-i>il. 
Anil Ihc tiiorEiility only procwd* grai^noiiy t\f{i Uy *lop up lo 3'50O in 
many oth«r tli.Htiicl^. 

Dr. Joseph John Vox, in n viilimlilc paper on the vitnl stntiHticH of the 
Stwirly of l-"ririi(^ funnel Ehnl hy tliu rrluriir' in the *' Auiniifl Munit^n' " 
ib»* mortnl'rty nn<1ci' Hve yefti-4 of tt^o In IS4*".^2 wn" nf lhc> I'Mfn lor tioyn 
of 3"l&0,of giH^ 2'383,t Thi^ miirlftlily diftor* lilllofrom tlieinorUiljty 
of the jieonige. Another velum maken ihe morlalily of iho hoyn of 
FrirnOs 5-.5yW, of Ih*? ^trls -VTX^. 

The njoituliiy i»f 1,0^7 C'hildr<."n of the tlirgy fuw bci^n hivi-.-llj^nUTtl 
^y tho Rev, Jnhu UiMlj^nn, ALA., who pro^'orK'd ri^luriifl in 1S12D ami 
1858 front the pm-ents; ihe niortJiltty of the l>oys w^ij? 7it tbt' nitc of 
^'729, of ihe girls at ihr rnle of 2'^Kffi in (he y^rt under ohBervati on ; 
nuikin^' th(j incnn tnoiialiiy of the ^L'xes 3'027.t 

Very diEFrn^uL nro the rat<.-n of inoii'ility fltnon^ eTiiKlren in one 
linndreil and fifiy-on** dintriein ; whf»rp th'* lovrent morlnljty among boyn 
18 nt the mtpof 7'084, nnil the Inghest Mt thi" rn1« of 13■7^l ptr wnt. 
nnnunlly. The menu morality of the dJAtrk-I^ vrm for hoys 8'^93, for 
girls 7'432, for hoth nvw^ 8013, 

There iiiojMi rJite)^ ar(y ohljoin'il liy uddin^ up the dir^trict mtc^, und 
dividing' by lUe numlTcr of districts. 

Th*' pOTiuUtioii of cInlUren in the or.t hundred imd tifty-wne disLrit^ts 
WU0 ],39t,43() in imi; nnd the nntiiiiil do^Uhs ni the rikte (3\348) 
of iwrniy-i'ight lieujlhy diatiiL'i» would ht; 4rt,5Hp'j ; while nt tho 
moim mto (K-Ol-'t) it woidil bo 11 1,40'!. Thu* ihuiv U ilm iinniiHl 
bHcrifice of nlioiit 64,909 childrpnV live« by vArioiis cunwi^ in ono hundred 
And lirty-one diHtrielA of tlio kin^bmi. 

The mean annoul mortality ol children niHlei five yoHi^ of age wiw 
10-022 |K.T *'cnl. in ShuOirld, 10' H9 in ICiist Lundon (City), 10-20,1 fn 
Coventry, iO-SJ9 iu Nottiughaiu, 10*240 in Wbilochu|iol, 10-277 In 

* AtsEirnnec Migavioc. toI- ix., pp. S05-3;a. 

f Ji^iimik] of S^t. ^oci<^-iy< mt. XKii,* r>, 31? sud |i. :j';o, Dr. Yox *n}r^ th'n 
ntc " i» olivii?iia1> maob loo low," ami on tW f:n>uiid nukiH^cU thnt the ttturat are 


t Obnervjttloiis on tbe duruUva of Ufe ■moug iliv ckfgy by Ua BeVi Joba 
Hodgaou, M.A., Tabic 4, p, ^6. 



lit MttTiohvi;ti-r l>i>trict, unci 13'1!>H in Livoi'ltool l)i>triet. 

7'hiTe Ji 110 itotibi p'cnt ike^]t;^iiec on Ihi^ pan of tbci |>aTeti1f, \^^i 
ignorititc^ fpt'tho €0(Kliliiiim on which hi'ih^ih (Li-|>i*nd]i, ni>ii jcri'fit j>Tiviiuou 
innonu ibr imi^iM'tt of iho [hv>i'. Imt Llt<<iy< in nn ti>ii»tyn to mi>i|ii.<rC Ihul any 
;;rcnl iuMnl)C'i" o^' tlio infanU in llx^^e di^^mt^ tall victim^ lo ^fplilicrnto 
crimtr ; jti fhe vhilUrt'U of tU* i-loUtrfHiA lnln* w!io iirtsseJ itit'Oi tlifouub 
iho flro lo Moloch ficareclr iticunod more iJan^r ilmn is incurTCil by Uic 
cliiUiirn born in Bpn-cml <ii*frici* of onr lurgr i^Uics. 

A !ilri<-t tnve^lignlimi ofalt tlirf ciivom^tJimvs oflhcwf^ {^1iiMn>ii% Vw^s 
might loft-l To irnportnnt discoioncs aiul niny engff^'^t ivmttlj^?* Tor cril* 
ufwUiuli i1 is iHlnt-uU to ftxnggemto the mii^nttuflt^- 

Thc WKiklicr Uvp*, \i is eniij, nre, under this »-liitr of lhiri|ps '^'^^ ^^\ 
but it mtLit nIsD l>c borne in muni Uint raatiy of ihv alrongvesi t-hMsva 
am u'ouiicled iHid are Mt weakly for life. — (Suj^plemoQl lo Sitli Annua! 
lto]wn. |»p, ix-xiih) 

M'utiiiitft f>t' CfnNirri (0-M, 1 8(> I -TO.— Thr fir-l thii^ff tn observe is, 
tlna iIh- fiiiftlilj ohildri^ii i'ni"<*nnlor iw piiniAnly due Ut ilie clmnfji-j^ In 
UK'mM'lvf'M. Thii^ IjtKHJ.lXK) cliiMri-n just l>orn arc nlivc*, hnt sonii.' ol 
ti»i:ni h«vt' bt-'i^n bom prcmaiuivly ; ibcy aic feeble; thej- are unfiiii^iltoil j 
|li(> mtkUtoilIf^ nnd ilbrpii of bi'ftin, mn><i.-l4>, Uimo jiri> tnttotily -tninjjf 
to^'tJK'r ; the Iwixvi iiml llie blood, nil whieli life i1e;»ciid-% liAve undtrr* 
goLo a eoiDpleii^ i^evoliition ; the Inogs are ordy ju^^t rnlled into ptay. 
Xho linbr iH lnd|iltvw; fur hi--« I<hh1 and ntl bis wan U lit? depemU un 
otliera- It ia not ^urpnuin^ then lluit a c^^rtaiu ni)i»b<}f of infanta 
^hunlddik*; but in KiL^lfind thr^ n^tnnl ili^nrb)^ in tlip- HrKt yoHi' of nj;e 
tti'e Mf*,43,{, imjudiii^ prcmitlui'*? births, Jj^albi by deliility ami atrophy ; 
di«ea^s of the nen-ou'- hy^t-^in 'iO,6ii7. and of tlii* iT^;>irntory organs 
2\f99S- To t^mvulfiion?*, diarrlntji, ptininmmia, broni-hiiis, ibeir denibv 
aru (jlii<.«ny a>i4xiUit ; liltio \6 |K>>-itivi'ly kn'^wn ; imd ibin jtii|jlioH little 
inoTc ihnii llint i\\r brnin and spinal inaiTow, uen'c*, nniseW, liini£«» 
and bowolH fail to e-vt-ciite their functions wltU ibe exact rhythm of 
life, TUvi tiri^ two An< rmlt\ by pa1hol<J!tfi=fl'^ lo U: often ralbcr Kvniptunia 
of difwa^^ea itnknovtu tliau dtH^abes in ibt-mMjlvi'^. Ibe total dyln^ by 
miaAina'ic diMmsi^^ k 3t,^tiG ; hut it it quite powriblc thnt nev^rnl of ib^ 
vbildrtrn dying of c(iiivnl?ionsdie hi the i-arly Hlufies of smnv uarevnJi'd 
Eymotic di^cn^o, uJio^** symptoms have not had time for development* 
ConvuUion is a frequt-ut pi'et^urwr m eUiMi«u of mea^le^ ^boopins* 
c^ougbf buu-lrt-fevor, fcvii- ; inil««d. Dr. C 1). lUdcHtTc well rvuiaika 
** In the* fevctH of infhiw^y and i^arly chiUlhooiij rii(>e<Tial]y in tb« 
*' cxAQtlieinjitou-t forma of tlicfw disoi-ders i^onvulmonA liot uiifretiuejitJy 
*' lakes ihc place occnpied by rigor in ibc fevers of youth imd ripet 
*' yeam.*'* Many of Ibe eaj*ea of pneumonia may also in Ukr inAimcr 
be whou[iinf|f-e>ou;£ba imd otter lutt^nl Ryuiotie diHijasti^, In iLe ncond 
fenr of IiI'e^ pncmmoniftT bnmi^hirts «nd cnnvirUiont r^re t-Till ihe 
prevninil, and iuo»t tahil i)Lx(<a^H ; many hIho die iheu uf ineii:«le'«, 
wbooping-eough, *curialinA» imd diarrha^n. Smrkl fiver a!'>cri3 iia 
Mipremacy in the hecomi, ihii'd^ foui'tb^ and fifth ytar?* of nuo, 
Wli'ktipbi^'txrUgb T" nt il^ maximum in ihi* lirHl your, nicitOHM iu IJiO 
»ierond, K'urisitinn In tin- ibiid and finirlU yejkn*^ Tbn> the^c <lL>J«aws 
take lip ihcir attjiek" on Ufe in xucL'ea^on tutd foJIoiv it onwarda. 

Tht: tk-Ath^ ri^>iii all c^juwh tindrr the ag«^ of tire yearri arc 263,182. 
The aumbvr a»v.'tibvd Itj iLLfauticiflc? U vviy fevr; bot llic dvalk?« by 
auJJbeation (ornrlaying) flee, arc riofc> tiunnmriv ; imd i^ ur4< thu 

' A »yi(f<n of Mcihcim by n«>iioUls vol. 9,^.595* Arikk dd L>l«<Mea ol 
Spiniit Oofd. 


deultf (lin^rily reftTrretl to xhv '' waul of tin'^tl-mUkp" Th* IoIaI 
ilvatli^ bj biirn^ fajuriesi liroKniDg, awl aU other kicdv of vialencD* 
Jiro 3,175. 

lly a j>liyBk»loi;iciil Uw HI l,74fi hoyt am lit>ro Fn KngUrifl ia 4HH,2S5 
^irN ; nnd by ouotlior kw 14l,:i$7 Ih>j6 not} \2U79-'i giiUJiv iu l.ho tLrst 
Uvo jnA»oF life; m> thKtuL tWend uf tiri< j^onri tIik ori;;imU ibH|mrUy 
la Uiu uuuibet^ ul' Lhe two »exoa U to luu(;U ixnluued Uijil nt tliv ii^u uf 
livi; yonrt tho boy^ oiil^ All^btly cxcood tUo girU in uiimkHT. 'J'ho 
gi'Qftter nioitiiluy of boj's it* ilmi lo diflon^ui^c (jf un£vi>lMLric>i], i'vr tbu 
itxtvniul condilioud aiS) 6iib«^tttul tally tlie Bame ia whicb boya adiI girl^ 
arc j>luco(b 

(■n-ut a« t(i lbi.1 iuQui'itci' ul' or^Atiiitttioii itavlf, tbu OilT<--ri.'iJC9 of 
^xtei'ual i^ii'GUrn«tanc^h uml KaiittHry <-oiidifion (?v<^rciMt a x'i>ry rail 
ioflut^uoo oil lrfi% itixsaHTi niul iloiilb iti rUiMlKHHj, 

Thus c^'^^fJ ill llio licrtUliy ili^fricta of tbo counirv, out d' J^)0/XK> 
iHini, J7'>.4I0 diiMrL-ii kUc m the lii^t [ivc yiTirs ut lite; but in Ldv(T|KK>l 
Dinli-ict, H'bidi MrvoA lo ri;^rC8<iil Uic luuf^i unrAvutii-iiMi:- ?Hiut«rjr 
ooiiililtonH, out of thn *ntn<i number bom^ 4'i0^70, nearly hnif ihe 
jiuinltcr born, lUu bi tlie Ove yourn followiuj; lUoir Urtli. Thla Is 
284,960 in cxco«» of the deaths izi ihe bcalthy ilistnct?. 

or 1,000,000 C>nLi>umf ibi>u» Ai.ivi: in the Hilai.tiiy Dittruioti in 
MX ExdtAKD, aD<i bi the District of LrVRRi»o<n.* Ibe Nuvbisb 

fi'um NisicTKKS Crmjcrs of 

dviug under Kivo I'tars of Age 



Di ■Tiller. 

I>i:jVT]|(» rUON ALL CAl'AKd - 

Hiiiall.^Kiv « - . 
MtBbln • » - - 
:>«'irl[iTirin • • • 
UTplith-^n* • * - • 
U"iiinipn[*-ortiigli - - - 
h\-<---' 1 I *|ilir*i, EiiU'ric, mud aiiBplo) • 
liijirrliiTu hfi'I I >j>cn(rry - * 
Oiui^:r.t - - - - 
Ollivt /jRiiilii: Dihcuitffi 
C.'-«r»«T ^ - - - 
Scrofiilu Mtd Tn\KA Alo^nttiricjk 
rblhjiih - - - - 
||i<lropit|>tijUufl . . * - 
|>i»Ciui:> uf Ihc Hmlii 
l>i>vAji4^n of Ilic llcAi'l, luiil Piopaj' 

JiiH-HHi* oflJlO bltHJt^ 

Dim.'JM<« <'^ Uii- ^tomaicli jiikI l^^vr 
Vit'lont l>rBl]i« . - . 





















1,1 ^'J 

10,37 V 








AI.9i J 





Tlio above Tnbk whow* hnw mauy chiWrf^n ilie from tlio nnvoml 
frroupii of cau^oB (l)in tfio bealtliy diftrricta, (2) m nil Eogland, and 
(3) in llic Liverpool lJi»tnct. 'I'hcre is t\ gruatoi" iucreafle in liivtTpool 
fVouj Bmu]b|iux uid irieu>1uB tLuii fi'Ouj n(.-ut'k'l-rt'V4ii~ ; liiid dipblfii^m 
vrttv luui'V f;iU) kit Iho hcnltljy iltr^tncfs thun In idl Englaiul. Diarrbo^u 
imd cbclerA wviv ffixuUtjr ii^gnivaicd in Hvs otbor diattjct!! of Engiud ; 



WO vft'vv yr\n>o\>in^-Vii\tfLhf uiiiL fi'vi*r, uiiilv^r vrhlHi won? ro|t 
ty]>liiti*t Ivi^hojj, inrsntUo mmiHont, and rvilnnung ftiTpr. Tho dUf^u^H 
of the \nTiK< lire [non* fjitnt to rhildrKn in LiviM'pofd timti ^liftruim? of 

The cliiMw-n of Norwiij Mnit UvIUt tlmn thi* t'liilLlrcii of j^iinny Itaiy; 
to wliirli It UMiy uull Li«- vliLl liti fiffii-inti fftnfinm. Qui of LUlf (.'liiklri,*<ii 
bom aIivo llij* lioaThs In ih** (Ir^i ttvi- yt^an tt( h'fo jvpb iu N<»n™v 17, 
Donmnrk 'JO^ ^^W|nlMl I'a Rtiffbuiil 2fi, It(*ljfmiii 27, FrKD<^u 23^ IVa^vin 
32, Holland 3.'^, Aiielria 36. SjjAin 36. ICuSAin 38, lUt\j 39. Russia la 
almond lu fAtul to Ziit {'hilifr^u itn Hn\y. 

In & |iA|icr* reiii berort* iho StiUietiCAl Sociutjr ihc tn^thottH of U^tiT' 
ifiiiihi^ ihf> TAt/w <^f niorlRlUj' wpvt* ilMmlwil, An<l f (miIW|<>i) informal l^bii 
n.^ Ii> tlir ti'oiklmtnit ami inufkHA^-i^'^'if' "f '^li'^^l'^Ji >■■ Scotlniul, Nr>nrAjr, 
Swedeiip Fninco, rui;l ALTHtrU, Tbr Fiihjeot vcns tntcn m^ in Kn^limJ 
b^ th(* Ohttctricji! Socif'tv, who publtKh'-il nu ablv rvp'jrl buHc*! i>ii 
rcturtiFV on thi- birtli rmil tnviiiK^iil t>f Kn^Ufh chililrtL'^.t ^ )>nvi* tiot 
yot i<«<^iTocl fUL|]i'r>i froiTi KiiHflin or friily. 

The morlalitj- of infiirits I'vldoutly <k-|wmK lo *i>nM' oxli^alT i^n ll"* 
mirtwirory of n c'mnlry i on Ihu wav the* chililivn nro fi?'l Ity llii^ 
tikutlurnt; uii lh« whIit; mill in\ iIip tU^nlinoM obic^rvi^ilp nn wvll nn 
(1ii> «>rli(>r ^initfirv oon4litii)iiH, — (So[»pWu-iil lo 35lb Anriunl ltfl*|iorJ, 
l>]k. xxviii-xxiO 

,%ftirt<ttitif of ChilttFCh in European Slaltt, — In iht* finl plaec, M u< 
ask how mnu/ chihirrn out of l/MMVKK) iHjni alivr woe rlicir Ilfth 
btrihlMy — Uv^ fiVL- y*.'ai8 ? 

Ill ihv iioi'lIi, tliTTi" in tlin ilnp frro p«p«hir.ioii of Norway, M'all4'red 
ovor lIu' li»1>T|iifrlc |>firE!« of A Itu^c* w<ill'ffHU'i'i^1 rcrriioivT in <omo t>nrl>i 
friiiirul oi' coveroil with pine forewt«, lit oiIhh- jkiiLi atmlt^ : in (iditilioii 
to d^b in thrit wutrrx nnil ^igiirultiiTuI pnulutv, Ihi^y (Imvc p]'ofIt>a from 
thnlwr, mines, nni.1 M\ii*. 'i'lu' clliikAti> b «4.'V<-re, but uli tliu weAteni 
Alljuu:c- *lii|H' ibr :H--ntniy U 44hnci»t<i] by the Gulf SUTf^m. In 'omt* vf 
itn f<<£btiir4>ii we nfo r4<iuiiul4<il of StrolLind. 

Out of UK.* chiMnri) tiorn in Norwny. S3 ftltfliii the njfo cf 5 ri^itrs : 
Iti Swuili^ii M>< ill Di-nmui'k HO, incltiditig SchU^wig nml llohlrin ilown 
to tlio KIbo, the country of tho An};l«a of oM; in Kngland 74: in 
BfflgCiiiin 73; in Frnncc 71 ; in IVuruU 68; in flollnn4 07i ■■> An«iri« 
64 ; in S|jjnn ti4 : in RintKlit (H ; In Itiily 61. 

Thus ih<> chnnoe i^ always ia fftvoiir of tbe life ; bnt here il is 8 to 3, 
tlu*rt only .1 lo 2. 

Whnt 'iM ibc projM>rt)on of tirtiihx und^rr Iho apo of 5 out of IIX> 
pliUiircn tbnt !ic« iho liRit ? In NorwAy 17 i IJeiiniru-k 20; Svi'-Jon 
30; Kns'lhnd 2ti: Ki-tt'ium 27; Kiuun- 2<l: Pru»hi 32: Ifollmul .43 j 
Au>ilria 36; S|vLiri :3(> ; itiiH«ria ^S ; |tidy m 

TbuM ]><iilb, dmwinf* lotM for tho liven of chiMren, Iim in one iMirt 
ol Kuroix- 3, ill ATiotlii^r I <jnt (jf 10 In \\\% bvour. 

(>u( iif 100 cbihlroo lN>rn in mldifion Id tbr numbrv 17 <lyiit|» in 
Korwiiy. 3 tlit* So DenrnHi k, 3 in Svf>i3i<]i. ^ iu Kn^lnmL l» tu Ikilirinm, 
l!f in bmiu^t^ 15 in PnivJa, Iti bi lloThtm), 19 in AiiMrift, 19 iu S|>^n, 
2\ in Hu^fiflt T^ in llnly. Thuf^ in Uio »uiiny diniAU? of llif^ vonllu 
tlmtlk cATrir-^ ulT (iro oltililivn from Iti^iaiui for every one Lc lAk<.'8 In liljfh 
liuitudfu fr^m Norw4.-^iDnf, 

In nil KngUnd 2(> chllilii^n umlcr £ ycant of n^e Hje out of 10(> 1)om t 
but iu tur iKuJtliy diotricttf vJio hvu^ only IS, ncurly IIk< Munv tminbtr 

* Uoit4lJl/ ikf CbiUnm in rlu* l*riiu.*tpiil Kfn1#4 uf Kiir4>[ii-, bi Xh* Joiinml of 
Hialitficd Sfivloij, vol- X3EH,. |»p. 1 '3,1. 
t RcfioblUida iu tbc Ap|ieb4fjx lo Uiu Mc^bumt Gc&cnl't Mlb Itcpoil. 


AM Norwny ; w\u\f in K<-r lliirty lavgv U^wti <li?itHct*,* ^ p^^riHli. TJi^^ra 
JB ihe •utuii? coiiti'&4t l>etwc<-n thr- roiintry aii<1 iho Hfy m lliero is 
bvlwern Noi'WHj nnd It«ly. hi Fmiu'e I iiiuL coiitrONU of Hn* «iiiiio 
i<>rt in ilie ilepArimcnta 

ir wo turn to pArtinilAr I'Ta.-'iieA tho mnrtftlity prr^ciibi ntill Lricffr 
ttitU'Ji,'«ri<: Ui'curduix l<k thi* |j<fni^ ri*i'Qi"t!s, rmtof lOti cliiUlrcn l)om 
ti1]V<v 90 Aim-ive; 10 *\\e in the fii>t A VMtv of n;;!'. Vho flejUlkS 
jimoii;c the <!hili1roii of thi- I'liTgj' m-e neitrlj' lii the »aine proporlioiint 
Tlic pru|n>ftioa?* Iia^^^ Ik^oh rov<-rs<t.l in umyc t\.>im*\Vtn^^ l>oi^]iitoh> 
For n^ftsoiirt wliii'K I Jmvi* eiplnim^Jf ihe mto of niurtuliry in only 
i>xa<^ily <k'toriiiit]'>i] tiy eomLUki-in? th«^ iivyrjig* nuniljeis Uviii-i witU iho 
lienlliM in n given limo. That vce wn <lo for ol«*vcn i>f thi* Slrti*'8 of 


"Wi* un? jil>k' in iomp -Stale* to miusli&l our ViliU- tnx»pt* in l!irw> 
r^jfimontfif the Hr^t cj Imlvea midcf 1^ tho socond of childivn of 1 — 3, 
the tliint ^^i diiUU-eu of 3 — 3, 

}]y the Kngli*h TJf^ "iVilc^t "F KXl rliihln^n born, 1.5 .11© m llir* fii-nt 
year, fi in Uit nooond, :; in lire thlnl yenr, 2 in ilu- ToiirTlj, uiul 1 in lUo 
Afth; mnUiiiji SJfi in iIip ,j j4-M'» of ft^f. Of tlio 15 who il\ts In ihc (ij-nt 
yAiir, 5 dir^ In tlic< fii><l month of lifr. I^ in iIk* '^^HYitiil, uml I in iha ihiii). 

The finnrral inte 01 moriaiity ill the llret week of life in Fniiioe U 
]*^4 pcv 0(*nt^; nnrl th<- grfinkT tLti inortAlitj in nny n>iiniry ^'iif^mlly, 
tbe ifi'eati'r Ea Ef s exi^cr^^ In the flrac tlnya of life. — (JoiirmiL ol' SiuiHUoui 
Kociftiy, V»il, X3tix., i»p, -f-**,) 

iHj'arii Mortiilitif^ and Census t^Numeratien *f CJiiidrtn. — A fpW 
|)re1fnii[LFiry o>>m'rvftrioii? nre nec^rtsjiry In rerfti'enoe in llie footi, la tlie 
moile of llicir rocon!, nnd to Ihr Inittworthini-Hsof the rvidcnoc nf ihHr 
ohnorvcj'?'. Tbt* fflets ihtm^elvL?** aiv fl^ifficienily obvious: lln? birth, 
imtt ItinlcJilh, mill lEic fxiitt^noi; of iL i-hUii mhntt, i^xivpl m tbtr vanvix 
iiiMnnoc^i of lh[! tiifiiofit posdiblo %'f'nlic-ntion. Wltli roj^ird to tb<* 
ilf^Htgnnlioik of Age. flint is a tliflcrcni rtlfrtir ; on an liveragf n'>"rly 2,000 
rhiltlrivi tivv Imni ikUy in Rnglnml niul Wnles ; 1 1 rvvry lU iiiinnii-s — 
more llinn one per mittufc. Menoe if for the sake of ^reac flcteQliJic 
pnx'ii^ivn, tbr n;;i' of infniUH In iht'ir Hr^i yt^iw luul to bv rxjire^sixl rn 
tninul^^, vio -,lxoriM tm\-t; tlivin of ait u^C-^ - from v/fC luiilult- to 52^,9^9 

mindtee. Motbein ^Inie i\\(' ftfje if* ve^k*! ur months up to iwel^'e ftr 
fwcnly-four nionrbs, uml nl'Irr tbr i^fii nf one y«ir, jiuoplrr nr!? gouenilly 
safirrQed with tbe uge Blal4<it in yenrs. Unt'ortiinjitely innoiig the hi-,*he?»t 
rliUtiH nf ttMlborititt'*, i-bt^fi.- me two dilT'i-iviii coEiijiiun inoih-3 of i-spreasing 
tho approximate u^i? ; uml Iwo ilitVcivnl h*^.** nre exprPHHLii by tbe lunio 
nunibers. Thus, n person of tlw Hge 31 itnd :i6O<l9y0, is set -lown w* 
*r2 fit im iri^omnee office, iinJ m 31 iit an office fur the aiile of hnnuifies. 
Ilo \* 31 <?/" in hj« 3l^iifl year in onlinmy IniLgiht^e: Ins oenre^l A<:e in 
ycom 11 32 ycnm, i\9 be would be t'ullL-d if fiuctiom* of ycAre were 
evpre^Ned rlerirnnllyr i^^^*^ dec^imnlri wrre drrip[k>^. Thnf^ it Ih llie nilo 
to writi' 31 "4 IT) ronnd numbers 31, nnd 5l-*5 is wnlten ,T2- The 
nrdioary j>ruct!ee i» to enll a nmn 31 nniil be \^ 32; and it iFttiBunlly 
ju^iumod, ^rith i^ulhcirnt iL(-<:nmry, ihnt of n boil) of men no onlled, tbe 
mean iijie ir< .'iLJ yearn, 'rhcrc is, hrjw-cvcr, unothtT niodc in nae; iliim 
ft child of two yonrw and 11 months is ii «nm^ pln^ra, And by aome 

• ConiprJaing Si. GIIp*, IlolUinj, EhbI L<»in1im, S^ Otftjf|rc-bi-lhf-Kiu((, St. Siiviour, 
Hnulhwurk: Sf. Olnve. Souihniir'k ; Si. (tL'or^\ Snutlmiirk ; 8ouIhAmptort> Var- 
nioulli, Nonrit'b, Sali?btirj'. KsHer, Bn-tof, Wolvurlimiijilon.Binnin^liMm, Luiw^nior, 
T^oinncliimip I'l'rliy, Liv*ir|Hnil, WIgujj. liijll'm, &jilA>nI, MmAtlu'«cr, A&lnuii-uuUor- 
Lynp. rioitciu bepcl^ Sbi-fiii'lfl Ibill. NV^aihtle-iipori'Tyne. ttnJ Mcrthyt T>d111- 

f See »ulhorlii^^ pIM in Suj^'U^munt in lUKistrtr-Geuend's Twenty 'flfUi Jt<^port, 
|j, xiL; tvprUiEol lu Uii» Vol. mi y. loi. 



olum-s vii\M M cliiUI iii il^^ /AiV'/ yt*tr of ttyr. Tlwy v/nXe tU aga a* 

I Ihe oilior 

3 v«*nJY in fIt«iiT«M, wh(tr<'n#, actonlirifc to i 

IllOiU- t>i ^xi»N^oi>, 

Thi^ nioilo or staling Ago nmon^ ^tniistft is by tio m4*fms »i3ril<;il : our 
Hff nn.l |K>|nilntion inbK*!i now b«^iD with wrt*, ihllfl: — 










> • 









Tho Ijiblo in rend tliii4 : ^f I,IX)0 cliiMivn linni ^tiinutlihm'nii^ly, 8<^1 
liip ontr ytiir, H9 tlii? in tlm tii-sd year of n^, nnil !>03 will.'uit nn 
av«-nL^t>, l»e fouml livinjj nt n CV'ii«u« in li.e lirat vuar oi' ihnr ng*^. 

Iiistniil of ibpirt 0, 1, iinJ 2, HiUhtv ^-rotr- I, 2. dr A^Aiii, llio af^* 
gLi>ii^tL ill (l<-ix*nriiu1 prrioilH nrv rhflWuottv cK|>i^i>?«?<nl Ijv (lilTii^iit 

wnlcm: ihiis in Frftncv, SwMi'n, Kn^lonJ, »mE oilier t^mintncs l\»*y 
wnle — 

and niidcT «( ss <} — jj. 
20 „ 30 = 2<#— ,10. 

TUo Kftm^ facisa* t« ngi- nre **xpi'r*toJ bj Mr, Neidon unil \>v ^a>ino 
other ni.'tunrlof, ihuH; Oto-I t 20 to ^&. Ilii^^ m unt a ItuU- fixi^atui}*; 
it tn not cxftct I imtJ it \v<iul<L be well IT ull tould ugrtn* ui>on onr >i>>leiii 
of rx|>lVMing flgi", so lis fo nvoid iimUtguity. In our rt'porU 1 tinil il 
ttkUViTiitiiM'j wjil*- the a'^c of itiL* Li^t bitttii'by, sni] wlini ll:4' ii'icrrat 
ui' n-^v iiJ u ^i'oii[j of |>i<n4>ii> i-\t'L-<-iN L yi-ui^ lo nriu- lIjl- buiIi^t^ uf (w^4 
pc<;oitlJiig to lh<i flfime ^nulotfy Ui lignrcT^ folloi^od by n ilimli i-i^ 

O— - . • -787 

5— - - .64a 

10— - - - * fill 

J5— • • - 473 

AW« — ^Th^ i^le la rtad thus t 643 |>craons nttJ of iho «gt^> £ lutil 
unJer lh« iip*» 10, Ar, 

Wtth Ml nnirlL viirmlioii in tUv i^xprrwion of tho lime n iimii liwi 
livi'ii— called age— we ton ftcareely feel MirtirisccI to find in the Taiioiis 
CfULfiuHex of Europe terror!* in llir »1iitenu>nt7i of ngo directly 1nicr«b[e io 
aaihEguUlfs of hiiguage. In tlie i>aHy venrH of Vitv Ihcw init»tftk« 
ilf^mAnd kttf'ntioTiT othw-iviiM they nuj lond u^ into eiich gmvc mUtAk** 
iiH w^ h&ve to hofjce. 

The ngi'.* of the poptitntion were onuioeroted in RiijEhtnd in ibo year 
1841 for eficli year of A^e iiruk^t 15 i iind ibe follovring U llie H>rie» of 
elithhvn rrtiinicd An<1 dHHtlHeiJ h^ Htv Oiihuk Commitwloitcm : — 

CFiiMr«ii ti 

Mcli Yntr of Aire niiilrr S 

M m»Ri0d It 


tho Oii«uii uf L#4|. 

- 427,001 

- 427,i>tW 

- 435.413 

• 4iHi3if 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 206 [i-Airr IV, 

You wUI obEWnnf> Ihnr tiot inljr iIid chtldroTi of I and undor S, hut 
tiUo th<* dirldrcTi of 2 nnd untl^r It y^r^ of ng^ aro reitini^it o^ nmre 
miinrruiiH tliATi llii; c-1iildr^n tu lb' ]lr*t yt^rir of ii^f (0 — I) ; whicb, 
looking; at tin? Incroa^ i^ntl ^n*At ro|;uUnt_v nr tlio Mrihs ha w\] as aT 
ihc? jfi^ja niimlii-c of flwilhs in iIh* Ann tivo y«tr* of tifp. In itnp<tfVlliK>. 

1(1 rpAtHilrii};; iipoti fliis il ii|»]X^n'd «vi<1oii1 (o mo thai thit rfiw.T<^pEii»cy 

in iho atfo* aro>ifi from n ot-ilHin imm^MT of »hr ^-hitilioh hi ihc ^fir/^f t/var 
of Hair, wlio fliiould nil liJivv l>ei-n ;dm-i"d iigiiitJ^t JfH'o (0), Imvm;;; Ihth 
cftrrMf! on to I ; wliik' i^liiidivn in ||ji* trfoad \/far <if Hgo, ^vho sIioiiTd 

till.* L>K(.v-4^ vt-,v* !if u mjiv tniiiMi - fl<^ •Trfiiv »rr(L*rWfliilH iitnr'L' lUMirly 

couiderliftliincint; iw:l» oIUt. Wi? <U'*|>mn'ii lu if*51 ol' being ablo 
iMttiit% io oveicomc tlie Jifflculi/ o/ getting the ngo< of nouug cbtldnni 
o\n('Ely sdfcfcd; nnU flir ngt'X of Ihm OiiMJif wrrr jiII givon if» quiii- 
quvijitijj in-rwds, OR wi- liml Iwlt^r mutl^'^ls of fj^tliiig llie uiiml>rj-H nt 
tlif f^jtrty ftin^ft: flml I Fnrowiw thaif if tJin' nniwrn>cterl f/n»t>i wi're 
puhlif^lii^d, Ihoy could, fnr ^-nrititi.i iviL^onH, lii> of littlr iikt^ iind mi^Ttf 
iiiUWd M)[]U^ unlucky perMo info ad ftttompt to dc*foninn^ iha oiortulity 
of inruiitt hy mlHi thUi. 

