TX 16 56 IC-NRLF. SB 32 CD O LO GO Eleventh Series, No. 1 September 13, 1919 eacfjer College Bulletin Vocational Homemaking Education Some Problems and Proposals By DAVID SNEDDEN, Ph.D. Professor of Education, Teachers College Columbia University Published by QDeacftet* College, Columbia 525 West I20th Street New York City Teachers College Bulletin Published fortnightly from September to May, inclusive. Entered as second-class matter, January 15, 1910, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under Act of August 24, 1912. Ac- ceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act ot October 3, 1917, authorized. Vocational Homemaking Education Some Problems and Proposals By DAVID SNEDDEN, Ph.D. Professor of Education, Teachers College Columbia University Published by College, Columbia 525 West 1 20th Street New York City CONTENTS Page I. Problems for Consideration 3 II. What Are Homes? 6 III. What Is the Vocation of Homemaker? 8 IV. Sociological Scope and Standards of the Homemaking Vocations n V. The "Total Problem" of Vocational Education for Homemaking 13 VI. The "Case Method" of Study 16 VII. Some General Principles 20 VIII. Application of These General Principles to Home- making Education 25 IX. The "Project Method" of Teaching Homemaking . . 26 X. Federal Board's Bulletin No. 28 30 XI. Household Arts as Liberal Education 33 Copyright, 1919, by Teachers College, Columbia University VOCATIONAL HOMEMAKING EDUCATION: SOME PROBLEMS AND PROPOSALS* The education of women and girls for the homemaking voca- tions has evolved to a point where many specific problems can be diagnosed, (it is the purpose of this bulletin to state a few of these problems, to suggest some methods for their further study, and to submit certain tentative proposals for criticisms As far as practicable, the methods employed will be those being devel- oped in educational sociology, namely, to base all proposed aims of education upon an analysis and evaluation of these needs of social groups to be realized in and through education, school and non-school, ^he standards will be those increasingly accepted in the general theory of vocational education. The bulletin is designed primarily for educators engaged in research in the fields of homemaking and household arts education, or in admin- istering state and national legislation intended to promote such education. I. PROBLEMS FOR CONSIDERATION 1. Do we possess as yet any definitions of the homemaking vocations sufficiently specific and concrete to serve as founda- tions for the formulation of satisfactory programs of instruction and training for those vocations? Where can they be found? (It is obvious that definitions expressed only in vague general terms render very poor service.) 2. Back of definitions of homemaking, do we as yet possess analyses and classifications of homes sufficiently concrete to enable us to determine what are, for given social groups and conditions, optimum degrees of efficiency to be expected of homemakers? (For example, the criticism is often heard that * In the. preparation of this paper, the writer has availed himself constantly of the suggestions and criticism of students, colleagues, and others too numerous to mention by name. Thanks are due them all for their patience no less than for their courtesy.  415807 existing * programs 'oFhqrhe economics education are based on excessively high home maintenance standards from the stand- point of those whom they are to serve that they ignore the $900 $1,200 income class home, in spite of its prevalence.) .Where can such analyses be found> 3. Have we as yet any sufficient survey of the effectiveness of the non-school vocational education for homemaking which now prevails (and always has prevailed, possibly in different forms) in various social groups or income levels? Where can the results of such surveys be found? (It is alleged that programs of basic home economics education now take no adequate account of the effectiveness of non-school education, and therefore fail to utilize its results, cooperatively or as basis of correlation.) What, for specified groups or conditions, are the contributions of such education to (a) ideals and appreciations, (b) technical knowl- edge, and (c) skills, at age levels 1-12, 12-15, I 5~i8 for non-wage- earners or school attendants, (d) 15-18 for wage-earners or school attendants, (e) 18-22 for home "boarders," (/) 18-22 for home assistants, (g) 22-30 for young married women, etc.? 4. Is it practicable to distinguish in the actual exercise of the homemaking vocation by given individuals the factors, respec- tively, of "skills," forms of "related technical knowledge," and forms of "related hygienic, social, and cultural knowledge (and ideals)" in such a way as to deduce therefrom the best parts which should be played respectively by home apprenticeship, school education, and undirected experience, in the total edu- cative processes of producing vocational competency? (Home economics classes and courses have heretofore restricted them- selves largely to technical instruction; they seem to have done little to produce the two classes of skills essential in homemaking manipulative and managerial; and both their methods and results have been freely criticised as "impractical," "over-tech- nical," "excessively wedded to book and laboratory.") Under what conditions can technical instruction alone function in voca- tional competency (a) as instruction unconnected with home experience for girls 12-16 under conditions of home apprentice- ship, (b) as instruction uncorrelated with home experience on part of girls 16-20, (c) as extension instruction to housewives? Does Bulletin 28 of the Federal Board for Vocational Education  definitely provide for "training"? How can training in 'home- making arts" be given? Have we as yet any satisfactory analyses of "training" for homemaking at ages 12-14, 1 4~ 1 6, 16-20, before marriage, after marriage? 5. In general it is agreed that the best time for vocational education is just prior to the individual's undertaking "full responsibility" work as operative or manager in the vocation itself., When do the following persons usually undertake "full" or "part" responsibility work: farmers' daughters not leaving home until married; domestic servants; women, wage-earners from 1623, then marrying and discontinuing outside work; home-staying daughters? How far are girls exceptions to above principle by virtue of constant living in homes? How far do girls at 14-16 possess active motives for entry upon vocational -homemaking? How far can results of homemaking instruction or training keep in "cold storage" (without application), e.g., in cases of girls 16-22 working for wages, but living at home? How far can "instincts" for homemaking contribute to expected proficiencies along food lines, clothing, sick-nursing, child care, management? Which of these problems have been well investigated? 6. To what extent have aims, methods, and administrative organization of home economics education taken shape under limitations imposed by conditions of other forms of education? Why do we think of it chiefly as related to ages 14-18 in high schools? As parallel to liberal arts courses? As dependent upon "laboratories"? As yielding almost no forms of cooperation with homes? How can we provide for investigation of problems of specific aim and method on assumption of "optimum" conditions? 7. What is the "case" method of study? Is it practicable to procure, within reasonable limits of precision, type "cases" of home practice, preparation for home practice, needs of prepara- tory training, present schemes of school preparation, and the like, and tentatively to analyze and evaluate these? 8. What are principles of vocational education in general which are capable of application in homemaking? 9. What is the "home project method" of vocational home- making? 10. Are the suggestions of Bulletin 28 conclusive? 11. What is the place of household arts in liberal education? (si .-.: :.:-...< ,. V II. WHAT ARE HOMES? The "home" is a very much generalized conception. Every person can in a measure appreciate, even visualise, a home or homes. But we still possess no adequate analysis of the essential characteristics and functionings of homes of various kinds. Be- cause of the indeterminateness of prevailing "job analyses" of homemaking and the hardly less vague standards of functioning of the home as a! social agency, most current proposals and prac- tices toward education for homemaking exhibit endless evi- dences of artificialty and impracticality.J) 1. In the most universal sense, the home is obviously a place for the rest and recreation of adults. It is manifestly also a workshop for the elaboration of consumable goods foods, clotty- ing, beds, social intercourse, worship, education. .In its pro- founder aspects it is a means for the nurture of children. These functions are interdependent, interlocked; but, for any given type of home, which are more fundamental, more socially essen- tial, than others? We greatly need concrete analyses of these problems along the lines of the classifications suggested below. 