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Full text of "Voyage of H.M.S. Blonde to the Sandwich islands, in the years 1824-1825"

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VOYAGE 



OF 



H. M. S. BLONDE 



TO THB 



SANDWICH ISLANDS, 



IN THE YEARS 1824-1825. 






a 



CAPTAIN THE RIGHT HON. LORD BYRON, COMMANDER. 



LONDON : 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE.STREET. 



WOOOCXXVI. 

w 



. • • . 

• • • • • • . 



• 



• •. • 



• • • • •• * 

• • • 



•' • • • 



• ••• . - • • •. 

• • • : •• • 

• • • • * 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY THOMAS DAVISON, WHITBPRIAR8. 






PREFACE. 



The following narrative has been compiled from the 
various journals and notes made by some of the officers and 
other gentlemen that accompanied Lord Byron on his in- 
teresting voyage to the Sandwich Islands. 



It is much to be regretted that Mr. Bloxam, the Chaplain 
of his Majesty's ship, Blonde, was prevented by the sudden- 
ness of his departure from England, in order to fulfil his 
duty in a distant colony, from arranging his own papers 
and those of his companions. 



The Editor is conscious that some things may have been 
omitted, and some, possibly, mistaken, notwithstanding 
every endeavour to do justice to the work, owing to a want 
of that local knowledge which Mr. Bloxam, as an eye-wit- 
ness, must have possessed, and with which he would, no 
doubt, have extended and adorned his narrative, had he 
fortunately remained to prepare it for publication. 



iv PREFACE. 

These observations refer, of course, chiefly to the second 
part of the following work, which contains the account of 
the Blonde's voyage. 



In the first part, the Editor has consulted the voyages 
of Cook, Vancouver, Dickson and Fortlock, Tumbull, and 
several other English navigators, besides the French and 
Bussian voyages. Much valuable information was also re- 
ceived verbally from the missionaries, besides that contained 
in Mr. Ellis's excellent account of Hawaii ; and with respect 
to the visit of the king and queen of the Sandwich Islands 
to England, the most liberal assistance has been afibrded by 
the gentleman who acted as their friend, no less than as 
their guardian, while they were in London. 



As the local situation of the Sandwich Islands renders 
them very important in the eyes of every maritime and 
commercial nation, particularly such as may have a view 
to trading between the rising states on the western coast of 
America, and the East Indies or China, it was believed that 
an account of the Islands and of their history, from the 
period of their discovery, would not be unacceptable. 



The rapid progress that civilization has made in these 
Islands is also a subject of great interest ; and as the chiefs 



PREFACE. V 

have voluntarily chosen England as guardian to their infant 
state, and lean towards it with affectionate respect, as the 
source whence they e:^pect all that is to be beneficial to 
them, it was thought, that to diffuse a knowledge of their 
past and present condition would perhaps contribute to ob- 
jects so worthy of a great and ancient people, as the amending 
and polishing an innocent and ingenious nation, and fostering 
the growth of religion, polity, and literature, where hitherto 
man has scarcely assumed his proper rank in the scale of 
creation. 



For the few notices concerning natural history which 
the work contains^ it is chiefly indebted to the zealous atten- 
tion of Mr. A. Bloxam, brother to the chaplain of the Blonde, 
who, if not a learned naturalist, deserves the praise of a dili- 
gent and sensible collector. For some facts connected with 
the subject, the Editor is obliged to the gentlemen connected 
with that department in the British Museum, who very 
kindly gave permission to consult them, and to inspect the 
specimens of natural history deposited in the Museum. 



It is to be regretted, that the practised collector of bo-> 
tanical specimens who went in the Blonde to the Sandwich 
Islands should not have furnished any account of the plants, 




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X CONTENTS. 








P«ge 


Lahaina . . . • . .103 


The Princess .... 






, 105 


Honoruru . . . < 






109 


Lord Byron visits the Regent and delivers presents 






112 


Bodies of the King and Queen landed. — Funeral 






. 124 


Lord Byron and party go to live on shore 






, 138 


The Regent tapped for dropsy 






, 139 


Pass of the Parr6 






, 140 


Moral and missionaries 






145 


National Council — Young King confirmed 






. 151 


Blonde sails from Oahu 




• 


, 161 


Byrpn Bay . . . , 






, 164 


Lord Byron^s house ashore 






. 167 


A party visits Mouna Keah 






. 169 


Lord Byron ascends the great volcano 






, 175 


Arrives at the crater 






. 183 


Heroism of Kapeolani 






, 187 


Blonde leaves Byron Bay 






, 192 


Arrives second time at Oahu • 






. 193 


Leaves Oahu and goes to Karakakoa 






. 196 


Kapeolani and Nahi 






198 


Moral . • . • < 






, 200 


Cross erected to Captain Cook's Memory 






. 202 


Maiden's Island .... 






. 204 


Mauti ..... 






. 206 


Reach Valparaiso .... 






, 215 








216 




» wXV 


Indian Chiefs . . . . 






220 


Coquimbo and Arqueros Mines 






. 226 


Saint Helena .... 






. 232 


Wreck of the Frances Mary . 






233 


Appendix. 


No. I., Poem by King Riho Riho . 243 


No. Il.y Incantation ..... 245 


No. III.. Natural History of Sandwich Islan 


ds 


• 


. 248 



DIRECTIONS FOR BINDING UP THE PLATES. 









To face page 


1 View of the great Volcano of Pdi . 


Frontispiece. 


2 Chart of the Voyage 




1 


8 Native Girl 






. 97 


4 Young Princess 




1 


. 105 


5 View at Lahaina 




i 


. 106 


6 View near Honoruru 




> « 


. 109 


7 Kiaukiauli 




t 


. 118 


8 Fish-ponds 




• < 


. lao 


9 WaterfaD, Byron Bay 




» 4 


. 165 


10 Lord Byron^s House 




1 ■ 


. 167 


11 Waikeea . 




• 


. 168 


12 Plan of the great Volcano of Peli 


• 


. 184 


13 Missionary Houses 


• • • 


a 


. 198 


14 Morai at Earakakoa 


• • • 


• 


. 199 


15 Malden^s Island 


• • • 


• 


. !205 




3 



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PART I. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

KING TAMEHAMEHA II. HIS VISIT TO ENGLAND 

AND DEATH, 1824. 



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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



y 



The Sandwich Islands have made such a very rapid pro- 
gress towards civilization during the few years that have 
elapsed since their discovery by Captain Cook, that they 
might claim sufficient interest to make a sketch of their 
history acceptable from that consideration alone. But the 
very singular circumstances attending the visit of their late 
sovereigns to this country, and their death while here, render 
such a sketch necessary as an introduction to the account of 
the Voyage of the Blonde, which was despatched by this 
Government for the express purpose of conveying their bodies 
to their native Islands, together with the chiefs who had 
accompanied them, and by that mark of respect drawing stiU 
closer those bonds of confidence and good will which have 
always united the Sandwich Islanders with this country. 

The names of seven of the kings antecedent to Teraiopu 
or Terreeoboo, in whose reign Captain Cook discovered the 
Islands, have been recorded by various navigators who have 

B 2 



4 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

visited the South Seas, but so variously, that it appears im- 
possible they should have meant to commemorate the same 
individuals, unless, indeed, the change of name, which we 
know was practised by the last king, was a general custom. 
He was originally called lolani, but upon performing the 
first tabu with his father he adopted the name of Riho Riho, 
and finally, on his father's death, assumed that of Tame- 
hameha II., and was never willingly afterwards called by 
any other. 

In the reign of Eukanaroa, as one account says ; in that 
of Kahoukapu, according to another, the Islands of Hawaii 
had been visited. First, by a priest, who settled there with 
his gods, and whose posterity still remains ; and secondly, by 
a vessel with white men, with whom this priest was able to 
converse*. The fifth in descent from this Kahoukapu was 
Kaiamamao (the Eayenewee-a mummow of Cook), the father 
of Teraiopu. The end of his reign was marked by one of 



* See the two last chapters of Mr. Ellis^s very interesting tour in Hawaii. 
This missionary, we believe, possesses more knowledge than any other person 
respecting the Sandwich Islands, and especially their history. It may seem at 
first sight of little consequence to know the names of barbarous kings ; but the 
state in which these islands were found supposes the existence of some men supe- 
rior to the common— of inventors and of legislators ; and if, among the traditional 
ballads and legends, the memory of such should be preserved, they will form no 
uninteresting chapter in the history of the human race. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 5 

those wild romantic incidents that poetry and tradition have 
taught us are common in all nations, in those early stages 
of society that precede civilization. Kouipoipoi, a powerful 
chief of Hawaii, having in vain attempted to seduce the 
affections of one of Eaiamamao's wives, one day contrived to 
decoy her from her home, and to carry her up to the moun- 
tains. Alapaii, brother to the ravisher, was a just man and 
a valiant warrior ; and on learning this atrocious act he went 
to Eouipoipoi, and entreated him to restore the woman to 
her husband, pointing out the danger he was in from the rest 
of the chiefs, who would certainly assemble to punish such a 
violation of all the rules of honour. The remonstrances of 
Alapaii produced their effect, and he was commissioned to 
restore the wife of Kaiamamao to her husband. The king, 
however, proud of his high descent, the extent of his lands, 
and the number of his vassals, forbade her to ajpproach him, 
under pain of being sacrificed on the spot to his wrath. On 
this, Alapaii, still desirous of peace, and wishing to reconcile 
the unfortunate woman to her lord, prepared a feast of coco- 
nuts, fish, and other pleasing food, and spread them before 
the king. But these too he refused, and haughtily com- 
manded his attendants to deposit them on the Whattas ^, 

* The Whatta is a raised platform on which sacrifices used to be laid and 
l^uffered to rot. 



6 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

that the heat of the sun might destroy them. Now this was 
the greatest insult that one chief could offer to another, and 
the gentle Alapaii was roused to resentment. He assembled 
all his followers : the chiefs, his friends, did the same ; and 
the two armies met in the valley of Ono Marino, and fought 
for three days. Of the warriors on the side of Eaiamamao 
few besides himself and his son Teraibpu survived. The 
king, indeed, owed his life to the generosity of Alapaii, who 
seeing him in danger from the spear of one of his own vas- 
sals, rushed forward and saved him at the risk of his life. 
But the pride of Eaiamamao could not endure defeat, and 
he slew himself, as it appears, on the field of battle. 

Notwithstanding this event, the devotion of the chiefs of 
Hawaii to the family of their kings was shown by placing 
Teraiopu at their head; and as it was shortly after, that 
the most memorable event that has ever occurred in the 
history of these Islands took place, namely, their being 
made known to the civilized world by Captain Cook*, the 
reign of Teraiopu, or Terreeoboo, may be considered as the 
beginning of the certain history of the Sandwich Islands, 
and this a fit place to notice generally their state of civiliza- 
tion at the period of the discovery. The Sandwich Islands, 
when first visited by Captain Cook, were not, as now, united 

♦ See ElUs, p. 418. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 7 

under one chief, but the seven inhabited Islands^ had each 
its different Aree rahee or Eree Eree, literally chief of 
chiefs, or king, subordinate to whom there were Arees or 
chie& of districts ; and under these again were minor chiefs, 
ruling the cultivators, who were generally called Kanakas or 
men. There was no distinct class of warriors, but every 
man took part in the quarrel of his chief, and even the 
women often went out to fight. A pitched battle usually 
terminated every dispute ; and there is no tradition of any 
kind of treacherous conduct in war, or revenge exercised 
after an apparent reconciliation, to contradict the character 
for good faith and placability which has been generally 
given to these people. 

The weapons of the Sandwich Islanders were slings 
and spears, dubs and daggers, formed of hard wood, and 
rendered more formidable by their ornaments of bone, or 
the teeth of dogs or fish. When the chie& took the field 
they adorned themselves with the war-helmet and cloak. 
This helmet is shaped like that of the ancient Greeks ; it is 
framed of wicker-work and covered with the beautiful red 
feathers of theHehivi, or Drepanis Vestiarius'f-, mixed with 

* Hawaii, Maui, Morotoi, Oahu, Onehoa, Tauai, Tahoura. 
-f- Certhia Vesdarius of Lathom. The Nectarina Bjrronends or Apapanea 
also furnishes red feathers. 



8 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

the scarce yellow plumes of the Nectarina Niger or Uho*. 
The cloak is a long garment, not wilike the Spanish cloak, 
curiously woven of feathers like those of the helmet ; red, 
yellow, and black, are the usual colours ; a cloak entirely 
yellow could only be worn by the king. The war-god of 
each chief was solemnly removed from his family temple and 
carried before him to the field, where it was placed in the 
most conspicuous station and surrounded with the Kaheles 
or feather standards of state. The taking prisoner the war- 
god of a rival party usually terminated the war. Some few of 
the surviving enemy were always selected as sacrifices to the 
deities of the conquerors, but their blood was not shed ; they 
were strangled without the doors of the temples, and then 
brought in and laid on their faces before the idols, sometimes 
alone, sometimes mingled with the carcasses of those domestic 
animals which furnished the ordinary offerings. Excepting 
these devoted persons, it does not appear that any kind of 
revenge or cruelty was indulged against the vanquished. 
Even the very chiefs were freely readmitted into social inter- 
course with their conquerors. 

The soil appears to have been regarded as the pro- 
perty of the Erie-Erie, for on the death of a chief his estates 



Also called Merops Niger and Gracula Longirostra* 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 9 

reverted to the king, and his wives and children remained 
destitute, unless, as most frequently happened, the king be- 
stowed them anew on the family *. 

It does not appear that any thing like money was in use 
among these people, but they practised barter, and readily 
understood, and steadily adhered to, equivalents in their 
exchanges. The ornamental wreaths and chaplets, and the 
curiously formed bracelets of the women ; the war-cloaks 
and helmets made of feathers procured with difficulty, and 
whose arrangement, as it required a great expense of time, 
was one of the employments of the chiefs, and the finer 
kinds of cloth, as they were articles of luxury, were desired 
above all things, and were consequently exchangeable for 
more of the necessaries of life than any other objects ; and 
next to them in value were their weapons, in general highly 
ornamented. These goods, therefore, constituted the trea- 

* Tamehameha I. felt the inconvenience of this custom, and wishing to 
render lands hereditary, he usually bestowed on the son the ground the father 
had occupied. It will be seen in the sequel that the custom of inheritance is 
gaining ground. It was probably to remedy the evils arising from the reversion 
of the lands to the king on the death of the occupant that the people of Otaheite 
had adopted the singular custom mentioned in Cook^s first voyage, of considering 
the son, from his birth, the possessor of the estate, regarding the father, from 
that hour, as regent only. 

May not this unnatural custom of the son^s displacing the father have been 
one of the incitements to child-murder, of which all the South Sea Islanders are 
accused ? 



10 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

sures of the chiefe, and were generally laid up in caverns, 
the secret of which was seldom intrusted to many persons, 
and which might not be approached by a kaneka on pain of 
death. 

The ancient religion of the Sandwich Islands is as yet 
but imperfectly known to us. It probably varied but little 
from that of the South Sea Islands described in Cook's 
Voyages *. The belief in a supreme being, the author of 
all nature, and the peculiar protector and Either of the 
human race, was the foundation of their creed, in common 
with that of all the tribes of men who have begun to think 
of more than the supply of their physical wants. They 
deified the operations of nature, and placed between man 
and the supreme Creator a race of intermediate and gene- 
rally benevolent beings to support and comfort him. The 
progress to a grosser idolatry was necessarily the same as in 
other nations. Evil was personified, fear produced a depre- 
cating worship of hurtful divinities, and at the period of the 
discovery of these Islands the worship of the war-gods was 
the most conspicuous. We shall have occasion to notice 
frequently the adoration of the volcanic deities peculiar 

* See the 19tli Chapter of Cook^s First Voyage, also ElUs's Missionary Tour 
in Hawaii, p. 408. Also the Appendix to the first Missionary Voyage, pub- 
lished 1799) where there is an account of the superstitions of all the other 
Islands of the Pacific 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. H 

to Hawaii, to whom sacrifices were made of the dojnestic 
animals, and ofierings of fruits and votive gifts of ornaments, 
and particularly of the hair of their worshippers were dedi- 
cated. Of these the most remarkable was the goddess Peli, 
who was served by a peculiar priesthood, among which it 
appears that women were oft;en enrolled, and it was not ^ 
uncommon for them, and others of her more zealous votaries, 
to cause their bones, after death, to be thrown into some of 
the fiery fissures of the mountain where she is supposed to 
hold her court. 

Some of the traditions of Hawaii relate that its first in- 
habitants arrived in canoes, and brought with them hogs and 
dogs, the palm-tree and the bread-fruit: that, on landing, 
they were met by the fire-gods, and that it was some time 
before they were permitted to settle on the land ; at length, 
however, having sacrificed a part of all they had to these 
deities, they were allowed to inhabit the island, the gods 
retiring to their dwellings in Kirauea, the crater on the 
flank of Mowna Roa*. 

The year of the Sandwich Islanders consists of thirteen 
months; it is regulated by the rising of the moon at a 
particular point of the heavens, and that event was formerly 

* It is to be hoped that the missionaries, whose acquaintance with the lan- 
guage, and intimacy with the people, afford them the means, will obtain a 
correct knowledge of the creed and traditions of the Islanders* 

C 2 



12 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

celebrated by various games, and a strict Tabu was observed 
while they lasted. The year is sacred, and is called Maee. 
Now it is curious that Captain King saw a polished idol 
called Maee, of unusually good workmanship, resting on 
the toes and fingers, and having about it thirteen small 
idols representing inferior Etooas or spirits ; these probably 
were designed for the thirteen months of which the year 
was composed. There was besides another name for the 
year, seldom pronounced by profane lips ; it was Tettow- 
mattatayo. The Hawaiian language has distinct names for 
the nights of the moon, and time is counted by nights in- 
stead of days. The Sandwich Islanders reckon by forties, 
or, as we may say, double scores : they call forty, teneha ; 
ten tenehas is a lau ; ten lau, a manu ; ten manu, a kini ; 
ten kini, a lehu; ten lehu, a nurwanee; ten nurwanee, 
one pao *. 

The disposal of the dead has, among most nations, been 
connected with religion ; and it is a natural and tender super- 

* Ellis, in his Appendix, says, that the Islanders only count as far as the 
kini ; the above farther denominations were given by Kuanoa, the treasurer, 
who accompanied Tamehameha II. to England. The numbers are as follow : 

One, Akahi. Six, Aono. 

Two, Arua. Seven, Ahitu. 

Three, Akoru. Eight, Avaru. 

Four, Ahaa. Nine, Aiva. 

Five^ Arima. Ten, Umi. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. IS 

( 

stition which renders sacred the remains of those we have 
loved in life. At the discovery, some of these Islanders de- 
posited their dead in caverns, others, and indeed the greater 
part of those of rank, dismembered the body as if in sacrifice, 
consumed the flesh by fire, or sometimes allowed the first 
process of putrefaction to take place under a bed of leaves, 
and then separated the flesh from the bones with wooden 
saws and scrupulously burned it, and, in all cases, carefully 
collected the bones, wrapped them in cloth, and deposited 
them in some safe and sacred place. It is not uncommon 
for a friend always to carry with him the relics of his de- 
ceased friend, and frequently the bones of a favourite chief 
were distributed among various relations and allies, whose 
veneration for them approached idolatry^ Christian burial 
has been introduced by the missionaries, and has already, 
among the higher chiefs, superseded the ancient sepulchral 
rites, which were always performed secretly. 

Justice was administered in a summary manner by the 
chie& in person. The king might al^yays be approached, 
and the minor chiefs were his ministers to see his decrees 
executed. A poor woman had to complain to Tamehameha 
that a rich neighbour had kept the water of the public water- 
courses flowing in his own grounds beyond the regular time 
allotted to him, and that therefore her fields had been in-< 



14 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

jured by drought. The king instantly despatched a chief 
with her to see if the thing was true, and, if so, to reprimand 
the oppressor, and see that the water was duly conveyed 
to the woman^s ground. This was immediately done ; the 
distance the chief had to go being five miles ; but the hesi- 
tating to do the king's bidding seems never to have been 
contemplated by the Eries. Besides their office as coun- 
sellors, they were charged with seeing the king's orders or 
decrees put in execution — the first and simplest office of 
a judge. Each man possessed the power of life and death 
over his children. The chiefs usually had three or four 
wives ; the kanakas but one : divorce was practised, but was 
not common. 

It does not appear certain that the punishment of death 
was frequent, or that any very severe punishment was ever 
inflicted at all. In cases, however, where it might have been 
incurred, such as murder, which was very rare, there were 
appointed cities of refuge, where the ofiender remained in 
perfect security. In time of war these cities of refuge, the 
thick walls of which still remain in Hawaii, were surrounded 
at some distance by sticks of the dracaena, the emblem of 
peace, to which were attached little white cloths or tufts 
of dogs' hair : if the vanquished, escaping &om the field of 
battle, ran towards these cities, and could only reach the 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 15 

little flags, it was accounted infamous to kill or strike 
him*. 

There is every reason to believe that Cook was mistaken 
when, on his first visit to Atooi or Tauii, he thought the 
inhabitants man-eaters : there is not the least trace of so 
barbarous a custom, even at the time of the human sacrifice. 
Like many other nations, the Sandwich Islanders have 
made their feastings part of religious ceremonies, and have 
considered some articles of food as peculiarly acceptable 
to the gods, and as too precious to be consiuned by the 
lower classes of people. The hog and some species of fish 
were here the sacred animals, only to be eaten by men and 
ofiered to the divinities. Women were not allowed to taste 
of them nor of the plantain, nor even to enter the apart* 
ment where men ate, nor to touch their messes. A boy, 
as soon as he was bom, enjoyed all these privileges, while 
his mother continued in these matters a slave ; and yet, by 
a strange anomaly, women ranked with men in all matters 
of power and government, exerdsed the rights of chiefs, and 
governed districts or islands in perfect equality, enjoying 
perhaps superior rank in counciL As to the kinds of food 
used by these people, the only domestic animab they had, 
when Cook discovered them, were the hog, dog, and common 

* See the six cities of refuge amoi^ the Jews, Numb. xxxv. y. 6. 



16 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

fowl. They caught and preserved in stews the excellent 
fish of their coasts ; and having the art of preparing salt 
from brine pits, by evaporation, they preserved both their 
fish and their pork by salting, nearly as we do. Their 
method of cooking was by baking in fire pits, and with 
heated stones; but it does not appear that they had any 
idea of boiling or indeed of heating water for any domestic 
purpose. 

Although no kind of grain was known to these islanders, 
yet their chief subsistence depended on agriculture. The 
taro (Arum Costatum of Solander) does not grow in the per- 
fection required for food without considerable pains, espe- 
cially in situations where irrigation cannot be practised: 
where it can, they formed the taro fields after the manner 
of the rice grounds of the East, dividing them into small 
squares which might be easily flooded, and planting the 
roots in rows, keeping the whole carefully weeded. The 
root of the taro is used in various ways: roasted, it re- 
sembles the yam ; but the favourite method of preparing it 
is to pound it into a paste, which when used is mixed with 
water, so as to become of the consistence of porridge. The 
tee * was also carefully cultivated at the time of the dis- 

* Dracoena, resembling the draccsna ierminalia. The New Zealanders 
called it h6ti, the Otabeitans ethi. These latter people knew and distinguished 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 17 

covery. The root is sweet and wholesome, and the natives 
have now learned to make an intoxicating liquor from it. 
The leaves woven together formed a light cloak, used 
by the inhabitants of the mountains ; and much like 
those formed of the palm leaves by the poorer natives 
of Hindostan, to shelter them while at work in the rice 
fields. Fences are often formed by planting the tee roots 
close together; but the great distinction of this plant is, 
that a stalk of it was the symbol of peace, as the olive is 
with us. Although the art of making sugar was unknown 
to the Islanders, the cane was cultivated with great success, 
as a pleasant and nourishing kind of food. 

Great pains were taken with the plantain grounds, and 
the uru or breadfruit, which nature seems to have substi- 
tuted in the Isles of the Pacific for corn, was skilfully at- 
tended to*. The sweet potatoe, the yam, and in the dry 
districts, the moimtain taro, and the pepper -f-, from which 

six species, three with red and three with white flowers : ethi ulha, ethi taratara 
mata ulha Vha, ethi e matiDi, are the red ; ethi eaowamai, ethi e^aboabo, ethi 
oheohe, are white. — Sciander MS. • 

* Ariocarpus; called also by the Otaheitans, uru. There are two species ; 
the incisa and the integrifclia. The use of this excellent fruit is common in 
the islands, from Sumatra westward. The tree has been so long cultivated that 
the seed-bearing trees are but seldom met with : the plants are propagated by 
layers, and come early to bearing. The Otaheitans reckon twenty-two species 
(or varieties) ; Uie largest is eotea, the smallest, ehei. 

"f- Piper inebrians; published by Foster as Piper MatathisHcum, 



18 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

their ava is prepared, with the dooe dooe *y all required and 
received the care of the husbandman. 

The climate does not necessarily demand a great supply 
of clothing ; yet, when the Islands were discovered, the na- 
tives possessed the art of preparing cloth of various kinds 
from the bark of the paper mulberry f, and the cultivation 
of the plant was carefully attended to. The grounds where 
it is grown resemble our osier grounds : the stools are kept 
above six feet apart ; not above four or five branches from 
each are allowed to grow, and the top bud of these is fre- 
quently broken, to force the shoot to a proper thickness. 

Besides this manufacture, in which great skill and taste 
were often employed, the Islanders wore very beautiful 
mats of the fibres of various palms ; they made beautiful 
cloaks, caps, and other ornaments, of feathers J. The pat- 
terns in which they stamped their doth with colours §, and 

* Kukui ; Otaheitan, dooe dooe; aleurites triloba^ or candle nut. The nuts, 
strung on a thin withe, slightly baked, and the shell removed, bum one after 
another, and serve for candles ; they are heart-shaped, about the size of a wal- 
nut. The inner bark affords a dark red dye : the charcoal is used for paint- 
ing ; and the tree yields a gum with which they dress their cloth. 

•(• BroHSSonettia Papyrifera. 

X The birds which furnished the feathers were, the Drepanis Vestiarius, 
the Nectarina Niger, and Nectarina Byronensis. 

§ These were procured from various plants. A fine red dye was prepared 
from the Cordia Ori^talis, called Etua and Kou in Hawaii, and Etou, 
or Etati, in Otaheite. The wood is sweet smelling, and is used to scent the 
cloth. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. I9 

carved their weapons, drinking bowls, and ornaments'*, gave 
the first rude indications of the imitative arts; and they 
were not entirely destitute of music. The ancient ballads 
of the country allude to a variety of instruments no longer 
known. Various kinds of drums are still used, but the 
most singular instrument we have seen among them is a 
small double flute played on with the nose. It does not 
appear that they ever used stringed instruments. 

Poetry is always the first spark that is kindled in the 
light of civilization. Beligion inspires it to sing its my- 
steries ; kings reward it, hoping to perpetuate their names 
by its means ; and all classes love to solace themselves with 
its beauties. The little we know of the history of Hawaii 
is preserved in song ; and perhaps a collection of the rhymes 
of the priests and bards might throw light on the question 
of the original race and population of the Isles of the 
Pacific. 

One of the songs, from its connexion with the disastrous 
history of Captain Cook in these Islands, has been sought 
for and preserved by the Europeans who succeeded him. 
A story, which is not without its parallels in the mytho- 
logies of the ancient world, is related of the jealousy of the 
Etuah, spirit or founder of the people of Hawaii. He 
sacrificed his wife to his revenge, and, horror-struck, he 

* See in Cook's Vt^rages, the descripdoD of die Ava cup. 

d2 



20 SANDWICH ISLAND& 

abandoned the Island in a boat of peculiar shape, leaving 
a hope, or rather belief, that at some future time he should 
return. The song and prophecy, for the translation of 
which we are indebted to the American missionaries, are as 
foUow : 

O RONO AKUA. 

1. Bono, Etooah * of Hawaii, in ancient times, resided 
with his wife at Karakakooa. 

2. The name of the goddess, his love, was Kaikirani- 
Aree-Opuna. They dwelt beneath the steep rock. 

3. A man ascended to the summit, and from the height 
thus addressed the spouse of Bono : 

4. ** O Eaikiranee- Aree-Opuna, your lover salutes you : 
keep this — remove that : one will still remain." 

5. Bono overhearing this artful speech, killed his wife 
with a hasty stroke. 

6. Sorry for this rash deed, he carried to a moral the 
lifeless body of his wife, and made great wail over it. 

7. He travelled through Hawaii in a state of frenzy, 
boxing with every man he met. 

8. The people astonished said, <^ Is Bono entirely mad?" 
He replied, ^^ I am frantic on her account, I am frantic with 
my great love." 

* Etooah or Akua — ^the same word pronounced either way by the natives, 
and spelt both ways by foreigners-^e natives now write Akua. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 21 

9. Having instituted games ^ to commemorate her death, 
he embarked in a triangular boat [piama lau], and sailed to 
a foreign land. 

10. Ere he departed he prophesied, " I will return in 
after times, on an island bearing coconut-trees, and swine, 
and dogsf ." 



There is nothing so flattering to the pride of intel- 
lect as the supposed power of foreseeing coming events: 
confined within its just limits, it is merely the result of 
judgment comparing various events, and arguing firom a 
number of cases on the probabilities of the future. Hence 
the aged are in all states of society called on to counsel; 
and, as society advances, any set of men, not necessarily en- 
gaged in ordinary labour, and devoting themselves to the 
study of nature and the service of the gods, may be sup- 
posed to have had leisure to observe the actions and the 
fate of men, and thence calculate more surely on what is to 
happen ; they therefore also become counsellors. But from 



* The annual games called Makabiti were celebrated in honour of Rono. 
They consisted of wrestling, boxing, and other athletic exercises. 

"J* It was the promise or prophecy of Rono in this last verse that induced 
the natives to believe, on seeing Captain Cook'^s ships, which they called motus 
or idands^ that the Etuah Rono had returned to them, and to pay him divine 
honours. 



22 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

this first step, when their advice as to the probable future 
is sought, the distance to the second, that of absolute pro- 
phecy, is short; and the old man and the priest begin to 
foretell, and not unfrequently to assume a control over 
futurity. Among absolute prophecies there are none more 
natural than those arising from the regret of a nation for 
the death of a benefactor. Bono, the beneficent spirit who 
taught useful ^rts, dies. The innate feeling of immortality 
makes his subjects unwilling to believe that he has actually 
perished, and they fondly hope that he will return. Mean- 
time his memory is kept alive by offerings to him of the things 
he most valued. The scarlet robe which distinguished him 
is consecrated, the enemies of his people taken in battle are 
slain before him, that their spirits may serve him : the very 
food he preferred is placed on a whatta for his acceptance, 
and suffered there to perish, rather than be perverted to an 
ordinary purpose. 

A very trifling advance, however, in civilization, or a 
little imprudence in the prophet, may destroy the charm ; 
and the Tohowcy or priest, who ventured to predict the 
speedy resuscitation of Tamehameha the Great, did more, 
by this act of unwary superstition, to break the spell which 
bound the people of the Islands to the worship of the 
Etuahs, than the king, with all his power, had found it 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. gg 

prudent to attempt. But though, by various causes, image 
worship is abandoned, and the expectation of returning 
chiefs and benefactors given up, there is still one office of 
the prophets that remains ; and that is, the supposed power 
of controlling the future by spells and incantations. An 
enemy is still imagined to have the power of destroying 
whom he hates, by procuring a priest to pray him to death, 
and sometimes a counter charm is sought in the prayers of 
another man of power. It is generally such as consume 
away by lingering disorders, that are supposed to be under 
the influence of evil prayers ; the life or death of the pa- 
tient, powerfully affected by imagination, stamps the cha- 
racter of the contending priests. 

Such was the state of the Sandwich Islanders, and such 
the progress they had made in civilization, when Captain 
Cook first discovered Atooi or Tauai, Woahoo or Oahu, 
Oneheow, Orehua, and Tahoora, in 1778, and Owhyhee or 
Hawaii, and Mowee or Maui in the. end of the same year. 
These Islands were, at that time, under the dominion of 
almost as many separate chiefs between whom there were 
frequent wars both by sea and land, for these people were 
particularly dexterous in the management of their canoes *, 

* It is remarkable that some of their canoes were built of pine-wood, which 
does not grow in any of the Islands. The trees are drifted thither, appa- 



24 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

and their boldness when at sea is still their distinguishing 
characteristic. 

Maui, the Island nearest to Hawaii, and second to it in 
importance, was, at the discovery, claimed by Tereeoboo or 
Teraiopu, as the rightful heritage of his daughter-in-law 
Roaho, the only child of Maihamaiha, the last king of 
Maui, whose widow Teraiopu had married, and, to 
strengthen his interest in the claim, his son Teewairoo was 
married to Roaho. But Taheetaree, the brother of Maiha- 
maiha, resisted this claim, and many of the chiefs of Maui 
supported him, unwilling to submit to the lord of another 
Island *. Oahu, Tauai, and Oneheow were governed by the 
chief Perreeoranee and his grandsons. 

On the first appearance of the English ships off Tauai, 
the chiefs and priests, taking them for floating islands, 
imagined that their long-expected Etuah Orono was arrived. 
Hence, even at that Island, though it was not Orono's 
country. Captain Cook was received with honours approach- 

reutly from the N. W. coast of America. The great double canoe of Teraiopu 
was of two fine pine sticks that had been drifted to the Islands. The curious 
helmet or mask made of the calebash, noticed by Captain Cook, worn by the 
rowers in some of the large canoes, was probably a defence against the stones of 
the slingers, when rowing near the shore, to convey to a hostile Island the warriors 
of their own. 

* The first king of Maui, whose name Captain King was able to learn, 
was Mokoakea ; he was succeeded by Papikaneeou, Eaowreeka, and Maiha- 
midha, who had died before Captain Cook^s voyage. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 25 

ing to adoration ; and Captain King, not comprehending the 
meaning of the repetitions of his name, supposed it to be 
the title of the chief priest. But it was at Hawaii that 
the simple natives paid the highest honours to him whom 
they imagined to be their guardian spirit *. 

The king was absent in Maui, endeavouring to settle 
the succession to the Island in favour of his daughter-in- 
law ; but Eaoo, the chief priest, and his son Oneeah, who 
appears to have been the priest of Bono, received Captain 
Cook with honours they really meant for divine, and which 
he imagined meant nothing more than friendly respect, and 
perhaps fear on account of his large and powerful vessels. 

