Skip to main content

Full text of "The voyages of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, 1595 to 1606. Translated and edited by Sir Clements Markham"

See other formats




= 0) 
:OO 



! 

co 



'CO 






- EX LIBRIS 

GRIFFITH 
TAYLOR 





Society 




THE VOYAGES 

OF 

PEDRO FERNANDEZ DE QUIROS, 

1595 TO 1606. 




SECOND SERIES. 
No. XIV. 



THE VOYAGES 

OF 

PEDRO FERNANDEZ DE 
QUIROS, 

1595 TO 1606. 



attfc <&lrttei> 

BY 

SIR CLEMENTS MARKHAM, 

K.C.B., P.R.G.S. ; 

PRESIDENT OF THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. VOL. I. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY. 




G 



LONDON : 
PRINTKD AT THE BEDFORD PRESS, 2O AND 21, BEDFORDBURY, W.C. 




COUNCIL 



THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY. 



SIR CLEMENTS MARKHAM, K.C.B., F.R.S., Pres. R.G.S., President. 

THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD AMHERST OF HACKNEY, Vice-President. 

REAR-ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM WHARTON, K.C.B., F.R.S., Vice-President. 

COLONEL GEORGE EARL CHURCH. 

SIR WILLIAM MARTIN CONWAY. 

GEORGE WILLIAM FORREST, C.I.E. 

WILLIAM FOSTER, B.A. 

F. H. H. GUILLEMARD, M.A., M.D. 

THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD HAWKESBURY. 

EDWARD HEAWOOD, M.A. 

JOHN SCOTT KELTIE, LL.D. 

FREDERIC WILLIAM LUCAS. 

ADMIRAL SIR ALBERT HASTINGS MARKHAM, K.C.B. 

MOWBRAY MORRIS. 

COMMR. JOHN FRANKLIN PARRY, R.N. 

EDWARD JOHN PAYNE, M.A. 

ERNEST GEORGE RAVENSTEIN. 

ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET SIR F. W. RICHARDS, G.C.B. 

HENRY WILLIAM TRINDER. 

RICHARD STEPHEN WHITEWAY. 

BASIL H. SOULSBY, B.A., Honorary Secretary. 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME I. 

PAGE 

DEDICATION . . . . ... ix 

INTRODUCTION . . . . . xi 

NOTE ON THE CARTOGRAPHY OF THE SOUTHERN CON- 
TINENT. By B. H. SOULSBY . . xxxvii 



I. Narrative of the Second Voyage of the Adelantado 
Alvaro de Mendana, by the Chief Pilot Pedro Fer- 
nandez de Quiros . . . .3 

II. Narrative of the Voyage of the Adelantado Alvarez de 
Mendana de Niera for the Discovery of the Islands 
of Solomon, written by the Chief Pilot Pedro 
Fernandez de Quiros for Don Antonio de Morga, 
Lieutenant-General of the Philippines . . 149 

III. Narrative of the Voyage of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros 

in 1606, for the Discovery of the Austrial Regions . 261 



VOLUME II. 

IV. True Account of the Events of the Voyage that the 
Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quires made to the 
unknown Southern lands, by Caspar de Leza, Chief 
Pilot of the said Fleet . . ^. .321 

V. Torquemada's Account of the Voyage of Quiros . 407 

VI. Letter from Luis Vaez de Torres to the King of Spain . 455 

VII. Legends on the Four Maps signed by Diego de Prado y 

Tobar . . . 4 6 9 



viii CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX. 

PAGE 

I. Eighth Memorial of Quiros . . 477 

II. Memorial of Quiros, 1607 . . 4^7 

III. Memorial of Quiros, 1609 . . . 54 

IV. Memorial of Don Fernando de Castro, 1608 . . 508 

V. Letters from Diego de Prado y Tobar, 1613 . 5 11 

VI. Note on the Memorials of Quiros by the Council of the 

Indies, 1610 . . . , . . 514 

VII. Memorial touching Papers printed by Quiros, 1610 . 516 

VIII. Memorial by Juan Luis Arias . . . 517 



INDEX . . . . . - 537 



MAPS. 

i. Pianos de las Bahi'as descubiertas el ano de 1606, en las 
islas del Espiritu Santo y de Nueva Guinea y Dibujadas 
por D. Diego de Prado y Tovar en Igual Fecha (Soc. 
Geogr. de Madrid, 1878). . . In Pocket at the end. 

2. New Hebrides, Banks and Duff Groups, showing Discoveries 

of Quiros in 1606. G. Mackay del. . In Pocket at the end. 

3. Routes of Mendana, 1595 ; Quiros, 1606, and Torres, 1606. 

G. Mackay del. . . .In Pocket at the end. 



DEDICATION. 



TO 

COMMANDER ROBERT FALCON SCOTT, R.N., 

M.V.O., F.R.G.S. ; 

LEADER OF THE NATIONAL ANTARCTIC 
EXPEDITION, 1901 TO 1904! 

MY DEAR SCOTT, 

I dedicate this translation of the Voyages of 
Pedro Fernandez de Quiros to you, because the efforts 
and aspirations of the first navigator who ever conceived 
the idea of discovering the Antarctic continent cannot 
fail to have an interest for you who have actually made 
such great discoveries in the Far South ; as a tribute also 
of admiration for your great qualities as a leader, and 
of affectionate regard for yourself. 

Believe me to be ever, my dear Scott, 

Your attached friend and well-wisher, 

CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM. 



INTRODUCTION 




HE Council of the Hakluyt Society has 
decided that the volumes containing 
the narratives of the discovery of the 
Solomon Islands by Mendana shall be 
followed by a monograph on the two 
voyages of Quiros. In the first voyage 
he was Chief Pilot to Mendana ; the second and most 
famous voyage was under his own command. 

The best and most detailed narrative of both voyages 
is contained in a work which remained in manuscript until 
twenty-eight years ago, when it was edited and published 
at Madrid by Don Justo Zaragoza. It is entitled History 
of the Discovery of the A ustrial Regions, made by the General 
Pedro Fernandez de Quiros^ Two copies were known to 
be in existence : one in the private library of the King of 
Spain, the other in that of the Ministry of Marine. Both 
have erroneous titles, written by careless librarians. The 
narratives were evidently dictated by Quiros, or written 
from his notes ; but Serior Zaragoza gives reasons for the 
belief that the work, in its present form, was written by 
Luis de Belmonte Bermudez, a young man who was 
Secretary to Quiros during the voyage of 1606, and that 



1 Historia del descubrimiento de las regiones Austriales hecho 
por el General Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, publicada par Don Justo 
Zaragoza (3 vols. Madrid, 1876.) 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

it contains several passages for which the Secretary was 
alone responsible. Belmonte Bermudez remained faithful 
to Quiros in his adversity, and, after his master's death, 
he became a poet of some celebrity. Sefior Zaragoza 
quotes several passages which show the hand of a poet. 1 
There is also a quotation from the Araucana of Ercilla on 
unknown lands not yet revealed by God, to which is added 
another version by the young sailor-poet on those unknown 
lands now revealed by God. 2 

The author is mentioned twice in the narrative : once as 
being nearly drowned in landing on the island of Anaa 8 
("Conversion de San Pablo"), and again in the list of 
officials for the municipality of the city of New Jerusalem 
projected by Quiros. 4 The question of authorship is really 
settled by the poet himself, in a line of his poem entitled 
La Hispalica^ quoted by Zaragoza. Speaking of Quiros as 
his " Lusitanian master, the star of gallant Portuguese," he 
adds that, in recording the history of the voyage there 

was : 

"Want of a writer, which I supplied." 

The Hzstoria, as published by Zaragoza, is continuous in 
eighty-one chapters. It has been found more convenient 
to divide the translation into two parts : the first containing 
the second voyage of Mendana, and the second part being 
the story of the voyage of Quiros in 1606. 



1 One in the early part of the second voyage of Mendana, where he 
compares the importance and influence of small things to stars of 
unequal sizes (see p. 5) ; and other passages, though written in prose 
are really in verse, in the Spanish. Such is the passage describing 
the reappearance of the Almiranta after being out of sight (p. 192) ; 
the description of a visit made by natives to the Spanish ships (p. 210); 
and, again, when the Almiranta stood out to sea (p. 212). The 
description of Quiros on a bed of sickness at the mercy of his Pilots is 
really in verse in the Spanish (p. 280) ; and the reasons given by 
Quiros for not punishing mutineers may be those of the leader of the 
expedition, but the words are certainly those of his poetical Secretary. 

2 See p. 262. 3 See pp. 200 and 418. 
4 See pp. 254 and 383. 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

The present volume commences with the first part of 
the History of the Discovery of the Austrial Regions. It 
describes the second voyage of Mendana in much detail, 
including the discovery of the Marquesas Islands and of 
the island of Santa Cruz, the death of Mendana, and the 
terrible passage from Santa Cruz to Manilla. It is certainly 
a most extraordinary story. 

In the work entitled Hechos del Marques de Cafiete, a life 
of one of the Viceroys of Peru, by Cristoval Suarez de 
Figueroa, 1 Book VI contains an abbreviated version of the 
narrative in the Historia^ generally copied word for word. 
Numerous details are omitted, particularly such as are 
derogatory to the Spanish character. There are also a few 
passages which are not in the Historia, but none having 
any bearing on the events of the voyage. Suarez de 
Figueroa tells us that he had the narrative of Quiros before 
him as he wrote. For these reasons I have considered it 
unnecessary to translate the version of Suarez de Figueroa, 
as it is merely a mutilated version of the narrative in the 
Historia. The account in the work of Suarez de Figueroa 
was the only version of the second voyage of Mendana 
that was known to our historians of Pacific voyages, 
Dalrymple and Burney. 

There is a short report of the second voyage of Mendana, 
to Antonio de Morga, the Governor of the Philippines, 
by Quiros himself. It was translated and printed by Lord 
Stanley of Alderley, in his edition of the work of Antonio 
de Morga (Hakluyt Society, 1 868). I have caused it to be 
reprinted in this volume, in order to make the monograph 
of Quiros complete. 

For the voyage of Quiros in 1606, when he discovered 



1 I have given an account of Suarez de Figueroa and of his works 
in a footnote to my translation of the Spanish account of the capture 
of Sir Richard Hawkins, also taken from the Hechos del Marques de 
Canete. 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

the Duff and Banks groups of islands, and the New 
Hebrides, there are no less than four separate accounts. 

The first, and by far the most important, forms the 
second part of the Historia del descubrimiento de las 
regiones Austriales, by Belmonte Bermudez. It contains 
the full narrative, the speeches and reflections of Quiros, as 
recorded by his Secretary, and the remarks of the poet 
himself. The royal orders, the curious and interesting 
instructions of Quiros to his Captains, the act of possession 
and other strange proceedings at Espiritu Santo, the half- 
allegorical will of Quiros, and other documents, are 
included. 

The second narrative is by Caspar Gonzalez de Leza, 
the Chief Pilot of the Capitana with Quiros. For the most 
part it is merely a log, with courses, distances run, winds, 
and latitudes for each day, with occasional calculations of 
the distance from Callao. But it also contains accounts of 
the visits to the newly-discovered islands, and some remarks 
of interest, which may be compared with the same events 
described by Quiros, and in the work of Torquemada. The 
manuscript is in the Royal Library at Madrid (J. 2) ; and 
Lord Stanley of Alderley quoted largely from it, in 
annotating the letter of Torres. But it was first printed 
by Zaragoza. 

The third narrative is contained in the Monarquia 
Indiana, a work on Mexico first published in 1614, by the 
Franciscan Friar, Juan de Torquemada, who was Provincial 
of the Order in Mexico in that year (vol. i, pp. 738 to 756 
the second edition, 1723) (Lib. V, caps. Ixiv to Ixix). 
Torquemada was at Mexico when Quiros and his com- 
panions landed at Acapulco, and came up to the capital in 
the end of 1606. He must have known and conversed both 
with Quiros and with some of his crew. He thus obtained 
his information at first hand, and was able to write an 
authentic account of the voyage. Torquemada's style is 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

more polished and flowing than those of the sailors, or 
even of the young poet, who relate the events of the same 
voyage. 1 

The fourth narrative is contained in a letter from the 
second in command, Luis Vaez de Torres, to the King. 
This letter briefly describes the whole voyage ; but it is 
specially interesting when it relates the events after parting 
company with Quiros. For Torres, on his voyage from 
Espiritu Santo to Ternate, was the discoverer of the strait 
which bears his name. Dalrymple obtained a copy of the 
letter of Torres, and translated it. This translation was, 
with the permission of Dalrymple, first published by 
Burney. Mr. Major reprinted it in his volume of Early 
Voyages to Australia (Hakluyt Soc., 1859). Lord Stanley 
of Alderley found another copy in the National Library at 
Madrid (J. 2), and translated it as Appendix VI of his 
edition of the work on the Philippines, by Antonio de 
Morga (p. 402, Hakluyt Soc., 1868). This is a copy of a 
document mentioned by Navarrete as existing at Simancas. 
Ever loyal to his chief, though disapproving of his conduct 
of the expedition, Torres wrote another letter to Quiros. 



1 Quiros was devoted to the Franciscans, and had several in his 
fleet. Torquemada was Provincial of the Order in Mexico. At a 
later date, two historians of the Order of St. Francis in Peru gave 
accounts of the voyage, quoting from Torquemada, and without 
any other original sources of information. One was Fray Antonio 
Daza, who wrote Cronica General de la Or den de San Francisco. The 
other is a folio with double columns : Cronica de la religiosissima 
provincia de la Orden de San Francisco de la regular observancia 
compuesta por el R.P. Fray Diego de Cordova, Salinas (1651). This 
work is very rare. There is no copy in the British Museum. There 
was one in the Library at Lima. Cordova gives a brief account of the 
voyage of Quiros, copying from Torquemada. Neither of these 
Franciscan historians, writing in Peru many years afterwards, are of 
any authority on the voyage of Quiros beyond what they derive from 
Torquemada. Daza, however, gives the Act of Possession at Espiritu 
Santo, which is not quoted in full by Torquemada (see p. 444). Antonio 
de Ulloa, in his Resumen, quotes from Cordova respecting an island 
discovered in 28 S. by Quiros, but the quotation is not correct. It is 
referred to by Mr. Major in his Early Voyages to Australia, p. Ixxii. 
Mr. Major had never seen the work of Cordova. 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

The letter of Torres has such an important bearing on the 
voyage of Quiros, that I have considered it indispensable 
to include it in the present volumes. 

The Memorials of Quiros, and other documents in the 
Appendix, will be described further on. They complete 
the materials for a monograph of the famous navigator's 
work and life. 

I now propose to state all that I have been able to 
ascertain respecting his life ; and to discuss his character, 
his attainments, his views and aspirations, and the position 
his voyages occupy in the history of maritime dis- 
covery. 

Pedro Fernandez de Quiros was born at Evora 1 , in 
Portugal, in 1 565, the year before Mendaila sailed on his first 
voyage. The ill-fated Don Sebastian was then King of 
Portugal. His uncle, the Cardinal Henry, became King in 
1578; but in 1580 Philip II, the Cardinal's nephew, suc- 
ceeded as King of Portugal, as well as of Spain. Quiros, 
though a Portuguese, then became a subject of the King of 
Spain, his age being fifteen. We are told, though an enemy 
is our informant, 2 that young Quiros was brought up in 
the " Rua nova," then a disreputable part of Lisbon, and 
that he was a clerk or supercargo in merchant ships. This 
may or may not be true. He certainly became a good 
sailor, and an accomplished pilot. 

In 1589, when he had reached his twenty-fourth year, he 
had probably been several years at sea. He then married 
Dona Ana Chacon, of Madrid, daughter of the licentiate 
Juan Quevedo de Miranda, by Ana Chacon de Miranda. 
She was a year his senior. A son, named Francisco, was 
born to them in 1590, and they must then have gone 
to Peru ; for their daughter Jeronima was born some 

1 See Antonio (Nic.), Bibliotheca Hispana vetus et nova, sive His- 
panicorum scriptorum. 

2 Diego de Prado y Tobar (see p. 513). 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

months after Quiros sailed from Peru with Mendana in 
I595- 1 

Quiros was thirty years of age when he accepted the 
post of Chief Pilot in the ship of Alvaro de Mendana, who 
had received a concession to colonise the Solomon Islands, 
which he had discovered thirty years before. Quiros joined 
this expedition with some misgivings, caused by the 
quarrelsome character of the Camp Master, the want of 
order and discipline, and the position assumed by the 
Commander's wife and her brothers. Mendana was more 
than twenty years older than Quiros. The Pilot's posi- 
tion was one of some difficulty : for while on one side 
he had to exercise tact in his intercourse with the family 
clique, on the other he found it difficult to avoid friction 
with a most impracticable and quarrelsome old soldier who 
was Camp Master, and who had a feud with the brothers-in- 
law of Mendana, which continued to increase in bitterness. 
The expedition culminated at the island of Santa Cruz, a 
new discovery, with the slaughter of the old Camp Master, 
the deaths of Mendana and his brother-in-law Don Lorenzo, 
the succession of the widow, Dona Isabel, to the command 
of the expedition, and the disastrous voyage to Manilla. 

Through all this intrigue and violence the Chief Pilot 
steered his course with prudence and caution. He was a 
reliable seaman, and was constantly consulted. He appears, 
from his own account, to have been a peacemaker, to have 
avoided quarrels, and to have had some influence. He 
was, however, a great talker. The widow did not like 
him, but she was obliged to rely upon him entirely. Her 
brothers were useless. Quiros stood between the widow's 

1 These particulars are gathered from the information given and 
recorded, when Quiros and his family sailed for Peru in 1615. "In- 
formaciones presentados por el Capitan Pedro Fernandez de Quiros 
para paser a las Indias con su mujer y hijos, en la casa de contratacion 
de Sevilla, 24 Marzo, 1615" (Archivo de Indias\ referred to by 
Zaragoza, vol. iii, p. 79 (). Marriage and ages of wife and children 
are given. 

b 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

selfish parsimony and a crew on the verge of mutiny from 
misery and starvation. He brought a sinking ship, with 
rotten spars and rigging, safely over an unknown sea from 
Santa Cruz to Manilla. 

It was during this voyage, and while gaining experience 
in the navigation of the Pacific Ocean and the treatment 
of natives, that Quiros conceived his grand project. He 
was a cartographer, and, in studying existing maps, he saw 
a great Southern continent extending across the ocean, 
from the Strait of Magellan to New Guinea. He thought 
that here was a discovery as famous as had been made 
by Columbus or Da Gama. He thought that here was 
not only a great continent extending to the South Pole 
to be added to the dominions of his sovereign, but 
millions of souls to be saved and brought within the 
fold of the Church. He devoted his life to the realisation 
of this glorious dream with unswerving devotion, never 
turning aside to the right hand or to the left ; undaunted 
by difficulties or wearisome delays to his dying day ; 
literally killed by Councils and Committees ; but suc- 
cumbing only with his last breath. He became a man 
with one idea. Alas ! he was but a dreamer. 

It was a dream. The heroic days of Spain and Portugal 
were passed and gone. Quiros was the last of the long 
and glorious roll of great Spanish navigators. He spoke, 
if not to stone-deaf ears, to fast-deafening ears. The 
Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco, 1 at Lima, to whom Quiros 



1 Don Luis de Velasco, Viceroy of Peru from 1596 to 1604, was the 
son of a distinguished father of the same names, of the family of the 
Constables of Castille. The father was the second Viceroy of Mexico. 
He sent an expedition to Florida, and another to the Philippines under 
Miguel Lopez de Legaspd. The elder Don Luis died at Mexico, 
where his son was born in 1555. The younger Don Luis de Velasco 
was Governor of Cempoala, and proceeding to Spain, was appointed 
by Philip II Ambassador at Florence. In 1590 he became Viceroy 
of Mexico, and in 1595 Viceroy of Peru. In January, 1604, he 
returned to Mexico, and lived there privately for three years. He was 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

first explained his project, would take no responsibility, 
and referred him to the Court of Spain and its Councils of 
State and of the Indies. It was a happy inspiration which 
led Quiros to go first to Rome, and interest the Pope in 
the conversion of millions of Antarctic souls ; for nothing 
was more likely to induce the Spanish Government to 
move in the matter than a strong recommendation, which 
would be looked upon almost as a command, from the 
Supreme Pontiff. Quiros was himself a very religious 
man, deeply imbued with the superstitions of his time 
and nation. 

When Quiros arrived at Rome, the Duke of Sesa, a 
descendant of the Great Captain, was Spanish Ambas- 
sador. The Pope was a scion of the noble Roman family 
of Aldobrandini, and had succeeded, as Clement VIII, in 
1592. 

The Duke of Sesa received Quiros well on his arrival at 
Rome, made him a member of his household, and was so 
much interested in his project that he assembled all the 
most eminent astronomers and geographers in the Eternal 
City to examine and report to him upon it. Among these 
experts there was a mathematician of the first rank. 
Christopher Clavio was born at Bamberg in 1537, and 
taught mathematics at Rome for twenty years. He cor- 
rected the calendar for Gregory XIII, and published his 
Calendarii Romani Gregoriani Explicatio in 1603. He had 
previously been the author of a work entitled Gnomonices, 
and of an edition of Euclid. The other advisers of the 
Duke were Dr. Mesa and Dr. Toribio Perez, who had been 
Professors of Geography at Salamanca, and a learned 
Jesuit named Villalpando. 

The authority of Clavio cannot be gainsaid. He found 

appointed Viceroy of Mexico a second time in 1607, and was created 
Marquis of Salinas. In 1611 he became President of the Council of 
the Indies, serving in that post until his death in 1616. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

Quiros to be an accomplished Pilot and cartographer, and 
the inventor cr improver of two nautical instruments. 
The Duke of Sesa was satisfied by Clavio and the other 
experts of the capacity of Quiros as a navigator, and of 
the importance of his project. He, therefore, introduced 
him to the Pope, and both Clement VIII and the Duke 
gave him letters of recommendation to the Spanish 
Government. 

Philip III had succeeded his father in 1598 as King of 
Spain and Portugal. He found the country utterly ruined, 
and commerce nearly dead. Yet he continued the same 
fatal policy. He confided the management of affairs to 
the Duke of Lerma, a man well known to readers of 
Gil Bias, and the extravagance of the Court helped 
to lead Spain downwards on the road to decadence and 
ruin. 

Quiros arrived at Madrid with his credentials in the 
spring of 1602, and had interviews with Philip III, and 
with his Minister, the Duke of Lerma. The Pope's 
influence secured his success. Within a year he had 
obtained a royal order, through the Council of State, 
addressed to the Viceroy of Peru, instructing that dignitary 
to fit out two ships at Callao, to enable Quiros to under- 
take an expedition for the discovery of the Antarctic 
continent. 

Quiros sailed for Peru in the summer of 1603. He seems 
to have left his family in Spain. He was shipwrecked near 
the Island of Curagoa, in the West Indies, and had to pass 
some time at Caraccas. Here he found the orphan children 
of a brother, of whom he had not heard for many years, 
living with their maternal grandfather : two boys and a 
girl. He thought it right to take the two nephews with 
him, leaving the niece with her grandfather. One of the 
nephews is not heard of again. The other, Lucas de 
Quiros, was his uncle's companion in the voyage of 1606. 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

He was Royal Ensign for the ceremonies at Espiritu 
Santo. He is afterwards heard of as a rising cartographer 
at Lima. 1 

Quiros arrived at Lima quite destitute, owing to the 
refusal of the royal officials on the route to give him any 
pecuniary assistance, although they had positive orders to 
do so. He found shelter in the house of a potter ; and it 
was some days before he could get an audience of the 
Count of Monterey, 2 who was then Viceroy of Peru. 
Eventually, the Viceroy recognised the necessity for 
carrying out the royal orders. Vessels were tardily bought 
and fitted out at Callao, for the expedition of Quiros, in the 
last months of 1605. There were two ships and a zabra> 
or launch. The ship chosen for Quiros was called the 
Capitana, and named San Pedro y San Pablo. She was 
150 tons. The other ship was called the Almiranta, arid 
named the San Pedro, 120 tons. Her Captain was known 
as the Admiral, the title of a second in command in those 
days. Both ships were built on the west coast, probably at 
Guayaquil. They carried one hundred and thirty men and 
six friars. The launch was named Los Tres Reyes. 

Luis Vaez de Torres, the Admiral or second in command 
under Quiros, was a good sailor and pilot, an energetic and 
capable leader, and loyal to his chief. He commanded all 
the landing parties, and relieved Quiros of much anxiety 
and trouble. His Chief Pilot in the Almiranta, Juan 
Bernardo de Fuentiduefia, and Pedro Bernal de Cermeno, 



1 Area de Noe, por El Capitan de navio Cesario Fernandez Duro 
(Madrid, 1881), p. 560. Lucas de Quiros drew a map of the western 
side of South America, from Cartagena to Magellan's Strait, under the 
auspices of the Prince of Esquilache, Viceroy of Peru. Lucas is called 
on it " Cosmografo del Peru." The map is drawn on parchment. 
See also J. de la Espada, Relation Geografica, p. cxl. 

2 Don Caspar de Zufiiga y Azevedo, Count of Monterey, had been 
Viceroy of Mexico from 1595 to 1603, and was transferred to Peru to 
succeed Don Luis de Velasco. He arrived at Lima in very bad 
health. 



XX11 INTRODUCTION. 

in command of the launch, were loyal and capable men. 
The junior Pilot in the Capitana, Caspar Gonzalez de 
Leza, afterwards Chief Pilot, was also a reliable officer. 
Quiros had a cousin with him, one Alonso Alvarez de 
Castro, as well as a nephew, Lucas de Quiros. But his 
most faithful and devoted friend was young Luis de 
Belmonte Bermudez. Born at Seville in about 1585, this 
youth had gone out to seek his fortune, first in Mexico and 
then at Lima. Fired by the stories told him of the 
Araucanian war in distant Chile, he composed a panegyric 
on the youthful deeds of the Marquis of Canete, the first 
product of his muse. When Quiros was fitting out his 
expedition, Belmonte Bermudez accepted the post of Sec- 
retary, taking with him the "Araucana," that noble epic of 
the soldier-poet, Alonso de Ercilla. 

But Quiros also had in his ship men of a very different 
stamp. Among them was a Chief Pilot named Juan Ochoa 
de Bilboa, who had been forced upon him as a protege of 
the Viceroy; 1 another officer named Diego de Prado y 
Tovar; and the accountant, Juan de Iturbe. They stirred 
up mutiny and disaffection on board. 

Quiros complained bitterly of the delay in fitting out the 
expedition, which obliged him to sail so late in the year. 
He considered that he should have sailed not later than 
St. Francis, or the 4th of October. He did not obtain his 
despatch until the 2ist of December. 

Quiros was now free to attempt the realisation of his 
dream, the discovery of the Antarctic continent and the 
annexation of the South Pole. All was left to his dis- 
cretion. There is no reason for the belief that the Viceroy 
of Peru gave any instructions beyond the letter of farewell 
which was read to the men. The plan of Quiros was to 



1 He had been Pilot of the ship which brought the Count of 
Monterey from Acapulco to Callao. 



INTRODUCTION. xxili 

IV U/* 

steer j#.S.#. from Callao until he reached latitude 30 S., 1 
where he fully expected that he would have reached the 
continental southern land shown on the maps of his time. 
He continued on this course from December 2ist to 
January 26th, when he found himself in 26 S. 

.Then Ouiros came to the fatal decision to alter course 
tol^.NX. He says in his narrative that there was a heavy 
swell, and that he was obliged by the force of the wind 
and the sea to alter his course. He adds, in one of his 
memorials, that winter was approaching, that there was a 
mutinous spirit among his crew, and that he was ill in bed. 
Torres remonstrated. He wrote : " I gave a declaration 
under my hand that it was not a thing obvious that we 
ought to diminish our latitude till we got beyond 30 S." 
If Quiros had continued on his course, he would have 
discovered New Zealand, and his dream would have been 
partly realised. 

Having turned away from the goal, his plan was to make 
for the island of Santa Cruz, discovered when he served as 
Chief Pilot under Mendana, and thence to make another 
attempt southward. But this was a lame conclusion. His 
chance was gone. Antarctic discovery was left to another 
nation and another century. 

The latitudes recorded by Quiros, Torres, and Leza, and 
the courses and distances run, enable us to identify the 
islands discovered by Quiros in crossing the Pacific. The 
first inhabited island, reached on February ist, 1606, has 
been supposed by Burney and others to be Tahiti. It is 
in the latitude of Tahiti ; but it is described as a low 
island with a large lagoon in the centre, and no fresh 
water. This could not by any possibility be Tahiti. 

1 Juan de Iturbe says 40, for which there is no other authority. 
But Arias, in his Memorial (see p. 528), says that Quiros was advised 
by Torres and his other companions to go as far as 40 S. Quiros and 
Torres give 30 as the limit. It was the proposal of Quiros himself, 
not in any instructions given to him. There were no such instructions. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

Sir William Wharton has identified it as Anaa, or Chain 
Island, one of the Low Archipelago to the eastward of 
Tahiti. 1 Quiros named it " Conversion de San Pablo," not 
" Sagittaria," as Burney supposed. With Anaa as a point 
of departure, the other islands discovered by Quiros are 
easily identified. 2 

In following the parallel of 10 20' S. to reach Santa 
Cruz, Quiros fortunately came upon Taumaco, the principal 
island of what is now called the Duff group. Here he 
found a native Chief, from whom he received such detailed 
information respecting the existence of islands, and, as was 
understood, even continental lands to the southward, that 
the most sanguine hopes appeared to be approaching 
realisation. The project of going to Santa Cruz was 
abandoned, and Quiros steered S., fully anticipating the 
consummation of his dreams of discovery. Nor was he 
destined to be altogether disappointed. Island after 
island, all lofty and thickly inhabited, rose above the 
horizon ; and at last he sighted such extensive coast 
lines that he believed the Southern Continent to be spread 
out before him. The islands of the New Hebrides group, 
such as Aurora, Leper, and Pentecost, overlapping each 



1 Royal Geographical Society's Journal, Aug. 1902, vol. xx,p. 207. 

2 La Encarnacion, p. 487 (Luna-puesta, p. 192 ; Anegada, p. 329), 
is one of the coral islands of the Dangerous or Low Archipelago, 
probably Dude Island. 

San Juan Bautista, pp. 193, 487 (Sin Puerto, p. 330 ; San Valeric, 
p. 456), is Henderson Island. 

Santelmo, pp. 195, 487, Marutea, or Lord Hood Island. 

Las Cuatro Coronadas, pp. 195, 487 (Las Virgenes, p. 456), Actaon 
group. 

San Miguel, pp. 196,487, Aburaa Island. 

La Conversion de San Pablo, pp. 204, 487, Anaa, or Chain Island. 

La Decena, pp. 204, 487 (Santa Polonia, p. 456), is Niau or Greig 
Island. 

La Sagittaria, pp. 204, 487, Mahatea or Aurora Island. 

La Fugitiva, pp. 205, 487, Matahiva or Lazareff Island. 

San Bernardo, pp. 207, 425, 457 (Island of Fish, p.. 342). 

Peregrino, pp. 217, 487 (Gente Hermosa, p. 431 ; Matanza, p. 459), 
" Genta hermosa" on modern charts. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

other to the S.E., seemed to him to be continuous coast 
lines, while to the S.W. was the land which he named 
Austrialia del Espiritu Santo. All appeared to his vivid 
imagination to be one continuous continental land. 

Such was the enthusiastic navigator's belief when his 
vessels anchored in the port of Vera Cruz, at the southern 
extreme of the great bay of St. Philip and St. James. He 
had found the largest island of what Captain Cook named 
the New Hebrides group, yet not a very large island. He 
showed his belief by his grandiose proceedings. To us 
they must now appear very pathetic. There was a cere- 
mony of taking possession, in the names of the Church, of 
the Pope, and of the King. Quiros took possession of 
" all this region of the south as far as the Pole, which from 
this time shall be called Austrialia del Espiritu Santo, with 
all its dependencies for ever and so long as right exists," 
in the name of King Philip III. A great city was to be 
founded and named the New Jerusalem, and its river was 
to be the Jordan. All the municipal and royal officers 
were nominated, and a knightly order of " Espiritu Santo" 
was instituted, subject to confirmation by the King. 
There were processions, religious dances, high masses 
and fireworks. 

The great navigator had two serious drawbacks in his 
rejoicing. He was disabled by a serious illness ; and the 
natives, owing to the misconduct of the Spaniards, were 
persistently hostile. After being at anchor in this port of 
Vera Cruz for thirty-five days (from the 3rd of May to 
the 8th of June, 1606), the little fleet sailed, with the object 
of completing the discovery of the Southern Continent. 
Then came the catastrophe. 

It came on to blow hard from the S.E., with a nasty sea ; 
and it was resolved to return to the anchorage. Late 
at night Torres brought the Almiranta to anchor, and the 
launch was also safely brought to. Quiros was too ill to 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

come on deck, the Pilots seem to have lost their heads, 
were confused between the lights of the other ships and 
these on shore, and eventually stood out, running before 
the wind. At dawn they were several leagues to leeward, 
outside the bay. From the I2th to the i8th they were 
trying to beat up to the bay, but with topmasts struck it 
was nearly all leeway. Ships built in Peru would not work 
to windward : Quiros was in despair. At last, he deter- 
mined to make for Santa Cruz, which was a rendezvous in 
the Instructions. But when the latitude of Santa Cruz was 
reached, there was a consultation. It was resolved to cross 
the Line, and make for Acapulco : a four months' voyage. 
Quiros bewailed his position. He had enemies on board. 
He does not mention any actual mutiny, though his enemy, 
Prado y Tovar, who must have got his information from 
the men who remained at Mexico, and perhaps afterwards 
found their way to the Philippines, makes the assertion. 

Quiros consoled himself with the reflection that his 
return would at least enable him to make known his 
discoveries, and to urge upon the King and his Councils 
the importance of completing them. He also felt confidence 
in Torres, his second in command, who was left behind on 
board the Almiranta, and in his Pilot, Fuentiduena ; and 
with good reason. They were resolute and capable seamen. 
Quiros hoped that they would continue his discoveries ; 
and he rejoiced when, some years afterwards, he received 
the news of the successful voyage of Torres. 

After waiting for some days for the Capitana, Torres 
continued the voyage by rounding the northern end of 
Espiritu Santo, and steering a course to the S.W., until he 
reached a latitude of 21 S. 1 He then altered course to 
the N., and discovered the bay and islands at the east end 



1 This latitude is only given in the Memorial of Arias. See 
p. 525. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV11 

of New Guinea. In 1613 Diego de Prado y Tovar sent 
home four maps from Goa, which throw considerable light 
on the course of Torres's ship. The first map is a very 
interesting one of the bay of St. Philip and St. James, in 
Espiritu Santo. The next is a map of a land named 
" Buenaventura/' with many islands. Torres arrived at 
this land on July i8th, having sailed from the bay of St. 
Philip and St. James on the 26th of June. " Buenaventura" 
is Basilisk Island, so named by Captain Moresby, after his 
ship, in 1873. The bay of San Millan, accurately deli- 
lineated by Torres, is Jenkins Bay of Moresby. The port 
of Santo Toribio of Torres is the China Strait of Moresby. 
The third map shows the great bay of San Lorenzo, and 
the port of Monterey, identified with "1'Orangerie" and 
''He Dufaure" of Bougainville (1768), on the S. coast of 
New Guinea. The names of Saints given to the bays, 
capes, and islands, throw light on the dates, for it was 
usual to give to a cape, bay, or island the name of the 
Saint on whose day it was discovered. The feast of San 
Lorenzo is on the loth of August, the date when Torres 
arrived in the bay, where he appears to have remained for 
several days. The fourth map is of the bay of San Pedro 
de Arlanza, whose feast is on the i8th of October. This 
bay is identified with the Triton Bay of the Dutch. The 
four maps have been reproduced for this volume, and the 
legends on the original large-scale maps are given 
separately. 1 From Triton Bay,Torres proceeded to Ternate, 
where he left the launch, and thence continued his course 
to Manilla. His letters to Quiros and to the King from 
that place are dated June and July, 1607. From the fact 
that Diego de Prado y Tovar sent the four maps home in 
December, 1613, it is supposed that Torres had died in the 



1 See p. 469. There was also a general map of the discoveries of 
Torres, which is lost. 



XXVlii INTRODUCTION. 

interval. The letter of Torres was first printed in Burners 
Voyages, from a copy obtained and translated by Dal- 
rymple, who suggested the name of Torres Strait for the 
principal discovery of that navigator. The Spanish 
Government jealously concealed the knowledge acquired by 
their great explorers, and left their noble deeds in oblivion. 
It was left to Englishmen to immortalise the names of 
Quiros and Torres, whose achievements were so long for- 
gotten by their own countrymen. 

The actual results of the voyages of Quiros and Torres 
were the discovery of thirteen coral islands in the Pacific, 
of the Duff and Banks groups, of the New Hebrides, of the 
eastern end and southern coast of New Guinea, and of 
Torres Strait, with its innumerable islands : not a barren 
record. 

Quiros came to Madrid to urge the Spanish Government 
to give him command of another expedition for the com- 
pletion of his discoveries. He had before him a dreary 
seven years of memorialising Councils, of obstruction and 
delays. It wore him out ; but he was led to believe that 
he had succeeded. A timely death saved him from the 
anguish of finding that he had been deceived. He was 
worried into his grave by Councils and Committees. But 
before he died he believed that he had at length overcome 
the obstruction, and his last hours were cheered by the 
hope of final success. 

We gather the character of Quiros from his narratives. 
He was a man of a humane and generous disposition, 
averse to violence and bloodshed. He was a zealous 
Catholic, striving to maintain religious feelings and to 
enforce morality among his people. Brave and resolute 
himself, full of zeal and enthusiasm, he failed in the 
management of men. He was often weak and vacillating, 
and had not the force of will necessary to control the 
turbulent and to cheer the half-hearted. The Chief Pilot, 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

Juan Ochoa de Bilboa, during the voyage, caused a mutin- 
ous feeling on board the Capitana, persuading the crew to 
go straight to Manilla. Quiros merely sent this Chief 
Pilot on board the Almiranta under arrest. Torres 
strongly importuned his chief to punish such insubordi- 
nation, but he would not. It was the same with another 
mutinous officer, Diego de Prado y Tobar. He was merely 
sent on board the Almiranta. To this weakness Torres 
attributes the slackness and want of zeal, if not something 
worse, when the Capitana parted company. Juan de 
Iturbe, the Accountant, in his letter now in the Biblioteca 
Nacional (J. 2), merely says that the Chief Pilot went over 
to the ship of Torres because he was disgusted with Quiros. 
We have the evidence of Torres himself that this was not 
the reason. Iturbe was another disaffected officer, and 
disloyal to his chief. There was not a single instance of 
capital punishment during the expedition, and not a single 
death, with the exception of the Father Commissary, who 
died of old age. Quiros was a thorough seaman, and the 
best Pilot of his time. He was not a self-seeker, but was 
devoted to a great idea, and persistently strove to realise 
it with unswerving resolution, until death ended his career. 

Quiros was very unlike his countryman Magellan. He 
rather reminds us of the great Genoese. Like Columbus, 
he was a visionary, full of dreams and religious aspirations. 
Like Columbus, he was devoted to one idea, which he 
followed with unchanging fidelity to the day of his death. 
Like Columbus, he was gentle in dealing with those who 
opposed him, and often weak. One dream of Quiros was 
that in his Southern Continent there should be justice to 
the converted natives, and that the evil deeds perpetrated 
in Mexico and Peru should not be repeated. 1 

It only remains to record the story of the Quiros 

1 See his extraordinary Will at p. 291. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

Memorials, when we shall see the navigator, prematurely 
old, striving for the means of renewing his efforts : 
struggling against Councils and Committees while life 
lasted. 

Quiros landed at Acapulco, was very coldly received by 
the officials at Mexico, and reached Madrid on the pth of 
October, 1607. He was quite destitute. He only had two 
maravedis, which he gave to a beggar. But his faithful 
young Secretary remained true to him. During the first 
eleven days, he had not money to buy ink or paper. He 
wrote his first Memorial on the flyleaves of a pamphlet. 
He got the money for printing it by selling his clothes. To 
print the second, he sold his bedding ; for the third, he 
pawned the royal banner under which he had taken 
possession of Espiritu Santo. After seventeen months of 
extreme penury, the King granted him 500 ducats. 

Quiros tells us that he sent in fifty memorials in fifty 
months. Of these, eight have been preserved and printed 
by Zaragoza. The first was written in \6oj. 1 He describes 
the events of the voyage, and makes excuses for altering 
course when he had reached 26 S. ; and for having parted 
company with Torres. He explains his view that the 
Antarctic continent runs from Espiritu Santo S.E. to 
Magellan Strait, a land of vast extent: "a new world." 
He says that he gave the name of "Austrialia del Espiritu 
Santo" from His Majesty's title of Austria. He says that 
the tonnage of his ships was 150 and 120, and that they 
carried one hundred and thirty men, besides six friars. 
The cost of the expedition was 184,000 ducats. He con- 
cludes by saying that he had no pay, and that he owes 
2,500 dollars without one quarto to pay it. 

The second existing Memorial is the eighth that he 
sent in. It is given in Purchas. and was reproduced by 

1 Zaragoza, vol. ii, p. 191 (23 pages). 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

Dalrymple. It forms the first document in the Appen- 
dix. 1 The eighth Memorial was printed at Seville 
in 1610. Purchas obtained a copy, which he reprinted in 
his Pilgrimes. Hessel Gerritsz. printed a Dutch version, 
in 1612, in his Detectio Freti Hudsoni, reprinted by Miiller 
at Amsterdam, in 1878, and two French translations ap- 
peared in 1617. 

The third existing Memorial is also given in Purchas 
and Dalrymple. It forms the second document in the 
Appendix. 2 

The fourth is translated for the first time, and forms the 
third document in the Appendix. 3 

The fifth existing Memorial was the sixteenth he had 
written. It contains proposals for colonising the new 
continent ; and here Quiros compares himself to Columbus, 
Da Gama, and Magellan. 4 

The sixth existing Memorial refers to a royal order 
received from the Secretary, Gabriel de Hoa, instructing 
the Viceroys to despatch Quiros on a new voyage. He 
submits detailed estimates. He proposes to take one 
hundred and fifty persons, and mentions the names of 
three Captains who are willing to accompany him. One of 
them is Lorenzo Ferrer Maldonado, a cosmographer and 
writer who is best known for his account of the imaginary 
Strait of Anian, published in 1588. Quiros also gives the 
names of eighteen Franciscan friars who are ready to go. 
He refers to his extreme poverty, and asks for his debts to 
be paid. 5 

The seventh extant Memorial is, according to Quiros, 
the fiftieth that he wrote. It is much the longest, covering 
108 pages. It begins by recapitulating the contents of his 
eighth and sixteenth Memorials. It contains an interesting 



1 See p. 477. 2 See p. 487. 3 See p. 504. 

4 Zaragoza, vol. ii, p. 242. 5 Ibid., vol. iii, p. 268. 



XXX11 INTRODUCTION. 

report by Hernando de los Rios, the Procurator of the 
Philippines, of a voyage to New Guinea by a Portuguese 
named Miguel Roxo de Brito ; also an extract from a 
letter received by Quiros from his second in command, 
Torres, dated June I5th, 1607; and a report by Ruy 
Gonzalez de Sequiera, the Governor of the Moluccas. 
Quiros repeats his proposals, and again dwells on the 
importance of the intended discoveries. 

The eighth and last extant Memorial is only a further 
recapitulation. He says he has been sending in memorials 
constantly for fifty months. 

The Memorials are tedious, and necessarily full of 
repetitions. I have only thought it advisable to give three 
of them in the Appendix, as specimens. 

The fourth document in the Appendix is a letter from 
Fernando de Castro, who had married the widow of 
Mendana. He prayed that no concession might be made 
to Quiros, as he, Castro, had inherited the claims of 
Mendana on the Solomon Islands. 

The two letters from Diego de Prado y Tovar, 1 the 
malignant enemy of Quiros, follow. This man had made 
the voyage with Torres, and wrote from Goa, on his way 
home. He forwarded four valuable and very interesting 
maps, the originals of which are now at Simancas. They are 
from the surveys of Torres, who had probably died 
previous to the date of Prado's letters. One is a plan of 
the Bay of St. Philip and St. James; the other three are 
plans of bays in New Guinea. They are coloured, with 
long descriptive titles. 2 Reduced copies, in colour, were 
published in the Boletin of the Madrid Geographical 



1 These letters were published by Zaragoza (vol. ii, p. 187), and 
also in the Boletin de la Sotiedad Geografica de Madrid for 1878 
(torn, iv, p. 62). Lord Stanley of Alderley gave a translation of one 
of them in his Philippine Islands, p. 412 (Hakluyt Soc., 1868). 

2 See p. 469. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

Society, in iS/S, 1 with the long titles printed separately. 
I have had these maps reproduced for the present work. 
The abuse of Quiros by this insubordinate officer can be 
taken for what it is worth. 

Another detractor of his commander was the disloyal 
Accountant, Juan de Iturbe. He wrote a long letter from 
Mexico, dated March 25th, i6o7, 2 which was referred to 
the Council of the Indies and retained for reference. He 
gives a fairly truthful account of the events connected with 
the return of the Capitana, while trying inferentially to 
throw blame on Quiros. He ridiculed the ceremonies at 
Espiritu Santo, and the creation of an order of knightood 
by Quiros ; and while representing the importance of the 
discoveries, he added that Quiros was not a fit man to 
command a new expedition. I have not thought it neces- 
sary to insert the letter of Iturbe, as it contains no new 
information. 

The next two documents in the Appendix speak for 
themselves. One is a Minute of the Council of the 
Indies on the demands of Quiros, and on the most 
politic way of treating him. The other is an order to 
check him in the printing and dissemination of his 
Memorials, which were to be considered confidential. We 
know that two at least had been published at Seville, 
and had fallen into the hands of Purchas and Hessel 
Gerritsz. 

The last document in the Appendix is the Memorial on 
the discovery of the Antarctic continent and the conversion 
of its inhabitants, by a Chilian lawyer named Juan Luis 
Arias. It is bound up in a volume in the British Museum, 
with other documents, chiefly memorials, relating to the 



1 Tom. IV, Jan. 1878. The maps were reproduced, without colour, 
in Collingridge's Discovery of Australia (1895). 

2 In the Biblioteca National at Madrid (J. 2). 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

Church of Spain. 1 The text was reprinted at Edinburgh 
in the last century, and translated by Dalrymple in 1773. 
Its chief interest lies in the statement that Juan Fernandez 
led an expedition from Chile which discovered the Southern 
Continent, landed on it, and had intercourse with the 
inhabitants. Dalrymple and Burney treat this fabrication 
seriously, and conjecture that the discovered land might 
have been New Zealand. I have discussed the career of 
Juan Fernandez in a footnote to the Memorial of Arias 
in the Appendix. 2 

We get a glimpse of the view taken by leading Spanish 
statesmen under Philip III, of the Memorials and aspira- 
tions of Quiros, from the Minutes of a sitting of the 
Council of State in July, i6o9. 3 The Cardinal- Arch- 
bishop of Toledo, 4 the Constable of Castille, 5 the Duke of 
Infantado, 6 the Count of Lemos, 7 and other grandees, were 
present. 

The letter from Juan de Iturbe, as well as the Memorials 
of Quiros, were before them. The Count of Lemos wrote a 
Minute strongly against the employment of Quiros. The 
feeling was that further expenditure on such voyages was 
undesirable, and that it would be wiser to spend money in 
completing the exploration of Peru and Mexico. They 



1 Papeles tocantes a la Iglesia Espanola (British Museum, 4745, 
f. ii). 

2 See pp. 526 to 528 and footnotes. 

3 Zaragoza, vol. ii, p. 259. 

4 Dr. Don Bernardo de Sandoval y Roxas, a grandson of the second 
Count of Lerma, was then Archbishop of Toledo, Cardinal and 
Inquisitor-General. He died in 1618. 

* Don Juan Fernandez de Velasco, Duke of Frias, Marquis of 
Berlangas, and Count of Haro, was hereditary Constable of Castille. 
He died at Madrid in 1613. 

6 Don Juan Hurtado de Mendoza, Duke of Infantado and Marquis 
of Santillana. He died in 1624. 

7 Don Pedro Fernandez de Castro, seventh Count of Lemos, was 
Ambassador at Rome in 1600, President of the Council of the Indies, 
and afterwards Viceroy of Naples. He married his cousin, a daughter 
of the Duke of Lerma. He was the patron of Cervantes. His son 
was Viceroy of Peru 1667-72. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

looked upon Quiros as a very discontented and dangerous 
man, who might sell his knowledge and services to the 
English. The best course would be, they thought, to keep 
him quiet in Madrid by promises. He might be employed 
to draw maps and charts. If he continued to insist upon 
going to Peru, a letter of recommendation might be given 
to him for the Viceroy. But it was further suggested that 
the letter of Iturbe should also be sent to the Viceroy, with 
a contra-despacho, leaving the matter to his discretion, with 
orders to entertain Quiros and his proposals, but not to 
despatch his business. 

This treachery was the final conclusion when Quiros 
started. Worn out by delays and obstruction, worried 
almost to death by Councils and Committees, he gladly 
accepted the promise to give him command of an expedi- 
tion. Ignorant of the contra-despacko, he put his trust in 
the honour of the new Viceroy of Peru, a great man, Don 
Francisco de Borja, Prince of Esquilache, 1 with whom he 
proceeded on the voyage to Peru, accompanied by his wife 
and two children. He thought that at length, after years 
of wearisome solicitation, his grand ideas were to be 
realised. Fortunately for the brave enthusiast, he was 
saved from the anguish of being undeceived by a timely 
death at Panama on his way out. He died at the age of 
fifty, quite worn out and driven to his grave by Councils 
and Committees, with their futile talk, needless delays, and 
endless obstruction. His faithful Secretary, Belmonte 
Bermudez, who had edited the Memorials for him, stood 
by him to the last. 2 



1 He was a grandson of Francisco de Borja, Duke of Gandia, and 
the third General of the Jesuits who was canonized. He was Prince 
of Esquilache by right of his wife, and his age was thirty-two 
when he went out as Viceroy of Peru in 1615. He reached Lima in 
December. 

2 Luis de Belmonte Bermudez then went to Mexico, and he appears 
to have returned to Seville in 1616. There he wrote El Cisma de 

C 2 



XXXVI INTRODUCTION. 

The ideas of Quiros respecting an Antarctic continent 
were, no doubt, fixed in his mind by seeing the coast-lines 
delineated by the map-makers of his time. It, therefore, 
becomes very interesting to trace this southern coast-line 
on the principal maps from the time of Ortelius down to 
the last map that showed it before Captain Cook's second 
voyage finally disproved its existence. Mr. Basil Soulsby 
has kindly prepared a note on this subject, which follows 
the Introduction. 

The voyage of Quiros was the first event in the story of 
Antarctic enterprise. Its object was the discovery of the 
Southern Continent and the annexation of the South 
Pole. It was the dream of an enthusiast. It was a failure, 
but not altogether a barren failure. Others of another 
nation were to follow up his idea. He fell, worried to 
death by Committees. But he opened the glorious record 
of Antarctic discovery. Captain Cook made known the 
Southern Continent imagined by Quiros, and actually 
seen by Torres. Captain Cook first crossed the Antarctic 
circle, and searched all round it for the supposed coast- 
lines of Quiros. Great communities were to arise in the 
Southern Continent, in Australia and New Zealand, but 
not of Spanish race. The achievements of the peoples of 
the Iberian peninsula were of vast importance to the 
world ; but they came to an end with the voyage of 
Quiros. The mantle of discovery fell on other shoulders. 
James Ross followed Cook in realising the dream of 
Quiros ; and now we recognise Robert Falcon Scott as the 
greatest and most successful of Antarctic discoverers. 



Jordan. In 1618 he settled at Madrid. Then appeared his Aurora 
de Cristo and Hispalica. In the Comedias Escojidas (4to, Madrid, 
1682-1704) there are eleven plays of Belmonte, including the Renegade 
of Valladolid, and God the Best Guardian. Ticknor mentions them as 
a singular mixture of what is sacred and what is profane (Ticknor } s 
Spanish Literature, vol. ii, p. 300). 



COMPARATIVE LIST OF MAPS OF THE 
NEW HEBRIDES, ETC., 1570-1904. 

With British Museum press-marks. 



i. 1570. Antwerp. Typus Orbis Terrarum. In Abraham Orte- 
lius's Atlas. The Terra Australis, with Beach provincia aurifera, 
extends right across the world, and from the Tropic of Capricorn to 
the S. Pole. New Guinea appears as an island. The Molucca 
Islands are shown. [Maps. 46. c. 2.] 

2. 1578. Antwerp. Universi Orbis seu Terreni Globi in piano 
effigies. In G. de Jode's "Speculum Orbis Terrarum," 1578. New 
Guinea forms one end of the Terra Australis, in which Terra del 
Fuego appears in the centre, and which stretches across the whole 
Circulus Antarcticus. [Maps. 31. c. 5.] 

3. 1587. Antwerp. Typus Orbis Terrarum. In Abraham Ortelius's 
Atlas. 1592 edition. The Terra Australis. The Solomon Islands, 
discovered in 1 568, appear with this name for the first time. [Maps. 
46. d. 2.] 

4. 1587. Duisburg. Orbis Terrae Compendiosa Descriptio. By 
Rumold Mercator. In G. Mercator's Atlas, 1589. The Terra 
Australis, but without the Solomon Islands. Java Minor appears to 
the S.E. of Beach province. [Maps. 34. c. 2.] 

5. 1589. Antwerp. Totius Orbis cogniti universalis Descriptio. 
In C. de Jode's "Speculum Orbis Terrarum." 1593. New Guinea an 
island. Otherwise as in 2. [Maps. 24. c. 7.] 

6. 1590. Amsterdam. Orbis Terrarum Typus De Integro multis 
in locis emendatus. Auctore Petro. Plancio. Terra Australis Magel- 
lanica, with Beach provincia aurifera, extends across the Antarctic 
Circle. " Nova Guinea nuper inventa quez an sit insula an pars 
continentis anstralis incertum est." Insulae Salomonis alone of 
Quires' islands are shown. [920. (266.)] 

7. 1612. Antwerp. In A. Ortelius' Atlas, Latin edition. Same 
as No. 3. [Maps. 46. d. 12.] 

8. 1628. London. A New Accurate Mappe of the World. By 
R. Vaughan. (From "The World encompassed by Sir Francis 
Drake"). " This South part of the world contayning almost the third 
part of the globe is yet unknowne, certaine sea coasts excepted, which 
rather show there is a land then discry eyther land people or comodi- 
ties," appears on " The Southerne Unknowne Land," across the 
Antarctic Circle. New Guinee is shown. [920. (46.)] 



xxxviii COMPARATIVE LIST OF MAPS. 

g. 1630. Amsterdam. Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Geographica 
ac Hydrographica Tabula. By Henricus Hondius. In H. Hexham's 
English edition of G. Mercator's Atlas. 1636. The Terra Australis, 
with the Beach province, is defined in very faint outline. The 
Ladrones appear, also Baixos de S. Barth, I. d. S. Petro, J. Vesinos, 
Barbudos, I. de Paxaros. The Solomon Islands are not given. 
[Maps. 34. d. 8.] 

10. 1641. Amsterdam. Same as No. 9. In J. Jansson's Atlas. 
1653. [Maps. 88. e. i.] 

ii. 1662. Amsterdam. Nova et accuratissima totius Terrarum 
Orbis Tabula. Joannes Blaen. The large Terra Australis has dis- 
appeared. Hollandia Nova is outlined, but N. Guinea is only partially 
outlined. 

Zelandia Nova has a western coast-line only. Antonii Van 
Diemans Landt is partly outlined. The words Australia Incognita 
occur on the circle of the Southern Polar Region. [Maps. 64. e. i.] 

12. 1660. London. A New Map of the Terraqueous Globe 
according to the latest discoveries and most general divisions of it 
into continents and oceans. In Edw. Well's "A New Sett of Maps." 
" New Zeland supposed to be part of ye Southern unknown Conti- 
nent." 35 S. 

" New Holland esteemed to be part of ye Southern unknown conti- 
nent," mixed up with New Guinea, touching the Equator, and all only 
partly outlined. 

The smaller islands are not named. [Maps. 87. d. 3.] 

13. 1667. Paris. Mappe-Monde. In N. Sanson's (d'Abbeville) 
Atlas. New Guinea appears as an island. The Beach Province is 
only partially outlined. Terre Magellanique Australe Incogneue is 
outlined right across the Southern Hemisphere, as in No. i. Nearly 
all the islands in the New Hebrides mentioned by Quiros are shown. 
[Maps. 88. d. 3.] 

14. 1668. Paris. Carte Universelle de tout le Monde. Par H. 
Jaillot. Terra Australis, showing Beach provincia aurifera, extends 
right across the Antarctic Circle. Petan Island and Java Minor are 
to the E. of Beach. Nova Guinea jam recens detecta ab I. Lamero, 
is partly shown in outline. [920. (61.)] 

15. 1674. Rome. Mappa Mondo. By Gio. Lhuilier. In G. G. de 
Rossi's Mercurio Geografico. Terra di Quir, N. coast, is shown in 
outline, S. of Solomon Islands, 10 to 20 S. Nova Guinea appears as 
an island. Terra Magellanica embraces the Arctic Circle. Nova 
Olanda is shown, but without the E. coast. The smaller islands are 
not given. New Zealand appears in outline. [Maps. 64. d. 10.] 

16. 1680. Oxford. Orbis Terrarum nova et accuratissima Tabula. 
Auctore Joanne a Loon. In Moses Pitt's " The English Atlas,,' vol. i. 
1680. New Zealand, E. coast, shown in outline. The islands mainly 
as in No. 13. N. Guinea and Hollandia Nova are shown in outline on 
W. coast. Van Diemen's Land shown in detail. The Terra Australis 
does not extend across the Antarctic Circle. [Maps. 85.6. 3.] 



COMPARATIVE LIST OF MAPS. XXXIX 

17. 1690. Amsterdam. Nova Orbis Tabula in Lucem edita a F. 
de Wit. In F. de Wit's Atlas. The small islands are as in No. 9. 
N. Guinea and Hollandia Nova join, and the western coast is outlined. 
Zelandia Nova is outlined also on the W. coast. Australia Incognita 
is printed round the circle of the S. Pole. [Maps. 86. d. n.] 

1 8. 1690. Amsterdam. Orbis Terrarum Nova et Accuratissima 
Tabula. Auctore Nicolao Visscher. In N. Visscher's Atlas Minor. 
Tom. i. Same as No. 17. [Maps. 89. e. 3.] 

19. 1696. Paris. Mappe-Monde. By N. Sanson. In H. Jaillot's 
" Nouveau Atlas." As in 15. Carpentaria, N.W. coast, appears 
below Nouvelle Guinee, between 10 and 20 S. [Maps. 84. e. i.J 

20. 1700. Paris. Mappe monde. Par Guillaume Delisle. In G. 
De L'Isle's Atlas. 1715. Nouvelle Guinee and Nouvelle Hollande are 
joined, and are outlined on the W. coast, as in Nle. Zelande. Terre 
de Diemen is outlined on the S.E. coast. 
The following- routes, in dotted lines, are shown : 

Ferdinand Magellan, 1520. 

Juan Gaetan, 1542. 

Mendana and Gallego, 1568. 

Mendana and Quiros, 1595. 

An English Pilot, reported by Robert Dudley, c. 1600. 

Olivier du Nord, 1600. 

Le Maire and Cornelius Schouten, 1616. 

Pelfart, 1629. 

Abel Tasman, 1642. 

William Dampier, 1686. 

" Isle decouverte par Drak" occurs in lat. 66 S., long. 75, above 
the S. Polar region. Terre que la flote de Mendana crut tre la 
Nle. Guinee occurs in lat. 6 S., long. 188. [Maps. 86 d. i.] 

21. 1705. Paris. Mappe-Monde. In N. de Fer's "Atlas Curieux." 
N. Guinee and Nouvelle Hollande are connected, and shown on 
W. coast. Nouv. Zeelande, W. coast, appears in outline. The smaller 
islands are not shown. [Maps. i. c. 46.] 

22. 1710. London. A New and Correct Map of the World. By 
C. Price. New Guinea and New Holland are not connected, but 
the E. coast is not shown. Diemen's Land is given, due S. of N. 
Holland, between 39 and 45. The smaller islands are as in No. 9. 
[Maps. 63. f. 2.] 

23. 1720. Paris. Mappemonde. Par Guillaume De L'Isle. In 
G. De L'Isle's Atlas, 1732. Mainly as in No. 20. Mendana's "New 
Guinea" appears as the Solomon Islands. " Les Marquises de 
Mendoce" are shown. [Maps. 91. e. 3.] 

24. 1720. Amsterdam. Diversa Orbis Terrse ... in Planum 
Orthographica Projectio. By Peter Schenck. In J. B. Homann's 
Atlas. 1740. Hollandia Nova nearly complete. To E. of Carpen- 
taria comes Quiro Regio, between 10 and 20 S. Most of Quiros' 
smaller islands are shown. Zelandia Nova, and Antoni van Diemen's 
Land are partly shown. Baye S. Philippe and St. Jacques occur both 
in Quiro Regio and in Zelandia Nova. The continent of Terra 
Australis, across the S. Pole, now disappears. [Maps 87. e. 12.] 



xl COMPARATIVE LIST OF MAPS. 

25. 1730. Augsburg. Diversi Globi Terr-Aquei ... in planum 
delineati Orthographic! Prospectus. In M. Seutter's Atlas Novus. 
Same as No. 1 5, with various route tracks added. Regio habitata 
detecta per Mendana, occurs between 10 and 20 N. Terra quam 
vidit Mendana occurs on the Equator, 260 Long. Baye de S. Philippe 
et S. Jaques occurs in Zeelandia Nova, 40 S. The smaller islands 
are shown. [Maps. 89. e. 4.] 

26. 1740. Amsterdam. Hemisphere Meridional. Par G. Delisle. 
Terres Australes, Nouvelle Hollande, W. coast shown in outline. 
Terre Australe du St. Esprit (R. Jordan, Port de la Vraie Croix, 
R. S. Sauveur, G. de S. Jaque et S. Philippe), shown in outline, E. of 
Carpentarie. Routes of Quiros and Gallego, Le Maire and Schouten, 
etc., shown. Cape de la Circoncision, Jan. i, 1739, between 50 and 
68 S. [960. (i.)] 

27. 1752. London. A New and Accurate Map ot all the Known 
World. In Emman. Bowen's "Complete Atlas." New Guinea, New 
Holland, and Van Diemen's Land are shown as one continent, New 
Zeeland, W. coast, in outline. " Land and Is. discovered by Quiros," 
between 10 and 20 S. but not named. [Maps. 89. d. 2.] 

28. 1752. Paris. Mappemonde. In Robert de Vaugondy's Atlas 
Universel. 1757. Terres et isles vues par Quiros en 1605, shown with- 
out names. New Guinea continent as in No. 27. Terre d^couverte 
par les Vaisseaux de la Compagnie des Indes en Janvier 1739, shown 
between 50 and 60 S. 30 Long. [Maps. 69. e. i.] 

2 9- 1 753- Paris. Nouvelle Mappe-Monde. Par Guill. De la Haye. 
T. du St. Esprit, is shown, 160 Long. [920. (83).] 

30. 1755. Paris. Mappemonde. In J. Palairet's "Atlas Methodi- 
que." Same as No. 28. [Maps 68. e. 2.] 

31. 1761. Paris. Hemisphere Occidental ou du Nouveau Monde. 
Hemisphere Oriental ou de 1'Ancien Monde. Par le Sr. D'Anville. 
Nouvelle Guinea and Nouvelle Hollande are one. The E. coast is 
not defined. Terre du St. Esprit, Terre de Quiros, appear due E. of 
Nouvelle Hollande, between 10 and 20 S. Nouvelle Zeelande and 
Terre de Diemen are partly outlined. [920. (272.)] 

32. 1773. London. Map of the World, after D'Anville. By T. 
Kitchen. Tierra del Spiritu Santo, Land of Quiros, is shown. New 
Zealand, with two islands, appears in detail ; New Holland, with 
New South Wales, and Van Diemen's Land, also appears with a 
complete coast-line, for the first time. [Maps. 86. d. 5.] 

33. 1776. London. Chart of Discoveries made in the South 
Pacific Ocean in H.M. ship Resolution, under . . . Captain Cook. 
1774. By W. Palmer. Tierra delEspiritu Santo, and the rest of the 
New Hebrides, are shown in very complete detail. [981. (4.)] 

34. 1786. Paris. Hemisphere Occidentale, etc. (see No. 31. 1761.) 
Revu par M. Barbie du Bocage. Terre de Kerguelen appears 
50 S. The map is an improvement on 1773, but Nouvelle Guinee is 
not shown complete, and Terre de Diemen is still part of Australia. 
[Maps. 86. d. 2.] 



COMPARATIVE LIST OF MAPS. xli 

35. 1790. London. New World or Western Hemisphere. East- 
ern Hemisphere or Old World. In W. Faden's General Atlas. 
Shows Cook's Track, 1769-78. Furneaux's Track, 1774. Van 
Diemen's Land is part of Terra Australis. The smaller islands are 
clear and more correct. [Maps. 2. e. i.] 

36. 1798. London. Chart of the Pacific Ocean. By A. Arrow- 
smith. New Holland (S. coast excepted) in outline. Van Diemen's 
Land shown as an island. New Guinea only partly shown, and in 
outline. [980. (10.)] 

37. 1799. London. Map of the World, after d'Anville, by 
T. Kitchen. Tierra del Spiritu Santo now appears as part of the 
New Hebrides. Otherwise as in No. 32. 1773. [Maps. 89. e. 6.] 