2. It is, indeed, highly desirable that we should have func- tional analyses of various types of "homes." In the modern world there are many specialized agencies which function, temporarily or permanently, as homes for adults engaged in vocational pursuits barracks, cantonments, ships, hotels, bache- lors' cabins, dormitories, hotels, Pullman cars. There are hive- like homes for children more or less abnormally situated asy- lums, boarding-school dormitories, institutional cottages. Homes for monogamous families also exist in several species, from the hotel apartment and housekeeping apartment, the urban "row" or semi-detached house, Ao the detached urban dwelling, and the farm homestead. 3. If we assume that, sociologically considered, the primary function of the "home" is to contribute to the rearing of chil- dren, then the various species of "family" homes should be divided into a number of varieties according to scope of their work, and the means wherewith it is to be done. The following at least are some of the types that require extended analysis (the words "normal number of children" denote expectancy of from [61 four to six children by time mother is at age of forty) : (a) tene- ment home, no servant help; normal number of children; annual income less than $800 (1900-1914 prices) ; (b) same, but income $8oo-$i2OO; (c) same, except apartment with hot-water and heat, and income $I2OO-$2OOO; (d) same, income $2OOO-$3OOO; (e) apartment home, one servant, subnormal number of children, in- come $25OO-$4OOo; (/) same, subnormal number of children (one), no servant, income under $1200; (g) apartment, subnormal num- ber of children (two), one servant, income $2OOO-$4OOO ; (h) de- tached urban or suburban house, no servant, normal number of children, income under $1000; (i) same, but subnormal number of children, income under $1000; (j) same as (h), but income $1000-$ 1 500; (k) same, income $I5OO-$25OO; (/) same, except one servant, and income $2OOO-$4ooo; (m) detached urban or suburban house, subnormal number of children (one or two), no servant, income $I2OO-$2OOO; (ri) detached house, normal or subnormal number of children, three or more servants, in- come $7ooo-$2O,ooo; (o) detached farm home, excess number of children, net income (money and kind) under $700, colored; (p) same, white; (q) same, white, but net income $750 $1100; (r) farm home, normal number of children, no servant, net in- come $8oo-$iooo; (s) same, net income, $iooo-$i5OO, irregular help; (/) farm home, normal number of children, two or more servants, income $3000-$ 10,000. 4. It is also desirable that homes should be classified in terms of the ideals or standards toward which they aspire, as well as the conditions they must meet. (What are the "standards of living," or perhaps better, the standards of comfort, toward which are striving: (a) The American-born manual working- man's family? (b) The American-born land-owning general farmer? (c) The American-born well-educated professional man or commercial worker? (d) The colored tenant farmer in the South? r(e) The recent Italian immigrant, manual laborer in city?") Sociological research is needed to define prevailing types, to evaluate their persistent and their "fluid" ideals.N 5. Of the above types, which are "modal" that is, statisti- cally most numerous from the standpoint of the vocational education of prospective homemakers? Which are most preva- lent, or expected to be most prevalent, in given communities? [71 Into which types are the girls whose abilities and favoring home circumstances enable them to "go through" high school likely to fit? Into which types are the girls of a manufacturing city, who leave school at 14-16, likely to fit? What are the types likely to be filled by daughters of poor "renting" farmers? Are we to expect the flat or apartment home to replace the detached house in cities? in suburbs? Are home economics teachers expected to prognosticate the future availability of servant help and for several income classes of homes considered separately? The probable extension of the apartment or flat type of dwelling? The possible evolution of cooperative housekeeping? Develop- ment of agencies for the cooperative or delegated care of small children? Future possibilities of "boarding" life in nurture of children? Cooperation of the father, on a short wage-earner's day, in duties of twenty-four-hour day homemaking? Probable future size of family in different social groups? 6. It is suggested that in class work, where not otherwise specified, the term "home" should imply these conditions: de- tached urban house, no servant, from four to six children, $900- $1500 income standard, American traditions. From this, as a point of departure, variants could be described. In many cities the "cold water" (no heat supplied), "walk up" three-to-five-room flat for workingman's families is becoming very common; it means normal number of children at least, no servants, income $700-$! ooo. Also the separate land-owner's farm home is very prevalent. III. WHAT Is THE VOCATION OF HOMEMAKER? Homemaking a Composite Vocation: It is obvious that the vocation of homemaker is composite to an extent characteristic of only a very few other occupations. This remains true, not- withstanding the extent to which certain functions have in America been removed from the homes such as weaving, teach- ing, food preservation, gardening, and, now, baking, brewing, and garment-making. Compositeness of vocation is ordinarily a sign of primitiveness. When human beings live under primitive, pioneering, or dispersed conditions, there is relatively little sub- division of labor and exchange of commodities. Every primi- 18] tive hunter, fisherman, tiller of -the soil, warrior, teacher, and housewife is in large measure and of necessity a jack-of -all-trades. The home retains this character long after it has largely dis- appeared in manufacture, transportation and commerce, because the family is the most universal unit of consumption and especially of the productive processes that just precede or are intimately associated with consumption. Sociologically speaking, we can again affirm that children are the cause of the present composite- ness of the homemakers activities. ^IL children could be as effectively reared in barracks, hotels, or asylums as adults can live and carry on consuming activities in these elaborate organiza- tions of specialized service, then we should speedily see the end of the highly localized home. Organization and specialization of service lead to depth of knowledge, refinement of skill, and intricacy of managerial relations. The small "general" farmer, the country store-keeper, the teacher in a small high school, the village mechanic, the country doctor, like the housewife, must always experience the trials of realizing themselves less competent in the special arts, which they must attempt, than the specialists. Utopian sugges- tions that "homemaking" is (or ought to be regarded as) a "profession" render no service in mitigating the hard reality that for the great majority it must long continue a composite of ill- defined and imperfectly standardized arts. The first step in the process of defining the vocation of home- maker is that of segregating for detailed consideration some ^ fairly common and constant types of home. The second is to analyze, describe, and, perhaps, evaluate the various prevailing forms of skill, knowledge, appreciation, and ideal now found among those of the practitioners of this type of homemaking who would be judged to be slightly above the average by persons possessed of critical and common-sense judgment. Analysis of Type Homemaking Vocation: Let us assume as the type to be considered homemakers in detached village or urban houses, no servants, family budget, $iooo-$i2oo per year, American ancestry, normal number of children (two or three at ages assumed for mothers 28-34), mothers of elementary school general education, no school education in homemaking. Call this type M. Taking one hundred of these at random, we  can for convenience classify twenty as A grade (excellent), thirty as B grade (good), thirty as C grade (fair), and twenty as D grade (poor). For purposes of determining prevailing require- ments of the vocation we can confine ourselves to the B grade. The vocational activities of these B grade homemakers can readily be classified under such major and minor heads as those given in the following table; and a consensus of competent critics could assign to these various groups of activities, for the type of homemaker under consideration, crude measures of their relative importance (weightings) along the lines tentatively suggested by the figures here arbitrarily assigned (it is assumed that total optimum competency would be rated at 10,000 units; and that optimum competency in any one division would be rated as given ; and that individual MBx might be rated as shown): TABLE I CLASSIFICATION AND RATING OF ACTIVITIES OF TYPE M HOMEMAKER Optimum Rating of Activity Group (Majors) Standards Individual for Type M MBx 1. Foods (buying, preparation, serving) 3000 2000 2. Clothing (buying, up-keep, making) 1500 1200 3. Household care and up-keep (beds, cleaning, etc.) 1000 900 4. Laundry r 500 400 5. Care of children 3000 1500 Activity Group (Minors) 6. Accounting 300 \ 10 7. Sick nursing 300 250 8. Housing and furnishing 100 50 9. Adult sociability 150 150 10. Garden and yard 150 100 Detailed Analysis Required: But it is clear that such an analysis as that given above is too crude and general to serve for practical guidance. For one thing, it makes no distinctions between skills and related technical (or artistic and scientific) knowledge. Some homemakers are strong in