Scarcely were the ships anchored when a priest entered, 
and decorating Cook with red cloth, such as adorned the 
deities, offered him a pig in the manner of sacrifice, and 
pronounced a long, though, to the English, unintelligible 
discourse. In it the word Orono f was frequently repeated, 
and doubtless the captain was hailed as the god returned 

* The morais were both temples and repositories for the dead. Garcilasdo 
de la V^a, in his Conquest of Florida, mentions that the temples were reposi^ 
tories for the dead, and also treasuries for the reception of the more costly 
goods of the Indians* 

f Captain King says, ^^ Captain Cook generally went by this name among 
the natives, but we never could learn its meaning precisely.^ He seems doubt- 
ful whether it meant a heavenly spirit or an incarnate deity ; but in the sense in 
which it was then applied it was both« 



"1 



26 SANDWICH ISLAND& 

to bkss the Island. The same imme oocuired frequently in 
a verse of a song or hymn dianted before hun on his landing 
by priests bearing wands, and the inhabitants of Kearake'kua, 
the village where he first landed, either withdrew respect- 
fully from sight, or prostnUied themselves on the ground as 
he walked from the beach to the high moral. The whole 
account of his reception there, his presentation to the gods, 
his place assigned between two of the principal images, the 
offerings made to him, and the chant of Qrono, are admi- 
rably described by Captain King, who could have been at 
no loss for the meaning of the whcde had he been ac- 
quainted with the Legend of Bono. He seems, however, 
to have suspected that the honours rendered to Cook were 
divine. 

No sooner was Teraiopu able to return from Maui to 
Eearake'kua than he went on board the Discovery, to pay a 
private visit to Ci^tain Cook, and seemed to vie with the 
priests themselves in showing him honour. Of all the 
South Sea Islanders, those of the Sandwich Isles have dis- 
played the greatest powers of dbservation, and consequently 
of improvement. The chiefs wished anxiously to have 
Captain King, whom they took for the son of Cook, 
left behind with them, doubtless that he might contri- 
bute to their advancement in those arts they discovered 



. SANDWICH ISLANDS. 27 

Eur(^)eaBs to possess; and as thej had confidently ex- 
pected that the return of Orono was to confer some imme- 
diate and impctftant benefit, they eagerly embraced the idea, 
that the blessed era was come ; and that all the knowledge 
which they believed, on the faith of tradition, they had lost 
should be restored, and new arts and new comforts taught 
them by the inhabitants of the floating islands. The stay of 
the English, however, only served to consume the provisions 
of the country, and the people soon perceived that they were 
there solely to repair their own ships and refiresh the crews* 
Curiosity was satii^ed ; and great disappointment was felt 
at the departure of Orono, taking with him his floating 
islands, and all they contained of wonderful and useful. 
His unexpected return to repair his vessel did not entirely 
restore him to the degree of honour he at first enjoyed, uid 
the severity with which he had punished one or two acts 
of theft had perhaps a little indisposed the native chiefs 
against him. His unfortunate attempt to get the king on 
board his ship, there to confine him until the boat he had 
lost^ should be recovered, was the cause of the tumult 
that ended in his lamented death. There certainly was no 
malice in the case — not the slightest intention of injuring 

* She was stolen for the sake of the nails in her, and appears to liave been 
broken up the very night she was stolen* 

£ 2 



28 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

him; and his body was treated in the same manner as 
those of their own chiefs, the bones being assigned to dif- 
ferent Eries, who, either from affection or from an idea of 
good luck attending them, desired to preserve them. Long 
after Captain Cook's death they were persuaded he would 
reappear, and perhaps punish them for their breach of 
hospitality *. 

From this time, when the known history of the Sand- 
wich Islands begins, to Vancouver's visit, in 1 792, a great 
change had taken place. Some English and American 
vessels had touched there for the sake of fresh provisions, 
and to barter iron and other useful commodities for salt ; 
and the curiosity of several Eries had led them to avail 
themselves of the opportunity afforded by these vessels of 
seeing foreign countries. One Erie of the highest class, 
Tianna, had been in China. Others had seen the settlements 
on the North-west coast of America, and more than one 
had visited the United States. The superiority afforded by 
fire-arms in war had early attracted their attention, and the 
American ships had without hesitation furnished them with 
arms and ammunition. Several Europeans had, from dif- 
ferent motives, quitted their ships and become resident in 

the islands; and by their instructions the natives had 

> 

* See Cook's Third Voyage. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 29 

learnt the use of artillery and musketry, and had much im- 
proved in the building of their forts. Many of the chiefs had 
also erected houses of stone, and some frames of houses had 
been brought as lumber in the American ships, which were 
readily used ; although the convenience of the native dwell- 
ings, and the ease with which they are put up, will probably 
prevent their being ever entirely abandoned. Clothes, too, 
of the European fashion, had been partially adopted ; but it 
was seldom that a whole suit was worn by any one man. 
The king's guards had nothing but a dark-coloured frock 
coat, and the native maro, which is a cloth a good deal re- 
sembling in form and size that we see on Egyptian statues. 
Some of the chiefs appeared in shirts, others in shirts and 
waistcoats, but few adopted trowsers. The English lan- 
guage had been used in aid of their own vocabulary for 
such things as were new to them, and was also spoken by 
a good many of the young chiefs. Hence, on Vancouver's 
arrival, communication between the English and natives 
was much easier, and greater confidence and good will were 
exercised. 

Captains Portlock and Dixon, 1786, were the first fol- 
lower^ of Cook: they, being on a trading voyage to the 
North-west coast for furs, procured refreshments at Oahu ; 
and about the same time La Ferouse visited Maui : from 



so SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

that year ships frequently touched there. The natives, 
profiting by their intercourse with them, had become so 
sensiUe of the utility of our vessels, that they had boldly 
attacked a brig and a snow ; and actually did possess them- 
selves of a small American schooner, the crew of which, 
wHh the exception of one man, they murdered. Isaac 
Davies, the fortunate person who escaped, was mate of the 
vessel. He had been ashore at the time of the capture, 
and took refuge with the king of Hawaii, who treated him 
most kindly, and in whose service he remained. 

Meantime king Terai(^u was dead, and a son of his, 
named Kevalao*, had succeeded him as Eree-tabu, or the 
sacred chief. It appears that this man treated his subjects 
tyrannically; and it is said, that if between sunrise and sun* 
set any of the lower order were so unfortunate as to look 
upon him, even by accident, they incurred death -f-. His 

* Vancouver calls this person Teamawheere ; EUis calls him Eauikeouli, 
or Kavarao, and says he was Teraiopu^s eldest son ; if so, he was the Teewaroo 
of Cook*s Voyages. He is perhaps the same son of whom Captain King says 
Teraiopu was exceedingly fond, but whose succession to the crown appeared 
doubtful, because the mother was a woman of no rank. This circumstance 
may account for his not being king of the whole Island. 

f The veiling the face from respect, or not looking on a superior, giving 
the idea that he is too resplendent to look on and live, is neither an uncom- 
mon nor an unnatural idea. There is an example of it in the book of Job, and 
in others of the sacred writings. In Denham^s late travels in Africa, we find 
that all courtiers, in a certain negro monarchy, sit with their backs to the king, 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. g] 

doininicm did not extend over the whole Island, for his 
cousin Tamehameha possessed the two districts of Hahia, 
and part of Eona. 

From his earliest youth Tamehameha i^owed an enter- 
prising and ardent spirit He had acquired great influence 
over the minds of several young chiefs, his companions, and 
at their head undertook and accomplished many difficult and 
useful works. In his native district of Halua there was a 
small bay, the i^ore of which being perpendicular impeded 
the fishing. Tamehameha and his companions cut through 

■ 

the rock, which was a hundred feet in height, and made a 
good road, by which the canoes could be drawn up and 
down with ease. He had attempted to dig through a lava 
rock in search of water, but the want <^ tools forced him to 
desist. The fields which he had reclaimed from the waste, 
and brought into high cultivation, still bear his name ; and 
Halua is adorned with many groves planted by his hand. 
He was remarked for his piety towards the tutelary god of 
his family, named Tairi ; but appears in after-life, when he 
took on himself the ofiice of high priest, to have used his 
religion in aid of his politics. 

as if it were impertineiit to obserre his motions ; and if the newest gossip from 
Paraguay be founded in truth, Dr. Franza, the actual despot, orders all natives, 
on pain of their lives, to keep within when he appears in the streets, as strictly 
as if the Lady Godiva herself were riding. 



32 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

The origin of his war with his cousin Kevalao is not 
related ; but the battle, which ended with the death of that 
prince, is told somewhat in detail, and is considered as 
having been the beginning of the power of Tamehameha, 
which spread, before his death, over the whole of the eleven 
Islands. Near the village of Keei*, at a place called Mo- 
kohua, on a field of rugged lava, the two chiefs fought for 
seven successive days. On a conspicuous place, Tain, the 
war-god of Tamehameha's family, was stationed, surrounded 
by iiifl priests ; and near it, before the battle, the prince, his 
sisters and friends, had assembled. Fire-arms were not 
then known, but the spear, the dagger, and the sling, were 
wielded with great dexterity f. On the morning of the 
eighth day Eeavalao was killed, as he was stooping over the 
body of Keamoku, the chief warrior of Tamehameha's army, 
whom he had wounded, in-order to take from his neck a 
favourite ornament : Keavalao's daughter, Keapuolani, was 
among the captives taken in the field. The conqueror in- 
stantly released her and married her, thus uniting the right 



♦ Not far fix)m Kearake'kua Bay. 

f See Ellis for an account of the Runa-pai or war-messengers, who collected 
the people; the Nare-pai or Auoro, that is, the encampment; and the Pari or 
Pa-kaua, where they bestowed their wives and children in safety ; the order 
of war^ and the different weapons, as well as the augurs, Mrithout whom the 
battle could not b^n, &c* 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 33 

of sucx^ession to that of conquest over the lands of her father. 
The death of the chief dispersed his army : most of the war- 
riors escaped to the Puhonua, or city of refiige ; and among 
those who sought sanctuary, by approaching the king's per- 
son, was Karaimoku, then but an inferior chief. Tameha- 
meha however adopted him as his friend from that time; 
and having bound him to him by gratitude, he made use of 
his extraordinary talents and prudence, both in council and 
in the field ; and during his life, and even since his death, 
Karaimoku has done honour to the choice of the king. 
This battle took place A. D. 1781. 

On Captain Vancouver's first arrival, in 1792, at Ha- 
waii, the whole of that Isle and Maui were subject to 
Tamehameha, but the remainder of the group were still 
governed by the independent kings of Taui and Oahu, 
between whom and Tamehameha there was an actual war 
going on, though, as it appeared, a truce had been agreed 
on for some months, a destructive sickness having raged in 
the Islands. Two powerful chiefs, Tiana and Kahomotu, 
governed part of Hawaii, under the king, who,, himself, 
accompanied by Karaimoku, conducted the war. 

It was in the early part of this reign that the desire for 
ships of a better description than the canoe^ had induced 
Tiana and some other chiefs to project the seizing several 



84 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



small vessels *, and that their desire of fire-arms induced 
them to refuse to supply merchant ships with provisions on 
any other terms, and procured them their first artillery, which 
th^ used only in tibeir forts. Some Europeans had been 
left in the Islands to collect sandal-wood, pearl-shell, and 
pearls, for the China market ; others had settled there from 
choice ; and the rival chiefs derived great assistance from 
their superior knowledge in the arts of destruction. Two 
of these foreigners, however, John Young and Davies, were 
of more excellent use : they taught their patron to build 
houses of brick ; and the latter being an expert carpenter, 
household furniture improved extremely. They also in- 
troduced the culture of many new vegetables and fruits, 
procuring seeds and plants from the foreign traders ; and by 
the care they bestowed on some goats, which had been left 
on the Islands, they made their hosts acquainted, for the 
first time, with tibe luxuries of the dairy, and with a variety 
of animal food, more delicate than they had hitherto known. 
Captain Vancouver himself was one of the greatest bene- 
fkctors to the Islands. Although he constantly refused to 
ftimish the chiefs with any fire-arms or ammunition, he 
gave them a breed of cattle and of sheep, which Tameha- 
meha declared to be tabu, or sacred, for ten years. The 

♦ See page 28. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 35 

climate is favourable to these animals^ and the country is now 
well stocked both with wild and tame cattle ; so that ships, in 
addition to fresh vegetables, are supplied with excellent bee^ 
and the resources of the natives incalculably augmented. 

Tamehameha's hospitality and attention to Vancouver 
induced the latter, before he left the Sandwich Islands, to 
permit his carpenters to assist Young, Davies, and Boyd, to 
build a schooner'"' for him, and to furnish the necessary iron 
work, a suit of sails and other things, the rigging being of 
the native cordage. 

Captain Vancouver endeavoured, by every means in his 
power, though without success, to establish a peaceful and 
friendly feeling between the chiefs of the different Islands ; 
and it is very probable that the aspiring temper of Ta- 
mehameha himself was the greatest obstacle to a peace^ 
which would necessarily have retarded the conquest of the 
whole of the Isles, which he meditated. 

But the most singular circumstance which occurred 
during Vancouver's visit in 1794, was the formal cession 
which, in the presence of the assembled chiefs -f*. Tame- 

. * Keel, 36 feet ; beam, 9^ feet ; depth of hold, 5 feet ; called the Biitaimia. . 
t Tereremitee, Karaimamaho, Kalumotu, Tereeukee, Eavahelu, Tianna, 
and Temahamotu. 

F 2 



86 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

hameha made of the Island of Hawaii to England. In 
the forenoon of the 25th of February, the chiefs met on 
board the Discovery, and each made a speech on the sub- 
ject, setting forth the reasons which induced them to take 
so extraordinary a step*; after which it was proclaimed 
to the Islanders that they were no longer Kanaka no 
Hawaii, but Kanaka no Brittanee, i. e. no longer men of 
Hawaii, but men of Britain. Mr. Paget, accompanied by 
some of the officers from the Discovery and Chatham, then 
went on shore and hoisted the British flag; and a piece 
of copper, whereon a memorial of the transaction was en- 
graved, was deposited in the royal dwelling f. 

This singular cession of the country to a power nearly 
at the Antipodes was not, of course, followed by any act of 
authority, or any apparent change in the conduct of the 
English to Hawaii, but it was a proof of the anxious 
desire of Tamehameha for the advantage of his kingdom. 

* These were, chiefly, the unprotected state of the Islands, where the ships 
of four nations, English, Americans, French, Rusdians, touched ; and many of 
them treated the inhabitants most cruelly ; that the English were their oldest 
friends ; that Captain Cook had made known to them the greatness of the 
world, and they would trust in the protection of the English against all other 
powers. 

f See Yanoouver tor a detailed account of this singular event, and a copy 
of the engraved plate. 



1 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 37 

is intelligent mind was aware of the incalculable supe* 
rioritj possessed by the Europeans and others, whose ships 
visited him, over his own poor Islanders. The circum- 
stances, that the English were the first to touch there ; that 
their vessels were the largest and most powerful ; that, be- 
sides the advantages sought for themselves in procuring 
provisions of all kinds, they had endeavoured to improve 
the Islands by carrying thither new and profitable animals 
and vegetables ; all led him to look on the British as not 
only the most powerful but the most friendly of the new 
nations they had learned to know ; and he might reasonably 
hope that we should be as willing as able to protect them 
against the insults and injuries that some of the traders had 
offered them ♦. 

Soon after the departure of the Discovery, the war be- 
tween Hawaii and the neighbouring Islands was renewed. 
It was aggravated by the treachery of the chief Tianna, 
who, being sent with an army to Maui in 1794, joined its 
kiDg against Tamehameha ; but in the same year he was 
killed, and the Island subdued. The king, accompanied by 

* TurabuU acknowledges ^^ the wanton and ill-judged cruelties which, 
under the circumstance of the slightest quarrel with these natives, are but too 
commonly practised.^ 

It was to revenge some barbarous insults that the two officers of (me of 
Vancouver's vessels were killed by the people of Maui. — See Vancouver. 



88 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

his companion-in-arms Karaimoku, next attacked Oahu*, 
and the next year added it to his dominions. Warned 
by the conduct of Tianna's brother, who rebelled against 
him while absent on the expedition to Oahu, Tamehameha 
from that time required all the superior chiefs to accom- 
pany him to war, and left Hawaii to the government of 
John Young, his English friend. Ten years elapsed before 
the conquest of the whole of the Islands was accomplished, 
notwithstanding the force, and arms, and ammunition 
Tamehameha had accumulated, and his large army, in 
which he reckoned thirty Europeans, all skilled in the 
use of fire-arms f. The final conquest of Taui in 1817 
was immediately followed by the submission of the smaller 
Islands dependant on it, and Tamehameha having ended 
his wars, applied himself to improving his commerce and 
strengthening and beautifying his towns and ports. Mean- 
time a friendly intercourse had been kept up with the 
English government, on which Tamehameha depended for 

* Kotzebue says, the king of Oahu fled to the mountains, on the landing 
of Tamehameha, and there put an end to his own existence, that he might not 
fall into the hands of his enemy. 

f Liziansky says, that in 1804, Tamehameha had 600 muskets, eight four- 
pounders, one si^-pounder, five three-pounders, forty swivels, and six small 
mortars ; he also had twenty-one schooners, built after the Britannia, carrying 
swivels, and some commanded by Europeans* Horses had been introduced 
from South America, but were not yet apjdied to any useful purpose. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 39 

protection against the other foreigners, and especiallj the 
Russians, who had repeatedly threatened to take possession 
of the Islands * : one Schiffer had promoted a rebellion in 
Taui, countenanced by the Russian officers of Petropaul« 
owsky, and other places on the coast, but not acknowledged 
by the Russian government. Tamehameha had sent to the 
King of England a magnificent war-cloak and other pre« 
sents by the Cornwallis frigate in 1807; these had been 
graciously received, and in return for them, and in acknow- 
ledgment of the hospitality and kindness shown to all 
English ships touching at the Sandwich Islands, a vessel, 
built at Port Jackson for the purpose, was presented to 
Tamehameha in the name of the King of England, a 
letter of thanks having been previously forwarded to the 
following purport. ^ King George of England sends to 
his Majesty the King of the Sandwich Islands his sincere 
thanks for the feather cloak sent to him by the frigate Corn- 
wallis. He assures him of his friendship, and sa3rs that he 
has commanded all his English navy to respect the ships 
under the flag of His Majesty King Tamehameha f/' 

* As several of the Sandwich Islanders had gone to the N. W. coast, and 
had seen how the Russians behaved to the natives, it was not wonderful that 
they dreaded falling into their hands, nor were the North Americans much 
better masters or friends to the tribes with whom thej had any intercourse. 

f The Russian observations on this are curiously jealous. The author 



40 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

Besides this ship, the king had purchased two brigs of 
the Americans, the price being paid in provisions and san- 
dal-wood. A large vessel that had been driven ashore he 
had also exchanged for a small schooner and provisions, so 
that his fleet had become powerful He turned his at- 
tention to trade, and to bringing up his people, already 
expert and fearless in the management of their canoes, to a 
more extended navigation : placing European masters and 



says the whole clearly shows that Tamehameha is reoogmzed as a real king 
by the English govermnent ; and seems to think England only waits the op- 
portunity to take possession of the Islands for herself. 

We are quite uncertain as to the authenticity of Eotzebue^s report of the 
letter addressed to Tamehameha, but it is most probable that a kind and 
friendly letter or message was transmitted to him through the Grovemor of 
New South Wales. One of the chiefs permitted us to take a copy of a 
second letter addressed to Tamehameha II., mentioning that the writer, Gro- 
vemor Macquarie, had addressed his Highness, the King of the Sandwich 
Islands, on the 12th April, 1816, by Captain Wilcocks, owner of the American 
schooner Traveller, who took charge of a case of presents from the Prince Re- 
gent of England to the King of the Sandwich Isles. The Grovemor then states 
that the vessel ordered to be built for his Highness at New South Wales had 
been accidentally delayed, and therefore he sends to his Highness one of our 
own government vessels in charge of Mr. Kent, a young gentleman of merit 
and good nautical abilities. She was schooner-rigged, but no top-masts, of 
45 tons burden, and a fast sailer, completely rigged and well found. The 
Grovemor then entreats the King to send back the sailors who httd navigated 
the vessel to New South Wales, and with good wishes for his Majesty and 
people he concludes. The letter is addressed to 

" ^' ^fi^"«» Tamehameha, 

^^ King of the Sandwich Islands.'" 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 41 

supercargoes on board, he sent his vessels to China with 
sandal-wood, and perceiving the benefits arismg &om the 
use of money, he, first of all the Polynesian chiefs, began to 
receive it in exchange for the natural productions of his 
country. 

Nor was money the only species of riches he amassed. 
At his death numerous warehouses were found full of ar- 
tides fitted for barter or cpmmerce with the different 
nations who should touch at his ports. It is computed that 
in one year alone not less than 400,000 dollars' worth of san- 
dal-wood, from the Sandwich Isles, had been sold at Canton. 
Now of this only one cargo had been on the king's account ; 
the rest was, we believe, entirely, but certainly chiefly, car- 
ried by the Americans, who had received the price of two 
schooners, guns, ammunition, and various stores, in that 
precious wood. 

Some shops began to appear towards the latter end of 
his reign, kept by Europeans and Americans; and many 
foreigners, particularly Marini, a Spaniard, had formed ex- 
tensive gardens, where melons and gourds of all kinds, va- 
rious species of cabbage, potatoes, and other vegetables cul- 
tivated in Europe, had been introduced with great success. 
Marini had also reclaimed some of the cattl^ which had 



42 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

become wild by the operation of the ten years' tabu, im- 
posed after Captain Vancouver landed the parent stock, 
and had taught the arts of the dairy ; a considerable profit 
was also derived from salting beef for the ships ; and perhaps 
no one reign of thirty years, in any country, had ever wit- 
nessed so great a change in the condition of the people as 
did that of Tamehameha in the Sandwich Islands. 

In the early part of his reign, feeling that the great and 
separate power of the priests was dangerous to his authority, 
especially since he was often absent from his capital, then 
fixed in Hawaii near Karakakua, he had taken upon him- 
self the office of priest as well as king. It is probable that 
a near acquaintance with the tricks of superstition, and the 
machinery of idolatry, had weaned him firom the beUef in 
his ancient gods, for before his death he oft;en expressed his 
dissatisfaction at the clumsy and useless* form of his own 
religion, and a desire to know what that of his civilized 
visitors was ; but as he had no opportunity of expressing 
this desire to any persons more competent to inform him 
than masters of merchant vessels, or low adventurers set- 
tling in the Islands, he could obtain no satisfaction. Never- 
theless the efibcts of his doubts on the subject of his own 
faith, and his desire for a better, appeared in the conduct 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 43 

of his son and the principal chiefi very shortly after his death, 
which took place on the 8th of May, 1819 *. 

The grief of his subjects^ on this event was excessive. 
Besides the ordinary marks of mourning such as striking 
out a tooth, and tattooing the ^tongue, most, even of the 
common kanakas, caused to be tattoed on their arms in 
great letters, and in English, << Our great and good king 
Tamehameha died May 8th, 1819 ;'' — an indelible kind of 
moummg. 

His bones were, as usual, carefully preserved after the 
flesh had been consumed, and were for a time lodged in tibe 
great moral at Kairua, but were afterward? divided among 
various chie&. This custom of keeping some of the bones 
of a friend or a king as things sacred is not only a mark 
of affection, but of reverence akin to religious worship. 

The successor 'of Tamehameha was his son lolani, or 
Biho Biho, who on his father's deatib adopted his namo, and 
resolved to distinguish himself no less than his predecessor 
had done. He was a young man of strong feelings and pas- 
sions, with no ordinary ambition, and acted with the best 
intentions. The casual visitors at the Islands have done 
the greatest injustice to his character. One young English 

* See Ellis, p. 88, tor some notices worthy of attention concerning Tame- 
hameha. 

o2 



44 SANDWICH ISLAND& 

traveller in particular has represented him as a creature 
sunk into the lowest state of debauchery : but it might be 
fair to ask that gentleman if he never heard of an occasional 
deviation from sobriety in any civilized nobleman or prince ? 
and he should have considered that the great difference be- 
tween the cases is, that the simplicity of the Sandwich chief 
exposed his failing ; the decorum of Europe throws a veil 
over those committed by the members of more polished 
societies. 

On the death of Tamehameha the Great, Taamoeree 
the chief of Taui (Atooi) thought it might be a fevourable 
opportunity of throwing off the yoke imposed on him by 
the Hawaiian family, and accordingly refused to acknow- 
ledge Tamehameha the Second. The young prince in- 
stantly embarked in a canoe with two or three companions, 
and when the wind arose, and the sea seemed likely to over- 
whelm the little bark, his companions proposed to return, 
but he ordered the sailors to go on, for he was king, and 
must complete the business he was proceeding on. And 
they did go on, and he landed at Taui, went straight to 
the refractory chief*, conversed with him, received his 

* His person was sacred from the moment of his gaining the chief's pre- 
sence. Earaimoku was the pardoned foe of the great Tamehameha^ in whose 
presence he had taken refuge. It was common, even in Europe in older times, 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 45. 

homage, made him his friend, and returned instantly to his 
home. 

The second transaction of very great importance in 
which he engaged, was no less than the extirpation of 
idolatry from his dominions. During the six months im- 
mediately succeeding the death of his father, the young 
king had held frequent conferences with the different chiefs 
on the subject of the insufficiency of their religion, of the 
impotence of their gods, and the oppressive nature of the 
tabu; and finding that they generally agreed in the ex- 
pediency of a change of system, it was determined to de- 
secrate the morais and destroy the idols. It was, however, 
necessary to obtain the sanction of Keopuolani the king's 
mother, who by birth enjoyed a higher rank among the 
chiefs than even her son. She asked what harm the gods 
had done, that the chiefe should wish to destroy them« 
Nay, said her friends, what good have they done that we 
should keep them ? is not their worship burdensome ; did 
they not require human sacrifice ; and have we not learned 
from other nations that gods of wood are not able to pro- 
tect us, and that the samfices are cruel and useless ? It 
is good, said the queen, do as you vdll ; and on that same 

for the king^s presaioe, nay, even the precincts of his house, and of the houses 
of his ambassadors, to be considered as a sanctuary. 



46 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

day the morais and hevas were destroyed or desecrated, and 
nothing remained but the places where the bones of some 
of the chiefs were deposited, and a few of the ancient priest- 
hood, who were appointed to watch the relics. 

This act was accompanied by another of equal import- 
ance, which has been strangely misrepresented by at least 
one English traveller. The breaking the tabu, by which 
women were prohibited from eatmg with men, or tastmg of 
certain kinds of food, has been represented as a mere firoUc 
of the young king* But the measure had been concerted 
with the chiefe, and its importance weU weighed. The 
women of the Sandwich Islands, though acknowledged as 
chie&, and admitted to council, had still the degrading mark 
of inferiority in their separate meals and prohibited sorts of 
food. To raise them to a better state was doubtless a strong 
motive with the young king, who revered his mother, and 
was passionately attached to his young wife ; but he also 
desired to get rid, as soon and as much as possible, of every 
part of the system of tabu, which he wisely considered as 
highly inimical to the progress of civilization. 

The manner in which it was carried into effect is charac- 
teristic of the simplicity of a people just emerging from bar- 
barism. On occasion of a great feast, the people, totally 
ignorant of the intentions of the chiefs, were, as usual, coU 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 47 

lected round the eating-houses of the king and of. his 
queens, which, under the old law, were at a distance from 
each other. When the baked meats were brought into the 
king's presence^ he caused the choicest part of them, and 
especially of those kinds of food which it was unlawful for 
women to taste, to be earried into the eating-house of his 
wives, and accompanying them himself, he sat down and 
ate, and caused the women to eat, in the sight of the people, 
of all the things looked upon as prohibited. The priests 
and chiefs were instantly apprised of the fact, which to the 
multitude appeared prodigious, and calculated to awaken the 
vengeance of Heaven ; but they, prepared beforehand, had 
already met U^ther, and the chief priest Hevaheva, pre- 
venting the messenger with the report, explained to the 
people, that as the gods had not revenged the violation of 
the tabu it was a sign they had no power, and therefore 
ought to be destroyed ; on which Hevaheva himself began 
by setting fire to the principal morai. On that day the 
idols were overthrown ; and as soon as the event could be 
known in the other islands, the example was followed with- 
out hesitation. One chief alone, the crafty Eekuaokalanl, 
armed in defence of his idols. Though consulted among 
the other chie& as to the propriety of relinquishing the 
ancient deities of the nation, he had never opposed the 



48 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

measure, and therefore resistance on his part was unex- 
pected : besides, being the first cousin of the king, he was 
supposed to be particularly engaged to support the measures 
of his house. However, he had only waited for the destruc- 
tion of the hevas as a signal for rebellion, and seizing the 
war-god Tarai, which was under his guardianship, and which 
had anciently been placed as the royal standard in every field 
of battle, he induced a number of the kanakas to join him ; 
and flying with them firom Oahu, he assembled a large body 
of men in Hawaii, being in hopes of securing that island at 
least for himself, and thus dividing the sovereignty with the 
young Tamehameha. But Karaimoku, the friend and com- 
panion in war of Tamehameha the Great, pursued him with 
a better and more numerous army, and coming up with him 
at Laki Laki, after a desperate battle, Kekuaokalani was 
killed, and the war*god* was taken prisoner ; and thus ter- 
minated the last effort in &vour of idolatry. 

Meantime, Earaimoku and his brother Boki, chiefs who, 
though not of the highest birth, possessed the greatest share 
of power and influence in the land, had resolved to take the 
first opportunity of solemnly and openly prdessing Chris- 
tianity — ^that religion which they believed to be a mark and 



* Brought to England by Lord Byron. 



I 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 49 

a consequence of superior civilization^ if not its cause; 
and when Captain Freycinet touched at the Sandwich 
Islands in his voyage round the world, these two chiefs 
were baptized by the chaplain of his ship ; and thus Chris- 
tianity was planted, as it appeared, by the spontaneous will 
of the natives, before any mission even of persuasion had 
reached them *. 

These events took place late in the autumn of 1819, 
while a mission was preparing in America to visit Oahu. 
Its projectors, who had formed their plan on what they had 
learned from the masters of traders, and on the accounts 
given by some youths, natives of the Islands, who had been 
sent for education to the United States, little calculated 

* Captain Kotzebue brought, on his last return from the South Seas, the 
following document, probably the first cliristian marriage certificate from the 
Sandwich Islands, at least of a native. It is in the hand-writing of the mis- 
sionary Bingham : — 

<< At a public meeting of the Chapel on the 28th Ju]y, Karaimoku, the 
Regent of the Sandwich Islands, and the young Akahi, were united in honour- 
able Christian marriage. After the service they both subscribed with their 
own hands the following note in a blank book kept for the record of marriages, 

to wit: 

< Oahu, July 28, 1825. 
^ We have just now been married by Mr. Bingham. 

(Signed) ^ Eabaimoeit. 

< Akahi. 

{Boki. 
Keaniahomu.^ "^ 

H 



50 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

that the work was partly done to their hand, and that, the 
old faith being destroyed, they had only to begin to build 
up the temple of a purer creed In April 1820, the ship 
bearing the mission, which consisted of six families, arrived 
in the harbour of Oahu. There were two clerg3rmen, two 
lay teachers, a physician, and a farmer, with their wives, 
besides two young natives who had been brought up by the 
mission as teachers in the United States. 

Their landing was at first opposed. Many persons of 
the difierent nations trading to Oahu represented, and not 
without good grounds, that the missionaries would probably 
interfere with the government of those Islands, that the 
influence they would undoubtedly gain might be dangerous, 
and advised the king to refuse them permission to land. 

After eight days' deliberation, however, Tamehameha II. 
determined to admit them ; his desire of obtaining teachers 
in the pule^ or worship of Europeans, and pala paloj or 
reading and writing, overcame all other considerations; 
besides, he said, as they were so few, it would be easy 

« 

to dismiss them in case of misconduct. He assigned to 
them a piece of ground for a church near his own residence, 
and gave them houses and gardens sufficient for all their 
wants. One of the first objects of the missionaries was to 
obtain a knowledge of the language of the Sandwich Islands, 



k 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 51 

which is soft, harmonious, and curious in its inflections*. 
It is well adapted to rhyme, of which the natives are very 
fond, all their civil and religious history being contained 
in metrical tales and ballads. Early in 1822 the first Ha- 
waiian book, — it was only a primer, — ^was printed at the mis* 
sionary press at Oahu, and the hitherto savage dialect was 
henceforth to be counted among the languages of cultivated 
nations. 

The king, his queen, and the other chiefs of both sexes, 
applied themselves diligently to learn to read and write. 
Their progress was rapid ; they soon began to write letters 
to each other ; and one of them remarked with delight that 
now, at whatever distance you might be from your friend, 
you might whisper in his ear, but that formerly you could 
only communicate by messengers who forgot or divulged 
what you trusted them to say for you. 

The missionaries of course were not negligent of the 
opportunity of instilling the doctrines of Christianity into 
the minds of their pupils, afforded by this very favourable 
disposition of the chie&. One of the first converts was 

* See Ellis, Appendix, especially for a peculiarity in the pronouns. It is 
to be hoped that this gentleman, whose information and abilities abundantly 
qualify him for the task, will preserve the ancient mythological and historical 
legends of these Islands, now likely to be swept away by the progress of dviliza- 
tion. 

h2 



52 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

Eeopuolani, the king's mother, a woman of strong sense, the 



SANDWICir ISLANDS. 53 

proportionally increased. He had also reason to believe 
that not only did the Americans wish to form a permanent 
establishment in at least one of their Islands, but that the 
Eussian Government had resolved on seizing on them on 
the first convenient opportunity. A detachment from the 
settlements of the latter power had already made one at- 
tempt to gain a footing, and had erected a fort and planted 
some guns on it. It is true, the Government of St. Peters- 
burgh disavowed the intention afterwards, but there is no 
doubt that it connived at the proceedings of its servants. 

Under these circumstances Tamehameha II. resolved 
to follow up the plans of his father, who had, as we 
have already seen, placed the Islands under the immediate 
protection of England ; and reasoning of other kings from 
himself, he conceived that a personal interview with the 
sovereign of England would most efiectually secure his pro- 
tection, and procure his co-operation in the plans he might 
form for the civilization of his kingdom. He was, besides, 
desirous of acquiring glory ; and as his father had left him 
no islands to conquer, he conceived that so distant an expe- 
dition as that into the civilized world would procure him 
a reputation beyond that of any of his predecessors. 