AH llio dilWren iimJi.T J ywirof flg»> on 8i1i AprU IHUI, miint htiu^ 
l>o*'n born in llif pn>cO"lirj«; lwi*lvc niontb^ when tho Mrtlis i'<jgjc<lL-reU 
wore fiTS^ll, If w<* knew lb*' pirdwij iuiml>i^r <d' lirlhs th<> <Wtlm 
out of Iknt immbLT, ji** witU m the inflow ami ibo outllow of iiii;;n]lioii 
in thow twelve inonlbs, w^^ ehcmlil f>btjiin rb*' pr^t^isi^ niimW of inrniits 
Hvitiic iinibT I j'PAr of age on the C'ensufi dny. Such pre^^iso kviowWI^* 
JH tiol ivltbin i}iir ri^noli — tlio nmjority of tho birthA nro rc;*M^i^d wilbiii 
tho fircl six wnok* nft^r tbiur oociirryncf. and tin* infimlV dt^jifljs nf n 
yftr indudc the Ueuihs of inlknts born xvtlbiii that year ami ihc ytuw 
jjrrcwiing; it> Hiit nn nppDximiifioii lo Ibc* numlwTM nurviving cjiii Ito 
obiuinL-d ?iuflkii.'ijlly iie^ir for fhi- punjo^-?* nf our ar^uiiii'iit^ from tbu* 
ijjcjkh birlU« (»f l**(>0^ii, nnd ibo doritb^ timW I yfoj- of ngi* in l^til. 
If llio inuiilH?!' «f miniLjd liirLlit^ reiiunn c-oii^faiii, ibr ntnnUnr of infn-nlH 
living in any yvnr muBl lie between tb*- jinnml nnmber oi' binhn jind 
that nninbrr diniininhitil by flu? ilo/ilbs niwli-r tbc Hrsl yiiir iJ' a^*. It 
would bu iiiiuvt' tbu IuLIl'I' rliiui tbi- fonm^r DUiubcr, oa accoiml oJ' Ibi- 
OXfK*-^ of iT{-.-41Uh in tho ILrvl inonflih of liff\ 

Thn ^TOragA annunl birthii in tbn two ycnrn IHCO-Hl wf-ri* (190,227, 
LpI us ib'al, for ihi- Kukr uf ^ijiiplifieatiou, uiih 1,000 ^^iVv birtlia, then 
of the l,Ouo Ijoi'u on llu' Oiva diiy of n yv^ir o ori inin numlHri- diV ibiy 
by djiy ihroii^li lIk' year ; ami a^ every ilay a IVeiLb wave of l,0(HI live.4 
HUer^i^ to llio oil' al tho wtmo or nt a ^liutilav t alo, yitii Avifl Ciu*\ by 
oaumoratkon dccr<.'nj(JM|; iiamlK^n oik- dny^ fwo duys thr04< ihiya , . 
, . :W:> ilays old in your population. T bo 36^,000 under 1 v ear of 
■^o are ndncnl to Jt21),r>l'> ^'J' <l''^*th- By ibu ICn^liab Lifi* TiLbli- thi' 
numbers ^urvit'inj; out of i,tK>lJ,<)l.*0 birtliN at tbo t-oil of every nkoutli 
of tbo first jvar t't a^c are shown i aa<l if il wore noccjwiry, tbo mmi^x^r* 
fta- cjieb ibiy c?oiild Im> int4!i'pij]itt4<4). Fi'Oia thirt liil>h* ejuTieil on tbi^ 
nimilH:n'!< inalnlaini'd in tbc Arsi. second, third, and ,<^uceeo<tii;ff jenrH of 
life are nwlily (leiliirwh 

Ttir birili:* increase TurIou% in KnglanJ and \Vale«. and the de^h? 
Ilui'tuafc : lint by tnkin^' tlio meiin birThii in LKr]f>-.'>7 wo ^i-t an animal 
tonobeL' of blrlhei odl uf wbicb il niny W jiivti inrvS tbo tbaibii in tbi- 
n^Ht yvtiv <*f rtp^' o<N.Mir in IW.'T, tlin ilcatbn lo ihi} uri^titl t/mr 0^ a<^<^ 
occur in 18jS. Mk dtnllw in flu-' t/tirti t/car of a^^i* ocwnr in 185fP, th*.^ 
d<:ill)s in Ibo fourth vhm- of a^e oc-cnr in IHCfl, nud llie dcatb.^ in thi' 
lUtb year cl age occiir in lHt>l. Hy nuhijiictiujc Iho deaths in e«oh 


y«ar of ag^ IVoni llie Urtlw w« get th^ imrTtvom, Tbe t4tths of IS^T-- 
M mra iraatMl In t1i« mw^ nuiDDeT. 

Wv UiUD «f1>lBi(i nnmhorii living At CA«k )^OAr of n^tt wbi(?b iviLl sorvo 
tfur compudMii wtih ihfi uumbcm Pi)iiiBi?irntftl aL lUe mtre^pondiug tgM 
ill ihi* (Vnmifi yvM^ 

Now, if llie ft(^ ur lti« chittlmi bnv<^ btmti ftt ftll tnln-iitalcil, according 
tdou) hjiioihcKi^^ iho Census immlierfi of dilMrcn wUI t>o un()rrid«t«j 
npiintl tln> njfM Ontnl 1 ; hul fifUr tWl n|co iho (Vni»* nuinbora will 
hi' wmi>whftt ill rxoojtn of tlic mIcululiMl. 'Iluit, you wilt oWrv^, ts lkc< 
i^a^K Tltr< IVnMK nnmfirna miflcr Hvt ytsnnt of ngo urc luitiuJIy iu 
oxcc!M of tho ontculutr<i1 nunitj^EH, 

The vaHjition in iho |iTTiclirc of iHumlng tlkO Agra of dtiUtVu i» 
gr^iit in <tiff^n>Til luwiiv - nnJ ho j* nor^eiflAri 1j nnjr tl^fwrt in Iho r^Ki«< 
UVlioii of t>irl7)fi. And fiirlhermorc tt ifl im|>o«»il1c to pn^n t>y one 
getiHul ratio irfnn ifif^ liirtlu in u ti>wn U» the nmuWi Hui-viring nt u 
OnMiN; iM ili^ Jv'nlTi^ in infancy nrp ^liffcronily dmtribulml in every 
town nil"! yttti\ n^cordin); a> 1hi« tir llmt fnrm ot itiru>w«^ in |*N*vAloni t 
mnvutsi^nn kill llif^ Itirnnt of l\u^ firnt numtli: mf'tmioer laoflrlniinii, 
whoDpinir rMigli, kill him Inter, or m iIh< tf-nih, rtU*v«*iilli, kikI itvelftb 
month. The nj-ps At u'hirb the «J(.'ath8 occur ftflfN^t tb« nnmlicrx to bt 
c-numernt«il : ihtiv, if 200 ififmil^ iIiq unt i-r ],OCX> m llw UrM litwii of 
iholr liaitli, ihv Conun^ wi)l find t>\%\y 80it livih|> iinil*<r I yoar of AgA ; 
if they tlie on th^ In^t boiir ol^ tlic ytftr I.OIX) will be vnmntni^l i and 
nutlet ihe pf«tHitiij|; luw^ of niortAtity the nctuni numboiK will nnut* 
betirt^rn thew* rxtrrnwu from WO In W-'.(}, IKKt, 920, nnd w> on. In 
|iArlicnliir Iowiih ihrro will 1)r a |*rvalor nkiifce vt vAfiiilifn* heEwc^n tbo 
numlxT^ i»f infnntft tiiriti^ ili-din'i'il hy ono formnU fr<nii lli« 1>ift1ii4. or 
tlie d^Hlh» nmlfr I ycnr, unit the nnmben ftciutilly living oii a givpn lUy 
hikIm- 1 year of aj^. — (.louTnnt of Sfnti*iicat Society^ Vol. xxviii., 

& CAmn of Dratii (OrxRitAr): tlwir Nomenclature, Ciauiuca' 
T10N, anit MuftTAUTir, 

/mporiancc of Itf^tlroHom t^ CtfiUf/ (jf li^iiih. — Lodr befoii* i)w 
cioii]Dieoc«ii)io«t of RcipitrnAlon. my tlk-ulaOD was turned t<rWAnU ai^ 
object mlmitted to be of gri'it iinjhoi-iunco to Ibif impruvenieul of medical 
H-ieniv, uamftlja^-lo oblAin a faiiJjful alattfmrut of ihv cd«iM o^/^r<i/A 
ID tlie c<ilfiinn aflho K«>gU|^i' »«| upail for tliat miipo^o^ It is obvious 
Ibcit Mirb MiAtcmeutf<, in onJer to ohtmn dtif ore<itt, uught to tx" ilerlrML 
vheneriT it i* ]>o»ibb\ from tTie metlical aftcniiant of ibe d(>ee««oa 
penoi), and tliat tbereToi^ il wila only frum tbe co-opeiation and 
af>*i#t«n4<c of th^ prArlihIvip lueaibcnt of tbr uicilicnt jiralcjutliin lltnt a 
f«li!trju-lory allainini-iit fif ilii* impitrTanI objHrt >'.inW In* e:itMV|LHJ, I, 
iberefore, in llic ^priii*; i>f t^37» i^uiutaimkalcit on ibi^ subject with the 
Presiilpul ami Fellow* of Ihr lioynl < olli^ofl'liyHidmiH, the President 
ami M<-(nbcrfl kA ilie Itoynl Coilr^- of ^jiargeotiN nn-l itio Mii^ii-f niiii 
Momlfcn of the 80tii«tt of A(M>tbo^'ni'i(fii, un^ obtninirU lli« oi.inrurrune« 
of iJbuse bodies fllcnSllea by \\w .tij^nAturm of lht.-ir rt^Hiweiive lVo^i(1«nt« 
and Mftitrr nppenileil lo a joinE eircnlnr aiUiiy-vH, |i]ciigin)£ |[itnifielve«, in 
QTery iikfliUKe iTbich may fall umW tlieir care, to givo an antbentic 
»•□» of the fnl«l (IWa^, nttrcAltng all nutboiisnl }>rnclil]o»erB 
ibrodRhAifl l1u> eoantry to follow their eyaRi|1e, and to aaunt in ^ta- 
blubing n better Ketnvtration* and InvJiinit ibem fur ibat |>urpo4fe to 
attend to a snbjofncd explanatory tdatomenli wb«rcia they woubl #ee Ml 


2iQ [l-ART IT. 

Porth lli^ pmviKioiH vf thu rvc«»t fttftltil^, tttkil tliC incAiti^ whordbv Iho 

bodici^r i%t\ii whiiili [has i-ci-^ivi-il iheir v<imbiiiM A|ipiovul, aUii Atatiog 
who are tlie fH-rHOuti who, aceoi'Oiiig ta Uie A<-i for RcglMUTiiifr Itinhis 
Detth'ij nn<) MftrrUgt^*, hi En^lancl, must jEii'<* irLft^tiJunlioii tu ihij 
ItcgUlnir on Ijphijr rf^qiic^Bteil mi to do. " t-mm-vily reeomineiitl*»(! ihat 
" eveiy practifJinjj member oT any bniiiolj nf tbo intnlit-ul j>roFi-«ii>n 
" wbu imi Uftvi» bi*oii pri>&L'ni nl tiu' di^nth, or in alleiiilance chiriug Iha 
" Wi 1I1ji(>» uf Ally yrnvMiu, hUoU, iniiui><1tAtvl/ iifwr siii'li dalh, plnvt- m 
** tho ImmUijf Mjch olbt^r pflrionH oa wcnr in nlli.'nilnit<v, of t\i*' oooiipier 
** of the hoi]di> hi wbkh ibc d^nlh or^cttri^tl. aiuI of some inmate wlio 
" nmj' pmb^bly be rcqiiiml to^vc infonn^tinn, wHttt- ii s[jitennent» of 
" the caufle of ih<Jkth, wbitrh hul-Li pcriAori^i iitay fliow to tlie Uo^«lmr, 
*' itti<1 give nat ihrlr informniioii on ikil Mihjc<'1>" Having done lliin, X 
oa»8e<d co|)i«<-4 i\i thf^ rinniliir mMre^Fi. uiih ihc "iihji^tnocl t>vp1iinAtory 
»tttlifnnonl. In he tcni lo all nitthoriW jnruhrioEirr^^ of nWii^iut* and 
eargCTy ihroughoiU Knglii*il ainl Walen. wlM>ft() naiu^'^ ivn'l n<lilri'Ksi-<i 1 
wut able |u uhinin. ] hnvp thr ^iniiKfiKrllnji t>r Arntui^ thnl the- tiiLNinnrt-n 
ihu-* ridtipi'.nl hflvc Uciii c-ininc'ntly ?«iit'Cfv^fidt niid ihiit ivvn in thin Hr>it 
ymr of iTirfstrafion — ihe oom[ni.*noeiiient of n new *3'stcin — the result is 
piK'h as wijl not dLnrLpiMiinl ihi- L'\jntrtmiouH i,f iho**? who hojw Jo dcrivcj 
ovonlunJIy, friini tliar ^uite, nwh^hnh df in'*^ imptirliinrT' In the 
adviinceaieni i»f ih<' p^icjicpor Vhid Siutblh'w, 

In oi'tloi' ihnl fhi<«o inuUu-irdn i^houht hi> availntiK* U^v fltivh honofl«ial 
purpo<C5, it wjLt obviously c?i:achtin1 llmt (hiy sftouhl \n- duly riri'»ii|{ed< 
The execution of (hie la»k, fur ihc llral ami sei-uiid iinitrliT^, Jia^ Uocii 
i^aiitkilted by mi- 1 o Dr. Furr, n genlh;mAii ui tlio iin-'dh-al profi^^siou, 
vrhoAc Hciculillc liiKMvlrtJ^L' mid inltimilo mipmiiirniKo wUh flatlntJcAl 
LjpqtiiriMi ivf^ri' nin|iln pli'{ig<'r^ of lii** ppcnliui' fitni***, and whow? letlor, 
incWiing Aintnicts of the Chu?ios of Death, and eiLplauiin^ the ula^Mllca- 
tion ivhidi Iin^ bi^cn lutopied, I hnve th<' hoitoiir lu lay kuTort* your 
Lordship in the Appenilix lo thi^^ lii-pcirt. (Im Aikmial Hcpori, 
pp, n 12.) 

[The Ahov« exlrnct from tht- Fiv^x Animal Itr port df ihv fiv^i lU'^pRliar 
firnf-mli Mr, T. IL Li"l<ir, in in^^iled li-V!>i»-*'' il n-feru (n th* »p|ioinl- 
UJUTit uf Dr. Fair lo iUn Mipt^nnti^ndi-ntr of tin- S(urf-<rii,>fi] UvpaitniMLt 
of the (jtnernl Itei^hter Office, and hei'»nhe il llnows hghi npon iho 
luHuiy of if-ffisreji-<l i-rmsirn of lU^fith. Thi' rireubir aildrpm above 
l-ofi^'i'ivd fo iw pfinTrd ifcH the ncxl extniol. — EliiTnii,] 

With rofureni'<T to ilie regiHtrjiliuu of CaiL^ea of D4^at1l( tbc fullowiug 
pnptir wni <-ircTdfil<"d in Mny, 18*1" : — 

" We, flie unil'"t'-.i;;ii»?i|, ProtiidrnI of tins Ho^ynl College of Pliywtdnnst 
Prt'^iileutofiln" Itoyul College of Surgeon ", and Mntlerof th(^ Worshipfnl 
Soficty of A^Ktlbecarie.Q, 1m\u)^' aulbority from thy several bodies whom 
we repictU'Til , Id n-nnlvt^ tc fulfil Tho intentjoijn of tho I^egialalurc in 
procnrin^' A bultcr Kc;;ialr0l!on of ihc Cmi--rfl of Dr^nlh, being *onrincod 
thiit Aijch nn hnprovefl H^givtraltonennnotfail lo li^ad to a more aoeiit ate 
atAtiaticid account of the prevalence of parltcutar dj»iu;eft from time to 

We pled;^o ourselves, ihercfui-is to gh^*, in i^vory iiiMritnoo which taay 
fiJI tioder our vnrv, un Aiith4.-utio numi.< of the fjjfjil dipiun^o. 

Auil we entrrat all aulhonsod pj'nelitjoiicra lliroughout the eonrtry lo 
follow our ejianipk, and ud^it the anine nractiee, ninl i-o OMhi In enla- 
btitbing a lirltei- l^'<-iMriition, in IVilnie, lIiron|(hoiU Kngland ; for which 
puipMc tvtr \av[\v lUcui tonttviid to lUi.' 9ubjt>iui:U t^xpknatorj Mttivui«ut, 



bi whUU On^.y w\\] acO stt fittth the provipiioDB oi Ibe recitiL statute, luid 
Uu' iupaa?4 whereby ihb important object vie bavc rttconiDi«iidciI may 
nioit trCFcctiiall^ he fttCaiuctl. 

(Sipiod) HENRY tIALKfRD, 

PrrHKlcnt ofth*» Royal (*<tl]otre of Phvi^lci&ikA. 


Prc-Hiili^nt of Ihr K4>m1 Collcgp of Surgeons, 

MoKtor of tho Soci«lv of ApotLocnri^p, 
Isi May, 1837. 

itctftAiriUion iff CuuscMtif Draih : Kjjrtfiniitary stat^iarni. — Tllf rC'Ccnt 
Art far iv^i^lorin^ Birtb:^^ DcjnllkHi nixi Nlania^-u in Rn-fUiKl. prt<^<-iitd 
nri o(>|jm'ruTiil3' for obloii^iiijr tWt £ivat thsittrratum in mcrlic^l r-iaLiuik'H, 
II luoro (*XftL'l gliitoineikt of /Ac cflin^r* tif tfrat/i, in flu* <'a.HO of <-\i*ry 
fi^'^iMen^d <li-uth lliroiiglioui the wtiolo of Kiiglnn<l iiri<L WiiJc^t, aHcr f1i« 

TJu* Rp^Mcir- llook^ h) whioh nil i)mTh>t nro iri ho Nigiatirt*!! nfl*i' ili** 
la^-l (Iny of Juno, 1H37. conrniu column* whwvin muy he inwrtnl iho 
cuuAf of dfiifJi^ in jiixlajH^ilion willi Uiono olhor ituporlnnt illuHlrnlive 
circ-unihUiiees tho tr-r^ Iho fi^f« Aiifl ilie /f/Y;/>A4inH or (ntllin^ of ibn 
tlCoi.-<L4o^ pC'j'fkCfit. Each Ktp]:^<^r- Ilook urillaliio bo fi>-st^i)i>1 loii puriicular 
(lutii<^l of ^umll oxteut, niiiX will IhuB fthow lu whul imrlof the kini^iloiu 
««cb Ji'iitU hw occurrpil. If, IlK^rpfon', iho nni^o of ileuth l»o c<»jrt-criy 
in^erl^d. thtiv will exi-ni th^noefoiwnnl public Uocumem-s from wUuiiw 
tuny hv iJitivihI :l moii' eKvurnic knovlful^-, iiirl iiNty nf iJic voitijjnmlivi* 
prM-iil«tico <jf v»r!ouiJ inoriHl 'liwiifes, &ti roi^nnU tbrr wholu of EngbuLd 
nnd WaIi's but alao of ibe iocalitiis m which ilif<y lv^po€ljv4.'ly |in?\^»ib 
»lid ih*' tcXt ar/r^ mh\ r^'nfiitioa oflij'i- whioh owli pniioipiilly Affprl'i, 

For the ntf Ainmeni of Ehin objecl, il tJ? nec^«^^rv to ensikcx^ n?i fm* a^ it 
]» poHallild, the correol Innc-rtion of ilm '*raHif ofifrtif^.** 1 1 itt obvious 
thjif on lhi>i ^uhj^-t tli« r^uidlc iriformHriori 4.<iiii nebUim )w ^vuii (o ib« 
R^^j^iKtriiT, <fX<:rpt by the uicdit'iLl nttc-niliiMf nf tho <li'cc:Lwd peii^on ; niid 
that vvtn if tbe Hejfiatrai be a luodicid pnutilbui-r (nhicb lU inniiy 
jDtd&tLCeH will 1h; the* ctuo), jct will b« ofLCii bv umkblu to m^orrlain tbe 
Irnth ill ihif ]'V4|M?ct if hts ii^ to dcjioo'l ituleljr ort tliXT rC|H>rla of |>orEH>ii9 
ijcnornnt of uifHlirtne Bod of tho nniiu-n And nnitin^ of ilismM^ ; lind it 
caaiiot be expected tli&t from tifl own koowknlgi^ be ivill be »b1e sk> f»r 
to correct Ihcir error* Oslo cnmirc d iitnteiiHfDt worliiy uf cnntit, Tho 
retiuiailti EuforiuAtion mu»l thwefoix* be suppUwd oitber iiirectijf or tN* 
f/trtfw//^ by tho nuxliciLl utl'indnul of tho iWcovod pornon; — tJutt ici to 
mj, if M][<h tiitslicnl Attaidsnt in not Applied to bj the RegUlnir. ho 
must alFord The i^ui^Ile tnfontjation lo thoec otb^r i>errKjm lo whom ibe 
U^utrar inu«t np|>[yi 

Tb« pvi-aoua who, m^kX>ixliug lo the Act for Rc^lvteitng Birth*), Dcatb«, 
And MArnngOTi in EikfflAnd, maat pvo irLformaiion to ihtt Rogintmr- on 
Isoing requAited to to do. Arc " e^ine pt^r^oii prtttnt tit the lUtith, or iw 
" atlrniiiinrt during the bisr illmvi--','" or " iu cami ot tln> di^ub, lilncjts 
*' inabdily, or default of a)! »uoh penwn^i, Ebo occMpirr of the hoiiw or 
^ tcn«in<:nl ; or, if tlie occupier 1»o ibc pt-inon who ^bnll l)jivi> died, mmdq 
*' inmaie of fhi^ hotiMf or t4>rieiiioiit in irlitHi vLtch dv4ilh sbftll faara 
" htqiponed.** ft is also prox-idocl tbar, '^ for the purpoH?»of thiEi Act, 
" the master or keeper of er^ry gtol, primn, or hoii»e of correction, 
'* or workbou«f% bospilid, or lunatic ii.-<yhini, or public or clmritAblv 
■' inrctitQttoa, filial] bo tlc^mrd thu ^fcupifr tb<<ivof-" 

It i» iber^fore raTDoslly i^ecomm^dorl that <^vcry i>nu.'tiRng ni^tuber 
of Auy branch of tlie medical profettiiion wbo nay bave been preeeut at 

o 2 


tPAnT IT. 

ihe di'iiTli, HT in atk*ri(lnnoo <lurtng tZif* \iisi ilWan, or fttiy poreon, fihftll, 
iiumcdiiktr'lv nt'tri' Mirh tlcntli, pliii*** in the tiAtiiftf of HUi'lt lithor iH^TKtmt 
nu vrvrv fa iktiL'ut]juii.'C| uf ihi- uccupKi- uf iIk* lioti^r in wluc^h llie itimth 
ocuiiric'l, or of aamo iiimntn wlio mny iir*>l>aWy Iw loqinrwl to ^v^ 
infctiTHfttuiTi. ie>riitcn tiiUewtnts of Mr rrtmri^ ofdtatfi, wlncli 8uclj [H*rH0ll:4 
tuny -Aiow ti> Iho Uc|> bl mr, nnil givrcw Uifir mfniinnlion nti iLnC «u)»jc4'L 
Ii II* (1c.-<irtit>kMliiit t<iK-h MUiiemr-ur .<<liou1<l b<* very t-hori, ihi^ oulumu 
ui ibe IW;;biti-r Itook in wliidi il »» Iv In-^ iiij^rtcHl bting ri£jt mori' thon 
feEifHr-Wil for iht* lri*i^I[oii of nliuiit 1[) vonU of mc^li-nLTi* lrD^}i. It 
•thoulil ibrirfore L'OuuJn oulv e1li5 naoii- of ihe diBc-nso vhidk va* 
cc-nsii(lcrc<I lo tic tho vhhm' vi iWih, jmi] mit n tUUtdfti rici^uiiiil cithi-r of 
Ani^*f(k[ki- nyinptomaor of ihe >»])]jenranei?fl may Iirvc prcwDt"?J 

<»^bib]1 ibi- (mituljir oi' rcrikiiimn nam*? nf (b*? Uiwii'^i'. ijt pivfi r<'iif^- fo Kurh 
a« ta known only to mi-^dictil in**!), wbc-ut^vcr tbo popuLur nniiK; will d<>iiott* 
Uie ciiufie of dcfttb wifb MilHotmt prCGi^iom." 

The rvMirnn prornn^iT In t!ir fit^t vtHr wcrp on lb** wholp loWjibly 
MtifltbcLory : hut, a.^^ inigbt buvt- tioon <T^plN^1^l» i^imi^ of tin* rn(n<^t 
were iticmT<*ct; Ibc infonnntion m nijiny itirtnnwK bod n<.>t been 
rnriiinbur) dirE^c-tly hy tiu-ilicnl ruc^i, and bud l^^-n fiirnirtliLH] in il)-iti*incd 

Utntss, LncAl In-fuM wen' pmployrd, wbicb ap|«*flr t« di'txMe diffcrifn! 
dbeaAC« fu dilTerent purB of t^e (lountr), lo maity rd«ea ^bere jnqueHU 
were bdd, no nllt^mpt bud bcn^i inmU- l<i irupiirc into tin' dinrct coiiw* of 

It ftppnnrf<d, tbunifnrf^, nfcrhdnry |» *t^\^^^i, nn fnr nii wna pmolirAbli>, 
tbc use of B nnifnt'iTi hiMlii^iblo iioniriicliitiirc. Tbo tollowinff rcmiirkfi 
wc're mmlc in tho Appt-udtx (o ibe FirsI I!c|K>rl ; an«l nda-^ifjCAtiou watt 
iiijapi(<<l wbiHi \\i\s l>evn ibllowMl in Ibe f^tibHrcpjt^iit Ri*port»* : — 

'* Thti iiilvmiliigos of A uijir>i m "tJili^ttctJ iiunicncbiltLrf.^ bowfver iin- 
iwrfiTfj rtr<* «n oliviohfl, ibnt U i« sitrprising no nllt^rdion biw bi^i^n pnid ff» 
lis cnfor*^i'meul in bills uf moriii)ity. Knob diii^jiH' h»H in nmny 
TtiFtAHCcA bi'^n lUmotrd by Ibrcc oi' four Icrms, nnd f'flcb b-i-in ba>» been 
applied to n^ many ditlm'Tit diM^ikSL^ti : vngno, inronviniicni. num/rs hnvp 
been f'TOployed, or €i.«oplimtiwn?i linvr \>ivu re^i»l<Trd, inF^toiid of primrtry 
cIlMiiKiin- Tbr n<iiiioiii-lntnm tu of ah niiicb importAnri? in rbiH d>'|inrt- 
mcntof Inquiry us wi'i^bN and mt^iinnri^H In tbe pbyitleal Kcbnoejt, «nit 
»liOu1d bt< iu^(tli-d tvilboiii drbiy, 

** In ordvr lu ri-iider- tin- Hej^inter on correct n« posHtb1i>, it ta de^rabl^ 
tbnl Tbo cnuH^ of dctttb j-bonld be directly ci^rtifiiul io ovcry inBlim<>i> by 
tbe DiiHliral iitlondmil, ^vbfi niiifbt i-JtbtT Iwivr \\\r\ (vrtili^-iitr wiib tbL* 
informniii, or give it ajKm npplicntion lu ibe Ilei^wlrar, Wlien lln' 
inedic'Al airendftiit is ibv iribn-jiiuMt, lit- will cjf conr*' Mgn tin* ri'^idtcr, 
IL* dijt?c1cd by ihi- AH- Tin- oi.'iiilioali-'i uP lln* triuM* of d™ili lui^bl Iji3 
in oii^ of tliG inKjairu^cl foi-rnfl, wbicb propoiit i>XAmp1«ii of iwmfi <»f 11m 
moiv common vtt^m, 

'^Tbndnmlion of tbr fiitid dif^ena^ sTionld bo ^lat^d, wbrn knr»wn, ia 
boiJi^, (Iajv, or years ; whieb would snprrW** ^\\^ wonU 'Midden/ 
"Hriifr,' *cbronie,' ^., And In tli(»<-nd fiimLHb many lii^lily ImpoifAnt 

Furtbt>r ojiperioncp ba= crnfirmcd lliepo rtmhikfi ; and \l \\i\^ l»eeii 
d<rni(-d df-Mrnbl^r to revi-ve tke iLon>enrlnturr, and I'l intvko pnHi altrr- 
uiion^ nnd mldltEon^^ aw lb<' rnpid prop'cv^ of njcdioa] suienc*- reqiiSrud. — 

(4tb AniiuLiI lioport, pp. \Al-Q.) 

Ptfirtitot t'iifif^ of It^gisfcr^d Caust-M of I^^'tith. — Tbo i^>jiii>rrAf]OR 
of biilli»ainl dcalb« proves ibe coiihcc-lion of famUieH, facilitates lbi* 

loffjil rli«tribulioi) cf prop^itjr. mntl naowcr.-* ntncnl other public pui^osc* 

dutj vrilh which ^Qti hih^v tci-n jiIi^jimiI to intruM mc, 1 hjivc to cxuniue 
U)V r^.'gitt ration utiitur > <I]t1L-rt-nt poiut of rivw^ dtud vrilfa dilFu'rpDt 
objects, whidk iviU pcrrliAps ultimately prove of uoi leiw itoportance. 
Th«' JrutliH uriil oftiL-M^ of iluLib mo K!i«iitiBc focrH whieb wtmit of 
nuHLcrk^Ll imftly^u; Htid winner ha> uothing to ollVr nioic Hivilinj; m 

Bjkcculiilioii thmi tbo Ifiwn of viliilil/. Ibr rArintionq uf iLio-c luws ii> Ibc 
\mo f^\i'i ut fliflH'uill At^i-'s J^nil lliir rii^ut^ntv oJ' i.-ivili?A[ioTi, r>o<'iijiAtii>D, 
lotuliiy, M.-u<oii«t atiil i>lbci' physioit Jif^Krii^^, t-itbrt' in ^<*Jiui«tiDg 
di>««»e8 And itnlitciDj; deailb, or in iiD|j|'OTiii^ tb^- public bcalLb. 

ihiv ui' lh(j many olnioiL-t AppliruUunEi at ihi? fwrU wilJ lie to fbt? 
pri>itii>tion of i^rudioikl UK^dk'iht.'. Tbu i.>zt4*ut lo tvliitjli <.<pidijaiiot^ vjiry 
in difT'Tuif Eocalitjee, eoaaom, und diuscft of eocii.'(.v, will Ix- iit«licat«d by 
ibe rc^Uk'icd diMuuctt} iu»] lliuexpcrieitci^ ptiu-lJitoiiGi', \vbt'ri^i«*r hie uiny 
be pliKf'd, will Iwtni lo jblmiiiiKUT n^iiicdici* witbil"'onminnri'ni,nnii ivilii 
dm? iT'fi-qc(»:u to ibv circumMAUct'n of iltc p<jpu1ulivii. JJo ivill di^'covti 
Ihft' UK' ebMnwivr* of (Iihoaho^ obuuf^ nnd will nol Iml jt ]>n-.>niiioiitH 
ill till- Kiuno vmy in WbitL-cbniii-l und io WvidinorhnJ, if il np}wnr, 
from tbt^ oAu^cv ofdi^'juli, ibitt dio ili^caH*!^ and coiiMirulion of tbtf popu- 
laiiuu pruM-nl ntrikiiiie dL-ici-i?pmu'i<--<<. 'Ilic mocnUvnfiun^ tiL Uir-cbbrncti r 
of diKnH.<if, »hd tu llic iboUtoid Uir«l.inviif , i^rv indicriUMl (x^vliap^ rnoiY' 
iuviirah<ty by thfi prrvfliling *-|ndrini('-H Ibnii by riibrr tbi- |j^mp(-i'ntnrr% 
tb«- Iiy^roDR-lrk'iU, ur Jioy odai?i apprvtiuble <.H)uditton of the tiinto- 
9i)i>c-ru ; nrn\ it wn.-«^ SrdrnhnntV «.'i»'trini> tluil tlio trentiuent i)f acntr 
«|jM?tt7<u- nbviiUI buve » tvfvivjictj jiul only Lo iIk' immviliatc tjroijitoiuj^, 
nud lo tlm n^^rioiLri^ huf itUo li> Iha opidi^ntir- ponstluiliLtm i>rthi.' ymi- luid 
pliioe. A imlujnnt Hysit'^i of RtigiMtiiitiou like ibt.- pr>'j^-nt ^'na tilijtw 
jpili»il<« t)»o cbaiiU'i^i'H of iJui diaonK^ rn I'ViT/ diKlric^; mid dvtt-rn^int} 
buw i'iiv th^ pi'iioiiri.' lau^tt m ilio hcIiuoI^, vv i\hi^irnU\i iu crovrikd 
lio^iltidrt, nfid ill die- nulutililiy ]iurt« of ibr ijii-liup<i1i^ nmoii^f ibi* 
dimlitulL^ \MJor, nmy iviptirc luoililk'^tlioD niuoD{; uliui' cIus^m^ i>f ^Liciutr. 
and in oilier loL-alilics 

Tho n<f(uitn(ti<jfi of tbt! dlrnvHen «if tliv jaov^uihI di.Htricb will fuminh 
motliod n)cn wrtb a, ktIv of vaUinbk' ramvdiAl/igi'nt?!. Uwill dtt^igiirtie 
ibn Jooidiiica wltoro disnut^ U moat rifci imd wborv tliL-vo i-t ihv Jnut 
t«Dib-mry to pjiriif^ulur cIamum of m«bn«*M and inlii'miiy. In rifironi* 
iD(!iiflinj£ j( rovidi'ncc lo patii'nLt the pbyjiciiui will luul ihc reicijilvrod 
Quitwft of diAlb nu iaili?^]jeuJiablu dii^ci^UMy ; and tliu nlility iif n ^unitary 
nup nf the cugnUY, bucIi w Uw n?Uii-i» will fmciiHb, cimiul fjill Ut bij 
icll iti KiigUndf wDcm n |MuH of i\w |K>|>ulikli(in i* <^iihlr4iiily jnifj^miinj* 
from piKo to pUco m seaixib of beflltli, Alnrli infonnnlion lut^ \kvu 
collucb^ rapecting ibu influence of ibv tfU^lifih L-llmnU' ; htti the fiictn 
will biing io li^bt iiumy »Aliibnou» qwU lillhorlo unknown, nnd (fawlOMf 
ibv duu|;cni wbidi iuiv^i oibcm uutiUBinH:ltfd. Invalids ri.'ivK iv h>uk! 
nnb^idtb^ pLncoM; AnnilioH cau-ry iboii^ cbildivn in <be aulumn mto 
dklrici» wliatVMiw]l*pn:i mid mi*«^lcs irr olV^n t-^nilcuik-ul, or v^ into 
parts of Oie country wln^n-, v» tho rogi^lr&lJou 6bovrd. bonrl comploiute 
And I«ver««ra eilnioidiimrily UUL 

Xbo ivtE>»tr»tkju of Uio gbuoib of ileaiUi, bvoidca oonti tlnittu^ lo 
pvneticftl Dwdieio<r, wiU Tivm cremUr pr«id8ion Co tbn prinri|>tLV4 nf 
Ikfay«ic. Medicine, liki; uir otbrr oiiturul acionconr tn bt-frinnin^ to 
abando«i raiguf co^j<%ture wbore l»ct« cnn bo AGCuriit«ly d444»mincd 
by obfurrvation ; luii) lo »ubMit»te DumerJcal <« prcwlons for uncerodit 
uaacilioDA. 'llic advmutngtMoftlincbacig^ui'c aviilcut. Th« prnvidcnro 
of 11 iIift«M<, for infttiknca, an «ipr«Mwd by tbi? dratb* in a givi^n Udia 
out of a pTiMi nuinUrr living »jlb mA mncb accaiv^y ofl ibo lomperature 



[past tV. 