38. 1799. London. Chart containing the greater part of the 
South Sea, etc. By Laurie and Whittle. New Zeeland, in two 
islands. Tierra (Austral) del Spiritu Santo, in New Hebrides. 
Route of Mendana in 1567 shown. Below the Society Islands, 
" Islands seen by Quiros." Between 25 and 30 S. " Santelmo the 
southernmost island of Quiros according to Ulloa." [981. (2.)] 

39. 1799. London. Western (Eastern) Hemisphere. In " Gary's 
New Universal Atlas," 1808. New Holland, with New South Wales, 
is shown complete, except Northernmost point. New Guinea is not 
complete, and in outline. The islands are as in Laurie and Whittle. 
[Maps. 92. f. 17.] 

40. 1824. St. Pe'tersbourg. Carte Gdnerale de 1'Ocean Pacifique. 
Hemisphere Austral. In Krusenstern's "Atlas de 1'Ocean Pacifique." 
Australia appears so-called for the first time. The islands, Nlles. 
Hebrides, etc., are shown with the dates of discovery. [Maps. 7. e. u.] 

41. 1827. Bruxelles. Carte d'Assemblage de POceanie. In 
" Ph. Vandermaelen's Atlas Universel." Nouvelle Hollande and N. 
Guinee are shown in complete outline. New Zealand in three islands. 
The smaller islands are now as before. [Maps. 68. e. i.] 

42. 1827. Gotha.-Australien. No. 50 in Ad. Stieler's " Hand- 
Atlas." Neu Holland and Neu Siid Wales appear as parts of 
" Austral- Land." Neue Hebriden and the other groups of islands are 
shown. [Maps. 85. d. 10.] 

43. 1835. London. The World, on Mercator's Projection. In 
J. Arrowsrnith's London Atlas. "New Holland or Australia," without 
any inland towns. First use of the name of Australia for New 
Holland in a general Atlas. New South Wales still extends to the 
Gulf of Carpentaria. The Solomon Islands, New Hebrides, and the 
other islands are now completely shown. New Zealand, without 
inland towns, in three islands. Terra Australis or Australia occurs in 
the Atlas to Capt. Matthew Flinders's "Voyage to Terra Australis, 
1801-1803." 2 yols. London, 1814 [455. c. 13, 14. and Tab. 437. a.] 
In vol. i. pp. vii-x, he mentions Torres's discovery of Australia. In 
J. Arrowsrnith's Map of the Pacific Ocean, 1832, the dates of discovery 
are given to most of the islands. [Maps. 86. d. 7.] 



xlii COMPARATIVE LIST OF MAPS. 

44. 1866. London. New Caledonia, New Hebrides, and Loyalty 
Islands. Admiralty Chart. This is the best modern map of Quiros's 
islands. The Atlases between 1836 and 1865 do not show much 
change or much detail. [Sec. xv. (1380.)] 

45. 1886. New Hebrides Islands. Banks Group. Surveyed by 
H.M.S. Dart. Admiralty Chart. Gaua (Santa Maria) and the other 
islands are shown on a large scale. [Sec. xv. (174.)] 

46. 1892. London. New Hebrides Islands. Malo Island to Efate 
Island. Admiralty Chart. This is on a much larger scale, and 
gives the islands in full detail, surveyed by H.M.S. Dart, 1890-91. 
[Sec. xv. (1570.)] 

47. 1896. London. New Caledonia, New Hebrides, and Loyalty 
Islands. Admiralty Chart. This is a new edition of No. 44. The 
islands are shown in much more exact detail, and with more in- 
formation. 

48. 1904. London. British New Guinea and the Solomon, Santa 
Cruz, and New Hebrides Islands. In Edward Stanford's London 
Atlas. 3rd edition. 1904. This is a very excellent and clear map ; 
scale, i : 4,089,064. 64.537 English miles to I inch. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 

WITH BRITISH MUSEUM PRESS-MARKS. 



Antonio (Nicolas). Bibliotheca Hispana Nova . . . 1500 ad 1684. [Edited 
by T. A. Sanchez, J. A. Pellicer, and R. Casalbonus. ) 2 torn. Apnd 
foachimum de Ibarra: Matriti, 1783-88. 4. [2049, e - I26 - n - 5> 6 > 
[28. h. 4, 5, G. 53-1 

Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus. [Edited by E. Marti.] Roma, 1696. 

fol. [617. m. 14. 1788. 2049. e. 126. h. 3, 4. 128. h. 2, 3. G. 52.] 

Arias (Juan Luis), Dr. [A Memorial addressed to Philip III., King of Spain, 
respecting the exploration, colonisation, aud conversion of the Southern 
Land.] \_Madrid, 1640.] fol. [4745. f. n. (18.). 1324, k. 5. (72.)] 

[Another edition.] [571. k. II. (14.)] Edimbourga, 1773.4. 

[Another edition.] In R. H. Major's " Early Voyages to Terra Aus- 



tralis." Hakluyt Society : London, 1859. 8. [Ac. 6172-23.] 

Bougainville (Louis Antoine de) Count. Voyage autour du Monde par la 
fregate du Roi La Boudeuse, et la flute L'Etoile en 1766-69. pp. 417. 
Saillant & Nyon : Paris, I77 1 - 4- The map at p. 19 has the track of 
Capt. Cook marked in pencil by himself. (C. 28. 1. 10. 454. a. I. 
215. c. 5. G. 2831.] 

A Voyage round the World . . . 1766-69. Translated by Johann 

Reinhold Forster. Plates and maps. pp. xxviii. 476. J. Nourse: 
London, 1772. 4. [983. d. I.] 

Brosses (Charles de). Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes. [An 
English translation, with additions, was issued by John Callander in 
1766-68.] 2 torn. Durand: Paris, 1756. 4. [454. a. 17, 18. 06. 
h. 5, 6. 215. a. 15. G. 7382-3-] 

Burney (James), Admiral. A Chronological History of the Discoveries in 
the South Sea or Pacific Ocean. 5 vol. pp. 680. G. & W. Nicol : 
London, 1803-17. 4. [455. b. 17-2. G. 7231-2.] 

Callander (John). Terra Australis Cognita : or, Voyages to the Terra 
Australis, or Southern Hemisphere, during the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, 
and Eighteenth Centuries. [A translation, with additions, of Ch. de 
Brosses' " Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes.] 3 vol. 
A. Donaldson: Edinburgh, 1766-68. 8. [566. c. 1-3. G. 16065-67.] 

Clavius (Christophorus). Gnomonices libri octo. pp.654. Apud Franciscum 
Zanettum. Romce, 1581. fol. [533. k.2.] 

Romani Calendarii Gregorio XIII. P.M. restituti explicatio. pp. 680. 

Apud Aloysium Zannettum : Roma, 1603. fol. [532. k. 10.] On the 
binding of this and the previous work are the arms of King James I of 
England. 

See also Euclid. 



xliv BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Coleccion de Documentos. Ineditos para la historia de Espana. 1842, 
etc. 8. 

See Fernandez de Navarrete (Martin). 

- sacados del Real Archive de Indias. 1864-83. 
See Pacheco (Joaquin Francisco). 

Collingridge (George). The Discovery of Australia . . . Illustrations, 
Charts, Maps, etc. pp. xv. 376. Hayes Bros. : Sydney, 1895. 4. 
[978i. g. 13-] 

Comedias Escogidas. 

See Spain. 

Cook (James), Captain. A Voyage towards the South Pole and round the 
World ; performed in his Majesties ships, the Resolution and Adven- 
ture . . . 1772-75, etc. 2 vols. W. Straham <5r 7'. Cadell : London, 
1777. 4. [454. h. 7-8. 213. d. 8, 9. Maps. K. 12. Tab. 21. 
G. 7416-17. K. 12. Tab. 20.] 

Cordova (Diego de) Fray. Cronica de la religiosissima provincia de la Orden 
de San Francisco. Salinas ; 1651. [Not in the British Museum. A copy 
in the Library at Lima.] 

Daca (Antonio) Fray. Quarte Parte de la Chronica General deSan Francisco 
y su Apostolica orden, etc. [Being a continuation of M. da Silva's 
Chronicles of the Friars Minors.] Valladolid, 1611. fol. [4783^.5.] 

Dalrymple (Alexander). An Account of the Discoveries made in the South 
Pacifick Ocean previous to 1764. Part I. pp. xxxi. 103. 7 plates. London, 
1767. 8. [1045. e - 26.] 



--- An Historical Collection of the several Voyages and Discoveries in the 
South Pacific Ocean. 2 vols. Printed for the author : London, 1770-71. 
4. [560. h. 9. (2.) 454. h. 5, 6. (i.) 212. d. ii. C. 1781.] 

35 Charts, 1769-98. [460. g. 6. 435. k. 17, 18. 570. h. 1-4.] 
Daza (Antonio), Fray. 



Duro (Cesario Fernandez). 

See Fernandez Duro (Cesario). 

Ercilla y Zuniga (Alonso de). La Araucana de Don A. de Erzilla y (^ufiiga 
(Canto primero-quinzeno). Madrid, 1569. 8. [C. 58. c. 25.] 

Euclid. Euclidis Elementorum Lib. xv. . . . illustrati . . . auctore C. Clavio. 
1589. 8. [8533. aaa. 23.] 

Fernandez de Navarrete (Martin). Coleccion de documentos ine"ditos para 
la historia de Espana. (Indice, 1891.) Madrid, 1849, etc. 8. [9197. f.] 

Fernandez de Queiros (Pedro). 

See Quiros (Pedro Fernandez de). 

Fernandez Duro (Cesario). Disquisiciones nauticas. (lib. 6 : Area de Noe.) 
6 lib. Madrid, 1876-81. 8. [8806. dd. 14.] 

Figueroa (Christoval Suarez de). 
See Suarez de Figueroa. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. xlv 

Gerritszoon (Hessel). 

See Hudson (Henry), the navigator. 

Gil Bias. 

See Le Sage (Alain Rene'). 

Hudson (Henry) the Navigator. Descriptio ac Delineatio Geographica 
Detectionis Freti . . . recens investigati ab. H. Hudsono . . . Item 
Narratio . . . Australia Incognitse . . . per P. Ferdinandez de Quir, 
etc. [Edited by H. Gerritszoon.] Ex officina H. Gerardi : Amstero- 
dami, 1612. 4. [1045. e - J 5- C 1 -) G. 7163. 1613. 1045. e. 15. (4.) 
500. b. 25. (10.) G. 7164.] 

The Arctic North-East and West Passage. Detectio Freti Hudsoni, 

or H. Gerritsz's Collection of Tracts by himself, Massa, and de Quir, 
on the N.E. and W. Passage, Siberia and Australia. Reproduced 
with the maps, in photolithography, in Dutch and Latin after the 
editions of 1612 and 1613. Augmented with a new English transla- 
tion by F. J. Millard . . . and an Essay on the origin and design 
of this collection by S. Muller. Amsterdam, 1878. 4. [10460. bb. 7. 
This entry does not occur under Hudson in the British Museum Catalogue.] 

Jimenez de la Espada (Marcos). Relaciones geograficas de Indias. [Not 
in the British Museum Catalogue.] 

Juan y Santacilla (Jorge) and Ulloa (Antonio de) Admiral. Noticias 
secretas de America . . . escritas . . . segun las instrucciones del . . . 
Secretario de Estado y presentadas en informe secreto a S. M. C. . . . 
Fernando VI., por J. Juan y a de Ulloa . . . Sacadas a luz para el verda- 
dero conocimiento del gobierno de los Espanoles en la America meridional 
por de Barry. (Apendice. Informe del Intendente de Guamanga Don 
D. O'Higgins al Ministro de Indias.) 2 pt. John Murray: London, 
1826. 4. [795 m. 5. G. 6270.] 



La Espada (Marcos Jimenez de). 

See Jimenez de La Espada (Marcos]. 

Le Sage (Alain Rene). Histoire de Gil Bias de Santillane. Troisieme 
edition. 3 torn. Rouen, 1721-1724. 8. [243.11.25-27. Neither the 
First nor the Second Editions are in the British Museum.] 

Avec des notes historiques et litteraires par M. le Comte Francois de 

Neufchateau. L. P. 3 torn. (Collection des Classiques Frangois.) 
Lefevre : Paris, 1825. 8. [12512^.25.] 

Mac Kenna (Benjamin Vicuna). 

See Vicuna Mac Kenna (Benjamin). 

Major (Richard Henry), of the British Museum. Early Voyages to Terra 
Australis, now called Australia. A collection of documents, and extracts 
from early MSS. Maps, . . . from the beginning of the sixteenth century 
to the time of Capt. Cook. Edited with an Introduction by R. H. Major. 
pp. cxix. 200. 13. 5 Maps. Index. (Ser. I, 25). Hakluyt Society: 
London, 1859. 8. [Ac. 6172/23.] 

Moresby (John), Admiral. New Guinea & Polynesia. Discoveries & 
Surveys in New Guinea and the D'Entrecasteaux Islands : A cruise . . . 
of H.M.S. Basilisk, pp. xviii. 327. John Murray : London^ 1876. 8. 
[2374. c. 8.] 



xlvi BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Morga (Antonio de). Sucesos de las Islas Philipinas. ff. 172. Mexici ad 
Indos, 1609. 4. [C. 32. f. 31. G. 6939.] 

The Philippine Islands, Moluccas, Siam, Cambodia, Japan and China, 

at the close of the sixteenth century . . . Translated from the Spanish, 
with notes and a preface, and a Letter from Luis Vaez de Torres, describ- 
ing his Voyage through the Torres Straits, by the Hon. Henry E. J. 
Stanley [Lord Stanley of Alderley]. pp. xxiv. 431. 2 Illus. Index. 
(Ser. 1.39.) Hakluyt Society : London, 1868. 8. [Ac. 6172/60.] 

Navarrete (Martin Fernandez de). 

See Fernandez de Navarrete (M.) 

Pacheco (Joaquin Francisco). Coleccion de Documentos ineditos relatives 
al descubrimiento, conquista y colonizacion de las posesiones espanolas en 
America y Occeania \stc\, sacados, en su mayor parte, del Real Archivo de 
Indias, bajo la direccion de . . . J. F. Pacheco, etc. (Segunda serie, 
publicada por la Real Academia de la Historia.) 40 torn. Madrid, 
1864-83. 8. [9551- g] 

Petherick (Edward Augustus). Bibliography of Australia. In "The Torch 
& Colonial Bookseller." vol. i. 89-97, 162-172; ii. 2-8, 127-1405 iii. 
136-138. Colonial Booksellers' Agency : London, 1887-92. 8. 

Quiros (Pedro Fernandez de). 

See also Hudson (Henry), the Navigator. 

Quiros (Pedro Fernandez de). Historia del descubrimiento de las regiones 
Austriales hecho por el General Pedro Fernandez de Quiros. Publicada 
por Don Justo Zaragoza. (Biblioteca Hispana-Ultramarina. ) 3 vols. 
M. G. Hernandez: Madrid, 1876-82. 8.) [9771. ee. 17.] 

Begin. Senor. El Capitan Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, etc. [The 

original petition of P. F. de Quiros to Philip III of Spain concerning the 
discovery of Australia.] ff. 2. \_Seville, 1610.] fol. [6.7240.] 

Relation Herrn. P. Fernandes de Quir . . . Von dem new erfundnem 

vierten Theil der Welt, so bissher in Mappis der Land [t]afflen Terra 
Australis incognita genannt, und desselben Lander ... In Spanischer 
Sprach . . . getruckt, jetzo aber ... ins Teutsch gebracht. pp. 9. 
C. Dabertzhofer : Augspurg, 1611. 4. [1295. b. 18.] 

Account of a Memorial presented to His Majesty [Philip III, King 01 

Spain] by ... P. Fernandez de Quir, concerning the population and 
discovery of the fourth part of the world, Australia the unknown, its great 
riches and fertility . . . printed . . . anno 1610. From the Spanish 
[" Relacion de un Memorial."] With an introductory notice by W. A. 
Duncan. Spanish and English, pp. 38. Thomas Richards: Sydney, 
1874. 8. [10492. bbb. i.] 

The Copie of a Petition presented to the King of Spaine by Capt. P. 

F. de Quir, touching the discouerie of the fourth part of the world, called 
Terra Australis Incognita. [From the Spanish. Another Petition in 
Spanish, giving an account of his discoveries.] In " Purchas (Samuel), 
Purchas his Pilgrimes," pt. 4. 1625. fol. [679. h. 14.] 

Voyage. Memorial presented to Philip II of Spain. Relation of a 

Memorial presented ... to His Majesty about the settling . . of ... 
Australia Incognita. (In Dalrymple (Alexander). "An Historical Col- 
lection," etc.) 1770, etc. 4. [566. h. 9. (2.)] 

Fernand de Quiros to Polynesia and Australasia. (In "Callander 

(John) Terra Australis cognita.") vol.2. 1766,^. 8. [5660.2.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. xlvii 

Quiros (Pedro Fernandez de). Voyage de Quiros. (In "Charton (Edouard), 

Voyageurs anciens et modernes. torn. 4. 1854, etc. 8. [10027. g- 2 -] 
MS. in Private Library of the King of Spain. Another copy in Library 

of the Ministry of Marine, Madrid. 
Informaciones presentados por el Capitan Pedro Fernandez de Quiros 

para paser a las Indias con su mujer y hijos, en la casa de contratacion de 

Sevllla, 24 Marzo, 1615. (Archive de Indias.) 

Narratio . . . Regi Hispanise facta super tractu ... cui Australise 

incognitse nomen est, recens detecto. (In Hudson (H.) Descriptio . . . 
geographica detectionis freti . . . sive transitus ad Occasum. 1612. 4. 
[1045. e. 15- (i.)] 

[Another copy, with an additional title-page.] Exemplar Libelli 

supplicis, potentissimo Hispaniarum Regi exhibiti, a Capitaneo Petro 
Fernandez de Quir : super detectione quintse Orbis terrarum partis, cui 
Autralise [sic] Incognitse nomen est, etc. [G. 716$. (2.)] 

[Another edition.] In Orbis. Recentes Novi Orbis Historise. 1612. 

8. [1061. a. 4.] 

[Another edition.] In Bry (J. T. de) and (J. I. de) [Indise Orientalis. 

Part, x.] Indiae Orientalis pars. x. 1613. fol. [986. h. 20. (7.)] 

[Another edition.] In Hudson (Henry). Descriptio ac Delineatio 

Geographica detectionis Freti, etc. 1613. 4. [1045. e. 15. (4.) 

[Another edition.] In Bry (J. T. de) and (J. I de). [India Orientalis. 
Part x. 2nd edition.] India Orientalis pars x. 1633. fol. [215. c. 13. (4.)] 

De Terra Austriale Incognita. [Another edition.] In Bry (T. de.) 

(America^ Part 13.] Decima tertia pars Ilistorise Americanse, etc. 1634. 
fol. [566. 1. 9 . (2.)] 

Terra Australis Incognita, or a new Southerne Discoverie, containing a 

fifth part of the World, lately found out by Ferdinand de O_uir. pp. 27. 
John Hodgetts: London, 1617. 4. [T. 809. (8.) C. 32. g. 33. C. 13 a. 
11. (i.)] 

[Another edition.] pp. 31. IV. Bray : London, [1723.] 8. [6.513. 

(i.) 112. a. 67. G. 15929.] 
Verhael van seker Memorial . . . aengaende de bevolckinghe ende 

ontdeckinghe van' t vierde deel des Werelts, ghenaemt Australia incognita, 

etc. {Amsterdam, 1612.] 4. [1045. e. 15. (2.)] 

[Another copy.] In "Samoyedes."- Beschryvinghe van der Samoyeden 



Landt. 1612. 4. [10055. b - 34-1 
[Another edition.] In L'Hermite (J.) Journal van de Nassausche 

Vloot. /. P. Wachter: Amstelredam, 1643. 4. [1061. g. 42.] 
Copie de la Requeste presentee au Roy d'Espagne par le Capitaine 

Pierre Ferdinand de Quir, sur la descouverte de la cinquiesme partie du 

monde, appellee la terre Australle, incogneue, et des grandes richesses et 

fertilite d'icelle. pp. 16. Paris, 1617. 8. [10491. aa. 13.] 
Relation einer wunderbarlichen Supplication, Ihr. Konigl. Magest. in 

Spanien, von ... P. Fernandes de Quir . . . belangendt die Entdeck- 

ung dess ffunfften Thiels der Welt, Terra Australis incognita genandt. 

... In Hulsius (L.) [Collection of Voyages & Travels.] Thl. 12. 

[1598, etc.] 4. [10028. d. 37.] 

[Another edition.] See Bry (J. T. de) & (J. I. de). [Indise 

Orientalis. Pt. 10. German.] Zehenden Theil der Orientalischen 

Indien, etc) 1613. fol. [10003. e * I 3-l 

[Another edition.] See Bry (T. de). [America. Pt. 13. 



German.] Dreyzehenden Theil Americae, etc. 1628. fol. [10003. e. 33. 
(2-)] 



xlviii BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Spain. Prim era ( quarenta y ocho) parte de Comedias escogidas de los 
mejores de Espana. (Catalogo de Comedias, 1 68 1.) 48 pt. [MS. notes 
by L. Tieck.] Madrid, 1652-1704. 4. 11725, b. c. d. 11726. h. 
MS. notes by J. R. Chorley.] 

Suarez de Figueroa (Christoval). Hechos de Don G. Hurtado de Mendoza, 
quarto Marques de Canete. [With a prefatory notice by G. Caravajal 
de Ulloa.] pp. xiv. 324. Emprenta Real: Madrid, 1613. 4. [1199. 
h. 1 8. 278. f. 29.] 

[Another edition.] Introduction by D. Barros Arana. pp. viii. 126. 

1864. In "Coleccion de Historiadores de Chile." Tom. 5. Imprenta del 
Ferrocarril : Santiago, 1861, etc. 4. [9772. e. 19.] 

Torquemada (Fray Juan de) Franciscan. I a ( HI a. ) Parte de los veynte 
y un libros rituales y Monarchia Indiana con el origen y guerras de los 
Indies Occidentales de sus pobla<?ones descubrimento, conquista, conver- 
sion y otras cosas maravillosas de la mesma tierra. 3 pt. Matthias 
Claviso: Sevilla, 1615. fol. [601. k. 16.] 

[Another edition. Edited by A. Gonzales-Barcia.] 3 pt. Nicolas 

Rodriguez: Madrid, 1723. fol. [1466. 11-13. G. 6452-54.] 

Ulloa (Antonio de) Admiral. Noticias secretas. 

See Juan y Santacilla (Jorge) and Ulloa (A. de), Admiral. 

Ulloa (Antonio de), Admiral. Relacion historica [by A. de Ulloa] del viage 
a la America meridional, etc. (Appendix to Tom. iv. Resumen historic 
. . . de los Incas y demas Soberanos del Peru.) [With plates and maps.] 
5 torn. Antonio Marin : Madrid, 1748. 4. [687. k. 10-14. 9^3. 
19, 20. 215. a. 6-9, and 144. e. 14.] 

[French translation by E. Mauvillon.] Hid. 2 torn. Arkstee 6 Merkus : 

Amsterdam, 1752. 4. [211. c. 7, 8.] 

Vicuna MacKenna (Benjamin). History of Juan Fernandez. Santiago, 
1883. [Not in the British Museum Catalogue.] 



NARRATIVE 



OF THE 



Second Voyage 



OF THE 



Adelantado Alvaro de Mendana, 



BY 



THE CHIEF PILOT, 

PEDRO FERNANDEZ DE QUIROS. 1 



Historia del descubrimiento de las Regiones Austriales. 




SECOND VOYAGE 



OF 



ALVARO DE MENDANA. 



CHAPTER I. 

How the second voyage to the Isles of Solomon was commenced by 
the Adelantado Alvaro de Mendana, in whose company Pedro 
Fernandez de Quiros went as Pilot and Captain. Recounts the 
departure from Callao. 

ANY years having passed in silence 
since the first voyage of Alvaro 
Mendana, God was served that in 
the city of Kings, residence of Vice- 
roys of Peru, the enterprise should 
be proclaimed which His Majesty 
had ordered the Adelantado 1 Alvaro Mendana to under- 
take to the Isles of Solomon. He hoisted his flag, his 
Captain being his brother-in-law, Lorenzo Barreto ; and he 
sent another Captain, named Lope de Vega, to the valleys 
of Truxillo and Sana, with orders to recruit men and 
collect provisions. The Adelantado met with some diffi- 
culties and obstacles in fitting out the expedition, which 

1 An office corresponding to the President or Governor of a 
province. Prcefectus, " Adelante," in front ; more advanced than 
others. 




4 APPOINTMENT OF QUIROS. 

Dom Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, Marquis of Cafiete, 
and then Viceroy of Peru, helped him to overcome. 1 
Thus four vessels were got ready with as much despatch 
as possible, and the Adelantado went from Lima to Callao, 
with his wife Dona Isabel Barreto, and all the people he 
had to take from thence. With the diligence he exer- 
cised, he persuaded and induced Pedro Fernandez de 
Quiros to come with him as Captain and Chief Pilot. The 
Pilot de Quiros had raised several points with the Adelan- 
tado in the conversations they had together respecting the 
conduct of the voyage, both in going and returning ; but 
all were settled, and he ended by resolving to join the 
expedition. 

The disorders which took place in this expedition were 



1 Here Suarez de Figuaroa inserts the following speech, made by 
the Marquis of Canete to Mendana. 

On one of the many occasions when Alvaro de Mendana (then 
fitting out) had interviews with the Viceroy to communicate some 
particulars and to kiss his hand for the many kindnesses and favours 
he had received from him, his Excellency said : " My Lord the Ade- 
lantado, I may well wish you God speed on commencing this business 
with as vigorous a set of men as can be found in the world. Prodi- 
gious are the deeds of the Spaniards at various times and in various 
places, and especially when led by valorous generals who know how 
to overcome difficulties ; who have met ^dangers with prudence ; who 
under adverse circumstances have maintained a cheerful countenance 
and kept up the spirits of their followers with encouraging words and 
promises ; who rewarded them ; who cherished them ; who succoured 
them ; and who, ruling by kindness, took advantage of every oppor- 
tunity with wisdom. There are so many glorious leaders of our 
nation who have acted thus, that might be named, that I undoubtedly 
should tire my tongue in enumerating them and my memory in 
bringing them to mind. On the other side their valiant followers 
have always been, on these occasions, loyal and obedient, and full of 
courtesy and virtue both in word and deed. If in the present age 
these generalities suffer from some exceptions, it is not the fault of the 
men. Various times bring forth misfortunes. A few years soon pass 
in the harvest of valour, and few good things are known of the leaders. 
This is especially the case in maritime expeditions where the incon- 
veniences and difficulties are innumerable, while the remedies that 
can be applied to them are few and of little efficacy. Certain ancient 
mariners make a notable clamour, in whose eyes our ancestors were so 
excellent that they hold them in great veneration. But they all made 
furrows in the eastern sea ; very little was done by them on the 
western side, which scarcely puts limits to the imagination. On that 



THE CAMP MASTER. 5 

numerous ; and in order that this history may be clear, 
it is necessary to say something of them, as it seems to me 
that they were the cause of the unfortunate ending of the 
enterprise. 

The stars of the eighth heaven are unequal in dimen- 
sions, for some appear to our vision great, and others so 
small that they are scarcely visible. There are those who 
say that if one of these should be wanting in heaven there 
would be equivalent loss on earth. I mean that the 
most minute circumstance that has ceased to do harm may 
have its effect on the course of events. 

The Master of the Camp 1 embarked, and the first thing 
he did was to interfere with the Boatswain in matters 
pertaining to his office, using words to him which oblige 

side some navigators have been eminent. In the first rank is 
Columbus, who, being despised by various sovereigns, made his 
discovery finally for the Catholic ones, Isabella and Ferdinand, and 
showed America, the foundation on which has been built so many 
and such important edifices, alike spiritual as temporal. He was suc- 
ceeded by the wonderful Cortes, with his extensions of empire and his 
marvellous deeds. In the part where we are now was the famous 
Francisco Pizarro, conqueror of so many provinces. Then came 
Magellan, who nearly went round the world, and came to an end 
which was less fortunate than his spirit deserved. Next Gama sought 
remote regions, and opened to the nation the commerce of the east. 
Valiant (it need not be denied) were the audacious enterprises of 
Drake, Cavendish, and Hawkins, emulous of the fame of Magellan. 
Traversing the strait which bears Magellan's name, they came to 
disturb the seas which for many previous years had been secure and 
peaceful. But this notwithstanding, it appears to me that I now 
behold in you a discoverer not less distinguished and famous than 
those. It has been so in all countries, in times past, that important 
affairs have been entrusted to him who, either by reason of his genius, 
or the dignity of his person, or the purity of his life, or his grace and 
authority, had acquired the universal fame of a true umpire of peace 
and war, justly committing to his prudence the preservation and 
prosperity of the state. It is certain that all these qualifications are 
combined in your person. Your actions prove it, and confirm the 
choice made by His Majesty for so great a service to God and to him. 
I hold that there can be no doubt that your established government 
will be glorious and triumphant, and that the people in your company 
will remain under it ; so that, almost from this time thanks may be 
given to you for your great industry and valour." 

1 Equivalent to Colonel. He was an old soldier named Pedro 
Merino Manrique. The name is given by Suarez de Figueroa. 



6 TROUBLE WITH THE CAMP MASTER. 

little and offend much. The Boatswain excused himself 
and the Master of the Camp, wishing to be avenged, 
certain persons in the accounts department prevented him. 
At the same time the Chief Pilot was talking to Dona 
Isabel, who said : " The Master of the Camp is severe. If 
that is the way in which he asserts his position, he may 
have a prosperous end, though I am very far from thinking 
so." The Master of the Camp returning, she said that it 
seemed to her that the Adelantado would not be pleased 
to have his people treated with the contumely he showed 
to them, and still more when the occasion was so slight. 
The Master of the Camp replied with great impertinence : 
" Oh look ! what have we here ?" The Chief Pilot, with 
good reason, showed much indignation. The Master of 
the Camp then said, in a loud voice : " Know me ! Under- 
stand that I am the Master of the Camp, and if we sail 
together in one ship, and I ordered the ship to be run on 
some rock, what would you do ?" The Chief Pilot answered : 
" When that time comes I shall do what seems to me to 
be best ; and, in this fleet, I do not recognise any other 
head but the Adelantado, who has delivered the charge of 
this ship to me, whose Captain I am ; and when he comes 
he will state what my duties are to be. Believe me that if 
you want to be lord of all that is about to be discovered, 
rather than be under the orders of one who takes so much 
upon himself, and shows so little discretion, I would give 
up the voyage." Two soldiers, who were present at this 
colloquy, came to the Chief Pilot and said that their 
persons were at his service, having so much need for him 
during the voyage. The Pilot valued their good will, but 
answered that he did not come to form parties. I leave 
the rest that passed on this occasion. 

The Adelantado came on board, and, as he said that he 
would apply a suitable remedy to what had occurred, the 
Chief Pilot remained. On Friday, the 9th of April, of the 



SEIZURE OF A SHIP. 7 

year of our Saviour Jesus Christ 1595, orders were given 
to weigh the anchors and make sail from the port of 
Callao of the city of the Kings of Peru, which has a latitude 
of 12 2O', 1 shaping a course for the valleys of Santa 
Truxillo, and Sana, on the coast of the same province. 



CHAPTER II. 

Of what happened to the fleet until it reached the port of Payta, 
and what ports it touched at. 

HAVING made sail, there was so little wind that the ship 
could not get out of the port. A boat was sent on shore, 
but presently returned with a report that the beach was 
full of armed men, who prevented any landing. The night 
passed, and when the day came the galeot went on, and 
our other vessel made for Callao. She had been at the 
ports of the coast, visiting the ships she met and taking 
what was wanted out of them. After those on board had 
behaved like corsairs, they arrived at the port of Santa, 
where they found a ship on her way from Panama to 
Lima, laden with merchandize and negroes. They took 
the vessel, placing a guard to prevent them from going 
until the Adelantado should arrive, to whom they gave 
the advice to take her as she was, for his better despatch, 
sending her value to the owners when God should provide 
it. The Adelantado would not do this, nor consent that 
it should be done. The Vicar, zealous for the service of 
God, reprehended the Captain with sharp speeches, and 
told him that he was excommunicated, charging him to 
pay for what he had taken. Having done this he was 
absolved, and the business was closed. Here a soldier was 
punished, the reason being kept secret. 

1 12 3' 45" S. Callao Castle ; 12 2' 34" S. Lima. 



8 EXCHANGE OF SHIPS. 

. 

Making sail, they anchored in the port of Cherrepe, 
which is that for the town of Santiago de Miraflores, where 
the Captain, Lope de Vega, had enlisted a good company 
of married people. Here the Adelantado married this 
Captain to his sister-in-law, Mariana de Castro, giving him 
the title of Admiral. 

There was at anchor in this port a new and strong ship 
with a cargo of flour, sugar, and other things, bound to 
Panama. The officers of the Almiranta having made 
friends with those on board the other ship, they were 
persuaded, by means of efficacious reasoning, to let the 
General take her, and receive their vessel instead, which, 
owing to age and bad construction, they might well do, 
because thus the King would be better served. But the 
Adelantado showed great annoyance at these intrigues, 
and replied that his ship was very good for the service on 
which it was to be employed. Those who intended evil 
felt the good intention, and, in order to gain their end, 
they secretly made seven gimlet-holes in the ship, in order 
to oblige as they did oblige the soldiers to say that they 
would not go in a ship so unseaworthy if they could not 
take the other. In consequence of this, the Pilot and 
Master presented a petition to the Adelantado, setting 
forth that his ship was making a great deal of water, and 
was unsuited for so long and risky a voyage as she was 
intended to make ; and begging him to take the remedy 
that was at hand. The Adelantado, seeing the deter- 
mination of all, and compelled by necessity, referred the 
matter to the Master of the Camp, before whom informa- 
tion was taken which proved what was wanted, and if 
more was wanted, more could be proved. So the General 
ordered the Master of the Camp to take the ship ; and 
that the carpenters should make an estimate of the excess 
of value over that of the vessels to be exchanged for it. 
They reported that the difference amounted to 6600 dols. 



EXCHANGE OF SHIPS. 9 

i 

Presently, the Master of the Camp sent a guard on board 
the ship, and began to unload her. There was a priest on 
board, who owned half the cargo. He protested vigorously 
against the injustice and robbery, when he saw the loss 
that he would sustain. He made strong protests and 
claims on the ship, in his own name and in those of other 
interested parties. He sought the ship, stating that his 
remedy was there. He came and went to the Capitana 
with his complaints, but got no redress. It was said that 
a soldier gave him a push, and threatened to throw him 
overboard. The priest felt all this very deeply, and loudly 
declared that when he had to pray to our Lord, in his 
sacrifices, he would ask that the ship might never reach 
safety if she was unloaded. The good priest caused great 
sorrow to the compassionate, both on account of the force 
with which he was treated and the loss of his property ; 
and the grief was doubled at the enterprise being one that 
was undertaken by their own masters, to whom he earnestly, 
but vainly, complained of his loss. At last the ship 
was unloaded, when the Adelantado satisfied the priest 
respecting his share, which somewhat quieted him. The 
Adelantado also undertook to pay the difference before he 
came from the Solomon Islands to Peru, mortgaging to 
the creditors all his ships. The Adelantado felt and com- 
plained much of this proceeding, which had been forced 
upon him, and he threatened those who he believed to be 
the cause of it. 

As the effects are seen in all things, and even in the 
justice of God are never wanting, it was understood that 
usually in that port there was much merchandize, collected 
in certain warehouses, from all those valleys, to be em- 
barked for Lima, Panama, and other places. They 
embarked some of these goods, with the owner, his wife 
and children. Many things were left, and nothing was 
said about them, for the shadows of things are sufficient to 



10 ORDERS TO THE PILOT. 

see them by ; and expeditions without a royal purse 
cannot, it would seem, be set forth without some mischief 
being done. 

The Master of the Camp, because it was his ordinary 
and first thought not to keep the peace, had a certain 
slight difference with the Admiral, which, although trifling, 
appears to have been the beginning of disorders. For if 
such exist, however small they be, when the Devil stirs 
them they revive. The Adelantado was very desirous of 
entering respectable men only ; and so, for reasons that 
moved him, he put certain men and women on shore. I 
well believed that he might have turned them all out, and 
proceeded alone on his voyage. Here, for a slight cause, 
he turned out a sergeant. Who was the instigator the 
reader will pardon me for leaving it to be understood, for 
I am not a friend of telling, though it should be a bad 
affair. 

These things being settled, the Adelantado ordered the 
Chief Pilot to make five charts for the navigation, one for 
himself and four for each of the Pilots. He was not to 
show more land on them than the coast of Peru from 
Arica to Payta, and two points north and south, on one 
side or the other, the one in 7 and the other in 12, and 
1,500 leagues to the west of Lima, which, he said, was the 
extreme distance in longitude of the islands of which he 
was going in search, whose longitude was 1,450 leagues. 
The other 50 was to be added so as the better to arrive 
with some margin, and no more land was to be delineated 
lest some ship should steer to or desert to it. 

The Admiral embarked on board the new ship, and the 
provisions were distributed, but they were not in such 
quantity nor so good as was necessary. The defects were 
made up by what the soldiers and other people bought, 
and by other means. 

It only remained to arrange for the water supply, but 



ARRIVAL AT PAYTA. n 

the supply was scanty and the port was bad. The 
Corregidor of the district, Dom Bartolome de Villavicencio, 
arrived, and the goodwill he showed is admitted by the 
Admiral in his report. But as he saw, when he came, the 
overwork that was being exacted, he went to his house, 
taking with him all the Indians and horses that were 
helping us, so as to oblige us to depart. This was the 
reason that induced the Adelantado to make sail, and 
pursue his course with only the water that the Chief Pilot 
had on board. Recognising such a serious defect, the 
Pilot represented that it was a terrible thing to start with 
half the jars empty, knowing that we had to enter the 
largest of the gulfs, and that it must be well considered, 
lest we should have to leave the land without taking the 
full supply of water needed for so long and doubtful a 
voyage. The Adelantado answered that the soldiers asked 
for it to be obtained in the ports where it was found to be 
very expensive, and that if a ration of half a gallon ought 
to be given, a pint might be served out. To this the 
Chief Pilot replied that it was his duty to see to every- 
thing, and not to allow himself to be conquered by the 
importunities of people who did not know what they were 
asking. The Adelantado answered to this that he was 
convinced, and that he would settle the matter with them ; 
which he did with some good and some bad reasons. This 
done, they made sail, arriving at the port of Payta to take 
in water. 



12 TROUBLES AT PAYTA. 



CHAPTER III. 

Of what passed in the port of Payta, and how the fleet set sail and 
commenced the voyage. 

IN each port there was disorder, and as this is one of the 
best ports on the coast of Peru, the best quarrel was 
reserved for it. The anger of the Master of the Camp, 
who excused no one, fell upon the Vicar respecting certain 
proceedings in his department. There were words between 
them ; and there would have been acts as well if the 
Adelantado had not been present to prevent them. But 
they remained angry and unfriendly. Bickerings also 
commenced between the Master of the Camp and the 
Captain Don Lorenzo, respecting luggage which some of 
the soldiers had with them. 

The Master of the Camp gave a blow with a stick to a 
person of consideration. He said that he did not know 
about that, but that the party would know very well how 
how much a stick weighed. There was some disturbance ; 
the Master of the Camp drew his sword (at which he was 
always ready) and struck another soldier, who was 
annoyed at the blow given to his companion. He fled, but 
was taken, and incontinently was to be punished. Dona 
Isabel came out to plead for him. The Master of the 
Camp showed himself to be so compliant that he threw 
down the stick and went on board ; but this was not that 
he might not give the Adelantado a faculty against the 
prisoner. The Chief Pilot would have interceded, but the 
Adelantado did not wish to hear him, saying that the man 
had put his hand in his beard, which was a sort of mutiny. 
The Chief Pilot prayed that nevertheless the Adelantado 
would hear the case, and dismiss it ; or, if he did not wish 
to do that, that he would judge the matter officially ; for 
that the man had been brought by force, and that it did 



QUIROS THREATENS TO RESIGN. 13 

not seem just to take away his honour. At last, yielding 
to these prayers, the Adelantado set the prisoner free. 
The Master of the Camp had gone on shore, and presently 
he sent for his clothes. But as the Adelantado showed a 
wish that he should stay, the Admiral and Captain Don 
Lorenzo persuaded him to return to the ship. 

It appeared to the Chief Pilot that it was very uncertain 
what would be the end, when the beginning was so dis- 
ordered. He, therefore, requested the Adelantado that he 
might be left behind ; and for this course he gave many 
reasons which did not appear to be bad. The Adelantado 
threw his arms round the Pilot's neck, declaring that only 
an angel could conduct things as he said, but that all 
should be put in good order, and that a remedy should be 
found. The Chief Pilot still insisted upon his dismissal, 
saying that where the General's person was, who so well 
understood the art of navigating, he might well be excused. 
The Adelantado was much grieved on hearing this, and 
with his sagacity, he showed himself so kind and friendly, 
and used such honeyed words, that they induced the Pilot 
to remain. He went on board and, as he passed the ship, 
the sailors said : " Ah ! Sir Chief Pilot, what goings and 
comings are these ? We are informed of what you think of 
doing, for no one wants to remain in this ship though it 
cost all their lives." Jumping on shore, the Admiral, the 
Lieutenant of Payta, and other persons of the fleet, came 
to the Pilot, and he gave his reasons to all. 

At this time the Master of the Camp came up and said, 
in a loud voice : " Well, Sir ! the Devil walks loose among 
us, to see if he can injure this good work. Let us go 
whence we came, and let him show himself for what he is. 
For, though he works with diligence, we will advance 
forward such a Christian undertaking, and in this voyage 
we will truly serve God and the King." The Chief Pilot 
gave him this answer : " Sir Master of the Camp ! in all 



14 ARGUMENT WITH THE CAMP MASTER. 

things there should be moderation and fair dealing, but 
your Honour was very hasty in raising the stick, drawing 
your sword, and abusing the seamen whose services are so 
necessary. As I know the mischief that is done by such 
conduct, I wish to see the remedy, so as to comply with all 
my obligations." The Master of the Camp, more gentle 
when he was on shore, answered that a Camp Master 
could not be so moderate. The Chief Pilot said that he 
must be both careful and moderate ; that as yet they were 
in Peru, and that the seamen had to bring them to the 
islands, and to guard the ship when they had arrived ; and 
that if they were aggrieved, as men, there would be serious 
trouble ; that they had to bring the news and return with 
succour, and speak well of the land, or evil though it was 
good, for revenge. The Camp Master was not quieted 
with this argument, but was wedded to his own idea, 
and answered that men did not do what they were told 
at sea; that he had to make them stir quickly; and that 
all he had done was necessary that the fleet might not 
be disorganised, and that each man to his own office 
seemed good, and was in order. With this, and many 
other things that were said at the time, the incident was 
closed. 

The two embarked, not very friendly, and the Adelan- 
tado engaged a man here, who gave him 2,000 dols. for 
the place of Sergeant Major ; and with this he left off 
recruiting. He embarked 1,800 jars of water, and gave 
instructions for the order that was to be maintained, and 
for the navigation that was to be carried out. 

They carried in the fleet 378 persons by the list, of 
whom 280 were capable of bearing arms ; 200 arquebuses 
and other weapons, offensive and defensive, respecting 
which testimony was given before the Lieutenant of Payta 
to send to the King our Lord, as was done. 

The Capitana was named San Jeronimo^ and there went 



DISCOVERY OF THE MARQUESAS. 15 

in her the Adelantado, his wife, his sister-in-law and her 
brothers, the chief Officers, and two priests. 

The Almiranta was named Santa Isabel, under the 
Admiral Lope de Vega, with two Captains, and a priest 

The galeot was named San Felipe, under Captain Felipe 
Corzo, with his officers and men. 

The frigate was named Santa Catalina, under Captain 
Alonso de Leyva. 



CHAPTER IV. 
The Island of Magdalena. 

HAVING made sail, the fleet shaped a S.W. course, dis- 
playing the royal standard and the flags, playing clarions, 
and feasting on such an auspicious day as this was con- 
sidered to be. The winds were from the S. and S.S.E., 
which are the winds of Peru, until we reached a lati- 
tude of 9 30', and from that point the course was W.S.W. 
as far as 14. From thence the course was W.N.W. to 21. 
The sun was taken at noon, and having made the com- 
putation, the result was 10 50'. At 5 in the afternoon, 
an island was sighted 10 leagues distant, being N.W. by 
N. 1 The Adelantado gave it the name of Magdalena, as 
it was the eve of that day. He thought it was the land 
that he sought, for which reason he was very joyful in 
every one's sight, in that he had come in a short time with 
a fair wind, the victuals good, and the people amicable, 
healthy, and cheerful. During the voyage there had 
been fifteen marriages, scarcely a day passing without 
some one wanting to be married next day. It seemed 
as if all would run in couples with the good fortune, 

1 Magdalena is in 10 25' S. and 138 28' W, 



16 THE MARQUESAS. 

with high hopes, many stories, and none for the good of 
the natives. 

The Adelantado said to the Vicar and Chaplain that 
they were to chant the " Te Deum laudamus" with all the 
people on their knees, and that they should give thanks to 
God for the mercy of sighting land. This was done with 
great devotion. 

On the following day, with doubt whether that island 
was inhabited, the ships were steered to the south of it, 
and very near the coast. From a point under a peaked 
hill towards the eastern end, there came out seventy small 
canoes, not all the same size, made of one piece of wood, 
with outriggers of cane on each side, after the manner of 
the gunwales of galleys, which reach to the water on 
which they press to prevent the canoe from capsizing, and 
all their paddles rowing. The least number they had in a 
canoe was three, the greatest ten, some swimming, and 
others hanging on altogether, four hundred natives, almost 
white, and of very graceful shape, well-formed, robust, 
good legs and feet, hands with long fingers ; good eyes, 
mouth, and teeth, and the same with the other features. 
Their skin was clear, showing them to be a strong and 
healthy race, and indeed robust. They all came naked, 
without any part covered ; their faces and bodies in 
patterns of a blue colour, painted with fish and other 
patterns. Their hair was like that of women, very long 
and loose, some had it twisted, and they themselves gave 
it turns. Many of them were ruddy. They had beautiful 
youths who, for a people barbarous and naked, it was 
certainly pleasant to see ; and they had much cause to 
praise their Creator. 

Among them there was a boy, who appeared to be 
about ten years of age. 1 He came rowing in a canoe with 

1 Suarez de Figueroa says it was a girl. 



THE MARQUESAS. 1 7 

two others. His eyes were fixed on the ship, and his 
countenance was like that of an angel, with an aspect and 
spirit that promised much, of a good colour, not fair but 
white ; his locks like that of a lady who valued them much. 
He was all that has been said, so that I never in my life 
felt such pain as when I thought that so fair a creature 
should be left to go to perdition. 1 

The natives came with much speed and fury, rowing 
their canoes, pointing with their fingers to their port and 
land, speaking loudly, and often using the words ata/utand 
analut. They came to our ships, and when they arrived 
they gave us cocoa-nuts, a kind of food rolled up in leaves, 
good plantains, and large canes 2 full of water. They looked 
at the ships, the people, and the women who had come out 
on the galley to see them, at whom they looked, and laughed 
at the sight. They got one to put his hand on the ship, 
and, with coaxing, they got him to come on board. The 
Adelantado dressed him in a shirt and put a hat upon his 
head, which, when the others saw, they laughed and looked, 
crying out to the rest. On this about forty came on board, 
beside whom the Spaniards seemed of small stature. 
Among them there was one taller than the rest by a head 
and shoulders, and taller than our best men, though we had 
one very tall. They began to walk about the ship with 
great boldness, taking hold of whatever was near them, and 
many of them tried the arms of the soldiers, touched them 
in several parts with their fingers, looked at their beards and 
faces, with other monkey tricks. As they saw that our men 
were dressed in various colours, they were confused ; so the 
soldiers bared their breasts, let down their stockings, and 
tucked up their sleeves to satisfy them. When they were 
shown this, they quieted down, and were much pleased. 

1 Suarez de Figueroa quotes all this word for word, and here says 
that he is quoting from the papers of the Chief Pilot. 

2 Joints of bamboos in which they carry water. 



1 8 THE MARQUESAS. 

The Adelantado and some of the soldiers gave them 
shirts, hats, and other trifling things, which they presently 
put round their necks, dancing and singing in their fashion, 
and loudly called to the others to look at what they had 
been given. Their conduct annoyed the Adelantado, who 
made signs to them to go ; but they not only would not 
leave the ship, but became more free in taking things they 
saw. Some cut slices from our bacon and meat with 
knives made of cane, and wanted to take other things. At 
last the Adelantado ordered a gun to be fired, and when 
they felt and heard it, with great terror, they all jumped 
into the water and swam to their canoes, only one remain- 
ing in the ship. He was clinging on to the main channels, 
and they could not make him let go, until some one 
wounded him on the hand with a sword, which was shown 
to the others, and they took him into a canoe. At this 
time they fastened a rope to the ship's bowsprit, and, by 
rowing, tried to tow her on shore, thinking they could thus 
take her. 

When the native was wounded, they all became warlike, 
and were marshalled by one who carried a parasol of palm 
leaves. Among them was one old man with a long and 
well-ordered beard, who cast fierce looks from his eyes, put 
both hands into his beard, raised his moustaches, stood up, 
and cried out, looking in many directions. They played on 
shells, and striking with their paddles in the canoes they 
showed their hostility: some taking up the lances which they 
brought, tied down ; others with stones in slings, not having 
other arms. With good will, they began to hurl stones, 
and wounded a soldier ; but first they had come near the 
ship, and those with lances threatened to throw them. 
The soldiers pointed their arquebuses, but, as it had been 
raining, the powder would not ignite. It was a sight to 
behold, how the natives came on with noise and shouts ; 
and how some, when they saw weapons pointed at them,- 



THE MARQUESAS. 19 

jumped from the canoes into the water, or got behind the 
others. At last, the old man who made the menaces was 
shot in the forehead, and fell dead, with seven or eight 
others, while some were wounded. They fled from our 
ships, and presently three natives came in a canoe, calling 
out. One held up a green branch, and something white in 
his hand, which appeared to be a sign of peace. They 
seemed to be asking us to come to their port ; but this 
was not done, and they departed, leaving some cocoa-nuts. 
This island has a circumference of about 10 leagues, so 
far as we could see. It is clear and open towards the sea, 
lofty and wooded in the ravines, which is where the natives 
live. The port is on the south side. It is in latitude 
10 S., and a thousand leagues from Lima. It is thickly 
inhabited ; for, besides those who came in the canoes, the 
beaches and rocks were covered with people. The Adelan- 
tado did not know the place, and, being undeceived, he 
said it was not one of the islands he came in search of, but 
a new discovery. 



CHAPTER V. 

How three other islands were sighted, their names, and how they 
came to a port in that of Santa Cristina. 

AT a short distance from this island three other islands 
were sighted, for which a course was shaped. The first, 
to which the Adelantado gave the name of San Pedro, was 
10 leagues W.N.W. from Magdalena. It was not ascer- 
tained whether it was inhabited, because it was not visited. 
It is about 4 leagues in circumference, with much forest, 
but apparently not very high. At the east end there is a 
rock at a short distance from the coast. 

There is another island called Dominica, with a circum- 

C 2 



20 THE MARQUESAS. 

ference of some 1 5 leagues, bearing N.W. from San Pedro, 
distant 5 leagues. The island is beautiful to look upon, 
and runs N.E. to S.W. It has fine plains and mountains, 
is thickly inhabited, with many groves of trees. 

To the south of Dominica there is another island to 
which the name of Santa Cristina was given. It seemed 
to be about n leagues in circumference, and is a little 
over a league from Dominica, with a clear and deep 
channel between them. The Adelantado named all four 
islands together " Las Marquesas de Mendoza," in memory 
of the Marquis of Canete ; because by this, and in making 
sail with his ships from any port, he wished to show how 
grateful he was for the assistance given by that Viceroy in 
the despatch of the expedition. 

While tacking off and on, and seeking a port in the 
island of Dominica, many canoes full of natives came out, 
who seemed to be of a browner colour, and crying out, 
showed the same good will as the others. In one canoe 
there came an old man, carrying a green branch and some- 
thing white. At this moment the ship was put about, and, 
thinking that she was going away, the old man began to 
renew his shouts, make signs with his hair, and pointing 
downwards with his hair and fingers. The Adelantado 
wanted to return, but he could not do so because the wind 
freshened, and no sheltered port for anchoring could be 
seen : though the frigate, which stood close into the shore, 
reported having seen many more people than were visible 
from the ship, and that a native had come on board, who 
with great ease had lifted a calf by one ear. 

On the following day the General sent the Camp Master 
in the boat with twenty soldiers, to seek for a port or a 
watering place on the island of Santa Cristina. Many 
natives came out in canoes, and surrounded them. Our 
people, wishing to make themselves safe, killed some of 
them. One, to save himself, jumped into the sea with a 



THE MARQUESAS. 21 

child in his arms. Clasped together, they were sent to the 
bottom by a shot from an arquebus that one of the soldiers 
fired off. He said afterwards, with great sorrow, that the 
Devil had to take those who were ordained to be taken. 
The Chief Pilot said to him that he regretted that he had 
not fired in the air, but the soldier said that he acted as he 
did lest he should lose his reputation as a good marks- 
man. The Chief Pilot asked him what it would serve him 
to enter into hell with the fame of being a good shot ? 
The Camp Master returned without having found either a 
port or a watering place. 

At the same time four very daring natives had gone on 
board the ship, and while no one was looking, one of them 
took a small dog, which was the gift of the Camp Master. 
Then, with a shout they all jumped overboard with great 
courage, and swam to their canoes. 

The next day, which was St. James's day, the General 
again sent the Camp Master, with twenty soldiers, to the 
island of Santa Cristina to find a watering place and a 
port He effected a landing with the men in good order, 
and surrounded a village while the inhabitants stood 
looking on. The Camp Master called to them, and about 
three hundred came. Our people then drew a line, telling 
the natives by signs that they were not to go beyond it. 
On asking for water they brought some in cocoa nuts, and 
the women brought other kinds of fruit. The soldiers said 
that many of these women were very pretty, and that they 
were ready to come near in friendly intercourse, and to 
give their presents with their hands. The Camp Master 
sent the natives for water with the jars, but they made 
signs that our people should carry them ; running off with 
four jars, for which reason we opened fire on them. 

The General, having seen the port into which the Camp 
Master had gone, ordered the ship to be taken into it and 
anchored. But the wind died away under the land, and 



22 THE MARQUESAS. 

the ship was taken by a wave to within a lance's length of 
a rock, with 50 fathoms close to it. There was great con- 
sternation at the obvious danger. Sail was made, and God 
was served that a breeze should spring up, and the ship 
stood off. Then there came another report that the port 
was bad, full of sunken rocks, and that it was impossible 
to get out again if a ship had once entered. The 
Adelantado was much annoyed to hear the complaints 
of the hard work, and was moved to continue the voyage, 
saying that the water they had on board would be suffi- 
cient for the voyage to his islands. The Chief Pilot 
reminded him of the uncertainties of the sea, to which he 
answered : " If we cannot find a port, what are we to do ? " 
The Chief Pilot replied that we must return to Magdalena, 
which we had already seen, and where the frigate had 
anchored, and that for a little more work it was needful to 
secure more necessaries. Meanwhile, the Camp Master 
had been coasting along the island ; and very near the port 
that had been entered he found another, which he reported, 
and there the fleet anchored. 



CHAPTER VI. 

How the Adelantado landed on the island of Santa Cristina, and 
what took place with the natives. 

ON the day after the arrival, which was the 28th of July, 
the Adelantado went on shore, with his wife and the 
greater part of the crew, to hear the first mass said by the 
Vicar. The natives knelt down in silence and attention, 
imitating all they saw the Christians do. A very beautiful 
native sat near Dona Isabel, with such red hair that Dona 
Isabel wished to cut off a few locks ; but seeing that the 
native did not like it she desisted, not wishing to make 
her angry. 



THE MARQUESAS. 23 

The General, in the name of His Majesty, took posses- 
sion of all the four islands, walked through the village, 
sowed maize in presence of the natives ; and, having had 
such intercourse as was possible with them, he went on 
board. The Camp Master remained on shore with all the 
soldiers, who in a short time began to quarrel among them- 
selves. Then the natives threw many stones and lances, 
wounding one soldier in the foot, without doing any other 
harm. They then fled to the mountains with their women 
and children, our people following them, until they were all 
in the woods. Being fired at, the natives reached the 
summits of three high hills, where they entrenched them- 
selves. In the mornings and afternoons they all, with one 
accord, made a resounding noise, which echoed through 
the ravines, and was replied to by shouts. They wished 
to do us harm, hurling stones and lances, but their efforts 
were in vain. 

The Camp Master placed guards in three positions to 
secure the village and the beach, where the women were 
resting and the sailors getting wood and water for the 
ships. What I have to say is, that some of these natives, 
being strong and courageous, used arrows, while there were 
not wanting others who seemed more cautious. They were 
very diligent to attack ; but seeing how little harm they 
did, and how much hurt they received from the arquebuses, 
they tried to establish peace and friendship. For when 
the soldiers went to their work, they came out to them 
lovingly, offering them bunches of plantains and other 
fruits. It seemed that they felt the want of their houses, 
for they asked, by signs, when the Spaniards would go. 
Some came to the guards with food, which they gave to 
the soldiers. One native especially, of good presence, was 
taught to make the sign of the cross, and to say " Jesus 
Maria," and the rest. They were in conversation with 
their comrades, for each one had a comrade, whom they 



24 THE MARQUESAS. 

sought out and sat with, when they came ; and by signs they 
asked each other the names of the sky, the earth, the sea, 
the sun, the moon and stars, and everything else within their 
vision. All were well content with what they said, calling 
each other friends and comrades. As this friendship was 
not without payment, there was a certain man who joy- 
fully said to the General, that he had his dog well fed by 
the natives, by a forage he had made in the preceding 
night, when his company had the guard. 

On another day eleven natives came in two canoes, and 
two of them stood up with some strings of cocoa nuts in 
their hands, and shouted while they showed them. Orders 
were given not to answer, and for the soldiers to be ready 
with their arquebuses. When the natives found that they 
were not answered, they came close to the ship, when a 
volley was fired. Two were killed. The soldiers shot 
three more, and throwing down what they had, the rest 
rowed away and fled. They were chased in a boat, but 
the natives got on shore and fled. Jumping on shore, only 
three were seen to run to the top of some high hills. 
Those in the boat took the canoes, with three dead bodies 
in them, for the rest had fallen into the sea. The cruelty 
of the Spaniards was such that there were not wanting 
those who said that the bullet wounds, so fierce and ugly, 
would frighten the other natives, and that the swords, 
making wide wounds, would have the same effect. In 
order that the natives might see, it was ordered that the 
bodies should be taken on shore, that the Camp Master 
might hang them up where they would be seen by the 
natives. It was said that this was done in order that the 
natives, if they came with false intent in their canoes, 
might know what the Spaniards could do. But it seemed 
to me that four armed ships had little to fear from un- 
armed natives in canoes. The Camp Master hung up the 
three natives in a place best adapted for the intended 



THE MARQUESAS. 25 

object. A certain person came to see them, who gave one 
of the bodies a lance-thrust, and praised what had been 
done. At night the natives took the bodies away. 

An evil example gives rise to licence, and reason 
conquers him who knows it. A certain person had an 
arquebus in his hut, and a friend of his loaded it, and 
pointed it to fire at the natives. The other took it out of 
his hands, and asked him what he was going to do with so 
much diligence. He replied, that his diligence was to kill, 
because he liked to kill. " It is not right," replied his 
friend, " that you should show such readiness to cause the 
death of men. What harm have these natives done to 
you that you should treat them with such cruelty ? It is 
not valorous to show yourself a lion amongst lambs, nor 
to kill when it takes your fancy. If you do not know what 
a foul and sinful thing it is to murder a body which con- 
tains a soul, it is high time that you learned, and though it 
has weight it is not profitable." 

The native who was friendly to the Chaplain came to 
the guard, and being seen by the General they embarked 
very joyfully, the native crying out, " Friend ! Friend !" 
The Adelantado received him very cordially, offering him 
conserves and wine, but he would neither eat nor drink. 
He began to look at the sheep, and seemed to give them a 
name ; he gazed at the ship and the rigging, counted the 
masts and sails, went below and noted everything with 
care, more so than is usual with a native. They told him 
to say " Jesus Maria," and to make the sign of the cross, 
which he did with great amusement, showed good will in 
all things, and presently he asked for persons to take him 
back to the shore. Such was the intelligence of this 
native that when he understood that the ships would 
depart, he showed regret, and wanted to go with us. 

The Adelantado wanted to colonise these four islands, 
to make his business with them, and to leave thirty men, 



26 THE MARQUESAS. 

some of them married. But the soldiers complained of 
this, and seeing their ill-will he gave up the idea. 

It may be held as certain that two hundred natives 
were killed in these islands, for the impious and incon- 
siderate soldiers dropped one or two or three. Their evil 
deeds are not things to do, nor to praise, nor to allow, nor 
to maintain, nor to refrain from punishing if the occasion 
permits. 



CHAPTER VII. 

In which an account is given of the port, island, and inhabitants ; of 
their customs, and other things. 

THIS island of Santa Cristina is very populous, and lofty 
in the centre. It has its ravines and valleys, where the 
natives live. The port was named " Madre de Dios." 
Praise to her \ It is in the western part, in latitude 9 30', 
sheltered from all winds, only excepting the west, which 
never was found to blow. Its shape is that of a horse-shoe, 
with a narrow mouth, and at the entrance it has a clear 
bottom of sand, with a depth of 30 fathoms, in the middle 
24, and 12 near the beach. The marks by which it is 
known are a hill to the south, rising from the sea, having a 
peak terminating in three others on its summit ; to the 
north a concave rock ; within the port five wooded ravines, 
all coming down to the sea, and a hill which divides the 
little beaches of sand, having a stream of excellent water 
falling from a height of a man's stature and a half, the 
thickness of a fist, where the barrels can be filled. Near 
it there is a stream of equally good water, flowing near a 
village which the natives have there. So that waterfall, 
stream, and village are all on the shore, which is on the 
north side of the hill. On the south side of it there are 
houses scattered among the trees, To the east there are 



THE MARQUESAS. 27 

high rocky hills, with some ravines whence the stream 
descends. 

Some of the natives of these islands did not appear to 
be as white as those of Magdalena. They have the same 
form of speech, the same arms and canoes, with which they 
communicate. Their village is built on two sides of a 
square, one north and south, the other east to west, with 
the surroundings well paved. The rest is a space with 
very tall and thick trees. The houses appear to be for the 
community, after the manner of slave quarters, and open to 
wind and water, the floor being raised above that of the 
street. It appeared that many people were lodged in each 
house, for there were many bed-places, and these low. 
Some houses had low doors, and others had all the front 
open. They are of wood, interwoven with very large canes 
having joints of more than 5 palmos^ in length, and of the 
thickness of a man's arm. The roof is of the leaves from 
the trees in the open space. 

The Chief Pilot did not see anything of the women, 
because he did not land at the time that they came ; but 
all who saw them reported that they had beautiful legs 
and hands, fine eyes, fair countenances, small waists, and 
graceful forms, and some of them prettier than the ladies 
of Lima* who are famed for their beauty. Respecting 
their complexion, if it cannot be called white, it is nearly 
white. They go with a certain covering from the breasts 
downwards. 

Apart from the village there was an oracle surrounded 
by palisades, with the entrance on the west side. Within 
there was a house, almost in the middle, in which there 
were some wooden figures badly carved ; and here were 
offerings of food and a pig, which the soldiers took. 



1 A palmo is 8 inches, being a quarter of a vara, which is 
32.9 inches. 



28 THE MARQUESAS. 

Wanting to take other things, the natives interfered, 
saying they must not take anything, showing that they 
respected that house and the figures. 

Outside the village they had some very long and well- 
made canoes of a single tree, with the form of a keel, bow, 
and stern, and with boards well fastened with ropes made 
from cocoa fibre. In each one there is room for thirty or 
forty natives as rowers ; and they gave us to understand, 
when they were asked, that they went in these large canoes 
to other lands. They work with adzes, which they make 
of thick fish-bones and shells. They sharpen them with 
large pebbles, which they have for the purpose. 

The temperature, health, vigour, and corpulence of these 
people tell what the climate must be under which they live. 
One suffers cold at night, but the sun does not cause much 
molestation by day. There were some showers, not heavy ; 
dew was never felt, but very great dryness, so much so 
that wet things, when left out all night on the ground, 
were found quite dry in the morning. But we could not 
tell whether this was so all the year round. 

They saw pigs, and fowls of Castille, and the fishery is 
certain wherever there is sea. 

The trees which have been mentioned as being in the 
open space before the village yield a fruit which reaches to 
the size of a boy's head. Its colour, when it is ripe, is a 
clear green, and when unripe it is very green. The rind 
has crossed scales like a pineapple, its shape not quite 
round, being rather more narrow at the end than near the 
stem. From the stem grows a leaf-stalk reaching to the 
middle of the fruit, with a covering sheath. It has no core 
nor pips, nor anything uneatable except the skin, and that 
is thin. All the rest is a mass of pulp when ripe, not so 
much when green. They feed much upon it in all sorts of 
ways, and it is so wholesome that they call it white food. 
It is a good fruit and of much substance. The leaves of 



THE MARQUESAS. 29 

the tree are large, and much serrated, like those of the 
papay. 1 

They found many caves full of a kind of sour dough, 
which the Chief Pilot tasted. There is another fruit 
covered on the outside with prickles like a chestnut, but 
each as big as six of Castille, with nearly the same taste. 
Its shape is like a heart, flattened. They eat many, roast 
and boiled, and leave them on the trees to ripen. 

