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Late Fellow of King's College, Cambridge ; Greenwood Professor of Hellenistic 
Greek and Indo-European Philology, Manchester University 



Regius Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, 
Glasgow University 





Printed in igsg 

Printed in Great Britain for Hodder and Stoughton, Limited, 
by Richard Clay & Sons, Limited, Bungay, Suffolk. 


pp; VHON 




Upwards of twenty years ago Professor J. H. Moulton asked me to join with him 
in an effort to illustrate the Vocabulary of the Greek Testament from recently discovered 
non-literary texts. First came a series of joint articles in the Expositor during 1908 to 
191 1 dealing with certain representative words. In 1914 we found it possible to publish 
the First Part of the Vocabulary : Part II followed in the next year. Our collaboration 
was then cut short by Dr. Moulton's tragic death, though I have done my utmost to 
utilize any notes or references that he left behind him. The grasp and range of Dr. 
Moulton's Greek scholarship are too well known to require acknowledgment here, but 
I may be allowed to record my own deep sense of personal loss in the removal at the 
height of his powers of one who was always the truest of friends and the most loyal of 

It may be well, perhaps, to emphasize that it was in no way our aim to provide a 
complete Lexicon to the Greek New Testament, but rather to show the nature of the new 
light cast upon its language by the rich stores of contemporary papyri discovered in 
recent years. (See further the General Introduction to the present volume.) Apart from 
the papvri, considerable use has been made of the Greek inscriptions, and evidence from 
other non-literary sources has been freely cited, wherever it seemed likely to be useful. 
Very often words have been included for which our non-literary sources provide no 
illustration, in order to show from literary evidence, if forthcoming, or from its very 
absence, the relation of such words to the popular Greek. 

The use of Professor J. H. Thayer's monumental edition of Grimm's Lexicon (Edin- 
burgh, 1886), has been assumed throughout. Professor Souter's Pocket Lexicon to the 
Greek New Testament (Oxford, 1916), a marvellous multum in parvo, and the excellent 
Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament by Professor G. Abbott-Smith (Edinburgh, 
1922) have been of the utmost value. In the later Parts of the Vocabulary frequent 
reference has also been made to W. Bauer's revised and enlarged edition of E. 
Preuschen's Griechisch-Deutsclics Worterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments 
(Giessen, 1928), and to F. Preisigke's comprehensive Worterbuch der griechischen 
Papyrusurkunden, I. -III. i. (Berlin, 1925-1929). Other books of reference will be found 
detailed in Abbreviations I. General. 

For the ready assistance of many friends, too numerous to mention, in the carrying 
through of this book, I am deeply grateful ; but a special word of thanks is due to 
Professor W. G. Waddell, now of the Egyptian University, Cairo, who has read all 
the proofs with the most meticulous care, and has in addition furnished important 

It remains only to acknowledge the generosity and enterprise of Messrs. Hodder & 
Stoughton in undertaking the publication of the work, and to express my sense of the 
singular skill and accuracy with which the compositors and readers of the firm of 
Messrs. R. Clay & Sons, Bungay, have carried through an extremely intricate piece 
of printing. 

The University, Glasgow. 
July, 1929. 



Few archaeological discoveries in recent years have awakened more widespread 
interest than the countless papyrus documents recovered from the sands of Egypt, and 
as it is from them that our principal non-literary illustrations of the Vocabulary of the 
Greek Testament have been drawn, it may be well to describe briefly by way of Intro- 
duction what these papyri are, and what is the nature of their value for the New 
Testament student. 

Papyrus as Writing Material. — In itself, the word papyrus is the name of a reed-plant 
(Cyperus papyrus, L.) which at one time grew in great profusion in the river Nile, and 
gave its name to the writing material or " paper" of antiquity formed from it. The pith 
(ftvftXos) of the stem of the papyrus plant was cut into long thin strips, which were laid 
down on a flat table and soaked with Nile water. A second layer was then placed cross- 
wise on the top of the first, and the two layers were pressed together to form a single 
web or sheet. After being dried in the sun, and scraped with a shell or bone to remove 
any roughness, a material not unlike our own brown paper was produced. 1 

The size of the papyrus sheets varied considerably, but for non-literary documents a 
common size was from nine to eleven inches in height, and from five to five and a half 
inches in breadth. When more space than that afforded by a single sheet was required, 
a number of sheets were joined together to form a roll, which could easily be extended 
or shortened as desired. Thus, to take the case of the New Testament autographs, which 
were almost certainly written on separate papyrus rolls, a short Epistle, like the Second 
Epistle to the Thessalonians, would be a roll of about fifteen inches in length with the 
contents arranged in some five columns, while St. Paul's longest Epistle, the Epistle to 
the Romans, would run to about eleven feet and a half. The shortest of the Gospels, 
St. Mark's, would occupy about nineteen feet ; the longest, St. Luke's, about thirty-one 
or thirty-two feet. And the Apocalypse of St. John has been estimated at fifteen feet. 
Taking the other books on the same scale, Sir F. G. Kenyon, to whom the foregoing 
figures are also due, has calculated that if the whole New Testament was written out in 
order on a single roll, the roll would extend to more than two hundred feet in length, 
obviously an utterly unworkable size. 2 This alone makes it clear that not until the 
papyrus stage in their history was past, and use was made of both sides of parchment or 
vellum leaves, was it possible to include all the books of the New Testament in a single 

The side of the papyrus on which the fibres ran horizontally, or the recto, as it came 
to be technically known, was from its greater smoothness, generally preferred for 
writing, while the back, or the verso, was reserved for the address, at any rate in the case 
of letters. But when space failed, the verso could also be utilized, as shown in a long 

1 See further Pliny, N.H. xiii. 11-13, and cf. F. G. Kenyon, The Palaeography of Greek Papyri 
(Oxford, 1899), p. i4ff. 

2 Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, 2nd edit. (London, 1912), p. 35 ff. 

vii b 


magical papyrus in the British Museum, in which nineteen columns are written on the 
recto, and the remaining thirteen on the verso. 1 

In any case we have abundant evidence of the use of the verso, when fresh papyrus was 
not available, as when a man writes a letter on the back of a business document, explain- 
ing that he had been unable at the moment to find a "clean sheet" (xapriov tcaOapov), 2 or 
as when the back of the official notification of the death of a certain Panechotes is used 
for a school-exercise or composition, embodying such maxims as " do nothing mean or 
ignoble or inglorious or cowardly," written in a beginner's hand and much corrected. 3 

In other cases, before the verso has been so used, the original contents of the recto 
have been effaced or washed out, a practice which adds point to a familiar verse. In 
Col 2 14 , we read that our Lord " blotted out the bond written in ordinances that was 
against us, which was contrary to us," and the verb used for "blotted out" (igaXelfas) 
is the technical term for "washing out" the writing from a papyrus sheet. So complete 
was the forgiveness which Christ by His work secured, that it completely cancelled the 
old bond, that had hitherto been valid against us, for it bore our signature (xeipoypacpov). 
He made the bond as though it had never been (cf. Exod 32 32f -, Rev 3 5 ). 

As regards other writing materials, a reed pen (ypa<j>iic6<} KaXapos ; cf. 3 Mace 4 20 ) was 
prepared, much as we now prepare a quill, while the ink (to pekav: cf. 2 John 12 ) was 
made from a mixture of charcoal, gum and water. The marvellous way in which the 
ink has preserved its colour invariably attracts attention, and shows that anything in 
the nature of adulteration must have been unknown. A first-century letter, chiefly about 
writing materials, refers to "the ink pot" (to ftpoxtov tov ^eXapo?). 4 

The character of the handwriting naturally varies with the nature of the document 
and the education of the scribe. But the task of decipherment can rarely be said to be 
easy, partly owing to the frequent use of contractions and partly to the numerous lacunae 
or gaps caused by the brittle nature of the material. The restoration of the letters or 
words which have thus dropped out demands the exercise of the utmost patience and 
skill. And those who have had an opportunity of inspecting some of the originals can 
only marvel that intelligible transcriptions have been made from them at all. 

When, then, we speak of papyri, we are to think simply of rolls or sheets of paper of 
this character, which had been put to all the many and various purposes to which paper 
as a writing material is put amongst ourselves, while the addition of "Greek" dis- 
tinguishes the papyri written in that language from the Aramaic or Latin or Coptic 
papyri which have been similarly recovered. We need only add that the earliest dated 
Greek papyrus we possess belongs to the year B.C. 311-310, 5 and that from that time an 
almost continuous chain of documents carries us far down into Byzantine times. 

Papyrus Discoveries. — With the exception of some calcined rolls from Herculaneum, 
which were brought to light as far back as 1752 and the following years, papyri have 
been found only in Egypt, the marvellously dry climate of that country being especially 
favourable to their preservation. A certain number, more particularly those of a literary 
character, have been recovered from their original owners' tombs. The Persae of 
Timotheos, for example, the oldest Greek literary manuscript in existence, dating, as it 
does, from the fourth century B.C., was found near Memphis in the coffin of a Greek 
soldier, by whose side it had been deposited in a leathern bag. And an Homeric roll, 

1 P Lond 121 (iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 830".). For the abbreviations used in the citation of papyrus 
passages, see Abbreviations II. Papyri. 

2 P Gen I. 52 s (iv/A.D.) : cf. Archiv iii. p. 399. 3 P Oxy I. 79 (a.d. 181-192). 

4 P Oxy II. 326 (c. a.d. 45). 5 P Eleph 1 (= Selections, No. 1). 


now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, used to be exhibited along with a lock of the hair 
of the Iadv with whom it had been buried. Other rolls have been found in earthen jars 
in the ruins of temples or houses, thus strangely recalling the prophecy of Jeremiah : 
" Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel : Take these deeds, this deed of the 
purchase, both that which is sealed, and this deed which is open, and put them in an 
earthen vessel ; that they may continue many days " (chap. 32 14 RV). 

But the great mass of papyri come from the rubbish heaps, rising sometimes to a 
height of twenty to thirty feet, on the outskirts of old Egyptian towns and villages. 
Possiblv out of a feeling of reverence for the written word, the inhabitants did not as a 
rule burn their old papers, but threw them out on these heaps. There they were quickly 
covered over with the fine desert sand, and, so long as they were above the damp level of 
the Nile, have remained practically uninjured down to the present day. For the most 
part they consist of single sheets, or fragments of sheets, sometimes no larger than a 
postage stamp, but occasionally whole baskets of official documents are found, which had 
been cleared out en masse from public archives or record offices. And everyone will 
recognize the absorbing interest attaching to these scraps of paper, discarded as useless 
bv their first writers and owners, on which no eye has looked for many hundreds of 
years, but which now, as original documents, recreate and revivify the past for us in 
a way which nothing else could do. 

The earliest finds in Egypt of which we have knowledge took place in 177S, when 
some Arabs, digging for their own purposes in the Fayum district, accidentally came 
upon some fifty rolls in an earthen pot ; but, unable to find purchasers, they destroyed 
them on account, it is said, of the aromatic smell they gave forth in burning. Only 
one roll was saved which, passing into the hands of Cardinal Stefano Borgia, came 
to be known as the Cliarta Borgiana. The contents are of little general interest, being 
merely an account of the forced labours of the peasants on the Nile embankment at 
Arsinoe in the year A.D. 191-2, but the papyrus will always have the significance of 
being the first Greek papyrus to be published in Europe. 1 

In the year 1820 further finds, dating from the second century B.C., were made in the 
neighbourhood of Memphis and Thebes, but it was not until 18S9-90 that a beginning was 
made in systematic exploration, when at Gurob Professor Flinders Petrie extracted a large 
number of papyri from Ptolemaic mummy-cases, and brought them home to England. 

To the same period of exploration belong such important literary finds as the lost 
work of Aristotle on The Constitution of Athens, copied on the back of a farm- bailiff's 
accounts, which are dated in the eleventh year of Vespasian, that is a.d. 78-9 ; the 
Mimiambi or Mimes of Herodas, which reproduce with photographic exactness the 
ordinary, and often sordid, details of the everyday life of the third century B.C. ; and 
about thirteen hundred lines of the Odes of Bacchylides, a contemporary of Pindar, and 
a nephew of the Simonides for the recovery of whose works Wordsworth longed in a 

well-known poem : 

O ye, who patiently explore 
The wreck of Herculanean lore, 
What rapture ! could ye seize 
Some Theban fragment, or unroll 
One precious, tender-hearted, scroll 
Of pure Simonides. 

1 It was published under the title Charta Fapyracea Graece scripta Musei Borgiani Velitris, ed. 
N. Schow, Romae, 1778. 

But significant though these discoveries were, their interest was largely eclipsed by 
the results of the digging carried on by Dr. Grenfell and Dr. Hunt at Oxyrhynchus, the 
ancient Behneseh, in the winter of 1896-97 and the following years. The two English 
explorers had been attracted to the spot by the expectation that early fragments of 
Christian literature might be found there, in view of the important place which 
Oxyrhynchus occupied in Egyptian Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries. And 
their prescience was rewarded, for, amongst the papyri recovered on the second day, was 
a crumpled leaf written on both sides in uncial characters, amongst which Dr. Hunt 
detected the somewhat rare Greek word for " mote " (icdp<f>o<i). This suggested to him 
the "mote" of our Lord's Sayings in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt 7 3-5 ) ; and, on 
further examination, he found that he had in his hand a leaf out of a very early 
collection of Sayings attributed to Jesus, some of which corresponded closely with the 
canonical Sayings of the Gospels, while others were new. 1 We are not at present 
concerned with the many questions which were thus raised, 2 but the importance of the 
discovery was undeniable, especially when it was followed next day by the finding of 
another uncial fragment containing the greater part of the first chapter of St. Matthew's 
Gospel, written not later than the third century, and therefore a century older than the 
oldest manuscript of the New Testament previously known. 3 Both leaves, Dr. Grenfell 
suggests, may not improbably have formed "the remains of a library belonging to some 
Christian who perished in the persecution during Diocletian's reign, and whose books 
were then thrown away." 4 

Along with these, and other almost equally sensational finds, Oxyrhynchus yielded an 
enormous mass of documents of the most miscellaneous character dating from the Roman 
Conquest of Egypt to the tenth century after Christ, when papyrus was superseded by 
paper as a writing material. 

Other noteworthy collections come to us from the British Museum, Berlin, Florence, 
and various other sources, and the general result is that there are now available about 
ten thousand published documents, and that these are being constantly added to. 5 
Whether the still unedited papyri have any great surprises in store for us it is vain even 
to conjecture. But even if they have not, they will serve a useful purpose in illustrating 
and confirming the lexical and other results that have already been reached, and in 
increasing still further our stock of first-hand documentary evidence regarding the most 
important period in the world's history. 

Classification of Papyri. — The papyri are generally classified under the two main heads, 
literary and non-literary, with the biblical and theological texts occupying a position 
about mid-way between the two. It is with the non-literary texts that we are concerned 
just now, and a glance at the citations on one or two pages of the following Vocabulary 
is sufficient to show the miscellaneous character of these texts, comprising as they do 
all manner of official documents, such as Imperial rescripts, accounts of judicial proceed- 
ings, tax and census papers, contracts of marriage and divorce, notices of birth and death, 

1 P Oxy I. 1. 

2 Reference may be made to The Sayings of Jesus from Oxyrhynchus, edited with Introduction, 
Critical Apparatus, and Commentary by Hugh G. Evelyn White (Cambr. Univ. Press, 1920). 

3 P Oxy 1. 2. 

4 Egypt Exploration Fund : Archaeological Report, 1896-97, p. 6. See further an article by the 
present writer on " The Greek Papyri and the New Testament " in The History of Christianity in 
the Light of Modern Knoivledge (Blackie and Son, 1929), p. 300 ff. 

5 A list of the principal papyrus collections will be found under Abbreviations II. 


and so forth, along with a number of private letters touching upon all sides of family 
and everyday life. 

And as the contents of these documents humains are wide as life itself, so they supply 
materials for the most varied fields of human learning. Their value to the historian and 
the jurist is apparent on the surface, while with their aid the geographer can reconstruct 
the map of ancient Egypt with a precision previously impossible. To the palaeographer 
again, who has hitherto been sadly hampered by lacunae in the development of ordinary 
script, they offer an uninterrupted series of examples, many of them exactly dated by year 
and month and day, from the third century before Christ to the eighth century after 
Christ. And to the philologist they show the true place of the Koivt), the Common Greek 
of the period, as distinguished from the dialects of the classical period, in the development 
of the Greek language. Examples of the Koivtj on its literary side had not, indeed, been 
previously wanting, but now, for the first time, it was possible to see it in undress, as it 
was spoken and written by the ordinary men and women of the day. 

"New Testament Greek." — It is with this aspect of the papyri that we are primarily 
concerned. Alike in Vocabulary and Grammar the language of the New Testament 
exhibits striking dissimilarities from Classical Greek ; and in consequence it has 
been regarded as standing by itself as " New Testament Greek." In general it had been 
hastily classed as "Judaic" or "Hebraic" Greek; its writers being Jews (with the 
probable exception of St. Luke), and therefore using a language other than their own, 
a language filled with reminiscences of the translation-Greek of the Septuagint on 
which they had been nurtured. 1 But true as this may be, it does not go far to explain 
the real character of the Greek which meets us in the New Testament writings. For a 
convincing explanation we have in the first instance to thank the German scholar, Adolf 
Deissmann, now Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Berlin. 
While still a pastor at Marburg, Dr. (then Mr.) Deissmann happened one day to be 
turning over in the University Library at Heidelberg a new section of a volume 
containing transcripts from the collection of Greek Papyri at Berlin. And, as he read, 
he was suddenly struck by the likeness of the language of these papyri to the language 
of the Greek New Testament. Further study deepened in his mind the extent of this 
likeness, and he realized that he held in his hand the real key to the old problem. 

So far from the Greek of the New Testament being a language by itself, or even, as 
one German scholar called it, " a language of the Holy Ghost," 2 its main feature was that 
it was the ordinary vernacular Greek of the period, not the language of contemporary 
literature, which was often influenced by an attempt to imitate the great authors of 
classical times, but the language of everyday life, as it was spoken and written by the 
ordinary men and women of the day, or, as it is often described, the Koivr} or Common 
Greek, of the great Graeco-Roman world. 

That, then, is Deissmann's general conclusion, which quickly found an enthusiastic 

1 Cf. W. F. Howard's Appendix " Semitisms in the New Testament" in Grammar of New 
Testament Greek by J. H. Moulton and W. F. Howard (Edinburgh, 1929), Vol. II, p. 411 ff. 

2 R. Rothe, Zur Dogmatik (Gotha, 1863), p. 238: "We can indeed with good right speak of 
a language of the Holy Ghost. For in the Bible it is manifest to our eyes how the Divine Spirit 
at work in revelation always takes the language of the particular people chosen to be the 
recipient, and makes of it a characteristic religious variety by transforming existing linguistic 
elements and existing conceptions into a shape peculiarly appropriate to that Spirit. This process 
is shown most clearly by the Greek of the New Testament" (quoted by Deissmann, The Philology 
of the Greek Bible (London, 1908), p. 42 f.). 


and brilliant advocate in this country in the person of Dr. J. H. Moulton. And though 
the zeal of the first discoverers of the new light may have sometimes led them to go rather 
far in ignoring the Semitisms, on the one hand, and the literary culture of the New 
Testament writers, on the other, their main conclusion has found general acceptance, and 
we have come to realize with a definiteness unknown before that the book intended for the 
people was written in the people's own tongue. Themselves sprung from the common 
people, the disciples of One Whom the common people heard gladly, its writers, in their 
turn, wrote in the common tongue to be " understanded of the people." 

Anticipations of this View. — It is somewhat strange that this discovery was so long 
deferred. Publications of papyri go back as far as 1826, but there is nothing to show that 
this particular way of utilizing their documents ever occurred to the first editors. At the 
same time it is interesting to notice certain anticipations from other sources of what such 
discoveries might mean, or, as it has been called, of Deissmannism before Deissmann. 

In the Prolegomena to his translation of Winer's well-known Grammar of New 
Testament Greek, published in 1859, Professor Masson, at one time Professor in the 
University of Athens, writes: "The diction of the New Testament is the plain and 
unaffected Hellenic of the Apostolic Age, as employed by Greek-speaking Christians 
when discoursing on religious subjects. . . . Perfectly natural and unaffected, it is free 
from all tinge of vulgarity on the one hand, and from every trace of studied finery on the 
other. Apart from the Hebraisms — the number of which have, for the most part, been 
grossly exaggerated — the New Testament may be considered as exhibiting the only 
genuine facsimile of the colloquial diction employed by unsophisticated Grecian gentlemen 
of the first century, who spoke without pedantry — as ISicbrai ('private persons'), and not 
as ao(pi(7Tal (' adepts ') " (p. vii. f. ). 1 

A second statement to much the same effect will be found in the article " Greek 
Language (Biblical)," contributed by Mr. (afterwards Principal Sir James) Donaldson to the 
third edition of Kitto's Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, edited by Dr. W. Lindsay Alexander 
(Edinburgh, 1876). In Vol. ii. p. 170, the writer states : "Now it seems to us that the 
language used by the Septuagint and N(ew) T(estament) writers was the language used in 
common conversation, learned by them, not through books, but most likely in childhood from 
household talk, or, if not, through subsequent oral instruction. If this be the case, then the 
Septuagint is the first translation which was made for the great masses of the people in their 
own language, and the N(ew) T(estament) writers are the first to appeal to men through the 
common vulgar language intelligible to all who spoke Greek. The common Greek thus 
used is indeed considerably modified by the circumstances of the writers, but these modifi- 
cations no more turn the Greek into a peculiar dialect than do Americanisms or Scotticisms 
turn the English of Americans and Scotsmen into peculiar dialects of English." 2 

1 Cf. J. Rendel Harris, Exp T, xxv. p. 54 f., and notes by the present writer in ib. xxxi. 
p. 421, and xxxii. p. 231 f. 

Of a much more general character, but interesting from its early date, is Dr. John Lightfoot's 
comment on the Preface to the Lord's Prayer in Mt 6 9 , in his Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, 
first published as far back as 1658: "In interpreting very many phrases and histories of the 
New Testament, it is not so much worth, what we think of them from notions of our own, feigned 
upon I know not what grounds, as in what sense these things were understood by the hearers and 
lookers on, according to the usual custom and vulgar dialect of the nation." 

2 I owe the reference to a note by W. L. Lorimer in Exp T, xxxii. p. 330, where attention 
is also drawn to the position taken up by Salmasius in his Funus linguae Hellenisticae and his De 
Hellenislica Commentarius, both published in 1643. 


Still more interesting is the prophecy ascribed to Professor (afterwards Bishop) J. B. 
Lightfoot in the year 1S63. Lecturing to his class at Cambridge, Dr. Lightfoot is 
reported to have said : " You are not to suppose that the word [some New Testament 
word which had its only classical authority in Herodotus] had fallen out of use in the 
interval, only that it had not been used in the books which remain to us : probably it had 
been part of the common speech all along. I will go further, and say that if we could 
only recover letters that ordinary people wrote to each other without any thought of being 
literary, we should have the greatest possible help for the understanding of the language 
of the N(ew) T(estament) generally." 1 

The significance of this quotation is unmistakable, and it is followed, twenty-one years 
later, by what is, so far as I know, the first definite mention in this country of the papyri 
in connexion with New Testament study. It occurs in Dean Farrar's well-known volume, 
The Messages of the Books (London, Macmillan, 1884), where, in a footnote to his chapter 
on the " Form of the New Testament Epistles," the writer remarks : " It is an interesting 
subject of inquiry to what extent there was at this period an ordinary form of correspondence 
which (as among ourselves) was to some extent fixed. In the papyrus rolls of the 
British Museum (edited for the trustees by J. Forshall [in 1839] ) there are forms and 
phrases which constantly remind us of St. Paul" (p. 151). 

The hint, thus thrown out, was unfortunately not followed up at the time, but if the 
full significance of the papyri for the study of the New Testament was long in being 
recognized, no one can complain of lack of attention to the subject at the present day. It 
is leading to the re-writing of our Lexicons and Grammars of the New Testament, and no 
modern Commentary on any of its books fails to avail itself of the help afforded by these 
new treasures from Egypt. 

Gains from the Study of the Papyri. — Abundant proof of this will be forthcoming in 
the pages, which follow. Meanwhile, it may be helpful to those who have made no 
special study of the subject if I attempt to indicate some of the ways in which the new 
evidence can be applied to the elucidation of the words of the New Testament. 

Orthography and Accidence. — We may begin with Orthography and Accidence. In 
these particulars the New Testament writings have not yet been subjected to the same 
searching comparison with the new evidence which Helbing and Thackeray have applied 
to the Old Testament ; but enough has already been done by Blass, Schmiedel, Moulton, 
and Deissmann, following on the notable work of Westcott and Hort, to show that we 
are in a better position to-day for recovering the ipsissima verba of the New Testament 
autographs than many modern textual critics are ready to admit. There was a constant 
tendency on the part of the later copyists to improve on the " vulgarisms " or "collo- 
quialisms" of the original, and it cannot but help us to determine what is due to this 
refining process when we have such abundant evidence in our hands as to how the 
common people of the time actually wrote and spelt. 

The form yevr)fj.a, for example, which Westcott and Hort prefer for the five occurrences 
of this word in the New Testament (Mt 26 29 , Mk 14 25 , Lk I2 1S (marg.), 22 18 , 2 Cor 9 10 ), as 
against the yewrifxa of the Textus Receptus (except in Lk I2 1S ), is nowfully established on 
the evidence both of the Ptolemaic papvri, and of those belonging to the first four centuries 
after Christ. The aspirated acpvpk, again, for airvpU (Mt 15 37 , 16 10 , Mk 8 s -' 20 , Ac 9 25 ) is 
amply, though not universally, attested in the vernacular documents ; while the synco- 
pated form Tdfieiop (for ra^ielov) as in Mt 6 6 , 24 s6 , Lk 12 324 , is the prevailing form in the 
papyri from i/a.D. onwards, though the fuller form occurs in various passages from 

1 Quoted by Moulton Fro/ego me n a 3 , p. 242 


Ptolemaic times. The very indifference, indeed, of the writers of our documents to 
symmetrical forms or to unified spelling may in itself be taken as a warning against 
the almost feverish haste with which a " redactor," or later author, is sometimes 
brought in to explain similar phenomena in the different parts of a New Testament 

Morphology. — In the same way, when we pass to Morphology, it is again to discover 
that many verbal forms, with which our best New Testament texts have made us familiar, 
can here be amply attested. One of the commonest of these is the attaching of ist aorist 
forms to the 2nd aorist, as when in Mt io 23 we read eXOdrw for eXOerto, and in Mk 3 8 
?)X0av for ijXdov. The practice, already present in the Attic elirov, meets us repeatedly 
in the papvri, as well as in late Hellenistic writers generally. Similarly, yiyovav for 
yeyovaai, which Westcott and Hort read in Rom 16 7 , in accordance with BsA, receives 
frequent corroboration, as in an almost contemporary papyrus letter from the Fayum. 1 
An interesting form, which may cause trouble, if it is not watched, is the substitution of 
edv for av after 6's, oirov, etc., which the same editors have faithfully reproduced from 
the leading manuscripts in such passages as Mt 12 32 o? edv eiirr/ and Mk 14 9 ottov edv 
tcqpvxQf)- Professor J. H. Moulton has carefully examined the evidence of the papvri on 
this point, and has found that in the first and second centuries of the Christian era edv 
greatly predominated, but that, as a form of dv, it had almost died out in ordinary usage 
before the great uncials were written. The fact, therefore, that their scribes preserved 
edv may be taken as showing that they "faithfully reproduce originals written under 
conditions long since obsolete." 2 

Syntax. — This last example may fittingly introduce us to the field of Syntax, and 
to Moulton and Howard's invaluable Grammar, where at every turn the evidence of the 
newly-discovered vernacular documents is called in to decide corresponding usages in the 
New Testament writings. One or two examples will show how rich and suggestive that 
evidence is. 

Take, for instance, the prepositions, and an impartial survey can hardly fail to lead 
us to the conclusion that the laxer usage which is everywhere observable in later Greek 
hardly justifies many of the over-niceties of interpretation in which New Testament 
expositors have been apt to indulge. The free interchange of eU and eV is a case in 
point. This may be carried back to the fact that both words are originally forms of the 
same root ; but what we are especially concerned with is that they are largely inter- 
changed in ordinary usage, as when in a letter of a.d. 22 the writer tells us that when 
he came to Alexandria (eVi to) yeyovevai ev 'AXetjav&pLa), he learnt so and so from certain 
fishermen at Alexandria (et? 'AXe%di>Spi[av] ). 3 When, then, in commenting on Jn i 18 6 &v 
eli tov koX-ttov rov iraTpos, Bishop Westcott speaks of the phrase as implying "the 
combination (as it were) of rest and motion, of a continuous relation, with a realisation 
of it," is he not pressing the phraseology farther than contemporary evidence warrants, 
however doctrinally true the deduction may be? Nor can those who advocate the render- 
ing "immersing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Spirit" for the baptismal formula in Mt 28 19 do so on the ground that the more 
familiar rendering is philologically inaccurate. Without entering on the question as 
to the exact shade of meaning underlying ^a-trri^ovre<;, it is clear that ek to ovofia may 
be understood as practically equivalent to ev rip 6v6p,ari, the new light thus joining 

1 BGU II. 597 19 (A.D. 75). 2 p ro l eg omena, p. 42 I. 

3 P Oxy II. 294" (a.d. 22) (= Selections, p. 34). 


hands with, and lending support to, the almost unanimous tradition of the Western 
Church. 1 

A corresponding caution must be observed in connexion with the construction of 
iva. Classical Greek has taught us to expect that iva construed with the subjunctive 
denotes purpose, but in Hellenistic Greek this has been extended to include a consecutive 
usage, and sometimes, as in modern Greek, a simple statement of fact. When, therefore, 
in Jn 17 3 the Fourth Evangelist writes — avrtj Be ecrriv ?'/ alwvios £a>^ iva yivwa-ictoo-i ere 
tov fiovov d\r)divov 6ehv zeal bv aTreaTei\a<; 'h]aovv Xpiarov it is of course possible that 
bv the latter clause he means us to understand our Lord as pointing to the knowledge 
of God as the aim and end of eternal life. But it is equally permissible, and more in 
accord with contemporary usage, to interpret the words as denning the contents of the 
life eternal : this life is a life consisting in, and maintained by, the knowledge of God, 
and of Him whom God had sent. 

It would be easy to go on multiplying examples in this direction, but enough has 
been said to show that the syntax of the New Testament is not modelled on strictly 
classical lines, and that this must be kept steadily in view in the work of interpretation. 

Vocabulary. — It is, however, in the matter of Vocabulary that the new gains make 
themselves most fullv felt, and prove most clearly that we are dealing with a book written 
in the common speech of its day. 

This is seen, for example, in the large reduction in the number of so-called " Biblical " 
words, that is, words which have hitherto been regarded as the special property of the 
Biblical writers, no evidence of their use having hitherto been procurable from profane 

Thayer, at the end of his edition of Grimm's Lexicon, gives a long list of these " Biblical " 
words, the very length of which tends to confirm that feeling of the isolated or peculiar 
character of the New Testament writings, to which reference has already been made. 
The list is unnecessarily long even from Thayer's point of view, as it includes not a few 
words for which he himself supplies references from non-Christian sources, which, though 
sometimes later in point of time than the New Testament itself, nevertheless show 
unmistakably that the words belong to the ordinary stock then in use. And now the 
new evidence comes in to extend these references in so many directions that Deissmann is 
able to reduce the number of words peculiar to the New Testament to something like 
fifty, or about one per cent, of the whole vocabulary. 2 

Our new sources do not merely reduce the number of words hitherto regarded as 
peculiar to the New Testament writings ; they also confirm the meanings traditionally 
assigned to others, sometimes on somewhat slender grounds. 

A familiar instance is the Pauline word \oyeia. According to Grimm-Thayer, the 
word is " not found in profane authors," but for its meaning in 1 Cor 16 1 ' 2 , the only places 
where it occurs in the New Testament, the translation "a collection " is suggested. Such 
a translation is in harmonv with the context, and is now conclusively established by the 
fact that from the second century B.C. the word is found in the papyri in this sense. It is 
sufficient to refer to a curious letter from Tebtunis, in which a tax-gatherer, after naively 
describing his unprincipled efforts to defeat a rival in the collection of a certain tax, adds, 
" I bid you urge on Nicon regarding the collection {-jrepl tj}? \oye<i,>a$)." 3 

1 See the discussion between Bishop Chase and Dean Armitag'e Robinson in JTS vi. p. 481 fF., 
vii. p. 186 ff., and viii. p. 161 ff., and on the phrase generally, cf. Heitmuller, Im Namen Jesu, 
Gottingen, 1903. 

2 See Light from the Ancient East, 2 p. 78. 3 P Tebt I. 58 s5 (b.c. hi). 


Or, to take a wholly different example, when in a letter of a.d. 41, 1 a man counsels a 
friend in money-difficulties to plead with one of his creditors p,rj "va avaaTaTwayi ^a?, 
" do not unsettle us," that is " do not drive us out from hearth and home," he little thought 
that he would supplv future students of the New Testament with an apt parallel for the 
metaphorical use of the same verb in Gal 5 12 , where St. Paul expresses the hope that oi 
avaarcnovvTe<s, "(hose who are unsettling" his Galatian converts, "would even mutilate 
themselves." So too the naughty boy's admission from Oxyrhynchus that his mother 
complains " that he is upsetting me" (ore avaaia-rol p.e) 2 throws light upon the description 
of the brethren at Thessalonica by their Jewish opponents, "These that have turned 
the world upside down (oi r^v ol/cov/A.evi]v avaaTcnooaavTe;) have come hither also " 
(Ac 17 6 ). 3 

Similar aid is given in the choice of meaning where more than one rendering is possible. 
In Mt 6 27 , for example, both the Authorized and Revised Versions agree in rendering 
i)\iKia by "stature," "And which of you by being anxious can add one cubit unto his 
stature?" but the margin of the Revised Version has "age" ; and if we are to follow the 
almost unanimous testimony of the papyri, this latter sense should be adopted throughout 
the New Testament occurrences of the word, except in Lk 19 3 , where the context makes it 
impossible. Thus in the important verse, Lk 2 52 icai 'lyo-ovs -KpoeKOTnev rfj crocpia tca\ 
ffKiiciq, the meaning is not that Jesus "advanced in wisdom and stature," that is "in 
height and comeliness" (as Grimm-Thayer), but "in wisdom and age," a description to 
which an excellent parallel is now afforded by an inscription of ii/B.c, in which a certain 
Aristagoras is praised as — i)\iicia TrpoKOTnwv /cal Trpoayo/xevo<; et? to 6eoael3eiv. i 

Again, in not a few instances, our new documents supply us with the true meaning of 
words only imperfectly understood before. 

In commenting on I Pet I 7 iva to Bokl/xiov vpuoiv ti/s wiaTew 7ro\vTip.6repov ^pvaiov rov 
tnro\\vp.evov Sia 7rvpb<; Be Soicifia^ofievov evpeOjj elf eiraivov koX ho^av kol Tip.)]v iv a.TroKa\t>-^ei 
'Ujaov Xpio-Tov Dr. Hort (Com'm. ad I.) saw that the meaning required was " the approved 
part or element of the faith," that is, the pure faith that remained when the dross had been 
purged away by fiery trial ; but unable to find any warrant for this sense of So/cifitov, he 
was driven to suspect that the true reading was Soki/mv, for which he had the support of 
a few cursives. There was no need, however, for any such conjecture. Ever since 
Deissmann 5 first drew attention to the importance of the evidence of the papyri in this 
connexion, examples have been rapidly accumulating to show that 8o/ci}iio<;, as well as 
B6ki/j.o<>, means " proved," " genuine," in such a phrase as XP V<T °S &okl/mo<;, " tested gold," 
and we need no longer have any hesitation in so translating the word both in the Petrine 
passage and in Jas i 3 . 

Or, to take another example, where the appearance of a hitherto unestablished usage 
has again done away with the need of textual emendation. In Ac 16 12 tjtm itrrlv irp^Tr] 
t;}? pepi^o? Ma/ceSovias ttoXk, the reading p.epiSov was objected to by Dr. Hort, on the 
ground that pepls never denotes simply a region or province, and he proposed accordingly 
to read ILepi'So? in its stead, "a chief city of Pierian Macedonia." 6 But while it is true 
that fiepU in the sense of a geographical division does not occur in classical writers, it 
is regularly so used in documents of the Apostolic age, so that the rendering "district" 
in the Revised Version, however arrived at, need no longer raise any qualms. 

1 BGU IV. 1079 (= Selections, No. 15). 2 P Oxy I. 119 (= Selections, No. 42). 

3 It may be noted that the phrase Z.ppov airrov, "Away with him," applied to the boy in the 
above- document, supplies a striking linguistic parallel to Jn 19 15 ipov,S.pav, aravpwo-ov avr6v. 

4 Syll 325 (= 3 7o8) , «. s See £s p _ , SQ ff _ 6 NoUs Qn Selec[ Readi)lgs z p> g6 f> 


It is, however, by imparting a fresh life and reality to many of our most ordinary New 
Testament terms that the new authorities render their most signal service. We know 
how our very familiarity with Scriptural language is apt to blind us to its full significance. 
But when we find words and phrases, which we have hitherto associated only with a 
religious meaning, in common, everyday use, and employed in circumstances where their • 
meaning can raise no question, we make a fresh start with them, and get a clearer insight 
into their deeper application. 

Take, for instance, the common designation of Christians as " brethren " or " brothers " 
(d&e\(f>oi) . The practice no doubt was taken over from Judaism (Ac 2 ss,3r , al.) and from 
the example of our Lord Himself (cf. Alt 12 48 , 23 s ); but we can at least see how the 
adoption of such a term was rendered easier by its application to the members of a funeral 
societv, whose duty it was to take part in the embalming of dead bodies, or again to the 
"fellows" of a religious corporation in the Serapeum of Memphis. 1 

So with the title " presbyter" (TrpeaftvTepos). Without entering on the question of the 
presbyter's place and authority in the early Christian Church, it is obvious that the use of 
the word in civil life to denote a local or village officer must have prepared the way in 
Gentile circles for its acceptance in its new connotation. Thus in the year B.C. 117 a 
tax-farmer petitions the village-scribe and "the elders of the cultivators," that he may be 
assured of official "protection." 2 Or, again, in a.d. 114 a woman lodges a complaint of 
assault and robbery against another woman whose husband as "elder" was responsible 
for the peace and order of the village. 3 Or once more, in a document of a.d. 159-60, 
mention is made of the priests of the Socnopaeus temple as being divided into five tribes 
under the rule of five "elder-priests " — clearly a title not of age but of dignity. 4 It is in 
this same document, we may note in passing, that the charge is laid against a fellow-priest 
" of letting: his hair grow too lone and of wearing- woollen garments " — the former item 
recalling the fact that in the Early Church short hair was considered the mark of a 
Christian teacher, as compared with the unshorn locks of the heathen philosopher. 

Keeping still to words with an ecclesiastical ring about them, the term " liturgy" has 
an interesting history. In classical times it was used of public services rendered 
gratuitously to the State, but later it came to be applied to all kinds of work or service, 
including those of a religious character, such as the " liturgy " of the Twin Sisters Thaues 
and Thaus, who held some position as attendants in the temple of Serapis at Memphis, 
with a corresponding right to certain allowances of oil and bread, which were apparently 
frequently in arrears. 5 Similarly the corresponding verb is used in a contract of the year 
A.D. 8-9 with an artiste who undertakes to give her "services" (XeiTovpyelv) on certain 
specified occasions, including the festivals of Isis and Hera, at a salary of forty drachmae 
a year, along with a further wage or present (o-tywviov) of thirteen drachmae two obols. 6 

Other more general uses of the word occur in connexion with the maintenance of the 
banks of the Nile, or with the release of persons from some public service "because it is 
not at present their turn to serve (Sta to /i?; iicirerr[eT\v abroh to vvv XeiTovpyijaai).'" 
Very interesting too is a doctor's claim for exemption, on the ground that he was a doctor 
by profession, and had "treated medically" (edepenrevaa : cf. Ac 28 s and Ramsay, Luke, 

1 P Tor I. i !a0 (b.c 116) ; P Par 42 1 (b.c. 156) (but see UPZ\. p. 319). 

2 P Tebt I. 40 (= Selections, No. 10). 

3 BGU I. 22 (= Selections, No. 29). 4 BGU I. 16 (= Selections, No. 33). 

5 The story of the Twins has been graphically reconstructed by Sir F. G. Kenyon in 
P Lond I. p. 2ff. 

6 P Oxy IV. No. 731. 7 P Hib I. 7S 11 (b.c 244-3). 


p. i6f.) the very persons who were now attempting to lay this new "liturgy" upon him 
[oirivi<! fie eh XeiTo[v]p[y]iap hehwxaai). 1 

I admit, of course, that none of these instances adds materially to our knowledge of 
the word's connotation, but they give it fresh point, and enable us to understand how 
well-adapted it was to describe the "liturgy" or " ministry " of Christian fellowship (cf. 
2 Cor 9 12 , Phil 2 17:< "), and all the more so, because the word has now come to be almost 
wholly limited to a particular form of public worship. 

Its occurrence in the current phraseology of the time adds again a fresh reality to the 
Greek word (dppaftwv), which is usually translated "earnest" in our English Versions. 
We have all been taught that by the " earnest " of the Spirit in such passages as 2 Cor i 22 , 
5 s , Eph i 14 , we are to understand a part given in advance of what will be bestowed fully 
afterwards. But how increasingly clear this becomes when a woman who is selling a 
cow receives a thousand drachmae as an "earnest" (dppa(3a)va) on the total purchase- 
money, 2 or when certain dancing girls at a village entertainment receive so many 
drachmae " by way of earnest " (Inrep apaBwvos) on their promised salary ! 3 

Much help can also be derived from the legal documents, which are so common 
amongst the papyri. Thus in his pioneer Bible Studies (p. 104 ff.), Deissmann has shown 
that the Greek adjective (/3e73ato?) usually translated "sure" or "steadfast" in our English 
Versions, along with its cognate verb (/3e/3atd&>) and substantive (/3e/3ai,Wt9), is the regular 
technical term in the papyri to denote legally guaranteed security. This sense occurs, of 
course, in classical Greek, but its constant reappearance in the papyri gives fresh point to 
the New Testament usage. Two examples will make this clear. In an application for a 
lease belonging to the year a.d. 78, and therefore practically contemporary with the New 
Testament writings, provision is made for the publication of the lease for the legal period 
often days "in order that if no one makes a higher bid (eTriOep-a), the lease may remain 
guaranteed (ftefiaia) to us for the period of five years without change," 4 and, similarly, in 
a somewhat later document (a.d. 266), connected with the registration of a deed, it is laid 
down, " I will further guarantee the property always against all claims with every 
guarantee " (en re koX irape^opai aoi /3e/3ata Bid Travrbs airo iravraiv Trdar) ftefiaiwaei)^ 
Read, then, the verb with this technical sense in view, and what added assurance it gives 
to the promise of 1 Cor r ' : "Thus you lack no spiritual endowment during these days 
of waiting till our Lord Jesus Christ is revealed ; and to the very end he will guarantee 
(f3ef3ai<t)(Tet) that you are vindicated on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ " (Moffatt), just as 
another legal term ({nr6<nacn<;), which was used to denote the collection of papers bearing 
upon the possession of a piece of property, or as we would now say, the title-deeds, 
imparts a new certainty to the familiar definition — " Faith is the title-deed (vnoaTacris) of 
things hoped for" (Heb n 1 ). 

In what are probably the earliest of his letters that have come down to us, the two 
Epistles to the Thessalonians, St. Paul finds it necessary to rebuke his converts for 
walking " in a disorderly manner" (2 Thess 3 11 ). The word (ttTaxTw), with its cognates, 
is confined to these Epistles in the New Testament, and what exactly is meant by it is by 
no means clear at first sight. Is St. Paul referring to actual sin or moral disorder, or to 
something less heinous? The papyri have supplied the answer in a striking manner. 
Among them is a contract of a.d. 66 in which a father arranges to apprentice his son with 
a weaver for one vear. All the conditions of the contract as regards food and clothiner 
1 P Oxy I. 40 6 (ii/iii a.d.). 2 P Par 5S 14 (b.c. 153) (= UPZ i. p. 325) 

3 P Grenf II. 67" (a.d. 237) (= Selections, No. 45). 

4 P Amh II. 8<-°"- s p Qxy IX j 200 «.<. 



are carefully laid down. Then follows the passage which specially interests us. If there 
are any days during this period on which the boy "fails to attend" or " plays truant" 
(oaa<; 8' eav iv tovtw uTa/cT>jcrr) i)/j,epa<;), the father has to produce him for an equivalent 
number of days after the period is over. And the verb which is used to denote playing 
truant is the same verb which St. Paul uses in connexion with the Thessalonians. 1 This 
then was their fault. They were idling, playing truant. The Parousia of the Lord 
seemed to them to be so close at hand that it was unnecessary for them to interest 
themselves in anything else. Why go to their daily work in the morning, when before 
night Christ might have come, they thought, forgetting that the best way to prepare for 
that coming was to show themselves active and diligent in the discharge of their daily 
work and duty. 

The reference to the Parousia may suggest a last example. Parousia, as applied to 
the Return of the Lord, is simply the anglicizing of a Greek word (rrapovcrla) which 
literally means " presence." But in late Greek the word had come to be applied in a quasi- 
technical sense to the "visit" of a king or great man. Thus in a papyrus of iii/B.c. we 
read of a district that was mulcted to provide a " crown " for one of the Ptolemaic kings on 
the occasion of his "visit" ; and in a letter of about the same date a certain Apenneus 
writes that he has made preparations for the " visit " of a magistrate Chrysippus (em tIjv 
7rapovalav rov XpvaiTnrov) by laying in a number of birds for his consumption, including 
geese and young pigeons. 2 

It would seem, therefore, that as distinguished from other words associated with 
Christ's Coming, such as His " manifestation " (iiri<f>dveia) of the Divine power and His 
" revelation " («7roKa'A.i/\/<-{?) of the Divine plan, the " parousia " leads us rather to think of 
His "royal visit" to His people, whether we think of the First Coming at the Incarnation, 
or of the Final Coming as Judge. 

The Literary Character of the New Testament. — These examples are sufficient to show 
that it is often from the most unlikely quarters that light is shed upon our New Testament 
vocabulary, and that a scrap of papyrus may be the means of settling some long-standing 
crux interpretum. I would not, however, be understood to say that the later Greek which 
we associate with the papyri has no rules of its own, or that, in the hands of the New 
Testament writers, it is not often employed with marked literary grace and power. The 
writers, of course, differ largely in this connexion, in keeping with their individual 
education and culture. At one end of the scale, we have the rude Greek of St. Mark's 
Gospel, or of the Apocalypse : at the other, the polished periods of the author of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews. But even in the case of the least literary writings of the New Testament 
we must beware of so emphasizing their popular character as to lose sight of the dignity 
and beauty imparted to them in virtue of the subject-matter with which they deal and the 
spiritual genius of their authors. " In the Gospels," as Professor Wellhausen has pointed 
out, " spoken Greek, and even Greek as spoken amongst the lower classes, has made its 
entry into literature." 3 And Professor Julicher has borne similar testimony with reference 
to the Pauline Epistles. " These Epistles," he writes, " in spite of the fact that they are 
always intended as writings of the moment addressed to a narrow circle of readers, yet 
approach much more nearly to the position of independent literary works than the average 
letters of great men in modern times. . . . Without knowing or intending it, Paul 
became by his letters the creator of a Christian literature." And more than that, Paul, as 

1 P Oxy II. No. 275 (= Selections, No. 20). 

2 P Petr II. 39 (<?)« (as read by Wilcken Ostr. i. p. 275) ; P Grenf II. 14 {bf. 

3 Einleilung in die drei ersten Evangelien (Berlin, 1905), p. 9. 


the same authority admits, " must be ranked as a great master of language, . . . and it is 
because his innermost self breathes through every word that most of his Epistles bear so 
unique a charm." 1 It is utterly unnecessary to labour the point. Such passages as the 
triumphant Hymn of Hope in Rom 8 and the glorious Hymn of Love in i Cor 13 are 
moved by a heart-felt eloquence which makes them, regarded as literature, as notable as 
anything ever penned. And if we are told that the Pauline letters "differ from the 
messages of the homely Papyrus leaves from Egypt not as letters, but only as the 
letters of Paul,"- we can accept the statement (though hardly in the sense the writer 
intended it), because it is just " Paul," and what Paul stands for, that does make all the 

G. Milligan. 

1 An Introduction to the New Testament, translated by Janet Penrose Ward (London, 1904), 
pp. 48 f., 51. 

2 Deissmann, JiS, p. 44. 


I. General 
Abbott Fourfold 

Gospel. = The Fourfold Gospel, Section II. 

The Beginning, by E. A. Abbott. 

Cambridge, 1914. 
,, J oh. Gr = Johanninc Grammar, by the same. 

London, 1906. 
,, J oh. Voc = Johanninc Vocabulary, by the same. 

London, 1905. 
Abbott Songs = Songs of Modem Greece, by G. F. 

Abbott. Cambridge, 1900. 
Aegyptus = Aegyptus. Rivista Iialiana di 

Egittologia c di Papirolo«ia. 

Ed. A. Calderini. Milan, 

1920- . 
AJP = The American Journal of Philology. 

Baltimore, 1SS0- . 
AJT = The American Journal of Theology. 

Chicago, 1S97- '. 
Anz Subsidia = Snbsidia ad cognoscendum Grae- 

corum sermonem vulgarem e Pen- 

tateuchi versione Alexandrina 

repel ita (being Diss, philolog. 

Halenses, xii. 2), by II. Anz. 

Halle, 1S94. 
Archiv.- = Aichiv fur Papyrusforschung. Ed. 

U. Wilcken. Leipzig, 190 1- . 
Aristeas = Aristeae ad Philocratem Epistula. 

Ed. P. Wendland. Leipzig, 

Artemidorusor Artem.= Artemidori Daldiani Onirocriticon 

Libri V. Ed. R. Hercher. 

Leipzig, 1864. 
BCH = Bulletin de Correspondance HelUn- 

ique. Paris and Athens, 1877- . 
Berger Strafklauseln = Die Slrafklauseln in den Papy- 

; usiu lunden, von A. Berger. 

Leipzig, 191 1. 
Be> ichtigungen = Berichtigungslisle der Griechischen 

Papyrusurkiinden aits Agypten, 

herausgegeben von F. Preisigke. 

Berlin und Leipzig, 1922. 
Birt Bttchrolle = Die Buchrolle in der A'unst, 

von Theodor Birt. Leipzig, 

Blass Gr = Grammar of New Testament Greek, 

by F". Blass. Eng. tr. by H. 

St. John Thackeray. Second edit. 

London, 1905. 

Blass Philology = Philology of the Gospels, by Fried- 
rich Blass. London, 1S9S. 

Blass-Debrunner = Friedrich Blass 1 Grammalik des 

neutestament lichen Griechisch. 
Fiinfte Aufl. von. A. Debrunner. 
Gottingen, 1921. 

Boisacq Diet. Etym.. = Diclionnaire Etvinologique de la 
Langue Grecque, par Fmile 
Boisacq. Heidelberg and Paris, 

Boll Offenbarung = Aits der Offenbarung fohannis : 

Ilellenistische Studien zum Welt- 
bild der Apokalypse, von Franz 
Boll. Leipzig, 1914. 

BonhofTer Efiklct. ... = Epiklet und das Neue Testament 
(being Religionsgeschichtliche 
1 'ersuche und Vorarbeiten, 
herausgegeben von R. Wimsch 
und L. Deubner, X), von Adolf 
BonhofTer. Giessen, 191 1. 

Brugmann GV«;jt/m.s 2 = Grundriss der vergleichenden 
Grammalik tier imlogermanischen 
Sprachen, von Karl Brugmann. 
Zweite Bearbeitung. Strassburg, 

Brngmann-Thumb = Griechische Grammalik, von Karl 

Brugmann. Vierte vermehrte 
Aufl., von Albert Thumb. 
Munich, 1913. 

BS. See under Deissmann. 

Burkitt Syr iac Forms = The Syriac Forms of New Testa- 
ment Proper Names, by F. C. 
Burkitt. London, [1912]. 

BZ = Byzantinische Zeitschrift. Ed. K. 

Krumbacher. Leipzig, 1892- . 

Cadbury Diction = The Style and Literary Method of 

Luke. I. The Diction of Luke 
and Acts. II. The Treatment 
of Sources in the Gospel [being 
Harvard Theological Studies, 
VI.), by Henry J. Cadbury. 
Harvard University Press, 1919, 

Conybeare and Stock 
L XX Selections. . . . 


Selections from the Septuagtnt, by 
F. C. Conybeare and St. George 
Stock. Boston, [1905]. 
•■ The Classical Quarterly. London, 
1907- . 


, , Philology ... =■ 

CR = The Classical Review. London, 

1887- . 

CRE See under Ramsay. 

Cronert or Cronert 

Lex. = I'assow's Worterbttch der griech- 

ischen Sprache, vollig neu bear- 
beitet von W. Cronert. 3 parts. 
Gottingen, 1912-14. 
Cronert Mem. Here. = Memoria Gracca Herculanensis, by 
W. Cronert. Leipzig, 1 903. 

Deissmann BS = Bible Studies, by G. Adolf Deiss- 

mann. Engl. ed. by A. Grieve. 
Edinburgh, 1901. 
,, Festgabe... = Festgabe fur Adolf Deissmann sum 
60. Geburtstag-]. November 1926. 
Tubingen, 1927. 
,, in Christo = Die neutestavientliche Formel "in 

Christo fesu," von G. Adolf 
Deissmann. Marburg, 1S92. 
„ LAE and 

LAE 2 = Light from the Ancient East, by 

Adolf Deissmann. English trans- 
lation by Lionel R. M. Strachan. 
London, 1910 and 1927. 
The Philology of the Greek Bible : 
its Present and Future, by Adolf 
Deissmann. English translation 
by Lionel R. M. Strachan. 
London, 1908. 
,, Sprachliche 

Erforschung .. = Die sprachliche Erforschung der 
griechischen Bibel {being Vortrage 
der theologischen Konferenz zu 
Giessen. XII. Folge), von G. 
Adolf Deissmann. Giessen, 
,, Urgeschichte = Die Urgeschichle des Christen/urns 
im Lichte der Sprachforschung, 
von Adolf Deissmann. Tubin- 
gen, 1910. 
Dieterich Abraxas ... = Abraxas: Studien zur Religions- 
geschichte des Spdteru Alter! uins, 
von Albrecht Dieterich. Leip- 
zig, 1 89 1. 
,, Mithrasliturgie = Fine Mithrasliturgie erlautert von 
Albrecht Dieterich. 2 te Aufl. 
Leipzig and Berlin, 1910. 
Dieterich Vntersuch = Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der 
Griechischen Sprache, von der 
Hellenislischen Zeit bis zum 
10. fahrh. n. Chr., von Karl 
Dieterich. Leipzig, 1S98. 

Diog. Oenoand = Diogenis Oenoandensis fragmenta. 

Ed. I. William. Leipzig, 1907. 

Documents See under Milligan. 

Durham, D. li. 

Menander = 7'he Vocabulary of Menander, con- 
sidered in its relation to the Koine. 
l'rincetown, 1913. 

EB = Encyclopaedia Biblica. London, 

FEE = Egypt Exploration Fund. 



Erman und Krebs ... 

The Expositor 's Greek Testa- 
ment, edited by W. Robertson 
Nicoll. 5 vols. London, 1S97- 

See under Usener. 

Aus den Papyrus der A'bniglichen 
Mitseen [zu Berlin], von A. 
Erman und F. Krebs. Berlin, 

Exler Epistolography = The Form of the Ancient Greek 
Letter. A Study in Greek Epis- 
tolography. By Francis Xavier 
J. Exler. Catholic University 
of America, Washington D.C. 


Exp = The Expositor. London, 1875- . 

Cited by series, volume, and 
ExpT = The Expository Times. Edin- 
burgh, 1SS9- . 
Ferguson, W. D. 

Legal Terms = The Legal Terms Common to the 

Macedonian Inscriptions and the 
Ntw Testament (being Historical 
and Linguistic Studies in Liter- 
ature related to the New Testa- 
ment. 2nd Series, Vol. II., 
Part 3), by W. D. Fergusoa 
Chicago, 1913. 

Field Notes = Notes on the Translation of the 

New Testament (being Otium 
Norvicense iii.), by F. Field. 
Cambridge, 1S99. 
Foucart Associations 

Religieuses = Des Associations Religieuses chez 

les Grecs. Par P. Foucart. 
Paris, 1873. 

Gerhard Erbslreit = Ein grdko-dgyptischer Erbstreit 

aus dem zweileu Jahrhundert 
vor Chr. (being Sitzungsberichte 
der Heidelberger Akademie der 
IVissenschaften, S. Abhandlung), 
von G. A. Gerhard. Heidel- 
berg, 191 1. 

GH = Grenfell and Hunt. See further 

under Abbreviations II. Papyri. 

Ghedini Letlere = Lettere Christiane dai Papiri Greci 

del ILL e IV Secolo. Ed. G. 
Ghedini. Milan, 1923. 

Giles Manual. = A Short Manual of Comparative 

Philology for Classical Students, 
by P. Giles, M.A. Second edit. 
London, 1901. 

Glaser De ralioue = De ratione, quae intercedit inter 

sermoncm Polybii el eitvi, qui 
in titulis saeculi 111, J I, I ap- 
parel, by Otto Glaser. Giessen, 

G radenwitz Einfuhr- 

Einfuhrung in die Papyruskunde, 
von O. Gradenwitz. Heft i. 
Leipzig, 1900. 


Grimm or Grimm- 

Thayer = A Greek-English Lexicon of the 

New Testament, being Grimm's 
Wilke's Clavis Novi Teslamenti, 
tr. and enlarged by J. II. Thayer. 
Second edit. Edinburgh, 1S90. 
[Thayer's additions are usually 
cited under his name.] 

Hatch Essays = Essays in Biblical Greek, by E. 

Hatch. Oxford, 1S89. 

Hatzidakis Einl. — Eiuleitung in die Neugriechische 

Grammatik, von G. N. Hatzi- 
dakis. Leipzig, 1S92. 

Heinrici Lilt. Char. = Der litterarische Charakter der 
neuteslamentlichen Schriften, 
von C. F. Georg Heinrici. 
Leipzig, 190S. 

Helbing Gr = Grammatik der Septuaginta : Laut- 

und IVortlehre, von R. Hel- 
bing. Gottingen, 1907. 

Herwerden or Her- 

werden Lex — Lexicon Graecam Supplelorium el 

Dialecticum", by H. van Her- 
werden. 2 vols. Leiden, 1910. 

Hesychius = Hesychii AUxandrini Lexicon, 

ed. M. Schmidt. Jena, 1867. 

Hobart = The Medical Language 0/ St. Luke, 

by W. K. Hobart. Dublin and 
London, 18S2. 

Hohlwein L&gypte 

Romaine = L'Jigypte Romaine, Recueil des 

Termes Techniques re/atifs aux 
Institutions Poliliques el Admin- 
islratives de t"£gjple Romaine, 
suivi (Pun choix de Textes 
Papyrotogiques, par N. Hohl- 
wein. Brussels, 1912. 

HR = A Concordance to the Septuagint, 

by E. Hatch and H. A. Redpath. 
Oxford, 1897. 

HZNT. = Handbuch sum Ncuen Testament, 

ed. H. Lietzmann. Tubingen, 
1906- . 

ICC = International Critical Commentary, 

Edinburgh. Various dates. 

Jannaris Gr. = An Historical Greek Grammar, l.y 

A. N. Jannaris. London, 1S97. 

JBL = The Journal of Biblical Literature. 

Middletown, 1S81- . 

J.Eg.Arck = The Journal of Egyptian Arena- 

ology. London, 1914- . 

JHS = The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

London, 18S0- . 

Jouguet Vie municipale = La Vie Mumcipale dans Vltgyptt 
Romaine (being Bibliolheque des 
Scales Eranfaises dAthenes et 
de Rome, 104), par P. Jouguet. 
Paris, 191 1. 

J TS. ... = The Journal of Theological Studies, 

London, 1900- . 

Kaelker Quaest = Quaestiones ac Elocutione Polybtana 

(being Leipziger Studien III. 

Kennedy Sources.. 
Krebs Prdp 

ii.), by F. Kaelker. Leipzig, 
= Sources of New Testament Greek, 
by II. A. A. Kennedy. Edin- 
burgh, 1S95. 
= Die Prdpositionen bei Polybius 
(being Beitrdge zur Historischen 
Syntax der Griechischen Sprache, 
1), von F. Krebs. Wilrzburg, 

Kiihner 3 , or Ktihner- 
Blass, Kuhner-Gerth = Ausfiihrliche Grammatik der 
Griechischen Sprache, von R. 
Kiihner, besorgt von F. Blass 
(Formenlehre) und B. Gerth 
(Satzlehre). Hanover and Leip- 
zig, 1 890- 1 904. 

Kuhring = De Praepositionum Graecarum in 

Chartis Aegypliis Usu Quaes- 
tiones Selectae, by G. Kuhring. 
Bonn, 1906. 

LAE See under Deissmann. 

Lafoscade De epis- 

tuli<: = De epislulis (aliisque titulis) im- 

peratorum magistratuumque Ro- 
manorum qttas ab aetate Augusti 
usque ad Constantinum Graece 
seriptas lapides papyrive serva- 
verunt, par Leon Lafoscade. 
Paris, 1902. 

Laqueur Quaestiones = Quaestiones Epigraphicaeet Papyro- 
logicae Selectae, by R. Laqueur. 
Strassburg, 1904. 

Lewy Fremdwbrter.. = Die Semitischen Fremdwbrter im 
Griechischen, von H. Lewy, 
Berlin, 1895. 

Lietzmann Gr. Pap. = Griechische Papyri (in Kleine Texte 
fur theologische Vortesungen und 
Ubungcn, 14). Ed. H. Lietz- 
mann. Bonn, 1905. English 
edition, Cambridge, 1905. 

Linde Epic = De Epicuri Vocabulis ab optima 

Atthide alienis (being Breslauer 
Philologische Abhandlungcn, ix. 
3), by P. Linde. lireslau, 

Lob. Par = Paraiipomena Grammaticae Graecae, 

by C. A. Lobeck. Leipzig, 

,, Phryn = Phrynichi Ecloga. Ed. C. A. Lo- 
beck. Leipzig, 1820. 

LS 8 and LS 9 = A Greek-English Lexicon, com- 
piled by H. G. Liddell and 
R. Scott. Eighth edition. Ox- 
ford, 1901. Ninth edition. 
Oxford, 1925- . 

Luckhard Privathaus = Das Privalhaus im ptolemdischen 
und romischen Agypleu, by F. 
Luckhard. Giessen, 19 14. 

Lumbroso Raccolla... = Raccolta di scritti in onore di 
Giacomo Lumbroso (1844-1925). 
Milan, 1925. 



Magie... = De Komanorum inn's publici 

sacriijue vocabulis sollemnibus in 
Graecum sermonem conversis, by 
D. Magie. Leipzig, 1905. 

Maidhof Begriffsbe- 

stimmung. = Zur Begriffsbestimmung der Koine, 

besonders auf Grztnd lies Atti- 
zislen Moiris (being Beitriige zur 
Historischcn Syntax der Griechi- 
schen Sprache, 20), von A. 
Maidhof. Wiirzburg, 1912. 

Martin Fpistratiges = Les Epistratt'ges, Contribution a 
I'Etude des Institutions de 
FEgypte Grko-Romaine, par 
Victor Martin. Geneva, 1911. 

Mayser Gr. = Grammatik tier Griechischen Papyri 

. aus der Plolemaerzeit. Laut- 
und ll'ortlehre, von E. Mayser. 
Leipzig, 1906. 
,, Gr. II. i. ... = //: II. Satzlehre. Analytischer 
Teil i., von E. Mayser. Berlin 
u. Leipzig, 1926. 

Meecham Letters = Light from Ancient Letters. By 

Henry G. Meecham. London, 

Meisterlians Gr = Grammatik der attischen Insehrif- 

ten, von K. Meisterlians. Dritte 

Auflage von E. Schwyzer. Ber- 
lin, 1900. 
Mel. Cha'elain = Melanges offerts a M. Entile Chale- 

lain. Paris, 1910. 
Mil. Nicole = M flanges . . . qfferls A Jules Nicole. 

Geneva, 1905. 
Menander Fragin. ... = Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta, 

III. Ed. Th. Kock. Leipzig, 

,, Selections = Selections from Menander, edited 

by W. G. Waddell, M.A. 

Oxford, 1927. 
Menandrca = Menandrea ex papyris el mem- 

branis vetustissimis. Ed. A. 

Korte. Leipzig, 1912. 
Meyer Gr. = Griechische Gra mmatik' 4 , vonGustnv 

Meyer. Leipzig, 1896. 
Meyer Heerwesen.... = Das Heerwesen der Ptolemder und 

Rimer in Agj'pten, von Paul M. 

Meyer. Leipzig, 1900. 
,, Jut. Pap = Juristische Papyri. Erklarnngvon 

Vrkunden zur Einfuhrung in 

die Jutistiche Papyruskunde 

von Paul M. Meyer. Berlin, 


MGr = Modern Greek. 

Milligan Documents = The New Testament Documents : 

Their Origin and Early History, 

by George Milligan. London, 

1913. [Out of print.] 

Here and 
There ; 

,, Selections ... = 

Here and There among the Papyri, 
by the same. London, 1923. 
I Out of print.] 

Selections from the Greek Papyri. 

by the same. New edit. Cam- 
bridge, 1927. 
,, Thess = St. Paul's Epistles to the Thessa- 

lonians, by the same. London, 

Mitteis or Wilcken 

Papyruskunde = Grundziige und Chrestomathie der 

Papyruskunde I. i. ed. U. 

Wilcken, and II. i. ed. L. Mitteis. 

Leipzig and Berlin, 1912. See 

also Abbreviations II. Papyri 

s.v. Chrest. 
Modica Lntioduztone = Lnlroduzione alio Studio delta 

F'apirologia Giuridica, by M. 

Modica. Milan, [1913]. 
Moeris = Moeridis Alticistae Lexicon Atti- 

cum. Ed. J. Pierson. Leiden, 


Moulton Proleg = A Grammar of New Testament 

Greek. Vol. I. Prolegomena 3 , by 
James Hope Moulton. Edin- 
burgh, 190S. 

,, Gr. ii = A Grammar of New Testament 

Greek. Vol. II. Accidence and 
Word-Formation with an Ap- 
pendix on Semilisms in the New 
Testament, by James Hope 
Moulton and Wilbert Francis 
Howard. Edinburgh, 1929. 
,, Egyptian 

Rubbish-heaps = From Egyptian Rubbish-heaps, by 
James Hope Moulton. London, 
,, Einleitung.. = Einleitungin die Sprache des Nenen 
Testaments. (Translated with 
additions from the third edition 
of Prolegomena.) Heidelberg, 

Musonius = C. Musonii Rufi Reliquiae. Ed. 

O. Hense. Leipzig, 1905. 

Nachmanson = Laute und Formen der Magnet- 

ischen Inschriflen, von E. Nach- 
manson. Uppsala, 1903. 

Nageli = Der Wortschatz des ApostelsPaulus, 

\ 1 in Th. Nageli. Gdttingen, 1905. 

Norden Agnostos 

Theos = Agnostos Theos, von Eduard Nor- 
den. Leipzig und Berlin, 1913. 

Oertel Litnrgie = Die Liturgie. Studien zur Ptole- 

maischen und A'aiserlichen Ver- 
wal/tin* Agyptens, von F. Oertel. 
Leipzig, 1917. 

Otto Priester = Priester und Tempel im Hellenist- 

ischen Agypteu, von Walter Otto, 
2 vols. Leipzig and Berlin, 
1905, 1908. 

Pelagia- Legenden = Legenden der heiligen Pelagia. Ed. 

II. Usener. Bonn, 1879. 

Plaumann Ptolemais. = Ptolemais in Oberdgypten. Ein 
Beiiragzur Gesckichte des Helten- 
ismus in Agyplen, von Gerhard 
Plaumann. Leipzig, 1910. 


Poland Vercinswesen = Geschiehtedes Griechischen Vereins- 
-.<<< sens, von Franz Poland. Leip- 
zig, 1909. 
Preisigke FachwSrter = FachwSrter des bffentlichen Ver- 
waltungsaienstes Agyptens in den 
griechischen Papyrusurkunden 
der ptolemdisch-romischen Zeil, 
von Friedrich Preisigke. Got- 
tingen, 1915. 
,, Nameribuch — Namenbuch enthaltend alle griech- 
ischen, laieinisehen, agyptischen, 
hebraischen, arabisehen undsons- 
tigen semitischen und nichtsemit- 
ischen A/enscheuuamcu, sotveit 
sic in griechischen Urkunden 
{Papyri, Oslraka, Inschriften, 
Mumieuschildern usw.) Agyptens 
sich vorfnden, von Friedrich 
Preisigke. Heidelberg, 1922. 
,, Wbrterbuch = Wbrterbuch der griechischen Papy- 

msurkunden, von Friedrich Prei- 
sigke (und E. Kiessling). Vols. 
I. II. III. i. Berlin, 1925-29. 

Preuschen-Bauer Wbr- 
terbuch = Gricchisch-Dcutsches Wbrterbuch 

zu den Schriften des Neiten 
Testaments (being an entirely 
new edition of E. Preuschen's 
Handwbrterbuch zu den Schriften 
det Neuen Testaments), von W. 
Bauer. Giessen, 1928. 

Pro/eg See under Moulton. 

Psaltes Gr = Grammatik der Byzantinischen 

Chroniken (being Forschungen 
zur griechischen und laieinisehen 
Grammatik, 2), von Stamatios 
B. Psaltes. Gottingen, 1913. 

Radermacher Gr. and 

Gr. 2 = Neutcstamentliche Grammatik (be- 
ing Handbuch zum Neuen 
Testament I. i.), von L. Rader- 
macher. Tubingen, 1911 and 

Ramsay Cities — The Cities of St. Paul, by W. M. 

Ramsay. London, 1907. 
,, CPE = The Church in the Roman Empire 

before a.d. 170, by the same. 

Fifth edition. London, 1S97. 
„ Letters = The Letters to the Seven Churches of 

Asia, by the same. London, 1904. 
„ Luke = Luke the Physician, by the same. 

London, 190S. 
., Paul = S. Paul the Traveller and the 

Roman Citizen, by the same. 

Third edition. London, 1897. 
,, Recent Dis- 
covery = The Bearing of Recent Discovery 

on the Trustworthiness of the 

New Testament, by the same. 

London, 1915. 

,, Stud, in the 
E. Rom. Prov. 

Studies in the History and Art of 


Regard Propositions 

REGr .... 
Reinhold . 

Reitzenstein Foimau- 



Revillout Melances .. 

the Eas/cm Provinces of the 
Lioman Empire (being Aberdeen 
University Studies, 20), edited by 
the same. Aberdeen, 1906. 

= 1 he Teaching of Paul in Terms 
of the Present Day, by the same. 
London, [19 13]. 

= Contribution a f Etude des Propo- 
sitions dans la Langue clu 
Nouveau Testament, par Paul 
F. Regard. Paris, 1919. 
Revue des Etudes Grecqucs. Paris, 
1888- . 

•■ De Graecitate Pa/rum Apostolic- 
orum Librorumque Apocry- 
phorum Novi Testament i Quaes- 
tiones Grammaticae (being Diss. 
Phil. Hal. xiv. I.), by H. Rein- 
hold. Halle, 1S9S. 

 Poimandres : Studien zur Griech- 
isck- Agyptischen und Friihchrist- 
lichen Liieratur, von R. Reitzen- 
stein. Leipzig, 1904. 

: Die Helleuislischeu Mysterienreli- 
gionen, ihre Grundgedanken und 
ll'n kuugen, by the same. Leip- 
zig, 1910. 
Melanges sur la mltrologie, I'eeo- 
tiotnie politique, et Phistoire de 
I'ancienne Egypte, by Eugene 
Revillout. Paris, 1S95. 
A Grammar of the Greek New 
Testament in the Light of His- 
torical Research, by A. T. 
Robertson. New York, [1914]. 
De Praepositionum Graecarum in 
Chartis Ae°yptiis Ptolemaeorum 
Aetatis Usu, by C. Rossberg. 
Jena, 1909. 

Rostovtzeff A Large 

Estate = A Large Estate in Egypt in the 

Third Century B.C. A Stutly 
in Economic History (being 
University of Wisconsin Studies 
in the Social Sciences and His- 
loiy, 6), by Michael Rostov- 
tzeff. Madison, 1922. 

Rouffiac Recherches = Recherches sur les caracteres dugrec 
dans le Nouveau Testament a" apre's 
les inscriptions de Priene, par 
J. Rouffiac. Paris, 191 1. 

Rutherford NP = The New Phrynichus, by W. G. 

Rutherford. London, 1S81. 

SA M = Sfiidi delta Scuola Pafirologica, R. 

Accademia Scientifico-Lctteraria 
in Jl/itauo. Milano, 1915- . 

Schlageter = Der Wortschatz der ausserhalb 

Attikas gefundenen atlischen 
Inschriften, von J. Schlageter. 
Strassburg, 1912. 

Robertson Gr? . 



Schmid Atticismus... = Der Atticismm in scimn Hauft- 
veriretem von Dionysins von 
Halikarnass bis auf den Zweiten 
Philostratus, by W. Schmid. 
4 vols, and Register. Stuttgart, 

Schmidt_/<« = De Flavii Josephi Elocutions Ob- 
servations Criticae, by \V. 
Schmidt. Leipzig, 1S93. 

Schubart Buck = Das Bitch bei den Griechen und 

Romern, von W. Schubart. 
Berlin, 1907. 
, , Einfiikrung = Einfiikrung in die Papyrus- 
kunde, von W. Schubart. Ber- 
lin, 1918. 

Schulze Gr. Lat = Graeea Latino, scripsit Gulielmus 

Schul/.e. Gottingen. 

SchUrer Geschichtt ... = Geschichte des Jiidischen Volkesim 
Zeitalter Iesu Christi, von E. 
Schurer. 3 t0 u. 4 te Aufl. Leip- 
zig, 1901. 

,, HJP = The above History of the Jewish 

People in the Time of Jesus 
Christ, translated from the 
second German edition. Edin- 
burgh, 1890-1. 

Schweizer Perg. = Grammatik der Pergamenischen 

Inschrijien, von E. Schweizer. 
Berlin, 1S9S. 

Scarles Lexicographi- 
cal Study = A Lexicographical Study of the 

Greek Inscriptions (being Chicago 
Studies in Classical Philology. 
II.). By Helen M. Searles. 
Chicngo, 1S9S. 

SH = The Epistle to the Romans, by W. 

Sanclay and A. C. Headlam. 
Fifth Edition. Edinburgh, 1902. 

Sharp Epict = Epictetus and the A r eiv Testament, by 

Douglas S. Sharp. London, 1914. 

Slaten Qualitative 

Nouns = Qualitative Nouns in the Paulin e 

Epistles and 77ieir Translation 
in the Revised Version (being 
Historical and Linguistic Studies 
in Literature related to the New 
Testament. Second Series, Vol. 
IV., Part I ), by Arthur Wakefield 
Slaten. Chicago, 1918. 

Sophocles Lex = Greek Lexicon of the Roman and 

Byzantine Periods, by E. A. 
Sophocles. New York, 18S7. 

Souter Lex = A Pocket Lexicon to the Greek New 

Testament, by A. Souter. Ox- 
ford, 1916. 

Stud, delta Scuola Pap ... See s.v. SAM. 

Sudhoff A rztliches ... = Arztliches aus griechischen Papy- 
rus- Urkunden (being Studien 
zur Geschichte der Medizin, 5/6), 
von Karl Sudhoff. Leipzig, 1909. 

Suidas Lex = Suidae Lexicon. Ed. I. Bekker. 

B 1 Nil, 1S54. 

Teles ed. Hense = Teletis Reliquiae ed. O. Hense. 

Editio secunda. Tubingen, 1909. 

Thackeray Arisl = The Letter of Aristeas translated 

into English, by H. St. J. 
Thackeray. London, 1917. 

,, Gr. = A Grammar oj the Old Testament 

in Greek i. , by H. St. John 
Thackeray. Cambridge, 1909. 

Thayer = See under Grimm. 

Thieme = Die Inschrijien von Magnesia am 

Maunder und das Neue Testa- 
ment, von G. Thieme. Gottingen, 

Thumb Dial = Handbuch der Griechischen Dia- 

leltte, von Albert Thumb. 
Heidelberg, 1909. 

,, Hatidbook = Handbook of the Modern Greek 

Vernacular, by Albert Thumb. 
Translated from the second Ger- 
man edition by S. Angus. Edin- 
burgh, 1 91 2. 
,, Hel/en = Die Griechische Sprache im Zeit- 
alter des Hellenismus, von A. 
Thumb. Strassburg, 1 901. 
,, Spirit us asper = Untersuchungen iiber den Spiritus 
asper im Griechischen, von A. 
Thumb. Strassburg, 1889. 

Trench Syn = Synonyms of the New Testament, 

by Richard Chenevix Trench. 
New edit. London, 1901. 

Usener Epic = Epicurea, ed. H. Usener. Leipzig, 


Vettius Valens = Vettii Valentis Anthologiarum 

Libri. Ed. W. Kroll. Berlin, 

Viereck SG = Sertno Graecus quo S.P.Q.R. 

magistratusque populi Romani 
usque ad Tib. Caesaris aetatem 
in scriptis publicis usi sunt, 
by Paul Viereck. Gottingen, 

Volker At t. = Syntax der griechischen Papyri. I. 

Der Artikel, von F. Volker. 
Miinster, 1903. 

YVackernagel Anrede- 

formen... = Uber einige autiie Anredeformen 
(Einladung zur akadem. Preis- 
verkiindigung), von J. Wacker- 
nagel. Gottingen, 1912. 

ist ica 

Wendland Lileratur- 

W'enger Stellvertre- 

Hellenistica (Einladung zur akadem. 
Preisverktindigung), von J.Wack- 
ernagel. Gottingen, 1907. 

Die Urchristlichen Literaturformen 
(being Handbuch sum Neuen 
Testament, I. 3), von Paul 
Wendland. Tubingen, 1912. 

Die Stellvertretung im Rechte der 
Papyri, von L. Wenger. Leip- 
zig, 1906. 


W H = The New Testament m the Original 

Greek, by B. F. Westcott and 
F. J. A. Hort. Vol. i. Text. 
Vol. ii. Introduction. Revised 
editions. London, 1898 and 

White Sayings = The Sayings of Jesus from Oxy- 

rhynchus. Ed. Hugh G. Evelyn 
White. Cambridge, 1920. 

Winer- Moulton Gr... = A Treatise on the Grammar of 
New Testament Greek. Trans- 
lated from G. B. Winer's 7th 
edition, with large additions, by 
W. F. Moulton. 3rd edition. 
Edinburgh, 18S2. 

Winer-Schmiedel Gr. — Grammatik des neutestamentlichen 
Sprachidioms, von G. B. Winer. 
8 t8 Aufl. von P. W. Schmiedel. 
Gottingen, 1894- . 

Zahn Introd. = Introduction to the New Testament, 

by Theodore Zahn. English tr. 
Edinburgh, 1909. 

Ziemann Epist = De epistularum Graecarum for- 
ma lis sollemnibus quaestiones 
selectae (being Diss, philolog. 
Halenses xviii. 4), by F. Ziemann. 
Halle, 191 1. 

ZNTIV = Zeitschriflfiirdie Neulestamentliche 

Wissenschaft. Giessen, 1900- . 

Zorell = Novi Testamenti Lexicon Graecum 

(being Cursus Scripturae Sacrae 
I. vii. ), auctore Francisco Zorell, 
S.J. Paris, 191 1. 

II. Papyri 


Chrest. I. and II.. 

Agypiische Urkunden aus den 
kbniglichen Museen zu Berlin: 
Griechische Urkunden I. — VIL 
Berlin, 1S95-1926. 

Grundiitge und Chrestomathie der 
Papyruskunde . I. ii. ed. U. 
Wilcken, and II. ii. ed. L. Mitteis. 
Leipzig and Berlin, 1912. 

Ghedini Lettere = Lettere Christiane dai Papiri 

Greet del III. e IV. Secolo. Ed. 
G. Ghedini. Milan, 1923. 
= BGU V. 1. 

Papyrusbriefe aus der friihesten 
Komerzeit. Ed. Bror Olsson 
Uppsala, 1925. 

Papyrus ptolimaiques du Music 
d'Alexandrie, ed. G. Botti in 
Bulletin de la SociitS ArchM. 
d'Alexandrie, p. 65 ff. Alex- 
andria, 1899. 

The Amherst Papyri I. II. Edd. 
B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt. 
London, 1 900-1. 

Griechische Papyri (= Veroffent- 

Gnomon or Gnomon 
Olsson Papyrusbriefe  

P Alex = 

P Amh . 

P Bad. 

lichungen aus den badischen 

Papyrus-Sammlungen ii. and 

iv.). Ed. Friedrich Bilabel. 

Heidelberg, 1923 and 1924. 
P Bouriant = Les Papyrus Bouriant, par Paul 

Collart. Paris, 1926. 
P Cairo Preis = Griechische Urkunden des Agypt- 

ischen Museums zu A'airo. Ed. 

F. Preisigke. Strassburg, 191 1. 
P Cairo Zen = Catalogue Gein'ral des Antiquitls 

Egyptienncs du Mush du Caire. 

Nos. 59001-5953 1. Zenon Papyri, 

I. II. III. Ed. C. C. Edgar. 

Cairo, 1925-28. 
P Catt = P Cattaoui, ed. G. Botti in Rivista 

Egiziana vi. p. 529 ft*. 
P Cornell = Greek Papyri in the Library of Cor- 

nell University. Edd. William 

Linn Westermann and Casper J. 

Kraemer, Jr. New York, 1926. 
P Eleph = Elephantine- Papyri. Ed. O. 

Rubensohn. Berlin, 1907. 
P Eud = Eudoxi ars astronomica, qualis in 

Charta Aegyptiaca superest, ed. 

F. Blass. Kiliae, 1887. 

P Fay = Fayiim Towns and their Papyri. 

Edd. B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, 
and D. G. Hogarth. London, 

P Flor = Papiri Fiorentini L-III. Edd. 

G. Vitelli and D. Comparetti. 
Milan, 1906-15. 

P Frankf. = Griechische Papyri aus dem Besitz 

des Kechlwissenschaftlichen Semi- 
nars der Universitctt Frankfurt 
(being Sitzungsberichte der Hei- 
delberger Akademie der IVissen- 
Klasse, 14 Abhandlung), von H. 
Ewald. Heidelberg, 1920. 

P Gen = Les Papyrus de Geneve I. Ed. J. 

Nicole. Geneva, 1896- 1900. 

PGiss = Griechische Papyri zu Giessen I. 

Edd. O. Eger, E. Kornemann, 
and P. M. Meyer. Leipzig, 

P Goodsp = A Group of Greek Papyrus Texts. 

Ed. Edgar J. Goodspeed (being 
Classical Philology, I. 2.) 
Chicago, 1906. 

P Goodsp Cairo = Greek Papyri from the Cairo 

Museum. Ed. E. J. Goodspeed. 
Chicago, 1902. 

P Goodsp Chicago ... = Chicago Literary Papyri. Ed. 
E. J. Goodspeed. Chicago, 190S. 

P Grad = Griechische Papyri det Sammlung 

Gradenwitz. Ed. G. Plaumann. 
Heidelberg, 1914. 

P Grenf I = An Alexandrian Erotic Fragment, 

and other Greek Papyri, chiefly 
Ptolemaic. Ed. B. P. Grenfell. 
Oxford, 1896. 


P Grenf II = New Classical Fragments, and other 

Creek and Latin Papyri. Edd. 

B. P. Grcnfell and A. S. Hunt. 

Oxford, 1897. 
P Hall = Dikaiomata, herausgegeben von der 

Graeca Halensis. Berlin, 191 3. 
P I lamb = Griechische Papyrusurkunden der 

Hamburger Staats-und Uni- 

versii&tsbibliothek I. Ed. V. M. 

Meyer. Leipzig 11. Berlin, 1911— 

P Hawara = Flinders Petrie, Hawara, Biahmu, 

and Arsinoe. London, 1889. 
PHeid = Veroffentlichungen aiis der Heidel- 

berger Papyrus-Sammlung I. 

Ed. A. Deissmann. Heidelberg, 

CP Herm — Corpus Papyrorum Hermopolitan- 

orum I. Ed. C. Wessely. 

Leipzig, 1905. 
PHib = TheHibeh Papyri, I. Edd. B. P. 

Grenfell and A. S. Hunt. Lon- 
don, 1906. 
P land — Papyri Iandanae Parts i.-iv. Edd. 

E. Schafer, L. Eisner, L. Spohr, 
and G. Spiess. Leipzig, 1912— 

P Karanis = Papyri from Karanis. Ed. E.J. 

Goodspeed. Chicago, 1900. 
P Leid = Papyri Graeci Musei antiqnarii 

publici Lugduni-Batavi, 2 vols. 

Ed. C. Leemans. 1843, 1S85. 
P Lille = Papyrus Grecs de Lille I. Parts i. 

ii. iii. Ed. P. Jouguet. Paris, 

P Lips .'. = Griechische Urkunden iter Fapyrus- 

sammlung zu Leipzig I. Ed. L. 

Mitteis. Leipzig, 1906. 
P Lond = Greek Papyri in the British 

Museum. Vols. I. and II. ed. 

F. G. Kenyon ; Vol. III. edd. 
F. G. Kenyon and H. I. Bell ; 
Vols. IV., V., ed. H. I. Bell. 
London, 1S93-1917. 

P Lond 1912-1929 being Greek Papyri in the British 

Museum, ed. by II. I. Bell in 
Jews and Greeks in Egypt. 
London, 1924. 

P Magd = Papyrus de Magdola being Papyrus 

Grecs de Lille II. Ed. J. Les- 
quier. Paris, 1912. 

P Masp = Papyrus Grecs d'Epoque Byzantine 

(being Catalogue Ge'ne'ral des 
Antiquitis Egypticnnes du Mush 
du Caire, Nos. 67001 — 67359), 
par Jean Maspero, I. — III. Cairo, 

P Meyer = Griechische Texte aus Agypten, 

ed. P. M. Meyer. Berlin, 

P Michigan = Classical Philology, xxii. 3 (July, 

1927), PP- 237 "• 

P Osl I. 

P Oxv 

P Mon = Veroffentlichungen aus der Papy- 
rus - Sammlung der A'. Hop- 
und Staatsbibliothek zu Miinchen. 
I. Byzantinischc Papyri. Leip- 
zig, 1914. 

= Papyri Osloenses. I. Magical 

Papyri. Ed. S. Eitrem. Oslo, 


= Phe Oxyrhynchus Papyri. Vols. 

I.-VI. edd. B. P. Grenfell and 
A. S. Hunt! Vols. VII. -IX. ed. 

A. S. Hunt ; Vols. X.-XV., edd. 

B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt; 
Vol. XVI., edd. B. P. Grenfell, 
A. S. Hunt, and H. I. Bell ; 
Vol. XVII., ed. A. S. Hunt. 
London, 189S — 1927. 

P Par = Paris Papyri in Notices et Exi 'raits 

XVIII. ii. Ed. Brunet de Presle. 
Paris, 1S65. 

1' Par 574 = The Paris Magical papyrus edited 

by C. Wessely in Denkschriften 
der philosophisch - historischen 
Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie 
der Wissenschaflen zu I lieu 
XXXVI (1888), p. 75 ft". 

P Petr = The Flinders Petrie Papyri in the 

Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy — " Cunningham Mem- 
oirs," Nos. viii. , ix. , and xi. 
Parts I. II. ed. I. P. Mahaffy.; 
Part III. edd. J. P. Mahaffy 
and J. G. Smyly. Dublin, 
1 89 1 -4. 

CPR = Corpus Papyrorum Raineri. 

Griechische Texte I. Ed. C. 
Wessely. Vienna, 1895. 

P Rein = Papyrus Grecs et Dhnotiques. Ed. 

Th. Reinach. Paris, 1905. 

P Rev L = Revenue Laws of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphia. Ed. B. P. Grenfell 
with an Introduction by J. P. 
Mahaffy. Oxford, 1896. 

P Ryl = Catalogue of the Greek Papyri in 

the John Ry lands Library, Man- 
chester I., ed. A. S. Hunt ; II. 
edd. J. de M.Johnson, V. Martin, 
and A. S. Hunt. Manchester, 

P Sa'fd Khan = Greek Parchments from Avroman 

in Media, discovered by Dr. Sa'fd 
Khan, published in JHS xxxv. 
pp. 22-65, by E. H. Minns. 
London, 191 5. 

PSI = Pubblicacioni delta Societh Ltaliana 

per la ricerca del Papiri greet e 
latini in Egitto : Papiri Greci 
e Latini I. -IX. i. Florence, 

P Strass = Griechische Papyrus zu Strassbttrg 

I, II. Ed. F. Preisigke. Leipzig, 


P Tebt = The Tebtunis Papyri. Vol. I. edd. 

B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, 

and J. G. Smyly; Vol. II. 

edd. B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt, 

and E. J. Goodspeed. London, 

P Thead = Papyrus de Theadtlphie. Ed. P. 

Jouguet. Paris, 191 1. 
P Tor = Papyri Craeci Regit Taurinensis 

Musci Aegyptii. 2 vols. Ed. A. 

Peyron. Turin, 1826-7. 
P Vat = A. Mai, Classicorum auctorum e 

Vaticanis codicibus editor um 

Tomi IV. el V. Rome, 1831-33. 
Preisigke = Papyri in Sammelbuch: see under 

Abbreviations III. 
Selections = Selections from the Greek Papyri, 

by George Milligan. Cambridge, 

UPZ = Ut kunden der Ftolemaerzeit. (A I- 

tere Fund,). I. Papyri aus 

Unterdgypten. Ed. U. Wilcken. 

Berlin u. Leipzig, 1927. 
Witkowski 2 or Wit- 

kowski Epp z = Epistitlae Privatac Graecae*. Ed. 

S. Witkowski. Leipzig, 191 1. 

III. Inscriptions and Ostraca 

Audollent = Defixionum Tabellae. Ed. A. 

Audollent. Paris, 1904. 
Brit. Mits. Inscrr = The Collection of Ancient Greek 

Inscriptions in the British 

Museum'. Oxford, 1S74- . 
Cagnat = Inscriptions Graecae ad Acs 

Pomanas pertinentes, ed. R. 

Cagnat. I. III. IV. 1-5. Paris, 

C. and B = Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, 

by W. M. Ramsay. Vol. I. 

Parts i. ii. Oxford, 1S95, '897. 
CIA = Corpus Inscriptiouum Allicaritm. 

Berlin, 1873-97. 
CIG = Corpus Inscriptiouum Graecarum. 

Berlin, 1S28-77. 
CIL = Corpus Inscriptiouum Latinarum. 

Berlin, 1S62-1909. 
Colder = (unpublished) Greek Inscriptions 

from Phrygia, ed. W. M. Calder. 
Cauer. = Delectus Inscriptiouum Graecarum'-. 

Ed. P. Cauer. Leipzig, 18S3. 
Cos = The Inscriptions of Cos, edd. W. R. 

Baton and E. L. Hicks. Oxford, 

Duchesne et Bayet = Memoire sur une Mission an Mont 

Athos, par L'Abbe Duchesne et 

M. Bayet. Paris, 1876. 
Fay Ostr = Fay inn Towns and their Papyri, 

PP- 3I7-33 2 - 
GDI = Sammlung der griechischen Dialckt- 

Inschriften. Ed. II. Collitz. 
Gottingen, 1884- . 

IG — - Inscriptions Graecae, ed. cons, et 

auct. Acad. Regiae Borussicae. 
Berlin, 1873- . 

I G Sept = Corpus Inscriptiouum Graeciae 

Septentrionalis. Ed. W. Ditten- 
berger. Berlin, 1S92. 

IGSI. = Inscriptiones Graecae Sicitiae et 

Italiae. Ed. G. Kaibel. Berlin, 

IMAe = Inscription's Graecae Insularum 

Maris Aegaei. Edd. IT. von 
Gaertringen and W. R. Paton. 
Berlin, 1895- . 

IosPE = Inscriptiones Oris Septentrionalis 

Ponti Euxini, being Inscriptions 
from Olbia on the Euxine in the 
Appendix to Scythians and 
Greeks, by E. H. Minns. Cam- 
bridge, 19 13. 

Kaibel = Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibui 

conlecta. Ed. G. Kaibel. Berlin, 

latyschev = Inscriptiones Antiquae Orae Sep- 
tentrionalis Ponti Euxini Graecae 
et Latinae, ed. B. Latyschev. 

I, II. Petropolis, 1S85, 1890. 
Lctronne = Recueil des inscriptions grecques 

et latines de I'Egypte, by M. 

Letronne. 2 vols. Paris, 1842-S. 
Magn = Die Inschriften von Magnesia am 

Maander. Ed. O. Kern. Berlin, 

Meyer Ostr = Ostraka der Sammlung Deissmann, 

ed. Paul M. Meyer in Griechische 

Tcxte aus Agypten, p. 107 ff. 

Berlin, 1916. 
Michel = Recueil d' Inscriptions Grecques. 

Ed. Ch. Michel. Paris, 1900. 

Supplement \. Paris, 191 2. 

Milne Theb. Ostr See under Theb. Ostr. 

OGIS = Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Se- 

lectae. 2 vols. Ed. W. Ditten- 

berger. Leipzig, 1903-5. 
Ostr or Wilcken Ostr = Griechische Ostraca aus Aegypten 

mid Nubien. 2 vols. Ed. U. 

Wilcken. Leipzig, 1899. 
PAS = Papers of the American School of 

Classical Studies at Athens. 

Perg = Die Inschrijlcn 7:011 Pergamon I. 

II. (in Altcrtumer von Pergamon 
viii.). Ed. M. Frankel. Berlin, 

Preisigke = Sammelbuch Griechischer Urkun- 

Jcn aus Agypten. I, II. III. 
Ed. F. Preisigke. Strassburg 
and Berlin, 1915-27. [Includes 
many papyri : when these are 
cited the abbreviation is " Prei- 
sigke" in Roman type.] 


Freisigke Ostr = Die Frinz-J 'oachim-Ostraka, edd. 

K. Preisigkeand W. Spiegelberg. 
Strassburg, 1914. 

Prime = Die Inschrifienvon Priene. Ed. H. 

von Gaertringen. Berlin, 1906. 

Roberts- Gardner = Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, 

Part ii. The Inscriptions of At- 
tica. Edd. E. S. Roberts and 
E. A. Gardner. Cambridge, 

Syll. and SylP = Sylloge Inscriptionttm Graecarum-. 

2 vols, and index. Ed. W. 
Dittenberger. Second edition. 
Leipzig, 1SSS-1901. References 
are also given to the third edition, 

3 vols, and index. Leipzig, 

Tied. Ostr = Theban Ostraca, pp. 68-161. Greek 

Texts, ed. J. G. Milne. Oxford, 

Waddington Inscrip- 
tions = Inscriptions grecques et latines 

reeueiUies en Grece et en Asie 
Mineure. Edd. Ph. Le Bas et 
W. II. Waddington. Paris, 1870. 

Wilcken Ostr See under Ostr. 

Wunsch AF. = Antike Fluchtafeln (in Kleine 

Texte fiir theologische Vorle- 
sungen u/rd Ubungen, 20). Ed. 
R. Wunsch. Bonn, 1907. 


Quotations from Papyri and Inscriptions are printed as in 
the editions from which they come, except for the notation 
used to show that the modern editor wishes to insert or 
delete. Here the text is given as found in the original 
document, with a note in brackets if necessary. Square 
brackets [ ] denote a gap in the original ; round brackets ( ) 
the resolution of an abbreviation (as (£roi»s) for L ), except in 
some inscriptions where the editor uses them to denote faint 
or missing letters ; angular brackets < > a mistaken omis- 
sion in the original ; braces { } a superfluous letter or letters ; 
and double square brackets [[]] a deletion. Letters which 
are not read with certainty are indicated by dots underneath. 
Interlineations and erasures in the original are generally 
pointed out in a note. The line given for a cited word is 
that which contains the beginning of the word. 


' o > ' ' 

a pap 17? — ayaTrau) 


For dpaprjs in a metaphorical sense, as in 2 Cor 11 9 , 
Nageli (p. 3S) cites CIG 5361 5 (Berenice, i/B.c.) d. tav-rbv 
irap6o-xr|Tai, and BGU I. 24S 26 (ii/A.D. ) edv 8e 0-01 d(3a[p«]s 
fl, xP'io'ov (xou dvdpiov Add P Oxy VI. 933 s9 (late ii/A.D.) 
anil BGU IV. ioSo 17f - (iii/A.D. ?) & croi dp[a]pes ecr-riv Kal 
8vva[Tov, cr]vvaTrdo~n.Xdv p.01 ktX. The physical sense is 
cited from Aristotle ; the metaphysical appears in Plutarch 

' Afigadft. 

For a Girecised form "Appauos, cf. BGU II. 5S5 U - 3 (after 
A.D. 212) Ilaapios 'Appduou. The non-Gnscised form is 
common in Fayum documents of the Christian period, e.g. 
BGU I. 103 11 (vi/vii ad.) 'Appadp. ; see further Deissmann 
BS, p. 1S7. A Jew 'Appdp.[i.os ? is named in BGU II. 
715"' 2 (Fayum— a.d. 101-2). 


As a substantive (Rom io 7 , Rev g 1 etc.) a. is common in 
the magic papyri, e.g. P Lond 121 26 (iii/*.D.) (=1. p. 93) 
€irl Tfjs dpio-o-ou, lb. i17 ( = 1. p. 100) Tfl KaXovu.e'vr| dpucrcru). 
See also Nageli, p. 46. 


This rare adjective, which in the XT is confined to 1 Pet 
2 U , is found as an astrological term in a magical papyrus 
of iv/A.D., P Lond 122 16 (=1. p. 116), dyaBo-rroie Tijs 
oikouu.£'vt|S : cf. id. 46" (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 66' (ictu. 
dyaSoiroiiiv, with reference to stars of benign influence. 
The verb is found in Aristeas (ed. Wendland) 242, dXXd 
8tov (/. Se'ov 8tbv) iKtTeveiv, irdvTa dyaBoirottiv. 


The comparative PeXxtwv (in the LXX about 20 times 
for the commoner KpeC<r<ruiv) occurs in the fragmentary 
P Petr III. 42 H (8) f 15 (middle of iii/B.c.) ( = Witkowski 
£pf>. 2 , p. 16). In a votive inscription discovered at Cos 
(Paton and Hicks, 92), Nero is described as dyaObs fltds 
(cf. Deissmann LAE, p. 349). For dyaBbs Saipwv, see 57 
in the same collection ( = CIG 251O — Tux? 'Aya9d Kal 
'A-ya6iu AaCp.ovi Kal tu(i) 8dp.u(i), etc., etc. One other 
phrase is worth quoting: P Oxy II, 29S 14 (i/A.D.) tdv tir' 
a-yaOui Trapa-ytvT], "if you arrive happily," ib. III. 531 6 
(ii/A.D.) 'tu>% 4tt dya8u> -irpbs cri irapayevopai, BGU III. 
83S 19 '■ (beginning of iii/A.D. ) ets ri\v 4ir' [d]ya8ols yevaaevns 
KaTao-iropdv, P Flor I. 21 10 (a.d. 239) al. The neuter pi., 
as in Lk 12", may be illustrated by P Ryl I. 2S 182 (iv/A.D.) 
irois 8e{ibs tdv dXXnTai, Seo-rrd-rns Jorau iroXXiiv dyaBuiv 
Kal Ki-r|p.dT0)v, "if the right foot quiver, the man will be 
master of many blessings and possessions" (Ed.). 
Part I. 


The word is "found only in bibl. and eccl. writers" 
(Grimm-Thayer). But the abstract suffix -a-ivr\ (on which 
cf. Brugmann-Thumb Griech. Gramm. 1 , p. 224) was pro- 
ductive in the Hellenistic period. About a dozen nouns 
occur in NT, and dytwa-vvr] ami u.€yaXa>o-vvT| come under 
the same condemnation in Grimm-Thayer : so would 
TaireivorJjpoo-ivT], but Thayer quotes Josephus and Epic- 
tetus against Grimm. Nageli (p. 43) has "profane" 
warrant for dyi-wo-wii, which is none the worse for being 
later than NT times. Any writer was free to coin an 
abstract of this sort, just as we can attach the suffix -ness 
to any adjective we please ; and the absence of attestation 
signifies nothing that could carry any weight. 


BGU I. S6 15 (ii/A.D.) t(j)' 8v xpovov ayap.[ds eo-Jriy, ib. 
113* (ii/A.D.) el tivcs dyap.01 & v t P Ryl I- 2S 29 (iv/A.D.) 
dyduu 84 -ydp-ov SnXoi. Preisigkc 374 (i/B.C./i/A.D.) has 
dyap-g on a gravestone. 


P Lond 44 20 (B.C. 161) ( = 1. p. 34) dyavaK-rovvTa 4tp' ols 

SlCTtXoCvTO 4v TOlOVTliH Upui. P OxV VIII. IIIQ 8 (A.D. 254) 

rjns dyavaKTT|a-acra 4ire'(TT€iXev ktX. Syll 803* 3 (iii/B.c. ) 
TTpaTov dyavaKTiuv r[a]i Trpd[£«i ... In ib. 356 s5 (li.c. 6) 
Tqv Koivf|v dirdvTwv iawv do-<j>dXei[av dvaiJpouvTwv dya- 
vaKTovvTes, it takes a gen., which might however be a gen. 
abs. : the inscription, a rescript of Augustus, is in the high 
style. P Magd 24 s (iii/B.c.) dyavaKT-r|cravTos 84 p.ou Kal 
tmTiuuivTos au-rffji. P Thead 15 10 (iii/A.D.), in an ad- 
vocate's pleading. A curious use of the passive occurs in 
the late P Lond IV. 1 367* (a.d. 710) p.4XXeis dyavaKTT|8fjvai, 
"you will incur our anger." The word is also found in the 
apocryphal Gospel of Peter 4 (ed. Swete), where on one of 
the malefactors upbraiding the Jews for their treatment of 
Jesus on the Cross, we read dyavaKTT|(ravT€S 4tt' avrui 4k4X*v- 
crav Iva p.r| o-KeXoKOTrT|8irj, birios paa-avtjdacvos diroBdvot. 


This NT dir. «lp. (2 Cor 7 U ) may be illustrated by P 
Grenf II. 82 1 ' '■ (c. A.D. 400) aeTayvcivai i\(T( wort 
Kal dyavaKrf|cr6us 8iKaa~riKT)S irctpaOfjvai, where certain 
offenders are threatened with legal proceedings and penalties, 
if they disregard the writer's demand. 


The Pauline phrase in 1 Th 1* d8eX<pol Tiyairnne'voi. <mb 
[tov] fltov, which in this exact form is not found else- 
where in the NT (cf. in the LXX Sir 45 1 ■lyyairTip.evoi' iirb 
(dirb N) 6eoii Kal avSpci-rnov), is well illustrated by a similar 



use in connexion with Ptolemy on the Kosetta stone, OGIS 
90 4 (B.C. 196) T| , y a ' n ' T ll« vou ii-irb toC 't'fla. Cf. a Munich 
papyrus in Chrest. I. 109 12 (end of iii/B.c), where Wilcken 
restores [IlToX«]os atuv<Spios T]-ya[irT||A€vos virb ttjs 
I<ri8os]. It may be noted that in Mk io a Field (Notes, 
p. 34) suggests the translation "caressed" for T)"y&irr|o-(v , 
comparing I'lut. Pericl. I : £e'vous Tivis iv 'Pup-n irXoutrious, 
kuvuv TtKva Kal tti6t|ku>v tv tois k<SXttois irtpicptpovras Kal 
dya-rraivTas {fondling) tSwv 6 Kaicrap . . . T|pwTT|a-€v il 
iratS£a irap' avTois ov tCktovo-iv at y^^k*?* B. L. 
< iildersleeve {Justin Martyr, p. 135) suggests that " the 
larger use of [aYairdv] in Christian writers is perhaps due 
to an avoidance of <piX«iv in the sense of ' kissing.'" He 
says Xenophon made the two words absolute synonyms, 
comparing Memorabilia ii. 7- 9 with 12 ; while he depre- 
cates refinements in Jn 2t 16 ' 17 , since "the Evangelist 
himself did not see the point, as Augustin notes (Civ. Dei 
vii. 11)." This seems undeniable in Xenophon I.e., 
though in so severely simple a writer as Jn it is extremely 
hard to reconcile ourselves to a meaningless use of synonyms, 
where the point would seem to lie in the identity of the 
word employed. Gildersleeve's remark that " aYairdv is a 
colder word than <J>t\(iv and less intimate " will hold for 
"profane" Greek ; but this is emphatically a case where the 
needs of a new subject take up a rather colourless word and 
indefinitely enrich it. In NT aYairdv is purged of all cold- 
ness, and is deeper than cfuXciv, though the latter remains 
more human. See R. II. Strachan's references and discus- 
sion in Expos. VIII. vii. 263-7 (March 1914). A Christian 
metrical epitaph (Calder6g - after midd. iv/A.D.) has d. with 
infin. as in Class. Grk : vvv d-yair^s <rv ua6(iv tls «yw £e'vos 
rj irdBtv rX8a. 

ay dm]. 

Though it would be going too far to say that this import- 
ant Biblical word was " born within the bosom of revealed 
religion," it is remarkable that there have been only three 
supposed instances of its use in "profane" Greek, two of 
which are now read otherwise and the third is doubtful. 
Deissmann originally cited P Par 49 s (B.C. 164-58) in this 
connexion (Bibelstudicn, p. 80 f.) ; but in the linglish edition 
(BS, p. 198 f.) he admitted that the restoration Tapax*|V must 
be substituted. Next Hatch in_/i?Z xxvii. 2, p. 134 ff. cited 
an inscription of the Imperial period, from Tefeny in Pisidia, 
giving the mantic significance of various throws of the dice : 
-nivi/i\. 8' eis d-ydl/TrnJv <rt 4>i.Xop.u.a8rj 5 'A<|>po8e£Tn. But 
Prof. Deissmann now calls our attention to a Breslau disser- 
tation by F. Heinevetter Wiirfel-und Biuhslabenorakel in 
Grieehenland und Kleinasien (1912), where it seems to be 
proved (p. 10) that cts dyaOciv must be read in the line we 
have quoted. There remains only the citation (Cronert, 
Lex. s.v.) of 81' d[Y]dirr|s t[vap]yois from the Herculaneum 
papyri of Philodemus the Epicurean (i/B.c.J, with the note 
" (sicher?)." 

The history of this word is so crucial for the orientation 
of the Biblical Greek vocabulary that we must pursue it in 
some detail. Deissmann's argument from Thayer's Philonic 
citation of d-ydm] is repeated in the English BS (p. 199) 
without regard to Ramsay's criticism (ExpT ix. p. 568). 
And Deissmann certainly seems justified in asserting that in 
the Quod Deus immul. (p. 283 M = Cohn-Weridland, ed. 

min., p. 69) Philo is not taking the word from the LXX, 
unless Wisd 3° (love towards God) 6 18 (love of Wisdom) may 
be taken as the models for his ennobled use of the word. 
For in LXX it is used 14 times of sexual love (Jer 2" 
figuratively), and twice in antithesis to pao-os : Sir 4S 11 N 
is the only other occurrence besides those from Wisdom. 
Aristeas (ii/i B.C.) has the word (§ 229) in the higher sense, 
and may stand with the author of Wisdom as the earliest to 
adapt it to this purpose. In its redemption from use as a 
mere successor to the archaic ?pios. Alexandrian Jews of 
i/B. c seem to have led the way. The fact that its use was 
very restricted made it easier to annex for a special purpose. 
Since the S<>ng of Songs (where it occurs 1 1 times) could 
hardly be proved to have existed for the NT writers, there 
were virtually no other associations before their minds ; and 
the appropriation of dyatrdv and dydirri proceeded side by 
side. As the record of its use in Aquila, Symmachus and 
Theodotion shows (see HR), the word retained in inde- 
pendent circles the connotations we find in Cant and Eccl, 
and grew slightly more common. In late Christian papyri 
we find it narrowed like our "charity": Cronert cites P 
Gen I. 14' (iv/v a.d.) and P Lond 77 s8 (viii/A.D.) (=1. 
p. 234). On the Christian use of 'A-ydirn as a proper name 
see W. M. Ramsay C. and B., ii. p. 492 f. 

It should finally be remarked that there is no reason for 
postulating dYdiri) as the origin of a denominative aYairdu, 
as Tqir| produces, etc. ' A-ydirr] is in any case a back- 
formation from the verb, replacing the older aYdirncris, and 
originating doubtless in a restricted dialectic area. Cf. the 
case of oikoSouti, q. v. 


For the use of this characteristic NT designation in the 
Christian papyri, see for example the address of the much- 
discussed letter of Psenosiris P Grenf II. 73 (late iii/A.D.) 
(= Seleetions, p. 117), 'AiroXXwvi 7rpe<rP\tT€p(A) aYarrnTui 
dScXcf>4J tv K(upila) xo-'p^v. So P Lond 417 1 (c. A.D. 346) 
(=11. p. 299, Selections, p. 123), P Heid 6 7 (iv/A.D.) ( = 
Selections, p. 125) at. The word is also found in a horoscope 
of A.D. 20-50 addressed to a certain Tryphon — P Oxy II. 
2j5 2 , Tpic(>uv hyairiri : he may of course have been a Jew — 
see on the fern. Tpv<J>aiva below. 


Ptolemaic examples of this interesting old Persian word 
are P Petr II. 20 iv - 6 (B.C. 252) toC . . . Xtp-Pou . . . 
dyyapcvGcvTos inrb <rov with reference to a "post boat," and 
P Tebt I 5 182 ' 25 ' 2 (b.c. 118) where for the editors' eirapmiv 
Wilcken (Archiv iii. p. 325) reads cyyapeveiv. From A.D. 
42 add P Lond 1 171 (c) 2 = (III. p. 107) unSsvl ei-t'o-Tw 
tvyapevcLV tous €ttI ttjs x"P as — a prefect's rescript. Cf 
BGU I. 2l iu - 16 (a.d. 340) otvou tvYapias, and from the 
insciiptions Syll 932 54 (beginning of iii/A.D.) dvYapeuiv 
aveeriv with Uittenberger's note, " vehicula cursus publici 
ponderosissima et lentissima, quae bubus vehebantur {cursus 
clabularis Cod Theod. VI. 29, 5, I, VIII. 5, n), angari- 
arum nomine utebantur." Herwerden Lex. cites a form 
dvcvydptuTos = dvaYYaptvTos, from an inscr. which Mayser 
(p. 56) refers to Arch. Zeit. 1890, p. 59. See further Zahn 
Intr. i. p. 66, Deissmann BS p 86 f. , and Rostowzew 
"Angariae" in A'lio vi. (1906) p. 249 ff. For the spelling 



with e. in Mk 15- 1 X* B* Deissmann (BS p. 182) compares 
BGU I. 21 1 " 16 (a.d. 340— coeval with the MSS.) ev-yap'as. 
The noun dyyapos appears in Greek as early as /Eschylus 
Agam. C94 dyydpou irvpos, "the courier flame": it is 
probably the Iranian cognate of &yy«\os. It survives in 
vernacular MGr dyvapepevos, "put to compulsory labour" 
(Thumb Handbook, p. 315). In his note on P Lond IV. 
1376 1 (a.d. 711) the editor suggests that in the late Aphrodito 
papyri &yyapevnf|s is used in the general sense of " foreman," 
" superintendent." 


is found in P Tor I. I"- 6 (ii/B.c.) for the "casket" or 
" chest " in which plaintiffs in the court of the Chrematistae, 
or Greek judges of Egypt, were in the habit of placing their 
petitions {Archiv iii. p. 26 ff). See also P Gen I. 74 s ff 
(probably iii/A.D.) Sib epurrnOels exXapiv dvTi-ypacjjov Kai 
paXuv els dyyiov o-<j>pd'yi[o-]ov : similarly in Syll 790 43 
(i/B.C.) of oracular irivaKia, which are put els d-yyeiov and 
sealed (KaTa<r<{>p<ryi<rd<r0u»a-av) with various officers' seals 
In BGU I. 24S (ii/A. n.) a note is added on the margin — 
Xpijo-ov Xapavoj dvyeiov, ds o'e' p.01 ^Xatov, where d. is 
a jar for oil, as in Mt 25 1 : cf. P Oxy VII. 1070'° (iii/A.D.) 
dvyeiui TjpLi^dw, P Hamb I. 23 34 (a.d. 569) fieo-Ta dyyia 
TptaKovra, P Lond 1036 9 (vi/A.D.) (= III. p. 269) oivo(v) 
dyylov p-e^a eV, P Leid W iiis d. u^Xitos peo-Tov. 

The form ctyyos, which is found in the true text of Mt 
13 48 , may be illustrated from Michel 1361 4 "' (Thasos, iv/B.c.) 
4jv Se' tis €7PdX\T][t twv SovXwv Koirpov, ciio-Te] to ^wptov 
eEvcu to dyyos toO dvaipepupe'vov tov Kfjiro[v] ktX. The 
word is used of a cinerary urn (as iu Herod, i. 1 13) in C/G 


In the curious pamphlet on omens drawn from involuntary 
twitchings, P Ryl I. 2S 161 (iv/a.d. ), we find crcpupLb]v Sefjibv 
edv dXXT]Tcu, cVyyeXiav avTii o-up-aivi dirpocrSoKUTOv, "if 
the right ankle quiver, it signifies that the person will 
have unexpected news." The word is common in literature. 


In Syll 512", a dialect inscr. of ii/B.c. from Calymna, 
dyyeXoi are envoys whose names are given. The word is 
used in the sense of "intermediary" (cf. Gal 3 1B ) in Syll 
I22 26 (iv/B.C.) opocrcH 8]i* dyyeXXaiv. For the presumably 
Christian " angel" inscriptions from Thera see Deissmann 
LAE, p. 279 with accompanying facsimile, and the paper 
" It is his Angel " (J. H. M.) in JTS 1902, p. 519 f. Add 
(from Cionert) IG XII. iii. 933. In Archiv iii. p. 445, No. 67, 
is published a Greek inscription from Assouan of the time of 
M. Aurelius, which begins — MrydXn Ttixj) tou [6e]o[0 . . . 
t]uv dv7EXwv Tfjs [l]epe£[as] : cf. also p. 451 No. 94 (time of 
Diocletian), "Yirep evxfjs twv dvYe'Xwv 'Epecrnvol dve'6nKav 
ktX. 01 dyyeXoi 8eoO. as in I Tim 5 21 , occurs in the ex- 
tremely interesting Jewish inscription Syll 8[6 10 Kvpie o 
irdvra e[<j>]opciv koA ol dvyeXoi BeoO. Dittenberger assigns it 
to i/A. D. and yet apparently prefers to regard it as Christian : 
there does not, however, seem to be anything distinctive of 
Christianity — it is a Jewish prayer for vengeance upon un- 
known murderers: see Deissmann LAE, p. 423ft*. It is 
interesting to observe that the special meaning "angel" is 

apparently a reversion to the oldest signification, for in 
Homer the dyy^os ls often a messenger of the gods. The 
two branches of the Aryan language-group diverge here. In 
Vedic Indian the Angirasah are "higher beings intermediate 
between gods and men," as Macdonell rather tentatively 
concludes ( Vedic Mythology, 143). In Persian angara (? — see 
on dyyapevw) is a human messenger. Perhaps both meanings 
coexisted in the corner of the Indo-Germanic area to which 
the word is restricted. See also Ilatzidakis on dyyeXos in 
Site. Ber. d. IVien. Akad. 1913, 2. 


For dyyeXXio^" proclaim," "summon to an office," see the 
summons to celebrate the accession of Hadrian, P Giss I. 3 2fl - 
(a.d. 117) ■fJKw (sc. <J?oif3os Beds) . . . dvaKTo Kcuvbv 'ASpia- 
vbv dyyeXufv]: cf. P Flor I. 2*- 8 "- (a.d. 265) 6] dy-yeXels 
dvTi[Xd]pnTai Tijs evxeipio-8e'o-r|S aviTui XP e ' as [* | ]'Y'-[ < ">sJ koA 
-ttio-tws. It is hardly accidental that the woids quoted from 
the Giessen papyrus form an iambic line : the document has 
a strong literary flavour. 'AyyeXAw is one of those verbs 
which became practically obsolete in the vernacular except 
in their compounds. Nine of these are found in NT, while 
the simplex only occurs in Jn 4" 1 ND, 20 18 }^*ABIX. Jn 
is a writer who likes uncompounded verbs : see Camb. Bibl. 
Essays, p. 492. 


See s.v. dyyeiov. 

ay eh]. 

The noun occurs twice in a farm account, P Lond 1 1 7 1 
(B.C. 8) (=111. p. 177). For the adjective dyeXaios, see 
Syll 5&7 209 (iv/B.C.) KepapiSes d-yeXaiai, with Diltenberger's 


" Nowhere found in prof, auth.," says Grimm, nor are we 
able to supply the gap — which is not surprising ! It is a 
good sample of a class of words which any author might coin 
for a special purpose. 


'Ayev^s, as opposed to ei'yev'qs, is well illustrated by P 
Oxy I. 33 v-5 (late ii/A.D ) where, in a dramatic interview 
with the Emperor, in all probability M. Auielius — though 
YVilcken (Cluest. I. p. 34 f.) decides for Commodus — a 
certain Appianus, wiio had been condemned to death, ap- 
peals to his nobility (ev-yeVeia) in such a way as to lend the 
Emperor to retort — «^tjs oiv oti fyms a^eveis ecrpev ; For the 
more general sense of " mean," " base," see the verso of the 
illiterate P Oxy I. 79 s (not earlier than ii/A.D.), perhaps a 
school composition (Edd.), p/n8ev Tamvov p.r|Se aytvis . . . 
irpdi"r|S. In Syll S55 1 ' (a dialect inscr. from Delphi, record- 
ing the "sale" of a slave to the god for freed >m — ii/B.c.) 
el Se' Ti Mvao-ii (ihe slave) irdfloi d-yev^s iirdpxovo-a, Ta 
KaTaXeupBeVra virb Mvacnis 'Ayno-ipovXas (the mistress) 
!ccrTft) : here d*yevr]S must mean " childless," as in the similar 
phrase in Syll 862", an inscr. of the same period, place and 
subject. The word was used in this sense by fsaeus, 
according to Harpocration. 





Clear evidence for the verb and noun outside bibl. and 
eccl. writings appears to be wanting : cf. Anz Subsidia, 
p. 374 f. The suffix -d£tiv was as active as our -fy in pro- 
ducing new words, and the abstract -ao-p.ds accompanied it, 
as -fication accompanies our verb. When therefore d-yios 
was appropriated in Jewish circles to represent their special 
idea of "holiness," it was natural that the factitive derivative 
should he coined from it, as a technical term which would 
be immediately understood by any Greek, even if he had 
never met with the actual form. The series was the more 
needed, as Greek religion had already the forms ay^u, 
dyio-pos, aYia-Tcuw, dvio-Tr|pi.ov, etc., with their technical 
meanings: the variant words with the added -a- answered 
to them in function, but were free from pagan association. 


The adjective is common as a title of the gods in the 
inscriptions, e. g. OGIS 378' (a.d. 1S-9) 6tw dviw iu|no-Tw : 
cf. id. 721 ' 6 8a8ouxos tuv d-yiwTdTwv 'EXtvo-lvi puo-TTjpiwv. 
The superlative may be further illustrated (cf. Jude 20 ) from 
the oldest recovered Christian letter P Amh I. 3(0;''' - 2f 
(between a.d. 264 (265) and 282 (2S1)) tois ko.t o.[vtov 
d'ViwJTdToi.s irppfeo-Tucri] : cf. Deissmann LAE, p 192 ff. 
For tJ> dyiov as "temple" cf. OGIS 56™' (the Canopus 
inscr. of Ptolemy III, B.C. 239) Ka6i8pvo-ai [». dyaXpa 
Xpua-ovv 8ioAi8ovJ tv twi ayiui. 

dyiozjjQ, uyicuavn]. 

'A-yid-rns, as a title, is found in the late P Giss I. 55 s 
(vi/A. D.) addressed by one " papa " or " bishop " to another 
— t]|iw8t|V . . . -ypdilKU irp[6]s tt|v o-fjv a-yidrnrfa]. For a 
similar use of -f) d-yuoo-vvn, with reference to an «in<rKoiros, 
see the Pelagia- Legenden (ed. TJsener) p. to 2 , cf. p. 8 11 . 
On the "profane" warrant for ayiaxrwii, and the natural- 
ness of coining (with itp(tlwo-vvn for model), see the remarks 
on dva6wo-vvT| above. 


With the use of dyKaXi] in Lk 2 ,JS , cf. OGIS 56™ (Canopus 
decree, B.C. 239) (tis) twv . . . Upt'wv irpbs tov o-ToXio-pbv 
twv 8twv olVti cv Tais ayKaXtus. For the derived sense of 
"bundle" [i.e. "armful") see P Lond 131 redo*" (a.d. 
78-9) (=1. p. 1S3) Sterptvuv d-yKaXas. 1' Oxy VI. 935 18 ff - 
(iii/A D.) rj ptTa<p[opd] twv dvKaXwv fcrrt tC8[t']ws iiirb toO 
iraTpds, "the transport of the bundles will be performed 
immediately by my father" (Edd.). 


P Lond 1164 (/;)» (A.D. 212) (= III. p. 164) dvKvpcus 
criSripais 8vo-l o-iv cnrd8ais o-i8r|pais (the two teeth of the 
anchor), Syll sSS' 68 . ln (ii/B.c.) dyKupa o-tS-npd. For the 
figurative sense, as Heb 6", cf. d. •yTJpojs, IG XII. vii. 
1 23 P. 

ayyu</ og. 

In P Lond 193 verso " (ii/A.D.) (=11. p. 246) a borrower 
pledges her KiTwv(a)dYva<jio(v) XtvKo(v), "new white shirt," 
for an advance of 11 drachmas. P Ilamb I. io 3 - (ii/A.D.) 
has it in a list of garments that had been stolen, including 

an abolla d-yvtupos ; P. M. Meyer renders " ungewalkt, 
frisch vom Webstuhl, rudis," and gives some other references. 
Plutarch 169C, 69iD, has dyvairros, "undressed, uncarded." 


OGIS 56 32 (decree o^ Canopus, B.C. 239) ptTt'xtiv Si Kal 
tous (k ttjs irtpiTTT|S (pvXrjs twv Evtp-ytTwv 6twv twv dyvtiwv 
Kal twv dXXwv dirdvTwv twv tv tois itpois, id. 573® (i/A.D. ) 
twi 8t ironfjo-avTi go-Twi uyveLa, an inscription cut in the 
rock near a temple in Cilicia. Cf. Syll 655* (a.d. 83), ptTd 
itoXXtjs aYveias Kal vop.ip.ujv t8wv, and the celebrated Epi- 
daurian inscription quoted under dyvds. P Par ^xrv 10 
(B.C. 114) couples a'yvafwv] and Xeitoupyiwv following 
[TJdipwv. BGU IV. I19S 12 (i/B.C. ) -irotovptvou d-yvr|as Kal 
8u<rias. The verb is found BGU I. 149 (ii/iii a.d.), temple 
accounts, including Kal Tats£ais twv 8twv (proces- 
sions of images of the gods) tois d"YVtvouo-i. tK irtpiTpoiTf|S 
(according to rota) itptvov 0w0 a uirtp dyvttas f|p.epwv \ e£ 
T|p€pi)o-iiov [so much]. A very similar entry appears in 
BGU I. 1" (iii/A.D.). 

In P Oxy V. 84O 8 , the fragment of an uncanonical gospel 
composed before A.D. 200, we read that the Saviour brought 
His disciples ets auTo to d"yvtvTT|piov Kal irtpitirdTti. tv ni 
Upw, "into the very place of purification, and was walking 
in the temple." For the verb dyvcvu see BGU IV. 1201* 
(A.D. 2) Twv d*yvevdv[T]wv Upt'wv Siairtpaiupt'vwv irpbs Tas 
XiTovpyeias Kal 8vo-fias twv 8twv, I' Tebt II. 29S 68 (a.d. 
107-8) Uptia-i] I'a-ois d-yytvou[o-]i Ka8' Tjpt'pav (irupoO) 8, 
" to officiating priests J art. of wheat daily" (Edd.). 

dyvit,<a, dynojLiot;. 

The verb occurs in the Leyden I'apyrus magica (ed. Diete- 
rich) VI. 36 iroitjo-as pd8pov eirl T|-yvio-pt'vw Toirw. For the 
subst. see Syll 879 l8f - (end of iii/B.c.) tov h\ YwaiKovdpov 
tov iirb toO 8r|pou alpovpevov tois aYvio-pois ktX. Cf. Anz 
Sitbsldia, p. 2S3. 


A good parallel to the Pauline phrase I Th 4 13 oi Be'Xoptv 
hi vpds dYVOfiv occurs in P Tebt II. 314 3 (ii/A.D.) mo-Tewo 
o-e pi 5 ] d-yvoeiv, which also illustrates the use with the nega- 
tive in 2 Cor 2 11 . The construction in P Tebt I. 43" (B.C. 
118) i<J>' T|pwv tv tio-iv t|7voi)kotwv may help the difficult 
2 Pet 2 l= tv ols d-yvoovo-iv pXao-<pT|povvTts. The suggestion 
of wilful ignorance (see d-yvoia) appears in P Oxy IX. 1188 6 
(A.D. 13) o-Toxa(o-dpcvos)T°v pr|8(Jv) aYvor|(8iivat) p.T)St irpbs 
\a(pi.v) olKovopijeiiivai), " making it your aim that nothing 
be concealed or done by favour " (Edd). For d-yvotiv of a 
person, cf. P Giss I 69* (a.d. 11S-9) Xaipr|p.ova tov 
dvaSiSdvTa to tiri.o-Td[Xi.]ov toOto ouk dyvotls, dStX<pt. 


The royal decree of Euergetes II. and the two Cleopatras, 
P Tebt I. 5 3 (B c 118), proclaims an amnesty for all their 
subjects for dyvotjpdTwv dpapTr|p[dT]»v [tjvKXripaTwv 
KaTa-yvwo-paTwv (see note), where the difference between the 
first two words is brought out by the editors' rendering, 
"errors," "crimes" : cf. Archiv ii. p. 483 ff. An inscrip- 
tion from Egypt, OGIS Il6 2 (ii/B.c), has oTjyyvw[piiv . . .] 
av -yfyovdo-iv aYvor|p.a[o-iv . . .] in a broken context, but 



the meaning seems clear. The combination quoted above 
from P Tebt I. 5 apparently recurs in BCU IV. itSs' 
(i/B.C.) dvvonujdTwv d|iapTT|u.dTu;i' KaTaYvaja-ptaTwLv . • .Jy 
q-Keireo-TiKaiv ai.Tt.wv iraoriov ktX. Similarly in P Par 63 xlli ' 2 
one of the Ptolemies writes diroXeXnKoTcs irdvTas tous 
«vt<r^^u,e'vous 'iv tlctlv d*yvor| ^ duapTT|' ^ws ttjs 
18 tou «-irei<j>. (On evt'xco-flai iv see Prole*, p. 61 f.). The 
Seleucid Demetrius uses a like combination in I Mace 13 39 ; 
and it is further found in Tob 3 3 , and Sir 23 2 (cited by 
Thayer). 'A-yvdrjaa is accordingly marked by this associa- 
tion as meaning an offence of some kind, and " error" is its 
natural equivalent : so in Heb 9 7 . 


The connotation of wilful blindness, as in Eph 4 1S , is found 
in P Tebt I. 24** (B.C. 117), where an official reports the 
misconduct of certain persons whose plans he had frustrated, 
so that Xi']-yovres ttjs d-yvoias they left the district. The 
writer had dvoias first, and then added y above the line. 
In the ordinary sense of inadvertence it is common : e. g. 
BGU IV. 1114 9 (B.C. S-7) -ys'-yovev Se ko.t' d-yvoiav 4? 

to avTou Kolvtou KaiKiXiou Kda-Topos dvou.a. With a 
gen. the same phrase occurs in P Oxy VI. 923 s (ii/iii 
A.I'.) €ircl kqt 6Vyvoiav T "V <j>povtl8uv avruv Tjpvdo-aTo, id. 
I. 78^ ff ' (iii/A.D.) IV oiv [it] S6£to o-uv0eV9a.L tt] toii irpaY- 
jiaTtKov dyvota e-mSiSuui tol p\pX(8ia ktX. The simple dat. 
appears with same sense in P Flor II. 132 s (iii/A.D.) SXe[£]av 
■n-€TroiT]K£vai TauTa dyvota. For Kara d-yvoiav, as in Ac 3", 
see 1' Oxy II. 237™" M (a.d. 1S6) I'va 01 o-vvaXXdo-o-ovTes 
(i^) KaT d-yvoiav €V€8pevovrai, "in order that persons enter- 
ing into agreements may not be defrauded through ignorance" 



In its narrower sense we may compare a psephism from 
Assos, dated A.D. 37, Syll 364" ti\jv iraTpiov d-yv^v LTapOtvoi/ 
(cf. 2 Cor II 2 ), i. e. Athena Polias, as Dittenberger notes — 
the "Blessed Virgin" of Greek religion: cf. Preisigke 24S1 
(i/A.D.) 'IovXia d-yvrj, irav Ky, €u\|ruxi.. It is applied to 
holy places in P Tebt II. 616 (ii/A.D.), a letter from a 
•n*po(j)T)TT]S, — [8]ti ^£o-[tl] irdo-i. iv d*yvois tottols "ycWo"0ai. 
For the ceremonial use of d. see Prieue 205, elo-ivai ti-s 
t[6] Upbv d"yvbv «[v] tcrOfjTi XruK[fji], an inscription at the 
entrance to a Upbs oIkos. Rouffiac {Iiecherchis, p. 62), who 
cites the passage, aptly recalls the inscription of the temple 
of Epidaurus mentioned by Clement Alex. {.Strom. V. I. 13, 
3) to illustrate the transition from the ritual to the moral 
sense — 

d-yvbv XP^I vtjoio 6vw8eos evrbs tdvra 
£u.p.€vai* d"YV£LT] 8* co-tI <f)pov€tv 80-ia. 

{Also in Porphyry de abst. ii. 19, ap. Syll ii. p. 267.) There 
is also a noteworthy usage in the Chian dialectic inscr., 
Syll 570 8 (iv/B.C.) [b L]8u)v KaTtiirdTw irp[bs] tos Pao-iXt'as 
d'Y[viis] irpbs to 8eo, "give information ... if he would be 
blameless before the God." An interesting example of the 
adj. occurs in P Oxy I. 41-"- (the report of a public meeting, 
iii/iv A.D.), where at a popular demonstration in honour of 
the prytanis the people are described as shouting — d*yvol 

TrtoTol trwSiKoi, dYVOt mo-Tol o"v[vlT|['yopo]i, ts upas irdo-i 
toCs t?)v irdXee <JhXovo-iv, " True and upright advocates, true 
and upright assessors ! Hurrah for all who love the city ! " 
(Edd.). 'Avvois in the sense of Phil I 1 ', "honestly," is 
common in honorific inscriptions, as OG/S 48 5 13 (Magnesia, 
Roman age) Tas Xovrrds hi <piXoT€ip.ias TeXida-avTa aYvuis 
Kal due'u.iTTws, ib. 524 s (Thyatira, do.) dvopavou-ija-avTa 
TCTpdp.r|vov d-yvws : so as early as Pindar [01. iii. 37). 

The adjective and its derivatives may accordingly take a 
wide meaning, as wide as our pure in the ethical sense. But 
a starting-point must not be overlooked : cf. the Avestan 
yasna "ritual," Sanskrit yaj, A v. yaz "to worship," show- 
ing that it originally denoted "in a condition prepared for 
worship." The uses noted under dyveia and in this article 
show that this meaning persisted ; and it is not out of sight 
in NT times. In pagan technical language it definitely con- 
noted twofold abstinence, as a necessary condition of entrance 
into a temple. The definition of Heyschius gives us the 
condition ki its oldest form: "d-yvcvciv Ka9ap€v€LV a7rd T€ 
d:ppoSto-iuv Kal d-irb v€Kpov." 


1G IV. 598 15 (Argos, ii/A.D.) SiKaioo-uvns ivtxtv Kal 
dYvo-rnTos (cited by Grimm). 


BGU II. 614 22 (A.D. 217), W oiv \ii\ d-yvuo-fa if. P Ha- 
wara (Anhiv v. p. 3S3) 69" (i/ii A.D.) Etc dvto-9t)o-Cav in 
dyvMo-iav aiTido-Oioi. The latter instance has the suggestion 
of disgraceful ignorance which attaches to both the NT 


Deissmann [St Paul, p. 261 ff.) supplies an interesting 
parallel to the Greek inscription which St Paul lead on an 
altar at Athens, Ac 17' 23 d^viSo-™ (Jew, from a votive inscrip- 
tion, probably of ii/A.D., on an altar discovered at Pergamon 
in 1909. The inscription is mutilated, but may probably be 
restored as follows — 

0eots dyv[wo-TOLSJ 

"To unknown gods Capito torchbearer." See also P Giss 
I. 3 2f - (a.d. 117) TJKio <roi, u> 8fju.[t], o£k &yvwo-tos '^oijSos 
fleos, where the description of ^ol^os as ouk d-yvuo-Tos may 
be due, as the editor suggests, to the fact that he was the 
god of the special distiict in question. Cf. also BGU II. 
590 6 (a.d. 177-S), where ■yEvjou.svuv d-yviio-Tuv t|u.€iv refers 
to two (divine !) Caesars, Commodus and his great father. 
" Agnostos Theos " is the title of an elaborate monograph 
by E. Norden (Leipzig, 1913), in which he makes the 
Areopagus speech in Ac 17 the starting-point for a series of 
discussions on the history of the forms of religious speech. 


The ordinary meaning "market" does not need illustrat- 
ing. That bankers were to be found there may be seen in 
BGU III. 9S6 5 (Hadrian's reign) 8id ttjs 'A . . . to« 





Qtoytirovo\s Tp]airt'(r,T]s) dyopds. It denotes "provisions," 
"supplies," in P Petr II. 13 (17) 6 (n.c. 258-3), and id. 
15 (2)" (B.C. 241-39) [t]^|v yivoptv^v dyopdv els . . . " pro- 
visions up to a certain amount." Cf. P Amh II. 29 11 (c. B.C. 
250) fj tl tlv](S dXXai dyopal crwTdo-[o-ovTai, ns restored by 
Wilcken, Archiv \\. p. 119. In an important article on the 
system of the comientus, or official circuit of the Prefect in 
Roman Egypt (Archiv iv. p. 366 ff. ), Wilcken states that 
dyopd is often used = forum in its more pregnant sense of a 
judicial assembly (cf. OGIS 517 note 7). So in BGU III. 
888* (a.d. 160) we find a man described as vouoypdifios 


The verb (MGr ~ " buy ") is common in deeds of sale, e. g. 
P LondSS2 !1 (B.C. 101) (= III. p. I4)fjv T|y<ipacrsv Trapd 0., 
id. 120S 10 (B.C. 97) (= III. p. 19). It is used of the purchase 
of slaves in OGIS 33s 23 (the will of Attalus III. — B.C. 133) : 
cf. 1 Cor 6 :0 , 7 23 Tip.fjs T|'y P°- (r ^ T l TS (Deissmann LAE, 
p. 328). So P Oxy VIII. 1 149 s ff . (ii/A.D.) d[-yo]pdo-ai 
irapd Tacrap[a]irt»vos ov 'i\(i SovXov Eapair£wva, " to buy 
froni Tasarapion her slave Sarapion," al. Both the verb 
and the corresponding substantive are found in P Oxy II. 
298"- 48 , a long letter by a tax-collector of i/A.D., o-Taxf|pas 
irop4)ij[p]as dydpao-ov . . . 4dv «tipr|S dy[o]pao-T^|v tov 
pip[ovs] ttjs oiKias. For dyopao-Tos, see also P Petr II. 
20 ii. s, » (u.c. 252) tov dyopao-Tov = "(wheat) for sale," and 
P Tebt I. 30 11 (a.d. 123) ( = Selections, p. 78) dyopao-Tu,v 
irapd 0evTT€T«(rovx9« . . . oIkiclv, " the house as purchased 
from Thenpelesuchus," at. 'Ayopdl^tv irapd is illustrated 
above (P Lond 1208 10 , P Oxy I149 5 , etc.): ford, dird cf. 
P Flor II. 17s 11 (A.D. 255) 8t|Xoi (for 8t|Xov) dirb tivos 
Wktovos T)yopdo-87i. For the gen. of price cf. P Par 59 s ( — 
Witkowski Ep[ % , p. 75 — B.C. 60) tovtwv (sc. I talent 140 
drachmae) rjywpaKa o-ltov dp TaBas) p (8paxp-wv) \X ktX. 


Prof. Lake {Earlier Epistles of St. Paul, p. 69 n 1 ) regards 
d-yopcu wv in Ac 1 7 5 as " agitators," in view of Plutarch Aemil. 
Paul. 3S, dvOpwirous dyevvtis Kal Se8ovX€vKOTas, dyopatovs 
84 Kal Svvaue'vovs 6\\ov a-vvayaysiv, a neat double parallel. 
In Syll S53 B3 (ii/B.c.) it is used of " merchants," " dealers." 
The grammarian Amnionius (iv/A.D.) would distinguish 
dyopaios - iv dyopq. Tipwuevos from dyopaios - iv dyopa. 
TtOpapjitvos : Cronert remarks that the MSS. vary. For the 
special use seen in Ac I9 3fi , dyopaioi dyovTai Kal dv8viraToC 
clo-iv, Wilcken (Archiv iv. /.<-. under dyopd) ran only cite 
from the papyri P Oxy III. 47 1 126 (an advocate's speech, 

ii/A.D ) [tu] tou . [ ] dyopaiov KpiTTipfta, where it is 

derived from dyopd = forum. (He quotes a striking parallel 
to the whole phrase of Ac I.e. from P Flor I. 61" (A.D. 
86-8) 8irov 8iaXoyi.o-u.ol Kal Tiytpoves irapa-yevdpevoi.) In 
OGIS 484 60 (ii/A.D.), however, an imperial rescript addressed 
to the Pergamenes, we find Tais dyopaiens iriirpao-Kop.(vu>v : 
unfortunately there are gaps on each side, but the gender 
shows that Tjulpai is understood, denoting in this connexion 
"market days." See also Ramsay's notes on the dyopaCa 
(o-vvo8os), conventus iuridictis, at Apamea, C. and B. nos. 
294, 295 (ii. p. 461, also p. 428) : also Cagnat IV. 790 and 


'A. is of constant occurrence in the formula used by one 
person signing a deed or letter on behalf of another who 
cannot write — JypaiJ/a iire'p tivos dypapudTov, e. g. BGU I. 
Il8"-", id. 152 6 (both ii/A.D): cf. P Oxy II. 275" 
(A.D. 66) (= Selections p. 58) ZanXos . . . fypaij/a iiTrip 
avTov (i^i iSotos "ypappaTa. The great frequency of dypdp.- 
ua-ros, invariably in this sense, suggests that the sneer in 
Ac 4 13 is intended to picture the Apostles as "illiterate," 
and not merely "unversed in the learning of the Jewish 
schools" (Grimm). For the place which dictation had in 
the composition of the NT writings, see Milligan NT 
Documents, pp. 21 ff., 241 ff. 


In the literal sense this verb occurs in P Louvre 10632 

(= Chrest. I. 167 15 , B.C. 131) tdvrfjs Tapaxujs o]t 

dXicis Sw^Gukti dypcveiv tov [airrbv Tpd-rrov, ov Kal] irpoTtpov 
ei6[l]o-|xevoi i[v] ToiroLs [Vjjo-av, and P Oxy I. I22 fl (iii/iv A.D.) 
T|p€i[s] 8« dypevEiv tuiv 8rjp£u>v 8vvd[p.6]8a ov84 feV, "and we 
cannot catch a single animal" (Edd. ). 


In view of Sir W. M. Ramsay's recent discussion of the 
meaning of d. in Rom II 1 ' (see Pauline Studies, p. 219 ff. ), 
the occurrence of the adjective in Syll 540 189 (ii/B.c.) may be 
noted — Kv(3ous KaTao-Keu[ao-due]vos £vXa>v jjripwv dypuXatvuu'. 


P Tebt II. 612 (i/ii a.d.) 8if|pas dypt>v : cf. BGU IV. 
1123* (time of Augustus) f| txBvas i) dypias f\ fjvXftas. The 
adjective is used of a "malignant" sore or wound in Syll 
S02 114 (iii/B.C. ) irrrb tov dypiov <!Xk€0S 8eivws ScaKtip, tv]os : 
id. S06 6 (Roman age). 


This old and once common word is unexpectedly rare in 
papyri. P Strass I. 52 s |14 l (a.d. 151) concerns 2f arourae of 
" catoecic land," ds Kal 7rapa[Swcr€i t| ScSavio-pje'vrj KaT* 
d-ypbv o-ir[opt]pas, "will transfer these as they lie in good 
condition for sowing," as the edd. render the same formula 
in P Ryl II. 164 5 (A.D. 171): Preisigke, "in einem land- 
wirtschaftlich brauchbaren Zustande, saatfahig." The same 
connotation of " agricultural land" appear in a few instances 
we can quote. P Amh II. 68" (i/A. I>.) Ttjs vwsl KaT d-ypbv 
BciopCas. Id. I34 5 (ii/A. D. ) 6vTa cvdypui peTa twv 6p€ppaTwv, 
" in the fields with the cattle " ; and as late as iv/A.D., id. 143* 
6 yap dypbs 'Ap£ov e4i)X8(v els OTr[o]pdv. In P Oxy III. 
5o6* 2 (a.d. 143) diroYpdtbeo-Sat Ttva eirl twv dypcov, "register 
any one as owning those lands " : tirl tov dypov has apparently 
been erased. //'. VI. 967 (ii/A.D.) KaXiis 84 iroiT|o-tis tirio-Tti- 
Xao-a els dypbv dp^ao-Oai Tiiv «ts tovs dp-ircXtovas iroTLO"pd>v. 
P Eleph 13 6 (B.C. 223-2), irtpl 8{ tov olvapiov IIpa|i.d8T)S 
oiliru €to-eXr|Xv8ev «| dypov : this resembles the air' dypov 
("from field labour " probably) in Mk 15 21 . Apart from one 
Byzantine document, the two instances quoted are the only 
occurrences of dypos in P Oxy I.-X., and in the indices to 
P Fay, P I lib, P Tebt, P Grenf and the Revenue Law it 
never appears at all, nor in vols. III. and IV. of BGU. It is 


ay to 

not worth while to present the scattered instances that are 
found in some other collections. Cronert's remark that 
(Typos is obsolete in MGr, except in Cyprian, having been 
progressively supplanted by x^P°* an ^ X w P^ ov ' ^ a " s ml ° ' me 
with its relative infrequency in the papyri. It is, however, 
very common throughout the LXX. and in the Synoptic 
Gospels (Mt 16, Mk 8, Lk 9). In Acts it only comes once, 
and it may be significant that Luke has \™P a (Lie I2 ' S > 2 ' 21 ) 
or x u p'ov (Ac I 18f -, 4", 5 s ' 8 , 28') where d-ypds might have 
been expected. So also Jn 4 :,s , 4 5 , Jas 5*. It is difficult to 
draw a clear inference, but it looks as if for some reason 
dypds was a favourite word with translators from Hebrew or 
Aramaic. We shall meet with other words, rare or com- 
paratively rare in vernacular documents, which have secured 
a good deal of space in bibl. concordances in this way. 


P Giss I. 19' (early ii/A.D.) crwjex^s dypuTrvoCo-a vuktos 
TJ[ptpas]. P Ryl II. 62* (iii/A.D.) d-ypuirvciTai. Kal KoXd- 
£cTai. For the construction with cm (as in Prov 8 34 , Job 
2I 3 *), see the Septuagint Memorial from Adrumetum of 
iii/A.D., cited by Deissmann BS, p. 275, 1. 6f. , dypv!rvo[Cv]Ta 
4irl i-p <|>iX£a aviT-tis ktX. Cf. I' Giss I. 67 s (ii/.\.D.) ots 
d<fm\w tTrvTeTaYu.c'[vws (/. -Tap.-) cirja-ypvn-vdv. 


This word, in NT only 2 Cor 6 5 , 1 1 2? , is found in Syll 803 60 
(iii/B.c.) oStos dvptiirvCais o-vvexdpcvos 8id Top irdvov Tas 
Ke<|>aXd[s] — a passage which also throws light on the NT 
usage of o-we'xopai, e.g. Mt 4 21 voVois Kal pacrdvois cmvf- 
Xope'vovs. For the adverb of the primary d-ypvirvos, see 
OGJS 194*' (i/B.C.) a[-yp]i!irvu;s • .  [6<p]povTicrev. 


This word, very common in papyri, is claimed for NT 
vocabulary by an acute conjecture of Mr A. Pallis {A few 
Notes on St Mark and St Matthew, based chiefly on Modern 
Greek, Liverpool, 1903, p. 12). In Mk 6 66 4v d-yopais 
appears as ev irXaTciais in D 565 700 ; and the Old Syriac, 
Latin and Gothic versions have "streets," which is pre- 
ferable in sense. Pallis suggests that hi dymais was the 
original, from which by a very slight corruption came dyopais 
in the Greek MSS, and by paraphrase irXaTei'ais in D and 
its fellows. In Oxyrhynchus papyri iv dyw.a is a recurrent 
legal formula, describing documents drawn up "in the 
street": see Grenfell and Hunt, P Oxy IV. p. 202, and 
Mitteis in Mitteis-Wilcken Papyruskunde, II. i. p. 61 n*. 


The spread (mostly in the compounds) of the late and 
vulgar sigmatic aor. act. is well seen in uneducated writers of 
papyri. Thus P Grenf II. 44 11 (a.d. ioi)andBGU H.607 16 
(A.D. 163) KttTrjgav, BGU I. Si 10 (a.d. 189) KaT^apev, 
P Ryl I. 27 s5 (iii/A.D.) <rwd|as P Hawara 312 4 (ii/A D.) (in 
Archiv v. p. 393) o|ai, P Giss I. 27" (ii/A.D. ) a£u : cf. P Tebt 
I. 22 16 8id|r|0-8£ (B.C. 112). Thackeray Gr. p. 233 gives 
LXX evidence ; Cronert Mem. Here., p. 232 n 2 has pas- 
sages from late papyri, together with a£ioo-i.v from Hercu- 
laneum (i/A.D.). Cf. also 2 Pet 2 6 , Ac 14" D, and below. 

W. G. Rutherford New Phrvnichus, p. 217 f., shows that 
T|^dfiT|v is Homeric, and survives in Herodotus and early 
Attic. Whether its appearance in (mostly illiterate) papyri 
is due to survival in dialects, especially Ionic, or to inde- 
pendent recoinage of a very obvious type, need not be 
discussed here. The importance of the form for the NT 
was emphasized by Moulton in Camb. Bibl. Essays, p. 485 
(1909), (cf. Einleitung, p. 84). In Lk 3" N a reads o-uvdgai, 
as do all authorities in 13 s * (tiruruvdtai). We may be quite 
sure that Luke never emended the normal strong aorist into 
this colloquial, if not uneducated form. It was therefore in 
Q, and Mt 3 12 , 23" represent emendations — one to the 
future, which appeared in the last clause of the verse 
(KaTaxaio-ei), the other to the "correct" infinitive emo-uv- 
a-yayctv : the latter emendation figures in all MSS. except 
X a in Lk 3 1 ', The point has important results, when set 
among others of like nature, in the discussion of the 
synoptic problem : see Expos. VII. vii. p. 413. The active 
perfect of tvyw does not appear in NT ; but we may note 
that dyrj-yoxa (Tobit I2 3 ) can be quoted from OG/S 
2I9 16 (iii/B.c), 267 12 (ii/B.c). There are many varieties 
here: -a-y«'u>xa P Tebt I. 5 198 (B.C. IiS) and Letronne 84 
(i/B.C.) ; d-yeioxa (or cpd.) P Tebt I. 19 6 (B.C. 1 14), P 
Par 15" (B.C. 120), P Ryl II. 67* (ii/B.c), P Oxy II. 283" 
(a.d. 45), P Leid B* (ii/B.C.) ; -d-ytoxa P Tebt I. 124 
(<-. B.C. 118). We have not attempted to make this list 

For oVyco in the sense of "fetch," "carry away," see 
P Oxy IV. 742' (B.C. 2), where instructions are given to 
deposit certain bundles of reeds in a safe place i'va tt} 
dvapdcrci aiTas d|u>uev. Wilcken's proposal [ap. Witkowski 
Epp.*, p. 128) that d£upcv should be assigned to dyvupi 
seems to us improbable. For the construction with p€Ta 
(2 Tim 4 11 ) cf. P Petr II. 32 {2a) 13 dywv pe8' aiToO. For 
" bring before" a court of justice, as Mt to 18 , Ac 1S 12 , cf. 
BGU I. 22 34 ff . (a.d. 114) (= Selections, p. 76) 8lo d£iu 
aKdfjvai toiis evKaXoupc'vous 4irl o-c irpbs 84ovo-(av) tire'£o8ov, 
— a petition to the Strategus. So also P. Tebt II. 33I 18 *- 
(c. a.d. 131) d|iw dx6i}vai avTovs t-rrl a-4 : the constr. with 
lirC is regular, as in NT. Note P Oxy X. 1279" (a.d. 139) 
ptTa 8c ttjv ircvTacTtav ovk dx8r|o-opai. cis tt)V pio-8u>o-iv 
" I shall not be forced to take the lease " (Edd.). "A-yciv 
for "keeping," "holding" a special day or festival (as 
Tob II 1 *: cf. Ac 19 38 d-yopatoi dyovTai — see s.v. d-yo- 
paios) appears in OG1S 456 10 KaTayycXcis twv 7rpwTwv 
d(x)8 T l "o[p4vwv dytovwv], "heralds of the first games 
that shall be held." So with c[viavo-£as e]o[p]Tas in 
OG/S in 26 ; POxy VII. 1025 17 (iii/A.D.) pass, with 8eu>p£ai ; 
P Giss I. 27* (ii/A.D.) o-T€<f>aviioJ>opiav &£w. Mure generally 
we have <r\o\ty d-yeiv in P Tebt II. 315 1 ' (ii/A.D.), and 
dvovTos Ta KaT* ^[to]s "yecopyiKa cpya in P Ryl II. 154 20 
(a.d. 66). Somewhere under this heading will come Lk 24 21 
Tp(TT|V TavTTjv T]pe'pav dyet, where if the verb is not im- 
personal, 6 Tuo-oCs might be supplied as subject. The 
intransitive dveiv may be seen in the meaning "lead," of 
a road or canal, as P Petr I. 22 (2) ; and a rather simi- 
lar intransitive use occurs in an Egyptian inscr. of 
Augustus (Preisigke 401, A.D. IO-l) who records that he 
■n-oTap[bv] . . . ^Yavev . . . pc'ovTa 81' iiXns tt)s irdXcws : 
in the Latin equivalent flwnen . . . induxil. "A-yupcv 
(as in Jn 14 81 ) survives in MGr fipc, "go" (Thumb). 




The figurative sense of dywyf], as in 2 Tim. 3 10 , may be 
paralleled from P Par 6l nf ' (B.C. 156) iravTO. «a"rlv dXXoTpia 
tt)S re T)p.u>v dyu>-yf|s, P Tebl I. 24" (B.C. 117) ii.[o]x8r|pdv 
dyioyr|v. Cf. OGIS 223 15 (iii/B.C.) <t>aiv€o-8e -yap Ka8dXov 
a*yto-yTJL TaijTt] xpfj<r8ai, and ib. 474® (i/A.D.) Std [ttjv ko- 

(rp.twTj.T^v atTi",s] dya>yT|v with Dittenberger's note. Ag 1 

example is also afforded by Magn 164 3 (i/ii a.d.) i|0€i 
Kal dywyrj koo-iiiov. As action-noun to ayeiv, it means 
"freightage" in Syll 5S7" (B.C. 329-S, Attic) ttjs to(ii"|S 
twv Xi8cov Kal ttjs dytoyris Kal ttjs 0€<r€ws. Hence " loa<l, 
"freight," cf Wilcken Os/r. ii. 707 (I'tol.) dx>Jpou dyw(yi|v) 
tva. (sic), ib. 1 K)S els Tas Kaiuivous d-yu>(yac) (jr. dxijpov) : 
so P Oxy IX. 1197 10 (a. n. 211), P Lond n64(/;) T : ""'' '-'« 
(ad. 212) (= III. p. 164 f). 'Ayoyty iroieio-flat = " carry 
off," "arrest," is found in P Tebt I. 39-'- (B.C. 114) and ib. 
48--'- (c. B.C. 113), and in I' Fay I2 31 (c. B.C. 103) the 
substantive occurs in the sense of "abduction." For d. as 
a legal term see P Lond < 1 s 1 4 (a D. 249) (= III. p. 221) 
ouoXoyto p.T|8«fj.£av dywyTjv tx av naTa u.rj8€va Tp[dir]ov irpds 
<rt, and cf. Archiv iv. p. 466. 


The ethical meaning of dyiiv is requent in late Greek, e. g. 
P Flor I. 36 26 (iv/\.n ) T[o]i''7repi.i);uxT)sd'ycirv]a. In Col 2 1 , 
however, Field (Notes, p. 195) prefers to think of outward, 
rather than of inward, conflict, and compares Pint. Vit. Flam. 
XVI. irAdo-Tov 8' dywva Kat ttovov avTai Trapeixov at irgpl 
XaXxiScW 8€T|o-(is irpds tov Mdviov, where Langhorne trans- 
lates, "but he had much greater difficulties to combat, when 
he applied to Manius in behalf of the Chalcidians." In a 
petition of B.C. 5, BGU IV. I139 17 , we find 81b d£iovuiv [o-«] 
tov TrdvTtov o"«Tf|pa Kal dvTiXif]u.TrTopa vir^p oTrXd'yxvou tov 
a-ya>va 7roLoiju.€VOL to compel restitution of a stolen daughter. 
For the literal meaning, see Syll 524 where various Tuiv tc 
TraiSwv Kal twv 4(J>t)Pw[v] . . . dyuives in reading, music, etc., 
are enumerated; BGI' IV. 1074 16 (iii/A.D.) of great games 
at Oxyrhynchus, etc., etc. 

ay con a. 

P Tebt II. 423 13 '■ (early iii/A.D.) lis els dywvtav p.€ yevt'o-eai 
iv Tiji irdpovTi, "so I am at present very anxious ' (Edd.). 
The corresponding verb is common with the meaning "to 
be distressed," " to fear." Thus P Petr II. 1 1 (1) tvo «L8wu.«v 
Ivolsel Kal (i^| dyu>viui(i«v, " that we may know what you are 
about, and we may not be anxious" (Ed.) ; ib. III. 53 (/) 15f * 
oi yap cos £tuxcv dycoviwatv, "for we are in a state of 
no ordinary anxiety" (Edd.); P Oxy IV. 744 4 (B.C. 1) 
(= Selections, p. 32), p.r| dywvujs, "do not worry"; ib. 11 
4pci)T(o trt ovv I'va u.^| dytovido-T|S, " I urge you therefore not 
to worry." An almost contemporary instance is afforded by 
BGU IV. 1078 5 (a.m. 39) frri dvioviu irepl ulluv : of a later 
date are P Giss I. 17 6 ' 12 (time of Hadrian), ib. 19 s luydXius 
dyoivuoo-a irept' crou, PSI 94 16 (ii/A.D.) p.r| dvuu-ia 8e irtpl 
twv tu.aTLtuv. The verb is found twice in the apocryphal 
Gospel of Peter 5< 'f|"ywvtaiv atj ttotc 6 fjXios e8v, and 
10 dywvitovTts u-eydXios Kal Xt'yovTcs 'Aat|8u>s vibs rjv Scov. 
On the translation of dyuvCa in Lk 22" see a note by 
MofTalt in Exp. VIII. vii. p. 91 If. 


is very common in the inscriptions, e. g. Syll 213 33 
(iii/B.C.) dy«vi£bu.evos inrep ttjs koivt|s a-toTTjpias, where the 
reference is to warfare. So ib. 163 18 (B.C. 31S-7) Trp]oaXeTo 
TcXeuTfjcrai v-rrb twv evaVTiwv dy[wvi£dluv]os vircp ttjs Sr|U.o- 
KpaTias : ib. 199 7 (iii/B.C. ) and 19S 19 (B.C. 2S1) d-yi^vi.!;du.Evos 
i)Tr[*p avToxi], etc. Cf. an Athenian inscription of B.C. 
26S-6, Syll 214 10 , tiretSr^ irpoTepou. p.€v *A8r)vatoi Kal 
AaK€8aiu.6vioi Kal ou o-vuuaxoi 01 tKarepcov tptXiav Kal 
0-nu.u.axtav Koivrjv TroLr|o-dixtvot irp^s eaiiToiis iroXXoiis Kal 
KaXoiis dywvas Tj-yuivCcravTO u.€t dX\-r|Xa>v irpbs tous Kara- 
8onXoCo-8ai. Tas irdXeis ttrix«poivTas. The phrase here 
hardly differs from 2 Tim 4', and when taken along with 
the preceding inscription makes it decidedly less clear that 
the figure there is drawn from the games, as Deis-mann 
thinks (LAE. p. 312), illustrating the pass'ge from a ii/A.D. 
inscription from the theatre at Ephesus — Trvuivuj-aTo dyiivas 
Tpels, to-T(<}>8r| 8vu (Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum 
III. 604). For the rare use of d. with an inf. as in Lk 13-' 1 
d-y<ovi'?(cr8i cicrtXSuv, Field (Notes, p. 66) compares Diod. 
Sic. X., p. 25, ed. Bip. : aio-Te 6 uej> iraTr[p e£io"raa-8ai tt)s 
oX-ns dpx<is Trvwvt£sTo Tai -n-aiSi. The verb is MGr. 


This NT dir. «lp. (1 Cor o'') is found in Michel 1006- 1 
(Teos, ii/B.C.) dSu-iravov tt^v crup-uopLav KaQicrTavciv : cf. 
Priene m 133 (end of i/B.c). 