I** ini\\*'M*^\ )ty n Uu-rmiiiDCtor ; »t llmt when the HKMi popiilAtion of 
Ihc <li<itniTt i-1 known, the ri«c imd declJDe of rpideniicn itmy be traced 
fxiu'llv, uui) it will then (ic po^ible to solve the problem, wli«U>er 
ixriittn tri^H's of opitlt»mic ilisnrden i?oii*iUntlj follov others, in oiw 
'letLTiiitiH.fl f*erios ur t-ycl*-, JyOo*o phniws are alill curreol, for which 
iiiiiii»-rini] ronnuln: will be subfllituteil Sydenham, one of the mot^t 
ncciirnic 4>f Divrlii'itl wrilT^s lu j«[H.-akinf^ of ?*mal]-pox, emplojred Much 
terms H** lln'Kij ; (IWI) "It pn-vjiilrti n little, but dtsnppeared af^in-" — 
(16(57-9) "The Hm:ill-|)'ix waj m»re prevalent Id town for llie hnl two 
** jcarri of IliiM frinr^ritiilion ibrin I i»ver reiui."inlH;r it to hftve been." — 
(1G70-2) "Thii emHll-jMJx Hro« ; vieMiil to the dysentery; retumetl," 
Ac., &t\ Th<T«* tei-nis arlmit of no rflrk-i i;onipftriHon with eseh other ; 
tor it JH ililBc'iilt to f'ny in whidi yeui- the small-po^c watt moet fatal, and 
imjiossiblf' io coNiiMrv .Syd<*iil]HmV experienee thus expreiiHed with the 
4'xjienenf^i! of oilier u nLotH in other places nn<l other ages ; for 
"pn-vjiiler1 n Itttlr,'* " ru^iil with violcnee/' on^l Mini tar terms, inaj 
imply i-il1i(rr thul ^m>ill-|H>\ ilfslroyoii 1, or 2, or 5, or ItJ per cent, of 
the j>opiilation. Tiir eU|>cr[or pr(?<^i!4ion of numeric^ expressions is 
illuHtmteil Ity » uoiiiimri-ion of Syiloiihsiin'a phrmse»i with the Londoo 
l>itl>f of niortnlity in the snine ycjit?i, 

Dkatiis frfim SHALi,-rox in London. 









■"— 1 






1 \\t>7 









i i/j*-: 


i.iifi ' 






1 'JjI 








1 l,4€-'> 






The I,f>fj7 lUratliv from t^nmll-pox in 1668, and the 951 deaths from 
that diw-a.-MT in ihn yt-nr followin-;, espre^ the a-lutive ioteDStty of 
HTDa)l-|Kt\ indiatinrt li-niiri. The method of the piiridh clerks, nlthoiiffh 
im|H'rfiTfly carrinl onl, wnn the Ik-hI. Sydenham giiessod the quontitjr 
with wi;cn('ity, mid rnlled il p;ruat or small ; the parish clerks measnred 
ii, and Hnlj-d the n»snltH in liguixu The pi'Cwnt Uc^^ialers will famisli 
in''ilii-Hl F'r-ii?nf*c wiili un unbroken scries of oliseivations expressed 

Otily jt limited niiinlHM' nf fjieU frill under the notice of a single 

iiU-i'iVf'r. IIJH opiniiinr<, wl Ilipy are the n\sults of his on-u experience, 

All' Miit-ii Ml «! Ni'iid t*TrHi, uiiil an' ofleji lulopted l»y othera in entirely 

difbri'iil vi n-^ljiTi'-i's AVotwillmtuiiding tin- constancy of nstupe, thia 

Imi'I- I'j h.riijiiM prnriji-jij vnois. IlippiKTidc^ wrote liia immortal 
woit^ Pfi A'ljti i^lJHiir inn\ (Ji'iTie. in a pnrtieiilnr eliiuoto, stage of 
I iiltitM, iHid riviliiuiiioii ; yrt till Ids pre<vpis were tnken for Ibc guide 
'$t hia i-Mr,* it. t,rm HI \',it^\,iu,\, KmLU'r, juid Gennsny, The therapeutic 
dMfiirii4ol SydiMdiairi, who livrd in Pull Mull, Hint i>i-n<.»liacd principally 
lu \ViHpritn»l"n -fin-jirl ilintii^h PJnrope. The cclebrato<l BrouBsais' 

ihtiity of irritiiii I fin nfro-rntr rite origimited in the French camps, 

'I II" pbyirli Ihiiq iiF rhih {'iinnlry, wlirn the rauwea of death arc univers^y 

""""""'' I Hi'.irrInd HiTiiniii'ly, will Im' t*nvpd from the Eallacies of 

|Miiiiii1 v'-'ii-mlt^Miioiu iiml, Willi 111.' T\^\\\\A of ihe ^pgi^tr)- before them, 
will l.c. iiiMdril tci riiiriiin eMriKird virw8 of the nature, course 

iii'Nlininiifrfii i,r ,|| 


, courses, and 
'1 In^ will luive, ns a basis for deducUon 

iJivjr own obwrtniton:^, mckI iti<XM^ of eterT nieHical praoiitlou^r In 
KiifflfLfid Jitid WhIo.4, in M {(Wi-v niM in ^Ji timvA; fm- tiir imliminl 
]trjfi^fmtii>n ^iji*K on ill winter nnd ftiimincr, in epilog ami autumn ; mid 

it exUncla !<» nil pnrt?! «f tlio kiu^Joiii luid lo nil rliuwa of tfOcUty. 

TUf* xvurkn of Huxlinrn. Hit^f^trlTi. Short, lloyifuiin, llflbtfrdrn. Willitn, 
Hntf^mnii, nnd mnny recent nipilicnl writer?, prfv«ot illuMintlionr^ of nil 
tliese |nn>j)o-HiUoiiB ; aUhi>U(;li tliey rai^ly Imtl iMitv^^ to *oupcea more 

Any improvement in itio tr«itin<*nt of rtUcjine, "ml nnj flfltMllon to 
tniKLioU si*iciivf>, will t«nit u1tiniuli.'ly lo th^ ifiminntion oT Itumnti 
ftulTorio;*: huf ihc re^fUlmlion of th" cau^s of doatli i^ <!n1ciilaiH tti 
exi^rciM* A frfill morr <lirL*rt influmirf^ npciin pulilic Tionllli. Di^t^jiscK nro 
move Cfwily prevented lluwi cun?if, nnd f.lio ttrsl wn-p lo llicir jiroventton 
is U»o dJBCotvry of tlivir i-x^ilitig cnur^i's, Th*? ll*-;;^!!"^ will sliow Ibi; 
i»Kflncy or tboart <.'»o*»k Uy nutu^'rica} fnc<rt» uiul in<»j»Miii'v thi> intt'ii^ity 
of iTjHr inflnonrc. Tlif^ tinmi^l riile of mortality in ^nmv (VuU'irtu will 
bo foiirnl to be 4 [>er r^nt^. iri orltors 2 pcv cent,; lii oilier tvontti, Iht* 
iH-opIt: in onn *rl of circuinswaoi'-'i Itvt 50 yrfli-s, wliili* in »iu>t)icr «('l 
of f-ircL]nmt«no«0i wlikdi t1ii< li.'^i»tmLT<>ii n-ill iuiliCAlc-i llioy do nul. Hvu 
m«r« thun 2A yrnr*, tn thr*** wrMi*hrd ilislricu, in-nrly K pnr rent, 
nrc conslAntly mcIc, ttnd Iht- enur;cy of tlii* wliolo popnlntion is vitlierod 
to tlip riTOtx. Tlicir tirai.^ nn* wi^k, ihdr boilicd u'jintuil, nnd llictr 
^iirratioitA cmbiitcrfil liy prltnthn nnd MilTiTlng. Ifulf the Ufo la 
jwissc*! in infniif'Vt ^icknpH, nnd drppn*lci»t IjolptoMiw^as, In cxliilMtiii|c 
llie Ul^h mortillity, th<- diHeiL-es by wliicli it it. o^^easioucft. ainl tIio 
oxcjtirjj^ causes ol discaw, tlic iib!lr»w."l of llic tti*gi*ti'fs will imivr, tTmt 
«r]|j|en |>artorthenkkiie>^ in itiovttAbk\ and & pAi'l can oniy t>ccxpecte4] 
to di««i|ipcnr bcforo progror^nivi* «wiul umulioniliont n i^on^ldrraUK) 
proportion of ibo nivknoss and ilontliii rnuy bu atipjit^i^Fiod by xhv goncral 
ikloivtion uf hygienic ntJ/a^iiro^ which arc in nctiial but pArtial openition* 
It inuy \iv n1Hrme<], wflhotil i;rurit ri?(k of <-xn^^*ratioi], timt it is poHsiUI^ 
to rociot^ the AnniinT deaths in EnfflamI and Wnlt's by ;iOAKI0, and to 
incrcA^ thiT vigoiu' (may [ not mbl thi? indiutrv und wcallb?) of llic 
|u>pii till ion In nil eipiid pnk|iorlioii ; for dunniUM nw t1ii> Iron iriiti'v of 

miKTry, which rnaidc* biTopt' Mnii;clli, ht'idili, tmd lmppiRC»*> A.<f tho 
mortality declines, — (Ul Aoeiofll lloporit pp^ >*fi-9.) 

Anttl^niit <tf Cntw^s of /hath, — To avoid cunfu^on, I mitnl ^titUa iu 
vrhjU sea^ tlie tonii **rAuw of di^tb " im horv under«toi>l. A mna fulla 
fmin a bci^lit, nnd Ijix^Ich bis iiei^k: u woiBAn lake^ ai-benic, wliJcli 
i:i)iTfxlt>« ibc coalf of ihu Monukili, iMid in l-oih k-aht^ d<<ALb im the tvuult. 
"rill* sir>,f'i>ir- and ihfl fnll, or iho iVm'tLtrri of tin* n«?k nnd tlm roirosion 
of the Moinwii, muy hn vlbWi-d as ihe cuutCm uf doatb. EJoth 8lioidd ho 
regi«tcrcJ, and botli may bi' w|>>irAtr]y ii>n^iilf-ri-d- A p-rv>n iwiJIowA 
prUMic acid, and alrborigb the pru^k at-td l/c dhccrnlble, no e\Idcoi 
mntr'riAl lOicrDtion of ntmciurc ui«v bi? disoovoo'd. Tho ficcond i-htiw* 
of lU'jiEb i-annot Im aict'itaiued. ^Vbi.'n an inlldmLnAliun or a ran<^r 
pi^ne^ ji cnuMO of dcAtli, the niMtnrial clinii}^ in th(< frrgnnj^tion is 
pulTiL-Kjiily iipiukrvni- but ll»*fic ii oo L^omiL^xiotL with i\xi\ exli-ruul 
rlcnicni ; or * o^MiDrxioit, rf it i-.vjsl^, u^uiiot bo traced whb Anvlbing 
vipiirni^ot tn ili<» primary umw in tbo (Vlm^ of violent de«tb> DuJiihit 
uiAy, 4]ieTt'foiv, Iki ilividod iaio two cIh»*<(;s |HL^In£ inio vocli other, but 
RA diMJnct ns day antl nii^bt ; the fimt ciun^i trompn^tn^ all iW cau \ic 
rcfeiti-tj to CKknial violence, hdltoi-alioii, powrn, Hj;litQing, luid Are: 

itic ]H-\-i>nd, Kindk o-i uodcr ciHlain cii~i.:uuu<Uiuix-« eprhi;* Up r«|»utAiinou^y 
I in tb<t organ) /jit ion, an'l nw r<-prt*-4-nlCHl by iiillaTnTnAtinn, canc-er, and j 

rbciionitJAm. A ronder, uaacijnAiiit«d with nuwlicinic, may oucoivB tbo 

^ .. . J 


fpAnr IV. 

Is iaHiciiled by n (hermomcli'r ; mi lliiit when lW mf^mi fiopvikjii imi u( 
tbc dtHlriet U knovra, the me and ilecline of f^piJcniics idav Th* tnw.'ori 
rjcncll/, iUiA it ivill lln-ii bu ponnibli* to solve tho pivbli-Lii, vrlivlbur 
certain iribw f>f cpiJoinic dlT^rdora conauatly follow othfirt, la ono 
deli'rniicod ftoi-iosm' tycle. L<jo*^7 iihra^r* nn? *till cin'MMil, for uhtt-b 
Diimi-ripjil foniiiih- will bu HijbritituutU Sy<Ienliftm, ono <if th^^ xntmi 
jiccunik' of modicnl wrjM-s, in r<]H-iikinf; of ?<mHU-|iOK, emj»l<>jri*J siich 
Icnun us iIkw ; (I^JGl) '* ft pri-vnilod » Ultk*, but ili«H|>|muv<l npviiu" — 
(l607-f>) '•Tht* ftniiilKpiiK iviw inoiv proVflWnl in (own l^nr thn lip*l two 
" year* of thtK oonslitulicm tluiri I ^vwr reniL'inlH-n' il U> Iiavt b«eu,'' — 
(1670-2) "TI"T ei[mll-i>o]i em*o; ykl'K-il lo tW ilyionlcrv ; mliinieil," 
A^«, &c. Tlu7(4' ImnH wlinit of no ^iHci oompariwn wirli evrb olTior ; 
foj" it iH Jifl]c-»U J*f "fly i" wlik'li ycrti- iIjo flmnU-pox wns moflt fatal, and 
imiuk^hiMo tA ivnnpwiv Sydpi»liHxn\ pxpprii*iii'i* tbu* ^^upri^ss^^l wiOi Uio 
*»s|>prieiifS' of oiher writois In otlici pljtco nnil oMuT ogo"; For 
"|>revHilcil ft Ittllr," '*raj^id willi violencLV* and fimil'^r tt-imA, iimy 
implv tiillier ibiil muhII-|hjh, di.'siroycd I, or 2, *»r .1, or 10 prrr <!<,-ii[. of 
Iho |ropalniioii. The soponor prucision of numorLon] cxpnwtiunii » 
illaAtmlfcl )>^ II caiii|ian«Dii of >^vdL*nlr:iLii'ti )»fLra>w( willi the London 
bills of i[ior(ality in tlic' Hiini' ycur^ 

UKATH5 from SM.U-T,-rox in London, 
































1 ]67«t 


















Tho Uf)fl7 duQlhti fioiii mmill-pux in l<>6F4, imd tho 951 di^itliFt from 
thai ili&fdAo in tilt- ycnr following, cypress the rLdiilivu iuleiisUy of 
iKinaU-jioi tuili«tii)ct IvrDif^, Thu nivtb^ vl' lliu |iarit>h di-rkN fdtboiigb 
iirpi-rRvtly vmried onl, wnt tho IkaE. Sydi^nliam •2;ik'79'?i] tlu* i|iiiin!ily 
with ^A^ndty, and rnllcd ft ^rciir or Mnall - thr^ parifth clerks mrA^iirtNl 
it, and MaK'd iIr* ri*sidl« in H*^^Jr^■^ Tho pit.Hont I{t;*i*l<?rs will fiintif^h 
mrdionl r=riunre wiili ;m mil»ri>koii stries' i)f oliM-i-vntiorirt ox[jn'fi?icd 

Only H liinitril nnmluT nf i'tu'ta full uridnr ihi^ nolifi* ol' u ^liigln 
observer, Hi& opiniun^, wlii*n llnry imr th<J ivriidl^ of hinowii ovpiTicniH.', 
nn^ htntcd hi p:TK'm1 U'rin!«, and nn^ ofi^>n ndoptixl liy olhct^ in vntii-«ly 
clilR'rtjnl ciicuii]MAiR<e#, NotwiitiHtinidiii^' Lhc> (■oNninn':y of nntiire^ tbts 

leiuls I0 i^rloiJr< pnkcrlii^iil i-rroiA. HippocniTo^i Avrr»tO Ul^ iniinort^tl 
wm'lcK in As'iti Minor nml flrt^nr. in 11 p^oLimlEir rliinjtir. ala^ of 
vultuie, utid eiviliiuUion ; yet nil hip^ prouopl^ wrm laiki-n for iho guide 
of Uh »iiu!ri'?**or--* in Knghind. Kroner, nnd (jii'inimy- Thf tlienipi-iilic 
dot-triiifs of Syckidinm, who lived In TuH Midl.und piVR-iirkd [■liric-ipiilly 
ill W<rtmin*ti'r. vjuvnil thi'ough Knropi?. 'i*ho fflclimiftl DrouMAaifi' 
theory of irrilivtiim mid t/tifcf ro'f at*^ ritr or'i'^\nAi*.H\ in t\w Krvjicli campn. 
Thfl phyniHansof lliis cflunlry. when thti rauMrK of dpntli arc univorKally 
n>)rordrd, Hiid rwjordcd iictui'AC^Ly, will In? Bavoii from tin- fu II Airier (tf 
pHi'liJLl geittruh/adori ; njul, wttli ibc rraitllj i>f llm rrgi^tij Ijefbio thom, 
will }tc cnnbtrd lo obtJiia oxit^njcd vic.-wif ot tlio unturi?, trour^s, uml 

juoiliAc&tioDs of [liBeasea. They wdl bavo, ba a ba^ for deduction 



lh«r ovn obsfrvnlioiiH, jtml lIkim- rif cv^ry mMunl pr»rtiiio(»-r in 
Kn^Und and WalF9« in nil plnc^^, niH in nil timcif; for rlie nalion&t 
Ur>giHiiiiUi>ii jiQviA on ill wititRr nmi Fiiiiiimc?!', in ^^pririju; nml aulamn ^ nml 
il ntlr^fKN ti> nil jiArl* of ilic kiii^tJoni Ami to hH ■'Ih^h.-b of ^woirty, 

TW wnrkfiof Huxhitm, HaygJirth, Shorl, f[f>y>'lkum, ll»SniM»'n, WilUn, 
Botomui, nnil nuiny tvcont mi-dionl \vriU-r«, prr-^-ril irlll^l^^tlon^ of «TI 
thvM propcwilioDG ; Although llicy tafcIj hnd avc^ss to wurcps move 
vilhentk than tJi* Bilh or Mf^rtaliiv. 


Aiijr improrc-uii'itt iu ihu tn^jiimmit nf t1 1>m-n-hi\ nuU nnr iuMtUf>n 1o 
m^icnl At-ii*nc«*, viH f^nd iiltininlMy to llio <liiiiiniition of luiinnn 
suffcriog: but lli<^ i'0CMfnt<it>ii of On* c-nii^c* of ib^tli 1/ cMcnlHliHl to 
exorcise n still mortr direct inlluonce hiiod pti1>!ic hi?Aftli. Di««jL?>^ii jira 
mme onsily prcvonti'H tliiin oun^il, niul tli? Ar»t >w\t to their |ir(*vcntbn 
i# thu diMTovvry erf llit-ir i*Arilinj{ <.'uuh«!<4 Tliv lU^ifdry will almw \\w 
i^ciicy of th**»p cAii«'*i hy nuiiurii'fll fiwU, nn*l mnuiiro Iho iiitrn«itv 
of tlieir iitflm-n(r<*. Tla* minujil nitt- (ff inorialilj' m fotue dtDtrirti will 
be fonnrl to bo i ptT cotit.* in nihcrs 'J per Oi>nt. ; in ollirr «<»nls tlio 
|>co[iLn Lti otie iiet or ercuif^t^tJiiieL'^ U\v VfU years, vhtU* in iinuihcr flcl 
of inrcumjLlAiicCi ^hltli tlic- Rr^ixlrAtit'ii will imlkftlr, eticy do iiot Itvc 
more than 25 jwir*. In tb'-sr wr»*tt'li<-i! di.-iirk-is i^'urlj' H [m-v vaut. 
Arc coosfAntIv »ick, >n<l the ffior*;y nf Ih" wholr |x>|"ilntiott is wiilicml 
to the rooU, Tli«ir nrms are weuk, llieir IxkIio? wa^ted^ jfiul i\t*^tr 
9Ci%mil9nif vmhluvtviX hy privniinD Liud rtutTlrirt^. Ifulf th(< life U 
|<tiBH?J in iirfniK^y, sivkncFi^t uid dcpomltiiil hi'l^U-HHh<Mh. In fritliil^itTn;; 
the bigli Tnortrtljly. the diseaw^? hy which it is (K^en-Hionptl, Mid tho 
i.'xi:ilin^ ^Jlns^^5 (if dirriise, the uhsliniH itt ihi- lle^^islorri mW pntv*, tbut 
while a j>aLrt of the nekncw v*' incvipihh, und n pnrl ciui «idy l*c expocl«d 
to ili.-uippi'^u bt^rinv jjrogrewnve tociaX JinH-liorulion, n CDiieiik'mblfl 
jiroprtrhon of tb<* oioknOHK Hn<1 itcnTlrH intiy l>o suppie^^wd bv ilu> girrteml 
adoption of hyjj^icDie mcH.«iir<i which aru in iLctnnI hnt pArttal o|irnktJon, 
U rany 1>o Aflirmvrl, without ;{rQnt ri«k oftxn^^p^ratiou, thnt il In po^^ihle 
to n-ducn Ihn annual dci^ths in Knffluiid and Wales hy :fO,(Mx\ aiul to 
iricrc4t^4^ t]w vigour finuy 1 iirfl wtd Ihe iridti>|ry »nd wcnith ?) of lUo 
|iopu1atimi in an er|u«l piTiporiion : for di-Mfwi'!* mv iho ir<m indi-s of 
miMry, wliieh iwe-lcs IwFore siren*^h, henUh, and baiipint^ss, as Iho 
mnrtiUity ^i^Unes*— (Ini Anniuit I{e|Hirf, pp. I<6-9.) 

-inrrfysiit of Cattifs of J}eath, — To nvoid confusioD, I mu*t slate in 
what v^uif, Xhr, icrin " cmm^ uf d^lli " h h<:ru umlerAtcoiL A man fiUU 
l!roiit a height, mid bnrabks his ii<*nh ; n tromaii bik<i'« Araicntc^ which 

COiTi>«1i^ l)io KOtki^ iti fhc stoiui%< h. nnd in bolh *:>,%jsvh dmth ia the iv^nlt. 
Tbe HtM^nie nnd thit fall, or lhi.< t'niArLurd of the neck and thf? con^Hiuik 
«)f llie blomHcL, luuv be viewed »" the ciwisf-j* of ilriilb. Uotli .-^boald he 
fV||;:i«1crrd, and bwUi may be «.-pi» eotj>4[den>d. A punjou ai^allou'd 
pru9iie ari-U nnd Jilihoiigh the piiir^ic neid bu di-ici^ndbli?, no evhlcDt 
tnitlrrinl nlrorntioi) of nlrmTlOFV iituy bi* diMrOicrod, The VOOCnal CAUm) 

oJ' d-.';ilh i-atiiTot he uM'iTtaincd, WIku an inHummation or u ttftHcer 
prints il eanittf t>t' death* tl)e inuterUI clutt}-^ in ibe or>pftTii£&lion iji 
^aHi^ie^lly fip))aa*iil ; l>nt thero iit nf> riiiirik;xioii with any external 
dcinr'nt; or m oonnL'xioii, if it r^iisit, caiiuol bo traced with AEiyiliiii)^ 
v^jiiivaluat in iho |irimnry eiuMiMn tb« oh^oh of t^iolent d''Ulh, Di^alh^ 
tuny, thL-reVoi'v, l>o ditul^f inlj tw<j eljix*e<H, labwiDx into each otiicr, but 
AK dialiiicl ta day and ni:*bt : the lint dn«« comprising nil that cna be 
rrfeiTcd to cxiernai violrnci^, Miflbcatioii, jHilMoat lij;htuia;]f, and Art; 
Ihc [locood, tfUcJi VI uuJer critaiu citeujn^iHiK'vH Hpriug up :if>oiitAii«o»4ly 
iti ihi^ orfpmmtion, tind neo ropn-w^ntn) by infl»mni«li<ir, rnnror, and 
rhciimali«m. A readt'Ti iiuuctiniiintc^ with laedleinCf may coticvico tb« 

{k imiiuiK'^l hy n Uiemiomelcr ; w> iUni wlinii llm rnoim fnipulniion wf 
tbniliiflrict i:( kno^vn, the mu nod Uectiut? of (rpuleiiik-^ inav l>o ttnc^ 
r.vuirll^t Luid h will lli^ii l»r ^iumiU^j to moIvt the ]»r«b]om. uliclhcr 
CiTtain IriboH a( npidoinit* dinordcr* <70Dfltuiitlj follow otIiPtH, in i>no 

d«'1i*niiiiictl HUIJL'H r>i' cycle. Loor^c phrn^cs avo «lill ciirt'ent, for whit'li 
nnmerWl formulm wiU bt* subuliiuU'iL SvJi^nliam, om> of ibi- most 
giLTiiniU- ol inerlk'ul writ«i^ in ijH'nking of «m»ll'i>ov, i-mployrd wich 
loruir ii« iIh**"* : (KiTiL) '* It ^>r»*vnilcd n Ulik, but liiBiippcnv'H Hpiin." — 
(lfiri7-9| "Thi* »mrJI-i>nK whj moiv pn^v^iU'Dl in l^wn f"r tin* HrH two 
*' yeafti of llii^ i.'Oiwtitiliioi» tlwti 1 rvcr nnicmlKT it lo Imvp liron."— 
(1670-2) *'TI»T (imulI-iHX arose ; vkdilni lo tho dyscnlerj' i lelwnml," 
Ac, &o, Tliwc U'rruM iulinif, of no *r.rK"L t!iini|«inMHi wirli irwU otlwir ; 
tor it ill diffioitit to eiiy in whioh yi-iir tlK< T:^iiLutl'|>t>\ wjift iiiiitl. fulii], ixud 
jiii|Ri-iHibk" to rmiipaiv SydeuliamN experience tlni* rxpruwrU wlili tho 
rxjirnt'Ti'.T "f ollior writers In oUii?r plat'UH and oIIut aguB ; for 
"proviiile*! a litllc," 'Srt^^l with vmlotiw,'' iimJ niinilui Urms "I'ljr 
iiiipU pUlicr tlml <t»ijdl-|to\ d^^MroyoO i, oc 2, or 5, of 10 |x-r <col. uf 
the popiilitiiori. Tliv vupenor pi't^Hi^inn nf hLimoncAl cxpri^iidLnnK U 
iMiiJ^trntfil liy a coiiifiuriKcin of SyiKmlmmH ]dirru<«r-» ivitli the Larulon 
billa of morlihtify in tho ?iui}c yejirr^. 

DKArifH fnjm Su-iu.-rox in London. 







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Tlie l,*387 ilcnt.he fiom small-|)Ox in 1668, and ilio !).^l ilmUiH fi-om 
that Jiseafl*! in ilm year following, express Iho i\:lativi» inlL'iir^ily of 
biDttll'iHix ill diatini^t [i^riii*. Tlio jiidLul uf tliu )>jtnFTli ck'ikh, iill1ioit;^1i 
impoT*i*c'.tly (*ttmrtl mtl, wilt tlio brst. SydenTinm giioss-^d th<^ qTumtily 
with wgat-ity, am! calW il yrcal or small : itii^ pnriHli elerku tnen^urwl 
il> iiml rttaleil llii' n-*:iilta in flgHni*. Thr (U'csii^ni K*rgisl**rs wHI Htrnii^li 
meUirnl ecience w^li uti tnibrokcti acrlei^ ^f ot>8<^i-vationj« expreswd 

Only n liniilcd tiiiiubur of fii<^U fnll undrr thi* iti»ti(« of a mii^Iu 
oli»*erv**r. His opiniori!=, wln*n tlicy nrclhc rosalt^of hi«own rxprriiTnw, 
are kIuIaI Jii ^i^nei^l tertuH, sitv\ urc ofini udojihvl Ly oihci^ iu oiilirely 
ililTcn^iit ciieuuinCfliim-*. Nutwitlmlnndin^ lUv i.-oii>mn^^ or nnturr, lhi» 
|<?hi]B lo Btirioim prnctiiMl f^rrora. UippcK^mlvn wrote Uh iiiLinorlAk 
woik4 in Awi Miiiur and Git^^CLe. in n pnriimliir I'liiiiiil^-t Mm;j;l^ of 
cnltTire, and rix-ilijuuion ; yvi utl hi:* pr('4'**|jls v/ktv r^ki'n fnr ihc guide 
uf his MictTSftorif in t^ngland, l-Vantv, iind (jucniuny. The tlienipeutic 
dncLrinr::^ of Sjdriihrun, who liird in PuJi Miill,Fmd jii iu"l.i-"*i'd principiiUy 
in Wt-^iliuinKltt", ^pivnd thi-oiigli KnroiH'. Tho i-tlohriitod BrouHHiiiH' 
theory of irritidlnn and */n*/r(j-i*«/eW/r orijriniit«l in llio Krcndi camp^ 
The jdiynh'innf of lliis toiifitry* wlien tlie cauwa of denth are ninvi^rsftUy 
r^eordt**^, and recordcii juwnratrly, will In- wivc-d froni the fjiUhcio* (^' 
purtinl gc^ncmli^ation i uiul, with tli« rtvfulU of rb^* rrgi^try belbro tU«nt| 
will \te ennhled in ithuin exlpnd'^d vi<iwri of ftie naltirr, rotiriWE, fUid 
intHUlicnttonif of (bse&'ti^ Tlit^y will hiiw, nn a bnnitf for deduction 




lljdr nwii i>Wr\ition<s und ihn»> of c^vry medirAl priu^titi<Kii?r in 
Kngl^rid nud Wal^^ in nil phtci^^s, Jin'1 in ufl tiinco; fetv rhe uuliormt 
Ke^n<itmli(iri giw» gh iu wintiT nnd Mimmnr, in s^fcln^ nri*\ aulumn ; Anil 
il cxItvkLh ti> nU |Hiri? fF iho kio^tlftm nnd to nil rlA^wB of wotL'tj'. 

TJw wopkfl of Kii*h»in, Hnj-^irlh, Shorl, HoyMhitm, ITvl>oril«tn, Williiii, 
Unt^Tinnn, nml tniuiy n^nt^nt nu'dical writrni, pn^rnt ilhi^trntioiK of nil 
thc8c propofiitLons ; Allhonpli lUcj rsrelj hud accq^^ Ir> aonn-<o4 muj-e 
autiif'iiti^r tliAu ili(> Itill.t or.MciMnliiy. 