There are nuts the size of those of Castille, and appear 
to be almost the same in taste. The outside is very hard 
and without joint, and its kernel is not attached to the 
rind, so that it comes out easily and entire when opened. 
It is an oily fruit. They ate and took away many of 
them. 

They saw calabashes of Castille sown on the beach, and 
some red flowers pleasant to look on, but without smell. 
As our people did not go inland, and all the natives 
retreated into the woods, as has been said, this is all that 
can be related. The soldiers said that all the trees 
appeared to bear fruit. 

Our men were very well received by the natives, but it 
was not understood why they gave us a welcome, or what 
was their intention. For we did not understand them ; 
and to this may be attributed the evil things that hap- 
pened, which might have been avoided if there had been 
some one to make us understand each other. 



1 The earliest description of the bread fruit. 



36 THE VOYAGE CONTINUED. 



CHAPTER VII. 

How the Adelantado departed from this island, and how the murmur- 
ing began among the soldiers by reason of faults and of not 
finding the land. 

WHILE the Adelantado was at this island he ordered the 
galeot to be repaired, for one day, before anchoring, she 
was in great danger from having fouled the bowsprit of the 
Capitana. He also ordered wood and water to be got on 
board, the people to be embarked, and the ships to be got 
ready. On the 5th of August he raised three crosses, each 
one in its place, and another was cut on a tree, with the 
day and year. He then weighed, and made sail in search 
of the islands of his first discovery. A course was shaped 
W.S.W., with the wind E. varying to S.E. In this way, 
sometimes altering course to N.W. and due west, they 
sailed for about 400 leagues. 

After three or four days, the Adelantado said that on 
that day they would see the land of which they were in 
search, news which greatly rejoiced the people. But, 
looking in all directions, they neither saw land on that day 
nor on many days afterwards ; and for this reason the 
soldiers began to say things, and to conspire because the 
voyage was so prolonged. There was scarcity of food and 
water, for at the news of the proximity of land the people 
had indulged themselves freely. Now they began to show 
slackness and suspicion. It is no cause for surprise that 
in such enterprises those who have to bear the blame and 
the responsibility should be the chief workers as well as 
the chief sufferers. 

On Sunday, the 2Oth of August, having covered the said 
400 leagues, the dawn found us close to four small and low 
islands, with sandy beaches, and many palm and other 
trees. Together they appeared to be 8 leagues in circum- 



ISLANDS SIGHTED. 3! 

ference, more or less. They are in a square, very close to 
each other. From S.W. to N.E., and towards E. there are 
banks of sand, where there are no means of entrance, and a 
point was found in the reef which goes more to S.W. 
The General gave the name of " San Bernardo" to these 
islands, as it was that saint's day. He wanted to find a 
port among these islands, but desisted at the request of 
the Vicar. It was not known whether they were inhabited, 
although the people in the galeot said they had seen canoes, 
but this was believed to be a mistake. The islands are in 
10 20' S., and in longitude 400 leagues from Lima. 

Passing these four islands the wind came from S.E., 
which always blows, sometimes with light showers, and 
thick dense cloud-masses were not wanting. These masses 
were of various colours, and, strangely enough, they formed 
themselves into various figures, and in contemplating them 
they remained for a long space of time. Sometimes they 
were so fixed that they were not dissipated during the 
whole day. As they were in an unknown direction, it was 
thought that they were indications of land. We continued 
to steer a westerly course, sometimes N.W. and S.W., 
always in latitudes in accordance with the will and in- 
structions of the General, which were not to go higher than 
12 or lower than 8. Generally we were in 10 to 11. 

On Tuesday, the 29th of August, we sighted a low round 
island covered with trees, and surrounded by a reef which 
rose above the water. It was about a league in circum- 
ference, and in latitude 10 40' S., distant from Lima 
1,535 leagues. As it was by itself, it was named " Solitaria." 
The Adelantado ordered the two small vessels to go in 
shore and seek for a port, so as to get wood, of which the 
Almiranta was much in need, and to see if water could be 
procured, of which there was also much scarcity. They 
anchored in 10 fathoms, and with loud cries told the 
General to stand off, as the bottom was full of great rocks. 



$2 DISCONTENT. 

They were going and coming with the sounding line 
sometimes finding 10 fathoms, at others 100 fathoms. 
There was no bottom in places, and to see the vessel 
among such rocks aroused alarm. There was no want of 
haste to get her away into the open sea. All round this 
island there are a great number of rocks, and the channel 
between these rocks is to the south. 

At this time the soldiers, being influenced by their 
privations, and wearied from the disappointment of their 
hopes, formed both public and private assemblies to 
murmur and talk, which was a dissolution of discipline, 
and an indication of what would happen afterwards. 

The Camp Master (as has been said) was somewhat 
violent, and he had quarrels with many people in the ship. 
In fine, experience and time taught me what should be 
said, and I saw what should be done with regard to his 
evil behaviour and menaces. In general we said as follows: 
" We do not come here to lose but to gain. The Camp 
Master orders things for the King's service, as the King 
desires he should order them, and we all have to obey. 
Do your duty, and leave the things that do not belong to 
it. Avoid insults and threats to the stick, for we will not 
suffer it. With so small a company so many heads may 
be dispensed with. Our General is enough, for we are not 
going where the usages of Flanders or of Italy are needed ; 
nor are we naked Indians, and for us death-dealing soldiers 
are not necessary ; but we are courageous and well- 
intentioned persons. Above all, we must watch the 
General and the Camp Master, that each one may do his 
part, and carefully and in detail give an account of what 
he may succeed in hearing ; while they conceal things in 
such a manner that, when asked about them, they know 
nothing." For unjust eyes have been turned upon those 
who are far from any fault, and these, when they 
wish to defend themselves, it would be necessary to have 



DISCONTENT. 33 

angels for their sureties, for there is no place for a fair 
hearing. 

There was little reason, and so life was passed, many 
saying that there was an end of it, for that we should 
never find the land ; that there was no necessity for so 
much rule, death being certain. Others said that the Isles 
of Solomon had fled away, or that the Adelantado had 
forgotten the place where they were to be found, or that 
the sea had risen and covered them. Others said that, to 
call himself a Marquis and advance his own relations, he 
had taken them, with 400 pounds of biscuit, to perish in 
that great gulf, to go to the bottom and fish for those 
wonderful pearls he had talked about. They put forward 
their arguments and said one thing and another : that we 
had navigated for so many days in 10, and the islands we 
seek are said to be in the same latitude, and yet they are 
not to be found. Either we have passed them, or they do 
not exist, for by this road we shall go round the world, or 
at least we shall come at last to Great Tartary. Neither 
the Chief Pilot, nor the other Pilots, nor the Adelantado, 
know where they are taking us to, nor where we are at 
present. They could easily give or take away rewards to 
whom they chose, and follow their own likings. 

The Pilots of the other ships said that they took their 
vessels on rocks and over the land, because the place 
where they were painted had been rubbed off for many 
days, owing to the great and little height they had 
navigated ; and they said other things which were for the 
soldiers. Also, there were those who said that in hard 
times and long voyages the soldiers know their true 
friends. 

The Chief Pilot, against whom there were suspicions 
that he would never find the sought-for land, knowing that 
they had passed far beyond the longitude given by the 
Adelantado, and yet that he was the authority to whom 

D 



34 DISCONTENT. 

they all turned, spoke to the General with a view to con- 
soling the soldiers, who were so afflicted. He answered, 
that they had also said to him that all would be lost. The 
Chief Pilot, for satisfaction on his part, said many things 
in a loud voice, and concluded by saying : " Hear me, and 
do not answer to what is said. Hold yourselves in the 
belief that my words merit, for consider that I did not 
come to navigate in order that I myself might perish." 
The Captain, Don Lorenzo, then came forward with some 
remarks very far from the mark, to whom the Chief Pilot 
answered : " Those who do not understand the affair, why 
should they speak to others ? " After these discourses 
there were those who complained, saying among them- 
selves : " This business is very different from what it was 
supposed to be. Here there is neither honour nor life, as 
we are all companions who live in this house without 
doors, and without tokens of friendship." But there did 
not want those who said : " What hospitals have been 
founded or served by those that desire to please God and 
obtain their desires ? Take what is given us with joyful 
faces, for this is the best way ; and this being so, what is 
wanting will be that which need not concern us." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

How an island was discovered, that of the volcano was examined, 
and the loss of the Almiranta. 

THESE complaints caused much suffering to the Ade- 
lantado, making him avoid both public and private sins, 
which he did as much as was in his power, and giving an 
example in order to obtain peace for all. With the beads 
in his hand, and without loss of a day, he ordered the 
" Salve " to be raised before the image of Our Lady of 
Solitude, which the Chief Pilot had brought for his own 



CONDITION OF THE " ALMIRANTA." 35 

devotions. He also caused the vespers of Holy Days 
to be solemnly observed, banners to be displayed, and 
streamers to be hoisted, while warlike instruments were 
played. To practice the soldiers this was done every 
afternoon, others assisting as much as they could, although 
it should entail additional work. 

In this state was the Capitana when the Almiranta 
asked the Adelantado for a boat-load of wood, saying that, 
for want of fuel, they had burnt boxes, and were using the 
upper works of the ship. This was granted, and on 
another day the Admiral came on board the Capitana to 
greet the Adelantado, as was customary. He then told 
the General of his necessities, and begged that they would 
not part company, and with this promise they were 
rejoiced. He sought for succour as regards water, saying 
that he only had nine jars left. The Admiral showed 
much despondency, saying that the defects of his ship 
were numerous, but that he was determined to die with 
his people, because for that he had come. The Adelantado 
did what he could to cheer him, and ordered him to make 
sail, saying that the islands could not be far off. The 
Master represented that, owing to there being little ballast, 
the ship was very crank, and for this reason she would not 
bear much sail ; that there were one hundred and eighty 
persons on board, and that he hoped he would at least 
give them twenty jars of water. The Adelantado, although 
at that time he had more than four hundred jars full, 
would not give one, for the report seemed to him false. 

With these and other misfortunes they sailed on until 
the /th of September, when, with a rather fresh S.E. 
breeze, the ship only had a foresail on her without a bonnet, 1 
steering west. There was seen ahead a mass of dark 
smoke, for which reason the Chief Pilot ordered the galeot 

1 Piece of canvas laced to the foot of the mainsail and foresail. 

P 3 



36 THE "ALMIRANTA" MISSING. 

and frigate to go on, keeping in sight of each other, and 
see what land or reefs there were, and to report by burning 
two lights,and two others in reply or in warning. But 
they were to return before nightfall. 

With this anxious doubt they continued to navigate 
with the care that such a night made necessary. At 9 
the Almiranta was seen, and at n, on the port side, there 
was a great and thick mass of cloud, which covered the 
horizon in that direction. The sailors, and all who turned 
their eyes upon it, were doubtful whether it was land. The 
fog raised its curtain, which was in the form of a dense 
shower, and land was clearly seen, less than a league 
distant. It was announced in the customary way, in a loud 
voice, and all hands came out to see. The galeot made 
many signals to the other ships, and, though the night was 
dark, they could be seen at a great distance. The two ships 
answered, but no signal was seen from the other. The 
night was passed praying to God to send the day. When 
it came, a point was seen rather dark and rounded, being 
covered with trees, looking very beautiful ; but, looking 
round for the Almiranta, she was nowhere to be seen ; on 
which every one was sad and anxious, showing the feeling 
that it was natural they should have. It was Mariana de 
Castro, the Admiral's wife, who felt it most, for she blamed 
herself, and wept continually. The General, though he 
wished to do so, could not dissimulate, for all saw that his 
thoughts were bitter. What may be said is, that he was 
always apprehensive of the loss of this ship, for many 
reasons which might be given, some of which were spoken 
at Sana, now at a distance of 1,085 leagues. Next day, 
at dawn, they were repeated by a native woman, who 
mourned for the loss of a soldier, a friend of hers, who was 
in the ship. 

When the daylight appeared, they beheld a single 
pointed mountain rising out of the sea like a sugar-loaf, 



THE VOLCANO. 37 

all cut out, and to the S.E. another small hill. It seemed 
to be distant about three leagues, being eight from the 
island, and it has no port, nor any place where one could 
jump on to the slope. It is quite bare, there being no trees 
nor anything green. There are some crevices, two espe- 
cially on the west side, and out of them as well as from the 
summit of the mountain, a great quantity of sparks and fire 
came out with much noise. It may be said with truth 
that ten volcanoes together do not send forth such flames 
as this one does by itself. When it was first sighted it 
was not seen to send out flames. It had a very well-formed 
peak ; but, a few days after we anchored at the island, it 
threw off its crown with a great trembling, insomuch that, 
being 10 leagues distant from it where we were anchored, 
we heard it, and it moved the ship. From that time for- 
ward, every now and then, there were mighty thunderings 
within the mountain at the time that the flames burst 
forth ; and when they finished, there was so much and such 
dense smoke, that it seemed to cover the whole concave of 
the first heaven. 1 

The Adelantado gave orders to the frigate to sail round 
the volcano, which was to the west, to see if perchance the 
Almiranta was on the other side of it, and was becalmed 
under the land, and then to proceed in the direction of the 
island. He also ordered the soldiers to be confessed, and, 
to set an example, he himself confessed in public. The 
Vicar also persuaded them, for they were about to visit an 
unknown land, where enemies and dangers would not be 
wanting. 



1 This is the island of Tinakula, an active volcano rising 3,000 feet 
above the sea in a most perfectly shaped cone, to the north of the 
island of Santa Cruz. The volcano is still in full activity. It is in 
lat. 10 24' S., long. 165 45' W. 



DESCRIPTION OF NATIVES. 



CHAPTER IX. 

How a great number of canoes came out to the ships from the land ; 
gives an account of them and of the natives, and of the rest that 
took place until they went into port. 

BEING near this island, there came out from it a large 
canoe with a sail, and behind it a fleet of fifty smaller 
canoes, the people in them calling to the ships with shouts 
and waving of hands, our men, though doubtfully, calling 
in return. They arrived. The natives in them were of a 
black colour ; some of them tawny, with frizzled hair ; 
many of them having it white, red, and of other colours. 
It certainly must have been dyed, and half of it removed 
from the head in some, and there were other differences. 
They were all naked. Their teeth were dyed red. Part 
of their bodies was covered with woven stuff, and all were 
painted with lines blacker than their own colour, and they 
had lines on their faces and bodies. They had many turns 
of a black reed round their arms, and many strings of very 
small beads of bone and fish's teeth round their necks, and 
many plates of mother-of-pearl, small and great, hanging 
from various parts. The canoes were small, and some 
came fastened together, two and two, with frames rather 
high, as counterpoises, like those of the former islands. 
Their arms were bows, with arrows having very sharp 
points of toasted wood, and others with bone harpoon- 
shaped points. Some were feathered, with the point 
anointed, and carried in quivers. The ointment appeared 
to be from a herb. Although they do little harm, they 
carry stones, clubs of heavy wood, which are their swords, 
and darts of stout wood, with three rows of harpoons, in 
length more than a palmo 1 to the points. They carried 

1 8.346 inches. 



FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH NATIVES. 39 

from a shoulcler-belt a kind of bag, well worked, and full 
of biscuits, made from a certain root, which they were all 
eating as they came along, and readily gave away some of 
it. When the Adelantado saw their colour, he took them 
for the people he was in search of, and said : " This is 
such and such an island or land." He spoke to them in 
the language he had learnt during his first voyage, but 
they never understood him, nor did he understand them. 

They went on to look at the ships, and all went chattering 
round them ; but they would not come on board, though we 
tried to persuade them. On the contrary, after consulting, 
they took their arms quickly, apparently incited by a tall 
and lean old native who was in the front, and without 
more ado they drew their bows ready to shoot. The old 
man addressed them, the word was passed from one to the 
other, and for some time there was indecision ; but, finally, 
their resolution was formed, and, giving a shout, they shot 
off all their bows, and sent many arrows into the sails and 
on other parts of the ship, without doing any other harm. 
Seeing this, orders were given to the soldiers, who were 
ready, to fire their arquebuses. Some were killed, many 
others were wounded, and they all fled in great terror. 
They were followed in the boat by four arquebusiers, and 
overtaken. Two jumped into the water to save their lives, 
who were spared, and the rest, jumping out on the beach, 
hid themselves among the trees. 

We stood off and on, seeking for a port, which all so 
much desired, with the patience taught by the severe work 
they had gone through, understanding that a landing would 
bring us certain refreshment. The frigate came back 
without having seen the Almiranta, which aroused our 
grief and fear afresh, and all three vessels anchored at the 
mouth of a bay, under the shelter of some rocks. The 
bottom was dangerous, and with the rising tide the galeot 
got adrift at about 10 in the evening. Seeing the danger of 



40 THE FIRST ANCHORAGE. 

driving on the rocks, the General came out to give courage 
to the men, and raise the anchors. The noise and hurry 
was great, the danger being imminent, and the night time 
made it appear greater than it was. The negligence of the 
soldiers was reprehensible, and there were not wanting 
those who cried out : " The services which merit approval 
from the King are neither these cares nor want of care. 
Let the brave Peruvians go below, and let those who get 
the credit do the work. This ship must be looked after 
among them, for it is for their credit, and to save their own 
lives." They did not want to work, and had no shame ; 
but, without their help, God was served by our getting up 
the anchors. Having made sail, the ship got out into 
the open sea, though not without some difficulty, for the 
waves came on board and made her heel over. 

At dawn the Adelantado went on board the galeot to 
seek for a port ; and the Chief Pilot found one, though 
small. The volcano bore N.W. The port was sheltered 
to the S.E., and had 12 fathoms of depth, a village, a river, 
fuel and timber, and fresh air. The Adelantado came 
back without having found a port, and the ships entered 
the bay. As it was late they anchored under a point. 
The Sergeant landed with twelve arquebusiers to secure a 
position. The natives of the village came out, and shot off 
arrows with such force, that our men were obliged to take 
refuge in a hut. Two volleys were fired from the ship, 
which put the natives to flight, and the boat was sent for 
the men. All that night the ships were at sea, and the 
next day the Adelantado found a harbour sheltered from 
all winds, where he anchored in 1 5 fathoms, and near the 
shore, where there were villages and a river. All night 
the noise of music and dancing was heard, striking drums 
and tambourines of hollow wood, at which the natives 
passed their time. 



THE CHIKF MALOPE. 41 



CHAPTER X. 

How the natives came to see the ships ; how they found another 
better port ; of the guazabra that the natives gave ; and what 
happened until the settlement was formed. 

HAVING anchored in the place already mentioned, many 
natives came to see the ships and our people. Most of 
them had red flowers in their hair and in their nostrils, and 
some of them were persuaded by our people to come on 
board the ships, leaving their arms in the canoes. Among 
them there came a man of fine presence and tawny-coloured 
skin, with plumes on his head of blue, yellow, and red, and 
in his hand a bow, with arrows pointed with carved bone. 
On either side of him were two natives, with more authority 
than the rest. We understood this man to be a personage, 
both because he appeared to be greater than the others, 
and because of the respect with which he was treated. 
Presently he came forward, and asked by signs who was 
our chief. The Adelantado received him with much love, 
and, taking him by the hand, let him know who he was. 
He said that his name was Malope, and the Adelantado 
said that his was Mendana. Malope understood, and said 
that henceforward his name should be Mendana, and that 
Mendafta's name should be Malope. When this exchange 
of names had been effected, he showed that he put great 
value on it, and when anyone called him Malope he said 
No, that his name was Mendana ; and pointing with his 
finger to the Adelantado, he said that was Malope. 

He also said that he was called Jauriqui : that name 
appearing to mean chief or captain. The Adelantado 
dressed him in a shirt, and gave him a few trifles of little 
value. To other natives the soldiers gave feathers, little 
bells, glass beads, bits of cloth and cotton, and even playing- 
cards, all which they put round their necks. They taught 



42 INTERCOURSE WITH NATIVES. 

the natives to say " friends," and to make a cross with two 
ringers, embracing them in token of peace, all which they 
did learn and constantly practised. They showed them 
looking-glasses, and with razors they shaved their heads 
and chins, and with scissors they cut their finger and toe- 
nails, at all which they rejoiced and were astonished ; but 
they begged hard for the razors and scissors. They also 
found out what was under the men's clothes, and, being 
undeceived, they played monkey tricks, such as those used 
by the natives of the first islands. 

This continued for four days, and they came and went, 
and brought what food they had. One day Malope came, 
for he was the one whose visits were most frequent, and 
who showed most friendship, the ships being anchored 
near his village. The natives assembled with fifty canoes, 
in which they had their arms concealed, all waiting for 
Malope, who was on board the Capitana. They all fled 
because they saw a soldier take up an arquebus, and made 
for the shore, our people following them. On the beach 
there was another crowd of people, who received them 
with joy, and they had a great consultation. The soldiers 
were disappointed at such signs of peace, and would have 
preferred that they should have given occasion to break 
the peace and make war. 

On that same afternoon the natives took all they pos- 
sessed in the nearest houses, and retreated to the village of 
Malope. On the following night there were great fires on 
the other side of the bay, lasting nearly until morning, 
which seemed to be a signal for war ; and this was con- 
firmed when canoes were seen going in great haste from 
one village to another, as if they were warning or giving 
notice of something. 

Next morning a boat was sent from the galeot to take 
in water at an adjacent stream. While they were thus 
employed, some concealed natives shouted and fired off 



SECOND ENCOUNTER WITH NATIVES. 43 

arrows, which wounded three of our men. They followed 
down to the boat, where they were repulsed by the 
arquebusiers. The wounded were attended to, and the 
Adelantado at once ordered the Camp Master to land with 
thirty men, and to do all the harm they could with fire and 
sword. The natives stood their ground, when five were 
killed, and the rest fled. Our people retreated, and, em- 
barking, came back to the ships, having cut down palm 
trees and burnt some huts and canoes. They brought 
away three pigs, which they killed. 

On the same day the Adelantado sent the Captain, Don 
Lorenzo, in the frigate, with twenty soldiers and seamen, 
to seek for the Almiranta, with instructions to examine all 
the coast that was in sight, and to return to the place 
where they anchored on the first night of seeing the land. 
Thence he was to steer W. and N.W., which was the 
direction the Almiranta might have taken, beyond the 
route taken by the Capitana, and he was to see whether 
anything could be found in that direction. 

He also ordered the Camp Master to rise early, and go 
quickly with forty soldiers to some huts which were near a 
hill, to punish the natives for having hit our men with 
arrows, in order that, by means of the chastisement in- 
flicted on them, it might have the effect of preventing 
greater evils. He arrived without alarming the natives, 
occupied the paths, surrounded the houses, and set them 
on fire. Seven natives who were inside, seeing the fire 
and the people, defended themselves like brave men, and 
attacked our soldiers without regard for their own lives. 
Six were killed, and the other escaped by running, but was 
badly wounded. The Camp Master came back to the 
ship with seven wounded men and five dead pigs. 

In the afternoon Malope came to the beach, for the houses 
and canoes that had been burnt belonged to him. In a 
loud voice, he cried to the Adelantado by the name of 



44 SEARCH FOR THE " ALMIRANTA." 

Malope, saying : " Malope ! Malope ! " and beating on his 
own breast, saying : " Mendana, Mendana ! " In this way 
he made his complaint, showing the harm they had done 
him by pointing with his finger. He also made signs that 
his people had not shot arrows at our men, but that the 
aggressors came from the other side of the bay. He 
strung his bow, intending that we should all go against 
them, and that his people would help us in taking ven- 
geance. The Adelantado called him with the intention of 
explaining matters ; but he did not come. He went away, 
returning on another day, and friendship was restored. 

On the day of St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist, 
they made sail from this port, steering for another which 
was better and more convenient, at a distance of half a 
league, and in the same bay. While altering our berth, 
the Captain, Don Lorenzo, came back with the news that 
in sailing round the island he had found another bay not 
less good than the one in which we were, and with more 
people and canoes ; also, that further on he saw two fair- 
sized islands, near the large island, which were thickly 
peopled. To the S.E., at a distance of 8 leagues, he saw 
another island ; 9 or 10 leagues to E.N.E. from where we 
hove to for the night when we first sighted land, he came 
on three islands, one 7 leagues round and the two others 
very small. They were all inhabited by brown people of 
a clear colour, covered with palm trees ; and many reefs 
ran out to W.N.W., with openings and channels, of which 
no end was seen. 1 No sign whatever was seen of the ship 
of which they were in search. 

We anchored in the second port, and the natives passed 
the whole night in shouting, as if they were bull-fighting 
or having games, and very clearly we heard the word 



1 Nupani, Nukapu, and several other small reef islands north of 
Santa Cruz. 



THIRD ENCOUNTER WITH NATIVES. 45 

" amigo," and presently shouts. In this and making fires 
the night was passed. When morning dawned, a troop of 
about five hundred natives came to the beach, all with 
their weapons in their hands, menacing and hurling arrows, 
darts, and stones at the ships in hostile fashion. Seeing 
that their missiles did not reach, some of them advanced 
into the water up to their breasts, while others began to 
swim ; in short, all were equal in willingness, diligence, 
and noise. They came so near that, grappling with the 
buoys of the ships, they went on shore with them. Seeing 
their audacity, the Adelantado ordered Captain Lorenzo, 
his brother-in-law, to take fifteen soldiers in the boat, and 
to skirmish with them. Those with shields protected the 
arquebusiers and rowers, so that only two were hit, but 
there would have been more if it had not been for the 
shields, which were passed from place to place. The 
natives fought in very scattered formation and by rushes, 
but showed themselves to be valorous, so that it was under- 
stood that we had met with a people who knew well how 
to defend their homes. But this only lasted during the 
time that our arms did not do the harm that they did and 
saw. As soon as they were undeceived by the death of 
two or three, and several wounded, they retreated from the 
beach, and, abandoning their aggressive attitude, took the 
road to their homes, carrying the dead and wounded, 
creeping with the speed that we gave them into the woods. 
They carried the wounded in their arms, and helped others 
to walk, leaving the trail of their own blood where they 
went 

The Captain, Don Lorenzo, although he had no orders 
to land, followed the natives with his men, and the Camp 
Master, who was watching everything from the ship, 
shouted that the men were being placed in risk, and that 
if he was in another place he would punish one who 
assumed a licence that had not been given to him. Doiia 



46 CONDUCT OF THE CAMP MASTER 

Isabel felt this very much, and wished it to be understood 
that, being her brother, for him there was no limit of 
licence in things military. The Camp Master landed with 
thirty soldiers, and went in pursuit of the natives, but as 
he would not wait, he had nothing to report. 

It may be looked upon as certain that the Camp Master 
had said to the Captain, Don Lorenzo, that if he would 
not obey he was not fit to be a Captain ; that he must pull 
up and know his duty, and that there were not wanting 
those who would teach him. When this came to the 
knowledge of Dona Isabel, she said things which were 
very deeply felt by the Camp Master ; who did not come 
back, but went alone to pass the night at one of the 
villages of the natives which was near, and all that night 
silence was well kept. 



CHAPTER XI. 

How they began to treat of a settlement, and what passed in forming 
it, and the complaints of the soldiers. 

THE following day, the Camp Master being on shore, he 
proposed to the soldiers to clear a place which was close 
to a large stream, and to found a settlement. The soldiers 
were not pleased with the place, which appeared to be 
unhealthy, and for this reason some of the married men 
went on board to inform the Adelantado of the determina- 
tion of the Camp Master, and to ask leave to go on shore 
and settle in one of the native villages, where the houses 
were ready built and the place already used. Others repre- 
sented that there was no better place than the one selected, 
and that if the natives had not settled there, it was a 
token of their bad disposition. If not, they could do what 
seemed best. 



THE SETTLEMENT. 47 

The Adelantado agreed to this, and went on shore. As 
the unmarried men were of the same opinion as the Camp 
Master, they at once got out axes, wood knives, and spades, 
and began to cut down trees with smooth trunks, lofty and 
tufted, but with very diverse leaves. The Adelantado 
was not at all pleased at the decision, for it was his inten- 
tion to form the settlement on a bare point near the 
entrance of the bay, where he went with the Camp Master 
and the soldiers. All came with the opinion that the land 
was like Andalusia, that the natives had many farms, and 
for a settlement that the place was as good as it was 
agreeable. 

The soldiers cut down the trees with good will, brought 
poles with which they built huts, and branches of palms 
to roof them. Their former work and troubles, and the 
gift they had left behind, were forgotten, as well as the 
small store they then had. They did not remember their 
country, nor that they had left the province of Peru, so 
rich and extensive, where there is no man who is poor in 
hopes. They would overcome all the difficulties of which 
they were told, and which were before their eyes, for their 
God and their King. The spirit and valour of Spaniards 
could do all, for neither labour nor ill fortune could daunt 
them, nor could dangers, however terrible and fearful they 
might be. So they built their houses and set up their 
tents, each one doing the best he could, as a beginning of 
what they would have to perform in parts where they 
would live and end with honour and fame. The Devil was 
able to work so well with some of them, that they kept in 
mind the delights of Lima ; and this sufficed to rob the 
rest of their lofty thoughts, and thus to abate that con- 
stancy which it is necessary to preserve and maintain in 
such affairs. 

The Adelantado did not disembark, but gave his orders 
for the good government of his people from the ship. But 



48 GRACIOSA BAY. 

the soldiers, to whom a limit to what they are permitted to 
do seldom or ever seems good, began to complain of an 
order which the Adelantado had given. It had reference 
to the good treatment of the natives, their houses and 
property. Those were not wanting who said that they did 
not want to have a division but a moderate profit, that it 
was sufficient that they had been brought to that coast, 
and that all belonged to them. In other ways they noted 
and reminded themselves of what they had spent and left 
behind, and of what they had suffered, and of their hopes. 
Hence complaints arose, and too surely they began to lose 
their love and loyalty point by point. 



CHAPTER XII. 

In which a particular account is given of this bay, the natives, the 
port, the villages and food, with what else was seen. 

THIS bay, to which the Adelantado gave the name of 
" Graciosa," for so it is, has a circuit of 40^ leagues. It 
runs N.N.E. and S.S.W., and is at the western end of the 
island, on its north side, and south of the volcano. Its 
mouth is half a league wide, and there is a reef on the east 
side, but the entrance is very open. The bay is formed by 
an island to the westward, which is very fertile and well 
peopled, both on the shore and inland. We called it our 
garden, " Huerta." 1 It is separated from the large island 
by a short space, full of rocks and reefs, with some small 
channels, so that only boats and canoes can pass. The 
port is at the bottom of the bay, where there is a very 
copious stream of clear and excellent water, which, at the 
distance of a musket shot, runs under some rocks and so 
enters the sea. The settlement was formed on the banks 

1 In lat. 10 40' S., long. 165 45' 30" W. 



ANIMALS. PLANTS. 49 

of this stream and of the sea. To the east of the stream, 
at the distance of an arquebus shot, there is a moderate- 
sized river. The port is in 10 20' S., and 1,850 leagues 
from Lima. There are breezes from the S.E., which do 
little harm. The bottom is mud, with 40, 30, and 20 
fathoms, and anchorage close to the shore. In all this bay 
there is no place for a ship to anchor except in the port, 
and in the first, which we left because it was small. Over 
all the rest there is foul ground owing to rocks. There is 
another spring on a beach of clean sand, of excellent water, 
and a river and stream, which flow near the houses of 
Malope, and there enter the sea. 

In this country there are many pigs, which they roast 
whole over stones. There are fowls like those of Castille, 
many of them white. They fly up into the trees and 
breed there ; also partridges, like those of Castille, or of 
another kind very like them. 

There are large wild pigeons, grey, with white necks, 
small doves, herons, black and white, ducks, swallows, and 
other birds which I do not know. Of reptiles I only saw 
some black lizards, and ants, but no mosquitos : a new 
thing in such a low latitude. 

There are many kinds of fish. The natives fish with 
three-pronged poles which they have, large, and many of 
them. The line appears to be of fibre, witb floats of light 
wood, and sinkers of stone. 

They have many plantains, of seven or eight kinds. 
Some are reddish, and as broad as the width of a hand ; 
others of the same colour, but very small and tender, even 
when ripe. Some have the rind green, and the pulp not 
so green. There are others very large, twisted with one 
turn, which are of a delicious taste and smell. Each bunch 
has many plantains. 

There are great numbers of cocoa-nut trees and very 
large sweet canes. There are also almonds with three 

E 



50 PLANTS. 

sides, and the pulp of each one contains as much as four 
almonds of Castille, the taste being delicious. There are 
some very beautiful pines of the size of a man's head, with 
the kernels the size of a Spanish almond. The trees on 
which they grow have few leaves, and those they have are 
large. There is another kind of very good nuts, which 
grow in very large and long bunches on small trees with 
round leaves, and each one, with its rind, will be of the 
size and shape of a date. There is also the large fruit 
which we praised much at the first islands, and the nuts 
and chestnuts like the others. There is another fruit which 
they called a pippin. It grows on a tall and large tree, 
and another kind which is not so good, the way of growing 
being like that of pears. As we did not go all over the 
land, nor were there all the year round, it is not known 
what other fruits there may be. 

There are three or four kinds of roots, all in abundance, 
which form their bread, and they eat them roast or boiled. 
One of them has a sweet taste, the other two prick a little 
when eaten. A soldier ate one raw, from which a great 
nausea resulted, but he was none the worse. Of these 
roots the natives make a great quantity of biscuits, dried 
either in the sun or by fire. They keep them in baskets 
of palm leaves. This food is sustaining. It has the draw- 
back of being rather heating, but much is eaten of it, and 
of the roots roasted and boiled, and in pots. 

There is plenty of fibre, which throughout the east is 
used as cord. 

There are large and red amaranths, greens, and a sort of 
calabash, plenty of sweet basil with a very strong smell, 
and several kinds of red flowers beautiful to look at, which 
the natives are very fond of. They have no smell. They 
train them on small trees, and have them in small pots 
near their houses. 

There is plenty of ginger, which grows without being 



NATIVES. HOUSES. 51 

sown. There is also a great quantity of a tall branching 
shrub called indigo, from which the indigo dye is made. 
There are aloe trees, much demajagua} from which they 
make their cords and nets, as well as from the cocoa-nuts, 
though not so much. 

There are shells like the curious ones that are brought 
from China, and pearl oyster-shells, some large and others 
small. 

In our settlement, on the banks of the stream, there was 
a tree which the natives wound in the trunk, and there 
comes out a liquor of a sweet smell, which is very like 
turpentine, and with this, or another mixed with it, they 
fill their calabashes. The natives make bags and purses 
of palm very well worked, and large sheets or mats which 
serve as sails for their canoes. They weave a fabric I do 
not know from what it is woven on some small looms 
they make, which serve for mantles, with which the women 
are clothed. 

I have already said that the natives are black and tawny, 
and they are like the people we have among ourselves of 
those colours. They make great use of a root which is 
also used in the East Indies, called betel, and in the 
Philippines buhio. It is a cordate-shaped leaf of the size 
of a hand, more or less, its smell, taste, and colour like a 
clove. They put lime with it, apparently got from shells, 
and fruit the size of acorns, which grows on wild palms. 
They spit out the first chewing, and keep the pulp that is 
left. It is well spoken of as wholesome, and strengthening 
to the stomach, as well as good for the teeth. 

Their villages consist of twenty houses, more or less, 
and they build them round, of boards one over the other, 
on a single frame of stout wood. They have two lofts, to 
which they ascend by ladders, with roofs of interlaced 



Not a Spanish word. 

E 2 



52 HOUSES. CANOES. CULTIVATION. 

palms, like hen lofts in Castille. They are all open, half 
the height of a man, and surrounded by a wall of loose 
stones, with an opening instead of a door. The eaves do 
not reach to the boards of the roof, and serve as a shelter. 
In each village there is a long house, used as an oracle, 
with human figures in half relief, badly carved, and another 
long house, which appeared to be for the community. In 
the centre of them there were barbacoas of cane. There 
are ten or twelve of these villages on the sea shore, and in 
each one or two wells, curiously lined with stones, with 
steps such as are in use among us, by which they go down, 
and the opening has its covering of boards. On the shore 
there are some yards encircled by stones where, when the 
sea rises, they fish with a certain contrivance, having a pole 
worked like a pump-handle. 

They have some large and beautiful canoes, with which 
they navigate to a distance, for the small ones only serve 
to go for short distances from their homes. They are flat- 
bottomed, made of a single tree from stem to stern. They 
have their hatchway in the middle, out of which they take 
the water which comes in by the mast. They fix a frame 
of crossed sticks, very securely fastened with cords, from 
which comes an outrigger with a cross plank, which 
steadies the canoe, and prevents it from capsizing. In 
this way one such vessel will serve for thirty or more men 
with their things. The sail is large, and made of matting, 
wide above and narrow below. The canoes are good 
sailers and weatherly. Our frigate succeeded in getting 
one, and hoisted her up, under the bowsprit. 

They have their cultivated patches, and fruit gardens 
well ordered. The soil is black, spongy, and loose. The 
parts that are sown are first well cleared. The tempera- 
ture is the same as that of other lands in the same latitude. 
There was some thunder and lightning, and many showers, 
but not much wind. 



SUPPLIES FROM THE NATIVES. 53 

The Adelantado gave the name of SANTA CRUZ to the 
island. It appeared to have a circumference of 100 leagues. 
All the part which I saw runs almost east and west It is 
well covered with trees. The land is not very high, though 
there are hills, ravines, and some beds of reeds. It is clear 
of rocks, and those that do exist are close to the land. It 
is well peopled all along the sea shore ; but I cannot give 
an account of the interior, as I never explored it. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

How the trouble among the soldiers began with a paper and signa- 
tures ; what the Adelantado said on the subject to certain soldiers; 
of some complaints that were made, and some disgraceful things 
that occurred. 

As has been said, the Adelantado did not land because no 
house had been built for him. So that he was in the ship, 
while the Camp Master was on shore and had charge of 
the ordering of things there. Our people began to seek 
for food, and whenever a leader with twelve or fifteen 
soldiers went to the villages of the natives (which were 
numerous and near our settlement), or to their cultivated 
patches, they always came back with from six to twelve 
pigs, many cocoa nuts and plantains, and everything else 
that the island supplies. They found the natives submis- 
sive and inclined to peace ; for though it is true that at 
first they took to flight, afterwards they remained quietly 
in their houses, with their wives and children. They them- 
selves brought supplies to near the camp. They were not 
allowed to enter, lest they should see how small were our 
numbers. The same was done by them as regards the 
ship, and their solicitude seemed to show that they were 
friends. 



54 INSUBORDINATION. 

Malope also conducted himself in the same way, and 
from the goodwill that was shown by all, it seemed to us 
that the friendship with them was firmly established. It 
arrived at such a pitch that the Captain Don Lorenzo was 
able to make an agreement with the natives that they 
would come to help us to build the houses, praying that 
their own might be left to them, and showing much feeling 
when they were pulled down. One day, when they came 
the Vicar went out to them, and many with him. He 
made a cross with two poles, ordering all present to show 
reverence to it. Presently the natives did the same, and 
went with it to their village in procession. 

Things being in this condition, there began to arise 
among the soldiers opinions very different from those of 
the Adelantado. They said that the land was wretched 
and very poor, that there was nothing in all the country, 
and that the position of the settlement was bad. They 
were dissatisfied with everything. What yesterday ap- 
peared very good to them now seemed very bad ; guided 
by their fancies, and forgetful of the obligations of those 
who follow the banner of their King. At last a document 
was prepared with several signatures, in which the Adelan- 
tado was asked to take them away from that place and 
find a better one for them, or to take them to the islands 
he had talked about. The Adelantado had notice of the 
paper and signatures, through the gossip and the post 
which the Devil always has ready to carry tales. He fell 
ill at the trouble of seeing such a bad beginning to what 
he had hoped would have a good end. Seeing, however, 
into what disorder things were falling, he went on shore. 
Meeting one of those who had signed the paper, he said : 
" Is your worship a ringleader of the party ? Do you not 
know that it is little less than mutiny to sign that paper?" 
The man replied, with the paper in his hand : " Here is 
what we want, and if anything else has been said it is a 



MURDER OF NATIVES. 55 

lie." A soldier put forth another argument, and the 
Adelantado said : " Silence, for you have cause to hold 
your tongues." He then went on board again, and ordered 
the Pilot of the galeot to go on shore, where he was 
received by certain of the soldiers. It is reported that he 
said to them that they should leave that land, and that 
in less than thirty days he would take them to a better 
one. 

In the midst of these troubles our church was built, for 
which there was a charitable promise in the future of 
10,000 ducats; and each day the priest said mass in it. 

They had to seek for food, and they cut much fibre to 
make ropes, collecting all they could get from the natives. 
Meanwhile the signing of the paper proceeded, and it was 
considered certain that there would be eighty signatures. 
Those who asked men to sign did not forget to make the 
most of the island, and to remind them of their hardships 
and hard work. Some of the men answered that there was 
the need to work everywhere, and that the work in that 
land was of a kind which was quite suitable to them. 

The deaths of the natives took place in the following 
way. One of them, being in friendship with us, a soldier 
shot him in the neck, of which wound he presently died. 
The other, being in conversation, four soldiers called him 
apart, and killed him with stabs. These things were done 
with the object of inducing the natives to make war upon 
us, and thus produce a scarcity of provisions, so as to make 
it the desire of all to leave the island. Also it was thought 
that the natives attacking, the camp would have to be 
strengthened, the Adelantado would be applied to for the 
artillery, and he being disarmed they would remain strong. 
It was said that they wanted to kill some of us, I know 
not who, but certain persons were followed, with the object 
of taking their offices and giving them to friends of the 
disaffected. It was also said that it was intended to give 



56 MUTINOUS FEELING. 

a false alarm at night, and, when those who were loyal 
to the Adelantado came out of their houses, to set upon 
them. 

It was made public that, one night, a troop of armed 
malcontents came to enter a house where some loyal men 
were watching, and after they had pointed arquebuses at 
their breasts, they turned back and went into a tent. There 
they tried the beds, and, not finding the owners in them, 
who from fear had fled into the woods, they only terrified 
their wives. At another place they tried the place in a 
bed by driving a sword into it, and not feeling anything 
they went away. This was related by the people them- 
selves. But as the stories wanted evidence, nothing was 
done. I say myself that a soldier said to me that others 
had asked him whether he wished to return to Peru ; that 
he had answered in the affirmative, and seeing what his 
wishes were, they asked him to sign the paper they showed 
him, to be presented to the Adelantado. As soon as he 
had signed they said to him : " Now that you have signed 
you must have your weapons ready, and if you see the 
Adelantado and the Camp Master opposed, take the side 
of the Camp Master, and act like a good soldier. Point 
with your arquebus and fire. You are not told to kill 
unless," etc. The same thing was said on another occa- 
sion : "It is a pity, for at night I am disturbed lest they 
should not kill as many men as they want to kill." 

Among the various proposals of the malcontents there 
was one that they should make gimlet holes in the ships, 
because it was not desirable that news should be taken to 
Peru, for the islands would not be found, even if search 
was made for them they would not be discovered, and thus 
either all would go or none. To this a well-intentioned 
person answered that the coming had been for the good of 
the people of those parts, and that if the King was not 
informed, so that succour might be sent, the service could 



MUTINOUS FEELING. 57 

not be performed. This honourable answer so enraged 
the other that he raised his arm in anger, and said that 
" they would not be converted, a flock of sheep, and as 
they have been until now, so they will continue to be 
henceforward ; but we are not going to die here when we 
can be saved." The other, continuing the conversation, 
said : " I should be fortunate if the Lord granted that I 
should be the means of one soul being saved ; how much 
more when there are so many here to be saved." This 
plan of returning to Peru was so fixed in their minds, that 
they did not even like the Chief Pjlot to go out to sea 
on the important business of his calling ; saying, that if 
he went with the sailors he would not come back again. 
This had such an effect on the mind of the Adelantado, 
that he had all the sails unbent, and put them under guard. 
This was not the only false testimony that was borne ; for 
another lie was told of another person. It was a small 
thing to take life, so long as they could gain their ends. 
But it was seen by experience that attempts against truth 
and innocence profit little, because the author of them is 
soon discredited. I can well say that the harm they in- 
tended me has been pardoned. A friend said to one of 
them : " Is your worship one of those who wish to leave 
this land ? " The reply was : " What can we do here ? " 
The other answered : " What we came to do ! and if all 
others went away, I should remain to do my duty ; and 
the friend who should deny this ought to be answered, 
without further ado, with a dagger in his blood." 

This confused time was good for each one to declare 
his good will if he had it. Discontented and vacillating 
soldiers, when they saw no firmness, felt that the door was 
open for them to try the minds of others, and find out who 
was resolved and who was not. One said in public : " the 
Camp Master is my cock ; all are afraid of him. What 
he orders is obeyed. Now things are ripening. Before 



58 CONDUCT OF THE CAMP MASTER. 

long we shall see something, and before long we shall have 
liberty." It was also said that the clothes of Doiia Isabel 
were intended to last two years. Another said that he 
might think himself fortunate who could take his wife by 
the hand. Another said : " Such and such could stay, but 
we intend to go, let it give pain to whom it might pain, 
for in my kingdom I may rule." Such like nonsense would 
lead to death. It was also said : " We carry such a one as 
pilot, who is not known to the world. He will take 
us to the deserts of Chile, and with that we shall be 
contented, and we will go to Potosi." In short, each word 
that was said was mutinous and insubordinate. Well was 
this tower of confusion built up over the ashes of vin- 
dictiveness, vanity, and disordered ambition and avarice, 
the pests of such an enterprise. This it is to want under- 
standing and prudence. Will it not bring ruin ? Further 
on we shall see. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

How the Adelantado went on shore, and what happened, and what 
he said to the Camp Master ; and the transaction between the 
Vicar and the Chief Pilot. 

SEEING that there was so much disorder, the Adelantado 
determined to go on shore, where he met several soldiers 
with swords in their hands. He asked them why they 
carried them so, and one replied that it was because there 
was war. The Camp Master came to the Adelantado, and 
said : " It is well that your Lordship has come. It seems 
to me that these bellicose men go and come with com- 
plaints, and refer me to your Lordship ; and if your Lord- 
ship does not apply a remedy, all those will be found some 
morning hanging from a tree " ; and he pointed with his 
ringer. To this the Adelantado answered with great 



CONDUCT OF THE CAMP MASTER. 59 

patience, and showing much sorrow. The Camp Master 
replied : " They are rascals who would not dare to take a 
crumb from a cat. Apart from your Lordship, whom I 
hold to be above my head (this with his hat in his hand), 
I do not care for any of them, from the smallest to the 
biggest, and I look upon them as the dirt under my feet, 
and none of them merits notice except myself, for I am a 
gentleman. All who are here, except your Lordship, want 
to go away and leave this land, but I must obey and serve 
your Lordship ; God knows that if it had not been for me 
the honour of your Lordship would have been in the dust ; 
and last night they would have killed all those who were 
in two of the houses if I had not prevented them. One is 
the house of such an one, and as to the other I will keep 
silence." They told me that he said more. I am not any 
longer informed about it. They can do what they like. 
On this day a soldier took the liberty to address the 
General. The Camp Master was present, and he quarrelled 
with the man. The Adelantado, seeing this, and con- 
sidering the liberties that had been taken on other days, 
said : " Now they lose respect for me." The man was 
respectable, and was on the side and held the views of his 
chief, and would have stood by him, and for the honour 
of the King. But the Adelantado took him by the arm, 
and said : " This is not the time ! " 

The General paid several visits to the camp, to see if his 
presence would smooth matters. One day he met the 
Camp Master, and said to him : " For all that is happening 
the fault is your worship's, for you give the soldiers wings, 
and they suffer misrepresentation." The Camp Master 
answered : " The false statements are on board the ship, 
and I show no favour to the soldiers, but I make them 
respect your Lordship and obey you as governor." 

On another occasion the Camp Master took the hand of 
the Adelantado, and complained of what Dona Isabel had 



60 CONDUCT OF THE CAMP MASTER. 

said of him. The Adelantado was more annoyed this time 
than on others. The Camp Master went away, and the 
Adelantado went to the corps du garde. He laid down on 
a chest, and showed much feeling. They had to help him 
to raise his feet on to it. Presently, the Chief Pilot and 
some others came, saying that he should not be troubled, 
and that all were his servants and would follow him. 
Having rested a little, he went on board, and repeated 
what he had said to the Camp Master. With arms in his 
hand the General came for me, and told me, that the 
Camp Master had said also what a thing it was not to 
have come provided, as was reasonable, and they had 
deceived him in not having brought two hundred axes 
and three hundred wood knives; for they had come to a 
land where neither God nor the King would be served 
by their arrival, and if this people were taken to another 
part it would be a great advantage. These things about 
the Camp Master I relate partly from the reports of others, 
for I do not myself remember them all very well. 

The next time the Adelantado went on shore was to 
arrange and mark out with the Camp Master a site for a 
stockade to be used as a fort. Touching this, and the ground 
for sowing, and other matters relating to the adminis- 
tration of the settlement, he had to give his attention and 
to hear much folly. There were questions of entails, titles, 
relationships, and ownerships ; such demands, replies and 
settlements ; such wasting of time and breaking of heads. 
In fine, they did not trust each other. On this day two 
arquebusiers left the camp, and the ball of one of them 
went whizzing over the Chief Pilot, who was on board the 
Capitana. The other ball passed over the frigate, and I 
know not at what birds they were aiming. 

On the following night the Chief Pilot was keeping 
watch, and at dawn Don Diego Barreto came in a canoe to 
speak to his brother-in-law. Having spoken to him, he 



INCREASE OF DISCONTENT. 6l 

said to me that things had come to such a pass in the 
camp that it did not promise less than his death, and the 
deaths of his brothers and brother-in-law, with all those 
who remained true to their duty. At this time the Camp 
Master was saying on shore, " Arm ! Arm ! " The Chief 
Pilot ordered that the Constable should fire off a piece that 
was pointed at the village, sending the ball in the air, to 
terrify the natives, or at least to let them understand that 
we did not sleep without a dog. The noise of all ceased, 
and that of one voice sounded, saying that the General 
should send them powder and cord. We were deaf for the 
time, but at dawn we sent them what they asked for ; 
asking at the same time the cause of the disturbance. The 
answer was that the branches of trees rubbed against the 
posts in one part of the camp, and, thinking it was the 
natives, they had sounded to arms. 

On the same day the Vicar went on shore to say Mass, 
according to his custom ; for he also still lived on board, 
there being no house for him in the camp. When he 
returned in the afternoon, he said to the Chief Pilot : 
"Those people will go without fail." The Chief Pilot 
asked where they would go. The Vicar replied, " I only 
know what I say ;" and the Pilot said : " What sailors have 
they to take them ? Will they kill us, or use force?" The 
Vicar said Yes ; that all were determined to do so. He 
asked the Chief Pilot to procure that the soldiers should 
be appeased, for if they should go the natives will be the 
losers. He shrugged his shoulders, saying that with very 
good will he would spend four years there, teaching the 
natives. The Pilot answered : " A month has not even 
passed since we arrived. How can there be so little 
firmness in honourable men ?" 



62 THE PILOT AND THE MUTINEERS. 



CHAPTER XV. 

How the Chief Pilot asked leave to go, in the name of the General, 
to speak to the soldiers on shore, and what passed between them. 

THE next day, being a Friday, the Chief Pilot, seeing the 
determination of the men in the camp, from what the 
Vicar had said, and the illness and low spirits of the 
Adelantado, asked permission to go on shore and speak to 
the soldiers in his name. The Adelantado answered : 
" I know not whether those people will listen to anything 
in my favour and that of the land, being so determined, and 
having declared that they would have their own way." 
The Pilot went to him a second time, and at last he con- 
sented. So the Chief Pilot went on shore, and the first 
person he met, with a scornful gesture, and his head turned 
derisively, said : " Are you ordered to go with a report to 
Peru ? Now is the time to take my letters." Then a 
soldier, who was a friend to the Adelantado, came to the 
Pilot, and said : " Things look very bad ; I know not what 
will happen." Another said : " Though I wish to see you 
proceeding with the enterprise, I am very sorry to see you 
here, because of the menaces with which you will be 
received." 

On going further into the camp, many soldiers came to 
him. Some were saying : " Where have you brought us to ? 
What place is this whence no man goes, and to which no 
man will return? Even if notice was sent, people would 
only come to take gold, silver, pearls, or other things of 
value, and these are not here. The Adelantado is not to 
send notice, nor will all of us, or any of us, consent to it." 

Others said : " We did not come to sow : for that purpose 
there is plenty of land in Peru ; that is not the way to 
follow the service of God or of the King. We have 



THE PILOT AND THE MUTINEERS. 63 

obligations to our own people, not to these savages. 
These are not the islands the Adelantado told us of, nor 
will we remain here. Embark us and take us to seek 
those other islands, or take us to Peru or some part where 
there are Christians." Resolute words of people without a 
master ! Of these and other like things one and the other 
talked, in the direction whither their desires guided them, 
or rather drove them, without attending to whether the 
things they wanted were profitable or harmful. For muti- 
neers have their wills so unrestrained that they have no 
bridle to check them, though the words spoken to them 
may be words of truth. 

The Chief Pilot enquired for the reasons which made 
them think that the land was bad, to which they answered 
that it yielded next to nothing. On this he asked them 
what they had left in Peru, and what they had brought 
from there ? and what they sought for to pass this life, 
unless it was money to buy a house and sustenance : 
a thing which few succeed in doing until late, most men 
passing their lives in hopes ; that the present is good for 
working, without knowing what may come after, or what 
may be discovered. They said that when that time came 
twenty years would have passed away, and they would be 
old. The Pilot said to them that according to that, they 
ought to know how to find cities, vineyards, and gardens ; 
to enter a house ready furnished, with the tables spread, 
and to make the owners give up their property and go into 
servitude ; or they should know how to find mountains, 
valleys, and plains of emeralds, rubies, and diamonds, ready 
to be loaded and taken away. It should be remembered 
that all the provinces in the world had their beginnings ; 
that Seville, Rome, and Venice, and the other cities of the 
world, were once forests or bare plains; and that it had 
cost the inhabitants what great things cost to create them, 
that their successors might enjoy the fruits of their labours, 



64 THE PILOT AND THE MUTINEERS. 

as they do now enjoy them. " What I understand is that 
you want others to have worked that you may rest, without 
remembering that all have to work, though the first workers 
may have made the beginnings." 

But they looked upon the Chief Pilot with suspicion, 
and they gave for a reason that it was he who was to go 
with the news, and he therefore favoured the settlement of 
this land that he might remain in the other. He asked 
them what riches they had seen him take that they thought 
this of him ; that he it was who risked most, having to go 
for their good to discover routes over unknown seas ; besides 
the labour he had to go through, to look out for a rock 
at night, and to complete calculations. 

He further addressed them as follows : " Gentlemen, 
who is it that deceives you and makes you discontented ? 
What is the bad conception which makes you think that 
you can all leave this place with the ease that you promise 
yourselves ? Tell me who they are, for I will explain to 
you the impossibilities there are in going from here to 
Peru, or any other part whatsoever." One of them 
answered : " Let that be how it may, for I would rather 
die at sea than where I am, and between the two we are 
in irons." The Pilot said to this man : " Know you not 
that we follow our General, who is in the place of the 
King, and that we are bound to desire what he desires for 
the King's service ; and to want any other thing is to want 
to go contrary to the royal service." They all answered : 
" Here we are not going against the royal service." To 
this the Pilot replied : " What is it to go against the will 
of your General ; to refuse to improve the land which he 
has settled in the royal name ; and what is it to disobey, 
incite, and menace those who do not agree with you?" 
They answered : " We only desire that notice be not sent 
to Peru, and that, as we are a small body of men, we may 
be taken from here and taken to the islands of which we 



THE PILOT AND THE MUTINEERS. 6$ 

are in search, or to some better place." The Pilot replied : 
" The Adelantado is the person whose duty it is to see that 
all goes well. It should be left to him, who now wishes a 
second time to search for the Admiral at the island of San 
Cristobal, which he was instructed to search for. If it 
should be found all will be well, and if not, a Christian 
view of things should be taken. The Adelantado's person 
and that of his wife were in the same place where they all 
were, and all would share the dangers together. If the 
Almiranta was found, all must approve. Moreover, it was 
not the Chief Pilot who had to go, but the Adelantado, 
who was well prepared." The Pilot added that their leader 
was ill, and that it was not reasonable to expect that his 
person should be exposed to new risks. But when he 
should wish to go, there should be none to contradict, 
being such honourable men whose faith could be trusted in 
this and more. 

At this time others had come to give their opinions, but 
as the music was loud and so much out of tune, it did not 
sound well. 

Continuing the discussion, the Chief Pilot, whose services 
in having navigated the fleet and discovered four islands 
whence they could take a new departure with a fair wind 
and short voyage, were nearly forgotten, now said : " You 
should all remember that if God had not given us the 
island on which we now are, we should all have perished ; 
and as He gave it, we ought to be willing to remain here 
for a time. Now it may be seen that the same wind which 
brought us detains us here ; the wind that was fair is now 
contrary, and a return to Peru is impossible without seeking 
a very high latitude. The ships have many defects, and 
we cannot careen them, we have no cables, and the rigging 
is rotten. As for provisions, we have nothing left but a 
little flour, and the jars for water are diminished in 
number, as many of them have been broken ; while the 

F 



66 THE PILOT AND THE MUTINEERS. 

barrels are out of order, there being no one who can repair 
them. The route is long and unknown, and we do not 
know what would be the duration of such a voyage. 
These things are certain, and cannot be avoided, without 
the risk of your own lives and those of your comrades." 
He said further : " I desire that the wind would change, 
but we must go west, being the only course with a fair 
wind. We may be certain that we shall not be a longer 
time on the voyage than we were in coming here, where 
we can have as much, in the way of supplies, as we started 
with. Why should we have gone through so much labour, 
wasting our property and running such great risks, under- 
taking such an honourable enterprise, if we do not go 
through with it ? 

"Remember well that the King has had and still has 
other vassals, who have defended frontiers and maintained 
provinces against warlike people of great power, and some- 
times eating dogs and cats rather than suffer dishonour ; 
and all without expecting any reward such as may be 
hoped for here. At present neither will supplies be 
wanting in so fertile a soil, nor will an enemy cause serious 
danger ; nor are there other drawbacks which we are obliged 
to forget, but which others will not forget. For we have 
an honourable opportunity which many others would like to 
have without ever having it offered to them, which we can 
perpetuate at the cost of much careful management. Why 
should we avoid such a chance ? We should show resolu- 
tion, for there is time for all things, and it is as well to 
reach the place we want in May as in September. In 
short, where is it desired that we should be, if we are 
to say that we only come to seek our own welfare ; and 
even to" procure that we want the spirit, for very soon, 
and without more cause than our own cowardice, we 
should be undone. We should be looked upon as the 
enemies of God and the King, and of the honour of our 



THE PILOT AND THE MUTINEERS. 67 

General and our own, if we abandon such an enterprise and 
such a land. 

" Enemies to God, because we abandon so easily, and 
without sufficient cause, the work we came to do for the 
honour of God and the salvation of souls. It is the great 
interest on which we have to turn both our eyes, to rescue 
from the captivity of the Devil those whom he looks 
upon as so secure ; to turn the worship of the natives 
from him, and turn it to God, to whom they owe it, and 
whose it is. 

" Enemies of the King, for impeding his service, which 
may be promoted in this place, without making other 
discoveries, incurring fresh expenses, or risking other fleets. 
It may be that what was intended will be achieved, for 
when the new world was discovered it was not known at 
first how important it was, there being only a few small 
islands of little or no value ; yet, through the constancy of 
the discoverers, there were afterwards found the great and 
rich provinces of New Spain and Peru ; while the return to 
Spain, for a long time laborious and difficult, is now made 
easy through the mercy of God. 

" Enemies to the honour of our General, because he has 
expended his resources on the enterprise, leaving what he 
has left in Peru. Do you wish, solely for your whim, to 
destroy such Christian aspirations, which have endured so 
long ? 

" Enemies of our own honour, because, from this position 
where we now are, there is no place to which we can go 
that will not be in the dominions of our King, and whose 
Ministers will exact a very strict account of whence we 
came, where we have left the General, and what reason we 
had for abandoning a land which had been settled in the 
name of the King : more especially such a land as this 
which is fertile, with friendly and numerous inhabitants. 
In one way or another we cannot escape from offending 

F 2 



68 THE PILOT AND THE MUTINEERS. 

our consciences, risking our lives, our honour^ and our 
liberty. For all to go it is not possible, although we may 
wish it. To leave women and children, and helpless 
persons, would not be just. Would you go to New Spain ? 
The Adelantado has already taken that route .when he was 
in these parts before, but many died, and all went through 
terrible hardships during a long voyage ; moreover, it is 
not always the season for such navigation. To go to the 
Philippines also has its difficulties." Thinking it all over, 
and doing his best to combat their inconsiderate desire, the 
Chief Pilot concluded by saying : " Why do you litigate 
without any grounds, saying that you will embark pre- 
sently ? I will show, with the Adelantado, that what you 
want to do this day is impossible." 

Some of them, opening their eyes, appeared to be con- 
vinced by these arguments ; but others were still obdurate. 
They preferred to trust to the ship rather than to what the 
land offered, and the water could be taken in 10,000 cocoa 
nuts, in joints of the canes, or even in the canoes of the 
natives, covering and caulking them ; and they proposed 
other equally feasible contrivances. But the Chief Pilot 
said : " This is only a waste of time. Is it not for the 
Adelantado to decide what shall be done ?" They said 
that " if the land will yield much food, how is it that we 
get nothing to eat from it ?" " What certainty have you," 
said the Pilot, " that the provisions obtained here will not 
get bad." They answered that they were ready to risk 
that. As to water, they said that they would fall in with 
other islands on the route whence they could take in 
water ; and that they would listen to reason, for they were 
reasonable beings. 

Finally, they went back to their old song that they 
wanted to go to Manilla, which was a land of Christians. 
The Pilot said to them that Manilla was also a land of 
heathens, and that there being Christians was due to the 



THE PILOT AND THE MUTINEERS. 69 

discoverers who settled there ; and that in our expedition 

a similar duty was required of us. In Manilla there are 

only some soldiers stationed by the King to guard the 

estates of the settlers ; and it is better to remain here 

where we might become such as they are in fame and 

honour, than go marching there with shouldered arquebus. 

To this one of them answered that honour was where the 

Pope and the King were, and not among Indians. The 

Pilot then said that it was better to ask for what they 

wanted from their General, who was not a man to close his 

ears to a just petition ; and that they should consider that 

their position was very offensive to the General, who 

desired to do what the King had ordered. What word 

soever sounded ill there would also follow as many more 

and as free. To this, one of the soldiers said : " Leave off! 

leave off! and leave it for he who wants to stay, for we 

intend to go, dislike it who may." I was without a sword, 

and he with seven or eight others, went for theirs, and 

presently came back with heightened colour. Asking for 

the Camp Master, they all bowed their heads, with their 

swords in their hands, looking very fierce, not wanting 

much whispering, and secrets among some who spoke 

within hearing. They said publicly that they came to kill 

the Chief Pilot ; and there was one who swore that they 

came saying : " Come, let us kill him, for he is the cause of 

our being in this land ;" and others swore, and went so far 

with their menaces as to say : " What shall they drink in 

his skull." Things did not look well. God knows what 

they intended. 

He who had declared that they would go, spoke and 
said : " There is no one who does not wish to go from this 
land ; one who keeps most apart was he who showed most 
willingness, but it does not signify." He said most on that 
side, and was most resolved, both then and at other times ; 
but as there were many people, there were as many argu- 



70 CONDUCT OF THE CAMP MASTER. 

ments, and with loud voices. The Chief Pilot concluded 
what he had to say by declaring that all he had put before 
them was in the service of God and the King, and that he 
would sustain it to the death, as he had proved. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

How the Camp Master came on board the ship ; what passed with the 
Adelantado, and between the Camp Master and the soldiers on 
shore, where the Chief Pilot talked to the Camp Master. 

THIS was the state of affairs when the Camp Master came 
on board the ship to speak with the Adelantado, who, had 
he been alone, would have strangled him and hung him on 
one of the masts. So Dona Isabel, his wife, urged him 
(according to her own account), saying to her husband : 
" Kill him or have him killed. What more do you want ? 
He has fallen into your hands, and if not I will kill him 
with this knife," The Adelantado was prudent, and did 
not do so. He understood that the desire of the Camp 
Master was not to go so far in offences of his own as it was 
said that he intended. The Camp Master returned to the 
shore, and said to the soldiers : " Gentlemen ! I come 
from speaking to the General respecting his affairs and this 
settlement ; and he said that it had come to his knowledge 
that all of you were afflicted and troubled, saying that this 
is not a good land, and that you wanted to be taken to a 
better one. He says that you ask for a paper, and that he 
will answer, which is reasonable, as he is our General." 
Presently he said : " This is not mutiny, but it is when, 
without saying anything to their superiors, the soldiers 
suddenly break out, killing and crying, ' Down with the 
rascals ! ' Your worships have a right to ask, and to go and 
seek the Almiranta ; for those on board were our comrades, 



CONDUCT OF THE CAMP MASTER. 7 1 

and it is not just to leave them without making any 
search. 

" But if I were not the Master of the Camp, I would do 
and say more, for it is not understood that in my position 
I can give consent, when the Adelantado has said that his 
friends were those who have most declared themselves : a 
reason for giving all to understand that one enjoys his 
friendship. 

" No soldier, whatever his condition may be, can to-day 
speak a word without its coming to the ear of my General ; 
for I have to be subordinate, though I may be his best 
friend. My General has given to me his honour and the 
service of the King, and they are in that place I have to 
serve. Each one watches another. I am watched because 
I favour your party. I have not to lose my honour, nor is 
it ever to be supposed that such evil and unjust things can 
ever enter the thoughts of a person with my obligations, 
position, and experience. Nor is it reasonable to think 
that such honourable soldiers as are in this camp would 
wish to do by force what is suggested. Each one performs 
the duty assigned to him, for we only came here to obey 
and serve the King, and he who serves him not will be 
punished." 