certain skills acquired purely on the basis of imitation and "trial and success" methods under compe- tent direction; and weak in technical knowledge. Some have  excellent technical knowledge but inferior skills. Possibly a third type of power (or appreciation) should also be distinguished, namely, social insight, or, more adequately, physical, social, and cultural insight. It is also probable that distinctions should be made between manipulative and managerial skills. Furthermore, any adequate analysis must distinguish, weight, and evaluate numerous concrete subdivisions in the above scheme. "Skills" in preparing foods are not general, but often very concrete and specific. Skill in bread-making may coexist with lack of it in beefsteak broiling. Competency in making certain articles of clothing may be found alongside of low ideals of up-keep. Let it be repeated that the first object of the analysis and evaluation suggested above is to ascertain what powers and capacities are now prevailingly found among homemakers of slightly more than average ability as found in a certain type or class. Such analysis should normally precede attempts to deter- mine what powers and capacities the next generation of home- makers of similar groups should possess as a result of purposive vocational education. In much of current literature on the aims of home economics confusion exists because aspirations are not presented separately from diagnoses of existing conditions; and also because in diagnoses various types and grades of homemakers are jumbled. (The problem of vocational education for the girl or woman whcTin all probability will direct the labor of two or more servants will undoubtedly be found to be different in many essential respects from that of the girl or woman who is almost certainly destined to carry the full load of homemaking by her- self. No less important at certain points are distinctions between rural and urban homes, and between homes in apartments and homes in detached or semi-detached houses. Scientific study is certain to reveal other classifications of importance, based, perhaps, upon climatic, occupational, and other considerations. IV. SOCIOLOGICAL SCOPE AND STANDARDS OF THE HOMEMAKING VOCATIONS i. There are in the United States some 16,000,000 women, chiefly married and widowed, whose principal vocation is home- [ii] making. Of these probably 90 per cent are unable to divide work or responsibility with co-laborers; hence they must carry on all phases of homemaking work by themselves conspicuously the procuring, preparing, and serving of food, the making and up-keep of clothing, laundry work, house care, care of children, etc. For women of this class, homemaking, therefore, at least among white people, presents relatively few variable features, as between East and West, North and South. Hence, homemaking is the most numerously followed of all vocations. Next to it, in point of numbers, is "farming." But "farming" includes many very unlike vocations, from cranberry, orange, asparagus, cotton or sheep growing as specialties to dairy, grain, market garden or "general" farming. Domestic service for hire, or favor specialized and unspe- cialized may be classified here as "assistant homemaking." 2. From the standpoint of the sociologist the central fact in homemaking is the rearing of children. The monogamous mar- riage and the home have evolved side by side, most conspicuously in the north temperate zone, probably in chief measure because of their suitability to the rearing of the children to the making out of children the kind of men and women who could best cooperate in producing and sustaining the valuable elements in civilization. /All adults must, of course, have places of temporary or permanent abode ; but the beginnings of the most realistic home are laid when a man and woman form a partnership in marriage and soon face their responsibility of rearing through the "pro- longed infancy" the children born of the union. 3. Endless conventions, customs, and laws have been evolved to perpetuate and to improve the home as a social institution. Most conspicuous is the division of labor between husband and wife. The prevailing American standard, which expresses in fullest development the standards aspired to in other countries, requires that the husband shall be the "money getter" of the family that he shall produce the marketable goods (or services) wherewith goods for the home can be purchased. The wife is expected to do the "elaborative" or preparatory work required in the home to make goods purchased in more or less raw form suitable for immediate consumption. To the mother falls the prolonged and sustaining care of children, especially when small.  To the father falls induction of boys, as they mature, into pro- ductive service. To the mother falls the vocational "by-educa- tion" of the girls. a. Space need not be taken here to elaborate the biological concomitants of these sex differentiations of work, attitude, and responsibility. Doubtless the respective "natures" of men and women have become somewhat biologically differentiated toward the best rearing, as well as toward the best begetting and bearing of children. On the other hand, many apparently deeply rooted differentiations are founded only in the social inheritances of customs, conventions, and other "social" habits and traditions. These last can, obviously, be much more readily changed than the former. b. A secondary function of the home is to reinforce and develop personality and community of interest in the adult members of the family group. For these it gives a place of rest and some forms of recreation, protection from invasion of weather, and privacy for the social intercourse valuable to the family group. 4. From the sociological standpoint, therefore, the primary standards of good homemaking are to be found, first in the children brought to appro vable manhood and womanhood through this agency; and, second, through the enrichment of personality (health, sociability, culture) accomplished for its adult members. a. It is obvious, of course, that each age brings new conditions to assist or restrict the home in the discharge of its social obliga- tions. Schools take over certain functions; adults resort to clubs for sociability and other recreation; the man's workshop is removed to a distance, so that he loses contact with adolescent boys ; many productive operations that once gave variety to the work of the wife and opportunities to share work with children are being removed from the home. V. THE "TOTAL PROBLEM" OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR HOMEMAKING One great mistake has frequently been made in constructing programs or curricula of vocational education in that teachers  and administrators have proceeded to work with existing limita- tions always in mind from the outset. This procedure is funda- mentally unscientific. Programs and curricula should first be worked out on the assumption of optimum conditions; then revi- sions, corrections, reductions, and other accommodations should be made with reference to known and defined limitations or other modifying conditions. For example: Assume the problem before us is that of pro- viding vocational homemaking education for certain women who are usually factory hands from fifteen years of age to marriage, who commonly marry at from 22 to 25, whose family income from marriage to forty-five will range from $1000 to $1500 (the mother not being a wage-earner), who will rear from four to six children, and who will live in small urban or suburban houses. It is desired that this homemaking education shall function in reasonably immediate competency when first children are born. Let us assume that we are working in a manufacturing city with large numbers of recent immigrants. We know that the actual situations confronting us are endlessly varied. Some of the girls go to work at fourteen, having -finished only the fifth grade; others leave after going half way through high school. Some at fifteen have been well trained in home craft by their mothers, some possess little or no skill. Some have been wise "little mothers" and know much about the care of babies, even at twelve years of age; but most of them will have learned nothing of child care by the time their own first baby arrives. Some of them will approach marriage with considerable appreciation of the responsibilities of homemaking, others will rush in heedlessly. If a good day vocational school of home- making were available, a few of them would stop work and attend it for one or three months in preparation for their new vocation ; but most of them would not. If well advertised evening classes in "short units" of homemaking were available, many girls would come for some months, but their interest would center chiefly in making articles of personal wear or adornment or in cooking dishes suitable for "parties"; but a few would do genuinely pro- ductive project work in evening classes. Confronted by this heterogeneous and confused situation, how shall we proceed to devise curricula? Efficient procedure cer-  tainly requires that we first determine and document in detail curricula and programs on the assumption of clear-cut and optimum conditions. 1 . We can assume as basal these factors : (a) All the girls and women we are to deal with are wage-earners from 14-17 to 21-25. (6) All will marry, and have families, (c) All will be wives of workingmen, having family incomes of $900-$! 