Auy imprnveiurnt In lUo inNilmont or ilisrnHi-, luul nny luliUtimi fo 
lu^ioxl ti<^i(?rii^^ will (omi tiltlmiiloly to lliv iTimmntLon of luiin"n 
tiafficring: liut \ho roci^tmiion of tint rnu^c» of <lontli if cnlciilai^l to 
oxercl»e n stiU more ilirect iiilliieiice npon jmblic he^iitli. Diseanc-i jire 
mora oAJtjIy preTcnt<f4| ihnn currtl, nnti tho ^r^t >:it|) to Llidr prev^nlion 
Is i\w Jiacoixxy of tlit^ir <-Acitjri^ ofiu:?t^»^ Tin* lic;;iF-fry will aliov ilm 
MFCni^T fif lhr>so ewi*«'»i l>j" miiii**r»i^ iivcU, nn'l mciwuiv iht^ iiilpnsity 
of lljoir iitflticiu!**. Till' miiLtiiil vnia of mort^fitv in smn« fliotnru vrifl 
bo founit to bo 4 ptr <"wiL, in otiicrx 2 per crnt ; in olhn- «xjri1s, tlio 
li«4^>Ia in Olio >C!i of rrrium-'^LntHn.-s livi- jG ytw-^i, wbilv in aiioihcr 5i<L 
of drcumAtAnccji, whuii iW Etr^t^i ration will iiii1Ji;ntc, tlit^y itu iiof. Hvo 
loore xhttn Ha yvar*. In fhr-.^t wrctrln*!! dj^tric^K ncjirlj- S jiri- r«iit. 
nrc €on5lantly hick, an'l ihc cnor^y nf llif* vrliolc giopiiliilion i?i wiil>eii-<l 
lo thcT ixKjh- Tl»i-ir iiimH nn? weuk, ihdr bodice wa^t^x!, utkI ihdr 
»vnsatbn8 cmbitccrvd hy pnvLiitim und KurTmn);- llulf itiv life is 
jMiiSBOii in infnncv. S(c<knc«B, mid dc-|>undt-ul ItclfkiHsm'^T. In fxbiltitin;; 
tfi« hi<-li mottuHlj* tUo diseases by wlitolj it ix occn^ionoil, nnil tfiu 
exciting cjiukc'S of di^^iTiifie, tiiu nb^tencl nf llic l{o;*JHter?i vlW pruri-S ifixt 
Hhilc a purt of the sickness is inovtCtibK and a purl cim only t>c uxpccl^d 
to di-^ppi'nr Ix-foiv pro^i-ouivr uncial jiin«1iornLioTi. a cunudtruUit 
propoHToii of tli« Bickooitf an<l doatlin iimy !>(.< siJji]>rcHfled liy ili« gCTi^nil 
wJopfion of hyci«ni<^ mca^orc* which aro in nctnjil hnl parlial ojicnition. 
It may Ito aflimied, n-jlliout '^fvnt risk of rxjti^^H-attou, that il \s po^thle 
to I'lMlurp thr annnnl dcvitliTt in Knjrlimd arid WhU'.h by ^i0^tHK>f and to 

incrvAii: tlic vigour (inuy I iint fuM lho< IridiiMryund vroMth ?) of tlio 
pnp[|1n(ion in nu ri|uril pi'i»|wirfion ; for di:«*ii>ini mt* lln* iron itiikfx oi' 
misi-ry, which lurvd^^s liofotv sfrciij^th, iK-aTih, and bappine^, as Ike 
mortality drdincv. — (1st Anntuil Kq>of1, pp. «*>-£>•) 

Analyfit of Causes of /hatft, — To Avc>id corifusion, I mn^t atntc in 
wlmt Jtvii>^« Iho term ** canM! <if ik<jitb " U ht*ru imtkTdtoott. A man fnlU 
from a htl^^hty ami lin^iiks liis iici^k ; a irnman uikvf* ar««nici ^biclt 
cornHW itic t^fttia of t.h<; stornii* h, and in boili oidra dcnth ifl the ro^ilu 
"VUe iii^ii^rkic nn^l tin.* fnll, or like fnif'tum of i]il< iie4:k »n<t tho coiTuhiiin 
of the biomarh, may he viowwl ir* tkp cnn'^rw nf ilcjiUt- hoih Khould he 
rvjci>1*'*TK|, and h-th ntfiy bo M-|KirrtH."ly i^uuidci'mlH A |)t^r8oft bwaJloi^ 
|irn#i>ic a<'Mi and idihoiigh IIk' fiitN^ir iiriti !hj di^'«c«^riiibli\ no cvjdf^ac 

iiMtoriiil nlrci'nlion of riiructufr tniiv be diFHTOiurfd, Tin.' ooL^ond cauH* 

<if dt.Mib rjiDUut Iw uaoiTtaitid. WtK<n tin in Rjina motion oi a cancvr 
pri>vc>^ Ji catiMT of di<9Uli« the niiU<<rial cl»in;|^ iu thi- urj^iTii/utton is 
vntliLicQtIy apparcul ; but Ihciv n n^i <^>nftvxioii with any rxloiitui 
v1«nirn( ; or a ownrufximi, if it o\id|B, cajinol bo tnuri-d Tilk Jiiiylluij;; 
oipitvAlebt tfi llio [n-iomi'T riiiiHit in the CH><if>> of ■'loWt 'I^^Hlk^ Di^athn 
may, ihervronn, Iw divided into two cbu^H'^ t>'^-<Ai]tj{ iuK*y i-adi othn. b»t 
ai (Ii5tiii<^t UA <Jay and ul^^kt ; the Hrai claM ixiuipri»ing all thai cah be 
n.'feiiod lo ciurnal rioknci.*. Mitlbcatiom jioison, llj^ktain;;, aial Artt 
llic itci^ond, »ucb aa aader cKii'iaJD ciix~uinrtniui.Tc-i* spring op Hgiontaticoinly 
ia tbu oi'gHninaiun, aad aiMt mpn^M^ntnl hy inllninraali'in, tamper, and 
rlwninatiain. A nmli^r, iiuacqnaioinl with m^icinc, Enay couodro ibo 

[part IV. 

1A inr)ir>itci1 lij' A lli<Tnioiil«U^r ; hi ihat Vflieu tlii^ lli^Aii |iO|Milali()ri »f 
the dtsirict in knou'ii, the ri«c and (JecUupof rpidmiic* mny Ik* tmoad 
rxftetJy, iidiI it KviU ilicn bp poAaibk lo Bi»lirc the problem, nvhctbcr 
vi?irtiiin rribf.^ nf L«pi(I><ti]io ilinorderx connUntlj trtUnw olhor-i, in ontti 
dctonninc*! >=mos or cycU'- Lmmy phrft^cH mo still ciin-pai, for whirL 
tifioivrirfll rofiiiulLi? will he MzbfliituEcrl. SvdonliAm, cno uf the most 
nccnrjttr *if mi*fl(iuil wriwn^s i" H]H'ukltix "1" ''rnwll-po-x, viiiplciyod hucIi 
IcriTii IIS thwo : (IGGI ) '* Jl pri'VAtl'il n IkUlo, but »li9np|Hiu"t-<l fl;jiiii>."— 
(160T-0) "Thn wmiill-iwix waa m*>Tp pri^vali^nt in lowii for tlii* Jir^l Irto 
" yctiV* of t]\h roii.HiiliLlLoti iImq I wtrr rtiiienLlj<'r it to Jmv<- Wmi." — 
(1670-2) *"Tlii' mimll-ptix iivnfo ; yitldtd to Ihc <!yri>nlory ; rpltinicil," 
Av.f 9k^. Tli4<aL' lt*i [lis dfhnit uf no Htric'l oum|mriFVjii whh t'uoli ot]ji<r ; 
lor it i« iJiffli'itU l<> t4»y in whirh year tho fim.ill-pux WAiii mr>At TftTnl, iind 
iii^|H>»Ailili< (o cQUi|Mnr Sy<ip[ilium'ii oxpurioiicu ihu.n i<\|iruHHril wIlli tfio 
cstjwiienf'o of other wrilciB in othttr places ami olhtr flg?8 ; for 
"pn?vnilJ''l ii lilllv," "iji>;tvl with violotu'o,"* uinl r^iimlai' li-niis «i"7 
intplj r*illu-r lliul HH^ihtUjHiv iIi^MrO'^oil 1, or 2^ or ■% or 11) [H^r vcnT. of 
thih |tf>pLiht[JoM. T^ip fL.ii|)(^ior pn^rition of iiumi?i'i(.-ul <-xpi'<'K«ioiiA ia 
inu8tt-ateil \ty n coinpitri^on of S)ikiuli:iiik> |i]ir&:4GA njtjj Ihu LoEidoii 
liilln of murrnlity in Lbo Mimr ycum. 

J>KATit« ftom SsiALL-rox In Loiidtm. 







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1 ig;« 








' IfiTf) 










Tlio L.997 <li.'atli8 fiom Hni»ll-|K»\ in I66T*, mul llip 951 (Unths I'l-oin 
that tliBH^rtAP iti thct year followin;ri cspress Die ri^lutin? iwWuaiiy q{ 
BtdAll-po\ in ilialiiirl k-rmf. Tile mclhoil ct the piinali clrik>, jiltltuiish 
iTnpi>rllicrly irairiftl niif, wiiH iho hf-B». S/donhnm gui^is-'il flu* <pijiniity 
with w^city, iin<l callc"! it ffruU or i»mftl? ; chc parish clovka intia^iiroJ 
it, atifl Ntaled iho ro^iillA in (Tguri^ii. Tho prL>8[^nt Riji;i9li-r?i will riiraJHli 
mfriiiriil T^cioncci wnh uii imdrokoii wrics (if olisoi'vatiorw expn^scd 

Only a iimilMJ mimhtir ol" ftwLs full urMlcr ihi.- iiciiioo of a hiii^l« 
oi)>*erver. His opini^.>n^, vrlirri thf<y :li-<t iho ri'snltf iifhiKowii I'Vpn-icnctp, 
nn* itlnUvl iu ;i;i,'iii-ru1 lmii.% utirl uri< t^fini hiUijiUhI 1>y orht^iet m (^tLtirely 
dillV-LiJiiL ciinjui>Uiii.r>. N'>tw]t|ibL^iL[Ihi^ lhi< runMrni^jy cif nuLiirt*, iUie 
\tttvlii lo liorioiDi iTrois, HipiMjomU'H wrntu liin immorbil 
w»rlc^ in Awa Minor itui) (iii-i*!!', in n pniiimlar diujiitp. •'lago of 
talturc, unti civiH/jifion ; yel nil hiN prci^^'pls wi'n^ hikrn ft^r the guide 
^>r hi» HnctTfVHDrfl in Kri^-lmul. Frniu*--, nn*\ Gnniiiny, I'hc thempeutic 
lIlxrtriIK-^ of 8y<1oti]j]kiii, whv> iMird in PaM Mjilf,and pntrii^uil priiiciprilly 
in W<'«ltnin7ilnr» *pi'c*nJ llirouj^h Knrnp**. Tho ri>lf>liritliiil HronHHAiB* 
tlieory of irriLnlion nwd pastro-ttiUi'tie orii^inntwl in the Frcnrli cftm|>». 
The phytician^ of this i:onntry, when thr catist's of il*^atli arc miivei'sally 
raroritiHl, and recordeil accnriicc-ly, vrii] l>e savM from thi< fallacna) of 
porllnl gi^iiorali/ation ; and^ with the roaulu of ilii^ ^r'gi^try iT^Porti then), 
will Iw (^nublfnt lo ohfjiin fxlrndrd vi*?w» of thr naliirr, t-onrsr^*, ami 
inoiliAcntionfl of diti<ui&c«. Tboy will hiivu, t%s a bAAia for dcUuctiou 



tlidr own ciWnnEions imd ihriti- of rtt^Tv imdirAl prirtiiiont<r in 
KngUad Jind Wal^K i<) «Ti plfic(><;> niH in nil times; TiU' ihc nafional 
Ito^itttnitlim s*x^ OH iu winttT nriH HiiMuiicr, in s]jritig nml nutumTi ; unil 
il cxIcD'Lv li> oil piwt.fl <<f tlio kingiioni nml to &U H^i^wa of wKklv, 

Tlw* srorlihof Hti\|»(im, Mjiy^irl!i, Shftrl, Hcy^Fium^ H»>ht>r«l<>n, WilTnn, 
JCaUrmnii, Atid muny n-cvut innliciil ^vrilrni, pVT^ail i litis tnif ions of nil 
thiw* proposiliofis ; Hltliongli ihey mrtly hud acce&5 to 6oui'e*?« Fuoi-e 
milhemii^ tliiin tb<^ liWU of MorUliiy, 

Aiijr impniTuuicfU iu tliu trmimi'iit or (IU^'jom^, mid imv luUtUinii lo 
Dintionl HOK-hoo, vill I4>n4 iilliniHUtly tn tV ct ink inn I ion of liTimFiH 
(ufTcring: hut (Ijo rcj^ifttmlii^a nf ihr^ mi»«ci r>F iWtlj 1/ cMcirlniM to 
exercise a ^till more iliret't mfluonce upon puUIJc Tio^^lih. Djeea-^'es nro 
nioro evily provvnto<l Ihim cun-tJ, and thtj finit Hri<p lo their |iri'VCntioa 
w tlic <l[sc4jvcry of ihuir txritiij;; Ci^mHeH. Tho lU'giair^ will show tliu 
n^ncy of thi>se oftiiaf* by ntimpri**ril fiu^U, uiid mo^uiiivr ilio int**n*ilv 
of their infliU'[i(H'. Thi^ ucinuni rule of mortulity m pome difltrltrlf will 
be found lo be i jwr cent., in *iUn»rs 'J per crnt. ; in other wonK tho 
|HWpIu in one Hot ol eii'cvimbtjnR-epi live 60 year^i, whib' in :kririhcr ai--l 
of HrcLiifknUtricc^t whii-li lW Itc^i^lrAiioii will itMliontr, thoy do mtl live 
i[k<»re ihtiv 2^ yi'iin. In lb''w- ivn-l<*ht-it districts in'iirly H pt*rr«ni. 
nvc connlntktlj- nick, nnd ihc i'nor;;y of ih** whnh* itiipidnUan is williciyd 
to tlw looU. Their iirm?* are weuk, iheir Ixxlic? wn^^tcOf tnid ihtir 
«cii)inlion.-« cmbiueir^l by privMlou luul ^uffitiin;;, Ifnlf ibi' hic !« 

pAowd iu infuiK^y, fiiL-kntViif, rind de^ieo^lenC helpfi-^vru'eH. In cnhililin;* 

tlw high mortality, iIk- discnw*- \'y which it is occiL^kmcl, iin<f (he 
cxcilio^ ciiLjso ci dLH-ii8e, the iiby|iiiu*l of ihr Ke^^ivlera will pruv'ti, ihat 
while u par1orthc«ickae«A Ls inovitibK aiiH n {nrl cun only liccxpr'Cled 
to iliNuipenr hrfoie progrc«iivu aociul iimulioialion, n cotieiilrmbUT 
pn>poriion of the Kivkniim and denthn tuny \w 6nppi<e-AAf1 by tho gi>iier)il 
luloptioD or hyificDic mtii*nn* which hup in ju>tiinl hnt pnrtiiil opc-mtioiu 
U uiay Iro afSruii^l, without j,'re«i risk of cxu^p^mtion, that il ts po^ible 
lo rpduntf the nnnuid ilejtthH rn Hnffliind and Willed hy .'iOflKHJ, ami to 
incroMM thi; vigour (*ni*y I not ivM the inibrntry rmd wcidtb ?) of tho 
impiilnlioit innurrpitil pmprrlion : fo* disi^aiUT* un* thr iron inch'v of 
miaerv. which nn-'f^dcs before ^trcn^lli, LtaUh, and happino:s?f, s^ the 
morlolily df-vlincs, — ^Ut Annual Heport, pp, S&-9.) 

Anaiifth of OitueM of DrKifh. — To avoid confusion, I ma^t state Jii 
wJmL HtnM! ihrr term " chumt of cleatU " ia bcru uiuUirvtiKxI. A man fullH 
from A bei>[ht, iinil breaks hU nci^k ; n woman liikc^ &r»cnk% which 
corrrxleji llio coaIj* of ihv aIoiivih h, and in hoih < jiwb dt^h Iti ih^ nuuH. 
'ilir uremic and ih» fall, or thr fraeture ol the iie<!k and the eorrirrtlon 
of the 8(OQiaclt, Lnay be viewt.'d an the chub's of di^ib. lioth should be 
rcgiflleiT'cl, vnd boili (pay !«■ ii«|>jii-«iely considered. A pei>ou s\vallow5 
priis<ir iichi, and id[hon^b the pi'n»ie iK'id he di!icenilhh% no cvitfei^t 
EP»t47riiLl nllcrntinTi of ntmctura may 1h< diML-ovi.-7vd. Tho tipcond <.'uit^ 
of de.ith i-JtiiDot be ttM'ertainciL Winn Hn inflHuimation or a eatiour 
provo n caiiM! ol' il«4illi, the uutterial cJLati^e Iu the or|^iil/Ation is 
»■ulti^:iently ap|Miruni t but Ihece \* nt> c'lnTiexion ivjLh any cxkTual 
dcinr-nt ; or ii oonuexion, if it L-.tiblAi <»nuot ho Iraocd with anylhiiij; 
^vpiivnlvnt lo ibo primary (.-nn-iM.* in (ho 4'hm^ i^f violent ilvalh. I>eatli>i 
may, iliercloiv, Iki dindod iutn two i;hwM<--% luiviinx i"!" «'^-l> oth^i-, but 
OA diHtiiii't riA day and ai^bt : tl^r fir«1. chkv comprising all that cau he 
refened to oteni^ vialooeH', nudWatiou, poiMoQt lii^btoiaji;, and Hre ; 
llic HTi^dudt »ui. h Aj Qodci' ceriuiii <;(ivUUkJ4tiiuoe« apriiig up tjicintnnooii^lr 
in the orjp-iiirjilion. »nd nre n*piVM-ntnd hy inHHAmatioii, enueiTr, nnd 
j-hemiintisni- A rt«iU*r, uiuic«|uaiut«il with medicine, may conceive tin 


[PlttT tV, 

i« iniii<^tcil hy n llirnncmifl^r ; »<> ihiit wlioa the int^jm fM)|»ijliilion of 
llie dinlrk-t is kaowri, the liso and deotin^ of ^^piikniiot limy \w Irac^d 
i*-\junly, luul it will tlii^ii Iju iiombiIiIq tc> nolvi< the ^iruljlvtii, w]iL<tUar 
<v'rtftiri trib(w of opid^mi? Oi^orden <H»ottUntl}' follnw wlliois in ono 
delemiiiicd ?ir*rio* or cycle. J*o*j^ phrnHcn me *till <^niTcnf, for wliicii 
nnnii-Timl formuli; will bi^ ^ubt^LitiiW, Sydoiiliam, ono of tUv most 
itcciirnl*.' of iiU'flind wrilriy, in P|i(-akiTi)C ol --mnlUiH^x, t-i]ip!<>y<(t] Mudi 
U'nD9 UH lti<<»< ; (lO']! } '* It. prt'v,iiT(.*<1 n litili?, but iljffupjH'jLtvrl n;^iri>"— 
(lfiC7-!>) "Tlje sninll-iv-Jit iviu nn^im juvvnli^iil in lown i'm- Iho tlrnt tw« 
" ycam of lliiftrouslituiion ibiiit I t:\-vt r*tunm\vv il L(» Iuivl' Imon."— ' 
(1670-2) "TIko mriaU*!!")* flixjw; yitMi'l lo iW iljvcnicry ; KrliirmMl," 
At',, &c. TIk'J^t terms admit of no ^rrlirt lompftrlson wirli tju h oilier ; 
Uiv it ip4 iHlHruU U* 7»Hy itk wlik^h ycfit llio pimnirjiov wuh iiio»«l Tihliil, nml 
iinjMit-NiMn irt rniiip:irt" SydnilipmN eTiir^ru^n^'ii ibu-* rxint^iril wilh iha 
ex|>eriencv of olher wriuj-s in othci places ntid ollipr ii^o* ; for 
"previiilcd Ji lilllt^,"* "nij^Hd with viof«ur<V' anil KimiUr Utihj, mny 
iiijjfly villur tli»l -^ 'b-siroynl l,or2, or5, or U> |ier uunU of 
the |H>pulniioii. Till! ^uporior pri^civivn of uumcvifnl oxpfejanion^ iji 
iUiiBfmlM hy \v ci>i]i|iflrLaon of SyOeulmm'A plira^e^ ivitU tlie Lontlon 
bitU of niortnlity itt Ihir ^nino ycni?. 

DKATiie ftom SMAH.-POX in l^iuloit. 











1 66a 











69 ft 



























Tho 1,QS7 iLcnilia L'l'oiu !4ma]]-i>ox in IGfiS, and tijo 951 (Kutlm I'rom 
tlmt fliwasp ill ilio ycm- foliowin^» espress thk> ivlatjic Iiilt-iihily of 
nmiill-|N)x iti tlialitioi L45ri[]?i. TIr- mtfthod of llic pzimli cl<<rlcs nUboiigli 
ijnpi*rf*»rtly cftrriwl «ml, wiin dm Ijiuf. Sydt-nlmm giit-sfti.'d |b<? quiinlity 

with siismuily, mul vn\W*\ it crcnrn or Jiiaftll ; tho parisli clerkw mi?a**iirod 
it, Hiid Mulcd tlio rG*>iTlt« in llj»uixfi, Tlio pro.scnt Itti^riafi'ri* will furuiHli 
mc^dioiil f^irit-nro wilti an unhrokon neric* uf olisi.i'VAl.ionH i^xpn-«M?d 
ri inner lojtlly. 

Oidy u limiti'd nnmlh-r nf fni*!.^ SnW nndcr tin- nolJre of n Mingle 
ol*^orvcr» His ojiiniiHit, wlien iln*y imttliu nwilt> nf hi-own rxpnionw, 
ftTP i»liif«d ill giriuTftl trrin^ uihI jin- rtfuu a(lo|itiNi liy oilitto in entirely 
dlfl^rt'iit clrcomsUnces. >ot«[tlifltMridin;< ihc ('on^tnii'^y of niihire, tliis 

l<Tiils to si'Houn pmvctiiTtkt 'Troin. Hi]ip'rt'nil('.i ^v^lt^? lii.i irunioi-Uil 
WorkH ill A»in Minor imd tirii'ri>, in n prirllcnlar iliiniitt-H *-lfl^ of 
ouUuie, and cinli^ntion; yel j»ll bis pri?<'q>l:i wi-n? l«kon for ihv {,'uiile 
of hi,H Biiri!L'?i.^orfl in lvuj;lriml, Knnuv, «nd (loi'mnny. Thi- tlicmiKriitic 
dmarioes of Sjkdi'iilmiii, \vli^ livod fn I'alt Mall, and piaoTisLiI prinoipriUj 
in \V*'Klmin»ilcr, nprt^nd llirou;tb Knivpo, Thi> rvU^lipjileit Itraui^Aiwi' 
ibeory of irritrilion atvl fiti/tfro-iHit'riir ori^iouttvl in rlio French cwnp**. 
The [diyHrians of this country, when th« eaH?<Pii of death aro univermlly 
reivrdud, itiid i-ocorded aocnruroU, wdl l>e euved from lIh- FallftHtvi of 
jmrLial gfiKTidi/^Atlori ; and^ Willi tla< iiT^nlt^v of i|jr rt-^i^ljy hvfoi'V (lioni, 
will 1>o on»1)Tod ity tyhinin v\lvi\^vd v\nwt ot the nnturc, courts, and 

iiioiliflcnlions of diaeawe. They will huvc, m a bnmn for dcductiou 




ifjdir own olj.Herviiions itr\i\ ihf.iw- of cverv niHifal prnciiuoni-r in 
KTi<>]nnH iiivl Wiikji, in nil phu^i^, iicM in all time*; for ihc dsIIoiiaI 
]ti-^'(<)ft-DtiMn ';^*r*M vn ill wijiUt btal p<uuijni?rt in i^pnn); hiuI hiiluumi; mid 
)C 4*xlt>n<]i^ to iitl parti of iltt* ktiigdom and to all i-Immi^ of Mf>cii.4y> 

Thr wnrkfi of HiixTijith, Hiij'jjHrih, Shnri, H^^jMhnm, Hchenl*"!!. Wjlhn, 
Batt-iiiuti, mill mnny n»ceitl ui"*i]ic«l wriltr^, ijcescnt illwtrnlionH of nil 
ih<TM^ propo^iljnnri; nLilKmizh th^y ntrrly hno occcu to sonrcOA more 
aiillivDilc Ihun itie liillti ciT MuiIjiIjIv. 

Any iitipruvcmriil hi tliu Lrt-^iTiiivt^t of <!i,'i«iat% mid Uiv luMitlOD to 
niedicAl lini^o^T will I4>iii1 nlrimntj-ly lo tli^ ilimmiilh^n of Tiiiinnn 
suffering; but tlio n.-([i*1nUiort of lb' rAusm of lU-nfli if» onlailntrri to 
excrciw a still more liirect inflnonre upon puMic tienlili, Dii^eAses uro 
Dioro cix^ilv prvvtnu?'! tfinii our<?»l, jiud tlit* ln>l sti'p lu tht'ir jin-vtintion 
19 the ^li^^i'orj- of their oxcitJng cftiMi-". Tlic IVgi-'iry will *liw ih(3 
Afn^tTOj' of tbc-^ rntiKCM by nutni^triit fncln^ jinil mounmvT tht* iiilnnKLty 
iif itieir Ltillncnre. The ADnmil i-ule of niorlulitv in Kiaio dttitncfa ivjit 
Im foimrl to be 4 p<'r mnt^ iri ntliPi-a 'i jkt (.vmI, ; In oUicr wortU, ^^**> 
;>coplu Ml oou w-t of t'Ti"Cun?5t.'*in:t'* livr jOyi-Ai-is wlitir \n Annilirr But 
of circunmlnncof, wliirli tho ICo^iwirnlir^n will imiioalo, t1i<:yilo not livo 
fnoro llmii 2a ycitTH, In ih^^i^' wMchi-d ilialricL^ ucaH^ 8 pori<f*tiL 
MFi? con«tAnt1)' «ick, ntid iIkt rnrri^j' of <1ii< vrlioU' popubtioti is «'iilirin<l 
to Ih*^ rootfi. Their nrm* nro \veali, iheir IkhIic:? W:ivic<t, itml (heir 
MiniAlion^ cmbjtli^ml \ty privnllou nml .itifTorJii;*. Ifalf the- Ido Ia 
pn^Hcvl in infmiey, nickiK^M. und <ii*pi'ii(li'T»t lM.-Tpli'»«M<'iH, In ovliihltlrij^ 
ihr Im;;Ij mortJiHty, 1W divKiir^Tf^ liy whirh it i.i Oira.Hiooitr]f lui^ Uio 
utniiu^ UMM(*H tif lii^iiBt^ tht* nb^lruot nf thri Ito^isror?* will prov«, llinl 
while A [n\r{ of llir *lrVnc)'» i* niirvil-tbh', nnd a ^nvl i-tm a\ily Im' rxpijctifd 
ki <Ii<ikpp».Nir bcfotv projfTOraivL' BO<:trit umoliui'ulioiit n ronri^loniMo 
prnporrioi» nf the mokneMH ttuA clontlM wny^ Ue ftiipprctwil U^ ihn genemt 
Adoption nf hyffivnic fncii.«iim whidi mv m lu-lunl Iml pai'tiat 0[)f-nitj<in. 
It may \te nffirmtMl, wilhotil »^m\t risk of cXftL'^nilioit, ihnt it is po*iiMe 
tu ii<duii< i\K Aunimt tlu^itlib iti HiiclHttrl »iid WilIcs hy ^,':hk), mid to 
incrofiAi^ the X'i;^ur (mity I nol mlrl tlio Imluiitry nod woftllb?) of tlio 
popEilaT.ioii in nti chjueiI protiortion ; for di^cusoA an* tin* iron irntcx of 
ininerv, which rcHxnJes twfon- sfrmglh, ]K-»l1b, nitd Impjiinr^?!, a^ lli« 
ni>'itjility th^'linfs. — (Int Annual Keport, pp. Hti-y,) 

Attat^f^ia of Cau$f8of Dtttth. — To nviiid vonftJMon, 1 mi|.*l nthie ju 
whtit Hcii'in thi! term ''oauM* of ttciith " it) bora tiu<lerbtoo(L A mnti fiilU 
from H bei^tit, \\ut\ bi^caJtM Iti^ iH.*ek ; a woinnn U\ktv^ ArM-iiii.\ wlilvh 
tai-n>il«^ tho conlti of tbu stonuK'^i, and in Iwlli o;iaw iWtli ia tfiv ruJiiU. 
Tli<! ui-»onic nnit ibe fall, or ihc fiaetni'e of tlio neck nnd iljo corru^iii^n 
<if lli« stomaoii, nmjr be virwi^l jin the oauM^n of ilonlh. Uoth >lionld bo 
rc;(i4tuii'd, mid bt/tli m»y bo Hep]U'Hli.-l/ ron^iiJeit^-d. A jK-r^on fW^lloiyn 
pruv<i(- :t*-id, ftiiij jdthotE^L tht; fiavii: luid Lies di^ccTiiiblot no <ividc[it 
irtuli-ri»l hllorniion of '■iruotorc* iiniy Iw' di*covi>ri.-il. Tbo rt^'oud i-ati»(^ 

rf (k'4tli utiinot bo ascc-ruinod, Whi'ii an inflnniniatioTi or n fntioer 
pM>ten n 4'UUEH? of dentil, tb^ uLatuml clmiig» in tli^ tii';;uni£aljfm iv 
miirK'iontly iipiMti^il; hui llirH' b* no cfuini-'xlon with any rxti.-niaT 
«Jctitrut ; or A iVHiOPKiuii, if it LMfi»t«i iraaiiol Lc trat'ed aiiIi anylUiii^ 
«<rpnt-ah-nt let the priiimry fjin-<i in ihc rH*<u* of ciolrnl. di."atl», Duathn 
may, (lM.-rcrort\ U* dividinl into two i-Lum-^s i^iLvtiu;; Into caoh ot^irr. but 
08 distiuiH MH dziy aihI ni^ht ; ll»e Hot cIa^^ ci>»»pri^ing nil tinit cari be 
ivfi*tTod IQ cxtrrnHl violuiux<T niilUH^ativn, iwiMni, Ut-htning, juid Jtnf ; 
the «*«ouiJ, Buob IL4 xm^r ciMiuin <;iriitJtnfltiim'(4 jprni^ up #|>oiilAiiwUHly 
ill lh*.< oi-j^iiralioD, Jin«( ai-o n^pi^^'ntc^L hy inllimiionttoii, amiwr. and 
rliciiinntjj^n. A rraikr, UDAcqiiuulcd with modiGine, OMy ooDceive ibo 

rpART TT. 

of tiM hitvt cIji«» or CMi>^^ l>y reflcoiing, ihAt if a wntcli oi a 
BMiM&e is destroynl bj dashtn;; it tipon Uiu KiuumJ, or throwing it into 
ibo fii«r it« motion m»v aI»o bn urmUil liy mifmnt i^auro-% IiaiId^ ilwtr 
tourco in il« own ni<N*Uiifiiini v pttrticuluHy if \w bi*ui- in niiud ihdl tWiift 
are innuTnerebte mocebse£ Koin^ on in thcbody which in^notmcebanicnl, 
A i'hHiigA in whicli will deflrnv tilr, t^ Iht; iK*iU ffrnivnlalion tlttUroya 
mWk or vfine, wJiboul anjf mri-lmnicnl aj^ciic)'. 

lDd?tH.-n(1riit]y of p;tlvnml iilj^fj^t l^n Uiimwi hit^y luio a Irndviirir io 
death : 1>kii the leiidi-iicy to life h nintngvi in rdtinv^L iveiry tD"tanl oF 
«xi*lviLCC- Lt'l ihr Imhilizv t^o di;nf,h hv <?\yTir>MH[ by ihc di^altiK cut 
of 100 livin;; u ycjir At (lii^ ujj^ii 2O-30» llioii the <.-hjLiiC4> af dyiii;; tji iho 
yi-itr U but 1, nnd thv i»|>|ioKilc l<-iidcrDr}', ijI' the i Imncu of livrnx* i^ ^^* 
Fbo probeibiUl}' of liviii>f, mul tbo iTroliulriHty uf ilyinj^^ vury Ai dilTL^rriit 
ngrs find Ju ditl'oix-nt cJi'criin&tjmi^O!^ : Uil [mw mucli ^oc-ver tbv ivro 
prubddriHiit'H xatj in ihcir ri'intioii-H, Ibt-y iiiuy iilwiij't U; ccjriti-ive^l Hi 

if ibc liuitmu rraiuc Iwve iu ilevlf iht? pniidtjlcv uf UcaLb, Ihfty pumoan 
Y^ry div4>rhillril i-KArnot^ro^ PiLrtic^nlnr oIhmi^ or di»*ii^* ivi^jo in 
dim^n/nt n-fiioii^ And Kcamns but r10•^:* iiftpcru to occur \n hii ctiiimlvdp 
to dcmoDBlnilo Ihfit every kiod of iDidwIy can Arise vhcic innn can 
iLuliainU Tbitt tcikdt'ncy to diiK'H^eN— ilir riLorhid di;ilU<!nis^in M!t?it iu 
Aini)ii*a ibJttArc burrouiidvd by th« bntnu t^xivmal cirvumi^Uiii^cs ^ wiii:i'c 
fntav. Mil!Vi' fmm mtthina, M>mi> from gout, irnm^ fmrn Inj^iiniiy, ^nnip 
fniin pbtliibi-*. Tltcri^ inusl, it is cvirbmi; lie bi-n> a prx>diHpoAiiiou to 
dififwR', or it would ii<>t be sU'ongcr in one Ibrni iu nnolhor, and (liflm^nt 
ikinilivs vuuld uol bu |>eculi&rly subject Lo rUJ* or thai form uf iiLulaJy, 
tikis u" liial kind <if doUhn Tim Unmttii riax^ ntid every UrgM N.-clioQ 
nf ibfi TAor, mny tlidi bn ronr^ldcred fi^ having hdrtrdiUhry iinrdiNpo^itintiH 
to tb<i litttholftf^Jc&I pbeuomejia di't^itsu^^t^''^ liiMNinrn. iu liiicb n way thai 
cliildrCLi WK nat guiiciiOly Ijoni witli iIjhrhhc, but iu tho Micct*iL^ivo 
cbftu^r.M wbi^^b Ihoy unikr^o, fioiu the IlivL tUrul> uf tiJ« lu ihdr Ihial 
evolution, there u iHwid<rH tho upwartE, onuai'd hupuUtji, » |>riuGipli: 
wbieb dmwa a <«rtAiu iitimltcr within iht* nphcrc of diM*a»e uud 

The aoaly^iti of diiti^nMir ta ntill im[H;rti^t ; And ut fir>t ilH multJUidiiiou^ 
Ff|icci<^ Wiori% likv ijlbi^r iialuiid ubjotlf^, ouly Hepaiuta^j iilUi bug^T 
giviupN, PUgTiDri w«ro ll»> rtrsl diflcaji>i4 dit^Lin^iiihlutd. Thry dostioyt?d 
A j^rfftl nuintM'i-of Wr^s in n piUort tini<> Aud at uii04>rliurMiitervals, und 
impin>d th*" ]>popk with wonder and terror. N<*iJbcr thr Jow^ Grt^ck^ 
noi- RomauH, however, ili«<-ribfd with pn-'mion tho pJA^ui^f whicb thny 
Triiii«AJtcd. All kind.i oT opidi^inioK ^viriip dvfiipiAlod bv the (-cuci'itt 
Irrm |br*>tJ]i'ti(N^ ; and ibo rbitm<'ii*riiiiif' :<vrii|>toni« CA'aped i*wti (ho 
clfkiiHicAl bifitorianfi, Tt is *till tmdecidod wht^tbor the plagiic of Athtni*, 
d«^Tibv<l rUboj-at«ly by Thiioy-ltdrs, whh Hinrdl"i>OJ: ; and tt ih utijml utcly 
JUipnK^lbl'' I') idrmify the numrruiiM |dtt;'U'?^ whirh Livy bfl« rtx'^rdod. 
'lltifl Tiho^ilil pxpitp lilllo iiiir]>H»r, Whf'" nti tplji?rl fallH under i\ wntor'i* 
notice for die firwl tiiiia b'* ■^ci/.iw iLr* Hlrikiu^ fmlmvs and rfTwrlp*, hiuI 
(Vnpuintly ovf»rfoolc!« Ibo charftcterislic ti'air.f, which can be IcAmttd only 
by a uArtrfulf fnrqueut eanipariMm with cHb*T kindrtnl objf>vt^ Liunuiui^ 
Iuft4 defljjeil in two tinex many pUuts aitO anima1i% which cjnimml 
Iravrlkr^ hnvv fadt^l to cbaracttTiKL* in fc^roral pa<^f^ of d(^M.'ri|itioE>. 
By Mil dying each Iciad »f pla^c, analysiug: it8 sympfoma, and uoling 
ihr onJcr of th^ir su^^ivrfaiony nosolojfiE^t^ have found that wbdt? all 
pb^tiva ikgr«o in deatroyin^ gn<at ntimhcrM in a short time, at uncertain 
inlrf-vnlH, thf^y diffcrr i^!tfvc]iftiiUy in iho nj mptom^f diirfttii^n, aikd fntnlity : 
in the niiml^n and cIji«m<4 ihnt Ihoy iifttick ; and in iho mode And 
tmpidily vf their difTu^sionp Iiii}uiix!r4 iiaTi' succeed, m the cout^o of 

MveTAl iY»liirir«H in uMLj^irig pln^af. ncid ilintinfnilthiQjc uadi^r tWt 
f^ent-ric rteei^iAtioQ £cvcntl di»v»r>$«. The CArly tiUlorutiM ivcorde^J Uie 
opcuriTOCv of plAjEiK-, |wiii1ril Lt4 rnvH^cjc, iind in Ihcir iiamiliviui i^ldijiD 

|ihj'Ai(7tHita, ^Hvo ttfx'iiraie dfucr inliftiis nf irv^^nd nwt-ii*n, Kul n>itf(Hii)dtiI 
ur divnlcd cn'onooii'-ly, or ilwl nol dtrlinuatti uIIhT-s piirlly lliruHifh 
igiiomiuM)! ol" iLnAromy, imuI/ rrcim ovfrni^lit, bal pniK-iimlly friHo dii» 
Ihw H'tikh iiiakuH tlu miAlj/cd^of ili»eft9e^ liKe avery <iUi«r ilt<|NiriiDeut 

ftfiotW vAfU, nobol^idM l^lon of <lifiM^e<s innichtiiK >tt ui pv«n pnce, 
iirithor cxfiibitjng Ag^ruviitioii, lior cr(*ntinjj[ HtiitLU-ii (IvHOlJhtlwi, bul 
TieriT hnlling <liijr nor nlg^lH, auil Icsw undvr Uio <.<ontrol of exUroAl 
<!jrciim»|jiriw» lb*n cpiilcmicf. Tliuj- arc nuinvU sporai/ie ilbivnAcn by 
MiHii'ol writers ant\ nra llic ortlinaty inA)fi<lt«s of evi^ry day ocnirrence. 
It i)t IrA for tlir Trgitlntlion to il4^-i<1i.^ \rhi.-tb4'r thry pnrltcipntc *1 oil in 
Ihc AucttiaUoiiH <>f 4'[>)r|L'micti, The line of deiDArcAtioD l^clwecn thcsi 
mv\ plngLicK ii^ Mifli<:iciilfy brmil ; but a.% t'pidvmii'j apprtiacli vrilinnry 
'1iiM>n»ei», |>r<.'iaU «j>i>nLdi<<n1lj, mid onlv tir«<ikV <rut 0|ii(h.>mi«»lly Kt 
intcn-a1^ it JH not unlikely that ccrtHin sixirndk^ di«ifMCfl t^o a roLcKir 
of ilie plnj^TM rhunider. 