P Oxy IV. 744' (B.C. 1) (= Selections, p. 32). T\ap£- 
wva (/.-cov) "AXltl ttji dStXfJifjL irXeto-Ta xatpetv, " Hilarion to 
Alis, his sister, heartiest greetings," Alis being doubtless wife 
as well as sister, by a not uncommon Egyptian practice. 
It figured in Egyptian religion : cf. P Oxy VI. SS6 7  (iii/A.D.) 
T] 'Io-ts £r|Tov<ra taxJTTJs tov dSeX^bv K€ dv8pa"0o-ipcLV. Cf. 
for this an Egyptian mscr. of the reign of Augustus, Archiv 
v. p. i64'A[p]T€u,t8ujpos 'AvovpaTos Kal f(yvvT) dSeXcpV] 'Hpa- 
KXia . . . Kal 6 utbs 'EpuavovP(u)s, and still more clearly I' 
Tebt II. 320° (a.d. 181) Tf|[s] , . . yuvaiKos . . [ofltTTjs ao]u 
6u.oir(aTpiou) Kal 6a[ou(r|TpLov) d8]eX(<j>f]s). But there 
seem to lie places where the word means simply "wife": 
see under dSeX<|>os and cf. P Oxy VII. 1070 (iii/A.D.), where 
a man addresses his wife as d8eX(|>r| and speaks of "our child 
and your brother and your father and your mother and all 
our (relations)" — clearly she was noi "sister" literally. 
Dittenberger on OGIS 6o ; * (B.C. 247-21) BspeviKT], t| dSeXcjirj 
Kal ■ywri avTov (Ptolemy Euergetes), shows that d8eX<j>r| 
was an honorary title : Berenice was her husband's cousin. 

For the later metaphorical use of the word (1 Cor 7 16 , etc.), 
cf. the Paris magical papyrus 1. 1 1 35 ii. x al P eT€ °^ s T ° 
Xaipav €v evXoyia. 8i8oTai a8eX4SoLS Kal d8cX(|iaCs oo-iols 
Kal do-iais. 


For the literal and the more general derived sense we may 
quote Syll 474 10 d8eX<|>ol ots Kotvd tcl iraTpcua, and 276'-° 8id 
to M«o-o-aXiT|Tas ttvau d8€X[<|>ovs]. In P Lond 421 
(B.C. [68) (= I. p. 30, Selections p. 9) 'Io-£as 'H4>aurTuovi 
Tuii d8€X4>ai[i x a ^(p €lv )]j it seems probable that Isias is 



addressing her husband, not brother : see Kenyon's note ad I. 
where I.etronne's statement that the Ptolemies called their 
wives aStXcfxii even where they were not actually so is 
quoted. Witkowski Epp. 1 p. 61 maintains this against 
Wilcken, quoting Wilamowitz (Gr. Lesebuch I. p. 397), and 
noting that Isias says r| p.T|TT|p <rou, showing that Isias and 
Hephaestion were not children of the same mother. Cf. 
also P Par 45 and 4S (ii/B.c.) where men address with tu> 
dSeX<f>u> x°'p etv men wno are no relation to them. For the 
use of uo(,\<|)ol to denote members of the same religious com- 
munity cf. P Tor I. I'- 20 (ii/B.c.) where the members of a 
society which had to perform a part of the ceremony of 
embalming bodies are described as dSeXcjxiv Tciv Tas 
XtiToupYtas ev this vtKpiais Tvapc^o^ivuv, and in P Par 
42 letc - (ii/B.c.) the same designation is applied to the 
"fellows" of a religious corporation established in the 
Serapeum of Memphis. In P Tebt I. 12 (B.C. 118) Cronert 
assumes that one town clerk addresses another as &Se\<j>os : 
Grenfell and Hunt take it literally — see their introduction. 
Cronert quotes also Syll 607 (iii/iv A.D. ), where it is used 
between two SeKd-rrptuTot, and OGIS 2572 (B.C. 109), where 
one king so addresses another. In this last case the kings 
were the sons of sisters, but Dittenberger warns us against 
taking dStX^os as used loosely for dvevjnos. He refers to 
OGIS ijS :! (ii/B.c), where Ptolemy Euergetes II. addresses 
as "brother" one Lochus, who in other inscriptions is 
o-vyyevrjs — "our trusty and well-beloved cousin," as an 
English king would have put it. 'AScXt^e as a term of 
address may be illustrated by P Flor II. 22S (iii/A. D.), where 
Palas thrice calls Heroninus d8eX<f>e : in four other letters to 
him, from about the same time, he only calls him <f>CXTa.Tos. 
So P Tebt II. 314 12 (ii/A.D.) 'ipavio-6 p.01 dSeXtjjc, in a letter 
addressed at the beginning Tui] TipAwTdTtu. (The voc. survives 
in Pontic MGr &Se\<pe — elsewhere dScp<f>e' — says Thumb.) 
A clear case is BGU IV. 1209 2 (B.C. 23), where Tryphon 
addresses twi dSeX<f>u>i, and goes on to write of his correspon- 
dent's late brother as his own former friend : tou evKXrjpou 
dScX<f>ou a-ov T|p.<iv St <f>iXov ■ytvop.e'vou n€T€xwvTos. ' A8eX4>ds 
as a title of address is discussed in Rhein. Mus. N. F. lv. 
p. 170. From the Christian papyri we may note P Grenf 
II. 73 2 (late iii/A.D.) (= Selections p. 117) 'AirdXXwvi 
■rrpca-pvTe'pa) d*YairT)Tui dSeXt^w ev K{vpi)w x a ^P €tv » P- Lond 
417"- (c. A.D. 346) ( = II. p 299, Selections p. 123) tiu 
StcrirdTT] u.ov Kal dyairriTui dScX<f>u> 'Ap\vv£u> irpaif-Troo-iTw), 
and P land n* (iii/iv A.D.) T<i Kvpfu p.ou dSeX<f>u IltTpw (cf. 
Wilcken, Archiv vi. p. 295). For the Christian use of the 
word see Harnack Mission and Expansion of Christianity 1 1, 
p. 405 ff. On dSeXcf>ds "improperly" used in the LXX, see 
a note by Hort The Epistle of St. James, p. 102 f. 


This word, which is confined to I Pet 2 1 ', 5° in the NT, 
occurs in the late P Giss I. 57 s (vi/vii a.d.), P Oxy I. 15S 2 
(same date) irapciKaXu) -rf|v vfieTepav Xap-irpdv yvT|(r£av dStX- 
<J>OTTyTa, "I urge you, my true and illustrious brother. " From 
an earlier date may be quoted Ramsay C. and B., ii. p. 720, 
no. 655 (prob. iii/A.D.) elprjv[T|] ird<rr) tq dSeX[<t>OTr|T]i : 
the inscription is the dedication of a Koiu.T|TT|piov, which 
Kamsay notes as a Christian term appearing as early as A.D. 
251. Ramsay's remark, "It is noteworthy that the collect- 
ive d8tX4>OTr|s had already been formed," betrays forgetfulness 
Part I. 

of 1 Pet, as well as of occurrences in Dion Chrysostom 
and I and 4 Maccabees : see Grimm. Cronert adds Vettius 
Valens, whom Kroll dates under the Antonines— see his 
index s. v. 


P Lond 940 23 (a.D. 226) ( = 111. p. 1 iS) dSrjXou 6Vtos el 
vp«v Sia<{>e'pei t| icX^povop.Ca, P Oxy I. 118 5 ' (late iii/A.D.) 
Sid to &St|Xov ttjs dSoLirop£as, 


Lightloot's translation of dSr|u.ovuv, " distressed," in Phil 
2 28 , is borne out by P Oxy II.29S 45f - (i/A.D.) Xiav dSr||iovovnev 
\dp[i]v tt)s epe-TrTTJs SapairoiTOS, where the editors render, 
" I am excessively concerned on account of the foster-child 
Sarapous." Towards the etymology of this word, T. W. Allen 
(CR xx. p. 5) traces an adj. 8tJ(iwv in the Iliad (M 211), 
with the meaning "knowing" " prudent," so that dSrjpoveiv 
would suggest originally bewilderment. The adj. must be 
independent of 8o.TJp.wv, though ultimately from the same 
root {dens, as in Sc'Sae, Skt dasmdh: cf. Boisacq Diet. 
Elym., p. 168). 


Wiihout suggesting that there is anything to be called a 
real parallel with Rev 2i e , it may be worth while to quote P 
Oxy 1. 33 iv - 3ff - (late ii/A.D.), an interesting papyrus describing 
an interview between M. Aureliusor Commodus and a rebel, 
tls t]8tj tov 8evT€pdv u.ou dSrjv irpoo-KwovvTa Kal tovs irpb 
cp.oii T«XeuTT)cravTas . . . peTtKaXe'craTo, ue. "facing death 
for the second time." The word does not appear in the 
indices of any papyrus collection, so far as non-literary 
documents go: the magic papyrus, P Leid V™- ' M (oil T| 
■yfj aKGuo-ao-a eAevcreTai, 6 dSrjs aKovwv Tapdo-o"€Tai) will 
serve as exception to prove the rule. Except for its appro- 
priation from the literary language to represent Sheol in the 
LXX, we should probably not find it in NT. It is signifi- 
cant that Paul substitutes fldvare for <j8t) when quoting Hos 
13 14 in 1 Cor I5 65 - Prof. W. M. Calder tells us the word is 
common on tombstones in Asia Minor — doubtless a survival 
of its use in the old Greek religion. 


OGIS 509 8 (ii/A.D.) OvSe TOVTO TO ptfios KO.Tt'XvTrOV 

dSidxpiTov. For the adv. see P Oxy IV. 715 36 (a.d. 131) 
where a registration of property is certified with the words 
K[a]Tai«xw(piKa) dSiax(pi.Tto9 ?). The editors translate d. 
"jointly," as — koivws 4£ IVov in 1. 7, but Wilcken (Archiv 
iv. p. 254) prefers " ohne Untersuchung " — a rendering 
which may help us in Jas 3 17 . 


Syll 732 36 (c. B.C. 34) «p' f| ?o"xt«v irpbs Trjv o"vvo8ov 
dSiaXCir-Twt <piXoTip.C<j.. In the adverb we have an early 
example of this Hellenistic compound in Y Tebt I. 27" 
(B.C. 113), TJrjv dSiaXC-nrws Trpoo-<j>epop[7vT|v o-]tt[o]v8tjv : cf. 
BGU I. 180 10 (ii/iii A.D.) iv XeiTovp-yia etp[i.] dSiaXei- 
[irrjws, Syll 732 16 (i/B.C.) d8iaX£nTws 8{ tiraYiuvt^djicvos, 
ib. 805* (Roman period) of a cough. Other citations are 





In Syll 168" (iv/n.c. ) the Athenian statesman Lycurgus 
is praised as d8i.d<j>8opov Kfal dve£e'XfyKTov aiiTiv inrep] rfjs 
7raTpt8os . . . irapLcxwv]. Some late MSS. give the de- 
rived n< un (-£a) in Tit 2', ami Grimm ingenuously traces 
our adjective to the verb d8ia<p0e£pw ! 


The verb is common in petitions, as P Tebt I. 42 s 
[c. li.c. 114) Vj8iKi)|ieyos KaO' iTrep|3oXr|v inr[b] 'Apucuo-ios, 
P Eleph 27(a)- 5 (iii/B c.) tovtou 8e -yevope'vov to-bp.«0a ovk 
rjSu<,, ...w: so P Passal 8 (Ptol.) (=Witkowski Efp* p. 53) 
(j>p6vr.o-cv ovv, 8irws p.i| a8LKT]0Tjt 6 avfipunros- With cognate 

I 3'- 5 ) BGU I\'. 113S 13 (i/H.c.) 8 T|StKT]9-(y 

cp.apTipTio-(ev). In the sense of harming something inanim- 
ate (Rev (j e 7 2 ' 3 — the latter paralleled in Thucydides) see 
Syll 557 s rif|v 8J Xonnr|v \wpa.v T ^ v "P&V toO 'AttoXXuvos 
tov IIto/iou pi] dStKciv pr|8eva, and cf. BCH 1902, p. 217 : 
tav tls tt|v (ttt|Xi]v dSiK-qo-ei, Kex ^ w H- c ' vov 2x OLTO Mijva 
KaTax0dviov. The wider sense of dSiKeiv "injure" is well 
illustrated by Swete on Rev 2' 1 . 


The concrete noun from dSiKeiv, defined in Aristotle (a/>. 
Thayer) as to &Sikov oTav Trpax0TJ, occurs frequently. So 
BGU IV. IoyS" 2 (i/E.c), a marriage contract, of a "wrong" 
done to the wife (ets auTijv d8tKTjp.a), P Lille I. 29 1 (iii/B. c.) 
cdv 8e tis ir€pt d8iKT|p.aTos e[T€]po[u] oiKeTrji 6vti 8lKT]V 
*ypa\|/dp.evos ws cXeuGc-pua KaTa8iKuo-T|Tai., P Amh II. 33™ 
( . B.C 157) €v<pavi.o"p.uiv irtpi tlvwv d8i.Kr|pdTy[v] Kal 
rrapaXovawv o-itou t€ Kal x a ^ K °^ "misdeeds and pecula- 
tions," J//,7;r/472 19 '-, SS4 8f -, 1009 s7 , etc. 


I' 1 )\y IX. 1203 24 (i/A.D.) to virb tov TraTpbs Acov£8ou 
tirl ttj T}|xuiv d8iKia TrpaxOevra " done by his father L. to 
our huit." BGU IV. I123 11 (i/B.C.) uri8' dXXo p.T|Siv 
emTcXeiv Ctrl ttj tov €T£pou dSiKLa. P Tebt I. 104 23 (B.C. 
<)i) the husband may not alienate the property, ctt' dSnuai 
Tf|i 'ATToXXwvtai. P Magd I4 111 (iii/B. C.) o-uY"ypa]<pi| err' 
auiiaai ytyp itppevri. It is curious that this recurrent com- 
bination should not appear in NT (except in I Cor 13 6 , 
which is quite different), among two dozen instances of the 
noun. For the concrete sense we find in papyri the neuter 
doixiov, which is also Attic, and quotable from Ionic inscrip- 
tions : see instances in Mayser Gr. p. 432. 


V Trlil II. 2S6 7 (a. 11. 121-3S) vop| aS'Kos [oi]8{v cUtxvcl, 
" unjust possession is invalid " ; ib. 302 13 (a. D. 71-2) uSikov 
[eo-riv f|p.ds dTraLT«io-8ai], Of a person, BGU II. 531" 2l 
(ii/A.D.) Tr^TrcLO-at [7dpi pov ttj -yvu>pT| tos ovtc €ial a8iKo$ 
o<jtc d[X]XoTp£uv tTri6up.T)TTJs. Instances need not be mul- 


The sense of this adjective in t Fet 2 2 is now set at rest 
by its constant occurrence in the papyri in the sense of 
"pure," "unadulterated" Thus P Ilib I. 8s 16f - (B.C. 

261-0) o-Itov Ka0apbv aSoXov aTrb TrdvTwv u.«Tprj<m, ib. 9S 19 
(B.C. 251-0) o-itov Ka[0apbv a]SLo]Xov K€Koa-Kiv[€vpevovJ 
("sifted"). Six examples come from this volume of iii/B. c. 
all referring to " unadulterated " corn. From i/A.D. we may 
cite POxy VIII. H24 u (a.d. 26) irupbvvc'ofv] Ka0apbv dSoXov 
dxpaGov, "wheat that is new, pure, unadulterated, and un- 
mixed with barley." PSI 31 21 (a. d. 164) to eKtpdpia Trapa8<io-a> 
iv ttj Kupr| KaBapd Kai. dSuXa gives the adj. a general appli- 
cation to all farm produce. P Oxy IV. 729 18 (a.u. 137) 
d.Tr]oSoTa*o-av tu> p.€[to]KdTi tov pkv olvov irapd Xnvbv 
veov dSoXov gives the rare application to liquids: cf. P Ryl 
II. 97 ; (A.u. 139), of oil. The word is used ofXax.avoo-rripp.ov, 
"vegetable seed," in P Fay 89 11 (a.d. 9), and of Xdxavov 
in BGU IV. 1015 12 (a.d. 222-3). Cf. Syll 653 100 (i/B.c.) 
oi irioXoOvTes aSoXa Kal Ka0apd. So of xplua in Aeschylus 
Agam. 95 (but cf. Verrall), and in MGr of wine (Abbott, 
Songs .;/ Modern Greece, p. 6S). The figurative use appears 
in the late P Par 21 15 (a deed of sale, A.D. 616), bp.oXo 
•yovp-ev . . . dSJXiu onjveiSrjcrei.. 


In Wilcken Ostr. ii. 1600 (ii/A.D.) d8po" appears twice, 
representing presumably something from d8pds. The ad- 
jective occurs in BGU III. 7Si v '- 2 (i/A.D.) traTeXXov d8pdv. 


Applied to persons this verb retains its classic sense, 
'' to be incapable," in late Greek : cf. P Par 33 :f 'ii;.c. 163), 
8id to ipi iv KaTo\e! cvTa dSvvaTtiv, ib. 63 1 ' '• (B.C. 165) 
ottws p.T|Tev twv d8vvaTovvTwv vcajp-yeiv TrtpLo-rraTaL p-r^tts, 
and s9 ' tovs dSvvaToivTas dvavKa^eiv tTribexfo-Bai. ra Tfjs 
•y«up-yias. The neuter sense, "to be impossible," when 
applied to things, appears in the LXX, which seems to tell in 
favour of the AV rendering in Lk I" 7 , as against the RV : 
see Hatch Essays p. 4, Field Notes p. 46 f. , where the true 
reading Trapd toS Beov (RV) is rendered " for from God no 
word (or, nothing) shall be impossible." 


In P Par 66^ (late Ptol.) irptcrpuTepoi Kal dSvvaToi are 
men "not strong enough" to work: cf. also P l.ond 97 1 1 
(iii/ivA.D.) (=111. p. 128) d8vvaTOS ^dp eo-Ttv r] ywr| 8id 
do-0e'viav ttjs <|>vo-€[u>s] and in. 67S 1 ' (B.C. 99- 8) ( = III. p. lS) 
d]SvvaT[os 8pp]ao-i. In Syll t02" 5 (iii/B. c.) dSvvaTos is 
associated with aTu'Bavos, applied to IduaTa, ib. 512' 24 
(ii/B.C.) of witnesses unable to appear. 


For the dative construction as in Fph 5 ,B , Col 3 1H , cf. from 
the LXX Judith 16 ll2J atran tiTj Kupiw, am! such passages 
as Philostr. Imag. i. xi. 780 Kaiio-Tpu tovto Kal "Io-Tpu 
ao-ovTai, Heliod. Act/nop. v. 15 tppaTijpia d'8. Arovvo-cu 
(Nageli, p. 42). For the passive see P Giss I. 99" (ii/iii A.D.) 
llpvoi pev di[8ovTai.] -yXuTTri ^evt-Krj. 


It may be well to note that ad, whose oldest form is alFd. 
is the locative of a neuter noun identical with Lat. aevom : 
aluv is the same word in a different declension. The papyrus 




form is aet, a^ Mayser shows, p. 103 f. : aU£, which Brug- 
mann Griech. Gram. 4 p. 57 thinks to be re-formed under 
the influence of aiuv, crept in after the Ptolemaic period. 
It occurs however as early as B.C. 22 in the new parchment 
from Avroman in Western Media (P Sa'i'd Khan 2 a9 ), de- 
scribed by E. II. Minns at the Hellenic Society (Nov. II, 
J 9 J 3) '■ TeXeVovo-i 8' alel ko.t' tvi.avT[6]y ktX. It figures 
in the standing formula of the Decian libelli (A. D. 250) : as 
P Kyi II. 112 a 4 , b e , r>. The word comes most frequently 
in similar formal phrases, like eirl or els tov del xpovov (e. g. 
P Oxy III. 503- — A.D. 118, or P Lips I. 3>- 8 — A.D. 256), 
or in the stiff language of legal documents, as BGU IV. 
noS-" (B.C. 5) etc. It only occurs in this one place in 
BGU I.- IV. : in P Oxy I.-X. its total is 7, for the non- 
literaiy texts, and of these only two (iii/ or ii/iii A.D.) are 
dissociated from formulae. It may be seen also eight times 
in ( PR in a standing formula. It is significant in this con- 
nexion that it is greatly outnumbered in N I" by irdvTOTe, which 
replaces it in MGr. Note the petition P Ryl II. 1 I4 2B (c. A. n. 
2S0) oUiuTdi . . tq> 2. [ep.e t^|v X1P*1 V • • <"'■ dirocrrepetv, 
" it has become a habit with S. on all occasions to rob me " 


Michel S33 12 (Delos, inventory of temple treasures, B.C. 
279), deTos dpyupovs Ttiv dp\ai'u)v StaTre-n-TuKtos. As a con- 
stellation name it appears twice in a calendar, PHibl. 27 1 "" ' 8 
(c. B.C. 300), and rather later in the Eudoxus papyrus. 
Mayser (p. 104) cites instances of its appearance as a prop 1 
name, by way of showing that the old Attic spelling aleTos 
did not survive : it may be seen in Syll 537™ (second half "f 
iv/ii.c), where the word is an architectural term (= gable). 
In Syll 583 17 (i/A.D.) we have a marble altar of Zeus at 
Smyrna, i\uv de-rbv iv emml : so ib. 5SS 18 ' (Delos, c, B.C. 
I So) de-rov Kt^jaXi] dpyupd e-n-Lxpuo-os. 


To the instances of this word from profane authors in 
Grimm-Thayer, add Hippocrates Ilepl Aiaerns III. 79, where 
it is used along with dpros. 


This vernacular word (Lk 23 12 D) is supported by P Par 
II 2J (B.C. 157) KaTcnr^euyoTas Std Tfjv dnStav, ib. 4S 7 ff - 
(B.C. 153) TOO irpds o-e TT|V aT)8etav irorjcravTOS. " who had 
that disagreement with you," P Lond 342 s ' (A.D. 1S5) 
^=11. p. 174) ctWyov dnSCav <rweo-TT)cravTo, and almost 
identically BGU I. 22> 4 '- (a.d. 114) (= Selections, p. 75) ; 
cf. P TeU II. 304''' (a.d. 167-S) drjTlav [i.e. -Slav] 
o-ufj+av (/. otjv-), "they picked a quarrel." The verb dr|8ti;o- 
|iai occurs in P Lond 42 14 - 27 (B.C. 172) ( = 1. p. 30, Select ions, 
p. 10 f.) in the sense " I am troubled, distressed." For the 
adverb see BGU 11.665"'- 10 f ' (>/a.D.) d^Sis 8e tirjiov irepi 
tov VinroD, ib. III. Sol 3 f - (ii/A.D.) Xeiav d[r|]Sws fl[Ko]uo-a 
irapd ktX. Instances of these words are frequent : we need 
not cite more. 


A very late (vi'/a.d.) citation may be made from an 
illiterate document which fairly proves the word in continued 
vernacular use : P Lond 99 1 10 ( = III. p. 25S) dirb 6r|)ieXioii 
i-us de'pus. Yettius Valens p. 330"' has 8 tc ir«pn<exw(«'vos 

d^|p 4(f>9apTos inrdpxwv Ka'i 8it|ku)v els f|uds dirdppotav Kai- 
piKijv d9avao-ias dirove'p.ei ktX. In Wtinsch A F 4" (iii/A.D.) 
we have de'pos tt|v efouo-Cav ?x OVTa ^1 Tdu eea<j> — hut in 
syncretic documents of this kind a reminiscence of Eph 2 2 is 
not excluded. Add P Leid \V* V »'- =» 6 de'pa pXeVwv. In 
BGU IV. 1207 6 (B.C. 2S) we find some gauzy fabrics 
described as depo:[i.]§f|. The noun survives in MGr. 


This word, which in the NT is confined to 1 Cor is 5af -, 
1 Tim 6 16 , occurs several times in Wisdom, but not else- 
where in the Greek OT: cf. however, Sirach 51 9 A koA dirb 
d0avdTou piio-eus eSer|6T]v, "and to the Immortal One did 
I pray for deliverance," and see also Didache 4 s . As show- 
ing the wider connotation of the word in early times, cf. the 
description of Caligula in Syll 36s 4 (i/A.D.) to (le-yaXeiov -rijs 
d9avao-tas, and the use of the formula oiSels d0dvo.Tos in 
sepulchral epitaphs, where, as Ramsay {Luke the Physician, 
p. 273) has shown, the meaning is "no one is free from 
death" rather than " no one is immortal." Pagan examples 
of this usage can be cited (Ramsay, ul supra),hv& it is 
generally Christian. One interesting instance may be cited 
where the formula has been expanded into two lines : 
ovSls [d8d]vo.Tos, el jjltj (ldvov Is 6ebs avrTds, 6 irdvrav 
7ev[eTT|]s *e irdcn. ra irdvTa p.ep£l>v, "no one is immortal 
except only the one God Himself, who is father of all and 
gives all things to all" {Studies in the Eastern Roman 
Provinces, p. 129). Wiinsch AF 5 24 (Deissmann's " LXX 
Memorial " — iii/A.D.) has tou Kvpiov a[i]a>[vlov] dOavaTou 
iravTecpdirrou. Preisigke 364 15 (iii/iv A.D. ), where a tomb is 
forbidden to be used for any irape£ Tciv -yap.[3puv dOavaTwv, 
shows a strange sense as well as irregular grammar. As 
illustrating the vernacular usage, reference may be made 
to P Strass I. 30 6 (A.D. 276), where the epithet is 
applied to she-goats — ot-yas BnXei'as Te[X]eias dOavaTous, 
obviously in the sense of "very strong, hardy": see the 
editor's introduction, where he translates d. "von 
eiserner Bestand," and cites Herod, vii. 31, p.eXeSu>vu> 
dflavdru) dvSpl ktX. : cf. also P Cairo Preis 41 3 (iv/A. D.) 
]. yei'ou d8avd[To« . . . ]. dpoipas. Cronert, however {Lex. 
s. v.), takes it in the sense to be mentioned next. In BGU 
IV. 1058 25 (B.C. 13) ifnOeO T]b KaOdXou XafJoOcra 8rd Tb 
dfldvaTov atiTT|v eirrSeSe'xflat Tpo^euevv (/. -eiv) the word 
appears to imply that the person providing a slave as wet- 
nurse undertook to carry out the contract for the two stipu- 
lated years "apart from the death of" the infant, whose 
place could be filled by another : cf. the Persian Guard, the 
" Immortals," so called becau-e their numbers were kept up 
to the same figure. Antiochus of Commagene uses the 
adjective as an epithet of KpCo-is in his famous inscription, 
OG/S 3S3 e07 (i/B.c), meaning presumably "unalterable": 
cf. Syll 365 1 (i/A.D.) rijs d8avdTo« x^P LT °S of Caligula. 
From the sixth century we may quote P Oxy I. 130 21 , where 
a petitioner says that he will send up tijivovs dSavaTous 
"unceasing hymns" to the Lord Christ for the life of the 
man with whom he is pleading. See also Vettius above 
(s.v. dr)p). 


This late form is found in P Tor I. 1". ^ (B.C. 120) ats 
[jr. Bears] dfie'aiTa earn* veKpd 0-wp.o.Ta, a passage which 




seems to support the rendering "abominable" in I Pet 4 s , 
and in consequence perhapr the Gentile destination of the 
Epistle : see Bigg's note ad I. Vettius Valens the astrologer 
(ii/A.D.) tells us that under the influence of Saturn, Mars 
and Venus some people d8«uvrois p.£|eo-i Kal d8ia(f>dpois 
("reckless") dv«irio-TpeirToOo-i (p. 43^) : the same writer 
(p. l84 E ) speaks of men who dpvoivTai ri Beta Kal tTepotrt- 
poiuu <i d6euiTo<j>a-yovo-i.v The word is thus equivalent to 


OGIS 569" (iv/A.D.) ttjs tuiv dBtW d-rr«x8ovs tiri-rnSeip- 
creius. For the popular cry alpe tovs dSe'ous. "Away ^vilh 
the atheists," directed against the early Christians, see the 
account of the martyrdom of Polvcarp in Eus. H.E. iv. 15, 
19: cf. ib. ix. 10, 12, trap' <5 -yt (Maximinus) |UKpu irpio-Oev 
8ucr<rep6t3 t8oKovu.ev Kal dSeoi Kal iravTos oXeOpou toO pCov. 
See also the Logion P Oxy I. I recto 3 eiv wo-iv [p' ovk] 
e[lo-l]y dfleoi. 


An instance of this word, which in the NT is confined to 
2 Peter (2', 3"), may be quoted from the late P Oxy I. 129' 
(vi/A.D.) where a man breaks off the engagement of his 
daughter to a certain Phoebammon, because it had come to 
his ears that the latter was giving himself over to "lawless" 
deeds — dtaiKoh/ax ct irapfp-PaXXovTa tauTOv ev rois avTois 
dSe'cruots irpd' 

ad erect). 

This verb, which is not approved by the Atticists (frequent 
in Polybius), occurs five times in the Pauline writings, 
always with reference to things, except I Th 4 s 6 dOeniv 
ovk dvBpuirov dOtrei dXXd tov 9i6v. In the LXX it repre- 
sents no fewer than seventeen Hebrew originals. It appears 
in the new Median parchment of B.C. 22, P Sai'd Khan 
2 ttU . For its use in ihe papyri, cf. P Tebt I. 74 s8 
(B.C. 1 14-3) iv ttji f|6cTi])u'vT)i iepq;, HGU IV. I123 11 
(time of Augustus) dQtriiv twv u»uoXo-y-rjp.e'vu>v, P Oxy IV. 
SoS (i/.\.D. ). T|8t[Tta-rai] of loans repaid and cancelled, ib. 
VIII. 1120 8 (iii/A.D.) i^d&yvo-fv ri pipAaSia d8eTt)8f|vat, 
"procured the failure of the petition" ; and in the inscrip- 
tions, OGIS 444 18 «dv hi Tives Tuiv ttoXcuiv d9eT[ii(ri] to 
o-vu,<pwvov. This is fairly near the meaning suggested from 
the LXX in Mk 6-", " break faith with her," by Abbott Joh. 
Voc. p. 322 : see also Field Notes, p. .30. The adjective is 
found in P Amh II. 64 12 '- (a.d. 107) where certain officials 
are described as d]8<Tovs • • • K[al] p.^1 dvaXo'yowTas tt|v 
<[ir]i.|iAtiav, "inefficient and incapable of doing their duties" 
(lidd.) : cf. P Lond 237 23 (c. a.d. 346) = (II. p. 291) tov iv 
dSt'-ra) o-it<Skpi.8ov, with reference to corn (wheat and barley) 
rejected by the inspector as unfit for food. 


The force of dBtVrio-is in lleb 7 18 , g 26 is well brought out 
by Deissmann's reference [BS p. 228 f.) to the technica' 
legal formula in the papyri els d6eTTio-i.v Kal aKvpuo-iv, as in 
BGU I. 44 16 (a.d. 102) t^|v 8[ia]-Ypa<f>^|v tts d8«Tr|0-iv Kal 
aKvpwo-iV| "the decree to be annulled and cancelled." So 

P Amh II. m ,9f (a.d. 132), P. Tebt II. 397" (a.d. 
198), P Said Khan 2 b ■" (B.C. 22), etc. 


/<; XI\'. 1 102 (Rome, ii/A.D.). CP Herm 119 verso "'• W 
(a rescript of Gallienus), gvSokCuuv Ka-rd tt|V &9\t]o-[iv] 
■ycvout'vwv. .SW/6S6 21 (ii/A.D. ) d|iws Kal tov Alos tov 'OXvp.- 
irlov Kal T-qs d3\i']a-€(os. Other words of this family are well 
evidenced. Thus OG/S 339 79 (Sestos, ii/B.C.) tiBus dBXa 
■xrdvTwv tu>v dBXTiudTwv, with dBXrjTTjs, dSXdcpopos, etc. 


OGIS 764* (<-. B.C. 127) to . . . d8po[io-8ev Tr.Vr,6os]. 
P Par 40 12 (B.C. 156) xP^Lc-aTa T|]8poi.KdT€S. For the adjec- 
tive see P Petr II. xi(l)' (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 8) dBpovv, 
"in a lump sum." Cf. P Amh II. 79" (ii/A.D.) e.Spdov 
dpYvpiov. On its form see Cronert Mem. Here, p. 166. 


P Amh II. 37 7 ' crl ° (B.C. 196 or 172) u*| dS-ip-ei. P Giss 
I. 79>" " (ii/A.D.) oi x[°-P u l v oi8[«l]s dBvpti irioXctv KTf|u.a. 
The substantive is found P Par 22 uf - (ii/h c.) tuj 8e |ii < | i']p.ds 
tivai o"vv avTtji ii-rrb tt|s d8u;j.ias utTT)XXax*v tov P:ov. The 
adverb dOiiuus occurs in Syll 226 109 (iii/B.C.) -iroXXwv iy^ovroiv 
d. Kal Trapeo-K€ao"uevu>v e-yXelimv Trjv ttoXlv. 


P Oxy II. 237 vi "- 17 (ii/A.D.) o[i]8[e] r6rt dfldos eo-duevos, 
dXXd Tots T€TaYae'vois eirvriuois evexdaevos, ' ' and even so 
he shall not escape his liabilities, but shall be subject to the 
legal penalties " — a legal opinion quoted in the lengthy 
Petition of Dionysia. An earlier example is afforded by 
P Tebt I. 44 23 (ii/B.C.) where certain precautions are taken 
lest an assailant dflwios 8ia4>vyni, "should escape un- 
punished." Cf. Syll 790 s9 (i/B.c) 4 edv du.d[o-w]o-iv, 
e'a-Tuo-av d8uioi. 


P Fay 107-'- (A.D. 133) i<f>aXavTo SeppaTa at^'eiav 
(i. e. -a) T€o-o-apa, "carried off four goat skins " P Oxy II. 
2J4 J6 (ii/iii A.D.) X oA ti favpeia [^ K]al ai-y«ia f\ irpoPaTtCa. 
P Leid X xv19 (iii/iv A.D.) (ii.7vup€'vi] aiuaTt al-yt£u> For a 
form alYiKos, see P Grenf II. 51 15 (a.d. 143) d[ir«]xeiv 
aiiTovs Tta^v SepuaTwv al^iKiiv Tco-o-dpuv. Also 8€pp.aTa 
al\iva P Lond 236 s (A.D. 346) (= II. p. 291). 


The word is common (MGr = "seashore") ; but it may 
be noted that in P Tebt I. 79 {c B.C. 14S) it refers to the 
shore of Lake Moeris ; in id. 82 (B.C. 115) and 83 (late 
ii/B.C.) to the shore of a marshy lake then covering the 
neighbourhood of Medinet Nehas (see the editors' note on 
p. 346). So P Fay 82 1 (a.d. 145). P T e bt u - 3°S 5 
(a.d. 174). On the use of the term in Ac 27 s9 , see W. M. 
Ramsay St Paul, p. 341, and Expositor V. vi. p. 154 ff. 
P Fay 222 (iii/A.D.) is the beginning of a document ad- 
dressed 4>i.Xiiriru) alfiaXo^iXaKi 'Apo-i.vo£[To«]. We find 
YT avyiaXiTis mentioned in P Oxy VI. 9i8"«- l0 (ii/A D.), 
P Lond 924' (a.d. 187-8) (=111. p. 134): Sir F. G. 
Kenyon renders " land on the border of the lake." 





In P Lond 43- '■ (ii/B.c.) (= I. p. 4S) a mother con- 
gratulates her son because he had been learning AlyvirTia 
Ypdu.u.aTa, or the demotic speech : cf. P Tebt II. 29.1 42 
(a.D. 162) where a priest gives practical proof of his 
qualifications by his knowledge of [fjpaTiKa [k»1] Avyiirna 


Syll 306 15 (ii/B c. — Delphi) Situs iiTrdpxTI a Swptd eis 
iravra tov XP° V0V o-tSios. In OGIS 56 54 (iii/B.C, the 
Canopus inscription of Ptolemy III.) it is ordained to pay diSiovs in all the temples to Queen Berenice, who 
els Oeovs UETfjX8ev shortly before. So ib. 24S 28 (ii/B.c, 
Antiochus Fpiphanes) Ta KaXd tw[v] SpY">v ets dioiou. 
u.vfju.T)v dvd-ywv. In ib. 3S3 76 Antiochus I. of Comniagene 
(i/n. c) claims irepl Si UpoupYuiv diotwv Sidra^iv irptirouo-av 
CTroiT|o-duT|v. The phrase t. diSiov xpovov is common in the 
inscriptions, e.g. Syll 96 s (iv/B.c). The adjective has been 
restored in the late P Lond II3 63 (vi/A.D.) (= I. p. 202) 
tt]v dl]Si[a]v l<r\iv : otherwise we cannot quote papyri — 
possibly the word was only appropriate to the stiffer language 
of inscriptions. 


We can supply no papyrus references for this expressive 
word (1 Tim 2', Heb 12 28 MP»), but it is found in 3 Mac- 
cabees and in Epictetus; also OGIS 507 8 (ii/A.D.) (with 
rmeiKeia). The verb occms P Fay 12 9 (c. B.C. 103) ovk 
alSto-Sus 8« to[0to], "so far from being abashed" (Edd.), 
and often elsewhere : it is curious that Nageli (p. 57) should 
make it absent from the papyri as from NT — a glance at 
the indices would suffice. The adj. alSc'o-iu.os and its ab- 
stract -OTns came into common use in late times. 


An interesting parallel to the common Biblical phrase 
atp-a eKxe'u, especially as it appears in Deut 19 10 Kal ovk 
4i<x^8T|0"«Tai. aifia dvaiTiov, is afforded by an inscription 
found on a tombstone at Rheneia, containing a Jewish 
"prayer for vengeance," Syll 816 5 '• (i/A.D.) eyxsavTas 
avTf|S to dvaiTtov aiaa dSiKus : see the full discussion in 
Deissmann LAE p. 423 ft -. For the use of atua, as in Jn l 13 , 
cf. P Lips I. 28"" (A.D. 381) irp[b]s rb dvai o-ov ul[o]v 
•yvfjo-iov ku irpuToTOKov is c| IK011 ai'uaTos ■y<vvr|8e'vTa eroi. 
In P Leid C (versa) "- 9 (p. 118 — B.C. 161) two men appear in 
a dream saying, Xa(3i to[us] x a ^ K0 ' ,s Toi 
atp-aTos : they count out a purseful and say to one of the 
Twins tiSov tovs x^* *" t0 ^ alfiaTos. Leemans quotes an 
opinion that this meant the price of a victim, and compares 
Mt 27 B . In the sense of murder or blood-guiltiness it finds 
modern support in the Pontic dialect (Thumb BZ, xxii. 
p. 489), which is evidence for its place in the Eastern 
Koivtj, apart from any Semitic influence. 


The noun occurs in BGU IV. 1026 15 (magical text, 
iv/v A. D. ) aiu.dpot.av Idrai — following a spell from Homer, 
described as aluapoixdv (//. I 75 ). Thumb (BZ xxii. 

p. 4S9) compares atuaToppoOo-a "hemorrhage" in MGr 


Syll 452* (c. B.C. 240, Epidaurus, in dialect) kotA tov 
atvov tov Taiv *A[xai]wv is explained by Dittenberger as a 
"decree" of the Achaean Council. He compares ib. 30G 2 " 
(ii/s.C.) u.t]T€ KaTa ij/atfjio-u.a urJTe KaT atvov, the former 
being a decree of the people, the latter of the Senate 
(Delphi) ; and he cites Hesychius atvos' ■Yvwar), Trapoiaia, 
irapaSayu-a, Siraivos • Kal r\ ^siooTovta Kal >J/T|<}>io-u.a. 


Dittenberger, in his note on Syll 835 s (iv/B.c, Elatea) 
[o Sdujos alvei. observes that the use of the verb belongs to 
the older language. But Plutarch has it occasionally ; and 
in the LXX it is four times as frequent aseiraivew, especially 
in the sense of praising God. 


In Michel IOOI"'- 83 (Thera, c. B.C. 200) aXptla-im to 
kolvov . . . avSpas ktX • Kal tyypa(f>£Tw Kal Tav toCtwv 
atpeo-iv 6 eiTio-o-oaSos, the noun is the nomen aclionis of 
aipEicOai, "choose." The two meanings (1) animus, sen- 
tentia, and (2) secta, /actio, are both illustrated by Ditten- 
berger in OGIS: for (1) he gives fourteen examples from 
i/B.C. or earlier, for (2) only three of equal antiquity, viz. 
176 T-fjs 'Auucimou alpscews, 178 similar (both from rci;_;n of 
Ptolemy XI, li/i B.c), and 442 (a senatus consultum of i/B.C. 
apparently) 2uXX]as avToi-.paTup o-vv€xip T l (r€v [Tr]dX[€ts 
ottws LSijois toIs vdjioLS a r pc'o-eo-iv T€ uhtiv. (Note the effect 
of slavish translation from Latin ablative.) 2 Pet 2 1 is the only 
NT passage assigned by Grimm to the first head, and there 
the RV has a margin assigning it to (2). Herwerden cites 
an inscription from Delphi of iii/B.C (BCIIxx. p. 47S) where 
the word equals cuvour. : tv€<j>dvio-t tXv aip€0-iv, dv ^x a ' JT0T ^ 

tc to Upbv Kal Tav ttoXiv Cf. Roberts-Gardnc 


decree of the Senate and people) Kal avrbs Se •t'aiSpos 
ttjv avT-T|V aipto-LV i\i&v T0 ^ s rrpo'yo'ybvoi.s (/. irpo-ydvois) 
StaT€T€'X€K€v tavTov o^lov Trapao-Keud^wv ttis TTpb; TOV 
8fjp.ov €\Jvoias. The editors note that this sense of alpeo-is 
= " propenstts animus," " kindly feeling towards a person," 
is very common in later inscriptions. 

In the papyri the meaning seems generally "choice" : in 
wills it is used = "voluntas," or " disposition," e.g. P Oxy 
VI. 907' (a.D. 276) atpeo-K T-rj {nroTeTayu.i:'vrj, " according to 
the disposition below written." P Tebt I. 27 s6 (B.C. 113) 
(ttI tt)v alpeo-iv twv «ri.Yevr|[u.]dTiov shows the pure verbal 
noun "receiving," and in P Oxy IV. 716 22 (a.D. 1S6) tt^v 
ducCvova alpecriv SiSovti it is a "bid" (at an auction) ; so 
also BGU II. 656 s (ii/A.D. ) Trpoo-cpx'o-Tuo-av (i.e. -Suo-av) 
tols irpbs toutois Sp€o-«iv (i.e. aipeo-iv) SiSdvTts. Other 
examples of the word are P Petr II. I 6 ri\v tuv dvOpuiiruv 
a'ipeo-iv, P Par 63"''- s ff - (1. B.C. 1 64) Trpoaipoiiu-evos £va 
p.€TaKXr|8Tis Jti trpos tt)v «ar|V alpso-iv, and BGU IV. 1070* 
(A.D. 21S) evSoxovvTa ttj alpco-ei Tijs €7riTpoirf|S. P Tebt I. 
2S 9 '- (B.C. 114) comes nearest to the meaning (1) — Kal KaTa 
Tb irapbv S[i]d Tiiv dva(j>[opaJv] ttji aiTfji aipeVei Ktxpll'-iviiiv, 
which the editors render " since they show the same behaviour 
in their reports." This use gives us a foretaste of the devel- 
opment in malam tartem, producing " factiousness " and 




then "heresy": cf. Syll 308 28 (ii/B.C.) -yivuvTai 8e Kal 
aXXoi ynX]u>Tal ttjs avTtjs alpeVews. In Syll 367" (i/A.D) 
aipeo-idpxis means the chief of the profession (medical). 


Syll 633 s (ii/A.D.) aipcrio-avTos (to)0 (8)eoO. 


The middle usage of this word, which alone occurs in the 
NT, may be illustrated from P Par 26 r '' (B.C. 163 2) 
( = Selections, p. 18) Se ylvoiTo KpaTeiv irdo-ns i]S dv 
aipTjcr8e x"P a s. P Lips I. I04 1:: (c. B.C. 96-5) irepl civ &v 
atpf|(r0« ypdtpeTe p.ot, P Oxy III. 4S9 4 (a will, A.D. 117) 
ko.8' 6v edv |Tp6irovli P Ryl II. 153* 3 (A.D. 13S-61) 
Klupios yap tov tu>v iSttov oijtcos ?jpT]pLa.L 8iaTe'o~8ai, P Tent. II. 
319 s0 (a.d. 248) 8 eav alpfjTai, and so frequently. It is a 
sign of the gradual disappearance of the subtler meanings of 
the middle, that so early as B.C. 95 we find lav aipTJ-re and 
edv aipeto-Se used side by side for "if you like," P Grenl II. 
36 H ' ]S : see further Prolegomena, p. 159. For other uses of 
the active cf. P Fay 34 14 (a.d. 161) to alpoiiv &, i<rov, 
"equal instalments," the same in it. 93" (a.d. 161), P 
Oxy III. 502 2B (a.d. 164) Tas aipoio-as T<iv fvoiKtwv 
Spaxpds eKaTOV, " the proportionate amount of the rent, 
100 drachmae " (Edd.), BGU II. 4O5 X0 (A.D. 34S) irt'irpaKa 
eis to cpoCv (/'. e. alpoiv) poi pepos. 


For atpu, " raise," "lift up," as in Rev 10 6 , cf. Syll S07 3 
(ii/A.D.) dpai. -rfjv x"P a ' aml so ' b - 6°7 20,27 - One passage 
for ol'peiv x"P as m;, . v 1,e specially noted, the Alexandrian 
inscr. in Preisigke 1323 (ii/A.D.) : 8«i i\|/io-Tui Kal TrdvTwv 
e-iroTrrT] Kal 'HX(u) Kal NeueVeo-i al'pei 'Apo-eivdti awpos 
Tas x* ; P as - "The inscr. ls heathen, but has striking simi- 
larity to the Jewish prayer for vengeance on which 
Deissmann comments in LAE p. 423 ft'. : is its thought 
partly due to Jewish suggestion? In P Fay 103 3 (iii/A.D.) 
payment is allotted to the bearers of a corpse — tois T|pKao-L 
(/.-60-1) aiTdv: cf. P Grenf II. 77 9 (iii/iv a.d.) [=Selec- 
tions, p. 120). In a magical formula of iii/A.D. instruc- 
tions are given to take twenty-nine palm leaves, on which 
the names of the gods have been inscribed, and then 
— ipe ( - alpe) KaTa Suo Suo, "lift them up two by two," 
P Oxy VI. S86 19 ( = Selections, p. III). A good parallel to 
Col 2" is afforded by BGU II. 388"- » (ii/iii A.D.) dpov 
raira «k tov u[e']q-[ou]. Jn I9 1S dpov, dpov, oraiipwo-ov 
auTdv may be illustrated from a strangely incongruous 
source, the well-known school-boy's letter, where the boy's 
mother is represented as saying — dvao-TaTot p.t ' dppov aiiTov, 
" he upsets me : away with him !" P Oxy I. 1 19 10 (ii/iii a.d.) 
( = Selections, p. 103): cf. Syll 737 14 - (ii/A.D.) 4dv St 
d7r«i0Ti, alperwo-av auTbv e^w tov irvXwvos. A parallel ol 
a different kind is found in the defixio from Cnidus, Audol- 
lent no. I 18 (p. 6 — iii/ii B.C.) Ivai avTov ck tu>v ^wvtwv dprj 
— which the editor should not (p. 559) assign to aipeiv I 
In the curious nursery alphabet, P Tebt II. 27S (early i/A.D.) 
al'peiv is used six times for stealing (a garment). So in the 
passive BGU IV. 1201 18 (a.d. 2) dipoo-av tov o-Tpotpe'a tov 
tvbs aepovs [t^s Biipas f|p|ie'vov x[e]po-f(y. The use is 
common. With ets it can express "removing to" a place, 
as P Tebt II. 308' (a.d. 174) — a man has paid for 20,000 

papyrus stalks " which he has had transported to Tebtunis 
by Hcracleides " (els T. dpas Sid 'H.). The classical use of 
the middle may be seen in P Lond S54 6 (i/ii A.D.) ( = III. 
p. 206, Selections, p. 70) dpapevos dvdirXo[vv], of a tourist 
going up the Nile. To Wetslein's parallels for Lk 19 s1 
al'ptis o oiiK JSrjKas C. Taylor {JTS ii. p. 432) adds the 
Jewish precepts quoted by Philo (Mangey II. 629) & tis 
■n-aBtiv exfalpa p.v| irowlv avTov, d pi] KaTiStiKev p/nS' 
dvaip«lo-8ai, and Plato Legs;, xi. (913 c) KaXXio-Tov vdpiov 
8ia<p8€ipwv Kal dirXovo-TaTov Kal ovSap-T) dyc-vyoiis dvSpbs 
vopoBeVnpa, 8s ct-irev* "A p.r] KaTi8ou p'j dveXr). In MGr 
only as compounded, iralpvw = dtraipw. 


This verb, in NT only Lk 9 45 , is asserted by Nageli 
(p. 57) to be absent from the papyri. This is a still more 
remarkable oversight than that noted under alSus- A few 
examples will suffice. P Eleph 13 3 (B.C. 223-2) Ix^pnv *wl 
Tut p.e alo-8to-8ai to. KaTa <re, P Oxy III. 472 s (c. A.D. 130) 
out' e'spT "irpos Tiva alcr8eV8ai oiiSevos (" noticed anything"), 
BGU II. 372' 16 (a.d. 154) l']o-Tioo-av |p.]iv t[o]v . . . ix 
Tavrfris] ttjs aiT[tas ^]ti KaTcxdpevov a[lo-]8Tjo-€0 _ 8aL tt)s 
Toii \LtyivTov AvToKpaTopos €u[p.]€v[eljas (see Chrest. I. 
p. 33), Hi. 41 7 4 (ii/iii A.D.) alo-8dpe(vov) Trjv Toi KaipoO 
irtKpiav (note the accus. in a vernacular document), it. 
531'' " (ii/A.D) a[l]o-8du6vos ir<is p.« <f>iXeis, and an ostrakon 
in Archil) vi. p. 220 (iii/B.C.) dirdo-TEiXov tois iiroYe-ypap.- 
pcvois Tas ircraXlas Kpu(£f)L Kal p.T)6els alcr8ave'o-8w. but it 
is hardly necessary to go on 10 the other iive or six volumes 
in which the index contains this verb. It survives in MGr. 


P Leid W xiv - 4i irdo-ais Tais ai8r|o-€o-i, Wunsch AF 
I 8ff (i/ii A.D.) toutovs dva86ua[Tl]^op.eV o-»pa, irveOp.a, 
\|/[ujxt(V, [8t]dv0Lav, <ppdvT]o-iv. ata-B-rjo-iv, ^otjv, KapSiav, and 
ib. 4 55 (iii/A.D.) Pao-dvto"ov aijTwv t^v 8i.dvoiav, Tas <pp€vas, 
tt]v a£o-8r|o-iv. Prof. II. A. A. Kennedy, following Klopper, 
quotes a good passage from Hippocrates to illustrate Phil 
I 8 : — de Ojf. Med. 3 d Kal ttj bxj/t. Kal ttj d(pirj Kal t;"j aKofj 
Kal ttj ptvl Kal ttj -yXtiio-crri Kal tt] yvwar) ^o-tiv aio-6eo-8aL. 


For this word (Heb 5 14 ) see Linde, Epic. p. 32, who cited 
Epicurus, Aristotle, etc., but shows that it came into the 


BGU III. 909 12 (a.d. 359) iroXXds e[o-]xpoXo-yias els 
irpdcrwirdv p.ou e^eLirtuv. A literary citation is P Oxy III. 
410' 6 (Doric, iv/B.C.) to 8e (pev^ev Tas aicrxpoXoylas ae- 
■y[aX |oirpeires Kal Koorp.os \6yu>, ' the avoidance of abuse 
is a mark of high-mindedness and an ornament of speech " 
(Edd). The adj. is generally associated with foul or filthy 
rather than abusive speaking in Col 3 8 : cf. Didache 3*, 
where after a warning against 67n.frup.La the Christian is 
counselled to be p.T)8e alo-xpoXd-yos p-^Se vv(<T]Xd<p8aXpos 
("one who casts lewd eyes " : cf. 2 Pet 2 14 ) tK yip tovtuv 
d-irdvTajv poixeiat -yevvwvTat. 


BGU IV. 1024 Tii - 20 (ii/iii A.D.), where a judge says to a 
scoundrel d*rreo"<pa[^]as "yvvaiKa, AidSipe, alo"xpws, P Tebt 




I. 24" (B.C. 117) ai]<rxpa without context, ii. II. 276* 
(ii/iii A.D. — an astrological work) dirb aicrxpds Trepio-Ta.- 
[ crews?] "an unfavourable position." The word is not 
common, anil is peculiar to Paul in NT. 


In P Eleph 1° (a marriage contract, B.C. 311-10) (= Selec- 
tions, p. 2) provision is made that if the bride KaKOTexvovo-a 
a\to-Kr|Tai erri aicrxuvrji toO dvopds, "shall be detected 
doing anything wrong to the shame of her husband," he 
shall be entitled to take certain steps against her : cf. P 
Gen 2I 11 (ii/B.C.) (as completed, Archiv iii. p. 3SS) u.i}8" 
al[cr]xvveiv McvcKpa-rr^v 60-a ej-e'pei dvSpl oXa-yyvrcv — the 
same formula in P Tebt I. icxp 1 " (is.c. 92). So P Par 47 25 
if. B.C. 153) (= Selection*, p. 23) irrb Tfjs alcrxuvr|S, "for 
very shame," P Oxy III. 471 78 (ii/A.D.) curoi; -yap ev £6ei 
Tf|S a[icr]xwr|s 7evdpevov, "for when once accustomed to 
his shame." 


P Par 49" (B.C. 164-5S) 6 8e, ij>cuve-ai, rf|v T|u.e'pav 
tK(lvr\v d.a-xo\rfi(Cs, fjcrxwTai crvpu.ei£ai p.01 : we may either 
suppose <|jaiveTai parenthetical or emend rja-xvv9ai. lb. 28 
ovkc'ti TJK€t irpbs epe aicrxvv9eLs, Syll So2 122 (iii/R.c., Epi- 
daurus) aicrxwopevos 8[e art] KaTayeXdpevos vir[b] tmv 
aWov. For the active (not in NT) see P Oxy III. 497* 
(early ii/A.D.) alo-xvveiv 0eWa, P Gen 2i u , as quoted 
under aLO*xvvr|. 


The ordinary meaning of this word " to make a request," 
"to ask for something" is borne out by the papyri, e.g. 
P_Fay 109 12 (early i/A.D.) aVTrjcrov Sapav tus toO (Spaxpds) 
ip. "ask Saras for the twelve (silver) drachmae." In ii. 
]2I i2ir. j ( -_ AD- I00 j j t j s cons trued with the accusative of 
the thing and irapd, to 8[e'p]pa tov pdo*xou ov e9v[cr]apev 
atTT)o-ov ira[pd toO] KvpTou pvpo-e'ws, "ask the hunch- 
backed tanner for the hide of the calf that we sacrificed " 
(Edd.) : cf. Ac 3 2 . See further s.v.>, and for the dis- 
tinction between active and middle Pro/eg., p. l6of. If the 
middle connotes a greater degree of earnestness, it is natural 
that it should be more frequent than the active, as for 
example in the phrases al.Tovu.evos \070v SijXw . . . (I'llamb 
I. 6 8 (a.d. 129), aiToiipevos . . . dvdpaTa . . . StSopei (HGU 

I. 91 s ff - A.D. 1 70-1), and see the list of passages in the index 
to Syll (iii. p. 245). The verbal occurs negatived in P Ryl 

II. 163 4 (A.D. 139) yf\s KaTotKtKoC dvaiTr|Tou, " not subject 
to demand " (Edd. — see the note on 164 4 ). 


Syll 41S 62 (iii/A.D.) ovSels f|peiv evdxAT|crev oliTe |ev£as 
(aiTr|)u.aTi oiiTt irapoxrjs eiriTT)SeW. For alYr|0-i.s see 
P Oxy I. 56 !1,r - (A.D. 211) 8it'YpcuJ/a. 8e to lipio-pe'vov Tfjs 
atTT|o-[tu)]s WXos : "I have paid the appointed tax for 
making such a request " (Edd.) : the word is fairly common. I 


P Petr III. 53 («) (iii/B.C.) dire'crraATai els 'AAe£av8peiav 
irpbs atTiav virep rjs [d-n-JoXovt^eTaL d[\]V ov Tvxwv tiri- 
Seujeiv (? fur -Setjai) [irjpbs piav exe-rat, "he was sent to | 
Alexandria to meet a charge against him and make his I 

defence ; but since he did not succeed in clearing himself 
he is forcibly detained " (Edd.). So BGU I. 267' (A.D. 199) 
Tots 8uKaia[v] avr-fi'jav eo-xr)K<So-i, and so identically P 
Strass I. 22 3r - (iii/A.D.)— it was a legal formula. Note 
P Ryl II. I44 22 (A.D. 3S) tTo\p.r|o-ev ir9dvovs (^(j>9dvov) 
p.oi e-TrayaYtiv avrias toO p-rj Svtos, "to bring baseless 
accusations of malice" (Edd). In ii. 63- (iii/A D. — an 
astronomical dialogue) t£s 8e r) avria tovtiov [t]u>[v] 
[eijSiuXuv ("What is the cause of these images?" — Edd.) 
we might possibly render "case": Prof. Hunt paraphrases 
"What is the meaning?" If so, it comes fairly near 
Mt 19 10 el ovtojs eo-rlv t| aiTia tov dvBpuirov peTa T>js 
7waiKos. Cf. 1' Par 49" (B.C. 164-5S) eEirep ofiv lorlv ai>TT] 
t| aiTia. A more general use in P Hib I. 43' (B.C. 261 (260)) 
'Cva. pi) (HTias ?XT1S> 'Test you be blamed." P Giss I. 40'- 2 
(a.d. 212) joined with X[i.p]e'XXou[s] in the sense of que 
(Fd.). The more ordinary meaning "reason," "excuse," 
like Mt 19 3 , etc., hardly needs illustration, but cf. BGU I. 
136 25 f - (a.d. 135) Kcrrd TauTT|V [tt|v alJTi'av, P Oxy III. 472 s 
(c. A.D. 130) e£x ev r 1 ^" °^ v o-iTLas, and frequently in the 
inscriptions, e.g. Michel 456 14 (ii/B.C.) Sid TavTas Tas 
aiTi'as. BGU IV. 1205 7 (B.C. 28) tt^v aiTiav tov ijjaKov 
has an insufficiently clear context. "Avev avrias, sine caussa, 
appears in PSI 41 16 (iv/A.D.). 


In Rom 3' D*G TjTtacrdptSa is read for irporjTiacrdpeSa of 
the printed texts: cf. P Tebt I. 35 19 (B.C. Ill) irapd tovti 
iroiuv tavTov aiTida-eTai, "any one disobeying these orders 
will render himself liable to accusation," and OG/S 484 30 
(ii/A.D.) ^Tiu9tio-av. In P Oxy VII. 1032 s1 (A.D. 102) 
tov iiirrjpe'Tiiv aiTtas, we have an abnormal active. The 
verb is not uncommon. 


For the absolute use = " guihy, " cf. BGU II. 651 10 
(a.d. 192) and P. Flor I. 9 1 "- (a.d. 255) irpbs tovs cpavii- 
crouivous aiTtous : so P Tebt II. 330 10 '• (ii/A.D.) irpbs to 
<pave'vTos Tivbs alT[£o]u pe'viv pot tov Aoy[o]v, "if any one is 
proved to be the culprit, he may be held accountable to me " 
(Edd.), ii. 333 15 (A.D. 216), etc. A more neutral sense, 
"responsible," occurs three times in the Revenue Papyrus 
(b.c 259-S), where sundry officials "shall, each of them 
who is responsible (i'Kao-Tos twv avriW), pay a fine to the 
Treasury," if on inspection it appears that the proper acreage 
has not been sown. It is used wholly in bonam partem in 
Heb 5 9 , with which cf. Diodorus Siculus iv. S2 alVtos £7^- 
vtTo Tfjs cruiTripias. For the dependent genitive cf. also 
Syll 737 80 (ii/A.D.) 6 avrtos 7evdp«vos Tijs pdxiis. The 
Lukan use of the neuter = " cause," shading into " crime," 
may be illustrated from P Hib I. 73 13 (B.C. 243-2) frirws 
elSijis etvat] atViov tov \ii\ 7evt'o-9ai. tui Aiofptuvu dirdSoo-tv 
Tf|v] ndTpuvos piav, "the reason ... is the violence of 
P." (Edd.). 


So in Ac 25' (all uncials), hitherto without external 
parallel : the confusion between -aw and -010 forms recalls 
T|cro-do-9ai and (Ion.) to-o-ovo-Bai.. It is now supported by 
P Fay HI 8 (A.D. 95-6) ( = Selections, p. 66) o [bv]T)\dnys 
tu) aiTiwpa ircpL€irij^o-e, " the donkey-driver shifted the 





blame from himself." The generally illiterate character of 
the document somewhat discounts the value of its evidence. 


The adverb occurs in P Fay 123 21 ff - (c a.d. 100), 
an uneducated letter — alipvi8i[.]ws (with a letter erased) 
ttpT|X€v rjp.iv o-T|}iepov : cf. Syll 324 20 (i/B.C.) al<f>vi8iov 
o-(v)p.<popdv 0€ao-dp.€vos, also id. 320 7 al(|>vi8iws eiripaXdv- 
tos and OGIS 339 ls (ii/ti.c.) €K ttjs aiipviSiov Trcpio-Tao-ews. 


Syll 34S'' 10 (Cyzicus, i/B.c.) 8v alxpa]XwTio-8^vTa ix 
Ai|3vt|S . . . [8]ti TJxM- a ^-wTio-Tai MdpKos. Phrynichus (ed. 
Lobeck, p. 442) characterizes the verb as uSokijxov (z. e. 
good vernacular !). 


The word is found in P Lille I. 3 66 (after B.C. 241-0) 
alxp.aXu>Tois els tt^v -yivopevTrv o-y [vTa|iv ?] In their note 
the editors think that the reference is to certain prisoners 
brought from Asia by Philadelphia (cf. P Petr II. 2<)(hf 
to some of whom a regular "allowance" or "grant" 
(<rwTa£is) may have been made. Dittenberger's indices 
show seven inscriptions in SyU and one in OGIS containing 
the word, all in the Hellenistic period. For the subst. see 
Michel oi>5 6 (beginning ii/B.C.) 8]o-wur«v ix ttjs alxpaXwo-ias. 


Magn lSo 3ff - (ii/A.D.) pdvos Tiiv air* alwvos vaKTJo-as 
'OXvpiria, etc. — the athletf is claiming to have made a 
record : cf. the description of a certain dpxi«pei>s twv 8ewv in 
Syll 363 6 (i/.\ D.), as Sid piou TrpwTov twv d-rr' aiwvos, and 
id. 6S6' 8 (ii/A.D.) f[V pdvos dtr' aiwvos dvSpwv eTroCr|0-ev. P 
Oxy I. 33"' 9 1 ii/A. D. ) 0eu)pT|rraT£ iva. air' atcovos a.Tray6p.[(vo]v, 
" behold one led oft" to death," literally '* from life." Minns 
IosPE\. 22 33 twv dir' aiwvos. Preisigke 1 105 (i/ A.D.) Iir 
d-ya8w tis tovi (/. tov) alwva. P Giss 1. 13 19 (ii/A.D.) 8ttw[s] 
irXouTT][cr]T)S eisalw[va] " for the rest of your life." P Oxy I. 
41 (iii/iv A.D.) is a curious report of a public meeting at Oxy- 
rhynchus, punctuated with cries of "A-youo-Toi Kvpioi tls tov 
alwva, " the Emperors for ever !" : cf. OGIS 515 s5 (iii/A.D.) 
Succlam(atum) est : tsalwfva] with Dittenberger's note. So 
Syll 376 60 (i/A.D. ) Ad 'EXevBtpiw [N«'pwv]i els alwva : also 
Magn 130'" (i/B.c.) eij«p7tTr|V Se [YJe-yovoTa tov Stjjiou Kara 
•rroXXovs[T|pdTrovs irpos tov aliiva, OGIS $&3 U (i/B.C.) els tov 
a-rreipov alwva — passages which are sulficient to show how 
thoroughly "Greek" the prepositional combinations with 
alwv are. Reference should be made to Syll 757 (i/.A.D.), an 
interesting inscription dedicated to Alwv as a deity. For alwv 
= period of life, cf. Syll 364* (a.d. 37) ws av tov t|8£o-tov 
dvSpwrrois aliivo(s) vvv eveo-niTos On the Rosetta stone, 
OGIS 90 (B.C. 196), Ptolemy V is described as alwvop\os : 
cf. P Lond 3 1 * (B.C. 146 or 135) ( = I. p. 46) eirl pao-iXe'ws 
alwvopiov. So P Giss I. 30 20 (B.C. 161) Pa<riXev(ovTos) 
alwvop£o(v) of Ptolemy Philometor. See below on alwvios, 
where also there are remarks on etymology. 

Without pronouncing any opinion on the special meaning 
which theologians have found for this word, we must note 
that outside the NT, in the vernacular as in the classical 

Greek (see Grimm-Thayer), it never loses the sense of 
perpetuus (cf. Ueissmann BS p. 363, LAE p. 36S). It is 
a standing epithet of the Emperor's power : thus Casual 
IV. 144' T.oi oIkov of 1 iberius, BGU I. 176 tov alwviov 
Koo-pov ol Hadrian. Kroni the beginning of iii/A.D. we have 
BGU II. 362 iv - n ff - inrep o-wTtipiwv kill alw[viov] 8iap.o[vf|Js 

TOV KVpCoV T]p.WV AvT0Kpd[T0p0S] 2tOVT)[pOU 'AjVTWVlVOU. 

Two examples from iv/A.D. may be quoted addressed to the 
Emperor Galerius and his colleagues : vpeTe'pw 8eiw Kal 
alwvfw [vevpaTi], and [iiTrep] ttjs alwviov Kal dcpBdpTou 
pao-iXtias vpwv, OGIS S D 9" 0, "*• Ultimately it becomes a 
direct epithet of the Emperor himself, taking up the succession 
of the Ptolemaic alwvdpios (see above under alwv sub tin.). 
The earliest example of this use we have noted is BGU IV. 
1062 s7 (A.D. 236), where it is applied to Maximus : so in P 
Grenf II. 67 27 , ayear later. (In both the word is said to be very 
faint.) P Lond 233' (= II. p. 273) irapi Trjs Siotittos tov 
Seo-TTOTuv rjpwv alwviwv Av-vouo-twv, referring to Constantius 
and Constans, is the precursor of a multitude of examples of 
the epithet as applied to the Christian Emperors. The first 
volume of the Leipzig Papyri alone has twenty-seven 
instances of the imperial epithet, all late in iv/a.d. Even 
in BGU I. 303 2 (a.d. 5S6) and id. 309 4 (a.d. 602) we 
have still tov alwviov Aityovo-Tov (Maurice). In Syll 757 12 
(i/A.D. — see under alwv) note 8eias <pvo-ews epvdTrjs alwviov 
(of Time). Syll 740 18 (iii/A.D.) joins it with dva(|>ai'pcTov. 
P Grenf II. 71 11 (iii/A.D.) 6p.oXo"yui x 11 ?^ 60 "® - 1 v^iiv x°-P LTL 
aliovia Kal dva<f>aip€Ta> is a good example of the meaning 
perpetuus; and from a much earlier date (i/B.c) we may 
select OGIS 383 s f - (a passage in the spirit of Job 19**) : 
Avtioxos . . . €Tri Ka0u>o-iwp.c'vu>v pdo-eujv do-vXois ■ 
^p-ya. x^P LT °s ISias «ls \povov dv€Ypai|/€v aliiviov. Add 
BGU H. 531"- 20 (ii/A.D.) tdv 8^ do-TOxT|0-r|S Jaiw^yiav 
(101 Xoittt|v (/. e. XvTrT]v) |Tr]apt'xiv p.e'XXis. In his Index to 
OGIS Dittenberger gives fourteen instances of the word. 

The etymological note on altov in Grimm-Thayer, though 
less antiquated than usual, suggests the addition of a state- 
ment on that side. AUv is the old locative of alwv as ale's is 
of alios (ace. a!w in Aeschylus), and alti, de£ of *alfdv (Lat. 
aevittn), three collateral declensions from the same root. In 
the Sanskrit ayu and its Zend equivalent the idea of li/'e t and 
especially long life, predominates. So with the Germanic 
cognates (Gothic aiws). The word, whose root it is of course 
futile to dig for, is a primitive inheritance from Indo-Ger- 
manic days, when it may have meant "long life" or "old 
age" — perhaps the least abstract idea we can find for it in 
the prehistoric period, so as to account for its derivatives. 

In general, the word depicts that of which the horizon is 
not in view, whether the horizon be at an infinite distance, as 
in Catullus' poignant lines— 

Nobis cum semel occidit brevis lux, 
Nox est perpetua una dormienda, 

or whether it lies no farther than the span of a Caesar's life. 


In a literal sense the noun occurs in a formula used in 
agreements for renting houses, which the tenant undertakes to 
leave in good condition. Thus P Oxy VIII. 1128 26 (a.d. 173) 
TrapaSdTw tovs tottovs KaOapovs dirb KOTrpiwv Kal Trdorjs 
dKa8apo-£as : id. VI. 912 26 (A.D. 235), BGU II. 393 16 
(A.D. 16S) av[ev] aKa8apo-ia[s], P Lond 2l6 28f - (A.D. 94) 




(=11. p. 187), P Lips I. i6 ls (a.d. 138) where dird stands 
without KaOapovs (see under dird). Vettius Valens, p. 2 1 *, 
has it in conjunction with lavtuSCo. : Kroll takes it as "oris 
impudicitia (?). " 


The adjective is found in a moral sense of an unclean 
demon in the long magical papyrus P Par 574 1238 ( = Selec- 
tions, p. 113). It occurs in the correspondence of the 
architect Cleon (B.C. 255-4), P Pe" H- 4- (3) s (P- [S]), 
elXr|cj>au£v 8e toO axaOipTou Kal to [. . ., where the 
ganger Apollonius seems to be writing about a supply of 
iron for quarrymen, but the mutilation prevents our deter- 
mining the reference. Vettius Valens, p. 76 1 , has Trd6ecn.v 
aKaSdpTois Kal trapa 4>tjo-lv T)Sovats, where the ethical sense 
is completely developed : half way comes Syll 633 s (ii/A.D. 
according to Michel), where a Lycian named Xanthus 
dedicates a shrine to Men Tyrannus and says Kal [p.T|8eva] 
aKa8apTov irpocrd-yeiv ' Ka8api£ea-Tw 8t dirb (r(K)dpSwv Ka[l 
Xoipe'cov] ko[1 7JwaiK<Ss— the impurity is ritual. 


The well-known letter of a prodigal son, BGU III. S46 llr - 
(ii/A. D. ) ( = Selections, p. 94) has the adverb aKmpiu; iravra 
croi 8iTryr|Tai, " unseasonably related all to you.'' For the 
adjective cf. Syll 730 12 (ii/B.C. ) at XCav dKaipoi Sairdvai. 
The derived noun appears in P Par 63 x,i ' 93f - (B.C. 165) 
8id t« ttjv irepw'xovo-dv |ici (/. (i«) Kara ttoXXous Tpdirovs 


BGU IV. IOI5 llf - (A.D. 222-3) X[dx°-v]ov viov ve'ov Ka- 
Bapbv a8oX(ov) . [. . a]KaK[ov] must have a passive sense 
"undamaged." So P Oxy I. 142 6 (A.D. 534), a similar 
formula. For a. = "simple" rather than "innocent" in 
Rom 16 18 , see the quotations from Wetstein recalled by 
Field A'oles, p. 166. 


In P Oxy III. 646 (time of Hadrian) a legacy includes 
KXeCvt) aKav8tvr|, i.e. a couch made of acantha-wood (Herod, 
ii. 96, Strabo 175). Sir F. G. Kenyon (P Lond I. p. 740), 
calls it " the Egyptian acacia from which gum arabic is 
obtained, and whose branches were in early times used 
for boat-building." Its pods are mentioned in P Leid X 
(iii/iv A.D. ), a long list of chemical prescriptions: xii - 36 
(p. 237) dKdvBns Ktpdna. The name, or derivatives of it, may 
be seen in P Lond 2i4 13ff - (a.d. 270-5) (= II. p. 162), ii. 
1177 1 " (a.d. 113) (= III. p. 186), P Oxy I. 121* (iii/A.D.), 
ii. VI. 909 3 ' (a.d. 225), ii. VIII. 1112 6 (a.d. iSS), P Flor 
I. 50™ (a.d. 26S), etc. This evidence isolates further the 
word as used in Mark and John (Isa 34 13 ) ; but the meaning 
there is not shaken We need not discuss the identification 
of&Kav8a, aKavBos (so MGr d-yKafli, Pontic dxdvri, "thorn"), 
and the derived adjective, as occurring in Egypt : in the 
N 1 the exact nature of the thorny plant indicated is in- 
determinate : see Enc. Bibl. 5059 f. 


The adj. may be cited from P Oxy I. 53" (a.d. 316) 
d8[ev] t<j>l8ov t^v irtpo-eiav &Kapirov ovo"av iroXX[u>]v etwv 
Part I. 

8idXou £ripavTio-av. For the subst. see Syll 420 30 (i/A.D.) 
Sid Tas -yevopivas «j>[e£]T]S dKapmas tCiv cXaiuv. 


To illustrate this XT air. dp. (Tit 2 8 ) Deissmann {B.S 
p. 200 f.) cites from the inscriptions a sepulchral epitaph 
CIG 1971 b % (Thessalonica, a.d. 165), where the word is 
applied to the deceased, and a similar usage in an inscription 
at Rome 1GS/ 2139 3 (date?) (aptp/irros. dKaTdYVuio-ros), 
also a deed of tenure from the Fayfim, BGU I. 30S 8 (B\z.) 
( = Clircst. II. 27S) eirdva'VKts «iriTEXe'o-iop.«v Ta irpos 
tt)v KaXXiepytav twv dpovpuv fc'p'ya irdvTa dKaTaYVu>0T[u>s]. 
Add P Oxy I. 140 15 , V Lond 113 15 ( = I. p. 209), P Grenf 
I. 57 16 and ii. $8 n (all vi/A.D.) : also P Giss I. 56 15 (vi/A.D.) 
where the editor cites similar expressions, such as dKaTa- 
4>povr|Tius, dvap.<pipdXus. Xageli (p. 47) compares euKaTa- 
7Viucrros in P Tor I. I Tiii - u (ii/B.C. ). 


This word has hitherto been found only in Ac 16 17 , 22", 
and though " uncondemned " (AV, RV) is its natural 
meaning, this does not suit the context. Accordingly 
Blass thinks that it may there = Attic aKpn-os, which can be 
used of a cause not yet tried. See also Ramsay St Paid, 
p. 225, where it is pointed out that Paul in claiming his 
rights would probably use the Roman phrase re incognita, 
" without investigating our case," and that this was 
inadequately rendered by the Lucan dKaTaKpi/ros. 


For the genitive construction after this neuter adjective in 
2 Pet 2 11 aKaTaTrdo-rous dpapTias, cf. such examples from 
the papyri as P Tebt I. 124" [c. B.C. IlS) dcnjKO<f>avT-i]- 
(tous) Kal d8io-Tdo-Tous dvros irdcrr|S al[T]£as, BGU III. 
97° 7f ' (a.d. 177) tt|s els airavTas €V€p-yecrias . . . dPoT|8-nTos: 
see Proleg. p. 235. In view of the common vulgar change of 
av to a (as in "A-youcr-ros, aTos, etc. — see Proleg. p. 47) 
it is not improbable that aKaTdiravo-ros may be the ivord 
intended, so that the mass of the MSS. have glossed cor- 
rectly. Prof. Thumb suggests that the influence of eirdrjv 
may have affected the form. For this word cf. PSI 2.V ! 
(iii/iv a.d. — magic) €pwrt aKaTairaiJo-Tw. 


A literary citation for this Stoic word may be made from 
P drenf Li 4 (ii/B.C.), the Erotic fragment, where the faith- 
less lover is called aKaTao-Tao-ir|S €vp€Trjs. See also the 
astrological papyrus published in Arckiv i. p. 493 f. T-rjs 
o-ip[p.p]tou crfjs dKaTao-rao-£[av] (1. 25 f.). It occurs nearly 
a dozen times in Vettius Valens, coupled with irXdvn Kal 
dX-r|Teia (p. 4 18 ), dvuaaXCa (p. 44 18 — one MS.), ordcris, 
fe'xBpa, <™voxrj, Kptcrts, Tapax^, etc. : it several times has 
olk«iu>v dependent on it. The verb dKaTao-TaTea) also occurs 
three t imes. That the astrologers had so thoroughly domestic- 
ated it does not prove that Paul, James and Luke were 
using a word of the higher culture. 


Atiaollent no. 4 (if- (a curse on a leaden tablet from 
Cnidus) dvaTL6r]UL Adparpi Kal Kopai tov ttjv oiKta(v) p.ov 
aKaTd[o-JTaTov 7roioO(v)Ta. The date [pp. cit. p. 5) is given 
as B.C. 300-IOO, though the series may be later (Newton). 



Syll 2io 18 (iii/B.C.) rf|v \iopav aKc'paiov. P Par 69'" 28 
(A. I). 232) ( = Chrest. I. p. 64) . . .] ai-ni to Trpd\;aa 
aK^potov is tjX[8«v ... In PSI S6 8 (a.d. 367-75) a man 
named Aurelius Sncus is bailed out of prison on certain 
conditions, dxlpciLOV Kal €kto[s] 4>v[XaKfjs a]va8o9^VTa. 
Much earlier comes an instance of the adverb, in BGU IV. 
120S 47 (B.C. 27-6) «£TryT|[<7-aT<5 ji]oi aKtpaiws an outrage 
(lippis) set forth in the petition which these words close. It 
is associated with do-i.vT|s in IG III. 141S (ii/A.D.), and in a 
Delphian inscr. of ii/n.c. (BCII xxvii. p. 109") upd-viia a. = 
ou KcKpqj^vov. Cronert, to whom these two passages are 
due, cites also /(,' XIV. 051 - ' (Rome, B.C. 78) els aK«'paiov 
diroKaOio-Ttivai = iii integrum restituere. In P Lips I. 13 11 
(A.D. 366) djktpafwv flvrtov Kal clklvSuvwv is applied to a 
loan, in the promise to pay interest. (MGr liupms 


This NT air. tip. (Ileh to 8 *) occurs in a petition (v/a.ii.) 
of stilted style but far from accurate: I' < >xy VI. 904 9 Tats 
axXtivets (/■ -i<Tiv) aKoais Tfjs vjitr^pas t£ouo-(as, "the 
impartial ears of your highness." 


In his famous speech at Corinth, announcing freedom to 
the Greeks, Nero expresses regret that it had not been in 
his power to offer it aK[j.a£ovo-r|s tt)s 'EXXd8os, so that more 
might have shared in his bounty {Syll 376'"). The more 
literal sense appears in P Lond 46- (a magical papyrus, 
iv/A.D.) ( = I. p. 7-) oVa aKp.d£a twv dirtopuv. According 
to Moeris (" i|Pdv 'Att., dKp,d£eiv"EXA."). Nero's composi- 
tion-master must have allowed a vernacular word to sully the 
purity of the oration. 


In OGIS 20I 13 (vi/A.D.) ovik dirr]\6ov (SXus oTrto-w Tiiv 
aXXwv pao-iX&ov, dXXd aKp.r|v ?u,Trpoa-0£v avTiiv, the adverb 
seems to have the meaning "valde, magnopere, longe," 
in accordance with the original meaning of aK|iTJ (see Ditten- 
berger's note). Cf. Syll 326 1 * (i/A.D.) irapaXapwv Tois ev 
uk|uu twv iroXi/rdv : similarly P Oxy III. 473° (a.d. 138-60) 
Trapd tt|v irpu)TT)v aKp.r|v. A compound adjective £o-aKp.ov, 
"with an even edge," is applied to a weaver's instrument in 
P Oxy VII. 1035" (A.D. 143). See on tin- later history of this 
word (MGr dKd|ia = 8ti) K. Krumbachcr's important article 
in Kuhn's Zeitschrifl xxvii. pp. 49S— 521. The noun was in 
Hellenistic use, according to Moeris: " upata yap-iov 'Att., 
iv dK|ifl yduou'EXX.'' The adverbial accus. was banned by 
the same grammarian in favour of {n: so also Phrynichus 
(Rutherford AP. p. 203). In the NT, however, except for 
Mt 15 10 , all writers conspired to Atticize here: tri, was 
clearly quite good " bad Greek," as well as aKp.T|v ! 


The word is sometimes concrete, denoting "the ear": 
so in the late document riled above under duXivf^s, and in 
P 1 Ixy I. 129* (vi/A n.) tis aKods tpas fjXBev. Much earlier 
is WUnsch AF i 1T (i/ii A.D.) where aKods stands between 
tvKe'4>aXov [ Trpdo-tu ]ttov and 6c^>p[ Cs 1 jJ.uKTf)pas. Its more 
normal sense of " hearing " appears in a would-be cultured 
letter, BGU IV. toSo« (iii/A.D.) ( = Chrest. I. p. 564) Kal 
V]p.eis 8< aKojj dirdvTcs ws irapovTts 8ia64o-i Tjv<t>pdv8iip.€v : 



the writer is able to quote Homer. It is joined with 
iio-4>pT|o-is (as in I Cor 12") in the quasi-litsrary P Ryl II. 
63' (iii/A.D.— an astrological dialogue). 


is still the word for "following," in MGr (axXouBu) : it 
is noteworthy that in a large batch of petitions in P Ryl II. 
124-152, from Euhemeria (a.d. 28-42) we find the MGr form 
anticipated four times (eirr|itXoii6r|0-« or -t|K(5tos). In the 
papyri the verb takes the place of ?Tro(, which is also 
wanting in the NT, and in the LXX is confined to 3 
Maccabees. In the most literal sense we have such 
passages as P Lond 131 recto™ (a.d. 78-9) ( = 1. p. 171) 
irai.8(uiv) p dKoXov8oiSvTwv tois 6Vois. P Lille I. 1 verso 1 * 
(B.C. 259) has an inanimate object : dKoXo\i8rjo-ovo-i 8J 
Tots irpoi)Trdpx<mo-i ^lip-ao-i., " they will follow up, continue, 
the existing banks." For the thought of "following" to 
get a favour see BGU IV. 1079 10 (a.d. 41) (= Selections, 
p. 39), aKoXouBci. 8£ rTroXXapuovi. irdo-av upav, "stick to 
Ptollarion constantly " : cf. 1. c6 (idXXov aKoXouBci 1 ' aviTui 
Swr| (jnXida-ai avTui, "rather stick to him, and so you 
may become his friend." In P Petr III. 12S 10 the verb 
is used of journey-money assigned to an official, 4<p<SSois 
tois dxoXouBovo-i Tiii |emo-Td]TT]i.. A striking parallel to 
the language of Mt 19 2 ', and parallels, is to be found 
in an early papyrus Latin letter of recommendation dis- 
covered at Oxyrhynchus, P Oxy I. 32 10 "• (ii/A.D.), " reliquit 
enim su[o]s [e]t rem suam et actum et me secutus est." 
If the letter can be regarded as a Christian letter, its 
value, in view of its age, would be unique : see Deissmann 
LAE, p. 182. For the adjective, see P Tebt II. 296" 
(A. d. 123) dK<5Xo«8(dv) tori," it is consequently right " (Edd. ), 
and for the adverb, see P Tebt I. 33* (B c. 112) {= Selections, 
p. 30) <J>pdv]TLO"ov ouv I'va v€VT|'Tai.) aKoXoiiBws, "take care 
therefore that action is taken in accordance with it," P Oxy 
I. 38 13 (A.D. 49-50) aKoXoiJBius Tots iird o-oii, " in accordance 
with what had been enacted by you " : — the word is very 
common. The verb normally takes the dative. P Amh II. 
62 J (ii/fi.e.) shows it absolute : elo-lv oi dKoXovBoOvTts 
|ia\aifio ((lopou AtSvuos Auo-iiiaxos kt\. In P Lille I. 
26* (iii/B.c.) we have an adverbial accus., A |ir| aKoXoufleis 
auavTa. Note P Tar p. 411 (Ptol.) 'Ap.]aiiviov aKoXov- 
BovvTa 0-01 64>6aX[)iois. For ok. aeTa cf. Rutherford JVP, 
p. 458 f., where the construction is shown to be Attic. 


The verb is of course common enough, and needs little 
or no illustration, having few peculiarities. Its use for a 
judicial hearing (as Ac 25") may be paralleled with P land 
q 10 (ii/A.D.) Kal [p.flx[f?v] tovtov ofrrro T|Kovo-8[r|(i.]ey ) and 
P 1 >\\ VII. 1032 s * (A.D. 162), where the epistrategus endorses 
a petition with dKono-8T|o-«Tai. So in BGU II. 5 11 " 3 
(= Chrest. I. p. 26), an account written about a.d. 200 of 
a trial before Claudius, we have aKovci KXauSios KaIo-a[p 
ZePao-Tos 'Icri8(upov] Yvp.vacridpxov """^Xccos 'A[Xe^av8p€u>v] 
KaTa 'A-vpeirrrou pao-iXe'io[s]. The last example w ill illustrate 
aKowiv with normal gen. of person: P Par 48* (B.C. 153) 
(= Witkowski* p. 91) dKovoravTts . . to irepl 0-0O crvvpf- 
pi)K<STa will serve for actus, rei, and will also illustrate the 
common use with irtpi, since the phrase is a mixture of 
ok. ir«pl o-ov and aK. Td o-ot <rwpepr|KdTa (Witk.). The 




same papyrus shows us the participial object clause. 1. 12 
dKoijcravTts 84 «v ti1> paya\u> Sapairtciov 6vra o-«. In 
P Amli II. 37 s (ii/B.C.) eKovofifv Si (i^| Trapa-yeyov^ vai. . . . 
we have apparently the infill, construction, and so in 
P Grenf II. 36 15 (B.C. 95), T|Kovo-au.ev tov u.vv KaTaPe 
PpuKc'vai tov o-rropov — Witkowski (* p. 120, cf. p. xiv.) 
allows the writer to be " modice eruditus." Kor axoveiv 
lis cf. CPHerm 22 6 : for the commoner 8ti, P Tebt II. 
416 8 (iii/A.D.) (it) ovv aKoiJorT|s dvBpunruv 8ti pAAw piviv 
«v8dSt. With the introductory imper., as in Mk 4', cf. the 
dialogue in P Ryl II. 63 s (iii/A.D.) where dKove precedes an 


in the sense of "impotent" is found in Syll S02, 803 
(iii/B.c), inscriptions from Asclepios' temple, e.g. 802" 
dvrjp tovs Tas X'lpos SoktvXovs aKpaT€ts ^\ wv - Vettius 
Valens (p. 39 33 ) associates dordTovs ra.1% yvwp.ais Kal 


P Oxy II. 237 1 " 40 (\.n. 1S6) irop' ots dxpards eo-riv f| 
twv v[6]uu>v diroTo|j.[t]a, "amongst whom the severity oi 
the law is untempercd " (Edd.). It is said to mean " un- 
diluted " in MGr : cf. OJ. ix. 297 dKprjTov yd\a. 

P l'ar 63"- 4i (ii/B.C.) ueTa Trdo-r|s aKpipeias, tt)v ckt[€]v«- 
[(r}rdTT|V [iroi]Tio-ao-8ai irpovoiav combines some character- 
istic Lucan and Pauline words. P Lond I2I M1 (iii/A.D.) 
( = I. p. Ill), has «V dxpipias, an adverbial phrase like or 
d\T|8€£as. A rather literary document, an advocate's speech 
for prosecution — suspected by the editors of being a rhetorical 
exercise — contains the sentence dp.€ivov 8' avTai Kal o-a4>€- 
orepov t^v irepl tovto aKptipuav Kal tt)v etripLeXetav Ma|ip.[o]u 
Sr|Xwcrovo-iv (P Oxy III. 4~i uff -, ii/A.D.), which the editors 
translate, "These letters will still better and more clearly 
exhibit Maximus' exactness and care in this matter." Xear 
the end of the petition of Dionysia (P Oxy II. 237 M " •", 
A.D. 1S6) we have uerd Trdo~r]s dxpapeias «p vAaa * < W (r ® u,0 " av 
(sc. at drrovpa^ai) ; and in P Petr III. 30 (,.,) verse "" ' a 
prisoner complains to the Epimeletes that it was on account 
of the " punctiliousness" of his predecessor in office that he 
had been confined — [d]Kpipeias evtKev dirrjx^ r l v ' The verb 
dxpipevciv, " to get exact instructions," appears in P Amh 
II. 154 7 (vi/vii A.D.) lav ut) dKpipcvo-u> d(|>' vu.a>v ircpl 
eVao-rov TrpdyuaTos : Cronert's earliest citation for this verb 
is " Barnabas " 2 10 . It may be formed by association with 
dicpipEia, by the influence of the close relation of -«ta and 

In P Oxy VI. p. 226 part of a document is given which 
forms the first column of no. S99 (A.D. 200) : ottws t£erd 
o-avr(ts) KOTi to aKpapeo-repov tb (a gap follows). This 
is a good example of an elative comparative (Proleg. pp. 7S 
and 236), for the meaning is clearly " having most carefully 
examined": cf. also P Petr II. 16". A late iv/A.D. in- 
scription, Syll 423 15 , has ppe'Puov ( = breve, a precis) tuv 
cLpT^pivwv dirdvrwv dxpeipTJ SiSao-KaXiav 4-ir^ov. The 
neuter as a noun occurs in the Magnesian inscr. Syll 929 s - 

(ii/B.C.) Tfii uJv dxpiPii rf|s vJiTJcjiou ppapcv9fvai Trjv Kpia-iv 
ovk r|pouX6[i<8a, of counting a vote exactly ; and P Tebt II. 
2S7" (A.D. 161 0) t!> dxpcipis u.d8ris. The adverb is treated 
separately below. 


This fairly common classical and Hellenistic verb does not 
happen to occur in the papyri, so far as we have' noticed 
We might add to the literary record Vettius Valens p. 265* 
tovtojv oliTcos kit e^€Tacrtv T]Kpipu>p.t'vu)v, which has exactly 
the same sense as in Mt 2 16 . 


For d. with otSa, as 1 Th 5*, cf. P Goodsp Cairo 3 s '■ 
(iii/B.C.) Situs dup^cis slStJis, P Petr II. 15 (i) 11 (iii/B.C.) 
ciSTJo-ai dxpipuis : cf. P I lib I. 40 6 '- (iii/B.C.) ^irio-rao-o (k'vtoi 
dxpipis. P Par 44' (B.C. 153) (= Witkowski Epp.* p. S3) 
Siacrd<|>r|]o-ov p.01 . . . Ta Trepl o-avTOv aKpiptos. P Lond 
354 23 [c. B.C. 10) ( = II. p. 165) tmyvovTa dxptiPus SKaora. 
The comparative is used very much as in Ac 23 15 , 20 in 
P Oxy VIII. 1 102 12 (c. A.D. 146), the strategus dxpeipeo-Ttpov 
i%lTa.<rii *) KaTOlKi, and again BGU II. 3SS iic (ii/iii A.I'). 
f]£ei "ApiraXos Kal «^CTa <r8r|(r£Tat irtpl tovtov aKp€iP^a-[T]€- 
pov : the combination was evidently a formula. With 
irw8dvco-8ai (as in Ac 23") cf. P Petr II. i(. ,: (in B.C.) 
ir€vo-d(ieo-8a aKpipeorepov. The superlative occurs in P llib 
I. 27" w (early iii/B.C.) is ovv T|8uvdu.rjv aKpip«'o-TaTa. 


The verb occurs in the magic papyrus P Lond I 46 1 " 
(iv/A.D.) (=1. p. 70' 1 (j>piKTbs uiv ISelv, <j>piKTbs 84 


We have (naturally enough) no citations to illustrate this 
technical word of Jewish ritual, hut a note on its formation 
might be given (from J. II. Moulton's forthcoming Grammar 
of NT Grctk, vol. II.): "'AKporroo-Sia, a normal descriptive 
cpd. from dxpos and too-St) with a fresh suffix, is found in 
Hippocrates, and is obviously the original of the LXX word. 
When a word containing a vox obscaena was taken from 
medical vocabulary into popular religious speech, it was 
natural to disguise it: a rare word pio-rpa = pvo-ua may 
supply the model." 


may very well have been coined by the LXX (Is.i 28 1 *). 
The Attic word was ywviatos : see citations in 
J. A. Robinson Ephesians, p. 104. 1 ronerl (p. 233) Ins 
several other compounds of dxpos, some of which may be in 
the same category. W. W. Lloyd in C/i iii. p. 419a (1889) 
among some architectural notes on Eph 2 20 "", says : "The 
acrogoniaios here is the primary foundation-stone at the angle 
of the structure by which the architect fixes a standard for 
the bearings of the walls and cross-walls throughout." 


The word is doubtfully restored in Syll 633"'' (ii/A.D.) 
where it is prescribed that the worshippers shall bring 
among other offerings koXXvP«v xoivik«s Svo Kal dxpo- 
[8iviov ?]. Cf. GDI 2561 <■■*' (Delphi, r. B.C. 395) TiirrdXAuvt 
to aKpdSiva (pointed out by Prof. Thumb). 





V Tebt II. 3S0" (i/A.H.) o«X*| (typuei 8e|ta cUpa, "a scar 
at the tip of the right eyebrow," 1* Oxy I. 43 (<'<vk)) i. l7 
(iii/A.n) eir' aKpu> pu|ir|s lieu6ou. In P Oxy I. 108'- a (a.d. 
183 or 215), the meat bill of a conk, &Kpa \i are translated 
by the editors " two trotters.'' Cf. Preisigke 358' (iii/B.c. ) 
t!> dKpov xijs crKids, of the shadows on a sundial, and Syll 
8o4*(?ii/A. n. ) KiTplou irpoXaapdveiv (= "eat," see s.v.) to. 
&Kpa : ib. 42s 7 . 9 (iii/B.c.) Kara rov aKpiov, "down the 
heights " (-is often). 


Thayer's doubts regarding the existence 01 the genitive of 
this proper name may be set at rest by its occurrence in the 
papyri, where it is found in two forms — 'AkvXov (BGU II. 
4S4 9 , A.D. 201-2) and 'AxxiKo. (il>. I. 71 21 , A.D. 189, P 
Strass 22 J0 , iii/A.D., 2oi>pa-n.avo0 'A.). Much earlier is 
Tatou 'IouXtov 'AkvXo, on the inscr. of Augustus in 
Preisigke 401, a.d. io-I. See Deissmann BS, p. 187, 
where the doubling of the X in certain manuscripts of Ac 
iS a and Rom 16 s is further illustrated by the occurrence 
of both 'AkuXos and 'AnviXXas in duplicate documents 
of the end of ii/A.D. with reference to the veteran C. 
Longinus Aquila (BGU I. 326). An Aquda of Pontus 
occurs on an inscription of Sinope, ^Xlap-ivfCJou 'AxuXa, 
as noted by D. M. Robinson in the Prosopographia to 
his monograph on Sinope, Am. Journ. of Philology xxvii. 
p. 269 (1906). 


The adjective aKvpos is common in legal phraseology 
(e.g. it comes quater in the Ptolemaic Hibeh papyri). It 
occurs in the new Median parchment, P SaYd Khan i a - 23 
(B.C. 88) 8s dv 8e t-yPdXfl ktX. [J]<ttw compos applied 
to a person, whose action is voided by illegality, a classical 
use. In the second parchment (B.C. 22) Tr\v re dOe'ruo-iv tlvai 
aviTr|v aKvpov, it has its normal Hellenistic force. 'AKiipwo-ts 
goes with d8e'rr|eris (see s.v.), or is used by itself, especially in 
the phrase els axiputriv of a will or an I.O.U. received back 
to be cancelled: so P Oxy I. 107-"'- (A.D. 123) dveXapov 
irapd trov els aKupwcriv, ib. III. 490 3f - (A.D. 124) -n-pbs 
aKvpcucriv &-ytiv Tt|vSe ttjv 8ia(JT|Kuv, "to revoke this will." 
The verb occurs in the same sense P Oxy III. 491 3 (a.d. 
126), 494 1 (a.d. 156), 495 3 (a.d. 181-9), etc.: cf. Syll 
329' (i/B.C.) r|Kvpdicr6ai Tas K[a]T" avTuv eK-ypatj>ds Kal 


The adjective occurs larely B.C., and one citation from 
Plato stands in Crdnert as warrant for classical antiquity. 
The adverb becomes very common from ii/A.D. It is of 
constant occurrence in legal documents, e.g. P Oxy III. 502 31 
(A.D. 164) cos irpoKctTcu eirl tov \pdvov dKwXvTws, " as afore- 
said for the appointed time without hindrance " of the lease of 
a house, ib. VI. 912'* (a.d. 235), ib. VIII. 1127 16 (a.d. 1S3) 
and VII. 1036 2 ' (a.d. 273) : see exx. of this combination in 
the note to P Giss I. 49" (p. 74). So P Lips I. 26' 1 (begin- 
ning iv/a.d.) P Gen n 16 (a.d. 350), and the Edmonstone 
papyrus, P Oxy IV. p. 203 (A.D. .554), ve'|«o-8e els oi)s edv 
PovXt]T€ tottovs aKuiXuTtos Kal dv€TriXT|Li,7rTtos. Add the 
sixth century P Lond 991 15 (= III. p. 25S) dKoXVrrus Kal 

j'. |!m 1.0 , : the word is legal to the last. For the triumph- 
ant note on which it brings the Acis of the Apostles to a 
close, see Harnack Lukas der Arzt p. 116, Eng. Tr. p. 163 f. , 
and cf. Milligan Documents, p. 168. 

This common Greek word, which in the NT is found only 
1 Cor 9 17 , occurs several times in the long petition of 
Dionysia, P Oxy II. 237"- ™- »«• «■ 12. 22 ( A . D . lS6 ^ . c r_ the 
fourth century Christian letter P Oxy VI. 939 12 ( = Selections, 
p. 129) es TT]XiKa<JTT)v <r€ [d-ywv£a]v &kuv eve'PaXov, "un- 
willingly I cast you into such grief." Add from the inscrip- 
tions, Syll 356 26 (time of Augustus) tire eKovra el/re aKovTa, 
ib. 415 8 (iii/A.D.), etc. 


The word is found with avpov, as in Mk 14 3 , in OG/S 
629' 5 (a.d. 137) Liipou [iv dXapdo-Jrpois, according to the 
editor's restoration. In P Petr II. 47 ca the words kv 
'AXapdcTTpuv irdXet, "in Alabastropolis," occur in the 
subscription to a contract for a loan. From v/b.c. may 
be quoted Syll 44 s , dXi[p]acrr[oi], according to the 
Attic form : cf. Michel S23 11 (B.C. 220), ib. 833" (B.C. 
2 79)> "~>>v T °'S dXaPdcrrpois. in an inventory of temple 
treasures. From a much later period we have mention 
of a quarry near Alexandria, or at any rate belonging to 
Alexandria— P Thead 36' (A.D. 327) eTriu.eXr|-ri|s Texvi-ruv 
dTroo-TeXXou.6vwv ev dXapao-TpCto 'AXejjavSpi'as, id. 35 s 
(A.D. 325) €irtp.€Xr]TT|s ep-ya-niv twv [KaT]aTT|v dXaPao-Tpivr|V 
p.e-ydX(T|v), ib. 34* and editor's note (p. 1S2). Earlier than 
this is P Ryl II. 92 (ii/iii a.d.) a list of persons designated 
for employment els dXapdorpLva, and other works The 
alabaster quarry may also be recognized in P Petr II. 9 (2) s 
(B.C. 241-39) |ieTa[7ropev]ecr8ai els dXaPa[o-TiJ8i8a : see the 
editor's note, p. [23], as to the locality. Finally, there is an 
inventory in P Lond 402 verso (ii/B.C.) (= II. p. 12) which 
includes among a good many utensils and articles known and 
unknown dXaPacrTpoi'BfJKai : we may infer that the writer 
first meant to coin a compound, and then changed his mind 
and wrote the genitive. (See also under uctkos. 


To its later literary record may be added Test. xii. pat/: , 
Jos. 1 7 oix Ikpcocra ejiauTciv eV dXa^ovaa 8id Tr|v koo-ihkt)v 
8d£av uou, dXX' <ip.r|V iv avTois c!>s els t<Sv eXa^lcr-nov (cited 
by Mayor on Jas 4 16 ). 


As early as iii/B.c. the neuter form is proved to have been 
in existence, e.g. P Petr III. 140 (a) 1 SXaiov v aXas v £iXa, 
and may therefore be acknowledged in P llib I. 152 
(B.C. 250) ep.paXov els tJ> irXoiov dXas Kal Xwtciv, though 
there the editors treat the word as accusative plural. A clear 
example seems to be quotable from P Par 55 it's '■ ffl (ii/B.C.) 
Kal apTot Kal aXas. From later times we can quote P Leid 
X '■ 8 (iii/iv A.D.) aXas KaTriraSoKuecSv, P Oxy IX. 1222 2 
(iv/A.D.) to dXas. The ambiguity of earlier exx. attaches 
itself even to P Leid C verso"- 5 (p. 93 of part i.), where 
dXas may as well be ace. pi., since the items are ace. as 
well as nora. in this Xdyos of provisions supplied to the 
Twins of the Serapeum (ii/B.c). Mayser (Gr. p. 2S6) 




quotes a conjectural reading aXaTos for ap/ros in the same 
document ; but the Petrie and the Paris papyri cited give 
us our only certain exx. from Ptolemaic times, to set beside 
2 Esd 7 22 , Sir 39='. Cf. MGr oXd-ri. Mr Thackeray 
(in a letter) would now regard aXas in LXX as probably 
neuter: "the only indubitable cases of the plural are in 
the local plural phrases t| BdXao-cra (etc.) twv aX(iv. This 
looks as if the plural was the regular form for salt-a/var." 
In the fourteen LXX instances of aXa and &Xas the article 
is absent, and we are free to assume that a new neuter noun 
was already developing, perhaps under analogy of other 
food names like -ydXa and Kpe'as- 'AXds lived on in the 
papyri as late as a.d. 258-9, P Lond 1170 7-trso 12 * (=111. 
p. 196). By crraBaW aXis in P Tebt II. 331" {c, A.D. 131) 
we are apparently to understand dXds, "a quantity of salt." 
BGU III. 731 " ' (A.D. 180) dXbs irXelo-Tov will serve as a 
further instance. Note oXiktj, " salt tax," common in early 
papyri : see dXunds below. 


Passim in papyri, e.g. P Fay I2I 6 (c. A.D. 100) 8 Kal 
dXei>J/ets emaeXtis, " which you will carefully grease," of a 
yoke-band. We find statues (dvSpidvTes) the objects in 
BGU II. 362""- '«. *■ » (a.d. 215). In P Oxy III. 528'° f - 
(ii/A.D.) a man, whose wife had gone away, writes to her 
that since they had bathed together a month before, he had 
never bathed nor anointed himself— ouk eXouo-dp.T|v ovk 
fjXipe (/. ^Xeipuai.) . A curiously spelt perfect evTJXtTra from 
evaXeicpu) is found in a somewhat similar connexion in 
P Oxy II. 294 15 (A.D. 22). Cf. also a third-century in- 
scription in honour of a gymnasiarch, (piXoTijuos dX«i<f>ovTi 
(Milne JHS 1901, p. 284), noted by the editors on P Oxy 
III. 473 3 (a.d. 13S-60), where we find the substantive 
aXeijiua. Cf. also OGIS 59 16 (iii/B.C.) Situs 'iy^uKTW el's Te 
rds 8tKr(as Kal to aXeiuaa Sairavav. For the phrase " free 
from erasure" cf. BGU II. 666 31 (A.D. 177) «rrlv 8e Kafla- 
pbv d-rrb dXeicpaTos Kal e-rrfypaipfis : cf. P Ryl II. 163 17 
(A.D. 139). As against the contention that aXeupu is the 
"mundane and profane" and xp' w tne "sacred and re- 
ligious" word (Trench), see P Petr II. 25 (a) 13 , where 
XpCciv is used of the lotion for a sick horse. 


See Rutherford NP p. 307 for the history of this word 
(MGr dXdxTtpas) in classical Greek. It is found in P 
Tebt I. 140 (B.C. 72) ti[utj]v dXtKTopos Kal dproirCvaKos. 
Add P Ryl II. 166 18 (A.D. 26) a. eva (which, as in 167 18 , is 
promised as a yearly offering, in the proposal to take up a 
lease), P Fay 119 29 (c. a.d. too) dXeVropas 8e'Ka, BGU I. 
269 1 (ii/iii A.D.) and IV. 1067 11 f - (a.d. 101-2) dXcK-rbpcov. 
From a later time (iii/iv a.d., according to Leemans) comes 
P Leid V ix - 31 ' 32 > *■ ', where we have (rbv) dXe'KTopa bis, 
and then dXeKT<Spou : so Wiinsch AF 3 16 (imperial) 6 
dXeKTwp. It was clearly the normal Kolvtj form ; but 
dXtKTpudvwv may still be seen in P Oxy IX. 1207 8 (a.d. 
175-6?) d. TeXetwv Tco-<rdpuv, in the same phrase as 
BGU IV. 1067 I.e. It is noteworthy that dXcKTpuiuv occurs 
in the well-known Gospel fragment (Mitteilungen of the 
Rainer Papyri I. i. 54) o dXeKTpvwv Sis KOK[Ki£ei]. Cf. 
Michel 692 s (i/A.D. ) dXeKTpvova, but in 1. 27 of the same 
inscription dXe'KTopas. 


The word (MGr dXeupi) is found in the long magical 
papyrus P Lond 121 5 " (iii/A.D.) (.— I. p. 101) : cf. ib. 1170 
verso *'" (a.d. 258-9) (= III. p. 204) <raKKov dXeip[o]u, 
and ib. 9SS 13 (=111. p. 244) (iv/A.D.) ovtos yap ra eauToii 
k\i aXeupa. 


The noun occurs requently in prepositional phrases, p.€Td 
irdcrr|s dXnBeias, etc. 'Ett' dXr|8eias is found in P Amh II. 
68 33 (late i/.A.D. ) . . . d pr|i/ ef; v.-yeiovs Kal eV 
dXnfleias €iri.Se8ajK[f]vai. : so P Oxy III. 4S0 9 (a.d. 132), and 

Syll : 

' (iii/B.C.) ou 'yt-yevnp.t'vov tovtotj eV dXnOcCas, etc. 

This NT phrase is thoroughly idiomatic, we see, and not 
"translation Greek" in Mark. Other combinations are 
l£d., P Oxy VII. 1032 33 (a.d. 162) 4[k] rfjsd., P Flor I. 
32 11 (A.D. 29S) e|dp.wp.i ... e^ d. Kal Trdrreajs. (For this 
collocation of nouns, cf. P Oxy I. 70 6 (iii/A.D.) ttCo-tiv Kal 
dXr|8[eiav 'f\\(i., " ls credited and accepted," of a contract 
(Edd.).) With 2 Jn 1 , 3 Jn 1 8v iyii dyairci ev dXriBeCa., cf. 
the Gemellus letters, P Fay iiS 2s (a.d. iio) do-rrdtou tovs 
(piXovvTe's ere irdvTes Trpbs dXrjBiav, and ib. 1 19 26 (e. A.D. 100) 
tovs cjuXovvTes T|(xa.s irpbs dXr|8iav. In much the same sense 
we find Tats dX-n8(eiais), P Kyi II. 105 s6 (a.d. 136). For 
the noun without prepositions we may quote P Oxy II. 
2S3 13f - (A.u. 45) ei; oil Serjcrei -yviocrOfivat -rrdo-av tt)v irepl 
twv •rrpo'yrypaaatvwv dXrjBeiav, P Giss I. 84 1 * (ii/A.D.) 
<pi]XoOtri vvv ov-toi ttjv dXrj8[€]i.av clircLV, P Lond 412 5 
(A.D. 351) = (II. p. 2S0) el (it| iirfjpxev ijaelv t| Tiiv vduuv 
dXT|8ei[a], ib. S97 3 (A.D. 84) (= III. p. 206) vvvd 8i i|iels 
ttjv dXr|0eiav -ypd+aTai, etc. From v/vi A.D. comes an 
interesting Christian prayer in P Oxy VI. 925 s <f>avEpu<rdv 
aot tt|V irapd crol dXr)0Lav el povXrj ae direXBetv els Xiowt. 
The form of the petition closely follows those of paganism. 


We have noticed no early occurrence, but cf. P. Amh II. 
142 1 (iv/A.D.) d]Xi]8evovT . . ., before a gap. 


The adjective is common in formulae : thus in the 42 docu- 
ments (Ptolemaic) of the P Magd there are 17 instances, all 
like I 16 Kal edv fy d ypdcpu dXr|8fj, or to the same purport. 
So P Strass I. 41 18 (e. A.D. 250) Set -yap Ta dXi)8fj Xe'-yeiv, 
etc. It seems always to bear the normal meaning of 
"true in fact"; so SpKos, Wilcken Ostr 1150 (Ptol.). In 
P Tebt II. 285 s (A.D. 239) it is applied to "legitimate" 
children : cf. ib. 293 17 (c. A.D. 1S7), where, with reference 
to an application to circumcise a boy, it is declared dXrjBij 
elvai ain-bv lepaTiKou [•ye'jvovs, "that he is in truth of priestly 
family." In BGU IV. I024 v ' 17 (iv/v a.d.) ouk dXi}8r|s is 
applied to a person. For the adverb we need cite only 
P Gen I. 55 6 (iii/A.D.) Ka\oKa-ya8iav lis dXriBos dcrvvKptTov 


is less common still than dXT|8rjs, but is found in MGr. 
In P Petr II. 19 (la)' (iii/B.C.) it is used in a petition 
by a prisoner who affirms that he has said nothing p.T|8e'TroTe 
&T01TOV, 8irep Kal dXiiBivdv euri, and again («' vera lectio) 




id. i (3) (B.C. 260), where the writer assures his father cl 
ev djXXots dXvirws diraXXdo-crtLS di] &v u>s lyci rols Oeois 
?o"xop«v [xo-P 1 " dXr|8]ivdv, "if in other matters you are 
getting on without annoyances, there will be, as we have 
given, true gratitude to the gods": cf. Syll 316 17 (ii/B.c.) 
Tra]pao"xopevwv twv KaT^-ydpwv dXT|0ivds d-rroSeu^us, and 
the same phrase in BGU IV. 1141 12 (time of Augustus). 
Caracalla's edict, P Giss I. 40 u ' 8 ', speaks of ol dXTjBivol 
At-yiJirTioL as "easily distinguished by their speech." The 
word is also found in the fragmentary BGU III. 74 2 "' * f ' 
(a.d. 122) €i rais dXr)8[i]vais avrX <pcpvfjs r\ irapaxwprjo-is 
t-yc'veTo. In an obscure letter concerning redemption of 
garments etc. in pawn, P Oxy I. H4 7 (ii/iii A.D.), we 
have dXr|8i.voTr6p<pvpov translated by the editors "with a 
real purple (border?)." In OG1S 223 1 ' (iii/B.c.) the 
Seleucid Antiochus Soter writes dirXdo-Tus Kal dXn8i.v<is 
€(i irdo-i irpoo-tptpopc'vovs. In Wiinsch AF 4 44 (iii/A. D.) we 
find tl'irw o-oi Kal to dX-n6i.vbv bvopa 8 Tpe'pei Tdprapa ktX. 
For Christian examples of dXt)Bivds from the papyri, see 
P Oxy VI. 925 2 (v/vi A.D.) ( = Selections, p. 131) '0 8(«>)s . . . 
6 dXn8i.vds, and the Christian amulet of vi/A.D. edited by 
Wilcken in Archiv i. p. 431 ff. (= BGU III. 954, Selections, 
p. 132), where at 1. 28 ff. we find — 6 <pws «k (pwTos, 8(eo)s 
dX-nBivos \dpto-ov t\ik ktX. 


The word is too common in itself to need illustrating, 
unless we recorded the appearance of the epithet TfOTapios 
to indicate a fisherman who exercised his calling on the Nile. 
It is, however, a good example of the rule by which in 
Hellenistic of the second period («. e. A.D.) two /-sounds are 
not allowed to come together : see Proleg.* p. 44 f. In this 
one case, in the nom. and accus. pi. of dXisvs, dissimilation 
instead of contraction has taken place : iXteis occurs in NT 
and in P Flor I. 127 15 (a.d. 256), but note 119 2 dXi[ets and 
275", from the same correspondence, and BGU IV. 1035 s 
(v/a.d.). Of course P Petr III. 59"- 8 belongs to a period 
when the phonetic difficulty was not felt. Another expedient 
was dXi^as, P Flor II. 201 8 (iii/A.D.). Hellenistic does not 
follow the Attic contractions (Aupius, -<iv) : cf. dX«W 
BGU III. 756" (A.D. 199), 'Epifes P Petr III. 59 (,/)'*. 
We find aXutuv in P Amh II. 30 29 (ii/B.c). 


The verb occurs in P Flor II. 275 21 , from the Heroninus 
correspondence (middle iii/A.D.). 


The closeness of dXXd to itXt|v appears in more uses than 
one. Armitage Robinson, Ephesians, p. 205, has a note 
on a quasi-resumptive use of dXXd in Eph 5 24 which is 
closely paralleled by that of tXtjv in ver. ^. Then there are 
instances of dXXd = "except." This is clear where we have 
dXX' tj (as in 2 Cor l 13 ) : thus P Petr II. 9 (3)' (B.C. 241- 
39) w<tt£ prjGcva eivat evTavDa dXX' tj Tjpds, " There is no one 
left here except ourselves" (Ed.), 16. 46 (fl) s (B.C. 2O0) Kal 
prj vTTOK€io-8ai Trpos aXAo pT)8iv dXX' ^ ttjv Trpcye-ypap- 
[p«'v]T|v iyyir\v, " has not been pledged for any other purpose 
than the aforesaid security" {id.), V Lond 897 13 (a. D. S4) 
(= III. p. 207) 8 pcvTotye ov BeXua dXXd rj dva-yK-rji. In 
P Tebt I. 104" (B.C. 92) prj ££6rTu> •fciXio-Kwi. yvvaiKa dXXtiv 

eir[a]'y[a]^cV? a V dXXd 'AiroXXwviav, " any other wife but 
A." (Edd.), shows the same use for dXXd alone. See 
Pro/eg. 3 p. 241 (with some additional remarks in the German 
ed., p. 269). G. C. Richards (/TS x. p. 2S8) observes 
on the note in Pro/eg., "In Mk 4" edv prj and dXXd are 
parallel, a usage which Aramaic explains but Greek does 
not." (Cf. the variants in Mk 9 8 .) Without doubting that 
an Aramaic background makes the usage all the easier, we 
can assert that Hellenistic Greek does admit this use of 
dXXd. For dXXd ptjv (not in NT) cf. P Oxy III. 472" 
(c. A.D. 130) d. pfjy . VTtov 7rtcrT€tos Trcpl tovtwv ovot|S, 1* 
Flor I. 89'* (iii/A.D.) d. p.. Kal irpbs ttjv irapaKopi- 
[8-tjv tJovtwv [irjXoiov irapaa-xtiv o-irov8aa-ov. It is hardly 
necessary to illustrate the conjunction further. 


As so often happens, the simple verb (MGr dXXd?») is 
outnumbered greatly by its compounds. We may cite Syh 
1 7S 14 . 22 (iv/B. C.) KeKTrjo-flat Kal dXXdo-creo-0ai Kal diroSdo-Bai, 
P Oxy IV. 729' 13 (A.D. 137) edv 8t aLpoJ|X€0a dXXd<ro-€tv KTT|vr| 
fj muXciv Qta-rai T|peiv, P Lips I, 107 3 (middle iii/A.D.) 
dXXd£as tov Xd-yov, BGU IV. 1141 41 ' 44 (Augustus), where 
a Tropipupd has been "bartered," P Oxy IV. 729" (A.D. 137) 
in association with irwXciv. In P Tebt I. 124 31 fr. B.C. IlS) 
" T|XXa-ype'voi seems to be equivalent to dirnXXa-Ypfvoi rather 
than to have the meaning ' exchange ' " (Edd. ). An illiterate 
papyrus of a.d. 75 may be cited for the construction : BGU 
II. 597 10 dXXa^tTw o~€ avT&v {sc. a sack of wheat) riao-uov 
KaXois o-irt'ppao-ci. 2€ here is we suppose for troi. : the 
dative o-rrc'ppao-i reminds us of the NT 4v 6p.01t6p.aTi. 
(Rom i 23 , from LXX), since the addition of ev to a dative 
is nothing out of the way. (Of course we are not questioning 
the influence of literal translation here.) 

The verb is also found in the fragment of the uncanonical 
Gospel, P Oxy V. S40 17 rf - tovto to Upov T[o7rov 6V]Ta 
KaGapov, 8v ovSels a[X\os «t prj] Xovo-dpcvos Kal dXXd[£as 
Ta tv8v]paTa iraTet. For the substantive, see P Eleph 14** 
(late iii/B.C.) ti'jv €i8io-p€vr|v dXXa-yrjv : it is fairly common. 


P Oxy II. 237 v - 15 (A.D. 1 86) ovk dXXaxdBtv T]7r|o-aTO tt^v 
«|eTao-iv £o-«o-8au serves to support Jn to 1 . The word is 
classical, though assailed by Atticists (Thayer). 

For this form (= oXXoo-« or dXXaxdo-e), which is found in 
the NT only in Mk I 38 , cf. Syll 418 38 (iii/A.D.) dXXaxoO 
Trtpirdpcvoi. In P Lips I. 104" (i/ii A.D.) Wilcken [Archiv 
iv. p. 484) proposes now to read A Kal ecp' dXAaxfi paOi^Te, 
where dXXax'fj is treated like an adjective (= aXXrj) with 
68u» supplied. If the reading is accepted, we should place it 
with €K tot€, a7ro TTc'puo-i, etc. 


For this word which is generally used as a title in the 
Psalms, but occurs at the end of Ps 150, cf. the closing 
words of a strophe in a liturgical fragment of v/vi A.D., 
P Ryl I. 9 11 cuXo-yT|[o-]w t[6v] Xadv pou cls tov dwva 
dX(XrjXoijia ?) with the editor's note. 

It is also found at the end of an amulet (P Berol 6096) : 
to o-upa Kal to Sc'pa (?a!pa) tov Xfpio-Toju, <p«ia-at tov 




SovXou <rov tov 4>opovvTa TO 4>uXaKTT|piOV TOUTO. a|lT]V t 

aXXTjXoiita ja t w t (Schaefer in P land I. p. 29). 

alloy '£)'//s- 

This word, frequent in the LXX and once in the NT 
(Lk 17 18 ), is, according to Grimm, found "nowhere in pro- 
fane writers." But note should be taken of the famous 
inscription on the Temple barrier, OGIS 59S (i/A.D.), be- 
ginning p.Ti8t'va aXXcyevrj €i<nrop€v£cr8ai evTos Toi) ircpl to 
Upov Tpu(()dKTOu Kai ir€ptpd\o\j, "let no foreigner enter 
within the screen and enclosure surrounding the sanctuary." 
Josephns, in his description of the tablet {Bell. Jud. v. 193) 
substitutes pnoeva dXA6<{>vXov "rrapievai, a good example of 
his methods of mending the vernacular Greek he heard and 
read. Mommsen argued that the inscription was cut by the 
Romans. We might readily allow the word to be a Jewish 
coinage, without compromising the principle that Jewish 
Greek was essentially one with vernacular Greek elsewhere. 
The word is correctly formed, and local coined words must 
be expected in every language that is spoken over a wide 


The verb is used in P Rvl II. 13S 15 (A.D. 34) of a thief's 
incursion, just as €io*irn8du> : KciTiXapa tovtov Sid vvktos 
T)X(i«vov els kt\. "I detected him when under cover of 
night he had sprung into the farmstead" (Edd.). It is 
recurrent in the curious document P Ryl I. 2S (iv/a.d.), on 
divination by "quivering" of various parts of the body. 


The differentia of dXXos as distinguished from ei-epos may 
be left to the latter article. With t| aXXri Mapia in Mt 27" 
cf. P Petrlll. 59 (c) (Ptol.), where a great many names 
appear as Od^o-is &XXt], Kdvpnis dXXos, even where no 
duplicate appears in the document itself — its fragmentary 
character presumably accounts for this. (Grimm's article on 
Mapia 13) suggests the remark that the repetition of the same 
name within a family is paralleled in papyri : thus P 
Petr III. 117 (g) " l7 '■ [Mjdvpns piKpos Tcwtos Kal Mdvp-ns 
dSeXcpbs u»o-avTu>s — we quote without prejudicing the discus- 
sion as to the Maries !) The form TdXXa with crasis is 
frequent: see Witkowski' (Index) p. 162 for several instances. 
For aXXos used = alter, see Proleg. p. 80 n, 1 , where an ex. is 
quoted from a Doric inscr. as early as B.C. 91. An idiomatic 
use of dXXos may be quoted from P Oxy VII. 1070" 
p.T| .... 6 p.r| i'ii), 6X e£ aXXwy •y€vr|Tai, "lest . . . , 
what heaven forbid, we find ourselves at sixes and sevens" 
(Edd. ) : the note is, " oXA' e(| dXXuv, if the letters are rightly 
so interpreted, seems to be a phrase meaning out of har- 
mony, one person doing one thing and another another." 


For the formation of this rare word (in NT only 1 Pet 
4 15 ) cf. |j.eXXoe'4>T]pos P Oxy IX. 1202" (a d. 217), Seivp.a- 
TodpT(r|v) and )(u>p.aT06mp.(eXTyrr|s) P I.ond 1159 37 aj "i " 
(A.D. 145-7) (=111. p. 113), the former also P Oxy I. 63 s 
(ii/iii A.D.) tovs Sei-yfiaTodpTas Ka8' avTov dva-n-Epij/ai "rrpos 
£u-yoo-Ta[o-]i'av, "send up the inspectors yourself to the 
examination" (Edd.). For the meaning of d. Deissmann 
(BS p. 224) cites a synonymous phrase from BGU II. 

531"-" (ii/A.H.) o3t« eljxl dSiKos oCtc drX]XoTpfwv <iri8u- 
p.T]T^s, and see further Zeller Sitzungsberichlt tfer Berliner 
Akademic. 1893, p. 129 ff., where the word is explained 
from parallels out of the popular philosophy of the day, e. g. 
Epict. iii. 22, 97 oi yap ra dXXoTpia iroXvirpaYp-ova, o>av 
™ dvOpuTriva eirto-KoTTrj, dXXa to t'8ia. See also ZNTW 
vii. p. 271 ff. On the possible bearing of the word on the 
date of I Pet, see Jtilicher Introduction to the NT, p. 213. 


POxy VII. I067 6ff (avery ungrammatical letter of iii/A.D.), 
(id8t ovv OTL dXXoTptav ywaiKav (/. dXXoTpt'a yvvT|) eKXr)po- 
vop.r|o-ev avTov, "know then that a strange woman is made 
his heir" (Ed.). The adjective is common in the sense 
of alienus, "belonging to others": one or two special 
applications may be cited. A rescript of Gordian (P Tebt 
II. 285 s ), which Wilcken marks as suffering from trans- 
lation out of Latin, uses tovs dXXoTpLous for " outsiders," as 
against legitimate children. P Giss I. 67" (ii/A.D.) to yap 
dXX[dT]piov €iroir|0-a %v [. . . seems to imply " I did what 
was foreign to me," but the lost context may change this 
entirely. lb. 99* (ii/iii A.D.) koto to tuv aviTo[x8dvw]v 
AlyinrTkov dXXoTpta TaO[Ta fjv], «8paTo 8c opus. P Tor 
I. iviii. 8 (Ptol. Euergetes) Trpoe'4>ep£To dXXdrpiov eivai to 
irapeio-avdp.evov im' airov. P Oxy II 2S2 8 (a.D. 30-5) 
t) 8« dXXoTpta <j>povr|crao-a ttjs Koivrjs[o-€ws], "be- 
came dissatisfied with our union" (Edd.) : so P Rvl II. 12S 10 
(c. A.D. 30) dXXoTpia <ppovT|0-ao-a, "changed her mind," 
of a mill-hand leaving her work. BGU II 405 13 (a.D. 
34S), |e'vov |ie elvat Kal dXXdrpiov avTfjs, gives the genitive 
dependent on it, and id. IV. II2I 22 (B.C. 5) p.T)T6 tSia 
jj.t|t' aXXoTpia has the antithesis which characterizes best 
its meaning. 


P Tebt I. I05 38 (B.C. 103) ku p.^| ilitrra avT[cSi] dXXo- 
Tp[iouv . . .] Tf|v p.Co-8ucriv. BGU IV. 1024" 1 " (iv/v a.d.) 
o-u 8e tTTtPovXevo-as o-wp-a (/. o-u>p.aTt) dXXoTp[i]u>8cvTi viro 
tov [■yje'vous twv dvOpwirwv. This last has the sense which in 
NT is expressed more strongly by the perfective compound 


For this classical word (Ac 10") cf. BGU I. 34" »■ u, 
ib. II. 41 1 2 (a.D. 314) AvptiXi'w 'ATprj dXAoc)>vXou -yeopYui 
Xa£pe[i]v, id. 419* (A.D. 276-7) A[ip]t|Xios . . . dXXd(j>vXos 
d-rrd Kii(i.r|s 4>[i]Xa8eX<j)Las, and id. III. 85 S 2 - 5 (a.d. 294). 
Preisigke 3441 (from Elephantine) to irpoo-Kvrvr|(j.a t(u)v 
dXXo4>vX(u)v. See also the citation from Josephus (s.v. 
dXXo-y€VT|s) • 


was common, though it curiously occurs only once in NT. 
Thus P Tebt II. 459 2 (B.C. 5) Kal p/r| dX[X]ujs iroTJo-rjs— a 
frequent phrase in letters conveying an urgent request. P 
Flor II. 151 10 (A.D. 267} tir avToits o-TpaTtwrns d-rro- 
o-TaXT] Kat dXXus 44S0S10V pXaPwo-iv, etc. 


With the substantive dXorrrds, which is found as a variant 
in LXX Lev 26 6 , Amos 9 13 , may be compared P Tebt I. 




4S ,6f - {e. B.C. 113) ovtwv irpos ttji irapaSdcrei twv tKcbopW 
Kal tov aXoT)Tov, where however from its dependence on 
irapaSdcrei, the editors understand a. to refer to a payment 
of some kind, probably to various minor taxes at the dXus. 
See also BGU IV. 1031 11 (ii/A.D.) 8pa u*| dueXr|o-T|s tov 
dXoT|Tov tt)s vr|0-ov. (It is better with Cronert s.v. to write 
the word with smooth breathing, instead of following the 
abnormal a. of the Attic cognate dXus.) 


The adverb occurs in the curious acrostic papyrus of early 
i/A.D., P Tebt. II. 278 30f , where the story of the loss of a 
garment is told in short lines, beginning with the successive 
letters of the alphabet — 

X,T\Ti>\. Kal o«x «ip'o"Ka><.. 
TjpTt dXd-yws. 

" I seek, but do not find it. It was taken without cause." 
In P Fay 19 s ff - (Hadrian's letter) the writer asserts that his 
death took place o]Bt€ dw[p«l oii-rje aXovws oiire oiKTpios 
o{!tc aTr[poo-]SoKr|Tu)[s ovtc o.vot|]tws, the sense of " un- 
reasonably" seems clear, 0X07105 being emphasized by 
dvoT|To)s, as dwpeC is by dirpoo-8oKtiTws. So BGU I. 74 s 
(A.n. 167) Kal Yap av aXoyov ett] ktX., P Lond 973 b nf - 
(iii/A.D.) ( = III. p. 213) |rf| S8|r|s ue 0X0710? [. . ., P Tebt 
II. 420 5 (iii/A.D.) 0X0705 (/. -10s) e£T|X9aTc- air' euoi. Later 
examples are P Lips I. Ill 20 (iv/v.D.) and P Amh II. 
145 16 (iv/v A.D.) e]X\nnf|8nv 8ioti dTfc-8r|u.T|cras 0X07105, " I 
am grieved because you went away without cause." There 
is a curious use of a derived verb in P Tebt I. 13S (late 
ii/B.c), where an assailant criracrduevos Tav-rnv [se. udxaipav) 
pouXoaevos u« dXo-yiio-ai KaTT|vpyK€ [irX]r]vais Tpio-l ktX. — 
a rather aggressive "neglect" or "contempt"! Cf. BGU 
I. 22>' lf (A. P. 114) (= Selections, p. 75) aXo-ydv uoi aT|8iav 
OTJV€0-TT|o-aTO, "picked a senseless quarrel against me," and 
similarly P Kyi II. M4 16 (A.D. 38), P Lond 342 s (a.d. 185) 
(=11. p. 174), ib. 214 8 (a.d. 270-5) (=11. p. 161), x e « 
dXd-yujs -yevdutvos eis duireXiKov x M p' ov i " entered vio- 
lently " or "without authorisation." Similarly P Flor I. 
58' (iii/A.D.) dXd-yus eir«X6[dJvTes Six - to-vtos vduov, a 
"brutal" assault. We shall see a similar activity developed 
in KOToebpovciv. On the other hand BGU IV. 1024"- 16 
(iv/v A.D.) e'So^ev tio Z. &Xovov tivai tt^v d£iiocriv shows the 
sense "unreasonable." P Grenf II. 77 e (iii/iv a.d.) dXdvws 
dir60-Ti]Te ui) dpovTts [to o-]ioua tov d8«X<bov T|p.iov is not 
far from "unfeelingly." 1' Oxy III. 526* (ii/A.D.) ovk 
V\wr\v diraBris dXdvios ere KaTaXetiriv, "so unfeeling as to 
leave you without reason" (Edd.). And so on, always with 
a sense going decidedly beyond " unreasonably " and 
shading into "brutally." Hence the noun use of the 
modern Greek 0X070, "horse": it is nearly approached in 
P Oxy I. 13s 2 * (early vii/A.D.), x PTY'} " aL dXo-ya els Tas 
■yeovxiKas xP e ' as > where animals in harness are meant, if 
not horses exclusively. Prof. Thumb remarks that as early 
as Dion Cassius the word = " animal " : cf. Hatzidakis Einl. , 
p. 34 f. Ps 32' supplies the line of development. 


BGU I. 14" 22 (iii/A.D.) Tvpiiv dXvKwv, ib. IV. 1069 
verso^Q Tip.^) £vtov evTrpaTiKlov] Kal dXvKr)s : the last 
two words are interlinear, and their relation is not clear — 

the writer is illiterate enough to mean "cheap and salted 
beer," no doubt a popular beverage then as now. But 
query? Mayser Gr. p. 102 shows that oXikos, really a 
distinct word, supplants the earlier dXvKos in Hellenistic. 


For this common Greek word, which in the NT is con- 
fined to Phil 2 28 , cf. P Petr II. 13 13 (B.C. 258-3) tov e[uol 
e'errjai irecppovTicrue'vov tov ere •y€ve'o-9ai dXvirov [irdvTws?], 
" I have used every forethought to keep you free from 
trouble" (Ed.): so BGU I. 246 1 ' (ii/iii A.D.) irus dXv-iros 
Vjv. For this adverb see P Petr II 2 (3)1'- (iii/B.C.) ( = Wit- 
kowski, Efp 2 p. 22) el eppiocrai Kal ev tois d]XXois dXvirws 
diraXXdo-o-eis, tl'i) dv, lis 6710 Tois 8eois eux°r uev [ os 8iaTeXii]. 


Syll 586" (iv/B.c), 588" (ii/B.c.) al. P Leid W* ^ irdcra 
dXvo-is dwx8r|Tio. Two diminutive- may be quoted 'AXvcr£- 
Siov (MGr dXvo-£8a) occurs in P Oxy III. 496 s (a.d. 127) 
and 52s 10 (ii/A.D.). A simpler form appears in P Hib I. 
121 3 (B.C. 250) dXvo-iov. 


P Tebt I. 6S 31 (B.C. 1 17-6) tu[v] dXuo-iTeXwv 7eviov of 
inferior crops, "unprofitable" by comparison with wheat. 


The old form aXus, in the " Attic " declension, is still 
very much more common in papyri, e.g. P Fay II2 18f - (a.d. 
99) pf| cnrov8acre'Tioo-av &X10, " do not let them be in a hurry 
with the threshing-floor," P Lond 314" (A.D. 149) (=11. 
p. 190) tcj>' dXto Tiov eSacbwv, i. e. as soon as the corn is 
threshed ; but the NT third declension form is found in 
P Tebt I. 84 s (B.C. 118) dXiivioi (- tov, see Proleg. p. 49), 
PSI 37 1 (a.d. S2) ecb' dXiivuv, BGU II. 651 s (ii/A.D.), ib. 
III. 759 11 (ii/A.i>.), P Strassl. io 20 (iii/A.D.), P Lond 1239 13 
(A.D. 278-S1) (= III. p. 52), and ib. 976' (a.d. 315) 
(= HI. p. 231). See further Cronert filem. Here., p. ix. 
The derivative t| dXiovia, the space reserved for a threshing- 
floor, occurs P Tebt II. 346 s (early i/A.D.), BGU I. 146 8 
(ii/iii a.d.), P Lond, 1 170 verso 3,i (a.d. 25S-9) (= III. p. 
202), and P Oxy X. 12558 (a.d. 292). 


The adverbial use seen in Mt 20 1 may be illustrated by 
P Flor I. 3b 6 (e. iv/A.D., init.) uvr,o-T«vo-autvov p.ov . . . t^v 
. . . [8]v7aTtpa . . . [d]p.a ix vi]irias TjXiKias, P < 'x> VII. 
1025 16 (late iii/A.D.) twv Beiopuiv &\l aii[p]iov tjtis to-rlv 1 
a70|j.[£v]iov. For daa = " at the same time," see P Giss I. 
13 8 (ii/A.D.) Tre'ml/eis daa Tas 7 eTrio-ToXas, P Oxy IV. 798 
(probably B.C. I S3) 10s 8' dv irapa7e'vwvTai 01 0-1T0X0701 ewl 
tt)v irapdXT]i((iv Tiiv o-itikwv diro(ieTpr|0-op.£v dp.a Kal TavTa, 
al. With daa c. dat. "together with," cf. P Oxy IV. 658" 
(A.D. 250) tuv lepciv £76vo-d(ir|v dp.a tiu vtii aov, so with a 
dat. P Rein 26 14 (B.C. 104) dua Ttji o-u77pa<bf|i Tairr|i 
dva<bepo|jifvr|i, P Oxy VI. 975 (i/A.D.) a loan to be repaid 
dua ttj "nfl Tpv^r], P Petr I. 24 (3) (c. B.C. 249) daa 
Tf|i Xoitrfji a7opdi fji elXT|<feao-i I7 pao-iXiKoii, P Flor I. 6 16 
(A.D. 210) {x'lpoTovriSTiv dp.' dXXois, ib. 21 15 (A.D. 239) dua 
Tois Tiis KiipT]s STifioo-iois (neuter) irdo-i. The use of dua 
therefore as an " improper " preposition was not unusual. 




Paul however prefers to keep it as an adverb, adding 
o-iiv (i Th 4", 5 10 ) : for the preposition only Mt 13" is 
quotable from NT, and even there D adds oiiv. We may 
compare opdae c. dat. in P Lips Inv 266 (ii/A.D. — Archiv v. 
245) opdcre Tais dXXats tvtp-yeo-Cai.s. Thayer's note that " apa 
is temporal and opov local, in the main " (from Ammonius), 
has support from most of our examples. Both usages are 
illustrated in the Ptolemaic Pathyris papyrus {Archiv ii. 
p. 515 f. ) trrel ■ye'ypn.ojjev o iraT?|p o-uvpio-yeiv dyuv tovs 
KpoKoSiXoiroXiTas Kal iipds apa, 6p8(is TroiTiaeTc Kai K€- 
Xapio-ut'vws CToipovs ycWo-Oai " s &H- a 1 1H^ V o-vv€£opufjcrnTe. 


From the Hellenistic period, but in the local dialect, is the 
well-known Fpidaurus inscription, Syll 802 (iii/B.c.) : here 
in l. 39 we have virdpvaua Tas dpaBias, of a votive silver pig 
offered in the shrine. The adj. (2 Pet 3") might from its 
NT record be literary. J. B. Mayor [in Ice.) remarks, 
"It is strange that so common a word as dpaSrjs should not 
be found elsewhere in the XT or LXX, its place being 
taken by such words as lSuiTT|s (Ac 4 13 , I Cor 14". "), or 
dypdppaTos (Ac 4 13 ), or o dyvour ( Heb 5*)." But our failure 
to find exx. from Hellenistic sources agrees with this absence. 


With the use of this adjective in I Pet l 4 KXrjpovopi'av . . . 
dpipavrov may be compared a passage in the Apocalypse of 
Peter 5, Kal 6 Kvpios fe'Sti^' aot . . . ttjv yfjv avTTjv dvOovcrav 
daapdvTois avSecri. See also a poem engraved on a sepul- 
chral monument erected by Euergetes II. (B.C. 145-16), in 
honour of his wife Aphrodisia, where the following words 
occur, udvoiT €iri •yfjs dudpavToi, 6o~<rov €yd> vaLtoi SwpaTa 
4>€po-e(|>°vT|S [Archiv i. 220). Wisd 6 1 * reinforces this rare 
Petrine word (cf. dpapdvTivos 5' 1 ) : for its outside record see 
Thayer, who quotes CIG II. 2942 [c)\ a iii/iv A.D. inscription 
on a gladiator's tomb, ending 2o"x[a] TiifXos] pioi-ov x e P crl - v 
4> dpdpavro[v]. It is a proper name in P Ryl II. l66 3D 
(a.d. 26) Pdios TovXios 'A(iap[d]vTou. 


It will be convenient to give (non-Christian) citations for 
this important word fully. In a private letter of the time of 
Augustus the writer complains — eyw piv ov Sokwl d£ios eivai 
vPpL^to-6ai . . . ovSe yap -qpap-rnKdn £is o-e (cf. Ac 25 s , etc.), 
BGU IV. H4I 14ff : cf. 1. ^< tv rr\ irptoTn pou eTrto-ToXri ovOiv 
dpdpTT|pa ivn (/. '4vi = 'ivarn.). BGU III. 846 (i/A.D.) 
( = Selections, p. 93, Documents, p. 259) is an illiterate 
appeal from Antonius Longus to his mother entreating her to 
be reconciled to him. He makes his daily prayer to Serapis 
for her, etc. — Xoiirbv otSa tl aipaurui Trapc'cr^npaL, iranraCS- 
Seupai Ka9' 6v Si^ (corrected from 81) rpdirov, otSa, on 
ilpdpTT|Ka (1. IO fT.), " But I know I have been punished with 
what I have brought upon myself, in a way that I know, for 
I have sinned " : cf. Lk I5 18 ' n In the interesting rescript 
of an Emperor to the Jews, P Par 6S M "*-, we read, Kal -yap 
t[ovs «is Tjpds] dpapTavovTas &c[ovtu)s KoXd£€O-0ai] cIkos- 
In P Oxy I. 34'" * (a.d. 127) a Roman prefect uses some 
strong language about infringement of his instructions regard- 
ing certain archives : aSuav eavrois wv dpapT&<vovo-i ?o-€O-0[a]i 
vopi^ovTts, "imagining that they will not be punished for 
their illegal acts" (Edd.). 
Part I. 


In P Oxy I. 34'"- 13 (cf. under dpaprdvu) we read tovs 
•jrapa(3dvTas Kal tov[s ] Sid dimOiav K[al] ws d<poppV]v £titovv- 
Tas dpapTnpdT»[v] Teipwpfjo-opai., " any persons who violate 
it, whether from mere disobedience or to serve their own 
nefarious purposes, will receive condign punishment." The 
substantive is also found in conjunction with d-yvd^ua (see s.v.) 
in P Tebt I. 5 s (B.C. 118) and BGU IV. 11S5 7 (late i/B.C.) : 
cf. P Par 6 ; *'"■ a B -, a letter of Ptolemy Euergetes II. (k.c. 
165), d-rroXeXuKOTes iravTas tovs cvea-xrjpe'vovs 2v tio-lv 
dyvoT|pao-LV $\ dpapTrjpao-i.v ktX. See also BGU IV. II41 8 , 
quoted under dpapTavw, and P Flor II. 162 10 (midd. iii/A.D.) 
Ta TraXatd o-ov dpap[T]"r)paTa €TT€£eXevo-e[u)]s Tcv^eTat. 


In 3.x inscription of Cyzicus territory (/HS xxvii. (1907) 
p. 63), which F. VV. Hasluck supposes to belong to iii/B.c, 
we find dpapTtav ptTavdet, and the word is also found in 
the interesting 5i'.Y 633 ll " (ii/A.n.) which illustrates so 
many NT words, 8s dv [sic /eg.] $1 TroXvrrpa*ypovr|0-r| Ta 
tov 0€ov t^ Trtpicp-ydo-riTau, dpapTtav d<jJ>i.XgTaj Mrjvl 
Tvpdvvwi, i^v ov pLT| SvvnTau €£eiXdo-ao-9ai. See also P 
Lips I. 119 recto 3 (A.D. 274) . . . t]bv duapTiu[v] Tas 
Trovrjpias o~vv€\w[s dj vop6ovp<ivwv, P Oxy VIII. 1119 11 (a.d. 
254) avTbs vTre'o-xtTo dvTl Tfjs dpa]pTias. dYvoLasTrp[d]d>ao-t.v 
vTTOT£ipTjO~duevos, vTroo"TT|o-€0-9ai to [pe]Ta tovto Tas 
XtiTovpyias. On the Greek conception of dpapTia see CR 
xxv. pp. 195-7, and xxiv. pp. 88, 234. 


P Flor I. 59 13 (a.d. 225 or 241) Vva pr| dadp-rvpov -j. To 
its literary record may be added Callimachus Frag. 442 
dpdpTvpov ov8(;V deiSuj. 


appears in OGIS 55 30 (B.C. 240) kav [ii] p^j o-WTtXTJi o 
dp\uv Kal ol iroXtTat ttjv [fivo-fjav Kar' tviavTov, dpaprwXol 
tforwo-av [8ew]v Travrcav, "sinners against a\\ the gods.'' Cf. 
also the common phrase in sepulchral epitaphs in the south- 
west of Asia Minor containing a threat against any one 
who shall desecrate the tomb, duapTiuXos Jo-no 6tois (KaTa)- 
xSoviois, "let him be as a sinner before the (sub)terranean 
gods": see Deissmann LAE p. 115, who regards the 
genitive after dpapTuXds as a possible "provincialism of 
S.W. Asia Minor." (See under ^voxos.) He cites another 
occurrence, from the same locality, with the formula as in 
OGIS 55 (p. n6n.). Schlageter p. 24 adds 1G III. 461a. 
These instances are sufficient to prove the "profane" use of 
the word, as Cremer (ap. Deissmann ut s.) admitted in his 

Cos 325 s apaxos ai^l/Vo? XP° V0 ' 1r ^s V *>v (t-rrov, ovS' 
«X u, [p]"Hhl(«' v iroTe — a sepulchral inscription by a husband 
in memory of his wife — illustrates the non-military use of the 
word found twice in the Pastorals (1 Tim 3 3 , Tit 3 2 ). So 
also an epitaph from Apameia (c. iii/A.D.) in Kaibel 387, 
dpaxos tpuutra pc[Ta 4>^]A«v Ki o-vvy€vu>v. 


The word is almost entirely poetical in earlier Greek, 
though found in Herodotus. Plutarch has it, and P Hib I. 





47 12 (an uneducated letter of B.C. 256), 6cp(£cav &i Kal dpav, 
"to mow and to reap," which indicates its place in the 


This common vernacular word is used absolutely in P Tebt 
L 37 25ff ' (B.C. 73) ^ v ^ d|«XT|<rr|s dva-yKao-0T|o-opai e-vu 
([Xflttjv aiipiofv, P Oxy IV. 742" (B.C. 2) p^| dpeXT)o-T|S, 
P Giss I. I3 22f -€av c^€Tdo-Tis irepl tu>v t?p*yw[v], oijk dpeXw, 
al. For the construction with the genitive, see P Fay II2 9 
(a.d. 99) T^plXtiKas aviToB, ib. 1 25 s (ii/A D.) pr^ dptXT|o-as 
to[€] KXrjpou toO o-TpaTT]-ytKoO, " do not neglect the ballot 
for the stralegus," P Oxy I. 1 13 18 (ii/A.D.) pf| 8o£t]s pe 
TipeX^KOTa ttjs KXtaSos, "do not think that I took no trouble 
about the key" (Edd.), P Tebt II. 289 s (a.d. 23) <Js d[pe]- 
XouvTa tt)5 ti(r7rpd[^€a>s, il'. 421 10 (iii/A.D ), etc., and 
even with the dative in the illiterate P Par 1S 4 p^| dpeXTJcris 
(/. dp*XT|(rY|s) Toi mi pov. For the passive may be quoted 
P Giss I. 41 iL 2f - (time of Hadrian) inro ttjs paKpds d-rro8T|- 
pCas td TjpeT€[pa] ira[vT]airao-LV dpeXTjde'vTa Tvy\[dv<i, 
and P Lond Inv. Nr. 1885 v - 12 (in Archiv vi. p. 102) (a.d. 
103) Xv ofiv Tti ptfSXia dvavKewTaTa 6'vTa pr) dptXTjOTJ. 
'AptX^u is followed by the inii'.'itive in P Grenf II. 3S 4 
(B.C. Si) p^i dpeX^<r[a]s a[. . dvo]pdo"ai. For the sub- 
stantive, see P Oxy I. 62* (iii/A.D.) «K ttjs o-rjs dpeXti'as, 
"through any neglect of yours" ; and for the adj. a letter 
from Hermopolis Inv. Nr. 74 (quoted P Giss I. 13 23 note) 
EirtKppdSeiTos '4us tovtov oijS^v dpeXeo-Ttpov irowt, dXXd 
7rpo(TKapTtp€L rjplv Kal Trd<TL Tois Trpd-ypao-t crov. 


In a private letter of the time of Augustus the writei 

remarks Kavu>TTJ[s] cjuXCav o-ou [BeXut] dpepirrfov] eparov 
<T^piio-a (P.GU IV. 1141 25 ). For the adjective in a marri- 
age contract see CPR I. 27" (a.d. 190) aiTfjs 8e ttjs 0. 
aptpirrov Kal dKaTT)-ydpT|[Tov cavTTJv Trap]exop€VT|v [sic) 
It is cummin in sepulchral epitaphs in conjunction with 
Xpria-T<5s. OC/5443* (i/B.c.) has tt)v Tt tujv . . . v«avfo-Kiov 
tvSiipiav eilT[aKT]ov Tr[ap^x€Tai Kal dpcpTrJTov — Dittenber- 
ger's supplement is at least plausible. For the adverb see 
P Giss I 9S B (ii/A. D. ) rd T^cro-epa ovv KoXotpwvta tol tTrtpdX- 
Xovrd pot 80T6 avTfl dpt'pTTT^s, dXX' tv Tax*i, P Lond 924 s 
(A.D. 1S7-S) (= III. p. 134) d. irXripovptVcov — little more 
than "duly paid," P Oxy III. 473' (a.d. 13S-60), it. 496 s 
(A.D. 127) o-vpj3i.ovTwo-av ovv clXXt][Xo]is dpe'pTTTw[s 01 "y]a- 
povvT€S,and IV. 724 10 (a.d. 155), a contract of apprenticeship 
to a shorthand writer, where provision is made that the pupil 
shall be taught not only to write fluently, but to read what 
he has written dpe'pTTTus. From the inscriptions cf. OGIS 
48s 13 f - Tas Xourds 8i 4 >t ^ 0T * L F^ as TcXido-avTa d*yvu>s Kal 



BGU II. 372 iiI6 (a.d. 154), "let them come down 
dp[«]pipvoi.." The same papyrus 1. 7 shows the subst. 
dptpipvi'a united with do~<pdXaa as frequently in the papyri. 
For the adjective see also P Fay 117 s2 (a.d. 108) fKT^ycu-w 
to Smpov (?) tlva dptpipi'us fjs, P Oxy VI. 933 19f - (late 
ii/A. D. ) Kal Trtpl Toii oI'kou dpcptpvos ■ycl'vov ws 0-0O TrapdvTos, 
"have no more anxiety about your household than you 
would if you were present" (Edd.), and P Flor II. 157 

(iii/A.D.), where instructions are given to supply certain 
workmen with provisions, in order that they may be able 
to work heartily — ?\ovtcs to dpepipvov Tiiv Tpo<pu>v. For 
the adverb cf. P land 8 18 (ii/A.D.) SiaTrc'p\|/[opai 8id to]0 
dvoXtvrov dpEpi'pvu[s, " miltam secure" (Ed.). P Lips I. 
105 20 (i/ii A.D.) has I'va pe'vToi apepipviTepov i?XT|S> 'ypd<pu 
o-ou Cf. it. no 14 (iii/iv A.D.) Iva apf'pipvos up« (=<op*i, 
a middle form), BGU II. 417' (ii/iii A.D.), etc. : the formula, 
with slight variations, is common. An adjective dpepipvixos 
is found P Fay 130 10 (iii/A.D.). PAmhII. 136 (iii/A.D.) has 
both [dp]([p£]pvwsand the derived verb dpepipv<5 in the sense 
"free from anxiety": cf. P Oxy VI. 930 8lr (ii/iii A.D.) 
r|p€p(pvouv ydp Trepl avToO clSuia 8ti Kara 8uv[a]piv peXXtt 
0-01 Trpotrt'xsiv, "for I had no anxiety about him, knowing 
that he intended to look after you to the best of his ability." 
'Aptptpvta also occurs in an almost unintelligible sentence 
at the beginning of P Oxy I. 34 '• 3 (a.d. 127): cf. BGU 
IV. 1082 7 (iv/A.D.) irrip dpfp^pvias). It will be seen that 
the NT meaning alone is attested from the vernacular docu- 
ments. Its tone in them suggests that "anxiety" rather 
exaggerates the word. So in Mt 28 14 we might paraphrase 
"we will put it right with the Procurator, so that you 
need not trouble" ; and in I Cor 7 32 the verb that follows 
clearly does not suggest anxious care. 


In OGIS 331 68 (ii/B.c.) King Attalus II of Pergamon, 
writing to the Pergamenes, orders his rescript to be placed 
in the temples, 8ttws dv €is tov airavTa xpdvov aKLVTjTa Kal 
dpSTaBmi ucvrji : cf. ib. 335" (an Aeolic inscription, ii/i B.C.) 
[Td h\ KptOcvTa i]Tr[d]p£oio-L Kupia Kal dp€Ta8€Ta. A letter 
from Sulenas Verus in lafoscade, no. 105 11 (a.d. 131) has 

pEpaitu €TTL T€ Tui aO-dXtUTOV [SC. T"fjV 8wpcdv] Kal dpCTaOcTOV 

els tov del xp° vov «^vat Kal ktX. P Oxy I. 75 15 (a.d. 129) €<p' 
r^ [sc. SiaBtJKri] dptTaOtTtp dp<poTepot £T€XeiJTT]crav, and ib. III. 
482' i6 (a.i>. 109) SuiBtjkti, «<(>' r\ Kal dpeTaStTu) tVreXein-a ( "which 
will was unchanged at his death"), show that the word was 
used as a technical term in connexion with wills. The 
connotation adds considerably to the force of Heb 6 17f -. 


The adjective okCvtitos occurs P Gen I. n 6 (a.d. 350) Ik 
Sixaiou Kal aKivT|Tou KXrjpov, and in OGIS 33I 6S , cited 
under dp€Td0£Tos. 


P Lips I. 26* '• is late (beginning of iv/A.D.), but ipoXo- 
^oiiaey [IkoJvo-io. Kal a[v]6aipeT<j Kal dp€[Ta]voT)Tu> *yvwpr] 
seems to be a legal formula, such as would presumably suffer 
little change with time : it occurs a little earlier (a.d. 289) 
in P Strass I. 29 s1 , the same three words (adverb form) in 
the same order. Its active force agrees with that in Rom 2 5 . 
(Norden Agnostos Theos p. 135 translates the word here 
'• unbussfertig," and refers to Bonhoffcr Ep.itet u. das NT 
p. 106 f., who claims that in this word (ns in ptTavoia, -vo«iv) 
" gewissermassen der Gegensatz des antiken und des chri>t- 
lichen Denkens spiegle.") But in CPR I. 216 6 (i/ii a.d.) 
Kupiciv Kal (3f(3aiav Kal dp«TavoT|Tov, P Grenf II. 6S, 70 
(iii/A.D.) —duplicate deeds of gift — opoXovu xapi?eo-8ai 0-01 
XapiTL dva<|>aLp€Tu> Kal dp£Tavor|Tw . . . ptpos TtVapTov ktX. 
theie is a passive sense "not affected by change of mind," 




like dpeTap&r|Tos in Rom u 89 . So P Lond 1164 (i) b 
(a.D. 212) (=111. p. 166) Kvpiws Kal dvatpaipe'Tws Kal 



The form dpe'TpnTos occurs in a touching sepulchral in- 
scription regarding a husband and wife from Rhodes IMAe 
149 (ii/B.C.) : TaiTd Xe'-yovTes TaiiTa <j>povovvTes ijXBopev 
Tav dfieTpT^TOV 6Sov els 'AtSav. 


q9 is a common symbol in the Christian papyri for dpr|v, 
99 being the sum of the numerical equivalents of the letters 
(1 + 40 -{- 8 + 50) : see e.g. P Oxy VI. 925' (v/vi A.D.), 
where a prayer for guidance regarding a certain journey 
concludes— 7€voito, q8, "so be it ; Amen," and P land I. 
6" (a Christian amulet — v/vi A.D.) with the editor's note. 
In P Oxy VII. 1058 (iv/v A.D.) the word is written out in 
full, 6 6(eb)s t«v *irapaK6ipe'vwv oravpwv, pof|8no-ov rbv 
SovXdv <rov 'Airtpoudv. dprjv, " O God of the crosses that are 
laid upon us, help thy servant Apphouas. Amen." (Ed.) 


does not happen to occur in our documents. For its con- 
notation in Heb 7 3 see dird-rup, and note Grimm's citations 
from Philo : the evidence is quite sufficient to dispose of 
Grimm's own note that the signification is "unused by the 
Greeks." For the word cf. also the line from Euripides 
(drama unknown) cited by Wilamowitz Sltz. d. Berl, Ak., 
1907, p. 7 — "A<pi8ve, "YaCas «U ttjs apropos. 


The use of the word in the NT is probably to be traced 
to the LXX, rather than to the influence of the mystery 
religions as Perdelwitz [Die Mysterienreligion tind das 
Problem des J. Pe/ri/sbrie/es, Giessen, 191 1, pp. 45-50) 
ingeniously suggests, contrasting the dptavTos inheritance 
of the Christian with the blood-stained Himmelskleid, with 
which the initiate is robed as he ascends from the grave in 
the Taurobolium. 

A new literary citation for this word may be given from 
the Bacchylides papyrus, iii. S6, paBiis pev aiS^p dpiavTos, 
where Jebb translates "the depths of air receive no taint." 


P Petr II. 4 (9) 5 (iii/B.C.) <J5<rr« dvaKaBdpai -rr|V ti.pp.ov, 
ib. III. 43 (2) recto^- 12 (2nd year of Euergetes I.) ep-ydo-ao-Bai 
rfjv &pp.oy Toy vSpcryw-yov eTrl ttjs Kara 'HcpaLoridSa 
Siiopvyos, " to clear out the sand from the water-course of 
the canal near Hephaistias," BGU II. 530 19fr - (i/A.D.) 
( = Selections, p. 61) 6 v8pa-y w-ybs o-uv€xwo-8tj inrb ttjs 
dppov, •' the water-course was choked with sand," P Tebt II. 
342" (late ii/A.D.) els eKo-Ka<j>f|V \obs . . . Kal dppou, P Flor 
II. 157 6 (iii/A.D. ) els t[o] ep^yov eKeivo to ttjs 0ew[£]evL8os, 
TovTeo-TLV to ttjs dppou. From the inscriptions it is sufficient 
to cite Syll 587 197 (iv/B.C.) dppou dya-ycl ire'vTe. In 
BGU I. 108 1 (a.D. 203-4) (= Chrest. I. 227) Wilcken reads 
dppdxoo-Tos ('• dppd)(io<rTos), "covered with sand," with 
reference to a plot of land, and compares the similar use of 
vcpappos in P Amh II. 85 16 (a.D. 78). 


Syll 615 9 (iii/A.D.) dpvos XevKos evopxris. Herwerden 
{s. v. dprjv) quotes an inscription from Cos 40 s , dpvdv 
Kal dpvdv. The noun (etymologically identical with Lat. 
agnus, our yean) is only four times found in NT, always 
with the sacrificial connotation which is abundant in LXX. 
See under dpr|v. 

The phrase in I Tim 5* dpoipds diroSiSdvai Tois Trpo-yd- 
vois, "to make a fitting requital to one's parents," is well 
illustrated by Priene II2 1 ', where a certain Zosimus having 
received the title of citizen "has made no fruitless return 
for the honour" — [ovik dKap-rrov ttjv ttjs Tipfjs] Se'Sei-xev|V : cf. Cagnat IV. 293 ''  39 (ii/n.c.) Kopi£dpevos twv 
eiiepY«o-i.(iv d£;as Tas dpoipds, Syll 365 s (i/A D.) PatriXe'uv 
Kdv irdvu cttlvowo-iv els euxapio-Ti'av ttjXikovtou 0eov evpeiv 
I'o-as dpoipis ols evT|pYeTT|VTai p^| Svvape'vuv. In 1' Oxy I V. 
705" (a.m. 200-2) the Emperors Septimius Severusand Cara- 
calla reply to a certain Aurelius Horion who desired to 
confer benefactions on Oxyrhynchus — dTroSex<5pe8d o-e Kal 
TavTT|s ttjs e-iriSdo-etiis T|V d£iois eirtSovvai Tats Kuipais Ttiv 
'0^upvy\etTuv d-rroSiSovs dpoip-rjv evKTrjo-ews, "we approve 
of this benefaction also which you request leave to confer 
upon the villages of the Oxyrhynchite nome, giving (to 
different persons) a succession in the enjoyment of it(?)" 
(Edd.). P Giss I. 22* (ii/A.D.) vyiv ovtws dpoip[f|]v [. . .] 
ttjs euo-ePe£as pou d[vaX]apPavoiio-T|s o-e dirpdcr[KOTr]ov Kal 


is amply vouched for in the papyri, as in BGU IV. 
1119 10 , 1123 2 (both time of Augustus), and P Lond 921 8 
(late ii/iii A.D.) (= III. p. 134) fjo-av ev dpire'Xw, "planted 
with vines." In P Petr I. 29* (iii/B.c.) ireipvTeuTai Se Kal 
fj dp-rreXos irdo-a, d. is used in a collective sense : cf. P Flor 
I. ^o 2 (a.d. 26S) e£ llo-ou tt)[s dp-rre'jXou pep^ope'vr|S. This 
use of dpireXos (so MGr dpir&.i) which makes it equivalent 
to dpireXwv, occurs also in the Median parchments, P Said 
Khan (B.C. SS and 22), deeds concerning the transfer of a 
"vineyard," which is never called dpireXuv in the docu- 
ments. We may probably apply this use in Rev 14 18 . 19 , 
and perhaps in Didache 9 2 . 


