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INTRODUCTIOX, Page i. to p. v. 



Primitive . 



Number . 



Cases . . 


Gender of, and how ex- 
pressed 9 

Adjectives of Comparison. 
Numeral Adjective . . 
Ordinal 13 


Paoxouxs : 



Genitive Case .... 13 

Distinguishing of Persons, 13 
Personal Pronoims ... 14 



. 14 



. 14 


Demonstrative . . 

. 16 

4 ' 

Relative .... 

. 16 


Interrogative . . 
Indefinite .... 

. 17 

6,7 1 

Vebbs : 


General Observations on. 19 

8 ■ 

Auxiliaries 21 


Active Voice . . 23 — 25 

9 1 


Passive Voice .... 26 


Adverbs 28 


Prepositions 29 


CoxjrxcTioxs . . . 

. 30 





Part I. English and Hacssa 1 

Part II. Haussa and English ....(.. 103 


Translation of Medical Terms 1 58 

Phrases 166 

The Loed's Prayer, Translation of 170 

Parable of the Prodigal Son 170 

Parable of the Ten Virgins 172 

The Last Judgment 173 

Sixteenth Chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel . . . . 174 

Address to the Kings and People 177 

Intended Treaty 179 

English of the Address 184 

English of the Treaty 186 


1 HE Haussa is one of the most extensive Lan- 
guages of Central Africa. An acquaintance with 
it will open a door of communication with an 
immense population, and over a vast tract of 
country. Among those from whom the Vocabu- 
lary was collected were persons who had come to 
Sierra Leone from Boussa ; others, from Yauri and 
Sokutu ; and others, from Kabi and Guber, exten- 
sive provinces of the Haussa Country. The writer 
met with Haussa Slaves even at Aboh ; and Obi, 
the King of Aboh, employed an Interpreter of the 
same nation. At Iddah, persons speaking this 
language were numerous ; and became more so 
as we advanced toward the interior. It appears 
likewise to have been adopted in a great measure 
by the Fulatahs, and is the principal language 
at Rabbah. 

The wide extent to which this language is 
spread, seems attributable to the commercial in- 
tercourse which is kept up between the Haussa 
and other nations. The Haussa People, according 


to the unanimous testimony of travellers, are 
more advanced than other nations in agricultural 
and commercial pursuits ; and their language 
proves them to be a people superior to any of the 
African Nations of which I have any knowledge. 
It is rich in words ; and its grammatical structure 
is easy and beautiful ; which may also account for 
its being so generally adopted. The author met 
with persons at Egga of the Yaruba, Bornou, 
Kakanda, and other countries who spoke Haussa 
with fluency; and, according to Mr. Laird, all 
transactions w^ere carried on in this language 
at Fundah, 

Our acquaintance w^ith the Haussa Language is 
not yet sufficiently extensive to admit of our 
determining its relation to other languages. 

The Observations on Pronunciation will show 
that it has few sounds strange to European 
organs ; and the permutation of letters seems to 
proceed on the principles to which we are accus- 
tomed : thus the r is convertible into /, the n into 
m, &c. &c. 

The word rua, " water," is nearly identical with 
the same term in the Celtic, as well as in some 
Eastern Languages. And here it may be worth 
noticing, that the Shary may possibly be only a 
generic appellation for " river," and the same 
word with the Zaire, and also nearly allied to the 
English Yare, the Scotch Garry, the French 
Garonne, the Swiss Arar, &c. &c. 

It would be important for African Philologists 


to mark such generalizations ; as it might tend to 
prevent confusion in tracing the geograpliy of 
the Continent. 

Several words in the Haussa resemble the 
Foulah — a language which has been proved, by- 
Mr. D'Eichthal, to belong to the Malay Family. 
Of these we may mention, as rather curious: 
giu-a, "the elephant"; ghiova, in the Foulah; and 
gayah, in the dialects of the Indian Archipelago. 
" Much," Haussa, koJiwonneh ; Foulah, kohevi ; 
Javanese, kiweh, or kih. 

A " religious Chief," in the Haussa, is lama ; in 
the Foulah, a "Cliief" is (ahamdi, or lambda; in 
the language of Madagascar, lahan, or rahan ; and 
in the other Poh-nesian dialects, rahan, possibly 
connected with rajah, and even with rex. 

Dubu, in Haussa, " a thousand," is evidently the 
Foulah doubou ; wliicli Mr. D'Eichthal connects 
with the Malay rebou, liboii, labou. 

The following; Volume is the fruit of the Nigger 
Expedition. Wlien the Author was requested, in 
the year 1S40, by the Committee of the Church 
Missionary Society, in whose ser\'ice he has the 
honour of being employed, to accompany the 
Niger Expedition, he directed his attention to the 
acquisition of the Ibo and Haussa Languages, and 
has collected extensive Vocabularies and Phrases 
in both. During the progress of the Expedi- 
tion on the Niger, both received considerable 
additions and emendations. But he has thought 
proper, for various reasons, to postpone the pub- 


lication of the Ibo for a future period, when it 
will, D.V., appear in a more complete form. 

The Researches in the Haussa are published 
with a design to assist those who may have a 
desire or a call of duty to acquire a knowledge of 
the principles and character of this language ; 
and especially with a view of facilitating, in how- 
ever humble a degree, the Translation into it of 
the everlasting Gospel for the healing of the Nations. 

It will be observed, from various quotations and 
a few specimens of Translation, that an attempt 
has already been made toward translating a 
portion of the Sacred Volume ; and the Author 
cherishes the hope of being permitted, on his 
return to Africa, not only to improve those 
already in hand, but to prosecute this important 
branch of Missionary labours still further. 

A sense of the great responsibility which 
attaches itself to the work of Translating the 
Scriptures prevents him, at present, from pub- 
lishing those portions w^liich he has rendered into 

In prosecuting the study of this language, the 
Author has made it his constant endeavour to 
obtain a correct knowledge of the grammatical 
construction of the language ; considering it the 
surest means of attaining the end, and rendering 
himself useful to others : and, to express the 
idioms of the language as literally as possible, he 
has been obliged to sacrifice elegance of style ; 
which the reader will kindly pardon. 


The Phrases have been collected from couver- 
sations. The language having no other than oral 
existence, no other authority can be given or 
appealed to than the lips of the people. 

The Author is far from pretending that aU 
the prmciples contained in the following pages 
are unexceptionably correct. A more thorough 
knowledge of the subject may detect many mac- 
curacies and errors; yet, as the most important 
features are known, it cannot fail to be of some 
value; and it may become the stepping-stone of 
a more complete and extended investigation ot 
the subject. 

March. 1543. 





JLwenty-one Letters are sufficient to express all the 
sounds occurrlug in the Haussa Language. Five of 
them are Vowels, and sixteen are Consonants. There 
are two Diphthongs, and two Double Consonants. 

The Vowels are, a, e, i, o, u. 

a is sounded as a in father. 

e e in prey. 

e e in )7iet. Hebrew Sheva still nearer. 

i i in ravine. 

in more. 

u u'va rule. 

The Diphthongs are ei and oi. 
ei is sounded like i in line ; as deia, " one." 
oi 0! in voice ; as hokoi, " seven." 

The Consonants are, b, d, f, g, h, k, I, m, n, p, r, s, t, U', y, z. 
The Double Consonants are, gb, ds, (or dz, or is) . 



The cases in which the Sound of the Consonants differs 
from the Eng-llsh may be briefly noticed : — 

d is sometimes associated with s or 2 ,■ as in dsafi, 
" idol," and in dzoro, " to fear." (It is evidently the 
Arabic letter ^J} dsahl.) The German pronuncia- 
tion of 2 in zahl is the nearest explanation of it. 

g is always hard ; as §• in gifi. 

h is pronounced as h in holy. It also lengthens 
the sound of the preceding' vowel at the end of a 
syllable or of a word ; as dahki, " house ; " dohki, 
" horse." 

k followed by w has the sound of the English qu in 
quick ; as kicanaki, " days." 

n is sometimes merely euphonic ; sometimes the sign 
of the genitive case ; and sometimes abridged for 
iia, participle present of the verb na, " To be." It 
is changed into ni before b. 

tsh is employed for j and di, found in the Vocabulary 
of the Society for the Civilization of Africa. The 
writer has not introduced it hastily, though he is 
now persuaded that tj would have been preferable. 
The following instances will show that j or ch would 
neither convey the proper pronunciation, nor pre- 
serve the etymology of the words. 


itashi or itshi, " tree." 
mache, "female." 


itatshi or itshi, pi. itatua. 
inatshe, pi. inaata. 
faratshi, " finger," ^\.faruta. 
kumtshi, "jaw," i^.kumaiu. 


w has more the sound of the German than of the 
English ic ; that is, (nearly) of the English v. 

Note. — The reader must not suppose, from the fre- 
quent occurrence of two or more Vowels, that the Diph- 
thongs are more than those which have been noticed. 
A'i, au, eao, oi, ua, are pronounced according to the 
powers ascribed to each letter; each forming a syllable 
of itself ; as, keao — read ke-a-o ; Haussa — Ha-us-sa ; 
Baula — Ba-u-ta. Alkauel is the only exception I have 
met with, where aue is pronounced like ow in the 
English word/oM?/. 


The Haussa Language has neither a Definite nor an 
Indefinite Article. The place of the Definite Article is 
frequently supplied by the Personal Pronouns, " he " and 
"she," or ya and ta ; thus, Hanu ya Shainyi, lit. 
"hand it withered," for "the withered hand;" and by 
Demonstrative Pronouns, as ngct, nan, and wonnan. The 
place of the Indefinite Article is supplied either by the 
numeral deia, " one," QS,yarinia deia, " one girl, " " a 
girl ;" or by woiuie, " which," " that," as, wonne mutum, 
" that man," " a (certain) man." 


There are in the Haussa, as in other languages, 
Primitive and Derived Xouns. Primitive Nouns have no 
external mark of distinction from other Parts of Speech, 
and are employed without undergoing any alteration 
either externally or internally, both as Xouns and as 
b 2 


Verbs ; as, inari, " to strike/' and " a blow" ; huki, " to 
dine," and " a dinner." 

Derivatives are formed from Verbs, Adjectives, and 
Nouns : — 

(1) By adding the syllable ta; as, 

koya, " to teach" ; koyata, " doctrine." 

kao, " to bring" ; kauta, " gift." 

karia, " false " ; kariata, " falsehood." 

tshiivu, "sick"; tshiwuta, "sickness." 

aboki, "friend"; abuta, " friendship." 

(2) By prefixing the vpord ahin ; as, 

tshi, "to eat"; ah'mhki, "victuals." 

(3) By prefixing ma or ma'i, pi. masu, before Nouns, 
Adjectives, and Verbs ; as, 

gonah, " farm" ; 7nai — , " farmer. " and pi. masugonah, 
hangkali, " wise " ; ma'i — ," wise man," pi. masu/unigkali. 
halbi, " to shoot" ; mat — , " sportsman," pi. masuhalbi. 
a^kah, "to shave"; mdi — , "barber," pi. masuaskah. 

(4) Diminutive Nouns are formed by prefixing the 
word dah, pi. yaya ; as, 

dunkia, " sheep " ; dahndunkia, " lamb," pi. yayan- 

akwia, " goat " ; dakakwia, " kid," pi. yayaawaki. 

muza, " cat"; dahmuza, "kitten," pi. yayamuza. 


There are Two Numbers in the Haussa Language — the 
Singular, and the Plural. The multiplicity, however, of 
Plural forms, and their great variation from the Singular 
Number, do not admit of any definite rule for the 


formation of the Plural*. Both Numbers are 2:1 ven in 
the Vocabularies, wherever it could be done with certainty. 
A few instances of the variations will prove the impossi- 
bility of forming the Plural from analogy, and show 
that both Numbers must be learned from the Natives 
themselves ; as, 

dahki, " house," pi. dahkuna. 

a'iki, " work," pi. a'ikoki. 

loloki, " room," pi. loloka'i. 

sariki, " king," pi. saraki. 
fuska, " face," ■pX.fuskiioki. 

shika, " sack," pi. shikiuia. 

bara, " servant," pi. harna. 

enua, "shadow," pi. enua'i. 

dunkia, " sheep," pi. dumaki. 

itshi, " tree," pi. itatua. 

dutshi, "stone," jiLduasu. 

awosa, " side," pi. awosa'i. 

sa'ifa, " spleen," pi. sciifofi. 

Sanda, " stick," pi, sandioia. 

Bako, " stranger," pi. baki , 

Gissogisso, " spider," pi. gissogissa'i. 


There are Two Genders in the Haussa Language — the 
Masculine and the Feminine. They are distinguished 
from each other. 

* In this respect, the Haussa Language corresponds exactly 
with the Foolah Language ; in which, however, the variation of 
the Plural from the Singular Number appears to be still 
greater. The author is indebted for this information to the 
Rev. R. M. MacBrair, Author of a Mandingo Grammar, who 
kindly allowed him to peruse a Sketch of the Foolah Grammar. 


(1) By putting the words viitshe (mizi), pi. maza, or 
namize, pi. maaza, signifying " male " ; and matshe, 
pi. maala, signifying " female ", before the Noun ; as, 

namizi nguriisu7iu, " boar," pi. maaza ?ignrusimai. 
matshe ngurusunu, " sow/' pi. maata ngurusundi. 

(2) By ditferent words ; as, 

dak, " son "; dia, " daughter ; " pi. yaya ; also diagi of dia. 
doliki, " horse " ; godia, " mare ;" pi. gen. com. dawaki. 
kishimi, " hart " ; hariewa, " hind." 
hunsuru, "he-goat"; akwia, "she-goat." 
rago, " ram " ; dunkia, " sheep." 

(3) By different terminations. — The termination i, in 
Nouns, Verbs, and Adjectives, is chiefly of the Mas- 
culine, and the termination a of the Feminine Gen- 
der. {Ki, " thou " and " thee " Personal Pronoun 
fern., is an exception to this rule.) Compare kori, 
masc, kora, fern., " to put away " : kaneh, " brother," 
A-artua, "sister": mahaukatshi, masc, mahavka- 
tshia, fem., "a foolish person": faii, masc, faia, 
fem., " white," pi. gen. com. farufaru : baki, masc, 
baka, fem., " black," pi. gen. com. babaku. 


There is, strictly speaking, no Declension of the Nouns 
in the Haussa Language. The Noun remains unaltered ; 
and the Cases are known either by the position which 
the Substantive occupies, or by the Prepositions which 
accompany it : and in this respect the Haussa Language 
has no advantage over other African Languages. 

The Nominative always precedes the Verb ; as, Obaya 
sakka gara sa, " The father came to him." 

The Genitive Case is sometimes preceded by 7i ,• but 
this 71 is more frequently altogether omitted in conver- 


sation. It has occurred to me that the ii may possibly 
be abridged from ?/a, Participle Present, " being " ; as, 
hakkora ngiica, " elephant's teeth," or " teeth being (those) 
of an elephant." Sometimes the Prepositions ga and da 
are employed to express this Case ; as, Ku yi hangkali 
ga mutani, " Beware of men/' Tsliiki nsu woddanda 
keh haifa ga maata, "Amongst those who are born of 
women." TFondda keh gaskia karami ga iri duka, 
" Which is, in fact, the smallest of all seeds " : and, Ina 
mutua da yungica, " I am dying of (with) hunger." The 
Possessive Pronoun is more frequently used to denote the 
Genitive Case ; as, Shi neh oha ?isa, " He is his father," 
or " father of him." Katii Jisu, " The youngest of 
them." Tshiki ?iku, " Which of you." Very freqxiently, 
when two substantives are placed together, of which the 
latter is the genitive, no mark of distinction is employed ; 
as. Da makia miitiim su neh mutani nsa, " And a man's 
foes are they of his own people." Malaika Alia, "The 
angel of God." Obangissi Alia ya yi iri ndunia duka 
shinni deia, " The Lord God, He made all nations of the 
earth of one blood," lit. " one blood." 

The Dative Case is expressed by the Prepositions da, 
ga, gare (which makes gara before sa and to), and by 
the Preposition ma; thus, Su kajitta su a^amu da ango, 
" They went out to meet (with) the bridegroom " : 
Saliki nFundah ya bia gunda ga Attuk, " The king of 
Fundah pays tribute to the Attah." Na ishe gare ku, 
" I say to you." Fadda ma ni, " Tell me." Ta kdi 
shi ga uwa nta, " She carried it to her mother." Alma- 
shira'i nsa su ka sakka gara sa, " His disciples came 
unto him." Ku kao su gare ni, " Bring ye them to me." 
Budeh ma mu, "Open to us." 

The Objective Case, or Accusative, always follows the 


The Adjective is not distinguished from the Substan- 
tive or Verb by any peculiar mark or termination. It is 
known to be such from the position it holds in a sentence, 
but principally by its signification. There are not many 
Adjectives in the Haussa Language ; for which reason, 
those that are used have a great variety of meanings. 
Keao means " fine," " handsome," " agreeable," " plea- 
sant," "good," &c. &c. Dogo is employed for "tall,'" 
" long," " wide," " broad," &c. &c. The language, 
therefore, is not able to express the various shades of 
colour by which, in other languages, such nice distinc- 
tions can be made : black, white, and red, must answer 
for all. Many words must be considered as Participles 
rather than pure Adjectives. The Adjective may be 
placed before, as well as after, the Noun, though not arbi- 
trarily : its position must be learned from the Natives 
themselves. To make up for the deficiency of Adjectives, 
two Substantives are frequently employed with or with- 
out Prepositions, where more cultivated languages would 
employ an Adjective and a Substantive ; thus, dutshi 
dahki, " stone house " : sliia onakoji, " a leader a blind 
one," for "a blind leader." Da is sometimes employed 
to express the signification of the Adjective between two 
Substantives, which must be accounted for by the signi- 
fication of da ; it certainly occvirs as the Preposition with ; 
and to say, mutum da kariji, "a man with strength," 
for " a strong man," would give a good sense. But it 
is more likely that another signification oi da, namely, 
" having," " possessing," in which the word is frequently 
used, is still preferable. Compare Alia da rat, " God 
with life," better " God possessing life," for " the living 


God": and so may mutmn da karifi be rendered "a 
man possessing strenc^th," for " a strong' man." 

The Gender of Adjectives is like that of many of the 
Substantives, chiefly known from their terminations ; as, 
fari,, fara, fem., " white " : baki, masc, baka, fem., 
"black": dogo, masc, dogua, fem., "wide," "long," 
" high." 

In some other Adjectives, the Gender is marked out at 
the beginning of the word by the prefixes na and ta. 
Compare iiagari, masc, tasari, fem., " good." It is 
obvious here, that the Gender of the qualifying word is 
expressed in the form of the Participle ; and mutum 
nagari must, literally translated, mean " a man being 
good" (distinguishing the gender); and matshe tagari, 
" a woman being good," for " a good man," and " a good 
woman." So likewise is Hanu nadahma, lianu na 
hauni, " The hand being the right or the left," instead of 
" The right or the left hand." The use of ?ia in the 
Ordinal Numerals, nafahri, " the first," nabiu, " the se- 
cond," is strongly confirmatory of this view. 

It must however be observed, that ta seldom, if ever, 
occurs {i.e. in the Collection of Words and Phrases which 
is in my hands) as an Auxiliary Verb " To be," or as 
its Participle " Being " : but, since Auxiliarj' Verbs are 
frequently omitted in almost all of the African Languages, 
as far as they are known, and ta is actually used as the 
Personal Pronoun " she," it may safely be concluded that 
the signification of time or existence is implied in it. 

The Adjective signification is also expressed by pre- 
fixing ma, or ma'i, pi. masu, both before Substantives 
and Verbs ; as, ,reze itshi ma'ikaria, " a reed which is 
bruised," for "a bruised reed": abawa ma'ihayaki, 
«' cotton (wick) which is smoking," for " a smoking 
B 3 


wick." And in the following- instances : Mutum nagari 
daga keao nsurukmni nsutshia, ya kao woshe abubua 
masukeao ; vntgu mutum daga mugu nsurukumi ya 
kao woshe abubua miagu, "A man, being good, from the 
good treasure of the heart, bringeth forth things which 
are good ; a bad man, from the bad treasure, bringeth 
forth bad things." 

[Whether the termination i in 7nai may be considered 
as an abbreviation of the Auxiliary Verb yi, " To do," 
" To make," the idea of which maihayaki and other 
instances would favour, must at present remain unde- 
cided. Maihayaki, " which makes (causes) smoke," 
would give a good sense.] 

Similar to the instance just given are : Itshimaikeao, 
" a tree which is good," or " a good tree" : Ba shi kao 
yaya miagu, " Cannot bring forth bad fruits." Koda 
mugu itshi shi kao yaya masukeao, " Neither can a bad 
tree bring forth fruits which are good." 

The following Adjectives form the Plural Number of 
different words ; as, 

baba, " great," pi. ma'inya. 
mugu, " bad," pi. miagu. 


No Degrees of Comparison can be expressed by altera- 
tions of, or additions to, the Adjectives; but only by 
circumlocution and the use of the Verb J?, " to surpass," 
" to excel ;" as, Almashiri ba shi Ji oba nkarratu nsa, 
ko bara Obangissi nsa ; lit. " The disciple does not 
excel, is not better than, his teacher ; neither does the 
servant excel, is better than, his master." Su nafi shi 
mugmita, "They are surpassing him in wickedness." 


Wondda ya fi Solomon girima na nan, " One who sur- 
passes Solomon in greatness is here." 

The Superlative Degree is expressed by adding the 
word duka, "all"; as, " Rua su na dahdi ; nono shi Ji 
rua ndahdi ; suma slii Ji duka ndahdi ; lit. " Water is 
sweet ; milk surpasses water in sweetness ; honey (is the 
sweetest) surpasses all in sweetness." 


The Haussa Adjectives of Number are the following : 


1. Deia. 

2. Biu. 

3. Uku. 

4. Hudu, or Fudu. 

5. Biat, or Biar. 

6. S.'iifta. 

7. Bokoi, or Bokwoi. 

8. Tokos. 

9. Tarra. 

10. Goma ; which forms a plural, Gomia. 

11. Goma sha deia. 

12. Gomo sha biu. 

13. Goma sha uku; &c. &c. 

19. Ashiri deia hahu ; i.e. "Twenty without one," 

or, " One less than twenty." But Goma sha 
tarra is likewise used, although less frequently. 

20. Ashirin, or Ishirin ; frequently Gomia biu. 

21. Ashirin da deia; i. e. " Twenty with one," or 

" Twenty having one with it," &c. &c. 

29. Tallatin deia babu ; and Ashirin da tarra. 

30. Tallatin, or Gomia uku. 

39. Tallatin deia tarra, or Arbain da babu. 



40. Arhain, or Gomia hudu. 

41. Arhain da deia, &c. &c. 

49. Amsin deia babu, or Arhain da tarra. 

50. Amsin, or Gomia hiar. 

51. Amsin da deia, &c. &c. 

59. Shittin deia babu, or Amsin da tarra. 

60. Shittin, or Gomia shittin. 

61. Shittifi da deia, &c. &c. 

69. Tiss'im deia babu, or Shittin da tarra. 

70. Tissi'in and Shittin da goma, and Go?nia bokoi, 

&c. &c. 

79. Tammanin deia hahu. 

80. Tammanin, or Go7nia tokos. 

81. Tammanin da deia, &c. &c. 

89. Tammanin da tarra. 

90. Gomia tarra. 

91. Gomia tarra da deia, &c. &c. 
99. Go?)iia tarra da tarra. 

100. Da/iW, or D«rt. 
200. Don 6m, &c. &c. 
1000. Z)m6u. 
2000. Dubu biu. 
3000. Dm6m uku, &c. &c. 
10,000. Samhar. 
11,000. Sambar da dubu. 
20,000. Samhar ashirin. 
30,000. Sambar tallatin. 
40,000. Samhar arhain, &c.&c. 
100,000. Dingim, or D«6m rfari. 

The Niimbers given from 10,000 seem doubtful, 
although obtained from Natives in the Interior. Sambar 
may, probably, signify " a bag of cowries, containing 
10,000 ;" in which case the exact number would be stated. 



The Ordinal Numerals are expressed by putting na 
before the Cardinals ; the first, as is seen, being the only 

Na fahri, " the first." 

Na hill, " the second." 

Na uku, " the third." 

Na hudu, " the fourth," &c. &c. 


The Adverbial Numerals, Once, Twice, &c. &c., are 
formed by the Numerals compounded with sera, " time ;" 
chang-ing the last vowel into o or u, for the sake of 
euphony; as, 

Saodeia, or saudeia, " once." 

Saobhi, or saubiu, " twice." 

Saouku, or sauuku, " three times," &c. &c. 


The Pronouns, like the Nouns and Adjectives, are not 
declined through Cases. The Genitive Case is the only 
one which is distinguished from the rest, by having the 
letter n prefixed to each Person of the Pronoun, the First 
Person excepted, in the Singular Number. In common 
conversation, however, this characteristic letter ?i is fre- 
quently omitted in the Pronouns, as in other Parts of 

One of the beauties of the Haussa Language consists 
in the power it possesses to distinguish the Gender in 
the Personal Pronouns through the Singular Number; 
especially in the Second and Third Persons, and some- 
times in the First too, by adding a, the characteristic ter- 
mination of the Feminine Gender, to 7ii, nia, '" I." 



The Personal Pronouns are : 


1st pers. masc. Ina,{tii also, fm.) " I " and " me." 
1st pers. fem. Nia, and ta, " I " and " me.'' 
2d pers. masc. Ka, and ka/i, " thou " and " thee." 
2d pers. fem. Ki, " thou " and " thee." 

3d pers. masc. Shi, ya, and sa, " he," " him," " it." 
3d pers. fem. Ta, ita, and ta'i, " she," " her," " it." 


1st pers. generis communis, Mu, " Ave," " us." 

2d pers Ku, " ye," " you." 

3d pers Su, " they," " them." 

Note. — The Plural is frequently pronounced mung, 
kung, sung ; which must be accounted for, either as an 
abbreviation and assimilation of mu na, ku na, and su 
nci, " we are," " ye are," " they are," " doing," " saying," 
&c. &c., the construction with the Present Participle ; 
or as a stronger sound of the n, which precedes, or 
ought to precede, the following word, either as a sign of 
the Genitive Case, or for the sake of euphony. 


The Possessive Pronouns are formed from the Per- 
sonal Pronouns, by the addition of n; which is virtually 
the sign of the Genitive Case ; as, 


1st pers. masc. Na, ni (also fm.) " my," " mine," " of my." 
1st pers. fem. Nia, " my," " mine," " of my." 

2d pers. masc. Nka, " thy," " thine," " of thy." 

2d pers. fem. Nki, " thy," " thine," " of thy." 

3d pers. masc. Nshi nsa, " his," " of him," " of it." 

3d pers. fem. Ntd, " hers," " of her," " of it." 



1st pers. g-eneris comm. Nmu, and mu, " our," " of \is." 

2d pers Nku, " yours/' " of your." 

3d pers Nsu, " their's/' " of thelr's." 

The Dative Case is expressed chiefly by the following 
Prepositions: ga, gare, gar a, before sa and ta, and the 
Preposition ma. The Dative Case always follows the 
Verb ; as, Ku kao su nan gare ni, " Bring ye them 
here to me." Uwa nta ta fadda ma ta, " Her mother 
told her." Ahahsa shi gara ta, " It was given to her." 
Ya tshe ma su, " He said to them," &c. &c. 


The Compound Personal Pronouns are as follow : 


1st pers. masc. Ka'bia, ni ka'ina, " myself," " I myselt." 

1st pers. fern. Nia ka'ina, " myself," " I myself." 

„ , ( Kanka, kakanka, ) " thyself, " 

2d pers. masc. .? \ , . ic» 

\ and kankanka. j " thou thyself. 

2dpers.fem. Kanki, kikanki, [J^^^^seK" 

„ , „ , ., f " himself," 

3d pers. masc. Kansa, snikansa,) . 

[ " he himselt. 

^ , r { Kanta, takanta, } " herself," 

3d pers. tem. J . , } ^ , tc» 

I itakanta, ^ she herself. 


1st pers. gen. J Kamu, muda- )" ourselves," 

comm. I kamu, ) " we {have) ourselves." 

2d pers. gen. j Kanku, \ " yourselves," 

comm. \ kukanku, ) " ye yourselves." 

3d pers. gen. j Kansu, sada- 1 " themselves," 

comm. I kansu, ) " they themselves." 

Ta fadda ma ni takanta, "She told it to me herself." 



The Demonstrative Pronouns are numerous, yet not 
very distinct. Nga, nan, woddanan, wonnan, must first 
be noticed. These precede or follow Nouns both in the 
Singular and Plural Number, and of both Genders, 
without undergoing any alteration, in the signification of 
" this," " these," " that," " those " ; as, woddanan mutaiii, 
"this people"; woddanan abubua, "these things." 
Ba womian da keh sua tshiki mbahki, " Not that which 
is going into the mouth." It is probable that nga is but 
an abridged form of wangga. 

JVangga, " this," pi. woddanga, and woddanda ; 
abridged da. — The Relative Pronoun is frequently in- 
cluded in this Demonstrative, especially when followed 
by the Auxiliary Verbs, neh, keh, and tslie ; as, wod- 
danda keh, " those who are," i.e. eating, drinking, &c. 

Ma, ma'i, pi. masii, may properly be numbered among 
the Demonstrative Pronouns ; since, through their aid, the 
construction may in many cases be varied, and the style 
improved ; though many words containing these prefixes 
are, strictly speaking. Substantives of Quality, or Adjec- 
tives turned into Substantives. The following are ex 
amples of the use of both : woddanda keh yungwa, 
." those who are hungry," can be expressed by masu- 
ywigwa, " the hungry persons ; and woddanda keh 
yenka are, " those who reap," or " the reapers." 


The following are the Relative Pronouns : 
Wa, pi. sua, " who ? " and " which ? " (interrogative). 
Wodda, pi. woddanda, abridged da, " who," and 

" which." In the Plural, the Demonstrative and Relative 

Pronouns are alike. 


ff''^onne, and wonno, are likewise used as Relative Pro- 
nouns. Examples: fFa mutani su tshe ni neh? "WTio 
say the people that I am ? " Sua kaneh na ? " Who 
are my brethren ? " Oba na wondda keh tshiki Ali- 
tshana, " My Father who is in heaven." Kurdi da neh 
dauka gave ka, " The money which I am taking from 
you." Shi wondda ya sayi oba 7isa, " He who curseth 
his father." Su uherri ga key a kohwa woddanda keh 
soh koyo, " They shall be permitted to teach any one 
who is willing to learn." 

It does not appear, from the examples we have of the 
use of the Relative Pronouns, that the Haussas can di- 
stinguish the Gender by them, nor the various Cases of 
the Substantives to which they refer. 

The Particles 77ia, or ?nai, pi. masu, which have al- 
ready been noticed (as forming Substantives and Adjec- 
tives, and as Demonstrative Pronouns), deserve mention 
under this head also. It is evident that they may be 
considered both as Demonstrative and as Relative Pro- 
nouns ; though in an English translation many words 
with which they are compounded may either be ren- 
dered as Substantives of Quality, or as Adjectives. Thus, 
mutum. ma'itshiwu may be rendered "a sick man" ; and 
niutuni being left out, " the sick (person) " ; and it may 
be rendered "the man who (is) sick"; the Auxiliary 
Verb, " To be," being omitted. In the following instance, 
as in many others, it is plainly used as a Substantive of 
Quality : Saana?i ya tshe ga masuruhutu, " Then said 
he to the Scribes." 


The Interrogative Relative Pronouns are, mi, meh, 
wonne, wonna, ena, kaka, and wa, " what ? " and 


" which ? " Examples : Mi yaushe ? " What time ? " 
Mi faru ? " What is the matter ? " JFoiine abu m 
ka kao ? " What things do they bring ? " Ena suna 
gari nka ? " What is the name of your country ? " 
Kaka properly signifies " how ? " Kaka suna oba 
nka ? literally, " How is the name of your father ? " 
fVa tshi ribha mu utshi ? " What is the profit we shall 
reap ?" literally, " we shall eat ? " 


An Indefinite Pronoun is much in use among' the 
Haussas : Ko.'iwa, signifying " whoever," " whosoever," 
" whatever," " whatsoever," " any one," &c. &c. Exam- 
ples : Kohwa slii iyi yirda oba na, " Whosoever shall 
do the will of my father." Kohwotshe and Kohwonne. 
Kohwa ski itshe ga oba nsa, " Whosoever shall say to his 
father." Kohwotshe kassa ta rebu da kanta, " Every 
kingdom (whatever kingdom) being divided against 
itself" Kohwotshe iri ndukia, " Every kind of goods." 
Also Kohmi. Su ?iyi ma sa kohmi su keh soh, " They 
did to him whatsoever they wished." 

Ko occurs sometimes as an Interrogative Particle, 
which cannot be translated in English ; as, Ko ka yi 
dogua tafia ? " Have you made a long journey ? '^ 

Another Indefinite Pronoun, wosu, also occurs, signi- 
fying " somebody," or " something" ; as, Saanan wosu 
Masurubutii su nyi amsa, " Then some of the Scribes 
answered." TFonne stands sometimes for " another " ; 
as, fFonne hahditshe, " another parable " ; and forms its 
plural in wosxt ; as, fVosu habaita'i, " other parables." 

( l'? ) 


The Verb of the Haussa, as in fact of every other 
language, is the most complicated, and therefore the most 
difficult part of speech ; and a satisfactory- explanation 
of it cannot be expected, until a language, now merely 
floating on the lips of an illiterate people, shall be com- 
pletely reduced to writing, and a written standard intro- 
duced. For it is undoubtedly the case, that as long as 
a language has only an oral, and no other existence, it 
must be liable to many chanoes, and that a degree of 
uncertainty must attach to many things. In the fol- 
lowing remarks, nothins: more must be looked for than 
a statement of those things which fell under the writer's 
personal observation ; which, however, he trusts will be 
of service to any person who may succeed him iu the 
study of this language. 

It appears that the same observation must be made 
with respect to the Verb which has already been made 
respecting the Xoun ; i.e. that as the Noun is defective in 
its declension, so is the Verb in its conjugation. It seems 
that it does not express Tense, Number, or Mood, by 
inflection ; but by the addition of letters and Particles, 
and especially by the aid of the Personal Pronouns, 
which accompany the Verb both in its Active and 
Passive form, and but seldom, if ever, admit of omission, 
abbreviation, or assimilation with the ^ erb. 

[A few instances occur in the collection of words and 
phrases which I have made, in which different Tenses are 
expressed by distinct terminations ; and it is probable that 
more such may be discovered, but I believe unlikely that 
they will form distinct conjugations. At present they 

20 VERBS. 

can only be noticed as exceptions from the above rule. 
They are as follows : 

Aikeh, " to send " ; a'iko, " to have sent." 

Taffi, " to go " ; taffo, " to have come." 

Foreh, and /bro, " to warn " ; foro, " to have warned." 

Sah, and sua, " to come " ; sua (more especially), 
*' about to come." 

Sakka, " to come"; sakkua, " about to come," " will 

There are likewise a few forms terminating in u, which 
have a Passive signification ; as, samu, and akasamu, 
" to have," and " to be received " ; rebu, " divided " ; 
dameru, " be bound," &c. &c. 

And some Verbs, especially such as terminate in shie 
or sie in the Infinitive Mood, change shie or sie into sa 
in the Third Person Singular, both masculine and femi- 
nine. They are the following : 

Bashie, " to deliver" ; Passive Form, ambashie ni, 
" are delivered unto me " (mlhi data sunt). 

Dsaishie, " to detain." 

Gbashle, " to destroy " ; Passive Form, agbashie, " to 
be destroyed." 

Pants/lie, " to redeem." 

Shiefshie, " to cast out." 

Tshisie, " to bite." 

They are conjugated in the following manner : 


1st pers. gen. ) . f " I detain you," or 

> Na dsaishie ka, i .< j . • j » 

comm. ) I detamed you. 

rtj E^ J •• J • • ( " thou detainest," or 

2d pers. masc. . . Ka dsaishie ni, J 

( " detainedst me." 

„ J r ir- J ■ I ■ • ( " thou detainest," or 

2d pers. rem. . . Ki dsaishie ni, \ . , 

( " didst detam me. ' 

VERBS. 21 

he detains/' or 
detained him." 

3d pers. masc. I Ya dsa'isa sa, -J * 

3d pers. fem. I Ta dsaisata, j" '^^ detains" o 
3 I " detained her.' 


1st pers. gen. ) ^^ ^^^^^^.^ ^^^ | " we detain/' or 

comm. j I. " detained her." 

2d pers. gen. | f " ye detain/' or " de- 

comm. J ( tamed him. 

3d pers. gen. ) ^^^ ^^^..^,^.^ ^. |" they detain/' or 

comm. 3 I " detained me. ' ] 


There are Verbs which represent parts of the Verb 
"To be" in the Haussa Language : their use, however, 
as auxiliaries for the formation of Tenses or Moods is 
not so extensive as in English or other languages. They 
are more generally employed as real Verbs, expressive of 
an existence or state of being; and are as follows: iViar, 
neh, keh, and tshe, signifying " is " and " are," " was " 
and " were." The three first are associated with both 
Genders, while tshe is principally employed in the con- 
struction with the Feminine Gender. They are conju- 
gated in the following manner : 


1st pers. gen. ) Na, ni, {nia) j „ j ^^ „ ^^ 

comm. 3 neh, keh, tshe, I 

•2d pers. masc. . . Ka neh, keh, } ^^ 

2d pers. fem. I ^^ (^'^''' ^^^'>' i" 

^ 3 tshe, V 


" thou art/' 
thou wast.'' 
" thou art/' 
thou wast." 
3d pers. masc. . Shi neh, keh, . . " he is/' or 


oj c {Ta (nek, keli) ),,,•» u 

3d pers. rem.. ) ^ Y she is, or was. 

^ \ tshe, 3 


1st pers. ffen. ") Mu neh, keli, ) ,, „ ., 

^ r V " we are, or ' were. 

3 tshe, ) 


2d pers. ffen. 1 Ku neh, keh, ] ,, „ .< » 

^ ^' I >■ ye are, or " were, 

comm. ) tshe, ) 

3d pers. sj-en. ) Su neh, keh, 1 ., ^, „ „ „ 

^ V ) » I 4c j^jjgy are, or " were. 

comm. ) tshe, ) 

The Future Tense is expressed by samma ; as, Hak- 
kanna shi isamma ga wonnan miagu dahngi, "So shall 
it be with this wicked -generation " : and Donghakka 
su usamma alikalu'i nku, " Therefore they shall be your 
judges." In the formation of the Future Tense, it is 
necessary to observe, that in this, as well as in other 
Verbs, the vowel, with which the Personal Pronoun 
terminates, is always prefixed ; as, 

Ni isamma, " I shall be." 
Ka asamma, " thou shalt be." 
Su tisumma, " they shall be," &c. &c. 
Na is chiefly employed to denote the Present Tense of 
the Active Verb, and may be best rendered by the Parti- 
ciple Present ; as, Ina soh shi, " I am loving him " : 
Su na tarra su, " they are gathering them" : Ta na soh 
dia ta, " she is loving her daughter." 

Neh is frequently placed last in a sentence ; as, Wonnan 
ba dah nsariki neh ? " Is not this the son of the king ? " 
See Vocab. " Am." 

[There are a few forms of the Verb which appeared to 
me for some time to be compounded with da, signifying 
" to have " ; as, shiefasda, bahda, &c. ; and, especially, 
it looked like an Auxiliary in this passage, Su ubahda 
kedaya, '' They shall have to give an account": but 


after a careful examination of all the passages in which 
da occurs, I am inclined to think that it is employed 
only as a proper verb, signifying " to have," "to pos- 
sess " {ina da rai is not " I live," but " I have, I possess 
life,") and never as an Auxiliary to Tenses or Moods.] 


The Present Tense of the Active Verb answers to the 
English construction with the Participle "am doing," 
&c. ; as, ina soh, " I am loving." 

The Past Tense is generally expressed by the shortest 
form of the Verb ; as, ?ia soh, " I have loved." But 
there appears a great deal of uncertainty on this subject ; 
and the Natives themselves differ widely in the use of 
forms which they employ to express the Past Tense, 
or rather Past Tenses. By some, ka is put before the 
Verb, to denote the Perfect Tense ; as. Mil kajitto, " We 
have left"; Su ka sakka ma sa, "They have come to 
him " ; while others omit it altogether. Since, however, 
it occurs as an essential part for the formation of the 
Perfect Tense in the Passive Voice, it is probable that 
those who make use of it speak most grammatically. 
Sometimes kareh and gama, signifying " to finish," are 
employed as Auxiliaries to Past Tenses ; as, Na kareh 
tshi, " I have finished eating," &c. 

The Pluperfect Tense may be said to be expressed by 
the aid of an Adverb, daifuri, meaning " once " or " for- 
merly " ; as, Na soh mutani daicuri, " I loved the people 
once, or formerly," showing that the action is altogether 

To express the Future Tense, the Vowels (as has been 
obser\-ed already) with which the Personal Pronouns 


terminate are repeated before the Verb ; thus, Ni isoh, 
" I shall love " ; Ka asoh, " Thou shalt love." 

The Second Future signifies " to be about going," 
loving, &c., and is expressed by the words sua, sakkua ; 
Ina sakkua, " I am about to come." 

The conjugation of the most common forms of the 
Active Verb may be represented in the following- 
manner : 




1st pers. gen. comm. Ina soh, " I am loving." 

2d pers. gen. masc. Ka na soh, " thou art loving." 

2d pers. gen. fern. Ki na soh, " thou art loving." 

( Shi and 2/« ) , . , . „ 
3d pers. gen. masc | ^^^^ ^^^^ | " he is loving. 

3d pers. gen. fem. Ta na soh, " she is loving." 


1st pers. gen. comm. Mu na soh, " we are loving." 
2d pers. gen. comm. Ku ?ia soh, " ye are loving." 
3d pers. gen. comm. Su na soh, " they are loving." 


1st pers. gen. comm. Na soh, " I have loved." 
2d pers. gen. masc. Ka soh, " thou hast loved." 

2d pers. gen. fem. Ki soh, " thou hast loved." 

3d pers. gen. masc. {^'^"^^7^^''} "^e has loved." 

3d pers. gen. fem. Ta soh, " she has loved." 


1st pers. gen. comm. Mu soh, " we have loved." 
2d pers. gen. comm. Ku soh, "ye have loved." 
3d pers. gen. comm. Su soh, " they have loved." 



i . ) i " I shall or " will 

1st pers. aren. comm. < ison or > i >j 

\ ason J 

rr 1 V thou shalt/' or 

2d pers. ffen. masc. . Aa G^o/2, ■< ., , „ 

^ * I" wilt love." 

oj r E- • A i " thou Shalt," or 

2d pers. gen. fem. . . ^. ..0/., j.^ii^i^^,. 

c, • . L i " he shall," or 

3d pers. ffen. masc. . olii isoti, -j ,^ .,, , ,, 

^ ^ I " will love. 

3d pers. -en. fern. . . Ta asoh, i " ^^« '^^"'" °' 


we shall," or 
ill love." 

1st pers. o:en. comm. 3Iu usoh, \ 

^ '' l"w 

_ , i^ A I " ve shall," or 

2d pers. sfen. comm. Aii uson, < ' .„ , ,, 

- (, " will love. 

_ , o A 5 " ye shall," or 

3d pers. seen. comm. bu usoh, < .„ , 

^ ° I" will love." 


The Subjunctive Mood differs not from the Indicative. 
Certain Particles, expressive of condition or contingency, 
are placed before the various Tenses; as, deh, " must" ; 
en, " if" ; kada, " must not," " dare not " ; ka, " can," 
" could " ; issa, " able (or might)" ; ha issa, " not able." 


The Imperative is properly used only in the Second 

Person, both Singular and Plural ; and consists of the 

simplest form of the Verb with the Personal Pronouns 

placed before it. All other Persons are expressed by 



circumlocution, or by the Future Tense, in the following 
manner : 


masc. . . Ka soli " love thou/' 

fem. . . Ki soh " love thou." 

masc. . Beri shi ya soh ..." let him (he) love." 
fem. . . Beri ta ta soh ..." let her (she) love." 


" let us," or 

comm. Ku soh " love ye 

comm. Beri mu mu usoh, , .,, , , 

we will love. 

r, . , 1 let them," or 

comm. Ben su su uson. 

they will love." 


The Infinitive Mood is formed by prefixing the Pre- 
position ga, " to, " before the Verb. It is, however, not 
so often employed for this purpose as the signs by which 
the Infinitive Mood is expressed in other languages. 


The Haussa has an advantage over many other 
Afi*ican Languages, in possessing a Passive form. But 
the use made of it is of a limited nature ; and a predilec- 
tion is observable in the Natives to the Active Voice ; so 
that they are more likely to say, Yaki ya kashi su, 
"War killed them," than Angkashi su ga yaki, "They 
were killed in war." 

The Present Tense is formed from the Active Verb by 
prefixing a (which changes into an, ang ; and before h, 
into m, for the sake of euphony) ; as, ansoh ni, or asoh 
ni, " I am loved " ; ansoh ka-ki, " thou art loved " ; or. 


ankashi nl, or atigkashi ni, " 1 am killed." Shi ambari 
shi da, " He shall be left (allowed) to have himself," i.e. 
" He shall be free." A'ikoki alhoruma anyi su gara sa, 
" Mighty works are done by him." Da kohwa nawa 
su ka taba shi aworikeh su, " And as many as touched 
him were made whole." 

The Perfect Tense is formed by prefixing aka before 
the Active Verb ; as, aka yi, " to have been done " ; 
aka kahma, " to have been caught." 

For the formation of the Future Tense in the Passive 
Voice I cannot lay down any definite rule. It appears 
that sometimes it is expressed by using the Imperative 
Mood of the Present Tense. A few instances will best 
explain my meaning: — Kohwa ka adamreh ga dunia 
adamreh shi tshiki alitshana, " Whatsoever thou shalt bind 
on earth (shall) be bound in heaven." Ya hokumta 
abahsa sa gara ta, " He commanded (that it should) it 
be given to her." Mbahyi enda keh nan abeh su yaya, 
shiragi agbashie su ko asayeshle su sabbada alliwaski, 
" And the slaves, if there are any, (shall) be left free, and 
the canoes (shall) be destroyed or sold, agreeably to the 
treaty." But the sentence is more frequently turned 
so as to admit the use of the Active Voice ; as. Ta 
aha'ihu dah su ukirra suna nsa, " She shall bring forth a 
son, and they shall call his name," instead of " his namt 
shall be called." 


( 28 ) 

The Adverbs of the Haussa Language are not distin- 
guished from other Parts of Speech by any termination or 
other mark peculiar to themselves. They are known to 
be such from their signification, and from the place they 
occupy in a sentence. Sometimes the Adverbial Tense 
is expressed by Substantives accompanied by a Prepo- 
sition ; as, da gaskia, literally, " with certainty," " with 
justice," " for certainly," "justly " ; and da sarei, " with 
clearness " or " distinction," for " clearly " and " dis- 
tinctly " ; da kari/i, " with power " for " powerfully." 
The following are the principal Adverbs : 


lajia, and kwarei, " well." I muni, " cruelly." 
tshiwu, " ill." 1 karia, " falsely," &c.&c. 


i/id, or ena, " whence,"' 

" where." 
bissa, " on," " upon," "over,' 

" above." 
kassa, " down." 

buT/a, " behind.' 

yansu, " now." 
saodeia, " once." 
saoblu, " twice." 
7nassa, " cjuickly.' 

gaba, " before." 
kussa, " near." 
nesa, " far." 
mabi, " beyond." 
tshan, " yonder," &c.&c. 

3. OF TIME. 

nawa, " slowly." 
kanda, " soon," " sooner.^' 
kiiluni, or kurum, 
" always," " daily.'' 


ba, ad, " no," " not," " by no means. ' 



yao, or yaoyao, " yes." | da gaskia, " certainly." 


kakay " how ?" ( domeh, " why ?" 


dayawa, or deyawa, i dwAa, " all." 

" much," " many." | karami, " little." 


nafahri, " first." | 7iabiu, " secondly," &c. &c. 

The number of Prepositions is small in the Haussa 
Language ; and this deficiency is made up by assigning 
to those that are used a great variety of meanings, 
which causes no little difficulty in translating from 
European Languages ; while the frequent occurrence of 
the same Prepositions is unpleasant to the ear. The 
following are those in most common use : and they 
always precede the Noun which they govern. 

Tshiki occurs as a Substantive, signifying " belly," 
or " the inside," and as Preposition in ; as, tshiki 
ndahhi, "in the house." It likewise signifies out, 
as in this passage: Ba wonnan da keh sua tshiki 
mbahki shi ka sah mutum dauda ha, amma yajilto 
tshiki mhahki shi ka sah mutum dauda "Not that 
which is going in the mouth (it) can make a man 
unclean, but that which (it) goes out of the mouth 
can make a man unclean.^' 
sahkani, or sakkani, " between," is derived from 
sahka, or sakka, " the middle." 


ga, " to," " by," " in," " at," " through." 

gaba, " before." 

gave, or gara, " on," " to," " against." 

bissa, " on," " upon," " over," " above." 

daga, " from." 

kamma, " about." 

ma, " to," " against." 

sabbada, or sabbadi, " because of," " for the sake of," 

" according to.'* 
baya, " behind." 
kalikashi, " under." 
remi, " below." 


Words of this class are not numerous in this language. 
In common conversation they are frequently altogether 
omitted ; and clauses and sentences are never connected 
by Copulative Conjunctions, but words only. They are 
as follows : 

da and sha, " and." Ska is only used in the Nume- 
rals from ten to twenty ; as, goma sha deia, " ten 
and one," i.e. " eleven." 

hal, "till," "until." 

amnia, " but." 

sai or sdiko, " except." 

kamma, " as," " like as." 

en and kattang, " if" 

dohmeh, or dongmeh, " because," " for." 

ko, "or." 








Abhor, v. kih. — "I abhor all bad things," Na kih mugu 
abu duka. 

Abide, v. samma. — " I abide here," Ina samma nan. 

Able (to be), adj. ia, issa. — " Are you able to hear my 
word?" Ka ia shi magana ta ? — " Are ye able to teach 
me ?" Nku issa koya ma ni ? — " They are not able to 
hear my voice," Ba su issa shi muria na ba. — " I am 
able to look above," Na issa duba bissa. — " The sinner 
is not able (cannot) look up," Ma'isunufi ba issa duba 
samak ba. 

Abode, s. dahki. pi. dahkuna, 7n. 

Above, adv. & prep, samak, bissa. — " He is above me, I 
am below him," Shi neh bissa gare ni, ina kalikashi nsa. 

About, prep, kewoye, wor, kamma. — " (It is) now about 
three months since we left Sierra Leone, we shall return 
in about six months hence," Kamma watani uku tanda 
mu ka fitto Sierra Leone mu ukohma sua watani 
shitta. — " We speak to you about the way which can 
make you wise, powerful, and rich," Mu nyi magana 
da ku kamma woshe nda ku ka yi hangkali da arsiki da 

(I) B 


girima. — " Agreeably to the promise which is in this 
book," Sabbadda alliwashi nda keh tshiki takarta nan. 
— " All the regions round about Jordan," Unguai duka 
kewoye Yordan. 

Abrogate, v. kauda. — "I abrogate a law," Na kauda 
dooka. — " I bring (make) (kao, the sayne root of the 
verb) a law," na kao dooka. 

Abundance, s. tahri. — " I have abundance of rice," Ina 

• da sinkaffa tahri. — " There is an abundance of bamboo 
in our country," Tukurua shi na gari mu tahri. 

According (to), prep, dalill, sabbadda. 

Account, s. kedaya. 

Act, v. yi, and wa. — " I am making a house," Ina yi 

Add, u. kahra. — "Be added," Akahra. — "I add one 
cowry," Na kahra isia deia. — " I add one word more, 
and then I have done," Na kahra magana deia, en 
gamma. — "And all these things shall be added to 
you," Da duka wonnan abubua akahra gare ku. 

Adulterer, s. shiakali ; pi. shiakalai. 

Adulteress, s. shiakalia ; pi. the same as the masculine. 

Adultery, *. farika. 

Adversary, *. makiyi ; pi. makiya : and mahasadi ; 
pi. mahasada. Derived from kih, " to hate," " to abhor." 

After, j^rcp- baya. 

Afternoon, s. maraetshie. — " It is hot this afternoon," 
Rana maraetshie da safi ; lit. " the sun having heat." 

Afterward, adv. eansima. — " Now I am able to teach 
you the Ibo language, afterward I shall teach you the 
Haussa," Yansu na issa koya ma nku magana Ibo, 
eansima ni ikoya ma ku magana Haussa. — " The morn- 
ing was fine, afterward rain fell," Hansi yao da keao, 
eansima rua su so. 


Again, adv. kumma. — " I see him again," Na gana sa 

Against, prep, gare, or gara, do, ma. — " They took 

counsel against him," Su na shawora do nsa. — " And 

children shall rise against their parents," Da yaya su 

utashe ma mahaifa nsu. 
Agreeable (or Agreeing), adj. kammata. — " But this 

is not agreeing with the Law of God," Amma ba yi 

kammata ba ga dooka Alia. 
Agreement, s. alliwashi ; pi. alliwasai. — " Will ye make 

this agreement by oath ?" Ku uyi wonnan alliwashi 

da ransua ? 
Aid, v. taya. — " I aid you," Na taya ma ka. 
Air, s. dunia, hiskah. Dunia is " more sky." 
Air, v. shainya. See To dry. 
All, adj. duka. 
Almightv, s. Alia ta Alia. 
Allknowing, adj. Alia ya sani kohmi ; lit. " God He 

knows every thing." 
Allseeing, s. Alia ya gani duka; lit. "God He sees 

Alone, aiij. kadei. — "I alone," Ni kadei. — " Thou alone," 

Ka and kai kadei, 7n. — "Thou alone," Ki kadei,/. 

— " He alone," Shi kadei. — " She alone," Ta, and ita 

kadei. In the plural number both genders are alike ; 

as, " We, ye, they alone," Mu, ku, su kadei. — In the 

singular number ni deia, lone, is used as the above 

through both genders. 
Allow, v. barri, or beri, or berri. — " Be allowed," Aberi. 

— " They shall be allowed to practise their religion," 

Aberi su ga yi musulumtshi nsu. 
Alter, v. sahki. — " For they alter (change) their faces," 

Dong su ka nsahki fuskoki nsu. 
(3) B 2 


Am (to be), v. na, is. — " I am," Na neh, and na keh, m. ; 
and na tshe,/! Frequently the past time is expressed 
in the same way, " I was." A few instances will best 
illustrate the use of this auxiliary verb: — "He is his 
father," Shi neh oba nsa. — " She is his mother," Ita 
uwa nsa tshe, arui ita tshe uwa nsa. — " He is her 
father," Shi neh oba nta. — " He is an angry man," 
Shi neh kusantatshe mutum. — " She is an angry 
woman," Ita tshe kusantatshia matshe. " The Queen 
of England is a great queen," Saraunia England ita 
baba saraunia tshe. — " He is a bad man," Shi neh 
mugu mutum. — " She is a bad woman," Ita tbhe 
mugunia matshe. — " How many years have you 
been in the Haussa country ?" Shekaru nawa ka keh 
ngari Haussa ? — " Six years," Shekaru shitta. — " She 
is a bad little girl," Ita magunia karama yarinia tshe. 
— " They are called Fantis," Su keh kirra Fanti. — 
" Who is my mother ?" Wa tshe uwa ta ? — " The first 
is this," Nafahri keh nan. — " Art thou He who- should 
come ?" Ka'i neh shi ma'i'sakkua ? — " Is not this the 
son of the king ?" Wonnan ba dah nsariki neh ? — " If 
it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water," 
En kai neh, hokumta ma ni na sakka gare ka bissa 
nrua. — " Of a truth, thou art the Son of God," Da 
gaskia kai neh Dah- Alia ; also, da gaskia kai Dah- 
Alla neh. 

Among, prep, tshiki. — " Which of you is going to Rabba ?" 
Wonne tshiki nku keh sua Rabba? — "I am the man 
who is going," Ni mutum da keh sua. — "He fell 
among robbers," Ya fahdi tshiki mbarai. 

Amongst (them), prep, shiwuna nsu. 

Amuse (please), v. murna and soh. — " You amuse me 
well," Ka na soh na kwarei. 


And, conj, sha, aiid da. — Goma sha biu, " Ten and two," 
i.e. *' twelve." 

Angel, s. malaiki ; pi. mala'rkai. — " The angel of God 
appeared to him in a dream," Malaiki Alia ya ffodda 
ma sa da mafalki. 

AxGER, *. fushi. 

Angry, ac(;. kusantatshe, 7M.; Icusantatshia, /! See Am. 

Ankle, s. isiasau ; pi. idonsau. — " I broke my ankles," 
Na fashi (pashi) idonsau. — " She broke her ankles," Ta 
fashi idonsau nta. 

Annoy (to be annoyed, vexed), v. fushi, and yi fushi. — '* I 
am annoyed with you," Ina fushi da kai. — " I am vexed 
with you because you are not doing my work," Na yi 
fushi da kai dong ba ka yi aiki na ba. — " She is vexed 
with me because I did not give her the calabash," Ta 
j-i fushi da ni, dong ba na bah ta ba koria. 

Anoint, v. shafeh. — "Anoint thy head," Shafeh kai nka. 

Another, *. wota ; pi. sua, and wonne. — " Another road," 
Wota hainya. — " Art thou He who should come, or 
do we look for another ?" Kai" neh shi maisakkua ko 
mu yi sutshe wonne ? — " He saw other two brethren," 
Ya ga wota nsu kaneli biu. — "Another journey," 
Wata tafiTowa. — " Another season," Wata saa. 

Answer, s. amsa,/! 

Answer, v. yi amsa. — " What answer did he make you ?" 
Mia amsa ya fadda ma ka ? — " The thing which he told 
me is not good," Abin da ya fadda ma ni ba shi da 
keao. — " Why did not he answer you well ?" Domeh 
ba yi amsa ma ka da keao ba ? — " I do not know," 
Ba na sani ba. 

Ants (travelling), s. kwarukuasa. 

.... (large black), tshinaka. 

.... (small red), kiashi. 


Ants (wood), gara. 

(hill) suri ; pi. suru. 

Anvil, s. massaba. 

Any, adj. kohwa, kohwonne, kohwotshe. 

Appear, v. godda. — " The angel of God appeared to him 
in a dream," Malaiki Alia ya godda ma sa da mafalki. 
— "What time did the star appear?" Wonne sau 
tamararu ya goddu ? 

Appoint, v. sabi. — " She shall appoint a man to see this 
country," Ta asabi mutum ga gani gari nan. — " To 
be appointed," Ansaba. 

Approach, v. tatFo kussa (come near). 

Arise, v. tashi. — " Our master arises," Obangissi mu ya 
tashi. — '" I will arise, I will go to my father, I will 
say to him," Ni itashi, ni itaffi ga oba na, ni itshe ma 
sa. — " Father, I have sinned against heaven and 
against thee," Oba, na yi laifi ga alitshana da gare ka. 

Arm, s. hanu; pi. hanua,/! (hand.) 

Armhole, s. hamuta. 

Arm (lower), s. gasiahanu. 

Arm (upper), s. damtshi ; pi. damasa. 

Arrow, s. baka, and kibia. 

As, coiij. kamma, hakkana, awa. — " Thy will be done, 
as in heaven so on earth," Dasoh nka akayi kamma 
tshiki atitshana hakkana tshiki ndunia. 

Ascend, r. taffi bissa, and hau or hawa bissa. — " Christ 
ascended into heaven," Krist ya hawa bissa ga ali- 

Ashes, s. toka. 

Aside, prep, wosie, or woshie deia (one side). 

Ask, v. tambaya, tambaye. — " Give to him that asks thee," 
Bah shi wonda ya tambaye ka. 

Ass, *. saki, or shaki. 


Assemble, v. tarra, oi- tara. 

Aunt, *. kanua oba na, afid kanua iiwata (sister of my 

father and of my mother). 
Authority, s. alhakum, ikoh. — " For I am a man under 

authority, and have soldiers under me ;" (lit. behind in 

authority, &c.) Dong ni na mitshe ni keh ina baya ga 

ikoh, ina da yanyaki baya ni. 
Awake, v. tassa. — " His disciples came unto Him, and 

awoke him," Almashirai nsa su ka sakka gara sa, da 

su ka tassa shi. 
Away (be off), adv. taffitshan. 
Axe, s. gatari ; pi. gatura. 


Babe, s, yarukereni, and shariri. 

Baboon, s. bika. 

Back, s. baya. 

Back, adj. baya. 

Backbite, v. thsimbaya. 

Backside, s. gusu ; pi. gusa. Culum vel anus. 

Backward (walk), adv. taffiawa baya. 

Bacon, s. goshi. 

Bad, adj. mugu, m.; mugunia,/. ; plural of both genden\ 
miagu. — " Though some White People are bad enough 
to do so," Kakka wosu Farufaru Mutani su na miagu 
yi hakkana. 

Baft (white), s. faritang. 

Badness, *. mugunta,/! 

Bag, s. zika, and tshika : so7)ie, shika ; pi. shikuna, " Sack." 

Bail, v. roko. 

Bake, v. emosah. 

Baldn'Ess, s. kora. 

Ball, *. azukwa. 


Baiviboo, s. takrua, or tukurua. — " There is much bamboo 
in our country," Tukurua shi na gari mu tahri. 

Banana, s. ayaba. 

Banana-tree, s. ayaba-itatshi ; pi. ayaba-itatua. 

Bandage, *. rawani ; pi. rawuna. 

Banish, v. magasi, or magazi. 

Bare, adj. wo'fbi, and woofi. 

Barber, s. maiaski ; pi. masuaski, derived from aski. — 
" To shave," Wansam. 

Bareness, s. gadowoibi, and gadowoofi. 

Bargain, s. zorah, shiawora. 

Bark, v. kabsi, or hafshi. 

Barn, s. rufogo ; pi. rufogi. 

Baseness, s. mugunta, and mugunhall. 

Basin, s. kossoko, and kasku ; pi. kasaki. 

Basket, s. kondo ; pi. kundu. 

Bastard, s. yamburka. 

Bat, *. sunsua dere; lit. " night-bird." 

Battle, s. zamiaka, or dsamiaka. 

Be. See Am. 

Bead, s. doasa. 

Beam, s. kandahki. 

Bean, s. woakeh. 

Bear, v. (fruit, offspring), also " beget," haifi. — " Bring 
forth," Haifua. — " Be born," Ahaitie, ajid anhaifie. — 
" In which country were you born ?" Wonne gari 
anhaifie ka ? — " Where is he who is born King of the 
Jews ?" Ena shi keh wonda aka haifi Sariki nYuda ? 
— "Abraham begat Isaac," Abraham ya haifi Isaac. 
■ — "By whom was born Jesus?" Ga ita aka haifi 
Issa. — "She shall give birth to a son," Taahoihudah. 

Beard, s. gemeh. 

Beat, v. bugu, and dakki. 


Beaver-hat, s. malafa. 

Beauty, *. keaokeawa. 

Because, conj. dong-, domeh. 

Bed, s. yado. 

Bedstead, s. gaddu. 

Bee, s. suma. 

Beehive, s. koyonsuma. 

Beef, s. nama. 

Beer, s. g'm. 

Before, prep. g:aba, tokona, kana. — " They are walkina: 
before me in the road," Su na tafia gaba na ga hamya. 
— " They saw me before I saw them," Sung g-ani ni 
tokona na gane su. — " Finish my work before you do 
your own," Gama a'iki na kana ka yi ma ka. — " Before 
they came together," Kana sung' ka sakka tare. 

Beg, v. roko. 

Beget. See Bring-. 

Beggar, .1. mai'roko; pi. masuroko, and almashiri; 
pi. almashira'i : lit. school-boy, or disciple.* 

Begin, v. fara, fareh, and rika. — " He began to preach," 
Ya fareh woassu. 

Beginning, s. mafari ; pi. mafarai. — " From the begin- 
ning of the world," Daga mafari nduuia. 

Behaviour (good), s. keaonhali. 

(bad), s. mugunhali and mugungashi. 

Behead, v. momkeng kai. 

Behind, adv. & j)rep. baya. — " He is following me (be- 
hind)," Shi na bih na baya. — " The people are stand- 
ing behind their houses," Mutani na dsaye baya 

* Disciples and beggars are sjTionymous terms, from tlie prac- 
tice which prevails iu the interior of Africa that the disciples of 
the Mallams go about begging for their teachers when they have 
gone through the lessons of the day. 
(9) b3 


dahkuna nsu. — " The people are firing guns behind 
the trees," Mutani su na bugu (halbi) bindigogi baya 
itatua. — " One stands behind another," Wonne dsaye 
baya ga wonne. 

Behold, v. dubah. — " Behold, I send you as sheep in the 
midst of wolves," Dubah na a'ikie ku kamma tumaki 
sakkani nkurai. 

Believe, v. yirda. 

Bell, s. kuge, and gorisie ; pi. gorisina. 

Bellow, v. zina kuuka. 

Bellows, s. zika nwuta, derived from zika, " bag," ajid 
wuta, " fire ;" therefore, " fire-bags." 

Belly, s. shiki, or tshiki ; pi. tshikuna. 

Bellyful, s. yakosi. 

Belong, v. nawa, and nada. 

Beloved, adj. masohyi; pi. masohya. 

Below, adv. remi, and kalikashi. 

Bench, *. kusara. 

Bend, v. yatumkoda. 

Besom, s. sinsiya. 

Besides, adv. bamda. 

Best, adj. keaokeawa. ? 

Better, adj. dama, roongomeh. — " How much, then, is a 
man better than a sheep !" Kaka dayawa mutum ya fi 
dunkia ! lit. " a man he surpasses a &c." — " My pain 
is better to-day," Tshiwuta ta ta yi roongomeh. 

Between, prep, sakka, and sakkani. 

Bewail, v. yi kuuka. 

Beware, v. yi hangkali. — " Beware of men," Ku yi hang- 
kali da mutani. 

Beyond, adv. mabi, a?id ketareh. 

Bible (large book), chiefly Koran, s. letafi ; pi. letatafi. 

Big, adj. baba, girima. 


Bile, s. amei. 

Bill (beak), s. bahki nsunsua. 

Bind, v. yakulesi, a?id damreh. — " I bind your feet 
together and loose your hands," Na damreh ma ka 
kafafu wuri deia, da na kuntshi ma ka hunua nka. — 
" To be bound," adamreh. 

Bird, s. sunsua ; pi. sunsuai, arid sunsae. 

Birdlime, s. donko nsunsua. 

Bird's-nest, s, dahki nsunsua ; pi. dahkuna nsunsuai. 

Birth, s. haifua,/! 

Bit (bridle), s. resam ndohki; pi lizami : or lesami ; 
pi. lezama'i. 

Bite, v. tshisle. — "I shall bite you," Ni Itshishie ka. — 
"He bites him," Shi tshisa sa. 

Bitter, adj. doazi, m. ; doaza,/! 

Black, adj. baki, m.; baka, /.; pi. generis com., ba- 
baku. — " I see a Black Man," Na ga Baki Mutum. 
— " I see Black People," Na ga Babaku Mutani. — 
" I hear a Black Woman," Xa shi Baka ]Matshe. — 
" I hear Black Women," Na shi Babaku Maata. 

Black People, s. Babaku IMutani. 

Blacksmith, s. mikiri, or makiri ; pi. makera. 

Bladder, s. zika. 

Blame, v. rudi. 

Blaspheme, v. yi alfashia. — " He blasphemes against 
God," Ya yi alfashia ga AUa. 

Blasphemy, *. alfashia. 

Bleed, v. sha, shia, happo, kasgastu. — ^" I bleed you," 
Na sha ma ka shini. — " I draw your blood," Na shia 
ma ka shini. — " My nose is bleeding," Hantshi na na 
happo. — " I shall bleed you (cupping)," Ni iyi ma ka 

Bless, v. albereka, salbaruka. 


Blessing, s. albereka. — " Blessings upon you," Albe- 

reka gave ku, instead of " blessed are ye." ^"^.^1^^? 

n^in'^^i^S"! " Albereka gare su woddandakeh talau- 

tshi kurua nsu," Matth. V. 3. 
Blind, adj. kafo. 

Blind person, s. makafo ; pi. masukafo. 
Blister, *. magani (medicine of anv kind). 
Blood, s. shini, or shinni. 
Blossom, s. fureh. 

Blow, s. ambugie ; pi. ambubuge : and rotshi ; pi. rodsa. 
Blow, v. busa. — " The wind blows," Hiskah-ta busa. — 

" The wind blows powerfully," Hiskah-ta busa da 

karifi, or " having power." 
Blue, adj. sinni {doiihtful). Baki Is more frequently used. 

— It does not appear that they observe a difference 

between blue and black ; at all events they have not 

learned to express the distinction. 
Blush, v. kesfi. 

Boar, s. namizi ngurusanu ; pi. maaza ngurusunai. 
Boast, v. kuru. 
Boat, s. shirigi ; pi. shiragi. 
Body, s. siki, or shiki. — Ina wonka nshiki na, " I wash 

Boil, v. tafassa. 
Boil, s. zioh. 
Boiler, s. maruru. 

Bold, adj. karifi nsutshia {lit. " of a strong heart"). 
Bold person, s. makarifi nsutshia ; pi. masukarifi 

Bone, s. kashi. 
Book, s. letafi ; pi. letatafi : a}id takarta ; pi. takartu. — 

" Have they books in your country ? " Akoi takartu 

gari nku ? — " I have the book," Na, or ni keh da 


takarta. — " I have seen the people who have the book," 
Na ga. mutani woddanda keh da takarta. 

Bore, r. foda. 

Borrow, r. redi, and aro. — "I want to borrow your 
knife," Ina soh aro wuka nka. 

Boso:m, s. ishlki. ? 

Bottle, s. dalulu ; pi. daluilii'i : and zalka ; pi. zalkuna : 
the latter are made of the skins of animals. 

Bottom, s. kalikashi. 

Bough, s. reze itshi. 

Bow (bend), ruzoni, or ruzonni. 

Bow , s. bakka ; j}l. bakuna. 

Bowels, s. hagansi, or harntshi. 

Bowl, s. akusi, or akushi ; pi. akusa. 

BowjiAN, s. mahalbi ; pi. masuhalbi. 

Bowstring, s. zarikia ; pi. zaruka. 

Box (blow), s. mari. 

Box, s. akoddi ; pi. akuddai. 

Boy, s. yarn, and yara ; j)l. yaya. — " Boys and girls are 
running about," Yaya da yamaata su na gushegushe. 

Brain, s. koinya. 

Branch. See Bough. 

Brandstick, s. bakim wuta. 

Brass, s. shiang karifi, and gatshi, " red iron." 

Brave, adj. See Bold. — Ba shi zoro kohmi ; lit. " He is 
not afraid of any thing." 

Bread, *. massa, or massar. 

Break, v. passa, gbashe. — " I broke the calabash," Na 
gbashe koria. — " Thieves break in the house," Barai 
su ngbossa dahki. Karie. — " I broke my stick," Na 
karie itshi na. — " My leg is broken," Kaffa ta ta karie, 
fashi. — " I broke my ankles," Na fashi idonsau. — 
" He is breaking a stone," Shi na passa dutshi. — " If 


the agreement has been broken," En angbadda alli- 

Breakfast, s. kalatshi. 

Breast, s. nono ; pi. nona ; likewise, " milk." 
Breath, *. lungfashi. 
Breathe, v. lungfashi. 
Breed, s. haifua. 
Breeze, s. hlskah,/] 
Bribe, s. munafutshi. 
Bride, *. amaria ; pi. amare. 
Bridegroom, s. ango ; pi. anguna. 
Bridge, s. kataruku ; pi. katarukuna. 
Bridle. See Bit. 
Bring, v. kao, and kawa.— " To be brought," Akawo. — 

" To have been brought," Aka kawo. 
BRi>fK, s. gefeh. 
Broadness, s. fadi, or fahdi. 
Brook, s. rafi, and koramma. 
Broom, s. sinsiya. 

Brother, s. kaneh ; pi. kani, and kaneh. 
Brother-in-law, s. zuruki ; ])l. zurukai. 
Brow, s. girra. 

Bruise, v. rauni, or rawuni. ' 
Bucket, *. guga. 
Bug, s. kudi. 

Build, v. yi. — " He is building a house," Ya yina dahki. 
Bull, s. sah. 
Bullock, s. fidiensah. 
Bunch, s. dam m eh. 
Burden, s. kaya. 
Burial-place, s. kusiewa. 

Burn, v. kona, or kohna.— " Were burned," Angkohni.— 
" Ye burn them," Ku kohneh su. 


Burst, v. (see Break) Passi. 

Bush, s. kurumi, and dohzi. 

Bushel, s. sakka (measure). 

BusixEss, s. abin ; pi. abu, and abubua. 

But, cotij. amma. 

Butcher, s. mafaotshi. 

Butter, s. mainsianu, or mainsiania : lit. " oil of the 

Butterfly, s. kwaro. 

Butter-shea, s. mainkadeh. 

Butter- TREE, s. itshi nkadeh. 

Buy, v. saye (tshiniki). — " This purchase (trade) is harder 
for me than for you," Wangga tshiniki da waya gare 
ni ya fi gare ka. — " Do you buy slaves ?" Ka saye 
bahjn, or bai? — "Xo, no," A, a. — " White People do 
not buy slaves," Farufaru Mutani ba su saye bai ba. 
— " If they buy slaves or sell slaves they will be 
hanged," En su saye bai ko sa'ida bai^ arataye su. — 
" Do you think it is just to hang them ?" Ka yi 
tamaha wonnan gaskia neh ga rataye su ? — " It is 
just," Shi neh gaskia. — " They buy them from you," 
Su saye su gare ku. 

By, prep. daga. 

By-axd-bye, adv. suasua, or saasaa. — " By-and-bye I 
shall go," Suasua ni itaffi. 


Cable, s. igia nshirigi ; pi. igo'i nshiragi. 
Cage, s. samfu. 

Calabash, s. koria, and korie ; pi. kore, afid koore. 
Calculate, v. kidaya, or kedaya. 
Calf, s. maraki ; pi. maruka. 
Calico, s. farinsani. 


Call, i\ kira, or kirra. — "To be called," Akirra. — "Who 
shall be called Christ," Wondda aka kirra Kristu. — 
" They shall be called the children of God," Su uka 
kirra yaya Alia. 

Ca5Iel, s. rakumi. 

C.\]\iP, s. sansani. 

Can, v. ka, and keh. — " Can a man wade through the 
Tshadda in the dry-season ?" Mutum deia shi na keh 
tarra Tshadda da rani da kafa ? — " He can," shi na keh. 
— " They can make many thing^s," Su ka nyi abubua 
dayawa. — " Ye can collect elephants' teeth," Ku ka 
tarra hakkora ngiwa. 

Canibal, s. kulereh. 

Canon, s. bindiga baba ; pL hmdigog'i, or baba mbindiga. 

Canoe, s. shirigi ; pi. shiragi. 

Cap, s. fola. 

Captain, s. sarumi. 

Capture, s. nakami. 

Carcass, s. matatshe ; pi. matatu. 

Care, s. matamatshe. — " Cares of this world," Mata- 
matshe ndunia. 

Care, v. kula, or kulla. 

Carpenter, s. maseseki, 

Carry, v. shida, kai". — " They are carried away far," 
Akaii su nesa. — " They shall carry every kind of 
goods through this country," Su ukaii kohwotshe iri 
nduka hal gari nan. — " They may carry," Su kawo. — 
" When they were carried to Babylon," Saanda aka 
ka'i su ga Babylon. 

Cast, r. shiefa, and sakko. — " To be cast," Ashiefa. — 

" Cast thyself down," Sakko kanka kassa. — " To be 

cast into fire," Ashiefa tshiki nwuta. — "He cast out 

the spirit by His word," Ya shiefasda fatalua da ma- 



gana sa. — " By whom do your children cast them out ?" 

Ga wa yaya nku su nshiefshie su woshe ? — " If I cast 

out devils by the Spirit of God," En na shiebta ebilis- 

sai ga Fatalua Alia. 
Cat, s. musha, or musa. 
Catch, v. kama, or kahma. — " Catch your road," i.e. " go 

your way," Kahma hainya nka. — " These slaves were 

caught in war," Woddanga bai ankahmo su ga yaki. — 

" To have been caught," Aka kahma. 
Cattle, s. bissa. 
Cause, v. sah. — " And they shall cause them to be put to 

death," Da su nsah asah su ga mutua. 
Cause, s. sabadi, sabbaddi, sabbadda. 
Cease, v. dena. 
Certain, adj. gaskia. 

Certainly, adv. da gaskia, " having certainty." 
Chaff, s. kaikai. 
Chain, s. sarika. 
Chair, s. kushiera. — "Fetch me a chair," Kao ma ni 

kushiera. — " There is no chair here," Kushiera ba shi 

nan ba. 
Chalk, s. alii. 
Change, v, suana, and samma. — " The serpent changes 

(skin)," Matshishi ya yi suana. — "Command these 

stones that they turn bread," Hokumta woddanga 

duasa su samma massar. 
Change, s. masuya. — " But for such things as these, ye 

must give us something of yours in exchange," Amma 

dong abu wonnan, ku bah mu wonne abubua ku ga 

Chapter, s. kai, ishib. — " How many chapters ? " Ishib 

Charge, v. bari, barri, berri, beri, foreh, and forro. — 



" And charged them not to make him known," Daya 

foreh su kada su yi shi sanni. 
Charm, s. sammo, safi, or dsafi. 
Charmer, s. madsafi ; pi. masudsafi. 
Chase, s. farauta. 
Cheap, adj. araha. 
Cheat, v. tshukura. 
Cheek, s. kumtshi ; pi. kummatu. 
Cheese, .?. tshakumara. 
Chest, s. gaba ; pi. gabobi. 
Chew, v. tamna. 
Chick, s. tshakuo. 

Chief, s. galladima ; pi. galladimai, and ta'imako. 
Child, *. shiariri, dah ; pi. yaya. 
Chin, s. happa ; pi. happuobi. 
Choice, s. sabeh. 
Choke, v. makureh. 
Choose, v. sabeh. — " I choose you to go with me in the 

Haussa Country," Na sabeh ka ga taffi tare da ni 

gari Haussa. — " My servants whom I have chosen," 

Bara na wonda na sagba. 
Christians, s. Nassara. — " White People are Christians," 

Farufaru Mutani Nassara su keh. 
Church (congregation of worshippers), s. tshimua, or 

Circumcise, v. katshia. 
Clap, v. tabi. — " I clap my hands," Ina tabi hanua na. — 

" I saw people who clapped their hands," Na gani 

mutani su na tabi hanua nsu. 
Claw, s. kofato ; pi. kofata'i. 
Clay, s. yumbu. — " The potters take clay, and make 

pots," Masudiba yumbu su na dukaneh. 
Clear, adj. tashi. 


Clean, adj. sarei, and wonka. — " Unclean spirits," Dauda 
fatalua. — " His leprosy was cleansed," Kuturta sa aka 
maisatta sarei. 
Clew, s. dahnku. 

Climb, v. hau, or hawa bissa. — " Tell this man he shall 
climb up this tree," Fadda mutum ena shi ihau bissa 
Cloak, s. alkeba ; pi. alkebaii : and kabitto ; pi kabittai. 
Close, v. rufeh. — " Shut my door," Rufeh kofata. 
Closet, s. loloki ; pi. lolokai. 

Cloth, s. tufafi, arid zani ; pi. zanua, aiid riga. — " This 
John had clothes of camels' hair," Shiga Yohn shi na 
da riga nsa gashi rakumi. 
Clothe, v. yi addo. — "To be clothed," Ayi addo. — 
" Wherewith shal] we be clothed?" Domeh aka yi ma 
mu addo. — " He was not clothed," Ba ayi ma sa addo. 
Cloud, s. girigishi ; pi. giragishi. 
Coal, s. gawoi ; pi. gawoiya, or gawo'iyu. 
Cock, s. zakara ; pi. zakura. 
Cockle, s. kumbah ; pi. kumbuna. 
Cocoa, s. guasa. 

Cockroach, s. kankesso ; pi. keinkessai. 
Cold, s. dahri. 

Collect, v. tarra, or tara ; part. per/, pass, antaro. 
Colour, s. kamma. 
Colt, *. dokussi ; pi. dokussai. 
Comb, r. shatshi, a7id shata. 
Comb, s. mashatshi; pi. mashatai. — Ka ka nsatshi kai 

nka ? m. — Ki ka nsatshi kai" nki,/ 
Come, v. sakka, sakkua. 

Come out, v. fitto. — "Whence come you from?" Ena 
kunka fitto ?— " We come from our place," Mu fitto 
wuri mu. 


Come down, i\ shido. 

Comfort, *. hangkuri. 

Comfort, v. yi hangkuri, and sanyi sutshia. — " She would 
not be comforted," Ta klh hangkuri ; lit. " She re- 
fused comfort." — "They shall be comforted," Su usami 
sanyi nsutshia ; lit. " They shall receive coolness of 

Command, v. hokumtshi ; imp. hokumta, and foreh. — 
" He was commanded to do my work, but he did it 
not," Angfora sa ga yi aiki-na amma ba shi yi ba. — 
" If thou art the Son of God, command these stones to 
be bread," En ka'i Dah-Alla hokumta woddanga duasa 
su samma massar. — " He commanded it to be given 
her," Ya hokumta abahra sa gara ta. 

Commandment, s. alhakumeh. 

Commence, v. fara, riga. 

Commit, v. yi, and wa. 

Companion, s. zarah ; pi. zarareki. 

Company, s. tarro. 

Compare, v. yi kamma, kamma, kammata, ma'isa, and 
deideta ; part. perf. pass, akamanta shi. 

Compared, v. ama'isa sa. 

Condemn, v. bah laifi (give wrong). — " I condemn you," 
Na bah ka laifi. — " By thy words thou shalt be con- 
demned," Daga maganganu nka abah ka laifi. 

Confess, v. fadeh. — "I confess my fault," Na fadeh 
laifi na. 

Confuse, v. yi gardama. — " You make confusion," Ka yi 

Connive, v. rufi. — " I connive at your fault," Na rufi 
laifi nka. 

Conquer, v. fi, (to pass or surpass) yi nassara. — " I am 
stronger than you," Na fi ka karifi. — " The king con- 

CON— coo 

quered his enemies (or had good luck)," Sariki ya 

yi nassara ga makia nsa. 
Conscience, s. tonnani. — " Does your conscience not 

allow you to steal ?" Tonnani nka ba yi ku satta ? 
Consent, v. yirda. — "I consent (am willlns;)," Na 

Consider, v. tonaneh, or tunaneh, yi tunaneh. — "Consider 

well what we have told you,"'Ku yi tunaneh kwarei 

magana da mu-ka yi ma ku. — " Ye shall not consider 

how or what ye shall say,'' Ku kada ku yi tunaneh 

kaka ko mi ku utshe. 
Conspire, r. — " We conspire," Mu yi bahki deia ; lit. 

" we make one mouth." 
Constable, s. dogari ; pi. dogarai. 
Constrain (to force), v. tilass. — " You force me, or are 

you putting force upon me?" Ka na sah-ni tilass? — 

" I do not force you," Ba ni sah ka tilass. — " He 

forced him to carry the clothes," Ya sah shi tilass shi 

kai tufafi. 
Consult, v. shawora. — " I am consulting you," Ina sha- 

wora da kai. — "Are you consulting me?" Ka na 

shawora da ni ? 
CJonsume, v. kuoni. — " The fire consumed all," Wuta ta 

kuoni duka. 
Continue, r. daddi. 
Continually, adv. yini. — " I walk continually," Xa yini 

tafia ; na yini aiki ; na yini magana. 
Contrive, v. attarra, and hattarra. 
Convert, s. musulumtshi ; pi. musulmai : perhaps better, 

" A believer," in the sense of >Iahomedaps. 
Cook, v. dafiia. — " I am cooking," Ina dafua. 
Cook, s. maidafua ; pi. masudafua. 
Cool, v. sahshiyi, and shiyi. 

coo— cou 

Coolness, s. sanyi. 

Cooper, *, maseseki ; pi. masasaka. 

Copper, s. gatshi. 

Coppersmith, s. maklri ngatshi ; pi. makera ngatshi, or 

makera sha nkarifi, " Smith of red-iron." 
Coral, s, murusan ; pi. murasanai. 
Cord, s. siliya ; pi. siliyu. 
Cork, s. marufi ; pi marufai : derived from rufeh, " to 

close," " to cover." 
Corn, s. dawa ; dawa massara ; damassara. 
Corn-field, s. karikara ndavva. — " He walks through 

the corn-fields," Ya taffi tshiki nkarikara ndawa. — 

" The corn is growing," Damassare shi na dsara ; fili 

Corner, s. kussurua ; pi. kussuruai. 
Corpse, s. gawa ; pi. gawayi. 

Correct, v. tuna. — " I correct you," Na tuna ma ka. 
Corrupt, v. batta, a7id gbatta. 
Corruption, s. gbattawa, a?id mumuna. 
Cost, *. kurdi. — "How much money for it?" Nawa 

kurdi nsa ? 
Cotton, s. abduga, and kadah. 
Cover, v. rufeh. — " To be covered," Aka rufeh. 
Covet, v. mugungulli. 
Cough, v. toari, and yi toari. — " I am coughing," Ina 

toari. — " Do you feel pain when you cough? Ka na shi 

ntshiwu en ka yi toari ? 
Cough, s. toari. 

Council, *. fahda, and fahdavva or fadawa. 
Count, v. kedaya. 
Country, *. gari ; pi. garurua. 
CouNTR"VTMAN, s. dahnkuana ; pi. yaunkuwa na. 
Court, s. sheria ; pi. wurareh nsheria. 

cow— CUT 

Court-day, s. yawurana sheria. 

Cow, s. sania ; pi. shanu. 

Coward, s. zhoro ; pi. mazhorata. 

CowTOCK, s. sansana agana, or merely agana. 

Cowry, Cowries, isia, wuri ; pi. kurdi. 

Crab, *. kwagua ; pi. kwaguogi. 

Crack, v. bassa, passa, gbassa, bassua. 

Cramp, s. missiria,/". — "The cramp seizes my foot," Mis- 

siria ta kahma kafa ta. pi. missirai. 
Cream, s. maburiki. 
Create, v. yi. 

Creator, s. may! ; pi. masuyi. 

Creature, s. bissa ; pi. bissashi : and dappa ; pi. dappuobl. 
Creep, t\ rarafeh. 
Cricket, s. dyareh ; pi. giaru. 
Crocodile, *. kaddah ; pi. kaddodi. 
Crooked, adj. karrekatta. 
Cross, s. gitshe, and gilimeh. 
Cruel, adj. muni. 

Cruelty, muni. — "Without cruelty," Babu muni. 
Cubit, s. taki hanu. — Eighteen inches, or the length of 

the arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle 

Cup, v. nshinni, or shia nshini. 
Curse, r. sagi, bata, suas:i. 
Cursed, adj. sagu mbatu. 
Cut down, v. sari. — " Is cut down," Asari. — " He cut 

off his head with the cutlass," Ya sari ma sa kai da 

takwobi. — " To be cut off," Asari. — " To have been 

cut off," Aka sari. 
Cutlass, s. takwobi. — Tamagass, " three inches broad." 

— Yainbel, " small." 




Daily, adj. kulum, and dakulum. — " I eat rice daily," 

Kulum ina tshi sinkatfa. 
Damage, s. tahsar. 
Damnation, s. lalata. 
Damp, adj. damfatta. 
Dance, s. rawa. 

Dancer, s. mairawa; pi. masuravva. 
Danger, *. ebiliss assaba ; pi. ebilissai. 
Dark, adj. dufii. 
Darkness, s. duhu, a?id dufu. 
Dash, v. beh. — " Lest at any time thou dash thy foot 

against a stone," Kada ka yi tandu beh kafa ka 

ga dutshi. 
Daub, v. yabeh. 
Daughter, «. dia ; pi. diagi. 
Daughter- ixV-LAW, s. zaruka ; pi zarukai'. 
Dawn, v. assuba. 
Day, s. rana; pi. kwana, kwanaki, a7id dah-rana; lit. 

" Son of the sun." 
To-day, yao yau. 
Daytime, s. dahrana. 
Dead, adj. mutua ; pi. matatshi. — " Dead persons," 

Matatu. r\'^72 . 
Deaf, adj. kuruma. — " This poor person is deaf," Wong- 

ga talaka kuruma neh. 
Deaf person, s. kurumtshi ; pi. masukurumtshi. — " The 

deaf hear," Masukurumtshi suna shi. 
Dear, adj. tshadda, or tshada. 
Death, s. mutua. 
Debt, s. bashi ; pi. basusuka. — " This man has many 

debts," Wongga mutum yafai bashi. 
Debtor, s. mabatshi ; pi. mabasta. 


Deceit, »\ munufuki, munahutshi, munafutshi ; pi. muna- 
fukai. — " Without deceit, as doves," Babu munafutshi, 
kamma bardai. 

Deceive, r. munafutshi, or munahutshi, and rudi. — " You 
deceive me," Ka'i ma ni munafutshi. 

December, s. wata ngoma sha biu. 

Decide, r. duba. — " Make up your mind," Duba hang- 
kali nka, or Shiria hangkali nka. 

Decrease, v. sungsha'i. — "The water decreases," Rua 

Deep, adj. surufi. — "Deep water," Rua surufi. 

Deer, s. barewa ; pi. bareyi. 

Deliver (to), v. ikai. — " Give over," Bahsa. — "All things 
are delivered unto me," Duka abubua ambashie su 
gare ni. 

Deli\tsr (redeem) v. isheto, kwato. 

Deliverer, s. matshetshi ; pi. matsheta. 

Deny, v. gardama. 

Depart, v. taffi yi nesa. — " Depart from me," Ku yi 
nesa da ni. 

Depth, s. surufi. 

Descend, r. taffi kassa, shido. 

Desert, s. dawa. 

Desire (want), v. soh, song. — " Ye want to fight ?" Ku na 
song fadda ? — " Yes, we are coming to fight with you," 
Hakkana mu na sakka fadda da ku. — " You want six- 
pence, but you are not deserving it," Ka soh kurdi 
shitta, amma ba yi ka matshi shi." — " I want to see 
you," Ina soh ngani nka, or ina song gani nka. See 
To like. To want. 

Desolate, adj. sah kango. — " He put the country into (a 
state of) desolation," Shi sah gari kango. 

Desolation, *. kango. 

(25) c 


Despise, v. batta, rena, reni. — " Do you despise my 
word?" Ka batta magana ta? — "You despise me," 
Ka batta ni. — " Do you despise the word which I 
told you yesterday ?" Ka batta magana da ni fatta 
ma ka shia? — "I despise your work," Na rena aiki 

Destroy, v. batta wa, or gbattawa, gbashie. — " To be 
destroyed," Agbashie. 

Destruction, s. gbanna. 

Detain, v. dsa'ida, or tsaida, and tsa'ishie. — " I detain you," 
Na dsaishie ka. — " You detain me," Ka dsaishie ni. — 
" He detains them," Shi dsa'isa su, or ya dsa'i su. — 
" The king may detain them," Sariki dsa'ida su. 

Devil, s. Wonnakiri ; pi. Wonnakirai, and Saitana. 

Devour, v. rida. — " Devouring," Maruata. 

Dew, s. re aba. 

Dewdrops, s. diga reaba. 

Dialect, s. magana. 

Die, (perish), v. mutu. 

Die (tinge), v. rini. 

Differ, v. bambamta. — " I differ from you," Na bam- 
bamta da kai. 

Different, adj. bambam. 

Difficulty, s. wuya. 

Dig, v. gina. — " I dig a hole," Na gina rami. — " Ye 
should dig the ground," Ku yi ginna kassa. — " I was 
digging my garden last evening," Na gina dangga ta 
shia da maraetshie. 

Diligence, {perhaps, business) s. shagali. — " I am dili- 
gent (busy)," Ina shagali, or Ina da shagali. 

Dim, adj. dufu. 

Diminish, v. sungshai. 

Dine, v. buki. 


Dinner, s. buki. — " I am makiiig a good dinner," Ina 

buki maikeao. 
Dip, v. soma rua. 
DiRECT(to),r.godda, or kwodda.—" I am directing you," 

Ina godda ma ka. 
Directly, adv. yansu. — " Go and come directly," Taffi 

da sakka yansu. 
Dirt, s. kassa. 
Disable, adj. ba ia ba, or ba iawa ba. — " I am not able," 

Ba ni iawa ba, and ba issa ba. 
Disagree (not willing), v. ba yirda ba. 
Disappear, v. batshi. 

Discharge, v. berre. — " I discharge you," Na berre ka. 
Discover, v. tuna. — "I discover (remember) my mis- 
take," Na tuna mantua ta. 
Discourage, v. karia. — " You discourage me," Ka karia 

ma ni sutshia ; lit. " You cause my heart to prove 

Disciple, s. almashiri, m. ; almashira,/. ; pi almashirai : 

generis communis, TOy ? 
Disease, s. tshiwuta, tshiworiwota. 
Disguise, v. boye.— "He disguises himself," Ya boye 

Displease, v. fusiii. 
Dispute, v. sumki, dsamki, and gardama. — " You dispute 

with me," Ka na sumki da ni. — " He makes a dispute 

with me," Ya yi dsamki da ni. — " He shall make no 

dispute," Shi ba shi iyi ngardama. 
Dispute, s. dsamki. 
Distance (far), s. nesa. 
Distribute, v. rebba, rabbawa. — " I distribute the money 

to my friends," Na rabbawa kurdi ga abokai na. 
Divide, v. rabbawa, rebba. — "Be divided," Arebba. — 
(27) c 2 


" Every kingdom divided ag'ainst itself shall come to 
desolation," Kohwotshe kassa arebba nta da kanta ta 
asamma kang-o. 
Dive, v. naso. 
Divorce, s. korata. 
Do, V. yi, wa, ka. — "Done," Kareh, gamma, and 

Doctor, s. maimagani ; pL masumagani. 
Doctrine, s. koyata. 
Dog, s. karreh ; pi, karrenai. 
Door, *. marufi nkofa; pi. marufai nkofa. 
Double, adj. ribbi. 

Doubloon, s. shinaria, and kurdi shinaria. 
Doubt, v. yi sutshia biu ; lit. " Make two hearts." — " He 

is doubtful," Shi yi sutshia biu. 
Dove, s. baredo ; pi. bardai. 
Down, adv. kassa. — " I go down," Na taffi kassa. 
Dozen, goma sha biu. 
Drag, v. isha kassa. 

Drake, s. sah kaza, or sah kara nkaza nyaruba. 
Draw^ (out, away), v. subass. — " Draw out the bad 

water," Subass da mugu nrua. — (To draw a rope.) 

" Do you draw the rope well ?" Ka shia igia kwarei ? 

— " Draw near," Shao kussa. 
Dreaji, s. mafalki. 
Dreaji, v. yi mafalki. — " I was dreaming a bad dream 

last night," Derre nshia na yi mugu mafalki. — " Last 

night I was dreaming a good dream," Derre nshia 

na yi mafalki nagari. 
Dress, v. yi addo. — " I dress myself," Na wa ka yina addo. 
Drink, v. sha. 
Drive, v. kora, and kureh. — "They drove us," Sung 

kureh mu. 


Droavn, v. mutu ma. — " He was drowned," Ya mutu 

rua ; lit " He died by water." 
Drum, s. klddi, and gangga ; pi. gangguna. 
Drum, r. bugu kiddi, or gangga. 
Drummer, s. maikiddi, maigangga ; pi. masuganggua. 
Drunkard, s. mashai ; pi. mashaya. 
Dry, adj. bushashl, and bushe. 
Dry, I', kehkassa, arid kehkashi, sha'inyl. — " A dried-up 

(withered) hand," Hanu ya sha'inyi. — " Dry this thing 

for me," Shainya ma ni abin nan. 
Dry-season, s. rani. 

Duck, *. kaza nyaruba ; pi. kashi nyaruba. 
Due, adj. bashi, and daba. — " You owe me sixpence," 

Ka na daba shina na shitta. 
Dumb, s. bebeh mutum. 
Dung, s. taki. 
Dust, s. kura. 

Duty, s. abin. — " I do my duty," Na yi abin na. 
Dwell, v. samma, and samni. 
Dweller, s. masamni ; pi. masusamni. 
Dwelling, *. dahki ; pi. dahkuna. 


Each (all), adj. duka, kohwa, kohwonne, kohwotshe. 

Each other, pron. yaunkuamu, tshunamu, a7id shiuna. — 
" We saw each other in the king's house," Mu no-a 
yaunkuamu dahki nsariki. — " We help each other," 
Mu na taya shiuna. — " Ye help each other," Ku na 
taya shiuna. — "They help each other," Su na taya 
shiuna. — " Because ye are catching and selling each 
other as slaves," Dong ku na kahmu da sayesua shiu- 
nanku kamma bahyi. 

Eagle, s. gaba ; pi. gabobi. ^ 



E.\R, s. kuneh, and kunia ; pi. kuneh, a?id kunua. — " He 

that has ears to hear he hears it," Shi wonda keh da 

kunua nshi shi shi. 
Ear-ring, s. sobe nkunia ; pi. soba nkuneh. 
Ear-wax, s. dauda nkuneh. 
Ear op corn, s. gesa. 
Early, adv. assuha, and da safeh. — "To-morrow you 

may come early," Gobeh da sa safeh ku sakka. 
Earn, v. yenkahatshi, 
Earth, s. dunia,/! 
Earthquake, s. dunia ta girigissa. 
Ease, v. (alvum exonerare) sab. 
East, s. gabaz. — Wuri tashi nrana, " The place where 

the sun rises." 
Easy, adj. sanu. 
Eat, v. tshi. — "I and you are eating," Da ni da kai 

mu na tshi (da-da, like et-et). — " What shall we eat, 

or what shall we drink ?" Mi mu ka tshi, ko mi mu 

ka sha? 
Eater, s. matshii ; pL matshia. 
Echo, s. kuwa. 
Eclipse, s. rana ta kama watta ; lit. " The sun fights the 

Ej)GE (of a knife), s. kaifi nwuka. 
Egg, s. kwai, or kwoi ; pi, kwo'ia. 
Eight, adj. tokos. 
Eighth, adj. na tokos. 
Eighty, adj. gomia tokos. 
Elbow, s. kusurua hanu ; pi. kusurua hanua. 
Elder (first-born son), s. dahnfahri. 
Elders, s. sofi, and sofinda. 
Eldest, *. yata, babawana, wah. 
Elephant, s. giwa ; pi. giwaf. 


Eleven, adj. goma sha deia. 

Eleventh, adj. na goma sha deia. 

Else (if not), adv. ba hakkaba. 

Embark, v. sani tafia shirigi. 

Embrace, v. runguma. 

Employ, v. — " I give you work," Ina bah ka aiki. 

Empty, adv. woofi. 

Encamp, v. sansani. 

Enclose, v. garika ; a7id " enclosure." 

End, s. raakara, makari, and karewa. 

End, v. kareh. — " You will put an end to disturbance 
and war," Ku ukareh gaba da yaki. 

Endure, v. hankureh, and shimiri. — " I shall endure (with 
patience) my trouble," Ni ihankureh da wohalla ta ; 
and " Ni ishimiri da wohalla ta." 

Enemy, *. makii ; pi. makia. See Adversary. 

English, adj. Turantshi. — " English country," or 
" White-Man's country." — " We come from White- 
Man's country," Mu na fitto gare Turawa. 

Englishman, s. Batureh.* 

English goods, s. dukia Tureh. 

Enjoy, v. muna, yi murna, or muruna. 

Enough, s. yaissa. 

Enrage, v. fushi. 

Enslave, v. " You make me a slave," Ka mashieni bawa. 

Enter, v. sani, sua, shiga taffi tshiki. — " I enter my 

* Turantshi and Batureh appear to have reference to the 
colour of the skin. The Haussa People call the Arabs by the 
same name, merely adding the word " gabaz," to point out 
the region from whence it appears to them that they come. 
The etymology is obscure, for want of a greater number of 


house," Ina sua dahki na. — "I enter my house," 
Sani dahki na. — "I enter my house," Taffi dahki 
na. — "I enter my house," Na shiga dahki na. — 
" Go ye in my house," Ku taffi dahki na. — " Ye shall 
not go in my house," Ba ku sua dahki na. — " Their 
houses shall not be entered without their consent," 
Dahkuna nsu ba maishiga babu hokumtshi nsu. 

Entertain, v. gara, or gahra. 

Entirely, adv. sarei. 

Envy, s. makietshi. 

Equal, adj. deideideni. 

Ere (sooner), adv. kanda. 

Err, v. mantshe. 

Error, s. mantua. 

Escape, v. tshira, or guddu. 

Esteem, v. girima, yi girima. 

Eternal, adj. halabadda, abadda. 

Eunuch, s. baba. Baba nsariki. Sunt castrati non taci- 
turn nomine, sed re vera. 

Even, adv. fagi. 

Ever and ever, adv. abadda abadda. 

Everlasting. See Eternal. 

Every, adj. duka, kohwonneh. 

Every day, adj. kulum rana. 

Evil, adj. & s. alahaki, mugunta. — " Ye shall not 
return evil with evil," Kada ku rama mugunta da 

Examine, v. duba. 

Except, prep, sa'f, and ko, or saiko. 

Exercise, v. killisa. — " I take exercise in my garden," 
Ina kallisa tshiki dangga ta. — " I go to take exercise 
on horse-back," Sani killisa bissa dohki na. 

Exchange, v. musaya, and yi musaya. 


Exchange, s. musaya. 

Exclaim, r. kuwa. 

Excuse, v. nakih. 

Execute, v. kashi. 

ExECtTION'ER, s. gah'i. 

Expect, v. salshe. — " Shall we expect another ?" Mu nyi 

satshe wonnl ? 
Explain, i\ fadda (tell).— " Tell me," Fadda mini, or 

" Fadda ma ni." 
Extend, v. simfidda. 
Extinguish, v. matshi. — " My lamp is going out," Fitilla 

ta sah ta matshiewa. 
Extract, v. debeh. — " I am extracting your tooth," Ina 

debeh hauri nka. 
Eye, s. ido ; pL idanu. 

E\'E- BROWS, S. glVSi. 

Eve-gl.\.ss, s. madubi. 
Eye-witness, s. shaida. 


Face, s. fuska ; pi fuskuoki, and fuskoki. 

Fade, v. fari, used of leaves and Jlowers. 

Faint, v. zuma, aiid gassa. 

Fair, adj. keao, and keawa. 

Faith, s. musulontshi. 

Fall, v. fahdi, and shigga. — " I fall on the ground," Xa 
fahdi kassa-huadi, or Xa huadi kassa. — " They fell for- 
wards," Su ka fahdi rubta tshiki. — " They fell back- 
wards," Su ka fahdi ringingine. — " He falls in the 
water," Ya fahda rua. — " I fall in the water," Xa 
shigga rua. — " Fall down," Rusuna. — " If thou fall 
down to worship me," En ka rusuna ka yi dsafi na. — 
" He fell on his neck and kissed him," Ya fahdi da 
(33) c 3 


wuya nsa ya leasas sa. — " If the sheep fall into the pit 

on the Sabbath-day," En dunkia nan ta fahda tshiki 

nrami rana Alitshimaa. 
Fall, s. fahdawa. 
False, adv. karia. 
Falsehood, s. kariata. 
False-witness, s. shaida karia. 
Fame, s. yabo, or yebo. 
Family, s. iyali. — " How is your family ?" Kaka iyali 

nka ? — " They are well," Su yini lafia. 
Famish, v. eansi nyungwa. 
Fan, s. tankadi, a7id bakatshi. 
Fanner, s. maitankadi ; pL masutankadi. 
Far, adv. nesa, a?id da nesa. 
Farm, s. gonah ; pi. gonaki. 
Farmer, s. manomi; pi. manoma. — Master of a farm, 

maigonah ; pi. masugonaki. 
Fast, v. assumeh. — " When he had fasted forty days and 

forty nights, he then felt hungry," Daya kareh assumeh 

kwanaki arbain, da dere arba'in, da yautshe ya shi 

Fat, adj. kibatatshe. 
Father, s. oba ; pi. obanu, baba. — " He is his father," 

Shi neh oba nsa. 
Father-in-law, s. zaruki ; pi. zarukai. 
Fatherless, adj. moreia. 
Fathom, s. gaba, taki. — " One fathom," Taki gaba deia. 

— " Two fathoms," Taki gaba biu. — " Half a fathom," 

Rebbi ntaki. 
Fatigue, v. gasi. — " I am fatigued (tired) of you," Na 

gasi da kai. 
Fault, *. mantua, and laifi. 
Fear, s. zhoro, or dsoro, or zoro. 


Fear, v. zhoro, and dsoro. — Ba su dsoro ba, " They are 
not afraid." 

Fe.\st, s. buki. 

Fe-Vther, s. fifikeh ; pi. fikafiki, and fikafikai. 

February, s. Watta na biu. 

Fee, s. sakka. 

Feed, v. tshesoa, tshida. — " I feed my family," Na 
tshida iyali na. — " God feeds all men," Alia natshieda 
mutani duka. — "Your father feeds you," Oba nku 
natshieshie ku. 

Feel, r. shi. — " Do you feel better to-day than yester- 
day," Ka shi dama yao ya fi shia. 

Feet, s. kafatu, xind kafafu. 

Fell, v. zarah. 

Female, s. matshe; pi. maata. 

Fence, s. darini, a?id garikata. 

Fetch, r. kao. 

Fever, s. masassara, /". 

Few, adj. katang, kadang', or kaddana. 

Field, s. dawa karikara ; pi. garikaru, or karikaru, gonah. 

Fifteen, adj. goma sha biat, or biar. 

Fifth, adj. na biat, or biar. 

Fiftieth, adj. naamsin. 

Fifty, adj. amsin. 

Fig, s. gboreh. 

Fig-tree, *. itshi gboreh ; pi. itatua ngboreh. 

Fight, r. fahta, and kama. — " The horse and the cow 
are fighting," Dohki da sania su na fahta, or fadda. 

Fill, v. sitshika, tshika. — " I fill my bottle with water," 
Na tshika dalulu na da rua. — " My bottles are filled 
with water," Dalu'ilui na antshika su da rua. — 
•' They shall be filled," Atshieshie su. 

Find, i\ tshenta, or tshinta, gani. — " He who findeth his 


life shall lose it," Shi wonda ya gani rai nsa shi 
igbossa sa. 
Fine, adj. keawo. 
Finger, s. faratshi ; pi. faruta. 

Finish, s. kareh, kari. — " Ye shall not have finished 
going' through the countries," Ba aku kareh sua 
ketere ng-arurua. 
Fire, s. wuta. — " Hell fire," Wuta lahira. 
First, adj. nafahri, a?id tukung. 
Fish, s. kifi. 
Fish, v. kamu kifi. 
Fisherman, s. maikamu kifi ; pi. masukamu kifi : and 

makamu kifi ; pi. makamakifi. 
Fish-hook, s. kugia kifi ; pi. kugogi kifi. 
Fit (I am), r. na issa. 
Fits, s, falfada. 

Floor, s. masusuka; /;/. masusukai'. 
Five, s. biat, or biar. 
Fix, v. shiria. 
Flag, s. tuta. 
Flame, s. kwami wuta. 
Flee, v. tshira. 
Flesh, s. siki. 

Flint, s. dutshi mbindiga ; pi. duasu, or kankara. 
Flog, v. dokeh, baakazi. — " In their schools they shall 

scourge you," Tshiki makarantu su su udokeh ku. 
Flour, s. gahri. 
Flow^, v. maguttu rua. 
Flower, s. fureh. 
Fly, s. kushe ; pi. kuda. 
Fly, r. shawagi. — " The bird is flying all about," Sunsua 

ta na shawagi kohina. 
Foam, s. kungfa. 


Fog, s. buda. 

Fold, «. garikeh ntumaki (sheepfold.) 

Follow, v. bih. — " I am following' you," Ina bib nka. — 

" Follow me," Ku bib ni. 
Follower, s. maibih ; pi. masublb. 
Food, s. tshimaka, and abintsbi. 
Fool, *. haoka ; pi. mahaokata : and maiwauta ; pi. ma- 

Foolish, adj. wawa. 
Foot, s. kafa; pi. kafatu, and kafafu. 
Footstool, s. likafa. 
For, prep, amma, na, donG:, da. — " Ej'e for eye, tooth 

for tooth," Ido da ido, hauri da hauri. 
For the sake of, prep, sabbadi, sabbadda. 
Force, s. tilass. 
Force, v. tillassa. — " They shall not force the people 

either to buy or to sell," Kada su tillassa mutani 

ko saye ko sayeswa. 
FoREHE-VD, s. goshi ; pi. gosuna. 
Forenoon', s. rana asakka. 
Foretooth, s. hakwora mbissa. 
Forget, v. mantshe. ? 
Forgetfulness, s. mantua. ? 
Forgive, v. bari, berri, yafeh. — " To forgive," Ga ya- 

fehwa. — " Forgive us our sins," Ka yafeh ma mu 

sunufai mu. — " Are forgiven," Ayafeh. — " Son, be 

cheerflil, thy sins are forgiven," Dab, ka yi murna 

sunufai nku anyafeh nsu. 
Fork, s. ziinke ; pi. ziinka ; 
Fornication, s. shiakala. 
Fors.ake, v. igaba. — "I forsake you," Xa igaba 

Fortifvj v. birini. 


Forty, adj. aruba'in. 

Fountain, 5. marumaru, and yashi. 

Four, adj. hudu, a7id fudu. 

Fourth, s. nahudu, and nafudu. 

Fowl, *. kaza; pi. kashi, /. — "A black fowl," Baka 
kaza; pi. babaku kashi. 

Fox, s. musuru ; pi. musurai, zlpka ; degeh ; pi. degageh. 

Frail (easy), adj. kumama, lalafa. 

Free, adj. beh, dah. — " If you make them free they will 
do their work well," En ku embeshieda su uyi aiki 
korei. — " They shall be free," Abeh su yaya ; lit. 
"children;" vieaning, "enjoy the privileges of child- 
ren." — " All White People, and all subjects of Great 
Britain, White or Black, who are kept in slavery, shall 
be made free forthwith," Duka Farufaru Mutani, da 
duka tallakawa nGreat Britain fari da baki wonda 
keh bauta, abah su yautshi yansu yansu. — " He shall 
be free ; " lit. " He shall be left to have himself," Shi 
ambari shi da. 

Freedom, s. pansa. 

Frequently, adv. saa saa ? 

Fresh, adj. dahnyie. — " Fresh water," Rua ndahdi ; lit. 
" sweet waters," or " waters of peace." 

Friday, s. Altshimaa. The day of rest amongst the 
Mahomedans : the sarne word is therefore applied to 
our Sabbath. 

Friend, s. aboki ; abuya,/! ; pi. abokai. — " We speak to 
you as friends and brethren," Mu yi magana da ku 
kamma abokai da kaneh. 

Friendship, *. abuta. — "The Queen of England is a 
great queen, she has sent us to offer you her friend- 
ship," Saraunia England, ita baba saraunia tshe ta 
a'iko mu ga bah ku abuta nta. 


Frighten, v. bah dsoro ; lit. "Give fear," Na bahka dsoro- 

Frog, s. kwaddo ; pi kwaddi. 

From, prep, daga, gare, ga.-" How long after this week 
shall we reach the Quorra?" Daga nan kmggi al- 
tshimaa nawa mu issa Kwarra ? - " They buy them 
from you," Su saye su gare ku.-" Wise men came 
from the East," Masuhangkali su nsakka daga Gabaz. 
— " Shake ye off the dust from your feet," Ku kakabeh 

kura ga kafafu nkv- 
Fruit, s.dahitshi; ;,/. dahyaitatua, and yayaitatua ; lit. 
"sons" or "offspring of the tree." -" Have you 
eaten much fruit ?" Ko ka tshi yayaitatua dayawa? 
Fruit-teee, s. itatshi da yaya {tree with fruit, or having 

Fry, v. suya. 

Fugitive, s. magashi ; pi. maguta. 
Fulfil, v. tshika.-" I fulfil my promise," Na tshika aUi- 

washi na.— " To be fulfilled," antshika. 
Full, adj. tshika. 

Fun, v. munaworigi ; lit " we make fun." 
Furnace, s tanderu. 


Gun, ..ribba.-"I made gain of twenty-four cownes," 
Na tshi ribba ashirin hudu ; lit. " I eat, &c."— " They 
will bring you much gain," Su ukao ma ku ribba 

Gain, v. tshi ribba. 

Gale, s. hiskah, /. 

Gallows, s. tshigo ; pi, tshigogi. 

Gaol, s. dahki ndufii.-" Do you want to go to gaol.^ 
Ka na soh sua tshiki ndahki ndufu? 


Gape, v. haiima. — " You are gaping all day," Ka na 
hauma rana duka. 

Garden, s. dangga. — " My garden is finer than yours," 
Dangga ta da keao ta fi nka. — " The sun burns all 
the seed which is sown in my garden," Rama ta 
kohna ma ni kohwonne iri da na shipka tshiki ndangga 

Gargle, v. wankeh makoguru nka. 

Garment, s. riga, a7id tufa ; pi. riguna, and tufafi. 

Gate, s. kofa, or kofar ndahki ; pi. kofofi. 

Gather, v. gangama, tara, or tarra. — " Gather all my 
clothes to one place," Tarra ma ni kaya tufafi na duka 
wuri deia. — " We gathered all the people together to 
one place," Mu tarra da mutani duka wuri deia. 

Generation, s. dahngi, iri. — " From one generation to 
another," daga wonna iri haruadani iri. 

Gentile, s. kafri ; pi. kaferai. 

Get, v. sami. — " I got some money," Ina sami kurdi. — 
" I have something," Ina da abu. 

Ghost, s. fatalua, fatarua ; others, patalua alia. (Ebiliss; 
and pi. ebilissa'i, are always applied to evil spirits.) 

Gift, s. kauta ; derived from kao, " to bring." 

Gild, v. saneh nshirania. 

Gird, v. damuratshiki. 

Girdle, s. damuratshiki. 

Girl, s. yarinia, budurua ; pi. yamaata. — " She is a bad 
little girl," Ita mugunia karama yarinia tshe. 

Give, v. bah, bahda, bahsa, bahshie. — "To be given," 
Abah, abahsa. — " Shall be given," Abahyesda. — 
" Give me, I pray you," Bah ni na tambaye ka. — 
" Grive to him that asketh you," Bah shi wonda ya 
tambaye ka. — "The people marvelled and glorified 
God who had given this power to men," Mutani su 


nyi mamaki, su ka gaba Alia wonda ya bahda wonnan 
ikoh ga mutani. — " To you it is given," Gare ku 
abahsa sa. — " To him shall be given," Gara sa abah- 
yesda. — " Give me sixpence," Bah ni kurdi shitta. — 
" He gave them to His disciples," Ya bahshie su ga 
almashira'i nsa. 

Gl-U) (to be), V. yi muma, yi guddu. — " I am glad," Xa 
yi murna, or Na yi guddu. 

Glass, s. madubi ; pi. madubaii. 

Glory, 5. haskeh. — " He showed to Him all the king- 
doms of the earth and their glory," Ya godda ma sa 
duka kassa ndunia da haskeh nsu. 

Glorify, v. yaboh, yaba, ayaboh. 

Gnashing (of teeth), tshisong hakura. 

Go, V. taffi, sah, sua. — " Go in," Sua tshiki, and Shigga, 
sani. — " I go home," Sani gidda. — " I am going into 
my house," Ina sua tshiki ndahki na. — " Hear ye 
what we are going to say to you," Ku shi abin da sah 
mu tshe ma ku. — " Go and come," Taffi da taffo. — 
" I say to this. Go, and he can go ; and to this, Come, 
and he can come," Xa tshe ga wonnan, Taffi, da shi ka 
taffi ; da wonni, TafFo, da shi ka taffia. — " But the days 
will come," Amma kwanaki su usoh. — " I am coming," 
Ina sua. — "He is going." Shi na sua. — "Do you 
want to go in the canoe ?" Ka na soh sua tshiki 

Goat, s. akwia ; pi. awaka'f, f. 

Goat, s. bunsuru ; pi. bunsurai, m. 

God, *. Alia. 

Gold, s. sinaria, and shinaria. 

Good, adj. keao, and keawa, and nagari, m. ; tagari,/!; 
pi. of both, nagarigaru, and nakwarei. — " A good man," 
Mutum nagari ; pi. Mutani nagari, and Xagarigaru. — 


" Good people," Mutani nakwarei. — " A good woman," 

Matshe tagari ; pi. Maata nagari, or Maata nakwarei. 
Goodness, «.nagerta,_/! — "The goodness of God is great," 

Nagerta Alia ta girima. 
Goods, s. gadu, kaya, dukia. 
Gospel, *. labari nagari. — " Good news." 
Govern, v. sariki. ? 
Governor, *. sariki ndunia. — " Governor of the canoes," 

Sariki nshiragi. — He is likewise called, " Governor of 

the water," Sariki nrua. — " Governor of the horse," 

Sariki ndohki, the same as " Master of, &c." 
Grain, s. kwaya, f. 

Granddaughter, s. ziikata ; pi. ziikokina. 
Grandfather, s. kaka ; pi. kakakina. 
Grandmother, s. kakata ; pi. kakana. 
Grandson, s. ziika ; pi. ziikoki. 
Grass, s. tshiawa, a7id haki. 
Grass-fields, s. fili. 
Grasshopper, ,v. farah. 
Gratis, adj. bansa. — " Gratis ye have received, gratis 

ye shall give," Bansa kai ku samu, bansa ku bahyes. 
Grave, s. kushiewa ; pi. kushiei. 
Gray, adj. puripuri. 
GRE.A.T, adj. baba ; pi. maya, and mainya, girima. — " This 

is a great man," Baba mutum nan. — " Large plates," 

Maya nkasakeh. 
Greater, adj. — " A greater than Jonah is here," lit. " one 

who passes Jonah in greatness is here," Wonda ya fi 

girima na nan. 
Greedy, adj. fairowa. — " This man is greedy," Wongga 

mutum ya fairowa. 
Green, adj. koria, tshiawa. ? 

Greet, v. gaizua, gaishie. — " I am greeting you," Ina 


gaishie ka. — " If ye enter a house, salute it," En ku 
shigga tshiki ndahki, ku gaisa sa. 
Grind, v. washi wuka. 
Grindstone, *. dutchi nwashi wuka. 
Gripe, v. tshiki ne emini tshiwo. 
Grief, s. tausai. 
Groan, v. yina nkuuka da tausai (crying in pain, sorrow, 

Ground, s. kassa. 

Grow, v. yi girima, tashi. — " My corn is growing well," 
Dawa massarata tayi girima. — " It will grow well." 
Shi itashida keao. 
Grumble, v. nutum, kugi, nakugi. 
Guard, v. zaro. 
Guess, v. tamma. — " I think so, suppose so, I guess so," 

Ina tamma hakka. 
Guide, r. — ("We shew you the road," Mushe ma ka 

Guilty (person), adj. mailaifi ; p?- masulaifi. — "To be 
found guilty, is to fall in justice," En ya faddi ga 
Guinea-hen, s. sabua; pi. sabi. 
Gum, s. tshierai, and karo. 
Gums, s. dasori. 

Gun, s. bindiga ; pi. bindigogi. 
Gunpowder, *. albaru. 

Gunshot, *• dutshi; pi. duasu, and doasu. {The Natives 
charge their guns with small stones or pieces of iron.) 

Hail, s. kankara, or rua nkankara. 
Hair, s. gashi ; pi. gasusa, m. — " For thou canst not 
make one hair white or black," Dong ka'i ba ka yi ba 


gashi deia fari ko baki. — " For the very hairs of your 
head are all numbered," Amma koda gasusa kanku 
na kaV duka angkedaya su. 

Haircloth, s. tufa ngashi ndohki. 

Half, s. kinggi, lebi (rather, part, a portion.) — " Give 
me half the money," Ka bah ni kinggi nkurdi. — " Be- 
cause they have no portion," Dong ba su da kinggi. 

Halfpenny, s. wuri. 

Halt, v. gurugu, and gurumu. 

Hammer, *. massaba ; pi. massaba'i. 

Ham^iock, s. raya ; pL ragaii. 

Hamper, s. samfu ; pi. samfuna. 

Hand, s. hanu ; pi. hanua,/! 

Handkerchief, s. alfuta ; pi. alfutotshi : and kallabl ; 
pi. kalluba. 

Handle, v. taba. 

Handsome, adj. keao, keavva. 

Hang, v. rataya. 

Harrass, v. alaleh, and sanatshe. — " I harrass you," Na 
alaleh ka, or Na sanatshe ka. 

Harbour, i\ rikeh. — " He holds thee in mind," or " Har- 
bours something against thee," Ya rikeh ka ga 

Hard, adj. ya'iwia. 

Harden, v. tuya. 

Hare, *. batshia ; pi. batshiu. 

Harlot, s. shakalia ; pi. shakalai, a7id shakalu. 

Harm, v. laifi. — "I do you no harm," Ba ni ma ka laifi 

Happy, adj. murna. 

Hart, s. kishimi, m. ; bariewa,/". ; pi. communis, barieyie. 

Harvest, s. kaaka, /. — " The harvest truly is great," 
Kaaka da gaskia ta yi yawa. 


HASTEN, V. samrl. 

Hat, s. malafa ; pi malafuna, /— " You have -ot a 

white hat," Ka na da malafa fara, 
Hatch, v. gengessa. 
Hatchet, *. kurada, and dahngatari ; pi. kuradai, and 

RA.TE, V. klh.— " I do not hate you," Ba na kih ka ba 
(addressed to a man.) Ba na kih ki ba,/— " Do you 
hate me?" Ka kih ni?— "Ye shall be hated by all 
for my name^s sake," Akieh ku ga duka sabbada suna 
R\.ter, s. makih ; pL masukih. 

Ha\-e, r. da.—" I have money," Ina da kurdi.— " They 
have many goods," Su na da dukia dayawa. Akoi.— 
" They have. I have, this," Ina da wangga.— " They 
have many things," Su na da abubua dayawa.—" Theirs 
is the kingdom^of heaven ;" lit. " they have," Su keh da 
kassa alitshana.— " Having, or Are having," Keh da, 
and na da.—" Who having one sheep," Wonda keh da 
dunkia deia.— " I have no gun," Ba ni da bindiga. 
Hawk, *. agulu ; pi agulai. 
He, pron. shi, and ya.— " He is," Shi neh.— " She is," 

Shi keh. 
Head, s. kai' ; pi kauna.— " Thy head," Kainka ; often 

kanka, m., kainki,/ ; and kanki, " thy head,"/ 
Headache. «. tshiwunkai. 

Heal, r. worikeh, and worikiwa, a7id worikehwa.— " I 
am' healed of my sickness," Angworikeh ni ga tshi- 
wuta ta.— "My servant shall be healed," Bara na 
aworikeh shi.—" His servant was healed in that hour," 
Bara nsa aka worikeh shi ga lotto nan.—" Daughter, 
be of ffood cheer, thy faith hath made thee whole ; and 
the woman was healed from that very hour," Dia, ki 


yi murna musulumtshi nki, ya sah ki worikeh wa ; da 

matshe angvvorikeh ta daga wonnan lotto. 
Health, s. lafia. — " Are you well?" Ka na lafia ? 
Healthy, adj. lafia. — " Healthy person," Mailafia ; pi. 

masulafia. See Well. 
Heap, s. tuli. 
Hear, v. shi. — " Do you hear (understand) the Haussa 

language well ?" Ka na shi magana Haussa deidei ? — 

A71S. " I do not understand it well," Ba na shi magana 

ta deidei ba. — " To be heard," Ashi. — " To have been 

heard," Aka shi. 
Heart, s. sutshia ; pi. sutshotshi. 
Heathen, s. kafri ; pi. kafera'i. 
Heaven, s. alitshana, lahira. 
Heavy, adj. nawi. 
Heaviness, s. nauyi. 

Heed (take heed), v. ku dau annia, and ku dau hangkali. 
Heir, *. magashi ; pi. magada. 
Hell, *. wata lahira, probably " eternal fire." 
Help, v. taya. — " I help you," Na taya ma ka. 
Help, s. taya, and guddumoa. — " Are you rendering us 

help ?" Ku yi ma mu guddumoa ? 
Hemp, s. yawa. 

Hen, s. dahkolua kaza ; pi. kashi. 
Hence, adv. dagana. 
Her, pron. ta, nta. — " I saw her upon the hill," Na gani 

nta bissa tutu. — " She was walking to her house," Ta 

na taffi ga dahki nta. 
Herb, s. gainya ; pi. gainyae. 
Herd, s. gariki ; pi. garaka. 
Hero, s. saruni ; pi. sarumai. 
Herself, pron. kanta, takanta, itakanta. — " She told me 

herself," Ta fadda ma ni takanta. 


Hesitate, v. kewoiwoinia. 

HicKUP, V. shakua, or shekua. — " Why are you hickup- 
ing all day?" Dongmeh, or domeh ka keh shekua 
kulum rana ? 

Hidden, v. gboye. 

Hide, v. gbuya, and gbuye. — " The city which is upon a 
hill cannot be hid," Gari da keh bissa tutu ba ashi 
gbuya ba. 

High, adj. dogo, m. ; dogua, f. 

Height, s. dogo ; pL dogoye. 

High-water, s. tshika rua. 

Hill, s. tutu. 

Him, pro7i. shi, sa, nsa. 

Himself, pron. kansa, shikansa. 

Hind, s. bariewa. 

Hinder, v. hannah. — " Why do you hinder me from 
doing my work ?" Domeh ka keh hannah ni ga j-i 
aiki na ? — " To be hindered," Ahannah. — " To have 
been hindered," Aka hannah. 

Here, adv. nan, or nahn. — " Go directly," Taffi nan da 
nahn ; rather, " Go hither and thither." 

Hippopotamus, s. dorina ; pi. dorinai. 

Hire, v. sufari, and yi sufari. — " I give you work," Ina 
bah ka aiTd. — " They will hire houses," Su uyi sufari 

His, pron. shi, sa, nsa. — " God and his Prophet," Alia 
da Maaikeh nsa. 

Hither (near), adv. nan, or nahn, kussa. 

Hitherto, adv. da wuri. — " Hitherto you have been sell- 
ing slaves," Da wuri ku na saida bahyi. 

Hive, s. kogo nsuma ; pi kogima nsuma. 
Hoe, s. hauya ; pi. hauyu. 

Hog, 5. gurusuna ; pi. gurusunu. 


Hold, v. kama, or kahma, and rika. — " He held him," 

Ya rika sa. 
Hole, s. rami ; pi. ramuna. — " I draw my sheep out of 

the hole," Na fitta dunkia ta tshiki nrami. 
Hollow, v. gina rami, and ruara. 
Holy, adj. musulumtshi. — " God alone is holy." Alia 

neh deia musulumtshi. 
Home, *. £?idda; pi. gissi. — " You go to your home," Sakka 

gidda nka. 
Honey, s. moinsuma ; lit. " oil of bees." 
Honour, *. yaboh, girima. 
Honour, v. bah girima. — •" Honour thy father and thy 

mother," Ka bah oba ka da uwa ka girima. 
Hoof, s, kofatto ; pi. kofattai'. 
Hook, s. kugia ; pi. kugogi. 
Hope, s. tamaha. 
Hope, v. tamaha. 

Horn, s. kafoh, and kahoh ; pi. kafoni. 
Horse, s. dohki, m. ; pi. dawaki. 
Hot. adj. safi. 
Hound, v. farauta. 
Hour, s. lotto ; pi. lokashi. 
House, s. dahki ; pi. dahkuna. 
Householder, s. maigonah ; pi. masugonah. 
How (how much more ?) adv. kaka, kakafah. — " How 

then ?" Yanda ? — " How much more you ?" Balleh ku ? 

— " How many years have you been in the Haussa 

Country ?" Shekaru nawa ka samna gari nHaussa ? — 

" You must not premeditate how and what ye shall 

say," Kada ku yi tunaneh kaka ko mi ku utshe. 
Howl, v. harugowa. 
Hug, v. banantshi. 
Hum, v. tshiegami, ammo. 


Humble, adj. lalafa. 

Hundred, s. dahri, or dari. 

Hunger, s. yxingwa. 

Hunger, v. shi yungwa. — " Blessed be those that hunger," 

Albereka gare su masuyungwa, or Woddanda keh 

yungwa. — " I feel hungry," Xa shi yungwa. 
Hungry person, s. maiyungwa ; jjl masuyungwa. 
Hunt, v. farauta. — " Do the people go hunting, fishing, 

or such kind of work?" :Mutani su ka sua farauta, ko 

kahmu nkifi, ko wonni iri aiki. 
Hunter, s. mafarautshi ; pi. mafarauta 
Hurt, r. tamma. — " You must not allow any person to 

hurt them," Kada ku berri kohwa shi tamma su. 
Husband, s. mizi ; pi. maza. 
Hush, v. gafara. 
Husk, s. zika. 
Hyena, s. kariketshi. 


I,pron. ina, na, nia,/. Ina is always "lam," pres. part. 

Jacket, s. taggo, and bakeriga; p/.tagguna. 

Jail, s. dahkl ndufu; pi. dahkuna ndufu ; lit. " house of 

darkness." So?}ie, dahki nduhu. 
Janu.vry, s. Wata na deia, Thefrst month. 
Jaw, s. kumtshi ; pi. kumatu, and mukamaki. 
Idle, adj. lalatshi. 
Idol, s. dsafi, or zafi. 
Idolater, s. ma'dsafi ; pi. madsafa. 
Idolatry, s. kafritshi, or kafaritshi; i: yi kafritshi. 
Jealous, adj. kishi. 
Jest, v. barlkwantshi, or barlkontshi. — "You jest too 

much," Ka fai barikontshi. 
If, conj. en, and kattang. 

(49) D 


III, adj. tshiwu. 

Illness, s. tshivvuta,/! 

Imagine, v. satshe. 

Immerse, v. tzoma rua. 

Impossible, adj. ba shl iawa. 

Improper, adj. ba shi deidei ba. 

In, prep, tshiki, na, ga. 

Incredible, adj. ba na ylrda ba ; lit. " I do not believe it." 

Indecent, adj. kassami, m. ; kassama,/! 

Indigo, s. baba. 

Indigo-pit, s. marina ; pi. marinai. 

Indolence, s. kiuya. 

Infant, s. sharini, and shariri ; pi. tsharirai, or sharini. 

Infanticide, *. makashi nkai ; pi. makasankai. — " Do 
the people kill their children ? and why are they doing 
so ?" Mutani su nkashi yaya nsu ? domeh su nyi hak- 

Infirm, adj. kumama. — " Infirm person," kumama ; pi. 

Infla^diation, s. kaba kumburi. 

Inform, r. fadda, and faddi. — " I will tell or inform," 
Ni ifaddi. — " Give me information of those things 
which you know about the people of Africa," Fadda 
ma ni abin da ka sani ga mutani Africa. 

Information, s. labari ; pi. labarai, and labaru. — " Till 
I bring thee word," Hal na kao ma ka magana. 

Inhabitant, s. maigeri ; pi. masugeri. 

Inherit, v. gadu, ya samna. — " I inherit the property of 
my father," Na ya samna ga gado oba na. 

Iniquity, s. kafaritshi ; probably idolatry, or witchcraft. 

Injure, v. batta, a?id gbatta. 

Injury, s. banna, batta, and gbatta. 

Ink, *. tadaffa. 


In^most, adj. tsaka. 

Inn, s. mashidi; pi. mashldai. 

Innocence, s. allahaki. 

Inquire, v. tambaya. 

Insane, adj. mahokatshi. 

Insatiable, adj. suari. — " A person," ^lai'suari ; pi. ma- 

Insect, s. kwaro ; pi. kwari. 

Inside, s. tshiki. 

Instantly, adv. yansu yansu. 

Inste.\d, adv. mainiaki. 

Instruct, r. badabashi, or koya. — " What are they teach- 
ing them?" Mi su keh koya ma su? — "They teach 
them to read, to write, and to pray," Su ka nkoya ma su 
karratu, rubutu, da nyi salla. 

Instrument, s. bukaya. 

Insult, v. sawuri idanu. 

Intent (to mean), i'. tamaha. 

Into, prep, zuba, ga, tshiki, and na. 

Intoxication, s. mashayi. 

Invasion, s. sansani. 

Intent, v. attara. — " They are inventing bad things," Su 
na attara abubua miagu. 

In-a iNciBLE, adj. kakarifa. 

Is, aiix. V. na, neh, keh, tshe. 

Join, v. gamma, and gama. — " We come to unite our- 
selves in peace with all men," Mu nsakka gama dahdi 
da mutani duka. — " We come to join in trade with all 
people," Mu nsakka gama tshiniki da mutani duka, 
and dori. 

JouRNTiY, s. tafia, and tafiawa. 

Joy, *. muma. 

Joy, r. yi muma. 

(51) D 2 


Iron (any thing strong), s. karifi ; /j/. karufa. 

Isle, s. tshiburi; pi. tshiburai. 

It, pron. shi, sa, nsa, ta, nta, ita. 

Itch, s. ka'ikai. 

Judge, .?. alikarli, or alikali ; pi. alikarlai, or alikalai.— 
" A just judge," Alikali ma'igaskia ; pi. alikalai masu- 
gaskia. — " An unjust jvidge," Alikali mara^gaskia ; 
pi. alikalai" marasagaskia. 

Judge, v. sheria, bah sheria, and yi sheria. — " To be 
judged," Ayisheria. — "That ye be not judged," Won- 
nan kada aka yi sheria ku. 

Judgment-day, s. — Rana tashi ndunia ; lit. " The day of 
the resurrection of the world." 

Jump, v. tuma. 

June, s. — Wata na shitta, The aixth month. 

Ivory, s. — Akworl ngiwa, or hakkora ngiwa ; lit. " Ele- 
phants' teeth." 

Just, adj. gaskia. 

Just man, s. maigaskia; p/. masugaskia. — "An unjust 
man," Marasgaskia ; pi. marasagaskia. — " An unjust 
woman," Marashiagaskia ; pi. marasagaskia. 

JusTiFiER, *. maibahda gaskia ; ;;/. masubahda gaskia : 
lit. "He who gives justice." 

Justify, v. bahda gaskia. — " For by thy words thou 
shalt be justified," Dong daga maganganu nka abah 
ka gaskia. 


Keen, adj. kaifi. 

Keep, v. ashi. — " I keep your money," Na ashi kurdi 

Kernel, s. kwaya ; pi. kwayu. 
Kettle, s. shantali ; j)l. shantula. 


Key, s. makubli ; pi. makulai, and makubila'i, and yaya 
makubilai, or " sons of the lock." 

Keyhole, s. kofa makubli ; pi. kofofi makubla'i. 

Kid, s. dah akwiya ; pi. yaya avvaki. — " But thou didst 
never give me one kid," Amma ba ka bah ni ba dah 
akwiya deia 

Kidney, s. kooda ; pi. koodai, and koododi. 

Kill, v. kashi. — " Thou shalt not kill," Kada ka kashi ; 
or " Ye must not kill," Kudeh kada ku kashi, or Kai 
de'i kada kashi. — " Christ was killed for the people," 
Krist angkashi shi sabbada mutani. — " Killed," Anka- 
shi, or angkashi, akashi. — " He who curseth his father 
or his mother shall be killed," Shi wonda ya sayi oba 
nsa ko uwa nsa akashie shi. 

Kind, adj. nagari, m. ; tagari, /. 

Kind (sort), s. iri. — "Every kind of goods," Kohwotshe 
iri ndukia. 

Kindness, s. nagerta. 

Kindle, v. gamma, or guami. 

King, s. sariki ; pi. saraki. Tl'W and "^l!}. 


Kingdom, s. kassa, or kazza ; 7^/. kassashi, or kazzashi. 
Kiss, v. leasa. — " He kissed him," Ya leasas sa. 
Kiss, s. leasa. 

Kitchen, s. madafi ; pi. madafai. 
Kitten, s. dahmuza ; pi. yayamuza. 
Knead, v. garewuya. 
Knee, s. kwiwa ; pi. kwiyau. 
Kneel, v. rusuna, and kurufana. 
Knife, s. wuka; pi. wukagi, or wukaki. 
Knit, v. sharaba. 
Knock (at the door), v. bugakofa. 
Knot, s. gulli ; pi. gulluna. 

Know, v. sani, saneh, sa. — " Known to God are all His 


works," Saneh ga Alia aikoki nsa duka. — " My sin is 
known to God," Sunufi na sana neh g-a Alia. — " Our 
sins are known to God," Sunufai mu sana su ga Alia. 
— " Ye know that the great God has made all nations 
of one blood," Ku sani wonnan Obangissi Alia ya yi 
iri ndunia duka shinni deia. — " For the tree is known 
by its fruit," Dong itshi ansani shi daga yaya nsa. 

Knower, s. gonneh ; pi. gonnai. 

Knowledge, o?' (Invention), s. hattarra. 

Knuckle, s. gaba ; pi. gabobi. 

Kola (Gorra-nut), s. gorro ; pi. gorrora. 


Labour, s. a'iki ; pi. aikoki. 

Labour, v. yi aiki. 

Labourer, s. maa'iki, a7id maia'ikatshi ; pi. masua'iki. 

Ladder, s. zani ; pL zano, and zanoni. 

Lake, s. tapki, and rua nkuddu : tufu ; pi. tufuka. 

Lalleh, s. a Haussa and Nuji word. The name of a 

small leaf which the Natives make use of to die their 

finger-nails red. 
Lamb, s. dahndunkia ; pi. yayaudumaki. 
Laiue, adj. gurugu, and gurumu ; pi. gurugunta. — 

" The lame are walking well," Masugurugunta su na 

tafia deidei. 
Lamp, s. fitilla ; pi. fitlllai. — " They took their lamps, 

they went out to meet the bridegroom," Su ka dauka 

fitillai nsu, su ka fitta su ngamu da ango. — " They 

trimmed their lamps," Su ka girda fitillai nsu. — " For 

our lamps are going out," Dong fitillai mu su 

Land, s. kassa, or kazza, and gari ; pi. garurua, and 



Language, s. magana ; pi. maganganu. 

Lap, s. tshinia ; pi. tshinie. 

Lard, s. kitshi ngurusunu. 

Late, adj. yautshe, or da yauyau. 

Laugh, ?;. daria, and darah. 

Law, s. dooka. — " I have never broken thy laws at any 

time," Ni da dei bangkaria dooka ka kohwonne 

Lay, v. kwantshi, assa, and assawa. 
Lead, s. dalma. 

Lead, r. shia. — " He was led up," Shi aka shia bissa. 
Leader, s. mashiaya, f.; mashiayi, 7n.; pi. common, 

Leak, v. yoyo, and yeyo. — " My house leaks," Dahki na 

shi na yeyo. 
Lean, adj. gusuma. 
Leap, v. zaria. 
Learn, v. koyo. — " I want to learn the Haussa language," 

Ina soh koyo magana Haussa. — " They shall be allowed 

to teach any one who is willing to learn," Su uberri 

ga koya kohwa woddanda keh song koyo. 
Least, adj. auta. Karami, m.; karamia, y^ 
Leather, s. fahta, or fatta. 
Leave, v. barri, or berri. « 

Leaven, s. zamia. 

Leech, s. matshetsheku ; pi. matshetshekai. 
Left, adj. hauni, or hawuni. — " He will put the sheep to 

his right-hand, but the goats to his left," Shi isah 

dumaki hanu nsa na dahma, amma awaki na hauni. 
Leg, s. tshinia ; pi. tshinai. 
Lend, v. ramtshe. — " I give you the loan of my money," 

Na bah ka ramtshe kurdi na. 
Length, s. sawoh. 


Leopard, *. dahmiza, or dahmassa ; 'pl. dahmizai. 

Leprous, adj. kuturu. — " Leprous person," Kuturu 
miitum; |j/. kutareh, a/irf kiiturta. — "The lepers are 
made clean," Masukuturta anyi su sarei. 

Leprosy, s. kuturuta. 

Less, adv. & adj. auta. 

Lest, conj. kada ; and " Must not," " Dare not." 

Level, v. dabeh. 

Liar, s. makarietshi : pl. makarieta. 

Lick (kiss), v. leasa. 

Lie, v. karia, and yi karia. 

Lie, s. karia. 

Life, s. ra'i ; /;/. raiu. 

Lift up, v. dauki bissa. 

Light, v. haska. — "Go light me a lamp," Taffi haska 
ma ni fitilla. 

Light, s. haskeh, and hasekeh ; pl. haskuoki. 

Lightning, s. wolkia. — " There was much {lit. we re- 
ceived) lightning-, and rain, and thunder," Mu samu 
wolkia dayawa da rua da aradu. 

Like (similar), r. kamma. TVy^ . 

Like, y. soh. — "I like you," Na soli neh ka. — "Did 
you like the conversation which you heard yesterday ?" 
Ka soil magana da ka shi shia ? See Want, and Love. 
Hometimes it is written song, instead of ?,o\i n — . 

Liken (compare), v. kammata. 

Likewise, adv. ma. — " I go likewise," Ni ma ina sua. 

Lime, s. tokah. 

Limes, s. lemu. 

Line. *. igia. — "Draw the line well," Ka shia igia 
kwarei ; pl. igogi, and igo'f. 

Linger, v. tagania ; perhaps better, " to hesitate." 

Lion, s. zaki ; pl. zakuoki. 


Lioness, *. zakanla ; pi. zakuoki maata. 

Lip, s. leboh ; /;/. leba. 

Listen, v. surareh, or sorare, and zawurara. 

Little, adj. kattana, kanana. — " Little plates," Kanana 
nkassakeh. — Kani, " More the youngest." 

Live, v. samma. — " I have life," Ina da ra'i. 

Liver, s. antah ; pi. antotshi. 

Load, s. kaya ; ^jZ. kayayoki. 

Lock, s. makuli ; pi. makulai. 

Locust, *. farah. 

Loin, s, dandakwashi ; pi. dandakwasai. 

Long, *. sawoh : dogo, m. ; dogua,/. : pl.sai. — "Have 
you made a long journey? Ko ka yi dogua tafia? 
arid, " I have made a long journey," Na ka yi dogu 

Look, v. dubah, duba, dubi. — " We must look to God," 
Mu dubi Obangissi. 

Looking-glass, *. maddobi ; ^jZ. maddubai. 

Loom, s. masefi ; pi. matshefa'i. 

Loose, v. koentshi, or kuentshi. — " Be loosed," Akuentshi. 

LiOOSENESS (of bowels), s. gudundawa. 

Lord, s. Obangissi, derived from Oba, "father," and the 
plural of gidda. " Lot " (premises), gissi, applied 
to God: but more frequently they will say, Oban- 
gissi Alia, " Lord God." 

Lose, v. bahda, rassa. — " He shall not lose his reward," 
Ba shi irassa bia nsa. 

Loss, s. tahsar. 

Lost, part, gbadda. 

Lot (premises), s. gidda ; pi. giddashi, and gissi. 

Laud (with power), adj. da karifi. 

Louse, s. koruknta, and kahya. 

Love, v. soh. — " I love you," Ina soh nka. — " You love 
(57) D 3 


me," Ka soh ni. — " Yes, I love you much," Hakkana, 

na fa'i soh nka. 
Lo\t;, s. soh. 
Low, adj. gashlere. 
Luck (good), s. nassara. 
.... (bad), s. mugu ngamo. 
Lukewarm, adj. sufa. 
Lull, v. reno. 
Lunatic, s. tababeh. 
Lungs, s. sa'ifa ; pi. saiifofi. 
Lurk, v. dakuroh. 
Lust, s. soyeyeh. 


Mad, adj. hauka. — " Mad-woman," Mahaukatshia ; pi. 
like masc. — " Mad-man," Mahaukatshi ; pi. mahaukata 

Madam, s. atashira ; pi. atashirai. 

Maid, s. budurua ; pi. budura'i. 

Maim, v. rauni. Shaida, " mark." 

Maintain, v. tshiesua, or tshieswa. 

Make, v. yi, wa, sa. — "To be made," Ayi. — "To have 
been made," Aka yi. — " No person shall be made a 
slave," Ba mutum kohdeia ayi shi bawa. — " Done," 
Anyi. — " If the people are wronged {lit. done wrong 
to "), En mutani anyi ma su laifi ; also, anyi mugunta. 
— " If thou wilt, thou canst make me well," En ka 
yirda ka sa ni sarei. — " Do they make the beer them- 
selves, or do they get it from White People ?" Su ka 
nyi gia da kansu, ko su nsamu ta ga turawa ? 

Maker, s. mayi ; pi. masuyi. 

Male, s. namizi ; pi. maza, or maaza. 

Malice (badness of heart), s. mugunia sutshia. 

Man, s. namizi (See Male), and mutum ; pi. mutani, or 


mitani. — " I will make you fishers of men," Na yirda 
sa kii makamakifi mutani. 

Manage, v. giara, or girta. 

Mane, s. gesa. 

Manhood, *. samrai. 

Mankind, s. iri mutani duka ; lit. " all generations of 

Many, adj. dayawa, and deyawa, and tahri. 

Many-coloured, adj. eribambam, or kama ebambam. 

Many tiaies, s. kohyaushe, and kulum. 

March, s. — Wata nauku. The third month. 

Mare, s. godia ; pi. dahwaki. 

Mark, v. sha'ida, and yi shaida. 

Mark, s. shaida. 

Market, s. kassua. 

Marriage, s. amire. 

Marrow, s. barugo. 

Marry', v. damiri, and amiri. 

Marsh, v. faddawa. 

Marvel, v. mamaki, and yi mamaki. — " And all the peo- 
ple marvelled," Da mutani duka su nyi mamaki. 

Mash, r. dahkeh. 

Mask, s. baddakamma ; pi. masubaddakamma. 

Mason, s. magina ; pi. masugina. 

Mast, s. itshi nshirigi ; pi. itatua nshirigi. 

Master, s. Obangissi. 

Mat, *. tabirma ; /;/. tabirmi. 

May, s. — Wata nabiat, or nabiar. The fourth month. 

Me, pron. ni, na. — " To me," Ma ni. 

Mean, v. satshi, tamaha. — " We brought some, to show 
you what we are meaning," Mu kao wosu ga godda 
ma ku abin da mu keh tamaha. 

Measure, s. zakka. 


Measure, v. awo, awuna, and awunawa. — "Measure 
the rice for me," Awuna ma ni sinkafFa. — " Measure 
six bushels (measures)," Awuna ma ni zakka shitta. 
— " I am measuring the rice," Ina awunawa sinkaifa. 
— '• We are measuring rice," Mu awo sinkaffa. 

Meat, *. nawa. 

Meddler, s, ma'ibidagaba ; 7)/. masubidagaba. 

Meditate, v. tunaneh. 

Medicine, s. magani ; pi. magunguna. 

Meek, adj. lalafa. 

Meek PERSON, s. mahakuritshi, 7n. ; mahakuritshia, /!; or 
mai kuritshi, «2.; — tshia, /! ; pi. generis communis, 
Masuhangkuri. — " Blessedness upon the meek, they 
shall inherit the earth," Albereka gare su masuhang- 
kuri, su ka yi samma dunia. 

Meet, v. tshe, and gamu, and mua. — " I met them," Na 
gamu da su. 

Meeting-house, s. masalatshi ; pi. masalata'i. 

Melt, v. nakireh. 

Member, v. woshe, aiid wosie ; pi. wosashi. 

Mend, v. banki, and giara. — " They were mending their 
nets," Su na giara taru nsu. 

Mention, v. shawora. — " 1 mention it to you," Na sha- 
wora da ma ka, and Na shawora da ma ka'i. 

Merchant, s. falakeh ; pi. fatakeh. 

Mercy, s. tausai. — " I will have (feel) merry," Ni ishi 

Messenger, s. mansoh, maayike ; pi. mansani, and maa- 
yika, and maaika. — " The names of the messengers 
are these," Sunanaki maaika keh nan. 

Middle, s. sahka, or zakka. 

Midst, *. sahkani. — " I send you as sheep in the midst of 
wolves," Na ai'kie ku kamma tumaki sahkani nkurai'. 

MIG— :\10T 

Might, *. alhorma, or alhoriima. 

Milk, «. nono, "sour;" maddarah, "sweet." 

Mill, s. marlede ; j)l- inariedai. 

Mind, s. sutshia ; pi. sutoshi. See Heart. 

Mine, s. tamma. 

Mixer, s. mamglna ntamma ; pi. masungina ntamma. 

Mingle, v. garowaya. 

Minister, s. liman ; pi. mailimai. 

Miracle, s. iko ; pi. ikanu, and ikoki. 

Miscarry, v. barri ntshiki. 

Miss, v. kurukureh. 

Mistress, s. uwayengissi ; ^-'^- uwanganglssi. 

Mix, v. See Mingle. 

Mock, v. daria. — " You mock me?" Ka na ma nl daria? — 

" I am mocked," Na daru. — " They mock me," Su, or 

sung dareh ni. 
MoNTJAY, s. Azibl. 
Money, s. kurdi ; pi. kuradi. 
Monkey, s. blrl ; pi. blra'i, or biroi. — " You dirty monkey," 

Dadauda biri. 
Month, s. wata; jjl. watani, a?id wataneh. 
Moon, s. Wata. 

Moonlight, s. fari nwata, often, faring nwata. 
More, adv. fi, kahre kahri ? 
Morning, s. safeh, safia. — " Good morning," Sanu da 

kwana, and Ko lafia, and Lafia da azuba, and Sanu 

da yini. — " Good day to you likewise," Ko lafia tare 

da kai. 
MoRROAV, s. gobeh. — " The day after to-morrow," Shibi. 
MoRTER, s. turami ; pi. turameh. 
Most, adj. yawantshi. 
Moth, s. kwaru ; pi. kwari. 

Mother, s. uwa ; pi. uwai. — " Who is my mother, and 


who are my brethren ? Wa tshe uwa ta, da sua kaneh 

na ? — " Is not his mother called Mary ?" Ba uwa tai 

aka kirra Maria ba ? 
MoTHER-iN-LAW, 5. zuruka ; pi. zurukai. 
Mountain, s. sauni, and tutu ; pi. saunoni, and tutanu. 
Mourn, v. takabah. — " Blessings on them who are 

mourning," Albereka gare su masutakabah, or wod- 

danda keh takabah. 
Mouse, s. kusu ; pi. kusa. 
Mouth, s. bahki ; j)l. bahkuna. 
Move, v. kawas. 
Much, adj. dayawa, deyawa, tahri, faye, and fa'f, " To do 

Mud, s. tabo. 

Mug, s. mohda ; pi. mohdani. 
Mule, s. alfadari, m.\ alfadara,/!; pi. generis communis, 

Multitude, *. taro, m. 
Murder, s. mimiyah, a7id kashinka'i. 
Murderer, *. maikashi, 7«., attd mamkashinkai" ; maika- 

shia nkai,f. : pi. common, makashi, and masukashi, and 

Music, s. busa. 
Must, v. deh, or de'i. (Ae?.) — " Thou must sit down," Ka'i 

deh samna. — " Ye must stop," Ku deh ku saya. — 

" Ye must believe me," Ku deh ku yirda da ni. 
Mutton, s. nam a nrago. 
Mv, pron. na, a7id ni, ?n. ; ta, nia, and Ui'i,/. 
Myself, pron. kaina, a?id nikaiina, 7??. ; niakai'na,/*. 

Nail, v. kaffa. 
Nail, s. akaifa. 


Nail (of fingers), akaifa faritshi; p/. akaifa faruta, and 

Naked, adj. funta, and woofi, or wofi ; pi. funtai, and 

Nakedness, *. woofi. 

Name, s. suna ; pi suna'i, and sunanaki. — " The messen- 
{fers, in the name of the Queen of England, and the 
King of this country, for himself and his people, do 
make this agreement," Maaika, da suna nSaraunia 
nGreat Britain, da Saliki, ngari nan da kansa da mu- 
tani nsa su nyi wonnan alliwashi. — " We have put our 
names to this promise," Mu ka sah sunanaki mu ga 
wonnan alliwashi. 
Nap, s. genggeddi, a?id angashi. 

Napkin, s. benteh ; pi bentuna. 

Narrow, adj. karama. 

Nation, s. iri, iri mutani. — "All nations," Iri ndunia 

Navel, s. tshibia; pi tshibobi. 

Near, adv. kusa, or kussa. 

Neck, s. wuya, and wia ; pi wiaye. 

Neckcloth, s. saneh nwuya. 

Necklace, s. dutshi nwuya ; pi duasu nwuya, or nwia. 

Need, v. soh. 

Needle, .v. alura ; pi alura'i. 

Neglect, v. kiwia. 

Negro, s. baki mutura, m. ; baka,/. ; p/. babaku mutani. 

Neighbour, s. magobtshi, or makobtshi ; pi makobta. 

Nerve, s. shishia ; pi shuoshi. ? 

Nest, s. sheka; pi. shekuna. 

Net, s. taru ; pL taru, and taruna. 

Never, adv. dade'i. 

New, adj. sabo. See Young. 


News, s. labari. — " Good news," Nagari labari. 

Next, s. & adj. — " He sits next to me," Shi kussa gave ni. 

Nice, adj, dakeao, or dekeao. 

Night, s. dareh, or dere, m. — " Night comes," Dareh ya 

Nine, adj. tarra. 
Nineteen, adj, asherim deia babu {one less than 

Ninety, adj. gomia tarra. 
Ninth, adj. natarra. 
Ninetieth, adj. na gomia tarra. 
No, adv. a a, n n. Impossible to convey a correct idea 

of the sou?id by visible sig?is. 
No and not, adv. ba — ba. — " I do not know," Ba na sani 

ba. — " I do not see him," Ba na gani nsa ba, or Ba na 

gana sa ba. 
Noise, s. dummi. — " You must not make a noise, our 

master is ill," Kada ku yi dummi obangissi mu na 

tshiwu, or Na shi tshiwu. 
None (not any), adv. babu kohwa, and kohwa deia. 
Noon, s. rana sakka. — Rana sahkani; Zi7. "Sun is in 

the middle." 
North, s. ariwa. 

Nose, *. hantshi ; pi. hantshiotshi. 
Nostril, s. kafa hantshi ; pi. kafafeh hantshiotshi. 
Not (must not, dare not), adv. kada. Ste No. 
Note (notice), v. lura. — " I take notice of your trick," 

Na lura da halli nka. 
Nothing, s. bansa, (gratis. ?) 
NoTW-iTHSTANDiNG, adv. babusani. ? 
November, s. — Wata nagoma sha deia, The eleventh 

Now, adc. yansu, to. 


Number, s. sha'ida, kida. 

Number, v. kedaya. — "I count my money," Na kedaya 
kurdi na. 

Nut, s. gushla ; pi. gushia. 

Nut (ground-nuts), s. gedda. — " Have you any ground- 
nuts to sell ?" Ki na da gushia gedda ga sa- 
yeswa ? f. 


Oar, s. fillafilli ; pi. fillafilla'i. 

Oath, s. ransua ; pi. rantsherantshe. 

Oath-breaking, s. kakaria, cmd alkauel. 

Obedience, a-, shi (hear and obey.) IFhen an African 
says I hear you, or your word, a promise is implitd 
that he will do it : — Na shi magana ka, m. ; na shi 
magana ki,/". — "I will do your orders." (Compare 
VO^ in Gen. xxxix. 10. Neh. xiii. 27. Ex. xxvii. 7. 

— T 

and many other passages of Scripture.) 
Obey, v. shi. 

Observe (watch), v. lura. 
Observer, s. ma'izaro ; pi. masuzaro. 
Obstinate, adj. laleiya. 
Obtain, v. samu. 
Occroh, *. kubewa, /. — " My occroh is growing," Kube- 

wa ta ta girima. 
Ocean, s. rua ngishiri (" saltwater "), and kohgi. 
October, s. — Wata na goma, " The tenth month." 
Offence, *. kamna. 
Offend, v. diba kamna. 
Offer, v. bahda. 
Officer (of war), s. zarumi ; pi. zarumai : and masa- 

rautshi; pi. masarauta. 
Oft, adv. saa, and wata saa. 
Oil, s. maV, or mo'f. 


Ointment, s. magani. 

Old, adj. soho, and safi, and safo. — " Things new and 

old," Abubua sabi da safi. 
Old garment, s. summa riga. 
Old man, s. soho, sofani ; pi. soft. — "I am old," Ni 

sofo ni. 
Old woman, s. sofua ; pi. sofi. 
Omit, v. barri. — " I omit it," Na barri shi. 
Omnipresent, s. — Alia kohena, " God is everywhere." 
Omniscient, s. — Alia ya sani abubua duka, " God knows 

every thing. 
On, prep, bissa, ga. — " Put it on," Asah bissa. — " Put 

this hat on your head," Sah wongga mallafa ga kanka, 

for Kai nka. 
Once, s. saudeia, or saodeia. 
One, adj. deia. 

Onion, s. albasa ; pi. albasai, and albasu. 
Only, adv. sa'i, and saitshi, a7id kadei. — " Only two 

hands I got," Sai hanu biu gare ni ; lit. " Only two 

hands are to me." 
Open. v. budeh. — " To be opened," Abudeh. — " To have 

been opened," Aka budeh. 
Opinion, s. shagali. — " I do not care for your opinion," 

Ba na kvila da shagali nka ba. 
Oppose, v. hannah. 
Or, conj. ko. 
Order, v. shiri, or gara. 
Ornaments, s. kayaaddo. 

Orphan, s. maraya, m. ; mara'inia, f. ; pi. marayu. 
Ostrich, s. tshimnia. 
Other, pron. wota, wantsha ; pi. wosu, and woentshan. — 

" He saw other two brethren," Ya ga wota kaneh biu. — 

" Turn to him the other also," Ka shiuya ma sa wan- 


tsha hakkana. — " And it was as well as the other," Da 
ya worikeh kamma woentshan. 

Overcome, v. fi. — " I overcome him," Na fi shi. 

Overflow, v. rua ya tshika. 

Our, j)ro}i. mu. 

Ourselves, proti. mudakamu, atid kamu. 

Outgo (reach before), v. rigia. 

Out, adv. wushe, wuri vvoshe, a. — " Wait, that I may 
draw the split out of thy eye," Bari en fitta hakki a 
ido nka. Awutshe.— " No person whatever shall be 
carried out of this country," Ba mutum koh deia berri 
aka ka'i awutshe nkassa nan. Tshiki. — " When ye go 
out of that house," Saauda ku fitta tshiki wonnan 

Owe, v. tubashi. 

Owner, s. maigidda ; pi. masugidda : and maibuk ; pi. 


Pacify, v. Yi dahdi, garni dahdi, biko. — " We are making 

peace," Mu nyi dahdi. — " I come to make peace with 

you," Na sakka dahdi da ka'i. 
Pack (gather), v. gama, tarra. — " Pack all my clothes 

together to one place," Tarra ma ni kaya tufafi na 

duka wuri deia. 
Paddle, s. See Oar. 
Padlock, *. makuli; pi. makulai. 
Pagax, s. See Gentile. 
Page, s. sansami sansamaii. 
Pain, s. tshiwo, oi- tshiwu. 
Paint, s. shafi. 

Pair, s. namizi da matshe ; pi. maasa da maata. 
Palace, s. fahda ; pi. fahdayi, and fahdodi. 


Palm-bird, s. moarai, and morori. 

Palm-oil, s. shamai, or shamoi', (red oil). — " Have you 
any palm-oil to sell ?" Ka na da shamai ga sayeswa ? 

Palm-tree, s. g'lgima. 

Palm-nut, s. koakwa. 

Pan, s. tasa ; pi. tasoshi. 

Pap, s. nono ; pi. nona. 

Paper, s. takarta ; p/. takartu. 

Parable, *. assantshi magana; yj/. assunta'i magana : and 
habaitshi ; pi. habaitai. 

Parasol, s. la'ima ; pi. laimomi. 

Parcel, s. dama ; pi. damai. 

Pardon, s. hangkura. 

Parents, s. mahaifi, a7id mahaifa. 

Parrot, s. sinsimako ; pi. sinsimakoi. 

Part, s. vvoshie, vvosashai, and pansa, also. — " I take 
your part," Na baya gare ka ; lit. " I back with you." 
— " The money shall be divided, one part to you and 
one part to me," Kurd! arebba su vvoshie deia na ni 
woshie deia na ku. 

Partner, s. aboki aiki ; /;/. abokai. 

Partition, s. shamaki ; pi. shamakai. 

Party, s. wosashai. 

Pass (surpass), v. fi. — " You surpass me," Ka fi nl. — 
" Pass away, or through," Wutshe, yi mafi. — " And it 
came to pass," Da hakka aka yl. 

Patch, v. banki. — " He patches his trousers," Ya banki 
wonda nsa. — " They were mending their nets," Su na 
banki taruna nsu. 

Patience, s. ankuleh, shimireh, humkuri. 

Pawn, v. shingina. 

Pavtpaw, s. kwanda massar. — " The pawpaws are rot- 
ting," Rwanda massar sung rukba, o?- Su na rukba. 


Pay, 5. & r. bia. 

Pavment, s. bia, and anabia. 

Pa\"er, s. ma'ibia ; pi. masiibia. 

Peace, *. dahdi. 

Peacem.vker, s. mai'gama dahdi ; pi. masug^ama dahdi. 

Peel (peelings), s. walda, aiid kualda. 

Pelican, *. shinshimi. 

Pen (reed), s. Alkalami ; pi. alkalamai. 

Penknife, s. askah alkalami, and yaruwuka ; pi. yang-- 

People, s. mutani, or mitani. 

Pepper, 5. tonkara, and toassi. 

Perceive, v. fariga. 

Perhaps, adv. wotakila. — " Perhaps you will say," Wota- 
kila ku utshe. 

Peril, s. wiiya. 

Perjure, v. sha'ida karla. 

Permit, v. barri. — " I permit you to go home," Ina barri 
ka taffi gidda. 

Perplex, v. damn. — " I am perplexed by your word," 
Ina damn da magana nka. — " You put my head in 
confusion," Ka shamlni kai, ka allaleh ni. 

Persecute, r. hassad a. — "Are persecuted," Aka hassada. 

Persecutor, s. magaftshi ; pi. magafta. — " Our perse- 
cutors," Magafta mu, and mai'hassada : pi. masu- 

Person, .«. mutum, 7n. ; Mutumnia, f. ; pi. Mutani, or 

Perspire, v. shibi, sufa. 

Pewter (bason, cup), s. tasa ; pi. tasoshi. 

Pick up (eat), v. tshinta, tshint^he. — " The birds picked 
up the seed," Sunsa'i sung tshintshi iri. 

Picture, «. mutammutami. 


Piece (of cloth), s. zhug;u ; pi. zhugae. — Tshi ni da zhug'u, 
"Eat me with cloth." A name given to the Jig-nut, 
it being supposed to be poisonous. " Eat me with 
burial cloth," or as much as, "Prepare for death 
before you eat me." 
Pig, s. gurusunu ; pi. g'urusunai. 
Pigeon, *. tantaba ; pi. tantabaru. 
Pillow, *. mashlingini ; pi. mashiinglnai". 
Pilot, s. shiagaba ; pi. shiagabai. 
Pin, s. zinkie ; pi. zinaka. 
Pinnacle, s. kokua. 
Pinch, v. tshamoka. 
Pipe, s. tukunia taba ; pi. tukana taba. 
Piper, s. maibusa ; pi. masubusheshe. 
Pirate, s. mapashi ; pi. mafasa ? 
Piss, v. busari. 
Pistol, s. akodia ; 2^/. akotai. 
Pit, s. rami ; pi. ramuna. 

Pity, s. tausai. — " Have pity vipon us," Shi tausai mu. 
Place, *. wuri ; j)l. wurareh. — " Give place (way)," 

fiahda wuri. 
Plain, s. fakwo ; pi. fayakeh. 
Plant, v. shipka. 
Plaster, v. shafeh ndahki. 
Plate, s. kasko ; pi. kasakeh. 

(^ai'S(')> baba nkasko ; pi maya nkasakeh. 

(soup), kasko mia. 

Plaiting (of hair), v. doka, dokoki. 

Play, v. worigi. — "You play with me," Ka na worigi 

da ni. — " What kind of plays have they in your 

country?" Wonni iri worigi su ka nyi gari nku? 
Please, r. murna, gameh. — " You please me," Ka gameh 

ni. — " You do not please me," Ba ka gameh ni ba. 


Pledge, *. shlngina. 

Pluck, v. diba, debeh, fitass. — " Pluck out your eyes," 
Ku debeh idanu nku, or Ku fitass idanu nku. — " They 
began to pluck the ears of the wheat," Su nka fara 
diba kanu alkamma. 

Plum, s. gawasa ; pi. gawaso. 

Plunder, satta. 

Pocket, s. alisifa ; pi. alisifa'i. 

Point, s. gwadawa. 

Poison, s. guba, dsafi. 

Police (office), s. wuri nsheria. 

Polish, v. guga. 

Poor, adj. talaka, and talau. — "I am poor," Ina talau- 
tshe. — " The poor have the Gospel preached to them," 
Masutalautshi ana woassu gare su Labari nagari. 

Porcupine, s. magaya ; pi magayu. 

Pork, s. nama ngurusunu. 

Possess, v. — Ina da wangga, " I have this," " I ow n this." 

Pot, s. dukunia ; pi. dukaneh. 

Potter, *. maidibayambu ; pi. masudibayambu. 

Potatoes (sweet), s. kudaku, tumaku ; pi. kudakai. 

Pound (weight), s. mudu deia. 

Pour out, r. suba rua, debo. — " Pour out water for me," 
Debo ma ui rua. 

Powder, s. albaru. 

Power, s. issa, ikoh, hokumtshi. 

Praise, s. yabo. 

Praise, v. bahda girima. 

Pray, v. yi addua, and yi salla. 

Preach, v. woassu. — " He was preaching in the wilder- 
ness," Shi na woassu tshiki ndawa. 

Precipice, s. surufi, (?) gebi. 

Prefer, v. sabeh. 


Pregxant, adj. ta na da tshiki, tshuna biu. — " Are you 
pregnant?'" Ki na da shuna biu? — "Yes, I am/' 
Ina da shi, or Hakkanan ina da shi, or Ina da shuna 

Prepare, v. shiri, girda. 

Present (gift), s. kauta ; pi. kautotshi ; derived from 
kao, " to bring." 

Press, v. taushe. 

Price, s. nawa, probably., " how much?" 

Prick, s. suka. 

Pride, s. takamma. — " You are proud," Ka faya ta- 

Priest, s. mallami; pi. mallama'i : and fahdeh ; pi. fa- 
dawa, and mainya {properly, a Mahomedan teacher!) 
All these names were giveti to me by Mahomedans at 

Prison, s. dahki ndufu, and mari ; pi. dahkuna ndufu. 

Prisoner, s. mutum nsarika ; ])l. mutani nsarika : lit. 
"A man in chains." 

Proceed, v. taffi. 

Proclaim, v. gangami. 

Profess, v. faddi. 

Promise, s. alliwashi ; pi. alliwasai'. 

Promise, r. yi alliwashi. — " You must promise with an 
oath," Ku yi alliwashi da ransua. 

Proof, s. sha'ida, gaskia. 

Property, s. dukia. 

Proprietor, s. maidukia ; pi. masudukia. 

Prophecy, v. yi wulliantshi. — " And many will say unto 
me in that day. Lord, Lord, have not we prophesied 
in thy name ?" Dayawa su utshe ni rana nan, Oban- 
gissi, Obangissi, ba mu ma ka yi wulliantshi suna 
nka ba ? 


Prophet, s. wallii ; pi. walliie. 

Prosecute (carry to judgment), v. kai, or kayi ga 

Prosper (to gain), v. ribba. — "God make you to pro- 
sper," Alia yl ma ka albereka, or " God give you His 
blessing." — " God bless your father," Alia shi wa oba 
nka albereka. 

Prostrate, v. runsua, gurufana. 

Protection, s. arsiki. — "I come under your protection," 
Na sakka ga arsiki nka. — " We are under the protec- 
tion of the people of England," Mu na ga arsiki 
nmutani England. 

Provision, s. gusuri, a?id abintshi. 

Provoke, v. fushi. 

Plblicly, adj. budeh. 

Publish, v. faddl. 

Pull, v. tuki, (shirigi). 

Pulse, s. shishia. 

Punish, r. wohalla, a?id wohalshie. — " He shall punish 
them who have done the wrong," Shi iwohalshie su 
woddanda su ka yi laifi. — " He shall punish him," Ya 
awohalsa sa. 

Punishment, s. asaba, and wohalta. 

Push, v. dunkuda. 

Put, r. sah. — " To be put," Asah. — " To have been put," 
Aka sah. — " They shall be put to death," Asah su ga 

Put away, v. kori, m. ; kora,/ — " He was not willing 
to let her go away with shame ; he thought to put her 
away secretly," Ba yirda shi fissa ta da kumia ba, ya 
tamaha shi kora ta boye. — " Whosoever puts away his 
wife, let him give her a book of divorce," Kohwa ya 
kori matshe tai barri shi, shi bah ta takarta korata. — 
(73) E 


" He was put into prison," Shi angsah shi dahki ndufu. 

— " The people were put out," Mutani aka fishie 

su woshe. 
Put down, v. ashiewa, a7id ashietshang. 
Put forth, v. bahyes. — " He put forth unto them," Ya 

bahyes gare su. 


Quarrel, s. dankia. 

Quarter, s. lashi. 

Queen, s. saraunia ; pi. sarana'i. 

Quench, v. kassi kishi nrua. 

Question, s. tambaya. 

Question, v. yi tambaya. 

Quick, adj. & adv. massa, a?id massa massa. 

Quicken, v. yi nrai, and bah nrai, " Give life." 

Quiet, adj. kurum, atid kauweh. 

Quill, .<;. alkalami. 

Quiver, s. kwarei, rmd kwarusua. 


Rabbit, s. zomu ; pi. zomai. 

Rafter, s. barogi ndahki ; pi. baroga ndahki. 

Rag, s. summa ; pi. sumonoki. 

Rage, s. fushi. 

Rain, s. rua. 

Rain, v. rua nataffi, arid rua su nsakka, — " He sendeth 
rain to the just and to the unjust," Ya aiko rua ga 
masugaskia da ga marasagaskia. — " Much rain fell 
last night," (o?- " It rained last night,") Rua ga fahdi 
dayawa shia da dere. 

Rainbow, s. masharua (^iY. " water-drinker"), and dashi- 
mari, and rua-alla, and iarra, or yarra,'" 

Raise, v. dauka bissa, tahda. 


Ram, *. rago, karo ; ;j/. raguna.— " He goat," Akvvia 

Ransom, s. pamsa, and pansa, and kareba. 
Rapid, adj. massa, and massa massa. 
Rasc.\l, s. maibahki biu ; lit. " one that has two mouths." 
Rasp, s. magagari ; pi. magagaru. 
Rat, s. kusu ; pi. kusa. — " The rats have destroyed our 

rice," Kusa su ngbadda sinkafFa mu. — "Our cat 

caught six rats in one night," Muza mu ta kama kusa 

shitta tshiki ndere deia. — " The rats have eaten our 

food," Kusa su ntshi abintshi mu. 
Rather, adv. gara, and goumma. 

" Ravening wolves they are," Su keh maruata kuraeh. 
Raw, adj. dafyie. 
Razor, s. askah ; pi. asaki. — " My razor is sharp," Askah 

na shi neh kaifi. 
Reach, v. issa, and rigia. — " From this time in (as much 

as) half a week we shall reach the Quorra," Daga nan 

kinggi alitshimaa nawa mu issa Kworra. — " I shall 

reach Rabba before you," Ni irigia yeh ka Rabba. — 

" You will reach Rabba before me," Ka arigia yeh 

ni Rabba. 
Read, r. karratu. — "They will teach you to read books," 

Su ukoye ma ku kaka ku karratu letatafi. 
Readv, adv. shiri, shiria. — "I am ready," Na shiria. — 

" Are you ready to go with me ?" Ka shiri ga sua da ni ? 
Real, adj. itshika, and tshikakeni. — " This thing is not 

real," Wangga ba itshika ba. 
Reap, v. yanka, and yenka, and hatshi. — " They do reap," 

Su ka yenka. 
Reaper, s. maiyanka; ^j/. masuyanka. 
Reason, s. shawora. — " Therefore, for this reason," Dong- 

hakka. — " I do not like this man, because he makes 
(75) e 2 


two mouths (is double-tongued)," Ba na yirda ba mu- 
tum, doRi!,-hakka ya yi bahki blu. — "That is the 
reason I go," Dong-hakka na taffi. — " That is the 
reason I come," Dong-hakka na so. 

Rebel, «. — Makih magana Sariki ; pi. makihya magana 
Sariki (opposer of the King's commands.) 

Rebuke, v. zawa, or dsawa. 

Recall, v. kirra baya. — " Was recalled," Ana kirra baya. 

Receive, v. sami, and karugba. — " Has been received," 
aka samu. 

Recollect, v. tuna. 

Reconcile (make peace), v. gama dahdi. 

Reckon, v. kitaya, or ketaya. 

Reckoner, s. warikeh. 

Red, adj. sha, and shia. 

Red cloth, s. shariga, and sha ntufa. 

Redeem, v. barida, and pantshie. — " I redeem you from 
slavery," Na pantshie ka daga bauta. 

Redeemer, .v. maibarida ; pi. masubaridia. 

Reed, .9. kari ; pi. kara, alkalami. — " A reed shaken by 
the wind," alkalimi ang girigisa sa da hiskah. 

Refresh, r.nashikarifi; /(7." I feel strong — am refreshed." 

Refuse, v. kih. — " I am not willing," Na klh. — " I re- 
fused to burn my book," Na kih kona takarta ta. 

Regard, v. na bah ka girima ; lit. " I give honour, or 
respect, to you." 

Regret, v. shi tausai. — " I feel regret," Na shi tansai. 

Reign, v. sarauta. 

Rejoice, v. yi murna. 

Relapse, v. — Ya fahdi kuma, " He falls again." 

Relation, s. dahngi ; pi. dahngimu. 

Release, v. tsheto. 

Remain, v. samma. — " I remain here," Ina samma nan. 


Remember, v. tuna. — " I remember your name," Xa tuna 
suna nka. 

Remit, v. hangkura. 

Remove, v. kaura. 

Rend, v. tshaga. 

Rexew, v. ji saba. 

Rent, v. aro. 

Rent, *. barakua. ^^la-na. 

Repair, v. banki. 

Repeat, v. kara faJdi. 

Repent, v. tuba. 

Reply, v. amsa, and yi amsa. 

Resemble, v. kamma, otm^ kammata. 

Reserve, v. ashi. 

Reside, v. samma. — "I reside in this country," Ina 
samma gari nan. 

Rest, s. futawa. — " Rest is sweet," futawa da dahdi. 

Rest, s. futa. 

Restore, i". mayes. — "The money which I took from 
you I restore to you," Kurdi da neh dauka gsre ka, 
na mayes ma ka. — " The King of the Haussas shall 
endeavour, by his authority, to make the Haussa 
people restore the property," Sariki nHaussa shi iko- 
kari da alhorma nsa, shi isah mutani nHaussa su 
maida dukia. 

Resltirection, s. tashi, rana ntashi. — " The day of the 
resurrection will come," Rana tashi alkiama ta sakka. 

Ret.vliate, v. rankongeia, or rama. — " Ye must not re- 
turn evil for evil," Kada ku rama mugunta da 

RcITAliation, s. rankonketa. — "I retaliate upon you, or 
make you retaliate," Xa yi ma ku rankongeia, or ran- 
(7 7) 


Return, v. kohma, and shiuya. — " Your peace will return 

upon you," Dahdi nku shi ishiuya gare ku. 
Reveal, v. gaya, fadda. — " I make known to you," Na 

gaya ma ka. 
Revile, v. palassa, or pallassa. — " When they shall revile 

you," Saanda su upallashie ku. 
Reward, s. bia. — " For your reward shall be great," 

Dong- bia nku shi iyi yawa. 
Rib, «. awosa ; pi. awosai. 
Rice, s. sinkafFa. 
Riches, s. atashira'i. 
Rich, adj. arsiki. — " If you want to become rich (lit. " make 

goods ") ye must make peace amongst each other," En 

ku na soh ku yi dukia ku yi dahdi da sheunanku. 
Ride, v. suka. 
Right (not left), adj. dahma. — " When thou givest alms 

thou shalt not let thy left hand know what thy right 

hand is "doing'," Saanda ka yi tataka kada ka berri 

hanu nka na hauni, shi sani mi hanu nka na dahma 

shi keh yi. 
Right, adj. gaskia. 

Right hand, s. dahma hanu, or hanu ndahma. 
Righteousness, s. musulomtshi, or musulumtshi, in the 

sense of Mahomedans. 
Rind, *. sah. 

Ring (bell), v. bugu karifi. 
Ring, s. tobi, and zobi. 
Ripe, adj. nunaneh. — " Unripe," Bubabi. 
Rise, v. tashi. — " The dead are raised," Mutatu anta- 

shie su. 
River, s. koramma ; pi. korammu. Might not Quorra be 

a corruption of this word ? 
River-horse, s. dorina ; pi. dorinai. 

Road, s. hainya, a7id turuba; jA. hainyoi, and turu- 
bobi, also, tafariki.— " The roads shall be left open 
through this countr)-," Hainyai su uberri seike hal 
ffari nan. 
Roar, v. ruri. 
Roast, v. gashshi. 
Rob, v. satta. 

Robber, s. maisatta ; pJ. masusatta : and barao; pi. barai. 
Rock, s. dutshi, or baba ndutslii. 
Roguery, s. mugunta, miaguntia; also, maigunta ; 

pi masuguntia. 
Roll, v. bingira. 

Roof. s. tahda ndahki ; pi. tahnka dahkuna. 
Room, s. loloki ndahki ; pi lolokai ndahkuna. 
Root, s. sahye ; pi sayu. 
Root vp, r. tshireh. 
Rope, s. igia ; ;;/. igoi. 

Ropemaker, s, maiduka igia ; pi masuduka igia. 
RosT, V. dsasa. 
Rot, v. rakba, or rukba. 
Round, adj. kewoye. 
Row, V. tuki. 

Rower, *. maituki ; pi masutuki. 
Ruin, V- banna, and gbanna. 
Rule, v. sama, fiko.— " You want to rule (get great) 

over me," Ka na soh sama baba gare ni 
Ruler, s. sariki, or saliki ; pi saraki. 
Rum, s. gia, a/id barassa. 

Run, v. guddu.— "The boy and the girl run about," 
Yaru da yarinia su na guddu.—" You run away from 
me," Ka na guddu gare ni. 
Rust (dirt), s. kassa, or kasa.— Kasa ta kama karifi ; 
lit. " Dirt catches the iron." 



Sabbath, s. alishimaa, or alshimaa- 

Sack, s. shika ; pi. shikuna. 

Sacrifice, *. sataka, dsafii. — Yi sataka, a7id yi dsafi, " to 
sacrifice." Sataka is the sacrifice of Mahoniedans, 
who kill creatures and divide the meat amongst rich 
a?id poor ; most probably derived from Tlpl'^ " a righ- 
teous act." Compare Psalm xxiv. 5., and ^iKaioo-vvy] 
in Matth. vi. 1., where the si^nifcadon is "alms." 
Dsafi is the sacrifice which Pagans offer. — " To sacri- 
fice sheep and goats," Dsafi rago. — " Men," Dsafi 
mutum ; also, Kash'i c^a dsafi, i.e. " kill in sacrifice." 
— " The Haussa people do not kill men as sacrifices," 
Mutani Haussa ba su kashi mutum {^a dsafi. — " The 
sacrifices of human beings must be put an end to for 
ever," Dsafi da mutani shi kahre hal abadda. — " We 
likewise hope you will leave off sacrificing human 
beings, because God hates the sacrifice of men," 
Mu na tamaha hakkana ku uberri dsafi da mutani, 
dong ba shi keao ba woshe Obangissi Alia, ya kih 
ayi dsafi da muium. 

Sacrxficer, s. maisataka ; pi. masusataka. 

Sad, adj. damri. — " With a sad countenance," Da damri 

Saddle, *. shiridi ; pi. shiradi. 

Safe, adj. yatshetu ; p/. yatsheira. — " Their people would 
be safe," Mutani nsu su utshietu. 

Sail, v. taffia nshirigi, and setaffia. 

Sailor, *. mai'tuki ; pi. masutuki. 

Sale, s. sayeswa, or sayesua. 

Salt, s. gishiri. 

Salt water, s rua ngishiri. 


Salute, v. gaishie, and gaida. — " I salute you," Xa jjai- 

shie ka. 
Sake OF, /?re/j. — "For my sake," Sabbada n\, and Sab- 

badi ni. 
Same, the, s. shi neh, shi ineb, shiya. 
Sand, s. rei'rei. 

Sandals, s. takerimmi, and takalma ; pi. takalmaii. 
Sap, s. damshi. 

Satan, s. Ebiliss, and Saitan ; pi. EbilLssaV, and Saitanu. 
Satisfy", v. lahdata, laada, and kodla. 
Sauce, s. mia. 

Saucy, adj. sauri ido, and sauri idanu. 
Save, v. kwato, and tshieto. — " He shall save his people 

from their sin," Shi itshieto mutani nsa ga sunufi nsu. 

— " Save us," Tsheta mu. — " He shall be saved," 

Atsheta sa. 
Saviour, s. Mafkwato, and Matsheta. 
Savour, s. sahki, ni. 
Say, v. tshe. — "To be said," Atshe. — " It was said," Aka 

tshe. — " They are said," Antshe su. — " And to say," 

Ga tshewa. 
Scarce, adv. tshadda. 
Scatter, v. watshe, or watshi, and tohni. — "Fowls 

scatter my rice," Kashi su na tohni sinkaffa ta. 
School, s. Makarantahi ; pi. makaranta, and masalatai. 
Schoolmaster, s. gardi ; pi. gardawa. 
Scissors, s. almakashi ; pi. almai^asai. 
Scorpion, s. kunohma ; pi. kunahemaV. 
Scratch, v. surah. 
Scull, s. kotshi kai, aiid koria kai. 
Sea, *. baba gulbi, or baba no^ulbi, and rua ngishiri, and 

Search, v. bidda, and yi bldda. 
(SI) E 3 


Skason (dry), s. rani. 
(rainy), s. dahmana. 

Second, s. nabiu. 

Secret, adj. boye, or ghoye. — " When thou prayest, enter 
into thy closet : when thou hast shut the door, pray to 
thy Father who is in secret : thy Father who is seeing 
in secret will reward thee openly," Saanda ka yi 
addua ka tafi tshiki loloki da saanda rufeh kofa nsa yi 
addua ga Oba nka wonda keh tshiki ngboye : Oba 
nka wonda ka gani tshiki ngboye shi ibia ka budeh. 

Secretly, adv. boye, ashiri, or asiri. — " In secret," Ashiri. 
— " We are talking in secret, I and my friend," Mu na 
yi magana ashiri, da ni da aboki na. — " Why are you 
tnlking' in secret? Domeh ku keh magana ashiri? — 
" We are talking in secret because we do not wdsh you to 
hear it," Mu yi magana ashiri dong ba mu soh ka shi ba. 

See, r. ga, and gani. — " To be seen," Agani. — " To 
have been seen," Aka gani. — " The blind are seeing," 
Makafi su na gani. 

Seed, s. iri. 

Seek, v. bidda. See Search. — " For they are dead who 
were seeking the life of the infant," Dong su mutu 
woddanda keh bidda rai nshariri. 

Seize, v. kahma, or kama. 

Sell, v. sa'ida, aiid sayeshie. — " To be sold," Asayeshie. 
— "To have been sold," Aka sawo. — "If ye sell 
them," En ku sayeshie su. — " The canoes shall be 
sold," Shiragi asayeshie su. 

Send, v. a'ikeh. — " Has sent," A'iko. — " She has sent us," 
Ta a'iko mu. 

Sense, s. hangkali. 

Sermon, s. zura. 

Serpent, s. matshiitshi ; pi. matshiisai'. 


Servant, s. barah ; pi. bavua. — " I say to my servant, Do 
this, and he can do it," Na tshe ga barah, Yi wonnan, 
da shi ka nyi shi. 

Serve, v. baranta, taya. 

Set, v. sah. — " Set it down in the book," Sah ga takarta. 

Settle, v. koentshe. — " Settle with me," Koentshe da ni. 

Seven, adj. bakoi, or bokwoi. 

Seventeen, adj. sioma sha bokwoi. 

Seventh, adj. nabokoi, o?" gomia bokoi. 

Seventy, adj. kwana bokoi, or gomiabokoi. 

Sew, v. dumki. 

Shadow, s. enua ; pi. enuai. — " Shadow is sweet," Enua 
ta dahdi. — " Shadow of death," Enua mutu. 

Shake, v. girigisi, girigisa, kakabeh. — " He shakes off 
the dust from his feet," Ya girigisi kura ga kafafu nsa. 

Shall and Will, future tense, are expressed by putting 
the vowel with which the personal pronoun terminates 
before the verb ; as, " I shall see you," Ni igani ka. — 
" Thou shalt see me," Ka ka agani. — " Ye will say," 
Ku utshe. — " What ye shall eat or what ye shall 
drink," Mi ku ka atshi ko mi ku ka asha. — " What 
ye shall put on," Mi ku ka asah. 

Shallow (not deep), adj. ba surufi. 

Shame, 5. kumia. — " With shame," Da kumia. 

ShajME (or, put to shame), v. — " I put you to shame," 
Na sah ka kumia. — " He makes me ashamed," Ya 
sah ni kumia. 

Share, v. rabbawa. 

Sharp, adj. kaifi. 

Shave, v. aski. 

She, pron. ta ita, shi, and ya. 

Sheep, s. dunkia, f. ; rago, ?;?. ; pi. dumaki, or tumaki. — 
" Ten sheep are lost," Tumaki goma su ngbadda. 


Shelf, *. ragaya ; pi. ragayu. — " Put the iron pots upon 
the shelf," Sah tukunya karifi ga ragaya. 

Shell (of an egg), s. kosfa. 

Shepherd, s. makia'i ; ^jZ. makiaya. 

Shield, s. garukua ; pi. gariki. — " Have the Haussa peo- 
ple many shields?" Mutani Haussa su na da gariki 
dayawa ? — " They have," Akoi. 

Ship, s. shirigi ; pi. shiragi. 

Shirt, s. riga : pL riaguaa. 

Shoe, s. takalmi ; pi. takalma'i. 

Shore, s. tutu. 

Shoot, v. halbi. — " They are shooting," Su na halbi. 

Shot, *. dutshi mbindisja, and sekua. 

Short, nrJj. kedgeru, r//?c? shimkattan. 

Shoulder, s. kafata ; pi kafatu. 

Show, v. godda, nuna. — " To show you," Ga godda 
ma ku. 

Shrink, v. frigida. — " I shrink back," Na frigida. (Fri- 
gescere ?) 

Shut, v. rufeh. — " I shut my mouth," Na rufeh bahki na. 

Sicx, adj. tshiwu, or tshiwo. — " My brother is sick," 
Kana na tshiwo. — " My right side pains me," Awosa 
dahma na yi ma ni tshiwu. 

Sickness, s. tshiwuta, /". 

Sick person, s. ma'itshiwu ; pi. masutshiwu : and matshe- 
wutshe ; pi. matshewuta. 

Side, s. awosa ; pi. awosai. 

Sigh, v. lomfashi, and yi lomfashi. 
Sign, s. sha'ida ; pi. shaidu. 
Silence, s. kurum, and kawoi. 

Silk, s. alharin. — " I pay you a silk handkerchief for 

your yams," Ina bia nka alfuta alharin ga doya nka. 
Silver, s. azerufa, or azurufa. 


Six, s. sunufi ; /j/. sunufai. — "I forgive their sin," Ina 

yafeh sunuti nsu. 
SixG, V. woaka, or waka. — " The bird is singing," Sun- 

sua na waka. 
Sink, v. nuta. — " The boat is sinking in the river," Shi- 

rigi ya nuta ga koramma. 
Sinner, s. ma'isunufi ; pi. masusunfi. 
Sister, *. kanua ; pi. kanoni. 
Sit, I", samna. 
Six, adj. shitta. 
Sixteen, adj. goma sha shitta. 
Sixty, adj. sitin, and gomia shitta. 
Skin, s. fata, kirigi, sbiki ; pi. kiragoi, fatotshi. 
Sky, 5. samma. 

Slacken, v. sasabta, or sesebta. 
Slander, .<t. alfashia, and tshimbaya. 
Slate, s. aklu. 
Slave, s. bavva ; pi. bai, or bahyi. — " You treat me as a 

slave," Ka ma'ishe ni kamma bawa. — " I do not want 

to be treated as a slave," Ba ni soh amaishe ni kamma 

Slave-dealer, s. maifatautshi bai ; pi masufatautshi bai : 

arid maisaida bai ; pi. masusaida bai. 
Slavery, s. bauta. 
Slay, v. kashi. 
Sleep, v. kuana. 
Sling, *. matshetshewa. 

Slip, v. samtshi. — " Slippery place," Wuri ma yi samtshi. 
Slow, adv. nawa. 
Slu^iber, v. angashi. 
Smear, v. shafi. 
Smell, s. doi, or doyi. — " You perceive (hear) a smell ?" 

Ka na shi ndoi ? — " The meat has a bad smell," 


Nama ya yi mug-u doi. — " The water is smelling 
sweet," Rua su na doyi dahdi. 
S>rELL, V. shi doi', shakeh, or sKiakeh. 
Smith, s. makeri ; pi. makera. 

Smoke, s. hayaki. — " Steam-vessel," Hayaki nshirigi. 
Smoker, s. maihayaki ; pi. masuhayaki. 
Snake, s. matshiitshi ; pi. matshiisai. 
Sneeze, v. tshawa. 
Snow, s. See Hail. 
Snore, v. hansari. 
Snuff, s. assara. 
Snuffer, s. maisha assara ; pi. masusha assara (" snuff" 

So, adv. hakkana. 
Soak, v. shikwo. 
Soap, v. sabuni. 

Soft, adj. tafshi ; pi. tafta. — " A man clothed in soft 
garments?" Mutum ansah shi ga tufa maii tafshi ? — 
" Those who wear soft clothing are in the kings' houses," 
Su masu masu tufa su na tshiki ndahkuna nsaraki. 
Soften, v. tafshi, tafta asah tufa. 
Soldier, s. dahyaki ; pi. yayaki : lit. " Son of war." 
Sole (of the foot), s. taffi nkafa ; pi. taffi nkafafu. 
Some, adj. wosu, kadong. — " Some of them we have 

brought with us," Tshiki nsu niu kao wosu da mu. 
SoMETiaiE, adv. wata saa. 
Son, *. dah ; pi. yaya. 
Son-in-law, s. zaruki ; pi. zaruka'i. 
Soon, adv. massa, or massa massa. 
Sorcerer, s. mayi mugu mfigani ; pi. masuyi mugu 

magani : tit. " One that prepares bad medicine." 
Sore, *. miki ; pi. miaku. 
Sorrow, s. tausai. 


Soul, *. kurua,/! 

Soup, s. rumuh. — " Are you cooking soup ?" Kai dafua 

rumuh ? and Mia. 
Sour, adj. sami. 
Source, s. tafki. 
South, s. gusung-, kudu. 
Sow, V. shipka. — " Sown," Aka shipka. — " Every thing 

sown will grow well in it," Kohmi aka shipka shi 

itashi da keao tshiki nta. 
Sower, s. mai'shipka ; ^;Z. masashipka. 
Spare, v. bakah, and kiai. — " Spare thyself, Lord, this 

shall not happen to thee," Kiai kanka, Obangissi, kada 

shi iwu gare ka. 
Sparrow, s. tsheitshewa ; pi. tsheitshiewu. 
Speak,?;, tshe, and tshewa ; yi magana, and faddi magana. 

— " He began to speak," Ya fara tshewa. — " He said 

unto them," Ya tshe ma su. 
Spear, s. mashi ; pi. masu, a?id kasipsua. 
Spectacles, s. See Glass. 
Spend, v. barna. 
Spew, v. tofi. 

Spider, s. gissogisso ; pi. gissogissai'. 
Spin, v. massara. 

Spinner, s. maisareh ; pj. masaru. 
Spirit, s. See Ghost. 
Spleen, s. sai'fa, sai'fofi. 
Split, v. passawa. 

Spit, v. tofi. — " I spit blood," Na yi tofi shinni. 
Spoil, v. baddawa, gbaddawa. 
Spoon, s. tshokali ; pi. tshokula. 
Spot (mark), s. tambo ; pi. tambuna. 
Spread, v. shimfitta. 
Spring (season), s. marumarn. 


Squeeze, v. taushe. 

Squint, v. kasheido. 

Squirrel, s. kusumbissa. 

Stab, v. suaka, or sCka. 

Stand, v. sayi, or sayuwa. 

Star, s. tamraru ; pi. tatnrari. 

Starve, v. kashi nyungwa. 

Staves, s. sanduna. 

Stay, v. samni, caid masamni. 

Steal, v. satta. — " Thou shalt not steal," Kada ku yi satta. 

Steam, s. tururi. 

Steajm-vessel, s. shirigi mai tururi. See Smoke. 

Steep, adj. sa'i. — " The hill is steep," Tutu da sai. 

Stew, v. sulaleh. — " I stew a fowl," Ina sulaleh kaza. 

Stick, s. sanda ; p/. sanduua. 

Stick, v. shikina, and nawa. 

Sting, v. halbi. 

Stink, s. See Smell. 

Stomach, s. mora ; pi morori. 

Stone, s. dutshi ; jjl. duasu. 

Stone-cutter, s. masari ndutshi ; pi. masusari nduasu. 

Stop, v. dsai, or tsai, anrf dsaya. — "The Slave-trade 

must be stopped (put an end to) tor ever," Tshinlki 

mbahyi shi ikareh hal abbadda. 
Stoop, v. dukavva. 
Store, s. rufogi ; ^jZ. refeni. 
Storm, s. hadari ; pi. hadura. 
Stranger, s. bako ; pi. baki. 
Straw, s. kabba. 

Street, s. hainya, a?id truha. See Road. 
Strength, s. karifi. 
Stretch, v miika, or meka. — " Stretch forth thy hand," 

Meka hanu nka. 


Strike, v. bugu, and mari. — " You must not strike nie 
on my right cheek," Kada ka mari ni ga kumtshi na 
Stripe, *. tubiawa. 
Strong, adj karifi. 

Stupid, adj. marassantshi ; lit. " without sense." 
Subject, s. tallakawa. 
Suck, v. sha. 
Sufficient, adj. issa,— " Sufficient to the day is the evil 

thereof," Issa ga rana ita tshe mugunta ta. 
Suffer, v. shimri. — " Dost thou sutFer trouble on account 
of the great pain in thy head," Ki nshimri wohalla 
nbaba ntshiwu da keh ga kai nki ? / 
Sugar,*, gishiri mbaturi ; lit "White-man's salt." 
Sugar-cane, s. takanta ; pi. takantai. 
Sun, s. rana. Sanu orSannu da rana, as much as, " Be 
pleased with the sun," a salutation addressed at noon. 
— " The sun burns all the seed in my garden," Rana 
ta kohna ma ni kohwonne iri, da na shipka tshiki 
ndangga ta. 
Sunday, s. See Sabbath. 
Sunrise, s. rana ta tashi. 

Sunshine, s. rana ta buteh ; lit. " the sun is open." 
Supper, s. shiibi. 
Suppose, v. satshe. 
Sure, adv. tabata.— " I am sure you are a thief," Na ta- 

bata ka yi satta. 
SuRNAikiE, s. (lit. second name).—" His surname is Peter," 
Suna nsa nabiu Peter, and Suna nsa nabiu keh Peter. 
Swallow, v. hadia. 
Swear, v. ransua. 

Swearer, s. ma'iransua ; pi. masuransua. 
Sweat, s. shlbi. 


Sweep, v. shiara. — " Swept," Anshareh. 

Sweet, adj. dahdi. 

Swell, v. gamburi. 

Swim, v. ivvo. 

Swimmer, s. maiiwo ; /;/. masuiwo. 

Swine, s. gurusunu ; pi. gurusunai. 

Sword, s. takobi ; pi. takuba, and takubai. See Cutlass. 


Table, s. dukuba. Bank of mud answering the purposes 

of a table, ringfa. 
Tail, wutshia ; pi. wutshai. 
Tailor, s. madumki ; pi. masudumki. 
Take, v. dauka. — " To be taken," Adaukeh. — " The 

bridegroom will be taken from them," Adaukeh ango 

daga gare su. 
Take, v. dau, and dahukeh. — " No man will take a new 

cloth," Ba mutum da ka dau sabo tufa. 
Tall, adj. dogo, m. ; dogua, f : pi. dogaye. — " A tall 

man," Dogo mutum. — " Tall people," Dogaye mutani. 

— "A tall woman," Dogua matshe ; pi. dogaye 

Talk, v. yi magana, and tshe. 
Tame (creatures), * kiyayeye mbissa. 
Tar, s. dahuku. 

Tares (black grain), s. tamba, and maraskohya. 
Tarry, v. dadeh, shirani. 
Taste, v. dahndahna. 
Tax, s. fihto, and guiidu. 
Tax-gatherer, s. sariki nfihto ; pi. saraki nfihto : andma'i- 

fihto ; pi. masufihto. 
Teach, v. koya, a7id kvvo'ia, and sansantshe. 
Teacher, s. makoyi, ayid maikoya ; /?/. masukoya. 


Tear, s. kawaye. 

Tear, v. tsha^eh. — " To tear often," Tshatshageh. 

Teeth, *. hakkoru, hakora ; pL hauri. 

Tell, v. faddi. 

Tempt, v. rudl. — " He was tempted by Satan," Aka ruda 

sa ga Saitana. 
Temptation, s. rudi. 

Tesipter, s. marudi, m ; marudia,/! : pi. maruda. 
Ten, 5. goma, takes a plural gomia. 
Tent, s. baka ; pi. bakoki. 
Tenth, adj. na gem a. 
Testicle, s. suwie ; pi. suawa. 
Thank, r. godeh. — " I thank yon," Xa godeh ma ka, and 

Sani da gashia. 
That, pron. wonnan. 
Thatch, v. beyibeya. 

Thee, pers. pron. ka, kai, a/id nka, m. : k'i,f. 
Their, pron. generis communis, su nsu. 
Them, pron. su, nsu. 

Themselves, pron. sadakansu, and kansu. 
Then, adv. saanan, and saanda. — " Then was brought 

unto him," Saanda aka kao gara sa. 
There, adv. ishan, nahn. 
Therefore, adv. donghakka. 
These, proyi. woddanga, and woddanda. 
They, pron. su, nsu, sung. 
Thigh, s. tshinya, tshinayi, or tshinia tshinai. 
Thief, *. maisatta ; pi. masusatta. 

Thing, .t. abin, a?id abu; pi. abu, abubua, a?id abeibei. 
Thin'K, v. tamaha. 

Thinker, s. maitamaha ; pi. masutamaha. 
Third, adj. nauku. 
Thirst, s. kishi nrua. 
(9 1) 

Till— TO 

Thirst, v. shi kishi nrua. 

Thirteen, adj. goma sha uku. 

Thirteenth, adj. na goma sha uku. 

Thirty, adj. talating, and gomia uku. 

This, pron. wongga ; pi. woddanga, and woddanda, ofid 

nan ; abridged, da. 
Thorn, s. kaya ; pi. kayoyi. 
Thou, pron. ka, kai, m. ; ki,y^ 
Though, conj. koda. — " Though bad White People should 

ask you to sell them," Koda miagu Farufaru Mutani su 

utambaye ku ga sayeshie su. 
Thousand, s. duba. 
Thread, s. sari. 
Three, s. uku. 

Throne, s. killikishi ; pi. killikisai. 
Throw off, v. subass. 

Throat, s. makoguro, makoshl ; pi. makogurai. 
Through, prep, hal, ketere. 
Thumb, s. baba faritshi ; pi. mainya faruta. 
Thunder, s. aradu. — " It is thundering loud," Ta yi 

dsawa. — " It is thundering low," Anatshita. 
Thus, adv. hakkana, a?id awa. 
Thy, pron. ka. nka, m. ; ki, nki,/! 
Thyself, pro?i. kankanka, kakanka, and ka'inkanka, m ; 

Tickle, v. tshikara. 
Tie, v. damiri. 
Till (until), adv. hal. 
Timber, s. baba itshi ; j)l. mainya itatua. 
Time, s. lotto, and saa. 
Tip, v. somawa. 
Tire, v. gashia. 

To, prep, ga, ma, gare, and gara. — " An address to the 


kings and their people," Maafana ga. saraki da mutani 

nsu. — " To me," Ma ni. — " To them," Ma su. 
Tobacco, x. taba. 
Toe, s. yasa ; pi. yasaotshi. 
Together, adv. tare. — " Together with me," Tare da 

Toil, v. aiki ma'iwuya. 
Tongue, s. halishi ; pi. harusa. 
Tool, s. kayaaiki. 

Tooth, *. hauri ; pi. hakora, or hakkora. 
Top, s. sayo. 
ToRXADO, s. hadari. 
Touch, v. tabeh. — " He touched them," Ya tabeh su. — 

" Do not touch me," Kada ka tabeh ni. — " Nobody 

shall touch their welfare," Ba ma'i taba lafia nsu. 
Toward, prep. gare. 
Town, s. birreni ; pi. birrani, unguni : and gari ; pi. 

Trade, s. dahnkasua, tshiniki. 
Trade, r. yi tshiniki. — " They shall trade together 

honestly " (lit. " with a good heart"), Su nyi tshiniki 

tare da keao nsutshia. 
Traitor, s. masumbi ; pi. masumta. 
TRA>rPLE, V. tatakeh. 
Transgress, v. yi la'ifi, and bang karia. 
Trap, s. saneh. 

Treasure, s. surukumi ; pi. surukuma. 
Treasurer, *. galadima. 
Treat, v. maishe. 
Tree, *. itshi; pi. itatua. — "The trees are burned," 

Itatua angkohmi su. 
Tremble, v. makarikata. 

Tribute, s. gimda. — " The King of Fundah pays tribute 


to the Attah," Saliki nFundah ya bia gunda ga 

Trick, s. halli. 

Trim (lamp), v. girda. 

Trouble, v. allaleh, sanantshe. — "You trouble me?" 
Ka allaleh ni ? 07id Ka wahaltshie ni ? — " My con- 
science troubles me," Tanani na ya allaleh ni. — 
" You trouble me," Ka sanantshe ni. — " I trouble you," 
Na sanantshe ka. — " He troubles him," Ya sananta sa. 

Trouble, *. wohalla. — " In our country we have so much 
disturbance and war, if we plant we do not know 
whether we shall eat (reap) it," Tshiki nkassa mu mu 
na da wohalla dayawa sabbada gaba da yaki, en mu yi 
shipka, ba mu sani ba ko mu utshi ta. 

Trousers, s. wonda ; pi. wonduna. 

True, adj. gaskia. 

Trumpet, s. busa. 

Trust (put heart), v. yarda, sah sutshia. — " I trust you," 
Na sah sutshia gare ka. — " I do not trust you," Ba 
n'sah sutshia ta gare ka ba. — " And in his name shall 
the Gentiles trust," Da ga suna nsa kafareh su ka sah 
sutshia. — " However, (that may be) thou must not 
trust in man," Ko hakka kada ka yarda da mutum. 

Truth, s. gaskia, atid gaskiata. 

Try, v. kokari. 

Turn, v. shuyawa, and shuya, or shiuya. 

Twelve, adj. goma sha biu. 

Twelve months, s. watani goma sha biu. 

Twenty, adj. ashirin. 

Twice, adv. saobiu. 

Twin, *. takwa'i. 

Two, adj. biu. 

Turtle (land), s. kunkuru. 



Umbrell.\, s. la'ima ; pi. laimoni. 

Unable, adj. — " I am not able/' Ba ni iawa ba. 

QxBELiEF, s. kinshi, or kiinshi, 

Unbelie\"er, s. tshahili. 

Unclean, adj. dauda. — " Unclean spirits," Dauda fatalu. 

Under, prep, kalikashi. 

Unt)erstand, v. sani. 

Undress, r. tubiawa. 

Unfruitful, adj. marashuifua. 

Unjust man, s. marasgaskia ; pi. marasagaskia. 

Unjust woman, s. marashiagaskia ; pi. marasagaskia. 

Until, adv. hal. 

Up (upon), prep, bissa. 

Upbraid, v. yi dsawa. 

Us, proji. mu. — " To us," ^la niu. 


Vagina, s. dull. 

Value, s. tshadda, or tshiadda. — " This cloth is too dear " 
{lit. " passes its value "), Wonnan tufa ta fai tshadda. — 
" This horse is of great value, but that one is of greater," 
Wonnan dohki ya fai tshadda, amma wonnan kumayi 
fi wonnan. 

Verily, adv. da goskia.— " Verily I say unto you," Na 
tshe ma ku, da goskia. 

Verse, s. sura. — " How many verses ?" Sura nawa ? 

Vex, r. fushi. 

Victory, s. nassara. 

Victuals, s. abintshi. 

Village, s. kawie, gidda ; pi. gissi : and unguni ; 7;/. ka- 
woya, and kauyuka. 

Virgin, s. budurua ; pi. budurai. 

vol— WAS 

Voice, *. muria. 
Vomit, v. amai, or amei. 
Vulture, s. a gulu ; pi. agula'i. 


Wade, v. tarra rua. — " Can a man wade through the 

Tshadda in the dry season ?" Mutum deia shi na keh 

tarra Tshadda da rani da kafa ? — " He can," Shi na 

Wages, s. saada. 
Wailing, s. kuuku. — "There shall be wailing and 

gnashing of teeth," Da kuuka da tshisong hakora su 

usumma nan. 
Waist, *. morah. 
Wait, v. shira. — " Wait for me, I am coming," Shira ni 

na sakka. — " Wait for me, I will go before," Shira ni 

na taffi tokuna. 
Wake, v. tashi. ? 
Walk, v. taffi, or tafi. 
Walk, s. tafia. 

Wall, s. bangu ; pi. banguna, or bangayi. 
Wallow, v. bingira. 
Want. v. soh. — " I want to see you," Ina soh gani nka. 

— " I want to eat," Ina soh tshi. — " They are wanting," 

Su keh soh. — " Ye want to go," Ku soh sua. 
War, s. yaki, or yiki, and gaba. 
Warm, adj. sufi. 
Warn, v. foro. — " I warn you," Ina foro nka. — " They 

were warned by God in a dream," Su angforu ga Alia 

da mafalki. 
Wash, v. wankeh. — " Washed," wankakeh. 
Washerwoman, s. matshe ma'i wankeh tufa. 
Washerman, s. namize mai'wankeh tufa. 


Waste, v. See Destroy. 

Watch, v. tsaro, or dsaro. 

Water, s. rua. — " I feel thirsty," Na shi kishi rua. 

Wave, *. tshukuowa, gulbi, and takua ; pi. taguwai. 

Wax, s. dahnku nsuma. 

Way, s. See Road. 

Way (manner), s. woshe. 

We, pron. mu. 

Weak, adj. kumaania. 

Weaken, v. samma kumaama. 

Weakness, s. kumamantshi. 

Wean, v. yayeh. 

Weapon (arms), s. shlriyaki. 

Wear, v. sah, na sah rigita. 

Weather (fine), s. isai. — " It will be fair weather, for the 

sky is red," Samma ta isai dong samma ta na da shia. 

— Samma da duhu ; lit. " The sky has darkness." 
Weave, v. saka. 

Weaver, s. maisaka ; pi. masusaka. 
Wednesday, *. saraba. 
Weed, r. tshirahaki. 
Week, s. altshima. 

Weep, v. kuuku. — " Weeping," Kuuku da hawae. 
Well, *. rishia. 
Well, adj. lafia. — " I am well," Ina lafia. — " Are you 

well?" Kana lafia? m.; Kina lafia,/; a/«rf Ko lafia. 
West, s. yama. 
Wet, adj. siki, m. ; sika, f. 
Wet, v. ga sUd. — " I wet you," Na siki nka. 
Whale, s. kukudasah. 
What, pron. mi, meh, and wonne. — " What time ?" 

Mi yaushe? — "What is the matter?" Mi faru ? — 

" What do you hear?" Mi ka shi? — " What things are 
(97) F 


they bringing in the canoe ?" Wonne abu su ka kao- 
tshiki nshirigi ? — " Many things," Abubua deyavva. — 
" I see a monkey-skin," Na gani fata mbiri. — " How 
much money do they charge for it ?" Kurdi nawa nsa 
tambaye gara sa ? — "Sixpence," Kurdi shitta. — " It is too 
much," Dayawa. — "What is the name of your country?" 
Ena suna gari nka ? — " What is your father's name ?" 
(Jit. " how is &c. ?") Kaka suna oba ka ? — " What (is 
the) profit we can make ?" Wa tshe ribba mu ka yi ? 

Wheat, s. alkama, or alkamma. 

Whelp (young lion), s. dahnzaki. 

When, adv. da, yaushe, daya, and saada. 

Whence, adv. ina. 

Whenever, adv. kohyautshe. 

Where, adv. ina, enda. 

Wherewith, adv. dam eh. 

Whether, pron. ko, and koda. 

Which, prow, wonda, or wondda, wonne, da; pi. wod- 
danda, a/id abridged, da ; Who, wa ; pi. sua. — " Who 
said it ?" Wonne ya tshe ? — " Bring me the cowries 
which I gave you," Kawo wuri nda ni bah ka. — " Who 
is my mother, and who are my brethren ?" Wa tshe 
uwa ta da sua kaneh na ? — " Who are the people who 
are in the canoe ?" Sua mutani woddanda keh tshiki 
nshirigi ? — " They are people who are called Fanti : 
they do not understand Haussa," Su keh mutani da 
keh (abridg?nent for woddsLnda keh) kirra Fanti : basu 
nshi magana Haussa ba. — " Who made every thing ?" 
Wonda ya yi kohmi ? — " Who has warned you to flee 
from the wrath which is to come ?" Wa fareh ku, ku 
guddu daga fushi da keh sakkua ? 

Whip, v. ina summa yaka ; lit. " I am &c." 

Whip, s. summa. 


Whisker, s. satshi. 

Whisper, r. ratta. 

Whisperer, *. mairatta ; pi masuratta. 

Whistle, v. shewa. 

White, adj. fari*, ?/z. ; fara,/ : pi generis communis, fa- 
rufaru. — "A White Man," Fari Mutum. — " White 
Woman," Fara Matshe.— " White People," Farufaru 
Mutani; also, buturi, or butureh, and turawa. 

White baft, s. zugu, atid zhugu. 

Whither, adv. yaugo (ina sakka). 

Whosoever, adv. kohwa, kohwonne, kohwotshe. 

Whole, adj. duka. 

Whore, s. shakalia. 

Why, adv. domeh. 

Wick, s. abawa. — "The smoking wick shall he not 
quench," Turarara abawa shi ba shi kassua ba. 

Wicked, adj. mugu ; pi miagu, a7id kaferitshi.— " More 
wicked than himself," lit (" they pass him in wicked- 
ness,") Sung fi shi mugunta. 

Wickedness, s. sekaferitshi, and mugunta. 

Wide, adj. fahdi. 

Widow, s. matshe maitakabeh. 

Widower, s. namize maitakabeh. 

Wilderness, s. dawa, and dashi. 

Willing (I am), v. yarda. 

WiN-D, s. hiska. 

Wing, s. fikafika; pi firkaki, and kokua.— " Wmg of a 

building, wing of the temple," Kokua masulatshi. 
Wipe, s. safi. 

* Fari, " to fade." The Haussa People consider White People 
as faded. ' The BuUoms and Sherbros call Europeans Abpokan 
Putu, or " People of white clay." 
(99) F 2 


Wisdom, s. leurah. 

Wise, adj. hangkali, and wayo. — "The wise people," 
Masuhangkali, and Masana ; from sani, " to know." 

Witch, s. maye. 

With, prep. da. — " He who is not with me is not behind 
me (followeth not me), and he that gathereth not with 
me scattereth abroad," Shi wonda ba shi tare da ni, 
ba shi baya gare ni, da shi wonda ba yi taru tare ni 
ba, ya watshe. 

Without, prep, babu, baanda. — "Without knowing," 
Babu sani, and bamda. — " Without women and child- 
ren." Bam da maata da yaya. 

Witness, v. sha'ida. 

Withered hand, s. hanu ya kahme, hanu ya shainyi. 

Woe I interj. tirr. — " Woe unto thee," Tirr da kai. , 

Wolf, s. kurah, kurae ; pi. kura'i. 

Woman, s. matshe ; pi. maata ; seldom mutumnia. — 
" This woman is working much," Wonna matshe ta 
faye, or fai aiki. 

Womb, s. tshiki. 

Wonder, s. mamaki. 

Wonder, r. yi mamaki. 

Wood, (fire wood), s. itatshi nwuta. 

Wool, *. rero. 

Woollen cloth, s. mollifi. 

Word, s. magana. — " Make word (speak)," Yi magana. 

Work, s. aiki ; pi. aikoki. 

Work, v. yi aiki. — " They will do their work with 
pleasure," Su uyi aiTii nsu da murna. 

World, s. dunia. 

Worm, s. tana ; pi. tanu. 

Worse, adj. kohru, iewa, and dsafi. 

Worship, v. sani, salla, safi or dsafi (and yi affi, 


TrpoffKvveiv), roko. " They are worshipping the Lord," 
Su na roko Obangissi Alia. — " We have come to wor- 
ship Him," Mu na sakka safi nsa. — " Him alone shalt 
thou be worshiping," Shi kadei ka keh sani. 

Worthy, adj. kammata. — " Is worthy," Kammata tshe. — 
"And who in it is worthy?" Wa tshiki issa tshe? 

Write, v. rubutu. — " Do you write the Haussa lan- 
gnaga?" Ka na rubutu maarana Haussa? — " I am not 
able to wTite the Haussa language," Ba na ia rubutu 
magana Haussa ba. — " When I was in the Haussa 
country I was trading ; I had no time to learn the 
Haussa language," Yaushe na samma gari nHaussa 
na ka yi tshiniki ; ba nsani lotto ga koya magana 
Haussa. — " Trading is more profitable than the study 
of languages," Tshiniki da keao ya fi koyo magana. — 
" For it is written," Dong hakka aka sana. — " For 
thus it is written," Doug wangga rubuta tshe neh. — 
*' For this is He of whom it is written," Dong wonnan 
shi neh sabbada wa aka rubuta. 

Writer, s. mairubutu ; pi. masurubuta. 

Wrong, adv. laifi. 


Yams, s. doyah, or doaya. 

Yard, s. dangga ; pt. dangguna. See Garden. 

Yawn, v. hamuma. 

Ye, pron. ku, nku. 

Yea, adv. shikehna, yao. 

Year, s. shekara, or shiakara ; pi. shekaru. — " Ye will 
receive so much every year," Ku usami dayawa koh- 
wotshe shekara. 

Year (next), *. baddi. 

.... (last) s. bahra. 

.... (before last), s. baria tshan. — " We are going now ; 


we shall return next year about this time," Mu na taffi 

yansu ; mu ukohmo baddi wor hakka. 
Yelk & Yolk, s. kasfi. 
Yellow, adj. shia, or sha ; properly, " red." The Haussas 

appear 7iot to make other distinctions in colour than 

white, black, and red. Baki rua, they say, for " Blue 

water." — Fari rua, " Clear water." — Sha tufa, " Yellow 

Yes, adv. hakkana, yao, yao. 
Yesterday, *. shia. 
(day before), s. shiekarang shia ; lit. " he (it) 

that passed before yesterday." 
Yet, adv. hakkavva. 
Yonder, adv. tshiena. 
Young man, s. samuri ; pi. samuraif, and yaro. — " Young 

horse," Dohki sabo ntashi. — " Young man," Sabo mu- 

tum, or Sabo ntashi mutuni ; pi. Sabi mutani ntashi, 

and banawa. 
You, pron. ka nka, m. ; ki nki,y. ; pi. com. gen. ku nku. 
Your, pron. ku nku. 
Yourselves, pron. kukanku, aiid kanku. — " Now judge 

for yourselves," Amma ku yi sheria kanku. 








A put before the infinitive mood of the verb forms the 
prese7it teiise passive, and before ka the perfect passive. 
A, prep. from. 
A A, adv. no, by no means. 
Ab.ujda, or Abbada, adv. for ever. 
Abah, v. to be given. 
Abah su, v. they are given. 
Abawa, s. wick, a?id cotton. 
Aberi, or Aberri, v. to be allowed, permitted. 
Abduga, s. cotton. 

Abin, and Abu, pi. Abubua, s. thing. 
Abintshi, s. food. 
Aboki, pi. Abokai, s. friend. 
Abuta, s. friendship. 
Abuya, s. friend,/; 
Ad.imreh, v. to be bound. 
Addo, and Yi addo, v. to clothe, to dress. 
Agana, s. cowpock. 
Agbashie, v. to be destroyed. 
Agulu, pi. AcuLAJi, s. hawk, vulture. 


Ahaifie, Anhaifie, Akahaifi. See To bear. 

AJLKEH, and Aiko, v. to send. 

AiKi, pi. A'lKOKi, s. work, labour. 

Akahannah, and Anhannah, v. to be, and to have been 

Akahra, v. to have been added. 
Aka kahma, v. to have been caught. ^ 

Akaka'i, v. to have been brought. 
Aka'i, v. to be carried. 
Akai su nesa, v. they are carried far away. 
Aka'ifa faritshi, pi. Akaifa faruta, s. finger-nail. 
Aka kirra, v. to have been called. 
Aka maisatta sarei, v. was made clean. 
Aka mata shi, v. he|was compared. 
Akao, v. to be brought. 
Aka sari, v. to have been cut off. 
Aka shi, v. to have been heard. 
Aka yi, v. to have been done. 
Akieh, v. to have been hated. 
Akirra, v. to be called. 
Aklu, s. slate. 

Akoddi, or Akotti, pi. Akuddai, or AkottaV, *. box. 
Akodia, pi. Akotai, s. pistol. 
Akoi, pai-t. they have. 
Akuentshi, v. to be loosed. 
Akusi, or Akushi, pi. Akusa, s. bowl. 
Akwari ngiwa, also Hakkora ngiwa, *. ivory. 
Akwia, pi. AwAKi, s. goat. 
Akwia ngunsuru, s. he-goat. 
Alaki, s. the evil-one. 
Alahaki, adj. & s. evil. 
Alaleh, or Allaleh, v. to harass, to trouble. 
Albaru, *. powder. 


Albassa, pi. Albasai, s. onion. 

Albereka, and Salberuka, v. to bless. 

Albereka, s. blessing. 

Alfadara, f. ; Alfadari, m. ; pi. Alfadara'i, s. mule. 

Alfashia, s. blasphemy, slander. — With yi, " To blas- 

Alfuta, pi. Alfutotshi, s. handkerchief. 

Alhakum, s. power, authority. 

Alhakumeh, s. commandment. 

Alharin, s. silk. 

Axhorma, or Alhoruma, s. might. 

Alikarli, pi. Alikarlai, s. judge. 

Alisifa, pi. Alisifai, s. pocket. 

Alitshamaa, s. Sunday. 

Alitshaxa, s. heaven. 

Alkalami, pi. Alkalamai, s. pen, reed. 

Ai.KAMMA, or Alkaiia, s. wheat. 

AxKAUEL, s. oath-breaking. 

Alkeba, pi. Alkebai, s. cloak. 

Alla, s. God. 

Allahaki, s. innocence. ? 

Alli, s. chalk. 

Alliwashi, pi. ALLrwASA'i, s. promise, agreement. 

Almakashi, s. scissors. 

Al>iashiri, and Almashiri ; pi. Almashirai", s. disciple, 

Alura, pi. Alurai, s. needle. 

Amaisa sa, v. he was compared. 

Amaria, pi. Amare, s. bride. 

Ambashie su gare ni, v. they are delivered to me. 

AiiBUGiE, pi. Ambuge, s. blow, a stroke. 

Amei, s. bile. 

Amei, v. to vomit. 

(lOii) F 3 


Amire, and Amiri, v. to marry ; and s. marriage. 
Amma, conj. but ; adv. further. 
Ammo, v. to hum. 
Amsa, s. answer. 
Amsin, adj. fifty. 
An ASIA, s. payment. 
Anatshida, s. low thunder. 
Angashi, s. nap, slumber. 
Angbadda, v. has been broken. 
Angkedaya su, v. they are numbered. 
Ango, pi. Anguna, s. bridegroom. 
Ankamo su, v. they are caught. 
Ankohmi, v. were burned, 
Ankuleh, s. patience. 
Ansabi, or AsABi, v. to be appointed. 
Antah, pi. Antotshi, s. liver. 
Antarro, v. have been collected. 
Antshika su, v. they are filled. 
Anyafeh, and Ayafeh, v. are forgiven. 
Aradu, s. thunder. 
Araha, adj. cheap. 
Arbain, and Arubain, adj. forty. 
Arebba, v. to be divided. 
Ariava, s. north. 
Aro, v. to borrow, to rent. 
Arsiki, adj. rich ; s. protection. 
As AH, V. to be put. 
AsARi, V. to be cut. 
AsHi, V. to reserve, to keep. 
AsHiEFA, V. to be cast. 

AsHiEWA, and Ashietshan, v. to be put down, and away. 
AsHiMARi, s. rainbow. 
AsHiRi, and Asiri, s. secret. 


AsKAH, pi. AsAKi, s. razor. 
Ask AH ALKALAMi, s. penknife. 
AsKi, V. to shave. 
AssA, and Assawa, v. to lay. 
AssABA, s. danger, punishment. 


AssARA, s. snuff, 

AssuBA, and Azuba, *. dawn ; adv. early. 

AzuMEH, V. to fast. 

Atashira, pi. Atashirai, *. madam. 

Atshieshie su, v. they shall be filled. 

Attara, v. to invent, to contrive. 

Auta, adj. least. 

AwA, adv. as, now. 

AwAKi, pi. of Akwia, s. goat. 

Awo, AwuNA, Awunawa, s. measure. 

AwosA, pi. AwosAi, *. rib, side. 

AwuTSHE, adv. out. 

Ay.vba, s. banana. 

Ayaboh, v. to praise, to glorify. 

Ayi addo, v. to be clothed. 

AziBi, s. Monday. 

AzuKWA, s. ball. 

AzURUFA, or AsARUFA, s. silver. 


Ba-ba, adv. not. 
Baakazi, v. to flog. 

Baba, pi. Maya, and Mainya, adj. great. 
Bab A, s. eunuch. 
Baba, s. indigo. 
Babawana, adj. eldest. 
Babu, prep, without. 


Babu kohwa, adv. not always, also, without any. 
Babu sani, conj. notwithstanding', without knowing. 
Badabashi, v. to instruct. 
Baddakamma, pi. Masubaddakamma, s. mask. 
Baddi, adv. next year. 
Bah, v. to g'ive. 
Bahda, v. to give. 

Bahda gaskia, v. to justify, to acquit; lit. " Give justice. 
Bahda laifi, v. to condemn ; lit. " Give wrong." 
Bahki, pi. Bahkuna, s. mouth. See Conspire. 
Bahki nsunsua, s. bill of a bird. 
Bahra, adv. last year. 

Bahsa, Bahshie, Bahyes, v. to give, to give over. 
Bahsheria, or Sharia, v. to judge. 
Baka, v. to spare. 

Baka,/!, Baki, m., ])l. Babaku, adj. black. 
Bakatshi, s. fan. 
Bakim wuta, s. a burning- stick. 
Bakka, pi. Baklxa, *. arrow, bow. 
Bako, pi. Baki, s. stranger. 
Balleh ku, adv. how much more ye. 
Bambam, adj. different. 
Bambamta, v. to differ. 
Bamda, prep, besides, and without. 
Bangu, pi. Banguna, and Baxgayi, s. a wall 
Banantshi, v. to hug'. 
Banki, v. to mend, to repair. 
Bansa, adv. gratis. 
Bara, pi. Barua, 5. servant. 
Baranta, v. to serve. 
Bareda, pi. Bardai, *. dove. 
Barewa, pi. Bareyi,/!, deer. 
Bariatshan, s. the year before last. 


B ARID A, V. to redeem. 

Barikwantshi, or Barikwontshi, v. to jest. 

Barri, or Berri, and Beri, v. to allow, to leave, to charge, 

to forgive, to pass over. 
Barri ntshiki, v. to miscarry. 
Barogi ndahki, s. rafter. 
Barugo, s. marrow. 
Bashi, v. to owe. 
Bashi, jj/. Basusuka, s. debt. 
Bassa, or Bassua, v. to crack. 
Bata, v. to curse. 

Batshia, pi. Batshiei, s. hare. : . ; . 

Batta, v. to despise. 
Battawa, v. to destroy. 
Batureh, s. an Englishman, or European. 
Bauta, s. slavery. 
Bawa, pi. Bai, or Bayi, s. slave. 
Baya, s. back. 
Baya, adv. back, behind, after. 

Bebeh mutlji, s. a dumb person. 

Beh, adj. free. 

Beh, v. to dash. 

Benteh, Banteh, pi. Bentuna, s. napkins. 

Beyebeya, v. to thatch. 

BiA, V. to pay, to reward. 

BiA, s. payment. 

Biar, and Biat, adj. five. 

BiDDA, I', to search, to seek. 

BiH, V. to follow. 

BiKA, *. baboon. 

BiKo, r. to make peace. 


BiNDiGA BABA, s. cannou. 


BiNGiRA, V. to roll. 

BiRi, pi. BiRAi, and BoRoi, s. monkey. 

BiRiNi, V. to fortify. 

BiRiNi, s. a town. 

BissA, prep, above, on, upon. 

BissA, pi. BissAKA, s. cattle, creatures. 

Biu, adj. two. 

BoKoi, or BoKWoi, adj. seven. 

BoYE, or Gboye, v. to disguise, to hide. 

BoYE, adj. secret. 

BuBABi, adj. unripe. 

BuDEH, V. to open. 

BuDURUA, pi. BuDURAi, s. SL girl, maid, virgin. 

BuGU, V. to beat. 

BuKAYA, s. instrument. 

BuKA, pi. BuKOGi, and Bukoki, s. tent. 

BuKi, s. dinner, feast. 

Buki, v. to dine. 

BuNsuRU, pi. BuNsuRAi, s. he goat. 

BusA, V. music. 

BusA, V. to blow. 

BusASHi, and Bushe, v. to dry. 

BusuRi, or BusARi, v. to piss. 


Da, prep, with, by, through. 
Da, abridged for woddanda, pron. who, which. 
Da, conj. and. 

Da, and Nada, v. to have, to possess. 
Daba, v. to owe. 

Daddi, v. to continue, to tarry, to remain. 
Dadei', adv. never. 
Dafua, v. to cook. 


Daga, prep, from, by, through. 

Dagana, adv. hence. 

Dah, ph Yaya, s. son, offspring, also, fruit of trees. 

Dah akwia, pi. Y.K\K\\\.\Ki, s. kid. 

Dahitshi, pi. Yaya itatua, s. fruit of trees. 

Dahki, pi. Dahkuna, s. house, dwelling. 

Dahki ndufc, or Dahki xduhu, pi. Dahkuna ndufu, s. 

prison, jail ; lit. " House of darkness." 
Dahkolua kaza, pi. Kashi, s. hen. 
Dahma, or Da_ma, adj. better. 
Dahlia, adj. right (hand). 

Dahmiza, pi. Dahmassa, and Dahmazai, s. leopard. 
Dahmshi, s. sap. 

Dahsiuza, pi. Yayamusa, s. kitten. 
Dahxdahna, v. to taste. 
Dahnɗunku, p/. Yaya ntoiaki, s. lamb. 
Dahxfari, adj. first-born. 
Dahxgi, s. generation, relation. 
Dahnkasua, s. trade ; lit. " Son of the market." 
Dahnku, *. clew, tar. 

Dahxkuana, pi. Yaunkwana or Kuana, *. countryman. 
Dahny AKi, pi. Yayanyaki, s. soldier. 
Dahiwie, or Dainyie, s. fresh, row. 
Dahrana, s. day. 
Dahri, or Dari, adj. hundred. 
Dahri, s. cold. 
Dahsoh, s. will, desire. 
Dahwaki, pi. of Godia, *. mare. 
Dahzi, s. bush. 
Dakki, v. to beat. 
Dakulum, adv. daily. 
Dakurah, v. to lurk. 
Dalill, prep, according (to.) 


Dalma, s. lead. 

Dalulu, s. bottle. 

Dama, pi. Damai, s. parcel. 

Damana, s. the rainy season. 

Damassare, *. lard. 

Dameh, adv. wherewith. 

Damfatta, adj. damp. 

Dammeh, s. bunch, bundle. 

Damreh, v. to tie, to bind. 

Damtshi, pi. Damasa, s. upper arm. 

Damiri, v. to marry. 

Damu, v. to perplex. 

Damuratshiki, s. girdle, and to gird. 

Dandakwashi, pi. Dandakwasai, *. twin. 

Dangatari, pi. Dangatura, s. hatchet. 
Dangga, pi. Dangguna, s. garden, /. 

Dankia, «. quarrel. 

Danku, or Dahnku nsuma, s. bee's-vvax. 
Dappa, pi. Dappuobi, s. creatures, flock. 
Dara, or Daria, v. to laugh, to mock at. 
Darini, s. fence. 
Dasori, s. gums. 
Dau ania, v. to take heed. 
Dau hangkali, v. take heed. 
Dau, and Dauda, v. to take. 
Dauda, s. dirt. 
Dauda, adj. unclean. 
Dauda nfatalua, s. unclean spirit. 
Dauda nkuneh, ear-wax. 
Dawa, s. desert. 
Dawa, *. corn. 

Daw'a damassara, or Dawamassara,s. com, and corn field. 
Dawuri, adv. hitherto. 


Daya, adc. when. 

Dayawa, or Deyawa, adj. much, many. 
Debeh, v. to extract, to pluck. 
Degeh, fl. Degageh, s. fox. 
Deh, or Dei, v. must. 
Deia, adj. one. 
Deidei, adv. properly, well. 
Deideini, adj. equal. 
Deideta, v. to compare. 
Dena, v. to cease. 
Dere, s. night. 
DiA, j)l. Diagi, s. davighter. 
Dibakamjia, v. to offend. 
DiGA REABA, s. dew-drops. 
Do, prep, against. 
DoAYA, or DoYA, s. yams. 
DoAZA,/!, DoAzi, m., adj. bitter. 
DoGARi, pi. DoGARAi, s. coustable. 
DoGo, m., DoGUA, /., adj. high. 
DoGo, pi. DoGOGi, s. height. 
DoHKi, pi. Dawaki, m., horse. 
DoHKUssi, or DoKUSSi, pi. DoKUssAi, s. colt. 
Doi, or DoYi, V. to smell. 
DoKA, pi. DoKOKi, V. plaiting of hair. 
DoMEH, adv. why, because. 
Dong, prep, for, because. 
DooKA, s. law. 
Dor I, V. to join. 

DoRiNA, pi. DoRiNAi, s. hippopotamus. 
DsADSA, V. to rust. 
DsAFi, s. a charm, sacrifice, idol. 
DsAFi, V. to worship (usee? by Pagans). 
DsAi, DsAiDA, or DsAiSHiE. See Detain. 


DsAMKi, s. dispute. 

DsARA, V. to grow. 

DsAWA, V. to rebuke, to scold. 

DsAYo, V. to stand. 

DsoRO. s. fear. 

DuBA, adj. thousand. 

DuBA, V. to behold. 

DuFU, or DuHU, s. dim, dark, darkness. 

DuKA, adj. all, every, whole. 

DuKAWA, V. to stoop. 

DuKiA, *. property, goods. 

DuKiA TUREH, English goods. 

DuKUBA, s. table. 


DuLi, s. vagina. 

DuMKi, i\ to sew. 

DuMMi, s. noise. 

DuNiA, s. world, air, sky,/! 

DuNiA TA GiRiGissA, s. earthquake, " the earth is shaking." 

DuNKiA, and Tunkia, pi. Dumaki, Tumaki, s. sheep. 

DuTSHi, pi. DuAsu, *. stone, beads. 

DuTSHi NWASHi, s. grindstoue. 

Dyareh, pi. GiARAi, s. cricket. 


Eansima, adv. afterward. 
Ebambam, and Eribambam, adj. many-coloured. 
Embeshieda, v. to set free. 
Emosah, v. to bake. 
En, coTij. if, then. 
Ena, adv. where, what. 
Enua, pi. Enua'i, s. shadow. 
Enda, adv. whence. 



Fadda, or Fatta, v. to fight. 

Fadda, and Faddi, v. to tell, to make known, to inform, 

to profess. 
Faddawa, r. to march. 
Fadeh, v. to confess. 
Fadi, adj. broad, broadness. 
Fagi, 5. even. 

Fahda, Fahdawa, and Fadawa, s. a fall, a council. 
Fahda, Fahdi, v. to fall. 
Fahda, pi. Fahdodi, s. palace. 
Fahta, or Fatta, pi. Fatotshi, s. leather, skin. 
Fairowa, adj. greedy. 
FAinvo, pi. Fayakeh, s. plain. 
Falakeh, pi. Fatakeh, s. a merchant. 
Falfada, s. fits. 

Fara, and Fareh, v. to begin, to commence. 
Fara, /, Fari, 7n. ; pi. generis communis, Farufaru, 

adj. white. 
Farah, s. locust, grasshopper. 
Faratshi, pi. Faruta, s. finger. 
Farauta, v. to chase, to hunt. 
Fari, v. to fade. 
Fakiga, v. to perceive. 
Farika, s. adultery, 

Farinsani, and Farinsang, s. white baft. 
Fari wata, s. moonlight. 
Fashi, or Gbashi, v. to break. 
Fatakeh, plural of Falakeh. 

Fatalua, or Fatarua, and Patalua, s. spirit, ghost. 
Faye, or Fai, v. to do much. 
Fi, V. to pass, to surpass. 
FiDiExs.AH, s. bullock. 


FiFiKEH, pi. FiKAFiKEH, s. wing", feather. 

FiHTo, *. tax, custom, tribute. 

FiLi, *. grass-field. 

FiLLAFiLLi, j)L FiLLAFiLLAi, s. oar, paddle. 

FiTAss, V. to pluck, to cast out. 

FiTiLLA, pi. FiTiLLAi, *• lamp. 

FiTTO, V. to leave, to go. 

FoDA, V. to bore. 

FoLA, s. cap. 

FoREH, or FoRo, V. to charge, to command, to warn. 

Frigida, v. to shrink. 

FuDU, or HuDU, adj. four. 

FuNTA, pi. FuNTAi, udj. naked, 

FusHi, V. to annoy, to vex, to displease. 

FusKA, pi. FusKOKi, s. face, countenance. 

FuTAWA, V. to rest. 

FuTAVPA, *. rest. 

FuTAWA DAHDi, or FuTA NA DAHDi, rcst is sweet. 


Ga, prep, to, by, at. 

Ga, Gani, Gana, v. to see, to find. 
Gaba, prep, before ; and s. chest. 
Gaba, pi. Gabobi, s. knuckle. 
Gaba, *. war, disturbance. 
Gabaz, *. east. 
Gabi, s. executioner. 
Gadawoibi, and Gadawoofi, s. bareness. 
Gaddu, .9. bedstead. 
Gadu, v. to inherit. See Goods. 
Gafara. v. to hush. 
Gaga, v. to polish. 
Gahra, or Gara, v. to entertain. 


Gahri, s. flour. 
Gainya, pi Gaixyae, s. herb. 

Gaishe, and Gaizla, v. to greet, to salute ; which see. 
Galladima, pi. Galladimai, s. officer, treasurer, chief. 
Gama, v. to pack. 
Gami dahdi, v. to make peace. 
Gamma, or Ga5Ia, v. to join. 
Gamma, v. to finish, and finished. 
Gamma, or Gua:hma, v. to kindle. 
Gangama, v. to gather. 
Gangami, 1-. to proclaim. 
Gangax, pi. Ganguxa, s. drum. 
Gara, s. wood ants. 
Gara, adv. rather. 

Gara, and Gare, prep, to, tow ard, against. 
Gard.ama, v. to deny, to dispute. 
Gardi, pi. Gardawa, 5. Schoolmaster. 
Gare'wxya, v. to knead, to mingle. 
Gari, pi. Garurua, s. country, land, town. 
Garika, v. to enclose. 
Garikeh, pi. Garaka, *. herd, fold. 
Garisie, pi. Garisina, s. bell. 
Garlkua, pi. Gariki, s. shield. 
Gashia, or Gasi, v. to tire, to fatigue. 
Gashi, pi. Gasusl A, s. hair. 
Gashi, s. bacon. 
Gashiere, adj. low, short. 
Gashshi, v. to roast. 
Gasiehanu, s. lower arm. 

Gaskia, adj. true, certain, just. — Da gaskia, "With cer- 
tainty," " certainly." 
Gassa, v. to faint. 
Gatari, pi. Gatarua, s. axe. 


Gatshi, s. brass, copper. 
Gawasa, pi. Gawaso, 5. plum. 
Gawa, pi. Gawayi, s. corpse. 
Gawoi, pi. Gawoiya, and Gawoi\-u, s. coal. 
Gaya, v. to reveal. 
Gbanna, s. destruction. 

Gbashie, and Gbattawa, v. to destroy, to corrupt, cor- 
Gboreh, s. fig. 
Gboye, part, hidden. 
Gbuy'A, and Gbuye, v. to hide. 
Gebi, s. precipice. 

Gedda, and Gashia gedda, *. ground nuts. 
Gefeh, s. brink. 
Gemeh, s. beard. 
Gengeddi, s. nap, slumber. 
Gengessa, v. to hatch. 
Gesa, s. mane, ear of corn. 
GiA, s. beer. 

GiARA, V. to manage, to mend. 
GiARU, plural ofDyareh, s. cricket. 
GiDDA, pi. Gissi and Giddashi, s. house, lot, premises. 
GiGiNiA, s. palm-tree. 
Gilimeh, or GiTSHE, s, cross. 
GiNA, V. to dig. 

GiRA, or GiRRA, s. brow, eyebrow. 
GiRDA, V. to prepare, to trim. 
GiRiGissA, or Garigissa, v. to skake. 

GiRIGISHE, pi. GiSAGISHI, S. cloud. 

GiRiMA, s. great, honour, esteem. 
GiRTA, V. to manage. 
GisHiRi, s. salt. 

GisHiRi ivrBATUREH, s. White man's salt, i. e. sugar. 


GiSHiRi NRUA, s. salt Water, i.e. sea. 

GissoGisso, pi. GissoGissAi, s. spider. 

GrwA, pi. Giwa'i, s. elephant. 

GoBEH, *. to-morrow. 

GoDDA, V. to show, to appear, to direct. 

GoDiA, pi. Dawaki, s. mare. 

GoMA, pi GoMiA, adj. ten. 

GoNAH, pi. GoNAKi, s. farm. 

GoRRo, 2^1- GoRRORA, s. Kola nut. 

GosHi, pi. GosuNA, *. forehead. 

GouMMA, or Gara, adv. rather. 

GuASA, or Guara, s. cocoa. 

GtTBA, s. poison. 

GuDDU, V. to escape, to run. 

GuDDL'Yi, V. to be glad. 

GuDDUMOA, s. help, assistance. 

GuDUNDAWA, s. looscuess of bowels. 

GxJGA, *. a basket. 

GuLLi, pi. GuLLUNA, *. knot. 

Gumburi, v. to smell. 

GuNDU, s. tax, tribute. 

GURUFASSA, V. to prostrate. 

GuRUGU, and Gurumu, v. to halt, to be lame. 

GuRURi, s. provision. 

GuRUsuNu, pi. GuRUsuNAi, s. hog, swine. 

GusHEGUSHE, V. to Tun about. 

GusHiA, *. nut. 

Gusu, pi. GusA, Culum vel anus. 

GusxiMA, adj. lean. 

GusuNG, s. South. 

GwADAWA, V. to point at. 


Habadda, adv. for ever. 


Habaitshi, pi. Habaitai, s. parable. 

Habsi, or Hafshi, v. to bark. 

Hadari, pi. Hadaru, s. storm, tornado. 

Hadia, v. to swallow. 

Hagansi, or Harntshi, s. bowels. 

Haifi, or Haihu. See To bear. 

Hainya, pi. Hainyoyi, s. road. 

Haifu, *. birth, breed,/! 

Haki, s. grass. 

Hakka, Hakkana, Hakkawa, adv. yes, so, as, however, 

even so. 
Hakkora, or Hakora, pi. Hauri, s. tooth. 
Hakkora noiwa, s. elephants' teeth, i.e. ivory. 

Hal, prep, till, through. 

Halbi, v. to shoot, to sting. 

Haushi, pi. Harusa, s. tongue. 

Halli, s. trick. 

Hamuma, v. to yawn. 

Hamuta, s. armhole. 

Hangkali, s. sense. 

Hangkali, adj. wise, prudent. — Yi hangkali, " Beware." 

Hangkura, s. pardon. 

Hangkureh, v. to endure, to suffer. 

Hangkuri, s. comfort. — Yi hangkuri, " To comfort." 

Hannah, v. to hinder. 

Hansari, v. to snore. 

Hantshi, pi. Hantshotshi, s. nose. 

Hanu, pi. Hanua, s. hand, arm. 

Haoka, and Hauka, adj. foolish, mad. 

Happa, pi. Happuobi, s. chin. 

Happo, v. to bleed. 

Harugowa, v. to howl. 

Haskah, s. light ; and v. to light. 


Haskeh, or Hasekeh, pi. Haskuoki, s. light. 

Hassada, v. to harass, to persecute. 

Hatshi, r. to reap. 

Hattara, or Hattarra, v. to invent, to contrive. 

Hattarra, s. knowledge, contrivance. 

Hau, or Hawabissa, v. to ascend, to climb up. 

Hauma, v. to gaye, to yawn. 

Hauni, or Hawuni, s. left. 

Hauya, pi. Hauyu, 5. hoe. 

Haw AYE, s. tear. 

Hayaki, s. steam. 

Hayaki nshirigi, s. steam vessel. 

Hiska, 5. air, wind. 

HoKUMTA, or Hokumtshi, s. command, power, authority. 

HUADI, V. to fall. 

HuDU, adj. four. — Goma sha hudu, " Fourteen." 


Ia, or Iawa, v. to be able. 
Iewa, adj. worse. 
Igaba, v. to forsake. 
Igia, pi. Igoi', s. rope, cord, string, line. 
Ikai, v. to deliver to, over. 

Iko, pi. Ikanu, and Ikoki, s. miracle, power, might. 
Ina, v. I am ; i. e. doing, seeing. 
Ina, adv. where. 
Iri, s. seed, kind, generation. 
Iri mtjtaxi, s. nations. 
Iri mutani duka, s. all nations. 
Iri ndunia duka, s. all mankind. 
IsAi, *. weather. 
Isi'a, pi. KuRDi, s. cowry. 
IsiASAU, pi. Idonsau, s. ankle. 
(121) a 


IsHA KASSA, V. to drag. 

IsHiB, s. chapter. 

IssA, s. power ; adj. sufficient. 

IssA, V. to be able. 

Ita, pron. she, he, it. 

Ita, pron. she herself, or herself. 

Itatshi, Itshi, pi. Itatua, s. tree. 

Itshi nkadeh, s. Shea butter-tree. 

Itshi gboreh, s. fig tree. 

Iwo, V. to swim. 

Iyali, v. family. 

Kaaka, s. harvest. 
Ka, pers. pron. masc. thou, thy. 
Ka, s. can, may. 
Ka, forming the past tense of verbs. — Mu ka fitto, " We 

Kabakumburu and Kumburi, s. inflammation. 
Kabba, s. inflammation. 
Kabitto, pi. Kabittai, s. cloak. 
Kada, v. must not, may not, shall not, dare not. 
Kada, conj. lest. 
Kadah, s. cotton. 

Kaddah, pi. Kaddodi, s. crocodile. 
Kadduna, Kadan, Katang, adj. few ; also little. . 

Kadei. See Alone. 
Kafa, pi. Kafafu, s. foot. 
Kafa hantshi, pi. Kafafeh hantshi, s. nostril. 
Kafaritshi, s. iniquity, idolatry, witchcraft. 
Kafata, pi. Kafatu, s. shoulder. 
Kaffa, v. to nail. 
Kafo, adj. blind. 

Kafoh, and Kahoh, pi. Kafoni, «. horn. 


Kahra, v. to add. 

Kahre, v. done, finished. 

Kahru, adj. worse. 

Kai, pron. thou, m. 

Kai, j9/. KAUNA.s.head. — Kai nka,& Ka nka,"Thy head. 

Kaj, v. to carry. 

Kaifi, *. edge. 

Kaifi, adj. keen, sharp. 

Kajlka'i, s. itch, chaff. 

Kaina, pron. myself. 

Kaka, adv. how. 

Kaka, pi. K.ucuNA, s. grandfather. 

K.akabeh, v. to shake, to shake off. 

Kaelafah, adv. How then ? 

Kakaria, s. oath-breaking. 

Kakata, pi. Kakaxa, s. grandmother. 

Kalatshi, s. breakfast. 

Kalikashi, prep, below, under. 

Kalikashi, s. bottom. 

Kallabi, pi. Kalluba, s. handkerchief. 

Kaixisa, or Kallasa, v. to exercise. 

Kama, v. to fight. 

Kama, or Kahma, i'. to catch. 

K.amma, Ka>diata, v. to compare, to agree, to be alike. 

Kamma, cotij. as, like as. 

Kamma, s. colour. 

Kammatashi, v. is worthy. 

Kamxa, s. offence. 

Kamu, pron. ourselves. 

Kamu kifi, or Kakmu kifi, v. to catch fish. 

Kana, and Kanda, prep, before. 

Kanaxa, or Kattana, adj. little. 

Kaxdahki, s. beam. 

(123) G 2 


Kaneh, pi. Kaneh, s. brother. 
Kango, s. desolation. 
Kanka, jnon. thyself, m. 
Kankessa, pi. Kankessai, *. cockroach. 
Kanku, pron. yourself, yourselves. 
Kansa, pron. himself. 
Kansu, s. themselves. 
Kanta, proji. herself. 
Kanua, s. sister,/! 
Kankara, s. hail. 
Kara, or Kari, s. reed. 
Kao, or Kawo, v. to bring', to fetch. 
Karami, m., and Karamnia,/!, adj. little, least. 
Kareba, s. ransom. 

Kareh, v. to end, to finish ; and ended, finished. 
Karewa, «. end. 
Karia, adj. false, untrue. 
Karia, v. to tell a lie. See Discourage. 
Kari ATA, *. falsehood. 
Karifi, s. iron. German, kraft. 

Karifi, s. any thing strong, powerful. — Da karifi, " With 
power," " with force," i. e. " powerfully," " forcibly," &c. 
Karifi nsutshia, adj. bold ; lit. " of a strong heart." 
Karikara.ndawa, s. corn-field. 
Kariketshi, s. hyena ; lit. " the devouring dog." 
Karo, s. gum. 

Karreh, pi. Karrenai, s. dog, 
Karratu, v. ro read, (t^lp) 
Karrekatta, adj. crooked. 
Kasfi, 5. yelk, and yolk. 
Kashi, v. to kill, to execute. 
Kashi, s. a bone. 
Kashi ido, v. to squint. 


Kashi N"iX'NGWA, V. to Starve. 

Kasipsua, s. spear. 

Kasko, pi Kasakeh, s. plate, dish. 

Kassa, s. kingdom. 

Kassa, s. earth, land, ground. 

Kassajii, m. ; Kassama,/, adj. indecent. 

Kassi or Kashi kishi nrua, r. to quench thirst ; lit. " to 

kill thirst." 
Kassua, s. market. 

Kattana, or Kanana and Kaddana, adj. little. 
Katarlku, pi. Katarukuna, s. bridge. 
Kattang, cojij. if. 

Katshia, s. circumcision ; and v. to circumcise. 
Kauda, v. to abrogate, to take away. 
Kaura, r. to remove. 
Kauta, pi. Kautotshi, s. gift. 
Kalweh, adj. quiet. 
Kawas, v. to move. 

Kawie, pi Kawoya and Kauyaka, s. a village. 
Kaya, pi Kavoyi, s. thorn. 
Kaya, pi Kayayeki, s. goods, burden, load. 
Kayaajddo, s. ornaments. 
Kayaaiki, s. tools. 
Kaza, pi Kashi, s. fowl. 
Kaza, pi Kashi nyuraba, s. duck. 
Keao, and Keawa, adj. good, fine, beautiful. 
Keaokeawa, s. beauty. 

Keaonhali, s. good manners, good behaviour. 
Kedaya, and Ketaya, s. account. 
Kedaya, and Kidaya, r. to account, to number, to reckon 

to calculate. 
Keh. See Am and Can. 
Kehkassa, or Kehkashi, v. to dry up. 


Kesfi, v. to bhish. 

Ketareh, or Ketere, prep, through, beyond, yonder. 

Kewoiwoinia, v. to hesitate. 

Kewoye, prep, about. 

Ki, pers. ])ro?i. f. thou and thy. 

KiAi, V. to spare. 

KiASHi, s. small red ants. 

Kibatshe, adj. fat. 

KiBiA, s. arrow. 

KiDELi, s. drum. 

KiFi, s. fish. 

KiH, V. to hate, to refuse, to abhor. 

KiiNSHi, or KiNSHi, s. unbelief 

KiLLiKisHi, j)L KiLLiKisAi, s. throne. 

KiNGGi, s. half, a part, a portion. 

KiNKi, pro?}, thyself, f. 

KiRiGi, pi. KiRAGOi, s. skin. 

KiRRA, V. to call. 

KiRRA BAYA, V. to recall. 

KisHi, adj. jealous. 

KisHiMi, s. hart, 7n. 

KiTSHi NGURUSUNU, s. lard. 

KiUYA, s. indolence. 

KiwiA, V. to neglect. 

Kiwo, V. to feed, to watch. 

KiYAYEYE MBissA, V. to tame creatures. 

Ko, co?}j. & interrog. pro)i. or, whether, if 

KoAKWA, s. palm-nut. 

KoDA, conj. though, although. 

KoDTA, V. to satisfy. 

KoENTSHi, or KuENTSHi, V. to loosc, to Settle 

KOFA NKUBLI, pi KoFOFI MAKUBLAl", S. kcyhole. 
KOFATTA, pL KOFATTAI, S. hoof, claW. 




KoHMO, or KoHMA, V. to return. 
KoHNA, or KoNA, r. to bum. 

KoHWA, KoHWONNE, KoHwoTSHE, pron. every one, who- 
soever, whatever, &c. &c. 
KoH YAUTSHE, adv. many times, or how long since ? 
KoiNYA, s. brain. 
KoKARi, V. to try, to endeavour. 
KoNDO, pi. KuNDU, .s. bly, basket. 
KooDA, pi. KooDAi, or KooDODi, s. kidney- 
KoRA, s. boldness. 
KoRAMMA, s. brook, river. 
Karata, v. to divorce, to separate. 
KoREi, adj. well. 

KoRi, 7n., KoRA, y., V. to put away, to drive away. 
KoRiA, adj. green. ? 
KoRiA, s. calabash. 
KoRiA KAi, s. a skull. 
KoRUKUTA, pi. Kahya, *. louse. 
KosFA, s. shell. 
KossoKO, and Kashie, pi. Kasaki, s. basin. 

KOTSHIA KAl', S. skull. 

Koya, to teach. 
KoYATA, s. doctrine. 
KoYo, V. to learn. 
Ku, pers. pron. second pers. pi. ye. 
Klana, v. to sleep. 
KuBEWA, s. occroh. 
KuDAKU, pi. KuDAKAi, s. potatoes. 
KuDi, s. bug. 
Kudu, s. South. 
KuGE, s. bell. 
KuGi, V. to grumble. 


KuGiA, pi. KuGoGi, s. hook. 

KuGiA KiFi, s. fish-hook. 

KuKANKU, pro7i. you yourselves, and yourselves. 

KuKUDASAH, s. whale. 

KuLA, or KuLLA, V. to care, to care for. 

KuLEREH, s. canibal. 

KuLUM, adv. daily, every, always. 

KuMAAMA, adj. weak, fi-ail. 

KuMAMATSHi, s. weakness, an infirm person. 

KuaiBA. s. finger-nail. 


KuMBURi, s. inflammation. 

KuMiA, V. shame. 

KuMMA, adv. again. 

KuMATSHi, KuMMATU, Or KuMTSHi, s. check, jaw. 

KuNEH, and Kunua, s. ear. Plural like Singular. 

KuNGFA, *. foam. 

KuNKURU, s. turtle. 


KuoNi, I*, to consume. 
KuRA, s. dust. 

KuRADA, pi. KuRADAi, s. hatchct. 
KuRDi, pi. KuRADi, s. money. 
KuREH, or KoRA, V. to drive. 
KuRU. V. to boast. 
KuRUA, s. soul. 
KuRUFARA, V. to kneel. 
KuRUKUREH, V. to miss. 
KuRUM, adj. quiet, silent. 
KuRUMA, adj. deaf 
KuRUMi, s. bush, forest. 

KuRUMTSHi, pi. Masukurumtshi, s. a deaf person. 
KusARA, and Kushiera, *. bench, chair. 



KusHE, pi. KuDA, s. a fly. 

KusHiEWA, or KusiEWA, pi. KusHiEi, s. grave, burial-place. 

KussA, adv. near. 

KussuRUA, KusuRUA, pi. KussuRUAi, s. comer. 


KusuMBissA, s, a squirrel. 

KuTAREH, and Kutlrta, s. a leprous person. 

KuTURU, adj. leprous. 

Kuturata, s. leprosy. 

Kuuka, or Yi KuuKA, V. to cry. 

KuuKA, s. a cry. 

KuwA, V. to echo, atid to exclaim. 

KWADDO, pi. KWADDI, S. frog". 

KwAGUA, pi. KwAGuoGi, s. crap. 

KwAi, or Kwoi, *. egg. 

KwAMi NWUTA, s. flame. 

KwANA, and Kwanaki, {pi. o/Rana), s. day, sun. 

Kw*NƊA MAssAR, s. pawpaw. 

Kwantshi, v. to lay. 

KwAREi, pi. KwARUsuA, *. quivcr. 

KwAREi, KwoREi, or KoREi, adj. well, properly. 

KwARO, pi. KwARi, s. insect, moth, butterfly. 

KwARUKUASA, s. travelling ants. 

KwATo, or KwATSHE, V. to redeem, to deliver. 

KwAYA, pi. KwAYU, .V. grain, kernel. 

KwiwA, pi. KwiYAU, s. knee. 

KwoDDA, r. to direct. 


Laada, or Lahdata, v. to satisfy. 
Labari, pi. Labarai, s. news, information. 
Labari nagari, s. good news. 


Lafia, *. health, peace, a salutation. 
Lahira, s. eternity, (heaven.) — Wuta lahira, " hell, eter- 
nal fire." 
liAiFi, s. sin, wrong. — Yi laifi, " To do wrong." 
Laima, pi. Lai'momi, s. umbrella. 
Lalata, s. damnation. 
liALATSHi, adj. idle. 
Laleiya, adj. obstinate. 
Lashi, s. quarter. 
Leasa, v. to kiss, to lick. 
Leboh, pi. Leba, s. lip. 
Lelafa, adj. fi-ail, humble, soft, easy. 
Lemu, s. limes. 

Letafi, pi. Letatafi, s. Bible, Koran, any large book. 
Leurah, s. wisdom, sense. 
Lezami, or LiZAMi, s. bridle, bit. 

LiKAFA, S. foot-stool. 

LiMAN, ])l. Mailimai, s. minister. 

LoLOKi, pi. LoLOKAi, s. closet, a small room. 

LoMFASHi, or LuNOFASHi, V. to sigh, to breathe, to blow. 

LuNGFASHi, s. breath. 

LuRA, V. to notice, to observe, to wateh. 


Ma, prep. & adv. against, to, likewise. 
Maaiki, or IMaaikatshi, pi. Masuaiki, s. labourer. 
Maayike, pi. Maayika, or Maaika, s. messenger. 
Mabatshi, pi. Masubasta, s. debtor. 
Mabi, prep, beyond. 
Maburiki, s. cream. 
Madafi, pi. Madafai, s. kitchen. 
Maddarah, s. sweet milk. 

Maddobi, and Maddubi, pi. Maddubai, s. looking-glass. 


Madsafi,j9/. Madsafa, and Masudsafi, s. idolater, charmer. 

sacrificer, worshipper. 
Madumki, pi. Masudumki, s. tailor. 
Mafalki, s. dream. — Yi mafalki, " To dream." 
Mafaotshi, s. butter. 
Marautshi, pi. Mafarauta, s. hunter. 
Mafari, pi, Mafarai, s. beginning. 
Magana, pi. Magaxganu, s. word, language, dialect,/. — 

Yi magana, " To speak," verba facere. 
Magani, pi. Magunguna, *. medicine of any kind, also, 

Magagari, pi. Magagaru, s. rasp. 
Magashi, pi. Magada, s. heir. 
Magasi, or Magashi, v. to banish. 
Magashi, j^l- Maguta, s. fugitive. 
Magaya, pi. Magayu, *. porcupine. 
Magina, pi. Masugina, s. mason. 
Magobtshi, or Makobtshi, pi. Makobta, s. neighbour. 
Magutturua, v. to flow. 
Mahaifa, *. parents. 
Mahakuritshi, m. ; Mahakuritshia, /. ; Masuhangkuri, 

pi. com., s. meek, patient person. 
Mah\lbi, pi. Masuhalbi, s. a bowman, sportsman. 
Mahassadi, pi. Mahasada, *. adversary. 
Mahaukatshi, m. ; Mahaukatshia, f. ; Mahaukata, pi. 

com., s. fool, foolish person. 
Mai, or Moi, s. oil. 
Maiaski, pi. Masuaski, s. barber. 
Ma'ibarida, pi. Masubaridai, s. Redeemer. 
Maibahda gaskia, pi. Masubahda gaskia, s. justifier, one 

that passes judgment in favour. 
Maibia, pi. Masubia, s. payer, paymaster. 
Maibih, pi. Masubih, /t. follower. 


Ma'ibidagaba, Maibiddagaba, pi. Masubiddagaba, s. 

meddler, busy-body. 
Maidafua, pi. Masudafua, «. cook. 
Maidiba yumbu, pi. Masudiba yumbu, s. potter. 
Ma'idukia igia, pZ. Masudukia igia, s. ropemaker. 
Maifatoutshi bai, pi. Masu — , s. slave-dealer. 
Maifihto, pi. Masufihto, s. tax-gatherer. 
Maigangua, pi. Masugangua, s. drummer. 
Maigaskia, pi. Masugaskia, s. a just, righteous, honest 

Maigeri, pi. Masugeri, s. inhabitant. 
Maigonah, pi. Masugonah, *. a farmer, householder, 

Maihangkali, pi. Masuhangkali.s. a wise, prudent person. 
Mauwo, pi. Masuiwo, s. swimmer. 
Maikajiu kifi, pi. Masukamu, s. fisher. 
Maikashi, andMAiKASHi nkai, /)/. Masukashi, *. murderer- 
Maikeng KAi, I', to behead. 
Maikiddi, s. drummer. 
Ma'ikwato, s. a Saviour, Redeeme? 
Mailafia, p/. Masulafia, s. healthy person. 
Mailaifi, pi. Masulaifi, s. a guilty person. 
Maimagani, pi. Masumagani, s. doctor. 
Maimaki, prep, instead. 
Mainkadeh, s. Shea butter. 

Maisania, or Ma'Insianu, s. butter, or " oil of the cow." 
Mainsuma, s. oil of bees, honey. 
Mainva, s. a teacher. 
Mairatta, pi. Masuratta, s. whisperer. 
Mairawa, pi. Masurawa, s. dancer. 
Mairoko, pi. Masuroko, s. beggar. 
Mairubutu, pi. Masurubuttu, s. writer, scribe. 
Ma'isa, v. to compare. 


Maisaka, pL Marusaka, odj. weaver. 

Maisakkua, s. He who should come. 

Maisareh, pi Masara, s. spinner. 

Maishe, v. to treat. 

Maishiaya, f. ; Maishia\i, pJ. Mashiaya, s. leader. 

Maisuari, pi. Masusuari, s. an insatiable person. 

Maxtankadi, pi. Masltank.u)!, s. fenner. 

Maiwauta, pi. Maslwauta, s. fool. 

Mau-uxgwa, pi. Masu"vxxgwa, s. hungry person. 

Makafo, Makafi, pi. Masukafo, *. a blind person. 

Makara, and Makari, s. end. 

Makarietshi, pi. jNIakarieta, s. liar. 

Makarifi nsutshia, s. a strong^, bold person. 

Makarikata, v. to tremble. 

Makashi nkai, pi. Masukashi NKAi, s. infanticide. 

Makeri, pi. Makera, s. smith. 

Makiai, pi. Makiaya, s. shepherd. 

Makietshi, Makiyi, pL Makiya, s. enemy, adversary. 

Makoguru, and Makoshi, pi. MakoguraI', s. throat. 

Makoy'a, and Makoyi, pi. ^Maslkuya, s. teacher. 

Makubli, pi. Makublai, or Makubil-u, or Yaya maku- 

BiLAi, s. key. 
Makuli, pi. Makulai, s. lock. 
Makureh, r. to choke. 
Malaiki, pi. Malaikai, s. angel. 'TJb57?5 • 
Mamaki, s. wonder. — Yi mamaki, " To marvel," " To 

Maxomi, pi. Manoma, s. farmer. 
Mansoh, pi. Mansani, s. messenger. 
Mantshe, v. to err. 
Mantua, s. error, mistake. 
Maraetshie, .s. afternoon. 
Maraki, pi. Maraka, s. calf. 


Marainia,/! ; Maraya, m. ; pi. Maragu, s. orphan. 

Marasgaskia, pi. Marasagaskia, s. unjust person. 

Marashai'fua, s. unfruitful. 

Maraskoya, s. tares. ? better senseless. 

Marassantshi, adj. stupid, senseless. 

Mari, s. box (blow). 

Mari, v. to strike. 

Marieda, pi. Mariedai, «. mill. 

Marina, pi. Marinai, s. indigo dye-pit. 

Maruata kuraeh, s. ravening wolves. 

Marudi, m., Marudia, pi. Maruda, s. tempter. 

Marufi, pi. Marufai, s. cork, derived from rufeh, " to 

Marufi nkofa, pi. Marufai" nkofa, s. door, gate. 

Marumaru, s. spring, fountain. 

Maruru, s. boiler. 

Masalatshi, pi. Masalatai, s. school-house, meeting- 

Masamni, pi. Masusamni, s. dweller, inhabitant. 

Masari ndutshi, pi. Masusari ndutshi, 

Masarautshi, pi. Masarauta, s. officer. 

Masaya, or MusAYA, V. change, exchange. 

Masefi, pi. Masefai, *. loom. 

Maseseki, or Masaseki, s. carpenter. 

Masha'i, pi. Mashaya, s. drunkard, intoxication. 

Masharua, s. rainbow ; lit. " The water drinker." 

Mashatshi, pi. MashataV, s. comb. 

Mashi, pi. Masa, s. spear. 

Mashie. See Enslave. 

Mashiingini, 2)1. Mashiingai, s. a pillow. 

Mashidi, j)l. Mashidai, s. inn. 

Masohyi, pi. Masohya, adj. beloved. 

Massaba, pi. Massabai, s. hammer, anvil. 


Massa, or Massar, s. bread. 

Massara, v. to spin. 

Massassara, s. fever, f. 

Masuguruganta, *. lame persons. 

Masumbi, pi. Masamta, s. traitor. 

Masusuka, x>L Masuslkai, s. floor. 

Matamatshe, s. care. 

Matatshe, s. carcass. 

Matshetsheku ; pi. Matshetshekai, s. leech. 

Matshe ; pi. Maata, s. woman, female, wife. 

Matsheitshi ; pi. Matsheta, *. deliverer. 

Matshi, and Matshiewa, v. to extinguish. 

Matshetshewa, s. sling-. 

Matshi, v. to be equal to. 

Matshii, pi. Matshia, s. eater. 

Matshiitshi, pi. Matshiisai, 5. snake, serpent. 

Maya, or Mainya {plural of Baba), adj. great. 

Maye, s. witch. 

Mayes, v. to restore. 

Mayi, pi. INIasuyi, s. Creator, Maker. 

Maimugunia sutshia, s. malice. 

Maimugu magani, pi. Masuyi mugu magani, s. sorcerer, 

mixer of bad medicine. 
Meh, and Mi, pron. what, m. 
Mia, pron. what,/. 
Mia, s. sauce, soup. 

Mikiri, or Makiri, jjI. Makera, s. blacksmith. 
Mimiyah, s. murder. 
MissiRiA, pi. MissiRAi, s. cramp. 
MiTSHE, or Mizi, pi. Maza, s. man, male, husband. 
Meka, or Miika, v. to stretch forth. 
MoARAi, or MoRORAi, s. palm-bird. 

MOHDA, pi. MoHDANI, 5. mUg. 



MoLLiFi, s. woollen-cloth, blanket. 

Mora, pi. Morori, s. stomach, also waist. 

MoRiA, s. kind, sort. 

Mu, pron. we and our. 

MuA, V. to meet. 

MuDAKAiviu, pron. we ourselves. 

MuDUDEiA, s. pound, weight. 

MuGU, m., MuGUNiA,/!, pi. Miagu, adj. bad. 

MuGUGULLi, V. to covet. 

MuGUNGASHi, MuGUHALi, or MuGUNHALi, s. bad manners, 

bad conduct, bad behaviour. 
MuGUNTA, s. baseness. 
MuNAFUTSHi, pi. MuNAFUKAi, s. deceit. 
MuNAFUTSHi, V. to bribe, to deceive. 
MuNAWORiGi, s. fun. 
Muni, adj. cruel. 
Muni, s. cruelty. 
MuRiA, s. voice. 

MuRNA, s. joy, rejoicing. — Yi murna, " To rejoice." 
MuRNA, or MuRUNA, V. to rejoice, to amuse, to please, to 

be glad. 
MuRUSAN, pi. MuRUSANAi, s. coral. 
MusHA, or MusA, s. cat. 
MusuLUMTSHi, *. religion, faith, a convert, believer, holy 

(in the Mahomedan sense of the word.) 
MusuRU, MusuRAi, s. fox. 
MuTU, V. to die. 
MuTUA, s. death. 
MuTUM, pi. MuTANi, and Mitani, s. man, people. The 

derivation is obvious. Mortal, fro)n Mutu, " to die." 
MuTUM MUTUMi, *. picture, likness. 
Mutum nsariki, pi. MuTANi NSARiKi, s. prisoner, also 




N, often the sign of the Genitive case, and often employed 
for the sake of euphony, also abridged for Na, " to be." 
Na, pers. pron. 1st pers. I ; gen. com. 
Na, aux. verb, to be. 

Na, put before the Numerals forms the Ordinal Num- 
bers ; as, Nabiu, " The second." 
Na, prep, in, to. 

Nada, v. to have. — Ina da, " I have." It may be com- 
pounded " I am having." 
Na fahri, adj. the first. 

Nagari, m., pi. gen. com., Nagarigaru, adj. good. 
Nagari iabari, s. good news. 
Nahn, or Nan, adv. here, there. 
Nakami, *. capture. 
Nakireh, v. to meet 
Nakugi, v. to grumble. 
Nama, *. meat. 
Nama xrago, s. mutton. 

Namizi, pi. Maza, or Maaza, s. man, male, husband. 
Namizi ngurusuxu, pi. Maaza ngurusunai, s. boar. 
Namizi >uiTAKABEH, *. widower. 
Naso, v. to dive. 
Nassara, *. Christians. 
Nassara, s. success, victory, good luck. 
Nassara mugu, s. bad luck. 
Nawa, v. to belong to, to stick. 
Nawa, adv. how, how much, how many. 
Nawi, or Nauyi, s. heavy, heaviness. 
Neh, v. See Am. 
Nesa, adv. far; and s. distance. 

Nda, rel. pron. who, which ; abridged for Woddanda. 


Ni, m., NiA, f., pers. pron. chiejly Jird pers. sing, con- 
nected with the future tense. 
Ni, pers. proji. me, my. 
NiA, pers. pron. T, my. 
NiAKAiNA, pron. I myself I, f. 
NiKAiNA, pron. I myself I, 7n. 
Nka, pron. thy, of thine, of thee, m. 
Nki, prcm. thy, of thine, of thee, f. 
NoNO, pi. Nona, s. sour milk, and breast. 
NsA, pron. his, hers, its, and of his, of her, of it. 
Nsu, pron. their, theirs, of them, of theirs. 
Nta, pron. her, of her, of his, of it. 
NuNANEH, adj. ripe. 
NuTUM, V. to grumble. 


Oba, s. father. 

Obangissi, s. Lord, Master. 


Palassa, or Pallassa, v. to revile. 

Pamsa, or Pansa, s. part, portion, freedom, ransom. 

Pashi, or Passa, v. to break. 

Passawa, v. to split. 

PuRiPURi, adj. grey ? grey-headed ? 


Rabba, and Rabbawa, v. to divide. 
Rabbo, s. portion, part. 
Rafi, s. brook. 
Ragaya, pi. Ragayu, s. shelf 
Rago, pi. Raguna, s. ram. 
Ra'i, jjI. Raiu, *. life. 


Rakia, 5. road. 

Rama, Rankongeia, v. to retaliate, to rturn ; which see. 

Rami, pi. Ramuna, s. pit, hole. 

Ramtshe, v. to lend. 

Rana, pi. Kwana, and Kwanaki, s. day. 

Rana, *. sun. 

Rana sakka, s. noon. 

Rana ta buteh, the sun is open, shines. 

Rana ta tashi, s. sun-rise, or is risiuj^. 

Rana tashi ndunia, s. the day of the Resurrection of the 

Rani, s. dry-season. 
Ransua, pi. Rantshe rantshe, s. oath. 
Rarafeh, r. to creep. 
Rassa, v. to lose. 
Rataya, or Rataye, v. to hang. 
Ratta, v. to whisper. 
Rauni, or Rawuni, v. to bruise, to maim. 
Rawa, s. dance. 

Rawani, pi. RA^YUNA, s. bandage. 
Raya, pi. Ragai, s. hammock. 
Reaba, s. dew. 
Rebba, v. to divide. 
Redi, v. to borrow. 
Reire'i, 5. sand. 
Remi, adv. below. 
Reno, v. to lull. 
Rero, s. wool. 

Resam ndohki, s. bridle, bit. 
Rezi itshi, s. bough, branch. 
Ribba, s. gain. 
RiBBi, s. half, double. ? 
RiDA, V. to devour. 


Riga, pi. Riguna, s. clothes, shirt. 

Riga, v. to begin. 

RiGiA, V. to reach before, to outgo. 

Rika, or Rikeh, v. to hold, to harbour {as in the mind). 

RiNGFA, s. plank, table. 

Ringingine, adj. backward. 

RiNi, V. to dye, to tinge. 

RiSHiA, s. well, spring. 

RooKo, RoKo, V. to worship, to beg. 

RooNGOMEH, adj. better. 

RoTSHi, j)l. RoDSA, *. blow. 

RuA, s. water. 

RuA ALLA, s. rainbow. 

RuA NKANKARA, S. hail. 

RuA NKUDDU, s. lake. 

RuBUTU, V. to write. 

Rude, v. to tempt, to deceive, to blame. 

RuDi, s. temptation. 

RuFEH, V. to cover, to shut. 

RuFi, V. to connive. 

RuFOGo, pi. RuFOGi, e. barn. 

RuKBA, V. to rot. 

RUMUH, *. soup. 

RuNGUMA, V. to embrace. 

RuNSUA, V. to fall dowd, to kneel. 

RuPTA, adv. forward. 

RuRi, s. boar. 

RuzoNi, or RuzoNNi, v. to bow, to bend. 

Sa, ^ron. his, her, it. — Nsa, " of his," "of her," "of it.' 
Saa, v. to go. 
Saa, s. season, time. 


Saada, s. wages. ? 

Saana, or Saanda, adv. then. 

Saasaa, adv. by and bye. 

Sabbada, and Sabbaddi, prep, for the sake of, according, 

on account of. 
Sabeh, r. to choose, to prefer. 
Sabeh, s. choice. 
Sabi, r. to anoint. 
Sabo, adj. new, young. 
Sabua, pi. Sabi, s. Guinea-hen. 
Sabuni, *. soap. 
Sadakansu, pro7i. themselves. 
Safeh, or Safua, adv. early ; s. morning. 
Safi, or DsAFi, s. charm, idol, sacrifice. 
Safi, adj. hot. 

Sagi, or SuAGi, V. to curse ; s. curse. 
Sagumbatu, adj. cursed. 
Sah, s. bull. 

Sah, to put, to set, to cause. 
Sahka, *. middle. 
Sahkango, v. to put to desolation. 
Sahkani, or Sakkani, prep, in the midst, between. 
Sahki, v. to alter, to change. 
Sahki, *. Saviour. 

Sahkaza, or Sahkaza nyaruba, *. drake. 
Sahshiyi and Shiyi, v. to cool, probably, "put to cool." 
Sai, adj. steep. 

Sai or Saiko, adv. except, only. 
Saioa and Sayeshie, v. to sell. 
Saifa, pi. Saifofi, *. spleen, lungs (doubtful.) 
Saitana, s. Satan. 
Saka, r. to weave. 
Saki or Shak.1, s. ass. 


Sakka, v. to come. 

Sakka, s. measure. 

Sakko, v. to cast. 

Sall.., ^. to worship.-Baba salla, " The great fast of the 

Mahomedans." Also, Sani, Safi, Dsafi. 
Samak, adv. above. 
Samfu, s. cage. 
Samfuna, s. hamper. 
Sami, v. to get, to receive. 

Samma, v. to abide, to remain, to stay, to dwell, to live. 
Sammo, s. charm. 
Samna or Samni, v. to dwell. 
Sajiri, v. to hasten. 
Samtshi, «c(;. slippery. 

Sajiuri, ^?. Samurai, s. young man, manhood. 
Sanatshe, v. to harass, to trouble. 
Sanda, pi. Sanduna, s. stick, staves. 
Saneh, Sani, Sa, t% to know. 
Saneh nwuya, s. neckcloth. 
Sani, v. to enter. 

Sania, pi Sanu or Shanu, s. cow. 
Sansana agana, s cowpox, smallpox 
Sansani, s. invasion. 
Sanu, adj. easy, comfortable.] 
Sanyi, s. coolness, cold. 
Sanyi nsutshia, v. to comfort. 
Sao, v. alvum exonerare. 
Sao biu or Saubiu, adv. twice. 
Saodeia, adv. once. 
Saraba, s. Wednesday. 
Saraunia, s. queen. 
Saral'ta, v. to reign. 
Sarei, adj. well, clean, clear. 


Sarei, adv. well, clearly, cleanly. 
Sari, v. to cut down. 
Sari, s. thread. 
Sarika, s. chain. 

Sariki or S.AxiKi, pi. Saraki, s. king. 
Sarumi, pi. Saruma'i', s. commander, captain, hero. 
Sasabta or Sesebta, v. to slacken. 
Satshe, v. to expect, to imagine, to mean. 
Satshi, s. whisker. 
Satta, r. to steal. 
Savdeu, adv. once. 
Sacni, pi. Saunom, s. hill, mountain. 
Sawoh, s. length. 
Sawxri idanl", v. to insult. 
Save, pi Savu, s. root. 
Saye, v. to buy. 

Sayeswa or Savesua, r. to sell ; s. a sale. 
Sayi or Sayuwa, v. to stand. 
Savo, *. top. 

Sekaferitshi, *. wickedness. 
Seke, adj. open. 

Sha, cojij. and. — Goma sha hudu, " Ten and four." 
Sha or Shia, adj. red. 
Sha nkarifi, s. red iron, brass. 
Sha or Shia, v. to drink. 

Sh-VFEh or Shafi, v. to paint, to anoint, to plaster. 
Shagali, s. busmess, diligence, opinion. ? 
Shaida, v. to mark, to sign, to numbe^^Jp witness. 
Shaida, s. mark, sign, number, witness. 
Shainvi, v. to air, to dry. 

Shakalia, pi. Shakalai or Shakalu, s. harlot, whore. 
Shakeh or Shiakeh, r. to smell. 
Shakua or Shekua, v. to hickup. 


Shamai or Shamoi, s. palm-oil or red oil. 

Shamaki, pi. Shamakai, s. partition. 

Shamini KAi, V. to confuse. 

Shantali, pi. Shantalu, s. kettle. 

Shao kussa, v. draw near. 

Sharaba, v. to knit. 

Shariga, s. red cloth. 

Sharini or Shariri, s. infant, babe. 

Shatshi or Shata, v. to comb ; s. comb. 

Shatufa, s. red cloth. 

Shawagi, v. to fly. 

Shawora, v. to mention, to consult. 

Shawora, *. counsel (bargain.) 

Sheka, pi. Shekuna, s. nest. 

Shekara, pi. Shekaru, s. year. 

Sheria, s. judgment. 

Sheria or WuRi nsheria, and pi. Wurareh nsheria, s. 

Shewa, v. to whistle. 
Shi, pron. him, her, it. 
Shi, v. to feel. 

Shi, v. to hear. — "Hear it," Shi shi. 
Shia, s. yesterday. 
Shia, v. to draw. 
Shia, v. to lead. 

Shiagaba, pi. Shiagabai, s. pilot, leader. 
Shiakalia, s. whore, fornication. 
Shiara, v. to sweep. 
Shiawora, s. bargain. 
Shibi, s. the day before yesterday. 
Shibi, v. to perspire ; *. sweat. 
Shida, v. to carry. 
Shido, v. to come down. 


Shidoi, v. to smell. 
Shiefa or Shiefshie, v. to cast. 
Shiekarang shia, s. the day before yesterday. 
Shiga, r, to enter. 
Shigga, v. to fall down. 
Shiiɓi, s. supper. 
Shika, pi. Shikuna, s. bag-. 
Shikali, pi. ShiK-VLAi, s. adulterer. 
Shikalia, s. adulteress. 
Shikansa, pron. himself, or he himself. 
Shikena, adv. so, or it is so. 
Shiki, *. body, skin. 
Shikina, v. to stick. 

Shimfitta, or Simfitta, v. to extend, to spread. 
Shimkattan, adj. short. 
Shimiri, v. to endure, to suffer. 
Shixa, s. money, probably a mistake for Shiner. 
Shin'gina, v. to pawn. 
Shim, or Shinm, s. blood. 
Shinshimi, s. pelican. 

Shiria, and Shiri, r. to fix, to prepare, to make ready. 
Shiridi, pi. Shiradi, *. saddle. 
Shirigi, pi. Shiragi, s. canoe, vessel, boat. 
Shishia, pi. Shuoshi, s, nerve, probably pulse, 
Shitta, adj. six. 
Shiuna, pron. each other. 
Shiuya, v. to turn back. 
Shiwuna nsa, prep, amongst them. 
SiKi, V. to make wet. 

SiLiYA, /J?. SiLiYU, s. lord. German, Seil? 
Sinaria, or Shinaria, s. gold. 
SixKAFFA, s. rice. 

Sinna, s. harlot (jt might bt adopted for Sinner). 
(145) h 


SiNNi, adj. blue (doubtful). 
SiNsiftiAKA, pi. SiNsiMAKAi, s. parrot. 
SiNSiYA, s. besom, broom. 

SiTSHIKA, V. to fill. 

SOBEH NKUNIA, pi. SoBA NKUNEH, S. euiTing'. 

SoFi, and Sofindo, s. elders. 

SoFUA, pi. SoFi, s. an old woman. 

SoH, V. to want, to like, to wish. 

SoHo, or SoFO, pi. SoFANi, s. an old man. 

SoMAWA, and Somarua, v. to dip. 

SoRAUEH, or Slrareh, v. to listen. 

So^'EVEH, V. to lurk. 

Su, pron. they, their ; and Nsu, of them, theirs. 

Sua, pi. of Wata, pro?i. another. 

Sua, pi. of Wa, pron. who, which. 

Sua, v. to enter, to go, to be going, about to go. 

SuANA, and Samma, v. to change. 

SuASUA, or Saasaa, adv. by-and-bye. 

SuBARUA, V. to pour out water. 

SuBASS, V. to draw out, away- 

SuFA, V. to perspire. 

SuFARi, or Yi suFARi, V. to hire. 

SuKA, s. prick. 

SuKA, V. to ride. 

SuKA, or SuAKA, V. to stab. 

SuLALEH, t'. to stew. 

SuMA, s. bee. 

SuMKi and Dsamki, v. to dispute. 

SuMMA, j^l- SuMON.AKi, s. rag. 

SuMMA, s. whip. 

SuNSUA, pi. SuNSAi, and Sunsuai, s. bird. 

SUXUFI, pi. SUNUFAI, S. siu. 

SuRi, p(. SuRA, s. wood-ant. 


SuRUFi, adj. deep. 

SuRCKUMi, pi. SuRUKUMAi, s. treasurc. 

SuTSHiA, pi. SuTOTSHi, Or SiTOSHi, s. hearf, mind. 

SuTSHE, V. to look for, to expect. 

SuYA, I', to fry. 

SuwiE, pi. SuAWA, s. testicle. 


Ta, and Ita, and '^■T.K,pers. pron.f. she, her, of her. 

Ta, poRs.proii. my, mine; Nta, of me, of mine. 

Ta, (seldom) auxiliary verb " to he," fern, gender. 

Taba, s. tobacco. 

Taba, r. to handle, to touch. 

Tababeh, adj. lunatic. 

Tabata, adv. sure. 

Tabi, r. to clap (hands). 

Tabirma, pi. Tabirma'i, s. mat. 

Tabo, s. mud. 

Tadaffa, s. ink. 

Tafariki, s. road. 

Tafassa, v. to boil. 

Taffi, v. to go. 

Taffia, and Tafia, 5. journey. 

Taffiawa baya, v. walking backwards. 

Taffi bissa, v. to ascend, to go up. 

Taffitshan, v. be off, get away. 

Taffo, v. to come. 

Tafshi, v. to soften. 

Taginia, t'. to linger ; probably, to hesitate. 

Tagari, pi. Nagari, and Nagarigaru, adj. good. /. 

Taggo, pi. Taguna, s. jacket. 

Tahda ndahki, s. roof. 

Tahri, s. abundance. 

(147) H 2 


Tahri, adj. and adv. much, plentiful. 
Tahsar, s. loss. 
Taimako, s. chief. 
Takebeh, v. to mourn. 
Takalma, pi. Takalmai, s. sandals. 
Takamma, s. pride. 

Takanta, pi. Takaxtai, s. sugar-cane. 
Takanta, pron. herself, she herself. 
Takerimmi, s. sandals. 
Taki, s. dung". 

Takihaxu, s. cubit ; which see, together with Fathom. 
Takua, pi. Takuwai, s. wave. 
Takurua, s. bamboo. 
Takwa'i, s. twins. 
Takwobi, *. cutlas. 

Talaka, or Talautshi, and Talau, adj. poor. 
Talakawa, s. subject. 
Tamagass, s. cutlas. 
Tamaha, s. hope, expectation. 
Tamaha, v. to hope, to intend, to expect. 
Tamararu, j5/. Tajmaru, or Tamuai', s. star. 
Tamba, s. tares. 

Tambaya, or Tamba YE, v. to ask, to inquire. 
Tambo, pi. Tamblra, s. spot, mark. 
Tamma, s. a mine. 
Tajdia, v. to hurt. 
Tamna, v. to chew. 
Tana, pi. Tanu, s. worm. 
Tavda, adv. since. 
Tanderu, s. furnace ? 
Tankadi, s. fan. 

Tantaba, pi. Tantabarv, s. pigeon. 
Tapki, s. lake. 


Tara, or Tarra, v. to g-ather, to assemble, to collect. 
Tara, or Tarra rca, v. to wade throug:h the water. 
Tare, adv. together. 
Taro, or Tarro, s. multitude, company. 
Tarra, adj. nine. 

Tarl-, pi. Taru, or Taruna, s. net. 
Tasa, pi. Tasoshi, s. pan. 
Tashi, v. to arise, to rise. 
Tashi, s. rise. 
Tashi, adv. clear. 
Tassa, v. to awake. 
Tatakeh, r. to trample. 
Tausai, s. pity, mercy, grief, feeling. 
Talsai, and Shi TausaV, v. to feel pity, sorrow, grieve, 
to feel compassion. 

Taushi, v. to press, to squeeze. 

Taya, v. to help, to aid, to serve. 

Tilass, or TiLASSA, V. to force, to constrain. 

TiRR, adv. woe. 

To, adv. now. 

ToARi, *. cough. 

Toari, and Yi toari, r. to cough. 

ToBi, s. ring. 

Ton, r. to spew, to spit. 

Toka, or ToKAH, s. lime, ashes. 

ToNKARA, and Toassi, s. pepper. 

ToKONA, adv. before. 

ToNANEH, V. to consider. 

ToNANi, s. conscience. 

TsAiDA, or TsAisHiE. See Detain. 

TsAKA, adv. inmost. 

TsARO, or DsARO, V. to watch. 

Tshadda, or TsHAHDA, adj. dear, scarce, expensive. 


TsHAGA, or TsHAGEH, V. t.o rent, to tear. 

TsHAKuaiARA, s. cheese. 

TsHAKuo, s. chick. 

TsHAMAKA, V. to pinch. 

TsHARiRAi, pi. infants. 

TsHATSHAGEH, V. to tear often. 

TsHAWA V. to sneeze. 

TsHE, mix. verb,/. "To be." See Am. 

TsHE, V. to meet. 

TsHE, V. to speak, to say. 


TsHENTA, or TsHiNTA, V. to find. 

TsHi, V. to eat. 

TsHi, r. to feel. 

TsHi, V. to hear. 

TsHiAWA, s. 2:rass. 

TsHiBiA, pi. TsHiBOBi, s. navel. 

TsHiBURi, pi. TsHiBURAi, s. island. 

TsHiDA, or TsHESOA, orTsHisHiE. V. to feed, to maintain ; 

and also Tsieswa, or Tshiesua. 
TsHiiRAi, s. gum. 

TSHIKAO, V. to fill. 

TsHiKA, s. hag. 

TsHiKA, adj. full. 

TsHiKARA, V. to tickle. 

TsHiKA RUA, s. high-water. 

TsHiKi, pi. TsHiKUNA. s. belly (bosom), womb. 

TsHiKi. prep, in, out, amongst. 

TSHIMAKA, S. food. 

TsHiMBAYA, V. to backbite. 
TsHiMNiA, s. ostrich. 

TsHiMUA, or TsHiMAO, s. church, (congregation of wor- 


TsHiNAKA, s. large black ants {such os are eaUn by the 

natives, as the name implies). 
TsHINIA, pi. TsHiN.u, s. leg. 
TsHiNTA, or TsHiNTSHE, r. to pick up {as birds when eating). 

TSHIXAA, pi. TSHINAYI, and TSHINIA, /;/. TSHINAI, s. thigh. 

TsHiRA, V. to escape. 

TsHiRAH.ufi, and Tshireh, r. to weed, to root up. 
TsHisiE, and Tshisa, v. to bite, he bites. 
TsHisoNG HAKURA, i". gnashing of teeth. 
TsHiWL", adj. ill, sick. 
TsHiwu NKAi, s. head-ache. 
TsHrwoRFWOTA, s. all manner of diseases. 
TsHnvxTA, s. illness, s'ckness, pain. 

TSHOKALI, pi. TsHOTvULA, S. Sponri. 

TsHUKURA, V. to cheat. 
TsHVKUowA, s. wave. 
TsHLNAMT, pron. each other. 
TiBASHi, V. to owe. 
TvBiAWA, V. to undress, to strip one. 
TuFV, pi. TuFUKA, s. lake. 

TCKUNIA TABA, pi. TuKUNA TABA, S. pipe tO Smokc with. 

Tl'ki, v. to pull, to row. 

TuKUNG, s. the first. 

TuLi, s. heap. 

TuMA, V. to jump. 

TuMAKi, pi. of Dlnkia, sheep,/. 

TuMUKU, s. potatoes. 

Tunaneh, and Tuna, v. to meditate, to remember, to 

discover, to direct, to put one in mind. 
Tco, s. FooFOo, s. a dish prepared of yams, or cassada. 
TuRAMi, pi. TuRAMEH, s. master. 
TcRANTSHi, *. Englishman, or a European. 
Tlrantshi ngabaz, *. Arabs. 


TuRUBA, pi. TuRUBABi, s. road. 

TuRURi, *. steam. 

TuTA, s. flag. 

Tutu, pi. Tutanu, s. hill, mountain, shore. 

TuYA, V. to harden. 

TzoMARUA, V. to immerse. 


Unguni, pi. UngaV, s. town, regions. 

Uku, adj. three. 

UwA, pi. UwAi, s. mother. 


Wa, v. to do, to make. 

Wa, pi. Sua, pron. who ? 

Wah, adj. eldest. 

Wahalla, v. to punish, to trouble. 

VVahda, and Walda, «. peelings. 

Waka, or WoAKA, V. to sing. 

Wallii, pi. Wallie, s. prophet. 

Wantshe, Wota, Woentshan, pi. Wosu, pro7i. other, 

Washi woka, or Wuka, v. to grind a knife. 
Wata, pi. Watani, s. month, moon. 
Wata na deia, s. the first month. 
Wata na biu, s. the second month. 
Wata na uku, s. the third month. 
Wata na hudu, s. the fourth month. 
Wata na biar, s. the fifth month. 
Wata na shitta, *. the sixth month. 
Wata na bokwoi, s. the seventh month. 
Wata na tokos, s. the eighth month. 
Wata na tarra, s. the ninth month. 


Wata na goma, .f. the tenth month. 

VVata na goma sha na deia, and Wata goma sha deia, s. 

the eleventh month. 
Wata nagoma sha na biu, and Wata goma sha biu, s. the 

twelfth month. 
Watakila, adv. perhaps. 

Watasaa, .t. another season ; adv. sometime, often. 
Watshe, or Watshi, v. to scatter. 
Wawa, adj. foolish. 
Wayo, adj. wise. 

WlA, WUYA, pi. WlAYE, S. neck. DltSHI NWIA, pi. DUASU 

nwia, 5. necklace. 
WoAKEH, s. bean. 
WoAssu, V. to preach. 
WoiBi, or WooFi, adj. bare, naked, empty. 
WoHALLA, s. trouble. — Ni ihangkureh da wohalla ta, " I 

shall bear my trouble with patience." 
WoKA, or WuKA, pi. WuKAKi, 5. knife. 
WoLKiA, s. lightning. 
WoNT)A, pL WoNDUNA, 5. trousers. 
WoNDA, or WoNDDA, pi. WoDDANTJA, proti. who, which. 
WoNGGA, pi. WoDDANGA, proji. this, these, they who, 

those who. 
WoNKAKEH, adj. clean, washed. 
WoNKEH, to wash. 

WoNAKiRi, pi. WoNNAKiRAi, s. the devil. 
WoNNE, /;/. WoDDANDA and DA, abridged, pron. which. 

who, that. 
WoNNE, adj. certain, a certain. 
WoOFi, or WoiBi, adj. bare, naked. 
WoRiGi, V. to play. 

WoRiKEH, V. to heal, to restore, to recover. 
WosHE, or WusHE, prep. out. 

(153) H 3 


WosHiE, pi. WosASHAi, s. part, member. 

WosHiE, or WosiE, s. side. 

Wosu, adv. some. 

WoTA, pron. another. 

WoTAKiLA, adv. perhaps. 

WuAKA, V. to sing'. 

WusHE, and Wuriwoshe, adv. out, from this place. 

WuRi, pi. Kurd I, *. cowry. 

WuRi TASHi NRANA, ttdj. east ; lit. " The place where the 

sun rises." 
WuRi, pi. WuRAREH, s. place. 


WuTA, *. fire. 

WuTA LAHiRA, s. hell-fire, or eternal fire. 

WuTSHiA, pi. WuTSHAi, s. tail. 

WuTSHE, V. to pass through. 

WuYA, *. difficulty, peril. 


Ya, ptrs. pron. he. 
Yabeh, v. to daub. 
Yabo, or Yebo, s. fame, praise. 
\ ABOH, and Yi yaboh, v. to honour. 
Yado, s. bed. 
Yaekwana, v. to congeal. 
Yafeh, or Yafewa, v. to forgive. 

Ya faddi kumma, v. he fell, or relapsed again, backslided. 
Yaisafi, or Yaiwia, adj. hard. 
Yaissa, adv. enough. 
Yakashi, v. to execute. 
Yaki, s. war. 
Yakulesi, v. to bind. 
Yama, s. west. 


Yambel, s. a small cutlas. 

Yamburka, s. bastard. 

Yanka, or Yenka, v. to reap. 

Yansu, adv. now. 

Yansu yansu, adv. quickly, directly, immediately. 

Yao, or Yau, s. to-day. 

Yao, adv. yes. 

Ya-passi, v. to burst. 

Yarda, v. to trust. 

Yarinia, pi. Yamaata, s. g'irl. 

Yaro, adj. young. See New, Sabo. 

Yarra, or Iarra, s. rainbow. 

Yaru, pi. Yara, or Yaya, s. boy. IVie plural is fre- 
quently used to denote children, without any regard 
to sex, and also of fruits of trees, &c. 

Yaru rereni, s. babe. 

Yaruwuka, pi. Yayanwuka, s. penknife. 

Yasa, pi. Yasaotshi, s. toe. 

Yatshetua, and Yatsheira, adj. safe. 

Yata, adj. oldest. 

Yatumkoda, v. to bend. 

Yau, or Yao, .f. to-day. 

Yaugo, adv. whither. 

Yaungkuamu, pro/i. each other. 

Yaushe, prep. when. 

Yautshi, adj. free. 

Yaya, pi. o/" Yaru, and Shiriri, and Dah, s. boys, child- 
ren, ofTspriiiflT ; fruits, i.e. of trees. 

Yayaki, pi. o/"Dahnyaki, s. son of war, i.e. soldier. 

Yawa, *. hemp. 

Yawantshi, adj. most. 

Yawurana sheria, s. court-day. 

Yayeh, v. to wean. 


Yenkahatshi, v. to earn, to reap. 

Yi, V. to do, to make. 

Yi ALLiWASHi, V. to promlse. 

Yi BiDDA, V. to make search. 

Yi dahdi, v. to make peace. 

Yi LAiFi, V. to trespass, to transgress. 

Yi NRAi, V. to quicken. 

Yi tshiniki, v. to trade. 

Yi wulliantshi, v. to prophesy. {Many other verbs are 

formed in the same manner^ 
YiNi, adv. continually. 
YiRDA, adv. willing', with consent. 
YiRDA, V. to believe. 
Yoyo, or Yeyo, v. to leak. 
YuMBU, s. clay. 
YuNGWA, s. hunger. — Shi yungwa, " To be hungry." 


Zaba, .s. cleaned Guinea-corn. 

Zafi, or Safi, or Dsafi," *. idol, pi. Zafofi, Dsafofi, 

images, and sacrifices of pagans. 
Zaki, pi. Zakuoki, s. lion. 
i^ALKA, pi. Zalkuna, s. leather bottles. 
Zamiaka, or DsAMiAKA, s. battle. 
Zani, pi. Zana, or Zanoni, s. ladder. 
Zaro, v. to watch. 
Zarah, v. to fell. 
Zaria, r. to leap. 
Zarikia, pi. Zaruka, s. bowstring. 
Zaruka, pi. Zarukai, .s. daughter or mother-in-law. 
Zarumi, pi. Zaruma'i, *. officer. 
Zawa, or DsAWA, v. to rebuke, to scold. 
Zawtjrara, r. to listen. 


Zhirigi, or Shirigi, pi. Shiragi, s. canoe, boat, vessel. 
Zhugu, pi. Zhugai, s. piece of cloth, white baft ; a name 

given to Vie Jis^-nut — Tshini da zhugu, " Eat me with 

burial cloth" — the nut being poisonous. 
ZiiKA, pi. ZiiKOKi, s. ^andson. 
Zjikata, pi. ZiiROKixA, s. ^auddaughter. 
ZiiNKE, pi. ZiixKA, s. fork. 
ZiKA, s. bladder. 

ZiKA NWfTA, s. bellows, or fire-bags. 
ZixAKOKA, V. to bellow. 
ZiNA zoziDOBi MAZi, V. to bcwitch. 

ZiNKIE, pi. ZiNAKA, S. pin. 
ZiPKA, S. fox. 

ZioH, *. boil. 

ZoBi, s. ring. 

ZoMU, pi. ZoMoi, s, rabbit. 

ZoRAH, s. bargain. 

ZoRo, or DsoRo, v. to fear. 

Zhoro, pi. Mazhorata, s. coward. 

ZuBA, prep. into. 

ZcMA, V. to faint. 

ZuRA, s. discourse, sermon. 

ZuRUKA, pi. ZuRUKAi, s. mother, daughter, or sister-in-law. 

ZtnuKi, pi. ZvKUKAi, s. father, brother, or son-in-law. 



Of what nation are you? 

Can you speak Hanssa ? 

How old are you? 

What is your usual occupa- 
tion ? 
What is the matter with you ? 
I am very sick. 

I have pai?i in my head. 

I hate pain in my eye. 
I have pain in my throat. 
I have pain in my mouth. 
I have j)ain in my chest. 
I hare pain in my belly. 
I have pain in my back. 
I am thirsty. 
I am hungry. 

How long have you beeri un- 

Wonne iri neh kai? Atis. 
Ni Haussa neh, " I am a 

Ka na magana Haussa? A?is. 
Ni ka yi magana Haussa, 
" I can speak Haussa." 

Shekaru nka navva? lit. 
" How many are you 
years ?" Ans. Shekaru na 
ashirin, "The years are 

Wonne iri a'lki ka yi ? 

Mi sameh ka ? or Mi faru ka ? 
Ina tshiwu korei, or Ina 

mugu tshiwu. 
Kai na keh tshiwu, or Kai 

na nazara. 
Ido na tshiwu. 
Mokoguro ta na tshiwu. 
Bahki na ta na tshiwu. 
Gaba na ta na tshiwu. 
Tshiki na ta na tshiwu. 
Baya na ta na tshiwu. 
Ina kishi rua. 
Ina shi yungwa. 
Yaushe ka soh ma tshiwu ? 
cr Yaushe ka fara tshiwu ? 


I have been sick six days. 

Do you sleep well ? 

I cannot sleep. 

What prevents your sleep ? 

Have you head-ache ? 


Do you feel hot and feverish ? 

Are fevers covvnon in your 

country ? 
Have you been shivering ? 
How long is it since you last 

had shivering? 
Are you thirsty ? 
Have you vomited? 
Are your bowels bound? 
Are your bowels loose ? 
How long have your bowels 

been bound ? 
Give me your hand. 
I must bleed you here. 
There is no danger, ov It is 

nothing; it does you no 

Do not be afraid. 
You will get better, by the 

help of God. 
Drink this medicine. 
Swallow these pills. 
Let this remain six hours 

{half a day). 


Kvvanakishltta tunda na fara 

Ka yi kuana kworei ? 
Ba ni kuana. 
Ml hanna ka kuana ? 
Ka na da tshiwu nkaf? 
Hakkana, or Yao. 
Ka na slil sasabi, or Ka na 

yi sasabi. 
Masassara dayawa garl nka ? 

Ka na makarikatta ? 

Da wonne lotto ka kareh ma- 
karikatta ? 

Ka na shi Idshi rua ? 

Ka yi amel? 

Haentshi nka ya damiri ? 

Haentshi nka ya kuentshi ? 

Da wurl lotto haentshi ya 
dameru ? 

Bah ni hanu nka. 

Ina sha ma ka shinni nan. 

Ba shi ma ka kohmi, or Ba 
shi ma ka mugunta. 

Kada kai dsoro. 

Ka worike, da ikoh Alia. 

Sha wong'g'a magani. 

Hadia wongga magani. 

Beri wong-ga hal sua rana 

sakka; lit. " Leave this till 

the sun comes in the 



This jjoor woman, man, boy, 
girl, is very ill. 

Attend on him. 

Give her ple?ity to drink. 

Do not allow any noise in 
or near the house. 

Show me, lohen I return. 
What part of the head aches ? 

Are you giddy ? 

Does moving the head pain 

you ? 
Did you. ever receive a blow 

on the head? 
How many months since ? 

or How long ago ? 
I must shave you. 
If I put this on your head 

it will get well. 


How long is it since you lost 
your eye-sight? 

Have any of your brothers 
or sisters lost their eye- 
sight ? 

Have any of your family sore 
eyes ? 

Are sore eyes a common 
comjjlaint in your country ? 

Wong-ga matshe, mutum, ya- 

ru, yarinia, ta na da (ya 

na da) mug;u tshiwu. 
Talafa shi. 
Bah ta sha dayawa. Bah shi 

sha dayawa. 
Kada ka beri ayi dummi 

tshiki ndahki ko kussa 

ndahkl nan. 
Nuna ma ni, en na kohmo. 
Wonue woshle nka'i keh ma 

ka tshiwu ? 
Hasishia, or Ka na hasishia ? 
En kadda (kawas) da ka'i shi 

na yi ma ka tshiwu ? 
Kai' nka aka yi ambug-ie? 

Watani nawa ? or Tun yau- 

she ? 
En yi ma ka aski. 
En sah ma ka wonnan ga kai 

nka shi vvorike. 

IDO, pi. IDANU. 

Tun yaushe ka makafo ? 

Tshiki nkaneh nka ko kanua 
wonne ya, ta, makafo ? 

Tshiki dahngi nka wonne na 

da miki idanu ? 
Mlki ido ya sakka gari nku 



Have your father or mother 

sore eyes ? 
How long have your eyes 

been sore ? 
Do you see spots or bands 

before your eyes '? 
How many Jingers do I hold 

up now ? 
Can you see at all 9 

You must bathe your eyes 

with this. 
You must bathe your eyes 

ivith cold water. 
You must bathe your eyes 

with warm water. 
Keep your eyes covered from 

the sun for six days. 
You must keep quiet in the 

Sit down. 

You must not get up. 
Let me touch your eyes. 
Do not speak. 
It will pain you only for a 

little time. 
Your eyes will soo7i get well. 
You will see well in a short 


Have you pain in your ears ? 
How long have your ears 
been painful ? 

Oba ka ko iiwa ka su nyi 

iniki ido ? 
Yaushe idanu nka ta ka yi 

Ka na ii^ani taritshi ga idanu 

Farauta nawa na tayes bissa ? 

Ka na gani ? or Ka na gani 

deidei ? 
Wonke idanu nka da won- 

Wonke idanu nka da ruu 

Wonke idanu nka da rua 

Rufeh idanu nka ga rana 

hal kwanaki shitta. 
Samna kawe tshiki ndahki 


Kada ka tashi. 
Beri na taba idanu nka. 
Kada ka yi magana. 
Shi yi ma ka tshiwu shimkat- 

Idanu nka yansu su worlke. 
Shimkattan ka gani deidei. 


Kuueh nka na tshi^ii ? 
Tun yaushe kuneh nka na 
yi ma ka tshiwu ? 


Did you get a blow on your 

ear ? 
Have you a nutnbing sound 

in your ear ? 
Are you dull of hearing? 

How long have you been deaf? 
Do you hear now ? 
What is the sound like ? 
Let me do something to your 

Ambugie ka ga kunia ? 

Ra shi abu na amo tshiki 

nkunia nka ? 
Karuma neh kai? or Kai 

kuruma ka keh ? 
Yaushe ka kurumata ? 
Ka na shi yansu ? 
Wonne iri amo ka keh shi ? 
Beri en yi ma ka abu ga 

kunia nka. 


How long have you had that 
growth in your nose ? 

Can you smell ? 

Does your nose bleed fre- 
quently ? 


Yaushe wongga abu ya 
tshira ma ka ga hantshi ? 

Ka na shi ndoi ? 

Hantshi nka na happo saa 


Your mouth is sore : how long 
has it been so ? 

Have you any paiti in swal- 
lowing ? 

Have you the tooth-ache ? 

Let me take your tooth out. 

You must use the gargle in 
this bottle. So — in this 

Do not swallow the gargle. 



Bahki nka na da miki : yau- 
she ya yi miki? 

Ka na shi ntshiwu en ka yi 
hadia ? 

Hauri nka na tshiwu ? 

Beri na debeh ma ka hauri 

Wanke makoguro nka da 
magani nan. Ka yi hakka 

Kada ka hadia magani, or 
Ba ka hadia ba. 



Have you much pain m 

breathing ? 
Can you lie on your back ? 

Can you lie on your right 

side ? 
Can you lie on your left 

side ? 
Does coughing pain you ? 

Do you expectorate when you 

cough ? 
IVhat is the colour of the 

expectoration ? 
Can you jjoint out the seat 

of the pain ? 
Have you pain here, if you 

walk fast ? 
Do you cough often 9 
Do you cough much when 

you are in bed ? 
Do you cough much ichen 

you wake in the morning? 


Is dysentery common in 
your country ? 

At what time is it most com- 
mon ? 

IFhat brings it on ? 

Have you been eating much Ko ka tshi yaya itatua de- 


Ka na shi ntstiwu en ka yi 

lungfashi ? 
Ka na kwantshi ringlngl 

neh ? 
Ka na kwantshi hanu ndah- 

ma ? 
Ka na kwantshi hanu hauni ? 

Ka na shi ntshiwu en ka yi 

tuari ? 
Ka na tofi en ka yi tuari ? 

VVonne iri kammata tofi nka? 

Ka godda ma ni enda ka yi 

Ka na shi ntshiwu en ka yi 

tafia massa massa ? 
Ka na tuari dayawa ? 
Ka na tuari dayawa en ka na 

kuantshe da dere ? 
Ka na tuari dayawa en ka 

tashi da safi ? 


Gudundawa ya soh gari nka 

saasaa ? 
Woshie shekara gudundawa 

ya soh saasaa ? 
Mi kao wongo'a gudundawa ? 

fruit ? 

vawa : 


What kind of fruit have you 

been eating ? 
Have you been drinking 

spirits ? 
Have you walked along way ? 
Have you been working 

hard ? 
Do I hurt you, when I press 

you here ? 
Do you pass blood? 

How long have you been so 

troubled ? 
How often have you been 

purged to-day ? 
Has the purging been less 

since ? 
Do you make a great deal 

of water ? 
Do you make less water than 

usual ? 

Have you much pain in 
making water ? 

How long has it been so ? 

Are you troubled with leu- 
corrhcea ? 

Have you any inioard sore- 

Do you incline to make 
water frequently ? 

How lo7ig has that swelling 
been there ? 

^ Wonne iri yaya itatua ka 

Ko ka sha gia (beer)? 

Ko ka yl dogua tafia ? 
Ko ka yi aiki deyawa ? 

En na taushe ka nan ka na 

sill tshivvu ? 
Shinni nka tshiki nka ya 

Tun yaushe ka fara shi wuya ? 

Sao nawa ka yl gudundawa 

Gudundawa ya yi ma ka 

roongomeh yao ? 
Ko ka nyi busari dayawa? 

Ka na busari kamma da 
wuri? or, Ka na busari 
kattan kamma da wuri ? 

Ka na shi ntshiwu en ka yi 
busari ? 

Tun yaushe yasamma hakka? 

Ki na da tshiwu nsaini ? 

Ki na da miki ga madutshi ? 

Ko ki na soh busari saasaa ? 

Tun yaushe wonnan nkura- 
buri shi keh nan ? 


Ka na shi zoo2:i tshiki nsa ? 

Do you feel a throbbing pain 

in it ? 
Can you return it your- 
Do these swellings increase 

after exercise or long 

standing ? 
Are you in the family way ? 
How many children have 

you had ? 
How long has this been out 

of place? 
When was t/iis broken ? 
I think the passing of this 

instrument would relieve 

Let me take this aicay. 
Let me apply this medicine. 

How long have these spots 

been on your skin ? 
How long were you ill before 

these spots appeared? 
Do the spots ever disappear, 

and return ? 
Have the spots always been 

of the same colour ? 