He had long been curious as to the laws and govern- 
ment of England, of which he had formed the highest idea ; 



54 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

for he thought that the nation that could build sueh ships, 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 55 

acknowledged, actually refused to receive that gentleman, 
and declared that he would have no interpreter who should 
not be under his orders, and engage to interpret at his 
bidding : the man who consequently accompanied the king 
to England as interpreter was a Frenchman of the name of 
Rives, of a respectable family in the neighbourhood of 
Bourdeaux ; but he had very early run away from th6 ship 
to which he belonged, and fixing in the Sandwich Islands he 
had lived there twenty-two years, and had acquired a com- 
petent knowledge of the language; speaking, besides, the 
English and French fluently. 

This man seemed always linked with Captain Starbuck, 
and was of a low, cunning, and profligate nature. On the 
passage to England no pains were spared to induce the 
Sandwich chiefs to drink and gamble, vices to which half- 
civilized people, especially when condemned to idleness, are 
always prone. The Aigle touched, in her way to England, 
at Rio de Janeiro, where the English Consul-general being 
made acquainted with the general purpose of Tamehameha's 
visit to England, and having a just idea of the importance 
of it as regards our commerce in the Pacific, received 
them honourably and gave a ball to their majesties, to which 
all the principal Brazilian families and English residents 
were invited. Nothing was more to be admired in the 



S6 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 57 

from Portsmouth to London, and these were the only sums 
he could account for ; although, when the cash chests be- 
longing to the king were opened at the Bank of England^ 
little more than ten thousand dollars were foimd : nor was 

» 

this the only singular circumstance in the captain^s manage- 
ment of the affairs of those who had intrusted themselves 
to him. 

On arriving at Portsmouth, he landed his passengers 
without giving any notice to the Government — without 
providing in any way for their comfort, or for their attain- 
ing the object for which they had come ; and it was only by 
a notice from Messrs. Boulcott that his Britannic Majesty's 
Government became acquainted with the arrival of the king 
and queen of the, Sandwich Islands, with their suite. 

Messrs. Boulcott complained, and with justice, that Star^ 
buck had grossly neglected the interest of the owners, by 
using the ship as a transport to convey the royal party, in- 
stead of pursuing the line of commerce for which L'Aigle was 
intended ; and nothing but Captain Starbuck having some 
ulterior object in view could account for this neglect of those 
interests. What this object might be it is difficult to point 
out, unless it was that which some of the king's suite hinted 
a suspicion of; namely, that after allowing the money to be 
spent in England, on those new objects which could not fail 



SB SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 59 

round to the river in the ship ; and when the ladies were 
first seen in London they were dressed in very strange 
habiliments. The queen wore trousers and a long bed- 
gown of coloured velveteen, and her friend Kuinee or Li- 
liah, the wife of Boki, had on something of the same kind. 
They were playing whist with a pack of very dirty cards, 
complaining bitterly of the cold, and were, upon the whole, 
in a state as far removed as possible from regal dignity. 

The first object was of course to provide dresses suitable 
to the climate, and also to the condition of the wearers ; 
and it was impossible for any persons to be more tractable^ 
or adapt themselves with more good temper to the usages 
of this country, than the whole party. The decorum of 
their behaviour was admirable during their residence in the 
hotel. Not one instance occurred of their overstepping the 
bounds of decency or civility in their intercourse with the 
different persons appointed to wait on them ; not a suspicion 
that any one of the chiefs had offered the slightest insult to 
any woman ; nor was there any of that gluttony and drunken- 
ness with which those Islanders, and especially the king, 
have been wantonly charged by some who ought to have 
known better*. It is true that, unaccustomed to our 

* Perhaps the best proof of this is, that the charge at Osbome^s, during 
their residence there, amounted to no greater an average than seventeen shil-* 

i2 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 61 

and enjoyed the hospitality of the chiefs, whom they are 
pleased to call savages, had paused before they had described, 
with unnecessary detail, a drunken bout at Honoruru, and 
considered whether among the princes and nobles of Europe 
there might not have been scenes quite as derogatory from 
the character of polished gentlemen, and quite as surprising 
to persons unused to witness the effects of wine. 

As to their manners, it must be in the recollection of 
many persons, that they were decorous and self-possessed 
on all occasions. When they were kindly invited to a large 
assembly at Mr. Secretary Canning's, the curiosity to see 
these inhabitants of nearly the Antipodes caused, as is usual 
in London, where, as of old, we are more eager after strange 
sights than in any other place, a sort of bustle and crowding 
round of a well-dressed mob, to look at the strange king 
and queen and nobles ; but the laughter and the exclama- 
tions which seem to have been ready prepared for the royal 
strangers soon died away when it was perceived that not 
the slightest embarrassment or awkwardness was displayed 
by them, and that the king knew how to hold his state, and 
the erees to do their service, as well as if they had practised 
all their lives in European courts. The chiefs were much 
delighted with the politeness of the Duke and Duchess of 
Gloucester, who were of the party. The queen particularly 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS 63 

people and equipages. It was Sunday, and certainly a spec- 
tacle of no common magnificence. 

The next day (Monday, May 31), the king permitted 
his box at Covent Garden to be decorated for them, and 
they were received with ceremony, though not with state, 
by the managers. Their behaviour was greatly admired; 
no awkwardness, no inattention on their part. Their bows, 
in return for the congratulations they received on entering, 
were quite European. This was one of their greatest gra- 
tifications : they knew they were in the royal box, and that 
it had been prepared and appointed for them. 

« 

In the course of the week they went also to Drury Lane, 
where they were equally pleased, having been in the in- 
terval to Epsom races. There their wonder had been 
greatly excited by the swiftness of the horses, and in talking 

• * 

of it afterwards, they always said the horses Jkw. 

By this time a pretty general curiosity had been excited 
concerning them. Most of the English nobility then in 
London had been to visit them, and many of the ladies had 
made useftd and valuable presents to the queen, particularly 
the Duchess of Northumberland, Mrs. Canning, and Lady 
Liverpool. 

They had, likewise, during the first and second week, 
visited some of the ministers, and other persons of distinc- 



64 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

tion ; and had been to Fulham, from whence they returned 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 65 

places ; but the rest became heavy and uncomfortable. On 
the 12th, Dr. Lea ascertained Manuia's complaint to be the 
measles ; and on the 13th, Tamehameha, who had hitherto 
been perfectly well, was taken ill in the room of the exhibi- 
tion of the Royal Academy at Somerset House, where the 
Duke of York had very kindly gone to meet the party : 
between that day and the 19th the whole of the Sandwich 
Island chie& and their attendants were taken ill. On the 
21st, Dr. Holland was called in; and by the 24th, Tameha- 
meha, his queen, and Eapihi, were so much worse that it 
was thought advisable to consult Sir Henry Halford ; and a 
few days afterwards, Mr. MHjregor, whose residence in hot 
climates, and consequent knowledge of the disorders pre- 
valent there, it was hoped, would be of service. 

Boki and Euanoa, with all the inferior persons, recovered 
rapidly, and according to the advice they received began to 
go out again; but no argument could prevail on Liliah 
(Boki's wife) to leave her sick Mend even for an hour. The 
queen's illness began to take an unfavourable appearance: 
her lungs appeared to be seriously affected, and in addition 
to the medical men already in attendance^ Mr. Alexander 
was called in. Tamehameha's disorder, though violent, had 
no very alarming symptoms at the time; and as Eapihi, 
whose sufferings had next to his been the greatest, had 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



b^un to rally, good hopes were entertamed that he also 
would speedily recover. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 67 

speaking) and the queen died about an hour after he left 
her; that is, about six o'clock in the evening of the 8th 
July, 1824. 

Liliah, whose dutiful and affectionate behaviour to her 
friend and mistress had been most exemplary, now took 
charge of her body, and disposed it after the manner of her 
country, unclothing it to the waist, leaving also the ancles 
and feet bare, and carefully dressing the hair and adorn- 
ing it with chaplets of flowers. The king now desired 
the body might be brought into his apartment, and laid on 
a small bed near him ; that being done, he sat up looking 
at it, but neither speaking nor weeping. The medical 
attendants observed, that the state of Riho Riho was such 
as to render it highly improper to keep the queen's body 
near him, and it was therefore proposed to him to allow it 
to be taken away ; but he sat silent, and answered no one, 
only by gestures showing that he forbade its removal. At 
length, after much persuasion, and then leaving him to him- 
self for a time, he suddenly made signs that it might be 
taken away; which was accordingly done, and the queen 
was again placed on her own bed"". 

* (Bulletin), — ^The queen of the Sandwich Islands departed this life 
about half-past six this evening, without much apparent suffering, and in 
possession of her senses to a late moment. The king, in the midst of this deep 
sorrow, manifests a firmness of mind which has penetrated every body about 

k2 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



From this day the king's disorder rapidly increased ; the 
loss of the queen decided his fate: his spirits sank, his 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 69 

presence, as he had not been called. However, not long 
after the change of the apartments, the. disorder of the king 
assumed so decided an aspect, that his near approaching 
death could neither be concealed from himself nor his at- 
tendants, and Kapihe resumed his station among them. 
Yet still he dared not venture to present himself too closely 
or too frequently to his master. On the day of the king^s 
decease he was supported by pillows, and said little, but re- 
peated the words, <* I am dying, I am dying •/' within the 
curtains of the bed one of the chiefs sat continually, with 
his face towards the king, and his eyes fixed on him, in con- 
formity, as they said, with their native customs. Poor 
Eapihe was invited to take the place, thereby to prove his 
innocence of the supposed offence which had incurred his 
master's displeasure. But his respect for the king's orders 
prevailed over all other considerations, and he refrained 
from exercising the honourable privilege of watching the 
death-bed of his king and friend. 

The day of the 1 Sth of July was a very painful one, and 
the dying agony of the sufferer was long ; for it was not 
until four o'clock of the morning of the 14th that Tameha- 
meha II. breathed his last *. 

* (Bulletin). — The king of the Sandwich Islands departed this life at four 
o^clock this mominff. The alarming symptoms of his disorder rapidly increased 



70 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 71 

surer had written the name*. Tamehameha himself was 
the most accomplished writer of the party, but his exceed- 
ing weakness reduced him to the necessity of contenting 
himself with simply making a mark to what may be con* 
sidered as his will — ^the first written zdll that was ever left by 
a Sandwich Islander. 

Until such time as the wish of Tamehameha, that his 
remains and those of his queen might be conveyed to his 
native country, could be complied with, it was resolved that 
their bodies should be deposited in a vault under the church 
of St. Martin's in the Fields : they were properly cased, and 
the external coffins were covered with crimson velvet with 
gilt ornaments, a kind of decoration of death which so 
pleased the Eriis, that^ on the arrival of the bodies at Oahu, 
more than one said it would be a pleasure to die in Eng- 
land to have their bodies so honoured. Whatever respect 
we could show was shown to the poor remains of these 
chiefs, to convince the survivors that we respected their 
sovereigns and themselves. 

The deaths of Riho Riho and his queen were the more 

* There is a difPerent pronunciation peculiar to the Lieeward and Wind- 
ward Islands, the t and k being equivalents, and the I and r; and in 
these letters the pronunciation of Euanoa differed from that of his brother 
chiefs. 



72 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

regretted by £ing (^eorge IV., as there had been no op- 



SANDWICH ISLANDS, 73 

of their native Islands ; but above ally their joy was great at 
his promises of protection to their government against all 
foreign encroachment. 

Mr. Young *, who before this time had superseded Bives 
as interpreter, was placed nearest to his majesty ; and after 
him Boki; and then the rest in order of their rank. As 
usual, the great desire of pleasing made the chiefs a little 
awkward; and if there was any occasion on which they 
showed an unbecoming shyness, it was on this. Liliah, 
with the presence of mind of her sex, however, showed no 
embarrassment, though she was by no means the last to feel 
on the occasion. 

It so happened, that in the hurry of their departure 
from London in the morning, nobody had thought of put- 
ting any refreshments into their carriage. Now, they being 
accustomed to eat often and not at stated hours, felt ex- 
hausted and hungry before the moment.of audience came ; 
afterwards, when Liliah was told that dinner was ready at 
the mn, she said, " I was hungry — I am so no longer — I am 
full of joy." 

* Mr. Young is the son of that Young who was originally a forced settler 
in Hawaii, and whose good conduct every navigator, from Vancouver to Lord 
Byron, has had occasion to be satisfied with. The young man, though partaking 
of the low manners of the origin of his father and the partially savage nature 
of the mother, was yet a useful servant and faithful interpreter. 



74 SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 75 

was for female clothing, and the greater number of the 
dresses she bought were of black silk, that the Erii ladies 
might be in mourning for the king and queen. 

Perhaps the compliment that pleased the chie& most 
was the permission they received to wear his majesty's 
household button on their coats ; for they could prove by 
that, as they said, that they were King Gteorge's men. 

On the 22nd September they finally left London, and 
went to wait at Portsmouth for the arrival of the Blonde 
from Woolwich, where she had taken on board all the bag- 
gage, together with the bodies of the late king and queen. 
They had previously received a visit from Lord Byron, who 
commanded the Blonde, and for whom they afterwards con- 

« 

ceived a strong attachment. 

It was observed that these chiefs never forgot a persoi^ 
they had once seen ; and in most cases they had remarked 
some peculiarity by which they contrived to identify even 
those whose names they had never heard. They inspired 
great interest in every society in London, and when once 
seen, they were sure to be remembered with kindness. 
They returned to their native country loaded with presents 
from various quarters, and have carried back with them a 
love and respect for England, which do no less honour to 

* 

themselves than to this country. 

1.2 



PART IL 



VOYAGE 

TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS, 



BY HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP BLONDE. 



*.» 



VOYAGE 



TO THK 



SANDWICH ISLANDS, 



September 8th, 1824.— His Majesty's ship Blonde, of 
46 guns, commanded by Captain> the Right Honourable 
Lord Byron, then lying at Woolwich, received on board the 
bodies of the King and Queen of the Sandwich Islands. 
They had been previously deposited in a vault under the 
church of St. Martin's in the Fields ; but His Majesty's 
Government, in compliance with their wish to have their 
remains taken to their native Islands, appointed the Blonde 
to convey them and their surviving attendants thither. 

The cofiins were attended to Woolwich by the chie&, 
who then returned to London, whence they proceeded to 
Portsmouth to meet the fiigate, and on the 28th of Sep- 
tember they embarked at Spithead, and the ship sailed on 
her interesting voyage the next day. 



80 VOYAGE TO THE 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. gl 

the greater part of the present fixed revenue proceeds. 
Manuia, the king's purveyor, was also a chief of rank, and 
with two inferior chiefs and the interpreter made up the 
royal suite. 

Our voyage began prosperously. On the 18th of October 
we reached the often described Madeira, and enjoyed the 
beauty of its scenery and the hospitality of the resident 
English merchants, for five days; when, on the 2Sd, we 
sailed for the coast of Brazil, and entered the magnificent 
harbour of Rio de Janeiro on the 27th November. 

It is impossible to conceive more sublime and beautiful 
scenery than that which gradually unfolds itself on passing 
the narrow entrance ; which is marked on either hand by an 
almost perpendicular rock, at the base of one of which is 
the strong fort of Santa Cruz. Beyond the spacious har- 
bour, the surrounding hiUs rise into high peaks covered 
with wood to the summits, except where the sides nearly 
perpendicular afibrd no hold for vegetation. The suburb 
of Botofogo and its placid bay lie on the left ; on the op- 
posite shore, embowered in orange and lemon-trees, is the 
large village of Pray a Grande. The church of Nossa Sen- 
hora da Gloria on its own hill, and the city, with its superb 
aqueduct, and fine churches and convents, appear in sue 
cession as the ship advances to the anchorage. 

M 



82 VOYAGE TO THE 

While we remained at Rio^ the Sandwich Island chie& 
seemed to take great pleasure in revisiting the places they 
had formerly seen with their king on their passage to Eng* 
land. On one occasion, when they were invited to dine 
with the English Consul-General^ LiUah showed marks of 
a very affectionate disposition. On going into the room 
where^ but a year before, a great entertainment had been 
given to Riho Riho, she burst into tears, and said it seemed 
as if she saw her lost fiiends again. The imperturbable 
good-nature and gentleness of the Sandwich Islanders have 
sometimes led us to fancy them unfeeling but they are in 
truth very affectionate, though their state of society is not 
such 88 to have developed all the sensibilities that form 
the charm of civilized life. We had frequent occasion to 
remark the kindly disposition of the chiefs our shipmates. 
They often spoke with the greatest gratitude of the civiUty 
shown them while in England, and with affection, mixed 
with anxiety, of the fiiends and countrymen to whom they 
were returning. One night that an exhibition of phan- 
tasmagoria took place for their amusement, Boki stopped 
it, entreating that some of the pictures might be saved for 
his fiiends at Woahoo. 

December 18. — We left Rio de Janeiro and proceeded 
to St. Catherine's to complete our provisions and water, 



r 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 83 

and prejpare for our passage round Cape Horn. We 
anchored at the mouth of the harbour on the 24th9 and 
next day removed farther into the bay. The greatest 
inconvenienGe we felt was the being obliged to anchor 
nearly four miles from the shore; added to which the 
harbour is any thing but safe for boats^ as heavy gusts (^ 
wind frequently blow from the high lands in the vicinity, 
and render boat-sailing at times highly dangerous. It is 
therefore advisable to be careful in carrying sail, and that 
no boat should leave the ship without a grapnel. Great 
caution is also requisite in bathing, on account of the nu* 
merous sharks with which this place is infested. Landing 
may be effected in any part of the harbour in fine weather, 
and wood and water are to be obtained in abundance. The 
nearest watering-place (for there is another at the village of 
St. Miguel) is in a small sandy cove on the mainland, near 
the island of Santa Crtiz. There is a very picturesque 
grotto here, formed by an overhanging rock, and also a con- 

« 

stant stream of excellent water, supplied by a rivulet which 
rushes from the hills. Only four dollars were paid by our 
purser for as much wood as he diose to cut down. The 
population of St. Catherine's is very scattered ; the presi- 
dent or governor is appointed by the Emperor of the Brasils, 

m2 



84 VOYAGE TO THE 

and is at the head of civil and military afiairs. According 
to the very favourable accounts which have been given by 
Kptzebue and other visitants, I expected to have been much 
pleased with the beauty and grandeur of the place. It did 
not, however^ appear to me at all equal to the majestic 
views I had been so lately in the habit of contemplating at 
Rio. Among the hills and woods of the mainland, the huts 
of the inhabitants are interspersed. We collected our fowls 
and ducks from them, and did not find the article of poultry 
so cheap as we had expected. This may be attributed to 
the recent arrival of two Russian ships, which had anchored 
here for a month, and which sailed only the week before our 
arrival, having pretty well drained the country of live stock. 
Bananas, grapes, and other fruits, were exceedingly cheap ; 
ripe oranges 1000 per dollar, and potatoes small but very 
good. 

Jan. 1st, 1825. Having completed our provisions, and 
prepared our rigging for the stormy latitudes of Cape Horn, 
we sailed on New Year's Day from St. Catherine's, and with 
little interruption, except being becalmed for three days 
under the bleak heights of Statenland, we reached our 
southernmost latitude, 68° 52', on the 20th ; the thermo- 
meter never having sunk below 39^. On our passage 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 85 

northward, towards Valparaiso, we had a day or two of 
adverse winds off the Archipelago of Chiloe, and naturally 
reverted to the sufferings of the grandfather of our captain-— 

^^ In horrid climes, where Chiloe^s tempests sweep 
Tumultuous murmurs o'er the troubled deep.^* 

We are proceeding to see American Spain under very 
different circumstances. Two generations of men have 
sufficed to bring about an entire change in the moral and 
political state of this large portion of the world. Com- 
modore Byron, though a shipwrecked mariner, was marched 
through the country, whose sovereign was at peace with 
our own, as a state prisoner. We are going thither openly, 
secure of finding a friendly port filled chiefly with the 
vessels of our countrymen, and where the name of an 
Englishman is a passport to all the protection the state has 
to afford. 

On approaching the coast of Chile, the bare appearance 
and dark red colour of the clifi^ give such an idea of ste-* 
rility, that, as Vancouver has remarked, it is difficult to 
account for the abundance and variety of firuits and vegeta- 
bles whidi daily fill the market. 

Feb. 4th.; — ^We anchored in Valparaiso bay, where we 
found his Majesty's ships Briton, Mersey, and Fly, a French 
corvette, the Chilian State's ships Lautaro, Valdivia, and 



86 VOYAGE TO THE 

Independencia, and a number of merchantmen. We were 
surprised to find Mr. Charlton still here. This gentleman 
had been despatched to the Sandwich Islands as English 
consul, and was charged with conveying, to the regent 
there, the official news of the death of the king and queen ; 
therefore, as it was supposed to be of some consequence 
that that event should be known in the Islands before our 
arrival, he was sent on as soon as possible. 

Feb. 8. — Early this morning, Eapihe^ admiral of the 
Sandwich Islands, was affected with ^i apparent determina- 
tion of blood to the head, and, notwithstanding every effort 
to save him, he died in the course of the day. The attack 
seemed to have been coming on for some days ; and, as it 
afterwards appeared, an abscess had formed on the brain. 
He appeared to be naturally a strong healthy man, but his 
indulgence in the use of intoxicating liquors had doubtless 
injured his constitution. He was very intelligent, had an 
excellent memory, and spoke English tolerably. He was 
remarkably skilful in the game of draughts, which he played 
with uniform success. This game^ or one very like it, was 
played among the natives of the Sandwich Islands when 
they were first discovered by Captain Cook. Captain King 
says : *^ They have a game very much like our draughts, but 
if one may judge from the niunber of squares, it is much 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 87 

more intricate. The board is about two feet long, and is 
divided into two hundred and thirty-eight squares, of which 
there are fourteen in a row ; and they make use of black and 
white pebbles, which they move from square to square/' 

The death of Kapihe may be considered as a serious loss 
to his native country : his natural intelligence had been cul- 
tivated and improved by his various voyages, and he had the 
most anxious desire to be useful at home. We buried him 
out at sea off the Couronilla point, because the bigotry of 
the Chilians scarcely permits permanent repose to the re- 
mains of such as are not within the pale of the Roman 
church ; and as Kapihe was not even christened, we sub- 
stituted a prayer, written on the occasion, for the church 
service, when we committed his body to the deep. 

We remained longer on the coast of Chile than was at 
first intended, because the small-pox had broken out among 
the ship's company, and Lord Byron resolved on taking 
every precaution against carrying that destructive malady 
to the Sandwich Isles. But at length, the disorder being 
s(miewhat lessened, we sailed towards the coast of Peru. 

March 14. — ^We andiored in the bay of Chorillos, which 
lies immediately to the southward of Callao, and is by no 
means so eligible for shipping. It is, however, just now 
raised to some importance, on account of the war still main- 



88 VOYAGE TO THE 

tained by the royal general Rodil against the independents 
at Lima. As Bodil possesses the forts of Callao, Chorillos 
is the temporary port where all the trade of Lima is carried 
on. We found here upwards of a hundred merchant vessels, 
together with his Majesty's ship Cambridge of eighty guns, 
a French man-of-war, and several ships of the Peruvian 
and Chilian squadrons. Nothing can be more barren in 
appearance than the country about Chorillos. A high ridge 
or bank of fine white sand and dust rises almost perpen- 
dicularly to a considerable height ; and on the perfectly flat 
plain above stands the wretched village, beyond which the 
white towers of Lima, at the distance of nine miles, are 
seen immediately below the Andes, which rise at once to 
a stupendous height. When the weather is clear, which 
is- not very often the case, there is something sublime 
in the long flat shore thus backed by the mountains; 
but in general the bare sand-bank forms the boundary 
of the view, which is then dreary and desolate in the ex* 
treme. The town of Chorillos is a collection of miserable* 
looking flat-ropfed cottages, or rather huts, built of cane 
and reeds, plastered, with mud, without windows, and lighted 
from the doors or crevices in the walls. However, as it 
never rains in this part of Peru, these huts afibrd sufficient 
shelter from the dews, and support the fi'equent shocks of 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 89 

earthquake^ to which the coast is subject, better than firmer 
buildings. Mean as the place is, it is the fashion for the 
best families in Lima to take lodgings in it for a month or 
two every year for the benefit of sea-bathing, which is con- 
sidered as peciiliarly wholesome just at the end of the hot 
season ; and large parties may be seen riding together to 
bathe or rather play in the water, into which they go with 
all, or almost all, their usual dresses on. The Peruvian 
ladies have not yet adopted the side-saddle, and few use 
even the guarded pillion on which the Chilians ride ; so 
that, besides the acknowledged beauty of the Peruvian 
women, there was the attraction of novelty in the customs 
of the fair equestrians to engage us. On walking through 
the miserable streets of the village we saw little but clouds 
of sand and the vultures *, which here perform the work 
of scavengers. These birds are of the size of a large turkey, 
and have otherwise very much the appearance of that bird ; 
like it, too, they are generally seen in considerable flocks. 

March 16.— Having left Chorillos, in company with 
the Cambridge, last night, we arrived at Callao this morning, 
and anchored off the forts in time to witness a pretty smart 
skirmish between the royalists and independents both by 
land and sea ; the troops ashore, and the gun-boats afloat^ 

* Vultur aura, or Turkey buzzard. 

N 



90 VOYAGE TO THE 

being sharply engaged. But their firing did not seem to 
do much execution ; and we believe they left off, after some 
hours' engagement, without loss on either side*. The 
Sandwich Island chie& were extremely interested at the 
sight, and asked nimierous very sensible questions as to the 
various operations of the day. Of course we did not at- 
tempt to go ashore here, and were therefore unable to see 
either the famous forts of Callao or the city of Lima. 

March 17. — ^We sailed fix)m Callao and steered for the 
Gallapagos, where we intended to water and lay in a stock 
of terrapin or land-turtle for our voyage across the Pacific. 

Friday, March 25. — ^Early in the morning we made 
Charles's Island, the southernmost of the GaUapagos ; and 
though we had first intended to have cut wood there^ yet 
fearing that we should not, in that case, reach the little har- 
bour in Albemarle Island before night, we passed it without 
landing, and shortly afterwards left the Isles of Hood and 
Chatham to leeward. Charles's Island is about three miles 
in length and a thousand feet in height ; the rocks seem to 
be covered with the prickly pear (Cactus ficus Indicus), 
and, as in all the others of the group, the mangrove adorns 

* Callao, so gallantly defended by Rodil, surrendered to the patriot force 
18S6, and Chiloe, \phere Qdntanella had held out IS years, shortly after; 
these two spots were the last where the mother country retained any force on 
the continent of South America. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 9I 

the water's edge. Close to it lies Gardiner^s Island, and a 
singular rock through the middle of which there is a natural 
arch, both of which we passed early ; but, owing to the 
currents, we did not reach Banks's Cove in Albemarle Island 
until the morning of the S6th. This is the largest and 
loftiest of the Gallapagos group ; several extinct craters 
show that fire has, at no remote period, been as active here 
as it now is in Narborough and some of the others. Its 
length from north to south is about 75 miles, and the 
southern end appears to be well wooded. The heat was 
very great as we approached the land, the thermometer 
standing at 84'' ; and as we shot into the cove we disturbed 
such a number of aquatic birds and other animals, that we 
were nearly deafened with their wild and piercing cries. 
The place is like a new creation : the birds and beasts do 
not get out of our way ; the pelicans and sea-lions look in 
our faces as if we had no right to mtrude on their soUtude; 
the small birds are so tame that they hop upon our feet ; 
and aU this amidst volcanoes which are burning around 
us on either hand. Altogether it is as wild and desolate a 
scene as imagination can picture. 

27th March. — Our first care this morning was to search 
for the water with which we were to complete the ship, but 
to our great mortification we found the springs, which are 

n2 



92 VOYAGE TO THE 

usually abundant, nearly dried up^ and were therefore obliged 
to put the ship's company on an allowance. A boat was de- 
spatched to Narborough Island to procure land-turtle, and 
others were employed in fishing with great success. Our 
Sandwich Island chiefs landed on our anchoring, and having 
found two huts left by some former visitors, they remained 
in them to enjoy the pleasures of fishing and bathing ac- 
cording to the customs of their own country, while we staid 
in the harbour. 

Our party to Narborough Island landed among an in- 
numerable host of sea-guanas *, the ugliest liying creatures 
we ever beheld. They are like the alligator, but with a 
more hideous head, and of a dirty sooty black colour, and 
sat on the black lava rocks like so many imps of darkness. 
As far as the eye could reach we saw nothing but rough 
fields of lava, that seemed to have hardened while the force 
of the wind had been rippling its liquid surface. In some 
places we could fancy the fiery sea had been only gently 
agitated ; in others, it seemed as if it had been swept into 
huge waves. Here and there it was rent into deep crevices 
coated with iron rust, and filled up with salt water. Far 

♦ Amblyrbyncus Cristatus— described by Bell from a specimen brought to 
Europe by Mr. Bullock among his Mexican curiosities. Mr. B. did not state 
the spot where it was found : probably on the Pacific shore. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 93 

inland too, the pools are salt ; and not a vegetable, but the 
cactus here and there, is seen to root in the rock. Sea- 
ward, however, the eye is relieved by a few patches of man- 
grove, which have begun to fringe the desolate place with 
green. 

About half way down the steep south-east side of the 
Island, a volcano burns day and night ; and near the beach 
a crater was pouring forth streams of lava, which on reach- 
ing the sea caused it to bubble in an extraordinary manner. 
We returned to the ship in the afternoon, having taken 
forty-six large green turtle, but failed of getting any terra- 
pin. We also killed some seals, pelicans, and penguins, and 

saw sea-Uons sporting about the rocks. 

« 

March 29. — We were employed in cutting wood, and 
procured a sufficiency for three weeks ; but, as usual in hot 
clunates, brought on board with it scorpions and centipedes. 
The high Island of Albemarle is tolerably green, but in one 
part there is a bleak field of lava, which appears to have 
flowed out of the flank of the grassy mountain, pretty low 
down. Our botanist found several rare and interesting 
plants, some of which are probably quite new ; but with the 
exception of the common balsam-tree and a species of 
acacia, most of the vegetation is dwarfish. The land birds 



94 VOYAGE TO THE 

are few here, but the brown sea-guana^ and a red-breasted 
lizard are to be seen in great numbers. We saw only one 
green snake, quite harmless, and found but few insects; 
however, our stay here was too short to procure any thing 
like a perfect catalogue of the natural productions of the 
Islands. 

March SO. — We left Banks's Cove, and about noon came 
to a curious steep insulated rock called Bedondo, round 
which we caught a great quantity of fish, and saw innume* 
rable sharks. In the night we made Abingdon Island, and 
sent boats in the morning to hunt for terrapin, but owing 
to the strong west-north-west current they could not land. 

* Brown sea-guana, an amblyrbyncus, which at first the editor supposed 
might be the female of the black one, but on comparison the two animals 
appear so different as to induce the belief that they are distinct spedes. The 
measurement of a brown one, brought home by one of the lieutenants, is as 
follows : Length from the nose to the tail, one foot seven inches ; length of the 
tail, one foot eight inches ; height at the shoulder, nine inches ; girth imder the 
fore feet, one foot one inch ; belly, one foot four inches ; length of longest toe, 
two and a half inches, which is quite different from the black one, described by 
Bell : there is besides a great difference in the crest, which in the black consists 
of sharp flat scales, issuing like those of the alligator, and continuing quite to the 
end of the taiL In the brown one the crest is of thick round spines, of not 
near the height of those on the black one, and only extending to the back of the 
blade bones. The scales on the head and fSace of the brown are thick^ pentan- 
gular, embossed ; those of the black run into sharp spikes : the colour is a red 
ochrey brown, except the head, which is yellow. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 95 

April 2d. — ^We passed the westernmost of the Galla- 
pagos, Wenman, and Culpepper's Islands, and then shaped a 
direct course for the Sandwich Isles, The thermometer 
has been for some days at 8T and SS"" in the shade. 

Sunday, April 3d. — ^The chief Bold, being the only one 
of the Sandwich Islanders on board who had been baptised, 
took the sacrament with us. He had been admitted into 
the Christian church, together with his brother Earaimoku, 
in his own country, by the diaplain who attended Captain 
Freycinet in the Uranie on his voyage round the world. 

Sunday, May 1. — Euinee or Liliah, and the other Sand- 
wich Island chiefs, probably induced by the example of 
Boki, and anxious to carry home with them every possible 
mark of civilization, earnestly desired to have the ceremony 
of baptism performed. They had previously been instructed 
in some of the main doctrines of our holy &ith, and the 
moral precepts and practice of Christians explained ; and 
though it is probable that their own conduct may still bear 
a taint of its original savage heathenism, the baptism of 
such high chiefs may prepare the way for that of many of 
their countrymen. They received that sacrament accord- 
ingly at the hands of our chaplain, the Eeverend B. Blox- 
ham. Lord B3aron stood sponsor, and gave them the same 

r 

names at the font as they had borne from their birth. Hence 



96 VOYAGE TO THE 

Liliah, Euanoa, Manuia, are for the future real christian 
^ames, though they will probably never find patrons in the 
calendar. They may content themselves, however, with 
that of their godfather, ^^ England's great Champion, Cap- 
padodan George,"' the proper guardian of chiefs whose 
native Islands are now under the immediate protection of 
the British crown. 

May 3. — We were delighted early this morning by the 
cry of land, which, though but indistinctly seen at first 
through the haze of a very misty morning, soon broke forth 
from its clouds, and we found ourselves nearing Hido or 
Aheedo Bay, on the north-east part of the Island of Ha- 
waii *. We ran alongshore with the intention of putting 
into the bay for water, and were charmed with the cheerful 
and rich view of the land. The hills were covered with 
verdure, and some with forest ; the sloping grounds below 
were adorned with cluinps of cocoa-nut and bread-fruit 
trees; some inland waterfalls came in in the background, 
and near the beach the native huts gave that liveliness to 
the scenery which nothing but the marks of human habita- 
tion can do. 

* The shape of Hawfui or Owhyhee is triangular. It had been divided 
into districts long' before it was known to Europeans. We made the Island 
most exactly by the chronometers, of which there were five on board. Lat. 
19^ 46^. N. Long. IBS' 2(y W. 



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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 97 

Boki and Liliah seem rather depressed than elated at 
reachmg their native land. But when we consider the cir- 
cumstances under which they left it, and those attending 
their return, it is not wonderful that their first emotions 
should be painful ; even were they entirely devoid of dread 
on account of the reception they might possibly receive, 
being like persons of iU omen, coming to bring death and 
mourning among their countrymen. 