Syll 535 17 (B.C. 46-5) dpireXovp-yov 8' iird-yeiv Al|uv^as 
Tots eVeo-i tois TeXeuTaiois ire'vTe may serve to illustrate this 
NT dir. elp. (Lk 13'). 


Nothing earlier than Diodorus (i/B.c.) in "profane" 
Greek is cited for this word by Grimm. It occurs in five 
documents of P Tebt I., three of them ii/B.C, and two a 
little later : cf. also the Ptolemaic P Eleph 14 2 Tiiv pev 
dpireXwvwv tovs Ka8r]KovTas dpyvpiKovs <pdpous. Its appear- 
ance in P Hib I. 151 (c. B.C. 250) is presumably coeval with 
the LXX ; nor does the language (. . . p^| TrapayCveo-eai 
. . . Tp\i-yT|o-ovTa tov dpireXwva, from a fragment of a letter) 
suggest that the word was new. It occurs indeed frequently 
in Rev L, a few years older still. For an instance con- 
temporary with its NT appearances, see PSI 82 s (a.d. 65) 




tul virdpxovTi t||uv . . . dp/rreXuvi : cf. P Tebt II. 357 15 
(a.D. 197) T€\(i]) . . . dp.ircXuvo(s) KaToiKdKoi) (apoipos) 
a, " taxes upon I aroura of catcecic vine-land." The 
suffix -iiv (like -Slum in Latin) denoting plantations of trees 
was productive in Hellenistic : see under tXauiv. 


As showing the widespread occurrence of this name in its 
longer form 'Ap/TrXiaTos, and the impossibility therefore of 
connecting it specially with the Imperial household at Rome 
(cf. Lightfoot, Philippians, p. 172), Kouffiac Rechcrches sui- 
tes carac/ires du Grec dans le NT p. 90 gives the following 
instances of its use — at Rome, CIL VI. 14918, 15509, hut 
also at Pompeii CIL IV. 1182, 1 183, and ib. Suppl. I. Index, 
p. 747 ; in Spain CIL II. 3771 ; at Athens IG III. 1161 8 , 
1892 ; and at Ephesus CIL III. 436. See further Milligan 
Documents, p. 183. 


Syll 356 s6 (rescript of Augustus) Kal [oTe T|]p,wovTO. The 
word may have almost fallen out of the colloquial language, 
to judge from its rarity in LXX and NT, and the absence of 
occurrences in papyri. 


See under dp.<JHt'vvvp.i. 


This word, which is used absolutely in Mk I 16 , is 
construed with an accusative in the Bacchylides papyrus 
xvii. 5 fT. tj tis au.€Tt'pas x® ov ° s 8ua-u.€vr)S opt' dp.(|>iBdXX€i 
orTpaTtrytTas dvt)p ; " Is the leader of a hostile army beset- 
ting the borders of our land?" (Jebb). From non-literary 
papyri we have a citation two centuries after Mark — 
P Flor II. I19 3 (A.D. 254) tire'Samdv p.01. oi dXi[sis ot irepl 
8iaTa?]v^|V dp<pipdXXovo-i. The supplement is wholly 
conjectural, but the verb must mean "to fish" as in Mark, 
and may be used absolutely. 


The full form in Mt 6 30 is a survival of the literary lan- 
guage, and must have been nearly obsolete even in cultivated 
colloquial. It is clear therefore that Luke (12 28 ) represents 
Q, whether we read duipidtti with B or -Qei with the rest : 
as elsewhere (cf. Cambridge Biblical Essays, p. 485 f. ), 
Luke faithfully preserves a vernacular form which he would 
not have used in his own writing. For the form with a 
cf. Vettius Valens p. 64* (dp.<pido-ai) , and OGIS 200 21 
(Aethiopia, iv/A.r>.) dp.(pido-avTcs : Blass (Kuhner Gramm? 
ii. p. 366) quotes several instances from post-classical liter- 
ature, including Plutarch (dTrnpcpial^) and even Lucian 
(p,€Tau< So ■f)(i<J>iao-(i€vov Mt II 8 D. The 
classical aorist appears in Syll 197 24 (iii/B.C ) dp><pUo-as. 
The back-formation dp.<pil£u is an obvious first step towards 
dp.<pid£u>, which shows the influence of the large class of 
-d£w verbs (so W. Schmid ap. Schweizer Perg., p. 37). 
But though € forms are predominantly attested in NT (with 
significant revolts on the part of B and D — see above), it 
seems doubtful whether dp.<J>ie'l> can be confidently claimed 
for the Koivrj, unless as a local survival. A grammarian in 
Cramer Anted. Ox. II. 338 says to piv dp<f>ie£u io-r\ koivus, 
to 84 dp.<f)id£u SwpiKov, «<nr€p to viroiric'^w Kal viromd£<i>. 

This may be true for md(<a {a. v.), but the other record is 
too scanty for much assurance. See Radermacher Gramm., 
p. 35, and references in Brugmann-Thumb*, p. 7S. 


This word is quoted by LS from Aristophanes and 
Hyperides, in both cases only as cited by later writers. Its 
appearance in Mark (n 4 ) and the 8-text of Acts (19 28 D etc.) 
is in accord with its frequency in the papyri of the Roman 
age, e.g. PSI38 2 (a.d. ioi)d]i/aY[pa<j><i(p.6vos) c]ir' dp.4><S8(ou) 
$po['uptov], P Fay 28* (A. 11. i'50-i) ( = Selections, p. 81) 
Tao-oux°-p£ou Tijs Ai8d dir[o d|p.<f><S8ov 'Epp.ov0iaxfjs. Gren- 
fell and Hunt translate the word " quarter," vicits. A large 
number of these are named, and residents are registered 
in the diroYpa<f>a£ as dir* ducpdSou 'AiroXXwvCov 'ItpciKuov 
and the like, or diro MaKe8dvu>v with dp.<|>68ou omitted. 
Cf. Syll 52S, Toils tv T«t dvcpdSau T€Tdx(9)ai d-irb tov 
irvp-you toS ttjs 'AYa9fjs T«xt|S 2us toO ttjs Eii6TT|p£as, 
where Dittenberger defines a. as "parsoppidi domibus 
inter se contingentibus exaedificata, quae undique viis 
circumdatur." On its gender cf. Mayser Gr. p. 261 n. 


On P Lond 336" (A.D. 167) (=11. p. 221) Kenyon 
observes, " dp.<poTEpoi = irdvTts in late Byzantine Greek . . . 
and it is possible that colloquially the use existed earlier." 
The text here has the names of five men — dp4>oT<poi Uptis 
9eoi Kup.r]s SoKvoiraiou Nt)o-o«. In P Thead 26* (a.D. 296) 
AvpifjXioi. '[HJpuvivos Kal 'A6avdo-i.os K[a]l "luXdSeX^os Kal 
EeprjWwv dp.<j>dT€poi ^7]Y(TjT€vo-avT€s) makes dp.<p. apply to 
three persons, if with the Ed. (and no. 27'j we read o Kal 
'A8avdo-Los : in no. 27 we find the first two characterized 
as having been exegetae, while Serenion is Koo-p.(rp-evo-as), 
two years later. Prof. Thumb refers to BZ xi. p. 1 1 1 for 
dp,<j>. = "alle zusammen." In the London papyrus, despite 
Bury's paper on this late usage (CR xi. p. 393), it is hard 
to disagree with Kenyon 's suspicion that it was not only 
the last two of these five who were priests : cf. P Lond 
353' (a.d. 221) (=11. p. 112) where again we find five 
representatives of the 7T€VTa<pvXia of Socnopaei Nesus. 

This usage is further strengthened by P Gen I. 67 s 
(a.D. 382), and ib. 69* (a.d. 386) where ducpoTepoi is used 
of four men. A similar extension of the word to the seven 
sons of Sceva in Ac 19 16 undoubtedly simplifies the narrative. 
See further Moulton CR xv. p. 440, and Proleg. p. 80, 
where other exx. are noted. Radermacher (Gramm. p. 64) 
is in favour of making dp4>. mean "all" in Acts. 


only found in 2 Pet 3 14 and in literary Hellenistic (Antho- 
logy), may be quoted from an Alexandrian epitaph in 
Preisigke 332, II[. . . .]cuk[. . dp,]<ip.T)Tt, €v\|nlx l > (<tuv) 
y : so the word is used here of a little child. In ib. 367, 
KXc'opi dpup/nrc, cvij/vx 1 , ((tuv) kc, it belongs to a young 
man, dying prematurely. Add the " Apocrypha Moisis," 
P Leid W 111 4 f|K« Kvpu dp.up.r)Tos Kal dirVjaavTos. 


The word is found in a sepulchral epitaph from Thessa- 
lonica CIG 1974, also in the sepulchral poem referred to 
under dp.dpavros — 8ikvvs o-4Xas aliv dfi.wp.ov. Nageli (p. 25) 




further cites the Paris magical papyrus, 1. 1311. For the 
use of "Auupos as a proper name, see Fick-Bechtel Die 
grieehisehen Personennatneti, p. 213. 

llort (on I Pet. I 1 ') points out that the Biblical use of 
&fiu>l±os, properly " without blame," was affected by the 
Hebrew DID "blemish," for rendering which the LXX 
translators caught at the curiously similar ptiipos. 

For the rapid decay of this particle in Hellenistic verna- 
cular, reference may be made to Proleg. pp. 165-9, 197-201 : 
a few additional points may be brought in. First comes the 
use with relatives and conjunctions, normally but by no 
means universally taking the subjunctive. Here in i/ and 
ii/A.D. edv greatly predominated over dv, except with Situs, 
us and Kids. Thackeray (6V. p. 6S), collecting statistics from 
more extensive material than had been available in Proleg. 
p. 43, sums up the results to the same purpose : about B.C. 133 
" 8s [etc.] edv begins to come to the front, and from i/B. c. 
onwards the latter is always the predominant form : the 
figures in both columns decrease in iii/-iv/A.D. , when the use 
of the indefinite relative in any form was going out of use. " 
The ultimate result of this process is seen in MGr, where the 
only traces left of dv are in the compounds <rdv " as," " as soon 
as," and dv "if," with Kdv (=Kdv) "even." 2dv is from 
ws dv, which in papyri is used in the same senses : thus 
BGU IV. I09S 44 (end of i/B. C.) lis dv eirl to[0 Kalipov koi- 
viis Kpivwo-i (according as), ib. 1209 13 (B.C. 23) lis dv Xdpns 
to Ypdppa (as soon as), P Hib I. 66* (B.C. 228-7), ">[s 
8'] dv Trapa-yeViopai (do.). Several instances are collected 
by Witkowski ( 2 p. 87), and Phil 2 23 , 1 Cor n 34 , Rom 15" 
noted as parallel, as in Proleg. p. 167. The MGr dv inherits 
the uses of edv. The latter in vernacular Hellenistic is 
stable, or even reverts to etdv by re-composition ; but the 
form dv is found in many illiterate documents of the Koivtj 
(as for instance in the boy's letter, P Oxy I. 119 (ii/iii ad.)), 
and may be the direct ancestor of the MGr. See Proleg. 
p. 43 n. 2 . On dv with opt. , or ind. irrealis. see Proleg. pp. 1 97- 
201. A reference should be added to Goodspeed's convinc- 
ing suggestion (PxpTxx. 471 f.) that in Mk 7 11 we should 
read 8 dv (so D) e£ epov ii<f>eXr|8T|S, indie, " what you would 
have gained from me." Two or three additional instances 
of dv in " unreal " clauses may be given from the papyri : — 
P Tor I. iviii.3sff. ( B .c „6) (= Chrest. II. p. 39), Kal ell-rep 
■ye 8r| eVdpi^ev ^x €LV TL SCxaiov KtX., ovk dv TroTe irpoaxSrjvai 
(depending on wot' tv&nXov etvai in 1. 31 ), P. Giss I. 47 17 
(early U/a. P.) to ovdpiov to xo-Xkovv el eTrwXeiTo Spaxpwv 
icS, 8ktot« dv «ire|xv|/d crov, it. 79"- e (same period) el SvvaTov 
\^o<4 f)v kt\., ovk dv ii[Kjvr|Keiv, BGU IV. 1 1 4 1 " T f (end of 
i/«.c) t| (/. el) t^v 8aKpvd 0-01 -ypdi^eiv, •ye'ypa<{>r|Keiv dv airo 
twv SaKpvuv, CIMIerm I. 7 7f - el pev 8t| x°P1i'o- tis[t)]v ktX. 
(a gap of 21 letters included), ovSev dv fjpd[s H* ire]pl tou- 
[t]iov Seio-6ai. To the papyrus exx. of dv dropped (Pro/eg. 3 
p. 200 n. 1 ), add PSI 71" (vi/A.D.) el p,f| t) fleia irpclvoia ePot|- 
8r|o-ev ktX., tlyfiv dXXfjXfovs] dvaiXlv (/. dveXeiv). The 
fewness of our exx. shows that the NT omissions of dv, 
practically confined to Jn, are not normal Koivf) grammar, 
except in clauses where omission was classical : the con- 
struction itself was dying out, but the dv was preserved 
while the locution lasted. MGr uses a periphrastic con- 
ditional mood (Thumb Handbook, p. 195). 

survives almost exclusively in the limited uses seen in NT. 
The new "improper preposition" dvd peVov is common : 
cf. MGr dvdpecra. Thus 1' Magd 2 3 (B.C. 221) dvd peVov 
tov Te IIoupios [sc. toIxou] koA tov tov dvSpos pov, Sj'll 
929 16 (ii/n.c.) ttjs Keipe'vT)s dva peVov 'iTavuov Te Kal Tepa- 
ToiTviuv, P Petr I. II 18 (iii/B.c.) ovXr) dvd peVov oi^pvuv, id. 
HI- 37(")"- 18 (B-C. 257) X"ipo.Tos tov dvd pe'erov tov kXtjpov, 
OG/S 56 s2 (iii/B.c.) iSv dvd pe'o-ov eVTai. i\ dcnri8oeiS-f|S 
Pao-iXeia (a crown adorned with serpents), P Oxy I. 99 s 
(A. I). 55) dvd pe'erov oiio-ns Tvi|>Xfis pvpr)s, etc. In Syll 334' 
(B.C. 73) irepl dvTiXo-yiwv twv dvdp[ecrov] 8eiii 'Aptfnapdioi 
Kal Tiiv Snpoo-uovuv Ye-yovoTuv Dittenberger (who here 
prints as one word) comments on the barbarous grammar, 
the preposition taking dative and genitive together. 'Avd 
Xo-yov " in proportion " is not rare : e.g. P Ryl II. 96 14 (a.d. 
1 1 7-8) (dpovpas) crtj (=f) avd Xo'yov ttjs dpovpas " at a rate 
per aroura." Note ib. 88 21 (a.d. 156) ov8ev Se' poi 6[<|>elXeTai 
vtrep t]uiv dvd X"P a XP"*" "' " tne current period " 
(Edd., who cite ib. 99', BGU I. 155 13 and IV. 1049"). 
The distributive use of dvd is often found in papyri : thus 
P Oxy IV. S19 (c. A.D. 1) Td Se irpoKelpeva x(°°-s) 8 
TreTrpdo-crBai. 8t' epov dvd Spax(pds) Tre'vTe. Radermacher 
(Gr. p. 16) remarks on its appearance in doctors' prescriptions 
to mark the dose, and gives some other vernacular instances, 
noting that it began to figure in colloquial Attic in the 
classical age. It serves to express multiplication, as in P 
Petr II. 3o(/') 20 (iii/B.c.) P(ao-iXiKov) i dij>dpov k/X dvd 7^ 
pe "10 of Crown land + 20 of unproductive = 30 X 3 J 
= 105." Cf. a papyrus cited by Wilcken in Archiv v. p. 245. 
Note P Ryl II. 168 7 (a.d. 120) dvd Xaxdvov peVpioi 
eXaiovp-yiKan dprdpas Tpeis. 'Avd TrXe'ofv occurs in P Tebt 
II. 344 10 (ii/A.D). On the possibly corrupt solecism in 
I Cor 6 6 see Proleg. p. 99. Nachmanson Beilrage, p. 67 
cites an inscription in which distrib. dvd c. ace. has the 
same sense as a simple ace. with kot' dvSpa— 86vTa eVl 8ls 
toCs pev iroXeiTais KaT dvSpa 8r|v(dpia) 8, tois 8e Xoiirois 
eXev8e'pois dv[d] 8r|v(dpi.a) p (/G iv. 597* "■ — Argos, 
" spat"). 


Sy !l 587 s08 (iv/B.c.) dvaPaf,|4o]vs ( / e. -o-povsi, apparently 
parts of a TpoxiXeta, on which see Dittenberger's note. For 
examples of d. in late Greek, cf. Aelian vi. 61, xi. 31 ; Dion 
Cass. lxv. 21, Ixviii. 5 (Lobeck P/iryn., p. 324). Rutherford 
{NP, p. 372) adds the note of Moeris, Pao-pbs 'Attikios, 
paSpbs 'EXXnyiKws, in confirmation of Phrynichus, who tells 
us that the 8 is Ionic : for the relation of the -o-p<Ss and -Spos 
suffixes see Brugmann-Thumb 4 p. 218 f. 


Wilcken [Archiv v. p. 26S). commenting on POxy VI. 
S9S fi ' 15 (A.D. 123) els "Oacriv KaTapfjvai — dvapdvra els tov 
'0£vpv-yx € vrnv, notes that this may either be literal or refer 
to Oxyrhynchus as the county town: dvapaiveiv els ttoXiv, 
KaTaPaiveiv els Kiuprjv. P Par 49 (B.C. 164-58) gives us 
instances of the verb as used in NT for "going up" to the 
Temple : 1. 3a ovk e'xio crxoX#|v di-apfp-cu irpos vpds (sc. the 
recluses in the Serapeum), ib. 3 * edv dvapii Ka-yti 7rpoo-Kv- 
vrjo-ai. So P Par 47 19f (c. B.C. 153) o o-TpaTT|YJis dva- 
paCvei atipiov els t8 SapaTriTjv. Witkowski ( 2 p. 72) remarks 




that the Serapeum was situated above the town, so that 
the verb was appropriate, as in Lk 1S 10 . The common 
phrase d. els 'IepocrdXuua, etc., may be illustrated from 1' 
Lond 1170 verso™ (a.d. 25S-9), (=111. p. 194), where an 
account of labourers " off work " (dpyiio-dvTuv) describes 
one as dvapds els Tf|v irdXiv and anuther dvapds eirl Tfjs 
ird*. The same meaning, or something near it, may be seen 
recurring in P Oxy VIII. 1 157 (late iii/A.D.), as 25 dv-rt- 
vpa^ov kclvw dvaPaivw Kal d-rroypddiouai, ib. 7 4m8f) o&v 
ou dvapfjvai I8e t| (/. el) 8wrj f|uds d7roypd<|/e : we 
should use " come up" in the same connotation. So ib. VI. 
935 13 , iii/,\.D.) gp-eXXov 8[e] Kal a[i>Tb]s dvapfjvai, BGU IV. 
1097 3 (i/A.D.) T|dv 8e 6 dv-rlSiKos dvapij, irepCpXeire airdv. 
In ih. 1141 s3 (late i/B.C.) f||jLe'pas 8e ev ats dvaPalvui, eipl- 
o-KajiavTov Ka8fjp.evo(v) it perhaps means " go upstairs." In 
1' 1'elr II. 9 (3) 8 (iii/n.c.) irXf|pwp.a dvaPe'PTjKev is "the gang 
has gone away." Cf. MGr dvePaCvio. 

For the substantive cf. P Grenf II. 67 15 f - (A.D. 237) 
(= Selections, p. 109) where three asses are provided 
inrep KaTapdcrews Kal dvapdo-ews, "for the conveyance 
down and up again" of dancing girls for a village festival. 
'Avdpao-is is common in the papyri and the inscriptions of 
the "rising" of the Nile, e.g. BGU I. 12 4 (a.d. 181-2) 
[ttjs tov] iepuxdrou NelXou eV dvaflio dvapdcreios, OG1S 
666 (r. A.D. 55) f| Al-yvirTos, xds tou NeiXou Supeds eirav- 
£ou.e'vas kot' e>os Bewpovcra, vvv u.aXXov dire'Xavtre Tfjs 
8iKalas dvapdceios toO fleov, where Dittenberger draws 
attention to the fact that 8iKa(.a dvdpao-is is a " solenne 
vocabulum " in this connexion. So in the papyri, BGU 1\ . 
I208 17 (B.C. 27) T]f|v diroTO|i£av (see s.v.) T-ijs dvapdcreus. 
There are some other instances in Meyer's note on P Giss 
I. 37, intro. n 3 . In Cagnat III. 975 (? i/A.D.) d. is part of a 
house : Tf|v d. Tavrrjv a"iiv ttj d^eiSi. 


in something like the forensic sense " defer " a case., 
occurs in P Tebt I. 22 9 (B.C. 1 12) dvaPaXXdu-evos els 
tov 4>vXaKiT>iv, "referring the matter to the inspector": 
cf. P Par 66 71 (i/a.C.) &v Td e'pva dvapdXovcriv (1. -XX-), 
" whose work is postponed." Elsewhere it is generally = 
"cast up" or "send back": in Ostr 1154 (Rom.) dva- 
paXeiv ra Ip-aTid o-ov appears to be used of the " setting 
up" of a weaver's warp. Cf. P Giss I. 20> 6lf - (ii/A.D.) el 
Se'Xeis dvapXi}9fjval cr[ov T]f|v lo-xvf|y [Xe]uKf|v o-ToXfjv, 
4>p6vTL(rov Tfjs irop4>vpas. In Ostr 1399 (A.D. 67-S) dve- 
p(dXeTe) els to Kevbv (/. Kaivov) X"(l JLa ) vavp(ia) SeVa ire'vTe, 
1567 (A.D. 105) dvap(epXr|KaTe) els X"!!" 1 ) 'ABtiv(a£«i>v) 
v aipiov) (fjpicrv). it may mean "throw up," of a measure 
of earth excavate.! (cf. Mahaffy Petrie Papyri, III. p. 344) : 
this is a return to its most primitive sense — cf. Syll 5S7 166 
(B.C. 329-8) tIktoctiv toIs dvapaXovcriv Tas irXivBovs. 
Another physical sense appears in P Flor II. 233 s (A.D. 
263), where Comparetti renders tva . . . [d]vapXn8u>o-i " ' vi 
si adattino' (le spalliere)." The verb is MGr. The ex- 
pressive compd. "procrastinate" occurs 
P Tebt I. 50" (B.C. 1 12-1). 


POxy III. 513" (A.D. 1S4) dvap€p£o-8ai (/. -Pipdo-Bai 
els Spaxp-ds x CLA ^ as [dK]TaKoo-£as, " raised the price to 
eighteen hundred drachmas." (MGr dvepd£u.) 


Syll 807 1 ' (ii/A.D.) Kal dve'pXeiJ/ev Kal eXfjXvflev Kal nix a ' 
p£o-Ti)o-ev 8-np.oo-Ca tu> 8e<i, of a blind man " recovering 
sight " in the temple of Asclepios, as in Tn 9 11 . 16 (cf. Docu- 
ments, p. 154). So at the beginning of the same inscr., 
Kal dp86v dv<'pXei|/e. 


In the interview between Marcus Aurelius (?) and a con- 
demned criminal, P Oxy I. 33"'- 7 (= Chrest. I. p. 35), we 
read of the latter that dvepdiitrev [p.]t'o-T)s 'Piup.T|s, summon- 
ing the Romans to see him led oft' to death. Beyond this 
rather outre' document, we have no other evidence of the 
Koivfj use of the word, an interesting confirmation of WH's 
rejection of it in Mt 27" — unless indeed the more literary 
Matthew was emending Mark (15 31 ) ! 

draft oh']. 

The word is used with a large variety of meanings. Thus 
P Amh II. 34 (d) 6 {c. B.C. 157) eVBeivai tt|V KaTaa-Tao-iv els 
u-nSepiav dvaPoXf|V ("without delay") iroT]o-a[«vous : cf. 
Syl! 425 22 (iii/B.C.) dvapoXdv XaprivTes trr\ Tp£a. In P Oxy 
IV. 729 7 (a.D. 137) ttjv 8e dv[a]PoXf|V iroif|0-ovTai dirb Tiiv 
iO.'|j.ujv di'apoXui', and P Goodsp Cairo 15* (A.D. 362) tt)V 
dvapoXr|v ireTroiT|, we have the same phrase as in Ac 25" 
(/, us the article), but in a wholly different sense, " to make 
an embankment." In P Tebt II. 378 20 (a.d. 265) tovs 
[Sijajpvvwv Te K[al v8]pa-ycovuiv [d]vaPoXds is rendered by 
the editors "banking up of canals and conduits," and 
probably a similar rendering, rather than "dredging," should 
be given to P Amh II. 9I u (a.d. 159) dvaPoXds Siuipvyw(v) : 
cf. CPIlerm 41 x 1 "! 10 - " 1 Kal dvaPoXais, and P Lond I171 60 
(B.C. S) ( = 111. p. 179) dvaPoXfjs vaupuov (see on dvapdXXco, 
and Kenyon's note here). In P Oxy VI. 909" (a.D. 225) tt|V 
irpoKei.u.evu)V aKavBiiv dvaPoXr|v, the word is used in the 
unusual sense of digging up or uprooting (see the editors' 
note). In P Tebt II. 413 10 (ii/iii A.D.) the editors translate 
Te'pa dvPoXa (/. TeVcapas dvaPoXds), "4 bags," and com- 
pare P Oxy IV. 741 1 * (ii/A.D.) where dvapoXr|, in the sense 
of dvapoXiSiov, occurs next before irpoxelpia in a list of 
articles. Further in a legal document P Petr III. 21 (gf 1 
(iii/B.C.) we have Tfjs dvapoXijs toO ip-ai-lov with hiatus 
before and after, so that we cannot certainly join the words. 
In P Thead Inv. 15, a receipt of Constantine's time, those 
who grant the receipt name themselves diroSe'KTat Xtvov tov 
lepov dvaPoXiKou, where Jouguet finds a reference to the 
linen for a military mantle ' '(dvapoXiKov tie dvaPoX^ = dp-poXtj 
= abolla, etc.") : but see Wilcken ArcAiv, iv. p. 1S5. 


This form of the word is supported by KaTav(e)iov, 
P Oxy I. 7S 19 (a.d. 129), and VI. 91 1 15 (iii/A.D.), 912 11 
(ib.) ; KttTavadj), P Lond 1164 (e) 8 (A.D. 212) (=111. 
p. 160), KaTayaia, P Oxy VI. 903 4 (iv/A.D.), KaTaKtov, 
P Rein 43* (A.D. 102, illiterate). Twv dvu)Yaio>v occurs at 
the end of vi/A.D., P Par 21 3 , and dvw-yiov in CPR 2S 16 
(a.d. no), after a lacuna : cf. MGr dvu-yi " upper storey." 


which in Hellenistic Greek is found much in the sense of 
the Attic d-n-aYY'^"') is illustrated by P Petr III. 42 H (8f) 7 




(iii/B.C.) T& -yrytvTKitji'a o-oi «p.ol dvT|vytXXov, r>. 56 (<5) 12 

(Ptol.) dvayyeXtiv 0-01 avBiptpov : cf. 6)'// 263' (c. B.C. 
200) tvTtTaXpai. aiJTcii dvayyeiXai. vp.iv d T|povX(5|i.r|V iipas 
tiSfjo-ai. Further instances in P Eleph 13" (B.C. 223-2,= 
Witkowski 2 p. 43), P Petr II. II, 2« (iii/B.C.—:*. p. 7) ; see 
also Syll Index (III. p. 249). For the use of the word in the 
LXX, see Anz Subsidia, p. 2S3. 


The word, as well as the thought, is found m the Hermetic 
writings, e.g. Reitzenstein Poimandrcs p. 339" ctyvow, u 
Tpio-ut'-yio-Te , 4£ oias urjTpas dv€YevvT)8r|S, <riropds 8£ iroCas : 
cf. Bauer on Jn 3 s (in HZNT) and Reitzenstein Die hell. 
Myslerienreligiotien pp. 26, 31. 


For this word = " read aloud," as generally in classical 
Greek, cf. P Grenf I. 37 15 (late ii/B.C.) emXe'-ypaTos dva-yvu- 
<r8e'vTos, of the reading aloud of a petition, and PGoodsp Cairo 
29 ui - 1 (c. A.D. 150) tjs avaYVuo-8eio-t]S. of a will. So P Oxy 
I. 59 8 (A.D. 292) eirio-TaXua tv rju.iv dwYvwa-fBii], "at a 
meeting of our body a despatch was read," and Michel 699 s 
(end of iii/B.C.) to* tc v/T|<J>io-u.a dW-yvwcrav. The word is 
used absolutely in P Amh II. 64* (A.D. 107) dva-yvu>o-8e'vTos, 
"a report was read." On the other hand it must mean 
simply "read" in P Eleph cf (B.C. 222) ws dv ovv dva-yvwvs 
[tt|]v ciri.o-ToXT|V, and similarly id. 13 3 , also BGU IV. I079 6ff - 
(a private letter — i/A.D.) Xovrrbv oiv e'XaPov irapd to(v) 
ApaPos T^jv €ttlo-toXt|V Kal dvt'-yvuiv Kal eXvn-r|8-nv, and 
P Fay 20 23 (iii/iv a.d.) where it refers to copies of an edict 
set up in public places o-vvoirra tols dva-yL-yvwo-Kovcriv, " in 
full view of those who wish to read." ' AW-yvwv is a common 
formula for an authenticating signature, like the Legimtis 
of the Roman Emperors : see e.g. P Par 69 s ' 10 - u (B.C. 233}. 
The play on two compounds of -yivwo-Kw in 2 Cor I 13 may be 
paralleled by P Oxy VII. 1062 13 (ii/A.i>.) av|>]r|v 84 croi tt|V 
^ttio-toX^v irt(JL\|/w 81a Svpov i!va avTTjv dvayvois vrj<pwv Kal 
o-avTov KaTa-yvois. It is interesting to note from the literary 
record of the verb that the meaning "read" is essentially 
Attic, Ionic (Herod.) using trnXe-yeo-Sai. : see LS and 
Schlageter p. 24. In Preisigke 1019, 1020, 1022, 1023, 
all -rrpoo-KWT|U.aTa from the same Egyptian temple (Kalab- 
schah), also 1065 (Abydos) — we find the record of the 
adoration of a number of persons from one family, to which 
is appended Kal tov dva-yiviio-KOVTos, in one case following 
Kal tov -ypdvpavTos. This inclusion of the reader, whoever 
he may be, distantly reminds us of Rev I 3 . 


P Oxy IV. 717 1 ' (late i/B.c.) T|v]d-yKao-| podv avTwt. 
A somewhat weakened sense is seen in P Fay 1 10* (A.D. 94) 
c6 iroujo-€is . . dva-yKdo-as €Kxwo-8fjvai to €V avTwi Koirptov, 
"please have the manure there banked up" (Edd.) : c(. the 
use in Lk 14 23 , where dvd-yKao-ov describes the "constraint" 
of hospitality which will not be denied. Other occurrences 
are BGU IV. 1042 56 (iii/A.D.) e[v]eVux[« t]cu SiKaioSorn, 
Kal d[v]rj[*yK]a£e p.€ irpoo-KapTeptiv tw prjp.[aT]i avToii : 
so we venture to restore the text, in accordance with the 
meaning clearly needed — the augment will be a blunder like 
that which secured permanent footing in Sitjkovovv, etc. A 
similar aor. is apparently intended in P Amh II. 133 12 (early 

ii/A.D.) Kal u.6Ta troXXcov koVwv avtiKao-auev (/. dviryK-) 
avT<iv (fur avTovs) avracrx^o-Sai. ktX. "and with great 
difficulty I made them set to work" (Edd.). The con- 
tracted future occurs in an edict of Germanicus on a Berlin 
papyrus (Archiv vi. p. 286) «du uoi pi| imo-8fjT«, dva-yKare 
ae ktX. BGU IV. 1141' (end of i/B.C.) dva-yKd? p/nKeTi 
o-ol p.ii8Jv •ypdij/ai, [iva] vor|o-T|s. P Lund 95! verso 3 (late 
iii/A.D) (=111. p. 213) f|Kouo-[a] 8[t]i 8T]Xdi;ti.y avTT)v 
dva7Ka£«s. The verb is MGr. 


P Fay 109 1 (early i/A.D.) irpbs dvayKaiv (=-aiov). 
Ordinary uses may be seen in 1> Tor I. 1 "' < (B.C. 116) Kara 
to dvayKatov "necessitate coactus," P Leid B"- 3 (ii/B.C.) 
tis to p.T(8Jv Tiiv dva'vKauov rip-ds iio-Tspav, P Flor II. 132 11 
(A.D. 257) 8-rrt p dva-yKatov o-e rjv -yvwvai (as Ac 13 46 ), ib. 170 8 
(A.D. 255) «t irepl Tuiv ovSafiivuiv dp.eXtiT€, Trdo-to uaXXov 
twv dva^KaioTtptov. In combination with <j>£Xos, meaning 
"intimate," as in Ac IO 24 , we have P Flor II. 142 2 (a.d. 
264) timSTpep tvToXiKbv l\n> dva^Kaiov <t>tXou : cf. Syll 
737 51 (ii/A.D.) (tl) o-(()d8pa dvayKaids tis tjv. For the Pauline 
phrase dva-yKatov Tj7€io-8ai, as 2 Cor 9°, Phil 2 23 , cf. P Fay 
III 1 " (A.D. 95-6) ( = Selections, p. 67) [d]vavKaiv r]Yr|o-a[s], 
"considering that it is essential," Syll 656' (ii/A.D.) 88ev 
dva-yKaiov f|-yr|o-dar|V (c. inf.): cf. iiroXaapdvojitv a. etvai, 
ib. 790 74 . The RV margin at Tit 3 11 els Tis dvayKaias 
Xptias, "for necessary wants," that is "for the necessities 
of life," is supported by P Oxy VII. I068 16 (iii/A.D.) X"P IV 
dva-yKt'as XP ia S. an d by Piiene 108 80 (c. B.C. 129), where 
Moschion is thanked for having given a certain sum els 
XpfCas dva-y-Katas. Cf. P Grenf II. 14 (< ) l '■ (iii/B.C.) 
XP«£av ?x°H L ' v dva-yKaiav Tiuo^e'vov uio-T« diroo-TtiXat avTov 
tts t^|v iroXtv. The superlative is found P Par 46' (B.C 153) 
«v Tots dva-yKaioTaTots Kaipots, and P Giss I. 23 s (ii/A.D.) 
irdvTiov twv d\Civ p.ou dva-yKaioTaTiiv 'i\a ttjv tijs v-yt£as 
o-ov. al. Cf. theelativein P Lond 42 31 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30) 
d-Ktp p.T> dva-yKaidTtpdv o-[e] impia-irai, " unless urgent busi- 
ness detains you," P Flor I. 61 15 (A.D. 86-8) evTvyxav" °"oi 
rb TrpcoTov K[a]l dva-yKatoTaTov. For the adverb, cf. P Flor 
II. 13S 5 (A.D. 264) 4-n-el dvaYKaicos o-ov XP^?™! OGIS 669* 
(i/A.D.) irpotypa^a dva7Kaiu>s irepl «Kao-Tou tuiv eirt^Tov- 
|i.4vuv, P Giss I. 68* (early ii/A.D.) dvaYKatios Ypd<pu> o-o£- 
oiSs'va 'xa> (/. ?x m ) W'T?' T ° v ^SV V- r 1 ^ °" e ' etc - 


The derived adj. dvaYKao-TiKos occur eight times in Vettius 
Valens, with the meaning "po/etts," "efficax" (Ed.). 


For ?x av dvd-yKr|v followed bv the infinitive, as Lk I4 1S , 
cf. P Oxy VII. 1061 4 (B.C. 22) dvdYKt)v f o"xov irapaKaXc'crai, 
"I have been obliged to urge," P Flor II. 278 l,r - 23 (iii/A.D.) 
dvd-yKr|v Uo-xov c[vt]ux«Iv. The converse appears in BGU 
IV. 1141 4 ' (B.C. 14) 81b dvd-yKr| |i« So-xTlKt £V(pav£o-au The 
word = " calamity " occurs in Syll 255" (iii/B.C.) iv 
dvd-yKais Kal KaK0ira8£ais -ye'viiTai — cf. 2 Cor 6 4 , etc. In 
a leaden tablet found at Carthage, Wunsch AP4 1 (iii/A.D.) 
«]ijopK£[i;w o-c] tov 8ei>v Trjs dvd-yKT|s tov p.e'7av 'Apovpo- 
Paap£a-ypav, we have, as Wunsch thinks, the Orphic con- 
ception surviving: he compares P Lond 121 618 (iii/A.D.) 
( = I. p. 105) 8ebs 6 tirl Trjs dvd7Kiis TeTa-ypivos TaKoip 
Taipu (? = mrv) Sapau8 'ASuval— in neitlier of these 




however can we speak exactly of " the great goddess of 
Necessity." She figures in Vcttius Valens, p. 173 (top), 
avTT|v tc ttjv irpovoiav Kal ri\v i€pdv 'Avd"yKT)v. For the 
ordinary use of the word we may quote Ostr 1 1 53 (Rom.) 
[W| &\Xu>sTr<HT|o-r|T(e) el8oT(es) tt)v dvdvKr|v, I' Flor II. 177 10 
(A. D. 257) tirtl hi olSa oti Kal dvd-yKT]s Kat {jiro(j.vT|cr€tos 
XPli5 €Tal ) "you need compulsion and reminder," ib. 186 9 
(A.D. 259), 8id tt)v dvdvKrjv tuv dyaiXajp-dTtov, "the pres- 
sure of expenses," ib. 222° (A.D. 256) ds xi dvaXuuaTa pou 
ttjs 4>povTi8os tv dvd^KT], etc. The word is MGr. 


Syll 552 81 (Magnesia, late ii/B.C.) ia.v hi pi) iroiTJo-ajvTai 
tt)v dvd-yvwo-iv [av]ToO KaOoTi irpoo-TfTaKTai : several in- 
stances might be quoted from iii/A.I). in the normal sense of 
"reading." In P Tebt I. 61 (/>)* (B.C. 1 18-7) we have the 
survival of an earlier meaning : «irl Tfjs dva\vw[o-]5[ws] ttjs 
KajYJd [4>v]\X[ov -yeJupeTpias, "at the revision of the 
survey of the crops" (Edd.). 


The use of d. in Ac I2 4 finds a ready parallel in Syll 366 s4 
(i/A.D. ) dvaxQevTO. els tov Stjpov tdv piv TroXt£TT]s t], diro- 
£tvoxio-6ai. For the meaning " restore," " bring back," cf. P 
Par io 12 toOtov os dv dya-yd-vr], with reference to a runaway 
slave, and YVilcken's restoration {Archiv iv. p. 54S) of P 
Lond 921 5 (ii/iii A.D.) (=111. p. 134) dvavavtiv e[is ap- 
irtXov] of bringing back certain arouras to use as a vineyard. 
See the editor's note on P Oxy VII. 1032 8 (A.D. 162) 
dvf|£ajiev ktX. "we converted out of our own ancient plots 
. . . j 7 ! of an aroura of vine-land," and ib. IV. 707 s * (c. A.D. 
136) yf}v dvd£ai da-rrtXa). (On the vulgar 1st aor. see above 
under £70).) P Flor II. 134" (A.D. 260) lv[a] to dva-ydpevov ev 
Boupdo-Tu) KTT]p.aTLov uTroo-xto-Ofl, is rendered by Comparetti 
" perche la terra aniiessa in Bubasto venga dissodata." 
Syll 936* Kal KaTapaXeVw Tap. TrevTT|Koo-Tdv ir[pl]v dvdvav 
ti t) irwXjlv seems to mean "before he brings (the mer- 
chandise) into the town or sells it," i.e. " bring up" from 
the landing stage. The familiar use of dvd"yeiv for " putting 
out to sea" is found in BGU IV. 1200 14 (B.C. 1) toS 
rty irpdtroSov dvr|-yp.€'vov tis'lTaXiav, modified in a transitive 
direction. For its sacrificial use (as in Ac 7* 1 ) CI - OG1S 
764 17 (c. B.C. 127) dvavavti>v €K tov ISiov Tavpous 8vo Kal 
KaXX«pt|[o-as ktX : so elsewhere in this inscr. (= Cagnat IV. 


Frequent in inscr., in a sacrificial sense, e. g. Syll 553 14 
(iii/ii B.C.) dvaSaKvvuo-i. tu> Alt (Tavpov). Nearer to the 
sense of Ac I 2 * is the astrological phrase in Vettius Valens, 
p. I19 25 tdv hi Ztiis papT*vpT]o-r| Kpdvo>, vopipos -ydpos 
dva86ix9r|a-eTai *| Kai nvas ^v-yevCo-oucriv. Note Syll 329 12 
(B.C. S6) KeKptKtv dva8ei£ai tov Trpbs MiOpaSaTTjv irdXeaov, 
which comes near our " declare war" : so in OGIS 44 1* 9 
ex suppl.). 


There is a legal sense of this word which is not uncommon 
— P Oxy III. 5 1 3 57 ff - (A.D. 184) iav tis £iyrT|[o-is] irepl 
tovtou Yf'vrjTai Trpbs avTbv . . . [tva>] avTbs tovto dva- 
8(£opai, " if any action is brought against him in connexion 
with this, I will take the responsibility upon myself" (Edd.). 

So P Tebt I. 9S 2 ' (c. B.C. 112) av ahihlypiQa (I. dvaS-), 
" for whom we are security," and the late P Grenf II 99 
(tf) lfr - (vi/vii A.D.) AavtVr dvsSt'fjaTO ©aTjo-lav wott€ avTTjv 
dircXOti' ets SiaiTrjv Kal tq airo SiatTns ttoitjo-ti, " David has 
become surety for Thaesia on condition that she return to her 
home and busy herself with its duties." The verb is followed 
by the infinitive, P Tebt I. 75" (B.C. 1 12) dvaSe'xopai irdpov 
Sua-LV Tfjs (dpTdprjS), " I undertake to provide for the artaba 
tax"; P llib I. 58* ff - (B.C. 245-4) dvaSeScKTai Yap 
T|uiv diropcTpr|0-€iv o-itov : cf. OGJS 339 20 (ii/B.C.) Tas rt 
Trp€o-p«£as dve8e'x«TO irpoOvpws, ib. 441* (i/B.C.) Kal8iaTavTa 
KivSvvovs ttoXXovs [• • •] vTrip roiv TjatTt'pwv 8T|poo*ia>v [. . * 
•n-poBupd |raTa d[v]a8€8(Yp€vous. Syll 929 30 (ii/B.C.) trdo-av 
dvaScxopevoi KaKoiraSCav x°-P tv T0 ^ H-ri^evbs voTepfjo-ai StKat- 
ov u^Btva T<iv Kpivouc'vwv, of judges who say they have given 
not only the day but to -rrXetov ttjs vvktos to their work. 
Add Syll 530 05 (late iv/B.c) = "undertake"; so P Eleph 
29 12 (iii/B.c.), P Tebt II.329 19 (a.d. 139), and BGU I. 194 11 
(a.d. 177), and P Ryl II. 77 38 (A.D. 192) dvaSefdaevos T i\v 
p€^ova dpxr|v oBk 6<(>eiX€i tt^|v tXaTTov' d'Troipcij'yeiv. The 
predominance of this meaning suggests its application in 
Heb 11 1 '. The statement that Abraham had "under- 
taken," " assumed the responsibility of" the promises, 
would not perhaps be alien to the thought. In Ac zo' it 
is " hospitio excepit" (Blass), Attic vTroSe'x^o-Qai. 


On P Fay 26 13ff - (a.d. 130) IV' o&v toxis o-vvo\j/LoiJvTas 
. . . dva8wT«, the editors remark that " dvaStSdvat ('_»r cLo-8t- 
Sdvai) is the regular word for presenting a list of well-to-do 
persons (tiiiropoi) from whom a certain number were to be 
selected for a XtiToupYCa," and compare P Oxy I. 82* 
(middle iii/A.D.) Tas dva86trei.s Tiiv XeiTovpYiiv, and BGU 
I. 194 22 (a.d. 177). See the note on P Ryl II. 91 3 . 
See also P Flor I. 2 237 (a.d. 265) ol dva8o9t'vT£s, men 
whose names had been "sent up"; ib. 25 30 (ii/A.D.) 
V|v Kal dvaSeSwK* eis aKvpwa-iv, of a document ; and so 
PTebt II. 397 13 (a.d. 198). In Syll 279' (ii/B.c) 
we find to rt ^(pio-pa dveSuKev according to the best 
reading. P Tebt II. 448 (ii/iii A.D.) tu dvaSiSdvTi o-ot to 
^ttlcttoXlov — " the bearer " : cf. 1GSI S30 22 dveYv«o-6r[ 
(ttlo-toXt) Tupt'wv oTaTiwvaptwv dvaSo6eio-a inro Adxr|Tos, 
cvos aviTwv. In P Oxy VII. 1063 14 (ii/iii A.D.) to TriTTa[K]iov 
dvaYVois pf) dva8us tcu 'Hpio[8]Ti we may render " pass on." 
Note in ib. 1033 6 (a.d. 392) the strange form dvaScSoiT)p.E'vot.. 
In Vettius Valens p. 2I 1 Tas dva8o8«io-as (Spas = " the given 
hours," in a mathematical sense. 


For d., as in Rom 7', Niigeli p. 47 cites CIG 2566 
(Crete, date ?) ' ApxoviKa ZaviXu . . . dva£cSo-a ' ApTt'pi8i 
«tiaK[d]u>, where Archonica fulfils a vow to Artemis, "being 
alive once more." Other instances of the verb from profane 
sources will be found in Deissmann LAE p. 94 ff. 


The verb is capable of general use, as in P Oxy VII. 
1066 18 (iii/A.D.) dva^T|TT|0-ov [pt'vT)v] "look for a file." But 
it is specially used of searching for human beings, with an 
implication of difficulty, as in the NT passages. So P Hib 
I. 71" (B.C. 245-4) tt^v irdo-av o~itov8t|V Trohio-ai oir[us 






dvaji^T-nSe'vTes diroo-TaXwo-i, " make every effort lo search 
for them" etc. with reference to certain slaves who had 
deserted. P Rein 17 13 (B.C. 109) has nearly the same 
phrase : cf. Syll 220" (iii/B.c.) ex suppl., P Flor I. 83 12 
(iii/iv A.D.) ava£riTr|8«vTa dvairep.<f>8T]o-eo-8ai irpbs tov 
KpaTio-rov eiriTpoirov. P Tebt I. 13S (late ii/B.C.) dva£r|- 
Tovpevos 'Ovvuitppis ov\ evpio-KeTai, id. 53 22 (B.C. no) 01 
ev8uvbu.€voi dva^Tr(9[€JVT€S, "the culprits having been 
searched for." For the noun dva^TJi-no-is, cf. P Fay 107 s 
(a.D. 133) TroV^o-ao-dai tt|v Ka8rjKovcrav dva£T|Tna-iv, " t<- 
hold the due inquiry," P. Tebt II. 423 12 (early iii/A.D.) 
irp[bs] dva£T|TT|v (/. -T|criv) \6prov, ''to look for hay," and 
P Ryl II. 7S 32 (a.D. 157) irepl dva^TTJcrews ndv8r|pos. 


A characteristic compound of the Pastorals (2 Tim I 6 ), 
but vouched for in the common speech of the day : P Leid 
\yxvi. 43 (ii/iii a.D.) — an occult pamphlet — avrb "yap ecrnv to 
dva^wirvpovv rds irdo-as (3ipXovs, cf. id. V x - 7 (iii/iv A.D.) Sl' 
ov £imrvpeiTai. irdvTa irXdo-p.aTa. See further Anz Sub- 
sidia, p. 2S4 f., and cf. F. C. Conybeare in Exp VII. 
iv. p. 40. 


is one of the words that Nageli cites (p. 81) to prove that 
in Phil 4. 10 dveSdXeTe to inrep epov 4>poveiv, Paul has taken 
vocabulary from the more cultured Koivt}, through his later 
intercourse with Greeks. It should be noted, however, that 
the word is not rare in the LXX (especially in Sirach), five 
times in this rare tense and four times transitively. It is 
a curious problem whence the LXX derived it. The simplex 
occurs in BGU IV. ni2 ls (B.C. 4) irape£Xr|<pev Se ko.1 tj 
Ev^e'veia to iraiStov 8dXXovo-av. 


Deissmann's discovery of dvdSepa in the " Biblical Greek " 
sense, in a source entirely independent of Jewish influence, 
is a remarkable confirmation of his general thesis. At the 
end of a heathen curse from Megara, belonging to i/ii A.D., 
there is a separate line of large letters ANE0EMA which 
he (LAE p. 92 f.) interprets as dvdBepa — "curse!" 
The weakening of the accented o to « is explained as a 
vulgar Greek extension of the augment to a derivative 
(cf. Nageli p. 49, following YVackernagel). See on this the 
plentiful material in Hatzidakis Einleiiung, p. 64 f. The 
verb occurs three times in the same curse, I. 5 dva.8ep.aTi- 
£[op.]ev avTovs, 1. S dva8eu.a[T(]£opcv, and on the back 1. 
S f. dva8«p.aTt[i;] tovto[vs]. For the complete text, 
as originally edited by Wiinsch, see IG III. 2, and 
also his Antike Fliuhtafeln, p. 4 ff. Newton (Essays in 
Archaology, p. 193 f.) describes a number of leaden 
tablets of about B.C. 150 discovered at Knidos, in a 
sacred precinct dedicated to Persephone and other deities, 
which were graven with similar anathemata. The person 
on whom the curse was to fall was always devoted to the 
vengeance of the two Infernal Goddesses, Demeter and her 
daughter, "May he or she never find Persephone propitious !" 
With 1 Cor 16 21 may be compared the ending of a sepulchral 
inscription (iv/v A.D.) from Attica, where on any one's inter- 
fering with the remains the curse is called down — dvd8eu.a 
fJTw papdv d8dv (see Roberts- Gardner 387) : the meaning 
Part I. 

of the Aramaic 0-vp.poXov being wholly unknown, it could 
be used as a curse— like unknown words in later days ! It 
should be noted that the new meaning "curse" naturally 
attached itself to the late form dvd8epia rather than to the 
older dvd8r|p.a. Nouns in -p.a tended to develop weak root- 
form by association with those in -ohs, which always had it. 
The noun is MGr: thus dvd8ep.a ecre'va, "a curse on vou " 
(Thumb, Handbook p. 3S). 


For the meaning see under dvd6e;jia. The form may be 
illustrated by eK8ep.aTii> in P Tebt 1. 27 10s (B.C. 113) 
eK8«paTi.o-8^i, " be proclaimed a defaulter." There is also 
a simplex in BGU IV. H2j' M (u.C. iS) eijivai T(i EvayyeXwi. 
8ep.aTicravTi e-n-l Tpaire?av eVBecrpov . . . irapaxupT|0-iv 
iroieio-8ai, Syll 329* (i/B.c), meaning "to deposit." 


See Index to Syll III. p. 206, which shows how the old 
form and the later dvdBepa (like dvdSr|u.a and dvdSepa, etc.) 
lived on side by side. In his index to OGZS Dittenberger 
is content with "dvd8r|p.a, dva8r|p.aTa passim." That the 
alternative lived on in Semitic districts as well as in Greece 
itself, in the same sense, is well shown in a trilingual inscr. 
— Latin, Greek and Punic— in G. A. Cooke's North Semitic 
Inscriptions, p. 109 (ii/B.c), 'AcrKXrrJrup M^pp^ dvd8ep.a 
p\ e'o-rno-e KAe'wv. This answers to donum dedit in the 
Latin, "113 in the Punic. 


OG/S 665 16 (a.D. 48-9 )vTrb tuv irXeoveKTiKtos Kal dvaiSws 
Tats e£ovo-iais d"iroxpw(i€va>v associates the original adj. from 
which dvatSeia comes with another which n ell illustrates 
its connotation — audacious "desire to get " : cf. Lk n 8 and 
for a slightly different connotation Sir 25—. In P Lond 342 14 
(a.D. 185) (= II. p. 174) the adj. is used of a man who 
proves himself dvaiSr|S ev rrj Kiupn by levying contributions 
on the inhabitants etc. ; and for the verb see P Ryl II. I4I 19 
(a.D. 37) dvai.8evdp.evo 1 p.r| diroSiivai, "shamelessly refusing 
to pay " (Edd. ). 


Field (Notes, p. 116) remarks that " killing " or " slaying" 
would be more adequate than "death" (AV, RV) as a 
rendering. Since even the AV of 2 Mace 5 13 , which he 
notes, does not make "unto the killing of him " English, we 
must either keep "death " or substitute "murder," which the 
tone of dvaipu would fairly justify : see sub voce. 

dvai oe co. 

The commercial sense of dvaipe'w seems the commonest. 
P Lond n6S ,f - (a.D. 18) (=111. p. 136) dvTi tov tokov 
[u]y dvei'pTvrai, "the interest on what she has borrowed," 
ib. 1 164" (A.D. 212) (=111. p. 15S) dvnpfjo-8ai tov iru- 
XovvTa 7r[apjd tov wvovpe'vov t^v crvvn-€<pwvT|pe'vT]v irpbs 
dXX[r|]Xovs Tip.t|v, BGU IV. 1136 2 (<■. B.C. 11): cf id. 1 135 s 
(do.) dveiXav[To. P Fay ioo' 9, 26 (a.d. 99) dv^piju-ai, of 
"receiving" money: so P Flor I. l 3 - a (a.d. 153), ib. 81 s 
(A.D. 103). In the more general sense of "take up," P 
Tebt I. 138 (late ii/B.C.) dveXopevos tt|v eavTov pdxaipav, 
and the interesting imperial letter, now dated in the time of 







Hadrian {Hermes xxxvii. p. 84 ff.), BGU I. 140 109 ' with 
reference to t[o]vtovs, c[v]s 01 Y0veis avrwv rai ttjs o*Tpa- 
TtCas &ve£\a[v]TO XP"*'"!'- For ,ne active cf. P Oxy I. 37° 
(A. I). 49) (= Selections, p. 49), dvetXev dirb Koirptas dppevi 
kov a-uipdnov, " picked up from the dung-heap a male 
foundling": the corresponding passive is used of the same 
transaction in ib. 3S 9 (A.D. 49-50) (= Selections, p. 52), 8 
avtCpnTcu diro Koirp(.as. The recurrent formula SovXikov 
■n-aiStov dvcUpeiov iiroTh-Biov (as BGU IV. I107 9 — B.C. 13) 
shows how technical the term had become : cf. Ac 7 21 . For 
the meaning "kill," cf. P Amh II. 142 8 (iv/A.D.) pouXop,evoi. 
dvcupf|o-aC p.e : in Syll 929 16 of a city " destroyed." So also, 
seemingly, in P Par 68 G - 6 (Rom.) dvcup£9fjvcu u.e'XXw[v] : the 
context is fragmentary, but the general subject — an apology 
for the Jews — makes it probable. The compound dvTa- 
vaipeiv (cf. avTavairXupoOv) occurs frequently in P Tebt I., 
as 6l(i) 244 (B.C. 1 18-7) [av]Tavaipf8e£(rns. "subtracted." 
So P Petr III. 76"' : (ii/B.c), ib. 104 4 toO dvei.X'np.p.evorj, of 
a farm-holding " confiscated " to the state, BGU III. 776'- ' 



Syll 8 1 6 7 c7X^ avTas "■iTr)S to avafriov atpa d8(Kios, ib.' 2 
'iva € , y8tKT|0'r|S to aipa to dvafnov. This interesting in- 
scription, containing phrases from the LXX, is given by 
Dittenberger as of Jewish or Christian origin. The latler 
alternative has been rightly excluded, since there is no sign 
of the NT visible. The prayer is a Jewish prayer for ven- 
geance belonging to the end of the second, or the beginning 
of the first century B.C. See the full discussion in Deiss- 
mann LAE, p. 423 ff., and note the remarkably similar but 
pagan prayer from Alexandria in Preisigkc 1323 (ii/A.D.). 


This term, common in medical writings (Lk 7 16 , Ac 9 40 ), 
is found in a Christian letter of iv/A.D., which is full of NT 
echoes— P Oxy VI. 939" (= Selections, p. 130) JSoijev . . . 
dveKTOTepov to"XT]K€'vai dvaKa8eo-9eio-a, voo-nXorepov 8e 
to 0-up.aTiov Jx"> " sne seems •  • to be in a more tolerable 
state in that she has sat up, but nevertheless she is still in a 
somewhat sickly state of body." See Hobart, p. 11 f. 


See s.v. dvaKaivow. 


and its noun dva.Ka£vu>o-is have not been traced in any 
source earlier than Paul, who might very well coin a word of 
this sort — there is however no proof that he really did so. 
Nageli, p. S3, remarks on these and other "new words" of 
Paul that they answer in formation to that of other Koivrj 
words, going back to old Greek stems and only combining 
them afresh. Here the similar dvaKcuvtiJeiv (Heb 6 6 ) exists 
in literature, as does dvaKoivio-is. Did Paul not know them, 
so that he had to form words for his purpose, on such 
an analogy as dvovedw? Or were his words current in a 
limited district only? Thayer notes that Hernias used 
dvaKoivuo-is ( Vis. iii. 8') : r\ d. Tciv irvtv.p.dTwv vp.<Sv looks 
like a reminiscence of Rom 12 2 , and is no warrant for 
independent use. 


Syll So 3 ra (iii/B.C.) tSoWaiToO [to go-Bos 6 0«]bs (Asclepios) 
d-yKaXiJil/ai.. P Oxy X. 1297 9 (iv/A.D.) of a vessel of oil. 


In connexion with the metaphorical use in -Lk io 8 , we 
may quote BGU III. 896* (ii/A.D.) irdvTa Ta «p.d dva- 
Kapij/Ei cts ttjv irpoYCYpap.p.ft'vTjv 9u-yo.Te'pa]. For the ordin- 
ary sense " return," cf. P Magd 8 10 (iii/B.C), p.£Ta 8t to-Ot' 
dvai<dp.[v|>avTds |io«]. See also Anz Subsidia, p. 314 f. 


For the sense acatmbere (Jn 6 11 , etc.), which does not 
seem to be older than the Macedonian period, may be cited 
BGU I. 344 (ii/iii A. It.), a list of names of ol dvo.Kip.cvoi, 
and ending ■y£vovScu dvSpes dvo/yeCpevou (!) p.?. The verb 
occurs in the more ordinary sense, as passive to dvaT^Grjpi, 
in the great Ephesian inscr. , Syll 656 46 (ii/A.D.) dvaK«to-Ocu 
tt] Beul (" be dedicated"), of the month Artemision (so also 
1. B2 ). The same meaning appears in ib 827 4 Kadicpwp^'vwv 
koA dvaKetpt'vwv Tfji Oupavtai 'AcppoSvm (i/B.C. ). 


naturally does not figure in our non-literary sources : it 
belongs to a more cultivated stratum of thought — see its 
record in Grimm. But the commonness of KccbdXaiov, "sum," 
total," would make the meaning obvious even to ordinary 


The NT writers use dvaKXCveo-Boi, " to recline at a table," 
instead of the classical irapa- and KaTa-KXtveo-flcu, in a way 
which suggests that this usage was characteristic of the com- 
mon speech, though we are unable to illustrate it. Sir 
W. M. Ramsay has drawn our attention to the fact that in 
the anti-Christian Society of Tekmoreioi at Pisidian Antioch 
the President was TrpwTavaKXtTns, who sits in the chief 
place at table, and he takes this as an indication that the 
ritual feast was moulded on the Eucharist. For such imita- 
tions as marking the pagan reaction about A.D. 304-13, see 
his Pauline and other Studies, p. 103 ff. 


P Flor I. 36 s (early iv/A.D.) crimes i<p' ovSevos dXXou 
dvaKoirreTcu, but by the punishment of the criminal ; a 
similar connotation probably may be recognised in the frag- 
mentary P Giss I. 87 10 (ii/A.D.) . .] irapa-y-yeXXeiv ava- 
Koirijvai [. . , from what the scanty context suggests. So 
also in P Thead 19 16 (iv/A.D.) Stop.0.1 ttjs crfjs dpe[TTJ]s KeXei- 
o-cu . . . ttjv irai.8i.dv ttjs "vvvcukos dvo.Koirf|vai 81' oil 
£{> The word obviously does not encourage us 
to approve the few cursives that show it in Gal 5'. 


The vernacular character of this compound is sufficiently 
established by our one citation, BGU IV. 1201 11 (ii/A.D.) 
ko.1 f||iiiv dvaKpd|avTcs (for -wv !) as tT|V Ku>p.T|V irpbs |3ot|- 
6r|av KaT«irri8r|0-«v o ■yvp.vao-iapxos ktX. : the temple of 
Serapis was on fire, so that the word on this occasion no 
doubt implies considerable vigour, as we should expect from 
its record elsewhere. 





For the judicial sense " examine," as in I Cor a 3 , ef. 
Michel 409 9 (beginning of iii/u.c.) tovs piv irXci]o-TO\>s 
tuv 8ia4>€pop.e'vuv dva[Kpivdp.]cvoi iroXXaKis c<|>' avTovs 81c- 
\vov crup.<j>[cpdvTios], Syll 512* 6 (ii/B.C.) dvaKpivdvTu 8c Kal 
To[i]s p.dpTupas. The substantive (q.v.) is found in the 
previous line of the latter inscription. 


See on dvaKpivw. In OG/S 374 (i/B.a), which com- 
memorates a certain Papias, a privv councillor and chief 
physician of Mithradates Eupator, King of Fontus. we find 
him described as TCTa-yv-e'vov 8c Kal cirl Tciv dvaKpurewv. 
Dittenbcrger gives reasons for thinking that " non lam 
iudicem quam inquisitorem hoc significat," one who pre- 
sided over the examination of men suspected of conspiracy : 
cf. Syll 356 s8 (B.C. 6), a rescript of Augustus, who says 
ire'irov4>a 8c vp.civ Kal a[vrlas Tas dvaKp£o-€is, the precis of a 
preliminary inquiry, cf. also Prcisigke 156S 'A. tov o-\>*y*ycvf| 
Kal ktX. Kal cma-rpaTr|'yov Kal irpos Tais dvaKpicrccri (reign 
of Euergetes II.). The noun occurs again in I* Tebt I. 
86 ! ff - (late ii/B.c), where a man is described as 6 irpbs Ta[i.s 
d]yaKp£crco-ci. In P Lips I. 4 1S (A. D. 293) the word follows 
diro-ypac^TJ, and Mitteis notes that it occurs in P Lond 251 
(a. D. 337—50) (= II. p. 317) likewise in connexion with the 
purchase of a slave : " since dvaKpio-is means a preliminary 
examination [Voritntersitchitng), one thinks of a trial made 
before the purchase of the slave." Cf. the use of the word 
in Ac 25 26 . 


P Par 47 23ff - (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23), a very- 
grandiloquent but ill-spelt letter, will illustrate Lk 2t 28 : 
ouk Son dvaKvxj/a (/. -Kv\|/ai) irdiroTe cv r-p TpiKO|iiai inrb 
•rijs aiirxvvT]s, "it is not possible ever to look up again in 
Tricomia for very shame." It appears also in P Ryl I. 
2S 23 (iv/A.D.), on omens drawn from twitching — one sort 
portends that the man "will suffer loss for a time and will 
emerge again from his troubles" (Ed. — ck tuv KaK&v 


Syll 329*' (i/B.C.) dvaXapdvTas t& OTrXa, "taking up," 
literally. P Tebt II. 296'' 15 (A.D. 123) has the verb twice 
= " receive." OG/S 383 136 (see under dvdVqpAJ/is) Kdcruov 
IIcpa-LKTJs co-Gtjtos d[v]aXap.pdvwv, uses it for the first in- 
vestiture (with the sacred thread of Parsism, presumably : 
cf. on this inscr. the Hibbert Lectures, 1912, pp. 106-8). 
PSI 74 5ff (iii/A.D.) a|i$ dvaXapdvTas irap' cp.oO t^v 
6(ioXo-y£av iiiro , I c'Ypa|j.|Mviiv. In P Lille I. 14 6 (B.C. 243-2) 
dvdXapc 8' [oiv ajuTov tov KXfjpov ds to PacriXiKdv, and P 
Oxy III. 471" (ii/A.D.) t^|v ovo-iav avTov . . . dvaX^p.- 
4>0rjvat (|i erased) kcXcvcis, the verb has the meaning "con- 
fiscate": so Perg I. 249 s4 (a/. Schweizer /'erg p. 203). 
In P Oxy VI. 899 s ' (a.d. 200) u> dvc£Xn,p.irrai cttio-toX^ 
tov Kpa[T(o-Tov] 8i[o]ikt]tov, the editors translate "to which 
is joined a letter of his highness the dicecetes," and quote 
ib. 9S5 and BGU I. 16S 2 * toIs virop.vT|(iao-i dvcXT|(j.4>6T|. 
The participle Td dvciXTip.u.c'va = " obligations" is found 
P Oxy IV. 7o7 8S35 (c a D. 136). Cf. the phrase cpavov d., 
in BGU IV. I165 16 (B.C. 19), <ii dy(XT)i)>ay [KaTa o-vv]Ypa(j>T|V 

cpdycoi. P Lond 905 (ii/A.D.) (= III. p. 219) has dvaXT||j.Tr- 
8fjvai and the noun dvaXTip-irTcs in a very illiterate docu- 
ment. " Repeat," of an advocate setting forth his case, is 
the meaning in P Tor I. I"- 20 (B.C. 116) (= Christ. II. 
p. 36) dvaXapiv e£ wv irapeVciTO o 'Epjitas " repetens quae 
Hermias protulit" (Peyron). The Biblical use of "take 
up" for an ascension into heaven is naturally not paralleled 
in our sources : for exx. in Jewish writings see Charles's 
note on Apoc.of Baruch, p. 73. 


P Tebt II. 296 19 (a.d. 123) is the receipt for money paid 
for a priestly office, c| dvaX(rjv)/cuis) cv avT<i "as payable by 
himself" (Edd.) : cf. reference to this document under the 
verb. It means "entertainment" {sc. one form of "recep- 
tion") in Syll 41S 36 (iii/A. n. ). dva^Kd^ovo-iv r|p.ds £cvias 
auTois irapc\cLV Kal CTcpa irXeio-Ta els dvdXiip.\|/iv auTwv 
dvcu dp-yvptou xopiyyetv. P Oxy VI. 9S6 11 '- (early ii/A.D.) 
avX?| 8n.X(w9clo-a) cmKCKpaTfjo-Oai irpb ttjs dvaXr)u\|/ews inrb 
IIcTco-oOxou. OG/S 383 102 — the inscription of Antiochus 
I. of Commagene (i/B.C.)— vnrcp dvaXruJ/cus 8iaST|p.aT0s, his 
coronation : see also the verb above. The substantive 
follows the verb's wide range of meaning, which we have 
only partially illustrated, as needless for the NT. Dr Charles 
(/. c. above) quotes Ryle and James as claiming Pss. Sol. 4 20 
to be the earliest instance of its use (as in Lk 9 51 ) for 
"ascension" into heaven. 


P Flor II. 212 4 (a.d. 254) cis TocravTT]v aTux(av ^X6cs 
TocraiTa Xr|p.paTa dvaXCo-Kuiv us jjltj c'x"v o-c dpTa[PJiiv p.Ccv 
Xwtivou. I 1 Eleph 5 22 olvov dvr|Xw8-r|0-av K(cpap.(a) fy, P 
Par 49 19 (B.C. 164-58) p/nSc dvaXCo-Kciv x a ^ KOU S> etc. 
Notice dvaXoupevwv in the same sense, P Lond 1177 11 
(B.C. 113) (=111. p. 181). P Grenf II. 77 16 (iii/iv A.D.) 
(= Selections, p. 121) <j>povT(o-aTC ovv Ta dvaXuSe'vTa ctoi- 
adcrai, " see to it therefore that you furnish the sums ex- 
pended." P Oxy I. 5S 20 (A.D. 2S8) Td adTaia dvaXwp,aTa 
ir[a]uo-CTai., " useless expense will be stopped," with reference 
to a proposed reduction in the number of treasury officials. 
The noun dvdXa>(j.a (often dvJjXwp.a), which does not happen 
to occur in NT, is exceedingly common. The verb is an 
early compound of faXio-Kw, whose simplex survives in the 
passive dX{ the a is due to contraction of -aFa- after 
loss of digamma. The meaning destroy is therefore parallel 
with dvaipcV Note aor. dvdXcao-a P Oxy X. 1295 s (ii/iii 
A. D.). 


A iii/A.D. citation may be made from P Flor I. 50 91 Kar[d 
to] <j(i.icru kit' dvoXo-ytav Tiiv <|)OivtKuv (once irpos a.). 
"proportionately." The verb is found in P Amh II. 64 13 
(a.d. 107) |i-f| dvaXoYovvTas t+iv c[ir]i|xcXetav, which the 
editors translate "incapable of doing their duties." For 
adjective see P Amh II. 85 17f - (a.d. 78) irapa8€x0r|o-eTai 
T|p.Iv — dirb tov irpoKcip-c'vov <()cipou koto rb dvdXo-yov, "a 
proportionate allowance shall be made to us from the afore- 
said rent" (Edd.) : so in Syll 329 91 (b.c. 86), and (without 
Tb) P Ryl II. 99 7 (iii/A.D.). Cf. Syll 371" (i/A.D) dvdXoyov 
•n-eiroviiTai. -rf|v eirL8tip.{av tj . . o-eavd-rnTi. It is open to 
us to write Tb dvd Xd-yov (Aristotle, etc.), as the editors 
do in P Kyi II. 154 32 (AD. 66) kotu Tb d. X. t[uv a]r|V<iv. 




The adjective is only in the first stages of evolution : see LS. 
The adverb is found in the modern sense "analogously" in 
Wisd I3 6 . 


P Tor I. I v - 30 (B.C. 116) (= Chrcst. II. p. 35) Kal l$t\, 
dvaXo"yi£ou.6vwv Tiiv \p6vutv, diro uev tov ' Eirt<f>dvous €Twv 
i<8 ktX., "told oft," "reckoned up." This arithmetical sense 
— cf. Xifyos = "a/c " — is the oldest for the whole group and 
it would seem that the metaphor was conscious even when 
the use was widened. So in Heb 12 3 dvaXo-yi.o-ao-8« immedi- 
ately follows the reference to the " balancing," as it were, 
of the irpoKeifiEvn x a P°- against the tremendous cost. Cf. 
the simplex in Phil 4 9 , where we are bidden to " count 
over" our spiritual treasure. 


For the intransitive meaning "depart" (Polybius and 
later), cf. P Tor I. i u - 16 (B.C. 116) (= Chest. II. p. 32) ryii 
Si itp Ixavds fjfie'pas KaTa<|>8apds T)va-yKdo-8r|v, twv dvBpwTrwv 
u.A epxop-e'vwv Eis Tas \€ipas, dvaXucrai els to TtTa-yfJ-tvov, 
"demandatam mihi stationem repetere " (Peyro'n, and so 
Mitteis). Closely parallel is the contemporary P Par 15 29 
(ri.c. 120) oiopevwv 4(j>' iKavbv xp<> vov KaTa<f>8ape'vTa |ie 
«VTev86v dvaXva-eiv. So;/;. 22 29 (ii/B.C.) diroo-uXr|(ras T|p.ds 
dveXvo-e, P Limd 44" (B.C. 161) (= I. p. 34) |MTa KpauY^js 
Te 8i.acrTeXAop.tvoi> p.e8' rjo-ux'as dvaXieiv. In a Ptolemaic 
papyrus published by Grenfell-IIunt in Archiv i. p. 50 ff. we 
find X0<ravT£S eKXpTJuaTa 8 dvt-'Xvcrav, where the editors note 
that dveXvo-av may = " they returned " (cf. Lk 12 36 ) or may 
refer to the preceding pacruXiKov x»C a i "they destroyed it." 
For the meaning "die" Nageli, p. 34, cites the memorial 
inscription IGSI 1794 2 (Rom.) Kal ttws \ioi pepfwTai Kal ttws 
dvtXvtra p.a8r|o-(T|), cf. ib. 139 dvaXveiv tov piov. 


For a. — " sinless," as in In S 7 , c(. Musonius, p. 6 16 , where 
it is laid down — p.ii8tva d-irai/reio-Sai. c-ivai dvajxdp-r^Tov, 
oo-tis dp«T^|v (1T| ejjt'uaSev, eireiirtp dpeT-ri, (xovt) ttoic-1 \lt\ 
dpapTavav iv p£w. See also Aristeas 252 (bis). 


occurs several times in the Alexandrian papyri of the reign 
of Augustus, collected in BGU IV. Thus 1151 35 (B.C. 13) 
at] dvapc-tVavTas tov p.ep£-picrp.(e'vov) ai-rois \po(vov) aexpi 
tov eKTicraL to 6Xov Ke-cpdX(aiov), and in almost the same 
terms 1053' 33 (id.), 1055" {id), I156 18 (B.C. 15), 1167 64 
(B.C. 12), of debtors who are to pay up without "waiting 
for " the time allowed them. The word is MGr. 


Syll 25b 26 (ii/B.C. ) dvap.qi]vr|o-Kdp.c-vou iraTpiiov. P Grenf 
I. i i£ (ii/B.C. — literary) 68vvt| ue ^x €t & Ta v dvap.vT|a-8w (is 
ktX. : so also in '■ '" uaivop.' oTav dvap.[vT]]o-Bu>p' «i povo- 
koitt|o-o) — for the form see Mayser Gr. p. 383. 


In the Magnesian inscr. Syll 929 106 (ii/B.C.), unfortunately 
in this part exceedingly imperfect, we have . . .](cr)(as Kal 
piXP 1 t°v o-vo-TavTos iv KptJT-rj TroXepov, (iv dvd(p.vr|o-)iv 
. . . .] («Tr)oi(ovv)To [. . . 


occurs very frequently in Syll and OG/S : its record as an 
Attic word is note I by Schlageter, p. 25. Nearest to 
Eph 4" is Syll 722 13 (later than B.C. 167— from Cnosus, in 
dialect) opoiws 8J Kal rav tiivorav dv i\(i iropTl (i. e. irp&s) 
Tav rrdXiv dvavc-wpevos avTws (/. avTds Ed.) Tav Trpo*yoviKdv 
dp€Tav 8t' ty-ypdcbw eir[€'8ti|]e. So ib. 4S1 10 (iii/ii B.C.) Ta 
T€ i\ dpxr)[sj oiK€ta inrdp[xovTa SeXcvKC-ucrijv ck Trpo-ydvwv 
dve[ve]wcraTo, ib. 654 s f - (? ii/B.C.) Sioti a iroXis twv 
'Epptovcwv dvaveovTaC t€ Tav trvyyivnav Kal cpiXiav ktX.. 
OG/\ 90 35 (Rosetta stone. B.C. 196) Trpoo-Trvv6avdpe-vds t€ Ta 
twv i[€]pwv Ttp-tcoTaTa dvavc-oviTO em ttjs tavTov PacriXc-ias 
(is Ka6r|K€L. The substantive may be quoted from papyri. 
Thus P Oxy II. 274 20 (A. D. 89-97) Sapa-iruov TeVaKToi 
Te'[Xos] dvav€w[cr]c-ws Tf)s TrpoKeia<vT]s vTro9r|Kr|s, the charge 
for a renewal of a mortgage, P Strass I. 52' (a.L>. 1 5 1 ) u^| 
irpoo-8eo|«vois dyave[ii]o-eu>s, and similarly P Flor I. I 6 
(A. D. 153), and ib. 81 11 (a. d. 103) : cf. also P Magd 
31'. 12 (B.C. 217). The word seems to be confined to legal 


So spelt in OGJS 33S 138 (Pergamon, ii/i B.C.), with the 
meaning " beyond possibility of dispute," as in Ac 19 36 . 
Grimm notes that the word begins in Polybius, where the 
active sense of Ac io 28 is also paralleled : so in xxiii. 8 11 , 
where Schweighauser renders " summo cunctorum consensu." 


P Strass I. 5 8 (A. D. 262), dvd^ia [t]t]s vtto ctov TrdcrLV 
Tjaiv TrpvTavcvo^ievns €ipT|[v]riS 6 Trpeo-pvTT|s Tra8(iv. Cf. also 
Aristeas 217 f|pu)Ta hi, ttws dv urjSiv dvd£iov taurwv 
Trpdo-o-otaev. The word survives in MGr = " incapable." 


In P Flor I. 57 6s (A. 1>. 223-5) a septuagenarian pleads 
for "relief" (dvaTraucrews) from public duties (XttTovp-yiat) ; 
and in BGU I. 180 6 (ii/iii A.D.) we read of the TrtvT[a]eTT| 
Xpd[v]ov dva[Travo-t]ws accorded to veterans [ura. r[f[V 
dTrdJXucrtv from military service. As will be seen from the 
record of the verb below, the essential idea is that of a 
respite, or temporary rest as a preparation for future toil, 
which Lightfoot (on Philem 7 ) finds in dva-rravw. This 
brings out all the better the differentia of KaTdiravo-is in 
Heb 4, the Sabbath followed by no weekday. 


The verb is a technical term of agriculture in P Tebt I. 
105' 23 (B.C. 103), to rest land by sowing light crops upon it. 
Cf P Lond 3I4 15 '- (A.D. 149) (= II. p. 189 f.), o-impuv . . . 
dp oi'p|as Svo diro votov dvaTrauueo*t \€[v€]cri, V Amh II. 
91 16 (A.D. 159) yivicri. dvairauaaTos, " with light crops" 
(Edd.), and the full discussion by Wilcken Archiv i. p. 157 f. 
Land thus rested was iv dvarraiiaaTi., P Tebt I. 72 s8 ' 
(B.C. 1 14-3), P Lond 1223 8 (A.D. 121) (= III. p. 139), or 
could be called dvdTrai)(ia itself, as P Fay II2 4 (A.D. 99) 
[Ta] dvairavp-aTa vTrdo-xetcrov, "hoe the fallows" (Edd.). 
A wider use may be seen in P Oxy VIII. 1121 12 (a.D. 295), 
with the " temporary " connotation gone : Tavn-ns Trpb 
6Xtyu>v tovtcov rjatpwv tov p£ov dvaTravo"au€vr)s dSiaStVov, 
"a few days ago she died intestate" (Edd.) So in 





Preisigke 1 205, upon a mummy, ev 'AXelavSpcCa avairavo-d- 
(icvos. and ib. 609, 611, two "R.I. P." Christian gravestones 
— K(vpi)e, dvdira[v]o-ov [ 3 tt'|v +uxn,i' tov SovXov <rov, or the 
like], followed by date of death, and'A8(a)vao-i.a, dvaira[i]ov. 
The date of these instances saves us from the necessity of 
reconsidering Lightfoot's definition for NT times. 


This verb = "persuadendo excitare, sollicitare," which in 
the NT is found only in Ac 18", is well illustrated by I' 
Magd I4 3 '- (B.C. 221) where a father lodges a complaint 
against a courtesan who had induced his son to sign a bill in 
her favour for 1000 drachmas — irapao-rT|o-a|ievi] yap Tivas 
[Twvirap'] avTfjs, dve'-rrao-tv tov ulov p.ou . . . cruyypd\}/aa-0ai 
a.iTr\i ktX. So P Oxy X. 1295 10 (ii/iii A. I).). The sense of 
evil persuasion equally underlies the use in LXX Jel 36 
(29) 8 , I Mace I 11 . In P Ryl II. 114 s (c. A.D. 2S0) the 
nuance is weaker, but survives in the complaining time of 
the aggrieved widow who writes Supiwv . . . dva-irto-as 
tov av[8pa TavtSa dvdjjtan iroiue'viv avTov ra irpdpaTa, 
" persuaded my husband G. to pasture his flock " (Edd.). 


To Deissmann's examples of this word {BS p. 229) = 
"remittere," "to send up to a higher authority," as in 
Lk 23', Ac 25 2 \ add P Hib I. 57 1 (B.C. 247), Syll i7 7 6 '.'<" 
(end of iii/B.c), OGIS 194 23 (i/B.c), ib. 329 61 (ii/B.c). 
Priene III 147 (i/B. C. ) ircpl (iv 6 o-TpaTTj-ybs Acvkios A«[ukiXios 
iypaxl/ev] Kal dverrEu>|«v [irpbs TT|V crJiryKATyTov, P Tebt I. 7' 

(B.C. 114), ib. II. 2S7 6 (A. P. 161-9) €V€TV\OV TW f|Y€UOVl Kal 

dve'irtixxl/cv auTOvs tm Kpao-o-bv tov KpaTiarov [€irio-TpdTT|- 
7]ov, " they appealed to the prefect, who referred them to his 
highness the epistrategus Crassus " (Edd.), ib. 594 (iii/A.D ) 
a warrant for arrest, al. Similarly the phrase i\ dvairo|rrrijs 
is used of the " delegation" of a case from one authority to 
another, e. g. BGU I. 19 2 (a.d. 135), CPR 18 2 (a.d. 124) : 
see further Archiv iii. p. 74. For the alternative meaning 
"to send back" (Lk 23 15 , Philem 12 ). Cf. P Par 13 22 
(B.C. 157) ovk dvaTre'pa|/avT€s ttjv a}>epvr|V, P Oxy VII. 
1032 50 (a.d. 162) dvc7rep.»|/€v Kal tovto tir£ <r€. 


For the later meaning "lie down," "recline," of which 
there is no instance in Attic Greek (Rutherford NP p. 294), 
see P Par 5i 4ff - (B.C. 160) (= Selections p. 19), dvainirro- 
[iai lit &xvpov . . . dva-rrtirTei Kal auTos. (On the irregular 
voice, see Pro/eg. p. 159). Cf. LXX Gen 49 s dvaireo-civ 
«kcr|jli?|8t]S <is XeW : see Anz Subsidia, p. 301 f. 


OGIS 56** (B.C. 23S) oirws airavTts ei8iio-i.v Sidri to 
cvXeiirov irpoTepov (as to the calendar) 8uop6u>o-9ai Kal 
dvaireirXrjpu>o-8ai o-uape'P^Kev Std tuiv Evep-yeTwv 0€a>v : the 
first word describes correction , the second intercalation. On 
P Par 62 v;! (ii/B.c.) tols 8' dvairXr|pwo-ovo-i.v Tas cuyds So- 
6T)o-€Tai dxjiwvia, tdvircp eKirXupioo-ovo-iv ktX.. "those who 
complete the contracts," see Wilcken Oslr. i. p. 532 f., who 
explains the d\|/iivia (against Grenfell) as a commission of 
10%. The noun occurs in P Lond 890 4 (B.C. 6) ( = 111. p. 16S) 
tis dvq.TrXT|puio-LV Tip.f|s, and the verb in Syll 510 62 (ii/B.c) 
to yevdutvov SidirTwua dvaTrXu,povTwo"av : cf. P Petr III. 

54 (a) (3) 4 (I hiladelphus) dvairXT)poiJTuo-a[v] , but with a 
hiatus both before and after. In I' Lille I. S 14 (iii/B.c.) a 
petitioner demands the restoration of certain cattle that had 
"in i.ikenfrom him, that he may "make up" Ins rent — 
oJttojs Suvwuai dvairXTjpovv tu e[K]4>dpia ttjs yfjs. P Giss I. 
4S 30 (a.d. 203) W €I8t)t£ Kal ?Kao~ros ti £8ia ue'pr| dva- 
itXtjpiuo-cl seems from the context to have the same meaning 
("pay"), though a more general sense is also possible. 
The same formula is found in Chrest. I. 52 s (a.d. 194). 
The meaning "fulfil" may be seen in P Oxy VIII. 1121 11 
(a.d. 295) ouk 6iravo-d|j.r|v ra irpe'irovTa y€ivto-8ai iiro tc'kvujv 
•yovtvo-i dvairXnpovo-a. 


P Giss I. 3 8 (meant to be literary — a.d. 117) Tocyapovv 
9uovt€s Tas £o*Ttas dvaTTTwatv. P Leid W xv - 35 (occult) 
dvdvj/as tw po;j.uJv (/. tov puudv). (MGr dvd<j>Tu.) 


P Tebt I. 28 20 (c. B.C. 114) vir' avT[uv] tovtiov dvao-iduevoi 
£vaap£0-Ttp[a]v dcrxoX£[av], " may be thereby incited to 
make easier for us the performance of our duty" (Edd.), 
i. e. to the Government — a curious contrast to the normal 
connotation of the verb, as in Mk 15", Lk 23 s . For the 
literal meaning see Syll 7S9 36 (iv/B C.) o 8' 4ir[i]o-[T]d[TT]]s 
[dvao-Jeicras t[t|]v i8p(av tt|V x aAK 'i'' «Xk«tui tov KaTT[C]- 

T[6jp0V €KaT€p0V €p. [itpa. 


P Oxy IV. 745 s (c. A.D. i) p[.',] . . . irdXiv eaTous dva- 
crK£vd£to|j.c[v] p.^1 oiio-ns xPT a Si " Llni ' we go bankrupt again 
without any necessity" (Edd.). This really involves the 
meaning "subvert" found in Ac 15 24 , drawn from the 
military sense, " to plunder," " dismantle " a town. Vettius 
N'alens has the word twice : p. 212 20 , edv 8dfj^ Tts cv avTais 
Tats Tjiiepats €kttXokt|v Ttva ire-iroL^KtvaL TrpdyjiaTos tlvos, 
dvao-Keuao-STjo-eTat Kal ciriTapaxov y€VTio-€TaL Kal tirt^TiuLOV 
i'l «vKa6alp€Tov Kal irpoo"K07TTLKdv, and 283 23 tu> Si X8 ^tcl 
tov 7rpdyfxaT0S dvao-Kevao-Oe'vTos Std ttjv irpoi)irdpxovo"av 
^X0p a v cis vfjo-ov KaTe8iKdo-0T]. Kroll (Index s.z 1 .) makes it 
here " t. t. iudiciorum," the "reversal" of a judgement 
presumably. The noun (p. 22S 27 ) dvao*K€vao-p.ovs tt]kt»I)v 
7rpay|xaTwv does not look technical — " upset " would seem 
to represent it, as in the phrase dvao-K«val irpayaaTuv (four 


In P Tebt II. 420 25 (iii/A.D.) dvao-Trao-Brj is used with 
regard to the "pulling up" (?) of barley, with which the 
editors compare BGU III. 1041 s (u/a.D.) tn SI Kal dv«nrd- 
trQr\ o-ov T| KpL0-?| dpT[d]p[ai] tl : we may add I 1 Flor II. 
235 s (a.d. 266) dvaciraivTi. irupdv. 


The verb is frequent in inscriptions with the sense " erec- 
tion "of a monument, see JJ7/324 8 , 342 48 (both i/B.c), C. and 
B. ii. p. 637 (a.d. 70-S0), IMAem. 478,479,481 (all ii/A.D.), 
Magn 179 29 f -, 193 25 , and for the verb Syll 656", 686 45 (both 
ii/A.D.), al. So still in a.d. 215, BGU I. 362 *»•» ( = CA>est. 
I. p. 128) virip dva[o-Tdo-€a)]s the "setting up" of a statue 
of Severus, and probably ib. IV. 102S 6 (ii/A D.) oXktjs p.v]uv 




8 Trpbs a[vd]g-rao-iv [. . ., but the context is not clear. The 
narrative of Ac 17 (see v. 32 ) prepares us for the total 
novelty of the meaning "resurrection": it was a perfectly 
natural use of the word, but the idea itself was new. We 
find this meaning in C. ami B. no. 232 (= Cagnat IV. 743, 
Alexander Severus), where an Epicurean Jew of Eumeneia 
in Phrygia begins to tell us what he thought of o]t 81) 
8[e£X]aiot iro.vT[€s] eis i[vd]<j-Tacriv[ . . . (pXe'irovTts or the 
like) : see Ramsay's interesting notes. 


"Nowhere in profane authors," says Grimm. Its place 
in the vernacular is proved, however, with singular decisive- 
ness by a private letter almost contemporary with the Biblical 
citations. BGU IV. 1079 20 (a. D. 41) ( = Selections, p. 40), 
H-T] tva avao-TaTiuo-ns rip-ds, "do not drive us out," and later 
by the boy's letter. P Oxy I. 119 10 (ii/iii A.D.) (= Selections, 
p. 103) dvacrraToi u.« • dppov (/. dpov) aviTov, " he quite up- 
sets me— off with him " : cf. also P Strass I. 5 16 (A.D. 262) 
dv[do-]TaTov tov irp| e]a-puTT)v Tr[e]Tro£r|VTa[i] — a reversion 
to the classical locution. 


The old meaning " reverti " may be seen in P Tebt I. 25 1G 
(B.C. 117) dvecrrpap.|i€Vws SaivexSeVTes (/. 8iev€x-), "per- 
versely." Deissmann (BS pp. 88, 194) has shown that for 
the meaning "behave," which Grimm compared with the 
moral signification of T]?^ "walk," it is unnecessary to 
postulate Semitic influence. As his examples are all from 
Pergamon, we may add others to show that it was no local 
peculiarity. OGIS 4S 9 (iii/B.C. ) bpuvTss rivas rav iroXvruv 
Cr 1 ]^! opBais dva[a-Tpjc[e}>]ou.tvovs Kal 8dpupov ov tov Tv^dvra 
irop[«'x]otTas is from Egypt, and Syll 521 95 (b.c. 100) toIs 
KO-Xiis Kal «io-€pws dvao-Tpacbeto-tv is from Athens. In JBL 
xxvii. ii. p. 136 Hatch cites the following instances from 
the Proceedings of the American School of Classical Studies 
at Athens, iii. 73 (Dulgerler, ancient Artanada, in Cilicia, 
Imperial period) dyvws dvacrTpacbevTa, iii. 423 (Kara Baulo 
in Pisidia, probahy Imperial) dvao-TpacptvTas . . . ueyaXo- 
irpeirws Kal evcrxup.ovws. Cf. also Priene 10S 223 (after B.C. 
129) Tfji irdXe(i) <rv(i<(>€pdvTws dveo-Tpdifjii, ib. 115 6 (i/B.C.) 
dvao-Tpf<pdp.€vos h irdcriv cJ>iX[av8piiira)s]. P Amh II. 131 11 
(early ii/A.D.) has d. irepi in the sense "attend to": cf. P 
Gen I. 6 8 (A.D. 146), dvaq-rp[a]<f>«VTos uov irefpl] tt]v tovtwv 
diraC-rrio-iv. P Fay 12' (c. B.C. IC3) rav . . . oi dirb toO 
PeX.Tf(]o-Tou dvacrrpe<po|jteVuv, " being of the less reputable 
class " (Edd.). In P Oxy II. 237 *" » (a.d. 1S6) |MTaira8us 
dvao-rpa<))[tv]Ta is translated " being sympathetically dis- 
posed," ib. VI. 907 1 ' (a.d. 276) irpcii-dvTcus ircpl ttjv o-um.- 
pfuio-iv dvao-Tpacbcio-n is "who has conducted herself be- 
comingly in our married life " (Edd.), and ib. 1. 71 ". u (a.d. 
303) p/f| dpBcis dva;i Tpa<f>^VTts is "behaved dishonestly," 
P Lond 35S 1 - (c. a.d. 150) (=11. p. 172) avOdSios dva- 
o-Tpa^vTiov. Instances can be multiplied. Vettius Valens 
(see Kroll's Index) has the verb in this sense in the active, as 
well as in the middle. 


The somewhat formal use of d., with the meaning "be- 
haviour, conduct," is not balanced by occurrences in colloquial 
papyri : an edict of Caracalla (A.D. 215) has the word— in rt 

Kal £m[^|] 8clkvv€i evavrla. kQr\ d-irb dva<TTpo<f>fjs [itojXcltlk^s 
eivai d-ypofoous A [IJYuirrious (P Giss I. 40" 28 ). Bp E. L. 
Ilicks's pioneer paper in CR i. (18S7), p. 6, drew attention 
to the inscriptional use of the term : he noted the frequency 
of its association with words like irdpoiKoi and irapcrrCSruxoi, 
a curious parallel to I Pet 2 11 f - Kalker Quaest., p. 301 says 
" apud Polybium primum accipit notionem se gercndi," quot- 
ing iv. 82 1 KaTa t. XoiirT|v d., and referring to 
three inscrr. with d. iroictcrflai.. This last phrase however 
occurs in five Doric inscrr. of ii/B.c, to look no further than 
Syll (314 24 , 654 19 , 663*, 718 4 , 927 21 ), as well as in the Attic 
inscr. cited by Kalker (I.e.) (CIA 477 b12 ) ; so that we may 
safely assume that the locution bad become widely current in 
the Koiv^ before Polybius used it. Apart from d. iroteto-Bat 
as a periphrasis for dvao-Tp«f>co-8ai, we can quote Syll 49 1 5 
KaTd tc Tav cu-Tmptav Kal Tav aXXav dva[cr]Tpoc|>dv, and 663 14 
d. %x ilv ( as m ' i' 1 -' 1 t 12 ) — botn ii/B.c. The Index to OGIS 
has " dvao-Tpoc{>r^ — passim. " In view of tins frequency, and 
the plentiful record of dvao-Tpe'^eo-Sai, the absence of the 
noun from papyri is rather marked. It may only mean that 
it was not current in Egypt. 


The only passage from profane literature which has as yet 
been cited for this verb, Plut. Moral. 96S CD, where an 
elephant is described as "rehearsing" by moonlight certain 
; tricks it had been taught (irpbs tt)v <rtKi\vr\v dvaTaTToutvos 
Ta ua8r|u.aTa Kal ueXcTiiv), makes it probable that it is to be 
understood = "bring together," "repeat from memory" in 
Lk I 1 : see Blass Philology of the Gospels, p. 14 ff., and 
cf. ExpT xviii. p. 396. In OGIS 213 31 (iv/iii. B.C.) the 
hitherto unknown substantive dvaTaKTai is found as the 
designation of certain magistrates at Miletus, whom Ditten- 
berger gathers to have been charged with disbursements to 
the authorities for their several public works. 


Michel 466 10 (iii/lt.c) au-a t»i TjXton [dv]aTe"XXovTi, "at 
daybreak." It is curious that the astrologer Vettius Valens 
has no instance of the verb, though he uses its derivatives 
freely. It survives in MGr. The cpd eiravaTtXXw occurs 
in some would-be verse on the wall of a sepulchral vault at 
Ramleh, age of the Antonines : Preisigke 2134 — 

'Ao-TT|p ovpdvios b cirl dcrrcpi ciravaTc'XXcov 

avail drj/ui. 

Note the perfect active dvaW8T]Ka in Syll 604 10 (Per- 
gamon, end of iii/B.c. ). This is a later example of what is 
now known to be the classical form of the perfect of T£8np.i, 
which only in the Hellenistic age was replaced by riStixa. 
The late sense "impart," "communicate," with a view to 
consultation, found in the two NT occurrences of the word 
(Ac 25 ,J , Gal 2 2 ; cf. 2 Mace 3 9 ) seems to appear in P Par 
69" 23 (a.d. 233) dva6t'u£voi to irpd'Yp.a aKfc'patov]. In 
P Strass I. 41' (a.d. 250) more ovk dv ex 01 dva8c'cr8at rf\v 
8£ktj[v els eWpav Tju-tpav] the verb = " postpone." The 
active = " dedicate " occurs everywhere. 


For the use of the plural to denote " the east," found 
unambiguously in Mt 2 1 (cf. 8 U , 24", Lk 13 29 ), we can 





quote the new parchment from Media, presumably the 
home of these Magi, P SaYd Khan 2 aJ (B.C. 22), where 
we read iSpia Kal yevrvCai dirb Tiiv dvaToXwv. Cf. also the 
Alexandrian sundial inscription in Preisigke 35S 2 (iii/B.C.) 
Trepicpepe^yv twv «4 >t C€]'H^ Tuv SiaTttvouo-u>v air' dvaToXwv 
tirl 8vct€ls. For the same phrase without the ellipsis, as 
in Rev 7 2 A dirb dvaToXiiv tjXiou, cf. OGIS 225 40 (iii/B.C.) 
dirb tjXiou dvaToXwv. For the singular in the same sense 
see OGIS I99 rz (i/A.D.), where dirb dvaToXfjs is opposed to 
dirb SicTfios, and Syll 740 2 "' (A.n. 212) u •yetrovfejs [dir]b 
yXv dvaToXijs [01] 'Eiracppd KXrjpfdvopoi]. The more literal 
sense — which seems probable in Mt 2 2 > ', from the otherwise 
motiveless substitution of sing, for plural — appears in the 
calendar of P Hib I. 27" (B.C. 301-240) irpbs Tas 8<5<rtts 
(/. 8vo-eis) Kal d[va]ToXds tu>v &o-Tpa>[v], and in P Tebt 
II. 276^ (ii/iii A.D.) [ev ttj 4]'^a dvaToXfj, the heliacal rising 
of Venus. Time, instead of point of compass, is indicated 
in P Oxy IV. 725 12 (a.d. 1S3) dirb dv[aToXfjs] f^XCoxi] pe'xpi 
Svo-€ujs, P Ryl I. 27 s3 (astronomical — iii/A.D.) perd d uipav 
J-y-yio-Ta T ^|S toC (tjXCou) dva(To]Xf]5. " 1 hr. approximately 
after sunrise" (Ed.). Similarly in BGU IV. I02I 13 (iii/A.D.) 
where, in apprenticing a slave to a hairdresser for instruc- 
tions, his master undertakes to produce him daily dirb 
dvaToXfjs f|X£ou p^xP 1 ovo-tws Tpetpdptvov Kal ip[a]Ti£dpevov. 
A nearly identical phrase in the "shorter conclusion" of 
Mark presumably has the other meaning — avrbs 6 Tncrovs 
dirb dvaToXfjs Kal &XP 1 8vo*€ws €£aiT€<rT€iX€v Si' avTwv to 
Lepbv Kal a<J>0apTov KT|pv*ypa ttjs aiwviou o-wrrjptas. In 
MGr it means either "east" or "Asia Minor." 

With Tit i u oiTivcs 6Xous oI'kous dvaTp£rrouo-iv 818a- 
o-kovtcs a pi) 8ti aia-xpoO Ke'pSous \dptv, we may compare 
P Par 63 ix - 35 (ii/B.C.) ttjs TraTpiKijs oUias . . . '(tk. 2vTrpoo-8ev 
dpSnv [d]vaT6Tpapp«VT|s 81' dcr[a>]Tias. The literal meaning 
is found in P Oxy I. 69 s (A.I). 190) cpe'pouo-av «ls Snpoo-iav 
pvpnv dvaTp^avTas, " they broke down (a door) leading 
into the public street," and Sy.'l S91 9 (ii/A.D.) «is -yijv dva- 
Tp«'i|/ei. : the inscription quotes the LXX, but is pagan. For 
the subst. see P Oxy VI. 902 11 (c. a.d. 465) tls TeXetav 
■yap dvaTpoTrijv . . . Trtpie'o-Tnv, " I have been reduced to 
complete ruin" (Edd.). 


The verb occurs in the interesting Christian letter, P Oxy 
VI. 939' 1 (iv/.A.D.) 8coii 7Vuio-is dvecpdvu dirao-iv ijpiv : cf. 
Lk 19" Trapaxpripa peXXei f] pacriXsia tov StoO dva4>ai 
vto-9ai. From iii/A.D. comes the defixio in Wunsch AF, 
no. 4 37 , rbv povovevrj, tov eg auToO dvacpavevra, of a god 
who receives the names ftr| 'Idu eer)acp. 


This LXX word (Lev 13 41 ) in the sense of "bald on the 
forehead " frequently recurs in personal descriptions in 
Ptolemaic wills, e. g. P Petr I. 2o(i) 10 (B.C. 225) 8]pl| 


With reference to the use of this verb in 1 Pet 2 84 , 
Deissmann has argued (BS p. 88 ff.) that the writer may 
have had in view the forensic usage to denote the imposing 

of the debts of another upon a third, in order to free 
the former from payment : he compares P Petr I. l6(2) 10 
(B.C. 237) Trapl Si i5v dvTiXfyw dvacpepoptVJuv eis 4p«] 
6<p6iXt|pdTu)v Kpi6r|a-opai «tt' 'Ao-KX-nTridSov, " as to the debts 
laid upon (or against) one, against which I protest, I shall let 
myself be judged by Asclepiades." Any direct suggestion 
of substitution or expiation would thus be foreign to the 
Petrine passage, the writer's thought being simply that the 
sins of men were removed from them, and laid upon the 
cross. On Syll 813 11 dveve'vKa[i] ai-rbs irapa A[dp]aTpa 
(so. garments deposited with some one who refused to return 
them), Dittenberger suggests somewhat doubtfully that the 
objects are, as it were, brought to the goddess as evidence 
of the wrong done. The meaning would then be closely 
akin to that in P Petr II. 3S (A) 5 ottos dveve'YKwpev tirl 
Oto-yc'vr|v, "that we may report it to Theogenes," tb. III. 
46 (i) 8 Uu>s dv hr\ tov 8uhkt]tt|v dyeye'yKwpev, 104 5 dvevT|vox«v 
scj>' T|pds . . . OTjyYpatpjjv, "has submitted to us a contract" 
(Edd ), et alibi. Here we have the verb followed by eir£ 
c. accusative, but the accusative is of a person, a difference 
which also seriously weakens the applicability of the parallel 
drawn by Deissmann for I Pet 2". We must not further 
discuss this difficult passage here. 

One or two miscellaneous examples of the verb may be 
added. It is used of "transference" from a village prison 
to the prison of the metropolis in P Lille I. 7" (iii/B.C ) vvvl 
8£ dvevr|Voxe'v p« eis -rb iv KpoKoSiXui/ TrdlXei) Seo-pwTfjpiov, 
and of the "registration" of the death of a priest in the 
official list in P Lond 281" (a.d. 66) = (II. p. 66) oirus 
dvcvexflli ' v [tois] T£TtXei>TT|fKd]cn.. In P Ryl II. 163 13 
(a.d. 139) oTrnv^Ka edv alprj dvohrw Sripoa-Iu [xpnpaTi.o-pu>] 
is rendered " whenever you choose, 1 will make the notifica- 
tion by an official deed" : see parallels in the note, showing 
dvaipepu and dva<f>opd to be "vague terms" covering a 
variety of forms of documentation where an official reference 
is implied. The verb is common in connexion with the 
payment of monies, e. g. P Lille I. II s (iii/B.C.) of grain; 
P Gen I. 22 1 (a.d. 37-8), P Flor I. i 233 » (a.d 153), 
P Tebt II. 296", 315 35 (both ii/A.D.). Other occurrences 
are Syll 5SS 115 (ii/n.c), Mickel 1007" (ii/B.c.) ovi8ep£av 
dvcW-yKavrts twl kolvui SaTrdvTtv, P Rein 26 15 (B.C. 104) 
apa Tip <ruyypa(piji. TauT-rp dva<p£pops'vTp, BGU IV. 1124 5 
(B.C. 18) fjv dvevnvdxao-Lv avTwi . . . <ruvxwpno-LV (cf. 
1157 s ), P Lond 1170 7vrso sl (a.D. 25S-9) (= III. p. 195). 

The subst. dva<popd (which is MGr) is common in the 
sense of " instalment," e. g. P Hib I. 1 14 4 (B.C. 244) [&j-]ti.v 
8{ rj dvatj>opd dirb Mexelp [?»]s "S>aii<(>L pnvaiv 8 ktX., 
"the instalment for the nine months from Mecheir to 
Phaophi is ..." P Eleph 17 19 ff - (B.C. 223-2) •fjs tV 
TrpuiTnv dva<popdv KaTa|3e|3Xf|Kao-i.v . . . Sid to pr) citrxvitiv 
avTovs KaTaPaXetv Tas Xoi-rrds dvacpopds, P Lond 2S6 18 
(A.D. 88) (=11. p. 184) ds K(al) Siaypdi|/op(v iv dva<f>opais 
8eKa Kara p[f|va], P land 26 18 (A.D. 9S) Tbv [8{] <j>dpov 
aTToSdo-iDi. e[v dvjacpopais Wo-o-apo-i. In P Oxy I. 67* 
(a.d. ^^S) it means " petition" — eveTvxov 8ii dva<j>opds tw 
Kvpiw pov ktX. 


A weakened meaning occurs in P Fay 14 2 (i:.c. 124) tou 
dvaTT€<|>tijvT|p€vov NoupT|viu tno^avov, " the crown tax de- 
creed for Numenius." 






in the sense of xpovllp occurs in the illiterate P Teht II. 
4'3 U (h/iii A.D.) avaxpov(5o|j.6v [o-]oi irt'uTrovTes emo-ToXia, 
" we are late in sending you letters" (Edd.). The papyrus 
has other examples of the tendency of uneducated persons 
to use compounds: NT critics may remember this when 
they assume the litterateur's hand in some of Luke's 
"emendations" (?) of <). 


For the metaphorical use of this word in I Pet 4 4 eis tt)v 
ai-r^v ttjs do-wTias dvd\iio-iv we may cite Philo Soma. II. 42 
d. tov dXd-you trdSous. We have no vernacular parallels. 


is applied to the "falling" of the Nile in P Magd n 1B 
(B.C. 221) toO liSai-os dvax<"poOvTos, as is the substantive in 
P Petr II. 13 (ic;)» [c. B.C. 252) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 19) -rrdv 
dvafx'ilP'no'i.v toO -rroTaaov. In the census return BGU II. 
447 6 (a.d. 173-4) the name of a man is included who was at 
the time ev dvaxwprjo-i, "away from home" ("bleibende 
Entfernung," Wessely Karanis, p. 34). See Wilcken Ostr. 
i. p. 44S, and for the same meaning of "absence" cf. P 
Tebt II. 353 s (a.d. 192) dir' dvax<opr|crews KaTio-tXuXvBws. 
In P Tebt I. 41" (c. B.C. 1 19) certain pWiXncol ytupyoi 
petition against one Marres, slating that on account of his 
extortion they had gone on strike and taken refuge in the 
neighbouring villages- -dvai«x u P 1 'l Kcl l« v "S Tas TrepioiKas : cf. P Oxy II. 252* (A.D. 19- 2d dvex"p1°"ev ["S tt|vJ 
%ivr\v, Syll 802 11 ' (iii/B.C. ) tovto iroi.T|<ras fis to dpa-rov 
dvex«P1o"e> and the late Silco rescript OGIS 201 9 (vi/A.D.) 
dvaxwpr|8r]v eis to dvw pipr] p.ou. P Lille I. y e (B.C. 241) 
dvaK6xwp>iK«[v . . .] err] is rendered by Wilcken " er is 
geflohen " (Archiv v. p. 222) : he remarks that the Christian 
dvax^plTaC were those who " fled " from the world — 
" retire " is too weak for dvaxwpe'w. The connotation of 
"taking refuge'' from some peril will suit most of the NT 
passages remarkably well. 


In P Lond 42 18 (B.C. 16S) (= I. p. 30, Selections p. 10) we 
have an urgent appeal to a man who has become a recluse 
in the Serapeum : his wife writes to him, 8o[Ko]0cra vfujy 
[y]t crov 7rapcryevop.€vov Teu^ecrOai tivos dva\JruxT)s, " think- 
ing that now at last on your return I should obtain some 
relief." The noun, which is classical and occurs seveial 
times in the LXX along with the corresponding verb (cf. 
2 Tim I 16 ), is found also in P Vat A 15 (B.C. 168) (= Wit- 
kowski 2 , p. 65) — a letter to the same recluse by his brother, 
obviously in collusion with the wife. For the verb see P 
Oxy X. 1296 7 (iii/A.D.) <JhXottovovu£v Kal dva\Jnjxo[i€v "I 
am industrious and take relaxation " (Edd.). See Anz 
Subsidia, p. 303. 


For the original noun cf. BGU IV. 1059 9 (Aug.) Ta£ap.e'vT] 
to tAos els to d., "having paid the slave-duty," and Syll 
S25 2 (iv/B.C. ) opos e'p-yao-TTipfov Kal dvSpaTrdSwv Tr«Trpa|j.6vwv 
tTrl Xvo-ei : workshop and slaves attached to it, sold " h 
rimM" (Michel). OGIS 218 62 , no (iii/B.C.) has dvSpd-n-oSa 
in a catalogue of property, id. 773 1 (iv/iii B.C. ) twv d. [t]wv 
drroopdvTiuv, also ib. 629 2i (A.D. 137) ex suppl. It also 

occurs in a psephism of Apamea (or a neighbouring town) of 
the reign of Augustus : dvSpdiroSa 8e Kal TerpaTroSa Kal 
Xovrrd £<ia 6p.oiws TrwXe£cr8w. This last combination reminds 
us oi the etymology of the word, which is merely an analogy- 
formation from TcTpdiroSa, with which it is so often associated 
— just as electrocute is made out of execute, to take a modern 
instance of a common resource of language. The word, 
which was normally plural (sing, in P Cattaoui "■ 16 = Chi est. 
II. p. 423, ii/A.D.), was never an ordinary word for slave: 
it was too brutally obvious a reminder of the principle which 
made quadruped and human chattels differ only in the num- 
ber of their legs. The derivative dvSpairoSflJw, "kidnap" 
supplied an agent noun with the like odious meaning, which 
alone appears in NT (1 Tim i 10 ). See also Philo de Spec. Leg. 
IV. 13 (p. 33S M.) KXeJTTT|S 8« Tl's eo-n. Kal 6 dvSpairo8i.o-Tr|s, 
dXXd toO TrdvTtov dpio-Tou, ticra cttl -yfjs civai'pT|K€v. 

: 'Avdgeag. 

To the occurrences of this Greek name we may add Syll 
30r\ alnemorial inscription of ii/B.C. — 'AvSpe'as Kal ' Apto-To- 
p-axos 'Apyeioi. 6TroiT|crav. The form 'AvSprjas is found in 
I'i: cue 313 59 (i/B.c). 


P Petr II. 40 (a) 12 (c. B.C. 233) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 41) 
(i^i oiiv d\i'yoi|mx , l "T| T€ > dXX' dv8p^ea-8c — a good parallel to 
1 Cor 16 13 . Cf. also BGU IV. 1205" (B.C. 28) p-dvov dvSpa- 
■yiiOc. iv T-qi dpi8pr|o-[u], " work hard " or the like (SiavSp. in 
ib. 1206' 3 , etc. . I' 1 >xy II. 291 8 (A.D. 25-6) Kal Trpo<--ypai|»[d 
0-01] avSpa^aSifv], "I have already written to you to be 
firm" (Edd.). The adj. dvSpeios is found in a eulogy on 
the good deeds of the Emperor Aurelian, P Lips I. 119"' 3 
(A. d. 274) TTjXiKaCiTa d8pdws ?xovTas a7a8d Trapd ttjs aKT|- 
paTou p.E'yaXoSwpfas tov dvSpt.OTu.Toii twv Trw-rroTC Aijto- 
KpaTopwv AupriXiavou. The subst. is defined in Aristeas 
199 (ed. Wendland) t£ irspas dvSpcCas €otiv ; 6 Zi tl-rrev «l 
to PouXevSev dp8ws €v Tats twv kivSOvwv Trpd^eo-iv €ttlt£Xoito 
KaTa Trpd8«criv, "'What is the the true aim cf courage?' 
And he said, ' To execute in the hour of danger, in accord- 
ance with one's plan, resolutions that have been rightly 
formed'" (Thackeray). Cf. OGIS 339 71 {c. B.C. 120) irpo- 
Tperrduevos Sk Sid ttjs ToiavTTis (iuXoSo^ias Trpbs do-KT|o-iv Kal 
<J>iXoTrovi'av Toiis ve'ous, 4£ uv at twv vcwWpwv \|ruxal irpos 
dvSpeiav dp.iXXwp€vaL KaXws d^yovTai tois tJ8co-lv irpos 



A proper name widely used throughout the Empire : cf. 
Syll III. Index p. II, and Priene 313 (i/B.c). 


For this NT dir. tip. (1 Tim I 9 ) cf. OGIS 21S 99 (iii/B.c) 
toxis Tf|U \|/fj<|>[ov Trpoo-Scaje'vovs dvSpo<()dvovs clvaL. It 
appears in a metrical epitaph from Corcyra (before B.C. 227), 
Kaibel 184'' Xrio-Tds dv8po(j>dvous. 


In P ( )xy II. 28i 12 (a.d. 20-50), a petition to the dpx>- 
SiKaa-T-fis, a woman who had been deserted by her husband 
claims — TravTtXws dvTa dve'-yKXriTov laaT-fjv iv dirdorti Trapet- 
Xop.T|v, " I for my part conducted myself blamelessly in all 
respects" (Fdd.) : cf. Syll 429 14 (iii/B.C.) dvc'vKXrjTov cavTov 




irape<rxT]Ktjts irpbs irdvTas tovs 4>uX€Tas. For the adverb see 
P Magd 15 3 (B.C. 221), where a barber states that he has 
been wronged by one of his clients, notwithstanding that he 
has trea'ed him in an irreproachable manner — TtGtpa-rrcuKws 
dveYK\r|[Ta)s]. A wider sense is found Syll 925 16 (B.C. 207-6) 
tovs (TTpaTLa)Tas evTaKTOus 7rap€0-Keva£av Kal dv€VKXr|Tou9, 
and ib. 540 16i B.C. 175-1), where the epithet is applied to 
stones. Bp E. L. Hicks in CR i. (1SS7) p. 65, citing a Prie- 
nean inscr. to illustrate another word, observed that a. was a 
common word in Greek decrees : the phrase in this one was 
e7rrjv£<T€v ini t€ tu> crw(f>p6vws Kal dvt"yK\T|Tu)s ■n-apeiTiSnp.f|a-ai.. 
Prof. Calder has an inscr. (no. S) in which a son commemo- 
rates his mother in the forms of public honorific monu- 
ments — with eimSt], JSofje, etc. : he says tt|v Te [oIki'Jcv 
mj|3epvr|0-ao-a dvevKXr|Tu)s Kal to iraiStov «K9p«'vj/ao-a. It is 
from the southern cemetery at Karabunar (Hyde). Other 
instances are needless. 


is a word which Paul might have coined (2 Cor 9 1S ). But 
it is found as a variant in Aristeas 99 dSir|-yr|Tov 
(dveKSiri-yriTov BL), " wonder beyond description." 


In OG/S 3S3' (i/u.c.) Antiochus of Commagcne declares 
Scpaimav t€ dvc'-yXtiiTTOV Kal lepcis tiuX^as o-iiv irpeiroijo-ats 
<a6f|o-i nepo-LKiii -yevfi KaTt'crrno-a. (The spelling -yX, where 
« is concerned, is usual in Hellenistic : see Brugmann- 
Thumb, Gr. p. 148.) In P Lond 1166 7 (a.d. 42) (=111. 
p. 105) contractors undertake to provide ™ Kaipra 
avryXeiirTa for a bath during the current year. The adverb 
is found IGSl 249s'. For a form dveKXi/mrjs, see Wisd 
7", 8 18 - 


Cagnal IV. 293" ■* (Pergamon, ii/B.C. JirdvTaSJ k£vSuv]o[v 
K]al KaKoiraBiav dveKT^v T|-youptvos. If the reading can 
be accepted, the word occurs in the dialect inscription Syll 
793 al d(v)«KT[o]v €oti to 0€(i([(t]ti Kal PeXtiov 6(o-)ki- 
Xpe'pev. Its appearance in the Christian letter P Oxy VI. 
939" (iv/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 130) dv«KTOT«pov €0"xr|Ke'vai., 
"to be in a more tolerable state," counts naturally for little, 
as NT echoes abound. 


This remade form in Jas 2 1S may be illustrated from 
P Lips I. 39 1 ' 2 (A.D. 390) Tii|;as p-e [dv]eXe<Ss — though, of 
course, thus accented, it comes from dveXerjs. Whether this 
last is any better Attic than dveXeos may, however, be ques- 
tioned, unless we postulate it as the alternative to vt]Xer|s, 
from which the Attic dvr|XeT|s came by mixture. But the 
solitary grammarian whom Lobeck (Phryn., p. 7I0f.) quotes 
for it is not very solid ground 


Mayor on Jas I 6 suggests that the air. tip. may have been 
coined by the writer, who is fond of -i£u verbs. The suffix 
was at least as available for making a new verb in Hellenistic 
as its derivative -ize is in English. Of course the parallels 
in Grimm-Thayer are far later. 
Part I. 


To Deissmann's example (PS. p. 24S) CPR 115' (h/a.D.) 
•veCToJves <k rco-o-dpwv dvifiuiv, where the phrase clearly refers 
to the four cardinal points as in Zech 1 1 6 , Mt 24 31 , Mk 13 s7 , 
we may add P Flor I. 50 10 * (A.D. 268) i< twv totit^w 
dve'fxuv. The same use of dvcpos is implied in P Flor I. 20 18 
(a. n. 127) e^ oil edv 6 'f^pos alpfjTai dvEuov : Vitelli com- 
pares Catullus xxvi, where the poet says his bungalow is 
"exposed" (opposita) not to S. or \V. wind, N. or E., but 
to a mortgage of £6$. In P Oxy I. loo 10 (a.d. 133) a 
declaration regarding the sale of land, we find ii>v t) TOiroflecrla 
Kal to kqt dveaov Sid Tijs KaTa"ypa<f>TJs 8£8t|Xu>Tai, where 
the editors understand by to kot dvtpov the boundaries on 
the four sides. For the ordinary sense we need quote 
nothing, unless we may note the combination in Wunsch 
AF 4 s (p. 15 — iii/A.D.) tov 8<bv tuv dve'piuv Kal TrvevjiaTiuv 
AaiXaa. (It is MGr.) 


For this NT dir. dp. (Rom II 33 ), Xageli (p. 23) cites, in 
addition to the references in Grimm-Thayer, a fragment of 
Heraclitus in Clem. Alex. Strom. II. 17, p. 437 P (fr. 18 
Diels). On the spelling see Proleg. p. 46. 


P Tebl II. 272 19 (a medical fragment, late ii/A.D.), gives 
a literary citation for the word, £i ^dp dve£[i]KaKos iv 
Tots [X]onrois u>v p^| iiro|i€voi T ° 8"K°s]> "for if he has 
general endurance but is nevertheless unable to bear the 
thirst" (Edd.). Vettius Valens has it, p. 3S 21 , ovk diropot 
KaBio-TavTai, 4irLTdpa\0L SJ Kal dve£iKaKoi, ^VKpaTtis -irepl 
Tas twv aLTLwv 6iri(f>opds. Though Lucian (iitd. voc. 9) is 
posterior in date to Paul and to Wisd 2 19 (dvc^iKaKta), he is 
adequate evidence for the earlier use of the word in 
' ' profane " Greek ! 

This word seems to have been borrowed by Paul (Rom 1 1 33 , 
Eph 3 8 ) tiom Job (5 8 , 9 10 , 34 24 ), and is re-echoed in early 

Josephus (Antt. xviii. 243 pr|8J SevTcpeveiv avenala-yvv- 
tov T170O, cited by Thayer) did not borrow this from his 
earlier contemporary, the writer of 2 Tim 2 16 ; but a word 
can hardly be called a coinage which only involves putting 
un- before an existing word (cf. aUrxvvTiKos). 


For this w-jrd, which is found ter in I Tim (3*, 5', 6 U ), 
cf. P Tor I. ivii. 15 (ii/B.c), where one of the conditions 
of a decree of amnesty for offences is stated to be Tas 
irapaK€iu.€vas vir' avToO o-vyypa^ds avs-mXTiTrTous dvai. 
See also P Tebt I. 5" (B.C. IlS) dKaTTyvo[pTJTou]s Kal 
dv€ , 7riXT| , irTous, ib. 6l(^) 237f " (B.C. IlS-7) kXtjpous d[o-]uKO- 
4>avTT)[Tovs] Kal aKaTTyyopT|Tous Kal dv€mXTip.Tov[s Trdo-ais 
alriais bvr]as ; and so ib. 72 17 " (B.C. 114-3). Dibelius (on 
I Tim 6 14 ) quotes a Jewish deed of manumission, Latyschev 
IosPE, II. 52 8ff - Kara €vxri[v] p.ov dvtirLX^irTov Kal 
dira[p]evdxXr|Tov aTrb iravTos KXr|povbp.ou. 






of "going up" to the capital is illustrated by the illiterate 
P Tebt II. 412 3 (late ii/A.D.), aveX8e els tt|V p.ryrp6Tro\\.v tov 
Wou €tovs €7rl Kalyo) dv£p\o|x£ eis tt|v ttoXlv : cf. ib. 41 1 5 
(ii/A. D. ) avT-p ciipa av<X0e, 6 ^dp KpaTtcrros cmo-TpaTrcyos 
iKavus o-« 4Tr€^T|T^o-€, " come up instantly, for his highness 
the epistrategus has made several inquiries for you " (Edd.). 
and P I.onrl 948 verso 3 (A.0. 257) (= III. p. 210) av(p\i<rTa. 
Other citations are hardly required, but we may add the 
almost contemporary BGU II. 595 16 (e. a.d. 70-S0) 8ti 6 
vids p.ov do-Otvi Sivuis, tovtov eiveKo. dvt]p\dp.T]V. 


This word, which with the exception of Ac 24 23 is used 
in the NT only by Paul, and always with the contrast to 
0XC\jns either stated or implied (see Milligan on 2 Thess I 7 ), 
is found in a more general sense in P Tebt I. 24" (B.C. 117) 
dv[e']<ra -ycvovoTas, " becoming remiss," as in the paradoxical 
phrase ifnrtipia dvcVeios, Wisd 13 13 ; cf. also Syll 533 16 
(iii/A.D. inii.), 932 s3 (16.), where it is used of "relief" from 
taxation. P Ryl II. S4 5 (A.D. 146) Situs cbpovTio-rjs • • • 

Tr|V dv€(TtV TV|V 8ld TOVTO "yeVOU.€VT|V tuv {nrap\6vTwv 

■yeve'crSai, " in order that . . . the ensuing remission of 
the lands be effected " (Edd., comparing Chest. I. 363 
introd.). For the phrase in Ac 24 s3 ?x etv Te avecriv, where 
the RV renders " should have indulgence," cf. P Gis^ I. 59 
(a.d. 119-20), where a number of persons are enrolled as 
having vacatio munerum (X€iTovp"yid>v) , as dveo-tv eo-xuKores 
eirraeTtas Tfjs dirb is^eVovs) [16th year of Trajan] ems vvv, 
and others, one of a Tpw-rfa. Can the aveo-is in Ac I.e. be a 
kind of libera custodia ? Moffatt renders the clau;e, "allow 
him some freedom." 


In P Oxy I. 34'- I3 (A.D. 127) a prefect uses this word in 
directing Government clerks whose business it was to " ex- 
amine " documents and glue them into tou-oi.. This is one 
of the words which Grimm characterizes as " not found 
in prof, auth.," occurring first in LXX. The compound 
(Ac 22 24 ' 29 ), now vindicated as sufficiently "profane," was 
as rare as its simplex (cf. Wisd 2 19 ) : it may be suspected that 
the common e£€Td£<o "to get out the truth," (ctcos— see 
Boisacq Diet. Etym., p. 291) was the original from which 
both eTa£<u and dveTaiJw (and irapeTa^w in Arcadian) were 


P Par 45* (B.C. 153) ftvev t<Sv 8«wv ovBev -yiveTai, BGU I. 
267 s (A.D. 199) &V(v Tivbs du.4>io-piyrT|cr£u>s. Quotations are 
hardly needed, but see VVilcken Ostr. i. p. 559 f., where it is 
shown that in certain connexions avev must have the mean- 
ing of "without the knowledge of" rather than "in the 
absence of," e.g. P Petr II. Appendix, p. 3, frri iivev tjuuv 
Kal twv p.€T* 'AptoTOKpCTOvs Xo-vc-vtwv [irpo]£tvtl TOIIS 
inroTeXeis tov cf>vXaK[Ti]Kov tls to HSiov, where Wilcken 
translates " ohne unser Wissen und ohne Wissen jener 
Logeuten ladt er die Steuerzahler zu sich in's Haus." 
In sepulchral inscriptions the preposition is ofien u'-ed 
in the sense "apart from," "except," as in the formula 
iav tis ToX(j.rjerrn. dvi|« (/. dvou^ai) tov o-opbv tovtov Iivev 
Tiiv IStiov auTov, see IGSI 3225, 2327, al. cited by Herwerden. 
See lurther Kuhring, p. 46 f. 

dvevOerog, • 

air. tip. in Ac 27 12 , is another new word made with un- 
which may or may not have been first used by Luke. The 
simplex is found in Lk 9 62 , 14 35 , and in Heb 6 7 . 


Syll 154 bis (late iv,B.c), S03 26 (iii/B.c). The adjective 
dvcvpcTos is found on the recto of PAmh II. 125 (late i/A.D.), 
where a petition concludes, 01 8e Xonrol avTo»[v ev] o-vvwSu> 
avS(pEs) ice dv€vpt|TOL €Y €votTO [l> dv€up€TOL tYt'vovTo). Kal 
d<f)TjXiraKav) (/. dcbriprraKav) f|p.wv ip-aTia ktX. 


The verb is not common in early papyri, but cf. P Strass I. 
22 22 (iii/A.D.) o"iwirr|cravTos toO vou.££ovtos atirui Si-acbepeiv 
Kal dvacr^op-tvou vTrep StKaeTtav (a statute of limitations 
comes in), P Gen I. 76 14 (iii/ivA.D.), P Lips I. 5 u - 8 (iii/A.D.), 
55 u (i v / A - D -), and P Oxy VI. 903 36 (iv/A.D.) Ka7<i ovk 
t|V£crxd|j.T|V tKpaXelv avTrjv, " but I refused to send her 
away" (Edd.). Later examples are P Oxy I. 130 15 (vi/A.D.) 

01 8ia<|>€pOVTeS TOV €U.OV StCTTTOTOU ovk t|v€ctx«to (/. t)V€o-^ovto) 

iroifjcrai KaTa tt|V Kt'Xtvo-iv tov tp.ov dyaBov SecnroTov, " the 
servants of my lord refused to do my kind lord's bidding " 
(Edd.), and P Grenf. I. 64 s (vi/vii A.D.) ovk r^vi<r\(To tovto 
irovijo-at. There is a note on the syntax of the verb in 
W. Schmidt Jos., p. 424 f., and one on ihe complexities of 
its augment in Cronert Mem. Here., p. 207. 

It may be noted that Nestle (Exp T xix. p. 284) has 
drawn attention to the interesting reading dve'£eTai (for 
dv0e'5«Tai) in Mt 6 24 = Lk 16 13 , as supported hy the OLat 
(sustinebit or fatietur) and OSyr ("endure," Burkitt) : it 
was familiar from the common Stoic formula dve'xov Kal 
dire'xov. " Put up with the one, and take advantage of the 
other" (see s.v. KaTacfjpove'u) will be the meaning. 


This word, which in Greek writers is regularly applied to 
cousins german whether on the father's or on the mother's side 
(see Lightfoot on Col 4 10 ), may be illustrated from P Lond 
Il64(X-) 20 (A.D. 212) (=111. p. 167) to KaTaXa<j>8ev virb 
[to]v KaTa iraTe'pa p.ov dv€»|/eiov 'IcrtSiipov and P Tebt II. 
323 IS (A.D. 127) u.€Ta Kvptou tov eavT-fjs K[ajTa u-UTepa 
dve<|/iov 'Opo-^us. Preisigkt 176 (reign of M. Aurelius) 
has dvev|abs irpbs iraTpds and irpbs fiUTpos- See also P Oxy 
I. 99 3 ' 18 (a.d. 55), P Fay 99 s (a.d. 159), BGU II. 648' 
(A.D. 164 or 196), and from the inscriptions OG/S 544' 
(ii/A.D.), where, however, the editor notes, " Graecos non 
distinguere fratres patrueles et consobrinos, sed utrosque 
aeque dve<|novs appellare." Phrvnichus (ed. Lobeck) p. 306 
praises dvoj/ids as against the form €|d8eXc|>os, which is found 
in the LXX (Tob i 2a , II 18 ) and in Christian writers. Both 
occur in MGr, dvi<|nds for "nephew," and t^dSepcfjos for 
" cousin (male)." The fern, dvexj/id may be cited from 
PSI 53 145 (A.D. 132-3) «iri.'YeYpa| [tt|s dv]£i);i.ds p-ov 
Kvpios. 'Ave\(/id8iis, "cousin's son," occurs in Preisigke 176 
(see above). 


Syll 804" (perhaps ii/A.D.) a. u.€t' eXafov, for headache. 
P Oxy VIII. 10SS 6 ' (early i/A.D.), a collection of prescrip- 
tions, commends for a v-ttvutikov ir<STT|u.a ' vocrK[vdu.ov . . ,] 
dvvT|crov (,8p.) a, dirtov ^Tpi'.^PoXov) • u.ti£[as 80s, " soporific : 




henbane . . ., anise I dr. etc." (Ed.) This spelling is also 
found in P Ryl II. mS ,b (a.d. 40). 


The ethical meaning of this word "to be due" is by no 
means confined to the Biblical literature, as the following 
citations will show. OGIS 532 1 ' (B.C. 3), the Paphlagonians' 
oath of allegiance to Augustus, has the undertaking irav]Tl 
Tpdirwi inrtp tu>[v] ckcivols dvuKojvTwv] (for the rights of 
Augustus and his heirs) irdvTa kivSuvov xiTrou-cvtCv. Other 
examples of this use, which is found in I and 2 Maccabees, 
are given in the index. From the Magnesian inscriptions we 
may quote $Tf h (end of iii/B.C.) ov8cvbs aTroo-Tr|o-cTai [sc. 
6 8f)p.os twv dvT|KdvTa>v ttJ ttoXci tuv Ma*yvTJTwv Trpbs Tip.r|V 
^ ^dptTOS diToSoo-LV, where Thieme (p. 15) renders, "was 
man der Stadt der Magneten zu erweisen schuldig 1st." 
Similarly from the papyri : P Fay 94 (iii/A.D.) has twice irepl 
tuv [ttj CTrirpoTreid.] dvuKOfTuv, as the editors restore it, 
" his duties in the period of guardianship, functions pertain- 
ing to it." In P Tebt I. 6 U (ii/B.C.) twv dvr]KdvTu>v tols 
icpo[is Kop.i^6o-8ai, " the dues which belong 10 the temples," 
it is unfortunately not clear whether the infinitive depends on 
dvT|KovTojv or on the main verb Trpoo-T6Td\ap.€v : cf. P Tebt 
I. 43 25 (B.C. 118) cv rots dvT|Ko^(rt, " in your interests". 
In P Flor I. I 4ai - (A.D. 153) dvuKovTuiv irdvTuv is simply 
"all that belongs." A technical use based on this appears in 
a Rainer. papyrus in Chvest. I. 72, p. 101, (a.d. 234) St| 
puScv 8civ dvf|[Kov o-]T|u.dva{ ttotc ttj tou- t8ioXd-yov K[al 
dpxVpcws emTpoTr r\ , where AYilcken explains it as the 
" Kompetenzkreis" of these two officials. 


A good example of this NT &tt. dp. (2 Tim 3 s ) is afforded 
by Epictetus' description (I. hi. 7) of those who forget their 
divine origin as like to lions — &Ypiot. Kal S^piwScis Kal 


The special differentia of dvrjp : dvOpwiros survives in 
MGr (dvTpas, dSpwrros), where even the old gen. sing. 
(dvTpds) may still be found beside the "regular" tou dvTpa 
(Thumb Handbook, p. 48). Naturally there is nothing 
particular to record in the uses of this everyday word, which 
has in NT and Hellenistic generally much the same range 
as in class. Gk. Thus, taking the index to BGU IV., we 
can illustrate many of the uses noted for the NT in Grimm 
from documents of the Augustan period. So (1) husband 
by the perpetual phrase p.£Ta Kvpiou tou dvSpds after the 
name of a woman, as 1126* (where dvSpds is written over 
an erased 6|iou.T|Tp£ou dSe\<J>ovi), or in a marriage contract 
as 109S 33 TT|ptiv Td Trpbs Toy dvSpa Kal tov koivov ptdv 
Sixmo., while the document will also use dvrjp for irregular 
relations in the pledge p.r|8' dWwt dvSpi o-xiveivai. Then 
under Grimm's (3) we have I189 11 ou o-nu.aivdu.cvoi dvSpcs 
"the persons named," 1061 7 where Patellis and &XX01 
dvSpes it committed a buiglary ; the common phrase (to) 
kot' dvSpa, "viritim," in 1047 "•• u (a.D. 131) ; and (from 
A.D. 196) 1022' dvSpcs KpaTio-Toi in address (cf. II. 646 s0 — 
A.D. 193 — w dvSpjes 'AAe£av8pcis) accounts for another use. 
'Avtjp in distinction from vrpnos or iraiSidv alone remains : 
of this less common use we do not happen to notice an 

example, but literature supplies them in plenty. We might 
add as an instance of technical use dvSpuv Kal iinrc'iofv], 
P Flor II. 278iv-» (iii/A.i..). 


P Petr II. 37 2 (a) verso 1 * ov Yap Suvapai dv0[i]o-Tavei.v, 
BGU III. 747"' 10 cviaxov 8c Kal toXu.u>o-iv dvTio-Tao-8ai 
(/. dv8-), P Hawara69 4 (ii/A.D.) (= Arehivv. p. 383) . .]ovk 
dvTc'o-TT)v tt[. ., P Leid W*"' • io-x«pdrcpov ovtco-tt) atmi. 


P Oxy IV. 743" (and io, ( BX> 2) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 130) 
lis dv8ou.oXo-yr|(o-ou.cvu) inrc'p o-ov lis vrrfcp) p.ov, where the 
Edd. render "as he will agree in everything for you just 
as for me": cf. P Giss I. 71' (ii/A.D.) <3o-[tc . . a]viTbv 
Trapa-yevdaevov dvL6o|i.o]\o'yr|0*ao-8at o-ou tto. €fs [uc o-ttov-JStji 
" may answer to, come up to," and P Tebt I. 21 6 (B.C. 115) 
Kal 'ApLo-TiTTTrov avTwi. dv8ou.oXoYT|o-€o-8ai, "and that A. 
will come to an understanding with him" (Edd.), P Par 42' 
(B.C. 156) Kal 6 aScXcpos a"ov dv6wuoXo-yciTo jitj T]8iKeio-8ai 
iir' avTov. Add P Tebt II. 410 14 (a.D. 16) dv8o]uo- 
Xoyfjo-T]Tai Trcpl tt)s o~rr[o]\)8rjs, "he may answer for 
your activity." In P Grenf II. 71 u - 14 (a.D 244-S) Kal 
CTrepa>TT|8e'vT€S dv8wu.oXo-yr|o-ap,€v Trcpl t[o]0 Tai>8' ovrws 
dp8u>s Kal KaXws 7c-ynvfjo-8ai, the active appears with the 
meaning "acknowledge," "formally admit," the correctness 
of a legal form. 


Syll 939 11 u-T|8e dvSca irap<*je'pr|v (ev to Updv). OGIS 365' 
(ii/B.C.) has dvScwv, " viridarium," and Vettius Valens, p. 15*, 
speaks of dv8r|pal (aoipai). The noun in its two NT occur- 
rences only repeats Isai 40 6 f -, but it is fairly common in 
LXX, and survives in MGr. It recurs in P Leid W. 


P Petr III. io7(</) 28 , P Lond 1159 59 (a.d. 145-7) 
(= III. p. 113) cirl £vA Kal dv0paKu>v Kal (pav* Kal Xaaird 5 , 

P Fay 34S (ii/iii A.D.) av8paKo(s). The word also occurs 

ter in Michel 594 (B.C. 279), a long inscription from Delos 

containing the receipts and expenses of the icpoiroiov. It is 
MGr dvBpaKas. 


which starts in LXX and Pss. So!., was presumably as 
much a coinage as our own " men-pleasers," but made in a 
language where compounds are more at home than in ours. 
If this is a " Bibl. " word, it is only an instance of the fact 
that every Greek writer made a new compound when his 
meaning required one. Lobeck on Pkryn., p. 621, cites 
avrdpco-Kos from Apoll. de Conjunct., p. 504. 


This significant adj. is found in Wilcken Ostr. ii. no. 121S 
(Rom.) ucXt| UuKa (/. taTp.) dv8punn.(va), with reference 
apparently to certain healing charms. In wills of the 
Ptolemaic period avSpwrnvdv tl irdo-xciv is the stereotyped 
form for " to die," e.g. P Petr I. n 9ff - (the will of a cavalry 
officer) cdv 8c tl dvSpwmvov irdOw KaTaXci'irw T[d uoi 
virdp^ovTa cy] tov p*aa"iXiKOu Kal tov t-rnrov Kal Ta drrXa 
ktX. : cf. also the important marriage contract P Gen I. 2i ls 




(h/b.c.) 4dv 6e tis aviTuv dvBpiimvbv ti ira8T| Kal TeX«vT^o-r| 
ktX., and BGU IV. II49 34 (a loan-B.C. 13) edv U o-vvPij 
t!>v SouXov SiaSpdvai H\ Kal -Traflav ti dv8pu>irivov, Kal oiiTws 
eEvai Ta d<piXdu.eva aKCvSuva ktX. So P Tebt II. 333 
(A.D. 216), Syll 633" (Koni.— note the unusual present 
irdo-xTl). etc. Various uses of the adj. are illustrated in 
Syll: thus 347 s (B.C. 48), an Asian decree in honour of 
Julius Caesar, tov dirb'Apjws Kal'Acppo8e[i]TTis8«bv tirKpavij 
Kal Koivbv tov dvBpwiKvov pCov o-wrfjpa, 365 10 {c. A. I>. 37) 
a grandiloquent adulatory oration from Cyzicus— 6«<iv St 
vdptTcs TovTio Sia<pe'povo-iv dv8pu>ir£vwv SiaSoxwv, w fj vuktos 
ijXios ktX., 462 30 (iii/B.C, Crete) Kal 8.[vwv ("divine") K]al 
dvOpio-rrtvuv irdvTwv (cf. 722 33 ), 463 132 (late iii/B.C.) oi 
<[p]euTal ol twv dv9puiir£vwv, " the comptrollers of secular 
revenues". The strong pervading antithesis with "divine" 
in the uses of this word lends emphasis to such a phrase as 
d. ktCo-is in 1 Pet 2 13 (where see Hort). It is MGr. 


for which only Euripides is cited, will be one of the words 
Hellenistic prose has taken over from poetical vocabulary. 
Murray gives the lines thus (/ph. Tour. 3S9) — 

This land of murderers to its god hath given 
Its own lust ; evil dwelleth not in heaven. 


like dvfjp, has kept its differentia practically unchanged 
from Homer to MGr. It is interesting to notice its philo- 
sophical abstract dv8pwiroTTis vouched for as fairly popular 
Greek by Vettius Valens (p. 346 28 , in antith. to dOavao-ta). 
passing into Christian theology (see LS and Sophocles Lex.), 
and current in MGr. The NT has no trace of the curious 
misuse by which the principal difference between A. and 
dWjp is ignored : Tob 6 s dvBpuiirov f\ YvvaiKos. P Flor I. 
61 60 (A.D. 86-8) d|ios p.[«]v rjs}vai, Sid o-eavT0v 
[K]aTaa"xwv dvBpuirov ttcrx^aova Kal YwfaiJKas is not 
parallel, as d. only means "person": as little is Jn 7 !2t - 
(Orimm). Another case of dvflpwiros invading the sphere of 
dvf|p is the Matlhrean locution &. otKoSeo-iroTtis. Pacn.Xtvs, 
4>a-ybs etc. As Grimm's passages show, this is Greek, 
though not Attic : Mt may have got it from LXX (so Lev 21* 
dvflpunrov Uplus). Home papyrus passages may be cited, 
though little is needed. The antithesis with Beds has figured 
under dvflpwmvos : the complementary one comes out well in 
BGU IV. I024 iv ' 6 (iv/v A.D.), where a judge pronounces 
sentence of death with the words o-v u.01 Sokcis [<|»vxi\v 
fcJxeiv B-qpCov Kal [o]vk dvBpiiirov, [udXXov S]i ovSJ BnpCov- 
he proceeds to give reasons, lb. 1030 7 (iii/A.D.) tiriyovns 
tovs dvBpwirovs Kal tovs TtKTovas — d. is general and t. 
special. For the purely unemphatic use cf. the illiterate note, 
id. 1031 13 (ii/A.r>.) SkSos dvBpciirois dor<pa[Xeo-]i. Its ana- 
phoric use with the article (as Mt I2 13 etc.) may be seen in 
ib. 120S'' 25 (B.C. 27-6)'iva Si elSirjs to bpBpiov (" 'sein Mor- 
gengruss,' = seine erste Tat " says Schubart) tov dvflpci(irov), 
Tre'iro|j.4 ,a °" 01 \ v Tt'Otirai u.£o-6a>o-iv. This particular instance 
may perhaps serve as an illustration of "the adjunct notion of 
contempt (Jn 5 12 )," on which Grimm remarks ( I. d.). Under 
the same heading, with commiseration instead of contempt, 
will come Trpto-pv-rris dvflpwirds tipi in P Strnss I. 41 40 (a. I). 
250). In the edict of Caracalla, P Giss I. 40 i - 6 (a.u. 212-5) 
io-]aKis ^dv i[ir]«nrt'X8[wo-]iv tis tovs «p.ovs dv[8p]oSirovs the 

editor notes the tone as characteristic of his dynasty. The 
general sense in the plural may be illustrated by Syll 424 1 
(A.D. 361-3) tov -yfjs Kal 9aXdo-cnis Kal iravTOs dvBpwirwv 
fc'Bvovs Seo-TrdTTjv — of the brief Emperor Julianus, ib. 890 22 
(ii/A.D.) of a series of diseases K]a[l] bo-a KaKa K[al TrdjBn 
dv8pwiroi[s ■y£]7V€Tat. 


Syll 656 2 (ii/A.D. ) presents Gaius Papillius Carus Pedo 
dvflviraTos replying to a resolution of the Ephesian BovXt|, 
who had referred him to his predecessors' practice (tovs irpb 
tpjov] KpaTCo-Tous dv8virdTovs). lb. 316 3 (ii/B.c ) has Q. 
Fabius Q. f. Maximus, dvBviraTos 'Pwuatwv, addressing the 
authorities of a town in Achaia. So passim, except in 
Egypt : since this country was governed by a prefect, we do 
not hear of proconsuls in the papyri. 


P Petr III. 53 (/•)' (iii/n.c.) dvefcTai Xonrovpa<|«io-6ai, 
"he is permitted to remain in arrears" (Edd.). Syll 
552 s8 , 6S (late i'/n c.) of school-boys "let off" ck tuv paS^ud 
twv. P Amh II. 99 (/') 8 (A.D. 179) poppa dviuevn Xipbs 
tSiioTiKa, "on the north dedicated land, on the wi st private 
properties" (Edd.) So Cagnat IV. 292 s9 (Pergamon, c. 
B.C. 130) dvetvai S[t] avTou K[al T](fuvos,=coiisecran (Ed.). 
P Oxy III. 471 86 (H'a. D.) -ysXajTa iroXvv Kal avtip-tvov . . . 
7eXdv, "laughed long and freely" (Edd.), ib. 503 18 (a.d. 
IlS) dvtivai "admit," ti. S33 10 (ii/iii A.D.) eiv avtBuo-i, 
"if they are neglected." P Ryl II. 77 30 (ad. 192) 
KfXtvo-aTe X fSuKa Uavbv dveflTjvai.. P Grenf II. 78 21 
(A.D. 307) d|iii . . . dvtBfivafi] " released." P. Cattaoui vi ls 
(ii/A.D.) (= Ckrest. II. p. 423) rd dXXa 0-01 dvequ-i, 
" concede." A literary etiort celebrating the accession of 
Hadrian, P Giss I. 3 8ff - shows us loyal subjects -ye'Xuo-i Kal 
ucflais Tais dirb Kpr]Vt)s Tas >|/»xas dv^VTts ^uavao-tiov t« (see Wilcken on the document, Archiv v. p. 249). 


V Amh II. 68 43 (lale i/.\ D.) has dpoupas . . . iirb 
du(poTepwv twv irpbs xP € ^ aLS ^ l °' T " v A( >'y u,v dvao-TaBti'o-as 
= "reported" or the like. The transitive tenses are com- 
mon in the sense of "setting up" a statue ; cf. P Oxy IV. 
707 26 (c. A.D. 136) dvao-[Tfj]o-a£ t« Tas toS KTr|u.aTos Kal 
■jruaapiov irXaTas tirl asTpots, ' ' that he should restore on 
a certain scale the walls (?) of the vineyard and orchard " 
(Edd.), BGU II. 362" - 1 (a.d. 215) (=Ckresl. 1. p. 127) 
tis xnnipeo-tav tov dvao-T[a8]^VTos Qtiov KfoXoo-jo-LaLou 
dvSpidvTos. The formula became so common for setting 
up a gravestone that dvc'o-Tiio-a alone, with accus. of person 
buried, became current in E. Phrygia and Lycaonia (Ramsay 
C. and B., ii. p. 732). P Oxy VIII. 1161 9 (Christian letter, 
iv/A.D.) (i^| 8wau.e'vT] dvacrTfjvai (K Tt)S koltt]S p-ou, will 
seive as an instance of the intransitive use. One very 
interesting passage is added by a restoration of Wilcken's 
in P Tebt II. 2S5 15 (A.D. 121-3S)— see Archiv v. p. 232: 
dvao-[Td]s «ls |>]vu.| povXiov K]al o-K€\|/dp[tvos p«]T[d t]uv 
[. . . With this reference to assessors Wilcken compares 
Ac 26 30 . 


The adv. is supplied by the editors in the Hadrian letter, 
P Fay 19' (ii/A.D.), ofrre dvorjJTWs diroXXd< tov 


pCofv]. It is current in MGr, meaning 


; unreasonable " 


That ancient scribes were almost capable of sympathy with 
modern schoolboys in writing the augmented forms of this 
intractable verb is shown by frequent misspellings in late 
papyri: thus PSI II. 132 9 (iii/A. d. ) dvwxBai. From Ptole- 
maic papyri we have the regular forms TJvwi|ap«v I' Petr II. 
37 I" 12 , and dvewi-ypivov ib. 2" 6 , al-o dvoigai ib. III. p. 133. 
The phrase of Mt 2 U is nearly paralleled in Syll 601 32 
(iii/B.C.) dvoi-ydvTwv Se 01 t|eTao-Tal KaT 1 €viaxn-f|v (/. -tov) 
tov 0r|o-avpdv : so ib. 653" (the Andania " Mysteries" inscr., 
in dialect— B.C. 91). 587 302 (B.C. 329-S) twi tovs 0T|<raupovs 
dvoC^avn. That of Rev 3 s etc. occurs in Syll 790*' (i'/a.D.) 
to-s o-<ppa-yiSas dvot|aTw. Close to this is its use for the 
"opening" of a will, as P Ryl II. 109 s (a.d. 235— a stilted 
document with Sueiv and vU'as !) ix Sia8fJKr|S Tijs Kal dvot- 
x8«[io-]r,s Kara to S8os. We may quote OGIS 222 36 (B.C. 
266-1) dvoi|au 8[{] toiis iepels Kal Tas lepeias xd tepd, cf. 
3j2 28 (B.C. 138-2) a. tovs vaois, and Dittenberger's note, 
with parallels showing that the solemn "opening " of shrines 
was a conspicuous feature in ritual — cf. I Regn 3 ,s Kal 
up6pio-ev to Trpwl Kal tjvowjev Tas 8vpas oIkov Kvpiov, and 
Rev ii 19 , 15 5 . Something akin to our "opening" a build- 
ing may be seen in OGIS 529 n (A.r>. 117-3S) irpwTov p.ev 
dvo£|avTa to yupvao-iov — he had evidently been prime mover 
in its establishment. The Neoplatonists appropriated the 
NT phrase " heavens opened " : cf. Kaibel 8S2 (Aihens— c. 
iii/A. D. ) OcioXdvou AaiToio p€Tapo-iov iipvov aKovo-as 
ovpavbv avSpwirois €i8ov dvorydpevov. Laetus, a contem- 
porary of Plotinus (Ed.), is acclaimed as a reincarnation of 
Plato. The word is common on later tombstones for violat- 
ing a grave. The frequency of the spelling dvvyw has been 
thought to go rather beyond the mere blundering substitution 
of an identically pronounced symbol: Radermacher (6V. 
P 35 n - 2 ) would attribute it to the influence of dvvw, which 
is however a decidedly rarer word (not in XT). But Prof. 
Thumb regards it as purely graphic. We may quote two 
illiterate papyri of ii/B.c, written by the same hand, P Par 
51' (= Selections p. 19) and 50 7 : see Mayser Gr., p. no. 
So also P Tebt II. 3S3 2 ' (A.D. 46) (the entrance and the 
exit) els fjv Kal dvi£i eav-t-TJ .... 8vpav. The late 2 acr. 
pass. TjvoCYriv (as Mk 7 s5 , Ac I2 10 etc.) is illustrated by BGU 
I. 326 ii - 10 (as amended p. 359) (ad. 194) f|vvyr| [k]oA 
dveyviio-8T| — of a will : cf. also the amended reading in 1. 21 
r|Vvyn,o-av. The verb is MGr. 


In P Lond SS7 2 (iii/B.C.) (= III. p. 1) a complaint is 
lodged against a neighbour who has " built " (dvotKoSopt]K«vl 
a staircase in a mutual courtyard, and thereby caused some 
injury- to the petitioner : cf. P Magd 2' (iii/B.c. ) dvoiKo8opr|- 
o-avTos «v Tt3i aiiToO To-trwi. Updv ktX., and P Oxy IV. 707 27 
(c. A.D. 136) dvoiKoSoprjo-ac Tpdxov in. Kaivfjs e£ dfirrrjs] 
irX£v8ov tirl ptVpois wpto-pe'vois, "should build on a fixed 
scale a new wheel of baked brick" lEdd. ). In P Petr II. 
12 (l) ls (B.C. 241) Kal dvoiKoSopfjo-ai. PeXtiIous twv Trpov-Trap- 
XOVTiov pwpwv the meaning is "rebuild": cf. Syll 220 12 
(iii/B.C ) Kal twv Tttx^v twv iv Tf)i vt|o-<oi. ireirruiKOTuiv 
o-uv«ireptXf|8i] Sirws dvoiKoSopr^el, and Ckrest. I. q6»'«< 

(a.d. 215) oiKoSdp 01s) y KaTao-irioo-iKaldvouKoSop'oio-t!, ib. 
II. 6S 1L (a.d. 14) ofis Kal dvoiKoSop^o-a eirl twi [dpx]a[i]wi 
BepeXt'wi. Omission of augment is frequent in these ol- 
words. For a Christian use of d. see the interesting epi- 
taph of the fourth-century bishop of Laodiceia, M. Julius 
Eugenius, who describes himself as during his episcopate 
irdcrav t#|v €K\r|0-£av dvoiKo8o[p]r|o-as dub BepeXiwv (VV. M. 
Calder in Exp VII. vi. p. 3S7). 

occurs in the magical papyrus P Lond 4c 2 ' 4 (iv/A.D.) 
(= I. p. 73). In MGr it means "springtime." 


P Par I4 27 (ii/B.c.) they assaulted me dcpoprJTw dvop'a 
€|ev£x e «'vT«s. P Oxy VIII. 1121 20 (a.d. 295I arravTa us ev 
dvop£a[i]s dtreo-vXrio-av, " lawlessly carried them all off" 


P Oxy II. 237™" (a.d. 1S6), the Dionysia petition, has 
dvdpov KaToxijs, "an illegal claim." The closeness of 
dvopta and dStKi'a may be seen in the associated adjectives 
of P Lond 35S 13 (,. a.d. 150) (= II. p. 172), where dvopa 
Kal dStKa are complained of. Cf. IGSI 1047 3 toO dvdpov 
Tv(pwvos. For the adverb see P Magd 6 U (B.C. 221) p.^ 
irepuSeip pe dvdpws ifSpisopevov inrb twv iroipfvwv, and BGU 
IV. 1200 20 (B.C. 2-1) «;ouo-iav ?x°vTts twi 'Ao-KXT|Trid8ov d. 
diroSe'SwKav ktX. The construction in 1 Cor 9 21 pr] wv 
dvopos 8«ov is illustrated in Proleg. p. 235 f. The verbdvopt'w 
as a transitive appears in P Par 37 18 (ii/B.c.) d|iw . . . pi] 
virepiSttv pe T|vopr|pi:Vov Kal e-yKeKXsiptvov : cf. in. 3s 31 (by 
the same writer), with the same combination in the present 


occurs in the fragmentary P Lips I. 119 recto 3 (a.d. 274) 
t]wv dpapTtwfv] Tas irovripias o-uvex"[s d]vop8ovpe'vwv. For 
the sense of "rear again," as Ac 15 16 . cf. OG/S 710 1 (ii/A.D.) 
to ir[p]oTrvXa[i.ov] XP° v f [Sia<j>8ape]v [d]vwp8wo-«v «k tov 
ISiov 'AiroXXwvios «it' dyaSwi. The noun occurs in P Kyi 
II. 157 13 (A.I). 135 e'crrai 8^ t) dvdp8wo-is twv [vvv d-TroKaOt]- 
o-Tavope'vwv koivwv [tJclxOIv] d[ir6 KJoivwv X[7)JppaTwv 
"the restoration of the common walls" (Edd.). 


This adjective, which in the N'T is confined to I Tim 1 9 , 
2 Tim 3 s , is frequently applied to the Jews in connexion with 
the great Jewish war in Egypt A.D. 115-7. See e.g. P 
Giss I. 41" 4 irapd tt|v twv dvoo-£wv [Tou]Sai'w[v i (poSov, 
with the editor's introduction. So P Brem 40* (Trajan) 
(= Ckrest. I. 16) pCa i^v cXirls Kal Xoiirr] irpoo-SoKia t| twv 
d-rrb tov vopov fjpwv d8pwwv Kwp[r|]Twv ["irpbjs tovs dvoo-Lous 
TofvSafjovs, who had just won a victory. F'rom a later 
time comes the fragment of a letter in the correspondence 
of Heroninus (mid. iii/A. D.), P Flor II. 26S 6 , . . .jevois 
dvoo-ttovs [. . ., with Btwv tirtTpefTrdvTwv] in the next line, 
but no other context to help. 


P Oxy VII. 1068 16 (iii/A. D.) dXXd rjpepwv dvox^v ?x w » 

" and I have a delay of some days " (Ed.). 





For the derived noun ef. P Oxy III. 519 s1 (ii/A.D.) 
. . .]avuvi dvTa-yfwvio-Tfl) (Spaxp.a.1) [. . , in a list of pay- 
ments to gymnastic performers. The verb construed with 
irpds, as in Heb I2 4 , occurs in Priene 17 16 (soon after 
B.C. 27S) irpbs tovs pappdpous dvTaya>W£to-8ai. 

avxavanhiQoco . 

With this expressive compound (Col I 24 ) cf. the similarly 
formed d.vTava.'yi.viio-Ku) in the fragmentary P Petr II. 17 (I) 16 , 
where with reference apparently to certain e-y KAl ni J ' aTa we 
read, dvTava-yvwo-8r| p.01 Ka6bn d£iu>. Its opposite dvTavai- 
p(u is common in Ptolemaic land-surveys = "subtract ". In 
P Tebt I. alone there are over twenty instances of this use 
(see Index): cf. also P Eleph 2S 6 (iii/B.c), and from i/A.D. 
BGU III. 776 iil8 al els dT£'X(«av) dvTavaip[ov(ievai. .... 
Grimm's citations sufficiently warrant dvTav<nrXr|pdw itself. 
Linde (p. 49) cites the noun (-oxris) from Epicurus n 6 . 


P Par 34 22 (ii/B.C. ) x<*XK£av Tr|povvT£s dv[T]air[o]oa>o-u>o-i. 
aviTois. Chrest. II. 372"- n (ii/A.D.) Seto-Bai oi[v] d i<(>aXaTo 
firavayKao-8f|vai d[v]Ta[Tr]o8ovvai. P Leid W sxi 3l . 


figures in LXX and in Didache 5 2 pin-aia dyairwvTcs, 
Slwkovtcs avTa-rrdSopa : we have no citations to make. 


Dr Xageli (cf. p. 36) kindly supplies us with the following 
instances of the use of this word in the inscrr. and papyri : 
Michel 913 (ii/B.C.) (= CIG 30SS) . . . iirof3oX.ijs dvTa-Tro- 
Sdtrews, ZwlXos ZuuXov* dva*yvto(r€us, ZuuXos ZwiXov ktX. 
(according to the commentary in CIG v-TropoX-fjs, in sense of 
pai|/u>&uis. is dependent on dvTaTroSoVcuis) ; CPR I., p. 59 
(a loan on a house — beginning of iv/A.D.) eirdv p.^| diroSw 
toklv (fut. of tokl£w, with -iv for -i€iv, and act. for mid.) <tol 
tmYvuVuipai (/. -opai) tov vTrepTrhrTOVTOs xpovo y a\pi.s 
dvTairo8wo-€a>s, where the editor translates, " wenn nicht, 
so verstehe ich mich ftir die Uberzeit bis zur Rtickerstattung 
dazu, sie Dir zu verzinsen." Its literary record is unex- 


For d. in its more primary NT sense "hold firmly to" 
Mt 6", Lk 16 13 (but see s.v. a.vl\a), 1 Th 5", Tit I s , cf. 
such passages from the Koivf} as P Par 14 22 (ii/n.C.) ovSevbs 
StKatov dvT6xdp.6VOL (so BGU IV. 11S7 20 , in Augustus' reign, 
and P Tor 3 2 *(ii/i!.c), and i". 14 (B.C. 1 16) ), P Tebt I. 40 8 
(B.C. 117) ( = Selections, p. 28) tovs (k ttjs kwut|s 6p.08vp.aSbv 
dvT«'x«o"8ai tt)s o-fjs o-ksitt]S, "that the inhabitants of the 
village are with one accord holding fast to your protection," 
and P Amh II. 133 11 ,f - (early ii/A.D.) Kal perd iroXXuv 

ko-ttwv dvT]Kdo-ap£v ( f|vavK see under dvavKd£u>) avTwv 

avTacry^eo-Sai (/. dvTio-\-) Tfjs tovtwv eytpvias €irl tu irpoWpw 
€Kt*jopiov, "and with great difficulty I made them set to work 
at the former rent" (Edd. ). The verb is very common in 
petitions, as implying that, notwithstanding the course taken, 
other claims are not lost sight of: e.g. P Oxy II. 2S1 30 
(a.d. 20-50), ti. 282 10 (a. D. 30-5) Tilv \iiv vdp dXXuiv 
Tuiv 6Vtu>v po[t] irp[bs] avTfjv dv86£oua[i] (/. dvTt')^-) Kafl 
d]v8^opai, "this petition is without prejudice to the other 

claims which I have or may have against her" (Edd.), and 
ih. IX. 1203 s0 (late i/A.D.) tuv -yap vttovtwv rjpciv SiKaCwv 
■irdvTuiv dvTcxbpeSa Kal dv8e£oue6a, "for we maintain and 
shall maintain all our subsisting rights" (Ed). The same 
combination offenses is found in P Strass I. 74 18 (a.d. 126) 
T<Sv pev Trpb aXXwv twv Kcvr' tpavTov 8iKa[f]a>v avTe'^cuaat 
Kal dv8e'|[o] iv ouoevel «XXaTov[p.6vos], and in P Flor 
I. .S6 28 (i/A.D.) : see also ib. 51" (a.d. 138-61). In P Tebt 
I. 41 24lI -(<". B.C. 1 19) o.vt[ol] t€ dirapcvoY^XtiTOL ovtcs 8vv[(o]- 
p.e8a dvTe'xco-Sai Tfjs cio-aYwvTJs Kal ov8ev tu>i pao-iXel 
8iaireo-r|L, the editors render "that we being undisturbed 
may be enabled to attend to the collection of the revenues 
and the interests of the king may suffer no harm." Similarly 
BGU IV. 1 1 1 6 16 (b.c 13) d. ttjs (uo-6ii(o-«o)s). P Tebt II. 
309 2L (a.d. 116— 7) dvTeY^dfp-evoi Kal €Ts'poi]s p€€s 
is rendered "resuming the land and leasing it to others." 
It will be noticed that the instances (which might be added 
to) are all c. gen. rei : gen. pers., as in the Gospels, does not 
occur among them. 