The soldiers began to talk among themselves, saying 
they need not be alarmed nor bear it in mind ; and one of 
them said, referring to a search for the Almiranta, that he 
would offer to go in search in the name of the rest ; that if 
he volunteered the thing would be safe, as he was more 
confident than the others, not being altogether ignorant of 
the art of navigation. Another said that the Adelantado 
is expert, and could not be deceived ; and said that it 
should be the Camp Master. Another objected that he 
was not a sailor. He laughed, and said : " Gentlemen, I 
do not understand those affairs, and can easily be taken 
in." He added : " Some one has to go, and some one has 



72 CONDUCT OF THE CAMP MASTER. 

to be trusted in the business." This ended what was said 
in public. A witness swore that, the Chief Pilot being 
there talking, one soldier said to another : " Let us choose 
this traitor ; we will kill him." 

The Chief Pilot took the Camp Master aside, and asked 
him to listen for a moment ; then looked round carefully, 
and in a short time discussed many things that have 
already been referred to. Respecting the navigation, 
the Pilot said that, when the time came, he would do 
the work well in accordance with instructions of the 
Adelantado. 

The Camp Master said that now he did not value his 
life, and that he would say nothing unless he was asked to 
speak. 

The Chief Pilot then took his leave, and went on board 
to report what had happened to the General, adding that, 
in his opinion, it would be well if the General would go on 
shore and speak to his people ; that he thought it would be 
easy to reduce them to obedience by his presence, his will, 
and by putting before them the just reasons which actuated 
him. 

On the following day the General went on shore. As he 
jumped out, a servant of his said, while he seized his arms : 
" There are going to be black puddings." Some soldiers 
coming towards the Adelantado said to one another : 
" Our General comes with the martingale. He also comes 
armed. What think you of the words his servant spoke to 
him ? " That day the Adelantado had arranged with Don 
Lorenzo and three other soldiers that the Camp Master 
should be put to death. This was very different from what 
I had understood that he intended to do, but such things 
ought to be stated as, in my opinion, will explain the 
change. A certain person told me that a bad third person 
had said to the Adelantado that if he would have the 
Camp Master stabbed (he did not say that he should be 



COLLECTING PROVISIONS. 73 

killed), but that if he should be killed Let those of better 
understanding judge, for I do not hold it to be right to sit 
in judgment on the living and the dead. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

How the Chief Pilot went to seek for provisions, and how Malope 
came to make peace, and the friendship that was established. 

ON the following day the Chief Pilot asked permission 
from the Adelantado to go in search of food. Having 
received it, he went in the boat, with twenty men, to a 
village where he only saw one man with a little boy. The 
rest had fled into the woods. On entering and searching 
the houses, nothing to eat was found. The Pilot followed 
a path which seemed to lead to the cultivated patches of 
the natives, and some pigs were seen, which ran into the 
woods. The Chief Pilot then heard the report of an 
arquebus, and presently another. On this he went back to 
the beach, where he had left the boat in charge of four 
arquebusiers. Arriving on the beach, he found Malope, 
who had come with two canoes, and said : " Friends ; let 
us all come and eat." These words, and some others, we 
had learnt. He then told us by signs that we should 
embark, and come with him to a place where he had many 
pigs and other food. He sent the other canoe in advance. 
The Chief Pilot embarked, and told Malope to call the 
natives of that village. They came back, and arranged, on 
their return, to have food collected. Malope rowed his 
canoe, our boat followed, and, arriving at two other villages, 
a similar arrangement was made. We then entered the 
village of the warlike natives. They gave us a pig, and a 
few cocoa-nuts and plantains. As this seemed little, the 
Chief Pilot asked for more. But the natives took up arms, 



74 COLLECTING PROVISIONS. 

and retired behind their houses and the trunks of trees 
with their bows and arrows, shouting and apparently calling 
to Malope. He seemed to be undecided, looking at one 
party and then at the other. The Chief Pilot, who always 
kept Malope by his side, drew his dagger and threatened 
Malope if he should attempt to go, or should not tell the 
natives not to shoot off their arrows. If they did, they 
would all be killed with the arquebuses. With an ignited 
cord he got ready to fire them off. Malope went to the 
village, and induced them to offer that, when the sun 
showed it to be three o'clock, they would come with what 
they could get ready. Malope called them, and they 
presently came, giving us many plantains and cocoa-nuts 
to eat. They also invited us to come and shoot natives on 
the other side of the bay, and to kill pigs. Having em- 
barked, the boat followed the canoe, but the Chief Pilot 
marched along the shore with sixteen men and three 
native guides. Seeing some birds, the natives made signs 
that we should shoot them with the arquebus. The Chief 
Pilot would not consent, though some of the men urged it. 
His reason was that to shoot a ball at a small object would 
have a doubtful result ; and he did not wish the natives to 
think that the result was uncertain ; that they might not 
lose their fear of the arquebus. 

Malope landed, the boat and canoe remaining side by 
side. All being on shore, they found the spring which has 
been mentioned. Malope sat down by it, and made signs 
that we should drink. From there we went to a village 
where the natives had ready for us a great heap of many 
plantains, sweet canes, cocoa-nuts, almonds, roots, biscuits, 
mats, and two pigs. Thus we went from village to village, 
and they gave fourteen pigs and of other things as much 
as we could take. The natives were always quiet, with the 
large canoes ready with their paddles, and themselves 
sitting under the shadow of them, There were some who 



COLLECTING PROVISIONS. 75 

gave us plantains and roasted roots, open cocoa-nuts, and 
water taken from the wells, doing all with as much good 
will as if they had been well paid. Malope showed himself 
to be contented, and said that we might come further, and 
he would get more food for us. He took us to a higher 
part, and all the natives round heard and respected him 
as Lord or great friend. 

The Chief Pilot, by signs, told him to make the natives 
carry that food, and at a word from him they had it all on 
their shoulders. It was worth seeing when more than a 
hundred natives went along the shore in a line. Having 
reached the boat, they put all they carried into it. Malope 
told the Chief Pilot to embrace the General for him, and 
took his leave. The Chief Pilot embarked, and went to 
the villages already mentioned, receiving from the natives 
what they came out in their canoes to give us. 

The provisions that we brought were good, but to some 
it seemed too small a supply. They said to the Chief 
Pilot that he should let them go on shore ; that they would 
take, burn, and kill ; that the natives were dogs, and that 
they did not come from Peru to be satisfied with nothing. 
The Chief Pilot replied : " Does a boat laden with what 
has cost no money, and given with good will by our 
friend Malope, seem to you to be nothing ? " They 
answered according to their knowledge, and the Chief 
Pilot proceeded as appeared to be necessary. 

I have related this in such detail, because it is much to 
the purpose in this narrative, as will be seen further on. 
Having arrived at the ship, Dona Isabel told the Chief 
Pilot that the other day the soldiers went from the camp 
to kill Malope. The Adelantado sent to tell them of the 
friendship Malope had shown, and desiring that notice 
should be given in the camp riot to do him any harm, as 
he had done so much good to us. The Adelantado appre- 
ciated what this native had done, praising his good conduct. 



76 RESOLUTION OF THE ADELANTADO. 

He rose from his bed to see what had been brought on 
board, which was very fairly distributed, and he said to the 
Chief Pilot that he only wanted the same share as a 
companion. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

How the Adelantado went on shore with the Chief Pilot, and ordered 
a squadron of soldiers who were going in search of food not to 
kill Malope. It relates the death of the Camp Master, and other 
cruelties. 

WHEN the night came, the Adelantado sent for the Chief 
Pilot, and made him sit by his bedside, where he was 
lying ill. With very great caution, he told him that he 
intended to go on shore the next morning with four men 
in whom he had most confidence, all armed, and that he 
would be accompanied by the royal standard, and would 
proclaim the will of the King at the proper time ; for that 
he had to go and to do justice on the Camp Master, for 
reasons which moved him so to act. 

That night the Chief Pilot caused the usual careful 
watch to be kept, and at dawn they asked for the boat 
from the camp, with loud voices. On hearing them, Dona 
Isabel came from her bed, saying : " Alas ! alas ! they have 
killed my brothers, and they ask for the boat to come and 
kill us." The Adelantado would not listen, and as soon as 
it was day a squadron of thirty soldiers came out of the 
camp. The Adelantado ordered them to be told not to go 
on before he had spoken to them. Embarking with his 
people, he asked who was their leader, who had sent them, 
and where they were going. The Lieutenant answered that 
he was the leader, and that they were ordered by the Camp 
Master to go to the village of Malope and seek for food. 
The Adelantado warned them not to kill Malope, nor to 
do him any harm, nor take any of his property, as he was 



DEATH OF THE CAMP MASTER. 77 

our friend, and that they should take him with them. He 
knew quite well that they came for food, and, turning to 
the Chief Pilot, the Adelantado told him to relate to the 
soldiers all that had passed with Malope the day before. 
They heard it laughing. 

The Adelantado had with him the Captain of the galeot, 
who carried a great wood-knife. 1 On the shore the Captain, 
Don Lorenzo, his brothers, and a few sailors, were waiting. 
Having landed, the Adelantado joined those who were on 
the shore, and went to the fort which the Camp Master 
was constructing in great haste. Before arriving, there 
were not wanting those who asked what was it they were 
wanted to do there, and one was cleaning his arquebus. 
The General arrived at the camp when the Camp Master 
was having his breakfast. He came out just as he was, 
without coat or hat, to receive the General, and when he 
found himself among so many who were not his friends, he 
called for staff, dagger and sword. 

Those who had to do the deed were arriving. The 
Adelantado raised his eyes to heaven, and, giving a sigh, 
put his hand to his sword, saying : " Long live the King ! 
Death to traitors ! " Upon this, without any delay, one 
Juan Antonio de la Roca took the Camp Master by the 
collar, and gave him two stabs, one in the mouth and the 
other on the breast. Then a Sergeant, with a Bohemian 
knife, gave him another in the side. The Camp Master 
cried : " Oh, gentlemen ! " He turned to get his sword, 
but the Captain, with his wood-knife, nearly cut off his 
right arm. He fell, saying : " Oh, leave me time to con- 
fess." One answered that " there was no time. You can 
well feel contrition." The wretched man was palpitating, 
stretched on the ground, and crying, " Jesus Maria ! " A 
good woman came up, and helped him to die in peace. 

1 Felipe Corzo. He was an enemy of Quiros. 



78 IRREGULAR EXECUTIONS. 

One with a kind heart did no more than draw out the 
sword, and the woman gave it up. So the body was left, 
and the Adelantado approved the slaughter. 

This being done, it was presently ordered to be pro- 
claimed that the Camp Master was dead, and that all the 
rest were pardoned in the name of his Majesty. The 
Camp Master having expired, the drummer, coveting his 
clothes, left him naked. 

The Camp Master was very zealous, a hard worker and 
good soldier, and in all enterprises he was the first. He 
appeared to be about sixty years of age, for his hair was 
quite white, and, though old, he was vigorous, but very 
impetuous. He knew how to think much, but he could 
not be silent, and I believe that for no other thing he was 
killed. 

At this time Don Luis and the Chief Pilot were talking 
near the tent of two friends of the Camp Master, and Don 
Luis seized one of them and stabbed him. The soldier 
cried out : " For me ? For me ? What have I done ? " 
Don Luis left the dagger, and drew his sword ; but the 
Chief Pilot defended the man, saying : " What is this, that 
without more ado men are to be killed thus ? " A soldier 
came out of another tent with his sword drawn, and said : 
"What is this? Like the Camp Master?" Don Luis 
attacked him, and many others coming up, the soldier 
retreated inside, saying : " What have I done ? What have 
I done ? " Then the Captain, Don Lorenzo, came, and 
they killed the soldier by some houses where he had fallen. 
The drummer stripped them, and soldiers were stationed 
to guard the goods of both. 

Don Lorenzo and his brother came with a party of 
soldiers, but they found the Chief Pilot at the door, who 
opposed their advance, saying he would report them. 
Don Lorenzo told him to leave the door, crying " Death to 
these traitors !" The Chief Pilot said that they were friends. 



IRREGULAR PROCEEDINGS. Jg 

" Kill them ! kill them !" they replied, " they deserve it 
more than the others." The Chief Pilot urged that they 
should mind what they were doing. Don Lorenzo answered 
that only St. Peter, if he was there, could induce them to 
spare the lives of such people. At the cries and noise of 
arms, the women came out, alarmed and agitated. Some 
prayed for their husbands ; others wrung their hands and 
lamented. The men were like lunatics, going about with 
their eyes seeking those they would kill, shouting, with 
drawn swords : " Long live the King ! Death to traitors !" 
It seemed that this was a day for avenging injuries ; but to 
me it seemed a day of licence to lads who might go any 
length. 

After the disturbances the Sergeant- Major came out of 
his tent, and that he might be able to say that he had also 
fleshed his sword, he gave a page of the Camp Master a 
cut on the head, and another to one of his servants. He 
also tried to wound a black man who had served the Camp 
Master, but he saved himself by his feet. The two who 
were wounded went to seek protection from the General, 
who ordered the Sergeant-Major to leave the boys alone. 

One came out who was suspected ; another, who cried 
for the King, would have killed him if the Chief Pilot had 
not protected him. The cry was that traitors came out 
with their arms ; this one should have a rope ; dead and 
alive all need to have honour. They came out, they said, 
to accompany the royal standard which Don Diego Barreto 
hoisted, and cried out for the King, to which all answered, 
"Death to traitors !" 

The Captain of the wood-knife took the two heads which 
the General had ordered to be put into nets, and each one 
was set on a pole near the corps de gardel At this time 



1 Outpost guard, whence sentries were selected. A picket. Usually 
consisting of twenty or thirty men. 



80 THE VICAR. PERFORMANCE OF MASS. 

the boat came from the ship in a great hurry, with the 
Vicar holding a lance in his hand, and the sailors under 
arms, crying out, "-Long live the King ! Death to traitors !" 
Coming to where they found the Adelantado, they said : 
" We have all come to serve his Majesty and to die with 
your Lordship," and they rallied round the royal standard. 
One of them asked the General whether it was done, and 
when he replied in the affirmative, the man said it was well 
done. On seeing the two heads he exclaimed : " A wall 
has henceforward fallen from before me." 

At this time Doila Isabel and her sister came from the 
ship, for the Captain with the wood-knife had been on 
board to announce the victory to them, and to boast of 
having given a good stab to the Camp Master, and of 
having cut off the two heads. He said : "Now you are 
mistress and marchioness, and I am Captain, for the Camp 
Master is dead. I say that it is terrible to fear wicked 
men with licence." When Dona Isabel landed, she went 
to the corps de garde. 

At this juncture a soldier came out of the camp, with 
plumes in his hat, dissimulating, and asking carelessly what 
was the matter, pretending that he did not know. This 
was the man who raised all the questions, and to whom all 
turned their eyes. He was allowed to be free, because the 
persons were few with whom he had treated. Many were 
frightened, and they had themselves given the occasion for 
the insecurity. Some commended themselves to their 
friends who had really been true, and they freed them. 
The Adelantado ordered that all should go to the church 
to hear Mass, which the Vicar said. When he had finished 
he turned his face to the people, and told them not to be 
scandalised at the deaths, for it was ordained. He recom- 
mended them to be quiet and obedient to the General, 
reminding them that by that way there was safety. They 
returned from the Mass in the same way they had come, 



MURDER OF MALOFE. 8 1 

with the standard, to the corps de garde. The baggage of 
the dead men was opened, and their enemies made a 
division of it. The Adelantado ordered the bodies to be 
buried, with which this first tragedy ended. All were dis- 
missed to assemble again in the afternoon, with the 
consequence that will be described in the next chapter. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

How the soldiers killed Malope ; of the arrests that were made in 
consequence of the murder, with the deaths of an Ensign and of a 
murderer of Malope. 

IN the afternoon all assembled at the corps de garde, and 
the Adelantado ordered the heads to be taken down and 
the standard to be concealed ; when one arrived who had 
gone with the soldiers in the morning, and reported to the 
Adelantado. He said that when the soldiers came to the 
house of Malope, he had regaled them and given them what 
he had. The innocent man felt secure, when a soldier 
raised his arquebus, pointed it at him, and fired. He fell 
to the ground palpitating, when a certain person, to put 
him out of his pain, came to him with a hatchet and cleft 
his skull, saying we had never done a better thing. In 
this way they most unjustly killed Malope, returning so 
much evil for so much good. It was the work rather of a 
devil than of a man. He had kept the country at peace, 
and had given us food. He was the means of inducing 
others to give, and his kindness had been very great. 
They excused themselves by saying that Malope had 
intended to commit treason. This seems to have been an 
invention to give colour to the outrage they had com- 
mitted. They gave up the murderer, and he said, ordering 
his arms : " He is well dead. Is there any one who wants 
to seek my death ? " The Adelantado felt it much, and so 

G 



82 ' THE MURDERERS OF MALOPE. 

did every one, not only the deed itself, but the trouble it 
would lead to. The murderer was brought in a canoe, 
with his hands tied behind him, and the Adelantado 
ordered both feet to be put in the stocks. 

Most of the soldiers came marching along the shore. 
The Adelantado ordered those who were with him to con- 
ceal themselves in the corps de garde, and as they entered, 
coming four and four, to seize them. The Lieutenant of the 
Sergeant-Major entered, and four with him, who were seized 
and put in irons. They looked about in all directions, 
and, seeing the page of the Camp Master, they asked him 
with their eyes about his master. The boy took hold of 
his throat with one hand, meaning that his master was 
dead. The prisoners showed their sorrow. A nephew 
of the Camp Master then came in, whom the General 
honoured much, saying he knew what a good servant of 
the King he was ; and the same with Don Toribio de 
Bedeterra. 

Presently the Ensign came with the rest of the soldiers, 
and Don Lorenzo disarmed him, and delivered him to 
four arquebusiers with irons, to be taken to a corps de garde 
at some distance. The wife of the prisoner went crying 
among the houses and branches, well aware of the danger 
of her husband, for she was weeping before he came. 

Don Lorenzo went to call the Chaplain, and the good 
father, as one seeing a turbulent river, did not dare to pass 
it. He said : " Sir Captain, what is it that you want with 
me? Remember that I am a priest. Oh, for the sake of 
the one God, do not kill me ! " " Come with me," said Don 
Lorenzo, " just for a little." " Here ! here ! " said the 
priest; "I cannot go any further." It was explained to 
him that it was to confess the Ensign, and he was reassured. 
He presently was taken behind a tree, where the prisoner 
was. He began to persuade him to confess, as they were 
going to kill him. The prisoner said : " I to die ? where- 



SOME OF THE MURDERERS PARDONED. 83 

fore ? " The priest undeceived him. Those who were 
present relate that the Ensign then said : " Let it be then 
as God wills ;" and he knelt down at the feet of the con- 
fessor, whose duty it was and who performed his office. A 
black servant of the General had orders, and, with a knife, 
gave him a blow and then another, by which his head was 
cut off, and put with the other two. The body was covered 
with some branches, and soon afterwards thrown into the 
sea, at which his wife wept bitterly. 

The Ensign being finished with, the Captain, Don 
Lorenzo, in the hearing of the General, asked who should 
be taken out of the stocks next. He ordered that it should 
be the Lieutenant of the Sergeant-Major, but all entreated 
the Adelantado to spare his life, which he did, taking him 
in his hands and receiving the oath. He then retired, that 
he might not be asked by the next one who was ordered 
to be taken out of the stocks, for the Sergeant-Major had 
him by one arm, the Chief Pilot taking the other ; but the 
prisoner, shaking them off, exclaimed : " Here I am. If I 
deserve it, cut off my head." Dona Isabel and all the 
others entreated the Adelantado to spare his life. He 
made him take the same oath as the other, and pardoned 
him. Rising up, the prisoner cast his eyes on the head of 
the Camp Master. With his hands over his face and 
weeping, he said, in a voice so that we could all hear : 
" Ah, thou honoured old man ! and have you come to this 
at the end of so many years of service to the King ? This 
is the reward they have given you ! a vile death, and your 
head and grey hairs stuck on a pole." There was a soldier 
by his side, who said : " I cannot but mourn for the sad 
fate of the Camp Master, whom we looked upon as a 
father." The Adelantado heard them, and ordered them 
to be silent. They said that he should give thanks for 
having been delivered from the dangers in which he was, 
and that he should be grateful to his sponsors for the good 

G 2 



84 THE CHIEF PILOT INTERCEDES. 

intercession they made. He gave thanks to all, and 
embraced his companion with many tears. 

While this was passing, the murderer of Malope called 
to the Chief Pilot, and told him of his condition. In the 
name of God, he entreated the Pilot to be a good inter- 
cessor for him in his need, and for a second time he asked 
him to pray to the Adelantado to pardon his crime. He 
might be sure how well he would serve hereafter, and he 
wanted to marry Pancha, the Adelantado's servant (this 
was a native girl of Peru, of bad character, carachanta^ and 
the rest), whom the Adelantado had in his service. The 
Chief Pilot reassured him, saying that he might be certain 
that, without doing what he had pointed out, he would 
be a good mediator, as he would presently see. The 
Adelantado came to take him out of the stocks with his 
own hands, that he might be judged. The Chief Pilot 
prayed that his life might be spared, but the Adelantado 
said, almost in a rage : " How am I to pay for the death of 
my friend Malope but with the death of this man ? " The 
Chief Pilot replied that he might show the heads of the 
two who were executed to the natives, and make them 
think that they were punished for the death of Malope ; 
adding, that he must remember we are few, and that the 
position of affairs made pardon advisable. The Adelantado 
answered that he would consider that, and would keep him 
a prisoner. The Chief Pilot gave thanks for the mercy, 
and the prisoner was taken out of the stocks and sent on 
board the ship in charge of four men. 

This man did not care to eat, and drank salt water, 
turning his head to the wall with shame because some said 
to him : " Why did you kill that good native without 
cause ? " Others told him he deserved to be quartered for 



1 Caracha is a cutaneous disease in Peruvian parlance ; caaranta, a 
person who has no eyebrows, also a Peruvianism. 



MOURNING FOR MALOPE. 85 

having committed such a crime. At last it seemed to him 
that it would be better to die than to live. He left off 
caring for himself, and died very suddenly after a few days, 
having first received the holy sacrament, a privilege not 
enjoyed by the others. With this ended the tragedy of the 
islands where Solomon was wanting. 



CHAPTER XX. 

Of the great mourning for Malope among the natives. The great 
sickness that prevailed in the camp ; with the deaths of the 
Adelantado and the Chaplain, and the victories gained by the 
natives. 

NEXT morning, great cries of sorrow were heard in the 
village and house of Malope, raised by a large assembly of 
people. The Adelantado ordered that a party should 
presently go with the head of the Ensign, and give it to the 
natives, telling them that, as the best thing that could be 
done, this other life had been taken for the death of Malope. 
But when the natives saw the boat coming to their village, 
leaving their mournings, they all fled into the woods. 
Those in the boat called to them to come back, holding up 
the head ; but it was no use, they all hid themselves. 
Seeing this, the head was left at the door of the house, and 
the boat returned. At the petition of the Vicar, the 
Adelantado ordered the other two heads to be taken down 
from the poles, that they might be buried. The burial was 
neglected ; and, as they were left that night on the beach, 
they were found next morning with all the flesh and skin 
gone, for the dogs had eaten them. 

All this time the Adelantado became each day more 
unwell. He ordered a house to be built for him in great 
haste, in which, having landed with his family, he established 
himself. 



86 VICTORIES OF THE NATIVES. 

Now the punishment came down from Heaven which we 
deserved for our treacheries, disorders, and cruelties, in the 
shape of sickness without the means of curing it. 

The Captain, Don Lorenzo, in whose charge all things 
were now placed by land and sea, early one morning sent 
twenty soldiers and an officer in the boat to seize some 
boys, with the object of teaching them our language, as we 
could not understand theirs. The natives, who carefully 
concealed themselves, defended the landing with such 
vigour that before our men could get back the officer and 
seven men were wounded with arrows. Enjoying the 
occasion, they followed up the repulse with many shots of 
arrows and stones, and with great shouts. They came so 
near the camp that Don Lorenzo had to issue forth with 
the banner displayed, and all the rest of the men who were 
not sick, to defend the gate. As the natives retired, they 
fired a volley of arrows which went home, wounding six 
men and Don Lorenzo himself, who were brought in and 
attended to. Upon this, Don Lorenzo sent a soldier in 
charge of a party, to burn canoes and houses, and to do as 
much damage as possible, the result being eight wounded 
soldiers. With these three victories, all gained on the 
same day, the natives became so audacious that they shot 
arrows into the camp at night, and threw stones with such 
effect that they wounded two men, one of them dying. 
Owing to the sickness of the Adelantado, and the number 
of wounded soldiers, we could only defend and secure the 
camp, the attempts of our soldiers being confined to getting 
" bledos" which sometimes cost them dear. 

On the Vigil of St. Luke the Evangelist, the first of our 
companions died, the Chaplain, Antonio de Serpa, for 
whose decease the Vicar mourned deeply, and raised sad 
lamentation, turning up his eyes to heaven, and saying: 
" Oh, my God ! how great is the punishment that You send 
for my sins. You leave me, O Lord, without a priest to 



DEATH OF THE ADELANTADO. 87 

whom to confess. O, Father Antonio de Serpa ! Happy 
are you to have died after having received the sacrament. 
Who would not change places with you, and not remain in 
mine, in which I am so abandoned, for I can confess all 
who are here, but have no one to confess me." He went 
about with his face hidden, and would not be consoled 
He went to the church, and wept at the altar. The good 
Vicar said that, in mourning for the dead, he opened the 
tomb where he was buried. 

On the following night, which was the i;th of October, 
there was a total eclipse of the moon ; when it rose in the 
east it was completely eclipsed. The Adelantado was so 
weak that he gave orders about his will, which he could 
scarcely sign. He left Dona Isabel Barreto, his wife, as 
general heir, and nominated her as Governess, for his 
Majesty had issued a special decree giving him power to 
name any person he chose for his successor. He nominated 
his brother-in-law, Don Lorenzo, to be Captain-General ; 
and, ordering the Vicar to be called, he complied with all 
the obligations required for his soul. 

In this way the night passed, and the day arrived, which 
was that of St. Luke. Seeing the end so near, the Vicar 
said that a person of good life knew how much it imported 
to die well, so that there might be time to make his peace 
with God. He said other things alike holy and pious, 
which the Adelantado heard, showing not only attention 
but great contrition, and making it to be well understood 
how submissive he was to the will of God who created him. 
The Vicar had a crucifix brought, in whose presence the 
Adelantado seemed to bend the knees in his heart. Helping 
to say the Miserere mei and the Creed, at one o'clock after 
noon our Adelantado passed from this life, with which 
there ended his enterprise, so much and for so long a time 
desired. He was a person zealous for the honour of God 
and the service of the King, to whom the things ill done 



88 BURIAL OF THE ADELANTADO. 

did not appear good, nor did those well done appear evil. 
He was very plain-spoken, not diffuse in giving his reasons, 
and he himself said that he did not want arguments but 
deeds. It seemed that he saw clearly those matters which 
touched his conscience. It seemed to me that he might 
say with reason that he knew more than he performed, yet 
he saw nothing that passed by stealth. The Governess 
felt his death, as did others, though some rejoiced at it. 

In the afternoon, with as much pomp as the circum- 
stances would admit, we prepared for his sepulture. The 
body was placed in a coffin covered with black cloth, and 
carried on the shoulders of eight persons of the highest 
rank. The soldiers stood with their arquebuses reversed, 
in accordance with usage at the funerals of Generals. The 
procession went with two banners displayed, and from two 
drums covered with mourning cloth came slow and muffled 
sounds, while the fife expressed the like sentiments. 
Arrived at the church, the Vicar performed the service, 
and we then returned to the Governess to condole with her 
on her misfortune. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

How the Vicar delivered some admonitions to the soldiers, and the 
examples he gave. 

AFTER the two deaths already described, the Vicar re- 
flected how serious the sickness was, and that one, two, or 
three died every day, and began to perambulate the camp, 
crying with a loud voice : " Is there one who wants to 
confess ? Put yourselves well with God, and attend to the 
welfare of your souls, for a punishment has come upon us, 
from which none can escape, how numerous soever we may 
be. The natives will triumph over us, and will remain, 



ADMONITIONS OF THE VICAR. 89 

enjoying our clothes and arms and all we possess in this 
place, where God holds us prisoners, to chastise us accord- 
ing to our deserts. Think that if God punishes a whole 
kingdom for one sin, how will He punish here where they 
are so many. There are men here who have not confessed 
for three, five, seven, nine, fourteen and thirty years, and 
one who has only confessed once in his life. There are 
men here who have caused the deaths of two and three 
other men ; there is a man who does not know whether he 
is a Moor or a Christian ; others have committed sins so 
foul and so serious that, being such, I will not name them. 
Remember how God conferred with David, and told him 
out of three punishments to choose one. We have among 
us sickness, war, famine and discord, and we are far from 
any remedy. Reflect that we have God incensed against 
us, and that the naked and bloody sword of His justice, 
with which He goes forth to kill, is ready to put an end to 
us. Fully justified is His judgment. The punishment is 
not so great nor so rigorous as we deserve. Confess your- 
selves ! clean your souls, and with the repentance, appease 
the anger of God, Who wishes not the death of a sinner, but 
rather that he should turn from his wickedness and live. 
Open your eyes, and see what a terrible chastisement is 
this." 

The good priest went about day after day performing 
his office, giving the sacrament to the sick, burying the 
dead, and seeking the means of inducing those who did 
not wish to confess to yield. At other times, with the same 
anxious spirit, he said that the mercy of Christ was much 
greater than our sins, how ugly and heinous soever they 
might be ; and that one single drop of the blood which 
was shed in the Passion was sufficient for the sins of infinite 
worlds. None of those who were there, be their sins what 
they may, should lose hope ; rather, with the faith and 
constancy of Christians, they should put their trust in God, 



90 THE VICAR'S ANECDOTES. 

Who knows how to pardon sinners. In order further to 
console and encourage them all by examples, he told the 
two following anecdotes : 

In a town in Peru there was a Franciscan friar in his 
convent, of pure life, at whose feet a soldier, who was his 
neighbour and known to him, knelt down to confess ; and 
as he knelt, he put his eyes on a crucifix, and said in his 
heart : " O Lord, have mercy on this soul ! " On the 
instant, the image came down from the cross, came half the 
distance, and said : " Doubt not ! confess and be absolved. 
It was for thee, and other sinners like thee, that I came to 
the world." 

The other story was that, in the Indies, there was a man 
rich in goods, but poor in virtue, who sinned, and had old 
and well-grown roots in many vices. He was a man who 
sometimes came to the camp with dagger and lance, closed 
teeth, and eyes raised to heaven, saying : " O God ! come 
down here, to this place, and come with me to see who is 
the bra vest; "and he said other things, showing as little fear 
or reverence for God as this. This man, being out one 
night, and passing a room of his, praying with some beads, 
heard a voice which said : " Oh ! such an one, wherefore do 
you not recite with devotion on that rosary ? " Astonished 
and full of fear, he struck a light, and looked into the room, 
but saw no one. Continuing to search, he found an image 
of Our Lady, painted on paper. Raising it from the ground, 
he put it on the wall, and, kneeling down, he held it with 
one hand, while he recited on his rosary. While thus 
employed, two negroes came to him, put out the light, 
stripped him naked, and flogged him until he was nearly 
dead. At this juncture he saw the room brilliantly lighted, 
and a voice said : " Go ! go ! and leave this soul which is 
not thine, for My Son has granted it to Me through His 
mercy and My prayers." In a moment, the negroes left 
him, and the light disappeared. The patient went away as 



ATTACKS OF THE NATIVES. 9 1 

well as he could, and laid down on his bed. He sent for a 
friar, who asked what had happened that he should send 
for him in the middle of the night. He related what had 
happened, showed him the wounds and bruises, and begged 
urgently to be confessed, saying that it was thirty-eight 
years since he had confessed. The confessor heard and 
consoled him, saying that much worse sins were pardoned 
by God with a free hand. His confession lasted for 
seventeen days, and he was absolved with a small penance. 
A fever came upon him, and wasted him so, that on the 
day when he finished his confession he died like a saint. 

With these stories, and in many other ways, as Christian 
as these, the Vicar secured the salvation of the souls which 
could be brought into the right way ; and the better to 
fulfil the duties of his office, he came on shore to live in the 
house of one of the men who had died. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

In which is related what more passed with the natives. 

KNOWING the time, the natives came in pursuit of their 
vengeance, and sought out our people every day, carrying 
shields, thinking to defend themselves against the arquebus, 
as the shields protected us from their arrows. They were 
very careful to take warning, and so, with this animosity, 
they shot arrows from among the trees and branches, 
aiming at the face and legs, which were, they saw, unpro- 
tected. It was the soldiers' fault, because they took up the 
arrows and drove their points against the shields and other 
protected parts, to show the natives that they did no harm. 
But it only showed the natives that they must aim at the 
eyes or legs ; so they understood the secret, and always 
shot at those two places. The General, Don Lorenzo, 



92 CONFERENCE WITH THE NATIVES. 

seeing that they came to seek us in camp, ordered a soldier, 
with twelve others under him, to go to the village of 
Malope and do harm there, assuming that it was his people 
who made the attacks. They burnt the village and 
returned, the inhabitants having fled into the woods. 

While this was going on, the natives nearest to the camp 
were shouting and saying : " See what they are doing to 
the village of Malope, and the disposition that these people 
are showing." We called to them from the camp with a 
flag of peace (they also use the same). After a time some 
of them came, and the General came out to speak with 
them, taking the Chief Pilot with him, and six arquebusiers 
in attendance to be ready for anything that might occur. 
But the natives, when they saw the arquebusiers, began to 
go back, at the same time making signs that they were not to 
come. The General ordered them to stop, and using endear- 
ing terms, he said that we were friends, asking why they 
did not bring in food as they used to do. They complained, 
saying by signs that if we were friends, why did we kill 
them, there being peace ? They said " Malope ! Malope ! 
why friends /#" (the name they gave to an arquebus) ; 
meaning that if we were friends of Malope, why had we killed 
him with an arquebus, and were now burning his village, 
pointing with a finger. The General replied that those who 
had done the harm were now dead, and a head had been 
sent to the village as a punishment for what had been done. 
They asked for the Jauriqui^ their name for the Adelan- 
tado, and were told that he was in the camp. Don Lorenzo 
asked them to bring food ; and they did so, coming on the 
following and subsequent days. These natives appeared 
to me to be well ordered and easy to be brought into habits 
of peace ; and they kept faith entirely. In my opinion we 
waged war upon them, while they gave their property to 

1 Tauriqui of Mendana's first voyage. 



HOSTAGES. 93 

us. All the time that peace was broken with them, we 
were in great need for want of their helps, and the soldiers 
could not go out to seek for food. This want was supplied 
by the flour that had been brought from Peru, which was 
the life of the expedition. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

In which it is related what happened until the death of the General, 
Don Lorenzo Barreto. 

DON LORENZO, with his infirmity, did what he could for 
the sustenance and welfare of the camp, and for a third 
time sent the frigate, with the Captain of artillery, to search 
for the Almiranta, giving him instructions as to the course 
he was to pursue. The Captain went, and worked dili- 
gently, but did not find her. He shaped a course to one 
of the three islets already mentioned, surrounded by reefs. 
Here he captured eight youths, four grown up, and all of 
tawny colour, well made, with fine eyes, and good presence. 
He also collected some pearl shells, which he found in a 
village, and with them he returned to the ship. 

The General sent Don Diego de Vera, as leader, with 
some soldiers who were most healthy, to seek for natives, 
to be held as hostages, so as to induce the rest not to try to 
do us harm. They brought in three women and six 
children, and their husbands often came to see them, with 
many others. They came to pray for their liberation, with 
many caresses, and to content them we gave them up. 

There was a movement to seek permission from the 
Governess to leave that land ; and those who worked it 
ordered the soldiers to sign a document which the Vicar 
gave them, so that it should be submitted in the name of 
all. One answered that they should not be ordered to 



94 CAUSES OF SICKNESS. 

sign, for that the Adelantado had killed the Camp Master 
and two soldiers for signing a paper. He was assured that 
if he signed there would now be no penalty, as the time 
was different. 

The Vicar drew up a petition in which he gave the 
reasons, which he said were sufficient, for abandoning the 
settlement. The Governess and the General ordered that 
information should be taken, of which, when the magistrate 
asked for a copy (as he said) they ordered him to pass on : 
as all the people on shore had signed the paper, they took 
all the seamen as witnesses. As the Chief Pilot had shown 
how much the desire to form a settlement would cost, I say 
that one day a friend of his came to him on board, and, 
I know not whether it was out of charity or envy, told him 
to hold his tongue, for if not he would be killed or left 
alone on that island. His persistence reached such a point 
that he offered to sow, and maintain the seamen ; but the 
suspicion and hatred they conceived of such a proceeding 
was such that they never wished to let him go on the 
excursions they made by sea. Thus they attacked the 
intention of coming there, after leaving the chances of 
being able to do much in Peru, to employ themselves on 
discoveries of such importance. 

This seems to me to free the land from much that our 
sailors say about it, that it was the worst that was known : 
giving as a reason the numerous deaths and the sickness. 

It is quite clear that to change of temperature, diet, and 
customs, to work and go about in the sun, to get wet with- 
out changing, to settle in woods in winter, to sleep on the 
ground with damp and other things inimical to health, 
with men who are not made of stone, will bring on sick- 
ness ; while the want of medical men who understand what 
is wrong, and of remedies that should be applied, nor the 
presence of any one to give them, are the open doors of 
death. Besides, there are positions more healthy than 



SICKNESS AND DEATH. 95 

others in populous cities and towns ; so that I understand 
that only a small part is exposed to the above evils. Even 
here those who remained on the sea never fell ill. If the 
land was as unhealthy as was represented, the sick, with so 
much against them, would not have survived so long. 
Many lived for weeks and months, and none died suddenly, 
as happens at Nombre de Dios, Puerto Bello. Panama, 
Cabo Verde, San Tome, and other unhealthy places, where, 
with all needful remedies, the sick succumb in a short time, 
even in a few hours. 

The sick continued to die, and it was a sad thing to see 
them in the clutches of disease, stretched out, some delirious, 
others nearly so ; some wanting to go on board, hoping to 
find health there, others wanting to go from the ship to 
the camp, hoping to find it on shore. The General 
supplied their wants so far as was possible, and the 
Governess did what she could, other persons helping out 
of charity ; but all that could be done was little, seeing 
that the needs were great. At this time the Vicar fell ill, 
and as the land did not seem a good place to him, he 
returned to the ship. 

The General who, as has already been mentioned, was 
wounded in the leg, found it necessary to take to his bed, 
where he got worse every minute. The camp was now in 
such a condition that it did not contain fifteen healthy 
soldiers, and these were all lads who could endure fevers 
better, though in fifteen days the fever does not run its 
course. The Chief Pilot went to visit Don Lorenzo, to 
inquire after his health, but he replied in much affliction : 
" Ah ! Chief Pilot ! I shall die without confession ; " and 
presently he said : " Ah, death ! in what a condition you 
take me." With his eyes fixed on the crucifix, he ex- 
claimed : " I am a sinner. O, Lord ! pardon me." 

The Chief Pilot, knowing his great need, consoled him 
by saying that he would go and ask the Vicar to come as 



96" DEATH OF DON LORENZO. 

he was. He went on board and entreated the Vicar, for 
the love of God, to come and confess Don Lorenzo, because 
he was dying fast. The Vicar replied that he was dying 
too ; that if he would bring Don Lorenzo on board he 
would confess him. The Chief Pilot answered that Don 
Lorenzo was passing away ; that even to turn him in his 
bed it was necessary to have a line hung from the roof, and 
that only with this, and the help of two men, could he be 
turned. He was young, and the Vicar knew that he ought 
not to allow him, nor any other person who sought con- 
fession, to die without it. " Your worship wishes to kill 
me," replied the Vicar ; " can you not see that I am unable 
to stand on my feet ? So little do you care for my health. 
Let them carry me where they please, though I may die." 
So he was put in the boat, trembling and wrapped in a 
blanket. He was carried to the side of Don Lorenzo in 
his bed, whom he confessed, as well as all others who 
wished to confess. A soldier, seeing how ill the Vicar was, 
said very sorrowfully : " Ah, Sir ! what is this that I see ? 
What have we come to?" They returned to the ship. 
That night Don Lorenzo was much worse, and at break of 
day, the 2nd of November, he died. May God pardon 
him ! He was mourned for, and buried in the same way as 
his brother-in-law, the Adelantado. Among the rest a 
soldier died, who received death with such a cheerful 
countenance that in the words he spoke, and what he did, 
he seemed to be a pilgrim on the road to heaven. 



ABANDONMENT OF THE SETTLEMENT. 97 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

In which the unhappy condition of our people is related, the death of 
the Vicar, and the embarkation of all hands. 

OUR condition, as above related, had reached such a point 
that, if only ten determined natives had come, they could 
have killed us all, and destroyed the settlement. At last 
the sick, pressed by the evils they suffered, which were 
great, went on board the ship, and the Governess with 
them, leaving the flag on shore with the few soldiers who 
still retained some health, to provide wood and water. On 
Monday, the /th of November, the flag and the rest of the 
people were embarked, and so an end was given to this 
promising enterprise. I never expected anything else, 
and it must be left in the claws of him who held it before, 1 
until God permits others to come forward who are more 
desirous of the welfare of those lost ones, that with a finger 
they may show the way to that salvation for which they 
were created. 

The settlement remained a spectacle for sentiment and 
reflection on the disastrous and brief course of events 
which took place in it. It was a noteworthy thing to see 
the dogs running along the beach and barking, as if they 
were asking why the people went away and left them 
behind. The smallest dog rushed into the sea, and came 
swimming to the ship, and for such fidelity was taken on 
board ; and of him it may be said that fortune favours the 
brave. 

The Vicar made his will, and three soldiers kept watch 
with him during the following night. He asked one of 
them to read to him the " Symbol of the Faith," by Fray 
Luis de Granada. When day came, the Chief Pilot, seeing 
the little hope there was for his life, and that he appeared 

1 Namely, the Devil. 

H 



98 DEATH OF THE VICAR. 

to be dying, said to him that the time was short, and that 
he should look to what concerned his soul. He answered 
that it was well, and that he did not grieve for anything. 
The Chief Pilot said that his was the office of a friend, to 
tell him that he must not deceive himself, for that he was 
near his end. " Why did you not tell me so sooner," said 
the Vicar, and the Chief Pilot answered that he never 
thought that the illness would bring him to his present 
condition. The Vicar asked for a crucifix, and with it in 
his hands he said : " Oh eternal Father who sent me ; that 
which I should do I understand not, and presently power 
of speech will be gone." Thus his death-agony came, and 
he gave his soul to the Saviour and Creator. 

This loss was what we deserved for our sins. Punish- 
ment and castigation came that we might not deceive 
ourselves, but know that God was enraged against us, for 
after so many bodily afflictions He now took from us our 
spiritual gift. His death was much felt, though not by all, 
for all do not know how to feel such losses. The Vicar, 
Juan Rodriguez de Espinosa, was a very honourable priest, 
for whom, by reason of his virtue and good parts, much 
love was due. 

The Chief Pilot caused him to be buried in the sea ; not 
being willing that it should be on shore, lest the natives 
should disinter and insult his remains. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

How we made two more incursions, which were the last, and what 
passed until we made sail. 

NEXT day the wind was from the north, and, although 
moderate, three cables parted, by which the ship was 
secured, leaving only one slight cable which appeared to 
be too weak to hold a ship. Yet it was so strong that 



LANDING AT LA HUERTA. 99 

it saved the ship from going on shore, which was very 
near. 

Later, Luis Andrada was sent in charge of thirty men to 
seek for provisions for the voyage. He went to the small 
island which we called the garden, " Huerta," and found 
five large canoes in a bay, laden with the biscuit of that 
country, which the natives had there concealed, and with- 
out any difficulty he collected them all and sent them to 
the ship. He said that he killed one hundred and twenty 
pigs, of which he brought some. He found the natives 
peaceful at first ; but afterwards they were hostile, because 
the ill-disposed soldiers illtreated them. They made holes 
in the narrow paths, covered with branches and earth, and 
in them they planted upright stakes, on which a soldier hurt 
his foot. With what was obtained by this incursion, order 
was taken for the sick, and the ship was supplied with the 
whole. 

The leader came back, and soon afterwards the Chief 
Pilot went, with twenty men, to the same island, following 
many canoes of the natives. Leaving six men in the boat, 
he jumped on shore with the rest, and the natives, threaten- 
ing war, received them with arrows in their hands, making 
the perneta, shouting and dancing round. The Pilot held 
up a white flag as a sign of peace, but they danced and 
shouted all the more. It was a narrow path, with trees on 
each side, and they began to send arrows and stones from 
all directions. Two arquebus shots were fired, and the 
village was entered ; but nothing more was found but 
biscuits in the houses, and roots tasting like oranges, and 
of the same colour. The natives were followed to a hill, 
and, reaching the top, we found ourselves on a fine plain, 
with great abundance of fruit cultivation. The soldiers 
cut many large bunches of plantains, got a quantity of 
cocoa nuts, and found a great supply of biscuit in a house. 
Laden with these provisions, and keeping close to each 

H 2 



100 THE PILOT IN DIFFICULTIES. 

other, they all got into the boat without any further mishap ; 
and though there was an encounter with the natives, none 
were either killed or wounded. For the Chief Pilot gave 
orders to the soldiers not to fire to hit but to frighten. 

Having done this, he ordered the boat to follow along 
the shore to a place where he went to cut small palms. 
But when he arrived, the boat was not to be seen, however 
much they tried to find her. All agreed that the best plan 
would be to go back to the place where they first landed. 
They marched until sunset, when they came to a place 
where some rocks made a good shelter. For this reason, 
and having found a canoe there, the Chief Pilot decided on 
passing the night, and sending a man in the canoe to report 
their position to the ship, that those on board might send 
to look for them. The Chief Pilot said that he was 
anxious about the boat, and much more when he con- 
sidered the insecure position in which the best sailors were 
placed, without whom the rest could not take the ship to 
any place where they would be saved ; and thus there 
would be no notice of the discovery that had been made, 
nor of the rest that was surmised. 

He asked what powder the soldiers had. They replied 
that they had ten rounds. He said that was little, and that 
it would be better to go on and look for some of the canoes. 
When taken, if the natives required them, after all the 
powder was expended, they would defend themselves with 
swords and shields. If anything had happened to the 
boat, the natives would have seen, and would have hidden 
their canoes so that we might not get away. This was 
agreed to. A soldier was given command of the vanguard, 
and he, with some others, marched along the beach where 
the trees grew very thick, no one having touched them 
since their creation, with some great rocks. It was almost 
impossible to make a way through this in the day-time ; 
how much less on a dark night. Sometimes the water was 



THE ROUTE DECIDED UPON. IOI 

up to their knees, and at others to their middles. They 
went climbing and descending from trunks and rocks, 
making their way either in the sea or through the woods. 
Altogether, there were ten of them, two being ill and 
asking the others to go and leave them, for that they could 
hold out no longer. The Chief Pilot, who heard this, said 
that they must not be left behind, but must be brought 
along, even if it became necessary to carry them. They 
pushed on a little further, but it was past midnight when 
they heard two arquebus shots, and presently two more. 
The companions in front pressed onwards to ascertain the 
cause, and found that the boat had just arrived. They had 
been detained by contrary winds, and had made the round 
of the island. The party got into the boat and returned to 
the ship, arriving at break of day, and finding all on board 
anxious, owing to their long absence. 

On this day the Governess proposed to the Pilots that 
they should depart from that island in search of San 
Cristobal, to see if the Almiranta was there, and to do 
what would be best for the service of God and His Majesty; 
and that if she was not found, her determination was to go 
to the city of Manilla in the Philippines, to engage priests 
and people, and return to complete that discovery. On 
this subject she asked, persuaded, and ordered each person 
present to give his views in the form that appeared most 
convenient. The view and opinion of all was that a 
W.S.W. course should be shaped so long as was necessary 
to reach a latitude of 11, and if neither the island nor the 
Almiranta were found, then to proceed to the Philippines. 
They all signed their names, and the Chief Pilot under- 
took to return in company with the Governess, if she 
returned as she proposed. 

The Chief Pilot said to the Governess that the ship 
being so injured, both in hull and rigging, the sailors few, 
the men sick, and it being necessary to give thirty of the 



102 ILL-TREATMENT OF THE SICK. 

most healthy to navigate the frigate and the galeot, it 
would be best to abandon those two small vessels. For if 
this was done, the voyage of the Capitana would be much 
more secure ; for the two small vessels were in bad order, 
their pilots were not satisfactory, and their rigging, sails 
and people would all be serviceable on board the Capitana. 
To this the Captain of the galeot said that it was because 
the ships had not cost him any money that he wanted to 
abandon them. The Chief Pilot replied that he had no 
other motive than consideration for the good of all ; that 
in Manilla, whither they intended to go, they would find 
other and better vessels for less than 200 dols., and for such 
a small sum it was not worth while to risk so much. The 
Captain of the galeot had on his side certain ill-conditioned 
enemies of truth and reason, and these the Governess had 
for her council of state of war and marine. Each one said 
a little, and so things remained, nothing being done. 

Presently they wanted to get rid of the trouble and 
charge of the sick. It was ordered that they should be 
sent to the frigate. The Chief Pilot protested, saying that 
it was unjust to send them where the conveniences were 
much less, or to deprive them of the comfort they had 
where they were in the ship, especially as all could be 
accommodated in the large ship, safe from the sun, night 
air, and damp. They replied that a sail could be set up to 
form a tent, underneath which they could lie at their 
pleasure. The Chief Pilot answered that the navigation 
would not always admit of tents being set up, and that the 
sick always needed care. It was publicly ordered that they 
should remain, but nevertheless a sergeant began to get 
them into the boat. One cried out, and the Chief Pilot 
came and delivered them from men with so little pity and 
so much folly. Finally, the Governess ordered that they 
should stay, and so they remained. 

In the afternoon the Chief Pilot went to visit the frigate 



DEPARTURE FROM SANTA CRUZ. 103 

and the galeot, leaving with them the necessary supplies of 
flour and water. He gave them instructions respecting the 
navigation they would have to work, and a chart to the 

Pilot of the frigate, who neither had one nor knew how to 

ft 

use it. At night the Captain, Don Diego de Vera, with 
some persons of his company, went on shore to disinter 
the body of the Adelantado, to be taken on board the 
frigate to Manilla ; for on board the Capitana they would 
not consent to receive it, owing to objections which are 
never wanting. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

How the ship and the other two vessels departed from the bay of 
Graciosa ; the labours during the voyage ; the loss of the galeot ; 
and gives an account of a hermit. 

THE distance from the bay of Graciosa to Manilla is 
900 leagues. On the following day, the iSth of November 
of the same year, the three vessels sailed in quest of the 
island of San Cristobal ; and the gear was in such a state 
that the falls carried away three times in getting the 
boat in. 

In one month forty-seven persons died. Nearly all the 
rest were ill but joyful, as it seemed to them that their 
troubles were over. They turned their eyes to the huts of 
the settlement, saying : " Ah ! there you remain, thou 
corner of Hell, that has cost us so much ! mourning for 
husbands, brothers, and friends," they said ; and went on, 
overcome by their own feelings. 

On this day and the next they steered W.S.W. Having 
taken the sun, and made the calculations, the result was 
11. We looked to see if land could be seen in any 
direction, but none was seen. On this same day the 
Boatswain and four other seamen fell ill. The five or six 



104 COURSE ALTERED FOR MANILLA, 

who remained well said to the Chief Pilot that the ship 
was unfit for sea, full of sick, in want of water and food ; 
and that they could not continue to plough the sea in her. 
The soldiers joined with them, and there was no want of 
voices ; nor was there wind, and the mainstay was carried 
away. There was appearance of evil, which lasted for a 
bit, owing to the opinions being different. Things being 
put right, the Chief Pilot said to the Governess that they 
were in the latitude of 11, and that, in accordance with 
the agreement, she must order what should be done. She 
replied, that as the island of San Cristobal was not in sight, 
and the Almiranta could not be found, she would shape a 
course for Manilla. 

The Chief Pilot made his course N.W. with the wind 
S.E. to avoid New Guinea, which was very near, and not 
to get among the islands. If it had not been for the 
wretched condition of the ship, I should have given orders 
to coast along that land, and find out what it was. 

On this course we continued to sail until the 2/th of the 
month, when we were in 5. On that day we saw a great 
trunk, a great mass of reeds, with three almonds like those 
we had left, much straw and snakes. The wind was S.W., 
with squalls and showers from that direction. By these 
signs we understood that New Guinea was close on board. 
We began to experience great waves coming from N.W. 
and N.N.W., which knocked the ship about, and it was 
worse when there were calms or light winds : a sign that 
these winds come from the other side of the line. This 
continued nearly as far as the Ladrone Islands. There 
were also variables up to 5 N., where breezes sprang up 
from N.E. which lasted all the voyage. If the sun should 
be near the zenith when it was in Capricorn, I know not 
how it would be on crossing the equinoctial line. 

We sailed on until the loth of December, when I found 
the latitude half a degree from the line, a position in which 



GREAT MISERY. IO$ 

the sky was clear, the air quiet, the sea smooth, but no 
land in sight ; but so cold at night that it was necessary to 
use blankets. Yet in the day the sun was so hot, that even 
when it was near the horizon the heat could hardly be 
borne. 

The galeot had not been seen for several days, for she 
had parted company ; so, wishing to comply with her 
obligations to the Capitana, the Governess ordered that 
her Captain should be notified that, on pain of being 
declared a traitor, he should keep his position, and not be 
more than half a league off. For it seemed that the 
Capitana, from her general unseaworthiness, and having 
her mainmast sprung, could never reach safety. Yet on 
that night the galeot stood on another tack, and dis- 
appeared, without being any more seen. 

The ration that was served out consisted of half a pound 
of flour, of which they made mashed-up paste with salt 
water, baked in the hot ashes ; half a quartillo 1 of water full 
of powdered cockroaches, which made it very nauseous and 
stinking. There was not much good fellowship, owing to the 
great sickness and little conformity of feeling. What were 
most evident were the ulcers coming out on feet and legs, 
the sadness, groans, hunger, infirmities, and deaths, with 
mourning for those whom it concerned. Scarcely a day 
passed without throwing one or two overboard, and on 
some days there were three and four. It came to this : that 
there was no little difficulty in carrying the dead up from 
the between decks. 

The sick became rabid from the effluvia of mud and filth 
that was in the ship. Nothing was hidden. All the 
prayers were for water ; some begged for a single drop, 
showing their tongues, pointing with their fingers, like the 
rich man and Lazarus. The women, with children at their 

1 A quarter of an azumbre, which is about half a gallon. 



106 JUAN LEAL. 

breasts, prayed for water, while all complained of a 
thousand things. Here could well be seen the good friend, 
he who was a father or a son, the charity and patience that 
was shown. Here, too, might be seen one who could 
accommodate himself to the times, and who could be 
resigned. Many deaths without confession took place, 
and other evils which to think of together were to feel 
above measure. The Salve was recited in the afternoon, 
before the image of Our Lady of Solitude, which was all 
the consolation in this pilgrimage. 

There had come on this expedition a venerable old man 
and good Christian, who in Lima was barchilon} and 
served in the hospital of the natives. His name was Juan 
Leal, which he was through all the events he was concerned 
with. This servant of God and worthy man, in poor 
health, for he was convalescent, without rest, which in good 
sooth it had been well if he had found, but he only sought 
time to occupy himself night and day without ceasing 
was he who, in camp and on board, and in the present 
voyage, devoted himself to the service of the sick with 
cheerful faith. He showed that his bowels were full of 
charity, for all that was done for the sick passed through 
his hands. He bled them, cupped them, made their beds, 
helped them to a good death, prepared and accompanied 
their bodies to sepulture, or got them out of danger ; a 
man, in short, who did well in word and deed, though 
deeply feeling the numerous miserable sights he beheld. 
But there were ears to which his voices reached, and not 
finding doors, they returned to their master, who afresh 
converted them into more love and care to help, as he did 
help with his accustomed piety. 

1 No such word in Spanish, nor is it a Peruvianism. 



STATE OF THE RIGGING. 1 07 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

Of the state in which the ship was as she continued her voyage, and 
of the death of the hermit. 

A LIST was made of the surviving sick, and each one was 
given, besides his ordinary ration, a plate of fritters helped 
out with honey and treacle, and in the afternoon a mug of 
water with a little sugar to help as sustenance. Those who 
were a little stronger had double rations to enable them to 
work at the pumps four times a day, at which they suffered 
fearfully, for some hid themselves, others sat down, and 
others stopped, saying they could not work. Night passed 
without being able to give rest from the evil that was so 
near, for its clamours and forced necessities were two 
things which it was not possible to remedy. 

The rigging and sails were so rotten that repairs were 
incessant, and splicing and sewing was constantly needed. 
These were evils that could not be amended. The main 
mast was sprung from the step, and the step of the bow- 
sprit, from not being morticed, hung on one side, taking 
the bowsprit with it, which caused us great anxiety. The 
sprit sail with all its gear fell into the sea, and none of it 
could be recovered. The main stay carried away a second 
time, and it was necessary to make another stay with part 
of the hemp cable, and the backstays of the mainmast, 
which were unrove for the purpose. There was not a yard 
that was not bent downwards owing to parted lifts, the 
topsail ties were gone, and perhaps for three days at a 
time the sail was flapping in the waist, because no one cared 
to hoist it with a rope that had been spliced thirty-three 
times. We took down the topsails and mizen in order to 
mend the courses, which at last were the only sails we used. 
Of the hull of the ship it may be said with truth that only 



toS DESPAIR OF THE CREW. 

the beams kept the people above water, for they were oi 
that excellent wood of Guayaquil called guatchapeli^ which 
never seems to grow old. The ship was so open in the 
dead wood that the water ran in and out of the ship when 
we sailed on a bowline. 

The sailors, from the hard work and their weakness, and 
from seeing the ship in such a state, set no store by their 
lives ; and one of them said to the Chief Pilot that he was 
tired of being always tired, that he would rather die once 
than many times, and that they might as well shut their 
eyes and let the ship go to the bottom. They did not 
want to work, saying that neither God nor the King 
required them to do what was impossible. The men said 
they were without strength, and if one took another in his 
arms he was unable to hold him up. If they should die, 
who was there that could revive them ? The Chief Pilot 
answered one of them that if he should jump overboard, 
the Devil would have him body and soul. Many others 
said that as he knew how to command, he should give them 
nourishment from the jars of wine, oil, and vinegar which 
the Governess had, or that it should be sold to them in 
exchange for their work ; that they would give receipts 
and pay at Manilla, or make a return in kind. They 
said this was necessary for them in order to recover 
strength to work the ship, and that if they all died she 
would die also. When there was the greatest necessity for 
them, then they would show her needs and remember what 
had passed. The Chief Pilot submitted their prayer to the 
Governess several times during the voyage, saying it was 
much worse to die than not to expend stores. She said 
that there was more obligation to her than to the sailors 
who talked of her favour, and if two were hanged the rest 

1 The brothers Ulloa, in their Noticias Secretas, spoke very highly 
of the " guatchapeli" wood of Guayaquil (p. 58) for ship-building, 
especially "extolling its durability. 



DEATH OF JUAN LEAL. IOQ 

would hold their tongues. The Chief Pilot answered that 
he only referred to the matter in order to apply a remedy 
to pressing needs, that the sailors were good men, that if 
he advocated their cause it was not for any obligation he 
owed to them, but that the ship might be taken where she 
herself wished, and that the obligation to please her did 
not relieve him from the duty of his office, the pay being 
equal to the debt. At last she served out two jars of oil ; 
but they were soon used up, when the complaints were 
renewed and continued throughout the voyage. 

The soldiers seeing so long a time before them (for no 
time is short to those who suffer) also said a good deal : 
that they would gladly exchange this life for a sentence of 
death in a prison, or for a place on a bench in a Turkish 
galley, where they might die confessed, or live in the hope 
of a victory or a ransom. Hope in God, whose power is 
greater than all our necessities, said one, for that will prove 
an armed voyage, and above poverty. 

This death, which I hold to be a happy termination to 
a life of good works when received with meekness, was 
doing service to the Lord in calling, in good time, our dear 
Juan Leal, who went to his reward in heaven for the merits 
of what he had done on earth. He died alone and forsaken, 
like the rest. He was exemplary in his life and customs, 
he valued the world and its affairs for what they were 
worth, he went about dressed in sackcloth next to his skin, 
and reaching half down his legs, with bare feet, and long 
hair and beard. He had passed many years in this severe 
course of life, serving hospitals, after having previously 
served for many years as a soldier in Chili. On the same 
night a sick man fell overboard, it was not known how, 
crying out for help ; but he was left and was no more seen. 



IIO SELFISH CONDUCT OF THE GOVERNESS. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

How there was a proposal to elect a General ; the reply of the Chief 
Pilot to it ; the advice given by a man to the Governess, and the 
loss of the frigate. 

THE Chief Pilot took great care of the water, as there was 
little left, and, by secret means, there were great wasters of 
it. He was therefore present when it was served out. The 
Governess used it very largely, requiring it to wash her 
clothes, for which purpose she sent a jar to be filled. The 
Chief Pilot said that the position should be considered, and 
that it did not seem just to use so much water, when there 
was so little. At this she took great offence, and felt it so 
much that she said very angrily : " Cannot I do what I 
please with my own property ? " The Chief Pilot answered : 
" It belongs to all, and it will go to all. The cup is good 
for him that cannot wash, and it is your duty to curtail 
your own allowance, that the soldiers may not say that 
you wash your clothes with their life's blood. You should 
put a high value on the patience of those who are suffering, 
for they might take by force what there is in the ship. 
Starving people sometimes know how to help themselves." 
Upon this the Governess took the keys of the store room 
away from the steward, who was an honest man, to whom 
the Chief Pilot had entrusted them, and gave them to one 
of her own servants. There were not wanting those who 
said to the Chief Pilot that he ought not to allow himself to 
be ruled by a woman, and that if it was put to the vote, the 
majority would be for a man. But the Chief Pilot answered 
that they should leave her to enjoy her just title for the 
brief space that remained. When the time came that he 
was forced to act, it would then appear more reasonable to 
say what is now said without considering her. 

One honest man 1 was anxious to see less bickering in the 

1 The " honest man" is evidently th Chief Pilot himself. 



REMONSTRANCE TO THE GOVERNESS. 1 1 1 

ship, and more order and peace than prevailed there. 
Knowing thaf some of the hungry and suffering people 
had determined to force their way into the store room 
when it was opened, and knowing what must happen from 
this project, whether fights or other mischief, so that the 
little food that remained would be got by blows he said 
many things to the Governess touching her rule. There 
were not wanting those who told her not to trust him, and 
knowing this, he spoke thus to her : " Consider, Lady, that 
those who speak to you are not saints, and well they show 
it in what they say, for they seek their own benefit and 
the evil of others. Trust in the men in whom your husband 
trusted, for have you not seen that in his necessities and 
your own they have loyally done their duty, seeing your 
risk. Be assured that here there is no one who desires to 
rise, nor who would consent to it, nor any who do not owe 
to you a sole obedience in all that is just." She replied : 
" Here they come to me with complaints that I do not 
wish to hear." He answered : " Do not listen to them nor 
believe them, and treat the men well. See with what 
heavy loads they are laden. They might throw them off, 
and refuse to carry them, or make some evil agreement, so 
as to agree afterwards. Be sure that each one thinks that, 
although miseries overflow, compensations are not wanting. 
To these your brethren be considerate. Do not look upon 
them as a petty government of many heads without feet, 
or of many feet without a head. Reflect well on what are 
new affairs. These people wish for little, and here they 
suffer much. They owe nothing, yet they owe much ; and 
for what they owe to you they dissimulate. If they had 
not come here, no one would owe anything, nor would 
what is wanted now be wanted ; and to you all is more 
than owing." At last this man asked her, " What ought he 
to do who was warned that some wanted to kill others on 
board the ship?" She answered that he should look out. 



112 LOSS OF THE FRIGATE. 

He then said : " I know that it was you yourself and your 
brother who plotted to kill me, and you sharpened the 
knives ; but I did not believe it easily, though I was told by 
a friend. Nor did I fail in caution, though now I may. 
You see here how it has been made sure, and if you should 
wish it, you can have assurance, though you may not 
believe who it was that deceived you. I am not afraid of 
what I have told you and excused, for there are very few 
women with such heads as Dido, Zenobia, and Semiramis." 
With these troubles we went on steering the same 
course, N.N.W., until Tuesday, the i;th of December, 
when we were in 3 30' N. The men in the frigate were 
worn out by work at the pump, and it was necessary to 
give them three more to help them at their labour. Sailors 
were sent to check the water, which was coming in at many 
places. No diligence availed, and she could not keep up 
with the Capitana. The people were very sad, yet desirous 
to save the vessel because the body of the Adelantado was 
on board. Knowing the danger, the Chief Pilot said 
to the Governess several times, that it seemed right to 
abandon the frigate, taking off the people, who would be 
safe, while the ship would be better manned. As he could 
not prevail, he said to Don Diego de Vera, Captain of the 
frigate : " You know how to complain ; how is it you do not 
know how to make things safe ? Do you not see that it 
will be the death of yourself and your companions ? Come 
on board this ship, for here you will be welcomed like 
brothers." At last the frigate was lost sight of at night, 
for which cause the Chief Pilot eased off the sheets, and 
waited until the next day in the afternoon. The soldiers 
began to make an outcry, saying it was no time to delay 
the navigation, for that the frigate would not appear, that 
she may have gone ahead, and that if not it was God for 
us all and each for himself. The Chief Pilot answered that 
it would be an ill deed to abandon that vessel full of 



THE SHIP IN DANGER. 113 

friends on the high sea, without such a pilot as could take 
her to safety. If she parted company, she could not be 
secure of reaching port. She was never more seen. 