About one p. m. we came up with some fishing canoes, 
which were immediately hailed by Manuia, one of our pas- 
sengers ; and the fishermen, hauling m their Imes imme. 
diately. paddled alongside. Although we find «».. in her 
youth, our shipmate Liliah had been accounted one of the 
best swimmers in the Island, and was particularly dexterous 
in launching her float-board * through the heaviest suri^ yet 
now her sense of modesty, awakened by her residence in a 
dvilized country, induced her to withdraw into her cabin at 
the sight of her almost naked countrymen. And, let us 



* Float-board : this is a board a little longer than the human body, fee» 
thered at the edges, on which these Islanders stretdi themselves and float for 
hours on the water, using their limbs as paddles to guide them, or at other 
times trusting to the impulse of the waves : the very children have their little 
boards ; and to have a neat float-board, well kept and dried, is to a Sandwich 
Islander what a tilbury, or cabriolet, or whatever h'ght carriage may be in 
fashion, is to a young Englishman. 

O 



98 VOYAGE TO THE 

observe, that besides what may be attributed to the na- 
tive modesty of the sex, which no sooner perceives decorum 
than it adopts it, the gentle and docile character of the 
whole race of those Islanders was agreeably displayed by our 
feUow passengers. In dress, occupations, and amusements, 
they endeavoured to conform to our habits, and that in the 
manner of rational imitation, and not bearing any mark of 
savage mimicry : unless, indeed, we accuse them in the case 
of Kuanoa the treasurer, who being by nature somewhat of 
a dandy, had acquired a habit of pulling up the comers 
of his shirt-coUar ; so that his countrymen, who are quick 
observers, and make great use of gesture in speaking, soon 
learned to designate him by mimicking this action. 

The fisherman who first boarded us became exceedingly 
alarmed on looking round and perceiving the size of our 
ship and the number of her guns ; but on hearing his native 
language he «oon recovered, and gave us some very interest- 
ing intelligence concerning both public and private matters. 
Boki's brother, Earaimoku, the regent of the Isles, had, it 
appeared, been for some time lingering under a dangerous 
dropsical complaint, and as Boki's disposition is exceedingly 
affectionate, he was very much depressed by hearing of it ; so 
that he could hardly listen to or rejoice in the account of a 
successful warfare in which Karaimoku himself had been the 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 99 

victor. It appeared that, during the absence of Riho Riho, or 
Jolani, from the Islands, Taumuarii *, a young chief of Tauii, 
who had been for some years in North America, where he 
had been christened by the name of (^eorge, had thought it 
a favourable opportunity of gaining possession of his native 
Island and its dependencies ; and as he was descended from 
the ancient independent kings, he had easily raised a party to 
support him. On the news of this rebellion reaching Woahoo, 
where Earaimoku resided, he instantly sent to the several 
Islands to require the assistance of the chiefs, and set out 
himself with such forces as he could collect in Oahu. 

At Maui the erees agreed it would be proper to send 
two hundred men in canoes; but the chiefs themselves, 
either dreading a renewal of the bloody scenes which had 
troubled them m the time of Tamehameha, or moved by 
the caprice or indolence of half civilized men, seemed un- 
willing to join the expedition, when Eaikeoeva, an aged 
chie^ came among them, and learning the cause of their 
meeting, and their backwardness to go to battle, he lifted 
up his withered hands and said, ^ Hear me, ye chie& ; 
ye who have warred under the great Tamehameha : Earai- 

* He was the son of the very chief who had claimed the sovereignty of 
Tauii on the death of Tamehameha I., and who had been generously received 
into the friendship of Riho Riho« 

o2 



100 VOYAGE TO THE 

moku and I were bom upon the same mountain in this 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. IQI 

while Taumuarii £ed to the mountains, where he remained 
in a state of starvation for some time, and at length threw 
himself on the regent's mercy, who removed him to Woahoo, 
where he is strictly watched, but suffers no other evil. 

The natural anxiety of Boki concerning his brother having 
been thus far satisfied, we inquired whether the news of the 
death of Biho-Eiho and his queen had reached the Islands, 
and learned that it was known at Oahu, and that their re- 
mains were hourly expected there, but at Hawaii it was not 
credited. It also appeared that the tidings was not alto- 
gether unlooked for, because an eclipse of the moon, which 
always foretels the death of some great chief, had happened, 
and they were afiraid it might be the king or one of his 
companions. 

Our next inquiry addressed to the fisherman concerned 
the bay off which we were, in the district of Ahido ; and his 
answer being &vourable> our boats were sent to examine it, 
and particularly to ascertain the nature of a reef or bar of 
coral w:hich stretches nearly across the entrance, while the 
ship lay to outside. Here we were visited by a mmiber of 
canoes, and the intelligence having reached the shores that 
Boki and his friends were on board, we were visited by a 
petty chief and his wife, the latter of whom was Boki^s sister, 
a large handsome woman, who, in the native light Tappa 



102 VOYAGE TO THE 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. IQS 

to go into it. We therefore proceeded to Maui, for the 
double purpose of getting water, of which we begin to feel 
the want, and seeing Eahumanu, the widow of Tamehameha, 
though not the mother of Biho Riho, who partakes with 
Karaimoku the regency of the Islands. 

May 4. — ^At daylight this morning while the snowy 
peak of Maouna Keah was still visible, we discovered the 
double-hilled Maui, and coasted along it almost all day, 
that we might reach the harbour of Lahaina, which is in 
the most populous and fertile district of the Island. The 
eastern part appears very beautiful; the slopes are well 
wooded, and there are broad valleys, and deep ravines, and 
lofty rocks, from which several streams fall in broken cas- 
cades directly into the sea, and the whole is enlivened by 
numerous huts and plantations. About six p. m. we an- 
chored close to the shore in Lahaina bay, lat. 2V N. long. 
156** 5' W. It was very beautiful: groups of trees grow 
down close to the sea, and many of them, by the novelty and 
beauty of their foliage, delighted us : there was the bread 
firuit^ mingled with the cocoa nutf ; the elegant and useful 
kouj; the banana §; the wauti||, of which native cloth is 

* Artocarpus. f Cocos Nucifera. % Cordia Orientalis. 

§ Musa paradisaica, several varieties ; among the rest one veiy small, which 
the natives dry (there is one similar in Guzerat). || Broussonettia papyrifera. 



104 VOYAGE TO THE 

made ; the ohia* and the sugar-cane ; all in gay and rich 



(the new yor: 

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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 105 

not right However, on his landing, many thousands of the 
natives, who had assembled to receive him, prostrated them* 
selves before him, and began to groan and bewail their king 
and friend: their lamentations accompanied him to the 
house of Liliah's father, who is governor of Maui, and con- 
tinued at intervals all night. 

Early in the morning we began watering, and a number 
of natives attended on the beach and floated our casks 
through the sur^ coming and going, with great good hu- 
mour and dexterity. We went ashore in the course of 
the morning, and accompanied Lord Byron in his visit to 
the sister of lolani, the young princess Naheinaheina, who 
resides with 01im6m6, Liliah's father, for the present. She 
was accompanied by an American missionary, who is both 
schoolmaster and interpreter. Liliah had already clothed 
her and her attendants in black, but had disfigured her very 
intelligent, though scarcely pretty face, by dressing her in a 
huge mob cap. 

The chie& all surrounded her, seated on mats of excel- 
lent workmanship^ and dressed in the fashion of the country, 
L e. the maro and the mantle : the former resembles the 
waist-cloth of the Egyptian statues ; the latter is worn over 
one shoulder, so as to leave the right arm free. Their 
general corpulence is very striking to a stranger. It is pro- 



] 06 VOYAGE TO THE 

bably caused by the abundance of nutritive food and the 
habits of indolence in which they indulge. The company 
was exceedingly delighted with our epaulettes, and used the 
word to name them by which they designate glorious re- 
splendency as applied to the sun. 

The view from the anchorage had led us to form too 
favourable an idea of the town, if it may be so called, of 
Lahaina. The huts of the natives are irregularly scattered, 
and the cultivation is very imperfect; perhaps we were 
wrong to expect more ; yet the impression was that of dis- 
appointment. The bay of Lahaina is formed by two low 
points projecting into the sea, at a distance of two miles 
from each other. From the beach to the mountain a per- 
fectly flat plain extends from three quarters to half a mile 
in breadth ; and this plain is richly covered with vegetation 
of all kinds, and studded with trees. It is, however, wild, 
and the irregular patches of native culture destroy the grace 
of nature without giving the dignity of civilization. But 
the breadfruit spreads its useful branches over immense 
artificial fish-ponds, where a great portion of the favourite 
food of the natives is produced ; and dose to which are the 
taro fields, from twenty to thirty yards square, kept con- 
stantly full of water, that the root may swell and become 
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. SANDWICH ISLANDS. ]07 

The irrigation of the grounds at Lahaina is managed 
with great care and skill. As it seldom rains in the bay, 
water is brought from the mountains in stone courses, which 
are carefuUy closed every evening ; and each farmer has a 
right to irrigate his fields every fiftk day. The pathways 
are usually along the stone canals. 

The huts of the common people are seldom more than 
ten feet long, eight feet wide, and six feet high; and 
through the very low door it is not unusual to see them 
crawl. They are only used as storehouses, or to sleep in 
during the cold season, for the kanakas or common people 
usually live out of doors under the shade of their bread- 
fruit-trees. We entered some of the huts, and found them 
tolerably neat; the floor laid with mats, and the simple 
utensils clean. 

About three-quarters of a mile from the beach the land 
rises abruptly, towering into mountains, three of which, im- 
mediately to the east of Lahaina^ are computed to be five 
thousand feet in height From the first swell of the rising 
ground almost to the summit a little sunburnt vegetation is 
intersected by deep and gloomy ravines, and frightful pre- 
cipices of bare black lava — and this is the general character 
of the lee-side of the island. 

From Lahaina the Islands of Banai, Morokoi, and 

p 2 



108 VOYAGE TO THE 

Taoorawa are in sight at the distance of about fifteen miles ; 
their appearance is dreary, with lowering clouds constantly 
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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 109 

to the tree, and naming it in their own language. After 
amusing ourselves some hours on shore, we returned to the 
ship in a native canoe, which, notwithstanding its extreme 
narrowness, is rendered safe by the outrigger, and glides 
through the surf with astonishing rapidity. Having taken 
in sufficient water, we got under weigh in the evening, when 
Boki returned on board, bringing with him the little prin- 
cess and several chiefs, who were desirous of going with us 
to Oahu. Fires had been lighted on different points of 
Maui for our guidance. 

6th May. Early this morning we were in sight of 
Oahu, and about nine o'clock were off the bay of Honoruru, 
in which the capital of the same name is situated. It is 
defended by several forts, the most remarkable of which, 
behind the town, is formed on the edge of an extinguished 
volcanic crater. Our consul, Mr. Charlton, came off to us, 
and brought more comfortable reports of Earaimoku's health. 
He was prepared for our coming by the message despatched 
by Boki from Maui, and all preparations were made for 
receiving us with honour. A few minutes after Mr. Charl- 
ton boarded us, we came to an anchor in Honoruru roads, 
the inner harbour not having deep enough water for us, 
and fired a salute of fifteen guns, which was immediately 
returned by the forts in very good style. The fort on the 



112 VOYAGE TO THE 

May 7th. Early this mommg Boki and Euanoa came on 
board to conduct Lord Byron and his party to the regent's 
house. We proceeded accordingly in the barge and pinnace : 
his lordship, two lieutenants, the officer of marines, two 
midshipmen, the chaplain, naturalist, surveyor, draftsman, 
and botanist. We were aU in uniform, of course, and the two 
chiefs wore the Windsor uniform m compliment to the King 
of England. The fort saluted his lordship on his landing, 
and we marched in formal procession to Earaimoku's house. 
The captain marched first, supported by Boki and Mr. 
Charlton, then followed the officers, each led by a native 
chief in deep mourning, and after them the sailors carrying 
presents from the Eing of England to his youthfid majesty 
Eiaukiauli, and the other chiefs. The road was tabooed on 
either side, so that there was ample space for our procession, 
though great crowds were assembled on either hand to look 
at us. The appearance of the royal guard is singular enough, 
their whole dress consisting of the native maro, and a dark 



company on shore to-morrow morning, as the present is a day of great sympathy 
among the chiefs and people. GUivemor Boki will himself come on board after 
breakfast, to conduct you to his brother'^s residence, eliould it be your pleasure 
to accompany him. Allow me, my lord, the honour to be^ 

Very respectfully and truly yours. 
The Rt. Honourable Lord Byron, H. Bingham. 

Capt. H. B. M. S. Blonde. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR, LENOX AND 
TILO£N FOUNOATIOMft. 



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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 113 

European firock-coat, without shirt, waistcoat, or trowsers: 
they are armed with muskets. 

Although Earaimoku has lately built a handsome stone 
house^ we could not help applauding the feeling that deter- 
mined him to receive us in a native structure, di£Pering only 
in size from that of the people. It was situated about half 
a mile from the beach, in a cultivated inclosure surrounded 
by a high fence of wicker-work. The ridge-pole was sup- 
ported by pillars thirty feet high, and the length fifty feet, by 
twenty-five in breadth. Four doors, opening to the cardinal 
points, admitted light and air : — the south door was that ap- 
pointed for our entry. On an elevated space at the northern 
end of the house the young king and princess were placed 
on a cane sofa. They were dressed in European suits of 
mourning, and seated oh a beautiful feather garment, which 
some of the affectionate natives had woven for the princess 
Naheinaheina, in hopes that she would wear it as a pau * 
on the return of her brother Riho Kiho firom England. 
However, the little girl has been so long under the tuition 
of the missionaries, that she has thoroughly imbibed aU the 
womanly feelings of civilised decency, and absolutely refuses 

* A doth which the native women wear round the waist as the men do 
the maro : it is their only covering. That in question was of red feathers, 
spotted with black and yellow : it was one yard wide and nine long, and cost 
one yearns time in making. 



114 VOYAGE TO THE 

ever to appear in the native costume ; so that the pau was 
used to^ay merely as a covering for her seat. 

Behind the sofa of the young chiefs were the four Ea- 
hiles, or, as we may call them, royal ensigns. The handles 
are beautifully ornamented with the polished teeth of ma- 
rine animals, mother-of-pearl, and tortoise-shell; and the 
ensigns themselves are. of the most beautiful and rare fea- 
thers, arranged with skill and elegance, fourteen feet long. 
Eahumanu, the queen-mother, with the other superior 
female ariis, sat next the princess, and, with the other 
chiefs, formed two lines to the door of entrance. The men 
were dressed in European mourning clothes ; the women in 
black silk dresses — ^the only part of native costume being 
their beautiful feather chaplets and necklaces. Several of 
them had adorned their dark hair with pearl combs, and 
many wore shoes and stockings. Opposite to the queens, 
and a little in front of the chiefs, sat Earaimoku in a large 
chair. The venerable man was dressed in black silk, the 
upper garment being a full loose gown. On either side 
of his chair were seats for Lord Byron, the consul,' and the 
officers. AU the chiefs, except the king, the regent, and 
the princess, received us standing. We were all struck with 
the mild and intelligent countenance of Earaimoki), and 
the self-possession of his manners, especially in receiving 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 1 1 5 

Lord Byron, who was introduced formally by Mr, Charlton. 
We had been warned before-hand that the regent, in token 
of his esteem for England, had long adopted the name of 
the English prime minister of Vancouver's days; and, ac- 
oordingly, we were prepared to hear him formally named, 
and to name him Mr. Pitt. This adoption of names, as a 
token of respect or love^ is a very widely diffiised custom 
among savage nations, and is practised on the coast of Afirica^ 
as weU as in the Isles of the Pacific 

The first ceremony of introduction and shaking hands with 
every chief being over. Lord Byron, through the interpreta* 
tion of one of the American missionaries, addressed Earai- 
moku, and said — ^^ That he was commanded by the king of 
England to salute the regent of the Sandwich Islands in his 
name, and to make known to the reigning king, and the 
principal chiefs, the sorrow he felt at the death of their late 
king and queen, whilst on a visit to his dominions : that his 
Britannic Majesty could not further testify his regret at the 
death of the sovereigns than by givmg an early audience to 
the surviving suite. The manner of their reception, and 
the treatment they met with in England, could be best 
detailed by those to whom God had granted a safe return 
to their native land; The King of England had moreover 
caused the expenses of the Sandwich Island diiefe, while in 



116 VOYAGE TO THE 

England, to be paid by the Govemment; and had ap- 
pointed two gentlemen to wait on them, to attend to their 
wishes, and to show them, as far as time would allow, the 
arts, manufactures, and commerce of England; but the 
chiefs themselves would best explain these matters to their 
oountrjnmen. His Britannic Majesty had sent him (Lord 
Byron), in one of his royal frigates, to convey the remains 
of the late kmg and queen, with their surviving suite, to 
their native land ; and to assure the actual govemment of 
the Islands of his sincere wishes for their welfiure and hap- 
piness, and of his hopes that, by the blessing of Providence, 
they might continue to prosper, under a peaceful, firm, and 
well-ordered administration/' 

After this speech his Lordship distributed the presents 
firom England to the chie& The first present was offered 
to Earaimoku : it was a gold watch, on which the arms of 
England were engi^ved on one side, and his own name on 
the other, with seals and chain to correspond. To the 
favourite widow of Biho Biho (who had, early as it was, 
already accepted a second mate), a likeness in wax of her 
late husband, set in a very pretty frame. The likeness was 
strong, and drew forth many affectionate tears. But these 
simple and uncultivated people are still like children ; and 
her dark eyes ^ soon shone'' through forgotten tears. Earai- 



SANDWICH ISLAND& II7 

moku seemed also moved at seeing the resemblance of his 
fonner pupil, the son of his early friend and benefector. 
Kahumanu^ the queen-mother, next received a handsome 
silver tea-pot : the thing of all others most admired and 
coveted by the ladies here, who have adopted tea, and 
almost rival the Chinese in their love of it, though the Ame- 
ricans, who chiefly supply them, have taken care that they 
shall have no experience of the best kinds of that most 
excellent herb. But however much the teapot was prized, 
the next present produced excited more joy in the receiver, 
perhaps, than all the rest put together had caused : it was a 
dress suit of the Windsor uniform, with a handsome sword, 
hat and feather, for the young Kiaukiauli, to whom it was 
presented by two young midshipmen. He instantly put it 
on, and strutted about the whole morning in ecstasy. As 
soon as he was dressed, Lord Byron led him up to Eahu- 
manu and the regent, and bade them look at their kingy ex- 
horting him to love them, and be docile to the advice of 
such good and wise fiiends. 

The ceremonies being over, and the gifts delivered, the 
American missionary, Mr. Bingham, who loses no oppor- 
tunity of mingling in every business, proposed prayers, and 
accordingly said what may be called a long dull grace to the 
entertainment, first in English, and then, as it appeared to 






118 VOYAGE TO THE 

US, more easily in the Sandwich tongue. As soon as he 
had ended, refreshments were placed for us on a table ; these 
consisted of grapes, melons, fresh butter, biscuits, bananas, 
cocoa-nuts, wines, and liqueurs. The three first articles the 
Islanders owe to the industry of Marini, an old Spaniard, 
who was the first to bring in and tame some of the cattle 
that Vancouver first introduced into Hawaii, and began to 
show the natives the various uses of milk. He has also 
cultivated the vine so successfully as to have made tolerable 
wine, and the melons, though first brought hither by the 
English, have been fostered by this man^ so as now to seem 
native here. 

Having tasted of the chief's good things, we returned 
to the ship, not imgratified with the morning's spectacle, 
though disappointed in the appearance of the women, who, 
with very few exceptions, are very tall, and almost all dis- 
gustingly fat Some of the principal female chiefs have 
little cars, on which, lying at length on their faces upon 
fine mats, they are drawn from place to place by their 
kanakas. 

The little king possesses two or three horses, which he 
promised to lend to us, and we accordingly went ashore in the 
afternoon to take a ride : but horses are novelties here, and 
neither thev nor their accoutrements are well understood : so 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. ug 

when three, not ill-looking steeds, were brought to us, there 
arrived with them two girths and one green leather saddle ; 
but sailors are proverbially fertile in resources, and we con- 
trived to ride, at least, round the capital of the Sandwich 
Isles, though we were not able to attempt the hills, Ho- 
noruru is a considerable town, in general very irregular, each 
house having a small enclosure secured by stakes or wicker- 
work around it ; there are, however, two or three tolerably 
regular streets, and what may be called the public place, 
where Karaimoku's house is situated, and near it the Chris- 
tian church. The houses vary in size from the small hut 
of the kanaka, which barely holds him and his few domestic 
utensils, to the roomy dwelling of the chief, which is often 
fifty and sometimes eighty feet in length, and of proportion- 
able width and height. They are all, however, constructed of 
the same materials, i. e. poles or timbers fastened together 
with cord made of the twisted fibres of various plants, and 
covered with either the leaves of the ti (dracasna) or a long 
kind of grass, and lined with various leaves, often elegantly 
plaited. In the chiers houses there is usually a raised plat- 
form at one end, covered with beautiful mats of various pat- 
terns, and usually woven of the split leaves of the pandanus. 
On this platform the chief himself reposes, and his relations 
and dependents occupy, ihdiscriminately, the lower part of the 



120 VOYAGE TO THE 

room. The principal luxury in these houses is the beauty^ 
softnesa. and cleanliness of the mats. Some little luxurv 



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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 121 

strength, well built, and mounting about forty guns of va- 
rious nations, and of calibres from thirty-two pounders to 
fours. The centre fort has eight 32's. On all days of 
ceremony the Sandwich flag is hoisted on these forts : it 
has seven white and red stripes, with a union jack in the 
corner. There is a small pier for facilitating the unloading 
of vessels ; and such as are of small burden may lie almost 
close to the shore. Several American whalers were lying 
here ; and at the sight of them, the gardens of exotic fruits, 
and the stone houses, we could not but be struck with the 
astonishing strides towards civilization that these Islanders 
have made in the very short period that has elapsed since 
their discovery. 

During our ride over the little plain between the moun- 
tain and the sea, we could not help thinking that there are 
indications of its having been, at no very remote period, a 
coral reef covered by the sea. In one place we saw the 
rubbish thrown out in digging a well ; it consisted of shells, 
coral, and masses of porous lava ; and, in short, of all that we 
observe on the present beach. 

The surveyor's operations, which were going on, led a 
party, in a boat, up the little river which forms the harbour 
of Honoruru. It winds very prettily between banks, whose 
beauty is rendered more striking to us by the unusual 



122 VOYAGE TO THE 

vegetation and foliage which shade and adorn them. The 
pandanus, the various species of arum, the pahns, the broad- 
leaved breadfruit, the gigantic ferns, are all new and won- 
derful to us — and are doubly pleasing, seen among the cul- 
tivated grounds, whose masters, at the upper part of the 
river, we saw in numbers crossing the stream, with bundles 
of sugar-cane^ taro, or other vegetables on their heads. 

On our return from our ride we called on Liliah, and 
found her sitting on her platform, with a numerous assembly. 
Ladies and gentlemen, excepting herself, had alike disen- 
cumbered themselves of their European costume, and were 
enjoying all the ease of the ancient Sandwich Island fashions. 
It was strange, and not quite pleasant, to witness this un- 
dress, especially as the lounging attitudes of the company 
did nothing to redeem the dignity of human nature. Hap- 
pily, the dark colour of the native skin has the effect of a 
first covering ; and, besides, the unconsciousness of impro- 
priety that precludes shame in the persons themselves, soon 
put us at oiu* ease again. 

May 9. — Monday, Lord Byron visited Eandmoku, to 
arrange matters for the funeral of the late king and queen. 
We found the regent dressed in a longish checked shirt, 
still very ill indeed. His complaint, which is a dropsy, is 
not one that admits of much alleviation, except from an 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 12S 

operation ; and that, it is expected, he will submit to in a 
few days. At every visit we are more and more pleased 
with the good sense and intelligence of this man. He is 
one of the oldest of the chie&, having been present at the 
death of Captain Cook, which disastrous event he perfectly 
remembers, and confirms the conjecture hazarded by Cap* 
tain Kin^ that the whole afiray was accidental, and as much 
lamented by the natives as by us. Of the respect, according 
to their notions, paid to his remains, and of their belief, that 
though once dead, he might, as their deity Orono, come again 
among them, Karaimoku's testimony is now hardly necessary. 
This day our botanist and naturalist have begun their 
researches. Chiefs are coming in, or hourly expected, from 
all the neighbouring Islands, to assist at the approaching 
solemnity, and all wears the appearance of activity. Among 
those who have arrived are the national orator Nahi and 
his wife Kapeolani. Kuakini, commonly called John Adams, 
governor of Owhyhee, and brother of Kahumanu, came in 
his own schooner, the Boston, bringing with him Mr. Youn^ 
whose history is told by Vancouver, and whose constant 
attachment to his native country, though for twenty-four 
years absent &om it, has doubtless been the cause of the 
great attachment of the Sandwich Island government to the 

English. 

r2 



124 VOYAGE TO THE 

In the aflemopn a parlj of officers came ashore from 
the Blonde, and marked out the first cricket-ground that 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 125 

the ignorance and superstitions of barbarism itself. The 
transcendant qualities of their father, a conqueror and legis- 
lator, had alone opened to their country a prospect of rising 
to a station among the cultivated nations of the earth. Yet 
young as they were^ untrained by scholarship or example^ 
they had broken down the barriers of superstition, paved 
the way for laws and true religion, introduced letters, and, 
in hopes of benefiting their country, and securing the alli- 
ance and protection of the state which they esteemed most 
likely and most able to guard them, yet leave them firee to 
improve, and not oppress them, they had undertaken no 
less a voyage than half the circle of the globe, and had died 
in that foreign land — surrounded, indeed, by affectionate 
attendants of their own nation, yet anxious for their distant 
people^ and grieving that they^ had only half accomplished 
the object of their heroic expedition. Perhaps the perfect 
faith reposed in the English by the people of the Islands, 
is the strongest proof that ever could be given by a whole 
nation of simple-mindedness and freedom fiom guile. There 
was not a moment's irritation, not a moment's suspicion that 
unfair means had been used to shorten their days ; and we 
were received as brothers who would sympathise with their 
grief, and as fiiends who would be glad to heal their 
wounds. 



126 VOYAGE TO THE 

At 11 A. M. the bodies were placed in the frigate's 
launch, and carried in procession to the shore, while the 
colours were hoisted half-mast high, and minute guns were 
fired from the ship. The procession itself was arranged as 
foUo ws : 

First, the launch beariDg the coffins. 

The captain'^8 gig, with himself and some of his officers. 

The barge, with the marines and the band. 

Pinnace and cutter, with the rest of the officers and midshipmen. 

Each boat had its flag only half hoisted. 

As the boats approached the shore, the whole of the 
chie&9 with the exception of Karaimoku, whose ill health 
rendered his attendance impossible^ came to the beach to 
receive the remains of their sovereigns. Custom forbids the 
attendance of the common people on such occasions; ac- 
cordingly, none were immediately present, though, on either 
side of the road, without the line formed by the guard, they 
were assembled in multitudes ; for the late sovereigns had 
been peculiarly beloved by the common people. 

Two cars had been prepared to receive the coffins : they 
were of the form usual for carriages used by the women of 
high rajok, and covered with black tapa ; canopies and fes- 
toons of the same material were raised over them, and 
they were each drawn by eight chiefs. The coffins them- 
selves excited great admiration'; they were covered with 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 127 

crimson velvet, and ornamented with silver gilt plates and 
handles. 

On the king's coffin was the following inscription* in 
Hawaiian and English : 

Tamehameba II. Elii 

no nahina o Awaii 

make i Felikani itS 

Makaiki Kaik i ke mahoe 

neua o Kanakaihi 1824. 

Moa ino no Komakou Elii lolani. 

Tamehameba II., king 

of the Sandwich Islands, 

died, 14th July 1824, in London, 

in the S8th year of his age. 

May we ever remember our beloved king lolani. 

On the queen's there was nearly the same : 

Tamehamelu Elii 

no nabaina o Awaii, 

make i Felikani 92 

Makaiki kaiku, London, 

8 R^nidioe o Eemakaibi, 1834. 

Tamehamelu, 

queen of the Sandwich Islands, 

departed this life in 

London, 

July 8, 1824, 

aged 22 years. 

As soon as the cofiins were placed on the biers, the pro- 

* The spelling of these inscriptions may at first appear erroneous, but it 
should be remembered that the sounds of r and / are almost indifierently used ; 
also those of t and A:. 



i 



128 VOYAGE TO THE 

cession moved towards the church in the following order, 
through a double line of native guards : 

I. Twelve native warriors clad in their beautiful feather war-cloaks and hel- 
mets, and each trailing as in mourning a kahile or ensign. 
II. The marines of the Blonde, their arms reversed. 
III. The band playing a dirge. 
IV. Chaplain and surgeon of the Blonde, and two missionaries. 
V. The funeral cars, each drawn by forty chiefs. 
VI. Eiaukiauli, brother and successor of lolani, in Windsor uniform, crape on 

his arm, &c. with the consuL 

VII. The princess Naheinaheina, supported by Lord Bynm. 

VIII. The chiefs, male and female, in deep mourning, according to rank, each 

supporting a British officer. 
IX. Foreigners, resident agents, masters of vessels, &c« 
And lastly, 100 seamen from the Blonde, dressed in white, with black hand- 
kerchiefs, two and two. • 

Having reached the church, ivhich was hung with 
black on the occasion, the cars were drawn up before the 
door, and the persons of the procession formed a circle 
around, while the chaplain of the Blonde read the funeral 
service in English, and the American missionary addressed 
the assembly in their native tongue. The procession 
then in the same order marched to the same house, be- 
longing to £araimoku, where we had been received the 
day after our arrival : it was now entirely hung with black, 
and a raised platform, over which a low arch was thrown, at 
one end, was prepared as the resting-place of the remains of 
the two sovereigns, whom the old man had loved as his 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 129 

children through life, and whose early death has been most 
grievous to him. He received their bodies standing by a 
chair covered with Idack velvet, placed for him dose to the 
platform prepared for them ; and prepared as he was for the 
reception of their remains, he was extremely agitated^ and 
could not restrain his tears. As soon as the coffins were 
deposited on the platform, the band accompanied some 
native singers in a funeral hymn, which the missionaries had 
written and taught them to sing, to the air of FleyeVs Ger- 
man Hymn. We could not help reflecting on the strange 
combination of circumstances here before us : every thing na- 
tive-bom and ancient in the Isles was passing away : the dead 
chiefs lay there, hidden in more splendid cerements than 
their ancestors had ever dreamed of; no bloody sacrifice 
stained their obsequies, nor was one obscene memorial made 
to insult the soul as it left its earthly tenement; but in- 
stead, there was hope held out of a resurrection to happi* 
ness, and the doctrines admitted that had put an end to 
sacrifice for ever, and pronounced the highest blessing on 
the highest purity! Where the naked savage only had 
been seen, the decent clothing of a cultivated people had 
succeeded, and its adoption, though now occasional, pro- 
mises permanency at no distant period. Mingled with 
these willing disciples were the warlike and the noble pf the 

s 



130 VOYAGE TO THE 

land the most remote on the globe, teaching, by their sym* 
pathy, the charities that soften yet dignify human nature. 
The savage yells of brutal orgies were now silenced ; and 
as the solemn sounds were heard for the first time, uniting 
the instruments of Europe and the composition of a learned 
musician, to the simple voice of the savage, and words, not 
indeed harsh in themselves, framed into verse by the in- 
dustry and piety of the teachers from a remote nation, came 
upon the ear, it was impossible not to feel a sensation ap- 
proaching to awe^ as the marvellous and rapid change a few 
years have produced was called up to the mind. 

May 15. — The few days since the funeral have been 
chiefly passed in friendly visiting between us and the chiefs. 
Mr. Dampier has begun portraits of some of the royal family, 
and has made some sketches of the landscape round Hono- 
ruru. The natives are extremely delighted at his drawings 
and pictures, but are apt to be very impatient at the slow- 
ness of the work, especially when one eye in a portrait 
happens to be done while the other is not touched. Such 
as are painted are very desirous of being represented in 
their European gowns ; the artist, however, insists on the 
native costume, to their no small mortification; and cer- 
tainly, in their eyes, a black silk frock must be more delect- 
able than a fine scarlet and yellow feather cloak. The great 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. ISl 

queen Kahumanu, whose temper is violent, although she is 
a person of keen shrewd understanding is very indignant 
that the little king and princess should be painted before 
her, and is not very well pleased at the frown she sees re- 
flected from her own portrait ; however, on the whole she 
is very kind to us, and unites with our old shipmates in 
showing us every possible attention. 

In the painting-room, however, the chiefi were very 
troublesome. One would dip his fingers in the colours on 
the palett^ another would try if those on the canvas were 
of the same hue ; some would be mimicking every action 
of the painter, with true monkey precision, and others would 
be talking, whistling spitting singing, and giving advice^ 
until it was scarcely possible to proceed. Out of doors it 
was better : a tree grew more quickly than a head, and the 
impatience of the spectators was more speedily gratified; 
however all was so good-humoured, that it was impossible 
to be angry. 

May 16. — ^A party rode up the hill behind the town ; it 
is covered with grass and well clothed with trees, and bears 
unequivocal marks of having once been an active volcano* 
The crater is used for a purpose not very remote firom that 
of its origin, for eight guns of thirty-two pounds are mounted 
on it, and it contributes mudi to the defence of the harbour. 

s 2 



13^ VOYAGE TO THE 

It must have cost no small exertion to have brought these 
heavy guns up here ; but it was a work of Tamehameha's, 
who. seems to have had no idea of difficulty which was not 
to be overcomet The valleys between the hills in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Honoruru are in a very high state 
of cultivation, and now afford many exotic fruits which no 
prejudice has prevented the natives from adopting and using 
as freely as their own native vegetables. 

