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Full text of "Vocabularies: English, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Armenian, Kurdish, Syriac"

I.D. 1121,. ,'■;'■;■;_;_ ,^ ;• _ 

VOCABULARIES 

ENGLISH 

ARABIC 

PERSIAN 

TURKISH 

ARMENIAN 

KURDISH 

SYRIAC 

Compiled hy the Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence 
Division, Naval Staff, Admiralty 



LONDON t 

PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 

To be purchased through any Bookseller or directly from 

H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses : 

Imperial House, KingsWat, London, W.C. 2, and 
28 Abingdon Street, London, S. W. 1 ; 
37 Peter Street, Manchester ; 
1 St. Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff; 
23 Forth Street, EoiNBtTRGH ; 
or from E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116 Grafton Street, Dublin. 

1920 
Price Ss. 6d. net 

Printed under the authority of 

His Majesty's Stationery Office 

By Frederick Hall at the University Ptess, Oxfords 



VOCABULARIES 

ARABIC, PERSIAN, TURKISH, ARMENIAN, 
KURDISH, SYRIAC 



493774 



• • •! • 



Note on Pronunciation 

Consonants. 

' = a slight stop, as in the middle of the compound 

word sea-eagle 
* = a sound formed deep in the throat to be learnt by 
oral example 
dh like tJi in this 
gh a guttural r 

h a strong aspirate 
kh like ch in loch 
q a guttural, or emphatic, 7c 
r to be distinctly trilled 
s emphatic s 
t emphatic t 
th as in thing 
ch as in chat 

z emphatic ^ 
zh like the s in pleasure 
Other consonants pronounced as in English. 

Vowels. 



a pronounced 


as a in about 




as in far 


e 


as in get 


e (Turkish) 


as e in father 


e (Turkish) 


as in met 


e (Syriac) 


as a in gate 


e (Arabic) 


as ey in obey 




as in hit 




as ee in seen 


o 


as in ^oi 


o (Arabic) 


as in hope 



NOTES ON PKONUl^CJLATION 297 



o pronounced as u in fun 

u as in pull 

u as 00 in pool 

u as w in Frencli tu 

Biphthomfs. 

ai pronounced as i in mind 
au (aw) as ou in out 

oi as oi in oii 



298 



GLdSSABIES OF WORDS 



'EhgUsh. 
able, to be 

I can 



AfaUnc: Persian. Turkish, 

qadar, yaqdir tawanistan bilmek 



aqdir 



mi-tawanam bilirim, qadir 



about (ap- nahu (of num- taqriban, ashaghi-yuqari 

proximately) bers), taqriban kam-wa-pish 
about (around) hawl piraman-e etrafinda. 

etrafda 

(concerning) min jehet dar khusus-e da'ir 



above 


foq 


bar bala-yi, 
bala-yi 


yuqari-da 


abroad 


borra (barra) 


dar khari 


disliari-da 


abuse {v.) 


haqqar, 


f uhsh dadan. 


siiymek 




yuhaqqir 


deh or la'n 
kardan, kun 




accept 


qabal, yaqbal 


qabul kerdan 


qabiil etmek 


accident 


muslbah 


ittifaq, ariza 
(event) ; asib 
(calamity) 


tesaduf, qaza 


accidentally 


bi-ta§aduf 


sahvan 


qaza-ra, qaza 
olaraq 
i,refaqat etmek. 


accompany, 


rafaq, yurafiq 
urafiq 


hamrah raftar 


I accompany 


hamrah mi- 


beraber geli- 






ravam 


orim 


according to 


hasab 


ber hasb-e 


gore 


account (n.) 


hisab 


hisab 


hisab 


on account 


min sebeb 


baraye, kha- 


-den dolayi 


of 




tir-e 




accurate (of 


mudaqqaq 


sahih, bi-sa- 


tam, doghiu 


calculation) 




bab-e (calcu- 
lation) 




across 


'abr 


an taraf 


-den (of mo- 
tion) ; ote 
tarafda (of 
rest) 


action (in war 


)*arkali 


Jang 


ghavgha, mu- 
harebe 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



2WI 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. Syriac. 


able, to be 
I can 


garogh, 
garoghanal 
garogh yem 


karin l-m§aya 
az dkarim, az Ibi, msin 



shem 
about (ap- shourch, mod nezik taqriban 

proximately) 
about (around) shourch, polor- charrakh {de- erzibani 
dig din.), ledaor 

(concerning) ngadmamp, vra bamaslahati..., but 

b'ishe... 



above 


verev, i ver 


sar, lasar 


l-'el 


abroad 
abuse {v.) 


ardasahman 
thshnamanel, 
nakhadel 


walate gharib 
lauma kir 


l-athra khenna 
m§u*ere 


accept 
accident 


untounil 
argadz 


gabul kirin 
'ariz, 
musibah 


mqabJl 
gidsha 


accidentally 


badahmamp 


bakhalat 


b-ghelta 


accompany, 
I accompany 


ungeranal, 
Y yes g'unger- 


gal choin 
aze gaiwi 


izala *emm 
bzali 'emm 



anam dchem 

according to hamemad, ust bi-mujib, hash, akh 

binu 
account (n.) hashiv, hamar hsaib, zhmar- khishbiina 

tin, hezhmar 
ust hashvin sababe, lebar, but khatir d- 
or hashvoyn 
jisht dirist, mazbiit khatirjam 



on account 
of 
accurate (of 
calculation) 



across meg-tien-miuse'ubur, lave logiba 

(lit. ' from one t-araf e 

side to the 

other') 
action (in war) baderazmil, sharr, jang plasha 

baderazmagan 

kordzoghou- 

tiun 



300; 



QLOSS'ARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


Administra- 


idarah 


idara 


idare, hukumet 


tion 








admiral 


amir el-bahr 


darya-begi, 


amiral. qapu-. 






amir-i-bahr 


dan pasha 


Admiralty 


Nadharat el- 


wazarat-i- 


Bahriye qa- 




bahriyah 


bahriyeh 


pusu 


adrift 


tayif 


rii-yi-ab 


suyun aqin- 
tisi-ile 


advance (of 


' arabun 


pish-qist,pish 


- peshin, testi- 


money) 




aki, or salaf 


mat 


advanced 


muqaddamat 
el- askar 


muqaddame- 


pishdar 


guard 


yi-lashkar 




aeroplane 


taiyarah {pi. 
taiyarat) 


taiyareh 


taiyare 


afloat 


tayif 


bala-yi-ab 


yuziyor 


aft 


mu'akhkhar 
es-safinah 




qich 


after 


ba'd 


ba'd az 


-sorira {suffix) 


afternoon 


ba'd edh-dhuhr ba*d-az-zuhr 


ikindi 


again 


marrah thani- 


du bar a 


bir daha, tekrar 


age (of persons)' amr 


sinn 


yash 


agent 


wakll 


amil 


vekil 


ahead of 


guddam 


pish, jilau 


ileri-da, iin-da 


alive 


liai (p^wr.ahya 


) zindeh 


sagh, hayatda 


all 


kull 


hameh, jami' 


hep 


allowed, to be 


jaz, yajiiz 


rukh?at yaftan, braqilmaq 






yab 




ally 


halif {pi hu- 


muttahid, 


muttafiq 




lafa) 


muhalif 




almost 


taqriban 


taqriban 


az qaldi; he- 
man-heman 


alone 


wahdi, wahdek 

&c. 
bi-janib (by 


, tanha 


yaliniz 


alongside 


pahlii 


yanina, ya- 




side of), ilaja- 




ninda, borda 




nib (to side of; 


) 


bordaya 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



301 



English. 
Administra- 
tion 
admiral 

Admiralty 

adrift 

advance (of 

money) 
advanced 

guard 
aeroplane 

afloat 

aft 

after 
afternoon 

again 



Armenian. 
varchoutiim 

dzovagal 



Kurdish. 
siasa, idara 



Syriac. 
hiiqraa 



sare bahre resha d-yama 



Dzovayin na- 

khararoutiun 
herratsial, sar ave choin teple resh maya 

alevar 
gankhav-tram- garz kirin, qa khishbuna 

dal bdain da 

arrachakount peshe 'askare qamaydtha 

d-'askar 
otabarig taiyara 



sar ave 



aledzoup, 
dzpoun 
hedguys navi pe gamiya 



taiyarah 
resh maya 



hedo pashe 

hedinq, irig- pashe nivro 
natem 



noren 



kharaya 
d-gamiya 
bathar 
bathar palga 
d-yauma 
jarak di; disa midre 



age (of persons)dariq 
agent kordzagal 

ahead arrcheven 

alive gentani, vo- 

ghch 
all amen, polor 

allowed, to be tuyladrvil 



ally 
almost 
alone 
alongside 



tashnagits, 

zinagits 
krete 

minag 

unt yergay- 
noutiamp 



umr, smn 
wakil 
peshin 
sakha 

hamma 
izin haya 

haval 

taqriban 

btene 

nezike 



shine 
vakil 
qamaya 
be-khaye 

kull 
kbare 

khaura 

taqriban 

be-1-hodhe 

b-qorba 



:m 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian 


Turkish. 


already 


qad {followed 


qabl az in 


shimdi bile, 




by verb) 




zatan 


although 


wa law, ma'a 
ann 
suwa (in a 


agarcheh 


eyerche 


altogether 


tamaman, bi- 


bitiin bitiin 




body) 


jumlagi 




always 


da'iman,kullish hamisheh 


da'ima, her 




(entirely), kull 


zeman 




waqt 






ambush {n.) 


kamin 


kamin 


pusu, kemin 


ammunition 


dhakhirah 


zakhire-yi- 


jebhan^ 


ammunition- 


*arabat edh- 


jang 
*arabe-yi- 


jebhane-'ara- 


wagon 


dhakhirah 


jubbekhaneh 


basi 


amuse 


wennes, yu- 


safa dadan, or 


eilendirmek 




wennis 


khush kardan {trans.) 


anchor (n.) 


angar, marsa 


langar 


demir 


anchor {v.) 


debb angar, 


langarandakh 


- demir atmaq 


{intrans.) 


yadibb angar 


tan 




and 


wa 


u or wa 


ve 


angry 


za'lan, ghadh- 
ban 


khishmnak 


darghin 


animal 


haiwan 


haivan {pro- 
perly haya- 
van) 


haivan 


ankle 


ka*b {dual 
ka'ben) 


quzaq 


topuq 


answer (v.) 


jawab, yujawib jawab dadan. 


jevab vermek 






deh 




anvil 


sindan 


sindan 


urs 


anybody 


ahad 


har kas 


(bir) kimse 


anywhere 


fi ai makan, 
wenma 


har ja bashad 


her nerede 


apple 


tuffahah {pi. 
tuffah) 


sib 


el ma 


appoint 


'ayyan, 


ta*yin kardan. 


ta'yin etmek 




yu'ayyin 


kun 




approach {v.) 


taqarrab ila, 


nazdikama- 


yanashmaq 




yataqarrab 


dan, ai 






ila 






apricot 


mishmish 


zardalu 


qaisi 



English. 
already 


Armenian. 
arten 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


although 


theyev, thebed 


walau 


shud, apen 


altogether 
always 


yev 
miasin, unta- 

menn 
mishd 


bhammi 
har waqt 


b-tamamutha 
daim 


ambush (n.) 
ammunition 


tarnamoud 
rrazmamterq 


kamin 
jaubakhana 


bu§a 
jaubakhana 


ammunition- 
wagon 
amuse 

anchor [n.) 
anchor (v.) 
{intrans.) 
and 
angry 


rrazm^mterqi 

garrq 
zpostsnel 

khariskh 
khariskh tzkel 

yev 
pargatsadz 


saf a kirin, khu 

ash buyi 
marsa, langar 
langar avitin 

wa 
sil 


I- magkhik 

marsa 
dare langar 

wa, u 
bmisa, kriba 


animal 


gentani 


Ijaiwan, 
dahba 


hewan 


ankle 


hot (vodits) 


qulpai 


ka'ba 


answer {v.) 


badaskhanel 


jawab da 


mjuweble 


anvil 

anybody 

anywhere 


sal 

vo-yeve-megu 
our yev itse 


sindan 
harkas 
har 'arde 


sindana 
kill nasha 
kuU duka 


apple 


khntzor 


sev 


khabSsha 


appoint 


nshanagel 


ta*yin kerya 


matiw 


approach 


modenal 


nezik hat 


qrule 


apricot 


dziran 


mizhmizh 


mishmisha 



304 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish, 

April Nisan Nisan Nisan 

Arab 'Arabi {pL 'ArabI, Tazi 'Arab 

'Arab) 

Arabia Bilad el-' Arab 'Arabistan 'Arabistan 

arm (w.) kitf , dhra' bazu (upper) ; qol 

sa'id (lower) 

armed musallah musallah silahli • 

armour dira' zireh zir^ 

arms(weapons) aslihah asliheh silah 

jesh {pi. ]u- lasbkar ordu, 'asker 

yush) 

firqah {pi. urdu qol ordu 
firaq) 

hawL atraf-e etrafda 



army 

army corps 
around 
arrange 



retteb, yuret- tartib dadan, qararlashdir- 
tib deb or ara- maq, tertib 

Stan, ara etmek 



arrest {v.) qabadh 'ala ; tauqif kardan, tutmaq, habs 



arrive 

arsenal 

artillery 



ashes 
ashore 

ask 
I ask 



waggaf, yu- kun 
waggif 
wasal, yosal rasidan, ras 

tereskhanah qur-khana 

madafi' (can- tup-khaneh 
non), tobchia 
(gunners) 



thou askest 
he asks 
we ask 



ramad 
'ala'1-barr, 

bil-ga' 
se'el, yes'al 

ana es'al 

inta tes'al 
hua yes'al 
ihna nes'al 



khakistar 
bar zamin 



etmek 

varmaq, gel- 

mek 
topkhane, 

tersane 
toplar 



kul 

qaraya, qarada 



pursidan,purs sormaq 
mi-pursam sorarim 



mi-pursi 

mi-pursad 

mi-pursim 



sorarsin 

sorar 

sorariz 



you ask 



intu tes'alun mi-pursid sorarsiniz 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



305 



English. 
April 
Arab 


Armenian. 
April 
Arab 


Kurdish. 
Nisan 
'Arab 


Syriac. 
Nisan 
'Arabaya 


Arabia 
arm (n.) 


Arabia 
tev 


'Arabistan 
bask 


'Arabistan 
dra'a 


armed 
armour 
arms 
army 


zinvadz 
zrah 
zenq 
zorq 


bchak 
zir 
chak 
'askar 


b-chakke 
dir' 

chakke 
'askar 


army corps 


zorakound 


ordu 


ordu 


around 
arrange 


polordig 
garkatrel 


charrakh {de- 
clin.), ledaor 
paikat keri 


erzibani 
mtukesle 


arrest {v.) 


pantargel 


guert 


erele, dawiq 


arrive 


hasnel 


gahesht 


mtele 


arsenal 
artillery 


zinaran, tnta- 
notaran 
thntanotq 


jabakhana 
top-khana 


jabakhana 
top 


ashes 
ashore 


ajiun, mokhir 
i tsamaq 


kholli 
sar 'ard 


qetma 
resh ar'a 



ask 
I ask 

thou askest 
he asks 
we ask 

you ask 



hartsnel, pesiar ker mbuqere 

yes pesiar kerim mbaqren 

g'hartsnem 

tou g'hartsnes ta pesiar keri mbaqret 

an g'hartsne au pesiar ker kimbaqer 

menq g'harts- ma pesiar mbaqrokh 

nenq kerin 

touq hun pesiar mbaqrutu 

g'hartsneq kerin 



306 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
they ask 

I shall ask 

I asked 
asleep 

ass 

astern 

at 

at least 
at most 

at once 

attack {n.) 
attack {v.) 

August 
Austria 
Austrian 

authority 



Arabic. Persian. 

hum yes'alun mi-pursand 



khaham 
pursid 
pursidam 
khab 



Turkish. 
sorarlar 

sorajaghm 



sordum 
uyumush, uy- 
quda 
khar, ulagh eshek, merkeb 



'aqab, dar pai arqasina, ar- 

dinda 
nazd, dar -a, -da {suffix) 



ana es'al 

se'elt 
nayim 

hamar {fl. 

hamir) 
li-wara 

'ala, bi, fi 

aqallan 
el-akther, el- 

aghlab 
hessa, 

bis-sa'ah 
hujum hujum hujum 

hejem 'ala, liujiim kardan, hujum etmek 
_yihjam'ala kun 
Ab Ab, Murdad Aghostos 

Nimsa Namseh Nemse 

Nimsawi Namsawi Avstriali, Nem- 

seli 
hukm iqtidar hukm 



olmazsa 
en nihayet, 
olsa olsa 
hala, fauran birden bire 



aqallan 
muntahash 



autumn kharif khizan son bahar 

avenge intaqam, yan- intiqam kashi- intiqam etmek 

taqim or dan, kash 

akhadh eth- 

thar, ya'kh- 

udh eth-thar 

average [n.) mu*addal bar-avard-e 

mutavassit 

aviator t^yyar hava-paima 



awake {adj.) yaqdhan, bidar 

ga'id, hasis 
axe fa's {fl. fu'us) tabar 



orta, avarya 
tayareji 
uyaniq 
balta 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



307 



English. 
they ask 

I shall ask 

I asked 
asleep 

ass 

astern 

at 

at least 
at most 

at on'ce^ 

attack {n.) 
attack [v.) 

August 
Austria 
Austrian 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

anonqg'harts- awan pesiar kimbaqri 
nen kerin 

yes bidi harts- aze pesiar kim bedmbaqren 
nem 
yes hartsri ma pesiar ker mbuqeri 

qouni mecli, khafti dmikha 
qnatsogh 

esh, avanag kar hmara 

i hedoust navi, la pashe b-kharayiitha 

navi yedeven 

{notinusesepa- e{as termina- bi- 

rately) ' Hon) 

keth, arr nvazn bkemahie b-qalilutha 

arr arravel bgalakiye b-kabirutha 



isguyn 

hartzagoumn 
hartsagil 

Okostos 

Avstria 
Avstriatsi 



bgalakiye 

halan 

palamard 
hujumker 

Tabbakh 

Namsa 

Namsi 



halan, alba'al 

hujum 
hjimle 

Tabbakh 

Namsa 

Namsaya 



authority ishkhanoutiun, paya, jah, maruta, huqma 

arzhanabad- qadr 

voutiun 
autumn Ashoun pahiz cherl 

avenge tol §tandin shqille tol 



average (n.) 
aviator 
awake (adj.) 


michin 

Trchogh 
C flier') 
artoun 


takhmin, 

rib 
taiyarchi, 

ferranchi 
hishshar 


taq- 

L 


qudra 

nashaparukha, 
taiyarchi 
mrisha 


axe 


gatsin 


taver 

U 2 




nara 



308 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


axle 


mihwar 


mihwar 


mil 


backwards 


ila wara 


taraf-e aqab, 
or rii bi-pas 


geri 


bacon 


lahm khanzir 


giisht-e khuk 


domuz eti 






(pork), giisht- 








e-khuk-e dud 








dada, giisht-€ 








khiik-e bi- 








namak par- 








vorda 




bad 


mu zen, kha- 
rab, radi 


bad 


fena 


baggage 


agbradh, gradh asbab-i-safar 


eshya 


bake 


khabaz, yakh- 


pukhtan, paz 


f urunda pishir- 




biz 


or biry an kar- 


mek 


• 




dan, kun 




bale {n.) 


fardah {pi. 
fardat) . 


basteh, bar 


balya ^ 


ballast 


thuql mal el- 
markab 


parsang 


safra, kum 


bandage {n.) 


rabat 


'isabeh 


sarghi 


bank (of river 


) jurf, sob 


kinareh 


sii kenari, 
irmaq kenari 


bar (sand) 


shelhah 


pushta-ye iig 
dar dahiana- 
ye rudkhana 


sighliq 


barber 


muzeyyin 


dallak 


berber 


barley- 


sha'ir 


jau 


arpa 


barometer 


mizan hawa 


mizan-i-hawa 


hava-terazisi, 
barometro 


barracks 


qishlah 


qishleh, sar- 
baz-khaneh 


qishla 


barrel (of a 


umbub 


lule-yi-tufang 


tuf eng demiri 


gun) 








barricade 


mahajar 


sangar 


metris 


basket 


sellah {pi. sa- 
lal), zembil 
{pi. zanabll) 


sapad, zambil 


seped, zenbil 


baths 


hammam 


hammam 


hamraam 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



309 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


axle 
backwards 

bacon 


arrantsq 
tebi-yed 

khozi aboukht 


mihvar 
pishpashi, 
pishtapisht 
goshte-baraz 


qara 
1-baru 

bisra mlikha 
d-khzura 



bad kesh, vad pis, nachak bisha, la 

, randa 

baggage ireghen, kuyq tisht, kerpal kherrumerre 

bake khorovel pezhin ipele 



bale (i^.) 
ballast 



balia, apranqi 
berm 
navakhij 



bar 



tena, farda 



bandage {n.) patet, gab, 

patatan 
bank (of river) kedap 



bar (sand) 



barber 

barley 
barometer 

barracks 

barrel (of a 
gun) 
barricade 
basket 



tzogh, arkelq 
(' sand ' = 
avaz) 

saprich 

kari 

dzanrachap, 
otatsuyts 
zoranots 



parse gamiye saburta 

d-markwa 
pechik ribata 

terefe ave siptha d-yama. 
siptha 
de-shatta 

khiz- barzakji qiimsal 



barbar, muzai- dalag 
yin, sartirash 
jah §are 



qishla 
klan (hratsani) lulae tufaka 



qishla 



Iwishta de 
tfakta 

badnesh chapar chapara 

goghov sela, sebed qartala 



baths 



baghniq 



hammam j^ammam 



310 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


battalion 


tabur 


tabur 


tabur 


battery 


batariyah 


batariyeh 


tabiye (for- 
tress) ; batari- 
ya (movable) 


battle 


muharabah 


Jang 


muharebe 


battleship 


markab liarbi, 


jabaz- {or 


harb sefinesi 


« 


manwar 


kashti) i-jang 


i 


bay 


khallj 


khallj 


korfez 


bayonet 


sengi, harbah 


sar-naizeh 


siingii 


beacb 


sahil 


sahil, kinareh 


yali kenari, 
deniz kenari 


beacon 


fanar, manarah nishan-i-atashi fanar ♦ 


beans 


ful 


lubiya, baqila 


baqla, fas- 
suya 


bear {n.) 


dibb 


khiis 


ayi^ 


beard 


lihyah 


rish 


saqal 


bearer(porter) 


hammal 


qasid, hamil 


hammal 


bearing {nmit.) jihab 




jihet 


beat {v.) 


dharab, yadh- 


kutak zadan, 


vurmaq 




rib 


zan 




beautiful 


hulu, jamil 


khushnuma, 
khub 


giizel 


because 


miu sebeb, 
li-ana 


zira, chira ki 


zira, chiinki 


bed 


firash 


takht-i-khab 


yataq 


bedroom 


gubbat en-nom utaq-i-khab 


yataq odasi 


bedstead 


charpayah 


takht-e khab 


kerevet 


bee 


zambur 


zambur-e asal 


ari 


beef 


lahm baqar 


gusht-i-gau 


okiiz eti, 
sighir eti 


beer 


birah 


ab-i-jau 


arpa suyu, bira 


beet 


shawandar 


chughundar 


panjar 


before (time) 


gabl 


qabl az 


-dan evvel 
(sujfflx) 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



311 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


battalion 


vasht 


tabiir 


tabur 


battery 


bataria, sharq 
thntanotits 




desta d-top 


battle 


baderazm 


sharr 


sharre 


battleship 


rrazmanav, 


gamiye sharre 


markwa 




mardanav 




d -sharre 


bay 


khorsh, dzots 


khalij 


khalij 


bayonet 


svin 


khistah 


harbah, khishta 


beach 


dzovap 


teraf e shatte 


siptha d-shatta 


beacon 


hranshan, 
gragi nshan 


nishane agire 


nishan d-niira 


beans 


fasoulia, lobi 


baqille 


lobia, baqille 


bear {n.) 


arrch, 


herch, khurs 


dibba 


beard 


morouq 


rih 


diqna 


bearer(porter) 


grogh, danogh 


hamil, helgir- 


- lablaua, hamal 




(mshag) 


an, birinan 




bearing 


goghm, tirq, 
untatsq navi 






beat {v.) 


zarnel, dzedzel 


leda 


mkhele 


beautiful 


siroun, 
keghetsig 


sherin, dalal 


randa, shapira 


because 


vorovhedev 


lebar, bo 


min sabab 


bed 


angoghin 


nivin, doshak 


shwitha 


bedroom 


nnjaran, 


manzalene vis- 


■ oda di-dmakha 




nnjaseniag 


tine 




bedstead 


mahdjagal, 


takht 


qaiawat 




angoghin, ma 


- 






hidjk; kary- 








ola (Turkish) 






bee 


meghou 


heng, maisha 
hingiv 


- dabasha 


beef 


yezan mis 


goshte gah 


bisra d-taura 


beer 


karechour 




bira 


beet 


pazoug 


shawandar 


shawandare 


before (time) 


arrach 


peshin 


qam 



312 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


before (place) 


guddam 


qabl az 


oniinde {suffix) 


begin 


ibteda, yeb- 


aghaz kardan, 


bashlaraaq 




tedi 


kun or shuru' 
kardan, kun 




behind 


wara 


pusht, pai 


ard, arqa 


believe 


i'taqad, 


bavar kardan, 


inanmaq 




ya'taqid 


kun 




bell 


jurs {pi. 


zang 


chang (large), 




jurus) 


■ 


chingharaq 
(small) 


below 


3 6a, taht 


zir 


alt, altinda 


bench (sofa) 


takhat 


nimkat 


sedir 


bend (v.) 


'awwaj, yu'aw 


- kham kardan. 


eyrimek 




wij 


kun 


/ 


berth 


firash 


ja-yi-khab 


yataq 


beside 


yem, bi-janib 


pahlii-ye 


yaninda 


besiege 


hasar, yuhasir 


muhasareh 


muhasere et- 






kardan, 


mek, qushat- 






kun 


maq 


betray- 


khan, yakhiin 


khiyanat 
kardan, kun 


kheydnetetmek 


better; best 


ahsan; el-ahisan behtar ; 


daha eyi ; "^en 






behtarin 


eyi, en a'la 


between 


ben 


ma bain, dar 
miyan 


ara-sinda 


beyond 


ghadi 


antaraf-i.-..., 
wara-yi... 


iite-sinda 


big 


kabir(i)Lkibar 


) buzurg 


biiyiik 


bigger ; biggest akbar; el-akbar buzurgtar ; 


daha biiyiik ; 






buzurgtarin 


en biiyiik 


bill (account) 


hisab 


hisab 


hisab 


billet {trans.) 


nezzel 'askar 


ja dadan, deh 


oturtmaq 


binoculars 


darbin 


dur-bin 


durbin 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



313 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

before (place) arracli, arrchev labar qam 

begin usgsel dastpekir mdushinne, 

msbare 



behind edev pasli, lapisht bkharayutha 

believe havadal bawar kir mhiimenne 



bell 



zankag 



cliang, jinjil zJga 



below 



tsadz, nerqev bin 



iltekh, kbo- 
tbed 
bench (sofa) nsdaran kursi direzh, takhta 

paka 
bend (v.) theqel, dzrrel chamin tiple 



berth 
beside 


nav-angoghin 
patsi, izad 


nezik 


qamarah 
1-giba d- 


besiege 


basharel 


hasar kir 


nihusere 


betray 


madnel 


kheyanat kir 


khinne, msapi 


better ; best 


aveli lav, 


cheter khwash- bish tau, or 




lavokuyn, 
amenalav 


tir, qanjtir, 
chaktir 


bush spayi 


between 


michev 


ben, nav 


ben, bil 


beyond 


antin 


idi teraf 


lau bala khenna 


big 


medz 


mazin 


raba 


bigger ; biggest aveli medz, 


mazintir, galak bish raba ; ka- 




medzakuyn, 
amenamedz 


mazin 


bira raba 


bill (account) 


hashiv 


bisab, zhmar- 


- hisab, khish- 






tin 


buna 


billet (trans.) 


deghavorel 






binoculars 


herratitag {lit. 
telescope) ; 
yergachia 
achotsq (lit. 
two-eyed 


dorbin 


durbin 



314 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian, 


Turkish. 


bird 


ter {pi. tuyur) 


murgh 


qiish 


bit (of horse) 


lijam 


dahaneh, lijam gem 


bit (piece) 


waslah 


pareh 


parcha 


bitter 


murr 


talkh 


aji 


bitumen 


gir 


naft 


qara saqiz, yer 
sakizi 


black 


aswad 


siyJlh 


qara, siyuh 


blacksmith 


haddad 


ahangar 


demirji, na'al- 
band 


blame (v.) 


lam, yalum 


malamat 


qabahat bul- 






kardan, kun 


maq, zemm 
etmek 


blanket 


lihaf 


lihaf, gilim 


yorghan (quilt) 


bleed {inirans. 


) tala' dem, 


khiin jari 


qanamaq 




yitla' dem 


shudan, 
shau 




blind 


a*ma {fl. 
*amyan) 


kiir 


kor 


blockade (w.) 


hisar 


muhasareh 


abloqa, 
qushatma 


blood 


dem 


khun 


qan 


blow (v.) 


habb, yahibb 


nafkh kardan, 
kun or dami- 


esmek 






dan, dam 




blow (n.) 


dharbah 


zarb, zakhm 


wurush 


blue 


azraq 


abi, lajiward 


mavi 


blunt 


a'ma (blind) 


kund 


kor 


boat 


bellam (like 


zauraq, kashti sandal, qayiq 




gondola) ; ma 


- 






shuf (reed 








canoe) 






body (living) 


jised {pi. aj- 
sad) 


tan 


beden, vujud 


body (mass of 


jama' ah 


jam'iyat 


jem'iyet 


people) 








boil {trans.) 


aghla, yughli 


jiish dadan, 


qainatmaq 




or fawwar, yu- 


• deh 






fawwir 






boil (intrans.) 


ghala, yaghli 
or far, yafur 


jiishidan, jush 


qamamaq 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



315 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

bird trrchoun t^irek, baldar taira 

bit (of horse) santz lijam, hafsar legbema 

bit (piece) badarr, pegor pechak, parcha parclia 

bitter tarrn, leghi tahl, tal marira 

bitumen goubr zift, qir khimar 

black sev rash koma 

blacksmith tarpin, yer- asengar, hadad haddada, 

gatakordz damurchi 

blame {v.) barsavel razil kir mruzelle la'im 



blanket vermag 

bleed (intrans.) ariunel 



lahef, jajim khlepa 

khun da mujrele dimma 



blind guyr 

blockade (n.) basharoumn 



blood 
blow (v.) 



armn 
harvadzel, 
zarnel 



kor 

hisar 

khun 
werzln 



blow (n.) harvadz, zarg sil 

blue gabuyd shin, kau 

blunt koulj pout kop 

boat navag gami, belem 



simya, kora 

muhasarah 

dimma 
mkhele paukha 



milana, zarqa 

kopa 

gamiyah 



bodv 



marmin 



lash 

jama' at 
kalandi 



body (mass of khoump. 
people) zhoghov 

boil {trans.) yerratsnel 
(water) ; 
khashel (egg) 
boil {intrans.) yerral kul bi 



paghra 
jama' at 
murthekhle 

rthekhle 



316 


GLOSSARIES OF WORD^ 


» 


English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


boiled rice 


timmen mat- 


chilau 


pishmish pirinj , 




bukh 




pilaf 


boiler 


fawwarah, ka- 

van 


dig-i-buzurg 


qazan 


bomb (n.) 


qanbalah 


bomb, qum- 
bara 


qumbara 


bombard 


dharab top, 


bi-tup bastan 


topa tutmaq 




yadrab t5p 






bond (legal) 


sened 


qabz, tamas- 
suk 


tahvil 


bone 


'adhm {pL 
a'dham) 


ustukhan 


kemik 


book 


kitab {pi. ku- 
tub) 


kitab, nameh 


kitab 


boot 


lapjinah {pi. 


kafsh 


chizme, qun- 




lapjin) ; jaz- 




dura (shoe) ; 




mah (native) 




pabuj (slipper) 


boot-lace 


sharit (el-qan- 


kafsh-band 


qundura 




darah) 




qordelasi 


both (you) 


ithnenekum 


har-du 


ikiniz 


bottle 


shishah {pi. 
shiyash) 


shisheh 


shishe 


bottom 


esfel, qa'r 


teh 


dib 


bow (of ship) 


sadr el-markab muqaddame- 


geminin bashi 






yi-kashti 




bowels 


ma^arin 


rudeh 


baghirsaq 


box 


sanduq {pi. 
sanadiq) 


sandiiq 


sanduq, qutu 


boy 


walad {pi. aw- 
lad) 


pisar 


oghlan, chojuq 


brackish 


malili 


shiir 


tuzlu 


bran 


nakhalah 


sabiis 


kepek 


brave 


shajja', jasur 


shuja*, dilawar yigit, jesur 


brazier 


manqalah 


manghal 


manghal 


bread 


khubz 


nan 


ekmek 


breadth 


'ardh 


pahnayi 


enlilik 


break 


kesar, yiksar 


shikastan. 


qirmaq 




- 


shikan 





GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



317 



English. 
boiled rice 

boiler 

bomb {n.) 

bombard 

bond (legal) 

bone 

book 

boot 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

khasbadz pirinjekalandi,rizza mbushla 

printz, plaf pilau 

san, gatsa qazan destitha 

rroump,kndag qiimbara qumbara 

rrmpagodzel la-top dadin dari top 

mourhag, ar- band/alaqa iltlzam 
zhetought 

vosgor hasti, isqan garma 

kirq ktaib, daftar kthawa 

goshig jazma, kaosh potine, jazma 



boot-lace 

both (you) 

bottle 

bottom 
bow (of sbip) 

bowels 
box 

boy 

brackish 
bran 

brave 

brazier 
bread 
breadth 
break 



goshigi thel 

yergouqt al 

shish 

liadag 

arrachagoghm 
navi 
aghiq 
doup, sndoug 

manch 

aghi 
tep 

qaj, gdrij 

gragaran 
hats 

laynoutiun 
godrel 



rise kundarah 

har-duan, har- 
duka 
shush 

bin 

peshine 
gamiye 
millak, rikhlu 
sanduq 

kurr 

nakhwash 
savis, sar-bez- 

hing 
dildar, juwa- 

mer 

manqal, pall 
nan 

pani, pahnT 
shikast, shi- 

kian 



gdhadha 
d-qundare 
terwe 

shusha 

shitta 
qamayiitha 
d-markwa 
millake 
sandiiqa 

brona, yala 

maliikha 



mar jiir'itta 

manqal, giimre 
likhma 
petiiitha 
twere 



318 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

breakfast futur, chai es- chai-i-§ubh , qahvalti 

subh 

breech (of gun) madhkhar et- teh top quyrughu, 

tufkeh top qichi 



breeze hawa nasim, bad riizgyar, yel 

bribe {n.) rashwah, rishva rishvet, bakh- 

bakhshlsh shish 

brick (burnt) tabuqah ajur tula 



brick (un- 

burnt) 
bridge 
bridge (of 

ship) 


liben 

jisr {-pi. jusur) 
jisr el-markab 


khisht 

jisr, pul 
pul-i-jahiiz 


kerpich 
koprii 


bridle (v.) 
brigade 


aljam, yuljim 
liwa 


lijam kardan 

kun 
fauj 


, gemvurmaq 
liwa 


bright 
bring 
broad 
broadside 


lami', mudhi 
jab, yajib 
'aridh 
'urdh 


raushan 
avurdan, ar 
pahn, *ariz 
shallik 


parlaq 
getirmek 
genish 
alabanda 


broken 

broker 
brother 


mukassar, 
munkasir 
dallal 
akh {fl. ikh- 


shikasteh 

dallal 
biradar 


qiriq 

dellal 
qardash 


brown 
brush (n,) 


wan) 
esmar 

furshah 


gandumi 
furcheh 


qahve rengi, 
esmer 
furcha 


bucket 
buffalo 
bug 


baldl 

jamus 

baqq 


satl, dul 
gavmish 
sas, malleh 


qogha 

manda, jamus 
takhta-bit 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



319 



English. 


Armenian, 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


breakfast 


nakhajash 


taisht, iitrah 


ftarta, tunita 


breech (of gun) hednadzag 


jihe phishaka 


diiktha 




hratsani, 




d-fishakke 




pampouslit 








tnelou dzag 






breeze 


zepiurr 


ba 


pokha 


bribe {n.) 


gasharq 


balsa, rushwa 


rishwat 


brick (burnt) 


aghius 
(thrtzadz) 
gghmindr 


karpich 


lune kerpich 


brick (un- 


aghius (houm) 


karpichj hajiii 


: lune 


burnt) 








bridge 


gamourch 


kiipri, jisr 


gishra 


bridge (of 


nava- 


jisre gamiye 


gishra d-mar- 


ship) 


gamourch, 
gamrchag 




kwa 


bridle {v.) 


santzel 


disgin, iaghau 


leghema 


brigade 


kound, zora- 
kound 


firqah 


firqah 


bright 


zvarth 


ruhna, ruzhin 


mabehrana 


bring 


perel 


man 


muthele 


broad 


layn 


pan, pehn 


pethya 


broadside 


goghm navi 
ousti thnta- 
notq g'ar- 
tsagvin 


paniye 




broken 


godradz 


shekast 


twira 


broker 


michnort 


jambaz, jumaz dalal 


brother 


yeghpayr, 
aghpar 


bra 


akhona 


brown 


thoukh 


rengitari, 
esmar 


asmar 


brush {n.) 


khozanag, 
frcha, vrdzin 


furchah 


furchah 


bucket 


duyl, chri tuyl dol, satlok 


daula 


builalo 


komesh 


garnish 


gamesha 


bug 


paytochil 


ishpish 


baqa 



320 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


bugle 


buri 


shaifur 


boru 


build 


bena, yibni 


bina kardan, 


yapmaq, bina 






kunor'amarat 6tmek, 






kardan, kun 


qurmaq 


bull 


thor {fl. 
thiran) 


nar gau 


bogha - 


bullet 


rasasah {fl. 
rasas) 


gululeh 


qurshun 


bullock 


thor mukhsi 


nar-gau 


iikiiz 


buoy 


shamandarah 


langar-gir 


shamandra 


Bureau-de- 


Dukkan es-sar- 


Dukkan-i- 


Sarraf 


Change 


raf 


sarraf 


dukyani 


burn {trans.) 


ahraq, yuhriq 


sukhtan, suz 


yaqmaq 


burn {intrans.) 


1 ishta'al, yash- 
ta'il ; ihtaraq 
yahtariq 


sukhtan, suz 

5 


yanmaq 


bury 


defen, yidfun 


daf n kardan, 


gomek, defn 






kun 


etmek 


bush 


'uleq, 'agul 


bisheh 


chali 


busy 


mashghul 


mashghul 


meshghul 


but 


lakin 


lakin 


amma, lakin, 
faqab 


butt (of rifle) 


qandagh, cha'b qundaq, talire 


! qondaq 






qundaq 




butter 


zibed 


kareh 


sai-yaghi, 
tere yaghi 


button {n.) 


dugmah {fl. 
dugam) 


dukmeh 


duyme 


buy 


ishtara, yash- 


kharidan, 


satin almaq 




tari 


khar 




by (near) 


qarib min, ' and nazdik, pahlui yanifida, 








yaqmda 


cabin 


qamarah 


qamareh 


qamara 


cable 


silk {fl. suluk) tanaf, habl 


qablo, khalat, 








zinjir (chain) 


cake 


kek 


kulicheh 


chorek, qora- 
biye 


calf 


*ijl {fl. 'ujul) 


gu saleh 


dana 


call (summon] 


I da' a, yad'u 


sada kardan, 
kun 


chaghirmaq 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



32 1 



English, 
bugle 
build 


Armenian. 
shepor 
shinel, 
garroutsand 


Kurdish. 
buri 
chai kir 


Syriac. 
buri, boqa 
bnele 


bull 


tsoul, yez 


gah, ganair 


taura 


bullet 


kndag 


gulla 


gunbulta, gulla 


bullock 

buoy 

Bureau-de- 

Change 
burn (trans.) 
burn (intrans. 


yerinch 

kharskhanish 

Loumayapokh, 

saraf 
ayrel 
) ayril 


gahe khasi 

, §arraf 

shawetandi 
shaweti, suti 


taura khisya 

§arrafa 

muqidhle 
iqedhle 


bury 


thaghel 


washartin 


qwere 


bush 
busy 
but 


matsarr 

uspaghvadz 

payts 


darek, belek 

bshiila 

amma 


sia'a 
bliga 
ilia, ma 


butt (of rifle) 


hratsanapoun 


qundakh 


'iqwa d-topang 


butter 


garak 


riin, kara 


kara 


button (n.) 


gojag 


diigma, pulak 


diigma 


buy 


knel 


kirri 


zwinne 


by (near) 


mod, gov 


nezik 


b-qurba 


cabin 
cable 

cake 


navaseniag 
herrakratel, 
baran 
katha 


qamarah qamarah 
waris, zenjir khaula 

kada, kulaicha kullaiche 


calf 

call (summon 


horth 
) ganchel 


yolik, junagah sharkha 
Awastin qrele 



322 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


call (cry out) 


sah, ya§ih 


faryad kardan, baghirmaq 






kun 




calm (n.) 


hudu 


aram 


limanliq 


calm (no wind) sawali 


aram 


limanliq 


calm {adj.) 


hadi 


aram 


limanliq 


camel 


jemel 


shutur 


deve 


camel-driver 


jammal 


shutur-ban 


deveji 


camel (riding] 


1 hajln, dhelul 


shutur-i-sawaribinejek deve 


camp (n.) 


mu'askar, 
mukhaiyam 


lashkargah 


chadir yeri 


can — 








I can 


ana aqdir 


mi-tawanam 


bilirim 


thou canst 


inta taqdir 


mi-tawam 


•bilirsin 


he can 


hiia yaqdir 


mi-tawanad 


bilir 


we can 


ihna naqdir 


mi-tawamm 


biliriz 


you can 


intu taqdiriin 


mi-tawanid 


bilirsiniz 


they can 


hum yaqdirun mi-tawanand 


bilirler 


I cannot 


ma aqdir 


nami-ta- 
wanam 


qadir deyil i 


can you ? 


hal taqdiriin 


mi-tawanid ? 


bilir 
misiniz ? 


canst thou ? 


hal taqdir 


mi-tawani ? 


bilir misin ? 


canal 


tur'ah, nahr 


ju, nahr 


qanal 


candle 


shema* {pi. 
shumu') 


shama' 


mum 


cannon {n.) 


top {pi. atwaf), 
medfa' {pi. 
madafi') 


tiip 


top 


cannon-ball 


gullah {pL 
gulel) 


guliila-ye tup 


obuz 


canopy 


dhalal 


sayaban 


sayeban 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



323 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriuc. 


call (cry out) 


korral, kochel 


dang kir 


m'uyitle 


calm [n.) 


meghmoutiun 


huduw, bedan- 
gahi 


nikhutha 


calm (no wind) 


1 khaghagh, 


rahat, be-ba, 


shelya 




hantard 


sukiin 




calm [adj.) 


meghm 


hadi, bedang 


TiTkha 


camel 


oughd 


heshter 


gumla 


camel-driver 


oughdaban 


heshtervan 


jammal 


camel (riding) 


nsdelou oughd 


heshterswar 


rkule 1-gumla 


camp (n.) 


panag, zora- 
panag 


urdi 


ma'askar 


can — 


garogh 


, 




I can 


yes garogh 


az tshem, 


ibi, masin 




yem 


karim 


{or msin) 


thou canst 


ton garogh 

yes 


tu tshe, kari 


ibokh, maset 


he can 


an garogh e 


au tsbet, 
tkaret 


ibe, masi 


we can 


menq garogh 


am tshen. 


iban, masakh 




yenq 


tkarin 




you can 


touq garogh 


hun tshen, 


ibaukhu, 




eq 


tkarin 


masitun 


they can 


anonq garogh 


wan tshen, 


ibai, masi 




yen 


tkarin 




I cannot 


yes ch'em 


az nashshim, laibf, le ma§in 




garogh 


. nekarim 




can you ? 


garogh eq 


hun tshen ? 


gallo ibaukhu, 




artiog ? 


tkarin ? 


masitun 


canst thou ? 


ch'es garogh 


tu tshe ? 


gallo ibokh, 




artioq ? 


tkari ? 


maset 


canal 


chrantsq 


kanal 


nehra 


candle 


mom, jrak 


mum, shemal 


sham'ah 


cannon {n,) 


thntanot 


top 


top giira 


cannon-ball 


kntag 


guUae-top 


gula d-top 


canopy 


ambhovani 


sewan, nam- 


makasta 



usiya 



x2 



324 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
canter {v.) 

canvas 

cap 

capable 

cape (promon- 
tory) 
capstan 

captain (of 
ship) 

(of native 
craft) 
captain 

(military) 
captive 
capture (men) 

capture 
(place) 
capture (seize, 

V,) 

caravan 

care (you take 

care !) 
careful 

cargo 
carpenter 

carpet 
carry 



cart 



Arabic. 
hadhab. yab- 

dhib 
jimfas 

tarbush ; kap 
(European) 

muqtedir 

ra's 

dulab el-habl 

qabtan or ra'is 
el-markab 

nokhadlia 

yiizbasbi 

asir {pi. usara) 
esser, yu'essir 

qabadh 'ala, 
yaqbidh 'ala 
mesek, yimsak 

karwan 

dir balak 

mutaqayyid 

himl 
najjar 

ziilia, bisat 
hamal, yahmil 
or shal, yashil 

'arabah 



Persian. Turkish. 

yurgheh raft an, rah van gitmek 

rau 
kirbas 



kulah 



qabil 
ra's . 

charkh-i- 

langar 
na-khuda, 

ra'is 



yelken bezi, 
yelken 

f es, kasket ; 
shapqa (Euro- 
pean) 

qadir, muk- 
tedir 

burun 

bojprghat, 

iirgat 
re'is, gemi 

suwarisi, 

qapudan 



yuzbashi yuzbashi 

asir esir 

asir giriftan, esiralmaq 

gir 

giriftan, gir feth etmek 



giriftan 

karawan, 

qafileh 
multafit bash, 

or hazar kun 
ba-hazar 

haml 
najjar 

qali, farsh 
haml kardan, 
kun or naql 
kardan, kun 
arabeh 



tutmaq 
kyarvan 
diqqat et, saqin 

diqqatli, gyuzu 

achiq 
hamule, yiik 
doghramaji, 

marangos 
kilim, hali 
tashimaq, go- 

tiirmek, naql 

etmek 
*araba, yiik 

*araba-si 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



325 



English. 
canter (y.) 

canvas 

cap 



Arynenian. 
salasmpakel 



Kurdish. 
char'ar cho, 
baz cho 



arrakasd 

klkharg, kdag klo, kopin 



Syriac. 
mutrele 



kusitha 



capable garogh, jardar qadir, zirak qabil, ziraq 

cape (promon- saravand, sare chiae resha 

tory) hrwandan 

capstan anvord dulabe warise diilaba 

d-khaula 

captain (of navabed qaptan, sare qaptan 

ship) gamiye 



captain 

(military) 
captive 
capture (men) 


hariurabed 

keri 
prrnel, keri 

prrnel 
kravel 

, kravel, prrnel 


yuzbashi 

girti 
girt 


yuzbashi 

eria, hbisa 
erele, dawiq 


capture 
(place) 
capture (seize. 

V.) 


zabt kir, 

§tand 
girtin, ra- 

hishtin 


shqille 
dawiq 


caravan 


garavan 


karwan 


karwan 


care (you take ezkoysh yegbir hishar ba, 
care !) balak 


hawit heshar 


careful 


zkoushavor 


hishshar, 
agah 


fatln 


cargo 
carpenter 


navaperr 
hiusn, adagh- 
tsakortz 


bar 

najar, dartash 


tena 
I nagara, najar 


carpet 
carry 


kork, carpet 
danel, grel 


berzin, fersh 
bir, hal girt 


mahfurta 
labii 



cart 



sayl, garrq *arabaye bare *araba d-tcna 



326 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
cartridge 

cart-track 

cash 



Arabic. 
fishgah 

{pi. fisheg) 
sikkat el- 

' arabah 
nuqud 



Persian. 
fishang 

rah-i-'arabi- 
yeh 
naqd 



Turhish. 

fislienk 

'araba yolu 
naqd 



castle 

cat 

catch 

cattle 

cavalry 

cave 

ceiling 
cellar 

cement 
cemetery 

centre 



certainly 

chain 
chair 

change (ex- 
change, V.) 

change (n.) 



channel 



qasr (pZ. qu§ur) burj, qal'ah 
bazzunah gurbeh 

mesek, yimsak giriftan, gir 



mawashi 

khail, sawa- 
riyah 
mugharah 

sagf 

sirdab [yl. sa- 
ladib) 
kils, chemento 
maqbarah 

markaz (of 
circle and 
government) 



nia'lum, belli albatteh 



haiwanat 

suwareh 

ghar 

saqf 
sardab 



saruj 
qabristan 

markaz 



qal'e 
kedi 
tutmaq, yaqa- 

lamaq 
bahaim, hai- 

wanlar 
suwari 

maghara 

tavan 
makhzen, qilar 



qa- 



zanjil, 

skumli, kursi 

beddel, yubed- 
dil ; sarraf 
(of money) 

qusiir (of 
money) 

mejra 



chimento 
mezarliq, 
bristan 
merkez (gov- 
ernmental), 
orta, vesat (of 
circle) 
elbette, 
shiibhesiz 
zinjir zinjir 

sandali, kursi sandaliye 
taghyir dadan bozmaq (of 
money) 

khurda, piil-e ufaq para 
khurda (of money) 

(of money) 

baghaz, tang-i- mejra, yataq, 
darya boghaz 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



327 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


cartridge 


pampousht 


fishak 


fishakka 


cart-track 


sayli jampa 


ria 'arabana 


urkha d-'araba 


cash 


badrast ardzat, 
badrast tram, 
badrast esdag 


, draf, para 


zuze 


castle 


amrots, tghiag 


qakj kushk 


qasra 


cat 


gadou 


ketek, psuk 


qatiitha 


catch 


prrnel 


girt 


erele, dawiq 


cattle 


anasoun 


dawar, sawat 


haiwane 


cavalry- 


hedzelazorq 


suwar 


rakawe 


cave 


ayr, qarayr 


mughara, kal- 
waz 


- guppltha 


ceiling 


arrastagh 


sarban, ban 


shkiiri 


cellar 


marran, 


zagha, sardap sardapa 




ngough 






cement 


shaghakh 


gej 


kelsha 


cemetery 


kerezmanadoun guristan, zia- 


bet qorawati 






rat 




centre 


getron 


navraz, mar- 


markaz 






kaz 


be-pelga 



certainly 


anshoushd 


hare, di ma'lum 


chain 


shghta 


zinjir shishilta 


chair 


athorr 


kursi, chwarpe kursi 


change (ex- 


pokhel 


gohirrin, mshaklip 


change, V.) 




bzhardin, ba- 
dal kirin 


change {n.) 


manrouq sdag, 


khurda, wur- zuzi khwara 




pokh (of 


dapara (of money) 




money) 


(of money) 


channel 


chouri negh- 
outs, pos, 
chrantszq 


shaqita 



328 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


charcoal 


fahm hatab 


zughal 


kyumur 


chart 


kharl^ah 


khariteh, jad- 
wal 


kliarita 


cheap 
cheek 


rakhi? 


arzan 


ujQz 


khadd (pZ. 


rukh 


yanaq 




khudiid) 






cheerful 


bashshush, 


khush-hal, 


giiler yiizlii, 




masrur 


masriir 


khoshnud 


cheese 


jiben 


panir 


penir 


chemist 


ejzachi 


dava-saz 


ejzaji 


chicken 


dujajah (pZ. 
dujaj) 


jujeh 


pilij 


chief (w.) 


ra'Is, shaikh, 
miikhtar 


khan 


re'is, bash 


children 


awlad, atfal 


bachagan,atfa] 


I evlad,chojuqlar 


chin 


dhuqan 


zanakhdan 


chene 


chisel 


minqar 


ishkaneh 


qalem 


choose 


iklitar, yakh- 


guzidan, guzln 


sechmek 




tar 


or intikhab 
kardan, kun 




Christ 


('Isa) el-Masih 


Masih 


el Messih 


christian 


mesihi ; nas- 


isavJ, masihi 


khristian ; 




rani (less po- 




giaur (not 




lite) 




polite) 


Christmas 


Id el-milad 


*Id-i-milad 


Milad-i-'Isa 
yortusu 


church 


kanisah 


killsa 


kilise 


cigarette 


jigarah 


sigar, sigarcha 


sigara 


circle 


dayirah 


da'ireh 


da'ire 


city 


wilayah, me- 
dinah, beled 


shahr 


shehir 


civil (non- 


eheli 


muduni 


ghairi askeri 


military) 









GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



329 



English. 
charcoal 
chart 

cheap 
cheek 

cheerful 



chemist 

chicken 

chief (n.) 

children 

chin 
chisel 

choose 



Armenian. 
adzoukh 
navaqardez, 

qardez 
azhan 
ayd 

ourakh 

banir 

teghakordz, 
teghavadjar 
varrieg 

bed 

yerekhayq 

dznot 

krich (qanta- 
goghats), 
qandagich 
kortziq 

undrel 



Kurdish. 
pell, zikhal 



arzan 
gup, chur 



shad 

penir 

azachi, dar- dermanchi 
man-firosh 



Syriac. 
komur 
kharitah 

arzani 
lama, patha 

psikha 

gupta 



chuchik 

sar, maqiil 

zaru bechuk, 

minal 
chin, zinj 
askana 



farkha, 

kthaitha 
resha 

yale zore 

daqintha 
mabrad 



bzharain, hal mgiibele 
chinin 



Christ Qristos *Isa mshikha 

christian qrisdonia nasrani, fillah nasraya 



Christmas 

church 

cigarette 
circle 

city 

civil (non- 
military) 



Dznount 



Biyalde 
•eta 



yegeghetsi, der 

zham 

klanig, sigaret sigara chigara 

shrchan, ger, hawir dairah, hiidhra 

shrchanag 

qaghaq shahr, balad, mdita 

bazhar 

qaghaqagan, mulki, ahli- la qoshiinaya 

qaghaqayin qalam 



330 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

claim (/i.) da'wa {fl. da' va, or iddi' a da' va 

da' awl) 
clan qabilah {'pl. qabileli qablle, 'ashiret 

qaba'il) or 

*ashlrah {pl. 