CHAPTER XXIX 

How they came in sight of an island bearing north, and of the great 
danger in which the ship was placed. 

WITH the wind from the E. and N.E. the ship continued 
her N.N.W. course, and on the following Saturday she came 
in sight of an island, for which they steered cheerfully in 
hopes of a port and provisions. But as it did not appear 
well to the Chief Pilot to go too near an unknown land 
during the night, he ordered the ship to be tacked. The 
sailors, accustomed to work, said they were not tired, and 
that they were quite ready to go on. The Chief Pilot 
eased off the foresheet, put the helm down, and the ship 
went round. This seemed to be the inspiration of an 
angel, for if she had not been put about she would certainly 
have been lost, as will be seen further on. Up to where 
the ship was the sea was clear and unbroken, but further 
on it was not known what the ship would strike against. 

At dawn the ship stood in to where she was before night 
A sailor was sent to the mast-head, as was the custom 
morning and evening, and he reported that to the N.E. 
there were some great reefs, the termination of which he 
could not see. The ship had no after sails to enable her 
to work to windward ; and the water was breaking over the 
rocks. The ship was so near them that there appeared to 
be no escape, and death seemed ready to swallow us up 
A certain person made a prayer and a promise, in his 
heart, to St. Anthony of Padua ; and it served the Lord that 
on this day, which was that of His holy birth, the ship 

J 




114 ISLANDS IN SIGHT. 

came out of the danger in which she was placed. At three 
in the afternoon she doubled the reef, it may be said by a 
miracle. 

Natives came in their canoes from the island under sail, 
others paddling. As they were unable to cross the reef, 
they jumped on it, and made signs with their hands. In 
the afternoon one single native in a small canoe came 
round the end of the reef. He was at a distance to wind- 
ward, so that we could not see whether he had a beard, the 
position being near the island of the "Barbados." He 
seemed to be a good-sized man and naked, with long, 
loose hair. He pointed in the direction whence he had 
come, and breaking something white with his hands he ate 
it, and had cocoa nuts for drink. He was called to, but did 
not want to come. 

It was evening, and, for that reason, a sailor went aloft 
to look out. He reported two small islands and many 
rocks, by which the ship was surrounded as in a yard. 
There was reason for despondency, as whatever course was 
taken (to those who did not understand) seemed to threaten 
danger. The ship was put on a course steering N.N.W. 

This islet is in latitude 6. It is nearly round, and about 
30 leagues in circumference. It is not very high. It has 
many trees, and at their sides there were flowers and 
cultivated patches. At 3 leagues to the west there are 
four low islands, and many others near them, all surrounded 
by reefs. The sea appeared to be more clear to the 
southward. 



LADRONE ISLANDS. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

How they came in sight of the Ladrone Islands, and what 
happened there. 

CONTINUING on a N.N.W. course, they were in 14 N. 
latitude on Monday, the ist of January. The wind was 
west, and the ship was going free. On Wednesday, the 
3rd of the same month, we came in sight of two of the 
Ladrone islands, for which we were making. One was 
called Guan, and the other Serpana. We passed between 
the two, which lie N.E. and S.W., by a channel 10 leagues 
wide, keeping on the side of Guan. A man who was 
handing the foresail fell overboard ; and in the whole ship 
there was only one line. It was thrown over where the 
man had fallen alongside, who got hold of it and came up, 
thanks be to God ! Many canoes came out from Guan 
under sail, with a number of Ladrone natives in them, who 
are stout men of a reasonable colour. They were crying 
out " charume" which means friends, and " heoreque" 
signifying " Give us iron," which is what they seek, being 
very fond of it. As so many came there was a great press, 
and some canoes fouled each other and were overturned, 
whose masters swimming, turned them over again with 
great ease. They are built with two prows, so that they 
can turn the sail without having to turn the canoe. They 
brought many cocoa nuts, plantains, rice, water, and some 
large fish, giving all in exchange for old iron. Those of 
the ship were delighted with these people and their 
refreshing provisions. The exchange being completed, the 
natives went away, all but two who were killed by an 
arquebus, owing to a matter of a piece of cask hoop. 1 

1 Here Suarez de Figueroa introduces a fuller account of the Ladrone 
Islanders, especially of their customs connected with the burial of the 
dead, with an anecdote about an adventure between a Spanish soldier 
and a native of Guan. 

I 2 



Il6 THE PHILIPPINES SIGHTED. 

The soldiers insisted much with the Chief Pilot that he 
should go into port at this island and procure provisions. 
He was very willing ; but he gave it up because there was 
no gear for getting the boat into the water. He said this 
to all ; but they still insisted, saying they could do it with 
their hands. The Chief Pilot replied : " And how will you 
get it on board again ?" They answered : " Why cannot it 
be left here ?" Then the Chief Pilot said : " It is not well 
to lose the boat, having to navigate among so many islands 
of which we go in search." They were very persistent ; 
but he turned a deaf ear, and continued to shape a westerly 
course until Friday, the I2th, when, on taking the sun, he 
found the latitude to be 13 N. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

How, when they came in sight of the Philippine Islands, the ship was 
in many dangers, and how she anchored in a good harbour. 

THE Chief Pilot navigated only by information, and without 
a chart, seeking* for the cape of Espiritu Santo, the first 
land of the Philippines. At daybreak land was sighted, 
being the peak of a high mountain ; and nothing else was 
then seen owing to a shower of rain that came on. The 
land was welcomed with as much content as if we had 
really reached a safe haven. Some said : " Soon we shall 
hear Mass and seek God. There is no longer danger of 
death without confession, for that is a land where Christians 
dwell." Amidst these anticipations and great rejoicing, 
there were others so weak that they could not stand on 
their feet, and who were like skeletons ready to die ; and 
their refrain was that they no longer wished to bring to 
light their propped-up bones. Presently they all applied 
for a double ration of water, for the want of it caused the 



THE PILOT TAKES HIS OWN WAY. 1 1/ 

greatest sufferings. But the Chief Pilot said that he could 
not give more than the cup, for there was very little 
left, and we should still be at sea some time before we 
anchored. 

Having come near the land, a bay was seen on the shore 
running north and south. The people said that this was a 
port, and that we should make for it, for God had shown 
us such signal mercy that He had guided us there. This 
was also the view of the Chief Pilot ; for there was a soldier 
on board, who, some time before, had made this voyage 
and knew the coast. We continued to coast along, looking 
out for signs that would be satisfactory. The wind was 
strong from the N.E., and there was mist over land, while 
the sun was obscured. It did not seem advisable to the 
Chief Pilot to proceed further, nor to enter such a danger- 
ous place, in which, if once embayed, it would not be 
possible to get out, the wind being contrary, there being 
few hands, and the whole furniture of the ship being bad. 
For these reasons he ordered the ship to be put about, 
intending to see if he could get the latitude by a star 
observation, or the sun next day, so as to be sure where 
he was. 

They began to persuade him to go in, and he told them 
that it would be better to endure one day more of suffering 
than to lose their lives. He then examined the soldier in 
great detail for his reasons for being satisfied that that 
was the opening that we sought. His replies were as far 
from the truth as he was near to a mistaken notion. After 
all this, he and others gave their opinions to the Governess. 
They made their complaints, and said that the Chief Pilot 
did not understand how to take advantage of such a good 
chance. To all this he answered that no one desired the 
salvation of the ship more than he did, whose duty it was 
to seek a port on pain of loss of credit in case of failure ; 
while as regards their lives they were all equal. " Gd 



I *8 APPROACHING THE LAND. 

has been pleased to bring them there, and He would also 
take them to Manilla ;" adding that if others had the 
responsibility they would not feel so certain about what 
they said. 

The Governess also said that it appeared to be the 
opening, for that everyone said so. The Chief Pilot 
answered that she should leave it to him, for that he under- 
stood his duty ; if not, she could appoint some one else. 
He knew that for anyone to enter that opening and get 
the ship into danger, he would not be without blame who- 
ever he might be, and there would be no escape. " And 
how," he added, " could the sick, and all the women and 
children they had on board, be saved ? Even if they were 
saved, how could they be fed and taken on their way ? 
And what certainty was there that there was peace in that 
land ? Even if there was, how much better was it to take 
such measures as would make safety certain, than to make 
the voyage to Manilla doubtful, it being still 300 leagues 
distant. Moreover, the night was coming on, which made 
it necessary to stand away from the land." At last the 
ship was put about, and kept on that tack with the care 
that was necessary during a night without moon. 

At dawn we returned to seek the land, though it was 
not visible owing to mist, in consequence of which great 
murmurs were raised against the Chief Pilot. They said 
that they could only be drowned once, and it would have 
been better to have taken the ship in when they spoke 
before than to risk nothing. At last the land came in 
sight, in the form of a cape a little to windward. They set 
the bonnet, and ran in for the land, with the intention of 
coasting along it, the sounding line in the arm, and the 
deep-sea lead in the hand, ready to anchor, or decide upon 
what it was most desirable to do. The yard was hoisted 
up, and the tie was carried away. The sail fell, and the 
people, who were tired, did not care to apply a remedy. 



DOUBTS AND FEARS. I IQ 

At last, persuaded by good reasons, and by the proximity 
of dangerous reefs, the yard was got up again, and secured to 
the mast by stoppers. But these stoppers would not hold ; 
the yard fell again, and to hoist it once more required both 
hands and tongue. The night before there had been a 
great swell, and now it was the same, and as the ship, head 
to wind, laboured much, the rigging almost all carried 
away, especially the running rigging belonging to the 
foremast, and there was only one shroud left on each side. 
The mast appeared so badly supported that the least thing 
would make it go by the board ; but it was a good spar, 
and held on. Firmness is needful in all cases, for without 
it all else is worth little or nothing. 

As for the reefs in sight, they were said to be the 
Catanduanes, where a ship is in great danger of foundering 
with all on board ; while if anyone escaped by swimming, 
the natives shoot arrows into him like San Sebastian, 
which they know how to do very well. Others said we 
were between those reefs and the island of Manilla, in 
a part where it was impossible to get out. Others, 
that the channel was astern, and that the fault was with 
the Chief Pilot. Others declared that the ship would 
sink, that he should die who would die; and other dis- 
concerting opinions like these, sufficient to upset the most 
collected. 

The Governess, in her retreat, appeared to be making 
arrangements with death. A book of devotions in her 
hand, her eyes turned to heaven, making ejaculations, and 
as afflicted and tearful as the rest. The Chief Pilot re- 
gretted that he could not do what he intended. Some 
clamoured, others appeared sad, and all turned their eyes 
to the Chief Pilot, with whom was the whole solution. 
They asked him what land that was, and where they were, 
as if it was enough merely to see it in order to know it 
without further ado. At last, at the end of all this and 



120 IN HARBOUR AT LAST. 

much more, the blame was put on the soldier who pro- 
fessed to know that coast : for it was thought that some 
devil had possessed him that day, to bring all to their 
deaths, if the intervention of God did not save them. 

The Chief Pilot said : " What is it that you want me to 
say to you ? I never saw the land in my life until now, nor 
am I a sorcerer. I came in search of the Cape of Espiritu 
Santo. It ought to be here, within two leagues, more or 
less. Can you not see that the land is covered with clouds, 
and so is the sky, so that I am prevented from making use 
of my instruments. Now we will coast along the land, and 
when we find a port or anchoring ground, we will bring to ; 
for by all means we must keep the ship from grounding." 
He then told two sailors to set up two backstays to 
support the foremast, and another strong lad to have the 
anchor ready to let go as soon as there was bottom. But 
they turned their backs without answering, and made use 
of bad language. 

The ship and crew was in this state when it pleased the 
Lord to look down with the eyes of clemency, and to be 
served by turning the bows of the ship right into a bay. 
A breeze sprang up, and we ran in, with a reef on either side. 
At this juncture three natives came to reconnoitre us in a 
canoe, and placed themselves to windward of the ship with- 
out saying anything. The only man on board who knew the 
language spoke to them, and when they saw that we were 
Christians, they came on board, and showed us the anchor- 
age which we were then seeking. We anchored in the 
middle of the bay, in 14 fathoms. One of these natives was 
an interpreter. The other was the man that the English 
navigator, Thomas Cavendish, took with him to point out 
to him the channels among these islands. I asked them 
what land that was. They answered that it was the Cape 
of Espiritu Santo, and that the bay and port were called 

Cobos ;" also that the opening was near, and that the ship 



FRESH PROVISIONS. 121 

was on her right course. I asked who was then governing 
Manilla. They replied that Don Luis Perez de las Marinas 
was Governor for the Spaniards. I asked this, because it 
was reported in Peru that Japan was preparing an attack 
with a great fleet. This news was given to people who 
seemed an hour before to be sentenced to death, and now 
were to live. They could not conceal their joy, and showed 
it by tears and thanks to God, Who knows how to show 
these mercies when He pleases to the man who serves 
Him. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

Of what happened during the time that the ship was in the bay. 

THE natives went to their village, from which others 
came, one with a wand of justice ; and, on seeing it, and a 
cross on the land, the crew believed the natives to be 
peaceful and Christian. They brought fowls and pigs, at 
two or three reals a piece, together with palm wine, by 
drinking which some of us talked various languages ; also 
many cocoa nuts, plantains, sweet canes, papays, roots, 
water in bamboo joints, and fuel. They took in exchange 
reals, knives and glass beads, which they value more than 
silver. During three days and nights the galley fire was 
never put out, nor was there any cessation of kneading and 
cooking, or of eating the boiled of one and the roast of 
another, so that they were eating day and night. 

With mouths sweetened and stomachs satisfied, they all 
remained as contented as it is possible to imagine. The 
Chief Pilot said that this was the present work, to enable 
them to arrive at the port they so much desired. Some 
wanted to embrace him ; others said that he had made 
them happy; and he said to all that they should give thanks 
to God. He said to the two sailors who would not hear 



122 PRECARIOUS POSITION OF THE SHIP. 

his orders : " Does it seem to you that if you had had your 
own way you would have given a good account of your- 
selves ? Tell me whether you are better off here, or where 
you importuned me to take you ? " 

The natives here are of a brown colour, not very tall, 
and their bodies tattooed. They have no beards, nor any 
sign of them. Their hair is black and long. Their loins 
are covered with cloth, and in the villages they wore a 
tunic of the same material, with no colour, and reaching 
down to their calves. They have large gold earrings, ivory 
armlets, and similar ornaments on their legs, of gilded 
bronze, which deceived some, of our people. These natives 
are so selfish that without silver or something they want in 
exchange, they will give nothing. 

The sick, being so little accustomed to abundance of 
food, and eating without moderation, did themselves 
serious harm ; three or four even died of it. The natives 
came morning and evening, bringing and bartering their 
produce, so that in fourteen days provisions were collected 
for the rest of the voyage. 

The bay is open to the N.W., and when it blew hard 
from that quarter there was a heavy sea. The ship rode 
by a small cable that looked like a thread, so that it was 
a new mercy of God that strength was given to it to hold 
the ship during two days and a night, while it strained 
against its slender cable, with rocks and mangrove 
swamps to leeward. The Chief Pilot, seeing the danger in 
which the ship was placed, proposed to the Governess that 
the royal artillery and munitions should be got out and 
stored in one of the villages, with her property, and that 
of the women and children, or at least what was of most 
value ; while, as regards the ship, he would always be on 
board, with the sailors, ready for anything that might 
happen. She replied that, for the eight days they were 
going to stay, what danger could there be ? He then said 



TROUBLE WITH THE GOVERNESS. l2j 

that he would not feel secure of the ship's safety for a 
single hour ; and seeing the want of care of the Governess, 
he repeated what he had said. As she would not consent, 
he said he would make a protest for his own security, for 
she made certain of her own freedom from blame by reason 
of the care he took. So he drew up a brief protest, saying 
in it what, in his opinion, ought to be done. When she 
had read it, a council was called and an act was prepared, 
ordering that sail should presently be made for Manilla, and 
that they should not remain in that port. The Chief Pilot 
said that he gave his protest as a reply, for that the ship 
was not then fit to go to sea, as first she must be refitted 
and victualled so far as was necessary ; also that the wind 
was then blowing into the mouth of the bay, being the 
direction by which they must go ; also that he must protest 
afresh against his request not being complied with, for the 
ship was not safe for a moment They drew up another 
order, that within an hour he should take the ship out and 
shape a course to Manilla, and that his conduct was dis- 
respectful and mutinous. All these and other similar 
things happened there, and the Chief Pilot spoke to the 
soldiers to this effect : " See you not that these concerted 
replies of mine are to provide for your necessities ? I know 
not what steps to take in order to bring this lady to reason. 
It ought to be understood that my obligation is to serve 
her and to endure her. But see you not that this ship is 
only held by a cable that can be clasped with two fingers ?' 
On this occasion the sailors signed a paper and gave it 
to the Chief Pilot, asking him, who they looked upon as 
their commander, that he would give them food, or an 
instalment of their pay ; otherwise, that he would dismiss 
them soon, that they might go to seek for other service ; 
for here they had sold what they had, and if they applied 
for rations, or advances, or pay, they had nothing but 
excuses and evil answers. The Chief Pilot showed the 



124 THE PILOT SHIFTS BERTH. 

paper to the Governess, and said that their plan was for all 
to go or to seize the ship. The sailors said that it was 
tyranny ; that the King, being over all, paid, fed, and gave 
liberty. The Governess to this replied by saying to the 
Sergeant-Major : " Go to Manilla, and bring me a judge, 
with soldiers and a frigate, so that they may come to me 
and punish these people." She spoke as she understood, 
and would work in this way if she could, having shown her 
disposition. All complained and all suffered. The Chief 
Pilot said : " I do not wish to say during this expedition 
anything more, but rather to suffer a woman as Governess, 
and her two brothers ; and all this from my desire not to 
offend the name of the King's presence, for now I am in 
the hands of Dona Isabel Barreto." 

The Chief Pilot, not neglecting his duties, had soundings 
taken in a certain port round a cape, whither he presently 
took the ship and anchored her. With reason, it may be 
said that to avoid one danger he ran into another which 
was more certain, the one being quite as much by chance 
as the other ; for both ends of the lee foresheets carried 
away outside the thimble ; the wind was fresh, and the 
rocks quite close. But at such moments temerity often 
brings safety, as on this occasion. Sending a hawser on 
shore, the ship was brought into a safe port. Here he 
ordered the natives to make a strong cable of fibres, and 
other ropes, with which he both rigged the foremast and 
secured the ship. 

In reply to the sailors, the Governess had ordered a 
proclamation to be made that no one was to go on shore 
without leave on pain of death. It happened that a 
married soldier went on shore without leave to get some 
food, or with leave according to his own account, and for 
this he was ordered to be arrested. A council was 
assembled, and presently an order was given that the 
prisoner should be flogged. The Sergeant-Major, who had 



THE BOATSWAIN WILL NOT FLOG. 12$ 

to carry out the order, was not handy in rigging what was 
required, and at last told the Boatswain to reeve a tackle 
and hoist up the yard. While this part of the comedy was 
proceeding, an ensign came up the hatchway, followed by 
some halberdiers as long and thin as himself. They came 
by authority of the sentence, with the drum which was 
nearly passed its work, and the most wonderful costumes, 
for there is no play without an interlude. The Boatswain 
was one Marcos Marin, an Aragonese, a large man, now 
old and very respectable. As he knew better how to 
understand things, and complain of them, than to pro- 
nounce the Castilian language, it was a wonderful thing to 
hear his honest liberties and well-founded complaints, 
which he took even to the Adelantado himself. But he 
was very careful, and highly intelligent in his office. As 
the Sergeant-Major hurried him very much, and he had 
very little inclination, he said : " Report, Sir Sergeant- 
Major, that we are all chastised with so much hunger, 
sickness, and so many deaths during the time we have been 
at sea, that it will be better to reflect on all this rather than 
flog another." The Sergeant-Major replied that he must 
obey at once, for that the Governess had given the order. 
The Boatswain answered : " The Lady will do equally well 
in giving us to eat from the store she keeps for herself ; and 
the jars of wine and oil, given to those who need them, 
would be better than these floggings. I have an order, but 
who orders me to do what is right ? " The Sergeant-Major 
was enraged, and the Boatswain, without any hesitation, 
said : " We have good security flog here, hang there, many 
orders, and to die of hunger ! " 

On this there arose cries and complaints, and the wife of 
the prisoner was praying for justice from God for the injury 
that they were going to inflict on her husband. The Chief 
Pilot went to represent to the Governess that it seemed to 
be an unjust thing that in return for so many hardships 



126 MAKING FOR MANILLA. 

that the man had suffered, having lost four children and 
expended his property, he should be left without anything, 
and to die without honour. The Governess answered that 
he had disobeyed her orders, and that it was proper he 
should suffer for it. The Chief Pilot replied, saying that 
" they also broke the orders of God with punishment in the 
life hereafter, and those of Holy Mother Church with 
punishment of excommunication, and -those of the King 
with the punishment of a traitor, which is loss of life, 
honour, and property, who hastily make the sword run 
with blood." The Governess said she had given the order 
to frighten the sailors. The Chief Pilot begged that she 
would not do so at such cost, and that he would look after 
them. With this the prisoner was set at liberty, and the 
solicitude of the Sergeant-Major ceased; 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

How the ship sailed from this bay, and of what happened until she 
arrived at the entrance of that of Manilla. 

THE ship left this bay of Cobos, which is in 12 10' N. 
latitude, on Tuesday, the 2pth of January, and in going out 
we committed two bodies to the deep. By five in the 
afternoon we were well clear of the entrance, and left the 
island of San Bernardino, which is in the middle of the 
mouth, far astern. At night, near an island called Capul, 
we encountered a strong cross sea, caused by currents 
which are here very powerful, so that the ship was turned 
right round, and there was cause for thankfulness that she 
was not driven on shore. Next day several natives came 
out in barangais from a port on the island of Luzon called 
Nivalon. They brought quantities of fowls, pigs, wine and 
fruit ; but the soldiers now had scarcely anything to barter 



DIFFICULT NAVIGATION. 12? 

with, and were able to buy little. We kept the island in 
sight all day, and in the night we were among many others, 
passing through places of which experienced pilots said 
afterwards that they could not understand how it was that 
we had not been lost among the numerous reefs which we 
never saw. The Lord was served in protecting us. 

On Thursday, the first of February, the Governess, at a 
place called Galvan, sent her two brothers, with seven other 
men, in the boat, to seek for food. This business came to 
such a point that the Captain, Don Diego, ordered an 
arquebus to be fired at one of the sailors who went up the 
mizen mast. The Chief Pilot said to the Governess that to 
no one was it more important than to her that the expedi- 
tion should end in peace. This was a foolish affair, and so 
it was left. The boat did not come back, although we 
waited for her all day. They went to Manilla, which was 
15 leagues distant, by a certain strait in the island, to 
report our approach. On the next night, before dawn, the 
ship was so embayed among islands that no way out was 
visible, without a boat and without food, for the provisions 
taken in at the last port were consumed. We saw many 
natives in canoes ; but they all fled from us, although we 
made signs to them. The reason was that, as this was not 
the time when ships arrive from New Spain, they thought 
the ship was English. For they remembered the ship of 
Thomas Cavendish, and the warning of the Governor to 
act thus. There was no want of anxiety about our condi- 
tion, and much more that we could not see how to extri- 
cate the ship. We proceeded as well as we could, for it 
was nearly calm, and at last we saw a channel, so narrow 
that a stone might almost be thrown across it. The wind 
freshened and we made for it, coming out between the 
islands of Luzon and Caza, near a point which is called 
Azufre, in the wide sea of a great bay called Bombon. 

Where there is hunger there is discontent. The soldiers 



128 STINGY CONDUCT OF THE GOVERNESS. 

stood menacingly round the hatchway, because the Gover- 
ness would not give the order for their rations to be served 
out. The Chief Pilot, seeing this, asked the accountant to 
request the Governess to be so kind as to order food to be 
served out to the people. If she did not like to give it, the 
Chief Pilot would sign an obligation to pay her at Manilla 
what the cost of the provisions would be from that time ; 
or, if that would not do, to give it her in specie. If she 
refused, it might be that the store-room would be broken 
into. For it was not just that, there being provision on 
board the ship, the crew should die for want of it. The 
Governess sent for him and said : " Sir Captain, have you 
spent 40,000 dols. as I have on this expedition, or have 
these people undertaken it at their own charge? The 
Adelantado is ill paid for the great things he expected." 
The Chief Pilot replied to this : " My Lady, I spent my 
property, and each one spent what they had ; many gave 
up their lives, and all expended all they knew. As for the 
Adelantado, I was a better servant to him than he was 
friend to me ; but these passed memories do not oblige me 
to look favourably on present faults which give much 
trouble, as may well be known. These men have the same 
necessity to eat on one day as they have on another, and^ 
as we all have ; and until we bring them to Manilla we are 
bound to give them to eat and drink. That which belonged 
to the Adelantado, and that which belongs to your Lady- 
ship, must be used for the necessities of the voyage ; and 
upon me falls the duty of guarding it, disposing of it 
faithfully, measuring the quantity, according to the time 
that this ship may spend with reference to the small 
amount of sail she is able to carry." The Governess 
having been convinced, said that a calf might be killed 
that she had on board. 

While this business was being arranged, two boats came 
in sight, each rowed by forty natives, twenty on each side. 



APPROACHING MANILLA. 1 29 

A signal was made to the one which came in front. She 
turned, but did not care to wait. They ran into each other, 
and made fast to a line which was thrown to them. They 
were asked whence they came and whither they went. 
They replied that they were from Manilla, which was 
20 leagues distant, speaking in the Castilian language, and 
that they were on their way to Zebu, the first settlement 
that was formed by the Spaniards in those parts, an island 
100 leagues from Manilla. I asked for a native as a guide, 
because the ship had to pass some reefs called " Tuley " 
during the night. They gave one a wage of 3 dols. 
for his trouble. The Chief Pilot bought from them two 
large baskets of rice for two pair of shoes, which was 
divided among the people. The Governess wanted to buy 
two more, but she could not agree about the price ; so, 
having given us the guide, they let go the line and pro- 
ceeded on their way. A careful watch was kept during the 
night, and next morning we came in sight of the opening 
to the bay, which we kept nearing by coasting along the 
land of the island of Fortun. The wind was contrary for 
entering on the west side, for there was a breeze from the 
north-east. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Of what took place with the sailors on the arrival ; how four Spaniards 
came on board ; and other things that happened until the ship 
was anchored at Cavite. 

THERE is an island called Marivelez, at the entrance of 
the bay of Manilla, where there is usually a Spanish look- 
out man, with native rowers and light boats, to go out and 
reconnoitre any ships that are coming in, so as to give 
early intelligence to the Governor. There is also a small 
rock called El Frayle, bearing north from Marivelez. 

K 



130 THE CHIEF PILOT REMONSTRATES. 

These two islands form three channels, and to enter the 
one between Marivelez and El Frayle I began to alter 
course. As the only sails we had were the two courses, 
and the crew weary and disinclined to work, while not 
unwilling to injure the ship so as to revenge themselves, 
we made little or no way, and indeed began to lose ground. 
We went on like this for three days, all tired and annoyed 
to find that we did not sight the island, and were thus 
deprived of the pleasure of reaching and resting at Manilla. 
All was sorrow, and waiting for one tide after another, 
counting the hours for its flood, that we might get inside ; 
but as no order was kept, that hour did not come. The 
sailors said to the Chief Pilot that he should run that ship 
on shore, for that they had worked enough, and done more 
than they were bound to do. The thing that ought to be 
was to see the land on both sides, and the smoke of 
Manilla. When they gave any help, they did so very 
slowly, as if it was done as a favour. There was now 
neither food to eat nor water to drink. There was only a 
foul wind, and the affliction expressed in consequence. 
The Governess said that she had only got two sacks of 
flour and a little wine, and that she wanted it all to say 
masses for the soul of the Adelantado. 

The Chief Pilot showed much feeling against the sailors 
who wanted to run the ship on shore, and told them to 
look and see that all that coast was steep to, and with a 
heavy sea. " See you not," he said, " that we have no boat, 
and that the ship is full of sick without food. If you would 
give notice at Manilla, there is nothing to take you over 
the sea, and by land it would take several days. It is not 
possible to sustain the people for one more day. Let it 
not be said that you only want those to be saved who have 
health and know how to swim. Reflect that we have 
brought the ship from such remote parts, by a route never 
before navigated. The little that remains cannot appear 



A BOAT ARRIVES. 13! 

much to those who have suffered so much with such great 
courage. And how would you suffer where they look out 
for us, at losing the reward your labours deserve ? Reflect 
well that if the ship arrived well furnished, full of healthy 
men, well fed and paid, in that case there would be small 
thanks." They answered that " they were only sailors, and 
that when the ship was anchored they would get no credit, 
but only the Chief Pilot who commanded them." To this 
he replied that the greatest reward for which he hoped was 
to anchor the ship in a safe harbour, where all could enjoy 
the good things they so much desired. 

There were many very painful scenes such as this, when 
that merciful Lord, who is always looking down upon us 
and brings succour and relief in times of greatest necessity, 
like a father to his children though prodigal, was served 
that we should come in sight of a boat, which rapidly 
approached the ship with sail and oars. When it came 
near four Spaniards could be seen in it, who seemed like 
4,000 angels, and eight natives were rowing them. This 
was the look-out man, who, as has been said, is always 
stationed at Marivelez, named Alonzo de Albarran, with 
the chief butler of the Governor and two soldiers. They 
came by the Governor's order, to condole with the 
Governess on her misfortunes, and to bring a letter, which 
she presently showed to the Chief Pilot, and which con- 
tained many and most honourable greetings. The coming 
of the ship had become known from the brothers of the 
Governess, who had come by land. The satisfaction of all 
on board was such, and so warmly shown, at the sight of 
the four Spaniards, that it cannot be described. The 
sailors gave their hands, and helped them into the ship, 
where they were received only with embraces, for there 
was nothing else to give them. And they, looking care- 
fully from one to another, and seeing them so sick, covered 
with boils, poverty-stricken, with tattered clothes, and 

K 2 



132 FRESH FOOD AT LAST. 

surrounded by so much misery, could only exclaim : 
" Thanks be to God ! Thanks be to God ! " 

The look-out man went down between decks to see the 
hospital and the sick women, who, when they beheld him, 
cried out : " What do you bring us to eat ? Oh, give us 
food, for we are mad with hunger and thirst." With the 
hope of refreshment some were consoled, and the look-out 
man came on deck again, much horrified at what he had 
seen. Then, seeing two pigs on board the ship, he said : 
" Why do they not kill those pigs ? " They told him that 
they belonged to the Governess, and he prayed hard to her 
to allow them to be killed, having said : " What the 
Devil ! Is this a time for courtesy with pigs ? " The 
Governess then ordered them to be killed, and a soldier, 
who took careful note of such things, exclaimed : "O, cruel 
avarice ! which even with a gentle and pious woman turns 
her heart into a stone, even in a business so necessary, 
cheap, and clear ! " God was served that all the good wine 
appeared too. The ship came to Marivelez on the next 
tack, whence the Governess sent a soldier with the reply 
to the letter she received from the Governor, which was 
sent by the returning boat. 

Soon afterwards another boat was seen, in which was 
the Chief Magistrate of that part of the coast, with the 
brothers of Dona Isabel. They brought much fresh bread, 
wine and fruit, presented by the Governor. When it was 
being distributed there was seen, in respectable persons, 
some things which were far from well ordered. For in 
such necessitous times as were those, ordinary obligations 
are disregarded. All got a share, some more than others, 
which they consumed during that afternoon. One boy 
died from exhaustion, due to previous privations. The 
long night passed with hope of day, when a large barge 
arrived laden with fowls, calves, pigs, bread, wine, and 
vegetables brought by Diego Diaz Marmolego, the land- 



ARRIVAL AT CAVITE. 133 

owner of that part, by order of the Governor. They were 
also sent on board, and plentifully distributed among all, 
with much liberality. 

The ship was nearing the port, though obliged to make 
several tacks. Presently, Pinao, Assistant Master of a 
royal ship, came in a skiff full of sailors, all dressed in 
coloured silks, to help the few weak men in the ship. The 
Captain of the port was on the beach, with the banner 
flying, and all the soldiers drawn up with their arms. At 
the point of letting go the anchor, all the artillery saluted, 
as well as the arquebusiers round the standard. The ship 
replied as well as she could, riding by one anchor secured 
to the slight cable, so celebrated during the voyage. This 
was on the nth of February, 1596, in the long desired and 
long sought for port of Cavite, two leagues S.W. of the 
city of Manilla, capital of the Philippines, in latitude 
14 30' N. Fifty persons had died since the ship left Santa 
Cruz. 

As soon as the ship was anchored, some men came on 
board, moved by chanty, with bread and meat, which now 
became plentiful. Presently the sailors and other persons 
from the city came to see the ship, as a sight both on 
account of her great need as that she came from Peru, as 
it was said, to fetch the Queen of Sheba from the Isles of 
Solomon. All came on board, and, having seen how little 
there was, they wondered that she should ever have arrived 
in safety, and they praised God that she should have been 
spared, to Whom be the honour and the glory, and to 
Whom the success should be attributed and the thanks 
given, for His are the great mercies shown during the 
voyage. It is to be noted that if the people who died had 
not died, those who survived would not have arrived with 
more than twenty jars of water and two sacks of flour. 
Thus concluded, as they say, this unhappy voyage with 
safety. 



134 RECEPTION OF THE GOVERNESS. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

What happened until the people went to Manilla. 

THIS joyful day passed, and the night came, in which 
there were not wanting some new, but not unusual, 
annoyances with the Magistrate of the coast, to whom 
Dona Isabel had made complaints in private. He showed 
himself to be a judge who sided with the first comer with- 
out hearing the other side ; for if he would have heard, he 
would have known how much that lady owed to him who 
brought her where she was, and how little, from any point 
of view, he owed her. But it is very unusual for poor men 
to work without pay or thanks, and for others to do evil to 
him to whom good is due. He took one sailor, and to 
another he gave sharp words and threatened, saying that 
it was an old custom for the people of Peru to be mettle- 
some, and that if they came in that spirit they must not 
think that they were there in their island, where they could 
do as they pleased ; that those who failed to pay would be 
punished, or would have to pay double, or with their lives. 
He made other remarks, and was answered that all who 
came had been and were good vassals of the King ; and as 
for the rest, they were as good as others. These alterca- 
tions ended at last, but the long desired night was passed 
with less content than had been anticipated. For the 
satisfactions of this life come tardily, and endure little 
longer than a sigh. 

Next morning the Master of the Camp came to the 
ship by order of the Governor, with an alderman sent by 
the Municipality, and a clergyman by the officials of the 
Church, all to receive the Governess, and to arrange for 
the sick to go to Manilla. The Governess was taken to 
the royal residence at the port, and again there was a 
salute when she disembarked. Having partaken of refresh- 



FATE OF THE OTHER VESSELS. 13$ 

ments, she was received in a boat, and conducted to the 
city. She entered at night, was received with an illumina- 
tion, and well lodged. 

The sick were carried out of the ship in men's arms, and 
taken to the hospital. The widows were received in the 
houses of the principal residents, and afterwards they were 
all married to their satisfaction. The convalescents and 
the rest of the soldiers were lodged by rich inhabitants, 
The married were put in houses where they were received, 
lodged, and tended, with much love and pleasure, by 
respected citizens of Manilla. In a few days ten died, and 
four entered monastic orders. 

The frigate was never more seen. There was a report 
that she had been found with all her sails set, and the crew 
dead and decomposed, run upon a certain part of the 
coast. The galeot reached port at an island called Min- 
danao, in 10, having been lost among all those islands. 
The people on board were reduced to such necessity that 
they landed on a small islet called Camaniguin, to kill and 
eat a dog they had seen on shore. Some natives, who 
met them by chance, guided them to a port where there 
were some fathers of the Company of Jesus. The fathers 
took them to a Governor in that district, who sent five of 
them prisoners to Manilla, because their Captain quarrelled 
with them, saying they wanted to mutiny. They were 
sent with a letter to D r Antonio de Morga, Lieutenant- 
General of that Government, which he showed to the Chief 
Pilot. It was as follows : 

" Here came into port a galeot with a Captain who was 
as impertinent as the things he said. He was asked whence 
he came, and he replied that he belonged to the expedition 
of the Adelantado Alvaro de Mendana, which was under- 
taken to make a voyage from Peru to the Solomon Islands, 
consisting of four vessels. This galeot put in here, and, as 
she carried a royal flag, I received her as was proper. If 



136 FAILURE TO FIND THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

the others were here, this would be better known. Against 
the soldiers there is no process. They said that, because 
the Captain wished it, he parted company from the ship 
with his galeot." 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Which contains a discourse by the Chief Pilot, explaining why they 
did not find the Solomon Islands. 1 

THE reason why the Solomon Islands, of which the Chief 
Pilot, Hernan Gallego, who discovered them, makes mention 
in his narrative, and of which the Adelantado, Alvaro de 
Mendana, went in search, are not the Islands of the Mar- 
quesas de Mendoza, nor those of Santa Cruz which we dis- 
covered in this voyage : and why we pressed so far in advance 
of the position where he said they were in conformity with 
his instructions, may, as it seems to me, be conveniently 
explained here, to satisfy the doubts which may be raised 
respecting the cause of our not reaching them. 

I find three reasons which might form impediments to 
our reaching the Solomon Islands in the positions where 
we were. 

The first is the belief that they had less longitude than 
was really the case, for they would not seem so far to the 
people who had to go for their settlement. 

The second is some motive of private interest, leading to 
a concealment of the true latitude, giving to it somewhat 
less or more. 

The third is ignorance, or the want of the instruments to 
calculate certain distances, or an error in judgment while 
navigating: what appears to be one thing being another; or 
a mistake in writing. 

1 The object of the voyage had been to reach the Solomon Islands, 
which Alvaro de Mendana had discovered in his first voyage. The 
arguments of Quiros consist of a criticism of the report of Gailego, the 
Chief Pilot of Mendana's first voyage. 



REASONS FOR THE FAILURE. 137 

As for the first, if it was so that we were not given the 
true longitude of the Solomon Islands, I say that we really 
did not reach them, and that they are further to the west 
than the islands we discovered. The reason is that, if what 
the Adelantado told me was true, by whose order I pre- 
pared the" navigating charts, and if what appears in his 
instructions and in the narrative of Hernan Gallego is true, 
the Solomon Islands are in latitude 7 to 12 S., 1,450 
leagues from Lima. There cannot be an error, as we 
always continued to navigate without reaching the position, 
and could not have passed them when they were 400 
leagues further to the west. It must, therefore, be believed 
that they were not behind but in front of us. 

As to the second reason, if it was interest, as many people 
said, that induced Hernan Gallego, when the Adelantado 
asked him for the route to these islands, not to give him 
the true position as regards latitude, this may explain it. 
For when he was at Court to report to his Majesty he had 
not negociated for himself ; and as the Adelantado, when he 
undertook the discovery, did not understand the art of 
navigation, he could be deceived. On the other hand, his 
observations could not be kept so secret when they were 
taken by four pilots, who must have known as well as the 
people who were with them ; nor did Hernan Gallego then 
know that he would have a disagreement with the Adelan- 
tado. Nor do I believe that a man of such high character 
would do such a thing. Moreover, if in this there was 
deceit, I say that if the islands were in 7 at the least, or in 
12 at the most, and we seek them between 7 and 12, 
they might well remain behind us, on one of the two sides. 

As for the third reason, if it was ignorance there is 
nothing more to be said. It is very certain that navigating 
so much as they navigated from east to west, they were on 
a course on which altitude is not altered, nor is longitude 
fixed except by such estimation as each one may make. 
In this there may be very great error, as well in him who 



138 EVIDENCE OF HERNAN GALLEGO. 

makes the estimate as in the ship which, in such a case, 
may have been understood to have gone over less ground 
than she is supposed to have made good. 

In proof of the greater distance between Peru and the 
Solomon Islands, I may mention that Hernan Gallego 
says in his narrative and the Adelantado also told me the 
same that being among the Isles of St. Bartholome, 1 in 
8 40' N., in the position of the Barbudos, they saw a vessel 
flying from them under a head sail. They sent the boat on 
shore; all the natives fled to one of their villages, which our 
people entered, and brought thence to the ships a chisel 
made of a nail, from which they understood that Spaniards 
had been or were there. 

What they suspected, respecting this circumstance, was 
that when the Adelantado, Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, 
discovered the Philippine Islands, a pilot named Lope 
Martin, returned to New Spain without orders, to bring 
the news to the Viceroy, Luis de Velasco, who had sent 
that expedition of discovery, by whom he was very well 
received and dispatched with succour. He, or one of the 
people who went with him, also took a letter which a 
certain friend of the Adelantado Legazpi wrote from 
Mexico, in which it was said that as soon as it was received 
Lope Martin should be hanged for having taken the leave 
which was not given to him. This letter, I know not by 
what order, got into the hands of Lope Martin. Besides 
this, between him and the others there were encounters 
and some deaths, including that of the Captain. Arrived 
at the Barbudos, Lope Martin went on shore with some of 
his friends. Meanwhile the Boatswain, with the men of his 
party, conspired and made sail, leaving them on the island. 
As the Adelantado, Alvaro de Mendana, arrived at the 
islands a little time after this event, it was suspected 
that those who had been left there thought that Mendana 

1 Solomon Islands, vol. i, pp. 67, 68 (Hakluyt Society, 1901). 



EVIDENCE OF HERNAN GALLEGO. 139 

came in search with the object of punishing them ; and for 
that reason they fled in that vessel which they had probably 
built, and went to New Guinea. 

I say that if this is true, as the islands of the Barbudos 
are in 8, 9, or 10, more or less, and 2,000 leagues or more 
from Peru, and as Hernan Gallego, coming from the 
Solomon Islands, which he says are 1,450 leagues from 
Lima, to seek the coast of New Spain, navigating from 
N.E. to N., for so bear the islands from that coast, he 
could not fall in with the Barbudos, being from the 
Solomon Islands at least N.E., having come from a much 
greater longitude than they really thought, or did not wish 
to say. Moreover, inhabited islands are no small indica- 
tion that New Guinea is near. 

Hernan Gallego says, in these formal words, that " in 
2 or 3 to the S.W. we found very clear signs of land, but 
never saw any land whatever. Finally, we concluded that 
we had land to the west of us, and that it was New Guinea ; 
not in a higher latitude than 4 S., for it was discovered by 
Inigo Ortiz de Retes, and by no one else. Bernardo de la 
Torre neither discovered nor saw it, nor is there such a 
place as the Cape of the Cross." 1 

I say, touching such signs as the palms seen in the sea, 
which Hernan Gallego mentions, that I also saw many, 
which might make me believe that New Guinea was near, 
being in the same latitude, and for other reasons that I 
will give further on. Also, in a northerly direction, I came 
upon the Barbudos in 6, an island peopled by good 
natives. Moreover, I came from the island of Santa Cruz, 
1,850 leagues from Lima, and afterwards navigated another 
40 leagues more to the west, making 440 further than 
Hernan Gallego, according to his own account. And as I 
navigated to the Philippines, which is more to the west, 
I was more in the way of seeing the signs of the island I 

1 Solomon Islands^ vol. i, p. 66. 



140 EVIDENCE OF HERNAN GALLEGO. 

found than was Hernan Gallego. For he confesses that 
he went 1,450 leagues from Lima, and took his way to 
New Spain, which is N. to N.E. This proves that he 
could not have seen those signs, nor the islands he sighted, 
without having gone over much more longitude than he 
stated. 

Hernan Gallego says further, in his report to the 
Licentiate Castro, who was at that time President of the 
Audience in the city of the Kings, who despatched the 
expedition : " Being in 7 S., 30 leagues from the island 
of Jesus, 1 which was the first we discovered as we saw the 
archipelago of islands, it was never intended to prosecute 
discoveries further, but that we should return to Peru, 
as is public and notorious. If we had gone on another 
cock would have crowed, for we should have discovered 
another land, different from this, and very near where 
we were. The goodness of the land I do not wish to 
dilate upon, because your Lordship will hear that from 
others." 

I quote this to show that Hernan Gallego was certain 
that he was near New Guinea as he says. He could not 
have come to this conclusion if he had not known that it 
was 2,000 and more leagues from Lima ; for in his position 
he could not have been deceived, because it was discovered 
at a very short distance, as the Maluco Isles are from it. 
Miguel Rojo de Brito, a native of Lisbon, went from 
Maluco to New Guinea, and said that they were close to 
each other, as may be seen in a chapter of his narrative 
which will be attached to this discourse. Although I do 
not know the original intention of that expedition, I 
suspect that they went in search of New Guinea, because 
it is explained that Inigo Ortiz de Retes was its discoverer, 
and not Bernardo de la Torres. So that it may be looked 
upon as certain that it was from a report of one of these, 



1 Identified by Mr. Woodford as Nukufetan in the Ellice Group, in 
7 50' S. Solomon Islands, vol. i, p. 14 (.), 1901. 



EVIDENCE OF HERNAN GALLEGO. 14! 

or both, that they were deriving the information respecting 
the object they sought. For Gallego says that the Cape 
of the Cross has no existence, and that New Guinea is in 
not more than 4 S., implying that one said it was in 4, 
which seemed most likely to be correct, and the other in 
more. He went in search, but did not find it ; coming by 
chance on the island of Jesus in 6 45', and presently came 
to the reefs of Candelaria, and the Island of Santa Isabel, 
and always discovering by a higher latitude and decreasing 
longitude. The reason for not sighting New Guinea was 
the same as prevented us from reaching the Solomon 
Islands, namely, the island of Santa Cruz. My conclusion 
is that New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and the Islands 
of Santa Cruz are all near each other, for a reason I shall 
give presently. 

Hernan Gallego says, further, that the Adelantado asked 
his opinion respecting the return from those islands to 
Peru, across 1,700 leagues of sea ; that the port on this 
island of Cristobal was three leagues by land from the 
most eastern point ; that with a fresh breeze from S.E. 
they navigated 20 leagues N.E. J E., and 15 leagues N.E. 
| N., and N.E. 25, and 18 N.N.E., and when there the 
latitude was 7, and 30 leagues from the island of Jesus 
to E. 

He says that this island of Jesus was the first they dis- 
covered in 6 D 45' S., and that its distance from the city of 
Lima was 450 leagues. If this is as he says, that from 
this island of Jesus to the port whence he had come the 
course runs N.-S., it follows that the same number of leagues 
intervening between the island of Jesus and Lima, also in- 
tervene between San Cristobal and Lima, both being almost 
on the same meridian. It is clearly to be seen that there is 
carelessness here, or that there was an error in his calcula- 
tion, and there no doubt was one throughout in trying to 
determine the true longitude. For in so short a distance 
as there is from one point to the other, there cannot have 



I4 2 GALLEGO CRITICISED. 

been a mistake of 250 leagues. Whence I infer that, in 
such a long route as that from Lima to the Solomon 
Islands, the error would be much greater, the course being 
east and west. 

If his narrative is considered, other obscure and con- 
tradictory points will be found. In one place he says that 
the natives told him that those islands to the S.E. were 
extensive, and that he saw them, Presently he says that a 
sailor climbed up a palm tree, and could not see them. 
He says that at the Island of Guadalcanal he could not 
see the end, and that the coast ran westward. Further on, 
he says that it would take six months to go round it ; and 
that the land he did not see was reported to be very good, 
but that he certainly did not see it. He reports that it 
was better to take a northern route in returning to Peru, 
because it was difficult to find favourable winds further 
south. Few pilots would give this reason, because the 
usual winds outside the tropics, in the same latitude, are 
much the same on the north as on the south side. Arid 
how much easier was it, being (as he says) certain that 
there was no land to the S.E., to go to 11 S., where he 
would have found the route to 30 or 40 on that side, than 
to run down 11 and go up 30 or more on the other side, 
and yet be further from Peru. 

It may seem strange that the Adelantado did not meet 
with the islands that we have now discovered on his 
first voyage. I reply that, when he began the voyage from 
Peru, he made a large curve W.S.W. to 18, and another 
to W.N.W. to 6, more or less, and followed that parallel, 
as I have been told by one who was on board. This was 
the reason that he did not come upon the islands in 
question, which are in a higher latitude, leaving them to 
the south and passing to the north of them. 

There is further proof that the islands of Santa Cruz are 
near the Solomon Islands. The natives are the same 
colour, they dye their hair in the same way, called their 



GALLEGO CRITICISED. 143 

chief " Jauriqui," have the same arms, pigs and fowls, and 
many other things in common. It may really be concluded 
that all the people of Santa Cruz and the Solomon Islands 
came from the archipelago of the Philippines. The Santa 
Cruz people dye their teeth red and black, and use the 
buyo, as in the Philippines. In the Island of Luzon there 
are black men, who are said to be the aborigines of the 
land. They are called Pogotes, and are retired on the 
island of Maragondon and other islands. For the Moors 
and other Indians occupy their lands, drive them away, and 
force those that remain into corners of the land where they 
now are. It may well be that, by reason of the invaders, 
the persecuted people have gone away to seek other settle- 
ments, until they came to New Guinea as the nearest place, 
and thence to the Solomon Islands and Santa Cruz. The 
half-breeds, and differences of colour among them, proceed 
from intercourse between them. 

In conclusion, I may say that the Adelantado told me, 
as well as certain pilots of that time, that Hernan Gallego, 
navigating on the coast of Mexico, made the land one day, 
and that afterwards he sailed over 700 leagues to reach the 
same place again. These, added to the 1,450 leagues 
which, he says, intervene between the Solomon Islands and 
Lima, make more than the 2,000 leagues which I say 
intervene between Lima and New Guinea, from which 
point the distance really ought to be drawn. This being 
so, my suspicion is confirmed ; and there may be seen, as he 
says, the signs of the land of New Guinea, when he met 
with the Barbudos, and he did not see the land when he 
said he did. For if he had gone over the 1,450 leagues, as 
he said, it would take much more than four months of 
navigation. There are a little over 700 leagues from there 
to the coast of New Spain, navigating by the best-known 
route, which is that by the north. So that there cannot 
have been so great a mistake, if it was not from having 
intended to go by that point, and have taken the said 700 



144 CITY OF MANILLA. 

leagues more to the west. This appears to explain what 
has been said until the contrary is shown. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Of various things that happened to the Chief Pilot, Pedro Fernandez 

de Quiros. 

WE were some time in the city of Manilla, which is the 
capital of the government of the Philippine Islands. It is 
built on a clear point running out into the sea, and by the 
mouth of a river. It has a good fortress, and other houses 
well worthy of special note, on which a long chapter might 
be written. But I must be excused, referring the reader to 
a special book on the city, the Philippine Islands, and the 
history of their conquest, which was written by D r Antonio 
de Morga. 1 

While I was in the city there arrived the new Governor, 
Don Francisco Tello, who had been Treasurer of the Board 
of Trade at Seville. There were great festivals for his 
reception, got up both by the Spaniards and natives. It 
was a special sight to behold three elephants which were 
brought into the square, of which the largest, named Don 
Fernando, had been sent as a present from the King of 
Cambodia to the late Governor when he asked for help. 
On each one there was an Indian driver, dexterous in the 
method of governing the elephant, both by words and by 
the use of an iron hooked instrument. Placed in front 
with his goad, the driver made him run, march, go down on 
his knees, raise himself, and other things well worth seeing. 
This hook serves the same use as a bridle for a horse. 
They were performing in front of the Governor, who was 
sitting at a window, to whom they put their knees on the 

1 Edited for the Hakluyt Society by Lord Stanley of Alderley in 1868. 



ANECDOTES ABOUT ELEPHANTS. 145 

ground three times, the feet stretched out behind, as they 
are unable to double up. The performances of the ele- 
phants were numerous, and, as a conclusion, they took Don 
Fernando apart, and his Indians placed him facing the 
beams on which had been fastened the castle of fire on the 
night before. Saying a word, and touching his forehead 
with the goad, the elephant gave a blow, and took the 
beam on his two tusks with great ease ; and so he upset 
the whole : a thing worth seeing. 

A few days afterwards (according to what was said), 
when this elephant was drinking at the river, there came to 
him a great and well-fed crocodile, which had taken many 
natives in that river. He seized the elephant by the trunk, 
and when the elephant felt it, he raised up the crocodile 
just as easily as a fishing rod raises a light fish, and let him 
fall on the ground without more ado. A crocodile, such as 
this one, weighs as much as a fat bullock. 

They say also that this elephant had a boil on his gum, of 
which the native driver cured him, but the pain made him 
throw about his trunk so as to hurt his driver. When the 
elephant was to be healed, the driver said to him : " I am 
very angry, Don Fernando, for in return for the good I did 
you, you tried to kill me. What do you think the King, 
my Lord and yours, who sent you here, and gave me for 
your companion to look after you, if he knew of it, would 
say. See how you can no longer eat, and are getting 
thin, and you will soon die without any fault of mine. 
Open your mouth, if you please, and presently I will cure 
you like a friend, forgetting the harm you did me." The 
elephant, having taken two turns with his trunk round a 
shelf that was there, opened his mouth, and was operated 
upon without moving, his groans showing what pain he 
endured. And so he was cured. 

Of another elephant they told me that, to avenge himself 
on a native who had charge of him, he crushed him when 

L 



146 MARRIAGE OF THE GOVERNESS. 

he passed through a doorway, and killed him. The man's 
wife said to the elephant : " Don Pedro, you have killed 
my husband. Who is now going to maintain me ? " On 
which the elephant went to the market place, and took a 
basket of rice which it gave to her, and when it saw that 
she had eaten it all, it fetched another, and then another. 
Things are said of these animals which seem incredible, 
and the wonderful thing is that they understand every- 
thing, in whatever language it is spoken, as I have myself 
seen. An elephant was surrounded by Spanish soldiers, 
and one told him, without making any sign, to take a 
plantain out of his pocket and eat it. The elephant 
promptly put his trunk into the pocket, and when he found 
that no plantain was there, he took up a little earth in his 
trunk, and threw it in the face of the soldier who had 
deceived him. 

When the festivities were over, our Governess married a 
young cavalier named Don Fernando de Castro, a cousin 
of the Governor Marinas, who, as was just, took possession 
of the property of his wife as his own, and he was able to 
secure much in the city. With this help the ship was 
victualled and furnished with all that was necessary. On 
the day of St. Lawrence, we made sail to undertake the 
voyage to New Spain. But, having started so late, we had 
to go through incredible hardships and troubles. At last 
we arrived in the port of Acapulco on the I ith of December 
of the year 1597, where the ship was visited, and all 
received free leave to land. There I, Captain Pedro 
Fernandez de Quiros, took leave of the Governess, and of 
my other companions, and embarked on board a passenger 
ship for Peru. 



NARRATIVE 

OF 

THE VOYAGE 

OF THE 

ADELANTADO 

ALVARO DE MENDANA DE NEIRA 

FOR THE 

Discovery of the Islands of Solomon. 1 

WRITTEN BY 

THE CHIEF PILOT, 

PEDRO FERNANDEZ DE QUIROS, 

FOR 

D* ANTONIO DE MORGA, LIEUTENANT-GENERAL OF THE 
PHILIPPINES. 



1 Contained in the Sucesos de las Islas Philipinas of Antonio de 
Morga (1609); translated by Lord Stanley of Alderley for the Hakluyt 
Society, 1868. 



L 2 



SECOND VOYAGE 

OF THE 

ADELANTADO ALVARO DE MENDANA, 

BY 

HIS CHIEF PILOT, PEDRO FERNANDEZ DE QUIROS. 



N Friday, the 9th of April, of the 
year 1595, the Commander-in-Chief, 
Alvaro de Mendana, set sail with his 
fleet to go and subject and people 
the western islands of the South Sea, 
from the port of the Callao of Lima, 
which is in I2j S. latitude ; passing 
by the valleys of Santa, Truxillo and Sana, and collecting 
men and provisions, he went to Paita, where he took in 
water, and made a list of four hundred persons, more or 
less, with his four vessels, two large and two small. He 
left this port (which is 5 higher than the said port), 
steering W.S.W., making for the islands of his discovery : 
he took as Master of the Camp Pedro Merino Manrique, 
and as Admiral his brother-in-law, Lope de la Vega, and 
as Chief Pilot, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros ; and he sailed 
on this course to the altitude of 9^, from which point he 
sailed W. and to the point S.W. to 14, where he changed 
his course to W. and the point N.W. ; and having reached, 
by this course, fully 10 of latitude, on Friday, 2ist of July, 




150 THE MARQUESAS. 

we sighted an island, to which the General gave the name 
of Magdalena, and from a port in it there came forth about 
seventy canoes, in each of which came three men, in some 
more in others less. Others came swimming, and others 
on logs : they were more than four hundred natives, white, 
and of very agreeable appearance, tall and strong, large 
limbed, and so well made that they had greatly the 
advantage over us ; with handsome teeth, eyes and mouth, 
hands and feet, and most beautiful flowing hair, and many 
of them very fair. Amongst them were most beautiful 
youths ; they were entirely naked, without covering on any 
part, and all had their bodies, legs, and arms, and hands, 
and some of them their faces, marked after the manner of 
the Bisayas here : and indeed, for savage people, naked 
and of so little reason, at sight of them there was much 
cause to praise God who created them. Let this not be 
taken for exaggeration, for so it is. These people called 
us to go to their port, and we called to them from our 
flag-ship, and they went on board of her, a matter of forty 
of them ; and we appeared to be men of less than the 
usual stature by the side of them ; and amongst them 
there came one who was understood to be a palm taller 
than the tallest man of our fleet, although we had in the fleet 
men of more than regulation height. The General gave 
there to some of them shirts and other things, which they 
received with much pleasure, and danced after their fashion, 
and called to the others. The General was put out of 
temper at the liberties they took, because they were great 
thieves ; and he ordered a cannon to be fired to frighten 
them ; when they heard it they took to swimming, and all 
seized their arms, and sounding a conch, they threw a few 
stones, and threatened with their lances, for they had no 
other arms. From the ship they fired at them with arque- 
buses, and killed five or six, and they remained there. As 
our fleet sailed on we discovered three other islands. This 



THE MARQUESAS. 151 

island may be 6 leagues round ; we passed by it on the 
S. side ; this is high, precipitous towards the sea, with 
rocky ravines, in which the natives dwell. There seemed 
to be many inhabitants in it, for we saw them on the rocks 
and beach ; so we went on making for the other three 
islands. The first, to which was given the name of San 
Pedro, will be 10 leagues from Magdalena, and runs 
with it northward and to the point N.W. : it will have 3 
leagues circuit. It is an island beautiful to look at, with 
much wood and fair fields : we did not know whether it 
was inhabited, for we did not come close to it. To 
the S.E. of it, about 5 leagues off, is another, which the 
General named Dominica ; it is very fair to look at, and 
seemed thickly inhabited : it may have about 1 5 leagues 
circumference ; and to the S. of this, and a matter of 
little more than a league off, is another island, which may 
be 8 leagues round, which received the name of Santa 
Christina ; and our fleet passed through the channel 
between this and the other island. For all that we saw of 
these islands is clear sailing ; and on the W. side of Sta. 
Christina a good port was found, in which the fleet anchored. 
These natives did not come before me like the others, but 
some very beautiful women were seen. I did not see them, 
but persons who had an opinion in the matter affirmed to 
me that there were as beautiful women as in Lima, but 
white, and not so tall ; and in Lima there are some very 
pretty. What was seen in the way of victuals in that port 
was pigs and hens, sweet canes, very good plantains, cocos, 
a fruit which grows on high trees ; each is as large as a 
large fir cone ; it is very good to eat ; much of it was 
eaten green, roasted and boiled, and when ripened it is 
indeed so sweet and good a fruit to my way of thinking, 
that I know no other which has the advantage of it ; there 
is hardly anything in it to throw away, unless a little husk. 
There was another fruit, like chestnuts in savour, but much 



152 THE MARQUESAS. 

larger than six chestnuts together : a good deal of that was 
eaten, roast and boiled ; and some nuts with a very hard 
shell, which- were very oily, and many of them were eaten ; 
some suspect that they brought on looseness. We also saw 
pumpkins of Castille sown in the ground. There is a 
pretty waterfall close to the beach of very good water ; it 
comes out of a rock, at the height of two men ; its volume 
may be of the thickness of four or five fingers ; and then, 
close to it, a stream of water, and the vessels supplied 
themselves from it. The natives went off to the mountains 
and rocks, in which they fortified themselves, and tried to 
do mischief by rolling stones and hurling them ; but they 
never wounded any one, for the Master of the Camp 
stopped their advance by placing outposts. The natives 
of this island, on seeing a negro of ours, made signs towards 
the S., to say that in that direction there were men like 
him, and that they went there to fight, and that the others 
had arrows, and that these went in large canoes, which they 
possess. As there was no interpreter, nor much curiosity 
to learn more, the matter remained thus ; but in my opinion, 
this is not possible for natives so isolated, unless there is a 
chain (of islands), because their boats and customs in other 
matters do not show that these people had come there from 
any great distance. 

This port is in 9j S. latitude. The Commander-in- 
Chief ordered three crosses to be set up in it, and on 
Saturday, 5th of August, to weigh anchor and set sail, 
making for the W., to the S.W., or N.W., a matter of 400 
leagues. Sunday, the 2Oth of August, we saw four low 
islands, with sandy beaches, full of very many palms and 
woods, and on the S.E. side, towards the N., a great sand- 
bank. All four may have a circuit of 12 leagues. We did 
not know whether they were inhabited, because we did not 
go close to them. This year all seemed timid : I say this 
with rage. They are in iof latitude, and were named 



SANTA CRUZ. 153 

after St. Bernard, having been discovered on his day. 
Henceforward we began to meet with S.E. winds, which 
appear to predominate here. With these we continued 
sailing to the above-mentioned points, never rising above 
ii or going below 10 leagues, until Tuesday, 29th of 
August, when we discovered a round islet, which might be 
a league round, all surrounded by reefs. We tried to land 
on it, and could not find where to do so, in order to get 
wood and water for the Admiral's ship, of which it had run 
very short ; it was given the name of Solitary Island ; it 
is in I of , and will be 1,535 leagues from Lima. From 
this place we went on navigating, with the above-mentioned 
orders, and a variety of opinions were given : some saying 
that we did not know where we were going, and other 
things which did not fail to cause grief. It was God's 
pleasure, that on the eve of Our Lady in September, at 
midnight, we saw an island, which might have a circuit of 
from 90 to 100 leagues, and it lies about E.S.E. and 
W.N.W., and will be 1,800 leagues from Lima. The whole 
of it was very full of woods, reaching to the highest ridges, 
and where it was not cleared for the natives to sow, in all 
the rest not a span of earth was to be seen. The ships 
came to anchor in the northern part of the island in 10 
latitude. To the N. of this port, about 7 leagues off, is a 
volcano, with a very well-shaped hill, from the top of 
which and from other parts issued much fire. The volcano 
is lofty, and may have a circumference of 3 leagues ; it is 
precipitous on the side of the sea, and all bare, and without 
any part where a landing can be effected ; it rumbles 
within frequently and loudly like thunder. To the N.E. of 
this volcano there are some small islets, which are in- 
habited, and a great quantity of shoals ; there is a distance 
of 7 or 8 leagues to these islets, and the shoals run to the 
N.W. ; and the person who went to see said that they were 
numerous. Around the great island there were some small 



154 PRODUCTS OF SANTA CRUZ. 

islands : all of them, and the great one (when it was 
circumnavigated), were found to be inhabited ; and within 
sight of this great island, to the S.E. of it, there was seen 
another island of no great size : this must be the link with 
others. After putting into port in the great island of 
Santa Cruz, for this was the name given it, the Com- 
mander-in-Chief ordered Captain Don Lorenzo, brother of 
his wife, to go with the frigate to seek the Admiral's ship, 
which disappeared on the night in which we saw the 
island, respecting which I make no favourable conjecture ; 
it was sought for this and two other times, and was not 
found, but only the shoals which I have mentioned. What 
was seen in the way of victuals in this port consisted of 
pigs, hens, plaintains, sweet canes, one, two, or three kinds 
of roots like sweet potatoes, which they eat roast and 
boiled, and make biscuit with it, buyos> two kinds of good 
almonds, and two kinds of pine nuts, wood-pigeons, doves, 
ducks, grey and white herons, swallows, pot-herbs, pumpkins 
of Castille, the fruit which I mentioned in the first islands, 
and chestnuts and nuts. There is a very strongly-scented 
sweet basil, and red flowers, which at this port they keep 
in the gardens, and two other species of another sort, also 
red. There is another fruit on high trees, like pippins 
for their good smell and savour. There is a great quantity 
of ginger, which grows there without its being cultivated, 
and much yerba chiquilite, with which they make indigo. 
There are agave trees, and a great deal of sagia, and many 
cocoa nuts. Marble was seen, and pearl shells, and large 
snail shells, like those which are brought here from China. 
There is a very copious spring, and five or six other rivers, 
though not very large. The settlement was established 
close to this spring. The natives attempted to defend 
themselves ; and as the arquebus tells at a distance, seeing 
the evil effects, they did not defend themselves much, but, 
on the contrary, gave some of what they possessed. In 



TROUBLES AND SICKNESS. 155 

this matter of going for provisions there were a few things 
happened, which were not very good treatment of the 
natives, for they killed the native who was our best friend, 
and the lord of that island ; his name was Malope ; and 
two or three others, who were also friendly. Of the whole 
island no more was seen than a matter of 3 leagues around 
the camp. The people of this island are black : they have 
small canoes made of one tree, in which they go about their 
villages, and other very large canoes with which they go out 
to sea. On Sunday, the 8th of October, the Commander-in 
Chief ordered the Master of the Camp to be killed by 
stabbing, and they killed Tomas de Ampuero in the same 
manner, and they cut off the head of the Ensign, Juan de 
Buitrago, and he wished to put to death two other friends of 
the Master of the Camp ; but he left them alone, because 
we entreated him to do so. The cause of this was public, 
because they wished to go away from the country, and 
abandon it, and there must have been other reasons, but I 
am unacquainted with them. What I saw was much 
dissoluteness and shamelessness, and more than enough 
improper conduct. On the i8th of October the Com- 
mander-in-Chief died : on the i/th there had been a total 
eclipse of the moon. On the 2nd of November his brother- 
in-law, Don Lorenzo, who had succeeded as Captain- 
General, died ; and, seven or eight days before, the priest, 
Antonio de Serpa ; and on the 8th November the Vicar, 
Juan de Espinosa. There was great sickness amongst our 
people, and as there was little care for want of an apothe- 
cary and doctor, many of them died ; and they begged the 
lady Governor, Dona Ysabel Barreto, to take them out of 
the country. One and all agreed to embark ; and, trusting 
ourselves to the mercy of God, we left this port on Satur- 
day the 1 8th of the said month, in a westerly direction 
to the S.W. point, making for the island of St. Christopher ; 
or, more exactly, in search of it, to see if it or the Admiral's 



156 VOYAGE TO MANILLA. 

ship could be fallen in with, for so the lady Governor 
commanded. We sailed two days and saw nothing ; and 
at the request of all the people, who cried out that we were 
taking them to destruction, she ordered me to shape the 
course from this town to Manilla, from a port in ioj, from 
which I came steering to N.W. to avoid meeting islands 
on the way, for we were ill-prepared to go amongst 
them : with the crews so sick that there died whilst we 
were sailing some fifty persons, and there in the island 
forty persons, a little more or less. We made our course, 
short of provisions, navigating 5 S. and as many in N. 
latitude. We met many impediments and calms, and in 
fully 6 N. latitude saw an island, which seemed to have a 
circumference of 25 leagues, thickly wooded, and inhabited 
by very many people, like those of the Ladrones, for we 
saw them in canoes which came out to us. From the S.E. 
to the N. and then to S.W. it is surrounded by large reefs. 
On its western side, about 4 leagues off, there are some 
low islets ; we found no place to anchor, though we tried, 
for the galeot and frigate which sailed with our ship had 
disappeared some days back. From this place we came 
by the said course to latitude 13!, and in two days that 
we sailed W. in this latitude we sighted Serpana and Guan 
in the Ladrones, and we passed between the two and did 
not anchor, from not having ropes to lower and recover 
the boat. This day was the 3rd of January of 1596, and 
on the 1 4th of the said month we saw the cape of Espiritu 
Santo, and on the I5th anchored in the bay of Cobos. We 
arrived there in such a state that only the goodness of God 
could bring us thither, for human strength and resources 
were not enough to reach to a tenth of the way. There 
we arrived so dismantled, and the men so thin and worn 
out, that it was the most pitiable sight that could be seen, 
with only nine or ten pitchers of water. In this bay of 
Cobos the ship and crew were set to rights as much as was 



MOTIVE FOR WRITING. 1 57 

possible, and on Tuesday, the 2nd of February, we left 
that port and bay, and on the loth of the same month we 
anchored in this port of Cabite. 