May 17. — ^We made an excursion on foot to-day again to 
the hills ; we were charmed with the variety and strangeness 
of the vegetation, and not a little pleased to find our old ac- 
quaintance the bilberry among what appeared to us the finer 
sort of plants. On ouir return we paid a visit to Nahi the 
second, or vice chief of Earakakua, who, with his wife Ea- 
peolani, is here at present to attend the council which must 
be held before the little king can be acknowledged, and 
which is only delayed till Karaimoku's health permits him 
to undergo the fatigue of it. Their house is very neat and 
orderly. They are perhaps the best informed Christians 
among the whole body of converts. They are pretty con- 
stantly attended by a certain native teacher, whom we con- 
sidered as a very great bore, but he is probably the agent 
of good. Nahi was extremely inquisitive about England, 
and sought from us explanations of many things which the 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 1S8 

account of Boki's party had rendered rather uninteUigible ; 
andy indeed, when we consider that a balloon was one of 
the inexplicable things, we cannot wonder at it. Nahi 
was, however, still more anxious to learn if the King of 
England had deigned to send out a code of laws for the 
Sandwich Islands, which it appears to have been one of the 
dbief objects of lolani to procure. He asked many ques- 
tions as to the eertainty and severity of punishment for 
crime, and we more particularly insisted on the equal deal- 
ing of justice to noble and peasant alike. This seemed to 
make a great impression on the chief. While this conversa- 
tion was going on, and while Nahi acknowledged that it 
was an excellent thing that the kanakas and erees should be 
equal by the laws, he had a favourite kanaka rubbing his 
back, and others waiting round him in the servility of actual 
slavery: in some cases the kanakas approach the erees on 
their knees. Alas ! it is only by slow degrees that human 
creatures are unproved. 

May 18. — ^To-day Lord Byron and a party took possession 
of an excellent house, of two stories high, and having a bal- 
cony before the windows of the second story, belonging to 
Kahumanu, who had offered it for their residence^ and as a 
station for the surveyor, whUe they remain on the Island. 
She bought it from an American speculator, who brought 



J 



134 VOYAGE TO THE 

it ready in frame from the United States; and she paid 
a considerable price for it. While we were here, Boki 
supplied us in profusion with every thing that the Island 
produced ;. and Marini, by his orders, furnished us with 
milky butter, grapes, melons, and bananas. 

One of the officers having promised to procure a skuU 
or skulls for a phrenological friend, sent some natives up 
the hill called Lahahi, where the dead used to be deposited, 
to procure some. The ascent is steep and difficult ; and the 
new Christianity of the natives has not yet so entirely done 
away with the ancient superstition, but that our kanakas 
stripped off every particle of clothing before they went, that 
they might not incense the spirits of the place. 

Our increased intercourse with the natives has made us 
sensible of the singular effect produced on their language 
by the introduction of English names for the various things 
with which they have become ^miliar since the discovery of 
the Islands. We must not call their language poor, because 
it sufficed for all the necessary purposes of speech in the 
state of society to which they had advanced ; and even to 
something more — ^for poetry was already cultivated, and the 
pleasantness both of rhythm and rhyme had been felt But 
many indeed are the new words, introduced as thdr wants 
and the means of gratifying them have increased ; and these 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 185 

words are sometimes so altered as to bear no very near re- 
semblance to their origin, owing to the want of certain con-- 
sonants, such as s and f^ in tlieir language. We might an- 
ticipate many a strange etymology, and many a wild conjec- 
ture, on the part of future philologists, if the art of printing 
had not placed beyond a chance of oblivion the discovery 
of these Islands, and its consequent effects on their customs, 
manners, and language. 

From the language of our new friends it is natural to 
turn to their looks. They are generally well made, and 
the nobles are almost universally taller and larger than the 
middle size in Europe ; they are strong, active, and capable 
of enduring great fatigue. The skin is of a fine brown, in- 
clining to copper-colour: their hair is rather coarse and 
black; in some it curls naturally, in others it is quite 
straight: they still discolour the roots with lime, as in 
Cook's and Vancouver's time, and cut it in every variety of 
fashion. Sometimes it is allowed to flow loosely; some- 
times it is cut and tied so as to form a sort of aigrette on the 
crown of the head ; and again it is shorn on both sides so 
that a crest, like the bear-skin of an old dragoon's, helmet, 
remains. Their eyes are quick, lively, and apparently never 
at rest, which last quality gives an expression of wildness 
to the countenance. They have naturally fine teeth, but 



1S6 VOYAGE TO THE 

hitherto few men have grown up with a full set, it having 
been the fashion to extract a tooth or two to commemorate 
the death of a* Mend or chieftain. Our friend Bold, himself^ 
had four of his front teeth sacrificed to the great Tame- 
hameha; and the operation must have been severe: he 
was laid on his back, and his mouth filled with tapa ; a 
sharp instrument was placed at the root of the teeth, and at 
one blow they were all knocked out at once ! Tattooing is 
often used as another mark of mourning, though it is some- 
times done for ornament alone. The ladies tattoo the tips 
of their tongues in memory of their departed friends. On 
the death of Tamehameha all the chiefs had his name and 
the date of his death tattoed on their arms. The women 
are in youth beautiftdly formed, but become corpulent as 
they grow old; they are good-humoured and affectionate, 
and walk and move graceftiUy. Of this they do not appear 
unconscious ; and they are extremely fond of contemplating 
themselves in a glass, and almost every one possesses a 
small mirror. They generally wear their hair long^ and 
flowing over their shoulders, and the chiefi keep it very 
clean. Not so the lower people, who, although they keep 
their hut^s very neat, yet are dirty in their persons, and have 
both vermin and a variety of cutaneous diseases, especially 
the itch, for which, however, the missionaries have begun to 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 137 

teach them to use the sulphur that is produced abundantly 
in Hawaii. It is to be hoped, also, that the spiritual doc* 
trine that those gentlemen are inculcating, and the habit of 
universal clothmg, which the chiefs who have traveUed are 
desirous of introducing, will check the vice and its con- 
sequent evils which have been too often mentioned and 
lamented by former visitors to require a more serious notice 
here. 

Our coming to reside on shore has been the signal for 
all the petty traffickers in curiosities to gather round us. 
Feather tippets and cloaks, war-helmets, weapons, mother- 
of-pearl fish-hooks, and even gods are brought to market ; 
and as the latter article has been in much demand, the 
handicraftsmen have set to work and manufactured a few 
new ones, just as good as the old, but that they have 
never been worshipped — and do not the antique-makers in 
Bome do the same ? The stone hatchets are also becoming 
very rare, but they were never of the best sort of hatchet« 
stone ^, though of the same nature. The edges of these 

* 

hatchets appear to have been cut while the stone was in a 
soft state — we do not comprehend, however, how it hardens, 
whether nature did all, or whether she was assisted; — 
however that might be, the workmanship executed with 

* Axe-stone. 



138 VOYAGE TO THE 

the stone implements is beautiful; the carving of the an- 
cient ava bowls, the formation of the canoes, and the de- 
corations of the war-dubs and daggers, show that good 
worlanen will make good work in spite of their tools : they 
have now learnt to prefer, and no wonder, the iron we bring 
them, for it prodigiously shortens their labour. 

May 20. — ^We have at length heard the lament at a 
death. To us it appears strange that hired weepers should 
be called in to assist the expression of grief so natural on 
the loss of what is dear to us. But tlie custom has been so 
general, that we must seek its origin in the natural desire 
for sympathy that possesses every human heart. The Irish 
cabin is fiUed with the mourning uUooloo, as the Hawaiian 
hut with the wailing oo-hee-oo-hee ; and the pageantry of 
a European Ameral only differs from these, in that our 
habits require us to suppress the expression of sorrow, and 
we hire mutes to look mourning. The andents, i. e. the 
classical andents, were near enough to the youth of the 
world to have retained some of the earliest habits of man- 
kind, and the Greeks at least have left us testimonies, in 
writing and in sculpture, that they also loved to display 
rather than conceal the most natural and pious of our 
emotions. To bewail the dead is here a duty; and the 
women sit down and lament, then rise up and attend to 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. I39 

their ordinary occupations, and again sit down and lament, 
as their feelings fluctuate between sorrow for their dead, 
and the necessary calls and avocations of their Uves : grief 
is not the less real for these interruptions. 

May 23. — ^This day has been one of no small interest. Our 
surgeon has, to the great surprise of the natives, successfully 
I^onnedthe.pe»ti.„oftappi»gK«ai.otu. LorfByron 
and some of the officers were present, as well as a number 
of the chiefs, some of whom were exceedingly anxious about 
the safety of the regent, and could scarcely be made to com- 
prehend that an opening m so material a part, considered 
by them as the seat of life, could be made without danger ; 
and they seriously expected to see hid highness's breakfast 
issue through the aperture. Their wonder and delight were 
accordingly extreme at the complete success of the surgeon ; 
and Karaimoku, himself, though he had generously trusted 
himself into the hands of a stranger, must have experienced 
a more than ordinary satisfaction at having done so. When 
asked, before the operation, if he ' objected to it, he an- 
swered — " No : my life is in your hands ; do as you think 
good.*^ And though he suffered considerable pain, when it 
was over he exclaimed, ^^ maitai, maitai," good, good. Ka- 
humanu was extremely affected; and though not in the 
habit of displaying much tenderness of nature^ the tears 

T 2 



140 VOYAGE TO THE 

were streamini? down her fac& while she Runnorted his head 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 141 

places the path consists of little more than holes cut m the 
rock for the hands and feet ; and, where most commodious, it 
lies along narrow ledges, where a false step would be inevitable 
destruction. Down this steep a whole army was driven by 
Tamehameha, at the conquest of the Island ; and there his 
victory ended, for no one survived to oppose him. Before 
this path, such as it is, was practised, the communication 
between the two sides of the Island was carried on at an* 
other place, where the road is shorter, but where both sides 
are equally precipitous ; and there being no possibility of 
cUmbing them, ladders of coiar-rope ♦ were used. At the 
bottom of the Parr6 there are two large stones, on which, 
even now, offerings of flowers and fruit are laid to propitiate 
the Akua Wahini, or goddesses, who are supposed to have 
the power of granting a safe passage. In a valley near this 
wonderful precipice there is a fall of water of between two 
and three, hundred feet. There the herbage is luxuriant 
even to rankness ; and the mighty fragments of rock that 
are scattered aroimd, and along the water-course, form 
caverns and dark places which superstition has assigned for 
the abode of a man-devouring deity, called Akua moo, or the 
reptile god ; and if there had been large snakes or alligators 
on the Island, we should have no difficulty in accounting 

* Rope made of oocoa-nut husk. 



142 VOYAGE TO THE 

for such a divinity in such a place. But the lai^^t nqtire 
reptile is a lizard but a few inches long, and which cannot 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 14$ 

that nothing but the resolution of Tamehameha to cultivate 
the friendship of the English, under aU and any circum- 
stances, can account for the hospitality that has been, with 
this exception, so uniformly exercised towards us. 

On returning from our examination of the fatal valley, 
we found a great concourse of people assembled in honour 
of our arrival, and prepared to entertain us with the hura 
hura, or national dance. 

We were seated on mats in front of the dancers, who 
were twenty-five young girls disposed in five rows. Their 
dresses consisted each of two pieces of fine tapa ; the under 
piece, dyed yellow, fell only to the knee in frill and graceful 
folds ; the upper tapa was green, arranged in festoons, and* 
confined to the waist by a broad band of the same. The 
heads of the dancers were adorned with chaplets of flowers, 
and their arms and legs with network, to which dogs' teeth 
were loosely attached, so as to rattle and produce an effect 
not unlike that of the castanet in the dance. 

On either side of us sat two old men holding large cala- 
bashes, on which they beat time with the palms of their 
hands to the dance and to a slow song which accompanied 
it. The dance itself consisted of various and ever-changing 
motions of the Umbs and body, without moving farther from 
the spot than a single step forwards, backwards, to the right 



144 VOYAGE TO THE 

or to the left. The song was moDotonous, and sung, some- 
times by a single voice, sometimes by two, and then the 



G A MT^IlPTr'XI TGI A XIT\C! 



146 VOYAGE TO THE 

rnand^ ^^ Go ye and teach all nations baptizing them/' are of 
a sect too austere, as we should think, for the purposes they 
are so anxious to promote. 

The old tabus are indeed no more, but they have called 
Sunday the la tabu, or consecrated day, and nothing in the 
heathen time could be more strictly tabooed. The mis- 
sionaries forbid the making of fire, even to cook, on Sunday ; 
they insist on the appearance of their proselytes five tunes 
at church every day ; and having persuaded them that they 
are the necessary conductors to heaven, they are acquiring 
a degree of pubUc and private hnportance, which, but for 
the situation of the Islands, which secures a constant acces- 
sion of foreigners for the purposes of commerce, would bid 
fair to renew the Jesuitical dominion of Paraguay. It is 
true, they defend their system by saying, that since the 
tabu for the &lse deities was so severely kept, the proselytes 
might despise our doctrine did we pay less regard to him 
whom we preach as the true Grod; that as to the not 
cooking on Sundays it is no hardship, for it has always been 
the habit to cook enough for two or three days at a time, 
and to eat cold meats between the cooking days, because 
the mode of dressing food by fire-pits and heated stones is 
so very slow ; and as to the frequency and length of the 
prayers, the people have nothing^ better to do. Such are 



1 



148 VOYAGE TO THE 

for its exhibition. As it was a public show, every body was ex- 



150 VOYAGE TO THE 

planning and that, having called his people together, he left 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. ] 5 1 

cipal chie&y male and female^ were present, all dressed in 
European dresses, the ladies being adorned with great care. 
Liliah retains her fondness for every thing English, and 
never upon any occasion appears less dressed than an En- 
glish lady should be. Her countrywomen still use the privi- 
lege of being at ease at home ; but by d^rees these things 
will mend of themselves. The company appeared highly 
pleased with their visit. They admired the ship extremely ; 
were charmed with theur reception ; and gratified beyond 
their powers of expression, at the salute that was fired to do 
them honour on their going ashore. 

June 6. — This has been a very important day at Hono- 
ruru. Early in the morning, Lord Byron received notice 
that a national council was to be held, for the purpose of 
electing a king, or rather of confirming that title in the per- 
son of the young Edaukiauli, and his Lordship was invited 
to attend it. About mid-day the chiefe assembled in the 
king's house, and Lord Byron and the English consul im- 
mediately repaired thither, and found, besides the native 
chiefe, several American merchants and the two missionaries. 
The principal chiefs present were— 

Eiaukiauli, the young king ; Karaimoku, the regent ; 
Kahumanu, widow of Tamehameha I. ; Kuakini, or John 



152 VOYAGE TO THE 

Adams, governor of Hawaii ; Boki, governor of Oahu ; Uru- 



154 VOYAGE TO THE 

Kuakmi, or John Adams^ next rose and said, that he 
proposed that the young king should be placed under the 
especial guardianship of Karaimoku, and that he should be 
instructed by the missionaries in the Pule and Fala-pala, i. e. 
religion, and reading and writing; that he should live as 
separately as possible from the common kanakas, that he 
might escape the vices * which had stained the otherwise 
excellent character of his late brother, who had too often 
low people about him. These proposals were universally 
approved. 

Kapeolani then stated, that upon the lands belonging to 
herself and Nahi, in the Island of Hawaii, she had en- 
deavoured to establish laws prohibitmg robbery, murder, 
drunkenness, adultery, and child-murder, and that, upon the 
whole, she had been tolerably successful. 

Kahumanu, who was lying on a mat spread with silk and 
velvet, raised her head and said, that she approved highly of 
such measures, and that she proposed that all the chiefs 
should adopt the same throughout the Islands, as fast as 
instruction should advance among the people. 

Lord Byron was now called upon to speak, when he 

* Love of wine and gallantry. But Riho Riho was kind, merciful, and 
generous; anxious to promote the good of his people, willing to listen to 
Karaimoku and the older chiefs, but rather refractory with the missionaries, 
excepting in learning to read and write. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 155 

presented to Karaimoku and the other chiefi a ps^iar con* 
taining a few hints concerning their affidrs, which he wished 
them to look over at their leisure, and if they approved of 
them, to adopt them as their own, but not as the dictates of 
the British government, which had no wish whatever to 
interfere with the regulations of the chiefs, who must be 
the best judges of what suited the people. 

A conversation then ensued among the chiefi on the 
subject of the missionaries, and Lord Byron was asked if 
the King of England had any objection to the settling of 
the American mission in the Islands, and instructing the 
people. His lordship said, that he had heard that the 
missionaries had an intention of drawing up a code of laws 
for the people, and to this he decidedly objected; but, so 
long as these gentlemen did not interfere with the laws 
or commerce of the country, he could not object to their 
instructing the natives in reading, and in the Christian 
religion. 

Mr. Bingham, in behalf of the mission, stated, that the 
American missionaries had neither the design nor the wish 
to interfere with the political or commercial concerns of the 
nation ; being expressly prohibited by their commission, and 
their public and private instructions from their patrons, 
from any such interference. That they act under the Ame- 

X 2 



156 VOYAGE TO THE 

rican board of commissioners for foreign missions^ incor- 
porated by the legislature of Massachusets, for the sole pur- 
pose of propagating the gospel among the heathen. That 
it is not for the mission to give laws to the nations, nor to 
interfere with the authority of the chiefs, nor to engage in 
commercial speculations, nor to be known otherwise than as 
propagators of the gospel; but, taking the Bible as their 
guide, their object in residing in these Islands is, to en- 
lighten the nation by the doctrines and duties of Chris- 
tianity, that they may obtain its everlasting rewards. This 
he repeated in the vernacular tongue : and the council then 
broke up. 

The paper which Lord Byron had delivered to Earai- 
moku, as containing his sentiments concerning the business 
on which the council had met, contained the following 
articles : 

1. That the king be the head of the people. 

2. That all the chiefs swear allegiance to the king. 

3. That the lands which are now held by the chiefs shall 
not be taken from them, but shall descend to their legiti- 
mate children, except in cases of rebellion, and then all 
their property shall be forfeited to the king. 

4. That a tax be regularly paid to the king to keep up 
his dignity and establishment. 



158 



VOYAGE TO THE 



to diminish the trade^ and shut the ports against foreign 
vessels. The origin of this was, that when the Hawaiian 
vessels had gone to Macao, and to some of the Russian settle- 
ments, they had had to pay high port dues ; and perceiving 
the gain of such proceedings abroad, the chiefs had eagerly 
adopted it at home ; and they had raised their dues enor- 
mously, to meet the impositions they complain of, especially 
on the part of the American traders, who had raised the 
price of all the articles they brought to the Islands, so as 
that they feared the Islands themselves would soon not pur- 
chase the things of which they stood in need. The numbers 
of chiefs who have now visited other countries, nay, some of 
whom have been brought up in the United States, have 
brought to the Islands something like a notion of the true 
price of the goods they want and also of those they possess, 
and they are naturally unwilling to trade but upon equal 
grounds. Besides, when we consider the incalculable ad- 
vantages ships crossing the Pacific derive firom the refiresh- 
ments they procure at these hospitable Isles, it appears not 
unjust that they should contribute something to the pros- 
perity of the country. The port regulations have the 
farther advantage of checking desertion ; a benefit to the 
ships touching here, which is cheaply purchased at the low 
rate of the new harbour dues. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 159 



PORT REGULATIONS. 

All commanders of vessels arriving at the Island of Oahu shall produce 
their certificate of registry to the pilot or port captain, also a list of their crew ; 
and no seaman is to be left on the Island without the consent of the governor 
in writing, under a penalty of thirty dollars for each person so left. 

No vessel is to leave the harbour until a certificate from the harbour-master 
is granted, mentioning that the port-regulations have been complied with, for 
which he is entitled to receive one dollar. 

Seamen deserting shall be immediately taken up and kept to hard labour 
in the fort for six months. 

Commanders of vessels are to give immediate notice in case any of their 
crew desert, that they may be immediately apprehended: for each deserter 
taken up the governor to receive six dollars. 

Ships entering the harbour for the purpose of refreshing or refitting, to pay 
only the following rates : — In the outer harbour, six cents, per ton ; inner har- 
bour, ten cents, per ton. 

Ships entering the harbour for the purpose of trading with the natives, to 
pay the following rates : — Out^ harbour, fifty cents, per ton ; inner harbour, 
sixty cents, per ton. 

These regulations were signed by Earaimoku, who af- 
fixed his seal to them ; and they are, perhaps, the very first 
written law of so very new a people. 

Our public business at Oahu being ended with the 
council of the chiefs, and our surveyor having accomplished 
his task, we prepared to return to Hawaii, where Lord 
Byron had determined to refit the ship, and complete our 
wood and water. The queen-mother, Kahumanu, applied 
for a passage for herself and suite, as it afterwards appeared, 
with the kindest intentions towards us, though much to the 



160 VOYAGE TO THE 

present inconvenience of the captain and all on board. 
She was accompanied by her sister, three inferior chiefs, and 
about forty half-clad kanakas. She took this opportunity of 
conveying a quantity of specie (in dollars) to be deposited 
in the treasure-cave at Hawaii ; and brought on board 
sundry chests, and a quantity of poi or taroo paste, which 
we soon learned to eat, and found it extremely good, and 
very like Scotch sowens with milk and sugar. Eahumanu 
and her sister Ealahua were accommodated in the captain's 
fore-cabin, and the suite was put up between the guns on 
the main deck. The queen herself is of a haughty and 
overbearing disposition: it is said that she was formerly 
subject to violent starts of passion, during which she has 
committed some very barbarous acts ; but these she has re- 
pressed since her profession of Christianity. She sat on the 
deck while we were saluting her, and seemed infinitely gra« 
tified by the quantity of gunpowder we expended, and the 
consequent noise and smoke in her honour. Our farewell 
of our friends at Oahu was really touching. Boki, who had 
been so long our shipmate, showed more grief and appeared 

■ 

more deeply affected than we had imagined him capable of 
being at our departure. This chief has brought firom Eu* 
rope ideas that will be most useful to his country. Con* 
vinced of the advantages and necessity of industry, he has 



162 VOYAGE TO THE 

there. The place contains about 3000 mhabitants, and 
has a fort mounting twenty guns. The aspect of the 
country is very rough and uninviting in the neighbourhood, 
being composed of lavas of various ages, all dark and forbid- 
ding. The beach, however, is adorned with cocoa-nut trees, 
dracaena and oil nut; and a little valley, which extends 
about four miles inland, furnishes bread£ruit,> bananas, sweet 
potatoes, and mountain taro, which is a less productive 
variety of the water taro. At Eairua there is no fresh 
water, and the inhabitants, for the most part, content them- 
selves with brackish water, which is found in the crevices 
of the lava, and which is the product of the rain, which is 
retained in the various fissures, and the salt water filtering 
through the porous rock. Those who are industrious, or 
can afford to hire water-bearers, procure fresh water from a 
distance of three or four miles. Here is the tomb-house, 
where the remains of the great Tamehameha are deposited ; 
and near it are still standing several large carved images, 
which we imagine to have been spared from respect to that 
chiePs memory. Soon after passing Eairua, we saw the 
small straggling vilk^ of Makaul6-ul6, at the foot of the 
great volcanic mountain Wororai, beyond which the snowy 
top of Mouna Eeah now and then appeared from among the 
clouds. Near this village Tamehameha died : as soon as his 



f 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 168 

death was ascertained, he was placed in a canoe on a thick 
bed of leaves ; and he was also covered with leaves, that 
the flesh, by being heated, might become sufficiently soft to 
separate easily from the bones ; as soon as that had taken 
place, it was removed with wooden saws and carefiilly burnt ; 
the bones being cleaned were then wrapped in a war-doak 



and placed in the tomb-house, where they were venerated 
by the people, and especially by his family. Since the ar- 
rival of the missionaries this dismembering of the dead has 
not been practised, but simple burial has been substituted 
for it. 

We continued to beat up to windward till the 12th, 
between Maui and Hawaii, both Islands presenting scenery 
of very picturesque and varied kind. The north-east coast 
of Hawaii is very remarkable : &om Toarra point the land 
rises gradually to lofty, abrupt, and dark-coloured cli£^ 
between which numerous cascades pour down in every 
direction, many of them from a height of at least 200 
feet. This kind of scenery continues for about ten miles, 
when it terminates in two valleys of extraordinary richness 
and beauty : Waimanu is charming from its luxuriant ver- 
dure and its lofty trees; Wai-ibio^ from its peculiarly ro- 
mantic character; its almost perpendicular sides rise to 
the height of 1000 feet, and it is terminated by a cascade, 

ft 

y2 



164 VOYAGE TO THE 

"(vhich the missionaries, who measured it, say is 945 feet of 
perpendicular height ; we were at many miles' distance^ yet 
distinctly perceived its grand and romantic character. As 
we sailed along, the sun every now and then shot a gleam 
of brightness upon the dark diffii, partially clothed in green, 
and, opening to these valleys, presenting one of the loveliest 
scenes we ever beheld. 

Sunday, June 12. — Just as divine service was ended, 
we rounded a point, now called Blonde point, and anchored 
in Weakeah (now Byron) Bay. This beautiful and safe 
anchorage never having been entered before by a man-of- 
war, Eahumanu gave orders that henceforth it should be 
known only by the name of Byron Bay, in compliment to 
our commander : it lies in the district of Hido ; hence it is 
sometimes called Hido Bay. Captain Vancouver had been 
off the bay at his last visit to the Islands, in January 1794, 
but had conceived it unsafe to enter ; in fact, the appearance 
from without is not inviting. A reef of lava runs nearly 
across the mouth of the harbour, on which the sea breaks 
violently ; and, at first sight, it may appear, from various 
points, to break completely across ; but there is a channel 
of upwards of half a mile between the east end of the reef 
and the shore, which leads into an extensive and safe basin, 
with good bottom, gradually shoaling from ninetieen feet 



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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 165 

at the entrance to six fathoms about a mile from the 
shore. 

There is a creek at the extremity, up which boats can 
go as far as a fall of fine fresh water of excellent quality, 
which keeps long at sea, and is particularly convenient for 
watering the ships. As the bar effectually breaks the force 
of the waves, there is always smooth water within the har- 
bour, so that it is easy to refit or even repair vessels while 
lying there. 

The scenery round this bay is both beautiful and ro- 
mantic : gently sloping lawns, interspersed with orchards of 
breadfruit and palms, belonging to the native huts, extend 
upwards for the space of about four miles, when thick woods 
succeed and clothe the mountain sides, till they are lost 
in clouds, through which the rounded head of Mouna 
Koah, and the peaks of Mouna £eah, every now and then 
appear. 

The neighbourhood of the watering-creek is particularly 
picturesque. The entrance is about fifty yards wide^ be- 
tween high precipitous rocks, crowned with palm and arto- 
carpus trees, and almost covered with beautiful creeping 
plants, whose broad green leaves and many-coloured flowers 
only partially show the dark lava beneath. About fifty 
fathoms inland there is a ledge of rock, over which a beau* 



166 VOYAGE TO THE 

tiful clear river of fresh water comes, pouring its streams into 
the creek * ; and, a few yards higher up, there is another 
cascade of still greater beauty; Immense masses of lava lie 
in picturesque confrision on the banks, between which gay 
shrubs and flowers have rooted, and partially conceal them. 
At these &lls we were often amused by looking on, while 
the natives enjoyed themselves in the water. Some of their 
exercises, indeed, were almost fearful: they woidd strip 
even their maro, and then plunge into the river above the 
first fall, and allow themselves to be carried down into the 
deep pool below, in which they would disappear, and then 
rise again at some distance and draw breath to be ready for 
the second fall, down which they would go, and then return 
to the upper rocks to renew their sport ; nay, some of them 
would ascend the cliffs above, a height of thirty or forty feet, 
and leap from thence into the water, seemingly enjoying 
our terror at their daring diversion ; but they are like the 
amphibious animals, accustomed to the water from infancy, 
and whether rolling about in the surf on their float-boards, 
or dashing down the cascades along with the waters, seem 
equally at home. 

As Lord 'Byron had determined to refit here, Kahu- 

♦ This river is the Wairuku ; that is, the forceful, or destructive, or rusliing 
water. 



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SANDWICH ISLANDS. l67 

manu appropriated to his use a hxge and very convenient 
house, which had just been constructed for the chief of the 
district. It was delightfully situated on the banks of the 
Wairuku : the floor was laid with small black pebbles, and 
carefully covered with mats, and the roof lined with the 
leaves of the pandanus ; there was a door at each end, and 
several windows were cut in the thatch, so that when we 
had furnished it with a few chairs and tables, and screened 
off our bed-places with tappa, it really formed a very com- 
fortable habitation. Lord Byron kindly invited half a dozen 
of us to live with him ashore ; and as our situation there 
permitted us to make many excursions in the neighbour- 
hood, our holiday from the ship was extremely agreeable. 
Kahumanu caused five temporary huts to be erected near 
us for herself, her companions, and servants, in order that 
she might be at hand to render us any assistance in her 
power ; and as she has absolute dominion in the Islands, her 
neighbourhood was important to us in procuring supplies, 
in securing boats, and whatever else coidd contribute to 
our comfort. 

No longer giving way to the violent passions which dis- 
graced her youth, this queen is now distinguished by the 
Hawaiians as the Good Kahumanu. She is one of the 
most zealous among the new Christians, and her first act, on 



168 VOYAGE TO THE 

arriving here^ was to go to church and return thanks for her 
safe voyage ; and on seeing Mr. Buggies, the missionary, she 
took his hand and said, ^ When I formerly saw you I dis- 
liked you, I hated you ; but now I love and respect your 
character." This change will doubtless have a favourable 
effect on the people. As a proof of her kindness to us, she 
had given us for a purveyor a man who speaks a little 
English, and who has adopted the title of Sir Joseph Banks. 
He was extremely diligent in procuring supplies of all 
kinds, and not sparing of the information, true or untrue, 
which he gave us concerning the country ; but we were in 
an excellent situation for learning, by our own eyes, the 
manners and amusements of this cheerful, good-humoured, 
and water-loving race. The stream that ran before our 
house appeared to them a fit place for some of their favourite 
pastimes, one of which was walking on their hands through 
the water, and exhibiting only a pair of legs turned upwards 
as they crossed the stream. A walk charmingly shaded 
vdth cocoa-nut trees led from our house to the Wiakeea, or 
broad water, the original name of B3rron Bay ; it is a kind 
of lake, partly natural, partly dammed in by art, where fish 
taken young is put to fatten, and to be always in readiness 
for the chiefs. The best is a species of mullet, and they 
are in such numbers, that our friend Sir Joseph says, that if 



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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 169 

a man falls into the water, he will be buoyed up by the 
astonishing shoals of them. They are, however, the private 
property of the chiefs, and even the missionaries had not free 
access to them until we arrived. 

Our walks are circumscribed by the almost impenetrable 
nature of the forest behind us, and the sharpness of the 
lava rocks, over which we must go if we desire to reach 
to any distance from home ; but this is no great evil in so 
beautiful a situation, and with fine ground for cricket and 
quoits. 

A few days after our arrival, a party, consisting of one 
of the junior lieutenants, the purser, and the botanist, under 
the guidance of a missionary, resolved to attempt to reach 
the summit of Mouna Keah, which has been computed by 
some to be 18,000 feet high, and by others little more than 
14,000 ; the truth is, as usual, between the two extremes. 

June 15. — Thermometer 80^ To facilitate their journey, 
Kahumanu lent them a double canoe to carry them as far as 
Lapoihoihoi, in the district of Karuakua, a village thirty 
miles north-west from Waikeea ; the shores as they sailed 
by them appeared to be richly wooded, and shaded to the 
waterVedge with the pandanus and kou-tree; here and 
there the wood receded and displayed rich valleys, deep ra- 
vines, and cascades, some of which were believed to fall 



170 VOYAGE TO THE 

from rocks at least 400 feet in height. From the village 
they began their ascent at about mid-day, attended by two 
men from the ship and five kanakas, and by sunset reached 
the last inhabited place on the mountain. Their walk, 
though rough under foot, was through the finest vegetation, 
of a new character to most of them, and presenting to the 
botanist many a new and many a rare plant and flower. 

When they passed through any villages, the natives, 
though they evidently watdied all their actions, betrayed no 
surprise at seeing them. The children, indeed, were fright- 
ened, but their parents contented themselves with sitting 
down in rows and narrowly observing the strangers; not 
moving unless any Uttle service was required of them, when 
they performed it cheerfully and kindly. 

The next morning they resumed their walk, the ther- 
mometer being only at 64'' ; and as their way lay through a 
thick shady forest, heat was not the evil they had to com- 
plain o^ but the path they trod was most rugged ; lava and 
scoriae, in whose interstices plants and tre^ of various de- 
scriptions root themselves, form the hitherto untrodden road, 
and that is impeded by the fallen fern-trees, which lie in 
great numbers aoross the way, aged and overgrown with 
moss and creepers. However, five hours' walk brought 
them to the hut of a rough but useftd European, commonly 



SAND^VICH ISLANDS. 17 1 

called the Armourer *j whose employment it is to catch and 
kill the wild cattle and cure beef, which he does very skil- 
fully. The travellers were well pleased to find excellent 
steaks there, which they toasted on a stick, and on which, 
with the bread and other provisions which they carried with 
them, they regaled themselves heartily, and then proceeded 
through the forest. On the upper edge they found some 
extraordinarily large raspberries, and strawberries very like 
our alpine strawberry, but with little flavour. Unfortunately 
they were surrounded by mist almost as soon as they 
emerged from the forest, and could not, therefore, behold 
the glorious view that must be visible in fair weather, of 
the ocean and the adjacent Islands. At sunset they halted, 
and the natives quickly built a hut with branches of trees, 
and made fire by rubbing two pieces of dry wood together. 
The cold appeared to them intense, though during the 
night the thermometer only indicated 40'' of Fahrenheit 

The next morning, at three o'clock, the party started to 
pursue their way to the summit. They had scarcely pro- 
ceeded for two hours, when the lieutenant and purser were 
so overcome with sleep that they lay down on the bare lava 
rock to rest, and only the botanist and missionary pi 



• :t-^v-irvi 



* This man had beai in the service of Tamehameha at Oahu, but for some 
misdemeanour had been banished to Hawaii 

z2 



172 VOYAGE TO THE 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 173 

it ; hence its name of Keah, or the White. There were in- 
dications of numerous extinguished craters in various parts 
of the mountain, the surface of which is entirely composed 
of lava and other volcanic productions : a few specimens 
were brought away, and these present nothing essentially 
different from the porous lavas of Vesuvius ; but their colour 
is generally blacker, though, in many instances, that of 
Mouna Keah is of a deep red. A whole day was occupied 
in the ascent of the last peak ; and when the parties met at 
night, those who had taken the wrong road had been thirty 
hours without food or water ; but the ** remainder biscuit" 
brought down by their companions, and some snow-water, 
with which they had replenished their canteen, furnished 
forth their supper, and they slept again in the hut con- 
structed the night before. They left it, however, early 
enough on the following morning to arrive at the Armourer's 
station to breakfast upon fresh beef-steaks, and, recruited by 
rest and food, they proceeded to the shore ; but instead of 
embarking at Lapoihoihoi, they resolved to proceed to 
Byron Bay over land, that they might see more of the 
country. The paths they followed led through some very 
magnificent scenery, but were in many places both diffi- 
cult and dangerous. They crossed not less than eighty 
deep ravines, through which streams, more or less impetuous^ 



174 VOYAGE TO THE 

were pouring towards the sea. In one of these the lieu- 
tenant was neariy drowned, and indeed nothing but the 
prompt and efficient exertion of some of the natives saved 
him. There is not much cultivation inland in this part of 
the Island, the rocks being too steep and the forests too 
thick to tempt the natives to make much improvement, 
as there is abundance of much better land still unoccupied 
in the Island. Yet the numerous fine streams of water 
will probably one day induce both cultivators and manu- 
facturers to- establish themselves on their banks. Mean- 
time our party was delighted with the beauty of all kinds on 
the road, and the botanical collection was enriched with many 
fine specimens. 