Sporttdic <|iF^uu<^« fire fouiirl to diftVr fpmn each other in their 

xymploiii^ dourw. UtTiiinntloii ; &iid in tJtr <*rf^n« wliiHi iUc} nfft^rt. A 
jiiirl wnsU^H (ulropby), i>r giTiw« toi> Urf^ (hypr-HroTdiy) ; t* iRAi«tMl by 
II »cw fommtioii (cituMiioiiuif nii'laiiom^), or iti irritiihTl aii<l dfstrored 
by A morbid dc^^osit ((Hbrn*lr+), Tin? pht^rtomi^nn of inflnmniMhonp 
bn^niorrhii^^i^ ilriTpny, luvniflt-iUlon, .^^'"t, rhtTuiiinibni, dbdvtps. uiitrk 
diHtincl ■ii'wic^. A;pMTulho Unly \n t\n a^^i'cgitlc of i>rg"HJ*innd t<yMcin»T 
rtcb of which iirrfurra.* il* officii dr^pumtply, IhiI iti ringtilnr bumionj 
vrlh llie ivItoItT frjune: Hie oij-ans aud functii>»± thea form ;tuother 
ground of Hubdiv]^i>n ; and m inftninniMioiL^i uf Ihi* hrAiii, of Ihtr bingM* 
ntid of iIk' ki«liicj^% piv'M'Dl ilIlTciviit (rai:i» of »yiaj>louiAt tlivy hiv 
coikMiibtrvxl «op«nktc *ik-^(». Tiro or thrv«r ditpospfl, lu tbiiiiditiifigiit^h^l, 
Tiiiiy (*(>^xfst ; tXwy givo place one to Hie oilier, ran iiHo rArioii?* nnn- 
|i1icJitioi]j4, jind pn^cnl trr^^lj\rilic--s nhioh xocneLimf-* render ihir 
d»tj^Eio»ia (tifflcnll« Ititt thU (IOP0 nut onlinArily hAj>pen. If Ibe nnturo 
oV .-■ diwn^<T '»o ni>l dclecird •! onct? hr » pnir(ifc<l oyr, it* hutory, 
cnitu^, and tiffin inn Iron dimiHrfr thf oTv*riiril^.* Palliolo^oul nnutomy, 
cbemititi'V, tlif wtethowopc, nnd pTh<'r iuftlrumciitji of luvcttl^uion, hare 
grr.itly WiliUilitl ihr analy?iift uf dioeoT^e^. Tb«y httTo leil lo ilie 
fbrninMon of new fii)ocic*, and to ibc mon- iH-i'iimti^ dcflnitJon of known 

awi-KV; llipy bnvc also «ho<tirti tbnt Hymptotnt of ilio name of^nnto 
trmtioD WL^nj ofieit mistaken by the ear\y vrltrra for distinct diflPAses. 
Stiiivn;£i^ dc^vribfHl '10t1 g^nr-Hh and iMniimemb1» iipr^ii*?^ of diMBMS In 
tiH Xo^o^> Tbo intcrmiii^Me catalogue Aitpeairs to have appalled 
M. de Kntu-, who L'xc1attni<, in bi!< i<ulo^- of Sniivii^^ Qnt/ ntmhr^ 
prodi^fi^ttr trrtttft'mit / TIhi gviwru, in C\iTk*t)'K Notolof^, A&ionnt U> 
151: <jGod hw 137 genera m hU NoToki^, awt 490 8pecie»i, l^dcs 
vHricTtii*^ Kxrliinivi' of mniroi-iiiAtjons the (tpei'ieii nTtiuunt lo ^<j5, of 
wliicb 731 niny, por1iap», be falnl at one time or nnothn-. The iliwaaiy 
enoiiifTmlol in the first fjomkii Uitb ol' Mortality did not eA^*r<tI 
65 in iiutnber; 190 f>ceiir in |1te Hill of Xffirlnlitv fur i^iiljti1r1|ihiii 

7'hr extcid to whicb the mialyinH of divnM^ i* carrinl mtiU 
I u\ym drciiEDSliinecH : mid fi>r f<1afiHlicA] ]»(trpof!>ea, altlioiiicl: Lbv 


[part IV. 

inilu'Munllly of tlio UtaU i^lioulil, lu lor tio |>ftH&iM<\ lui jm^'srrv^l, the 
<Ii!<.tii](^tion» imiHt not Ihi loo E^tibtlt? «jr too Hue, othtrrwirw then- ^ill Uf 
infivv ilUiiiicihns Id th<:^ lAlilo^f thsn in itio oH;*SjljiI olii^erviifioii^. Ami 
lliiii »li(MiUI iiCTt'i^r tic; foi* wlicii t^ro or ihr»'^ tlUni.-H'-* iir»t cfnifoumlitL 
liyaiiy (r<ni-<idonibk' nunibtT of oljservur-% it is f^'lli^r, (i]lhnii*rl» tli<*y mny 
Iw ilifclinffnishii'*! by "llu-ri*, In rc»fi*r tlu-m lo one liea<i in n titutir^lical 
iMw 'Xlw beuvE, for inst;in<v, b liahlo lo wventi f»nri» of iliMni^c ; il 
iji&y lir t'tilnr^lf H-fkMt-nl, iilri-rudril, iIiIhutiI, ji*i»nurKxl, vr vasiticd ; Hh 
vulvi'ii muy 1)o ilpKlrmyu*] or ci^nlrnrli-J i iitf nclion may Ite imftnirocl In 
vdrioiiH nhyFJ. Thi:' prnc1(iioni.'r anii thg ^eienHiic u'Hler einWvoiir Ici 
Hoi/c kII tlu-SL*c|iHt[ii<-'liorM 1 ImL lu tlii< pn.-4'iit atjilr uf nicitk'ino iminy 
hi*art diwft^c* »rc ii*^(*<^s*nrily <'onfoiin<K'*l, i^o Ihal it Jh usi'kfts ic> itepnnitv 
them 111 n fabulnmujilyBi^. — ^IH Amiu«t itcporr, p\-t. «3-!)2.) 

Heffutrction of Vausrs t^" Ihath ; Defects tutd Imp^rfrctioint, — 
H^Ki'^UTrd rallies of ilcdlh iliv nubjoct to two kifid* of inijHjifL^ciiun, 
tvbk'li II ih TK^rc-vdtry to (tiuttfiguiHTi. 

Tiic fir^t 1* (hi? ci»iiw(|iK'm'f' ul 1 luMmiHTfcrtion of iiicilieal 8ciL-inw 
][r<<-lf, uml will only ilimiimh a^ Ihnt scieniH' ;ii.lvaitf.TH. And ibt* «><K>n(L 
nrw's fiom Iht* iiuiwHci^L pnulk-nl A(>plirniinri of r'Ki:«itHig iripncc : only 
n (Mtii ion of tl]<.^ ^>0|»iltaTlo]| 1ut?< ibo julvniilii^v of conanlEiu;; Ihc monl 
xLilfLi] pbyiicMim* or Mirgmn* of iht* <!n.v, who niv foiiv<>r.4n.nt with lln? 
]K'Wt»t cl]M:iivvric^ in phvAitT ; niid m tnt- rvinoti-r pnrr» of Wdlc^, hji 
well itA in »oiu(* Kn^li^li roiinEit^^ thr mi^dicjil in»n livt?8 no renialu 
a* to b<* «lTsululfly Ih-vouU tlie rwich of bir;;it immlier-H of iho ptoplc; 
niuny youn^ «bi1(lrc»T uinny lunjc Afflicted im.'" »ii<l ivoTn'.*n, innny o|i| 
jinopl^. iliir without bring stvii for wii'k* hc^foi-fi di'jiTli liy ii Mirj^-Jiii. 
Muny nii'ii dii.' of liernifl, mAny wothoii in chiliUied, wbu iiii;£lLl In* Mivnl 
by Hiu-giojil >ki]l. Vut tlic nunlmil lUtL-mUno.- of ibo po|>nlHlion i^, 1 
1>«bt*VL\ 1jcL[v.-r hi Llii^lniu] tb»n It h hi miy utht'r PflHUi of Ktiro|H^; iin<I 
tlin poor Ijiw (\txti mxieh iit e\t«ud it* lulvnntflgoB to tJm low^nt clu^^"-", 
WUcn? .'urp'Oiir' lire not t'mi]*{ In iilt<>mlunt'i" on lh<? fi<^k thc^y hIioiiM 
b« siipplieH in some wny; iinil if tfiij^ wcrr done, science laiglit wcU 
be timployoJ to im|uir(- iiktothecuuM^ of dc-utb-^ wliicli it Um\ L-oduuvourcd 
U) proTOoi, 

To nwitmo t tbousnndH of deMthn uccur wltliont tiny wTvotific iaqiiiry 
into till! cnvati of drnth ; jiiid hi tlioUKanda of i^lh^:x■ c'Jheea niL-dicAl miciioo 
Books in Tftiii Xq nin-nvcl the mystery whicJi pnxhrouds the extinction 
ol Itfo, 

Tliy uoruufT (^l«u nimply rrliinir* "nnlnrnl i?i\fcth," A;* one of thn 
gtvnt f^nds of Go\~i<rEinirnt in tho |)rnUH*tioii of tif(>, ini|nLry, howcvor, 
in Bucb e&hQs IS not >vithnut it« n»\ im Iho nej^ulivo fiudm<{ of ii jury is 
n ^tnliM'purlimi lu tliv; publico mind, und ^iifTin-Tt Koiiirtimi'H to n-tii:vc thn 
hmo^'eid fi'om ^-niipirion, \l rhc snnic liino ii oAuri ibrlor^ ititi teiuptetl 
ninjt from crimes which he* feuls urv^ liUHy i*> he iJimvovrrcd. 

In iUti iiirhi^HL djiwri of iIil' iiution tin- initiiri-d into tlio 
c&Ub'^ of dwth with a view to discovery and piwtntion, Tho prolrr'tion 
fti VtU* vnrt iL fniidarnchUil priucijih- of tliiir l;m>L, Ic wuh h^ much nn 
object of tlirir pkrhiiral ur^Liniziilion ils nuUooal di-fciicL' (ir ^VEl^ And 
titn lUuul bodv^ il y-'ivi \mU\. (.-ullotl fur thL< coroiit'r'ti inr^utrtJl whi-ncvL-r 
lU'ulh WHH pndih'ii or violent or in prison ; i\mi is, whenever il was tlii* 
rcsull, or ap[)cjuvd lo ht* lUv n-MiU, of amy disco vt'm'dc rjiijsi.\ The 
plik^ncTf of Lilt! vixi.oenlh century [iroTed thiU hnniuii life Is ex|jor»ed lo 
invtaiblts viioiniort njorc dcitdly than the medianical forct^A c>f nAture, 
tbo ferocity of finimnlc, or th^* lunlignitv of uuinghiy^rs : a\u\ towards 
the end of Qnc€ii KlizHbelli'^ raign Iho. I^^ondon BiIIm of MoiUlity were 
ComniC(iC(*d (1502). It wns \iATi of tliu gcncml uu^JLiun'^ of ht-r Mv 
government, hy which ab^trnoijn of burinlj^, Imptisms, and rnurringcs 



weru illriH<u.'i.1 to Uti ^ompiW in eu'li |kh ihli i anil |icTiwnK wore Hf^tniiiinl 
to vir-tv llw lKHlic« i>t' nil i\\nt. flivil ftcfnii; lh(*y troix* Mitfc^rixt 1o bo 
burjoj* Ati-1 lo rer'iiy of wli:iit iirolirklfk' iri-it'n^ uaLcU iciiliv-iilual ilivJ. in 
7<tMtvnic'iilf< of whiali U n^t^^ th^t ihitT of iht? minL-<U*r in iiinki*. a vrtx.-kly 
n-ttirn. Th<f <frtnt1w 1>v pUi^iu nmL by nil r>lh<<k' ilioivi^t^ jji l\n* iic^iv^nfo 

wei'0 piiblinhoil in llw I/>m)oik billp* <o o-irly n* 16(K); am*! in li>2^ Ibe 
MTvi'ml (yiaiiiiUii'B wi^rt* r**t furtli WL-ckly- Gnitint ];ivr* ji Ly>m|i!<'t« 
return for Iho j'<*flr 10^2 of (li.* cniMi* of l',o^ iknrfiK rn J.on'for*, 
whrreuf H wuro of tbt' jiIii);»il-,* II*? ^^y^, ilmi iliiMi;*h not publMln-J, 
" lhi> originHl *>fi|r1fti4 In lb*> I Snlf-hnrtkii wi^'iv* ns <»vrtrf i» ibi* wty fiml 
*' ytinr uh Co jtlt purl ki:uliiT> ii--i ni>w : nnd ibc xiH^cifyinjt of ciutunllu^ nuiJ 
*' di«e4i8e8 ujis probably more/' 

Gnujiii ibus iteseiibeii iho mecbftniMO by wliicli tbe oltdorTAUoiat iu 
tJuH r€riLiirkab1o »oric*< of TnUcfl wore foUcuUd :— * 

** Whm niiy on< flir*, ihnn, f-ilhiT >^y lnlLiii|* r>r rifiRitiff of a Iwll. or Ijr hucttliTlW 
of A jrravu iif I hi; trxMir, tllv miJii* U ViiDwii in ihn mirrh«-rf, roirOpOndiD^ wilS 

'* Tlir AivjrrArrA )ii-ti'iiii"ii (wlin hrr EinrErnf innlrdiiri Htt-tirn tit thvtr nt^-^t.-^ rr^mr 
(i> tlir ptAC>* *f hiT*^ tliir (Iru^I cc-rpfliT Spa, uml hy vinr af thr tnvr, aikI hi ollivr 
I'luiuiriet, ilii-j rxaiitliiv hy wlm tUarine of vittnithy tUi- cori»!*t-' <liixl, flrn-Eipiiii iXwy 
riijkki^ ihctr r(>|>on lo Ihi^ pntUh vUtk. nnd lie. i^vcrv Jhi-^'Iiiv iii^lir, i-Arri('« In an 
A>,'coiii|it or ftU the htiriaJt nnil chriiTi^aingv hn(^pi-iiini; tJial iTT<ek t^i rhc Clerk i>f llio 
tLill» 4.>u WfdDT«Lkf IIh? ^iicrdJ ii(-aom|>l l» iiiadp ujr A\i*t \>r\iiU^y jiiiil iiii 

Tljurtfbijf' published nnJ di^p^^r^cd to ihc icvcnii fumUit?c wbo will |jny four tbiltiii^ 
jirr j'riiHfii for il. ' 

Grniiiil il]M!Li?<H<-fi tbi* vjiJue of ibf billf*, Jin4 alio w* what •* i-onvctinn* 
" U|>wu lliv, |trrhJtpe>« I^tornrifH ami <:«ivlr:» jr*/jiYArc,i" icjiyiiV' wtiro 
rvqiiirtrl; flt the wuuv limo Ii« wiy*, ai *• mii&y of tbccuauullioj woro 
" but tualUT ai seiisci" the seardLCTV n-jiorli^ miiiJic bo MiHlf.'iinit tu 
»ii(?h r4u«c9. In mnny of iW- more intri<-ji1i,* <u«« "thr JNvirrj&tf^M ara 
^* able to reporl tbf ojitnion of \\\^ ph^iiciav, wlio ivos iviih Hie palienl, 
'* n.f tlit^y rucolvu llw Miinc froiu tbc friondn trf |ht< dofiiiicl ;'^ uiid in 
v<*ry niurty <rii>M*?i, *<ueb »■> drowning, vriiiitl-pox, drup-iy, rnUing «<'kiK-ijtr 
|ui1^, ignc, rii-kcU. tbcir own scn*os wor<r, in biw opinion, sutlicieni. 

^Uiiy of GrminVs judfnou4oba«rv»ti(jndoa lb<.-cnHu»ltie0 of ibe bilU 
srr «pplionblR t<> iho ri*|>orti;d rjunmltic-H of the n^niotiT^t |inj't4 of t^o 
country ta ibt.^ prOMUiil dny j for Mrmc ili^tricfa elilj represent Ihc 
ij^oranov of tbo oititit of h^jw gon<j by. And (trniint wa*i <r**enli«Ily 
n>chi, for there tail b« no doubt of the raloe of evi^i tba im;H*rfiH;t 
report* of ii*€W in Ibc mrly billa diroclly concrrning llio life and denlh 
of Kn|;li.-(|iiue». Tht-y Imd un tb^m in (iraiiiii'-* IhioIc iJii' upproviD); 
»tAEn|> <'f tU»> Etoyal Socioty. Syd^<ti!iAia, it ijm 4Tvi<l<.^rie, Jin<i ibi^ Loiidou 
bJlU 1>eforL* him in aTiiing bU Lniperi^hjtbk cx>mm?nLkilrN. Arbitthuct 
u?tefl tbetn iii an ai'^meiii on Divine Providence Aiid in the inl^iT^din 
vl' iiionibly.t ili.dK.Tdc<n in a inuatiTly pnjH'r iJInritnit'il the uhc of th« 
wcvkly ob»e( iHlionrTf mii<) il^diK^^l from (ht'tii au itiipurliiiil law.J 
Sinipton iLnd IViuo roHsinu-lfsl lifn tjjIdcsL fr*>m tbo Ixmfloti bilU. 

The |«ifijib el«rk> of Lt^nJon deflstvc our ;cmtiLudv for ibvir |iiT«?- 
vortnco in |mtr]i.<t1iing ibe till,% nhich tlin citi/^Ti* took in u*^^k]y W 
*" no other rca>>i>ii '* tLialCvntuni conki diHeort-r ttiaii curioT^ity liT>piii 

* Xfttuml >od polilLONi ohacmitionA upon the London Hill* of Btorutity. Hy 
VapE- Jofan Ghiiini, Fclf^v of Hw ItoyiU Socii^lf . 'l%h.-»doy. June VU, iSd^. At a 
■aetfingof ^ Conriril of lhi« Uo^nl Sot-irtv nrd^rrd xn Sc (iHutiNi. %t\\ v^ T676, 

t An •Tgamcui f<rr Divuk- l*rovideuc« taken fruui tki.- coiifianl n^uUriir in Ihc 
hirtht iif ttAh 9cx<H. Vij Dr, John Arhnthnot, TTHith. i^f Itoyii] ^oi^Luiy. Vul. xxt'xu 
|K TA< Itr hhiiw^ hj thr l>imtnii IuIIm thai mitW iklvn)i i-i4*r#l frninW m dm 
vc&tlj btfth*, Init lliiil riti*nj»t ii^c^iil^-urh nmkr a f.t\^»\ fiav»o Ainijuj nriilvL Ilo 
cuiictiuLcn Uiiii " |Ni]i;;nnij 1^ rdninrj to iho Iaat of tindint jin-l jii»lii:0- 

t ^*iY Tpftii«no« itf C^ikl npiiii HfoJik^ H>- W, Hthrrd^Ti, jmiim; M-b.. Vt\\L 

Traiu^iTve. p. s:g. 

iucretJS« mill ilGcr«ad« of burLiln or thti^ oagu&ltJefi, '^no M tb«y uilj(bt 
** tuk« lite lUktnc u a text to Uilk iinoji tn llio m-xl c>mpuny ; " oDd 
in itir |>Liif>utr'timt^ '^llutl t\i llio licn ujif^ht jud^* of tliu un»:wiitj of 
** lli^ir muovftl^ nitd that li-mlcnncEi miglil coi\jcoiuro wbut doing* tboy 
" woi-c! lik<! l4> ImvtT ill Ibi^ir rwpvtrlivij diMJmjp^*' Sicnilnr bill* wurc 
Comin^DCod in ^omc oltior l^nglii^h mid contiocnlsl citMs, but th«j wure 
iillf>wt!(l !<i *\n)]\ U-aviu^ tliL' auiitftt uK^om^leio. 

Wiik^ mciJicaL MttTiicir ailvmicod, ibc vrccLty bilh iviOHLnotl VHiHUoiiBry i 
Ihi'ir inlt-rL»t wiu not kppl lip by i^njplimiii oL" plu^^iitt; Diuvntt^rh* 
buifuU wen' not incln*ioil; and tbo cl«rk8 of many [-iirislieM uwid*^ no 
IxHiirnjs or only 1[LIuI<; vJ^cm ii^iQipiliu'ly. Aiul cvru t^ht^ii conipU'Lo, Ihc 
h\\\b ;;u^o iicj iLjiui'iJijitioD ubout iTic |io[)UtuLkLia of tli« lowoD &ud couniiea 
ot'tlir wLok kiii^iloiit, 

h wns ot([y iij 1^117, live ymnt iiflPl" llii? Iu-hI r|)kkmii' ut cliolom, that 
under llic liciftatrnliou Act provision wim iiihulc for llic iu'jLJry into tite 
eaiiM! uf tic*ibrt/ c^'^iry jhthoij'ti di-iith* 'I'lje vnUiinu of lbi< itcJicduli^ 
Ikvadrd " U^u^tT uf Uejitli" wan iftiicHlHccd In tliu IIuum- of l^rdii. 
Tlitru linv^j then hIqijo July 1st, 1837, been t*o kindfl of im^m^fif* into 
thv CHTL'«," ofdojilli, — ibc (.'oroiier's Jiiiucat ami Itt^iaUuiiuii Inquiry. 

The Utter roriwuro n|>iM!jiiii U) lirtw U-^n lookt^I upon hk cxf>eri- 
ntcnUl. Theru was >io tjuw of ih*^ \Kniy, uo nrmngt-nieTil for obLiimng 
evKloiii'Cr in> mui-hincry for instituting im^iriry; mid where (lit-i^^ Imd 
iMTti no mvdk'nl Htti'ndanl^ or wli<<iv chi? Di<.*[]jcrd ntivtidant r^fiitt*<[ to 
supply the itiformatioti in hiFi jKWfitMftiion, uo mcAns of gelling the 
rt<(jniro4l focLi, Kkcvpt by making tliiT modiad mnn llic Ii>^u1 inrormant. 
Till* imj^erfect iuformatioti of oornnrrw wa* oxin'cs^il in i^e, 
VA^uc, nnticjualcd langunf:;!?, unit yms \i:m rtatiadkKtfny ihin Ihiit nuppJicd 
fivfii otluT HOurw**. Tho boadM of (h#^ nn:'<lu'«l i)Ti>ff»**iion ^niipoitvil 
ihv IVsiilrur Cienoml'*' <'fl'ort? to ovvrcomu Uk- lirst diffumliit'tt; you 
ciri-ulated nicdii^nl certif>0Alo books villi u Xot^oUtify freelv mnoiif; Ibu 
pri>fi<^loti idl ovci' Iho coiitilry. You tuMiVR.*t'd ivroin^r*, iukI i*lnt*r rhc 
offioc bru btvn atrongtlit^nott Uy tbo Act nulboriBin^ Uic payment of 
□it>diea) vitnci^es, tboir information ib inncb mon> TaluaUe ihau it ever 
w>w liufurr. 'ihe rc-'^iilt {% upntu'cnt >ii tbc* nrtnnm of llio presicnt ycni'. 
Ycu £iJC(^ee<te<I lix pruvidm^ m medical men rri.-<]uciit Hub^itute^s for 
unin^irurtcd jurymon nnd "findont mat ro n v ?i worn.*' I'mhrr tbt; |nv-M(Mit 
tutminiatmiivo jLiTongDmciilii tittlt* funbi-r pi'ogn.-R" emu 1k> mudtr. 

Tt is TioturicuM thai tbe registration of the rAnn.- of death in iu 
piv»ort form liiiH <-Q[itribut'<d lu 1>nng crimt' to li;{1it, nud hmi fjicitituUHt 
ibfl conviction of the RiiiUy. The trinU of I'lUmcr, I'ntchard, aud 
other rriiniimln nfloid illtj.itrntEonn- tfUoiigb Uoa tKvn donr ilnvo ibo 
piu«ing of the Ri'glfllnifion Ael to OHlJibliwh tb<* iitHify of general inquiry 
into tl»c Cflusc« ol nil dcnths, nnd to juj<lify the employment of the 
iiuLcbtuery ncee^jun'y (o make the ini|Li]ry ax compleCu mm |fWHible for 
Hccuniey of riicord, lor prtjiccliott of life, and h'V the furtlierrtncc of 
inv«)i<r'<d science. 

U will \mi bonifT in mind thttt tlie eoi'oner nnd hla jury eAn only 
(Hiitduct the inquiry on view of the Wly (wiper vbiim corporis) j by the 
flrvt feUaulc (4 Kil ]. 4lut. 2. hX>. ISff!) it is enacted, that on being 
commimded by the KiTig's haihiT or othur hoiie^st moD of tbc country 
tli« coi-otci' oi' out Lord tliu Kiaf; *' aAh// y^ to ihc ri.kii¥A %chcrc any 
" tr stain, or tmttl^nijf dfttd or \Donnticd * * « gmd flhall fortlw 
'* with <:ommand four of tbo next, townn, or tixv^ or ntx, lo appear Move 
*• hint in such n pliK*o»" Tho coroner inijiiii^v! upon ooUi, mid his 
information wa» ba^cd n])i>n uetnul e^JuuinitiLou of tbi^ body, the pluce, 
avid lUc KurfouiidinK |'i-ri'<rut, Tbi.* -vurchcr:i uf tbc I^nndop bilU moro 
ftlM> iDAtmctcd '"to rrpuir lo '/w ^/cn^e ttjAcrnf tbo d«-iul coqise 1ic». and 



^' diPcaAO or cflMiulty il^'fitlj wil« ciluni^iI." Thn rogixtry of tmruil tn ilir 
KM*l>|iiih»l (liui^li i? ji |jiibU<? M't ; the cofEu niid Bt-r«rKt w^tncanp* w 

plft^^ <}f tIcfttJi L* loctL Anil in a large city Anytiorly mny 1>t' buri^cL 
tiEnli!r aiiy name. Bj iho Coil** Napoleot* lh*r KegtBlrnr \s bc-un'l f<i *f^ 
/Ar hotiut '^nd To rcgiHUT the iXvtiilx on itu; infurninlioix iif twi> nK-ii of 
full ftg^ (521), anJ nitlimil hia c(irtilioAt4> iW Ixxlj enrtnot to intc^rYCil. 
(Ooife Civil, LiTTP \. tit. L «. 77.) 

K. 77. ** Autiino iiihiumtion oe aera fnite ftaoj* uiio ftulori*a!ion, *ur 
pnpk*r libra cl HinM fmin, »lo ri>(ficicp il<' IVUI civil, qui tio poiirnt l» 
(tt'livmr qu'ajir^ tt^ir<a iriui-ijjoitL- auprf^B ite l» ]H.-rw>nDi" liiVt'ioe, pour 

ens pivxH* par l^'H n'gli'mtns (Ir poliop." S»t nl?wi *. .'i7. 

Should iLiiy HL{{iii^ of iloath by violeni^ be tlL^oovenxl, or any MifipicioiH 
btr Ar(iii!tf»ilf tlu* body can onlj tw buri<-d hftcr tbo 4*irrumtUki)cuA oC the 
il«htti liAiy^ IwGii iiii.|uirt^l into nnit reported ou l>7 & pQlk« ofllcc*r, nid«d 
by ft phyaioinn nr nnrgAon, (a. 81<) 

tbiti i4 Hii^ spirit of tliD re{[ii4(t-Atioii kw on tbo mnllnpnv. The 
tnqiector of the d*flnl in Aufitrin is cnIM TotUuffi^hautf. In HniwwlH 
ooticv of every dcwth fa w-nt to the Town Hull, with ibe addn*?^ nud 
A tncdionl iuHpc<^tor Im|uir08 tnio llic ci ret ini Muck crfi aiid ir^btlt^rji ci^ry 

Xa &i>;lan(J, tihd«r tho Act 6^7 Will, 4. c. HO. <toulb repiHtration is 
iL fLim|>i(Ti- jimcfHTu A ptritini vrfstpt %i tlic dcAtb, or in ttitendaiia! 
dnrhiff i/if iiitt i/inc»s, of ibo doi^Jiwod jiersoii, ^-ocrt 1i> or f^cnd"* ftfr liio 
Hoj^LHirm- of lUa di>lrl<'t in \«)iirh tho JoaEh hnppfliiii, jcivcii tb^f lyv^iiiiilo 
iiif^mitli<Lii,| Diul Mga-4 tJie n.'-;;Li(1er liook a^ thi- infonuatLl etib^r ta 
wntiLii? or by murk. 'ITi* ijnalilU'iition iiiiplic** thjit Itio inJbrmaut han 
Mcn llie d«vivv^Hl pi>rw>n ftli\** dui-iti^ Ibe la.i1 illiieti^ but beyond Ihftt 
ihero M no n'**lrlclii>ti Iri ibe act lU" Ui r/ipatfiy, cbantcur, fM*x, w n^. 

Tbft infonmnnt and tbo Hpffij»lrnr are luninlly aloae fluting tbr* net «f 
rcKivtratiijn ; no nitness in rcitmred; and. If fin-^t<at, no wJtn«^fi is 
allowed to txgu ibo book.l If tl»T jwrsonit qiinlilinl l» give infonnnlioiii 
do not come to Ibo R«(;i«(r:tr, bi^ i* <lirecierf lo go lo Ibc hou^ wberc 
Ibr d«iili occurriMT, '* oi" trArr^vr wacb |>crf*on t/natijSni to give iafDrmH" 
" lion can be found, and lu^k for it.*' Ulif^n fnund. iafftmiantn '^by 
** T«f lAn] to mvo mformatioHf and to sijni the register book?!, rvndfT 
" thdiuselvGii Tiabte to be mdicleLl for a nki«d«mcanor/* The imlncpmcnt 
to txkkf tbr> initiative turn« on tiw* of tb(< Ro^ixlnir's <^-rtilicv[e, wbk'b 
givi'ii ikft^r rc;^^trJi1 ion is ikiifb^rily ?or (ti« burird of tbe boily. Any 
person burring a dead tfody wiLhoul tlkc cerlificate of tbr Ki-jiiAlr>r or 
llwf C*"roni*r, and n(*glw*tiiiji to ^ive notitre of l\w burial wilhiu ^even 
itajv, incwra a penalty not cxcoivlioti 10/, for every wtch olfencc. 