The primitive local force, surviving in 'ivavri and the Latin 
cognate ante, and conspicuous in the old Cretan dialect, 
leaves traces in the Koivt) : there is an interesting discussion 
of its provenance in Wackernagel's pamphlet, Helur 
(Gtittingen, 1907), p. 5 f. Its solitary appearance in an 
Attic inscr., and in one passage of the " Halbattiker " Xeno- 
phon, make quite natural such an abnormality in the Koivrj 
as P Par I 406 (the astronomical treatise of Eudoxus) o>av f) 
o-eXT]vr| tu> rjXCw e-Tn.a-K0Tr]cr[T|] dvrl ttjs o^cus rjawv. Closely 
akin is the temporal use in Syll 616 43 (dialect of Cos, iii/B.c) 
d"YV€v€(r8ai . . dvrl vuktos, " ea ipsa nocte" : so Ditten- 
berger, who compares 43S 46 (Delphi, before B.C. 400) dvrl 
FeTtos, and Hesychius " avreTovs' tov avTov £tovs. " This 
maybe seen still in P Lond 1171 s (B.C. S) (= III. p. 177) 
Tip(fjs) olvov dvrt ttjs i tuv cira^opeviov " to cost of wine for 
the 5th of the intercalary days." By far the commonest 
meaning of dvTt is the simple " instead of." P Tebt II. 
343 24 (ii/A.D.) wort dvrt tXaiiivofs] <p[o(p£pov)] dpovpat ktX. 
" making 2%% arourae converted from productive oliveyard " 
(Edd.). P Giss I. 47 10 (ii/A.D.) a corslet bought for 360 dr. 
dvTl irXetovos, " under its value." P Rein 7 4 (B.C. 141 ?) 
&vt' eXcuSepov SovXo[s] 7«ve'o-8ai.. P Oxy VIII. 1119 20 (a.d. 
254) eTepovs dvT 1 aiiTiiv. P Hib I. 170 (B.C. 247) Vva a^j 
dvrt 4".X£as Jx^P av Ooci]pe8a. P Tebt II. 302 6 (a.d. 71-2) 
Tvv\dvop€V p€pLO-8]e'yT£s €K tov 8r|UOO"[£jov dvrl crvvTa^ews 
ktX. "instead of a subvention" (Edd.). This shades into 
" in exchange for" or "in return for" : Colder 455 [c. mid. 
iii/A.D.) TovSe crt MvySoviri Aiovvo-iov dvTl P[£]ov troXXiiv 
Kal ttjs elpT|vris o-Te'ppa, " thy statue here, a Dionysius (in 
marble), M. (erected, thus honouring thee with) a crown in 
return for guarding the life of many and for preserving the 
peace " (Ed.). Preisigke 6 28 (a.d. 216) — the writer begs to 
have the stipulated 7 artabae of wheat dvrl ttXsiovwv tuv 
KXeire'vTiov. BGU III. S22" (iii/A.D.) dcjmXfi] yap p.01 


\oXk6v twv €volkuuv. Ruining p. 29 remarks that inrcp has 
mostly superseded dvTC. The formula dv8' oil with names, 
as 'Epfilns dv8' oii 'Epprjs [b Kal EvSa]ipwv, BGU IV. 1062 1 
(a.d. 236-7), has raised some discussion : see note and reff. 
there— Crbnert took it as "adoptive son of," Viereck (fol. 




lowing Wilcken) makes it = o kci£. In that case what are 
we to make of P Lond 1170'" (iii/A.D.) (=111. p. 102) 
'Ekvctcws dv8' ov 'Ekvo-6u)S, "Smith alias Smith"? For 
dv8' tiv "wherefore" or "because" we may quote OGIS 
90 35 (the Rosetta stone — B.C. 196) dv8' av 8e8uKao-iv avTuii 
ou Beol vyitiav ktX., similarly 56" (the Canopus inscr. of 
Ptolemy III. B.C. 247-21), P Leid D' 21 (mid. ii/B.c.) o-ol Si 
■yivoiTo, dv6' oiv ( = because) irpbs to 8ciov bo-iws 8ictK[€L]o-ai 
Kal tu>v Upo&ovXwv . . . dvTi.Xap.|3dvT|, eira<j>po8£o-ia x^P ls 
(iop4>i) ktX. In P Tebt I. 120" (i/B.C.) IlaKvo-i dv9' u>(v) 
Kt'xpr|(Ke) Ti(j.rj(s) kt\., clvtI has the ordinary commercial 
sense. 1' Ryl 11. ijQ 18 (a.D. 31-21 . . dv8'] <Lv (JXap* irapd 

Tf|s Ta^xdli"os tols 8€o]vo-i Kaipois "in return for the 

. . . which he received from T. at the proper times." The 
supplement depends on the parallel document P Oxy III. 
504" (early ii/A.D.), and is seen to be no instance of the 
conjunctional phrase dv8 uv. 


The subst. dvTipXrjuaTa is found in P Oxy III. 49S 16 
(ii/A.D.), a contract with stone-cutters, where the editors 
understand it of small stones used to insert in vacant places 
between larger ones. Vettius Valens p. 35 1 20 tireipaSrificv 
Kal Tas dvTipaXXoijcraS" poipas rr\ euptSeLO-r) €mcn;vn8evai. 
8ttws t| «Te'pa xpr||jLaTLo-€i uoipa, "the corresponding parts" 


A literary citation may be given for this NT air. elp. (2 
Tim 2 25 ) : Longinus de Sublim. 17 has irpbs ttjv irciBu, tuv 
Xd-ywv irdvTws dvTiSiaTidcTai, " steels himself utterly against 
persuasive words" (Roberts). 


For this common legal word we may refer to the interesting 
lawsuit regarding the identity of a child, which recalls so 
vividly I Kings 3 16f '-: the prosecuting advocate states that 
his client had put the foundling in the defendant's charge — 
tovto €ve\cipLcrcv Tfji dvTiS^Kwt (P Oxy I. 37 is (a.d. 49) 
(= Selections, p. 49). Cf. P Ryl II. 65 15 (B.C. 67 ?), P Oxy 
II. 237™ .M.3Aviii. 12 ( A . D . tS6), BGU II. 592' (ii/A.D.), P 
Strass I. 4i^ a3t (c. A. D. 250). 'Avt£8ikos may be used 
of public opponents, as when the citizens of Abdera appeal- 
ing to Rome against annexation by Cotys the Thracian speak 
of t[ovs irpo]voovpevovs tov dvTiSiKov TJ|iciv (Syll 303' 24 , before 
B.C. 146). It also is used in the plural, of a body of oppo- 
nents, as several times in Syll 512 (ii/B.c), the case of the 
children of Diagoras of Cos versus the town of Calymnus ; 
also of the two parties, as in P Lille I. 29" (iii/B.c), irapoVTiov 
twv d. Silco, king of Nubia (vi/A.D.), concludes his ambiti- 
ous effort at Greek with a terrible threat against ot dvriSiKot 
|iov : this is the wider use found in I Pet 5 s and the LXX, 
with classical warrant. The verb appears in Preisigke 
2055 2 (iv/v A.D.) . . J'Aptws dvri8iKT|o-o.vT[. . ., and 
the abstract in P Tor 1. i«-«f (B.C. 117) avTol Kal tt|v 
irpbs tov 'Epp.tav KpL<riv ^YSiKao-aVT€S tKO"TTJo-u>o~iv avTov 
ttjs irpbs avTovs dvriSiKtas. 


The verbal adj. is used in a report of ii/B.c. regarding the 
peculations of certain officials, P Tebt I. 24", one of the 

charges against them being that they had "wormed them- 
selves " (ai/Tois tv«iXr|KdTa>v) into certain positions dvTt8eVais 
tt)s ko.8' tavTois do-xoX£a (/. — as), " inconsistent with their 
own work" (Edd.). 


P Oxy I. 97 9 (a.d. 1 15-6) irepl f)S dvT[e]KaT^o-TT| avTols 
tirl tov tov vojioO [o-]Tp(aTT|-yoi) 'AiroXXa>vto(v), BGU 
I. 16S 11 (probably A.D. 169) irp[b]s r\[v Kal dv]TiKaWo-[TT|v] 
eirl AlXtov, and L n ecj>' ov Kal dvTiKaTt'[o-]Tr|v . . . irpbs 
tov OvaXe'piov. For the subst. see P Oxy II. 26o 8fr (A.D. 59) 
4£ rjs «iroiT]0-dp.«[6a] irpb[s] eavTOv (/. -ovs) sirl tov o-TpaTTj-yov 
. . . dvTiKaTaa-Tdo-«os, " in consequence of our confronting 
each other before the strategus " (Edd.); BGU III. S6S 7 
(ii/A.D.) 4v] t[i] Tirj -y€vo|i^vT| tirl o-ov, Kvptc, d[v]TiKaTa- 
[ardo-ei, and .Sj'//355' (Chios, c. A.D. 3) vVrepov 8{ eKaTt'pov 
ut'povs e£ dvTtKa[Ta]o-Tdo-€us irtpl TiivKaTa u.e'pos £t]Tr|pdTwv 
«v(t)vxovtos 8tT|[Kov]o-a. 


P Par 45 6 (,-. B.C. 153) (= Witkowski 2 , p. S5) Meve'8ri|iov 
dvTtKtCfj.evov ijptv. 


Thackeray, Gr. p. 136, notes its use for " opposite " (3 Al u c 
5 16 , Ac 20 1S ) as "late": see his note on these words with 
movable -s. Cf. P Oxy I. 43 verso m - 2 ' (a.d. 295) 
KaTap-eviov dvTiKpvs oUfas 'Eiriu.dxov. P Tebt II. 395 1 
(A.D. 150) avTiKpvs Tvxa£ov, "opposite the temple of 
Fortune," P Oxy III. 471 s1 (ii/A.D.) dvTtKpvs dirdvTtuv, 
" in the presence of all." P Lond 978 s (a.d. 331) (= III. 
p. 233) Kal KaV avriKpvf. . . is before a hiatus. The 
(Attic) compound KOTavTiKpv(s) occurs in Apoc Petr 6, 
eiSov Se Kal tTcpov tottov KaTavTLKpvs CKeCvov avxp-ripov 
irdw, Kal fjv tottos KoXdo-ews, "over against that other." 
In P Hawara 116 verso 2U (= Archiv v. p. 3S5 f.) (Anto- 
ninus Pius) we read dvTiK[pv Tvxaiov] : clearly this may as 
well have been dvTiKpvs. 

avr da f i fidvofiai. 

This common verb is found in the general sense of "lay 
hold of," "undertake," in P Lond 3oi 6ff - (a.d. 13S-61) 
(= II. p. 256) 6p.vvu . . . dvTiXTJ|Aij<ao-8ai ttjs xP" as 
irio-Tws Kal eirig.eXu)S : so P land 33 12 (Commodus), rendered 
"se officio suo bene functuros esse." P Oxy IX. H96 12ff - 
(a.D. 211-2) d|ivvu . . . dvTi.Xfjp»(;aio-8at (1. e. — eo-Bai) tuj 
irpoo-TJKovTi xpo v '! , 1 ~n5 Sr|Xovu.tVT|s XP«^°-S, Kal TavTnv «kt«- 
Xe'o-iv, " I do swear that I will take up at the proper time the 
said office and will discharge it" (Ed.) : in the first two -ao-8ai 
has intruded into the weakened future inf., now getting rare. 
P Flor I. 47a 12 (a.D. 213-7) fVTci8fv 8UKaTspo]vdvTiXan(3dve- 
crBai. Kal xpdo-8ai Kal olkovo|xiv Kal 8ioi[k6Iv. Cf. P Rein 47* 
(ii/A.D.) ttjs] -y[«op]ytas a. P Oxy VIII. 1 123' (a.D. 158-9) 
baoXo"yw dirb tov vvv avTiXfjax^eo-SaL ttjs . [. .]ttis dva-ypa- 
<po(u'vr|S «is tov u.err|X[XaxbTa o-ov] iraTe'pa, "I agree that 
I will henceforward undertake all the public land registered 
in the name of your departed father" (Ed.). So BGU II. 
53 1 1 22 (ii/A.D.) irapaKaXcii Se o-e, dS(X<t>t, dvTiXa[p]t'cr8ai 
Tij[s T]pvy£[as] to "set to" the vintage, and P Tebt II. 393 12 
(a. D. 150) €ir [I] tw 'Apira[Xov d]vTLXaPe'o-8ai TavT-qs irotoiivTa 
iracrav tt)v virr|pe[o-(a]v, "on condition that H. shall occupy 




this post performing all the duties." From this come two 
derived senses, of which only the first is represented in the 
NT, (i) "aid," "succour" of a friend, (2) "seize" of an 
opponent. Good examples of (1) are P Petr II. 3 (b)~ (iii/n.c) 
o-v hi difxXoTipws pou dvTiXap.pdvT)i., P Par 27"' KaBoTi oil 
8ia\tfrms fjpwv dvTiXap.pav6fi.6vos, P Grenf I. 30 61 (B.C. 
103) c[4>]' °ls & v °vv vpwv 7rpocr8e'u)VTaL avTiXap-Pavdatvoi, 
BGU IV. I138 24 (Aug.) Iv" ui dvTiXrip.p.j'(vos), and the ex- 
pressive double compound in P Hib I 82" (B.C. 239-S) xaXuis 
oiv [tt]oit|0-«i.s cruvav[Ti.]X[a]pPav6p6VOS irpoBvpws Trtpl Tiiv 
ds TaOra o-uyKvpovTiov, " please therefore to give your zealous 
co-operation in all that concerns this" (Kdd.). Cf. OGIS 
697 1 (a Roman inscription from Egypt, on the graves of 
murdered men) dvTiXa(P)ov, Kvpte Sdpairi. Ditlenberger 
quotes P Fay I2 :u (B.C. 103) tovtiov hi -yevopt'vov 
dvTeiXrippevos, the passive. In OGIS Sl Bf - (iii/B.C.) Kal Kar 
iStav tKao-TOu Kal Kara kolvov irdvTwv dvTiXapPdveTai, the 
verb must have the same sense. Ib. 339 :i2 (ii/B.c.) shows 
gen. of thing, Tfjs t« dXXrjs evo-XT]poo-vvr|s Tfjs Kara to 
•yv.pvdo-i.ov dvTtXdp€To. For (2), where the meaning is in 
malum partem, see such passages as BGU II. 648 10 (ii/A.D.) 
Piauos dvTi[X]appdvovTai t[o]v TraTpiKov pov p.«pous, P Lond 
924 12 (a.I). 1S7-S) (= II. p. 135) piaiws dyreXapov t6 Tfjs 
■yfjs : other examples in Gradenwitz, Einfuhntngl. p. 18. For 
the subst. dvTiX-f|pirTup, formerly regarded as " peculiar to the 
LXX" (Cremer 7 ) Deissmann (BS p. 91) cites P Lond 23 
(B.C. 158-7) (= I. p. 3S), in which a petitioner claims the 
King and Queen as his avTiXripirropes, and says he finds his 
KaTa<pvryT| in them : cf. for the same conjunction of words 
LXX 2 Regn22 ;1 . AddBCU IV. 113S" 1 (cited above), where 
a Roman official is invoked as Toy TrdvT(iov) cru)Tij(pa) 
Kal dvTiX(T|p.TTTopa) — the same phrase without abbreviations 
occurs in a papyrus of the same collection cited in Archiv 
v. p. 81 n'-. 


The strong sense of d. in Rom io'- 1 , "contradict," 
"oppose" may be illustrated by P Oxy VIII. ii4S 5lf - 
(i/A.D.) where an oracle is consulted as to whether it is 
better for a certain man and bis wife pf| o~up({>wvf]o-ai. vvv 
tw iraTpl a(vTov) dXXd dvTiXe'yeiv Kal prj SiSovat ypdpp.aTa, 
"not to agree now with his father, but to oppose him and 
make no contract " (Ed.). A somewhat weaker usage appears 
in Syll 523 31 (iii/B.c.) 4dv hi ol ypapp.aTo8iSuo-KaXoi dvTi- 
Xe'-ywo-iv Trpbs avToiis Trepl tov TrXfj8ov.s tu>v irai8u>v, id. 54O 43 
(ii/B.c), iav hi -rrpbs avTovs avTiXeywo-tv ol tpytivai irepi 
tivos Ttiv yeypapps'vwv. Cf. aKo P Oxy I. 67 10 (a dispute 
regarding property, AD. 33S) el irpbs t^v tcov . . . oLko- 
Tr[e]S[wv] diroKaTdo-Tao-iv ... 01 e[ = al]Tia6[t'v]T£S dvTt- 
\iyoiev, "if the accused persons protest against the restora- 

I if the estates" (Edd.), ib. X. 1252 verso 3 '' (a.d. 288- 

95) dvTiXt'yovTes 2ppuivTai, " persist in their refusal " (Edd.), 
and ib. II. 237*'- 13 (petition of Dionysia, a.d. 1S6) 9 8t irapwv 
dvavvtoo-0£VTOs tov pipXaSiov irpb prjpaTos €0-iiiTrria-€v, ovO€v 
dvTfiireiv Swd[p«]vo[s] : so CPHerm J 41 ' (?ii/A.D.) d hi 
8eX«T« tTt'pav Y«v£o-8aL ovk dvTvXe'yio, ov yap Svvapiai. 


Like the verb, the subst. frequently has the meaning 
"help" in petitions, e.g. P Par 26 40 (B.C. 163-2) (= Selec- 
tions, p. I?) 8«6pc8a ovv ipiiv, aiav S)(ovo-ai fXiriSa ti ( v 

ii(p' {ipiiv lo-oue'vTjv dvT£Xi]v|/LV, diroo~mXai tjuuv tt^jv (Vtcu^iv 
tirl Aiovvo-iov, " vve beg you, therefore, having as our one 
hope the assistance that lies in your power, to send away 
our petition to Dionysius," P Amh II. 35 s7 (B.C. 132) 
TvjY^oVTts Tfjs trapd cr[o]u dvTtXf|\|«ws, P Grenf I. 15 1 (not 
later than B.C. 146 or 135) o-fjs SiKaCas dvTiXrjvl/ews, BGU 
IV. I187 27 (i/B.c. ). For the extension of this meaning to 
reliyious matters in the LXX and in I Cor I2 2B , see BS 
p. 92. It should be noted that the p which VVH insert in 
the noun in this last passage begins to invade it even in the 
earlier documents : cf. Pro/eg. p. 56. Thus P Lond 23 s0 
(B.C. 158) (=L p. 38) tjs t\tri Trpbs irdvTas . . . dvTi- 
Xrjp\|/ews, and the same phrase in P Tebt I. 43 29 (B.C. 118) : 
cf. P Tebt II. 283 20tr - (B.C. 93 or 60) tovtou hi •yevop.fe'Jvov 
:i,- U |iaL TeTtvj^ws [tt)]s Trapd o-oi) dvTiXT|px|/€cos, "for if this 
is done I shall have gained succour from you" (Edd). 
Later examples of the word are P Fay 296 (a.d. 113) 81b 
errl tri tt)v KaTa<p[rj]yf]v Troino-dp-evos d£iw cdv 0-01 (patvrjTaL 
dvTiXr|p,\|/€ws Tuy^iv Trpbs to Suvao"8a£ pt €ttilUviv €v ttj tSta 
8l€vi8vvo>v Ta STjpoo-ia, and BGU II. 613 1 ' 1 (time of Antoninus 

Pius) 8€0p€V0S TTJS dtrb O-OV dvTtXT|p\J/€WS t[ u X € ^] v * 


The disputed meaning "opposition" in act (see Thayer) 
finds fresh confirmation in P Petr II. 17 (3) 7 (iii/B.C.) where 
dvTiXo-yiav ■yevoji«vT)v 'ATraXut refers to an "assault." 
The word is fairly common, meaning " quarrel," as P 
Grenf I. 3S 9 (ii/i B. c. ) dvTiXoytav -rrpos p( o-uvo-TTio-dptvos, P 
Ryl II. 68 10 (B.C. 89) ep.Tr€0-ovo-a] i£ dvTiXo[-y](as 'l[-ir\T\£/iv} 
(i€, "attacking me in consequence of a dispute" (Edd.), and 
P Tebt I. 138 (late ii/B.c). So in the formula dvtu (x<"pvs) 
Trdo-Tjs dvTiXoy£as, "without dispute," in formal promises to 
pay money, etc. : BGU IV. 1133 15 (Aug.), P Strass I. 75 10 
(a.d. 118), P Lond 310 16 (a.d. 146) (=11. p. 208) (dvTi- 
Xoyias -yeivopt'vns) , Wilcken Ostr 1151 (iii/A.D.), P 
Flor 1. 43" (a.d. 370) and ib. 94 13 (a.d. 491). Cf. Syh 
929 115 (ii/B.c) im ov8«vbs dvTiXoyfas, ib. 334" 1 - 32 (i/B.c). 


V Petr III. 21 (,;') 2 ° (late iii/B.c) f|ioii Sc o"t dvTiXpiSopovv- 
tos follows «Xoi86pT]o-as <j>ap€vn ktX. : cf. 1 Pet 2 23 . 


For this rare NT word (Lk 6 38 ) Herwerden refers to the 
Byzantine Theophyl. Sim. p. 48, 25 (I 5, 5) d. d;^oipf)v 
ci^tav tovs P«piup.t'vois. Grimm cites Lucian, Amor. 19, 
which is stronger evidence for its *' profaneness." 


No instance of this Pauline word (Rom l 27 , 2 Cor 6 13 ) 
seems as yet to have been found outside Christian literature. 
This, however, may be wholly accidental ; and there is 
certainly nothing in the word itself to exclude it from the 
ordinary terminology of the day : see for further examples 
of the same kind Nageli p. 50 ff. 


Lk io 31f - can hardly have acquired this word from 
Wisd 16 10 , where the sense is markedly different. It is 
quoted from Straton (ii/A.D. ?), who writes (Anlh. Pal. 12 s ) 
dvTiTrapepxopcvos Ta o-Tt^avTyn-XoKia : Meineke took the 






rather needless trouble to emend dpTi Trap. — did he know 
that the word occurred in Biblical literature? If the com- 
pound is rightly read there, it might be a new coinage, as it 
may well be in Wisdom and in Luke. Any writer was free 
to make a fresh compound like this for a special purpose. 
Straton was morally the most tainted writer in the Anthology, 
and we may be quite sure he owed as little to Holy Writ 
as it owed to him ! 


Deissmann [BSp. 1S7) calls attention to the appearance of 
fAJvi-iirdTpou inPerg II. 524 s (" not older than Caracalla? ") : 
that the full form of the name is used may be evidence that 
this later Pergamene was not called after the martyr. 


This XT orr. dp., warranted from Polybius, is perhaps to 

be supplied in P Oxy I. 141 6 (a.D. 503) toIs dvpoej>\>Xo4(i) 

. . . 4>vXdTTOv<r(i) to dvTiireX ( ), with reference to guards 

who protected estates on the further bank (probably of the 

Bahr Vusuf). 


P Leid D 21 (ii/B.c), one of the letters of Ptolemaeus in the 
cause of the Serapeum Twins, has p.rj8£v dvTiTr€o-dv[T]a, 
"not opposing me." 


The verb occurs twice in P Oxy IV. 707" "• 3S (c. A.D. 
136), a report of legal proceedings, with reference to the 
opposing party. P Cattaoui verso 1 - ' (mid. ii/A.D.) (= Chrest. 
II. p. 98) Trjs avTiT£Ta-yp.e'vns dpi-Cios Apouo-tXXas. There 
are several instances in OGIS in a military sense, which was 
of course the earliest. 


The meaning "impress" is rightly given by LS for twos 
as the first that arises from the etymology, and it is well 
supported in classical and post-classical writers. Hence, 
though " profane " examples for dvTC-ruTros(-ov) = "corre- 
sponding" (adj.) or "image" (noun) are rare, we can take 
the use in Heb 9 s1 and I Pet 3 21 ("answering to ") as the 
survival of a primitive meaning. Note also Polyb. vi. 31 8 
tois S' L7nr€{i<ri tovtois dvTC-nJTroi Ti8evTai, of auxiliary 
infantry posted "opposite" the cavalry, in a corresponding 
position. In MGr written language d. means " copy " of a 


Grimm suggests that John (1 Jn 2 18 etc.) coined the word : 
Eousset {Antichrist Legend p. 136) says it "is not older than 
the NT." It seems obvious, from the manner of its first 
introduction, that it was at any rate quite familiar to the 
readers of 1 Jn and 2 Jn ; but it might easily have been 
introduced by the author in his earlier teaching. The most 
probable model would be dvrCfltos ("aemulus Dei" in Lac- 
tantius), for which Cumont (Les Religions Orientales 2 p. 
387) cites a magical papyrus, irt|ix|/ov p.01 tov dXnBivov 
'Ao-KArjiribv Si^a Tivbs dvTiBt'ov TrXavo8a.Cp.ovos. It was a 
term applied to the daeva of Magian religion, on whom see 
Part I. 

Early Zoroastrianism (Hibbert Lectures 1912), ch. iv. : 
they were " counter-gods." Whether John means primarily 
" a rival Christ " or " an opponent of Christ " or " a substi- 
tute for Christ " may be left to the commentators. The first 
and third may be paralleled by the two senses of dvTio-Tpd- 
TTivos, "the enemy's general" and "pro-praetor": cf. 
avTio-vvKXTiTOS, the name Marius gave to his bodyguard, as 
an "opposition Senate," dvTixoprryos " rival choregns," and 
dvTiTap.£as " pro-quaestor " etc. The second is less easily 
paralleled : Caesar's 'AvTtKaTwv, a counterblast to Cicero's 
Cato, may serve. Generally speaking, dvTi — x suggested 
(1) the claim to be x, (2) opposition to, equivalence to (cf. 
Homeric avrOeos, and the name 'AvThraTpos), substitution 
for an existing x. 


P Oxy VI. 985 (i/A.D., second half) dvT|X<ip.a(Tos) "fauo-Tu 
dvrXoivTi p.T|xa(vT|v), P Lond I177 66 (A.D. 113) (=111. p. 
1S3) dvTXovvTwv airo -rrpioCas tfws 6t|/€. In the late P Oxy I. 
147 (a.d. 556) we have a receipt for a "rope" or "coil" 
provided by the monks for the machine in the garden of the 
Holy Mary 4ttI tu> dvTXfjo-ai iiSwp €is ttjv d\t(av) koXup|3t|- 
8pav, " for raising water to fill the holy font." The subst. 
dvTXTrrrjs occurs in P Lond 1177 (cited above), P Tebt I. 
241 (B.C. 74) and P Strass I. 52" (a.D. 151) ; and dvTXia in 
BGU IV. II20 47f - (B.C. 5). For the compound dvavTXe'w 
used metaphorically, see P Vat A 13 (B.C. 16S) (= Witkowski 2 , 
p. 65) toloijtovs Kaipous dvr|VTXT|Kuia : similarly I' Hawara 
56 20 (? late i/A.D.) {Archil) v. p. 382) dppworiav io-o8dvaTo(v) 
[«|]TJvTXT|o-a — presumably [dv]r|VTXr|o-a is as likely, in view 
of the parallel just cited. 


"Verbum elegantius = resistere," so Blass on Ac 6 11 , 
where the word is found in his " (3-text," u.rj Suvdpevoi. ouv 
dvTot()8aXp€tv (avriXiytiv) ttj dXr|8eia : cf. the Polybian 
passage cited by Schweighauser (with a wrong reference) in 
Lex Polyb. s.v., p.t| Suvao-8ai tols xp lf IH Lao "'- v dvTo<j>8aXp.4iv. 
In the ordinary text of the NT d. occurs only in Ac 27 15 of a 
vessel's not being able to "face" the wind : cf. Wisd I2 H , 
of a king or prince who cannot "look God in the face" 
(dvTo4>8aXpfjo-a£ o-ot), and Apoc. Baruch 7 (p. 89, ed. James) 
oil ttjv 8e'av ouk TjSuvrjdTjptv dvTO<J>6aXufjo-aL Kai LSav. For 
a similar usage see Barnab. 5 10 , and cf. Clem. Rom. 34 of an 
idle workman — o vu0pbs Kal Trapciu-e'vos oijk dvToc|>6aXp€t 
Tii epYOTrapeKTT] aiToS, " does not look his employer in the 
face. " 

The word was read in the printed text of P Par 63 43 , but 
is removed by Mahaffy (P Petr III. p. 23), who reads dvT' 
6<f>9aXp[o>]v [8eu.cvov]s, "keeping it before your eyes." The 
parallel compound e[Tr]ocf>0aXp.T|o-ao-a occurs in P Thead 19 9 
(iv/A.D. ) " ayant jete un ceil d'envie sur le troupeau " (Ed.). 


OGIS 199 21 (i/A.D.) 0'iKoOvTa €Vtos TrcSt'wv pevdXwv 
dvvSpuv — the "waterless" deserts stretching to the south 
and west of Abyssinia. P Oxy VI. 918 ul ° (a land-survey, 
ii/A.D.) p.t8' (f^v) Y"l[ s &]vuSp(os). P Lips Inv 34S 6 (a.D. 
376-8) ( = Chrest. II. p. S6) dveSpapov . . . 81' dvvSpajv 6p<ov. 
The subst. is found in the petition of certain quarrymen to 
be transferred to the alabaster quarries on account of the 






want of water in the place where they were working — 8id 
tt|v dvvSptav Tciy T<Sir»v [Tcii/8]e (P I'etr II. 9<2) 6 (iii/B.C.)). 


To the literary citations for this word given by Nageli, 
p. 43, we may add Demetrius de Eloc. 194. 


In the great Paris magic papyrus (edited by Wessely, 
Wicn. Denkschr. XXXVI. ii. pp. 44 ft) 1367 we find dvuiro- 
tcLktous following ctl8t|po\|/ijxous d-ypuoflvpous. Moeris (ed. 
Pierson), p. 34, defines d(pnviao-TT|s by dwirdTaKTos, 
inrep^avos. See further Nageli, p. 45. 


Tob S 8 X dire'Spapev to Saipdviov dvw els rd pe'pr| Aiyv- 
ittou — other authorities for this recension have ets to dvw pe'pt) 
— raises some problems, on which reference may be made to 
Early Zoroastrianism, p. 338, and D. C. Simpson in he. 
(Oxford Apocrypha). For the text as it stands good illustra- 
tion may be found in the Egyptian documents, P Leid D' 16 
ets rois dvw tcSttous, "ad loca superiora," and the con- 
temporary OGIS III 17 (after B.C. 163) eirl twv dvw -nSiruv 
[Taxfleis]. Cf. P I'etr II. 33 (a) A ") 10 (a steward's account) 
dpTwv twv aTroo-TaXtvTwv croi. dvw, P Oxy IV. 744 s (B.C. 1) 
( = Selections , p. j^) d-rroa-TeXw ere dvw, "I will send them 
up to you " (from Alexandria) : on tri = croC, cf. Pro/eg. 
p. 64. For T| dvw kXtjctis in Phil 3 14 the RV mg (="the 
call, Come tip ! ") is apparently presumed in Apoc. Baruch 4 
(p. 87 s3 , ed. James) iv airii peXXovcnv tt|v dvw kXtjo-iv 
irpocrXaPeiv, Kai ttjv ets irapaSeLcrov el'croSov. A curious 
metrical epitaph (no. 69) in Prof. Calder's Phrygian col- 
lection, dated by him after the middle of iv/A.D., begins 

vvv d-yenrcis crv paBeiv t(s e-yw £e'vos, r) ?r68ev ^jXBa ; 
e-y Xeyewvos dvw 9epe'v[wv] pacriXea pe'-yicrrov, 

which he renders "from the legion of those that have set the 
mighty king on high." In P Fay IOI verso ' 15 (an account, 
about B.C. 18) we find dvw riaOvt 8 ews 'Eirelcp ie, where 
the editors explain dvw as indicating that the following dates 
" Pauni 4 to Epeiph 15" should have headed the account, 
instead of coming at the end. The superlative dvuTai-u 
occurs in P Lond 1 170 verso (c) 11 (a.d. 42) (= III. p. 107) 
rfj dvwTaTw xP*l a ' H LCU Tcipup(a, " the highest penalty " — 
an unusual application : cf. Epict. iii. 24 s4 •rj dvwTaTw Kal 
KvpiuTaTT) (sc. dcrKTjO-LS). The compound eVdvw {q.v.) is 
represented in MGr. 


In P Petr III. 43(2) tT - 17 (B.C. 246) dvwBev is found in 
opposition to koto) : hiat contextus. P Hib I. I io* 5 (records 
of postal service, e. B.C. 255) wpas irpiii-ris irape'SwKev 
0€«XP[t)]o-tos dvoflev Aivtai kv(Xio-tous) y, " 1st hour, Theo- 
chrestus delivered to Dinias 3 rolls from the upper country" 
(Edd. ). "AvoBev appears again twice in this document, and 
KaToflev "from the lower country." (This is a very early 
example of the approximation of o and to, on which see 
Pro/eg. 3 pp. 244 and 35 t). BGU IV. 1208 2 (Aug.) 
KaTavTTJ[o-a]s eK twv dvwBev [tcSttwv] . . . (Kopi<rd| |xi] \y 
Sid SioTriptxo" xtX. In P Tebt I. 59« ff -.n> (b.c 99) fjv ?x tTC 
irpos T]pds dvwBev iraTptKr|v tpiXtav, and 8id to dvwBev 

cpopeicrBai Kal cre'Peo-Bau to tepov, the editors translate " ot 
old." P Oxy II. 237*"' 3l (A.D. 186) 8irep oi KaXws tv8e'x«Tai, 
el (it) dvwBev ye'voiTo dvTt-ypacpa, "this cannot be done 
adequately unless copies are made from the beginning " 
(Edd.). In P Oxy IV. 71S* 1 (a.D. 180-92) «ti S\ dvwfl[e]v 
twv 8np.oo-£wv diroSiSope'vuv, the editors translate "although 
the imposts have for years been paid." But " completely," 
" from the beginning" may equally be the sense of dvwBev : 
cf. ii. 745 Jff - (c. a.d. i) aft • • ]ve[ . ] . r\[ . . ]va dvwBev 
ydvryra.1 irdvTa Kal irdXiv eaTovs dvacrKevd£wue[v] p^| oiicrr|S 
Xpr|as, "in order that everything may not be completely . . . 
and we go bankrupt again without any necessity" (Edd.). 
In BGU II. 595 5ff - (a.D. 70-80) the meaning "again," 
"a second time," seems hest to suit the context. A certain 
Sochotes, wishing to repay a loan, did not find his creditor — 
toO Se o-e p^i cdpEOfjvai d-n-oSe'Swxt avTas dvwOov (for 
aviuOec Vva <ptXdv8puTrov ets Svo TeiTrous ar|i. xopTfyfji, where 
Lietzmann (Gr. Pap. p. 14) understands by (piXdvBpwrrov a 
gratuity: " S. has once paid it and would have to pay it 
again, if he went back home with the borrowed money ; 
therefore he returns it immediately." Other examples of the 
word are CPR I 19 (i/A.D.) KaBws dvu8ev e£8icrTo, P Tebt II. 
298 61 (A.D. 107) aKoXoi8us t^j dv[w8Jey crvvT]8eCa, BGU IV. 
1074 2 (iii/A.D.) tois dvwSei/ irpoyovois, and P Oxy IX. 1204 14 
(A.D. 299) SeSe'nTai. Trjs Betas T«xns tri dvuBev tuiv 8ecnroTiiv 
tjaoov. The usage of the inscriptions follows on similar 
lines. Dittenberger (Syll III. p. 256) enumerates three 
meanings — (i) de stipero 537 63 eVep-ydcreTai. opBbv Kal opaXes 
dvuBev, (2) antiquitus 929 31 vcipois -y"-P depots . . . dvuflev 
8ieK6KiuX»To 'iva pT|6e(s ktX., (3) denuo 732 11 -yevr|6els 8[e] Kal 
■n-apatnos Trjs dvujflev o-uXXo-yfjs, a decree of i/B.C. referring 
to the revival of certain sacred practices which had ceased 
for some time. 


For this comparative with reference to time, cf. Syll 307 55 
(ii/B.c) eVei dvuTepov Tp([T<o], ii. 318 6 (B.C. 118) t&v 
dvioTepov pev xpovov irdvTa SiaTeTe'XeKev. In P Giss I. 48^ 
(A.D. 202-3) we f> nt l ' ne •*> form, rots dvwTe'pa) 'ijiq-x.. 


P Lond 908 31 (a.d. 139) (= III. p. 133) Stros et8fj dKupov 
Kal dvucpeXes KpiBno-opevov 8 peTe'JuKev iirdpnipa. The same 
document has Kevws Kal [d]vu)<peXws (1. 28). In P Hawara 
S6 20 (Plate i/A.D.) (= Archivv. p. 382) we find a derived 
subst. , 8ti dppiuo-Tfav icrofldvaTo(v) [e^]r|VTXT]cra Kal dXXas 
iroXXds dvuxpeXtas. 


P Magd 8 8 (B.C. 218) 8pe'iravov Bepio-TiKov o5 np^| (8pa- 
Xpds) p\ d^£vr| (8paxpds) p. Herwerden s.v. kX^s recalls 
the proverbial saying — Tig xXeiSl Ta f^uXa crxi^etv, -np 8* d|(vn 
rr|v Bijpav dvo(Yeuv (Plut. A/or. 43 C). Cf. MGr dfjivapi. 

appears with infin. in BGU IV. 1141 15 (B.C. 14) iyu pjv 
oi Sokwi ci^los eivai vppC^ea-Bai. For the absolute use (as 
Mt to 11 ' 1 ') see P Petr II. 15 (3)" (B.C. 241-39) tovto 
8e iroiricras eix ?""^! ""' ^IV-^ K[al?] d^ios 7ap eo-riv 6 
dvBpu-iros iv xpe(ai[ . . . where the editor translates, "By 





doing this you will oblige us, [. .] for the man is worthy of 
it, [hut] in need — ." The sense of "worth," "value," is 
illustrated by P Lille I. 6* (iii/B. a), where a certain Fetesuchos 
complains that robbers €^€'8uorav \tTwva a£iov (8pa\pds) S" 
"a tunic worth six drachmas." .So the fern, became a noun 
= "value": BGU IV. mb 40 (B.C. 22) imOeo-Bai. Trepl ttjs 
tovtwv d£ias, ib. I126 14 (B.C. S) cktCviv ri\v tKacTou d££av 
ttXt^v <rvp<pavoGs dir[a)\t£as]- For cdji'ws toO 8eov (as in 
1 Th 2 12 , 3 Jn B etc.) see Deissmann BS p. 248 f. , who shows 
that "the formula was a very popular one in Pergamus (and 
doubtless also in other localities)." He cites five inscrr., as 
Parg I. 24S 7 ff - (ii/B.c), where Athenaios, a priest of Dionysios 
and Sabazius, is extolled as o-\j[v]TeT{\«K(STos ra Upd . . . 
tio-cpiis [p]Jy Kal a£ti»s tov 8to€. We may add Magn 33 a0 
(Gounos in Thessaly, iii/B.c.) d|Cus [t]*j[s] B^ds, ib. 85 10 '■ 
(Tralles) dittos ttjs t( ' ApTt'piSos . . . Kal [roi] . . 8-fjuou, and 
Priene M9 IS (end of i/fi.c.) iropirevo-as ttj Trpoa-TUTi.81 tt^s] 
irdXews 'A8T)vdt ttjs fltds ag£[us]. So P Petr II. 13 (19)* 
(c. B.C. 252) ( = \Vitkowski, 2 p. iS) ov] u.i\v oiSiv spol [itrrai 
ua]VC,ov t) o-ofl Trpo(TTaTfjo-a[i tov] €[tt]£Xoittov ptov, d£ius [uX\v 
o-ov, d^Lws 8' epoi», where the dependent gen. is neither 
divine nor a community, but has the dignity characteristic 
of the pietas of this charming letter. A combination may 
be seen in the letter of Aline to her husband, P Giss I. 20 24 
(ii/A.D.), following the citation under d|iduj below, Eva d£(us 
o-ov Kal tuv 8e<iv doKvus Trpoo-^XBrj. The word survives in 


is very common in legal documents = "claim," e.g. 
P Oxy I. 37'- 21 (a.d. 49) (= Selections, p. 50) d£iwi Tavi[Ta] 
4>vXax8ij[v]ai, "I demand that these (documents) be pre- 
served (in the record)," ib. II. 237"- 14 (a.d. 1S6) d£iciv tots 
d TTpoo-TJve-yKa avTr dvaKopicraa-Qai, "claiming to recover 
what I had made over to her." It also frequently occurs in 
the weakened sense "request," "ask," as P Eleph 19 18 
(iii/B.C.) d|u3 <re dvaKaXe'o-ao-8ai MiXwva, P Par 49 10fr - 
(B.C. 164-5S) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 70) tov 84 dSsXcpoi o-ov 
o-up.Tre<rdvTos p.01 . . . Kal d|iwo-avT<5s p«, P. Oxy IV. 805 
(B.C. 25) a|ua 8J dvTi()>u)V€iv [p]oi TrvKvdTepov, P Giss I. 20 23 
(ii/A.D.) d£iuo-€kS ovV hio-Tiyov avTwt *ypa<pT]vai (can this 
mean " you will arrange that . . ." ?). For o^looi of prayer 
(as LXX Jer 7 16 , II 14 ) cf. P Par 51 22 (a dream from the 
Serapeum, B.C. 160) (= Selections, p. 20) r|£tu>Ka tov 
Sapairiv Kal ttjv T Io-tv Xt'-ywv 'EXSe pot, Bed Betuv ktX., and 
5i'//Sl6 1 (ii/i B.C. ) cTriuaXovpai Kal d|iu tov Btbv tov fixpio-Tov 
. . . tirl tovs 8<5Xui <pov«u<ravTas ktX. (See Deissmann LAE 
p. 423 ff. ) The verb occurs in OGIS 201' (the Silco inscrip- 
tion, vi/A.D.) av-Tol T|££toa-dv pe, where Dittenberger renders, 
"dignitatem meam regiani agnoverunt." For a similar use 
of the noun d|u»pa, see P Tebt I. 33 4 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, 
p. 30) iv pC£ovi d|iwpaTi Ka[l] Tipfju For the LXX usage of 
d£Cu>pa — "request, petition" (Esther 5 3 " 8 , 7 2f ' etc.), Deiss- 
mann {BS p. 92 f.) refers to the confirmation afforded by 
the inscriptions, e.g. Syll 303 6 (before B.C. 146) irepl tJs 
(X^pas) tTri8ovs d£twpa Pao-iXevs ©pa.Kwv K($t[vs] . . . 
TJT6L t[t^v TrjaTptov T|pwv \wpav. Frankel on Perg I. 13 1 
(iii/B.c.) describes it as very rare : see his exx. 


P Leid W"- 27 (occult) has d. among divine epithets, also 
"i- 41 of fire (!). From Hellenistic times comes the Milesian 

epitaph Kaibel 223 dvvo-avTd <re Tav ddpa-rov . . aTpaTa-rov 
(dTpaTrtTov Ed.) (3iotov : " videtur via dici quam qui sequitur 
nescit quo ducit." The subst. occurs in Magn 114'SidTfiv 
. . . dopacriav Twv dpTOKoTrwv. 


The verb= "report," "announce " (as Mk 6 30 ) is found in 
P Lond 42 s5 "• (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, p. 11) in 8« 
KaVlipov tov T^]V£Tria~roX-f|V TrapaK€KopiKo[To]s aTrTiyycXKoTos 
vrrtp rov dTroX€Xuo"8ai (re €K ttjs KaTo\fjs TravTcXws diiSC- 
^opai. "and now that Horus who brought the letter has 
reported about your having been released from your retreat, 
I am utterly distressed." So P Tebt II. 297' (c. a.d. 123) 
d7rTJv*y[ei]X€v tt^v rd£iv ws 6<pttXoucrav Trpa8fjvai, " reported 
that the office ought to be sold." Abbott, Joh. Voc. p. 164, has 
a good note on the force of air. = " report, bring word" in 
Jn 16 25 : he illustrates it from Epictetus. In the interesting 
proceedings before a Roman Emperor, P Oxy I. 33 (late 
ii/A.D.), the word seems almost to have the legal sense of 
"appeal," as when the accused man exclaims, t. «ft : 
iirrJp -rijs epauToi tiryevetas . . . dTrayy^XXfdi], " I appeal on 
behalf of my nobility" (Edd.). 

andy co. 

The verb is found four times in P Oxy I. 33 (late ii/A.D.), 
of one being "led off" to death, which may perhaps deter- 
mine the meaning in Ac 12 19 : the guards were not merely 
"imprisoned," but " led away to death " (RV mg). Lk 23 s6 , 
with the Vulgate duci and the gloss aTroKTavBfjvai. in D*, are 
probably decisive for this (the Attic) meaning. On the 
other hand, it should be noted lhat d. is the ordinary word 
for "arresting" (cf. Gen 39 22 Tois dTnyype'vovs = " the 
prisoners") as P Petr III. 36 (a) verso* dStKuis dTrnype'vov 
and ib." d]»cpipt£as IviKiv dirT|x8ilv : so P Lille 7 13 (iii/B.C.) 
ovtos ok dTrfrva'Yt'v pe tis t6 ai8i. 8eo-pwTf|piov, P Petr II. 10 
(2) 11 o-uv^ra^cv o iirnpe'-rns diraYa-ytiv pc, "the apparitor 
gave directions to arrest me" (Ed.), and OGIS 90" (the 
Rosetta stone, B.C. 196) tous iv Tais <pvXaKats dTrT|-yp«'vous 
. . . aTrAvo-t tov 4vKtKX(T|)pfvwv. Cf. also P Oxy II. 
237 "'■" (a.d. 186), where Chaeremon claims the right of 
taking away his daughter even against her will from her 
husband's house — dird'yovTi air^v aKov<rav «k ttjs tou dv8pbs 
oUCas, BGU IV. I139 16 (B.C. 5) erdXpT)o-e . . . diroq-rfpttv 
dTra'ya'yetv tt^v 8vyaT€pa T|pa>v . . . Kal ^xciv Trap caxiTwi iv 
tipKT[Tj 4irl] pflyas S. In the dialect inscription Syll 271 s ' " 
(ii/B.c) it denotes apparently the "capture" of youths in 
a raid. 


In P Oxy I. 33 ul8 (late ii/A.D.) Appianus does not 
hesitate to charge the Emperor (? Marcus Aurelius) with 
Tvpavvra d<piXoKa7a8ia drrarSCa as contrasted with the 
virtues of his deified father Antoninus who was <pi-X<Sa-o<pos 

. . dipiXdp-yvpos . . . 4".Xdva8os. See Archiv i. p. 37. 


For the intransitive sense of a. = " depart," as in Gen 37 17 , 
cf. P Petr II. 13 (5) 5 (B.C. 258-3) dTr[T)pp]e'vov, "on your 
departure." In the Paris magical papyrus 3082 Deissmann 
(LAE p. 254) ingeniously proposes to substitute for the 
meaningless d^aipwv of the MS. aTratpuv in the sense of 




"make to go forth " (as LXX Ps 77 26 . 52 )— 6pK(l>v 8e <))i<ra 
d-rrb twv aKpwv Kal twv ttoSwv d-n-alpwv to <|>i»crr||ia 'cms TOV 
irpoo-uTrou Kal €lo-Kpi8T)<r«Tai. MGr iratpvio (also iraipw) 
is given as " take," " fetch " in Thumb's Glossary : it might 
equally well come from iiratpu, but the meaning suits 
d-rratpoi better. 


BGU II. 530 86 (i/A.u.) (= Selections, p. 62) aXXios rt Kal 
d-rraLTiTai vtto twv irpaKTopwy iKavdv, " especially security is 
demanded by the taxgatherers " : cf. P Fay 39 14ff - (a.d. 183) 
eK t(vos diraiTetTai. to TrpoKe£|ievov diroTaKTov, where the 
editors state that d. "may imply that the payment was in 
arrear or have a quite general meaning." The former 
alternative is clearly implied in P Fay 11 20 (?. B.C. 
115) 6 evKaXovpevos irXeovaKis dirr|TT||j.«'vos [o]i\ inro\Uvei 
eKovcrlws d-iroSiSdvai, "the accused, though frequent de- 
mands have been made, p.-rsistently refuses to pay volun- 
tarily" (Edd.). Other examples of the verb, which is 
common, are P Flor I. 61 12 (A.D. S6-S) 8td t£ Jus o-t)|iepov 
ok d*rrT)TT]cra5, and again 51 eirel criToXo-yoi rjorav Kal dir^- 
t[ov]vto els tov K[a]lcrapos Xd-yov, P Lond 856 19 (late i/A. D. ) 
(= III. p. 92) 9 Se XtiniTTup diravret certain taxes, P Tebt 
II. 327 19ff ' (late ii/A.D.) ov Seovtus aTraLTov|ia[i] rd virep 
twv tiirapxov[To)]v TeXovu.eva Sn(ic>o-ia, "demands have 
wrongfully been made upon me for the government dues 
payable on behalf of the property" (Edd.) : a very similar 
phrase occurs in CPHerm 52' 16 . In P Oxy VIII. 1157 15 
(late iii/A.D.) Kal |id8e cm to e-rreiKec|>dXaiov dTraiTovcriv 
"find out also about the collection of the poll-tax" (Ed.) : 
the idiomatic impersonal plural curiously contrasts with the 
translation Greek, showing the same word, in Lk 12 20 . In 
the Christian letter P Oxy VI. 939 16 (iv/A.n. ) (= Selections, 
p. 129) we have the phrase tovto tov KaOrJKOVTos cVrr[a]i- 
[toCvt]os, "this being what duty demanded." For the 
subst. see BGU IV. II03 le (B.C. 14) irepl diramrjcrtws tov 
cbepvapCov, P Oxy I. 104 28 (a will, A.D. 96) diratTT|[o-i]v 
irotr|O-ecr0ai, etc , and for the adj. diraiTT|criu.os various 
land-surveys of ii/B.C. — P Tebt I. 61, 64, 72. The noun 
diraiT-nTTJs occurs in Wilcken Oslr 1460 (a.d. 1S5-6) 81 
cp.ov MdpKov . . . a7raiT(rjTov . 


To Grimm-Thayer's reff. for this NT air. tip. (Eph 4 19 
dirnX-yriKoTes, but aTrnXmKdTes DG etc.) in its Hellenistic 
sense of " to despair" or " become callous," add Dion Cass. 
xlviii. 37 d. irpos tt]v eXirtSa. 


In one of the oldest marriage-contracts hitherto discovered 
among the Greek papyri, P Gen I. 21 12 (ii/B.c), provision 
is made for what will take place if the wife of her own accord 
PovX-nTai d-TraXXdorcreo-Oai, "desires to be released": so P 
Tebt I. 104 31 (B.C. 92), P Oxy I. 104" (a will, A.D. 96) 
T|v(Ka edv diraXXa-yrj tov dvSpds, it. II. 265 17 (A.D. 81-95), 
it. II. 267 1 '. 20 (a.d. 36), al, and for the subst. in a similar 
sense P Oxy VI. 905 11 (a.d. 170) t]dv 8[« dJiraXXa-yr) 
■yevT]T[a]i. The correlative is well seen in P Ryl II. 154 s ' 
(A.D. 66) edv 8e 8ia<j>opds avTois *yevap.e'vr|s [xl^pl^ovTai 
air dXXrjXwv, f^Toi tov X. d-iro-rre'p-TrovTos t[t)]v ©. t) Kal avTTjs 
eKoucr(u)[s d]TraXXacrcrou.eV[rj]s [djir avTov : the correspond- 

ing nouns diroirou.irT| and eKovo-ios diraXXa-yt) appear in 1. 29 . 
A more general use of the verb is afforded by P Petr II. 
2 (3)" (B.C. 260) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 22) el eppwcrai Kal iv 
Tots [djXXois dXvirws diraXXdcrcreis, "if you are well and 
in other respects are getting on without annoyance." P 
Petr II. 20 iv - 8 (as amended P Petr III.) (B.C. 252) Xvo-vre- 
Xe'o-Tepov diraXXd£ei, " it will be more profitable for you to 
release (the boat fromd-yyapCa)." P Ryl II. 7735 ( A D _ jg 2 j 
Kal diraXXa-yijvai. eiriTT|pT|o-eus " released from the super- 
intendence of land under lease" (Edd.). The perf. partic. 
mid. means "dead" in P Lond 915 15 (a.d. 160 or 161) 
(=111. p. 27) : cf. ueTT|XXaxws. P Tebt II. 315 (ii/A.D.) 
twice shows the word, as 15 [|U]]Sev Tapax[8]flS, e-yw -yap [o-]e 
[d]iraXXd£w (andso 26 ) " I will get you off " (Edd.). lb. 385 s4 
(a.d. 117) w Kal Swori dTraXXacrcrou.e'yw . . . " on his release 
(from apprenticeship) " : cf. the subst. in P Oxy IX. 1204 13 
(a.d. 299) aTraXXa-yT|v eiipao-0ai ireipuiuevo; . . . twv iroXei- 
tikwv Xevrovp-yiwv, " endeavouring to find a release from 
municipal offices." The tov (3Cou, which produces the use 
noted above, is expressed in Hadrian's dying letter (or what 
purports to be such), P Fay 19 19 [ov>e d]vof)Tws diraXXdcro-ou.e 
tov pc'ov. From inscriptions may be cited Syll Sl0 89 (ii/B.c.) 
00-ot 8e eYKaToXiirdvTes to KTT|u.aTa aTrTiXXa-yue'voi elcriv, ol 
8e TOKio-Tal -yeYewpYTiKacriv, dvai to KTTJp.aTa twv tokuotwv, 
apparently " have absconded." So P Fay 12 19 (c. B.C. 103) 
dTrT)XXdyiio-av. There is a curious use in P Flor II. 262'* 
(iii/A.D.) dTrf|Xa|ev -yap totc tov irfixiv Spaxfiwv 8eKa, which 
Comparetti renders " poiche allora valuto il cubito a dieci 
dramme "—so we say " he let it go for a shilling." 


Syll 226 1 " (Olbia on Euxine, iii/B.C.)oi8evbs S'aTrnXXoTpl- 
uo-e ov8ev Toiv inrapxdvTuv. Jb. S6o 12 ' ls (in dialect, Delphi, 
ii/B.C.) iicra[vTw]s 8e p.T|8e dTraXXoTpicoo-aTw 'Ao-£a . . 
el 8e dTraXXoTptuot-n Ka6' ottoIov Tpd-rrov ktX. OG/S^Si 1 ' 3 
(i/B.C.) p.r|Te afiTui KaTaSouXwo-acrBai, u.T]Te els eVepov diraX- 
XoTpicio-ai. Dittenberger (Syll II. p. 10, n 9 ) cites another 
Delphian inscr. with diraXXoTpiwouo-a. Cf. also Syll 229 12 
(iii/B.C, Orchomenus in Arcadia— in dialect) ur| e^e'o-Tu 
p.T|6evl dTraXXoTpiai[o-ai evTbs eTJeW cI[k]octi (sc. yav KXdpov 
tioUlav), PLond 11 57 verso(i)" (illiterate, a.d. 246) ( = 111. 
p. Ill) dTToXoTpioCo-rai, apparently for dTraXXoTpioBo-8ai 
(Edd.). The compound e£aXX. is more common: thus P 
Giss I. 2i- 2 « (B.C. 173), BGU IV. 1167 62 (B.C. 12), ib. 1187 13 
(i/B.c), P Oxy VIII. 111S 10 (i/ii a.d.), of the "alienation" 
of property. Note also the verbal dve£aXXoTpiwTov in P 
Ryl II. 177 11 (A.D. 246), "unalienated": we might say of 
this what we said of dveTralo-xwTos and other like words. 
The noun occurs in Vettius Valens p. 2", where Mars is 
said to produce a host of evils, including -yove'uv d-iraX- 
XoTpiwcreis, "estrangements of parents." 


The verb is very common of "attendance" before a 
magistrate. It is sufficient to cite P Petr III. 30 8 Kal <j>ap.evT| 
KaTao-TT|creo-8ai. -rrpds [p.e] Hfjc . . . ovk dirt|VTT|[o-e], " though 
she said that she would appear against me on the . . . she 
did not present herself" (Edd.), P Tor II. 13 15 (B.C. 147) d 
eirl to Kpvrrjpiov, P. Grenf I. 13 5 (B.C. 152 or 141) diravTav 
«irl o-e', P Oxy I. 59 9ff - (a.d. 292) alpeSevTos GeoSiipou dvTl 
'Apei'ovos o-Kpe£pa dTravTfjo-ai iir\ tt|V tiyeu-ovlav Kal 




irpoo-eSpevo-ai tu dxpdvTw avTov 8iKao-TT|pi[a>], " Theodorus, 
who was recently chosen in place of Arion the scribe to 
proceed to his highness the prefect and attend his immaculate 
court" (Edd.), P Cairo Preis 4 20 (a.D. 320) dirav-rno-aTuo-av 
[eir]Wb T|7[e](iovtKov 8iKao-TT|piov, and from the inscriptions, 
Svll ~37 ,s (ii/iii A.D.) el 8s tis tuv lopdKx wv > ei8ws ein. 
tovto dyopdv d<p€iXovo-av dx9i)vai, pr| diravTTjO-r|, diroT€iO"aTto 
t<1 Koivui Xeirrov 8p ( axp.ds v. P Lond 42 s '- ;b.C. iCS) 
(= I. p. 30, Selections p. 9) el eppiope'vu 1 T&XXa Kara Xd-yov 
diravrdi, " if you are well, and things in general are going 
right," shows a common epistolary formula : cf. P Vat A 2 
(B.C. 168) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 64), P Par 4j 2f - (B.C. 153) al. 
In MGr the verb means "answer." 


The word is used absolutely (as Mt 25 s and LXX 
I Regn 13 15 ) in P Tebt I. 43'' (B.C. IlS) irapeYevr|9r|H.ev tis 
dirdvrT|o-i.v (a newly arriving magistrate) — a passage which 
may demolish the Semitism sometimes found lurking in the 
word. For els d. construed with the gen. (as Mt 27 s2 8- 
text and 1 Th 4 17 ) cf. BGU II. 362™ " (a.D. 215) irpbs 
[d]irdvfnr<riv tov] T|yep.dvos, and the Pelagia-Legenden (ed. 
Usener) p. 19 tis dirdvrnaiv tov bo-iou dv8pds. A Ptolemaic 
inscription edited by Strack [Arthiv iii. p. 129) has iv ei8fji 
tjv k<r\r\K(v irpbs o.vtov f| irdXis evxdpio-Tov dirdvTT|0-iv. The 
word seems to have been a kind of t.t. for the official 
welcome of a newly arrived dignitary — a usage which accords 
excellently with its NT usage. See Prolcg.* pp. 14, 242. 

For a subst. diravTT|TT|piov, deversorium, see P land 17 3 
(vi/vii. A.D.). 


P Oxy III. 471" (ii/A.D.) a>a| -yap iv JBei rf|S a[io-]xwrjs 
•yevdpevov. "for when once accustomed to his shame " (Edd.). 
In P Lond 417 8 [c. A.D. 346) (= III. p. 299, Selections, 
p. 124), we find o-vvxwpr)o-e avTov tovtgj to upa^ ( = o-vvx«- 
pf|o-aL avTui tovto to dirafj). "pardon him this once" — a 
substantival use of &ira|, which has been traced perhaps to 
Coptic influence (Deissmann LAE, pp. 206, 209) : cf. below. 
Note also P Giss I. 48 10 (A.D. 202-3) ovx ii.ira% irape ypd<pr| , 
" not once alone," dX' biroo-dms exao-Ta ■jrpoo-iyve'xfl']. and 
P Oxy VIII. 1102 8 (<-. A.D. 146) eirel 6/irq4 irpoo-fj [X9e] ttj 
KX-npovopia, "having once entered on the inheritance" 
(Ed.). Vettius Valens, p. 2S5 30 has dirol Te Kai dirapai- 
ttjtws 8apd£ovo-i.v "in perpetuum " (Ed.). OGIS 201 
(vi/A.D.), an inscr. of King Silco of Nubia, which is very- 
instructive for the study of foreigners' Greek, has &ira| in a 
curious idiom : thus ev &ira| is seme!, to irp<iTov &ira| = 
frimum. &ira| Sio = bis. Dittenberger quotes Lepsius to 
show that it is an effort to render a Coptic word answering 
toGer. Mai, Fr./ois. In P Oxy VIII. 113s' 3 (v/vi A.D.) the 
words irpbs &iro£ occurring at the end of a receipt are trans- 
lated " once for all " by the editor, who compares BGU IV. 
1020 15 (vi/A.D.) : so els dirog P Oxy X. 1294 11 (ii/iii A.D.). 


In P Ryl II. 65 18 (B. C. 67?— in any case Ptol.) a judge- 
ment ends with ko.1 t&XXo. Td 81' avTTJfs 8i]upio-pivo. pe'veiv 
Kvpia xal dirapdPaTa, "valid and inviolate" (Edd.). The 
legal formula, thus established for an early period, survives 
six centuries later in P Grenf I. 60' (A.D. 5S1) dirapapaTiu 

irpdo-ti. : " inviolable" must be the sense, though the words 
follow a hiatus. Another example, also vi/A.D., is in 
P Lond IOIj 12 (=111. p. 257) a/rpwta koA do-dXevTa koA 
dirapd|3a.Ta[. . . , a contract for the surrender of property. 
See also P Catt recto*- a (ii/A.D.) (= Chrest. II. p. 422) 
'(via. dirapapcrrd 4o-tiv, " es giU Dinge, an denen sich nichts 
andern lasst " (Ed.). It is clear that the technical use, com- 
pared with the late literary (ap. Lobeck Phryn. p. 313), 
constitutes a very strong case against the rendering " not 
transferable". Phrynichus himself prescribed dirapatnvros : 
what sense that would have made in Heb 7 24 passes compre- 
hension. Vettius Valens has the adverb five times (see 
index), always as " validly " or "inevitably." It occurs in 
P Strass I. 40 s3 (A.D. 569), rendered " unverbrlichlich " 


A literary citation for this word may be given from the 
recently recovered Mimes of Herodas, iv. 74 oi>8' epels 
" xelvos uiv9pioiros Iv pev elSev, Iv 8' dirr|pvf|8r|," where Nairn 
prefers to render d. "failed to see" rather than "was 
denied": cf. Mk S 34 et tis 9eXei 6ir(o-u pov eX9eiv, 
dirapvr|0-do-9w eavTov, " let him lose sight of himself and 
his own interests," as Grimm renders. But this involves 
a needless distinction from Mk 14", where the verb means 
" disown." 


is to be written as two words, the combination matching 
such familiar Hellenistic locutions as cms dpTi, eK ttotc, dirb 
irepvo-i, etc. The two Attic quotations which Thayer takes 
over from LS are denied by Lobeck Phryn. p. 21, who 
takes dirapTl by preference in the extant passage : Ruther- 
ford NP p. 71 agrees with him. 'AirapTl = "exactly" in 
Ionic, and (by irony) "quite the contrary" in Attic (Ruther- 
ford) : it has a totally different history from dir' SpTi. On 
the practice of the critical editors, see Nestle Einf. in aas 
Gr. NT 3 , p. 27. 


We can only cite two instances of this rare noun, one from 
1' Catt verso**- - s (ii/A.D.) (= Chest. II. p. 99) pe'xP 1 ToS 
1-fjs Xoyo9to-£as dirapTio-pov "till the completion of the 
audit," and the other from P Giss I. f>-/ % ff - (time of Trajan or 
Hadrian) V\&t\ Ka[T]d Tas evroXds o-ov 'HpaKXeios b «riTp[o]- 
iro[s x u P^S ™ v ] £evu«iv £vXwv tov airapTio-[p]b[v] twv eirl 
[tojituv [ep-ywv irpjb 6<j>8aXpu>v '(\n. But the verbal phrase 
els to dirapTi^eiv is so completely equivalent to els dirapTi- 
o-pdv (Lk 14") that the verb may be illustrated. P Oxy I. 
II7 4,7 (ii/iii A.D.) has the aor. pass, twice, the "completing" 
of a horoscope (?) and of a sale of slaves : cf. ib. VI. 90s 23 
(A.D. 199) UCTT6 v4>* eKao-Tou vpwv dpTOKOireiov eV dirapTt- 
o-9tjvoi, "that one bakery be fitted out by each of you" 
(Edd.), ib. 936 s2 (iii/A.D.) ouk '4\ia dpTL creiTov oiii ra\ 
PipXiSia diriipjrjio-Tai Sus dpTi, " [ have no food now, 
and the petitions have not yet been got ready" (Edd.). 
P Oxv IV. 724 11 (a.D. 155) edv 8e Ivtos tov x[p]° vou oi T °v 
dirapTio-ns olk exS^opai tt)v irpoKeipe'vr|v irpo9«o-p[i]av " if 
you make him perfect [in shorthand] within the period, I 
will not wait for the aforesaid limit" (Edd.) is a close 
parallel to the NT use of K0.T0.pTfl>) (Gal 6\ I Th 3 10 al.). 




P Lips I. 105 11 (i/ii A.D.) |i(J-yis tov Tfjs peppcypevTis 
dtrT|pTi<ra, "I have with difficulty completed the account 
of the irrigated land." BGU II. 44S 23ff - (ii/A.D.) Trpbs Tb 
T h v ' Ir [p] oa [(p] €, ?'[ L ] v T " v [8ia0€|X€]i/uv <f>av€pav [K]xTa- 
crTT)[vai Kal '^KaorJTa aTrapTia-0T)vai tois €v[ - y]e , ypa[|jLp,]cv[o]is 
aKoXovdus. In P Catt verso 1 "- 13 (as cited above) we find 
the expression ptTO tt|v x €L P OTOV ^ av cvtos € ^p-epuiv d-H-apTi- 
ovcriv Tas S(ko.s. 1' Ryl II. 74 4 (A.D. 133-5) shows the 
verb in a proclamation of M. Petronuis Mamertinus, 
prefect of Egypt, where [rbv 8iaXo]yicrp,bv dirapTCo-aL is 
rendered by the editors "to complete the convenlus." 
We could cite many mure exx. : the relative frequency of the 
dir<i and the Kcmi compounds of this verb in NT and papyri 
is quite reversed. 


In P 7 or I. ivii.10 ( B>a ,,7) lne wor( j ; s use( j r or .. legacy- 
duty": see Wilcken Ostr. i. p. 345 f. , Archil) iii. p. 7 f. . 
and Mitteis in direst. II. p. 421. In P Tebt II. 316 10 
(A.D. 99) Kal p.1^1 dXXoTpia. d-rrapy^TJ p.T|S4 bu.0vvp.1a. KC^pr)- 
o-toi, the editors understand it of the " entrance-fee " paid by 
ephebi on enrolment in the Alexandrian denies, and suggest 
the same meaning for P Flor I. 57 81 (a. D. 166) tov ttoiSos 
d"rrap\T|, where, however, Vitelli refers it to 'Ma tassa di 
successione," and Wilcken (direst. I. p. 16S) regards the 
sense as still obscure. See also BGU I. 30 f| dTrap\Tj 
MdpKov 'Avtioviov Aiocrxvpov, and ib. IV. I150 11 (B.C. 11) 
dvaKCKoaicrTai. SJ t) 'Orrwpa irapd Tfj(s) 'ApTeu-iSfos) ds 
fc'SwK cv) ovttj kv vTrtaXXd-ypaTi) d-Trapxds 8vo koto Sov- 
Xik(wv) o-wiidrcav A. Kal *E. oi'as Kal iXapVv. The editor 
(Schubait) compares P Tebt II. 316 and the note there (see 
above), but observes that the meaning will not suit the 
present passage: neither "legacy-duty" nor "entrance- 
fee" will serve, nor "an impost upon Jews." Schubart 
suggests it was some pecuniary rights in these slaves which 
Artemis had "deposited in pledge " with Opora. In the 
Magnesian inscriptions the word is very common in the sense 
of a peisonal "gift" to the goddess: thus in 83, d. rrji. 
6edu 'Apl/re'inSi.]. It is a very old use of the word, as may be 
seen from the lines in-cribed by an Athenian potter of vi/B.C. 
on a base intended for a vase (Syll 772) — Ntap^os dv[e']8-r|- 
k*[v 6 Ktpafit vs £p*yov dirapv^[v T]d0evaiai. Thieme (p. 26) 
throws out the suggestion that this sense might possibly be 
recognized in Rom S 23 . From Syll we may also cite 529" 
(i/B.c. — "i.e. sacrificium," notes Dittenberger) ; 5S7 263 "' 
(B.C. 329 — eirapxf]s, as throughout this long inscription, 
except in 29? : it is d. tov ct£tov, first-fruits given to Demeter 
and Kore at Eleusis) ; 5SS 114 (u/b.c.) ; 61 1 21 (ii/i B.C. — see 
note). So OGIS 179 12 (B.C. 95) 8£8oo-0ai . . kot' eviavTov 
dirapxriv d<5 to Upbv . . irvpov dpTd(Pas) pTTpz. (lS2i), 
i. e. J art. of wheat for each day of the year. It is clear that 
the connotation "first-frmis " could not be pressed in our 
exegesis of the term when it appears in NT, apart from 
associations wholly outside the field surveyed in this article ; 
and we are perhaps at liberty to render "sacrifice" or 
" gift " where it improves the sense. The uses of this liberty 
must not be discussed here. For a discussion of the word, 
see Gradenwitz in Berl. Pkilol. Wock, 1914, p. 135 ft". 

The use of ottos for irds appears to be largely determined 
by considerations of euphony, and is confined principally to 

literary documents: see Mayser Gr. p. 161 f., where it is shown 
that in seventeen out of twenty-one occurrences in Ptolemaic 
papyri ottos follows a consonant, and only in four cases a 
vowel. As examples of airas from Roman times we may 
cite P Oxy III. 471 82 (official — ii/A.D.) diore dvTiKpvs 
dirdvTiov o-vvirafijeiv, and ib. 642 (official — ii/A.D.) irpb 
ttovtos "yap Tr€(ppovT£Kau.€v ttjs Trpbs vpds . . . cvvoCas Kal 
dpeTfjs *) tbv dXXuv ottovtuv. P Ryl II. 6S 12 (B.C. 89) 
i [tAt^c'v] p.€ . . . [TrXr|]-yais 7tX€£[o-to]ls €ts d-rrav [|xepos] tov 
o-ti|i.a[To]s (jlou answers to Maysers rule, but has no suspicion 
of literariness. So such a phrase as €is tov diravTO 
XpoV[ov], P Tebt I. 567 (late ii/u.c). 


PSI II. 152 24 (ii/A.D.) may show T|TrdT[iov in a frag- 
mentary line at the end, with practically no context : 
v(/tv8os occurs a line higher up. It is surprising that this is 
the only citation we can make. The verb is absent from 
Polybius and only occurs twice in Plutarch, but is fairly fre- 
quent in LXX, and found in early Christian writers. It was 
evidently falling into disuse in most quarters. 


For d. = "deceit" (as 4 Mace 1S 8 , 2 Th 2 10 , Ileb 3 13 ) cf. 

P Oxy VII. I020 7 f - (A.D. 198-201) Cl TT)V £K Tf)s Tj[XlKlOs] 

^X as por|8iav, T °v d-yaiva ttjs dirdT-qs b f|Yovu-[e]vos tov 
c'Syovs €K8i[K]t)o-et, "if you can claim the assistance due to 
immature age, the prefect of the province shall decide the 
suit for fraud" (Ed.). So CPHerm 6 9 vvv 8e ol piv [u.€t' 
dTrd]TT|S €lo-7TOLOv[vT]ai, if the supplement is right. Atten- 
tion may be called to Deissmann's note in his Hellenisierung 
des semitiscken Monotkeismus (Nene Jahrb. f. d. klass. 
Alterlum, 1903), p. 165 n. : he recalls the fact that d-iran] 
in popular Hellenistic had the meaning "pleasure," and 
finds this in Mt 13 22 = Mk 4 Ia (cf. Lk 8 14 ) and 2 Pet 2": 
cf. Polyb.-ii. 56 12 and Moeris' definition (p. 65) — 'Airon}' t| 
TrXdvT) Trap' 'Attikols . . . t) Te'p\|/is Trap' "EXXtjo-iv. Of 
this rare sense Rouffiac (p. 38 f.) cites a probable instance 
from Priene I13 64 (B.C. 84) ko[toti6]61s 8i [xt| p.ovov to 
Trpbs T|8ov[f|V, dXXd Kal povX<i(ievos] tK[T]bs dTraTT|v X ? 7 !" 
77)0-01 [tois 8eaTois. avXr|Tr|v?], where he renders, " il ne fit 
pas settlement ce qui etait agreable, mais voulant en outre 
oflfrir une rejouissance aux spectateurs (il fit venir [un joueur 
de flute?])." It may be added that in P Petr III u 21 
'ATraTT| appears as a proper name, where (as in other cases) 
we may safely assume the " Hellenistic " meaning. But the 
word must have really covered both, like our verb "be- 
guile " ; and dTraToo) would tend to keep the older sense to 
the front. If it is derived from a root akin to our find 
(see Boisacq s. v.), it meant "invention, discovery" at the 
start, and was then turned in malum partem, to be partially 
reformed in later vernacular. 


The word is common in papyri in such a formula as 
BGU I. 8S 4 (ii/A.D.) Xaipr)' u-wv) diraTajp unT^pos) ©acrt)Tos, 
ib. III. 97 1 13 (ii/A.D.) Ocpp.ov9api.ov OTroTopa p(r|Tpbs) 
[OeppovBapiov]. Krebs (Aus den Papyrus d. Koniglichen 
Museen, p. 160) renders BGU II. 4io' 3 (a.d. 159-60) 
J Icrdpi[o]v dirdTupa p-riTpbs Tav€<f>[p]c*p.u.€us, as "the ille- 
gitimate daughter of Tanephremmis, " and ib. 392 10 (A.D. 208) 
Ileus dJirdTiup) UTTTipbs 1 TsXpdpeus, as "Pais, father un- 




arret fit 

known" (p. 175). The editors translate similarly in P Fay 
39 ! (a.d. 183) and in P Tebt II. 397 u (a.d. 198). Without 
the mother's name we have P Ryl I. I2 a (a.d. 250) Ar|pu>Tos 
dird-ropos, and P Lond 1170 339 (iii/A.D.) (=111. p. 9S' 1 
IIoXvSeijKous diraTopos, also 4 '"' SioTfjpiSos [air]aTopos — in a 
long list of names in which the rest have the father's name 
given : we must assume the same sense. It does not seem 
to be used for "fatherless." See Archiv ii. p. 97. Deiss- 
mann (LAE p. 39 f.) has drawn attention to the fact that 
so far back as 1808 W. Sturz (in his De Dialtcto Macedonica 
et AUxandriim Liber, Lipsiae, p. 146 f.) made use of the 
Charta Borgiana (the first papyrus ever brought to Europe, 
in 1778) to explain the use of d. in Heb , s . That a word 
meaning "father unknown" should be available for use in a 
passage where the thought is so far from the beaten track, 
is quite natural : the dpfJTwp following, which by association 
shares its special sense, protected diraTup from its common 


That this noun, with dimBe'w and dir£i0T|s, connotes 
invariably "disobedience, rebellion, contumacy," is made 
abundantly clear from papyri and inscriptions: Grimm's 
assumption that dimBt'w (instead of dmo-Ttu) is the anti- 
thesis to irio-Ttuu, though supported by the RV mg (= AV) 
in In 3 38 , has no warrant whatever. For the noun see 
P Oxy I. 34 m -9ff- (a.d. 127) toutous T€ oiv KeXeiu Kal 
tovs ttoXcltikous TrdvTas Ta aKoXouBa toi[s] irpoa-TCTaYjic-vois 
irotetv. «l8<$Tas STti] toiis TrapapdvTas Kal Toi>[sJ Std d-rrcC- 
8iav K[al] lis d<poppf|v IJrvrovvTas dpap-rnudTciTv] TtipupT)- 
cropai, "These therefore I command, and all the civil 
servants, to do what is in accord with the instructions given, 
knowing that those who have transgressed, and those who 
(have done wrong) deliberately (/'/. by way of disobedience), 
and as seeking an occasion for wrong-doing, I shall punish." 
(In the very elliptical phrase tous 8id d-rmSsiav it is possible 
that the Eparch accidentally omitted dpapTdvovTas, though 
it can be translated without : we can hardly get help from 
Rom 3 26 tov (K mo-recus — cf. 4 11 c. — as the preposition 
is much easier). Add P Fay 21 s (a.d. 134) [8ir]ws ttjs 
diro8ias €kivol tt^v irpocrr|Kovo-av S^kt^v {"JTrdcrxwcrt, where 
the Edd. conjecture dim8£as or dirafleCas, BGU III. 
747 iil4 (A.D. 139) inrdSiyua ttjs dimdias, and P Rein 51 21 
(iii/A.D.), where ttjs toutwv diriBaas follows (i^| m8dp*vot 


Ford. =" disobey" in its later as in its earlier history- 
see s.v. diretfleia and cf. P Hib I. 73 19 (B.C. 243-2) tt|v 
IldTpiovos p£av, os aTr€L0iov Sia[T£Te'X€K€ tols irajpd croii 
Trpoo-Td"yuacriv, " the violence of I'atron, who has continued 
to disobey your orders" (Edd.), P Tebt I. 6" (B.C. 139— 
decree of Euergetes II) tovs Se dimBovvTas tirava-yKal^Te 
eviTaKTw[s] kairr' diroSiSdvai, "compel those who disobey to 
pay all the sums regularly" (Edd.), ii. 49 17 (B.C. 113) tdv 8« 
dimBTJi, "if he refuses" (Edd.). So Rev L 43 10 (iii/B.c.) 
[t]u>v vewp-ywv twv rjirciSnKOTwv, P Tebt I. 1S3 (late ii/B.C.) 
t[d]v S{ dir€i[8wcri KjaTao-Tfjcrai. eir[l] tov a-TpaTi\[y6]v, and 
from Roman times P Tebt II. 315 30 (ii/A.D.) e\i 7^P 
0-uo-TaTi.Kds [o]ttus tov dmSoOvTa ueTa <j>poupds tiu dpxitpi 
irt'uin.v, "he has instructions to send recalcitrants under 

guard to the high-priest" (Edd.), P Oxy IX. 1185" 
(c. A.D. 200) (I 84 p.rj -ye, §s dv dimflrjcrei. tovtu uov t V 
8taTd[7p.aTt], " otherwise, if any one disobeys this mv order," 
I' Ryl II. 153 37 (a.d. 138-61) tdv &]) dm0rj 6 [Mvpiov Kal 
p.f| dirjoSol TauTas, of disobedience to the terms of a will. 
Add from the inscriptions Syll 614 110 (Cos, dialect, iii/B.c.) 
at hk Ka tls . . . dimOj}, let him be fined, id. 510 82 (Ephesus. 
ii/B.C ) ws dimdovvTa Kal eTTtPovXcuovTa tois a-u(p)<p£povcri 
ttjs irdXtws, ii. 73/" (ii/A.D., Athens) iav Se aimSr] ir-pacr- 
crd)i£vos, he is to be denied entrance to the Bacchium, and 
similarly 142 , ii. 653 10 (Andania, B.C. 91) tov Se dirstBoivTa 
t) dTrpeirws dvao-Tp€<f>dp.€vov as to Beiov uao-TiyouvTw ot i€pot, 
and so ". We have not sought for more instances, but it 
has seemed desirable to give rather plentiful illustration to 
prove a case which is very important for doctrine. 


occurs in .S/Z/Sio 8 (Phlius) 8£kt| 8e trnKpeuaTafi.] Tipmpbs 
dirtXBdvfTi] dTrti8r|S NeatVcfcos], where Dittenberger renders 
" implacabilis Nemeseos deae vindicta tibi imminet." 


P Oxy II. 237™ * (A.D. 1S6) (it|t« 4(iol <!ti oi-rrefiXetv]. 
P Grenf I. 53* (iv/A.D.) (= Chrest. I. 131) do-ird?«Tai. Ta 
iraLSia o-ov Kal 'AXXous iroXXdo-oi dTmX(ei). Vettius Yalens, 
p. 5 31 , has diretXT|TiKoC " men given to using threats," 
which comes from a verbal dir6uXr|Tds. Since this verb, 
with its rather commoner noun, might have had a lar^e 
use in the innumerable papyrus petitions, we seem bound 
to infer that it was going out of popular speech. It occurs 
nine times in LXX and twice in NT. Its use in Ac 4 17 , 
where one is strongly tempted to accept from E and P 
the characteristic dimXfj d-rraXr|o-w|jL«8a, clearly reflects the 
literal rendering of a Semitic original reported to Luke from 
an eye-witness — was it Paul? Homceoteleuton and un- 
familiarity to Greek ears would account for the loss of the 
noun in SABD Pcsh., etc. (so Blass). 


P Ryl II. U4 19 (f. A.D. 280) |«t] d-TTiXfjs pe d-jre'iTe|j.\)/£v 
"drove me away with a threat." BGU IV. io6o'- 6 (B.C. 
23-2) 88ev KaTair€TTovr|ptvoL TrpoT)"yu£0a -rrpbs dimXais. CP 
Herm 25"- 2 , a law report, makes an advocate say oSt« 

onJO-K£va[l oike] dimXal KaTeo-iyno-av p.[ ]. P Ryl 

I. 28 1 " (iv/A.D.) the "quivering" (see under aXXouai) of 
the left shin means for a slave dirciXal Kal udx8oi. In the 
vi/A.D. inscr. OGIS 52 1 14 (Abydos) we have del tt|v dmXT)v 
tv tols irpd-ypao-iv opiivTa : Dittenberger accepts the emenda- 
tion ■ 


P Par 45 s (b C. 153) d-irovTos pov Trc<f>pdvTiKa uirep o-ov. 
P Tebt II. 317 3 " (a.d. 174-5) ^Kaora eiriTcXoCvTi ix tou 
tpov diroijcr^s ovdpaTos Ka8d Kal ep-ol Trapoucrn e'^fjv, " while 
carrying out everything in my name during my absence, just 
as I should have the right to do if I were present" (Edd.). 
BGU IV. ioSo 6tt - (iii/A.D.?) Kal fjpeis 8e aKotj aTrdvTts lis 
TrapdvTts SiaSccrt r|u<ppdv8r)p€v. CPHerm 26 16 et pouXci Kal 
dirdvTcov atiT[wv .... (a fragmentary law report). P Oxy 
IX. 1204 23 (a.d. 299) riaOvi X aTnf|pr|v tv'Odo-tL' 8t« (yvoiv 





The middle (as in 2 Cor 4°) appears in Ostr 1156 dim- 
ir<5p.e8a Trap' T|(icov xP^ trao "8ai & (3oij\a •yep8(«£u). The 
perfect may be cited from BGU IV. 1 1 13 s (B.C. 14) to! 
KavoXrjIorv dire] ipnp.e'voii T V eiriTpoTreCav, and pres. with 
aor. in P Giss I. 82 ei (A. I). 117) . . diro]X.[e]-yout'vuv Kal 
dimiroue'vwv irdo-as Ta9 (ic'xpi. viv 8aird[vas ... In the 
new uncanonical Gospel fragment, P Oxy X. 1224 '^- verso 
(p. 7) (iv/A.D.) we find t£ oiv d]ireiiras ; " What then hast 
thou forbidden?" (Edd.). 


For the gen. constr. after this negative adj. in Jas I 13 
6 -yap 8ebs diretpao-nSs cVtiv KaKwv, cf. P Tebt I. 124' 26 
(c. B.C. I iS), where certain allotments are described as dcniKO- 
(j)avTTJ(Tovs) Kal dSia-TacT-rovs iivxas irda-ns al[r]ias, "subject 
to no dispute or question on any ground" (Edd.). The 
citation may also help to support the neuter sense which 
Hort assigns to direipao-Tos in the NT passage. For 
similar gen. construction with negative adjectives numerous 
passages may be quoted : cf. Proleg. p. 235 f. 


According to Meisterhans Gr. p. 150 the Attic inscrip- 
tions use direfpwv, not aimpos, in the sense of "endless." 
It might be read, if worth while, in OGIS 3S3" (Com- 
magene — i/B.C. ) els tov aireipov (or direfpov' !) alciva koi- 
p.r|o-6Tai, but XP° V °S a-rreipos in 1. 1KI (=Avestan zervan 
akarana — see J. H. Moulton, Hibbert Lectures, p. 107) is 
decisive. For d. construed with the gen., as Heb 5 13 , cf. 
P Giss I. 6S ir (ii/A.D.) eVl <S>i(3ds 6 airoi aireipds eo-Tiv tuv 
tottuv Kal oi BivaTat (idvos Trpocre[X8e]iv, "since Phibas, his 
slave, is unacquainted with the places, and cannot come 
alone." "Aireipos in this sense is the opposite of ^uireipos 
(cf. ireipa) : meaning " endless," as a substitute for the Epic 
dire(puv, it is connected with ire'pas. 


This rare word is used in the apocryphal Acta Pauli iii. 
of Onesiphorus on the outskirts of Lystra "waiting for" 
Paul's arrival from Iconium — eio-TfJKei direKSexdu-evos auTbV. 
Nageli (p. 43) and LS s.v. give late "profane" citations 
which make it perhaps possible that Paul was not the first 
to use a regularly formed perfective of eKSe'xojiai, which 
becomes a favourite word with him : it also figures in 1 Pet 
and Heb, where of course borrowing from Paul is possible. 
But if late writers who never could have read him use the 
word, it is obviously conceivable that they coined it indeoend- 
ently, as we may very probably suppose him to have done. 
See the next article. 


is admittedly a word first used by Paul, so far as our present 
knowledge goes : only one MS of Josephus (Antt. vi. 14*) 
saves its verb from the same category. There can be little 
doubt that Lightfoot (on Col 2 16 ) rightly treats them both as 
minted by the Apostle. It was evidently for the special 
purpose in his mind when writing this letter ; and if Nageli 
(p. 50) asks why he should have coined a word not needed 
to express some specially Christian conception, the answer is 
surely that a new compound, formed by prefixing a per- 

fectivizing preposition in an entirely normal way, was a 
resource available for and generally used by any real thinker 
writing Greek. What else are we to infer from the list of 
aira£ etpnpe'va which any writer's index verborum will afford, 
even if the majority were really only a-rra£ eipT||xe'va? The 
case of d-7rei<8^ {q.v. ) may be taken with this; but 
there, if Paul coined the word, he used it again, which he 
did not with these. On the problem of Col 2 U we have 
nothing to contribute that would be relevant in this work. 


P Giss I. 70' (Hadrian) dire'Xafo-ja to irXoiov irepl upav 
evaTT)v, " I caused the boat to sail about the ninth hour." P 
Tori. li« 32 (K.C. \lb)( = Chrest. II. p. 33) Kal Kara uev tov 
Tpoirov tovtov tj>rjo-as direXavveo-0at avTous ttjs KpaTfjO-ews 
Tijs oiKi'as. P Par 37" dTre\do-avTo ae, with mid. for act. : 
note the dropped augment in the twoaorist forms cited here. 
BGU III. 759 18 (a.d. 125) al-yas Tpels (of 
robbers), P Lips I. 37 s8 (a.d. 3S9) £cia direAaKOTas (se. 
direXnX. ) iroXXaKis. 

aneley f_wQ 

is a air. dp. of Luke (Ac 19 2 '), being an easy derivative 
from direXe'-yx" " repudiate," on the model of eXe7p.ds(LXX) 
from eXe'^x™- 


For the Pauline phrase drreXeuflepos Kvpfou in I Cor 7 ;2 , 
Deissmann (LAE p. 332 f.) compares the common title 
"freedman of the Emperor," Eepao-Toii direXevOepos or 
direXev8epos Ka£o-apos : see e.g. Syll 37 1 7 (time of Nero), 
and the numerous examples in Magie De vocabulis solcmn- 
ibus p. 70. The adjective is very common in the papyri, 
e.g. P Oxy I. 9S 3 (A.D. 141-2) 'Apx^a direX«u6e'pu) 'AaoiTa- 
tos, ib. 104 4 (a.d. 96) 2o(r))pis 'ApiroxpaTOs direXeuBe'pou al. 
For the light thrown by the ancient rites of manumission on 
the Pauline teaching regarding spiritual freedom see Deiss- 
mann's valuable discussion referred to above, and Archiv v. 
p. 117 f. 


Priene 248 (c. B.C. 1) has the ace. AireXXf|v, as in Rom 
16 10 : a similar name 'AireXXds, gen. -d, is cited by Hatch in 
JBL xxvii., part ii., p. 145, from a Carian inscr. concerning 
a tribunus mili/um who served under Vespasian against the 
Jews. The name 'AireXXfjs is widely spread : on some con- 
fusions with 'AiroXXus cf. Zahn //;/;-. i. p. 270, and Blass- 
Debrunner § 29. 4. 


This late compound generally takes the ace. instead of the 
natural gen., as in Lk 6 35 if we read |ir|8e'va with N* W etc., 
and the Lewis Syriac : see Proleg. p. 65. The passive is 
found Sy/lSoj 10 (ii/A.D.) atp.a dvaipe'povTi. . . . d4>nXmo-u.eVa) 
Wo TravTbs dv9punrov, the " faith-cure" of a man who had 
been "given up." (For the <p> which occurs in Lk I.e. DP, 
and twice in this inscription, see Proleg. p. 44.) The editor 
restores the verb in OG/S I94 20 (i/B.C.) &nrep Xaairpbs 
do-rrjp Kal Saipiov d-ya8[bs Tois dTreXmi;ovo-i]v tire"Xa(n(<e. 
There is a good collection of instances from literature in 
Linde Epicurus p. 31 {., beginning with Hyperides. His 
passage from Epicurus himself is worth quoting : 62° to 




X co 

peXXov . . . h-t|t« . . Trpoo-psvupev uis co-dpevov pi]T« direX- 
Tril>pcv us -n-avTios ovk eo-6fjL€vov. It survives in MGr. 


'A. , construed with the gen. in the sense of " over against," 
"opposite," as in Mt 27 s ', is well illustrated by P Grenf. I. 
2I 14 (B.C. 126) dirt'vavTi -rf|S 8v(pas) av(Tov) and Syll 
5 58" (i/A.D.) t8v vabv t8v direvavTi ttj[s] eicrdSov See also 
P Petr II. 17 (3)* (iii/B.c), and from the inscriptions Prune 
37 168 (beginning of ii/B.C.) diro &i Tiiv tyKoXaTrrwv 8pu>v els 
t8v dirtvavTi povvbv t8v Xeirpbv e8r|Kap.ev 8pov, ii. 42 s9 «irl 
•rf|v a. d<J>pvv and Preisigke 3556 (on a mummy). On P Ryl 
I. 3o' 2 (i/B.c), a few lines from a historical work, Prof. 
Hunt observes that "the use of the preposition dirt'va[v]Ti, 
of which Stephanus quotes no example earlier than Poly- 
bius," may perhaps give " some indication of the date of the 
work." Wackernagel, Hellenistica, p. 3 ff , quotes IVavru 
c. gen. from a very old Cretan inscr.,and JvavTi from Delphi 
(B.C. 19S) : in both dialects avrt was still used in the old 
local sense. From this Doric Greek it passed into the 
Koivr| about B.C. 300. He goes on to discuss its relations 
with tvav-riov, etc, 


The adj. is common. Thus P Grenf. I. II "'(B.C. 157) 
tovtov hi -ytvopevov koX dirtpLo-irao-ros &v 8vvr|cropai 
dTrpo4>ao-£o-Tu)S €is to Pao-iXtKov to €K<j>dpia aTropeTpf|0-ai.. 
P Oxy II. 286 17 (A.D. 82) 8-rrws Trape'xujvTai. Tjpas d-irspi- 
o-rrdcrrovs [xal] dirapevoxXT|Tov5 inr^p ttjs TrpoKeipevns 
d<f>aXfjs Kal dTroSiio-€i.v TaviTa, " in order that they may 
secure us against any liability or trouble in connexion with 
the aforesaid debt, and may repay it" (Edd.). In P Oxy 
VI. 898 s (A.D. 123) iiro9«'o-8ai 80-a ?x"> ^ v "Tl 'Od<re[i] 
KTfjp.aTa [Xa]PovTa tov Aioo"Kopo[u] -ypdp.p.aTa direp[i. 
<nr] dorov, the editors translate " to mortgage all my property 
in the Oasis in return for a deed of release received from 
Dioscorus," and explain ypdpp-aTa aTrepio-rrdo-Tou as a deed 
of indemnification, distinguished by the formula aTrepi- 
crrrao-Tov irap^eo-Bai. or some equivalent phrase. In 1. iS 
of this same papyrus the deed is called i\ dTrepicnrao-Tos 
simply. The development of meaning is exactly like that 
of our " security," in the commercial sense. Other examples 
of the word are P Rein iS 4 ° (B.C. 10S), BGU IV. 1057- 
(Aug.), P Lond 932 s (A.D. 211) (=111. p. 149), and 
P Amh II. 101 10 (early iii/A.D.), etc. 


On the possibility tbat this harsh word may have been 
coined by the Greek Jews of Alexandria to express the 
contempt with which they regarded the uncircumcised, see 
Deissmann BS, p. 153. Of course it must be remembered 
that TrepiTt'pvw itself is familiar in papyri, in connexion with 
the circumcision of priests in Egyptian temples : see Otto 
Priester i. p. 214. 


occurs in a special sense in the affectionate letter of Philo- 
nides to his father the " architect" Cleon, P Petr II. 13 (19) 7 
(middle of iii/B.c.) (=\Vitkowski 2 , p. 19), Jwvtos o-ov ko.1 «is 
8eovs direXGovTos. So, much later, in the beautiful simplicity 
of a Christian epitaph, Preisigke 1 190: Tar|o-at epJuo-tv 
Part I. 

el'Kouo-i oktu, y(£vovTai) (2fn) kt| - Els Xauirpdv (sc. y+jv) 
dirfjXSev — a striking contrast to the monotonous diope \alpt 
on the pagan tombs of the young. For the ordinary use 
of the word, it is sufficient to cite P Par 32 s "'- (B.C. 162) 
"yivwo-KCTt, d<|> ov d(f>' vp<i>v direXTjXvBa, ut] €0"xoXa[Ke'v]cu 
p-£ . . . [iroieiv 80-a] tveVaXas, BGU III. SS4 " 13 < (ii/iii 
A.D.) -rrplv ovv d-rre'XOns Trpbs Xaipt|p.ova, dvd(paiv€) irpos p-«, 
Vva 0-01 diroTd^op-ai.. It may be noted that " in later times the 
idea of the word goes forward to the goal" (Usener, Pelagia- 
Legaiden, p. 49). So in Pelagia, p. 7 3 dTTT|X8ap6v hi -r-fj 
ptydX-n ckkXt|o-£o., "we arrived at the great church"; and 
much earlier in BGU III. 814 30 (iii/A.n.) ■ytCvwerxe 8tl 
Xoiirovpai otl ovk dTrf]X6a tv-yvs tov dSeX<t>Qv, " have never 
come near my brother," id. 22 SXeye 8ti tdv direXBo) els oIkov, 
Tre'pTTW cr[oi] TrdvTa' ovSe'y p.[o]i 6Tre'p\paTai.( = -Tt) . 8id Tti ; 
The dird has thus done for this word what it did in early 
times for dcjuxveopai., perfectivizing the action : see Pro/eg. 
p. 1 1 1 ff. So also with diropalvu. 


Deissmann (BS p. 229 and LAE p. noff.) has already 
shown how much light is thrown on the NT use of this 
word (Mt 6 2 ' 5, 16 , Phil 4 18 ) by the papyri and ostraca. 
There it 1s constantly found in the sense of "I have re- 
ceived," as a technical expression in drawing up a receipt. 
Consequently in the Sermon on the Mount we are led to 
understand d-Tre'xovcriv tov pi<r8bv avTtiiv, " they can sign the 
receipt of their reward: their right to receive the reward is 
realised, precisely as if they had already given a receipt 
for it " (BS p. 229). To the almost contemporary instances 
of this usage which Deissmann gives, BGU II. 5S4 6f ' 
(A. I). 44) Kcu dire'xw rf|V OT)VKexupT|pevT|v TipT)v irdo-av ix. 
ttXtjpous, and ii. 6l2 2f (A.n. 57) dir€'x<u Trap' ipiiv tov 
cbdpov tov 4Xa[i]ovpyiov, iuv ^X' T ' [P' ]" ' v CKrOwo-ti, we 
may add a few exx. which might be multiplied almost 
indefinitely: P Par 52 s (B.C. 163-2) direxi. Trap' «pov TipTJs 
dBdvia, P Tebt I. 109 1 ' (B.C. 93) TaXavTov iv, 8 dTre'xovo-iv 
ol Trpoyeypapptvoi. Tr[a]pd FleTeo-ovxov, BGU III 975 2t " f - 
(A.D. 45) (= Selections, p. 43) d]Tre'xi- t| T«crev[o]v(()is tt|v 
o+iXTiCpf'vriv] b IIa[ovs] <(>epvri[v djpyvpiov : we might 
suggest Tf|v d<p£Xr| (i. e. ei) [avT-fj] as a rather simpler 
emendation than the editor's virb tov JTaovTos — the substitu- 
tion of T| for (e)i bas a parallel in 1. 5 of this illiterate deed 
of divorce. Also PSI 39 8 (A.D. 14S) dirtx^v rr|v o-vpTre- 
c^wvnpevTjv Tipr]v dpyvplov Spaxpds CKaTov dySorjKovTaoKTw, 
etc. For the subst. aTrox+l, which is used exactly in the 
sense of our "receipt," cf. P Oxy I. 91" (a. l). 1S7) KvpCa 
t| dTroxTi, "the receipt is valid," ib. II. 269" 8 (a.d. 57) 
edv 0-01 8v to dpyvpiov Sips aiiTii diroxTiv, " if he gives 
you the money, give him the receipt," Ostr 50 (i/A.D.) Tf|v 
TrpoT(tpav) dTrox(T)v), and often. An important note by 
Albert Thumb (in Nate Jahrbiicher f. d. kl. Alterfum, 1906, 
p. 255) shows that the function of the perfectivizing preposi- 
tion is to supply a present answering to the past So"xov. 
In receipts we find regularly dirtx" and 'i<rye>v, hardly ever 
(as Ostr 141 7, 1430) dirt'o-xov, still less dTre'o-xnKtv, as in 
BGU IV. 105S 18 (Augustus). See further Wilcken Ostr. i. 
p. 85 f. and H. Erman in Archiv i. p. 77 ft. 

For the intransitive sense of the verb " to be away, dis- 
tant," cf. P Slrass I. 57 6 (ii/A.H.) pt|8t peCXiov dTr«xovo-<iv 
oXXt|X[u)v], and Michel 466 s (iii/B.c.) aTrc'xov dirb ttjs yris 




[t]<t>' [iS]<rov iroSiiv e-irfTJd, a vessel "distant from the shore 
as much as seven feet," P Lille I. I s (B.C. 259-S) x">r iaTa 7 


d-n-f'xov <iir" dXXnXwv a-\oivia. Kf, ib. 2 2 (iii/B.C.) dirt'x' 1 - %\ 
t| vf) auT^| [why not atirq ?] drrb Ttjs Kwp.r ( s a-raSta le, etc. 
It may be added that the impersonal sense of "it is 
enough," "it is sufficient," often given to d-ire'x" in the 
difficult passage Mk 14 41 is rejected by de Zwaan {Exp. VI. 
xii. p. 452 ff.), who understands the word in the usual com- 
mercial sense referred to above — "He (Judas) did receive 
(the promised money) " — and refers to P Leid I. p. 97, for 
similar instances of arre^ti. with this meaning standing by 
itself. For the middle, as in 1 Th 4 3 , etc., cf. 5J//350 16 , a 
rescript of Augustus (B.C. 31) ttjs twv iroXcp.twv iiu.oTn.Tos 
ouO€ twv vativ ovSJ twv Upwv twv d*yiwTaTwv dTroo-Yoixe'vns. 


P Oxy III. 471 4 (ii/A.D.) ir]poo-9T|o-u) tu Kvpit irepfl ov] olfiaL Kal dTri[a-TT|a-]ei,s ^ws dv Ta Ypdu.p.[aTa 
dvaJYVwyu-tv (with 2nd v deleted and \uv written above), " I 
will add a fact, my lord, which will, I expect excite your 
wonder and disbelief until we read the documents" (Edd.). 
P Oxy II. 237 "t (a.d. 186) has rdxa dma-reva-as ci ktX. : 
here we must assume a momentary slip of spelling with 
mortvw in mind — of course dirioreiw is an impossible word 
even in papyri. Syll So2 21 (dialect, iii/B.c.) dirCorfi. Tots 
tdp-ao-iv Kal inroSUo-upe Ta eiri-ypdp.u.a[T]a, said of a sceptic 
at the Asclepios temple in Epidaurus. So lines 3 °. 31 . The 
appearance of the word for "incredulity" helps the case 
for dimdew as retaining its proper force. 


appears in the quasi-Ionic o, the illiterate P Par 23 s 
(B.C. 165) kot' diri.o-Tn£r|v : dirio-TCr| was the real Ionic, and 
we have to take this as a mere blunder — see Mayser Gr. 
pp. 11 f., 130. 


may be cited from Syll 802 32 (iii/B.c.) meaning first 
" incredible" and then "incredulous" : on. toCvvv ?p/n-poo-0ev 
dmo-rels aviTofis] (the inscriptions recording cures), ovk 
toCo-iv dirio-Tois, to Xoiirbv £o-tw toi, <pdu.ev, "Amo-Tos 
«v[o|ia]. It is MGr. 


Kaibel 716 s (Rome) tjo-ki tt^v dirXdTT)Ta, <j>£Xovs iirip 
d.Tov eTiua. The word is found OGIS 764 1 (ii/A.D.) un- 
fortunately with a hiatus both before and after. On its 
biblical use see Charles's note on Tat. xii. patr. Iss. iii. 1. 


The papyri have sundry uses of this word which effectively 
dispose of the contention that "the moral sense is the only- 
one lexically warranted" (see Grimm-Thayer). Thus P 
Gen I. 21 13 (ii/B.c.), the marriage-contract already referred 
to (under diraXXdo-o-w), where it is enacted that in the event 
of the wife's being set free, the husband shall repay t\v 
epEpvT)v dir\;}v, "the marriage-dowry pure and simple," but 
that in the event of his not doing so at the proper time he 
shall repay it with interest. In this sense we often find 
uttXovs contrasted with o-iv T|ui.oX(a, as in BGU IV. 1056 18 
(Augustus) «KT£to-ai to fikv Sdvrjov o-iv T|U.loX£a, tovs Si 

tokovs drrXovs, ib. 1147" (B.C. 13). P Cairo Preis I 18 
(ii/A.D. ) irpdcris rjv airXr) dvfuBuvos, P Tebt II. 340" (A.D. 
206) to Se o-uva(peu.a tovto 8lo-o-o(v) *ypa.(4>ivj e-ni tw dirXoOv 
o-uvr|vr|ef|vai. " to be considered as one," P Oxy VI. 921 
recto (iii/A.D. ) where mention is made of different kinds of 
irrrxas — dirXoi, Kap-apui-riKoi (or -wto£) and tp(3a8o( (see 
the editors' introduction), with the reference to a airXow 
oti<r|u.a in OGIS 483 111 (ii/B.c), will serve to illustrate the 
variety of "non-moral" senses left to the word in the ver- 
nacular. In P Petr I. I2 20 (iii/B.C.) airXotSiov (for the 
Homeric airXots) is used to denote a single garment. The 
moral sense is well illustrated by Syll 633 1 - (ii/A.D.) Kal 
tvttXaTos •ytvoi[T]o 6 Bebs tois 8tpairevouo-iv airX-i] rf ^XTl' 
For the adverb see the separate article. In MGr airXds 
means "simple, naive, natural." 

The adverb is frequent in legal documents to lend emphasis 
to a statement : P Oxy II. 237"- 21 (a.D. 1S6) dXXo d8(KT|(ia 
as aiiTov dirXws, "any other single act of injustice against 
himself," cf. P Flor I. 28 15 (ii/A.D.) iravTos dirXws elSovs, 
and similarly P Amh II. 96 s (A.D. 213). So with the 
negative P Lond 121S 10 (a.D. 39) ( = 111. p.130) ovk dyov 
dirXws irpd-yua, P Oxy II. 26S 16 (A.D. 58) irepl dXXov 
p.rjS€vbs dirXuis evypdirTou f^ dvpdcpov 7rpdyp.aTos, "concern- 
ing any other matter whatever written or unwritten," id. VI. 
906 5 (ii/iii a.d.) (ir|8e irepl dXXov p.u8evos dirXuis u.«'xp l TT )s 
€veo-TuS(rr|S T|u^pas, "or on any other subject whatever up to 
the present day" : and the short P Tebt II. 490 (B.C. 92 or 
59) p-n, KaTcyyua prjS^v tov Kdp-wvos tov K6p.u)vos irpbs 
p.T|8ev dirXws. In a philosophic letter of iv/A.u. , P Oxy I. 
1 20 3 1} , the editors translate xpr) "Y^P Tt va bpuvTa atavTbv ev 
Svo-tux'v Kdv dvaxwplv Kal p.^| d-n-Xais u.dxato-8ai. tu» 
ScScyu-evw, " when a man finds himself in adversity he ought 
to give way and not fight stubbornly against fate." Refer- 
ence should be made to Hort's abundant illustrations in his 
note upon Jas I 5 . 


In this and the other prepositions cf very wide and general 
use we have not pretended to any fullness : they would 
afford abundant material for a fair-sized treatise. We only 
notice such special uses as we have remarked in our reading, 
and have therefore passed over most of the common and 
obvious uses. On dird there are some illustrations in Proleg. 
which may be recalled with some additions. There is the 
partitive use (pp. 102, 245), still current in MGr : so P Petr 

III. II 20 (B.C. 234) d<pe(o-8[w] dirb twv virapxovTwv uoi. 
[o-]a>u.dTwv [tXJeuBtpa A. Kal 'A., ;'/<. II. II (I) 5 (= Selections 
p. 7) (iii/B.C.) dirb tovtou to piv (jp.vo-u . . . To 8e Xotirdv 
ktX. P Tebt II. 299 13 (c. A.D. 50) dlroXuo-(u.[o]v a7rb 
dv8[pwv irevTrfjKovTa "one of the 50 exempted persons" 
(Edd.), V land S 6 (ii/A.D.) 8L6irept]/d(iT]v o-ot . . d[irb tov 
o]'(vov Kv(8ia Tp(a, etc. To Kuhring's scanty exx. (p. 37) 
for dird of agent (cf. Proleg. pp. 102, 2461 add Syll6ss s (A.D. 
83) o-vvT£Tr|pr|piva dirb (3ao-iX&ov Kal EepacrTwv, P Lond 
H73 12 (A.D. 125) ( = 111. p. 20S) &os imo-8rjs air' avTov, 
V Flor II. 150 6 (A.D. 267) a. twv uvwv KaT€o-8tdpeva, BGU 

IV. 11S5 26 (Augustus or earlier) p.T|8i KaTaKaXeicrSat dirb 
p.T|8€v(ds). It is universal in MGr, but its very limited use 
in papyri and NT suggests that in the Hellenistic period it 




had only local currency. Various uses under the general 
heading of source are collected in Kuhring p. 35 f. : add the 
remarkable BGU IV. 1079 25 (a.d. 41) (= Selections p. 40) 
ws dv ttclvtcs Kal o-u pXs'ire o-aTbv dirb twv 'IovSaiwv " like 
everybody else, you too must beware of the Jews." The 
familiar NT idiom (Mk 8 15 al) may be translation Greek 
still, but it is evidently possible enough in vernacular 
untouched by Semitic infiuence. Kuhring's instances cover 
the categories of cause, authorship, receipt, inheritance, but 
not instrument : there are numerous exx. of xadapbs dud 
and the like (once regarded as Semitism !). Sometimes the 
KaOapds is dropped, and dud is practically = dveu : see 
Kuhring p. 53 f., and add P Lips I. 16 1 * (A.D. 138) 
ira[p]a8[ioo-w o-o]i a-iiv Tats e<j>ai<rTu»<rais 8[vpais] K[al] 
kXcio-1 Kal diro irdo-Tjs aKa8apo-ias : on P Fay 345 the edd. 
note "cf. CPR 3S :1 , BGU I. 39 11 , etc., where these phrases 
occur without KaBapds." Not that Ka8apos is really to be 
supplied : the privative dird, as Kuhring calls it, is quite 
naturally developed. Cf. P Tebt II. 420 4 (iii/A.D.) dirb 
?T|(jiias "blameless" In P Oxy VIII. II03 :1 (A.D. 360) a 
certain Eutrygius is called diro Xo-yio-Twv " ex-logistes " : 
Prof. Hunt notes " On the titular use of ex and dud see 
Mommsen Ephem. Epigr. v. p. 128-9, an< l c f- e 'g- I ii i 
dirb iirdTiov [a.d. 550], 893 s dirb pet(dvuv [vi/vii A.I'.]. 1' 
[Lond] 233 s [=11. p. 273 — A.D. 345] diro tirdpxwv, I' Flor 
I. 71 passim [iv/A.D.]." On its relations with ix, irapd 
and uird see Proleg. p. 237 : add Preisigke 997 and 99S, two 
irpoo-KuvTJ|iaTa from the same place, dated respectively A.D. 4 
and A.D. 16-7, with inrb x.ei|iu>vos eXao-8«is in the first and 
diro xijuivos eXao-8e£s in the other. We may further note 
the idiomatic use of dird in Mk 7* dir d*yopds, 15 21 dir' 
d'ypov, "fresh from market," "from field-work," which is 
well illustrated by such phraseology as that in Syll 567 
(ii/A.D.), a tariff prescribing the number of days of ceremonial 
impurity following certain acts, described as to. 4ktos : thus 
dirb Tvpou Tjfie'(pas) d, dirb (f>0opEi'wv fju.eipu>v; p., diro ktjSous 
[oikJeCov T)pcpuv) p., dirb cruvov-o-ias vop.Cp.ou they may enter 
the shrine the same day after washing and anointing. Cf. 
Deissmann BS p. 227. Among phrases with dird we may note 
one in P Ryl II. 157 21 (a.d. 135) el XP € ^ a Y^voito [iroTi'crai 
e]y dvapdo-ei [</.Z'.] dirb iroSbs ttjv aiJTTjv voTivrjv pepCSa, 
"if need arises at the inundation to water the same southern 
portion by foot." It seems clear that this refers to the same 
method of irrigation which appears in Deut n 10 iLXX i>Tav 
<nr€ipwo*iv tov crirdpov Kal iroT^axrtv Tois irocrlv avTtiv 
lio-el Ki|Trov Xaxavuas) : see Driver in loc. The editors in 
their note cite a papyrus with dirb iroSbsTroTio-[p]oO. In dXicis 
dirb iroSds (BGU I. 220, 221, III. 756) the sense is different, 
perhaps " from the bank " (lit. "on foot"). In P Rein lS il 
(B.C. 10S) we note p*XP l [dv dirb] tou o-Trbpou Y^ VT l Tai " until 
he has finished his sowing." For dird denoting matter or 
material, as Mt 3*, cf. Priene I17' 2 (i/B.C.) crr<(j>aviio-a[t. 
. . . o-Tt<)>]dvu> xpv<riut. dirb \pva-ov. The phrase dirb 
pe'pous may be provisionally illustrated by P Ryl II. 133 17 
(A.D. 23) auOdSujs KaT6o-Tra<r€v dirb pc'povs " ventured to pull 
it partly down" : see further under pepos. On dir' alwvos we 
gave some parallels under aiwv : add Preisigke 176* (a.d. 
161—80 irpwTou tuv dir' aiu>vos. 'Atto toO vvv is illustrated 
by Deissmann PS p. 253, and dirb tov PeXTio-Tou ib. 93 : add 
P Tebt I. s 8 » (b.c. 118), II. 282 s (late ii/B.c), P Fay 12 6 
(B.C. 103). See further Proleg. p. 9 for Rev t 4 , on which 

more may be said under etpC. Rossberg's dissertation s> item- 
atically illustrates papyrus usages of dird, as far as its date 
(190S) allows: it ought perhaps to be observed that the 
extracts are not always correctly transcribed. There is an 
elaborate dissertation on later uses of dird in compu^i imi, l,y 
K. Dieterich in Ind. Forsch. xxiv. pp. 87-158, on which cf. 
Frankel, H'ochenschr.f. hlass. Philol., 1909. p. 369 tl 


For the metaphorical sense (as in Lk 21 13 , Phil 1") cf. 
P Tetr III. 42 II (S)f 5 (iii/BC.) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 15) 

Vwl [S£ CV 4>dPtOL t]ipl OV p€TpiOJL, TTO>[s] TC O"ol diroPf]0-€Tai 

Kal ijptv. Syll 406 10 (a.d. 147 — a reply of M. Aurelius to 
an address of congratulation on the birth of a son who had 
died after it was sent) eiivota vpv, r^v €V€8€£|ao-0c o-vvTio-8t'vT€s 

pOt Y«VVT|8€VT0S TjioTJ, €1 Kal *T€pO)S T0VT0 dlT«pr], Ol'Sh' fjTTOV 

<f>avepd CYevcTo. The literal sense may be illustrated by the 
use of the verb, with its nouns dirdpao-i.s and diropaTiKov, 
to denote a kind of chariot race in which one of two men 
in a car had to jump off: see Syll 670 (i/ii A.D.) and notes. 
Schlageter (p. 59) quotes dirdpao-is from a Delos inscr. in 
BCH xiv. p. 399 115 (B.C. 279), where it means "place of 
exit," the classical meaning having been "landing." 

Syll 324 20 (i/B.C.) ttjs irdXeuis diropepXT|pevT|[s] d-yaObv 
[TroXen-T|v. The words Ta diropdXXovTa. are used as a 
designation for certain cSadfrj in P Flor I. 20 15 
(a.d. 127) (= Chrest. I. p. 422I, but the reason for the 
designation is by no means clear : see the note by Vitelli, 
who favours a sense = "fruitful," and compares the some- 
what similar usage in P Gen I. 6 10 (ii/A.D.) p.r|T€ ck t[oJ] 
K«4>°-Xa(ou ti atuTois [d]iropepXr|K€'vav. 1' Ryl I. 2S 42 (iv/ 
A.D.) tells us that one kind of "quivering" means that 
iroXXd diropdXXei b toiovtos, and in 13 ° one whose left shin 
quivers diropaXeiv irpdo-ioirov iiroTaKTiKdv, "will lose a 
subordinate person." PSI 32 17 (a.d. 20S) pi'j e£eivai li r,ptiv 
diropaXco-Sai. o-£ tt|[s pi]o-8iio-€a>s. 

P"or this NT dir. tip. (Heb II 26 ) cf. Syll 656 10 (Ephesus, 
ii/A.D.) diropXtTrajv e'is re tt|v tio-f'peiav ttjs 8eo0 Kal tls ttjv 
ttjs XapTrpoTaTTjs 'E<j>to-itov irdXeios T€tpT)V. 


P Ryl II. 65 s (B.C. 67 ?) has diroY€-yovdTa irXetova criiiiaTa, 
"several corpses." P Grenf II. 69 10 (a.d. 265) tiS 
dxroYeYOVOTi. iraTpl aiToC, "his departed father." P Lips 
I. 29 (a.d. 295) has aor. partic. ler in the same sense — 
so Syll 727 15 (iii/B.C.) and 850 12 \ii/B.c); but three or four 
iv/A.D. documents in the same collection show the general 
meaning "depart" c. gen. 


It is hardly necessary to observe that a very large number 
of the papyri are census papers, and that by their aid a four- 
teen years' period has been established during the Imperial 
age : the discovery was first made by Wilcken, Hermes 
xxviii. p. 230 ff. (1S93). The oldest certainly dated census 
paper h one of A.D. 34, published in Philohgus Ixxi. p. 24 u.: 
diro-ypd<t> tls to tv[«o-]Tos R £tos TtPeplou Kaio-apos 






2e|3ao-Tov. The editor, S. Eitrem, remarks that P Oxy 
II. 254 probably belongs to a.d. 20. See Grenfell and 
Hunt's long introduction to that document, discussing the 
argument of Sir W. M. Ramsay in his Was Christ Born at 
Bethlehem? (189S) ; and note that they think P Oxy II. 256 
might even go back to A.D. 6. For the kcit olxtav diro- 
7pa4>t) of the Ptolemaic period, see P Petr III. 59 (rf), a 
very early example. They were made every year, and 
included the name of the owner and other occupants of each 
house, then the total number of inhabitants, and the number 
of males. In later times we find in the diroypa<j>r| a return of 
property, as in P Oxy I. 72 (A.D. 90), — of a slave, as ib. 73 
(a.d. 94), and of sheep and goats, etc., as 74 (A.D. 116) — 
the two latter are examples of the annual registration. See 
Wilcken, Grundzuge I. p. 175 f., and for the Imperial census 
pp. 192 f. and 202 f. He accepts P Oxy II. 254 and 255 as 
belonging to the census of A.D. 19-20 and 47-8 respectively ; 
and agrees with Grenfell and Hunt that "this census was 
established in B.C. 10-9 or A.D. 5-6." In favour of this is 
the fact that the new Xaoypcufna, poll-tax, which was closely 
connected with the census, was in operation in B.C. 19-8. 
Wilcken's points must not be repeated here, for we cannot 
spare room for the Realien. He shows that the purpose 
of the census was to determine the total population of Egypt, 
and each person according to his residence, K8ia : this is 
specially brought out by the edict of Vibius Maximus 
(P Lond 904 = Selections no. 28), in which the Prefect 
orders all to return to their homes for the census of A.D. 104. 
(See further on this Wilcken's introduction to the document 
in Chrest. I. 202, p. 235 f., and Deissmann LAE p. 268 f. 
There seems to be an unnoticed reference to this requirement 
in the late iii/A.D. document, P Oxy VIII. 1157 : the writer 
asks his sister to register him in his absence if possible, and 
if not to let him know, that he may come and do it.) 
Wilcken shows that personal attendance to the duty of 
tlKovi.o-p.cis (cf. P Oxy VII. 1022) was necessary, and brings 
into connexion the story of Lk 2. The only thing he does 
not explain is his own use of the term "legend " (/. c. p. 194). 
The deduction so long made from Luke's shocking blunders 
about the census apparently survives the demonstration that 
the blunder lay only in our lack of information : the microbe 
is not yet completely expelled. Possibly the salutary process 
may be completed by our latest inscriptional evidence that 
Quirinius was a legate in Syria for census purposes in 
B.C. 8-6 (see Expositor VIII. iv. pp. 3S5, 481 fl'.). 


On the general subject we have included everything under 
the noun above. The verb is used as a "vox sollennis" 
in P Petrie II. 11 (2) 3 (mid. iii/B.c.) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 6) 
diroye' Si eirl TeXoiviov to oIkottcSov ktX, "I have 
registered as subject to tax the site bringing 17J dr. rent.'" 
So P Oxy I. 36"- u (ii/iii A.D.), where, in connexion with 
the payment of customs, it is laid down that edv per eiipeOrj 
t[i] 'irtpov r) 8 direypdx|/aTo, o-Tepr)cn.p.ov iir™, " if anything 
be discovered other than what was declared, it shall be 
liable to confiscation." If not, the TeXwvns bad to repay to 
the merchant the cost of unloading his ship for examination. 
It is usually the middle voice that is employed — a fact not 
unconnected with the personal responsibility already noticed. 
But in P Ryl II. 103 1 '' 20 (A.D. 134) we have dire-ypd <j>n ', 

[dTrey]pd[<t>]r|0-av, as against direypdv|/aTo (-avTo) in other 
places in the document : the former simply gives the fact of 
the registration, which indeed in one case, that of a slave's 
child, was effected by the head of the family. 

With the use of the verb in Heb 12 23 may be compared 
Apoc. Pauli (ed. Tischendorf). p. 39 f. : "yvarre, viol twv 
avopw-rrwv, Stl irdvTa ra irpa.TTdp.eva Trap' vpu>v Ka6' fjpe'pav 
&Y"yeXoi diro-ypdtpovTaL ev ovpavois. 


P Alex 4 6 (iii/B.C.) ( = Witkowski 2 , p. 51) diro8e££opeV ere. 
"we shall report you." For the middle cf. Syll 521 19 
(B.C. 100) the newly admitted ephebi iroir|o-dp.evoi . . . 
u.t\€Tr|v ev Tots S-n-Xois aTre8e££avTo Tots •  • 0T|O-eiois. 
The verb is very common in the sense of "appoint" or 
"nominate": in P Ryl II. 153 1 ' (A.D. 13S-61) d-n-oSt-yvvpi 
tov vidv as heir to my estate. Generally it is used of 
"proclaiming" an appointment to public office. Thus in 
the rough draft of a public proclamation of the accession 
of Nero we are told 6 8e ttjs oiKovpe'vr|S Kal irpocr- 
8oKT|6ds Kal eX-n-icrGels AvTOKpaTwp diro8e'8eiKTai, "the ex- 
pectation and hope of the world has been declared 
Emperor" (P Oxy VII. 1021 6 ", A.D. 54), and in the same 
Emperor's speech to the Greeks he describes himself as 
8[rj]p.apxLKfjs e£ovcr(aS to Tpio-KaiSe'KaTov diroSeSeiypeVos = 
designates (Syll 376", a.d. 67, with Dittenberger's note). 
Other examples are P Petr III. 36 (a) verso M *!ir[l] twv 
diro8e8ei-yp*Vcov eirto-Koirwv " in the presence of the appointed 
supervisors," P Gen I. 36 s (ii/A.D.) 'AvovpVwvi d"n-o8[e8e]i- 
yp-eVw ■yvp.vao-idpxw, and from the inscriptions OGIS 437 9a 
(i/B.C.) 01 i»<f)' cKaTe'pwv twv Srjpwv diroSeixOe'vTes &v8pes eirl 
twv crvXXvcrewv SapSiavwv, ^jV/409 11 (ii/A.D.) diroSeiYjOe'v]- 
tos vtto 6eov 'ASpiavov, etc. 

This use of the verb adds point to 2 Thess 2*, where the 
man of lawlessness is decribed as diroSeiKvvvTa eavTov 8ti 
e'cr-Tiv 8e6s — he actually "proclaims" himself as God (see 
further Milligan aJ I.). For the other meaning, "demon- 
strate," as in Ac 25', cf. P Par I5 31f - (B.C. 120) T|puT-r|crev 
tov 'Eppiav el! Tiva diroSeCfjiv TrapaKeiTai (so Radermacher 
Gr. p. 152 f.) ws 4cttiv avToG irpovoviKri, P Lond. 904 8 * 
(a.d. 104 — see above, under diroypa4>T|) (=111. p. 126) ot 
diroS[eL]^avTts dvavK[aiav aJuTwv t^jv •n-apou[criav, who 
have " proved" their inability to return home for the census, 
P Fay 32 15 (A.D. 131) irpdrepov diroS££io iirdpxetv " I will 
first establish my title to the ownership" (Edd.), and HGU 
II. 3S8 "■ 18 (ii/iii A. I>.) ck Tfjs KaT oixiav diroypa^fjs 
diroSeiKvuTat, tCvos €cttIv SovXos. The verb in MGr 
( diroSetx 1 " ) means " prove." 


P Lond 921 10 (ii/iii A.D.) (= III. p. 134) Kal tis dird8i£iv 
[{j7re]6e'p.r|v 0-01 ra v-TroYe-yp'apiieva) " in proof thereof." 
T Oxy II. 257 19 (A.D. 94-5) Ka8' [as] eirTivevKev aTro8ei'£eis, 
"in accordance with the proofs he produced." P AmhII. 77 s2 
(A.D. 139) 1W 8uvrj8u> tt|V diroS^Lv eV avTovs Tr[o]irjO"[d]- 
p.evo(s) Tvxeiv Kal Tfjs ciirb crov evepyecKas, " in order that 
I may produce the proofs against them and obtain your 
beneficence" (Edd). P Tebt II. 291 41 (a.d. 162) ( = 
Chrest. I. p 163) [dir]o8edjtv Sovs tov eir£o-Tao-8ai [U]paTiKa 
[Kal] AtyvirTia vpdp.rp.aTJa, a priest gives proof of his 
qualifications by his knowledge of hieratic and Egyptian 




writing. Syll 521 42 (see above under dTroSe£KW|iii ct-o|>]tj- 
o-avTo . . . eir* e|dSu>i ttjs t(f>T|peias Tf|V dirdSti[^(.v t]tjl 
PovXiji. In P Tor I. I™' B (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. ;,7) 
it is closely connected with another compound: Kal ucrd 
Tas tTriSei^eis TavTas aiTcio-8ai ovtov Tas Trepl ttjs oiklcls 
d.Tro8et|«is, "tandem, hisce demonstratis, iam ipsi licuisset 
a nobis documenta petere, quae ad domum attinent (Peyron . 
BGU IV. 1 141 12 (c. B.C. 14) Kal 8e'8wKa d-rroSei'^is dXT)9ivds 
"genuine proofs." P Catt »' ■• (ii/.\.D.) (= Chrest. II. p. 
421) «dv t[i]vo.[s] «vapY€is diro8[e£]^is l-XTJS, edv eTrev<i'[-y]KT]S, 
dKovo-oaai o-ov <oo-ov was first written). Cf. Syll 720. 20 
(ii/B.C.) a. o-a<J)ets- For the sense "election " (the nomen 
actionis to aTroSeiKwui), cf. Syll 2o6 29 (B.C. 274) 7iveo-[8ai 

S£ €is TO XoiTTOV] TT|V dTTo8€L^lV Ttiv 0€Wp(I>V KaO' CKdo-TTJV 

Tr«vTa«TT|p(8o. For a " display," cf. Syll 923" (ii/B.C.) . . . 

ttolt|]tujv Kal io-Topia r pd4>u>v aTroSel^as.;. 

OG/S 441 100 (i/B.C.) dinS8eK[Ta vTrdpxei]v 8«iv. ('ATrpdo-- 
S«ktos is found in the contrary sense P Oxy II. 26S' 8 
(a. P. 5'S) ttjv €(ro|it'vr|v £<|>[o]8ov &Kvpov Kal Trpdo-SeKTov 
(.'. dirp.) im-dpx«i-v, "any claim that is made shall be void 
and inadmissible" (Edd.) : cf. the Xanthos inscription Syll 
633 s (ii/A.D.) edv St tls p\d<rr|Tai, d-rrpdo-ScKTos t| 9vo-ia 
Trapd toO 8eov.) 'ArroSeKTt'os " laudandus " occurs in Vettius 
Valens : see under dTroSt'xouai. The noun dTro8€KTT|S, 
following o-it(ov), occurs in Ostr 1217 (iii/A.D.), al. 


P Oxy VI. 939 10 " (iv/A.D.), a letter from a Christian 
dependent to his master regarding the illness of his mistress, 
has the following : o-vvyvw|J.t|V S«, KvpU uov, o-x<h't|S p-01 [Kal 
eilvovs] diroS^ei p.e tl Kal cs TnXiKavTT|v <rc [d"ywvta]v 
dKujv eve'PaXov -ypdi|/as -rrepl avTrjs do-a [ckoulo-u)], "please 
pardon me, my lord, and receive me kindly, though 1 unwil- 
lingly caused you so much anxiety by writing to you the 
messages which you received" (Edd.). Syll 693* 1 (iii/B.c.) 
eu4>avt£av 8e avTols on Kal vvv rrpdiTOL tov cryava Tats 
MovcraLS o-Ttc))a[vi]TT|v aTro8e'x°vT[ai . . ., ib. 790 11 (i/B.C.) 
djVevovTes Kal vrj<|>0VTts Kal dTroSexduevoi Ta TrivaKia Trapd 
twv u-avTevoue'vwv. OG/S 692 1 ( Hgypt) ovk dTre8€£du.T]v o-g 
t(t)s) t[v XdyOis] TpiP^s [Kv€K€v]. Vettius Valens p. 250 22 
Tives piv e^^eptis Kal €TraKTiKol ttjs dXT|8eias aTToSt'xovTai, 
which Kroll renders "laudantur," comparing p. 329 16 88ev 
aTro8eKT€os d toiovtos- Gildersleeve {Just. M. p. 239) 
remarks on the " respectful " lone of the verb in Ac 24 s 
TrdvTT| T€ Kal TravTa\ov> dTro86\da60a. It survives in MGr. 


Early examples of this verb are afforded by P Petr III. 42 I 5 
(iii/B.C.) cl(ll -yap irpos twi dTro8r|uttv, "for I am on the point 
of departure " (Edd.), and P Par 46 s (B.C. 153) cvKaTtXeXotim 
p« dTroST||iT|o-as. An antithesis which verbally resembles 
2 Cor 5* may be seen in P Tebt I. 104 1 ' (B.C. 92) JvSnuwv 
Kal dTroSr|U.wv, in a marriage contract : similarly BGU I. 1S3' 
(A.D. 85), P. Giss I. 2 il9 (B.C. 173), and cf. P Par 69 
(iii/A.D.) where the arrivals and departures of a strategus are 
recorded in his day-book by fan- and diroSrjuew respectively 
(cf. Archiv iv. p. 374). On P Catt v - 20 (ii/A.D.) ( = 
Chrest. II. p. 422) edv -ye'vTjTai ue dTro8T|ue!v, P. M. .Meyer 
observes (Archiv iii. p. 84) that the verb is the antithesis 

of fvSTnietv, as especially in marriage contracts. Add P 
Oxy I. 4 1 18 (late i/A.t).) dTroSTjuovvTos o-ov, "in your 
absence," ib. II. 326' (c. A.D. 45) ovk ?Xapov dp,upiov 
irapd [twv TTploTrdXuv d(j>' ov dire8t)|j.Ti[o-a]. ib. III. 47 1 8 
(ii/A.D.) dTroSr|[u.ovv>T]es r| ,voT|craT£ Tas [Tr]«pl Toirav •yrypa.y.- 
ae'vas up"«;]v 4-m.a-ToXds, 1' Tebt II. 23i 7 (A.D. 216) tov 
TraTpds u.ou . . . aTro8T||jLTio-avTos . . . Trpds Kuvtpyiav Xa- 
•yowv, " my father set off to hunt hares," and P Amh II. 145 16 
(iv/v A.D.) €]X\jttt|6tjv 8iotl dTT€8r|pr|o-as dXd-yws, "I am 
grieved because you went away without cause" (Edd.). In 
Syll 633 13 (Rom.) edv 8« Ttva avSpci-rriva Trdo-xr) r) do-0svi'|o-rj 
t] aTro8r||ir|o-T) ttou gives 11^ .1 good combination. For the 
subst. cf. P Oxy III. 471 131 (ii/A.D.) Tds te dTro8r||j.Las, 
P Tebt II. 330 s (ii/A.D.) 4(io0 iv dTro8T||ii'a ovtos, ami 
P Giss I. 41 11 - 3 (Hadrian) inrd tt)s uaKpds aTroSTjaias Ta 
T|utT£[pa] Tra[vT]aTrao-iv du.«XT|8evTa TD-yxfaveu]. 


Syll 154 24 (age of Alexander) toiis 8« dTro5r|u.ous, €Tr«i8dv 
^X0o)o-l «s TTjp. TrdXiv, drroSoOvaL tt]v tiu.tjv 8td p.r|vcs. Ib. 
427 30 (iv/iii B.C.) (Crete, in dialect) Kal t[ous dXXo'us 
TroXtTas €|opKLw, to{i[s [i€v evSdfioDS avTLKa adXa], TOlfS 
8* dTro8dp.ous al Ka ^XSajvTt, [w]s d[v Svvuuai TaxLo-Ta]. 


It is unnecessary to illustrate at length this very common 
verb, the uses of which are on familiar lines. Thus d-n-d8os 
tu> 8elvi is the direction on the back of a letter, e. 1^. P 
Oxy II. 293 20 (a.d. 27) dTrdSo(s) Trapd Aiov[vo-lou] Ai8vp.r| 
Tfji. dSs[X<(>T]] ; see also Wilcken Archiv v. p. 238 for the 
use of dirdSos to denote the transmission of an official docu- 
ment. Similarly the verb is the appropriate one everywhere 
for the " paying" of a debt, or " restoring" of a due of any 
kind — P Eleph i u (B.C. 311-0I ( = Selections, p. 3) of a 
dowry, 'HpaKXei8r|S ATjU.r|TpLai tt]|i <J>€pvt]v t)v Trpoo-Tivt'-yKaTo 
(Spaxadsi A, an observance due to the gods P Giss I. 27 10 
(ii/A.D.) iva, . . . Tois 0€ots Tas 6<|>CLXo(icva[s] orrovSas 
diroSii, rent ib. 46* (Hadrian) to. [e]K<j>dpta ovk aTr€'8oo-av, 
P Oxy I. 37 iL8 (a.d. 49) (= Selections, p. 51) of wages for 
services that have not been fully rendered, aTro8ovo-av avTT^v 
o elXTicJKv dp-yvpiov, and ib. II. 269 s (A.D. 57) of a loan of 
money, ds drroSwo-w o-ot ttj TpiaKaSt toO Ka[io-apef!ov 
u.T|v6s. In P Grenf I. 43 ,ff - (ii/B.C.) [a]iToO 8« p.T|S' aTro- 
ScSukotos Tjp-tv u-[r|8]e iTnrov p.T|8e T-f|v TropeLav aifTT]S €tt[l8€]- 
8ojkotos, we have two compounds well distinguished. For 
some notes on its flexion see under Si8wu.i. The middle 
drroSdo-Oai "sell" (Ac 5 8 etc.) may be illustrated from P 
Tor I. i iv 22 (B.C. 116) { = Chrest. II. p. 34), <<■ s4 (p. 36) etc. 
Cf. MGr diroSiSo). 


The simplex (if we may so call what is already a compound) 
maybe seen in Wiinsch AF 3" (p. 12) (Carthage, leaden 
tablet) €£opKt£u> v|xds Kam tov €Trdv[a>] tov ovpavov 9cov, 
tov KaGTiH-'vov IttI twv Xepovpi, o 8iopio-as Tf|V ytjv Kal 
X^pio-as T-fjv 9dXao-erav : the writer has got enough Judaism 
to curse with. For his grammar cf. Proleg. p. 60 n. 1 . 


P. Giss I. 47 11,f - (Hadrian) Trapaj;<i[v]u>v 7&p Trpbs t!> 
Trapdv vvTio-iov ovx €upt'8r|, dXX* ov8« €8tKaCa>o-a d - yopao _ ai 




aTroSoKi.pao-9T)vai. Suvdpevov, "a girdle-dagger suitable for 
the present purpose has not been found, and I have not 
thought it right to buy one that might be rejected." On the 
use in I Pet 2 7 of the LXX diroSoKipdlJca instead of «£- 
ou9evtu as in Ac 4" for the Heb DXD in Ps 1 1S 22 , as indicating 

a progress on Peter's part in Greek ways and speech, see 
Ramsay Pauline Studies, p. 254 f. Vettius Valens uses it 
twice: p. 27S 18 ikv S£ tous KaKotroious (sc eiipuipev XPIH 111 " 
T££ovTas Kal tov"HXiov t) tt^v ScXtjvtiv €Tri9eu>pouvTas [koI] 
tov wpoo-K<STrov\ aTro8oKip.a£ouev t^jv yivt-rw, p. 313 26 Trpbs 
to p^| irXtxeorSai Tivas r) drroSoKtpd^eiv tJ|v ai'pccriv. 


^:7/37i 21 (Magnesia, i/A.D.) 8tSox9ai . . TeTqrr)o-9ai . . 
Tvpavvov Kal ttvai iv diroSoxfi tj Srjuco. In ib. 656 20 '- 
(Ephesus, C. A.D. 14S) an d-yiovo9='rr|s named Priscus is styled 
dvSpbs 8o;<i.u.a>TdTou Kal Trdcrns Tupfjs Kal aTroSoxfjs d|£ou. 
Field's examples {Notes, p. 203) show how much of a formula 
this d-TroSoxfjs dfjios (as 1 Tim i ,5 )had become. The inscrip- 
tion is quoted, with other epigraphic examples, by Bishop 
Hicks in CK i. p. 4, from which may be selected 0G1S 
339 11 (e. B C. 120) Tr)s Ka\X£o-rr]S diroSox.f|s d£ioupevos irap' 
auTujL. Add Priene IoS ;l12 (after B.C. 129), 109 234 (c. B.C. 120) 
iv diroSox+p ttjl pty£o-TT]i elvai, " to enjoy the highest esteem " 
(see Fouillac, p. 39). 

The derivative diroSoxtlov, which is found in the LXX, 
occurs in Rev L 31 18 , 32 s , 54 18 (b.c. 25S), and is apparently 
to be restored in the much mutilated P Petr III 36 (/<) " 12 
(B.C. 252) pouKoXoiv K(upr|s) diro8oxf<>>[i], "in the granary 
of the herdsmen's village." So P Hib I. 85 s1 (B.C. 261). 

The phrase peTa Trdo-r]S diroSoxijs (cf. 1 Tim I 15 ) occurs 
in Capiat IV. 144 8 (Cyzicus, i/A.D. ), of the "general 
appreciation " of an act of the Princess Antonia Tryphaena. 


BGU II. 606 5 (a.d. 306) Trpbs d]jro9io-iv dxupou. Syll 
420 15 (iv/A. D. ) Trf diroOe'trei. Tciv o-recpdviov, the ceremony 
of resigning a priesthood, the inauguration to which was 
irapd\-nv|ns tov o-Tecpdvou (so Ed.). 'AttoSjtos occurs in a 
petition P Oxy I. 71"  » (a.d. 303), but unfortunately the 
passage is much mutilated. With the idea of 2 Pet I 11 we 
might compare o-u]p.' diroSuo-dptvos in Kaibcl 403 5 (iv/v A.D., 
but not Christian). 


The word is by no means so common as might have been 
expected. In the Indexes to Oxyrhynchus Papyri I.-X. 
it is only noted once, namely P Oxy I. 43 verso"*- m (a.d. 
295). See also BGU I. 32 3 , ii. III. S16 6 (iii/A.D.), and ib. 
931 2 (iii/iv a.d.) ep.£TpTJ8r| dirb diro9f|Kr|S ttjs (i€<rr|s 4Xaiou 
(icTpnTas y— these are the only occurrences in BGU I. -IV. 
In P Tebt II. 347 (a banking account, ii/A. D.) the word is 
repeatedly prefixed to different items, " the sums so indicated 
being apparently 'deposited' (in a bank?)" (Edd.). Add 
Syll 734 81 (Cos) u.T]8' diro9r|Kni. xP a<r "ai t[tj(. au\]fji ttjl iv 
Tiii Upon, and direst. II. 96' * (after A.D. 350), where counsel 
pleads that the defendant should give up \ of Swpeds Kal 
airo9r|KT]S, f\ tt^v diroKaTaa'Tao-iv TroiT]o-ao-9ai toutojv : 
Mitteis (p. 116) explains these as " donatio propter nuptias ? " 
and "ein Geschaftsladen." Prof. Thumb notes that the 

noun survived in Romance (Span, bodega, Fr. boutique) : 
this reinforces its ancient Hellenistic record. 


appears twice in Vettius Valens: p. 16 21 dvfucppavToi. 
dTro9r|o - avpi£ou.eva)v, iS 1 - T|8€u>s dTro9no-aupi£6vT«v Trpbs Ta 
ptVpa twv yevi(r«ov. 


P Tor I. i» ■" (B.C. 116) (= Chresl. II. p. 32) 01 ivxo.- 
Xoupcvoi aTro9Xipe'vT€s twi pT]8evbs SiKaiov dvT€'xto-8ai. 


On the reason why the perfect of this verb was T«'8vT|Ka, 
not d-n-oT^vriKa, see Pro/eg. p. 114. Marcus Aurelius. it is 
true, uses dTroTe'9vT)Ka, a natural result of levelling when the 
simplex had become obsolete ; but the editor of P land 9 5 
(ii/A.D.) is not thereby justified in restoring d-rro]T68vuT[os. 
No other part of the simplex survives, and no other com- 
pound. An interesting instance of the word occurs in P Par 
47 7ff - {c. B.C. 133) (= Selections, p. 22) oi irapd <ri 9eol . . . 
on €vPe'pXr|Kav upas els u'Xtjv pfydXr|v Kal oi SuvdpeOa diro- 
0aveiv, "your gods (are false) because they have cast us 
into a great forest, where we may possibly die." As a 
parallel to the Pauline usage in I Cor 15 31 may be noted the 
touching letter P Giss I. 17 8 (time of Hadrian), where a slave 
writes to her absent master, diro9vr|o-Kopev oti. ou pXe'irope'v 
<rt Ka9' T|pe'pav. The use of the present tense justifies one 
more citation, BGU IV. 1024'*'- 6 (iv/v A.D.), where a Trye- 
p.(4v, passing sentence of death on a man who had disinterred 
a corpse, says he is less than a beast, Kal ■yap to 0T|pia [t]oIs 
p£v dv9pwTTOLS Trpocria-iv, toiv 8i [d]Tro9vrj<rKdvTajv <pl8ovTa[l]. 
Here the meaning is "spare them when they die " : the pres. 
is frequentative, as in Heb 7 8 or Rev 14 13 . The MGr is 
dTro9aCvw (or Tre8a£v<o etc.). 


For the meaning "restore," "give back," see P Petr III. 
53 (^) 12 » where in connexion with certain arrears into which 
a priest had fallen provision is made Trpdt;ai tous iyyvovs 
avToi) Kal -f|ptv dTroKaTao"rf)o-[a]i., " that payment be ex- 
acted from his sureties and restitution made to us" (Edd.). 
P Rein 17 15 (B.C. 109) may be cited for its grammar, note- 
worthy at this early date : 8uios oi al'Ttoi dva£T)TT|9cvTes 
e£aTroo-TaXd)[o-]L eirl tov o-TpaTriydv, [Kal] tpol p^v 8LaTre- 
<pwvT)p£va aTroKaTao-[Ta]9€Lr|, ot hi al'Tiot ttjx"o-l tuv 
€^aKoXov9ovvTtdv. The passive dTroKaTao-Ta9Tio-€Tai occurs 
in BGU IV. io6o 2 « (B.C. 23-2). OGIS 90 18 (Rosetta 
stone — B.C. 196) aTroKaTeo-Trjo-tv «is tt*jv Ka9riKoi)o _ av Ta|iv. 
Syll 540 34 (B.C. 175-1) if a workman breaks a stone, 'irtpov 
dTroKaTao-TT|o-6i. SoKipov. P Revill Mel p. 295 s (B.C. 131-0) 
(— Witkowski 2 , p. 96) pc'xpi T0U T °- TrpdvpaT d-rroKaTa- 
o-rr)vai, P Amh II. 4S 10 (B.C. 106) Kal dTroKaTao-Trjo-aTa) 
els o!ko[v] [irjpbs aiTT]v tois 18£ois, " shall deliver it to her 
at her house at his own expense" (Edd.). P Oxy I. 38 12 
(A.D. 49-50) {= Selections, p. 53) v<p' ov KaL dTroKaT€o-Td9r) 
poi 6 vids, ib. II. 27S 17 (hire of a mill — A.D. 17) Kal pcTa 
tov xP°vov dTr[oKa]Tao-TT|0"dTwi b pav-ns (the servant) Tbv 
puXov xi-yifft Kal do-ivfji, otov Kal TrapeuXTj^ev, ib. VI. 929 17 
(ii/iii A.D.) dTroKaTao-Tf]o-a£ pot €ts , 0|vpvYX € ^ TT lv i\ wv 
£o"Xov Ta irpoK€Lp€va irdvTa, etc. In the long land survey 




P Tebt I. 6i(i) 221 (B.C. 11S-7) the question is asked with 
regard to certain land, «i [a]viT^| [dvTavai]peTt'a [dXXri Si] 
dirb {jTroXdyou dvTavaipe8aa-a diroKaTao-TaTta, "whether 
it should be deducted (from the cleruchic land) and other 
land subtracted from that in the unprofitable list should 
be substituted" (Edd.) : cf. a land survey of the second 
century, where a holding that had become ko.6' ilSaTos 
diroKaT€<rTd8(r|) tu> €vc<tt[wti] (€T€t), was " reclaimed " in 
the year in which the survey was written (P Oxy VI. 91S 
intr.). Note the passive in Vettius Valens, p. 6S 21 = ex 
captivitatc redire (Ed.). 

For the double augment, which is found in the NT 
(Mt 12", Mk S 25 , Lk 6 10 ), cf. such an occasional occurrence 
in the inscriptions as Ca/der S s dir€KaT€crTr|0-ev, Letronne 
525 s (ii/A.D.) dir€KaT6<j-Td8r], and similarly Archiv ii. p. 436, 
no. 31 (i/A.D.); also P Tebt II. 413 1 (ii/iii A.D.) direKa- 
Tea-TT|cra. By the Byzantine period it had become very 
common. See further Winer-Schmiedel Gr. p. 103, and 
Brugmann-Thumb Gr. p. 31 1. Note the perf. diroKaBe'o-TaKev, 
Syll 365 7 (i/A.D.). 


For the literal sense of this significant word cf. P Gen 
I. l6 1J (A.D. 207), as amended Add. p. 37, 6[ir6]Tav tj 
Toia[ij]TT] yfj d-rroKaXv[(f)9]rj,»Tai Kal crircCptTai : cf. 
BGU II. 640" (i/A. P.) pov\6[i€0a»crao-8ai diroKa\u<|>T]s 
(/. -e£a-ns) al-yiaXoO, and CPR I. 239 s (a.d. 212) | 
p.ia-8wcraa-8ai diroKaXvqma-TjS \€p(ros alyciaXov, both as 
amended by Spohr in his note on P land 27 s (a.D. ioo-i). 
He remarks that the phrase denotes "agri litorales," which 
could only be cultivated when the water had receded. Since 
two of Spohr's passages have airoKaXu<J>ns (BGU II. 640 
and CPR 32') alvLaXov, one is tempted to postulate rather 
an adjective &iroKdXviJ>os, which would be quite regular in 
formation. A further instance might be sought in CPHerm 
45 6 , where we would read d*|/[i] pus dTroKaXvtpofi) (apoupai) 
c. We may add for the other form P land 30 15 (a.d. 105-6) 
€K twv diroKaXrj[(|)6'vTaj]y air' al"y[ia]Xoi( 48a[cp]a>v. To the 
classical and late Greek instances of the verb given by the 
dictionaries may now be added the new literary fiagment in 
P Oxy III. 413 166 d[iroK]dXw|/oy ilva £810 auTr|v. 


The Biblical history of diroKaXv^is along with the 
foregoing verb is discussed by Milligan Thess. p. 149 ff. 
Jerome's assertion {Comm. in Gal. i 12 ) that the word 
"proprie Scripturarum est ; a nullo sapientum saeculi apud 
Graecos usurpatum" cannot, however, be substantiated, if 
only because of its occurrences in Plutarch, who, like the 
NT writers, drew from the common vocabulary of the time, 
see e.g. Mor. 70 F. 


For the verb see Polyb. xviii. 31 diroKapaSoKelv t^|v 
Avtio^ou irapona-i'av, al. Cf. the interesting sixth-century 
papyrus from Aphrodite in Egypt (cited by Deissmann LAE 
P' 377 f- ; cf. Archiv v. p. 2S4) in which certain oppressed 
peasants petition a high official whose irapoucr£a they have 
been expecting : assuring him that they await (IkSexou.€v) 
him — oIovol <£"ASov KapaSoKoOvTcs TTjvTOTe tov Xipio-ToiO 
devdou 8(6o)C irapovo-£av, "as those in Hades watch eagerly 

for the parousia of Christ the everlasting God." While the 
perfectivized verb is well supported in literary Koivrj, the 
noun is so far peculiar to Paul, and may quite possibly have 
been his own formation : cf. what we have said above under 
dTr{K8e'xo| and direKSuo-is. 


This subst., which in the NT is found only in Ac 3 21 , 
occurs in the sense of "restitution" in P Par 63"'' 40IT - 
(B.C. 164) TravTairao-iv 8e |i€Ta t^v dirb tuv TrpawdTwv 
vuvel aTroKaTao-Tao-etv op;uiu.ev dirb Ppa^etwv pdXas rf- 
o"X 1 H J - ov€ ' v i P Leid B'" 15 Kal toOtiov tvjv diroKaTdo-Tao-iv 
T||uv yevTi8Tjvai. So in Syll 552 (late ii/B.c.) twice with 
reference to the " renewal " of the temple cell of the goildess 
Artemis at Magnesia— 13 els t^|v diroKaTdaxao-tv rod vaov 
o-vvreXeiav tl'Xn<|>ev, and 23 awTeXe'o-ai. Tif|V diroKaTao-Tao-iv 
t^s 8eoi, and in OGIS 483 s (ii/B.c.) of the "repair" of a 
public way — €'k8o<tiv iroi7]o-dp.6voi Tijs diroKaTao-Tdo-ews toO 
toitou. In P Oxy I. 67 s (a dispute concerning property — 
A.D. 33S) it is laid down, d irpbs t^v twv iirb Tuiv 
aiTLa6e'vTwv 8iaKaTe'x«o-8aL X[cy]ope'vtov oiKOTr[€'J8[a>v] diro- 
KaTao-Tao-iv ktX., "if the accused persons protest against 
the restoration of the estates of which they are said to be 
in occupation," etc. In the third century petition, I' Oxy 
I. 70, the editors render I0ff - <rvve'pi] 8t diTOKaTdo-Tao-Ly p.c 
iroiTjo-aa-8ai irpbs avrbv tu> 8teX0dvTi k ^tcl), by "it hap- 
pened that a balancing of accounts took place between us 
in the past 20th year." Add P 1 lor I. 43 12 (a.d. 370) X"P°- 
"y[pa]4>CLav ^tol dcr<f>dXciav tiis diroKaTao-Tdo-€u>s toutwv, 
P Strass I. 26' (iv/a.D.) p.€Ta rf|V diroKaTdo-Tao-tv tovtwv 
irapd 4 > oi|3du.u.wvos riairvouSfou Xdu.pav£ ttjv irpao-iv, and 
Chrest. II. p. 117, printed above under diro6T|KT|. Another 
noun-formation occurs in P Tebt II. 424 s (late iii/A. D.) 
us «d (/. edv) p.^| diroKaTa(TTao-£as [S]^| irepn^-ns [o]i8ds o-ou 
Tb[v] ntvSuvov, "so unless you now send dischaiges (of 
debts) you know your danger" (Edd.). To the literary 
record may be added Epicurus S 9 (Linde Epic. p. 32). On 
the astrological use of diroKaTdo-Tao-is ( = the final point of 
agreement of the world's cyclical periods) as underlying the 
NT idea, see J. Lepsius in Exp. VIII. iii. p. 158 fi"., where 
reference is also made to Brandes Abhandl. z. Gesch. des 
Orients, p. 123, " The Egyptian Apokatastasis-years." 


P Par 63 ix -" (ii/B.c.) dirdKeiTai yap irapa 8[cov] utjvis 
Tois pT) Kara to PcXtio-tov [Trpoaijpoupc'vois tfiv : there 
is a suggestion of Rom 2 5 . Closely parallel with the NT 
use of the verb is OGIS 3S3 183 (the important inscription of 
Antiochus I., the quasi-Zoroastrian King of Commagene 
in i/B.C. ) ols diroKe£o"£Tai irapd 8ewv Kal rjpwwv x^pts 
cicrepVas (see Dittenberger's note). For a similar use of 
the simplex c^. Magn lis 15 (ii/A.D.) 8]ud raiiTd croi KeLo-€TaL 
peydXr] x^P LS ^r 1 pao-Jve'ws oVkui, and see ZNTIV xv. 
p. 94 ff. With Heb 9" cf. Kaibel 416 6 (late, Alexandria) 
u>s dSujs 8tl irdo-L Pporois to 6av€tv dirdKetTau \ there are 
no signs of Christianity in the epitaph. A more literal use, 
serving as transition to the next, is in BGU IV. 1023' (A.D. 
185-6) ypa<}>^| ScaKuv (/. -•ywv : see reff. in Tebt. Pap. I. 
p. 616) Kal tuv iv Tui iepw diroKetpt'vwv. The word is com- 
mon in the sense "to be stored," e.g. P Oxy I. 69 s 
(A.D. 190) dirb tuv iv T[j oiKia diroKcqitviov, BGU. I. 275 s 




(A.D. 215) ev fj avXifj k<rr\v dTroK6ip^vr| pn)(avr|, P Tel>t II. 
34O 13 (A.I). 206) al Kal d-TTOKeCpEvai kv 0T|O-(avpui) elrl o-(ppaviSl 

AppcovCov, " which are stored at the granary under the 
seal of A." (Edd.)j and P Lond Inv. no. 18S5 7 (A.D. 

1 14-5 — published by Cell in Archiv vi. p. 102) to. kv avTtj 
p\(3Xi.a d-rroKeCpcva, documents "housed" in the |3ipXio0r|KT) 

In Deut 32 s * ouk LSov raOra o-vvf|KTai Trap' tpoi, Kal 
to-<ppdY»-o-Tai kv tois 6r|o-aupois pov, Symmachus substi- 
tutes diroKtiTai for o-vvf|KTai. 


P Oxy II. 265" (.1 marriage contract, A.D. 81-95) pr|8' 
diroKXeiv ( = diroKXctftv) pr]8evbs twv ii7rapxdvTa)[v. (For 
the Hellenistic contraction of two z'-sounds, see Proleg. 3 
p. 45.) Ib. X. 1272'' (A.D. 144) d-ireKXc[io-a Tfjv 0v]p[av 
Tfjs . . .] oU£as pou Kal tt|v tov Trto-o-oO (terrace) '0v[pav. 


On this word, taken in the sense of Deut 23 1 (supported 
by several instances in literary Koivrj — see Grimm-Thayer) 
Nageli has some good remarks (p. 78 f.) : he brings together 
several phrases which show Paul using a more vernacular 
style in Gal than anywhere else, the startling passage 5 12 
being the climax — " Der ziirnende Apostel lasst auch seiner 
Wortwahl freien Lauf; die starksten Ausdriicke der 
Umgangsprache sind "etzt die geeignetsten." Cf. Proleg. 
pp. 163, 201. 


OG/S 335 95 (ii/B.C. ) rd d]iroo-TaXe'vTa v7r'[ai]Twv 
diroKptpaTa and 119 Ka0d[T]i Kal avTol Sid twv d-rroKpipd- 
tw[v] evetpdvLcav. Still nearer in point of time to the sole 
NT occurrence of the word (2 Cor I 9 ) is IMAe 2 4 (Rhodes, 
A.D. 51) in which tcl tvKTaioTaTa diroKpCpara refer to 
favourable decisions of the Emperor Claudius (Deissmann, 
BS p. 257) : cf. 1G VII. 271 i 61ff (a.d. 37) irpocrtv8e£dpevos 
KaTa Stoptdv [Trp€cr]|3euo-iv irpos tov ZcPao-Tov . . . 
■rjv€VK€v d-rroKpipa Trpos to ^0vos Trdo-T|S [(ptXavJOpwirias Kal 
IXtKSmv dva0wv irXtjpes. OGIS 494™ (? i/iiA.D.) joins 
4-TTLo-ToXaC, diroKp£paTa, StaTa-ypaTa : Dittenberger defines 
these successively in the context as dispatches addressed by 
the proconsul to the Emperor, the Senate, etc., replies 
given to deputations of provincials to him, and edicta, or 
documents addressed to the people at large, and not to 
individuals. See also his note on Syll 36S 5 (i/A.D.), where 
C. Stertinius, chief physician to the Imperial family, is also 
tirl twv 'EXXtjvikwv d-JTOKpipaTtov. In P Tebt II. 286 1 
(A.D. 121-3S) a. is a " rescript " of Hadrian. Paul (I.e.) may 
be taken as meaning that he made his distressed appeal to 
God, and kept in his own heart's archives the answer — 
" diroOdvir to hk diro9av€Lv KcpSos," as we might recon- 
struct it. 