One of the first schemes we formed, on anchoring in 
Byron Bay, was to visit the great volcano of Peli, situated 
on the flank of Mouna Boa, a mountain not very inferior to 
Mouna Keah in height, and Uke it exhibiting in every part 
traces of the action of volcanic fires. Mouna Keah is how- 
ever now completely at rest, as well as Mouna Worarai, the 
third mountain of the Idand, on whose summit is the great 
extinguished crater, of which a view is given by Vancouver ; 
Mouna Boa on the contrary is fiiU of cracks, and hillocks, 
and craters, all actively biuming : it has its springs, hot and 
cold, its sulphur and pumice ; so that it is no wonder the 



SANDWICH ISLAND& 175 

natives should have considered it as the abode of the gods 
of fire. 

Several parties from the ship were formed for the pur- 

I 

pose of visiting Feli, the earliest being that of the botanist, 
consisting of the same individuals as ascended Mouna Keah, 
with the exception of the missionary, whom they exchanged 
for the Armourer. After passing through five miles of what 
may be called cultivated country, they arrived at the great 
forest, through five more miles of which they travelled by 
rude and difficult paths, over the rough lava Beyond the 
forest, shrubs and herbs cover the scorise and mingled rock 
and ashes, to the crater itself; being occasionally interrupted 
by patches of hot rock, where deep fissures and cracks show 
the fires beneath, and whence smoke and flame are per- 
petually issuing. Other patches there are of steaming sand, 
or hot clay, in which the natives, when frequenting the 
mountains to cut sandal- wood, bury the root of the edible 
fern, and thus dress it for food. Some shrubs grow actually 
within the great crater ; and the ohelo berry, white cran- 
berry, and strawberry, are in plenty dose to its edge. 

The natives, on seeing some of the English bear the fire 
as. well as the cold of the mountain, exclaimed, that the 
white people were like the gods, for that they could equally 
endure the snow and the fire. 



y 



176 VOYAGE TO THE 

Our largest party, and that which examined the crater 
most carefully, however, was formed by Lord Byron, who 
was accompanied by Mr. Maiden, Mr. Dampier, and several 
other officers and idlers. 

The queen, Kahumanu, in order to facilitate the expedi- 
tion, sent several of her vassals beforehand to construct rest- 
houses on the way, and provided a sufficient number of 
carriers Tor provisions, cots, and whatever else might be ne- 
cessary. The English were thirteen in number, and the 
chiefs and people who accompanied them swelled the party 
to nearly 200. The purveyor was the chief of the district 
of Hido, and he was attended by his kanakas in addition to 
those sent by Kahumanu, so that our march had the ap- 
pearance of a Uttle triumph. 

At daylight on the 27th June we began our ascent, and 
the first five miles went ofi^ gaily enough, though the path 
was occasionaUy rough, and set with pointed fragments of 
hard lava, which our thick-jsoled shoes could scarcely guard 
us against. Our road lay along the margin of the Waikeah, 
nearly to the forest ; and as we ascended, we observed the 
taro no longer cultivated in ponds, but growing m weU 
weeded dry lands, and though inferior in size to that grown 
in the water-beds, not at all below it in quality. We 
skirted the wood for abbut a mile, and then, ere we entered 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. I77 

it, filled up our water jars at a fine well, which we under* 
stood was the last we should find for at least ten miles. 
The foliage of the forest trees struck us as peculiarly beau* 
tiful ; and above all, that of the kou or candle-nut. The 
entrance to the great wood is marked by an old and very 
picturesque tree, which formerly overshadowed a moral, and 
where, one of the vague and dark traditions of the Island 
says, human victims were formerly sacrificed. A p^rpendi- 
cular ledge of rock, eight feet high, seems to raise the forest 
above the sloping ground below ; and, having scrambled up 
this, the real forest path begms. This road is extremely 
narrow and intolerably bad, our progress being firequently 
impeded by fallen trees, over which it was necessary to 
cUmb, as the thickly matted creepers, shrubs, and under- 
wood which grew on every side made it impossible to find a 
way round them. The pointed rocks and ledges of lava 
were thinly covered with long glossy grass, which rendered 
our steps both fatiguing and dangerous ; and long ere we 
had crossed the wood scarcely one of us could boast of a 
sound shoe. Having reached an open spot, about a hun- 
dred and fifty yards in extent, used commonly as a halting- 
place, some of us sat down to rest our wearied limbs, and 
envied the ease with which the natives seemed to tread the 
path so irksome to us. Their feet were defended only by 

A A 



178 VOYAGE TO THE 

sandals made of plaited cordi spun from the fibres of the 
cocoa-nut tree ; and as they passed us they seemed disposed 
to exult in the superior speed and lightness with which 
they were ascending with their loads ; and we could not 
help fancying that some of the women, m particular, laughed 
a little maliciously at us as they moved on. At length the 
weary wood was crossed and all the stragglers collected ; and 
after a little halt, during which some changed their shoes, 
and all complained of their bruises, we proceeded five miles 
farther on our road ; and though it wanted yet nearly half 
an hour of noon, it was agreed to dine under a fine-spreading 
tree that afforded a broad and agreeable shade. There were 
few other trees near it, but various shrubs and fern adorned 
the ground ; and at no great distance, a grove of that species 
of hibiscus, of whose light wood the outriggers for the 
canoes are made, and whose bark affords cordage, adorned 
the scene : the timber of this tree is^ we believe, a royal 
monopoly. 

The immediate superintendant of our provision and 
b^g^^ ^^ o^i* friend Sir Joseph Banks. He soon caused 
the kanakas to spread out our dinner, which was excellently 
furnished with eatables of Hawaii, and drinkables from 
Europe ; so that by two o'clock we had dined, and rested, 
and started afresh for PeU. We walked over the same kind 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. I79 

of country, with a large tree here and there, but more fre- 
quently shrubs, and now and then bare patches of sand or 
lava; and at half-past four o^clock we reached the huts 
which had been prepared for us to pass the night in. 

Here, therefore, we sat down on the dry leaves and grass 
with which the huts had been carpeted ; and some native 
boys came and performed an operation which they caU lomi 
lomi, but for which we have adopted the Indian name, to 
shampoo. Nothing could afford such complete relief to the 
wearied muscles of our feet and legs ; and as we lay enjoying 
our rest, we perceived a great concourse of people assembled, 
and found that a dance was to be performed in our honour. 
A ring being formed, a very handsome girl was brought for- 
ward to dance, while two old men sat, one on each side, 
beating time on a drum made of a gourd. The girl's mo- 
tions were slow and gracefid : they reminded us of the mea- 
sured Spanish dances; and were accompanied by a native 
song sung by the men, the woman herself occasionally 
answering in equal measure. 

The dancing being over, as we had still some hours of 
daylight^ we resolved to continue our journey, and left our 
comfortable huts with the certainty of having to pass the 
night in the open air. However, we were eager to get on ; 
and spite of the roughness of the road, and our tender feet, 

A a2 



180 VOYAGE TO THE 

we proceeded till sun-set ; when^ having marched twenty-five 
miles, we resolved to take advantage of some dismantled 
huts that were by the road side ; and our native attendants 
having come up, they very speedily collected branches of 
trees and broad banana leaves enough to make us an ex- 
cellent shelter from the wind, and huts for most of them- 
selves. Here we made a fire ; and having enjoyed a hearty 
supper, slept very soundly, surrounded by our followers dis- 
posed in groups, some under cover, and some on the bare 
ground, as it pleased their fancy. 

As we had been ascending during the whole day of the 
27th, we found the air at day-break on the 28th cool and 
invigorating, and we began our day's march in high spirits. 
Besides the roughness of our yesterday^s march, to-day we 
had great chasms in the lava, which often demanded our 
utmost care in walking. Near one of the largest of these, 
four poles had been erected to mark it as a burial-place, 
where the bones of many of the people, particularly the 
worshippers of the fire gods, used to be deposited. Shortly 
after we passed this primitive tomb, we met the botanist's 
party on their return: they seemed highly pleased with 
their excursion, and reported the volcano to be in full ac- 
tivity. We marched onward twelve miles farther; and 
then, with almost as much joy as Balboa could have felt on 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 181 

I 

first discovering the waters of the Pacific, we hailed a cloud 
of smoke that was issuing from the crater. We hastened 
forward with redoubled activity, though we were sometimes 
allured firom the path by the beds of wild strawberries that we 
found in abundance, up to within a mile and a half of the crater. 
We now began to find a quantity of light ashes strewing 
our path, and the ascent suddenly became sharper, till 
within a mile of the crater, when our progress was suddenly 
arrested by finding ourselves on the edge of a precipitous 
ledge of seventy feet perpendicular height, clothed with 
trees and gigantic ferns. A winding but very steep path 
conducted to the bottom ; and after moving onwards a few 
hundred yards more, we came to a second ledge, whence we 
heard the deep roaring of the volcano like the sounds pro- 
ceeding from a blast furnace. And now, at every step, we 
perceived yawning chasms of unknown depth, from some of 
which columns of black smoke issuing told of what was going 
on in the realms of fire below. Near the greatest of these 
chasms, a number of Eeioua's people, who had joined with 
him in rebeUion against Tamehameha, and who happened to 
be on the mountain, were destroyed by fire from the vol- 
cano ; and the traditions of the Island tell of whole armies 
that have been overwhelmed by floods of burning lava *. 

* See EUis^s Tour for this, and for the names and attributes of the volcanic 
deities, and their combats with other powers, natural and supernatural. We 



182 VOYAGE TO THE 

Numerous small cones seemed to indicate the former 
places of craters ; they are mostly surrounded by sand, as 
if thrown up by them, though it might possibly have been 
drifted thither. The ground we trod was of heavy com- 
pact lava, with here and there red stains ; and there were 
many huge blisters, or even caverns, like bubbles on it, lined 
with a shining vitreous substance, and sometimes with ob- 
sidian. On many parts of the surface was scattered what 
the natives call Peli's hair, and indeed it resembles hair or 
spun glass*, and is probably only the melted volcanic glass 
blown off by the wind while in a state of fusion. All this 
part of the road looked like a petrified ocean ; the summits 
of the ridges rough and curled, the sloping sides black and 
glassy, while in the troughs there lay sand and olivine, and 
bubbles of a rusty colour, which, on being broken, showed a 
light spongy substance with -shining cells. Not far firom 
the second ledge of lava we passed an extinct crater of great 
size, and computed to be 900 feet deep ; its sides are clothed 
in rich verdure, but the bottom presents one smooth, shining 
jet-black surface. 

The plain to which we descended firom the lava ledges 

think these traditions indicate some points of history which perhaps a better ac- 
quaintance with the songs and tales of the Island may elucidate ; and still more 
particulars of the phenomena of the mountain, and its effects on the surrounding 
seas. 

* A amilar production is found on the volcano of the Isle of Bourbon. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 18S 

appears to have sunk, perhaps because the materials of the 
mountain, in that spot, have been partiaUy consumed ; it is 
fifteen or sixteen miles in circumference, and in the centre 
of it is the great crater. In many places the ground seemed 
hollow under our feet ; it was rent by cracks and chasms, 
over some of which a thin crust of lava formed such dan- 
gerous bridges as thm ice across a torrent. Nothing warns 
of the danger of these holes, and it is not uncommon for 
persons to find the crust break under them, and so to slip 
through, when the only thing to be done is to throw their 
bodies forward, and extend their arms, and as the chasms are 
mostly very narrow, they are generally saved. At length 
we reached the edge of the crater ; but words are totaUy 
inadequate to describe the effect produced on us by the 
first sight of that dark fiery gulf. From its brink, where we 
stood, we looked down for more than thirteen hundred feet, 
over rocks of lava and columns of sulphur, between whose 
antique fissures a few green shrubs and juicy berry-bearing 
plants had fixed themselves, to a rugged plain, where many 
a cone, raised by the action of the fire below, was throwing 
up columns of living flame, and whirls of smoke and vapour, 
while floods of liquid fire were slowly winding through 
scoriae and ashes, here yellow with sulphur, and there black. 



184 VOYAGE TO THE 

or grey, or red, as the materials which the flames had 
wrought on varied *. 

Not less than fifty cones, of various height, appeared 
below us as the funnels of the various operations going on. 

* The following notice concerning Feli is obligingly furnished by Lieut. 
Charles R. Maiden, who conducted the surveying operations while the Blonde 
was at the Sandwich Islands. 

^^ The defective state of my mountain barometer prevented me from 
correctly estimating the height of the volcano Peli above the level pf the sea. 
Its distance from Byron Bay, in a direct line, is about twenty-eight English 
miles. The ascent, though gradual, is constant ; about two feet in a hundred, 
which will give three thousand feet for the total height ; the state of the ther- 
mometer also corresponds to this altitude. In the night it fell to 59,^ of Fahren- 
heit, the average temperature of the week at the sea-side being 76^ 

^^ From the hut at the east extremity of the volcano, the highest peak of 
Mouna Keah bore, by azimuth compass, N. S69 S(y W. and the centre of 
Mouna Boa S. 85° W. variation 9^ E. 

^^ A short base-line was measured, and some of the most conspicuous points 
of the volcano fixed by triangulation, from which it appears that the circum- 
ference of the crater is nearly eight miles ; the distance from that hut to the 
cliff marked No. 7 in the plan was found to be 8,209 feet, and the angle sub- 
tended between the top and bottom of the cliff, 5° 55' ; this will give 93S feet 
perpendicular to the black ledge, to which add 400 feet, the estimated height 
of the black ledge above the bottom of the crater, and there results 1382 for 
the total depth of the crater. I am convinced this measurement is within 100 
feet of the truth.'' 

This volcano, which has the name of Feli from the goddess supposed to in- 
habit it, is also called by the natives, Kairauea nui, or the greaUr, and the 
extinguished crater, Kairauea iti, or the lUHe: they are in the district of Kapa* 
pala, and on the boundary line of Kaii and Fuua. It must be observed that 
the ancient divisions of all these Islands are numerous, well defined, and care- 
fully marked. 



• \ 



.4 
I 



•V. 






■r^<^- 






I 






SANDWICH ISLANDS. 185 

At least one half of these were in activity, but it appears 
that the same are by no means constantly so; nay, that 
often older cones fall in, and new ones are formed elsewhere 
in the bottom of the pit. Some eject stones and fragments 
of. rock, others throw out ashes only, while, from their dark 
or sulphur-coloured flanks, lavas and sometimes water issues ; 
many of the cones emit vapours which, condensed, form 
beautiful beds of sulphur, others are distinguished t^ the 
wreathed columns of white and black, that indicate steam 
and smok^ curled round each other by the wind, but never 
mixing. 

We remarked, that within the sunken plain, and near 
the great crater, which the natives call Eairauea, there are 
pools of fresh cool water, doubtless furnished by the steam 
from below, which, condensing here, forms these pools, where 
numerous wild birds resort, and which are shadowed by reeds 
and bushes. 

Night increased the magnificence, perhaps the horror, of 
the scene. The volcano caused what Defoe calls " a ter- 
rible light in the air." The roar occasioned by the escape 
of the pent up elements, and the fearful character of the 
surrounding scenery, suited with that light; an^ 
pressed us with the sense of the present Deity, 



186 VOYAGE TO THE 

when from Sinai he gar^ with thunderings and with light- 

_: ii x-ui r 1.1 1 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 187 

greatest acts of moral courage, which has perhaps ever been 
performed; and the actor was a woman, and, as we are 
pleased to call her, a savage. 

Kapiolani, the wife c^ Nahi, a female chief of the highest 
rank, had recently embraced Christianity ; and dearous of 
propagating it, and of mideceiving the natives as to their 
&lse gods, she resolved to climb the mountain, descend into 
the crater, and, by thus braving the volcanic deities in their 
very homes, convince the inhabitants of the Idand that God 
is God alone, and that the false subordinate deities existed 
only in the fancies of their weak adorers. Thus determined, 
and accompanied by a missionary, she, with part of her 
family, and a number of followers, both of her own vassals 
and those of other chiefs, ascended Fell. At the edge of 
the first precipice that bounds the sunken plain, many of 
her followers and companions lost courage and turned back : 
at the second, the rest earnestly entreated her to desist firom 
her dangerous enterprise, and forbear to tempt the powerful 
gods of the fires. But she proceeded ; and on the very verge 
of the crater, caused the hut we were now sheltered in to 
be constructed for herself and people. Here she was as- 
sailed anew by their entreaties to return home, and their 
assurances, that if she persisted in violating the houses of 
the goddess, she would draw on herself, and those 

bb2 



188 VOYAGE TO THE 

her, certain destruction. Her answer was noble : — ** I will 



SANDWICH ISLANDS- 189 

twenty, and in some places completely overhanging the 
plain at the bottom, its supporting materials seeming to 
have been eaten away by the fire. From its appearance, 
and from its preserving its level, one might imagine that it 
formerly bounded the bottom of the crater itself, but that 
the wasting effect of the fires had caused it to sink still 
lower, and had left the ledge as a mark of the progressive 
destruction carried on. We were obliged to walk nearly to 
the opposite side of the crater from that where we had 
descended so far, in order to find a safe path by which we 
might go down the other 400 feet ; and here the real diffi- 
culties commenced. The natives refused to proceed farther 
with us in our dangerous expedition, and we had to push 
on alone through ashes and lavas, and all the waste of fire. 
With the greatest care we could not pick our steps so 
securely but that often the apparently solid lava would give 
way, and we sank knee-deep among ashes and scoria. At 
length we reached the bottom ; and here our difficulties in- 
creased. Anxious to reach one of the cones at least, we 
were obliged to feel our way before us with our staves to 
avoid the crevices and fiery pools, where the thin crusts of 
lava might have been too fragile to support our weight:' 
and when we had attained our object, the smoke and fire 
soon obliged us to retreat ; and a change of wind taking 



190 VOYAGE TO THE 

place suddenly, the smoke and vapours were blown down 
into the crater, so that it was with some danger and great 
precipitation that we saved ourselves from their baneful 
effects. Nothing in the whole scene was more striking than 
the soil fire showers that seemed to rain down upon the 
burning plain. 

Sovra tutto 1 sabbion d'^un cader lento, 
Pioven di fiiooo dilatate falde 
Come di neve in A]pe senza vento. * 

Fatigued, but gratified, by our descent into the crater, 
probably the largest yet discovered in the world, we pre- 
pared to pass a second night at Eapiolani's hut But on 
this occasion the volcano was far fi*om being as tranquil as 
before. In the middle of the night we were awakened by 
a violent earthquake; and soon afterwards a fresh crater 
opened m the gulf immediately below us, with tremendous 
noise, and flame, and stones, and smoke. The plain at the 
bottom was overflowed with fresh streams of lava in every 
direction, and a continual heaving even of the cool dark mass, 
and a tremulous motion of the side where we were^ filled 
us with an involuntary dread, so that we slept no more, 
but prepared to leave the awfid place with the first dawn 
rfday. 

Accordingly, with the first rays of the sun, we began 



192 VOYAGE TO THE 

down, each with a present for the queen, of more or less 
value, according to his means: Tapa, wood, fruit, vege- 
tables, dogs, pigs, potatoes, onions, cabbages, all of which 
were deposited in heaps before our dwelling. Eahumanu 
then came forward, and delivering a mat and a bundle of 
onions to Lord Byron, told him that the whole of the pro- 
visions he saw were a tribute to him. 

These things being taken on board, Kahumanu, with her 
train, and our little party from the shore-house, all em- 
barked, and on the 7th July bade adieu to Byron Bay and 
made sail for Oahu. 

Byron Bay will, no doubt, become the site of the capital 
of Hawaii The fertility of the district of Hido, in which 
it is situated, the excellent water and abundant fish-pools 
which surround it, the easy access it has to the sandal-wood 
districts, and also to the sulphur, which will doubtless soon 
become an object of commerce, and the faciUties it affords 
for refitting vessels, render it a place of great importance. 
Its neighbourhood has always been the chief place for con- 
structing the double or war-canoes, of which, however, there 
are but few, and those are chiefly used on occasions of state. 
The superior advantage of European vessels has, of course, 
as soon as felt, superseded the use of the war-canoe ; and 



.», '. 



I1 



•I 



I ' 









h:-.. 



a" ' t :i'V«, u;,-; th t* \ rhi'/T/. i li ;i '.ic<.- oih f- 



Ih -*;«'r.oi ...'J* *!Wa;^i .il'Liir-M-/ 



" ' . ' 1 1 >" . « • 1 



1- •.••^*» ..- . ;i •- ', .--'Mfloti U\ r<- (il *], ■ -r . ' 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 393 

Hido will scarcely lose by the change, for its ingenious arti- 
ficers have only to turn their industry to the construction of 
more regular vessels. Each Island, and each division, has 
some peculiar article, in the manufacture of which its in* 
habitants exceL The mats of Onehow and those of Taui 
are incomparably softer and finer than those of the other 
Islands. The women in the neighbourhood of Woraray are 
said to be more dexterous than others in preparing the bark 
of the broussonettia for cloth, and stamping on their tapas 
the ingenious figures which adorn them. The occupations 
of the chiefs were making the fishing-tackle, arms, war- 
cloaks, and helmets ; but the wars of Tamehameha, which 
introduced gunpowder, the progress of civilization, which 
has made them acquainted with money, commerce, and the 
arts of reading and writing, have produced a change of 
occupation among the chiefs; and it is probable that the 
ornamented pahoe, the pearl fish-hook, and the splendid 
war-cloak, will soon be more easily found in the cabinets 
of Europe than among the islands of the Pacific. 

We reached Oahu too late on the evening of the 8th to 
anchor that night, but early on the 9th we had the pleasure 
of meeting our shipmates, and the excellent Earaimoku, in 
apparently good health, and were received by them with 
the same hospitality which we had experienced on our first 

c c 



Vf\-v A n.'v fo TiT'D 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. I95 

bom, are among the most remarkable of their tuna Hie 
elder brother, Karaimoku, though not of the highest class 
of chie&, was chosen early in life by the great Tamehameha 
as the companion of his dangers and his glory. He was no 
less eminent in war, than by the wisdom of his comisels and 
the uprightness of his administration. With a fidelity 
never surpassed, he has watched with a father's care over 
the interests of his sovereign's family and of the country ; 
and the great progress that the Sandwich Islands have made 
in civilization may be in good measure attributed to his most 
judicious management. Boki is much younger than Earai- 
moku, and though he has not the talents of his brother he 
is a sensible man, fond of his country, and anxious for its 
welfare and improvement ; — ^the survivor of his kin^ with 
whom he had sailed more than half the circumference of the 
glpbe, in order to procure what they conceived the greatest 
good to their country, the protection and fiiendship of the 
king of England ; and intrusted with the assurance of that 
protection and fiiendship*, he is the first native who^ having 
seen civilized nations, is come to introduce order, to improve 

* This voyage of friendship to the king of England, and prayer for pro- 
tecdon, especially against the Russians, reminds us of the embassy sent to the 
Romans by Judas Maccabeus, 1 Mace ch. viii. 

C C 2 



198 VOYAGE TO THE 

Island^ the immediate neighbourhood of the shore is with- 
out fresh water ; all, that is at aU palatable, being brought 
from a place six miles inland : and the district is neither so 
populous nor so fertile as that of Hido, where we had re- 
fitted. One advantage, however, this side of the Island 
possesses ; it is not so often rainy as at Byron Bay, and, 
consequently, fitter for painting a ship ; but for the grand 
articles of security, provisions, and water, Byron Bay is in- 
finitely superior, to say nothing of the great beauty of the 
scenery. 

On landing at Kowrowa we were very Idndly received 
by Eapeolani and Nahi, the chiefs of this district, now one 
of the most civilised of the Sandwich Islands. These ex- 
cellent chiefs have set an example of wise and prudent re- 
formation among their followers. But the conduct of Ea- 
peolani with respect to the volcanic deities, and her heroic 
journey to Feli, are vouchers for all that can be said as to 
the wisdom and persevering goodness with which she has 
sought to improve her dependants. In her domains the 
son inherits his father's property, without even an appeal 
to the chief. Theft is punished, murder almost unknown, 
and infants enjoy all the benefits of parental love. The de- 
cency, cleanliness, and even elegance of the house, and the 
dresses of Nahi and Eapeolani give earnest of a speedy im- 



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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 199 

provement among all classes of these well-disposed Islanders, 
and entitle these chiefs to a very high rank among the bene- 
factors of their country. 

Nahi was a witness of Captain Cook's death. He was 
quite a boy when it happened, but all the circumstances 
connected with it are deeply impressed on his memory. 
He pointed out to us, at no great distance from his house, 
the rock on which our excellent countryman fell, no less to 
the grief of the natives than to that of his own people. 

The morning after our arrival in Karakakua Bay, Kua- 
kini, governor of the whole Island of Hawaii, came on 
board to pay his respects to Lord Byron, and offer his ser- 
vices. This man has adopted the title of John Adams, in 
compliment to the president of the American Congress of 
that name. He is one of the largest of the chiefs, large as 
they generally are, being six feet three inches in height, and 
weighing twenty-six stone. His character appears to be 
less amiable than those of his brother chiefs, and has fre- 
quently caused uneasiness by its suUenness and love of con- 
tradiction. Euakini and Nahi accompanied us to the royal 
mond in the neighbourhood, which had, till now, been con- 
sidered sacred. After rowing along the coast to the south- 
ward for a short time, we came to a pretty creek called 
Honaunau, where the moral, overshadowed with cocoa-nut 



I 

I 



200 VOYAGE TO THE 

trees, stood. The exterior appearance of the building itself 
does not differ from that of the grass houses of the native 
chiefs. It is surrounded by a palisade formed of the trunks 
of palm-trees, and the court within the palisade is filled with 
rude wooden images of all shapes and dimensions, whose 

« 

grotesque forms and horrible countenances present a most 
extraordinary spectacle. Most of these idols are placed in 
the same attitude; one, however, was distinguished by a 
greater degree of skill in the carving : it had a child in its 
arms. There were also a number of poles with carved heads 
in various parts of the court, and, immediately in fi^ont of 
the morai, and outside of the palisades, there was a kind of 
sentinel deity of a very grotesque shape. On entering the 
morai we saw on one hand a line of deities made of wicker- 
work, clothed in fine tapa, now nearly destroyed by time, 
and adorned with feathered helmets and masks, made more 
hideous by rows of sharks' teeth, and tufts of human hair ; 
each differing a little from the other, but all preserving a 
strong family Ukeness. Under these the bones of the an- 
cient kings of the Island are said to be deposited ; and near 
them the favourite weapons of deceased chiefs and heroes, 
their ornaments, and whatever else might have been pleasing 
to them while alive. 

As the idolatrous worship of these things is now at an 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. gOl 

end, Earaimoku takes every occasion to do away the re- 
membrance of it, taking care not to shock the feelings of 
the people too violently. He had given directions, that as 
the English officers were desirous of taking some of the 
ancient gods, and other articles deposited in the mor^ to 
show in Britain what had been the worship and the customs 
of then- Hawaiian brethren, the guardians of the place should 
permit them to remove whatever they pleased. We could 
not wonder that the old man, who had long been the priest 
of the temple, and was now the guardian of its relics, showed 
some signs of regret at this final destruction of the gods 
of his youth. This man was the son of the high-priest of 
Captain Cook's times. He told us an anecdote of his youth 
which may deserve to be repeated here. 

One morning his father had placed the usual offering of 
fish and poi before the Nui Akua, or Great Spirit. The 
son having spent a long day in an unsuccessful fishing ex- 
pedition, returned, and, tempted by hunger, devoured the 
food of the gods. But first he placed his hands on the eyes 
of the idol, and found they saw not ; and then his hand into 
its mouth, but it did not bite ; and then he threw his mantle 
over the image and ate ; and, replacing the bowl, removed 
the mantle, and went his way. Being reproved by his 
father, he said — ^^ Father, I spoke to him, and he heard not ; 

D D 



202 VOYAGE TO THE 

I put my hand into his mouth, and he felt not ; I plac^ 
tapa over his eyes, and he saw not : I therefore laughed and 
ate/' ^ Son/* said the old priest, ** thou hast done un- 
wisely : 'tis true the wood neither sees nor hears, but the 
Spirit above observes all our actions/' 

This priest opposed, with propriety, the ofiering any in- 
dignity to the bones of the deceased chiefs, but in every 
thing else assisted us with civility, though with reluctance, 
to spoil the moral of its most precious contents; and the 
Blonde soon received on board aknost all that remained of 
the ancient deities of the Islands. 

We remsdned four days at Earakakua, during which time 
Lord Byron erected a cross to the memory of Captain Cook 
on the spot where his body was burnt. This humble monu* 
ment is composed of a pillar of oak ten feet high, into which 
a copper plate is inserted, bearing the following inscription : 

Sacred 

to the memory of 

Capt. James Cook, R. N. 

who discovered these Islands 

in the year of our Lord 1778. 

This humble mcmument is erected, 

by his coimtrymen, 

in the year of our Lord 1825. 

On the 18th of July we weighed our anchor and bade 
farewell to our hospitable friends. Nahi and Eapeolani 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 203 

seemed truly concerned at our departure, and loaded us 
with presents of fruit and other provisions, besides many 
curious things of the manufacture of the Islands. We trust 
that our visit will have been beneficial to the country. It 
has given them the assurance they have long wished, of pro- 
tection against foreign encroachment: and that feeling of 
independence, which such assurance is calculated to main- 
tain, will encourage them in all the schemes for improve- 
ment, which their imcultivated, but not unawakened, minds 
have already begun to desire. We left the regular suc- 
cessor to the dominion in full possession of his hereditary 
rights, under the care of the friends and guardians of his 
family. A public acknowledgement of the freedom and 
hereditary rights of the chiefs and people had been made ; 
regulations for administering justice had been adopted; 
Christianity embraced; letters introduced; and the habits 
and manners of the savage are gradually giving place to the 
refinements of civilised life. 

Lord Byron, by the kindness and simplicity of his man- 
ners and deportment, had secured the personal afiection of 
all the chiefs ; and the service rendered by the surgeon to 
Karaimoku added, in no small degree, to the regard with 
which all classes were disposed to consider the English ; so 
that, on the whole, nothing can be more gratifying to our 

D D 2 



204 VOYAGE TO THE 

feelings, as men and Englishmen, than this visit to the 
Sandwich Islands, and the intercourse we have had with 
their very interesting inhabitants. 

We had left the Sandwich Islands with the hopes of 
visiting Otaheite, or more properly Tahiti; but after ten 
days' vain attempts to get to windward, we altered our 
course and gave up our design. We were in some measure 
consoled for this disappointment, however, when, on the 
morning of the 29th of July, we unexpectedly saw broken 
water and low land at a distance, and at first supposed it to 
be Starbuck's Island, though differing ftom the latitude laid 
down for that place *. We steered for it immediately; and 
about noon hove-to abreast of it. Mr. Maiden and some 
others immediately went in a boat to examine it. It ap- 
peared to be a low coral formation, about twelve or fourteen 
miles in extent, and having on it several clumps of thick 
fresh-looking trees, so compact, that at a distance they were 
taken for rocks : these clumps are useful in approaching the 
land, for it is in no place higher than forty feet. We found 
the landing easy ; but we were accompanied to the beach 
by shoals of sharks, which were so ravenously inclined that 

* This, as it will appear, was a mistake. The discoverer of the real Star- 
buck'*s Island was Starbuck, who conveyed the king of the Sandwich Islands to 
England. 



MALDEN'S ISLAND. 




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SANDWICH ISLANDS. 205 

they bit at the blades of the oars as they dipped into the 
water. On the shore, which was steep and shelving, we 
found shells of various kinds, such as chama gigas, cypraea 
argus, and others of the genus ; a very large turbo, inhabited 
by the hermit crab; a pecten; a nautUus; and several 
inuretes ; and traces of turtle were observable, though we 
did not see the animal. Large families of sea-birds had 
made their abode here. The frigate pelican seemed the 
most numerous, then, as we flatter ourselves, a new species, 
which we named Pelicanus Candida. These birds were act- 
ually sitting on their nests, containing two white eggs each, 
and scarcely noticed our approach. The red-tailed tropic-bird 
was also there ; and a procellaria, not unlike the Frocellaria 
Alba of Linnasus ; a tarn, which we have called Sterna Mai- 
densis ; a white tarn, differing but in a few points from 
Linnseus's Sterna Alba. These, with a small field- rat, a cop- 
per-coloured lizard, and a dragon-fly, were the only inha- 
bitants we found on the Island. Yet there are traces of 
human occupation, if not of habitation. Large square areas 
raised to the height of three feet above the ordinary sur- 
face are here and there to be seen, supported by blocks of 
wrought coral, and each having in the centre what we may 
call an altar or table-tomb. Captain Cook has mentioned 
similar edifices, if they may be called so, in some other 



206 VOYAGE TO THE 

uninhabited islands ; and they are not very dissimilar in form 
to places of worship fomid among the aborigines of South 
America. We named this island Maiden's Island, in ho- 
nour of the surveying officer: it lies in lat 4"" S. long. IBS'" 
W. There is fresh water in it 

Pursuing our way across the Pacific, we, on the 1st of 
August, made the real Starbuck's Island, on which we were 
not able to land, owing to a lee-current. Its appearance 
was still more uninviting than that of Maiden's Island, 
there not being even the trees to enliven the flat coral rock. 
It lies in lat. 5" 26' S, long. 155^50' W. 