'asha'ir) 



clean {adj.) 


nadhif 


pak 


temiz 


clean {v.) 


nadhdhaf yuna 


- pak kardan, 


temizlemek 




dhdhif 


kuu or tanzif 
kardan, kun 




clear (pure. 


^afi; wadhih 


§af 


achiq 


bright) 


(evident) ; 
farigh, beli 
mawani (of 
road) 






clerk 


katib 


munchi, nuvi- 
sanda 


kyatib, yaziji 


cliff 


jurf {pl. jur- 
fan) 


partgah 


uchurum, qaya 


clock 


sa'ah 


sa'at 


sa'at 


close {v.) 


ghallaq, yu- 
ghalliq (of 
door) ; sedd, 
yasidd (close 
up) 


bastan, band 


qapamaq 


closet (water) 


edebkhanah 


khala 


memsha, ab- 
dest khane 


clothes 


hudum 


libas 


elbise, ruba 



cloud 

coal 
coast 

coat 



coffee 



cold (in head) zukam 



ghemah {pl. abr bulut 

ghem) 
fahm hajari zughal-i-sangi kiimiir 
sahil {pl. sawa- sahil deniz kenari, 

hil) sahil 

sitrah nimtana setri 

(Turkish) (jacket) ; ku- 

laja (frock- 
coat) 
gahwah qahweh qahve 

zukam, sarma nezle 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



331 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Sj/riac, 

claim (n.) balianch da'wah, talab matlab 

clan dobm, tsegh ojakh, khil 'ashira 



clean {adj.) 
clean (v.) 



maqour 
maqrel 



paqij, pak 
paqij kir 



nadifa 
mundifle 



clear 



hstag, barz 



zalal, ruhnak ?epya 



clerk 


krakir 


katib, 
inda 


niwis- 


katawa 


cliff 


kahavand, 
zliayrrap 


kandal 




kandala 


clock 


zhamatsuyts 


sa'at 




sa'ah 


close (v.) 


pagel 


bestin 




erele, skere 



closet (water) 


ardaqnots 






abldast 


clothes 
cloud 


hantertz, 
koustner, 
kestner 

amb 


ha- 
ez- 


jull, libas 
aur 


juli 
aiwa 


coal 
coast 

coat 


adzoukh 

dzovezr, 

dzovap 

verargou 




fahm, kemur 
kenar 

jubbahj sako, 
qaftan 


shekhore 
rakhkha 
d-maya 
giidda 


cofEee 

cold (in head) 


sourj, kafe 
harpoukh 




qahwa 
sarma 


qahwa 
shauba, zuka m 



332 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

cold (in chest) su'al surfeh nezle-i-sadriye 



cold bard 
(temperature) 
cold {adj.) barid 

collar yakhah 

collect jama*, yijma* 

collision - mu^adamah 

colonel miralai 



colour 
colours (flag) 

colt 

comb (n.) 

come 

come (imper.) 

comfortable 



command (n.) 

commander 
commerce 

commission 

commodore 

communica- 
tion 
companion 



lon(23Z.alwan) 
beraq 

muhr " 
misht 
ja, yajl 
ta'al 

mustarih (of 
person) ; mu- 
rih (of thing) 

amr {pi. awa- 
mir) 

qamandan 

tijarah 

ma'murlyet 

ra'is ustul 

muwasalah 

rafij or raflq 
{pi. rufaqa) 



sarma 

sard 

fukul, yakheh 

jam' kardan, 

kun 
tasadum 

sartip 



rang 
bairaq 

kurreh 

shana 
amadan, ai 
biya 

rahat 



farman 

sardar 
tijarat 



soghiiq 

soghuq 
yaqaliq, yaqa 

toplamaq 

musademe, 

charpishma 
qaim-maqam 

(lieut.-col.) ; 

miralai (full 

col.) 
renk 
bairaq, sanjaq, 

'alem 
tai 
taraq 
gelmek 
gel 

rahat 



emr, buyii- 

ruldu 
qomandan 
alish-verish, 

tijaret 
me'muriyet 



ma muriyat 

darya-begl 

muwasaleh 

rafiq, hamrah arqadash 



filo suvarisi, 

qumidor 
mukhabere 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



333 



English. Armenian. 

cold (in chest) gourdzqi 
tsourd, 
mrsadz 
(gourdzqen) 

cold tsourd 

(temperature) 

cold {adj.) bagh, sarrn 

collar otziq 



Kurdish. 



collect 

collision 

colonel 



havaqel 

untharoum 

kndabed 



sar 



Syriac. 



qarlrutha 



sar, zukum qarira 

milwanka, yakhah 

yakha 

pin khestin, mjume'Ie 

gilir kir 

musadama mkhaya lekli- 

dbadhe 

nuralai miralai 



colour kuyn 

colours (flag) trosh 



rang 
sanjaq 



gauna 
bairaq 



colt mdrouk juwani, kurrali muhirtha 

comb {n.) sandr shanik mesreqta 

come kal hat itbele 

come {imper.) yegour (sing.), wara ta, temun {pi. 

yegeq {pi.) 
comfortable hankist rahat, bisa rahitta 



command (n.) ^liraman 



amr 



pugdana 



commander 
commerce 

commission 

commodore 

communica- 
tion 
companion 



hramanadar 
arrevdour 

badver, bants- 
nararoutiun 

navi hrama- 
nadar 

haghortag- 
tsoutiun 

ungeragits 



qomandan qomandan 
tujaret, alish- bazerganutha 

veresh 
separish • wazifa 



mukhabara mukhabarah 
haval, dost khaura 



334 


GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 


English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. ' 


company 


jama'ah 


guruh 


taqim 


(assembly) 








company 


buluk 


dasteh 


biiliik 


(military) 








compass 


qiblanama 


qibleh numa 


pussla 


N. 


sbamal 


shamal 


shemal, yildiz 


NE. 


sliamal sliarqi 


shamal-i- 


shemal-i- 






sharqi 


sharqi 


E. 


sharq 


mashriq 


sharq, giin 
doghusu 


SE. 


janub sliarql 


janiib-i- 


jeniib-i-sharq, 






sharqi 


keshishleme 


S. 


janub 


janiib 


jenub, qibla 


sw. 


janiib gliarbi 


janub-i- 
gharbi 


jenub-i-gharb 


w. 


gbarb 


maghrib 


gharb, giin 


NW. 


sliamal gharbi 


shamal-i- 


shemal-i- 






gharbi 


gharb, qara 
yel 


compensation 


ta'widh 


talafi, ujrat 


tazminat 


complain 


ishteka, yash- 


shikayat kar- 


shikyayet et- 




teki 


dan, kun or 
nalidan, nal 


■ mek 


condemn 


hakam, yah- 


mil j rim 


jesasina hukm 




kam (of judge] 


) kardan 


etmek 


condition 


hal {pi. ahwal) 


halat 


hal 


(state) 








condition 


shart {pi. sbu- 


shart 


shart 


(stipulation) 


rut) 






confess 


qarr, yaqurr 


i'tiraf kardan 


, i'tiraf etmek, 




or i'taraf, 


kun 


iqrar etmek 




ya'tarif 






confidence 


tkiqqah 


i'timad 


emniyet 


confirm 


haqqaq, yu- 


iqrar, nuqairar tasdiq etmek 




haqqiq 


kardan 




confiscate 


dhabat, yadh- 


zabt kardan 


musadara et- 




bat 




mek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



335 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


company 


hasaragoutiun 


jama 'at 


jama'ah 


(assembly) 








company 


koumardag 


buluk 


dasta 


(military) 


(250 zinvor) 






compass 


gogbmatsuyts 




qibbanama 


N. 


hiusis 


sbimal 


garbya 


NE. 


hiusis-arevelq 






E. 


arevelq 


tavbalsan 


saq yoma, 
madenkha 


SE. 


haraf-arevelq 






S. 


baraf 


tarafe qiblate 


1 taimna 


sw. 


baraf-arev- 
moudq 






w. 


arevmoudq 


rujavai, 
gharb 


ma'erwa 


NW. 


hiusis-arev- 
moudq 






compensation pokharinou- 


jerm 


awaz 




tmn, vnasu 








badoutsanel 






complain 


kankadil 


gili or sbikat 
kir, gazin kir 


musbkele 


condemn 


tadabardel 


tiukm kirin 


awed gunakar 


condition 


vijag 


hal, atiwal 


tial, ahwal 


(state) 








condition 


bayman 


sbart 


sbart- 


(stipulation) 








confess 


khostovanil 


iqrar kir 


mud el e 


confidence 


vsdaboutiun 


iman, dilbisai 
itimad 


, itibar 


confirm 


hastadel, 
sdoukel 


isbat kirin 


muqwi 


confiscate 


kravel, prni 


ghasib kirin, 


shaqil 




arrnel 


zabit kirin 





336 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
confusion 



congratula- 
tions 

conquer 

(a city) 

consent (n.) 

consequence 

Constanti- 
nople 

consul 

consulate 

consultation 

content 
contraband 

(adj.) 
contract (n.) 

convenient 
conversation 



Arabic. 
qalabaligh 
(turmoil) ; 
ikhtilat ; 
* ademtibte 



Persian. 
tashnish (of 
things) ; bl- 
nazmi (of 
persons) 



tahniyah {sing.) tahniyat 



Turkish. 

qarishiqliq, 

qalabaluq 

tebrik 



intasar, van- ghalib shudan maghlub etmek 

ta§ir 
fetah, yiftah giriftan, fath feth etmek 

kardan 
ridha qabiil kardan, riza 

razT shudan 



natijah 
Istambul 



qunsal (pi. 
qunasil) 
qunsalkhanah 

mashawarah 

radhi 
mamnii* 

muqawalah 

muwafiq 
haki, hachi 



convoy (n.) khafar 



cook (n.) 
cook {v.) 

cool 
copy (n.) 



'aschi 
tabakh, yat- 

bakh 
barid 
niskhah {pi. 

nisakh) 



natija 
Istambdl 

qonsul 

qonsul-khana 

mashvarat 

qani* 

qachaq, ma- 
mnii' 

qabala (com- 
mercial) 

muwafiq 

mukalama, 
suhbot 

badraqah 

ash-paz 
pukhtan, paz 

khunuk 
nuskheh 



netije 
Istambol 

qonsolos 

qonsoloskhane 

mush aver e 

razi,khoshnud 
qachaq 

mukavele, 
bazarliq 
miinasib 
sohbet, laf 

qonboy, qo- 
ruma 
ashji 
pishirmek 

serin 
nuskha, siiret 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



337 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 



confusion 


kharnagoutiun 


, parishani, be 


- shghiishya 




shpotoutiun 


hisbariani 




congratula- 


shnorhavorou- 


tahani 


mbarakhiate 


tions 


tiun, ' achqi 








loys' 


* 




conquer 


haghtel 


ghalabab kirin, ghalib 






ber kirin 




(a city) 


direl qaghaqs, 


fatih kirin, 


mzabit 




nvadjel 


standin 




consent (n.) 


havanoutiun, 


qabul, riza 


razlutha 




hamatzaynou 


- 






tiun 






consequence 


hedevanq, 
hedevoutiun 


natija 


plata ^ 


Constanti- 


Constant nu- 


Istambul 


Istambul 


nople 


polis or 
Bolis 






consul 


hiubados 


balios, qonsi- 
16s 


qiinsul 


consulate 


hiubadosaran 


qonsilkbana, 
balioskbana 


qiinsulkhana 


consultation 


khorhrtagtsou- 
tiun 


mashwara 


maslahat 


content 


koh 


razi, kadin 


p^Tkha, razi 


contraband 


maqsakhuys 


qacbagh 


muherma, qa 
chagh 


contract (n.) 


hagabadger, 


muqawala, 


qabal 




liagarag 


sanad 




convenient 


harmar 


munasib 


munasib 


conversation 


khosagtsoutiuE 


I akhaftin, 
kbabardan 


mhamzemta 


convoy {n.) 


bahag, bede- 


himayat, gba- 


mhamoye 




vort 


farat 




cook (n.) 


khobarar 


asbcbi 


mbashlana 


cook {v.) 


yepel 


kalandi, ash 
kir 


mbushelle 


cool 


zov 


sar, jamid 


qarira 


copy {n.) 


orinag, pad- 
jen 


naskha 


naskha 



MES. I 



338 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


copy (v.) 


nesekh, yen- 


istinsakh kar- 


■ siir^t chekmek. 




sakh 


dan, kun 


istinsakh et- 
mek (writing) 


cord 


khait, sutli 


risman 


ip, iplik 


cork (n.) 


sidadah (stop- 


sar-shisheh 


tapa (in bottle), 




per), fillin 




mantar (sub- 




(substanc^) 




stance) 


corkscrew 


burghi 


pish-e butri 


burghu 


corn (cereals) 


l;iubiib 


gandum 


boghdai 


corporal 


onbashi 


wakil 


on-bashi 


cost (n.) 


qimah 


qimat 


paha, fi'at 


cotton 


gutn 


pambeh 


pambiiq 


council 


me j lis 


ma j lis 


mejliss 


count {v.) 


hasab, 


shumnrdan, 


saimaq 




yahsub 


shumar 




country 


bilad, mem- 


mamlakat 


memleket, 




lekah 




watan 


courageous 


shajja* 


dilir 


yiyit,mutejassir 


course 


jihah, tarf 


jihat 


geminin yolu 


(direction) 






(ship's) 


court-martial 


diwan barb 


divan-i-tarb 


divan-i-harb 


cover (v.) 


. ghatta, yu- 


piishidan. 


ortmek 




ghatti 


push 




cover, take 


ha^^an. 


panhan shu- 


• siper almaq, 




yubassin 


dan, shau 


gizlenmek 


cow 


baqarah, 
hash ah 


gau 


inek 


cowardly {adj .) iahham 


tarsii 


qorqaq 


creek 


khalij 


murdab 


qoi, boghaz 


crescent 


hilal 


hilal 


hilal 


crew 


mallafcah 


ahl-i-jihaz 


gemi ta'ifesi 


crooked 


a*waj 


kaj 


eyri 


crops 


ha^il, mah?ulat mah^ulat 


mahsulat 


cross (v.) 


'abar, ya'bar 


ubur namtidan gechmek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



339 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


copy {v.) 


orinagel 


shekil or 
nasekh kir 


nsekble, ktbule 


cord 


baran, lar 


waris,ris,bang 


kbaula 


cork (n.) 


khtsan, man- 
tarr 


sar-sbusba 


pukia 


corkscrew 


khtsahan 


burghi, garr 




corn (cereals) 


tsoren 


ganim, dakbl 


dakbla, kbette 


corporal 


dasnabed, 
yentbaspah 


onbasbi 


onbasbi 


cost (n.) 


kin, arzheq 


qimat, baba 


tin I a 


cotton 


pambag 


pambuk, luka 


ktana 


council 


zhoghov, aclian 


mijlis,anjuman mejliss 


count {v.) 


hashvel 


zbmartin 


mnele 


country 


kavarr 


walat 


atbra 


courageous 


gdrij 


dildar 


mar libba 


course 


untatsq 


jibat 


jibab 


court-martial 


baderazmagan 
adian 






cover {v.) 


dzadzgel, pagel pusband. 


mkusele 


cover, take 


badsbaril, 


wasbartin, 


mtiishele 




bashdbanvil 


basbar kir 




cow 


gov, cov 


chel, mangu 


tawerta 


cowardly {adj.) yergchod, vad 


tersiik 


zado"i 


creek 


kborsh, poqr 
navabankisd 




• 


crescent 


ma big 


mab-nu, bilal 


istra 


crew 


navasti, navaz 






crooked 


gor, dzourr 


kiwan, kezb, 
lar 


plima 


crops 


bountzq 


basad 


kbsada 


cross (v.) 


irar bantibil, 
timatseant- 
' snil 


darbaz buin 


*awir 



Y 2 



340 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

crowd {n.) qalabalikh, izdiljam qalabaluq, 

jama' ah jem'iyet 

cruel qasi, garim bi-rahm, zalim zalim, ghaddar 

cruise (n.) safar darya-gardi dolashmaq 



cruiser tarrad, man war 

cultivation zira*ah, falahah abadani 

cup finjan, piyalah piyaleh, jam 

cure {n.) shifa ilaj 

current {n.) jarayan sail 



curtain pardah 

custom-house gumruk 



cut (v.) 

dagger 

daily (adj.) 

daily (adv.) 
dam (n.) 
damage 
damp {adj.) 
dangerous 

dark 
darkness 

date (time) 
date (fruit) 

daughter 
dawn 

day 



gas$, yaguss 
qata', yaqta' 
khanjar {j)l. 

khanajir) 
yomi 

yomiyan 

sudd 

khisarah 

murtib 

mukhtir 

mudhlim 
dhulmah 



parda 

gumruk 

buridan 

qama 



sadd 

zarar, ziyan 
namnak 
khatarnak 

tarik 
tariki 



tarikh tarikh 

tamrah {pi. khuima 
tamr) 

bint {pl.h&nat) dukhtar 

fijr bamdad 



yom {pi. 
aiyam) 
day (opposite nahar 
to night) 



kruasor 
zira'at 

kyasse, finjan 

shifa 

aqinti 

perde 

giimriik 

kessmek 

khanjer 



har-ruzeh her giinki 



ruz 



her giin 
sedd, bend 
zarar 
nemli 
tehlikeli, qor- 

qulu 
qaranliq 
qaranliq 

tarikh 
khurma 

qiz, kerime 
shafaq 

gun 

giindiiz 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



341 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


crowd (n.) 


ampokh, 


qalabalikh 


qalabalikh 




khouzhan 




jama'ali 


cruel 


ankout 


zalim 


qeshya 


cruise (n.) 


navayin 
bduyd, had- 
zoumn navi i 
dzovou 


safar 


safar 


cruiser 


hadzavorag 






cultivation 


mshagoutiun 


chandine, 
jutyariye 


zarra'utha 


cup 


pazhag 


fin j an, piyala 


finjan, qatkha 


cure {n.) 


tegh 


ilaj, chara 


mbasimta 


current 


hosanq, 
hortsanq 


ria-ave, sail 


sail 


curtain 


varakoyr 


parda 


perda 


custom-house 


maqsadoun 


yumruk 


gfimruk 


cut (v.) 


gdrel, pazhnel 


3irrin 


qate 


dagger 


tashoyn 


khanjar, kerik khanjar 


daily {adj.) 


oragan, am- 
enoria 


har-roj 




daily (adv.) 






kul yom 


dam 


thoump 


sadda, bend 


sikra 


damage 


vnas, gorousd 


zyian, zerar 


khisarah 


damp 


khonav 


tarr, shil 


talila, ratiwa 


dangerous 


vdankavor 


khatardar, 


mar darak. 






bdarak 


mari zeluta 


dark 


mouth 


tar, dark 


kheshka 


darkness 


khavar, mtou- 
tiun 


tari 


khuya 


date (time) 


tvagan 


zaman, wakht tarikh 


date (fruit) 


armav 


khurma 


khurma 


daughter 


toustr,aghchig 


kich 


brata 


dawn 


arshaloys 


speda^ spe- 
darozh 


zraqta d-yoma 


day 


or 


roj 


yoma 


day (opposite 


tsoreg 


rozh 


yoma 


to night) 






. 



342 


GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 


English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


dead 


meypt 


murdeh 


iilii, tilmish 


deaf 


atrash 


karr 


saghir 


dear (person) 


'aziz, mahbub 


*azlz 


*aziz 


dear (price) 


ghali 


giran 


pabali 


death 


maut 


marg 


iiliim 


deceive 


ghashsli, 


firiftan, firib 


aldatmaq, 




yaghishsli 


or gul zadan, 


hile-etmek 


December 


Kanun el-aw- 


zan 
Dai, Kanun-i- 


Kyanun-i- 




wal 


auwal 


evvel 


deck 


sath 


§afha-yi-kashti goverte 


declaration 


i'lan el-harb 


i'lan-i-jang 


i'lan-i-harb 


(of war) 








decree {n.) 


amr, iradali 


farman 


irade 


deep 


'amiq 


*amiq 


derin 


deer 


gbazal 


ahii 


geyik 


defeat (n.) 


inkisar, hazi- 


shikast kbur- 


inbizam 




mab 


dan 




defeat {v.) 


kasar, yaksur ; 


shikast dadan, 


inhizam 




gbalab 'ala 


deh 


etmek 


defend 


dafa', yudafi* 


difa' kardan, 


muhafaza 




. 


kun or hima- 


etmek, qori- 






yat kardan, 


maq 






kun 




deficiency 


*adam kifayah, 
nuq^an 


kami 


noqsan 


dense 


thakhin, 


ghaliz, musb- 


siq 




musbtabik 


tabik 




depreciation 


kbalal, nuq§an 


nuq§an 


kbalal 


(of troops, 








guns, &c.) 








describe 


wa§af , yo^af 


bayan kardan, 


ta'rif etmek, 






kun or wa^f 


anlafcmaq 






kardan, kun 




desert {n.) 


chol, barr 


biyaban 


yaban 


desert {v.) 


terek, yitruk 


guzashtan. 


braqmaq, terk 






guzar 


etmek 


deserter 


barib min 
el-*askariyah 


gurikhteb 


qachaq 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



343 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac 


dead 


merradz, mer- 
rial 


miria 


mitha 


deaf 


khoul 


karr 


karra 


dear (person) 


sireli 


'aziz 


'aziza 


dear (price) 


sough, thank 


giran 


agran 


death 


ma.h 


merin 


mota 


deceive 


khapel 


gharrand, 
khalatand 


mut'ele 


December 


Tegtemper 


Kaniine auwal Kanun qa 


deck 


tstigon-navi 






declaration 


haidararel 






(of war) 


(baderazm) 






decree [n.) 


vdjir, hramman farman, irada 


qanuna 


deep 


khor 


chal, kur 


'amiqa 


deer 


aydziam, egh- 


ghazal, asik 


ghazala 


defeat (w.) 


jerou 
bardoutiun 


shkastine, 
bezandine 


twara 


defeat {v.) 


haghtel 


shkast, bezan- 
din 


twere 


defend 


bashdbanel 


khudan kir 


mhumele 



deficiency theroutiiin, kemahi, nuqsanutha 

bagasoutiun nuq§an 

dense khit, thantzr ghaliz, giran yaqura 

depreciation vadtharat- 

(of troops, soumn (zorats, 

guns, &c.) thntanothits) 

describe nkarakrel wasf kir mtun61e 



desert (n.) anabad bari, chol bariya 

desert {v.) tasalig linel^ bar dan shweqle 

pakhchil 

deserter tasaliq qachagh qachagh 



344 



GLOSSAEIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


desk 


mektebah 


miz-e tahrir 


chekmeje 


despatch {n.) 


risalah 


risaleh, mura- 

saleh 
talaf kardan. 


tahrlrat 


destroy 


kharrab, 


, mahv etmek, " 




yukharrib 


kun 


bozmaq 




or dammar. 








yudammir 






detain 


* attal, yu' attil nigah dashtan 


, aJiqomaq 






baz dashtan 




determinatioE 


I jazm, qarar 


ta^mim 


qarar( decision): 




(decision) ; 




iqdam (firm- 




israr, ta§mim 




ness) 




(firmness) 






devil 


shetan {pi. 
sheyatin) 


iblis 


sheitan 


diarrhoea 


is-hal 


is-hal 


is-hal 


die 


mat, yamiit 


murdan, mir 


olmek, velat 
etmek 


difference 


farq 


farq 


farq 


difficult 


§a*ab, zahma 


mushkil 


zor, giich 


dig 


^lafar, yahfir 


kandan, kan 


qazmaq 


dinner 


*asha (in even- 


sham 


akhsham 




ing) ; ghada 




yemeyi 




(at noon) 






direct (adv.) 


giibal 


mustaqiman 


doghru 


dirty 


wasikh 


chirk 


pis, kirli 


disappear 


ghab, yaghib 


gum shudan, 


gha'ib olmaq 






shau or gha'ib 






shudan, shau 




discharge 


farragh, yu- 


bar andakhtan boshaltmaq 


(cargo, V.) 


farrigh 






discharge 


battal, yu- 


murakhkhas 


izin vermek 


(dismiss, v.) 


battil 


kardan 


saJivermek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



346 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

desk kraseghan mez, pesh- miz d-ktotha 

takhta 

despatch {n.) (bashdonagan), kitab, kaghaz ktbawa 

namag 

destroy qantel, averel kharab kir mukbrule 



detain bahel, pandel ta't-ii kirin, 

{lit. ' to put in girtin 

prison ' or 

'under arrest') 
determination voroshoumn niyat zakhm 

gamq, mdat- 

routium 



devil 

diarrhoea 

die 

difference 

difficult 

dig 

dinner 

direct {adv.) 



dirty 
disappear 



discharge 
(cargo, V.) 

discharge 
(dismiss, v.) 



tev, sadana 

tanchq, por- 
loudsanq 
merrnil 



shaitan 
zik choine 
mirin, jan da 
farq 



darperoutiun, 

zanazanoutiun 
tzhvar zahmat 

porel kulan, kandin 

jash, unthriq nanishao 

(evening meal) 



shidag,oughigh, dirist 

oughghagi 

(= direct to) 
aghdod 
anhedanal 



pis, chirkin 

hinda or na- 

diyar, bu 



dawiq 

qa§d matin 

dewa 

izala d-kasa 

mithle 

purshiinya 

zahmat 
khpere 
ghadaya, 
kharamsha 

diiz 



mtiimya 
fetle, ghible 



barbel 



bare garni mpalit tana 
dainanin 

artzageljVrndel * azil kirin, rha mpalit 
kirin 



346 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


discipline (n.) 


nidham 


nazm, riyazat 


nizam-u-intiz- 


discover 


keshef, yik- 


daryaftan, 


am 
bulmaq, keshf 




shaf 


daryab 


etmek 


disease 


mardh 


na-khushi 


khastaliq,'illet 


dishonest 


khayin, mil 


na-durust 


khirsiz, insaf- 




sadiq 




siz 


disobedient 


'agi 


sarkash, *a§i 


ita'atsiz, dik- 
bash 


disperse 


tashshar, yu- 


mutafarriq 


daghitmaq 


(trans.) 


tashshir 


kardan 




displeased 


mu radhi 


na-razi 


darghin 


distant 


ba'id 


ba'id 


uzaq 


district 


na^iiyah {pL 
nawahi) 


nahiyeh 


qaza, nahiya 


ditch 


khandaq (pi. 
khanadiq) 


khandaq 


hendeq 


diver 


ghawwag {also 
submarine) 


ghauwa? 


dalghich 


divide 


qassam, yu- 


taqsim kardac 


I, taqsim etmek, 




qassim 


kun 


ayirmaq 


division 


firqah {pi. 


firqah 


firqa 




firaq) 




* 


do 


sawwa, yusaw- 


kardan, kun 


yapmaq, 




wi 




etmek 


dock 


baudh el-ma - 




gemi hauzi. 




rakib, dok 




tersane hauzi 


dockyard 


mina li-ta'mir 


kar-khaneh-i- 


tersane 




es-sufun 


kashti-sazi 




doctor 


hakim 


tabib, hakim 


hekim 


dog 


kelb {pi Mlab) 


sag 


kopek 


donkey 


hamar {pi. ha- 
mir) 


khar, ulagh 


eshek, merkeb 


door 


bab {pi. ab- 
wab) 


dar 


qapu 


doubt {v.) 


shekk, ya- 


shakk kardan, 


shiibhe etm6k 




shikk 


kun 





GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



347 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


iSyriac. 


discipline {n.) 


garkabahou- 


tarbiah, 


riza, tarbiah 




tiun, hrabank 


nazam 




discover 


kdnel. yerevan 
hanel 


dit, kashf kir 


mgulele 


disease 


hivantoutiun 


nasakhi 


nassakhiitha, 
mara 


dishonest 


anbargeshd 


khain, be- 
sharm 


kha'in 


disobedient 


anhnazand 


m 


'asi 


disperse 


daradzel, 


tafriq kirin, 


mperpis 


{trans.) 


kravel 


ravandin 




displeased 


ankoh, dhad- 


na razi, na 


narazi 




jadz 


qabul 




distant 


herrou 


diir 


yarikha 


district 


kavarr, 


qaza, walat 


qaza 




shrchanag 


• 




ditch 


pos 


dial, khandaq 


khandaq 


diver 


iougbag, hou- 
zag, cbri dag 
souzogh 


cho bin ave 


ghe^le 


divide 


pazhanel 


qismat kir, 
bahre da 


mpiilele 


division 


chogad 






do 


unel, anel 


kir 


ewedhle, awed 


dock 


gayan navi, 
avazan navi 






dockyard 


navaran 






doctor 


pzhishg 


hakim 


hakim 


dog 


shoun 


seh 


kalba 


donkey 


esh 




khmara 


door 


dourr, tourr 


dari, derga 


tar'a 


doubt {v.) 


gasgadzil, 


shakk kir, 


shik 




daragousil 


bshubhat bu 


- 



348 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

dragoman tarjuman {pi. miitarjim terjuman 
tarjumaniyah) 

resem, yersem rasm kardan resm etmek 



draw 

(map, &c.) 
draw (pull) 
draw up 

(document) 



jarr, yajurr keshidan chekmek 
resem, yersem rasm kashidan, tanzim etmek 
or keteb, yik- kash 
tab 

draw up (line §aff, yasuff saff bastan, tanzim etmek 

of troops) band 

dress (intrans.) labis, yilbas pushidan, geyinmek 

push 

dress {trans.) lebbes geyindirmek 

dress rabat, yarbut marham gu- (yara) baghla- 

(a wound) zasbtan, maq 

guzar 

tafa, yatf u ba sail raftan, suyun aqinti- 

rau sile qapilmaq 

sherbah sharbat ichqi 



drift {v.) 
drink {n.) 
drink {v.) 



sberib, yish- ashamidan or ichmek 

rab nushidan, 
nush 

drive {trans.) saq, yasuq randan, ran siirmek, qosh- 

durmaq 

driver (of car- ' arabachi siirclii, kalas- ' arabaji 

riage) kachi 

drown gharaq, yagh- gliarq sbudan, boghmaq 

{intrans.) raq shau 

drown {trans.) agbraq, yugh- gliarq kardan, boghulmaq 

riq kun 

drunk sakran {pi. mast serkhosh 

sakara) 

diy (^O yebbes, yu- kbushk kar- qurutmaq 

yebbis or dan, kirn 

nashshaf, yu- 

nashshif 

dry {adj.) yabis, nashif khushk quru 

duck besh, battah urdak ordek 

dust toz, ghubar gard toz 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



349 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


dragoman 


tarkman 


tarjaman 


terjman 


draw 


kdzel kdzakrel 


rasem kir 


rshimle 


(map, &c.) 
draw (pull) 


(gardez) 
kashel 






draw up 


horinel, kiel, 


niwisin 


kthiHe 


(document) 

draw up (line 
of troops) 
dress {intrans.] 


sharatasel 
(vaverakir) 
jagadetsnel, 
garkel 
1 haknel 


reza kir 
jilik bar kir 


ewedhle reza 
Iweshle 


dress {trans.) 


haktznel 






dress 


tarmanel, 


darman da 


nudurmenne 


(a wound) 


viragabel 






drift {v.) 


hosanq 


hat bar ave 


mshupele 


drink {n.) 
drink {v.) 


khmeliq, um- 
beliq 
khmel 


sharbat 
vakhwarin 


shtaya 
shtele . 



drive [trans.) varel (a car), saljt kir, be- sljetlc; seqle 
kshel (horse), zaftin 
vanel (enemy) 
driver (of car- qshogh 'arabachi arabachi 

riage) 
drown heghtsnoul, khanneqin ghreqie 

{intrans.) kheghdvil 

drown {trans.) kheghtel khanneqandin 



drunk 
dry {v.) 



kinov, 
harpadz 
chortsnel 



sarkhwash 
hishik kir 



rawaya 
mubeshle, bariz 



dry {adj.) chor hishk wisha 

duck pat, bat wurdek, batek batta 

dust poshi toz, khoU toz, 'epra 



360 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


duty (tax) 


resm {pi. ni- 
suinat) 


gumruk, baj 


vergi, resm 


dynamite 


dinamit 


dinamit 


dinamit 


dysentery 


is-hal dem 


is-hal 


is-hal 


each 


kull 


bar 


her bir 


ear 


udhn {dual 
udhnain) 


gush 


qulaq 


early 


min waqt (in 
good time) ; 
badri 


zud 


erken 


earth 


ardh, trab 


zamin 


arz, topraq 


earthen 


turabi, tlni 


khaki 


topraqdan 


earthwork 


mitras 


khak riz 


istihkyam 


east 


sharq 


khawar, sharq sharq, giin 








doghusu 


Easter 


'Td el-qiyamah 


'Id-i-fash 


Biiyiik pas- 
qalya 


eastern 


sharqi 


sharqi 


sharqi 


easy 


sehl 


asan 


qolai 


eat 


akal, ya*kul 


khurdan, khui 


: yemek 


egg 


bedhah {pi. 


tukhm-i- 


yumurta 




bedh) 


murgh 




Egypt 


Masr 


Mi^r 


Misr 


Egyptian 


Ma§ri 


Mi§ri 


Misrli 


elbow 


'aks 


aranj 


dirsek 


embark 


rekeb (yir- 


bar kashti 


gemiye bin- 


{intrans.) 


kub) fi safi- 


suwar shudan, mek 




nah 


shau 




embarkation 


rukub 


rukub 


gemiye bin- 

meklik 
devlet 


empire 


daulah, mem- 


mamlakat, 




lekah 


padshahi 





employ (thing) ista'mal, yas- isti'mal kar- quUanmaq 
ta*mil dan, kun 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



361 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


duty (tax) 


max 


baj, gumruk 


kherj 


dynamite 


dinamit, 
ouzhanag 






dysentery 


thanchq 


is-hal 


is-hal 


each 


yiuraqanchour 


, har, har-kas 


kulkha 




ammen meg 


(for persons) 




ear 


aganch 


guh 


natha 



early 



ganoukh 



zu 



qalula 



earth 


yergir, kedin 


ard, akh (soil) ar'a 


earthen 


gavayin 


zh-akhi 


min-*epra 


earthwork 


hoghathoump 


chapare akhe 


chapar d-'epra 


east 


arevelk 


khawarasan, 
khuralat 


madenkha 


Easter 


Zadig 




'ifidha d-pe§tia, 
*Edha gura 


eastern 


arevelian 


zh-tavhalsan 


madenkhaya 


easy 


heshd, tiurin 


hasan, sanahi 


sanahi 


eat 


oudel 


khwarin 


ikhelle 


egg 


havgith, tzou 


hek, kha 


betah 


■^gyp^. 


Ekiptos 


Misr 


Meser 


Egyptian 


Ekiptatsi 


Misri 


Me^raya 


elbow 


armoug 


anishk, bala- 
mishk, bala- 
milka, kin- 
arishk 


qursiiita 


embark 


nav mdnel 


sar gamiya 


rkule b-markwa 


{intrans.) 




cho 




embarkation 


nav mdneln 







empire deroutiun, gay- daulat, orkat impratutha 

sroutiun, in- 

qnagaloutiun 
employ (thing) kordz adzel istimal kir mustu'mille 



352 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. 

employ (men) istakhdam, 

yastakhdim 
empty {v.) farregh, yu- 

farrigli 
empty (adj.) farigh 



Persian. Turkish. 

tashgliil kar- ish vermek 

dan, kun 
khali kardan, boshatmaq 

kun 
khali bosh 



encamp 


khayyam, 


khaimeh za- 


chadir qiirmaq 




yukhayyim 


dan, zan 




encampment 


khiyam, mu- 


chadir gah 


chadir yeri 


(of nomads) 


khaiyam 






end (trans.) 


enha, yunhi 


anjam dadan, 


bitirmek 




or khallas, 


deh or tamam 




yukhalli? 


kardan, kun 




endure 


tahammal, 


tahammul 


dayanmaq 




yatahammal 


namudan, 
numa 




enemy 


*adu ipl. 'ad- 
wan or a' da) 


dushman 


diishmen ' 


engine 


makinah 


mashin 


makina 


engineer 


muhandis 


muhandis 


muhendis (civ- 



(civil or 
military); osta 
(mechanical) 



England 
Englishman 

enlist (army) 



enough 

ensign 

entrench 



Inglistan 
Inglisi 



il) ; charkhji 

(mechanical); 

istihkyam 

alai (engineers, 

military) 
Ingilterra 
Ingliz 



Anglaterra 
Anglezi (pi. 

Anglez) 
keteb fil- 

' askariyah 



kafi, bes bas, kafi yetishir, kyafi 

beraq bairaq sanjaq, bairaq 

tahassan, yata- sangur bastan tabassun etmlk 
hassan 



sarbaz kardan 'askerliye 
(trans.) ; sar- yazilmaq 
baz shudan 



entrenchments istihkamat sangur istihkamat 

envelope dharf , ghalf zarf, pakat zarf 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



353 



Armenian. 
employ (men) vartzel 



Kurdish. 
ish da 

khali kir 



empty (v.) tadargel, 

barbel 
empty (adj.) tatarg, tar- khali, wala 

dag 
encamp panagel,panag var kir 

tnel 
encampment vran tneln, zom, var 

(of nomads) panagoum 
end (trans.) avardel khalas kir 



Syriac. 
wellc shula 

msupeqle 

spiqa 

it ill e 

zoma 

khli^le, timle 



endure 



enemy 

engine 
engineer 



handourzhel, §abr kir, jan- sbere 
dogal hishik bu 



tshnami 



dizhmin 



dishmin 



meqena makinah makinah 

meqenakordz muhandis muhandis 



England Anglia 

Englishman Angliatsi 

enlist (army) zinvorakrel, 
zinvorakrvil 
(to be 
enlisted) 
pavagan 
nshan, trosh 
badneshnerov 
amratsnel 



enough 

ensign 

entrench 



Inglistan 
Inglizi 



Engilterra 
Inglezaya 



entrenchments amratsoutiung 
envelope dzrar 



bo 'askar gir- ktiwa soldat 

tin (trans.); la 

' askar choin 

(intrans.) 

bass bassa, kmale 

sanjaq, bairaq baidaq 
bar khandaq dari sangar 

choin, bar 

chapar run- 

ishtin 
chapar, khan- sangari 

daq 
zarf zarf 



354 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
equal (adj.) 

equip 

err 

escape {v.) 

escort {n.) 
escort {v.) 
evacuate 



evening 
every 

everything 
everywhere 

examine 



except 

exchange (v.) 
excuse {v.) 



exercise {n.) 

(physical) 
expect 



Arabic. 
musawa 



Persian. 
barabar 



Turkish. 
musavi 



jahhaz, yujah- tajhiz kardan, tejhiz etmek, 
hiz kun donatmaq 

(ship) 
ghalat, yagh- ghalat namii- ja,iiish.{+ suffix) 
lat or akhta, dan, numa var, yanilmaq 
yukhti 

inhezem, yen- rastan, rah or qachmaq 
hezim rahai yaftan, 

yab 
khafar, haris badraqah qonboy 



rafaq, haras 
yahrus 

khalla, yukhalli takhliyeh 
or farregh, kardan, 

yufarrigh kun 

mesa sham 

kuU har 



hamrah raf tan, refaqat etme 
rau 



takhliye etmek, 
boshatmaq 

akhsham 
her 



kuU she hameh chiz 

fi kull makan har ja 



her shei 
her yere, her 
yerde 
fahas^ yafhas taftish kar- teftish etmek^ 

(a question) ; dan, kun yoqlamaq 

imtahan, 

yamtahin (a 

candidate) 
ilia bi-juz az -dan bashqa 

(suffix) 
beddel, yu- ivaz kardan digish etmek 

beddil (barter) 

*adhar, ya'dhir; ma*zur dash- *afv etmek, 

'adhdhar tan, dar 'afv etdirmek 

(make excuses 

for) 
tamrin, mashq ta'lim 

riyadh'ah 
intadhar, yan- muntazir me'mul etmek 

tadhir biidan 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



355 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


equal (adj.) 


havasar, hame 
mad 


> berambar, 
wakuyak 


barabar 


equip 


sparrazinel, 
zinel 






err 


moloril 


khalat kir 


ghletle 


escape 


pakhchil, 
khuys dal 


khalas bu, 
ravi 


*reqle, khli§le 


escort {n.) 


oughegits, 






escort (v.) 


hedevortq 
oughegtsil 


himayat kir 


mhumele 


evacuate 


tadargel, 
barbel 


helan 


shweqle 


evening 
every 


irigoun 
amen mi, 
amen meg 


evar, hingSr 
hammi, har 


'aserta 
kull 


everything 


amen inch 


hammi tesht 


kull mindi 


everywhere 


amenoureq 


har 'arda 


kull duka 


examine 


qnnel 


fah? kir, qanj 
dit 


f^ie^le, mpu- 
teshle 


except 


patsi 


ilia, magar 


ilia, shwuq min 


exchange {v.) 


pokhel, pok- 
hanagel 


badal kirin 


shaklip 


excuse (v.) 


nerel 


hijjah, gazin 


makhli 


exercise (n.) 


marzanq 


garrandin, ta- 
li m kir 


juraba, isti'mal 


expect 


agngale], 
sbasel 


dipain (pers.) 
kham kirin 


, sapir 




z2 





356 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

expense masraf {pi. kharj kharj, masraf 

ma^arif) 

explain fesser,yiifessir hali kardan, anlatmaq,ta'rif 

kun etmek 

explode fajjar, yufajjir infijar kardan, patlatmaq 

{trans.) kun 

explode infajar, yan- tarakidan, patlamaq 

{intrans.) fajir tarak 

explosion infijar infijar patlama 

export (v.) ba'ath, yib'ath haml bi-kharij dishari gonder 

kardan mek 

exposed mu'arradh ma*riiz ma'ruz, achiq 



ewe 
eye 



extinguish 



na'jah 
*ain {dual 

'ainain, pi. 

*uyiin) 
taffa, yutaffi 



madeh mish 
chashm 



khamiisli 
kardan 



dishi-qoyun 
goz 

siindui-mek 



face 

faithful 
fall {V.) 



family 

famous 

fanatical 
far 
farm 
farmer 

farrier 

fat {adj.) 



wajh {pi. riii, ^iirat 

wujiih) 
amin, sadiq wafadar 
waga% yoga' ; uftadan, uft 

saqat, yasqut 

(of city) 
' ayilah ahl-i-khaneh 



mashhiir mashhiir, 

namdar 
muta*a§i?ib muta*a?sib 

ba'id dur 

mazra'ah mazra' 

fellah (peasant) ra'iyat, zira' 

atkar 
na"al na*l-band 



samin {pi. 
saman) 



farbeh 



yuz 

sadiq, doghru 
diishmek 



familya, ev, 
choluqchojuq- 
lar 

meshhur 

muta'assib 
uzaq 
chiftlik 
chiftji 

na'al-band, 
baitar (vet.) 

semiz, shish- 
man 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



357 



English. 
expense 

explain 

explode 
(trans.) 

explode 
(intrans.) 

explosion 

export (v.) 

exposed 



ewe 
eye 



Armenian. 
dzakhq 

patsatrel 

baytetsnel 

baytil 

baytiun 
ardadzel 



Kurdish. ^Syriac. 

kharj, masarif masrap 

iafsir kir, hal mpusheqle 
gotin 



agir da 

agir girt, 
taqandin 



mushqille nu a 
shqille nura 



la idi dawlat 
henartin 
nshavag, yen- pesh qsbm.{'prep.).m- 

thaga(vdanki, shan ta 

yevaln) 
maqijvochkhar meh 'erba, wana 

achq chav *aina 



extinguish marel 



face 

faithful 
fall 



yeres 

havadarim 
ihnal 



mirandin, mchanie 

kuzhdin, 

tifandin 
ru, damuchav patha 



rast 
ketin 



amm 
npille 



family 



undaniq 



khan 



baitha 



famous 


hrrchagavor, 


mashhur, khu- 


■ mushhur 




anvani 


dan nav 




fanatical 


molerrant 


muta'assib 


muta*a§sil 


far 


herrou 


dur 


rahiiqa 


farm 


akarag 


mazra'ah 


zrota 


farmer 


akaraga-kordz 


jotyar, renj- 
bar, zari' 


aqaradar 


farriei 


baydarr 


na'alband 


na'alband 


fat (adj.) 


ker, kiroug 


qalao, wiz 


qshita, 
shamina 



358 

English. 
fat {n.) 
father 
favour {n.) 

fear {v.) 

feast 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 
Persian. 



Arabic. 

dihn, semen 

ab 

fadhlah 



pidar 
iltifat 



Turkish . 

baba, peder 
kerem 



khaf, yakhaf tarsidaii; tars qorqmaq 
' azimah id ziyaf et 



February 
feeble 

ferry (w.) 

fertile 

fetch 
fever 
few 

field 

fig 
fight {v.) 



fight {n.) 



Shubat 
dha'if 

ma'eber 

mukhsib 

ja bi-, yaji bi- 

sakhunah 

qalil 

mazra*ah 

tinah {"pl. tin) 

ta* arak, 
yata'arak ; 
taharab, 
yataharab 

*arkah 



Shubat 
za'if 

ma'bar, 

guzar-gah 
hasil-khiz 



Shubat 
quvetsiz 

gechid yeri 

bereketli 



awurdan, ar getir 

tab sitma 

kam az 

chaman tarla 

anjir injir 

jang kardan, muharebe et- 
kun mek 



jang 



file (of soldiers) saff {'pl. suf uf ) 
fill teres, yitras 

filled 



ghavgha, mu- 
harebe 



filly 
find 
finger 

finish (v.) 



matrus 

muhrah 
wajad, yojad 
usbu' {fl. 

asabi') 
khalla?, yu- 

khallis ; kem- 

mel 



radif, qitar sira 

pur kardan, doldurmaq 

kun 

purshuda [or dolu 

mamlu) 

madeh kurreh qisraq tai 

yaftan, yab bulmaq 

angusht parmaq 

tamam kardan bitirmek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



359 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


fat {n.) 


djarb 






father 


hayr 


bab 


baba, kakka 


favour {n.) 


shnorh, barkev ihsan, minnat. 


, shapaqat 






lutf 




fear (v.) 


vakhnal 


tersin 


zdele 


feast 


' don, zvard- 


'id, bairam 


'ida (eccles.) 




; anal, oudel 


(days); da- 






ihmel (i. e. 


wat, ziafat 






' eat and 


(merry) 






drink ') 






February 


Pedrvar 


Sibat 


Eshwat 


feeble 


dgar, nihar 


bewazh, kuh, 
zabun 


zabun 


ferry (n.) 


navag, last 


garni, kalak 


gamiya, 
qayegh 


fertile 


pareper, arka- 


mukhsib, 


tayana 




vant 


khosh-'ard 




fetch 


perel, danel 


inand 


miithele 


fever 


dent, jerm 


ta 


shatha 


few 


qich, sagav 


hindik, pechak 
(things only) 


: khacha 


field 


tashd, dasht, 


dasht, charam 


chamma, haqla 


fig 


touz 


hezhir, hinjir 


tina, tene 


fight (v.) 


grrvel, bader- 


sharr kir 


ewedhle sharre, 




azmel 




palish 



fight {n.) 



grriv 



file (of soldiers) gark, sharq 
fill Itsnel 

filled 



filly 
find 
finger 

finish (v.) 



letsvadz, let- 
soun 
mdroug (tzi) 
kdnel 
mad 



sharr, jang 'sharre 

saff zoga d-soldati 
tezhi kir, purr mlele 

kir 

tazhi melya 

juani muhertha 

dit, paida kir machiq 

tili, amust subeta 



gadarel, Imnt- khalas ki'rin, pariq 
snel tamam kirin 



360 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


fire(w.) 


nar 


atish 


atesh 


fire-place 


bukhari 


bukhari 


ojaq 


fire-wood 


tiatab 


hizam 


odun 


firing line 


e§-9aif el-awwal saff-i-auwal 


atesh safi, atesh 


firm 


thabit, qawi 


ustuwar, paya 
dar, muh- 
kam 


yeri 
- siqi 


fish (w.) 


semek, semech 
{sing, sem- 
cheh) 


mahi 


baliq 


flag 


beraq {pi. 
bayariq) 


bairaq 


bairaq 


flat 


'adil, musattah hamwar, mu- 


diiz, yasi 






sattah 




flea 


burghuth {pi. 
baraghith) 


kak 


pire 


flee 


harab, yahrub 


gurikhtan, 


qachmaq 




or inhezem, 


guriz 






yenhezim 






fleet 


u^tul 


jihazat-i-jangi 


: donanma 


flesh 


lahm 


gusht 


et 


flock {n.) 


qatr 


galleh 


siiru 


flood {n. : see 


zod (overflow) 


sailab 


sel, feyezan 


also tide) 








floor 


ardhiyah 


zamTn 


dusheme,. 
daban 


flour 


tahin 


ard 


un 


flower 


warad {pi. 
wurud) 


gul 


chichek 


fly (n.) 


dhabanah {pi. 
dhabban) 


magas 


sinek 


fly {V.) 


tar, yatir 


paridan, par 


iichmaq 


fog 


dhabab 


meh 


duman, sis, pus 



follow tibi', yitba* *aqab raftan, arqasina gel- 

rau mek, ardina 

gelmek 



English. 
6.ve{'n.) 
fire-place 
fire-wood 

firing line 

firm 

fish (n.) 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 
Armenian. Kurdish. 



361 



grag agir 

varraran biklieri 

varrelapayd hizh, chilka, 

dar 
gragi sahman arde sharr 

amour, bind zakhm rraq, 
qawi 



tzoug 



masi 



Syriac. 
nura 
biklieriye 
qaise, hatab 

duktha 

d-sharre 
khailana 



uunta 



flat 
flea 



{V.) 



troshag bairaq baidaq 

dapag, harth dasht, sawi shtiiia 

lou kaich peruana 

pakhil ravi *reqle 



fleet navadorm, 

dormigh 

flesh mis 

flock (n.) hod 

flood {n. : see heghegh, 
also tide) chrheghegh 

floor 



flour 
flower 



fly {n.) 

fly (v.) 
fog 

follow 



aliur 
dzaghig 

janj 



gosht 

tarsh, garan 
tufan, sar 

hadde ave 
'ard 

ar, ard 
gul 



be^ra 

tarsha 

sel 

ar'a 

tkhuna 
warda, chuchag 



maish, muz didwa 



trrchel, trril ferrin tere 

mshoush, mar- mizh, tam khepiitha 

rakhough 

hedevel legal or lepa izelle bathre 

hatin 



362 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic, 


Persian. 