Syll 92s 52 (Magnesia, early ii/B.C.) irtpl Tavfrrjs tt)s] \wpas 
Tfjs irapd IIpiT|Wa>v diroKeKpipevris oijo-T)s shows the old 
diroKp(va) in passive. For the combination of pf. partic. and 
wv, cf. Col I 21 . In P Ryl II. 122 11 (A.D. 127) els to K dp* 
8vvao-0ai dTroKpi8f|vai twi S-npoo-iwi, "enabling me thus to 
fulfil my duties towards the Treasury" (Edd.), we have an 

isolated ex. of the passive aor. not meaning "answer." This 
latter, so overwhelmingly predominant in NT, is rather 
surprisingly uncommon in the non-literary Koivif|. Early 
inscriptional instances are Syll 328 11 (B.C. 84) direKp£6[T)v 
KaJXiis [avTJoV [t£ 5(8u Kimi KalKTX.,;V>. 307 6 ' (B.C. 150-47) 
£So£cv . . . TovTots <ptXav0pw7ra)s d-TroKpL8f|vaL, /7». 930 54 (b.c. 
112), same phrase : the last two are senatus consittta, starting 
in Latin. Similarly the dialectic Syll 654 s (? ii/o.c.) diroKpi- 
0fjptv tois irpco-pcvTais Sioti ktX. Mayser, p. 379, pro- 
nounces it "die eigentliche Koivrj-forni," but he only has 
five instances, P Par 34 10 (B.C. 157), 35 30 (B.C. 163), 15 35 
(b.c. 120), P Leid U ULU (ii/B.C), and P Grenf I. 37 14 (is.c. 
108 — tKpiGi] for dircKp.) : he cannot, however, quote any 
cases of aTreKpivdpTjv. On the other hand we cannot find 
any more instances of riir«Kp£0T|v from later papyri, except 
P Lond 121 330 (iii/A.D.) (=1. p. 95), and two Christian 
documents, P Grenf II. 112 20 (a Festal Epistle, a.d. 577?) 
and PSI 26 1 (see Addenda) (v/a.d. — acts of a martyr- 
dom). Since MGr diroKpL0T]Ka shows that it lived on, its 
disappearance in the post- Ptolemaic period outside NT is 
hard to explain. It is not, however, replaced by dirtKpi- 
vdpnv, as to which subsequent information has antiquated 
the statement in Proleg. p. 161 f. (corrected in Einleitung 
p. 254 n. 1 ). For the middle aorist occurs very often in 
papyri, but they are without exception legal reports, in which 
dir€Kpf£vaTo (so usually — also ptc. or inf.) means "replied," 
of an advocate or a party in a suit. The references had 
better be appended : P Hili I. 3i 21 (f. B.C. 270) .. . d]ir£Kpiva- 
[to . . . , no context, but the whole document proves its 
connotation), P Amh II. 66 37 (a.d. 124), PCatt '- 22 ( = direst. 
II. p. 419) (ii/A.D.i, P Oxy II. 237 vii.25.88 (A-D _ lS6)> 
it. III. 653 (a.d. 162-3), BGU I. 114'- 22 (ii/A.D.), 136 15 
(A.D. 135), and 361 i"" 12 (ii/A.D.), ib. II. 3SS u  "• 30 
(ii/iii A.D.), ib. III. 969' 16 (a.d. 142?). P Lips I. 32 1 ' 5,6 
(iii/A.D.), ib. 33"- "and 36 s (iv/A.D.), Chrest. II. 7S 9 (p. 86, 
A.D. 376-8), P Thead 14 21 (iv/A.D.) 81' eppnve'fws] dirtKpei- 
vav[To (in a prods verbal), BGU III. 936 13 (A.D. 426), 
PSI 52 M (vi/A.D.) and 61 33 , 62" (early vii/A.D.)— all three 
irdo-iv Tots irpbs avTbv (or -t)v) tiri^lToupe'vois diroKpivao-0au. 
The only one that need be noted specially is P Giss I. 40 "■ 8 
(A.D. 212), where Caracalla says I'va pi] tis o-TevoTepov 
irapeppT)V€vo-r] tt]v ^dpiTa pou ck twv pn[pd]Twv to[0] 
•n-poTe'pov StaTa^paTos, kv t5 oiiTus direKpi.v[d]pr|v ktX. 
This may represent rescripsi^ but in any case we cannot miss 
the formal and weighty tone of the verb. 

We proceed to compare these facts with those of Biblical 
Greek. Thackeray tells us (Gr. p. 239) that d-7TCKpi0i)v "is 
employed throughout the LXX : the classical dir«Kpivdpr|v 
in the few passages where it occurs seems to be chosen as 
suitable for solemn or poetical language." Such a passage as 
3 Regn 2 l , the last charge of King David to his heir, 
might be compared with Caracalla's use of the form. The 
fairly clear use in the fragment of a law report from P Hib 
above tells us that the legal use was already possible at the 
time when the LXX was growing. So we may take its 
meaning throughout as being (1) "uttered solemnly," (2) 
" replied in a court of law." These two meanings cover all 
the NT passages: (1) accounts for Lk 3 16 , Jn 5 17 ' 19 , Ac 3 12 , 
(2) for Mt 27", Mk 14' 1 , Lk 23", with Jn 5 11 (S*) not far 
away. With the absence of dirtKpi0T|v from the Pauline and 
other Epistles, and the Apocalypse except for one passage, 




we may compare the silence of the papyri after ii/ii.c. We 
are inclined to suggest that the word belongs only to early 
Hellenistic, whence it was taken by the LXX translators 
to render a common Hebrew phrase, passing thence into 
the narrative parts of NT as a definite " Septuagintalism." 
From the Gospels and Acts it passed into eo lesiastical 
dirt:. hi icf. Reinhold, p. 77), and so ultimately into MGr. 
The contrast between the two halves of the NT will thus be 
parallel with that noted above under £8t|S- 


Syll 276" (Lampsacus, c. B.C. 195) . . . 8rav irap' avToO 
X]dpwcriv diroKpio-as tcls dppo^ovo-as t[. . ., ib. 177 
(Teos, B.C. 303) oidpeBa 8{ [Selv iiTroSeix8»i]vai. Tpeis &v8pas 
tv8bs Srav [t|] diroK[pi]o-is dvayvu>o-9rji, ib. 314 15 (ii/B.c, 
Messenian dialect) '&cfy tovs o-uve'Spois dir-dKpuri.v 8dpev 
StoTi kt\., ib. 92S 21 (Magnesia, ii/B.c. init.) T-f|V MvXao-e'iov 
d-rroKpio-iv to the praetor M. Aemilius. From the papyri 
we can only cite P Oxy VI. 941 9 (vi/A.D.), and other 
late exx. : like the verb, this word for "answer" clearly 
suffered eclipse, and returned into the language at a late 


V Strass I. 42 17 (census return — A.D. 310) 6p.vvp.ei 0eovs 
diravTas   • pr|SeVa diroK£Kpv<j>t'vai. Syll Sol (Ephesus, 
vi/B.C.) has the verb thrice, of a bird flying out of sight : 
this early Ionic lies far behind the Hellenistic period, but 
may be added to the literary record of the verb, which we 
have not noticed in our sources. Yettius Valens has it 
p. 15 26 (not in index) $T|Tr|Ti.Ka\ tov diroKeKpvppt'vwv — cf. 
Paul's use of the participle. 


is a favourite word with Vettius Valens. It denotes p. 2 16 
the "hidden" organs of the body (twv evri>s d.). The in- 
fluence of Gemini (p. 7|J) produces KpvriKol kokot Kal dva8uv, 
4>povi)j.<H, TTfpUpyoi, diroKpi<p M v pio-rat, etc. In p. 10S 3 
■irepl. Seo-pcuv Kal <rvvoxu>v Kal diroKpv4>wv irpa-ypaTuv Kal 
KaraKpio-eus Kal aTiptas it suggests unknown disasters of 
the future. P. 170 6 irepl BepeXiW ii KTTjpdTwv (? KTio-paTiuv 
ed. ) ^ diroKptxptov r\ irepl v€KpiKuiv, subjects on which signs 
are sought dirb tov imoyeiov. In p. 179 24 (so 301 21 , 335 4 ) 
pvo-TiKuiv T| diroKpvcpuiv irpa-ypaTwv suggests "mysteries" 
again. The adverb is joined with ecpBovnpe'vus p. 301 5 , of 
"mystifying and grudging" expositions. See also Kaibel 
1028 10 (Andros, iv/A.D., a hymn to Isis) dirdKpv<j>a cruvPoXa 
SeXtoiv eipopt'va. P Leid W is Mova-eus Upd pipXos dird- 
Kpi<j>os (""■ ; ' :: ) : cf. <■ 18 - 


P Magd 4 5 (iii/B.C.) direKTetvav, P Par 23 s (B.C. 165) 
diroKTtvai, ib. 11 verso* (B.C. 157) diroKTt'vai (see Mayser, 
p. 70). The verb only occurs eleven times in Syll index. 
In later papyri we can quote P Oxy VI. 903 6 (iv/A.D.) 
dTroKi-Cvas aviTois t»v it[X]t)y<3v "half killed them with 
blows" (Edd.), PSI 27" (v/a.d., Acts of a martyr), P 
Lips I. 40"'- 2 (law report, iv/v A.D.) r|8eXno-cv ai-rov dtro- 
Kpivai (sic), P Gen I. 49 20 (iv/A.D.) [it]Xtvy?s dirf[KT]ei.vdv pe 
— as in P Oxy VI. 903, the complainant was obviously not 
"kilt enteirely" ! P Lond 24O 10 (A D. 346) (= II. p. 27S) 
Part I. 

direKTive'v pt tc el pt) y «s (("'Vr)" 'XP T 1°"°-H LT I V > BGU IV. 
1024'" 30 (iv/v A.D.)|bpi direK[Teive. For live centimes then 
we have no trace of this supposed common verb from popular 
sources : yet in the middle of this period it abounds in the 
NT texts, developing a whole series of curious forms in the 
present stem. Meanwhile it was flourishing in literature, to 
which perhaps it owes its return to the popular speech in 
the Byzantine age. A more extensive search in the ruder 
inscriptions outside Egypt is desirable, as it might prove 
that the word was in popular use in other countries. Indeed 
the NT is evidence of this by itself. 


BGU II 665"' 19 (i/A.D.) T|Toipdo-8t] avi-rj irdvTa [irjpbs 
[t]#|V Xox[«]iav aiiTapKiis, epwriia-i 8[e] KaC, Kvpie [sc. 
iraTep), [t|] pr|i~np [oJutov, cittms d-iroKi>r|[o-]r| u[ . . . The 
word, accordingly, notwithstanding llort's attempt (on 
Jas I 15 ) to apply it specially to cases of abnormal birth, 
would seem to have been an ordinary synonym of ti'ktw, 
but definitely " perfect ;vized " by the dird, and so implying 
delivery. For the simplex cf. Syll 797 s (ii/B.c) to iraiSdpiov 
8 'AvvvXa Kvei, S02 3 , So3 27 . 


The use of diroXapso-3ai. in Mk 7 s3 =" draw aside," 
"separate," is well illustrated by P Lond42 12|f - (B.C. 168) 
(= I. p. 30, Selections, p. 10) €irl S« twl pt) irapa-yivco-Oai 
o*€ [-7rdvTu]v tuv «K€t dTmXTjppc'vwv Trapa-yeyo[vd]Twv 
dnSi£, " but that you did not return when all those who 
were shut up with you arrived distresses me " — with reference 
to the " recluses " of the Serapeum. So P Vat A 10 (B.C. 16S) 
(= Witknwski 2 , p. 65) T|PouXdpr|v 8e Kal ere irapavcvove'vai 
tts t^jv 7roX[i]v, Ka8direp . . . 01 &XX01 01 dTr€i.Xn[pp€voi] 
Tr[d]vTes. The word is of course very common. It is 
found in the sense of " receive," " welcome" (as in the TR 
of 3 Jn 8 ) in P Lips I. no 6 (iii/iv a. d.) evx°r 1€V °5 oirus 
6XoKXT)pouo-dv o-€ Kal vyiaCvouo-av diroXdpw (cf. Lk 15 2 '), 
and P land 13 17 I'va peTa \apds o-e diroXdpupev. The full 
force of the dtrd — as pointing to a " promise made centuries 
before " — is probably to be retained in Gal 4 5 (see F. B. West- 
cott, St Paul and Justification, p. 75). It is the ordinary 
correlative of diroSCSupi. For the simple sense of " receiv- 
ing" what is due, cf. P Tor I. I™- 28 (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. 
II. p. 3S) rr|V Tip-r|v diroXaPelv. 


OGIS 3S3 11 ff - (Commagene inscription, i/B.C.) oi pdvov 
KTrjo-tv p6pai0TdT7]v. dXXd Kal dirdXavcrtv fi8£o-rnv dv8pwirois 
evopio-a T-f|v «io-€peiav, ib. im koiv^|v dirdXauo-iv eopTijs 
Trapev^eTO), ib. 669 s (i/A.D.) Ta tc irpos o-WTupi'av Kal ra 
irpbs dirdXavo-iv, IG XII. iii. 326 1 ' 2 (Thera, time of Anto- 
nines) irpbs [d-7r]dXavo-i.v. Cf. (is dirdXauo-iv in Didache io 3 . 
A derived adjective occurs in Vettius Valens p. 15 24 at Se 
€|tjS c (sc. poipat) 'AtppoSiTrjs evKpaTorepai. dveiptYai. 
iroXvo-otpoL d-iroXau(rTLKai, '"given to enjoyment." 

For the verb cf. OG/S 66g 3 (i/.\.D. ) t^v irdXiv diroXavovo-av 
Tiiv eifpYco-Liiv as ?x" ktX., P Fay I25 10,f - (ii/A. D.) tiixopai 
[vdp] p€L^ovos d^ias ■y€veV8ai [d4>' o]v dtroXavopev Ttiiv 
8u[puv], "for I hope to be better off now that we are 
enjoying presents (?)" (Edd.), BGU I 24S 14 (ii/A.D. TiivT|6iiv 
o-ov dTToXavo-ai, P Oxy I 41 8 (iii/iv A.D.) -rroXXiiv dya8<iv 





diroXavopev. The sepulchral inscr., Preisigke 2004, 
AvTa>v€iv€, TTJ.VTWV dire'Xovo-as, must presumably mean 
dTre'Xauo-as. Syll S91 19 — a curious funeral inscription com- 
posed for a heathen by a proselyte, who quotes the LXX — 
(iT|Si KapTTiuv ciroXavoi.. CPHerm 119 verso ili - 16 (iii/A.D.), 
where Aelius Asclepiades receives dipeo-is from public 
services from Gallienus lv]a 81a t\\v [twv irpoYovwv] dp«TT|v 
diroXauo-Ti Tfjs «pi]$ (JHXav8pw7rias. 


P Par 22 6 (ii/n.c.) t| vip SnXovpe'vii Nc'(j>opLS aTroXurovo-a 
tov iraTf'pa rjpwv o-uv-pKuo-e ^iXtirTrw tlvC The word is 
apparently a term, techn. in wills, etc., e. g. P Oxy I. 105 3 , 4 
(A. n. 117-37) KXrjpdvopov aTroXcLirw rf|v 0vvaT€pa[v] pou 
. . . tol 8e vir' €pov diroX€i<p8i]o-bpeva ctkcvu ktX., P Catt iv - 9 
(ii/A.D.) (= Owrf. II. p. 421), BGU IV. 1098 49 (c. B.C. 18), 
ib i^S^fB.c. 13), ib. 1 164 18 (B.C. 15-1), and Michel iooi"- 4 
(c. B.C. 200— the Will of Epicteta). In BGU IV. 1138" 
(B.C. 19-18) (= Chrest. II. p. 123) diroXeiirs poi tov llama 
(/'. e. -av) «k Ttj(s) cpvXaK'fi(s), a jailor reports what the 
offending party said to him, asking him to "leave" the 
imprisoned debtor to him. The verb occurs in a Phrygian 
tombstone of A.D. 114, C. and B. 590 (ii. p. 656) voiis in-ip 
-yf|S aTroXiirovo-[a] -re'crcrapas Kal OvyaTt'pa. It is MGr. 


One or two instances of the literal use of this common 
verb will suffice — P Petr III. 51 5 to dp-yvpiov 8 wiovto 
diroXuXc'vai, "the money which they thought had been 
lost," P Oxy IV. 743 23 (B.C. 2) iyu SXos 8iuirov[o]0pai el 
"EXevos x a ^ KO "5 aTToXcfa-Jtv, " I am quite upset at Helenos' 
loss of the money" (Edd.). In P Fay m 3ff - (a.d. 95-6) we 
have it of destroying life : p€v<popa£ crat p€-ydXiijs diroXc'o-as 
X[v]p£Sia 8vu> dirb tov o-KvXpov Tfjs wSov, "I blame you 
greatly for the loss of two pigs owing to the fatigue of the 
journey" (Edd.). (Probably the writer meant diroX«ravTa, 
but the nom. will construe.) So in the dreams of Ptolemy, 
son of Glaucias, the helper of the Temple twins, P Par 50 9 
(B.C. 160) Ae'-yw MiiSapws epvfjs (?) f\ diroXeo-T) crov tov 
iratSa* Kvpios ovk diroXvei ( — diroXXvei, presumably) tov 
aiiroO iratSa. Cf. 1' l'etr III. 36 (a) versa 2 * Scdpevos \ii] pc 
d-n-oX€o-T|i. twi Xipcii iv ttji cpvXaKTJi. : so Lk I5 X? . In the 
curious nursery acrostic, P Tebt II. 278 :,5f - belonging to 
early i/A. D. in which the story of the loss of a garment is 
told in lines beginning with the letters of the alphabet in 
order, we find : 

Xtuu' 6 apas 

p.u>pos diroXccras 

"a lion he was who took it, a fool who lost it" (Edd., who 
would read 6 d., as in the other lines). In P Ryl II. 141 s1 
(a.d. 37) Kal d-n-wXto-a ds d\ov dirb -rqj.(TJs) diriou "I lost 
40 silver drachmae which I had with me from the sale of 
opium" (lid.), it connotes robbery; and so in Syll 237' 
(iii/B.C.) xpT|paTa rai Beiii epdvvo-av d T|crav (K tov UpoO 
d-rroXtoTa (/. diToXwXoTa) dirb tov dva6c'paTos twv ■t'wKfuv, 
Kal t^tiXt-yfjav tovs Upoo-vXnKoTas. The -p.i forms of the 
mid. are unchanged: thus P Petr II. 4 (i) 4 (B.C. 255-4) 
yvvl 8i dwoXXvpeBa (quarrymen "worked to death" over 
exceedingly hard stone), P Tebt II. 278" (see above) 
aTroXXuTai, etc. 

' AtioIXioq 

has gen. 'AiroXXtiros in an inscr. from the Serapeum at 
Memphis. See Preisigke; 19 1 7, who accents the nom. 
' AttoXXws : since it is probably short for 'AttoXXwvios (which 
occurs in Codex Bezae), this accords with analogy. The 
name can be quoted from Ostr 1319 (B.C. 7), 1577 (a.d. 132), 
Preisigke 1 1 13 (a.d. 147-8), P Lond 929". 66 (ii/iii a.d.) 
(= III. p. 42 f.), ib. 1233° (A.D. 211) (= III. p. 58), where 
the editors would like to make 'AiroXXws gen., and P Goodsp 
3 7 , ll > 20 (a.d. 143) 'AttoXXwti. Without seeking for more 
exx., we may observe that 'AttoXXmvios was an extra- 
ordinarily common name, no fewer than 39 persons bearing it 
in the inscrr. of Syll. (Naturally the abbreviated name does 
not figure in the more formal inscriptional style.) 'AiroXXdSw- 
pos has over 50, and 'AiroXXiuvtS-ns (-8as) half as many : 
'AiroXXws might be a short form of these also. So apart 
from the very precise identification available we might not 
be sure that there was only one Apollos in NT. 


A good example of this judicial verb is afforded by 
P Par 35:14 ff (a petition to King Ptolemy Philometor, B.C. 163) 
4dv ctol <pa£viiTai, (ruvrd^ai KaTao"Tfjcrai kiri o-€ xnrep pev 
[epo]v diroXoviovptvov AupT|Tpiov " to make my defence" : 
cf. P Strass I. 5 X5 (A.D. 262) dTroXJovrjo-opevovs irpbs ra [d]el 
a[i]pdpeva aiiTois and OGJS 609 39 (A.D. 231) prj Tts <is 
a7VOT|o-as diroXovrio-nTaL. Vettius Valens p. 209 13 pacriXei 
diroXovr]o-eTat, Kal tdv p^| vir^p caurou, xnr^p eTc'pou 8e (cf. p. 
269 s0 ). Cf. for a cognate verb P Petr III. 53 («) 8 (iii/B.C.) ( = 
Witkowski 2 , p. 45) irpbs alTtav, ii7rip f|S air] oXo-yi'S^Tai, "to 
meet a charge against him, and make his defence" (Edd.), 
OG/S 315 33 (B.C. 164-3) Ka ^ auTos vir^p uiv £<j>no-cv ^\ctv Tas 
tvToXds Sid irXeibvwv dircXovto-aTo, V Leid A 31 (Ptol) 
diroXo-yto-wpai (needlessly corrected to -f|o-upai by Lee- 
mans), al. See Hatzidakis Einl. p. 395, "sagte man 
auch im Alterthum sowohl diroXo^copaL als diroXo-yC^opaL," 
and Mayser Gr. p. 83 f. The verb is found in MGr. 


P Tor I. I™- 1 (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. 36) -rrjv 8'avTTiv 
a.-no\oylav i\iiv, BGU II. 531' 21 (ii/A.U.) aTr^xei-s ovv rr\v 
d7roXov£av, P Lips I. 58 18 (A.D. 371) aiiTa ra ev[T]d-yta irpos 
d-iroXoviav €irl Toii SiKao-rnptw ( = Cov), and for diroXo-ynrpos 
in a weakened sense, P Oxy II. 297 311 (a.d. 54) KaXus 
iroiTio^is "ypdij'tts Std irtTTaKLcuv tov diroXoYto"pbv twv 
[ir]p[o]pdTwv, " kindly write me in a note the record of the 
sheep" (Edd.). 'ATroXoyta occurs several times in Vettius 


This common verb, in the sense "dismiss," "send away 
on a mission" (as Ac 13 3 , and probably Heb 13 s3 ) may be 
illustrated by P Par 49 19 (B.C. 164-5S) (= Witkowski 2 
p. 70) dire'Xvo-a ttiras auTwi 6p6piTcpov tAfoiv. In P Lond 
42 26 (see above under diroXappdvw) it is used of departure 
from seclusion in the Serapeum — xnr4p tov aTroXeXvo-Bai <rt 
eK Tf|s KaTOxrjs : cf. P Petr II. I I(i) 3 (iii/B.C.) ( = Selections, 
p. 7) Sirws Tf|s ml tov irapovTos o"xoXijs diroXvBu, "in 
order that I may be relieved from my present occupation," 
BGU I. 27 14 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 101) oio-re l-ws o-T|p«pov 
p^8€v' diroX^XvcrBai T<iv ptTa o-ctov, "so that up till to-day 

aire fj.i'Tj/j.offVfia 



no one of us in the corn service has been let go." Release 
from prison is implied in P Giss I. 65a', 66" (H/A.D.) : 
see Kornemann's note. P Oxy X. 1271 5 (a.d. 246) is in a 
request to the Prefect for a permit to leave the country by 
ship from Pharos : a£iu -ypd+ai o-e ti5 eiriTpdiru ttjs 4>dpou 
airoXOcrai pe Kara to evos. The sense of " grant an amnesty 
to" underlies P Par 63*"' ' 2ff ' (B.C. 165) diroXeXuKo-res irdvTas 
Tois eveo-xipe'vovs ^ v tictiv dyvorifjiao-iv rj dpapTT|pao-i.v, and 
P Tor I. I vi ' 13 (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. 371 : see Mitteis in 
he. Akin to this is the use in BGU IV. 1 106" (B.C. 13) TrXr|V 
o-wipavovs d-n-wXT|as, T|S Kal cbavepas vevr|8eCo-[T|S d]iroXe- 
Xvo-flw. In I' Tebt II. 490 3 (B.C. 92 or 59) aTroXvo-opat tov 
XaXKov the verb is used in the sense of "pay," cf. P Rein 
54' (iii/iv A.D.) SieTrepv|/dpr|v o-oi ( ktt]vt| ) . . . iS-irus -yepCc-iis 
aiTci ol'vov tK tuv aTroXuSevTiov poi inrb 'Icrxvptavos, "afin 
que tu les charges de vin, achete sur la somme que m a rem 
boursee Ischyrion" (Ed.) : so elsewhere of delivering goods. 
The index to OGIS gives a long list of citations in various 
senses, which need not be further illustrated. But the idea 
of a veteran "released" from long service, suggestive for 
Lk 2 29 , may be noted in the /./. diroXvo-iu.os diri orfpJaTetas, 
CPR 1 3 (A.D. 83-4): cf P Tebt II. 292 s (a.d. 189-90) 
lepe'ws diroXuo-tpov, P Lond 345* (A.D. 193) (= II. p. 114) 
diroXvo-£(u.uv) ttjs Xaovp(acpias). We may also compare 
Wtinsch AF 4 30 (iii/A.D.) opKi^u o-e tov 8«bv tov tt)v 
Kotp.r|0-iv 0-01 SeSwpr|pe'vov Kal diroXvo-avTa o-e d-rrb 8[eo-pui]v 
tov piou Ne8p.ou.aio, and a tombstone of ii/A.D. (Al-xandria), 
Preisigkt 2477 'HXidSiope oveTpave evTe£pa>s diroXeXupeve, 
evipvx" : tne pcf ect h ere might perhaps encourage us to 
take the phrase metaphorically — or literally, with a secondary 
application. It occurs with the aorist in Preisigke 423 s , 
seemingly a ii/A.D. papyrus : oieTpa[vi] twv evTeCpws 
diroXvBe'vTuv. Whether or no we may recognize the figur- 
ative sense in the veteran's epitaph above, we may certainly 
illustrate the Nunc dimittis by this familiar term of military 


thou"h not a NT word, claims attention because of Justin's 
calling Gospel records dTrou.vr|povevpaTa twv diroo-ToXiDv 
{Apol. i. 67 s ). It may be cited from PSI 85 (a fragment on 
rhetoric, iii/A.D.), where tj XP £ ' a ~ ,ater described as so 
called because it is xP £u »8r|S — is defined as aTropvr|pdvei>pa 
crvvTopov eirl irpoo-jjirou tivos eireveTov. The fragment pro- 
ceeds Sid t£ dTropviipdvevpa t| xp' a i &ti dTropvr]poveiJeTai 
Iva Xex9fi- If«Ta9e'vit may become 8iTJvr|XLS (cf. Lk I 1 ), 
and if not eVl Trpoo-wrrou tivos it may become ■yvwpT] f\ &XXo Ti. 
The note of the " memoir" accordingly is that it is practical 
(Xpe'o-), concise (cruyTopov), intended for oral delivery (Xva. 
XexBjj). ;ln( l relating to some person (eirl Trpoo-w-irov tuvos). 
All this suits excellently Justin's description of the Gospels 
as read in the Church meeting on Sunday morning. The 
epithet eiraiveTov may possibly be taken actively, so that it 
excludes criticism or invective. See also P Leid W x "'- 16 ; 
and for the verb a very fragmentary Ptolemaic inscr. in 
Archiv v. p. 416 (Wilcken), where line 10 has ]irapd twv 
crepvoTaTwv |3ao-iX;wv dTropvr|povev[ — apparently "that 
[somebody or something] miy be had in remembrance." 


In P Oxy I. 71" 3 (A.D. 303) a Prefect is praised as 
rendering to all their due — ird<ri ra l[8]ia dirove'pis : cf. ib. 

IX. I1S5 6 {c. A.D. 200) Tas Trepl twv yupvao-iapxiwv Kal 
dyopavopiwv t<pe'o-LS tois KpaTio-Tois e-mo-TpaTrj-yoLS aTre'veipa, 
the "assigning" of appeals to the strategi. See also OGIS 
90 19 (Rosetta stone, B.C. 196) rh Sfoatov Trdo-Lv oTre'veipev, 
ib. I16 19 (ii/B.C.) eir' [avTats Tas d£ias] XQ-P LTa5 dirove'povTes 
[del to!s evep7eTr|o-ao-iv], and Syll 325 s3 (i/B.C. ) povXdpevos 
Tas ttjs evo-epe[t]as x<*piTas tois 8eois dTrove'peiv, which 
come near the use in 1 Pet 3'. 


■Sj'//8o2 es (ui/B.C.) : a fraudulent patient at the Asclepieum 
is told to take oft" the bandage and dirovCipao-Sai to TrpocrwTrov 
dirb Tas Kpdvas, in which he sees the penalty of his deceit 
branded on his face. 


This word, which in the NT is found only once (Ac 9 18 ) 
in its literal meaning of "fall off," occurs in a derived sense 
in P Par 47" (c. B.C. 153) (= Witkowski 2 p. 90, Selections?. 
23) l Kal aiiTous 8e8wKapev Kal diroireirTu>Kapev " (one can 
never again hold up one's head in Tricomia for very shame), 
if we have both given ourselves up and collapsed." Wit- 
kowski compares Polyb. i. S7 1 ttCtttu Tats eXirCo-iv. The 
verb also occurs in the philosophical fragment P Flor II, 
113"' " (ii/A.D. ) diroiritirreiv to w[Ta Kal ai]Tas dxpeious 
7eveo-8ai : cf. Archiv vi. p. 239. 


Herwerden cites from BCH xvi. p. 384, no. 81, a deed 
of manumission from Delphi in which the inhuman clause 
is inserted — el Se' ti -ye'voiTo e-y AioKXe'as Te'Kvov hi Ttii Tas 
Trapapovds XP° vaH > & Ka V^ v 8e'Xr|i. dTrotrvei^ai, e^oucriav 
'(\eiv. A literary citation may be added from the new 
fragments of Callimachus, P Oxy VII. ion 29 "- (late 
iv/A.D. ), 

ws 8^ pt* Tjpe'tov crv pt] pe TroLi]0"aL 
eiio-TeKTov, rj -yap -yeLToveiio-' drroTrvtveis 

which Prof. Hunt renders, "Don't you prescribe patience to 
me, as if you were one of us ; your very presence chokes 


P Oxy III. 472 s (c. A.D. 130) iTrb Baveio-Tiiv wXXuto Kal 
f|Trdpei, "he was ruined by creditors and at his wit's end" 
(Edd.) : cf. the Christian letter of a servant to his master 
regarding the illness of his mistress, P Oxy VI. 939 23 '- 
(iv/A.D.). (= Selections, p. 130) vOv Se ttus irXfova ypdipio 
Trepl avn-fjs aTropii, <!8o£ev pev yap ws irpoeiTrov dveKTOTepov 
eo-xiKe'vai., "but now I am at a loss how to write more re- 
garding her, for she seems, as I said before, to be in a more 
tolerable state." Syll 303 18 (Abdera, c. B.C. 166) dpaTTiv 
dpa Kal cruTTJpiov [rrept Tci]v diropoupe'vuv del Tr[po]Ti8e'vTes 
yviipnv "perplexed matters" (passive). The adj. ctiropos, 
from which the verb is a denominative, occurs in the sense 
" without resources," which may be absolute or relative. 
Thus P Ryl II. 7.S 5 (late ii/A.D.) 'Apx[«'X]aos prrnop etirev 
"Airopos eo-Tiv 6 TXvkwv Kal 4^£o-TaTai. " G. has no revenue 
and resigns his property " : so the editors render, explain- 
ing in the introduction the legal conditions of what answers 
roughly to a bankruptcy certificate. In P Lond 91 1 1 (a.d. 




149) (= III. p 127, Selections, p. 80) the editors, following 
Wilcken's original suggestion, incline to make 7pa<j)f|S 
dirbpiov "a certificate of poverty," qualifying for eiriptpi.o-pb$ 
dirbpuv, "poor relief." Now Wilcken makes it rather a 
list of men who have insufficient Tripos, "income," for the 
performance of public "liturgies," entailing an additional 
levy, eiripfpio-ubs dirbpwv, upon the ttiiropoi : see Archiv 
iv. p. 545, also p. 548, where Wilcken points out (on P Lond 
846 9ff , = III. p. 131) that the drropos is no pauper, but a 
weaver depending on his craft for livelihood, which he claims 
to be insufficient to qualify him for the presbyterate of a 
village. If this interpretation be adopted, it can readily be 
applied to three passages in P Fay where the same tax is 
mentioned— viz , 53 s (a.d. iio-i), 54 13 (a.d. 117-8), and 
256 (ii/A.D.)— and also to BGU III. 881' (ii/A..D) as 
amended in Bcrichtigimgen, p. 7, *m(ptpio-pov) dirbpw(v). 
See also under diropta. 


Syll 529" (i/B.C.) twv plv 8td tt|V dir[o]p£av tKXtXovrroTwv 
tt^v ttoXiv, Tiiv hk 8id Ti]V yivo\i.ivT][v X<h]|iikV irepCo-Tao-iv 
Kal Tas appcoo-Tfas p^b, 8vvaptvwv [(j>v]\do-<reiv ri]v iraTpiSa, 
where we naturally think of a. as = "poverty," but the inter- 
pretation given in the last article is applicable. In P Fay 20 5 
(an imperial edict, iii/iv A.D.), which is restored ti 74 p/f| 
to Ttjs Tr[a]pd toIs Kal tois 8r|poo-ias diropfas tp.Tro8uiv 
i\v, ttoXv &v (povepwTt'pav t^v tpauTOv p.«-yaXo T 'vx' av 
sin.StiK[v]>Jp£VOS, the editors translate " if the fact of the 
public embarrassment existing in various parts had not stood 
in my way, I should have made a much more conspicuous 
display of my magnanimity;" but they remark that the 
8r||ioo-u>v9 of the ill-spelt text should perhaps be emended 
8r|p.oo-£oi.s, with a lost word after the first toIs. Cf. also P 
Lips I. 36' (a.d. 376 or 378). In CPHerm 6 10 we have 
d-n-opfa St ttXoCwv "from shortage of ships." 


In a petition regarding the division of a piece of land, 
P Magd 29 10 (B.C. 218), the appellant asks that the de- 
fendant should be forced to give him a proper entrance and 
exit (tto-oSov Kal S|o8ov) instead of throwing him into a 
hidden corner — t\s tVwTtpbv pt dirtppf^Oai. Another peti- 
tion, P Lond 106 13 ™ d "'(B.C. 261 or 223) (=1. p. 61), 
gives us both tKpfirTw and dTroppiTTTu) — t& Tt o-kevt] pou 
efje'ppuj/ev tls t?|v 68bv . . . , 4vw St to. a-KtuT| Ta dTropL<pt'vTa 
aou tis ttjv bSbv tio-r|vt7Ka. See also Moulton in CJ? xx. 
p. 216, where the fairly accessible warrant of Ac 27 43 is 
produced against two classical scholars who strained at 
diroppf/irmv intrans. in Charito iii. 5 6 . 


For the subst. see the important P Par 63"'- n (B.C. 165) 
Kal Tas diroo-Ktvas T<iv iv Tip irdXti irepio-irav, where 
Mahaffy (P Petr III. p. 27) renders, "and that you should 
distrain the furniture of those in the city"; cf. ib ™- "' 
Tais diroo-Kevals avTwv €irfy€7pd(p9aL yi\v. The verb is not 
a NT word (Ac 21 15 in 33 and a few cursives). 


With this compound we may compare diroo-KoTuo-ts in 
Yettius Valens, p. 279'' tl , of the waning moon. Mayor (on 

Jas I 17 ) quotes from Plut. PericK 7, ■yvioaovwv of shadows thrown on the dial, and diroo-Kid^w 
from Plato Rep. vii. 532c : the -p.a form is dir. tip. 


For the use of this verb in Ac 20 30 diroo-irdv tovS uaflnTds 
6ir£o-u tauTiiv, cf. P Petr III. 43(3) 12 (iii/c.a), gvpa+ds pot 
p.-?] diroo-irdo-at to ir[Xr|]pa>u,a €K d'lXwTtpf.Sos itas ov Ta 
tp7a o-uvTtXto"ai, "you wrote me not to withdraw the gang 
(of workmen engaged in the copper mines) from Thiloteris 
before they had finished the work" (Edd. ). "Withdraw," 
with no suggestion of violence, though with breach of con- 
tract, is the sense in numerous formal documents. Thus P 
Oxy IX. I2o6 1:1 (a.d. 335) in a case of adoption. BGU IV. 
I125 9 (B.C. 13), in the indenture of a slave : ovk diroo-irdo-w 
avrbv dirb o-ov [tvTo]s tov xpovou. P Oxy II. 275" (A. D. 66), 
where in a contract of apprenticeship a father is not to have 
the power of removing his son from his master until the 
completion of the period — ovk t£dvTos tu> Tpvcjjwvi diroa-rrdv 
tov iraiSa dirb tov IlToXtpaiov T0 " T0V XP° V0V 
irXT|p<o8f]vat., so w and ib. IV. 724 13 (A.D. 155), also X. 
I295 4 ' 6 (ii/iii a.d.), where a widow threatens to take away 
her son from a man in whose charge he had been left Add 
the illiterate P Gen I. 54 21 , [o]uk alSuvrjOriutv t'va dvOpoirov 
diroo-irdo-at tKtiGtv, and BGU I. 176 9 (Hadrian). In the 
marriage contract, P Oxy III. 496 s (A.D. 127), provision 
is made that in the event of a separation taking place, the 
bride shall have the power to "withdraw" a certain female 
slave, who forms part of her dowry — tTrti[8dv] f| diraXXa-yr] 
[■y]£VT|Tai ■yauoy[ut]yr| (sc. v\ 7.) ptv diroo-iraTto T-r|v 8[o]tjXt]v, 
and so 15 . Perhaps the verb itself must not be credited with 
the stronger sense imparted by the context in P Oxy I. 37'- ll 
(a.d. 49)[o]v tov o-uuaT[Tjoi> direo-iraa-tv 
b Ilto-oOpts, "as the foundling was being starved Pesouris 
can ad it off," so "• \ and still more in id. 3S 9 (a,d. 49-50), 
tiTLKtxtipTjKdTos diroo-irdo-at tis SovXa7a>7Ca[v] tov d(pr)XLKa 
pov vibv. The passive, as in Lk 22 41 , Ac 21 1 , appears in 
an inscr. from the Fayiim (B.C. 57-6) in Chrest. I. 70 21 
(p. 99), ov Svvdptvoi hk tov Ltpov aTroo-iracrBai, which in 
Wilcken's opinion means no more than the detention of 
these priests in the temple by ritual duties, preventing them 
from appearing in person. It would seem that the ordinary 
use of this verb does not encourage the stronger meaning 
Grimm finds in the Lucan passages, where the RV is 
adequate. For diroo-irdv c. ace. rei, see Gosp. Petr. 6 l (ed. 
Swete), dirt'o-irao-av tovs tjXovs. 


The noun diroo-Tarns (cf. LXX Dan 3 32 ) occurs in P 
Revill Mel (B.C. 130) (= Witkowski, 2 p. 96) xpri^a^ai 
S'avTots us diroo-TaTais (jy. tois tv 'EppwvBtt bx^ 0is )> whom 
a certain Paon ptTd 8vvaT<ov Uaviiv is sailing up the Nile 
to reduce (KaTao-Ti"io-ai). So in Syll 930 5 " (B.C. 112) Tivts 
Tiiv iy Boiamas diroo-TaLTai] Yt^tvriptvoi. In P Amh II. 
j 33ff (ii/B.c.) we read of the burning of title-deeds 
by Egyptian " rebels," T|vavKao-6r|v iirb tov AiyvivTluiv 
diroo-TaTuiv tvtYKai Tas o-uv7pa<pds Kal Tailras KaTaKaOo-ai. 
The old word dirbo-Tao-is, equivalent to -o-£a (cf. I Mace 2 15 , 
Ac 2i- n , and see Nageli, p. 31), occurs in P Par 36 13 (ii/u a), 
where a temple recluse petitions the strategus against the 
conduct of certain persons who had forced their way into 




the temple, pouXoLtevot. t^cm-do-cu pc Kal d-yaYTJo-ai, KaSu-rrtp 
Kal iv Tois irpoT«pov xpdvois €irex* L pr|o-av, ovcrr|s d-rroo-Td- 
crcios. For the adj. diroo-TaTLKos, see P Tor S 68 (B.C. 119) 
diroo-TaTiKiii Tpdirui. In the same line avTOKpao-iai. occurs. 
an illustration of the Hellenistic tendency to form new nouns 
in -o%a : see Lobeck, Parcrga, p. 528 f. 


BGU IV. 1002 18 (B.C. 55, a copy of a demotic bill of sale 
" ue6u i pu.r|i'evu.evrjS Kara to SuvaToV ") has diroo-Tao-Lou 
o-vvypa(j)Ti, ''bond of relinquishing" (the sold property). 
The phrase is found as early as B.C. 25S in P I lib I. 96 s , 
"a contract of renunciation" between two military settlers, 
one of whom at least was a Jew. The editors remark, 
"This expression has hitherto always been found in con- 
nexion with the translations of demotic deeds concerning the 
renunciation of rights of ownership, the (o-vyypa<prj) diro- 
o-rao-Cou being contrasted with the irpdoris, the contract 
concerning the receipt of the purchase-price ; cf. Wilcken, 
Archiv ii. p. 143 and pp. 3SS-9" [and now iv. p. 183]. 
This note does not seem to cover the passage in P Grenf 
I. nii- 19 (b.c. 157) Kal aTroo-Tacriou €-ypd\j/aTo twi Ilavdt 
p.^| tireXeucrco-Oai, pr|8 aXXov uT]8e'va twv Trap' aiiTOv, "he 
had a bill of ejectment drawn against Panas, that neither he 
nor any person connected with him should trespass on the 
properly." We may add P Ryl II. l6o*(A.D. 2S-9) irpd[o-]is 
Kal aTrwo-Ta[o-£ou] p-e'pr] (/. ptpuiv) ktX, "sale and cession of 
two parts out of five" (Edd.). — so other documents in this set: 
also P Tebt II. 561 (early i/A.D.) irpdjo-is Kal diroa-Tao-tou 
8ovXov . ., and Preisigke 995 (B.C. 245-4) o-vvypa4>T|, r\v 
€iroiT]o-aTo Kdiris TacrTiTi d-TroG-Tao-iau -irtpl uv tv[tKd]X€i 
avT-rJL. In P Giss I. 36 21 (ii/B.C.) we have Kal dvevii]vdxo.T€ 
o-u-yvpa <|>ds' wv-tjs Kal diroo-Tacriov kot' avTaiv, and in BGU 
III. 919 s3 (ii/A.D.) we have aKoX[o]i>8ws w ir[a]p€8[6](i.(t)v) 
i>ul[v aJyTi-yp^dcfx*)) diroo"Taa"iou t[ov iraJTpds p.011 'Ovuo"L- 
KpaTovs KXT]pov[dp.ou t]wv irpoyevpa upevcov ) pou dStXtfjwv 
T£T[cX(€UTnKdTwv ]. In this last instance diroo-TacHou may 
be short for crvyvpacpfis dirotrTao-iov, or it may be the gen. 
of dtroo-Tdo-iov used as in Mt S 3L , an abbreviation of the 
fuller phrase. (It might even be conjectured that in Mt /. c. 
the original reading was diroo-Tacriou and not -ov : in its 
presumed original, Deut 24 1 , pi.pXf.ov was expressed.) A 
good parallel for this kind of abbreviation is f| aTrepCcnracrTos 
in P Oxy VI. 89S 18 (A.n. 123), for what is called in 15 
*ypdp.p.aTa d-Tr€p[io-7r]do-Tov : it is " a deed of indemnification, 
distinguished by the formula dTrepicnraa-Tov Trapt^a-Bai or an 
equivalent phrase" (Edd.) — just as we talk of nisi prius 
actions. The specializing of this term for divorce is not 
paralleled in our documents, but it was clearly the nearest 
word to use to represent the Hebrew phrase. See also 
Wilcken Archiv iv. p. 456. 

It may be added that in Coptic Ostraca 72 (ed. Crum), 
as translated on p. 13, we find an abbreviation of diroo-Td- 
o-iov used with reference to "a deed of divorce" in an 
episcopal circular. 


The verb is common in the sense of mitto. Thus P Par 
32 :0 (li.c l52) (= Witkowski*, p. 68) KapdTOKOv 8' «TriTT|p(i, 
av KaTa.LirjXir), diroo-TeiXai 0-01, P Oxy IV. "44 s (B.C. I) 
{—Selections, p. 33) cdv ev8us o^wvlov Xd|3u)U€v 6.Tro<rTe\u> 

ere &vw, "as soon as we receive wages I will send them up 
to you," and P Oxy I. S; 1 " ( \.i>. 342) airavrrjo-ai ap.a tois 
eis tovtov diroo-TaXT.[cr]i [6]c|) 4>iKtaX£ots), "to proceed with 
the officers sent for this purpose," which may illustrate 
the frequent NT sense of "commissioning," e.g. Mt II 10 , 
13", Jn 20 :1 , Rev i 1 . So BGU IV. 1141" (c. B.C. 13) 
epiora oiJs d-n-e'crTaXKas Ka8' eKacrrov clSos, and in passive 
CPHerm IOI 6 (ii/A.n. or later, apparently) evypd4>to[s 
dj-rreo-TaXpe'vos v<p' vpiov, "To send for" something is 
a. €ir{ c. ace. in P Flor II. 126 8 (A. D. 254) eirel aupiov 
aiJTous PovXopat d-jroo-TelXai eis BepveiK(.8a e-rrl tov o-itov. 
Cf. Preisigke 174 (iii/B.C.) aTroo-raXtls 4-irl ttjv 8r|pav twv 
eXe^dvTcov ToSe 8eiJTepov. 

For d-TrocTTtXXw = rescribo, see P Par 6o lff - (B.C. 154) 
(= Witkowski 2 , p. 7S) d-rrdcrTiXdv poi, irdo-ov e'xei HeTeutro- 
pd-rrios Kal dirb iroiov xP° vou > P Oxy I\*. 742 3f (B.C. 2) 
dirdcTTtiXdv p[o]i Trdtras SeVpas TrapeiXr|(pas, "send me 
word how many bundles you have received" (Edd.). 

For the possibility that in Ac 7 34 dirocrTeiXw NABCDE 
is not a hortatory conjunctive (cf. Kuhner-Gerth p. 219), 
but a present indicative, see Thumb Hellen. p. IS, where 
reference is made to a present form crTeiXto in the Pontic 
dialect. The form dcbe'o-TaXKa [ft sim.) may be seen in the 
Koivt| : Meyer Gr. 326 gives five inscriptions containing it — 
add OGIS 5 s6 (b.c. 311 — letter of Antigonus to Scepsians), 
ili. 6 4 (their reply), and Magn 46*, S7 6 (after B.C. 159). 
It does not seem impossible, despite the late date of its 
appearance, that this form should be the survival of the 
original e'er, (for crecrT.). 


In the Cnidian defixio, Syll S14 5 , we find tous XaPdvTas 
irapd A. Trapa8r|[Kav] Kal p-f] diro8i8dvTas dX[X]' d-n-oo-Tt- 
povvTas : this brings together correlate verbs. IIapa8i]Kr|v 
a. will answer to the phrase in Pliny's letter to Trajan (96') 
on the Christians' oath " ne depositum appellati abnegarent." 
C. II. Turner fJTS xi. p. 19 n 3 ) notes that in Mk IO 19 ^ 
reads " ne abnegaveris," and ac "non abnegabis," w hich he 
regards as the key to the formula in Pliny. For d. absolute, 
as in Mk /. c. and 1 Cor 7 5 , cf. the petition of the Serapeum 
1, p ar2 6:»ff. (b.c. 163-2) (= Selections, p. 17 €Tepoi 
Tiiv tK tov 'Ao-KXTjTruiou 6'vTts trpbs X6ipi.o-u.OLS, irap' av 
S8os «o-tIv r|U.ds ri St'ovTa KOLLi^€o-8ai, diroo-Tepovcriv, "others 
connected with the Asclepieum in the administration, from 
whom it is usual for us to receive what we need, are del laud- 
ing." It is construed with an ace, as I Cor 6 7 , in P Par 
3i rl3 (ii/B.c) diroo-TspoOvTes [T||<.]as : cf. P Oxy II. 237"- 22 
(A.D. 1S6 1 ttjs inroXti.iro|jie'v'r|S «|J.ol KaTox;'|Y tt|s ovo-ias i-Va 
|i' avTT)v dTroo-TTJTai (/. -o-T€prj-J "a desire to deprive me ot 
the right which I retain over the property" (Edd.). For 
the more normal constr. c. ace. pers. and gen. rei, see 
B( iU IV- 1024' 1 '- 13 (iv/v A.I>.) iroias St ^crxtv ti<SuLi.T|0-as tov 
<)8t] KX^8evTa \for KXi8<ivTa "lying dead") Kal tt,s €0-xaTT|S 
eXiriSas (/• -os, of sepulture) diroo-Te[p]TJcrai. ; P Kyi II. 
i!4 :6 1. A.D. 280) otKiuTai. 8e to irpoKeiLieVu 2. [«p.e Tr|v 
XTjpajv ittTa vT]Triuv ts'kvuv del diroo-Ttpeiv, lb. 1 1 6 16 (A.D. 
194) povXdu.evoi dwoo-Ttpe'crai t«v €li<5v. The simplex occurs 
in the earliest dated papyrus, P Eleph I 7 (B.C. 311-0) ( = 
Selections, p. 3) o-T«ptcr8» wp. irpoo-nvevKaTo irdvTwv. For 
the subst. see P Oxy I. 7i U0 ( A -"- 3°3) W airwrrtpco-i t^ 
TJiieTtpa, "to my detriment" (Edd.). 



6 7roreAe<y 


P Tebt I. II2 6 (an account — B.C. U2)S\J/ou els drroo-ToXTiv 
MoucraUi p£, 1' ( )\y IV. 7j6 12 (<-. A D. I) pupou eis drro- 
o-toXt)v Ta(pfjs 6u-yaTpbs "^vds, "perfume for the despatch 
of the mummy of the daughter of Phna ; " and from the 
inscriptions Syll 924 s9 (end of iii/B.C.) «irl] rai diroo-ToXdi. 
tov dvSpds, /'/;. 929" (?B.C. 139), ib. 2I0 14 (iii/R.C.) t»v 
XPllp-aTuv <rvvaYwYf|s re Kal dTroo-T[oXTJs. It is thus the 
nomen artionjs of d'rroo'TtXXco. 


It is not easy to point to an adequate parallel for the NT 
usage of this important word, hut it may be noted that in 
Herod, i. 21 (cf. v. 38) it is found = "messenger," "envoy," 
and with the same meaning in l.XX 3 Regn 14" A eyJ> €i(U 
diroo-ToXos irpbs ere o-kXt]pos, cf. Symm. Isai rS a . Reference 
may also he made to the interesting fragment in P Par 
p. 411 f. (B.C. 191), where, if we can accept the editor's 
restoration of the missing letters, we read of a public official 
who had sent to a delinquent a messenger bearing the orders 
he had disregarded — tTreo-JTaXKOTtuv T[p.aiv irpos o-€ tc»v 
dit[oo~roXov]. Cf. also a lexical extract cited by Nageli, 
p. 23, 6 CKir€pLTrd|JLevos p.€Ta crTpands Kal Trapao-Ktvfjs airo- 
o-toXos KaXetTai: this is interesting as being coloured with 
the association found in Attic, though applied to a person. 

Apart from its use in Attic inscriptions, as Syll 153 
(B.C. 325) =" fleet," "naval expedition," diroo-ToXos is 
used for a "ship" in P Oxy III. 522 (H/a.d.). In this 
document (cf. also P Tebt II. 4S6, ii/iii A.D.), which is 
an account of the expenses of corn-transport, it is of interest 
to notice that each dirdo-ToXos is known by the name of its 
owner, e.g. Xdvos diroo-ToXov TpiaSeXcpov, "account— for 
the ship of Triadelphus." In P Oxy IX. 1 19/ 1:! (A.D. 211) a 
different sense is required — oiroTav rd 4£ dirotrroXtov irXota 
irapavei t) -ai, where Hunt renders, "whenever the boats 
collected in accordance with the orders of lading arrive, 
and cites P Anih II. 13S 10 (A.D. 326) (as amended by Mitteis, 
Chrest. II., p. 391) «]£ diroo-ToXou ttjs rdi^os, where a 
ship-roaster embarks certain loads "in accordance with the 
bill of lading of the Officium," also P Lond 256(a) 10 (A.D. 15) 
(= II., p. 99) aKoXouBtos tI> [iS lettersjov drroo-TdXa), and 
CPIlerm 6 U '• (cf. Wilcken Chrest. I., p. 522) e-ir[el o]i o-ol 

€7r(TpoTro[L Tous KaXo]up.e'vous drroo-ToXous [ 81 ] ti>v 

KeXevtiv a[viTo]is ?8os [tt|v] toO o-eiTou ep.[p]o[Xr|v Troitio-JTai. 
(/. -8ai). In P Oxy X. 1259 10 (a. d. 21 1-2) k% drroa-ToXou 
tov KpaTtorou fTriTpdirov Tijs Ne'as irdXews "in accordance 
with the message of his excellency" (Edd.), the noun seems 
to he more general ; but the papyrus concerns the shipment 
of corn to Alexandria. See further Archiv iii. p. 221 f. 
Since in early times the non-specialized and etymological 
meaning is found in Herodotus, and the other only in Attic 
writers, we see in the NT use the influence of Ionic on the 
KoiWj: cf. Proleg. pp. 37, Si. 

anooTouari'^vj . 

We have no citations for this word, which is literary in 
classical and post-classical times. The difficulty in Lk II 53 
is the factitive sense, as. "to make repeat answers," for which 
the only adequate parallel in Wetstein's long list is a use of 
the passive assigned by Pollux (i. 102) to Plato, = vtto Tiiv 
8i8ao-KttXu)V tpu>Tao-0ai to. u-aSfjuaTa, us dirb arduaTos 

Xe'yeiv to aiiTo. It may be added that Grimm's reference 
to " o-Top-aT^w — not extant" is misleading: the verb was 
formed directly from dirb o-rdp.aTos, just as evwT^oaai from 
kv wt(, etc. 


P Leid W xiv - 23 has the prayer 2dpam . . pvf) drroo-Tpacpfis 
p.€. An amulet, the opening lines of which were published 
by Wilcken in Archiv i. 427, and tentatively dated iii/v 
A.D., is given in BGU III. 955, Kvpie 2apau>6 dird- 
o-Tpexfrov d-rr' eu.ou 'otov(?) vdo-ov ttjs K6<paX[Tjs]. That these 
should be the only occurrences of so common a word we can 
cite from papyri is not a little perplexing. It occurs once in 
Syll 3S9 14 (a. d. 129), where Ephesus offers thanks to 1 Iadrian 
as dTroo-Tpev|/avTd n Kal tov (3Xd[TTT0VTa tovs] Xipivas 
TTOTap-bv Kdvo-Tpov. Its literary record is plentiful, and it 
requires nine columns in II R, with nine occurrences in NT, 
and a good number in the early patristic writers included 
in Goodspeed's indices. It is also found in Apoc. Peter 8 
of men who "pervert" righteousness — drroo-Tpe'cpovTes tt|v 



is "not found in prof, auth." (Grimm) : it is as naturally 
not quotable from our sources. This is of course just the 
sort of word that would have to be coined for use in the 
Jewish community. 


For the NT meaning " take leave of," " bid farewell to," 
as 2 Cor 2 13 , cf. BGU III. SS4» >'- (ii/iii a. P. Trplv oSv 
direX8T]s Trpbs Xaipr|uova, dvd fjaive Trpds ae, iva 0-01 
dTroTd£, " may say goodbye to you," P Oxy VII. 1070 55 
(iii/ A.D.) Ei)8[a£u.u)v] aiiTiii direTdfjaTO [XJe'-ywv 0V1 iv tw 
TrapdvTi ov a-xoXdt.ou.ev crtpois €£€pxdp.€voi, " Eudaemon 
parted with him, saying, ' At present we are not at leisure 
and are visiting others' " (Ed.). The meaning is stronger in 
P Oxy II. 29S 31 (i/A.D.) eird d-rroTd^ao-eai avTuj 8«'Xg>, where 
the context shows that the idea is " get rid of." 

The active dTroTao-o-w, which is not found in the NT, is 
"to appoint," as in P Oxy III. 475" (A.D. 182) dTroTa|ai 
?va Tciv irepl <rl vTrr|peTuiv eis tt}v SfverrTa, and in passive P 
Fay 12" (r. B.C. 103) tovs dTroTCTa-yufvovs ttji. KaTOiKia 
Xpr|p.aTio-Tds, "the assize-judges appointed for the settle- 
ment," or "command," BGU IV. ro6t* (B.C. 14) rf|v 
aTroT€Ta-yp.e'vT|v Trpbs Tfji TnpT)crcL Ovpwpdv, P Kav 20 20 
(iii/iv A.D.) et diroTeTaKTai tov AvTOKpaTopa bpdv irao-iv 
avTots . • • to ttjs pao-iX«£as 8ioiKovvTa, " if they have all 
been commanded to watch the Emperor administering the 
affairs of his kingdom." 


The verb occurs P Tebt II. 276 (ii/iii A.D.), an astrological 
document, describing the effects (a.Tror€\e'o-p.aTa) due to the 
positions of the planets. Thus 14 Jupiter in conjunction with 
Mars (etc.) aeydXas [pacrc.X«Ca]s Kal rj-yefiovias aTroTeXei., 
" makes." This is in accord with the use in Lk 13 32 idcras 
aTTOTtXw, and also in Jas l 15 tj Sg dfiapTia dTroT€X(o-0€io-a 
aTroKVfi 9dvaTov, where Hort [nd I.) has shown that d. is 
"fully formed" rather than "full-grown." In PSI ioi u 
(ii/A.D.) dTroT€X*o-0rjat (V. -vai) -yap ri\v Kwp.T|v TrdXat dirb 
dvSpu>V kT^, VWCl 84 CIS U.0V0VS KaTTjVTT|K€Vai dvSpus y (who 




had emigrated from inability to meet the heavier taxation) 
it seems to mean "the village once had a full strength of 27 
contributors." (It should be noted that Prof. Hunt, in Tin- 
Year's Workiox 1912, p. 135, included this document among 
transcriptions which "show signs of inexperience.") 


The phrase of Mt 14 3 (EXX al.) is found nearly in P 
Eleph 12 (B.C. 223-2) 7£-vpd<pap,ev . . . tui <|>vXaKn-rp . . . 
diro9«r0ai ovtovs els Tfjv<j>uXaKT|v. The label on a mummy, 
Prehigke 3553, has dTroTe8(ei.p€'vi]) following ?v8ov to-rlv. " is 
enclosed within. - ' In P Flor II. 125 2 (a.d. 254) to airo- 
TeBe'vTa yivt\ sv <S>iXa-ypi8t is " the goods that were stored at 

P." So P Ry] II. I25 11 (A.D. 2S-9) TO VTTO Tf|S pr|TpOS 

pou aTroTtSapi'va €v mj|i8LU> 2ti dirb tov is" [£rovs) Ka(a-apos ) 
"certain articles deposited in a little box by my mother as far 
back as in the 16th year of Augustus " (Edd.). A weakening 
of the sense of the verb is seen in the fourth century P 
Oxy I- I20 13 f Trapape'vovTa poi &XP IS ^ v 7 V ™ 1r ™ s T °' KaT 
alpal diroWBaiTai, "to stay with me until I know the 
position of my affairs" (Edd.). 


The verb is very common — P Petr I. 16 (2, 13 (iii/B.C.) tdv 
hi p-fj SLa-ypdvj/w [Kal] prj irapdo-xwpai to Xoittov tp<f>av€s 
dTOT6£o-u> rjpi.dXi.ov, 1' Par 13 14 (B.C. 157) dirorivciv avTov 
TijV <f>tpvT]v Trapaxpfjpa o-iiv ttj TJpioXta, P Oxy I. 101 43 
(lease of land. A.D. 142) 8 8'dv Trpoo-o<p6iX«o-r] 6 pepi- 
cGtope'vos diroTeLO-dTtd pc8' TjpioXias, id. IV. 7j0 26 (a.d. 130) 
al. In an interesting contract of apprenticeship, P Oxy II. 
275" (a.d. 66) ( = Selections, p. 57) the father comes under 
a "forfeit" for each day of his son's absence from work — 
d[iTo]reio-dTU €Kacr[T]T|s rjpepas dp-yvptov [8p]a\pr|v pCav. 
The verb is thus stronger than diroSCSupL, and carries with 
it the idea of repayment by way of punishment or fine (cf. 
Gradenwitz Einf. i. p. S5 n 4 ), a fact which lends emphasis 
to its use in Philem 19 . For the contrast between the two 
verbs, see P Gen I. 21 14 (ii/B.c), as restored by Wilcken 
Archiv iii. p. 3SS, edv 8£ prj diroSuR Ka8d •yt'ypaTrTai, 
diroT«[i]o-dTw [irapax]pT)pa TJpi[d]Xi.ov, cf. liGU I. iqo 31 '-, 
2nd fragment (Domitian), edv 8« pi] lo-aTroSwi, dTroTio-dTioi 
Trapaxpfjpa p€0" T)pioXia[s], and a similar use of -rrpoo-aTro- 
tlo-w in P Leid C 11 . 

From the inscriptions cf. Kaibel 509 2 where a certain 
physician of Nicaea records — TroX[X]T|v8dXao-o-a[v] Kal^auiv 
[■n-]ept[vo]o-TT|0-as to Tr[€irpu>]p€vov u8" [dir€]Tei.o-a, i. e. "I 
died here," Syll 737 s ' (ii/A.D.) of an idpaKxos " fined," etc. 
The word occurs in P Sa"d Khan 1" 28 (B.C. SS) civ [8e K]al 6 
raOaKrjs dXeywpr|o-T| ttjv [apTTtjXov Kal prj Troef|o-r| avTT,[v] 
^rracpov ?), dTroT€ivw€Tto to a[vTb €Trt]Tetpov : Radermacher 
Gr, p. Si n 2 mentions £evwp.i for £c'u>, and diroTtvvpt in 
Passio Scillitanorum 6. 


Dittenberger prints the verb in Syll S03 94 , but the context 
is so mutilated that the citation is at best only probable. 
The word has warrant from classical and Hellenistic literature. 


A rather curious use of the noun occurs in BGU IV. i2oS i17 
(B.C. 27) TJrjv drroTopiav Tf)s dva|3do-€u)S (the inundation of 

the Nile). P I Ixy II. 237"' 40 (A.D. 1S6) irap' ols aKpa T ds 
(<TTiv T| Tiiv v[d]piovdiroTop[i]a, "amongst whom the severity 
of the law is untempered" (Edd.). Counsel is pleading a 
native statute, admittedly harsh, which he claims was eni 
rigidly: the word does not suggest straining a statute, but 
simply exacting its provisions to the full. Wilcken {Archiv 
iii. p. 303) compares with this passage BGU IV. 1024" ' 3 
(iv/v a.d. — a collection of judgements in capital cases), where 
he reads tvdpicras XavOdveiv t[ij]v vdpwv (he would emend 
tuv v.) aTro[T'op(av Kal ttjv tov 8iKa£ovTos e£ovo-iav. Cf. 
Plutarch De Uteris educ. 18 (p. 13D) Set tovs iraTe'pas ti x iv 
twv liriTipnpdTtov d-rroTopiav ttj TrpaoTT|TL peyvvvai. A 
further literary citation may illustrate the harsher side of the 
word — Demetrius De Eloc. 292 (ed. Roberts) Kara 4>aXupi- 
809 tov Tupdvvov cpoOpev Kal ttjs ^aXapiSos diroTo;.u_LS, 
"we shall inveigh against the tyrant Phalaris and his 


For the adj. in its literal sense "cut off," cf. an inscription 
from Delos BCH xxvii. p. I02 14B (B.C. 250) tw crrpocpeujv 
diroTopov pijKos irf|x«iuv ire'vTt. In Cagnat III. 360 9 (Pam- 
phylia, Imperial) d^'crt o-iSrjpois Kal d-n-oTopois is believed 
to describe regular sharp weapons dealt out to gladiators for 
c', in place of the blunt ones which the blase 1 populace 
found insufficiently exciting. In Wisd u 10 it denotes God's 
retributive purposes towards Egypt, in contrast with His 
fatherly attitude to Israel at the Exodus. 


P Giss I. 20 6 (ii/A.D.) T| Ittio-toXtj cov Trjv [uipipvav 
? . . . ] trov aTr«Tpe>|<6v [. . . It is unfortunate that this solitary 
citation for a verb common in literature should have no 
reliable context ; but it is something that the word itself 
seems clear, and occurs in a woman's private letter, which 
proves it vernacular. 


For a. in the NT sense of "absence" (Phil 2 12 ), see 
P Amh II. 13S 5 (early ii/A.D) p-f| dpeXtiv pou iv dirovo-ta 
Toiav>TT|, "not to forget me in my long absence," BGU I. 
195 s8 (a.d. 161) KaTa[<p]povt)86ls Jk Tijs irepl [tt)]v orpaTiav 
dirov[o-tJa[s] pov, ib. 242 s (Commodus) Kara tt|i> «prj[v] 
aTTOuo-Cav, P Gen I. 3 U (a.d. 175-S0) KaTa dirovo-iav. 
Elsewhere it is used in the sense of " waste," "deficiencv," 
e.g. BGU IV. 1065 15 (a.d. 97) Scio-ei eKdo-Tou pvaiaiou 
[iirjfp dirovo-(as T£TdpTr)v p£av, P Oxy X. 1273 32 (a.d. 
260 — a marriage contract) t]^v tovtwv irdyTtpy Tpt\|/tv Kal 
dirovo-£av ttvai irpbs tov -yapovvTa "the responsibility for 
the wear and loss of all these " (Edd.). Cf. the use of the 
corresponding verb in Artem. I. 7$, 8 h\ ds ttjv tauTou 
8v.-yaT€pa dTrovo-ida-<i, cited by Suidas Lex., where dTrpe-rres 
is given as a meaning of dtrdv. 'Airovo-ia was borrowed in 
Syriac to express a similar sense, as in the Acts of Thomas 
(iii/A.D.), according to Prof. R. H. Kennelt (in a letter). 
The corresponding Greek (Ada Thoviae, ed. Tischendorf, 
p. 196) has pptSo-iv pnSepiav iSXios dirovo-iav i\ov(rav. 
But as late as P Oxy IX. I223 20 (late iv/A.D.) Sid Tt)v 
dirovo-iav tov ytoixov is still "owing to the absence of the 
landlord" (Ed.). 





P Pat 49 23f - (B.C. 164-58) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 71) Sid 
rb ets ttjv irdXvv pe 8tXav Sovvcu airevcyKeiv. The verb 
occurs ler in the boy's letter P Oxy I. 119 (ii/iii A.D.) 
(= Selections, p. 102 f.), e.g. KaXcis ct-o£t|0-€S ovk d-7revT|XES 
(I. onrT|vevKcs) p« 4<ro0 €is irdXiv, " So kind of you 
not to have taken me off with you to town ! " For the 
verb with the added idea of violence, as Mk 15 1 , see P Oxy 
I. 37' 18 (a. I). 49) (= Selections, p. 50) povXtTai bv[d]paTi 
eXevBt'pov to o-aipaTiov dTrevtvKao-Bai., "she wishes to (de- 
fend herself on the ground) that the foundling was carried 
off in virtue of its being freeborn," BGU I. 22 29IT - (A.U. 
1 14) ( = Selections, p. 76) dvep-n els tt|V oUiav pov, dirfvt'-yKaTo 
olxb(pcvos) Kipevov £ev-yos t|/cXXfa)(v) dp*yvpu>v, "he went up 
into my house, and carried off with him a pair of silver 
bracelets that were lying there" : cf. also P Magd i° (B.C. 
22 1) KaT€crTmpav (tov KXfjpov) o-Tio-apwi Kal o-tTwt Kal dir€- 
vnve-ypcvoi. eio-iv irapd irdvTa SiKaia. (The editor would 
read rdSiKaia.) Similarly P Ryl II. 1 5 1 21 (A.D. 66) kcito.- 
cnrcipovTas Kal diro(f>«povTas Ta Trepiecrdpevpa] «K t[ovtw]v, 
and P Leiil B iiav (ii/B.c), where two persons are reported 
to have carried some oil off for their own use (dTrevnve-ypevou 
eicriv), BGU IV. 1060 21 (B.C. 14), al. The active seems to be 
used in the same sense in CPHerm 9 10 , but ihe context is 
fragmentary. Forthe subst. see PTebt II. 424° (lateiii/A.D.) 
t<r9i 6i 8ti c<j>(Xis <j>dpovs ««l d-n-ocjjopds e7rrd (tot, " let me 
tell you that you owe seven years' rents and dues." (Edd.) 


P Kyi II. 77 39 (A.D. 192) dvaSe£dp«vos tt|v p€i£ova dpx'iv 
ovk doJuCXti tijv tXaTTOv' dTro<J>eiJ\eiv. 


occurs thrice in Vettius Valens, where the editor renders 
vaticinari : p. 75 21 iv iepois KaToxoi -yivovTai aTro^Oe-y- 
•ydpcvoi f) Kal Ttj Siavoia. TrapaTrvrrTOVTes, II2 10 dTro<f>6ey- 
•yopevovs r) paviwSeis rj Trpovvwo-TiKovsairoTeXovo-iv, and 1 1 3 1 
paviu>Sas eKcrraTLKOvs TfTajpaTiKovs dTro<J>0€yyop€vovs d-Trcp- 
YaiJovTai — he refers to Manetho i. 237. This is an extension 
in malam partem of the mantic note which Winer («/. 
Grimm-Thayer) finds in the verb. 

One or two instances of the verb d-rroxpdopai may be 
cited to illustrate the expressive dirdxpT|o-is, which is found 
in the Greek Bible only in Col 2". OCIS 665 16 (a.d. 49) 
virb twv ttXcovcktlkws Kal dvatSws Tats t£ovo-{ais diroxpw- 
ue'vwv — abutentibus : the Prefect Cn. Vergilius Capito issues 
an edict against the abuse of the libera legatio. P Hib I. 
52' (c. B.C. 245) K[al (S] KXrjpwv diroKexpT|VTai Tais 
vouats, "the holdings in which they have used up the 
pastures " (Edd.). 


In the interesting census return P Lond 260 120 (a.d. 72-3) 
(= II. p. 51) reference is made to the son of a man who had 
acquired the Alexandrian citizenship and diroKex" «'s t>i 
iSIav, " had returned to his own country," who consequently 
was to be reckoned as Alexandrian. Cf. P Lond 44 18 (B.C. 
161) (= I. p- 34) dTrtX"P ovv i an d the illiterate P Fay 1 16 s0 

(A.D. I04) aidv [diro]xwp<»H Tfe'po-«i irpbs [o-^ €l']va o-€ 
do-Trdo-wpai, " if I leave I will send to you to greet you." 


In the letter of a slave to her master, P Giss I. 17 s *- 
(Hadrian) i'i'ywviao"a, k-vpu, ou peTpCws, iva aKovo-w 0V1 
tvu>9p«vo-as, dXXd x**P ls T0 ' s 8«ols Trdo-i 8tl ct€ 8ia(j>vXdo-- 
o-ovo-L aTrpoo-KOTrov, the context implies that d. must be 
understood in the sense of "free from hurt or harm." 
So in the same family correspondence, id. 22° d[vaX]ap- 
Pavovo-rjs 0-6 dirpdo-[KOir]ov Kal LXapwTaTov. In the same 
again, ib. 79 iv - 8 tva acTa .juXias Kal dirpoo-KOTrtos efjeXOtopev 
air' avTwv €ir' dvaOwi "in Freundschaft und ohne Arger 
und Anstoss " (Ed.). Under the form dirpdo-KoTrTos, it 
is found in the late (apparently heathen) inscription from 
Messana, IGSI 404 'Av8pd(3i.os Avkios vavKXr|pos ^Tjcre 
dirpdo-KOTTTos ?tt| Xs- (see Nageli, p. 43) in the metaphorical 
sense of Phil l 10 " blameless." 

It is clear that we need not be longer concerned with 
Grimm's note, already discounted by Thayer, that the adj. 
is "not found in profane authors." 


naturally does not appear. It is witness only to the firm 
hold of irpdo-uvn-ov Xaupavtiv as a term, techn. in the vocabu- 
lary of Jews, derived from a literal translation. 


In the lack of other citations this NT dir. «lp. (Jude 21 ) 
may be illustrated from M. Aur. v. 9 to arrTato-Tov Kal 
svpow hi Tfdo-i, "the security and happy course of all 
things," which depend on the faculty of understanding and 
knowledge. See also 3 Mace 6 39 6 tujv TrdvTuv 8wdo-rr|S 
dirTaCo-Tovs avTovs €ppvcraTo 6ao8vjxa8dv. 


The sense of eagerness comes out well in the royal letter to 
Atlis, priest of Pessinus, OGIS 315 66 (B.C. 164-3) H-eTa 8J 
TavTa iv dXXats Kal dXXais r|(ie'pais dtl 8iao-KOTrouo-i.v (for 
-ovvtwv) ^tttcto aaXXov Tjawv, " urged his view upon us." 
In Syll 849* (Delphi, B.C. 177-6, in dialect) ei St t£s Ka 
dTfTTiTaL 2wo-tx a s ^t^ KaTa8ovXto-p.wL, it means "lay hold 
of, appropriate." The active sense of "kindle," "set fire 
to," is illustrated by the magical papyrus P Lond 121 543 
(iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 101) airre Si Xipdvu, and appears thrice 
in a very illiterate jv/a.d. letter, P Oxy X. 1297 12 direo-nXd 
0-01 . . . Sid'TXiTos o-^vpLSiov ^v, aij/aL avTbv KeiTat (so 
/. *>') " I sent you . . by His one basket for you to burn " 
(Edd.). The middle occurs in the recently recovered Greek 
Acts of the martyr Christina — PSI 27 18ff - (v/a.d.) eixapurrui 
o-o[i b] -rraT^ip tov kv Iv Xv, p.T) €VKaTa[XiTfTjs ae els] t&v 
aiu»v[a], dXXd ^k[t€ivov] ttjv x e ^P°* v °" ov Ka ^ d\|/aL TovTrvpb[s 
tovtov Kal o-JPeo-ov to €7r [avacTav] cirdvu pov, [p]rJTfoTaL 
eirixapT] Ovppavbs b Tvpa[vvos €-tt' tptj. The familiar aiTTc- 
or8ai. of healing wrought by touch may be illustrated by Syll 
803 62 (iii/B.C. — the Asclepieum at Epidaurus) eSoKei avTai 
. . . tov Ocbv d4/ao-[9]a£ ov Ta[s KoiXias ' ck tovJtov Tat 
'AvSpopdxai. (the suppliant) v[i]bs tic, 'Apxippa iyivi[t]o 
The opposite sense occurs in ib. 804- 1 {ibidem, perh. ii/A.D.) 
rji(/aT0 8e pov (so. t| vdo-os) Kal ttjs Se^ds X l P° s Ka ^ Toi 
pao-Tov. MGr has dvdipTw "kindle," and the simplex in a 
special phrase, &<\ii o-puo-e. 





To the examples from the inscriptions of this Phrygian 
proper name given by Lightfoot Co/ossians 6 p. 306 f. add 
Perg II. 513 TovXiav 'Air4>£av Aiiaavvr|v, and C. and B. 
no. 309 (ii. p. 470 — Apamea. pagan) 'Airtjua Ilairiou p.r|TT]p. 
\nJBL xxvii. pt. ii. p. 145 Hatch cites three instances of the 
form 'A<t>£a from PAS Hi. 4S2, 50S, 594 (Pisidia and Phrygia). 
In noting that the name is not to be found in the Magnesian 
inscriptions Thieme (p. 39) quotes K. Buresch Aus Lydien, 
Leipzig, 189S, p. 44, to the effect: " Der Name (A<j>£as) 
gehort einer grossen in \Y(est)-Kleinasien und besonders 
N(ord)-Lydien sehr verbreiteten Namenfamilie an, deren 
Mitglieder mit tttt, Tr<}>, 4 > 4'i t* geschrieben erscheinen." See 
also Radermacher Gr. p. 40 n 1 , who supports from an early 
Lycian inscr. the spelling 'A<p4ua (found in D). 


occurs in P Fay 124 19 (ii/A. D.) &vtv vopCuuv T|u.ds 
diro8ei<r8ai : the editors render "illegally ousted." The 
compound Trpoo-aTru)9e'u> is found in a papyrus of Magdola 
(B.C. 221 — published in Melanges Nicole, p. 2S3) irpo<r<nru>- 

<TaTO pe €LS TTjV <j>uXaKT)V. 


The weaker sense of d. is illustrated by P Tebt II. 276 34 
(an astrological fragment — ii/iii a.d.), where one who has 
acquired certain possessions e|«Siao*p.ov airuv [TroiT|a-]€Tai 
Kal atriiXtiav, "will spend and lose them" (Edd.). Simi- 
larly in a series of nursing-contracts of the time of Augustus 
in BGU IV. we find the phrase IktiVciv tt]v eVao-rov d££av 
ttXtjv o-vp.(j>avovs dircoXeCas, e.g. io^S" 1 (= Chrcst. II. 170), 
1106 s3 , a/. P'or the stronger meaning which we associate 
with XT usage, cf. the close of an ancient Coptic spell from 
the iii/A. D. Paris magical papyrus 1245 ff( = Selections, p. 114) 
«'£eX0e 8aip.ov, eim o-e Seo-p.evu> 8ea-p.ois dSapavTivots dXvTois, 
Kal iTapaSiSa>p.i o-e els to peXav xdos ev Tais d-n-wXiais, "give 
you over to black chaos in utter destruction." 


For el dpa, si forte, as in Mk II 13 , Ac S 22 , cf. P Petr II. 
13 (19) 9 (middle of iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski,* p. 19) cl Sdpa 
p.-f| opdts 6v SvvaTov, P Hal i"" - 172 (middle of iii/B.C), 
€i 8e dpa Sel avTots o*Ta8p.ovs &iSoio-0;ai. Tr[a]pd twv 
oiKovdp-wv, StSoTuxrav a[v]Tois tovs dva-yKaiovs. See also 
P Oxy VII. 1070 50 (iii/A. D.) prf| dp.eXif|crr|S (it) dpa TTOTe 
fltXns [i[e]Ta tr[o]i ['Hp]ae(8i ttjv TripTjO-iv Tfjs i)Xr|S oiKias 
TrapaSiSovai., " do not neglect this, lest indeed you choose 
to hand over the keeping of the whole house to Herais" 
(Ed.): cf. P Amh 11. 84^ (ii/iii a.d.) . . . ]p.evos (it) dpa n 


The interrogative dpa occurs in a curious interview with 
a Roman emperor, P Oxy I. 33 iv - 7 (late ii/A.U.), where a 
condemned man asks who had recalled him, dpa f| o-vvkXt]Tos 
tj <rv 6 Xf|o-Tapxos ; " Was it the senate, or you, the arch- 
pirate?" (Edd.). For the MGr use of dpd (dpa7«[s]) in 
questions implying doubt (or refusal), see Thumb's Handbook, 
p. 180 f. 
Part I. 


A sepulchral inscr. from S.W. Phrygia, C. and B. no. 466 
(ii. p. 565), which Ramsay thinks Christian, mainly because 
of the name Atnerimnos, has edv 8e tis avriv jit) <()o(3t|9t] 
tovtwv twv KaTapwv, to dpds 8pe'iravov cicre'X0OLTO els Tas 
oikt]o-is avTwv Kal arjSLvav evKaTaXti\(/€To. Here dpd might 
represent KaTapa, by the principle illustrated for verbs in 
Pioleg. p. 115 ; but this does not apply in the closely similar 
no. 563 (Akmonia), where Jewish origin is argued. The 
noun may be quoted from a source where no suspicion of 
Jewish or Christian influence can come in — the end of the 
great inscr. of Antiochus I. of Commagene, OC1S 383-** 
(i/B.c), irapavouoK 8e Yvwp.T)i Kara Saip.dvwv Tip.T)s Kal 
\wpls fjueTcpas dpds irapd Bewv e^Opd -rrdvTa : cf. Magn 
105 53 (ii/B.C. ) vd[p.ois 7]dp lepols Kal dpais Kal cttltiuols 
avwOev 8l€K€kuX[uJto I'va p.T]0els ev tw Upu> tov [Atbs] . . . 
[[iJf|Te evve'urj ktX. For dpaTos see Syll 303 17 (ii/B.C. ), 
upaTVjv dp.a Kal o-wTT|pi.ov firtpl tw]v dTropovp,e'vwv del 
Tr[po]Ti9e'vTes "yvwariv. 


For A. as the name of an Egyptian nome situated on 
the east side of the Nile, see P Lond 401 10 (B.C. ir6-u) 
(=11. p. 14), P Oxy IV. 709 5 (<-. a.d. 50). There would 
seem to be a reference to an Apapia dvw in PS I 56 11 
(a.d. 107), where see the editor's note. 


In P Petr II. 4 (9) 4 (B.C. 255-4) certain quarrymen 
complain wvl 8e dp-yovpev 8id to p.r| e'xeiv o-wp.[a]Ta wcttc 
dvaKaSdpai ttjv dp.p.ov, "but now we are idle ('playing') 
for want of slaves to clear away the sand " : cf. ib. 9 (3)' 
(B.C. 241-39', edv dp*yaio"Lv, and 14 {la)". Later instances 
of the verb are afforded by P Lond 131* (farm-accounts, 
a.d. 7S) (=1. p. 190 f.), P Oxy IV. 725 s5 (a.d. 1S3), a 
contract of apprenticeship where provision is made that the 
apprentice shall have twenty days' holiday in the year, 
dp-yT|o-ei 8e 6 irais els Xo"yov eopTwv KaT «Vos rjue'pas €LKoo-t : 
cf. *° lav 8e irXeiovas tovtwv dpyT|o-T^, if he exceeds this 
number from idleness he is to make it good afterwards, 
ib. I. I2I 1Bf - (iii/A. D.) p,r| d<j>fjs avTovs dpvfjo-t SXous, "do 
not let them be wholly idle," and P Fay 131 18 (iii/iv a.d.) 
Ta TavpKa (/. -tKa) p.r| dp"yetTut. Add P Flor I. I0i' J (late 
i/A.D.) edv dp-yT|o-T|[Tai ?] ets e^ rjatov, P Lond 1170 verso 45 
(A.D. 258-9) (=111. p. 194) Xdvos ep-yaTiiv dpyno-dvTwv, 
ib. I173 10 (A.D. 125) (=111. p. 20S) al. For dpy' in P 
Lond 131 recto 43 (a.d. 78-9) (= I. p. 171) the editor con- 
jectures dpvL^ei, or some other variant of dp^et, in the sense 
of "taking holiday": cf. Mayser, Gr. p. 84. The absence 
of the suggestion implied in our "idle" is well seen in 
P Oxy VIII. 1 160" (iii/iv a.d.) 8ip,r|vou 8e ripvT|Ka w8r|, el 
arj, TjpieXXa irdet {i.e. irao-i) dXXa Tre'uTriv, where there 
is no thought of apology for the two months. The word 
may be used of inanimate things, as of ships in P Petr II. 
20 ii. 11 (b.c. 252) Sirws . . . p.T| dpyfji Ta TrXoia, and of a 
garden in P Flor II. 262 s (iii/A. D.) errl 6 ktjttos dpvei : this 
is correlate with the use of the causative KaTapvel in Lk 13 7 . 
In MGr the verb means "delay, come too late," an easy 
development from the idea of "idling, dawdling " : this might 
indeed be taken as corroborative evidence for the connotation 




of blameworthy "idling" which appears in NT, but not in 
our vernacular sources, as noted above. 


The various connotations of the verb appear in its source, 
the adj. dpyds (dAp-yds), the opposite of evfp-yds, "at 
work"). Thus in P Lond 915 8 (a census-return of A. D. 
160-1) (= III. p. 27) a certain Apollonius is described as 
belonging to the "leisured" class of Memphis (tuv dirb 
M€!x<J)cu>s dp'ywv, a "practically certain" reading): cf. for 
the same description KGU III. S33 5 (a. d. 173-4). In 
BGU IV. 107s 611 ' (A.i). 39) a man writes to his sister, edv 
XdfBto Ta Ktpjj.dfj.ia K<pa|j.ia!, oil/ojiat. ri p.e 8et troieiv' ou 
■yap dpyov Set p.6 Ka8i]<r8aL. P Lond 1 1 70 verso"*' 483 (see 
below) has ovos d dp-yds, " travelling light," as agamst 
others with loads. In P Flor I. i 4 "' and P Amh II. 97 9 
(both ii/A.D.) IXaiovp-yiou dp-yoO = "an oil-press which is 
out of working order"; similarly P Oxy X. 1269" (early 
ii/A.D.) rrt'po. (sc. KipwTos) dpyrj "another out of use" 
(Edd.l. In Syll. 533 23 (iii/A. D. ), to dp-ydv is opposed to to 
ire(j>vTe>jp.€vov : so ib. 233 s (soon after B.C. 229) rf]s x^P - 5 
Sid] tous TroXe'povs dp*yov Kal do-n-dpou oii[crr|S. In Mi.i 
dp*yd = " too late": cf. the note on the development of 
MGr dp"yui above. 

The derived noun dpyCa "holiday" may be seen in P 
Petr III. 40 (a) T - 1: , and in a diary of Heioninus, steward 
of property at Theadelphia (a.d. 25S-9), P Lond 1 1 70 
versa 38 * eta (= III. p. 202): against each day of the month 
is entered the work done thereon, but we have the loth, 
2Ist, and 24th marked dp-yia. It is open to question whether 
this neutral meaning should not be applied in Wisd 13 13 , 
where upyias and dvto-fws seem to stand by parallelism alike 
for "leisure" : cf. RV mg. and our note on dveo-is. In that 
case the workman spends his working hours and the best 
parts of the wood in making something useful : the leavings 
of the wood are carved into an idol by his "holiday dilig- 
ence" and the "skill of his spare time." Notice might be 
taken of the neat word-play on dp-yd . . . £pya in the 
context (14 6 ) : it recalls Henry liradshaw's brilliant and 
convincing emendation in 2 Pet3 10 , ra. tv cvuttj Jp-ya<dp'yd> 


The adj. in its contracted form (as in 2 Tim 2 80 , Rev 9 20 ) 
is found in P Lond 191 11 (an inventory of household furniture, 
A.D. 103-17) (= II. p. 265) (piJXXia dpyupd oktu : cf. P. 
Lond I24 :6 (iv/v a.d.) (= I. p. 122). Constant associa- 
tion with xpvo-ois produced a mixture of flexion in the fern. : 
thus dp-ppr) BGU II. 388"- !2 (ii/iii A.D.), -f)v P Leid W 
xxlii.22 (ii/iii a.d. ), but xP u< ™ v R ev ' 13 > P Lond 124 26 
(iv/v A.D.) = I. p. 122). For the uncontracted forms, which 
do not seem to occur in the Ptolemaic papyri (Mayser Gr. p. 
293), see I Esr 6 17 A Td xp"crd *al Ta dpyupea (dp-yvpa B), 
and cf. the long British Museum magic papyrus P Lond 
I21 581 (iii/A. D.) ( = I. p. 102) cTri'ypa<|>dp.€vov tirl xpuo-t'ov 
■jTsraXou f[ dpYvptou, and OGIS 480 6 (hphesus, ii/B.c. ) 
"ApT€p.iv dpyvpeav Kal tlKovas dpyvpeas Svo. See further 
Helbing Gr., p. 34 f- 

The form dpyupiRds = "of money " generally is common 
both in the papyri and the inscriptions, e.g. P Amh II. 31 6 

(B.C. I 12) TT|V CTLTlKrjV pLCrSwCTLV Kal TTJV dp-yUplKTJV TTpOO-oSoV 

"rents in corn and taxes in money " (Edd.), P Grenf I. 21 16 
(B.C. 126) vjTrdpxovTd p.01 irdvTa o-iJupo(Xd) t« o-iTiKa [Ka]l 
dpyupLKdi "all contracts belonging to me of corn and of 
money," OGJS 90 21 (the Rosetta stone, B.C. 196) Sairdvas 
dp-yupiKas Te Kal crtTLKas peydXas : cf. BGU I. 14"- - (A.D. 
255) Xd-yos dpyupiKos X-nppaTiov Kal dvaXwpdrwv, ib. 15^ 13 
(A.D. 194) irpaKTopa dpyvpiKwv. 


In the marriage contract P Eleph i u (e. c. 311-10) 
(= Self dims, p. 3) provision is made that in certain circum- 
stances the bridegroom shall repay the bride dpyupiou 
"AAe£avSpe£ou (Spaxpds) A, " IOOO drachmas of Alexander's 
coinage." According to the editor, this is "perhaps the 
earliest documentary mention of Alexander's coinage," unless 
Syll 176 is about two years older. In P Amh II. 40 21 
(ii/B.C.) mention is made of a bribe consisting of dp-yupiou 
crTa(TTJpas) f|, " eight staters of silver," by means of which a 
certain Epiodorus secured a fresh division of land in the 
interests of the temple- of Socnopaeus. For a similar use 
of dp-yvpio-pds and dp-yvpijoaai see Wilcken Archiv iv. 
p. 174. 


For this designation in Ac 19 24 (cf. LXX Jud 17 4 , Jer 6 28 ) 
01 Demetrius, who was probably master of the guild for the 
year, see Ramsay CA'£ 5 , p. 128, and cf. an order of pay- 
ment of early i/A.D. published by Milne amongst the Hawara 
Papyri, Archiv v. p. 3S2, no. 68, xP r IH-°- Tt0 ' 01 v ) 'A [ • • ] 
'ATroXXwviou dp-yvpoK[dTru], and BGU III. 78l lT - B (i/A.D.) 
dXXa (si. TrivaKta) uiTta p.rj «'x 0,,Ta > KaTao-Ktvoo-Bt'vTa ev 
^Apo-LvoCTTji Sid 'AttoXXwvioij dp-y[vpo]Kdirou, P Giss 1. 47 22 
(Hadrian) Aiovuo-[£]ov toO dp-yupoKoirov. P Flor I. 71 668 , 
P Oxy VIII. I146 12 , P Lond 9S3 1 (= III. p. 229) (all 
iv/A. i>.), and Syll S73 1 (rj o-vi/cp'yao-ia twv dpy^poKOTruv 
Kal \pviro\6oiv) also show it. For dpyupoKOTreiov see CIA 

II. 476 30 (c. B.C. 100). 


The distinction between dp-yvpos "s ver " and dpyipiov 
"silver used as money," which in classical Greek has excep- 
tions on both sides, is generally observed in NT : dp-yupiov 
in I Cor 3 12 and apyupos in Mt io* are the only clear excep- 
tions. In the papyri fip-yupos is as rare as dpyvpiov is 
ubiquitous. It figures frequently in P Leid X, a very long 
document dealing with metallurgical subjects (iii/iv A. D.). 
P Par 60 bis 32 (c. B.C. 200) has dpyiipcn) crTaTT|pwv, and BGU 

III. 992 ii - 6,10 (B.C. 160) xo-ako* Tpos dp-yupov, but in P 
Lips I. 64" (iv/A.D. ) a(p-y)vpov (curiously abbreviated) is 
" Geld ". Silver as a metal is thus the prevailing sense in the 
few occurrences we can report from papyri, while dp-yvpiov 
for money appears many hundred times. The differentiation 
affects a well-known compound in C. and B. no. 300 14 (ii. 
p. 466 — Apamea) dpYupun-auievo-avTa for dp-yvpoT. There 
are sundry derivatives of dp'yupos, of which we might mention 
dp-yup^vnTOS, occurring in P Sai'd Khan I" 1 ' (B.C. 8S) ttjv d. 
dp.irtXov, P Lond 19S 11 (a.d. 169-77) (= II. p. 173), BGU 

IV. 1105 21 (B.C. 11) Ka8uPpH>i Kal Tas x cI P as tvi^iipav 
XpnTai a>s ovS^ dpyvpt»>vT|Tu)L "treats me as he would not 
treat a thing he had bought " — the reading is not certain. 

' Apeo7rayiTr)s 



In the LXX the disparity between the frequency of dpyvpos 
and dpyvpiov is just what it is in papyri. In MGr apyvpos 
is the metal. 


The form ' Apevirayt-nis is found Michel 6S7" (end of 
iii/B.c), it. S23' (B.C. 220). 


For the bad sense which prevails in classical writers 
(see Lighlfoot on Col I 10 ) a new literary citation may be 
made from Philodemus (i/B.C.) Ilepl KoXaKeias (in Rhein. 
Mus. hi. 623) dv«v Tfjs Toiav-rr|S dpeo-Kaas. But P Oxy 
IV. 729 s * (A.n. 137) is a close parallel for Paul's use: 

TTOl]T|<roVT(U T0VS irOTlO-p-oilS TOO [KTT|](iaTOS Kal TT|S KaXa- 

u.[e£as] ireaTrraiovs irpbs dpeo-Ki[av] tov Sapairtwvos, "they 
shall irrigate the vine-land and the reed-land every fifth day 
to the satisfaction of Sarapion" (Edd.). (We spell -eia on 
historical grounds, regarding the MSS. as inadequate wit- 
nesses for 6i and 1 : see Proleg. p. 47). Deissmann BS p. 
224 cites an additional witness from an inscription, testifying 
with many passages in Philo to a use of dpt'o-Keia in a good 
sense — including even a relation towards God — wholly inde- 
pendent of NT. We may compare his inscription with a 
nearly identical phrase in Prime 113" (i/B.c.) TeXauv S' 6 
(leTa TavTa XP° V0S «8eu)peiT0 Trpos t^|v els to TrX-riLCos] 


For the idea of service in the interests of others which 
underlies several of the NT occurrences of this verb 
(1 Th 2 5 , Rom 15 1 ' 3 , 1 Cor io m ), we may compare its use 
in monumental inscriptions to describe those who have 
proved themselves of use to the commonwealth, as OG/S 
641 (A.D. 246-7) 'IovXiov Avpr|\iov . . . 01 <riv avTui 
KOTeXBdvTes . . . dveo-r-qo-av dpeVavTa avTois, Teip.i}s xapiv, 
it. 646 12 (iii/.\.i'.) Z«irri|i.[iov OvopuSijv] . . . dvaXuxravTa 
Kal dpcaavTa ttj re airTT] |3ouXfj Kal t<3 Sr|u.u>. For a wider 
sense see the interesting petition of a Tew of Alexandria in 
the 26th year of Augustus, who, after describing himself as 
(ieTaXapiv K0.8' SuvaTov Kal T<i TraTpl [tt|]s dpeo-Kovo-ns 
TraiSe.'as, goes on to state that he runs the risk ttjs tSias 
TrarpiSos OTep^TJvai I ECU IV. II40 5 *)- I n p SI 94 6rc 
(ii/A.H.) a woman writes gratefully 8ti fjpeo-e Kal Til iravSl f| 
iroSis, Kal TrpocrcSpeijei. Is rd u.a9r||j.aTa : cf. BGU IV. 1141'* 
(Aug.) uis SovXos eV tXevBepia BeXa dpsa-ai oiiTu> Kayw -rf|v 
<piXiav o-ou Be'Xiov ap.ep.irT[ov] taarov eTTJpr|0-a. In P Oxy 
VIII. 1 153" (i/A.D.) a man sends his son a piece of fabric, 
telling him to show it to a third man and write as to the 
colour, tdv avTui dpeo-K-n. Similarly in P Giss I. 20 ls tii/A.D.) 
6iroC]ov St croi \p<a[p/a apeo" 1 " 1 ! [8fjXw]o-ov 81' 4m[o-]ToXi)s 
^ atiKpbv «p[yo]v avTofl ir[e'|u|/o]v — a woman is writing to 
her husband about some wool she is working for him. 
(Ought we perhaps to supplement i-p[io]v from the previous 
line, instead of «p[yo]v, "a little wool of that (colour)"?) 
The same lady's mother writes to the husband in 22 1 * 
Tovra Kal Beois [dpe]<rK«[i], but then unfortunately becomes 
illegible, though a small space suggests to the editor that the 
sentence ends there : in that case toSto is her earnest wish 
to see her son-in-law safe home. The verb remains in the 

vernacular to-day with meaning unchanged, but (normally) 
a less irregular present dpc'£u>. 


The adj. is very common. P Hib I. 51 4 (B.C. 245) 
irpi]a|uvos Xdp.pave apco-rds T[i]|iu>y iTroyey;>a|jL|j.evwv, 
"accept, if satisfactory, and buy at the prices below 
written" (Edd.). P Grenf II. 24" (B.C. 105) irapex«'o"6w 
(sc. tov otvov) u.dvip.ov Kal apea-rov cus 'ABiip a, " wine that 
will keep and be satisfactory till Athyr 1st." P Amh II. 
48 s (B.C. 106) xopnvoOvTts KtviiaaTtt dpeo-Ta, "providing 
acceptable vessels" (Edd.). In P Tebt II. 342*' (late 
ii/A.D.) a pottery is described as XCBois dpto-rois «|r|pTi- 
0-1 pe'vov), " newly fitted with stones in good order" : so a , 25 . 
Cf. Syll 522 17 (iii/B.c.) ol'vo[v] irape'xttv apea-rov, and for the 
adverb Michel $$&* s - (ii/u.c.) dTro8eStix acrl -v «' 1 eTn.p.e\T|Tal 
ttji PouX[tji] o-wTtTtXeo-fie'va irdvTa tcl fepya dpeo-TaJs, BGU 
IV. 1119 21 (B c. 5) Ta irpoo-T|KOVTa «'pya Trdyra Ka8' wpafv] 
Kal KaTa Kaipbv dpeo-Tws. The collocation of tvdpeo-Tos 
and SoKiaos in Rom 14™ is closely paralleled in P Amh 
II. S9 8 (A.D. 121) to (/. tov) oe dpyuptKov ipdpov Sokiuov 
apicrrov (/. dpso-Tov), if the editors' certain emendation be 
accepted. So P Flor I. I 6 (A.D. 153) dpyvpiov 8oki|iov 
vop.6i.TeDd^.6vov dpeo-Tov: P Lond 93S 6 (A.D. 225) (=111. 
p. 150), al. 


The form 'ApeVas (for rough breathing see WH Intr? 
p. 313) instead of 'Ape'Oas may, as Deissmann (BS p. 1S3 f.), 
following Schurer Geschkhte i. p. 738, has suggested, be due 
to a desire to Hellenize the barbaric name by assimilation to 


The limitation of this word to four occurrences in NT — 
and two of them in 2 Pet — may possibly be connected with 
the very width of its significance in non-Christian ethics : 
it had not precision enough for large use in Christian lan- 
guage. If Brugmann is right in connecting it with dpt-o-Ku) 
Kurzgef. vergl. Gr. p. 519), this vagueness was there from 
the first. Our " virtue " is too narrow for a word which had 
nearly all the forces of our adj. " good " : cf. Prof. G. Murray, 
Greek Epic, p. 57. Some Koivrj instances may be quoted. 
P Hib I. I5 95ff -(a rhetorical exercise, about B.C. 280-40) : 
the younger men are exhorted to employ their bodies 
evKaipws T^jv dirdSei^iv Trot^traae'vovs Ti}s avTwv apexes. " in 
a timely display of their prowess" (Edd.) In the ordinance 
of Ptolemy Euergeles II., P. Tebt I. 5 165ff -(B.C 118). certain 
officials are warned not T-f|V ev dpeTfji Ketp.c'v7]v pa(o-iXiK^v) 
•yfjv irapaipeLO-8ai tuv -ycuip-yaiv) p.r|Se cirl eyXoyfji -yewpytiv, 
" to take the richest Crown land from the cultivators by 
fraud or cultivate it at choice." The editors quote Hesy- 
chius dpeTwo-iv  dp£Ta£vuo-LV, «iSai(iovuo-iv, ev dpe-rfj <oo-iv. 
It is thus possible that we have here earlier evidence for 
dpeTaf. = laudes in the LXX (see Deissmann BS p. 95 f., 
Hort / Pel p. 12S f.), as if" land in esteem." The other new 
meaning brought out by Deissmann {ut supra) " manifestation 
of power" (as 2 Pet I s ) may also be further illustrated. 
Thus in Syli 7S4 2 (iv/B.c.) 'AB-nvdai Me'veia dvt'8-nKev 6\|nv 
iSo> o a dp«T^|v ttjs 8«ov, Uittenberger quotes with approval 
Foucart's definition of dpeTij as signifying " vim divinam 




quae mirabilem in modum hominibus laborantibus salutem 
afferret." Cf. ib. So6 10 (Crete, early Empire) irXeiovas 
apexafs tou BeoO] and ib. 807 6 (c. ii/A.D.) where after a 
miraculous restoration of a blind man the people rejoice oti 
£wcrai dptral c-ye'vovro €irl toO 2e|3ao-Tou Tjaujv 'Avto>v€ivou. 
There is suggestive force in this rejoicing of the pagan crowd 
to find that "powers" of Asclepios were still "alive" in 
those dark days. 

A few miscellaneous references may be added. With the 
list of virtues in 2 Pet I 5 '-, cf. OGIS 43S ,E (i/rj.c.) avSpa 
d-yaBbv Yfvdpevov Kal Si.evA'KavTa Trto-m Kal dpt-rjj Kal 
8[iK]atoo-uvr| Kal cua-ePciai Kal ircpl to;0 k)o(Ov[ov] trvv- 
4>epovros Tf|V ir\ei(TT[t]]v eio-evTivcyusvov o-iroi>8r]v (see BS 
p. 36off., LAE p. 322). In the invitation to celebrate 
Hadrian's accession to the Imperial throne, the new Emperor 
is described as one ik irdvTa 8o0\a [81] dpe-n?|v K[al] iraTpbs 
tvxtjv 0eoO (P Giss I. 3 6t -). A sepulchral epigram from 
Hernuipolis (PSI I7"- 2 , iii/A.n.) begins— [0]v -ydp hi dv8pii- 
ttoio-iv cti)v €pd8t^ev eKeCvnv ttjv 68bv T|V dpeTfjs OVK CKciOnpe 
6«'uis. And in the later papyri the word is frequent as a 
title of courtesy, e.g. P Oxy I. 6o w - (A.D. 323) dKoXouflws 
Tois KeX£vcr8io-i inrb ttjs dpeTfjs tov Kupiou pou SLacrnpoTaTou 
•f|-yeu.dvos ZaPiviavov, ib. 7 1''- 18 (A.D. 303) tl crou So|ei.€v tti 
dp€TTJ : cf. P Lips I. 40" ■•-"■"' ■»■ ' 8 (iv/v A.D.), P Grenf II. 
90 u (vi/A.D.) al. The same usage is found in Jos. Anil. xii. 
53 : cf. our " Excellency." 


Of the nominative of this word (fapfjv. declined accord- 
ing to the primitive model still normal in Sanskrit, and 
traced in kvidv kuvos, caro carnis, etc.), we have no occur- 
rences except in early times (Attic, Coan and Cretan inscrip- 
tions) : see Searles, Lexicographical Study (Chicago, 1898), 
p. 21. The oblique cases, although there is only one occur- 
rence in the NT (Lk io a apvas), are by no means obsolete 
in the Koivrj : thus dpvds P Tebt I. 117 s5 (B.C. 99), and 
even P Lond 125 versi? (magical, v/a.D ) (=1. p. 123) 
aipaTi. d[p]vbs u-e'Xavos : apves P Hib I. 32 11 (B.C. 246) : 
apv(ao-i) V Amh II. 73 s (A.D. 129-30) ; Apvas BGU I. 133 8 
(ii/A.D.), PSI 4° 3 (A.D. 129), P Oxy I. 74 2 etc. ( A „. ugj . 
PSI 56 s (a.d. 107) ttpves, and so P Hawara 322° (Antoninus) 
(in Archiv v. p. 394). Mayser's instance from P Magd 21 4 
must be dropped : see the new edition. Kaibel 1038 38 
(Attalia, an oracle of Cybele) o>]s apva[s] Ka[/r]e'xouo-i Xvkoi : 
cf. Lk io 3 . The replacing of this irregular noun by the only 
formally diminutive dpviov is normal. The distinction in 
use between this word and dpvds seems beyond our power to 
trace : van Herwerden (s.v. dpTJv) cites a grammarian who 
makes this a lamb less than a year old, dpvds one over 
a year. 


The ordinary use of the verb is for "payment": cf. 
P Giss I. 8 2 (A.D. 119) t^|[v o-\j|j.](j>wvr|86!av (/. -crav) Tipf|V 
Tci AiroXXuiiau) dp[i8]pr|0-as, 1' Oxy III. 4S6 23 (A.D. 131) 
dpi8pf|0-acra tiu.T|V aviTuv, P Lille, I. 3 40 (ifter B.C. 240) 
KaXus iroi(T|o-€ts) [oTJJVTafjas dpLi]8pf|0-ai T|p.iv rb yivopivov 
d\|/ca[vtov] tou Aw(o[v pjrjvds, al. In P Leid C"- 19 (p. 118) 
(the dream of Ptolemaeus, ii/B.c.) ol'opai dpei8puv p.« seems 
to refer to "counting" days: ten lines higher the verb 
means "pay." BGU II. 620 6 (ii/A.D.) ^pi.8u.T|8iiu.e[v has a 

lacuna following, but has reference apparently to numeration. 
The subst. dp£8p.r|o-is occurs in P Kyi II. 99 12 (iii/A.D.) 
8LaYpd\|/to . . Tais eiSicrpt'vats dpi8pr|o*€0-iv " in the customary 
instalments" (Edd.). It is common in the phrase ds dp£8pr|o-i.v 
p.T|vds, as BGU I. 25 s , 41 6 (both ii/iii A.D.), Preisigke 1090 2 
(ostracon, a.d. 161). There is a further derivative dpiBpnTi- 
kos : Wilcken (Ostr. i. p. 351, cf. Archiv iv. p. 174) makes 
to d. an impost for the maintenance of the dpi9u.T|Tai, but 
GH (P Tebt II. p. 197) regard it rather as a tax on land: 
cf. BGU I. 236', 330' (both ii/A.D.). It is MGr, as is 
dpi6p.ds. We may take the opportunity of noting the 
remarkable parallel to Mt IO 30 , Lk I2 7 in the new fragment 
of Alcaeus (vii/vi B.C.), P Oxy X. 1233, fr. 8 10 . .]s irapd 
poipav Alos ov8e Tpt\[ . . (see the note). 


P Petr II. 16 13 (middle iii/ii.C.) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 12) 
rjKovo-japev dpiSp-bv eVecrSai 4k twv 'Apcrivo€[Cw]v, P Gen I. 
16 22 (a.d. 207) toI tovtou dSeX<J>ol 6vt€s tov dpi8pbv irevTe. 
For the LXX dpi8p<l = " few " in Num 9 20 , Ezek 12 16 
(Thackeray, O. T. Gram. p. 39), cf. P Oxy IV. 742"- (B.C. 2) 
(= Witkowski 2 , p. 12S) irapd8os 8e tivi Tciv <j>£Xu>v dpi8pu> 
aviTas {sc. 8«rpds), "deliver a few of them," rather than 
"deliver them accurately counted" (as Wilcken ap. Wit- 
kowski). But note the combination in P Oxy X. i27o 3 « 
(a.d. 159) dpi8u.u> Tr\r|p[eis : so ib. 1273 21 (a.d. 260) with 
dpi8p.oi, and I2bt 10 (a.d. 325). Another use appears in BGU 
IV. ioS5 2S (a.d. 171) where P. M. M eyer restores irepl tuv . . . 
dpi]8p.ii Tpid[KOVTa Jvtvx« T<i o-TpaTn7<u] : dpi8a<3 is "a kind 
of rubric" — "heading no. 30," or the like. OGIS 266 s 
(iii/B.C). iiir^p Ttov tov d-n-oSdvTwv tov Kvpiov, "as 
regards those who had completed the fixed number of years." 
It may be worth while to call attention to Wessely's paper on 
Gnostic numbers in the Mittheilungen of the Rainer Collection 
Li. p. 113 fif.: thus 99 is the dpi8p.ds of dp.T|v (a + p. + t] + v = 
99) and the mystic 'A(3pao-dij is the number of the year, since 
its letters numerically total 365 (see P Leid W iY - 30 ). For 
the application of this principle to the ' ' number " of the Beast 
(Rev 13 18 ), with illustrations from Greek graffiti from Pompeii 
(so before A.D. 79), see Deissmann LAE p. 276 f. : one of 
them is <(hXw -fjs 4>|«, ''I love her whose number is 
545." The case for a Greek rather than a Hebrew gematria 
in a Greek book is undeniably strong. Deissmann, I.e. refers 
to the dictionaries under lo-diJrr|<pos. We may cite from 
Cagnat IV. 743 ;f (= C. and R. no. 232 — a metrical epitaph 
by a Jew of the time of Alexander Severus) a good instance 
of the gematria in Greek— lo-di|rnc)>os 8uo-l toutois Tdios <!>s 
a-ytos u>S d-,a8bs irpoXe'YU : both adjectives total 284, agree- 
ing with the number of his own name. 


For the phrase i£ dpio~r«piiv (as Lk 23 s3 ) cf. P Ryl II. 
153 4 ' (a.d. 13S-61). BGU I. 86"-' (ii/A.i..), P Gen I. 43 4 
(a.d. 226). The adj., it need hardly be said, is very common 
in the personal descriptions of appellants, witnesses, etc., in 
legal documents. Cf. ako for the sake of the curious side- 
light which it throws upon the daily life of Arsinoe the com- 
plaint which a woman lodges against Petechon, the male 
attendant in the women's baths, that he threw hot water over 
her and KaWKauo-ev -rrjv rt KotXiav Kal tov dpio-repbv p.T)pbv 




e'us tov -yovaTos (P Magd 33 redo 1 , B.C. 221). The adj. is 
still in use. 


A widely spread name: cf. Michel 372" (Leros. ii/B C.) 
ib. 594 19 (Delos, B.C. 279), Magn 304 4 , Prime 313 140 . 


P 1 ixv III. 519 17 (ii/A.D.) TraiSi'ois dpCo-Tov df5(oXol) §■ is 
presumably the account of a meal, which lr.m the price was 
probably a light one! So ib. IV.736- 8 [c. A.D. 1) Trpdcru>v 
dpio-Tu) yepSijov) (bpoXds) "leeks for the weaver's breakfast " 
(Edd.). P Tebt I. 112 introd. 17 (B.C. 112) dpCo-rov o~uv 
'HXioSiiipun) 'A8t|( ) K, ib. 116 s6 (late ii/B.C.) crvKa eirl 
dpio-Tou 1. A more considerable meal seems intended in 
P Tebt I. 120 82 (i/B.C.) ets to Tcrif|v tov dpio-T[o]u It — it 
was a repast in the temple of Isis. Ib. 121 93 (i/B.c.) 6\|/ov 
eir' dpio-Tu) |. We have not noticed the verb dpicrrdw. 


To the occurrences of this rare word we can now add 
BGU I. 33 s (ii/iii A. d. ) Trepl -niv Xoi/rrii^v] epywv o-ov dpKeTos 
y[e]vov. We seem to have the adverb in the mutilated 
conclusion of BGU II. 531"- 2 * (ii/A.D.) edv 8[e . . .] 
dpKCTos Hxi 1 [ • • • Vettius Valens, p. 304" 5 , has Kal fjv 
dpKCTov KaTa tovs Xovrrovs eacrai. Kaibel Praef. 2SSc 10 
shows d[p]KCTa Tpi[ — these three deaths suffice: the god is 
entreated to be satisfied. (The word is MGr.) 


For an impersonal use of dpxeu, as in Jn 14 8 , see P 
Lond 964 13 (ii/iii a.d.) (= III. p. 212) XapW KoTvXas 
T[d]o-as <j>OKuv I'va dpKe'o-[r|] f|[p]lv, and cf. the late P Oxy I. 
131' 1 (vi/vii A.D.) where, with relerence to a disputed in- 
heritance, it is stated that a father bequeathed half an acre 
of his land to a son, saying that it " is enough " for him — 
6tl dpKei auTui to fjuaapovpiov. For the middle and passive, 
cf. P Giss I. 6S 12ff - (ii/A.D.) f|ydpacra V*P tvBdSe TpiaKoo-iwv 
8paxfiwv K[a]l ovk dpKelTai, and P Goodsp 5'- fl (ii/A.D.) 
apKovpe'vcov Tj|iu)v ttj86 tt) SiacrToX'TJ) with the simple 
dative, as Lk 3 11 : so P Lips I. 33"- n (A.D. 36S1 NepeeriXXay 
koI Aiow[o-£av] dpKeo-6fjy<jt Trpo[i]£el |2[o]yXdp.evos, CP 
Ilerm 9 11 ov8e tovtois dpKeo-8e'vTes, al. It has liri las 3 Jn 10 ) 
in P Lond 45™ (B.C. 160-591 (= I. p. 36) ovk dpKecr8e'vTes 
etj>' ots rjcrav 8taTreTrpaype'voi, and P Tor I. I" 18 (B.C. 116) 
( = Chrcst II. p. 32) ovk dpKto-Be'vTes 8e e-rrl Tiii evoikclv ev 
Trjt eafji otKtai, dXXd Kal ktX. (indie). Add P Amh II. 77 19 
(a.d. 1391 -n-Xeto-fTlati/ls irX-nyais p.e T|K£o-aTo, Kai p.r| 
dpKecr8e[l]s £Trf|[v]e-yK« (101 ktX., P Ryl II. I45 10 (A.D. 38) eVl 
Kal at] dpK[eo-]8els ktX., " not content with heaping insults 
on my dependants," etc. (Edd.) (following a present ptc), 
P Oxy I. 114" (ii/iii A.M.) edv ovv p.r| apKecrBr] to Kepua, " if 
the cash is not sufficient." With the last citation under 
dpKCTos cf. Kaibel 4 13 7 dpKeo poipa OavdvTi ve'w[i]. 


"ApKos for dpKTos, as in Rev 13 s (cf. I Regn 17 3 ') is found 
in the later insciiptions, as in a Praenestine mosaic, IGSI 
1302 (= CIG III. 6131*5) (time of Hadrian?) : cf. ib. 2325, 
232S, 2334. The still more contracted fip| occurs in the 

Silko inscription OGIS 201" (vi/A.D.), eyi yap <is Kd™ 
(i«'pr| XeW eipi, Kal eis avw ae'pr| dp£j cl|i( : where see Dit- 
tenberger's note. MGr dpKovSa "she-bear," as Thumb 
remarks, owes its origin to this by-form : he also [Nandb. 
p. 320) gives dpKos as current in Pontus. 


P Petr. II. 25(a) 8 els dpa-ara Ta aKoXovBovvTa ai™. 
OGIS 533 16 (i/B.c.) dpaaTwv Kal KeX[rj](T)a>y. Magn 127 4 
(i/B.C.) dpaaTi TeXeCwi. A half-literary citation from P 
Giss I. 3 may be permitted in view of the interest of the 
document, which is a call to celebrate the accession of 
Hadrian. The sun-god Phoebus Apollo is the speaker, and 
announces himself as having just come from accompanying 
Trajan on high in his white-horsed chariot — 

"App-aTL XevKOTrwXan dpTi Tpatav[tot] 
cruvavaTetXas rJKio croi, w 8fjp.[e], 
ovk dyvtoo-Tos 4*01(305 8ebs dva- 
KTa Katvbv 'A8piavbv dyyeXw[v]. 


We I ave found no direct parallel in the Koiv-rj to the use of 
f|puoo"du.r|V in 2 Cor II 2 , where the middle is probably used 
purposely to bring out the Apostle's deep personal interest 
in this spiritual TrpopvT|o-riKT| (see Proleg. p. 160) ; but the 
use of (ivT|o-Teveo-8aL in P Flor I. 36* (iv/A.D. init.) of a 
mother making a match (p.yT)a-Tevo-ape'vov p.ov) for her son 
with a cousin, is essentially on the same lines. In POxv VI, 
906' (a deed of divorce, ii/iii a.d.) it is provided that the 
separating parties shall be free to many as they choose 
without incurring any penalty — dirb 8e tov vvv e^eivat tu 
Aioye'vei Kal T-rj IIXovTdp\T) eKaTepos avTwv dpud£eo-[0ai] ws 
edv aiprJTai yap-to dvevOvvw ovti. In MGr appoo-Tos-^ is the 
name of a betiothed pair. Cf. also Aristeas 250 7rws 
dppdcrai yvvaiKt (where the fact that the archaic optative is 
" incorrect " does not justify the editors in inserting dv). 

In the active the verb is common = " to be suitable, 
fitting." P Fay 12 33 (c. B.C. 103) irepl avTu>[v y]evope'vns 
[dJydyKTis dpp.o^ovcrr|S Std 8r|poo-i'c»>v, " suitable pressure 
being applied on this account by public officials" (Edd.). 
OGIS 33j 158 (ii'i B.C.) tovs dplp-d^ovTas Xdlyous, ib. 3S3" 
(i/B.C.) is -fjppo^ev ?Kao-Tos. B(iU IV. 1120 32 (B.C. 5) tt|v 
dppd£ovo-av e-rripeXleiav). P Lond 256 recteP (A.D. 1 1-5) 
(—11. p. 97) Tots dppd^ovcrt [Kara Kaipbv o~7re'p]p.acri.. 
P Giss I 67 s (ii/A.D.) 81.' fjs (sc. eTri.o-ToXf|s) ra irpe'TrovTa 
crov ttj d^ia Kal [tw] ^8et dppd^ovrd 8rjXols. P Lips I. 
38''- 3 (A.D. 390) at eK vdutov dppd^]ovo-ai SiKaio[X]oyiai, etc. 
The prominence of the participle reminds us of our own 
fitting: it has its adverb dppo£dvTus, as in P Par 63"'" 
(ii/B.C.), Tois Kaipols TrpeTrdvTiDS Kal tols dv[8p]wirois dppo- 
Jovtus, Syll 25S 10 ((. B.C. 200) dppolJdvTois (.'. -ws) iv tois 
(/. to!) 4<a(pto-paTi. yeypappevois. On the forms appd^eiv 
and -TTeiv, see Cronert Mem. Here. pp. 135, 245 : the former 
is the true Hellenistic. 


Syll 53S 9 (? B.C. 353) o-uvTi8e'vTa tovs dppovs o-repicpovs, 
dpnoTTovTas TravTaxrji, of the walls of a temple. Ib. 54O 10e 
(B.C. 175-1) eK tov irpoo-iovTos dpaov : see Dittenberger's 
note. The word occurs in connexion with wrenching limbs 
out of their sockets (4J dpp.<iv dvap.ox,XevovTes) in 4 Mace 10 s . 





Syll 356" (B.C. 6— a letter of Augustus) ai-rbs piv yap 
evtpei.vevdpvovpevo[s] " persisted in his denial." OGIS 4S4 31 
(ii/A. D. ) direp dpvovpe'vwv avTwv rjSe'ws tirlarTevov. For the 
aor. midd. (rare in Attic: cf. Veitch Grk Verbs s.v.) cf. 
BGU I. lg^Cu/A.V.) iiirep Se tov pf| dpvTJcracrGai e<p' «Kao-Tui 
tovtov . . ., P Flor I. 61" *• (a.d. S6-S) T|pvT|craTo ovtos 
[ttj]v KAT)[p]ovo|j.tav tov TraTpbs Kai iyii tT|v (these three 
word-; interlmeated) toO i8£ov iraTpds- See aLo Helbing 
Gr. p. 99, and Mayor Ep. ofjiuie, p. 72, where it is stated 
that dpic'opai [denego] with ace. of a person ("to disown") 
is unclassical, and seems to be confined to Christian literature. 
The verb is MGr. 


P Thead 8 14 (A.D. 306) dpvia eviavcria, 19 dpvta Kal epucpia. 
BGU II. 377 8 '' (early vii/A.D.), with other animal names, 
many in the -iov form — KaprjXi'a), dpv£8(ia), perh. x<up(ia), 
ete. P Strass I. 24' f - (A.D. IlS) dpviuv tiri'yovT)(s) . . . 
dpi8pui dpvuo(v). P Gen I. 6S' (A.D. 3S2) dpvia 'eVSeKa. 
Its choice by the author of the Apocalypse as an exclusive 
term, for very frequent use, is part of a general tendency of 
the vernacular, in which nouns in -iov multiplied fast : it is 
interesting to note that he has followed that tendency much 
earlier than our papyrus writers did in the case of this word. 
The complete absence of diminutive force in dpvtov as 
against dpr|v may be noted. (MGr dpv£.) 


is found P Petr III. 31 7 tov £ev*yovs twv Pou>y pov -n-opevo- 
pt'vov €iri Trjs pacrLAiKfjs 680O wo-tc dpoTpiav. It is some- 
times replaced by vTrocrx^w, scc 'he editors' note on P Lond 
1170 verso' Mi (a.d. 25S-9) (=111. p. 200). The verb is 
found in the derived sense of "devise," like Heb. tfTVl, in 
Sir 7 12 . 


occurs in P Rein 17 20 (B.C. 109) dpoTpov a £vybv a (or 
dpoTpov a^vyov d), P Flor II. 134 1 (a.d. 260) to TavpiKov 
apa T(i dpoTpw, P Strass I. 32 3 (a business letter, A.D. 261) 
Mu£ipov . . . direcrTeiXa irpbs ere, i'va avTu dpoTpov ^evnTai. 
'ApoTTJp (contracted dp') is found in P Lond 257 200 (a.d. 
94) (= II. p. 26) : cf. OGIS 519 21 (iii/A.D.) tovs dpoTrjpas 
(>>"",, where Dittenberger refers to Hesiod Op. 405 povv 
dpOTtjpa. MGr dXtVpi starts from dpeVpiov, as Prof. Thumb 


Syll 92S 85 (Magnesia, ii/is.c. init.) r\ tiov KTnvwv dpira-yr| 
•ye-yevtipevn. BGU III. 871 5 (ii/A.D.) P[i]as Kal dp-ira-y[f|s]. 
P Lips I. 64 5:1 (<-. A.D. 36S) 81' dpira-yf)s. 


occurs in the MS. of Vettius Valens, p. 122 1 , edv "Apr|s 
KXnpwcrnTaL rbv Satpova, EcXt^vn 8e tov -yapoo-ToXov, dpTra-y- 
pbs b ydpos (arai. Kroll says " nempe dpird *yipos, " but 
why not render "the marriage will be one of force," or 
perhaps "will be a great catch"? The closely parallel 
apira-ypa, which modern commentators generally regard as 
a practical synonym of the rare dpira-ypds in Phil 2 6 , may be 
cited from a magical text. The leaden tablet from Adru- 

metum, printed with a commentary by Deissmann, BS pp. 
274-300, and with slightly amended text by Wiinsch AF 
no. 5, has in 1. 31 81' 8v b XetW dcpeitjo-iv Tb ctpiracrpa, the 
noun denoting the lion's "prey" as in LXX of Ezek 22 25 . 
One apt though not exact literary parallel seems to have 
escaped Lightfoot's net : Pindar Pyth S 65 dpTraXeav Sdcav 
"a gift to be eagerly seized " (Gildersleeve, who compares 
Phil I. 1:), "the keen-sought prize" (Myers). This comes 
very near to the meaning res rapienda (ralher than res rapta) 
by which dp-n-a-ypdv seems best explained if really equivalent 
to dp-ira-ypa "spoil, prize." Against the solitary profane 
instance of dpTraypds, in Plutarch 2. 12 A rbv €K Kpf|Tr]s 
Ko.Xovp.evov d., "seizure, rape," may be set a very close 
parallel also quoted by Lightfoot, ovk IcttIv dpTraypbs t| 
Tip.TJ (from a catena on Mk lo 41ff -). Without discussing 
the crux interpretum, we might supply a list of the -pos 
nouns parallel to dpiro.-yp.ds in formation, as found in 
NT, such as may be cited to support the practical 
identity of d. with ctp-rra-ypa, and its distinctness from it, 
respectively. (1) Nouns which are or may be passive, like 
upiraypa = to dpiraKTov or to dpiraKTeov : v'rro'ypappds, 
i[/aXpds, Oepicrpds, ipaTicrpds, eiricriTio-pds, xP 7 H JLaTLtr F LC 'S- 
In these the abstract has become concrete, as our writing, 
clothing, warning have done, so that they are what the 
noun in -pa would have been. (Brugmann-Thumb pp. 218, 
222, defines the -pds and -prj nouns and the -pa as "verbal 
abstracts" and "nomina actionis" respectively; but both 
"partially pass into names of things.") (2) By far the 
larger number, some forty or more, denote the action of the 
verb — PpvYpos "gnashing," o-eicrpds "shaking," which in 
concrete development produces dcrirao-pds "a greeting," 
8eo-pds "chain," etc. The statement that Plut. A/or. p. 12 
is "the only instance of its use noted in prof, auth." as a 
matter of fact overlooks an instance of the identical dpira- 
o-pds given in Wyttenbach's index verborum — viz. p. 644 A 
(Symposiaca II. 10), where v<paip£cris Kal dpirao-pbs Kai 
\apwv apiXXa Kal Sia-yxtovLcrpds are mentioned as conduct 
not tending to friendliness or convivial enjoyment ; we may 
render "snatching and grabbing, fisticuffs and elbowing." 
Here again, therefore, the word is a nomen actionis, as in 
the other Plutarch passage. 

atyiiat, co. 

P Lond 3S7 8 (A.D. 14-5) (=11. p. 166) d]pirdo-ai T d 
eiripdXXovTa. OGIS 665" (a.d. 49) 8ti dvaXicrKeTai Tiva 
dpira^dvTwv dSews tuv eirl Tats \petais. In P Par 6S 8 f - (a 
document relating to the Jewish war of Trajan, ii/A.D.) we 
have Tivds etrl KcocrTuiSCav rjpiracrav Kal [tovs dpiracrOe'v- 
TJas tTpavparicrav : cf. BGU I. 341 3 , which deals with the 
same events, «K Kioo-TuiJSias TJpiracrav. In I. 12 of the last 
papyrus f|pTrdyno-av is the true reading : see Berichtigungen 
p. 359. A common use may be illustrated by the petition 

BGU III. 759 2 

125) 8tt(os irapacrTTjcra>[cr]L tovs 

atT[tovs Kal] dTroreicrwcri Ta rjpTrao-pj'va. According to 
Wilcken (Archiv i. p. 164) the verb is to be understood 
causatively in P Lond 40S 11 (c. A.D. 346) (=11. p. 2S4) 
■fjp7ra£as avTovs ws ev dvopia.. " du hast sie phindern lassen." 
On this general tendency, cf. Hatzidakis Einl. p. 200 f. 
For dpTrd£w, used of death, see the epitaph in BCH xxvii. 
p. 370, no. 101, iirb o-Kopmou f,pTru[crO]r|. The compound 
dcpapTrdjju is found P Oxy I. 37' n (A.D. 49) to criopaTiov 




d<f>r|pirao-ev. "carried llie foundling off." P Strass I. 5 15 
(A.ii. 202) tcl TtTpdiroSa Ta T|(«Tepa d4>t|pTraa-[a]v, and 
often in petitions complaining of robbery. For the double 
conjugation of this and similar verbs — due to the fact that 
both dental and guttural before -vw will make -|w— see 
Proleg. p. 56. The verb survives in MGr. 


I leissmann (LAE p. 321 n ') notes that &. was current as 
a loan-word in Latin comedy: in Paul "it should probably 
not be translated 'robber' but rendered by some other word 
like 'swindler' ('extortioner,' AV, RV)." 


A word of undoubted Semitic origin (Ileb. I^ny, cf. 
Lagarde Mitttil. I. p. 212, Lewy Premdworter p. 120), 
spelt dppapiiv and dpafJiiv : see Pro/eg. p. 45 and Thackeray 
Gr. I. p. 119, and cf. P Lond 334 14 - 31 (a.d. 166) (=11. 
p. 211 f.), where both forms occur. The meaning of 
"earnest-money" (Scottice "arles") is well illustrated by 
P Par 5s 14 (ii/B.c.) (=Witkowski 2 , p. 81), where a woman 
who was selling a cow received IOOO drachmas as dpap&va. 
Similarly P Lond 143 13 (a.d. 97) (=11. p. 204), a receipt 
for 160 drachmas, being the residue of the earnest-money 
(200 drachmas) for 2^V arourae of land, dirb Xoyov dppct- 
Pwvos kXtipou kt\., P Fay 91 14 (A.D. 99) dpyvpiov 8pax[ads] 
SeKa ££ dppapova dvairdptcpov, " 16 drachmae of silver as 
unexceptionable earnest-money" (Edd.), P Oxy II. 299 2f - 
(late i/A.D. ) AduirwvL uvoOnpev-nri eSwKa avni 8td (roO 
dpapwva iSpaxp-^s) f\ i-'va uuoOriptiJo-ei 'ivroxa, "regarding 
Lampon the mouse-catcher 1 paid him for you as earnest 
money 8 drachmae in order that he may catch the mice 
while they are with young" (Edd.), ib. VI. 920 12 (ii/iii A.D.) 
ts Xdy(ov) dpap^vos) CTTpouT(oO) ("ostrich") (Spaxp.°-0 >-P, 
Sj>ll 226 131 (Olbia, iii/B.C.) evc'-yKas eis tt]v eKXno-iav xpua"ovs 
ir€vraKO(rtous els tovs dppapwvas. Additional examples are 
Oslr 1168, P Magd 26 8 (B.C. 217), P Lond 1229 16 (a.d. 
145) (= III. p. 143), it. 1 170 verso 122 (A.D. 25S-9) (=111. 
p. 196), BGU I. 240 6 (ii/A.D.), ib. II. 601 11 (ii/A.D.), and 
P Grenf II. 67" s - (a.d. 237) (= Selections, p. 109) where in 
the engagement of certain dancing girls for a village festival 
provision is made that they are to receive so many drachmas 
iiirep dpapwvos [rfj TJiufj e\Xo-yovp.ev[o]i>, "by way of 
earnest-money to be reckoned in the price." The above 
vernacular usage amply confirms the NT sense of an 
"earnest," or a part given in advance of what will be 
bestowed fully afterwards, in 2 Cor I 22 , 5 5 , Eph I 14 . 

It may be added that in MGr f| dppaPwv<.(a)o-uevr| = 
"the betrothed bride," "an interesting reminiscence," as 
Abbott (Songs, p. 258) remarks, "of the ancient custom of 
purchasing a wife." In the same way tj dppapwva is used 
for "the engagement-ring." In the island of Cyprus we 
find the form dpawva (Thumb Hcllen., p. 23). 


is common in sacred inscriptions, e. g. Michel 992 21 (Man- 
tinea, B.C. 61) to-Ke'irao-ev Kai €iicrxT)(j.dvi.o-tv Ta irepl Tav 
0e6v apprjTa uAKTTfjpia. The word is thus associated with 
the Mysteries, and in 2 Cor I2 4 (appr^Ta pT|uaTa) suggests 
words too sacred to be uttered. Vettius Valens p. 19 1 has 
irepl Ta SppiiTa iroi.r|Ti.Ka£. P Leid \V IVU - 16 , with KpuTrrdv. 

.Vi.'.'N^V (Delphi, in dialect, ii/B.c.) dTeXV|s d <ivd *o-rw, 

(i y.r\ appwo-ros \tVoLTo Ewo-os- We d I happen to have 

noticed any instance ol the adj. in the papyri, bul both verb 
and subst. are common. For the verb cf. I' I'eii I. 3o(l) 4 
(middle of iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski -, p. 5) tov 6v[tJ(i iv 
Me'ucpa dppuo-ToOvTa, P Ilib I. 73 15 (B.C. 243-2) el oiv p.ij 
T|ppwo-Trjo-au.ev, P Par 49 31 (B.C. 164-5S) (= Witkowski *, 
p. 71) dvwviw, ur| iroTt dp[pjwo-T£t to iraiSdpiov, P Ryl II. 
6S 15 (B.C. 89) w[ctt€] Sid Tas TfXriyds dppwa-Tfjo-ao-a KaTa- 
Keicrai (/'. e. -o-9at) KivSuvevouo-a rail piwi (which -hows that 
d. may represent something very serious), BGU I V. 1125 8 
(time of Augustus) ds (sc. Tjuepas) Se tav dpTaKTTJo-T|i. (/. 
aTaKTT|o-T|L) t^l dppwo-Tr|(ri]i. For the subst. see thi 
interesting petition which the priests of the tempi .1 
Socnopaei Nesus present to the Strategus, asking for 1 
favours at his hands, seeing that "in his sickness" he was 
healed by their god — iirti ovv owwcrcu cv ttji dppwo-Tiai 
inrb tov 2oKvoiraLTos 0toO ueyuXov (P Amh II. ^S 32 > B - c - 
132), also P Tebt I. 44 s f - (B.C. 114) x°-P lv T *\s irepiexoio-ijs 
p.€ dppwo-TLas, "on account of the sickness from which I am 
suffering," ib. 52 10 ff - (c. B.C. 114) Si ue (/. Sid to ue) ev 
papv[T6]pct (see Pro/eg. p. 7S) dppwcrTta Kio-[0ai.] ev8tt)s 
otio-a Twv dvay[Kaiwvj, "since I am seriously dl, being in 
want of the necessaries of life" (Edd.), and P Hawara 
S6 18ff - (probably late i/A.D.) ( = Archiv v. p. 3S2) (lapTvprjo-ei. 
Se o-(oi) ['I]o-(8<upos, cm dppojo-Ttav lo-o8dvaTo(v) [«|]r|V- 
T\i]o-a. See also Syll 490 G (iii/B.C.) «v[ir]«Td[v]Ta)v ttoXXuv 
dY[av dXtSptJiov [dppwjO-T[Ti];jLdTwv Kal twv laTpwv twv 
[8a[i]oo-[ieudv]Twv ev rai iroXct. uppwo-o-TTjo-dvTwv. The adj. 
is MGr, as are ihe derived verb and noun. 


According to Nageli (p. 46) this word is first found among 
the poets of the Imperial period, e. g. Epigr. adesp. Anlhol. 
Pal. IX. 6S6 6 . Cf. for the verb Or. Sib. ii. 73 p.f| dpo-evoKoi- 

T£IV, (llj 0-VKO<f>aVT€LV, p.r[T€ (j)OV£V€tV. 


The form apo-r|V, which WH read throughout, is illus- 
trated by P Oxy IV. 744 s (B.C. I) (= Selections, p. 33) 
where with reference to the birth of a child it is directed 
fdv -rjv (/. tj) apo-tvov a<j«s, «dv rjv (/. t)) 8r|Xca ixpaXe : 
cf. also P lien 1. 35 s (A.D. 161) K[ap.f]Xo>Js] [TtJXeiovs 
dpcr«vas S1J0 XeuKoiis. In P Oxy I. 37' ■' (A.D. 49) ( = Selec- 
tions, p. 49) we have dppeviKov 0-wp.aTi.0v, but in ib. 3S 7 
(a document dealing with the same incident, A.D. 49-50) 
(= Selections, p. 53) it is dpo-cvtKov o-wudTiov. For apprp 
see further CPR 28 12 (A.D. no) twv 8t dppe'vwv ulwv, BGU 
I. 8S 6 (A.D. 147) Kaur|X(ov) Spptvov [X]e«Kdv, P Strass I. 30 13 
(A.D. 276) dpptviKd eiTTd, P Lond 46 105 (magic, iv/A.D.) 
(=1. p. 68) 8r|Xr) Kai appev. Oslr 1601 has iraiSiou 
dpcrsviKoC: cf. P Oxy IX. 1216 14 (ii/iii A.D.) tj Kal dpcre- 
vetKov Tjaiv d<j>iKaTa[i ;], "Have you produced us a male 
child?" (Ed.), and the MGr dpo-eviKos. There is an im- 
portant investigation into the rationale of the variation 
between po- and pp in the Koivrj in Wackernagel Hcllenistica, 
p. 12 ff. : also see Thumb Hellen., p. 77 f. A further ortho- 
graphic difference appears in P Petr III. 59 b (iii/ii B.C.) 
0-iip.aTa €po-£viKa : see other instances, and a discussion on 

dialect points involved, in Mayser Gr. p. 5 ; and cf. Thumb's 
Gr. Dial, (index s.v. tpa~r\v). 


What particular sail is to he understood by a. in Ac 27*° 
is uncertain. Sir W. M. Ramsay (Hastings' DB V. p. 399) 
refers to the case mentioned by Juvenal (Sat I2 69 ) where a 
disabled ship made its way into harbour veto prora sua, 
which the scholiast explains artemone solo. According to 
this, the dpTcpuiv would be a sail set on the how. See also 
Breusing Die Nautik tier Allen, p. 79 f. (cited by Preuschen, 
ad Ac 27" in HZNT). 


For dpn of strictly present time (as Gal i 8f - , 1 Th 3", etc.) 
cf. BGU II. 594 s (e. a.u. 70-S0) Xjt'-ywv oti. peTa i-bv 
6€picrpb[v €p-yo\]apr|<rou,a[i], dpTi -yap dcrOeruiL. P Lond 
937 b 6it (iii/A.D.) (=111. p. 213) 8iKa£opai x°-P LV tu»v tox) 
d8eX<pou pov Kal ov 8vvapai. dpn eX6«iv irpbs o-[e], Sj'li 
3S7 8 A.D. 127 — a rescript of Hadrian) SiKcua d£iouv poi 
SoKevre Kal dva-vKaia a[p]Tt YC.vop.evT] irbXei : Stratonicea 
(in Lydia) was just "incorporated." The word is very 
common in magical formulas, e.g. P Lond 12I 373 (iii/A.D.) 
( = I. p. 96) ev [t]t] apTc wpa T^8r| tj8t| Ta.\v tcl^v, id. Glfl cv 
ttj o-fjptpov Tipt'pa. €v ttj dpn wpa, and the incantation in the 
long Paris papyrus 574 m5 (iii/A.D. )(= Selections, p. 114) 
^e\0€,, . . . Kal dTroo-rrjOi aTrb tov Si(va) dpTi 
dpn. tjSt), "depart from so and so at once, at once, now." 
For the combination of Mt II 12 , etc., cf. P Oxy VI. 936" 
(iii/A.D.) ouk 'iyja dpTi o-eiTovouSe Ta Pif3X(8ia dTrr|p[r]^o-Tat 
Scus dpn, "the petitions have not yet been got ready" 
(Kdd. ). According to Moeris p. 6S : "Apn, oi p£v 'AttikoI 
to irpb bXi-yov, ol 8e "EXXrjvts Kal eirl tov vvv Xe-youa-i. 
See also Lobeck Phryn, p. 18 ff., Rutherford ATP, p. 70 ff., 
and Nageli, p. 78, where the word is cited as a mark of the 
non-literary Koivr|. 


Cf. the late imperial inscr. in Archiv v. p. 166 (no. 17 2 — 
a metrical epitaph) SapairCtova ve'ov t« Kal dp-ri-yeVaov feovTa. 
Lucian is sufficient wairant for -£ete**s»a$jj. (1 Pet 2 2 ). See 
also Herwerden Lex. s.v. 



For d. = TtXcios, see A'aiM Praef 222 6* ctiov dpiOpbv 
oy8ot|Kovt dpTiwv. In the difficult passage Herodas iv. 95, 
Nairn renders dpT(.r]S p.o£pr]s, "adequate " share. The com- 
panion adjectives help to define the word in Vettius Valens, 
p, I4 15 , al 8e f- ' A(ppw8£TT|s (sc. poipai) LXapat. tiirexvoi, 
8iavyeT.s, apTiot, KaBapoC, eiixpooi. The adverb is found in 
P Lips I. 40 iij - 16 (iv/v A.D.) where a scribe is directed 
aKoXovGtlv tw wKToo-TpaTfj-yw dpTtws Kara Trpdo-TaYpa tt)s 
o-f|S [X]a[p]Tr[p6TT|Tos], and BGU III. 749* (Byz. ) diro 
veoprivCas tov dp-ruus [? dpxopevov] p-nvbs. 


is frequently found with xaSapds = " pure or "white 
bread," e.g. P Tebt II. 468 ol'vou Ke(pdpiov) d, dpTcuv 
Ka(8ap<Sv) x (= IO Choenices? Edd. ). P Oxy IV. 736-" (a 
lengthy private account, c. A.D. i) dpTOu KaSapou irat8(wv) 
r|ptu>p<Xi.ov) " pure bread for the children J obol," P Giss 


I. 14 5 (ii. A. D. ) fvpaxpds poi irtpl /'p-nov KaOapciv Tre-yp<j>9;jva£ 
0-01. 8id Aioa-Kvpov. ( >ther instances of the word are P Leid 
B' u (ii/it. c. ) dpTwv TreirTiiv (in provision claimed lor the 
Serapeum Twins), P Oxy VI. 936 16 '• (iii/A.D.) o-<pvp£Siov 
KavwTTLKOv OTrov £evYn, dpTtov 8, "a Canopic basket with 
four pairs of loaves," P Gen I. 74 25t - (probably iii/A.D.) 
Xt]ku0ov eXaiou Kal dp-rovs p€YaXo[v]s TeVo-apas In P 
Oxy VI. 908 22t (A.D. 199) dpTOKorreiov = "bakery" — more 
v<f>' €Kao-Tou u|iwv dpTOKorrdov «V dTrapno-Ofjvai. "ApTos is 
the common and only word for "bread" during the period 
we are concerned with : towards the end of it i|/copiov (a. v.) 
begins to acquire this meaning and takes its place. 


For dprvu = "season," and not "restore" in Mk 9 50 , 
Lk 14 32 , as in Col 4 6 , Wackernagel (ThLZ 190S, col 36 n 1 ) 
cites Athen. III. 113. 13 dp-ros diraXds, dpi-vdpevos ydXaKTi 
bXC-yto Kal eXaiw Kal dXo-lv apKcrois. Dioscor. II. 76 dp-ru-rots 
(dpTUTLKois ?) dXo-C, salibns condimento inservientibits. P 
Tebt II. 375" (A.D. 140) ti^s T|pTuuevr|S. 'Ap-rvpaTa 
"spice^" are mentioned in an account P Amh II. 126 10 
(early ii/A.D.): cf. P Giss I. 47 14 (ii/A.D.) tc. 8vo pdrta 
( = J artaba) twv dpTvpaTiov (8pa\P"v) if. A subst. 
dpTupaTaTas occurs BGU IV. ioS7 u - 6 (iii/A.D.): cf. id. I. 
9 17 - 5 : cf. also dpTupaTOTriiXT)! on a tombstone, Preisigke 699 
(i/A.D.), and dpTUTr|p in Michel iooi' v0 'j v1 (Epicleta's 
Will, Thera, .:. B.C. 200). In a lexicon to Iliad xviii., P 
Kyi I. 23 10 (ii/A.D.) +ipTv« is glossed [KaTeo-KeiaJJe : for 
supplement see Hunt's note. 


This title, which is found in the Greek Eible only in I Th 
4 16 , Jude e , passed into the magical papyri, e.g. P Lond 
I. I2I 257 (iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 92) tw Kvpiu> pov tu> ap\a.yyi\ut 
Mix a ^i and the Paris papyrus S74 1200 (iii/A.D. ) 6 KTuras 
Beovs Kal dpy^aYYeXovs. In addition 10 other references to 
the syncretic literature of the Imperial period Nageli (p. 
4S n 1 ) cites a gnostic inscription from Miletus CIG 2895 
dpxdyyeXov cpuXda-o-tTai t| ttoXis MiXt]o-i«v. That the 
word was coined in Judaism to express a Jewish idea is of 
course obvious : it need only be mentioned that the prefix 
"Apx(*)-- \o. v. ) could be attached to any word at will. On 
Grimm's note upon the archangelic Heptad reference 
might tie made to the Hibbert Lectures (1912) on Early 
Zoroaslrianisru, p. 24 1. 


That this word retains in general the sense of original, 
as distinguished from TraXaibs = old, is seen commonly in 
vernacular sources as in the NT. Thus Ac 2 1 16 , where Mnason 
is described as an dpxaios pa8T|Tr)S, "an original disciple," 
one who belongs to the "beginning of the Gospel" (Phil 
4 1S ), is illustrated by Magn 215/', a contemporary inscription, 
where an dpxaios pio-rns inscribes an dpxaios xpi^pos : 
the "ancient initiate" is opposed to the neophyte, the 
"ancient oracle" to one just uttered — the citation is 
made by Thieme, p. 26. So BGU III. 992»- 6 (B.C. 160) 
KaBd Kal ot dpxaioi Kvpioi eK[«K]rnvTo, "the original 
owners." It is from the meaning "original" that rb dpxatov 
becomes a term for "capital," as in Epicteta, Michel 
iooi""- 8 (Thera, c. B.C. 200), or "principal," as Syll 5 1 7 le t- 

a PXV 


up X i- 

(ii/B.c, Amorgos), opposed to tokos. For the more general 
sense of "ancient," recurrent in Mt 5", etc., we may corn- 
compare the horoscope P Oxy II. 235 s (a.d. 20-50) where 
a date is given Kar[d Se tous] dp\aiovs xpovoos, i.e. "old 
style": see also P Fay 139' (late ii/A.D.), Preisigkt 1011 
(ii/A.D.), 3462 (a.d. 154-5), and P Grenf II. 67 10 (a.d. 237) 
( = Selections, p. 10S). The reference is to the old Egyptian 
system of reckoning 365 days to the year without a leap- 
year, which continued to be used in many non-official 
documents even after the introduction of the Augustan 
calendar. The neuter = "original condition" may be seen 
in OGIS 672 6ff - (a.d. So) where a river is dredged, etc., 
Kal em to dpxalov dTreKaTecrTd0T| : similarly in 2 Cor 5 17 , the 
"oiiginal conditions" pass away before the riat that Katvd 
■n-oiei -n-dvTa (Rev 21 6 ). The standard of " antiquity " may 
be illustrated by Syll 355 11 (c A.D. 3), where dpxaioTaTou 
8d(-y)p.a[Tos refers to a scnatus consultum of B.C. So. We 
find towns partial to the adj. : cf. P Lond 1157 verso 2 
(A.D. 246) (= III. p. IIO) 'EppovTrdXecus tt|S (le-yoA dpxal'as 
Kal Xap-rrpas Kal creu.voTdTns. The standing title of 
Heracleopolis (as BGU III. 924 1 — iii/A.D.), d. Kal BedcfnXos, 
reminds us of " ancient and religious foundations " at Oxford 
or Cambridge to-day. Reference may also be made to a 
payment for dpxatwv iirn-e'wv, Oslr 323 (c. i/B.C. ), evidently 
a cavalry regiment (the "Old Guard"), see it. i. p. 161 f., 
Archiv ii. p. 155 ; and to a land survey, P Teht I I. 610 
(ii/A.D.) [oAJXtis TroTau-od^olpriTou) dpxaCas. In P Par 60 
bis * (c. B.C. 200) we find to dvrjXa)|j.a els *AAe£dv£peiav d— b 
tuv TrXr|pwpdTwv [dp]x a ^ u,v : °n the grammar cf. Proleg. 
p. 84 n 1 . The distinction between d. and iraXaids is 
naturally worn thin on occasion, asin BGU III. 781 (i/A.D.), 
an inventory including sundry "old" crockery, as irtvaKia 
pwXrjTdpia dpx,aia L1 , dXXa dp\ata coTapia exovTa lv 4 . 
'A. of relative antiquity is well illustrated by Kaibel 241a 8 
(p. 521) dpxo-tuv Kt|8opivT| \(\iav. Note further the com- 
parative in a British Museum papyrus, cited in Archiv vi. p. 
103 (a.d. I03\ dirb twv dpx^toTcpwv xp° vu) v ). The adj. 
survives in MGr. 

The double meaning, answering to apxetv and ctpxeo-Bai 
severally, can be freely paralleled. The great difficulty of 
Jn S 25 tt}v dpxrjv 8tl Kal XaXu iijitv ; makes it desirable to 
quote P Oxy III. 472 16 (c. A.D. 130) ov SvvaTai -yap kckXc- 
<J>0ai to u-nS' dpxt[V -yevdu-evov p.rj SvvaTov S' elvai, " for it is 
impossible for that to have been stolen which neither ever 
existed at all nor could exist" (Edd.); but the absence of 
the article, and the fact that we cannot quote other examples 
of this once familiar usage, makes the quotation of little 
weight for confirming the RV mg. here ("How is it that I 
even speak to you at all?"), though it is probably right. 
For t?|v d. = " originally " (without negative) we may quote 
Syll 256 s3 (c. B.C. 200, Magnesia) twv dXXuv d[y]iivuv 
t^)v dpx^|(v) |iev eV dp^Jvpuu Te]8e'vr<i>v — later they had 
wreaths for prizes. So without article ii. 921' (Thera, 
iii/B.C. ) ex suppl. For apxij, as in Jn I 1 , we may quote the 
remarkable inscr. of Q. Pompeius A.f. from Eleusis, dated 
by Dittenberger not later than Augustus, dedicated to Aicov, 
dpx'rjv ueo-drnTa TeXos ovk i\i»v, peTaPoXfjs dpeVoxos (Syll 
757). Some prepositional phrases may be illustrated. 'Airb 
ttjs apxrjs P Tor I. i x • (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. II., p. 39), 
Tart I. 

Syll 929" (?B.C. 139) tuv Sid irpoydvwv aTrb t. d. ■y«7«- 
v-T]u.{i>wv, ib. a oSo-av Se Kal dirb t. d. Traviuv : usually 
anarthrous, as BGU IV. 1141" [c. B.C. 14) Sid t£ dir' dpxrjs 
itiii(?)ovk evecjidvicras TaiTa ; — so P Tor II. 2 15 (B.C. 131) 
t[tj]v KaToiKiav [eJxovTes e[v t]ois Meuvo[v]eioi.s tn [d]ir' 
"plxfe ancl s y'- ! 3 2S2 ° ( B - c - 8 4) <"■■' apxHs t« TJois «x8i- 
o-Tois iroXeaiois [ePorjBJei.. 'E£ apx^s is more frequent : thus 
P Gen I. 7 8 (i/A.D.) Kara Tb e£ apx*!? ^os, BGU IV. 
IIlS 21 (B.C. 22) tovs e£ a. $8[i.o-u.ous, P Thead I 8 (a.d. 306) 
KaTa tt)v e(j a. Kal u-e'xpei. vvv crvvTJBeiav, Syll 246 s (B.C. 
220-16) 8irws &v . . . Tj TfdXis [d]7roKaTao-Ta9el els tt)v e£ 
°-PX'l s eiSaqioviav, ii. 292* (B.C. 179, Olympia, in dialect) 
tis Tdv e£ ttpx°-S e[oOcrav] <j>iA[£av diroK]aTao-Tdo-avTa, ii. 
540 1 " (B.C. 175-I) irdXiv] Te e£ dpx^s dpas Troir|crei "do it 
over again," P Oxy VII. 1032 40 (A.D. 162) Td e£ d. em- 
^TTjOe'vra, "the statement originally required " (Ed.). 'Ev 
apxij occurs P Petr II. 37 2i verso* (p. [120]) eTrio-Ke\|/du-evos 
ev dpxfji a Set yeve'crflai. e'p-ya (c. B.C. 245). For dpxV Xapeiv 
iIIl-Ij 2 3 ) add to Wetstein's exx. Diog. Laert. Prooem. iii. 4. 
'Apxr|, "beginning, foundation," may be illustrated by 
YViinsch AF 4 35 bpKi^u ere tov Bebv . . . rdv ireXd'ywv tt)v 
dpxTiv eruvpepXripivov. P Oxy VII. 1021 10 , a document 
notifying the accession of Nero, calls the new Emperor 
"good genius of the world," and [ap]xf| irdvruv dyaOiov, 
"source of all good things" (Ed.); but unfortunately the 
reading (which is followed by an erasure) is noted as ex- 
tremely doubtful. For the meaning "office, authority," cf. 
Preisigie 176 13 (A.D. l6l-Soi &p£avTos Tas auras apxds, 
etc., etc. Deissmann BS, p. 267 n s , notes a use of toitos 
(vid. s.v.) parallel with dpxr| in this sense, and compares 
Jude 8 . P Hal I 228 (iii/B.C.) aapTupevru e[ir]l [T-ij]i dpxrji 
Kal eiri. t[ui] SiKacrrnpiuiL shows us apxr| in a concrete 
sense = " magistrate," as in Tit 3 1 . In MGr it means 
" beginning." 

To determine between "founder" and "leader" in Heb2 10 , 
I2 2 , Ac 3 15 , 5 31 , is a complex question which would carry 
us beyond the limits of a lexical note. But our few citations 
go to emphasize the closeness of correspondence with auctor, 
which it evidently translates in a Proconsul's edict, Syll 316 3 
(ii/B.C.) eye-ydvei dpxrpybs ttjs bXrjs cnJYX u0 ~ ews > 17 tov ye-yo- 
voTa dpxTybv [t]uv TrpaxSe'vTwv. So P Oxy I. 41 56 
(iii/iv A.D.), where a crowd shouts repeatedly in honour of 
the prytanis, apxiyye Toiv d7a8uv, "source of our blessings," 
auctor bonorum. The phrase is found five centuries earlier 
in the Rosetta stone, OGIS 90*' . . . anniversaries which 
are iroXXiov d-vaBuv dpxTyol (ir)do-u In OGIS 212 13 Apollo 
is d. tov [ye'vous] of ^eleucus Nicator (B.C. 306-2S0) whose 
mother was said to have dreamed that she conceived by 
Apollo : so in 219 26 of his son Antiochus I. (Soter). P Oxy 
X. 1241'"- 35 (ii/A.D., lit.) d. c|>dvov "the first shedder." The 
other meaning "leader" is seen in Kaiiel 585 (Gaul) tepeW 
dpxTyoO, of a high priest of Mithras. So still in MGr. 


A specimen list of new words formed with this prefix will 
illustrate what was said above (s.r. dpxay7eXos) of the 
readiness with which any writer might coin a compound of 
this class. 'ApxiKuvriyds Ostr 1530, 1545, dpxuTr|pe'TT|s 
Oslr 1538, Preisigie 599", dpxiSiKao-T^s P Tebt II. 286 14 





(Hadrian), etc., dpxiirpo4>r|TT|S P Gen I. 7 5 (i/A.D.), P Tebt 
II. 313 1 (a.d. 210-1), Preisigke 326 (Alexandria, ii/B.c. or 
Roman), P Ryl II. no 1 (A.D. 259), etc. (apxnrpocrra-nis 
whence) &[p]x™'p[°]a-TaTovvTos Preisigke 626 (Ptol.) : cf. zA 
639 (B.C. 25) (ru[va]'yo , YoO Trpoo-TaTr|o-as ( pagan), apxi8vpi»p6s 
it. 327, dpxipouX.6UTris ib. 1106 (Ptol.), dpx'-H LT ]X a, "- K< ' s &• 
1113 (a.D. 147-S), dpxio-wp.aTo<t>vXa£ //>. 1164 (ii/B.c), 
dpx'aTpos CaUler 129, dpxi"y«'p»v Preisigke 2100 (i/B.c), 
apxi-irpiiTavis »i. 2264 (i/B.c). We have made no effort 
to enlarge the list, or to find additional instances of those 
quoted, which are enough to prove our case. Five of the 
twelve are not in LS. 


OGIS 470 21 (time of Augustus) lis Kal o-vvyefvijKots dpx«- 
pariKoIs <rT«4>dvoi.s K£Ko<r(ifjcr8ai. For the LXX verb 
dpx«paTeva> (1 Mace 14") see BGU II. 362 ui - 20 "'• (a.d. 
215), P Amh II. 82 s (iii/iv a.d.) AiSapoO dpx«paT«uo-avTos 
Ttjs 'Apa"i.voiTu>v TrdX«ws, OGIS 4S5 4 (Roman — Magnesia) 
dpx«paTeicravTa Kal Ypap.u.aTevo-avTa TT 1 S rrdXews, etc. 


P Leid G* (end of ii/B.C.) tois CTrio-TaTais twv itp[w]v 
Kal dpxupe2<ri seems to define the term in Egypt, but it 
had also more special use. P Tebt II. 31 5 31 (u/a.d.) tov 
dmSovvTa peTa <ppovpds Tti dpxupi Tre'uTriv is indeterminate. 
But in ib. 294 s , according to Wilcken and the editors, the 
same official, known as dpx«p«is 'AXe£av8pe£as Kal Al-yv- 
tttov irdo-T)S, is addressed as idiologus, "administrator of the 
Private accounts " (Edd. ). Preisigke 305* has vtoO TpT|o-euis 
apx^epe'^s (A.D. 210), in a dedication. Michel 1231 (early 
i/B.c.) 'Apx^psis |»'[Y~|as rededicates to Zeis "OXpios (of 
Olba in Cilicia) buildings once constructed by Seleucus 
Nicator : we are reminded of the phrase in Heb 4 14 . 

'Apxi-eptiJS and apx^ptiis p.^vic-Tos were the regular terms 
in the East for translating the title pontifcx maxinuts, borne 
by the Emperors: see LAE, p. 369 f. , where Deissmann 
refers to the evidence from the inscriptions collected by 
Magie, p. 64. A word common in classical and later 
literature, though only once in the Gk OT, apart from 
Apocr. (esp. Mace), needs no further illustration. But we 
may note the form with -y in P Hib I. 62 s (B.C. 245) tw 
a PX l Y 6 P €t ' v Q" AT " ( see tne editors' note), and the unelided 
dpx"«p«vs in P Petr III. 53 (pf (iii/B.c). 

aQXinoi /.ir]v. 

Deissmann {LAP, p. 97 ff. ) has shown that this XT air. 
dp. (1 Pet 5 4 ) can no longer be regarded as a Christian 
invention : it is found on the mummy label of an Egyptian 
peasant {Preisigke 3507), of the Roman period, which runs : 
riXfjvis v*wTcpos apxi-TroCpevos (/• -p-iiv) kfiCutrw €twv . . . 
" Plenis, the younger, chief shepherd. Lived . . . years/' 
Cf. P Lips I. 97".* (a.d. 338) where a list of Troipivts if, 
headed by Kdp.T|Ti dpxiTroi(i€vi. 


Preisigke 623 (B.C. 80-69) ™ v apx"r«va]'y<i)'yls koli dpx«- 
pcus [name presumably followed] : the previous mention of 
6s]uv «I > iXoTraTdpu>v suffices to show that a " profane " writer 
uses the term. Thayer's inscriptional and literary quotations 
had already corrected the implication of Grimm's note. 

Cagtiat I. 782 (Thrace) tov pw[p.]bv ttj o-uva-yuj [y] fj Tiiv 
Kovp£uj[v] ("collegia tonsorum," Ed.) [ir]epl dpxio"vva- 
•y[toy]ov r. TovXiov [OJudXcvTa 8w[p]ov d"TroKaTeo-TT|[o-a]v : 
C. Julius Valens is the Master of the Barbers' Company. 
See further Ziebarth Vereinswesen, p. 55 ff. For Jewish 
exx. see the Alexandrian inscr. of the time of Augustus in 
Archiv ii. p. 430, no. 5* and C. and B., no. 559 (ii. 
p. 649), 6 8id pLou dpx>-[o~vv]dYwyos, with Ramsay's remarks, 
showing that Julia Severa (a.d. 60-S0), who figures in this 
Akmonian inscr., was a Jewess with the honorary title of 
"ruler of the synagogue": cf. also Ramsay CKE, p. 6S, 
and Lake, Earlier Epistles of S. Paul, p. 104 n 1 . 


The word occurs several times in the correspondence 
(middle iii/B.c. ) of Cleon the architect in P Petr II. ( = Wit- 
kowski, 2 nos. 1-10), e.g. 4 (i) 1 , 15 (2) 2 . In 42 (cif we 
read that one Theodorus, who had previously worked under 
Cleon (QedSupov tov iirapxtTeKTOva), was appointed Cleon's 
successor. For the use of the corresponding verb in the 
inscriptions, cf. OGIS 39 s (iii/B.C.) dpxiT€KTOVT|0-[avTa] tt\v 
TptaKOVTT|pri Kal t'iK[oa-f|pTi], al. This example shows that 
the word is wider than our "architect. " In P Tebt II. 2S6™ 
(A.D. 121-3S) the editors translate c[k] ttjs Tciv dpTEKTovwi/ 
(/. dpxi-T.) Trp[o]o-cj>uivr|o-eius, "as the result of the declaration 
of the chief engineers " with reference to a dispute regarding 
a house. The RV is of course shown to be right by the 
context in 1 Cor 3 10 . It is worth while to remember that 
t«ktuv in its turn is wider than "carpenter." 