Befcivl ration m tbn^ iHTfihrniFHl without any L-xpontte U> tbe jmrtins 
and with nn Ijttlo trouble and i^iipenhH- to Mh' piibTE<i a^ posnlblo. Copie* 
of the culrJc* in the rogirti^r bookii mndo hy ibr Kegiiitran«, and vonllt'd 
^fc^-^^^^^^— ■ — - — * 

* EduIt one mfrmiii£t ^fttr Ih^* nnauok fAccs in vhioh thn Di^lfl^mt no much 
^Ufhtt i Aooomputiod Dr. Vpniralvn ou fiiii f-klj^rjiui^ itt ih« cdumb^n of Ihfl 
d«Ad ftfiittcred oTfir iho city. lUiJ it «aji a *«ry atriking and taricd tbcciaolr. At 
one hour mc MimhI in ibo ml>l*1 oi* llglit* luid inctiuc bv tbc boily of a lady of nrnkj 
■f un(,ihcf in a. wt«ti?li(Nl iitiiu 1jy thv H;or|i*o ^pf fc farhor of a imiily nf ^Itfu^^in^ 
children, oad dnallT, idUr travtniBfT mniij Mmt«, fiaifhed oar courw al ili« 
Lyinfl:-in-lloi|iiral ~ tie irifinind mtti tlif cneaniciAricei aad caaita ofoTtry Atwh. 

f Id J+fnidf 1^ lilt* ijiinhnAl irtfiinminu A* alwi' rlt'vrtihHfl. it i* iTwnmhpni on tbff 
otmpifr of /A-' Aoiiw to ^-m- inf^rnijiljmi, nfxn h"iii;r fei|iie<TM (i> lo do by the 
ReoiMnir. iH thi* (Hxiijiivriidi-fiih nii miiinu- tuny Ih' tin- mfuriuaui, 

f S«H IttfguUtioa far Ihitin <■( It^iH^mr^ aiul Ad d Ik T WIB. 4 e. Bfl. IMA, 

222 [part IV, 

byn w Siif err nt*n dent Re^tTtli'arsp are mtai every Uiree moritbs la Uia 
G<-ii<iral Ho;;if>tct' OfTioo, whcitf Itioy hcI'v« fbr ftlfttiailcAl uiiij ^^tbor 
imtinrtmit |iiir|>f)J4*-x A (vrlitW copy iifnu enlry, ifttltll nt Xhr Cfcnfrti] 
Ri^^idtei' Ol^cc, mys lh« Act, Hhnll \m iccoired 00 evidcnr^ of lii« 
rIojktJi to which ihp shniv relnk^ST M^itbout any further or Dthr^r proof of 

>dUch 4-lltl^. 

Tbo Ko^Ulrnr?, n|tpointe<l gen? mlly hv ]toar<tii of (tiLnr-lifkiiK, Itr-foii* 
lb<-ir ji|)(M>immL'[it is (x>nfiriiitMj. answer quoHion^ in wrilin^f. jim) tbrir 
(KHTipelewy it prorwl by iliplr co|iie^ «Tnl Ui ibv officf, and by ilie 
»iai<^ of Cbeir rogintttrw n'hioh are perio<li<-4ilIy examined by lna|Kn?(ors- 
l^ii' Rc^i^ti'iiiK Arc <b highly rripcotnhlc \tot\y of men of all ibv vAt'ioua 
oldK-^^s of sii^My. imrl a*i th«y uiv only pitM hjuhII Ct^t^ l\\i*y ar>> m-o^it- 
sttrily fii^TJi^^d iti olh«r pror^^oitfi, in troilo^, or in Komf- branch or 
olher (if irhlu^lry. 'llie wovk rt^qum's inteKrilJ. aivumc^y, Huiu^d ;<enM*, 
goixl v^i-itin^, tiiid dtiwi.' allrnfiou to /ill ihr iinnulr piovirtion^ o( tl»** 
Acl and af lUc U*'giiktioiisH Tlic tkricdl |Mirt of tlioir duly is cbivkc>l 
by ibt* lnK|hvIoi's. !iy l\u- SLijuTintondeiii-', "u*l by iho *^eniml !{*M^(inl 
lii^iwlmf'iit ; biH ibcH' i* nl ]>n*n:'nt n« mrdtinnf I'hrckin^' ibc rnKirtfreil 
Tuct^ or (<r ili'lt-nnirMu;* iht* ik'<;i-cc.^ of hccufncy with which iafm'inriiitH 
reporr mid Ri'giM.mi'* r4i*<nil ihc pitriiirulurs of I'litli cuiry, AVli^ro 
tho inroi-iunut J^ p*Lu<^ntod »i;il inl^-rL'uU-d, h'^ imhirnlly n-iids tH.-foio 
Mf>itiri;- ihe r'liiry, nud thus to some cxlonl du'cki^ tho woik. IJnfor- 
InnatHy it hjippon^ Ihut iii u kr^f^ pro|jortioii of t^uM-s the Infurmnnl:* 
*igti by A innrk, itiid ti« (hry tiiiinol ivritn tJipir naincv tbfy cikiiiint rffl4 
ibc rrcord whidi ibry ta^ti ulone 111 lliu |n^^"<fi!i^t of ihu ItL-^btrnr. 
Tlwy tiuiiiol check Ibe io<Hjril- This hiu* givfu «>o«'fth*t>^ri to <-nH^ of 
frniid wbidi conbL w^nrctly hftvu l>r<'ti nnlicipnlnl. In tlin emirw of 
Inuitfy-niiie yare, out of n liotly of St^OO uflioers four, for tho sako 
of Ui(* f.Utllm|£ (III ohf ry, iiisi-rli-Kl long ivrk'.H of ik-tilioiiH ftLlHirr* nf df^nllif 
whidi iH-vi.'t- oocuiii.-il> Tht^y iiivruioil all t\\c pnilk'^ilurs of hujiJn'd^ 
of tl«fttha. TliP ftr*l vwio wan tUnt of u iipf^tMrar of All SonU, Mnry- 
1oh(in(*, who died biforp the dititovery; ht* ^'rvi^l iinih-r n rnotl jicol4> 
S 11 pcrin tendon I I{4^gi>!ti!irH The Krcond chho Wiis timt of n Itegj^itrur 
tof How^ml Sueei Suh-di^'lrict, Liverpool, of rohfietiable conLiexioris 

wbu for ^oillioiifl <'ti(n«'« wim tlUiui^^cd, con%H'tcd of IrlouVt >iiul 
vnIon«>.i fo siv moidhti imprisonraont with hard lulNinr. 'J'liiwi Uvo 
CASes aoil aimllicr nt South Shieldn, nro icforrod lo in llic 9tb aud 
]*flh Annual Re|><trtri,* nnd tbi' roqnirtnl coirei^IioiiH ari^ mmU: in Ihc 
culcM 111! ions of tEiL* uiurtnlity of MuryldiuEie, of South .Shields, aud uf 
Livorjjf>oU This oftence, it nmy ho mnntioini^d, waa flr*t dii^tiEictly 
delincil in llie Forfieiy Acl of 18G1 (2-ilb ^ 2:db VL^nn), imdor 
which ihe wilful inf^enion of nny " f;iUfl ontry of aj^j* tn/ater vrlating 
*' lo unydealb" rcndi'i'ti tJio otTonder liAble, on conviction, lo peniLl 
poi'vilucle for life (rt. 30») ; yet a IlegtsLriir of Ilowddk, ivho Ix-j^jui 
rcgUt<.<ring tidlTliuua Milries nbout fen years Hgo, oontiniied the pnicli<^<? 
up to a recent datc^ under ihi? oye of his Snpcrintond^iit, and tubJecC 
to Ibe jierioUiciU I'lidtttUon of intdligeot Inspectors. The cau&ck of 
ijenfh were copleil, with slight vnrialionji, from medicnl cprHlicntcg^ nnd 
h\^ imfl^ioniy ioformftDt-i wero ixproeeiitc*! na <*ipniiig with murks, Thi* 
n mnn of onliiiary o^pucJty dni-ed and ivn^ nbl*^ u^ do, Ix-ojiU"!.- wliiN' 
ihci'o U n check on Iho hundwiiting and l\w Wm nf otttry, tboi'e in 
no check whj*tever on iho necurncy of reconl, or on tho veracity of 
loformnnt*. Tbc fjudlity of ?*igriiug with murks of i<iiigic mfunnanl:* 
totnptcd four m*>n into tbt* ooiomi««ioiA of thoito extnvonliuiLry eriinu for 

• SooR«port!X.»pp. 177 nud S3»-V. lUpon Xm^p* £94. 



ihe soke of flmoll mms or m'itH.'y. Tor ittonejr ilie bbbw ttrinlatls 
iiii-;lji, it iri to Ik: fcatcit, wirli tlii? Uopo of Inpunkjf before Hhttn^ liav* 

ill inFOU'UK'efi Autl aucccv?bioiip^. Fi4*t[tioii» i<iiffiL"4 ciii)iAri*iL-^8 aluiiMiout 
in(ititr^r%, ntiil thf^y wrru lii^E bnxi^ljt in light in tlii^ oflic>^ hy tht" 
vJiui'Lilaiicy of tbi* lebullH. Tlio Howdeii fruud Vitut ki'iil williin 
nnrrowor limiu i it wam 4is<<overv<| iltrou|fh Ihn clifr^iiinn 4»f a pnrl-'li 

It JA i^fiplorahlo that h :>ingle cjiw of fcliliouA ontry 1>/ si UvgiMnr, or 
of tleliberutt? fniuJ l>y {nronnmil^ ^ouEil bave ovc-umnj during twenty* 
fwteii yc-ufii but It Miu«t t>c liomr l<i mind tliAL fenr rcgl^trnrit unaiiig 
inuuy ihon^nrU, nnd few iurofnunU ninoiig nmny millionii L-Kpo««<l to 
toQi|>lftlio[i, liflvc- criiuiJkHlly Ful^ifioiL iLe i^ublio ii^eonU- Tlt<^ wilfitl 
ful'^illi-utionn art: inM^'nif^niitt in hiiinlor in 4*un][>jmM>n witli thr vi'mrf 
in 1 1,011,21^1 rmritson ih<^ t\etith i^gUtcrs, 

I huvc rci'crrc*! to sucU iJHcct* oi" Itc^^rotloo na vitiate the c\itlcnco 
thnt T^i^ reFii^l'^r' nflfifd iifVrrTing jirof JH'ty, niul Ili4« ii*^' (iT tlie rt>o<ii(h 
fur H'i«inlific intlnctinn. I bnvc m>w to refer lo llio im|H<rfrct 
»>eirtn'rly AtTi>rik-il t>y incunifJi'le il^ eoinfmriHl wtili otunpleie lOjfJFira* 
lion jLgjiJiiAl inurU^r nTulattr-ni|>l3( on lifo. Xlir fallowing tinuli wns ibim 
n*gistvn-(l : - 

" DM mil Jnm IMH at Wix (Mjiimingimr) WilliAin Con^Uablc, 
" a^cd HH yctiXfif labourc'r, decline (*'! iiiouIIjb), Xot ftrtifi^^ 

" X TJw tnnrk ofMnj-y FHiiil, |«vwiit Hi tjio ik-Htli, WiRp" 

TliiH wjiv Olio of lilt lC&«iox poi>KiiMn;:ii. TUt* man it vruH Mn^rvrjinU 
(liwovt-rc'il, Tin* |XjKsoni'il wllli iu>»'i»k' Uy M^ bflir-fiftirr Mftrj M'lyi 
ftgod 2i*» Sht* wnt iiio*l lit ('hnliiiNrui\l» founrl jtniJly, niiJ c^ti^cntc-l 

Thfi facilily of n^vi^lf^'^Hoii in ibii i-n."/ wny doi-ji not 4K-<onra;;e lh< 
criminals. 'Jlu^y go mi nitti e:i-L<:i1^r roiifliU'nciv Atnl ituH wufi onlv 
llie Iknt (li-covf^red ca^9 of a ««m's uf f^ioiiliLr tnurJi^i^ or Ituf^bfitiifa 
ittiit rItlMrcn IjV wIvca and cllifr^, vrlio coiiM mako thaW mnrk^ unit 
n<1iiiinUt(*r himi-iik* in tht* Kk^h^x vi11ii^<< of AVix, BratWii'Ul^ iCnmnny, 
l)o\rrroiirt, 'JVnJmf;, 'ITirn-iKr, KirUy, Mi*ilov, Great Oftkky, ami 
Ori'ul Hol]aii<L* Sir Jjitoen Graham in Iho Hcmne of Comiuon^ in 
*1njw lM>i, T^rerniijc tQ anothi>r scrim — tlit* Nurfolk ))oi?«ninvs, — uMi 
'^ Thf^rc wao rcmoTi to liotii*ru tliat in iho oonniy of Nvifolk no iwtxT 
'* ilisn twi^nty i<prf<on« hiul liiFfl from [>oi«on n<Tmin]f4errt1 by on^ 
" imiiviilnnt, amf in nttj\<' <jf tl<^ aiMw La-l an itKiucwl l>w>n livid," t 
miiy file other infitJim-cF.! Onr mitrrlcr sncfV'i*flfnlly rrgistrriNl ^vilhoiit 
tltiff^lton li'il ID £|i«- f^atnnifuiiun of inoiv niuixlt'ns ^nd nuinU'r be^imii^ 
opi<t<.'nji(^ Ky imilnlion. It jh [jn^baM** llml llii> iitimticr of »noh ca^va 

was eXA^i^rrafcH, hut thi< lerror ihcy itiiiiJtiiT jsi jn tUolf an 4:vil, and 
by critnrs of !he kind the coiiniry is disaonourw] tn tbo ejee uf llift 

* ThiM CMOf an vtti Umrrtbed 1u ili« Uxta tit a batri*itr ^a the MuniiDic 
Chroiiirlib April nOp IS49. 

f Id <vBe caw it luippeTit'd that Mr- tlEtchiiu, irhci itob ooroncr for Kf*-(cvrii and 
Pftrl* nf I.Lid^v. wa^ jiino ■ Itcglittnr of Pculfm [a TJucoIdi 11? DavflgritHl \Uc 
firiliitHtnf iwon> fbi whhJTjj^ Xo retain the tnCtcr office : — '* My object in dniring ta 
** rrtniti oAcd ii« nul foi Ihe ruiohimcblp t^ut btCAU^c 1 bsivc round it tu AMini me 
*' tMrntUlly In my ofloi« of con^Dcr. Dv iffi mcf^D^ of inforrnktinn ihrrv iDurdrrmt 
" ftnut ono for mmuhujcHter. have bocn trnOKporlM ; sod At 1hi< i>n*>«Dt tioiu two 
** laurdiTtr^H and oni^ nir fiiiTiibiijjUttTr nrp for vrinl nT tin- iii>il ]iuc«r«i rr«ni Mdj^ 

munlFrvM itJ unoim-t dUlric: iiiijEtrt liAvr r«ca(>«d, m the di-«tb« iui|rlLt liarr bocd 
n^inlcrcJ utiLboui U ccrtiflcitc. 

28i [r^irr tv, 

ThfMffT <l<4i)m ticriirrr*il in ccnauli^}' tlILui^vh nniong Igaoraul ])tH)bU% bin 
in iKtwrn llio 4bt'X!ttoii of crinio !« rttnil^r<vl In <7rriain omAm mndi iaocl* 
iliffiftik than it id in thp cnnntrj-, 'ITw* body can Ijo tiiirird in any 
rhiiHiyanl ftr Demelofy without ri It^;!!^!^!^^ cortjllcat**; mid tim 
clerpyrnnn or l.iirying officer, though Iwuinl to p\t^ Ihc K«giflriir nolici^ 
(^hicli lur xHrtPliinM foi'Krlfl), oaii onty fjitu Mick |j»rticuliLm »n ilio 
}i*rtit*M coniliirtin^ tlio fiini»rji1 ttiipply, Th<f notire^ if wrlllriTi, inAv ho 
Eutrlrcwcil to tli(^ wroii^: Kf^i-^triir, or be m> va^ii> or iit^rlmpji rrronoous 
tliat Uuf lt4)|;{«inLr of a Urge ilj«rnct, lik>* Ixlington in London, cAimut 
llnil t1ir> Iioii-*w in whioJi IliA dent!) oc(^itrre<], l!o<lieii hivt Mom^timc? 
rentovinL tinrt'gi stored to oibcr di-iri^s foi bijriul, nnd all irnot^^ of Ib^m 
lire Inttt. A^ nill-)Kii-n rlitldren ms^ not n^l»t-iV!d nt nil, niid iir«» bnrle<1 
viith little diirionlly.tUcnf EA H fUtodX t<im|ilAtion to inler t)ie bodic-< of 
children li\int; orly a short tim^ m vlilMiurn. Tltiii ojh^uh nikolher ^1e 
to crime, 

Bj ftTliHlding, ftM in Fmneo, xh<^ \>\itM of «ny Ixxly withrxit ibi? 
Hej^mtrnr'* ci^ittfii^fttA llic liittrr elus* of <*^'ilH will lin o1iviitN*d ; 
find nUhoiijfli iitooiivoiMoui.^ mitat oorjiAiotmlly ari>^rr from the ah^olntft 
proliiiiiiimi ot tlio hiriii] of tbr in t'l^r tilled deatt, tbnt inronv<>nienei> 
^•houl'I \w cueouiiTeivil for xhc Bulio of man;' njmut^iiRiLrlnjj udvitiiljiiri^ 

TTK-ri- in ani/thflr dofi^H hi tl«> Act : HUnt- old woiocti nnd nLf*o, tikii< 
lic^rmiL.*^ of oUt, live in Hfilitar)- dwellinK^ : in thcji bat ilJnoj^s 
lornilniUinx suddenly they Tnay liavo no person m AlteinlAiit^e, luid 
n<i M-iltios* pn\"icnl nt thdr d^'alli. In llie^e flftN?s lliL^r i^ no 
kfjnily i|iia1J|lod iufoniianU >Liid tlH> <lcjit)i3i too not rcj^intvi^d ; llit* 
canwii of di>ntJi rofnnin ior c^-**r unknown. Tb* *N»ronrr» nre uow 
|)nid by UxLnl vdnrkt*, luid In many co^-s^ of vEolent dcatlm tJji^y do not 
hold inqucBts, un1o»fl thi^y nn* Ivd to suapecl erimo, TIuti navt^ ttit? 
county ex[jense. but tt bna resulted in the alMoluto n<iji<-re£i8ti-Atioii of 

Siudi nre wmie of lIli^ def^^etrt by whioli ihr I'^f^Utrjition of thc» 
CAUsea of iloathe, and of tho Incl of <lonth tt^iclf, \h renUt-red Ii;m 
uitefui iHnn it ml^bt bo mmie for the imrposes of sicirinH., for snntlaiy 
ndminisiraUon, for cvltloncc ntKctiiig ».in;w*iiHionN ol" properly, and for 
Ihc protrction of IIfo> To riMnedy flicvio dcfoc(<«, amumluioutj* of tl^u 
A<?t nri' iTi|uiri.*d ; fjuniliiis niu-^I tiik^' oioro trouble to find iinidiliud 
iufonnant^, luid tlio country mu^t con^'nt to pny the ncoes^ory expenMO 
ol' hdlcr it]4]uiry. 

It it* tiuw ^uflk-icLit ti> MOJid to ibi' iTgiMer oflloi^ ono fiifoimauLt 
fkiich n^ n nurMT, iind ullhou^fb a mcJio^L t-et-tifioiklc la fuikt^d for, il 
131 not indispi^irtublo hy law, and ik often ni>t produced* TJmt It all 
the trouble fiimili*-* are pnt to in regifilfring Mn-ir d-mil; nnd i?ie 
Kc^idtrar ^eU a nhiiting from the pnoi' rale Tor rccordin-^, aud making 
vvpiOA (tf (h<< I'litiy to t>o trjiDnmiltod to tlic runtral oHicc. Tbe Sojiei- 
iiilendonl Ifc-gistrur gets 'XfK f(^r ^vKiiiniinjj; 1hi« eopy <if 1I14.- untry wifli 
lb<* original entry, Encli donth <roMf tho country Itoc/tttf jitfifc for 
regial ration, includiutr jMiy of ofljtt-rHT eost of books, ink, (*opjing, 
cttrtody of reoords (which il i" cipwrc^l will Inut for ctmiurlos), iadexiag, 
AnftJv±ln|^ --^lAtUtkcaltv, und ndmiiiiJ^trJktiuiip 

1%o iiii|niry intii l\w rviiiKi> nf li-iitli mtj^bt bi> mfuio Biiflieii>nt for nil 
iu Kreal and uurful pu^poM^J• hy a Mitnplr ixtirnsiou of the Bystoui of 
mNlif'jd ri-iliikateH wbicb vou TnIro<liic<Kl, and which has for many yorir!^ 
been In partial \jk*\ And hi*- I nni nut dinpoM^d, in imirAiion of rordgn 
pi'octiec, ti> ri^liniiUJEib tlii> pritu'iph- I'f nmli'U-noo in tbir moclicd 
iiltcndiii;U un fjunilio-i, I submit that biivin^ l>e«n In nttcudmiee up to 
Ibe datu of death, tbrir ri^rlitiaiti^H ^lionld pLiII t>t rvceiviHl, providvid 
they havt sren the dtvea^cd on the tfar/ of litaifi, or itavc s^n tkc i>otfy 


nnhftijaenti^ jor httntificfjUon. U \roulJ be uncl«<«iirablo 1o ©nforoe Uie 
||Ef4iii of the ccrltHcAtJS Ijy uiiy pt^ntilty ; luitl timlcr thiii arriLDj^i^^Jnciil Dio 
mcilic-a] alu-niinrU should rlinrgi* tlm fnuillj' n Pho iti prtiputfiou to liis 
orijjnur^- olinrg^tM Pitr t>niipi*r pntiunix Iho lN>or L»w moc]j<t«l offlow 
should lx> eutilloil for fbe ccrtideate of iU>alTi tu n U'V tivevl by tlu* 


Uri<l^r ihpfip HrcuiDAlant'^'A many deAtb^ wlucb nre now '^c^nilkil" 
would bo ^* unprrtifU^] ^ by mi^lit-Al nlt^rmlftjiiji, &«• lti<> Trlf mb* of out- 
pnfi(?nt?( of lioHpitnU niid dinpHiHiirir*, a« woti ivi orhri'v ofmi ^ot 
i?«]1]^oj)ios to which ihcv niv not I'Dtitied through the kiridiie£6 of ijie 
uiedioul oitiC(<P(, vtha JmM* ^ctmcliiurv Dti KnoAii^ of idf^rttilioAiion or 
Tifi'IilcAiion. In nil mch t^nseSt and hi €V4>ry i^dt««.' of death witboiit 
ti]odi(!&l alUukiiiULt^d up to Ch'^ dcita of dcnih In whJHi ibr- oirrtiflcAtc 
L-ould i\<tt lie oblujh^d iVoiii ti U'^uliy qunlifird nit^dicnl Blli^udniit, — ah 
ii]fin'm±tir, or ibr (MTiijurr of ilir Iioii*<\ or In bi« defmill nn iniiwlc, 
should be bound lo ^ivd nUiiv 1o a tiie<ti<iil o>H<'l-i- *pi'ciii|lj appoiuied 
Utf tlu? duty )ii i^u:h of ilic diHlrirui iif thi- khi^d^'Jii, TlitA r<^i>iruii&s% 
mc<iicai officer woiibl llior«tipi>n vItU tUr bi^dv* imd if oiU WAi cU^lU', 

and lulnailtoil of f^li^fitclory dot^irmlnnlioTi, «>>n<l hU i'nt?i1toAl coriifloAle 
«F llu^ proli»bh< cuum* of dcvtth bv ibr inforoiunt or hj^ ]h>k1 to the 
Itogi^ti'itr, H'Im> would upon it;* rvc<ri|it r^L^tei' thf> dentb. and i^^iie hin 
certtl^cikd^ for burial in (lie ii!«im1 ooursr. Tbc i-rt/itiratioit fHtilicot 
o/ff*vr wOTibl, if tbi* OR*i* u'»* i»nvidi*fi**il lit Any «ii4picion i>r olrtt'iirif j, 
wfuw his cri-rillcAl*MinrU nn iiii)ii<-4t ba<nK'<'h hold tir li-rnH^ilby Uib 
CormuT. wh<w* i[it[tiijy sbouhl by no nieAna Im> ?jiip^rHt<ile<L 'ilio 
rr^htfiifitoi /ufdiitif olfirrr 'hodld br nprcililly ipiu^trtod lo (HXidtJCt 
fto^t nrof/nn pxnminnlion, aod. oti being HiimnioiH-d, mipbt oppi.'ftr a^ ihu 
medioAl witn^vi a(. lIii< Iruiti^At. liy pi'Adiiiv hi« would iiix|nirf> Aptilud» 
in itkO invi^li^fnlion nf tli« otwcurvT cauMn of ^b^AFb, and in tbi* dHoctiou 
of i:i'i|j]i?<. Under this ej^cid et«Ty ilealli, ood lli« c-ausf^ of every 
drAlh, wotdd be ri^iiifli^t ; nnd iK>iH>ningH Ati<i criminnl alk-mplti itu Ibe 
tifv of ohildrrn or udulttf would b(< )tnf ftv\uviMt am thoy ^votdd vritli 
difflcnily c*cap<^ ifctw-lion, Kxpwlctl impunity wonld not invite mm or 
women into ihe oomuiiwUm of it<atf ill chlucfc And JiunuD lif« would 
be nucW a new mfrgitard, 

'Vhv H*^^lH\'Ui' ^Loubl itivAriabiy wi'itQ '^cvrtiOtfcl by " in Ida Rirgiaier 
Boole, Adding Ihi^ nnmo nnil lilk. And if out of th<* di*trif*t tho Addrout 
of tiio mcilicftt niti^mlnnl r>r of tltr i^;{i-dr(ilioa medimi officer, as th^ 
CASti may he. Tti« l^ifrtrar to lilo the cortilirnic^ hihJ u^ proiluctf 
thvtn for riammntioo with tlip (.-I'rlifml t^opK-n by I be Bitpcrinieiideiit 
lUrgislEar, wliij itxiiild ctrlify lln^ j^:cum<;r of tbo copied oDiry oi Um 

VttOltV^ 'ti tl^Afb. 

It woubl incr<^'«r ibf vnlor of tlie ovid^noe if ibe oertifyiujt phyiirtan 
hlukwif 8t^M ihc ertlry io tbr rf*gijtcr. But tlm would hfT a complica- 
tion; it wuuUI iiKrn'nsr' tbr i*xpenfte. |iEit« luucb trouble, sad produco 
dd»y, XI llut I da not propoAC it. U waa iriM in tho caat of llie 
covoHTi, Aud failrd' 

'riio AdvAulu^i-n of tho prop08<4] amend m^iits tatty Iw brioRy 
Hiiimenitcjl ; 

(J.) Thtt can ir of it4}at A vet»ih\ in aU cam*^ tie c(*riiA«^) by one pro- 
Aeeional witiuv^ri, Ami would Ih> rooordoil an corrM<tly lu U prmciiCKblt? in 
tb» proflont Mole of*c'wttcf- 

(2.) 'riie fACt that o given p^tKon dic^l nt n gh'cn place would b« 
BUoabMl by iho iufonnAnt ai At |ircjLeiiI, and U»e etuutin' wouU te 
ttuonnoiuly alrcugibvned by mii cdiii-alcil wiIik*^- Wbilc oo large a 
portion of our uiforrAnnia cannot even ivrilo thnr rinni«K, tliid U of 
gmt impDrlADCc. 

£261 t'*'^'"' ^*" 

(.1.) Sci^l munlrr* ftml nflcnipts imi lifV*, niiil ilKnlh" '*f rhiUJri'n, or 
«r 4il<i |if-<)|>U'i from iu'}^k-c"l. (i"*lil mivlj' <-Hcji[»t* clHiTtiirii i >b<'y wtMihl, 
<*tlii'i' lliiii;p< iMJiiit oqiiaK 1* lfl>" f(\v](i4>r>l than thoy hsvc boon in \io.^t 
liin^M. l,\\v nMuUl U'cutiK? mcirr ^riiix'- '11k* public >uliHtUiU% lik^ h 
Pi-ovldi^nce ^safching ovei' All, ^nauM oherifth the I'^'vorfncc of all cln.*«'j* 
for Uunmii lir<-. 

<iii thi- whiiU' erf tin* Hoiiontti refpsitra^ 

('>,) Mnch trnuMr wmiM Iv: nivivI to ihr |>nMi(>, wiko nrr iirtw put to 
^xpM]Hf in f:f»lliii^ coirulioriktivt.' t'eriilii-'nies^ ^H \\ in fi'lr ihiit iltf piv-«<>iit 
«rriilinl copy of »rk oniry im nii>HL iinjiorfci-t. i^viiU^ncc of Ui^ dciitli nnij 
id*'nlili' of flivi'n^i'il j>pr>4)n«. 

(ti.) Till* re^lalrnlion rar^iltcnl oflluor vUtlliii; lite ilwii'llltt^ffl nf people 
in nnfiivoLiruliK' simitmy roi]illitcirL.< wjiiM UiMHti'iT ivnA point onr, flu? 
cun?M.'qiL('tiL't<-< of itnv*!.' ciiinUtiiJii^ i<» I In.' ruijillkr- tIiciiim'Ivi*', uml to I In* 
iLullii >ritU-» in iii'ni.<»ii!" of choI**j'ii, of iVvor, i»r olLi*r I'pi^lmitit'H. Tim 
wnlhontii:*-'' wuutcl IukI \i ronvi-tneiil lo iimkr him flu- heuliJi olfuN-r i>f tin? 
dittiici ; mill oflrii ^vIm-iv T<iu-h !kii hIIm-lt mIivj'iIv t'xists 1'^' iiti^liT 
ilj?<chm'gr the- iLiv'tii^tl rtr;;isl ration <lirtk-^. Tlii' Puhi Olluv wouhl euipluv 
\\\f. rc^UliiUiiiij lonlirnl otIlcvE In Id^^Lii'arLiv hiiMiir^, mid ^^o uuulil 
inourrtn^r- offlec'*, lo whom lit- coiil.l iJiiiW nti>ntinl Hcrv»o-» in puttinj( 
A filfip to Ihe nunierouA frauds wlitch ni« i-veiy day eoinniiiteil nl their 

IVo /jify>fr/0f-£ nre Appolntoil with s;rrnt aitrantn^c. n« itioy fn^truct 

Rogi*tnii r«» Akikil innprt-t ihr 1-ooki on tUf^ ipol iii pcrnhlicjtl vi*<ilrt. liiit 
Thc^j pr(Mu-n1 no firLih<*r ihiin lh<- iHinkn ; iiiiil. iiitli'vi ihi^ litiok^ llipin- 
^elvoH ftiipply (■viiK-ntt* of in/nTnincv, no uuivriiniL'y to iJiticoVi?r«l, 
Thi^y 'lo mil riHiifnla jiiiy ronipurinon iK-iwii-n ih*' noiniJ or \\\v. 
n<MVi'tniniiM<? fnrra luid ihn n^j-onl!* of tlioM' fji*'!**. Here ni-iny crrorn 
\a.y\f\ »rriii'. Ah %h\n ofin'" v,o iuiporlrint Woi'l; Li fitlriwril to pas^H 
nnohoi-ktHl : nnd iiflk-r <^i:'Wlin<; th« clenro<^L hoiuW uivn. iIil* nih-ulnfinus 
an^ nil mjuir in (tupliciUi^ unci i-iirofnlly rom[t»inl. Kvpiniajci^ hiin 
bhowM ihui Ihip iw nrof'i'iary to on*-nrr* afritrncy. Jt piin'i(l*>s iLt^ninRt 
rrnM-* (if J^untaii liilltUiliiy, mul rrmr:* nf iM'j£liK*'"***'- J^"W iln- r(';i;ihini- 
lion i<*ooi-iIk iuhhI not Ix' iiij"l<* in <lnpIit*Hfi? hy two Fopni'iito oflWrj ami 

compared; Imr by pcriodim! inqnirir?* into ihi' ncloal linds of vtrtiea 
vi/trrr tfti' ui/finafinfH .^if/ji with m«r/*i>vory Ht-gifttrui" would worit nnih-ru 
HHiiHP of ri<«p(niMhilUj\ uml would do hiit work ln^tter tlinn ho rlooN ir uow. 
I br^ lo t>ii^i:at Ili'M ud Inrpoclur should l« iippoinit-il for h|ji.t'ml 
cniplo^nifnL on ihU duty, Hnd n Mrv^Vnl InH|>ei?tor should 1^ fipochitly 
ctikployiMl ill looking iiflcr fUv re|ftf<li-iiliori i>f ihc uiiiau^ of do»th», 

Mcilicnl men hnvc Ic learn tin' di^cnll ihity ori^L'turnln^ fnlnl liltieaBe;^ 
on n unifonu ^y^tem nud uinter the ^hiul- imnn-jt. Tlir-ir iiuentiou might 
he mlloil to imy impoi'fiH'Hi'inA in thrii' r»^»urn*<." Tbi:* \^ ionml to work 
wt*ll in <Trnov«, wlnre i( wn* jwrforntpil W nmny ypur*- hy my frii^-Ml 
Dr. Man- ^1'K^pi^le with the befll py**ibli" nMili, Udli in llio mtire^fs 
of wif-un* nnd of jnHiuc. 