TurJcish. 


food 


ekl, ta'am 


khurak 


yeyejek, yemek 


foot 


rijl {fl. rijul) ; 


qadam, pa 


ayaq; yayan 




qadam 




(on foot) 




(measure) 






footpath 


sikkah, darb 


rah-i-kSchak 


meslek, choban 
yolu 


for— 


li-khatir 


barayi 


-ichin {follow' 
ing word) 


for me 


li 


barayi-man 


benim-ichin 


for thee 


lek 


barayi-tu 


senin-ichin 


for him 


luh 


barayi-ii 


anin-ichin 


for her 


leha 


barayi -ii 


anin-ichin 


for us 


lena 


barayi-ma 


bizim-ichin 


for you 


lekum 


barayi-shuma sizin-ichin 


for them 


lehum 


barayi-ishan 


anlar-ichin 


forbid 


mena', yimna' 


qadaghan, qa- 


yasaq etmek. 




or naha, 


dagh or man' 


etme deyi 




yanha 


kardan, kun 


tenbih etmek 


ford {n.) 


makhadhah, 
mu'eber 


guzar-gah 


gechid 


forecastle 






gemi bashi 
qamarasi 


foreigner 


ejnabi 


ajnabi 


ejnebi 


forest 


ghabah, zor 


jangal, bisheh 


orman 


forget 


nesi, yinsa 


faramush 
kardan, kun 


onutmaq 


forgive 


*afa 'an, ya'fu 


bakhshidan, 


baghishlamaq, 




'an 


bakhsh 


'afv etmek 


fork 


chingal, 
shokah 


changal 


chatal 


formerly 


gabl, sabi'qan 


sabiqa 


sabiqa, evvelje 


fort 


qal'ah 


qal'a 


qal'e 


fortifications 


istihkamat 


hisar-ha 


istihkyamat 


fortify 


istahkam, 


istihkam 


istihkyam 




yastahkim 


dadan, deh 


etmek 


fortunate 


hadhidh 


nik-bakht 


bakhtyar 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



363 



English. Armenian, Kurdish, Syriac. 

food snount, gera- khwarin, tesht ikhala 

gour 

foot vodq pe aqla 



footpath 


shavigh 






for — 


hamar 


bo,li 


ta, qa, li 


for me 


intz hamar 


bomin 


tali, qati 


for thee 


qez hamar 


bota 


talokb, qa 
tokh 


for him 


anor hamar 


bowi 


tale, qate 


for her 


anor hamar 


bowi 


talah, qata 


for us 


mez hamar 


boma 


talan 


for you 


tzez hamar 


bowa 


talaukhun 


for them 


anontz hamar 


bowan 


talaihi 


forbid 


arkilel 


haram kir 


muhrimle 


ford [n.) 


hegheghad, 
houn kedi 


borr, derbaz 


borre 


forecastle 


verin masn 
khelats navi 






foreigner 


odaragan 


Gharib, ya- 
banchl 


niikhraya 


forest 


andarr 


ghabah, 
tarrash 


ghabah 


forget 


morrnal 


zhbir chon 


nshele 


forgive 


nerel 


zhe bhurtin, 
'af u kirdin 


shweqle 


fork 


padarrakagh, 
chatal 


changal 


chengala 


formerly 


gankhav 


paishin, barin 


b-qamaitha 


fort 


amrots 


qala, chapar 


sangar 


fortifications 


amroutiunq, 

pert 
amratsnel 


chapar 


chapare 


fortify 


istihkam kir 


muzkhimle 


fortunate 


pakhtavor 


khudan-bakht 


. mar gada 



364 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


fowl 


dajajah 


murgh 


tawuq 


fox 


tha'lab {pi 
tha'alib) 


rubah 


tilki 


France 


Fransa 


Firanseh 


Fransa 


free {adj.) 


hurr 


azad 


ser-best 


free (gratis) 


,bi-lash 


msi]ja.m {adj .) 


badi-hava 


freight (cargc 


») himl 


bar-e kashti 


yiik 


freight 


nol 


kiraya 


nevl 


(charges) 








Frenchman 


Fransawi 


Fransawi 


Fransiz 


fresh 


jadid, tazi' 


tazeh 


taze 


Friday 


Yom el- 
jum'ah 


Jum'ah 


Jum'a giinii 


friendly 


muhibb 


diistaneh 


dost 


frighten 


khawwaf, yu- 


tarsanidan, 


qorqutmaq 




khawwif 


tarsan 




from — 


min 


az 


-dan {following 
the noun) 


from me 


minni 


az man 


ben-den 


from thee 


min nek 


az tu 


sen-den 


from him 


minnuh 


az u 


an-dan 


from her 


minha 


az u 


an-dan 


from us 


minna 


az ma 


biz-den 


from you 


minkum 


az shuma 


siz-den 


from them 


minhum 


az Tshan 


anlar-dan 


frontier 


hadd {pi. 
hudud) 


sar-hadd 


hudud 


frost 


jalid 


yakh 


qiraghi, don 


fruit 


thamar, 
fakihah {pi. 
fawakilj) 


miweh 


meive, yemish 


fuel 


fahm ; hatab 


sukhtani, 


odun, atesh 




(wood) 


himeh 


odunu 


full 


matrus 


pur 


dolu 


funeral 


jinazah 


janaza (or 
tadfin) 


jenaze 


funnel (of shit 


>) madkhanah 


dudkash 


baia 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



365 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


fowl 


hav 


mirrishk 


kthaitha 


fox 


aghves 


ruvi 


tela 


France 


Fransa 


Fransa 


Faransa 


free {adj.) 


azad 


aza, sarbast 


aza 


free (gratis) 


tzri, iokh 


balash, khurr; 


ai herwa 


freight (cargo) navou per 


bar 


tana d-gami 


freight 


navou vartzq 


masarif, haqq haqa d-tana 


(charges) 


[' navioun ' 
(Turkish)] 






Frenchman 


Fransatsi 


Faransawi 


Faransaya 


fresh 


tharm 


taza, nu, tarr 


khatha, tarra 


Friday 


Ourpath 


Aine, Jumah 


:6ruta 


friendly 


paregamagan 


bdostahi 


b-khiirutha 


frighten 


vakhtsnel 


tersandin 


muzdele 


from — 


{not in use se- 
parately) 


zh 


min 


from me 


intzme 


zhmin 


minni 


from thee 


kezme 


zhta 


minnokh 


from him 


anke, anorme 


zhwi 


minneh 


from her 


anke, anorme 


zhwl 


minnah 


from us 


mezme 


zhma 


minnan 


from you 


tzene 


zhwa 


minnaukhu 


from them 


anontsme 


zhwan 


minnaihi 


frontier 


sahman 


senur, sarhadd sinur 


frost 


yeghiam, sarr- 
namaniq 


jamid 


jalid, qaraziva 


fruit 


bdough 


mewah 


pere, t'unta, 
yekdana 


fuel 


varreliq 






full 


li, letsoun 


tizhi, ter 


milya 


funeral 


taghman 


jannaza, qabr. 


, tishmishta 



shin 



funnel (of 
ship) 



366 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


further 


ab'ad 


durtar 


daha uzaq 


fuse {n.) 


fatilah {pi. fa- 
tayil) 


fatileh 


fetil 


gale 


zoba'ah, 


tufan, bad-i- 


firtina 




fortunah 


shadid 




gallop {v.) 


rakadh. 


char na'l 


dort na'al 




yarkudh or 


raftan 


gitmek 




tarad, yutarid 






garden 


bustan {pi. 
basatin) 


bagh 


baghche 


garrison 


muhafadhah 


sakhlu 


mustahfizin 
'askeri 


gate 


bab {pi. ab- 
wab) 


darwazeh 


qapu 


gazelle 


ghazal {pi. 
ghazlan) 


ghazal 


jeyran 


gazette 


jaridah 


ruz-nama 


ghazeta 



gear 

gelding 

general 

generous 

gentle 
German 
Germany 
get 

get up (rise) 
ghee 



churgh es- 

sinun 
hisan mukhsi 

mushir, qa'id 

karim 

latlf 
Almani 
Almanya 
hassal, yuhas- 
sil 

gam, yagum 
dihn 



rakht, asbab 

bar-gir, 
akhteh 
sardar 

sakhi 



aletler, 
taqim 
idish at, beigir 

feriq, qoman- 

dan 
jumerd 



narm,mulayim mulayim 
Almani Aleman 



Alman 
yaftan, yab 



bar khastan, 
khiz 
ranghan 



Alemanya 
almaq, nail 

etmek, yetish- 

mek, 
qalqmaq 

dihn, yagh 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



367 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


further 


aveli, aveli 


durtir (dis- 


zoda 




herrou 


tance), galak 
tir, purtir (ir 
addition) 


I 


fuse (w.) 


baythoutsich 






gale 


potorig 


tiifan 


karapech, to- 

TkQnQ 


gallop (v.) 


qarrasmpakel 


bezandin 


UaiLicb 

mutrele 


garden 


bardez 


baghcha, bis- 
tan 


bagcha 


garrison 


bahaban zorq 


'askare qala 


qarawul 


gate 


tarbas 


derga, dari 


tar'a 


gazelle 


vit 


asik, ghazal 


ghazala 


gazette 


Irakir (news- 


gazeta, rozh- 


gazeta 




paper) ; bash 


- nama 






donagan tsou 


- 






tsag (official 








list) 






gear 


sbasq, gaz- 


alat, khirrii- 


alitiatha 




madzq 


mirr 




gelding 


vortzad (nerqi- 
nialsial tzi) 


bargil 


bargila 


general 


zoravar 


sar'askar 


sar*askar 


generous 


vehantzn, ara 


mard, dilma- 


libba ptukha 




datzerrn 


zin, juamer 




gentle 


azniv 


narm, khwash 


nikha 


German 


Kermanatsi 


Almani 


Almnaya 


Germany 


Kermania 


Almanya 


Almanya 


get 


tserrq perel 


paida kirin 


mhu^elle meyi 


get up (rise) 


yelnel 


rabi 


qimle 


ghee 


yegh 


riin, kara 
qalandi 


mishkha 



368 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian, 


Turhish. 


girl 


bint (pi. 
banat) 


dukhtar 


qiz 


girth 


bat an 


tang 


qolan 


give 


a'ta, yu'ti ; 
anta; yanti 


dadan, deh 


vermek 


give in 


istaslam, 


taslim 


teslim-olmaq 


(surrender) 


yastaslim 


shudan, shau 




glad 


farhan, masrur 


khush-hal 


memniin 


glass (of win- 


• jam 


shisha 


jam 


dow) 








glass (for 


glas, shushah 


piyaleh 


qadeh 


drinking) 








gloves 


kufuf (sing. 

keff) 
rah, yaruh ; 


dastkash-ha 


eldiven 


go- 


raftan, rau 


gitmek 




safar, yusafir 








(on a jour- 








ney) 






go away 


rah 


rawaneh 


gitmek 


(in fin.) 




shudan, shau 


go away 


ruh, emshi 


bi-ro, gum- 


git, qach 


(imper.) 




shau 




go in 


dakhal, yid- 


dakhil shu- 


icheri-gitmek, 




khal 


dan, shau 


girmek 


go out 


kharaj, yakh- 


birun raftan, 


chiqmaq 




ruj 


rau 




go (of machine)mesha, yimshi 


kar kardan 


ishlemek 


goat 


tes (he-goat) ; 
*anzah (she- 
goat) : ma'az 
(collect.) 


buz 


kechi 


God 


Allah 


Khuda 


Allah 


gold 


dheheb 


zar, tala 


altun 


good 


tayyib, zen 


khub 


eyi, giizel 


good-bye (to 


fi aman Allah 


Khuda hafiz 


allaha 'smar- 


friend depart 


- or ma* a 's- 




ladiq 



ing) selameh 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



369 



English. 
girl 

girth 
give 

give in 

glad 



Armenian. 
aghcliig 

pog, gab 
dal 

antznadour 
linel 
ourakh 



glass (of win- abagi(badou- 
dow) hani) 

glass (for pazhag 
drinking) 

gloves tzerrnots 



go— 



yertal 



Kurdish. 
kicb, kanishk 

bartang 
dan 

taslim kir 

dilkbwash, 
shad 
shusha, jam 

tarar, shiishah 

lapik, shelik 

chon 



Syriac. 
brata 

tanga 
iwelle, yawel 

msulemle 

p^ikha, khadia 

shusha 

kasa 

bra'idhatha, 
lapikkatha 
izelle 



go away 
(infin.) 

go away 
(imper.) 

go in 

go out 



herranal zhdarva chon npiqle 

kna ! heratsir ! birau, harra, pliit 

darkava 
ners yertal hatindare iwere 



tours yertal chonzhdar 



go (of machine) knal, sharzhil, chun 

yertal, megnil 
goat aydz bizin 



npiqle baraye 
palikh 



God 


Asdvadz 


gold 


vosgi 


good 


pari 



Khuda, Khude Alaha 
zer dahwa 

chaka, basha, tawa, randa 
qanj 

good-bye (to mnas parov bakhaterata push b-shayna 
friend depart- (swgr.), mnak 
ing) parov (;)Z.), 



A a 



370 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. Persian, 


Turkish. 


(reply) 


Allah yessel- 
limek or Allah 
yibfadhak 


oghurlar olsun 


goose 


wazzah, battah qaz 


qaz 


govern 


liakam 'ala, hukumat 
yahkam kardan 


idare etmek 


government 


hakumah daulat 


hukumet 


governor's 


idarat el- mahall-i-huku 


- qonaq 


office 


hukumah mat 




grain (corn) 


habubat, ta*am ghalla 


boghdai 



grapes 


'anab 


angur 


uzum 


grass 


hashish 


giyah 


6t 


grateful 


shakir,mimnur 


I haqq-shinas, 
shakur 


miiteshekkir 


grease («.) 


dihn 


charbi 


yagh 


great 


*adhim 


buzurg 


biiyiik 


greatcoat 


palto, *aba 
(of Arab) 


bala pushi 


qapot, palto 


greedy 


tamma* 


haris, azmand 


ach-gozlii 


green 


akhdhar 


sabz 


yeshil 


greet 


sellem 'ala, 


tahiyeh kar- 


selam-vermek 




yusellim 'ala 


dan, kun or sa 
lam kardan, 
kun 




grey 


eshheb, ramadi khakistari 


kir, boz, gumu- 








shii 

] 


greyhound 


salugi 


tazi 


tazi 


grocer 


baqqal 


baqqal 


baqqal 


groom 


sais {pi. sayyas) mehtar 


se'is 


ground {n.) 


ardh,ga' 


zamin 


yer 


(run agrouD 


d) sheleh, yish- 


bi-rigrandan • 


oturmaq 




lah 


(trans.), 








bi-rig khurdan ^ 






{intrans.) 


l 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



371 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


(reply) 


yertas parov 








(sing.), yertaq 






parov (pi.) 






goose 


sak 


qaz, sona 


qaza 


govern 


ishkliel, gara- 
varel 


hukm kirin 


mhakim 


government 


garavaroutiun 


hukiimat 


hukma 


governor's 


garravar- 


sarai 


sarai 


ojeace 


chadoun 






grain (corn) 


tsoren (i. e. 
wheat) ; serm 


dan, dindik 


dakhla 




(i.e.seed);meg 






had (i.e. one 








grain) 






grapes 


khaghogh 


tiri 


'inwi 


grass 


khot 


gia 


gilla 


grateful 


yerakhtaked 


shekerdar 


shakara 


grease (n.) 


jarb 


chaor, qalao 


mishkha 


great 


medz 


mazin, gaura 


rraba 


greatcoat 


hasd verargou 


sako, aba 


'abayah, sako 


greedy 


shadager, dza- 
gachq 


tamakar 


kisana 


green 


ganach 


shin, kask 


yariiqa 


greet 


parevel, vogh- 


salam da 


drele shlama 




chounel 




. 


grey 


korsh, mokhra 
koyn (grey- 
coloured) 


- boz, spi 


gora, khwara 


greyhound 


vorsi shoun 


tazhi 


tazi 


grocer 


nbaravadjar 


baqal 


buqal 


groom 


tziaban 


mihtar, saiyis 


metar 


ground {n.) 


kedin, yergir 


ard 


ar*a 


(run agrouB 


d) khradz, god- 


gami la-akh 






radz 


katin 





A a 



372 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


grow (raise) 


zara*, yisra' 


ruyanidan 


cliiqarmaq, ek 
mek (sow) 


guard (n.) 


haris, natui 


qaravul 


qavas, bekji 


guide {n.) 


dalil 


rahbar 


qulawuz {pron 
qla-uz), yol 
gosteriji 


guide {v.) 


hada, yahdi or 


rahnuma'i, 


yol gostermek, 




dell, yadill 


kardan, kun 


delalet etmek 


guilty 


mudhnib 


muqassir 


qabaliatli 


gulf 


khalij 


khallj 


korfez 


gun (cannon) 


madfa' {pi. 


tup 


top 




madafi') or top 






{pi. atwap) 






gun (machine) 


rashshash 


tiip-e musalsal mitralyuz 



gunboat 
gunner 

gunpowder 
gypsum 



ghanbot 

topchi {pi. tUpclii 
topchiyah) 
barud barut 

juss abak 



ghanbot 
topji 

barut 



had (I) 

hail {n.) 

hair 

hairdresser 

half 

halt (v) 

halt {imper.) 

halter {n.) 
hammer {n.) 
hammer {v.) 



kan *andi 

halub 
sha'r 
muzeyyin 

nuss 

wagaf, yogif 

ogaf 

reshmah 
matraqah 
daqq, yaduqq 



dashtam 

tagai g, tagar 

mui 

salmani 

nisf 

wa istadan, 
ist 
bi-ist 

afsar 
chakush 



benim (bende) 
varidi 
dolu 
sach 
muzeyin 

yarim, yari, 
buchuq 
durmaq 

dur 

yular 
chekij 



kubidan, kiib chaqmaq 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



373 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

glow (raise) hastsnel, medz- hishinanin, mamti 
tsnel ruanin 

{trans.), his- 
hin boin 
{intrans.) 



I 



guard (n.) 


bahnert, baha- 


paswan, qa- 


natrana 




ban 


ranil 




guide {n.) 


arrachnort, 
oughetsujrts 


dalil, sharazai 


dam 


guide (v.) 


arrachnortel 


rria nishan da 


mukhzele 
urkha 


guilty 


hantsavor 


gunahkar 


gunahkar 


gulf 


dzots, khorsh 






gun (cannon) 


thntanot 


top 


top 


gun (machine] 


meqenagan 


top khudan 


topang lAashi- 




hratsan 


charkh 


naya 


gunboat 


thntanotanav 






gunner 


thntatzik 


topchi 


topchi 


gunpowder 


varrot 


darman, borud tiza, darman 


gypsum 


pourr, kadj ; 
alchi (Turk- 
ish) 


gaij, jas 


gech 


had (I) 


ounetsadz 


hain (v.), min 


ithwali 






ha-bii (I had) 


hail 


gargoud 


tairk, zipek 


bardha 


hair 


maz 


mu, par 


mezze 


hairdresser 


saprich 


muzayyin 


muqritana 
d-mizta 


half 


ges 


niv 


pelga 


halt {v.) 


gank arrnel 


rawastan, 
dainan 


mutule, klele 


halt {imper.) 


getsir 


rawusta, be 
sakkina 


kli, (pi.) klimuu 


halter (n.) 


tzion gab 


liafsar 


niikhta 


hammer {n.) 


mourj 


chakuch 


chakuch 


hammer (v.) 


tarpnel 


daq kir 


mduqiqle 



374 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


hand 


yed or id (p?. 
edi) 


dast 


el 


hand grenade 


qumbalat el- 


khumpare-yi- 


el-qumbarasi 




ved (pZ.qana- 


dast 






bil el-yed) 






handkerchief 


kefiyah, mendil dastmal 


mendil 


hang up 


'allaq. 


awikhtan, 


asmaq 




yu'alliq 


awiz 




happy 


farhan 


kamran 


mesrur 


harbour 


mina {pi. ma- 
wani), banda] 


bandar 


liman 


hard 


qawi 


sakht, sift 


sert, qati 


harlot 


gahbah 


junda 


rospi, fahishe 


harvest {n.) 


hasad (season); 


dirau ; hasil 


mahsul (crop); 




hasil (pro- 


(crop) 


bichim vaqiti 


• 


duce) 




(season) 


hastily 


bil-^ajel 


shit ab ana 


ajele ile 


hat 


shefqah 


kulah 


shapqa 


hate (v.) 


kereh, yikrah 


karahiyat 


*adavet etmek, 






kardan, 


ikrah etmek, 






kun 


sevmemek 


have — 


{pronominal 


dashtan, dar 


{pronominal 




suffix added 




suffix added 




to preposition 




to the thing 




' and, meaning 




possessed. 




*with') 




followed by 
yar) 


1 have 


*andi 


daram 


-im var 


thou hast 


'andek 


dari 


-in var 


he has 


*anduh 


darad 


-i {or si), var 


she has 


'andeha 


darad 


-i (or si), var 


we have 


*andena 


darim 


-imiz var 


you have 


'andekum 


darid 


-iniz var 


they have 


'andehum 


darand 


-leri (or lari) 


have not 


ma 'andi, &c. 


na-dashtan. 


var 
yoq {used like 






na-dar 


var) 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



375 



English. 
hand 

hand grenade 



handkerchief 
hang up 

happy 

harbour 

hard 
harlot 

harvest (n.) 

hastily 
hat 
hate (v.) 

have — 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

tzerq dast idha 

tzerrqi rroump, 
rrmpag 

tashkinag dasmal, kafiya yalikhta 

gakhel halawistin, . tlele 

awiz kir 
ourakh, zvart, khwosh, dil- khadiya 
yerchanig sevik 

navahankisd mina 

gardzr sakht, rraq qeshya, sart 

hanragin, tsop qahba zanita 

Cpoz', vulgar) 
hountzq, arti- hasad, khar- khizda 

unq man, dirun 

shoudov, adja- blazzi jeldi 

baranoq 
klkharg barnaita, klao kiisita 

franji 
adel waki dizhmin snele 

girt 



ounenal 



{use 'prep. ith) 



I have 


ounim 


min haya 


itti, ith 11 


thou hast 


ounis 


ta haya 


ittokh 


he has 


ouni 


au haya 


itte 


she has 


ouni 


au haya 


ittah 


we have 


ouninq 


ma haya 


ittan 


you have 


ouniq 


wa haya 


ittaukhu 


they have 


ounin 


wan haya 


ittai, ithlhun 


lave not 


ch'ounenal 


min nina, &c 


latti 



376 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


have you ? 


*andek ? 


aya mi-darid 


? -iniz var-mi ? 


hay 


qishsh, tibn 


giyah-i- 


quru ot 






khushkburma 


he 


hua 


u 





head 


ra's [fl. ru'us) 


sar 


bash 


headache 


waja' ra's 


dard-i-sar 


bash aghrisi 


headland 


ra's {fl. ru'us) 


ras 


burun 


head-quarters 


markaz 


markaz-i- 


ordu merkezi 



sipah-salar 



healthy 

heap {n.) 
heap up 

hear 

heart 

heat (v.) 

heat (n.) 

heavy 

hell 

helm 
help (v.) 

help [n.) 
her 

herd {n.) 

here 

hide {trans.) 

hide {intrans. 

high 



saghlam 



muta'afi, sahi tandurust, 

chagh 

komah tiideh yighin 

kawwam, tudeh kardan, yighmaq 

yukawwim kun 

semi*, yisma' shunidan, ishitmek 

shunau 

qalb {pi. dil yiirek, giiniil 

qulub) 

ahma, yuhmi garm kardan, isitmaq 

kun 

harr, hararah garma hararet, sijaq 

thaqil sangin aghir 

jahennam diizakh jihennem 

sakkan sukkan dumen 

sa'ad, yusa'id madad dadan, yardim-etmek 

deh 

musa'adah yawari yardim 

-eha, -ha, -a ona 

{suffix) 

qatr galleh siirii 

hina inja buraya, burada 

akhfa, yukhfi panhan kar- saqlamaq, 
dan, kun gizlemek 

ikhtafa, yakh- panhan saqlanmaq, 

tafi shudan, shau gizlenmek 

'all buland yiikjsek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



377 



English. 
have you ? 

hay 

he 

head 

headache 

headland 

head-quarters 



healthy 

heap {n.) 
heap up 

hear 

heart 

heat {v.) 

heat {n.) 

heavy 

hell 

helm 
help {v.) 

help {n.) 
her 

herd {n.) 

here 

hide {trans.) 

hide {intrans.) 

high 



Armenian Kurdish. 

ouniq ? ouniq ta haya ? 
touq? 

khod gia, ka 



Syriac. 
gallo ittokh ? 
ith lakun ? 
tuna, gila 



awa, o 

resha 

mara d-resha 



an, aniga o 

kloukh sar 

klkhatsav darde sar 

sar, saravant shakh, halat romta 

sbayaguydi 

vayr, zorad- 

deghi 
arroghj sakh, saghlam saghlam, sakh 

tez, guyd shkerr kumah, shkerra 

tizel, goudagel sar da, takwim mkuwimle 
kir 
behistin 



Isel 

sird 

dagtsnel 

dagutiun 

dzanr 

tzhokhq. 

glieg 
oknel 

oknoutiun 
anor 

nakhir 
hos, asd 
thaqtsunel, 

dzadzgel 
thaqchil, 

dzadzgvil 
partzr 



dil 

garm kir 

garm 
giran 

jehannam, 
duzha 

hari da 

hari, yari 



garan, ran 
harah, era 
washartin 



bilind 



shmele 

libba 

mushkhenne 

khemma 

yaqura 

gihena 

'inne, mheyir 

'aun 

-ah (suffix) 

buqra 

akha, lakha 
mtushele 

tshele 

rrama 



378 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

highroad darb sultan i, rah, shah-rah jadde (yol) 

tariq 

high water medd el-moi madd-i-darya, meddi kyamil, 

deniz qabar- 
masi 

hill tell {pi. tulul) kuh, tappeh tepe 

hillock tell saghir kuh-i-kuchak tepejik, hiiyiik 

hilly dhat tulul past u buland inishli- 

yoqushlu 
him -uh, -hu (suffix) u-ra, -ash ona {dat.), 

(suffix) onu (ace.) 

himself nefsuh khudash kendi 

hinder mena', man'kardan, braqmamaq, 

yimna' kun mani' olmaq 

hire (n.) karwah kiraya qira 

his -uh,-h\i (suffix) y -i-vi,-Sish(suffix) onun 

maluh 

hit (v.) dharab, ya- zadan, zan vurmaq 

dhrab (strike) ; (strike) ; 

sab, yasib (of deimek (of 

mark) . mark) 

hither ila hina bi-inja biiraya 
hobbles (n.) *iqal pa-band 

hold (v.) mesek, yim- giriftan, gir tutmaq, yiqala- 

sak maq 

hold (contain) wasa', yasa* gunjayish almaq; sigh- 

dashtan, dar maq (to be 
contained) 
hold (a posi- hama, yuhami nigah dashtan, tiitmaq 
tion) dar 

hold out dam, yadiim mudawamat dayanmaq 

kardan, kun 
hold (of ship) *ambar ambar-ekashti, anbar 

(n.) khan-e kashti 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



379 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish 


Syriac 


highroad 


arahed, 
arqouni 
jampa 


rria, shahri 


urkha 


highwater 


maguntatsou- 
tiun (partzr 
choiirn) 






hill 


plour 


girik, harda, 
chia 


tella, rumta 


hillock 


plrag 






hilly 


plrayin 


khudan chia 


qaraj 


him 


zaniga {ace), 
anor {dat.) 


au 


awa, -h {suifix) 


himself 


noyninqn, 

inr( ni n 


bekhwa 


ganeh 


hinder 


ixiu mix 
khapanel, 


man' kir 


mni'le 




arkelq linel 




• 


hire {n.) 


vartzel, gashar 
rel 


kira, kire ^ 


keri 


his 


anor 


wi 


diye, -h {suffix) 


hit {v.) 


zarnel 


leda, lekhest 


qUile 


hither 


ays degh 


Ihara, lera 


lakha 


hobbles in,) 


vodnaeab 


kuba 


Mtwe 



(tziou) 
hold {v.) prrnel 

hold (contain) barounagel 



girtin 



erele, dawiq 



hold (a posi- kravel mhumele 

tion) 
hold out timanal, dogal thabat kir, msubere, dimle 

dast girt 
hold (of ship) bahateghi ambar gami 

in.) 

^ These two words should be well pronounced in order to avoid the 
use of a bad word ; the way to do it is to skip over i and to stress a or e. 



380 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


hole 


nugrah {pi. 
nugar) 


surakh 


delik 


honest 


sadiq, amin 


durust-kar, 
amm 


doghru 


honour {n.) 


namus, sharf ; 


abru 


shan, sheref, 




ikram (re- 




namus 




spect) 


/ 




hook 


chingal {pi. 
chanagil) ; 
shuss (fish 
hook) 


qullab 


chengel 


hope {n.) 


rija, eml 


umid 


iimid 


hope {v.) 


raja, yarju 


umid dashtan 
dar 


, iimid etmek 


horse 


husan (2??. husn) asp 


at 


horseman 


khayyal 


suvar 


atli 


horseshoe 


na'al 


na'l 


na'al, at deniiri 


hospital 


musteshfa, 


bimar-khaneh 


khasta-khane 




khastakhanah 






hostile 


mudhadd, 
dhudd 


dushman 


diishmen 


hot 


harr (of things 
or weather) ; 
mushawwib 
(of persons) 


garm 


sijaq 


hour 


sa'ah 


sa'at 


sa'at 


house 


bet(pZ.buyut), 
hosh 


khaneh 


ev, khane 


how 


shlon, shqad 


che taur 


nasi 


how much 


shqadr ; besh 


cheh qadar 


ne qadar ; qach 




(of price) 




(of price) 


how many 


kam 


chand 


qach tane 


hull (of ship) 


jised 


tana 


tekne 


hungry 


jo'an 


gurasneh 


ach 


hurry {n.) 


'ajalah 


'ajaleh 


'ajele 


hurry (v.) 


ista 'jal, yas- 


dast-pacheh 
shudan, shau 


'ajele etmek 




ta 'jil 




husband 


zoj 


shauhar 


qoja, erkek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



381 



Armenian. 
dzag 

bargeshd 



Kurdish. 
kuna 



Syriac. 
nuqba 



rast, dilpak kena, dus 



badiv, medza- iiamus, awru qudra 
ranq (chastity) ; 

qadr, iqbal 

(dignity) 
jang, gerr changal, qullaf qullaba 



buys 


emud, hivi 


emud, hiwi 


housai 


emud or raja 


itte emud (' he 




kir 


has hope ') 


tzi 


hasp 


susa 


tziavor 


suwar, khayyal rakawa 


bayd, bayd 


nal 


na'la . 


tziou 






hivantanots 


khastakhana, 
niaristan 


hakunkhana 


tsbnamagan 


dizhmen, 
nayar 


dizhmen 


daq (water) ; 


garm 


khamima 


doth (air) 






zham 


sa'at 


sa'at, shetha 


doun 


mal, khani 


baitha 



how inchbes, inchou 

how much vorchap 

how many vorqan, qani 
hull (of ship) navou marmin 
anothi 

shdab, shoud 
pouthal, 
shdabel 
amousin 



chawa, kusa, dakhi 
chlun 

chand, chitof k-ma 

chand, chitof k-ma 
tanae gami 

bersi kpina 

lazi, 'ajalah 'ajalah 

lazi or 'ajalah mqulqille 
kir 

mer, shu gaura 



382 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English, 
hut 

I 

ice 
if 

ignorant 

ill • 

illness 
immediately 

impossible 

imprison 

impudent 

in 

inconvenient 

increase 

(trans.) 
increase 

(intrans.) 
India 
Indian 
indigestion 

infantry- 
infectious 



infidel (i.e. 

non-Moslem) 
inform 



Arabic, Persian. Turkish. 

sarifah (of kappar, kap- qulube 
mats) par-e hasir- 

push 
ana man ben 

thelj yakh buz 

idha, in agar eyer 

jahil jahil, na-dan jahil, ma'lu- 

matsiz 
maridh, waj'an na-khush kbasta, keif- 

siz 
maradh, waj' na-khushi, khastaliq 

bimari 
hessa, bis- fauri der'aqab 

sa*ah I 

muhall, musta- ghair mumkin olmaz, mumkin 
hil or mustahil deyil 

habas, yahbis habs kardan, habs etmek, 

kun babsa atmaq 

waqih shukh, bi- edebsiz, kiis- 

sbarm takh 

fi, bi dar -da {suffix) 

mu muwafiq na-munasib miinasibetsiz, 

sikindili 
zad, yazid afzudan, afza artirmaq, cho- 

ghaltmaq 
izdad, yazdad afzudan, afza artmaq, cho- 

ghalmaq 
Bilad el-Hind Hindustan Hindustan 
Hindi Hindi Hindli 

tukbmah, jali sii-i-liazm su'i bazm 



piyadah 
sari, mu'di 



sarbaz-i- 
piyadeh 
sari 



piyade 'asker 

bulashiq (per- 
son) ; sari 
(disease) 

giaur 



kafir (pi. kuf- kafir 

far) 

akbbar, khabar dadan, bildirmek 

yukhbir deh 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



383 



English, Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac, 

hut dnag kepir, qaprana qiiprana 



I 

ice 

if 

ignorant 

ill 

illness 

immediately 

impossible 

imprison 

impudent 

in 

inconvenient 

increase 

{trans.) 
increase 

{intrans.) 
India 
Indian 
indigestion 

infantry 

infectious 



yes 

sarouts, sarr 
yethe 
dked, anous 

hivant 

hivandoutiun 

anmichabes, 
isguyn 

angareli 

pandargel 

lirp, anzkam 

i, mech 

anharmar 

shadtsnel 

shadnal 

Hndgastan 

Hndig 

anmarsoghou- 

tiun 
hedevag, hede- 

vagazor 
varagich 



az, min 
bafr, sahul 
agar, haka 
nazan 

nasakh 

nasakhi, esh 

zujblaz (quick- 
ly) ; warina, 
herista 

nabi, nawu, 
ghair mumkin 

bapis kir, dii- 
sakh kir 

behaya 

niv, nao 

na munasib 

ziada kir 

zaid or galak 
or mazin bii 
Hindustan 
Hindi 



payada 
sari 



ana 

gdila 

in 

nazani, jabil 

kriha, mari'a 

kurhana, mar'a 

• alba'al 



la baraya, 

na-mumkin 
hbesle 

d-la nekhpa 

b-go, b-gav, b- 

{prefix) 
la munasib 

miizedle 

zidle 

Hind 
Hindwaya 



paiyada 
matepiana, sari 



infidel 
inform 



anoren, anha- kafir, gawir, kapura 

vad be-din 

imatsnel khabar da mukhbere 



384 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
information 

in front 
in front of 
in future 

ink 
inlet 

inn 

innocent 

insane 

inside 
inspect 



inspector 
instruction 



Arabic. 
khabr 

quddam, 
quddam, 
fil-mustaqbil 

hibr 

khalij saghlr 

khan {pi. 
khanat) 
beri 

ma j nun 

dakhil, jowa 
fettesb, yu- 
fettish 



mufettish 
ta'lim 



Persian. 
ittila* 

pish 

pish-i- 

dar ayandeh 

murakkab 
khalij -i- 
kuchak 
karvan-sara}^ 

bi-gunah 

divana 



Turkish. 
khaber 

ileri 

on ( + suffix) de 

bundan sonra, 

atida 
miirekkeb 
aghiz, boghaz, 

qoi 
khan 

qabahatsiz, 
ma'siim 
deli 



andarun, dar ichinde 
mulahaza kar- yoqlamaq 

dan ; naza- 

rat kardan 

(in sense of 

* superintend') 
nazir mufettish, yoq- 

lamaji 
tarbiyat ta'lim 



insult {v.) 

insult (n.) 

Intelligence 
Department 

intelligent 

intend 

interpret 
interpreter 



ahan, yuhin 

ihanah 

Dayirat el- 
mukhabarat 

'aqil 

qasad, yaqsad 

or nawa, 

yanwi 
terjam, yuter- 

jim 
tarjuman 



ihaneh kar- haqaret etmek 

dan, kun 

ihaneh haqaret 

idara-ye akh- Dayirat el- 
bar mukhabarat 

hushdar, 'aqil 'aqlli 

niyyat kardan, niyyet( + sujfix) 

kun var 

tarjumeh terjume etmek 
kardan, kun 

mutarjim terjuman 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



385 



English. 
information 

in front 
in front of 
in future 

ink 
inlet 

inn 

innocent 

insane 

inside 
inspect 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

deghegoutiun, khabor khabra 
dzanotoutiun 

arrchev peshin qamaya 

arrchev pesh qam 

abakayin pashe b-zauna d-athe 

melan hober, muraken bidyuta 
moudq, kborsh 



bantog, 
ichevan 
anmegh 



khan 

beguna, be- 

qusur 
din, be-'aql 



kban 

kena, d-la 
gnaba 
shidana 



kbent, khela 
kar 

i nersn, nersn niv, nao gawaye 

qnnel, znnel mulahadha or msakbsi 

mushahada 

kirin 



inspector 
instruction 

insult {v.) 

insult [n.) 

Intelligence 
Department 

intelligent 

intend 

interpret 
interpreter 

MES. I 



desoucb, vera- 

gatsou 
telatroutiun, 

hramandvou- 

tiun 
anarkel, 

nakbadel 
nakbading 

Dzanotoutiun- 

neri Basbdo- 

na ran 
ousbim, 

kbelatsi 
mdatrvil, 

gamenal 

tarkmanel 
tarkman 



nazir, mufat- 

tisb 
ifada, ta'Iim, 

tanbib 

kbabarr got 

dizbminai, 

kbabarr 
khabar kbana 



msakbsana 
malpanutba 

mgu'ere 

sa'ore 

mansab d-du- 
rasba 



aqil, tezbfam 'aqil, baunana 
b'ele 



kbwast, ma- 
ram kir 

terzumani kir 

tarjuman 
b 



mpusbiqle 
tarjaman 



386 



interview (n.) 
into 
intrigue (n.) 

inundation 

invasion 

invent 

investigation 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 

Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 



muwajahah mulaqat 
fi, ila dar dakhil 

daslsah dasisa 



feyadhan 

(overflow) 
dukhul 



sailab 



goriishme 

ichine 

fessad 

su basmasi 



hujum, takht- tejavuz 
u taz 
ikhtara', yakh- ikhtira' ijad etmek 

tari' namudan, 

numa 
teftish tahqiq teftish 



mvite 



iron {n.) 
iron {adj.) 
irrigate 
island 

is there ? 

it {nom.) 
it (ace.) 

its 

jackal 

jacket 



jam 
January 

jetty 
Jew 



da'a, yad'u or 
'azzam, 
yu'azzim 

hadid 
min hadid 
saqa, yasqi 
jazirah {pi. 

jaza'ir) 
aku? 

liua,huwa,hiya 
-uh, -ha (-a) 

{suffix) 
-uh, -ha (-a) 

{suffix) 
wawi {pl.wsLwi' 

yah) 
sitrah 

(Turkish) 

marabba 
Kanun eth- 

thani 
eskelah 
Yahudi {pi. 

Yahud) 



da'wat kardan, da 'vet etmek 

kun or mih- 

man kardan, 

kun 
ahan demir 

ahanln demirden 

ab dadan, deh sulamaq 



jazireh 
hast ? 



an 



-i-an {suffix) 

shughal 

nimtana 



ada 

bulunur-mu ? 
var-mi ? 
0, ol 
onu 

onun 

chaqal 

setri, mintan 



murabba rechel, tatli 

Kanun-as-sani Kyanun-i-sani 



iskaleh 
Yahudi 



iskele 
Yahudi 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



387 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. 

interview [n.) desagtsoutiiin mulaqat 

niv, la 
fasadi, kaid 



into i, i nerks 

intrigue (w.) meqenayou- 

tiun, tav 
inundation 



invasion 



invent 



Syriac. 
tpaqta 
b-, 1- {'prefix) 
qola 

sel 



voghoghel, tufan, saile 

heghegel ave 

arshavanq hujum, kharat, wirta 

azhutin 
hnarel dit - khzele/ewedhle 

ikhtira* 



investigation khouzargou- tahqiq, pe msakhsayta 

tiun, qnnou- hilandine 

tiun 
invite hravirel dawat kir, mkuremle, 

gazi kir qrele 



iron (n.) 
iron {adj.) 
irrigate 
island 

is there ? 

it {nom.) 
it {ace.) 

its 

jackal 

jacket 



jam 
January 



yergat 
yergatia 
vorrokel 
gghzi 



ayn 
ad 



lur 



asm 

av da 
jazirali 



ga artiog ? haya ! 



jetty 
Jew 



shnakayl 
badmoudjan 



jam, mouraba 
Hounvar 

navamaduyts 
Hria 



au 

-wi {suffix) 
chaqal 

satra, elakk, 

qutikk, 

shapikk 
murabba 
Kanune sani 

askalah 
Juhi 



prezla 
d-prezla 
miishqele 
jazirah, ada 

gallo ith ? 

awa, aya 

-eh, -ah {suffix) 
wawi, toritha 
gudda 

murabba 
Kanun kharaya 

askalah 
Hudhaya 



B b2 



388 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


jewel 


johar {pi. 
jawahir) 


gauhar 


mujevherat 


job 


shughl {pi. 
ashghal) 


shughl 


ish giij 


joiner 


najjar 


najjar 


doghramaji 


journey 


sefer 


safar 


sefer, yoljuluq 


joyful 


masriir 


farahnak 


mesrur 


judge (v.) 


hakam, yah- 


davari kardan 


muhakeme 




kam 




etmek 


(civil, n.) 


ra'is mah- 
kamah 


qazi 


hakim 


(religious, 


n.) qadhi 


mujtahid 


mufti 


jug 


ibriq 


aftabeh, kuzeh desti 


July 


Tammuz 


Tammuz 


Temmiiz 


jump (v.) 


qafaz, yaqfiz 


jastan, jeh 


atlamaq 




ornatt,yanutt 




June 


Hazlran 


Haziran 


Haziran 


jungle 


ghabah 


jangal, bisheh 


ormanliq 


justice 


'adl, insaf 


'adl, insaf 


doghruluq, 




(equity) 




huquq 


jute 


jinfas 


kattan-e hindi 
{or qunnab-e 
hindi) 


i jinfas 


keel 


ka'ab el^ 
markab 




omurgha 


keep 


khalla 'and, 


nigah dashtan 


, saqlamaq 




yukhalli 'and 


dar 






or hafadh, 








yahfadh 






kettle 


ketli, jidr 


ab-garm-kun, 
kitri 


qazan, ibriq 


key 


miftah 


kilid 


anakhtar 


kick {v.) 


refes, yirfus 


lakad zadan, 


tepmek, tekme 






zan 


atmaq 


kid 


jedi 


buzghaleh 


oghlaq 


kill 


qatal, yaqtul ; 


kushtan, kush ofdiirmek, 




dhebeh, 




kesmek 




yidhbah 







GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



389 



English. 
jewel 

job 

joiner 
journey 
joyful " 

judge {v.) 

(civil, n.) 

(religious, 

jug 
July 
jump {v.) 

June 
jungle 

justice 

jute 

keel 
keep 



Armenian. Kurdish. 

kohar, badva- jauhar, zinat 

gan qar 

kordz, zpag- shol, kar 

houm 

adaghtzakordz najjar 

janportoutiun safar 

tsndzalits, shad, dil- 

ourakh shad 

tadel hiukm kirin 



Syriac. 
kip a 

d-shapaqta 
shula 

nujar 
safar 
marl khadiitha 

'awid diwan 



tadavor 



liakim, qazi 



n.) gronagan tada- qazT 
vor 



gouzh 
Houlis 
tsadgel, 

vosdnoul 
Hounis 
andarr 

artaroutiun 

ganep (hemp) 



kok, hadag 
navi 
bahel 



qadi 

talma, danta 

Tamuz 

shwerc' 



ibriq, avtan 
Tammuz 
banz da, 

jenqin 
Kheziran Hziran 

ghabah, jangal ghabah, tar- 

rashe 
'adalat kenutha, in^af 

qinnab, giae 
sultan 



girtin 



ntere 



kettle 



san, bdoug qazan, tenjur destitha, maqlc 



key 


panali 


kil-ila 


qdhila 


kick {v.) 


qatsi dal, 
aqatsel 


pe le dan 


mkhel6 rapse 


kid 


oul 


kar 


gidhya 


kill 


spanel 


klishtin 


qtille 



390 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

kiln kurah kura-ye ajur ojaq 

kind {adj.) latif mihraban eyi, insaniyetli 

kind (n.) jins {pi. ajnas) nau* nev', turlu, 

jins 

melik {pi. shall qral 
muliik) 

memlekali {pi. mamlakat memleket 
mamalik) 

bas, yabus mach kardan opmek 



king 

kingdom 

kiss {v.) 

kit (soldiers') aghradh {pi.) asbab 



esbya 



kitchen 
knapsack 
knee 
knife 



matbakh ashpaz-kbaneh matbakh, ash 

khane 
torbah asbab-dan {or chanta 

chanta) 
zanu diz 



rukbah {pi. 
rukiib) 
sikkin {pi. 
sakakin) 
knife (pen- chakuch, 

knife) qalam trash 

knock (at door, daqq, yaduqq kubidan, dar chalmaq 
V.) zadan 



chaqu, kard bichaq 

qalem trash 



knot (distance) mil {pi. amyal) mil mil, deniz mili 

know 'araf, ya'rif, danistan, dan bilmek 



Kurdistan 


dere, yidri 
Kurdistan 


Kurdistan 


Kurdistan 


lack {v.) 


az, ya'iiz 


kam shudan, 
shau 


eksik olmaq 
(to be de- 


* 

ladder 


derej 


narduban 


ficient) ; lazim 
olmaq (to be 
necessary) 
merdiven 


lady 


khatun, sitt 


khanum 


hanem, khatun 



lake 
lamb 



buherah, hor daryacheh gol 

tali(pZ.tu]yan) barreh quzu 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



391 



English. 
kiln 

kind {adj.) 
kind (n.) 

king 

kingdom 

kiss (v.) 

kit (soldiers') 

kitchen 

knapsack 

knee 

knife 



Armenian. 



pourr 
pari 



takavor 

takavoroutiun 

hampourel, 
baknel 
barg (zinvorits) 

khohanots 

makbagh 

dzoung 

tanag, zmeli 



Kurdish. 
kur, tannur 
dils 6z, hebbi 
jins 

sultan, kbum- 

kar 
daulat, mam- 

lakat 
mach kirin, 

bosa kirin 
asbab, teshte 

'askar 
matbakh, ash- 

khanah 
cheltik 

zbnu, kodk, 
zrani 
kerek 



Syriac. 
kiira 

mrahmana 
ginsa 

malka 

dawelta, mal- 
kiitha 
nasbiq 

chaki 

matbakh 

janta 

birka 

skina 



knock (at door, zarnel (toure) daqq al-bab mtaptip 
V.) kirin, la- 

darga daqq 

kirin 
knot (distance) mghon 
know kidnal zanin idhele, yadhe 

Kurdistan Kurdistan Kurdistan Kurdistan 

lack {v.) bagasil, nvazil bhauja bu sniqle 



ladder 
lady 


santoukh 
digin 


stair, paizha, simalta 
; )ilakan 
khatun, kha- khanim 


lake 
lamb 


karrn 


nim 
bahr yama 
barkh barkha 



392 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turlish. 


lame 


a'raj 


lang 


topal (man) ; 
aqsiyor (horse) 


lamp 


fanus, lampah 


chiragh 


lampa, qandil 


lance 


rumh {pi. 
armah) 


naizeh 


mizraq 


land (n.) 


ardh, ga' 


zamm 


qara (opp. to 
sea) ; memle- 
ket (country) ; 
arazi (lands) 


land {v.) 


nezzel, yunezzil bi-khushki bi- 


qaraya chiq- 




{trans.), nezel 


, runavardan 


armaq(«ra»i5.), 




yinzal {in- 


{trans.), 


qaraya chiq- 




trans.) 


bi-kanar ama 
dar {intrans.) 


L- maq {intrans.) 


landing party 


tali'in 'al-barr 




qaraya chiqan 
taqim 


landlord (land) mallak 


malik-e amlak miilk sahibi 


(of house) 


sahib 


malik-e khana 


. ev sahibi 


language 


lisan, lughah 


lughat, zaban 


dil, lisan 


lantern 


fanus {pi. 
fa warns) 


fanus 


fener 


large 


kabir 


buzurg 


biiyiik 


last 


akhir ; madhi 


akhir, wa-pa- 


son (in a series); 




(of time) 


sin 


gechen 


late 


muta'akhkhir, 
mubti 


dir 


gech 


laugh {v.) 


dhahak. 


khandidan. 


giilmek 




yadhhak 


khand 




laundry 


maghsal 


rakht-shii 


chamashir- 




(place) ; hu- 


khana 


khane 




dum el-ghasil 








(linen) 






law 


qanun {pi. 
qawanin) 


qaniin 


qanun 


martial law 


hukm 'askari 


qanun-e jangi 


idareyi urfiye 


law suit 


da'wa 


murafa'a 


da'va 


lay (place, put) hatt, yahutt 


guzashtan, 


qomaq, 






guzar 


yatirmaq 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



393 



English. 
lame 

lamp 
lance 

land {n.) 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

gagh leng, kuUak shilla 

lapter, lampa cliira, lampa lampa 

nizag rumm, ram rumha 



tsamaq, yergir 'ard 



ar'a, yaushana 



land (v.) tsamaq yellel la-*ard hatin shari'ul 

or darbaz 
boin 



landing party tsamaq elnogb 

khoump 
landlord (land) galvadzader agha, sahib agha 

mulk 



(of house) 
language 
lantern 


dander 

lezou 

labder 


khudane mal mara bayta 
ziman, azman lishana 
fanus, fanar panhar 


large 
last 


khoshorj medz 
verchin 


mazin, gaura raba 
pashe, akhir kharraya 


late 


oush 


drang 


laugh {v.) 


khndal 


kani gkhekle 


laundry 


Ivatsaran 


shushta-khana^maseta d-juli 
julsho-khana 



law 



orenq 



qanun 



qanona 



martial law zinvoragan hukme'askari, shar'at qoshu- 
orenq qanune harb naya 

lawsuit -tad da'wa sher 

lay (place, put) tnel, barrgets- dainand^ hela mutiile 
nel 



394 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
lazy 
lead (metal 

adj.) 
lead (metal, ».) ra^a? 