Other occurrences of dpXTtKTiov will be found in Syll 
540 lso (ii/K.C. ), a long inscription about the building of a 
temple, where the d. has a vTrapxvreKTiov under him ; 545 s ' ", 
552", 58s 217 ' etc - (all ii/B.c); 653'° (the Mysteries inscrip- 
tion from Andania, dated B.C. 91 — in dialect) ; 248 s (Delphi, 
iii/B.c. — dialect) 6 apx^TeKTcov toO vaov, Cagnat I. 925 
(iii/A.D. ) of the designer of a tower, 926 of a well, etc. 


For the participle in a quasi-adverbial position (see 
P,o/eg.* p. 240) cf. P Ryl II. 156 13 (i/A.D.) \ifibs [8e] uv 
K6K\T]pu>v[Tai Xi.pbs tir' aTrr|\iui]TTiv dpfjap-evoi. d-rro Ttjs 
XtpiKTJs -ywvCas toO TripYo[u. ib. 157' (A.D. 135) fjs to-rlv 

crxoivio-aos [ d]pxopevov votou t[i]s P[o]ppd, 

" its measurements are . . . beginning from south to north " 
etc. ,^'//537 6 (iv B.C. ) o-Kevo0T]KTiv oiKoSopfjo-ai. . . dpijdptvov 
dub toO TrpoTruXatoij. P Tebt II. 526 (ii/.A.D.) dTrriX(iuTov) 
€Xop-( eva dpxop(«vaO dirb Poppa IIavKpdTT|S (dpoupai) [ . ] 
IlptcrKos (dpoupai) P (cited in Moulton, Einleitung p. 2S7). 
In reply to a suggestion from one of us that the frequent 
abbreviation of this participle might have occasioned some 
of the grammatical confusion found in NT passages {Proleg. 
1S2, 240), Dr A. S. Hunt wrote (Sept. 1909) that dpxb>«vos 
was "commonly abbreviated apt in land-survey lists, from 
Ptolemaic times downwards ... So it was a stereotyped 
phrase which might have influenced Lk 24*' : at any rate it 
is an ingenious suggestion." 

The ordinary use of dp\ouai "begin" hardly needs 
illustrating. In P Giss I. 15 s (ii/A.D.) tt,s dXXns dpxdp.«8a 
we see it c. gen. : so P Tebt II. 417* (iii/A.D.) TrXr|v dp£d- 
p.e8[a] tov 'ifyav. The familiar NT use in a quasi-auxiliary 
sense, by its significant absence from Paul and presence in 




such abundance in those books where OT language is 
imitated or Aramaic originals translated, seems to belong to 
the alien elements in NT Greek: see Proleg. p. 14 f. It 
does not however follow that Luke used it, as Mark seems 
to do, with no more force than the Middle English gan : we 
may refer to a note by Archdeacon Allen in a forthcoming 
work on the Gospel of Mark. 

The act. ap\<o "rule" only occurs twice in NT, and is 
too common in Greek to need quotations. It takes dat. in 
SyH 3 ! 9 7 (ii/B.c.) ots [dv 6 8rjpos o MnBvpvatmv] Apxth 
perhaps under Latin influence (cf. impero c. dat.): the 
recurrent SdXun irovr|pwi. " dolo malo" is suggestive in this 
regard. For the very common use = "hold office" may be 
cited P Oxy III. 471 145 (H/a.d.) ap£as Si Kal tt|V t[wv 
4k«i] dpxiSiKaoraiv ap[\^ v * TT | o£]Ka. 

The official uses of o. are fully classified by Dittenberger 
in the index to his OGIS, where he cites instances of its 
application to (1) summits vtagistratus, (2) praefectus in 
urbem out regionem subditam missus, (3) magistratus pro- 
vincialis Romatwrum, and (4) magistratus qitilibet. To 
these for the NT we have to add " ruler of a synagogue," 
which is illustrated, according to de Rossi, in an Italian 
inscr. of the reign of Claudius, Capiat I. 3SS (= IGSI 949) 
KXavSios Icuo-f|s dpx">v 2£r)o-ev 'Itt\ Xe. lb. 1024 s1 (i/n.C. ?) 
— the inscr. from Berenice in Cyrenaica cited above under 
d(3apr]s — £8o£t Tots &pxou(ri Kal tu> iroXiTcvpaTi twv ev 
BepeviKT] TovSauov : a list of these Jewish dpx°VT€S is given 
at the beginning of the inscr., which is dated at the o-K-nvo 
Tnyyia. (See Schtirer as cited below.) So in P Lond II77 6 ' 
(a.d. 113) (=111. p. 1 S3),. in accounts for the water-works 
of the p-nTpdiroXis (? Hermopolis) — ApxdvTwv T[ou]Scuiov 
irpoo-cuxrjs ©TjPaicov p.r|Viaiw <:p~Krj, " The rulers of the pros- 
eucha of Theban Jews 12S drachmae a month" (see further 
s. v. Trpo<T€%Jx 1 l) • For Jewish fipxovTcs generally see Schtirer's 
inscriptional evidence and discussion in Gesckichte iii. p. 3Sff. 
( = BJP II. ii. p. 243 ff.). In P Lond 117S 60 (a.d. 194) 
(=111. p. 217) the designation is applied to the " presidents" 
of an athletic club known as " The Worshipful Gymnastic 
Society of Nomads " \r\ Upd fjuoriKri TrepLiroXto-TLK^ . . . 
o-iivooos). Miscellaneous references are P Oxy III. 473 2 
(a.d. 13S-60) of the magistrates of Oxyrhynchus, ih. 592 
(A.D. 122-3) of Sarapion "vcvope'vw irpvTaviKui &pxovt(i) tepet 
Kal dpxtSiKatrrfl, BGU II. 362^ (A.D. 214-5), «*• 3SS"- 26 
(ii/iii A.D.), P Fay 20 22 (iii/iv A.D.) tois Ka8' €Kao-TT|V ttoXlv 
dpXouo-iv, Cagnat I. 11S 30 (B.C. 78) (=IGS/ 951) iav re 
€v Tats iraTpio-iv KaTa tovs lSlous vdpous pouXwvTai KpLvt- 
o*8ai rj tirl twv TjpeTe'puv dpxdvTtov crrl 'iTaXtKwv Kprrwv. 
In P Oxy III. 592 we have a irpuTaviKos apx^v, which 
Wilcken [Arc/iiv iv. p. iiSf.) regards as equivalent to 
irpuTavis. Note also P Giss I. 19 1 ' (ii/A.D.), where Aline 
commends to her husband, a <rrpaTT|-yds, the example of 
6 e]v8d8c (rrpaTT]-yds, who Tots apxov[o-i 4mTi]6r|o-i to pdpos : 
these dpxovTts were accordingly subordinates. MGr 01 
&PX<>vt«s or t| dpxovrid = the local aristocracy. 


In Syll 939 1 ' (an undated decree from Arcadia, containing 
regulations about the mysteries, in strongly dialectic form, 
and therefore presumably not late) we find pdKu>v[cr]i. XtuKais, 

XuxWois, 8i)pidnao-iv, [£])iijpvai., apwpaouv all governed by 
XP&o-8ai ( xP 1 ! " 90 - 1 -)- So OGIS 3S3 143 (i/B.C.) sin.8uo-«i.s 
. . . dptouaTtov Iv pcopois tovtols iroitio-8w. P Oxy IX. 
I2II 10 (ii/A.D.) irdv dpupa x w P^S Xipdvou, "every spice 
except frankincense," in a list of articles for a sacrifice, 
BGU I. 149 1 (ii/iii a.d.) (= Chrest. I. 93) t]s Tip.r|V [twv 
dpjupdTuiv, in temple-accounts, and P Leid W vi - 16 . 

For the adj. see P Fay 93 5 ff - (a lease of a perfumery 
business, A.D. 161) (= Chrest. I. 317) povXopai pio-0u>o-ao-8ai. 
irapd a-ov tt|V pupoiruiXaiK^v (/. pvp<nrwXiKT)v) Kal dpopa- 
tikt|v (/. dpuipaTiK^v) epyaouav ktX. Add the inscription 
on a seal of the time of the Antonines dpwpaTiKf]s twv 
Kvploiv Kaurdpwv, where Rostowzew supplies wvfjs after d. : 
see Archiv ii. p. 443, and for the dpwuaTtKrj tax, ib. iii. 
p. 192, iv. p. 313 ff. The verb occurs Priene 112" (after 
B.C. 84) tjpujpaTtcrpe'vov . . . <=Xaiov. 


For the metaph. use 01 d. (as Heb I2 88 ) cf. Magn Ii6 2e '- 
(ii/A.D.) d](cr)dX€VTo(v) Kal dueTaStTov ttjv ircpl tovtuv 
8iaTa£iv, Kaibel 102S 1 (Andros, hymn to Isis, iv/A.D. ) 
trrdXav da-dXci/Tov, ib. S55 :l ( I.ocris, Macedonian age) tov 
dtrdXevTov VLKav dpvvptvos. P Lips I. 34 18 (c. A.D. 375) 8id 
touto Se'opai Trjs oupaviou upaiv tvxis €7rLV€0o-aL [pjc'Pata 
Kal dtrdXeuTa [pc]vetv Ta -rrcpl TaiJTr|s ttjs O-iroBeVews Trc-Trpa- 
7pt'va i^ dvTiKa8eo-TwTwv [v]iropvT)[pd]Tu[v], and similarly 
ib. 35 20 . Add the late Byzantine papyrus P Lond 4S3 81 f- 
(A.D. 616) (= II. p. 32S) aTpun-a Kal do-dXtm-a Kal aTrapd- 
para, and the eighth century P Lond 77 61 (= I. p. 235) and 
P Par 21 bis 2S where d. is coupled with appals. It survives 
in MGr. 


In P Eleph 23 18f - (B.C. 223-2) we find the characteristic 
phrase ^voxoy elvat 1-^1 dcrtpeiat to« opKou : cf. Syll 560 30 
(Rhodian dialect, iii/B.C.) f) Svoxos fo~r<u Tai do-eptiai (of 
violating certain taboos concerning a temple — the last of 
them p.r|S£ iiiroSripaTa eVcpeptTw prjSJ taiov pr|6c'v), and of a 
much later date OGIS 262 16 (iii/A.D.) ivoy^ov tivai do-ePaa. 
In Syll 190 10 we have d. with a genitive, cio-]ini8T)o-avTas 
vvKTwp €ir' dSiKiat. [Kal] dcrcpciai tov Upou : King Lysi- 
machus (B.C. 306— 2S1) is decreeing penalties against men 
who tried to burn a temple. In the" Apologia pro vita sua" 
of Antiochus I, OGIS 383 116 (middle of i/B.C.) it is stated 
that x a Acn-f| ve'ptcris PacriXiKwv Saipdvuv Tip-wpds 6poCws 
dpeXias T€ Kal iippcus do-e'Petav Siwkci, and almost immedi- 
ately afterwards there is a reference to the toilsome burdens 
of impiety — Ttjs Si dcrePuas diriirBoPapels dvd-yKai. 


OGIS 76s 10 (iii/B.C.) to 8«iov T|o-e'Po»Y, with external 
accus., as in Aeschylus Eum. 270 : the more regular con- 
struction occurs a few lines further down — €ts to 8etov do-[t]- 
Poi)vTa[s]. So Syll 190 4 (see above) t]ovs do-cprio-avTas tts 
to t€pc5-y, al. A iv/B.C. inscription in Boeotian dialect, Syll 
120" ir]oTT(is do-€p£ovTas to lapd[v] may be added for the 
accus. construction, also a late inscription from Lyttus, Syll 
SSg 2 Tci dcr(pr|o-avTu tous Safpovas. The internal accus. 
appears in Syll SS7 do-«Prjo-(ei) to irepl Tois Beois, as in 
Jude 16 , the only NT occurrence of the verb (according to 





is found in PTorl. I Hi - 8 (B.C. n6)(= Chrcst II. p. 33) tt,v 
■y€Y€VT)p€VT]v poi. KaTa<p8opdv vtto da-epwv dv9puJTrwv, and in 
the magical P Lond 121 604 (iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 103). It 
occurs also in Syll 7S9 62 (iv/B.C.) 8ir]us a[v] . . . H-[l8]Jv 
do-ep«s -yt'vTiTai., and twice in OGIS 90 s3 ' 26 (Rosetta stone, 
B.C. 196) tois tirtorvva\6€io-LV els avTr)v do-cPe'o-iv . . . TOIIS 
ev avTf|L do-tpas irdvTas 8i€<f>8apcv of those who had created 
sedition, involving the majesty of the 8eds on the throne, 
as Dittenberger explains. Several exx. of the adjective in 
Josephus are put together by Schmidt los. p. 357. For the 
adverb, see P Oxy II. 237™- I3 (A.D. 186) dcrfPws Kal 


appeared in P Magd 24 s according to the original reading, 
but has been corrected in the new edition. The adj. appears 
among a number of technical epithets of £wSia in Vettius 
Valens p. 335 34 — r) X'P ' -'- 01 ^ do-«X-yTJ t| XaTpsimKa Kal -ri 
Xoi/rrd. An obscure and badly-spelt document of iv/v A.D., 
BGU IV. 1024 v - 17 , seems to contain this noun in the form 
dBsXvia — dXXd 'vavTia Kal toiitt)? iiro 0-0O yevopevov 
d9eXvla eX«vX6'x[o]vo-a to TTtirpa-yatva, which the editor 
understands as = dXX' evavTta Taiii-r| f| virb a-oii yevou.ivr\ 
dStX-yia i\iy\ova-a ktX. But we mention this passage only 
to note how early the popular etymology was current con- 
necting it with Be'X-yu. It is dubious at best, and the history 
of the word is really unknown ; but cf. Havers in Indogerm. 
Forschungen xxviii ( 191 1 ) p. 194 fT. , who, adopting the fore- 
going etymology, understands do-eX-yrjs as = " geschlagen," 
then " wahnsinnig," and then "liebestoll, wolllistig. " He 
has not convinced Prof. Thumb. For the idea of sensuality 
associated with the word in late Greek, see Lightfoot on 
Gal 5 18 . 

A cognate noun appears in P Oxy VI. 903 21 (iv/A.D.) 
iroXXd do-tX-yfjpaTa Xe'-ywv els irpda-uirdv pou Kal 81a ttjs 
pivbs auTofOj, " using many terms of abuse to my face, and 
through his nose " (Edd.). The complainant is a Christian. 

This word occurs perpetually in the papyri to denote a 
man who is " not distinguished " from his neighbours by the 
convenient scars on eyebrow or arm or right shin which 
identify so many individuals in formal documents. Thus in 
P Oxy I. 73 28f - (A.D. 94) a slave is described as ptX£xp">T[a 
p.aKp]oir[p]dcnuirov ao-npov, and similarly in P Fay 28 13f 
(a.d. 1 50-1) ( = Selections, p. 82) the parents in giving 
notice of the birth of a son sign themselves — 

Tcrxvpjds (€Twv) pS dcrr|pos 
©aicrdpiov (frflv) k8 &<rr|pos. 

From the fact that in BGU I. 347 (ii/A.D.), an as yet un- 
circumcised boy is twice described as ao-npos, Deissmann 
(BS p. 153) conjectures that &. may have been the technical 
term for " uncircumcised " among the Greek Egyptians, but 
cites Krebs {Philologus liii. p. 586), who interprets it rather 
as = "free from bodily marks owing to the presence of 
which circumcision was forborne " : cf. Preisigke 16 16 
(A.D. 155-6), where formal enquiry is made as to a priest's 
sons, fl Tiva <rnpti[a ixcum-iv, and leave for circumcision is 

apparently given if these signs are not conspicuous (Wilcken 
Archivw. p. 435 f.). 

In BGU I. 22 32 (a.d. 114) ( = Selections, p. 76) a pair of 
silver bracelets are described as of d<nf|pou "unstamped" 
silver, and the same epithet is applied to a SaK-rupiTpi", 
apparently some kind of a ring, in P Lond 193 verso* (ii/A.D.) 
( = II. p. 245). So Syll 5S6 72 (early iv/B.C, Athens) 
dpvvpiov o-ippfiKTov ao-npov, weighing so much, followed 
by xpvcnov dtrnpov, so much. The word became technical 
in commerce, so that Middle Persian borrowed it as asim 
"silver" (P. Horn, in Grundriss d. Iran. Philol. I. ii. 
p. 20). So MGr do-TJpi, with the same meaning. 

The only NT instance of Sornpos is in Ac 2i 3 ' (cf. 
3 Mace l 3 ), where it = " undistinguished, obscure," as 
sometimes in classical writers, as Euripides Ion 8, ovk 
ao-T|pos 'EXXr,vuv irdXts (1. e. Athens). Cf. Chrest. I. 14'"- I0 
(p. 27 — c. A.D. 200) t-yjio ptv oi)K tipi SoiXos oi>8e 
povcri.Ki)s [uljds, dXXd 8iao-fjpou irdXcws ['A]Xe£av[Sp]t£[as] 
■yvpvaa-iapxos. For the evidence that Tarsus was " no 
mean city " see Ramsay, Cities, p. 85 ff., and more recently 
Bohlig, Die Geisleskultur von Tarsos im mtgusteischen Zeit- 
alter (Gottingen, 1913). The adj. is applied to a ship in 
P Lond 948 2 (a.d. 236) ( = 111. p. 220), "without a 
figurehead" (irapdo-npos — q.v. ). 


P Ryl II. 153 45 (a.d. 13S-61) I have directed Eudaemon 
YpdxJ/ai vir^p €po[v] ttjs i»TrOYpa<pTJs to <rwpa Sid tt*|V irepl epi 
do-Be'viav. BGU I. 229 s (ii/iii A.D.) illustrates the practice 
of consulting the local oracle in times of difficulty or sickness 
— T| uXv o-oBTJo-wpai ( = tl uXv o-ui9r|o-opai) TaiJTr|S, t|S (? for 
ttjs, nr an extreme case of attraction) tv epol do-9ev£as, toOtoV 
poi 4£t'viKov (=tovto poi eijt'vtvKov^. P Lond 97 1 4 (iii/iv A.D. ) 
( = 111. p. 12S) dSuvaTos Yap to-Tiv T| ■yuv#| Sid do-9eviav 
ttjs <j>vo-e[ws. P Flor I. 51 5 (A.D. 13S-61) o-]iopaTiKf)s 
do-9[eve£]as, in an incomplete context. The prepositional 
phrase of Gal 4 13 may be further illustrated by P Oxy IV. 
726 10 (A.D. 135) ou Svvdpevos Si/ d[o-]9e'veiav TrXcua-ai. Add 
BGU IV. I109 11 (B.C. 5) ttjs KaXXmixus tv do-flevtta. 
8iaTf9eto-T|S, and OGIS 244 10 (iii/B.C.) ttjv ircpl to <riipa 
lyt\y(ivT\\Uvr\v do-Bt'veiav Sid Tas otjv£X"S KaKo[ir]a9£as, 
where the editor notes that there is no tautology, as 
KaK0ira9ia is to be understood in its later sense of laborious 
and troublesome work. 


is too common to need many citations. There is a pathetic- 
ally laconic 'Ao-Oevii between some household details and 
concluding salutations in an undated letter, BGU III. 827 21 . 
P Oxy IV. 725 40 (a.d. 183) is typical : a boy apprenticed to 
a weaver is to have 20 holidays a year for festivals, with- 
out loss of wages, edv Si irXeiovas tovptuv dp-yr|o-r [r\ dcr]9«vTio-T] 
rj dTaKTi]o-rj ktX, " from idleness or ill-health or disobedi- 
ence " (Edd.), they must be made up. With the use of the 
verb in Mt io 8 may be compared Syil 503 16 where a certain 
man is extolled because, in addition to other benefactions, 
TraptVxev laTJpbv tot 9epatr€iio-ovT[a tous do-fle]vovvTas «v 
Trj[i] Trav^vpei.]. See also P Par 5'- 5 (B.C. 1 14) dcr9tvciv 
toIs oppacri (so also P Leid M'- 6 ), ii. 63"-- m (B.C. 165) KaTa 
Twv do-9tvovvTwv Kal v.r\ 8vvape'vwv vTroup-yetv, BGU HI. 
844 I2 (A.D. 83) kottovs -yap po[i] Trape'x" do-8evovvTti. In 





P Lond 144 (? i/A.D.) ( = 11. p. 253) a servant complains 
that he had been without food (d<raTT|a-avTos / for two days, 
as the boy who brought his provisions " was sick," do-0€VT|- 
crovTos : cf. P Lond 22 2J ^.C. 164-3) (=1. p. 7) where 
dcrBeviis SiaKctpevas > s us «l to describe the " sorry plight " 
of the twins in the Serapeum owing to the withholding of 
their allowances of oil and bread. In Proleg. p. 11 the very- 
vernacular letter BGU III. 94s 5 (Christian, iv/v A.D.) is 
quoted for its closeness to Lk 13 16 : -rj pTJ-rrjp o-ov K. dcrBcvi, 
eiSoO, 8«Ka -rpis ptjves. (See under L8ov. ) Ho-8e'vT]Ka is 
answered by «dv Kop4i<is <r\a in P Tebt II. 414 10 (ii/A.D.). 
The compound e|ao-8eve'u is found in BGU III. 903 15 (ii/A.D.) 
as now amended, tovs irXeio-Tous €£ao-0evr|cravTcis dvaKe- 
Xupr|Kc'vai ktX. : cf. also P Tebt 1. 50^ (B.C. 112-1), where 
for e^no-SevuKws the editors hesitate between the meanings 
" was impoverished " or " fell ill." Add PSI IOI 14 (ii/A.D.) 
ol»o-irep t£a<r8evT|cravTas dvaKexwpuKt'vai : the last three sub- 
stantial men of the village had emigrated because they could 
not stand the taxation. 


BGU III. 903 15 (ii/A.D.) was formerly read s£ do-9tvT|p.aTos> 
but see the last article. The noun is warranted by Aristotle : 
Paul has developed the sense in his own way. 


PAmh II. 7S 1J (A.D. 1S4) |i[ou] irXeovcKTi av8pu>iros 
d[o-]8evT]s (for -ou -oCs '■), ib. 141 15 (A.D. 350) ov> SwapfVr) 
d(pT)a-vxda-ai -ywT| [do-8e]vT]9 Kal X'''lP a kt\. P Flor I. 5S 11 
(iii/A.D.) KaTa(ppovo]vvTes pov ws. ywaiKos do-[8]e[vo]0s. 
P Thead 20'- l6 (iv/A.D.) Tas da-8eveo-re'pas Kt6pa[s], "weaker " 
financially. For the adv. see OGIS 751 8 (ii/B.c.) e-n-el 8X1- 
Pe'vxes ep irXtioo-iv dirBevuis [<rxr|]cr«Te. The definitely moral 
character of the adj. in Rom and 1 Cor may be illustrated by 
Epict. Diss. i. 8. 8, where the do-8ev«is are coupled with the 
d-n-aiSeu-roi. The adj. is curiously rare by comparison with 
its derivative verb and noun. 


For inscriptional light on the meaning of this term it will 
be enough to refer to the archaeologists : see esp. Ramsay's 
bibliography in his art. sub voce in Hastings DB. 


We can only add to the literary record the late P Ryl I. 
10* (cf. 12 ), a hagiographical fragment of vi/A.D., containing 
a discourse by a saint condemned to death by starvation — 81' 
Sv t^|v avnlav KaTeKpt'8T)v. See next article. 


We can illustrate the derived verb from the curious letter 
quoted under do-Bcvc'u, where the context points clearly to 
absence of food, and not abstinence therefrom — P Lond 
I44 w - (i/A.D. ?) (= II. p. 253) vu>8ptvo-ap.€voi> pov Kal dcrft- 
TT)<ravTos fjpt'pas 8vo wore pe pc-rd rwv vopapx^v priSt 
<ruv8iirvfj<r<u. The editor conjectures that the writer may- 
have been in the desert, and that the nomarchs with whom 
he "did not even dine" were the officials who superintended 
the transport of goods from one village to another. The 
vernacular evidence therefore does not go far to decide the 
much discussed significance of the subst. in Ac 27". And, 

on the whole, in view ot the undoubted use of do-iria in 
medical phraseology to denote " loss of appetite " from illness 
(as Hipp. Morb. 454 Tt|KCTau 6 d<r8evwv v-rrb oSuvt'wv la-xupwv 
Kal do-iTiris Kal pr|X<>s : other exx. in Hobart, Medical Lan- 
guage of St. Luke, p. 276), it seems best to understand it so 
here, and to think of Paul's companions as abstaining from 
food owing to their physical and mental state, and not be- 
cause no food was forthcoming. See further Knowling in 
EGT ad I., and the note bv J. R. Madan in JTS vi. 
p. 116 ff. 


P Par 63 viii - 21 (ii/B.C.) e[i]o-e'Pei.av derKTjcravTa. Lewy 
(Fremdworter, p. 131) notes the use in the Hebrew Mishna 
and Aramaic Targum of pD5? 'asaq ="sich mit etwas be- 
schaftigen, Mrihe geben, sich befieissigen." 

P Lond 402 verso 1 " (is.c. 152 or 141) (=11. p. 11) do-K<5$ 
= " leathern bag or bottle." The word is used in the 
general sense "hide" or "skin " in P Fay 121* (<-. A.D. 100) 
where a new and strong yoke-band is to b; selected (K -rciv 
4v tt]l KeipwTuH twv dcrKuJv, "from those in the box of 
skins." Add OGIS 629 J5 (ii/A.D.) ev da-Kols] ai-yeiois, 
Cagnai III. I056 iu - 46 (Palmyra, Trajan's reign) rov ev] 
d[(r]Kois Suo-l ai-yeiois tirl KfaprjXov «lo-]Kopia-9svTos : cf. 
above, u < 30 , where the tax is defined on a load of pvpov, 
«[v dXapao-j-rpots and one ev do-Kois] atyciois respectively — 
the supplements come from the Latin. Cf. MGr do-Kt 
(Zaconian al-'o). 


P Grenf II. 14(a) 1 "- (iii/B.C. 1 d£pe'vus [dv <rv]v(Ta%tv rb 
-Trap' au-rwi d-rroSovvaL, Syll 329 s2 (i/B.C.) do-pe'vws Kal «kov- 
o-lws, Magn 17" ao-pevos xnrrjKoxja-ev ^AlevKi-rrTros. 


occurs in P Ryl II. 62 12 (iii/A.D.), a translation of an un- 
known Latin literary work : Svvapai x a P'°" a<r "ai Kal -rrevnTi 
[ttXovjtov Kal ao-o<pov dp€TTJs a-T€<pavwa-at — " unskilled in 
wisdom," unless we should drop one s and read dpcT-rj 
"crown with virtue." 


The papyri have shown conclusively that this common 
NT word was the regular term. tech. for conveying the greet- 
ings at the end of a letter. Examples are BGU IV. io/g 33 '- 
(A.D. 41) (= Selections, p. 40) do-rrd^ou AioScopov uftT'J aXuv 
(.'. dXXuv) . . . da-ird£ou 'ApTroxpa-rrifv], ib. II. 423 18ff - 
(ii/A.D.) ( = Selections, p. 91) do-rracrai Kam-rwvfa -n-oJXXd 
Kal to[vs1 dSeXc^ovs [p-]ov Kal 2eLpri vt ]^av Kal to[us] (ptXovs 
[p.]ov, etc. As showing how much the absence of these 
greetings was felt, we may quote P Giss I. 7S 7 (ii/A.D. ) rj 
piKpd p-ov 'Hpai8[o]vs -ypdijiouo-a Twt -rraTpl «p.t ovk aa-rraCi- 
rai K[a]l 8td Ti ovk o£8a, and P Grenf I. 53 Bff - (iv/a.d.) 
'AXXoCs -rroXXd o-ol dir€LX{6L\, eirl -y^P -rroXXaKts -ypd»|/as Kal 
TrdvTas do-rrao-dpevos avTT^v pdvov ovk Tjo-rrda-ou. The use 
of the 1st pers. do-rrdjopai by Tertius in Rom 16 21 , the only 
ex. of this exact formula in the NT, may be paralleled from 
P Oxy VII. 1067 25 (iii/A.D.) where to a letter from a certain 
Helene to her brother, their father Alexander adds the post- 
script — Ka-yw 'AXe£av8pos 6 Tr[a]T-r]p vpwv da"rrd£op,ai vpa$ 




iroXXd. (As there is no change of hand, both Helene and 
her father would seem to have employed an amanuensis : see 
the editor's note). When several persons are included in a 
greeting, the phrase kot' ovop-a often occurs (as in 3 Jn 15 ) 
e. g. BGU I. 276" '■ (ii/iii A.D. ) a<nra? vp.ds irdvTes Ka-r' 
6vop.(a), Kal 'fipi.-y[e]viis "(ids do~rrd£eTai Trdvres, P Oxy III. 
533 2;f - (ii/iii A.D.) do~rrda-ao-6e tov peiKpov Seprjvov Kal 
Koirpe'a Kal to[v]s T]p.(iv irdvTas Kar' 6'vop.a. Add P Fay 
1 1S 25 (A.D. 1 10) do-ird^ou tovs <J>iXoivT€S o"e irdvTts irpbs dXr|- 
8iov (cf. 2 Jn 1 , 3 Jn 1 ) and the Christian Psenosiris letter 
P Grenf II. 73* ff ' (late iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 117) where 
immediately after the address we find irpb Tiiv SXwv iroXXd 
<r« dcrird? Kal tovs irapd crol irdvTas dSeXepovs iv 

For d. = "pay one's respects to," as in Ac 25", see BGU 
I. 376'- 3 (A.D. 171) T|o-Trdo-aTO tov Xap/irpoTaTOV Tcy[ep.d]va, 
and to. 248 la (ii/A.D. ) Beiiv Ss povXoue'vwv irdv[T]<us p.«Ta Ta 
Sov^eta <ri do-irdo-oaai. (cited by Deissmann, BS p. 257), 
and from the inscriptions OG/S 219 43 (iii/B.C. ) do-irao-dp.evoi 
avTov irapd t[ov 8t|U.ov], Syll 3 1 S 11 (B.C. I IS) a deputation 
is sent oltivcs irop€v0€VT€s irpbs aiWbv Kal do-irao-duevoi irapd 
ttjs irdXeuis Kal o-vvxapevTts tirl Tcii. i-yuaiveiv avTov n Kal to 
o-TpaTOTrcSov ktX. 


P Oxy III. 47I 87 (ii/A.D.) p-apTupovTau Kvpie t-tjv o-rjv 
tvx t 1 v W pty dvau-evjiriov avriiv (corr. from T|u.wv) tov 
do-iraa-p.dv[. . . The noun is curiously rare : the above is 
apparently its only occurrence in P Oxy I.-X. , nor have 
we noticed any other instance of it in the ordinary papyrus 


Hort's remark on Jas I 2 ' that "this is quite a late word, 
apparently not extant before NT" must be corrected in view 
of the fact that it is found already in IG II. v. 1054 c* 
(Eleusis, c. B.C. 300), where it is applied to stones — iiywls 
Xcvkovs do-iriXovs : cf. also Symm. Job 15 15 . For its use in 
the magic papyri see P Leid V viii - n ff - (as amended by 
Dieterich) 4ir£8os (popoOvTi p.01 TrjvSe tt^v 8vvap.1v iv iravTl 
tottw iv iravTl xpovu> &irXr|KTov, dKaTairdvr|Tov, dcririXov 
dirb iravTos klvSvvov TTipr|8T]vai, id. \V lx 2b i - 8{i€ Si Xvkov 
(/. XevKov) dXe'KTopa, do-ircXXov (/. do-iriXov). A deacon's 
litany of viii/ix a.d., P Grenf II. 113, commemorating the 
Virgin, is headed— [Ilepl tt)]s irpeo-ptias Kal UeTeias ttjs 
do-rrtXov [Seo-rroiv^s] Tiiv diraVTiov. 


In OG/S go" (Rosetta stone— B.C. 196) do-iris is used of 
the "asp" or "serpent" with which the golden pao-iXeiai 
of the King were adorned— als irpoo-Keio-eTai. do-iris : see 
Dittenberger's note, and cf. twv do-mSoeiSiiv pao-iXeiiiv in 
the following line. 

The etymology of the word is very obscure, but Lewy 
{Fremdworter, p. 13) thinks that it may have been formed 
from the Heb UD>" under the influence of do-iris, "shield." 
Boisacq records this guess with a query, which Thumb 


Priene has the combination do-vXel Kal do-rrovSti seven 
times, in the common sense "without formal treaty" — the 

reverse of the meaning applied metaphorically in 2 Tim 3 3 : 
friends need no treaty, and implacable foes will not make 
one. Literary parallels suffice for the Pauline use. 


The ordinary value of the do-o-dpuov was ^ s of the 8t)vdpi.ov, 
but Dittenberger OG/S ii. p. 10S n. " shows that the 
imperial silver denarius might be exchanged for 17 or even 
22 provincial copper asses. The word can be quoted from 
Syll S69 6 (Calymna, Rom.) edv Sk u-f| [irapaaeCvTi] [sc. the 
slave whose manumission is in question), diroSiio-ti. fKao-rns 
T|p.€pas do-o-dpi(a) 8, id. 87 1 6 (Smyrna)— a decree regarding 
a Trust which had reduced a ferry fare from two obols to 
two do-o-dpia, or J denarius to J den. so as to undercut 
competitors (Dittenberger). Other instances are needless. 


In Isai 58' Aquila substitutes daraTovvTas for I,XX 
do-Tc'Yovs, while in Gen 4 12 Symivachus translates "131 173 
"a fugitive and a vagabond" by dvdo-TaTos Kal aKOTa- 
oraTos. There would seem therefore to be a certain degree 
of " unsettlement " associated with the word; and accord- 
ingly Field (Notes, p. 170) proposes to render 1 Cor 4' 1 
Kal do-TaTovp.ev by "and are vagabonds," or "and lead a 
vagabond life." Grimm gives no profane warrant but a 
passage in the Anthology. We can add Vettius Valens, 
p. 116 30 : the entrance of Mercury into a certain horoscope 
will produce irpaKTiKol . . . Kal cve-rripoXoi Kal <j>pbvipoi Kal 
tTra<ppd8i.Toi, ttoXvkoltoi Si Kal €irl TroXv doraTovvTes irtpl 
tovs 7a(iovs, "very inconstant." He has the adj. p. 57 s 
do-TaTos Kal €ir£<j>oPos &ia£,ti "he will live an unsettled life 
and liable to panic." It occurs also in Epicurus 65 10 T-r^v 
Si Tvxnv do-TaTov bpdv (Linde Epic. p. 36, where literary- 
parallels are given). 


As early as P Hib I. 54 15ff - (c. B.C. 245) we find this 
word developed : iyj.ra hi Kal us do-TeioTaTov, 
"let him wear as fine clothes as possible" (Edd.): cf. 
LXX Exod 2 2 , Judith u 23 , and differently Judg 3". Its 
connexion with the "city " was forgotten, and indeed do-ru 
itself had fallen out of common use (still in P Hal 1 fer 
(iii/B.C.)). By the Stoics it seems to have been used in a 
sense almost = oirovSaios- The noun do-Tei.drns occurs in 
Vettius Valens, p. l6l 17 , among Ta o-wu-aTiKa evr|u.eptju.aTa, 
the others being evpop<J>ia. eira<j>poSio-ia, pe'-yeBos, evpvSpia. 
The adj. means "witty" in MGr. 


Syll 140 111 (late iv/B.c. ), a list of payments on account of 
the temple at Delphi, has to[v |]uX[£]vov dorepos tov 
•jrapSei-yuaTos "the pattern of the wooden star " : see note. 
In OG/S 194 1 ' (i/B.c.) it is said of the Egyptian Anion Ra 
that wo-Trep XapTrpbs do-TT^p Kal Saipwv d-ya6[bs tois dirtXirC- 
5ovo-l]v iirtXaav/e. The use made of the same figure in 
the Apocalypse undoubtedly suggested the fourth century 
epitaph which Ramsay (Luke, p. 366) discovered on a stone 
now built into the wall of an early Turkish Khan in 
Lycaonia — 

Neo-rdpios irpto-pvTtpos tv8d8e kIt€ 
do-Tt^p 8s «WXa|iTrev iv eKXt|o-i«o-iv 8eov. 




"Nestorius, presbyter, lies here, who shone a star among 
the Churches of God." One might suspect the ultimate 
origin of the phrase in Plato's exquisite epitaph on his friend 
Aster — 

'Acrnjp Trplv piv 2Xap.Tres £vi £uoicriv €uios, 
vuv h\ Oavuv Xap-Tms to-ir€pos tv 4>0ip.c'vois. 

Other instances of do-Trip are P Petr III. 134 2 (an astronomical 
fragment relating to the 36 decans presiding over the ten 
days' periods), P Par I (Eudoxus treaiise, ii/u.c. ) in the 
opening acrostic 10 XP° V0S Sioikwv do-T€pwv yvwpio-paTa, 
P Leid \Y*'" n Twv | do-re'puv (magic), it. V X iii. :9 do-Tfjp 
dirb K£cj>a\t)s, etc. But we cannot quote it from papyri 
outside those on astrological or astronomical subjects and 
magic. It survives, however, in MGr do-T«pas. 


Mayor (on 2 Pet 2 14 ) cites Longinus it. 2, do-TT]piKTa Kal 
dv€pp.aTio-ra "unstable and unballasted (Roberts): this 
should be added to Grimm's Anthology citation. We do 
not trouble much about vernacular warrant for words in 
2 Pet. It occurs six times in Vettius Valens, in the phrase 
d. Xo-yi.o-p.o5 "unstable in judgement." 


Kaibel 146 6 (iii/iv A. D. ) do-Topvov |ioipa kC\(v 6av&Tov : 
the epitaph is among the Elgin marbles. In ib. 102S 44 
(Andros, hymn to Isis, iv/A D.), it means "amorem non 
expertus." SropYTJ is found in Chrest. II. 361 9 (A.D. 360) 
tivoias Kal o-TopYf)s Jti tc Kal virnp60-£os. 


In the NT confined to the Pastorals, but quotable from 
iii/B.C. Thus Syll 239 s (B.C. 214) el'ir«p ovv cvpyovei tovto, 
T)(TTO\T|K6L(rav ol a-vvpouXevo-avTes vp.iv Kal tov o-up<J>e'poiTos 
ttji iraTpiSt Kal ttjs epfjs Kptcrtus, and P Par 35 s6 (B.C. 163) 
do-roxT|(ravT€S tov KaXws £\ovtos — a close parallel to 
1 Tim 1 8 . (For the gen. constr. cf. also Sir 7 19 . ) From a 
later date we may quote the ill-spelt BGU II. 531"- 19 
(ii/A.D.) «i.v 8£ do"roxT]<rr|s [alwjyiav p.01. Xo£irr|v (/. Xvirr|v) 
[irJape'xLv p-eXXis, where the meaning seems to be "fail" or 
"forget." This the verb retains in MGr: so the Klepht 
ballad in Abbott's Songs, p. 34. 

Mt)v do-rox°s tt]V oppr|ve£a, tt)s Y WCUK °S T ^ ^o-yia, 
Forget not thy wife's advice, forget not her words. 

From the literary side we may quote P Oxy II. 219 (a) 21 
(i/A.D.), where in extravagant terms a man bewails the loss of 
a pet fighting-cock, v|ruxouaxwv, 6 -yap d[X]eK-rap tjotoxtiks, 
" I am distraught, for my cock has failed me" (Edd.), and 
the adverb in the philosophical P Fay 337 (ii/A.D.) 8ei 
Ttiiv [dv]8p(iirwv dpx«iv [tujv] irpd£€iov €K€f[vov]s 8e tiQiis 
«ij>«Trto-0ai, ovk draKTios pevToi dXX' tip.a[p]p.£[vu)s]. tov Yap 
do-Toxws[ . . . 


We can only cite the magical P Lond 121' 85 (iii/A.D.) 
(= I. p. 109). It is MGr. 


The MGr do-Tpd4>Tei, " it lightens," reinforces the literary 
record. The word was vernacular, though, as in the case of 
the noun, we know of no exx. except in the magic papyri, 

P Lond 46 150 (iv/A.D.) (=1. p. 70) iyi ei|U 6 dorpd-m-iov : 
so it. 121'- 3 ' (iii/A.D.) and 122" 2 (iv/A.D.) (=1. pp. 92, 


In P Hib I. 27 41ff - (a calendar, B.C. 301-240) XP" V - 
T[ai] Tais koto o-eXi'ii/r^v] TJpe'pais ol do-TpoXd[YOt] Kal oi 
Upovpap(iaTe[is] Trpbs Tas 8ocr«is Kal d[va]ToXds T<iv 
do-rpo)[v], "the astronomers and sacred scribes use the 
lunar days for the settings and risings of the stars " (Edd.) : 
cf. 60 '-, ovBJv ira[paX]Xdo-o-ovT£s <w' do-rpu>[i.] t| 8vvovti. tj 
dvaT[tX]XovTi, " without alterations owing to the setting or 
rising of a star" {it.). From the Adrumetum tablet 
(Wilnsch AF. no. 5 23 ), on which Deissmann has written in 
BS, pp. 271 ft., we may quote 6pKi£u> o-« tov <J>too-Tf)pa 
Kal dorpa kv ovpavw Troifjo-avTa Sid ipiovrjs TrpocrTavpaTos. 
Deissmann compared Gen I 1 *'-; since there we have 
do-T6pas, the substitution of dorpa suggests the suspicion 
that the simpler 2nd deck noun was beginning to be pre- 
ferred in the vernacular. (Both, however, figure in MGr, 
and dcrrfjp is more often found in NT.) Add P Grenf. I. 
I 6 (literary — ii/B.C. ), dorpa <f>£Xa Kal o-uvepiio-a iroTvia vv£ 
p.01, P Oxy IV. 731 6 (A.D. 8-9) Kal to£s do-Tpois "Hpas 
Tpis, "three days at the time of the stars of Hera " (Edd., 
who note that the "star of Hera" was Venus, but the 
plural is unexplained), Syll 6S6 36 (early ii/A.D.) pt'xpi 
wktos, is do-Tpa KaTaXaPeiv, 8ieKapT£p7io-e, of a com- 
petitor in the pancration, OG1S 5b 36 (B.C. 239-S), to 
do-Tpov to TTjs "Io-ios, i. e. Sirius, the date of whose heliacal 
rising is defined in the succeeding lines. This last passage 
agrees with the NT in making dorpov a complete equivalent 
ot do-Tfjp. It is MGr do-Tpo. 

' ' Aavyy.Qizog. 

This proper name is by no means peculiar to Rome 
(Rom ib 11 ), though as yet it has not been very widely 
attested: see, however CIL VI. 12565 (Rome), IX. 114 
(Brundisium), IX. 224 (Uria), and perhaps IG HI. 1093 IP 
(Attica) 'Ajo-UYKptvos] : cf. Rouffiac, p. 90 {., following 
Lietzmann {HZN'f ad I.). For the adj. from which it is 
derived cf. BGU II. 613 20 (ii/A.D.) «k ttjs do-vvKpiT(ov) 
eTriorpocpfjs, and one of the letters in the Abinnaeus corre- 
spondence, P Gen I. 55'"- (iv/A.D.) eVireuo-a Trpoo-aYoptOcrt 
crou ttjv dui'uTjTov KaXoKavaOiav ws dXrjOos dcrvVKpiTOV 
iniirav. P Oxy X. 1298 1 (iv/A.D., Christian) tu Sia-rrorrf Kal 
do-WKpiTu Kal irapap.v6ia Tiiv <piXuv, "to my incomparable 
master, the consolation of his friends" (Edd.). 


Vettius Valens has it often as a term. tech. , e. g. p. 3S 15 
Kpovos p-^v oiiv Kal"HXtos do-up<pwvot. 


P Oxy III. 471 89 (ii/A.D.), rjv 8e ovk do-vvtTov, "and he 
was not stupid." A'aibel 225 s (near Ephesus) d|wtTiuv 
8e pouXals dv8pwTru)v Toi8e 2-rvxov 0avaTo« : it seems clear 
that "foolish" here does not primarily denote lack of brains 
but moral obliquity. 


To other citations for the meaning "faithless" appearing 
in the derivative verb may be added three from Ptolemaic 




papyri for evo-vv8«T«'w, "to keep faith" — P Petr II. 9 (2) 2 
(B.C. 241-39), «i<ruv8(Tf|o-ai ai-rots, P Tebt I. 61 (<i) 32 

(B.C. I l8-7), 8td TO p?| €VO-Vv8€TTjlK€Vai £V TT]L 8lOp8u)0-[c] I 

tov tiripXr|8€'vT[os ajvTtii o-Te<pdvov, and similarly ib. 64 
(a) 11 ' (B.C. 1 16-5). Add a British Museum papyrus quoted 
in Archiv vi. p 101 (a. n. 1 14-5) Tiiv p[ijpx£u>v . . . 
«TraXXr|X[uv] Ka[l] do-vv8eTu>v Sid to irXtjeos Keipe'vwv, 
which can only mean that these records were " closely 
packed together and not in order " — a meaning which 
follows well from that of o-vvT£8r|pi, hut does not seem to 
occur elsewhere. 


P Amh II. 78 16 (A.D. 184) do-<)>dXi.av \[p]aTrrr|v , 
"written security," P Tebt II. 293" (,: a.d. 187) rds 
irapaT«8ao-as £mb avTo(v) [do-]<j>a[X]e£as, "the proofs sub- 
mitted by him" (Edd.), P Flor I. 25" (ii/A.n.), KaT' 
«]vypdTrrovs do-(paX£as. In the inscriptions the word is 
very common united with do-uX£a, aTtXaa, etc., e.g. OGIS 
Si 16 (iii/B.c.) da-<pdXs[iav Kal d]crvX£av : cf. 270 11 (iii/B.c), 
352 60 (ii/B.c). In ib. 669 10 (i/A.D.) we find tov 8euv 
Tapi€va-ap.t'vi»>v els tovtov tov UpwTaTov Kaipbv tt)v ttjs oikov- 
a.kv-(\% do-ipdXeiav. As this illustrates the use of d. found in 
I Th 5 3 , so is that of Lk i 4 paralleled by the papxrus 
instances cited above. The noun occurs innumerable times 
in the commercial sense, "a security." In P Tebt II. 
407 10 (A.D. 199?) at uvoA Kal dercpdXeiai is rendered "the 
contracts and title-deeds." For the phrase of Ac 5" cf. 
Syll 246 30 , ottus ueTa Trdo-ns do-<paXe[ias] o-vvrtXeo-flet 
(sc. T| Tiiv pajo-TT|puov TcXeTT|). For the idea of "security" 
against attack from outside cf. C. and B. 559* (ii. p. 650) 
e-iroino-av tttv tuv 8up£8iov do-<pdXeiav Kal tov Xvttov irdvTa 
Kocrpov : the date is a.d. 60-S0. Cf. P Fay 107 11 (a.d. 133) 
tovs 4>av€VTas aiTCovs 'i\w lv ao-ipaXe£a, "to keep the 
persons found guilty in a safe place" (Edd.). Personal 
"safety " comes in Syll 192 68 (B.C. 290-S7) tt|v tov eauTov 
o-iipaTos do-ipdXeiav. The word is MGr. 


BGU III. 909'- 4 (A.D. 359) iv do-<J>aXci irapd ere [avJTfii] 
ai-roys Toy-roys ^X tv - '' '-'-M' *"• 53° !l (ii/ A -D.) airo8ovo-a 
ofiv avTiii diroXTHJujiT] ra IpaTia v-yrj Kal iv do-ipaXti Troii)o-r|s. 
"get my clothes hack safe, and put them in a secure place " 
(Edd.), ib. 433 s (ii/iii a.d.) iv dcnpaXel [flrw. Priene 114 10 
(i/B.C.) ttjv] 8t it£o-tiv Kal <j>vX[aK^|v] Tiiv irapaSoSt'vTiov 
auTun -ypappaTwv €irot[r]o-]aTo do-cpaX^. Ib. IlS 8 (i/u.c) 
do-<paXeo-TaTa irpbs irdvTa tov xpovov -yevnBTJvai Ta ppaP[cia. 
For the adverb, cf. P Giss I. 19 14 (ii/A.n.) irapa]KaXw o-e 
ovv do-<paXws o-eauTOV [TT|pelv vel sim.). P Hib I. 53 s 
(B.C. 246) dcr<j>aX<is Sityyvdv, "to get good security," 
P Oxy IV. 742 s f (B.C. 2) 8[«]s avTas tis tottov do-<paXiis, 
"set them (sc. bundles of reeds) in a safe place." The 
word was common. 


For the physical meaning of this very common verb, the 
only meaning which occurs in NT, may be quoted P Ryl II. 
68 19 (B.C. 89) oirus dvax8«lo-a f| T. do-cpaXio-e-rji aj'xpi 
tov ktX., " be brought up and secured until . . ." (Ed.), P 
Tebt II. 2S3 1 * (i/B.C.) tov irpo-yfYpap-pcvov II. do-<|>aX£o-ao-8ai, 
"to secure (arrest) the aforesaid P.," ib. I. 53 s9 (B.C. no) 

do-<J>aX£o-ao-8ai Ta -y€VT|(paTa), "seize the produce " (Edd.). 
lb. II. 407 4 (A.D. 199?) do-(paXi£dp€vos Ta pe'XX[o]vTa irpbs 
i\t.\i eX6eiv v7rdpxo]yTa, "securing the property coming to 
me" (Edd.) has the commoner applied sense: cf. also 
P Oxy VII. 1033 13 (A.D. 392) 8id tovto cavTovs do-<paXio-£d- 
pevoi Tovo-8e tovs Xipt'XXovs tiriS^Sopev, "therefore to safe- 
guard ourselves we present this petition" (Ed.), P Lips 
I. Io6 10ff - (A.D. 98) tdv ovv o yt -yviio-Tr|S o-i>v tu> pcTox"* 
do-ipaX^TiTai o-c Sid tov vpdppaTsos U ~ T °s) T "v •y€u)p-yw(v). 
Add P Ryl II. 77 40 (A.D. 192) aira TavTa do-i^aXio-Ofiat ktX., 
" I will certify these very facts by means of your minutes 
(Ed.), BGU III. 829° (A.D. too) do-cj>[dXio-o]v Si t[j]v €[a^|]v 
virovpa<j>T|V, P Hamb I. 29 12 (A.D. 29), where the editors 
take it as "enter a protest." Demetrius de Eloe. 193 says 
the best " literary " style is o-uvTjpTrijitvTi Kal otov T]a"<j>aXio-ue- 
vi] tois o-vvS^o-p-ois, "compacted and (as it were) consoli- 
dated by the conjunctions "(Roberts). 'Ao-<)>dXio-|j.a 
" pledge " occurs BGU I. 248 s , II. 601' (?) (both uj a.d.) : 
cf. also ib. I. 246 11 (ii/iii A.D.) [ir]apao-<f>aXio-p.aTa. Cf. 
MGr (d)o-<paX£5io "shut." 


In P Tebt I. 44 17 (B.C. 114), a petition concerning a violent 
assault, the complaint is made that the aggressor &as 
[uev t]ivos i\oi&[6pT\<rev pie] Kal do-xtlp-o[v€i] iio*T€pov Se 
€TriirT|8Tio-as J8iok«v irX-rryds TrXeCovs t)l [«]£x €v pdpSmi, where 
foul language at least is suggested. (Is do-x-npdvei an un- 
augmented imperfect ? The present is rather oddly sand- 
wiched between two aorists, unless we are to call in the help 
of parallels noted Proleg. p. 121.) In the great Mysteries 
inscription from Andania, Syll ^653' (B.C. 91), the candidate 
has to swear p.T|T£ av[>]bs ut|8Jv ao~xr;p.ov p.r]8£ dSiKov 
iroiTio-civ eirl KaTaXvtrci twv pvo-Tnp£wv |^t)T€ dXXui e-iriTpe- 
J/€iv : in this case anything irreverent or improper would be 
included. Perhaps " behave dishonourably " is the meaning 
in I Cor 7 36 , but the word seems to take the colour of its 
context. We find it in antithesis with tvo-XT]poveiv in the 
pompous but ungrammatical letter (a begging letter?), 
P Par 63 ix - : ' 8 f - (B.C. 165) irapd t^|V irtpiovo-av d-yioyriv 
do-xTipiuvovvTa irpoo-S«io-8ai ttjs irap' €T€pwv «ir6iKovpe£as, 
" since I cannot meet the conditions of life creditably I need 
external assistance " : in the next sentence, after a fresh 
start, dirb Ppax«£«iV pdXcis tverx-npovtiv. 


For a. in Rom l x '=opus obscaennm, Lielzmann (HZNT 
III. i. ad I.) refers to Philo Legg. Alleg. II. 66, p. 78 rfjs . . 
dvaio-xvvTi'as irapaSctvpaTa ai da^rjuocrvvai irdcrai : cf. 
III. 158, p. 11S. Vettius Valens p. 61 31 iv do-XT)poo-vvai9 
Kal KaTaKp£o-eo-i, apparently "scandals and condemnations." 


Syll 653* (B.C. 91) p.T|8ev ao-xipov pT|8e dSiKov iroir|o-€iv. 
A "late form" of the adj. (LS, who quote Polemo, a 
writer of ii/A.D.) is found in P Ryl II. I44 18 (A.D. 38) irape- 
Xpr(o*aTd pot iroXXd Kal clo*XT|pa, "subjected me to much 
shameful mishandling" (Edd.). The ordinary form occurs 
in another petition of the same group, ib. 150 11 (A.D. 40-1) 
tKaKoXdyno-tv iroXXd Kal d[o-]xr|pova. So Vettius Valens 
p. 62'° di-vxeis Kal do-xTjaovas. 





A good instance of this expressive word occurs in P Par 
63 il35 (B.c. 165) in the clause preceding that quoted above 
under do-\r|povew : — dXXws tc Sf| t^s iraTpiKfjs oiKias. 
woircp Kal o-v- "yivwa-Ktis. £ti £vTrpoo-8ev dpSuv [djvaTtTpap- 
pe'vns Si" do-[w]T£as. It occurs after ahi.uusin P Petr III. 21 
(6) n (B.C. 225). A somewhat weaker sense is found in 
P Fay 12 21 (r. B.C. 103), where it is used of men who had 
pawned a stolen garment irpos do-wTaav "incontinently." 
For the corresponding verb see P Flor I. 99' (i/ii A.D.) 
(=Sckctiotts, p. 71), a public notice which his parents set up 
regarding a prodigal son who do-wTevdptvos €o-irdvto-€ ra 
aiiToO Trdvxa, "by riotous living [cf. do-wTws, I.k 15 1 '] had 
squandered all his own property," and PSI 41 1 - (iv/A.D.), 
where a wife lays a complaint against her husband for misuse 
of her property Kal da-wS[tv]wv Kal irpaTTwv [d pi) Tots 
e]v-,6veo-i irpe'in. The word survives in the written MGr. 


Vettius Valens p. 18 joins do-wTwv Xdyvwv Kal KaTw<{>epwv 
aKpLTwv tTriy\i6yuv, evptTapdXwv irepl tq tcXu, ovk €i<8ava- 
tovvtwv ovSt irepl tovs Yapov-s ctoraOwv. The use of the 
maxim noscilur a sociis here, as so often, makes the astro- 
loger valuable for the delineation of a word's meaning. It 
is MGr. 


For its original connotation of riot or rebellion cf. OGIS 
20O 6 (iv/A.D.) aTaK-rno-dvTwv Kara Kaipov tov ?8vovs twv 
IWeaemSv. So Syll 153 s1 (B.C. 325-4) -rois draKToivTas 
twv TpiT|pdpxwV) al. Like its patent adjective aTaKTos, and 
the adverb, this verb is found in the NT only in the Thessa- 
lonian Epp., where their context clearly demands that the 
words should be understood metaphorically. Some doubt 
has, however, existed as to whether they are to be taken as 
referring to actual moral wrong-doing, or to a certain remiss- 
ness in daily work and conduct. Chrysostom seems to 
incline to the former view, Theodoret to the latter : see the 
passages quoted in full with other illustrative material in 
Milligan Thiss. p. 152 ff. The latter view is now supported 
by almost contemporary evidence from the Koivr|. In P 
Oxy II. 275"'- (a.d. 66), a contract of apprenticeship, a 
father enters into an undertaking that if there are any days 
when his son "plays truant" or "fails to attend "— 8<ras 
S'tdv hi tovtw dTaKTT|<rr] T)p.«'pas — he is afterwards to make 
them good ; and similarly in P Oxy IV. 725 s8 ff - (a.d. 183) a 
weaver's apprentice is bound down to appear for an equiva- 
lent number of days, if from idleness or ill-health or any 
other reason he exceeds the twenty days' holiday he is 
allowed in the year — «dv hi irXtiovas tovtwv dp7T|o-n [f\ do-]- 
6evf|o-r| il dTaKTT|o-r] f\ Si' aXATvv Tiy[d aij-rtav T|pipas ktX. 
From an earlier date we may cite BGU IV. 11 25 s (B.C. 13), 
another contract, where the words occur ds Si <dv dpTaKTT|- 
a-r|i % dppwo-TT|<rni : the strange word is what Lewis Carroll 
would call a " portmanteau," compounded of dp-yr|<rr|i and 
dTaKTf|o-ni.. On the other hand in P Eleph 2 13 (a will, B.C. 
2S5-4) Kal t| Trpa£is Jorw ck tov aTaKTouvTos Kal pi] iroi- 
ovvtos Kara rd vevpappeva the verb has the stronger sense, 
"to be contumacious." Its opposite evTaKTt'w is not un- 
common. Thus Syll 519" (Athens, B.C. 334-3). where the 
$4>n,poi. of the year are formally praised for having been good 
Part I. 

boys — «7f£iS#| . . eiiTaKToCa-iv and obey the laws and the 
master appointed for them. In BGU IV. ito6 26 (b.c. 13) 
a wet-nurse is bound evTaKToupe'vnv avTr|v tocs Xo[iirois 
KaTJd afjva Tpocf>T|ois -iroicio-Oai Trjv t€ ca-rrjs [Kal tov] iratSLOu 
■n-poo-rjKovo-av eTripeXnav : note the middle.;. 

See the discussion of aTaKTe'w. For the adj. (and adv.) 
we may quote P Fay 337 1 "' (ii/A.D.) Sel twv [dv]9pw-n-wv 
S.pX.'1-v [twv] irpd£ewv €K«i[vov]s Se eiiBvs e<j>cireo-8ai, oiiK dra 
ktws pc'vToi dXX' €ip.a[p]jie'[vws : the document is a fragment 
of " a philosophical work concerning the gods " (Edd.). In 
Vettius Valens p. 336'-^ &TaKTov <}>c.criv r\ pNXTLOva, the anti- 
thesis suggests a markedly bad meaning for a. The same 
implication underlies the subst. in p. 1 16 13 iroXXd Kal twv 
aTaKTuuaTwv Kpv(3r|o-6TaL Kal ouk ^o-Tai ala-^pd — which 
they would have been but for the kindly influence of Jupiter. 
The next sentence identifies the aTaKTr|paTa as secret 
intrigues which will not be found out. In Syll 519 (see 
under aTaKTe'w), where four sets of ?<(>T|poi. and their 
o-w<ppovicrrai get their meed of praise and garlands, 
«uT]aKTovs aiiToiis irapexovo-iv replaces the verb in one place 
out of three. BGU IV. 1056 13 (B.C. 13) SiSdvTts tov piv 
tokov Kara prjva tiraKiuis, "regularly": so 1156 14 
(B.C. 15). 


P Lond 23 13 (B.C. 158-7) (= I. p. 38) Sid to dT«vdv pe 
eEvai. The word is common in connexion with dispositions 
of property, etc., e. g. P Oxy II. 249 10 ff - (a.d. 80) tov opo- 
vvi]0*iov pov dSeX<pov IIottXCov . . . p[€]Tr|XXaxdTOS aTtKVOv, 
P Amh II. 72 s (a.d. 246) aT«Kvov Kal dSiaStTov "childless 
and intestate." P Strass I. 29 s3 (A.D. 289), al. Cf. also 
BGU II. 64S l5 (A.D. 164 or 196) i-ntX Kal &t{kv[os] eipt Kal 
oihi epauTtjt dirapKtiv Siivapai.. 


For this characteristically Lukan word cf. the Leiden 
occult papyrus W XTi - H f - €io"eX8dvTos hi tov 9tov pr] tvaTtvi^e 
Tfj 6>\iti, dXXd tt|s (/. tois) iroo-i. The intensive meaning, 
which underlies the NT usage, comes out in the description 
of Thecla's rapt attention to Paul's leaching — dTenlJovo-a ws 
irpos euippao-iav (Acta Pauli viii.). 


For this (originally) poetic word which is found in the 
Grk Bible only 2 Mace 12 16 , Lk 22 «anJ>5 j c f. Pricne 109 1 " 6 
(c. B.C. 120) dT«p 6-S/uiviov, "without salary." It occurs 
in P Oxy VI. 936 18 (iii/A.D., a rather uneducated letter) 6 
T|TrnTr|S Xe^ei 8ti ov 8£8w oOtc tov x a ^ K <"' °vTe to (patvdXiv 
dTcp Tovo-tov, " the cobbler says that he will not give up 
either the money or the cloak without Justus " (Edd.). Cf. 
also P Leid W Hi 12 (Apocrypha Moisis) &Tep ydp tovtwv 
(the w corrected from 0) 6 tbs (/. 8eos) ovk «-iraKovo-«Tai.. 
To the references in the Lexicons may be added Vettius 
Valens pp. 136 8 , 271 9 , 341 3 , and Cleanthes hymn. Oip/i. 
68, S. 


P Petr II. 4 (6) 16f - (B.C. 255-4)" (/. Seivbv) ydp io-Tiv 
iv B-jiXui dTipd?«o-8ai, " for it is a dreadful thing to be in- 
sulted before a crowd" (Ed.). Cf. OG/S 3S3 11 ' (i/B.c.) 




Ka9u)<riw(i€vwv T€ rjpwwv ctTLjiao-Btis vduos olvclXcltous ^x tL 
iroivas, Syll 89 1 2 ff - (ii/A.I). — pagan, but with phrases from 
LXX) tTTiKaTapa-ros oo-tis |irf| <pa8oiTo . . . Tov8e tov Jp-yov 
(a tomb and statue) . ., dXXd aT€ipdo-ei f\ p.€Ta0T|o-ti opovs 
e£ iipiov (Dittenberger emends 4£opuo-o-<uv) ktX., BGU IV. 
I024 vii 28 (iv/v A.D.) irwXo{icr[a avTrjv irpbs] aTiud£ovo-av 
Tip.T|V (of a girl sold to shame). The connotation of the last 
ex. survives in MGr, to " seduce" a girl. 


P Giss I. 40" s , an edict announcing an amnesty of Cara- 
calla A.D. 212, |i6Ta t[6J ir[X]ripa)6i|vai to tov xp[°]vov 8id- 
o-Trjp-a ovk dv€iSio-0r|<r€Tai t) ttjs aTip.[i]as 7rapao-T]p.6£[a>]o-Ls. 
The word is found in a hitherto unknown fragment, perhaps 
of Euripides, published in P Par p. S6 — 

ovk t)v dp' ov8iv irfju.' i\iv8ipav 8dKvov 
\|rvxr|V opotws dv8pds, o)S dnp-Ca. 

(But Euripides did not write ovBe'v !) 


Its old technical meaning, familiar in Attic law — cf., for 
example, Roberts-Gardner no. 32 A 55 , dated B.C. 377, inrap- 
X«tuj p[ev] aviTui aTipw dvai Kal [m xp]r|(ia[Ta avTJov 
Sr|uoo-i.a Sorco — is seen in OG/S 33b 29 (ii/B.C.) etvai avTovs 
Ka[l] avTas aTtpovs « Kal Ta tKaTt'pcov virdpxovTa Tf)s 
irdXtus : in 527 s aTi[pov] 8e dvai the context seems to 
require the meaning of "contrary to law," though the editor 
admits that this cannot be found in the word itself. In the 
Acts of the martyrdom of Christina, PSI 27' (v/a.d.) the 
Saint is described as addressing Urbanus a3 pdpos irdo-l/ns 
dvopfas (\u>v Kal] aT(u[o]v o-rrtppaTos. It is MGr. 


In a fragmentary Decree of the Senate and People, 
Robots-Gardner p. 69 ff. , prescribing the conditions upon 
which Selymbria, after its capture in B.C. 409-8 by Alci- 
biades, was restored to the Athenian alliance, provision is 
made that disfranchised persons should be restored to their 
privileges — 10 & tis T|t£u.u)t[o, evTipov tlvai]. 


The long British Museum magical papyrus, P Lond 
121639 and 743 (jji/A.D.) (= I. pp. 104, 10S), shows this word 
twice — ■n-epiive'yKov to 8aK[T]vXiov «irl tt|s aTpCTOS tov 
Xip(dvov) and irepl tt|V aTp£8a. Cf. Syll 804 19 (ii/A.D. ? — 
Epidauius) 8vpiaTr|piov aTp£^o[v. 


With iv aTdpoj (1 Cor 15 52 ) cf. Symm. Isai 54 s iv dT<ipu> 
dp-yf|s, where the LXX has iv piKpw flvpu. This will suffice 
to make Paul's dependence for the word on Plato and 
Aristotle less assured than it might have been. 


From its original meaning "out of place, " " unbecoming," 
dToiros came to be used especially in Plato of what was 
"marvellous," "odd" (e.g. f.egg- '• 646 B tov 8avp~o-Tov 
Tt Kal aToirov), and from this the transition was easy in 
later Grk to the ethical meaning of "improper," "un- 
righteous," e. g. Philo Legg. Alleg. iii. 17 trap' 8 Kal aToiros 
XfysTai etvai 6 <|>av\os aToirov 8e' eori kukov Svo-Bctov. It 

is in this sense that the word is always used in the LXX and 
in the NT (except Ac 2S 6 — and even there it = kukov), and 
the usage can be freely illustrated from the Koivrj. Thus 
in the early P Petr II. 19 (1 a) 6t - (iii/B.c.) a prisoner asserts 
"in the name of God and of fair play" (oliveKa tov 8eov 
Kal tov KaXats e'xovTos) that he has said nothing aTo-rrov, 
8ircp Kal dXrr8ivbv eari, and in lb. III. 43 (3) "'■ (iii/B.C.) 
precautions are taken against certain discontented labourers 
t'va p.T] &T07r[d]v tl Trpdfjujo-iv. Similarly Chrest. I. 23S 12 
(r. A.D. 117) Trapa<pvXd(-e tc eis to pr|Sev aToirov vir' avTa>v 
irpaxSijvai. In BGU III. 757 21 (A.D. 12) «Tepa &TOTra are 
attributed to some marauders who had pulled to pieces a 
farmer's sheaves of wheat, and thrown them to the pigs ; and 
the parents of the prodigal (P Flor I. 99 10 — see s. v. do-uiT£a) 
announce that they are giving publicity to his misdeeds 
p/rpTOT« e[Tr]npedo-T|i T]peiv r) erepo[v] t) (? omit) aToirdv ti 
irpd|r|[i], "lest he should insult us, or do anything else 
amiss." P Klor II. 177 16 (A.D. 257) aToirov -yap eo-riv 
avTovs «veio-8ai is less clear. The subst. dTdVripa is found 
P Tebt II. 303 11 (A.D. 176-80) irepl &v eis r|pds 8ieirpd£aTO 
aTo-n-TiudTiDv, "concerning the outrages which he committed 
against us" (Edd.) : cf. P Lips I. 39' (A.D. 390) Kal p[T|]K€Ti 
KaTa p/nScv^s dTdirr|aa 8LaTrpd|ao-8ai. A curious use of the 
adverb (if the restoration is correct) occurs in the Acts of 
Christina, where the saint is represented as addressing 
Urbanus, after having looked up into heaven Kal [dT]dir<us 
YeXdo-ao-a (l'SI 27', v/a.d.) ; perhaps "with a strange" or 
"forced laugh." It may be added that in CR xvii. p. 265 
ovk dToirws is cited from Thucydides (vii. 30 2 ) with the 
meaning "not badly" — "an uncommon use," the writer 


Nageli (p. 25) translates this verb by "see, see clearly" 
in the Pauline passage 2 Cor 4 4 *is to urj av-ydo-ai tov 
cj> tov evfiyye\iov Tfjs Sd^rjS tov Xpio-Tov, holding 
that there is no reason why this old poetic sense (Soph. 
PA. 217) should not have passed into the Kolvt|. It should 
be noticed that in the LXX (Lev I3 25 al) the word has the 
wholly different meaning of "appear white or bright." For 
the compd. 8iavydi;'» see the horoscope P Lond 130' (i/ii 
A.D.) (=1. p. 135) 8vnv-ya£ev. 


The choice of this word as a proper name in Egypt is 
witnessed by Preisigkc 1995, 1999, 2003, 2006, 200S, from a 
set of sepulchral inscrr. of Alexandria. This is a better 
warrant of vernacular use than the fulsome laudation with 
which the Cyzicenes greeted the first acts of Gaius (a.d. 37), 
Svll 365', €7rel v€os"HXios Tdtos (ktX.) o-vvavaXdp.t)/ai Tais 
iSiais aii-yais Kal Tas 8opv(j>dpovs ttjs f|7epovtas T|8tXT)o-ev 
Pao-LX-rjas, i. e. surrounded himself with satellites in the 
shape of vassal kings restored to thrones from which Tiberius 
expelled them (Dittenberger). Av-yr, is the MGr for 
"dawn," and probably superseded the irregular noun £u)s 
very early in the Koivtj history : Ac 20 11 &xpi av-yr)s is thus 
good vernacular. So P Leid \V X1 M t<pdvT| (pws, a.iyi\ (cf. 
iv - m ). Cf. also the dimin. avyovXa in MGr, as in the Klepht 
ballad (Abbott, Songs p. 26) — 

K' iKil wpbs Td x&pd-y|iaTa, k' tKti irpbs t^|v avyovXa, 

And there, towards daybreak, towards early morn. 





is usually replaced by the translation Sepaoros : it is well 
to remember that the title meant a great deal more than 
"august," being connected essentially with the apotheosis 
of the Emperor. Since Eepaords enters into the style of 
every Emperor till Constantine (when in the papyri Aiiyov- 
o-ros significantly replaces it), the original Latin word could 
be retained in an early writer (see per contra exx. from iv/A.D. 
below) as the personal name of Octavian : so Lk 2 l against 
Ac 25' 21 ' 25 . The spelling 'Ayoia-Tov in SC*A represents a 
genuine Hellenistic pronunciation (see Proleg. p. 47) ; 
but in the case of this Latin word it is probably (so Prof. 
Thumb) conditioned by the influence of vulgar Latin : cf. 
Ital. agosto. 'A[-y]oio-rwv occurs in P Lond 407 21 (A.D. 346) 
(=11. p. 274), which is roughly coeval with X: the Edd. 
note it is thus spelt in many of the papyri of the period. 
So P Oxy I. 41 3 (iii/iv A.D.) "Ayovo-tol Kvpioi, BGU IV. 
1049 1 (a.d. 342), P Goodsp Cairo I2 LU (a.d. 340) tuv to. 
irdvTa vikovtwv Zepacrraiv t]u.wv 'A-yovo-Ttov, ib. 15 5 (A.D. 
362) ' AJ/yo] vo-tov. The tendency arose in Greek centuries 
earlier— Mayser Gr. p. 114 cites TXaitCov from P Par 41 6 
(B.C. 15S), and o-aTov and the like appear in Ptolemaic 

av Odd)];. 

In P Amh II. 78 1Sf - (A.D. 184) it seems certain that we 
should read |i[oii] irXeoveiert dvBpwiros a[v]8d8T|9 (not 
&cr8tvTJs). A few lines lower we find TOLaiiTTjs o[£]v 
avQaSias «v avTui oi5<rr|s oij 8uvdp.€vos [evJKapTepeiv, "his 
audacity having reached this pitch I can endure no longer " 
(Edd.). According to Cronert Mem. Here, p. 32, the form 
avflaSia, which in Attic is confined to the poets, "linguae 
pedestris auctoribussine dubio reddendaest." Its vernacular 
character may be further established by P Tebt I. 16 10 
(B.C. 114) avBaSi'a ^put(ievot "persisting in their violent 
behaviour" (Edd.), SyllSt)}," (ii/A.D.) Kal tous ippfcravTas 
Toiis rjpwas (the Di Manes) Tiiv TeKvwv T|u.<iv Kal eu.e Kal 
tov dvSpa u.ou II. Kal tirtu-tvovTas ttj ail8a8£a, CPHerm 1 3 
(no context), BGU III. 747 » u (a.d. 139) («XP l av8aS:as 
eir[i]x€i-povo-iv (p8dvei.v, ib. IV. 1 1S7 21 (i/B.C.) ttji 8e irepl 
taurds p£au Kal avBc.Sia [crv]vxpr|0-du.«voi., 1' Gen I. 31* 
(a.d. 145-6) rjj aviT-r] aiBaSia \P"'H- ev0S - The subst. is 
not found in the NT, but see LXX Isai 24 s , Didache 5 1 . 
The adverb is quotable from P Tebt II. 331 7 (c. A.D. 131) 
«irfjX8o[v a]v8d8u>s eis Vjv t.x^ iv tjj Kciu/n oiKiay, P Grenf I. 
47 10 (A.D. I4S) ciriyvoiis avBdSus Te8e[pj£o-8ai inT-[o]"12povs 
ktX., P Ryl II. 133 16 (A.D. 33) aiBdSuis KaTeo-rrao-ev aTrb 
(Upovs "ventured to pull it partly down " (Ed.), P bond 
35S 12 (c. A.D. 150) (=11. p. 172) aifldSws dvao-Tpa4>«VTu)v, 
and P Oxy X. 1242 "'•** (iii/A.D. — a semi-literary piece), 
where Trajan says to an anti-Semite advocate, "I8e, Sevn-spdv 
crot Xt'-yw, 'Epp.aio-K€, avdd&ws diroKptivr -ir€Troi8ws Ttu 
crtavTov ycvci. 


In OGIS 583' (i/A.D.) a certain Adrastus is praised as 
Supcdv Kal avBafprros yvu.vao-£apxos, i.e. he had provided 
oil at his own expense for the combatants, and exercised 
the office voluntarily (see the editor's note) : cf. also the 
late P Par 2I 16 (A.D. 616) aiBaipeTw PovXr|(rti Kal d8dXu> 
o-vv€i8t|0-£i. Eor the adverb see Magn 163 15 ff -rratrdv tc 

XtiToup-yfav . . . T(X«VavTos tt) TraTpCSi. avBaiptVus, and 
the common technical phrase eKovo-iws Kal av8aip€Tcos, as 
P Lond 2S0 7 (a.d. 55) (=11. p. 193), BGU II. 581" 
(a.d. 133), P Lips I. 17 9 (a.d.. 377), P Giss I. 56 s 
(vi/A.D.), a!. : the phrase may also be expressed adjectivally, 
as with •yvwu/n in P Oxy X. r28o 5 (iv/A.D.). 


The history of this word has been satisfactorily cleared 
up by P. Kretschmer, in Glo/ta hi. (1912), p. 2S9 ft". He 
shows that av8e'vTT|$ "murderer" is by hap'ology for 
avToBtyrns from BeCvw, while avSe'v-rris "master" (as in 
literary MGr) is from auT-Kvrng (cf. o-vvsVtt]s' cmvtpyos in 
Hesychius, root sen "accomplish," dvvwl. The astonishing 
sense-development described in Grimm may accordingly 
disappear. So likewise may his description of the verb as 
a "bibl. and eccl. word," after the evidence (given below) 
that the adj. aviBfvriKds is very well established in the 
vernacular. " Biblical " — which in this case means that the 
word occurs once in the NT (1 Tim 2 12 ) — seems intended to 
hint what &ira£ eipr|u.s'vov in a " profane " writer would not 
convey. We may refer to Nageli, p. 49, for evidence which 
encourages us to find the verb's provenance in the popular 
vocabulary. The Atticist Thomas Magister, p. iS, S, warns 
his pupil to use avToSiKeiv because avBevTeiv was vulgar 
(KotvoTepov) : so Moeris, p. 5S — avTo8iKT|v (/. — eiv) 'Attikol. 
aij8c'vTT|V (/. — ctv)"EXXrjves. The use in I Tim 2 12 comes 
quite naturally out of the word "master, autocrat." Cf. P 
Leid W V1 * 6 dpxdyyeXos rat inrb tov k6o-u.ov, ai8t'vTa rjXu. 
For the adj. cf. ib. "• 46 , P Oxy II. 260 20 (A D. 59), a document 
signed by the assistant of the strategus to give it legal sanction 
— 0s[w]v 'Ovviic}>pios {nn)p6 , Tr|s 4irT|KoX[o]!i]B[r|]Ka Tf)i [a]y- 
8€vtl[k]tji x L p[°'Yp] a ( < l > ^ a )' " I' Theon, son of O., assistant, 
have checked this authentic bond" (Edd.): so ib. IV. 
7I9*°- M (A.D. 193). In BGU I. 326" 23 (ii./A.D.) a scribe 
declares the dv-ri'ypa<t>ov before him to be trvu-cpiovov Tfl 
auBevTiKfl StaSrJKri : cf. Wilcken Ostr 1010 (Roman) 
6uoX[o"youu.€v) ^X LV T ^l v au8€VTLK-f|v dirox^v dxvp[ov). P 
Hamb I. iS" 6 (A.D. 222) ai8(evTiKiiv) €7n.crToX(uiv) Kal 
pipX(iSi'uv) inroK£KoX(Xr||ji€vu)v), P Giss I. 34 1 (a.d. 265-6) 
Ta ai8«vTi.K[d], and P Lond 9S5 18 (iv/A.D.) (= III. p. 229) 
tSoKa to tcrov f<[(al) ^]x w T r) v av8t[v]TiK^]V diroxT)V 7rap' 
4(jtavTu. The subst. is found P Lips I. 33 "■ 6 . '• 28 (a.d. 368), 
BGU II. 669 18 (Byz.) t8(a aiBevTca. opyavov fo-rno-cv et[s] 
Tbv avTov XaKKOv. For avBevT^w, " take in hand," see 
Ckrest. I. ii. p. 160. The noun produces ultimately the 
common MGr d(pe'vn)s (Effend;) "Mr." 


A Cairo papyrus (iii/B.c), Chrest. I. 224'' n . has d-n-o-ys- 
-vpdu.u.€8a ttjv [vjirdpxovcra (/.-av) tju-Iv otK^av [KJal avX^v 
Kal dXXo [o]'iKT]ua. P Lond 45 15 (B.C. 160-59) (= I. p. 
36) has a complaint against marauders who had not only 
sacked a house, but had appropriated to their own uses 
ttjv irpoo-ovo-av aiX^v Kal tov ttjs oUCas To-rrov v|/iXdv. 
These will serve as good specimens of the normal use in the 
papyri, where the word is extremely common, denoting the 
" court " attached to a house : cf. BGU I. 275 6f - (a.d. 215) 
avXrj irpoo-Kvpovo-T| oiK^a aov. It could be used for 
" lumber " : see the ostracon from Syene, Archiv v. p. 179, 
no. 34 6 Ti £i\ov to [p.vp£]Kivov to iv t-jj avXtj. Note that 




oIkos could include both : P Fay 31 16 [c. a.d. 129) iri\i- 
tttov p.c'pos oXtjs tt|S oiKias Kal avXfjs Kal toO dXov OIKOU 
" the fifth part of the whole house and court and of the 
whole tenement." So far as we have observed, there is 
nothing in the K.oivf\ lo support the contention that in the 
NT ai\i\ ever means the house itself: see Meyer on Mt 26 s . 
The plural is used of " guest-chambers," as in the interesting 
P Tebt I. 33 s (B.C. 1 12) (= Selections, p. 28) where, amongst 
the preparations for a Roman visitor, we read — <j>pdvTi<rov 
ws e-rrl rCtv kclOtikovtwv rd-rnov aX tc avXal KaTao-Ktuao-[0]f|- 

Like the Latin aula and our own court, the word readily 
comes to denote a Royal entourage, e.g. P Par 49" (B.C. 
164-5S) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 70) 8d£avTa dSeX(f>bv auTou 
iv ttj aiXfj ttvai, "since he has a brother at Court"; 
OGIS 735* (ii/B.C.) twv Trepl auX^jv 8ia[8dx«v], referring 
to certain officials attached to the court of Ptolemy Philo- 
metor ; Vettius, p. S9 15 , iv Pao-iXiKais auXais : so also 
Pieisizke 1568 (B.C. 146-17) irpwrot <f>iXoi Kal xtXCapxoi 
Kal aXXoi oi irepl avXr|V. When, therefore, Suidas defined 
avX-rj as tj tov pao-iXe'ws oiKia, he was not far out, though 
avXtj seemingly cannot mean an ordinary house. BGU IV. 

IO98 1 (C. B.C. 17) Ttp Sctv]t Tlil iiri TOV iv TTJL avXfjl KpiTT|p£oU 

presents a court sitting in the avXr|, as against Mk 14 68 , 
where the auX-rj is clearly outside the room where the 
Sanhedrists were in session. Syll 192 28 (B.C. 290-87) iv ttji 
avXci toO Upov (a/.) illustrates Ps S4 2 ' 10 (LXX S3 3 ' n ): cf. 
also ib. 734 81 (Cos), where it is forbidden d-rro8TJKT|i. xp<io-9ai 
T[fjt avX]rji ttji iv Tiii itpwi (it)8* iv tul Tr€piTraTiu[i, &]u ut) 
irdXtjios Jji. In MGr = " court." 


is found in P Hib I. 54 s (c B.C. 245) where the writer 
gives instructions regarding a forthcoming festival — cbrd- 
[o-]t€iXov . . . rbv auXnTY^v UtTujvv fyovT[a] tovs rt 
^pvyCovs avX[o]vs Kal tons Xoittous. So in P Oxy X. 
1275 9 (iii/A.D.), where Trpoto-Tajs oTjatjjwvtas avXrjTujv Kal 
uouo-iku>v is engaged with his "company 1 ' (o-vfi(pa>v(.a) for a 
five days' village festival. The festival for which the flute- 
player is wanted is more unmistakably secular in the frag- 
mentary menu, P Giss I. 93 1 *. Generally he belongs to the 
apparatus of religion. So apparently in Cagnat IV. 135 4 
(B.C. 46 — a revision of Syll 348), recording the prayer of 
2ti>Tnpi8T;s TaXXos — a priest of the Magna Mater at Cyzicus 
— on behalf of his "partner" (o-vupios) M. Stlaccius, an 
avXT)Tif|S, who had been taken captive in a military expedition 
and sold. Syll 612 18 (B.C. 24) gives us an aiXt)Tyjs in a 
list of functionaries connected with the temple of Zeus at 
Olympia : Dittenberger tells us this was the vernacular for 
o-Trov8auXT]s, a title found always in ii/A.D. An aiXnTT^s 
Tpa^yiKos is mentioned in OGIS 51 (iii/B.c.) amongst the 
dScXi|>ol who formed the " synod " of the priest Zopyrus for 
ceremonial purposes. In Magn 98 45 the crT*4>avr|<f>dpos has 
to provide avXr|TT^v o-xipio-TT^v Ki0apio-TTJv for a festival of 
Zeus Sosipolis ; while ib. 237 is illustrated by an interesting 
sketch showing the triclinium Upu>v avXT|Tpi8u>v Kal aKpo- 
Paniv attached to the temple of Archegelis of Chalchis. In 
the fragment of an uncanonical Gospel, composed before 
A.D. 200, reference is made to the washing of the outside 
skin iiTtp [Ka]l at Tropvai Kal a[i] avXifrp(Ses p.up£[5]ov[o-i.v 
K]al Xoiouo-iv ktX. (P Oxy V. S40 35 ff •). 


OGIS 730 7 (iii/B.C.) wore aiX£o-[ao-8a]i. [avT<S8i. iv T|]|i[f]- 
pais 8uor£(v). We may note Didache 11 8 , where it is laid 
down that a wayfaring apostle, on leaving any house 
where he has been entertained, is to take nothing with him 
except bread &>s oi aiXio-flTJ, "until he reach his (next 
night's) lodging " : cf. the expressive use in LXX Ps 29 s to 
eo-rrt'pas auXio-8Tj<rtTai KXau8p.ds, " weeping may come in 
to lodge (like a passing stranger) at even." In Preisigke 
1579) a bracelet of Byzantine date, we find LXX Ps 90 1 as 
an amulet, with aiXio-0ur£Tai : there are no variants except 
of spelling. 


See the first citation s.v. o.vXt|ttjs. In BGU IV. 1125 
iiTravXio-uds is a flute accompaniment. 

On a possible connexion of avXds with Heb ^>r-| 
" bore," " pierce," and then " pipe," see Lewy Fremdwoite, 
p. 165 f. But Lithuanian and Slavonic words given in 
Boisacq s. v. are much closer ; and there is SvavXos, 
"ravine," to be reckoned with. 


According to Mayser, Gr. p. 465, the form av£dvu>, which 
is found in the LXX (Gen 35 11 , Sir 43 s ) and NT, occurs in 
the Ptolemaic papyri only in P Leid B>- e (ii/B. c. ) p.dXXov 
aij£dv€o-0ai aKoXoudws ttj twv TrpoYovwv [Trpoatpt'o-ct] : else- 
where, as in the Attic inscriptions up to Imperial times 
(Meisterhans Gr. p. 176), we find only av|u. The latter, 
contrary to general NT usage (as Eph 2 21 , Col 2 19 ) is transi- 
tive in such passages as Michel 55 1 7 (the Canopus decree, 
B.C. 23S) Tas Ti[ads Taiv Qimv] errl -rrXeiov au£ovTes, Cagnat 
IV. 247 s5 (Stratonicea, c. B.C. 150) lirl irXeiov aii£eiv t[-t|v] 
<f>iX(av, and Magn •$$' ail|ovTcs ti)v Trpbs tovs Beois eio-t- 
peiai', ib. 50'-' 8 «ttI TrXciov ati^wv, after a hiatus. So, at a 
later time, the fuller form : P Ryl II. 77 36 (a.d. 192) Ttjs 
TrdX(tws) ai|dv«[v] Ta Trpd-yaaTa. The same is implied in 
the use of the mid. in Syll 89 1 18 unSe oEkos aii^oiTo — a pagan 
curse which quotes the LXX. For the intrans. usage cf. 
Aristeas 208 fowpwv, ws iv ttoXXw xp° vt i' Ka *l KaKoiraOtLais 
fie-yLo-Tais aij^ct tc Kal -ycvvaTai to twv dvOpwTrwv -yt'vof. 
Of the moon, P Leid W u - 2I . In MGr av£aivio. 

Chrest. I. 70 12 (an inscr. of B.C. 57— t ) toutou Trpbs aii^o-tv 
d-yo|«'voii, of a temple for which the priests ask the privilege 
ot do-vXta. 


P Par 47 1Bf {c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23) o 0"rpaTT|-ybs 
dvapaiv' avpiov tis to Eapairifjv, P Tebt I. 37 23,f - (B.C. 73) 
edv hi dp.cXT|o-T|S dva^Kao-STJo-oixai iyu t[X8ei]y aiipio[v], and 
BGU I. 38 21 (i/A.D.) where a boy writes to his father that 
he goes daily to a certain seller of barley-beer (£v0OTrtuXis) 
who daily says o-T](iepov alip[e]iv (-(«)iv for -iov, as often), 
"to-day, to-morrow (you shall get it)," but never gives it. 
The full phrase, which is contracted in Mt 6 S1 , Ac 4 3 , is seen 
in BGU I. 2S6 10 (a.d. 306) dirb ttjs aiipiov rjucpas, and 
Wiinsch AF 3 19 (Imperial) cv ttj aiipiv T|(«'pa. It appears 
without 'ijitpa in P Klor II. 11S 5 (A.D. 254) urrd rrjv a., 
P Tebt II. 417' and 419 s (iii/A.D.) fVTj a., BGU II. 511' - '» 

(c. A.D. 200) els aiijpiov (or eis t.'|v a.), etc. Mayser (Jr. 
p. 200, quotes I J Tebt I. 119" (li.c 105-1) to «paiipi[o]v 
for «p' aiipiov as proof of the living character of the strong 
aspirate: here the analogy of ttj>' f|pe'pav is an obvious influ- 
ence. Note also the formula of invitation to dinner, as 
P Oxy III. 52a 3 a[4ipiov], tjtis «ttiv X, it. I. no 3 (also 
ii/A. D. ) aiipiov tJTis to-riv U, it. Ill 3 (iii/A.D.) aiipiov, tjtis 
4otIv irtpTTTn : 50 if. VII. 102s 16 (late iii/A.D.), where an 
actor and a Homeric reciter are engaged to come for a 
festival "on the birthday of Cronus the most great god," 
Tiiv dcupiuv dp.' au[p]iov tjtis eo-rlv i dyouffvjuv. It is 


The epithet of Lk 19" is poorly rendered by the word we 
have borrowed. It obviously means "strict, exacting," a 
man who expects to get blood out of a stone. This sense 
is well seen in P Tebt II. 315 19 (ii/A.D.), in which the writer 
warns his friend, who was evidently connected with the 
temple finance, to see that his books were in good order, in 
view of the visit of a government inspector, 6 •yap dvSpioiros 
Xttav eo-Ti[v) aitrrnpds, " a regular martinet. " Cf. UGU I. 
140" ff , the copy of a military letter or diploma of the time 
of Hadrian, in which, with reference to certain regulations 
affecting his soldiers, the Emperor rejoices that he is able 
to interpret in a milder manner (<piXav9pwiroTep(ov)) to 
avoriipoTcpov vtto twv 7rpo epoij avTOKpaTopiov oraoev. In 
the curious rhetorical exercise (?) P Oxy III. 4/I 92ff (ii/A.D.) 
we find t£ oiv o KaTn<pf|S <ri Kal iir£pajjro-]TT]pos ouk tKiiXves ; 
"why then did not you with your modesty and extreme 
austerity stop him?" (Edd.). Here (as the context shows) 
a rigorous Puritanism is sarcastically attributed to a high 
Roman official, whose scandalous relations with a favourite 
ill became a sir gravis : this is nearer to the English austere. 
Four centuries earlier, it describes "rough " country, OGIS 
168 57 aiJo-TT]pois toitois irapoptois ttji. Ai8i.07r£ai. So in a 
metrical epitaph from Cos (i/B.c), Kaibel 201 5 yupvdSos 
aio-rnpov Slctt) irdvov eKTtXe'cravTa, of "exacting" physical 
work. We may add that the connotation of the adj. in its 
later sense is very well given by the combination in Vettius 
Valens, p. 75 11 , where a particular conjunction of Venus and 
Saturn produces auo-rnpoiis dyeXdcrrous eirco-Kilvtov fyovTas, 
irpbs Se tcl dtppoSto-ta o-KXripoTtpovs : the sequel however 
admits vice, but of a gloomy and bizarre type. 


occurs in P Oxy IV. 729 10 (A.D. 137) t^v St avTapKiav 
Koirpov ircpio-Ttpiiv, "guano, the necessary amount," P Flor 
II. I22 11 (A.D. 253-4) irdpex« Tb[d\|/ulviov?] KaT' aiVrdfp- 
Kttav?, ib. 242 s (same date) Vva SvvnflTJs ?X €IV TT 1 V aiiTap- 
Kiav ?ot' civ tol o-d Iv €Toipa> yevnTcu. It is thus only 
concrete, "a sufficiency " : see next article. Vettius Valens 
(p. 289 !S ) has the noun, apparently with the meaning "a 


We have several quotations, but only in the simple sense 
of "enough." Thus P Oxy IV. 729 19 (a.d. 137) tov aiTdpicn 
xe'papov, "a sufficient number of jars," P Lond I166 6 (A.D. 
42) (= III., p. 104) to aiiTapKn KaupaTa for a bath house, 
P Flor I. 25'* (ii/A.D.) xJoprryoOvros ti avTapun 0-rrc'pp.aTa, 



P Strass I. 22 3 '- f - (iii/A.D.) t| [8]i' tviauToi vopti, aiiTapKT|S 
4o-t£v, "the tenure of one year is sufficient," I' Lond 94S 11 
(A.D. 236) trapexo^'vos 6 Ku|3epvr|TT|S tous aviTapKas va\jTas, 
"the full number of men," it. 1 171 verso'-* (a.d. 42) to. 
a\jTadpK€i «iri8T|Tia (so Wilcken — for airrapKr) tTUTT|Se(.a) 
(severally = III., p. 220, 107), P Lips I. 29'* (A.D. 295) 
a]iJTdpKr,s ydp Kal far' ai[T]f]S tiraBov : this is for cvin-apKes 
(or avTapKTi) — " I have suffered enough from her," etc. So 
in the adverb BGU II. 665" 18 (i/A.D.) T|Toqido-8T] avTtj 
irdvTa [irjpbs [t]^|V Xox[e](av auTapxiis, P Flor II. 247" 
(A.D. 256) aiTapKws 8e «X" S &'" a i 4-irto-Tt'XXwv ktX., " it will 
be sufficient if you . ." The participle of the derived verb 
is given in BGU IV. II22 18 (Aug.) rd ayTapK(oiivTa). 

The record lends some emphasis to the Pauline use of the 
word in the philosophic sense of "self-sufficient, contented." 
For all his essentially popular vocabulary, on which Nageli 
rightly lays stress, Paul could use the technical words of 
thinkers in their own way (cf. Nageli's summing up, p. 41 f. , 
and Milligan, Documents, p. 56 f.). We have to go to 
literary sources for parallels to Phil 4 11 and Sir 40 18 : Kennedy 
EGT 'on Phil 4 11 well quotes Plato Rep 369 B o£k aiTdpKns 
dXXd ttoXXoiv evSeris, " we are not individually independent, 
but have many wants" (Davies and Vaughan). In Marcus 
Aurelius (I 1 *) to auTapxes iv Travri is mentioned as a 
characteristic of Antoninus Pius. 


is, for all we know to the contraiy, a genuine new coinage 
in Tit 3 11 . It is built on a model which any writer or 
speaker was free to use at will. 


CPHerm 119 verso '• 16 (Gallienus) . . ]aiTou.aToi Kal 
[. . . , unfortunately in hiatus. Vettius Valens twice uses 
the adverb with TrpoPi.pd£wv (or its passive), " advancing of 
its own accord." With the use of this word in Mk 4 28 , 
Abbott {/oh. Voc. p. 54) compares Philo's description of 
Isaac the self-taught (ain-opa8T|s) i. 57'-- &tti 8 « Ka ^ TpiTos 
opos toO avTopaSoOs to dvapaivov aiTopaTov (that which 
cometh up of itself)- Cf. also Wisd 17 s , where with refer- 
ence to the plague of darkness it is said that no power of the 
fire or the stars could give the Egyptians light, 8«<j>aiv«To 8' 
avTois pdvov auTopaTTj irvpd <pdpov irXripus, " but there 
appeared to them the glimmering of a fire self-kindled, full 
of fear." On Jn it, 27 ovtos ydp 6 iraTT)p cpiXtt vpds, Field 
remarks {Notes, p. 104) that auTos is here = auTopaTos ultra, 
me 11011 commetidante, and cites Callim. //. Apoll. 6 aiTol 
viv KaToxijfS dvaKXiveo-Bt, where the Scholiast has 


In P Oxy VIII. 1154 3 (late i/A.D.) a man, who was per- 
haps absent on military service, writes to his sister not to be 
anxious, auTO-mris ydp dpi. Tiiv tottuv Kal ovk etpl |«'v[o]s 
Tiiv €v6d8€, "fori am personally acquainted with ihese 
places and am not a stranger here " (Edd.). Note Vettius 
Valens, p. 260 s0 , ty<!) 8e oi Xdyu koXuj xP1 tr °-H l6vos > '■'oXXa. 
hi Kapwv Kal TraBiiv avTo-n-rns yevdptvos twv irpaypaTuv 
SoKqido-as o-uveypaipa. The spell for procuring the visible 
appeal ance of the god invoked is iniroduced in the magical 
P Lond 122 8 ' 1 (iv/A.D.) ( = 1. p. 119) by the words tdv Bftfls 




Kal a«Tov(/av avT&v eKaXeo-e, the evident intention being to 
correct avro<|/av into the passive verbal avTOTrrov. Cf. a'so 
id. I2I 81 ' (iii/A.D.) (=1. p. 94), and the derived adj. 
ovTOTrTiKds in the same papyrus in a spell for raising one's 
own "double," 335 avTOTrn.K^ tav povXr|s creavTov [IJSeiv. 
For the subst. cf. P Tebt II. 2S6 20 (a.d. 121-38) |[k] ttjs 
a[i]-roi|/[(]as rjv e-yw eirtiSov "my own personal observa- 
tion" (Edd.), P Amh II. 142 12 (iv/.A.D.) 7«van«voi tirl tt|V 
avToiJnav Kal dvau-eTprjo-avTes tov KXfjpov, P Oxy X. 1272 19 
(a.d. 144) d|ici tdv 8d£rj °" ou "■apa-yeveVBai jm. tt)v aiiTox|nav, 
" come for a personal inspection " (Edd.), and P Leid W* Ti - 38. 


The weakening of the old distinction between avTos 6 and 
o auTds, especially in Luke, is noted in Proleg. p. 91, and 
paralleled from Hellenistic. We may add (cf. Einleitung 
p. 145 f.) Syll 807 1 (ii/A.D.) aureus Tais i^pais, where 
Dittenberger remarks "expectaverisTatsauTats," OGJS3S3 1 * 
(Antiochus of Commagene, i/B.C.) tt^v auTr|v Te Kp£o-iv, fur 
which Ditt. desiderates TavTT)v rf|v Kpto-iv, P Ilib I. 39 
(li.C. 265) avi-bs 'fipos " the said H.," P Lille I. 23" 
(n.c. 221) oi (i[io-]6o)T-f|s 'HpioS^s] 6 avi-os " ce meme II.,'' 
P Oxy VI. 892 3 (a.d. 33S) tt|s aiTiis irdXews, id. VIII. 
II19 8 (A.D. 254) tov aviTou dp.<poSoYpap.(iaT£ws "the said 
a.": all these seem to be practically identical, with ai-ros 
differing little from eKeivos. The combination avTo tovto 
may be illustrated by P Grenf I. i" (literary, ii/B.C.) "for 
this reason " (Ed.) as in 2 Pet r\ P Ryl II. yf 9 (a.d. 192) 
Kal avTa TavTa do-(|>aX(o-ouai " I will certify these very 
facts " (Edd.), P Oxy VIII. 1119" (see above) iirip tov |ir| 
Kal tov vvvel <}>vXapxov SoksCv d-yvoeiv aird raura [. . . 

For the phiase eirl to auTo =" together," as apparently 
in Lk 17 35 , see P Tebt I. I4 2 ° (B.C. 114), where the " total" 
value of certain property is one talent of copper — d|£as eirl 
to avTo x°-(Xkov) (TaXdvTov) a : cf. II. 319 9 (a.d. 248) «rl 
to avTo (apovpai) ie, "a total of 15 arourae, " 336 10 (e. 
A.D. 190), al. Thi-, arithmetical use may be applied in 
Ac 2 47 , if we may render " was daily heaping up the total 
of . . ." KaTd to avTo with the same meaning, as in 
Ac I4 1 , may be illustrated from the early marriage contract 
P Eleph I 5 (B.C. 3II-I0) ( = Selections p. 2) etvai Si T|p.ds 
«ara TavTO, " and that we should live together." In I' 
Eleph 2 e (B.C. 285-4) KOTd TavTd = "in the same way." 
Vettius Yalens, p. 57 2s , uses to 8' avTo to express the same 
meaning (wcravTws). 

On the redundant use ot unemphaiic avTos (in oblique 
cases) see Proleg. p. 84 1. We might add that possessive 
avTov (like «|iov, etc.) becomes emphatic when placed 
between art. and noun : e.g. BGU IV. 109S 36 (c. B.C. 17) 
ftvsu Tfjs avTofi] yvW^IS, and so lb. 1126 12 (B.C. 8). On 
the extent to wliich avTos (in oblique cases again) may have 
enlarged its functions at the expense of eavTov see next 
article. In MGr it is the personal pronoun "he" etc., or 
means " this. " 


How far this form is to be recognized in the sense of 
tavTov has been much debated : see the older literature in 
Grimm-Thayer. It is not a priori likely to he common. 
Mtisterhans, Gr. p. 154, estimates that between B.C. 300 
and 30 cavrov outnumbers avTov in Attica by 100 : 7. But 

Mayser, Gr. p. 305, makes atnrov three times as common as 
tavTov in iii/B.C. papyri (that is, those published before 1906, 
therefore excluding P Hib and many other Ptolemaic docu- 
ments) : in ii/i!.c. the proportion is reversed, and in i/B.C. 
lavToD stands alone. Mayser's analysis of the documents- 
official, private letters, inscriptions, etc.— may also be noted. 
The fact emerges very clearly that both o-auTou and avrou 
have a certain place during the earlier Ptolemaic period, 
aiiTov being certified by syntactical necessity or by d<p', (mB' 
etc., preceding. That in Egypt airov passed out of use is 
seen from later papyri : Moulton Einleitung, p. 139, men- 
tions P Tebt 11. 303 7 (a.d. I76-So)tiov s- 81' aiiTiiv Upiav 
{" independent "—Edd.) as the only quotable instance up to 
date (1910). "Outside Egypt, however, instances are not 
altogether wanting. Thus Syll 371 15 (Magnesia, i/A.D.) v<j>* 
avToii (see however Nachmanson, p. S4), 567" (Lindos, 
ii/A.D.) p.r|Sev aiiTois Seivbv a-uveiSoTas. Dieterich, i'nler- 
such. p. 46, gives some inscriptional exx. of the vulgar aToO 
(see op. cit. p. 78, and above p. 69 [=Proleg. p. 47], which 
show the occasional survival of forms without «." It may be 
added that some nine exx. of aiiTov appear in the index of 
Priene, against about three times as many of eavTov. A good 
instance may be cited from Kdibel 716 5 , the epitaph of a 
young man (Rome), <j>CXovs virep otov €Tiaa. The pro- 
gressive weakening of k would make the clearer form prefer- 
able. It is further suggested that the existence of aiiTov in 
LXX (Thackeray Gr. p. 190), though far less common than 
tavToii, might help to produce occasional revivals of the 
obsolete form. We certainly cannot do violence to the 
sense by forcing uvtoS into places « here a reflexive is needed : 
it would be less objectionable to read tauTov, assuming avTov 
due to some would-be Atticist scribe. See further Kennedy's 
note, EGT III. p. 464, which sums up in favour of a 
minimum admittance of auTov. 


BGU II. 372"" (a.d. 154) (=CArest. I. 19) to[vs] 
Xr|p.cj>8tvTas eir' auT[o]())[iop]<}> KaKoup'yovs. 


is warranted in literature : we have not noticed it in our 
sources, except Vettius Valens. He uses it absolutely, p. 
126", = "suicides," and so 127":. it may have the same 
sense p. 39 s3 . 


For avxe'u construed with an ace. in Jas 3 s Hort aa I. 
compares Aristid. i. 103 advois S' uaiv inrdpxei. Ka9apdv 
eiyivtiav t« Kal iroXiTeiav avx^jo-ai, and translates "hath 
great things whereof to boast," or shortly "great are its 
boasts" (i.e. the concrete suhjects for boasting, aux^o-Ta, 
not the boastings, avxrjo-tis). Vettius has the verb with lirl 
tivi, p. 241* 6ti 01 irpo r||iujv cirl tovtiu T|tix° 1 "' K al ep.aKap£- 
£ovto. It has a personal accus. in Kaibel 567 s (ii/A.D.) avx» 
o-utf>pova . . . SipVjpuv and similarly ib. 822 s (ii/iii A.D.) 
KtKpoir£r|v avx«i irdXiv (cf. 932'— iii/A.D.) : in the passive, 
ib. 192 1 (Rom. age, Thera) ovudvov [t|] uxovutjv AaKcSa(|ioyos 
^k pao-iXr|uv. A Theban epitaph (iv/a.D.), zb. 489', has the 
very phrase of Jas 3 B , Sv ue-ydX' avJxrjo-ao-a -n-aTpls Oi)[P]t| 
itot' eT<o[ . . : Kaibel reads cFuXim, remarking that di- 
gamma survived long in Boeotia (but surely not into iv/A.D., 

avxMP ? 



even in poetry !). It is unfortunate that the opening words 
are lost. The record shows that the verb lived on mostly in 
the language of poetry. 


We can quote only verse parallels for this word of 2 Peter 
(cf. Apoc Petr 6). Kaibel 54S, a pretty epitaph on a boy of 
16 (Nemausus in Gaul — Nismes) begins after Latin dedi- 
cation — 

"Av9ea iroXXd -ye'voiTO v£oSutjt_» tirl Tvpp— >, 
|it] pdros av-xp-npTJ, H-^l KaK ° v alviirvpov. 

The epithet will imply "dark," "funereal" colour. 

The combination quoted by Grimm from Aristotle recurs 
in Kaibel 431 3 (Antioch, not before u/a.d.) — €S [avJxp-Tjpovis Kal dXauireas ' AiSos €uvds. 

aqmiqeui . 

This very common verb is found with the simple gen. in 
P Hib I. 63 16 (1. B.C. 265) toutwv dcptXe, "deduct from 
this": cf. Rev 22 19 with dird added. Passim in the same 
sense in P Lond 265 (= II. p. 257), a mathematical papyrus 
of i/A.D. For the more general sense of " carry off," " take 
away," cf. P Petr III. 53 (j) 15 motc d<p«Xt'o-9ai f|aciv p£a[i 
to KTfj(ia], P Magd 6 s (B.C. 221) d<J>e(XovTO (a garment), it. 
42 s (B.C. 221) to tc irtpLTpax^XtStov €K Ka9opp.iuv \i9ivwv 
d^eiXeTO u[ot], and so in P Lond 4i 13 an,l 16 ( B c 161) (= I. 
p. 28), one of the papyri dealing « ith the grievances of the 
Serapeum Twins — d4>t\tv o.[u]tuv tows dpTous anil d<fu\eo-av 
tous avTwv 8i8vu.uv dpTovs. It has an extreme meaning 
in IosPE i. 22 31 , inrb tou pao-Kavou Satuovos d(j>r|p49Ti, by 
death. In BGU I. 74 s (ii/A.D.) Kal Yap &v dXo-yov eVt] 
6-rrdo-wv p.4v u[ ] dcj>6peTeir|T€, we are apparently to under- 
stand d<|>cupe8arjTe "you might be robbed." It may be 
noted that the middle could be used for the meaning " rob," 
as BGU III. 7S9 15 (a.d. 125) d<j>tX[d]uevoi p.01 x iT<iva > etc - 
We need only add the occurrence of the word in the vi/A.D. 
Christian amulet edited by Wilcken in Aichiv i. p. 431 ff. 
(cf. Selections, p. 132 ff.) where the prayer occurs, 12 irdo-av 84 
vdo-ov Kal Trdo-av p.aXaKiav dcjisXe air' cuoxi, 6tto>s v-yiavw, 
" take away from me all manner of disease and all manner 
of sickness that I may be in health." 


P Gen I. 28 16 (A.D. 136) d]<j>aW|S iyivtro". similarly 
PGrenf II. 61 16 , P Lond 342' ( = 11. p. 174), BGU I. 163', 
ib. II. 467 16 (all ii/A.D.). Syll 923 16 (late iii/B.C.) to p.4v 
«(i<t>av('a . . Tiiv 84 d4>ave'uv ktX. (Aetolia — in dialect). Ib. 
544 J (Aug.) d<j>avovs •yfyEvrintvou toO TrafpaTeix'^H-aTOS, 
S91 15 Kal &t\ dc(>avTi xa KTr|uaTa avTov, 809 11 (iv/iii B.C.) 
dvdvT[Ta auTw -ygVoiTo Kal d\wpa Kal dfioipa Kal d<f>avfj 
avTu [d]iravTa "y€VOLTo. 


For the ordinary sense cf. (e. g.) BGU I. 38 12 irdvTa Tj4>d- 
vio-rat. For the later meaning "disfigure," "destroy," 
cf. P Oxy IX. 1220 20 ^iii/A.D.) oi84v T|4>dvicrev o 'nnrcnvo- 
Td(iis, "the hippopotamus has destroyed nothing," P Ryl 
II. 152 14 (A.D. 42) KaTeW|i.T]o-av Kal KaTe'<j>a-yav Kal tols 
SXois T|4>dvto-av "overran, cropped, and utterly destroyed 
[my pasturage] " (Edd.), and P Lond 4l3 Hf - [c. A.D. 346) 

(=11. p. 302) a request for nets since the g.izelles were 
"spoiling" the writer's crops — 4m8r| tci 8opKa8i[a] d<J>avi- 
?ouo-eiv to (/. Ta) a-rrdpiua. A parallel to Mt 6 ie is 
afforded by the Christian hymn 1' Amh I. 2' (iv/A.D.) 
Tdp.ov ijXuGts pao-LXf|os, Tduov ....:.. Vva p.r| a-' d<f>a- 
via-ns "Thou hast come to the marriage of the King, the 
marriage . . . that thou mayst not disrigure thy face." In 
a fragment of a Gnostic Gospel of early iv/A.D., P Oxy 
VIII. ioSi 25ff , the Saviour in answer to the disciples' ques- 
tion, " How then can we find faith?" is represented as 
replying 8itX9o[vo-iv «k tuv] d(j>aviiv Ka[l el]s T9 [<J>«o]s Tiiv 
<j>aivo[u.e]vwv, " if ye pass from the things that are hidden," 
etc. (Ed.) 

In Kaibel 376 s (Aezani, ii/A.D.) the verb is used of the 
"defacing" of a relief, oo-tis V€Kpdv irpdo-oij'i.v dcj>avio-«i. 
t€kvou : cf. ib. 531 2 (Thrace) (ion to KaXXos T|<J>dvur[e]v 
(presumably Death is the subject). In 492' (Thebes, i/B.c. 
or A.D.) Fortune f|((>dvio-e a young athlete. A British Museum 
papyrus printed in Arckivn. p. 102 (a.d. 114-5) na s (I- 7 ) 
p.€Te'8a)K«'v p.01 . . ra ev avTrj (sc. the record office) pipXia 
d<pav[i]£€o-0ai, Ta 84 irXelo-Ta Kal dv«vpcTa tlvai : the present 
tense suits best the meaning "are being ruined." 


Vettius Valens p. 53' oirws t« 01 d<j>av(.o-jiol [sc. fetus) 
Kal Ta €KTpwaaTa -ytvovTai. 


This poetic word, which reappears in the later prose 
writers (e.g. Diod. Sic. iv. 65. 9), is found in the NT only 
in Lk 24 31 &4>avTos kyivtTo air' aiiTwv. The addition of a 
complement such as dir' avTuv is not in accordance with the 
usual Greek usage of the word, and is explained by I'sichari 
(Essai sur le dec de la LXX, p. 204 ft".) as a Hebraism. 
This would presumably mean that Luke imitated the occa- 
sional LXX d(f>avi?eiv or -«r9ai d-ird, but used the Hellenistic 
&(j>avTos •yeWo-Bai instead of the verb : clearly this combina- 
tion was thoroughly vernacular prose by this time — it survives 
in MGr. 


This rare word is found in OGIS 4S3 220f - (ii/B.c. ) in the 
same sense as in Mt 15", Mk 7 19 , the only two occurrences 
of the word in Biblical Greek — Cod. D substitutes ox«tov 
in Mk. In LXX Lev 12 2 -tj d<j>e8pos is used in another 


For the adj. see OGIS 383 14a (i/B.c.) (ttMo-hs d<pei8e;s 
XiPavwToi Kal dpuiuaTwv, and the fine epitaph of a Sergius, 
martyred under Galerius, Kaibel 1064 (Justinian), referring 
to the d4>6i.S«s drives of the Empress. The adv. is found 
P Tebt I. 24™ (B c. 117) d<f>ei[8]ws, Syll 342 s9 (c. B.C. 48) 
d4>eiSiis 4a«To[i' tiriS] iSois. For the verb see OGIS 640 1 - 
(iii/A.D.) ovk dXt'ywv d<|m&T|o-avTa xp^aaTwv. 


Vettius Valens dispels Grimm-Thayer's aspersions once 
more : see p. 240 16 , the cultured man paSiu; dXCo-KtTai us 
diretpos twv Tra9tov W d{f>eXdTT|Tos Kal d8toiKTjO-Las irpo- 
8e8op.e'vos, "betrayed by simplicity and lack of practical 
capacity." So p. 1 S3 30 , if Kroll's conjecture is sound, 06 




4>6dvu (jjepojievoc ovSe d<j>eXdi-T|Ti. So here is one writer 
neither "biblical" nor "ecclesiastical" who agrees with 
Luke in preferring this abstract to a<j>e'Xeia, which however 
he uses once, p. 42 s4 els a. tov Tpdirov eptpafvovTes. The 
astrologer may further be quoted for the adverb dipeXiis, 
p. 16S 23 TroXXd 84 d. Trio-Tt\Jo-as diroXea-ev. again confirming 
the colour of unworldly simplicity which appears in Ac 2 46 . 
The same adverb may be quoted from an inscr., losPE 
i. 22 24 , iavTov d. Ttj iraTpiSi e's diravTa e-rrtSiSov, as well 
as in Hellenistic literature. Thus Preuschen {HZNT ad 
Ac 2 46 ) cites Athenaeus, Beipitos. X. 4io. d (II. 412 16 
Kaibel) cortaBels d(j«X(is Kal p.ovo-iKiis, where "simple" 
meals are contrasted with Ta TroXvTeXfj Seurva. Add Kaibel 
727 14 (Christian?) eiKoo-Tov 84 Piwo-ao-av d<j)£Xu>s eviavTov : 
the same epitaph speaks of a <|n)xV dcf>eXfj. 


In Egypt d<peo-is tov <J8aTos was apparently a technical 
expression for the "release" of the water from the sluices 
or canals for the purpose of irrigation, e. g. 1' Petr II. 
■3( 2 ) lsff ' (B.C. 258-3) tva eirio-K«uao-8ii<ri irpi Tfjs tov 
tiScn-os d()>eo-eu)S, "in order that they (sc. bridges) may be 
finished before the letting loose of the water" (Ed.), ib. III. 
39 12 , and 44 verso "• iet - t[uv KaT]d riToXeuaiSa d[<j>]€o-ewv 
fiviii|au.ev p 8v[pas]. In this sense the noun may be con- 
crete, meaning apparently a " channel" or "sluice" : P Oxy 
VI. 9iS v - 20 (ii/A.D.) dirr|X(uiTov) 68b(s) 8r|uoo-i(a) iv fj &4>ea-is 
Xi0ivr|. Hence, as Deissmann has shown (BS p. gS ff. ), 
the increased vividness for the Egyptians of the pictures in 
Joel I 20 , Lam 3 47 through the use of d<|»o-eis by the LXX trans- 
lators. The word is similarly employed to denote the official 
"release" of the harvest after the taxes had been paid, in 
order that the cultivators might then use it for their own 
purposes, as P Petr II. 2(i) 9f - (B.C. 260-59) Tfjs a] io-8wo-ews 
8ia-yopevovo-ns Kop.ia"a<r0ai [avTo]v T[d] ex^dpia £>Tav fi 
&4W1S 8o8fj, P Amh II. 43 !l (rs.c. 173) STav rj dipto-is tov 
irvpivwv Kaprrciv 7e'vT|Tai., "whenever the release of the 
wheat crops takes place" (Edd. : see their note ad 1. and cf. 
Archiv iv. p. 60). The editors regard it as very doubtful 
whether the difficult phrase -yfj iv d<j»'o-ei., P Tebt I. 5 37a ' 
(B.C. 1 iS), is to be explained in the same way, and in their 
note on P Tebt II. 325 s they suggest "in reduction," or 
"on reduced terms" as a possible rendering. Mahaffy 
(P Petr III. p. 35) translates the same phrase in P Par 63 1 " 
(B.C. 165) by "privileged land." A nearer approach to the 
Pauline use for "forgiveness" is afforded by the occurrence 
of the word in inscriptions for remission from debt or punish- 
ment, e.g. Michel I340 b - 7 (Cnidus, ii/B.c. ) Tas « d<t>«o-i.os 
tov TaXdvTov d <pav[Ti] d<peio-6ai KaXvavioi virb riavo-i- 
p.dxov, Syll 226 166 (Olbia on the Euxine, iii/B.C. ) tois p.«v 
d<f>€o-as tirotrjo-aTo tov xpiip-aTOv (and exacted no interest 
from other debtors), Magn 93(c) 1 4ff - Ta -yap d<p€iXdu.[€va 
Kara t]tjv KaTa8(.KT|v Tfjs Ka9r|KOTjo-Tjs T«Tevx€Vai ^a-yto-yfis 
fJTot eio-LTrpaxflfio-ris T]fjs KaTa8iKi]s fj d<j>e'o-«<os "yevou.cvr|s : 
see also C/G 205S b ™ (Olbia, ii/iB.c), 2335 6 (Delos, time 
of Pompey) (Niigeli, p. 56). With a gen. pers. it denotes the 
"release" of prisoners or captives, as Lk 4 18 , Syll 197 21 
(B.C. 284-3) 80-01 8]4 aixp-dXwTOi 4y€vovto, tp<pavi'o-as to 
pa[o-iXti Kal] Xapuv av-Tois &4>e[o-]iv ktX.. or "release" 
from some public duty, as P Oxy VII. 1020 6 (a.D. 19S-201) 
9 f|"yov|x[€vos] tov t'Bvovs tov d"yu>va Tfjs dtj)t'a-<ujs €K8tK[fjo-ti. 

In P Tebt II. 404 1 (late iii/A.n.) what seems to be the 
heading of a set of accounts runs Ad-yo[s] d<f>«o-eus o-TaTfjpuv 
pX.: the editors render "expenditure (?)." It should also 
be noted that the word was a term, teckn. in astrology: see 
index to Vettius, p. 377. Thus p. 225» s xprj Tals Xoi-rrais 
tov do-Te'piov d(peo-eo-i Kal uap-rvpiais Kal aKTLvoPoXuus 
Trpoo-e'xctv. See also Abbott /oil. Voc. p. 178 f., with a 
correction in Fourfold Gospel, p. 59. 


For the special sense of " kindling " see P Tebt I. SS 12 <■ 
(B.C. 1 15-4) efs tc Tas BvcKas Kal Xvxvuiv d<puv, "for 
sacrifices and for the kindling of lamps" (cf. Xvxvai[ii'a, 
BGU II. 362'- 1, IS . ^ ) ; and for the meaning "sand" or 
"dust" as a technical term of the arena see Syll 804 11 
(? ii/A.D.) d^Sfj TrT]Xuo-ao-8ai. (with the editor's note). It is, 
however, a wholly different connexion with wrestling that 
is associated with the NT meaning of the word. Dean 
Robinson (on Eph 4 18 ) has shown how from the d<j>r| 
&4Svktos H ith which the wrestler fastened on his opponent 
a<pf| came to be used of the union of the Democritean atoms, 
and further of a band or ligament in ancient physiology. 
Hence in the Pauline usage, the thought is not so much of 
"touch" as of "fastening" — the whole body is compacted 
8id Trdo-T|s d<j>fjs Tfjs eruxopiYias " by every ligament of the 
whole apparatus " (Eph 4 18 ), which in Col 2 l * is expanded 
into 8id tov dtfxav Kal o-vv8e'o-|ia)v " by the ligaments and 
sinews." A mysterious fciratbos occurs in the new Median 
parchment, P Sai'd Khan i n 2S (B.C. 8S) : the assignee of a 
vineyard is to be fined 4dv . . dXtYcopfjo-rj ttjv djiTreXov Kal 
ptf) TroiTJo-r] atiTf)v ^ira<pov. Can this mean "properly tied 
up" — the branches being tied to the poles or trees on which 
they are trained ? The adj. will thus be formed from tirl d<f>ais 
"depending on fastenings" — a formation well paralleled in 


An interesting example of this word occurs in the fragment 
of the Gnostic Gospel from the beginning of iv/A.D. , I' Oxy 
VIII. ioSi 14ff -, where in contrast to the perishing of every- 
thing born of corruption (dirb 4>9opds) we find to] 8« 
yi[i]v6}uv[ov dirb] dtj>[8]apxias [oiiK diroJ-yHvlYrai] dXX[d 
u]cv[€i] &(j>[8ap]Tov us aTrb d[4>]8[apo-La]s ve-yovos. It is 
also quoted from Epicurus (60 3 ) Tfjv p.tTa d(f>8apo-Las jxaKa- 
pioTiiTa: see Linde, p. 43, where other literary parallels are 


As an antithesis to " mortal," the term is well seen in 
Syll 365 10 (c. A.D. 37) 8twv 84 x°-P tT£ s tovto Sia(|>Epovo-iv 
dv8pa)TrLvwv 8ta8oxwv, w fj vvktos fjXtos Kal (for fj) to 
d<|)8apTov BvTjTfjs 4>vo-«ios. OG/S 509 24 (A.D. 312) inrep] Tfjs 
aluvCou Kal dcj)8dpTov pao-iXe^as vaiiv, with reference to the 
Imperial rule. The adj. occurs ter in the magic papyrus 
P Lond 121 (iii/A.D.) (=1. p. S3IT.): see also P Leid 
YYxx. at ovpavbv p-e^av devvaov d<)>8apTov. Cf. s. v. d<f>6apo-£a. 
The record hardly proves a vernacular currency. 


The adj. from which this abstract is formed occurs in the 
formula of contract with a wet-nurse, who is to feed the 



child tui ISuoi/J avTii? "C°-^ aKTt KaBapuii Kal d<p8dpuii, BGU 
IV. 1 107' (B.C. 13): so 1106 11 (suppl.), 110S', 1 109' (all 
Aug., from Alexandria). For d<|>8opos = " chaste " see the 
magic papyri P Lond 46"' (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 77) iiTri iraiSos 
d<p8dpov, and it. 121 s44 (iii/A.D.)(= I. p. 101) where similarly 
the vision is granted to a boy who is d<p8opos KaBapds : cf. 
for the same meaning Justin Afol. i. 15', and Dialog. 100 
(p. 327 c.) irap8«'vos yap ouaa Eva Kal a<£>6opos (cited by 
Dibelius on Tit 2 7 in HZNT). Between 1 Pet 2* and our 
papyri, we should think of freedom from "taint" — the 
spiritual milk has gathered no microbes ! 


Some abnormal NT forms of this very "irregular " verb 
may be illustrated : cf. Moulton, Einleitung, p. 82 f. The 
unaugmented aor. pass. &4>$)T|o-av in Rom 4' (from Ps 31 1 ) 
where N has a.<j>e£8r|o-av) is matched by OGIS 435* (ii/B.c.) 
a<f>«'8ii ; but BGU IV. 1022 8 (a.d. 196) d<p8«(8iipev (i.e. 
d<t>€L0. ). 'Acf^aivTai is to be compared with the imper. 
d(peu>o-6u in Michel 58s 14 (Arcadian ?iii/B.C.), as well aswiih 
the llerodotean dvcWai : see Proleg. p. 38 n. Against this 
note imper. d<peto-8w in CPHerm 119 verso™- 1 * (Gallienus). 
The pres. d<peis in Rev 2 20 and Ex 32"* is best taken as a 
regular contraction of utpieis, from dc|nu> (not a contract 
verb), which is the normal conjugation into which the -pa. 
verb tends here to merge itself: evidence for dcpilu seems 
to be wanting. The assumption of an dcptu, formed by 
proportion from d<p-fj<r<o, is insufficiently supported by the 
barbarous Silco inscr., OGIS 201 13 (vi/A.D.). The MGr 
is d<j>TJvu, with aor. ttcp-no-a and dcprJKa 

Proleg. p. 175, may be referred to for the quasi-auxiliary 
use of d<p£S, MGr &%. We may quote P Amh II. 37 10 
(B.C. 172) d<j>ts av-rbv x a 'p et v, P Hib I. 41 6 (c. B.C. 261) 
<t<j>[6]s airbv tlcrayaytiv "allow him to collect" (Edd.) ; 
but P Oxy III. 413 184 d<t>€S €*yw avT^v 8pr)VTJ<rto (literary, 
i/A.D.). The Latin sine, sinite videamus in Mt 27 4e and 
Mk 15 s6 severally, may well mean " Let us see," as Pallis 
renders it (as Soipe) in both cases, only differing in the 
speakers. The verb has not yet become a mere auxiliary : 
it may still be rendered "allow me to," etc. For the same 
use in another part of the verb cf. P Oxy VII. 1067 6 
(iii/A.D.) d4>tJK«s avTbv a-?) Kr|8cvcrai avrdv, "you have 
allowed his burial to be neglected " (Ed.). So, with infin. 
again, in P Par 47 14 (c, B.C. 153) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 89) 
8ti ir«pd<r«Tai 6 Spaire'[Tr|]s pf| dcpivai T|pas ^[irl t]wv Tdiruv 

The uses of d<p(ripi start from the etymological sense 
"throw" seen in the cognate ahicio. Thus in Syll 356 s8 
(B.C. 6) d<)>eivai T-f|v -ydcrTpav = " let the pot drop. " From 
this primitive physical meaning may be derived the common 
meaning "leave, let go." So with dat. (as in Mt 5 40 ) 
P Tebt II. 421* (iii/A.D.) 8&is avTov dcpeivai ttj 8u-yarp£ 
<r[<w] ai}>es " if you wish to let your daughter have it, do 
so" (Edd.). P Grenf I. 26* (B.C. 113) tt^v 8{ rjpioXiav 
d<pT)K<, "waived the extra 50%," will serve as an ex. of 
the use seen in Mt 18", which leads to the general idea of 
"forgiveness." Similarly in OGIS go 11 (Rosetta stone — 
B.C. i96)tlsT&osd<t>fjK£v, of the "total remission " of certain 
taxes. (See for the NT usage of the word in this sense 
Brooke_/s/;. Epp. p. 20 f.) Not far from this is the use seen 
in P Oxy IV. 744 10 (B.C. 1) ( = Seleetions, p. 33) edv . . t«"ktjs, 
Part I. 


edvflv fipo-evov d<p«s, lav $v 8Vj\«a ilKpaXt, "if it is a boy, 
let it be ; if a girl, expose it." " To let alone " may mean 
"neglect " or "leave undone," as BGU III. 775!^ (ii/ A .D.) 
Td ^St) irpdXr|pa dcpes dxp-ns dv -yeVopt Ui Kal <rwdpa)|«v 
\6yov " leave the preparations (?) till I get there and we can 
confer together," or again as in P Lond 144 14 (? i/A.D.) 
(= II. p. 253) pf| d<f>tiva£ pe tirl ^Vi^s d8ia<popT)8fjvai, "not 
to leave me to be neglected in a strange land." It has an 
explanatory clause in a letter of Hadrian's age, P Oxy X. 
1293 18 r 1 *! 8«AT|<j-r| tis d(peivai pipos p^| tvt'vKas, "lest one of 
them should want to leave part behind and not bring it " ( Edd. ). 
BGU III. 814 (iii/A.D.), a very ungrammatical complaint from 
a son to his mother, three times shows the verb meaning 
"abandon, desert, "with an irregular dative object : 18 d<p[TJ]- 
K[e'[s] poi otiJTois pt|8ev tywv (for «x olm ). 1S dipfjKes [poi 
ov]t[ios] is Kvicoy (for K»vl|, " p-rj d<pr|o-is poi oIStos. So in 
the " Erotic Fragment," P Grenf I. I "(literary, ii/B.c.) Kupie, 
M r 1 a<j>fjis— an appeal from a forsaken girl to her lover. P 
Lille 29"- w (iii/B.C. ) d<j>ei<r8a[i rfjs KarajStK^s will illustrate 
its use with a gen. of " releasing from " : so P Oxy VIII. 
1 1 19" (A.D. 254) ipeis ol Kpa-rio-Toi oi pdvov dipCtrai. [r|pds 
irao-mv irap' dXXms dpx«v] — the suppl. seems sure. P Petr 
II. 13 (19)"- (middle of iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski Epp.*, p. 19) 
pdXio-Ta pev ovv TT^virdo-av <rirou8^|v irdno-at [to]0 d<j?e8iivai 
tre 8id t«'Xovs, "above all things, then, make every effort to 
be finally relieved of your duties" (Ed.). Witkowski (/« 
lor.) says dijucVai is "vox sollemnis de missione militum." 
It may be that a similar "formal" dismissal or sending 
away of the multitudes is to be found in Mt 13 38 Mk 4 s8 ; 
but it may just as well mean simply " let go," as in ordinary 
colloquial speech. The equivalence of the Latin mitten is 
seen in the compound, P Ryl II. 126 1 * (a.d. 28-9) trratpels 
™ taToi irpdpaTa Kal potKa KTtjvT) ets a -yeiop-yiS . . tSdcp(T]) 
" let his sheep and cattle into . . fields which I cultivate " 
(Ed.): cf. " liquidis immisi fontibus apros" in Vergil {Eel. 
2 68 ). Finally, for the use of d<pitVai with a predicative 
adj. placed with the object, cf. P Fay 112 13 (a.d. 99) dBtpis 
(se. -orov) avrbv ius o-ijpepov dipiKas, "up to today you 
have left it unharvested " (Edd.), P Oxy III. 494' (a.d. 156) 
cXeiOtpa dcpiijpi . . SoCXd pou o-iipaTa, of manumission under 
a will. 


BGU II. 614 20 (a.d. 217) tts tovs rd-n-ofvs] d<pi[Ki(r8ai . ., 
and 1. 27 ; P Giss I. 34' (a.d. 265-6) eto-ru peVroi, Sti edv p^| 
d<p£Kr]Tai <rivTrj [ . . . A irpoo-K\)vT|pa from El-Kabin Egvpt, 
Preisigke 158, has 'AvSpdpaxos MaKtSuv d(pfK€TO irpbs 
'Apevu8T|v xpio^iv Bedv — he records his immediate cure : 
so id. 1049 (Abydos) II«i6a-ydpas IIei8aYdpou St' d(pCK«To eirl 
o-u-rnpCai, id. 1052, al. It is almost a technical word in 
describing these "pilgrimages" to sacred places. So in 
verse, Kaibel 9S1 8 , from the island of Philae (i/A.D.) : — 

Niurov ?[ir]' AlYUTn-foJio irt'pas. ir«pi.KaXX^a, <r«p.v<jv 

"Io-l8os, AiStdirwv irpoVBcv, d(pi^dp€voi 
cl'Sopcv kv N^iXtuL iroTapLdt v^as a>KU7ropova"as. 

In ordinary use it is hardly known, and in NT it only 
appears metaphorically, in Rom 16 18 . In Preisigke 1052 
(Abydos) KXeaiwros eirl a-wrnp{ai 'PdSuv difcCKc-ro, it seems 
as if the meaning is "arrived from Rhodes," involving a 
reanimation of the dird in a new sense (instead of the 
perfectivizing force) : cf. the problem of &4>i£is below. 




In P Oxy I. 33 »• ls (ii/A.D.) (= direst I. 20) a certain 
Appianus charges the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (?) with 
•njpavvra dcjnXoKa-yaOfa aTraiSia (presumably dirarSevo-ta), 
after extolling his deified father as cj>iA6<ro<f>os, d<jnXdpvvpos, 
and ((x-XaYaOos. Vetrius Valens has the negative of a similar 
compound dtjuXoKaXos, also found in Plutarch. Nageli 
(p. 52) cites from an inscr. of ii/iii a.d. (Tanais) the 
strengthened compound TrapaiprXaYaSos. 


For this word, which according to Grimm-Thayer is found 
"only in the NT " (?), see (in addition to Didache 15 1 ) the 
quotation from P Oxy I. 23 s.v. d(j>tXdva8os. Add Prime 
137 6 (probably ii/B.C.) ; also Syll 732 s6 (Athens, B.C. 36-5), 
325" (Istropolis, i/B.c), both of which have the adverb 
d<j>iXapYijpws. Cf. Nageli, p. 31, Deissmann LAE, p. 81 f. 


One early citation may be made from P Tetr II. 13 (iSs) 6 
(B.C. 25S-3) i'va dvav^iuo-Bfji Kal bpaXio-Sr] irpbs [t^|]v tov 
Pao-tXe'ws ct<pi£iv, where the word certainly means arrival 
(the reference is to the filling up and levelling of some 
excavated place in view of a visit from King Ptolemy II. ) : 
so also in Aristeas (ed. Wendland) 173 uis 8e TrapeYevfj8r|pev 
ets 'AXe£dv8peiav, irpoa-riyYtXn, tw fiacriXa irepl ttjs d<jn£etos 
T|p.wv, and Magn 17 11 ws 8e -irepl d"y8oiT)Kov0' eTT| peTa ttjv 
depujiv t<f>d[vT|<rav 01 XevKol] KopaKes, and as late as iv/A.D. 
in P Lips I. 64 s5 Trpis (/. irpb) tt)s d(f>££ews tov SiKao-TTjpiou 
and *', and in the Christian letter P Oxy VI. 939 26tf - 
(= Selections, p. 130) Trapapv8ovp[e]8a Si avT-f|v eKao-TT|s 
upas exSexdptvoi Tif|v [<r]-f\v &^iv, "we comfort her by 
hourly expecting your arrival " (Edd.). But Josephus Anlt. 
ii. 18 fin., p.r| irpo8T|Xuio-avTes T<3 iraTpl tt^v Ikeutc d<pi£iv — 
not included among Grimm's citations — can hardly mean 
anything but " departure," or at least "journey " : Winston 
renders "removal." It must be admitted that Jos. uses the 
word also for "arrival," as Apion i. iS (127), 25 (223) and 
-1 (275). See Proleg. p. 26 n 1 on the question of Ac 20 29 . 


The transitive tenses recur in formulae upon contracts of 
sale, etc. : the vendor is to "repel" any claimant or tres- 
passer. Thus BGU IV. I127 19 (B.C. iS) Kal irdvTa Tbv 
eTreXeucrdpevov t} ep-rroTicrdpevov avTbv 'A. d<jno-Tdo-iv Trapa- 
Xpf|[p-a Tots ISCors 8airavT|]pao-iy. Generally it is diro- 
o-TT]tr€iv, as P. M. Meyer notes on P Giss I. Si 20 , where is 
a list of instances. Cf. P Lond 3" (B.C. 146 or 135) (= I., 
p. 46) edv Si p^| dTrocrrifjo-aH, diroo-TTjaw eTrdva-yKov, "if I 
do not repel him, I will do so under compulsion" (Ed.). 
In P Par 59 2 (B.C. 160) (= Witkowski 2 , p. 75) Tbv X070V 
tcuv x^w (*<'• Xape')' d-ireo-TT)Ka (Spaxpds) i\ dpyvpiov 
(Spaxpds) A<r|, Grenfell-Hunt-Smyly and Wilcken suspect 
a mistake for dirtVx-nKa : Witkowski objects that dire'xio 
would have been enough, and would render "solutum 
accept." But dTre'crxiiKa is quite common. Witkowski shows 
that even in Homer d<p(o-Tapai could mean " solvo pecuniam 
debitam." It also means "renounce a claim to" or "give 
up occupation of," etc., c. gen. rei, with or without dird : 
thus in P Grenf II. 28 3ff ' (B.C. 103) d<)>io-TaTai Sewtjo-is . . . 
dirb Ttjs »wvr|p.«Vns vtt' avTtjs irapd IIeTeapo-ep8e»s . . . 



(Tfrdp-rnv) pep£Sa dpTreXw(vos) o-vv<}>vtov, the meaning seems 
to be that Sennesis "renounces" all claim to a piece of land 
she had sold to Petearsemtheus (but see the introduction to 
P Lips I. 1, and Wilcken in Archiv iv. p. 456). For a 
similar use of the middle cf. OG/S 763" (ii/B.c.) Treipdo-opai 
Kal vvv ttjs Totairns Trpo6e'crews ur| d<f>£o-Tao-8a<., and Magn 
53 8 - 1 ov8evbs diroo-TTJo-tTtu T<iv dvrjKdvTwv ttji TroXei., a/. 
For various uses of the intrans. active, cf. P Grenf II. 77* 
(iii/iv A.D.) dXdvus dir^o-rnTe p^| dpavTes [to crjiipa tov 
dSeXifjov vpwv, "you unfeelingly went off without taking 
your brother's body," but only (as appears later) his effects, 
P Lond I209 12 (B.C. 89) (= III. p. 20) wra dcpeo-TT|KdTa, 
"ears standing out (from the head)," P Giss I. 9 s toO 
dvSpds pov . . . dirotrrdvTfojs els 'Odo-iv eWoptas X<*P tv ' 
BGU I. 159* (a.D. 216) dir^o-r[n]v ttjs Kcipr|s, OG/S 654 s 
(i/B.c.) Tf|V 0r|PaC8a [dJTroo-Tao-av . . . viKT|o-as, BGU 
III. 920 31 (a.d. i So) ovk eijdvTos poi dTrocrTfjvai. ttjs 
uio-[e]wo-ews (cf. 1 Tim 4 1 ), P Rein 7 18 (B.C. 141 ?) ep-rrXeKeis 
tc poi ovk [d]Tr£o-TT)i el p*| T|vdvKa(re ktX., " only left me 
after he had forced me to sign," etc. This last use, with 
which may be compared Lk 13 27 , etc., is seen in an incanta- 
tion of the great Paris magical papyrus, 574 124 ' (iii/A. D.) 
(= Selections, p. 114) i!£eX8e Satpov, . . Kal dTrdcn-r]8t d?rb 
tov Si(va), apTi apTi tj8r|. 


P Tebt I. 24" (B.C. 117). P Ryl II. 62" (iii/A. D.) (a 
literary effort) d. Kal TreTrapT| (i- 1. TTCTrapp.) 


With d4>opdv fis = "look away from [other things] to" 
in Heb 12 2 , Abbolt {/oh. Voc. p. 28) aptly compares 
Epict. ii. 19, 29 els tov 0ebv d<j>op<ivTas ev TravTl Kal prxpui 
Kal pe^dXu, and iii. 24, t6 where Epictetus says of Herakles' 
attitude to Zeus — irpos eKetvov d4>op(jiv e'lrpaTTev a ^irpaTTev. 
On the form d4>C8w (Phil 2 23 X AB* D* FG 33) see Proleg. 
p. 44 : in spite of Thackeray's note (Gr. p. 124 f. — which see 
for further exx. ) we cannot allow the long-lost digamma any 
influence in determining this Hellenistic type — see Brugmann- 
Thumb p. 143, and further under eros. In this word at 
any rate the levelling of AiriSelv to d<popdv is a certain 


BGU HI. 91s 16 ' 21 (a.d. 49-50) Tds d<j>wpio-9e£o-as vir' 
'Eppalov (iY. dpovpas), id. IV. 1060 33 (B.C. 14) tov d<pcopi- 
Ko(Ta) to SSacpos, in a technical sense : cf. much earlier 
OG/S 6 20 (iv/B.C. ) dcpopto-ai. avTui Te'pevos. Similarly in 
Rev L t| dcpo)pi.o-pe'vr| was the part of the Libyan nome, the 
produce of which was reserved for Alexandria : see the 
editor's note, p. 169. For the word, as in Mt 13 4 *, we may 
add a citation from the Pelagia-Legenden, p. 6 5 , prj pe d<po- 
pCo-ns dirb tov ovpavtou crov In Kaibel 244 s , 
an epitaph from near Cyzicus, written in a conventional 
Doric, ra KaXXos d<j>iipLcre K-virpts ev do-Tors means "set 
apart " as incomparable. 


This Pauline word is well established in the vernacular 
with meanings varying from "incitement" or "prompting" 
(P Oxy II. 237 vii - 21 , A.D. 1S6, 4k pr|[T]pbs d^oppijs) to the 




more ordinary "occasion" or "opportunity." Thus the 
edict of an Eparcli of Egypt, P Oxy I. 34 i:i 12ft (A.I'. 127) 
runs Toi[s] Sid dtredKav n[a'i] lis d<f>oppr|v ^ToivTas dp.ap- 
Tr|[jLaTt»[v] (see under dimSeia). So in Cara- 
calla's edict (A.D. 215), P Giss I. 40" n i'va p[i\] ir[ap' 
a]irois f\ 8«iXias atria rj irapd to^]s KaKof|8eo-iv <irn,p^]ias 
a4>opfif| inroXtupe-n. The last clause recalls Rom 7". and 
other passage^ where d<popuT| ami dp.apTia are brought 
together. (Ziyrav dnSopp.T|v is a Western reading in Lk 1 1 54 ). 
See also BGU II. 61 5" (ii/A.D.) dcpoppriv tupiiv (,■'. «vpoO<ra) 
— a daughter "finds an opportunity" to write to her lather, 
ib. 632 11 (ii/A.D.) ical 'yu Sid iraa-av d<popp.f|V o[v]x ° KV,i 
0-01 -ypdi|/ai irepi Ttj[s] o-w-rnpias p.o<j na'i tuiv ep.(iv, " and on 
every opportunity I do not delay to write you regarding the 
health of myself and of mine," ib. III. 923" (i/ii A.D.) 
KaXiis oiv iroiT|o-eLS, eay etipns d4>opp^v] Sia-ypaii/diMVOs 
ktX., P Strass I. 22 20f (iii/A.D.) ?x OVT °s Ttvos a(pop|x^v k&v 
Ppaxeiav 8ixaiav xaroxfjs. "if any one has a just occasion 
of possession for however brief a period," and from the 
inscriptions Pnette 105 12 (c. B.C. 9) 6]<ptXos $v-njx«o~"'p a [ s 
XdPoi] d<poppds. and 16 iva d<poppi| -vsvoito rijs eis tov 
SePao-Tov TtipTJs. The more literal sense ot the word is 
seen in the iv/A.D. letter P Amh II. I43 14fr - p-r; 8eXr|o-ns 
oSv. xvpie. pive ( = p.tivai) «xtos T|puv aiipiov Sid t^|v d<f>op 
pr|V toO iiSaros e'iva Svvn,8ii)pev iroTio-ai T t ov ps'-yav KXfjpov, 
"so please, sir, do not stay away from us to-morrow, 
because of the flow of water, so that we may be able to 
irrigate the large holding" (Edd.). It is common in Vettius, 
esp. with irpd£ews or irpa-ypdruiv : thus p. 23S 2 irtp'i xds 
irpd^eis xai (JiwTixds ddSopp-ds. An apparently new verb 
d4>opp.d^Tai is found in the late P Lond IV. 1360 7 (A.D. 
710), in the sense of " make excuses" (Ed.). In MGr the 
noun means "occasion, cause." 

The adj. d<j>pidtvTi, as an epithet of the sea, occurs in a 
late hymn to Isis, Kaibel 1028 74 . For the medical writers' 
use of dippds (Lk 9 s9 ) see Hobart's plentiful evidence, 
Med. Language of St Luke, p. 17 f. The word is MGr. 


V Fay 124 12 (ii/A.D.) irdvu ^dp poi Soxtts d(f>puv tis 
el[v]ai, " indeed you appear to me to be quite mad " (Edd.) 
—a remonstrance addressed to a man who was defrauding 
his mother of some allowance. The adj. occurs in the 
literary P Grenf I. I 19 (H/b.C.) 4dv 8' evl irpoo-xa8ei pdvov, 
a<ppuv ia-ii '. see note. 


Plummer on Lk 8" says the use = "fall asleep" is 
"medical and late": unfortunately he gives no evidence of 
the former (nor does Hobart mention it), but the citation 
from Heliodorus is to be noted. Lobeck Phryn. p. 224 gives 
others. The transference of an dird compound from the 
end of an action to the beginning of it is seen also in d(pi£is 
(</.7:): in neither case is Luke likely to have started the 
change of meaning, but our evidence is still scantier here 
than there. 


V Elor I. 3 17 (A.D. 301) tdv Se dcpuo-TepT|[o-]u)0-i xai p.T] 
irapao-rno-uae^v tj]u£ls avT[o]i tov [Oirep] ainiv Xd-yov viro- 

PAR'l I 

p.[ev]ovp.ev, " but if they fail, or if we do not make the 
arrangement, we hold ourselves responsible." A similar 
phrase is found ib. 34 11 (A.D. 342), 1' Lips I. 54" ( \ 1 
376), ib. 56 19 (A.D. 39S), and PSI 86" (A.D. 367-75). 
P Lond Il66 13 (A.D. 42) (= III. p. 103) tdv Sj dipuo-TepTJ to 
|3aXav€iov xa[v]p-ao-i, o( a bath insufficiently warmed, gives 
us the word from the NT epoch itself. 


In Sy/l S02 41 (iii/B.c, from the Asclepieum of Epidauros) 
one of the cures effected is that of a irais dipuvos- For its 
application to a dumb idol in I Cor 12 2 , cf. Kaibel 402 1 , 
from Sebastopolis in Galatia, where the marble pillar is made 
to say Tatd pe Tixtv (I. tixtsv) d<j>uvo[v] : now through the 
inscription it speaks. The word is MGr. 


In Syll 226 159 (Olbia, on Euxine— iii/B.C.) the verb 
d\apio-T€LV occurs in the normal sense: see also BGI I\ . 
1026 xxii16 (iv/v A.D. magical) tovs 8« diraXXa-YtvTos (/. -as) 
xai dxapio-TT|o-avTa[s]. In P Grenf I. 52 12 (iii/A.D.) dxdpi- 
otov = " antidote " " id est sine gratia," as a Latin writer 
in Grenfell's note explains it, assigning a reason. A poem 
dated A.D. 94 {Kaibel 61S, Rome) is inscribed on the tomb 
of its precocious author, a boy of eleven : it has the line 
o-impiov «ls dxapio"Ta p.aTT]V 8' virb KV(j>bv dpoTpov Taiipov 
inro^eu^as. Vettius also may be cited for adj. and verb, and 
the abstract dxapioria. 


This negative of a well-warranted word is said by Grimm 
to exist neither in profane authors nor in LXX. Its appear- 
ance, therefore, at once in Mark and in Paul is — valeat 
quantum — support for the inference that a genuine Logion 
about a " house not made with hands" underlies the per 
version of Mk 14 s9 , and is quoted by Paul (and Heb 9 1121 ) : 
it would be probably a coinage for the occasion in the earliest 


With Lk 17 10 may be compared the fragmentary P Par 
6S 51 dxpt'ous 8ovXous : see also P Magd 29" (B.C. 2 1 7) toit[ov] 
dvTa Kai p.01 dxp«i-ov xa'i o-revbv tirl pirjKos 8«'8wk«v. The 
one occurrence of the adj. in NT may quite possibly be 
a mistaken gloss: the Lewis Syriac presumes simply S0CX01 
to-atv. a very plausible reading. 

Herwerden cites the abnormal feminine dxpeia from IG 
Sept 303 10 (iii/B.C.) cptdX^v . . . dxp^av. 


In OGIS 573 1 ', a Cilician inscr of i/A.D., it is forbidden 
p.f|T£ diraXeti^ai p.rJT£ dxp««o"<ii' V-^™ ("Tapai the inscriptions 
and votive offerings of an adjoining temple. The verb 
occurs in a quotation of Vettius, p. 290 1 , where a king says 
o toioStos . . • &TCKVOS T<iv dva-yxatwv o-repr|8r|0-«Tai xal 
■irdvTa dxp""""as Tpdirov eiraiTou 5r|0"£Tai. 


I' Tebt I. 74 30 . 70 . 75 5S "(both ii/ii.c) of " unproductive" 
land. So in CPIIerm 7" Lli (ii/A.D.), but liiat contextus. 

a K pi, a X pi<> 



It describes a pig in P Flor II. 127 1 * (A.D. 256) dXXd KaXbv 
-rrdXiv eVTto, [i^| ws irpioT]v Kal Xctttov Kal dxprjo-Tov. lb. 
185' (A.D. 254) KaTea-yptva Kal dxprio-Ta, of panniers, 
and P Oxy X. 1346 (ii/A.D. ?) dxpt|o-Tos [yltvuvai (/. Yevove), 
of a garment. Cagnat IV. 293" (Pergamon, B.C. 127-6) 
KaTecp8appe[vov . . • Kal] . . . -ye-yovbs dxpr]cr[Tov. of a 
gymnasium. The moral sense of the word comes out in 
P Oxy VII. IO7O 50ff - (iii/A.D.) yA\ dpeXTJo-r|S p^ dpa -rroTe 
8e' A T]S M-W™ tI"]! [Hp]ae(Si t^|v Tt]pT|o-iv ttjs &Xt|s o'tKtas 
wapaSiSovai dxpT|o-Toy oiicrns avTtjs, " do not neglect this, 
lest indeed you choose to hand over the keeping of the 
whole house to Herais, who is unworthy" (Ed.). The 
resemblance to Philem " is obvious. Vettius (p. 62') speaks 
of axpiora Pp«'4»]. 

*XQh &XQIG- 

No example of &xpis ' las y et been produced from the 
Ptolemaic papyri. In the Roman period both forms are 
found, their usage being apparently determined as a rule by 
the same considerations of euphony as in the NT. Fur dxpi 
oS cf. P Oxy I. 104 18 (a will, A.D. 96) &xpi ov eKTrXr)pu>o-u,o% 
dpyvpiou Spaxpai TpiaKocriai, BGU I. 19'- 5 (A.D. 135) 
dxpt oil -ypdtj/u T<i KpaT(o-Tu) r|-yepdvi and P Oxy III. 507 30 
(A.D. 169) &xpt ou diroSui 0-01 to tcc<f>dXaiov, etc. Without 
08, cf. P Oxy III. 491 8 (A.I). 126) oi]8' dXXius KaTaxprp 
p.aTi£eiv &XP l 'KaTepos ainiv TrX^piio-Ti Jtt] «'ik[oo-i Tre'vTe, 
it. IX. 1215 (ii/iii A.I>.) (please come to me) &xpi to 
irpd-ypaTa KaTao~raX^ (illit. letter). For.dxpis dv cf. BGU 
III. 830 13 (i/A.D.) dxpi-s dv 0-01 i'XBw, a/. "Axpi of manner 
is illustrated by Ostr 1129 6 (A.D. 207) &XP 1 toO di|;(uviov, 
P Tebt II. 301" (A.D. 190) fo"xov tovtou [to l]o-ov dxpt 
e£eTdcreu>s, " I have received a copy of this for investigation " 
(Edd.). With the phrase &XP 1 Toi viv in Rom S 22 , Phil I 5 , 
cf. t'GU I. 256 s (time of Antoninus Pius) (m'xpH t[ov] viiv : 

dxpt is only an ablaut valiant of pe'xpi — see Brugmann- 
Thtimb, p. 631. 


A lew citations suffice for this very common word, which 
survives in MGr. One shows that " bricks without straw " 
were as al in< irma] in the Ttolemaic period as in the days of 
the Exodus: P Petr II. 14 (2) 12 (as amended III. p. 139) 
shows directions es Ta dx«pa -rrpos rf|v irXiv6oXKiav. So in 
Syll 5S7 73 (B.C. 329-8, Attica) dxvpujv o-aKoi els tt^v oiko- 
Sopi'av tov Ttixous : Ditt. cites another Attic inscr. which 
mentions 7tt|X6s rixvpuipe'vos. This use of chaff was accord- 
ingly not limited to Egypt. The practice exemplified typically 
in the Ptolemaic ostracon, Ostr 116S— Xd(vos) dxvpov, an 
account for fuel els Tds Kapeivous, and in BGU III. 760" 
(ii/A.D.) d. to Kal x M povvTa is inroKavo-iv tov pe[vd]Xo\j 
vup.(vao-£ov), P Fay Ostr 21 (A.D. 306) dxvpou Kavo-ipou 
o-aK(Kov) a — reminds us that (brickmaking apart) feeding 
the fire was the normal use of the "chaff." The stern 
theology of earlier days may have glossed the Baptist's words 
with Prov 16* ! 


P Lond I2i"°>- (magic, iii/A.D.) (=1. p. 102) eirl t<3 
dxpdvTu <j>u)Tl oxovpevos d<|/ev8T|s. The adverb is restored 
in BGU II. 432" ' (A.D. I9o)X«-yopevo[. di|;je>j8u>s Trpbs ktX : 
cf. also the late P Lond IV. 1343* (A.D. 709) dxpeuSiis Kal 
dtrvpTra6u>s. The passive adj. occurs in Preisigkc 1070 (a 
7rpoo-KvvT|pa from Abydos) . . . Kal d^evo-Tov Kal 81' 8Xt|s 
olKovpe'v(rjs) pap-rvpovpevov ovpdviov 6ebv [Br]o-av e]8eio~a- 
[pev, and P Leid W s,n 4 - 6 %\ov tt^v dx|ievo-Tov dXr|9eiav. 


P 12i"' f (magic, iii/A.D.) (=1. p. 9S) Tjo-uxa^ov 
d»^vx 0i s Tpo<j>als XP***P (V °S. It is MGr, = " lifeless." 



BaaA — (Saiva> 


Tij Bda\ iii Rom n 4 is paralleled in LXX four times 
outside Prophets and Apocrypha, where it is feminine with- 
out variant: correct thus the note in J'roleg. 3 , p. 59, where 
see aKo a reference to the usual explanation (Dillmann's). 


I' land 15"' 5 (iv/A.D.) has Bap[v]X[ciy]a in a fragmentary 
context. See also P Flor II. 278"- • (ii/A.D.), a letter 
addressed o-TpaT]r|Yu>i 'Apapia(s), where he is instructed 
KaprjXovs ovs irpoo-c'jTa^ev dppevas kqi pwpaXe'ovs. Svvape'vovs 
xais Tropaats ij-rfTiptTCLV, i] avTos dvave ^ Std tlvos tuiv <tu>v 
Trepi|/ov *vS BapvXuiva. 


For this common LXX verb reference may be made to 
P Par ji^ (B.C. 160) (= Selections, p. 19) <jip[r|v] par( : 
Sti^eiv pf [aTr]b Xapbs <:u>s d[TTT|Xi]u>Tov, (< I dreamt that I 
was going from West to East,'' P Lips I. 104 28 (c. B.C. 96-5) 
( = Witkowski *, p. Il8)dicrj «b' dXXaxi) paSilJeTe, P 1 )\y 
1Y. 743 2 * (B.C. 2) to (3a8icrai eis TaKova, and PSI I. 95 s 
(iii/A.D.) Kdv c€ S-rj (/. 8en) paSfo-ai els . . . The subst. 
is found P Grenf II. 14 (b) B (B.C. 264 or 227) bvovs PaSio-Tas 
irevTC. In P Flor III. 376" (iii/A.D.) vtto tovs pa8icrrds 
[. . . has the note "sc. 6'vous : that the noun is really 
understood, and not latent in the hiatus, is shown by the 
word paSio-TiiXdTas above (1. 13 )—d. P Tebt I. 262 (late 
ii/B.c), PSI II. 205' (a.u. 295). A donkey was apparently 
regarded as "what will go," which is not a unanimously 
accorded estimate : di res paSi.o-Tr|s as epithet of 6'vos suggest 
that the verb connoted a kind of gait seen typically in a 
donkey? See also the editor's note on P Kyi II. 236 s 
(A.D. 256). 

The thought of a "vantage ground, a 'standing' (RV) 
a little, as it were, above the common level," which Hort 
(Christian Ecclesia, p. 202) suggests for this word in 1 Tim 
3 13 , may be illustrated from the Mytilene inscription 1G II. 
243 16 tols Tas d££as Patrpois dveXdyno-e, " er wurde durch 
sein Verhalten dem Ehrenamte gerecht " (Nageli, p. 26). See 
also R. M. Pope Exp 7'xxi. p. 1 1 2 ft". The word is found 
in the mystery religions, e. g. Reitzenstein Poimandres 13 9 , 
p. 343. 6 po.0u.rK ovtos, w tckvov. StKaiocvvT^s €0-tIv i:8pao-pa. 
Imniisch in Philologus xvii. (X.F.) p. 33n. 1 cites pa8pds as a 
technical expression in philosophy, denoting a step towards 
the goal, and compares Olympiodorus Proleg. (Com 111. in 
Aristottlem Graeca XII. l),ed. Busse, p. 9 31 , and ib. Scholia 
in Platonis Phaedoncm, ed Finckh, p. 3 16 . 

The rule which the grammarians lay down that paSpds i> 
the Ionic form of the Attic Pa<rp.ds (so Lob. P/iryn. p. 324) 
Pakt II. 

is not borne out by the evidence of the inscriptions: see 
Thumb Helkn. p. 73. 

'Phe literal meaning is illustrated by P Kay no 8 (a.d. 94) 
o-Ka»|/ov €tti pd6os, "dig a deep trench": cf. BGU II. 
647 13 ." (A.u. 130) br\ pd8ovs, ib. IV. II22 16 (B.C. 14) . . .] 
'i\oy to Ka8f|Kov pdOos, of the setting of plants in trenches 
in a garden — cf. Mk 4 s . The ordinary use in connexion 
with TrXaTos is seen, e. g., in measurements for excavations 
in the construction of a canal, P diss I. 42 (a.D. 117) 
passim, as 5 (3o ppd e)(op(«va) o"xoi(v(a) 8 £vX(a) pic[i)], 
-rrXaTos' y, pd8 os e, i"avp\a> £8. Herwerden Lex. s.v. 
cites Papiers du Louvre ed. Letronne) 64 (ii/B.c.) prj 0-' iir'i 
pdOos = TravTeXws ?) tovto Tr*Tror|K€vai. Tlie astrological 
use of p. to denote the space below the horizon out of 
which the stars rise e. g. Dieterich Mithrasliturgie, p. S 5 , 
iyui upi o-vp.TrXa.vos do-TT]p Kal €K tov pd6ovs dva- 
Xapiruv) may throw some light on Rum 8 38 (see Lietzniann 
in HZ.NT ad loc). For the true " ( ireek " character of the 
Pauline phraseology in Rom 1 1 33 u> pdOos ttXovtov ktX., 
see Norden Agnostos Theos, p. 243 f. 


For this verb = "go deep," as in Lk 6 48 , we can only 
point to Philo I. 248, 15 (cited in Sophocles Lex. s.v.) ; 
see Radermacher Gr. p. 19, for other solitary instances of 
transitive verbs used intransitively. 


For p. associated with time (class.), as in Lk 24 1 , cf. 
P Lips I. 40" 10 (iv/v A.D.) di|« Trdw paOjYjias «o-rr«'p[as. 
So in the fragment of an epithalamium (iv/A.D.), P Ryl I. 
I/ 6 - 

opotppoo-vvrjv 8' OTrdo"^[l€ 
f|8rj ttov 8tbs dppi Kai avTiKa TeKva ■y€vt'[o-]0aL 
Kal Tra[tJ8tav TraiSas Kal es Pa8v vfjpas LKc'o-®[ aL - 

It is applied to colour in P Lond 899 1 (ii/A.D.) (=111. 
p. 208) to ovv Pa8vT€pov [sc. TT0p4>VpL0V) TT€TrOir|TaL els TO 
o-rravou (?) Kal to d£vT«pov eis t[o] &XX[o]. The com- 
parative paBvTepov is also found P Petr III. 43 (2) recto"' 13 
(B.C. 245) (p. 121). Note a new compound, recalling the 
combination in Lk 6 48 , P Hal I. I"- 83 (iii, B.C.), where a 
ttoXitikos vdp-os is headed 4>vT[€uo-]etos Kal oiKoSop[(as] Kal 


The simplex of this old verb, whose compounds are 

ubiquitous, has perhaps not quite disappeared from use, 

though not to be found in XT. Its present appears in 

Dt 28 ie , its perfect in Wisd (bis) and 3 Mace : cf. BGU IV. 