Besides the desire which I have to serve your Honour, 
that which moves me to leave this brief narrative with 
your Honour is, that an account may remain (if perchance 
God should dispose of my life, or anything else should 
arise, or I or she that I take with me should be missing), 
and that it may give light, which may be a business of 
great service to God and to the King our sovereign. May 
your Honour be pleased to accept the goodwill to serve 
you which I retain ; and if God make me return to this 
port there will be an opportunity to set it forth better ; 
and at the same time will your Honour forgive my being 
so short, for time is in fault for being so with me. I beg 
you to keep it secret, for man does not know what time 
brings ; for looking at it rightly, it is fit that the first 
islands should remain concealed until His Majesty be 
informed, and order whatever may be most for his service : 
for as they are placed, taking a middle position between 
Peru, New Spain, and this country, the English, on knowing 
it, might settle in them, and do much mischief in this sea. 
And consider me as the faithful servant of your Honour, 
whom may God preserve many years, with much satis- 
faction and increase of dignity, etc. 

Your servant, 

PEDRO FERNANDEZ DE QUIROS. 

To the Dr. Antonio de Morga, Lieutenant-General 
of His Majesty in the Philippines. 



NARRATIVE 



OF 



THE VOYAGE 



OF 



Pedro Fernandez de Quiros 

IN 1606, 



FOR THE 



Discovery of the Austrial Regions, 




VOYAGE 

OF 

PEDRO FERNANDEZ DE QUIROS. 




CHAPTER I. 

Of various things that happened to the Chief Pilot, Pedro Fernandez 
de Quiros ; until he arrived at the court of the King of Spain. 

AVING sailed along the whole coast 
of New Spain, I arrived at the port 
of Payta on the 3rd of May, 1598. 
Thence I wrote a letter to the 
Viceroy, Don Luis de Velasco, and 
travelled by land to Lima, where I 
arrived on the 5th of June, and was 

very well received by the said Viceroy. He desired to be 
specially informed respecting all the particulars of our 
voyage and discoveries, and I gave him the best account 
in my power. I also offered that, if he would give me a 
vessel of 70 tons and 40 sailors, I would return to discover 
those lands and many others which I suspect to exist, and 
even felt certain that I should find in those seas. 

But in the end he came to the conclusion that he could 
not give me the necessary means without first consulting 
and receiving orders from His Majesty. He thought it 
would be the best plan that I should proceed in person to 

M 



l62 RETURN TO SPAIN. 

the court of Spain, as the business was so serious and 
important, and as no one could undertake it so well as 
myself, who possessed such complete information. On his 
part, the Viceroy would help me by giving me letters of 
introduction to the King and to his councillors. Having 
received them, I embarked on board the Capitana at the 
port of Callao, on the I7th of April, 1598, under General 
Don Beltran de Castro y de la Cueva, arriving at Panama 
after a voyage of twenty-two days. Thence I went by land 
to Puerto Bello, where I embarked in a frigate, and in 
seven days arrived at Cartagena. I found this place in 
great confusion, because a fleet of twenty large ships had 
appeared before it, under the command of the English Earl 
of Morlant (Cumberland), who had previously taken the 
city of Puerto Rico. But most of this fear disappeared 
on the arrival of Don Luis Fajardo, knight of the order of 
Calatrava, and General of the fleet for guarding the Indies 
and the route to them. 

From Cartagena I wrote to the Viceroy of Peru, in case 
I should die on the voyage, giving him a more detailed 
account of the enterprise I wished to undertake, and of 
what would be necessary when it should be taken in hand. 
Don Luis de Fajardo, having returned from Puerto Bello 
with the silver, I embarked on board his galleon, and we 
left Cartagena on the ist of November, 1598. After 
twenty-seven days we anchored at Havanna, whence we 
sailed on the i6th of January in the following year, con- 
voying thirty ships. Having made a good start, we 
encountered such a gale in 29 N. that we were in great 
danger of being lost. Many ships disappeared, and others, 
including ourselves, were obliged to return to Cartagena 
on Tuesday the 3rd of March. Thence I wrote to His 
Majesty and to the Viceroy of Peru ; but we had to winter 
at that port all that year until, having sent the news to 
His Majesty and two galleons having come for the silver, 



PILGRIMAGE TO ROME. 163 

the two Generals embarked fifteen millions on board 
twenty vessels. They made sail on the 4th of January 
and, after encountering several tempests, they sighted 
Cape St. Vincent, where they captured two English ships. 
On the 25th of February, 1600, with salutes of artillery, 
and amidst the music of instruments, we anchored at San 
Lucar. 

There I embarked for Seville, where I entered the city 
so well fitted for giving an account of myself, as may be 
understood from the labours I had passed through, and 
the hardships I had suffered. Finding myself free from 
them, and considering that the year was the holy one, 
during which the great jubilee is celebrated at Rome, I 
determined to go to Rome, and pass the summer in a visit 
to the holy city. With this object I sold the little I 
possessed, bought the dress of a pilgrim, and only with 
the help of a pilgrim's staff I went on foot to Cartagena of 
the east, encountering several adventures. When the 
galleys of Italy arrived, I embarked in one of them, which 
coasted along by Valencia and Barcelona. On the 5th of 
August we crossed the bay of Narbonne ; and soon after- 
wards landed at the port of Baya, which is in the territory 
of Genoa. Thence, dressed as a pilgrim, and accompanied 
by two others and a friar, we passed through all the finest 
cities of Italy, where there was much to see and to notice. 

Finally, having reached the great city of Rome, I had 
the good fortune to be well received and listened to by the 
Lord Duke of Sesa, 1 who at that time held the office of 
Ambassador from Spain at that court. To him I gave an 



1 Don Antonio de Cardona y Cordova, sixth Duke of Sesa, was 
descended from the Great Captain. He was son of Don Fernando de 
Cordova y Requesens, second Duke of Soma, by Dona Beatriz de 
Figueroa. He became Duke of Sesa by renunciation of his aunt, 
Francesca de Cordova, and succeeded an elder brother as Duke of 
Soma. He was also Duke of Baena. The Duke of Sesa died at 
Valladolid on January 6th, 1606. 

M 2 



164 SUPPORT FROM THE POPE. 

account of the lands that had been discovered, and of my 
desire to return to them ; and submitted that it would 
be right for His Holiness to favour the enterprise. I 
addressed myself chiefly to the importance of saving an 
infinity of souls, such as exist in that new world. It seemed 
good to His Excellency, and he called together a meeting 
in his house of the best pilots and mathematicians to be 
found in Rome. Having made a detailed examination of 
my papers and charts in his presence, they came to the 
conclusion that all I had said was probable, and worthy to 
be put into execution. 

The Lord Duke then arranged for me an interview with 
His Holiness Clement VIII, which took place on the 
28th of August, I having first dined at the table of the 
poor. His Holiness heard me very attentively, saw all the 
papers I showed him, and approved of my zeal and veracity. 
He encouraged me to persevere in my laudable intentions, 
and conceded many graces and indulgences for the time 
when I should begin the voyage. He gave me letters to 
the Majesty of the King our Lord, to whom also the Lord 
Duke of Sesa wrote letters of recommendation ; and he also 
gave me letters to other princes and councillors of the 
court of Spain, with the means of proceeding thither. 
Having gained the holy jubilee, and beheld many things 
which were worthy of note, including the canonization of 
the glorious St. Raymond, I was still detained in Rome 
much longer than I expected, for the completion of the 
letters and indulgences already mentioned, and that His 
Holiness might show me favour by giving me some rosaries 
that had been blessed, and a piece of the wood of the Cross. 
About this there was great difficulty. 

At length, these and others having been overcome, the 
day arrived for my departure from Rome, which was the 
afternoon of Holy Wednesday of the year 1602. Having 
visited the holy dwelling of Our Lady of Loreto and passed 



PLAN SUBMITTED TO THE KING OF SPAIN. 165 

through the cities of Arimino, 1 Forli, Ferrara, and Lodi, 
in which I found much to see and take note of, and where 
I met with various and notable adventures, I entered the 
city of Milan, which contains so many grand and admirable 
buildings, that to treat of them briefly would be to do them 
injustice. I passed by Pavia and Tortona, and went thence 
to sleep at the town of San Estevan, the first place in the 
territory of Genoa. Then I entered Genoa at so fortunate 
a time that on the second day I was able to embark on 
board one of the six galleys of Prince Doria, who was sent 
with his nephew to congratulate His Majesty on the birth 
of a princess. We arrived at Barcelona, where I went to 
Montserrat, and, passing through other cities of Spain, 
I entered Madrid on the octave of Corpus Christi of the 
same year, 1602. The court not being there, having moved 
to Valladolid, I went to the famous convent of the Escurial, 
where I had notice that His Majesty then was, with whom 
I might speak, and kiss his royal hands, and give him my 
memorial respecting my pretensions, on Monday, the 
1 7th of June of the said year. 



CHAPTER II, 

Of what happened to the Captain Pedro Fernandez de Ouiros at the 
court of Spain ; negotiating for leave from His Majesty to dis- 
cover and settle the southern parts ; how, and in what form, the 
business was negotiated ; and his voyage to Peru. 

HAVING spoken to His Majesty, and placed my first 
memorial in his hands, in which I declared my plan and its 
importance, he heard me with his accustomed clemency 
and benignity, and replied that he would order the matter 
to be seen to. Presently I went to speak with Don Juan 

1 Rimini. 



1 66 MEMORIALS AND IMPORTUNITIES. 

Idiaquez, with the Father Confessor, with Don Pedro 
Franqueza, and with other Members of the Council of 
State, and important persons about the court, who might 
be able to help in despatching my business. To these I 
gave the letters I brought from the Viceroy of Peru and the 
Ambassador at Rome ; and I showed to them the letters of 
His Holiness, and the other papers and charts relating to 
my discovery. 

Some received me well, holding the affair to be serious 
and worthy of support. Others thought little of it or of 
me, thinking that I promised more than I could perform, 
and that for the performance of so great a deed, a person of 
more parts and valour was needed. Some answered me 
that sufficient lands had been discovered for His Majesty, 
and that what signified was to people and settle them, 
rather than go in search of those I said were new, which 
were so distant that they would be difficult and costly to 
maintain, after they had been conquered and settled. 
There were not wanting those who threw doubts on the 
utility of such conquests. So that I was forced to be more 
importunate to His Majesty, submitting new memorials 
every day, representing the arguments in favour of the 
enterprise, and endeavouring to satisfy those who opposed 
me. During this time I had much trouble at court, and 
I made a long discourse on the life passed by those who 
had business to prosecute there. I had different replies, 
some sharp, and others gentle, like those from Don 
Pedro Franqueza and others of the Council of State. 

At last, on the last day of Easter, in the year 1603, 
I was sent for by Don Pedro Franqueza, who told me that 
my business was despatched ; and he took me to the Chief 
Secretary, named Matienzo, and said that, as he valued his 
regard, he was not to delay me on any point. So on 
Saturday, the 5th of April, they delivered to me some 
orders of His Majesty which contained my despatch, and 



GROUNDS FOR THE ENTERPRISE. 167 

which had been passed by the Council of State. Their 
tenor is as follows : 

Copy of the Order of His Majesty touching the Principal 
Despatch. 

To Don Luis de Velasco or the Count of Monterey, my rela- 
tion, my Viceroy and Captain General in my kingdoms and 
provinces of Peru, or such other person as may be governing in 
my name, at the time of the delivery of this order. 

There has come here from Rome the Captain Pedro Fernandez 
de Quiros, a Portuguese ; and the Duke of Sesa and of Baena, of 
my Council of State and my Ambassador at that Court, wrote to 
me that in the holy year he had news from Friar Diego de Soria, 
Prior at Manilla of the Order of San Domingo, that there would 
be found at that court the said Captain Quiros, who was a great 
pilot with much experience of the South Sea and of the great gulf 
between the coasts of New Spain and Peru and Japan and the 
Philippine Islands, having been Chief Pilot of the second discovery 
made by the Adelantado Alvaro de Mendana. The said Father 
represented that it would be much for the service of God and for 
mine to introduce him, that he might again return to discover 
these unknown parts and islands. So the Duke sent for him to 
his house to ask him concerning curious things relating to his art ; 
and entertained him there for near seventeen months, during 
which time he opened his mind, and showed many papers he 
possessed, and drew up others which he communicated to Father 
Clavio and other mathematicians and distinguished geographers. 
All were persuaded, by the proofs and reasonings he submitted to 
them, that there could not fail to be either a continental land or a 
number of islands from the Strait of Magellan to New Guinea 
and Java and the other islands of that great archipelago. And 
they concluded that, enjoying the best part of the torrid and 
temperate zones, where it has been seen, as well in the ancient 
provinces of the world as in the new discoveries, that much and 
very good and rich land exists which has a temperate and there- 
fore a habitable climate. They are, therefore, of opinion that it 
is very desirable to lose no time in discovering that southern 
region, unknown until now, which will be a great service to God. 

Besides the interest and advantages that this discovery promises, 
it will be easier to explore the southern region than it was to find 
the Western Indies. When the said Captain returned from that 
long navigation, including detentions in various parts, lasting for 
two years, he offered to Don Luis de Velasco, my Viceroy of Peru 
and your predecessor, to return in the same ship in which he had 
come, to that discovery, if it should prove necessary, as far as New 
Guinea and the Moluccas, and to return to Peru by way of the 



168 QUALIFICATIONS OF QUfROS. 

Philippines, with a full account of all he had discovered. But 
though it seemed well to the Viceroy he did not act, but gave the 
Captain letters to me and to His Holiness, who has heard and 
spoken with him. His Holiness was pleased with his proposals, 
insomuch that he has conceded many spiritual gifts for those 
parts (if I order the voyage to be undertaken), for the reasonings of 
the said Captain satisfied him. The Duke has given me a good 
account of his parts, good judgment, experience in his profession ; 
and has assured me that he is a worker, quiet, disinterested, of 
decent life, zealous for the service of God and for my service. As 
regards the theory (according to what the mathematicians at Rome 
affirm) they say that there are few pilots who know as much as he 
does; that he is expert in making globes, and charts for navigating; 
that he well understands the use of instruments necessary for navi- 
gation, and that he showed them two of his own invention, one by 
which to know, in navigating, the difference made by the needle 
between the N.E. and N.W. points, and the other for taking an 
altitude with more ease and accuracy. Both were commended 
by the Fathers Clavio and Villalpando of the Company of Jesus, 
and by the Doctors Toribio Perez and Masa, who have lectured 
publicly in mathematics at Salamanca, as well as by distinguished 
geographers. Captain Quiros had made an offer to the Duke 
that, I being served by it, he would go from Spain by the Strait 
of Magellan and return by the Eastern Indies, having gone round 
the world, using, by sea and land, the instruments he had made, 
and that he would make quite clear the true differences made by 
the needle in variation : a matter which up to the present time is 
very obscure, and respecting which there are many different 
opinions. The discovery of the truth will be of great advantage 
to navigation, in giving a knowledge of the true latitude and 
longitude of places, ports, and capes discovered, or which may be 
discovered in various voyages. 

In conformity with what has been reported, the said Captain 
Quiros has related to me all that he has told to others respecting 
the navigations and discoveries ; proving his statements by writings 
and maps of the islands he discovered, when he served as Chief 
Pilot under the said Adelantado, Alvaro de Mendana, describing 
the diversity of people shown by their different colours, yet 
appearing to be docile, and the fertility of the islands which 
promised wealth. He prayed that, taking into consideration his 
zeal, and that his ends and objects being the service of God and 
my service, and the conversion of these people to our holy faith, 
and the good that might accrue from the discoveries (without 
reference to his interests), and besides all this the way in which 
the navigation of these wide seas would be facilitated through the 
great practice and experience he has of them, I would be served 
by ordering that a ship, not very large, should be provided with 
crew, provisions, munitions, and other things necessary for the 



THE EXPEDITION ORDERED. 169 

said navigation and enterprise ; and that matters should be 
arranged in a manner that would enable him to accomplish what 
he wishes to undertake. Having considered his proposal, with 
the attention that so serious a matter requires, for the increase of 
the faith and the benefit of the souls of those remote people, and 
placing the service of God before all things, as is reasonable, 
after consulting my Council of State, I have resolved : 

That the said Captain Quiros shall presently depart to make 
this discovery, in the first fleet for Peru ; and I ordain and com- 
mand that on his arrival you are to give him two very good ships 
with which he will be satisfied, to fit them out and provide them 
with the number of people necessary, well victualled, and supplied 
with munitions and arms requisite for so long a voyage. The 
ships are also to be supplied with things for bartering with natives, 
if they should reach places where this can be done, in conformity 
with the general orders which you and your predecessors have for 
similar discoveries, and with all that seems most conducive to my 
service. The cost of the preparations, of the people who will be 
embarked, of the provisions, munitions, clothing, and other things 
necessary for the voyage, is to be defrayed from my royal revenues, 
and from those which are most readily available. You are to 
give orders that some bare-foot friars, of the Order of St. Francis, 
exemplary and of good life, are taken ; and you are to see that 
the people who are embarked in the said ships are good and 
useful, ordering them to obey and respect the said Captain during 
the voyage out and home, as their leader and superior, whom I 
name for that position from this time, obeying him in all things. 

Take notice that it is my will that the said Captain Quiros is 
presently to make this voyage and discovery without delay ; and 
so I charge and order you very positively to comply promptly with 
my orders, without interposing doubts or difficulties, notwith- 
standing that this order does not come through my Council of the 
Indies. The business being peculiar, I have arranged and I shall 
be served by its coming through the Council of State, and in this 
I must receive precise service from you. By the first ship you 
are to report the arrival of the said Captain Quiros in those my 
kingdoms, and how you have furnished him with the said two 
ships, and provided him with all that is necessary. For I shall 
look out, with much anxiety, for the news of compliance with my 
orders. And to such of my officials or accountants as have the 
duty of keeping the accounts respecting what is contained in my 
royal letter, I order and command that they receive and pass the 
expenditure which you sanction out of my royal revenues, with 
your orders or letters of payment without seeking any other 
authority ; for I approve it, from this time as well and properly 
spent and paid, and this shall be their authority. In Valladolid, 
3ist of March, 1603. 



170 ORDERS FOR THE EXPEDITION. 

Copies of two other Royal Orders. 

To Don Luis de Velasco, or the Count of Monterey, my cousin, 
my Viceroy and Captain-General in my kingdoms and provinces 
of Peru, or whomsoever shall be governing the said kingdoms in 
my name at the time that this Order is presented. Although in 
another separate letter I have caused to be written to you very 
specially the reasons which have moved me to resolve to send the 
Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, a Portuguese by nation, who 
will deliver this, to proceed with two ships well supplied with 
men, victuals, munitions, and artillery, to discover the southern 
islands and lands as far as New Guinea and Java Major, in this I 
desire to repeat those orders, as I do very particularly, that, 
without hindrance by difficulties or other causes, you are to 
further my service by sending the said Captain Quiros, with as 
much despatch as possible, with the said two ships, so that my 
orders may be complied with quickly; and I trust to you that you 
will do your part in providing the two ships, in obedience to my 
commands. For besides that it is furthering my service, I take a 
particular inclination and pleasure in the discovery that is to be 
undertaken, for the increase, which is to be hoped from it, of our 
holy faith among those remote people, for the glory of God and 
the public benefit, which is the object I have before me. You 
are to advise me, by the first opportunity, of what steps you have 
taken, for I shall await the news with the desire for it that you 
should understand. From Valladolid, the 3ist of March, 1603. 

The King. 

To whomsoever my Viceroys, Governors, Lieutenant-Governors, 
Captains-General, Adelantados, and Admirals of my armies and 
fleets by land and sea in the eastern and western Indies, the 
Philippine and other islands, and coast of Africa, and to all my 
Ministers of Justice and War, of whatsoever title, quality, nation 
or condition they may be, to whom this my royal order may be 
presented. Forasmuch as I have ordered the Captain Pedro 
Fernandez de Quiros, a Portuguese by nation, to proceed to the 
city of Lima in Peru, and with two ships, well supplied with men, 
victuals, and munitions of war, to proceed thence to discover 
New Guinea, Java Major, and other southern lands and islands, 
returning by that part of the world to these my kingdoms of Spain, 
to deliver and account to me of what he had seen and discovered, 
and of the observations he will have made by land and sea during 
his navigation, in conformity with the orders he has received. I 
hereby order and command you, that in whatever part of the said 
my kingdoms and states the said Captain, or the officers and 
sailors who go with him, may arrive with the said two ships or 
any one of them, or with any other vessel, you shall receive, 



ORDERS FOR THE EXPEDITION. 171 

protect, and succour the said Captain and his people in my ports 
and lands, and provide them with whatever is necessary to com- 
plete the said voyage without delay; and you are to assist them to 
obtain whatever they may require, and he may ask for, as he is 
my servant and Captain, going expressly to carry out my orders ; 
and you are not to interpose any impediments or difficulties, but 
rather you are to extend to him favour and help, if you desire or 
seek my approval. For this proceeds from my will, and is very 
conformable to my royal service. At Valladolid, March 3ist, 
1603. 

These orders were accompanied by many letters, which 
were given to me at court by some great lords, for the 
Viceroy of Peru. Having communicated the letters of His 
Holiness to the Royal Council of the Indies, the Count of 
Lemos, who was President of that Council, and the other 
members of it, desired that I should explain to them my 
objects and intentions, and they ordered that I should 
bring them a map. I went to give this account in a garden 
of the court, where the other members assembled to hear 
me. Having listened to what 1 told them, they were 
satisfied, and rather envious that my despatch should have 
been arranged by the Council of State. But I was not yet 
contented, on seeing that, in the orders that had been pre- 
pared, a special clause had not been inserted that, in the 
event of my failure or death, I might nominate another 
person to carry on and complete the discovery. So I 
represented that an order should be given to me, with this 
provision ; and, after some trouble, I succeeded. The 
additional order is as follows : 



The King. 

To Don Luis de Velasco or the Count of Monterey, my cousin, 
my Viceroy and Captain-General in my kingdoms and provinces 
of Peru, or whomsoever may be governing in my name at the 
time that this order is presented. The Captain Pedro Fernandez 
de Quiros who, by my order, proceeds to make discoveries in the 
unknown parts of the south and others (as is contained in more 
detail in the despatches which I have ordered to be sent to you), 
has besought me, in order to make more sure of the success of the 



QUIROS SAILS FROM SPAIN. 

enterprise that, if he should fail through sickness, accident, or 
death, that as great a success as is expected from the said dis- 
covery for the service of God and of our Holy Faith may not be 
lost, I shall be served by ordering that, in the said event, you 
shall nominate a person equally able and sufficient for the duty, in 
order that with the said despatches and papers and writings that 
he may have left, concerning what he had seen and what he 
hoped to discover, such a person may continue the said discovery. 
And as what he asks is a testimony of his zeal in the service of 
God, in my service, and in that of Christianity, I order and 
specially charge you that if our Lord should be served by the 
failure of the said Captain Quiros, or if he should not be able to 
go on the said voyage, with the papers and memorial that he will 
leave to explain and throw light on his intentions, you shall 
nominate the most suitable person you can find to take his place 
and carry out this great undertaking. And to him who may be 
selected you are to give all the assistance and help he needs, in 
the form indicated in the previous orders; and this is my will, and 
is conformable to my service. At Aranjuez, May Qth, 1603. 

With this I set out on the road to Seville, and found the 
fleet for New Spain ready to sail. I at once applied to the 
House of Commerce for my despatch ; and, though there 
were some difficulties to overcome, in the night of the eve 
of St. John I went on board a brigantine, and proceeded 
down the river of Seville. But when I reached the bay of 
Cadiz I found that the fleet had already sailed, consisting 
of thirty ships, and in the fleet was the Marquis of Montes 
Claros, going out as Viceroy of New Spain. I had to do 
what I could, and in great haste. So I took a passage in a 
frigate, commanded by Captain Diego Ramirez, going to 
Tierra-firme under convoy of the fleet. After a good 
voyage we sighted the island of Marigalanta on the 
jst of August ; and on the next day, which was that of a 
Franciscan festival called " Porciuncula," we came into the 
port of Guadaloupe, when the Viceroy and Vice-queen 
landed to hear Mass. At dinner-time the persons of most 
consequence went on board again ; but a great many 
remained on shore, wandering about or washing clothes. 
They were suddenly attacked by the natives of that island, 



SHIPWRECK. 173 

who fell upon them with great shouting and flights of 
arrows. It seemed certain that they would be captured, 
killed, or wounded, and, in consequence, upwards of sixty 
persons were drowned, seven of whom were Dominican 
friars. This caused great sorrow and perturbation through- 
out the fleet, and was a prognostication of what was after- 
wards to happen. For that night there rose a wind from 
the S.S.W., which was nearly abeam ; and as the ships were 
near the shore and close to each other, they were all in 
great danger, especially the Capitana, for another ship, 
named the Pandorga, came into collision with her, and 
both were in danger of being lost. It was necessary for the 
Viceroy and the Vice-queen, almost naked, to pass to 
another ship. They left behind much property that was 
coming with them ; and the ships were ordered to be burnt, 
that they might not fall into the hands of enemies. The 
other ships put to sea as well as they were able, and pro- 
ceeded on their voyage, and our frigate on hers, making for 
the island called Curagoa. The frigate's voyage was so 
unlucky that, on the vespers of St. Lawrence, she struck 
and went to pieces on some rocks, which we afterwards 
learned were those off the island called " Aves." We found 
ourselves in great trouble, but by the mercy of God most 
of the people were saved, being taken in the boat to those 
rocks. With the same boat what was possible of the ship's 
gear was got on land, with which we set to work, until the 
diligent Captain ordered the boat to be sawn in two, and a 
small vessel to be built of the materials, which was launched 
in the end of August He said that he was determined to 
send her with all the passengers, and me as their leader, to 
the port of Guayra, of the city of Caraccas, to bring back 
provisions for those who remained, with some vessel in 
which the whole party could escape from that dangerous 
prison into which God had put them. I do not know 
whether it was worse for those who remained behind, or for 



174 DETENTION AT CARACCAS. 

those who went in the vessel. But by the favour of God, 
having passed through great hardships, I arrived at 
Caraccas, and gave an account of what had happened to 
the Governor, who supplied me with what was necessary, 
and I returned with the refreshments to my unhappy com- 
panions who, with penitence and prayers, besought God for 
my return. They had been on an allowance of only two 
ounces of bread for ten days. Having brought the relief 
and almost made another frigate, I said to the Captain that 
it was only fair that I should continue my voyage. So 
I took my leave, and embarked, with certain persons 
returning to Caraccas, where I remained for eight months, 
waiting for a passage. I noted and wrote in much detail 
the things I observed concerning that island. 1 By great 
good luck I found there three children of a brother of 
mine, of whom I had not heard for many years. It 
appeared that he had married there and died, leaving a 
widow and these three children. It seemed to me right 
that I should take them out of such a bad country, and 
bring them with me. I got leave from the grandfather, for 
the widow was also dead, and I took the two boys, 2 leaving 
the little girl with her grandfather. 

At last the time for my long desired departure arrived, 
and I embarked for Cartagena in a frigate. There I pre- 
sented to the Governor the order of His Majesty, in which 
all his officers are instructed to help me ; but he made 
little account either of the order or of assisting me. As 
soon as I could I again embarked for Puerto Bello, and 

1 He forgets that Caraccas is on the main land. 

2 One of these nephews was no doubt the Lucas de Quiros who was 
appointed Royal Ensign by his uncle on May i3th, 1606, at the bay 
of St. Philip and St. James. Zaragoza mentions that, in 1616, Lucas de 
Quiros was acquiring a certain reputation at Lima as a cosmographer 
(iv, Apuntes Biograficas, p. 139). He constructed a map of the western 
side of South America, from Carthagena to Magellan's Strait, by 
order of the Viceroy, Prince of Esquilache, on parchment (see Duro 
Area de Noc, p. 560). 



ARRIVAL AT CALLAO. 1 75 

arrived at Panama so poor that for the space of eight days 
I had not one rial. I arrived, owing for the hire of the 
mules and many other things. So I determined to apply 
to the Audience of that city to present me with 200 dols. 
from the treasury, or I should have to seek it at a loss 
from merchants, to be repaid at Lima. But the judges 
made as little of me as of the royal orders which I pre- 
sented, saying that that was no place for advances from 
the public funds. So I had to retire to my poor lodging, 
where I was sued by the muleteer and other creditors. 

In the middle of these troubles, on Monday, the 3Oth of 
August, the most Holy Sacrament went forth from its 
house to the hospital, which was built of old wood. 
Ascending to the upper story, as the weight of the people 
was great, a large part of the building gave way, and we 
fell, sixty of us, with the beds and patients, a height of 
more than twenty feet. There were many accidents. A 
priest was killed on the spot, and there were broken limbs. 
I escaped with what I got, which was a severe blow on the 
left side, a wound on the right ankle, and a hand cut open 
by a nail. My cure cost me four bleedings and two months 
and a-half in bed, without possessing a single maravedi 
during the whole time, and in a very expensive place. 
Only by a miracle I found anyone to take pity on me in 
my necessity. 

When barely convalescent, I was able to embark in a 
ship bound for Peru, without a bit of bread or a jar of 
water. God favoured me with such a good voyage that in 
twenty days we anchored at Payta, and I sent a letter by 
the chasqui to the Count of Monterey, who had arrived as 
Viceroy of that kingdom from New Spain. Embarking 
again, God was served that in eighteen days I should arrive 
at the port of Callao, where I disembarked on the 6th of 
March, 1605, with debts for the passage and food, and with 
no money. I hired horses from one I had known before, 



INTERVIEW WITH THE VICEROY OF PERU. 

and entered Lima by night. I went round without being 
able to find any hostelry, until God led me to a potter who, 
for that night and for three other nights, hospitably received 
me with goodwill among his pots ; so that I am able to 
say with good reason that I arrived at Lima weighted 
down with so many old labours to make a beginning with 
new ones, in the way that will be seen by what follows. 



CHAPTER III. 

Of what more happened in the city of the Kings and in its port of 
Callao, to the Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, until his 
despatch took effect, and he embarked for the new discovery. 

AFTER I had arrived at the city of the Kings, three days 
passed without being able to obtain admission to or 
audience with the Viceroy, to explain to him my plans, 
and inform him respecting the orders of His Majesty. I 
spoke with him for the first time on Friday, the nth of 
March, and, having seen the royal order, he appointed an 
audience on the 25th of the same month, which he gave 
me. He had ordered to be present two judges, two 
religious persons of the Company of Jesus, the General of 
Callao, Don Lope de Ulloa, the Captain of the Guard, and 
a secretary. 

The Viceroy ordered me to read certain papers referring 
to the business, and to explain everything. He had a 
general chart spread out on a buffet, with which, he satisfied 
himself when I answered the questions they asked me. 
Although, in the course of the discussion, the Viceroy said 
that it appeared more convenient to him to make the 
voyage from Manilla, where the expedition could be fitted 
out at less cost than would be incurred in the purchase 
of two ships at Lima, I answered that the royal order 



THE VICEROY AND HIS ADVISERS. 177 

expressly commanded that the expedition should start 
from Lima and not from the Philippines, and that the 
contrary winds would be against all successful navigation. 
I added that there was a want of sailors and soldiers at 
Manilla. There were those at the audience to whom my 
remarks seemed to be just. Don Juan de Villela, one of the 
judges, was strongly in favour of the expedition ; also the 
Father Francisco Coello, who had been "Alcalde" of the 
Court of Justice and Assessor to the late Viceroy, Don 
Luis de Velasco. They were present when I gave an 
account of my navigation and my plans on the first occa- 
sion ; so that they were witnesses brought by God to prove 
the truths of which I treated. The Viceroy showed him- 
self to be satisfied with my arguments, and of the im- 
portance and grandeur of the proposed discovery. Yet, 
owing to his bad health and many occupations, and to the 
difficulties which always arise in business of this kind that 
has to pass through many hands, the despatch could not be 
proceeded with as quickly as was necessary, and as I 
desired. If the day of St. Francis should pass, the best 
time of the year would be lost for making sail and shaping 
a S.W. course. So that I was forced to continue my 
memorials to the Viceroy, and to set forth all the details I 
deemed necessary to arm, equip, and provision the ships 
for so long a voyage. I -found more opposers than helpers. 
Don Fernando de Castro, husband of my former Governess, 
Dona Isabel Barreto, who, with all her household, had 
come to live in Peru, opposed my undertaking as trenching 
on the Solomon Islands, which he inherited through his 
wife, who was the widow of their discoverer, the Adelantado 
Alvaro de Mendana. But the good cavalier was convinced 
by my pious reasoning, and he said that, as he understood 
it, he would condemn the soul who pretended to disturb 
me. 

The Doctor Arias Ugarte, a Judge of the Royal Audi- 

N 



178 OFFICIAL OBSTRUCTION. 

ence, learning in what poverty and discomfort I lived, 

invited me to his house and table : an offer such as a 

brother might make, or one friend to another. Seeing that 

my wish differed from his, he wanted to make me accept a 

great dish full of dollars, almost by force. I gave him 

thanks, and said that it did not seem right for one serving 

His Majesty in a great undertaking to be sustained by 

alms. At length, after many memorials and much worry, 

I induced the Viceroy to nominate commissaries whose 

duty it was to see that the most necessary things were 

provided for my despatch. Those matters relating to the 

sea were under the superintendence of the Admiral, Juan 

Colmanero de Andrada, who was not well disposed towards 

me. This was the reason that I had to return to the 

Viceroy with complaints and importunities, in which he 

honoured and favoured me. One day he said to me that, 

by virtue of the royal order I had shown him, he wished to 

name a person to go in my company, who was to take my 

place and office in the event of my death. I answered that 

I did not wish to take with me any one who would know 

that he was to succeed me, for that was an arrangement 

fraught with obvious danger. In the order His Majesty 

allowed that I myself made the proposal, with the object 

that if I should die before I reached Lima, or before I left 

the port, the enterprise should continue in being. But at 

present I was strong and well ; so I begged him to suspend 

this business until it was seen what God ordained ; and 

that he would leave it in my charge ; so that when it 

appeared necessary I could select such a person as time 

had shown to merit the charge of so serious an enterprise. 

In this position the matter rested, and my despatch 
proceeded, though with slow steps. As the time for start- 
ing approached, it was represented that the pay should be 
in advance, and the persons who raised the question 
claimed that it should be given on board the ships, or with 



FAREWELL TO THE VICEROY. 1 79 

good securities. I succeeded in satisfying them, saying 
that, as His Majesty had entrusted to me and to them a 
business of such importance, it was not just to proceed in 
all things with such limitation. 

Having settled this, I took steps for my people to receive 
the jubilee which had been conceded by His Holiness, and 
that a special festival should be held for them in the con- 
vent of St. Francis of the port of Callao, where were the 
six friars who were to go in our ships. The standards and 
banners were to be blessed, and we were to come forth 
with all our people in procession, in the clothes of sack- 
cloth which almost all had made for the occasion. But 
the envy which is so powerful put a stop to this laudable 
intention, and there were not wanting those who opposed 
the blessing and raising of the standard, as if the under- 
taking was not for the service of His Majesty. However, 
all the people confessed and took the sacrament. The 
standards and banners were embarked, rolled up on their 
staves ; and I, with other persons of the fleet, went to seek 
for the six friars. These, accompanied by many others of 
their Order, and by their guardian and commissary, came 
forth from their convent, and were lovingly embraced by 
many people, for always at such partings many tears are 
shed. We all went on board together, with the Admiral 
and other royal officers. When the inspection was made, 
there was not a single man missing who had received pay, 
and not counting those, there were twenty-two. One day 
before, I had been to Lima to take leave of the Viceroy, 
having with me the two captains of the other two ships. 
I asked him to pardon me for having been so pressing, for 
it had been necessary to make a finish of my despatch. 
The Viceroy answered that, on the contrary, he was much 
pleased, and he embraced me, and afterwards the other 
two captains : saying that, owing to his serious indisposi- 
tion, he was unable to go to the port to see us start, as he 

N 3 



180 LETTER OF THE VICEROY. 

desired, but that he would write a letter to all the people 
of the expedition, which was to be read publicly before 
making sail, as was done. Its tenor was as follows : 

Letter of the Viceroy ', Count of Monterey. 

Illness ,will not allow me to honour and favour with my 
presence your departure from the port, and the commencement 
of your navigation. As I am unable to say to you what is 
desirable in words, I have decided to do so by a letter. 

I feel very sure that, in general, you have understood the lofty 
aims for the service of God our Lord which has moved his royal 
Majesty to undertake this discovery with great cost to his treasury; 
and what mighty interests may result from the enterprise to the 
church of God, by the saving of many souls, and to the crown of 
Spain by the increase of its dominions. So I trust that you will 
keep the one and the other object present to your minds, being 
the principal reasons which also moved us to the undertaking. 

I desire to charge you to maintain peace and obedience from 
subordinates to their officers, and from all to the Captain Pedro 
Fernandez de Quiros, who has been ordered by His Majesty to 
make this voyage. And I charge you to keep in memory that he 
represents in his person the Viceroy himself, as if I myself was on 
board, and as if I gave the orders that he will give ; showing that, 
in the discipline and obedience that you must exercise on all 
occasions, you signally display your loyalty as good vassals to 
His Majesty. He who falls away from this shall be severely 
judged by the councillors of His Majesty, or the royal ministers 
where the matter is reported, and especially by me in cases that 
come before me. May God guide you and send you forth to do 
His will. Given on December 20th, 1605. 

As soon as the letter was read, the ships being ready, 
the various banners were displayed from the mastheads 
and tops, and the royal standard was hoisted, the yards 
were raised, and the anchors got up in the name of the 
most holy Trinity. The sails were set, and the men on 
their knees prayed for a good voyage to our Lady of 
Loreto, saying that this fleet is dedicated to her name, and 
sails trusting in her favour and protection. All the 
artillery, muskets, and arquebuses were fired off. The 
ships passed near the other royal ships, which were saluting 
with their pieces, with many people on their decks and 



DEPARTURE FROM CALLAO. I 8 1 

galleries, and many more in the town, on balconies and 
roofs, and on the beach, watching attentively as we left 
the port. It was the day of St. Thomas the Apostle, 
Wednesday, at three in the afternoon, the 2ist of December, 
1605, t ne sun being in the last degree of Sagittarius. 

In this manner the three ships departed. The Capitana 
was named San Pedro y San Pablo. She was bought from 
Sebastian de Goite y Figueroa, and was well adapted for 
such service. The other vessel, as Ahniranta, was rather 
small, and was also purchased for His Majesty in the port of 
Callao. The third was a launch, or zabra, of small size, which 
had lately arrived from the Galapagos Islands, to rescue the 
people who had been wrecked there. She was very strong 
and a good sailer. In all three were embarked nearly three 
hundred men, sailors and soldiers, with some small pieces 
of artillery, arquebuses and muskets, provisions of all kinds 
for one year, iron implements, fruits and animals of Peru 
for those who should form a settlement, and the said six 
friars of the Order of St. Francis, also four brothers of 
Juan de Dios to cure the sick. As Chief Pilot there came 
one against my will, whom they made me receive, as he 
had taken the Count of Monterey from New Spain. He 
did me much injury. 1 The second Pilot was called the 
Captain Pedro Bernal Cermefio, to whom I delivered the 
charge and command of the launch. 

1 His name was Juan Ochoa de Bilboa. 



1 82 SAILING WITH A FAIR WIND. 



CHAPTER IV. 

How the Captain, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, having left the port of 
Callao with his fleet, navigated from the coast of Peru, and his 
instructions to the pilots, sailors and soldiers that they might 
know how to govern themselves. 

COMMENCING to leave the port of Callao, the prows of the 
three ships were pointed in the direction of their destina- 
tion. The sun went down. The Ahniranta asked for her 
name. She was given the name of San Pedro, patron of 
the same ship, and of the cause. They sailed with the 
wind S.S.E., so prevalent on that coast, thence to E.S.E., 
and as we went on the wind passed from point to point until 
it was due east, where it remained for many days, blowing 
gently. It seems that the lofty cordillera of Peru, running 
north and south, impedes the wind from blowing east 
until a good offing is gained, when it is the ordinary 
wind. 

The Captain, during the three first days, made entries in 
his journal, but presently his health failed him. For he 
took such a headache from Lima that he could suffer 
neither sun nor shade, and could expose it neither bare nor 
covered. On this malady there came a spasm which 
caused him much suffering, and, as was afterwards sup- 
posed, he was cured by this reversed attack, though none 
of these changes sufficed to finish him. For whom God 
wishes will live. The three eves and days of Christmas, 
Circumcision, and Epiphany, were celebrated with great 
festivity ; and at the Conversion of St. Paul, the Captain, 
not having been able to do so before, issued the following 
instructions to the people of his ship^ and to those of the 
other two ships of his fleet, judging them to be very 
necessary. 



INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY QUIROS. 183 



Instructions. 

Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, Captain and Chief of the three 
vessels of the fleet, of which he has command, to discover the 
unknown southern regions for His Majesty. 

As it is agreeable to the service of God our Lord, and to that 
of the King of Spain, Philip, third of that name, whose is this 
fleet, and whose vassal I am, and in whose name I go on this 
service ; and as it is conducive to good government that the 
Captains should have rules to keep respecting the voyage that has 
to be made, and other work that has to be done, if by chance, 
owing to a tempest or other legitimate cause, they should part 
company from me, they should be given instructions and notices 
that they may follow and carry out the orders with regard to the 
charge with which they are entrusted. I, therefore, give to Luis 
Vaez de Torres, Admiral of the ship called San Pedro, the orders 
as follows : 

I specially charge the said Admiral that he is to maintain 
Christian, political, and military discipline among the men of 
his ship. 

Further, I charge him to see that they do not curse nor 
blaspheme, nor say or do other things evil against God our Lord, 
nor against the most holy Mother, nor against angels, saints, or 
things divine or sacred ; and if perchance (which may God not 
permit) there are some so wicked as to dare to utter such blas- 
phemies, he is to punish them severely and rigorously as their 
crimes deserve. 

Further, I charge him not to consent to any playings with dice 
or cards, either for small or great stakes ; and if by chance there 
should be any playing cards found in his ship, or dice (except for 
playing at backgammon), he is to throw them overboard as a thing 
very prejudicial to the objects of the voyage ; and if the games 
at tables cause disputes and trouble, they are also to be thrown 
overboard, so as to avoid all occasion for mischief. 

He is to take great care that every day, in the afternoon, all the 
people go on their knees before an altar where there are images of 
Christ and of the Virgin Mary, and that the Litany of Our Lady 
of Loreto is recited, praying for her favour and for her interces- 
sion, that God our Lord may guide us and show us the lands and 
people we seek, and help us in all that undertaking on which we 
are employed, and grant us that success which will be to His 
honour and glory and for the good of so many of His creatures. 

Further, I charge him that he forbids and by all means prevents 
any one from taking God's name in vain, the person so offending 
forfeiting his ration for that day, and if he has already had it, for 
the next day ; and the same punishment is to be inflicted on such 
persons as may give him to eat, even if they are his own mess- 
mates. If the blasphemer repents his fault, he may be pardoned 



1 84 INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY QtJIkOS. 

the first time, but for the second, third, or other times he may be 
put in irons, or fined for the benefit of souls in purgatory ; and 
this may not be remitted. And that this may be known to all, 
a copy of this chapter is to be nailed to the ship's main mast. 

Further, he is to be very vigilant in preventing free or dis- 
respectful words being spoken of the royal person or his service : 
and those who so offend are to be punished promptly and with 
rigour, always justifying what is inflicted lor this or other 
offences. 

Further, he is to take care and use much diligence in treating 
kindly and lovingly all the people under his charge, and to honour 
and maintain each one of his officers in the posts they occupy, 
and to cause them to be respected and to respect each other. In 
short, he is to acquire those methods and habits which are neces- 
sary to keep his people contented and firm in their love, 
truthfulness, fidelity, and loyalty, remembering how worthy of 
esteem that Captain is who, without the use of knife or other 
rigour, governs his people in peace. 

Further, he is to look after the Master of the Ship with 
vigilance, who is to see that the provisions do not turn bad and 
are not wasted ; and that those respecting which there is a 
suspicion that they may turn bad are used first. 

The ration to be served out each day to each person on board, 
whether receiving wages or not, is i^ Ibs. of biscuit, i Ib. of meat, 
2 oz. of bacon, i oz. of pulses, half a gallon of water for drinking, 
and sufficient for cooking. On fish days the ration is to be one 
fish or (if it is large) part of one, 6 oz. of pulses, a measure of oil, 
another of vinegar ; biscuit and water as on meat days. If there 
is no fish, 4 oz. of cheese is to be substituted. As regards extras, 
what appears most convenient is to be done, always seeing that 
there is no pretext for complaints, and considering that there is 
much time and a long voyage before us. 

He is to be very diligent, both' by day and night, in following 
the Capitana ship, which will shape a W.S.W. course until the 
latitude of 30 is reached ; and when that is reached and no land 
has been seen, the course will be altered to N.W. until the latitude 
of 10 15'; and if no land has yet been found, a course will be 
followed on that parallel to the west, in search of the island of 
Santa Cruz. There a port will be sought in the bay of Graciosa, 
in 10 of latitude, and 1,850 leagues from the city of the Kings, 
to the south of a great and lofty volcano, standing alone in the 
sea, about 8 leagues from the said bay. The Captain who arrives 
first in this port, which is at the head of the bay, between a spring 
of water and a moderate-sized river, with bottom from 40 to 35 
fathoms, is to anchor there, and wait there three months for the 
other two ships. When together, a resolution will be taken as to 
what further shall be done, in compliance with His Majesty's 
orders. If by chance the other ships do not arrive, the Captain, 



INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY QUIROS, i&$ 

before he departs, is to raise a cross, and at the foot of it, or of 
the nearest tree, he is to make a sign on the trunk, to be under- 
stood by him who next arrives, and to bury a jar with the mouth 
closed with tar, and containing a narrative of all that has happened 
and of his intentions. Then he will steer S.W. as far as 20, 
thence N.W. to 4, and on that parallel he is to steer west in 
search of New Guinea. After coasting all along that land, he 
is to proceed to the city of Manilla, in the island of Luzon 
of the Philippines, in 14 N., thence by the eastern Indies to 
Spain, to give an account to His Majesty of all that has been 
discovered. 

Further, he is to be diligent in taking the sun daily, and at 
night the star Crucero^ or at least whenever the weather admits of 
it, that he may know his latitude and plot it on his chart, making 
allowances for lee-way, caused by winds or currents, and for the 
variation of the needle ; and for greater accuracy, he shall take 
care to correct it by the sun, or by a known star when on the 
meridian. He is also to be careful to note the number of leagues 
made by the ship each day, the winds and the changes, the 
showers, currents, flights of birds, shoals of fishes, and signs of 
land, with its appearance when sighted. Also, he is to note the 
islands, whether inhabited or uninhabited, and place them on the 
chart in their latitude, longitude, and form. It it is continental 
land, he is to do the same as regards ports, capes, anchorages, 
and all other features ; writing descriptions of the positions of 
each feature, of the rivers and places where wood and water can 
be obtained, as well as the rocks and reefs that are met with. If 
the bottom is sand, it is to be denoted by dots of ink, if of rocks 
by small crosses. Besides these details, the colour, shape, 
features, and dress of the inhabitants are to be noted, their food, 
arms, boats, behaviour, and government and religion ; so that a 
full and detailed account can be given to the King our Lord in 
his Council of State, from whence the orders for the voyage were 
issued. 

Every day he will come up to this Capitana^ as is the custom, 
to give his respects and wish for a good voyage ; and to ask for 
the word, which will be answered and given in the customary 
way. 

He is to take care that, at sunrise and sunset, and oftener if it 
seems desirable, two men go to the masthead to look out over all 
parts of the horizon ; and at night the sentries are to be doubled, 
one being on the bowsprit. The rounds and over-rounds are to 
be gone by him in person, and when he is not able, he is to 
delegate the duty to others in whom he has confidence. In this 
he is to be punctual, and rigorous in punishing those he finds not 
keeping a good look-out, or sleeping. In taking in sail, when the 
weather is threatening, there must be no negligence. 

When the Capitana puts out a flag from the main topmast, it is 



1 86 INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY QUIROS. 

a signal to the pilots for the ships to close. The ships shall then 
come near the Capitana to receive orders. 

If the Capitana should alter course during the night, a gun 
will be fired, if it is desired to give notice that land is sighted, or 
that there are rocks, two guns will be fired. The other two ships 
will do the same, and all three will repeat, to show that the signal 
is understood. 

If by day it is necessary to cammunicate, a flag is to be shown 
on the main rigging, so that it may be seen by the other two ships, 
and presently they will close, to learn what is wanted. If it is 
night, two lights are to be shown, besides the stern lantern, as a 
signal that help is needed, which presently will be given. 

Great precautions are to be taken against fire. There is to be 
no lighted candle nor other fire between decks, except within a 
lantern in charge of a man to watch it. And this duty is not to 
be given to any person unless he can be trusted. 

Much care is to be taken that there is no waste in cord, powder, 
or balls ; and attention is to be given to all the royal stores that 
there may be no fraud whatever in their expenditure. 

If there is both wind and sea, and both suddenly cease, being 
night time, heave to and sound, and keep a good look-out, as the 
cause may be the interposition of land close to. 

If there are puffs and flaws of wind besides the wind that fills 
the sails, or the ship raises her head and stern as if she was being 
pushed, it being night time, take soundings, for she may be very 
near the land or rocks, where the sea breaks and sends back 
the surf. 

If, the sky being clear, the sun, moon, and stars come out and 
are higher than the horizon, it is a certain sign of land ; at night 
heave to and sound, at daytime look out for it. 

If on the route there should be thick mists ahead which do not 
move away, or a fixed line, or a damp fog, heave to and sound, 
keeping a good look-out, for there is probably land near. 

If certain flashes with little lights are seen ahead, accompanied 
by thunder, or there are puffs of wind, it being night time, heave 
to and sound, as they may be signs of small rocks or islets. If 
the lightning is forked and the thunder loud, also heave to and 
sound, keeping a good look-out. 

If in spite of the wind that is blowing there come dry gusts 
from another quarter, or with rain or hail, it is a sign of land 
being near ; it being night time, heave to, waiting for daylight to 
seek for it. 

If the sea appears greasy, with leaves of trees, grass, herbs, 
wood, branches, palm nuts, and other things which the waves 
carry from the shores, and rivers send down when in flood, it is a 
sign of land being near in the direction of the present course of 
the wind, or the currents have brought them. In that case the 



INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY QUIROS. 187 

circumstances will indicate what it is best to do, but land will be 
left behind towards the quarter whence the wind comes. 

If there are currents it is better when they are strong, or there 
are shoals of small fishes which seem to swarm over the sea, or 
patches of camarones^ sea snakes, seals, turtles, much bad water, 
or some land birds, take care, for the ship will be very near the 
land. 

If flocks of many sea birds are met with, such as boobies and 
petrels, note should be taken of the direction in which they fly, 
and whence they come in the morning ; noticing whether they 
assemble early and return late, for then they are far from the land ; 
but if they assemble late and return early, the land is near. If 
they are not seen to assemble, and are heard to make a noise at 
night, and are still to be seen at dawn, then either land is very 
near or the birds have slept on the sea. It is to be noted that 
these birds almost always frequent islets or rocks, because they 
are nearer their fishing grounds. For this reason there should be 
vigilance to avoid shoals. 

If the birds that may be met with are piqueros^ ducks, widgeons, 
gulls, estopegados, terns, sparrowhawks, flamingos or siloricos, it 
is a sign that the land is very near ; but if there are only boobies 
so much care is not necessary, because these birds are found far 
from land, and the same may be said of boatswain birds, which fly 
where they please. Moreover, if all the birds, or part of them, fly 
together, it is a sign of proximity to land ; and it should be noted 
whether some of these birds fly as if wounded, seeking land on 
one or the other side. 

If patches of brown water are seen on the sea, it is a sign that 
there are rocks near the surface ; if the patches are white, it is a 
sign of a sandy bottom, with little depth ; a black patch is a sign of 
ooze and mud ; and a green patch points to a bottom covered with 
weeds. In short, if the sea is of any other colour than the ordinary 
one of the ocean where there is great depth, namely, dark blue, 
it is necessary to exercise care, and much more if at night the sea 
should be heard to make sounds greater than is usual. All the 
above signs cause an obligation to be very careful and to get 
soundings ; but there are two things which require more especial 
vigilance, and which have the most importance for the security of 
the voyage. It is then the principal thing to bear in mind that 
while all these signs point to land or to rocks ; that while the 
birds have wings and can sleep when they like on the sea ; while 
the fish are in their element \ while the winds, the thunder and 
lightning, and the clouds fly through the air, it is only in God 
that we must put our confidence, tor it is He alone who knows, 
and who can guide and save the people and the ship. 

After anchoring in any port, a careful look-out should be kept 
both by day and night, for the natives are great swimmers and 
divers, and might wedge up the rudder, cut the hawsers, or set fire 



INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY QUIROS.' 

to the ship. For this reason it is well, in places where there is 
cause for suspicion, to have a guard in the boat at night over the 
buoys, or at least to visit them many times. 

Take care not to allow so many natives on board the ship as 
would be able to overpower the crew ; and even when they are 
few, great evil may come to them as well as to us, from ignorance 
of our arms ; whence may arise a commencement of war, and a 
faithful peace may never then be made. 

In effecting a landing, it should always be by day, and never at 
night. The landing-place should be level and clear of woods, or at 
least as well situated in these respects as possible : sending dogs in 
front to discover ambushes, with arms ready, marching together 
and in order, and entering passes with caution. It should be kept 
in mind that the natives usually get behind rocks or trees, or 
stretch themselves flat on the ground even in level places, con- 
cealed only by the grass. 

Take notice that, if it is possible, chiefs or other natives who 
appear to be of consequence, should be kept in the ship as 
hostages, but well treated and given presents of things that they 
seem to like most. The same course should be followed on shore, 
when the natives seek intercourse and conversation with us. 
The barter should be conducted by one of us, who should always 
give the natives to understand that the things are of great value, 
as they really are for them ; and this because they do not value 
their own things much, and ours but little. 

Learn from the natives whether there are other islands or 
extensive lands near, if they are inhabited, of what colour are the 
natives, whether they eat human flesh, if they are friendly or 
carry on war. Enquire whether they have gold in dust, or in small 
lumps, or in ornaments ; silver worked or to be worked ; metals, 
all kinds of pearls, spices and salt, and if they eat those com- 
modities. If they have names for them, write the names down. 
Ask in what parts these things are to be found, and what those 
lands are called. Show pleasure at what they give, and manage 
to let them know by signs what they ask. 

Do not think little of the natives, for they are pilferers and 
runners, and when they come for that, they know well how to do 
it ; at least, they try, whence follow evils from one side to another, 
which is what ought to be avoided. 

Do not follow the guidance of the natives except with great 
caution. Never trust or believe in them on any occasion whether 
they show much or little sign of friendship, because their custom 
is to watch on the roads and to make pits covered with earth and 
grass. They are capable of leading those they pretend to guide 
direct to their traps or ambushes, or with evil intent to get them 
away from their boats or the beach, and to lead them inland into 
the woods, and there do what evil they can to them. They always 



INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY QUIROS. 189 

carry their canes open at both ends, containing a lighted cord, 
that it may not be extinguished when it rains. 

Never allow our people to mix with the natives, nor leave them 
to join company, owing to the danger that, on a given signal, three 
or four may fall upon and carry off one of ours to meet the fate 
which they may want to inflict on him. 

On occasions when it is desirable to have an interview with the 
natives, it should always be in a cleared space, with a good 
distance between the two parties, and the Chief, or one named by 
him, standing in the space, so as to concert with him what they 
desire or ask for. It is always necessary to see that the back is 
safe without ceasing to watch or even turning the face, but always 
the whole body. And, when obliged, let it be back to back, with 
the shields in front, so as to make all more strong and secure. 

If it should be necessary to embark in retreat, either in presence 
or absence of the enemy, half the arquebusiers and shield-bearers 
should face the natives, that the other half may embark safely ; 
and those embarked are quickly to turn, making the same guard 
as the one made by those on shore until all are embarked. For, 
if all embark in a troop, there is danger from arrows, stones, darts, 
and lances, which are the arms of the natives. 

The natives never give up anything they have about them, or 
anything in their houses, though it be gold, silver, pearls, or any 
other thing of value, nor do they understand our covetousness. 
But before we gave them our things we were very liberal, sowing 
with them and teaching them to sow maize, beans, onions, cotton, 
and all the most profitable seeds and vegetables. Whenever there 
is an opportunity, such seeds should be sown even on desert 
islands. If the place is suitable, rabbits, goats, and swine should 
be landed, for it is an advantage to enrich those desert lands, 
remembering the possible needs of future navigators. 

Take care not to feed on the things which the natives present 
to be eaten, because they know how to play tricks. For which 
reason do not fill your hands, nor quit your arms, nor take your 
eyes off the natives. Under all circumstances these precautions 
should be well attended to. One or two of our people should 
always be on the watch, especially in the direction where there is 
most cause for suspicion. 

Care should be taken to look out for poison put into the water 
or food. Vegetables and fruits should not be eaten unless known 
before, or unless they have been seen to be used as food by birds 
and monkeys. 

In ports where natives come to give assistance, never ill-use 
them nor detain them, unless it is to let them return with clothes 
or presents, nor break the peace or the word that has been given 
to them, nor cut down their fruit trees, nor injure their crops, nor 
destroy their houses or canoes ; for all such acts cost them very 
dear, owing to the difficulty of repairing damages from want of 



I9O INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY QUIROS. 

proper tools. For this cause they seek for vengeance, and with- 
draw food supplies. In short, all is lost that was intended to be 
obtained from them. If it seems necessary, they can be made to 
understand the harm we can do them with our arquebuses, swords, 
and other arms, but not to do it, refraining at the last. 

For two reasons the natives may give false information respect- 
ing the land, people, and products, the latter being what we 
enquire for most and come to seek. The first that we may go, 
the second that we may be deceived, in revenge for some wrong 
that has been done them. When it is decided to follow up any 
of their notices by sea or land, the same natives that have given 
the information should be made to accompany the party, to secure 
this point. 

The shouts and noises of the natives in their assemblies, and 
the blowing and beating of their war instruments, need cause no 
alarm to us, nor should the natives be despised. In forced 
attacks, arquebus fire should be in the air, with or without ball ; 
and by taking other steps suited to the occasion, they will be 
made to fly or desist. 

A very important notice is that, when seeking for wood, water, 
or provisions, a boat should be sent with well-armed men to over- 
awe the natives, even in places where it does not seem likely that 
there will be a rupture with them. If they begin to offer oppo- 
sition, and the necessity is not very great, it will be as well to 
return to the ship, and await a better opportunity. If the necessity 
is great, send a large number of guards to protect the foraging 
party. Finally, avoid the danger of offending the natives, or being 
offended by them. The position should be as fathers to children, 
but they must be watched as if they were known enemies. Our 
part is always to be in the right, with open and honest intentions ; 
then God will help us, as He helps all those whose objects are 
good. 

It is well known to all those persons who are engaged on this 
discovery howHis Holiness Clement VIII, at my humble petition, 
has conceded that if our Lord should be served by removing us 
from this world to another, at the hour of death, if unable to 
confess or to take the sacrament, being contrite, we name the 
most holy name of Jesus, either with our mouths or in our hearts, 
he gives us plenary indulgence and remission of all our sins. I 
hold the brief for this grace in my possession. 

If any person should fall sick, he should presently confess and 
make his will. If he should die, it is ordered that the master, 
with a clerk, should make an inventory of his goods, and take 
charge of them, in order to carry out the wishes of the deceased. 
If he dies intestate, the same care is to be taken in making an 
inventory, and in taking care of the goods. 

All these things are to be complied with, without exceeding 
them, unless time is very pressing. In that case, if it appears 



FURTHEST SOUTH. IQI 

necessary, counsel should be taken with the Master and Pilot, 
officers, and other important persons, and with the opinions of all 
of them, signed with their names, what is agreed upon may he 
done, all being for the service of God and of His Majesty. Given 
on board the ship San Pedro y San Pablo, by the leader of the 
said discovery, in this Gulf of Loreto, navigating on a W.S.W. 
course, in the latitude of 19, on January 8th, 1606. 



CHAPTER V. 

Recounts the navigation that was made, and the signs that were 
noted, until the first uninhabited island came in sight. 

THE fleet continued to steer W.S.W. in accordance with 
the instructions, from the time that the ships made sail 
from Callao until they reached the latitude of 16, where 
they met with a heavy and confused swell from the S.W. 
On the loth of January the first birds were seen, and on 
the nth the first showers of rain, with the wind E. and 
E.S.E. On the I2th the wind was' south. On the I3th a 
number of gulls were seen. On the I5th the wind was 
N. and N.W. On the i6th we saw great flocks of birds. 
On the i /th we were in latitude 24, with the wind S.W. 
and W., blowing with some force and with a high sea. At 
this change the Captain presently showed a flag from the 
maintop mast to take opinions, the weather not allowing of 
any other way. The pilots of the ships said, by shouting, 
that, being outside the tropics, all winds might be met with, 
and by reaching higher latitudes, the north wind would be 
met with, blowing with greater force. On the iSth the 
wind went all round the compass, but was generally in the 
north. On the 2ist we had the wind from S. and S.W. 

On the 22nd we were in latitude 26, with a squall and 
showers from the S.E., and with a great swell from the 
south. This brought out the timidity of some, saying : 
" Whither are they taking us, in this great gulf, in the 



THE FIRST ISLAND. 

winter season ?" Some said they should get the boat into 
the sea. We were obliged, by the force of winds and sea, 
to stand on a W.N.W. course until we reached 25. On 
the 24th, at night, we saw the first lightning, which was 
not very bright. On the 25th we saw the first weeds ; and 
on the 26th we saw birds of several kinds flying together. 
On this day, at 1 1 o'clock, we discovered the first island in 
latitude 25, and reckoned it to be 800 leagues from Lima. 
It has a circumference of 5 leagues, many trees, and a 
beach of sand. Near the land the depth was 80 fathoms. 
I gave it the name of " Luna-puesta^ It was now late, so 
I determined to stand off and on during the night, waiting 
for the next day to go to the island ; but at dawn we were 
to leeward, and for this cause and others we left it. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Relates how the Almiranta disappeared and joined company again, 
and how they sighted the second uninhabited island. 

WE were steering to the west in some doubt, when we saw 
some whales and many gulls. At dawn of this day the 
Almiranta was not in sight. The Captain ordered the 
mast-head men to look carefully round the horizon, and at 
9 the ship was seen coming to us under all sail. This 
caused as great pleasure, as her absence had given anxiety, 
for to part company ! now one sees what that means. 
Having arrived, the Captain received a letter in which the 
Admiral said that, during the previous night, the stern light 
of the Capitana went out ; and that, as he was unwell, he 
had not seen what happened, and had not been able to 
carry out the orders exactly. 