Till*' iinproveinL-ni hi our »iyst«ii of r*r;<iHti"uii<ju wotild be qulie in 
iJCi(-or(tjtn<X' with Knglish hnhil^, whi<-Ji innriC i^vor lio rolif;iE>u^lv 
re»i|»i»rtiMl in n nuitlor sn solcniii its di.'tith. The puhlii^ tnrdind oilirrT 
ivouhl unly intervene ^hon the fmnily had no phy-icJKii in ultrnittuire, 
nnU whi^rpvrr Ik- aliQiided it wuiiUl bo-. i^oujUlenlially, for the comfort iLiid 
Mftti^fuctiou nljk«< of filcndf aud nftht* cotnuiuntty. 

• Ciriuhr Ivileo un- »'»w iidilr^^i^i-d lo fprlifyifii; i]i«lj'ca1 pructitionrra »ho^o 
rorliflutfk i)» iljI 4U|'|>1^ ilii' uih'vi^ii iafiUKiHlinii fiir »iiruifur«itj rluniAi-utioti^^ 




ThiN HjTBf^fl), I Mibmitf wf^uUI bo more nBdw^oiin iliiui th<i Ivgl^InlFoa 
i^^>vr in uA^ in Frnnrnp vrhoiv the ili^aih can tx- lO^'iM^ivit hy ilrdArfltlmi, 
without iw»igiiing iluy raiiBC <if (U-nrb. Tlir in«[i<Ttion tif ilif* bodj" hy 
ibe OfficifT ttt fetai civii would lie «uj>fT^dc-d 1>y ihr c^tlifii'iili- of tlic 
iiLvttlirAl ulkmiLuiI, or of tlw? i-c;.'U|.m|ion lurtliral [jHii-i't ; X\\e inquiry 
into thfl oiiu^'u i>r ilcfkUt wouM b(> iitiJi^rxnl: uml ihu vvii|eaGi> of ilut 
ceiliGoale of re;:iatry wouUI 1^ vnliiL Thr l-Vt'ncti txplicitT; r^iort 
tvotiikMi nH JnlWiLirknl*,* nnil thuA iiiUNt in nuiu^ c>hl^ fori-go l!io W^ 
|.Kiteibfe i£4t.imony. Women ar^ nlmo^t niwn^s i^xcept on thi* Held 
oi' l>nLtlC( ill nttoiiilADci* or pi'c^i-nt at ilcntli. 'T\\c wife <io<w not forsftW 
like liiiflmnJ, llicr mother itu-^rhikt, in lli*.* Wf iiitimMiN. In inarriHi^ 
anil in Mrth, the two (^^at acU of rri>ii4trn1.i<jii, ilic woman is in^ti^- 
^uluMy [WHoi'inrnl Willi till* other Bt*x» niid fiom men In iK-»t.U ibi^y wtt 
not iliviikii. Ort ivlmt gronn^l tlion \% lliit womiin ivjocipd pei'omp'tority 
K» A wiliicA^/ 'I'lii' Fi'inch pniid|>U- is inappliinrtJ^lc lo ICnf^lUti iroTn*^!!, 
Hnt in Knf.«]nii'] Wi« inny wi4l avoid riiAhin;; to fli<» <\\\\iM' e<ln<in4*. 
Why «li(iulil n majoriiy nf iho InformanL-f of Mnnc Oi^trictji he 
if:uornuL women ivho >jir>n llie rL^^^i^^ters with mai'ks. aiM eaiinot 
read ami rUoi^k thr i-tilry tu irhtcli Ihf-ir ni^niLlniff U HiinchH in ihr 
fintioiHil I'l'^^oril-f ft T\%^ ineilio^l o<^i1l(rale i- ini]i"[iuii-aih|i> Mudrr '^nch 

* Code Civil, lirnr 1. ser. ST. : Lm lAnaitti prodnttn iHs tolw tie I'^At c^irit ac 
poiiiToni tiff <pii- du lexp uitHctiliii ■tfi''* lU^ 4fQ|tl-Dn nu moinH #< n* •eroat chiuNj* 

t Ni'NnuA •nil P»orOBTiO?f* |it't C«t. of IVnom wbo ncr* InrurumnU ftf 
T)«ftih«. Hud i-f Pprwma mamifil. wlui Kif^ncHl iW H4-|.'uif^r villi MarLic. jn v]«v«ii 
Diilfiott or S«h-l>ifitri*'U tff Kn^Uii'l und Wftk* in a poriioo oi" ilic Vrjr )^GI, 

(cKcIukiW fif Curoom itDit 

lafi^nnnnu m Tai<tiliilioiiK), 

I'liaeoxB M Aft VIVO, 












p*r IVnt, 




VM I 1>W 




ijioa Alt 




Tli« fici* >rv (oinjiiM frtnn iliv lE^j^itUr' of ihf dLttrirbi or CWvoa, Headi^f. 
l'e«vrt'nri>Ufth, llowfonip EtjfltHartli, Kum^'X- Lkrbr, ItAlifm, J>urhiLtn, nod CftniirvtHi, 
flod ihc mb'djHHolof >ii, MintDi Liverpool, 

()f IIKI infariDanu S9 w<tc mnlci ind 62 wcrr ffOuJvA. 

NiTR- — Ki4:la)iiv« ofcoriuvn nad bloniuinu of ioAlihitirPikB, c-f l,tl7 InrormftnH 
at dvBlh in the county of Sorhnmpton 1*1 were men of whom S2 wlgneJ iriih lunrki, 
nnd l,03fl w^re women of whom TM »ignrv1 with iiukfkt. Of l.«J3 penoint luiurii-d 
447 men and 499 WLiimo nigncd vifh coarks ^r ni lUO riyc/viTiif^ 'if WrafA 04 jiynnJ 
EfffA nurAj. and of inu ptnoiui wrrkit SO ifj/^^^' n/A mirAv. Thv lenor^mci! of 
tlk^ SikfoniiactA 111 dinih vtt* <a ibr ignorvace of tli- onliian run of Deopfp innrryiiift 
la Non1iamptan4)nf« acOloSO. (K lou iafutmaoit ir> «cn miiva uid f<£ were 

r 3 

triw IF. 

Tbo iiDpmvf'menU lu re^litralioQ caqiicI Ijo carried out vrUlioiil 
expeDf^. The meilic&l crrtibouv will cmt Iht^ putjlic t'ruiii ajit^rtn lo d 
y«iir«u uu ^ «l.rj ; only llic purliua of Ibe p«y for lli*» rviriulmibu 
mcJic'iil offio*^ nud for m-|>octovH ivill rom«i onl of poor ral^ miul oat of 
oonsolidjUed tunil. It in <1<'»ii'n]>k to mnk<f thi^ r<M> pf llicr rv^rUlrftUon 
officer Hulfioii*«U): high to roiiLinau<1 flje Nenic^* of a gooJ <rlfl8« of 
the pi-ofce^ion ; awkX thf Uriif miM, tlu'n*fore, mH:eA«inly vary in 
coitiUry ituil lovin tlrjiiricu with ibt? ilinUinLTw U> !«' IrnfLOh-*!, amii the 
vAriikbU* looul un<-Iiciil t'hnrj^o-:- Tho (Ixinju; of l\\o fon miffht bft U-ft Ui 
you, sabjocl lo tlio npF*r«Tni of tlir "IViisury, Thp cii*l oF rv^^JE^tratlou 
medica] oflioinn anil ol iii->j)i.'cf«fi>< would not excKil in ihi? aggregftie 

If ^v^ compnvp tliin Mirn, nnd the vivlu« of thi* iwT>'ic» for wbicb U la 
to b« paid, vrifli 111^ rowl of iti<|u«-it>i Anil tlie ontd of fiin^rAlfl, it iloon 
not Appear to l}f f^t'cat or extrnviifEunt, 

The cost of n'(CL?iU>niif£ i\w> jicu'ricul^irK hth] Iho rauN?4 of tlie iWtbfl of 
the 4%,d31 pci'fionfi who Axvd in Kn^jlnml imd WftU*« w^w nlioni 41^W. 
in lh4? year 180-1 : in 1K6T undrr lh(< hnprur^ plmi it would be about 
91,3'rii/. liiAl^HiJ nf 20/A ic wroM lh< tiXiOXit 4W. on om<h i^iMvlh, Thi« 
mitn would hi- nmply n^coiiped in llie fulditionai -^(i^nrity In life luid 
propei'tv- \i \^ roNipnli^d j'roin fh^* k'ffiu.7 dut;' rvlurnn on 4-95,5^11 
■ktfii.hit tliiu i\\ii\\i\ \y<\,^\}0^\yiM . pEis^t^ by dcnili lu :<i]ivi^:«i]r^. On lUib 
sum y2,00(>/. i'. k\-L- ihaii Q rnrilung in tin? I/, 

Tht' cortinpix of t?i>uuiio>i und horongb.4 hold Etujuefitrt on 24,7^7 l>odifiA 
at u tofid rinMt^ iiidLidin;; (xfronfT^' kuIuHi'k, fnivt^lin^ vx)m^lwt^, miA 
niedk'nl witno^^ed, vfi T^wi'H^ Thip^ sum m {mid oul of Iho iiifo^. It 
iimouniN uji un Etvi^jt^i? T</ 2A i^A. 7d, i>it cmrlj iii<|ucM. Tho jurjtnni 
ikro uoT piLid for tLtjr xorvicv-t. bul iht-y iin* r^uuiuioimd, unA if ihey dv 

Dot ntfcod n'ndi'r ihcmiwivcfc Ijjibk (o a penalty. The vuIul' of iheir 
time cJiUtiof tM? t^^iriuMh-d iil k-M fhun 25/f- 5f/. TJiifl will Kuik" llic 
coflt of ftn ifique«l 4 guin^a.soii' :f4,7ti7 inquests (oel tUl,l05^ in the 
year, Thr rnbio of thj?« aiicir-ut iiiatituUoa caitnot btt qu^^tiontd, but 
the inronv<»nf<*niM? mid oovl lo fftmilT<^H \k*{\ onf of HOooiini in ihin i-KtimMe 
U not inconsidcrabk. 

If the iutjuiry by iuqiie.<<t Iioil been i-xleudod to i\i^ TihoUf of the 
LlcAlhe, the cosrii) cOTonorK and in medicfti wilnpNtc^ onTy in iho y^r 
1864 would hftvc nniountcd to l,-!*'!^:)'!^/,, without nllovnng iiojihing 
f<M' 111* time lofif hy jnryniMii. srul t<>r fhi- iniMnvi^dono^ of fninihV**. 

Tho co^ of (ifi,74H fimiTftU in \W metropolis wa* wtimAtcd by 
Mr Chadwickf for ihc- year IS39 at e2G,f>i.i4/. ; and \\\^ " proxiumte 
" rstitmito cif ihi' *'Xp<'nf*f for thr toul ihhiiImt of fun^'ialj^ in Eoglnoil 
'' und WulW ^*<w 4,S71,'19,^/. II<> f^ho^vs tlml thi^ px|>eusc of pciupor 
funcrnU in Ix^ndon w»h l.t^., of urtJE^na ^t. traOeHDn^n af w^coitd cIass 
Slc, 27/. lO^v,, rrudrnmrn of Isl cla.^ 50/,, trontry riud tlio hi^hcv dnases 
of p^plo JOOA ; whilo ibo expenditure on the fuocml^ of childreu under 
10 ypors of nj^ of the ciiri-nipondin^ rliLwps, r\(;T(iding |iaU|ic-rK, rnngrd 
from 30t^ lo 30A Thv nvci^a^ iTOfil of fiiiiarah* of pi>r[(onfi ufet^ry miiL 
nbovr pAtipcrs in London hf^ LakcH nt I^A 19^, ^ff., and including pau^^rs 
ftt rathi-r \va< thnn 10/. 1 lun finrjxrf* t.liat the cost uf fnnrmln of ptTfton-t 
of rank nms up lo l,i.KX)f. or 1,500/-, and that workmen's clubjt pay 
oommgnly IC/. ibr burid, but E um di»pOBc>d lo think that Mr. Oijulwick'n 

* Till* tbtf BiuiLUil d->ikih]i Hi S0O,CiOO, unii ilm uixeriiliud oa>M id thv propor- 
tioni^ ftbov^ j^i^D 1^ ir p4'r i!OQr., ihcu t4A,Uoij vai¥m woaU\ b« vSBil«d annually. 
The ciun woiiLiI bf nliatis] vxduwvcljr lu l^ic poon-r cliutc«, ami «| I0«- E^Atli Ihe co«l 

VODid bo 4«,&l>0/. 

f Sapplciucntary l<r]iori an ibv Itj.-iiiil|i nl n ^pt'cU) li»|iiiry tnlu tbe Fraction of 

JfiUrnwni in Tnwiw, by Kriwin Cliudwick. I Ml.. ]»ji. :o^J, 



tttlintU U (00 IukU tov tliv whole jKjpdaiioD, iu town and country. 
Ini^«ad of his ligurcH 1 Uko tlic avera;^ cofit ail 6^. aad Ui«» tlin 
afnonut ibHt tlio rmtiou exftcmls jinnimUy ou ibt? burial of Un diNid t» 
'Jj>73,I>*ii/, Tliii* iiclu'Ir* onlv »/x|>cii«t* tWt fi^tm- in iiruKr Laker?' 
hiltK. It ncitbo.r rmapfJMU thr oxtm <vy*i of mourn iiifr« n^r thr rip^Q' 
flittir^ in memory of the dead on iivitiuuLODt^, or lnu)il(.' Htuiie^, whiofi 
will hi! ohlitcritkNl nr r-rumldc^J fiitn duht long err, the imtional li«r-s of 
ilie iIvimI in tfii.' ru-iudj vt tht Stiiti.i fmve jjeriHliwI. 

It iii woll t<^ f^ltj^lt Womnity to riint^raU, h^il tut <ioo oaii ■loul't tbal it 
would y*c WL-4T <ifi iIto [uirt oi ilti? nation U* ^iv^ n floiiii i^r u suioun va 
A foe lo a n^iMmlioii m<!diral olllirer for the lH?[ivnt of lite livio;^ and of 
jCcii^nitioTiH t4>ooimMliaii to M|mtiLd<T jfumt'iu hiVtMy uu sitino-i, or on 
lid? iif fv;itlK-i>T rMi "ilk ln»«id% jjorlei>j |Hif;tM, rtr^itliL'iiiK'r, »ud niulCA. 

Tb(7 iv^fiBlrnlutu oiodiojd umcor would itand iu iiciirly ibo nana 
rvUtioii to till- Refri»tnii-'(«duerttLf who iii-vcb the im|uiry into the 
Ciu^a al dcutli for Ihc purposM of rf^UBtion, it* tbu tn^icul witncM 
etaiid8 (uuder t>H7 Will 4. c. H!l.) to tlic con>u<.-l*t but U nklgbt be 
dctfiniSIc Ut IcAvc bt« Jlmt ajipfiintrnfrul Atkd |iAy lo Ihv *amc tiodicA n« 
uppoini Uw RcgiKtrttrn ntvl Sii|terinf£nd«nt ItAitbtrikni, 

3*tbfMlioti in good work was [tronouiK^d Uy th« Jav«n4oT of tlw 
woail "HivLitflicv* U> Iw duuucitrriBtu: of tht; Hii;(l]Hb wurlu&uii* and 1 
fru4t ihftt E iiiHy ^dioMl |iiYMtiU|itu>n iMiy ifiht wlitio iliu dopAriUM^I of 
which you arc lln^ rhit^f «tiJircK tho Fccliui: it jk uiixiour U> tkjterro 
Achenwair^i piaifle of the Euglinh workmaQ. 

Thi* following la tiu uojU/eU ol' iho |)urtic-iilan of which ovid«nco 
U found in Ui« death rt>gijiU>i-9. 1 Uku IIkt rjuimpto given tii ibo 
nubedulc : 

1. Tliul A pereon i& Axmd. 

2. That the nfLiue of that penon Is — IfUliam Green. 

3. That \\w Niid pcnon di>od at a certJiin fhiEci— <vf 5 o'clock 

it A t'thr^arj/ IWi5. 

4. Thiil thi? F^aid jJcrAoij d4i;d iii a L-citiuu pWc, — Zi Sirund^ Ijtrtuion, 
3^ Tlial th(? HHJd pa^i*ton wil^ by proftiuioii"'^ fitrprHier. 

iVtPfr, — AfL iboc idnieabin iru rvordiit on thr rrii|<MU« of th« 
infurmaiil. who, ir ho Liu HitoouHl the di^lh. bean ttirrrt loMitsonj to 
partKiiUrii I. Jl> 4 i ibe trtlimon^ tn 14 S uiil A tODy be iitcct or todirwt. 
If hv wu focrvly ill jhiTcndtDoc« tiid has not mccd th« boilj, nil the oridcac4> 
u indirvols Iff ^ti it it si.'CODii hind. 

6. That the «^tit jterton wn8 a mivto or leniAh? — MatCw 

7. Thnt itic Mtid |H'r>on wnji nf lli*' agt? ^3. 

Of ihi-- ifA' ard ai^r lh<* i?vid4-iR-i< in idivnyn uidirrt^l ; it WouH bo 

fltreDj*theui?d, nn would idl ibu othi-r vYiiU-iicf*. by the proiliiL'iJou of iho 
certJilcato of birth ni iho litnr of Ihr rrigiKiry of clr«ib< 
tk. Tlmt the caua- of'^trafh vi i^ixtd ikt^ou wua umalt'pux. 

A'Vr.— tkntttiniT* ili? taiikv ol itcatfi in tttiHy dleihiffuubcd by OWklllMl 
obiicrvcn i in othvn H mi be di«4rovf r^ «Ai-i driih E)> 4 ikiJful lDip«<rfor 
hnni Ibe Irflituooy of bum^uuding pi-rroiiii; in o(Ucr% il can only be 
<lifeljj(^ui«ilkcil bjr ntrdkftl mvu wLi/ lintc obvrmt rli*? fjriii|rtoLu* diirtng 
Itfp. Is HHUj obwim »uc« inAp«riou nf intrrnnl orirnnt (nuMfitj) Aud 

* * Hw KnglinhmjUi Ib Ihr br>t «tirkniiMi Tn tliv wliHJ. for \m Hofkt to Mto 
•Aluiy hi* flwn mind, And ■lwn)r* k^^« bi« v*>ik Ihal dfi;n-t or perfection which hc 
lui» oner fnrai lo Rppradmc ta^ BtrAEii: and lu thr FrvDchimui v«rkft !<> rBhonH 
Ihc nlup of hi« nunuGUThin^ Wy nil hind* of ckTifrn«l onwoMiil, to ihc Kngtiibnuii 
Mvk» 1f> pre hi* proilNetimift <d cxafliiiidv, iMfitfajm, «nd darabilJly a 1ca« 
fltetiiu voitb-" <Sl«Ut«alNVuia dcr hcutidcvn vomctuDMBn Kuroplin^bfii Bcichff 
UDd VdJI[i*r OD Qtundriwo von Ootlfriiid AcbBimttll Wcjtand Hofr^lh nnd rrof«»or 
d«r Ikcht^^ nod lUr Politik vu OdttOkgM. 1711. p.>a«0 

plcal jiniili*it <iri: rciimn-d fo <-nnMe thv mcitic^l *'XpiTi T<i Jiihir Ihp 

t oT4eM\u III foiiic uMcn* p^n^L-DliLrlf of Infant^ nrvl <ikl |N-nj;ilt, iho 

^atiM <if dmih fjibiuil Ih' iliBcorf-niil iu ilio [nxuwiit tttta i^ m^h-jil 

jVnfr. — tJiidvi ■' Dt'st-riplionf" wbrii i"» P>'fr«r/Hiii'r i? aidi?*!. ii m>uUI Ihj 
«i-ll to ihdil *' LnTH^*.'* nifif" " Euotht-r.*' &<:. &i.\. and t ho prof m ion of 
i(Ln>nnuiiL So nlao wlii^fi; " |iTVnc<iiI jii ftfitlfi," Tliif tHiiidmlw tliv 

10. TlinL Uio lErginimr i<0£iau<rcil ihc iiu<r1 iKiHtculnrs on » givrii ilajr 

— ;./A Kr/fi'intri/. 

11, WimeM, liU name aiid litle, John Cox, Itfr/atmr. 

1 fomul on Irinl llmt in Loinbn muiiy |»nrl ii'iiln.r^ res-|M<^IiH;j llu* j^njit 
miijority of Uio dec4?ft4L-i], except in [ttiblic iu^tiiulioiiH, ure Viiowit (<» 
th^ pp^pk' nroiHift llu?m Hi denUi,* Tho Fol lowing I :< oiii^ nnioti<^ mftiiv 
idalAUct's. It {8 li e^icdiui.'ii (r( ivhut 1 he-Id (hcti Anil Btlll lliiuk wuuM 
lio n romplclo t'chcilulf-- If it be uvor wlopld it will bo noci'niinry (o 
pay the Ki^si^tnu- lir, ftrA itiBteAd or U. OrA aii L^niry, iitul llic Stipixiii* 
teuileni 3'A iiiT^tcml i?f 2//, Tor <<xiiininnfionf as tbc Iftbotir will \>e 
iacrCA3^<<l. It 13 evideul tlmt lliu lulditiorml jiartK^ularn lu to binli- 
pltuv. ii'Piduii^i: in dihtiii^t, pai<-iil.i* miiiiriL, itkuniuj^Vr and \t<A\xv would 
Wvi> xhv oinitT vulut* IK ^fjini? of tUo pArriouliir* now rrgUt*?ro4l : thc*y 
would »l<"pfiul on indirect exulciico, und, if roquirefl. *?verj yi^r nncii 
tvidctice would incM-aw iti vidnc : — 

Dislni'tf Poplar. — iViltmm Cfinty, nittic^ ttffe 6i^ dial^th Fthntary, 
ci ^aif-p'nt 4IJ' o'rloi'k n^m.^at id Votttifff UoM\ofpHfHmottia^irfwn>hs^ 
A« nrtii/ic't by If. ttiovmjirtdt MM. / horn in CVrA, Irciand i -ifi t/rtir9 
iff f^i'hir ; filth tir Timofftj/ t^anty, ftt^trn^ffiy mfthvr M'tr^ Ctirtiy^ 
maiden namp Aw.-<i/«x, tirttattd ; marrifti in Scriii parish, Irfl/tnii, at 
affe ii^. to f/oiwra M^C<irfr/ ; trft i'^*w TV/woMi/, rt^r JU IlUHa'tt 30, 
Mary 40, Jiihn tUcraxfti, tttfi'M JJ m '^/', Cathtriitr lircf/istt/, fifffd 
J in tSdO, Stipiivn a i witot'BSj lii'nvrtf Ctrnfr/ her x mark, ipiVoip, 
Infonnntit ; l/wrj/ CtiTtff/, ihtttf/hfrr, witiioe^ ; 7', IV. OngrHf Hegi»itr»i\ 
Marc/i .i, fS.',7. 

I i\o liCit vcntun.- lo L-oin[iliL']ite iho pi^o^ND^I ii8 to Ihc tiled il-uI rri^it*- 
iratiou certilicutc with llio>r or luiy other altcnitiotie of (he fichcdulo 
iLod tbc A^-t. 

To Bccnrt" lli€ rcgwtntrion of tlio <-julx-h of ilofttfa it would Ix* acjt^if»ipy 
10 Jtlt*Tr wimo 44Nit><f^>t i>f llir Art [fi & T AV. -i. c. H6,), and to iniHTl u 
MCw duute to the t'olLowiiiif vtfect. ll iu Bh^htly allircd from llio 
KcgiHrntitin Act foe In-ljuid (26 Vict, r, 1 1, w. Ifi.j 

*' Medicid (Vrlirirnlv of OluiIIi. 
^Wh<freiL>i it JFi eKp<*dieiit lo i^lnbliF-h iiii imiliotilfi' rf^ir^irutiun of the 
" c«l»ft of dentil : JSi.'it ihnTfon^ rrmi:'I*iL I lie It-j^inlrar sIiaII rnrnish 
" from lime to limi-, t/r/ittg. lo cvury diilj i[ioLlili(.'il mi^dind praL'trliooer 
" within hi> ilJ^ti'IcC (hr Mcri-ftMiry Tomtit of 4'i.Tlilk'iU''^ ^"1" liwdh tn tUo 
*' form (— ) hi'icoiilo Konrxrd, whi<:h «*rtitit'nU'« t\n; tto^i^ rrar 4^rt'ni?rid 
" ahfill ciiii;«t- Uj bi- |>ri]i1oi and forwAi'did from liuii- lo lm»- lo ovcry 
" Ki'giel rill- for timl piii]io>«: nnJ llio mrilknl pnu-tirioner who ?hull 
" liavc btvii iu ttllcndiim."-- duriiiij ilio lft*l illin?'B iind umil ilie doiitb of 
" uny neiTtoti d^iti^ nfU't iho iMii ncoi^inbci' IHOfi ciIiaU kvllUiii lUrec 
'* ilay* Al\i/r tlic death of vuch person tranimll to ( he- Kcgi^tmr of f lio 

* 8m J'rnriiil or t^tniihtii-'Jil Smidj, VoJ. Xi^, '* Kcpori of Ih-gintnLiion UommTitvo 
-< tu div ConiKil of ihv Surihlicul Soriolj." pp. SA9-A. 




" dibti'k't ill whir-li tbe ttt-utU iyH.'iii^ro<l» or <1iTli\wr l<> ihtf n^ktivvft of llvii 

** df^ce&.^T'rl, i>r In u [>t*r«(>n Ir^n^lly <|imliltnl to hign fbi^ Ke^l^tor as 

" infortimnl of llie Jrntli^a ci-iljllrittc of Ibt.' catiseof iIchiIi in Ih'r form 

'" niL-iiTi(>iii-i1« ih** piiriii'iiliir?! of wliHi r.linll Iwi i'nu'rt*il hy ilic Ih-iiiMinr 

** ill Ihv rii;fiitCE'. In <»i? mcli OL^rlilirnli- nhnll not bi> »n irmifinifli.^(l 

*' or "IcIinTe'l, iW I^.'rFistrAr &hntl kivw notlc<* of llu' iieftili lu tliu 

** re^islruliuli mi.ili<"nl '>ffi«T, wlitmlnll wttliiii two Juvs nfVr (In* receipt 

" tb«-riH>l>ctiirn a criiljciilo *luly filM uji lo siidi Ko^^it^troi, vfh*} *hjilJ 

•* (^nicr llip |NiTlii;uliM~n rvUlinjr lo lU<J i'ini«' wf dciUli in tlni jir<i|H-r 

** rnlumo fiF t1i«' fU-ilflh K'gi'ircr : f ]i\>\ i(|*>r| lli»1 iTio rtginl vnliiin nirdtoiil 

" ofTici^r iJmll, if hr wt 6^ rctiiBC to pre hU wrUficat« until nii inqurijt 
** hii» been lieW/* 

Ct-rlafo mnerilm-'riii would ho rrijitiivil in thiT Ai-i Ifi acLun* ilic 
i;oiiiplH« registration of d<«th«. T!h' twU of giving notice of 4<»tli to 
ihf Ke;;iHrar, nud to Uit" «wt" of drillJir- wiltuiiil iiitnlioid uitcnflmK-o lo 
tlic rvjcUtrnlioh mnlioul onk'<ri'> f^lioijil (mi ciifon-oil hy pi*ii«It^ (hcc 
sod, 31* »f 17 & IS ViH. rap. S(i., S<'<nHi ArlJ w> ii< In iimkr il iNc 
ihity of xlvi} parlieA (.-onccrnod to |>iYK.'nic fi-om thi? iikOLlical utlendmii^ ov 
in lib defnuU furlhwith front tlie rf^Htmriori inedicm] offiircr, tEic 
ctTliRi:AK' uf tli^' ruOM.' uf lU'niU nnlliorijciii*^ tlii: iv^ti^- of ilic buritit 
c<>Ttrflait« by tfic ltc^«(rur. Il i* ovirlent tlint if th*' IkhIj <-tm Ihj 
interred before Xhe inquiry it will open a Uoor to ot-iiikc by n-itdtMiri^ 
■Iwc^c'tioii ililticnlt if not iinpo^slbb'. The \tot\y \rt i<^-n til once tuid i^ 
of(€n Uiri^d in Frnuce ou (ho Mocoml day; iu Kiigtand llnv jx-ople cJia;; 
io the prt'^icnci- of their dciul, und thus inquiry in ovMrr. Decent 
dt'Oihhou^ieH OioAiM In- proTJd<sl fur jirtor hiniili^ in lowrti. 

.Sti|]-t>oni Lhildi\n >hould Tic srfu by t\v: rcgiM.ration nitihttil oIIiimti-, 
whoMe rM.-riiltrjilc1(>lhc tifci t tJiui ibcy wt^ri* slill-honi would nnthoriz^; 
ihdr bumi without funrnU righu. Tliny wouUl lio t^nrorcd In bin 

hvok^ mid would nut fippc^r iu thv lt4.-i;Ulrui~'^ nccountj, irhich .'^hoiLld 

ombriu'e only a\\ tlionc bom ti]w. — {^7Ui AnuuiJ tU>[>orL, pp. )75'hH0 

[Mwiyof th^- jiiip<9Tfcc(ioiia and di^fodr^ iu the Ku>;l|[Jt Ito^EJ^tintjgci 
■kViclpm, \icro jioiiil^d otit hy Dr_ I'iut, wi^n* rvmnv<*d hy (Ii* iViriha und 
IJcnibH IC^x^iili^^o*^ A(!t of 1R74. ^tIlioIi oiimo Into o|K-ruti<)iL n^^nrly tru 
yojir> aU^T ill© 27ih Aumml lEoport v^yis ttTiiti.*ii, The siiL^iteiiou-., 
liowt^vi*r> a.t they vevrt'. wrilirn, form mi iuU-i^-Hrtu^' run iri hut I on to ihi; 

UiMorv of Civil Itr;;ir^tnitioii, luid f(mv- tif thoui, uolably ihitr njla(iii;£ to 
ibc n]>|ioinlini-nt of * i-egi^trntion nit-iticni (rfluvr fur imjinry (HiurTuin^ 
unofiiificd mid un!<tili:*riiciory catitten of di^th, arc Hill undvr di!«eii>4»ion, 


Stathrieaf Nowtof/if. — Scvend NccMjIoxit^^ bmi? Ix^^n fiiimi'-d, nnd 
puriiidly adoj>h'il, Tbt- .\'m"i"iftti }tfihc*lirtt of IrirtUvn^rtis was ibe Iin«l 
imjKtrhml wmk uf ih*' Lind ; hi-^ HunesMjr--,^, Votji^!, Niirm-, 
Scllv, rhtqiief. iVidiluii, Mmduidc, uiid Ihirwiii, oiibt^r tiui^Ic ft'W in- 
no^nliuiiH or few ^fujiruifunctntjt, nnd the Mnh'iu of Sani»^o>« ^vonld 
peibu|ui Imvc oorilimu'd mm'nt, if I'nllei] hnd nor offeri'd a NoMdojiy, 
ivbich hib |Ki|Mil(inty KA a k^vcbi-rniid m iviihr, an wi-ll jm \U simplkiry 
and Its nivril^ cdiilHbateil lo L-^ubliph in (irt^il Britiiiii. Tbo 
prMi<i]>id mtnloni Nootflc^ii-?! «iii hy V'uuA. Kic-horiknd, Hichit, Pun-, 
YoTin^', »iid Miuuu (;o(ii|. Di«ni^-4 iniiy Iw v\\\^->\^M nKittomityMUff,i^v 
acconJinj; lo lli« pnrt? alTtctod ; Aud ibe imnlomicid arrnD;;eineiit may bo 
foum1<<d upon tlw locjdiiy profvi-dinj; fi rttfittr nd rnlrem; Upi>u tlu) 
oi'giUiK iiud ^y^U'iUB of ui'giiu?! ; iji u|H.iti ihi; chfTrri^nl tLMiLt^ wbHhL^r 
ncrouK. mucoup, ailL|K>rt», riiuvctiW, iiflivoii*, Inmy^ or pfercDctivaiHloaH, 
Tlic «iialoaitCHl nfnu3}:vnimit \» Tollt^weit I17 mjiqu Lonvlon UTCturtrv, 

[PA»P IT, 

pb)-siologia4!y, or n^x*'s xhv/uHftwHt imiJved h diaKw^e. M;uoii Good 
dlvEd^ rliiioatM* itilo si^ djux^i^* llume ulYvvita^ ihc dijccwiivrt tliv 
rxi^irnUiry, Oio aup^uijiootijs tbc nci-voui., ihir (»i;]iuu1, ntiA l1ii?<-Ko«riK<»t 
funrtionn ; and a ifcveDUi clans of fortuitous Wlotia n'Jil ilcronnilic^. lly 
wrritcr* U|M>il duk)£iiujiu« ili?i<»M!« Imvc ^tirrully bc<>n von^itU-iT'fl tup<^- 
lEru^ilik^kJty ; for the purjio^cii ot pro;;noifih t)ji-y Uave been ilividcil mio 
■Ctito Mid cliitmict nlialit und JWlal: mid iu pmcticiJ ilt(<tn|iaulit^9 » 
divvion OiisU uito lut^Gcttl uiid Dui'gicHl JiBOtuw, DiHVH>it"« hnw hI^o 
been divided into dif^cA^cf orchildn>n, ikdtiIc«nnfloM |h*o|»Ii?. Dnpu^lri^ii 
lyinarlirdnt iUv. In-^luniti^ of iUv {ttv^'ni cuuturjr, tlmt -ui'li cUvtHitlciilioiiet 
are not fouoilcd upon ihc iwi^tiliul nntun.* of ihr ni»thclngiaii prooMio» 

or produrl^-i thcm.-^tvvs, and coo^icU'rfd u(jalrjicli::illv» lUcy Atv inferior to 
(li«iiyiii]>lomitf'iUigii^d i-1iLnhill''uli<in<t. A rbMHirn-ntino fmimt'd ti|iii(i llir. 

e)omci)t»ty f»}icTioiii(-ii3i, ntid I)k' prudiu^U of di^ru^e, njch la Suu. U'Cii 
imlicuiod b^ FrofcM^or Cili^vtcII/ w-yiihl proTiably lea>l to im[iortiint 
immt^ncuil renuUft, if il coitid Ih.^ Ei-alfEfi<U iu iIkt pix'^-tit iciiiu* uf mi-diniil 
obncrvutioiii If ihr ifLriiiviT frcriiK'ncy of Jiiflriminritioii, lntHTolof, 
carcinomji, Ae^, uTuf tlir orgiuih wbicJi iht^y tK^iwhiWy Alf<rt at din^-rtnt 
Bac» and in Jiffereul drcuiujitauceiS, wtirw dct^riaitird by ilinvl «Wrv*- 
iSonp and cxini'wctl aimuTirnlly, il wnid noI fail lo throw light on 
inotticiuo. Tlib bjta te'ii aiik-mpl^-d in an arraii^vriu-iii of fund diai-afrtB 
oc<*ufTtng in thi> K(|uil>il»l<T Si>ci<^Iy, nl CWlitlo, iirid in l^liiliuli^pbia. 
The rtmv diiHT»M> hjiro nbn hrt^u rhwitlcd nrcfri^hni: l« lln^ organs 
ufft^tttl nl difR"u-nl agcfi-t Dr. IfL'yhliHiu dji»td llie larU^le oUerva* 
lions ftri'orciiiij; lo Vu\W-u\ KowUr^, In thu Lorulon, Swedish, 
I'JiiliidrtpUimi. und oCbi.'i Uibic? uf iiiuruLity, ibc cjiufu^ vf ilrnth nro 
arranged alphnbclicidlj'. C^iiUtn'ii Nowilogy is in ^^lu^nd nxi in lh<* 
public arrvU'eA ; but pailjolo;:iv^d unjit<rniy h\v* umilr jivt^i progrrNi v\nt:ti 
tbo time ot (Allien, and hi* No5oto;;j' no longer proj^ont^ di[*easc* in thoir 

Cuoieil natural leUiUotia. It U uotMiilrd lo Mali-^ricid piirpoKUK, and 
been pr<hpcrly aIhukIoticiJ in Ihu Hintitti<:til njjoi-t on Inc diBCJiai.'» of 
tho nrmy, allhoiig^h Ciallcn*^ Notrblof;;y bn^ Ix^'ii irwil in I.Ih* army lootliml 
reltima dowu to a late [leiiod. 