101 14 




I 192 10 (i/B.C.), where twv [p]ii> p[ai]vdv[T»v] ri\v dira[tTT)a-i.v 
is read by Schubart, who regards the supplement as " un- 
vermeidlich." Less noteworthy is its appearance in a long 
builder's specification for a temple at Lebadea, Syll 540 163 
(B.C. 175-1) PcPtikotcis (sc. Tois XiBovs) dXous da-xda-rous, 
dve[*yK\r|]Tovs ktX. 


This word, apparently of Egyptian origin, which is found 
in Bibl. Grk only in 1 Mace 13 51 , Jn 12 13 , occurs in the 
late P Flor I. 37 s (v/vi a.ii.) Sikcuu Patw, of a palm branch 
used as a measuring rod. Pata is quoted in P Tebt II. p. 69 
from a text edited by Wessely : and pdtwv occurs in P Lcid 
V vii17 , but with Pats as nom. in preceding line. The form 
Paiov is presumed by the compounds paiocpopetv and 
Pcuo<j>op£a : see P Tebt II. 294 111 (application for the pur- 
chase of a priestly office— a.d. 146), where the writer 
promises " to cany the p." and perform all the other needful 
offices, also 29s 11 (a.d. 126-3S) and 599 (ii/A.n.). For the 
form Pats see P Lond 131 recto™* (A.D.78-9) ( = I. p. 1S1) 
pacts, P Oxy IX. 121 1 8 (ii/A. D.) Pats xXupds is- (cf. P Leid 
W T '- 5I) — ii/iii a.d.— \ap<iv patv xXwpdv), and BGU II. 362 
(a.d. 215) ter in the phrase inrb Se'vSpa Kal pats: Wilcken 
Chrest. I. p. 128 prints P[ais]— ought it to be ace. pi. Paets? 
In \iew of the above evidence the word makes yet another 
deduction from the fast vanishing list of "bibl. and eccles." 
words in Grimm. 


That the verb does not necessarily imply castingox thrusting 
with some degree of violence is clear already lrom the NT 
itself ; and there are vernacular parallels to negative the 
assumption of "Jewish Greek." Thus in BGU II. 597* 
(a.d. 75) Iva pdXiiv. tov |id<rxov irpb Tciv irpopaTuv the verb 
does not suggest a violent "flinging" of the helpless calf 
before the ferocious beasts afterwards named. Cf. P Oxy 
VII. 1069 26 (iii/A.D.) K[a]Xd (ifTpa aiS-rui paXei-ua-av, "let 
them put good measure into it " with reference to the making 
of a tunic, and id. VI. 934* (iii/A.D.) pr^ oiv apcX^a-us toO 
paXetv tt)v Koirpov, " do not fail therefore to throw the 
manure on the land" (Edd.): cf. P Fay 11S 31 (A.n. no) 
pdXXwi €^ dpovpas ets tt]V *tvv6(ppiv, " I am manuring six 
arourae at Psennophris" (Edd.). For a similar absolute 
usage see Syll 522' (iii/B.C.) BiJtiv Sc i-dp pev poCv p*pXn- 
Kora, tt]V 8e otv p«pX-nK[v]iav, of animals that have " cast" 
their first teeth. A very curious absolute use occurs in >yll 
3S9 11 (a.d. 129), where the Ephesians honour Hadrian as 
8t8ovTa TTJ Bcul tuv KX-npovoaiiiv Kal pepXt|KOTu)v to SiKata : 
Dittenberger tentatively suggests that it may be a rendering 
of bona caduca, property without an heir. P Lond I177 40 
(A.D. 113) (=111. p. 1S2) at TrXetu pXT|6et<rai [ ? sc. fiSa-roS 
XopTvvIai.] paXaveiou 2eur|piavo0 will illustrate Mt 9 17 and 
other places where p. is used of liquids. With the phrase of 
Mt s 25 etc. cf. P Tebt II. 567 (a.d. 53-4) cts 8eo-pevTT|piov 
pXT|6r|creTai. P Flor II. 14S 11 (A.D. 266-7) T °- Sc Ttpvdpeva 
<J>viTa ciBtlus els i>8cup paXXca-Bu Iva pi] ^TipavBTJ. "be put in 
water that they may not wither," is a further instance of the 
unemphatic use. The intransitive pdXXeiv, in NT found only 
in Ac 27 14 , occurs in a much milder sense in Epict. ii. 20. 10 
paXwv KaflcvSc Kal rd tou ct-kiuXtjkos ttoici, "lie down and 
sleep and play the part of the worm," ib. iv. 10. 29 t£ oiv ov 

pe'-yKu paXuv ; and Enoch iS* Spr| cts votov pdXXovTa, 
(mis)quoted by Kadermacher Gr. p. 18. For the aor. indie. 
€PXt|8t| used of present time in Jn I5 6 cf. Proleg. pp. 134, 247, 
and Abbott Joh. Gr. p. 327. On pcpXr^o-Bai, used of sick 
persons, as Mt 8 14 , Lk 16 20 , see Field Notes, pp. 7, 70. 

pdXXu is the only verb to form a gerundive in NT, and 
that only once (Lk 5 38 pX-ryrt'ov) : the gerundive in -tc'os is 
rare, though not unknown, in papyri, and is generally found 
in formulae, so that we should hardly credit it to popular 


As late as iv/A. D. the word is used in a magic papyrus, 
P Lond 46" ( = I. p. 67) of a " submerged " boat — otto 
v€vaua"yT)K!OTos) irXotou dirb iraKi-wvos PePaTrTia-p(cVou). 
Lucian Timon 44 makes the Misanthrope threaten liBely 
Kal Ctrl KecJmX^v pairri^ovTa. So in a fragment of Epictetus 
(Stobaeus no. 47 — Schenkl p. 474), quoted by D. S. Sharp, 
EpictetltS and the Nl\ p. 66, aia-rrcp ouk dv cpovXov cv vtjt 
pc-ydX-n Kal -yXatpvpqi Kal TroXt>\pija-u» ttXcW Pairi-i^ea-Bai . 
With its use to express ceremonial ablution — as Lk n 38 and 
the new Gospel-fragment P Oxy V. 840 ls u[t|]t€ pf|V Tiiy 
paBrjTwv <rov tovs Tr[d8as Pa]Trn.o-6e'vTwv — «e may compare 
anotiier magic papyrus P Lond 121" 1 (iii/A.D.) ( = I. p. 98) 
Xovo-dpevos Kal paima-dpcvos. Our earliest quotation is 
from P Par 47 13 (c. B.C. 1 53) ( = Selections, p. 22) Kdv tSrjs 
on ptXXope.' o-wBijvau, totc Pairn1|iipe6a. The translation 
of the letter, which is very illiterate, is by no means clear, 
but PaTTTii;dp.68a must mean "flooded," or overwhelmed 
with calamities. That the word was already in use in this 
metaphorical sense (cf. Diod. i. 73. 6), even among un- 
educated people, strikingly illustrates our Lord's speaking 
of His Passion as a "baptism" (Mk 10 38 ). 


The word is restored by the editor in the new fragment 
of an uncanonical Gospel, P Oxy X. 1224, Fr. 2 verso '■*■ 
(iv/A.D.) i-t p]d[irn.o-(j.]a Kaivov [KT|pio-o-eiv [sc. <}>a<rli<) 
"what is the new baptism that they say thou dost preach?" 
— where for p. Kt|piJo-o-ctv he compares Mk I 4 , and for the 
likelihood of questions concerning a " new baptism," Jn 4' '-. 
That the noun is " peculiar to XT and eccl. writ." (Grimm) 
is of coarse natural : the new use to which the verb was put 
as a term, teciin. demanded a corresponding noun. The 
same may be said of Pairn.0-p.ds and pairTia-rtis, which only 
occur certainly in Josephus's account of John the Baptist : 
see further s.-\ pairrurads. 


Grimm's .statement that "among prof. writ. Josephus 
alone (Antt. xviii. 5. 2) uses the word, and of John's baptism " 
is traversed by the ordinary text of Plutarch's Moralia : see 
the De Superstilione 3, p. 166 A, where he names among 
superstitions Trr|Xua-€i.s Kai-aPoppoptoa-tis pairna-povs, ptij/sis 
€irl Trpda-u>irov, ata-xpds irpoKa8ta"ei.s, oXXokotous irpocrKu- 
vf)a-as. But, unfortunately, the word is only Bentley's emen- 
dation fir o-appario-pois, according to Bernadakis' apparatus 
— was the change necessary? 

As distinguished from pdirrurpa in which the result is 
included, patma-pos is the act of immersion (Blass Gr. p. 62) ; 




and lience in Ileb 6- Chase (Confirmation in the A tost. . I . 
p. 44 f.) understands 8i8axr] paimo-p-civ as = " ' the teaching 
about acts of washing,' the exposition of the truths and 
spiritual principles embodied and expressed in the baptism 
of this disciple and of that." 

In P Tebt II. 287 s (a.d. 161-9) the fullers and dyers of 
the Arsinoite nome appeal against a tax that had been im- 
posed upon their trades— ol pi]y el[o-i] -yvacptis o[l 6ej pacbeis 
T-ny cp-yao-iav. StSovTai 8i vir«p tcXovs ktX. For the t«Xos 
pacbtwv see also Ostr 700, 1068 (both ii/A.n.), and 1516 
(ii/F.c). In P Par 52 10 , 53 s (B.C. 163-2) pairrd = " coloured 
garments": cf. P Oxy X. 1293 24 (A.D. 117-38) cts pa<pf,v 
«p[i]Sia, "wool to be dyed." A late instance of the verb in 
this sense may be cited from P land 17 7 (vi/vii a.d.). 

The verb is restored by the editors in the uncanonical 
Gospel fragment, P Oxy V. 840*' e-yw 8e Kal oi [u.a8r|Tai 
pov] ovs Xe'-yus p.^| p€Pa[irri<rflaL Ptpdlp.p.f8a iv iiSao-i 5u[tjs 
auovfov '. cf. Epict. ii. 9. 20 OTav 8' dvaXaPfl to TrdGos to tou 
P£Pa(i|a.«vou Kal r]pT||j.evou. tot« Kal (<m tu> bvri Kal KaXetTai 
'Iov8aios. "here pePapufVov seems to refer to baptism and 
TJprjiu'vov to circumcision (see Sharp Eputelus and the NT, 

p. 134 r.). 

For the contrast with "EXXt|v see OGIS 765" (iii/B.c.) 
outos Si dvT€Ta[^]aTO irpbs tovs papPdpovs d[T]ip.[dJovTds 
t« T|(idsT • •  Kal eis tovs "E\\n,vas [irapavopovvTas], cf. 
18, 19. ii, 32 . ,(, -63 1 " (letter of Eumenes II., ii/B.C.) dva8e(|as 
(|ia\jTov titpYeTTjv rav 'EXXr|viov ttoXXovs p-fv Kal pe-ydXovs 
avcivas iire'o-TT|V irpbs TO»[sl papPdpovs — apparently the 
Galatae, see Dittenberger's note, and fur a similar reference 
Mar,, 46 10 . Berber is used in the same way by Egyptians 
to denote non-Egyptian peoples. In P Lond 410 6 (<\ A.n. 
346) (= II. p. 29S) a mother beseeches Abinnaeus to release 
from service her son — dTrijXflev ovv ptTa tov pdpPapov. 
P Par 10* (B.C. 145) tells of a Syrian slave to-Ti-ypt'vos T ° v 
8e|ibv Kapirbv -ypdppao-i papPapiKols. presumably Syrian. 
The more ethical sense of the word (as Ezra 2i :,1 t 36 )) may be 
illustrated from Aristeas 122 to Tpa\v Kal pdppapov tt|S 

The verb is only found in perf. pass, in LXX, and only 
twice (Exod 7 14 , 2 Mace 13') : see Thackeray Gr. i. 
p. 261. Similarly in NT we have only the passive, but the 
present and aorist are used. The record fits its early history, 
for pePapim«vos is the oldest form after the Homeric p«pa- 
pr|us; and Hippocrates is the first to use pape'tTai. See 
Anz Snbsidia, p. 266 ff. Instances of the active are late in 
appearing. Anz quotes Lucian's censure on papctv for 
Papivav, and mentions CIG 5853 16 (A.D. 174) tlva p.f| tt)v 
wdXiv papciaev. MGr has Papio, "strike," as well as 
papctovuai, " be weary of" (Thumb Handbook, p. 321). 

The use of the verb in the papyri tallies with this record. 

Thus P Tebt II. 327 s5 (late ii/A.D.), y]vvf\ ovo-a dpo- 

t|6t)tos iro[XXo]ts fVtcri PePapT|ae'vr|, "a defenceless woman 

weighted with many years" (Edd.), P Oxy VI. 939" 

iv/A.P. ) f|Vu<a tpaptiTO ttJ vdo-w. It becomes a formula in 

a group pi documents relating to taxation. P Giss I.4 U 
(A.D. IlS) avToi T€ pcPapTjue'voi. ttoXXuh xpdvau 8t||;.oo-iois 
[...]. ib. 6" (A.D. 117) avTOs Se papovpai Tui tK^opiuj 
so ib. 6" 10 , two documents in Archill v. p. 245 f., and 
another in P Ryl II. 96 s , all with the same phraseology, 
and dated about the same time. Similarly P Brem 73 s (in 
C/trest. I. p. 277) (c. A.D. 117) ottus p^) pap-nBwcriv 1\ -irapa- 
7rpax6wo-iv ol ^vx"P L oi rj o-vKO<pavTT}8u»o-iv, Syll 41S 85 (a. I). 
23S) tav papovp.«8a (needlessly emended -lipeBa), <p'u£dp£8a 
dirb twv olkclwv (query oIkVilwv ?) Kal pt*yio-TT|v £r|p£av to 
Tap.€tov TT€ptpXrj0r|o-€Tat, ib. 422 s (iv/A.D. ) 6 vopi^wv Papio-8at 
8m tov 8iKao-Tov. These illustrate the use in 1 Tim 5 18 : 
cf. also CIG 5S53 15 (= OGIS 595") as above. Other 
examples of the verb from the inscriptions are Kaibel 
335* 6vt|0-kw] 8' Ov^l v[ocr]u> Pepapr|u.t'vos, 6oS* (ii/iii A.D.) 
K£iTe 8[-f|] ■yripa Pepapr|[p«]vos. In Anth. Pal. vii. 290 we 
have TTupaToj PepapTipt'vov tl-rrviu: cf. Mt 26°, Lk 9 32 . The 
curious list of prognostications to be drawn from involun- 
tary twitching?, P Ryl I. 2S 164 "- (iv/A.D.), has crcbvpbv 
cvwvvpov edv dX-nrai «v Kpio-ti papT][8]fls ^o-rai. Kal (K<pev|c- 
Tai, " if the left ankle quiver he will be burdened with a trial, 
and will be acquitted" (Ed.). This metaphorical usage, as 
in 2 Cor I 8 , 5*, may be further illustrated from P Oxy III. 
525 :1 (early ii/A.D.) where, with reference to a voyage he was 
undertaking, the writer complains — Ka8' tKao-rnv rgptpav 
papovuai hi avTov Kal X£tav Tti» irpd-ypaTi KaTa^vouai., 
"every day I am burdened on account of it and I am ex- 
tremely worn out with the matter " (Edd.). Further instances 
of the active are P Oxy VIII. 1159 s (late iii/A.D.) I'va pi| 
Papr|0-ii> avT<i 6\|;uvtov, "that I may not trouble him about pro- 
visions" (Ed.), and the late ib. I. 126 8 (a.d. 572), where one 
Stephanous undertakes Pape'crai to « bvoua, " to burden 
herself," with certain imposts hitherto paid by her father. 
See also ib. X. 1224 Fr. 2 rcoto"- 2 (uncanonical Gospel — 
iv/A.D.) p.€ tpdprio-ev, "overcame me," where the editor 
suggests cpdpos or XvirT] as a possible subject, as well as iiirvos 
(cf. the citation from the Anth. Pal. above). 


As against the popular etymology given in Ac 4 ::6 , Deiss- 
mann has shown on the evidence of certain inscriptions that 
this proper name is Graecized from the Semitic |3313 = 
"Son of Nebo" : see PS pp. 187 ff., 307 ff., ZNTW vii. 
(1906) p. 91 f. This derivation has been accepted by Dalman 
Words, p. 40 f., and G. B. Gray ExpTy.. p. 233 f. 


BGU I. I59 : '" (A.D. 216) (= Chrest. I. p. 4S6) ueTa 8e 
TavTa dva8o[6t'vTo]s p-ov cis 8^[poo"]£[a]v XciTovp-ytav Pa- 
pvTaTr]v ovcrav dir(crT[Ti]y ttjs Kwu.rjs ov Svvbu-evos virocrTf|vai 
to pdpos tt|S XeiTovpyias is a good example of the ordinary 
use of this noun with the corresponding adjective : cf. P Oxy 
VII. 1062 1 * (ii/A.D.) el 8{ tovto 0-01 pdpos cpe'pei, "if it is 
troublesome" (Ed.). A "burden" of oppression is referred 
to in 5j'//4l8 87 (A.D. 23S) tirel oSv ovks'ti Svvdue8a ipc'peiv 
Ta pdpii, and one of taxation in P Giss I. 7 13 (a.d. 117J cirel 
oiv b Kvpios r)puv 'ASpiavbs . . . (Kovcpto'cv tuv cv^upiuv 
ta pdpr) Ka6oXiKus 8td irpOYpdppaTos, d£uu» toiovtov 6vtos 
tov pdpovs ktX. It denotes responsibility in ib. 19 18 (ii/A. D. ) 
dXXd «s [Kal b €]v6d8( o-TpaTTj-ybs tois dpxov[o-i «TrLTt]dr(0-i 
to pdpos. Kal o-v to av[To ttolci. In reference to moral 




faults (cf. Gal 6 2 ), see the Acts of the martyrdom of Christina, 
PSI 27* (v/a.D.) (as amended p. xi) pdpos waa^s dp-yfjs Kal 
o.t£jjl[o]u o-7re'p|iaTos. The word is found in the astrologer 
Vettius Valens, p. 292' iv a-vvo\ais Kal pdpecn -y'vovTai. f\ 
TpauuaTwv ircpiirXoKais • in the Index pdpos is rendered 


The replacement of this classical verb by Papeu was pro- 
gressive, as is seen in the fact that Papvvw is common in 
LXX, but never occurs in the NT according to WH, except 
in its compound xaTapVpvvu) : the vernacular record of 
Pape'uj {q.v. ) makes this very clear. For the older word cf. 
P Tebt I. 23 s (1. B.C. 119 or 114) Ka8' inrepPoX^v (cf. 
2 Cor I 6 ) p«|3apvu.p.€Voi, " excessively vexed" (Kdd.), 
P O.xy II. 298" (i/A.D.) irtpl 'EpuoSwpov Ypdcj>t[i.]s p-01 XCav 
avTbv papvvofj-ai, "you write to me about Hermodorus that 
I am too severe with him " (Edd.), and OGIS 669 s (i/A.D.) 
p,^| papvvop.cvT]V Kaivais Kal dSiKois €lo"rrpd£€0-i, id.}* iva hk 
p.T]8ap.69ev Papvvrji Tas irpbs aXXV^Xovs o-vvaXXayds. 


See the first reference s.7: pdpos and cf. I' Tebt I. 52 11 
((. B.C. 114) 81 (/. Sid to) p.e iv papv[Te]pa dppworria Kur[8ai, 
"since I am seriously ill" (Edd,). In I' Goodsp Cairo 
15 16 (A.D. 362) p. = "pregnant" — tt]v u.{v Td^o-iv Pape'av 
oio-av «k twv irX^Y^v avTwv €|eTpwcr€v ( = -av) to ppe'tpos, "to 
Taesis who was pregnant they occasioned by their violence 
the miscarriage of her child" (Ed.): seeArc/iiv iii. p. 116 
on the passage. For the adverb see P Lond 42 s ? (B.C. 168) 
(= I. p. 31) tj p.T|Tr|p crov Tvyxdvei Paplws '4\ovtra. 


POxy VI. 903 10 (iv/A.D.) Pacraviljdnevoi oSv ttirav, " they 
under torture said " — of slaves. Cf. Audollent I A - 2 ' (Cnidus 
tablet) p.«ydXas Paa-dvovs paa-avisoueva, and the impreca- 
tory tablet 35 8 utTa kwwv pao-avio-ai in Bliss and Macalister, 
Excavations in Pales/ine (1902), p. 176. The verb also 
occurs ter in PSI I. 28, a magic tablet of iii/iv A.D. : another 
late instance is P Lips Inv 244 s (in Christ. II. p. Si) (A.D. 
462) Kal irape[K]XT|9r|V Kal tKXe£o-8r|V els [t]t|v 8r|[(io]o-[£av] 
€[i]pKT[rj]v t«v xptwv €V€Ka Kal TroXXa[. .]ov, iSirep dir^Y°- 
p[«]vp.^vov tols vo|jlois, cpao-avio-9r|V. A compound may be 
quoted from BGU IV. 1141" (B.C. 14), where eyo>i o6v 
fipuTao-a oiv tov -yt'povTa is corrected above to tvPao-aiacras 
oiv T|pwTu>v KaT iSiav The curious imprecation in Wiinsch 
AF no. 4 (iii/A. D. ), where various infernal powers are 
invoked to prevent a rival's winning a horserace, has (v. 55 ) 
Pacrdvurov auruv ttjv 8tdvoiav Tas 4>p€vas ttjv al'a-0Tio-iv tva 
p.T| vowo-iv tC it[o]iwct-iv. 


The original sense of "touchstone," "test," appears in 
P O.xy I. 5S 25 (A.D. 288), where provision is made that only 
such persons are appointed to certain offices as are in a 
position to stand the test — o£ Kal Pao-dvois inroKeio-ovTai.. 
In P Leid \V vli -- 6ff - (ii/iii A.D.) \iyf KXvti p.01, 6 xprjo-Tos 
iv pa£dvois, Pot|0t|O-ov iv dvdyKais, tXcrjuwv ev wpais Piaios 
(i.e. -ats), iroXol (/. e. -v) 8vvdp.evos iv Koa-p.w, 6 KTio-as ttjv 
dva-yKTj (Kal) TiuwpCav, Kal Trjv pdaavov, Leemans renders 
exploratio. For the derived sense, reference may be made 

to the fragment of a legal code of iii/B.C, P Lille I. 29'- ^ 
where the judges are empowered to employ "torture" in 
the case of slaves giving evidence, should it be found neces- 
sary — twv hi SovXwv twv p.apTvpT)o-dvTwv, ot 8uKao-Tal Tf|V 
pdcravov €K twv rw|idTuv iroeio*8wo"av, irapdvTwv tuv 
avriSiKLiH', €ap. at) €K twv tlSc'vtwv SiKaiwuaTwv SvvwVTai 
Kpivav. So in a rescript of Augustus, Sy/l 356 12 (B.C. 6) 
€^«Tdo"at irpoorTd^as . . . Std pacrdvujv = quaertrt tormentis, 
of slaves after the murder of their master. See also the new 
uncanonical Gospel, P Oxy V. 840* K<SXao-iv v-iro|«'vouo"tv 
Kal iroX[X]r|V pdo-avov, where the editors strangely remark 
that this use of p., as relating to punishment in the next 
world, is not found in NT; but cf. Lk \d a - - 8 . Vettius 
Valens, p. 182 1 ", has the phrase i|mxiKds Pao-dvous : cf. 
p. 20I :t - 4irl pao-dvu* Kal t^aCa Kal klvSvvw, and p. 2II 28 
dSuvrjpdv eird'ypv'n'vov pdo"avov. 


As kingship or sovranty in the abstract is necessarily the 
root meaning of this word, it is easy to see how the passage 
into the concrete could either be on the lines of our dominion 
(cf. "our Sovereign and his dominions"), or follow the 
outward and visible sign of royalty. All these three mean- 
ings are fully illustrated from the inscriptions by Dittenberger 
in the Index to OGIS, e.g. (I) 331 40 (ii/n.c) Crj '4th tt)s 
JKtCvov Pao-i.X«£as, (2) 248 15 (ii/B.C.) aexpi tuv optwv frjs 
I8£as Pao-iXeias, and (3) 90" (Rosetta Stone, B.C. 196) Tas 
tov Pao-iXt'ws xpvo-ds Pao-iX«Cas 8^Ka. It is possible that 
some passages in the NT might gain in force if this last 
meaning "a sign of royalty" were substituted for "royalty" 
in the abstract — one might compare the line taken by the 
Revisers with t£ouo-£a in 1 Cor 11 10 . But it may be doubted 
whether the change can be made very plausible in any case. 

For p. in its original sense we may cite from the papyri 
P Par 6l 8 (B.C. 156) irdvTas tovs Wo t^|V pao-iXetav SiKato- 
SoTtio-Oai, P Tor I. l vii " (B.C. 114) twv p.«-y£a-Twv Pao-i- 
X«'wv diroXeXvKOTwv tovs vtro ttjv Pao"i.Xe£av irdvTas aiTuiv 
irao-wv. For the sense "reign" see P Oxy X. 1257 7 
(iii/A.D.) eirl tov (Stovs) a Stovs t*)s evTvxaio-TdTT|S TavTtjs 
PacriXtias. Deissmann BS, p. 361 f., compares with tt|v 
aiwviov PacriXeiav tov Kvpiov T|(i.wv Kal o-wTiipos (2 Pet I 1 ') 
the phrase tirl] Tfjs twv Kvptwv 'Pwp.aCwv aiwviov dp\T|S in 
the decree of Stratonicea (C/G II. no. 2715a, 0). 


Syll 226" (iii/B.C.) irpaSt'vTos T£ tov o-t6Xov €ts Pao-iXtia, 
the palace of the salrap Saitaphernes. Dittenberger quotes 
Boeckh as arguing from the absence of the article that p. 
was here almost a proper name, as in Herod, iv. 20: 1). 
however is not convinced that the reference is to the same 
place. P Petr II. 23 (2) 1 shows pao-tXtios qualifying 
\>pap,u.aT«vs, instead of the regular pao-LXiKos. In the magic 
papyrus P Lond 46 44, (iv/A.D.) ( = 1. p. 79) Pao-£Xiov is 
used with a symbol which the editor understands as = 
"sceptre" : cf. Wisd 5 16 to pao-CXtiov ttjs «virp«irt£as, " the 
crown of ro_\al dignity." 


In a letter written not later than B.C. 334 the title of 
Pao-tXevs is adopted by Alexander the Great {Prion 1), and 
it was a favourite designation of his successors in the Syrian 




ami Egyptian monarchies. In this way it became familiar 
to the Jews of the Dispersion : and when found in the 
Sepliiagint as the translation of their vernacular title would 
be " instinct with present meaning and full of absorbing 
associations," as Hicks (CA' i. p. 7) has pointed out. In 
the N'T it was transferred to the Roman Emperor (I Tim 2 2 , 
1 Pet 2 13, 1T ) in accordance with common usage, as borne out 
by the inscriptions, e.g. 1G III. 12"." (time of Hadrian t, 
C/G II. 2721 11 (time of the Antonines), and the other 
examples cited by Magie, p. 62. Similarly Deissmann 
{I.AE, p. 367 f.) brings forward evidence to show that the 
full title pVo-iXtis Pao-iX&uv (as Rev 17 14 , I9 1, 1 was again I 
"in very early Eastern history a decoration of actual great 
monarchs and also a divine title." The former has of coufse ; 
as its most obvious example the title of the Persian Kings, ; 
as at Rehistan — x^y a ^b' a xt'O'^'J' 1 '"'*"' '• c ^- tne verbal 
phrase in the next article. For the latter, cf. the occult | 
document F Leid W 1 '*- 8 (ii/iii A.D.) (TriKoXoOu-ai o-e, pao-iX«v 
Paa*iXe'u>v, Tvpavv€ Tvpavvuiv, #v8o£o ^vSo|otcltwv, 8a£fiu>v 
8aiuwvwv, aXKip.i aXKLp.toTaTu>v, a-yi€ d*y£wv. The similarity 
and at the same time contrast in the Christian usage would 
thus be full of significance to the Early Church, as in the 
case of the title Kvpios (</■?■). On OG/S 35 1 (iii/B.c. 
Pa<r(\i<r<rav "JHXwWpav Pao-i\f'ios nTo\c(ia£ov> ( rf . II, Phila- 
delphia , Dittenberger (p. 64S; contests Strack's attempt to 
claim Pao-iXeus as well as Pao-CXio-o-a as a term applicable 
to non-regnant members of a royal family : he notes that 
there is all the difference between pao-iXcvs and its feminine. 
Wilcken Arthiv iii. p. 319 supports him, and notes inscrip- 
tions where pao-iXevs is promptly dropped when a mere 
II.R.1I. is named after the king and his consort. He also 
commends Dittenberger's remark that Augustus and Augusta 
had the same difference after Domitian's time. 


A good example of the ingressive aorist is afforded by the 
new Agraphon as restored by the editors — P Oxy IV. 654** 
8ap. Ip^Otls Paa-iXevtrei Ka[\ Pao-iXeva-as dvaTra]fjcr€Tai, " as- 
tonished he shall reach the Kingdom, and having reached 
the Kingdom he shall rest": see Proleg. p. 130. The verb 
is used to render the Persian title (see under Pao-iXeus) in 
P Sa'id Khan 1 (a) 1 (B.C. 88) pao-iXevovros pao-iXtW 
Ap<raKou : 1 (fr) 1 and 2 1 (B.C. 22-1) have the same formula. 
( I'llerm 125" 3 (A.D. 260-S) 8iaTp£povTos o-o[v] «irl ttjs 
pao-iXeuova-nJs 'Pwu.t|S supplies an illustration for Rev 18'. 
For the relation of the Pauline conception of " the saint as 
king" (Rom 5", 2 Tim 2 1: ) to the Greek philosophic ideal, 
see Ramsay Teaching, p. 157 ft'. 


is exceedingly common, but we may note P Petr III. 31 5 
(B.C. 240) TTopcuofic'vou 4irl tt|s pao-LXiKr|s- oSoii as coeval with 
the almost identical phrase of the LXX in Num 20 17 . This 
phrase at a later time was used to render via regalis, a 
Roman road built by the Fhnperor : see Ramsay CUE, 
p. 32 ft".. where a Latin inscr. from Pisidia brings the 
original back to the time of Augustus. The adj. is applied 
to the revenue in P Petr III. 26 15 o irpaKTwp 6 tir\ rCtv 
PacriXiK w v irpo<r68u»v T«Ta*yfjUvo$, " the officer appointed 
to collect the royal revenues " ; Ghrest. I. 19S" (B.C. 240) 
Ttui 4u. BoupdoTwt Pa<TLXiKu>i 8r|craDpun. In a papvrus of 

the latter half ot ii/A.n.. edited byComparetti in Mel. Nicole, 
p. 57 ft'., we find iv " Pao-iXiKii '0£vpi>Yxe(Tou. The editor 
remarks (p. 67) that in the absence of the Strategus his inn. 
tions were fulfilled by his deputy, the Pao-iXiKbs Ypau.p.aT«vs. 
So P ( l\y IX. 1219 15 (iii/A.n.) "Air[t]<i>va tov tou 
rIpoo-Mire£Tou Pa<rtXi.K(iv, "A. the basilicogrammateus of ".he 
Prosopite nome " (Ed.) : the addressee, another Apion, held 
the same office in the Letopolite nome— cf. l.*° pao-iXiK(ui) 
•yp'a|i(j.aT«i). If we might apply the Egyptian analogy, we 
might assume that -ypau.u.aTevs should similarly be supplied 
in In 4 46 : but the tis raises a difficulty. For the full title 
cf. Chrest. I. 224 (iii/B.c). where a man registers his house 
irpbs KaXXiKpaTnv tov oiKovofiov teal Tu.ov6r|v tov Pao-iXiKbv 
■ypapfiaWa, etc. In Chrest. I. 30S, an ostracon of ii/B.C, 
a certain Psenchousis, apparently a clerk in the office ot 
the royal oIkov<5[ios, pays 2000 dr. into the bank dirb Tip.ijs 
dBoviwv pao-tXiKuv tov Xa i?tovs) : linen was a royal 
monopoly. There was in the imperial period a p. Tpaire^iTtjs, 
as at Heptacomia in P Giss I. 59 m - u (a. d. 118-9). We 
need not illustrate such a word more fully, but we tiifght 
quote Syll 846' 1t - (B.C. IQ7-6) eiri roicrSe d-n^SoTo Aap-tas 
o Trapd toO pactXews 'ArTaXou 6 tirl tujv ^p-ywv twv 
pao-tXiKiiv 'ApT£u.i8cipav tov pao-iXiKav TraiSio-Kav twi 
'AttoXXwvi twi TIuOiioi for freedom. On vduos Pao-iXiKos 
in las 2" Deissmann refers to a heading probably added in 
the time of Trajan to an inscription at Pergamum containing 
the law of as'.ynomy — tov pao-iXiKbv vdu.ov 4k tuiv ISuuv 
dve'8T|K€v, "he set up the royal law out of his own means." 
This designation of the law as " royal," because made by 
one of the kings of Pergamum, points, he thinks, to a 
similar reference in the first place to the origin of the law 
in the James passage (see LAE, p. 367, n. s ). Grimm notes 
that the phrase is applied to to dpBdv in Plato. 


This characteristic Koivf) form was borrowed by Attic from 
B.C. 307 down : see Meisterhans Gr. p. 101, and cf. Thumb 
Dial. p. 3S0. The suffix was probably of Macedonian 
origin, and therefore not Greek at all (Brugmann-Thuml. 
Gr. p. 214, where references are given to literature on the 
subject : add Glaser, De r.ilioue, p. iS). It was the regular 
term fir the wife of the ruling sovereign: see, e.g. P Petr 
I. 19 23 (B.C. 225) pao-tX«a riToX^fiaiov . . . Kdt Pao-iXicro-av 
Bep£vCitr|V, P Eleph 23 10 1 K.< . 223) ofiyvt" pao-iXe'a rfToXtu-aiov 
. . . koA Pao-iXuro-av BtpeviKtp/. P Par 3S 1 (B.C. i6o)Pao-iXei 
ITToXeu.aLu) Kal pao-iXio-o-r) [KXeojiraTpa ttJ d8€X<f>fj. and 
P Grenf II. 15' 1 (B.C. 139). In Syll we find it in 1S3 8 
(end of iv/B.c) of the wife of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and 
in five inscrr. of iii/B.c. In OG/S 35 1 (B.C. 2S5-47) 
pao-iXi.o-0-av 'fci.XuTfpav, the title is given to the unmarried 
sister of King Ptolemy II, a proof, according to Wilcken 
(Arcftiv ii. p. 541), that amongst the Ptolemies the title was 
from the beginning purely titular. A similar inscription from 
Schedia (east of Alexandria), belonging to the reign of 
Ptolemy III., has the further interest that it contains the 
earliest known reference to a Jewish proseucha in Upper 
Egypt — vj-n-Jp pao-iXt'u>s IlToXep.aiov Kal pao-LXio*o-r)S Bep€- 
vi-Krfi dSeX<t>ijs Kal yvvatKos Kal tiuv TtKvuv tt)v Trpoo-cvY^TJv 
oi Tov8aiov. : see Archiv ii. p. 541 with Wilcken's note. It 
should be noted, however, that Trpoo-euxTIv here may simply 
= " prayer," answering to the heathen to Trpoo-Kwrnia 


The word is common in the inscriptions for the "base" 
of a statue, e. g. OGLS 705 6 (ii/A.D.) tov dvSpidvTa o-iv 
Tfji fta.<rti ave'BiiKc, A/agn 92>>- " to] Si >|/T|<JHcr|j.a to8« 
dva-ypacf>fjvai ds Trjp. pdo-iv ttjs «Ikovos Tf|s'A[iro]\\o4>dvov. 
See also P Lond 755 verso" (iv/A.n.) (= III. p. 222) (3]do-is 
Kol K€<f>oX;8ts, "base mouldings and capitals" of pillars, P 
Grcnf I. I4 15 (B.C. 150 or 139) pd<riv Xv X vC(ou), Syll 540 103 
(B.C. 175-1 ) tp-yoroi (jr. a builder contracting for a temple) 
tuv XiSiov irdvTiov Tds pdo-eis dpBds, dorpaptis, dppa-ytis 
ktX, ib 1 ' 1 tuv XiBwv irdvTwv Tois dpuovs koC t[os pd]o-€ts, 
588 11 " (c. B.C. 180) Xauirds x a ^ Kf i hrt pdo-«u>s, etc. The 
medical use of p. = " foot " in Ac 3 7 is illustrated by Hobart, 
Medical Language of St Luke, p. 34 f. It may have this 
meaning in the great magical papyrus, I' Lond I2i 51e 
(111/A.D.) (= I. p. 101) irape'o-TCD <roi Tots Svcrl pdo-eo-iv 
<j-kio6i. Its geometrical meaning, as the "base" of a 
triangle, appears with fragmentary context in P Brit Mus 
372 t0 (ii/A.D.), printed in P Tebt II. p. 339ft'., a land 


The popular belief in the power of the evil eve (cf. 
Dent 2S M , Sir i 4 «. »), underlying the Pauline metaphor 
in Gal 3 1 , is well illustrated by the common formulas in 
closing greetings, e.g. P Oxy II. 292" (,-. A.D. 25) 
(= Selections, p. 3S) Trpo 8c irdvTcov {•■yidvet.v {= -aivtiv) 
<r« ciixtol^oi. dpao-KdvTios to apiora irpaTTuiv, "but above 
all I pray that you may be in health unharmed by the evil 
eye and faring prosperously," ib. VI. 930 s3 (ii/iii A.D.) 
do-ird£ovTa£ o-« iroXXd at d8eX<)>a£ o-ov Kal to dpdo-KavTa 
irai.8£a 0<wv(8os, and similarly P Fay 126 10 , P Lips I. ioS* 
(both ii/iii a. n.). Cf. the opening salutation in BGU III. 
SlI* (between A.D. 98 and 103) irpw (i. e. Trpb) uiv ttovtuv 
dvo7Katov 81' ein.crToXTJ[s] o-e da~jrdo-«o-8ai Kal ri dpdo-KavTa 
[8]ov[v]ai. For the subst. Pao-Kovfa (as Wisd 4 12 ) cf. the 
new compound irpopoo-xavfa in the vi/A.D. Christian amulet 
edited by Wilcken Arckiv i. p. 431 ft'. (= Selections, 
p. 132 ff. ) — IS. Sttuj 8uo£rjs air' iuov tov 8oiiXov <rou t6v 
8a£p.ova irpopao-KavCas, "that thou mayst drive from me 
thy servant the demon of witchcraft." The adi. pdo-Kavos 
is found in Vettius Valens, pp. 2 2 , 35S 5 , and in JosPE i. 22 31 
(Minns, p. 644) iiro toO Pao-Kdvou SaCuovos d<J>T|p«'8T|. The 
relation of the word to the certainly identical Lat. fascinum 
is accounted for by the consideration that a word of magic 
was likely to be borrowed by Greek from Thracian or 
Illyrian. where original b/i (Lat./) passed into b : see Walde 
Lat. etym. WorterbucK, s.z: 


The meaning lift occurs in P Ryl II. Si 6 (<-. a.d. 104), 
where the 6ipai of sluices (apparently) «<)>'] 80-ov 01 
KOToo-Tropus ^6tXov €Pao-Tdx0T)o-ov, "as much as the in- 
spectors of sowing wished" (Edd.). Carry, in the figurative 
sense = endure, appears in a formula about taxation, as 
P Brem » (a.d. 117) (= Chrest. I. p. 415) i-niX oSv otroi oil 
Poo-Td^ouo-i too-oSto T&eo-uo : so in P Kyi II. 96 s and the 
other contemporary papers named in the introduction there. 
Note here Epict. i. 3. 2 oi8(C s crou tt^v ooSpiv Pao-Too-ei, 
" will endure your cheek " ( !) (Hort says this is " the only 



known passage at all approaching" Rev 2 2 .) Nearer the 
literal sense, and illustrating distantly Ac 9 15 , is P Oxy X. 
1242'- I7 , an interesting document of early iii/A.D., where 
Trajan is said to have granted an audience to rival Greek 
and Jewish emissaries from Alexandria, ?Kao-rcu Pao-Td£ovTcs 
Tois L8£ovs fleovs. To the same heading may be referred 
its use in Gal 6 17 , for which Deissmann (fiS, p. 352 ff.) 
refers to a bilingual (Demotic and Greek) papyrus of 
iii/A. I), now in the Leiden Museum. The papyrus con- 
tains a spell in which the words occur pao-Tdi> t^|v 
Tacj>^|v tou "Oo-(p«cos . . . lav (iou o Sciva kottovs Trapdo-XTl, 
■n-poo-(T)pe\|/u> a\iT^|v ovtuJ, " 1 carry the corpse of Osiris . . . 
should so-and-so trouble me, I shall use it against him." 
Just, that is, as the Pao-Taljeiv of a particular amulet 
associated with the god acts as a charm against the 
Koirous irape'xeiv of an adversary, so the Apostle finds 
himself protected against similar attacks by " bearing" the 
0-Tiyu.aTa L-]o-ov. From carry is developed carry away, 
which is the commonest meaning. Thus Cagnat IV. 446, an 
inscr. of Roman age, where the Pergamene demos honour 
C. Julius Maximus o-t]|iclui dpao-ToKTut, "ornatus insigni 
'quod tolli nun poterat,' fortasse purpura perpetua" (Ed.). 
So very often in papyri. P Fay 122 6 (,-. A.D. 100) ed[o-]os 
ovtov Pao-rd|ai. dpTapas sI'koo-i oktu, "allowing him to 
carry off 28 artabae." P Kyi II. 16S 11 (a.d. 120) Pao-Ta£a$ 
Ix. ttjs Koivfjs aXui TrdvTa, "you shall carry it all from the 
common threshing-floor" (Edd.): cf. P Thead 5 12 (a.d. 
338). Similarly P Oxy III. 507" (a.d. 169) SvTrcp x°pTov 
ouk i^ia-rai (101 pao-Ta|ai. ouSJ irioXtiv ovSi iiroT^eecrSai., "it 
shall not be lawful for me to remove or sell or pledge this 
hay" (Edd.), ib. 522* (ii/A.D.) <j>op^Tpo(u) (trupoO) (dpToPuv) 
poo Pao-Tax6,€io-civ), "carriage of 171 artabae of wheat 
transported" (Edd.). With personal object, P Amh II. 
77 22 (A.D. 139) dp.<j><iT«poi pto. Pao-[T]d£avT« ue eto-rjv£YKav 
ds to Xo*y[i]o-TT]piov tov t-TrtTpd-n-ov twv ovo-lwv, " taking me 
up by force they together carried me to the counting-house 
of the superintendent of the domains" (Edd.). This is of 
course capable of meaning, in contrast to the use named 
later, a perfectly legitimate action: cf. P land 9 13 (ii/A.D. ) 
o-]v ovy pdo-To|e (sc. -ai) Xxnrov 8 av £tio[v fl] tt|s Kp£o-«os, 
"tu autem tolle porro, quaecumque causa est iudicii " (Ed.). 
The firmly established vernacular use determines the meaning 
of Mt 3 11 as " whose sandals I am not worthy to take off" : 
the phrase is an excellent example of Mt's skilful abbrevia- 
tion, for one word fully expresses all that Mk l 7 tells us in 
four. Citations multiply for the meaning "pilfer," as in 
Jn I2 6 , especially in papyri of ii/A.D. — P Tebt II. 330 7 
(ii/A.D.) eipov t^|v oUlov p.ou o-ecrvXt]ut'vT]v t« koI irdvTa to 
MSov diroKe£|j.€va p6Pao-Ta-yn[«]vo, ib. 33 1 11 [c. A.D. 131) 
fp]do-Ta|av 80-a KiBciva Kal ip.[d]Tiov Xeuxd : both petitions 
to the strategus complaining of robbery. Similarly P Oxy I. 
69* (a.d. 190), BGU I. 46 10 (A.l>. 193'), ib. 157* (ii/iii A.D.), 
etc. In MGr the verb has added a new intransitive mean- 
ing, "wait, hold out": see Thumb Handbook, p. 322, 
Abbott Songs, p. 261. The flexion of the verb differs 
curiously in the papyri and in NT. In the former the 
guttural forms, tpdo-Ta|a, etc., prevail almost without 
variant, as will be seen from our quotations, and from the 
list in the editor's note to P Hamb I. io 13 . In MGr the 
aorist is «pdo-To|a. It will be noticed that our citations are 
later than NT : the verb does not seem to have entered the 


vernacular in Egypt during the Ptolemaic period. In that 
case the late guttural flexion would be an analogy product 
(cf. the double forms from dpirdljw, etc.), confined at first to 
a limited area. Except in Rev 2 2 pao-Ta£cu P I 38 81, 
«pd<rra£as Jn 20 16 W, and Lk 1 1 16 8v<rpdo-TO.KTa, the NT has 
only the dental forms, as in older Greek from Homer down. 
We can only support these in Egyptian vernacular from 
BGU I. 195" (A.D. 161) €pa<r[T>o-«v, P Leid W 5 - 83 (ii/iii 
A.D.) pao-raa-as, and P Flor I. 59' (iii/A.D.) epdarao-ev. 

pdxoi (I) 

in the sense of "bush" is feminine in Lk 20 37 , Ac 7 36 , 
but masculine in Mk 12 26 in accordance with the LXX 
usage (Exod 3 2(f -, Deut 33 16 ), which Thackeray (Gr. i. 
p. 145) describes as apparently "vulgar and Hellenistic." 
See, however, Moeris p. 99, who regards rj p. as IXXt|vikws, 
and 6 p. as a-rriKus. The only passage we can cite, 
P Lond I2I 460 (iii/A.D.) (=1. p. 99) e *s VTr <P Pa™", throws 
no light on the gender: since the context is a <pf.XTpov 
KdXXio-Tov, in which kind of literature "meaning is no 
great matter," pd-rov may as well be a Hebrew measure 
as a bramble-bush. H. A. A. Kennedy {Sources of NT 
Greek, p. 7S) includes pd-ros in a list of Biblical words for 
which Aristophanes is practically the only earlier authority. 
But we must remember Homer {Oil. 24 230 ). Kaibel has 
two epitaphs from Italy of the imperial age : 546 s oi pd-roi, 
oi TpipoXoi tov spbv Td<f>ov d|i<j>ls ^xovcriv, and 548 s dvBea 
TroXXd yivoiro vfo8pr|Tu> eirl Tvppui, pi) pdTos avix("lpr|. r"l 
KaKbv ai-yiirvpov. 

pdxog (2). 

This Hebrew loanword (J"I3) is rather strangely trans- 
literated pdSosin Hesychius, who implies that this was com- 
moner than pdTos : perhaps the fact that 8 « as now generally 
spirantised (like th in bathe) made it seem nearer than t 
to the Hebrew letter. See Tischendorf on Lk 16 6 : to 
NLX, which spell with 8, must now be added W. 


The ■yXciTTa paTpd^ov forms an ingredient in the 4th 
century magical charm P Lond 46 291 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 74). 
The Ionic form pdBpaKos appears twice in ib. I24 :lf - 
(iv/v a.d.) (=1. p- 122), and survives in MGr pd8pa.Kas. 


In D this word is pXaTToXo-ye'io, the form of which 
suggests an approximation towards the Latin blalero — 
[query cf. provincial English blether, with same mean- 
ing, both starting from "m/atero]. The Latin text (</) has 
not the word, so that if Latin influence is recognizable here 
it must lie somewhere in the complex history of the Bezan 
text itself. BaTroXo-Ytw may be by haplology for pai-raXo- 
Xo-ycu, in which some connexion may be suspected with 
Bd-rraXos on the one side, the nickname of Demosthenes, 
and Aramaic latti1i{" leer, nichtig," says Wellhausen on Mt 
6') on the other. Whether Greek or Aramaic, or neither, is 
the borrower, we must not stay to ask. If the great orator 
was thus nicknamed because of the torrent of words at his 
command, which made envious rivals call him "the 
gabbler, it will fit his case better than the highly im- 



probable "stammering" connexion, and will suit the tv r\ 
iroXuXo-yia by which the verb is explained in Mt 6 7 . (See 
Ilolden on Plutarch's Demosthenes, ch. iv.) 


which figures twice in the Pentateuch according to Aquila, 
Symmachus and Theodotion, appears doubtfully in P Oxy 
VIII. 1142 3 (late iii/A.D.), where Hunt conjectures it for 
ppe'XXiov because in Galen as in the papyrus it stands next to 
6vu£ : he renders "sweet gum (?) . . ., onyx-shell." The 
form p8c'\Xr| occurs in P Lond I2I 43 ' (iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 98) 
£pvpva pStXXr|S. 


is "a bibl. and eccl. word" in Grimm, and we are not 
able to challenge its right to a place in this greatly reduced 
category. But it is almost as much a part of the verb as 
pSeXuKTos. which likewise has independent status on 
Grimm's page. The verb having appealed to the LXX 
translators as an excellent rendering of 3JOT and other 
Hebrew verbs, it was inevitable that when a derived noun 
was wanted the regular formation should have been adopted 
or coined. Probably any Greek writer who wauled to 
express the idea of to ep8sXvype'vov would have done the 
same without hesitation. 


Phrynichus (ed. Lobeck), p. 226, extols this word as 
Attic as compared with the vulgar o-iKx<uvopai (MGr 
o-c.xi', but it is by no means confined to Attic writers, 
as Nageli (p. 15) has pointed out : cf. Thumb tJelkn. p. 80. 
Pelagia-Legeiiden, p. 9 9 pr] pS«Xv£r| pe T ^l v JKpuiru>(«'vr|v 
dXXd Ka9apdv (x€ iv ttj KoXvp.pT|9pa tov d-yido-pcrros. 


Deissmann (BS, p. 104 ff.) has shown very fully how- 
much force the technical use of this word and its cognates 
to denote legally guaranteed security adds to their occurrence 
in the NT. Thus with the use of this adjective in Rom 4 !0 , 
2 Cor I 7 , we may compare P Amh II. Sj 21 (a.d. 7S) where, 
in an application for a lease, provision is made that if no 
objection is raised "the lease may remain guaranteed to us 
for the period of five years without change " — p,£vr)i Tjp.iv i] 
u.(.o-8u)o-is PcPaia €irl tov irtvTacT^] xpbvov dpeBco-raTovs 
(/. -01s). P Strass I. 22 23 (iii/A.D.) i\(iv T[°J P^Patov 
Tois KaTao-xdvTas, " that those who have obtained possession 
may be secured in it," P Oxy IX. 1200 29 (a.d. 266) £ti 
t« Kal irape'ijopcu croi ptpaia Sid iravTos dirb TrdvTwv Trdo-rj 
pePaiuo-€L, "and I will further guarantee the propertv 
always against all claims with every guarantee" (Ed.), 
BGU IV. II16 31 (B.C. 13) iroioivTos SJ avTou JudOTa 
dKoX(ov8ujs) Kal Tt)(v) 'AvTaj(vLav) 4>iXr|(pdTiov) ptpaiav 
avTui Trape'x€o-8at tij(v) pCo-0to(o - iv'l, ib. 1127 16 (B.C. IS) 
Trap«x«o-8ai. t^|V irapaxwpT|o-tv pepaiav. So from inscrr. 
OGIS 669 20 (i/A.D. ) (iv PepaCav 8si ttjv Trpu>Toirpa|Cav 
<t>vXdo-o-eiv. It will be noticed that %\ut and irape'xopai 
tend to associate with the adjective : cf. Heb 3 11 , 6", 
2 Pet I 19 . We need not multiply citations for a common 
word, unless we should give an instance with the negative : 
P Tor I. 1" "> (B.C. 116) (=C/irest. II. p. 32) aio-eopevr, 
u; ov8«v etx«v pc'Paiov. 





The verb is very common in the juristic sense noted under 
Pe'Paios : see e. g. P Petr III. 74(d) 8 p«Paiu><ru croi, " I shall 
give you a guarantee," P A111I1 II. 95 10 (a.i>. 109) edv Se 
€]irc\9[u) n, fi^| p]epa[uocrio, tj t' ?<f>o]8os [dKvpos 8]<rr[ii>, " if 

1 make a claim or fail to- guarantee the sale, the claim shall 
be invalid" (Edd.), P Fay 92 19 (A.D. 126) f3cfiaiuo*iv ird[cr]t| 
PtPaiuo-i, "will guarantee the sale with every guarantee." 
Note also the recurrent formula in which a vendor promises 
P<Paiovv Kal iTavra tov e-rreXeuo-duevov dTroo-Trjo-civ irapa- 
Xpr||J.a tols l8(.ois 5airavT|fiao-tv : so BGU IV. I131 25 
(B.C. 13) etc. Hence it is that Paul, associating p. with 
another legal term appafW (see s.v.), the guaranteeing the 
delivery of something of which the earnest lias already been 
paid, can describe the relation of God to believers in 

2 Cor l- lf - : Deissmann £S, p. 230, quotes BGU II. 446 18 
(A.D. 158-9) (= direst. II. p. 295) o-TtpfK«8ai [i. e. ore- 
pto-K€cr0aO cxijtov tov dpa.pu>vos, £tl Si Kal Ptpaiwmv (fut. 
inf.) avTTjv 2wTT|piav Ta Kara T[avTT|v ttjv ouoXo-yiav irdo-r] 
p«paiiuo-ei. For the possibly weaker sense of "accomplish," 
"fulfil" in Rom 15' Rouffiac (p. 48) cites Prime 123 9 , 
where a magistrate, having promised on entering on office to 
make a distribution of beef, ep^paiwo-ev Si ttjv t-n-a-yyeXiav 
7rapao-TTj[(r]as p.€v tois evxep-fviots 0€Ois ttjv 0uo-iav, " ful- 
filled his promise by making a sacrifice to the gods (and 
distributing the flesh to those entered on the list)." Cf. 
BGU IV. 1073 13 (A.I). 275) ( = C/in iA II. p. 219) Kal K<rrd 
Ta el.0io-p.eva Trpoo-KWT|o-avT€S tu 8eia (/. ©da) eVi pdXXov 
TavTa avTw tp*pttuyo-a[i.ti-. Another instance of a less 
technical use is in P ( >xy VIII. 1 1 19 17 (A. n. 254) 8ia8e£dp.]tvoi. 
ttjv Pao-iXetav ttjv v-rrdpxov[o-]av rjaeiv Kal tv tovtov dSiav 
i[Pcp]aiwo-av iroXXaKts, " [Hadrian's] successors on the 
throne often confirmed our immunity in this respect " (Ed.). 

To the use of this word in P Fay 92 19 already cited s.v. 
PePaidw we may add P Giss I. 51 10 (A.U. 202) Pe'Paiov Sid 
[rravTos d-n-b irdvTwv Trdcr]r| p*paiu>o-ti, PSI I. 79 17 (A. 1). 
216-7) ptpaiwtru o-ot tt)v irpdo-Lv Trdo-T] ptpauocrtL. For 
irdo-T) pcPaiwcri Kal d-rrb &Tip.ocriwv as denoting that the object 
sold is guaranteed as owing nothing to the fiscal authorities, 
see BGU I. 153 23 (a.d. 152). Deissmann BS. p. 104ft'., has 
an interesting exposition showing how the technical term eis 
Pepauoo-cv, the antithesis of els d0£TT]o-iv, was adopted by the 
LXX from le^al phraseology in Lev 25 s3 , not to render 
nrHOV 1 ? exactly, but to give the general sense, " the ground 

belongs to Vahweh — therefore it may not be sold absolutely" 
by a legally defined sale. So again in Heb 6 1 * " for a legal 
guarantee." He cites P Par 62" 8 (ii/li.c.) . . .]toi eis T-f|v 
ptPaiuio-iv vTro0TJKas [ . . ., and shows that it survived even 
till A.D. 600. '1 he forensic flavour of the word is noted as 
still discernible in Phil I 7 — " this defence before the court will 
lie at the same time an evictio or convielio of the Gospel." 
The papyri discovered since Deissmann's pioneer work was 
published support with numerous examples his thesis that 
I lie word must always be read with the technical sense in 
mind. It is worth noting that Vettius Yalens, p. 2 M , has 
dya0u>v ptpaiioo-iv next to tio-irodio-iv and in close company 
with other legal terms, as well as more general ones. 
The subst. f)fpaiuTT|s is common in such conjunctions as 

P Ami) II. 51" (sale of a house — K.c. 88) irpoTru>XT|Tr|s Kal 
PePaiu)TT)[s] Tiiv KaTa Tt|v wvrjv Ta«TT|v TrdvTwv neTefjo-is 6 
diroSdp.«vos, " the negotiator and guarantor of the sale in all 
respects is the vendor Peteesis " (Edd.). For the form 
pipaui-rpua see .Mayser Gr. p. 444. 

Syll 2 26 (ii/A. D. ) xwpav [o-jKa-rraveveiv P«'Pt|Xov e| ire'jTao-cres 
— the famous ' Gadatas ' inscr., translated from a rescript of 
Darius I. The derived verb is of late formation, no earlier 
authority than LXX being quotable. The adj. was an old 
term, techn. of religion, and not a word of the vernacular : 
the LXX translators needed it, and may well have equipped 
it with a regularly formed verb. 


This medical term for the needle used in surgical operations 
(see Hobart, Medical Language of St Luke, p. 61) is substi- 
tuted by Luke for pacfiis in Lk 18 25 , but does not occur 
elsewhere in Bibl. Grk. See for its more general use the 
magic papyrus P Lond I2I 142 (iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 9S x aAKl ? 
PfXovn, dK«ej>dXu). MGi PeXdvi. 


For this XT air. dp. (Eph 6 16 ) cf. 1G VII. 115 8 pe'Xos 
TriKpbv evfJKt irXevpais. The word is claimed by van Her- 
werden as Ionic and poetic : one occurrence in Plato and 
one in Xenophon (the pioneer of the Kchvtj) are the only 
classical prose citations in LS 8 . From inscrr. we may quote 
Syll 22I 10 (H.C. 247-23) Pe'Xr| Kal KaTairdXTafs, ib. 522" 
(iii/B.C.) KaTairdX-rnv . . . Kal peXir TpiaKorria, ib. S03 67 
(iii/B.c. ) where it refers to a spear just mentioned. The first 
two passages suggest a special sense rather than the general : 
cf. Polybius xi. 1 1. 3 £«vyr| irXtjOos dp-ydvuv Kal p«Xa>v Kop.(- 
£ovTa KaTa-rreXTiKiiv. The catapult would naturally be used 
if missiles wiapped with blazing tow were to be hurled, and 
this would >uit rd PcXtj Ta ireTrupwae'va in Eph I.e. A late- 
letter, PSI III. 23S* (vi/vii A.D.), mentions one Zenobius 
as a maker of munitions, peXoiroids. 


For the elative comparative in Acts io 28 D pe'XTiov 
«<j>(.crTacr8« cf. Magn 105 98 (ii/A. I). ) Pc'Xtiov vnreXdpoaev 
7pd\(iai. iatv. See also I' Tebt I. 27 80 (u.c. 113) aid S« 
tlvos «ttI to Pc'Xtiov irpocrtirivoouae'vov, " by the continual 
invention of further improvements' 1 (Edd.), and P Oxy VIII. 
1 14S 2 (a question to the oracle — i/A.D.) d [? cl introducing 
direct question, as in XT] Pt'XTeidv €o-tiv ktX. A locution 
with p. may be noted from BGU IV. 1086" - (a.d. 160 or 
183 01-215) TT M ^* -iro[X]€iTiav JirV to P^Xtiov Kal tvT[«]x[«- 
o-T«pov . . . Note also I' Leid \V xxiv 1B (ii/iii a.d.) P«'Xtiov 
Si iroit! iav ktX. — this is ordinary comparative. For the 
superlative, which happens not to occur in NT, cf. P Magd 
29* (B.C. 117) t-yXt^dutvos tov P*'Xticttov tottov Kal e^wTaxov, 
P Fay 12® (t. B.C. 103) twv . . . ov d-irb tov p€XT[i]aTov 
dvao-Tpec)>oficvu)v, "of the less reputable class" (Edd.), 
P Kyi II. 1 56 1 * (i/A.D.) . . -j d-rrb tov PcXtCo-tov -ycy€VT|- 
]Uv[ov, Syll 27s 7 (ii/B.C.) 01 ovk dirb tov Qtkrlcnov ciwOoTcs 
dva(rTp*'4ncr0ai : the phrase looks like a cant term for the 
masses current among the classes. Deissmann BS, p. 93, 




says lhat (ovk) dirb tov p. in 2 NIacc]l4 t0 [."'came nol ol 
good," RV] can he paralleled with ''many exafrfp'es" in 
the Inscrr. and in Dionys. Hal. and Plutarch. It rriaj be 
noted further that we have aYpoutoTcpov to-xnKoTa in the 
preceding clause, which suggests that here Judas Maccauafcus 
is observing Nicanor's "boorish" rudeness towards him, 
ovk d. t. p. having the same nuance as in the papyri and 
inscr. just quoted. The survival of nn old use of P^Xi-io-re 
in address may be observed in BGU IV. 1 140 s (B.C. 4), where 
T|yepu)(vi ptXTiore is corrected into u.ryi.o"re, probably because 
the former was too familiar, as its use in Plato would suggest. 
The rare form p&TOTa Js found P Petr II. o ( 5)' (B.C. 241-39) 
to. (p]«'XTaTa TrXiipiipaTa. The verb peX-riow occurs in the 
vi/A.D. P Lond 1044 22 (= III. p. 2551 (piXoKaXeiv Kal 
PcXtiovv : cf. Syll 41S 5 i.A.H. 238) iv Tois «vTuxto-TaToi.s 
o~ov Kaipois KaToiK6L<r9ai Kal PcXTioOo-Sar tus Kiopas. 


This form, for the more usual BepeviKn, is read by Wilcken 
(Add. el Corr. p. xi) in P Petr III. i 1 ' " (B.C. 236) puTpbs 
8]«ov BspveiKT|s. Mayser Gr. p. 140 compares also Bepvr- 
kCw(vi) in P Tebt I. 120 1 " 2 (B.C. 97 or 64). Add P Tebt II. 
407 1 ' 1 (a.d. 199) BtpviK-n AiSvpov •yvvaiKi pov xaipeiv, and 
for the full form Preisigke 307 (Ptolemaic) pao-iXio-]o-a 
BepcviKrj, ih. 43S (do.) Aipvs Aiovvo-iov NaXevs Kal Bepe- 
vikt) T| yvvrj, P Grenf I. 24 s (B.C. 146-17) B«p6V£iKT|S 
tv€py€TiS[os. The shortened form is a good example of a 
phonetic principle working in Koivrj Greek, discovered by 
Kretschmer, by which an unaccented vowel tends to tall out 
after a liquid or nasal if the same vowel occurred in the 
neighbouring syllable (o-KopSov for o-^opoSov, etc.). 

Tile collocation p£pa iroSds (Ac 7 5 , from Dt 2 5 ) is found in 
Preisigke 42S4 21 (a.D. 207) ovX(t|) prjpaTi TroSbs 8e£i.o0 : this 
of course is not a measure as in Ac I.e. but literal. On Syll 
763 s 'AiraTovptos AtoSuipov MrXr|o-ros Ti P^paTa dvs'8r|K€v 
"Io-iSl ALKaiocriji'T|L Dittenberger notes that two footprints 
are carved in the stone, as in other monuments intended to 
commemorate the safe accomplishment of a journey to the 
shrine. Most commonly in inscrr. p. = basi 50 Syll 5S3 8 
(? i/A. D.) Kal io-rrv avTos 6 8ebs eirl pTJiiaTos pappapivov Kal 
rj TrapaKeip£vr| tw 8ew Tpdire^a Xi6ov Aco-piov, of Apollo : 
the image of Artemis is «irl Trapao-TdSi pvXivTj, and that of 
Men eirl pdo-ei pappapiv]. So OGIS 219 36 (iii/n.i '.) err! 
Prjpai-os tov XevKov XiBov, ib. 299^ (ii/B.C.) eiriypdij/ai. eirl 
tov pfjpaTos, Mapi 92a 12 (ii/.\.D.) e:s to Pfjua [ttjs « : .k]o- 
vos. In the papyri it is very common in the official sense 
"tribunal, judgement-seat,'' as in NT. P Oxy I. 37 ' 3 
(A. 1 1. 49) ( = Selections, p. 48) IttItoO prjpaTos, [TI]etrovpi[s] 
Trpbs Eapaevv, " in court, Pesouris versus Saraeus," P Tebt 
II. 316" (A.D. 99) tov dirb prjpaTos xP T ]H LaTCO "r"' v '> *'" t"hg 
deed issued by the court," P Oxy II. 237 >"■ 13 (a.D. 1S6) 
Trpb pfjpaTos 6o-iciTrT)o-6v, and similarly P Amh II. So 7 
(a. n. 232-;!, P Strass I. 5' (a.d. 262) etc. In P Lond 
358 19 (c. A.Ii. 150) (= II. p. 172) we have errl to UpuTaTov 
toO i.Yeadvos P'lpa with reference to the Prae/ect s court, and 
in BGU II. 613 19 (time of Antoninus Pius) dfjiii Trpoo-Kvvcov 
to UpwTaTov Prjfxa tov [blank follows], and so elsewhere. 
A unique phrase in P Grenf II. 15 1 6 (B.C. i'39) t<J>" Upt'w]v 
IlToXepaiov o-fc>Tf|pos .  . Kal toO pfjp[aTos Aio']vto-ov, 
Part II. 

"priest of the P^pa of Dionysus?" (Edd.), is nol 
perhaps applicable by translation from demqtic, as in other 
divergences here from ordinary formulae. In the Christian 
fragment P Ryl I. u 7 (v/vi a.d.i p. is used ol the "terrible 
judgement seat ui Christ our God ' — Trpbs tw <}>opcjpu prjpaTL 
X(pro-To)0 tov 8(eo)v T|aw(v) : cf. Pelagia-Legejidcn (ed. 
U seller) p. 6 6 evumov tov [<j>piKTov Kal] cpops poi> Pijp.aT6s o-ov. 

A few examples will suffice of this oomtrKUl word — P Petr 
III. 53 (//)" (iii/B.C.) irjpbs piav 'ixerai, "he is forcibly de- 
laine. 1 " (Kdd.)j P Par 38 s8 (B.C. 162) irepl hi rjs ir£Tro£r|VTaL 
P£as (cf. 1' Anili II. 33 41 — B.C. 132), 10. is ls (B.C. 120) Kal 
ttj irepl eauTovs pia \P"'( 1£V0l i '' " X V VIII. H20 u (early 
iii/ KaTa tovto paprvpouai ti|v piav yvvr] X^P 01 Kat 
do-8evr|S, //"."° ws «v iravTl vQtvu piav p.* o-xelv, " so that I 
am subjected to unmitigated violence'' (Ed.), P Strass I. 5' J 
(A.D. 202) Tmrov8ev pCav ira[pjd irdvTas T°vs vduov[s], lb. ls 
cil Tt irpb[s] piav EXr|p.<j>8r|, and P Giss I. 34 1 - (a.d. 265-6; 
Piav ov T^jv T-vxovcrav tp yJao-ao-Bai.. MeTa pias, as in 
Ac 5 26 , occurs in P Tebt I. 5" (B.C. 1 iM, Syll 3_so 3J (B.C. 6), 
in the latter case associated with iipptus and applied to 
burglars. Note also P Tebt II. 434 2 (a. n. 104) ttjs pias 
avTwv 6eop.evT]5 ttjs tov KpaTicrTov ri-ytabvos SixaioSocrias, 
P Amh II. 7S 1 (A.D. 184) piav irdo-xinv (KatrroTi virb 
'EKvo-eas, Chnst. I. 40I 12 (iii/A.D. inil.) piav [ir]a8iv 

. . inrb] MdpKov ktX. It is rather curious that in NT 
Pia is restricted to Ac. 


The verb is common, and its compounds d-rro-, KaTa- and 
«io-- can be quoted ; but there seems little that promises 
decisive help for the difficult Logion of Mt II 12 = Lk l6 lc . 
That in the former prd^Tai can be passive, as all the ancient 
versions assume, may be illustrated by such evidence as P 
Oxy II. 294'° (A.D. 22) eyi Si pid^o;jiai vtto <f>£Xw[v. Cf. 
PraJfjOpai TaSt in Sophocles [Ant. 60), " I am forced to it." 
In the same direction tend the passages quotable for a 
transitive use of the middle. So P Giss I. iy 13 (ii/.\.D.), if 
rightly supplemented, aj/y^tvo-Tos EKoip.up.r|v [(as o Tr]aTTJp 
pov 6icreX8uiv ePido-aTd Tpc, " made me take food " ; P Audi 
II. }=, 17 (B.C. 132) Piao-dpcvos avTovs ettI ttjs dXw, "com- 
pelled them to go to the threshing-fl :" (Edd.), P Lond 

1171 verso (1 s (A.D 42) peprao-pe'vos Tivd, P Magd 27* (B.C. 
218) ptd^gTai p€ TrXivBov Trpoo- r d]ywv Kal Bept'Xtov o-Kd-rrTuv 
uio-Te OLKoSopeiv. The middle can however be used abso- 
lutely, = come forward violently or enter by force. Deiss' 
niann {BS, p. 258) supports this by Syll 633* (imperial 
period), where in the epigraphic regulations for the sanctuary 
of Men Tyrannus it is laid down — eav 8i tls pLao-rjTaL, 
aTrpbo-SfKTOS ij 8vo-ia Trapd tov 8to\i. It must be admitted 
lhat Deissmann's second translation above is as preferable for 
this inscr. as the first is for Mt f.c. if the verb must be 
middle : one who supports either of these renderings 
would still have to illustrate the application ,,f the verb 
to something abslract or impersonal. There are many 
other citations available for the absolute use. Putting 
first those where no cis follows, we have Syll 418 24 
(a.D. 23S) tirel 8e KaTa Kaipovs eis iSPprv (?) irpo\opdv tivcs 
Kal Pid£€0-6ar (= 7isc z'ioltitt\-) tjptjavTo, ib. ^93* (ii/A.D.) ti 
tls irapd Tijv povXrjo-tv IIv8i8os Ptao-dptvos (= by force) 





dvol£r Tt|V Kapdpav, J IIS xxxiv. p. I ft', (inscrr, from Lycia), 
no. 43 5 6 piao-dpevos of one who has forcibly entered a 
tomb (cf. 45 6 el 8e' tis 6Kpido-t]Tau). ( From literature may be 
added Demosthenes Cailicl. 17 (p. 1276) k&v pido-nTai iroTe, 
a.Tro4>pdTT€Lv airavTes Kal -irapoiKoSop-etv elwOapev, * ' when it 
[the flood water] forces its way.") So in the papyri P 
Magd I 1 ' (B.C. 221) irepl Se tou pepiacrpevovs [aiij-rovs Ko/re- 
o-irapKevai, " quant a la contrainte imposee par eux pour les 
semailles" (Edd.), P Tebt I. 6 31 (B.C. 140-39) tivois 8e xcd 
Pia5o|i.ev[o\)]s, "some who even take forcible possession" 
(Edd.), P Flor III. 3S2" 1 (a.ij. 222-3) *«* o5v ° fpa-ypaTi- 
kos em twv tottuv eio-xyei Pido-ao-Oai, and PSI II. 120 50 
(? iv/A.D.) eifierdpoXos -yip o Beds- ireio-ai £r\Tti, prj Pid- 
o-ao-8ai • 6 pev "yap piaa-dpevos exBpds, 6 Se -rreio-as crocjjos. 
This last, however, implies an object. D. S. Sharp, 
Epictctas and the NT, p. 67, cites a good parallel from 
Epict. iv. 7. 20 f. : diroKXeicrpbs epol <>" "ytvcTai, dXXd toIs 
Pta^ope'vois. Sid tC ovv ov pid^opai. ; "those who (try to) 
force their way in," as he rightly renders. This meaning of 
forcible entry is more precisely expressed with els, or by the 
compound, as is seen from Grimm's illustrations of Lk I.e., 
and by P Tor I. I x - : (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. 39) 
eurapev til pev 'Epplai prj eio-pid^eo-Sai, toIs Se irepl tov 
'fipov KpaTeiv, P Leid G 18 (i/B.C.) pt)[8]evl e£ei.v<u eio-pid- 
£eo-8ou els o.vt[t|]v, BGU III. 1004 in (iii/B.C.) dip' ov 
Xpdvou eio-pepiacrrai.. It is at least clear that Luke's 
Logion can be naturally rendered "everyone is entering it 
violently." It may be added that p. in the middle may be 
followed by an infin. Thus in Arrian's account of Alex- 
ander's death we find pido-ao-8ai ISelv. Similarly in P Ryl 
I. 24 11 (Homeric scholia — i/A.D.) ejdv rd ecvuToi [diroXnrwv] 
appaTa . . . [eij>' eTe'pwv eTrt]pTjvat ptd^T|[Tau. With the 
transitive exx. above will go the ace. et inf. constr. in 
Michel ioio 3:! (i/B.C. inil.) piao-ap.evcov Se auTov Tiiv TtyynCiv 
irdXiv to TeTapTov u-iropelvat eTn.peXr|Triv. 


BGU I. 45 10 (A.D. 203) dvrjp plaios inrapx^v pfj Xei- 
Torjp*ywv, T-jj P^°> a " T0 ^ eirfjXBev auTui. P Leid W v ''--' 
(ii/iii A. 11.) eXefjpuv ev wpais Pia£os (for -ais, or -01s). 
Cagnat IV. 351 31 has epYOu pialov in a fragmentary context, 
in a rescript of Hadrian at Peigamuin. The adj. occurs 
several times in Vettius Valens, who also has the compound 
piaioBdvaTos, and derivatives -Te'u and -<r£a. For the ad- 
verb, which is commoner, see P Par 14 s2 evoiKovo-iv Piauos 
of those who " forcibly " lake possession of a house, and cf. 
BGU II. 467 s (ii/A.D.) PiaCus dire'o-n-ao-e v [tjovs KapfjfXojus 
it. 64S 9 (a. n. 164 or 196) (= Chrest. I. p. 423) Piaius 
dvTi[X]ap.pdvovTai. t[o]v iraTpiKoi pou pe'povs ; and OGIS 
609 10 (iii/A. D. ) edv tis eTri6r|pT|o-r| pituws o-Tpo.Ti.a>Tns 
The comparative puuoTepov is found P Lond 301 18 (B.C. 
116-11) (=11. p- 14) piaioTepov epPaT[eu]o-[a]s els to 
Sn[Xovpevo]v KScKpos. 


This is very much the commonest form in the family, and 
was the regular word for " book," " writing " in the Kouvr,. 
It never meant a little writing: cf. P Ryl II. 382 (early 
ii/A.H.) peydXa pupXta. The diminutive was supplied by 
PvpXdpiov, as P Lille I. 7»(iii/B.C.) fcnJriTfjo-avTos avTov p«- 
pXdpid TI.VO, and pipXISiov. In Archill) v. pp. 262 ff, 441, 

Wilcken shows that this latter word was the ordinary term 
for "petition" till the end of the third century: see e. g. 
P Oxy VII. 1032 4 (A.D. 162) ov e-rre'Sopev OuoXouo-[Ui 
MjaiKtavci Tu fivepoveio-avTi PipXeiSlov . . . dvTl-ypa(|>ov, 
"copy of the petition which we presented to Volusius 
Maecianus, ex-praefect," P Tebt II. 293 s (c. A.I>. 1S7) irpbs 
to eiri8o8eV 0-0 1 pipXelSiov i-n-o M., ' ' with regard to the 
petition presented to you by M.," P Oxy I. 79 11 (a notice of 
death— A.D. 1S1-92) (= Selections, p. 89) 81b eiriSCSiupi [to] 
PipXeiSiov oujiiiv Tavfjvai aiiTov ev ttj tuv TeTeXeuTT|KOTu)v 
Td|ei, " I therefore present this petition and ask that he be 
enrolled in the roll of the dead," and P Grenf II. 6l ,! ' 
(A.D. 194 S) d8ev eTri8£[Sw]pi. K[a]l d^oo ev KaTaxwpio-p-i 
■yeve'cr8ai. tovto pipXlSiov. Prom the beginning of the fourth 
century p^pXlov or XtpeXXos as a rule displaced P>.pX£8iov in 
this connexion, e. g. P Oxy I. S6 16 (a.d. 338) tovtov X apiv 
to PupXl[ov eTfi]Si8wpi. d|iiiv toutov peT[a]Trep[4>8]TJvai, a 
petition that a certain man who had failed in a public duty 
should be sent for, ib. VI. 900 1 ' (a.d. 322) eV ToiTou T|Trix8iiv 
Td PipXia eiriSovvai., " I therefore hasten to present this 
petition" (Edd.) Naturally the bulk of our citations refer to 
state papers of various kinds, or petitions sent in to a public 
official. The distinction between book and paper easily 
vanishes when it is only a question of a single roll of 
greater or smaller length: the ptpXlov diroo-Tao-£ov ol Ml 
19' (see s.v. diroo-Tao-tov) is a document comparable with the 
petitions. For papers cf. P Petr II. 10 (2)» (iii/B.C.) Bels Ta 
pvpXla e£fjX8ov : the writer is a scribe who says he went lo 
the Treasury office to render his account, and it seems 
natural to assume this to be referred to, though the editor 
renders "books." P Kyi II. S3 4 (a.d. 13S-61) ir]pis wapd- 
Xt)p\|/[iv Kal] KaTa\/wYT]V pi.pX£[uv, "lo receive and forward 
the accounts" (Edd.). P Tebt II. 315 17 (ii/A.D.) edv pev oSv 
o"xoX?|V dyr|S Ypdi|/as [o-]ou to pipXta dveX8e Trpbs epe', "so 
if you have lime write up your books and come to me" — a 
finance inspector, who is a martinet (aio-TT)pds), is imme- 
diately expected. The word need not be further illustrated, 
but we may note the combination in P Oxy VIII. 1153 1 
(i/A.D.) e]Kop.uj-dpr|v Sid 'HpaxXaTos Tas Kicrras [o-iv] toIs 
PqSXlois, "the boxes with the books" (Ed.). For the 
spelling, p»p. or ptp., see Moulton Gram. II. §35. The 
dissimilated form PipXCov— contrast the converse fjpvo-u— 
greatly predominates in papyri : for pu. cf. P Pelr. II. 10 (2) 9 
and P Ryl II. 3S2, cited above, al*o BGU I\'. 1096 7 
(i/ii.\.D.), ii4S :l5 (h.c. 13), 1152 21 (B.C. 22). In inscrr 
naturally there i- more variation: for pv. cf. Michel 
IOOI vm.32 (,-. B.C.200), for pi. Syll 653 12 (B.C. 91)— both 
Doric, and cf. Meisterhans Gr. §13.4 (p. 2S) for the Attic 
record. The Ptolemaic papyri show more divergence than 
those dated a.d. See Mayser Gr. p. 102, Cronert Mem. 
Here. p. 21 f., Dziatzko Untersuthungen ilber ausgeu'iihltc 
Kapilel ties antiken Bitchweseus (1900), and Maidhof Zftr 
Begriffsbestimmimg tier Koine, p. 303 ff. Amongst interest- 
ing compounds found in the papyri may be mentioned 
PipXiopaxe'w (P Oxy I. 6S 3:1 (a.d. 131) edv PipXiopaxT|[o-]T|, 
" if he presents counter-statements"). pipXuxpvXcu; (PFay 31'' 
(,. A.D. 129) pipX(io<pvXa|i) evKTfjo-ew(v), "keepers of the 
property registers"), and pupXia<j>dpos (P Hal I. 7 6 (B.c. 232) 
etirep p.T| tov PupXiacpdpov xa't tov e^oSov eKTreVei[Ka]s. 
"unless you have spoken to the letter-carrier and the control- 
officer "). 




Nageli (p. 19) well draws attention to the connotation of 
sacredness and veneration which always attaches to pipXos 
in its rare occurrences. He quotes Lucian, and two papyri, 
the first of these referring to "old, wise, that is Chaldaean 
books," P Tar ig 1 (a.d. 13S) o-Kei|/dp.evos dirb iroXXiiv 
pipXwv tis Trape8c50r| fjpelv airb crocbwv dpxaluv, TouWcm 
XaXSalKwv, and the other to a citation in a mathematical 
treatise from a book of Hermes, P Oxy III. 470 4 (iii/A. 11. ) 
pipXos Xe'vei ktX. According to Thackeray (Arist. p. 
55 n. ') what seems to be the earliest use of fj pipXos for a 
collection of sacred writings is to be found in Aristeas 316. 
In the XT p. is either Scripture (Mk 12 26 ), or the Book of 
Life (Phil 4 3 ), or magical writings regarded as highly potent 
(Ac 19"), or again a royal pedigree record (Mt I 1 ). In accord- 
ance with this is the inscription OGIS 56' (B.C. 239) <Sv 
Kal to avTivpa<t>a KaTax"»pto-8r|creTai els Tas Upas pipXous : 
cfPOxyVI.SS6-'(iii/A.D.)and P Leid W™ ^"^-'(ii/iii a.d.), 
both occult or magical. As distinguished from x^-P 1 "^, 'he 
single sheet of papyrus for writing purposes, pipXos was 
the roll, made up of x<ipTai glued together (Dziatzko Das 
antikc Buchwesen, p. 48), while in contrast to pipXtov and 
PipXcSioi' it implies a literary work, see the passages cited 
above (P Par 19 1 , P Oxy IIL. 470 4 ), and the interesting 
P Tebt II. 29 1 43 (a.d. 162) where a candidate for the 
priesthood gave proof of his knowledge of hieratic and 
Egyptian writing by reading from a hieratic book produced 
by the sacred scribes— tov eTrlo-Tao-8ai [iejpaTiKa [Kal] 
AlyvirTia ■ypdp.[p-aT]a e£ rjs ol lepoypap-paTeis Trpo-.jveyKav 
pipXou UpaTiKfjs. It may be added that Pq3Xos can still 
mean the papyrus plant, as P Tebt II. 30S 7 (A.D. 174) 
tiu-^v pipXou puptdSiuv 8iio, ''the price of 20,000 papyrus 
stalks," and in the case of the adjective BGU II. 544* 
(ii/A.D.) iJv-yelSas P<.pXivas. 

For the spelling see the reft", under pc.pXCov, the derivative 
in which dissimilation produced the change of u to 1. 
BvpXos, being a decidedly rarer word, naturally yielded to 
the influence of PipXCov, and then reactions between the two 
produced the variations which affect them both and their 


The perfect of this verb, which in the NT is confined to 
Jn 6 13 (rots PeppmKcSo-iv), occurs in medical receipts P Ryl 

I. 29 (,7)" (ii/A.D.) PeP[p<o]u«Vovs KavBovs. Cf. the verbal 
adj. in PSI I. 64" (?i/B.c.) ufJTe iv iroTois (itJTe ev ppwTois, 
and in OGIS 629 159 (a.d. 137). For compounds see 
P Petr II. 4 (8) 5 (B.C. 255-4) xaraPcppcWvai, P Grenf 

II. 36 ,s (B.C. 95) T|Kov<rap.ev tov pvv KaTaPePpuKe'vai tov 
o-irdpov. "we hear that mice have eaten up the crop" 
(Bid.), and P Par 6 a (i/B.C.) Trep]iPpu>e«vTa, "devoured in 
part." On its record in classical Greek and LXX see Anz 
Subsidia, p. 268. Grimm's grave record of an " unused 
present ppuo-Kw whence pf. pe'PpwKa " stands among many 
philological freaks in a fine work. 


For the LXX Plkos "jar" (Jer iob»<>). which is first found 
in Herodotus, we may quote, in addition to the papyrus 
examples in Mayser Gr. p. 40, P Hit, I. 498 (,-. B.C. 257) 

Sttws dv ep.pdXrp-ai Tas eXalas els piKovs, P Hal I. 7 5 
(B.C. 232) els [£e]via <j>olviKas Kal eppaXwv els PIkovs 84s Kal 
TavTa TrapaKoplcrai rjutv, and from a much later date 
P Lond 239" [c. a.d. 346) (=11. p. 298) x«vv£ M v) PIkovs) p, 
"two jars of quails." The word had apparently some vogue 
in Egypt, but it was very rarely found elsewhere. 


For p. = the period or duration of life, cf. P Petr II 
13(19)* (c. B.C. 252) (= Witkowski, Epp* p. iS) 0-0O 
irpocTTaTTJo-a[i. tov] e[ir]£Xonrov piov, "to take care of you 
for the rest of your life," P Magd 1S 7 (B.C. 221) els 
to [Xoijirov tov piov, P Par 39 1 (B.C. 161) ueT[r|XXaxoTos 
toS] TraTpbs tov piov, P Tebt I. 43" (B.C. 118) TtTevxoTes 
[t]tjs irap' vpciv els airavTa Tbv piov avTiAfjuifieus, P Oxy 
HI- 473 7 (a.d. 13S-60) tt)v tov XoittoO piov <f>LXoTip.£av, CP 
Herm I. 7 »• J (ii/A.D.?) d[o-vve]£wo-Tov Sid piov, "for life," 
P Ryl I. 2S l5J (iv/A.D.) if the right calf quiver, e| dirpocr- 
8oktjtou irpoo-XT|p.v|/eTai ri Kara tov piov, " the person wilt 
unexpectedly acquire something in his life" (Ed. — but could 
it mean "something affecting his livelihood"?), P Fay 19 1 
(the so-called letter of the dying Hadrian) oin-e d-rrfpoo-]- 
SoktitioTs ovre dvoT|]Tios tov plo[v, P Magd 
8 1 (B.C. 21S) tfircos diraY^e'XXto tt)v . . . KaTJdXva-iv tov 
piov (cf. 1. 5), and P Oxy VIII. U2l la (a.d. 295) irpo 
bXl-ywv tovtwv rjuepuv tov piov dvaTravo-ape'vr|s dSiafJe'Tov. 

For the common meaning livelihood, cf. .SV/342 40 (•:. B.C. 
4S) Sairdvats xP"P-Avos Tais ' K T °v P">v, " ex sua re famili- 
ari " (Ed.), ib. 325" (i/B.c.) Tiiv I8£u>v dirb tov piov 
[8]aTrav[t)]adTuv, OGIS 194 s0 (B.C. 51-4") tov -yap eavTov 
piov 6Xocrx[ep]ws dv[e]8eTo tois xpr)°"9ai povXoue'vois, P Leid 
W'xiv.38 (ii/iiiA.D.) ali|-r|crdv p.o« tov piov (Kal) iv iroXXois 
d-yaflois, P Cairo Preis 2 13 (a.d. 362) ep.oil oiv diro8r|p.r|cras 
(.r< . -avTos) els to iSiov ^p^ov, ottms eiipu e^virepeTfjo-at [sc. 
-uirrjp-) tov piov. 

The thought of manna- of life, which underlies NT usage 
in 1 Tim 2 s , 2 Tim 2 4 , appears in a ii/B.c inscription from 
.Egina {OGIS 329 s ), in which a certain Kleon is praised for 
the euTaijIa which he displayed both in public and private 
life — d"n-(S8ei£iv Tr€TroiT)p.e'vou t[t)s] ir[pa-ylu.aTiKTJs Kal ttjs 
KaTa tov piov euTaijCas. So BGU IV. 109S 3 * (c. B.C. 20), 
where a wife is bound Trjpeiv ra irpos tov civSpq. Kal tov 
koivov piov SUaia. In ib. I. 251 5 (A.D. Si), another mar- 
riage contract, the husband undertakes to provide Ta 
8e'ovT[a irdvTa Kal tov l] Kal Ta dXXa, bo-a KadrJKei 
yuvaixl •yap.eTfi Ka[ra] Svvap.i.v toO pt[o]u, and ib. II. 
372 11 - (a.d. 154) d[v8]pdcru irovr|p[bv k]o.[1] Xr|cr[T]ptKbv 
Pflov iroiovp.e'jvois. With this last may be compared IG 
VII. 396 la 8ieve''yKas creuvdv Te Kal rjcrvxiov piov Trap' bXov 
tov Ttjs ?u)f|s aiTov xP°vov, in which, in accordance with 
classical usage pios, not £u)T|, is the ethical word. For the 
exchange of the relative position of the two words in the 
NT and early Christian writings, see s.v. ?ur|. 


P Lips I. 119 verso'}-* (a.d. 274) irepl Tb 6p8us Kal 
d[^]r(XoTrpa'ypbvws Tuiv lnrap£dvTu)v d-yaOuiv epebopovpivovs 
piovv, I' Flor I. 57 3 (a.d. 223-5) (a rescript of Pertinax) 
toIs e[P_8p^f|KovTa ^Tt] pePiwKoo-L -ye'pas dXiToupyqcrlas [is 
granted as an old age pension] (cf. the contemporary P Flor 
III. 3S2 r '-"' f ), Syll S56 ,e (ii/B.c— a manumissi..n "sale" to 




Apollo, in dialect) ci ye[v]eav iroirjo-aiTO Aap.apxls ©euSiipas 
Pioio-as, during the lifetime of Th. (her mistress). The, 
aor. is abundant in epitaphs, as Preisigke Tjd (a.d. 259) 
'Iepaxfcuva . . . poio-ao-a tTn f| Kal UT]v(<iv) Tpuov, 1 190 
(Christian) TaT)o-ai cpiuo~ev el'Kouo"i oktco, yivovTai) (eVii) 
Kt). So in the " letter of Hadrian." P Fay 19 12 tco-- 
<rapd]novTa PiiJo-as ern,. For this 1st aor. in -era see 
Thackeray Gr. i. p. 233 f. An interesting example of this 
verb is afforded by Musonius (ed. Hense) p. Sg'"- diore 

Kal TOV avOpwITOV €i.KOS OV\ OTaV €V TjSovf] plot, TOT€ KaTCL 

<frio-iv ptoOv, dXX' oTav ev dp€TT], 

/3{ coot;. 

No example of this word in profane sources i, as yet 
forthcoming. With its use in Sirach Pr, ' -. 10, Sid T-ijs 
tvvduov p«oo-tws as a summary of the practical aim of 
teachers of the law, we may compare a Jewish inscription 
of A.D. 60-80 in Ramsay C. and />'. ii. p. 6,0. ofio-Tivas 
x[al] TJ irvvayayi] fTeCp.t]<riv 8irXip itrixpiirw Sid Te ti'|v 
eVdpeTov avTciv [PQucriv Kal Tt'|V ir[p]os tijv <rvvayayi\v 
eflvoidv tc Kal o-irouSrjv. For the poetic Photos, see the 
sepulchral inscription of B.C. 145-16 in Archil) i. p. 220" 
on 7tvdp.T|V tiJvo-us P^otov SiaYOuo-' up.a, 22 1 20 o-auT&v p/i") 
Tpvxeiv p.vrjcrdp.evov Piotoxi. 


P Tebt I. 52" (,. B.C. 114) lias «Tcpa pio-iKu. a-up.poXa, 
"othei business documents," a good illustration of the NT 
passage? (Lk 2i 21 , 1 Cor 6")! Still better is P Ryl II. 
125 11 (a. I). 2S-9) Kal *p.oO \api<riivTO% els aTroS^aiav 

Piut[iJk<Sv x°-P LV i "when I had left home on business 
concerning my livelihood" (Edd.). E. Kohde, Zum griech. 
Roman, p. 381". (K/eine Schriftcn II.) has a note on the 
phrase PiamKal 8ir)-yi']<j-ei.s, "stories of ordinary life," with 
other phrases from literary Koivr| employing the word. It 
occurs often in Vettius Valens. 


P Goodsp Cairo 2' r > (a medical fragment — ii/A.D.) ot twv 
cupatov T|p.ds diro£evowT«s i-s pXapepuTtpov, "who warn 
us against ripe fruits as being very harmful" (Ed.). Sv/l 
220 14 (iii/B.C.) ti'|v Trdtrav irpdvoiav eiroeiTo toO |xt]8«v 
pXaptpbv •yivecrSai ire "p]l tt|v x™P av - The noun pXdpos 
may be cited from P Ryl II. i26 le (a.D. 2S-9) i- oi pXdpos 
(lot ^iTT]KXo>)8(T|(rev) ovik dXeyov, P Oxy X. 12S2 40 (A.D. 83) 
to t« pXdpos Kal eirf.Tcqj.ov, "the damages and a fine", 
BGU II. 538 1 ' (a.d. ico) pXdpos p.n.i8ev irowov, and in 
the common formula rd T6 pXdpt] Kal SairavrjuaTa, e.g. 
BGU III. 1001 13 (b.c. 56-5). Note the uncontracted 
plur. in P Tor II. 13 14 (B.C. 137), in this formula. Mayser 
(Gr. p. 287) quotes many other instances of the neuter, 
wl 1 h In- says stands alone in Ptolemaic times, except for 
P Far 15" (B.C. 120) els pXdpas: add F Amh II. 33!' 
(r. B.C. 157) eirl pXdpfl tiuv irpocrdSov. So from later 
papyri, F Oxy III. 4SS 19 (ii/iii A.D.) ovk dXryiiv pXdp-rjv 
iirotpspei pe, BGU I. 72 12 (a.d. 191) oi xoXik^v pXdp-nv 
eireKoXouflrio-ev. Moeris (p. 103) makes pXdpos Attic, and 
PXdpt] (which has driven its rival out by the end of iv/A.D.) 
Hellenistic. A literary quotation for the latter may be 

added from PSI II. 120'-'" (?iv/A.D. — a collection of maxims) 
dp.vvou tov 6[x8jpov dveu ttjs o-eauTou pXdpr)[s. A glance at 
LS will dispose of the Atticist's contention. 


For personal injury we may note such passages as P 
Lips I. 2 s (A.d. 001 bcpBaXpbv Se|ibv PepXapue'vos, P Gren) 
I- 3j 13 ('• B -C- I0 -l epXappe'vos o<p9aXpoi)s dp<J>oTe'poi>s, F 
Flor I. 57 GD 'A.D. 223-5) Tois 6cp8aXp.ovs epXdpuv ( = 1 1 1. 
3S2I. also perhaps id. III. - o2 T <a.d. 151) pepXapp(e'vos)] 
rbv dij>9aXpbv 8€£[tdv. It is curious that it should be thus 
specialised Mr injury to the eyes. The verb is common for 
"damage" in a legal sense Thus F Fetr III. 26 s d-rro- 
TctcrdTo 6 Kvpios twi pXacpStvTi. to pXapos o oLv KaTa- 
pXd>|/T]i., " the owner shall pay to the injured person the 
amount of damage done." BGU IV. 1057 23 (A.D. 13I 
(= direst. II. p. 401 ektCv(civ) auTois 8 lav irpaxSn r] 
pXap-ij, F Oxy II. 2S6 U (a.D. 82), ixTtia-nv 8 lav irpa- 
xSwpev t] pXapup.ev tovtuv X^P 1 "! "P a y m S us ' n m " 
loss or damage which we might incur in connexion with 
the transaction" (Edd.). ii. I. 44' late i/A.D.) lis iKavd 
pXa7rTopevuv, "on the plea that the} - had incurred sufficient 
loss already" (Edd.). More* general sense appears in P 
Flor II. 151 11 (a.D. 267) ur] tV atiTous o-TpaTtci-^s diro- 
o-TaX-j], Kal aXXcjs e4 > °^ tov pXaptio-tv, " lose their wages" (?). 
It describes the material damage done by a riot in CP Herm 
I. 110 . A 1 ' u ia.]». 20O-S). d(p' uv ovhiv irep[i'yLV£T]at 
tw 7ToXltlku Xd T io Sid to €^ oXokXtjpov PepXdcpOai «v tois 
irpdo-Stv o-vpPepT]Kdo-L KaTa ti'|[v irdjXtLV dirtuKTatots 


Fur the transitive use of p. (as las 5 18 ) see Aristeas 230, 
a'i (sc. \ pXao-rdvovo-rv eiivoiav. The subst. pXd- 
0-TTip.a (as Sir 50 12 ) is found in 1' Fond 131 recto 1 '* (A.D. 
9) ( - I. p. 175) Ta irepLcrcrd pXao-TripaTO, and for 
pXaoroXoYe'o = " pick off young shoots/' see //>. 507 . See 
also Id VII. 49b 3 pXacrTTJuaTa KaXwv tckvuv. 


For this proper name, as Acts 12 20 , cf. Miclul 1224 
(Cyzicus, ii/B.C.) Aivcias BXao-Toii (so Michel accents). 


The more special sl-iisc of irreverence towards God which 
p. and its derivatives have acquired, though not inherent in 
the word itself (cf. Jas e 7 . 2 Fet 2 11 ), may be illustrated from 
Vettius Valens p. 44* els Oeoirs pXao-<pt]p.ovo-iv r\ cTrtopKoi Kal 
a9«K KaBio-TavTai, aS 12 els to Beta pXao-(pT]povvTes, 67 20 
•n-oXXd pXao-tp^pi^a-et Oeoiis (for construction cf. 4 Kings 19 s * **). 
Thumb (Hellen. p. 17S) remarks on the word as a genuine 
piece of " biblical Greek," thai is a word which has acquired 
a technical meaning in association with Jewish and Christian 
religion. The etymology which seems to suit best its 
original meaning of " injurious speaking 1 '— pXd\|/, the reduced 
form of pXdpos. and <j>l-p£ — is not without phonetic diffi- 
culties: see Brugmann-Thumb Gr. 1 p. U7f. (where it is 
accepted with some hesitation), and for an alternative 
(Brugmann's) Boisacq Lex. s.v. 





For the subjective scum' "look" which Mayor finds in 
this word in 2 Pel 2 8 cf. V Oxy III. 471°° ii A..D.) edpaKe 
8e Kal [pX]:(i(ia dvato-yjivTov Kal Stan-optras ivaiirjfWTOu 
(= ovs) epao-rov, "each saw the shameless look and shame- 
less goings to ami fro of the lovers" (Edd . 


The papyri have added a perfect 1 1 the paradigm of this 
veil> : it proves t 1 pt'pXocba ( P Lend 42 s1 — B.C. 16S) 

( =Witkowski 2 , p. 63) (see under epPXeTra). It is hard to 
believe that a form so correct historically, and so distant from 
any obvious analogy, can be anything but a genuine survival, 
even if it does meet us only in a woman's letter from Ptole- 
maic Egypt. If this inference is justifiable, the word has a 
moral for the argument from silence. BXerrw has primarily 
the physical sense, as distinguished from opu (cf. our cognate 

! : this is well seen in dvapX^rrio 
Usage bears this out. Thus T Par 44" (B.C. 153) 1= Wit- 
kowski 2 , p. 83) has pXsiru MtveSnpov KaTaTpe'xovTa pe 

ug alter 4yu yap tvu-rrvta opw Trovnpd. So in P Hal 1.8* 
(B.C. 232) a man is incapacitated — 8td to p^| pXtVetv rds 
vuKTas, and in P Oxy I. 30* (a.d. 52 oXia/ov pXe'trt)v = 
tsighted." An interesting instance of the word is 
afforded by P Giss I. 17 10 (time of Hadrian) where a slave 
writes to her master aTro8vr|o-Kop£v 8ti ov pXe'iropiv ere ica8' 
rptpav (cf. I Cor I5 3] ). Closely parallel with phraseology in 
Gospel healings of the blind is one of the cases from the 
Asclepieum, Syll 802" (Epidaurus, (iii/B.c.) : the blind man 
sleeping in the temple saw a vision (ov/ts! of the god open- 
ing his eyelids and pouring in a cbdppaKov — when day broke 
P X e'mjv dp<potv t^fjXSt. P Oxy 1 1. 2 iS 33 (1 A.D.) o Avovpds 
av[Tb]v ou\ t^us [PJXtim, "A. looks upon him with no 
friendly eye," may serve as a transition to the more meta- 
phorical use of pX£i™, as in P ( t.xy II. 259" (A.D. 23) pXs-rre 
(it irws pe t| |iT|Tnp f||ioJy [2]o-<j>a£e x^P uv T0U X u P°'Y'P cl( r ,c ' 11 . 
P Lond 964* (ii/iii A.D.) (= lit. p. 212! pXe'ire iit| eirtXaBr] 
ovSt'v. and P Oxy IX. 1220" (iii/A.D.) ovSiv pX^tru cbaviXou 
trap' i(iOt, " I see nothing bid in my behaviour " (Ed.). The 
meaning ''beware," implied in some of these passages, is 
extended to a personal reflexive object in BGU IV. 1079 21 
(a.d. 41) (= Selections, p. 40) <is civ irdvTes Kal cri pXe'ire 
o-aTov diTo Tuv'IovSatwv, " like everybodj else, youtoomust 
beware of the Jews," which is a rather neat confutation of 
those who would detect " Hebraism" in Mk S 15 and the like. 
I or the geographical sense, the "aspect" of a building, etc. 
(as Ac 27":, cf P Leid W'-« ii/iii A.D.), terra Se t| 8upa trpbs 
Svcrjids pXe'irovo-o, PSI III. 1 75 14 (a.d. 462) crup.irdo-i.ov 
pXeirov cirl votov. etc. Finally, for p. virtually = «6pto-Kw 
as in Rom 7 23 (cf. v. 21). see P Fay ill 10 (a.d. 95-6) ws 
tav pXcirns [t]tjv Ttpijv iravrbs dydpao-ov. " however you 
find the price, be sure to buy " (Edd.). 


The manifestation of strong ' 'iiig; which is the distinguish- 
ing note of this verb, comes out well in a fragmentary petition 
written under much excitement, P Oxy IV. 717 3 late (i, B.C.) 
iya oiv ifiouiv Kal <(:<pa5ov. cf. 12 . 1; - 14 . See also P Oxy I. 
41" (iii/iv a.d.) 6 8r)pos cpdno-ev — the account of a popular 

demonstration. For similar acclamations in the inscriptions 
we may cite Syll (O7 15 (iii/iv a.d.) ep(dno-av) ot o-iivtSpot. 
" FlapipCXw KaXi| r| (eto-)r)YT|0-is. ovtu -yeivc'o-So," and 
compound e|(epdr|o-av in ib. 737 13 . - 4 (ii/iii a.d.). 


The word is perpetually recurring at the end of petitions. 
P Par 35 s8 (B.C. 163) toutou Si yevopsvou tcropai tctevx^s 
tt)s irap' ipuv poufleias, BGU I. 226 s  1) Trpbs to 

tv^lv pe Ttjs dirb 0-0O por|8a'as. • J41 /-' (a.d. 148— 9) 
dvayKs'os tirl Ti[v ctijv pofjBtav KaTc'(pvyov, P ('.en I. 6 W 
\.D. 1401 I'va 8uvn8<i ck tijs o-fjs ponBsias Kopio-ao-Sat to 
I'Stov, and P Oxy X. 1272- 2 (A.D. 144) tva 8vvr)8w tt] crfj 
Poi]8cCa dveupetv to. iipe - T<pa. A slightly different technical 
meaning is found in a restoration by Mitteis ol P< »xy ATI. 

1020 s (A.D. I9S-2O] ) (i Tt|V €K TTJS TJXtKtaS fyets P[ OTJBtav. 

"if you can claim the assistance due to immature agV 
= aet<i/is aitxilium, for which the code of Justinian is 
quoted (Ed.). More ordinary, though still in a petition, i^ 
BGU IV. 1201 12 (A.D. 2) Kal rjpwy dvaKpd£avT€s (for -dvTwv) 
tts Ti|V Kt6pr|v irpbs pofjBnav. On the phrase PonBeiais 
CY^pcivTO in Ac 27 17 see a note by Xe-tle in ZNTW v.ii. 
p. 73 I'., where for 6. = " supports " he quotes I'liilo 
§ 33 (e 1. Cohn -= II. 46 M.) uio-irep ydp Kvpep- 
vi']TT|s Tats twv TrvEvadTwv |j.€TaPoXals cruau-CTapaXXeL -as 
Trpbs tiiirXoiav Por|Oc£as = "' verwendeten Sttitzen." For 
the interchange of o and o^ in this and similar words, see 
Mayser Gr. p. 1 to. 


Like the noun, the verb is ubiquitous in the formula .if 
petitions, e.g. P Par 22 M (petiti m of the Serapeum Twins) 
onus <op.6V 81' ip.ds p€por|8T| r t'vai., P Pay 11 3 ' t . B.C. 115) 
TovTtov 8« yevouJvtov ^'c-ou-ai PepoT)6up.€v[os, P Giss I. S lj 
(a.d. 119) IV u [PJePonBriueVos, BGU II. 4i4 2 " (A.D. 103) 
Kal ujitv iiTr[d o-]ov pepor|8r|u.^voi. For its general use cf. 
P Giss I. 66 5 (early ii/A.D.) d [«]p«poT|8TJKers aviTwi, P Tebt 
II. 2S6 4 (a.D. 121-3S) KJal ir[p]wT|v o"OL air€c})i]vdu.Tiv otl Tb 
t[ir](Kpiu.d pou ponOci [crjot. *' that my edict was of service 
to you" (Edd.), P. 1' lor II 150 10 (a.d. 2671 trXeiova (.. 
poifira) tgEi poriBclv <n note case), P Oxy X. 1 34S (late 
iii/A.D.) ov -ydp €poi]8r|o-as ijptv u>s ciSws Ta [vd]ui.u.a. 
from inscrr. Syll 329™ B.C. 86), where the Ephesian demos, 
to-Y^T^Kws Katpbv Trpbs to Po^Sclv Tois koivols, 
declares war on Mithradates. For divine help cf. Preisi 
I 58 'Av8pdp.a)(os MaKeSwv dcpiKCTO Trpbs ' Au.€vw9t|v \pTjo-rbv 
8ebv p.[L]o-8ov cpya^dpevos Kal €paXaK£cr8t) Kal 6 8cbs 
avTwt €Poi'i6T|o-e avOrjaepT], P Leid \V vii 2i (ii/iii a.d.) kXvtu 
pot, b xpncrTos tv pa^dvots, pOT>0T|crov Iv dvdyKats. These 
prepare for its use in Christian papyri : P Fay 13'r (a letter, 
iv/.A.D.) t]tSdT€s oTte'xeTe' pc is do - ' dv TrdcrxcTej 9eou porjGovv- 
tos, P Oxy VII. 105S 3 la prayer, iv/v a.d.) 6 8 tbls Tciv 
TrapaK6tp€vtjv o-Tavpuiv, porj0rio-ov tov SoiiXdv crov, ib. VIII. 
1 132* (amulet, v/vi a.d.) Teo-oO Xpto-T«, pofj8t i;ptv Kal 
tovptu) oI'ku. Inscriptional instances of PotT|8£tj ate given 
in G. Meyer Gr. 3 p. 93: see Brugmann-Thumb Gr. p. 34. 
The verb starts from the military sense, so common in Greek 
historians: Homeric poi)9dos. from which it comes, " suc- 
currit (Bods) ad clamorem (Porj). " Bor|8ds was made afresh 
from the verb. 





The word is very frequent in the ostraca for the "assist- 
ants" of the -irpaKTopes or " tax-gatherers," see Wilcken 
Ostr. i. p. 61S, and for a similar use in the papyri the 
editors' note to P Fay 34" (a.i>. 161) PotiBoIs Yecop-yiiv kwut|s 
IIo\u8€DK(£as, where they translate "assistants in connexion 
with taxes upon cultivators at the village of Polydeucia." 
For a description of the Praefect as 6 tov vopovi Ponflds, 
" helper of the district," see P Giss I. 46 11 (time of Hadrian) 
dfjiovue'v ere tov tov vo|xoO Pot|6ov SiaKoua-aL t|M.u>v, and cf. 
P Oxy III. 48S 8:: (ii/iii A. 11.) TrpocrcpcvYw 0-01 toil KvpCio Kal 
TrdvTiov por|8u). For the word in its widest connotation it is 
sufficient to cite P Oxy IV. 743 20 (B.C. 2) et Kal ir[p]bs dXXovs 
d\ov irpd-ypa, PotiBov avTov y[( |vc'o-8ai Sid t)v ?x°lf^( v ) irpbs 
taTois <pt\iav, "for although I (?) have had trouble with 
others you must assist him for the sake of our friendship " 
(Edd.), and P Lond 410 8 (c. a.m. 346) (= II. p. 29S) p.«Ta 
rbv 6«bv ovSfvav (/. ovBeva) (\o\t.(v T)(a.fjs ponBdv, "after 
(i. e. except) God, we have none to help us " (Ed.) ; also 
from ii/B.C, P Leicl E-" Scdp-cBd crov p.c8' iK«Te£as, KaBoTi ov 
SiaXeCms t|uu>v dvTiXauPavdpcvos, Kal tv tovtois PoeqBbv 
7£vd|jL€vov Trpoo-KaXe'o-ao-8ai ktX. (For the spelling see on 
|3orj8e'u> ad fin.) 


BGU IV. ii22 l7 (n.(. 14) 4ttI tov Poflvvov -rixjjuTov. The 
word is also supplied by the editor in P Hal I. 1" (middle 

iii.'li.i '.) edv hi Tac|>pov dpuo-o-nr r) [poflvvov 6p]vo-o-r|L. 

The adj. pdXipos is found quater in Syll 140 (B.C. 353-2), 
meaning "leaden": see Diltenberger on l. 26 and Boisacq s.v. 
p.dXvp8os. Thackeray (Gr. i. p. 106) notes udXiaos an< I 
PoXipov from MSS of LXX, which may illustrate the 
survival of some of the widely divergent forms current in 
earlier Greek dialects. The name of " lead " is supposed to 
have been borrowed very early (before Homer), perhaps 
from Iberians in Spain : cf. reff. in Walde Lat. Etym.' s.v. 
plumbum. It is at least possible that p<>X(s in the sense 
plum met (ace. to Homeric scholia) may be really "the 
lead," with form affected by poXrj etc. from pdXXw. How- 
ever this may be, the verl 1 PoX(£u ' ' sound " is very instructive 
as a air. elp. in Ac 27 s8 : eleven centuries later, the Homeric 
scholar Eustathius uses it as familiar from ancient Greek, 
and he does not mention Luke or hint that he remembered 
what for us happens to be the solitary example of the word : 
see the quotations from Eustathius iir Wetstein ad loc. 
It is sufficiently obvious that Lube did not coin the word, 
and its history may help less obvious eases elsewhere. 


For this word which is found in Bibl. Grk only in 
Jerem 45" and 2 Pet 2", cf. Aioc. Pel): 8 Kal Xqj.vr| tis 
ijv ue-ydXr) Tr£TrXi}pco|jL€VTi poppdpov (pXeyoutvov, also Ada 
Thomae (ed. Bonnet) 53 s!8ov pdppopov . . . Kal v(ivxds 
«k«1 KuXiop-t'i-as- Both the noun and the corresponding verb 
occur in the Peldgia-L,egencle)i, p. 6 21ff - (ed. Usenei) : 4X8oO<ra 
ir€pia-T€pd fitXdvr] Kal Pcpoppopwuevr] TrcpifTreTaTO uoi, Kai 
tV|v 8vo-«8£av tov popPdpov avTfjs ovk TiSwdptiv 4>e'petv. 
See also Wendland in Sit-.. Serf: .ll-nit 1S98, p. ;SS fl., 

"Ein Wort des Heraklit im Neuen Testament," with 
reference to 2 Pet 2 22 . 


The contracted form, which is found in the two NT occur- 
rences of this word (Lk 13 s *, Rev 2I 13 ), is almost universal 
in the Ptolemaic papyri, e. g. P Lille I. 1 recto 1 (B.C. 259-S) 
dirb votov eis poppdv, P Petr I. 2I U aml 1" (B.C. 237) dirb 8e 
poppa, 1' Par 15 16 (B.C. 120) dirb Poppa tov 8pdp.ov tov 
[d]"yovTos ^ttI -rroTapbv ttjs p-CYio-T-ns Beds "Hpas, and other 
examples in Mayser Gr. p. 232 ; but P Hib I. 27 s9 (a 
calendar, B.C. 301-240) Popt'ai irveCovo-iv dpvt8£ai, "the 
north winds which bring the birds are blowing." P Leid 
\yxix. 24 has Pop'as, some five centuries later, but it is always 
rare. Cf. Job 26', Sir 43". ". Priene 99 19 (c. B.C. 100) has 
Tf)s o-Tods tov pope'ov : cf, Syll 552'° (latter half of ii/A.D.) 
els tt)v TrapacTTaSa ri]v drrb 8vo-u.fjs ttjs crTods Tfjs Pope£[as 
— with corresponding adjective. From inscrr. cf. OGIS 176 8 
(ii/i B.c) eirl poppdv, ib. 17S 10 (ii/i B.C.) i-rrl Popdv, Michel 
1357 9 (B.C. 300-299) PoppdBev. The adj. Popivds occurs in 
P Oxy I. 43 verso'- 10 (after A. D. 295) p(v(iT)) tjj Popiv[fj] 
eKKXrio-Ca " North Church St," ib. III. 498 s (ii/A.D.), at. ; 
but in ib. VIII. 1 1 12 23 (a.d. iSS) Pop[i]vots implies pp. and 
so P Kyi H. 157 12 (a.d. 135). Thumb, Hellen. pp. 56, 65, 
notes that poppds is a Dorism in the Kotvrj. 


The verb is used in connexion with irpdpaTa in P Magd 6 13 
(B.C. 221) Td t« TrpdpaJTa p€poo-Kr|KdTas, P Tebt II. 298 s3 
(A.D. 107-S) irpopjaTiov poo-K[o(p€vwv), P Thead 57 2 
(a.d. 317) pdo-KOVTOs avTov tol ir[pci]PaTa, and with a herd 
of swine, as in Ml; 5 11 , in the illiterate BGU III. 757 1 * 
(a.d. 12) d pdo-Kovo-iv viKa kt^v^i.. Cf. Syll 53 1 36 (iii/A.D.) 
irpdpaTa[8€ p-f| t^jt'crTo) 4[TriPd]o-K«[i]v «[ts] to t^m-€vos ut)8€vC, 
on pain of confiscation to the god— see the editor's note. 
A derived noun occurs in P Lond 219 recto (an account for 
food — ii/B.C.) (= II. p. 2) i8{_> Poctku). It is frequently- 
found as a termination, e. g. UpaKoPoo-Kos (P Fetr III. 99 5 , 
tpiopoo-Kos (ib. 58(f)' ) (both iii/B.c. ) : see Mayser Gr. 
p. 471. 


is common in the magic papyri, e. g. P Lond 46 199 (iv/A.T).} 
(= I. p. 71) KwoKe(j>dX(i.ov) PoT(dvT)v) — a herb mentioned 
by Pliny (N.H. xxx. 2) as employed for magical purposes 
(Ed.). In P Amh II. 91 1 - (A.D. 159) KaTao-rropds PoTa- 
vio-p.ovs is rendered by the editors "sowing and weeding." 
For PoTavicrpris see also BGU I. 197 17 (A.D. 17), ib. II. 
526'D. 3< (a.d. S6). 


BGU IV. II18 14 (B.C. 22) o-TacpvXTJs pdTpvas dv8or|KOVTa. 
Similarly P Lips I. 30 1 (iii/A.D.). A subst. poTpevs, hitherto 
unknown to the lexicons, occurs in a list of persons employed 
by certain village officials, P Lond II. 189 58 (ii/.A.D.) (= II. 
p. 157) — was he a "grape-picker"? The note in Moeris 
(p. 105). pdTpvs, paKpdv, 'Attikws. Ppa\v, 'EXXtjvlkwS. makes 
this word — presumably representing its class — an instance of 
the tendency to shorten vowels : incidentally it tells us that 
quantities were not yet levelled as in MGr. 

fioi>X€VTl]S 115 


Apart from Mk I5« 3 , Lk 23 50 , where botli writers had 
Gentile readers in view, neither PouX«utt]S nor PouXr) seems 
to have been used by Jews as a technical term in connexion 
with their Sanhedrin, although Hicks (CR i. p. 43) refers to 
Josephus B.J. ii. 17. 1 oi' t« dpxovTes Kai oi PovXevTai, and 
.lntt. xx. 1. 2 (in an edict of Claudius) Tepoo-oXvpiTiii/ 
dpxovo-i. poijXrj 8t|(jiu> 'IouSaiuiv iravTi ?6v€i. As illustrating 
the use of PouXevrrjs in Egypt it may be noted that in 1' 
Loml 348* (('. a.d. 205) (= II. p. 215) a certain Heron is 
described as PouXctutt|S of Arsinoe, and an ex-Koo-pT|TT|S 
(i«KO<r|±T|TeuKuisl. A century later a letter is addressed by 
one Eudaimon Yr)p(vao-i.a.pxilcra.s I PovX «utt]s) of Oxyrhyn- 
chus to two colleague--, dp<f>OT€pois o-vvSikois pouXeuTats Tfjs 
[Xapirpo]T(d-rr|s) '0£vpwx[i-T]<Sv irdXews, Chrest. II. ig6 2ff - 
(A. 11. 307 — Mitteis, not here alone, misprints ":■. Chr."). 
An inscr. of A.D. 214-5, OGIS 209', found at a place 
beyond Philae, gives the title to a ieptis Yopou (see s.v. ). 
The editor observes that it must refer to some Greek com- 
munity, and suggests Ptolemais : he quotes CIG 5000 »• 3 , 
where the brother of the subject of this inscr. is called 
PouXturr|S, dp£as IlToXep.aUuv — see the note for other 
passages. In 1' Fay 37 2 (iii/A.n.) an order is issued for the 
arrest of Emes. who has been "accused by Aurelius Nilus 
councillor tevKaXovpevov inrb Avipr|XCou NeiXov PovXevToi) : 
cf. P Fay S5 3 (a.D. 247) with the editors' note. [The cnix 
ol I' Grenf II. 63' •» (? middle ii/A.D.) pouX ctjtt|s criToXdyuv 
is now solved by the correct reading, por|8 v bs) o-itoXovuv : 
see Wilcken Archiv iii. p. 124.] In OGIS 56 (Canopus 
Decree of Ptolemy III, B.C. 239) we read of the PouXeuTa! 
iepeis Iv Ai-yvirTu), whom Diltcnberger (n. 51) describes as 
" collegium quod de rebus cuiusque delubri administrandis 
consultabat." See also Hohlwein L'Egypie Romaine, 
p. 133 f, and the index to OGIS. 


For the verb in its general sense followed by an infinitive, 
as in Ac 5 33 XI), c f. P Tebt I. 5S 28 (B.C. Ell) p«PovX t v.p.«ea 
«KO"rrdo-cu to €Tn8e8op€vov uirdpvri(pa). " we have deter- 
mined to abstract the memorandum" (Edd.), 1' Fay 116 9 
(a.D. 104) em povXeuupai [els irJoXiv direX8tv X"*P lv I/™*] 
pixpov, "as I am intending to go to the city on account of 
the little one " (Edd.), P Leid W"- « (ii/iii A.D.) PovXeuope'vov 
( = cr>) 84 to TpiTov TpiTov (om.) KaK-ydo-e (/. Kay\aa-ai), 
"volente vero tertium cachinnari" (Ed.). The active (as 
in Isai 23 s ) was perhaps obs. ilet e : BGU IV. 1 097 8 has been 
emended — see o-upPovXeuu. The verb is absolute in the 
oldest dated ( Ireek papyrus, P Eleph I s (a marriage contract, 
B.C. 311-0) (= Selections, p. 2) — the couple are to live 
oirou dv Soktji. dpio-rov eivai PovXeuope'vois Koivrp povXfp. 
It is used of a judge conferring with his assessors in Chrest. 
II. 372 u - * (ii/A.D.) Ev8a[cT]pwv PouXevo-dpevos (rue tois 
-n-apo[C]o-i elirev ktX. Note for the subst. P Fay 20 2 
(iii/iv A.D.) 88ev pot Trape'o-rr| to pouXeupa touto, " wherefore 
I have formed this intention " (Edd.). 


The word poiAu, is always used both in the LXX and 
the NT = "counsel," and never in its technical sense of 
"council.' For this latter usage in Egypt reference may 
be made to Hohlwein L'Sgyfte Romaine, p. 134ft"., and to 

the editor's note to P Lond 405 13 (. . a. i .. 346) (= II. p. 295). 
The description of a man as 8eciv PouXaios, "counsellor of 
the gods" in CIG 1 167 (see I.S s.v. pouXaios) may be 
compared with the reference in Diod. ii. 31 f. to the 50 stars 
which the I'haldaeans distinguished as 8«ol PouXaioi (./.- 
1. p. 499). For the ordinary sense of "counsel " it will be 
enough to quote P Eleph 1 6 (see above under PouXeiiw). 
See Bishop E. L. Hicks's note in CR i. p. 43. 


is used with reference to the contents of a will in P Lond 
171^° (Hi/A.D.) (= II. p. 176) to evye-ypappevov PoOXripa : 
cf. in a similar connexion BGU I. 361'' 23 (A.D. 1S4) i'va 
to PovXTjpa avToC tpavepbv 'Y«[v]t]tcu. P Tebt II. 407 9 
(?A.D. 199) to 8[e] povXr]pa tovto iav pij <pvXd|-ns— the 
property is to go to the Serapeum at Alexandria' if the 
daughter of the writer does not observe his wish that certain 
slaves should be set free. Syll 366 12 (1. A.D. 3S) eKeivou 
•rijs tiriSvpias PouXr|pao-iv is a collocation rather like tt|V 
evSoxiav toO BeXrjpaTos aiToO, Eph I 5 . 

For poiXT)o-is see P Tebt I. 43" (B.C. 118) 8s dKoXouBos 
iiv tt)[i i]peTe'pa PovXfjcrei. TrpovoeiTCL ktX., " who in accord- 
ance with your wishes takes care etc.," OGIS 3S3 176 
(Antiochus of Commagene — mid. i/n.c.) oils e-yw Oeois tc kqi 
Tipais epais KaTo 8aipoviov povXT|o-i.v dve'0r|Ka, Syll 895 2 
(ii/A.D.) as cited under Piajjopai, and the late P Amh II. 
I44 11 (v/a.d.) 8eo£i pouXrjo-er. "God willing." 


The Ptolemaic papyri show this word as freely as the late 
papyri, and Blass's opinion that the word was "adopted 
from the literary language" {Gr. p. 38, repeated in Blass- 
Debrunner, p. 40) becomes more and more difficult to 
support. If the word was literary, the NT writers were 
not the first to p ipularize it. The word is common in such 
recurring phrases as ylvmo-kciv o-e PoiiXopai., poilXopar, 
pi.o-0<io-ao-8ai.. The thought of •"purpose, intention, not 
mere will, but will with premeditation" (Hort on Jas 4 1 ), 
which frequently underlies its usage, comes out P Oxy X. 
1 263 s (A.D. 1 28-9) poi-Xopai irpaiTWS . . . XP 1 l ' ao ' , 5o.l- xfj 
Tiiv 4p-y[aT<iv] iroTapov Te'xfvr), "I wish to begin ... to 
practise the trade of a river-worker " (Edd.) : cf. ib, 1267 10 
(A.D. 209). See also the important official decree, P L.n.l 
904 s0 (A.D. 104) (= III. p. 125) as revised Chrest. I. p. 236, 
povXopftu] irdvTa[s t]ovs fiifXJoyov 8o[ko0v]to.[sj '(xcv tou 
«v8d8e eiriptviv [aijT(av aTro'ypd4>€o-[8]ai ktX., and BGU I. 
24S 11 (ii./\.D.) 8«iiv Si povXopivwv. In P Oxy II. 244° 
(a.D. 23) a slave named Cerinthus begins a petition with 
pouXdpevos peTa^aYetv. Other instances of PovXopai, in 
phraseology not influenced by formulae, are P Lille I. 1O 5 
(iii/B.C.) &|>T| . . . o-ot Tt ov povXecr8at 8ia(p£p£o~8aL Trept 
toutov, "et <)u'il ne voulait pas entrer en disaccord la- 
dessus avec toi " (Edd.) ; P Flor I. 6 ! (a.d. 210) ipouXopriv 
pev 9VV €i oldv tc rjv euSe'tus €i;oppfjo-at, followed by dXXd 
with clause explaining the hindrance — similarly in ib. H. 
156 2 (iii/A.D.) ; ib. II. 126 8 (a.D. 234) tire! aiipiov aiJTous 
PovXopai dTrocrTciXat «Ls Btpvo-KiSa, and PSI III. 236 s6 
(iii/iv A.D.) dvTL*ypavldv pot -ircp'i oil poiAti T|Se'us ^x 0VTt * 
In BGU It. 646' (a.D. 193) pouXopai replaces the normal 
ci)X°r Lal ' m the opening greeting, tppwo-St (^ -ai) i>pds 
povXopat. Two instances of the form fiovXci may be cited, 



(3pa/3ei co 

P Tebt II. 40S 16 (a.1>. 3) Kal o-v Se Trtpl <iv $oi\i[i] -ypd^e, 
V Giss I. 47 18 (Hadrian) et Si PoiiXei av-rb d-yopao-efjvai 
(8paxp.<iv) (i. Reference may be made for the use in 
classical times to Syll 569 s (fjnvdTjui 6 8e'Xu>v, on which 
Dittenberger remarks that 6 Bt'Xwv replaces the Attic o 
pouXdu.evos in Pares (as here), Tliasos, Phoeis and olhei 
districts, lint of course the fact that "he who is willing" 
and "he who is minded"' may he used interchangeably in 
a particular formula, does not prove that the two verbs 
are synonyms. A literary citation may lie added from the 
collection of maxims in l'SI II. 120 38 (? iv/A.D.) [iiKpi 
pouXov Sowai T| to. aXXwv eyyur|0-atr8ai. 

In P Par 4S 10 (B.C. 153) fJKautv cis to Sapairieiov 
PoXduevoi o-uvu.t£ai, <roi, the form PoXap-evoi is treated as 
an aorist by Witkowski ( 2 , p. 92), who compares P Audi 
II. 93 3 (a.D. 181) u.ur8ioo-ao-8ai -irapa 0-0O ktX., 
and in Addenda, p. 141. P Par 63"* (B.C. 165) kcito. twv 
Svvau.svu>v p.«'v, pi PoXa|ie'vu)V Be: see also Mayser Gr. 
p. 369. The instance from P Anih II. 93 is a serious 
impediment to Witkowski's view. Hut Ionic had the form 
in PoX. in v/iv B.C. See the inscr. from the shrine of 
Amphiaraus at Oropus,' GDI 5339 31 (■=  Syll 589) Bueiv 8e 
fyiv (i.e. 4^€iva0 arrav on 6> pdXt|Tar tKao-Tos : for proof 
see C. 1). Buck Greek Dialects, p. 173, where an 
Erelrian inscr. is quoted for poXd|j.£vov. Thumb, Dial. 
p. 27 i. explains it as a different present stem: the fact that 
it existed both in Ionic and in Arcadian-Cyprian (ib. p. 304) 
might account for its leaving traces in the Kotvf|, and 
forming a new aorist. 


This word, which is quoted in Lk 3 5 , 23 30 from the 
L\X = " hill," "eminence," is thought by Mayser Gr. 
p. 8, to have entered the Koivr| through Doric influence. 
Halzidakis [Einl. p. 157) quotes Phrynichus (p. 355), who 
says it was Sicilian, and not intelligible in Athens in the 
time of Philemon. But could nut the Athenians of the late 
fourth century read Herodotus? (He seems to imply that 
the word came from Cyrene — see iv. 199 with Blakesley's 
1 xcursus. Willi claimants almost as numerous as those for 
Homer's birth, we can sympathize with Thumb's scepticism, 
Helien. p. 224. But Herodotus, if rightly understood, is a 
much belter witness than Phrynichus.) The literary Koivt| 
had the word in common use before Polybius, who uses 
it and Powwows. It is found in a Ptolemaic papyrus of 
ii/B.C. in Archiv i. p. 64 15 , dirr|[Xi.uVro]u povvol ttjs 
K(i[(J-Tl5> in BGU IV. H20 u (B.C. 13) a.irriXici(Tr|) Powds, 
and bis in P Anih II. 68" (late i/.\.l>.) again marking 
locality. A village called Bovvol KXeoiraTpas appears in 
P Flor I. 64" (iv/A.D. init.) and by supplement in 50 32 
(A.D. 26S). The word is common in inscrr. , e. g. Priene 
j-169 (ij/u.C.) eis tov direvavTl Povvbv tov Xtirpbv e8r|Ka|«v 
opov : cf. ib. 16s . 42 10 - 51 ' C °' (after B.C. 133). The diminutive 
powtov occurs bis in this last inscr. : cf. Maga 122 (</) ,2f - 
(iv/B.C.). See also P Flor I. 5N 12 (iii/A.D.) povvbv o-ttroii— 
presumably a " heap," but context is imperfect. Both Powds 
and its diminutive survive in MGr, Powd and Povvi. 

Fxcept in ace. pi., the inflexions are the same as in Attic, 
e.g. Trp/ poiv P Par 5S 4 (ii/B.C.) (= Witkowski -, p. So), 

pods P Pay 62 4 (a.D. 134), pdes, Potiv, Povo-C in Mayser Gr. 
p. 20S. For ace. pi. pdas, as in In 2 14 '-, see P Oxy IV. 
729 1 * (A.p. 137), P Gen I. 4S 32 (a.d. 346); but in 
Ptolemaic times PoCs survives in P Petrll. 32 (ib) 3 (iii/B.c). 
The originally Aeolic dat. pd«ri is found OGIS 200" 
(iv/A.D.) 6pt\|;avT£S aiTous pd«o-iv : it may have been kept 
alive by poetry. In Ptolemaic papyri the word generally 
means cow: Mayser gives "pois (r|)" without citing any 
cases of b p., though some are indeterminate. The word is 
quite rare in NT, as in post-Ptolemaic papyri, and has lost 
any differentia it once had. As with other words of irregular 
flexion, diminutives (such as PovStov, PoiStov) and synonyms 
encroached upon it. MGr has pov8t (pdSi or pdiSci. For 
<j>dpos Poiiv, the tax levied on those who kept bulls or cows, 
see Wilcken Os/r. i. p. 352, and on PoukoXos as a priestly 
title, as in P Lond 41 7 (B.C. 161) (= I. p. 27) b PoukoXos 
tov 'Oo-opdm, see Otto Priester i. p. no. BovkoXos i^ 
found in its ordinary sense of " herdsman " in P Flor III. 
32i uf (iii/A.D.) 

For p. = "prize," as in 1 Cor 9 21 , Phil 3 14 , see Priene 
1 1S 8 (i/B.C. ) TOis viKT|crao-iv cus) do-<fjaXe'o-TaTa irpbs irdvTa 
tov xP° vov v«VT|8i|Vai Ta ppapbua, CIG 3674 (A.D. 166) 
Tifir^eis xP^r^ PpapeCui. The word is used by Vettius 
Valens p. 1 74 21 KaKetvois Tb ppaptiov dTrove'|xeiv, and similarly 
p. 2SS 8 . [An instance of ppupe.a appears in BGU IV. 
1027 x^vii is (iv/A.D.) in a fragmentary context ; but Wilcken's 
revi i'ii. Chrest. I. p. 502, shows that the word is ppc'Peia = 
brevia."] Niigeli, p. 37, cites Menander and late poets, with 
some inscrr. of ii/iii a.d., and the Paris Zauberparyms 662. 

/3 QClfj 'sveo. 

The "applied and general sense" which Field [Notes, 
p. 196) finds in this word is confirmed by P Par 6y" 
(B.C. 16s) Xd\u> Tivl TavTa ppap€v8fjvai. "that these things 
are administered reasonably," ib. 161 ppaPevBirj kuto to 
P^Xtlvtov (/. peXTiov), "be administered in the best way" 
(Mahaffy), P Leid B '■ 22 (B.C. 164) to Betov ppaptvo-as. 
Michel 163 11 (B.C. 148-7) irdvTa KaXiis Kal irpeirdvTws 
Ppaptvo-as. So in a Magnesian inscription (also 11 B.C.)> 
Syll 929 s2 run p.6v aKprpei Tf|S ibr^ou ppap€v8f|vaL tijv 
Kpto-uv oiK T|povXd(it8a, where the law court and not the 
Stadium is the scene of action. In P Oxy VII. 1050 11 
however (ii/iii A.D. — an account for games) ppapcvTats = 
"umpires." Vettius Valens has the verb twice, p. 354 15 
and p. ;s8 ;! , of the sun or the period of time which "deter- 
mines" astronomical data. We may endorse accordingly 
the RV rendering of Wisd IO 12 dvuvo. lo-xvpbv (ppdpevo-«v 
auTiu, "over his sore conflict she watched as judge," and 
I.ighlfoot's insistence on the element of award or decision in 
a conflict between two impulses, in the remarkable phrase of 
Col 3 15 : whether the figure of the games i> present we need 
not argue. A new literary citation reinforces this, from the 
Menander fragment in PSI II. 126'- — 


[To]vp-bv <|>pdo-ai, tl's ei.p.1 " trdvTwv KvpCa 
tovtwv ppaPevo-cu Kal SioiKTjo-ai, Tvxv|. 






The intrans. use of this verb, which alone is found in the 
NT, may be illustrated from P Oxy I. uS 37 (late iii/A.D.) 
em oiv PpaSivouo-i, •'since they are delaying,'' and OGIS 
5 r 5 K ' (A.D. 209-11) Kal Sid tovto Kal f| eiiflropia r| irpbs 
tovs Kvpiovs auJ-roKpa-ropas Taiv cpdpiov ppaSvvei. So in a 
papyrus of the second half of ii/.v. I >. , edited by ( lomparelti in 
Mil. Nicole, p. 59 (col. ii. u ) lis dv PpaSiivtjs Kal io-Teprjo-r] 
ravTa Ta [ktt|vt|] ttjs iropeias, ovk d-yvoeis ou8' avTOS fnpta 
ere {nro-n-ltCTrmv pe'X]XovTa, "if you delay, and these animals 
are late for the expedition, you yourself know you will get 
into trouble.'' (The document is given again in P Flor II. 
p. 258.) In the Christian letter, P Gen I. 51 s1 , eppd8wev is 
without clear context, but certainly means "he delayed." 
In MGr PpaSudlJei or PpaSvvei = " it is late," "evening 
draw s on." 


This air.eip. of Ac 27', cited by Grimm only from Arte- 
midorus (ii/A.D.), is the subject of a note by W. Montgomery 
in Exp VIII. ix. p. 35;. He suggests that it is a technical 
term, "to slow-sail,"' meaning to work to windward by 
lacking. Though found earliest in the " //'-document," it 
is quite certainly no coinage of the author. In Artemid 1 
ii is not technical, but only denotes a slow voyage. 


The adverb is common in signatures with reference to 
those who were unskilled in writing — e.g. BGU II. 54 ', 17 
(B.C. 27) i'Ypa<pev i-rrep airoi Zfjviov Zijviuvos di|iio8els Sid 
to ppaSurspa aviTov ypdcpeiv, 1' Fay 97 s7 (a.d. 7S) eypaipev 
iiirtp [airrjoO PpaSe'io(s) ypdipovros, BGU I. 69 19 (a.d. 120) 
/. II. 142) (([-yjpaipa ii-rrep a| vj-roO epwTT]8ls 8ld to 
Ppa[8j»T£pa avTov -ypdcpiv, aiiToO -ypdcpovTos [to o]i>opa, and 
I' Lond 1164 (A) 23 (a. 1.. 212 ( = III. p. 107) e' W a<|/a i-rrep 
airoi to criipa ttjs iTrcypaipfis. auToO tio-Tep[o]v v-rro-ypdipovTos 
PpaSs'ws— u]>on which follow the painful uncials of Philan- 
tinous Demetrias. So the Ptolemaic Ostr 1027 9 Sid to 
PpaSuTepa aiTov -ypd(cpeiv). Outside this special use. in OGIS 
502 ' (ii/A.D.) we have tou] ppdSeiov aTroXauo-ai ttjv -rrdXiv 
tt]s [-n-poo-riKoiJo-ns -rrpoo-dSov. The positive adv. occurs in 
I' Oxy VIII. 10S8 50 (i/A.D.— a medical receipt) Ppa|8eiosJ 
ttivc'tui (icTd yXuKe'ios tj- p.eXL T o[s, "to be drunk slowly with 
raisin wine or honey" (Ed.) It is curious that we cannot 
illustrate the adj. from our sources, while the adv. is so 
common. Syll 22I 12 (latter part of iii/B.C.) has ei's tie tows 
picr8ovs [toIs] PpaSe'criv, "eis qui non in tempore veniebant" 
(Eel.). MGr ppaSeid and (ncivt. ) ppdSv =" evening ": cf. 

ppaSlJvu ad Jin, 


For p., which in Bibl. Grk is confined to 2 Pet 3', we can 
only cite Vettius Valens, p. 2S9 21 dvaKpCo-eis Kal PpaSv T rJTes 
Kal dvaXiipaTa Kal (j>8dvoi. Wetstein has good parallels 
from literary Koivfj. 


P Oxy III. 49 o 1:: (a will— A.D. 124) oiXf) Ppaxeiovi Se£iii : 
similarly P Amh II. 112 8 (a.d. 128), P Ryl II. 1796 
A.D. 127), etc. In Syll 615 32 (iii/ii B.c.) tui iepei to« 
Pakt II. 

Taupou SiSoTai ^Xio-o-a Kal Ppa^iuv, it means a "shoulder" 
of meat, and so of a ram in l. 8 


The adjective is Jised of stature in PTebt I. 32 2 -(?b.c. 145) 
ta-rw Se is (eTiiv) kP Ppaxis p-eXixp us) KXaards, "he isabout 
22 years of age. short, fair, curly-haired " (Kdd.) : cf. P Petr 
I. 13 (2) 1 , 14 22 (both B.C. 237), etc. In P Oxy IV. 705 77 
(A.D. 203-2) we have tTriSocriv T[iva[ Ppaxeiav, "a trifling 
benefaction," and in the epigram PSI I. 17'' ' (? iii/A.D.) 
the editor understands ov Ppaxvv dvSpa as a man "not of 
small account" in view of the €irio-r|(i|dTaTov] which follows. 
J In (THerm 7"- >* (? ii/iii a.d.) aXXai eo-KopTricrpe'vai i»T« 
X">p£iu Ppaxtai puijai, it is applied to "small plumtrees," and 
in Vettius Valens, p. 78 26 to a "small " army or town. So P 
Lille I. I versff u (B.C. 259-S) els 8 ifo-Tai Ppaxi to dvdXwpa. 
For p. of time cf. P Tar 51 17 (B.C. 160) (= Selections, p. 20) 
eVi Ppaxu e'x w •   . " I have still for a little while . . . ," 
1' Fay 204 (ii/iii a.d. ) 6 pios Ppax«[s], and P. Strass I. 22 21 
(iii/A.D.) d<popp.T|v Kdv Ppaxeiav SiKai'av KaToxfjs. The 
phrase Sid ppaxe'wv. as in 1Kb 1 ;-, occurs in P Strass I. 
41 8 (a.d. 250) Sid PpaxeW at SiSd£io : cf. also BGU III. 
ion" 'I (ii/B.c.) lis ppaxiTaTa x.pd<puv. That "short,'.' in 
a document or a sermon, is a relative term, is rather amusingly 
shown at the end of a very long petition, P Flor III. 290'" 
(vi a.d.) . .]T|-yei'o-8a) Se T<iv PpaxcW p.ou 7pa(i.p.dTiov fj 
€Tro<j>eiXop.«'vT| iip.iv e| [ep.oO ?] Trpoo-Kvvr]o-is ital 6 do-7rao-p.ds 
pou lis ovi xapTt|s X l0 P ti ' Seo-ttotci. 

For an example of the irregular comparative, see the 
astronomical papyrus P Par i m , written about ii/B.c, where 
w e haie Ka8' 8v 6 tjXios ipepdpevos tijv pel/ tjpf'pav PpaxvT«'pav 
iroiei, ttjv Se vuKTa paKpoWpav. Doubtless, as Ulass assumes, 
llie original author in iv/B.C. wrote PpaxuTaTT|v and paKpo- 
TdTnv, and this makes the scribe's alteration two centuries 
later all the more significant : see Proleg. p. 78. 1 in the 
"barbarism" Ppax^v found in Asia .Minor, and its witness 
to local pronunciation, see Thumb Hcllcn. p. 139. 


BGU IV. 1104 24 time of Augustus) eaTrjs to ppe'epos 
eKTi8«o-8ai, P Oxy VII. 1069 2 - (iii/.v.D.) 4dv -yap tc'k^ t| 
Tapoiv dvaYKao-ov avTrjv to ppiipos ^eiXorrovfjo-t (/. <j>iXo- 
irovTjo-ai), id. XI. 1209" (a.d. 251-3) dppeviKJ Ppeipei, 
"male nursling child," P bond 951 verso 11 (late iii/A.D.) 
(= III. p. 213) £i 8«'X[eis, t]o ppe'ipos i\tTu> Tpocpdv, eyii ydp 
ouk eTriT[pe]Trw tt euyaTpi pou 0t]Xd?€iv, a letter from a 
father-in-law or mother-in-law with reference to the nursin" 
of a new-born child. In the magic papyrus P Lond I22 1 
(iv/A.D.) (=1. p. 116) Hermes is invoked — 8X9t] poi Kvipie 
'Eppfj lis Ta ppe'iprj eis Tas KoiXias tiov yvvat.[K<a]v. 

The verb is very common in connexion with the irrigation 
of land owing to the inundation of the Nile, e.g. P Lille I. 
26* (iii/B.c.) T| Kiipr] epnpos Sid to irXeiio xP°vov pfj 
PePpe'xBai, " the village is deserted because for a long time 
there has been no inundation there," Chrest. I. 341 6 {c. 
A.D. I20)Tiiv . . . ppexeVrixv ireSCuv Kal tiuv [8]uvape'vuv 
ailXaKio-8fjvai, "irrigated and ready for the plough," P Tebt 
I. 24 31 (B.C. 117) KaTd Ta irpoo-a7Ye^paTa ttjs peppe-ype'vr|s, 
"in the matter of the reports of the irrigated land," P Lips 





I. 105 10 (i/ii A.D.) u.dyis tov Tfjs pePpeypevris dirT|pTi.(ra, "I 
have with difficulty completed the account of the irrigated 
land," P Giss I. 6o v 12 (ii/A.D.) i% wv ifipi\T]<ra.v Tii p (frii) 
'A8pia[vov kt\. The old and regular strong aor. pas?, was 
«PpdxT|V : this new formation illustrates the extension of 
the verb's use. Add from inscrr. OGIS 669 s ' (i/A.n.) Tfjs 
ovo~ns dvapdereus xal Tfjs ptPp£yu.[tvr|S -yfjs. From &ppoxos 
(cf. below under ppo\T)) come-, a verb dppox«'w "to miss 
irrigation," as BGU I. 139 16 (A.D. 201-2) TippoxiKvCas irpos 
to ev«o-ros Sexarov €tos. MGr Ppe'x"> (eppdxr|Ka, eppe'xTnKa 
-both aor. pass, have survived) = " wet, dip, (cause to) 
rain" (Thumb HumibX 


Of this common Greek word we dan quote no instance 
from the papyri: derivatives like ppovTayioyds and ppovTO- 
KEpavvoirdTwp are cited by van Herwerden from the great 
Paris magic papyrus, as well as the two derived verbs. 
BpovTdu occurs in the magic papyri P Lond 46 151 (iv/A.D.) 
( = I. p. 70) eyw clu.1 6 d<TTpdTTTa> v\ Kal PpovTcov, and 
121 s60 (iii/A.D. ) ( = 1. p. 96) 6 alwv 6 Ppovniv, ami ppovrd^co 
in the last-mentioned papyrus 1. 235 (=1. p. 92), and in 
I22 8; (iv/A.D.) ( = 1. p. 119). In Phrygian inscrr. PpovT<iv 
8«ds is a standing title of the sky-god : cf. luppiler Toiians 
at Rome. BpovTw is still "to thunder" in MGr. Vettius 
Valens has PpovTOTroids and ppovTio8r|s. 

The evidence already adduced under Ppc'xu is in itself 
sufficient to throw suspicion on Thayer's (p. 694) classing 
this amongst " Biblical " words, and as a matter of fact we 
can now cite many instances of ppoxT from profane sources. 
Thus from Ptolemaic tinier comes P Petr III. 43 (2) redo"- 13 
(B.C. 245) Trpbs tt|V ppoxu,v Tfjs tJ>v kXtj[povxi]ku>v iTTTrt'wv 
■yfjs, and almost contemporary with the NT passage (Mt 
7 25 -- 7 ) is P Oxy II. 2S0 5 (A.D. SS-9) a lease of land els trr\ 
TtVo-apa ppoxds Tt'o-o-apes. From this it would appear, as 
the editors point out, that if there was no Ppox - ^, the year 
was not to count as one of the four years ; and they com- 
pare the clause frequently found in leases, Idv 8e tis toIs 
tijrjs €T€<ri dppoxos ye'vnTai, Trapa86x6fj(T€TaL Tui'Oup.cvtp 
(e.g. P. Oxy I. ioi 25 , a.d. 142). See also Arckiv iv. 
p. 177, and for a notification of dppox'a B(iU I. 139 (a.d. 
202) ( = Ckrest. I. 225). For PpoxT| in another sense see 
P Tebt II. 401" (early i/.\.D.), where in the accounts of a 
beer-seller there is an item Ppoxrjs (dpTdpai) p, which 
seems to be part of the brewing process. In MGr Ppoxrj is 
"rain," Ppox«pds "rainy." 

In P Oxy I. 5I 1S (a.d. 173) a public physician, who had 
been ordered to examine into the cause of a death, reports 
that he had found the body dirr|pTT|u.e'vov ppov_u>, "hanged 
by a noose." The verb is found in the iv/A.D. Acts of John, 
P Oxy VI. S50 6 4vvoovy[Ta] P[p]ox£o-ai tauTov, "one who 
was intending to hang himself." 


Thayer seems to have overlooked the citation from Eupolis 
(v/b.c.) given in LS 8 , so that his oldest profane citation is 
later than LXX, and has moreover a different sense, " biting." 

He does not however include it in his list of " Biblical " 
words, so that no harm is done by the oversight. 


To the ordinary citations for this NT air. tip. (Jas 3 11 ) may 
be added its occurrence quinquiens in the recently discovered 
poems of Bacchylides, e.g. III. 15 f. ppiiei. ptv Upd pov- 
8vTcns eopTais, ppvovou <piXo£mas dyuiaC, " the temples arc- 
rife with festal saciifice of oxen, the streets with hospitable 
feasting" (Jebb). Herwerden Lex. s.v. cites also Timotheus. 
Pers. 22 I Ppvuiv dvOecriv fjPas. 


in MGr = " rubbish, stench, dirt" (Thumb, ffandb.). 
Pallis, in his Notes, p. 14, proposes to recognize this word — 
which would be a variant of ppiip-os. whence we get bromine 
— in Mk 7 19 . His rendering, "which thing (or circum- 
stance) clears away all impurities," ignores the true reading 
Ka6ap£?u)v : it would be better to take the latter as agreeing 
with dcptSpuii-a, by the lapse of concord so common in Rev 
{Pro/eg. p. 9). But the RV supplies a much more satis- 
factory sense, though the new proposal is ingenious. 


is found in a love-spell, P Lond 124' l (iv/v A.D.) 
(=1. p. 121) xal pp<io-i.|iov [XJaPiiv. Cf. Syll 289 s8 to 8e 
Kpt'a T[d] ppioo-[ijia (?). 

P Lond i22j 9 (A.u. 121) (=111. p. 139) x<SpT°(v) «' i s V-ly 
ppu>o-[i.v] TrpopdT(uv). " fodder for the pasturing of sheep " : 
so 1' Lips I. 118 15 (a.d. 160-1). 


The figurative use in 1 Tim 6 9 may be illustrated by Syll 
324 7 ((i/B.C.) cruv€X e<rL TToXe'p.ois KaTapu8Lo-8[€]i[o-av ti'|V 
ttoXiv. See also Alciphron I. 16, 1 (= Schepers, p. 19) to 
vfjepov ev ejiol o-vvex^s viro tov TrdBovs Pv8C£tTai (cited by 
Dibelius HZ.XVad 1 Tim 6 9 ). 

P Oxy VI. S86 10 (iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. in) tmKaXov 
p{[v] (?) tov (rjXiov) K« tovs hi pu8u> 6eovs TrdvTas, " call 
upon the sun and all the gods in the deep" — in a magic 
formula. From the same kind of literature we may cite P 
Leid \V x - 23 (ii/iii A.D.) dvaTrycvo-as yap TrwTrTrvcrei ck tov 
Prj8ov, " respirans enim poppysmum edit ex profundo," and 
xxv. 28 ^ v T £ puQti T tj V 8vvau.Lv exovo-av ^P- ^ " m profundo 
potentiam habentem mihi " (Ed.), The word was prominent 
in Valentinian speculation, and it is not surprising that it 
should figure in magic papyri, which breathe a kindred air. 


P Fay I2I 15 ((\ A.D. 100) tov] KvpTov Pvpo-e'us, "the 
hunch-backed tanner." From Pvpora, " hide," on the 
analogy of the gen. pvpo-r|s, we find an ace. pvpo-ny, as 
P Petr II. introd. p. 37 (J) 1 : see Mayser Gr. p. 12, and 
cf. Proleg, p. 4S. P Oxy VII. I057 3 '(a.d. 362) has dirb- 
Tip.fjs Pvpo-as. where analogy has worked the other way. 
In P Petr II. 32 (1) a Pvpo-oSe'ij/ris, "tanner," is also de- 
scribed as a o-kvtcvs. ' ' cobbler " : cf. the editor's note and 
Wilcken Ostr. i. p. 294. 





The manufacture of this famous material (fa pvo-o-iva, 
with or without 66dvLa) seems to have been a Government 
monopoly in Egypt, and it was carried on under the direc- 
tion of the priests in the temples, which were hives of 
industry as well as of devotion. The output of these early 
ecclesiastics ranged from lawn to beer, as we see from P 
Eleph 27a 13 (li.c. 225-4) with the editor's note and P Lond 
1177 51 (a.ii. 113) (= III. p. 1S2). See also for the linen 
monopoly Wilcken Os/r. i. p. 266 ff. and Dittenberger's note 
to Od/S go" (the Rosetta Stone — B.C. 196) twv t' eis to 
Pao-iXiKov o-tjvtcXoulu'vwv ev tols upois pvo-o-ivwv o&oviuv 
a.iri\v{rtv to. Suo p.«'pT]. 


For this Hellenized Semitic word see P Gen I. 36 19 
(A.D. 170) (= Chrest. I. 85) pio-o-ou o-ToXicr(iaTos Trr|x«i.s 
StKa, and cf. P Tebt II. 313 20 (A.D. 210-1), 59S (A.D. 


originally "platform," like its kin Pfjp.a, has been special- 
i/.eJ as a Upbs pwiids, ''altar," from Homer down. It is 

common in the papyri and inscriptions. One or two 
instances must suffice. Thus in the curious P 1'etr II. p. [28], 
Fr. 4 12 (B.C. 241) it appears that the inhabitants of certain 
houses in Crocodilopolis built up the doors of their houses 
and set altars against them to avoid having Crown officials 
billeted on them — oktouitus Si ko.1 evuuKoSou.T]K6Ta.s tols 
dupas twv oixiwv pu)|ious irpo(ru)LKo8ou.T|Kacn.v, toOto Si 
ireirouiiKao-LV irpbs to u.t| «mo-To.8|ieveo-6ai. Cf. also the 
phrase 2£u UpoO Pwu.oii with reference to being outside the 
"protection" of a temple and altar, e.g. P Tebt I. 210 7 
(B.C. 107) (= Chrest. I. 327), P Oxy IV. 785 [c. A.D. 1), id. 
X. 1258 8 (A.D. 45). In P Grenf II. in 21 (v/vi a.d.) pwpbs 
Xo.Xk(ovs) a is mentioned in an inventory of church property. 
For the <f>opos Pwp.wv paid by the priests see Wilcken Ostr. i. 
P- 352 f- 

Reference may be made to the inscr. Zeis Bcojids, found on 
or near an altar erected before a Greek temple in Central 
Syria. According to L. R. Farnell {Year's Work in Classical 
Studies, 1909, p. 61) this "frank identification of the god 
with the altar : ' probably arises from Syrian rather than 
Hellenic thought. But there was Hellenic thought also: 
see the account of the whole matter in A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 
p. 519 f. 

ya^a — TaXXicov 


For this word we may cite the interesting inscription 
discovered at Adule on the African coast of the Red Sea. in 
which the conquests of Ptolemy III in the Eastern Provinces, 
including Babylon and Persia, are recounted — OGIS 54— 
(2nd half of iii/B.c.) Kal dva^riTTJa-as ocra vtto twv ILpa-wv 
lepd t£ ALyvittov «^t|X0t] Kal dvaKOfiitra? p.€Ta Tfjs aXXrjs 
ya^ns ttjs dirb Ttiiv Toirtov as Acyvn-Tov d-rreo-TetXev. 
See further Mahaffy Tlie Empire- of the Ptolemies, p. 199 f. 
The statement that the noun, borrowed in Greek in iv/B.c, 
was a Persian word for the King's treasury, depends on 
Curtius (see Grimm) : the Middle Persian ganj has the 
re [uired meaning, and can be shown to descend from the 
same original, as Dr Louis H. Gray tells us. Ganj was 
the heavenly treasure-house where merits were stored against 
the Judgement : see Moulton Early Zoroastrianism, pp. 
162, 382. 


According to Lewy FremdwSrler p. 94, in Hellenistic 
Greek foreign proper names are only found with 7 = 1;, when 
this represents the Arabic ;, : : thus Tdija = n-Jl' 'A:;ir. 


In OGIS 225 16 (iii/B.C.) provision is made that the price 
of a certain piece of ground should be paid els to Kara 
o-Tpa-mav yai;o<j>uXdK[>]ov, "into the military treasury." 


The name was common in the Greek world, but, in 
connexion with Paul's Macedonian friend Gaius (Ac 19 29 ), 
we may recall that it occurs in the list of politarchs at 
Thessalonica (CIG 11. 1967). It is also found in a memorial 
inscription in the same town — Tdios TovXios SckovvSos 
npifio) T(i ISiu tc'kvui p.vr||j.T|s x^P 1 " (Ditchesne No. 78) — 
but here of course we have a Roman, and the name is 
is distinctive as John in English. See further Milligan 
Thess. p. 134; and for the occurrence of the name in a 
Phrygian inscription at Iconium of A.D. 150-250, cf. Ramsay 
Recent Discovery, p. 72. Since Grimm and many other 
writers mention a Roman name " Caius," it may be well to 
refer to the third founder of Gonville's College at Cambridge 
as probably the earliest person to bear this title. On the 
late Anatolian stone, Calder 436, we find TcaiM, which I 'n ■(. 
Calder remarks must be for Ta'to), v being now equivalent to 
1 : this shows that Tdios was trisyllabic. We do not find 
r«os in Greek, any more than Gaeus in Latin : the at 
remained a true diphthong. WH are wrong therefore in 
accenting Tatos. 



P Oxy IV. 736 18 (r. A.l>. I) ydXaKTOS iraiS((iv) 
(rjuiupcXiov), "milk for the children i ob.," in a private 
account; ib. IX. I2II 10 (ii/A.D.) fXeov, |XcXl, -ydXa, articles 
for a sacrifice ; Syll 804 15 (? ii/A.D.) ydXa (icrd pAeros 
TrpoXaPctv ( = " edere," Dittenberger) : BGU IV. I055 17 (B.C. 

13) 0-Tap.p.VOV OKTOKaiStKa KOTupov (--kotuXwvj *ydXaKTOS 

(3ot]ou ( - Poe£ov) dpea-ToO, to be a daily allowance: ib. 
1 109 6 (B.C. 5) crvvxtopei . . . •n-apaa-xtVGai. ttjv 8ovXt|v 
axi[T]oii XpwTapio(v) Tpo<J>ei>oi>a"av Kal 8rjXd£ouc-av twl 18110 
avTfjs -yaXaKTi Ka8apu> Kal d<f>6dpuH — the last a sample of 
numerous contracts with nurses. In connexion with the use 
ol -ydXa in 1 Pet 2 2 , it may be mentioned that Reitzenstein 
(Die hell. Mysterienrcligionen, pp. S4, 157) shows that milk 
plays a prominent part in the mystery-cults. He quotes 
Sallust rrepl 8eciv 4. where milk, the new birth, and crowns 
are all mentioned together — €opTT)v ayopev Sid TaOra . . . 
€irl tovtois ydXaKTOS Tpo<f>T|, ws dva-ycvvuip-e'vcov ' €<j>* ots 
iXapeiai Kal o-Te'<j>avoL Kal irpbs tous 8eovs otov €irdvo8os. 
For the compounds -vaXaKTOsbopos, -hh an, l ~* w » see 1' Lond 
j 22 (B.C. 146 or 135) (=1. p. 46), BGC I. 297 14 (A.D. 50), 
and P Tebt II. 399 (ii/A.i..). The word is MGr. 


The proximity of TaXariav to AaXua-riav in 2 Tim 4 10 in 
itself suggests that by the former we are to understand 
European Gaul (cf. TaXXiav KC) ; and this is confirmed by 
the famous Mouuinentum Ancyranum (Res Gestae D. 
Angusti, ed. 2 Mommsen, p. ixxxv, 124) f£ To-n-avtas 
Kal TaXaTias Kal irapd AaXp.aT<iv: see Zahn Intr. ii. p. 
25 f. The inscriptional and literary evidence as to the 
meaning of Galatia in other NT passages may be left to the 
monographs on this burning question. 


The adj. is found OGIS 519 11 (iii/A.D.) irdv-rwv . . . 
rjpep.ov Kal •yaXT|vbv tov piov 8ia[ydvTwv. In the late papyri 
-yaXr|vdTT)s is common as an honorific title, e. g. P Oxy VII. 
1042 7 (A. 1). 57S) (itTd tt)v Sevre'pav inrariav ttjs auTiiv 
YaXT|vdTT|T(os), "after the second consulship of his [? their] 
serenity." (Ed.). 


See Deissmann's St. Paul, App I., where, following 
Ramsay (Exp. VII. vii. p. 467 ff.), it is shown on the 
evidence of a Delphic inscription, published by Bourguet De 
rebus Delphicis, 1905, p. 63 f., that Gallio entered on his 
pro-consulship in the summer of A.D. 51, and a fixed point 
is thus secured for determining the chronology of Paul's life. 
The name occurs P Ryl II. 155 12 (A.D. 13S-61). 

yafi/3pos 121 



For this word, which does not occur in the NT, but is 
common in the LXX, see P Hiss I. i ; 10 (beginning of 
ii, V.D.), BGU III. 895* (ii/A.D.), P Fay 127 11 (ii/iii a.d.) 
tois yappois (/. yapppois ttjs d8eX<j>fjs o-ov, "for the sons- 
in-law of your sister." The fern. yapPpd is found BGU III. 
s^7 s , and P I.ond 403 21 (a.d. 346) (= II. p. 276). On the 
verbs yapPpevopai and eiriyapPpcvopai, see Anz, pp. 376, 
378. In MGr yapirpds = " son-in-law," "bridegroom." 