500. (d) It is desirable that all families shall live in accordance with "good" American standards. 2. For the purposes of getting our "total" or "complete" curriculum defined we can assume the existence of these condi- tions: (a) Women engaged to be married and eager to qualify for the vocation of homemaking. (&) The prior experience or home training of these women is so slight and ineffective as to be negligible, (c) The woman free to give three or six months as may be required to "full time" (eight hours daily) for this voca- tional education, (d) The woman living with her parents in a small home which can be used in any and all ways as a "productive shop" for educational practice in homemaking. (e) The woman living in the midst of neighbors among whom she can find oppor- tunities to care for sick or to assume charge of infants when work of this character becomes essential to her program. (/) The school so staffed and equipped as to give all needed individual instruction, supervision of home projects, laboratory work, related reading, etc. In the light of these conditions we produce curricula, programs, courses, projects, etc., having paid due regard to the various kinds of educational products to be produced skills, applicable knowledge, ideals, managerial abilities, appreciations, etc. Overzealous or "theoretical" teachers might well consider warn- ings, and queries at this point: (a) We are not expected to train these young women for a "profession." (b) In view of the multiplicity of operations involved in homemaking, we are not expected to train these young women to be as good cooks as hotel chefs, as good nurses as hospital graduates, as good seam- stresses as those working for wages, or as good teachers of little children as kindergartners. Overambitious standards or ideals here defeat their own aims, (c) What additions to their powers and capacities can we expect these people to make during, say, the first five years of married life, as the burdens of homemaking rapidly increase? (d) (Remember, always, that technical knowl- edge not built on experience is apt to be a useless possession, whereas skill, even if unaccompanied by technical knowledge, has a large place in the world. The ideal, of course, is skills, manual and managerial, illumined by technical knowledge and social insight. 3. Having made our curricula and programs for the situation described above, we can then proceed to make adaptations and adjustments of it for situations like these: a. Where young women have had a substantial apprentice- ship in their own homes. b. Where it is not practicable to reach young women, but it is practicable to provide two to six hours weekly of training and instruction in regular public schools during ages 12 to 15 or 1 6. c. Where young women are eager for homemaking education, but home facilities for training are unavailable. e. Where no school facilities are available and teachers must do all work in the homes of the girls. /. Where women can or will take training only after marriage, but where their own homes can then be extensively used for that purpose. VI. THE "CASE METHOD" OF STUDY Probably the most profitable methods of approach to the problems here under consideration from the standpoint of the determination of desirable objectives of vocational homemaking education are to be found in the provision of curricula and programs for typical "case" situations, as illustrated below: CASE A A woman, 22 years of age, expecting to be married, wishes six months' full-time training in homemaking. She has been an industrial wage-worker for seven years and knows nothing on the "doing" side about homemaking. She cannot cook, set a table, make a bed, or patch a dress. She has had no experience in handling babies, entertaining small children, caring for the sick, buying furniture or keeping household accounts. As a  "boarder" or consumer in her own home she has the usual "appre- ciations" of good cooking, well-kept rooms, etc. Assume that at 30 she is to have three children, that she will have a five-room house, in a suburban or village community, and that the family income will be $1200 annually. Assume that after marriage she will have to rely largely on herself (not having a mother or other elder person living with her), and that she is ambitious to start married life as a good worker in her new voca- tion as homemaker. Assume also the availability of sufficient means to give her a good vocational education a home as a workshop to meet re- quirements for prepared food, patched clothing, care of babies, on a strictly productive (as opposed to "exercise") basis, as well as books, laboratory facilities, etc. Problems to be Solved Problem I . What should be the specific aims of the six months' vocational education to be provided? Problem 2. What amounts of available time (assume 150 working days of eight hours each) should be given respectively to: Majors a. Foods: selection and purchase, preparation, serving, dis- posal, re-use, dishwashing, etc. (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical studies. (c) Related social studies. b. Clothing: selection, purchase, making, remaking, repair, up-keep. (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical studies. (c) Related social studies. c. Care of house: bed-making, sweeping, keeping articles in order; cleansing furniture, wood, glass, stoves, bathroom fixtures, etc. ; making minor repairs to lights, plumbing, locks, etc. (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical knowledge. (c) Related social knowledge. d. Laundry, including ironing, etc. (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical knowledge. (c) Related social knowledge. e. Children, including sociability and by-education. (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical knowledge. (c) Related social knowledge. Minors f. Household accounting, including especially planning of expenditures, budget making, use of inventories, segregation of expenditures, investment of savings, etc. 1 (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical knowledge. (c) Related social knowledge. g. Housing and furniture: selection, fundamental or long- period readjustments and renovation (not included under "care of house"). (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical knowledge. (c) Related social knowledge. h. Care of sick. (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical knowledge. (c) Related social knowledge. i. Adult sociability and social culture (excluding sociability with children). (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical knowledge. (c) Related social knowledge. j. Yard and garden. (a) Skills, practical performance. (b) Related technical knowledge. (c) Related social knowledge. Problem 3. What order of presentation of the above subjects would be followed? 1 For some type of homes, and perhaps eventually for all, this should be a major.  Problem 4. In each case what provision would be made for training in practical skills? Problem 5. How should related technical knowledge be given, and in what relation to practice on productive, useful, skill- forming work? Problem 6. Should "practical" exercises (non-productive) be accepted in lieu of productive work? Problem 7. How should related social knowledge be given? Problem 8. What tests of final competency in each case would be provided. CASE B Identical with Case A, except that the total time available for training for vocation is three months, or seventy-five working days, of eight hours each. CASE c Identical with Case A, except that women must continue wage- earning, and can give only four (evening) hours weekly for sixty weeks, divided between two years. CASE D Identical with Case A, except that women can give only time after she is married and living in her own home. Can then give six afternoon hours in school and twenty-four (or more if neces- sary) hours to productive work in her own home, weekly, for sixteen weeks. Assume teachers with ample time for visiting and supervision of home work. CASE E Farmer's daughter, 22 years old, eighth grade education. Has always helped in farm home and can perform all ordinary opera- tions with the moderate efficiency produced by home apprentice- ship, including care of small children. Has little technical knowledge or social insight relative to the homemaking vocation. Expects to get married within a year, to have a farm house (northern Mississippi Valley), with cash budget of $600 yearly and income in "kind" (owned house, water, wood, vegetables, fruit, milk) equivalent to $250. Assume three children at age of thirty and only occasional household help.  