The primal/ diiiHonK of a Statistkai Nosolvfft/ should endciitly be 
founded upon llif^ nioUe in which <Ii(tunArii af1i:Tctlhr pi>piilatii3n ; wbctli^ 
thty an.' ;;oni*ratV7d and prevail t>D\y in pariiouhir lut'iilitiifi (viidviui^ti), 
extend likt' crholf^iit n\cv antioiiK (i«pidrTnic^<^)> or avro piXiMB^TJkl'^d by 
coiitafEioi) ; whetbt-r tliey arJM.- lu uii Inolatt^l munnL-r (H|»oradimitj \ froin 
ordinaiy cimm'>, im*\ Mnuv-ct* fxintiiLg in the oiguaiiratiou iietlfi or 
nbcthi^r Uk'^ uru ^.au^t'd by viulenl nieuii?. Tiii^ (iml dii?t-i iviLl (<nibritcu 
idl diMniuttt, lilto lifctiit, fovttr, MnulUptix* jiml i.'hulonb, thnl proviiLl 

nndt'imohlly ur opideinically, luu;rlhor ivith tiydi^phobin and 8iich nknlailif^t 
aji Rri> comnMinicAfrd hy inoculation. Thift K't^^t cl'^-'^'' of uinhtihv^ ii the 
index of ialubrily ; it i?i lhi?< ^-Aom which vam->^ lo ilie ;rrwd<>t fxl^ni in 
diOirrrnl cliiEiHti!'-* jLiid r'l.'iiNuim ; ilia lhi>t l'Lia-^ rh»t Iiil^ laUdly iHt-ti no 
fiiiK'h diiniitishM in Knglund, und thntooriMiiliHi'^ thi.' jirincifud ditlt^rcncr 
brtwi't'U the health of diirt^raut populations aitd diffident r>criod«: for 
fcarfu] »ad rU'^lnicti^e m epidoniicy am iu their BtiVDgtli, nw^eping 
mankind of v\o.ry n^'v Moiv. tbvui, liko nn irriKi^tibh* coTkilagratimi, 
they can 1h' C'^jutridloil arid fdnio'l ■1wLlJ»^ lulmil ot pt < i L'jitioo ur iniitga' 
lion. Of iho iitihtj nf ki'i^pin£> llii# ^Ihsh <>f di>utnHi>H distinct in a 
pracliful iHHniliiry report iJiciv cuu Ixi no 'lucation, Tho ancient 
divijtjon of plaguCfi and aportidic dinca^eH ba« thoreforc been retained. 

* llliurtnidolu oT ib(T Elumratjiry Funn* orPiATRW- 

i Alt., Vtul ESutinUrn, M«oC;iilloch*» Stalfitlini of tb? Briti-h Kmpiiw. 



nifaolfiriiTiiTn Id AJtotlicr immo for gonomlicrvtion, nnA EnieccMiTcr 
gftnorttliiuliorLH rouFi^Litultii iho Ijiwh of l1)i> DuttiriLl M<ii.'ein<H. Rnt it \a 
otmons tliaf' tlio Hwsifiiratitm niiM ■lo[>en(t ncl nHMjlulcly Tipon ihctWle 
i4nEit<1i<rtH| ill tlictrcA^ntbl naliirt', buL aL^o ujjon the form, tbarncter, 
iiud tM^um^y of itu^ oliKvrx'Aiion^» Ami Oil» icr»ilf;r» ^^i.^.'e?•^ary » ln'ief 
rcfcrrn<v to tha mocl^} in whif^K the cnuBee of it(.'»(li luivo ticvii ntcordoil. 

T)iw-iLiet ftn> i»ol always oa^Uy difitlu^J^eil ; the Hymptcims of tUF- 
li^rent rf|iociw appear NimulfAtieoiihly ontt arc ci>nroiinftc(1; tlic nattiro of 
llie alfticllou is ftomctiiaes kncwn, wliile many of the or^aici iiiVolv*<I ar© 
ii}iioca1(^l ; or th*T pwrt nflbctcd i* mcognisMl when tho prcclw patuti^ cf 
tlifl Icanon can only be* diaoon-rc^l by prtH tftoH^m vxnriitntition. Tbrne 
o1utac1i>4 to the accurnt^; (Ictei'Dki nation of diwasG aiv inhcicnt lu tlip 
Nibjvct; otli«r jH>iimM of inuct^uriKry may Tm Imcird to ttio iiiconipctrncy 
uTiU ne;ili*p?ni>? f*f the obeorverf. The Pc^ull i?o far as it at1i?ct« the 
rcigUfmttoii Li the snmc. It ii ^iti^ntJly Ipfm difliroll, howi^vcr, Lo 
ileturioliitT rrorn tfii* PxtArnil HymjitoiiiH llio iiuH alTuotoitt wbHhtrr il bo 
the brain, liiriT?, hi-iir\, or inloMinc?, Ihnn to a»:erlain whether the 
letfion b(" inlliiujrTmiion, tulfcrclc?*, oHrciinmiA, ov tilccr ; nml Ihciv lire 
w>nse(iTienily in The rcliirtiA aiTnierous entTic^ Mich a^ "'liwaso of tlio 
'' hoarl,"' ■* Uisouflt' of tl»o ubwi-," " discQdc of thn bminf" '^ diwiuo of ihn 
'* Uv«*r/' the nattira of lh« di0ea£o bnving been appareally unlciiowu and 
tiOE^pcinlicil. To c1a»<try tbciK- cnlric*, 14'btcb may be reduced, T>ui are 
in tli« presoDt slate ol medical Mi^nco and of the rop^idln^Ion jiiL^TjtabTe, 
— Mpoi'adic dhciurriluiyc: 1>crji ^tufwil aoeerdiiig t4) (ho 9iy«tcntK and 
oi^atia ndbetcd. Tlio first group of diACJivtv of tbo bnkin, npitiiil ^ul^vt^v, 
%ni nerved, shows Ibal thifl cluwinralioii poueneett ^orcral advanta;*^*^ ; 
brin^ne tugrlhor dinca-h'^-* wliicb hare ooiaiderahlc aTlinity, and wbirli 
art ea*iTy confoumkd w]ih or nin inlo cJich olba'» end *o cumH-'lin;^ 
crrtm and dincrr|«tii^ii-:> m aotncriclaturcv iM-^idc^ i~educiiig Tbv plien^r- 
niunu oT fiitnl dl^iMucii lo njittii'nl fnmilioN, In fixing the tubular lint of 
disoAM-'s like fijllowiii^ priiieipW havo been attended to:-^' 

1. DiFfea^^ diiiiiti^tly ^peciiicil in thv relurrifi, idtliQii^^ti not of ireiuent 
ocenrrencc* like dinlwU^j', hfivi* <\»eb % plncp in the tidvntar fonu i »o that 
the facta Ibns fully laid beforv the public may be »ep;imlcly compared, 
Aiid clft.'ViTleil in Any way tikciy lo lead lo u*>cfnl ri.'^uIlK WIiltv u 
INM-lfeiibir divi^iw* rHvrui-n>il vury mrely, il wnj* rliined umW ii general 
hiaarl, and rcf**i'wd to in mtes^ 

2. Thu numlM^r of groups hiu, bowirver, l«fivri diminished, becaunc no 
;jneiioraI prineiplcft cao lie deduced fWifo smalj numbi-riiT acef<1ental 
irf^tdaritteA di'Alroying the rr^tull^ Recording to tlie wc^lbkuuMri doctriue:* 
of probfllitlitit^-s. rt™d™ il waa t^MrloHj in tei^p up di»,tiorl hernls 
which, althouglk dihftii;zui6hcd in i!om^ were coorofiDd(.Hl in other 

X When atlffi' wUoopIi]f;-('ou;;b it was -taunl tbnt the patient died of 

pOCunitJiiiA, ibv C00D bar^ been rcfrrTVil to tho priinnry dwasr ; and tlu* 
wnoc jirinclple hsj \y^i*ti ndbcnil to iu -•iniilm- inmtnnee*. 

4. riie 11%! j>f diM'affc« had becti drawn up witJi dinnrt reference to 
the rcturiw. it wim» iiowcrvr, nccftMrity lixvtl before tlie AtMiract wm 

OIqcoUoiib will jriTrhn^o be broo^bt agaimt the cotidetisniion of Ifae 
IbtiiiUiOKbstncI, and ibu (onfhaloD of di?4-4ui--t nwrntially distinct fn 
ibcir natvi-c and DCkil i but n nKux extended oktnloguQ lu tlw pmicnt 
Htaji^ of r4'gi^f^ili«■n woidd Uwl to (h<ocptivf^ n«ult&, nnd pnwtviit an 
air uf minute v,\nctne>« vhich ha^ not heen ebta'uc<l. ScTerfl] of the 
xrwi|>^ lujiy lie subdiritLrtl at n future time, if tt should U- dimmed 


Thf* Inbnlnr Hrrnnp^im-nl rxhibir-^ tlir ^rniu^i numliev of llic I'Aiikrwof 
■leiifh tiiKlcr iiariii-fi wtiio^i wit! hv rotiiiil <.<UTi(i-iiii.*]it in |>riKii<N\ Jkjr<l 
Hllfii^ivMlly iiiiinw for sliitiMi^ |>ijr[icM^. Thi' rninmoii ICit<;IUh nninu 
Sua iJwitif^ Int^n wLopU'd, r.*xi.'4.*pC in » fvw (rT>vibUP Tn-<tiiiior^ i liitl wtfon* 

ito vjic KiJglffili niiiuo t'xip<teil, and vhere tlie >l.i^-H^« i*^ iHjmlnrly t'x- 

Ftvm:iI \ry |>oriphrrt.-<i% thi- nommoti imxIWI Irim has Ix-cn ndoTkltfl. 
ntruuionift i-^ it^^iJ* tor inHuncc, a»i) not LnHrtmmation o1 tlit- Iuti-^h. 
Tlu^ L»tiii ui ICnglisli •^VEJuuTinL' nill niuilor tlic luUv> htictligihk on Ihi^ 
onu liiULil to ror«igrii-r-. antl nn l|i« ^lliir Ui tfiv gorienil i-iWt*r. It' clii.^ 

niu^c*' of JcAllj wrm uniformly rci'i'-i^^rc'l «»J''r ib* Miiiif luiukON fLii<1 
wicti umr*" of Jwilli lU'^J;;nJlItNl Iky chm' woi-J, il vnnuM im-ix-n.-to iUc 
AOCiuw^yof Ihr AhMvnri, urn! ilitninMi ilic Ijibour of frumiii;: it \*:fy 

COtJMdorAliljTt I>Tliap-^ onc-linlf, ji-* much time* U iicC(-^?vNiril> Wl in rallini; 
Ov^r ihnHi ov l'<iiii' liiimtnHl tlmiuitntt long wftriK, ^ihrli a-«, '* iii/liinmHli'Mi 
^' of t]i€ mc-mliiuiK'-'^ of llx? brain/^ nud kiiII more in Jcterminmg 
lueciwjy whjil many of ibo equivocal lixnl terms ntean. 

In (Uifi-n^iu itirruiii?>Liino'--^t "ml in otbi^r oouiifric^, il would U* iicc«k- 
tavv to hikVfS a itinlincl lumcl fi^r f'Tniltont A^vcr, jcltoir iVvcr, pt^f^LV 
Ac; t>uf it will \i* found flmf if llirv nrnniTid, fh<^y profliicr-d ho few 
dcar.h9;n<( ^cimvlv to "Iftvl iIh- bigli niorljJit^ fEom ivphiiA in Rnglurxl. 
Tli<^ Aittiw rumarK nf>|>li<^ to ollit^r bcfuU, incKitltikg dielinti diseases 

Till! fiiit-nnliiuvA uf uEiiWm [lUiti^tit'nl iioiuctK^litturc, hi^iwi^wr iin- 
]ff>frcc!l, nrc vt> Onvii>U(», tlini it i« ^LiTCpiiHinj; nij jitt«ntiDTi Iiuh iK^n jmid 
to it?« onfoivdDetit ui 1till» of MortnJIty, Knch di&<i^4e Imh in many 
inslawn?" fH'Hi denoted by tlirer^ or four lei-mn, and fjn*h U:nii Inu Ihi-u 
]i|>|i]i«<l li> a* nmny 'lirtVirnt di^ca*r>* ; vjLpnc, inconvcniont n-inK'?4 b*ivo 
Iwwi rniploy«lT or rotii|dicuiivm baic itv^u r<:'gi-^lrrijd iiiMi^id of junmrny 
dititAMV, Tliv iiorTiriM-lAlDro tA *tf ah (iiucb ini|>orianr(^ in ihi? diijmrl- 

mem of truiuirj sr wci^btf* and mmfluifjt in the iihym^jd science)^, and 
should lv&cuV'*i wilbout delay. (Jst Ammat Ueptfrl, piv!)"J-5.) 

AfiafynM vf Aforiiifi Pfteiiam€i\a — yomcnclature.^ — It willbcoWn'od 
that Uie At[ibalH'tiuU Lini ouiaaina uioro di-Ncii^jj.*^ tbau tbr A'oM>lo^yt and 
tbcj NuKiLii;^ nLi>n'l1iMii tie Ali^Eirt^l^ ; tu e.\[)Tuiii lliia, and tt> aUow limv 
tho li^t of ih^ cnHBcs of di'alh nijvy W tegiiiinatety cxtende^l oroonlraolr-l, 
it will be um>fu] Ur ini|iure how di^vuM^s li;tvr bi-4?n nuaii'd, or npitn wliat 
|>n]i(ji|de^ morbid |«bcno[ikenrt Uavp Ix'en ^oi.ij>ed and t^ubdivideil. 1 
Hbail Iheivforc nusr» nLpidIv hi r^vii-w tbr clyinealnry pbrnuinena of 
diTM^k^c, imd ctinsidiT nrnn; j>»rticn]nvlj' how 1)tc nitmcix>o^ nnil in r-uiiio 
iiitfliuLcCTt npjMirfinlly arbitrnry upc-i-io* bavi.- h•^^•^i dlsiini^uii^hod \ty 
ori^pind and sy-*ii?uifttic wnlera ; fvr wiilioiit iidmitting liw iLv«>rtiiiii 
irpc<iifed by Cnlb-n, Ibjit ".<jn'cii-> an- t-rented by italuiv, genera by lUo 
bi)ai»n inindj"! — a£ our Idews Ijoth of ^^peciea and |{cni-ra mv crt^alionn of 
i;»li'rn*d aiilHro rind nC i\it> pc^rcipicnt miad,^lbo ilelorininalioii of tlicoo 
priiOATy i-lcmoiilH of x^nenilixntion U nnqar-vrioniibly inoi''- importnnt 
tliim tin- Bubftyciueut hleps in the pro<;eF««, la-eaiiM- im »-rror lioi-e will be 
iriTpaiablOi 'I'liriijK'di'r' in tbentuii^-liral Nosolri^y occur in Iberegiwh^nt 
us wHI «.% i" all the syntt-matie medical wort?. ; niid my olijeel 1?* aoi so 
niutb to ikni|>o«c unylliini^ ni.'W, ciiber In ibu iiaiTir*^ or the •jn'ci^s, (it 

*Tbv mfllical r<:uder who lakvt^ iut inlrrcdl in lliiB subject, h rvijufffltvd to refbrto 
thv NrtLck- ■■ No*olc^ " iit 11"^ Ai>f><ii^ix Irt thr Fir«t Kcpoi'i, I w '■ mviliol '* 
i:v«dvr>becj>Ui« it i> impoHibti' lo dttcun* ii mibji^i't Bt^ ]>un:ly Icobnicol a.« Nofulo^ 
UTittionl "Hrinijiig Ji kutjnk'tLp of Im'lh iiiirl [irlnn[ilv« wliich eaii only be iHruiijir 
10 mvtlLL'jtl mvu ; hIio U U qtiilc ffrrtAin will fxi «i1l<<rl ri|ki>n fn cxi^rtiwi fttL lliHr prf^ 

bn«;oanl »uj^>iciiy m rctuniing lliv *' vHUitep of Ji-alh " willi lb? ti«r«»ry dtif^ttv of 

f A DAlun vvm, upc^iH »liun (Uld «viit i i^l A-ourtim vounLitulio nt niviiti« 
liuiimnv i<Kcugitiitiu.— Ch'/tk— Synopsia NoiMjb Mi-Ui. Etotl in uularal biiLorj It 

would pcr1iEi|i4 bu more compel to vny '* IniJivMuiilH " (biiu -]it\'ii>. 



being the ^?ry luitni-c of im firrnrtE«inunt ot Hiu iWu oln^civod Uy b\\ the 
prACtiUovitTni uf » «iEihtrv to ii»llow, jti tUo ulRti^rvt^ra lliefuni4ve!> follow, 
ibe ditfcOTviio of jmUiolo^l, ».■« to jKiint onl 4oiitc lyi' tlu* |MiijH|>V'it 
wbh'U }ukvr >;uiiluil us in itiu iii\litiL-tjoti of i^jieciai, tmi\ m tbv CutiiuiUuii 
of ttiiTi <>lli*p <liviHion» of Oi-> <'k*>"iti«?rtii^in, 

TJio himiuii \vtdy ron^ixts <kf utomi^ of toxioiik kiivU id o^ttin dvjftvcM 
vf |iroxitni[y — In a polnriiv — and in relatiTe po&ifioit4 — wtitch pi'oiuibly 
tku-rmirtf ttjr |>i-ik|ii-Hic-* nf the orfEADiKntion, roii*J'lrnnl in n^frvciici? to 
its vni iciii^ }uLrl«, aii<l 1u rhr cxItTititl woi Ul i (rtttn whtdi it i^« cijiiMJiutty 
i-ftcpivinLf, nrnl lo %vhiHj it i*i ince^uiaiilly n>n<1fl<'mg, iu Mmiifnlii- Thu 
C9iisLrU]cni iitdiii-< of uxj'Ki'Ti, liydixjg<*(i, cftHion, mlroj^vn, jilmpphoriH, 
ealpluir, iron, ctUHum, mngii«T^iiJin, |>otji^ii]|ji, nml *odiiitn, cxihl in KiiiiL 
or w>lii| L-i.>tu|XMini)^— Ibe ro>u!t of a lon^ ft("ri**H uf meiHmoE-|ilicuioa iii ilie 
cHtlh, iMtiki«|>1ioi'C, fiUni;*!, 4n<I infonor jmiuiiilii* Tli* tlu»l n'rtmiMjniiJ^ 
nro Mood. Tfir *oiid», whii-Jj, lu'conlin^ to a iiH'rnI thniiry, <-i>nKi*1 <iF 
w\\^ iniiy be Jlviileil into (cellular, mucotif<^ llbrotif*^ borny, cartilHi-iooii^ 
oHH-otiitT in"^('u1nrv vft>4ou]itrf tirrvouH t'lwiics ; Aiid ihr hlooti, nppnrciUly 
n huuio^^iifroiiK iitjtjtd, )it^r|R'(iiul1y rniJt:T|j;oii»g Imri^-roriiifttiuiips rvadily 
M>pitfiilc«i out of tlio v<w^U into n clol ct l)t>rino ontun^lmg gloltiilos;, nnd 

into -^Tiim. c'ont&tnins diMoheJ nlUimi^iv witli t'urboimu% |ih<H|>li»t«"-, 
nnirialcs and Mili>lmlr^ of [lotAAU ntid Wn in Mitution. KU)rin mid 
iJbumeo cunuin Ihj^ mine eU-[ncfkt^ tn rh<t ^ame [»roportioiLH ; miih il vtd 
colouring ooni|>oiiiiti of iivn ihcy f(krni lUc globiiW. Tbc Idood idno 
coiiluink |to«'n1iur fnlty Itorlicr^ nnil llii^ «ail1i of bone in suuill quuniifio*. 

AH the tt-9tn(* nrtr iorrrod out of ihv Mood, amil tiu*y i'onn iho |«rts 
tirciitix, Mn<l -tj-'teinn of wlji<rh tTir ag^rt'^ute i^ tlio orj^iini^nrion. 

riio IjQily m Ihc irliok, nnd in it-^ pHft-s undergoes iunmnomMe 
iiLlCTnti(in)S but ihr^v dcviplii>n--> tVora 1b<^ nonikal ti']>c niny be: rcilnccd to 
nn'tjiBn f^i^^iTiil boiuU : — (I.) incnWN* or diminution of ilm^Brty, wviglil, 
voJum^, cohi^ioTt, elaMidly, colour, number (of part"), — of wliicli tli« 
following Bin* rxinnpk-^^jnduntiioii, ^loRiniirig, oiUtutioii, (^oTitniulioiir 
Mropby, hypcnrophv, ^tnu'ii^l:!, [ilclhorfi, idbini^m, fracture, liu^oacrrlia^ : 
(2.) dit.pljM*ciiifiDt i <*x»iD|>lo^ — tllUk--^l1o^i1iotl of vUvcni, Jki^rniii, dUloca- 
liifn^v pii^\'p i.xmgc^liont liixifi^iy : (3) heli'rolo^Uh* prodnecs; cxiimplcH 
— jiins tnlwri'lr, cmuMT, ini*lun<iAtei: (4.) diiorgnnir^ution ; exmnples— 
iiloeituLion, morfi Bait ion, Tlic ^ecrvlir^nf — ibo prothict^ of I ran ?< Form* 
iitioTi> of thi' blood und lIrv<uM3— vdivo, iit]c--4[nal jutt-tr, [jiuivii-uti<: fluid, 
hWv (|ionTvd into tlii* tri1«<-<tinal ujiiud), milk, nriiw (lif^uiiU^ pur^idmlioii, 
broAth (^t»-rnlly In ii *-tdt« of rit|>our)— may bH be cxcc'Hiivt- (flui), 
nht-rtn) in i.-oiniKr(ilic>n (itWhartfr), or drficit^El (supptT-v<iitn); cxAmplL:^ 
— ittnreHiK isi'liuriji, dJAlictos, uTlinniinurJit, Htoiio (of uric ncni, oinlnte of 
Ijmf-, pbon|rhMi^ i>f liinr, ihi* triple |dio>|>hAl<t»). An tbi^ luinc, wbicli 
aftonU |H.-< libit r fii<.-ilitic?>i for divmit^td intt^HEi^tioUt hu% U-vn found to 
Tai^iiiiill it« constituent's nnd to contain cilhcr mjitters deritiHl fmm 
ibe btood, im albnmcn — or, h» in j&undicts MHTi-tHl by ri"in<ilc 4>r;3uis — or 
new (bcU*ro1uj;oii'>)('>c»n|KinnilH, KiK'U lut clinVii'tic hii;^', oxaliilc: of limv, 
frc4< iiriu lu^id, — ibo vxielciKW of Dimibtr clmnge:* may l*o (nfvrnd iii tlie 
otbi^r hCf-rf>ti(in>s anil in llie blood. 

11<*^iUh tbv ptiyaeid niid rhf niieal aLu-rntionn wlitib nuiy K' JetAoted 
Aflei' n^ w?Ll tt^ {tvtvw ilisilb, di-nttif-eim^iii^ of ib<] tlymmiir fdi^'iiorm^tt 
of lifr Mr ol>*oni'<t, wlndi timy Iw rrffiiroil loill« lit-adHot heal, rufrij^cm- 
Itoti, ?-piL-<tJi, pumlyvii^, l^iif i^otiw, mftnia, amt^ntia; nr* vtc rm^tr tbciu, for 
in^iHiuv, in ngu^, tho i-xnDtlii-iucLla. lyplm^, in fin mm At (on, c'linfi'ra, 
kLiuin)S epikp^yi pal[»Jta1ion, fiuiopleipu, <(a>li'oLly]iiji, ajio|>lexy, 

* Iftimnn' |itp|Hi-iid In talL dilKft^i^, nicbu 

in llH:ciT)cniit»tio3i»hGttfrulosnu prvducti. 




Tho dcnieiiiaiy i^hanoineuit ol iliAotL-^T admit of inHnitd oomltmstion^ : 
Aiiil iioDc 18 of TDtjn' Ti'vqui'iit ouruii'viu't-, cir uf jrrt-aK^r ifnpurlauctf, tJmn 
irrdAiLimalion ; fhc 3}^ m ptumfi of wliicli aiv "rWN«<ji nnd »kv//j/ii7« vrlUi 
Aral niiJ fiin"* Tlic l'C'hl^v'*^ iinJ *wflliiif" iWhoUt .in t:\ct^*< of blooii id 
ihr part : 1.hoIi4*nL h rluunk'^il nNictJoii of li]<<1i|ooihiu<l li_v<ui.% tIk«rt-HtiUof 
whicli iH ijitcrruiitioiL of ll^o fiiiictioii» »nil gcN<>nJly IhceH'uf^ioiinrivmph, 
Iho rornmtinnof jmci^tir <:Jiri;^'riiui-. It'llK' hjjiuiLiitia bewloptfi^l, thai heat U 
funmnl lij thrr coiul^iistiun ;>r ul';;iimju iiiatkir, an*} 1:^ |rro|HJitiotml Ig iKij 
ii^moiiiii <.»i" i>ityjjn'n foni-otm^d, w*? <*jiii t*4uily uii-leivinnd liow bcut ia 
Bi:ut*nLk'd, ttJiit TMH^oMn^JM.'Mr'iliii' iiiitilliiiniimiioii- TJiL-liL-ai, aL'<.'om|>atiic?d 
by {|ulck [t(jln> (mcrcu^'^l ni'ilon oL' ttii' lu'^^rO, ia ijUloMiiflH^iinuitory 
fev<r ; but rpix-r ilAvh' 1?* Llio luanltor n j^rtai. verier j of muibid |>roce««evv 

tr wt^ nntv intiutiv lion' tho iL(H>cii.<K of dUi^iLvL^ limo Lwm tlifttii^^uiailioiLi 
Aitil wIiuik:^-' tlieir chuxact«i'H Ilavu been derived, it will l>e ioim<\ 10 liave 
bcori ^L^Micrally tVoiii thij morbid |>]vcc?m» or produi-tn,tlK<|wrt-'« jilT<!clj:d, 
the jiiiiii, itiu pcrc^iUibillty of plieiionK-iui. tlieir duiHlioUt lb«lr 
JudividoAliiy) froqucMhcyf hilcI futulh)'. 

Tlii* jiuriA iifFM?1cJ, uud tlii.<ir fiiiii^iiuusi atmid nt'Xl in unpurt^uiGD In 
the morbid procosecEf ftclion^ or niVHluct^. The body h* au nji^ref^te of 
oravDH, OHcli uou^LrtL{ii|f of » viu'ivly id' UdHr]C--s niid ncrformiti^ Kixvinl 
ttmttBm The eyt^t ^<^^ iDftuuco, i?( nu or^ao conaiAtmg of a kus of 
KumoiirMt membrmir-y, blood -tdrs^U, musolfVi iicn-cn, tho ojnlv nt-rvc ; it« 
ruiii^tinii ih vi<iioi] : und iluiuj;h idl tlio drvmiiutiH ofitft ApiiaratMnfroiai 
the Ltoriujil &t!Lt€ ui^ morbid, intorfornncc Viilh viMon MAmps tlicm with 
jmporl-uiKV, nmf imLillua Uiom Lu aumtjt. The niuut inij>ortiint vt^iwA 
uru tbc bniLiit t^pijukl mitriow, nci-\>.\-s ^'ii>vb, coiiHlitutlug the iiervoiw 
f.y«tcin J fuuctio'i^^^neatioo, voIiHud, motion : tht? hmrt, nrtgriop, rebut, 
— tilt: vAMCulhi' AyBtvm ; ftmetion — circulAlioii 4)f ilit- blooil. The iicrvonii 
and vjuciilnr .-lyr^lcinn |h:rvmlo, lujd tli*.'ir ikniugcmcul iLuy direclly 
disturb, All the partti of tbc toly. The I^iuoUoiib oI' ibt nltctorbciit, 
rcApii'Atoi'/, digciitLvOt iiiiDni-y, gcuc'ati>x\ louuiuutivi't U\la^y\nn^x\Umy, 
ukI ocUuUr iH^nIffcuA, will be dciiulod by tJioii- unmo*. Kflub «y8lv]n ia 
composed of luaijy [>arUh roniiin;; HuboidiEkHtc or^cAtin : ibux. thv btuid ic^ 
tn ^^%t^xi of p^olKn^ioo, tbc monlh of mitbtiijUioii, the |diAiyux of 
dcgJulition. ^ocne }^Mi^ tir\^ more eK^ily obncnvoil Ltian othrrfi, tuid will 
ba fotand to Iiavo »ol j>or]i»]i« more- lU^<■Ai^, bill n ;;rvutcT uuhiUt of 
ipet'iJled diM*n*f'i. 'Hm iiifliic^nre of rHnrtion aiif] of jwrceplibibty on 
iiOBo!o;rf(id ijomoucbluro will >>« 8c*ii by coinpaiin^ in i^yvtematic wori« 
ibo ill -^^t^> -^ of the TAr Hiid iiAiid witli IIk^ long XhsX of dbtejuea of tbd 
evi^ ; liiu <li^r.'ftf^e» of Ibo JiKit^ourj m«iTilfmiH- iviih tlii.1 disvjiees el tho 
»kiii ; ibc iLidjLcnmHfioiiH lU^tio^ui^hod Ir^ tin- tirK-ioTiL-> mtli tlic ni:rou[if 
iiiurouw, purr ricdiy 111 at^us iitfljiEunmlioiiH ai mmk'ni jmlbolo^ntH, urmeH 
with new iiL^triimenl?^ of <llj^^iior^iM, iiml Indlities foi' cxurniriiu? bo<lio« 
lilXt^r dealb. Wljtiro pjirlirulnr pai'La ul org:ui» ^iro Ujiblu to altJu-k^. and 
prewtii cliAinolori^Cic tympttonfe under tbe atlAck, fir where llio products 
of jmlliologiciil pro4Hitj[io^jtrv diHtincl; vhci-i<\'ijrB in liurt, intporl^iut putbo* 
logieul nAhics, and pbtiioiiirtja nn; i^nlaled, and can be individual i£««1, 
they have betm made sjtocieH of disvik^', Flonrwy, puuumonin, aud 
iiabirrh (broaohtlwl, wt-i^ drntiu^mithcd »t an cArly perioil, and iheir 
iudijp«iidi.'[ii exiaience ha* l«vuu tuullniKxl by puibological anftt<:>misi,«; 
tTj^y diftVr in tin* riymplomn, wte^ iind fw^nlity ; nud oLVurrinK toe<?tbor, 
btkl oAcn itloiKS JbH^ tixamplr? of tile way in which dij^faw-i of diflemiit 
parb of au orgau bkve been divJdotl into iLjxim'a, 

* Nfit» *— 1 ififlwTiwrij^nU mut qanCaoTi ralwr et tumor ouoi calor« vt dolon. 
Vftn^ trb, 3» leoi. 10. 



111 (he coQfitJtution of fipwi«e, moro atteciilan ia now juRity |>aid to 
»Ci^ctiiti\1 thM\ to fiinclLnriAl cljnitg<M ; Llk<: fonnor arc dI^i^u llii' prokl* 
nMt4» CAUM^i <>f lh(<< liitl<-r, bul iti>ni>> pHlholof(i^«» UhI avtrar tiy^ n priociplo 
of cliissilkalion applicaltle lo imUinil Eur^ory/ or prv^oociipieil by ibirir 
tmatomicnl #tu<lic^T aikI i\u> nHvnt dliworiM'it^M in nioibid muitomy, hive 
ilenleJ the ^JiisU^nce of iljnomk dlMCfwe, aiuJ, ty a vtoJoiiL uid iui[iroba<