Arabic. Persian. 

keslaD, tembil sust, tambal 
min ra§a§a surbi 



surb 



Turkish. 
tembel 
qurshun 

qursbun 



lead {v.) 


qad, yaqiid 


rah-numa'i 


getirmek, ileri 






kardan, kun 


diishmek 


leaf 


warqah {pi. 


barg 


yapraq (tree) ; 




awraq) 




varaq (book) 


leak (n.) 


naqb, rasheh 


siirakh 


delik 


lean {adj.) 


dha'if, nahif 


laghar 


za'if, jiliz 


learn 


ta'allam, 


amukhtan, 


orenmek 




yata'allam 


amuz 




lease {n.) 


muddat el- 
ijar ; warqat 
el-ijar 


yarah 


ijar 


leather 


iild 


charm, pust 


meshin 


leave (wimns.) rah, yaruh 




. . . -den 

chiqmaq 

braqmaq, 


leave {trans.) 


tarak, yitruk 


guzashtan, 






guzar 


terk etmek 


leech 


'alaqah {pi. 
'alaq), duda 
{pi. dud) 


zalu 


suluk 


left {adj.) 


shimal, yisar 


chap 


sol 


leg 


rijl 


pa, saq 


ayaq, bajaq 


Legation {or 


Sifarah 


saf arat, saf a- 


sefaret (khane) 


Residency) 




rat-khana 




leisurely 


'alakef 


bi-faraghat 


yavash yavash 


lend 


deyyan, 


qarz dadan, 


odiinj vermek 




yudeyyin 


deh or 'ariyel: 


I 




or agradh. 


dadan, deh 






yugridh 







GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



395 



I 



English. Armenian. 

lazy dzuyl 

lead (metal, gabaria 

adj.) 
lead (metal; w.) gabar (metal) 
hramanada- 



Kurdish. Syriac. 

tembal kislan 

qia, ziriji, surb min ri§a§ 

risa§ 



lead {v.) 
leaf 



routiun, 

arrachnor- 

toutium (of 

army) 
varel, arrach- pesh girtin, mukhwele 

nortel ria nishan da urkha 

derev; tought chlu, pak, terpa 



leak {n.) 

lean {adj.) 
learn 


(folio) 

jeghqvatsq, 

dzag 
nihar 
sorvil 


barak (tree) 
waraq, kak- 
haz (paper) 
kuna, kunn 

larr, razhi 
dasgirtin 


nuqba 

daqiqa, za'if 
ileple, yalep 


lease {n.) 


vartzoum 


kiri, kire, 
ta'jir 


hiijat 


leather gashi 
leave (m^raws.) mnal . 


charm 
helan 


gilda 
shweqle, trekle 


leave {trans.) 


thoghoul 






leech 


dzroug 


ziiri, dizruk 


'alaq, zuruwa 



left tzakh 

leg srounq, vot 

Legation {or Tesbanadiun 

Residency) 
leisurely gamatsoren, 

hankistoren 
lend pokh dal, 

shnorhel 



chap chappe 

pe, saq shaqa, aqla 

Saf aratkhana, elchi khana 
llchikhana 



btanai 

bdain da, 
bqarz da 



nikha 

mduyenne 
(money) ; 
iwelle 
(general) 



396 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


length 


till 


dirazi 


boi, uzunluq 


less 


aqall, naqi? 


kamtar 


daha az, 
-dan az 


letter 


maktiib {pi. 


maktiib, 


mektiib 




makatib). 


nameh 






risalah 








{pi. rasa'il) 






lettuce 


khess 


kahii 


marul 


level (adj.) 


' adil (ground) ; 


musattah, 


diiz (of ground); 




mutasawi 


hamwar 


doghru (even) 


liberty 


hurriyah 


azadi 


huriyet, azadliq 


lie (down) 


istalga, waga' : 


; diraz kashi- 


yatmaq 




nam, yanam 


dan, kash 






(rest on bed) 






lie (to tell a) 


kedheb, 


duriigh guftan 


I, yalan soilemek 




vikdhab 


ga 




lie {n.) 


kidhb 


duriigh 


yalan 


lieutenant 


mulazim 


mulazim 


miilazim 


life 


'umr, hayat 


zindagT, hayat hayat 


life-belt 


hizam en- 


kamarband-i- 


yiizmeye 




najat 


najat 


makhsiis 
kemer, jan 
qurturan 
kemer 


Uft 


shal, yashil, 


bar dashtan, 


qaldirmaq 




rafa*, yarfa' 


dar 




light (kindle, i 


i;.)sha'al, yish*al 


ranshan 
kardan 


yaqmaq 


(of sun, n.) 


niir 


ranshanayi 


nur, ishiq 


light (of 


khafif 


subuk 


khafif 


weight) 








lighter (n.) 


diibah, chayah 




maghiina 


lightning 


barq 


barq 


shimshek 


lights 


adhwa (e. g. of 


chiragh 


fenerler, siliyon 




ship) ; anwar 




(of ship) 


like (v.) 


habb, yahibb 


diist dashtan 


sevmek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



397 



English. 
length 
less 

letter 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

yergaynoutiun drezhi yerkhutha 

nvaz kemter besh qi^^a 



namag 



kaghad, 
mektub 



kthawa 



!ettuce 
level {adj.) 

liberty 
lie (down) 



lie (to tell a) 

lie {n.) 
lieutenant 
life 
life-belt 



bazar, marol khass, kahu kahi 
hart, havasar rast shtiha, rast 



azadoutiun 
barrgil 



sdel, soud 

khosel 
soud 
deghagal 
gianq 
gensakodi 



hurriyat, azai azadiitha 
rra keutin, ne- shtehle 
westin 



drau kir 
drau, dru 
zhi, 'umr 



mdugille 

dugla 

mulazim 

khaye 



lift partsratsnel, 

grel 
light (kindle v.)varrel, lousa- 

vorel 

(of sun, n.) arev 



light (of 
weight) 
lighter _ 

lightning 

lights 

like (v.) 



thethev 

lasd, navag 
perrnagir 
gaydzag 

jrak 

ouzel, havnil, 
tsangal 



helanin, bar muremle 

girtin 
agir kirin, agir mtape 

dan, dagir- 

standin 
rozhnai, ruh- bahra 

nai 
silk, sevekk qalula 



birusk, shim- berqa 

arta 
ruhnai, rozh- behra 

nai 
khwastin 



keba'yi 



398 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish, 


like (similar 


mithl 


misl-e 


benzer 


to) 








like this 


hichi 


in-taur 


bu gibi 


lime (material) juss 


ahak 


kirej" 


limit 


hadd {pi. 
hudud) 


hadd 


hadd, kenar 


limp {v.) 


'araj, ya'raj 


langidan, lang topallamaq 


line 


khatt {vl- khu- 


satr 


khatt, chizgi ; 




m) ; safi {pi. 




saf (row) ; 




sufiif) (row) ; 




khalat (rope) 




habl (rope) 






lip 


shifah {dual. 
shifaten) 


lab 


dudaq 


liquorice 


sus 


sus 


sus 


list 


qayimah 


fehrist 


defter 


(of ship) 


mel 


mail namii- 


egilme 






dan-e kashti 


L 






bi-tarafi 




listen 


istema', yes- 


gush dadan, 


dinlemek 




temi' 


deh 




little (of 


qalil {adj.) ; 


kam 


az {adv.); bur 


quantity) 


sheweya {n.) 




az(ri.);kiichiik, 
ufaq {adj.) 


live (exist) 


*ash, ya'ish 


zindagam 
kardan, kun 


yashamaq 


live (dwell) 


seken, yiskun or manzil dash- 


oturmaq, 




qa'ad, yaq'a 


tan, dar 


muqim olmaq 


lively 


nashit 


khush tab' 


janli 


liver 


kebid 


;igar 


qara-jiger 


load {v.) 


hammal, 


3ar kardan, 


yiiklemek 




yuhiammil 


kun 




load (n.) 


himl 


bar 


yiik, hamule 


load (a gun) 


teres, yitras 


)ur kardan, 
cun 
mahalli 


doldurmaq 


local 


mahalli 


yerli 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



399 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

like (similar hamanman, waki!, waki, mdamiya 
to) nman, bes wak, minana 

like this asor bes, asor wak vi, wak av akb-d-aha 

nman 

lime (material) gir ahik, gach kilsha 

limit sahman iiadd, senur liadd, tkhtima 



limp {v.) 


gaghal 


kulak bu, shil 


mkiilekle 


line 


kidz 


uu. 
rez 


reza 


lip 

liquorice 
list 
(of ship) 


shourtn {pi. 

shrtounq) 
madoudag, 

maroukh 

tsoutsag 

dzril 


lev, liw siptha - 
sus, mahik 

daftar, jad- sidra 

wal, siahi 
mail gami, 

tamayul gami 


listen 


Isel 


•giihdarin, 


mu§ithle 


little (of 
quantity) 


sagav, 
sagavathiv 


hendek, pe- 
chak 


zora, 
qi§sa 


live 


abril 


zhin 


khele 


live (dwell) 

lively 

liver 
load {v.) 


pnagil 

gaydarr, 
arruyk 
liart 
perrtsnel 


manzil kir, 

sakin bu 
chaspan 

jerk 
3ar kir 


skenne 

kashshira 

kauda 
mutenne 


load {n.) 
load (a gun) 

local 


perr 
Itsnel 

deghagan 


bar 

girtin, darman 

da 
watani, ma- 

halli 


tena 
mdurmenne 

qurbabi 



400 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian 


Turkish. 


lock (n.) 
lock {v.) 


qufl 

qaffal, yuqaffil 


qufl 

qufl zadan, 


killd 
kilidlemek 


locomotive 
locust 


jarrarah 
jar ad 


zan 
chark-e buk- 

har-e rah-e 
malakh 


loqomotif 
chekirge 



log (of wood) jidh' 



chub 



odun 



log (of ship) qaid el-markab ruz-name-yi- jurnal 

kashti 
long {adj.) tawil diraz uzun 

look (v.) shaf, yashuf or ahan (or nigah baqmaq 

bawa*, yu- kardan) 

bawi' 



look after dar bal 'ala, mutavajjih gozetmek 

yadir bal 'ala budan 



look at 
look-out {n.) 
loop-hole nocha 

loose (adj.) 



loot (n.) 

lose 

loss 

losses (in 
battle) 
louse 
love (v.) 



bawa' bi, ^nigah kardan, baqmaq 

yubawi' bi ' kun 
nebachi, haris nigah ban 



surakh 



varda 

nobetjisi 
mazghal deliyi 



mafkuk (un- sust, gushada rabtsiz 

bound); rakhu 

(not tight) 
nahb, ghani- gharat, yagh- yaghma, 

mah ma ghanimet 

dheyya', yu- gum kardan, ghaib etmek 

dheyyi' kun 

khasarah {pi. ziyan zarar, zayat 

khasa'ir); faqd 
telefiyat talafat telefiyet 

qamlah shipish bit 

tabb, yahibb dustdashtan, sevmek 
ashiq budan 



i 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



401 



English. 


Armenian, 


Kurdish, 


Syriac. 


lock {n.) 


paganq 


qifl 


qipla 


lock {v.) 


pagel, goghpel 


qifl kir 


qfelle, ghleqle 


locomotive 


vayrasharzh 


charkhe alate 
bukhar 


mashina 


locust 


morekh 


kula, chakerjik qamsa 


log 


dzarri gojgh, 

gojgb 
navabedi ora- 


qorma, dar 


qorma 


log (of ship) 








kir 






long 


yergar 


derezh 


yarikha 


look {v.) 


desnel, nayil 


fakkirin, tam- 
asha kirin, 
rwandin, 
meza kirin, 
nairin 


• gashiq 


look after 


knamq danil 


muhafadha 


mtagbir 




(to take 


kirin, himayat 




care of); pnd- 


• kirin 






rel (to seek 








for) 






look at 


nael, tidel 


fakerian, bare- 
khwa da 


ntere, khere ill 


look-out {n.) 


shrchated, ted 
navi 


paswan, haris 


natora 


loop-hole 


hradzerb, pak- 
hsdi djampa 


surakh, kuna 


biz'a 


loose {adj.) 


tuyl, luydz 


shil, laqlok 


mrapiya 


loot [n.) 


avar, gogho- 

boud 
gortsnel, 


talan 


nehba 


lose 


berza 


msiikere 




gorousanel 


hinda kir 


kh§ere 


loss 


gorousd 


zarar 


zarar, khe§arah 


losses (in 


gorousd, vnas 


khusran. 


tliqi 


battle) 




khisarat 




louse 


vochil 


speh 


qalma 


love {v.) 


sirel, siraharil 


khwazin, 
hibin, wain, 
'ashq kirin 


makhib 


MES. 1 


c c 


• 



402 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
low 
low water 



loyal 

luck 
luggage 

lunch 
lung 

machine 
machine-gun 



mad 

magazine 
(powder) 
maize 

major 



Arabic. Persian. 

nasi, wati past 

jezr el-moi jazr-i-darya 



Turkish. 
alchaq 

deniz jezri, de- 
niz chekilmesi 



amin {pi. 
aminin) 
nasib 
aghradh (pi.) 

ghada 

ma'laq, riyah 
(riyaten) 
makinah 
rashshash 



majniin 
makhzan el- 

barud 
idhrat esh- 

sham 
bimbashi 



make sawwa, yu- 

sawwi 

man (male) rejul (pi. rijal) 
or rijal {pi. 
rijajil) 

man (person) adami, nefer 

manager 



many 
map 
March 
march (%.) 



mudir 

kathir, hewayi 

kharitah or 

khartah 
Adbar, Mars 

masir (of 
troops) 



farmanbar-dar, sadiq 
shah-parast 
bakht bakht 

asbab, ashya eshya 



nahar 
shush, riya 



oile yemeyi 
aq jiger 



mashin, charkh charkh, maqina 



tup-e chand 
lulage khud 
purkun, tup- 
e musalsal 

divana 

makhzah-i- 
barud 

zurrat 

sarhang 



mitralyuz 



deli 

barut makh- 
zeni, jeb-khane 
misr boghdayi, 
dari 
bimbashi 



sakhtan, saz yapmaq 
mard erkek 





adam 


nazir 


idare eden. 




miidir 


khaili 


choq 


khariteh, 


kharita 


naqsheh 




Farwardin, 


Mart 


Azar 




harakat, mashi hareket 


{properly 




mashy). . 


Also 


kuch 





GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



403 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


low 


tsadzr 


khwar, kurt 


khetya, kirya 


low water 


chri tsadznaln, 
deghadvou- 
tiun 






loyal 


havadarim 


amin, khudan tabit 






soz, mukhlis 




luck 


pakht 


bakht, Daulat iqbal 


luggage 


gah gaarasi 


kelomel, asbabjmane 






tisht-misht 




lunch 


michnadjash 


tasht, chast 


sharutha 


lung 


toq 


sull, shush 


rata 


machine 


meqena 


makina, alat 


mashTna 


machine-gun 


meqenagan 


top khudan 


topang ma 




hratsan 


charkh 


shinaya 


mad 


khent 


din. be'aqil 


shidana 


magazine 


mtheranots 


makhzane 


makhzan 


(powder) 


varrotaran 


barude 


d-barud 


maize 


ekiptatsoren 


zurat 


dhura 


major 


hazarabed, 


bimbashi 


bimbashi 


make 


major 
unel, shinel 


chai kir 


*ewedhle 



man (male) mart 



merov, piao nasha 



man (person) anntz 

manager kordzagadar sarkirdia, mtagberana 

nazir, peshkar 
shad, pazma- galak, zaf, raba 

tiv zur, pirr 

qardez 



many 
map 
March 
march [n.] 



Mard 



Azar 



qalel, yertal kuch, maf- 
halat, sair 



Adhar 
zalta 



c 2 



404 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
march {v.) 



Arabic. 



Persian. 



mesha, yimslii kuchidan, 
kuch 



Turkish. 
yuriimek 



mare 


laras 


madiyan 


qisraq 


marine 


bahri 


bahri 


silahendaz 
neferi (n.) ; 
bahriye (adj.) 


mark 


nishan (target) 


; nishan, 


nishan ; 




ether (e.g. or 


I 'alamat 


tamgha 




paper) 




(on paper, &c.) 


market 


suq 


. bazar 


charshi, pazar 


marksman 


neshenchi 


tir-andaz, 
tufasy-anda2 


nishan ji 


marriage 


zawaj (state) ; 


ariisi (wed- 


nikiah 




' urs (wedding) ding) 




marsh 


hor (pi. ahwar) 


khalab, wahal 


balchiq, 
bataqliq 
direk 


mast 


dugal 


sutiin-i-jahaz 


master 


sahib, ra'is 


aqa 


efendi, sahib 


mat 


baria, basat 


ha sir 


hasir 


match (lucifer 


) kibrit, shakha- 
tah 


kibrit 


kibrit 


matter, it does ma yukhalif 


aibi ua-darad 


sarar yoq 


not 








mattress 


doshek 


diishak 


shilte 


May 


Aiyar, Mayu 


Aiyar 


Mayis 


me 


-ni {suffix) 


mara 


beni, bana (to 
me) 


mealies 


idhrah 




misr bogh- 
dayi 


mean (signify) 


'ana, ya'ni 


ma'ni dashtan. 


, ne demek 






dar 


( = ' what does 
. . . mean ? ') 


meaning 


ma'na 




ma'na 


measure {v.) 


qas, yaqis or 


paimudan, 


Ulchmek 




qaddar, yu- 


paima 






qaddir (of 








size), kal, 








yakil (of ca- 








pacity) 






measure (n.) 


qiyas, qadr, ke] 


[ miqyas 


iilchi 


meat 


lahm 


gusht 


et 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



405 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


march {v.) 


chwel, untha- 
nal, qalel 


chon 


rkhisUe 


mare 


zampig 


mahin, main 


susta 


marine 


dzovajdp 


bahri, deryai 


yamana 



mark (n.) nshan 



nishan 



nishan 



market 


shouga 


suq 


shuqa 


marksman 


varbed nshan- 
arrou 


nlshanchi 




marriage 


amousnoutiun 


zawaj, marihi 


khlula 


marsh 


jahij, mor 


hez, besha 


wahla 


mast 


gaym 






master 


varbed 


khudan, agha 


stadha, rais 


mat 


khsir 


hesir 


hasira 


match (lucifer] 


) loutski 


kibrit, sha- 


shakhate, 






khatah 


kibrit 


matter, it does 


; vnas chouni 


teshtak teda 


zarar lit 


not 




nina 




mattress 


basdar 


doshak 


shwita 


May 


Mayis 


lyar 


lyar 


me 


zis {ace), intz 
idat.) 


mi, min 


-i {suffix) 


mealies 


simit, tarm 
egyptatsoren 


zurat 


dhiira 


mean (signify) 


gamil, midq 


khwast, 


qsidle 




sunenal 


maram kir 




meaning 


nshanagoutiun 




ma'naya 


measure {v.) 


chapel 


pivin, qiyas 
kir 


kelle, qesle 



measure {n.) chap 
meat mis 



piwan, qiyas kaila, qyasa 
gosht be^ra 



406 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


medal 


nishan 


nishan-e sik- 
ka 


nishan 


medicine 


dawa 


dawa 


'ilaj 


meet 


laqa, yulaqi 


mulaqat kar 


- rast gelmek, 






dan, kun 


bulushmaq 


melon 


reggi (water 


kharbiiza 


qarpuz 




melon), batikh 




melted butter 


■ dihn 


raughan 


eridilmish 
sai-yaghi 


mend 


sallah, 


marammat 


ta'mir etmek 




jnisallih 


kardan, kun 
or durust 
kardan, kun 




merchandise 


amwal tujari- 
yah 
tajir {fl. 


mal-e tijarat 


mal, emval 


merchant 


tajir 


tajir 




tujjar) 






mercy- 


rahmah . 


rahmat 


merhamet 


message 


risalah 


paigham 


khaber, peiam 


metal 


ma'din {fh 


ma'dan 


ma'den 




ma'adin) 






metalled road 


darb muhad- 
dad 


sho^eh 


shose 


middle 


wast ; nuss (of 


miyan, wasat 


orta, merkez 




time) 




yari 


mile 


mil {'pl. amyal) 


mil 


mil.yirmitaqqa 


military 


'askari 


nizami, *askari 


'askeri, nizami 


milk 


halib 


shir 


siit 


mill 


tahanah, mat- 
tan ah 


asya 


deyirmen 


millet 


dakhn 


arzan 


dari 


mind (n.) 


'aql 


khatir 


'aql, zihn 


mine {'pron.) 


mall 


mal-i-man 


benimki 


mine (ex- 


lughm {fl. 


lagham 


laghim 


plosive, n.) 


algham) 






mineral 


ma' din {pi. 


jamadat (pi.) 


ma' den 




ma'adin) 


{better ma*- 
dan) 





GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 407 

English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

medal shqanshan nishan, medal nishanqa 

medicine tegh darman, 'alaj darmana 

meet hantibel rast hatin, khzele, tapiq 

Ibar yak bu 
melon sekh, tsmerong gindor, qarpus shiptiya, 

(water melon) bashile 

melted butter iugh, yegh riin meshkha, du- 

hana 
mend norokel, gar- pina or ruq*at mruqel6 

gadel kir, diiranin 



merchandise 
merchant 


abranq, vad- 
jarrq 
vajarragan 


mal (wares) ; tajirutha 
tijarat (trade) 
bazirgan, tujar tajara, bazar- 

rtn-nn 


mercy 

message 

metal 


voghormoutiun dad, mar- rakhme 
ha mat, bakht 

badkam khabar, ka- khubra 
khaz 

medagh madan ma'dan 


metalled road 


khjoughi 






middle 


michin, mech 

degh 
mghon 
zinvoragan 
gath 
aghoriq 


niv, nauras 


palga 


mile 
military 
milk 
mill 


mil 

'askari 
shir 
ash 


mila 
'askari 
khelya 
urkhe, arkhel 


millet 
mind (n.) 


goreg 
midq 


garis 

'aql, fikr, 
khatir, bir 


garis, dikhna 
khiyal 


mine (fron.) 
mine (ex- 
plosive, n.) 
mineral 


ims, imins 
agan 

hanqayin 


yamin, emin 

madan, filiz 
{n.); ma'- 
dani (adj.) 


di-i 
d-ma'dani 



408 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English, 


Arabic. 


• Persian. 


Turkish. 


Ministry (civi! 


I) Nadharah 


vazarat 


nazaret 


minute 
mirage 


daqiqah {pi. 

daqayiq) 
sarab 


daqiqeh 
sarab 


daqiqa, taqqa 
serab 


mirror 
missing 

mist 


miraga 
mafqiid 

dhabab 


ayina 

gum shudeh, 

naqi? 
sharir 


aine 
eksik, ghaib 

sis, duman 


mix khalat, yakblit 
or mezej,yim 
zaj 
Mohammedan Muslim 
moisture ra^ubah 


. amikhtan, 
- amiz 

musulman 
rutubat 


qarishdirmaq 

muslim 
rutubet 


monastery 


der 


khanqah 


tekke 


Monday 


Yom el-ith- 


Dushambeh 


Bazar-ertesi 


money 
money- 
changer 
monitor 

monsoon 


nen 

fliis 
sarraf 

monitor 

bara^at (pi) 


pill para 
sarraf sarraf 

monitor monitor 
sefinesi 
bad-e mausim mevsim ruski 


month 
moon 
new moon 


shahr {pi. ish- 
hur) 
gamar 

hilal 


mah 
mah 
mah-e nau 


ai 

ai, mahitab 

(moonlight) 
ai bashi, hilal 


full moon 
moor (tie up) 


bedr 

rabat, yarbat) 


badr 
bi-risman 


bedr 
baghlamaq 


more 


akther {corn- 
par.), ba'ad, 
zayid 


ziyadtar 


ziyade, daha, 
fazla (excess) 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



.409 



Ministry (civil) 

minute 

mirage 
mirror 
missing 

mist 

mix 

Mohammedan 
moisture 

monastery 

'Monday 

money 
money- 
changer 
monitor 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

nakhararoutiun wizarat waziii 

(qaghaqagan) 

robe, vargian daqiqah daqiqah 

(modaqoyn) sarav, kurab sharaw 

ha\ eli awina, nink nora, mirre 

hinda bu msukra 



mek, marak- duman, khiiz, hoga 

hough mizh 

kharrnel taik da, khalat khletle 

kir 

Dadjig musulman mashlmana 

khonavoutiun rutubat, shili, teriiitha, tali- 



tarri 

vanq, der 

menastan 

Yergoushapti Dushambah 

tram, sdag para, diraf 

loumayapokh sarraf 

rasmanav 



lutha 
daira 

Trushaba 

ziizi 

surap, sarrafa 



monsoon 

month 

moon 

new moon 

full moon 
^, moor (tie up) 

I 

i^ more 



(darevor 
hoghm) 
amis 



mausum, 

fa§le ba 

haiv, mah 



yerkha 
sehra 



lousin mah, haiv, 

mong 
nor lousin hiva nii, hiv sahra khata 

hilati, hilal 
gadar lousin hiva tam, badr badri 
baranovgabel gami shedan- 

din, langar 

avitin or 

avizhin 
aveli galakter, besh kabira, 

peterr zoda 



410. 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
morning 

mortar 



mosque 

mosquito 
mosquito-net 

mother 
motor-boat 

mound 

mountain 

mountain- 
range 

mouse 

mouth 

mouth (of 
river) 

move (trans.) 



Arabic. 
?abah 

juss 



jami', mesjid 

baqq (bug) 
kullah 



umm 
markab gaz 

tell (pi. tumi) 

jebel [fl. 

jibal) 
silsilat jibal 



Persian. 
9ubtL 



Turkish. 
sabah 



bastan kharj 

(for chemicals); 
havan (mili- 
tary) or tup-e 
qumbara- 
andazi 

masjid jami', mesjid 

pashsheh sivri sinek 

pashsha-band sineklik, jibin- 

lik 
madar ana, valide 

kashtiya khud- 

ravan 
tappa, khakriz tepejik, hiiyiik 

(military) 



kuh 
kiihistan 



far (pi. firan) mush 
halq (pi. huluq) dahan 
sadr (esh-shatt) dahaneh 



dagh 

dagh silsilesi, 
sira daghlar 
sichan, fare 
aghz 
(irmaq) aghzi 



harrak, yuhar- tahrik kardan, naql etmek, 
rik kun qimildatmaq 

move (intrans.) taharrak, yata- harakat kar- qimildanmaq 



much {adj.) 
much {adv.) 
mud 

muddy 
mud -flats 

mule 

muleteer 



harrak 
kathir 
kathir 
tin, wahl 

muwahhil 
wahl 

boghl {pi. ba- 

ghal) 
baghghal, mu- 

kari 



dan, kun 
bisyar 
khaili 

gil-alud 



astar, qatir 
charvadar 



choq 
choq 
chamur 

chamurli 
balchiq 

qatir 

qatir ji 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



411 



English. 
morning 

mortar 



Armenian. 
arravod 

shaghakh 



Kurdish. Syriac. 

subahi, suba qadamta, be- 



hawan 



epare 
gejkhaq 



mosque 


mzgit 


mas j id, jem, 
misgaft 


machid, jema 


mosquito 


mzhegh 


khepo 


baqa 


mosquito-net 


mzhghougi 


shabakae- 


shabaka d-tan 




ourrgan 


pesha 


zil 


mother 


mayr 


da, dya 


yemma 


motor-boat 


sharzhich 


harakatli- 


qayiq mashi- 




maguyg 


gami 


naya 


mound 


badvar 


tepula, tall 


te\ 


mountain 


lerr 


chia 


tHra 


mountain- 


lerrnashghta 






range 








mouse 


moug 


mishk 


aqiibra 


mouth 


Deran 


dav 


kemma, poma 


mouth (of 


redaperan 


sarakani 


sarakani 


river) 








move (trans.) 


sharzhel 


takandin, tah- 
rik kir 


mhurikle 


move (intrans.) sharzhil 






much (adj.) 


shad 


galak, zof, zui 


kabira 


much (adv.) 


shad, huyzh 




rraba 


mud 


tsekh, dighm 


gerrek, heri, 


tina, wahla, 






qum 


taqna 


muddy 


tshekhod 






mud-flats 


dghmayin 
iedaperan 






mule 


chori 


ester 


kodhenta, 
kawedhna 


muleteer 


choreban 


estervan, 
qaterchi 


qaterchi 



412 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



municipal 
munitions 

must 

mutiny {n.) 

mutton 

my 

myself 

nail (iron) 

nail (finger) 

name 

what is the 
name of ? 
narrow 

napkin 

nationality 



native (n.) 

naval 

navigable 

navigate 



Arabic. 
beledi 

mu'addat el- 
harb 



lazim 



Persian. 
baladi 



Turkish. 
beladiye 



muhimmat-e muhimmat 
jangi {or lava- 
zim-e qushun) 

bayad {imper- -meli, -mali 



sonal) 



'asyan, thorah 'a§yan 

lahm ghanam gusbt-i- 

gusfand 
-i (suffix), mail -i-man, -am 

(after noun) (suffix) 
nefsi kbudam 



(suffix to verbal 
root) ; lazim 
(necessary) 
'isyan, tughyan 

qoyun eti 

benim, -im 

(suffix) 
kendim 



bismar (])l. mikh chivi, mikli 

basamir) 
dhafr (pi. adba- nakhun tirnaq 

fir) 
ism (pi. asami nam ism, ad 

and isma) 
shism ? ism-ash chist ? -e ne derler ? 



iibaiyiq 
peshqir 
jinsiyah 



ibn el-bilad 

bahri 

yanmeshi bi- 
safinah 

qad el-markab, 
yaqud el- 
markab 



tang 



dar 



dastmal-e peshkir 

sufra 
milliyat ; milliyet 

vatan (native 

country) 
bumi yerli 

darya'i, bahri bahr 
qabil-e ubur-e seiri sefayine 

kashti musa'id 

kashti randan, qapudanliq 

ran etmek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



413 



English. 
municipal 

munitions 



» 



must 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

taghabedagan, madam, d-mdita 

qaghaqayin baladi 
rrazmamterq chakke sharr, asbabi qosho- 
masalihe nayi, jabo- 

sharr, jabak- khana 
hana 
bedq e lazim, garak lazim 



mutiny {n.) 

mutton 

my 

myself 

nail (iron) 

nail (finger) 

name 

what is the 

name of ? 
narrow 

napkin 

nationality 



native {n.) 

naval 

navigable 



absdampou- 
tiun 
vochkhari mis 

im 

inqs, yesinqs, 
inqzinqs 
kam, peverr 

yeghoung 

anoun 

inche anoune 
i 9 

negh 

antzerrots 

azkaynoutiun, 
azkoutiun 

deghatsi, pnig 

navayin 

navargeli 



esian 

goshte pazz 

-min {svjfflx) 

az bikhwa, 
min bkho 
bizmar 

ninuk 

nav 

nave...chia ? 

tang, task, 

jemik 
pishkir, pa- 

shik, kaffiya 
millat 



'aslyiitha, ma- 

rodhutha 
bisra d-erba 

-i {suffix), di-i 

gani 

bismara 

tipra 

shimma 

ma shimma d- ? 

'iqa 

dasmal 

milat 



navigate 



navargel 



ahl balad yerluya 

qabil 'ubur, spayi qa 
na-kur gamiye 



414 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
navigation 



navy- 
near 



Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

milahah, qiya- rah bari-yi- qapudanliq 
dat el-markab jahaz 

U9tul, bahriyah jahazat donanma 

jarib or qarib nazd, nazdik yaqin 



necessary (it lazim 
is) 



lazim ast lazim, gerek 



neck 
need {v.) 

needle 

neighbour 



ruqbah 
ihtaj ila, 

yahtaj ila 
ibrah {pi. ibar) siizan 



gardan boyiin 

muhtaj shu- muhtaj olmaq, 
dan, shau istemek 



jar {pi. jiran) hamsaya 



neighbourhood mahallah 

(quarter of 
town) ; qurb 

neither . . . nor la . . . wa-la 



net 



shebekah 



nazdiki {or 
hamsayagi) 

nah . . . nah 

dam 



(against mos- kullah 
quitoes) 



lyne 

qonshu 

qonshuluq 

ne . . . ne 

agh 

sineklik 



never 



new 
news 



abadan {ivith 
negative) 

jadid 
khabr {sing.) 



newspaper 

next 



jaridah {pi. 

jarayid) 
tham(of time) ; digar 

agrab 



abadan {fol- hich ( -^nega- 

lowed hy na, tive) 

'not') 
nau 
akhbar 

ruznameh 



yeni 
khaber 



ghazeta 

yandaki (be- 
side) ; sonra 
(after) 



night 



tayyib 
lelah 



latif, khush 
shab 



eyi, giizel, 
tatli 
geje 





GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 




1 English. 


Armenian. Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


navigation 


navargoutiun 




navy 
near 


dormigh 

mod, merdz- nezik 


qorba 



415 



avor 

necessary (it anhrazhesht e lazim, garak lazim, ki-mwa- 
is) jib 

neck viz ustii, hafk, mil qdhala 

need {v.) bedq ounenal, bhaujab sniqle 

garodil 



needle 


asegh 


suzhen, derzi 


khmata, 
mkhata 


neighbour 


tratsi 


jiran, han- 
samal 


shwawa 


neighbourhood shrchagayq, 


ladl, qurb, 


qurbabi 




tratsioutiun 


nezTki 




neither . . . 


nor voch . . . yev 
voch 


na . . . na 


la . . . w-la 


net 


ourrgan. 
tsants 


shabak, dam 


shabakah 


never 


voch yerpeq, 
pnav 


hich, abadan 


abadan, hich 


new 


nor 


nil, nishk 


khatha 


news 


lour, deghegou 
tiun 


- khabar 


khubra khathfi 


newspaper 


therth, Irakir 


gazeta 


gazeta 


next 


arrachiga 


pashe, mut- 


khena, Ikes 




(proximo) ; 


tasil 






gits (adja- 








cent) ; hedo 








(thereafter) ; 








yergrort 








(secondly) 






nice 


azniv, qnqoush 


bash, hak 


randa 


night 


kisher 


shav 


laile 



416 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


nippers 


minqash 


ambur 


qisaj 


no 


la, lakh air 


na-khair 


khair, yoq 


noise 


qalabaliqh, 
hiss 


shuliiq 


ses, shamata 


nomad 


bedwi {fl. 
bedu) 


ilyati 


yiiruk 


noon 


dhuhr 


zuhr 


oilen 


no one 


ma had 


hich kas 


hich bir kimse 


north 


shimal 


shamal 


yildiz, shemal 


northern 


shamali 


shamali 


shemali 


nose 


khashm 


dimagh, bini 


biiriin 


nosebag 


mikhlat 


tiibreh 


yem torba-si 


not 


ma {with 


na 


depl, me {in 




verbs) ; mil, 




verbs) 




mush 
{with adj.) 
la la 






not at all 


hargiz {fol- 


hich, assla {both 






lowed by ne- 


followed by ne- 






gative) 


gative) 


note (letter) 


teskerah, mak- 
tub 


ruq'a 


mektub 


(promissory) 


kampiyalah 


tamassuk-e 


qambial 






naqdi, or huj 
jat 
daftarcha 


- 


note-book 


defter 


defter 


nothing 


la she, hich 


hich {with 
negative) 


hich bir shei 


nothing, for 


bi-lash 


muft or maj- 


badi-hava 


(gratis) 




janan 




not yet 


lis-sa ma {fol- 


ta-bi-hal 


daha deyil, 




lowed by verb), 




henoz deyil 




mil ba'ad 






November 


Tishrin eth- 
thani 


Tishrin-i-sani 


Teshrin i-sani 


now 


hessa ; ga'id 
{before verb) 


akniin, alan 


shimdi 


nowhere 


ma {with verb) 
fi ai makan 


hich ja 


hich bir yerde 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



417 



English. 
nippers 



no 
noise 

nomad 

noon 

no one 

north 

northern 

nose 

nosebag 

not 



Annenian. 

aqdzan gasd ; 
qelbetin 
(Turkish) 

voch 

tzayn 

vranapnag 

ges or 

voch voq 

hiusis 

hiusisayin 

qith 

dobrag (tziou 

snounti) 
voch, ch' 



Kurdish: 
miqash, gaz, 

mashik, kal- 

bittin 
no, na 
dang, faryad 



Syriac. 
malkta, kal- 
bittin 

la 
qalmaqal 



kochari; re- kochari 
wendan 
nivro, nimaro palge d-yoma 
chu kas chu kha 

shimal garbya 



difin, qupu 
juhor, tura 



nakhira 
'aiiqah, juhorre 

la 



not at all amenevin qat'an, abadan qat'an, abadan, 

hich 

note (letter) domsag, krou- kakhaz. mak- ktawa 
; tiun tub 

(promissory) khosdmnakir *ahd-nama hiijat 



note-book 
nothing 

nothing, for 

(gratis) 
not yet 



nowhere 



I 



houshadedr kitab, kakhaz daptar 
vochinch chii tesht, hich chu mindi 



vochinch, tzri balash 



herwa, balash 



terr voch, 



hesh na, hizhi hesh la 



dogavin voch na 



November Noemper 



Teshrlni sani, Tcheri kharaya 
paiz 
hima, ayzhm nuha, istaka daha, adiya 

voch oureq, bchii ja, bchii b-chu diiktha 
voch mi degh arda 
D d 



418 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian, 


Turkish. 


number {n.) 


'adad 


;adad 


*aded, miqdar 


^nut 


jozah {pi. ]oz) 


jauz 


findiq 


oasis 


wahah 


sabza-zar dar 


cbolin arasinda 






biyaban 


cbairliq 


oar 


mijdhaf 


paru 


Idirek 


oats 


hurtuman, 
shufan 


dausar 


yulaf 


obedient 


tayi', mutf 


muti' 


ita'atli 


obstacle 


mani {pi. 
mawani) 


mani' 


mani' 


obstinate 


'anid 


sar-kash, 
kbud-sar 


'inadji 


occupation 


ihtilal 


zabt-e mulk 


istiyla 


(military) 








ocean 


bahr 


uqyaniis 


bahr-i-muhit 


o'clock 


es-sa'ah 


sa'at-e 


sa'at 


October 


Tishrln 


Tisbrin-i- 


Teshrin-i-evvel 




awwal 


auwal . 




office 


idarah, hafis 


daftar-khona 
(place) 


qalem 


officer (mili- 


dhabit 


sahib- 


zabit 


tary) 




man§ab 




officer (civil) 


ma'mur 


sabib mansib 


me'mur 






or abl-e qalam 


often 


kathir marrat 


barba, mukar- 


• choqkerre, 






raran 


choq defa* 


oil 


zet, dihn 


rogban 


yagb 


oil (petroleum) gaz, nafadh 


naft, or ra- 


gbaz 






ghan-e sang 




oke(2ilb.) 


huggab 


vaqiya 


oqa 


old (ancient) 


'atiq, qadim 


kohneh 


eski, qadim 


old (worn) 


ball 


kobneh, far- 
sudeh 


eski 



old man 



sbayib, 



pir 



ikhtiyar 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



419 



P. 



1 English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


number {n.) 


thiv 


'adad, azhmar 


minyana 


nut 


gaghin, enguyz 


finuq, guz, 
gwiz 


goza 


oasis 


ovasis 


marj 


oasa, marga 


oar 


thi, thiag 






oats 


varsag 






obedient 


hnazant 


tai', atl 


muti', mshu'- 
bdha 


obstacle 


khoch, arkelq 


mani' 


makleta, mani 


obstinate 


hamarr 


kalahishk, 
'anid 


'anid, 'asi 


occupation 


dirapetoutiun 


zabt, taht 


dwaqta bi- 


(military) 




zabt 


yitqoshon 


ocean 


ovgianos 


oqianos, bahr 


uqyaniis 


o'clock 


zham 


sa'at 


sa'at 


October 


Hogtemper 


Teshrini auwal Cheri qamaya 



office bashdon(post); wazifa, khid- mansab 

krasenyag mat 

(premises) 
officer (mili- sba, zinyora- zabit zabit 

tary) gan 



officer (civil) bashdonya 

often hajakh 

oil tzet, iugh 
oil (petroleum) qaraiugh 

oke(2|lb.) oliha 

old (ancient) hin 

old (worn) mashadz 



old man 



dzer 



mustakljdame mamiir 

hukumat, 

sahibe wazifa 

purrjaran, kabire gahatha, 

galak jara rabagahi 

rune zait zaitha 

nift; gaz nyuta, zift 

waqiya waqiya 

kohn, 'atiq 'atiqa 
pira, parpeti jiqa 

ikhtiar, pir sawa 



k 



D d2 



420 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


old woman 


'ajuz 


pireh zan 


qoja qari 


older 


akbar 




daha eski 


oldest 


• 
el-akbar 




en eski 


omelet 


*ajjah, 
khaginah 


khagineh 


qaighana 


on 


'ala 


bala'i 


ustunde, 
uzerinde 


once, twice, 


ferd marrah, 


yak, du mar- 


bir kerre, iki 


thrice 


marraten, 


tabeh, seh 


kerre, iich 




thalath 


martabeh 


kerre 




marrat 






at once 


bis-sa'ah, 
halan 




chabuq 


onion 


ba§lah {fl. 
ba§al) 


piyaz 


soghan 


only {adj.) 


wahid (one) 


vahid or ya- 
gana 


yaliniz 


only {adv.) 


faqat 


u bas {at end) 


anjaq, yaliniz 


open {adj.) 


maftuh, 


kushad, maf- 


achiq 




mafkuk 


tuh, waz 
shudeh 




open {v.) 


fekk, yafnkk 


kushadan. 


achmaq 




fetch, yiftah 


kushad 




operation 


harakah 


amaliyat-e 


hareket 


(military) 




jangi 




opposite 


qubal 


muqabil 


qarshi 


oppressive 


thaqll 


shadid, sakht 


aghir 


(heat) 








or 


au or yo 


ya . . . ya 


ya . . . yakhod 


orange 


portugalah 


portuqal ra- 
ranj 


portaqal 


order {v.) 


a mar, ya'mur 


farmudan. 


emr etmek. 






farma 


buyurmaq 


order (w.) 


amr {fl. awa- 
mir) 


farman, amr 


emr, firman 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



421 



English. 


Armenian, 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


old woman 


barrav 


pirazhin 


sauta 


older 


avelidzer (of 
person) ; 
avelihin (of 
thing) 






oldest 








omelet 


tzvatsegh 






on 


i vera, vra 


Isar, laban 


elled, l-*el 


once, twice, 


mi ankam, 


jarak, du jara, 


khdha gaha, 


thrice 


yergou an- 


se jara 


tette gahatha, 




kam, yereq 




tellath gaha- 




ankam 




tha 


at once 


anmichabes 




alba'al 



omon 



sokh 



only {adj.) miayn 



pivaz bisla 

fard, yakkana ikhidaya 



only (adv.) miayn, sagayn bas bass, faqat 

open {adj.) pats va, wa pthikha 



open {v.) 

operation 
(military) 

opposite 

oppressive 
(heat) 
or 
orange 



order {v.) 
order {n.) 



panal 



vakirdin 



pthekhle 



kordzoghou- harakat or tagbir qosho- 
tiun . mu'amalat naya 
' askariya 

timats, hagarag pish-meqabil. derqiil 
lebar 

sart, dizhwar khamima 



k 



heghtzoutsich 

(chermoutiun) 
gam 
narinch; por- 

touqal 

(Turkish) 
hramael, 

badvirel 
hraman, bad- 

ver 



ya, yan 
purtaqal 



au, yan 
narinj 



amr kir, naid pqidhle, musele 

da 
farman, amr pugdana, amr 



422 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



order (system 


, nidham, tertib 


qa'ida, usiil 


nizam 


other 


akhar {pi. 
akharin) 




o bir, diger 


our 


-na (suffix) 


-i-ma {suffix) 


bizim 


ours 


malna, lena 


mal-i-ma 


bizimki 


out of 


min 


biriin, az an- 


-dan, -dan di- 






dariin 


shari 


outpost 


talfah 


qarawul 


ileri qol 


outside 


barra, kharij 


birun 


disharda 


oven 


tannur 


tanniir 


furun 


overboard 


ila '1-bahr, ila 


darabuftadeh denize diish 




'1-moi 




miish 


overflow {v.) 


f adh, yafidh 


labriz shudan 
or azkanar 


tashmaq 


owing to, be- 


min sebeb 


az barayi 


-ichin, -dolayi, 


cause of 






sebebile 


owl 


biimah 


bum, tajavuz 
kardan 


baiqush 


ox 


thor 


nar gau 


okiiz 


pack-saddle 


khurj el-jemel 


khurj in-i- 


deve khamuti 


(camel) 




shutur 




pack-saddle 


khurj el-boghl khurjin-i-qatir semer 


(mule) 








paddle {n.) 


gharrafah 


paru 


klirek 


paddle-wheel 


parwanah 


charkh-e kash 
tiye bukhar 


- pervane 


padlock 


qufl 


qufl 


asma kilid 


pail 


baldi, satl 


dalv 


qogha 


pain 


waja' 


dard 


aghri 


jaint (n.) 


boya, K^abagh 


rang 


boya 


Palestine 


Filistln, Esh- 
Sham 


Filistin 


Filistin 


palm (tree) 


nakhlah {pi. 


nakhl 


khurma agha- 




n^khl) 




chi 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



42a 



English. 


Armenian, 


• Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


order (system, 


, gark, troutiun 


, tartib, uslub 


riza, tartib 


w.) 


garkatroutiun, 






sistem 






other 


ayl 




khena 


our 


mer 


-ma (suffix) 


-an (suffix) 


ours 


mern, merinn 


yama, malema diyan 


out of 


ardaqo, tours 


zh- (prefix) 


min 


outpost 


arracbabah 


peshe 'askare 


qamayutha . 




(zorq) 




d-'askar 


outside 


toursn 


deri 


baraye 


oven 


pourr 


furl, tanniir 


tanura 


overboard 


naven tours, 
dzov angial 


labahre 


b-go yama 


overflow {v.) 


hortil 


pirr-av biiin, 
tafih buin 


shapikh 


owing tOj be- 


• badjarrav 


Ibar, bo 


min sabab 


cause of 








owl 


pou 


bum, baiqiish 




ox 


yez 


gah 


taura 


pack-saddle 


palan, hamed 






(camel) 








pack-saddle 


palan, hamed 


kurtan, palan 


rashwana, kur- 


(mule) 






tana 


paddle {n.) 


tiag 


miqdaf, parii 




paddle-wheel 


tiagi-aniv 


takhtae du- 
labe, charkhe 
gami 




padlock 


goghbanq 


qifl 


qiipla 


pail 


touyl (ortouil) 


satlok, lagan, 
childosh 


do cha 


pain 


tsav 


aish, zhan, 
dard 


mar'a 


paint {n.) 


nerg 


rang, naqish 


rang 


Palestine 


Baghesdin 


Filistin 


Filli^tin 


palm (tree) 


armaveni 


darekhurma 


khiirma 



424 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


pannier 


sellah (j)!. 
eslal) 


lauda or zam- kiife 
bil (very large 
and made of 


paper 


khaghid 

(material); 
. waraqah (a 


wood) 
kaghaz 


kyat 


parasol 


paper) 

shemsivali 


chatr 


shemsiye 


parley (^i.) 


mudhakarah 




mukyaleme 


parole (n.) 


kalamsharf 


va'da-ye baz 


soz, parola 



party (dinner) 'azimah 
pass (defile) ' madhiq 

passage (an murur 

act) 
passage (way) majaz 

passage-money nol 



gasht 
ziyafat ziyafet 

tang, gardaneh boghaz, gechid 



guzar-gah 
ma' bar 



gechme 



passport 
password 
pasturage 
path 

patrol (n.) 
patrol (v.) 
pay (n.) 



pasaport, 
teskerah 
ism el-lelah 



gechejek yer, 
gechid 

ujrat-e ubur navlun, yol 
or ujrat-e parasi 
safar-e darya 

passaporta, 



mar a 



ism-i-shab 
alafzar 



teskere 
parola 



sikkah {pi. 
siket), darb 
{jjI. durub) 

dawwariyah 



otlaq, chair, 
yaila 
rah-i-kuchak iz. meslek 



pasban 



qol 
dolashmaq 



dawwar, haras pasbani kar- 

dan, kun 

ma'ash, shah- ujreh, mawa- ma'ash ; ailiq 
riyah jib (monthly) ; 

giindelik 
(daily) 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



425 



English. 
pannier 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

goghov ; se- zanbil, salik kajawa 
ped (Turkish) 



'eixnev 



paper 



thoukht 



kaghi 



waraqa 



parasol 

parley (w.) 

parole (n.) 

party (dinner) 
pass (defile) 

passage (an 

act) 
passage (way) 

passage- 
money 

passport 

password 

pasturage 

path 



sewan, sham- shumsiya 
siya 
akhivtin mhamzamta, 

mahkaitha 
kalam sharaf qola 

da'wat, ziafat qonakhligh 
gall, boghaz boghaz, raola 

galiya 
re, ria, rabori sapar 



hovanots 

panagtsoutiun 

khosdoum 

djashgeruyt 
girj (of moun- 
tains) 
antsq 

jampa, jana- rre, rria aliilta, kolana, 

barh urkha 

navou dzakhs ; kre, haq kherj d-sapar 

navargoutian 
tram 

antsakir teskere 

antsaparr, 

parola 
jarag, arod eheria, Iwar, mar'iya, zozan 

mar* a 
shavigh, hedq rre, rria urkha 



patrol {n.) bahaban, kis- pasban, natore 

hertabah naubachi 

patrol {v.) patrol unel naubah kir ntere 
hertabahel 

pay (w.) vjar, vartsq haq, para liaq 



426 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


pay {v.) 


dafa*, yidfa' 


ada kardan, 


parasini ver- 






kun 


mek, ma'ash 
v6rmek 


peace 


sulh, salam 


sulh 


sulh 


pear 


armot 


gulabi 


armud 


peasant 


fellah 


dehati or zira 
at-kar 


' koili 


pen 


qalam {jpl. 
aqlam) 


qalam 


qalem 


pencil 


qalm rasas 


midad 


qurshun qalem 


pennant 


beraq 




filandere 


perfume 


'atr 


itr 


hosh qoqu, 
rayiha 


perhaps 


yimkin, bilki 


shayad 


belki 


periscope 


periskop 




periskop, 
durbin 


permission 


rukh^ah 


ijaza 


izin 


Persia 


Biladel-*_Ajam 


Iran 


*Ajemistan 


Persian 


*Ajami, Irani 


Irani 


*Ajemi 


people 


nas 


mardum 


khalq, ehali 


pepper 

petition {n.) 


filfil 


filfil 


biber 


istid* a 


ariza 


arzuhal, istid' a 


pheasant 


durraj {pi. 
dararij) 


qarqavul 


suilun qusha 


photograph 


resm, §urah 


'aks 


fotograf 


{n.) 








pick-axe 


mi'wal 


bil, tisheh 


qazma 


picket (n.) 


talfah 


talayi' 


qaraqol 


picture 


siirah, resm 


parda-ye naq- 
qashi 


- resim, tasvir 


piece («.) 


wallah {fl. 
wa§l) 


tikka 


parcha 


pier 


eskelah 


iskaleh 


isk61e 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



427 



English. 
pay {v.) 

peace 

pear 
peasant 

pen 

pencil 

pennant 

perfume 

perhaps 
periscope 

permission 

Persia 
Persian 
people 
pepper 
petition (n.) 

pheasant 

photograph 

in.) 
pick-axe 
picket (n.) 

picture 

piece {n.) 

pier 



Armenian. 
vjarel 

khaghaghou- 
tiun 
dantz 
kiughatsi 

krich 

madid 



Kurdish. 
haq da 

sulh 



Syriac. 
mxirzele, iwelle 
haq 

sulh, shlama 



karchin, armii kamitra 
rainjbar, fal- bne mata, fellah 

lah, jotyar 
qalam, khama qalama 



qalam risas, pensila, qalam 
khonwiss d-ri^i^ 

droshag 
(arreakh tro- 
shag^navi via) 

poyr, anousha- behn, *itr rikha 

hod 

teryevs, koutse balgl, balani belki 
periscop 
tidag 

hraman, touil- rukhsat, das- rukhsat 
devoutiun tur, izn 

an 'Ajam, Iran 'Ajam 

'Ajami 'Ajamaya 

khalq, mirova nashe 
filfil film 

arzahal ba'utha, 

arzahal 



Barsig 
zhoghovourt 
bghbegh 
aghersakir, 
aghachanq 
pasian 



lousangar 

brrich 
arrachakound, 

picket 
badger 

gdor, mas 

navamaduyts 



tiirang, tai- 
hiich 



kulang, mawal ma'wal, nara 



surat 

parcha, par 
askalah 



shikla, surta 



sama 



askalah 



^s 


GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 




English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


pig 


khanzir {pi. 
khanazir) 


khiik, khinzir 


domuz 


pilgrim 


hajji ; zayir 


zavvar ; 


haji 




(to Kerbela) 


zayir {pi. 
ziwar) 




pilgrimage 


^lajj ; ziyyarah ziyarat 


haj 




(to Kerbela) 






pillow 


makhaddah 


mukhaddeh, 
balish 


yasdiq 


pilot (n.) 


rabban 


rah numa 
(-yi-jahaz) 


qulawuz 


pilotage 


qiyadah 


u rat-i-kashti- 
bani 


qulawuz iijreti 


pin 


dembiis 


sanjaq * 


toplu (iyne) 


pincers 


kelabaten 


ambur 


kessaj 


pipe (tube) 


ambiibah {pi. 
anabib) 


lula 


borya 


pipe (smok- 


sabil ; narghi- 


chibuq 


chibuq, nargile 


ing) 


leh (hubble- 
bubble) 






pistol 


warwar (re- 
volver) 
gir 


pishtav 


tabanja 


pitch 


qir or zift 


zift 


(substance) 








pitcher 


meskhenah 
(Arab) 


kuza, ibriq 


testi 


place {n.) 


makan {pi. 
amakin) 


makan, ja 


y& 


plain {n.) 


barriyeh, chol, 
sahl 


dasht, sahra 


ova 


plan (scheme, 


fikr, tadbir 


tadbir kardan 


diishiinmek 


V.) 

plant {n.) 


nabat {pi. 
nabatat) 


nabat 


fidan 


plate 


§ahn {pi. 
§uhun) 


bushqab, zarf 


tabaq 


play (v.) 


la*ab, yil'ab 


bazi kardan, 
kun 


oinamaq 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



4^ 



1 English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


pig 


khoz 


khinzir, baraz 


khezura. 
baraza 


pilgrim 


bantoukht, 


tiajjT, haj 


muqdusi, 




oukhtavor 




maqdasi 


pilgrimage 


bantekhtou- 


hajj 


haj 




tiun, oukhta 








knatsoutiun 






pillow 


partz 


balgi, balif, 
seringnia 


spaditha 


pilot {n.) 


navoughigh, 
navavar 




qaptan 


pilotage 


navavarou- 
tiun 






pin 


kntasegh 


danbus, 


sinjakh, 






sanjaq 


danbus 


pincers 


aktsan 


mashik, gazek 
kalbtin 


kalbtain 


pipe (tube) 


khoghovag 


lula, kizan, 
pukhrank 


tuta 


pipe (smok- 


dzkhapogh 


sabil (short) ; 


; chibuk, 


ing) 




qalyun (long) qalluna, 








qalyun 


pistol 


adrjanag, 

pistol 
tziut ; zift 


dabanja 


dabanja 


pitch 


qlr, zift 


qir 


(substance) 


(Turkish) 






pitcher 


goudz 


kiiza, kiip, 
khum 


talma 


place {n.) 


degh, vayr 


3 a, 'ard 


duktha 


plain {n.) 


tashd, tash- 


dasht, chol 


chol, maidan 




davayr 




dashta 


plan (scheme, 


dzrakrel, 


rasm kirin, 


tagbir 


V.) 


horinel 


tadblr kirin 




plant (n.) 


doung 


dar, nabat 


liana, gilla 


plate 


bnag 


§ahn, tapsi, 
'aman 


sahna, tabaq 


play {v.) 


khaghal 


bazin 


mtuelle 



430 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish 


pleasant 


latif 


khush, latif 


hosh, leziz 


please 


tafadbdhal (in 
courtesy) ; 
min fadhlek 
(asking fa- 
vour) 






pleased, to be 


imbasat, yam- 


masrur shu- 


sevinmek, 




basit ; sar 


dan, shau 


memniin ol- 




mimnun, ya- 




maq 




sir mimnun 






pleasure 


kef, wunsah 


khushi 


keif 


plough {n.) 


faddan 


shukhm 


saban 


plough (v.) 


karab, yikrab 


khish zadan 


siirmek 


plumb-line 


shahul, shaqiil 


shahul 


shaqul 


plunder (v,) 


neheb, yen- 


chapidan, 


yaghma etmek 




heb 


chab or taraj 
kardan, kun 




pocket 


jeb (pi. juyub) 


jaib 


jeb 


poison 


semm 


zahr 


zehir 


pole (n.) 


murdi (of boat) mardi 


direk 


pole (v,) 


defa',yidfa* 


mardi zadan 





polish (n.) ' sabgh 



saiqal 



perdah, jila 



polite 



adib 



mu'addab terbiyeli 



political 

officer 

pontoon 

pony (bag- 
gage) 
pool 

pot)p 



ma'mur siyasi ma'mur az memursiyasi 



jisr naqqal, 

dubah 
kidish ; boghl yabu 

el-haml 
birkah, haudh hauz 



janib-e daulat 
jisr tombaz 



akhir el-mar - 
kab 



arsha 



yiik beigiri 

hauz 

qich 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



431 



English. 
pleasant 
please 



Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


hajeli 


khwash. 


randa, hosh 


k'aghachem 


bkaifa 


in basmaluk 



pleased, to be 


koh linel 


khwash bu, 
kaifawi hat 


psikhle 


pleasure 


hadjuyq 


khwashi, kaif , 
rahat . 


raziutha 


plougk (n.) 


aror 


jot 


pdhana 


plough (v.) 


agosel, herel 


jot kirin 


tare pdana 


plumb-line 


oughgha-kidz, 
shidag 


dirist, rast 


kip a d-rasis 


plunder {v.) 


goghobdel 


talan kir, 
nahb kir 


nhible 


pocket 


krban 


jaib 


jiba 


poison 


toyn {or touin) 


zhahr 


sama 


pole (n.) 


tzogh, siun 


niardi,midra 


jala 


pole (v.) 


tzoghel, tiava- 


gami kishan- 






rel, magoyge 


din, gami dar 




tzoghov qshe 


1 inandin 




polish (n.) 


abigi ; per- 


runik, pardaq 


, mabriqta 




dakh 


boyakh 






(Turkish) 


(of shoes) 




polite 


paregirt, 


adib, 'aqil, 


maripat, adib 




qaghaqavar 


shirine 
akhlaq 




political 


qaghaqagan 


zabite mulki 


mamiir, elchi 


officer 


bashdonia 






pontoon 


pontoun,nava- 


prt, jisr, kupri gishra, jesr 




gamourch 






pony (bag- 


krast 


bargil 


bargil, gidish 


gage) 








pool 


^jag 


borr, birkah, 
hau?: 


birke 


poop 


khelk navou 


pishte gami 





432 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
poor 
pork 

population 

port 

port (of ship) 

hard a-port 

porter (door) 

porter 
(carrier) 
porthole 



Arabic. Persian. 

faqir, meskin darvish,miskin 
lahm khanzir gusht-i-khuk 

' adad en-nuf us adad-i-sukkan 
mamlakat 



bander, mina 
{fl. mawani) 
yisar 

tammam lil- 

yisar 
bawwab 

hammal {pi. 
tiamamil) 
shubbak 



bandar 



darban 
hammal 



Turkish. 
fuqara 
domuz eti 

ehali 

liman 



geminin iskele 

tarafi 
alabanda iskele 

qapuju 

hamma.1 

lumbar deliyi 



portmanteau j ant ah 
possibly yimkin 

post office postakhaneh 
pot (for cook- jidr 
ing) 

pot (for water) hibb (large) 
pottery fakharah 



potatoes 
pour out 



patetah ' 
sabb, yasubb 



jama-dan 
mumkin 



chanta 
belki 



powder (gun-) barud 
praise (v.) medeh, yim- 

dah 
pray (worship, §alla, yusalli 

prayer sala {vl. sala- 

wat) 
prefer fadhdhal, 

vufadhdhil 



post-khaneh posta-khane 
dig or patila tenjere, qazan 



ibriq testi, chiimlek 

zuruf-e chini chanaqlar, 
or kuza muza chiimekler 
sib-i-zamm patates 

rikhtan, riz dokmek 

barud barut 

situdan, sita medh etmek 

namazkardan du*a etmek 

namaz du' a 

tarjihi dadan, terjih etmek 
deh 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



433 



English. 