1 Leza calls it " Anegada? In the Memorial of 1609 the name 
" La Encarnapon" was given to the first island. 



THE SECOND ISLAND. 193 

Still steering on the same course, on the 29th of January, 
at dawn, 'we sighted another island near, and presently 
stood towards it. The launch to the S.W. found a port in 
a small bay, where she anchored in 27 fathoms, and almost 
on shore. The ships did the same. The people in the 
launch told them by shouting that she was dragging her 
anchor ; so the ships stood out, and the launch got up her 
anchor and made sail. 

Three men were sent from the Almiranta in a dingey to 
land. Fearing to remain they came back quickly, bringing 
certain fruits known to some on board, which were too 
unripe to eat. They said that the landing was very bad 
for a dingey, and would be much worse for larger boats. 

This island was supposed to be 870 leagues from Lima. 
It is 10 leagues round. It is massive, moderately high, 
open, having groves and plains. It is steep, too, and its 
beaches are rocky. It is only inhabited by birds. Its 
latitude is 24 45'. It was named " San Juan Bautista\' n 
and as it had no port where we could get wood and water, 
we continued our voyage to the W.N.W. 

This day the Admiral came on board to see the Captain 
about certain matters ; who, to put an end to discord, made 
the Admiral embrace the Chief Pilot and make friends, for 
there was very little friendship between them before. 

On the following day, which was the penultimate of 
January, a great number of birds were seen, and on the 
last day of that month there were such squalls that it was 
necessary to strike the topmasts. 



1 Leza calls it " S<tn Puerto." Torres gives the name of " San 
Valeric? The two islands are 75 leagues apart. 



IQ4 A GREAT STORM. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Recounts how they came in sight of the third island that was 
discovered, and a great storm. 

FOLLOWING the W.N.W. course, on the 3rd of February, 
the Captain put out a flag on the topmast for the ships to 
close and the pilots to report in what latitude they were, 
how many leagues from Lima, the observations the ships 
had taken respecting lee-way, winds, and the variation of 
the needle, also the bearing of the islands of Las Mar- 
quesas de Mendoza. The ships closed, and the pilots said 
that, owing to the clouds, they had not been able to take 
the sun for three days ; that they thought Las Marquesas 
de Mendoza bore N.N.E. ; and that after they had got the 
sun's meridian altitude they could make a more formal 
report. 

While this was going on land was sighted to the west, 
which, being concealed by clouds, was near ; and as it was 
late, all sails were set. Night came on, and, having gone a 
short distance, a dark and thick cloud rose in the north- 
east in three parts, which soon became one, and made its 
way towards the ships with such speed and fury that all 
began to seek for remedies against the evils that menaced 
them. The ships, trembling, received the force of the 
storm, and went over on their sides. The sea rose, and all 
were horrified. The lightning in the air seemed to rend the 
heavens and blind the sight. Three thunderbolts were 
heard to fall ; the thunder was awful, the pouring rain 
terrible, and the squalls of wind so violent that it seemed 
as if the least damage would be the fall of the masts. The 
launch being close to, her Pilot shouted in a hoarse voice : 
" The Capitana ahoy ! Alter course ahoy ! Luff up ! " 
All was confusion, hurry, and noise. The night was 



OTHER UNINHABITED ISLANDS. 195 

fearful, decision doubtful, and great the anxiety to know 
whether the position of the ships was safe. 

Our Father Commissary, with a cross in his hands, passed 
the whole night conjuring the sea and winds. St. Elmo 
appeared, as the sailors say, which they saluted with great 
devotion three times. In short, it was a dark, confused, 
ugly, and long night which we passed, confiding, after God, 
in the soundness of our ships and the stoutness of our 
sailors. When the long-wished-for daylight came, we saw 
that our land was an island surrounded by a reef. Neither 
port nor bottom could be found, though sought for with 
care, as we were in want of water, and for fuel we only had 
brushwood. Seeing that the island was so useless, we left 
it for what it was ; and, considering the night it had given 
us, it would have been dear even if it had been a very good 
land instead of a very bad one. This island was calculated 
to be 1,030 leagues from Lima, 36 leagues round, in latitude 
20 30'. It was named St. Elmo. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Four other desert islands are sighted, and what else happened. 

STEERING W.N.W., on the following day, we sighted an 
island about 6 leagues off, and presently another, and 
then two more, and at none of the four was there bottom or 
port. There are reefs and shoals almost continuous. The 
distance from one to the other was four or five leagues, and 
from the City of the Kings 1,050. Their latitude is 20, 
and they were named Las cuarto coronadas}- 

The Captain, considering that on all these seven newly- 
discovered islands neither a port nor water could be found, 



1 Torres calls them "Las Vtrgenes." 

O 2 



196 A CONDENSING MACHINE. 

and finding that there were fewer water-jars than he ordered 
to be embarked, he made some discourses with respect to 
the time and the present state of affairs, and deemed it 
necessary to reduce, as he did reduce, the allowance of 
water. Twelve or fifteen jars of water that were consumed 
each day he reduced to three or four jars. He was present 
when it was served out, saw the hatchway closed, and kept 
the keys. 

Presently he ordered a brick oven to be built over one of 
the hearths, in order to make sweet water from sea water, 
with a copper instrument he had with him, by means of 
distillation. They got two or three jars full every day, very 
good and wholesome. On the least productive day there 
was a jar and a-half, and altogether fifty jars. This inven- 
tion, with certain improvements, promises, with little 
expenditure of fuel, to turn out in fifteen hours eight, nine, 
and ten jars of fresh water, and more if it is necessary. 1 

This was Ash Wednesday. Our Father Commissary 
gave ashes to every person on board the ship. The course 
was W.N.W., and at a distance of 75 leagues from the 
four isles astern we sighted another small island to the 
N.E., but could not approach owing to being to windward. 
We judged its latitude to be 18 30'. It received the name 
of San Miguel. Owing to threatening weather and dark- 
ness, we were hove to this night with all the ships. 



1 This is a very early notice of the use of a method of obtaining 
fresh water by condensing. 



THE FIRST INHABITED ISLAND. 197 



CHAPTER IX. 

The first inhabited island is sighted ; what happened there with 
the natives. 

NEXT day, which was the lothof February, having a look- 
out man at each mast-head, constantly watching all parts 
of the horizon, the Almiranta fired a piece, and land ahead 
was reported in all three ships. As all the other islands 
were desert, it was expected that this one would be the 
same, so the report was received with very moderate 
rejoicing. We presently steered towards it, and soon a 
high and thick smoke was seen to rise between two palms. 
Those in the launch presently shouted : " People, people 
on the beach ! " The news was as joyful as incredible to 
many, from having been so long desired, fearing lest it 
should prove a mistake, until, coming nearer, we clearly 
saw men, and the sight was hailed as if they had been 
angels. 1 



1 This island is Anaa, or Chain Island, about 200 miles east of 
Tahiti, in the same latitude. It was named " Conversion de San 
Pablo" by Quiros. No name is given by Torres or in Torquemada. 
Burney confused " Sagittaria? a small atoll seen after leaving " Con- 
version de San Pablo" with that island. Whenever he mentions 
" Sagittaria? it should be " Conversion de San Pablo" Burney says 
that the " Sagittaria" of Quiros is generally believed to be Tahiti 
(vol. ii, p. 277 #.). It was Captain Wallis, the discoverer of Tahiti in 
1767, who first thought that he had identified that beautiful island 
with the " Sagittaria" of Quiros: because the latitude is about the 
same, and because a low isthmus is described. But Tahiti has several 
good anchorages ; the island of Quiros has none. Tahiti is very 
lofty ; the island of Quiros is flat. Tahiti has abundant supplies of 
water ; the island described by Quiros has none. Moreover, Quiros 
says that his first inhabited island has a large shallow lake in its 
centre. The Pilot Leza describes it as a ring of land encircling part 
of the sea. Sir William Wharton, who identifies the island with 
Anaa, or Chain Island, has pointed out that the passages describing 
the landing, especially the one in Torquemada, are excellent accounts 
of the difficulty of landing on the foreshore of a low reef island ; but 
Tahiti, though there is a barrier reef round it, has a smooth lagoon 



198 THE FIRST INHABITED ISLAND. 

Of this glory the Captain got a large share, for until now 
he had been saying : "God shows us in this sea millions 
and millions of natives." The people were restless from 
sheer satisfaction, so that they had not attended to the 
sails. The launch anchored near the slope of the beach, 
and the two ships presently stood out to sea, as there was 
no port for them. They got the boats out to search, but 
could not find one, sounding until they came opposite to 
the place where the natives stood in a row, with clubs and 
lances in their hands. Our people who saw them thought 
it was war, but looked at them and spoke by signs. They 
said our men should land, also by signs. 

The place was dangerous, and little satisfaction could be 
got from the natives ; so our people in the boats determined 
to return to the ships to avoid any collision. The waves 
did their office, and the natives, when they saw the high 
ones, told the boats to keep away, owing to the danger 
they ran. As it appeared to our people that these demon- 
strations were all made out of kindness, two undressed and 
jumped into the water. As soon as they landed the 
natives, putting down their lances, all together at one time 
bowed their heads and arms, and saluted three times. 
Apparently, the welcome and smiles were to receive our 
men, and when one was knocked over by a wave, they 
picked him up, embraced him, and kissed him on his 



within, with easy landing, and there are numerous openings in the 
reef. The description of the march across what has been supposed 
to be an isthmus, answers to the low land of an atoll, the water on the 
other side being the lagoon. 

The only low island near Tahiti is Tetaroa, which is 20 miles from 
it. But another low island was not seen by Quiros, after leaving 
"Conversion de San Pablo? until the second day. Starting from 
Tahiti, there is no such island ; but, sailing from Anaa and steering 
W.N.W. before the trade wind, there are such low islands as are 
mentioned. 

These considerations make it quite certain that Quiros never 
sighted Tahiti, as Burney supposes. 



STANDING OFF THE LAND. 199 

cheeks, which is a way of showing friendship used also in 
France. When the people in the boats saw the loyalty 
with which the natives received complete strangers, not 
knowing their intentions, two others went on shore. One 
of them was very white, and the natives, when they saw 
him, came and felt his back, breast, and arms, showing 
much astonishment, and they did the same with the other 
three. All four gave them what they had, which the 
natives received with signs of love. The one who appeared 
to be chief over the others gave to one of our people a 
palm branch as a sign of friendship, and also did more. 
He crossed his arms, making very friendly signs to our 
people that they should come to the village, to which they 
pointed with their fingers, to give them to eat. 

With this they took their leave, and our men embarked, 
to the sorrow of the natives. Eight of them followed the 
boats, and to see them the men laid on their oars and 
invited them to get in, but they were afraid. The launch 
and the boats returned to where the ships were at sunset. 
Presently, the Chief Pilot asked the Captain what was to 
be done, who replied that they would beat to windward 
that night, and on the following day return to the same 
point, or to another, and search again for a port or 
anchorage, or for water, which was much needed. The 
Chief Pilot went aloft, and said from the mast-head that 
he saw a bay to leeward, much better than the bay of 
Cadiz. 

All night we stood off and on, rather joyful at the 
thought of finding this port, and at dawn we found our- 
selves 3 leagues to leeward of the. place where the natives 
had been seen ; and looking out a first and a second time, 
there was no sign of that bay, but only a narrow and long 
reef almost covered by the water. There was one place 
where there were some palm trees, for which reason the 
Captain sent both the boats, well manned and armed with 



2oO SETTING UP A CROSS. 

jars, to seek for water. They found the beach very difficult, 
most of it rocks, on which the waves broke with great fury. 
But undaunted by this, our people jumped into the water 
up to their waists, loaded with arquebuses, spades, and 
crowbars, and the last, whose name was Belmonte, 1 had 
such difficulty that, if Ensign Rozo 2 had not helped him 
with his spear, which enabled him to get out, there would 
have been an end of his career. Marching in good order, 
they entered a palm grove, where they found, at the foot 
of a tree, a number of brown stones, and one in the form of 
an altar, covered with branches. It was supposed that 
this was a burial-place, or a place where the Devil spoke to 
and deceived these miserable natives, without there being 
any one to obstruct him. Our people, to sanctify the 
place, set up a cross, 3 and gave God thanks on their knees 
for being the first to hoist His royal standard in an un- 
known place inhabited by heathens. In sorrow for their 
evil condition, they spoke thus : " How long, O pious 
Lord, is the darkness in which they live to last for these 
people ? " They said this with all due reverence ; and, 
leaving the cross, they began to dig for water, which they 
did not find, but were able to quench their actual thirst 
with cocoa-nuts. 

When they went down to embark they saw a shape, 
which appeared to be that of a man, coming towards them 
at a short distance. They went to see what it was, and 
found that it was an old woman, who appeared to be a 



1 Luis de Belmonte Bermudez, the Secretary to Quiros and probable 
author of the narrative. 

2 It should be Sojo. 

3 Dr. Bolton G. Corney found at Seville the journal of the frigate 
Aquila, which was sent by the Viceroy of Peru on a voyage to Tahiti, 
under the command of Don Tomas Gayangos in 1774. In recon- 
noitring the island of Anaa, on November 2nd, 1774, a well-propor- 
tioned cross was seen, set up on a sandy beach, on the skirts of a wood. 
The Spaniards of 1774 named the island " Todos Santos." 



A FEMALE PRISONER. 2Ol 

hundred years of age : a tall and large woman, with fine and 
long black hairs and only four or five grey ones, her colour 
brown, face and body wrinkled, teeth few and decayed, 
and with other faults caused by a long life. She came 
along, waving with soft palm leaves. She carried some 
cuttle-fish dried in the sun, in a basket, and a knife 
made from a mother-of-pearl shell, also a skein of thread. 
A little speckled dog accompanied her, which ran 
away. 

With this good capture the boat returned to the Captain, 
to show her to him, who was highly delighted at seeing a 
human creature. He seated her on a box, and gave her 
meat and soup from a pot, which she ate without scruple ; 
but she could not manage the hard biscuit. She showed 
that she knew well how to drink wine. A mirror was put 
into her hand, and she looked at the back, then at the 
front, and when she saw her face she was much pleased. 
All noticed her good manners, and concluded that, when 
young, she was not bad-looking. She looked at all the 
men with attention, but she displayed the greatest pleasure 
in looking at the boys. She looked at the goats as if she 
had seen them before. There was a gold ring with an 
emerald on one of her fingers. She was asked for it, but 
replied by signs that she could not give it without cutting 
off her finger, and she seemed sorry for this. She was 
offered one of brass, which she did not care for. Having 
given her things to dress herself with and take away, we 
saw four canoes coming from the village under sail, out of 
a lake which the island has in its centre, and they anchored 
near the palm grove. The Captain presently ordered the 
old woman to be landed, in order to reassure the natives. 
They no sooner recognised her than they came to see her, 
and looked at her as if she had been long absent. They 
came to our people with the confidence of friends. There 
were seventy-two natives, and by signs they said that they 



202 CAPTURE OF A CHIEF. 

were going, as they presently did go, to see the cross. As 
well as they could our people tried to make them under- 
stand its value, and that they should place themselves 
before it on their knees. Finally, they did all that they 
were told. 

When it was asked which of them was the chief, they 
pointed out a robust, tall, and well-proportioned native, 
with a good well-complexioned face, who appeared to be 
fifty years of age. He wore on his head a tuft of black 
feathers, and towards the front some skeins of golden hairs 
whose ends reached half way down his back. According 
to their custom, it should be the hair of his wife. He also 
wore round his neck a large plate of mother-of-pearl. He 
had a serious manner, and all the others paid him great 
respect. He was asked whether he would like to go on 
board the ship, and, having given us to understand that he 
would, he was taken to the boats with some followers. One 
of the boats having been swamped, they helped to raise 
her. The chief got into one boat, and several natives into 
another, but when they had gone a short distance they 
jumped overboard, apparently from fear, and began to 
swim. The chief wanting to do the same, we detained 
him. He tried to do so by main strength, which was great, 
and to take a knife from a soldier, but failed. He made 
other attempts, but nothing availed him. The boat arrived 
alongside, and four men took hold of him and tried to 
make him go up ; but it was labour in vain, for he would 
not stir. The chief was stretched out at his whole length, 
fencing with his nervous arms, and in this way he strove to 
get clear and escape by swimming. Seeing he could not 
do this, he put one foot against the ship's side and sent the 
boat some distance. When we saw how much trouble he 
was giving, he was fastened to a whip, to hoist him into 
the ship ; and when he found himself secured he got into 
such a fury that it shocked our eyes. 



RELEASE OF THE CHIEF. 203 

The Captain went down into the boat, and the first thing 
he did was to take in his hand the palm branch the other 
had given him, and to remove the cord which had caused 
the chief such anger. He showed that he felt this release 
very much, both by his face and his hands ; but not for 
this did he consider himself in safety. With melancholy 
looks he gazed at those who were in the boat, then at the 
ships, the sails and masts, and at the land, pointing with 
his finger that he wanted to return there. The Captain 
was sorry to find him so discontented. He dressed him in 
a pair of breeches and shirt of yellow silk, put a hat upon 
his head, a tin medal round his neck, gave him a case of 
knives, embraced him, and ordered the boat to go on shore. 
This quieted him. 

A sergeant and some men had remained on shore, 
collecting cocoa-nuts. Three, who were together, saw the 
natives collected in order with their lances, and appearing 
to be determined to force them into their canoes, as their 
chief had been forced to go to the ship. Eight of our people 
got together, and pointed out to the natives that they had 
remained as sureties, and that their chief was now coming 
on shore in the boat. With this, and owing to two of us 
showing off by fencing with their swords, the natives 
remained peaceable until their chief landed, when they were 
astonished at his being clothed. He gave them to under- 
stand what had happened, and they ran to receive him. 
One of these was a well-made youth, and very handsome. 
He was supposed to be the chiefs son, for he was the only 
one he embraced, and the two together showed an expres- 
sion of sentiment at which the others helped. 

These and other strange doings having been finished, in 
the order of drilled soldiers, all carrying the chief in their 
midst, they marched slowly to their canoes, and some of 
our men, who were looking on and noting all this, went 
with them. The natives, who were now contented, gave 



2O4 OTHER ISLANDS. 

them water to drink, and some fish they had brought to 
eat. The chief, who had left his garland of plumes and 
tresses on shore, gave it into the hands of the sergeant, to 
be given to the Captain who had released and clothed him. 
This was the final act of a man who knew and was grateful, 
though himself unknown, causing confusion to some of the 
company who received much greater benefits, and gave a 
bad return. The natives then departed, and our people, to 
give them joy, fired their arquebuses into the air, and 
returned on board. 

To this island the name of the " Conversion of St. Paul" 
was given. It is in latitude 1 8, distant from Lima 1,180 
leagues. 1 Its circumference is 40 leagues, and in the centre 
there is a large shallow lake. The people are corpulent, 
and of very good shape and colour. Their hair is fine and 
loose, and they have their parts covered. Their arms are 
thick and heavy lances of palm-wood, about 30 palmos 
long, and clubs of the same wood. The anchorage, where 
the launch found bottom, is on the east side near the palm 
grove above referred to, near which is the village on the 
shores of the lake. 

As soon as the people had come on board, it seemed 
desirable to the Captain that the ships should lie-to that 
night, in order to go next day to where the natives were. 
The Chief Pilot said that as it was well to windward, and 
not to waste the water, it would be better to stand on, 
as we did, with the wind E. to N.E. Next day another 
island was sighted to the N.E., and named " Decena." 2 
We could not go either to it or to other islands that were 
sighted later. The first was named " Sagitaria," 3 the second 



1 The S.E. end, 18 30' S. (Torres} ; N.W. point, 17 40' S. 
(Torquemada). Burney calculates the longitude 147 7' W. 

2 Niau, or Greig Island, of the chart. Torres calls it " Santa 
Polonia." 

3 Makatea, or Aurora Island, of the chart. 



SUSPICIONS RESPECTING THE PILOT. 2O5 

" Fugitiva." 1 Afterwards, in latitude 14, the pilots were 
asked for their positions, who gave them, some much more, 
others much less. 



CHAPTER X. 

Relates how the Captain received reports that there was a plot to 
seize the ship, and of the discourses he made and precautions he 
took in consequence. 

THE Captain already had seen that the Chief Pilot altered 
the course, and it was intimated he wanted to mutiny with 
the crew, and that if there was two days' delay there would 
be no remedy. One man there was who said that, with 
this object, it was determined to stab the Captain and 
throw the body overboard. This and other things were 
told to the Captain, which he did not believe, except some 
things that came to him through base rumours, and that 
which he himself saw, that appeared bad. He considered 
that a mutiny can only begin between two or three, and 
that to corrupt the rest there must be sounding of people, 
friendships, and much intercourse, and that such things 
must be seen. It was observed that the Chief Pilot showed 
little zeal in seeking for what was needed ; that he wasted 
the water and provisions among his particular friends, and 
others whose friendship he obtained in that way, and who 
might well be innocent ; that he showed favour to all. The 
noise they made together in the ship, the quarrels with the 

1 Matahiva, or Lazareff Island, of the chart. The present editor 
may be excused for referring to Lazareff as the first coral island he 
ever saw. He was a naval cadet on board H.M.S. Collingwood when, 
at seven bells in the forenoon of Friday, August 8th, 1845, she sighted 
the island. There was a border of white sand between the blue sea 
and the dense cocoa-nut grove. He went to the main-topmast head 
for a view of the interior lagoon over the cocoa-nut trees. At that 
very time he was reading Burney's account of the voyage of Quiros. 



206 DISCONTENT. 

officers, the consultations continually held by day and night, 
were suspicious. 

One day the Captain said to the whole crew that the 
Royal Majesty despatched those ships at great expense, to 
see whether there was in this unknown part of the earth 
the land which was supposed to exist. With this object 
all might be quite sure that they would have to search for 
it, ploughing all the ocean with long turns until it was 
found, even if it cost all their lives. To the Chief Pilot he 
said that he should know his duties, saying much respecting 
them. But this did not lead him into better courses, and 
he sent to say that he wanted leave to go on board the 
Almiranta with the Father Commissary. To this the 
Captain answered that he might go presently ; but he did 
not go, nor did he refer to the matter again. There was 
not wanting one who said that these invitations were mis- 
understood by the Captain, and added that discoveries 
always cost the finders dear, and that the Captain could not 
put down the discontents nor satisfy the others. For all 
this, patience and vigilance were two very necessary things. 

The Captain, seeing the low latitude they had reached 
without having found the mother of those islands we had 
left behind, hearing the Chief Pilot shout to the Captain of 
the launch that winter was near, and other things that it 
was not well for the men to hear ; that others said that if 
the course had been S.S.W. the coast of the land of which 
we were in search followed the same course ; that now we 
should never reach it, but should be engulfed by contrary 
winds, where it would be impossible to live, and that in the 
end all would perish ; that these sayings were witnesses of 
the little love some had for the service, and of the great 
love they had for themselves ; and that they were far from 
having the valorous minds which ought to animate the 
searchers for unknown lands, to uphold the original motives 
and perform heroic deeds, or at least make them merit a 



ISLAND OF SAN BERNARDO. 2O/ 

good name owing to these shortcomings and many others, 
he said in public that they should know how to value and 
enjoy having been chosen to the lot of searching for and 
discovering the fourth part of the globe which is yet 
unknown, and not show themselves ready to turn back and 
be tired without occasion. And mark ! what services are 
there without requiring that men should be ready to suffer 
all the blows that may come ? I ordered that the course 
should be N.W. as far as latitude 10 40', so as to reach the 
east of the Island of San Bernardo, which in the other 
voyage I helped to discover, although we did not then 
arrive at it. 



CHAPTER XL 

Relates how we came in sight of the Island of San Bernardo, and 
what happened there. 

WE continued to navigate on the same course until the 
1 9th of February. On that day we altered course to west, 
and on the 2ist the Pilot of the Almiranta, Juan Bernardo 
de Fuentiduena, said that on that very day we should see 
as we did see the island we sought. We lay to under 
little sail for the night. Next day we proceeded towards 
the island, the launch next ahead, and anchored close to 
the land, and thence the crew shouted to the other ships, 
which were coming up to anchor, that there was no port 
for them. 

The Captain then lowered the two boats, and sent an 
officer with the boat's crews to search for water, for the 
scarcity of it forced them to be on an allowance of a 
cuartillo a day. They went on shore, searched for water, 
but could find none, and returned on board. 

This island of San Bernardo is uninhabited, divided 



208 WANT OF ZEAL, 

into four or five hummocks, and all the rest submerged. 
Its circumference appeared to be 10 leagues. It is in 
latitude 10 40'. The anchorage is on the north side, and 
only available for small vessels. Its distance from the city 
of the Kings was calculated to be 1,400 leagues. An old 
canoe, lying on her side, was found on the island. 

There was a great number of fish inshore, and, owing to 
the water being very shallow, they were killed with swords 
and poles. There were great numbers of lobster and craw- 
fish, and other kinds of marine animals. They found a 
great quantity of cocoa-nuts in a heap at the foot of the 
palm trees, many large, and of different sizes. There were 
a great quantity of sea birds of several kinds, and so im- 
portunate that they seemed to want to attack the men. 
We took plenty of all these things. 

It seemed to the Captain that on an island where there 
are so many trees there could not fail to be water. He 
wished to wait during that night, so that on the following 
day they might return and make a more thorough search 
for water, and at least they could get more fish. The 
Chief Pilot said that the people were tired, and made other 
excuses and said things, making them all legitimate 
daughters of our necessities. 

The Captain, finding himself very ill and overwhelmed 
by cares of many kinds, and that there were some who, 
like moths, were eating against the enterprise, and causing 
much discontent, and that they kept in memory the great 
abundance of the court, the cold snows, the fresh fruit, and 
other memories which cooled their wills and changed them 
in other ways, and that up to the present time we had not 
found an island with a port, nor water, and that it was not 
right to risk the little we had in a business that was so 
important, the weather being doubtful and the point in the 
direction of which we should find land uncertain : for these 
and other reasons, which I leave out, it was decided that 



THE SECOND INHABITED ISLAND. 2OQ 

the best course would be to seek the island of Santa Cruz, 
which was known to possess a port and water, and other 
things necessary for the provisioning of a ship, intending 
to begin to make discoveries from there, as if we were 
starting from Lima. In prosecution of this decision we 
steered west. 

That night there was a great disturbance on board the 
Capitana. At the noise the Captain came out, and found 
some tackling each other, others going to arm themselves, 
and the Chief Pilot with a drawn sword, with which he 
had wounded a man. It was taken out of his hands, 
without understanding who was the culprit or who was the 
author of the disturbance. That which the Captain felt 
he kept to himself, confessing that he was so weak that he 
was unable to say in a loud voice a third word. 



CHAPTER XII. 

How they sighted the second inhabited island, and what happened 

there. 

WITH the wind in the east, they continued on a western 
course until the ist of March. That night, the launch 
being ahead, she fired off a small piece, and a man shouted, 
" Land ahead ! " Presently we saw it, and a fire burning, 
at the sight of which there was great content. When it 
became broad daylight we saw an island, and steered 
towards it. When we came near, two canoes came out to 
reconnoitre, but the people in them, though we called, 
would not wait. The launch anchored very near the land, 
and presently a fleet of ten small canoes, rowing fast and 
as if racing, came out towards the Capitana. Having 
arrived, we saw on board them some tall men, well made 
and handsome, and of a good colour. They all came 

P 



2IO NATIVES IN CANOES. 

singing to the sound of their paddles, one of them leading, 
to whom the rest replied ; and by signs they told us to 
call to the Almiranta, that by rounding a certain point he 
would follow the way outside ; showing that it gave them 
sorrow to see that, and that they remained joyful now that 
they saw her return. They also gave us to understand, 
pointing with their fingers, that we should go to their port. 
What their object was they knew. Many stood upright, 
and with arms and hands, legs and feet, and with their 
paddles, they made sounds with great dexterity, dances, 
and gestures. Their chief theme was music, and to show 
themselves joyful and merry before our ships. But in spite 
of our importunities, they never would come on board, nor 
eat of anything we gave them, which they received on the 
points of their lances and showed to all the others ; and 
what fell into the sea they dexterously recovered, by diving 
for it. 

Five natives came in a canoe, the middle one vigorously 
bailing the water out of the vessel. His red hair came 
down to the waist. He was white as regards colour, 
beautifully shaped, the face aquiline and handsome, rather 
freckled and rosy, the eyes black and gracious, the forehead 
and eyebrows good, the nose, mouth, and lips well propor- 
tioned, with the teeth well ordered and white. In fine, he 
was sweet in his laughter and smiles, and his whole appear- 
ance was cheerful. Being rich in so many parts and graces, 
he would be judged to be very beautiful for a girl ; but he 
was actually a youth of about thirteen years. This was he 
who at first sight stole away the hearts of all on board the 
ship ; he was most looked at and called to, and he to whom 
all offered their gifts, and to whom the Captain, with great 
persuasion, desired to present a dress of silk, which he 
accepted, and put on with much grace. It was pain to the 
Captain that the youth could not be kept, to take as a proof 
of the greatness of God in those parts. 



AN AUDACIOUS NATIVE. 211 

Many natives came to the launch, and, having fastened 
a cord to the bowsprit, they tried to drag her on to the 
beach. Others, diving into the water, fastened ropes to the 
cable and dragged for the anchor. Others took up positions 
to conceal their tricks. The Captain of the launch, seeing 
their diligence and how quickly they went to work, fired off 
arquebuses to frighten them. But they, ignorant of the 
effects, showed no fear at all, even seizing hold of naked 
swords with their hands, until some were hurt, when there 
was a disturbance and talk among themselves, and they 
rowed away in their canoes at a great rate. At this time a 
very audacious old man came in one of their canoes to the 
Capitana, with a very long and thick lance of palm wood, 
well balanced ; and he had on a sort of cloak or hood made 
of a leaf dyed crimson, and a hat they had given him from 
the launch. He was a tall, robust man, and very supple, 
and showed himself to be arrogant. Wounded in feet and 
legs, they trembled violently. He made fierce faces with 
his eyes and mouth. In a very loud voice he seemed to 
order us to surrender. With his lance, brandishing it 
menacingly, he made as many thrusts as he could. With 
the intention of making him quiet, two muskets were fired 
off. The others cried out and threw up their arms, but he 
made light of it. With great pride he showed more signs 
of his anger ; and, finding he could do nothing, he quickly 
passed both ships and went to where the launch was, 
following all the other canoes. 

At this time both the ships anchored, there being a land 
breeze, and all the natives went on shore, and showed them- 
selves ready for war. In a short time the wind was abeam, 
and though light, it swung the ships so as to bring them too 
near the shore, and they were in great danger. The Captain 
ordered the cables to be slipped and sail to be made in great 
haste, sending the boats to recover the anchors and cables. 
The natives, it seemed, either for love or sorrow, on seeing 

? 2 



212 THE ADMIRAL'S LANDING PARTY. 

how quickly we departed without carrying out our good 
or evil intentions, not understanding the reasons any more 
than we understood theirs, many of them eame swimming 
and taking hold of the oars of one of the boats, trying with 
all their force to take them from those who were rowing. 
Such was the courage and audacity of the old man with the 
cloak that, only with a stick, he attacked an Ensign stand- 
ing on the forecastle, who received the blow on his shield, 
He did not like to return it, because it was the Captain's 
order that no harm was to be done to the natives either in 
person or property. But I suspect, according to what hap- 
pened afterwards, that there was less care about this order 
than appeared. 

The launch and boats collected where the ships had been. 
The Captain sent tor the Admiral, and told him that he had 
determined to send an armed party on shore next day with 
the boats, and the launch as an escort. The party, by good 
management, was to bring on board at least four boys, 
one of them being the youth who has already been de- 
scribed, and the others to be like him. It is to be noted 
that, the ships and crews being placed in such manifest 
danger in so small an island, this method or some other is 
necessary to get the wood and water of which we are in 
want, and which should be sought for to the S. and S.W. 
These instructions were repeated several times, and a strong 
desire was expressed that the Admiral himself should be 
the leader of the party. 

We stood off and on during the night, very desirous that 
it should come to an end, and when the day dawned the 
Admiral started with the landing party. At the first place 
the landing was opposed by the natives, and he was obliged 
to go further on. Here all the men jumped into the sea, 
the waves dashing against them and rolling them over, and 
they reached the shore after much buffeting and in great 
danger. One boat was capsized, leaving the four rowers 



THE LANDING. 213 

underneath. Another wave righted her again, and the men 
were saved. They were not sailors, so that the loss caused 
by them was serious, in jars and other things for getting 
water and fuel, and in a certain number of arquebuses. 

On the beach there were a great number of natives, 
ranged in order and armed ; and all with one voice gave a 
pabori, which I understand to be a kind of intoned shout or 
war cry, and they closed with a noise very brief but terrible. 
They came against us, and it was necessary to attack them 
with vigour owing to their being so close ; and the arque- 
buses, which are a terror to those who do not know them 
but see their effects, terrified them, and they fled, carrying, 
as they had brought, the king or chief in a litter on their 
shoulders, holding palm leaves to shade him. Two or three 
were left behind, and set fire to the dry grass at intervals. 
We understood that this was either a signal of peace, or an 
imitation of the fire from our muskets. 

The fugitives all fled to a village under a grove of palm 
trees, near a lake which the island has in the middle. Most 
of them went in canoes to the other side. 

The Admiral formed his corps de garde > and a boy came 
to them, as they said, so beautiful and with such golden 
hair, that to see him was the same as to see a painted angel. 
With crossed hands he offered them his person, either as a 
prisoner or to do what they liked with him. The Admiral, 
seeing him so humble and so handsome, embraced him and 
dressed him in breeches and shirt of silk, which the Cap- 
tain had given out of the store for barter, supplied with 
this object by His Majesty. The boy, to show his pleasure, 
climbed up some very tall palm trees with agility, and threw 
down cocoa-nuts for us, asking if we wanted more. Many 
other natives, seeing that he was well treated, came down 
and arrived where our people were. The Admiral, without 
moving, called that, the better to secure them, the capture 
would be much easier when they were close together. 



214 ENCOUNTER WITH THE NATIVES. 

But Satan, who does not sleep at such important junctures, 

contrived that an ill-conditioned recruit should enter one 

of their houses. The owner opposed his entrance. Another 

of our men came up ; but the native used his club so well 

that he would have killed one if others had not come, for 

he was lying senseless on the ground, while his companion 

ran away. The native faced our people, and an ensign 

named Gallardo, who came up first, fired a shot at him. 

When he felt that he was wounded and saw the blood, 

he rushed upon Gallardo with great courage, who, to stop 

him, ran him through with his sword. He fell dead on the 

ground who, as a valiant defender of his house, did not 

deserve such a fate. Owing to this death, and to others 

which followed, the Admiral lost the opportunity he had 

desired and planned. And now, to follow the plan and 

what depended upon it, he set forward to wrestle with 

fortune. When the natives saw what had happened, they 

fled like the rest, and so our people remained with all 

their trouble in vain ; for so great a misfortune suffices and 

exceeds what is wanted. One of our men said of the dead 

that it was of little importance that we should have sent them 

to the Devil to-day, as they would have to go to-morrow 

a sentiment very far from all reason, and especially when 

they had the Faith of Christ at the doors of their souls. 

The soldiers, divided into squadrons, marched into the 
interior. On the path taken by Gallardo and some friends 
a noise was heard, and the branches were seen to move. 
They all got ready their arms, and Gallardo cocked his 
piece and pointed it, moving to see what it was. Coming 
near, there rose up some children in haste and fear two 
boys and three girls, all pretty creatures, the oldest about 
ten years and with them a lady, graceful and sprightly, 
with neck, bosom, and waist well formed, hair very red, long 
and loose. She was extremely beautiful and pleasant to 
look upon, in colour very white ; and, being so pretty, it 



RETURN ON BOARD. 215 

was a great surprise to our people, more than to her ; for, 
with quick steps and smiling face, she came forward to 
receive Gallardo, who gave her his new cloak, which he 
carried doubled under his left arm ; and presently, with great 
love, both arms extended, she embraced him, and gave, 
according to their custom, the kiss of peace on the cheek. 
The rinding of this nest did not fail to be useful to our 
people, as they told me afterwards, for the lady did not 
prove to be prudish in going with them ; so that and I say 
this they left behind them a rich capture, which I shall 
always feel to be the great loss of six souls. 

Passing onwards, they saw behind some bushes an old 
man concealed, who could scarcely open his eyes. Gallardo, 
seeing that he was so afflicted, gave him a hand, and was 
surprised that he could grasp with such strength, and that 
there should be such vigour in one who seemed so weak. 

Having seen what he could of the island, the Admiral 
went back to the boats with his party, where he found the 
surf as furious as when he landed. To such an extreme did 
they come on the sight of it, that many wanted to remain 
on the island, where the sea urchins on the beach hurt 
their feet. They embarked with difficulty and danger, 
and returned to the ships. The Admiral excused himself 
from having an interview with the Captain, whose regret 
need not be mentioned, owing to his annoyance at the 
mismanagement. 

In the houses of the natives a great quantity of soft and 
very fine mats were found, and others larger and coarser ; 
also tresses of very golden hair, and delicate and finely 
woven bands, some black, others red and grey ; fine cords, 
strong and soft, which seemed of better flax than ours, and 
many mother-o'-pearl shells, one as large as an ordinary 
plate. Of these and other smaller shells they make, as 
was seen and collected here, knives, saws, chisels, punches, 
gouges, gimlets, and fish-hooks. Needles to sew their 



2l6 USES OF COCOA-NUT PALMS. 

clothes and sails are made of the bones of some animal, 
also the adzes with which they dress timber. They found 
many dried oysters strung together, and in some for eating 
there were small pearls. Certain white hairs were seen, 
which appeared to be those of an animal. 

This island is very flat, and about 6 leagues long. In 
one part, which is nearly submerged, is the water which 
the natives drink, which seems to me to be only rain-water 
detained in the sand on its passage to the sea. In this same 
part there are some collections of huts. The land is 
divided among many owners, and is planted with certain 
roots, which must form their bread. All the rest is a large 
and thick palm grove, which is the chief sustenance of the 
natives. Of the wood and leaves they build and roof their 
houses, which are of four vertientesj- curiously and cleanly 
worked, each with a roof, open behind, and all the floors 
covered and lined with mats, also made of palms; and of the 
more tender shoots they weave fine cloths, with which the 
men cover their loins, and the women their whole bodies. 

Of these palms the natives also make their canoes, and 
some very large vessels, twenty yards in length and two 
wide, more or less, in which they navigate for great dis- 
tances. They hold about fifty persons. Their build is 
strange, there being two concave boats about a fathom 
apart, with many battens and cords firmly securing them 
together. Of these palms they make masts, and all their 
rigging, sails, rudders, oars, paddles, utensils for baling, 
their lances and clubs. On these palms grow the cocoa-nuts, 
which serve them for food and drink, grease for their 
wounds, and cups to hold their water. It may almost be 
said that these trees sustain the good people who are here, 
and will remain in the wilderness until God takes pity on 
them. 



The sloping sides of a roof. 



COMPLAINTS OF THE LONG VOYAGE. 217 

This island was calculated to be 1,600 leagues from Lima, 
in latitude 10 20'. The port where the vessels were 
anchored is on the north side, very near the land, and in 
front of the village. It appeared well to the Captain that 
it should receive the name of " Peregrina." 1 



CHAPTER XIII. 

What happened after leaving this island. 

IN latitude 10 20' we continued our course to the west- 
ward, making for the Island of Santa Cruz, having met 
with fine weather, some mists, and some changes of wind 
from W. to N.W. until the 2ist of March. This day 
being the equinox, the needles were observed at sunrise 
and sunset, and it was found that the variation was N. by 
E. i. 

In the night of the following day, being Holy Thursday, 
processions were made in all three vessels, with much 
burning of wax and discipline. All night the altars were 
standing, and men on their knees put up continual 
prayer. 

On the same night there was a great and total eclipse of 
the sun. It seemed to begin at eight o'clock at night, and 
lasted two hours and a-half. 

Now that so many days had passed without reaching the 
Island of Santa Cruz, where there was the hope of anchoring 
in the Bay of Graciosa, and of quenching the terrible thirst 
they felt in the water-springs, and because the execution of 
this desire was so long delayed, the Captain, it was said, 
should make amends. Some of them said that he merited ex- 
emplary punishment for having, solely for his own profit and 

1 Torres called it " Matanza." In Torquemada the name " Genie 
Hermoso" is given. The Memorial (1609) gives " Peregrine" 



2l8 BAD CHARACTERS. 

advantage, taken them all to die in these great gulfs of the 
ocean ; that the supposed land was a dream ; and that he 
had deceived the Pope and the King with his stories. 
According to what afterwards became known, worse things 
were said of him than if he had been a Turk. The Cap- 
tain replied to all this that it was not a new thing to him, 
for in other voyages he had sailed with men who were 
easily wearied. What such men wanted was good health, 
plenty to eat and drink, little work, many complaints, much 
grumbling together, and as little love as possible for the 
voyage, with much fear of the weather. It was not to be 
desired that vile mothers should bring forth such harmful 
and ugly monsters. Often it is found that officers do what 
they like rather than what they are ordered to do. Some 
sell the stores in their charge, others give them away to 
secure silence or to make friends, in fear of enemies ; and 
for many other objects all deceive more or less. As the 
interested persons are witnesses of these truths, they keep 
the secret well. So many are culpable in these or other 
ways, that they force him who governs to make a faithful 
man of a thief, for in any other way there would be inter- 
necine war. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

The assembly of Pilots ; what happened at it, and the arrest of the 
Chief Pilot. 

ON the 25th of March, being Easter eve, the Chief Pilot 
said in public that he found the distance from Callao to be 
2,220 leagues, and that he said so for what might happen 
in consequence. For this reason, and because there was 
uneasiness and difference of opinion respecting the voyage 
among some, the Captain ordered a flag to be hoisted on 
the maintopmast, the signal for counsel ; in order that the 



MEETING OF PILOTS. 219 

people, who were little satisfied with what they heard the 
Chief Pilot say, might be appeased and quieted. The two 
other vessels closed, and the Admiral, Luis Vaez Torres, 
Juan Bernardo de Fuentiduena, and from the launch the 
Captain of her, Pedro Bernal Cermeno, all three being 
pilots, came in their boats to the Capitana. Being together, 
with the Chief Pilot and his assistant, Caspar Gonzalez, 
the former, without any apparent cause, went up into the 
deck-house in a great state of agitation, a thing which 
appeared to everyone very strange and very bad. The 
Captain called him down, and, when he had come, the 
meeting was thus addressed : 

" This meeting is convoked in order that each one may 
state in public the number ot leagues he believes we are 
from the port of Callao, also the reason why we have not 
yet come to the island of Santa Cruz, having navigated in 
order to reach it, and on the same parallel. Take notice 
that it is large and not low, and that near it there is a 
volcano so high that it may be seen at a distance of 
40 leagues ; also that the distance of Santa Cruz from 
Lima is 1,850 leagues." When the Captain had said this, 
the Pilots showed their charts and notes. As they were 
only by dead reckoning, there were great differences, 
especially in the reckoning of the Chief Pilot, which was 
2,300 more or less, and in that of Captain Bernal. The 
Admiral said that he made it 2,000 leagues, and that there 
may be currents which detained the ships, or that he may 
have over-rated his distances, or that Santa Cruz may be 
further from Lima than is shown in the charts ; and other 
explanations which at present they could not make out. 
If we sailed on the same parallel to the year's end without 
seeing the sought-for island, it would be understood that 
we had not passed by it. The Pilot, Juan Bernardo de 
Fuentiduena, was of the same opinion ; his position and that 
of his assistant not being so far in advance as the others. 



220 THE CHIEF PILOTS LONGITUDES. 

The Chief Pilot wishing, for reasons he gave, to make it 
believed that his position was the right one, asked the 
Captain to look to the north, where he would see very 
large and swollen waves, a certain sign that we were much 
further to the east than was supposed. The Chief Pilot 
also said that we had been sailing for ninety-four days. 
The Captain replied that in the former voyage the island 
of Santa Cruz was sighted after sixty-nine days, and 
though it was true that we had now been sailing for a long 
time, there were many nights when the swell was against 
the ship's progress, and that on many others they had been 
under very small sail ; that there had been detentions of 
days at the various islands in seeking for ports, and that 
during nearly all the month of May, in which we were, 
there had been calms or light winds, while there had not 
been wanting in other periods of the voyage calm weather 
or changes of wind, or other causes for waste of time, which 
reduced the real number of days' runs to sixty-four, and 
that for sixty-nine there wanted five still, to equalise the 
two voyages. He himself had taken the sun in the island 
of Santa Cruz, and he was certain that the latitude was 
10 20', and that we neither were behind nor in advance. 

Presently the Chief Pilot showed on his chart the track 
he had drawn upon it from Callao to 26, which the ships 
reached, the course being nearly W.S.W. It seemed that 
this was his chief mistake, for he multiplied degrees on 
the W.S.W. course, which is the direction in which he had 
to navigate, and he laid down the route by the course, 
which is the same as by it and by the latitude ; when it 
should have been, for more accuracy, by the estimated 
leagues and the known latitude. He did not calculate for 
errors in determining distances in a route from east to 
west, and their two quarters, caused by the variation of the 
needle, more or less leeway, winds and sails and other things 
to be considered, and necessary calculations so as to be 



THE PILOT DISRATED. 221 

able to mark on the chart the position nearest the truth. 
This was not the navigation that the Chief Pilot had been 
accustomed to make. His experience was from Acapulco 
or Panama to Callao, along the coast, and when out of 
sight of land, it is a short distance off, and even if it is 
great, the land is extensive and well known that he had to 
seek, which, if not seen on one day, will be on the next ; 
and if he does not make a landfall where he intended, he can 
do so where the coast is known, and find the port he seeks. 
Having made a calculation of all that has been said, and 
laid down what was afterwards found when we came to the 
port of Acapulco, it was established that there was an error 
of 600 leagues, as can be proved when necessary. The 
Captain gave these and other reasons to all, and some to 
the Chief Pilot, who became agitated, and again went up 
into his deck-house. Thence he declared that he came to 
serve the King, and not for pay, and that he had worked 
hard in fitting out the ships and at other duties. To all 
this the Captain replied that all present were aware that, 
without knowing him, nor owing him anything, nor wanting 
him, but only to do him good he had been taken, but 
the Captain had seen that, by his inefficiency, it became 
impossible that he could be any use. Finally, the Chief 
Pilot showed himself to be ungrateful. The Captain 
said to him that it was enough to know that it was in- 
credible how much he had said, and that it was not to be 
hoped from his mind that his work would be well to the 
point. In fine, in the ship it was said that there was one 
who did not wish that lands should be discovered, nor that 
anything should be found ; and the Captain, seeing the 
state of affairs, and the obligation to all, said to the 
Admiral that he was to take away the Chief Pilot as a 
prisoner. Presently it was reported to the Captain that 
the ship was in a state of mutiny, owing to what he had 
said in public. " Is there one that objects, it being for the 



222 LEZA MADE CHIEF PILOT. 

royal service, that I turn the Chief Pilot out of the ship ? " 
One who spoke in his favour was ordered to hold his 
tongue, being told that the day before he had said just the 
contrary. 

With the departure of the Chief Pilot all his friends 
were much distressed; but the ship was without those 
licences and disturbances which had been going on until 
now. 

The Captain said to Pedro Bernal Cermeno that he 
wished him to remain and assume the office of Chief Pilot, 
and he went to fetch his clothes from the launch. But his 
people showed themselves so discontented at his going 
that, his exhortations not sufficing, he was forced to 
threaten them. Thus he apparently quieted them, and 
there remained as Chief Pilot Caspar Gonzalez de Leza, 
an honest man and good pilot. 

The Captain caused a block to be placed at the yard- 
arm, and from that time forward he lived with a caution 
necessary among such villains. He said : "For what evil 
deeds that I have done do I go sold in this ship, where are 
some to whom I have done such good deeds, and desire to 
do more ? The great mistake was not to have thought of 
bringing irons, fetters, and chains from Lima, intending to 
oblige by faithful treatment and to bring out the good." 
While the Captain was still in Madrid, he went to see a 
Friar, Andre's de San Vincente, a Dominican ; and he said 
that, navigating with the Chief Pilot of Ternate to Malacca, 
the ship he was in was lost ; on account of which, and the 
fault that the passenger caused, and the exigency in which 
they placed him, he said : " Oh, Captain Quiros, this is 
your fault, because you did not chastise me for the occasion 
I gave you, your piety not allowing you." 

There were not wanting in the ship those who were tired 
of her, and they asked the Captain to let them play a little, 
and that the winnings should be given for the souls in pur- 



APPROACHING LAND. 22$ 

gatory. But the Captain said to them many times that 
they would not risk to go on with such new and good work 
if there was playing and swearing. As for the alms offered 
from the results of betting, he would not want to take 
a soul out of purgatory, and set it on the road to Heaven, if 
it left his and the souls of others in hell ; and it would be 
much better to give, without playing, that which would be 
given by playing. For passing the time there are very 
good books, and one who would teach to read, write, and 
count to those who do not know how ; also a master-at- 
arms, black swords, 1 practised soldiers to teach recruits, and 
one who would teach them the art of fortification and 
artillery, the spheres and navigation ; and that these pur- 
suits were better than to play for money. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Relates how they came in sight of the third inhabited island, 
and what happened there. 

STILL with a westerly course we proceeded, with much 
anxiety arising from the confusion in determining the dis- 
tance of our ships from the port of Lima, and still more 
owing to the allowance being so short that neither our 
thirst was quenched nor our hunger satisfied. At last God 
sent us a good shower of rain, and plenty of water was 
collected. The people derived much consolation from this 
provision of Heaven, and at seeing soon after many snakes, 
fish found in shallow water, turtles, wild fruit, cocoa-nuts, 
trunks of trees, land birds, currants, and other signs of 
the approach of land. We therefore navigated at night 
under small sail, keeping a good look-out, the lanterns 
lighted, with the launch ahead, having orders to signal 

1 Probably wooden swords for teaching the drill. 



224 THIRD INHABITED ISLAND. 

with lights if there were rocks or land. So we con- 
tinued until the 7th of April. On that day, at three in the 
afternoon, a man at the mast-head of the Capitana cried 
out : " I see land to the N.W., high and black." The voice 
sounded well to all ; the sails were trimmed, and the bows 
turned to the land. We lay-to that night, and in the 
morning we found ourselves on a bank, where the least 
depth was 1 2 fathoms. There was a great excitement over 
this, which lasted during the two hours that it took to 
cross over the shoal, always sounding, and with the anchors 
ready and look-out men at the mast-heads to report what 
they saw. 

We arrived near the island, and saw some smoke rising 
on the north side, which doubled our delight and gave us 
hopes of getting water, which chiefly engaged our thoughts. 
Night closed in, and next day the Captain ordered 
the Admiral, with the launch and a boat, to go and recon- 
noitre the island, while the ships, at the position where they 
were, found a port, where they anchored with incredible joy. 
The Admiral returned in the afternoon, very well satisfied 
with the appearance of the land, and it was settled that the 
next day we should seek a better port, fuel, and water. 

It was scarcely dawn when the Admiral left the ships 
with an armed party in the launch and boats, and at a dis- 
tance of 2 leagues found a village on a small reef. The 
natives, in great haste, took their women and children 
inland, and all that they could carry away, while 150 of 
them took their arms. One came forward shouting it 
was not understood for what purpose, a musket was fired 
off merely to astonish them, and when they heard it they 
all dived into the water except the first native. This man 
came near us, and by signs told us not to fire, and that 
he would make his people put down their bows and arrows ; 
so this was done on both sides. He came to the boats, and 
gave his hand to the Admiral in token of friendship, giving 



ISLAND OF TAUMACO. 225 

him to understand, by pointing to his head, that he was the 
lord of the land, and that he was called Tumai, and by 
another name Jalique. 

Presently another native came and looked at us with 
astonishment, and we looked at him with no less care : 
owing to his colour being so white, and so brown as regards 
beard and hair, that our people called him " the Fleming." 
His name was Olan. 

The Admiral asked Tumai to order the natives not to 
shoot their arrows, and to go away from there, that his men 
might land. At one word from Tumai they all went away 
to the island, and he alone remained. Then our people 
landed peacefully, before anything else forming a corps de 
garde in one of the houses, placing sentinels in appropriate 
places, and the rest lodged in the village. 

By signs Tumai showed the Admiral his houses, and 
asked him not to set them or the others on fire. He further 
said that he would assist and give what his island con- 
tained. The Admiral showed him great friendship ; and, 
the better to impress him with it, he dressed him in shot 
silk, 1 which he seemed to value highly. Presently a boat 
was sent to report to the Captain all that had taken place, 
and that there was a very good watering-place near the 
village. The ships should shift their berths to a port much 
nearer, and the launch anchored still nearer the village, 
between the land and a rock. 

When the ships were anchored, all the friars landed and 
went to the village ; and at the request of the Captain they 
performed the First Mass of Our Lady of Loreto, with a 
commemoration of St. Peter. The natives, while they were 
saying Mass, were present, very attentive on their knees, 
beating their breasts, and doing everything they saw the 
Christians do. It is certainly a great pity, when one comes 

1 "Tafetan tornasol." 



226 ISLAND OF TAUMACO. 

to think of it, with what facility all the people of those 
parts would receive the Faith if there was any one to teach 
them ; and yet what a great perdition there is of such a vast 
number of souls as are condemned here ! God will be best 
served if the time is made to come very quickly that will 
bring the blessing of blessings, of which these people are 
so ignorant, of others so desired. 

Next day, at the request of Tumai, the Admiral sent him 
to the ship with a soldier, that he might tell the Captain 
that the Chief had come to see him, and who he was. The 
Captain received him with a cheerful countenance, and 
embraced him, and Tumai gave him the kiss of peace on 
his cheek. They were seated in the gallery, and the table 
was got ready that he might eat. But he declined to eat 
anything, though he was pressed to do so. 

The Commissary was present ; and that Tumai might 
understand that he was a person to be respected, the Cap- 
tain kissed his hand, and told Tumai that he should do the 
same, which he did. 

The Captain asked Tumai whether he had seen ships or 
people like us. He gave it to be understood that he had 
not, but that he had received reports about them. He was 
asked about the volcano that had been seen in the former 
voyage, and he said, by signs with fire, that it was five days' 
voyage to the west, and that in his language it was called 
" Mami," and that there the Island of Santa Cruz was near 
and in sight, the native name of which was " Indeni." The 
Captain also told him of the death inflicted upon the Chief 
Malope during the other voyage, and of the head which the 
Adelantado Mendana sent as payment, as may be read in 
the account of the voyage. 1 It was understood that this 
was the reason why he and all his people showed them- 
selves to be so alarmed when they saw arquebuses, and 
explained their knowledge of ships and people like us. 

1 See pp. 8 1 and 85. 



ISLAND OF TAUMACO. 22/ 

The Captain further asked Tumai whether he knew of 
other lands far or near, inhabited or uninhabited. For this 
he pointed to his island, then to the sea, then to various 
points of the horizon ; and having explained by these 
signs, he began counting on his ringers as many as sixty 
islands, and a very large land, which he called " Manicolo." 
The Captain wrote down the names, having the compass 
before him, for noting the bearing of each island from the 
one where they were, called " Taumaco," to S.W., S.S.W., 
and N.W. To explain which were small islands, Tumai 
made small circles, and for larger ones larger circles ; while 
for the large land he opened both his arms and hands 
without making them meet. To explain which were the 
distant islands, and which were nearer, he pointed to the 
sun, then rested his head on his hand, shut his eyes, and 
with his ringers counted the number of nights one had to 
sleep on the voyage. In a similar way he explained which 
people were white, black, or mulattos ; which were mixed, 
which friendly, which hostile. He gave it to be understood 
that in one island they ate human flesh, by biting his arm, 
and indicated that he did not like such people. In this way 
and in others it appeared that what he said was under- 
stood. He repeated it many times until he was tired, and, 
pointing towards the S.W., W., and other parts, he gave it to 
be well understood how many more lands there were. He 
then showed a desire to return to his house, and the Captain, 
the more to please him, gave him things brought for barter, 
and he departed after embraces and other tokens of love. 

Next day the Captain went to the village where our 
people were, and in order to corroborate what Tumai had 
said, he assembled the natives on the beach. Holding a 
paper in his hand, with the compass before him, he began 
asking them all once and many times respecting the lands 
to which Tumai had given names, and all agreed. They 
gave tidings of other inhabited islands, and also of that 

Q2 



228 ISLAND OF TAUMACO. 

great land. Other persons, on that day and at other times, 
put the same questions to the natives, and always with the 
same result, so that it appeared that these people were 
truthful. They were much astonished at seeing one read- 
ing a paper, and, taking it in their hands, they looked at it 
in front and behind. 

One day the natives were seen eating certain pieces of 
meat, and they were asked cautiously what it was. That 
they might be understood, they showed a piece of raw hide 
with the hair on, and one put his hands on his head, intend- 
ing it to be understood, with other very intelligible signs, 
that in those great lands there were cows and buffalo ; and 
when they were shown pearls on the button of a rosary, 
they said they had them. 

They liked much to see us place our guard. They 
showed themselves well contented at the way they were 
treated. All they gave was eaten without scruple, and all 
they were given was taken with good will. They estab- 
lished great friendship with each of our people that they 
took a fancy to, exchanging names, calling them comrades, 
and treating them as if their acquaintance had been of long 
standing. It came to such a point that some of our people 
went alone to their villages without causing any offence, or 
any of our things being missed, such as our clothes left in 
the streams where they were being washed, or pots and 
copper kettles. 

An agreement was made with Tumai about wood and 
water for the ships, all which he sent with great good 
will as much as we needed by natives in canoes. Some 
concealed themselves, others went on board and asked for 
bells, which they esteemed very much, and other things 
that were given them, with which they returned contented. 

Tumai was lord of this and other islands. His age was 
fifty ; a man with a good body and face, handsome eyes, 
well-formed nose, colour rather brown, beard and hair 



ISLAND OF TAUMACO. 229 

turning grey. He was grave and sedate, prudent and 
wise in what he did, and what he promised he per- 
formed. Once he wanted to go to a village, to see two 
women he had there. He asked leave, and left one of his 
sons as a hostage. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Gives an account of this island, of the people, their food and canoes, 
and of our departure from it. 

THE native name for this island is Taumaco. It received 
the name of Nuestra Sefiora del Socorro in memory of the 
succour found there. 1 It is in latitude 10 20'. Its circum- 
ference is 10 leagues, more or less. It is moderately high 
and well wooded. For this reason, and its shape, the view 
of it is pleasant. It runs east and west. Along its beaches 
there are many palm groves, villages with few houses, and 
a quantity of canoes. It is distant from Lima i,65O 2 
leagues. On the east side there are three pointed rocks, 
which are only bare when the wind is E. or N.E., and 
between them and the island is the port where we anchored 
first. It has 25 fathoms of depth. The second anchorage 
is on the south side of the island, west of a rock which is 
under water, depth 18 fathoms, with bottom of rough coral, 
which chafes cables, so that ours were buoyed. It is with- 
out shelter ; and for this reason, and the high seas that 
rise, we lay at single anchor, and in some anxiety and 
danger. 

The village of Tumai is on the south side, a little apart 
from the island, and surrounded by water, so we called it 
Venice. They cannot embark in or land from their canoes, 

1 Torres and Torquemada give the native name. Leza calls the 
island " Nuestra Seiiora de Loreto" In the Memorial the name is 
" Monterey? after the Viceroy of Peru. 

2 Torres gives 1940 leagues (169 45' E.). Latitude, 10 10' S. 



230 , ISLAND OF TAUMACO. 

except when it is high water. It has in front, at a distance 
of an arquebus-shot, a small valley with fruit trees, crops, 
and a small stream of very clear and wholesome water, 
whence was got that which was taken on board. The 
houses are large and clean, framed with wood, the roof of 
sweet canes covered with palm leaves, with two or three 
low doors, and the floors covered with reeds. The beds are 
of matting, with stools somewhat curved to put the heads 
on. There are larger houses, and in them certain canoes 
with large and well-carved trunks, with decks of plank, 
and very strongly fastened with beams arid poles. These 
go down on one side until they reach the water, 1 acting as 
a counterpoise to prop up, enabling them to carry more 
sail. The joinings of the vessel are cemented together 
with a certain gum which is found here, that burns like a 
candle when set on fire, and oils well. The inside has a 
small cabin or retreat, in which all the provisions are kept 
when at sea. The bows were ornamented with pearl shells, 
and close by were the paddles, rigging, ropes, and large 
mat sails. Each canoe will hold thirty or forty persons. 
There was also an open space with certain poles, some of 
them dyed red, for which the natives have great respect, 
cloths, matting, and cocoa-nuts being collected there. It 
was understood to be a burying-place of some of their chief 
people, or a place where the Devil speaks to them. 

The island yields roots and fruits, such as yams, cocoa- 
nuts, plantains, sweet canes, and some very large almonds, 
whose pips are formed of leaves. They are sweet and very 
pleasant to eat. The nutmegs are only used by the natives 
as a paste to dye their arrows. Other fruits were seen and 
eaten, and a small pig. They do not eat the hens. They 
killed ten or a dozen cocks, but they hid the hens. A small 
dog was seen. We found a ball of artimonia, and it was 



Outriggers. 



KIDNAPPING NATIVES. 23! 

ascertained that they make them to fight with, fastened to 
the ends of sticks, serving as maces. 

The natives are tall as a rule, straight, vigorous, well- 
favoured, of a clear mulatto colour more or less, others very 
close upon being black. There may be some who have 
come from other islands by way of contract, or as prisoners. 
Some of them work. They cover their parts with cloths 
they weave at small looms. They use the buyo^ food also 
used in the Philippines, which is said to preserve the teeth 
and strengthen the stomach. Their arms are bows and 
arrows. They seem to be a people fond of fighting, with 
natives of other islands ; two of them were wounded and 
bruised from this. They told our people that they would 
go to help and to avenge the others who had been hit 
with arrows. One gave us to understand that he was 
a surgeon. 

Two leagues to the west there is another island, inhabited, 
and apparently about the same size as Taumaco. It is 
called Temelflua. To the N.E. of it, at a short distance, 
are two small islands, rather rocky. 

The ships being ready, the Admiral received orders to 
embark, taking some natives with the objects already stated. 
The Admiral sent Tumai in advance, the Captain having 
sent for him to take leave. Tumai and two others were in 
a canoe talking with the Captain, who gave them a sash 
and other things, when the boats arrived with our people 
and four natives, who had been seized, so that Tumai 
might not see them. But they saw Tumai, and cried out 
to him to help them. Tumai, seeing that there was no 
remedy, was deaf to their cries, and for his own safety he 
shoved off from the ship. The Captain fired a piece as a 
signal for the launch to weigh. The two companions of 
Tumai then jumped into the water, and swam on shore. 
Tumai remained without showing any fear. This man was 
valorous, and his kindness was worthy to be celebrated and 



232 ESCAPE OF NATIVES. 

to eternize his name, and his sorrow mourned for. Our 
people embarked with two natives in each ship, the anchors 
were weighed, and sail was made at sunset on Tuesday, 
the 1 8th of April, running great danger of striking on a 
rock. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Another inhabited island is sighted, and it is related how three natives 
escaped from the ships, and other things that happened. 

THE ships were pursuing their course, when a certain 
person from the Almiranta shouted to the Captain that they 
should go in search of the Island of Santa Cruz. The 
Captain answered that the ships had to put their heads, as 
they were now put, to the S.E., with the intention of follow- 
ing that and other courses, for they now had sufficient wood 
and water to enable them to find what they were seeking. 
God had given us a N.W. wind, one as well suited for that 
intention as it sounds. 

We stood on under little sail, for it was night, and the 
sea unknown, when towards dawn one of the natives 
sprang into the sea. He was a youth, but tall and vigo- 
rous, of good countenance and gentle bearing, whom the 
Captain prized highly for the ship. The sailors called as if 
he could understand them : " Come back to the ship ; do 
not drown yourself. See how the Devil deceives him ! 
Why should you lose so much good as surrounds you 
here ? " But as his intention was different, not caring for 
words so little understood, he went on swimming to the 
island, which appeared to be about 3 leagues off. 

We went on our way, and in the afternoon of the third 
day we saw an island at a distance. We hove to for the 
night, and made sail towards it at daybreak. When we 
were near the land, the other native, also quite young 



ISLAND OF TUCOPIA. 1 233 

and not less gay and well disposed, before he could 
be prevented, jumped overboard, and there remained, 
as if he was a buoy. At the place where he was, 
not caring for cries and menaces, with great effrontery, 
as if he was standing in the water, he took off a shirt 
he had on, and with incredible speed began swimming to 
the island, which he would soon reach, being near and to 
leeward. The Admiral was advised of the flight of the 
natives, that he might keep a closer watch over the two he 
had on board. 

Only with the object of rinding out whether the island 
was inhabited, we coasted along it. Presently, on an exten- 
sive beach, we saw natives running to join others who were 
looking at us. The Admiral got into the dingey to 
see what sort of people they were. The natives made 
signs, with great demonstrations of love, for us to come on 
shore. Seeing we would not for all their pressing, they 
gave a mantle of fine palm leaves and notice of other 
lands, and bade farewell with great signs of regret. We 
left them in that solitude, gazing at our ships, until we lost 
sight of them. 

Our people were much pleased at the sight of the island, 
and still more to see such fine-looking people : but sud- 
denly one of the two natives on board the Almiranta, a 
tall, robust, and strong man, jumped into the sea, and soon 
was a long way off. They lowered the dingey, but the 
Captain fired a piece off as a signal that they were not to 
go after the fugitive, the boat being small and easily cap- 
sized. The resolute swimmer went on towards the island 
with vigorous strokes, being 2 leagues off and to windward. 