On the 8th August, to our great surprise, land was de- 
scried from the mast-head ; and as we were uncertain, from 
its position, whether it was one of the islands discovered by 
Captain Cook, we bore up for it, and about 3 p. m. we were 
within two miles of the nearest point A heavy swell rolled 
towwds the land, and broke on a long chain of coral which 
appeared to surround the Island. Within, it appeared to be 
wooded, but our glasses were turned landwards in vain to 
discover either canoes or huts. At length, as we sailed 
slowly along the north-west side, we were suddenly gratified 
by the sight of a native emerging from the woods, and 
placing himself upon a rock, whence he continued to look 
steadfastly on the ship. A boat was immediately lowered. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 207 

and Mr. Maiden, mth a reconnoitring party, proceeded 
tow^ds the *.«, with strict injunction., however, to be 
very cautious in endeavouring to ascertain the disposition 
of the natives before he attempted to land among them. 
On our approaching the Island we attempted^ by signs^ to 
induce the man to swim off to the boat : this he naturally 
enough refused to do; but, from his gesticulations, we 
understood that, though there was no landing-place there^ 
yet on the other side of the Island we should find one. 
We then returned on board, and the ship stood off and on 
for the night Next morning we proceeded to the lee-side 
of the Island, and perceiving several canoes coming off to 
us, we lay-to about three miles off the shore. The first that 
reached us was a single man, whose costume soon convinced 
us that we were not the first visitors of this solitary place. 
He wore a straw hat, shaped like a common English hat ; 
and besides his maro or waist-cloth, he wore a doak of tapa, 
of the same form with the South American poncho. The 
language of this man seemed to bear some affinity to the 
Hawaiian, but not sufficient for any of our people to com- 
prehend him fully ; however, we made out that, the Island 
was called Mauti. While we were questioning our visitor, 
another canoe, of very singular construction, came along- 
side of us. Though double, like the war-canoes of the 



208 VOYAGE TO THE 

Sandwich Islands, its form is very different The prows 
and waists were two, but the stems united, so as to form 
but one, and this stem, curiously carved, was carried up in 
a curve to the height of six or seven feet above the water's 
edge. Two persons, who, by their dress and appearance, 
seemed to be of some importance, now stepped on board, 
and, to our great surprise, produced a written document 
from that branch of the London Missionary Society settled 
at Otaheite, qualifying them to act as native teachers in the 
Island of Mauti. They were very fine looking men, dressed 
in cotton shirts, doth jackets, and a sort of petticoat of very 
fine mat instead of trowsers. 

They were much astonished at every thing they saw 
on board the frigate, though it appeared they were not 
ignorant of the use of the guns and other things, but they 
evidently had never seen so large a vessel. The galley-fire 
and the players on wind instruments in the band seemed to 
surprise and delight them more than any thing. Our btead 
they ate after smelling to it ; but it is impossible to describe 
their faces of disgust on tasting wine. 

As soon as their curiosity was satisfied, we determined 
to avail ourselves of their local knowledge as guides, and to 
go ashore. We embarked in two boats, taking one of the 
missionaries in each ; but we found the surf on the beach so 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. g09 

violent, that we got into the natives' canoes, and trusted to 
their experience for taking us safely through : this they did 
with admirable dexterity, and our passage in the canoes 
convinced us that no boat of ours could have effected a 
landing. 

The coral bank at the landing-place extends fifty yards 
fi*om the land, at about two feet under water: when we 
reached it the natives carried us ashore on then- shoulders. 
When arrived, it appeared as if the whole male population 
had assembled to greet us ; the only two women, however, 
were the wives of the missionaries, decenUy clothed from 
head to foot. Each individual of this numerous assembly 
pressed forward to shake hands, and seemed unhappy till 
this sign of friendship had passed ; and this ceremony being 
over, they conducted us towards their habitations, which 
were about two miles inland. Our path lay through a 
thick shady wood, on the skirts of which, in a small open 
space on the left, two handsome canoes were building* 
They were each eighty feet long; the lower part, as usual, 
of a single tree, hollowed out with great skill. The road 
was rough over the fiagments of coral, but it wound agree- 
ably through the grove, which improved in beauty as we 
advanced, and at length, to our surprise and pleasure^ ter- 
minated in a beautiful green lawn, where there were two of 

£ E 



1 



210 VOYAGE TO THE 

the prettiest white-washed cottages imaginable, the dwellings 
of the missionaries, who are, as it appears, the diief per- 
sonages on the Island. 

The inside of their habitations corresponded with their 
exterior neatness. The floors were boarded : there were a 
sofa and some chairs of native workmanship : windows, with 
Venetian shutters, rendered the apartments cool and agree- 
able. The rooms were divided from each other by screens 
of tapa ; in one there was a bed of white tapa, and the floor 
was covered with coloured varnished tapa resembling oil- 
cloth. We were exceedingly struck with the appearance of 
elegance and cleanliness of all around us, as well as with 
the modest and decorous behaviour of the people, especially 
the women ; all of which formed a strong contrast with the 
habits of the common people of the Sandwich Islands : but 
this is a small community, easily inspected by its teachers, 
and having, as yet, had no intercourse from without, to dis- 
turb the efiects of their admonitions and example. 

After partaking of the refreshment offered us by om* 
hostess, which consisted of baked pig, bread-fruit, and yams, 
we accompanied the missionaries to their church. It stands 
on a rising ground, about four hundred yards from the cot- 
tages. A fence, composed of the trunks of cocoa-nut trees, 
surrounds the area in which it stands. Its form is oval, 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 211 

and the roof is supported by four pillars, which bear up the 
ridge. It is capable of containing two hundred persons. 
Two doors and twelve windows give it light and air : the 
pulpit and reading-desk are neatly carved and painted, with 
a variety of pretty designs ; and the benches for the people 
are arranged neatly round. Close to the church is the 
burying-place, which is a mound of earth covered with green- 
sward : and the whole has an air of modest simplicity which 
delighted no less than it surprised us. 

The history of Manti is short It is under the dominion 
of the king of Atui, the Wateeoo of Captain Cook. This king 
having been persuaded to relinquish his idolatrous worship 
and destroy his idols, accompanied two English missionaries 
in a small vessel, called the Endeavour, to this island. As 
soon as he approached, the diiefs and people immediately 
thronged out to meet and welcome him ; and on his going 
ashore, while they were yet assembled round him, he said — 
^ I am come to advise you to recdive the knowledge of the 
true Gk>d, because hitherto you liave been adoring senseless 
pieces of wood, the work of your own hands. I shall leave 
you a teacher to instruct you, and show you how you have 
hitherto been in error.'' 

He then gave orders for the destruction of the morais, 
and for the burning of the idols. Thus, in one day, and 

£ £ 2 



312 VOYAGE TO THE 

that the first in which a vessel firom the civilized world 
touched there, the superstitions of ages were overturned, 
and the knowledge of the true God brought among a docile 
and, generaUy speaking, innocent people. From the ac- 
«,«nt of the „i.««„arie. «« orient «^on «e»s t. have 
been the same with that of the Sandwich Islanders, 

On our return to the beach, one of the missionaries at- 
tended us. As we retraced our steps through the wood, 
the warbling of the birds, whose plumage was as rich as it 
was new to us — ^the various-tinted butterflies that fluttered 
across our path — the delicious climate— the magnificent 
forest-trees — and, above all, the perfect union and harmony \ 
existing among the natives — ^presented a succession of agree- 
able pictures which could not fail to delight us. 

The only weapons we observed among the inhabitants 
of Mauti were spears, of the same make and variety as in 
the other South Sea isles. They possessed few ornaments ; 
and those who had their ears bored stuck a small leaf, rolled 
up, in the orifice. The greater number wore straw hats, 
and were more clothed than in the adjacent islands. They 
were hospitable and kind to us; and we gave them some 
knives, scissors, fish-hooks, and printed cotton, with all of 
which they seem much delighted. Their number is con- 
sidered as amounting to between two and three hundred. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. glS 

Their food consists principally of bread-fruit and fish : they 
have, however, yams, cocoa-nuts, and plantains, the latter of 
which they preserve dry, in the same manner as is practised 
in Guzerat. They possess some tame goats, fowls, and 
abundance of pigs. We saw only one dog, and he appeared 
to be of European parentage. Bats, something larger than 
the common South-sea rat, abound ; but we found none of 
the lizards so common in the other South- sea isles. 

We saw a green dove, but could not get it : another of 
the same genus, extremely beautiful, which we named Co- 
lumba Byronensis. We also saw a fine duck, a species of 
scolopar; a blue and white heron; a hawk; a king-fisher 
peculiar, and called by us Alcedo Mautiensis; a starling, 
and some tarn and petrels. We were unable to procure 
any insects, but saw some very beautiful varieties of butter- 
fly, and flying-bugs and beetles. 

Our time on shore was so limited that we could only 
observe such plants as grew on our road, such as coco, pan- 
danus, bread-fruit, and some immense trees, of twenty-five 
feet in girth, unknown to us. 

The shore presented no great variety of shells : a few 
species of murex and cowrie, a trochus, a turbo, and a pa- 
tella, yellow in the inside, were all we found ; but it must 
be remembered that we saw only the spot where we landed, 
and that our visit was short and hurried. 



214 VOYAGE TO THE 

The whole Island seems to be of coral formation. We 
brought away two or three specimens of phosphate of lime ; 
and did not observe any thing else worthy of remark. 

As Mauti has not been laid down in any chart, or de- 
scribed by any navigator, we used the privilege of dis- 
coverers, and named it Parry's Island* It lies in 20' 8' 
south latitude, and 157** 20' of west longitude. 

On the 10th of August we gave up all hope of being 
able to reach Otaheite, as the south-east wind freshened to 
nearly a gale ; we therefore bore up for Valparaiso, and for 
twenty-one days averaged 205 miles a day. 

On the 11th and 12th of August, while the winds were 
unsettled, we observed two splendid meteors, one of which 
had the appearance of a ship blowing up. 

On the 4th of September we made Juan Fernandez, but 
passed it at the rate of eleven knots an hour. This Island 
can never be passed without interest. The real Alexander 
Selkirk, and Eobinson Crusoe, no less real to our imagina- 
tion, have thrown a romantic glory over its craggy summits 
and woody valleys, now left again to solitude, since the Chi- 
lian government found it expedient to break up the settle- 
ment, and remove the prisoners and convicts, who were not 
long ago its inhabitants. 

On Tuesday morning, the 6th of September, we descried, 
at the distance of ninety miles off shore^ the lofty summits 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 215 

\ 

of the Andes, and hailed with joy the appearance of a Chris- 
tian country. Six months had now elapsed since we had 
enjoyed civilised society, or heard news of our native land : 
we were all anxiety as to whether we should be able to 
reach Valparaiso Bay before dark. The water was smooth ; 
our noble ship bore us through it at the rate of eleven 
miles an hour, but still we lay-to outside the harbour all 
night, for it was too dark ere we reached the entrance to 
pick an anchorage. A boat wa^ however, sent in, and re- 
turned with letters and newspapers, and all that was to con- 
firm our fears and our hopes concerning that home which 
no one ever learns to value so highly as those who sail the 
trackless deep. We found here His Majesty's ships Cam- 
bridge, Briton, Mersey, and Tartar, the latter on the point 
of sailing for England. 

Early next morning we were agreeably surprised to find 
the appearance of Valparaiso something more like the pro- 
mise held out •by its name than when we left it. The 
winter rains had given it verdure and adorned it with the 
loveliest flowers, and the temperature of the air was de- 
licious. 

On the 2Sd the Cambridge, Briton, and Blonde sailed 
firom Valparaiso for Conception, for the purpose of pro- 
curing wood and coal, which are there to be obtained at 



gl6 VOYAGE TO THE 

an easy rate. As is usual, there was some boasting and 
some competition among the officers and crews of the 
three ships as to their respective rates of sailing : we flat- 
tered ourselves that the Blonde behaved best, and on the 
29th of September we entered the port of Talcahuana, 
one of the best harbours of this coast of South America. 
The entrance is protected by the Island Quinquina, and the 
bay, which is very capacious, is shut, out firom the north 
winds, which are the strongest and most dangerous that 
blow on this coast, and which, at some seasons, render Val- 
paraiso itself rather an insecure anchorage *. 

* The following description of the Bay of Conception, or, more properly, the 
port of Talcahuana, is translated from a curious work of Ulloa and his com- 
panion Don Jorge Juan, and suppressed by the Spanish Grovemment, which 
grudged the information it contained to the rest of the world. It is now pub- 
lished by Mr. Barry, whose critical knowledge of the language in which it is 
written, and perfect acquaintance with the country described, are only equalled 
by the generous love of science which has induced him to publish, at his own 
expense, the ^^ Noticias Skcbetas de America.^ 

<< The city of La Conception, also called by the ancient Indian name Pence, 
which is situated on the coast of Chile, in 3& 43' southern latitude, has so 
capacious a bay and such good anchorage, that the like b not to be found on 
the coast firom Terra Firma to 'Chile. It runs north and south fix>m the point 
of Quinquina to the bottom, for little less than diree leagues and a half, and 
east and west firom the port of Talcahuana to that of Cerillo Verde, near which 
the city stands f, three leagues, which breadth it preserves to the Island of 

f Conception was entirely destroyed by an earthquake shortly after Ulloa saw it It 
was rebaiU in a pleasant yale called Mochita, two leagues from Talcahuana, south of Rio 
San Pedro, and on the banks of the rapid Bio-bio. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 217 

The scenery of Talcahuana Bay is beautiful : high and 
steep hills, covered with wood from their summits to the 
water's edge, surround it, excepting where they leave room 



Quinquina, which, occupying part of the entrance, forms two mouths to the 
bay. That to the eastward is the principal one, by which ships of all burdens 
enter, and is two miles wide ; the western one, formed by the isle and the point 
of Talcahuana, is little less than half a league wide. The principal entrance 
to the bay has thirty fathoms water, which shoals gradually to the centre of 
the bay, where there are twelve fathoms, and that depth continues to within a 
mile of the shore fronting the entrance. Although the other passage appears 
so rocky that it would be thought impossible to enter by it, there b a channel 
which begins with thirty fathoms water, about a quarter of a league from the 
point of Talcahuana, and then shoals to eleven fathoms till you get into the 
bay. This channel is midway between the shores, and runs along by the shoals 
which run off fix>m the side of Talcahuana, and stretch to Quinquina, almost a 
quarter of a league in length. 

^^ Vessels may anchor in any part of the bay ; the ground is dean and holds 
well, being of clay. There are three ports which are fittest to anchor in. One 
called the Puerto Tom6 bears E.S.E. from the north point of Quinquina, op- 
posite to the Terra firma, where there are twelve fathoms water ; but this is 
used only to anchor in at night, in order to wait till day permits you to make 
for one of the others. 

<* The chief port in the bay b that of Talcahuana, which is an inlet lying 
S.S.E. from the southern point of Quinquina. And here it is that all vessels 
anchor ; and may do it with security, because there is good holding ground, and 
there is shelter against the north winds ; which is not the case in the port of 
Cerillo Verde, close to Conception, where ships are entirely exposed to the 
northerly gales, and suffer even from southerly winds, which blow freely across 
the low land on that side ; add to which, the bottom is of soft mud, so that the 
vessels often drag their anchors, and are exposed thereby to wreck, for which 
reasons the port of Cerillo Verde is little frequented ; only in mid«> winter a few 
ships go thither to load, as being near the town, but they do not stay long.^-* 
Noticicis Secretaa de America. 

F F 



218 VOYAGE TO THE 

for the little town of Talcahuana. This ccmsists of a small 
fort mounting two guns or thereabouts, a range of store- 
houses, and a few houses scarcely better than fishermen's 
cottages. The tongue of land on which the town stands is 
surprisingly beautiful, and put us in mind of park and forest 
scenery at home, mingled with com fields, and adorned with 
groups of trees, giving shelter to the cattle, while the noon- 
day sun is too hot in the open meadows. 

Two days after our arrival, the naval captains and the 
British consul resolved to visit the Intendente or governor 
of Penco, which is the Indian name, more commonly used 
on the spot than the Spanish title of La Concepcion. The 
town lies in a fine valley nine miles from the port. The 
first four miles of our road lay across a low, and in some 
places, marshy plain ; the rest of the way was through a 
woody and very picturesque country, till the pleasant vale 
of Mochita lay before us, where the town stands advan- 
tageously at the foot of some little hills. The majestic Bio 
Bio, the boundary of Araucana, flows past the city, and falls 
into the sea to the southward of the bay, fix)m which it is 
separated by the promontory of Talcahuana, and close to the 
harbour of San Vicente, whose entrance is known by the 
Paps of Bio Bio. 

As we approached the town a salute of 21 guns was fired 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 219 

from some field-pieces which had been drawn out to do 
honour to the English visitors. The guide sent to us by 
the Intendente led us through several streets, whose de- 
solate appearance told a melancholy tale of the ravages com- 
mitted in the late contests with the Spaniards, and also by 
those inveterate enemies of the European inhabitants, the 
Araucanian Indians. It was a feast-day, and crowds of 
well-dressed people were walking and standing about ; but 
they scarcely took from the air of utter desolateness of this 
ill-fated city, which has passed no less than six times from 
the hands of one party to those of another during the civil 
war. One half of it is totally ruined, and in the other 
long grass grows in the streets, and mantles the walls. The 
quick vegetation of the climate has partially covered the 
ruined houses with shrubs and creeping plants, hiding, in 
some measure, the deformity of a ruin, from which nothing 
has been safe, the churches themselves bearing the marks of 
violence. As usual in the Spanish colonies, all the streets of 
Conception are at right angles, each mass of houses being of 
exactly the same extent; the Plaza or public square oc- 
cupies the space of one of these masses ; it serves for mili- 
tary parade, and is usually the place where the courts of 
justice, the palace of government, and other public build- 
ings are situated. When we arrived there, we found a body 

F F 2 



220 VOYAGE TO THE 

of troops, who presented arms as we passed. We alighted 
at the palace, and were received by the Intendente and his 
staff, aU in full uniform. On entering the sala we were pre- 
sented to the wife of the Governor, and thought her the 
handsomest woman we had yet seen in Chile. 

Two of the most interesting of the persons who dined 
with the Intendente were the Araucanian chie& Venancio 
and Peneleo. The latter has a stem and sullen counte- 
nance, but Venancio appears kindly and good-humoured. 
It is a great happiness to the Chilian Gk)vernment that 
these two chiefs, whose influence over their countrymen is 
almost unbounded, should be in friendship with it. 

Some of us had never sat at a Chilian dinner before, and 
as this was a real feast, the full state of ancient hospitality 
was kept up — no less than ten courses succeeded one an- 
other, to each of which every guest was heartily pressed. 
Venancio seems to possess the true festive qualities, which 
his good-natured face promised : he ate of every dish, and 
drank between each. 

Towards the end of the dinner Captain Maling gave, as 
a brinda (toast or sentiment), " The health of the Araucanian 
chiefs, and may the friendship between them and the Chilians 
be strengthened by the friends of both, the English.'' This 
being interpreted to Peneleo, he rose and said, with an ani- 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 221 

mation we had not looked for from him, '^ That his country- 
men, the Araucanians, were but a poor and ignorant race 
of people ; but that he hoped the time had arrived, when for 
their improvement the EngUsh would, by their friendship 
and commerce, add to the liberty and prosperity of Chile and 
Araucana ; and he drank to the health of the King of the first 
Empire in the World, and concluded by Viva la Patria/' 

The party broke up at an earher hour than the hospitable 
Intendente wished, as it was necessary for the officers to re- 
turn to the ships ; but we \eh La Concepcion with promises 
of a speedy return, and a longer visit. 

Oct. 4. — H. M. S. Tartar joined the little squadron in 
Talcahuana Bay : and as we were now 300 men strong in 
marines, the commanding officer determined on landing and 
exercising them together. Due notice was of course given 
to the Intendente, who promised to attend our miniaturt 
review with a party of friends, and Venancio and Peneleo 
sent word they would come with a band of Indians, who for 
our gratification should go through their native warlike ex* 
ercises. The rumour of this intended spectacle soon spread 
in the neighbourhood, and many a careta and many a horse 
arrived the day before that we had fixed on, laden with fair 
Penquistas, anxious to see the new soldiers. At length the 
7th, the important day, arrived, as cloudless as such days 



222 VOYAGE TO THE 

should be^ and the company assembled in a fair plain, a little 
above Talcahuana. The marines landed about ten o'clock, 
and shortly afterwards Venancio and Peneleo, at the head 
of about two hundred men, arrived. They were as usual 
mounted, and advanced irregularly with a shrill war-hoop, 
brandishing their long lances : short drawers of skin or 
doth *, and iron spurs, formed the whole dress of the greater 
number, their ponchos being laid over their saddles. Their 
hair, which is black and coarse, covered their heads in wild 
masses ; their necks are thick and short, and their shoulders 
high ; so that they appear taller than they really are, and 
have altogether a fierce and savage appearance. Their 
horses were as ragged looking as themselves, but equally 
hardy and sure-footed. Many of the riders were armed with 
swords, and all had their native weapons, the long Indian 
lances. 

At the command of Venancio they went through their 
exercise. On a given signal they galloped off at once, bran- 
dishing their spears, and uttering the most discordant cries ; 
then stopped suddenly and drew up in a body, round which 
the chiefs galloped repeatedly ; then they dismounted, and 
advanced as if to charge on foot, beating time with their 
lances, and working themselves up by shouts and bowlings 

* Very coarse cloth, woven of the fine hemp of the country. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 228 

almost to frenzy. After this exhibition, our marines pelr- 
formed their evolutions, to the great delight both of the 
savage and the civilised spectators ; and, indeed, the whole 
scene was very interesting. The surrounding country was 
very beautiful ; our station, on a lawn on the promontory of 
Talcahuana, peculiarly so : groves, and detached groups of 
trees surrounded us, between which, on one hand, was the 
vale of the majestic Bio-Bio, whose broad waters were 
winding past the city, through rich woods and fields, at the 
foot of lofty mountains. On the other side lay the bay, in 
which the British ships, quietly at anchor, were dressed with 
flags in honour of the day. The fore-ground was filled with 
three very different races of men. The wild unconquered 
Araucanian Indians, the original possessors of the soil ; the 
native Chilians, sprung from the Indian owner, and the Spa- 
nish usurper, of the country ; and ourselves, whose presence 
here a century ago would have boded war in both hemi- 
spheres, but who are now the protectors of the peace, nay the 
very existence, of the country. Nor were the external dif- 
ferences of appearance less than the moral distinction of the 
three races. We were dressed in aU the modem European 
naval costume ; the Chilians in their broad hats, and hand- 
some striped ponchos ; and the Indians with little clothing 
beyond what decency requires : so that there wanted nothing 



224 VOYAGE TO THE 

to complete the picturesque in all the various groups that 
we formed. 

A few days after the review at Talcahuana, we went a 
second time to La Concepcion, where we remained two 
days ; and now we had an opportunity of seeing the women 
of Penco, of whose beauty we had heard great commenda- 
tions ; but we were disappointed in them, probably because 
they were very ill dressed. Having lost the simplicity of 
the Indian dress, which, by the by, can only be becoming 
in very early youth, and not having acquired the elegance 
of European art, they were certainly not seen to advantage. 
However they are good-humoured and afl&ble, have fine 
eyes and good teeth. The anteroom was filled with Tapa- 
das*, as is usual at Spanish South American balls. The 
grave minuets that still begin every ball here soon gave 
way to the Spanish country-dances, which are graceful and 
spirited ; and our evening went off very well. 

The next day Peneleo took us to visit the Indian quarters 
in the suburbs of the town. We called on Venancio, but 
found him asleep, and Peneleo did not think it advisable to 
wake him, but led us on to his own house, where we were 
introduced to his^ family, about fifteen in number, mostly 
women and children. Two of the young women were ex- 

* See Captain Hall. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 335 

tremely pretty, and their dress was very becoming; their 
long black hair was partly braided with beads round their 
foreheads, and hung partly down behind in plaits, rather 
whimsically ornamented with brass thimbles. Bound their 
waists a sort of petticoat was fastened by a broad belt of 
many-coloured stripes, and over their shoulders a woollen 
mantle was secured by a silver pin, with a flat top about 
three indies in diameter. 

These people appeared to be all very curious, and ex- 
amined every part of our dress, especially our pockets, which 
we construed into a hint, and obeyed it accordingly, by dis^ 
tributing among them what silver coin we had, to then: no 
small delight. 

And now having completed the business which brought 
us to Conception, tasted of such enjoyments as it could 
afford, and returned the civilities received, by a splendid 
entertainment on board the senior officer's ship, we left the 
port on the 12 th October, and made sail for Valparaiso, 
where we arrived on the 13th, at eight o'clock p.m., and re- 
mained until the fifth of December. We enjoyed ourselves 
there, riding, walking, and dancing ; but neither seeing nor 
doing any thing that has not been described a hundred 
times before : therefore we shall pass on to Coquimbo, where 

G G 



226 VOYAGE TO THE 

we arrived on the 5th of December, without further notice 
of our proceedings here. 

The harbour of Coquimbo is nearly land-locked, and 
safe from the north winds. There is good anchorage on 
fine black sand ^, and plenty of excellent water, there being 
two fine springs, besides the river of Coquimbo, all empty- 
ing themselves within the harbour. This is the principal 
port among those called the Intermedtos^ and from it there 
has always been exported excellent com, wine, and oil, for 
the northern states, besides copper sufficient for the supply 
of Peru. The town has been more than once destroyed by 
earthquakes ; and, to secure it from some of the fatal effects 
of these visitations, its site has been removed to nine miles 
inland, on the banks of the river. Its authorized name is La 
Serena, but, as usual, the native appellation is oftener used. 
As soon as the arrival of an English frigate was known in 
the neighbourhood, the guassos^ or native farmers, came down 
to the beach with horses to let at a dollar a head for the 
ride up to the town ; so that we were soon mounted : but 
truly the saddle is somewhat strange to an English rider, 
being a mass of sheepskins and cloths, one over another, 
placed upon a saddle-tree, which rests on a pad ; so that the 

* See Noticias Secretas de America. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 227 

machine which ought to be a mutual accommodation be- 
tween man and horse, is often a tonnent to both. The 
clumsy stirrups, however, which are neither more nor less 
than wooden boxes for the feet, each hollowed out of a 
simple block, are convenient for passing through the thorny 
forests, where they protect the feet admirably ; but they are 
strange looking things, and, added to the weight of the 
saddle, would be reckoned in En^and almost as burdensome 
to the horse as if he carried double. 

The first three or four miles leading from the village 
of fishing-huts and warehouses to La Serena, lies over a 
dreary track of sand, dotted with a few low shrubs ; but on 
approaching the town, the scenery improves into positive 
beauty. The white buildings are disposed on a gentle de- 
clivity, having on one side a bright sandy bay, and on the 
other a fertile valley, through which the river winds in many 
turns ere it reaches the sea. Among the houses, groves of 
olive, citron, palm, and fig-trees give freshness and shade; 
and, in the distance, the Andes present every form of moun- 
tain grandeur. 

A fiiend belonging to the Anglo-Chilian mining com- 
pany, to whom we had given a passage from Valparaiso^ frur- 
nished us with beds, and proposed to us, on the following 

G G 2 



228 VOYAGE TO THE 

morning, to visit the mines which lie at the foot of the Cor- 
dillera^ about forty miles from Coquimbo. 

The discovery of the rich silver mine of Arqueros, like 
that of many others, was, as it appears, entirely owing to 
accident. Two wood-carriers, samitering about in the neigh- 
bourhood, while their mules were grazing, picked up on the 
surface of the earth several lumps of stone having a metallic 
appearance. The compadre* of one of these men was a 
miner, and he therefore put two of the stones into his sack 
to show him, and thus determine their worth. The com- 
padre determined them at first sight to be native silver, and 
advised him to present a petition to the government, praying 
for a grant of such an extent of the vein as the Ordenanza 
de Minas allots to the first discoverers of a new mining dis- 
trict. The specimens picked up by the woodmen were 
Rodeados or rolled masses, and it was not difficult to trace 
the bed from whence they had been detached. They were 
so rich, that as soon as they were seen they excited an extra- 
ordinary avidity in all classes of people, and the town of Co- 
quimbo became in a manner deserted. Shopkeepers aban- 
doned their wares, physicians their patients, servants their 

* Compadre, the gossip^ a relationship always more observed in Catholic 
countries than with us, and especially in South America. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 229 

employers. All flocked to Arqueros, with that eagerness 
which the hopes of the precious metals have always excited ; 
every one petitioning for an Estaca or Pertinencia (200 
yards on the same vein), and taking his position according 
to priority in presenting the petition. Some veins far richer 
than the original one were soon found, and the general in- 
terest excited can scarcely be described. Up to the present 
time, 300 Estacas have been granted, and the veins may be 
said to spread over a space of not less than ten leagues. The 
Anglo-Chilian Association had their Cateadores, or searchers, 
and were so fortunate as to discover a vein, which, on being 
opened for a few feet, presented native silver in great abun- 
dance. This vein did not exhibit any metallic appearance 
on the surface, but gave other favourable indications, which 
the commissioners did not overlook. 

They removed Peons from their other veins to this, to 
the great amazement of the people of the country, who 
could not believe that metal would be found there ; but on 
seeing the vein prove so rich, their respect for the know- 
ledge of the Europeans was greatly increased, and with it 
also the expectation of riches in places which had hitherto 
escaped their less knowing searchers. 

We left La Serena early in the morning, and, descending 
into the valley, crossed the Coquimbo, now much swollen 



2S0 VOYAGE TO THE 

by the melted snows. The rivers of Chile are subject to 
two periodical floods in the year, occasioned by the winter 
rains in July and August, and the melting snow in November 
and December, when many of them become for a few days 
impassable. After a gentle ascent for about four miles, we 
came to an extensive plain covered with brushwood, and ren- 
dered disagreeable by the sharp loose stones which lie thickly 
scattered over it. The parallel roads, mentioned by Captain 
Hall, are very visible in the distance ; but, on approaching 
them, we found them to be only spaces disencumbered of 
shrubs, and strewed over with stones of all dimensions ; 
hence we had an extensive and beautiful view of the vale of 
Coquimbo to the sea. 

We now entered the mountain track, and nothing could 
be more monotonously horrid than the road. We went 
through dismal ravines for many miles, and experienced a 
feverish longing to be at our journey's end. At length we 
emerged from the sunken roads we had followed, and there 
a grand, though gloomy, prospect lay before us. Deep 
dreary valleys branched out in various directions beneath 
our feet, hemmed in by the gigantic Cordillera, in all the 
savage grandeur of total soUtude. 

At length, at five o'clock, we reached the mine. This 
is a broad mountain, over the face of which are scattered a 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. gSl 

number of small huts, surrounded by heaps of ores belonging 
to di^nt mining agents. Two or three of these assem. 
bled together on the mountain side, form the station of the 
Anglo-ChiUan miners : they are inhabited by two Germans, 
and the peons necessary for the labours of the mines. 

Our first care was to turn our horses out to pick up their 
well-earned supper among the herbs and shrubs that are but 
very thinly scattered over the surface of the mountain, and 
then, while our own repast was preparing, we descended 
into the mine, which is only carried twenty feet below the 
surface. To our inexperienced eyes the vein appeared ex- 
tremely rich, and we each brought away a few specimens. 

On our return to upper earth, we caroused as sailors are 
wont, after a ride of forty miles. The company, besides our 
own party, consiisted of several Chilian mine-owners, who^ 
after eating and drinking with us, were entertained like our- 
selves with the country songs, which one of our German 
friends sang and accompanied on his guitar, while the 
working miners sat round as spectators, apparently enjoying 
the scene. 

The next day we returned to La Serena, where we re- 
mained until the 13th, having, in the meantime, been most 
hospitably treated, especially by the Mining Company's 
agents, who gave a ball in honour of our visit to the place. 



2S2 VOYAGE TO THE 

We then took our final leave of the coast of Chile and its 
very friendly inhabitants. 

We had partly intended laying-to off Chiloe to ascertain 
the fate of the heroic Quintanilla, whose long and faithful 
maintaining of that island merits every praise that can be 
bestowed on the hero of a forlorn hope *. But the weather 
forbade our doing so, and we therefore proceeded on our 
way round Cape Horn, which we doubled on the 29th of 
December, and proceeded directly for St. Helena. 

On the 8th of January, being in lat. 42"" S., we passed 
several icebergs, nearly in the place where La Roche 
thought he saw an island; but we found no soundings 
with 1 80 fathoms of line, and therefore concluded that na- 
vigator had been mistaken, or deceived, as we had nearly 
been, by an iceberg. 

On the morning of the 23d of January we made St. 
Helena, the dark monument of the most conspicuous man 
that has arisen within the period of certain history. We 
were hospitably received and entertained by the governor. 
We gazed at the barren rocky circuit, and the smiling valleys 
of the island. We visited Longwood, and the cottage of 
the Bertrands, and the willows that overhang the grave of 

* Chiloe surrendered to the Chilian troops nearly about the same time that 
Rodil was compelled to give up Callaa 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 2SS 

the emperor of the French ; places where, if in any situa- 
tion, the fleetingness of fortune, the unstableness of power, 
and the nothingness of glory, are brought home to men's 
bosoms. The name of many a curious visitor is engraven 
on the walls of Napoleon's house ; and, mingled with these, 
there are lines of regret and of devotion, written in hands 
that show the writers to have been of that nation which he 
raised to its highest pitch of glory, and which, as it rose, so 
it sank with his fortunes. 

On the 28th of January we left St. Helena, and on the 
27th of February we crossed the line, where we experienced 
nearly three days of calm ; after which we continued our 
course, favoured by the north-east trade wind, until the 7th 
March, when one of those affecting incidents occurred which 
surpass in horrible interest all that invention has ever produced 
to move the sympathies of man. The morning was squally, 
but about noon it cleared up, and the ship's place was as- 
certained to be in lat. 44° 18' N. and long. 23** W, About 
4 o'clock p. M. a strange sail was reported, and though, from 
the haziness of the weather, she was but indistinctly seen, it 
was perceived that she was in distress. Our course was im- 
mediately altered, and we steered directly for her, being 
distant about nine miles. As we neared her, she proved 
to be in distress indeed: she was a complete wreck, and 

H H 



234 VOYAGE TO THE 

water-logged, but being laden with timber had not sunk. 
Her dismantled rigging indicated how severe had been her 
struggle with the elements. Her foremast was carried 
away, but part of her bowsprit and the stump of her main- 
topmast were still standing, and a topsail yard was crossed, 
to which a few shreds of canvas were stiU hanging. An 
English jack reversed was attached to the main rigging, and 
the mizen-mast was partly gone. The sea had cleared the 
decks of every thing. We all now felt the greatest anxiety 
to reach her. The evening was closing in, with every sign 
of an approaching gale. Thick squalls had already once or 
twice concealed from us the object of our pursuit ; but at 
length we came near enough to discern two human figures 
on the wreck, and, presently, four others came out from be- 
hind the remnants of a tattered sail, which hung from the 
main rigging, and which had, as it appeared, been their only 
shelter from the weather. 