Animnian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


poor 
pork 


aghqad 
khozi mis 


miskin, faqii- 
goshte baraz 


miskena 
bi§ra d-khu- 
ziira 


population 


pnagichq, 
zhoghovourt 


khalk, sukkan 


'amranutha 


port 


navahankisd 


mina 


mina, bandar 


port (of ship) 
hard a -port 


navi tzakha- 

goghmn 
ghegn teb 

tzakh 






porter (door) 
porter 


trnaban 
perrnagir 


dargvan 
hammal 


qapuchi, 
dargvan 
hammal 


(carrier) 








porthole 


badouhan 







thntanotits 

navi 
portmanteau gashi bayousag chanta,khurjikchamadan 
possibly gareli, havana- yumkin, mum- miimkin 

gan kin 

post office namagadoun postakhana pos^akhana 

pot (for cook- yepelou aman ; tanjura, qazancha, 

ing) tindjireh qazan, diz distitha 

(Turkish) 
pot (for water) goozh kiiz, aman talma 

pottery gavakordzaran favfur, chini pikhara 

potatoes patates patata, patate 

sev'arde 

pour out letsnel, tatar- Ivakhwarene msureqle 

gel da-raizhin 

powder (gun-) varrot barud, tez barud 

praise (v.) kovel madih kir mdihle 



pray (worship, aghotel, agha- nemaizh kirin m§ali slutha 
V.) chel, maghtel 

prayer aghotk nemaizh, slutha 

newaizh 

prefer keratasel taf zil kir mf iizille 



E e 



434 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

prepare {trans.) ha dhdh ar, yu- amudan,ama or hazirlamaq 





hadhdhir 


hazir kardan 


I, 






kun 




prepare {in- 


ista*add, 






trans.) 


yasta'idd 






prepared 


hadhir 


muhaiya 


hazirlanmish, 






shuda 


hazir 


present (here; 


) mawjiid 


hazir 


burada,mevjud 


present (gift) 


hadiyah, 
bakhshish 


ta*aruf 


hediye 


pretty 


hulu, Jamil 


khushnuma, 
qashang 
qimat 


giizel, dilber 


price 


qimah 


fiat 


prison 


tiabs 


zindan 


habs-khane 


prisoner of 


asir {ft. usara) 


asir 


esir 


war 








private 


nefer 


nafar 


nef6r 


(soldier) 








private (room^ 


, khu^ii^i, sha' 


khusiisi 


khususi 


&c.) 


kh^i 






proceeding 


muhakamah 


muhakama 


muhakame 


(legal, n.) 








proclamation 


i'lan 


manshur ; 


i'lan 






(written) i'lan- 






nama,i'lan 




productive 


mukhsib 


hasil-khiz 


mahsuldar 


profit 


mahsul 


naf 


kiar, fa'ide 


prohibited 


memnu' 


mamnu' 


yassaq 


projectile 


guUah {yl. 
gulel) 


khumpareh 


mermi 


promise {n.) 


wa'd 


va'da 


va'd, soz 


promise {v.) 


wa*ad, yuwa'id wa*deh da- 


soz vermek, 






dan, deh 


va*d etmek 


propeller 


parwaneh 


charkh 


vaporun per- 
vanesi, isqru 


property 


mal, mulk 
(estate) 


mal 


mal, variyet 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



435 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


prepare {trans. 


) badrasdel 


paikina, hazir 


ewedhle pek, 






kir 


muhdhere 


prepare {in- 


badrasdvel 






trans.) 








prepared 


badrast 


paik 


mtorsa 


present (here) 


nerga 


hiazir 


lakha ■ 


present (gift) 


endza, barkev 


diyari, bakh- 
shish 


peshkesh 


pretty- 


siroun 


chak, dalal 


jundaya, 
shapira 


price 


kin, arzheq 


baha, qimat 


liaqq, tinie 


prison 


pant 


haps, girti- 
khana 


haps 


prisoner of 


keri 


girti 


dwiqa b-plasha 


war 
private 


zinvor 


nafar 


nafar 


(soldier) 








private (room, 


, arrantzin 


khususi 


khusii^i 


&c.) 








proceeding 


tad varel 


muhakama. 


dawe 


(legal, n.) 




tadbire 
hukmi 




proclamation 


hrrchag, hay- 
dararoutiun 


farman 


raqam 


productive 


arkasavor 


khwash ' ard, 
musmir 


tayuna 


profit 


shah, okoud 


mahsul,qazanj zodiinya 


prohibited 


arkilvadz 


mamnu* , 
tiaram 


mukliya 


projectile 


razmagndak 


gulla 


gunbilta 


promise (n.) 


khosdoum 


qaul, bawar 


qola 


promise (v.) 


khosdanal 


, wa*dah kir, 
qaul da 


mwu'idle 


propeller 


vanich, navi 
bdoudag 






property 


galvadzq, sepa 


- khudani, kha- 


■ mal 




ganoiitiun 


wandi, mulk 






E 


e2 





436 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
proprietor 



Arahic. 
sahib 



protection (of himayah 
weak States) 



Persian. 
malik ' 

himayat 



Turkish. 
sahib 

himave 



province 
provisional 



public (n.) 

pulse (wrist) 
pump (n.) 
punish 



wilayah 

waqti (tempo- 
rary).* mash- 
rut (condi- 
tional) / 

en-nas, el-'am- 
mah 

nabdh 

trambah 

qa^a?, yuqasij^ 



vilayat vilayet 

muvaqqati- shimdilik ichin 



khalq 



khalq 



punitive ta' qibi 

pupil (scholar) telmidh 
pure 



purse 



safi (of water 
kiB, jozdan 



nabz nabz 

tulumbeh tulumba 

saza dadan, mujazat etmek 

dehormujazat 

dadan, deh 

tambihi mujazat ichin 

shagird shagird 

khalis pak, temiz, safi 

saf 

kisa kese 



pursue teba' yitba' 


ta'aqqub kar- 


- qoghalamaq, 


or ta'aqqab, 


dan, kun 


ta'qib etmek 


yata'aqqab 






put hatt, yahutt 


guzashtan, 


qomaq 


or wadha', 


guzar 




yodha' 






put out (light) taffa, yutaffi 


khamush kar- 
dan 


siindiirmek 


puttee lifafat er-rijl 


bastan-i-pa 


dolaq 


quality jins (kind) ; 


khasiyat 


khassiyet, jins 


^ifah (attri- 


• 




bute) 






quantity miqdar 


miqdar 


miqdar 


quarantine qarantinah 


qarantin 


qarantina 


quarrel (w.) niza'/arkah 


niza' 


ghavgha 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



437 



proprietor 



Armenian. 
sepaganader 



protection (of bashdbanou- 
weak States) tiun (thuyl 
garavarou- 
tiants) 

province nahank 

provisional 



Kurdish. Syriac. 

khudan, khu- mara 
dan mnlk 



himavat 



wilayat 



arrzhamanagia bo wakhte, 
muaqqat 



bast 



wilayah 
qadana 



public (w.) zhoghovourt, khalk, 'am- 
hanrayin matun-nas 

pulse (wrist) zarg, dropoum nabz, damar 
pump (n.) chrhan trumba 

punish badzbel tarbya da, pe 

gabin 



punitive badzbagan 

pupil (scholar) ashagerd 
pure maqour, 

anarad 
purse , qsag 



pursue 



put 



hedabndel, 
haladzel . 
(enemy) 
dnel 



qasasi, jazai 
shagird 
taza, pak, 

kharu 
kisa, jazdan, 

tiirik 
pesh cho, 

ravandi 

da nian 



] am 

lumza 

trumbah 

mqusi^le 



qa mta'lamta 

talmida 

sapiya 

kisa 

'reqle bathre 

mutiile 



put out (light) mai'el 

puttee 

quality 



quantity 

quarantine 
quarrel (n.) 



zankabanag, 
dzngagab 

vorag, vorbi- 
soutiun 



qanagoutiun 

qarantin 
grriv 



tifandin, son- muchme 
der kirin 

pasta, shibaqa 



sifat, tab', 
jins 



tukhma 



miqdar, kam- qudra 

miyat 
karantina karantina 

sharr, gelj, duz drasha 



438 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


quai^ry (w.) 


mahjar 


kan 


tash-ojaghi 


quarter (part 


, ruba' 


rub' 


cheirek 



n.) 
(of town, n.) matallah mahalla mabale 

quarter {v.) nezzel,yunezzil manzil dadan, oturtmaq 

deh 



quarter-master ma' mur arzaq 


mubashir-e 


alai emini 






manazil-e 








qushlin 




quay 


eskelah 


iskaleh 


rikhtem, is- 
k^le 


question {n.) 


suwal {pi. su- 
walat) 


su'al 


sival 


quick 


sari' 


zud 


chabuk, tez 


qiiickly 


bil-'ajei 


zud, bi-zudi 


chabuk 


quiet 


hadi 


sakit, aram 


rahat, uslu 


keep quiet ! 


iskut 


ar am bash 


sus 


{imper.) 








quilt 


lahaf 


lihaf 


yorghan 


quinine 


kinakinah 


kina-kina 


qinaqina, sol- 
fato 
ada tavshani 


rabbit 


arnab (pL 


kharqush 




aranib) 






race (horse, n. 


) shart, musaba 
qah 


- asp-davani 




race-course 


medan 


maidan-e asp- 
davani 


- meidan 


radish 


fijl 


turub or turb 


turp 


raft 


kelek 


kalak 


kelek, sal 


raid (n.) 


; jhazu 


yurish 


aqin 


rails 


'. chutut 


*amud-ha-yi- 


rai 




hadldiyah 


rah-i-ahan 




railway 


sikkat 


rah-i-ahan 


demir yol, 




el-hadid 




shamandefer, 
tren 


railway 


mahattah 


mahattah 


iskele. 


station 




. 


istasion 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



439 



English. Armenian, Kurdish. Syriac. 

quarry (rt.) qarahanq ma' dan, ma'dan d-kipi 

maqta' 

quarter (part, chorrort (mas) charik, charag 

n.) chwarik 

(of town, w.) tagh mahallat mahal 

quarter {v.) deghavorel, manzil da mu'mere, mus- 

pnagetsnel kenne 

quarter-master zorabed 



quay qarap 

question (n.) hartsoum 



nazire ma - 
askar, mudir 
umure *as- 
kariya 

askalah 

pirsyar, su'al 



quick 
quickly 



zu, sevek, gurj 
zu 



hadi, sakit 



railway 



askalah 

mbaqarta- 

qalula^ 
qalula 

nikba, hidya 
shli, shttiq 

la^efa 
klnakina 

kerwish 

rikhta 

maidan 

pira 

kalak 

ghazu 



yergatougbi ria papore urkha d-prizla 



arak, shdab 
shdabav, 
shoudov 
quiet bandard 

keep quiet ! Irre, hantard besakkina, 
(imper.) getsir harak na-ka 

(movement) 
quilt •vermag lalief , urgban 

quinine qnaqina kanakina, 

kinJna 
rajbbit djakar, nabas- kerwishk, 

dag kargu 

race (horse, n.) tziarsbav asl (lineage) ; 

baz 
race-course asbarez mus 



radish 
raft 

raid {n.] 
rails 



poghg turp, fijl, pol 

lasd kalak 

asbadagoutiun Idiara, ghazu 
tsang, vanta- 



railway 
station 



gayaran 



440 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



rain (n.) 
raisins 

ram [v.) 

range 
(firing dis- 
tance) 

rank (posi- 
tion, n.) 

rarely 

rat 

read 

ready «^' 
rear 

rearguard 

reason (cause, 

n.) 
rebel 

rebellion 

receipt 
receive {v.) 

reckless 



Arabic. 
matar 
zabib 



sudam, yaadim kubidan, kub basmaq 
masafah amaj, masafat atim, menzil 



Persian. 


Turkish. 


baran 
kishmish 


yaghmur 
quru uzum 



ritbah 

nadir, qalll, 

juredi {pi. jurc- 
diyah) 
qara, yaqra 

hadhir 
wara, akhir 



daraja, rutba, rutbe 
jah 
nadiran nadiran, az 

mush-e buzurg iri sichan 

khandan,khan oqumaq 

amadeh, hazir hazir 
'aqab geri, arqa 



mu'akhkhar 'aqab-i-lashkar dumdar 

el-'askar 
sebeb {pi. as- 

bab) 
' asi {pi. ' asiyin) 



jehat, mujib; sebeb. 

sabab 
yaghi ^si, zorba 



thorah 

wusul 
akhadh, ya' 

khudh 
tayish, jasur 



recoil (of gun, rafsah 
n,) 

recommenda- 
tion 

reconnoitre 



tughyan 'isyan, tughyan 

qabz-e rasid maqbuz senedi 

giriftan almaq 

bi-parwa, jesiir, yigit 

bi-i'tina 

lagad zadan geri.-tepish 



recruit 

red 
reed 



taw^Iyah (let- 
ter) 

keshshef; jesses 
(of espionage) 

'asker jadid 



sifarish 



tavsiye 
keshf etmek 



ahmar 
qasbah, bardi 



istikshaf 
kardan 
sarbaz-i-tazeh yeni qur'a, 

'ajami (nefer) 
qirmiz, surkh qirmizi 
nai qamish 



G^LOSSARIES OF WORDS 



441 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


rain {n.) 


antzrev 


baran 


mitra 


raisins 


cliamich 


maiwJzh, 


kishmisbta. 






keshmish 


yabbisbe 


ram (v.) 


khoy 






range (firing 


asparez, 


hangau, masa- 


- masafa, qyas 


distance) 


michots 


fab 




rank (position 


, gark.. badiv, 


martabah, 


dergha 


n.) 


astidjan 


qadr 




rarely 


toun-oureq, 


bkemabi, na- 


nadiran, bkem- 




sagav-oureq 


diran 


aiitha 


rat 


medz moug 


mishk mazin 




read 


gartal 


khwandin, 


qrele 






khwinin 


• 


ready 


badrasd 


hazir 


hadhir 


rear 


hedguys, ye- 


diimabi, 


1-bathra 




devn 


lapasbe 




rearguard 


vercbabah 


pashe 'askare 


kharayutha 




(zorq) 




d-askar 


reason (cause, 


badjar, 


sabab 


sabab 


n.) 


nbadag 






rebel 


absdamp. em- 
post 


'asi 


yaghi 


rebellion 


absdampoutiun asawat, zorba- 


khiyanatutha 






dari 




receipt 


engalakir 


gahisbt, wusiil qubz 


receive (v.) 


entounil, 
sdanal 


qabul kirin 


mqabil 


reckless 


anhok 


jasur, 
beparwa 


jasiir 


recoil (of gun, 


engrgil, yed 


bar-pash 


rapsa d-topang 


n,) 


tarrnal 


hatini 




recommenda- 


hantznararou- 


tausiyab, 




tion 


tiun 


sipartini 




reconnoitre 


shrchil, khou- 


kashf kirin, 






zargel 


j as us kirin 




recruit 


norabavaq 


'askar nii 


nazama 




zorq 




khatha 


red 


garmir 


s5r, al 


smoqa 


reed 


yegbek, srink 


qamlsh, chiq 


zlla, pisa 



442 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


refugee 


shari 


firari 


mubajir 


refuse {v.) 


rafadh, yarfadh inkar kardan, 


istememek 






kun 




regiment 


alai 


fauj 


alai 


regret (v.) 


te'essef, 


afsus khurdan, 


te'essuf etmek 




yete'essef 


kbur 




regular 


nidhami 


sarbaz-e nizam nizami 


(soldier) 








regulation 


qanun {fl. 


qaniin, qa'ideh 


L nizam, 




qawanin) 




usul 


reinforcements imdad 


madad, qu- 


imdad, 






shun-i-tazeb 


istinadat 


reins 


suyiir, 'inan 


'inan 


gem qayisbi, 


• 






dizgin 


relations 


qarayib {sing. 


qaum-u khish 


kbisimlar, 


(kindred) 


qarib) 




aqriba 


release (v.) 


atlaq, yutliq 


rahanidan, 


salivermek 




or fekk, 


raban 






yafukk 






reliefs 


tebdilat 


madad 


tebdilat 


religion 


din 


mazbab 


din 


remain 


baqa, yibqa 


mandan, man 


qalmaq. 




dhall, yadba] 


il 


durmaq 


remember 


tedhekker, 


yad dasbtan, 


kbatirlamaq. 




yetedhekker 


dar 


onutmamaq 


remittance 


tiawalab 


vajb-e firis- 


bawalib, tab- 


(money) 




tada 


wil, politsha 


rent {n.) 


ijar, karwab 


kiraya 


qira 


repeat 


kerrer, 


takrar kardan 


, tekrar soilemek 




yukerrir 


kun 




reply {n.) 


jawab 


javab 


jevab 


report {v.) 


qerrer, 


ittila' dadan, 


taqrir etmek, 


(official) 


yuqarrir 


deb 


isbare etmek, 
kbabervermek 


report {n.) 


taqrir 


ittila' 


taqrir at 



representative wakil (agent) namayanda. vekil 

vakil 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



443 



English. Armenian. Kurdish Syriac. 

refugee pakhesdagan muhajir, dak- 

hil 
refuse {v.) merzhel qabul nakir la qbille, rfizle 

regiment zorakount alai 

regret (v.) tsavil, apsosal asaff kir, m'usufle 

tengi 
regular ganonavor 'askar nazami 'askaraya 

(soldier) (zork) or khalis 

regulation gark, ganon qanun 



reinforcements nor uyzlier imdad, hari 

reins yerasan, santz lighau 

relations azkaganner khizm, ahl 

(kindred) 

release {v.) artzagel az kir, berdan 



qanona 
madad 



leghema 
kliizme 
'ewedhle aza 



reliefs 



religion 
remain 

remember 

remittance 

(money 
rent {n.) 
repeat 

reply (n.) 
report {v.) 



zoravik, baba- 
gapokhoutiun 
zorats 

gronq 

mnal 

hisbel 

trami pokhana- 
tsoum 
vartzq 
grgnel 

badaskban 
lour dal,deghe- 
gakrel 



report (n.) degbegakir 

representative nergayatsout- 
sicb, pokha- 
nort 



isai, bar, 
bawar 

din 

main, rawastin 

labir batin 

amanat, tas- 

limhaq 
kir a, kire 
takrar kir 

jawab 
iqrar kir 



taqrir 
wakil, na'ib 



bawar, *aun 



toditba 
pisble 

itbele 1-bale, 
tkbere 



kiri 
tnele 

juwab 

ewedble iqrar 
sbidble 

iqrar, sabdu- 
tba 
wakil 



444 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



republic 
repulse (n.) 
request (n.) 



reserve 

(military, n.) 
reservoir hodh 



Arabic. Persian. 

jamhuiiyah jumhur 

difa' difa' 

talbah, istid'a khahish 

radif radif 

ab-ambar 



Turkish. 
jumhuriyet 

maghlubiy^t 

(defeat) 
rija 

redif, ihtiyat- 

khazna, sarnij 

isti'fa 



resignation , isti'fa isti'fa 

resistance muqawamah, muqawameh muqaveme 

difa' 
musirr, tbabit, ba 'azm sabit qadem 



resolute 
respect (n.) 
rest (v.) 
restaurant 
result 
retreat [n.) 
retreat (v.) 
return (v.) 

reveille {n.) 



azim 
i'tibar 

istarah, 

yastarih 
sufrakhanah. 

loqandab 
natijab 

insihab 

insahab, 
yan sahib 
reja', yirja' 



yat burasi 
(Turkish) 
waridah 



ihtiram 



jesur 
hurmet 



aramidan, istirahat et- 

aram mek 

ashpaz-khaneh loqanda 

yemekkhane 
natijeh netije 

*aqab nisha- geri chikilish, 

stan rij'at 

*aqab raftan, geri chikilmek, 

rau rij'at etmek- 

baz amadan, donmek, geri 

ai gelmek, avdet 
etmek 

buq-e bidari yat burasi 

maliyat, irtifa' irad varidat 



Revenue Idarahmaliyah Idara-ye mali- Idare-i-maliye 

Department yat 

reverse (n.) *aks (opposite) shikast 'aqs 



review (troops, munadharah san-bini 
n.) 



resmi gechid 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



U^ 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac, 


republic 


hanrabedou- 
tiun 


jamhiiriyah 


jamhurlya 


repulse (n.) 


yemghel 


daf ' , tard, 
ravandini 


mubserta 


request (n.) 


khntirk 


darkhaz, mu- 
rad, talab 


matlab, ba'uta 


reserve 


bahesd, bahes- 


- 


redif 


(military, n.) 


dazor 






reservoir 


chrampar, ava 
zan 


- hauz, sarinj 


hawuz 


resignation 


hrazharoum 


isti*fa, 'azl 


rapeta d-ida 


resistance 


timatroutiun 




zakhmutha, 
klaya 


resolute 


anveher, has- 
tadamid 


sabit, ba'azm 


thabit 


respect (n.) 


medzaranq 


hurmat, abru, 
sharni 


iqara 


rest {v.) 


hank-stanal 


isai or tana 
or askan, hu 


nikhle 


restaurant 


jasharan 


lokanda 


lokanda, 


result 


hedevanq, 
yelq 


• 


natija 


retreat {n.) 


nahanch 


lapisht cboine 


izala l-bathra 


retreat (v.) 


nahanchel 


lapisht chon 


izelle l-bathra 


return (v.) 


veradarrnal 


wagarian, da- 
hatin 


d'ere 


reveille (n.) 


artentsir I 
yelir 


buri, tanbih 


moiisha 


revenue 


yegamoud, 


tahsilat, 


kherj d-malku- 




has 


waridat 


tha 


Revenue 


Yegamoudi 


Tahsilat ma- 


Waziriitha 


Department 


Bashdonaran 


murl 


d-kherj 


reverse (n.) 


tzakhoghanq 


hazimat, shik- 
asti, ravandi 


basarutha 

[ 


review (troops 


), veraqnnel, 


sardi ' askar 


yukhlama 


n.) 


qnnatadel 







446 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


revolution 


thorah 


thaureh, haya- 


■ tehavvul 


(revolt) 




jan 




revolver 


warwar 


shish-luleh 


alti-patlar, 
revolver 


rheumatism 


rih 


dard-i-mafa§il 


yel 


rib 


dhar(39?. 


ustukhan-i- 


qaburgha 




dhum*) 


pahlii 




rice 


timmen. shileb 


► birinj 


pirinj 


rich 


ghani, zengin 


tawangar, 
mutamauwal 


zengin 


ride 


rekeb, yirkab 


suwar shudan 


, binmek, at ile 






shau 


gitmek 


rider 


khayyal 


suvar 


atli 


riding-horse 


hisan er- 
rukiib 


asp-i-suwari 


binek at, at 


rifle 


tufkah, matli 


tufang 


tufenk 


rifleman 


tuflak 


tufangchi 


silah-endaz 


right 


yimna, yamln 


rast 


sagh (right 




(right hand) ; 




hand) ; 




tammam 




doghru 




(correct) 




(straight) 


right away 


yallah 


birau ! bis- 


doghrudali- 






mi'Uah ! 


doghruya 


ring (finger, n. 


) mahbas, kha- 
tim (seal) 


angushtar 


yiiziik 


ripe 


mustawi 


rasideh, 
pukhteh 


61 mush 


river 


shat, shatt, 


riid-khaneh 


nehir, sii, chai 




nahr (small) 




irmaq 


road 


darb, tariq 


rah 


vol 


road (camel) 


tariq el-]imal 


rah-i-shutur 


deve yolu 


road (mule) 


iariq el-baghal 


rah-i-qatir 


qatir yolu 


road 


tariq min 


shoseh 


shose 


(metalled) 


ma' dan 






road 


tariq wa*ir 


rah-i-wa'ir 


*adi yol, 'araba 


(unmetalled) 






yolu 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



447 



t 



English, 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


revolution 


heghapokhou- 


'a§awat qarpi- 


'isyan 


(revolt) 


tiun, absdam- 
poutiun 
vetsharvadziai 


nat 




revolver 


I warwar 


warwar 


rheumatism 


rhomatism, 
vosgratsav 






rib 


goghq 


parsu, parasu 


parasuwa 


rice 


jrintz 


prinj 


rizza 


rich 


larousd 


daulamand, 


'attira, daula- 






zengin 


mand 


ride 


tsiavarel 
hedznel 


suwar bii 


rkiile 


rider 


tzi hedzogh 


suwar, khay- 
yal 


rakawa 


riding-horse 


hedzelatzi 


aspe suwari 


siisa d-raka- 
wiitha 


rifle 


hratsan 


tufak, tfeng 


tfakta 


rifleman 


hratsanagir 


tfenkjl 


yamlna 


right 


ach (right 


rast 


(right hand) ; 




hand) ; 




tupangchi 




oughigh 




drest 




(straight) 






right away 


on arrach ! 
yalla ! 


harra! birau! 


si qlo* ! 


ring (finger, n. 


) madani 


hangustir, 
gostirik, 
amuswan 


'jziqtha 


ripe 


hasoun 


gehia, gahish- 
tu, chebia 


bshila 


river 


ked 


av, riibar 


nehra, shatta 


road 


janabar, oughi 
jampa 


rre, ria, rraiga 


urkha 


road (camel) 


oughdi jampa 






road (mule) 


chorii jampa 






road 


khj oughi, 






(metalled) 


shose 






road 


hasarag jampa 






(unmetalled) 









448 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English, 


Arabic . 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


robber 


harami {fl. 
haramiyeh) 


duzd 


khirsiz 


robbery 


sirqah, teslib 


duzdi 


khirsizlik 


rock {n.) 


§akhr {fl. 
sukhiir) 


sang 


qaya 


rocky 


musakhkhar 


sang-lakh 


qayali 


roof 


sath, sagf 
(ceiling) 


bam 


dam 


room 


gubbeh, 5dhah 


iitaq 


oda 


root 


'irq 


bikh 


kiik 


rope 


habl(2?Lhibal) 


risman 


ip, halat (cable) 


rotten 


fasid (smelling), pusideh 


chiiriik 




kharban 






rough 


khashin 


durusht, zibr 


puruzlu, sert 
dalghali (sea) 


round {adj.) 


mudawwar 


mudauwar, 


yuvarlaq, 






gird 


deyirmi 


row {v). 


jedhef, yijdhaf 


paru zadan, 


kiirek 






zan 


chekmek 


rubbish 


zabalah 


khas-u kha- 


supuruntu 






shak or khai 


:- 






ruba 




rudder 


sukkan 


sukkan 


dumen 


ruddy 


ahmar 


qirmizT, 
surkh 


qizil 


rug {n.) 


zuliyah 


farsh, qalicha 


kilim. keche 


(for prayer) 


sajadah 


ja-namaz 


sejjade 


ruins 


kharabat 


wairanha 


virane, or en 


run 


jara, yijri 


dawldan, dau 


qoshmaq 


rushes 


qasab 


nai 


qamish 


Russia 


Rusiyah 


Rus, Urus 


Rusya 


Russian 


Muskofi 


Rusi 


Moskov, 
Rusyali 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



449 



English. 
robber 

robbery- 
rock {n.) 

rocky 
roof 

room 
root 
rope 
rotten 

rough 

round {adj.) 

row {v.) 

rubbish 

rudder 
ruddy 
rug {n.) 
(for prayer) 



ruins 

run 

rushes 

Russia 
Russian 



Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

kogh, avazag diz, jarda, ginawa 

mughlachi 

koghoutiua, dizi ginawutha 

avazagoutiun 

zhayrr bar, sug, git kepa or kipa 



zhajrrrayin 
daniq 



manzal, oda 
rih, kok 
baran, chvan waris, bang 



seniag 
armad 



pthadz 
goshd 
glor 
thiavarel 

avellsoug ; 

zibil 

(Turkish) 
teg 

garmrorag, 
garmrakuyn 
basdar 



sarban, sar- biqarshe, saqaf 
khane 

oda, manzal 
a§l, qara 
khaula 
spisa, serya 



razia, pis 
zbir 



la randa 



mudauwar, mudauwar, 
girover, khirr glola 

khar, mJrdar pushika 

dunbal. pishte durman 

gami 
sor, qrrmizi smoqa 



farsh, marsha, khali 
barrik 
{no such thing farsh, sajjadah khalicha 
used except 
by Moham- 



averag 
vazel 



kharabah kharaba 

ravi, ling da 'riqle 

hartzagmounq, chiqa * qanye 

khoyanq 

Rousia Urns, Misqof Illisqof 

Rousiatsi, Misqofi, Urusi Misqofaya 

Rous 



Ff 



450 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish 


Sabbath 


sebt 


sabt 


pazar-giinii 


sack 


kis (small) ; 
goniyah 
(large) 


juwal 


torba 


sacred 


muqaddas 


muqaddas 


muqaddes, 
sherif 


sad 


hazin 


ghamgin 


miikedder, 
mahziin 


saddle {n.) 


serei 


zin 


eyer 


saddle {v.) 


serej, yisraj 


zin kardan, 


eyerlemek, eyer 






kun 


vurmaq 


saddlebag 


khurj 


khurj in 


heibe 


safe (adj.) 


amin 


bi-salamat 


sagh 


sailing-vessel 


safinah, 
mahailah 


kashti-yi-badi 


yelken gemisi 


sailor 


mellah ; 


kashti-ban, 


gemiji 




khala^i (on 


mallah 






river steamer) 




sails 


shuru' 


bad-ban, shira' 


' yelkenler 


salary 


ma' ash 


mavajib 


ma' ash; ailiq 




• 




(monthly) 


salt 


milh 


namak 


tuz 


salute {n.) 


temenni ; 


tahiyeh, 


selam 




ta' dhim 
(milit.) 
sallam. 


salam 




salute (v.) 


sal am kardan, 


selamlamaq 




yusallim 


kun 




sally out {v.) 


kharaj *ala, 


kharij shudan. 


chiqish etmek 




yakhruj *ala 


shau 




same 


wahid, ferd 


hamin, bara- 


bir, farqsiz, 




shikl 


bar 


'aini 


it is all the 


ma yukhalif 


hamin -ast 


ikisi bir 


same 








this is the 


hadha mithl 


in ba an yakist 


ikisi bir 


same as thai 


: dhak 






sand 


rami 


rig 


qiim 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



451 



P English. 


Armenian, 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


Sabbath 


(Sunday) Gi- 


Sabt 


shabta 


• 


ragi ; (7th 
day = Satur- 
day) Shapat 






sack 


barg, dobrag 


juwal, kisa 


kisa 


sacred 


sourp, srpazan 


1 haram, mu- 
qaddas 


qudlsha 


sad 


dkhour 


damai, dilsoti 


, ghabina. 






khamin 


pshlma 


saddle [n.) 


thamp 


zin 


sarga 


saddle {v.) 


thampel, 
hamedel 


zin kir 


msuregle 


saddlebag 


bayousag, 


khurjiq 


pashazin, 




khourjin 




khurjin 


safe {adj.) 


abahov 


amin, pana 


salamal 


sailing-vessel 


arrakasdanav 






sailor 


iiavasti 


mallah, ga- 
michi 


gamichi 


sails 


arrakastq 






salary 


toshag, vartzq haq, haiv, 


muwajib 






mahngana 




salt 


agh 


khwe 


melkha 


salute {n.) 


voghchuyn 


salam, selav 

• 


shlama 


salute {v.) 


voghchounel 


selav da 


drele shlama 


sally out {v.) 


khoyanal, 
hartzagel 


zhdarva hat 


npiqle baraye 


same 


nuyn 


wak, nazir 


mukhdaigid 



it is all the nuynn e har au bukh- awa bigiane 

same waya 

this is the jisd ador bes e au wak awa adhi mukh- 
same as that daigid adhi 

sand avaz khiz, rami khize, 'epra 

f£2 



452 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


sandbank 
sandal 


hawi, ramli, 

jurf 
na*al(pZ. na'a 


pushte-yi-rig 
[) na'l, charuq 


sighliq 
chariq 


sandy 
Saturday 


ramali 
Yom es-sebt 


rigi 
Shambeh 


qiimlu 
Jum'a-ertesi 


saucepan 
saucer 

sausage 
save 
saw (w.) 


tawah 
sa^in, ma'un 

bastarmah 

khallas ; 
yukhallis 
(rescue) 
minshar 


digcheh 

na'lbakl or 
nalbaki 

sasisam, char- 
ghanda, or rij 
da-qe aganda 

rahanidan, 
rahanornaja 
dadan, deh 

arreh 


tenjere 
finjantabaghi 

sujuq (dry) ; 
- bumbar 

(fresh) 
qurtarmaq 

destere 


say 

I say 


gal, yagul 
ana agul 


guftan, giii 
mi-giiyam 


soilemek, de- 
mek 
deyorim 


thou sayest 


inta tagul 


mi-gu'i 


deyorsin 


he says 


hua yagul 


mi-giiyad 


deyor 


we say 


ihna nagul 


mi-gii'im 


deyoriz 


you say 


int« tagulun 


mi-gii'id 


deyorsiniz 


they say 


hum yagulun 


mi-giiyand 


deyorlar 


I shall say 


ana agul 


khaham guft 


deyejeyim 


I said 


ana gult 


guftam 


dedim 


scales (balance, mTzan 


pilla, kiffa 


terazi, mizan 


n.) 
scarcely 


bil-kad; 
bi-sa'ubeh 
(with diffi- 
culty) 


bi-dushwari 


nadiran, he- 
man, giich 
hal He 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



453 



i English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


sandbank 


avazap, ava- 
zathoump 






sandal 


drekh 


kalik, rashik, 
cliarokh 


soli 


sandy- 


avazod 






Saturday 


Shapat 


Shamba, 


Yauma 






Shamu 


d-shabtba 


saucepan 


san, aman 


qazan, tan jura 


distitba, qidbra 


saucer 


kavati aman 


zhirpiala, bin- 


bashqap 






tas, aman 


d-steikan 


sausage 


yercMg 


mambar, 
muhsbi 





save 



prgel 



khalas kir mkhulisle 



saw {n.) 
say 

I say 

thou sayest 

he says 

we say 

you say 

they say 

I shall say 

I said 



sghots 
usel, asel 



yes g asem or 

g'usem 
tou g'ases or 

g'uses 
an g'ase or 

g'use 
meng g'asenq 

or g'usenq 
touq g'aseq 

or g'useq 
anonq g'asen 

or g'usen 
yes bidi asem 

or bidi usem 
yes asetsi or 

usi 

scales (balance, gshirr 
n,) 
scarcely haziv 



harrek, mashar masarta, min- 

shar 
baizhin, gotin imere 

az dabaizhim kimrin 

tu dabaizhe kimret 

au dabaizhet kimer 

am dabaizhin Mmrokh 

hun dabai- kimrutun 

zhin 
wan dabai- kimri 

zhin 
az dabaizhim bid'amren 

ma got imeri 

terazun, shin masatha 

nadiran, nadiran 

bkemahi 



454 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turhish. 


scatter 


sbettet, 


pasbidan, 


dagbitmaq, 




yusbettit 


pasb 


sacbmaq 


scbool 


medresab, 


maktab, mad- 


• mekteb 




mekteb 


raseb 




scissors 


maqas§ 


miqraz 


maqass 


scout {n.) 


kasbsbafab 
{fl.) ; sab- 
barab 


talaya-dar 


izji, kesbaf 


screw (pro- 


parwanab 


cbarkb 


isqru 


peller) 








sea 


bahr 


darya 


deniz 


seal (stamp, n 


.) muhr 


mubr 


mubr 


sealing-wax 


lukk 


lak 


mubr-bal- 
mumu 


searcbligbt 


nur barqi 


cbiraojb-i- 


kesbf-i-ziva 



barqi 



season 


fasl, musim 


fasl 


mevsim 


sea-wall 


musannayab 




deniz rikh- 
teme, dalgba 
qiran 


second (num- 


tbani 


duvum 


ikinji 


ber) 








secret (w.) 


sirr {ft, asrar) 


sirr, raz 


sirr 


secret {adj.) 


sirri 


sirri 


sirr, gizli 


secretary 


katib {fl. 


dabir, katib 


kyatib; sirr 




kuttab) 




kyatibi (private 
secretary) 


secretly 


sirran, kbufya- 


makbfi, 


gizli 




tan 


panban 




security 


emniyab; kafa- 
lab (pledge) 


■ aman 


emniyet 


see 


sbaf, yasbiif or 
ra'a, vara 


didan, bin 


gormek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



455 



English. 
scatter 

school 

scissors 
scout {n.) 



Armenian. 
tsrvel 

tbrots 

mgrad 

ted, bahaban jasus 



Kurdish. Syriac. 

blau kir, wa- mburbizle 
randin 

maktab madrasah 



miqash 



miqqas 
gashosha 



screw (pro- 
peller) 
sea 

seal (stamp, n. 
sealing-wax 

searchlight 



season 
sea-wall 



bdoudag 

dzov 
gniq 
gnqamom 

lousakhuyz 
(parosneren 
yev naveren 
artzagvadz 
khouzargou 
luys) 

yeghanag 

dzova-badnesh 



burghi,charkh burghi, charkh 



bahre, darya 
muhr, mur 
lak 



f asle sale 



yama 
mohr 
lak 



shukhlapa 
d-shata 



second (num- yergrort 
ber) 
secret {n.) kaghdniq 
secret {adj.) kaghdni 
secretary qartoughar, 

krakir 



dui, duani, treyana 
sani 
sirr, penhani raza 



katib 



katiba 



secretly 
security 



see 



kaghdnapar bdizi, zhepani b-raza, 

b-tushwa 
abahovoutiun, aman, pan- iltlzam, sala- 
yerashkhavo- hani, amnlat matutha 
routiun 
desnel ditin, chau khzele 

pai kir 



456 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


seek 


dawwar 'ala, 


justan, ju 


aramaq 




yudawwir *ala 






or fettesh, 








yufettish 






seize 


kadhdh, ya- 


giriftan, gir 


^abt etmek, 




kudhdh or 




tutmaq, girift 




lezem, yilzam 


etmek 


self 


nefs {fl. nuf us) 


khud, khish 


kendi 


sell 


baS yabi' 


furukhtan, 
furush 


satmaq 


semaphore 


simafor 


ishareh 
nama'i 


semafor 


send 


ba'ath, ylb'ath 


firistadan, 


gondermek, 




or arsal, yursi 


I firist 


irsal etmek 


sentry 


nobachi {fl.' 


qarawul, 


nobetji 




nobachiyah) 


pasban 




separate 


farraq, 


tafriqeh kar- 


ayirmaq 


{trans.) 


yufarriq 


dan, kun 




separately 


airi 


juda-juda 


airi airi 


sepoy- 


*asker hindi 


sipahi-ye hind 


sipahi 


September 


Ailul 


Mihr-mah, 
Ailul 


Eimi 


sergeant 


chawush 


wakil 


chawiish 


sergeant-major bash chawush 


vakil-e avval 


bash chavush 


servant 


khadim {fl. 


naukar 


hizmetji 




khuddam) 






serve 


khadam, 


khidmat kar- 


hizmet etmek, 




yikhdam 


dan, kun 


ishini gormek 


settle (an ac- 


sedd, yasidd 


ta'diya namu- 


hissablashmaq 


count) 




dan or kar- 
sazi kardan 




sew {v.) 


khayyat, 
yukhayyit) 


dukhtan, diiz 


dikmek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



457 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

seek piitrrel taftish kir, mputishle 

pe garrian 



seize 



prrnel 



girt in 



erele 



self 


inqn 


khwa, bkhwa 


begian {with 
pronouns) 


sell 


dzakhel 


ferohtin, 
feroshtin 


mzubenne 


semaphore 


tzaynadar, 
tzaynapogh 








(kortzig vorov 






navabedn 








g'khosi) 






send 


ghrgel, ou- 


henartin, 


mshudere 




ghargel 


shandin 




sentry 


bahnort 


naubachi 


naubachi 


separate 


anchadel, 


juda or jia kir 


, preshle 


(trans.) 


pazhnel 


pishirandin 




separately 


zad zad 


parcha-parcha 


>, b-prishutha 






yak-yak, juda 






juda 




sepoy 


zinvor hntgas- 
tani 


sipahi/askar 


rajala 


September 


Sepdemper 


Aimi 


Ilul 


sergeant 


hisnabed 


chawish 


chawish 


sergeant-ma j( 


Dr hisnabed 


wakil bashi, 


chaush d-ta- 






chawish 


bur 


servant 


dzarra, sbasa- 


khulam, nau- 


ghulama kha> 




vor 


ker 


dim 


serve 


dzarrael, 


khizmet kir 


khdimle 



sbasavorel 
settle (an ac- hashiv vdjarel 
count) 



hisab kirin, 
haq dan 



qate 



sew {v.) 



garel 



dirun, duran- khetle 
din 



458 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
sextant 

shade {n.) 
shake 



shallow 

shame (n.) 

shave {v.) 

sheep 
sheet (bed) 



Arabic. 
sextant 



Persian, 
u^turlab 



Turkish. 
sextant 



dhul. fe sayeh giilge, saye 

harrak, ynhar- takan dadan, sarsmaq, salla- 

rik or nafadh, deh 

yanfudh 
gesh, (moi) payab 

qalil 
'aib sharm 



zeyyin, yuzey- tirashidan, 
yin tirash 

ghanam gusfand 

charchaf chadar 



maq 
sigh 

hi jab, ayib 
trash etmek 



qoyun 
charshaf 



sheet (of paper)warqah varaq 

shell (n.) guUeh {fl. gulel) khumpareh 



shell {v.] 



ship 
shirt 

shoal 



tabaqa 
mermi, qiim- 
bara 

dharab bi-top, khumpareh an- qumbara 
yadhrab bi- dakhtan, an- atmaq 
top daz 

markab kashti, jahaz sefine, gemi 

qami§ ; thob pirahan gomlek 

(outer shirt) 
shelhah dasta sigh yer, sighliq 



shoe {n.) qandarah, . kafsh, pineh papush, qun- 

papush dura 

shoe {v.) na'*al, yuna"il na'l band kar- na'alamaq 

dan, kun 
shoot rama, yarmi gululeh an- tufenk atmaq 

or dharab bi dakhtan, an- 
ra§a§, yadhrab daz or tir an- 
dakhtan, 
andaz 
shop dukkan {fl. dukkan diikyan 

dukakin) 
shore sahil kinar, sahil sahil, sii kenari 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



459 



Emjlish. 


Annenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


sextant 


sextant, 
angiunachap 






shade {n.) 


shouk, sdver 


si, keresi 


tella 


shake 


tsntsel, 


takandin, ju- 


npi?le 




sharzhel 


mandin, we- 
shandin 




shallow 


dzandzagh 


borr 


borre, duktha 
di-psa'a 


shame {n.) 


amot 


sharm, ruswai 
hishmat 


, 'aiba 


shave [v.) 


adzilel 


tirash kir, kur 
kir 


gre'le 


sheep 


vochkhar 


meh, paz 


'erba 


sheet ( bed) 


savan 


jajim, char- 
chaf 


ghata, jajim 


sheet (of paper) terfc 


kaghaz 


tabaqa 


shell in.) 


rroump 




gunbilta d-tope 



shell (v. 



rrmpaharel 



ship 
shirt 

shoal 



shoe {n.) 
shoe (v.) 
shoot 



nav 
shabig 

tzgneram 

goshig 

baydel, nalel 

kndagaharel, 
zarnel 



garni, markab markwa 
kiras siidra 

jama' at, guriih qumsal 

(crowd) ; na- 

kur, na-qol, 

borr (shallow) 
sol, pelav, na'l §aule, na*la 



na'l kir 



mnu'elle 



avitin, taqan- twere nishan 
din 



shop 
shore 



khanout, 
krbag 
ap, yezerq 



dikkan 



dikkana 



nezike ave, sa- siptha d-maya 
hil 



460 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turhish. 


short 


qa^Ir 


kutah 


qiRsa 


shot (act) 


ramyah, chelah tir, guliileh 


qurshun, 








sachma 


shot (bullets) 


sechem 






shoulder 


kitif {dual 
kitifen) 


dush 


omuz 


shout (v.) 


sah, yasih 


bang zadan, 


baghirmaq 


shovel (w.) 


mijraf 


zan 
paru 


kiirek 


show (v.) 


shawwaf, yu- 


namiidan, 


gostermek 




shawwif; bey 


- nuina 






yen,yubeyyen 






(prove) 






shrapnel 


shrapnel 


shrapnel 


shrapnel 


shrine 


mazar (place of mazar 


ziyaret 




visitation) 






shut {see close) sedd, yasidd 


bastan, band 


qapamaq 


sick 


maridh, waj'an bimar, na- 


khasta, keifsez 






khush 




sickle 


menjel 


das 


oraq 


side 


janib, sob 


pahlii 


yan, janib 


siege 


muhasarah 


muhasareh 


muhasere 


sieve 


mankhal, 
gharbal 


ghirbal 


elek, qalbur 


sight (of gun) 


neshengah 


nishangah 


nishan-gyah 


signal 


isharah 


isharat 


isharet 


silent, to be 


seket, yiskut 


khamush shu- 


sus Imaq or 






dan, shau m 


^ sukiit etmek 






sakit shudan, 








shau 




silting 


radm, ditilah 


gil-band 


qum ve cha- 
mur seddi 


silver {adj.) 


min fidhdhah 


nuqra'i 


glimiish 


silver (n.) 


fidhdhah 


nuqreh 


glimiish 



short 
shot (act) 

shot (bullets) 
shoulder 

shout (v.) 

shovel (n.) 
show {v.) 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 461 

Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

garj kurt kerya 

harvadz, sachma, risas gunbilta, sach- 
kndag ma 



ous, thigounk mil, pil 



rusha 



kochel, tsayn dang or hawar m'uyitle, 
dal kir, kalin §rekhle 

thiag paru, hestiv roshta, marra 

tsuyts dal nishan da mukhzele, 

mukhwele 



shrapnel shrapnel 

(pegorq bay- 
thogh kndagi) 

shrine khoran 

shut {see close) kotsel, pagel 

sick hivant 

sickle mankagh 

side goghm 

siege basharoumn 

sieve magh 

sight (of gun) nshanatsuyts 
(hratsani) 

signal nshan, aztan- 

shan 

silent, to be Irrel, lourr 
nmal 



mazar,. ziaiat ziarat 

bestin, kuch- ghleqle 

andin 
nasakh, nakh- kriha, nakh- 

wosh wosh 

dasik, manjal, magla 

turdas,dasiila 
teref, janib janib, dipna 
hisar hisar 

bezhing, helik, sarida 

tiilak, pala 
nishangah sipa nishangah 



nishan 



nishan 



dav girt, be- shtiqle 
dang bii 



silting 

silver (adj.) 
silver {n.) 



dghmalits 

ardzathia 
ardzath 



gilband 



ziv, ziw 



skara 



sema 



462 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


since (prepos.) 


min 


ta, az waqti 
keh 


-danberi(si(^a;) 


since (adv.) 


ba'ad 






since (because) 


li-an, min heth 




sinful 


khati 


gunahqar 


gunahli 


sing (v.) 


ghanna, yug- 


avaz khandar 


L, turku chaghir- 




hanni 


sarayidan 


maq 


sink {trans.) 


gharraq, yu- 


gharq kardan, 


batirmaq 




gharriq 


kun 




sink {intrans.) ghariq, 


gharq shudan 


, batmaq 




yaghraq 


shau 




sir (to native) 


effendim 


aqa 


effendim, agha 


(to European) sahib 


aqa, miisqu 


bey effendi, 








chelebi 


sister 


ukht {]pl. 


khahar, 


qiz-qardash 




akhawat) 


hamshlreh 




sit 


qa'ad, yaq'ad; 


nishashtan, 


oturmaq 




jeles, yijlis 


nishJn 




size 


kubr 


andaza . 


biiyiiklik 


skilful 


mahir 


hunarmand, 
zaring 


hiinerli 


skin (inflated) garbah 


mashk 


tulSm, kelek 


skirmish 


munawashah 


zad-u khurd, 
qaravuli 


cherkha 


sky 


es-sema 


asman 


gok 


slaughter in.) 


dhibh 


kushtar 


qirim 


slaughter [v.) 


dhebeh, 


kushtan, kush kesmek, helak 




yidhbah 




etmek 


sleep {n.) 


nom 


khabidan 


uyqu 


sleep {v.) 


nam, yanam 


khabidan, 
khab 


uyumaq 


sleeve 


kumm {pi. 


astin 


kol 


- 


akmam), rudn 




slow 


bati; muta- 
'akhkhar (of 
watch) 

yawash, 


yawash 


yavash 


slowly 


ahisteh 


yavash yavash 




^ala kef 






small 


saghir 


kuchak 


ufaq, kiichlik 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



463 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


since (prepos.) 


horme hede 


zhwakht 


min 


since {adv.) 


minch 






since (because] 


) kanzi 




min sabab 


sinful 


meghavor 


gunahkar. 
khudan suj 


khiltana 


sing (v.) 


yerkel 


istiran bezhin 
ban kirin 


, zamir 


sink (trans.) 


s ouzel, 
ungghmel 




mughriqle 


sink {intrans.) 


souzil. 


dabinda or bin 


. ghariqle 




ungghmil 


av cho 




sir (to native) 


baron 


khwaja, agha 


effendi 


(to European 


l) baron 


baig, bag 


sahib 


sister 


quyr 


khushk, 

khung 

runishtin 


khatha 


sit 


nsdil 


itule 


size 


chap, hasag 


mazinati, 


giirutha 






gaurai, qadar 


skilful 


jardar, hmoud 


'aqil, tezhfahm shatir, mahir 


skin (inflated) dig, barg 


charm, ziqq 


ziqqa 


skirmish 


tetev grriv 


sharr 




sky 


yerginq, ot 


asman 


rqi'a 


slaughter (w.) 


godoradz 




nkhara 


slaughter [v.) 


godorel, 
sbanel 
qoun 


kiishtan, zabh nkhere 


sleep {n.) 


khawa, khau 


shintha, dma- 








kha 


sleep {v.) 


qnanal 


newestin 


dmikhle 


sleeve 


thev 


bal, huchik 


darpilta, brai- 
dhatha 


slow 


gamats 


pegiran, ya- 
wash 


yaqura 


slowly 


gamatsoug 


yawash ya- 
wash 


hedi h^di 


small 


poqr, manr 


bechuk, hur 


zora 



464 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic, 


Persian. 


Turkish, 


smaller 


asghar 


kuchaktar 


daha kiichiik 


smallpox 


jidri 


abila 


chichek 'illeti 


smell {n.) 


rihah 


bu 


qoqu 


smell {trans.) 


ishtemm, 


bu kardan, 


qoqlamaq 




yashtemm 


kun 




smell (to stink) antan, yuntin 


muta'affin 


qoqmaq 






shudan, shau 




smoke (n.) 


dukhan 


dud 


duman 


smoke (to- 


sharab titen, 


tutun kashi- 


tiitiin ichmek 


bacco, V.) 


yishrab titen 


dan, kash 




smooth 


malis 


saf , hamwar 


diiz 


smuggling 


tehrib 


tahrib az gum 


- qachirma 






ruk or az gun 


i- 






ruk gurlzan^ 








dan 




snake 


hayyah 


mar 


yilan 


snow {n.) 


thelj 


barf 


qar 


so (thus) 


hichi 


chunln or in 
taur 


boile 


so and so (n.) 


fulan 


fulan 


filan 


soap 


sabiin 


§abun 


sabiin 


sock 


jorib {pi, juwa 
rib) 


- jurab 


chorab 


soft 


leyyin 


narm 


yimushaq 


soil (earth) 


trab 


"khak 


topraq 


soldier 


*asker 


sarbaz 


'asker 


solid 


qawi, jamid 


mujassam 


metin, qavi 


some 


shweya 


qadri 


bazi 


somebody 


f erd wahid 


shakhsi 


bir kimse 


something 


ferd she 


chizi 


bir shei 


sometimes 


ba'dh e]- 


ba'zi auqat, 


ba'zi kerre 




awqat 


ahyanan 




somewhere 


fi ferd makan 


yakja 


bir yere, bir 
yerde 


son 


ibn {pi. benin) 


pisar 


oghl 


song 


ghina, 
naghmah 


awaz 


tiirkii, sharqi 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



465 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


smaller 


aveli poqr, 
poqrakuyn 
dzaghgakhd 


bechukter 


besh zora 


smallpox 


hawla, awlik', 


, shalqu, khwa- 






khiiri 


tlta 


smell (w.) 


hod 


behn, biien 


rikha 


smell [trans.) 


hododal, hod 
arrnel 


behin kir 


shqille rikha 


smell (to stink] 


1 hodil 


behin da 


iwelle rikha 


smoke [n.) 


dzoukh 


dukal, diid 


tnana 


smoke (to- 


dzkhel 


tutun vakh- 


shtele tutun 


bacco, V.) 




warin 




smooth 


harth 


sa, hulu 


rakikha 


smuggling 


abi anq pakht- 
snel, maksa- 
nengoutiun 


qachagh 




snake 


otz 


mar 


khuwi 


snow (w.) 


tziun 


bafr 


taiga 
hatkha 


so (thus) 


aisbes, asang 


wasa, wusan 


so and so (n.) 


aisinch aininch flankas 


pi] an 


soap 


sabon 


sabun 


sabun 


sock 


koulba 


gora, jurav 


girwa 


soft 


gagough 


narm 


chalabi 


soil (earth) 


hogh 


'ard,akh 


'upra 


soldier 


zinvor 


'askari 


'askari 


solid 


amour 


qaim 


matin, zarbana 


some 


qich, mi qich, 


chand, hindik 


khakma 




qani me, qich 






me 






somebody 


mege, vomn 


kasak 


kha nasha 


something 


pan me 


tishtik, tishki 


kha mendi 


sometimes 


yerpemn 


jareki, jarjar 


khakma ga- 
hatha 


somewhere 


oureq, degh mi 


b'ardak 


be-khdha dUk- 
tha 


son 


vorti 


kurr, zaro 


brona 


song 


yerk 


stiran 


zmara 



ag 



466 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
soon 

sooner 

sortie {n.) 

sound {adj.) 
sound (noise) 

sounding 
(water) 
soup 
sour 

sour milk 
south 
southern 
south wind 

sow [v.) 



Arabic. 
*an qarib, fi 

awwal waqt, 

bil-'ajel 
gab] 



Persian. 
zud 

zuttar 



khuruj, huj- hamla-ye 
mah khuruj 

sahih salim 

saut(2}/.aswat), §ada 

hiss 
ghumq el-moi miqyas 



shorbah 

hamidh 

leben 

jinub 

jinubi 

shergi 

zara', yizra* 



ab-i-gusht 

turush 

mast 

janub 

janubi 

bad-e janiib 

kashtan 



Turkish. 
chabuk, tez 



daha chabuq, 

daha erken 

khuruj, hujum 

sagh, saghlam 
ses 

isqandil etmesi 

chorba • 
ekshi 
yoghurt 
jenub, qibla 
jeniibi 

jenub dan esen 
ruzkiar 
ekmek 



spade 
spark 
sparrow 
speak 

spear {n.) 

specially 

specie 

spectacles 

speed 



misha, mihfar 
shararah 

* asf ur [fl. ' asa- 

fir) 
haka yahki or 

tekellam, 

yetekellam 
ramh {pi. ar- 

mah) 
khasusan 

makhsus 
nuqiid 

mandharat 

sur'ah, 'ajalah 



b!l 

akhgar, 

sharareh 
kunjishk 



naiza 

khususan 

naqd 

ainak 

sur'at 



bel, kiirek 

qighiljim, 
sherare 
serche 



guftan, giii soilemek 



gharghi, mizraq 

bashlija 

naqd, meskiu 

kiat 
gozlik 

siir'at 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



467 



English. 


Armenian, 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


soon 


shoud 


zu 


qaliila 


sooner 


aveli shoud 


ziitir 


bush zoda 


sortie (w.) 


hartzagoum 
(azadvelou) 


hujiim 


plat ta le plasha 


sound {adj.) 


arroghch 


sakh 


saghh salim 


sound (noise) 


tzayn, 
hnchiun 


dang 


qala 


sounding 


dzovachapou- 






(water) 


tiun 






souj^ 


abour 


shorba 


shorba 


sour 


ththou 


tersh 


khamiisa 


sour milk 


madzoun 


mast 


masta 


south 


haraf 


junub, qiblat 


juniib, taimna 


southern 


harafayin 


tarefe qiblate 




south wind 


haravayin hov 


bae junub 


pokha temnaya 


sow (v.) 


tsanel, 


til avitin, kil- 


zare 




sernianel 


andin, chan- 
din 




spade 


prichj pah 


bial, ber, man 


• mawal, roshta, 
marra 


spark 


gaydz 


prisk, chrisk. 
pall 


, shararitha 


sparrow 


jnjghong 


chiiki, ma- 


sip I" a 






luchka, chuli 


speak 


khosel 


gotin, akhaftin muhkele 


spear {n.) 


' nizag 


riim 


zerga, rumha 


specially 


hadgabes 


khusu§an, ga- 
lagter 




specie 


hnchoun tram 


naqd, ziv 


naqd 


spectacles 


agnots 


aineki, cha- 
wank 


chashmi 


speed 


arakoutiun 


lazi, sur'at 


sur'ah, qalii- 
lutha 




G 


g2 





468 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
spend 

spirits 



Arabic. Persian. 

?araf, yasrif ; sarf kardan 
enfeq, yunfiq 



araq 



spoon khashugal 

spring (season) rabi' 

spring (of *ain moi 
water) 

spur shabiir 

spy (w.) jasus 

squadron firqah 
nautical) 

squall (wind) dbarbah 

square {adj.) murabba' 



araq 

qasbuq 

bahar 

cbashmeh 

niihmJz 
jasus 



Turkish. 
sarf etmek, 
kharj etmek 
raqi 

qashiq 
ilk bahar 
punar, cheshme 

mahmuz 
jasus 



daste-yi-kasb- donanma, filo 
tiha-yi-jangi 



stable 



tolah 



bad-i-tund 

murabba' 

tawlleh 



bora 

dort kiisheli 

akbur 



staff (of army, arkan el-harb sar-kardagan- erkian-i-harb 

n,) e qushun 

stagnant (of khayis, wagif istada 

water) 

staircase 



stalks (of 
millet or 
maize) 

stallion 



derej 
saq 



nardban, 

pallet 
shakheb 



fahl {pl.iuhvd) asp-i-nar 
pill tambr 



stamp 

(postage, n.) 
stand (t;.) wagaf,yogaf or istadan, ist 

qam, yaqum 
star nejmah {fl. sitareh 

nujum) 
starboard yamin rast 

hard a-star- tammam 
board lil-yamm 



durghun, aq- 
maz 

merdiven 

saplar 

aighir, at 

pul 

ayaqda dur- 

maq, dikilmek 
yildiz 

sanjaq jiheti, 
sanjaq tarafi 
alabanda yali 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



469 



English. 
spend 

spirits 



Armenian. 
dzakhsel 



Kurdish. 
kharj kirin 

'araq 



Syriac. 
kharij 

'araq 



kauchik, liask matamta 
bahar bahar 

kani 'aina 



sqata 
jasusa 



vokelits umpe- 
liq, oghi 
spoon ktal 

spring (season) karoun 
spring (of agbpiur 

water) 
spur kbtban, mtrag pishin 

spy {n.) Irdes jasus 

squadron koumardag ; 

(nautical) dormigh (of 

battleships) 
squall (wind) jich, aghaghag, ba mazin 

potorig 
square {adj.) qarragousi cbargoh, mu- murabba' 

rabba* 
stable akhorr, kom paga, akhur bikare 

stafT (of army, arkane harb 

n.) 
stagnant (of Ijatsadz (chour) be-harakat, 



karapech 



water) 




sakin, na- 
hingivin 




staircase 


sandukh 


pilakan, erde- 
van salal 


• simalta 


stalks (of 


tsoghoun 


shakh, pal 


qorma 


millet or 








maize) 








stallion 


krasd (mada- 


fahl, tamazalk fahla 




gakhantz) 






stamp 


namagatroshm 


pul 


marqa, tambr 


(postage, n.) 








stand {v.) 


ganknel 


rawustan 


qimle, klele 


star 


asdgh 


star, hassara 


kaukhwa 


starboard 


arrachagoghm 
navi 


last 


lianme 


hard a-star- 


ghegn tebi 






board 


ach 







470 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

starvatioD (n.) ju' ; mot ju' gurus nagi ajliq 



hal {fl. ahwal) 
mahattah 

baq, yabuq 

bukhar, isbtim 

markab bu- 
khar, 
bakhirali 
fuladh 
min fuladh 
steering-gear alat el-idarah 

steersman sukkanchi 
stem (of ship) §adr el- 
markab 



state (condi- 
tion) 

station (rail- 
way) 

steal 

steam 

steamer 



hal 
mahattah 



duzdidan, 
duzd 
bukhar 

kashti-yi-bu- 
khari 



steel (n.) 
steel {adj.) 



akhir 
el-markab 
khadim 

*a§a, 'iidah 
ila '1-an 

rikab 



stern 

steward 

stick (n.) 
still (of 
time) 
stirrups 
stock (of a gun) qundaq(j9?.qa- 

nadiq) 
stoker nari, 

waqqad 
stomach batn, ma*dah 

«tone ha jar (pi. hijar) 

stony liajari 

stop (intrans.) wagaf, yogaf 



piilad 
puladi 



dumandu 
pishi-yi-jahaz 

pusht-i-jahaz 



chub-i-dasti 
hanuz, ta bi- 
hal 
rikab 
kundeh 

atashi 

shikam, mi' da 



sang-sar 
istadan, ist 



hal 

mahatta (in 
Syria), iskele, 
istasion 

chalmaq 

bughu, bukhar 
vapor 



chelik 
chelik 
dumen-aleti 

dumenji 
geminin bashi 

geminin qichi 

qamarot 

deinek, sopa 
daha, henoz 

iizengi 
qundaq 

vaporun 
ateshjisi 
qarin, mi'de 

tash 

tashli 

durmaq 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



471 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

starvation {n.) ansvagoiitiim, birsiti, birchi, kipna 
anotoutenne zhbirsa mi- 



merrnil 
state (condi- vijag 
tion) 
station (rail- gayan, gaya- 
ran 



koghnal 
shoki 
shokenav 



steal 

steam 

steamer 



rine, girani 
hal 



dizin 
bukhar 



tial 



gniile 

bukhar, liau- 
hara 



steel {n.) 
steel {adj.) 
steering-gear 

steersman 
stem (of ship) 

stern 

steward 

stick (n.) 
still {adv.) 



boghbad piila 

boghbadia 

sharzhich 

kortziq, aniv 
ghegavarich dumanchi 
klkhadzayr 

(navi) 
verchadzayr 

(navi) 
dndes,sbasavor 

(navi) 
kavazan 
dagavin 



khadim, khiz- 

matkar 
dar, gopal 
hatta nuha 



stirrups asbantag 

stock (of a gun) goth (hratsani) 



stoker 
stomach 



navi-gragarar 
porr, stamox 



stone qar 

stony qarod 

stop {intrans.) gank arrneJ 



auzum, zengi 
qundakh 



zik, mada 

bar 

rawustan, 
sakinin 



poladh 
min poladh 



dUmanchi 



ghulama 

qatta 
hul daha 

zangul 
qiindakha 



ma'dah, kasa, 
istiimka 
kepa 
mari kipi 
klele, smikhle 



472 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
stores 

stork 

storm 

stormy- 
story 

stove 

straight 

strange 
strap 

strategy 

straw 
stream 
street 
strength 

stretcher 
stretcher- 
bearer 
strike 

strike camp 



string 
strong 
stupid 

subaltern 
submarine 
success 
suddenly 

sugar 



Arabic. 
arzaq, dha- 

khayir, alwas 

(grain) 
legleg 

dharbah 

'ajaj 
hikayah 

sopa, bukhari 

'adil, giibal 
(straight on) 
gharib, 'a jib 
ser 
fann el-harb 

tibn 

nahr, mejra 
shari', darb 
quwah 

sedyah 
shayyal 

dharab, 
yadhrib 

qala' el-khi- 
yam, yakhla' 
el-khiyam 

khait, siitli 

qawi 

thaqil, balid 

mulazim 
ghawwasah 
najah 
def'atan 
baghtatan 
sheker 



Persian. 
zakhlreh 



Turkish. 

tedariikyat, 

levazimat 



laqlaq, laklak leylek, haji 
baba 



tufan 

tufani 
hikayat 

bukhari 

rast 

gharib 
tasmeh 
fann-i-muha- 
rabeh 
kah 
jui 

khiyaban 
zur 



firtina 

firtinali 
hikyaye 

soba 

doghru 

yabanji, gharib 

qaish 

sevq el-jeish 

saman 
chai, su 
soqaq 
quvvet 



takhta 
hamil-e takhta 



zadan, zan 

chadirha 
kandan, kun 



vurmaq 

chadirleri 
qaldirmaq 



risman 

qawi 

na-dan 



quvvetli 
'aqlsiz, 
shashqin 
nayib mulazim 

ghauwaseh tahtu'1-bahr 
zafar muvafaqiyet 

nagah ap-ansiz, bir- 

den-bire 
qand, shakar sheker 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



473 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

stores mtherq zakhira, anbar zakhira, 'anbar 



stork 



arakil 



laglag, hajji laglag 
laglag 



storm 


potorig, mrrig 


tufan, farta- 


tavia, kara- 






nah 


pech, tufan 


stormy 


potorgalits 






story 


badmoutiun 


khabar, qis§at, haqyat 






chiruk 




stove 


chermots 


agirdan, ku- 


suba 






chik, bikhairi 


straight 


shidag, 


drest, rast 


drest, 'adil, dus 




oughigh 






strange 


odar 


gharib 


nakhraya 


strap 


yeriz, pog 


qaish 


qaisha 


strategy 


rrazmakidou- 
tiun 






straw 


hart 


ka, kah 


tuna 


stream 


arrou, vdag 


av, rubar 


nehra, rubara 


street 


poghots 


kolan 


alola 


strength 


uyzh, zorou- 


zur, haz, 


zakhmutha 




tiun 


quwwat 




stretcher 


badkarag 


takhtah 


takhta 


stretcher- 


badkaragagir 


hammale 


hammal d- 


bearer 




takhtah 


takhta 


strike 


zarnel, khpel 






strike camp 


vranel 


bar kirine 


mat'one 


string 


lar, thel 


risi, pat 


gdhala 


strong 


zoravor 


khurt, qawi 


zakhma 


stupid 


aboush 


bemezh, ah- 


sakhla, ahmaq 


subaltern 


entasba 


maq 
bichuk mamur nayib 


submarine 


submarin 






success 


hachoghoutiun najah 


ghalibutha 


suddenly 


hangardz 


ghaflatan, 


shghafle, 






zhneshklwa 


nagestan 


sugar 


shakar 


shakar 


shekar 



474 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
sugar-cane 

suitable 

summer 
sun 

Sunday- 
sunrise 

sunset 

supper 

supplies 

surgeon 

surrender 
(trans.). See 
also give in 

survey (v.) 



Arabic. 
qasab esh- 
sheker 
muwafiq 



shems 

Yom el-ahad 
tulii' esli- 

shems 
ghuriib esh- 

shems 
'asha 

arzaq, 

muiiimmat 
jarrah 
sellem, yusel- 

lim 



Persian. 
nai-shakar 

munasib 

tabistan 
aftab 



Turkish. 
sheker qamishi 

miinasib, laiq 

yaz 
giinesh 



Yekshambeh Bazar-gunu 
tulu'-i-aftab giin doghusu 

gburub-i-aftab ghurub, giin 
batisi 



sham 

zakbireh 

jarrah 
sipurdan, 
sipar 



aqsham ta'ami 

levazimat 

jerrah 
teslim etmek 



hendes, yuhen- misfihat kar- (araziyi) olch- 



dis 



dan 



mek 



surveyor 
suspected 

sweet 

swelling (n.) 

swim (v.) 

switch (of rail- 
way, n.) 
sword 
syphilis 

Syria 

table 
tactics 



muhendis 
mashbuh 

hulu, *adhb 
(of water) 
wurum 



massah 
mazniin 

shirin 

amas 



muhendis 
shubheli, 
maznun 
tatli 

shish, shishlik 



sebeh, yisbah shinawari kar- yiizmek 

dan, kun 
maqass mil-e naqqala- 

ye rah-e ahan 
sef {'pl. suyuf) shamshir qilij 

frengi kuft frengi, efrenj 



Esh-Sham, 

Suriya 
mez 
harakat 

harbiyah 



Sham 



Sham 



miz trebeze, sofra 

tadabir-i-har- ta'biye el-jeish 
biyeh 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



476 



English. 
sugar-cane 

suitable 

summer 
sun 

Sunday 
sunrise 

sunset 

supper 

supplies 



Armenian. 
shaqareghek 

harmar 

amarr 
arev 
Giragi 
arevadzak 

arevamoud 

entriq 

bashareghen 



surgeon virapuyzli 

surrender hantznel 

{trans.). See 

also give in 
survey (v.) kednachapel 



surveyor 
suspected 

sweet 

swelling {n.) 

swnm (v.) 

switcli (of rail- 
way, n.) 
sword 
syphilis 

Syria 

table 
tactics 



yergrachap 
gasgadzeli 

anoush 

ourruytsk 

loghal 

jiugh, aqdzan 

sour, tliour 
fransagan akhd 

S3rria 

seghan 

rrazmakhagh, 
tactis 



Kurdish. 



munasib, leha- 

tin 
havin 
tav, tau 
Yeksbamb 
rubalat, su- 

bahi 
kbwatawa, 

ghurub 
shiv, cliaish- 

tashav 
zakhira 

jarrah, hakim 
teslim kir 



masahat or 
handasat 
kirin 

muhandis 

bshubha, 
bguman 

shirin 

ba girtine, 
panamiani 
malavan bii 



Syriac 

munasib, laiq 

qaita 
shemsha 
Khaushaba 
isaqa d-yauma 

gnaya d-yauma 

kharamsha 

zakhira 

jarral;!, hakim 
msulemle 

makhi-tanap 



tanapchi 
khii shubha 

haluya 

zirta 

skhele 



shir saipa 

farangi, maraz 
khabis 
Sham Suriya, Sham 

mez, sifra mez, sifra 



476 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


tail 


dhel {pi. dhu- 
yul) ; liyah 
(of sheep) 


dum 


quiruq 


tailor {n.) 


khayyat 


khaiyat 


terzi 


take 


akhadh, 
ya'khudh 


giriftan, gir 


almaq 


talk (v.) 


haka, yahki 


harf zadan, 
zan or 
guft-u-gti 
kardan, kun 


qonushmac 


tall 


tawil, 'all 


buland bala 


iizun boilu 


tame 


alif 


dast-amuz 


alishmish 


tank 


hodh 


daryacha, hauz sarnij 


tar (n.) 


qir 


qir 


qatran 


target 


nishan 


nishan 


nishan 



tarpaulin mushemma' mushamma' mushamba 



taste (v.) 


dhaq, yadhuq 


chashidan, 
chash 


tatmaq 


tax (n.) 


mTri, resm. 


baj 


vergi 




'oshor (tithe) 


5 






khumas (i) 






tea 


chai 


chai 


chai 


tea-cup 


piyalah 


finjan 


chai finjani 


tea-pot 


kurl 


qiiri 


chailiq 


teach 


'allam, 


ta*lim dadan. 


ogretmek 




yu'allim 


deh or 

amiikhtan, 

amuz 




tear (v.) 


shaqq, yashuqq pareh kardan, 


yirtmaq 


telegraph {n.) 


telegraf 


teleghraf 


telegraf 


telegraph 


telegraf- 


teleghraf- 


telegraf-khane 


office 


khanah 


khaneh 




telescope 


darbin 


durbin buzurg 


durbin 


tell 


qal li-, yaqul li- 


- guftan, gui 


soilemek 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



477 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac. 

tail aki, ' boch ' duv, dunk, tiipra 

dulik, boch 

tailor (n.) tertzag derzi derzi 

take arrnel, vertsnel helgirtin, shqille 

birin, standin 
talk {v.) zroutsel, gotin, akhav- muhkele 

khosel tin 



tall 


yergayn 


drezh 


yarikha 


tame 


undani, undell 


kedi, ahli 


kadi, ahli 


tank 


avazan 


litch, sarinj 


hawliz 


tar {n.) 


sev tziut 


qlr, zift 


qir 


target 


nshaged, 
nshan 
momlat, mo- 


nishan 


nishan 


tarpaulin 


mushamma' 


mushamma' 




mazodz gdav 


; 






monshamba 








(Turkish) 






taste {v.) 


jashagel 


tam kir 


tme'le 


tax (n.) 


harg, dourq 


baj 


kherj 


tea 


chay, they 


chai 


chai 


tea-cup 


teyi-kavat 


fiujane chai 


isteikau, chini 


tea-pot 


teyaman 


kiize or tan- 
jure chai 


chaipas 


teach 


sorvetsnel 


talim kir, dasi 


b muliple 




ousoutsanel 


da 




tear (v.) 


badrrel 


deryan,bizdan 
din 


- jiqle 


telegraph {n.) 


herrakir 


teleghraf 


teleghraf 


telegraph 


herrakradoun 


teleghraf- 


teleghraf khana 


office 




khanah 




telescope 


herratidag 


dorbin 


dorbina 


tell 


usel, asel 


gotin, khabar 
da 


mukhbere 



478 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turhish. 


tenant (n.) 


musta'jir 


musta'iir 


qiraji 


tent 


chadir, khemah khaimeh, 


chadir 






chadir 




tent-peg 


watad {pi. 
autad) 


mikh 


chadir qazighi 


tent -rope 


habl el-chadir 


rasan, tanab 


chadir ipi 


than 


min 


az 


-dan {suffix) 


thank 


sheker, 


shukr kardan, 


teshekkiir 




yishkur 


kun 


etmek 


that {conj.) 


ann 


ki 


ki 


that {pron.) 


hadhak (fern. 
hadhik) 


an 


o, ol 


thaw (n.) 


dhawaban 


gudaz-i-yakh 


qarlarin erimesi 


thee 


-ek {fern, -eki 


tu-ra 


Sana {dat.), serii 




or -ech) 




{accus.) 


their 


-hum {suffix) 


-i-ishan {sujffix 


) onlarin 


theirs 


malhum 


mal-i-ishan 


onlarin-ki 


them 


-hum {suffix) 


ishan-ra 


onlara {dat.), 
onlari {accus.) 


then (at that 


hadhak el-waqt dar an waqt 


ol vaqit 


time) 








then (after 


thumma 


ba'd az an 


ondan soiira 


that) 








thence 


min hinak 


az anja 


oradan 


there 


hinak 


anja 


orada 


there is 


aku 


hast or manjud var 






ast 




thermometer 


mizan el- 


miqyas-i- 


mizan-i- 




hararah 


hararat 


hararet 


these (pron.) 


hadhol, hel 


inha 


bunlar 


they 


hum 


ishan 


onlar 


thick 


thakhin 


kuluft, ambiih 


L qalin 






(of trees, &c. 


) . " 


thief 


harami, 
bawwaq 


duzd 


khirsiz 


thimble 


kushtiban 


angushtaneh 


yiiksiik 


thin 


raqiq, dha'if, 
khaflf 


laghar, nazik 


inje, za'if 


thine 


malek (/em. 
maleki) 


mal-i-tu 


seninki 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



479 



English. 
tenant (n.) 
tent 

tent-peg 

tent -rope 

than 
thank 

that {conj.) 
that (pron.) 

thaw (n.) 
thee 

their 

theirs 

them 

then (at that 

time) 
then (after 

that) 
thence 

there 
there is 



Armenian. 
vartsagal 
vran 

vranatsits, 
vrani tsits 
vrani lar 

qan 
shnorhagal 

linel 
the, zi, vor 
at, ayt, ayn 

tsogh 
kez, skez 



Kurdish. 
kirchi, kirikir 
mal, kun, cha- 

dir 
senk, mikh 

bang, rist 

zh . . . la , . 
shiker kir 

ki 
av, an 

av buyan 
ta, tii 



anonts -wan, awan 

anontsn yawan 

zanonq (accws.) -wan 
anonts (dat.) 

an-aden avjar, wejare 

aba, hedo 

andi, ande- zhwedare, 
ghen zhera 

ayn-degh, ant audare, aora 

ga haya 



thermometer chermachap 



these {pron.) 

they 

thick 

thief 

thimble 
thin 

thine 



asonq 
anonq 
tantzr, khid 

kogh, avazag 

madnots 
nosr, barag 

qougt 



van, aman 
van, awan 
ustur, tir 

(of liquid) 
diz 

kishtabani 
zrava, larr 

yata, mal eta 



Syriac. 
ijaradar 
kwina, chader 

stunta 

khaula de- 

kwina 
min 
shkere, tanen 

minta 
d- 
awa, 6 

pishrana 
-6kh(yem.-akh) 

-waihi 

diyaihi 

-naihi 

ai gah 

bar 

min tama 

tama 
Tth 



ghaliz, qishya 
(of liquid) 
ganawa 

kishtabani 
naqidha, ra- 
qlqa 
dyokh 



480 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


thing 


she 


chiz 


shei 


think 


ifteker, yaf- 


pindashtan, 


diishunmek. 




tekir 


pindar 


zann etmek 


thirst {v.) 


'atish, ya'tash 


tishneh shu- 
dan, shau 


siisuz olmaq 


thirsty 


'atshan 


tishneh 


susuz 


this 


hadha {fern. 
hadhi), hel 


in 


bu 


thither 


ila hinak 


ta anja 


oraya 


thorn 


siiok 


khar 


diken 


camel -thorn 


'agiil 


khar-e shutur 


devc dikeni 


those {fron.) 


hadholak ; 
hadhik (of 
thiDgs) 


anan, anha 


onlar 


thou 


enta or inta 
{fem. enti) 


tu 


s6n 


thread 


khait {fl, 
khuyut) 


nakh, rishteh 


iplik 


threaten 


hedded, yu- 


tahdid kardan, tehdid etmek, 




heddid 


kun 


qorqatmaq 


threshing 


dos 


khirman kiibi 


kharman (et- 
mek) 


throat 


halq 


galu 


boghaz 


through 


fl, bi- 


az miyan-e 


-dan {suffix) 


thunder 


ra*d, qaraqf 


ra'd 


gok giirlemesi 


Thursday 


Yom el- 
khamis 


Panjshambeh 


Pershembe 


thy 


-ek {fem. -eki 
or -ech) 






tick (insect) 


qarad 




kene 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



481 



English. 
thing 
think 

thirst {v.) 

thirsty 
this 

thither 
thorn 

camel-thorn 

those {fron.) 



Armenian, 
pan, ir 
mdadzel, 
khorhel 
dzaravil 

dzaravi 
ays 



Kurdish, 
tishtak 
fakkirin 

tihna or tl, 

bu 
tina, tl 
av, ama 



Syriac, 
mindi 
mtukhminne 

shele 

§ehya 
adhi, aha 



on antr, hon lawedare tama 

poush derrik, duiru, kitwa 

khar 

derrik, duiru, kitwa d-giimh^ 

khar 

adonq, anonq van anai 



thou 
thread 
threaten 
threshing 

throat 
through 

thunder 

Thursday 

thy 

tick (insect) 



tou 

the], tertzan 

sbarrnal 

gamnel, tsoren 
dzedzel 

gogort 

meg goghmen 
miuse, me- 
chen, michot- 
sav 

vorodoumn 

Hinkshapti 

qou 

tziasdats 
(michad), 
gene, gana 



tu 



ayet, ate 



risi, dezhi, gdhadha 

machir 
tahdid kir ewedhle tahdid 

malish kirine, 

la bidar avi- 

tin, daq kirino 
giirl, gilii, qur- qdhala 

rig 
liniv, zhniv m-go 



dandar, dangi gargimma 

asman, hau 

rataqa 
Penjshamb Khamshau- 
shaba 



nil 



482 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian, 


Turkish. 


ticket 


teskerah 


balit, tikat 


billet, teskere 


tidal 


dhu medd 


§ahib-i-madd 


medd ve 






u jazar 


jezr-den 


tide 


medd wa-jizr 


madd ii jazar 


suyun qabar- 
masi ve chekil- 
mesi 


fiood tide 


medd 


madd 


medd 


ebb tide 


jizr 


jazr 


jezr 


tie {v.) 


shedd, 
yashidd 


bastan, band 


baghlamaq 


tight 


mashdud 


sift, tang 


siqi 


Tigris (R.) 


Ed-Dijla 


Dijla 


Dijla 


tile {n.) 


qarmid (flat- 
shaped) 


sufal, qarmid 


kiremid, tughla 


till 


hatta 


ta 


-e -qadar 


time 


waqt {pi. 


waqt, gah, 


vaqit 




auqat) 


zaman 




what time is 


besh es-sa'ah 2 


che sa'at ast, 


sa'at qach dir ? 


it? 




or sa' at chand 






ast? 




(number n.) 


marrat, nob at 


daf a' at 


defa 


timid 


khayif, 
khawwaf 


tarsan, tarsu 


qorqaq 


tired 


ta'ban 


khasteh 


yorghun 


tithe («.) 


*oshor; khu- 
mas (i), 


da h -yak 


ondaliq, ushr 


to 


ila 


bi- 


-e, -a {suffix) 


tobacco 


titen 


tambaku, 
tutun 


tiitiin 


to-day 


el-yom 


imruz 


bu giin 


toe 


iisbu' er-rijl 


anffusht-i-pa 


ayaq parmaghi 


to-morrow 


bukrah, bacher farda 


yarin 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



483 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syrictc. 


ticket 


domsag 


sanad, billet, 
tikat 


bilit 


tidal 


deghadvayin 






tide 


yev magn- 
tatsayin 
magntatsou- 
tiun yev-degh 
advoutiun 


- 




flood tide 

ebb tide 
tie {v.) 


(flow and ebb) 
had] el, partz- madde bahre 

ranal (chour 

dzovi) 
nvazil (chour jazre bahre 

dzovi) 
gabel giri kir, sha- 
dandin 


i?ere 


tigbt 


bind, birg 


tang 


hazlqa. 


Tigris (R.) 


Dikris 


Ave mazin. 


hezzoqa 
Digiat 


tile [n.) 


gghmindr 


karpechj hajur karpech 


till 


minchev 


hatta, ta 


hul 


time 


zhamanag 


zaman, wakht 


zauna 


wbat time is 


; zhame kani e ^ 


' chi wakhta ? 


Ba*at k-ma 


it? 






ileh? 


(number, n.) 
timid 


ankamner 
yergchod 


jara, naqla 
tersok, kemdil 


gahi 
zadoa 


tired 
tithe (n.) 


hoknadz 
dasanort 


wasta, manig 
deh-ek, 'ushr 


jihya 
siraya 


to 
tobacco 


arr, i 

dzkhakot, tu- 
tun 


la, -e {suffix) 
tutun 


ta, 1- {frejix) 
tutun 


to-day 
toe 


aysor 
vodqi mad 


avro, amro 
telpe 


idyo 

subeta d-aqla 


to-morrow 


vaghn 


subahi, baiani 


§apra 



nh2 



484 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turhish. 


tongue 


lisan {fl. 
alsinah) 


zaban 


dil 


to-night 


hel-lelah 


imshab 


bu geje 


tonnage 


mihmal el- 


mahmiil 


geminin 




markab 




tonelatasi 


too (also) 


aidhan, hum 


ham 


dakhi 


tool 


alah {pi alat) 


alat 


alet 


tooth 


sinn (fl. asnan 
or sinun) 


dandan 


dish 


toothache 


waja' sinn 


dard-i-dandar 


I dish-aghrisi 


top-boot 


jazmah 


chakmeh 


chizme 


torpedo (w.) 


lughm [pi. 
algham) 




torpil 


touch {v.) 


mess, yamiss 


dast zadan, 
zan or lams 
• kardan, kun 


doqunmaq 


tough 


qawi 


sift 


sert, qati 


tow (v,) 


gala§, yaglas 


kashidan 


chekmek 


towards 


nahu. ila 


su-yi- 


tarafina {after 
the word) 


towel 


peshkir 


dastmal 


hauli, peshgir 


tower 


burj {pi. buruj) burj 


qule 




maftul (Arab 








watch tower) 






town 


beled 


shahr, qasabeh shehir 






(small) 




track 


ether, tariq 


rahcheh 


yol, iz 


trade (com- 


tajarah 


tijarat 


tijaret, alish- 


merce, n.) 






verish 


trader 


tajir {pi. tujjar 


) tajir 


tujjar 


train (railway, qatr, qi^ar 


qitar-e rah-e 


tren 


n.) 




ahan, tiran 




translate 


terjam, 


tarjumeh kar- 


terjume etmel 




yuterjim 


dan, kun 




translation 


terjumah 


tarjumeh 


terjume 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



48- 



English. 



tongue 



to-night 

tonnage 

too (also) 

tool 

tooth 

toothache 
top-boot 
torpedo (n.) 



Armenian. 
lezou 

ays kisher 

daroghoutiun 
(navi) 
nuynbes 
kortziq 
adam 

adamnatsav 
yergan goshig 
torpedo 



Kurdish. Syriac. 

azman, zwan lishana 

av shava, am idlaile 
shau 



zhi, z!, ham 

alat 

dudan 

darde dudan 



ham 

alitta 
kaka 

mar'a d-kaka 
chekme 



touch (v.) shoshapel dast girtin gishle fa- 



tough 
tow (v.) 



towards 

towel 

tower 

town 

track 

trade (com- 
merce, n.) 

trader 

train (railway, 
n.) 

translate 

translation 



tpchil 

gardzr, bind 
navaqarshel 



tebi 

srpich, 

yeressrpich 
ashdarag, 

amrots 

qaghaq 

hedq 

vajaraganou- 
tiun 
khanoutban 
shokegarq 

tarkmanel 

tarkmanou- 
tiun 



sart sart, qeshya 

gami kishan- garish 

din or dar 

inan 

tarafe 1-balad, 1- 

kafiya, khaoli kaffiya 

burj burja 

shahr, bazhar mdhita 

daus daus 

tijarat, bazir- tajirutha 
gam 
tajir, bazirgan tajir 

train, papor mashina 

tarjamat kir mturjimle 

tar jamah tar jamah 



486 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


transport {v.) 


naqal, yanqal 


haml-u naql 
kardan 


naql etmek 


travel {v.) 


safar, yusafir 


safar kardan 


yoljuluq etmek 


traveller 


musafir 


musafir 


yolju 


treacherous 


khayin 


ghaddar 


khain 


treaty 


mu* ahadah 


mu' ahada 


*ahd-name, 
mu'ahede 


tree 


shejerah {pi. 
shejer) 
khandaq {pi. 


dirakht 


aghach 


trench 


gaudal, 


hendeq, siper 




khanadiq) 


khandaq 




tribe 


qabilah {pi. 
qabayil), 
'ashirah {pi. 
*ashayir) 


il, qabfleh 


qabile, 'ashiret 


tributary (of 


shakhah 


shu'ba-yeriid- 


- chai diger bir 


stream) 




khana 


chaia mun- 
sabb olan 


trigger 


zanad 


pistanak, 
shaitanak 


tetik 


trot {v.) 


hedheb, 


luk luk raftan 


ris gitmek, 




yehdheb 




ilgar gitmek 


trouble («.) 


kedr, kalufah 


zahmat 


zahmet, siqindi 


trough (of 


hodh 


hauz, nava 


avlaq 


water, n.) 




{better, abish- 
ahur) 




trousers (Euro- pantalon 


pantalon 


pantalon 


pean) 








(Oriental) 


sirwai 


shalvar, turn- 
ban 
hidnat, tark-i- 


■ shalvar 


truce 


hudnah 


- mutereke 






aslihah 




truck 


*arabah 


'arabiyeh 


vagon 


true 


sadq, ^ahih 


rast 


gerchek, 
doghru, sahih 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



487 



English. 
transport {v. 

travel {v.) 
traveller 

treacherous 

treaty 

tree 

trench 

tribe 



Armenian. 
) ourish degh 
danil 

jamportel 

jamport 

nengavor 



Kurdish. ISynac. 

naql kirin, labil 

haml kirin, 

birrin 
safar kirin, *awid sapar 

garrianin 
rem, rewanchi, urkbachi 

rebuar 

ghaddar, kbain ghaddar, khain 
sharat nania 



tashnakroutiun ' ahd 

dzarr dar ilana 

khram khandaq 

tsegh, dohm *ashiret, mal 'ashirah 



tributary" (of hargadou ked 
stream) 



trigger 
trot {v.) 
trouble (n.) 



trough (of 
water, w.) 



tzkan 

suyr, yerakn- 

thats 
vishd, hok, 

neghoutiun 

gour, ourt 



rubar 



paya, chaq- 

maq 
luk lok cho 

zamat, peri- 
shani, tikil, 
khuduk 

sangav 



trousers (Euro- antravardiq, 



pean) 
(Oriental) 

truce 

truck 

true 



' pantalon ' 
vardiq 

zinatatar 

pats perrna- 
garrg, sayl 

irav, jshmarid, 
oughigh 



hacha 

uqlad-topang 

mluqliqle 

zahmat 

'agana 

pantul 



pantaluD, 

shall 
darpe, shall, shalwar 

peshma 
havaliye 



ithaya li-khdha 
dh6 



rast, drest, haq, sarast- 
sarast trusa 



488 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian, Turkish, 

try jarrab, yujar- kiishidan, clialishmaq 

rib kush (endeavour) ; 

tejribe etmek 
(experiment) 



Tuesday 


Yom eth- 
thalatha 


Sebshambeh 


Sali-giinii 


tug (boat) 


markab jarrar 


jahaz-kash 


remorqueur, 
chatana 
i tunel 


tunnel (n.) 


sirb {pi. esrab) naqb-e rah-e 






ahan (a rail- 


- 






way tunnel) 




turban 


leffah, *ima- 
mah 


imama 


sariq 


Turk 


'Osmanli 


Turk, 'Osmani 


L 'Osmanli, Tiirk 


Turkey 


Turkiya 


Rum, Khak-i- 


Memalik-i- 






'Osmanl 


*osmaniye, 
Turkiya 
geri diinmek 


turn back 


raja', yirja* 


bar gardidan, 


turret 


burj {fl. buruj) kungureh 


top qulesi 


unbeliever 


kafir (non- 
Moslem) 


kafir 


giaur, dinsiz 


uncertain 


mashkuk 


mashkuk 


shubheli 


uncivilized 


mu mutemed- 
den, wahshi 


vahshi 


medeniyetsiz 


unconscious 


ma yahiss 


bi-hiish 


baighin,bekhud 
(insensible ; 
khabefi olma- 
yan (unaware) 


uncultivated 


kharab 


bi-a ban 


ohollik 


under 


joa, taht 


zir 


altinda 



understand fehem, yifham fahmidan, 

fahm 
qinder way musafir rawaneh 



anlamaq 



hareketde 
olan (gemi) 

undress oneself neza' hudiim, rakht kandan, soyunmaq 
yinza' hudum kan or lukht 
shudan shau 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



489 



English. Armenian. Kurdish. Syriac, 

try chanal tajrib kir mjurible 



Tuesday- 


Yereqsbapti 


Seshamb 


Tlathaushaba 


tug (boat) 


qashogh nav, 
navatzik 






tunnel (w.) 


sdorergria- 
antsq 


kuna chia 


kan 


turban 
Turk 


patdots 
Tourq 


kulav, kopin 

Turkl/Os- 
manli 


shumla, 
pushiya 
Osmanli 


Turkey 


Tourqia 


Turkiya 


Turkiya 


turn back 


bed tarnal 


zevirrin, wa- 


d'ere l-bathra 


turret 
unbeliever 


bourg 
anhavad 


garrian 
burj 
kafir 


burj a 
kapura 


uncertain 
uncivilized 


anorosh 
angirt 


na-ma'liim, be- la khatirjam 

haqiqat 
tamaddunsiz bi terbiyat 


unconscious 


anked, ousha- 


behish 


* 
fqida heshshe 




knats 







uncultivated anmshag 
under nerqev, dag 



understand 
under way 



hasganal 



i sharzhman, 
yertalou vra 
undress oneself hanvil, mer- 



bizhiar,bizhun bura 
binda, zhir khothed . . . , 

eltekh 
fahm kir fhimle mparmi 

musafir musafir, 

pashata 
Jul dar man shlekhle julle 



490 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

unexpected mu muntazar nagahan umulmamish 



uniform 


kiswah *askari- 


rakbt-i-nizami 


uniforma, 


(soldier's) 


yah 




forma 


unjust 


dhalim 


bi-in^af, 


zalim, 






sitamkar 


insafsiz 


unkind 


mulatif, qasl 


na-mehrban 


merhametsiz, 
jefakiar 


unload v. 


nafadh, yan- 


kbalikardan, 


boshaltmaq 




fadh 


or bar pay in 








avardan 


* 


unlucky 


mash'um 


bad-bakht 


bakbtsiz, 
zevali 


unpleasant 


mu latlf 


napasand 


nakhosh 


unripe 


akhdhar 


na-rasida 


olmamush 


unsafe 


mukhtir 


na-amn 


tehlikeli 


unshod 


hafi 


pa-barahna, 
bl-na'l 


na'alsiz 


unsuitably 


mu muwafiq 


na-muwafiq 


yaramaz, 
munasebetsiz 


untrue 


mu ^ahih, 


durugh (lie) 


yalan (lie) ; 




kidhb 




doghru deyil 


up (of motion) ila f oq 


bala 


yuqaria, yu- 








qarida 


upon 


*ala 






» urgent 


dharuj'I 


zaruri; fauri 
(sudden) 


musta'jel 


urine 


bol 


shash 


sidik 


us 


-na {suffix) 


mara 


bize {dat.), 



bizi {accus.) 

use (v.) ista'mal, yas- isti'mal kar- quUanmaq 

ta'mil dan, kun or 

bikar burdan, 
bar, 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



491 



English. 
unexpected 

uniform 
(soldier's) 
unjust 

unkind 

unload 



Armenian. 
ansbaseli 

hamazkesd 
anartar 



Kurdish. 
lanishkiwa, 
zhghafle 

Jul, kenj 



Syriac. 
d-la idhatha or 

intizar ghafla- 

tan 
julle 



zalim, be-insaf, zalim, be-insaf 
bedad 
ankout, dmarti, berahmat, be- bi rakhmi 

gosht muruwat 

(pere)barbel bar dainan mrape tana 



unlucky anpaklit 

unpleasant anhajo, 
unripe dhas, khag 



unsafe 



unsbod 



anabahov 



anbavd 



berisq, be- 

bakht 
nakhwosh 

na-chebia, na- 

gehla. na- 

gaishti ' 
be-aman, 

mukhtir, 

daraki 
pai-rut, pai- 

tazi, pai- 

khaos, pai- 

luit 



unsuitable anharmar 

untrue anjist 

up (of motion) ver 

upon vra 

urgent garevor, sdi- 

boghagan 
urine mez, sherr 

us mez {dat.) 

smez {accus.] 
use (v.) kordzadzel 



arast, 

nadrest 
zhor, bar, hal l-'ulul 



d-la risq 

nakhwosh, d-la 
lutf 
kal 



na-salamat 
d-la soli 



lak-layeq, la 

munasib 
daggala, diigla 



lazim, wajib 

miz, mis 
-ma (suffix) 

isti'mal kir 



*al 

lazim, band 

juri, tine / 
-an [suffix) 

mustu'mille 
mpalikh 



492 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arahic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


useful 


mufid 


bafa'idehjSud 
mand 


-fa'ideli 


useless 


bila fayidah 


bi-f a'ideh 


fa'ide-siz, bosh, 
yaramaz 


usually 


*adatan 


'adatan 


'adetan, 
ekseriya 


vain 


ras kabir 


bihuda ; khud 


- maghrur 




(proud) ; bi-la 


pasand 


(proud) ; 




fayidah (fu- 


(proud) 


bosh (futile) 




tile) 






vain, in 


*abathan 


'abath 


nafile, bihude 


valley- 


wadi 


arreh 


dere 


valuable 


thamin 


qlmatdar 


qimetli 


vanguard 


rawad, muqad- qaravul, talay 


a muqaddimet 




damah 






veal 


lahm 'ijl 


giisht-i- 
gusaleh 


dana eti 


vegetables 


khadhrawat 


sabzi 


sebzevat 


veil (for 


pushi, pardah 


ruband 


yashmaq 


women, n.) 








vengeance 


tha'r 


intiqam 


intiqam 


verandah 


tarmah 


aivan, bar- 


iistii qapali 






amada 


balqon 


verbally 


shifahan 


zabani 


shifahan 


vermin 


qaml (lice) 


kirm (worms) ; 


; kehle-pire- 






hasharat 


maqulesi 


very 


kathir, kuUish 


bisyar 


pek, cho([ 


victory 


ghalbah,nusrah fathi, ghalabeh 


nusret, ghalebe 


victuals 


at'imah 


khurdani, 


yeyejek iche- 






azuqah 


jek 


view (v.) 


mandhar (of 


manzar, 


nazaret 




scenery) ; rai. 