Assume possibilities of her attending full time for three months a vocational school of homemaking distant 100 miles from her home. Assume this school to possess all reasonable equipment and teaching force required to carry into effect such programs as it might decide to be desirable for students of the class of Case E. Problem I . What would such a school establish as its standards of vocational proficiency for such a woman? Classify objectives separately under the categories given for Case A, distinguishing under each between practical skill, related technical knowledge and related social insight. Problem 2. How will the school test and evaluate the powers and capacities in homemaking possessed by the woman at entrance? How will it correlate these with the new powers and capacities it will seek to produce? Problem 3. What will such a school seek to offer as training and instruction under each of the categories given in Case A? Or, what will be its programs of instruction? Problem 4. What will such a school provide in the way of facilities for practice? In foods? Laundry? Child care? Sick care? Housing? Problem 5. How will such a school avoid stressing urban conditions? How can it keep solidly in touch with rural condi- tions? CASE F Identical with Case E, except that the woman has gone to high school and normal school and has taught two years, as a consequence of which her skills and technical knowledge of home- making at the outset are negligible while her appreciations arc normal. CASE G Identical with Case E, except that the woman can give three hours daily to the homemaking school, located one hour away, and the remainder to her mother's home, where productive educational work can be done. VII. SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES In the framing and passage of the Smith-Hughes Act, granting national aid to certain forms of vocational education, home eco-  nomics was included at the eleventh hour. (A distinguished member of the Federal Board for Vocational Education has publicly asserted that the home economics provision was a "monkey-wrench thrown into otherwise perfectly good machin- ery. "^JMany teachers of home economics in elementary and especially in secondary schools who were serenely pursuing the even tenor of their way before the enactment of the Smith-Hughes law now find also that that law is playing the disastrous part of money-wrench in their heretofore smooth-running machinery. JWhat is the vocational education that prepares for home- making or the work of housewife? Under what conditions is home economics "vocational"?' What else can the subject be, if not vocational?^ These, and many other similar questions are dis- concerting, if not haunting, many of our home economics teachers to-day. They are destined to put to the test not a few of current traditions as to aims and methods of education in fields only distantly related to the homemaking vocation. They show the utter inadequacy of some current interpretations of educational values made by men of strong academic prepossessions. The immediate difficulties confronting home economics teachers arise from a few simple but more or less conflicting conditions: (a) Congress enacted the Smith-Hughes law to aid vocational education, and only vocational education. (b~) The public has all along believed that the home economics courses which had be- come so generally established in progressive school systems were vocational in intent and results. Hence the public has insisted that schools maintaining these courses should proceed to claim their due share of "Smith-Hughes" money, (c) The administering authorities have in some cases denied that home economics courses as ordinarily found are in fact vocational, and have in- sisted on new and sometimes difficult modifications. Now, it is well known that many differences of mind in this imperfect world are due to failures to define terms and standards. How far is this the situation here? On the other hand, sore contests always arise when progressive action is being taken, the very nature of which necessitates discarding of familiar habits, and readjustment of standards. The authorities charged with the enforcement of the law claim that such is often the case here.  The history of the evolution of vocational education shows how present confusion in almost all fields of vocational education arises under both the conditions stated above. A few basic in- quiries will make this clear. (What does "vocational education" mean? Does it include all those forms of experience, instruction, and training, in school and out of school, which, superadded to the individual's native endowment, finally give him that which we recognize as vocational competency?) Then it will be admitted that, in the sense iised, every one, substantially, for thousands of years, has received a vocational education good, bad or indif- ferent, complete or incomplete, wasteful or economical, as the case may be. In that sense, then, every housewife and every domestic servant in the United States to-day has received some vocational education, although few have received any part of that education through an agency which could properly be called a school. We are now on educational bedrock. When and why do we /seek to establish schools for vocational education to supplement or replace the other agencies? Only when these other agencies are insufficient to the needs of the time and when a type of a school is invented that can give the education. That has been the history of vocational schools of war leadership, medicine, priesthood, pharmacy, navigation, law, civil engineering, stenog- raphy, telephone switchboard operating, nursing, and elementary school teaching. It will probably be the history of schools of journalism, acting, indoor salesmanship, waiting on table, poultry farming, house carpentry, school nursing, automobile repair, homemaking and engine firing. (It can hardly be said that W3 have vocational schools for this second group of vocations as yet; current attempts are hardly beyond the experimental stage.) Do vocational schools at first undertake to give complete com- petency for a given vocation complete, that is, as reasonably practicable for the age at which graduation is expected? Rarely ever.^ Sometimes they assume a previous period of apprentice- ship^ as did earlier schools of law, medicine, engineering, and teaching (under the pupil-teacher system in England). Some- times they have counted upon what is in effect an apprenticeship subsequent to schooling as do present-day schools of law, medicine, stenography, and engineering. Sometimes, however,  they have paralleled practice and study in order to dispense with prior and subsequent apprenticeship, as do present-day schools of nursing and elementary school teaching and as some engineer- ing, trade, and farming schools are endeavoring to do. It is now good usage to call that vocational education in schools which presupposes previous or concurrent practice of an occupation, extension teaching; all that instruction in the art, science, mathematics, and language of a vocation which antici- pates or precedes practice of a vocation, technical instruction; and all that vocational education which undertakes to teach prac- tical skill and related technical and social knowledge in close correlation as basic vocational education. (But technical in- struction not directed towards, and usually functioning in, vocational practice cannot properly be called vocational edu- cation.) In discussing standards for vocational education let us frankly recognize that many professional schools, notwithstanding the years of history behind them, are far from having yet determined, with any useful degree of precision, either their aims or the validity of their means and methods. Even the best engineering schools are to-day only higher technical schools, although some are now attempting, through summer practice, to give a certain amount of skill and managerial ability. In general, their facul- ties still satisfy themselves with the easy assumption that prac- tical skill and mangerial powers are things that must be learned in "the school of experience" with all the wastefulness and mal- adjustment which that involves. Most varieties of commercial education are still on an essentially technical basis they do not prepare for a given vocation, but only give the instruction sup- posed to be useful to one beginning what will be practically an apprenticeship in the practice of the vocation. The one sub- stantial exception is stenography and typewriting here the candidate is, in the best schools, actually prepared to begin at once the commercial practice of her vocation. Probably the most disputed question in recent and contempo- rary movements for the extension of vocational proficiency in various callings has been the value of technical instruction in advance of practice. Long before we had basic vocational schools for such occupations as machine-shop practice, electricity, print-  ing, carpentry, homemaking and farming, our technical high schools had developed courses of technical instruction in, or somewhat related to, these callings. But practical men have always been very skeptical of the results of such courses. It is true that these schools can easily be administered so that they will select the most promising candidates for the respective occu- pations. A little judicious advertising and testing of entrants will accomplish that purpose. Having selected personalities that are certain to attain success in their callings in any event, it is easy and natural, reasoning post hoc ergo propter hoc, to attribute the success of these students to the instruction they received in school. During recent years a classic example of this kind has been given very wide publicity. A certain tech- nical high school collected data which showed that boys leaving school at fourteen and commencing work at, say, $5 per week, will have been advanced to the point where at thirty years of age they will be earning, say, $15 per week; whereas graduates of the technical high school, possibly starting at age of 18 at only five or six dollars per week will be earning twenty-five to