It was late ere our boat reached the wreck, where she 
remained long ; and, as the weather was growing worse and 
the night dark, we fired a gun to hasten her return. No 
words can describe the wretched state of the poor creatures 
she brought when she did come. Two women and four men 
were sent up in the arms of the sailors, evidently sufiering 
in the last stage of &mine. They were immediately carried 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 285 

below, and supf^ed with small quantities of tea and bread, 
then stripped of their wretched clothmg, washed, and put 
to bed. 

Meantime the officer reported the condition in which he 
had found the wreck. It appeared to have been thirty-two 
days in the state in which we saw it, during which time most 
of the crew had died, and the rest had only preserved life by 
feeding on their late companions. When the officer went 
on board, the two women rushed towards him, kissed his 
hands, and hailed him as a deliverer. The men, stupefied 
as it appeared with suffering, scarcely spoke, but hastily 
gathering their tattered clothes round* them, hurried to- 
wards the boat. The master of the vessel, his wife, a female 
passenger, two middle-aged men, and one young man, were 
aU that survived of seventeen. One of the women, when 
brought on the Blenders deck, fell on her knees and ex- 
claimed — ^ Great God, where am I ? is it a dream ?" — ^but 
it was not until the next day that we heard the particulars 
of their sad story. 

As the night came on, it began to blow fresher and 
fresher, and ere morning the weather had, as we thought, 
been violent enough to have destroyed these poor creatures 
had they remained upon the vessel ; but as day advanced 
the wind again moderate and the master of the vessel, 

H H 2 



236 VOYAGE TO THE 

being somewhat recovered, gave the following account of 
the wreck. 

About the end of January, 1826, the ship Frances Mary, 
laden with timber, sailed from New Brunswick for Liver- 
pool. From the very begmning of her voyage she had expe- 
rienced tempestuous weather. On the 4th of February, the 
mam topmast having been carried away, she had become 
almost unmanageable, and they therefore cut away her fore- 
mast in order to bring her to the wind. Before that she 
had been scudding. While in the act of cutting away the 
mast, a heavy sea broke over her stern with a dreadful crash, 
forced in the cabin windows, unshipped her rudder, and in 
a moment left her a helpless wreck. Wave after wave now 
swept over her, and the crew and passengers took refuge 
in the maintop. One of the number, an elderly man, died 
that night: next day, the weather having moderated, the 
rest came down from the top, and endeavoured to get at 
some provisions, but nothing but a few pounds of biscuit 
could be obtained, notwithstanding every effort they could 
make, to hook up some of the stores from between the 
timbers. On the fourth day, to their great joy, they per- 
ceived a -sail bearing down towards them under American 
colours. She soon came within hail, and offered to take 
them on board, provided they could make a raft to go to 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 237 

her, but the sea was still running so high, that she was 
fearful of lowering a boat. The wretched sufferers had 
neither tools nor materials with which to construct a raft, 
even if they had retained strength to do it. However, this 
American staid by them two days, evidently anxious to assist 
them if possible. She was once separated from them by the 
violence of the gale ; but, on rejoining them, came so near 
that two of the people on the wreck proposed to swim to 
her, if she would then lend her boat to save the rest. The 
proposal was perhaps unheard — it was certainly unanswered ; 
and shortly afterwards the American bore up, and the 
wretched crew of the Frances Mary were once more left to 
their fate, amidst feeUngs to which no words can give a 
name. A few days afterwards their hopes were again raised 
only to be again disappointed, by the approach of another 
American vessel, under the same circumstances ; for she also, 
with a bare expression of pity, sailed away. Now the suf- 
ferers abandoned all hope of being saved. Ten days had 
elapsed since their ship became a wreck, and their scanty 
store of biscuit was exhausted. During this time, besides 
the evils of cold and hunger, they had had the discomfort 
of being frequently obliged to lash themselves to the re- 
maining rigging to save themselves from being washed over- 
board. But now famine laid hold of them. 



2S8 VOYAGE TO THE 

As their numbers thinned, each thought, but dared not 
yet speak, of one means of sustaining life. On this day, the 
tenth of their misery, they looked at each other as they were 
committing a body to the deep--4ind it appeared as if each 
had understood the look; but still another, an old man, 
died-and again they forbore. That same night, however, 
a boy expired, and famine forced them to the umiatural 
food. 

The women bore these complicated evils better than the 
men. The young passenger, in particular, did, as they all 
confessed, contribute most of all to save such as did survive. 
Engaged to marry the ship's steward on reaching England, 
she had the misery of seeing him expire before her-the 
stiU greater misery of reflecting, in after life, that the fren- 
zied love of existence that extreme famine is known to ex- 
cite, forced her, with her companions, to the horror of de- 
riving life from his death : yet she kept up the spirits of her 
companions ; she daily called upon them to pray with her ; 
she portioned out their unnatural food; and robbed their 
misery of half its horror, by her confidence in Providence, 
and her decency of conduct even in that wretched time. 

It is scarcely right, perhaps, to lay open such shocking 
tales of human misery as seem to degrade man, and display 
a state in which his animal cravings get the better of his 



SANDWICH ISLANDS. 339 

moral sense : we will, therefore, forbear to dwell on the far- 
ther particulars of this sad story. 

The patients all recovered ; and with their bodily strength 
their human feelings returned. At first they had seemed 
insensible to the horror of their tale, and had told it without 
hesitation ; but, as their powers returned, a strange revolu^ 
tion took place ; and they seemed not only horror-struck at 
the remembrance of what they had done, but at their own 
apathy in having told it too plainly : «and surely such feelings 
are to be respected » 

* The wreck of the Frances Mary had been seen by many vessels, and con* 
tinued to float in the place where His Majesty^s ship Blonde left it, until His 
Majesty^s ship Diamond, captain the right honourable Lord Napier, met with it 
on his passage from Brazil to Lisbon, in the summer of 18S6. As his voyage 
did not admit of the delay necessary to tow her into port with the frigate, his 
Lordship placed some volunteers on board of her, with orders to take her to 
St. Mary'^s in the Azores. This service was performed notwithstanding the 
extreme difficulty of managing any kind of vessel without a rudder ; and on 
His Majesty^s ship Diamond'^s return from Lisbon, the Frances Mary was at 
St. Mary^s, under the protection of the English consul. That gentleman had 
taken upon himself to fit her sufficiently to perform the voyage to England, be- 
cause the Portuguese local government had claimed her and her load of timber 
as a sort of heriot, notwithstanding that there were British officers and seamen 
on board. It is possible the claim had been made on pretence that the vessel 
had no regular papers on board : a pretence that has been urged more than 
once for detaining vessels, although with a British officer on board, by some of 
the national ships of Brazil and Portugal, where slave prizes have been made, 
and which has before now detained our officers in pri8on«-ships, and oppressed 
our seamen. The Frances Mary was, however, so far refitted under Lord 
Napier's orders, as to perform her voyage home with safety ; and thus most of 
her cargo was preserved. 



240 VOYAGE TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

At length, after an absence from home of seventeen 
months and fift;een days, we, with our pitiable guests, again 
anchored at Spithead on the 15th of March, 1826, with all 
the joy mariners are wont to feel on reaching their native 
land, and some of the self-importance that belongs to such 
as have successfully visited new or interesting countries, and 
feel they have something to teU when they return. 

Perhaps, in the present state of knowledge, there is little 
to relate that can be entirely new, unless a traveUer has been 
to the interior of Africa, or should happily advance to the 
Polar Sea. Our voyage can boast of nothing to compare 
with these in interest ; yet we have seen one nation rapidly 
emerging from a state of savage nature to one of civilization, 
and others rising by their own exertions to freedom. And 
we can at least boast that truth has guided us in our nar- 
rative, and that we have an honest desire, by imparting the 
little knowledge we have gained, to inspire such an interest 
in our late friends in the southern seas as may contribute to 
their improvement, and lead to the attainment of all the 
blessings of christian civilization. 



r 



APPENDIX. 



I I 



-. 



APPENDIX. 



No. I. 
Poem referred to at page 144. 

THE PASSAGE FROM KOOLAU TO HONORURU. 

A POPULAR SONG, 

BY KINO RIHO RIHO. 



KiHE Koolauy kihe ka ua Moelana 

I pukakele na hale o Kekele 

Ino ke ala nui makani o Nuwanu 

A Nuwanu i Malailua ka makani 

Nana aku i ka lau o ka Kaweru 

E mio ana i ka makani a ka holo 

Aliv a ka lau o keki ke kuikui me ka hau 

Puchu i ka ununu a ka waahila 

Hokiki na wahini noho anu i ke ala 

A ke alanui wai o ka hau komo 

Komo poho i ka lepo Kahuwailana 

Paoioi ka huakai hele i Rona 

Pahee hena i kaa-ana a ka hina 

Hina pulu ka apeope pulu me kahi tapa 

Hele wale iho no a ore maru 

Haere pu me ka ua i Rona 

Harawai me ka la i Leleoe. 

ii2 



244 APPENDIX. 

TRANSLATION. 

Koolali was offended with the rains o£ Moelana, 

■ 

While they defiled the entrance of Kekele's habitations, 

And roughened the stormy passage of Nuwanu. 

From Nuwanu to Malalua blows the wind ; 

Behold the blades of the nodding kaweru 

Waving in the flying gales of the passage ! 

While the leaves of the ti, the candle-tree, and the hau. 

Shake and bend, and yield to the strong blast, 

And are tost and driven by the whirl of the mountain storm. 

The goddesses • sit shivVing by the way-side. 

Along the flowing path of the Hau bower 

The travellers enter the pass — they sink in the mire. 

At Kahuwailana, the company going to Rona 

Slip- and totter, slide, stagger, and fall. 

Wet their packages, and drench their clothes ; 

They march on, naked and without a shelter : 

Accompanied by showers, they proceed to Rona ; 

They meet with the sun at Leleo^. 

* The stones at the bottom of the PaiT6. See p. 141. 



APPENDIX. 245 



No. II. 

THE PULE ANAnA, OR PRAYER OF INCANTATION. 

Febi-uary^S. — Returning from a walk this motning, I witnessed, 
for the first time, a rite of sorcery. My attention was attracted by 
a group of people near the path I was passing. On approaching it, 
though ignorant of the particular ceremony performing, I at once 
judged it to be idolatrous. A small mat was spread on the ground, 
on which were spread several pieces of tapa, a native cloth, and on those 
again two of the large leaves of the apt (one of the largest of the vege- 
table productions of the Islands— do not know its scientific name). 
These last seemed to have been prepared with special care; they 
were both of the same size j were placed the one directly above the 
other, both of the stems being split entirely up to the point of the 
leaves. They were carefully held together by a man kneeling at one 
end, while the priest or sorc^erer, kneeling at the other, repeated 
prayers over them. These, with two or three others who appeared 
engaged in the ceremony, were as solemn as the grave ; the rest of 
the company were light and trifiing, and some of them turned to me, 
and laughing at what they seemed to think the folly of their friends, 
said, ino, ino — bad» bad — -pupaka — foolish— rfeiefo— devilish ! On 
inquiring what it meant, they told me a pipe had been stolen from 
one of the men, and the incantation was making to discover the thief, 
and to pray him to deaths On reproving them for their superstition 
and wickedness, they became disconcerted, and the man holding the 
leaves made some unfortunate movement, which the man praying 
said had- destroyed the eflPect, and immediately ceased to pray. 

Perhaps there is no superstition more general and deep-rooted in 
the minds of this people than the belief that some have the power of 



246 APPENDIX. 

destroying the lives of others by their incantations and prayers. There 
is not a doubt that many yearly become victims to their credence in 
this device of darkness, which holds thousands in the bondage of cruel 
fears. A person gains the displeasure of one of these praying men — 
he is told that the kanaka a,nknk is exercising his power over him, and 
that he will die. He cannot shake off the dread of that which he be- 
lieves to be possible ; ' his imagination becomes filled with pictures of 
death — his spirits become a£Pected — ^his appetite fails — these, the na- 
tural consequences of his fears, are believed to be the effect of the 
sorcery of his enemy. Under this conviction, he takes no nourish- 
ment, pines, languishes, and dies; the victim of his own ignorance 
and superstition. This is no fiction, but a reality that is constantly 
occurring. 

' The less enlightened of the people think no one dies a natural 
death j every instance of mortality is assigned to the effect of poison 
administered by some foe, or to the more insidious, but, in their 
opinion, equally fiital influence of the pule an^^. 

Before a sorcerer can gain power over the life of a chief, he must 
possess himself of something that has belonged to the person of the 
chief, as spittle, or any ea^crementj an article of clothing, &c. &c. 
In this superstition we find the origin of the care taken of the spittle, 
&c. of a chief, which is always in charge of a confidential attendant. 
When a chief became unwell, or had any fear that one of the praying- 
men had obtained an article which had been worn by him, or had 
touched his person, he had immediate recourse to sacrifices to coun- 
teract the prayer against his life. The last instance of the kind 
occurred in October, 1824. According to the custom of disposing 
of the old clothes of the chiefs, the princess had several boxes of 
garments she had thrown by carried out from Lahaina and secretly 
buried in the sea. It was reported that one dress had been stolen 
with a design of praying her to death, from the power it would give 
the sorcerer over her life. The consequence was, that her ignorant 



/ 



APPENDIX. 247 

attendants prevailed on her to sacrifice to her old god^, to escape the 
evil. For this purpose she went to a village eight miles from La<» 
haina (which was said to be too much under the influence of Jehovah 
to secure success in the rite) under pretext of visiting her plantations 
in that neighbourhood, and sacrificed to the gods of her fathers. 
This is the last, and probably will remain the last sacrifice ever made 
in the islands by order of a high chief.— JFVom the Missionaries. 



248 APPENDIX. 



No. III. 

OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE SANDWICH 

ISLANDS } 

SELECTGD FROM THE PAPERS OF A, BLOXHAM, ESQ. 



OF BIRDS. 



There are very few of the hard-billed birds in the Sandwich 
Islands; but there are some species, probably peculiar to these 
Islands, which feed principally on the juicy flowers of the Eugenia 
Malacensis. 

From three different species of these birds the feathers are pro- 
cured which are used in making the war-helmets and cloaks, and the 
chaplets and other ornaments of the Sandwich Islanders. The yellow 
feathers are most rare, and are found upon a bird whose general colour 
is black, excepting a tuft of yellow feathers under each wing and the 
tail : these are given by the common people as tribute to the chiefs, ' 
and are now frequently so scarce, as to be sold at the rate of a dollar 
for five feathers. The bird from which the red feathers are procured 
is more common. 

These birds are caught with a strong bird-lime, made by boiling 
the milky juice which exudes from the bark of the bread-fruit tree. 
The bird-lime is spread on the branches of the Eugenia, where the 
birds come to feed, and they are thus taken without injuring their 
feathers *. 

* In the foUowing list the descriptions of most of the birds which have been de- 
scribed by former naturalists are omitted. 



APPENDIX. g49 



LIST OF BIRDS. 

1. Nectarina Coccinea ; native namCf Hehivi. 
Certhia Coccinia, Linn. 
One of the birds which furnishes feathers for cloaks, &c. : they 
build on the tops of trees. 

2. Nectarina Byronensis ; native name^ Apapani6. 
Fringilla Coccinea. Linn. 
Another of the birds whose feathers are used for cloaks. 

3. Nectarina Flava ; native name, Amakee. 
Length four and a half inches ; bill dark brown, slighUy curved, 
sharp-pointed, half an inch in length ; upper mandible rather longer 
than the lower ; nostril at the base covered with a hard membrane ; 
tongue tubular, divided at the extremity into minute threads or fila- 
ments ; neck, breast, and belly, yellow ; upper part a yellowish olive 
green ; quill feathers slightly edged with green ; the male bird of a 
deeper colour than the female j legs brown j toes three forwards and 
one backwards, the middle connected with the outer one as far as the 
first joint ; tail short, brown, feathers edged with yellowish green. 
Habits and food the same as 1 and 2. 

4. Nectarina Niger ; native name, Uho. 
Merops Niger. Gracula Longirostra* Linn. 
This is the bird whose yellow feathers are so highly prized, 

5. ; native name, Ohu, 

Loxia Psittacea. Linn. 
Parrot-billed Grosbeak. 

K K 



250 APPENDIX. 

6. ; native name^ Erepeio. 

Muscicapa Sandwichensis. Lirni. 
Sandwich Flycatcher. 

7. Fringilla Rufa ; native name^ Akepakepa. 

Length four inches and a quarter ; bill hard, straight, short, and 
conical; three-eighths of an inch in length, sharp-pointed; body 
rufous ; tail and wings brownish ; toes and legs strong, formed for 
perching ; black coloured tongue, short and tubular, divided into fila- 
ments at the end. 

8. Fringilla Sandwichensis ; native name^ 

A. Length, five inches ; whole of the back dull olive green ; 
greater and lesser wing coverts tipped with dirty white ; wings and 
tail brown, edged with green ; belly greenish white ; bill straight, 
sharp-pointed, half an inch long ; tongue bifid. 

B. Differing, in being of a much lighter colour. 

9. ; native name^ Amauii. 

Turdus Sandwichensis. lAnn. 
Sandwich thrush. 
Found chiefly in Hawaii. There is a variety of the same at 
Oahu. 

10. Strix Sandwichensis ; native name^ Puaho. 

Length thirteen inches. Mottled all over with dirty white and 
reddish brown. 

11. Corvus Tropicus. Linnceus. 

12. ; native name, Alai. 

Fulica Chloropus. Linn. 
Common Moor-hen. 



APPENDIX. 251 

13. Falica Atra. Litm. 
Common Bald-coot. 

^S l- Wild Geese and Ducks of a small size, 

Frequent the Islands in the winter season ; most probably from 
the north-west coast of America. 

16. The Phaeton ^thereus, or Tropic bird. 

Is very common in the Islands : the beautiful rose-coloured tail- 
feathers are highly esteemed by the natives, who pull them from the 
birds as they sit on their nests. 

17- The Sterna Stolida, or Noddy, is common. 

18. Sterna Oahuensis. 

Length twelve inches, spread of the wings twenty-six inches ; 
head, neck, and breast black; bill black, legs dark, wings black. 
Greater and less wing coverts striped with white ; belly, and under 
the wings, dusky white. Length of the bill one inch and three- 
quarters ; it is sharp-pointed and straight : nostrils linear, tail forked. 

19* Tringa Oahuensis ; native name, Kore^« 

Length nine inches, bill three-quarters of an inch, strong, 
straight, and sharp-pointed: colour black, nostrils linear, legs and 
toes of an orange red. Back and tail coverts pure white, a few 
feathers black ; tail black ; upper surface of the wings varied with 
black, brown, rufous, and white i crown of the head brown ; fore- 
head white, with a black line across it, which extends under each 
eye j a black line runs on each side from the base of the lower man- 
dible down to the neck, the space between being white ; part of the 
neck and breast black, the rest of the breast, the belly, and under 

kk2 



252 APPENDIX. 

wings pure whiter white feathers at the base of the great wing 
coverts, and at the scapulars. These birds are gregarious, 

20* Scolopax Solitaris. 

Length 11 inches; bill one inch and three-quarters in length, 
black, straight, and slender ; upper mandible slightly toothed at the 
end ; nostrils linear } tongue tubular. Whole of the upper plumage 
dark ash ; a white line extends on each side from the upper mandible 
to the eye. From the lower mandible to the neck is dusky white, 
below that a bright ash-colour ; from the breast to the tail a dusky 
white ; wings underneath a light ash ; legs yellowish ; tail short. 

21. ; native name, Uau. 

Procellaria Alba, Linn 
These birds are eaten by the natives, 

INSECTS. 

We met with only one Papilio, which Kotzebue has described 
under the name of Vanessa Tamehameha. 

We caught one Sphinx Moth ; brown, with a purple stripe on 
each side of its body, which glitters in the sun. 

There are also several minute moths, several varieties of Libellula, 
one species of Cicada, a black earwig, a wood spider, and innumerable 
fleas. 

There are no snakes of any description, and the only reptiles we 
found were two species of lizard, copper-coloured, and neither exceeding 
five or six inches in length. 

FISH. 

Sharks are common in these seas, as are also the boneto and the 
flying-fish. Both red and grey mullet abound, and there are several 
curious and beautiful varieties brought to market. 



APPENDIX. 253 

Of shell fish the pearl oyster is the most yaluable, and the pearls 
are generally good. We found, besides, the Bulla Amplustra, Buc- 
cinum Maculatum, Volutae Papalis and Episcopalis, Conus Ebroeus, 
Cypraea Arabica, C. Cameola, C. Guttata, C. Mauritiana, and C. Isa- 
bella ; also several varieties of Murex, Nerita, Patella, and Turbo. 

Corals and zoophytes are common on the coast. Of land shells 
we procured eleven different varieties, four of which had reversed 
mouths : they belong principally to the first division of the volute of 
Mawe's Linnsus, 

As to the quadrupeds of the Sandwich Islands, the three natives^ 
L e. the hog, dog, and rat, need no description ; those now introduced 
are the cow, horse, sheep, goat, rabbit, and mouse. 

In a geological point of view, the Sandwich Islands may generally 
be described as a group of volcanoes, rising amidst coral banks and 
reefs. The mountains are chiefiy composed of lavas and other vol- 
canic substances. The great crater of Peli, which we visited, appears 
to be situated in a trap rock. 

The low flat lands near the sea appear to have been coral reefs 
become dry ; there carbonate of lime is to be found, and calcareous 
masses of coral and shells, some completely petrified, others in dif- 
ferent stages, from the fresh shell towards petrifaction. 

In Oahu, amygdaloid and argillaceous porphyry are found. 



254 APPENDIX, 



No. IV. 

EXTRACT FROM LIEUTENANT MALDEN'S OFFICIAL 
ACCOUNT OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

His Majesty's ship Blonde remained moored in the port of Hido, 
now Byron Bay, a month, during which time an accurate survey of 
the anchorage was taken. The Blonde being the first man-oF-war that 
had ever been in it, it was named Byron Bay in honour of his Lord- 
ship. This name was readily received by the natives, and the powerful 
queen, Kahumanu, issued positive directions for it to be called by no 
other appellation. 

The western side of the bay runs nearly north and south about 
nine miles; the eastern, E.N.E. and W.S.W. about one-third that 
distance. The anchorage, in six or seven fathoms, stiff muddy bottom, 
is protected from the N.E., to which it is apparently open, by a coral 
reef half a mile in breadth, extending from the eastern point, in a 
W.N.W. direction, two-thirds across the bay, leaving a channel three 
quarters of a mile broad between it and the western shore, with ten 
and eleven fathoms in it. When the N.E. trade blows strong, which 
it frequently does, a heavy surf breaks upon the reef, but the water 
inside remains as smooth as a mill-pond. The anchorage is exposed 
to only one point of the compass, viz. from N. by W. to N., from which 
quarter the wind never blows hard in the summer, and but very rarely 
in the winter. An American missionary, who had been residing here 
two or three years, stated, that he had only witnessed one northerly 
gale, and that the sea occasioned by it would not have been felt by a 
frigate. The surrounding scenery is the most beautiful of the Sand- 
wich Islands ; every part is covered with verdure, and is in general 
thickly wooded ; but towards the sea-side the trees are detached in 
separate groups, giving the appearance of the artificial arrangement of 
an English park. Numerous rapid streams, hurrying down the deep 



APPENDIX. 055 

ravines, rush with prodigious force over stupendous precipices, forming 
the most magnificent waterfalls ; the sublimity of the scene is com- 
pleted by the tremendous Mowna Keah, which, rising in the back 
ground to the height of 17,000 feet above the level of the sea, pierces 
the clouds with its continually snow-clad summits. 

The cause of the exceeding fertility of the place is perhaps the 
only drawback to this delightful spot. In consequence of its vicinity 
to the immense Mowna Keah the rains are occasionally very heavy, 
a day and a night seldom elapsing without a smart shower ; so that 
if painting a ship be necessary, it can be better performed in Kara- 
kakoa bay. Provisions^ consisting of pigs, fowls, taros, plantains, 
bananas, arrow-root, yams, and sweet potatoes, are here to be found in 
abundance, and fire-wood may be had for the trouble of cutting. The 
watering-place is situated at the south-west extremity of the bay, 
where a small creek or inlet, about 150 feet wide, runs up about a 
cable's length ; at the entrance is a reef of coral with only seven feet 
water upon it. This in blowing weather would be impassable, as a 
heavy surf must break upon it. Inside this bar the water deepens to 
two, three, and sometimes five fathoms, quite up to the head of the 
creek, where a mountain torrent rushes down the ravine ; the boats 
get close up to it, and are soon loaded with the most delicious water 
without the trouble of moving a cask. As an exemplification of the 
facility with which the important service of watering may be here 
effected, it is only necessary to mention, that every drop of water in 
the Blonde's hold was started, and that she was completed to one 
hundred and thirty-eight tons in three days, with only the assistance 
of the launch and pinnace. 

At the south-east extremity of the bay another stream of fresh 
water runs into it ; but as this takes its rise from a fish-pond close in 
the neighbourhood, it is not fit for drinking ; but it is to be observed, 
that when the surf will not admit of a boat passing the bar at the en- 
trance of the waterfall creek, a landing in any weather may always be 



256 APPENDIX. 

effected here. The pond above mentioned is termed by the natives 
Waiakea ; it is royal property, and abounds with the most delicious 
mullet. During the stay of the Blonde in this port, the sea and land 
breezes succeeded each other regularly; the sea-breeze set in about 
ten in the forenoon and prevailed till sunset, when it was superseded 
by the land wind ; this continued till sunrise ; the remaining time 
was mostly calm. The tide was observed to rise about four feet, and 
to be high-water at sunset and low-water at daylight, being influenced 
by the sw and land-breezes. This regularity would probably not take 
place in the winter months, when they do not prevaiK 

In steering for the anchorage with the sea-breeze, when about 
three miles from the bottom of the bay, you will be outside the reef 
in twenty-five or thirty fttthoms. The west shore must then be kept 
close on board. The leading-marks for the channel, to clear the west 
end of the Blonde reef, are these : — Keep the huts on the west side 
of Waterfall Creek on with the eastern side of a remarkable green 
hill (an extinguished volcano), impossible to be mistaken, bearing by 
compass 'S.S.W. one-fourth W. till the turret Rock bears W. by S. 
one-half S. when you will be in seven or eight fathoms ; then steer 
S.E. for Cocoanut Island, and anchor in six or seven fathoms, stiff 
muddy bottom. The whole of the west coast is composed of cliSs ; 
the huts at the entrance of the creek may be recognized by their being 
situated upon the last and most southerly visible cliff. The turret 
rock is a singular little island, about a quarter of a mile to the north 
of the Waterfall Creek, and resembles the remains of the column of 
an edifice ; it is about fifteen feet high. When upon the west ex- 
treme of Blonde reef, in four fathoms, the abovementioned huts are 
in one with the western side of the green hill, bearing, by compass, 
S. SO"" W. ; and at the same time the centre of the same hill is on 
with the left of two very distant hummocks. These two last would 
be the best marks, but they are frequently obscured by the haze. 
When at the north extreme of the reef, a deep inlet (called Cocoanut 



APPENDIX. 257 

Cove, in consequence of there being a group of these trees at the en* 
trance) is quite open, bearing by compass W. by N., that is to say, 
you can see quite up to the head of it. As there are no dangers in 
the channel, and it is more than three-quarters of a mile wide, there 
is quite room enough to beat any vessel out against the sea-breeze, 
and which, if it be fresh and steady, is preferable to running out at 
daylight with the land wind. The land wind frequently leaves you 
in the lurch, and you are obliged to come to in deep water to pre- 
vent being driven upon the rocky cli£% of the west coast. Indeed, in 
turning out of the bay with a good strong sea breeze, as soon as a 
vessel is to windward of the reef, which may be known by the bearing 
of Cocoanut Cove, she should keep beating to windward in a N.E. or 
N^.E. by E. direction, not attempting, although a slant of wind should 
occur, to weather the northern point of the bay (Point Blonde) until 
it can be done with certainty, at the distance of five or six miles, at 
least } for, when three or four miles to the north of Cocoanut Cove, 
there is no bottom at fifty fathoms, although within half a mile of the 
shore ; so that should a vessel in this situation be becalmed her state 
would be most dangerous, a heavy swell and current constantly setting 
against the precipitous cliffs. 

The latitude of Cocoanut Island is . . Id"" 43' 51" N. 
Longitude east of Karakakoa ... 0° 52' 50" 
Variation of the compass . . . 8° 51' E. 

The remainder of the north coast of Hawaii presents no an- 
chorage whatever, being a bold rocky shore. ABter rounding the 
north-west point of the island, a temporary anchorage may be found 
in Towaihai bay, but it is not safe in the winter months, being en- 
tirely exposed to the north-west, and the bottom consisting of only 
loose sand, and in the summer there is no fresh water. When the 
other islands were unsubdued, Tamehameha used to make this his 
favourite residence, in consequence of its vicinity to the island of 

L L 



258 APPENDIX. 

Maui. At present it is nearly deserted, not having more than two 
hundred inhabitants ; among these is the celebrated John Young (an 
Englishman spoken of by Vancouver), v^ho presides as chief over 
this part of the island, at the advanced age of eighty-three years. 

Kairua, situated farther to the southward, is the present residence 
of Kuakini, alias John Adams, the governor of Hawaii. It was once 
celebrated for the largeness of its morai ; this is now converted into a 
fort of several guns, and the only remnants of its former purpose are 
three grotesque wooden idols, and the hut said to contain the body 
of the great Tamehameha. It is, however, well known that his bones 
are not there, having been, a few years ago, distributed among the 
different chiefs* Kairua is very populous for its size, and there is a 
greater degree of neatness displayed in the huts than in any other part 
of the Island. The governor has set the example by having a very 
good house, in the European style, built near the fort. There is no 
anchorage at Kairua for any thing bigger that a boat ; and, moreover, 
there is no fresh water to be obtained, that used by the natives being 
brought six miles from the interior. 

The latitude of Kairua is . . lO"" 3/ 20" N. 
Longitude west of Karakakoa . 5 31|'' 

Kanikakoa Bay has been so well described, that little remains to 
be said in the shape of nautical remark ; and whatever may be the 
feelings experienced upon visiting this interesting spot, so dear to the 
memory of every sailor, this is not the place to express them. It will 
be only necessary to observe, that it does not deserve, in any point, 
(the rain excepted) to be compared with Byron Bay. The anchorage 
is certainly not so secure, being entirely open from south to west ; 
the barrenness of the soil produces a scarcity of provisions, and the 
small quantity of water to be obtained is so brackish as not to be 
tolerated by those who have not been used to it from their childhood. 
Had Captains Cook and Vancouver been aware of the decided supe- 



] 



*.J 



APPENDIX. 259 

riority of Byron Bay, they never would have completed their water 
and provisions at Karakakoa ; still, as it has been before observed, 
the latter is the better place for painting a ship in. 

This part of the coast extending in a north and south direction, 
the bay is discoverable by its latitude 19° S8' N.> as well as by the im* 
mensely high cliff by which it is formed : there is nothing like it in thd 
vicinity. There are no dangers to be avoided : the best anchorage is 
nearly in the centre of the bay, in twenty-six fathoms, muddy bottom. 

The Island of Mowee, pronounced and written by the natives 
Maui, forms two very high peninsulas, joined by a narrow low sandy 
isthmus. There is no anchorage whatever on the north side the Island, 
and none that can be deemed safe on the south. His Majesty's ship 
Blonde anchored for twenty-four hours under the south-west point, at 
a place called Lahaina, but within a quarter of a mile of the breakers, 
in twelve fathoms, and entirely exposed to the south-west, which is the 
sea breeze quarter, in the summer season ; whilst in the winter, south- 
west gales, though rare, have been known to blow here with great vio- 
lence. Farther to the eastward, the isthmus forms the head of a deep 
bay, in which there is anchorage in six or seven fathoms, sandy bottom, 
open to the southward ; and from the northward the trade-wind blows 
across the narrow neck of sand, between the two high mountains, with 
such tremendous violence as to carry every thing before it. The spot 
was not visited by any of the officers : the above account was obtained 
from the natives. 

On the east and north sides of the Sandwich Islands the trade- 
wind is constant during the summer months, and blows strongest 
during the day-time, varying from east to north-east^ The south- 
west or lee sides of the Islands (although the land and sea breezes 
are pretty regular) are subject to lighl^ baffling winds and calms ; a 
vessel, therefore, to whichever islancl bound, should endeavour to get 
to windward as soon as possible. There is, perhaps, an exception to 
this in the passage between the other islands and Karakakoa Bay ; but 



L 



260 



APPENDIX. 



if bound to Karakdcoa from Byron Bay, the best way is decidedly 
round the nordi point of Hawaii, the trade-wind carrying the vessel 
as far as Towahai, leaving a small space only to be effected by taking 
advantage of the land and sea breezes. In the passage from Honoruru, 
Oahu, to Byron Bay, it seems advisable to beat directly to windward, 
between Morakai and Oahu, in preference to standing to the south- 
ward of Ranai and Tatoorowa, and passing between Maui and Hawaii. 



Places. 

Hawaii^ East Pointy 

*— Byron Bay^ Gocoanut Island^ 

North-west Point, 

North Point, 

Kairua, 

Oahu, Honoruru Pier, 
Diamond Point, 
Barber Point, 

Maui, East Point, 
West Point, 

Tahoorowa, East Point, 



Latitude. Long, from Karakakoa. V^'ariations. 



// 

19 43 51 N. 

20 11 

20 14 26 

19 37 20 

21 18 3 
21 14 53 
21 17 19 

20 44 40 
20 54 



// 



1 8 58 E. 
52 50 E. 









8 51 E. 



1 
3 
5 



45 E. 
15 E. 
31 4 W. 



1 56 5 W. 9 

1 53 10 W. 

2 10 24 W. 

2 40 W. 

47 52 W. 

34 9 W. 



52 E. 



Magnetic variation observed at Karakakoa, 



10 14iE. 



June 28, 1826. 



CHARLES ROBERT MALDEN, 

Lieutenant Royal Navy. 



THE END. 



LONDON : 

PRINTBD BY THOMAS DAVftON, WHIT2FRIAR9. 



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