, chashm-andaz 




fikr (opinion) 






village 


jama' ah (of 


deh (of huts); 


koi, qarie 




huts) ; qar- 


kapportia-ye 






yah (pi. qura) 


mu'askar 




vine (grape, w, 


.) tislaqah 


angir 


asma 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 493 

English. Amienian, Kurdish. Syriac. 

useful okdagar mufid, b'ish mari paida 

useless anokoud namufid, beish d-la manfa'ah 

usually sovorapar *adatan 'adatan 

vain zour, vochinch, batil, be-fa'ida batila 

barab 



vain, in 

valley 

valuable 

vanguard 

veal 

vegetables 
veil (for 
women, n.) 
vengeance 
verandah 

verbally 

vermin 

very 
victory 

victuals 

view {v.) 



village 

vine (grape, n 



1 zour 

hovid 

knahadeli 

arracbabahq 

horti mis 

ganacheghen 
dzadzgots 

vrezh 
jemelik 

pernatsi 

karshadjdji 

shad, huyzh 
haghtoutiun 

baren, bashar 

yerevoyt, de- 
saran 

kiugh, shen (of 
huts) avan 

.) vort 



*abathan, ma- 

nasiz 
dol, nuhal 
thamin, bahali 
paishe 'askare 

goshte guerik 

or gah 
zarzawat 
izar 

tol, intiqam 
diwan, qirish 

daviidav, 

zhdav 
kirm, kurum 

galak, per 
bezand, ber, 

ghalaba 
zakhira, 

khwarin 
manzar, chav- 

bina! 



'abath, b-go 
batiliitha 
wadT, ra'ola 
mari tima 



bisra d-sharkha 

zarzawat 
chudra, cher- 
showi 
tol 
ewan 

b-kemma 

righja 

raba 
ghalaba 

zakhira. ikhala 

khzeta 



gund, gundik, mata 

avahi (of 

huts) ; dikaya 
raz, daritiri, gipta 



494 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

violent shadid, kharij sakht, tund eliiddetli 

visit (m.) ziyarah ziyarat ziyaret 

visit [v.) zar, yaziir ziyarat kar- ziyaret etmek 

dan, kun 

visitor khattar (6-. and meliman musafir 

pl.) 

voice sawt (y?L a§wat) awaz ses 

volley (n.) ramyah slialik yayilim 

volunteer mutatawwa* dau-talab gunuUii *asker 
(soldier, n.) 

voyage seferel-bahr safar-i-darya denizseferi 



wade 


khadh, 


dar ab rab 


su-da yiiriimek 




yakhiidh 


raftan, rau 




wage (daily) 


yomiyah 


ruzana 


giindelik 


(monthly) 


skakriyah 


mabiyana 


ailiq 


waist 


hizam 


kamar 


bel 


wait 


istandhar, 
yastandbir 


mandan, man 


beklemek 


wake {trans.) 


ga'*ad, yuga"id bidar kardan. 


oyandirmaq 






kun 




wake up 


bass, yahiss 


bIdar sbudan, 


oyanmaq 


(intrans.) 




sbau 




walk (v.) 


mesba, yim- 


rab raftan, 


gezmek, yayan 




shi 


rau or gardish gitmek 






kardan, kun 




wall 


hayit {pl. 
hItan) 


diwar 


duwar 


wanting (miss 


- naqis 






i«g) 








war 


harb; muhara- 


jang 


barb, 




bab 




mubarebe 


warehouse {n. 


) 'ambar {pl. 


ambar-e 


magbaza 




*anabii') 


amti'a 




warm 


barr; dafi 


garm 


sijaq 




(moderately) 







GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



495 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


violent 


pourrn, sasdig 


tizh, mazin 


zarbana, zakh- 

TYIQ 


visit {n.) 


aytseloutiun 


zyarat 


Ilia 
ziara, fqada 


visit {v.) 


aytselel 


zyarat kir 


fqedle 


visitor 


hyour, aytse- 


za'ir, mehwan, arkha 




loii 


mevan 




voice 


tzayn 


dang 


qala 


volley (w.) 


hratzkoutiun 


shelik 




volunteer 


gamavor {mn- 


*askar bekh- 


b-rizaye, dota- 


(soldier, n.) 


vor) 


wastine or 


lab 



voyage 



wade 



bdile 
dzovaknatsoii- safar safar 

tiun, dzov- 

antsq 
antsnel (ked, daravehd khidble 

chour) 



wage (daily) 


oragan (vartz). 


haq, muzd 


haq a d-yoma 


(monthly) 


amsagan 


halv, haqe 


muwajibd-yeT' 




(vartz) 


haiva 


kha 


waist 


mecliq 


pisbt 


navtanga 


wait 


sbasel 


intizar kir, 


khmelle, 






cbav kir 


hmelle 


wake (trans.) 


zartetsnel, 


kisliar kir 


muqimle min 




artntsnel 




shintha 


wake up 


zartnoul, 


bishar bu 


qimle min 


[intrans.) 


artnnal 




shintha 


walk (v.) 


qalel 


pla ebon, bza- 
lami ebon 


rkhishle 


wall 


bad (of a bouse 


diwar 


guda 





or garden) 






wanting (miss 


- bagas 






ing) 








war 


baderazm 


sbarr, jeng 


sharre 


warehouse (».) 


mteranots 


'anbar, makh 
zan 


- umbarkhana 


warm 


daq, jerm 


garm 


khamima 



496 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

warn khattar, yu- agahi dadan, ikhtar etmek, 

khattir deh khabervermek 

wash {trans.) ghassal, yu- shustan, shui yiqamaq 

ghassil 

wash oneself ightasal, khudra yiqanmaq 

yaghtasil shustan, shui 

wasp zambur {pi. zambur or eshek arisi 

zanabir) zambur-e khar 

waste {trans.) dhayya', zayi' kardan, israf etmek 

yudhayyi' or kun 

etlef , yuthf 

lay waste {v.) kharrab, yuk- kharab kardan kharab etmek 

harrib 

, watch {v.) haras, yahrus nigah dashtan, gozlemek, 

or natar, dar bekjilik etmek 

yantur 

watch (n.) sa'ah sa'at sa*at 

watch (on ship) naubah naubat varda 



watchman 



nobachi 



didaban 



otji, bekji 



water moi 

water-bottle matriyah 

(military) 
water-carrier saqqa 
water-closet edebkhanah 
water-skin garbah 



ab 
shishe-yi-ab 



saqqa 
khala 



mashk 
dulab 



water-wheel na'ur 

(for irrigation) 
wave (w.) moj (pL am- mauj 

waj) 
we ehna or ihna ma 

weak dha'if za*if 



su 
mastara 



saqqa, su]i 
abdest-khane 
su tulumu 



dolab 
dalgha 



wealthy 



biz 

quvvetsiz 
za^if 

zengln ; ghani daulatmand zengin. parali 
{pi. aghniya) or mutamarvil 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



497 



English, 


Armenian. 


Kurdish, 


Syriac, 


warn 


zkoushatsnel 


inzar or kha- 
bar, da 


mukhbere 


wash (trans.) 


Ival 


shshtin, shu- 
tin, blava kir 


mkhulille 


wash oneself 


Ivatsvil 






wasp 


bidzag 


muzizar, sTra- 
muz 


zerqita 


waste (trans.) 


sbarrel, 


hinda kir, 


msiikere, 




pchatsnel 


zayi* kir 


mburbizle 


lay waste (v.] 


1 averag anel 


kharab kirin, 
kambakh 
kirin 


daish 


watch (v.) 


hsgel 


agah bu 


ntere 


watch (n.) 


zhamatsuyts 


sa*at 


sa'ah 


watch (on ship) ted, hsgoghou- 


• naubat 


nauba 




tiun 






watchman 


bahaban, 


naubachi, 


qarawiil 




kisherabah 


didawan, 
pas wan 




water 


chour 


av, au 


mia 


water-bottle 


srvag, chri 
shish 






water-carrier 


chrgir 


saqqa, avdirl 


saqqa 


water-closet 


ardaqnots 


adabkhana 


abidast 


water-skin 


chri dig, 


mashk. 


ziqqa 




chradig 


jawana 




water-wheel 


vorokoumi 


na'or 


diilaba 


(for irrigation) aniv (chro) 






wave (n.) 


aliq 




gandapelle 


we 


menq 


ma 


akhni, akhnan 


weak 


dgar, thuyl 


bewaj, zabiin, 


za'if, mhila 


wealthy 


harousd 


sis 
daulatmand, 
zengir, khire- 
mal, daulo- 
mand 


dolatmand 


MES I 




I i 





GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. ' 


weapon 


silah {fl. esli- 
hah) 


silah 


silah 


wear (dress) 


lebes, yilbas 


pushidan, 
push 


geimek 


weather 


hawa 


hawa 


hava 


wedge 


ginah 


mikh 


qama 


Wednesday 


Yom el- 


Chaharsham- 


Charshamba 




arba'a 


beh 




week 


isbii' {j)!. 
asabr) 


hafteh 


hafta 


weigh {trans.) 


wazan, yozin 


sanjidan, san; 


j tartmaq 


weight 


wazn 


sang, wazn 


aghirliq 


well (healthy) 


muta'afi, 
kefuh zen 


khub 


eyi, sagh 


well {n.) 


bir {j)l. abyar) 


chah 


quyu 


well (Persian- 


na'ur 




su dolabi 


wheel) 








well-known 


mashhur 


mashhur 


meshhur 


west 


gharb 


maghrib 


giin batisi, 
gharb 


western 


gharbi 


maghribi 


gharbi 


wet {adj.) 


mubellel (of 


tar, namnak 


yashli (day) ; 




thing) ; 




nemli, islan- 




mumtir, matri 


mish (thing) 




(of day) 






what 


ma 


ancheh (that ne 






which) 




what ? 


shinii, shlon, 
esh? 


cheh ? 


ne? 


wheat 


hiantah 


gandum 


boghdayi 


wheel 


charkh 


charkh 


tekerlik 


when {adv.) 


lemma 


chiin, waqtl 
keh 


ne-zeman 


when ? 


metaoryimta? 


kai? 


ne vaqit ? 


whence 


min en 


az kuja 


nereden 


whenever 


yimtama 


har gah 


her ne vaqit 


where 


wen, en 


kiija 


nerede (in) ; 
nereye (to) 


wherever 


wenma 


har kuja 


her nerede 



English. 


Artnenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


weapon 


zenq 


chakk, silati ♦ chaka 


wear (dress) 


haknel 


libas or bar, 
kir 


Iweshle 


weather 


ot, yeghanag 


hawa, rujgar 


paukha 


wedge 


seb, kam 




seppena 


Wednesday- 


Choreqshapti 


Charshamb 


Arbaushaba 


week 


shapat 


hafta 


shabtha 


weigh [trans.) 


gshrrel 


pivan, kishan 
kish, girani 


tqille 


weight 


gshirr, dzan- 


tuqla 




routiun 






well (healthy) 


lav, agheg 


sakh 


sakh 


well [n.) 


hor 


bir, kani 


bera 


well (Persian- 


chrhori aniv 






wheel) 








well-known 


qajadzanot, 
anvani 


mashhur 


i(Vhr'a, mashhur 


west 
western 


arevmoudq 
arevmdian 


maghrib, ruja- 
wai 


■ ma'rwa, gharb 


wet {adj.) 


thats, 
thrchvadz 


shil, tarr 


talila, talla 


what 


inch 


teslit 


ma, mindi 


what ? 


inch? 


chi? 


maha ? ma ? 


wheat 


tsoren 


ganim 


khette 


wheel 


aniv 




dolab 


when {adv.) 


yerp 


waki 


iman 


when ? 


yerp? 


kengi? 


iman ? 


whence 


ousdi 


laku, zheku 


min aika 


whenever 


yerp-ev-itse 


bar jar 


kull gaha d- 


where 


our 




aika 


wherever 


our yev itse 


harja 


aika d . . . 



1 1 



500 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English. 
whether . . 

which ? 

whip {n.) 

whirlpool 

white 
whither 
who, which 
who ? 
whole {adj\) 

whose ? 

why 

wicked 

wide 
widow 

wife 

wild 

willing 

win 



wind (n.) 
wind {v.) 



window 

windy 

wine 



Arabic. Persian. Turkish. 

or idha ... yo or khah . . . khah ya . . . yakhod 



au 



e, ya ; yahii ? kudam ? 
(without noun) 

taziyaneh, 
shallaq 



qamchi 
khora 



girdab 



hangi ? 
qamchi 
girdab 



abyadh safid beyaz, aq 

li-wen bi kuja nereye 

elledhi, elli keh ki 

men ? keh ? kim ? 

tammam, kull salim, tamam bitiin, hepisi 

(all) 

mal men ? mal-e ki ? kimin ? 

lesh chira nichun 

sharir, shetan sharir f ena 

*aridh pahn genish 

armalah (pi. biveh-zan dul 

aramil) 

zojah ; harmah zan, zan jeh qari, harem 

(Arab) 

wahshi ; barri biyabam, yaban 
(of fruit) wahshi 

radhi razi gUniillii 

ghalab, yagh- ghalib shudan, qazanmaq 
lib (over- shau 

come); hassal, 
yuhassil (gain) 

hawa bad riizg}^ar 

dawwar, yu- pichidan, pich, qiirmaq 
kfik kardan, 
kun (a watch) 

daricheh, pen j ere 

rauzan 

badi riizkiarli, yelli 



dawwir 
shubbak 
bi-hawa 
sharab 



khamr, mai sherab 



English. 
whether . . 

which ? 

whip (n.) 

whirlpool 

white 
whither 
who, which 
who ? 
whole [adj.) 

whose ? 
why- 
wicked 

wide 
widow 

wife 

wild . 

willing 

win 



GLOSSARIES 

Armenian. 
or artioq 

vore ? 

kharazan 

hortzanq, 
chrerou bdoyd 
sbidag 
our 

ov, vor 
ov? 
polor, ampoghj 



voroun ? 

inchou 

char 

layn 

ayri gin, ayri 

gin 

vayreni 



hozharagam 



haghtel 



OF WORDS 501 

Kurdish. Syriac. 

yan . . . yan 

chi, kizhan ? eni ? 

qamchi qamchi 

garr, garrav girdab 

spi, boz khwara 

la'arde ki laika d- 

ki d- {prefix) 

ki ? man! ? 

sakhlam, salim saghlam, salim 

ya ki ? d-mani ? 

bochi, chira qamudi 
bizha, gunah- bisha 

kar, mufsid 
pehn, ferrah pethya, wasi* 
zhinabi, bemer armiltha 

zhin bakhta 

kuvi, daba barbraya 

muti*, dvet muti*, kba'e, 

kibe 
ghalib bu, ghlible 

birrin 



wind (n.) 
wind {v.) 



window 

windy 

wine 



qami 
volorel, 
bdoudagel 

badouhan, 
lousamoud 

hoghmalits, 
qamiod 

kini 



ba, wa 
pichandin, 
pichin 

shabbaka, 
penjara 



paukha 
mukhdhere 



shabbaka 



mai, sharab khamra 



502 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



English^ 


Arabic 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


wing 


janah 


par, bal 


qanat; jenah 
(of army) 


winter 


shita 


za mist an 


qish 


wire 


tel hadid 


Sim 


tel 


wireless 


telegraf bi-la 


telegraf-i-bi- 


telsiz tele- 


telegraphy 


tel 


sim 


graf 


wise 


'aqil, fa him 


'aqil, dana 


'aqlli 


wish {v.) 


rad, yarid 


khastan, khah istemck 


with (instru- 


bi- 


ba 


-ile (suffix) 


.mental) 








with (accom- 


ma'a, wiya 


ba 


lie beraber 


panying) 








withdrawal 


insihab 


takhliya, baz- 


- uzlet 


(military) 




gasht, aqab. 






nishastan 




without {prej).) min-dun, bi- 


bi-, bidun-i- 


-siz {suffix) 




dun, bi-la (bell) 




witness (w.) 


shahid {pL 
■■ shuhud) 


shahid 


shahid 


wolf 


dhrb ifi 

dhiyab) 


gurg 


qurt 


woman 


harmah, marah zan 


khanum (lady 




{pL niswan) 




; qadin, qari 


wood (fuel) 


hatab 


hizam 


j^dun 


wood (forest) 


ghabah, zor 


bisheh : 


orman 



wood 
(material) 
woollen ' 
word 

work {n.) 



khashab 

min suf 
;kalimah (pi. 

kalimat) 
shughl 



work {intrans.) ishtaghal, 

yashtaghil 
world dunya 

worse, worst ^ adwan, el- 



pashrain 
kalimeh 

kar 

kar kardan^ 

kun 
dunya 
badtar. 



ad wan ; a'tal, badtarin 
el a'tal 



odun 

yunlu 
soz 

ish 

ishlemek, cha- 

lishmaq 
dunya 
daha fena, 

en fena 





GLOSSARIES 


; OF WORDS 


mi 


English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


wing 


tev 


bal, bask 


parra 


winter 


tzmer 


zewestan 


sitwa 


wire 


medoghately 
herrakir 




tel 


wireless 


antel herrakir 






telegraphy 








wise 


imastoun, 


'aqil, zana 


'aqil, fahima 




khelatsi 




konana 


wish (v.) 


tsangal 


khwazin, ma- 
ram kir 


mshuhele 


with (instru- 


{not in use 


ba 


b- {'prefix) 


mental) 


separately) 






with (accom- 
panying) 
withdrawal 


hed 


gal, lagal 


'imm 


yed qashvil, 


pesh-pash 


madirta 


(military) 


nahanchel 


choin, bar- 
spash choin 




without (prep.) arrantz 


be 


d-la, be 


witness (n.) 


vga 


shah id 


sahda 


wolf 


kayl 


gurg 


dewa 


woman 


gnig, digin 
(lady) 


zhin 


bakhta 


wood (fuel) 


payd 


dar 


qaise 


.wood (forest) 


andaar 


ghabah, 
hawJgah 


ghaba, hawTga 


woollen 


prteghen 


zhheri 


min amra 


word 


parr, khosq 


gota, soz, zar 


tanaitha, 

khabra 

piilkhana 


work (n. ) 


kordz, 


shol, shukhul 




sbaghoum 




4 


work {intrans. 


) ashkhadel 


shiil kir, kar 


plikhle 




kortsel 


kir 




world 


ashkhar 


dunya, 'alam 


'alma, dunye 


worse, worst 


aveli kesh, 
amenakesh 


kharabter 


besh kharaba 



604 



GLOSSARIES OF AVORDS 



English, Arabic. 

worth (be) sawa, yiswa 



wound (n.) jurh {^pl. juruh) 
wound-dresser rabbat juruh 



Persian. Turkish. 

arzidan, arz qimeti (its 
worth is , 

wound (v.) jarrah, yujarrih zakhmkardan, yaralamaq 

kun 
zakhm yara 

marham guzar timarji 



wounded 



majruh 



wreck [n.) markab mad- 
miir, hatam 
wreckage damar 



wrist {n.) 

write 

I write 
thou writest 
he writes 
we write 
you write 
they write 
I shall write 



khusr 

keteb, yiktub 

iktub 

tiktub 

yiktub 

niktub 

tiktubun 

yiktubun 

iktub 



thou wilt 

write 
he will write 



tiktub 
yiktub 
we shall write niktub 



vou will write tiktubun 



they will 
write 
I Vrote 
thou wrotest 
he wrote 
she wrote 



yiktubiin 

ana ketebet 
inta ketebet 
hiia keteb 
hiya ketebet 



yaralanmish 
gharq 



zakhm 

khurdeh 
kashti-yi- 

shikasteh 
khurdaha-yi- qirinti, 

kashti kharabe 

much bilek 



navishtan, 
navis 
ml-navisam 
mi-navisi 
mi-ravjsad 
mi-navisim 
mi-navlsid 
mi-navisand 
khaham 
navisht 
khahinavisht 

khahad 

navisht 
khahim 

navisht 
khahid 

navisht 
khahand 

navisht 
navishtam 
navishti 
navisht 
navisht 



yazmaq 

yazarim 

yazarsin 

yazar 

yazariz 

yazarsiniz 

yazarlar 

yazajaghm 

yazajaqsin 

yazajaq 

yazajaghiz 

yazajaqsiniz 

yazajaqlar 

yazdim 
yazdin 
yazdi 
yazdi 



GLOSSAEIES OF WORDS 



505 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


worth (be) 


arzhei 


hizhian 


ktawe 


wound {v.) 


viravorel 


brindar kir 


jrihle 


wound (n.) 


verq 


brin 


iurha 


wound-dresser 


verq gabogh, 


jarrah, hakim jarraha, hakim 




viratarman 






wounded 


viravor 


brindar 


jrilia 


wreck {n.) 


navapegoutiun 






wreckage 


pegorq (nava- 
pegoutian) 






wrist {n.) 


tasdag 


Zand 


bilag 


write 


krel 


newisin 


kthiile 


I write 


yes^ g'krem 


az niwisim 


kathwen 


thou writest 


tou g'kres 


tu niwisi 


kathwet 


he writes 


an g'kre 


au niwisa 


kathu 


we write 


menq g' krenq 


am niwisin 


kathwokh 


you write 


touq g'kreq 


hun niwisin 


kathwutu 


they write 


anonq g'kren 


wan niwisin 


kathwi 


I shall write 


yes bidi krem 


az deniwisim 


bedkathwen 


thou wilt 


tou bidi kres 


tu deniwisi 


bedkathwet 


write 








he will write 


an bidi kre 


au deniwisa 


bedkathii 


we shall write 


menq bidi 
krenq 


am deniwisi n 


bedkathwokh 


you will write 


touq bidi 
kreq 


hiin deniwisin 


bedkathwutu 


they will 


anonq bidi 


wan deniwi- 


bedkathwi 


write 


kren 


sin 




I wrote 


yes kretsi 


az niwistim 


kthiili 


thou wrotest 


tou kretsir 


tu niwisti 


kthulokh 


he wrote 


an krets 


au niwist 


kthule 


she wrote 


ne krets 


au niwist 


kthula 



^ The verbs can be used without the pronouns yes, tou, an, menq, 
touq, anonq. 



506 



GLOSSAEIES OF WORDS 



English. 


Arabic. 


Persiart. 


Turkish. 


we wrote 


. ihna ketebna 


navishtim 


yazdiq 


you wrote 


intuketebtum 


I navishtid 


yazdiniz 


they wrote 


hum ketebu 


navishtand 


yazdilar 


I do not write 


5 maiktub 


naml-navisam yazmam 


lie does not 


ma yiktub 


nami-navisad 


yazmaz 


write 








we do not 


ma niktub 


naml-navislm 


L yazmaiz 


write 








you do not 


ma tiktubun 


nami-navisid 


yazmasiniz 


write 








they do not 


ma yiktubun 


nami-navi- 


yazmazlar 


write 




sand 




do you write? 


tiktubun ? 


niT-navIsId ? 


yazar-misiniz? 


wrong {adj.) 


mil sahib, 
khatlyah (sin) 


ghalati 

1 


doghru deyil 


yacht 


yakht {pi. 




yot, sir gemisi. 




yukhfit) 




tenezzuh 
vaporu 


yard (measure) 


1 dhr,V 


gaz 


arshin, yard a 


year 


senah {pi. 
sinin) 


sal, saneh 


sene 


yellow 


afjfar 


zard 


sari 


yes 


na'am, belli 


ball 


evvet 


yesterday 


embarha 


diriiz 


diin 


yet (of time) 


ba'd 


hanuz, 


daha 


(neverthe- 


ma' hadha 


ba wujud 


ma'-ma- fih 


less) 






yine 


you {plur.) 


entum; (-kum 
after prep, or 
verb) 


shuma 


siz 


young 


shabb 


jawan 


genj 


your 


-kum {suffix) 


-i-shuma, 
-atan {suffix) 


sizin 


yours 


malkum, 


mal -i-shuma 


sizin-ki 


yourself 


nef sek 


khud-e shuma 


kendiii 



zinc {n.) tutya, zink 

zone (of fire) mintaqah 



riih or tiitiya tutya 
mintaqah mintaqe 



GLOSSARIES OF WORDS 



507 



English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


we wrote 


menq kre-- 

tsinq ' 
touq kretsiq 


am niwistin 


kthulan 


you wrote 


hun niwistin 


kthiilaukhu 


they wrote 


anonq kretsin 


wan niwistin 


kthiilai 


I do not write 


i yes chem krer 


az na niwisim lak-kathwen 


he does not 


an, chkrer 


au na niwisa 


lak-kathii 


write 








we do not 


meng che'nq 


am na niwisin lak-kathwokh 


write 


krer 






you do not 


touq ch'eq 


hun na niwi- 


lak-kaihwutii 


write 


krer 


sin 




they do not 


anonq ch'en 


wan na niwi- 


lak-kathwi 


write 


krer 


sin 




do you write ' 


? touq g'kreq 


hun niwisin ? 


gallo kath- 




artioq ? 




wiitu t 


wrong {adj.) 


skhal 


khalat, na ta- 
mam 


ghelta 


yacht 


zposanav 






yard (measure] 


1 yarda, kan- 
koun 


gaz 


dra'a 


year 


dari 


sal 


shata 


yellow 


ganach 


zar '■ 


sha'utha 


yes 


aro 


hare, bale 


he, bale 


yesterday 


yereg 


duhi, dwaika 


timmal 


yet (of time) 


terr, dagavin 


hezh, hizhi 


hesh 


(neverthe- 


sagayn yev 


walau 


'immed adhi 


less) 


aynbes 






you (plur.) 


touq 


hun 


akhtun 


young 


yeridasart 


juwau 


jwanqa 


your 


tzer 


-wa {suffix) 


khu {suffix) 


yours 


tzern, tzerinn 


malewa 


diyaukhu 


yourself 


touq inqnit, 
touq tzezi 


tii bikhwa 


ganukh 


zinc (n.) 


i^ing 


tutya, qala 


tiitya ' 


zone (of fire) 


shrchan, kodi 


'arde sharre 


duktha d-sharre 



IS 


NUMERALS 




English. 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turkish. 


1 


wahid 


yak 


bir 


2 


ithnen 


du 


iki 


3 


thalatah 


seh 


iich 


4 


arba'ah 


chahar 


dort 


5 


khamsah 


pan 


besh 


6 


sittah 


shish 


alti 


7 


seb'ah 


haft 


yedi 


8 


thamaniyah 


hasht 


sekiz 


9 


tis'ah 


nuh 


doquz 


•10 


'asherah- -- 


dah 


on 


11 


ida 'ash 


yazdeh 


on-bir 


12 


ithna 'ash 


duwazdeh 


on-iki 


13 


thalathat 
'ash 


sizdeh 


on-iich 


U 


arba'at 
'ash 


chahardeh 


on-dort 


15 


khamsat 
'ash 


punzdeh 


on-besh 


16 


sitt 'ash 


shunzdeh 


on-alti 


17 


seb'at 'ash 


hifdeh 


on-yedi 


18 


thamanat 'ash 


hizhdeh 


on-sekiz 


19 


tis'at 'ash 


niizdeh 


on-doquz 


20 


'ashrin 


bist 


yirmi 


21 


wahid wa- 
'ashrin 


bist-u-yak 


yirmi-bir 


30 


thalathin 


si 


otuz 


40 


arba'in 


chihil 


qirq 


50 


khamsin 


pan] ah 


llli 


60 


sittin 


shast 


altmish 


70 


Beb'in 


haftad 


yetmish 


80 


thamanin 


hashtad 


seksen 


90 


. tis'in 


nawad 


doqsan 


100 


mi'ah 


Bad 


yiiz 


101 


mi'ah wa- 
waljid 


sad-U'yak 


yiiz-bir 


110 


mi'ah wa- 
'asherah 


sad-ii-dah 


yiiz-on 


111 


mi'ah wa- 
ida 'ash 


§ad-ii-yazdeh 


yiiz-on-bir 


120 


mi'ah wa- 


§ad-ii-bist 


yiiz-yirmi 



'ashria 





NUiMERALS 


50< 


English. 


Armenian, 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


1 


meg 


yak, ek 


kha 


2 


yergou 


du, duan 


trai 


3 


yereq 


se, sian 


tlatha 


4 


chors 


char, chwar 


arha' 


5 


hink 


penj 


khamsha 


6 


vets 


shash 


ishta 


7 


yot 


haft 


shau'a 


8 


out 


hasht 


tmanya 


9 


inn 


nah 


tesh'a 


10 


dasn 


dah 


'i§ra 


11 


dasnnieg 


yazda 


khadesar 


12 


dasnyergou 


dwazda 


traisar 


13 


dasnyereq 


saizda 


teltasar 


14 


dasnchors 


charda 


arbasar 


15 


dasnhink 


pazda 


khamshasar 


16 


dasnvets 


shazda 


ishtasar 


17 


dasnyot 


havda 


ishwasar 


18 


dasnout 


hashda 


tmanesar 


19 


dasninn 


nozda 


chaasar 


20 • 


qsan 


hist 


'isri 


21 


qsanmeg 


bist uyak 


kha wisri 


30 


yeresoun 


seh 


tlathi 


40 


qarasoun 


chel 


arbi 


50 


hisoun 


penji 


khamshi 


60 


vatsoun 


shest 


ishtl 


70 


yotanasoun 


hefti, hafta 


shau'i 


80 


outsoun 


hashta 


tmanai 


90 


innsoun 


not., not 


tesh'i 


100 


hariur 


sad 


emma 


101 


hariur meg 


sad uyak 


emma ukha 


110 


hariur dasn 


sad udah 


emma wisra 


111 


hariur dasn- 


sad uyazda 


emma ukhade 




meg 




sar 


120 


hariur qsan 


sad ubist 


emma wisri 



10 


Nm 


[ERALS 




English. 


Arabic. 


Persian 


Turkish. 


121 


mi'ah wa- 


sad-u-bist-u- 


yiiz-yirmi-bir 




wahid wa- 


yak 






'ashrin 






130 


mi'ah wa- 
thalathin 


sad-ii-si 


yiiz-otuz 


200 


miten 


diwist 


iki-yiiz 


201 


miten wa- 
wahid 


diwist-u-yak 


iki-yuz-bir 


210 


miten wa- 
*asherah 


diwist-u-dah 


iki-yiiz-on 


211 


miten wa-ida 


diwist-ii-yaz- 


iki-yiiz-on-bir 




*ash 


deh 




220 


miten wa- 
*ashrin 


diwist-u-bist 


iki-yiiz-yirmi 


221 


miten wa- 


diwist-ii-blst- 


iki-yiiz-yirmi- 




wahid wa- 


ii-yak 


bir 




'ashrin 






230 


miten wa- 
thalathin 


diwist-u-si 


iki-yiiz-otuz 


300 


thalat-mi'ah 


sisad 


iich-yiiz 


400 


arba*-mi'ah 


chahar sad 


dort-yiiz 


500 


khams-mi'ah 


pansad 


besh-yiiz 


600 


sitt-mi'ah 


shish sad 


alti-yiiz 


700 


seb'-mi'ab 


hafsad 


yedi-yiiz 


800 


thaman-mi'ah 


hashsad 


sekiz-yiiz 


900 


tis*a-mi'ah 


nuhsad 


doquz-yiiz 


1,000 


elf 


hazar 


bin 


1,001 


elf wa-wahid 


hazar-u-yak 


bin-bir 


LOlO 


elf wa-'ashe- 
rah 


hazar-u-dah 


bin-on 


1,011 


elf wa-ida 'ash 


hazar-u-yaz- 
dah 


bin-on-bir 


1,020 


elf wa-'ashrin 


hazar-ii-bist 


bin-yirmi 


1,021 


elf wa-wahid 


hazar-u-bist- 


bin-yirmi-bir 




wa-*ashrin 


ii-yak 




1,100 


elf wa-mi'ah 


hazar-u-sad 


bin-yiiz 


1,101 


elf wa-mi'ah 


hazar-u-sad- 


bin-yiiz-bir 




wa-wahid 


u-yak 




1,110 


elf wa-mi'ah 


hazar-u-sad- 


bin-yiiz on 




wa-'asherah 


u-dah 







NUMERALS 


511 


English. 


Armenian. 


Kurdish. 


Syriac. 


121 


hariur qsan- 


§ad iiblst uyak 


: emma wisri 




meg 




ukha 


130 


hariur yere- 
soun 


sad useh 


emma iitlathi 


200 


yergou hariui 


diisad 


trecmma 


201 


yergou hariur 


dusad iiyak 


treemma ukha 


210 


meg 
yergou liariur 
dasn 


dusad iidah 


treemma wisra 


211 


yergou liariur 


du§ad uyazda 


treemma ukha- 




dasnmeg 




desar 


220 


yergou hariur 


dusad ubist 


treemma wisrl 


221 


C[san 
yergou liariur 


diisad iibist 


treemma wisri 




qsanmeg 


iiyak 


iikha 


230 


yergou hariur 


dusad 


treemma wi- 




yeresoun 


useh 


tlathi 


300 


yereq hariur 


sesad 


tellath emma 


400 


chors hariur 


charsad 


arba' emma 


500 


hink hariur 


penjsad 


khammesh 
emma 


600 


vets hariur 


shashsad 


eshshet emma 


700 


yot hariur 


haftsad 


eshwa emma 


800 


out hariur 


hashtsad 


tmaneemm.a 


900 


inn hariur 


nahsad 


tisha' emma 


1,000 


hazar 


hazar 


alpa 


1,001 


hazar meg 


hazar wyak 


alpa iikha 


1,010 


hazar dasn 


hazar wdah 


alpa wisra 


1,011 


hazar dasnmeg 


hazar iiyazda 


alpa ukhadesar 


1,020 


hazar qsan 


hazar iibist 


alpa wisri 


1,021 


hazar qsanmeg 


hazar iibist 
uyak 


alpa wisri iikha 


1,100 


hazar hariur 


hazar usad 


alpa iiemma 


1,101 


hazar hariur 


hazar (isad 


alpa iiemma 




meg 


uyak 


ukha 


1,110 


hazar hariur 


hazar iisad 


alpa uemma 




dasn 


Hdah 


wi§ra 



512 


NUMERALS 




English 


Arabic. 


Persian. 


Turlish. 


1,121 


elf wa-mi'ah 


hazar-u-sad- 


bin-yiiz-yirmi- 




wa-ida wa- 


u-bist-u-yak 


bir 




'ashrin 






2,000 


elfen 


du hazar 


iki bin 


3,000 


thalat alaf 






10,000 


*ashrat alaf 


dah hazar 


on bin 


100,000 


mi'at elf 


sad hazar 


yiiz bin 


i 


nuss 


nim, ni§f 


yarim; (...and 
J) . . . buchuq 


J 


rub' 


rub', chary ak 


cheirek 


both (of them) 


< ithnenehum 


har du 


ikisi 


first 


awwal 


nukhust, 
auwal 


birinji 


second 


thani 


duwum 


ikinji 


third 


thalith 


sivum 


iichiiniii 



NUMERALS 



513 



English. 



1,121 



2,000 

3,000 

10,000 

100,000 



4 



Armenian. 
hazar hariur 
qsanmeg 



Kurdish. 
hazar usad 
ubist uyak 



dasn hazar 
hariur hazar 
ges 



J qarrort 

both (of them) yergoqian, 

yergouqn al 
first arrachin 



second 
third 



yergrort 
yerrort 



dah hazar 
sad hazar 
niv 

rub*, char ek 
har du 



Syriac. 

alpa uemma 

wisri ukha 



yergou hazar du hazar trai alpe 



'isra alpe 
emma alpe 
pelga, palga 

rubi', arba* kha 
terwaihi 



auwal, peshin qamaya 



duwi, duwan 
sell, siyan 



di-trai 
di-tlatha 



K k 



614 



i 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



1. Time 



Where is ? 




Arabic. 


Wen? 


Persian. 


Kujast ? 


Turkish. 


Nerede dir ? 


Arm. 


Our e ? ' 


Kurd. 


Ki dare ? 


Syriac. 


Aika? 



Where are they ? 
Arabic. Wen hum ? 
Persian. Kujayand ? 
hastand ? 



or Kuja 



Turkish. 
Arm. 
Kurd. 
Syriac. 



Nerede dirler ? 
Our yen ? 
Kudarena ? 
Aikailai ? 



AND Place 




Where are you going ? 


Arabic. 
Persian. 


Wen taruh {pi. taruhun) 
Kuja mi-ravid ? 


Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 


Nereye gidiyorsiniz ? 
Our g'ertaq ? , 
Laki dare tchin ? 


Syriac. 


Laika bzalaukhu ? 


Where have 


you come from ? 


Arabic. 
Persian. 


Min en jl't {pi. ji'tu). 
Az kuja mi-a'id ? 


Turkish. 


Nereden geldiniz ? 


Arm. 
Kurd. 


Ousti yegaq ? 
Hun zhku dare ten ? 


Syriac. 


Min aika kithutu ? 



They are here. 

Arabic. Hum hina. 

Persian. Inj ayand or In j a hastand . 

Turkish. Burada dirler. 

Arm. Hos yen. 

Kurd. Lharana. 

Syriac. H5lai aklia. 



He is not there. 



Arabic. 

Persian. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 



Hua mu hinak 
Anja nist. 
Orada dejil. 
Hon che. 
Na Iharaya. 
Laile akha. 



I am going home. 

Arabic. Ana rayih ila-beti 
Persian. Bi-khane-yi-khud 

ravam. 
Turkish, "^ve gidiyorim. 
Arm. Doun g'ertam. 
Kurd. Aze chim mal. 
Syriac. Holi bizala 1-baitha. 

We have come from home. 

Arabic. Ji'na min bet-na 
Persian. Az khane-jd-khud am{ 

da'im. 
Turkish. Evden geldik. 
■ Arm. Dounen eganq, 
Kurd. Am sbmal batin. 
Syriac. Kithukh min baitbi 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



515 



Gome up ! 

Arabic. 
Persian. 

Turkish. 
Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 



Utla'. 

Bi-ya (Come on!); Bar 

khiz (Rise up !). 
Yuqariya gel ! 
Ver yeg (sing.), ver yegeq 

{flur^ ! 
Wara hera ! 
Hayy5 lakha ! 



Go down ! 

Arabic. Inzil {pi. Inzilu) ! 
Persian. Bi-rau pa'in ! 
Turkish. Ashagha git ! 
Arm. Var kna {sing.), var 

knatseq {pi.) ! 
Kurd. Harra kliware ! 
Syriac. Nkhotli ! 



Turn to the right (left). 

Arabic. Ilfet *ala yaminek ('ala 
shimalek). 

Persian. Bi-taraf-i-rast (chap) bi- 
rau. 

Turkish Sagha don, sola don. 

Arm. Ach tartzeq (tzakh tart- 
zeq). 

Kurd. Bezeverra larast (lachap). 

Syriac. Dor 1-yamne (1-chappe) 



Wait for me 




Arabic. 


Istandhir ni. 


Persian. 


Muntazir-i-man bash. 


Turkish. 


Beni bekle. 


Arm. 


Sbasetseq intz. 


Kurd. 


Bomin chav vaka. 


Syriac. 


Hmol elli. 



Come with me. 

Arabic. Ta'al wiya-i {pi. ta'alu). 

Persian. Hamrah-i man bi-ya. 

Turkish. Benim ile gel. 

Arm. Yegeq intz hed. 

Kurd. Lagal min wara. 

Syriac. Hayyo'emmi. 



Go away. 
Arabic. 
Persian. 
Turkish. 
Arm. 
Kurd. 
Syriac. 



Ruh {pi. Ruhu). 

Bi-rau ! gum shau 

Haide git, qach. 

Herratseq. 

Harra. 

Si. 



In which direction ? 

Arabic. Min ai tarf ? 

Bi-kudam taraf ? 



Persian. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 



Hangi tarafa ? 
Vor oughghoutiamp ? 
Lachi rakha ? 
Sub aika ? 



Stand still there. 



\ Arabic. 
\ Persian. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 
I Kurd. 
I Syriac. 



Ogaf bi-mahallek. 
Anja bi-ist. 
Rabat dur. 
Hantart ketseq hot. 
Lave dare rawusta. 
Kli nikba tama. 



K k2 



In that direction. 

Arabic. Min dhak et-tarf 

Persian. Bi-an taraf. 

Turkish. tarafa. 

Arm. Ayt oughghoutiamp. 

Kurd. Lave rakkhe. 

Syriac. 8uh tama. 



516 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



How far is it ? 

Arabic. Shqad ba'id ? 

Persian. Chi-qadar rah-ast ? 

Turkish. Ne qadar uzaq dir ? 

Arm. Vorqan herrou e ? 

Kurd. Chand haya la ? 

Syriac. Kmail^ rahuqa ? 

It is not far ! 

Arabic. Mu ba*id ! 

Persian. Dur nist ! 

Turkish. Uzaq deyil ! 

Arm. Herrou che ! 

Kurd. Na dura ! 

Syriac. Laile rahuqa ! 

Two hours* distance. 

Arabic. Masafat sa*aten. 
Persian. Bi masafe-yi-du sa'at, or 

Du sa'at rah. 
Turkish. Iki sa'atliq vol. 
Arm. Yergou zhamva jampa. 
Kurd. Ria du sa'at. 
Syriac, Urkhad tette sa'e. 

When will he come ? 

Arabic. Yimta yiji ? 
Persian. Kai mi-ayad ? 
Turkish. Ne zeman gelejek ? 
Arm. Yerp bidi ka ? 
Kurd. Kange de'et ? 
Syriac. Iman bed'athe ? 

At what o'clock ? 

Arabic. Ai sa'ah ? 
Persian. Chi waqt ? 
Turkish. Sa'at qachda ? 
Arm. Vor zhamin ? zham 

qaniin ? 
Kurd. Chi sa'at ? 
hyriac. B-aima sa'ah ? 



At six o'clock. 

Arabic. Es-sa'ah sittah 

Persian. Bi-sa'at-i-shish. 

Turkish. Sa'at altida. 

Arm. Zham vetsin. 

Kurd. Bisa'at shash. 

Syriac. Sa'ah b'eshshet. 



In the morning. 


Arabic. 


Bis-sabah. 


Persian. 


Subhi. 


Turkish. 


Sabahleyin, 


Arm. 


Arravodian. 


Kurd. 


Subahi. 


Syriac. 


Bispare or qadamta. 


At noon. 




Arabic. 


Edh-dhuhr. 


Persian. 


Zuhr. 


Turkish. 


Oile-yin. 


Arm. 


Ges orin. 


Kurd. 


Nivro. 


Syriac. 


Palged yauma. 


In the evening. 


Arabic. 


Bil-mesa 


Persian. 


Shab (night); Wa( 




ghurub (sunset). 


Turkish. 


Akhshamleyin. 


Arm. 


Irigvan, yeregoyan. 


Kurd. 


J^var. 


Syriac. 


'Aserta. 


Very early. 


i 


Arabic. 


Badrl kathir. 1 


Persian. 


Khai]i zud. 1 


Turkish. 


Pek erken. ? 


Arm. 


Shad ganoukh. J 


Kurd. 


Galak zu. 1 


Syriac. 


Kabira qalula. \ 



4 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



517 



It is late. 




What time is 


it? 


, Arabic. 


Muta'akhVhir. 


Arabic. 


Es-sa'ah^besh ? 


Persian. 


Dir-ast. 


Persian. 


Sa'at-i-chlst ? 


Turkish. 


Gech dir. 


Turkish. 


Sa'at qach dir ? 


Arm. 


Oush e. 


Arm. 


Vor zhamn e ? 


Kurd. 


Dranga. 


Kurd. 


Sa'at bchanda ? 


Syriac. 


Drang ila. 


Syriac. 


Sa'ali bikmaila ? 


Jow often ? 








Arabic. 


Kam marrah ? 






Persian. 


Chand martabeh? 






Turkish. 


Qach kerre ? 






Arm. 


Qani ankam ? 






Kurd. 


Chand jara ? 






Syriac. 


Kma gahatha ? 








2. 


Weather 





What will the weather be to-day ? 

Arabic. Slilon bekun et-taqs el- 

yom ? 
Persian. Imruz hawa cbi-taur 

khahad shud ? 
Turkish. Bu giin hava nasi 

olajaq ? 
Ann. Yeghanagn inchbes bidi 

lini aysor ? 



Bad, cloudy, foggy weather. 

Arabic. Taqs mu zen, mu- 
ghayyam, dhabab. 

Persian. Bad, abr, mih. 

Turkish. Fena, bulutlu, sissli hava. 

Arm. Vad, ambod, marrakhlod 
yeghanag. 

Kurd. Dunya 'aura, mizhaya. 

Syriac. Dunye aiwaila, khapu- 



Kurd. 


Dunya chawa debet iro ? 




thaila. 


Syriac. 


Dakhi bithauya dunye 








idio ? 


It is snowing 


' on the mountains. 






Arabic, 


Tethluj ed-dunya 'ala 


Very fine. 




Persian. 


'Ijibal. 
Dar kuhistan barf mi- 


Arabic. 


Kullish zen. 




barad. 


Persian. 


Khaili khub. 


Turkish. 


Daghlara qar yaghiyor. 


Turkish 


Pek giizel. 


Arm. 


G' tziune lerrants vra. 


Arm. 


Shad hianali. 


Kurd. 


Bafr tet lachia. 


Kurd. 


Sawia. 


Syriac. 


Hole bithaya taiga I-resh 


Syriac. 


§ekhwaila. 




ture. 



518 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



3. The Road 



Where does this road go ? 

Arabic. Ed-darb hadha yuwaddi 

li-wen. 
Persian. In rah kuja mi-ravad ? 
Turkish. Bu yol nereye gider ? 
Arm. Our g'erta ays janpan ? 
Kurd. Av ria kudare tchet ? 
Syriac, Laika kiza adh urkha ? 

Does this road lead to — ? 

Arabic. Hed-darb bewaddi li — ? 
Persian. In rah bi — mi-ravad ? 
Turkish. Bu yol — e gider-mi ? 
Ann. Ays jampan artioq 

g'erta — ? 
Kurd. Av ria tchet la — ? 
Syriac. Gallo kiza adh urkha 1 — ? 

Which road leads to — ? 

Arabic. Ya darb bewaddi li — ? 
Persian. Kudam rah bi — mi- 
ravad ? 
Turkish. — e hangi yol dan gitmeli ? 
Arm. Vor janpan g'erta — ? 
Kurd. Chi ria tchet la — ? 
Syriac. Aima iirkha kiza 1 — ? 

Which is the shortest way ? 

Arabic. Ya darb a grab ? 

Persian. Kudam rah nazdik-tar 
ast ? 

Turkish. ]6n qissa yol hangisi dir ? 

Arm. Vorn e amenagarj jam- 
pan ? 

Kurd. Chi rre neziktera ? 

Syriac. Aimaila urkha besh kii- 
tha? 



Is it safe on the road ? 

Arabic. Et-tariq amin ? 

Persian. Dar in rah amniyat as 

Turkish. Yol qorqusuzmu dur ? 

Arm. Jampan artioq abahov 

e? 

Kurd. Av re amina ? 

Syriac. Gallo urkha aminila ? 

How many hours is it to — ? 

Arabic. Kam sa'ah ila — ? 
Persian. Chand sa'at-ast bi — ? 
Turkish. — e qach sa'atleq y 

var ? 
Arm. Qani zham e minchev — 
Kurd. Chand sa'at haya la — 
Syriac. Kma sa'e ith ta — ? 

Take me to — . 

Arabic. Waddi-ni ila — . 

Persian. Mara bi — bi bar. 

Turkish. Beni — e gotiir. 

Arm. Dareq intz minchev — 

Kurd. Nishamin bede la — . 

Syriac. Naubelli 1 — . 

Where is there drinking water on this roa( 
Arabic. Wen el-moi lish-sherb 

hadha 't-tariq ? 
Persian. Dar in rah ab-i-khu 

dani kujast ? 
Turkish. Bu yol-da ichilej^k i 

nerede dir ? 
Arm. Our khmelou chour { 

ays janpou vra ? 
Kurd. Kane ave vakhwarei 

bvi ria ? 
Syriac. Aikailai maya de-shta^ 
b-adh urkha ? 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



519 



Is it a camel road ? 

Arabic. Et-tariq muwafiq lij- 

jimal ? 
Persian. Rah-i-shutur ast ? 
Turkish. Deve yolu-mi dir ? 
Arm. Oiighdi jampa e artiog ? 
Kurd. Av ria bo heshter basha ? 
„ Syriac Kkhaskha adh urkba ta 
I gumle ? 

Is it only a mule road ? 
- Arabic. Hua faqat lil-baghaL? 
Persian. Faqat az barayi qatirba 

khubast ? 
Turkish. Yaliniz qatir yolu-mi dir ? 
Arm. Miayn chorii jampa e 

artioq ? 
Kurd. Av ria bas bo besterana ? 
Syriac. Gallo urkba d-kawedhnela 
ubass ? 



Is it only fit for men on foot ? 

Arabic. Hua faqat muwafiq lil- 

mesbi ? 
Persian. Faqat az barayi piya- 

dagan khubast ? 
Turkish. Yaliniz yayan giden- 

lere eyi-mi dir ? 
Ar7n. Mithe miayn liediodn 

martots harmar e ? 
Kurd. Av re bas paya ra ? 
Syriac. Gallo bas kkhashkha ta 

nashe rakhasbe ? 



4. A Village or Town 



What is this place called ? 



Arabic. Shismii hadha'l-makan ? 
Persian. Bi inja chi mi-guyand ? 

or Inja chi nam darad ? 
Turkish. Bvl yerin ismi ne dir ? 
Arm. Inchbes g'gochvi ays 

deghn ? 
Kurd. Nave av *ard cbia ? 
Syriac. Mile shimma d-adh duk- 

tha? 



Where is the post ? 

Arabic. Wen el-postakhanah ? 

Persian. Post khaneh kujast ? 

Turkish. Postakhane nerede dir ? 

Arm. Our e namagadounn ? 

Kurd. Postakbanah laku da- 

reya ? 

Syriac. Aikaila postakbanah ? 



How many houses in this village ? 
Arabic. Kam bet fil-beled ? 
Persian. Dar in deh chand khaneh 
darad ? 

Bu koide qach ev var ? 
Qani doun ga ays kiughin 

mech ? 
Chand mal haya lavi 

gund ? 
K-ma bate ith b-adh ma- 
tha? 



Turkish. 
Arm. 



Kurd. 




Show me the telegraph office. 

Arabic. Dull-ni 'ala 't-telegraf- 

khanah. 
Persian. Teleghraf-khane-ra 

bi-man nishan bi-dihid. 
Turkish. Bana teleghraf-khaneyi 

goster. 
Arm. Our e herrakradounn. 
Kurd. Teleghraf khanah nisha- 

min beda. 
Syriac. Makhzeli teleghraf khana. 



520 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



Is there a telephone ofiQce here ? 

Arabic. Aku mahall talfun hina ? 

Persian. Inja telefun darad ? 

Turkish. Burda telefon merkezi 
var mi ? 

Arm. Hos herratzayn ga 
artioq? 

Kurd. Telefon khanah lahara 
_ haya V 

Syriac. Ith akha dukthat tele- 
fon ? 



Where is the inn ? 

Arabic. Wen el-Khan ? 
Persian. Khan (karwansarai, 

chaparkhaneh) kujast? 
Turkish. Khan nerede dir ? 
Arm. Our e otevann ? 
Kurd. Khan lakudareya ? 
Syriac. Aikaila khan ? 

We are going to stay the night here. 

Arabic. Inbat el-lelah hina. 
Persian. Imshab Inja mi-manim. 
Turkish. Biz geje burda dura- 

jayiz. 
Arm. Kishern hos bidi mnanq. 
Kurd. Av shav am lahera debim. 
Syriac. Bdamkhokh akha idlaile. 



5. At a River 



What is this river called ? 

Arabic. Shism hel-shatt ? 
Persian. In rud-khaneh chi nam 

darad ? 
Turkish. Bu irmaghen ismi ne 

dir? 
Arm. Inchbes g'gochvi ays 

kedn ? 
Kurd. Nave av av chia ? 
Syriac. Mile shimma d-adh 

nehra ? 

How deep is the river? 

Arabic. Shqad ghumq esh-shatt ? 
Persian. Rud-khane^ chi-qadar 

'amiq-ast ? 
Turkish. Sii ne qadar derin dir ? 
Arm. Vorchapkhore ays kedn? 
Kurd. Vi av chand kiira or 

'amiqa. 
Syriac. Kmaile 'amuqa adh 

nehra ? 



Where is the nearest bridge? 

Arabic. Wen agrab jisr ? 
Persian. Kudam pul nazdiktar- 

ast? 
Turkish, fin vaqen koprii nerede 

dir"? 
Arm. Our e amenamod gam- 

ourchf ? 
Kurd. Nezikter prr laku da- 

reya ? 
Syriac. Aikaile gishra au bish 

qariwa ? 