thirty dollars per week at the age of 30. Now, admitting the facts, they, of course, prove nothing as to the value of technical high school instruction and training. Every observer of schools knows that only very high-grade boys enter technical high schools ; that of these only the, best survive the first year or two ; and that the graduates are a very picked lot, and destined to success in life, schooling or no schooling. Among all well-informed educators the conclusion is now generally held that for a large majority of callings technical in- struction in advance of practical applications which usually means applications in productive work and under commercial conditions is almost valueless, and sometimes decidedly harm- ful. It is obvious that electrical engineering offers a relatively large volume of technical knowledge. A person of exceptional capacity for abstract thinking can spend several years in master- ing this knowledge as organized in mathematics, mechanics, chemistry, engineering theory, etc. Then he can begin practice, and apply his knowledge as he finds occasion. But every man familiar with the conditions of higher education is aware that only from one to three per cent of persons between eighteen and  thirty years of age are able to develop the powers required, according to current standards, of electrical engineers. In pattern-making, on the other hand, skill bulks large and technical knowledge small. The men who ordinarily enter pat- tern-making are usually strong in "mechanical instincts" and not so strong in those powers of abstract thinking which are exem- plified in the study of mathematics. Every educator knows that appeals to common experience will help us here. We should hardly expect a person to profit greatly from several months' instruction in the theory or technique of swimming before he enters the water. The writer once saw an advertisement, "Horseback-riding taught by mail," but he retained the hope that the recipient of these lessons had a horse to practice on while learning. In training a man to be a barber or a girl to be a waitress, it is apparent that only a very little advance technical knowledge could be given with profit. In analyzing scores of occupations from this standpoint, it is apparent that two types of considerations are involved, (a) What, in any given vocation, are the relative values of skill and managerial abilities. on the one hand, and what we call related technical knowledge on the other? (b) What are the various learning capacities of those who are likely to enter such vocation? VIII. APPLICATIONS OF THESE GENERAL PRINCIPLES TO HOMEMAKING EDUCATION It can be readily understood from the foregoing discussion what have been some of the obstacles encountered in various endeavors to develop vocational homemaking education. In earlier stages, when technical knowledge was imperfectly devel- oped, only the practical arts were taught cooking, sewing, bedmaking, etc. Often, of course, these subjects, as taught in schools, were very superficial and artificial. Then came the enormous development of technical knowledge, especially in the departments of foods, household accounting and household management. Under the head of "domestic art" similar develop- ments of technical knowledge in departments of clothing, hous- ing, etc., were attempted, but with less success.  A second stage of evolution in homemaking education came when, under the collective name of "home economics," courses based on the productive activities of the home assumed a largely technical character it must be remembered that laboratory work, experimentation, and practical exercises are integral parts usually of technical instruction, since, almost never, are they designed to produce basic skills. Hence the general demand of competent critics to-day that home economics education, seeking to meet requirements of voca- tional education for homemaking shall: (a) provide for the nec- essary practical experience in productive work required to pro- duce enduring skills, manual and managerial, if it is to be re- garded as basic vocational education; or else (b) connect posi- tively and purposefully with previous practical experience if it is to be regarded as extension vocational education. It is denied that vocational competency in homemaking as that is found now in millions of American homes, and as it is desired on behalf of millions more in the future, can be more than slightly produced by technical instruction alone, even if that include laboratory and amateur productive exercises. It is recognized that some home economics departments take charge of school lunches. This is good productive practice as far as it goes, even if on excessively large scale for home food preparation, but what schools cover the various fields of foods, clothing, house care, child care, laundry, etc., in this practical way? IX. THE "PROJECT METHOD" OF TEACHING HOMEMAKING I. In the total process of producing homemaking competency to function in adult life, we should recognize several distinct stages or even different areas of possible operation. For example : jra. .In girlhood, from six to twelve, it is obviously possible for the mother or for a teacher who can control conditions of time, motive, and familiar implements as can the mother, to train the girl in various specific skills tea-making, dusting, outing care of infant, darning and to attach to these and related operations, appropriate technical knowledge, appreciations, aspirations, and ideals.  b. From ten to sixteen, at least during the time of transitions from play motives, interests and powers to work motives, inter- ests and powers, it is clearly practicable in the case of a large proportion of girls, to elicit fairly strong interests in amateur homemaking when the desires and motives are for results functioning as in the adult world of work, but the appreciations and powers are still those of the play stage and spirit, unwilling to tolerate long routines, to search for technical knowledge, to undergo drill or training. In many cases this would seem to be an appropriate time for rich offering of household arts as general education. Apprecia- tions, insights, aspirations, even ideals, can easily be formed in relation to novel situations in homemaking, where familiarity with, and en forced drudgery in, domestic operations has not bred the blase attitude or even contempt. But teachers should be careful not to confuse the results of this general education with those to be derived from effective vocational education. 7 c. From fifteen to eighteen would seem to be an appropriate time for offerings of basic or extension vocational homemaking to girls who could see clearly ahead of them wage-earning employ- ment as assistant homemakers, as trained employees in the homes of their mothers or others. For the present, of course, little can be done here because popular valuations of the vocations of "domestic service" are so adverse that self-respecting and ambi- tious girls seek non-domestic vocations by preference. d. For young women from eighteen to twenty-five, who expect to become independent homemakers, there exist large oppor- tunities for: (a) extension vocational education for those who, like many farmers' daughters, have already had extensive basic experience in a large variety of homemaking operations ; and (b) basic vocational education for those who, like a large majority of factory and office employees, have had almost negligibly small experience in, or even contact with, domestic operations. Mo- tives may be strongest just before or soon after marriage. e. Other stages or areas could easily be defined, especially by taking account of different social classes. 2. The "project" is, from many points of view, the best educa- tional device for basic vocational education. It has not yet been tried extensively in homemaking. Its best developments  o are found in agricultural education. As applied to vocational education, the project is a "job" or unit of productive work, usu- ally of a utilizable or even marketable character, selected and organized as constituting a valuable stage in an educational process. 3. Homemaking projects illustrated: a. A girl or woman of no previous experience undertakes to make ten shirtwaists of exactly the same pattern and material. From the making of the first she gets a large amount of new ex- perience, accompanied by a certain amount of technical knowl- edge, appreciation, etc. In making the remainder she increases her skill, organization of effort, etc. Parallel with her work, she can be helped to insight, as to social, hygienic, and other general aspects of her work. If, after the making of ten shirtwaists, further increments of permanent skill of applicable technical knowledge would be small, then the educational value of the project has largely been realized. Further making of shirt- waists would be valuable for production rather than education. b. An inexperienced girl, directed by a competent teacher, gives three hours daily for a month to providing the breakfasts of a family of six. Linked up with the actual preparation of the food and washing of the dishes, will be such technical matters as planning variations in menus, selecting and buying materials, keeping suitable accounts. Related studies of nutrition, markets, technical processes, etc., can easily be linked up to, and inter- preted by, this project by the teacher through lectures, readings, problems, etc. 4. Scores of other suitable projects, large and small, can ba devised. Care of the outing hours of an infant for two weeks; care of a bed-chamber for two weeks; performance of family washing for four weeks; washing and dressing of a child or infant for two weeks ; baking family bread for a month ; canning four dozen jars of plums; preparation of five successive Sunday dinners; keeping the accounts of a family for six months on basis of "slips" supplied by the family; keeping clothing of three children in repair for three months, etc. For service in schools, those projects should be analyzed in detail, reference readings specifically indicated, and related technical and social studies analyzed in detail.  5. Where the previous practical experience of the student justifies the offering of extension rather than basic vocational courses, there may be less place for projects, and relatively more for topics of study, collection of materials and reports, problems for analysis, laboratory exercises, investigations, etc. a. For example, a farmer's daughter, age twenty, coming to a short-course, full-time school, who has had much experience with her mother (frequently supplementing her), may be most in need of technical knowledge which she can relate to her already well-assimilated experience. She may most need explanations of the processes she has learned by imitation or rule of thumb methods, including improved processes, accounting, etc. b. Where home economics is taught as one subject in a cur- riculum of general education being paralleled by courses in English, mathematics, physics, etc., it might be possible to give the home economics a vocational flavor by offering it, in the case of pupils of known home opportunities, as extension instruction; but the difficulties are great, and the method is seldom used. c. The "project" is often confused with an "exercise" or even with a "demonstration." For the sake of explicitness it would seem best to confine the term to a unit of work which combines productive and educative possibilities, and possessing possibili- ties of repeated performance so as to give skills. 6. Problems of Project Method: a. What should be the "magnitude" of a project? This partly dependent on external character of the work, partly on psychology of learners. Young learners need smaller and shorter time projects than older. Every project should take the learner beyond the play stage of experience into work stage. Short, fragmentary experiences, even in fields of drudgery may, by novelty, sustain play interest for a time. For girls twelve to sixteen, it is" surmised that valuable projects should require from ten to fifty hours, no period of application being less than two, and preferably four to six hours. For young women, pro- jects may require 20 to 60 hours, optimum single periods of application (in productive work and related study) being four hours. b. What should be the "compositeness" or "complexity" of projects? For best learning purposes, probably, a project should  center in one natural or normal "strand" or field of activity. Within one day, a housewife dresses children, prepares meals, makes beds, etc. But a learner can probably make best progress by focusing effort on one or two of these recurrent series of jobs, so as to attend to acquisition of skills, interpretations, etc. On the other hand, the related minor jobs normally belonging to a major job should be included in the project. A cooking project not involving related cleaning up; a laundry project not involv- ing subsequent ironing; a breakfast project not involving buying and accounting these would probably be unwisely broken. c. How can related technical knowledge and social insight be integrated to the project? Eventually we shall probably have hundreds of projects given in detail in booklets, with references to related readings, etc. For the present the teacher should seek to build about each project a series of readings, technical and social. d. Should cooperative projects be provided? Occasionally, but not to an extent which will prevent fullest acquisition of individual powers (of execution) and capacities (for appreciation). Cooperative sociability projects are especially good giving a reception or entertainment, relieving a poor family. Probably also certain projects necessarily of an "observation and report" character planning the location of a farmhouse, furnishing a kitchen, etc., could be of a cooperative character. X. FEDERAL BOARD'S BULLETIN No. 28 (Organization and Administration of Home Economics Education) This bulletin "may be considered as an official answer to the many inquiries concerning matters of policy in home economics education received by the office of the Federal Board." In general, the definitions and interpretations found in this bulletin represent the best of available knowledge and practicable expectations in homemaking education. The problems sug- gested below, dealing mainly with questions of objectives, are expected to arise as further developments take place in this field ; but for sake of concrete analysis these problems are here stated as of the present, and with no intention of conveying adverse criticism.  1. It is unfortunate that the Jaw uses the term "home eco- nomics" which describes neither a vocation nor the common characteristics of a group of vocations as do the terms "commer- cial," "professional," etc. The words "home economics" will long continue to connote a group of technical studies only, in spite of all effort to the contrary. Educators should now make con- certed efforts to settle on more serviceable terminologies. 2. Why should it be held that in "separate vocational schools of home economics" which have "but little articulation with the other phases of work of the school system" the courses offered "are usually two years in length, although a few schools offer four-year courses"? Are these arrangements defended? Ought not administrators move steadily toward short, intensive courses, each composed of short units, in vocational homemaking? Will not "long courses" perpetuate the weaknesses of "long course," over- technical, insufficiently practical, industrial, agricultural and commercial courses? 3. Is it well to try to force the word "laboratory" to .include the meanings given on page 33 and elsewhere? Etymologically, the word "laboratory" may mean the same as workshop or place of productive work; but historically and practically, in thousands of industrial establishments, colleges, and other centers of re- search, it now means specially equipped places of experimenta- tion, investigation, testing, and study. It once meant, also, a place of production of drugs ; but even this meaning is becoming obscured. To try to use the term in a special sense as designating a place for "practice in all the home activities which are taught within the (vocational) school, such as housekeeping, garment- making, etc.," is to court endless misunderstandings, misdirected effort and perpetuation of old traditions of technical instruction. A laboratory is not a place for the practice of a vocation: that is a farm, shop, office, kitchen, home, or school. Let a homemaking school, using "local (or actual) homes" or "school homes" for practice, have one or more small laboratories for testing, experimentation, etc. ; but call the practice place a school home or an actual home/) 4. Is it wise to provicle so extensively for the necessarily arti- ficial equipment suggested on pages 19 and 20? Homes are found in large numbers within a dozen blocks of almost all except country schools. These are real homes, where real pro- ductive work must be done. Judging by experience in other fields of vocational education, artificial equipments of this kind can be used for genuinely laboratory purposes and for demon- stration purposes, but never effectively for practice purposes. More readily than in almost any other field it should prove prac- ticable in homemaking to establish cooperative or part-time arrangements. To realize the maximum benefits, these should be on a project basis. ; 5. "Vocational subjects to be selected (for a course in voca- tional home economics) should be determined by an analysis of the occupation." This is, of course, indispensable, but it should be noted that, for practical purposes: a. Such an analysis by strands of work or types of daily duty is almost valueless unless it also somehow indicate degrees of proficiency in each. All homemakers in America now, the very poor no less than the good, can cook, serve, repair clothing, care for children, buy furniture. But we want the next genera- tion to do these things better. b. Because of the few fundamental types of homemaking and the universality of home activities, central authorities (state or, preferably, national) can make these occupational analyses to best advantage. Individual teachers need much help here, espe- cially while standards are so vague. fAs suggested before, home economics teachers are usually insufficiently equipped with practical knowledge of home productive processes (as carried on in actual homes) as these should be scientifically analyzed, de- scribed, and evaluated.) 6. "The law provides that schools or classes giving instruction to persons who have not entered upon employment shall require that at least half of the time of such instruction shall be given to practical work on a useful or productive basis." But the Federal Board here holds "practical work on a useful basis" to mean "instruction in vocational subjects designed as preparation for homemaking." Experience will undoubtedly show that this interpretation is indefensible either as good law or good pedagogy. Practical work on a useful basis is just as capable of recognition and of being provided in homemaking as in gardening, dressmak- ing, carpentry, elementary school- teaching, and hospital practice.  y. Home projects are recommended (pp. 28-34). But the rank and file of teachers can make little or no progress in home project work until the leaders shall have worked out guidance materials no less elaborate than are those now found for labora- tory practice in technical instruction. Many model projects worked out in utmost detail, and hundreds in outline involving close adjustments to varying conditions, are required as pre- liminary to any effective utilization of the project method. These should be available in booklet form. XL HOUSEHOLD ARTS AS LIBERAL EDUCATION It is very important that schools of general education, and especially those dealing with girls from 12 to 16 years of age (the period of true amateur spirit of production) should offer courses of household arts, conceived very much as are now home gar- dening, scouting, and the best manual training, as a means of genuine liberal education. Such courses should preferably be elective, should occupy from two to four hours weekly, and should center in "project" work and general inspirational reading. For a few girls vocational skills and knowledge will doubtless accrue from these courses, as they do for boys in home-gardening and shopwork; but unless these are regarded as incidental products the "liberalizing" spirit of the work will be spoiled. Probably appreciations and ideals of ultimate vocational significance will also accrue for many, but these also should normally be regarded as incidental or secondary accompaniments for these ages of effective liberal education. A few general theses are submitted: i. The fundamental difficulties now encountered in realizing valuable results from home economics instruction by depart- mental teachers with girls from 12 to 16 years of age are due in large part to confusion of purposes between vocational and liberal. The courses offered constitute minor offerings in schemes of education primarily liberal or general; the specialized teachers have in view ends that are somewhat vaguely vocational, at least so far as technical instruction can serve these ends under the circumstances.  2. The primary purpose of schools for children from twelve to fourteen years of age is the giving of liberal, as distinguished from vocational, education. For pupils who elect to continue their general or liberal education in regular high schools, primary purposes should also be found in liberal education. There is no evidence that a small amount one-tenth to one-third of total time available, given to vocational education, can be made to function as assured vocational competency. 3. Household arts for girls from 12 to 16 years of age (and, if motive can be enlisted, for boys as well) can certainly be made a means of liberal education. To effect this will probably require some important modifications in the means and methods now usually employed. 4. The objectives of liberal education are less easily defined than those of vocational education, the most visible and measur- able outcome of which is power of producing in a specified field and for a prolonged period, valuable service or goods, commonly of the kind called "exchangeable" and the exchangeable worth of which is usually for convenience given a money value which readily serves as a measure. "Liberal" education has as its ob- jectives the product of a variety of qualities, many of which may be included under such terms as appreciations, tastes, sentiments, ideal valuations, ideals, insights, understandings. Liberal educa- tion in a given field language, literature, science, sociability, art, nature, society, religion, government, agriculture, household arts, urban surroundings, etc., etc. seeks the humanistic ends of deepened and widened social sympathies. It is very difficult to get teachers to understand the difference ^between, for example, vocational training and amateur execution, / because too few teachers have ever been definitely trained for their vocations, as have been physicians, nurses, locomotive engineers, dentists, military officers, and architects. College professors, superintendents, principals of schools, high school teachers, and home economics teachers are rarely, if ever, trained to a deter- minate work of teaching. They have received much instruction, of course, which, more or less vaguely, has been assumed to be necessary to their success as teachers or executives. But for the rest they have "picked up" their vocations in a nai've, primitive, and more or less "hit or miss" fashion. Hence, educators find it  exceptionally difficult to form distinct ideas of what is meant by specified specialized vocational training. 5. What will be some of the means and methods of "liberal" household arts education? a. It must not be obligatory. The girl must be attracted to it, not driven to it. b. It must, to the maximum extent practicable, use the girl's own home, yard, bedroom, mother, father, brothers and sisters, pets, dress, health, and aspirations as means of objective inter- pretation, but always only in the friendliest cooperative spirit. Nothing forced or inquisitorial will do here. To a large extent, teaching must be impersonal, reference always being made to "third parties." c. Much reliance must be placed on stimulating reading. We have hardly begun yet to produce readings idealizing and interpreting the home, as the army, scouting and business enter- prise have been idealized for boys. Results of individual reading must, of course, be socialized by conference, discussion, reports, etc. d. The demonstration of standards by "model apartment," house, room, article of furniture, curtain, bed, set table, dress, home apparatus, should play a part as objectifying means, but due allowances should be made for the "soullessness" of these when they are not in practical operation or use. e. Demonstrations of process cooking, clothes-making, bed- making, washing of baby, gardening give vitality and concrete interpretation of standards. The apperceiving powers of girls are obviously great here toward the formation of tastes and standards. /. Projects are especially valuable as educational means, and naturally the majority will be "home projects" that is, the in- spiration and direction will come from the school, but the time, place, and, largely, the means of execution will be provided by the home. The range of projects offered by the school should be as extensive as practicable so as to give utmost latitude for choice by learners. Projects for purposes of liberal education should possess elements of novelty, appeal to creative powers, and should enlist all that can best be summarized as "amateur powers." [351 6. What would be some of the' specific objectives of household arts organized as a means of liberal education for girls from 12 to 1 6 years of age? a. To help the girl to see her own home in its most ideal light. All over southern France, we read, the war-dislocated women will take even one room, a bed, a trunk and a little stove and will make a nest, a home, a haven, a foyer, for frightened, tired, and sleepy children, a place to which the lonesome hard-driven man comes back as to the center of existence for rest, the supreme recreative activities, and social uplift. Only the woman, rich in homemaking instincts, customs, and, perhaps, training, can make the real home. Can we not, by readings, pictures, discussions, model apartments or houses, help to see the home as the little central power plant or cell whence radiates much of the social energy that makes the world go well? b. To help the girl appreciate the facts and problems of the financial up-keep of the home through labor given outside. c. To appreciate the fact that labor, devotion and management wisely given in the home, are in the highest degree productive, even though not appearing in the United States Census as "gain- ful occupations." 7. The spirit of the school of liberal education is largely that of high-grade play; the spirit of the vocational school must be that of serious work. Only one worker in ten thousand can afford to pick daisies as he travels the roads of work. The spirit of liberal education is that of the traveler for recreation and enlightenment; the spirit of the vocational school is that of the man who has business at a given destination, which destination he must reach at the earliest possible moment. The spirit of the school of liberal education is diffusive, catholic, rich in varied human contacts; the spirit of the vocational school is one of concentration of effort, singleness of purpose, and contacts limited to those essential in the economic process, that moving toward fulfilment. "Work while you work," is the motto of the vocational school; "play while you play," of the liberal school. For interpretations as to what is meant by "liberalizing" education, we must go to such fields as literature, music, history, geography, plastic art, travel, the moving pictures, current read- ing and gardening. (36] T WED BELOW CENTS . AN INITIAL OVERDUE.