Let me put this bandage 

round your head. 
Dress this again, as I do 

now, in four days. 


Ka na ka ussa sa da kanka ? 

Kumburi ya kare girima en 
ka yi aiki dayawa, ko en 
ka dadi ? 

Ki na da sabo ntshiki ? 

Yaya nawa ki ka haifa ? 

Yaushe wongga abin shi keh 

fitta ga wuri nsa? 
Yanshe abin nga ya passa ? 
Beri na wutshe da abin nga, 

ina satshe rua nki shi- 

Beri ni daukeh wongga. 
Beri ni ntaba miki nki da 

wangga ma2:ani. 
Tun yaushe woddanga tam- 

buna su keh shiki nka ? 
Tun yaushe ka yi tshiwu hal 

yi woddanga tambuna ? 
Tambuna nga wota saa su 

batshi, vvota saa su fitto ? 
Tambuna nan kohyaushe su 

keh nan kamma deia, ko 

su na saki kamma ? 
Beri ni en damura wangga 

rawani ga ka'i nka. 
Wonkeh miki, sah magani 

kamma wondda na yi 

kwanaki hudu. 

Rub this, as I do. LafFa wongga kamma da na 


By the help of God, you loill Da yirda Alia, da nku ku 
all soon be well. uvvorikeh massa. 


Ko ka ga mutum wondda ya dauki kondo bissa kai nsa 
ga hainya ? " Have you seen the man who took a basket 
on his head in the road?" 

Ko ka ga matshe wondda ta dauki kondo bissa ka'i nta 
ga hainya ? " Have you seen the woman/' &c. ? 

Ko ka ga yarinia wondda ta dafua sinkafFa? " Have 
you seen the girl who is cooking rice ? " 

Ko ka ga yaru wondda keh karratu ? " Have you 
seen the boy who is reading ? " 

Ko ka tshinta abduga wondda keh kassa ? " Did you 
pick up the cotton which was on the ground ? " 

Ka atshi nshi duka ? " Will you eat it all ? " 

Ka ayi shi kwarei ? " Will you do it well ? " 

Ba ka sani ba mutani duda miagu neh ? " Do not you 
know that all men are bad ? " 

Ba ka shi busa kaho ba ? " Do not you hear the 
sound of the horn ? " 

Ba ka sani ba takartu su na tshadda? " Do not you 
know that books are dear ? " 

Ba ka sani ba dahkuna duka su ukohna ? " Do not 
you know that all the houses will be burned ? " 

Yaushe ka sakka daga tutu ? " When did you come 
from the mountains ? " 

Yaushe ka tashi yao da safi? " When did you get up 
this morning ? " 


Yaushe ka shi shi na kuuka? "When did you hear 
him crying' ? " 

Yaushe sa ka kohma \va ? " When do you think of 
returning ? " 

Wa ya rigia tashi yau da safi ka'i da kanka ko bara 
nka? " Who g-ot up first this morning, you yourself, or 
your servant ? " 

Wa ya rigia tashi yau tshiki ndahki yaru ko yarinia ? 
" Who s:ot up first this morning in the house, the boy or 
the girl ? " 

Mi ka fara yi yau ? " What did you first do {lit. begin 
to do) to day ? " — Na fara rubutu takarta, " I begun to 
write a letter." 

Woshe takurta ? " Which letter ? " 

Woddanda ba su shi magana ta sani kwarei su, 
" Those who do not hear my word (obey me), I know 
them well." 

Woddanda su ka saye bai, su miagu neh, " Those 
who buy slaves are bad." 

Woddanda su ka sayesua bai su nfi mugunta, " Those 
who sell slaves are worse {lit. surpass in wickedness.) " 

Woddanda su nka yi aiki nsu kwarei ni ifara bah su 
afki, " To those who are doing their work well, I shall 
first give employment." 

Wa bah ka wonnan suna ? " Who gave you this 
name ? " 

Domeh ka keh kuana? " W^hy are you sleeping ?" 

Hanu nka na dahma ya fi na hauni karifi ? " Is your 
right hand stronger than your left ? " 

Ido nka na hauni ya fi na dahma gani ? " Do you see 
better with your left eye than with your right?" 

Babaku mutani su na fi farufaru dayawa ? " Do the 
Black People surpass the White in multitude ?'' 

Karifi dakeao, azurufa ta fi kariti, shinaria ta fi duka, 
" Iron is good, silver is better, gold is better than all." 

Wonne ya fi keao ku sa'ida yaya nku ko ku koya ma 
su abin ma'ikeao ? " Which is better, to sell your child- 
ren, or to teach them good things ? 

Ka shi dahma yau, ya fi shia ? " Do you feel better 
to-day than yesterday ? " 

Karratu gari nku ya fi nagari nga ? " Are the schools 
in your country better than in this country ? " 

Ni ikahre ai'ki yanda ya sakka, " I shall finish the 
work before he comes." 

Ni igama yi rubutu kanda obangissi shi isakka, " I 
shall finish the writing before the master comes." 

Ni iwanye yi rubutu yanda uwa ta ta sua, " I shall 
finish my writing before my mother comes." 

Na sakka duba ka ko ka na gldda, " I come to see 
you if you are at home." 

Shi na baya gare ni, " He is behind me." 
Abuya ta asamu, " Your friend shall be received." 
Ba na da ikoh ba sai Alia, " I have no power except 
of God." 

Ba na da ikoh nyi ba, " I have no power to do it." 
Oba na shi na birini, " My father is in the town." 
Ya taffi sakkani nsu, " He went between them." 
Wa bah ka wonnan suna? "Who gave you this name?" 
Akoi ni, or Ina da rai, " I live, I have life." 
Gobeh ni issa birini, ikoh Alia, " To-morrow I shall 
reach town, by God's power. 

Shi anha'ifua sa gari nan, " He was born in this town." 
Na tshe ma ka, or Na tshe da ka'i, " I speak to you." 
Ya dau wuka gare ni, " He took the knife fi-om me." 
Shi na kussa, " He is near." 
Shi na nesa, " He is far." 

Alia shi ma ka albereka! " God bless you!" 
A'i mu ba mu gani ba ? " Have not we seen ?" 
Giginia ya girig:issa da hiskah, "The palm-tree is 
shaken by the wind." 

Wonne tufa ku ka soh fari ko baki ? " What (kind) of 
cloth do you want, white or black ?" 

Na tambaye ka fadda ma ni suna wuri nga, " I beg 
you to tell me the name of this place." 
Ina kayawa, " I am learning." 

Ka na da itatshi nwuta ga sayesua ? " Have you any 
fire-wood to sell ?" 

Taffi ga fadda ma mutani tshiki mbirini su utaffi, su 
yenke itatshi dayawa : su kao su gare mu ; mu na soh 
saye itatshi nwuta dayawa, " Go, tell the people in the 
town to go and cut many trees : let them bring them to 
us: we want to buy much fire-wood." 

Mu nwutshe ngua deia, " We passed by a village." 
Sohua kahsua keh nan, " This is the old market." 
Hakkana na shi manna, " Yes, I hear you indeed." 
Na gani ka manna, " I see you indeed." 
Ya sakka da wuri wuri, " You come with haste." 



Oba mu wondda keh tshiki Alltshana; suna nka shi 
samma keao keawa. Kassa nka ta sakka. Dahsoh nka 
aka yi kamma tshiki Alitshana, hakkana tshiki ndunia. 
Bah mu yau nan massar mu da kulum. Da ka yafeh 
ma mu sunufai mu, kammata mu ka yafeh ma su wod- 
danda su ka yi ma mu sunufi. Da kada ka kaii mu 
tshiki nrudi, ama tsheta mu daga mugu. Dong kassa ta 
ka tshe, da alhoruma, da haskeh hal abadda abadda. 

LcKE ST. 11 adfinem. 

1 1. WoN'NE mutum shi na da yaya biu. 

12. Kani nsu, ya tshe ga oba nsa: oba, bah ni rabba 
na ndukia wondda keh nawa, ya rebba ma su dukia nsa. 

13. Ba ayi kvvanaki ba, kani nsu, ya tarra kaya duka, 
ya taffi gari nesa ; tshan ya gbatta dukia nsa bansa. 

14. Daya gbatta duka aka yi baba yungwa gari nan, 
ya fara shi nwuya 

15. Ya taffi ya gamma kansa ga wonne ma'idukia 
ngari nan, ya aika sa tshiki nkarikaru kiwo gurusunai. 

16. Shi na tamaha sitshika tshiki nsa da tshimaka 
wondda gurusunai su keh tshi, amma ba wondda ya bah 
shi ba. 

17. Da ya yi hangkali, ya tshe, nawa baruaoba na, su 
na da tshima (massar) dayawa, da ba ta kahrewa, amma 
ni, ina mutua da yungwa ! 

18. Ni itashi, ni itaffi ga Oba na, ni itshe ma sa, Oba, 
na yi la'ifi ga Alitshana da gare ka ; 

19. Ba na kammata akirra ni dah nka ba, ka yi ni 
kamma bara nka deia. 



20. Ya tashi, ya taffi ga oba nsa. En shi na taffi 
nesa, Oba nsa ya gana sa, shi na shi tausa'i nsa ; ya 
guddu, ya fahdi da wuya nsa ya leasas sa. 

21. Dah ya tshe ma sa: Oba, na yi laifiga Alitshana 
da gare ka, ba na kammata akirra ni dah nka ba. 

22. Oba ya tshe ga barua nsa, kao riga ta kwarei, ka 
sah ma sa, ka sah ma sa zobi ga hanu nsa, ka sah ma sa 
takalma ga kafafu nsa ; 

23. Kao klbatatshe maraki, akashi shi, mu na tshi, 
mu nyi murna. 

24. Dong dah na ya mutu, ya yi rai ya batshi antshinta 
sa, sung fara murna. 

25. Wah shi na ga karikaru, da ya sakka gidda, da ya 
yi kussa ga dahkl, ya yi shi busa da rawa. 

26. Ya kirra deia tshiki mbarua, ya tambaya sa : mi 
vvongga Abu keh tarn aha. 

27. Ya tshe da shi : kaneh nka ya sakka, oba nka ya 
kashi kibatatshe maraki, domeh ya samma sa yatsheta'i 
(yatsheira) da lafia. 

2S. Ya yi fushi, ya kih sua tshiki ndahki, dong hakka 
oba nsa ya fitto, ya roka sa. 

29. Ya amsa ya tshe ga oba nsa ; dubah : woddanga 
shekaru ina baranta ka gare ka, ni dadei ba nkaria dooka 
ka ba kohwonne lotto, amma ba ka bah ni ba dah-akwia 
deia, en soh yi murna da abokai na. 

30. Amma yansumassa dah nka ya sakka wondda ya 
gbatta dukia nka ga shakalai, ka kashi ma sa kibatatshe 

31. Ya tshe da shi : Dah kai kulum ka na tare da ni, 
kohmi nawa na aka neh. 

32. Wonnan deideni, na mu yi murna, mu yi gudda, 
domeh wongga kaneh nka da ya mutu, ya yi rai kumma 
ya agbattu da antshinta sa. 

(171) 1 2 


Matth. XXV. 1 — 13 inclusive. 

1. Saanan kassa Alitshana ta yi kainma budurai 
Goma, woddouda su ka dauka fitlllai nsu, su ka fitta su 
ngamu da ango. 

2. Biat tshiki nsu da hangkali, biat tshiki nsu ba su 
da hangkali ba. 

3. Woddanda ba su ba hangkali su ka dauka fitillai 
nsu ba su dauka da moi ba. 

4. Amma masuhangkali su ndauka moi tshiki nkoore 
nsu tare da fitillai nsu. 

5. Da ango ya dadeh su duka su na gaingedi da kuana. 

6. Da sakka dere akayi kuuka ; dubah, ango shi na 
taffi, fitta ku ishe shi (ku gamu da shi). 

7. Saanan duka budurai su ka tashi, su ka girda fitillai 

8. Woddanda ba su da hangkali su ka tshe da masu- 
hangkali, bah mu moi nku, dong fitillai mu su na matshi. 

9. Amma masuhangkali su ka amsa su ka tshe, ba 
hakka ba, ba shi issa mu da ku ; taffi ga masusayesuwa, 
ku saye na kanku. 

10. Saanda su nka taffi ga saye, ango ya sakka, wod- 
danda su ka yi shiri su ka taffi tare da shi wuri amire, 
kofa na rufeh. 

11. Yautshe su nsakka wodda nsu budurai, su nka 
tshe, Obangissi, Obangissi, bodeh ma mu. 

12. Amma ya amsa, ya tshe ma su, gaskia, na tshe ma 
ku, ba na san' n]:u ba. 

13. Donghakka ku yi dzaro, dong ba ku sani rana ba, 
ko lotto, yaushe dah-mutum shi isakka. 



Matth. XXV. 31 adfinem. 

31. Saanda Dah-mutum shi ka sakkua da haskeh nsa, 
da Malaika'i masukeao duka tare da shi, saanan shi 
isamna bissa godo haskeh nsa. 

32. Gaba nsa attarra iri nduuia duka, shi irabba su 
bambam (deia deia) kamma Maklai shi keh rabba tumaki 
da awaki : 

33. Shi isah tumaki hanu na dahma, amma awaki na 

34. Saanan saviki shi itshe gare su na hanu na dahma : 
ku sakka ku goadadu ga oba na ku samu kassa wod- 
danda keh shiria ma ku daga mafarl ndunia. 

35. Dong- na shi ynngwa, ku mbah ni tshima, na shi 
kishi nrua ku mbah ni sha, ina bako ku ndaukeh ni 
gidda nku. 

36. Woofi ku mbah ni tufa, ina tshiwu ku nsakka 
gani na, ina tshiki mari (nsarika) ku nsakka gare ni. 

37. Saanan (musulmai) Masugaskia su uamsa ma sa, 
su utshe; Obangissi, wonne saa mu nga ka ka shi 
yungwa, mu ka bah ka tshima ? Ko kishi nrua mu ka 
bah ka sha ? 

38. Wonne saa mu ka ga bako mu ka daukeh ka 
gidda mu ? Ko woofi mu ka bah ka tufa ? 

39. Ko yaushe mu ka ga ka tshiwu, ko mari mu ka 
sakka gare ka ? 

40. Saanan Sariki shi iyi amsa shi itshe ma su, gaskia 
(da gaskia) na tshe ma ku, kohmi ku ka yi ga auta 
kaneh na, ni ku ka wa. 

41. Saanan shi itshe ma su na hauni: ku yi nesa da 
ni, ku nsagu (mbatu) tshiki nwuta lahira (nwuta hal 
abadda) wondda aka shiria ga wonnakiri, da malai'kai 



42. Dong na shi yungwa, ba ka bah ni nama ba, na 
shi kishl nrua, ba ku bah ni sha ba. 

43. Ina bako, ba ku daukeh ni gidda nku ba ; woofi 
ba ku bah ni tufa ba ; tshiwu, da sarika, ba ku so gani 
na ba. 

44. Saanan su uamsa su utshe ma sa: Obangissi, 
yaushe mu ka ga na yungvva, ko kishi nrua, ko bako, ko 
woofi, ko tshiwu, ko mari, ba mu taya ka ba? 

45. Saanan shi iamsa shi itshe ma su, da gaskia, na 
tshe ma ku, kohmi ba ku wa wongga auta ba, ba ku yi 
ma ni ba. 

46. Woddanga su utaffi tshiki assaba abadda, amma 
masugaskia (musulmai) tshiki nrai abadda. Amin. 


1. Pharisai tare da Saddukai su nsakka, su na rudi 
nsa, suna soh shi godda na su shaida daga alitshana. 

2. Yesus (Issa) ya amsa yatshe da su : da maraetshie, 
ku na tshe, samma ta isai, dong samma ta na da sha. 

3. Da safi samma ba da sarei yao ; dong samma ta 
na da sha, ta buhda. Ku hypokrita'i ! ku na sani faddi 
nrana ta yi sarei, amma ba ku sani ba faddi nshaida lotto ? 

4. Dahngi miagu da masufarika shi na bidda shaida, 
amma shaida ba aka bahsa gara sa, saiko shaida wuUii 
nYonah. Da ya beri su ya taffi. 

5. Da saanda almatshiraf nsa, su ka taffo ga wonne 
woshe su ka mantshe dauka massar. 

6. Yesus ya tshe da su :,ku dau annia ku yi hangkali 
da dsamia nPharisai da Saddukai. 

7. Da su na shawora da shiwuna nsu, su ntshe : won- 
nan dong ba mu dau massar ba. 

8. Yesus ya fariga, yatshe ma su : mi ku keh shawora 


da shiwuna nku ku masukarammi yirda, dong ba ku 
kao massar ba ? 

9. Tukuna ba ku sansantshe ba kada ka tuna massar 
biat ga dubu biat, da konduna nawa ku ka daiika ? 

10. Koda massar bokwoi ga dubu hudu da konduna 
nawa ku ka dauka ? 

11. Kaka neh ba ku sansantshe ba, ni ba nyi magana 
ba da ku sabbada massar, wonnan ku yi hangkali da 
dsamia nPharisa'i da Sadduka'i ? 

12. Saanan su ka sansantshe, wonnan ba yi majana ba 
kada su yi hangkali sabbada dsamia massar; amma ko- 
yata nPharisa'i da Sadduka'i. 

13. Da Yesus ya tatFo kussa ga Ka'i'saria Philippos, 
ya tamba'i almatshira'i nsa, ya tshe : wa rautani su na tshe 
ni Dah-mutura neh ? 

14. Da su ka tshe : wosu su na tshe, kai Yohn neh na 
Baptist ; wosu Elias ; wosu Yeremias, ko deia tshiki 

15. Ya tshe ma su : amma wa ku na tshe ni neh ? 

16. Amma Simon Peter, ya amsa, ya tshe, ka'i Mashiah 
neh, dah Alia da ra'i. 

17. Yesus ya amsa ya tshe ma sa : albereka gare ka 
Simon DahYonah, dong shiki da shinni ba nuna su ba 
gare ka, amma oba na woddanda keh tshiki alitshana. 

IS. Hakkana na tshe ma ka : ^Vonnan ka'i neh Peter, 
da bissa wonnan baba-ndntshi, ni iyi tshimua ta, da 
kofofi nwuta lahira ba su samu nassara gara sa ba ; (lit. 
" And the gates of hell shall not receive the victory 
over it") 

19. Da ni ibahyesgare ka yaya-makubilai nkassa ali- 
tshana, da kohwa ka damreh ga dunia, adamreh shi tshiki 
alitshana, da kohwa ka kuantshe ga dunia, akuantshe shi 
tshiki alitshana. 


20. Saanan ya fori almashirai nsa, su kada su fadda 
mutum, wonnan shi neh na Mashiah. 

21. Daga saanan Yesus ya fara gnddawa ga alma- 
tshirai nsa, kaka shi taffi ga Yerusalem, da shi shimri 
abubua deyawa ga ma'inya mallamai, da masurubuta, 
da ankashi shi, da antassa sa kumma rana ta uku. 

22. Saanan Peter ya dauka sa (ya fara yimasa dsawa) 
ya fara yi ma sa foro, ya tshe, kia'i kanka, Obangissi ! 
wonnan kada shi yiwu gare ka. 

23. Amma ya shiuya, da ya tshe ga Peter, taffi daga 
baya gare ni, Saitan, ka'i allala neh gare ni, dong ba ka 
kulla abin da shi keh na Alia ba, sai woddanan da su 
keh na mutanl. 

24. Saanan Yesus ya tshe ga almatshira'i nsa: en 
kohwa shi ibih ni, beri shi shi yirda kansa, da shi dauki 
gilemeh nsa da shi bih ni. 

23. Dong kohwa shi itsheitshi rai nsa, shi gbassa sa, 
amma kohwa shi gbatta ra'i nsa, sabbada ni, shi igani shi. 

26. Dong wotshe rlbba mutum ya yi, en ya yi ribba 
dunia duka, da ya gbatta kurua sa (ko mi mutum ka 
bahyes ga musaya ga kurua sa ?) ko mi mutum ka bah- 
yes ga pamsa ga kurua sa ? 

27. Dong Dah mutum shi itaffo da haskeh oba nsa 
tare da Malai'ka'i nsa, da saanan shi ibia kohwonne 
mutum sabbada a'ikoki nsa. 

28. Gaskia na tshe ma ku wosu na sayi nan wod- 
danda ba asah dandana mutua, hal su ga Dah-mutum 
tiiffe tshiki nkassa sa. 





Sarauxia nGreat Britain ita baba Saraunia tshe. 
Ta aiko mu g-a bah ku abuta nta da ku, da yi magana 
da ku, kamma Abokai da kaneh, kamma woshe nda ku 
ka yi hang-kali, da arslki da girima. Ku nsani woncan 
Obangissi Alia ya yi iri ndunia duka shinni deia. Faru- 
faru Mutani nassara su keh, su na roko Obangissi Alia. 
Su ka nyi Abubua dayawa woddanda babaku mutani ba 
su yi ba. Su na da abubua dayawa, woddanda babaku 
mutani keh soh : tufafi, kayaaddo, kayeyeki, da abubua 
masukeao. Tshiki nsu mu kao wosu tare da mu, tshiki 
mbaba rua, suna nsa kworra, ga godda ma ku abin da 
mu keh tamaha, da kohwonneh abin ku ka soh, mu aiko 
mu ku SU ga wota taffowa (ga wota saa). 

Amma dong abu kamma wonnan ku bah mu wonne 
Abubua nku ga musaya. Da wuri ku na saida bahyi 
dong wosu nan abu. Amma ba yi kammata ba ga dooka 
Obangissi Alia da dooka nfarufaru mutani ga su saye su 
gare ku, hakka wosu farufaru mutani su na miagu ga 
yi hakkana. Awa ; ku na da kassa da kohmi aka shipka 
shi itashi dakeao tshiki nta ; Abubua nan woddanda mu 
keh soh su ukao ma ku ribba dayawa, ta fi bahyi. 

Ku yi ginna kassa, ku shipka abduga, baba, koffi 
Takanta da sinkaffa kohmi na moria ; en woddanan Abu 
su utashi ku ka tarra hakkora ngiwa, Shinaria, tshiirai 
dahnko nsuma, da kohwonneh abuye wonnan, woddanda 
Abu ku ka yi babu (ba) wohalla. 

Awa en ku sami shiria abubua wonnan dayawa, en 
mutani mu su usakka, ku usami dukia mu dayawa ga 
musaya nsu. 


Wotakila ku utshe : ba mu sani ba kaka mu ka yi 
abubua nan su utashi. Amma Saraunia ta aiko mutani 
masukeaonhali, su ukoya ma kii kaka, da kaka ku yi 
yinni ndahkuna, da yi ntufafi, da karratu letatafi, ta yi 
inagana g'a Obangissi Alia (da yi salla da gaskla ga 
Obang-issi Alia), wondda ya yi ndunia da kohmi. Amma 
ku yi keaonhali gare su da tayi ma ku gare su. Kada 
ku berri kohwa shi tamma su. 

Ku utshe kumma ; tshiki ngari mu, mu na da wohalla 
dayawa sabadda gaba da yaki, en mu yi shipka, ba mu 
sani ba ko mu utshi ta ! Amma wonnan ya yi dong ku 
na kahmu da sayesua sheukanku kamma bahyi ? En ku 
na sob ku yi dukia ku yi dahdi da sheukanku ; goumma 
ku berri wonnan mugu tshiniki. En wosu Saraki su na 
yirda ga yi nhakkanan mutani nsu su utshietu, su uyi 
a'iki nsu da murna. 

Wotakila wosu Saraki su utshe kumma : Wa tshe ribba 
mu ka yi, en mu mberri kahmu da sayesua bahyi. Ribba 
ku tafahri ita tshe, ku ukareh gaba da yaki, da saanan 
mutani nku, su usamna kawai, da su uyi aiki nsu 
kworei, da ku ia tarra baba nfihto (ko gunda) kamma 
Saraki da Saraunia ngarurua farufaru mutani su ka yi. 
Nabiu ku yi ribba ga wonnan woshe : idan ku nsaida 
mutum ga sambar tallatin, ku sami kurdi nsa saodeia • 
amma en ku mbeh shi da (but if ye put him to have 
himself) kamma mutani woddanda keh tshiki nGreat 
Britain, en ku bia su, su uyi aiki kworei su utarra ma 
ku tshiirai dayawa, da hakkora ngiwa dayawa, da su 
utaya ma ku ga shipka abduga, da kohwonneh abubua 
en ku bia su ku usami dayawa ga aiki nsu kohwotshe 
shekara, da ku ka sami saodeia en ga sayeshie su, da aka'i 
su nesa. 

Amma ku yi sheria kanku ! Saraunia mu ta abah ku 


abuta nta da ku, da tshiniki nagari, wondda ka sah ku 
arsiki, da alhoruma da murna. Amma sa'i sabbadda 
wonnan ku yi alliwashi da ransua, ku uberri kahmu da 
sai'da mbahyi ; koda miagu farufaru mutani su utambaye 
ku, ga sayeshie su ; da wonnan ku nyi wohalla babu 
muni, kohwotshe wondda keh kokari ga yi hakkanan. 
Mu na tamaha hakkana ku uberri dsafi da mutani, dong 
ba shi keao ga woshe Obangissi Alia, ya kib ayi dsafi da 
mutum (ko da mutani). 

Ku yi tunaneh kworei magana da mu ka yi ma ku^ 
da ku tuna, en ku usamma ta ku gammi Sariki Alia, ku 
usami alhoruma Saraunia mu abuya ku ; farufaru mu- 
tani duka su usoh ku da su utayi ma ku, ku usamma 
masuhanij-kali, da arsiki da murna. Shi ifi tafahri (shi 
ifi tshiniki mbahyi dayawa.) 



Mu na sakka gamma dahdi da abuta sakkani mutani 
nGreat Britain da mutani Haussa (Fillani, Eggarra, 
Bornou). Ishiniki mbahyi shi ikahreh (shi ikareh) hal 
abadda. Da mutani nGreat Britain, da mutani nHaussa, 
su uyi, tshiniki tare, babu dsamki, da gaskia da keao 
nsutshia da nagerta. Da maaika da stma nSaraunia 
nGreat Britain, da Sariki (Sumo, Ochejih, Ezu-Issa.) 
nHaussa da kansa da mutani nsa, Su uyi wonnan alli- 
washi, sabadda wonnan abubua. 

Xafahri keh nan, " The first is this : " 

Tshiniki mbahyi shi ikareh kurum tshiki nkassa nan. 


Da dajja Saa nda mu ka sah sunanaki mu era wonnan 
alllwashi, ba mutum kohdeia aka ka'i daga wonnan g'ari 
ayi shl kamma bawa, da ba mutum kohdeia da kaka 
berri aka kai awutshe nkassa nan, ko wonne woshe 
nkassa nan, sabadda ayi shi kamma bawa, da akai shi 
daga wonnan nkassa, ko kaka. Da ba mutum kohdeia 
da aka kawo tshiki nkassa nan, ayi bawa da shi. Da 
Sariki nkassa nan ya yi alliwashi ga hanna tallakawa 
nsa duka, ba rua nsu da saye mbahyi, ko sayesua 
mbahyi. Da Sariki, ba shi berri kohwa shi taffi wonne 
ngari ga yi tshiniki mbahyi. Da Sariki ngari nan ya yi 
alliwashi, shi iwohalda kohwa wondda ya gbatta dooka 
wonnan, da gaskia. 

Nabiu keh nan, " The second is this : " 

Maaika nSaraunia nGreat Britain su ukahma koh- 
wonne shirig-i baba da karami en su nga su kohena su 
na tshiniki mbahyi : Da su ukahma Shiragi wota nsu 
iri woddanda su ka yi alliwashi. En su nga su su na 
tshiniki mbahyi tshiki nrua woddanda keh su ngari nan 
(da su keh ngari nan). Da en su nkahm.a su su nyi sheria 
nsu sabadda alliwashi nan ; mbahyi en da keh nan abeh 
su yaya, da shiragi agbashie su ko asayeshie su sabadda 
alliwashi nda keh tshiki takarta nan ; da kurdi nsu 
arebba su woshie deia na Saraunia nGreat Britain, da 
woshie deia na saraki ngari nan. 

Nauku keh nan, "Thirdly : " 

Kohyaushe aka kahma nshirage da bahyi tshiki nsu 
kamma yehda (before) aka tshe ga alliwashi nan ; Maai- 
ka, ko deia tshiki nsu wondda keh nan, en ba kohwa 
tshiki nsu keh nan ba, Masarautshi nshirigi nGreat 
Britain, wondda ya kahma shirigi shi itambaya domeh 
aka kahma su, da Saraki ko Masarautshi nsa, su na nahn 
samne, da en ya yi sheria angbatta su alliwashi, shi ibah 


su laifi masushirag-i, da en ba su gbatta dooka ba, shi 
ibeh su yaya (su ntaffi). 

Nahudu keh nan, " Fourthly : " 

Wonnan daga Saa nda aka Fah sunanaki mu ga won- 
nan alliwashi ba mutum kohdela wondda ya sakkua 
tshiki ngari nan ayi shi bawa, ko ayi shi kamma bawa. 
Duka farufaru mutani, da duka tallakawa nGreat Britain 
fan da baki vvoddaada keh ga bauta abah su yautshi 
yansu yansu. 

Nabiat keh nan, " The fifth is this : " 

Mutani nGreat Britain abah hokumtshi ga sakkua 
tshiki ngari nan, da su usamna nan ko su wutshe shi ayi 
su kamma abokai en su nsamna, su ka berri gari nan, 
da su dauki dukia su kohyautshe su ka soh. 

Na shitta keh nan, " The sixth is this : " 

Mutani Xassara, woddanda mu keh kirra kristians, su 
na sakkua dunia duka ko garurua duka woddanda su 
keh samna lafia, tshiki nkassa Sariki nHaussa, aberri su 
ga yi (musulumtshi nsu) yirda nsu ; da ba keh hanna 
su ko aiki nsu ga koya kohwa woddanda keh soh (song) 
koyo ; ba mutum wondda ka yi nyirda (musulumtshi) 
nmutani Xassara ahanna shi ba, shi yi shi da shi koya 
ma wosu da ba wondda shi sananta sa ba. 

Na bokoi keh nan, " The seventh is this : " 

Mutani nGreat Britain su uyi tshiniki lafia da mutani 
Haussa kohyautshe, da su ka saya da su ka sayes koh- 
wotshe iri ndukia, wondda su ka soh. Da mutani 
nGreat Britain kada su tillassa mutani ngari nan ga saye 
ko ga sayesua kohwotshe iri ndukia, da mutani Haussa 
kada su tillassa mutani nGreat Britain ga saya ko ka sa- 
yeswa kohwotshe iri ndukia. Da ba wondda aka hanna 
su ga saye ko ga sayeswa kohwotshe iri ndukia ga kohwa 
su ka soh. Da kurdi nfihto woddanda Sarika ya kariig- 


ba ga dulda nGreat Britain wondda su ka kawo ga sa- 
yeswa ba shi fi nwoshe nlasso ga diikia nsu. Woddanda 
keh kawo tshiki ngari nan, ko tshadda kamma da aka 

Natokos keh nan, " The eighth is this : " 
Haiyoyi aberri su sekke hal gari nan ga wota kassa, 
hakka fataki nGreat Britain su ukai kohwotshe iri ndukia 
hal gari nan ga sayesua su kohena ; da fataki nvvota 
kassa su ukawo dukia nsu hal gari nan, ga yi tshiniki 
da mutani nGreat Britain. 

Natarra keh nan, " The ninth is this :" 
Mutani nGreat Britain su usaye da su sayes ko su uyi 
sufari kassa da dahkuna tshiki ngari nan, da dahkuna 
nsu ba maishigga babu hokum tshi nsu, da dukia nsu ba 
mai kariigba da karifi, ba maitaba lafia nsu. En mutani 
nGreat Britain anyi masu laifi ko anyi masu mugunta 
ga mutani ngari nan, Sariki ngari nan shi iwohalshie su 
woddanda su ka yi laifi. 

Na Gouia keh nan, " The tenth is this :" 
Amma mutani nGreat Britain kada su gbassa dooka 
nSariki ngari nan, en antshe su su ngbassa dooka Sariki 
ka dsaida su woddanda keh tshe su nyi baba laifi, shi 
isah su tshiki ndahki ndufu, amma shi iyi su da nagerta, 
kamma mutum. Da Sariki shi iaikeh labari nagaskia 
ga gari nda keh kussa, wondda mutani nGreat Britain su 
keh da hokumtshi ; (su na da hokumtshi) da masarautshi 
nGreat Britain shi iaikeh ga mutum nGreat Britain da 
ayi sheria nsa sabbada dooka nGreat Britain, da awo- 
halsa sa en ya faddi ga sheria, da aaikeh labari wohalsa 
sa ga Saraki, shi isani kohmi ya girtu. 

Na goma sha deia keh nan, " The eleventh is this : " 
En mutani nHaussa su ndauki dukia ga mutani 
nGreat Britain, ko su kih bia bashi nagaskia ga mutum 


nGreat Britain, Sariki nHaussa shi ikokari da alhoruma 
nsa, shi isah mutani Haussa su maida dukla, da bia bashi 
nsu. Da en mutani nGreat Britain, su ndauki dukia ga 
mutani Haussa, ko en su kih bia bashi nsu na jjaskia jja 
mutani Haussa aka yi su ga sheria sabbada dooka ng-ari 
nan, dong su mayes nsu. Amma kada ataba lafia nsu. 
Da Sariki ngari nan shi aaikeh labari ga masarautshi 
nGreat Britain wondda keh kussa ga gari nsa, ko ga 
Galladima wondda keh nahn. Da masarautshi ko Gal- 
ladima shi ikokari da alhoruma nsa, shi isah nMutani 
nGreat Britain ga su maida dukia ko ga bia bashi nsu. 
Na goma sha biu keh nan, " The twelfth is this :" 
Saraunia nGreat Britain ta asabi mutum ga gani ngari 
nan, ko ga samna nan, dong shi iyi, dzoro lafia mutani 
nGreat Britain da shi igani en antshika alliwashi nan, 
Da mutum da ansaba, abah shi girima kohyaushe da 
arsiki tshiki ngari nan ; da Sariki shi ishi magana wondda 
mutum da aka saba ya atshe, shi da dukia nsa kada 
ataba kurum. 

Na goma sha uku keh nan, " The thirteenth is this : " 

Sariki ngari nan shi ga kwanaki biu saanda ya kahre 

wonnan alliwashi, shi iyi dooka ga yi woddanan abubua 

duka, shi iyi gangami dooka nan; da Sariki ngari nan, 

shi isah su su nyi wonnan dooka daga yansu da hal abbada. 

Na goma sha hudu keh nan, " The fourteenth is this :" 

Saraunia nGreat Britain ; sabbada abuta nta ga Sariki 

ngari nan da sabbadi n sariki ngari nan aka yi wonnan 

alliwashi, ta bah shi wonnan dukia. 

Da Sariki ngari nan shi isah hanu nsa, shi itshe sami 
woddanan abubua. 




" Listen to what we have to say ! The Queen of England 
is a great Sovereign, and has sent us to offer you her 
friendship, and to talk with you as friends and brothers 
about the way to become wise and rich and powerful. 

" You know that the Great God made all nations of the 
earth of one blood. White People are Christians, and 
worship this Great God. They can do many things which 
Black People cannot do ; and they have almost every 
thing that Black People want — clothes, ornaments, tools, 
and useful articles of every kind. Some of these things 
we have brought with us to the Great Water, or Kawara, 
to show you what we mean ; and any thing else you 
desire can be sent you another time. 

" But for such things as these you must give us some- 
thing of yours in exchange. You have been used to sell 
Slaves for some of these thina;s ; but it is contrary to the 
Laws of God and of White Men to buy them of you, 
though some White Men have been wicked enough to 
do so. Now, you live in a country where every thing 
grows very quickly out of the ground, and these are the 
things which we want : they will also bring you much 
more profit than Slaves. 

" You must dig the ground, and raise cotton-trees, 
indigo, coffee, sugar, rice, and many other things of the 
same kind; and while these things are growing, you can 
collect elephants' teeth, gold dust, gums, wax, and things 
of that sort, almost without any trouble. 

" Now, if you will always have plenty of these things 
ready for our people when they come you shall have 
plenty of our goods in exchange. 


" Perhaps you will say, ' We do not know how to make 
these things grow.' But the Queen of our country has 
sent good men to teach you how, and also how to build 
bouses, and to make clothes, and to read books, and to 
talk about the Great God who made all things ; only 
you must be very kind and attentive to them, and not 
suffer anybody to hurt them. 

" You may say again, ' Our country is so disturbed by 
war, that if we dig and sow we are not sure of gathering 
our crops.' But is not this the consequence of catching 
and selling each other for Slaves? If you wish to be 
rich, you must be peaceful ; therefore you must leave off 
this wicked practice. And if several ot" the Chiefs would 
agree together to do so their people would be much 
more safe and industrious and happy. 

" Perhaps some Chief may say again, ' But what shall 
I gain by giving up the trade of catching and selling 
men? First, you will gain much by putting an end to 
war ; for by this means your people will live quietly and 
become industrious; and thus you will be able to get 
large tribute, like the kings and queens of Europe. 
Secondly, you will gain also in this way : Suppose you 
sell a man for five pounds; this sum you get for him 
only once. But if you make him fi-ee, as our people are 
in England, and pay him good wages, he will work very 
hard, and will collect for you so much gum, or so many 
elephants' teeth, or help you to grow so much cotton and 
other things, that, after paying him his just wages, you 
will get as much every year by his labour as yovi would 
have got only once by selling him and sending him away. 

''Now, then, you must judge for yourselves. Our 
Queen offers you her friendship, and an innocent trade 
which shall make you rich and powerful and happy ; but 


it is only on one condition, and that is, that you will 
promise solemnly to give up the practice of catching and 
selling Slaves, even if wicked White People should ask 
you to sell them ; and that you will punish, without 
cruelty, any one who tries to do so. We also hope you 
will give up the sacrifice of your fellow-creatures, 
because it is displeasing to God. 

" Consider well the offer we now make you ; and re- 
member, that, if you accept it, you will please the Great 
God ; you will have our powerful Queen for your friend ; 
all good White People will love you, and will endeavour 
to help you ; and you will soon become wiser, richer, and 
happier than you ever were before." 



There shall be peace and friendship between the people 
of Great Britain and the people of Haussa (or, the 
FuLatahs ; Eggarra or Bornou jyeojjle) ; and the Slave 
Trade shall be put down for ever. And the people of Great 
Britain and the people of Haussa shall trade together, 
innocently, justly, kindly, and usefully : and the Messen- 
gers on the part of the Queen of Great Britain, and the 
King (Sumo, Ochejih, Ezu-Issa) of the Haussa Country, 
on his own part and that of his people, do make the fol- 
lowing Agreement for these purposes : — 

1. The Slave Trade shall be utterly abolished in this 
country ; and, from the signing of this Agreement, no 
persons whatever shall be removed out of the country for 
the purpose of being treated or dealt with as Slaves ; nor 
shall any persons whatever be allowed to be brought 


through the country for the purpose of being treated or 
dealt with as Slaves, by way of exportation or otherwise ; 
nor shall any persons whatever be imported into the 
country for the purpose of being dealt with as Slaves : 
and no subject of this countr}- shall be in any way con- 
cerned in the exporting or importing Slaves, or carrying 
on the Slave Trade, either within or without the limits of 
the country. The Chief promises to inflict reasonable 
punishment on all his subjects who may break this law. 

2. The Officers of the Queen of Great Britain may 
seize every vessel or boat of Egarra found anywhere 
carrying on the trade in Slaves ; and may also seize every 
vessel or boat of other nations, with whom a similar 
Agreement has been made, found carrying on the trade 
in Slaves in the waters belonging to the Chief of this 
country. Upon such seizure, and after regular condem- 
nation, according to the provisions of this Agreement, 
the Slaves shall be made free, and the vessels or boats 
shall be destroyed, and the money shall be divided in 
equal parts between the Queen of England and the Chief 
of this countr)'. 

3. That in all cases of the seizure of vessels and 
boats with the Slaves on board, under the provisions of 
this Agreement, the said Commissioners, or those of 
them who may be present — and, in their absence, the 
Commissioned or Commanding Officer on board the 
British vessel making the seizure, or any Agent autho- 
rised for that purpose — shall, in presence of the Chief, or 
Headman appointed by him, make due examination and 
inquiry into the case, and shall condemn the said vessel 
or boat, with the Slaves on board, if satisfied that the 
provisions of this Agreement have been thus contravened ; 
or otherwise acquit and restore the same. 



4. That from and after the sig'ning of this Agreement, 
no person whatever coming into the country shall be 
reduced into Slavery, or treated or used as Slaves. 
All White persons whatever, and all British subjects of 
whatever colour, at present detained in Slavery, shall 
immediately be set free. 

5. British people may freely come into this country, 
and may stay in it, or pass through it, and they shall be 
treated as friends while in it, and they may leave the 
country with their property when they please. 

6. Christians, of whatever nation or country, peaceably 
conducting themselves in the dominions of the Chief of 
this country, shall be left in the free enjoyment and exer- 
cise of the Christian Religion, and shall not be hindered 
or molested in their endeavours to teach the same to all 
persons whatever willing and desirous to be taught ; 
nor shall any subject of this country, who may embrace 
the Christian Faith, be, on that account, or on account of 
the teaching or exercise thereof, molested or troubled 
in any manner whatsoever. 

7. British people may always trade freely with the 
people of this country in every article which they may 
wish to buy or sell ; and neither the British people nor 
the people of this country shall ever be forced to buy or 
sell any article, nor shall they be prevented from buying 
or selling any article with whomsoever they please : and 
the customs and dues taken by the Chief of this country 
on British goods sold in the Egarra Country, shall in no 
case be more altogether than one-twentieth part of the 
goods so imported, or their ascertained value. 

8. The paths shall be kept open through this country 
to other countries ; so that British traders may carry 
goods of all kinds through this country to sell them else- 



where, and the traders of other countries may bring 
their goods through this country to trade with the Bri- 
tish people. 

9. British people may buy and sell, or hire, lands and 
houses in this country, and their houses shall not be 
entered without their consent, nor shall their goods 
be seized, nor their persons touched : and if British 
people are wronged or ill-treated by the people of this 
country, the Chief shall punish those doing such wTong. 

10. But British people must not break the Laws of 
this country : and when they are accused of breaking the 
laws, the Chief may detain the persons charged with 
committing any grievous crime for safe custody, taking 
care that he be treated with humanity, and shall send a 
true account of the matter to the nearest place where 
there is a British force or authorised Agent ; and the Com- 
mander of such British force, or authorised Agent, shall 
send for the British person, who shall be tried according 
to British Law, and shall be punished, if found guilty ; 
and a report of such punishment shall be forwarded to 
the Chief for his satisfaction. 

11. If the people of this country should take away the 
property of a British person, or should not pay their just 
debts to a British person, the Chief shall do all he can to 
make the people restore the property and pay the debt ; 
and if British persons should take away the property of 
the people of this country, or shall not pay their just debts, 
they shall be subject to the laws of the country for the 
recovery of the same. Provided always, that no injury 
be done to his person. The Chief shall make known the 
fact to the Commander of the British force nearest to this 
country, or to the resident Agent, if there is one; and the 
British Commander or Agent, whichever it may be, shall 



do all he can to make the British persons restore the 
property and pay the debt. 

12. The Queen of Great Britain may appoint an 
Agent to visit this country, or to reside there, in order 
to watch over the interests of the British people, and to 
see that this Agreement is fulfilled ; and such Agent shall 
always receive honour and protection in this country, 
and the Chief shall pay attention to what the Agent says, 
and the person and property of the Agent shall be sacred. 

13. The Chief of this country shall, within forty-eight 
hours of the date of this Agreement, make a law for 
carrying the whole of it into effect, and shall proclaim 
that law ; and the Chief shall put that law in force from 
that time for ever. 

14. The Queen of Great Britain, because of her 
friendship to the King of this country, and for the sake 
of the Treaty which the King of this country has agreed 
to, presents to him the following articles. And the King 
of this country is to sign his name here, to testify that he 
has received them. 




e— - - MAY 131968