Take me there. 

Arabic. Waddi-m li-hinak. 
Persian. Mara anja bi-bar. 
Turkish. Beni oraya gotiir. 
Arm. Hon dareq zis.. 
Kurd. La au dare nishamin 

beda. 
Syriac, Naubelli 1-tama. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



521 



Show me the nearest ferry. 

Arabic. Wen agrab mu'eber. 
Persian. Guzar-gahi ki nazdiktar 

bashad bi-man nishan 

bi-dih. 
Turkish. Bana en yaqin gechid- 

yerini goster. 
Arm. Tsuyts dveq intz amen- 

amod kedantsn. 
Kurd. 'Arde nezikter bo darbaz 

nishamin beda. 
Syriac. Aikaila duktha de-psa'a 

ai besh qaruta. 



Get hold of a 

Arabic. 

Persian. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 



boat (canoe). 

Jib-li bell 6m. 
Kasbti paida kun. 
Bir qayiq bul. 
Mi navag kdeq. 
Garni paida beka. 
Khzi kha qayegh. 



Is there a raft here? 

Arabic. Aku kelek hina ? 
Persian. Kalak inja paida mi- 

shavad ? 
Turkish. Burda sal var mi ? 
Arm. Hos lasd ga artioq ? 
Kurd. Kalak lahera haya ? 
Syriac. Gallo ith kalak akha ? 



Is the current strong ? 

Arabic. El-moi terkodh qawi ? 

Persian. Ab tund mi-ravad ? 

Turkish. Aqinti choq var mi ? 

Arm. Mithe hosanqn zoravor e? 

Kurd. Av zakhma ? 

Syriac. Gallo maya zarbanelai ? 



Where is the easiest place to swim across? 

Arabic. Wen es-bal makan lis- 

sabahah. 
Persian. Kuja mi-tawanam bi- 

asani bi-shinavari bi- 

guzaram ? 
Turkish. bir tarafa yiizerek 

gitmek ichin en qolai 

yer nerede dir ? 
Arm. Our e amenalieshd vayrn 

loghalou antin ? 
Kurd. Chi 'aid asantira ta am 

bmalavanye darbaz kin ? 
Syriac. Aimaila duktha ai besh 

sanahi tad sakhokh upa- 

sokh ? 
Take us across. 

Arabic. .Qatti'ena. 
Persian. Mara bi-an taraf bi-barid. 
Turkish. Bizi qarshiya gechir. 
Arm. Antin dareq mez. 
Kurd. Ma darbaz bika. 
Syriac. Mapsilan. 
You will be rewarded. 
Arabic. Minkefik. 
Persian. In' am khahim dad. 
Turkish. Bakhshish vei^jeyiz. 
Arm. G'vartzadrenq tzez. 
Kurd. Ame teshtak din ta. 
Syriac. Bed yawekhlokh kha 

mindi. 
You must go in front of me. 

Arabic. Lazim temshi guddami. 
Persian. Bayad jilau-i-man bi- 

ravid. 
Turkish. Ileri gitmelisin. 
Arm. Arrcheves yertalou eq. 
Kurd. Lazima tu peshemin 

deche. 
Syriac. K-lazim d-zalokh qamaya 

minni. 



522 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



What lies on the other side ? 

Arabic. Esh-fi *ala hedhak e§- 

sob? 
Persian. Chi ja (place) or shahr 

(city) dar an taraf ast ? 
Turlcish. Ute tarafda ne var ? 
Arm. Inch degh e timatsi 

goghmn ? 
Kurd. Lave tarafe chi haya ? 
Syriac. Ma ith lau bala khinna ? 



Is it far to the mouth ? 

Arabic. Esh qadr li-sadr esi 

shatt ? 
Persian. Az inja ta anja ki dai 

darya mi-rizad dur-asti 
Turkish. Chai aghzi uzaq-mi dir ] 
Arm. Kedaperann herrou e 

artioq ? 
Kurd. Zh-hara hatta vi av dchet 

bahre dura ? 
Syriac. Gallo rahuqtaila urkha 

min akha hul d-'awii 

a dh nehra 1-yama ? 



6. A Mountain or Hill 



What is this big mountain called ? 

Arabic. Shism 'I-jebel (el-kabir) ? 
Persian. In kuh-i-buzurg chi mi- 

guyand ? 
Turkish. Bu biiyiik daghin ismi 
ne dir ? 
Inchbes g'gochvi ays 

medz lerrn ? 
Nave VI chia mazin chia ? 
Mile shimma d-adh \Vit2i. 
raba ? 



Arm. 

Kurd. 
Syriac, 



How high is the mountain ? 

Arabic. Esh 'elu ej-jebel ? 
Persian. In kuh chi-qadar buland 

ast? 
Turkish Dagh ne qadar yiiksek 

dir? 
Arm. Vorchap partzr e aya 

lerrn ? 
Kurd. Vi chia chand bilinda ? 
Syriac. Kmaile rama adh tura ? 



What is the easiest way up the hill ? 

Arabic. Ya darb as-hal lit-tell ? 
Persian. Bi-kudam rah bi-asani 

mi-tuwan bi-qulle-yi-an 

kuh rasid ? 
Turkish. Yuqariya en qolai yoi 

hangisi dir ? 
Arm. Vorn e amenaheshd jam- 

pan tebi plourn ? 
Kurd. Chi re asantira lasare vi 

chia? 
Syriac. Aimaila urkha ai besh 

sanahi tad asqokh 1-adh 

•tura? 



Is it very steep ? 

Arabic. TaPet-hu qawiyeh ? 
Persian. Khaili sar-a-balast ? 
Turkish. Pek dik mi dir ? 
Arm. Shad zarriver e artioq ? 
Kurd. Galak zahmata ? 
Syriac. Gallo kabira 'asqaile ? 



n 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



623 



Is it dangerous ? 

Arabic. Hua mukhtir ? 

Persian. Khatar-nak ast ? 

Turkish. Qorqulu mu dir ? 
* Arm. Vdankavor e artioq ? 

Kurd, Khatar teda haya ? 

Syriac. Gallo mar darak ile ? 



Can one get up on horseback 9 

Arabic. Mumkin el-wahid yutla' 

rakib ? 
Suwar mi-shavad raft ? 
At-ile chikila bilirmi ? 
Tziov artioq gareli e ver 

elnel ? 
Am tkarin becHm lasar 

beswari ? 
Gallo iban asqokh b-raka- 

wiitha ? 



Persian. 
Turkish . 
Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 



Can the guns be got up ? 

Arabic. Mumkin e^-tawap tetla' ? 
Persian. Tup-ha-ra mi-shavad 

anja burd ? 
Turkish. Toplar yuqariya cbikar- 

ila bilirmi ? 
Arm. Artioq gareli e tntanot- 

nern ver hanel ? 
Kurd. Am dikarin topa lasar 

belinin ? 
Syriac. Gallo iban d-masqokh to- 

patha ? 



Yes, but they cannot be got down on the 
other side. 

Arabic. Na'am, lakin miish mum- 
kin tanzU-hum min tarf 
eth-tham. 

Persian. Bali, amma az an taraf 
nami - shavad pa'in 
avardan. 

Turkish, ifiwet, amma ote tarafda 
indirilcmez. 

Arm. Ayo, payts che gareli 
zanonq var ichetsnel 
mius goghmn. 

Kurd. Hare, amma am nikarin 
laav terefe wan lakh- 
war bestinin. 

Syriac. Na'm, ilia laiban d-man- 
khthukhlai man bala 
kbenna. 



Are there several ways down ? 
Arabic. Aku jimlat nazlat ? 
Persian. Aya, chand rah bi-pa'In 

darad ? 
Turkish. Ashaghiya bir qach 

yol var mi ? 
Arm. Artioq shad jampane* 

gan tebi var ? 
Kurd. Galak ria haya Ivere ? 
Syriac. Gallo ith kabire urkhatha 

linkhatha ? 



Are there any robbers about ? 


Arabic. 


Aku haramiyah ? 


Persian. 


Dar in ja-ha duzd darad? 


Turkish. 


Etrafda khirsiz var mi ? 


Arm. 


Avazagner gan artioq ays 




goghmern ? 


Kurd. 


Diz haya ? 


Syriac. 


Gallo ith ganawe ? 



524: 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



7. A Forest 



How big is the forest ? 

Arabic. Esh kubr el-ghab (ez- 

zor) ? 
Persian. In bisheh {or jangal) chi- 

qadar buzurg-ast ? 
Turkish. Orman ne qadar biiviik 

dir? 
Arm. Andarrn vorchap medz 

e? 
Kurd. Av ghabab chand mazina? 
Syriac. Kmaila rabtba adh 

ghaba ? 



Eow wide is it ? 

Arabic. Esb 'ardb-hu ? 
Persian. Pahnash clii-qadar 

buzurg-ast ? 
Turkish. Ne qadar genish dir ? 
Arm. Vorchap layn e ? 
Kurd. Pehnewi {or ferrahewi) 

chanda ? 
Syriac. Kmaila petbyutbab ? 



Where does the road go through the forest ? 

Arabic. Wen aku darb bil-gbab 

(biz-zor) ? 
Persian. In rah ki az jangal mi- 

guzarad kuja mi-ravad? 
Turkish. Bu orraandan gechen vol 

nereye gider ? 
Arm. Our g'erta jampan an- 

darri mecben ? 
Kurd. Ee bvi gbabab laku dare- 

ya? 
Syriac. Aikaila urkba b-adb gba- 

ba? 



Can mounted troops get through the forest ? 

Arabic. Mumkin lil-khaiyalah 

ta'bur el-gbab (ez-z6r) ? 
Persian. Qushun-i-suwar mi-ta- 

wanad az bisbeb bi- 

guzarad ? 
Turkish. Ormandan siivari geche- 

bilirmi ? 
Arm. Hedzelazorq grna artioq 

antsnel andarri mechen? 
Kurd. Dikarin suwari dechin 

niva vi gbabab ? 
Syriac. Ibai rakawe pasi b-adb 

ghaba ? 



I 



Yes, but I don't think one can get through 
with the guns. 

Arabic. Na'am, lakin ma azunn 

et tawap tafut. 
Persian. Bali, amma guman nami 
-kunam ki tup bi-ravad. 
Turkish, '^vvet, faqat zann etmem 
ki top il6 gechiJebilir. 
Ayo, payts chem gardzer 
gareli e tntanotnerov 
antznel mechen. 
Hare, amma topa nikarin 

bechin. 
Na'm, ilia la kzainin to- 
patha ibai d'auri. 



Arm. 



Kurd. 

Syriac. 



I 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



525 



8. Railway Station 



Is it far to the railway ? 

Arabic. Esh bu'ed es-sikkah ? 
Persian. Aya, bi-rah-i-ahan dur- 

ast ? 
Turkish. Demir yoluna uzaq-mi 

dir? 
Arm. Yergatoughin artioq her- 

rou e ? 
Kurd. Ria papore chand dura ? 
Syriac. Kmaila rahuqta urkha 

di-prizla ? 

• 
Only half an hour. 

Arabic. Nuss sa'ah faqat. 
Persian. Nim sa'at rah-ast u bas. 
Turkish. Salt yarim sa'at dir. 
Arm. Miayn ges zham. 
Kurd. Niv sa'at ubas. 
Syriac, Paige d-sa'ah bas. 

When does the train arrive ? 

Arabic. Yimta yosal el-qitar ? 
Persian. Qitar kai mi-rasad ? 
Turkish. Tren no zeman gelir ? 
Arm. Yerp knatsqn g'hasni ? 
Kurd. Ria papore kange deet ? 
Syriac. Iman bed athya ma- 
skina ? 

When does the train go to — ? 

Arabic. Yimta yusafir el-qi^ar 

ila— ? 
Persian. Qitar bi — kai mi-ravad ? 
Turkish. Tren — e ne zeman 

gider ? 
Arm. Yerp knatsqn g'megni ? 
Kurd. Papor kange dechet la — ? 
Syriac. Iman bedzala mashina 

1 — ? 



Where is the next train eoming from ? 

Arabic. Min en yaji el-qitar 
eth-thani ? 

Persian. Qitar az kuja mi-ayad ? 

Turkish. bir tren neieden gelir ? 

Arm. Oiisti gu'ka bachoit 
knatsqn ? 

Kurd. Papor zhku dare deet ? 

Syriac. Min aika bed athya ma- 
shina ? 
Stop the train. 

Arabic. Waggif el-qitar. 

Persian. Qitar-ra istadeh kun. 

Turkish. Treni durdur. 

Arm. Knatsqn getsoutseq. 

Kurd. Papor besakkina. 

Syriac. Mahmella mashina. 
Get me a porter. 

Arabic. Jib-li hammal. 

Persian. Hammali paida kun. 

Turkish. Ban a bir hammal getir. 

Arm. Perrnagir jareq. 

Kurd. Hammalak bomin paida 
beka. 

Syriac. Maitheli kha hammala. 

What is the fare ? 

Arabic. Besh yiswa en-nol ? 
Persian. Chand bayad bi-diham ? 
Turkish. Yol parasi ne qadar dir ? 
Ann. Vorqan e janabarha- 

dzakhqn ? 
Kurd. Chand haq az bedem ? 
Syriac. K-ma time yawin ? 
Where is my luggage ? 
Arabic. Wen aghradhi ? 
Persian. Asbab-i-man kujast ? 
Turkish. !^shyam nerede dir ? 
Arm. Our e ireghens ? 
Kurd. Asbabemin lakii darena ? 
Syriac. Aikailai sababi ? 



526 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



9. Inquiries about Troops 



Have you seen our troops ? 

Arabic. Sliuft 'asakir-na ? 
Persian. Qushun-i-mara dida-id ? 
Turkish. 'Askerimizi gordiiniiz- 

mil ? 
Arm. Desaq artioq mer zor- 

qern ? 
Kurd. 'Askarama ta dit ? 
Syriac. Gallo khzelokh 'askar di- 

yan? 



Do you know where the troops are ? 

Arabic. Ta'raf wen el-'asker ? 
Persian. Mi-danid ki qushun ku- 

jast ? 
Turkish. *Askerin nerede oldii- 

ghunu bilirmisiniz ? 
Arm. Kideq artioq our yen 

mer zorqern ? 
Kurd. Tu tzani 'askar laku da- 

reya ? 
Syriac. Gallo yadh-et aikaila *as- 

kar? 



Yes, I saw them by the wood. 

Arabic, Na'am, shufthum garib 

el-ghab (ez-z6r). 
Persian. Bali, an-ha-ra dam-i- 

bishek didam. 
Turkish. Evvet, ormanin yaninda 

gordiim. 
Arm. Ayo, andarri mod desa 

zanonq. 
Kurd. Hare, ma awan dit ne- 

zike vi ghabah. 
Syriac. Na*m kemkhazennai qor- 

ba d-adb ghaba. 



What sort of troops and how many are they ? 

Arabic. Esh shikel asker wa kam 

wahid ? 
Persian. Chi jiir qushiin, u cliand 

nafar ? 
Turkish. Ne durlu 'asker dir, ve 

'adde ne qadar ? 
Arm. Inch desag zorqer yev 

qani had yen ? 
Kurd. Chi tov 'askarin u chan- 

' din? 

Syriac. Ma tukhma d-'askarilai 

wukmaile minianaihi ? 



Five thousand, with cavalry and guns. 

Arabic. Khamsat alaf ma' '1-khai- 

yalah wat-tawap. 
Persian. Panj hazar, ba suwar ii 

tup. 
Turkish. Besh bin var, siivari ile 

toplar. 
Arin. Hink hazar, hedzelazor- 

qov yev tntanotnerov. 
Kurd. Penj hazar suwar ii topa. 
Syriac. Khamsha alpe 'immed 

swariye iitopatha. 



i 



How long have they been there ? 

Arabic. Kam yom baqa lahum 

hinak ? 
Persian. Az chi waqt anja biideh- 

and ? 
Turkish. Ne vaqit-dan-beri orada 

dirler ? 
Arm. Yerpen i ver hon yen ? 
Kurd. Zhchi wakht wan lav 

darena ? 
Syriac. Min imanilai tama ? 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



627 



In which direction have they marched ? 

Arabic. Min e tarf rahu ? 
Persian. Bi-kudam taraf rawaneh 

shudeh-and ? 
Turkish. Hangi jihete hareket 

etdiler ? 
Arm. Vor goghm qaletsin ? 
Kurd. Lachi taraf e choyen ? 
Syriac. Gallo sub aima t^raf 

zellai ? 



Where is an officer ? 

Arabic. Wen edh-dhabit ? 
Persian. Sahib-mansabi kujast ? 
Turkish. Zabit nerede dir ? 
Arm. Our ga mi sba ? 
Kurd. Zabit laku dareya ? 
Syriac. Aikaile zabit ? 



Take me to the Colonel. 

Arabic. Waddi-ni ila '1-miraIai. 
Persian. Mara pish-i-sartip bi- 

bar. 
Turkish. Beui miralaya gotiir. 
Arm. Dareq zis kndabedin. 
Kurd. Peshe miralai miu be- 

birra. 
Syriac. Naubelli 1-gebe d-miralai. 

I have a letter from our General. 

Arabic. 'Andi maktub min mu- 

sbir-na, 
Kaghazi daram az sardar. 
Qomandanimizdan bende 

birmektub var. 
Namag ounim mer zora- 

beden. 
Kaghazak zbsar'aska- 

rema lagal min haya. 
Ith 'immi kha kthawa 

min sar'askar diyan. 



Persian. 
Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 



10. Food and Drink 



I am hungry, I wish to eat. 

Arabic. Ana jo 'an, arid sbe 

a'kul. 
Persian. Gurasneb-am,mi-khaham 

bi-kburam. 
Turkish. Qarnim ach, yeyejek bir 

sbei isterim. 
Arm. Anotiyem,oudelg'ouzem. 
Kurd. Az bersima, ma tishtak 

tvet. 
Syriac. KpTnaiwin, kibain d-akh- 

lin. 



I am thirsty, I wish to drink. 

Arabic. Ana 'atsban, arid-li she 
ishrab. 

Persian. Tishneb-am, mi-kbaham 
bi-nusham. 

Turkish. Susuzim, su ichmek iste- 
rim. 

Arm. Dzaravi yem, khmel 
g'ouzem. 

Kurd. Az tehnim, vakhwarine 
ma tvet. 

Syriac. Sihyaiwin, kibain d-sliatin . 



528 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



I 



Where can 1 


I get food ? 


Arabic. 


Wen ahassi] el-ekl ? 


Persian. 


Az kuja mi-tawanam 




khurdani paida kunam ? 


Turkish. 


Nerede yeyejek bula bi- 




lirim ? 


Arm, 


Our grnam oudeliq 




kdnal ? 


Kurd, 


Teshtak bo khwarine 




laku dare az paida 




bikim? 


Syriac. 


Gallo min aika kliazin 




kha mindi ta Tkhala ? 



Have you enough for all my men ? 

Arabic. 'Andek slie kafi li-ja 

ma'ati ? 
Persian. Aya, az barayi hame-yi 

adamha-yi-man kafi da 

rid ? 
Turkish. Neferlerimin hepisine ye 

tejek qadar var-mi ? 
Arm. Artioq pavaganacha] 

ouneq polor martots'i 

bamar ? 
Kurd. Lagalta baya tesbt b( 

bammu meremin ? 
Syriac. Gallo ittokh mindi di 

kmale ta kullai nasbi 

di? 



Innkeeper, we want a meal. 

Arabic. Ya kbanji, nurid ekl. 
Persian. Mi-kbabim cbizi bi- 

kbiirim. 
Turkish. Kbanji, yemek isteriz. 
Arm. Bantogabed, geragour 

gouzenq. 
Kurd. Kbancbi, ma tesbt tvet. 
Syriac, Kbancbi, kibokb ikbala. 



Is the water good here ? 

Arabic. El-moi tayyib bina ? 
Persian. Ab dar inja kbub-ast ? 
Turkish. Buranin suyu eyi m 

dir? 
Arm. Cbourn artioq lav e bos ' 
Kurd. Av labera kbwasba ? 
Syriac. Gallo maya d-akba ran 

delai ? 



Give me something to drink. 

Arabic. A'tini sbe isbrab. 
Persian. Cbizi nusbidani bi-man 

bi-dibid, 
Turkish. Bana icbejek bir sbei ver. 
Arm. Kbmelou mi pan dveq. 
Kurd. Tesbtak bo vakbwarine bo 

min beda. 
Syriac. Halli kba mindi ta sbtaya. 



Have you fresh eggs ? 

Arabic. -^'Andkum baidb tazi'ah ' 
Persian. Tukbm-i-murgb-i-tazeb 

darid ? 
Turkish. Taze yumurtaniz vai 

mi ? 
Arm. Artioq ouneq tbarn 

bavgit ? 
Kurd. Nu beka lagalwa baya ? 
Syriac. Gallo ittaukbii be-€ 

rande ? 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



529 



Bring bread and cheese. 

Arabic. Jib-lena khubz wa-jiben. 

Persian. Nan u panir bi-yar. 

Turkish, l^kmek ile penir getir. 

Arm. Peretseq hats yev banir ? 

Kurd. Nan u penir bo ma bina. 

Syriac. Maithelan likhma ugupt a . 



I am going to pay for it. 

Arabic. Ba'tiq haqqek. 
Persian. Pul-i-an-ra mi-khaham 

bi-dibam. 
Turkish. Parasini ver^jeyim. 
Arm. Bidi vjarem ador hamar 
Kurd. Az haqqewi bidem. 
Syriac. Bidyawin haq dlye. 



Bring us coffee with milk. 

Arabic. Jib-lena qahwah bi-halib. 

Persian. Qahweh ba shir-i-gau bi- 
yar. 

Turkish. Bize siitlu qahve getir. 

Arm. Gathov sourj peretseq 
mez. 

Kurd. Qahwa u shir boma bina 

Syriac. Maithe Ian qahwa u 
khelya. 



Hurry up, we haven*t much time. 

Arabic. Ista'jil, ma 'andna waqt. 
Persian. Zud bash, khaili waqt na- 

darim. 
Turkish. Chabuk ol, choq vaqi- 

timiz yoq. 
Arm. Shdabetseq, shad zham- 

anaq ch'ounenq. 
Kurd. Lazi bika, wakht ma 

nina. 
Syriac. Qalula, lattan 'iddana. 



Bring us the bill. 

Arabic. Jib-lena el-hisab, 

Persian. Hisab-ra bi-yar. 

Turkish. Bize hisab getir. 

Arm. Peretseq hashivn, 

Kurd. Hisabema bina. 

Syriac. Makhzelan hisab diyan. 



How much do we owe ? 

Arabic. Esh tela' 'alena ? 

Persian. Chand bayad bi-dihim ? 

Turkish. Borjumuz ne qadar ? 

Arm, Vorqan g'bardinq tzez ? 

Kurd. Haqqeta chanda ? 

Syriac. Kmaile haq diyokh ? 



How much does this cost ? 

Arabic. Besh yiswa hadha ? 

Persian, In chand mi-arzad ? 

Turkish. Bunun fi'ati ne dir ? 

Arm. Ays vorqan arzhe ? 

Kurd. Haq avi chanda ? 

Syriac. Mile timed adhi ? 



Ll 



530 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



11. Billets, Lodging and Stabling 



I want quarters for 50 men. 

Arabic. Arid makan li-khatir 

khamsin nefer. 
Persian. Az barayi pan j ah adam 

manzil mi-khaham. 
Turkish. Elli nefer ichun yer 

isterim. 
Arm. Hisoun marti hamar 

degh g'ouzem. 
Kurd. Az 'ard dikhwazim bo 

penji zalam. 
Syriac. Kibain duktha ta kham- 

shi nashe. 



Give me better quarters. 

Arabic. A'tini makan ahsan. 
Persian. Manzili bihtar az in bi- 

man bi-dih. 
Turkish. Bana bundan eyi bir yer 

ver. 
Arm. Aveli lav degh dveq intz. 
Kurd. 'Aid khwashter bo min 

beda. 
Syriac. Halli duktha besh tauta. 



Have you found me quarters yet ? 

Arabic. Has§alt-]i makan ? 
Persian. Manzili az barayi man 

haniiz paida kardeh-id ? 
Turkish. Bizim ichun yer daha 

buldun mu ? 
Arm. Intz hamar degh kdaq 

the voch ? 
Kurd. Ta 'ard boma paida keri ? 
Syriac. Gallo khzelokh duktha 

tali ? 



Where is the owner of the house ? 

Arabic. Wen §ahib el-bet ? 
Persian. Sahib-i-inkhaneh kujast'i 
Turkish. Ev sahibi nerede ? 
Arm. Our e ays dan dern ? 
Kurd. Khudane vi mal laku 

dareya ? 
Syriac. Aikaile mare d-adh bai- 

tha? 



Light the fire, please. 

Arabic. Ish'al en-nar. 
Persian. Lutfan atash-ra biafruz. 
Turkish. Kerem et, ateshi yaq. 
Arm. Hajetseg gragn varrel. 
Kurd. Bkarameta, agir bika. 
Syriac. Kmarjin minnokh, ewodh 



nura. 



i 



I want stabling for 16 horses. 

Arabic. YUzam-li makan khatir 

zerabat li-sitt 'ash hisan. 
Persian. Az barayi shunzdeh asp 

tawileh mi-khaham. 
Turkish. On alti at ichun akhur 

isterim. 
Arm. Dasnvets tzii hamar 

akhorr g'ouzem. 
Kurd. 'Ard bo shazda asp dikh - 

wazim. 
Syriac. Kibin duktha ta 'ishtasar 

suse. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



531 



Thanks, we want nothing more, 

Arabic. Mimnumn, ma nerid gher 

she. 
Persian. Lutf-i-shuma ziyad,digar 

chizi lazim nadarim. 
Turkish. Teshekkurederim,bashqa 

bir shei istemeyiz. 
Arm. Shnorhagaloutiun, aveli 

pan chenq ouzer, 
Kurd. Shukur, lateshtak di 

hauja nina. 
Syriac. Shakrinnokhjaksanqokh 

l-mindi khenna. 



Tell all people not to be afraid. 



Arabic. Qui lin-nas la yakhafu. 
Persian. Bi-mardum bi-gu na- 

tarsand. 
Turkish. Bitiin ehaliya soile qorq- 
mazsinlar. 
Amen martots aseq vor 

ch'vaklman. 
Bo hammu kbalq khabar 

bida natersin. 
Makhber kullai nashe d-la 
zadi. 



Arm. 
Kurd. 

Syriac. 



Where is there some clean water ? 

Arabic. Aku moi nedhif? 
Persian. Ab-i-pak kujast ? 
Turkish. Temiz su nerede bulunur? 
Arm. Our ga maqour chour ? 
Kurd. Laku dare av khwash 

haya ? 
Syriac. Aika ith maya rande ? 



Clear those houses ; we are going to 
quarter our men in them. 

Arabic. Farrigh el-buyut ; nerid 
nunezzil rijalna fiha. 

Persian. An khane-ha-ra khall 
kun ; ml-khahim 
adam-ha-yi kbud-ra 
anja manzil bi-dihim. 

Turkish. Shu evlerden ehaliyi 
chiqar, neferatimizi ora- 
da oturtajaghiz. 

Arm. Maqretseq ayt dounern, 
anonts mech bidi 
deghavorenq mer mar- 
tiqn. 

Kurd. Van mala khali bika, ame 
merekhwa lavedare dai- 
nin. 

Syriac. Msapqu an bate, bed- 
matwokh nashan b-ga- 
waihi. 



Is there smallpox in this village ? 

Arabic. Aku jidrl fil-beled ? 
Persian. Dar in deh abileh da- 

rad? 
Turkish. Bii koide chichek khasta- 

lighi var mi ? 
Arm. Dzaghgakhd ga artioq 

ays kiughi mech ? 
Kurd. Awlek [or khuri) lav- 

gund haya ? 
Syriac. Gallo ith shalqo {or 

shikhna) b-adh 

tha? 



l12 



532 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



Tell me the house where there are sick men. 

Arabic. Akhbir- iii wen el-hosh el- 

ledbi aku mardha. 
Persian. Mara an khane-ra nishan 

deh ki-mardum-i-na- 

khiish dar anja ha- 

stand. 
Turhish, Ichinde khasta bulunan 

evi bana goster. 
Arm. Asatseq intz ayn doun'n 

our hivant martiq 

gan. 
Kurd. *Arde nasakha nisbamin 

beda. 
Syriac. Makhzeli duktha d-ith ba 

kribe. 



Is it feverish here ? 

Arabic. Aku sakhuneh fil-makan 

hadha ? 
Persian. Inja tab darad ? 
Turkish. Burasi sitmali mi dir ? 
Arm. Artioq chermod degh e 

bos? 
Kurd. Ta labera baya ? 
Syriac. Gallo ith sbatba b-adb 

duktha ? 



Is it healthy here ? | 

Arabic. Ha wa bel-makan tayyib ? 

Persian. Inja salim-ast ? 

Turkish. Buranin bavasi eyi- 
mi dir ? 

Arm. Artioq arrogbcb degh a 
bos? 

Kurd. Baye vi ard kbwasba ? 

Syriac. Gallo manakb d-adh duk- 
tha randaile ? 



12. Strang-ers or Suspects 



Stop ! or I shall shoot. 

Arabic. Ogaf, wa-illa idhrabek 

bi-rasas. 
Persian. Bi-ist, wa-illa tir mi- 

andazam. 
Turkish. Dur ! yoqsa atesh 

ederim, 
Arm» Getseq! yethe vochg'zar- 

nem. 
Kurd, Rawusta ! {or bisakkina) 

yan az ta kuzbim. 
Syriac. Hmol ! ilia bedmakbin. 



Don^t move from the spot. 



Arabic. 

Persian. 

Turkish. 
Arm. 



Kurd. 

Syriac. 



La tataharrak min 

makanek. 
Az anja ki ha^ti ^arakat 

na-kun. 

Oradan qimildanma. 
Mi sharzhir deghed 

{sing.), ch'sharzhiq deg- 

herned {fl.). 
Zhvedare nacha. 
La mharkit min duk- 

thokb. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



533 



Stand a little farther off. 

Arabic. Ogaf shweyah ab'ad. 
Persian. Qadri durtar bi-ist. 
Turkish. Bir az daha uzaqda dur. 
Arm. Poqr incli aveli herroun 

getseq. 
Kurd. Durter bisakkina. 
Syriac. Hmol besh rahuqa. 

Come closer. 

Arabic. Tal (ta'al) shweya agrab. 
Persian. Nazdiktar biya. 
Turkish. Daha yaqin gel. 
Arm. Aveli mod yegeq. 
Kurd. Nezlkter wara. 
Syriac. Hayyo besh qariwa. 



Arabic. 


Dur {fl. Duru). 


Persian. 


Bar gard. 


Turkish. 


Don. 


Ar7n. 


Tartzeq. 


Kurd. 


Bezevirra. 


Syriac. 


Pthol or kbdhor. 


Hands up ! 




Arabic. 


Arfa' yedaik ! 


Persian. 


Dast bar darid ! 


Turkish. 


]fillerini qaldir 1 


Arm, 


Tzerrqernit partzra- 




tsoutseq \ 


Kurd. 


Dasteta bellna ! 


Syriac. 


Maurim idhatbokb 1 



Put down your arms. 

Arabic. Irmi islahatek {j)l. Irmu 

islahtekum). 
Persian. Aslihah ru-yi zamin bi- 

guzar. 
Turkish. Silahini yere braq. 
Arm. Zenqernit var dreq. 
Kurd. Chakketa bavezha. 
Syriac. Mhalik chakkokh. 



Surrender. 

Arabic. Sellem nefsek. 
Persian. Khud-ra tasiim kun. 
Turkish. Tesiim ol. 
Arm. Antznadour yegheq. 
Kurd. Taslim beka. 
Syriac. Msalim. 

You may not talk to any one. 

Arabic. La tehaki ma* ahad. 
Persian. Na-bayad ba kasi harf 

bi-zani. 
Turkish. Hich bir kimseile qonush- 

mayajaqsin. 
Arm. Ourishi bed khoselou 

ch'eq. 
Kurd. Lagal kas na kheva. 
Syriac. La mahkit 'immed chu 

kha. 



You are trying to deceive me. 

Arabic. Enta terid [or tujarrib) 

takhda*-ni. 
Persian. Mi-khahid mara gul bi- 

zanid. 
Turkish. Beni aldatmagha cha- 

lisbyorsun. 
Arm. G'ashkhadiq khapel zis. 
Kurd. Ma khalatandin ta 

khwast. 
Syriac. Kibet ta d-magbeltetti. 

You are lying ! 

Arabic. Enta tikdheb 'aleyi 

Persian. Durugh mi-gu'i! 

Turkish. Yalan soileyorsun [ 

Arm. Soud g'khosiq!, g'sdeq 

Kurd. Tu drau kir. 

Syriac. Kimdaglit. 



534 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



You are a spy ! 


Take off your belt. 


Arabic. 


Enta jasiis ! 


Arabic. 


Fukk hizamek. 


Persian, 


Jasusi ! 


Persian. 


Kamarband - i - khud - ra 


Turkish. 


Sen jasus sin ! 




bar darid. 


Arm. 


Lrdes eq ! 


Turkish. 


Qayishini chiqar. 


Kurd. 


Tu jasusi ! 


Arm. 


Qagetseq tzer kodin. 


Syriac. 


Gashoshaiwet ! 


Kurd. 


Pishteta vaka {or kama- 
reta daina). 






Syriac. 


Shri shibaqokh. 






If you behave you will be safe. 






Arabic. 


Idha meshit tayyib, 'a^ek 
aman. 






Persian. 


Agar bi taur-i-ma'qu) 


You are under arrest. 

Arabic. Enta taht el-habs. 
Persian. Zir-i-tauqTf hasti. 
Turkish, Tahti tevqifde sin. 
Arm. Galanavor eq. 
Kurd. Tu girtie. 


Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 


raftar kuni, zarari bi-tu 

na-khahad rasid. 
ifiyer eyi davranarsan 

qorqusuz ola bilirsin. 
Yethe kheloq genaq 

anvdank g'mnac . 
'Aqil bikautu khalas biki. 
Hwi 'aqil u bedkhalsit. 


Syriac. 


K arinnokh. 


Syriac. 




13. Wounds 


OR Sickness | 


Do you feel better ? 


What is the matter ? 


Arabic. 


Kefek ahsan ? 


Arabic. 


Ma lak ? 


Persian. 


Ahwal-i-shuma bihtar- 


Persian. 


Chi (zarar) darid ? JH 

Ne var ? ^^ 
Inch ga ? Inch e 




ast? 


Turkish. 


Turkish. 


Kendini daha eyi giiri- 


Arm. 




yormisin ? 




badahadz ? 


Arm. 


Aveli lav g'zkag artiog ? 


Kurd. 


Ch! haya ? 


Kurd. 


Tu khwasMere ? 


Syriac. 


Ma Ith ? 


Syriac. 


Gallo besh randaiwet ? 






Do you feel worse ? 






Arabic. 


Kefek arda ? 






Persian. 


Ahwal-i-shuma badtar- 


I am wounded. 




ast? 


Arabic. 


Ana majriih. 


Turkish. 


Kendini daha fena 


Persian. 


Zakhm khurdeh-am. 




giiriyormisin ? 


Turkish. 


Yarali-im. 


Arm. 


Aveli vad g'zkag artiog ? 


Arm. 


Viravorvadz yem. 


Kurd. 


Tu kharabtere ? 


Kurd. 


Az brindarim. 


Syriac, 


Gallo besh kharabaiwet ? 


Syriac. 


Jiihaiwin. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



535 



Where are you wounded ? 

Arabic. Wen jurhek ? 

Persian. Zakhm-at kujast ? 

Turkish. Nerede yaralisin ? 

Arm. Vor deghen viravorvadz 

eq? 

Kurd. Brineta laku dareya ? 

Syriac. Aikaiwet jriha ? 



In the knee, Uie foot. 

Arabic. Bi-rukbati, bi-rijfli. 
Persian. Dar zanu, dar pa. 
Turkish. Dizimden, ayaghimdan. 
Arm. Dzoimges, vodqes. 
Kurd. La zhnii {or la zarani), la 
pe. 
Bgo birka, bgo aqla. 



Syriac. 



Keep quiet. 

Arabic. 

Persian. 
Turkish. 
Arm. 
Kurd. 



Syriac. 



Iskut (don't talk), la 
_tatah.arrak {don't move). 
Asudeh bash. 
Qimildanma. 
Hantard getseq. 
Nakheva {don't talk), 

harakat naka {don't 

move). 
Shtoq {don't talk), la 

m^arkit {don't move). 



You mustn't speak. 

Arabic. La tehaki. 

Persian. Na-bayad harf bi-zanid. 

Turkish. Laqirdi etmemelisin. 

Arm. Bedq che khosiq. 

Kurd. Nakheva. 

Syriac. La mahkit. 



Sit down, lie down. 

Arabic. Aq'ad (p^. uq'udu). 
Persian. Bi-nishin, bi-khab. 
Turkish. Otur, yat. 
Arm. Nsdetseq, barrgetseq. 
Kurd. Runa, rahat bistina 

draizh biba. 
Syriac. Itu, irokh. 



or 



Undress yourself. 

Arabic. Ishlah hudumek. 
Persian. Rakht-i-khud-ra bi-kan 

or lukht shau. 
Turkish. Soyun. 
Arm. Hanvetseq. 
Kurd. Jilketa beshalina, 
Syriac. Shl5kh jullokh. 

Give me water. 

Arabic. A'tini moi. 



Persian. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 



Ab bi-dih.^ 
Bana su ver. 
Chour dveq intz. 
Av bida min. 
Halli may a. 



Here is Water and brandy. 

Arabic. Hadha moi wa-kunyak. 
Persian. Inak, ab u konyak. 
Turkish. Ishte sana su ile qonyaq. 
Arm. Aha chour yev coniac. 
Kurd. Ava av ukonyak. 
Syriac. Ha maya u konyak. 

Give me a bandage. 

Arabic. A'tini rabatah. 
Persian, 'lsabe-3^ bi-man bi-dih. 
Turkish. Bana bir yara sarghisi 

ver. 
Arm. Viragab dveq intz. 
Kurd. Pat a b5 min bma. 
Syriac. Halli khdha pasta. 



536 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



Help me with the bandaging. 

Arabic. Sa'id-ni bir-rabatah. 
Persian. Dar 'i^abeh bastan mara 

yawari kun. 
Turkish. Bana sarghiyi sarmaqda 

yardim et. 
Arm. Oknetseq intz viraga- 

poutiamp. 
Kurd. Lasliadandine haremin 

wara. 
Syriac. 'Onni b-xsara. 



Take this medicine. 

Arabic. Khod islirab ed-dawa. 

Persian. In darii-ra bi-khur. 

Turkish. Shu 'ilaii ich. 

Arm. Arreg ays teghn, 

Kurd. Vi darman bestina. 

Syriac. Shqol adh darmana. 



Go to the Doctor and teli him to come at 
once. 

Arabic. Ruli lil-liakim wa-qul- 

luh yiji bil-'ajel. 
Persian. Hakim-ra bi-gu zud bi- 

yayad. 
Turkish. Hekime git soile ki 

shimdi buraya gelsin. 
Arm. Knatseq pzhishgin yev 

asatseq anmichabes ka. 
Kurd. Harra nik hakim ubezha 

bowl da zu et. 
Syriac. Si 1-gebe d -hakim umore 

d-athe qalula. 



Take this man to hospital. 

Arabic. Waddi her-rijal lil-khas- 

takhanah. 
Persian. In mard-ra bi maiiz- 

khaneh bi-bar. 
Turkish. Bii nef eri khasta-khaney e 

gotiir. 
Ann. Hivanlanots dareg ays 

martn. 
Kurd. Vi mer lakhastakhana 

biberra. 
Syriac. Naubil adh nasha Ikhas- 

takhana. 



14. General Phrases 



Good night, madam. 

Arabic. M-Allah bi-kher ya sitt. 
Persian. Shab-i-shuma bi-khair, 

khanam. 
Turkish. Gejeniz khair olsun, 

hanem effendi. 
Arm. Pari kisher, 
Kurd. 
Syriac. Push b-shayna khanam. 



digin. 



Good morning, madam. 


Arabic. 


Sabah m-Allah bi-kher, 




ya sitt. 


Persian. 


Subh-i-shuma bi-khair. 


Turkish. 


Sabahiniz khair olsun. 




haaem effendi. 


Arm. 


Pari luys, digin. 


Kurd. 


Subahi bkhair. 


Syriac, 


Shlama khanam. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



537 



G:od morning, Sir. 

Arabic. Sabah m- Allah bi-kli6r, 

efiendi. 
Persian. Subh-i-shuma bi-khair. 
Tjurkish. Sabaliiniz khair olsun, 

efiendim. 
Arm. Pari luys, baron. 
Kurd. Subahi bkhair ! 
Syriac. Shlama lukh effendi. 

How are you? 

Arabic. Shlon kefek ? 

Persian. Ahwal-i-shuma chi taur- 

ast? ^ 
Turkish. Nasi siniz ? 
Arm. Inchbes eq ? 
Kurd. Kaifata chawaya ? 
Syriac. Dekb iwet ? 

I am sorry. 

Arabic. Ana mute'essif. 
Persian. Afsus mi-khuram. 
Turkish. Yaziq. 
Arm. . G'tsavim. 
Kurd. Az kbaminim. 
Syriac. Kimasfin. 

What is the news ? 

Arabic. Esh el-khabr ? 

Persian. Chi khabar-ast ? 

Turkish. Ne khaber var ? 

Arm. Inch lour ga ? 

Kurd. Chi khabar haya ? 

Syriac. Ma khabra ith ? 

Do you know English ? 

Arabic. Ta'rif anglezi ? 

Persian. Inglisi-ra mi-danid ? 

Turkish. Ingilizje bilirmisiniz ? 

Ann Anglieren kideq ? 

Kurd. Tu inglisi zani ? 

Syriac. Gallo kyadh'et inglisi ? 



Speak slowly. 

Arabic. Ehki yawash. 

Persian. Yawash harf zan. 

Turkish. Yavash soile. 

Arm. Gamats khosetseq. 

Kurd. Yawash bakheva. 

Syriac. Mahki b-nikhutha. 

There is a fire. 

Arabic. Aku nar. 
Persian.. Atash darad. 
Turkish. Atesh var burda. 
Arm. Grag ga, 
Kurd. Agir haya. 
Syriac. Ith nura. 

Impossible. 

Arabic. Mu mumkin. 
Persian. Muhal, ghair-i-mumkin. 
Turkish. Olmaz. 
Arm. Angareli. 
Kurd. Na mumkina {or nabit). 
Syriac. Ghair mumkin {or la 
baraya). 



Please come in ; sit down ! 
Arabic. Tafadhdhal 



udkhui 



uq'ud ! 
Persian. Bi-farma'id; bi-nishinidt 
Turkish. Buyurun ; oturun ! 
Arm. Hajetseq ners ; nsdetseq! 
Kurd. Wara ; runa ! 
Syriac. Tafa dhdh al hayyo ; itu ! 

God grant it ! 

Arabic. In sha Allah ! 
Persian. Khuda kunad! In 

sha'llah ! 
Turkish, Inshallah ! 
Arm. Asdvadz da ! Amen ! 
Kurd. Khuzzi, ishallah ! 
Syriac. Khuzzi, in sha allah ! 



538 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



It is true. 

Arabic. Sahih. 

Persian. Rast ast. 

Turkish. Dogliru dir. 

Arm. Jisht e. 

Kurd. Rasta. 

Syriac. Tamam. 

What are your wishes ? 

Arabic. Esh khatirek ? 

Persian. Chi mi-khahid ? 

Turkish. Ne istersiniz ? 

Ar7n. Inch e tzer papakn ? 

Kurd. Ta chi tvet {or dkhwazi) 

Syriac, Ma kibet ? 



Thank God ! I am well, 



Arabic. 



El- 
bi- 



El-hamdu lillah {or 
hamdillah), ana 
kher ! 
Al-hamdu lillah, ahwal- 
am khiib-ast ! 
Turkish. Al-hamdu lillah, eyi yim I 
Arm. Parrq Asdoudzo, lav 



Persian. 



Kurd, 
Syriac. 



yem 



Shukur lakhude, az sa- 

khim! 
Kshakrin alaha, 

iwin! 



sakh 



You are welcome. 

Arabic. Marhaba ; ehlen wa-seh- 

len. 
Persian. Khush amadid. 
Turkish. Khosh geldiniz! Safa 

geldiniz ! 
Arm. Parov yegaq. 
Kurd, Marhaba 1 tu khwash 

hati. 
Syriac, Marhaba I 



Please. 

Arabic. 

Persian. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 

Thank you. 

Arabic. 

Persian. 
Turkish. 
Arm. 
Kurd. 

Syriac. 



Tafadhdhal {SeeVocab.) 

Lutfan. 

Kerem et. 

Hajetseq, khntrem. 

Bkhaireta. 

Min fadh] diyokh. 



Mimnun or kethther 

khairek. 
Iltifat-i-shuma ziyad. 
Teshekkiir ederim. 
Shnorhagal yem tzez. 
Min zhta minata. 
Minta minnokh {or 
kshakrennokh). 



Do you understand ? 

Arabic. Tifham ? 

Persian.. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 



Aya, fahmidi ? 
Anladin mi ? 
G' hasgnaq ? 
Tu fahm deki ? 
Gallo kfahmit ? 



I don*t understand. 

Arabic. Ana ma iftahim. 
Persian. Nami-fahmam. 
Turkish. Anlamam. 
Arm. Chem hasgnar, 
Kurd. Az fahm nakim. 
Syriac. Lak fab min. 



All right. 

Arabic. 

Persian. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 



Tayyib. 
Khaili khub. 
Pek 'ala, pek eyi. 
Shad lav ! 
Chaka {or qanja). 
Randa. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



539 



There is no news. 

Arabic. Maku khabr. 

Persia?i. Khabaii nist. 

Turkish. Khaber yoq. 

Arm. Lour cb'ga. 

Kurd. Chu khabar nina. 

Syriac. Laith chu khabra. 

How do you know ? 

Arabic. Shlon ta'rif ? 
Persian. Az kuja mi-danid ? 
Turkish. Nasi bilirsiniz ? 
Arm. Inchbes kideq ? inchen 

kideq ? 
Kurd. Tu cbawa {or kusa) tzani ? 
Syriac. Min aika kyadh-et ? 

It is false. 

Arabic. Mu sahih or kidhb. 

Persian. Durugh-ast. 

Turkish. Yalan dir. 

Arm. Skhal e, soud e. 

Kurd. Drawa. 

Syriac. Duglaile ! 

I am glad. 

Arabic. El-hamdu lillah. 

Persian,. Khusb-am mi-yayad. 

Turkish. Memnun um. 

Ar7n. Ourakh yem, kob yem. 

Kurd. Az kbwashim. 

Syriac. P§ikbaiwin. 

Possible. 

Arabic. Mumkin. 

Persian. Mumkin. 

Turkish. Mumkin, olabilir. 

Arm. Gareli. 

Kurd. Mumkina {or dbit). 

Syriac. Mumkin {or kbare). 



Rain threatens. 

Arabic. Ed-dunya mattarab. 
Persian. Darad baran bi-barad. 
Turkish. Yaghmur yagbajaq gibi 
Arm. Antzrev g'sbarrna. 
Kurd. Dunya barana. 
Syriac. Dunye mitranithaila. 

It is moonlight. 

Arabic. Ed-dunya nur qamar. 
Persian. Mahtab-ast. 
Turkish. Mahitab havasi var. 
Arm. Lousnga e, lousniag 

kisher e. 
Kurd. E-ozbnahie haiva. 
Syriac. Bebra d-seraile. 

How old are you ? 

Arabic. Kam senah 'umrak ? 
Persian. Chand salagi darid ? 
Turkish. Qacb yasbinda sin ? 
Arm. Qani daregan eq ? 
Kurd. 'Umreta chanda ? {or ta 

cband sal haya ?) 
Syriac. Kmaile 'umr diyokb ? 

I must go. 

Arabic. Lazim aruh. 

Persian. Bayad bi-rawam 

Turkish. Gitmeliyim. 

Arm. Yertalou yem, bardim 

yertal. 
Kurd. Lazima az dechem. 
Syriac. Lazim ta d-zali. 

Is he at home ? 

Arabic. Hiia bil-bet ? 
Persian. Dar khane-ast ? 
Turkish. J^vde mi dir ? 
Arm. Dann e artioq ? 
Kurd. Au Imala ? 
Syriac. B-go baitbailc ? 



540 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



Who is it ? 




Arabic. 


Menu ? 


Persian. 


Kist? 


Turkish. 


Kim dir ? 


Arm. 


Ove? 


Kurd. 


Au kia ? 


Syriac. 


Manile ? 


Let him enter. 


Arabic. 


Khalli-yidkhul. 


Persian. 


Biyayad. 


Turkish. 


Buyursun. 


Arm. 


Ners thogh ka. 


Kurd. 


Bila bet. 


Syriac. 


Shud awer. 


Does the water boil ? 


Arabic. 


El-moi teghli ? 


Persian. 


Ab jush mi-khurad ? 


Turkish. 


Su qainayor mu ? 


Arm. 


Chourn g'erra artioq ? 


Kurd. 


Av kill bu ? 


Syriac. 


Gallo maya birthakhai 




lai? 



Good-bye. 
Arabic. 

Persian. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 

Kurd. 

Syriac. 

Au revoir. 

Arabic. 

Persian. 

Turkish. 

Arm. 
Kurd. 
Syriac. 



Auda'nakum or Fi aman 

Allah {see Vocab.). 
Khuda hafiz. 
Allaha ismarladiq. 
Mnaq parov. 
Bkbatirata. 
Posh bi-shlama. 



Inshallah neshufek 'an 
qaiib. 

Dubareh shuma-ra kha- 
him did. 

Yaqinda goriishuriiz in- 
shallah. 

Yertaq parov. 

Az jarak di ta debinim. 

Bidkhazinnokh 
khirta. 



Pleasant journey. 

Arabic. Ma'a 's-selamah. 
Persian. Fi aman ill ah. 
Turkish. Selametle, oghurlar-ol- 

sun. 
Arm. Pari janportoutiim. 
Kurd. Safareta piroz bit. 
Syriac. Saf ar diyokh hawe brikh a . 

Of course. 

Arabic. Ma'lum or helbet. 

Persian. Albatteh. 

Turkish, l^lbette. 

Arm. Anshousht. 

Kurd. Ma'lum. 

Syriac. Ma'lum. 

Please tell me. 

Arabic. Tafadhdhal qul-li. 
Persian. Lutfan mara bi-gii. 
Turkish. Rija edorim bana soile. 
Arm. Khntrem aseq intz. 
Kurd, Zhkarameta, khabar beda 

min. 
Syriac, Kmarjin minnokh, 

makhberi. 

What did you say ? 

Arabic. Esh quit ? 

Persian. Chi guftid ? 

Turkish. Ne dediniz ? 

Arm. Inch usiq ? inch asetsiq ? 

Kurd. Ta chl got ? 

Syriac. Ma merokh ? 

What did he say ? 

Arabic. Esh qal ? 

Persian. Ghi guft ? 

Turkish. Ne dedi ? 

Arm. Inch usav, inch asets ? 

Kurd. Chi got ?^ 

Syriac. Ma imere ? 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 



541 



Excuse me. 




You are mistaken. 


Arabic. 


El-'afu. 


Arabic. 


Enta ghaltan. 


Persian. 


Bi-bakhslud. 


Persian. 


Khata kardid. 


Turkish. 


'AiV edersiniz. 


Turkish. 


Yanlishiniz var, 


Arm. 


Neretseq. 


Arm. 


Gr'skhaliq. 


Kurd. 


Gazin naka. 


Kurd. 


Tu khalatl. 


Syriac. 


Al-'afu {or la audhit ga- Syriac. 


Gheltaiwet. 




zin). 








No matter. 








Arabic. 


Ma yukhalif. 






Persian. 


'Aibi na darad. 






Turkish. 


Zarar yoq. 






Arm. 


Hok che. 






Kurd. 


Bila bit. 






Syriac. 


Shud hawe {or la 


has). 



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WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN 
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY 
WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH 
DAY AND TO $1.00 ON THE SEVENTH DAY 
OVERDUE. 



<^FP 1^ 1914 








AUG 31 1935 
















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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY