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Introduction vii 

I. The Choice of a Life-Work and its 

Difficulties i 

II. Vocational Chaos and Some of its 

Consequences 12 

III. Beginnings in Vocational Guidance . 25 

V; Vocational Guidance in the Public 

Schools 72 

V. The Vocational Counselor .... 86 

VI. Some Cautions in Vocational Guid- 
ance lOI 

VII. Social and Economic Gains through 

Vocational Guidance 109 

References 117 

Outline 121 


Three of the important tendencies in the 
educational activities of to-day are everywhere 
engaging the serious attention of thoughtful 
people within and without the teaching profes- 
sion. These tendencies are really only different 
phases of one comprehensive movement for ap- 
proximating more closely our democratic ideal 
of individual welfare and social progress. These 
tendencies are the safeguarding and promotion 
of bodily health and vigor by an important ex- 
tension of the work of departments of school 
hygiene and physical training in our schools ; 
the progressive establishment of public voca- 
tional schools of elementary and secondary grade, 
i. e., of vocational schools other than profes- 
sional schools, for increasing the efficiency of 
all who must work for wages ; and a wide- 
spread effort to make the non-vocational schools 
we already have, of every grade and kind, more 
vital — to make the pupil's school life so signifi- 



cant a part of his whole life that it shall be and 
remain a permanent guiding force, no matter at 
what point his school life must close. 

The increased attention to bodily health and 
strength in school is the natural concomitant of 
the awakened public interest in physical health 
and strength, not merely for our physical wel- 
fare but also as one of our most important social 
resources. Quite apart from the misery ill-health 
or physical weakness usually entails, it is clear 
that economic efficiency depends on it. The 
relation of a youth's physical health and vigor 
to success and satisfaction in his vocation is 
clear. If, possessing physical inaptitude or weak- 
ness, he enters a pursuit that is not adapted 
to him, only moderate usefulness and perhaps 
early incapacity must be his fate. Neither he 
nor society can afford to take such a risk. 
Hence the necessity of a close relation and 
ultimate cooperation between all the agencies 
for promoting the public health and vocational 

The establishment of schools at public expense 
for the training of workers in our industries, on 



our farms, and in commerce is making decided 
progress. Throughout the country such schools 
are discussed or already actually established, 
with more to follow. Schools of commerce, of 
industry, of agriculture, whether day schools, 
part-time schools, day and evening continuation 
schools, are a response to the demand for in- 
creasing economic efficiency, without which in- 
dividual welfare and social progress are impossi- 
ble. The opportunities for vocational training 
thus afforded and the growing demand for more 
opportunities obviously point to the necessity of 
wise choice on the part of those who are to 
profit by them, and hence the close relation 
between vocational guidance and vocational 

The movement for vocational education has 
directed attention to the aims and work of the 
existing public schools with a view to appraising 
the social significance of that work, and partic- 
ularly its significance with respect to the voca- 
tions toward which they point their pupils, and 
what vocational preparation they should offer. 
Such an examination of the aims and work of the 



public schools is by no means new, it is in fact 
perennial; but the recent and contemporary 
interest in vocational education has reenforced 
it. Hence a conspicuous tendency in educa- 
tional activity to-day is the effort to make the 
school a more effective factor in shaping the 
pupil's career. While enabling him to appre- 
ciate the spiritual and institutional (political) 
resources and problems of our age, it shall also 
render him responsive to our economic resources 
and problems, and in particular it shall bring 
home to him the importance and the dignity of 
work of all kinds as the foundation of all indi- 
vidual and social welfare. 

It is clear that with this tendency well estab- 
lished in the schools the question of vocational 
guidance is a pressing question. Where this ten- 
dency is not yet marked, vocational guidance is 
even more vital, for there the pupil is likely to 
be quite helpless when he makes the momentous 
transition from school to work. This transition 
cannot be safe unless the choice of the pupil's 
life career is deliberate. Even then mistakes 
will be made, but we may expect they will be 


insignificant in number and importance as com- 
pared with the mistakes of random choice or 
mere " hunting a job." 

It is clear that much preparation is needed by 
those on whom the duty of vocational guidance 
may fall. Information must be had of the young 
people themselves, their physical condition, their 
capacity, their ambitions, the opportunities and 
circumstances of their lives ; similarly, informa- 
tion is needed about occupations, their advan- 
tages and disadvantages in view of the natural 
and acquired equipment for them possessed by 
their prospective workers ; the kind of prepara- 
tion required for them, and the extent and qual- 
ity of the available preparation for a progressive 
career in them, and what success in them means. 
To gather this information and make it available 
for use will require time and effort. And to give 
satisfactory guidance by properly trained persons 
to the great body of young people whose life 
work is now almost inevitably determined by 
chance, will require an army of devoted workers. 

It is clear, also, that one important duty of 
the advisers of youth is to bring home to all who 



can be brought to see it the enormous value of 
more education for every capable pupil, no mat- 
ter when he leaves school, — and no matter 
whether the chief purpose of the school he at- 
tends is to give general education or to prepare 
him for a particular calling. One valuable result 
of satisfactory vocational guidance ought to be, 
therefore, to lengthen the period of education 
for all but the incurably dull or the permanently 

Mr. Bloomfield's work has long required him 
to study the problems of vocational guidance, 
and as Director of the recently organized Voca- 
tion Bureau of Boston he is necessarily brought 
face to face with those problems in all their 
variety and complexity. The insight he has 
gained and the suggestions based on it are made 
available in the present monograph to teachers, 
parents, and the general public. He has made 
an important contribution to the solution of the 
problems of vocational guidance. The vital need 
of such guidance is clearly set forth, and the 
encouraging beginnings of organized effort to 
secure preparation for discharging satisfactorily 



the duty of vocational guidance are described. 
It is clearly shown, also, that vocational guid- 
ance does not mean helping boys and girls to 
find work, but to find the kind of work they are 
best fitted by nature and training to do well. 
It does not mean prescribing a vocation. It does 
mean bringing to bear on the choice of a voca- 
tion organized information and organized com- 
mon sense. 

Paul H. Hanus. 

Harvard University. 





** He therefore sometimes took me to walk with 
him," writes Benjamin Franklin of his father, 
"and see joiners, bricklayers, turners, braziers, 
etc., at their work, that he might observe my 
inclination, and endeavor to fix it on some trade 
or other on land." 

The busy age we live in does not seem so fa- 
vorable for the kindly offices of youth's natural 
advisers. While many a parent, teacher, or friend 
spends energy and sympathy to give some girl or 
boy vocational suggestion and help, the fact is 
clear enough that a vast majority of the young 
people in our land enter upon their careers as 
breadwinners in the trades and professions un- 
guided and uninformed. Chance is usually given 



the upper hand to make or mar the critical period 
of working life. *^' 

At no other time in history have the sons and 
daughters of the people been turned out to earn 
their living on so large a scale, or into so complex 
a social order. Never has there been so great a 
need as now for intelligent cooperation with the 
novitiates in the vocational life. 

Young Franklin on a brief visit to the shop or 
foundry could probably have seen a whole trade 
in process. To-day this could scarcely be. Mi- 
nute division of labor, specialization to a degree 
that leaves the average worker in ignorance of 
the steps which go before or follow his own par- 
tial operations, do not encourage the same per- 
sonal view of industry. Commerce and the liberal 
professions are hardly less detailed, and hardly 
less in the hands of specialists. Spinning, weav- 
ing, and the making of a coat, the manufacture of 
nails, watches, and shoes involve scores of opera- 
tions. Likewise the management of a store, an 
office, or a factory calls for qualities peculiar to a 
highly developed age of applied science. A new 
profession has arisen in the efficiency engineer, 



whose business it is to study the costly results 
of overlooked waste and extravagance in our 
large-scale production and distribution of goods. 
Big establishments are working out personal data 
sheets in order to measure scientifically the value 
of theiremployees. One specialty store in Boston 
has developed a system of personal records which 
leaves little to guess-work in the employment and 
promotion of its eight hundred or more people. 
We are indeed living in the midst of a restless 
period, impatient with crudeness, and too preoc- 
cupied to pause over the stumblings and grop- 
ings of its bewildered youth. Into this arena of 
tense effort, the schools of our country send out 
their annual thousands. We somehow trust that 
the tide of opportunity may carry them to some 
vocational destination. Only the relatively few 
who reach the higher training institutions can 
be said to have their problems at least tempo- 
rarily solved during the critical period of adoles- 
cence. What becomes of that young multitude 
sent out to cope with the new conditions of self- 
support ? Whose business is it to follow up the 
results of this transition from school to work ? 



Whose business is it to audit our social accounts, 
and discover how far our costly enterprises in 
education, the pain, the thought, the skill and 
the sacrifice we put forth with the growing gen- 
eration, are well or ill invested in the field of oc- 
cupation ? These are vital questions, and perhaps 
the most vital is how far the work our children 
turn to is the result of choice, accident, or ne- 
cessity. The higher training schools are as pro- 
foundly concerned in this problem as are the 
elementary schools. The well-to-do are no less 
affected than the poor. Until society faces tfie 
question of the life careers of its youth, the pre- 
sent vocational anarchy will continue to beset the 
young work-seekers. Wasting their golden youth, 
they discover too late how much a helpful sug- 
gestion at the critical moment might have shaped 
their destinies. They are unhappy and discour- 
aged, and hence the pitiful letters written to 
those who care about these problems, from men 
and women who realize too late the reason for 
their futility as workers. 

Society has been slow to recognize the need 
of cooperating with its future workers in the 



choice of their careers. It has not realized that 
successful choice of life-work is impossible to the 
unadvised and the unprepared. Common sense \ 
tells us that intellisjent selection of life-work is i 
the result of intelligent preparation. We cannot 
expect youth to find itself vocationally without 
furnishing it with the raw material for thought- 
ful selection. In other words, there can be no 
one detached day or moment for choosing, but 
rather all one's training is tested by the culmi- 
nating process of deciding on a vocation. 

Now real selection is impossible where the 
range of occupation is a dark continent. Choice, 
like play, is usually the product of many influ- 
ences, not the least of which are suggestion and 
irnitation. The children of a neglected neigh- 
borhood mimic the drunken woman arrested by 
the policeman, while those of the well supervised 
city playground have opened to them a world 
of wholesome activities. A city kindergarten 
teacher spending her vacation in a Nova Scotia 
fishing hamlet gathered about her one day a 
group of the fishermen's children. She tried 
them at the game of "Trades." They could go 



through the motions only of net-making, hauling 
in of fish, and the simple household crafts of spin- 
ning, carding, and weaving which they saw their 
mothers and grandmothers engage in. The mo- 
tions of the urban workers, like the plumber, 
engineer, the merchant, and the newsboy were 
quite meaningless to these children. 

The young people of a crowded district imitate 
the ambulance driver, the fireman, the street- 
cleaner and the actor of cheap melodrama ; but 
when older, and the sense of adventure is less 
keen in their impulse for vocational expression, 
one finds how much local social ambitions count. 
The neighborhood doctor who drives about in a 
shiny buggy, or perhaps in a motor car with con- 
spicuous red-cross devices; the lawyer and his 
nonchalance in the dread police court of the dis- 
trict ; the dentist with his gilt signs across a 
private dwelling in the tenement district, carry- 
ing proudly the title of doctor; and the druggist 
— that master of confections and magic drugs — 
these weigh heavily in the family judgment at the 
infrequent vocational conferences of the tene- 
ment home. To be sure, there is the school- 



teacher, the civil engineer, and the man on the 
road, whose rise from the unfavorable environ- 
ment carries vocational suggestion to the neigh- 
borhood, but this is feeble compared to the potent 
example of local social esteem which the above- 
mentioned personages carry. 

It is in our centres of population, in the apart- 
ment and tenement house districts, that the 
masses of children are to be found. Here is the 
most need for unfolding the panorama of occu- 
pations to the quick intelligences of the young 
people. Parents here are busy day and night, and 
family relationships often suffer. The teachers 
preside over large classes, and these neighbor- 
hoods are filled with a crowd of the unskilled, the 
poorly paid, the unemployed, and the misem- 
ployed. It is a place of high lights and deep 
shadows ; and for thousands of children, life opens 
unpromisingly. Democracy probably still holds 
out its opportunities to the child that can avail 
himself of them. But the gifted as well as the 
ungifted live here equally doomed to undevelop- 
ing and cheaply paid labor. 

Marshall the economist has told us how large 



a proportion of genius is lost to society because it 
is born among the children of the poor, where it 
perishes for want of opportunity. We have no 
plan for conserving the talents of the poor ; no 
plan for conserving the resources of the immi- 
grant. Our schools are fettered by routine. Any 
social experimentation calculated to call forth 
the gifts of the new peoples is left to private 
philanthropy. A large proportion of the children 
in our cities who leave school for work as soon 
as the law allows are foreign born or the children 
of foreign born. Surely the hard-driven parent 
stuggling for a foothold in an alien country must 
fail as a vocational adviser to his children. The 
truth is that parents do not tell their children 
what they should be, but the children tell them 
what they are going to be. 

Who shall help such children ? To whom shall 
they turn for counsel and information about the 
vocations? The gathering of helpful occupational 
information involves painstaking labor and large 
resources. Such information calls for the corre- 
lation of a variety of facts from many and often 
unfamiliar sources. An illustration of the kind 



of service needed is to be found in the use made 
by one vocational adviser of a report on tuber- 
culosis in the various industries, issued by the 
Massachusetts State Board of Health. The re- 
port disclosed the fact that granite-cutting was 
among the most dangerous occupations. From 
his experience as a social worker, this adviser 
knew that many Italians are employed in quar- 
ries and stone-yards, and that very many Italians 
return to their own country to die of the white 
plague. He took pains, therefore, to point out 
wherever he could, particularly to teachers, that 
when an Italian boy intended to work at stone- 
cutting, the parent should see to it that a medi- 
cal examination gave the boy a pulmonary clean 
bill ; for the weak-lunged Italian boy who took 
up stone-cutting would probably be committing 

Another illustration of vocational help has 
been the work of a young woman who some years 
ago was in charge of a small library in a social 
settlement on the East Side of New York. Her 
idea of circulating books was to work out with 
each boy and girl the kind of book that would 



best minister to his or her needs. And those 
needs were studied with infinite care. Her quiet 
ministrations brought to the knowledge of the 
ambitious and idealistic youth of her neighbor- 
hood vocations that were unknown to them be- 
fore. Forestry, social research, library science, 
neighborhood work, social and civic service were 
the careers opened to young boys and girls in 
touch with the library and the other influences 
which in time clustered about that institution. 
And those careers are followed to-day with no 
little distinction by the graduates of that vitaliz- 
ing influence. 

The time has gone by for a laissez-faire atti- 
tude toward this most fundamental of conserva- 
tion needs. The success achieved by those who 
have helped to shape a youth's destiny is not 
fully explained by pointing to gifts of insight and 
patience of the adviser, or to the exceptional 
qualities of the boys and girls who could benefit 
by an interest in their welfare. To content one's 
self with such explanations is to doom the mass 
of our children to barren lives, a loss to them- 
selves and to the community. After all, it is with 



the usual and not with the exceptional individual 
that the community must mainly concern itself, 
and results that are worth while have attended 
even modest efforts at vocational guidance of a 
large group, as of a school, a club, or like organi- 
zation. The time for doing something to help 
young people choose their life-work is at hand. 
Only a backward social conscience will palliate a 
lack of energy to attempt a remedy, however ten- 
tative, for the present chaos in the transition from 
schooling to self-support. 



Evidence of what the let-alone policy is cost- 
ing society may be found on every hand. A talk 
with any intelligent employer or with almost any 
parent, teacher, or student of social conditions 
reveals an astonishing abundance of testimony. 
Indeed, the yield of information is only equaled 
by the extensive failure to do something about 
it. Little argument is needed to make out a case 
in behalf of a plan for the vocational guidance of 
youth ; and yet, on the whole, no problem has 
elicited so little effort to meet it in the con- 
structive way which modern methods of dealing 
with social problems suggest. 

Perhaps the most impressive body of facts 
bearing on the consequences of our failure to 
face the vocational interests of youth is to be 
found in the report issued in England a year ago 
by the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws and 



Relief of Distress. Nothing has more deeply im- 
pressed that Commission in the course of its ex- 
haustive investigation than the wanton pauper- 
ization of England's energetic youth. 
' In the Majority Report, the Commissioners 
lay stress on the great prominence given to boy 
labor not only in the evidence which came before 
them, but also in the various reports of the special 
investigators; and the conviction is expressed 
that this is perhaps the most serious of the phe- 
nomena which they have encountered in their 
study of unemployment. Well-trained boys find 
it difficult enough to secure a foothold in the 
skilled trades ; but if in addition to this there are 
the temptations to crowd the occupations which 
promise no skill, promise no outlook, no future, 
the fact is clear that such conditions in the 
British Empire are making directly for unem- 
ployment in the future. 

The Minority Report is even more emphatic. 
It points out the effects of entering " blind-alley " 
occupations, and states that perpetual recruit- 
ment of the unemployable by tens of thousands 
of boys is perhaps the gravest of all the grave 



facts which the Commissioners laid bare. " We 
cannot believe," the Commissioners say, "that 
the nation can long persist in ignoring the fact 
that the unemployed, and particularly the under- 
employed and unemployable are thus being daily 
created under our eyes out of bright young lives, 
capable of better things, for whose training we 
make no provision. It is, unfortunately, only too 
clear that the mass of unemployment is continu- 
ally being recruited by a stream of young men 
from industries which rely upon unskilled boy 
labor, and turn it adrift at manhood without 
any general or special industrial qualification, 
and that it will never be diminished till this 
stream is arrested." 

Prof. Michael E. Sadler, in commenting on the 
evidence before the Royal Commission, states 
that boys and girls are tempted by the ease, the 
fairly good wages, and the sense of independence 
in entering occupations that leave them at the 
time when they begin to need an adult's subsist- 
ence wholly out of line for skilled employments. 
They are driven into the ranks of the unskilled. 
Certain forms of industry squander in this way 



the physical and the moral capital of the rising 
generation. His conclusions are that if no coun- 
teracting measures are taken, great and lasting 
injury will befall the national life. 

An official report some years ago on boys leav- 
ing the London elementary schools shows that 
forty per cent became errand and chore boys, 
fourteen per cent shop boys, eight per cent office 
boys and minor clerks, while only eighteen per 
cent went definitely into trades. There is a fairly 
satisfactory law in England governing employ- 
ment in factories and work-shops. It is the un- 
regulated drift from a vast variety of juvenile 
occupations into the low-skilled labor market 
that presents grave aspects. In his study of 
boy labor, Mr. Cyril Jackson points out that 
few boys ever pick up skill after a year or two 
spent on errand or similar work. The larger 
number fall into low-skilled and casual employ- 

Ample confirmation of the Royal Commission's 
findings may be found in the report of the Con- 
sultative Committee on Attendance at Continu- 
ation Schools in England and Wales, published 



at about the same time. The conclusions from 
its exhaustive investigations and its interviews 
with scores of employers and others read much 
like the pages of the Royal Commission's report. 
The evils of educational neglect during adoles- 
cence, this Committee finds, are often aggravated 
by the facility with which blind-alley occupa- 
^tions are entered. Such employments as that 
of errand boy are not necessarily demoralizing. 
Many a boy has started in this humble way on a 
career of success. But callings like this are apt 
to waste the years during which a boy should 
make a beginning at a skilled or developing occu- 
pation. The probabilities are that younger, but 
trained, competitors eventually oust the untrained 
workers, and at a time when these untrained 
workers are charged with adult responsibilities. 
The necessity of guidance intended to avert 
the entrance of thousands of boys and girls into 
a vocational cul-de-sac is appreciated by this Com- 
mittee. Its conviction is clearly expressed that 
the most dangerous point in the lives of children 
in an elementary school is the moment at which 
they leave it. The investigations have shown 



how difficult is the taking of the right step at 
this stage, and the lamentable consequences of 
taking a wrong one. This difficulty is due in 
large measure to the inability of parents to get 
the necessary information as to the conditions of 
employment, the wages, and the future prospects 
of various occupations, as well as a knowledge of 
the educational opportunities and requirements 
for efficiency in the occupations. The Committee 
has found that there are parents who are under 
no compulsion to send their children to work, 
and that they would be both able and willing to 
accept lower wages at first for the sake of sub- 
sequent advantages in the vocations ; but their 
ignorance of these matters makes it impossible 
for them to select wisely for their children. 
" Unless children are thus cared for at this turn- 
ing-point in their lives," says the Consultative 
Committee, "the store of knowledge and dis- 
cipline acquired at school will be quickly dissi- 
pated, and they will soon become unfit either for 
employment or for further education." * 

The intervening years, then, between leaving 

* Repoit of the Consultative Committee, p. 22. 


school, which the great majority do at fourteen 
years of age, and the entrance into an occupation 
that promises any development at all are largely 
wasted. Society gains little by the labor of 
thousands of its children at the most important 
period of their growth. It is not that much of 
this work is not of social value, but with our 
present neglect we offer no corrective for the in- 
jury that follows. The reports of the two com- 
missions on Industrial Education in Massachu- 
setts ; investigations into street trades in Boston, 
Chicago, and elsewhere; and all the observations 
of the child-saving societies in this country con- 
firm the Royal Commission's alarm over juve- 
nile labor as now performed. 

The employer is very often as much a victim 
of these conditions as the boy himself. The 
allurement of high wages for uninstructive work 
is soon understood by many a boy, and his rest- 
lessness in these occupations, where often, with- 
out any provocation, he throws up his place, is 
a constant source of vexation and destroys any 
plan which the employer might have in view for 
the promotion of his boys. This skipping from 



job to job can only mean for most boys demoral- 
ization. They become vocational hoboes. They 
are given work only because nobody else is 
in sight, and they stay at work as little as 
they may. Juvenile wages are their portion, 
no matter what services they render, nor for 
how long a period. A tragic situation is here 
disclosed. Not only do we find that modern 
working conditions " put a man on the shelf" in 
the prime of his years, because the speed and 
skill of younger brains and hands are required, 
but we find, too, a shelving of youth itself before 
life has given the young workers even an open- 
ing. They seem doomed to be juvenile adults 
bound by an iron law of juvenile wages. The 
"dead end," or "blind alley" occupations, there- 
fore, with their bait of high initial wages and 
their destructiveness to any serious life-work 
motive are breeding costly social evils. Unani- 
mous testimony on this point by the special in- 
vestigators of the Royal Commission has led to 
the opinion that this perhaps is the most serious 
of all the problems encountered in its study of 
unemployment. A term of sinister import has 



been coined to describe the products of this vo- 
cational anarchy — the Unemployables. 

The unemployables are people whom no ordi- 
nary employer would willingly employ, not ne- 
cessarily because of their physical or mental in- 
capacity, but because their economic backbone 
has been broken. The wasted years have landed 
their innocent victims on economic quicksands. 
Attractive wages with no training, the illegiti- 
mate use of youthful energy, long hours of mo- 
notonous and uneducative work, have produced 
at his majority a young man often precocious 
in evil and stunted in his vocational possibili- 

It is quite clear that provision for adequate 
training and systematic counseling at the period 
of life when boys and girls are most largely thrown 
upon their individual resources would help cor- 
rect these lamentable conditions. The movement 
for vocational education rests solidly on an ap- 
preciation of the facts. Education has become > 
more practical because it has become more 
democratic. Preparing youth for a serviceable 
life is the ideal of the modern educator. This J 



preparation is also for a life of larger apprecia- 
tion and wider sympathies than the old-fashioned 
liberal education alone can give. Neither the 
home, the common school, nor the present-day 
conditions of breadwinning can give youth the 
necessary preparation for efficient living. The 
stress of competition, large-scale operations of 
production and distribution, the subdivision and 
speed of labor, the higher standards of profes- 
sional equipment, make it well-nigh impossible 
for youth to get its necessary instruction during 
the period of work alone. In industry the boys 
are taken on, not as apprentices, but as " process 
workers " where, while becoming expert in one 
minute operation, they learn nothing of the fun- 
damental principles of the work on which the 
plastic period of their youth is spent. Where 
are the boy and girl to find that training which 
shall reasonably assure them self-support and 
vocational progress .? Not a few employers con- 
fessedly expect their competitors to bear the 
brunt of training employees, who are eagerly ap- 
propriated when they have become proficient 
The "learners " in almost every desirable occu- 



pation are expected to know something and 
amount to something from the very outset in 

New demands are made upon the public school 
system as the agency for solving the problem of 
vocational education. The right of every child to 
secure the best possible chance in life makes 
necessary the public control of vocational train- 
ing. The future development of our industries, 
the creation of high-grade productive enterprises 
which pay good wages and demand intelligent 
workers, call for the training of large masses, 
such as the public schools alone can reach. Em- 
ployers demand well-trained youth for their shops 
\ and offices, and they take the schools to task for 
Ithe ill-equipped product turned out. Vocational 
education is growing into a nation-wide move- 

Underlying the demand for intelligently pro- 
ductive youth both in the trades and in the pro- 
fessions, there is another which the movement 
for vocational guidance will make insistent. It is 
proper that those who give employment to boys 
and girls shall ask for more efficiency. It is whole- 



some for any public institution to be measured 
by concrete tests and be called upon to render 
account of its work. But it is equally a right and 
duty of those entrusted with the nurture of the 
rising generation to make the vocations render 
account too. What happens to the boys and girls 
under the new influences in employment is not 
alone a question between them and their individ- 
ual employer, nor between them and their par- 
ents, but it is essentially one for the community. 
The social protection of the young ceases arti- 
ficially and arbitrarily when the school working 
certificate is granted. This ought not to continue 
so. On the contrary, ought not the few years 
after leaving school to be the time for most care- 
ful scrutiny by the public .-* While the authorities 
are given increasing resources to train their 
charges for the demands of modern vocational 
life, should they not be likewise empowered to 
deal with abuse and misapplication of society's 
expensively trained product ? A searching evalu- 
ation of occupations must surely be undertaken 
in order that foreknowledge and forewarning 
shall be in the possession of the parent, teacher, 



boy and girl. The job, too, should be made to 
give an account of itself. The desirable occupa- 
tions must be studied and better prepared for; 
the dull and deadly being classified in a rogue's 
gallery of their own. Then only can reciprocal 
purpose mark the relation between employer and 
employee. For the necessary yet uneducative 
work which young people are obliged to do, com- 
pensation is needed in the form of leisure and 
opportunity for further training in special day 
classes and schools provided for such workers. 
Is it too much to hope that the near future will 
see society join hands with the best employers 
and the friends of youth to conserve during the 
decisive vocational years the best of its capabili- 
ties for service and growth .? 



A GROWING interest and an increasing literature 
indicate a new attitude toward the training of 
youth. The Convention of the National Educa- 
tion Association held in 1910 might be said to 
have found its keynote in the aptly phrased title 
of President Eliot's address, "The Value, dur- 
ing Education, of the Life-Career Motive." The 
thousands of teachers must have departed with 
the conviction that the success of the coming 
education will lie in the strength of the intelli- 
gent purpose it develops in the boy and girl to 
do the work of the world efficiently. The report 
of the Committee on the Place of Industry in 
Public Education is a contribution to the subject 
of vocational preparation. It grasps throughout 
the fundamental need of training to choose life- 
work intelligently. " It is to be hoped," says this 
report, "that the constructive work and the study 
of industry in the elementary school will ulti- 



mately be of such a character that when the 
pupil reaches the age at which the activities of 
adult life make their appeal, he will be able to 
make a wise choice in reference to them and be 
already advanced in an appreciable measure to- 
ward the goal of his special vocation." ^ 

The question of training for choice relates 
quite as much to the selection of the right kind 
of further schooling as to that of a vocation. It 
is quite as important to attend the right kind of 
high school as it is to do the work one is best 
fitted for. Two illustrations from Boston school 
experiences show a promising beginning in the 
new method of helping in the selection of pupils 
for the various high schools of the city. Both the 
High School of Commerce and the High School 
of Practical Arts received applications for en- 
trance from several hundred more grammar- 
school graduates than could be accommodated. 
What pupils were to be given the preference ; on 
what basis were they to be picked .? The Boston 
School Committee has authorized the school 
superintendent to work out with the school prin- 

1 Paper by Prof. E. N. Henderson, page 20. 


cipals a plan whereby each school might desig- 
nate one or more teachers to serve as vocational 
advisers for the school. Something like a hun- 
dred teachers have been so designated, and their 
services to the high schools in question may be 
told in the words of the officials themselves. The 
head-master of the High School of Practical 
Arts writes : " When it became evident that 
many more girls than could be taken had sent in 
applications for admission, I wrote the principals 
requesting them to turn the list over to the vo- 
cational counselors with the suggestion that the 
pupils be graded according to their standing in 
cooking, sewing, and drawing. I also asked that 
those who could afford only one year for further 
preparation be directed to the trade schools. 
Girls without special liking for our work were 
shown the possibilities of the other schools. 

" The girls were classed in three groups, first, 
second, and third, according to standing in the 
subjects above mentioned, together with the taste 
and personal adaptability of each. I took all of 
the first and some of the second, giving personal 
attention to some special cases. If good judg- 



ment has been shown, our classes will be made 
up of girls who will take an interest in the work 
of the school and who will profit thereby." 

Here is a communication of the former head- 
master of the High School of Commerce : "The 
plan of having the vocational counselors of 
grammar schools select boys for our high school 
was as follows : 'The problem with the High 
School of Commerce has been a pressing one for 
the past two years. Last year we selected by lot, 
thinking that such a method was fairest and 
most democratic. This year, when vocational ad- 
visers were appointed in each grammar school, we 
thought that we could properly call upon them 
to solve the problem. Superintendent Brooks 
readily gave his consent. At a meeting held in 
the spring, some of us addressed all the voca- 
tional advisers of the grammar schools, explain- 
ing the types of school and the kind of boys 
suitable. Opportunity was given for question. 
Many of the advisers then visited the schools. 
They took the matter in earnest, calling in the 
parents and forming a very careful judgment in 
selecting the boys. At our school we feel that 



the best method yet has been found, and that 
the system will improve year by year.' " 

An organized plan for advising young people 
as to the continuance of their schooling and the 
choosing of their life-work is at least a reason- 
able attempt to meet the vocational situation we 
have been considering. An experiment with a 
group of high-school boys shortly before their 
graduation three years ago revealed a need for 
vocational guidance which led to what is prob- 
ably the first vocation bureau in this country. 
Sixty or more boys were invited to a reception 
on the roof-garden of the Civic Service House 
in the North End of Boston, to talk over their 
future plans with the late Prof. Frank Parsons 
and several other workers of that neighborhood 
house. The conference disclosed that about a 
dozen of the boys were going to college, a third 
of the rest hoped to be lawyers, almost another 
third doctors, three or four had definite plans for 
business careers, while the rest had no plans and 
were going to take whatever came along. It is a 
question if those with no plans in view were not 
better off than the boys who planned for legal 



and medical studies, woefully unprepared, most 
of them, for the expense, the sacrifice, and the 
struggles that even moderate success in those 
callings demanded. Indeed, vocation, literally 
calling, is not the word to use ; with many of the 
boys the ideal compulsion to follow some one 
pursuit above all others was not evident. There 
could be no doubt that the ambition and perse- 
verance of some of these boys would overcome 
the obstacles in store for them ; but unfortu- 
nately the story of success is more easily told 
than that of mediocrity or failure. We have yet 
to learn how to take stock of waste and misdi- 
rection as well as of achievement in human pur- 

An office was opened to give those who so de- 
sired an opportunity to talk over their vocational 
problems with a sympathetic and skilled econo- 
mist. Prof. Frank Parsons was put in charge of 
the Civic Service House Vocation Office, and he 
was also available for interviews at the Women's 
Educational and Industrial Union, and the Bos- 
ton Young Men's Christian Association. Scores 
of men and women of all ages and conditions as 



well as hundreds of letters came to him from all 
parts of the country. A pathetic note of self- 
doubt and helpless drifting was the burden of an 
amazing number of these communications. Of 
course nothing could be done for the letter-writ- 
ers, because vocational counseling could not hon- . 
estly be given except through skilled and friendly 
personal contact. 

Prof. Parsons's work is described in the last 
volume which he wrote, entitled "Choosing a Vo- 
cation."* The importance of scientific methods 
in self-analysis and the working out of written 
personal data to use in the course of a number of 
interviews with the counselor was emphasized 
by Professor Parsons in his work for the appli- 
cant. The counselor, on the other hand, was to 
be trained according to a definite plan, and 
equipped with a knowledge of the vocations, of 
industrial statistics, and of every kind of avail- 
able educational opportunity. 

Within a year the interest taken by business 
men, educators, and social workers in the pos- 
sibilities of a well-organized vocation bureau, 

1 Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. 


located centrally in offices of its own, has given 
that undertaking a better foundation and a wider 
scope. The new Vocation Bureau's relations with 
the Boston School Committee and the work of 
the School Vocation Committee appointed by 
the school authorities are perhaps the most im- 
portant features thus far in its work. 

Early in the spring of 1909, the School Com- 
mittee of Boston passed a resolution inviting 
the Vocation Bureau to submit a plan for voca- 
tional guidance to assist public-school graduates. 
The Bureau presented the following sugges- 
tions : — 

^^ First, the Bureau will employ a vocational 
director to give practically his entire time to the 
organization of vocational counsel to the gradu- 
ates of the Boston Public Schools during the 
ensuing year, 

" Secoitd, the work of this vocational director 
shall be carried on in cooperation with the 
Boston School Committee or the Superintend- 
ent of Schools as the Committee shall see fit. 

" Third, it is the plan of the Bureau to have 
this vocational director organize a conference of 



masters and teachers of the Boston high schools 
through the Committee or the Superintendent, 
so that members of the graduating classes will 
be met for vocational advice either by this voca- 
tional director or by the cooperating school mas- 
ters and teachers, all working along a general 
plan, to be adopted by this conference. 

''Fourth, the vocational director should, in 
cooperation with the Superintendent of Schools 
or any person whom he may appoint, arrange vo- 
cational lectures for the members of the gradu- 
ating classes. 

''Fifth, the Bureau believes that school mas- 
ters and teachers should be definitely trained to 
give vocational counsel, and therefore, that it is 
advisable for this vocational director, in coop- 
eration with the Superintendent of Schools, to 
establish a series of conferences to which certain 
selected teachers and masters should be invited 
on condition that that they will agree in turn 
definitely to do vocational counseling with their 
own pupils. 

"Sixth, the vocational director will keep a 
careful record of the work accomplished for the 



pupils during the year, the number of pupils 
counseled with, the attitude of the pupils with 
reference to a choice of vocations, the advice 
given and, as far as possible, the results follow- 
ing. These records should form the basis for a 
report to the Boston School Committee at the 
end of the year. The Bureau cherishes the hope 
that it can so demonstrate the practicability and 
value of this work that the Boston School Com- 
mittee will eventually establish in its regular 
organization a supervisor of vocational advice." 
This communication was signed by the Chair- 
man of the Executive Board of the Vocation 
Bureau. On June 7, 1909, the School Committee 
at a regular meeting took favorable action on the 
Vocation Bureau's propositions and instructed 
the Superintendent to appoint a committee of six 
to work with the Vocation Bureau director. For 
almost a year the committee thus appointed, con- 
sisting of three masters and three sub-masters, 
have been holding weekly meetings at the office 
of the Vocation Bureau. Their report to the 
Superintendent of Schools is worth quoting in 
full not only because of the valuable sugges- 



tions it contains, but also as a promising indi- 
cation of the teachers' attitude toward the in- 
troduction of vocational guidance in the school 
system : — 

" The Committee on Vocational Direction respectfully 
presents the following as a report for the school year just 
closed. The past year has been a year of beginnings, the 
field of operation being large and the problems compli- 
cated. A brief survey of the work shows the following 
results : — 

"A general interest in vocational direction has been 
aroused among the teachers of Boston, not only in the 
elementary but in the high schools. 

" A vocational counselor, or a committee of such coun- 
selors, has been appointed in every high school and in all 
but one of the elementary schools. 

" A vocational card record of every elementary school 
graduate for this year has been made, to be forwarded to 
the high school in the fall. 

" Stimulating vocational lectures have been given to 
thirty of the graduating classes of the elementary schools 
of Boston, including all the schools in the more congested 
parts of the city. 

*' Much has been done by way of experiment by the 
members of this committee in the various departments of 
getting employment, counseling, and following up pupils 
after leavingr school. 




" The interest and loyal cooperation of many of the 
leading philanthropic societies of Boston have been se- 
cured, as well as that of many prominent in the business 
and professional life of the city and the state. 

" A good beginning has already been made in review- 
ing books suitable for vocational libraries in the schools. 

" It was early decided that we should confine our efforts 
for the first year mainly to pupils of the highest element- 
ary grade as the best point of contact. The problem of 
vocational aid and counsel in the high schools has not as 
yet been directly dealt with, yet much that is valuable has 
been accomplished in all our high schools on the initia- 
tive of the head-masters and selected teachers. It is safe 
to say that the quality and amount of vocational aid and 
direction has far exceeded any hitherto given in those 
schools. The committee, through open and private con- 
ferences, and correspondence with the head-masters, have 
kept in close touch with the situation in high schools, but 
they feel that for the present year it is best for the vari- 
ous types of high schools each to work out its own plan 
of vocational direction. The facts regarding their experi- 
ence can properly be made the basis of a later report. A 
committee of three, appointed by the Head-masters' Asso- 
ciation, stands ready to advise with this committee on all 
matters relating to high school vocational interests. Once 
during the year the principals of the specialized high 
schools met in conference the vocational counselors of 
the city and have presented the aims and curricula of 



these schools in such a way as to greatly enlighten those 
responsible for advising pupils just entering high schools. 
"The committee have held regular weekly meetings 
through the school year since September. At these meet- 
ings every phase of vocational aid has been discussed, 
together with its adaptability to our present educational 
system. Our aim has been to test the various conclusions 
before recommending them for adoption. This has taken 
time. Our most serious problem so far has been to adapt 
our plans to conditions as we find them, without increas- 
ing the teachers' work and without greatly increased ex- 
pense. We have assumed that the movement was not a 
temporary ' fad,' but that it had a permanent value, and 
was therefore worthy the serious attention of educators. 
y*' Three aims have stood out above all others : first, to 
secure thoughtful consideration, on the part of parents, 
pupils, and teachers, of the importance of a life-career 
motive ; second, to assist in every way possible in placing 
pupils in some remunerative work on leaving school; and 
third, to keep in touch with and help them thereafter, 
suggesting means of improvement and watching the ad- 
vancement of those who need such aid.)The first aim has 
been in some measure achieved throughout the city. The 
other two have thus far been worked out only by the 
individual members of the committee. As a result we are 
very firmly of the opinion that until some central bureau 
of information for pupils regarding trade and mercantile 
opportunities is established, and some effective system of 




sympathetically following up pupils, for a longer or a 
shorter period after leaving school, is organized in our 
schools as centres, the effort to advise and direct merely 
will largely fail. Both will require added executive labor 
which will fall upon the teachers at first. We believe they 
will accept the responsibility. If, as Dr. Eliot says, teach- 
ers find those schools more interesting where the life- 
career motive is present, then the sooner that motive is 
discovered in the majority of pupils the more easily will 
the daily work be done and the product correspondingly 

" In order to enlist the interest and cooperation of the 
teachers of Boston, three mass meetings, one in October 
and two in the early spring, were held. A fourth meeting 
with the head-masters of high schools was also held with 
the same object. As a most gratifying result the general 
attitude is most sympathetic and the enthusiasm marked. 
The vocation counselors in high and elementary schools 
form a working organization of over one hundred teach- 
ers, representing all the schools. A responsible official, or 
committee, in each school stands ready to advise pupils 
and parents at times when they most need advice and are 
asking for it. They suggest whatever helps may be avail- 
able in further educational preparation. They are ready 
to fit themselves professionally to do this work more in- 
telligently and discriminatingly, not only by meeting to- 
gether for mutual counsel and exchange of experiences, 
but by study and expert preparation if need be. 



"As a beginning of our work with pupils we have fol- 
lowed out two lines : the lecture and the card record. 
The addresses have been mainly stimulating and inspira- 
tional. It seems to the committee, however, that specific 
information coming from those intimately connected with 
certain lines of labor should have a place also in this lec- 
ture phase of our work. In a large number of high and 
elementary schools addresses of this character have been 
given by experts during the year. The committee claim 
no credit for these, though carried out under the inspira- 
tion of the movement the committee represent. The cus- 
tom of having such addresses given before Junior Alumni 
Associations, Parents' Associations, and evening school 
gatherings has become widespread, the various masters 
taking the initiative in such cases. The speakers are able 
to quote facts with an authority that is convincing to the 
pupil and leads him to take a more serious view of his 
future plans, especially if the address is followed up by 
similar talks from the class teacher, emphasizing the 
points of the speaker. This is a valuable feature and 
should be extended to include more of the elementary 
grades, especially in the more densely settled portions of 
the city, from which most of our unskilled workers come. 

" A vocational record card calHng for elementary school 
data on one side and for high school data on the other, 
has been furnished all the elementary schools for regis- 
tration of this year's graduates. The same card will be 
furnished to high schools this faU. These cards are to be 



sent forward by the elementary school counselors to high 
schools in September, to be revised twice during the high 
school course. The value of the card record is not so 
much in the registering of certain data as in the results 
of the process of getting these. The effect upon the 
mental attitude of pupil, teacher, and parent is excellent, 
and makes an admirable beginning in the plan of voca- 
tional direction. 

" The committee are now in a position where they must 
meet a demand of both pupils and teachers for vocational 
enlightenment. Pupils should have detailed information 
in the form of inexpensive handbooks regarding the vari- 
ous callings and how to get into them, wages, permanence 
of employment, chance of promotion, etc. Teachers must 
have a broader outlook upon industrial opportunities for 
boys and girls. Even those teachers who know their 
pupils well generally have little acquaintance with indus- 
trial conditions. The majority can advise fairly well how 
to prepare for a profession, while few can tell a boy how 
to get into a trade, or what the opportunities therein are. 
In this respect our teachers will need to be more broadly 
informed regarding social, industrial, and economic prob- 
lems. We have to face a more serious problem in a 
crowded American city than in a country where children 
are supposed to follow the father's trade. 

"In meeting the two most pressing needs, viz., the vo- 
cational enlightenment of teachers, parents, and pupils, 
and the training of vocational counselors, we shall con- 



tinue to look for aid to the Vocation Bureau. The Bureau 
has been of much assistance during the past year, in fact 
indispensable, in matters of correspondence, securing in- 
formation, getting out printed matter, and in giving the 
committee counsel based upon a superior knowledge of 
men and conditions in the business world. 

" The question of vocational direction is merely one 
phase of the greater question of vocational education. As 
a contributory influence we believe serious aggressive 
work in this line will lead to several definite results, aside 
from the direct benefit to the pupils. It will create a de- 
mand for better literature on the subject of vocations. It 
will help increase the demand for more and better trade 
schools. It will cause teachers to seek to broaden their 
knowledge of opportunities for mechanical and mercan- 
tile training. Lastly, it will tend to a more intelligent and 
generous treatment of employees by business houses, the 
personal welfare and prospects of the employee being 
taken into account as well as the interests of the house 

The vocational record card referred to in the 
report for use throughout the school years of the 
boys and girls is here reproduced. 




Name School and^Class 

Date Birth 
Parent's Name 

Parent's plans for pupil 
Pupil excels in or likes what subjects ? 
Pupil fails in or dislikes what subjects? 

Physique Pupil's plan — (a trade, a profession, business) 

Attend school, or work next year ? 
What school ? 

Intend to graduate from that school ? 
After High School, what ? 
(College — Tech. — Normal — Evg. High — Trade Sch. or Spec. Sch.) 



Name From 



Object in attending High School ? 




Does intend to graduate ? What School after High ? 
Preparing for business — trade — or profession ? 

Greatest aptitude 


Have you changed plans since first year ? 

If so, what are they ? 

Apart from its relations with the Public 
Schools, the Vocation Bureau holds consultations 



in its office with many people of all ages who 
come with personal problems. It actively cooper- 
ates with the few but very important organiza- 
tions that are undertaking special vocational 
guidance. Of interest are the plans of the Girls' 
Trade Education League and the Boston Home 
and School Association, both of which societies 
are represented in the management of the Voca- 
tion Bureau. These plans are in process of de- 
velopment and have been only partially carried 
out ; but they represent so thorough an under- 
standing of the problem, so practical and detailed 
a method of approach, that they are of interest 
to those who are helping to bring about a move- 
ment for vocational guidance. 


The Girls' Trade Education League proposes 
to make a thorough study of the variety of diffi- 
culties and opportunities which confront young 
girls leaving school between the ages of 14 and 
18 to become wage-earners. Its purpose will be 
to try to lessen the misfits, discouragements, and 



failures which are constantly arising, and which 
seem to be due in large measure to the hit-or- 
miss fashion in which girls enter an employment, 
with no knowledge of its requirements and no 
serious thought of where it will lead them. As 
these girls form a large percentage of the home- 
makers of the future it is important to direct 
them into occupations which do not retard their 
development, but which tend to increase their 
general efficiency. 

By confining its field to the subject of Voca- 
tions for Girls, the League will supplement the 
work of the Vocation Bureau. 

The League has outlined its work as follows : 

I. To study all sorts of occupations in which young 
girls are employed, for the purpose of securing 
information as to conditions under which the 
work is performed, ability required, wages paid, 
steadiness of employment, opportunities for ad- 
vancement, and such other points as would be 
useful in giving advice. 
II. Having collected, or rather continuously collecting 
such information, the League will endeavor to 
place this at the disposal of the public schools, 
either through lectures, classes, printed leaflets, 



or in whatever way it may be found most useful 
to them. 
III. To conduct a Vocation Office for the purpose of 
directing girls into employment after they leave 
school. In this work the endeavor will be made 
not so much to find work for a girl, as to direct 
her into that particular work for which she 
seems best suited. 

In general, then, the League hopes to be of 
service in two ways, — first, by furnishing the 
pubHc schools with information about occupa- 
tions for girls, which will aid them in counseling 
girls who are planning to leave school and go to 
work ; and second, by continuing the work begun 
in the schools with a " follow-up system " of the 
girls as they drop out, directing them in accord 
with their individual needs. 


For the coming year the plan is to secure in- 
formation as to the educational and vocational 
ambitions of parents for their children, and to 
discover how far those ambitions are based on 
knowledge and possible opportunities to realize 



them. The following questionaire will be sent 
out to the parents of children in various schools : 


1. Are you going to send your boy (or girl) to college? 

2. If so, what college, and why ? 

3. Have you in view any occupation for which you wish 

to train your boy (or girl) ? 

4. What occupation do you think your boy (or girl) is 

most adapted to ? Has your boy (or girl) received 
any training in preparation for this occupation ? 


1. Are you intending to send your boy (or girl) to high 

school ? 

2. If so, what high school, and why ? 

3. Have you in view any occupation for which you wish 

to train your boy (or girl) ? 

4. What occupation do you think your boy (or girl) is 

most adapted to ? Has your boy (or girl) received 
any training in preparation for this occupation ? 

With the above information in hand, the Asso- 
ciation will determine the kind of lectures and 
conferences to organize for the various parents' 



The Vocation Bureau is investigating voca- 
tions for Boston boys, and expects to furnish, in 
a convenient form, information to teachers about 
the demands and conditions of occupations open 
to boys of the city. The information secured is 
transcribed on white cards when it presents nor- 
mal conditions, on yellow cards when the occu- 
pation is undesirable for any reason, and on red 
cards when objectionable or dangerous. The fol- 
lowing specimens of the data secured are pre- 
sented with the identifying facts omitted : — 



Nature of Occupation. Shoe Manufacture. 
Date of Inquiry. July /, tqia. 

Name of Firm 


Superintendent or Employment Manager 

Total number of employees [ pg^jjf'j^^g^o 

Number of boys, 1200 ; girls, /ooo. 

Has there been a shifting in relative numbers of each ? No. There 
is fixed work for each. 


Wages of various groups, and ages. Errand boys, counters, carriers^ 
14 years old, $s.jq , assemblers, assistants, pattern boys, ib years, 



$S-50 to $6.00 : lusters, 20 years, %b.0Q to ^7.00 ; other work, so years 

or more, $8.00 to $13.00 /or youtig me7i in early employment. 
Wages at beginning, to $6.00. 
Seasonal. By year. 
Hours per day. 1.30 A. M. to 5.30 P. M. To i3 M. on Saturday in 

summer. One hour nooning. 
Rate of increase. This is very irregular, averaging $r.aa per week 

each year. 

a. On what dependent. Not at all on age^ but on ability and posi- 

tio7i filled, or on increase in skill in a certain process. 

b. Time or piece payment — any premiums or bonus ? 66% piece 

payment. Premium on certain lines for quality and quan- 
tity of work, neatness of departments, etc. 


How are boys secured ? By application to firm, by advertising, and 

by employees. It is impossible to find enough. 
Their ages. Poitrteen years and up. 
Previous jobs. Nearly all boys come into this industry from school. 

A few come from other shoe factories, or from retail shoe stores. 
Previous schooling. Grammar school, or a certificate of literacy or 

attendance at night school must be presented. 
Are any continuing this training ? Yes. Where .? In public evening 

schools^ Y. M. C. A. classes, and Continuation School in Boston. 


a. Physical conditions. Most sanitary, with fnodern improve- 

ments and safeguards, with hospital department and trained 

b. What variety of skill required? Some mechanical skill. The 

ordittary boy of good sense can easily learn all processes. 
C. Description of processes (photos if possible). Errand boys, 
counters, carriers, assemblers, assistants, pattern boys, last- 
ers, trimmers, and work dicing, welting, and ironing shoes. 
Also in office, salesman, foreman, manager, or superintend- 



d. What special dangers. 

Machinery. The chief danger arises from carelessness. 
Dust. Modern dust removers are used. 
Moisture. Not to excess. 
Hard labor. Steady labor rather than hard. 
Strain. Not excessive. 

Monotony. Considerable on automatic machines. 
Competitive conditions of industry. New England is a great centre 
of the shoe industry. There is extreme competition, but with a 
world market. 
Future of industry. The future of a staple product in universal 

What chance for grammar school boy ? He would begin at the bot- 
tom, as errand boy. 
High school graduate ? In office, or in wholesale department, to be- 
come salesman, or manager. 
Vocational school graduate ? Trade school, giving factory equip- 
ment, would be best. 
What opportunity for the worker to show what he can do in other 
departments ? The superintendent and foreman study the boy 
and place him where it seems best for him and for the firm.. 


What kind of boy is desired ? Honest, bright, healthy, strong. Boys 
living at home are preferred. 

What questions asked of applicant ? As to home, education, experi- 
ence, and why leaving any former position. 

What tests applied? For office work, writing andfiguritig. 

What records kept ? (Collect all printed questionaires and records.) 

Name, address, age, nationality, tnarried or single, living at home 
or boarding, pay, date of entering and of leaving. 

Union or non-union ■* Open shop. 

Comment of Employer. Educatiott is better for the boy and for us. 

Will he take boys sent by Vocation Bureau ? Yes. 

Will he attend V. B. conferences if asked ? Gladly. 

Comment of Foreman. Employment bureaus have failed us. We 
look everywhere for boys, but find few such as we want. The 



average boy can apply himself here so as to be well placed in 

Comment of Boys. We have a bowling alley, reading room, and 
library, park, and much to make service here pleasant. It is 
somethi7tg like school still. We 7nean to stay. Piece work will 
give us good pay by the time we are twenty years old. 

Health Board comments. Inhaling naphtha from cements and dust 
from leatherworking machines, and overcrowding a7id overheating 
workrooms, are to be guarded against in this occupation. The 
danger of each injurious process may be prevented by proper 

Census Bureau Report on this Occupation, Massachu- 
setts, igo8. 








2 « 




J) iO 


> a 

ZJ Q. 


0, 3 









Bibliography. The Shoe Manufacturing Industry in New Eng- 
land. I. K. Bailey i^New England States, v. i, 1897), and Massa- 
chusetts Labor Bulletin, No. 14, May, 1910. 

School fitting for this occupation. The Boston Continuation School. 


This information gathered from these cards 
has been transcribed into narrative form for the 
use of teachers, and some specimen bulletins are 
here given . 




In the lowest position in banking, that of errand 
boy, boys receive 1^4.00 and 1^5.00 a week. For 
regular messenger service the pay p^^^ Positions 

begins at $6.00 a week or 1^300 a and Oppor- 

. t unities 
year, increasing, on an average, at 

the rate of ^100 a year. Young men as check- 
tellers, clerks, bookkeepers, and bond salesmen 
receive from $800 to j^iooo a year. The average 
bank employee in Boston receives $1100 a year. 
Tellers, who must be responsible and able men 
of thirty years or over, have salaries ranging 
from $2200 to $3300. 

Savings banks pay somewhat higher salaries 
and offer a betfer future to one who must re- 
main in the ranks of the business. 

Bank officers receive higher salaries now than 
bank presidents did twenty years ago. Officers 
and heads of departments in a banking-house 
are not always taken from the employees ; they 
are often selected by a firm from its acquaintance 
in the banking world. 

Rarely are boys employed in the banking in- 



dustry under sixteen years, which is the more 

general age for entering. Some firms will not 

employ them under nineteen years 
The Boy , ^ , , 

Qualities and of age on account of the great re- 

Training sponsibility of the messenger ser- 

Required . -r^ , i , 

Vice. Boys must be gentlemanly, 

neat-appearing, intelligent, honest, business-like, 
and able to concentrate their minds upon their 
daily work. 

The ordinary high-school education is the gen- 
eral requirement for banking. Some boys enter 
the business without completing the high school 
courses, but are consequently often unable to 
make proper advancement. Courses in business 
schools are desirable, and one should have fair 
training in mathematics and bookkeeping and 
be a good penman. In one banking-house in- 
vestigated, having 195 employees, there were but 
three college graduates, one being the cashier. 
Banking men wish that this condition were dif- 
ferent, but believe that it is best for those who 
enter the occupation to do so early in life. A sec- 
ond reason for this is that the average pay of the 
bank employee does not appeal to the college man. 



The physical conditions of the occupation are 
of the highest grade. There is jhe Business 

moral danger to young men on Conditions 

and Future 
the speculative side of the stock 

and bond business, and no broker is allowed to 

receive orders from a clerk of another firm. 

There is keen competition among national 
banks and trust companies in bidding for de- 
posits, and in the stock and bond business for 
speculation and investment. There is little com- 
petition among savings banks and cooperative 
banks. These have their lists of depositors, and in- 
terest rates are controlled by business conditions. 

The business of the future in all lines will be 
excellent because of the vital connection of the 
banking business with the money system of the 
country, and with all lines of activity in the 
financial and industrial world. 

" Messenger service is the first stepping-stone 
in banking. A boy should realize comments by 

that here lies his opportunity. The People in 

.„ , the Business 

careless messenger will be a care- 
less bookkeeper or clerk and an unsuccessful 
bank man." 



" The chances of a boy are better in some re- 
spects in the small bank than in the large one. 
In the small bank one learns all parts of the busi- 
ness and has a much better future. The success- 
ful men in such firms are often chosen as officers 
in the large firms." 

" Bank combinations in Boston in recent years 
have given prominence to men who had achieved 
success in their smaller field, or in their particular 
form of banking experience." 

" Service in a bank is educational, even if one 
does not remain, in methods and mental training. 
But the person who goes out in middle life finds it 
difficult to get a position in the business world." 

" A boy should get into the credit department 
of a banking house, where he may come in con- 
tact with the cashier or president." 

"Savings banks do not generally take boys 
direct from school. Age, maturity, and some 
kind of business experience are desired." 

" Investment in stocks and bonds is a great 
business and calls for high intelligence." 

" Character comes first, for banking is a busi- 
ness of continual trusting in men. Banks are 



willing to pay for honesty, energy, brains, and 
good judgment." 

"Banking calls for ability to judge human 
nature and to carry many details in mind, for 
accurate and rapid thought, and for clear and 
firm decision." 

" Every consolidation brings a search for the 
best men, and every bank is looking for the right 
kind of young man." 

" There is a good future in the banking busi- 
ness in all its departments, owing to the great 
development of this country in industrial and 
commercial lines." 


This study of the industry deals with the man- 
ufacture of confectionery under modern condi- 
tions in large establishments which Tt, r d t 
employ from one hundred to one Conditions 
thousand people. The facts and 
conditions presented are in the main such as pre- 
vail in the general industry in New England. 

The health conditions of candy-making are 
favorable in the large establishments. In the 



smaller and older ones unfavorable conditions 
prevail. Some rooms in which candies are cooled 
are kept regularly below normal temperature, 
while others, in which mixing takes place, are 
above normal temperature. There is some dan- 
ger from machinery, and discomfort, if not dan- 
ger, from steam and heat. 

In this industry, in various factories, there are 
employed from three to six times as many girls 
as boys. The girls perform hand processes in 
the making of candies, and do the work of box- 
ing and labeling. The proportion of boys being 
relatively so small, there is greater opportunity 
for them to rise to the responsible positions. 

The big factories employ many boys, because 
there is so much work that they can do, and be- 
Pay. Positions, ^^use men generally are unwilling 
and Oppor- to work at the wages paid in this 
occupation. In the factories investi- 
gated, one half of the male employees were found 
to be under twenty-one years of age. 

Pay at the beginning varies from ;^3.oo to 
$6.00, according to the age of the boy and the 
particular work done. Boys act as helpers and 



assistants, shippers, mixers, and boilers ; the more 
difficult processes are performed by men. Pay in 
the positions enumerated varies from ^3.00, the 
lowest sum paid at the beginning, to ^12.00. 
The average increase per week each year is 
$1.25. Young men of eighteen or twenty years 
who remain permanently in the occupation earn 
from ^12.00 to ^15.00 a week. As foreman of a 
room, a man earns $18.00 or $20.00 a week. 

In the mixing processes and the general in- 
dustry very many Italians are employed, because 
of their quickness and the adaptability of the 
race to this kind of work. 

In some establishments a few boys are regu- 
larly trained as apprentices to learn the entire 
business ; such become foremen, superintendents, 
traveling salesmen, and managers. 

Boys begin at the age of fourteen in this in- 
dustry. They must be clean, bright, quick, and 
strong. Most boys entering live at 
home, as is the case in industries Qualities and 
paying low wages at the begin- Training Re- 
ning. While no special education 
is necessary, one must have the usual attendance 



at the grammar school, or present a certificate of 
literacy. With some firms a knowledge of chem- 
istry is an advantage in the manufacturing de- 

It is an industry in which the educational re- 
quirement is small, and the most important qual- 
ities desired are neatness and quickness. 

" There is a fair chance for the advancement 

^ , of a boy or young man ; vacancies 

Comments of j j ^ ' 

People in are regularly filled by selecting 

the Industry f j-om employees who have shown 
their industry and ability." 

" From the nature of the business and the 
number of factories in and about Boston, the 
chance for steady employment of a fair per cent 
of young men who have learned the work is 
very good. One should become acquainted with 
all departments, serving some time in each if he 
wishes to become master of the occupation and 
earn good pay. He should work also in several 

" It is a good occupation for one who masters 
it thoroughly. People outside have no conception 
of the magnitude of the candy business." 




"Boys with push and health may become able 
to earn a good living; those with fair education 
may reach the higher positions. A boy must have 
the quality of perseverance and interest himself 
thoroughly in his work. There is more demand 
than ever for mental ability, for mind put into 
one's work." 

" A former luxury is becoming a necessity and 
the candy-making business offers a fairly good 
future for a boy or young man." 


Landscape architecture deals with plans and 
designs for the laying out of public and private 
parks and grounds and city planning. It is allied 
to architecture, horticulture, and civil engineering. 

The health conditions of this occupation are 

excellent. To his indoor work the landscape 

architect adds the variety and ex- _, „ , 

■' The Profes- 

hilaration of working out-of-doors, sion : Con- 
He has steadily before him an ideal ^''^^""^ ^"^ 
-' Future 

of form and beauty in his own un- 
dertakings as well as continual contact with them 
in the work of other men. 



Indoor work, which is mainly planning, writ- 
ing, and drafting, runs quite steadily through the 
year; outdoor work is done mainly in the sum- 
mer. Young men must expect little if any field- 
work at the start. 

To some the only drawback in the profession 
is that of travel, a great deal of which is neces- 
sary for practicing landscape architects. On the 
other hand, steady confinement indoors is surely 
a disadvantage. 

In this industry there is not such keen com- 
petition as is found in commercial lines. Con- 
tracts calling for the better grades of work are 
not awarded as the results of solicitation ; busi- 
ness comes to a firm mainly because of its repu- 
tation. Both landscape architecture and civil 
engineering, allied industries, are steadily in- 
creasing their fields of activity. The profession 
of landscape architecture has grown greatly in 
recent years, yet there are few large firms. It is 
one of the most modern and promising of occu- 

While there are neither many nor large firms 
in the country, in the vaults of one firm investi- 



gated lie copies of 20,000 drawings for work ac- 
tually done. 

Success in landscape architecture depends on 
the individual or firm that can do good work and 
make it known to the public. 

The landscape architect bears the same relation 
to the landscape contractor as the architect bears 
to the building contractor. The landscape con- 
tractor executes the plans and designs prepared 
by the landscape architect, under the supervision 
of his representative on the grounds, usually a 
civil engineer or planting superintendent. 

Older terms for the profession are "landscape 
engineer " and " landscape gardener." Land- 
scape gardening now has to do especially with 
the planting side of the profession, and boys 
prepare for it by employment with a landscape 
architect and by field work. 

Wages for boys entering this vocation range 
from 1^4.00 to $6.00 and $7.00. Such wages usu- 
ally cover the period of learning p^y^p^.^^^,^ 
the occupation. A young man who and Oppor- 
has taken a school course in the 
profession may enter at $10.00 or more. While 



learning, a draftsman receives about the same 
pay as in architectural offices, from $9.00 to 
^12.00 a week, and a planting department clerk 
;^ 1 2.00 per week; an assistant in the field from 
^8.00 to ^10.00, and a superintendent of outdoor 
work $15.00. 

Beyond those positions when young men have 
served a period of learning of four or five years, 
pay increases steadily, quite equaling that re- 
ceived in building architecture, and averaging 
from $1000 to ;^i8oo per year. As in all lines of 
business, advancement and success depend upon 
personal ability, thoroughness of training, and 
business conditions. 

Pay in the profession, while generally stated 
by employer and employee in the figures given 
above, is usually computed by the hour, espe- 
cially for indoor work. 

The usual age for entering is sixteen years ; 
Th Bo ' ^ ^°^ younger than this would 

Qualities and have no opportunity except as 

latld^^'' °^^^ ^""y- ^"^ "'"^^ ^^P^c^ to 
give the years between sixteen 

and twenty to learning the profession, earning 



only enough for living expenses. Most boys 
found in such an occupation live at home. 

One should have ability in drawing, taste in 
design, an accurate mind, good sense, and good 
eyesight. A boy should be strong, of good habits, 
and of normal physique. 

A high-school education is the least require- 
ment. Most boys entering landscape architecture 
in Boston and vicinity come from the Mechanic 
Arts High School, the Institute of Technology, 
Harvard University, Bussey Institute, and the 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute. One must be 
well trained in mathematics, surveying, and draft- 
ing, A knowledge of plants is an advantage in 
all cases, and with some firms an essential. 

Many students use their school or college va- 
cation for studying the profession with a land- 
scape architect, thus getting practical field-work 
to supplement their school courses. 

" It is a profession demanding hard work with 
long hours and much painstaking service for 
moderate financial returns. Most ^ mments of 

who go into it do so for love of the People in the 

.. „ Industry 




" The work is in part of an advisory nature, 
necessitating investigation, which is the oppor- 
tunity of young men They draw up plans and 
direct the execution of them by contractors." 

"Teach a boy drawing, no matter what he 
can do or what occupation he may enter. It 
trains the mind and hand and is of help always." 

" Conditions have changed greatly in recent 
years. The Metropolitan Commissions pay a 
higher price for a shorter season and sometimes 
draw young men away from architects' offices." 

" Better be a first-rate grocer than a second- 
rate landscape architect. One must think care- 
fully before entering this profession, so that he 
may not put in three or four years and find him- 
self not fitted for it." 

"This occupation opens the door to a con- 
genial work and gives one broad views and in- 
terests in life." 

One of the methods adopted by the Boston 
Vocation Bureau to further interest in the work 
has been a series of informal dinner conferences 
attended by leading business men and educators. 



The heads of some of the largest industrial enter- 
prises in the state contributed experiences of great 
value and by their interest showed that vocational 
guidance is something which concerns not only 
the boy and the girl, the family and the school, 
but commerce and industry quite as much. 

Courses of lectures have been given in the 
public school system of Providence, R. L, at 
Harvard University, Boston University, Tufts 
College, and elsewhere dealing with the occupa- 
tions and their requirements. The following par- 
tial announcement of a course given at the Civic 
Service House will show the nature of the talks. 


Vocation Talks by Experts 

Sunday evening free and frank discussions for the benefit of all who 
are wrestling with the problems of choosing a vocation. 














In the audiences which attended this course 
there were parents and teachers who found this 
an opportunity to study the nature of various 
occupations, young people who came to hear 
about the particular vocation they had in view 
for themselves ; and a number of young and old 
who were laboring with the problem of choice. 

In Germany for many years, and in Scotland, 
the law has recognized the need of intelligent 
direction of the young. The German system of 
industrial training presupposes a profound in- 
terest in the wage-earning career of youth, and 
though in some respects the social organization 
of that country makes its regulative provisions 
impossible in ours, there is much to be learned 
from its intelligent and thorough-going methods 
of dealing with its young people. 

In his Dundee address on " Unemployment " 
two years ago, and in the House of Commons 
address on Labor Exchanges, in 1909, the Rt. 
Hon. Winston Churchill emphasized the need 
of guidance for the vast majority of England's 
youth cast adrift in the odd occupations open to 
boys of fourteen years. The consequences of 



present-day conditions may be measured by the 
grim fact, that out of the unemployed applying 
for help under the Unemployed Workman Act, 
no less than twenty-eight per cent are between 
twenty and thirty years of age. " No boy or girl 
ought to be treated merely as cheap labor," 
says Mr. Churchill. " Up to eighteen years of 
age, every boy and girl in this country should, 
as in the old days of apprenticeship, be learning 
a trade as well as earning a living." The Labor 
Exchange, Mr. Churchill conceives as an agency 
for guiding the new generation into suitable, 
promising, and permanent employment, and for 
diverting them from over-stocked or declining 
industries. These exchanges are to cooperate 
with the vocation bureaus of the various educa- 
tion authorities that are coming into existence in 
Scotland and in England. 

A clause in the Scotch Education Act of 1908 
permits school authorities to maintain or to com- 
bine "with other bodies to maintain any agency 
for collecting and distributing information as to 
employments open to children on leaving school." 

Munich has a special department in its Labor 



Exchange set aside for children, and those other 
than apprentices are dealt with in the unskilled 
section. Mr. Frederick Keeling in his pamphlet 
on the Labor Exchange^ describes the method 
by which the cooperation of the school and the 
Exchange is secured. The head-master assem- 
bles all the children who are about to leave 
school and impresses on them the importance of 
making a careful choice of an occupation. They 
are then given forms to fill out with the consent 
of their parents and with the advice of their 
teacher. After these are returned they are given 
forms on which they can apply for positions and 
which they have to take to the Exchange in order 
to see if a post is vacant. Visits are often obvi- 
ated by messages from the Exchange to the 
school. The preliminary steps are taken soon 
enough to enable the children in most cases to 
have a situation ready for them the moment they 
leave school. It should be noted that the Munich 
continuation schools serve as effective place- 
ment agencies for their own girls and boys. 

1 The Labor Exchange in Relation to Boy and Girl Labor, Fred- 
erick Keeling. P. S. King & Son, Westminster, London, 1910. 



While the securing of suitable employment is 
the chief object of the Labor Exchange, and al- 
though educational readjustment is not in its 
programme, the Exchange has, nevertheless, 
contributed important evidence as to the need 
of vocational training and guidance before the 
period of employment is at hand. 

The English Apprenticeship and Skilled Em- 
ployment Committees have done valuable work, 
though necessarily on a small scale, in the field 
of employment. Their indirect influence, how- 
ever, on the movement for vocational training and 
the success of their supervision over the progress 
of the children placed has been considerable. 
Excellent handbooks have been published under 
the auspices of these committees, the most use- 
ful of which have been the pamphlets : " Trades 
for London Boys and How to Enter Them," and 
"Trades for London Girls and How to Enter 
Them." ^ These pamphlets cover such topics as 
the method of organizing vocational aid associa- 
tions, the considerations of health and prospects 

1 Apprenticeship and Skilled Employment Association, Deni- 
son House, Vauxhall Bridge Road, London. 



in the trades, the various openings for boys and 
girls, and the opportunities for further training. 
The London County Council and Glasgow 
School Board have made use of thousands of 
copies of these handbooks. 

A score or more of affiliated committees in the 
city of London and in the provinces are in active 
relations with the central association for Appren- 
ticeship and Skilled Employment, each commit- 
tee working locally for the vocational welfare of 
the boys and girls in its vicinity. Reports of such 
committees as the Hampstead Apprenticeship 
and Skilled Employment Committee show in de- 
tail the neisrhborhood treatment of the vocational 
needs of young people. Through the joint action 
of these committees relations have been estab- 
lished with trade-union secretaries and with the 
oflficials responsible for the establishment of a 
national system of labor exchanges. A confer- 
ence has been held with the Prime Minister and 
other cabinet ministers in which the experience 
of those interested in the problem of boy labor 
was presented with suggestions for improvement 
through the adoption of a system of compulsory 



attendance at continuation schools up to 17 years 
of age, a reduction of working hours, a develop- 
ment of full-time day schools, the raising of the 
school age, and the modification of the present 
elementary school curriculum. The Board of 
Education and the London County Council have 
shown noteworthy interest in the work of these 
voluntary organizations. The Children's Care 
Committees of the Council are instructed to ad- 
vise parents as to the work to be taken up by 
their children on leaving school. 

The extension of such vocational information 
committees must do much to arouse the interest 
of parents and children in the future of the boys 
and girls after they leave school. The follow-up 
work and the friendly contact with the young 
workers cannot fail to serve as a check to drift- 
ing and waste. Probably the most valuable results 
of the apprenticeship committees' work in Lon- 
don has been its furnishing continual evidence 
of the necessity for the readjustment of the work- 
ing day of young people so as to enable them 
to attend continuation classes during certain 
hours of the afternoon and the early evening. 



Of all community workers the school-teacher is 
the most frequently called on to counsel with 
parents and with children as to the aptitudes of 
the boy and girl and their probable future. Ex- 
pert knowledge of a difficult nature is expected 
of the overworked teacher, but there is little 
opportunity to acquire it. In the boys' club, the 
social settlement, or Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, the man or woman competent to give 
vocational counsel is eagerly sought for, and this 
service is energetically secured, oftentimes at 
large expense. In the school system, on the other 
hand, we permit the child's inevitable adviser to 
remain unequipped for the best performance of 
this vital duty. 

A change, however, is taking place. In the 
school systems of several cities, organization is re- 
placing our present haphazard efforts at guidance. 



A conspicuous chart at the Board of Educa- 
tion display in the New York Budget Exhibit of 
19 lo presents the need for vocational guidance 
as follows : — 


Directing young boys and girls into careers 
most useful to themselves and to the community 
is second in importance only to school training. 

Such direction requires continuotis study of 
the needs of the comtnimity and an intitnaie 
knowledge of the capacity of the pupils. 

To secure this direction there must be a bu- 
reau to cooperate with the teachers in the public 

For several years the initiative of certain New 
York school-teachers and officials has pointed 
the way to such guidance. Miss Julia Richman, 
district superintendent of schools, on the lower 
East Side of New York, has been employing a 
young woman who devotes all her time to finding 
positions suitable for untrained boys and girls 
who must leave school at fourteen. Application 
is made by the children direct to this vocational 
adviser, who interviews each applicant, ascertains 



his or her powers, limitations, and desires, and 
guides ambition into definite channels. She visits 
employers, looks after the physical conditions 
under which the children would be employed, and 
forms an estimate of the personal influence of 
the foreman or employer with whom the child 
may come in contact. 

Where she is in doubt about a place she does 
not 'recommend it. The children come back to 
her at stated evening office hours for conferences 
about the work they are doing and the progress 
they are making. 

At the Wadleigh High School for Girls, in 
New York, a group of public-spirited men and 
women engaged a teacher two years ago to ad- 
vise with the girls as to their individual voca- 
tional problems, the occupations open to them, 
and the further opportunities for vocational 
training. A valuable work for some years past 
has been that of the Students' Aid Committee 
of the High School Teachers' Association, the 
chairman of which is Mr. E. W. Weaver, of the 
Boys' High School in Brooklyn. In this work, 
the high-school students are encouraged before 



leaving school to define their purposes in life 
and to consider the occupations best suited to 
realize them. To this end vocational bulletins 
have been prepared for the senior classes and 
their parents. The Association, by printing use- 
ful pamphlets on the occupations, the wages in 
various employments, and on special training 
required for them, has given an impetus to voca- 
tional help in the school system. Under Mr. 
Weaver's editorship a dozen or more leaflets 
have been published, with such titles as " Oppor- 
tunities for Boys in Machine Shops," "Choosing 
a Career," "Directing Young People in the 
Choice of a Vocation," and "The Vocational Ad- 
justment of the Children of the Public Schools." 
Of special interest has been the guidance work 
for immigrant youth at the Educational Alli- 
ance, by Dr. Paul Abelson, of the DeWitt Clin- 
ton High School of New York, whose knowledge 
of agricultural as well as of urban occupations 
has been of peculiar service to the perplexed 
youth of a tenement locality. 

In the preceding chapter the vocational guid- 
ance movement in the Boston schools has been 



described. At the first national conference on 
vocational guidance, held in Boston in November, 
1910, invitations to which were issued by the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce and the Vocation 
Bureau of Boston, organized vocational help in the 
school system received a support which promises 
much for the future of this work. In half a dozen 
Massachusetts cities and towns, vocation bureau 
committees, representing school and business 
organizations, have been formed, and in some 
the work of advising young people has been 

One of the most thorough systems of school 
guidance is to be found in the Educational In- 
formation and Employment Bureaus of the Edin- 
burgh (Scotland) School Board. Specimens of 
its plans and bulletins are here given, as they 
illustrate how a school vocation bureau works. 

Acting under the provision of the new Scotch 
Education Act, which grants school boards the 
power to incur expenditure for guidance bureaus, 
the Edinburgh School Board in 1908 called a 
conference at which were represented the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, various labor and employers' 



organizations, churches and educational institu- 
tions. Mrs. Ogilvie Gordon, of Aberdeen, an 
efficient pioneer in this movement, took a lead- 
ing part, and contributed largely to the plan of 
work, which was finally adopted as follows: — 


Educational Information and Employment Bureau 

Scheme for the Establishment of an Educational In- 
formation and Employment Bureau, adopted by the 
Board, 20th fuly^ igo8. 

1. The Bureau shall be placed under the charge 
of a Standing Committee of the Board to be called 
the Educational Information and Employment Bu- 
reau Committee, and to consist of seven members 
of the School Board. 

2. There shall be associated with the Committee, 
an Advisory Council, consisting of the Members of 
the School Board and such representatives of public 
bodies and trade associations as the Board may from 
time to time coopt, due regard being had to securing 
representation -of the principal trades of women's 

3. The Advisory Council as representing the 
various trades and occupations related to the Bureau 
shall advise the Committee and the Director of the 
Bureau on all matters connected with the education 



required for such trades and occupations, and on the 
conditions of employment. 

4, Accommodation for the Bureau shall be found 
in the School Board Offices. 

5. The School Board shall appoint a Director who, 
subject to the Committee, shall organize and super- 
intend the Bureau. Generally his duties shall be as 
follows : — 

(a) To interview boys and girls and their parents 
or guardians, and advise them with regard 
to further educational courses and most 
suitable occupations. 

(^) To prepare leaflets and pamphlets or tabulated 
matter giving information to the scholars 
about continuation work. 

(/) To keep in touch with the general require- 
ments of employers and revise from time 
to time the statistics about employment. 

(d) To prepare and revise periodically statements 
of the trades and industries of the district, 
with rates of wages and conditions of em- 

((?) To keep a record of vacancies intimated by 
employers, and to arrange for suitable can- 
didates having an opportunity of applying 
for such vacancies. 

(/) To report periodically on the work of the 



If an organizer for the Continuation Classes be 
appointed, he might also act as Director of the 

Note. — As soon as the Committee and the Director have 
been appointed, notice should be sent to all head-masters, 
employers, etc., explaining the purposes of the Bureau and 
the conditions for utilizing its services. Head-masters 
should be provided with printed forms to be given to the 
outgoing scholars on which shall be entered the standard 
of education attained, habits of punctuality and attendance, 
and any general information that would be useful, and a 
duplicate shall be sent to the Bureau. The Bureau shall be 
open free of charge to parents and pupils wishing informa- 
tion as to education or employment. 

A large advisory council has been appointed 
to cooperate with the bureau, two delegates being 
sent by such bodies as the Chamber of Com- 
merce, the Building Trades Association, the 
Master Printers, the National Union of Women 
Workers, and unions of Engineers, Bakers, Book- 
Binders, Cabinet-Makers, Joiners and Masons. 
A number of prominent employers and educators 
are also on the council. In the Bureau's plan for 
organizing vocational information it ascertains 
facts about the industries, trades, and professions 
of the district, the nature of the local demands 
for young workers, the qualifications required in 



the various occupations, the conditions of ap- 
prenticeship for each trade, the beginner's 
weekly wage, and the possibihties of promotion. 
Particular effort is made to retain the pupils in 
the schools, to trace the progress of boys and 
girls from fourteen to seventeen who cannot con- 
tinue their schooling, and to secure the em- 
ployer's cooperation in establishing needed con- 
tinuation schools. The following circular is sent 
to parents of children leaving school, and is simi- 
lar to those sent to the head-masters and to em- 


Dear Sir or Madam, 

The Members of the Board desire to call your 
special attention to the steps which they are taking 
to guide and advise young people regarding their fu- 
ture careers in life, and to provide for them the sys- 
tematic training on commercial or industrial lines 
that will best fit them for the occupation they elect 
to follow. 

( I ) Educational Information and Employment Bureau 

The Education Department has recently pointed 
out that it has been matter of frequent complaint 



that through want of information or proper guidance, 
children, on leaving school, are apt to take up casual 
employments, which, though remunerative for the 
moment, afford no real preparation for earning a 
living in later life. The temptation to put a child 
into the first opening that presents itself is often 
very great. Due regard is not always paid to the 
capacities of the boys and girls concerned, with the 
result that many take up work which affords no train- 
ing and is without prospect, while many others are 
forced into trades or professions for which they are 
unsuited by temperament and education, and for 
which they consequently acquire a dislike. The re- 
sult is a large amount of waste to the community at 
large and misery to the individuals concerned. 

The Board are anxious to cooperate with parents 
in putting an end to this state of matters, and ac- 
cordingly, they have established an Educational In- 
formation and Employment Bureau whose functions 
may be briefly stated as follows : — 

(i) To supply information with regard to the qual- 
ifications most required in the various oc- 
cupations of the City, the rates of wages, 
and the conditions of employment. 

(2) To give information about the technical and 

commercial continuation classes having re- 
lation to particular trades and industries. 

(3) To advise parents regarding the occupations 



for which their sons and daughters are most 
fitted when they leave school. 
(4) To keep a record of vacancies intimated by 
employers, and to arrange for suitable can- 
didates having an opportunity of applying 
for such vacancies. 

(2) Continuation Classes 

Boys and girls who have gone through the work of 
the Day School soon forget much that they have 
learned if they have no opportunity of extending the 
knowledge which they have already gained. The Board 
would therefore impress on parents the importance of 
their children joining a Continuation School as soon 
as possible after leaving the Day School. 

As you are probably aware, children can now leave 
school only at certain fixed dates. In Edinburgh these 
are ist March and ist September. On 15th July of this 
year over 2000 pupils may terminate their day school 

The close of the Day School course is probably 
the most critical period in the life of children. There 
is grave danger of educational and moral waste if 
they are suddenly set entirely free from discipline and 
instruction. Between the ages of 14 and 18 careful 
supervision and training are essential to the forma- 
tion of character, the creation of a sense of personal 
and civic duty, and the production of skilled and 
efficient workmen It is of the highest importance, 



then, that all parents should realize that there must 
be no break between the Day School and the Con- 
tinuation School. 

For the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the 
Continuation Classes and of rendering the instruction 
more directly practical, the subjects (other than ele- 
mentary) have been grouped into courses, such as 
English, Commercial, Technical, and Art Courses for 
Boys and Girls, and Domestic Courses for Girls 
only. These specialized courses, which have been 
allocated among the different Schools in the various 
parts of the city, should prove a valuable aid to pu- 
pils who enter upon an industrial or commercial 

A prospectus giving full information with regard to 
the various courses and subjects of study will be for- 
warded for your perusal in the course of a few weeks, 
and the Board trust that you will do your utmost 
to persuade any young people under your care to 
enrol in one or other of the Continuation Classes. 

The Headmaster of the Day School will be pleased 
to grant you an interview on the subject before the 
close of the present session, or during the month of 
September. Further details and advice regarding the 
courses of study most suited to prepare Boys and 
Girls for their prospective occupations may be had 
by parents or intending students on application to the 
Director of the Educational Information and Employ- 
ment Bureau, 



The not distant future will see an active ex- 
tension of vocational guidance in the schools. 
Conscientious teachers desire to be of service to 
the boys and girls and welcome every opportu- 
nity which strengthens them for increasing use- 
fulness. Whether as paid or unpaid advisers, 
there will be an increase, both inside and outside 
the school system, of vocational counselors. In 
the Young Men's Christian Associations, notably 
that of Boston, where Mr. Frank P. Speare has 
for several years been actively interested in sys- 
tematic vocational counsel, in church education 
committees, university extension courses, neigh- 
borhood centres, as well as in the school systems, 
significant beginnings in vocational guidance are 
in process of organization. Expert counsel will 
be rare, however, and errors common, but the 
obligation to deal with the present situation is 
insistent. Earnest, humble, open-minded, and 
energetic effort to equip one's self or a system 
for better guidance than now obtains is impera- 

In the very effort sincerely to meet the present 
need of intelligent guidance there is good. The 



cooperation between the world of work and 
school life, the teacher and the employer, the 
parent and the counselor cannot fail of genuine 
helpfulness, of corrective value, and of mutual 



Obviously the carrying out of a plan for voca- 
tional guidance must centre in some responsible 
and competent individual. A committee or an 
association can do much in stimulating public 
opinion and in the gathering of resources. But 
such work done well requires that it be the spe- 
cial business, indeed the life-work, of some quali- 
fied man or woman. 

Undoubtedly, a new profession, that of the 
vocational counselor, is developing. The condi- 
tions of the time call for it, and whatever the 
volunteer may do in inspiring young people for 
the serviceable life, it is certain that professional 
responsibility can alone achieve the hard-earned 
results of this difificult work. The duties of the 
person charged with the management of a voca- 
tion bureau are many. They cover a wide range 
of activity and relationship. They call for per- 
sistent study, investigation, and energy. 



The work of guidance is, at best, delicate and 
difficult. Helping to develop purpose, to light the 
pathway of pursuits, and to shape the careers of 
the doubting, the eager, and the ambitious is a 
task that calls for exceptional qualities of intelli- 
gence and consecration. In order that the move- 
ment for vocational guidance may not suffer, it 
is important that standards and ideals for this 
work be maintained at the highest possible level. 
The best service in the community should be 
enlisted in the work. Fortunately, the idea of 
vocational assistance to young people appeals 
to all thinking men and women, and it should 
not be hard with definite plan and energetic 
purpose to secure the largest measure of cooper- 

Now it is essential for any community under- 
taking the work of guidance to set before them- 
selves the steps in the furtherance of the enter- 
prise. In a subsequent chapter will be discussed 
some of the dangers and pitfalls which may 
attend the work of vocational guidance. The 
purpose here is to outline some details of organ- 
ization and the functions of the vocational coun- 



selor, executive director, or whatever may be the 
name for the person in charge. 

The first suggestion to those about to open a 
city or school vocation bureau is — go slowly. 
If the right foundations are not laid before 
considerable work in counseling is begun, it is 
certain that the best kind of work cannot be 
done. At least a year should be devoted to a 
preliminary investigation of local resources, of 
the environment, and of the social and vocational 
problems of the children. Frequent conferences 
should be held, attended by the representatives 
of all the interests that may be expected to co- 
operate. The business man, the manufacturer, 
the labor-union official, the school-teacher, the 
truant officer, and the social worker are all needed 
in such conferences. It should be made the duty 
of some committee with a well-paid secretary, who 
may be regarded as in training for the eventual 
position of vocational counselor, to make a careful 
canvass of the professional and wage-earning op- 
portunities in the town, city, or county, and get 
into personal relation with working children and 
their parents in order to understand their prob- 



lems. Chapters of this vocational survey may 
be made the topics for discussion at regular 
meetings. One of the main results of these con- 
ferences will be a consensus of opinion as to 
what is to be sought for in the proposed vocation 
bureau. In the beginning views will differ, and 
until a definite conclusion is reached the exec- 
utive cannot be anything but confused and 
hampered in his work. Some will aim for an edu- 
cational programme, some for an apprenticeship 
arrangement in local industries, and others again 
for the placing of boys and girls in shops and 
stores. All these views represent elements of 
value to the project, but time and patient discus- 
sion alone can work out a programme that will 
receive general assent. 

It may happen that the differences of view- 
points are almost irreconcilable, one party aim- 
ing for the short haul of immediate results, and 
another for the longer haul of social and educa- 
tional readjustment. No little skill will be re- 
quired to shape a work which, while serving 
urgent and immediate needs, yets points unhesi- 
tatingly toward the infinitely more important 



task of laboring for the right conditions, the right 
education, and the public sentiment that will deal 
constructively with the vocational interests of 
young people before they become problems. 

Little may be expected from a work which be- 
gins in a spirit of destructive criticism. Voca- 
tional interest in youth is not a new thing. What 
is new, however, is the intelligent energy with 
which that problem is now being attacked in 
various places. No one element is responsible 
for present conditions ; least of all may the teach- 
ers be charged with neglect, for they have not 
been given the opportunity to equip themselves 
in a thorough way for the task of vocational 
assistance. No body of men and women will be 
found more responsive than the teaching force in 
any locality ; but obviously those charged with 
the responsibilities of guidance must be given 
leisure and the resources to prepare themselves 

The person selected to conduct a vocation 
bureau must possess executive ability, initiative, 
resourcefulness, and an education which com- 
bines both academic and industrial knowledge. 



A varied experience as a manual worker and in 
commercial and professional work is a good re- 
commendation. It may well be that a working 
man or woman who has earned a college educa- 
tion will be found best qualified. It is also likely 
that some one occupying a responsible position 
in a business or educational institution and pos- 
sessing a keen interest in the problems of youth 
may be of the type desired and should be in- 
duced to accept the appointment. The method 
used by the Boston Chamber of Commerce in 
selecting men as members or paid secretaries 
for committees is suggestive. A terse and defi- 
nite plan is laid out for the committee under con- 
sideration. The type of man desired and a list 
of qualifications that he should possess are 
agreed upon. The names suggested are then 
marked according to the degree and special fit- 
ness for the service in question. A blank form 
made up for this purpose is used, and those 
who are given the highest rating are invited to 

The type of person best adapted for the posi- 
tion of vocational director can only be deter- 



mined by the residents of each locality. A rural 
community, the county, or a small town will prob- 
ably call for qualifications different from those 
which a city vocation bureau requires. The pre- 
dominant vocational interests of a community 
are an important element in determining the 
type of director. It should be remembered that 
the committee which chooses its executive is 
doing a work of vocational guidance, and it must 
apply, in a sense, the principles which are to 
guide their own executive in the work. 

The argument for caution and careful plan- 
ning is not intended to discourage the under- 
taking of actual counseling. As early as 
practicable interviews may be granted to a small 
number day by day. Perhaps the data at hand 
are insufficient for good counseling. This fact 
should be made known to the applicant. Never- 
theless, service is always rendered by stimulat- 
ing one to think aloud about one's own prob- 
lems. The chief value of any interview lies in 
the self-disclosures and the reactions of the ap- 

The relations between the counselor and the 



applicant cannot be formal, official, or temporary. 
They must be friendly, intimate, and more or less 
continuous. What makes the appointment of vo- 
cational directors or counselors in schools, settle- 
ments, or like organizations so desirable is the 
opportunity for long contact with the individuals. 
A single interview is seldom sufficient for ser- 
vice that is worth while. Parents and teachers 
who enjoy years of opportunity for studying the 
make-up of a boy or girl find it hard enough to 
ascertain the vocational bent of the child. Pro- 
longed, earnest effort on the part of the counselor 
is imperative, and a corresponding effort on the 
part of the applicant, or the service fails of 

Of prime importance is the economic equip- 
ment of the counselor and the Bureau. Guess- 
work and vague generalizations about social 
problems, the conditions of employment, and 
occupational facts, will discredit the work. An 
essential element in the counselor's service is 
intimate knowledge of what is going on in the 
store, factory, and office. He must investigate, 
weigh, interpret, and apply vocational facts. 



At present it is very doubtful whether psycho- 
logical tests can be used to advantage by the 
counselor. Clues of value may be found in the 
elementary tests for vision, hearing, muscular 
sense, association time, and the quickness of 
perception. Laboratory psychology, however, is 
not far enough advanced to enable one to fathom 
bent and aptitude. The common-sense tests of 
experience are more reliable guides. A color- 
blind boy cannot become a locomotive engineer, 
nor can a deaf girl be a stenographer, though she 
may well be a copyist and typewriter. Medical 
inspection for mental and physical defects is use- 
ful and should be suggested to the applicant. 
Too free a use of laboratory methods and appa- 
ratus in connection with bureau work, at the 
present time, will confuse and mislead, and the 
applicant who becomes excited and apprehensive 
is not in the right frame of mind for the relation- 
ship desired. The fact must not be lost sight of 
that the vocation bureau is neither a laboratory 
nor a clinic. 

A thorough acquaintance with local and other 
resources is needed by the counselor, and his 



facility in connecting the appropriate resources 
with the needs of the individual applicant will 
count for much in his work. The Bureau can 
only in the course of years and with a large ex- 
penditure of money become the repository for 
every kind of information that may be called for. 
An important part of the counselor's programme 
is the skillful utilization of existing sources of in- 
formation and service. There are men and women 
in almost every occupation who would be willing 
to cooperate with the bureau, serving as special 
advisers and perhaps employers for selected in- 
dividuals. It is not to be supposed that the Bu- 
reau director can master the important details of 
every pursuit. Thus it may be necessary to con- 
sult an architect or physician with reference to 
the conditions or changing demands in their re- 
spective callings. Problems may arise with refer- 
ence to the ability or the circumstances of some 
particular young man or young woman, and the 
help of a representative of the profession in ques- 
tion, acting as a vocational " big brother," will 
prove of great value. 

The guidance of youth in vocations cannot 



confine its scope to the mechanical or com- 
mercial alone. The multiplication of vocational 
schools, including those in medicine, dentistry 
and law ; the inferior standards and the pecuni- 
ary motives of many of them ; and the over- 
crowding of the liberal professions by the unfit 
and the ill-equipped, give rise to questions of the 
gravest character in advising as to these careers. 
Prof. Felix Adler has said that one of the diffi- 
culties he has encountered in advising some 
young men was in impressing them with the gap 
between their admiration and their endowments 
for a vocation. The counselor's duty of stimulat- 
ing is great, but it is primarily his business to 
deal with facts, and he must be guided by a sense 
of responsibility for the advice he gives. 

There is a considerable literature which the 
counselor must familiarize himself with, and much 
of it he may prescribe for reading and study by 
the applicant. Excellent vocational handbooks 
such as "Vocations for the Trained Woman," 
published by the Woman's Educational and In- 
dustrial Union of Boston, " Trades for London 
Boys," and "Trades for London Girls" (already 



referred to in this book), Mrs. Ogilvie Gor- 
don's " Handbook of Employments," Dr. Charles 
R. Richards' Report to the New York State 
Department of Labor in 1908, and others may 
be found in the public libraries and might 
well be part of every school library. Unfortu- 
nately, we have not as yet in this country a series 
of cheap and practical vocational primers dealing 
with the occupations similar to those published 
in various German cities. One series of tiny 
booklets published in Leipzig, and costing not 
more than a few cents apiece, covers almost 
one hundred different vocations, — the chemist, 
the tinsmith, the teacher, the merchant, the 
cook, the waiter, the druggist, the farmer, the 
sailor, the tapestry-maker, and many others. 
"What Am I To Be?" is the title of this 

Before long an awakened interest in vital voca- 
tional information may yet regard such booklets 
as worthy of a place in the school and college cur- 
riculum. Until the educational authorities take 
up this task it will remain the privilege of far- 
sighted philanthropy or private enterprise to 



make available to all such practical knowledge of 
the occupations. 

The duties of the counselor outhned in this 
chapter must impress one as sufficient to absorb 
the working hours of any individual. One of the 
very first provisions must be for the training of 
assistants in research and advising. These may 
be paid or volunteer workers. The experiences 
gained in a vocation bureau are so valuable that 
persons of superior qualifications may be inter- 
ested to enlist in this tangible social service. 

Eventually the fruits of private initiative in 
vocational guidance must lead to the establishing 
of school and public vocation bureaus and to 
courses of preparation for this specialized service 
in our normal and professional schools. 

In the fall of 1910, a normal course for school 
counselors was opened in the Boston English 
High School, under the direction of the Vocation 
Bureau, and continued throughout the school year. 
It presented to the teacher-advisers the principles 
and problems involved in vocational guidance, 
and by means of talks by representative business 
men, employers, manufacturers, and professional 



men and women, brought into the pubHc school 
a useful working knowledge of the many oppor- 
tunities and occupations open to Boston boys 
and girls. 

A question that will constantly arise in voca- 
tion bureau work is its relation to employment 
and to employment agencies. Our discussion 
thus far should have made clear the fundamental 
aims of a vocation bureau. An ofifice for indi- 
vidual counseling and for studying the problems 
of social and educational readjustment will need 
very large resources to superadd an employment 
office. This latter is no small business, and 
requires far more investigation and study than 
are ordinarily given. While a vocation bureau 
gladly finds many incidental occasions to suggest 
openings for its applicants, it will fail of its pur- 
pose if its constructive functions become side- 
tracked. A separate department or organization 
is necessary for considerable employment work, 
but there can be and should be the closest co- 
operation between a vocation bureau and place- 
ment work of any kind. Employment managers 
of large stores and factories should be kept in 



touch with the vocation bureau, not only for the 
benefit of those who, under proper conditions, 
may be referred to them for work, but chiefly 
because the adoption of vocation bureau methods 
and ideals in industry may ultimately become 
the bureau's largest contribution to social wel- 



The work of vocational guidance cannot reason- 
ably be expected to go on free of error and mis- 
hap. Differences of opinion as to what such work 
should be, as to what are its proper aims and 
how to carry them out, will give varied phases to 
the movement. Local application of the bureau 
idea will differ in different localities, and doubt- 
less, there will be much to learn and much to 
undo before a sound basis is attained. 

Not found wanting will be the exploiter and 
the charlatan, advertising such guidance as the 
new key to success. Every community will have 
to be on guard against vocational guidance for 

At what age shall vocational suggestion and 
guidance begin in the school.? Prof. Paul H, 
Hanus, who was Chairman of the Massachusetts 
Commission on Industrial Education, has with 
reference to vocational training answered the 



question also for vocational guidance. The years 
up to fourteen, he maintains, should be enriched 
with all that a broad and liberal curriculum can 
give. From fourteen to sixteen years, differenti- 
ation, not specialization, in school work may take 
place along the lines of the probable occupa- 
tions of the boys who are not going to a classical 
high school or college, and with regard to the 
predominant industries of the locality. This in 
order to develop general vocational intelligence. 
Prior to the fourteenth year, however, it is de- 
sirable that school work include vocational en- 
lightenment, for example, talks on familiar trades 
and professions, excursions by classes or groups 
of children to shops, stores, offices, and vocational 
schools, and manual training. 

Applying these suggestions to guidance in the 
elementary schools, there is first a fundamental 
need of stimulating the ideal of vocational pur- 
pose. School work inspired by the " Life-career 
motive" is the ideal of the progressive educator. 
As thousands of children must go directly to 
work from the grammar school, the vocational 
director or the school counselor, where they are 

1 02 


appointed (as in Boston), should get into touch 
with the boys and girls and their parents in 
order to work out gradually the question of the 
best possible occupation. No small part of this 
work will be in the endeavor to find a way to 
continue the schooling of these boys and girls. 

The vocational decision, when made, should re- 
present chiefly the conclusion reached by the 
boy or girl, young man or woman, or whoever 
the individual advised may be. Decision is not 
the business_of the counselor, but that of the ap- 
plicant. The counselor is there for suggestion, 
inspiration, and cooperation. The over-zealous 
school counselor who "prescribes " vocations is 
quite likely to commit the error of forcing prob- 
lems on children prematurely. He should also be 
on guard against mistaking what is probably a 
child's play and make-believe for a vocational 

Without a genuine personal touch, the counsel- 
or's work with the applicant is not of thebcst. Hu- 
man beings, not" cases," are before him, and there- 
fore a mechanical treatment of bureau problems 
is intolerable. If the possession of accurate vo- 



cational information is desirable, no less so is the 
giving it without bias, A counselor prejudiced 
in favor of a particular line of pursuits, be they 
industrial, academic or what not, is vitiating the 
value of his services. No vocation bureau can 
fulfill its mission which leans toward one or an- 
other of the departments of human endeavor. 
Its business is to deal with facts, impartially, 
honestly and vigorously. To be suspected of one- 
sided sympathy is to lose a chance for large 
community service. 

An even more serious indictment would be 
I the dispensing with the programme of analytical 
i work on the part of the applicant, and converting 
i the bureau into an office for a short cut to jobs. 
I Some employers will be found ready to^ take ad- 
vantage of any laxity in the bureau's standards. 
When a vocation bureau degenerates into an 
agency merely for supplying young people to 
employers, the time has come to close it up. 
As has been already suggested, the placing of 
young people in employment calls for most 
careful investigation and organization. Without 
a system of supervision, without a plan for the 



definite training of every child it helps send into 
uninstructive employment, and without a defi- 
nite educational agreement with every employer 
who is thus served, the vocation bureau with 
other than incidental employment features must 
only intensify existing evil conditions of juvenile 

Every adviser has become familiar with the 
types who seek occult assistance. They are 
morbidly introspective. The relation to their 
fellows and to their work is not normal. An un- 
wholesome selfishness distinguishes them. The 
personal data sheets or printed list of personal 
questions, such as the counselor may prepare for 
the applicant, cannot be used automatically, and 
with reference to the type of applicant here in 
question they will usually prove worthless. Per- 
sonal analysis is like a drug habit with these 
people, and before vocational suggestion of value 
can be given, the counselor will probably find it 
necessary to deal frankly with their mental and 
emotional make-up. The vocation bureau is not 
equipped for service in the field of abnormal 
psychology. Its rigorous common-sense methods 



should be sufficient to deter the coming of those 
who need other than the Bureau's help. The 
bureau must ever be on guard against dabbling 
in subjects foreign to its powers. 

In dealing with the life problems of young 
people a sane conservatism in the methods of 
analysis must prevail, a sharp sense of responsi- 
bility controlling the work of the vocational di- 
rector. The methods he uses and the suggestions 
he makes are all fraught with serious conse- 
quences. No other work calls more insistently 
for good sense and careful judgment. Misguid- 
ance is a constant possibility in bureau work. 
With a number of counselors in the field, and 
with the extension of this service through both 
public and private endeavor everywhere, the dan- 
gers multiply. Good intentions cannot excuse the 
lack of care and adequate equipment on the part 
of the advisers. 

The applicant himself is a factor in the bu- 
reau's liability to disservice. To answer a list of 
personal questions, either orally or in writing, 
honestly and satisfactorily, is a difficult process. 
Not many people can face themselves objectively. 

1 06 


Inability as well as unwillingness to do so may 
be the reason. Exploring the vocational possi- 
bilities of a troubled or discouraged applicant 
calls for a large expenditure of thought and en- 
ergy. No progress can be made if the applicant 
does not meet the director's exertions in a coop- 
erative spirit. The margin for error and misjudg- 
ment is large at best, and the applicant must 
attend faithfully to the reading, the investigating, 
and the written work required of him. 

There is no royal road to infallible guidance. 
Pretentious claims do not belong to the legiti- 
mate vocation bureau. What may be confidently 
expected during the early years of this work is 
mitigation of the prevailing anarchy during the 
decisive years of school and occupational changes 
through energetic application of science and 
sympathy to this problem. To sum up the princi- 
pal dangers which the movement may encounter, 
attention is directed against forcing children into 
premature seriousness, wholesale counseling, too 
little personal relationship, absence of research 
work, superficial suggestion, vocational bias, job- 
finding instead of constructive social service, ex- 



ploitation, pretentiousness, and inferior equip- 
ment of the executive and the bureau. Mistakes 
are inevitable in this endeavor to help the coming 
generation to find itself, but a high standard of 
service and of social responsibility can alone in- 
sure against their too frequent repetition. 



The Vocational Guidance movement belongs 
to those efforts of our time making for the en- 
hancement of individual and social life. Common 
action has become more easy ; social insight and 
the will to serve have increased. The movement 
for husbanding the serving powers of youth is a 
practical expression of the deeper motives under- 
lying the conservation enterprises of our day. 

Closer contact with the life of the struggling, 
and revelations of their capacity for better voca- 
tional purposes than many now serve strengthen 
the conviction that the field of employment in 
even its humblest aspect will not long remain 
untouched by the reconstructive hand of our gen- 
eration. Perhaps a deeper discernment will dis- 
close the "one talent which is death to hide" as 
the possession of even the humblest, and we 
shall no longer find contentment in a quiescent 



pity for the unsuccessful by the fulsome bestowal 
of honors on those who have won out. It is a sad 
fatalism which regards our waste of human ma- 
terial as necessary to the cultivation of the cap- 
tains and leaders of men. A finer understanding 
of human possibilities refutes this elemental no- 

The vocations themselves are undergoing pro- 
found changes. New ideals of their functions are 
prophetic of the demands they will make upon 
their future practitioners. The new opportunities 
belong to those who can apprehend the changing 

Preventive medicine offers departments of ser- 
vice as varied as society itself, and specialists in 
social health will find modern life eager for their 
ministrations. The profession of law, conserva- 
tive though it be, is calling for the lawyer with 
intelligence for constructive social legislation and 
the skill to apply adequate legal principles to 
vexed industrial relations; the architect and the 
builder are needed in a housing solution for mod- 
ern urban congestion ; and the real-estate opera- 
tor and the transportation expert are called upon 



to contribute their foresight and their skill to the 
working out of a city plan. Whatever overcrowd- 
ing there may be in the conventional grooves of 
the vocations, none has as yet taken place in their 
latest and socialized form. It is the privilege of 
the vocational counselor to watch for these new 
outlets in vocational service, and to guide the fit 
into promising avenues of usefulness. 

A young Bohemian, undergraduate in a large 
university, was preparing himself for the law. 
His father is a Pennsylvania coal-miner, and dur- 
ing the summer the young man helped him in 
the colliery, earning enough in that way to pay 
for his board and tuition during the college year. 
He came to the Vocation Bureau of Boston with 
questions as to what prospects for successful 
practice among Americans a young foreigner 
like himself could expect. It was clear that this 
intelligent and energetic young man would get 
along, and he was reassured on this point, but it 
seemed important to remind him that very few 
of his nationality had achieved the advantages of 
life in a great New England university, that his 
people had few representatives indeed who could 



interpret them to Americans and America to 
them, and that his largest success would lie as 
a well-trained lawyer in not detaching himself 
from his own, but in serving both them and the 
Americans in the opportunities that would surely 
be his. 

Signs are not wanting in the liberal profes- 
sions, in manufacturing, in business, and indeed 
in most occupations, of a growing band of prac- 
tical idealists who conceive their pursuits in 
terms of community service as well as of liveli- 

I> • They are giving new life to old callings and 
are stimulating the youth of our land to new 
measurements of achievement. We have been 
for so long awed by the wonderful subdivision 
and specialization in the vocations that we have 
forgotten the most impressive fact about them. 
This is their social interdependence. As we be- 
come more sensitive to social organization, we 
perceive how superficial is the barrier of voca- 
tion. The scientific classification of flowers and 
j trees does not make nature less an organic whole. 
So the promotion of special schools and training 



courses for the development of skill in particular 
vocations cannot make less real the fraternity of 
workers. Zones of influence and consequences 
reach far beyond the view of the individual 
worker who causes them. A fundamental value 
in liberal vocational training is the sense it brings 
to the student of his relationships. We pursue 
our callings in forgetfulness of the essential 
"team play" in working life, and the vocational 
guidance which brings to light one's interplay of 
work with that of his fellows, contributes toward 
lifting the daily stint above the commonplace. 

The demand upon the vocations each for its 
distinctive social contribution carries with it a 
corresponding ideal for the vocational career as 
a whole. We have been proceeding on an un- 
sound assumption that for the many the dynamic 
period of youthful growth is intended for a static 
period of struggle for the daily bread. The young 
worker's pathetic snatches at growth throughout 
long days of drudgery, his surreptitious reading 
of a book at the bench, the day-dreaming and 
the cravings for self-realization, the petty infrac- 
tions of rules, continually illuminate the resist- 



ance of young human nature against the prospect 
of stagnation. 

Only a conception of working life as continuing 
education can appease the God-given hungers of 
youth. This is not fancy. We find successful 
business houses proud of the types of men and 
women they develop by the educational oppor- 
tunities they afford their employees, and this 
not as charity but as fundamental good business. 
Developing the intelligence of the employees 
and satisfying their instinct for educational ex- 
perience in the work they are doing has become 
the self-assumed duty of the most enlightened 
employers. The socially imaginative business 
man, manufacturer, and professional man are 
joining hands with the progressive educator in 
the call for more educational returns from the 
wage-earning career. 

Of what use are the sacrifices made in the 
training and guidance of youth if the subsequent 
conditions of employment nullify their value.'* 
The fitting of youth for appropriate life pursuits 
cannot proceed without a corresponding fitness 
on the part of the occupations themselves. The 



readjustments in education will have to go hand 
in hand with like readjustments in the avenues 
of occupation. Work and school cannot be safely 
kept apart in a democracy. Each has a vital 
meaning to the other, and they must share in 
common the burden of fitting the coming gen- 
eration for its best achievements. Alike they 
must share this vision and this purpose, or else 
vocational chaos will continue its disastrous 

Society willingly invests its young blood in the 
world of wage-earning, and in return it asks co- 
operation in protecting its most valuable assets. 
There can be no question that working life under 
proper conditions is youth's best discipline. The 
demand upon the vocations for social cooperation 
is not made in a spirit unappreciative of their 
character-building possibilities. Rather is this 
social challenge to the occupations a full recogni- 
tion of the community's loss in the present abyss 
between life and a livelihood. 

To these socially efficient ideals, therefore, — 
the enriching of school life with vocational pur- 
pose and the enriching of working life with edu- 


cational purpose — the vocational guidance move- 
ment addresses itself. Whatever this movement 
may in the course of its experience propose to 
the people for social correction, there will not be 
found wanting the clear aim to serve the best in- 
terests of the vocation quite as much as those 
of the worker. Education, the professions, indus- 
try and commerce all belong to our children. 
To conserve their inheritance and to lift them 
to their future opportunities, the friends of the 
vocational guidance movement join those who 
labor for youth and a sound citizenship. 


The following publications consulted in the 
preparation of this book may be of interest to 
students of vocational guidance and training, and 
may well serve as the nucleus of a school voca- 
tion library. 


Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, Albany, N. Y., 1909. 

Report of the Apprenticeship and Skilled 
Employment Association, for 1909, 36 Deni- 
son House, Vauxhall Bridge, London. 

Report of the Consultative Committee on 
Attendance, Compulsory or Otherwise, at 
Continuation Schools, Wyman & Sons, Lon- 
don, 1909. 

Report of the Hempstead Apprenticeship 
and Skilled Employment Committee, 15 
Lithos Road, Finchley Road, Hampstead. 

Reports of the National Society for the 
Promotion of Industrial Education, Office 
of the Secretary, 20 West 44th Street, New York 

Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor 
Laws and the Relief of Distress, Wyman & 
Sons, London, 1909. 



Reports and Bulletins of the U. S. Bureau 
OF Labor. 

Reports of the Commissioner of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

Bulletins of the International Labour Of- 
fice, London. 

Handbook of Employments, Mrs. Ogilvie Gor- 
don, Aberdeen, Scotland. 

The Occupations of College Graduates, Dean 
Frederick P. Keppell, Columbia College, " Educa- 
tional Review," December, 1910. 

Choosing a Vocation, P7of. Frank Parsons, 
Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1909. 

Vocations for the Trained Woman, other 
than Teaching, Women's Educational & Indus- 
trial Union, 264 Boylston Street, Boston, 1910. 

Trades for London Boys, ") Longmans, Green 

Trades for London Girls, \ & Co., New York- 
Two series of booklets published in Leipzig, one 
published by C. Bange, entitled " AIein Kunftiger 
Beruf " ; the other by Albert Otto Paul, entitled 
"Was Werde Ich?" 

Vocational School Charts of the Women's 
Municipal League, Boston. 

Education for Efficiency, Dr. E. Davenport, 
D. C. Heath & Co., Boston. 

The Worker and the State, Arthur Dean, Cen- 
tury Co., New York, 1910. 

Education for Efficiency, Dr. Charles W. Eliot, 
Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 


Vocational Education, Prof. John M. Gillette, 

American Book Co., New York. 
Beginnings in Industrial Education, Prof. 

Paul H. Hanus, Houghton Mififlin Co., Boston, 
The Labor Exchange in Relation to Boy and 

Girl Labor, Frederic Keeling, P. S. King & Son, 

Vocational Education, The Problem of. Dr. 

David Snedden, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 
Educational Foundations of Trade and In- 
dustry, Fabian Ware, D. Appleton & Co., New 

York, 1 90 1. 


The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets, 
Jane Addams, Chapter V. The Macmillan Co. 
New York, 1910. 

Democracy and Social Ethics, Jane Addams, 
Chapter V. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1902. 

Sociological Papers, Vol. 3, chapter on the Pro- 
blem of the Unemployed, by W. H. Beveridge atid 
others. Macmillan Co., New York, 1907. 

Unemployment, W. H. Beveridge, Chap. VI and IX. 

Life and Labor of the People, Charles Booth, 
(Vol. V and VI), The Macmillan Co., New York. 

The Town Child, Reginald A. Bray, T. Fisher 
Unwin, London. 

Studies of Boy Life in Our Cities, edited by 
E.J. Urivick, Dent & Co., London, 1904. Chapter 
on the Boy and his Work, J. G. Cloete. 

Efficiency, Harrington Emerson, The Engineer- 
ing Magazine, New York, 1909. 


Work, Wages, and Profits, H. L. Ganti, The 

Engineering Magazine, New York, 1910. 

Self-Measurement, William DeWitt Hyde^ B. W. 
Huebsch, New York, 1908. 

Continuation Schools in England and Else- 
where, edited by Prof. M. E. Sadler, Introduction, 
and Chap. XV, on Apprenticeship and Skilled 
Employment Committees, by H. Winifred 
Jevons. University Press, Manchester, England. 

Wasted Lives, Frank John Leslie. C. Tinling & Co., 
Liverpool, 1910. 

Guide to Reading in Social Ethics and Allied 
Subjects, by Teachers in Harvard University, 
Chapter III, Social Service, and Chapter IV, The 
Ethics of Modern Industry. Edited by Francis 
G. Peabody, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Industrial Democracy (Part II, Chap. X, The 
Entrance to a Trade), Sidney and Beatrice Webb, 
Longmans, Green Co., New York. 


The Natural Advisers of Youth i 

Present-Day Social Conditions 2 

The Efficiency Engineer 2 

The Young Work-Seekers 3 

What Choosing a Vocation Requires .... 4 

The Range of Choice 5 

City Youth and Vocational Suggestion .... 6 

The Tenement Children , 6 

Vocational Advising 8 

An East Side Illustration 9 


1. England's Experience 12 

2. Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor 

Laws 13 

3. Other Testimony 14 

4. The Wasted Years 16 

5. The Unemployables 20 

6. The Problem of Vocational Training .... 20 

7. The Problem of Vocational Guidance .... 22 

8. The Problem of the Occupation 23 


1. President Eliot on the " Life-Career Motive" . 25 

2. Choice of Further Schooling : two illustrations 26 



3. Beginning of the Vocation Bureau 29 

4. Prof, Frank Parsons's Work 30 

5. Boston School Committee and the Vocation Bu- 

reau 32 

6. Communication from the Vocation Bureau . . 32 

7. Report of the School Vocation Committee . . 35 

8. The School Vocational Record Card .... 42 

9. The Girls' Trade Education League 43 

10. The Boston Home and School Association . . 44 

11. Vocations for Boston Boys 47 

12. Three Vocational Bulletins 51 

13. Courses on the Vocations 65 

14. Vocational Guidance Abroad ....... 66 


1. The New York Budget Exhibit 73 

2. Guidance on the East Side of New York ... 73 

3. Advising in the Wadleigh High School for Girls 74 

4. Bulletins of the High School Teachers' Asso- 

ciation 75 

5. Mr. E. W. Weaver's and Dr. Paul Abelson's 

Work 75 

6. The Guidance Work of the Edinburgh (Scot- 

land) School Board 76 

7. Examples of Its Literature 77 

8. Re-Action on Work and School 84 


1. The First Steps 87 

2. The New Profession 87 

3. Local Cooperation 88 



4. Preliminary Investigations o . . 89 

5. Differences in Aims 89 

6. The Vocational Director 90 

7. Beginnings in Counseling — Economic Founda- 

tions 92 

8. The Use of Psychological Tests 94 

9. Knowledge of Vocational Resources .... 94 

10. The Counselor's Duty 96 

n. Vocational Literature 96 

12. A German Example 97 

13. Training in the School for Counselors .... 98 

14. The Counselor in the School 98 

15. Unpaid Assistants 9^ 

16. Future of the Vocation Bureau 98 

17. The Question of Placing in Employment . . . 99 


1. Guidance for Revenue loi 

2. At What Age Shall Children be Advised ? . .101 

3. Professor Hanus on Vocational Training . . .102 

4. Vocational Self-Decision 103 

5. The Personal Touch 103 

6. Short Cuts to Jobs 104 

7. Prevention not Palliation 105 

8. The Abnormal Types 105 

9. Sane Conservatism 106 

10. The Applicant's Responsibility 107 

11. Summary of the Dangers 107 


1. Evolution of the Vocations 109 

2. Vocational Idealism — An Illustration . . .111 



3. Interdependence of the Vocations 112 

4. Work as Continued Education 114 

5. Social Aims of the Vocations 115 

6. Conclusion .... n6 



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