The verb is used in its ordinary classical sense of "take 
to wife" in a will of B.C. 285-4, P Eleph 2 8 , where provi- 
sion is made in the event of certain of the testator's soils' 
marrying anil being divorced— ynH-av-riov S« Kal xaTax">pi- 
o-8e'vTo>v — the property will belong jointly to all his sons. 
Cf. for the same absolute use a question addressed by a man 
to the Oracle of Zeus-Helios-Sarapis, p Oxy IX. 1213* 
111 V.D.) d£ioi Me'vavSpos [d] 8e'8oTa( poi ■yapijo-ai., " M. 
asks, is it granted me to marry?" (Ed.). So 1' Flor 
III. 33-" 4 t u ' A.I'.) iirel 8e vvv NtXos 6 vibs aijTfjs yapciv 
pe'XXci, and witli object, Alldollent 7S p^-TroT airbv yrjpai 
dXXnv yvvaiKa. The use of yapeia-Sai. to denote the bride's 
part in a wedding has rather fallen out of use in Hellenistic, 
but it not infrequently survives in the legal language of 
marriage-contracts, e.g. P Oxy III. 496 s (a.d. 127) T| [ttjs] 
yapovp«VT|S pdppr] 0a\s ktX.. ib. VI. 905 10 (A.I). 170) 
( — Selections) p. 86) Kal 6 yapdiv em IxopTjyeiTtj ttj yapoupe'vrj 
to Se'ovTa, and even P Lips I. 41 11 (about the end of iv/a.ii.) 
where, with reference to the bridal gifts, the bridegroom, 
after the marriage has been completed, is described as oi to. 
favrov eTriKop.i^o(ievos pdvov, dXXd Ka[i] nva [t]tjs YTlI H-l -" 
p.e'v[T|]s: see further Proles;, p. 159. For the passive, cf. 
P Oxy X. 1266 18 (a.d. 981 ttjv Se toC moi p-nTepa Oep- 
poiBiov y(yapf|o-8ai pou tuj p (era) AopenavoO, P Grenf 
II. 76 11 (deed of separation — A.I'. 305-6) dXX' e£eivai aiiTij 
dTrotTTfj[vai Kal] yapr)87jvai. <is dv PouXt)8tj. Tapcri], 
" wife," is common — P Tebt I. 104 1 ' (B.C. 92) 00-a irpoo-r|Kei. 
yvvaiKi yapfrfp, PSI I. 64"* (? i/p.C.) o-uvoiK[rj<rov(rd 0-01 <l]s 
yVT|(rfia] -yaperfy, P Oxy IV. 7Q5 4 ia.1i. Si-90) y]fip«TT]v 
<f>epvT)v Trpo(r<|>€popc'vT)v 8a[KTvXiov] xpv<roOv T€TapTw[v, and 
OG/S 206 9 'AKvXa . . . eii£dpevos piia-iv Kal Wkvols Kal 
■yapsTJj. This noun and onlpPios have considerably trenched 
on the ground of the less explicit •ywrj. 


No instances "I this verb have as yet been quoted outside 
the XT, and it is therefore not possible to determine how- 
far the rule of Apollonius De Conslr. p. 280, 11 (ed. 
Bekkei 1 co-tI yap to pev " yapui,' ydpou peTaXappdvw to 
8« " yapfljio," yapon tivI peTaSiSwpi. applies. It may he 
noted, however, that many verbs in -££w are found used in 
the same way as verbs in -iio (e.g. diroXoyi^w . dTroXoye'io : 
cf. Hatzidakis Gr. p. 395), and that consequently in I Cor 7 s8 
yapi£u> may = "marry " and not "give in marriage." For 
this rendering see further ad I. Lietzmann in HZNT, and 
J. Weiss in Meyer's Kommeiitar*. 


P Tebt I. 104, a marriage contract of B.C. 92, is docketed 
on the verso — opo^oyia) ydpov. For (raryypacfn] yapov, see 

P Oxy I\ . 7I3 12 (a.D. 97) TT€iroir|VTai irpos dXXr|Xous tow 
yapou o-vYYpa<t>Tiv, and rf. V Anih II. 78" (a.d. 184) ttj 
o-uvyev(8i pou . . . irpbs ydpov o-vvtX8[io]v, " being married 
to my kinswoman " (Edd.) The word is very common in 
connexion with the wedding festivities, e. g. P Oxy I. in 2 
(in A.I'.) tpioTa o-« 'Hpals Senrvfjo-ai us ydpous tc'kvwv 
auTfjs, ib. VI. 027 2 (iii/A.H. ) KaXt o-ai "Epws eis ydpous, 
P Flor III. 332- (ii/A.n.) toIs ydpois o-ov, " on the occasion 
of your marriage." Cf. the use of the singular in Gen 29", 
I Mace io 58 , and Mt 22 s compared with 2 , where Field 
(Notes, p. 16) finds no difference between sing, and plur. 
For the phrase ydpous irowiv (Mt 22 2 ) cf. Michel 1001 " 19 
(the Will of Epicteta, in the Doric of Thera— c. B.C. 200) 
prjSe xprjo'C" to pouo-eiov pr|8evi. A ko ptj tis Tciv eg 
'EmTeXeias y°*P ov TrOL 'H- 

On the distinction between Egyptian, (ireek, and Greek- 
Egyptian marriages in Egypt, and on the yapos fi-ypcujios as 
a provisional union in contrast to the fully constituted ydpos 
2yypa(f>os. ^ee Hohrwein; L 'Mgypte Homaiite, p. 138 ft". Cf. 
also Archil) iii. pp. 70 f., 507 ; iv. pp. 264 (., 474 I. 


F'or the ascaisiot force of Kal yap, a, in Rom II 1 , cf. 
P Passalacqua 9 (iii B.C.) ( = Witkowski 2 , p. 54) <j>pdvTio-ov 
oiv. Sttojs pi] d8iKr|0Tii 6 dvBpuiTros ' Kal yap 6 iraTT)p aiiToO 
eo-tIv evTavSa Tr;pl II., where Letronne (P Par p. 401) 
renders, " aie soin qu'il ne soit fait ancun tort a cet homme ; 
car, de plus, son pere est employe ici aupres de P." In 
P 1 Ixy I\ . "43 22 (B.C. 2) Kal yap eyu SXos SiaTrov^oJvpai ei 
'EXevos xa-AKois aTrdXe[o-]ev, " I am quite upset at Helenos' 
loss of the money" (Edd.), the same phrase seems to do 
little more than introduce a new subject. In P Flor III. 
367 s (iii/A.D. ) Kal yap Kal rroXXaKis pov <Trio-T«i!Xai'Tds croi 
ktX. , the locution introduces the ground of a complaint 
just conveyed in the mention of the addressee's dirdvOpuiroi 
€T-to-ToXai. The ordinary uses of yap need not lie illustrated, 
unless we give one example of the ydp beginning an ex- 
position of a matter just announced, where our idiom omits : 
thus P Rein 7' (?B.C. 141) T|ydyKao-pai Trjv «)>' ipas 
KaTacpvyf|v Tr[oi]fjo-ao-8ai Vya tiJX"> por)8«ias. Tori ydp ktX. 
(the statement of grievance follows). 


The phrase 4v yaorpl '{\nv (cf. MGr eyyao-Tpiivopai) , 
found in Herodotus, and the medical writer-, from Hippocrates 
down (see Hobart, p. 92), may be quoted from P Kyi II. 
6S 13 (B.C. 89), where one woman complains of another who 
ir[TrXT|£ev] pe . . . ty yao-Tp[l] Jx 01,0 " av trevTap^vov. It is 
used of a sow, P Magd 4 6 (iii/B.c), and P Flor II. 130 3 
(a.d. 257) KaTaTri]av9€io*av vv fe'xovo-av Kal k[v y]acrrpL. 
Vt Syll S02 8 (iii/B.c.) Tr€v8'€TT| tos eKUT|a-£ ey yao-[Tp]l KXcw 
pdpos. 11 tyKuos St yevope'va ey yao"Tpl t^opti Tpta 2ttj. In 
Vetlius Valens, p. 103 33 we have edv Kaid yaorpbs ^XTl- 
For the common compound yao-TpoKvrjpiov = "calf of the 
leg," see BGU III. 975 11 (a.d. 45) {=Seleclioiis, p. 42) 
01JX1] Kao-TpoKVTjp(u> 1/'. yao-Tpo-). 


A good example of the emphasis imparted by this parlicle 
is afforded by P Lond 42 1S (b.c. i6S)(— I. p. 30, Selections^ 
p. IO) els irdv tl €Xr|Xv0iiia 81a *rf|V tov ctltou Tip.?iv, Kal 




8o[Ko]vo-a v[v]-y [-y]e trov Trapayevop-e'vov Tev£eo-0ai tlvos 
dvav|/vxr)s, "having come to the last extremity because of 
the high price of corn, and thinking that now at last on 
your return I should obtain some relief." The same docu- 
ment, 1. 23, illustrates the ufjTeye of I Cor 6 3 — p.T| otl -ye 
too-ovtov XP° V0U eTri-ye-yovoTos, "not to speak of so much 
time having gone by" (see Proleg. p. 240). For the com- 
bination el 8e |itj -ye cf. P Oxy VIII. 1159 6 (late iii/A.D.) el 
8e (iTj -ye, o-vvTa^aL avTw otl eXeuo-€Tai ut'xpi ie ^aaevtoB, 
" otherwise, arrange with him that he shall come by the 13th 
Pharnenoth " (Ed. ), Chrest. I. 167 25 (b.c. 131) Trpovor|8rrn 
«s udXio-Ta [lev a"uvTrX^pu)6^o"eTat to. tou TrapeXSdvTos £tous 
K€<j)[d]Xaia, el 8e jit) -ye, ovk eXdo-o-w tu>v k£ (TaXdvTtov), " if 
possible, . . . but if not, at any rate . . . ", Cagnat IV. 833 
(Hierapulis, alter ii/A.D.) oijStvl 8e erepw e^Viai KT)8ev8T)vai.' 
el 8e lit) ye. b eirixeLprjcras Swcret tu Lepu>TaTu> Ta|xeiu* SrjvdpLa 
(jLtipia — the editor needlessly extrudes -ye. On el! *ye, KaeroL 
■ye, (levovv ye, etc., see these combinations in their places 


This Hellenized form, derived from the Ileb. E3fP3 by 
dropping the in, is one of those "specific Jewish ideas" 
(Thumb Hrlkn. p. 1 1 S) which naturally we cannot 
illustrate from our sources. We may cite Orac. Si/>. I. 103 
els ye'evav uaXepov Xdppou -rrupos dxau-dToio : the spelling 
here demanded by the metre is found in Mk 9" D, it. * 5 
E al. 


BGU III. 830 21 (i/A.D.) eirl -yap Kal yen-cuv aiJTov et[p.]t, 
P Oxy X. 1272 14 (A.l). 144) iirdvoiav ovv KaTa [t]wv 
■yeiTovuv llov, " having some suspicion against my neigh- 
bours " (Edd.). The adj. is very common in descriptions 
of locality, e. g. P Par 5 1 8 (B.C. 114) tov els Tdyr|v oIkov 
. . . 06 yelToves' votov oiKia 'ApiraT|o-Los, Poppa l|/lXoI 
Tdiroi ktX., P Oxy I. 99 7 (a.d. 55) yeLToves tt]s oXt|[s oixias, 
votov] Kal dirT]XLi6To[v] 8r]fj.d(rtaL, X. 1 276 s (a. D. 249) 
rf)S 8e bXr|S -yeLToves votov pvp.T) TvcpXrj, "the adjacent areas 
of the whole are on the south a blind street" (Edd.). 
TeiTvla and -yeiTvidio are used in a similar way — P Tebt I. 
14 10 (B.C. 114) yevrvlas, "adjoining areas," ib. 105 19 (B.C. 
103) ttXt|V tt|s -yei.Tvtiio-r|S ttjl Ooiivios, " except that which 
adjoins the land of Thoonis." P Sa'id Khan 2 aS (B.C. 22) 
opia Kal -yeiTVLai dirb rwv dvaToXiiv ktX. This noun may 
= " neighbourhood,'' as in P Flor III. 319 5 (a.d. 132-7) 
01 ev viTvta (iou ovTes. See also Syll 929 s8 (ii/fi.e.) for a 
verb veiTove't*). In MGr yevrovas = " neighbour." 


Syll S02 70 (iii/B.C.) tov 8= 6ebv -yeXdo-avTa 4>d[a]ev vlv 
iravo-elv (Tas voo-ov), P Oxy III. 47 i es (ii/A.D.) ye'XwTa 
ttoXvv Kal dveiue'vov . . . yeXdv, " laughed long and freel)'" 
(Edd.) If we desiderate proof that the ancients laughed 
with the same articulation as ourselves, we may refer to 
P Leid W xi 30 (ii/iii A.D.) elirwv eKpoTiio-e y, K(al)eye'Xao-ev 6 
6ebs eTrtTaKis. x a > X a i X a > X°-> X a > X a > X a - yeXdo-avTos 8e 
avTov eyevvf|8r|o-av 8eol \, otTives Ta -n-dvTa Trepie'xouo-Lv. A 
Lycian epitaph maybe quoted from Ormerod and Robinson's 
inscrr. mJHS xxxiv. p. 1 i'i\: no. 26 20 Tral^e ve'Xa -rrapoSeiTa, 
pXe'-rriov oti Kal o-e Baveiv Set — it is the analogue of the 

commonplace quoted in I Cor 15 12 . For the fut. act., as in 
Lk 6 21 (cf. Job 29- 1 , 4 Mace 5 28 ), see Proleg. p. 154. MGr 
has veXw. 


In the invitation to the celebration of Hadrian's accession 
the people are summoned to sacrifice ■yeXiocri Kal ue'8ais Tals 
dirb Kprjvris Tas vj/uxds dve'vTes (P Giss I. 3 6ff ). In his note 
the editor suggests that veXuo-t may refer to the " P'estzug 
(ttouttti) " which was customary on such occasions, and refers 
to Klio vii. p. 2S5 flf. In MGr -ye'Xoi.a (plur.) = " laughter." 
See another instance cited under veXdu (P Oxy 471) : add 
BGU IV. I141 14 (B.C. 14) Kal Ypdx|/as avTiit vppia-ai p.e Trpbs 
•yeXwTa uol tovto e-ypa^as. 

ye fliC CO. 

The verb is used of loading a ship with grain in P Magd 1 1 14 
(B.C. 221) o-vvTd£ai Ev<f>pdvopi . . . Yep.Co-ai to -rrXolov eK 
(cf. Rev 8') tot Ka0' airrbv tottwv ttjv Taxlo-Trjv. In I. II 
of the same papyrus we have the pass. v€p.t^rjTaL used abso- 
lutely, and similarly on the verso ire[pl t]ov [-yep-rjo-Biivai. 
avToii t[o irXo]i[o]v : cf. Mk 4", Lk 14 23 . Other examples 
of the verb are P Fay I17 14 (.A.D. 108) irdvTa Ta kttjvt) 
■ye'ai.^ (/. "ye'a^e; PaKavov, "load all the animals with cab- 
bage," ib. 11S 23 (a.d. no), P Tebt II. 419 1 ' (iii/A.D.) Ye'ueto-ov 
X<JpTou, "load the ass) with hay," P Flor II. 184 15 (iii/A.D.) 
■yefu'o-as Ta eKKevtuOe'vTa tote o-LTapia, and 17 tous Tecrcrapes 
o-aKKOvs -yep-io-ai., P Rein 53"" (iii/iv A. D.) ra aTroo-TaXevTa 
KaarjXia Y^awcrov (see below) otvov. For the constr. with 
ace. and gen., as in this last instance and others (cf. Mk r.5 88 
etc.), see also OGIS 383 116 (i/B.C.) TpjaTr^as pev iepds 
TrpeTrovo-r|s 8oivr|s ve|j.l[s]wv. ln MGr 7ep.l5" is construed 
with double accusative. The curious form ye'awo-ov (P Rein 
53 I.e.) is explained by P Flor II. 1S4 18 (iii/A.D.) Yoauo-ov, 
and other passages where this alternative 70(100 occurs : 
■ye'[X«o-ov is a compromise. Note the negatived verbal in 
P Sa'itl Khan I b - 34 (B.C. SS) o-Te'u(j>[u]Xa d-ye'|iio-T[a. 


P Lorid 122 9 ' (magic, iv/A.D.) ( = 1. p. 119) wupos ve'p. 1 ' 
See also the early Christian inscription I.MAi I. 123S eirl 
■yep.t to 8qKtov tovto, "since this tomb is full." For the 
construction with the ace, as in Rev 17"', cf. the MGr ye'nw 
XprjuaTa, "I am full of possessions." 


The collective sense of this word — involved in its historic 
relation to Yevos — is normal throughout, and survives in MGr 
•yevui = " race, lineage." Thus it denotes a family, without 
individual reference: P Oxy I. I04 11 (a will — A.D. 961 Tfjs 
tovtov "yeveds, " his issue " (should he himself predecease) — 
similarly PSI III. 240 H (ii/A.D.) . . . eKajo-Tou aiiTwv yeveds, 
in a will — ib. IV. 713"' (A.D. 97) Trj e£ dXXrjXwv y'vea, " their 
joint issue," P Hal I. I 217 (iii/B.C.) aXXov 8' opKov anSeva 
e^eVTw oavvvat arj[8j5 bpK[t^]etv |iT]8e -yevedv Trapio-Tao-8at, 
•' no one may swear by any other oath [than Zeus, Hera and 
Poseidon], nor offer it. nor may he bring forward his family," 
'i.e. to swear by them: see note, p. 121. Sy// S56 18 - 18 
(ii/B.C.) ouoLos 8e Kal el "Yefvjedv Troirjo-aiTO, of a manumitted 
slave. eXeuSe'pa ^o-t[o)] Kal dve'4>aTTTos d ^[ejved. Cagnat. \\ . 




915'" J (i/a.D.) Kal [av]To[l] Kal Y ev€aL [a]vT<i[v. The 
abstract sense appears in P Tebt II. 312" (A.D. 123-4) lepevs 
diroXvcripos airb t[t|s] [.] 8 ■yeveds, "exempted piiest of the 
[.]lth generation." 


The plural is found along with puBoi (as in I Tim I 4 ) in 
Polyb. ix. 2. I ir€p'i tcls "YCveaXo-ytas Kal pvBovs, where the 
reference is lo the stories of the births of the demigod 
founders of states. He..ce Hort {Jitd. Christianity, p. 135 ff.) 
understands the word in the Pasto als not of the Gnostic 
groupings of aeons in genealogical relationships, hut of 
"all the early tales adherent, as it were, to the births of 
founders," etc. 


The distinction between ™ -yevc'o-ia. the commemoration 
of the dead, and to. ytvi9\ia, the birthday feast of a living 
man, disappears in late Greek (cf. Lob. Phryn. p. 103, 
Rutherford .\V, p. 1 84) ; and in the pap> ri Ta -yevt'cria is always 
birthday feast. Thus P Fay 1 14 20 (A.D. IOO) W|v e'ikSvIv 
(/. ix8iv) ■tre'p.o-i.s (.'. Trepans ) T>ji k8 & (.'. <i) k! eis to. -yeveVia 
TeptXAiis, "send the fish on the 24th or 23th for Gemella's 
birthday feast," for which other dainties are ordered in 
lb. iiq ;;r ' ff . P Fay 113*. a year later, says that pigs are 
going to be sacrificed on the birthday feast (els to. ■yeveVia) 
of Sabinus. Cf. BGU I. i* (iii/A.D.) an account of various 
outlays connected with the Yeveoufois] T<iv [6eii]v Zepao-Twv. 
and Preisigke 1525 (A.D. 131 — dedication of a statue) YeveVia 
'ASpiavov p t| iroXis. So for the birthdays of private persons 
BGU I. 333"' (iii/iv A.D.) ( = Chrcst. I. 489) irjdv-rws 
Trocrjo-aTe, eav fl 8vvaTo[v], K[a]TeX6elv vpds els to ywia-ia. 
tov viov r;[p.uj]v Sapa-rruovos. So in accounts of expenditure, 
as P Oxy IV. 736'* (1 . A.D. 1) yeveo-fois TpvcpaTos o-Te4>d(vwv) 
(6P0X0I Suo), P Giss I. 31 6 (ii/A.H.) -yeveo-iois Ai.oyev£8(os) 8. 
For yeveBX£a used in the same sense we may cite P Oxy III. 
494 24 (a. I). 156) els tvu\iav avTtov t)v TroiT|crovTai ttXt]o-£ov 
tov Ta<pov aou KaT* 6tos tt] yeve8X£a pov, " for a feast which 
they shall celebrate at my tomb on my birthday every yrar" 
(Edd.), BGU I. 149 15 (ii hi A.D.) •ye[v£]8Xi.o' is ZoKvorratov] 
Beov peydXov p.fydX[ou, P Oxy I. 1 12* (in /iv A.D.) Tols 
Yev«8X£ois tov 8eo[v. ib. VIII. 1144 4 (i/ii A.D.), etc. From 
the inscriptions note OG1S 90 46 (the Rosetta Stone— B.C. 196) 
ev r^t Ta yeveBXi-a tou pao-iXe'ws ayeTai, ib. Ill- 9 (after B.C. 
163) tt)v yeveBXi-ov T)pe'[pav ttjv Bor|]8ou. and Priene 105" 
(c. B.C. 9) Tfp/ tou 6r|OTdTou Kaicrapo[s y]eve'8Xi.ov. In the 
last inscription, 1. *°, if the restoration can be trusted, we 
have the remarkable statement i]p|ev 8e Tuk Kocrpui. Tciv 8u 
avTov evav-yeX£[ wv t| -yeveBXios] tou Beou, "but the birthday 
of the god [the Emperor Augustus] was for the wot Id the 
beginning of tidings of joy on his accuitnt " : cf. Deissmann 
/.ME, p. 371. 

F"or "f| -yeve'crios \sc. f,pe'pa) see OG1S 583 1 "' (i/A.D.) Tfji 
■yeveo-tui. Capiat IV. 353*- 4,u (ii/A.D.), of a monthly cele- 
bration, ■yevtcri'u) 2epa<rrov, and evpTJvu vevecriu>. Similarly 
Michel 544 10 (B.C. 114) €iroiT|o-aTo 8e Kal ve[ve6]Xlas tois Te 
iraio-lv Kalirai8euTai[s, of a hospitable Phrygian gymnasiarch. 
Both these adjectives are replaced by the noun in Gen 40 20 , 
where the birthday of Pharaoh is rpe'pa yeve'o-ews. We find 
in P Cairo Preis 31" (A.D. 139-40) the compound, irai]8u>v 


F'or v. = "birth, nativity," as in Lk i 14 , ct. Priene 105 49 
((*. B.C. 9 — see s.v. ■yevecria) to d-rrb Tf|s eKeivou -y| eve ]crea>s 
apxei-v tu» p£uj tov xpovov, Kaibel 3 1 4 2 L ou8' outios pot -ye'vecris 
Seivi] TrXiio-BeLO-' eKopeVBn, — the sense appears to be " nativity" 
(astrological). Other examples are P Lond 98 recltf (a horo- 
scope —i/ii A. D.) (=1. p. 130) o]lK[oSeo-TrorT|s] tt)s Yeve'creajs. 
a common phrase in nativities, and Os/r 1601 (a notice of 
birth or for a horoscope — A.D. 1 14) ye'vecris Trai&iov dpcreviKov 
il, frti) Tpai.avou Ka£o-apos toO Kuplou. In the pre-Christian 
inscriptions of the .Egean Sea the phrase Kara -ycVeo-LV is 
frequent in contrast to ko.8' uioBco-iav : see e.g. Syll 905, 
and cf. Deissmann BS p. 239. In P. Oxy I. 120 8 , a philo- 
sophic letter of iv/.A. D. , the word is used in the more general 
sense of "existence," "life" — peTpioiv yip Kal Svo-ruxiiv 
•ytv€0-LV aL\ovT€S (/. ^X") °^^^ oiiTw aiauTots Trpoo-a£xopev 
/. eauTois Trpoo-e'xopev . "we fail to realize the inferiority 
and wretchedness to which we are born" (Edd.). Not very 
different is P Leid \V xiv '■' (ii/ili A.l>.) Kal p.T|V€uo-8u> ( '. 
-u€0-8uj) pot Ta Tijs yevcVeiis pou. "quae genituram meam 
spectant" (Ed.). 


For (K yeveTiiS in In o l , see the numerous examples, with 
special references to blindness, in Wetstein ad /., and add 
Philostratus Epist. 51 paxap.W twv Ik yeveTfjs TrxpXciv (1 ited 
by Bauer HZNT ad /.). Vettius Valens, p. 292" eirl twv 4k 
■ytveTfjs 8LaoroXuiv. 


The spelling •ytvTipa. " fruits of the earth," shown in the 
best MSS in Mt 26 29 , Mk 14 2 ', etc., is now abundantly 
attested from the papyri, e. g. P Oxy I. SS' (a.h. 179) irupou 
yevr|paTos, ib. IV. 729 s6 (A.D. 137) olviKoS -yevripaTos, 
il>. VIII. 114I 6 (iii/A.D.), X. 1262 16 (A.D. 197) <//-, and the 
numerous examples in Deissmann BS pp. no, 184. Mayser 
Gr. p. 214. Add from the inscriptions C/G 4757 G2 O'-gypt, 
A.D. 68), 4474'- 9 (Syria, iii/A.D.), and OG/S '-ibi* (Syria, 
iii/A.D.) cuv tois tov tveoTwTos £tous ytvTipao-LV. 

On the phrase on ostraca of the imperial period ytvr|paTos 
tov Setvos ^tovs, referring to the duty payable on the harvest 
of the preceding year, see Wilcken Os/r. i. p. 214: hence 
the word y€vnpaToypa(j>€iv, "confiscate by the government," 
see Archiv i. p. 148. Note also I' Ryl II. 154 22 (A.D. 66) 
yevtjpaTa Kal €TrLy6VT]paTa, "produce and surplus produce" 

The history of this word, unknown to LS, and unsus- 
pected except as a blunder of XT uncials, is peculiarly 
instructive. Against HR, who regard the totally distinct 
words -ytw^pa and Ye'viipa as mere variants of spelling. 
Thackeray (Gr. i. p. 118) shows that Yew. (from Ycvvdw) 
is in LXX animal, and yiv. vegetable, as in NT. The 
hundreds of instances quotable from Eg)-pt must not close 
our eyes to the apparent absence of attestation elsewhere, 
except in Syria, which accounts for its appearance in NT. 
We may however reasonably conjecture that in Polybius 
when Y«vVTJpaTa = " vegetable produce" we should drop the 
second v. This is confirmed by the strictures of Phrynichus 
(Lobeck, p. 286) : Y €VVT )F- aTa ' TroXXaxov aKovw tt^v Xe'/jtv 
Ti8ep.eVnv errl twv Kapiriv. iyu Se ovk ol8a dpx a ^ a v Kal 




86kiuov ovo-av. lie woult] have them say Kapiroiis £r[povs 
Kal vypois. Polybius then either used •ye'vriLi.a, nr adopted 
a new meaning fur -yeVvruJia which was reacted upon by the 
other word. In 1'SI III. I96 2 > 3 , 197 s ' 3 (both vi/vii a.d.) we 

find vv. 


P Fay 28* (A.D. 1 50-1) ( = Selections, p. Hi) d-rro-ypac|>du.s0a 
tov -yevvr|9<vTa T)u.eiv . . . ulov : the same formula in 
BGU I. Ill 1 " (ii/A.D.). P Gen I. 19 14 (a.d. 14S) (uiS^OJu 
p.01) -y€WT|0(t£o-T|s). ib. 33 11 (a. 1 1. 156) 7«vvT]8e'vTa [t]<u is 
(eVti) 'Avtw[v£vou] KatVapos, Syll 406 9 (A.D. 147) crvvT|- 
crOc'vTes [lot. -ytvvT|86'vTOS vioO (of civic congratulations sent to 
Antoninus), C. and B. ii. 590 ( p. 6 56) Aovkios -yuv|ai.]Kl 
iSi'a o-EpvoTtiTTi, ytvvT|9c£o-T] etous pija (=.\.i>. 77), BGU I. 
132 "- s (ii/A.n.) "Hpcov dXXos utbs nT](Tpbs) tt)s a(uTtjs) ytv- 
v^0(£ts). The confusion of forms from * and forms 
from -ytvvdu), which gave a start to the mixing of ye'vr||J.a and 
-ye'vvT|u.a, produces in BGU I. 2S 16 (a.D. 1S3) and no 11 
(a.d. 13S-9) the form -y6vr|0€VTa : see Deissmann d>'S p. 184. 
With Mk 14 21 cf. OGIS 45S 10 81b &v tis 8iKauos inroXdPot 


irt'pas Kal opos tou p.cTaae'Xeo-8aL, otl -ycyeVvriTaL. In MGr 
■uevvu = " begetj" "give birth to," and of birds "lay" 
(eggs). The derivative eireyevvr|0-ts, P Gen I. 33 15 (a.D. 156) 
<;/., means a "birth subsequent to" (a census, etc.). For 
the noun ylvva, whence this verb is derived, cf. P Leid 
\\i\. 47 (ji/iii a. 11.) 8 KaXoio-i "fipov ■yt'vvav, * - eo-tiv yap 
"ytvva koo-jj.ou. 


See s.v. y«vr|U.a. So far as we have noticed, the word 
with vv does not occur at all in the papyri. 

(in Mt I 18 LW, Lk I 14 one or two good MSS, inch 3;) 
may be quoted from I' l.eid W xxUi - 2 (ii/iii A. 11.), where a 
magic hook Trcpit'xEi Yevvrjcriv TTvevu-aTos, irvpbs Kai o-kotos 
(sc. -ovs), and Syll 737 130 (ii/A.D.) o-tt-ovSi|v d£lav ttjs Td£etos, 
■yduuv, -yevvrio-eoos, Xou>v, t^Vrjperas ktX. : Dittenberger 
observes that boys were brought to the Xdes festival before 
their coming of age, so that the order of these last three 
Hems is one ol time. 


is ...ninion in the papyri with reference to a species 01 
class of things. Thus P Fay 21 10 (a.D. 134) eiV kv •yevtorrv 
«IV iv dp-yvpU), "■ whether in kind or in money,'' with refer- 
ence to payments, ib. 90 11 (A.D. 234) xtP'q] ""' «V V«" 
Xaxavoo-n-fpuou dpTdpas Tp[i]s, "a loan in kind ol three 
arlabas of vegetable seed,'' P Oxy VIII. I134 13 (a.D. 4^0 
•n-epl dXXou tlvos tl'Sovs x\ yevous, "of any other sort or 
kind." In P Grenf II. 44 11 (a.D. ioi) the word occurs in 
connexion with the transport of "goods," and in P Oxy IX '. 
727- (a.d. 154) an agent is authorized -yiiVn Siairu)XT]o-ovTa 
a tdv 8cov r\ T^j aviTOu tt(o-t(i, " 10 sell off produce as may be 
needful on his ou ii authority": cf. ;/). I. 54 16 (a.d. 201) 
tis Ttip-T|V yevtiv, " lor the price of materials" lor the repair 
oi public buildings, and ib. IOI 10 (A.D. 142) where yiveo-i, = 
•■crops." Similarly P Anih II. 91 15 (a.d. 159) ois e\lv 

aipwaai yevco-i ttX)|V kvt|kou, " with any crops I choose 
except cnecus" (Edd.). In P Oxy IX. 1202 20 (a.d. 217) 
Kar' aKoXouOerav twv eTtiv Kal tov ycVovs, the word is 
used = " parentage " : cf. BGU I. 140 s6 (li.c. 119) tois 
•n-pbs [y]e'vovs o-vvyeveVi, " to the legitimate parents." With 
yt'vos = " offspring," as in Ac 17- 8 , cf. IG XIV. 641 (Thurii) 
Kal yup €vwv iiu.a)v -yeVos oXpiov tuxoaai €Lp.ev . . . "OXpie 
Kal aaKapro-Tc, 0tbs 87o-t| dvTi PpoToto, and 63S 7TJS irais 
€tu.l Kal ovpavoii dcrTcpdcvTos, aviTap €aol ve'vos ovpdvtov 
(both cited by Norden Agiiostos Thcos, p. 194). Ac 4° has 
a close parallel in P Tebt II. 291 36 (A.D. 162) d]7r«'8[i]£as 
o-eai)Tov Ye'vous [6]vTa iepartKou. In OGIS 470 5 (time of 
Augustus) a certain Theophron describes himself as priest 
8id ytvov ttjs 'AvatTiSos 'ApTtu-tSos, "hereditary" priest. 
In ib. 513 10 (iii/A.D.) vtvovs tiuv 'ETri(X)a'l8uv, and 63s 4 
(Palmyra, a.d. 17S-9) ol iy -yt'vovs ZapSipuAaov, it answers 
to gens, a tribe or clan. For the common t<u -ytvei. in 
descriptions, cf. Sy// S52 2 (ii/B. c.) awu-a dvSpelov oil bvou.a 
Kxiirptos to *ye'vos Kiiirptov. In V'ettius Valens, p. 86 36 , €ts 
■ye'vos €LO-€X0t6v is used of a manumitted slave : cf. p. Io6 H . 


Cagnat I\'. 374 11 (a.d. 102-5) Avti.o\«u)v tujv [firl t|u 
Xpvo-opoa., twv •7rpoTepo[v re]pao-r|vwv. Whether this Gerasa, 
which was in Arabia, could put in a claim to be connected 

distantly with the Gospel story, we do not discuss here. 


Bishop Hicks has shown (CA' i. p. 43 b) the important 
place occupied by the yspovo-ra in Ephesus and other Greek 
cities in Roman imperial times, and consequently how the 
term, and not PovXt|, came to be applied to the Sanhedrin 
in Ac 5 21 . In Syll 740'- (a.d. 212) f)8o|ev ttj Upa -yepovcria 
Toii SwTfjpos ['A]o-KXr|iriov ktX, the editor remarks on the 
singular use of the word for a private sacred college: on 
ib. 882 (Cos — imperial time) Toii fivriueiov tovtod r| -yepovo-ta 
KvjSeTar, he suggests the same connotation, and on ib. 737 132 
(ii/A.D.) he argues an application to the Upd ycpovo-ia of 
lileusis (see his reff.). These will suffice to show that a 
•yepovo-ia concerned, like the Sanhedrin, with res sacrae was 
nothing unusual The use of the word for lay senates of 
variouskinds is of course abundant, and does not concern us : 
see inter alia Ramsay C. and B. ii. p. 43S ft'., and Ferguson 
Legal Terms common to the Macedonian Inscrr. ami the X J' 
(Chicago, 1913), p- 30ft'. The two terms of Ac 5 21 appear 
together in Cagnat IV. S36 7 (Hierapolis, ? ii/A.D. or after) 
diroSwo-£i to) [o-]€u.voTdTu) o-uvtopujt. -yepovo-ras Srjvclpta 
XetXra (for violating a tomb). 


OGJS 479 11 (ii/A.D. init.) Upevs ti)s Ttiv ^epovTuiv 
'Opovoi'as. BGU IV. 1141" (B.C. 14) tlirev b 'yepcoy px[t|] 
elSc'var auTov to KadbXov irepl toutwv prjSe'v. I' Ryl II. 77 34 
(A.D. 192) U.IU.OV tov Tra[T]6pa tov (jSiXotlllov tov [yjpoyTa 
<|)wTa, "imitate your father the lover of office, the brave old 
man " : note that ■yt'pwv here plays the part of adj. to the 
poetical word <f>ws— see the editors' note. CP Herri) ioo 7 
(fragment). The word is not very often met with, but its 
continued existence in the vernacular is attested by the MGr 
■yc'povTas (also -yt'pos), as well as derivatives like -yepvu) 
(aor. t-yt'pacra) wdiich show mixture with the kindred -yfjpas. 





For y. with genitive, cf. the standing formula in tie ///'<•///' 
of the Decian persecution (a.d. 250) twv Upwv e7«vcrap.Tiv, 
c. g. P Oxy IV. 658 12 (= Selections, p. 116). Willi the ace., 
as in Jn 2 9 and in the LXX fairly often, it may be cited 
from Preisigke 1106 (Ptolemaic), where sundry officials Kal 
oi o-op.Trdo-i.ov •y'udp.tvoi. join in a complimentary monument 
to their entertainer. See Abbott, Joh. Gr. p. 76 f. ; and on 
the change of construction in Ifeb 6 4 '- see Milligan Docu- 
ments, p. 68. The verb is used absolutely (as in Ac io 10 ) 
in Preisigke 1944 (inscr. on a cup — Roman age) «K toutou 
t-yeuo-d|JLT]V. The verbal occurs, negatived, in P Giss I. 19 12 
(ii/A.D.) &[y]€i/otos €Kot(ui(ir|v. '" I was going to bed without 
bite or sup." The noun from a compound may be observed 
in a small undated fragment, CPHerm 27 Trpoo-yeuo-eus 
t[ . . . : dpTOKOTru> appears just below. MGr has ■yeiop.tu 
still, = "taste," "eat.'' 


Agriculture being the principal industry in Egypt, this 
word and its cognates are very common in the papyri with 
reference to the cultivation both of private allotments and 
of the crown lands, for which rent was paid in kind. A 
good example of the former class is afforded by the letter in 
which a father remonstrates with a dilatory son for his 
neglect of their lot of land — to KTfjpa aYewp-ynTov €otiv* 
ovSels twv -yeaip-ytiv fjOc-'X-ncrev Yewp-ygiv avTo. ''the whole 
land is unfilled: no tenant was willing to work it" (BGU 
II. 53o 20ff - (i/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 61). For the latter we 
may cite P Lond 256 recto 21 - (a.d. 11-5) (=11. p. 96), 
an order to deliver seed-corn 8t][ioo-lols -yewp-yois els tjv 
-ycwp-yoxia-i pao-iXi.KT][v] Kal Ic-pdv Kal tTt[p]av vrjv, and the 
interesting P Oxy VI. S99 8 (a.d. 200) in which a woman 
claims on the ground of her sex to be released from the 
cultivation of various plots of Crown land, which, she states, 
as long as she had power she cultivated — es 00-ov p.ev ovv 
8ivap.Cs poi vrrfjpxtv to.vtcls tyiuipyovv. If an instance of 
the passive is wanted (t<>r Heb 6"), we may cite P Giss 
I. 4 10 (A.D. 118) — Hadrian has appointed (o-Trjo-avTos) t^[v] 
Pao-i\(i.KTjv) -yfjv Kal 8-npoo-iav Kal ovo-iaKTjv yf\v Ka[i]' 
d^iav «Kao-TT]s Kal oijk €K tou TraXaiou 7r[po]o-Td"ypaTos 
-y€wp-yelo-6at, Syll 929 s0 (B.C. 139?) Kam ^tipas Y*Y ea) p- 
■ynpevT]s t€ Kal Y« w pY T )^ T l " H LC ' VT ] s - etc - 


For y. — "cultivated fields," see P Tebt I. 72 3 ' (a land 
survey — B.C. 1 14-3) Kal Trapa-yevope'vou avn-oO els tt]v Kwpriv 
Kal erreXBdvTos eirl tol yeuipyitx ei»pe9fjvai. tov orrdpov 
KaKO(j>uf|L dvTa Kal ra -ytvTipaTa dOepLOTa. In P Par 63 uff ' 
(B.C. 165) Tijv €KT[€]v€o-TaT-nv [Troi]TJo-acr(Jai. Trpdvotav b-rrws 
tKao-Tois KaTa 8vvap.1v pep[i]o~9r] ra yntipyia, Mah.itlv 
(P Petr III. p. 23) translates, "you should take the most 
earnest precautions that the field labour be divided to each 
in accordance with his capacity": cf. P Lond 3i4 ,2fr 
(a.d. 149) (= II. p. 189) where in a proposal for a sub-lease 
the lessee undertakes all that is necessary for the proper 
cultivation of the land — eTriTeXeVu to. -yewp-yiKa £p*ya 7r[dvT]a 
8cra Ka8r|Kei, it. 354 21 (c. B.C. 10) (= II. p. 165) 8id 8e tovto 
twv ytupyioiv d<f>avi£oue'v«v [. . . It should be noted that 
this last document is written in a very graceful literary hand, 
so that the word here figures in educated language. This 
Part II. 

is interesting from the fact that -yecipYiov cannot be traced 
with certainty in literature before Straho : Dittenberger 
hesitates as to the supplement in Syll 160 9 (B.C. 323) tt)v 
dWXeifajv . . . twv y«">P Yt ' wv . because " reliqua huius vocis 
testimonia multo inferioris aetatis sunt." LS quote The- 
agenes (or Theogenes), who in a book on Aegina (Mullet 
Fragm. Hist. Grace, frag. 17) says the Aeginetans dumped 
els to. Yewpyia earth dug out of caves. Unfortunately the 
identity and date of this writer is very uncertain, so that he 
is not evidence. The- abstract Y ew PY'°- is also common, 
e. g. P Oxy VIII. 1124 16 (A.D. 26) toO 8' evKaTaXiimv tt)[v 
Y«]a>PY'a[vJ . . . erriTipov, " the penalty for abandoning the 
cultivation" (Ed.), P Fay 123 17 (c. a.d. 100) tj x 8t)v Is 
YfuipYiav, "I have been pressed in as a cultivator" (Edd.), 
P Lond 1231 1 (a.d. 144) (=111. p. 10S) irapai.Tovp.evoi. 
tt|v els to p.[e']XXov ytupydav wv Y«"pY0v[pe]v o-vv 'ArroX- 
XwvCw . . . dpo[vpw]v 8(Ka [evjve'a Kal . . s, P Flor III. 
37° 3 (a.d. 132) 6]p.oXoYto ^o-acr0a£ o-ol koivwvos KaTa to; pe'pos yiwpyia.'i tov evecrTwTos eirTaKaiSeKaTou (eTovs). 


See s. v. yeoipyia for one or two citations of a ubiquitous 
word, enough to indicate some of the Egyptian farmer's 
public burdens. We might add reference to a docket of 
papers in P Eleph, dated B.C. 223-2, relating to the 
insolvency of tenants who had found their task too heavy : 
in 15 3 01 8' yTroYeYpappe'voi Y^wpY ^ e-rre'SwKav rjpiv (officials 
who make their report to a bank) inrdo-Tao-iv, an " under- 
taking " to take over these liabilities. That y""pyos was 
common outside Egypt may be illustrated by its appearance 
in Syll 510 (Ephesus, ii/B.c.) quinqitiens, 531 4 " (Amorgos, 
iii/B.c), 632" (Athens, i/B.c), 647 20 (Eleusis, c. B.C. 320), 
0G1S 5 19 7 (Asia, .. a.d. 245). In MGr y^P'V'S = 
" peasant." 


The rare plural forms of this word which are found in the 
LXX may be illustrated from the Ptolemaic papyri of ii/B.c, 
e.g. BGU III. 993'"- 10 (B.C. 128-7) Y wv T€ Kal o'ikimv, 

P Tor I. I" 10 (B.C. Il6) ^V€K€V TOV Kal TWV y wv H 1 ^ aeT€- 

o-xiKe'vat aiiTT|v, P Tebt I. 6 31 (B.C. 140-39) y^s tc Kal 
i'Ttpa : see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 143. In MGr, beside t| yt), 
we have the indeclinable fj yr\s, ttjs yf\s. etc. : see Thumb 
Handbook, p. 57. The familiar Biblical 4-rrl y^s appears in 
P Kyi II. 87 s (early iii/A.D.) 6 aviTos 6pioSeLKTr|S €-rre8€L^a 
tTrl Yf)s (restored from l. 2 ), "I the said surveyor have 
verified it on the spot": the editors suggest that crrl Yrjs 
should be read in P Thead 54 s and 55 s . It may be observed 
that YT in papyri is regularly "land " in small or moderate 
quantities, a sense never found in NT, where yi\ is always 
antithetic to sky or sea, or denotes a district or country. 
The LXX and papyri, in their use which makes a plural 
possible, can go back to Ionic of v/B.C. : cf. Syll II 5 yia.% 
Kal oUias, it. I54 J0 (a century later) 8r]pdo-i.oi ^ycai. Of 
course the antithesis of Ovpavds and Faia is older still, 
as is that illustrated by the formula kuto. yrpi Kal KaTa. 

P Magd IS 6 (B.C. 22l) ?x«> l.«ls to] Y'HP 015 t * avaYKaia. 
P Lond 43 a (ii/B.c.) (= I. p. 4S) 'i\n% ecJ»d8iov els to YHP a St 





a mother's optimistic assurance to her son who has just left 
school for a small post as teacher. P Flor III. 312 s 
(A.I'. 92) airoXuSfjvou Tiiv Xeirovpyiwv XX (? Such and such) 
Sid -yi}pas Kal dcr8«'vc.av. lb. 3N2 36 (a. I'. 222-3) irpb tou 
■y-npus, 85 t] 8id ttjs o~fjs 4 >L ^ a l v ]^P w ' Tr ^ a S avd-rrauo-is Tui 7f|pa 
Seoiw'vt]. (The old gen. may be also quoted from a rescript 
of Nero, OGIS 475 18 eTriu.eXei.o-8ai tov o-oi] 7TJpa>s : so 
Gen 44 20 ). From iv/A.D. we have P Thead 19 12 fj8r| sis 
■yfjpas &Kpov 4X-nXu8T]ia. and P Oxy VI. 8S9 X8 , where a 
petitioner begs to be let off some municipal burden in view 
of "yripas Kal tt]V tou crw| |iaTos do-Biveiav. The compound 
■yr|pupoo-Kia occurs ib. 19 , and in IX. 1210 5 (i/ii A.D.) 
€TTiXeXe-yu-e'vuiv iirb twv yoviuv sis 7T)popoo-Ktav d<)>' uiv 
^vouo-l uuov, " men chosen by the parents from their sons to 
support them in old age " (Ed.). For the compound tiynpta 
see OGIS 16S 55 (b.c. 181-16) : the word is defined by 
Aristotle Rhet. I. 5. MGr has a derivative noun, ytpdu-aTa 
(plur), with same meaning as Yijpas. 

P OxyVI.904 2 (v/A.D.) tj tijs vu-erepas SiKcuoKpio-[{]as 
KaBapoTTjS irdvTuis Kau-t eXer|0-ei tov y^paKoTa, "the 
purity of your righteous judgement will surely pity me, an 
old man" (Edd ). MGr -yepvu with aor. eyepcura, the -n 
unchanged in pronunciation, attests the verb's continuance. 


The original meaning "to come into being," "be born," 
as in Jn S 58 , Gal 4 1 al, may be illustrated by P Flor III. 382 s8 
(A.D. 222-3) ° '£ 'H-[ oi J 7«vdp.tvos Vl0s [M]«'Xas ovop-an, 61 
tou u-t| ovtos [p-JuSc 7€vo(i«vo[u u-joi vioi. Syll 802 6 (iii/B.c.) 
Kopov eTCKt, os ti[8]us 7«vdp.tvos au-rbs d-n-b rds Kpdvas 
cXouto— this precocious cleanliness is nothing very astonish- 
ing among the egregious wonders of the Asclepieum. So 
P Cattaoui*- 16 (ii/A.D.) (= CArest. II. p. 422) 6 irpovm- 
o-Ttpos iroii 0-01 o-[Tpa]T[6]uou.[f]va) iyivtro ; This document 
contains a good instance of the use so common in NT, esp. 
in Ac, as 1 - £dv •ysvuTCu |i£ dTroSuu-etv : cf. Mt 1S 13 , etc. 
Cf. P Amh II. 135 10 (early ii/A.D.) idv ^evnTai. r,|j.ds u-h, 
inroYuus dvairXelv, "if it should happen that we do not 
sail up suddenly" (Edd.), BGU III. 97° 15 ( A - D - ! 74) &v 
■ytvuTai u-T) <vTovf|<rai aviTov : all these are mentioned in 
Pioleg. p. 17. Add P Far 49 s9 (b.c. 164-5S) (= Witkow- 
ski 2 p. 71) \tv€Tat *ydp tvTpairfjvai. Ci. MGr -ytveTat vd 
c. subj. = "it is possible that . . ." For 7. with dat. as 
in Rom 7 3 , cf. P Petr II. 40 W ( I!C - 2 77) <>s firaKoXou- 
9r\a-(i ttji iyyicrtt. tou -ytvou.€vou 0-01 \X«ijkous, "who will 
see to the pouring out of the must which comes to you" 
(Ed.), P Lond 21 29 (B.C. 162) (= I. p. 13) o-ol 8* 7evon-o 
tu-nu-epeiv, Ostr 1530 (B.C. 120) dirt'xw Tapd o-oC to vivd- 
u-tvdv u-ou, "money due to me." With Ac 22". 2 Cor 3', 
we may compare P Petr II. 20 '» 12 (B.C. 252) o-vvePu iv 
«iricrx«V€[i] v6Vf'o-8a[i, and P Tebt II. 423 1 ' (early iii/A.I>.) 
us tls dvuvLav \i.t -ytvco-Bai ev Tui Trapovri, "so I am at 
present very anxious" (Edd.). P Oxy II. 283 11 (a.i>. 45) 
Kal v«vdu.cvos iv Ttj M(|ii{><i Tij n TovXta [EJspao-r'ij tov 
eveo-TWTos u.t)vbs KauraptCou, "I reached Memphis on the 
day Julia Augusta, the 15 th of the present month Caesareus " 
(Edd.); cf. ib. IV. 709 7 (c. A.D. 50) iv Me'v<t>ei vevbu.rxos, 
where the phrase must be translated in the same way (see 
Arc'hiv iv. p. 376). Cf. P Lond 962 1 (A.D. 254 or 261) 

(=111. p. 210) -yevoO irpbs "Ato.iv tov iroiuc'va Kal 8e'^ai 
Trap' aiToi 8paxp-ds 8iaKoo-tas, P Flor II. iSo 15 (A.D. 253) 
idv 7e'vT|Tau trpos o-€ Aido-Kopos, al. Tivou-ai sometimes sup- 
plies an aorist f r elp-C : €7€vdp.T|v is normally ingressive 
(= became), but has to serve on occasion for summary 
("constative ") aorist as well — cf. Proleg. p. 109. Thus 
P Flor III. 382 61 (cited ad inil.) might be translated "the 
son whom I neither have nor ever had," as well as "nor 
was ever born to me." I.k 13 3 is an instance of this sum- 
mary use. It appears in a very common technical usage, 
by which ■ytvdu.cvog, with the title of an official, etc., denotes 
"ex-": where the title forms a verb, the aor. (less often 
the perf.) partic. of this is used instead. Thus " ex-gymnasi- 
arch" is -yuu.vacn.apxrja-as. For the periphrasis cf. P Oxy 
I. 3S' 1 (a.d. 49-50) (= Selections, p. 53) Ka8d 7r[a]pfjX8ov 
€tti tov vevopivov tou vouou a-rpaTTi-yov Tlao-iwvos, " I 
accordingly brought an action before Pasion, who was ex- 
strategus of the nome." The idiom has wider applications, 
as in P Flor I. 99 4 (i/ii A.D.) (= Selections, p. 71) tt ( s 
. . . -yevop.eVr|s -ywaiKos, " his former wife." In Cambridge 
Biblical Essays (ed. Swete, 1909), p. 491, this was applied 
to the important statement of Papias about Mark, who, 
"having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote," etc. 
(Lightfoot) : we see now that we should read, "having 
been " — his connexion with Peter was past. See Milligan 
Documents, p. 270. Not quite the same are BGU II. 
362'" '-" (a.d. 215) (= CArest. I. p. 126) toS trpb eu-oO 
Ye[vop.e'voi> €iriu.eXr|T]ov, "who was epimeletes before me," 
and P Oxy VIII. 1119" (a.d. 254) 6 tots -yevdu-evos du.- 
<po8o-ypanp.aT«iJs, " ihe then amphodogrammateus " (Ed.). 
In I' Tebt II. 3 1 5 - 1 (ii/A.D.) e-ye'veTo -yap jiou <f>iXos is 
rendered "as he has become my friend" fluid.) — aor. 
of immediate past: in another context it could mean "he 
was once) my friend." For 7. used practically as a passive 
to Trotw, as in Ac 19 26 , cf. 1' Kyi II. 231 3 (A.D. 40) t[ov]s 
dpTous KaXiis Trotr|o-cis e'erru(v) 7*ve'o-8ai., "kindly order the 
loaves to be made" (Edd.). There is an extremely com- 
mon use of 7iveTai (generally abbreviated) to denote the total 
of a column of figures, which " come to" so much : see e.g. 
the table of abbreviations P Lond III. p. 345, near the end, 
with reff. Among other special usages there is the Pauline 
|jef| 7€voito, common in Epictetus (cf. D. S. Sharp Epictetits 
and the NT, pp. 6, 112), e.g. i. i. 13, rl oiv ; p.T| ti u.iKpd 
0-01 (paivtTai Tavra ; p.1] 7CV01TO. Ttyovtv standing by itself 
as an answer to a question (" what can you say as to , . . ?") 
in P Strass I. 22'- ' 7 (iii/A.D.) looks at first rather like that 
which occurs in Rev 16 1 ', 2I 6 , but the reference is super- 
ficial. On the use of 7«7ova aoristically, see Proleg. p. 145 f. 
Add there a typical instance from Diogenes Laert. Proem. 
§ 5 Trapd70vo-L Kal 'Op<f)€a tov OpaKa, Xc'70VT€s (JnXdo-ocfmv 
7670V(='vai., Kal etvai dpxaioTaTov, "that he was a philo- 
sopher, and belongs to the earliest times"; also Preisigke 
1854, "Ao-«XXos u8e 7«7ov[a. This last is one of the 162 
sightseers' scribblings on the walls of the tombs of the 
kings at '1 hebes : 34 of them add to their name the verb 
io-Tdpr|o-a, d4HKdp.Tjv,, or other aoristic expression 
of their feelings, and 9 more use tjku>. When this one 
comes to "write him down" Asellus, his unique ii)8< 7eyova 
may be either compared with tjkw (perfect) <i8t, as in 
no. 1868, or made virtually aoristic like the majority. 
There is little difference. In Proleg. p. 239 a further 




instance of aoristic •yt'-yove is cited from C. and B. ii. p. 477> 
no. 343. 

The loss of 7 from the original form, here and in yivwctkw, 
is found in the Ionic from v/b.c, and in Attic inscrr. from 
(-. 300: see Brugmann-Thumb Gr. p. 126. It is the only 
Koivr| form -yivopai is MGr — but there are a few instances 
of 717V. in papyri due to the effort to write "correctly" : 
see Mayser Gr. p. 164 f. As late as P Thead 13'- 10 
(A. D. 322 — a proch verbal from a law case) we find 7L7VO 
(ie'vt]v. An aorist e^eLvdpnv is sometimes found, as in Ostr 
1616 6 (B.C. 149-S or 13S-7), and it is possible that this 
(classical) form may be responsible for the rather marked 
fondness for the spelling in pres. : normally we 
may ignore altogether the difference of ei and 1. For 
yfyovav (Rom 16 7 NAB), cf. BGU II. 597 19 (A.p. 75), 
al. See Proleg. p. 52, where however the illiteracy of this 
form is too confidently expressed. The aor. e7evr|8T|v, to 
which the Atticists objected, was common in early Kolvt|, 
but fell back after ii/B.C. — see Mayser Gr. p. 379. 


For 7. followed by Stl, see P Par 47 11 (c. B.C. 153) 
( = Selections^ p. 22) 71VW0- (/. ytvoia-Ke) cm iripdcreTciL 6 
8paTrt'[Tr|]s pf] ctcptvat rjpds l[irl t]wv tottcov ivcu, "know- 
that the runaway will try not to allow us to remain on the 
spot,'" ib. 49 33 (B.C. 164-5S) 7£vcacrKe cracjxis cm, edv dvapii 
Kayiii Trpoo-Kuvr)cra.L, irpds o-€ ov p[i]j eire'XBio. In ib. 32 s 
(B.C. 162) 7tvcocrK€T€ . . . p.T| €crxoXa[Ke'v]at pe, we have 
the ace. and inf. : so ib. 44* (B.C. 153) ylvaa-Ki pe TreiropeiJ- 
cr8at els ktX. p"or the common epistolary phrase 7ivwcrKeiv 
ere 6e'Xu) cm, see P Oxy IV. 743 s7 (B.C. 2) loot* civ tovto ere 
Oe'Xco ■y €LvwcrK * L v, cm iyo} clvtiol Siao-roXas SeSwKetv, l!tiL 
III. S46 5 (ii/A.D.) 7€LvwcrKeiv crat Be'Xto, otl o\i\ [rjX-ir] l£ov, 
otl dvaPe'vLS els ttjv pr|TpdTroXtv, " I wish you to know that 
I had no hope that you would come up to the metropolis/' 
ib. I. 27 4 fii/A.n. j 7Lvwo-KeLv ere 8e'Xw otcl els 7t)v eXT)Xu8a 
tt] s 1 tou 'Eirelcp pi-jvos, " I wish you to know that I arrived 
at land on the 6 th of the month Epeiph," P Grenf II. 73 6 
(late iii/A.D.), 1' Lond 417 5 (c. a.d. 346) (=11. p. 299), 
T Giss I. ii 4 (a.d. 118), P Lond 973^ (iii/A.D.) (=111. 
p. 213), al. It will be noticed that the phrase does not 
come into regular use till early ii/A. D., which accounts 
for the NT showing a phrase (ov Be'Xw iipds d7voelv 
in Paul) with the same meaning but with form not yet 

On the progressive displacement of the old participial 
object clause after 7Lv<icrK6Lv and other verbs of "knowing," 
see Proh.;. p. 229. To the instances of 7LVi6crKeiv with 
partic. add P Oxy VIII. 111S 7 (i/ii A.D.) oirjws . . . 7eivu- 
ctklijo-l ep.paSevcrov[Td p]e els Td v7r[o]Te8eLpeva kclI Ka 
8e'|ov[Ta ktX. (■ >ther future participles), " that they may km iw 
that I shall enter on the mortgaged property," etc. (Ed.). 

Grimm's "Hebraistic euphemism"' in Mt I 25 is rather 
surprising when chronicled in the same breath with " Grk 
writ. fr. the Alexandrian age down " : coincidence of idiom 
between two entirely different languages is common enough. 
This use is found earliest in Menander : see this and other 
references in B. D. Durham, Vocabulary of Menander 
(Princeton, 1913). p. 51. 

Some miscellaneous uses may be noted. P Tebt II. 279 
(B.C. 231), a contract for the engagement of a nurse, 

ends fyvwKev Sirovvrjcris "Hpou ^avricreL Ne\8upLOS. The 
editors translate " made (?) between Sponnesis, daughter 
of Ilorus, and Phanesis, son of Nechthuris, " but regard 
?7v»Kev as "very difficult." In the same collection, 289 s 
(A.D. 23), we find a strategus, in demanding from a sub- 
ordinate a supplementary report of tax-payments, writing 
otto-cos 7ap 7vtocropaL iroTepov tin. tottlov ere edcrui irpaT- 
TovTa tl, "for I shall thus know whether I shall leave you 
in employment where you are" (Edd.). In the passive we 
may quote P Oxy X. 1252 versa' 3 (A.D. 2SS-95) Tvwo-Be'vTa 
dcpeiXeLV Xoeirov pfjva ttjs evBr^vLapxeLas, "from whom, it 
was ascertained, a month more of his superintendence of 
provision was due"' (Edd.), P Giss I. 4S 9 (a.d. 202-3) 
e7vwcr8r| Ta tcaTa XP° V0U S 8o8e'vTa e-rrLBe'paTa . . . Trape- 
7pdc(>r| : we may suppose the writer was meaning to finish 
with a participle, and so did not insert 8tl after iyvuo-%i\. 
The perfect passive appears in the (classical) sense " deter- 
mined" in Sjll 929 s1 (B.C. 139?) eTvucrpevuv tcov KaBdXou 
irpa7pdTtov Wo 'Ptopcuiov. 

For the forms of the verb, see Proleg. pp. 55, 193. The 
older Attic 717VWO-KC0 occurs fairly often in the new uncial 
\V, and in Atticising documents among papyri and inscrr., 
as does For the aor. subj. 7V0I, cf. P Oxy VI. 
932 6 (late ii/A.D.) I'va e-n^vots, ib. VII. io62 ,:it - (ii/A.D.) 
Lva auTT|v dva7Vois vrjcpwv Kal crauTou koto^vols, P Giss 
I. 79 iiis ((\ A.D. 117) 'W eTreyvot ere cnrov8d[craL, and 
from new literature, P Oxy III. 413 160 (ii/A.D. — a mime) 
vvv tov 7e'povTios) evKpo.Tf|S Be'Xw 7eve'cr(8aL) -rrpLv tl tov- 

t(0)v) €TTL7V0L. 


For this XT Sir. tip. (Ac 2 13 ) cf. I' Grenf II. 24 12 (B.C. 105) 
ol'vov 7XevKous. and from an earlier date P Pctr II. 40(/;) a 
(B.C. 277) 6s eTraKoXouSricreL ttjl e7\vcrei Toi) 7Lvopevov ctol 
7XevKous. "who will see to the pouring out of the must 
which comes to you"' (Ed.). Preuschen (H7.N1 ad I.e.), 
cites in illustration of the NT passage Lucian Philops. 39 
tjkio, vt| tov Alo., oicTTfep ol tov 7XevKovs ttlovtcs, epirecpu- 
CTTjpe'vos tt|v 7acrTe'pa, epeVou Sedpevos. A late papyrus, 
Preisigke 4505 2 -' (A.D. 606), has the combination oVvou 
7XevKovs dSdXou, which occurs a few vears earlier in P Flor I. 


The neuter 7XUKIJ could denote some kind of sweet wine. 
Thus P Oxy II. 234" 6 (ii/iii a.d. — medical prescriptions) 
Xedvas Seels 7X^X61, "soften by diluting with raisin wine"' 
(Edd.) ; cf. ib. VIII. H42 1G (late iii/A.D. )7\]uKiovpoiTiKov. 
" pomegranate wine " (Ed. . and P Lond 239 13 (r. A. 1 '. 340) 
(= II. p. 29S) 7X\;kolSlu>v 6p.cJ>at<r|pd (see note). BGU IV. 
IIlS 16 (B.C. 22) and II20 15 (B.C. 5) have Trpdcrou 7XuKe'ios. 
Ib. II. 424 1 (ii/iii A.I'.) dXXd irdvToTe ret twv 7ove'iov 
7Xv7vTepd ( = 7XVK.) ecrTiv. The rest of our papyrus 
citations are in superlative, which is very common as a term 
of affection. Thus P Oxy I. Sj' i3 (late ii/A.D.) icXe'os 0-01 
eo-TLv iirep ttjs 7XuKUTaTr|S crov -rraTplSos TeXe\jTf|craL, ib. 
VI. 907 s (a.d. 276) Te'Kva pou YXvKvTaTa. ib. 935 22 (iii/A.D.) 
ctcrTracraL iroXXd tov 7Xvkvtcltov dSeXcpbv 'ApiroKpaTiwva. 
P Giss I. 22 s (early ii/A. i>. ) eiixopai . . . tttv ^XuKuJTdTnv 
crou 6lJ/lv Trpoo-KiTvf|craL, and from the inscriptions OGIS 526* 
tt|v yXvKiPTaTriv Kai o-epvoTaTT|v o-Vjv(3lov pov. Ramsay 




J. tike, p. 374 f. refers to a Lycaonian inscription in which the 
application of the phrase tov -yXvKvTaTOv Kal irdvTiov <j>£Xov 
to a bishop (6 paKapios irairas) points, he thinks, to an 
early Christian period when epithets were not so religious 
and stereotyped as later. lie compares a Christian inscrip- 
tion of Rome (a.d. 23S) in which a father describes his son 
who died at the age of seven as ■yXvKVTepov <p">Tos Kal £or]s, 
" dearer than light and life." rXvKvs survives in MGr, 
partly with change of flexion : see Thumb Handb. p. 70. 
There are also man}- derivatives noted in his glossary. 


Most of the occurrences of this noun, which retains both 
form and meaning in MGr, need no particular comment. 
1' Oxy I. 13S (a.d. 183 or 215) saepe, the monthly meat bill 
of a cook, tells us that "tongue" was a favourite article of 
diet ; so also the numerous passages in inscrr. where in the 
ritual of sacrifice the victim's tongue is mentioned as a 
special perquisite. The word figures prominently in magical 
documents. P Lond 124 31 (iv/v A.D.) (=1. p. 122) pdXXt 
(is avTo •yXaia-o-av pciBpdxou shows Uie frog's tongue playing 
the same part as "tongue of dog" in the witches' spell in 
Macbeth: so also ib. 46" 91 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 74). There 
are many curses which " bind" the tongue of their object : 
thus Syil 808 (Corcyra) SiXavov tov vdov Kal tclv -yXcoo-o-av 
tovtu Ka.TaYpd<pw — Silanus himself and three witnesses who 
enabled him to win a suit are cursed with this leaden tablet 
in mind and tongue. So ib. 809 (Piraeus, iv/iii B.C.) begins 
MiKiwva e-yd> £Xa(3ov Kal KaTe'8r|o-a Tas x € ^P as Kal T °vS 
irdSas Kal ttjv -yXwcro-av Kal ttjv v|/u)^r|V. Kal u tl ueXXue 
(/. acXXei — a confusion with aor. opt. ) v-rrep 3>iXu>vos p^H-a 
p.o\8upbv ^^'v-yeo-Bai, T| yXuxro-a. avTov p-dXvpSos yc'voito. 
Kal k€vt[t)]o-ov a[vT]ov tt|v ■yXaxro-av — the changes on 
these formulae are rung in the rest of the document. 
Deissmann, I.AE, p. 306 ff., refers to thirty of Wiinsch's Attic 
deftxiones where the tongue is " bound" or "cursed." He 
shows that this was supposed to produce dumbness, anil 
interprets Mk 7 s6 as release from what was believed to be a 
daemonic "binding." 

Thumb, Gr. Dial, p. 22, points out that grammarians 
used -yXwo-o-a not only for "language" but also for "local 
peculiarities of speech " : thus Awpls -yap Si.dX«KTos pia v<|>' 
tjv eicri *yXw<ro-ai -iroXXat, "sub-dialects." This leaves us 
free, if we choose, to reduce very considerably the abnorm- 
ality of the "tongues," which need not always have been 
foreign languages as in Ac 2 4 (cf. 01f ). We find it applied 
to a real foreign language in V Giss I. 99 s (B.C. So-79) tipvoi 
\ikv ai[8ovTai] 7X10TT7] |«viktj : the tt goes with Taiv o-HjXaiv 
ami other recherchi archaisms to show that the piece is not 
tainted with vernacular ! 

The tongue of slander appears in I" Lond I22 31 (iv/.v. n. ) 
( = I. p. 117) Sido-uo-dv p.ov irdvSoTe ds tov aiwva dirb 
<j>apuaKu)v Kal SoXiW Kal pacrKoo-vvrjv irao-T^s Kal ■vXwttwv 
Trovt|pwv — Milton's " evil tongues." 


This out-of-the-way-looking word proves to be decidedly 
vernacular, and quite in place in Jn 12 6 , 13 28 , where it is 
"money-box" (cf. RV marg.) : its original meaning, as 
" receptacle " (kov.(£u) for the " tongues " or mouthpieces of 
flutes, had been long forgotten, and influenced it only by 

stamping on it generally the sense of small size and 
portability. Phrynichus, who mentions YXciTTas avXcov 
(Rutherford NP, p. 30S), defines the word thus (ib. p. 181) 
■yXu>TTOKop.€iov ' €irl p-dvov tov Ttov avXiyriKuiv -yXtoTTuiv 
d-y-yetov. vcrrepov 8£ Kal els eWpav ^pfjo-tv KaT6o-Kevd^€To, 
pipXiwv y\ L;j.aTLu)v f| otovovv dXXov ' KaXoOcri. 8'avTo 01 
dpaOas -yXuio-o-oKOM-ov. This shorter form was perhaps 
really shortened from the Attic compound : we think of 
words like d-yd/n-T] from dYdiTT)o-is, o-uvdvTT) from crvvdv- 
tt|o-ls, and oLkoSoutj from OLKo8dp.iip.a. In any case it 
spread while the dialects were still in full vigour, as is 
proved by its occurring twice in the long Doric inscr. 
from Thera, Epicteta's Will, Michel iooi viii ■*■ 31 (c. B.C. 
200) : to <yXu)o-o-dKop-ov Kal ii lv avTuit, pvpXia are to be 
in charge of a -ypap.p.aToipvXa£. From the papyri may 
be cited P Ryl II. 127" (a.d. 29) as (sc. 120 drachmae) 
ctX ov * v ", "in a casket" (Edd.). P Grenf 
I. 14 3 (b.c. 150 or 139) 7Xuo-o-dKop.a 7. These articles, 
together with two Kiorai and a piKos pnTivus, etc., 
were deposited in a temple. Two Gifjsis (LXX Exod 
2 3 . "'• 6 ) appear in the list. Grenfell cites Hesychius 0q3rp 
-irXeKTov tl kiPcutoclScs tos •yXwo-o-oKop.eiov. So P Tebt II. 
414 21 (ii/A.D. ) to •yXwo-dKop.ov to p-t'ya, "the big case" 
(Edd.), P Flor II. 167 15 (iii/A.n.) ■yXuo-o-oKop.wv in a 
rather broken context dealing with irrigation, " (forse le 
incassature degli assi da far girare (Tpoirds) le macchine ?) " 
(lid.), P Lond 122 s3 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. IlS) ttoitjo-ov . . . 
€K tov vcotov •yXcoo-oKop.ov Kal €-rri-ypa<pe to (bvopa) tov 
'Eppov tls \dpTt]v Kal kiriQi els to ■yXioo-oKop.ov. P Leid 
\yxxiii. so (H/iii a.]'.) pdXf avTO (sc. a metal plate inscribed 
with ineffable words) eis KXocroKopov KaGapov, P Oxy III. 
521 ' 2 (ii/A.D. ) where the word has no context to show its 
meaning. AddalsoBGU III. 824 s (A.D. 55-6) ■yXoo-o-OKOiuov 
CTriSe'SioKa 2totot|tci., and P Lond 191 14 (a.d. 103-17) 
(= II. p. 265) ■yXtuo-o-OKOuiov, where the Attic form revives : 
in neither of them is the nature of the vessel defined. Our 
instances have illustrated the descriptions of vernacular use 
in Phrynichus, and have disposed of " bag" as a rendering. 


P Par 59 10 (b.c. 160) tiu -yvaif>ei, P Oxy IV. 736" (.-.A.D. 1) 
to 'n-fp(8Li.]-n".'o(v) 'A8ii( ) -yva(|>eu(s), " the funeral feast of 
Athe . . . the fuller" (Edd.), ib. III. 527 s (ii/iii a.d.) irepl 
Sepi|vov tov -yvacjjfios, a/. Lor the verb (MGr -yvacfuu 1 cf. 
P Oxy X. 1346 (? ii/A.D.) €V ttj(?)] irdXei ■ye'-yvaTrTa;. Kal 
KaKus e-yvd<|"i. I In the fullers' tax, see Wileken Oslr. i. 
p. 226 f. 


The primary sense, "born in wedlock," is overshadowed 
by derived applications, but it survives in occasional 
formulae : thus even P Flor III. 294 12 (iv/A.D.) (see p. ix. ) 
has Kal -yvT|0-£ujv TtKvtov o-7ro[pij in a marriage contract. In 
the earliest dated Greek papyrus, P Eleph I 3 (B.C. 311-10) 
( = Selections, p. 2), a marriage contract begins Xap.pdvei 
'HpaKXctSns ATjp.r|TpLav Kwiav yvvatKa -yvrio-iav, "as his 
lawful wedded wife" : cf. PSI I. 64 4 (? i/B.C.) where a woman 
promises a man to live with him as long as he lives, ii]s 
7VT)o-[Ca] -yap.eTT|, and P Oxy X. 1267 15 (a.d. 209) tov 
ZloCXov yvrjo-tov vVov 'npt^wva, " Zoilus' legitimate son 
Morion." In P Amh II. S6 15 (a.d. 78) we have x w p' i s 




-yvT|o-uov St](ioo-i'u)v, "apart from the legal public charges" : 
cf. P. Oxy VII. 1031 2 ' (A.l). 22S) -yvr|[o-]u>is TeXeVuao-i., 
P Lond 1157* (?a.d. 197-S) (= III. p. 62) itrri 8« apiO(iT|- 
<rea>s <I>a<icju els 'A8vp -yvr|0-(twv), P Strass I. 2 13 (a. I). 217) 
cktos twv ctitikwv -yvr|a-iwv. From this it is an easy transi- 
tion to the sense of "suitable," " fitting," as in P Giss 1. 47* 
(Hadrian) eirl tmi KaTa tcLs [ejvxds Yvnoua Kal Xeiav a£ia 
eiipf|o-0ai and 3o Trapa£w[v]cov "yap irpbs to Trapbv Yvfjcriov 
ovx eiipsfln. Close to this lies its use for "genuine" as an 
epithet of cfuXos or the like, as in Phil 4* : so BGU I. S6'» 
(a. ii. 155) tov ■yvfjo-i.ov aiiToii cbiXov. Thus it becomes an 
epithet of affectionate appreciation : so P Oxy I. 48" 
(A.I). S6) toO [xcrnXXaxoTos auT7Js "yv^o-iou dSeX{j>ou. Cf. 
I Tim. I 2 Ti|io8e'u) -yvrjo-iw tckviu ev Trio-ret : in 2 Tim I- 
aYaTrTjTui is substituted for -yvT|o-ia>. Cf. the use of the 
adverb, as in Phil 2 20 , = " honestly, sincerely" : so P Lend 
130' (i/ii A.D.) (=1. p. 133) y]vr|o-Lws Te TrepJYJ ii oupdvua 
<}>tXoTfovT|o-avTcs, P Tebt II. 326 11 (c. A.D. 266) Trpo[o-T]fj- 
o-ea-0ai "yvno-La>s tou Trai8iov, " will honourably protect the 
child" (Edd.), BGU I. 24s 21 (ii/A.D.) to. epya Tiiv dp.Tre'Xa)v 
iSicuv "yvrjO-Lws YeWo-Gun. Add from the inscriptions Syll 
722 41 (ii/ii.c.) cpavepd fji d eiivota tois "yvrja-iws Kal ev8dt;ws 
twv KaXXCo-Twv €irLTa6oup.dTujv Trpoeo-TaKoo-i, Michel 544 28 
(B.C. 1 14) YVT]o-Ltos o-tolx^v ev irdcriv ttj eauTov Ka[XoK]d-ya- 
fliai, and fur the adj. OGIS 339' (Sestos, c. B.C. 120) irpb 
TrXei'o-Tou 9fp.€vos to irpos ttjv TraTpiSa yvt|o-Lov Kal eKTeve's, 
which is a good illustration of 2 Cor S 8 . Note also Michel 
394 48 (middle i/u.c.) ■yjvrjo-fijav exovTi irpos irdvTas 
<fuXoo-Top-yuiv, and Syll 365 la (a.m. 37) oix <"S els (piXnv 
(idvov dXXd Kal us «is -yvr|0-iav TraTpCSa. It seems from the 
record that Lightfoot rather overdoes the consciousness of 
the word's ultimate origin when he paraphrases (on Phil 2 20 ) 
•' i. e. as a birth-right, as an instinct derived from his spiritual 
parentage." It is by no means clear that yvtjo-ios was still 
felt to be normally the antithesis of vd8os, and most of its 
usages are wide of this. 


Vetlius Valens, p. 145 16 , do-Tao-ta dve'|xwv -yivcTai. Kal 
-yvd<j>os. The use of 6 "yvb<f>os for the earlier and poetic 6 
Svb4>os begins with Aristotle. 


P Lond 17 4 ' (B.C. 162) (=1. p. II) H«Td Tfjs T<iv d&i- 
o-ue'vtdv -yvtop.T|s- P Oxy X. 12S0 5 (iv/A.D.) eKoucr.'a Kal 
av8arpeT<u ■yviop.ri , " of my own free will." The phrase Kara 
■yvu>pr|V is common in opening greetings, e. g. P Petr II. 
Ii(l) 1 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 7) KaXus Troieis el e'ppuo-ai 
Kal Ttt Xoiird o"ol KaTa yvwanv eo-Tiv, " I am glad if vou are 
in good health, and everything else is to your mind " : cf. 
it. III. 53(o) 5 , (i/) 3 . The phrase occurs in Wisd 7 13 — eiiretv 
KaTa yvw(it]v. With Philem 14 x u P LS ^e TT is a"fjs ■yvwp.ris, 
"without your consent," cf. P Grenf II. I4(ir) 20 (iii/i!.c.) 
dvev Tfjs o-fjs 7vu»|ir|S, and for similar phrases see P Tebt I. 
6 37 (B.C. 140-39), id. 104 28 (B.C. 92), P Par 62 iii3 (ii/B.c), 
BGU I\". 1051* (a marriage contract — time of Augustus), 
and |i«Td -yvw|ir|S in P Oxy IV. 720* 3 (A.D. 137). It = " con- 
sent " in P Flor I. 58 s (iii/A.D.), where a complainant de- 
clares he has been ousted from a holding SCxa Trairbs 

vd|iov Kal 8t[xa ] e£ovo-ias Kal Sixa Y V ""H LT |5 «i*.tjb 

Kal o-uvKaTa6e'o-«[a>]s. BGU IV. 1 1 37 1 * (B.C. 6) f8o|t koivtj 

Yviup.r| = " carried unanimously." P Gen I. 54 4 (iv/A.D. 
oiSas ttjv yvwp-rp H-ou on Yv^u>]p.T| oiroia jo-tCv : for Stc 
oiroia Nicole compares BGU II. 601 10 (ii/A.D.) 7pdi|<ov 
jioi . . . oTt tl firpa|as. For -yviiari = "purpose, decree" 
(as in 1 and 2 Esdras, Daniel, Rev 17"), see P Oxy I. 54 12 
(A.D. 201) yvm|at| tov koivov twv dpxdvTwv, "in accordance 
with the decision of the council of the archons (Edd.), 
P Fay 20 1 (an imperial edict — iii/iv A.D.) «v . . . ttjv 
7Vw(it)v viv €(if]v iyui iToiovaai, "whose policy I now make 
my own " (Edd.), and Prune 105 31 (B.C. 9) KSo£(v toIs ml 
Tfjs 'Ao-ias "EXX-n[o-i]v, yvui[(jir|] tov dpxiepeus 'AiroX- 
[X]uv[f]ou ktX. In MGr Yvwp.T] = "meaning," "opinion." 


P Oxy VII. I024 18 (a.d. 129) Sv Kal Yvwpieis LSiu> kivSuvu. 
"whom you are to recognize at your own risk" (Ed.). P 
Hib I. 28 6 (c. B.C. 265) I'va] . . . K[al] Yva)p£5r|Tai ii-irb twv 
4>paTopwv " (that he may) ... be recognized by the mem- 
bers of the phratries" (Edd.). On P Oxy III. 496 16 
(A.D. 127), where the noun •yvuo-TTJp occurs, the editors 
quote BGU II. 581 14 (a. I). 133), where L. Octavius Longus 
yvup^ei. a person. "The -yvwo-TT|p of a person was a witness 
of his or her identity." So P Oxy VI. 976 (a.d. 197) 
TJavXeivos . . -yvwp£!>. The verb is found joined with 
Savud^u in a letter from the Emperor Claudius to a Gym- 
nastic Club in a.d. 47, embodied in P Lond 117S 27 (a.d. 
194) (=111. p. 216) tt|V irpos taauTov (iiv exivoiav irtpl 
Bl vaas <|>LXav8pwirLav eyvtupLO-a aaXXov ^ e8au|jLacra, 
and in another London papyrus it has definitely the 
meaning "make known," as in all its NT occurrences 
(even Phil I 28 ), P Lond 232 s (Y. a.d. 346' (= II. p. 296) 
yvcopi^w ttj eu-yevi'a o-ou to irpaYfia, P Tor I. pi- 11 (B.C. 116) 
(= Chrest. II. p. 36) <f>av£pas Tfjs Kp£o-«ws Yvwpio-8eio-r|s 
eKao-Tois. The derived noun occurs in P Tebt II. 2SS 13 
(A.D. 226) p.r|Se(iads irpo^ao-tws ijislv inroX€e7TO|j.«vr|s sirl 
Tfjs dirai.Tf|o-(u)s iviKtv -yvwpi.o-|j.oO, "no pretext with regard 
to the collection being left to you touching the identification 
(of the crops)" (Edd.). For the mystical use of the verb 
see Poimandres io 15 ov yup dyvod tov avSpuiirov b 6eds, 
dXXd Kal irdvu ■yvwpi^ei. Kal 8iXei Yi/wpi^ecrBai (Reitzenstein, 
p. 58 n 4 ). 

For the related adjective see P Fay 12 21 (<-. B.C. 103) 
iirb twv -yvuptixuv, "by friends," and P Tebt II. 2S6 6 
(A.D. I2I—38) "SnXwTe'pav . . . 6ttI tiu d[p£o-Tuj] ep.ol 
•yvwpCar|v, " Philotera whose good character is well known 
to me" (Edd.), Syll 367'° (i/A.D.), 373 21 (i/A.D.). 


An interesting example of this word in its more general 
sense is afforded by P Lond 130 15 (i/ii a.d.) (=■ I. p. 133), 
where a horoscope is prefaced by a letter in which the writer 
urges his pupil to be attentive to the laws of the art which 
the ancient Egyptians had discovered and handed down — 
d-TrtXeen-ov ttjv irepl aijTwv -yvwo-LV. P Hib I. 92 13 (B.C. 263) 
e'ws -yvioo-tws wept Tfjs Si'ktjs is translated by the editors 
"until the decision of the suit." So in P Hal I. I 23 (iii/B.C.) 
UJTav fj -yvwo-is dva-yvwcrBfjt Trapd 8iKacrTwv r) &ia[i]TT|T(tfv 
tj KpiTiov, and several times in the correspondence of Abin- 
naeus (iv/A.D.), as P Lond 234 18 (c. B.C. 346) (= II. p. 287) 
dvevcx® fj°~ eTaL els yvwo-iv tov avTov KupCou (xou [8o]vkos. 
In P Oxy X. I253 20 (iv/A.D.), an official report of certain 



yOjX OS- 

military requisitions made at Oxyrhynchus by some officers, 
they render ttjs yvwo-tujs twv v<\> ckcio-tou -jrapao-^eOevTtov, 
"the account of what was provided by each" (Edd.). In a 
Christian letter of iv/A.D., P Oxy VI. 939 1 , the word has 
the additional connotation of "solicitous" knowledge, when 
a dependent writes to his master ws cv &X]Xois irXao-Tois 
vvv £ti pdXXov T) irpbs cr* [tov 8€0"rrd]Tov 6eoii -yvwo-is 
dv6<pdvT) diracrtv T,piv, "as on many other occasions so now 
even more plainly than ever has the regard of the Lord God 
for you been revealed to us all " (lidd. ). 

Dibelius (HZNT ad /.) finds a technical meaning derived 
from Greek mysticism in the use of •yvwo-is in Phil 3 8 Sid 
to iirept'xov ttjs yviio-eios Xpio-roO Ttio-ov tov Kvpiov pov, 
and quotes the Hermetic prayer from Pap. Mimaut (cited 
by Reitzenstein Helletii.t. Mysterienreligionen p. 113 ft'.), 
xdpi-v o"ol oVSapev, v\|/io-Te' err] -yap \dpiTt touto to <pa>s 
ttjs "yvwo-€ws tXdpopev . . . \aipop-tv ^ Tt * v o"wpao-iv Tjp.ds 
ovras d-TreOe'tdo-as ttj a-eavTov 9t'a. I >eissmann, on the other 
hand, thinks that there is here no reference to speculative 
knowledge of Christ, but to personal and pneumatic acquaint- 
ance with Christ, and illustrates this meaning of the word 
from a l/a.D. decree of the Byzantine-, Latyschev I. 47° r , 
which boasts of a citizen of Olbia that pe'xP 1 Tas t<ov 
Scpao-Taiv yvwo-tws irpoKo[x|/]avTos, " he had advanced to 
personal acquaintance with the Augusti (Augustus and 
Tiberius)": see LAE, p. 3S3 n. 8 . It may be added that 
Dieterich's conclusion, based on the use of •yviicris in the 
magic papyri, that "the 'Knowledge,' wdrich also plays so 
large a part in Christian teaching, is specially due to Greek 
influence " (Abraxas, p. ] 34) is rejected by Norden Agnostos 
Theos, p. 96 n. 1 . 


With the use of this word in Ac 26 s we may compare 
Deissmann's restoration in a papyrus letter preserved at 
Berlin, in which an Egyptian official calls for a procession to 
to be arranged for the gods — ttrel ■yv[w]o-T[T|s t-y ev °l iT l v tov] 
tvavyeX[io]v trspl tov avTivopevcrOai. Kaicrapa ( = Preisigke 
421), "forasmuch as I have become aware of the tidings of 
joy concerning the proclaiming as Emperor" of C. Julius 
Verus Maximus : see LAE, p. 371. For -yviio-rrrs = " a 
surety" (Lat. cognitor), as in Plutarch, we may cite P Lips 
I. 106 10 (a.i>. 9S) edv ovv o ;ye •yvwernis o-vv tu> peTox" 
do-<paXi.£r;Tat °" e KT ^' For the collateral noun ■yvojo-TT|p, 
which also answers to cqgnilor, see under -yvu>p{£u, and 
Wilcken's note in Archiv iv. p. 442, where he read.-, ]' Flor 
I. 57 80 (a. 11. 223-5) •yv[uio-]T«v[dpe]vos inro dSeXijioO Ilavi 
ckov, and compares ■yvwo-TTjpts in BGU IV. I032 llrl - The 
document i^ reprinted in P Elor III. 3S2. The verb 
■yvwo-Teiiu) occurs l. 85 of the same document, and in P Hawara 
69 recto 1 (i/ii A.D. ) (in Archiv v. p. 3S3). The subst. 
•yvuio-Ttta in P Fay 65' (ii/A.D.) apparently = "authorisation," 
" supervision." 


The late P Amh II. 145 s (iv/v A. D.) to ■yvioo-Tov ttjs -rrpos 
dX[Xf)\o]vs o-vvT)8e(as, "the knowledge of our intimacy," 
may be taken as confirming, so far as it goes, the ordinary 
LXX and NT usage of yv. — "known" rather than "know- 
able " — in Rom I 19 . For the rare use of the word as applied 
to persons (I.k 2", 23", In jS ,6f -) Abbott ^Poififdld Gospel, 

p. 362 ff. ) prefers the strong rendering "familiar friend" ; 
but see contra]. B. Mayor Exp. VIII. vii. p. 79 ff. W. M. 
Ramsay (Athenaeum, Sept. 7, 1912) cites a (iv/A.D.) in- 
scription, EvSaiptuv IVwo-tov vlbs T€Kpopevo-as p€Ta twv 
i&uuv 6p€TTTta»v Mt]vl 'Ao-kcitivw €vxt)v, where Gnostos " the 
known" might be a reminiscence of 1 Cor S 2 . 


This familiar LXX and NT word is fairly attested = 
''murmur" in the vernacular, as in P Petr II. 9(3)' (B.C. 
241-39) to TrXr|pu)p.a yoyyy\t\. <f>dpevoi dSiKctcrOai, " the gang 
(of workmen) are murmuring, saying that they are being 
wronged." In the curious papyrus P Oxy I.33"' 14 (late 
ii/A.D.), describing an interview between the Emperor 
(? Marcus Aurelius) and a rebel, a veteran present inter- 
poses with the remark, Kvpit, KdOrj, 'Pwpaloi. ■yovyrj£o[uo-]i, 
"Lord, while you are sitting in judgement, the Romans are 
murmuring." The verb is MGr. Thumb, Hellen. p. 215, 
discusses this and other alleged Ionic loans to the later 
A'tic and the Koivr) : see under ■yo-Yyuo-pos. 


Phryniclnts (see Rutherford A'P, p. 463) says that this 
noun, like its verb, was not dSduipov but Ionic : it is quoted 
from Anaxandrides, a poet of the New Comedy. 


In P Ilib I. 52 18 (<. B.C. 245) we find 'fipos IIvaTos 
Upevs votitos, on which the editors remark that if -ydriTos is 
a genitive, then "we must suppose the existence of a deity 
called ' the Wizard ' ; if a nominative (of an unknown form), 
it is a very curious epithet to apply to a priest." A subst. 
■yor|Ttta is found in Veltius Yalens, p. 23S 26 . 


It may lie noted that the words Sodoma, Gomorra were 
found scratched on the wall of a house in Pompeii. They 
can only be the work of a Jew, or a Christian, and show 
how fully alive he was to the nature of hi- surroundings. 
See Nestle ZNTW v. p. 167 f. 


is common of the cargo or freight of a ship as in Ac 2I 3 , 
e.g. P Oxv I. 6j & (ii/iiiA.D.) Trpovorjo-ov o-vv irdo-Tj o-rrouSrj 
tvpaXt'o-Bai o-vtov tov -ydpov, " please to see that his freight 
is embarked with all despatch" (Edd), ib. IV. 708 s - 1S (a.d. 
iSS) tov] KO/raxBevTos 'ydp.ou, " the cargo despatched." It 
may also be a term of quantity, a " load," as in Ostr 12-S 
(A.D. SS) direxio irapd crov *ydpos 1 w .-ov) dxvpou d, ib. ioio 1 ' 
(Roman) tt)v av0€VTLKT^v diroxriv dxvp[ov] -ybpov evds. lb. 
1015 4 (ii/iit A.D.) shows the plural : cf. P Fay 102 (<. A.D. 
105), a series of farm accounts, in which we read of ydpoi 
and 8pd"Yp'aTa) of wheat and barley. Another kind of 
merchandise figures in P Flor III. 369 18 (A.D. 139 or 149) 
K(al) 8iio-o Kar' Jtos ijvXuv Ka8dpo-euv ydpov £va. An inset 
from Lower Egypt, beyond Philae, dated A.D. 214-5, OGIS 
209 :i , gives the title Upevs 'ydpov to a certain Apollonius 
S 1. Hittenberger's note cites about forty inscrr. for this 
title, and others where a Trpoo-TdTT|S tov -ydpov accompanies 
this priest. He observes that, since ■yip-os always means a 




ship's load, these inscriptions must refer to the naves oncra- 
riae: ol dirb tov yopov is in several inscrr. a term for the 
while of this service. In these the special ref. is to the boats 
carrying stone from the quarries. 

The verb yopdw is mentioned above under yep.i£w : for 
si. me instances see P Flor II. 129 5 (A.D. 256) 8irws -yopiio-Ti 
to £<)Xa, P Oxy VI. 03S 6 (iii/iv A.V.), and P. Giss I. 54 11 
(iv/v A.D.) irXoia TrapfjXSav ( .'.-ev) yopiipeva. 

yore v;. 

The following examples from the Oxyrh) nchus papyri 
may serve to illustrate this common word — I. 75" (A.D. 129) 
AtuiyeviSav . . . TeTeXturriKsvai. aTexvov treptovTiov tot 
yovc'wv, '" that D. has died childless in her parents' lifetime,'' 

III. .i;S" (A.D. I32) t| dp<b[oT]e'pU)V yovc'wv, VIII. II2I 11 
(A.D. 295) ovk €Travo-dpr|v rd TrptTroVTa y€LV€0-8ai virb 
TiKvtov yovcvcri dvairXr|povo-a. " I was assiduous in perform- 
ing what is owing from children to parents" (Ed.). From 
a much earlier period P Eleph 23 12 (B.C. 223-2) will serve 
as a sample, 8tovs]'A8eX<bovs Kai 8eoi>s Zwrijpas Tois 
toCtwv yovtis. The word in the Koivfj is plural only, as 
predominantly in class. Grk. So wilh the MGr yovioi 
"parents," but there is a ■yovios " father," which was perhaps 
derived from the plural. 


is very common in the descriptions attached to persens in 
official documents, as when in a census return of A.D. 4S, 
P 1 Ixy II. 255 10 (= Selections, p. 46), a certain Thermouth- 
arion is described as pear) peXixipus) paKpoTrfpoa-oiros) 
ovX(t|) -ydva(Ti) Se[|i]q)[i, "of medium height, olive-com- 
ned, long-faced, a scar on the right knee." Cf. 
P (Ixy I. 99 5 (A.D. 55), P Fay 36" (A.D. 111-2), ib. 9S 6 
(A.D. 123). For the diminutive see P Oxy I. 52 17 (A.D. 325) 
SegLOu yovaTtou — there is of course no more diminutive force 
attaching than in wTapiov (NT), MGr iroSdptv, etc. From 
inscrr. may be noted the phrase pt'xP 1 •yovd'rwv for snow 
"knee-deep," OG/S 199 9 , a monument transcribed in Nubia 
by the traveller Cosmas (vi/.\.D.). 


In view of Jn 7 15 it must be remarked that there are 
hundreds of papyri where someone states that he writes 
on behalf of the person concerned, who is illiterate : this is 
oil ypdppaTa p-r] eiSdros (ti8\jtT|s). but also frequently 
dypappaTov ovtos ' oilo-ris). For examples see s.z: dypdppa- 
tos. and add the inscription of the Imperial period Sj'ii S44 6 
KcXevovo-av inrep alvTav] ypdvpai, eirei e'Xeyev avTa ypdppaTa 
pf| eiSe'vai. See Dittenberger's note : he can only quote one 
parallel from inscrr. With this goes such a phrase as P Tebt 
II. 316 16 (A.D. 99) TCXV 1 ) 8e vpiiv (/. Tip..) ypdppaTa, " we are 
scribes by profession" (Edd.), and that of P Flor III. 3S2 T9 
(A.D. 222-3) pav8(dvu>v) ypdpp(aTa), of a child. The exceed- 
ing commonness of this phraseology, which never means 
anything than inability to write, forces us to recognize it in 
Jn 7 15 and Ac 4 13 . With the biting scorn of the superior 
person, these learned fools affect to regard Jesus and His 
disciples as " illiterates." 

Under the same heading, with ypdppaTa = characters 
formed in writing, comes P Hib I. 2c, 9 [c. B.C 265), where a 
notice is to be put on a board p[e]ydXois ypdppao-iy. This 

may illustrate emphasis as the cause of the TrtiXiKoes ypdppao-iv 
of Gal 6 11 . It is possible, however, that the words may 
only call attention to the big sprawling letters of the auto- 
graph in contrast to the neat scribe's hand of the amanuensis. 
The contrast may be met in the case of many signatures to 
legal and other documents, e.g. Rainer Tap. 215 in Fiihrer 
durch die Ausstellung Tafel 9: see Milligan Documents, 
p. 24, for a discussion of the bearing of this on Gal .' 
Deissmann St Pan!, p. 51. But it is highly precarious to 
to draw the inference to which Deissmann inclines: artisans 
are not the only people who may write a big and clumsy 
hand ! 

When ypdppa becomes collective, its primary meaning 
is' "a letter," just as Lat. littera produced litterac. Thus 
P Grenf I. 30 5 (B.C. 103))= Witkowski - p. 107 8id ypappd- 
tuv txpivapcv o-r]pf|vai, and P Ainh II. 143'" (i\ ,'a.d.) kcl 
tovtw (/. tovtojv) x°-P LV dirt'cr-nXa Sadv Trpbs ere ottujs prj 
eveTpevBrj ii ypdppaTa, " I therefore send Saas to you, in 
order that my letter may not be waylaid" (Edd.). But it 
may be a paper or document of any kind. Thus it is a 
"bond" in Lk 16 6 , with which cf. P Tebt II. 397 17 
(A.D. 198) aTrb p-riSevbs upptjpevr) SiKa.'ou r) ypdppaTos i) 
er.'pou tlvos (rvpPoXaiou eyypuTrToti p-rio' dypdebou, "on the 
I any claim, bond or other agreement, written > r 
unwritten" (Edd.), P Flor II. 141 8 (a.d. 264) Xap(3c.vujv 
trap' avToO ypdppaTa tt)s TrapaXTJpv|/etJS , J-' 6 (mid. 

iii/A.D.) KaXws TroLT|o-ts Tre'pipas pou atTuv ypdppaTa. 

With Upd ypdppaTa as the name for the OT Scriptures 
in Greek-speaking Judaism, cf. OG/S 56 36 (B.C. 239) tt)i 
rjpe'paL ev rp eTriTe'XXei to ao-Tpov to Tfjs "Io-los, f| vopi£eTai 
8id twv Upwv ypappaTwv ve'ov eVos etvai. Deissmann 
{LAE, p. 3S0) has drawn attention to the technical use ol 
the phrase in the East for Imperial letters and decrees, e. g. 
113 (A.D. 204), which is headed iepd ypdppaTa, and 
ib. 41N 90 (a.d. 23S), where certain Imperial ordinances are 
described as Ta 8eid crou -ypdppaTa. The combination is 
used in a different sense in OG/S 56 7J tepois ypdppao-iv *al 
Ai-yuTrricHS, H here " hieroglyphs " are intended, as in ii. 90 54 
(b.i . [96— the Rosetta Stone). This is comparable rather 
with 1' Lond 43 s (ii/B.C. ) (= I. p. 48), where a mother con- 
gratulates her son on having learned AiYiJirria -ypdppaTc, 
so as to be qualified to teach Egyptian children. Reference 
may I e added here to the part which the letters of the 
alphabet played in divination, as in the magical formula 
P Oxy VI. 'SS6 G (i.i/A.D.) (= Selection.', p. 1:1): 6 Se 
Tpotros eo-Tlv to Trcpfl] Ta ypdppaTa k9 Si' <ov 6 'Eppfjs 
K€ f| 'Itris ^l 1-0 ^ " - €auTf|s tov dSeX(bbv K€ dvSpa "Oo-ip€iv. 
"the method is concerned with the 29 letters, which were 
used by Hermes and by Isis, when she was seeking for her 
brother and husband Osiris." See further Reitzenstein 
Poimandres, pp. 260, 2SS ff. 

There only remains to notice the use of -ypdppa as = a 
" district " or "quarter " of a town, as when in V Rein 4J 2 
(a.D. 215-6) certain liturgies are assigned irp[6s] ttJ kot' 
oUiav aTroypaibTJ [ T ov P]t]Ta ypdppaTos of Antinoe. Cf. 
Aristophanes Ecclesiazusae 6S5 €t8ws 6 Xax<l»v dirLT) xai'pwv 
ev oiroCu) ypdppaTL Senrvei— the cour.s are distinguished by 
letters A-K. 


In the LXX -ypappaTets first occur in connexion with the 
F'gyptian epyoSuiKTai, and are rendered "officers" (Ex 5 6 , 




AV, RV) : cf. Deut 20 5 , where the word again denotes 
subordinate military officials, presumably those who kept the 
register of the army (Driver ad I.). Deissmann (BS, p. 1 10 ff.) 
has shown how readily this technical usnge of the word 
would be adopted by the Alexandrian translators in view 
of the practice of Egyptian Greek. Thus in P Par 63 115 
(B.C. 165) we hear of a certain Kumelus tov ■ypau.p.aTt'ws 
twv |iax'uwv, "the registrar of the p.dxip-01 " (Mahaffy, 
P Petl III. p. 31). and in P Lond 23» s (B.C. 158-7) 
(—1. 11. 41) of a -ypap-uaTta twv 8[v]vap.e'wv. See also 
Archiv iv. p. 33 f. for the office of Ypap.M-aT€vs twv KaToiKwv 
iirire'wv. The word is very common to denote the official 
who had to supply returns to the central authority on the 
number of inhabitants in a village, on their holdings in land, 
etc. In Sv'l 79° al (i/B.C.) tov -ypauaaTta tov Oeoii Kal tov 
ttdo()>t|tt]v we have an example of the word used with refer- 
ence to a religious office ; cf. lines 32, 46, and Magn 197 11 
(time of Caracalla) oi. dpxi-epels Kal -yp[ap. |p.aTtis<n-r\ [o-av 
(see Nageli, p. 35). In 1' I'elr III. 59 (>') we have a census 
fur poll-tax, where in some community numbering 2108 
males there are exempted 92 Upets and 10 UpoYpaauaTtis. 
It is unnecessary to illustrate the large and varied use of 
up. tu denote public officials, and especially town clerks: 
e.g. P I-ond II59 1 (a.d. 145-7) (=111. p. 112) irapd 
ypa|i(iaTtiov IldXcws (**'• Hermopolis) cutov|ji£v<h viro o-ov — 
these officials proceed to furnish a return of well-to-do 
citizens on the "liturgy" list. The importance of the office 
at Kphesus, to which Ac 19 35 points, is now abundantly 
confirmed by the insert.: cf. e.g. OG/S 493 11 (Ephesus— 
ii/A.H.) Aovkios . • • &iro8e[8ei.h/|«vos 7pap.p.aTev[s toO] 
8i)uou, also '-" ;; '. and for a similar use of the verb ib. 4S0 11 
(A.D. 104), 510 11 (A.l>. 13S-61) -ypap-p-aTtvovTos IloirXiov 
OvrfSfov 'AvT(w)veCvov do-idpxov : see further Hicks Greek 
Insert: in the Brit. Museum iii. p. 154, Ramsay .V Paul, 
pp. 2Sr, 305, and art. "Ephesus" in Hastings' D.B. i. 
p. 723. It may be added that the word bad as large a 
range as cur "clerk" or "secretary." Thus P Giss I. 45 1 
(Hadrian's reign) i'v] 8oK[e]t, ir«|ii)/ov €v6d8e t| tov [iwjuo-ypap.- 
uaTt'a f| 7pa|i.uaTc'a [o4]to[S, "the clerk of the village 
council, or his clerk": BGU IV. 1096 3 (i/ii A.D.) eirel 
2apair(wv[a] l<r\av ^pap-p-aTta, 8v irpoTtpov ttx ov > ilr *P 
oi [K]al dXXoTe o-ot <!-Ypa>|/a — an official writes to a sub- 
ordinate to hand over papers to his newly engaged secretary, 
whom he had employed previously, and not to have dealings 
with his successor. A new astrological fragment, in PSI III. 
1 5S 67 (?iii/A.D.), tells us that there are secretaries and 
secretaries, the planets differentiating them— 4av Se 6 tov 
Kpdvov o-vvirpoo-yevnTai tiu tov 'Epp.ov, aviros [u]iv 6 toO 
Kpdvov irpod.7U)v iroitl -ypap-naTcis avo-T-n,povs [Kal] 8iko- 
-ypd<povs f| 8iKoXd-yovs ^tol tovtwv irapaTrX[-ri]o-£ovs[ . t]av 84 
toO 'Epuov avTOS -rrpoaYn toO Kpdvov, y[«]x«X?is 8vcnrpd- 
|ov[s al-rux"S tv tois irpd-yuacri. Another configuration 
(1, «) •ypaup.aTtls p.e-y[d]Xovs iroiel Kal KpiTT|p(wv dpxovTas. 


In P Oxy II. 292 s (a letter of commendation— c. A.D. 25) 
(= Selections, p. 37) T]puTT]a-a 8« Kal 'Ep|i£[tt]v tov d8eX<j>bv 
8id ^paiTToO avTi-yeifTflat] <roi irepl tovtov, 8id Ypairrov is 
clearly "in writing" as distinguished from "by word of 
mouth ; " and that the same meaning is to be given to the 
phrase in P Oxy II. 293 s (A.D. 27) ovrt 8ia Ypairrov ofirt 

8id o-r|u*ov (/. o-T]ue£oii), "neither by letter nor by mess- 
age" (Edd.), is convincingly shown by Wilcken {Archiv iv. 
p. 259 f.) as against Preisigke's contention that the contrast 
there is between ordinary and stenographic writing (Ai'ch, f. 
Stenographic NF. I. p. 305 ff.). See also Aristeas 56 ocra 
8'av t] aypa<|>a . . . ocra St 8id "ypaTTTwv. For the word ci. 
further I' I'etr III. 21 (j,') 38 (time of Euergetes I.) ■ypairrov 
Xd-yov, and P Amh II. 78 1 ' (A.D. 1S4) dcrc))dXiav -y[p]airTT|v, 
" written security." We often find the compound ^■y7P a ' n " ro s 
used as antithesis to &Ypa4>os. In MGr to Ypa<J>To, like to 
■ypappe'vo, makes a phrase for "destiny." • That the word 
included "drawing" is shown by the combination eiKwv 
■ypaiTTTJ, as in OG/S 57 1 4 (Lycia — Roman) e'iKdvi •ypairn' 
emxpvo-w, where Dittenberger gives numerous parallels, 
and refers it to a gilded shell with a painting of the receiver 
upon it. 


P llih I. 7S 18 (b.c. 244-3) -ypdvjio [i.e. -op., for -ov) p.01. 
Kal dirws" [diro]XT|jjn|/€L ttjv "ypa<pi]v irapd Awpiwvos avcu 
eaoO, "write to me and get the document from Dorion 
without me" (Edd.), P Amh II. 43 13 (B.C. 173) t| irpd£is 
. . . KaTa t^|v ■ypac^Tiv, "the right of execution in accord- 
ance with the contract," show this word already begin- 
ning to have a quasi-official sense. It is common = "list," 
"register," as in one view of P Lond 911 1 (a.d. 149) 
(=111. p. 126, Selections, p. 80) dvTt-ypac|>ov •ypacf>Tjs 
dirdpwv : here however see above, s. '•. diropt'a). Other 
examples are P Tebt I. SS 2 (B.C. 115— 4) "vpa(pT|V icpwv 
Kal irp[o(|>]T]TT]u)v Kal T|u.€pwv twv i)irap[x]° VTWV TT*pl T i|V 
Kuifj-m' — the edd. wish to add Kal after Tjpiepwv. Similarly 
ih. II. 29S''' (A. 11. I07-0) -ypaepTii U[p]e'(ov, "a return of 
priests,' 1 P Oxy IX. 1189* (c. A.D. 117) irepl Ypa<j>-f|S twv 
tols ['I]orj8a£ots iiirap^dvTwv, "a list of property which 
belonged to the Jews," P Amh II. 124 1 (iii/A.n.) ■ypa<(>ii 
twv . . . iraXaio-TpocpvXdKwv, "a list of guards of the 
palaestra," and from the inscriptions OG/S 179 21 (B.C. 95) 
Ti]V KaTaK€ip.€Vqv iiiro tov 'Aviktjtov €v twl Upwt Ypa^riv 
tov KaT dvSpa. In the early OG/S S 125 (iv/B.C.) Tais 
•ypdepats €lo-[kou££oict]i. fls tolv eKKXr|o-£av, Dittenberger 
understands ypacprj = "accusatio," according to the meaning 
common in Athenian law. 

rpac)>T| is found with reference to Holy Scripture in 
Aristeas 155, 168. With the NT formulas in Jas 2 8 , 
I Cor 15"-, cf. BGU I. 136 10 (A. 11. 135) KaTd -ypa+ds 
with reference to the laws. A technical use of "ypa^rj in 
scholiasts illustrates the Biblical sense: see T. \V. Allen's 
quotations in CQ ii. p. 216 f., as ovtws tV Ttcrtv 'Hpw8iavds" 
t] hi -ypa<pi^ *'Tov8e ri p.'dv8pa," "so Herodian in some 
places, but the traditional text reads tovSc ktX." In II Gr 
•ypa<)>T| = "writing, a letter." 


For 7pa<j>iKds (as 3 Mace 4 1 ") cf. P Gienf II. 38' (middle 
i/B.c ) Ka]Xap.wv ■ypa<}>iKwv. 


Deissmann (BS, pp. 112 ft". 249 f. ) has shown the wide- 
spread juristic[use in the papyri of the " biblical " •yt'ypairTai 
with reference to the regulative and authoritative character 




of the document referred to, e.g. P Par 13 13 (probably B.C. 
1^7) cav Si p.f) TTOT|(rr) KaBdri -ytYpaTrrai., diroT£veiv atiTOV 
tt|v <(>£'pvT|v irapaxpf|p.a 0^ *' , ' T T1 ripioXLa, in connexion with 
a marriage contract, P Leid O 1 * (B.C. So) edv ii u[tj diroSui 
Ka8[oTt] •yeypairTai., airoTeieraTw ntTeipovSTjS ktX. To the 
examples from the inscriptions we may add Priene IO5 83 
(c. B.C. 9) ws Kal ti> T(i KopveXCan vopun ■yeypairTai, and 12 
(soon after B.C. 300) K<rra to. -ye-ypap.p.€va of a preceding 
decree (cf. 2 Cor 4 13 ) : see Rouffiac, p. 49 f. 

For the authenticating autographic signatures to the 
Pauline letters, as 2 T h j 1? 6 Tfj tp/rj \tip\ riaiXov, 
6 ecTTtv (TTiptiov €v Trdo-Tj €Trt<rToXrp otiTtos ^pa^MO, see Deiss- 
inann LAE, p. 153, Milligan Documents, p. 24 f, and H. 
Erman in Melanges Nicole, p. 130ft". The pert. ■yfypd<f>T|Ka 
occurs in P Hib I. 78 s (B.C. 244-2), BGU IV. 1205 10 (B.C. 
28), both in participle : Yt-ypa^a is exceedingly common. 
MGr shows the traces of both passive aorists (eYpd<j>TT|Ka 
and eYpd(|>r|Ka). Abbott (Songs, p. 290) cites a modern 
proverb 8ri ypd<)>ci 8{v ijeYpd^ti. "what is written cannot 
lie unwritten": cf. Jn 19 22 . 


This new present (Aristotle down), evolved out of the 
perf. t'Yprj'yopQ, is strongly condemned in Lob. Phryti. 
p. 1 1 S f . , cf. Rutherford MP, p. 200 f. It is frequent in the 
NT and is found in some, mainly late, books of the LXX 
{Thackeray G>: i. p. 263). From it was formed the new 
verbal noun ■ypTrvdpTicri.s Dan TH. 5 11 , 14 : cf. also the proper 
name rpr|-ydpios. In MGr we have the adv. ■yXrrvopa 
(■ypTi-yopa) . "quickly." 


The metaphorical use of this word, as in 1 Tim 4', may 
be illustrated from the popular philosophy of the day — 
Epict. i. 26. 3 irpuTov oSv eirl ttjs 8«opias Y v H L, "^t ouo ''- v 
t|p.ds ol 4>iXdo-ocf>oi, ii. iS. 27 oStos €o~riv 6 Tais dXr|8e£ats 
do-KT]TT]s 6 irpbs Tas ToiavTas (jxivTao-ias •yvp.vdr.iov cavTov. 
In PSI I. 93 6 (iii/A.Ii.) iroXXd o-vvEYup.vdcr6r|v irpbs aiiTovs 
is presumably, "I had a good bout with " certain tirerpo- 
iroi. So BGU II. 615 25 (ii/A.D.) o-v[v]-yr)p.vdo-8r|Ti. 4[p]ir£- 
pois, ti 81 rjp-ds irpd|e. For the literal sense cf. Syll 804 8 
(ii/.\.n.) Spdp.10 7up.vd?e(r8au, etc. lb. 523" (iii/B.c ) ottws 8* 
€iriufXws €V tols uadrjpao-iv yup.vd£ujVTai 01 T€ iraiSts Kal 01 
KJj^poL, tov 1ra1.80v6p.ov Kal tov yvuvao-iapxov eTrip.«Xeio-8ai 
-Ta aouo-LKa pav8dv€tv has occurred just before — shows the 
beginnings of its extension. P Flor III. 33S 4 (iii/A.n.) (io-e- 
pis to irpa7pa irdiets, edv ttoit|o-t|s to pipXSuov fKeivo lis 
e-yvpvao-a avTo a~vv 0-01 kv tt] ttoXh — the ''practising" of 
this petition by the two anxious d8cX<(>o£ is suggestive. The 
verb is unchanged in MGr, and still = "practise." 


Syll 6S6 19 (Trajan's reign, or early in Hadrian's) Tas tc 
■yvpvao-ias tv b\|/€i t«v «XXt|vo8i.ku>v KaTa to TraTpiov ruv 
ayuvuiv ^8os d-Trt'8u>K€v tmaeXuis. There seems no very 
special reason why this normal meaning should not be 
recognised in 1 Tim 4 s : the exercises of the games, which 
are of service, but only to a limited degree, are contrasted in 
Pauline style with the spiritual training which "has promise 
of life, here and hereafter." 
Part II. 


The familiar sense of •yvp.vds — " with only the \itwv " 
comes out well in P Magd 6 7 (iii/BiO.) o>s TJp.r|V y u H- V0S ^tt' 
ai[Tuv : the complainant had been stripped of his Ipdnov. 
On the other hand, the literal sense of " naked " is required 
in P Fay 12 20 (c. B.C. 103). Here the complainant reports 
a similar robbery of a luaTiov, which he ultimately got back 
from the pawnbroker for 2700 drachmae of copper (= 45 
silver dr., say 33 s.). The thieves went off with it tjft'vTes 
■yvuvdv. lie meanwhile got away uct' *v8vp.aTos supplied 
by his friends (virb tuv "yviopipuv) , which at least implies 
that he could not have done without the c'vSvua. (Note the 
substitution of this more general word, that used of the 
Wedding Garment in the parable (Mt 22 uf ), where also 
it is a ludnov.) It may be noted that both our citations 
illustrate Luke's form of the Logion (6-*), in which the 
assailant snatches the outer garment ; the climax in Mt 5 40 
gets a little emphasis from the high price which our papyrus 
shows a ludriov could fetch. But we are not deterred by 
Harnack from pleading out of these documents for the 
originality of Luke, whose version obviously describes a com- 
mon form of robbery. The Matthaean form may possibly 
be assimilated to the OT language about taking a man's 
garment as a pledge. Another instance where y. may well 
have its literal force is afforded by the well-known letter of 
the prodigal son to his mother, BGU III. 846 s (ii/A.D.) 
(= Selections, p. 94) atypaxj/d 0-01 &ti yvuvos €tasi, "I 
wrote you that I hadn't any clothes." Cf. for the verb 
P Oxy VI. 903 7 (iv/A.D. ), where a woman accuses her 
husband of applying fire to her daughters — "y xl H LV, *' <ras 
ai[Ta]s iravTtXws, "having stripped them quite naked"; 
and for the compound, P Magd 24' (B.C. 217) m<m Kal 
dTro"»8fjvaC p-ou to o-tt^Sos, as the result of a certain 
woman's €Trio-Trao-ap*'vr| ttjs d[vaPoXfjs toO tpaTCou] accord- 
ing to Wilcken's restoration (Archil) vi. p. 274). The verb 
is used metaphorically in a difficult papyrus letter printed 
from Melanges C hat t lain in Preisigke 4317 (<. A. v. 200): 
1. 26 (best taken as beginning a sentence) has "Y€"yvp,vwp,ai 
Kal itppio-pai (-pai repeated) irapd TrdvTwv rat otjvttoXitwv. 
The adj. is MGr, and has the corresponding verb y^avuvu). 


For this NT air. etp. (Vg. muliercitlas) Sir VV. M. Ramsay 
(in a letter of Dec. 12, 1910) suggests the analogy of Cicero's 
barbaluli jtivenes (ad. Alt. i. 14. 5, and 16. 10), young swells 
with neatly and fashionably trimmed beards. The yvvai.- 
Kapia of 2 Tim 3* would then be society ladies, borne by 
caprices in various directions and full of idle curiosity. The 
word is found in Epictetus iv. 1. S6 t<1v KaXiiv ywaiKapkov, 
cf. ii. 18. 18, etc. Grimm quotes Diodes, a comedian of 


An apt parallel to the use of this word in 1 Pet 3' is 
afforded by P Oxy II. 26i 12 (a.d. 55) where a woman 
appoints her grandson to act as her representative in a 
lawsuit — av 8uvap€VTj irpoo-KapTtpfjo-ai tu> KpiT-rjpLuj 8td 
■yvvaiKtLav do-0€V€tav, " since she is unable owing to womanly 
weakness to remain at the court" (Edd.). See also P Petr 
I. I2 e (B.C. 23S) as completed II. Introd. p. 12 x iT<i vos 
tpe'ou ywaiKefou, "a woman's woollen chiton," PSI I. 64 19 





(?i/B.C.) in which a woman comes under a solemn promise 
to a man . . . ovBtvl dXXwi [dJvOpwirtdv a-[v]via-ttrQai Kara 
•yvvaiKeiov TpcSirov irX^|[v] <rov, P Lond 191' (a.m. 103-17) 
(= II. p. 264) S£(J>pos x a ^ K0 "5 TvvatKeCos, P Oxy III. 493 18 
(early ii/A.D.) -ywiimov (/. •yuvaiK-) Kotrpiov, P Hamb I. I0 !1 
(ii/A.n.) 7uvaiKt£as cuvSeVis, "ladies' evening dresses," 10 
which robbers had helped themselves, together with ten 
ir\aT«o-T))io[i. -yJvvaiKeiafi, " lati clavi." The word is 
naturally quite common. 


'Ibis old noun retains from Homer down to MGr — where 
it has only changed its declension (f| ■ywatKa) — the two 
meanings of "woman" and "wife 1 *: it is superfluous to 
illustrate the one or the other, as we should get no light on 
the only questions that arise in NT, such as which word 
to use in rendering Mt 5 28 . The meeting of two words 
characteristic of that passage does, however, make it worth 
while to quote Wunsch AF 5 46 (iii/A.D.), where Domitiana 
Drays that her lover may be wholly devoted to her, u.r|8suiav 
&\At]v -ywcuKci p.TJTe irapOe'vov CTriOuu-oOvTa. That -yuvaiKa 
= " married woman" in Mt I.e. is anyhow probable. The 
phrase of Mk I2 1 ' '• etc., may be paralleled in the oldest 

extant Greek papyrus, P Eleph I 3 (B.C. 311) ( — Selections, 
p. 2) XanPdvei. 'HpaxX«i8T]S Ai)|j.T|Tptav Kciiav -vr""" 1 " 1 
■yvT]o-£av irapd rov irarprfs kt\. 

The irregularity of the word's flexion naturally produced 
some levelling. In general, as MGr shows, the single nom. 
sing, yielded to the oblique cases ; but sometimes we find 
the reverse. Thus in Cagnat IV. 833 (Hierapolis, ii/A.D. 
or later) Avp. 'A£tu>v (ovIaiTpavovi kcu rr\s "ywrjs aurov 


1' Oxy II. 243 21 (a.m. 79) d-Tro tt|s Popivii[s Ywjvias toO 
irpoiruXuivos, "from the northern angle of the gateway," 
P Lond I22 8 (magic, lv/a.D.) (= I. p. 1 16) iv rat 8 
■yumais tou ovpavoti (ci. Rev 7 1 , 20 8 ). P Kyi II. 130 9 
(a. 11. 31) «ts tov inrdpxovTd p.01 irtpl EvT]p.€p€iav ttjs 
0tp.£(TTo(u) [xcpiSos eXaitova iv ttj -ywv£a, " in the area of 
kuhemeria in the division of Themistes at the corner" 
(Edd.). //'. 156 13 (i/A.I>.) dirb tt|s Xl(3lkt|s -ytuvias tod 
irip-you. The noun was naturally used in architectural docu- 
ments, like Syll 537 (iv/B.c.) ter. Schlageter, p. 12, gives 
instances of the adj. -yuviaios, "angularis," from the in- 
scriptions, remarking that it seems to be used principally in 
the Koivij. In MGr ■ynvi.d = "corner,'' "angle." 


8ai/j.opi( ) ofxai — SaKpvco 


in its NT sense of being possessed with demons seems to 
occur only in later Greek. For a form Saipovidljw, other- 
wise unknown, see the Paris Great Magical Papyrus, Leaf 
33' 1 "" ('"■ *•!>■ 3°°) ^pos Saipovialjopevovs rLprjxews SoKipov, 
"for those possessed by demons, an approved charm by 
Pibechis" (cited by Deissmann /..IE, p. 251). The normal 
form occurs in P Leid W vi ■'■>" (ii/uiA.D.) 4v (/. iav) Saipovi- 
£ope'v(u>) eiV^s to bvopa). Trpoo-dywv ttj pcivl aiirov Qeiov 
Kal aaxpaXTov. cvdcois XaXfjo-ti (jv. to Saipdviov) K(al) 
direXevo-eTai. In MGr the act. Saip.ovi£u appears, = "drive 
mad": cf. Abbott Songs, p. 224 (no. 47). The derived 
noun Saiu.ovio-u.d; occurs in Vettius Valens, p. 2 18 . 


The old adj. may be seen in OG/S 383 1 ' 5 (i/B.c.) where 
Antiochus of Commagene dedicates temple slaves Kara 
Saiu.6vi.oi' PouXtjo-iv. 

Sjl/i 924 14 (B.C. 2IO-5 ™S "S T ° Saipdviov (1'crspaas 
and similarly 279 15 (c. B.C. 193) Tfjs o-uvavTwueviis rjpeiv 
evpsvias Sid Taura irapd tou Saipoviou (following Tfjs Trpbs 
tous Beois cuo-cpVas. and succeeded by Tfjv T|peTt'pav els to 
8«iov irpoTtu.iav) are witnesses to the growing sense in later 
Hellas of the unity of the Divine. Paul's solitary to Beiov 
in Ac 17" is the only NT passage which recalls this im- 
personal conception. The "Septuagint Memorial" from 
Hadrumetum of iii/A.D., published by Deissmann BS, p. 
271 ff., opens with an adjuration to the demonic spirit of 
the tomb on which the spell was laid — bpKiiJw o-e, 8aiu.dvi.ov 
irveOpa to tvBdSe Kcipevov, Ta> dvdaaTi tu dyim AwB ktX. , 
where the editor refers to the belief of post-biblical Judaism 
that the Saipdvia stay beside the grave, and compares the 
Gospel idea that the demons reside in lonely and desert 
regions (Mt 12": cf. Ml; 5 3 and see Baruch 4 s5 ). The 
magic papyrus P I.ond 46"° (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 69 f.) has 
tio-dKouo-dv u.ou Kal aTrdo-Tpev|;o[v] to 8aip.dvi.ov tovto, and 
later 1H inroTa^dv poi irdvTa ra Saipdvia i'va poi rjv inrtJKoos 
iras Sai'pwv ovpdvios Kal ai8e'pios Kal eTriycios Kal x*po-aio[s] 
Kai ?vu8pos. That a magic document by a writer who 
knows Judaism, perhaps even Christianity, should use 
Saipdviov of an evil spirit is, of course, not strange. The 
noun may be quoted from Vettius Valens : thus p. 67 s ircrb 
Saipoviwv Kal <j>avTao-iaS ciSwXwv xP1P-aTio-8r|o-ovTai. where 
it is clearly something weird. Elsewhere he uses it much as 
to Btiov, as p. 355 15 Svvdptvos ti>x"v w |x-r| epoiiXrro to 
Saipdviov Trape'xeLV. 

It may be noted that in Lk 4 :is D Saipdviov has a masc. 
predicate— pttyas ovtov to Saipdviov, and that in 9 1 D it is 
feminine— eirl Trdo-av Saipdviov: see Wellhausen Einleitung; 
p. 12. 


dai jucov. 

The word is used in its old sense in P Leid \V xiv 9 (ii/iii a. i i. ) 
SaCpuiv Saipwvwv, in a spell addressed to a divinity. It answers 
olten to the Latin Genius. Thus in a notification of the 
accession of Nero, P Oxy VII. 1021* (a.d. 54) the Emperor 
is described as d^aBbs Saipwv Si tt\% ouKoyu.e'vr|$ (/. o!k — ), 
"the good genius of the world." Similarly OG/S 666 2 
Ne'pwv] KXaijStos . . . b d-yaBbs Saipuv ttjs oiKoxip€vr|s, 
o-vv a-irao-iv ois €v€pY€TT]o-€v d-yaOols : cf. id. 672' (A.D. 80) 
with reference to the Nile — wpv-yTj 'A-ya8bs Aai'puv TroTapbs 
4-rrl Ta Tpta oreped ktX. In a private letter of iii/A.D. the 
combination occurs as a proper name, P Stress I. 73* 
'A-yaBbs Aai'p.u)v otjv 0-01 «la-eX8wv SieTrfpiJ/aTo : cf. BGU 
II. 494 14 (ii/A l).), a/. For the word in a bad sense, see the 
magical incantation, P Par 574 122 ' ((iii/A.D.) (= Selections, 
p. 113) Trpd|is -yevvaia €KpdXXovo-a Saipovas, "a notable 
spell for driving out demons," and the Christian amulet in 
which the wearer prays, ottws Siu>£ns dir' cpov tov SovXou 
o-ou tov Saipova TrpoPao-Kavias, "that 'I holt mayst drive 
from me Thy servant the demon of witchcraft " — BGU III. 
954" (<'. vi/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 133). In P Grenf II. 76 s 
(a.d. 305-6) two veKpoTaipoi from Kusis agree to a formal 
divorce, seeing that "owing to some evil deity" they have 
renounced their wedded lifc = tirl (/. «tt«1) «k tivos TrovnpoO 
Saipovos o-vv€pr| avToits dTro£€ux8ai dXXrjXiov tt|v koivt^v 
auTuv o-vvpiujo-iv. So P Cairo Preis 2 1 - (a.d. 362) «s ttjs 
ywaiKos pov iripav XaPovo-av (for Xapoiio-T|s) Se'povos, "in 
the belief that my wife bad had experience of a demon." 


survives in MGr Sa-yKavu), also SaKvw, with noun 8d-yKapa 
"a bite," which puts it among words which have not 
changed in 3000 years. But we cannot quote from Koivtj 
documents. Vettius Valens p. 127 29 has the noun, 8t]piW 
8aK6Tu>v aiTtais. 


P Petr II. i 4 (c. n.c. 260) ptTa SaKpiaiv, which Mayser, 
Gr. p. 268, notes must not be assigned to 8aKpu, despite the 
heteroclite SaKpvo-iv in NT. BGU IV. 1 141' 27 '• (<-. B.C. 14) 
oiav Yap iiPpiv pot TreTrd-nKev tv tuJ KTjTrw Kal «v ttj olklo. 

t] rjv SaKpva o-ol -ypd^eiv, -ytYpct<pTjK€LV d.v dirb twv 

SaKpuuv, "wenn Thranen cin Brief waren" (Ed.). The 
noun survives still. 


survives as SaKpv^u to-day, with ptc. SaKpuo-pe'vos = " red 
with weeping." It may be quoted from Preisigke 375, an 
undated tombstone, Md^va. [o-«] 8avouo-[av] Trdo-a yn 





BGU III. 781 '> u (i/A.n.) ?\ovTa Ka't wTapia SaKTuXua, 
P Oxy III. 497" (a marriage-contract — early ii/A.D.) Tijs 
toO SaKi-vXiov eYXovfjs. A will of ii/A.D., PSI III. 240 13 , 
concludes a list of -yvvaiKtlos koo-(ios witli 8[a]KTvXiov XP U ~ 
<roiv, left to the writer's daughter. In the magical papyrus 
P Lond 46 201 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 71) a spell is headed 'Epuov 
SaKTilXtos KavOdpou irotr|o-is, " The ring of Hermes and the 
preparation of the beetle." From the inscriptions we may 
cite OG/S 56 23 (B.C. 239) ev Tots SaK-rvXious ots <j>opovo-i (01 
UpEis), ?/'. 229 s8 (iii/B.c.) o-qSpavio-do-Owo-av 2u.vpva[iwv] ol 
T€ 0"TpaTT|*yol Kal 01 €|cTao"Tal tui tc ttjs TrdXtws SaKTuXiwi 
Kal Tois avTuv. There are numerous occurrences in Syll : 
see Index. For the diminutive SaK-rvXCStov, which is re- 
jected by the Atticists, see BGU III. 843 s (i/ii a.d.) to uoi 
oaK-roXtSiov, ib. IV. 1104" (B.C. 8), P Oxy X. 1273 11 (a.T». 
260) 8aKT\)X£8tov aeiKpbv T^TdfpJTats rju,i.o-v, " a small 
ring weighing A quarter." AaKTvXios occurs with an ana- 
tomical sense in 1' Ryl I. 28 68 (iv/A.D.) r\ JSpa, SaKTvXios S£ 
inrd tivuv KaXov|«'vT| : see LS. In MGr we have 8aXTuX£Si, 
" finger-ring." 


P Amh II. IIO 8 (A.D. 75) oiXr) SaKTiiXm p.iKpui x* l P°[s] 
dpiortpas, so P Kay 92'. 10 (A.I). 126), P Grenf II. 46* (a.d. 
137), etc. P Lond 46 166 (iv/A.D.) (=1. p. 80) rbv IBaiov 
ttjs dpio-Tcpds o-ov \tipbs SaKTuXov is a reference to mythi- 
cal magicians, the AaKTvXoi 'ISaioL, whose name is trans- 
ferred to one of the fingers. With I.k n 20 cf. the ostracon 
charm of the late Empire, cited by Deissmann LAE, p. 309, 
. . . €|]opK^« KaTa ToO SaKTuXou tov 8cov, €tva p.T) dva\dvr] 
avTu>, " I adjure . . . by the finger of the god that he open 
not his mouth to him." The word is found as a measure of 
length in the new classical fragment P Oxy IV. 669 (iii/A.D.) : 
cf. the use of SaKTvXio-Trjs in P Fay II2 11 (a.d. 99), where 
the editors suggest " measurer" as a possible meaning, and 
similarly in P Amh II. 126'' 2 (early ii/A.D.). MGr is 


The spelling AeXaaTfa (2 Tim 4 10 C 424** and other 
cursives — cf. AepjiaTtav A) appears in Preisigke 173 (c. A.D. 
200), the tombstone of T. Aurelius Calpurnianus Apollo- 
nides, who among other distinctions had been eirtfTpoiros) 
AtXparias It is supported by the derivative SeXjiaTiKij, 
the name of a kind of robe, spelt this way in BGU I. 93 7 
(ii/iii A.D.) KaXws TroLTjo-eis 8La-7rc'[i\}/as avTrj ttj[v] StXaaTi- 
ktjv, P Oxy VII. I05i ]6 (iii/A.D.) 8tXu.aTiK?| Xivd a, and 
the diminutive ScXaaTiKiov which occurs twice in the last 
papyrus, and in ib. 1026 10 (v/a.D.) 8eXp.aT(.Kiov 6vix<.vov, 
"an onyx-coloured Dalmatian vest" (Edd.). See Deissmann 
JSS, p. 1 82, where against the supposition of Alexandrian 
spelling (so Hort) is quoted CPR 2I 16 (A.D. 230) SaXp.aTiKfj. 
Dalmatica is the Latin spelling (Souter). 



Vettius Valens p. 2S5 3 ", 4irl piv twv o-T£pcu»v £a>Siwv fj 
p-oipuv 7rapdvT€s &Tra£ t£ Kal aTrapaiTfJTws 8ap.d£ovcriv, tv 
8i Tots Sio-wp.ois irXtovaKts. 


is found term a Coan inscription Syll 617. See also the 
Mysteries inscription from Andania, Syll 653 s ' (B.C. 91) 
MfydXots Oeois Bdp.aXiv o-vv, so M . A diminutive is found 
in P Flor II. 150 2 (a.d. 267) to. (3oi8ia 6Va '4\m . . . 
fJTe 8a(idXia tjtc |ie^ova. is found as a proper 
name for Athenian women : see Pape Wort. d. gr. Eigen- 
namen s.v., Renan Saint Paul, p. 209 n 8 . 


Renan (Saint Paul, p. 209 11 s ) suggests that this otherwise 
unknown proper name in Ac 17 51 may really stand for 
AdpaXis : see above. 


A few examples will suffice of this very common verb — 
P Fay II 6 (f. B.C. 115) eSdveio-a [OeoTJeCuu . . . irupiiv 
dp(Tapas) [t (Tipacru)], "I ' enl: to Theotimus 7$ artabae of 
wheat, P Cairo Preis 43 10 (a.d. 59) 8p]axp.ds . . . [ds 
eS]dvaa-ev a[vT]iu, P Oxy III. 4S5 12 (A.D. 178) ISdveio-a 
KaTa Snado-iov xP T ll laTl<r ( 1 ° v ' " I l enl; m accordance with a 
public deed," ib. 510 6 (a.d. ioi) ds tSdvcurcv auTots KaTa 
Saveiou o-uv7pa4)r|v, " which he lent to them in accordance 
with a contract of loan." For the middle, see P Oxy IV. 
S36 (i/B.C.) diroSoTwo-av 8e ol SeSavcio-fu'voi 0. Tas Tpid- 
KOVTa 8uo dpTapas Taiv Trvpuv, "but let the borrowers 
restore to T. the thirty-two artabae of wheat," ib. X. 1281 5 
(a.d. 21) 8e8dvio-uai tt|v TeijiTiv, " I have borrowed the 
price," ib. III. 471" (ii/A.D.) iors Kal eiriSet^s ^v aiiTwi 
irpbs Tois 8av«i5o(i«Vous a JirpaTTev. "showed off to the 
borrowers what he had been doing (Edd.). P Flor I. I 3 
(A.D. 153) combines them — 8paxp.ds 8iaKoo~ias as dv€LpT]TaL 
t) 8€8avLO-(j.c'vT| irapd ttjs SeSavtKviTjs. 

Wackemagel ThLZ 190S, Sp. 637, observes that the new 
future 8avw> in LXX proves that itacisim goes back to the 
translators and not merely the scribes. Aaveijja) could not 
make an "Attic future" SavLu until the last vestige of 
difference between ei and t had gone. 


P IIib. I. S9 16 (loan of money — B.C. 239) Zr|vuov 
0to8d]TT|i to Sdveiov Tas 4> (8pax(idsi |8i.TrXovv, " Zenion 
shall forfeit to Theodote twice the amount of the loan of 
500 drachmae" (Edd.), P Grenf II. 24' (B.C. 105) to 8« 
8dv€iov tovto diroSoTw ^u-uevxris Il€T€apo-€|j.8ct, BGU IV. 
1095 1 - (a.d. 57) Ta Scvrja (/. Sdvaa ev x € P°"' L yiyovai 
(I. yiyovi), P l'.iy II9 18 (< . A.D. 100) T]f|v Sia-ypa<f>r|v tov 
XtSpTou ttou T^OtKas Kal tw 8dviov auToO ttjs jivas tJ cotu 
Ypa<)>T| ; "where did you put the notice of payment for the 
hay, and the contract for his loan of a mina?" (Edd.), 
P. Oxy I. 68 l - (a.d. 131) tov 8avtiov do-<j>dX[«Juav, "the 
security for the loan, ib. X. 1262 16 (a.d. 197) o-Tr«'p)iaTa 
Sdveia, "a loan of seed." For P Petr II. 11 (i) 6 (iii/B.c; 
( = Selections, p. 8) to Se Xoitrbv ds to Sdvuov KaTePaXof, 
VVyse proposes, and Mahafly adopts (App. p. 4), the render- 
ing "I have paid as an instalment of interest" instead of 
" I have put out to interest." 






P Pen III. 

(/)• (iii/B.c. ) 4>vY a S«<i<»'Ta.s tovs 

Saveio-rds, BGU IV. 1079" (A.I). 41) (= Selections, p. 40) 
iroXXois 8avi.o-Tas eloper, •" *-*xy I. 6S'- 5 (a. I). 131) tois 
tov ZapairiWos' Saviorais, " Serapion's creditors," P. Kyi 
II. U7 !0 (a. I). 269) <f>da-Kuv cEvai avTov 8|a]vio-Trjv «k«ivov, 
" professing to be a creditor of his " (Kdrl.). 


P Giss I. 21 9 (early ii/A.D.) 81b 8airav<js [at l<x.) XiTpav 
piav Kal oXktjs o-TaTJjpa, P. Oxy VIII. 1 1 43 r ' [e. A.l). 1) 
68airavT|(6'Tio-av) els to lepbv dXbs (dpTapai) P, 1' Fay 125" 
(ii/A.D.) to 8airavr|Y[«v] Trapa8e£opai., "I will make an 
allowance for the expense" (Edd.), P Flor III. 334* (ii/A.p.) 
Kal irdXi TTji o-rji o-cppayiSt. dcrc|>a\u)9 KXeta-as a-cppaYio-ov 
to Sa-rravrjBev dvdXupa els toiis 9r|o-aiipovs, eis fj (for r\v J ) 
80-tdv eo-Tiv. In Ot7/S"59 15 (c. B.C. l88) Ptolemy V announces 
a yearly grant of 1 1 1 Ptolemaic drachmae to the garrison on 
the island of Thera — Situs exwcriv els Te Tas Ououas Kal to 
dXuppa Sa-rravdv. With ev, as in Tas 4 3 , BGU I. 140 5 
(ii/iii a. 1 1.) Kal ev irvpui KaT eVos SairavaTat to. itiro"y€- 
•yp afj.jj.eva;. Other things than money may be the subject : 
thus an undated ostracon in Archiv v. p. 179, no. 34 
tovs rjXoxts, otis Tj-yopao-as, eiripeXws Tt|prjo"ov, oirtus 
Tvpavvos 6 KvpepvrJTrjs papT\)pr|o~r| uol, 6tl 81a avTov ouov 


is very common. Thus P Fay 101 verso* [c. B.C. iS) 
8airdvr|s (Spa\pal) 8, P Oxy II. 294 s7 (a.d. 22) = [Selections, 
p. 36) eis Sairavdv oil %\l pou, " with reference to the 
expense of what he has belonging to me," ii. VIII. 1125 1 " 
(ii/A.D.) LSi'cus eavToii Sairdvais. In P Lond 356 16 (i/A.D.) 
(= II. p. 252, Selections p. 59) the writer warns his corre- 
spondent that if he sells him stale drugs — ytivwo-Kt o-auTov 
€£ovTa irpbs epe Trepl Taiv Sairavuv, " understand that you 
will have to settle with me with regard to the expenses." 
P Lond III. u~i 2i (accounts— B.C. 8) (=111. p. 178) 
shows the new word inrepSairdvri, i.e. "debit balance'' 
or "deficit": iirepSdiravovt?) and inrep8airdvT]pa are also 
found in this sense in the same papyrus. The simple 
Sairdvnpo, which belongs to later Greek, is common, e.g. 
BGU III. IOOI'- I3 (B.C. 56) T]d tc pXdpr] Kal SairavfjpaTa. 


On the spelling of this name see J. H. Moulton Grammar 
0/ NT Greek II. §45, and cf. below s.v. SiXovavds. 


With Se'no-is, "supplication," as in Phil i 4 , may lie com- 
pared P Par 69 E11 (a.d. 232) ev8a o-iTov8d[s Kal 8e]i|o-eis 
iroiT)o-dacvos, and the Ptolemaic P Petr II. 19 (la)'- where 
a prisoner supplicates peTa Serjo-ews Kal UtTeCas oiiveKa tov 
8eo0 Kal tov KaX<is <2x OVTOS > " ln tne name of God and 
of fair play" (Ed.). In one of the Serapeum documents 
regarding the Twins, P Lond 21 20 (B.C. 162) (=1. p. 13), 
Ptolemy petitions Sarapion on their behalf, d£ui oiv ere 
p-tTo. Serjcreius vopao-avTa Tais 8i8upais ISiai ( = ISCa) o-e 
TaOTa SiSdvai ; cf. the 8e'r|o-es addressed by a woman to 
Abinnaeus, P Lund 306 [c. a.d. 346) (= II. p. 2S1), and 
P Giss I. 4i i ' ll) (time of Hadrian) emvevo-avTos o|v]v tt)[i] 

8«t|o-€<. uov, of a petition to the Praefect Apollonius. For 
petitions addressed to the Emperor cf. CP Ilerm 6 1 iirep 
toiovtwv birota ■rrpo[o-r|v]t'yKapcv tt|v St'rjoriv -rroi.oiiu.e6a : the 
statement follows, with 8]eidTaTe avTOKpaTwp in the next 
line. So ii 119 verso"' u , where Gallienus replies Ka[Xe]l 8e 
Kal t) to[0 SiJKafov to|ls ws Kal Ta €K ttjs irapd 0-0O Serjo-eus 
tTOLfj.uJs [8]L8[djvai tt|v x^piv. It is clear that the word 
is a strong one, even if the language of exaggeration will 
sometimes employ it where "request" would express the 
sense: thus BGU I. 180" (a.d. 172) 61.Ka1.av 8«'[t|o-]iv 
TTOLovptvos, P Gen I. 16 10 (a. 1>. 207) h\ii]0-iv crot irpoorcpt- 
popev, Kupie. The noun and its original veil) St'opai retain 
connexion with the idea of "need"; and 8er|o-is was thus 
ready for its special NT use of "entreaty" towards God — 
we recall Trench's epigram defining prayer as "the mighty 
utterance of a mighty need." 


Boi the conjunctive, as in Mt 26 35 , cf. P Fay 109 5 (early 
i/A.D.) €av tri 8t] (for Se'rj) to elpaTidv o-ov Oeivai eve'\upov. 
" even if you have to pawn your cloak " (Edd.). In P Tebt 

I. 5S 56 (B.C. in) we have tdv followed by the indicative — 
edv 8ei ere o-wrr€crtiv twl 'Aviktjtujl, o-vvrreo-ai, "if you must 
meet Anicetus, meet him" (Edd.): cf. Mayser Gr. p. 325. 
Other examples of the verb are P Par 46 16 (B.C. 153) 81b 
Kal T|'y 01J r L6vos Setv eir' dXXou pev prjOevbs auTwL 8LaKpL0fjvaw 
P Lille I. 26' (iii.B.C.) irepl (corr. from ireepl) 8e tovtou tov 
pe'povs 8er|o-et. eirio-xelv, P Telit II. 341 1 (A.D. 140-1) 8er|cru 
eTTLOTaXTivat eis 8dv€[i]a crrreppaTa KaTao-n-[o]pas ktX. , 
" it «ill be necessary to send on account of loans of seed- 
corn for the sowing," etc., Michel iooi viii r> (Theran Doric 
— ('. B.C. 200) no one may bring forward a proposal ws 
8«to-T| SiaXvo-aL to kolvov A Tas 6vo-tas, P Flor II. 133 s 
(A.D. 237) £81 pev upas pr|8t iiropvT|o-eus xPTl? etv ' ; '. vo11 
mightn't even to have needed a reminder," P Oxy X. I293 10f - 
(A.D. 117-3S) iJSei. avTiii. SiSuvai. ocri (? .'. 8ti) ovk <jo-t 
aiiTos Sapds, dXXd dXXos |e'vos e'o-Tlv ou Sti p« irio-Oijvai. 
ws €o-xTJKaT«, "you ought to have given him a letter, 
because it is not S. but another stranger whose word I have 
to take that you have received it " (Edd.). See also s.v. 8«'ov. 


is found = " Plan,'' " l'lanskizze" in P Giss I. 15 3 Kopi^e 
ttjs 'Ipiwvo[s] to Sel-ypa : cf. the fragmentary P Petr II. 
8 (2a) 8 (B.C. 246). The word is used of a "sample" in P 
Hib I. 39 15 (B.C. 265) 8eiypa o-cppa-yi.crdo-[8]a), "let him seal 
a sample" of corn, so ib. 9S 17 (B.C. 251), P Lond 256 recto 3 
(A.D. 1 1—5) (=11. p. 97) 4ireo-<ppa-yi[o-p.e'] vots 8eypao-i, P 
Oxy IV. 70S 6 (a.d. 1S8) iv Trj] t[u]v SeeypaTiov dpo-ei, "at 
the weighing of the samples'' (Edd.): cf. P Oxy I. 113 5 
(ii.A.D.) o-vvT|XXii;a tKCLVT) Tfp eirio-ToXr) 8a-ypa Xcvkoivo, 
" I enclosed in the former packet a pattern of white-violet 
colour" (Edd.). In P Oxy I. 63 s (ii/iii A.D.) we have tovs 
SeiYpaTodpTas, " the inspectors," and in ii. X. 1254 5 
(A.D. 260) tis Sti-ypaTOKaTa'yco'ytav, "for the conveyance of 
samples" of wheat. MGr Stt^pa = " proof." 


This very rare verb may now be illustrated from P Tebt 

II. 576 (B.C. 14-31. "here a list of lands cultivated by 
8r|pdo-Loi -y €w P*y ^ begins iX, leVousi o-irbpos 8LYpaTio-0€ls . J 




St|p(oo-£c»>v) veoipYfwv). It is also found along with the 
subst. in the Greek fragment of the Ascension of Isaiah 
I' Amh I. I >'"--i air!) to[S Seij-ypaTicrpoi Sti [e]8ecvpdTicrev 
tov |E]apaf|X. The subst. occurs in BGU I. 246" (ii/iiiA.D.) 
KivSuveuw Ka[l Tav]Ta(?) aTroXeVaL peTa Kal Si-ypaTicrpov 
KaXus tTpr|Ka.Te (> I. tipf\KO.rt Kal poveipws (/• povipius), 
and in I' Gizeh 10271 12 (in Archiv ii. p. 81) %a>% tou Seeypa- 
[Tio-pov, an I on the Rosetta Stone, OGIS 9o :lfl (n.c. 196) ™ 
rrpbs tov SeeypaTicrpbv 8id<j>opa, " the cost of having their, 
verified." The verb takes an infin. in I' Kyi I. 28 32 (iv/A.D.), 
where if the viroTavpos "quivers," 8ei"YpaTicr9T|0-eTai 6 toi- 
ovt[o]s aTroXe'cr9ai tl Kpucfnpaiov : in' 8iYpaT[i.]crpovs Kal 
XoiSopias Kal Kpvtpipaiwv TrpavpaTtov eTricpdviav seems to 
mean " exposures-' 1 

Since SeeypaT^co does not begin to appear till long after 
irapaSecypaTi^ai, it is quite conceivable that TrapaSei-Ypa 
produced the latter verb, and Sei-ypaT^w was shortened 
from it by the help of the noun Seivpa. The early appear- 
ance of 8e17p.aTi.crp.ds (B.C. 196) is the main difficulty, since 
that is coeval with TrapaSei-ypaT^tu. 


The verb is not. so common as we might have expected, 
but for the ordinary meaning we may cite P Oxy III. 471 76 
(ii/A.H.) cnivpoXa SeiKvivTa, "showing signs," and for the 
metaphorical, as Jas 2 18 , 3", it. II. 237 " -' (a.d. 186) 
oiSepiav pev oi>Te lippcv outc dXXo dSiKT|pa els ain-bv airXiis 
«*>' ui pe'pcpeTai bei£ai ^\ wv > " ne C()U ' ( 1 not indeed cite a 
single insult or any other act of injustice against himself 
with which he charged me" (lidd.) : cf. it. I. 67 19 (A.D. 
33S) Av oUtojs 8<-x"fi [au]T(Sv t| Ka8' T|pciv [irXeojve^ia, 
" in this way their aggression against me will be made 
clear" (Edd.). A ii/A.D. calculation of the nauhion-tax 
upon catoeci, printed in P Tebt II. p. 339 f., is followed by 
Se'SiKfTai, " proved," written " in a cursive but probably not 
different hand " (Edd.). OGIS 267 16 (iii/B.C.) ot peTa TaCTa 
SeiKvvpevoi (crTpaTn.-yo£), where the simplex takes the place 
of the commoner dTroSeiKvvpi. (see s.v.) in this sense. With 
the use of the verb in Jn 14 8 , etc., we may compare the 
Christian prayer. P Oxy VIII. I150 6 (vi/A.D.) Sei£ov t*|v 
SiivapLiv crov. On the Christian sepulchral inscription, P 
llamli I. 22 31 '- (iv/A.D.) v]U 9eoi pevdXoio tov ovSe'rro-e 
SpaKev dvrjp (cf. In i 1M ). 6s TvcbXoicriv e'SwKas ISeiv cbdos 
TjeXioio, Sei£ov ev dvOpw-rrotcri ktX., tile editor remarks that 
we may either supply cpdos after 8ei£ov, cf. Isai 53 11 , or 
possibly take Sei|ov absolutely as in Numb 16 30 . I's 5S(S9) 10 
b 9ebs pov Sei^ei pot ev Tois exOpois pou. For the ordinary 
meaning " exhibit " we may cite the rescript of Caracalla, 
1' Giss I. 40"' 28 (A.I). 215), where the Emperor, from his 
record an excellent judge of Kulliir, lays it down that In 
tc Kal Jc»['f|] SeiKvvei evavTta fj9r| dirb dvaorpocpfjs [irojXei- 
tiktjs elvai d-ypoiKous AfiJ^virTious. MGr is Setxvu or 
SetxTtD, with meaning unchanged. 


For this NT air. eip. (2 Tim I 7 ) cf. BGU II. 372" ■« 
(a.d. 154) SeiXiav with a gap both before and after, am' 
1' Giss I. 40" " (a.d. 215) SeiXCas ama. 


In 1' Par 68 c -' 1 a person condemned to deatli writes to 
the Emperor— eirl tovtov 8e iropeudpevos ou SeiXidcrw croi 

t^|v dXr)9eiav elireiv. The form SeiXaCvco, found in Aristotle, 
occurs in P Tebt I. 58 s ' (B.C. Ill) outos ouv Bewpfjcras pe <is 
TrpocreSpeuovTa Ka9'r]pe'pav u>o-el 8eS£XavTai, "seeing me in 
daily attendance he has as it were turned coward" (lidd.). 


For the neut. plur. used adverbially, see P land II 4 
(iii/A.n.) dxXei pot SiXa 6 TpuuXos. MGr SeiXds -"timid," 

" shy." 

delva, 6, fj, to. 

To the examples of Tb Seiva = " by the way," " by the 
bye," we may add an instance from the recently recovered 
Mimes of Herodas, I. 43 to Seiva 8e a-ypios x a F , " )V '(-£ 
e]vi[8ir|s eve'irjecre . '0 Seiva in the ordinary sense, = " Mr 
X.," may be seen in the magic papyri where a formula is 
given into which any given name may be fitted : thus BGU 
IV. I026 xxui - 2t) Sd]s pot \dptv ctt[. . .]ov Trpbs irdo-av 
dv9pa>irivT]v "ye[v]€[d]y Kal irdcras Y uva ^ Kas > pdXio-Ta Trpbs 
ttjv (Seiva). It is generally represented by a sign, as here. 
CI. P Leid VV XXV - 20 (ii/iii a.d.) yuvaiKovopcbe (/ .-. -popepei 
8ed, SecnroTi (o-eXr|VT]). TroiT^crov to S eiva) rrpd-ypa. MGr 
has b Seiva(s), rj, to Seiva (gen. tov. ttjs Seivos) = "So- 
and-so," unchanged : see Thumb Handb. p. 98. 


With the use in Mt 8° cf. BGU II. 595 14 (c. a.d. 70-S0) 
8ti b vids pov do-9evi 8ivws, P Oxy VIII. IIOI 8 (iv/A.D. — 
Christian) TavTa Se' crot e^paij/a vocrovcra, 8[iv]tus ^\ovo*a, 
irdvu pr 1 ] Svvape'vt] dvacrTT]vaL eK Tf|s ko£tt]s pou, 8ti Trdvn 
Slvuis ^xw, .Vr// S02 111 (li|iiduLirus — iii/cc.) ovtos to[v] tov 
ttoSos 8aKTuXov vTrb tov (Ed. {irrd tov) dvptou ^Xkcos Setvais 
SiaKeip[ev]os- For adj. cf. BGU I. 163 9 (a.d. 108) oiSev 
Setvbv eYe'v[eTo, and from the inscriptions Syll 567' (ii/A.D.) 
pr|8ev avTois 8etvbv cruveiSoTas. Preisigke 42S2, a dedica- 
tion in Latin and Greek of an altar in honour of Hadrian, 
by a general named Serenus, who had annihilated " Agrio- 
phagos nequissimos," rendersthis last word by 8ei[voTaTovs]. 


Interesting examples of the word occur in invitations to 
dinner or to a wedding-feast, e.g. P Oxy I. no (ii/A.D.) 
tpioTo. ere Xaipr|pu>v Senrvrjcrai. els KXeCvT)v tov Kvpiov 
SapdirtSos ev ru> SapaireCu) aiiptov, tjtis ccttIv Ce, dirb uipas 6, 
" Chaeremon requests your company at dinner at the table 
of the lord Sarapis in the Serapeum to-morrow, the 15th, at 
9 o'clock": similarly it. Ill (iii/A.D.), III. 523 (ii/A.D.), 
VI. 926 (iii/A.D.), I' Fay 132 (iii/A.D.). The hour, which 
corresponds to our 3 p.m., illustrates the elasticity of a term 
which will answer to our " lunch " or " supper " on occasion : 
it relieves some of the difficulty in Lk I4 16rt , where an 
aptcTTOv seems demanded by the details. In P Oxy VI 927 
(iii/.\.D.) we have the same formula and the same hour, but 
ets "ydpovs stands in the place of SecirvTJo-ai. It is curious to 
find our phrase " to dine out" paralleled — BGU IV. 1141 36 
[c. B.C. 14)] ovSe e^w 8eSeLirvT|Ke'vai . Wvo-tov 8e ernvvovs 
SeSeerrvTiKe'vai ktrui ev *rrj oiKia -rrapd "EpwTa Sis Trpoo"eXapd- 
pr|V avTov eis oIkov Trap' epe' : it i^ not clear that the parallel 
is more than verbal. Ml rr Secrrvii = " lunch," " dine." 





In a lengthy account ot private expenses, P Oxy IV. 73° 36 
(c. A.l>. l), we find the entry dcnrapdyu>(v) [Stjirvw 
'AvT(aTos) ot' els to TTtpiS[\.]irvo(v) 'A8t|( Yva4>t'w(s) 
(rjp.i.upe'Xiov), " asparagus for the dinner of Aulas when (he 
went) to the funeral feast of Athe ... the fuller ' ob." 
(Kdd.) : cf. il>. 73S 1 (c. A.D. 1) Seirvwi i KavumKov rjirap, 
"tor dinner on the 5th a Canopic liver. For SenrvT|Trjpi.ov 
= "a civic banqueting-hall " see the inscription of the time 
ol Vespasian (a.m. 69-79) m P F av P- 33- Another com- 
pound, 8enrvoK\r|Tii)p, occurs in the remarkable alternative 
vi rsion of the parable of Lk 14"% found in D <£ al after 
Mt 20 28 . Nestle, Text. Criticism, p. 257, remarks that 
Artemidorus [ap. Athenaeus) called the eXeo/rpos by t lii -- 
name — "a manager of the table, taster" (LS). He equates 
it to a Syriac phrase = " master of the feast," and claims it 
as belonging to the later popular language. Ii may accord- 
ingly represent not the entertainer but the nomenclator — the 
slave who acted as marshal at a dinner-party. Aecirvov is 
not frequent in our documents, but it survives in MGr, We 
might add P Lond 219(a) rect(h l (ii/B.C.) (=11. p. 2), 
where in accounts concerning - 'inner (irepl Seeirvov) the 
beer (jjirrov) costs 40 dr. a chin arlv 6 pints), which the 

editor observes was a high price 


In OCAS' 455 u (B.C. 39) a tem| enclosureof the goddess 
Aphrodite is declared acruXov- iutw 8ikguu> TauTij tc 
SeiauSaipovia. " eodem jure eademque religione" as the 
temple of Artemis at Ephesus. It is in this general sense of 
"religion," without any pronouncement as to whether it 
was right or wrong, that the word is to be understood in 
Ac 25". 


Beyond the neutral sense attached to the subst in the 
passage cited s.v., we have no light to threw 
upon the exact force of the phrase kcito. irdvTa Sacri&ai- 
(iov«o-T«povs in Ac 17 22 . A convenient summary of the 
translations given to it with their varying shades ol con- 
demnation and commendation will be found in £v/>7' 
xviii. p. 485 ft. See also A. W. Verrall's comments, ib. xix. 
p. 43: he renders "exceedingly god-fearing," but accepts 
the view that it is meant to be a neutral term. L. K. 
Famed Greece and Babylon, p. 19311, remarks on the 
prevailing bad sense of the word (as in the Characters of 
Theophrastus) in connexion with the exclusion of fear and 
humility from religious virtues. We find the adj. meaning 
" reverent in the epitaph of a mimus, Kaibcl 607 3 (iii/A.I>.) 
"rrdcri cjnXos 6vt)tois fits t dBavctTous 8eicri8a£u.u>v. 

The adverb occurs bis in Aristeas 129 with reference to 
unclean foods — Stio-iSaqiovius "yap Ta TrXsio-Ta Tf|V vop.o9€o-iav 
t\€Lv, iv 84 tovtois iravTeXws 8ao-18a.1p.6vws, " for the law is 
scrupulous in most things, but in these matters it is excessively 
scrupulous'' (Thackeray). There is a good list of occur- 
rences in D. B. Durham A/enandt r, p. 53. 

bey. a. 

The indeterminate use of StKa to denote simply a period 
of lime, which is found in Biblical Greek (Gen 24 s5 , Xumb 

ii 19 , Dan I 11 , Rev 2 10 ), may be illustrated from P Peti III. 
36 versu b where a prisoner complains that be has been 
harshly treated in prison — Xip.101 ■irapairoXXtip.evos' p.fjvc's 
eio-iv SeKa, " p rishing from hunger for the last ten months " ; 
and from a more literary source in the Mimes of Herodas I. 24 
--Sex' tier! proves, during which a husband, who has gone on 
a journey to Egypt, does not write to his wife. See further 
Lumbroso in Archiv iv. p. 319 f., where some parallels are 
quoted from literary Koivtj. Of course there is no proof that 
the above is not to be taken literally. 


In the Ptolemaic papyri this is the regular form, e. g. 
P Petr II. 27(l) 5 (B.C. 236) €K (leTpiyniv 8«Ka8uo, and so 6 - 8 , 
P Amh II. 47 5 (B.C. 113) irupoii dpTapas 8«Va 8io aTOKa. 
The only exception which Mayser [Gr. p. 310 has noted is 
V Vat F 31 (b C. 157). Similaily in inscriptions bom about 
i/B.C. we find 8tKa8xio, as well as SioSeKd, e.g. CIA II. 476 31 
(ii/i B.C.) Spaxp-ds Sexa 8vo : see Meisleihans Gr. p. 159. 
In ostraca 8u8tKa greatly predominates over S«Ka 8io. In 
Pro/eg. p. 96 n. 3 there is an unfortunate mistake, due to 
trusting Wellhausen : the mistake is copied in Thackeray 
6V. i. p. 1SS11 1 . Wellhausen says [Ein/eitung in die drci 
ersten Evangelic, p. n), " Zwolf in D an den beiden 
Stellen, wo die Zahl ausgeschrieben i-t (Ml 19 28 , I.I. o 17 ). 
8eKa8vo and nicht 8iSSeKa hcisst." (So far as one can tell, 
in the absence of an index, he has dropped the statement in 
ed.-) As a matter of fact, l> has 8oi8eKa in Mt Q 20 , II 1 , 
Lk 9 12 , Jn 6 13 ' "■ ,l , II 9 , Ac 19 7 . Not only D but W shows 
8e'xa Svo {ter, according to Sanders, p. 24). P Flor II. 141 
(a.d. 264) has instructive differences between three scribes. 
The fust writer mentions ol'vou Si'xwpo. 8w8[en|a— ■y(tvtTcu) 
oi:(vou) 8£xaj(pa) ip ; the second, who endorses it, writes 
SwStKa ; the third writes a receipt for 8£x">pa. [8e]Ka.8vo. 
The last is a 4>povtio-ttjs or " superintendent of inland 
revenue," and unless a big hand is evidence (see under 
•ypdp.p.0.) no less educated than Alypius or his correspondent 
Heroninus. In I' Lond 1171' (B.C.