1 Torres calls it " Chucupia? The Memorial has " Tucopia." Quiros 
gives the latitude 12 15' S. ; Torres, 12 30' S. Undoubtedly, the 
Tucopia of modern charts, in 12 15' S. and 169 50' E. 



234 SAN MARCOS. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Relates how, by reason of a strong wind from the N.W., the sea ran 
across the track of the ships, and how they sighted a high 
island. 

WITH great regret at the loss of the three best natives, 
though the one that remained was more free (being the 
same the Captain pointed out with his finger when they were 
seized), we proceeded on a S.E. course, with a fresh N.W. 
breeze, until the following day. The wind increased in 
force with thick weather, with flights of birds, and the night 
approaching, so we struck the topmasts and hove to until 
the 24th of April. On that day the sun was taken, and it 
was found that we were in 14, the ship having drifted 20 
leagues. In the afternoon, the weather having cleared up, 
the Captain ordered sail to be made, and when he was 
asked what the course was to be, he answered : " Put the 
ships' heads where they like, for God will guide them as 
may be right ; " and as it was S.W., he said it might con- 
tinue so. So on that course, with little sail, we steered 
during the night. Before sunrise on the following day, a 
sailor of the Capitana named Francisco Rodriguez went to 
the mast-head, and cried in a cheerful voice : " Very high 
land ahead ! " We all wanted to see it, and all looked at it 
together with great contentment. Much greater was their 
satisfaction when they came close, and saw smoke, and 
natives calling to the launch to come nearer. 

This island was calculated to be 1,700 leagues from Lima. 
It is 7 or 8 leagues in circumference, forms a round hill, 
abrupt near the sea, the highest and best-formed I have 
seen. Its shape is that of a sugar-loaf with the crown cut 
off. It is cut like a saddle, whence a good stream of water 
falls into the sea. We saw crops growing, plantains, palms, 
and other trees. The inhabitants appeared to be of a good 
colour, and well made. The people were on the N.W. side, 



SAN MARCOS. 235 

where, at a short distance from the shore, there is a bare 
rock. The latitude of this land is 14, and it was named 
Sari Marcos, 1 because it was discovered on that Saint's day. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Tells how a great land was sighted, and other islands. 

FROM this Island of San Marcos we went on a S.W. 
course, with men at the mast-head ; and at 10 in the fore- 
noon, at a distance of 12 leagues to the S.E., a land of 
many mountains and plains was sighted, the end of which 
could not be seen throughout the day. The Captain gave 
it the name of " Margaritana." 

About 20 leagues to the west, an island was seen that 
looked so beautiful that it was determined to go to it. 
About a third of the way we saw another island, 3 leagues 
off. It is flat, with a hill that looks like a rock in the dis- 
tance. Two canoes under sail came from it, from which we 
knew that it was inhabited. On account of its thick woods 
and pleasant appearance, the name of " Verjel" was given to 
it. There was little wind, and, on account of the necessary 
caution in navigating among unknown islands, we hove to 
during the night. 

The other day, being the 27th, we saw to the N. of 
where we were a large island running N.E. and S.W., and 
the peaks of its numerous mountains gave the Captain a 
strong desire to go and see it ; but he gave it up, owing to 
other things that occurred. Its latitude is 13, and it was 
named " Las Lagrimas da San Pedro." 

To the N.W. another island was seen, with a circumfer- 
ence of 60 leagues. It has two high and sloping hills, one 

1 Torres calls it a very high volcano. Torquemada gives the name 
of " Nuestra Senora de la Luz" The Memorial has " San Marcos" 
It is the Pic de VEtoile of Bougainville. The volcano is now extinct. 
Latitude, 14 25' S. " Merlav? or "Star Peak," on modern charts. 



236 SANTA MARIA ISLAND. 

at each end. The rest is flat and of very pleasant appear- 
ance, alike from its shape and its numerous trees. Its lati- 
tude is less than 14. It was named " Portales de Belen." 



CHAPTER XX. 

Gives an account of what passed with some natives at an island. 

NEXT day we arrived near the island which I said was to 
the westward of that of San Marcos, and in all directions 
we saw columns of smoke rising, and at night many fires. 
In the centre it is rather high, and thence its slopes extend 
in all directions towards the sea, so that its form is a mas- 
sive round, with only the part towards the south a little 
broken with ravines. It is a land of many palm trees, 
plantains, verdure, abundant water, and thickly inhabited. 
The circumference is about 50 leagues, though some gave it 
100 leagues, and must support about 200,000 inhabitants. 
Its latitude is 14 30'. Owing to its great beauty, it was 
given the name of " Virgen Maria." 1 

Four canoes with unarmed natives came to the Ahniranta, 
and made signs to offer to take him into port. Seeing that 
our people did not wish it, they made presents of cocoa- 
nuts and other fruits. Having received a good return, they 
went back to their island. 

As the disposition of the natives seemed to be good, the 
Captain sent a party in the launch and one boat, to examine 
the coast and find a port. The party was under the com- 
mand of Pedro Lopez de Sojo. They found to the S. and 
S.E. clean bottom at 20 fathoms or less, where the ships 
might well anchor if the weather to be expected was 
known. They saw a great number of people on the island, 
who came out to see and call to us. They followed the 

1 Torres has "Santa Maria? It is the " Gaua" of modern chart 
in the Banks Group. 



SEIZURE OF NATIVES. 237 

boat without passing certain boundaries, and by this we 
supposed that there were partitions of property between 
people not on good terms. Among them there were two 
colours. While they were looking at each other and talk- 
ing by signs, a man rushed down from some rocks behind. 
He was well made, of a clear mulatto colour, the hairs of 
his beard and head brown and crisp, and rather long. He 
was robust and vigorous. With a jump he got into the 
boat, and, according to the signs he made, he appeared to 
ask : " Where do you come from ? What do you want ? 
What do you seek ? " Assuming that these were the ques- 
tions, one of our people said " We come from the east, we 
are Christians, we seek you, and we want you to be ours." 
He showed himself to be so bold, that our people under- 
stood that he wanted to make us believe that to him we 
were a small affair. He presently was undeceived, for he 
was seized and brought to the ship, where he came on 
board so fearlessly that we had to confess he was no coward. 
The Captain embraced him, and asked about other land by 
signs, of which he appeared to give extensive information. 
He pointed to several places on the horizon, counted on his 
ringers several times, and ended by saying, "Martin Cortal." 1 
It was very pleasant to hear him, to see how lively he was, 
how vigorous, how agreeable among our people; having a 
bright look for all, including those who importuned him 
with a desire for information. 

The night having come on, the launch arrived, and the 
Pilot of her told the Captain that they were bringing a 
native prisoner, secured by a hatchway chain. But he 
broke it ; and, taking part of it and the padlock with him 
on one foot, he jumped overboard. The Captain heard 



1 Martin Lope Cortal was Pilot of Lopez de Legazpi's ship on the 
voyage from Mexico to the Philippines, and he afterwards made a 
voyage to Mexico without licence. He and some companions landed 
at islands called Barbudos, and the ship left them there. That this 
native should have used these words is extraordinary. 



238 RELEASE OF THE NATIVES. 

this with great regret, fearing that the man had been 
drowned. To make sure of the other, he ordered him to 
be given his supper and to be put in the stocks, but on a bed 
where he could sleep. He also ordered that the ships 
should go in search of the one that had escaped. Going in 
search at ten at night, the look-out man heard a voice from 
the water, and made out the place where the native, being 
tired out, was struggling with death. To the cries of the 
swimmer came answer from the prisoner, in such doleful 
tones that it caused grief to all to see the one and hear the 
other. The swimmer was got on board, to the joy of 
himself and us, 'and to our surprise that he could have 
sustained such a weight on his foot for four hours. The 
padlock and chain were at once taken off, and he was 
given his supper, with wine to drink, and then put in 
the stocks, that he might not try it on again. There both 
remained all night, talking sadly and in confusion. At 
dawn, the Captain, pretending that he quarreled with all 
for putting them in the stocks, let them out. He then 
ordered the barber to shave off their beards and hair, 
except one tuft on the side of their heads. He also ordered 
their finger-nails and toe-nails to be cut with scissors, the 
uses of which they admired. He caused them to be dressed 
in silk of divers colours, gave them hats with plumes, tinsel, 
and other ornaments, knives, and a mirror, into which they 
looked with caution. 

This done, the Captain had them put into the boat, and 
told Sojo to take them on shore, coasting along to the end 
of the island, to see what there was beyond. The natives 
came, and, the fear being passed, they sang their happy and 
unhoped-for fate. Arrived at the beach, they were told 
to jump out, which they could hardly believe. Finally, 
they jumped overboard, where there were many natives; 
among them a woman with a child in her arms, who 
received the two with great joy. It appeared that she was 



ENCOUNTER WITH NATIVES. 239 

the wife of the first native, and that he was a chief, for all 
respected and obeyed his orders. They seemed to be con- 
tented, and gave each other many embraces, with gentle 
murmurings. The Chief, pointing with his finger, seemed 
to be saying we were a good people. Many came to where 
the boat was, and they showed such confidence that, when 
one of our men asked the mother for her baby, she gave it. 
Seeing that it was passed from one to another, to be seen 
and embraced, the natives were well pleased. In fine, a 
good understanding was established. 

The swimmer ran away, and presently came back with a 
pig on his shoulders, which he offered to us. The Chief 
gave us another, and a bunch of curious plantains, their 
shape being like that of moderate-sized egg-plants 1 without 
points, the pulp orange colour, sweet and tender. The 
other natives emulously presented cocoa-nuts, sweet canes, 
and other fruits, and water in joints of cane four palmos 
long and one thick. Pointing to the ships, they seemed to 
say that they should anchor here, that they might give 
them all they had in the island. Our people took their 
leave and went on to the point, where they saw the coast 
of the island trending north, and the other island of Belen 
at a distance of 4 leagues to the N.W. Satisfied with their 
view, they returned to the ship. The boatswain's mate of 
the Almiranta was wounded in one cheek by an arrow : 
certain natives, being envious of the friendship of the 
others, or being enraged because, when they called to our 
people they did not care to stop and speak with them, shot 
off arrows, and had an answer from muskets. This wound 
healed quickly, by which we knew that the arrows were 
not poisoned. More mischief would have been done if the 
swimmer had not come running, shouting, and making signs 
for the boat to keep away a great proof of gratitude. 

1 Egg-plant nightshade, Solanum melongena, L. 



240 _. DISTANT LAND. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Relates how they came in sight of two great and lofty lands ; how 
they went in search of one of them, and discovered a bay, and a 
port in it. 

THIS day one Melchor de los Reyes was looking out at the 
mast-head, when, at three in the afternoon, he saw at a dis- 
tance of 12 leagues to the S.W. and S., more or less, an 
extensive land. For this, and because the eye could not 
turn to a point that was not all land, the day was the most 
joyful and the most celebrated day of the whole voyage. 
We went on towards the land, and next day found our- 
selves near a coast running to the west. The name of Car- 
dona 1 was given to this land in memory of the Duke of 
Sesa, who had taken so deep an interest in the voyage, as 
well at Rome as at the Court of Spain, and because the 
Captain felt very grateful. 

When we set out for the said land there was seen, far 
away to the S.E., a massive and very lofty chain of moun- 
tains, covered with thick masses of white clouds in the 
middle and on the heights, while the bases were clear. It 
seemed from aloft that the coasts of these two lands ap- 
proached to form one. The Captain gave the name of " La 
Clementina" to this range of mountains. It seemed to be 
in about i;. 2 

Having come to the land, an opening was seen in it, and, 
as it appeared to be a port, the Captain sent an officer in a 
boat, with soldiers and rowers, to examine it. In the after- 
noon he returned, reporting that the opening formed a 
narrow island 6 leagues long, running N. and S., rather high, 

1 The name of the Duke of Sesa was Don Antonio de Cardona y 
Cordova. See pp. 163 and 168. 

2 Cardona and La Clementina, looking like a range of mountains 
and main land, were the islands of Pentecost, Aurora, and Leper, 
overlapping each other. 



A PORT DISCOVERED. 24! 

inhabited, and well wooded ; and where it is sheltered to 
the E. and N.E., there was bottom at 30 fathoms, and a 
strong current. The Captain gave it the name of " San 
Raimundo." 

Coasting along this island to the W., there came out on 
the beach many tawny men, very tall, with bows in their 
hands, calling loudly to our people. As we would not 
approach, they threw a great bundle of capons' feathers 
into the sea, intending with this, and by sending out boys, 
to induce us to come within shot. Then they shot off their 
arrows, which we returned with muskets. Further on they 
saw many natives of fine make and good colour, and away 
to S. and S.E. three and four ranges of very high moun- 
tains, which seemed to join on to the other ranges that had 
been seen to the S.E. 

With such good news that the land was inhabited, we 
sailed onwards on a westward course ; and at a distance of 
6 leagues, on the 1st of May, we entered a great bay, where 
we passed the night. Next day, the Captain sent the 
Admiral away in a boat to look for a port. Two canoes 
came out to the ships, with men in them, having their bows 
ready. They stopped for an interval and rowed for another. 
They spoke loudly, and looked at us and at the shore, 
showing themselves to be troubled. Those in the launch 
fired off a piece to astonish them, which it did, for they 
took to flight, rowing as hard as they could. 

The Admiral returned in the afternoon very well satis- 
fied, and those who accompanied him were equally pleased, 
and could not hold back the joyful news that they had 
found a good port ; for this is what we had hitherto failed to 
find, though we had sought for one with anxious wishes to 
succeed. Without a port, the discovery would be of little 
importance. Next day, being the 3rd of May, the three 
vessels anchored in the port with great joy, giving many 
thanks to God. 

R 



242 CONFLICT WITH NATIVES. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Relates the first sight of the natives of this bay, and an encounter 
there was with them. 

NEXT day natives were seen passing along the beach. The 
Captain, with the boats, went to look at them, with the 
desire to take some of them and send them back clothed 
and kindly treated, so that in this and other ways friend- 
ship might be established. He did all he could to induce 
them to get into the boats. They did the same to get us 
to land. As we would not, they flung certain fruits into 
the water, which were collected by us, and we went back to 
the ships. 

The day after, the Captain ordered the Admiral to go on 
shore with a party of soldiers, and try by all possible 
means to catch some natives, so as to establish peace and 
friendship, based on the good work we intended to do for 
them. The party ran the boat high up on the beach, and 
quickly formed in a squadron, for the natives were coming, 
and it was not known with what object. Being near, they 
made signs and spoke, but were not understood. Our 
people called to them in return. Then the natives drew a 
line on the ground, and seemed to say that we were not to 
pass beyond it. I understand that there was no one who 
could make himself intelligible ; and it is a great evil, on 
such occasions, when there is a want of zeal or of manage- 
ment. Natives were seen in the woods, and to frighten 
them some muskets were fired into the air. A soldier who 
had lost patience, or who had forgotten his orders, fired low 
and killed a native. The others, with loud cries, fled. A Moor 
who was the drummer, cut off the head and one foot of the 
dead, and hung the body on the branch of a tree, without 
being seen to do it by those on the beach. It then hap- 



CONFLICT WITH NATIVES. 243 

pened that three native chiefs came to where our people 
were, who, instead of showing them kindness and bringing 
them on board, showed them their comrade without a head 
and running blood, pretending that this cruelty was a 
means of making peace. The chiefs, showing great sorrow, 
went back to where their people were, and shortly after- 
wards sounded their instruments with great force and noise, 
which was heard among the trees. Then from many direc- 
tions they began shooting arrows and darts, and throwing 
stones, while our people fired on them, turning on one side 
or the other. 

The Captain saw all this from the ship where he was, 
with great regret to find peace turned into war. It appeared 
to him best to land more men in the direction taken by a 
number of natives, who were trying to surround our 
people. The supporting party got into such conflict with 
the enemy that the Captain was obliged to fire two pieces. 
The balls, tearing branches off the trees, passed over the 
natives ; but with this, and the resistance made by our 
soldiers, the enemy retired. 

At the same time, the natives who were on the beach 
moved forward, brandishing their clubs, and with arrows 
fitted to their bows and darts poised to throw, menacing 
with loud shouts. Then a tall old native advanced, making 
a sound on a shell with great force. He seemed to be the 
same chief who had spoken to our soldiers, and I believe 
he said that they would defend their country against those 
who came to it, killing their inhabitants. Eight of our 
musketeers were in ambush, and one of them unfortunately, 
as he afterwards stated, killed this chief; and presently 
the rest desisted. Three or four raised their dead on their 
shoulders with great celerity, and went inland, leaving 
the neighbouring villages deserted. Such was the end 
of the peace that the Captain hoped for and sought for, 
as the means of discovering the grandeur of the land, 

R 2 



244 REASONS FOR NOMINATING A MINISTRY. 

and all that was contained in it ; and such was the 
intention that the Captain had, but which was but a 
sound. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Relates the causes which led the Captain to create a ministry of 
war, and the names of the officers. 

THE Lord having been served that the Captain should 
find anchorage for his ships in so long sought-for, so 
good, and so necessary a port, seeing the excellence of 
the land which surrounded it, the necessity there was to 
take possession in the name of His Majesty, feeling the 
contest in his mind that his desires should be fulfilled, that 
there should be full security for celebrating the divine 
offices, and that for this and the rest that had been done 
here there was manifest risk, for the natives with their 
arms, from the woods and the beaches, continually attacked, 
so that we could not seek for wood, water, or provisions, or 
fell timber for the ship's use to make certain bulk-heads for 
storing and arranging the cargo ; seeing, also, how much 
it imported that the roads should be guarded by escorts, 
and that there should be ambuscades to alarm the enemy 
and secure our safety ; knowing further that for the royal 
authority, the better establishment of the work, the 
discipline of the people, the union of all their wills, and 
for other hidden reasons, and for them altogether, it was 
very necessary and obligatory to create a ministry of war 
and marine, so that by land and sea there might be 
established such order that what was desired might be the 
better secured ; and that it may not be a cost of His 
Majesty, and be the means of giving satisfaction, and of 
making a foundation, and they themselves having peti- 
tioned for it, he named 



NAMES OF THE MINISTRY. 245 

To act as Admiral . . PEDRO BERNAL CERMENO. 

Master of the Camp . . Luis VAEZ DE TORRES. 

Royal Ensign . . LUCAS DE QuiROS. 

Captain and Sergeant-Major PEDRO LOPEZ DE Sojo. 

His Ensign . PEDRO DE CASTRO. 

His Sergeant . FRANCISCO MARTIN TOSCANO. 

His Aide-de-Camp FRANCISCO DAVILA. 
Captain of the crew of the 

"Almiranta" . . ALONSO ALVAREZ DE CASTRO. 

His Ensign . MANUEL RODRIGUEZ AFRICANO. 

His Sergeant . DOMINGO ANDRES. 

Captain of the Launch . PEDRO GARCIA DA LUMBRERAS. 

His Ensign . FRANCISCO GALLARDO. 

His Sergeant . ANTONIO GONZALEZ. 

Captain of the Artillery . ANDRES PEREZ CORONADO. 

Constables of the three Vessels FRANCISCO PONCE. 

LAZARO DE OLIVERA. 
ANTONIO BALALAN. 

Chief Pilot . . . CASPAR GONZALEZ DE LEZA. 

Assistant Pilot . . FRANCISCO FERNANDEZ. 

These elections having been made, presently the Camp 
Master asked the Captain to leave him to sleep on shore 
with the people. The Captain never wished to consent, 
because they should not sleep on the ground, and because 
he did not wish for further licence with the natives, and 
to avoid danger, and for other reasons which they could 
understand. 

The Master of the Camp, with the Sergeant-Major, 
officers, and sailors, who were serving as soldiers, made 
such good progress on shore that by Friday, the eve of 
Pentecost, they finished all that had been arranged, with- 
out injury to any of our people. 

On the same afternoon the Captain assembled the 
people of all the vessels, and addressed them in the follow- 
ing manner : 

" His Majesty, the King, our Lord, was served by 
sending me, at the cost of his royal treasury, without 
giving me instructions or orders, nor other memoir what- 
ever, of what I was to do in these parts, nor did he restrict 



246 INSTITUTION OF AN ORDER 

my will as to what I was not to do ; therefore, in the 
name of the royal grandeur, I undertake what is best for 
His Majesty's better service, and greater honour. In 
fine, all is left to my charge ; and this mercy was so great, 
that it has made me his perpetual vassal and slave, and 
put upon me new obligations and cares to find how I can 
better serve and please His Majesty so long as my life 
lasts. For this 1 am of a mind, and determined to make a 
beginning of my honourable thought, some time planned 
and desired to be put into execution ; for the good work 
that it promises for God and for the King, for the 
strengthening of your resolves, for giving firmness and hope, 
which are the qualities needed to achieve great and famous 
deeds, the more when the honour and the reward are to be 
seen and palpable : which are two things so sought after 
and loved in this present life, and the want of which causes 
what happens to be evil. 

" The present subject to be announced to you, gentlemen, 
is that of an Order, the title of which is to be the ' Knights 
of the Holy Ghost,' with the constitutions and precepts to 
be kept and professed, guided by such lofty and Christian 
ends as will be seen in them when the Lord is served, as I 
shall be able to show. All is done in confidence that His 
Holiness and His Majesty, each of those two Lords as 
regards what concerns them, will be served in payment of 
my continual labours and good desires, by confirming this 
Order, with advantageous privileges, as long as the world 
endures : as well for the good that it secures as for the 
merits of vassals so honourable and so loyal, as is shown by 
the numerous services they perform, and will continue to 
perform, in these parts. 

" For all I have said and can say on this subject, I seek 
from all the consent of their free wills, 'in the names of the 
Most Holy Trinity, in the name of the Roman Pontiff, in 
the name of His Catholic Majesty the King, Don Philip, 



OF KNIGHTHOOD BY QUIROS. 247 

third of that name, King of Spain, and my Lord ; and I, 
the Captain Don Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, give to each 
one of your mercies this cross, of a blue colour, which 
presently you are to place on your breasts, being the 
insignia by which the Knights of the Order of the Holy 
Ghost are to be known ; and for the persons in whose charge, 
if I should fail, is to be placed the discovery, pacification, 
and possession of all these parts that we are discovering 
and may discover in the time to come. 

" I pray heartily that the Knights may know and esteem 
the value of this cross, gained with a determination to win 
much higher honours ; and they must bear in mind that, 
though it has not cost much money, labour, sickness, nor 
time, that which it remains in their power to pay in this 
very high enterprise is very great, for it is now known 
that the enterprise holds a world for its heaven and its 
earth. 

" Pray to God, gentlemen, that it may serve Him to 
show me greater lands and other things ; for greater are 
my desires that the King our Lord may deign to grant to 
all still greater favours. Here I, in his royal name, offer to 
raise you to higher offices and dignities. I charge you all 
to be, as it were, members of one body ; and I announce to 
you that from this day forward your obligations will be 
greater, and the rewards or punishments greater which are 
merited for good or for bad deeds." 

All this was listened to with much pleasure and accepted 
with satisfaction. The Captain asked them all to confess 
on Saturday, that on Sunday, the day of Pentecost, they 
might earn the Holy Jubilee which His Holiness had con- 
ceded to this expedition, and five other days in each year. 
Presently the Father Commissary persuaded all, and with 
his three priests he offered to confess, and all confessed. 



248 THE FIRST CHURCH. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Describes the celebration of the feast of the eve and the day of 
Pentecost, and the taking possession in the names of the Catholic 
Church, and of His Majesty. 

ON that night all three vessels displayed many lights, and 
they sent off many rockets and fire-wheels. All the artil- 
lery was fired off; and when the natives heard the noise 
and the echoes resounding over hills and valleys, they raised 
great shouts. We sounded drums, rang the bells, had 
music and dancing, and had other forms of rejoicing, in 
which the men showed great pleasure. The Captain said 
to all : " Gentlemen, this is the eve of my long-desired day, 
for which there should be no empty hand nor person for 
whom the appointed good things are not welcome, and as 
much more as the part he takes may deserve." 

It was not quite dawn when the Camp Master and minis- 
ters, taking with them an armed party in the two boats, went 
on shore. They landed near the launch with four small 
pieces to be used in a fort. Presently, with joyous diligence 
a booth made of branches was set up on the beach, sur- 
rounded by stakes, to serve as a fort in case of necessity. 
Within, the monks arranged a clean and well-ordered altar 
under a canopy. This was the first church, and was named 
by the Captain " Our Lady of Loreto." Everything having 
been arranged as well as the time would allow, it was 
reported to the Captain, and presently he left the ship with 
the rest of the people. All the three companies were drawn 
up in good order on the beach. The officers and soldiers 
looked so active and honourable, with the crosses on their 
breasts, that I believe, if His Majesty could see them, with 
such sharpened resolves to finish what they had com- 
menced, and to begin much greater things, that he would 



RAISING THE CROSS. 249 

estimate their value at what it was worth, and increase his 
bounties. 

The Royal Ensign came forth with the standard in his 
hands. The banners, which were fluttering and brightening 
the whole scene, received their tribute from discharges of 
muskets and arquebuses. Presently the Captain came out 
and went down on his knees, saying : " To God alone be 
the honour and the glory." Then, putting his hand on the 
ground, he kissed it, and said : " O Land ! sought for so 
long, intended to be found by many, and so desired 
by me ! " 

Then the Admiral came out with a cross made of the 
orange wood of the country, which the Captain had caused 
to be made. Our Father Commissary, with his five monks, 
all bare-footed, kneeling on the beach, received it in their 
arms, saying with great tenderness : " I adore thee, O Holy 
Cross, for the Author of our life, made flesh, died on thee 
for -me, so great a sinner, and for the whole human race." 
Raising it and singing the " Lignum" with the people in 
procession, we arrived at the door of the church ; and there, 
on a pedestal which had been placed for the purpose, the 
Captain planted our cross, and ordered that the people 
should come round, and that the secretary should read, as 
in a loud voice he did read, the following documents : 

Raising of the Cross. 

Be witnesses the heavens and the earth, and the sea with all 
its inhabitants, and those who are present, that I, the Captain 
Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, in these parts which up to the 
present time have been unknown, raise and plant in the name of 
Jesus Christ, Son of the eternal Father, and of the Holy Virgin 
Mary, true God and man, this sign of the Holy Cross, on which 
His most holy body was crucified, and where He gave His life as 
a ransom for the whole human race. 

In the same place, and at the same time, the six follow- 
ing possessions were read, which our people heard with joy 
and gladness, the eyes of many filling with tears. 



250 ACTS OF POSSESSION. 

Possession in the name of the most Holy Trinity. 

In these parts of the South, until now unknown, where I am, 
and have come with authority from the Supreme Roman Pontiff, 
Clement VIII., and by order of the King, Don Philip III., King 
of Spain, despatched by his Council of State, I, Captain Pedro 
Fernandez de Quiros, in the name of the most Holy Trinity, take 
possession of all the islands and lands that I have newly discovered, 
and desire to discover, as far as the South Pole. 

Possession in the name of the Catholic Church. 

I take possession of all these, the said lands, in the name of 
Jesus Christ, saviour of all men, how unknown soever they may 
be, and in the name of His mother the most Holy Virgin Mother 
of Loreto, and in the name of St. Peter and St. Paul, and of all 
the holy apostles and disciples, and in the name of the universal 
Vicar of Christ, the Roman Pontiff, and in the name of the 
whole Catholic Church, and of all those pious, just, and holy 
things that have a right in such possession ; which I do with joy 
and to the end that to all the natives, in all the said lands, 
the holy and sacred evangel may be preached zealously and 
openly. 

Possession in the name of St. Francis and his Order. 

I take possession of all the said lands in the name of my father, 
St. Francis, and of all his religion and professors of it, and 
being present, in the name of the Father Commissary, Friar 
Martin de Monilla, Friar Mateo de Vascones, Friar Antonio 
Quintero, and Friar Juan de Mario, all four priests ; and in the 
names of Fray Juan de Santa Maria and Fray Francisco Lopez, 
both lay brethren, come here, all six, at my request by order of 
His Holiness and of His Majesty, and of their Commissary 
General and Provincial of the province of the Twelve Apostles of 
Peru ; from whose order I desire that all the workers sent to tend 
this vineyard may come, and the labourers who have to show His 
holy word and doctrine, and to gather in the fruits. 

Possession in the name of John of God and his Order. 

I take possession of all the said lands in the name of John of 
God, and of all the professed brothers of his Order, and, being 
present, in the name of Lazaro de Santa Maria, who came here in 
compliance with a brief of His Holiness, given to me for that end, 
that the same Brotherhood might found, administer, and maintain 
by their professed charity all the hospitals there may be in those 
parts, so necessary that the natives may learn all our methods, and 
hold us in the love and veneration which the sight of our curing 
the native sick, and giving them other benefits, deserve. 



ACTS OF POSSESSION. 251 

Possession in the name of the Order of the Holy Ghost. 

I take possession of all these lands, by the right that His Holi- 
ness and His Majesty granted, to make just divisions of the lands 
and of the people on them ; for all the Knights that are in these 
parts of the Order of the Holy Ghost as discoverers, settlers, de- 
fenders, and preservers, and no other, obliged without pay to 
serve in all the royal and public employments, with every human 
and divine office as regards the natives as their defenders, and with 
profession of all the rest that is in their constitution. 

Possession in the name of His Majesty. 

Finally, I take possession of this bay, named the Bay of St. 
Philip and St. James, and of its port named Santa Cruz, and of 
the site on which is to be founded the city of New Jerusalem, in 
latitude 15 10', and of all the lands which I sighted and am going 
to sight, and of all this region of the south as far as the Pole, 
which from this time shall be called Australia del Espiritu Santo, 
with all its dependencies and belongings ; and this for ever, and so 
long as right exists, in the name of the King, Don Philip, third of 
that name King of Spain, and of the eastern and western Indies, 
my King and natural Lord, whose is the cost and expense of this 
fleet, and from whose will and power came its mission, with the 
government, spiritual and temporal, of these lands and people, in 
whose royal name are displayed there his three banners, and I 
hereby hoist his royal standard. 

The reading being finished, all cried with loud voices : 
" Long live the King of Spain, Don Philip III., our Lord ! " 
Then we entered the church to give due thanks to God. 

They said three Masses, and the fourth, which was sung, 
was by our Father Commissary. All the people took the 
sacrament very fervently. This done, the three Ensigns, 
who now held the banners in their hands, inclined them 
to the ground in front of the altar, the Royal Ensign 
holding the royal standard. The Commissary blessed 
them with great solemnity ; and, at a certain signal 
that was given to the ships, whose mast-head banners dis- 
played the royal arms, and at the sides the two columns 
and the plus ultra, with the streamers fluttering, fired off all 
their guns with full charges ; the soldiers discharged 
muskets and arquebuses, and the gunners sent off rockets 



252 THE LATE CHIEF PILOT. 

and fire-wheels. In the middle of all this noise, all shouted 
with almost infinite joy, and many times : " Long live the 
Faith of Christ ! " And with this the celebration of the 
festival came to an end. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

What passed between the Captain and the late Chief Pilot, and 
certain persons who spoke for and against ; and how freedom 
was given to two slaves. 

PRESENTLY the former Chief Pilot prayed the Captain, 
with exaggerated supplication, to pardon him. The Captain 
enquired of him for what he asked pardon : for if he referred 
to things that affected him, he might be certain that, with- 
out having to ask for pardon, he would be pardoned ; but 
if the pardon was asked for things connected with the royal 
service, he must tell him what was well known, that his 
treatment was reasonable and just. The Chief Pilot replied 
to this by swearing, with great demonstrations of innocence, 
that he had neither offended the King nor the Captain in 
anything, nor had desired to give offence. According to 
him, I am the person who ought to ask for pardon. 

Then a certain monk took the Captain aside, and said 
that the Chief Pilot was very obliged and grateful, and that 
from this time forward he would work marvels in all 
things ; and that he was already doing so, as the monk 
could witness. The Captain answered that he left that to 
God, who knew the most secret intentions and could not 
be deceived ; and that for himself, he looked to have treated 
the Chief Pilot in quite a different manner, having entrusted 
to him business which included good things and likewise 
his honour ; and that although it was very early, his 
recent acts having shown that neither his word nor his 



FREEDOM FOR TWO SLAVES. 253 

offers were to be trusted, the fact of his having done so 
much good to anyone made it unprofitable that he should 
remain under punishment. 

Other persons had given evidence to the Captain against 
the Chief Pilot, and to all he answered that before God he 
could justify his acts in giving information, pardoning, or 
giving hope. When such means were of no avail, he held 
the rod in his hands, giving such blows as the culprit 
deserved ; and that he had kept the Chief Pilot a prisoner, 
considering that to be a punishment which would be 
sufficient. 

Freedom given to two slaves. 

The Captain asked an officer named Alonso Alvarez de 
Castro, and Juan Bernardo de Fuentiduena, Pilot of the 
Almiranta, that they would give as they did give with 
very good will, by reason of pious motives and of the honour 
of the festival of that day freedom to a slave which each 
of them possessed, for which purpose they drew up letters. 
This being done, we went to dine under the shade of great 
tufted trees near a clear running stream, the corps de garde 
being alert and the sentries posted. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

The election of a municipality and of magistrates, names of the 
persons elected, and what else happened until the crews 
embarked. 

HAVING had his siesta, the Captain assembled the Master 
of the Camp, Admiral, Royal Ensign, Sergeant-Major, and 
Captains, and said to them that, possession having been 
taken of that land, and the city having received the name 
of the New Jerusalem, with their concurrence, he would 
elect a municipality and such officers as is usual in a city 



254 



MUNICIPALITY FOR THE NEW CITY. 



that was the capital of a province. As they expressed 
their concurrence, it was agreed among all that the elec- 
tions should be made in the manner following : 



Magistrates 



Secretary to the Munici- 
pality 
Justices of the Peace 

Chief Constable . 
Royal Officers : 

Accountant . 

Treasurer . 

Factor 

Registrar of Mines . 

Store-keeper General 

Overseer 



Don DIEGO BARRANTES Y MALDONADO. 

Luis DE BELMONTE BERMUDEZ. 

The Licentiate ALONZO SANCHEZ DE 

ARANDA. 

The Captain MANUEL NOBLE. 
FRANCISCO DE MEDINA. 
FRANCISCO DE MENDOZA v SARMIENTO. 
FRANCISCO DE ZANDATEGUI. 
ANTONIO FRANCISCO CAMINA. 
JUAN ORTIZ. 

ALONSO PEREZ DE MEDINA. 
JUAN GALLARDO DE LOS REYES. 
PEDRO CARRASCO. 
GIL GONZALEZ. 

SANTIAGO DE IRIARTE. 

Don ALONZO DE SOTOMAYOR. 

Captain RoDRico MEJIA DE LA CHICA. 

Captain CASPAR DE GAZA. 

Don JUAN DE ITURBE. 

Don JUAN DE LA PENA. 

JUAN BERNARDO DE FUENTIDUENA. 

Don ANTONIO DE CHAVES. 

Don DIEGO DE PRADO Y TovAR. 1 

Don JUAN DE ESPINOSA Y ZAYAS. 1 



As soon as the elections were completed, all the officials 
took the oath, placing the right hand on a breviary, which 
the Father Commissary held ; swearing that they would 
be loyal to His Majesty, in whose name the different 
offices had been given to them ; and with this the pro- 
ceedings terminated. 

Afterwards, the municipal officers formed in order, and 
accompanied by the rest of the people, went to the church. 
Within was the Father Commissary, who, pointing to the 



1 Not in Leza's list. 



EXPEDITIONS INTO THE INTERIOR. 255 

upraised cross, said, " Here, gentlemen, you have the Holy 
Cross, the semblance of that which, by the mercy of God, 
secured all our remedy and all our good ;" but such were 
the tears he shed that he could not proceed. 

The Captain embarked, taking with him the same cross, 
the standard and banners ; and, on arriving on board, he 
ordered that block on the yard-arm to be taken down, 
where it had been placed to punish crimes. For the Captain 
could not believe that persons with such an honourable 
destiny would do things the punishment of which would 
be the rope. The Captain ordered the Master of the Camp 
to take an armed party, and penetrate further into the 
interior than he had done before. They saw more and 
better farms and villages than before, and at one village 
they found the natives much occupied with their dances. 
When they saw us they began a flight to the mountains, 
leaving strewn about as they fled, bows, arrows, and darts. 
Our people found two roast pigs, and all their other food, 
which they ate at their ease. They carried off twelve live 
pigs, eight hens and chickens, and they saw a tree which 
astonished them, for its trunk could not have been encircled 
by fifteen or twenty men ; so they returned to the ships. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

Relates how they sowed some land ; the entry into a valley ; capture 
of three boys, and what happened with the natives. 

THE Captain, on the last day of Easter, taking with him 
such an escort as seemed necessary, went to an adjacent 
farm of the natives and sowed a quantity of maize, cotton, 
onions, melons, pumpkins, beans, pulse, and other seeds of 
our country ; and returned to the ships laden with many 
roots and fish caught on the beach. 



256 THE RETREAT HARASSED. 

Next day the Captain sent the Master of the Camp, with 
thirty soldiers, to reconnoitre a certain height, where they 
found a large and pleasant valley, with villages. When the 
inhabitants saw us coming, many assembled together in 
arms. We caught there three boys, the oldest being about 
seven years of age, and twenty pigs.* With these we began 
a retreat, and the natives, with vigour and bravery, attacked 
our vanguard, centre, and rearguard, shooting many arrows. 
The chiefs came out to the encounter, and by their charges 
forced us to lose the ground we were gaining. Arrived at 
a certain pass, our people found the rocks occupied by 
many natives, who were animated by the desire to do as 
much harm as possible. Here was the hardest fight, their 
arrows and stones hurled down from the heights, causing 
great danger to our men. W T hen the Captain heard the 
noise of the muskets and the shouting, he ordered three 
guns to be fired off, to frighten the natives and encourage 
our people ; and the better to effect this at the port, those 
in the ships and on the beach were sent to support the 
retreating party in great haste. The forces having united, 
they came to the ships, saving the spoils, and all well. 

There was a certain person, who said in a loud voice : 
" Thirty pigs would be better eating than three boys." The 
Captain heard this, and said, with much feeling, that he 
would rather have one of those children than the whole world 
besides. He made a speech on the subject, concluding with 
the following words : " I give the blame to my sins, and to 
those alone. And how much better would it be for the 
person who spoke such nonsense if he had given praises 
to God, who, in a way so strange and unthought-of, saved 
these three souls a thing which we must believe to have 
been predestined ? " For this speech there was some ill- 
feeling on the part of the man who had spoken, and more 
from his friends. 

The natives, on the following day, having other ambus- 



ASCENT OF THE RIVER. 257 

cades, came to attack our watering party, who armed 
themselves in great haste. The natives shot off their arrows, 
and our people fired their muskets. The natives then fled, 
shouting as they went, leaving marks of the harm done 
them by the balls. 

It seems that the natives, in their rage that they could 
not revenge themselves on us, came to destroy the church. 
The Captain hurriedly sent off an armed party in the two 
boats to prevent them. When the natives saw this, they 
slowly retreated. Their object appeared to have been to 
draw our men away, to lead them to where many other 
natives were concealed ; for we afterwards saw them go 
away, crossing the river of Salvador. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

How the launch went to examine the mouth of the great river, and 
what else happened with reference to excursions inland. 

THE Master of the Camp was sent to examine the mouth 
of the river, which is in the middle of the bay, with the 
launch, a boat, and a party of men. He tried the depth of 
the river mouth, and found that there was no bottom, with 
the length of an oar and his own arm. He went further 
up in the boat, and the view of the river gave much plea- 
sure to those who were with him, as well for its size and the 
clearness of the water, as for its gentle current and the 
beauty of the trees on its banks. 

The launch passed further up, and our people landed on 
the bank and went inland. They found a small village of 
four streets, and an open space at the most elevated part 
All round there were many farms, surrounded by palings. 
Two spies were posted, who warned the natives, and they 
all fled. Our people found in their houses several kinds of 

S 



258 FESTIVAL OF CORPUS CHRISTI. 

fish, roasted and wrapped in plantain leaves, and a quantity 
of raw mussel-shells in baskets, as well as fruits and flowers 
hung on poles. Near there was a burial-place. They also 
found a flute,, and certain small things worked out of 
pieces of marble and jasper. As they heard drums and 
shells, and a great murmuring noise, understanding that 
it came from a large number of people, they retreated, 
followed by the natives, who did not dare to attack them. 
Finally, they got to the launch in peace, and returned to 
the ships. 

On many other occasions our people went to fish and to 
seek for things very necessary for the requirements of the 
ships, returning well content with the excellence of the 
land. Encounters with the natives were not wanting, and 
I believe they killed some natives, although they denied 
it to me. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Describes the festival of Corpus Christi, and the procession 
they made. 

ALL the carpentering work was finished by the 2Oth of 
May. On that day the Captain gave orders to the Master 
of the Camp to go on shore with a hundred soldiers, and to 
collect things to adorn our church of Loreto, and to make 
streets round it, so that on the next day, which was that of 
Corpus Christi, we might there celebrate its festival with all 
the force we could muster. In the night, the eve of the 
festival was celebrated on board. 

Before daybreak our people went on shore, and formed 
an escort for our six monks, who got everything ready 
that was required. When all was ready, the Captain was 
informed, who presently got into the boat, leaving two men 



FESTIVAL OF CORPUS CHRISTI. 259 

on board each ship, and taking all the rest with him. On 
reaching the shore, they all jumped out and went to the 
church. Its door was to the north, bravely decorated with 
things of the country, the roof and part of the body of the 
church being covered with green branches ; and there was a 
very curious altar under a canopy, with a service of silver- 
For an altar-piece there was a painted Christ crucified, on 
a great cloth, with four candles at the sides, and incense- 
sticks burning. 

Having said his prayers, the Captain went out to see 
the place. At the commencement there were three high 
triumphal arches, enlaced with palms, shoots, and flowers, 
while the ground was also strewn with flowers. The streets 
were formed with many trees, those within forming a 
cloister; and here were planted divers branches and 
herbs to look like a garden. At two angles, under two 
other arches, were placed two altars with their canopies, 
and the images of St. Peter and St. Paul ; while its author, 
the Brother of the Order of John of God, on his knees at 
one side, was saying his prayers. 

The day was clear and serene, and as the sun rose over 
the crowns of the trees, its rays entering through the 
branches, the difference in the fruits of each plant was 
shown in great profusion. Here, too, could be heard the 
persistence with which the birds sang and chaunted ; the 
leaves and branches were seen to move gently, and the 
whole place was agreeable, fresh, shady, with a gentle air 
moving, and the sea smooth. 

Presently returning to the church, two Masses were said. 
A third was said by the Father Commissary, and the pro- 
cession was then ordered in the following manner : A 
soldier went first, carrying in his hands the heavy cross of 
orange wood. Next came a lay brother, with another gilt 
cross from the sacristy, with the bag raised on a lance, and 
on each side two acolytes, with candlesticks and red 

S 2 



260 FESTIVAL OF CORPUS CHRISTI. 

cassocks, and all those in surplices. Then followed the 
three companies in order, each one bearing its banner 
in the centre, with its drums sounding a march. There was 
a very picturesque sword-dance by eleven sailor lads, 
dressed in red and green silk, with bells on their feet. 
They danced with much dexterity and grace to the sound 
of a guitar, which was played by a respected old sailor. 
This was followed by another dance by eight boys, all 
dressed like Indians in shirts and breeches of silk, coloured 
brown, blue, and grey, with garlands on their heads, and 
white palms in their hands. Bands of bells were round 
their ankles, and they danced with very quiet countenances, 
at the same time singing their canticles to the sound of 
tambourines and flutes played by two musicians. 

Then followed the royal standard, accompanied by the 
Master of the Camp, the Sergeant-Major, and the Cap- 
tains. Then six Magistrates, each with a lighted torch in 
his hand. Then came the Father Commissary, whose pall 
of yellow silk, six yards long, was borne by three royal 
officers and three Magistrates. He carried in his hand a 
coffer of crimson velvet, with gilded nails, which contained 
the most blessed sacrament. Another lay brother incensed 
it. All the four priests marched joyfully, singing the hymn 
" Pangelinguar The Captain carried the royal standard 
as far as the door, where he delivered it to the Ensign, 
whose place was behind the pall, with the two Justices of 
the Peace and the Chief Constable. 

When the Lord now came forth from the door, all the 
bells rang, and the people, who were looking on attentively, 
fell on their knees ; the Ensigns lowered the banners three 
times, the drummers beat the drums for battle ; the soldiers, 
who had the cords ready, fired off the muskets and arque- 
buses ; the constables fired off the guns which were on 
shore for defending the port ; and in the ships the artillery- 
men fired off the bombards and pieces, and those placed in 



FESTIVAL OF CORPUS CHRISTI. 261 

the launch and boats for the occasion. Once more, and 
once again, they were discharged. When the smoke 
cleared away, there were seen amongst the green branches 
so many plumes of feathers and sashes, so many pikes, 
halberds, javelins, bright sword-blades, spears, lances, and 
on the breasts so many crosses, and so much gold, and so 
many colours and silken dresses, that many eyes could not 
contain what sprung from the heart, and they shed tears of 
joy. With this the procession returned, the church being 
guarded by four corps de garde. The dancers kept dancing 
to keep up the festival, and remained within ; and the 
Captain at the door said to them : " All the dresses you 
wear you can keep as your own, for they are from the royal 
treasury. I would that they were of the best and richest 
brocade." 

As a finish a fourth Mass was said, that it might be 
heard by the sentries who were posted to keep a look-out 
for any approach of the natives, though they were far off 
on the beach and on the hills. 

This done, the Captain ordered the bells to be rung in 
honour of those, in Lima, who had said that they would 
come to that land when they could have a passage. 

The native who was taken from Taumaco, and was after- 
wards named Pedro, went about dressed in silk with a cross 
on his breast, and bow and arrows, so astonished and 
pleased at all he saw, and at his cross, that he looked about 
and showed it, putting his hand on it, and named it many 
times. It is a thing worthy of note that the cross elevated 
the mind, even of a barbarian who did not know its 
significance. 

Having given the souls such sweet and delicious food, 
friends and comrades divided themselves off to the places 
dedicated to hearths and pots, where, with tables spread 
under the shade of tall and spreading trees, they gave 
themselves up to feeding their bodies. 



262 QUOTATION FROM THE "ARAUCANA." 

During the subsequent siesta there were dances, music, 
and pleasant conversation ; and he who said this was 
fortunate that day, as well as those who saw it all, for it 
was the first festival celebrated in honour of the most high 
Lord in these strange and unknown lands. As our force 
was small, and the natives numerous, it was considered by 
some to be an act of great audacity. I say that it was a 
great hit, and that it was done in full faith. 

There was one who said that this octave of Don Alonso 
de Ercilla seemed to foretell it, which one sincerely 
devoted to the expedition, by slight alterations, adapted 
to the present occasion as follows : 

Araucana. 1 

Behold where are hidden the lands, 
Scarce discerned by mortal ken, 
Those are regions still unknown, 
Never pressed by Christian men. 
This will ever be their fate, 
Want of knowledge keeps them there, 
Wrapt within a fleecy cloud, 
Until God shall lay them bare. 

Version of the friend of Quiros? 

Behold how we have found these lands, 
Now clearly seen by mortal ken, 
Those are regions now made known, 
Pressed by feet of Christian men. 
Unknown no longer is their fate, 
Now full knowledge points them there, 
No longer hid in fleecy clouds, 
God His secrets now lays bare. 

The Captain sent some of the people on board again, 
and marched inland with the rest to the sound of drums. 



1 " Araucana? por Don Alonso de Ercilla. Canto xxvn, 
octava 52. 

2 The "friend" is, of course, Belmonte Bermudez, the Secretary 
of Quiros. 



POISONOUS FISH. 263 

He saw what he had sown already sprouting, the farms, 
houses, fruit orchards ; and having walked for a league, 
he returned as it was getting late. When he came on 
board, he said that as these natives were at war with 
us, and there was not a chance on our side, we would 
leave the port next day to visit the lands to windward. 
The Admiral asked, in his name and those of the crew, 
that another day might be allowed for the people to catch 
fish. It happened that they fished in a certain place 
whence they brought to the ship a quantity of pargos, 
which are considered poisonous, like those in Havana and 
other ports. As many as ate them were attacked by nausea, 
vomiting, and feverish symptoms. 1 

This unexpected and sudden evil caused much grief to 
all, and there were not wanting opinions, nor the conclu- 
sion of one who said, that to get much it will cost some- 
thing, and that the sweet is mixed with the bitter. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Gives some account of this bay, and of all that is contained in it, 
and in its port. 

THIS bay, to which the Captain gave the name of St. 
Philip and St. James, because it was discovered on their 
day, is 1,700 leagues from Lima, from Acapulco 1,300, 

1 Captain Cook relates that his people caught two reddish fish with 
hook and line in Port Sandwich, Malicolo Island (one of the New 
Hebrides), on July 24th, 1774. The fish were about the size of a large 
bream. Most of the officers, and some of the petty officers, dined on them 
the next day. The following night, every one who had eaten of them 
was seized with violent pains in the head and bones, attended with a 
scorching heat all over the skin, and numbness in the joints. The 
pigs and dogs who had partaken of the fish were also taken ill, and 
two died. It was a week or ten days before all the officers recovered. 
In mentioning this, Cook refers to the similar experience of Quiros 
and his crew, as described by Dalrymple, vol. i, p. 140. Cook's Second 
Voyage, vol. ii, p. 39. 



264 DESCRIPTION OF THE BAY 

from Manilla in the Philippines 1,100 leagues. Its entrance 
is to the N.W. in 15 S., and the port is in 15 10' S. 
The bay has a circuit of 20 leagues, at the entrance 4 
leagues across. The variation of the compass is 7 N.E. 

The land which forms the bay runs directly N. on the 
E. side, with sloping heights and peopled valleys well 
covered with trees. This side ends at the mouth of the 
bay with a height rising to a peak, and the coast runs E. 
and then S.E., but we could not see how it ends. 

The other land to the W. runs nearly N.W., and to the 
point is 1 1 leagues in length, consisting of a range of 
hills of moderate height, which the sun bathes when it 
rises, and where there are patches without trees, covered 
with dried-up grass. Here are ravines and streams, some 
falling from the heights to the skirts of the hills, where 
many palm groves and villages were seen. From the 
point on this side the coast turns to the W. 

The front of the bay, which is to the S., is 3 leagues 
long, and forms a beach. In the middle there is a 
river which was judged to be the size of the Guadalquivir 
at Seville. At its mouth the depth is 2 and more 
fathoms ; so that boats and even frigates could enter. It 
received the name of the " Jordan." On its right is seen 
the Southern Cross in the heavens, which makes the spot 
noteworthy. 

To the eastward, at the corner of this bay, there is 
another moderate-sized river called " Salvador," into which 
the boats entered at their pleasure to get water. The 
waters of both rivers are sweet, pleasant, and fresh. The 
one is distant from the other a league and a half, con- 
sisting of a beach of black gravel, with small heavy stones, 
excellent for ballast for a ship. 

Between the said two rivers is the port. The bottom is 
clean, consisting of black sand, and here a great number of 
ships would have room up to 40 \ brazas. It is not known 



OF ST. PHILIP AND ST. JAMES. 265 

whether there are worms. As the beach is not bare 
nor driven up, and the herbs are green near the water, 
it was assumed that it was not beaten by the seas ; and as 
the trees are straight and their branches unbroken, it was 
judged that there are no great storms. The port was named 
" Vera Cruz," because we anchored there on that day. 

In the whole bay we did not see a bank, rock, or reef; 
but it is so deep that there is no anchorage except at the 
above port. It is better to approach near the river Sal- 
vador, and there is another moderate port which is distant 
2 leagues from this on the N. to S. coast. 

All the said beach is bordered by a dense mass of great 
trees, with paths leading from them to the shore. It 
seemed to serve as a wall, the better to carry on defen- 
sive or offensive operations against other natives coming to 
make war. All the rest is a level plain, with hills on either 
side. These on the W. side run southward, becoming more 
elevated and more massive as their distance increases. As 
for the plain, we have not seen where it ends. The earth 
is black, rich, and in large particles. It is cleared of wild 
trees to make room for fruit trees, crops, and gardens 
surrounded by railings. There are many houses scattered 
about ; and wherever a view could be obtained, many fires 
and columns of smoke were discerned, witnesses of a large 
population. 

The natives generally seen here are corpulent, not quite 
black nor mulatto. Their hair is frizzled. They have 
good eyes. They cover their parts with certain cloths they 
weave. They are clean, fond of festivities and dancing to 
the sound of flute and drums made of a hollow piece of 
wood. They use shells also for musical instruments, and in 
their dances make great shouting at the advances, balances, 
and retreats. They were not known to use the herb. 1 

1 He means betel. See p. 51. 



266 PRODUCTS OF THE BAY 

Their arms are heavy wooden clubs, and bows of the 
same, arrows of reed with wooden points, hardened in the 
fire, darts with pieces of bone enclosed. 

Their interments are covered. We saw some enclosed 
with their oratories and figures, to which they make offer- 
ings. It is, to all appearance, a people courageous and 
sociable, but without care for the ills of their neighbours ; 
for they saw some fighting with us without coming to help 
them. 

The houses are of wood, covered with palm leaves, with 
two sloping sides to the roof, and with a certain kind of 
outhouse, where they keep their food. All their things are 
kept very clean. They also have flower-pots with small 
trees of an unknown kind. The leaves are very soft, and 
of a yellow-reddish colour. 

The bread they use is mainly of roots, whose young 
shoots climb on poles, which are put near them for that 
purpose. The rind is grey, the pulp murrey colour, yellow, 
or reddish ; some much larger than others. There are 
some a yard and a-half in thickness, also two kinds : one 
almost round, and the size of two fists, more or less. 
Their taste resembles the potatoes of Peru. The inside of 
the other root is white, its form and size that of a cob of 
maize when stripped. All three kinds have a pulp without 
fibres, loose, soft, and pleasant to the taste. These roots 
are bread made without trouble, there being nothing to do 
but to take them out of the earth, and eat them, roast or 
boiled. They are very good cooked in pots. Our people 
ate a great deal ; and, being of a pleasant taste and satisfy- 
ing, they left off the ship's biscuit for them. These roots 
last so long without getting bad, that on reaching Acapulco 
those that were left were quite good. 

Their meat consists of a great quantity of tame pigs, 
some reddish, others black, white, or speckled. We saw 
tusks \\palmos in length, and a porker was killed weighing 



OF ST. PHILIP AND ST. JAMES. 267 

2oolbs. The natives roast them on hearths, wrapped up 
in plantain leaves. It is a clean way, which gives the meat 
a good colour, and none of the substance is lost. 

There are many fowls like those of Europe. They use 
capons. There are many wild pigeons, doves, ducks, and 
birds like partridges, with very fine plumage. One was 
found in a lasso, with which the natives catch them. There 
are many swallows ; we saw a macaw and flocks of paro- 
quets ; and we heard, when on board at early dawn, a 
sweet harmony from thousands of different birds, appa- 
rently buntings, blackbirds, nightingales, and others. The 
mornings and afternoons were enjoyable from the pleasant 
odours emitted from trees and many kinds of flowers, 
together with the sweet basil. A bee was also seen, and 
harvest flies were heard buzzing. 

The fish are skate, sole, pollack, red mullet, shad, eels, 
pargets^ sardines, and others ; for which natives fish with a 
three-pronged dart, with thread of a fibrous plant, with nets 
in a bow shape, and at night with a light. Our people 
fished with hooks and with nets, for the most part. In 
swampy parts of the beach shrimps and mussels were 
seen. 

Their fruits are large, and they have many cocoa-nuts, 
so that they were not understood to put much store by 
them. But from these palms they make wine, vinegar, 
honey, and whey to give to the sick. They eat the 
small palms raw and cooked. The cocoa-nuts, when green, 
serve as cardos 1 and for cream. Ripe, they are nourishment 
as food and drink by land and sea. When old, they yield 
oil for lighting, and a curative balsam. The shells are 
good for cups and bottles. The fibres furnish tow for 
caulking a ship ; and to make cables, ropes, and ordinary 
string, the best for an arquebus. Of the leaves they make 

1 Thistles ; teazel. 



268 PRODUCTS OF THE BAY 

sails for their canoes, and fine mats, with which they cover 
their houses, built with trunks of the trees, which are straight 
and high. From the wood they get planks, also lances 
and other weapons, and many things for ordinary use, all 
very durable. From the grease they get the galagala, used 
instead of tar. In fine, it is a tree without necessity for 
cultivation, and bearing all the year round. 

There are three kinds of plantains : one, the best I have 
seen, pleasant to smell, tender and sweet. 

There are many "obos" which is a fruit nearly the size 
and taste of a peach, on whose leaves may be reared silk- 
worms, as is done in other parts. 

There is a great abundance of a fruit which grows on 
tall trees, with large serrated leaves. They are the size of 
ordinary melons, their shape nearly round, the skin delicate, 
the surface crossed into four parts, the pulp between yellow 
and white, with seven or eight pips. When ripe it is very 
sweet ; when green, it is eaten boiled or roasted. It is 
much eaten, and is found wholesome. The natives use 
it as ordinary food. 

There are two kinds of almonds : one with as much 
kernel as four nuts lengthways, the other in the shape of a 
triangle. Its kernel is larger than three large ones of ours 
and of an excellent taste. 

There is a kind of nut, hard outside, and the inside in 
one piece without division, almost like a chestnut : the 
taste nearly the same as the nuts of Europe. 

Oranges grow without being planted. With some the 
rind is very thick, with others delicate. The natives do 
not eat them. Some of our people said there were lemons. 

There are many, and very large, sweet canes : red and 
green, very long, with jointed parts. Sugar might be made 
from them. 

Many and large trees, bearing a kind of nut, grew on 
the forest-covered slopes near the port. They brought these 



OF ST. PHILIP AND ST. JAMES. 269 

nuts on board as green as they were on the branches. 
Their leaves are not all green on one side, and on the other 
they turn to yellowish grey. Their length is &jeme? more 
or less, and in the widest part three fingers. The nut con- 
tains two skins, between which grows what they call mace 
like a small net. Its colour is orange. The nut is rather 
large, and there are those who say that this is the best kind. 
The natives make no use of it, and our people used to eat 
it green, and put it into the pots, and used the mace for 
saffron. 

On the beach a fruit was found like a pineapple. Pedro 
was asked if it was eaten, and he replied that only the bark 
was eaten of the tree which yielded that fruit. 

There were other fruits, like figs, filberts, and albaricoques, 
which were eaten. Others were seen, but it was not known 
what fruits they were, nor what others grew in that land. 
To give a complete account of them and of other things, 
it is necessary to be a year in the country, and to travel 
over much ground. 

As regards vegetables, I only knew of amaranth, purs- 
lane, and calabashes. 

The natives make from a black clay some very well- 
worked pots, large and small, as well as pans and por- 
ringers in the shape of small boats. It was supposed that 
they made some beverage, because in the pots and in 
cavities were found certain sour fruits. 

It appeared to us that we saw there quarries of good 
marble f I say good, because several things were seen that 
were made of it and of jasper. There were also seen ebony 
and large mother-o'-pearl shells ; also some moderate-sized 
looms. In one house a heap of heavy black stones was 
seen, which afterwards proved to be metal from whence 



1 The space between the end of the thumb and the end of the fore- 
er, both stre 
Coral cliffs. 



finger, both stretched out. 



2/O CLIMATE. 

silver could be extracted, as will be seen further on. Two 
of our people said they had seen the footprints of a large 
animal. 

The climate appeared to be very healthy, both from the 
vigour and size of the natives, as because none of our men 
became ill all the time we were there, nor felt any discom- 
fort, nor tired from work. They had not to keep from 
drinking while fasting, nor at unusual times, nor when 
sweating, nor from being wet with salt water or fresh, nor 
from eating whatever grew in the country, nor from being 
out in the evening under the moon, nor the sun, which was 
not very burning at noon, and at midnight we were glad of 
a blanket. The land is shown to be healthy, from the 
natives living in houses on terraces, and having so much 
wood, and because so many old people were seen. We 
heard few claps of thunder, and had little rain. As the 
rivers flowed with clear water, it was understood that the 
rains were over. 

It is to be noted that we had not seen cactus nor sandy 
wastes, nor were the trees thorny, while many of the wild 
trees yielded good fruit. It is also to be noted that we did 
not see snow on the mountains, nor were there any mos- 
quitos or ants in the land, which are very harmful, both in 
houses and fields. There were no poisonous lizards either 
in the woods or the cultivated ground, nor alligators in the 
rivers. Fish and flesh keep good for salting during two or 
more days. The land is so pleasant, so covered with trees ; 
there are so many kinds of birds, that, owing to this and 
other good signs, the climate may be considered to be 
clement, and that it preserves its natural order. Of what 
happens in the mountains we cannot speak until we have 
been there. 

As no very large canoes were seen, with so large a popu- 
lation, and such fine trees, but only some small ones, and 
the mountain ranges being so high to W. and E., and to 



PRAISE OF HIS DISCOVERY. 2/1 

the S., and the river Jordan being so large, with great 
trees torn up and brought down at its mouth, we came to 
the conclusion that the land must be extensive, and yielding 
abundantly ; and that consequently the people were indo- 
lent, and have no need to seek other lands. 

I am able to say, with good reason, that a land more 
delightful, healthy and fertile ; a site better supplied with 
quarries, timber, clay for tiles, bricks for founding a great city 
on the sea, with a port and a good river on a plain, with level 
lands near the hills, ridges, and ravines ; nor better adapted 
to raise plants and all that Europe and the Indies pro- 
duce, could not be found. No port could be found more 
agreeable, nor better supplied with all necessaries, without 
any drawbacks ; nor with such advantages for dockyards 
in which to build ships, nor forests more abundant in 
suitable timber good for futtock timbers, houses, compass 
timbers, beams, planks, masts and yards. Nor is there 
any other land that could sustain so many strangers so 
pleasantly, if what has been written is well considered. 
Nor does any other land have what this land has close 
by, at hand, and in sight of its port ; for quite near there 
are seven islands, with coasts extending for 200 leagues, 
apparently with the same advantages, and which have so 
many, and such good signs, that they may be sought for 
and found without shoals or other obstacles ; while nearly 
half-way there are other known islands, with inhabitants 
and ports where anchorages may be found. I have never 
seen, anywhere where I have been, nor have heard of such 
advantages. 

I take the port of Acapulco as an example, being well 
known as such a principal city of Mexico. I say that if it 
is good as an anchorage, it is very bad owing to the 
frequency of fogs, and the want of a river and of ballast ; 
also, from being unhealthy most of the year, and intoler- 
able from the heat and the mosquitos, and other molesting 



2/2 PRAISE OF HIS DISCOVERY. 

insects for the rest ; also for its inconvenient site near stony 
and dry hills, and because provisions have to come from a 
distance, and soon turn bad ; and finally, because it is 
dear, and ships have a bad time from the S.E. 

If we look from the Strait of Magellan along its two 
coasts, on one side to Cape Mendocino, on the other to 
Newfoundland, being- 7,000 or 8,000 leagues of coast, it 
will be found that, out of the ports that I have visited, that 
of San Juan de Ulloa does not merit the name of a port, 
nor its town to be inhabited by people ; that Panama and 
Puerto Bello have little and bad accommodation ; and that 
Payta, Callao, Havanna, Carthagena (the two latter being 
famous), La Guayra and Santa Martha, and many others, 
including those of Chile and Brazil, according to what I 
have been told, are wanting in many necessary things. Not 
one will be found which has all the advantages possessed 
by the port and land of which I treat. Being in 15, more 
good things may be expected than from places in 20, 30, 
and 40, if things turn out as they promise. I also say that 
if there is nothing better than what I have seen, it is suffi- 
cient for a principal place that may be settled. 

If we look round the coast of Spain, so good a port will 
not be found ; while its soil only produces thorns, ilexes, 
and broom, or at best arbutus and myrtles, and other poor 
fruits ; and he who grows them for profit has nothing for 
his pains. April and May failing, the fruits fail. 1 



1 Captain Cook visited the Island of Esphitu Santo in August, 1774, 
and on the 25th entered the bay of San Felipe y Santiago, discovered 
by Quiros. The wind being S., Cook was obliged to beat to wind- 
ward. Next morning he was 7 or 8 miles from the head of the bay, 
which is terminated by a low beach, and behind that an extensive flat 
covered with trees, and bounded on each side by a ridge of mountains. 
The latitude was 1 5 5' S. Steering to within 2 miles of the head of the 
bay, he sent Mr. Cooper and Mr. Gilbert to sound and reconnoitre the 
coast. Mr. Cooper reported that he had landed on the beach near a fine 
river. They found 3 fathoms close to the beach, and 55 two cables' 
lengths off. At the ship there was no bottom with 170 fathoms. 
When the boat returned, Captain Cook steered down the bay ; and 



BAY OF ST. PHILIP AND ST. JAMES. 273 

during the night there were many fires on the W. side. In the morn- 
ing of the 27th the ship was off the N. W. point of the bay, in latitude 
14 39' 30". The bay has 20 leagues of sea-coast 6 on the E. side, 
2 at the head, and 12 on the W. side. The two points which form the 
entrance bear S. 53 E., and N. 53 W., from each other distant 10 
leagues. An uncommonly luxuriant vegetation was everywhere to be 
seen. Captain Cook named the E. point of the bay " Cape Quiros," 
which is in 14 56' S., and longitude 167 13' E. He named the N.W. 
point "Cape Cumberland." It is in 14 38' 45" S., and 166 49' 30" E. 
CooKs Second Voyage, vol. ii, p. 89. 

The Editor has to thank Dr. Bolton G. Corney for the following 
very interesting account of his visit to the bay of San Felipe y 
Santiago in 1876 : 

" While on a voyage through the New Hebrides in the barque Pro- 
spector, of 260 tons, in August, 1876, I visited the bay of San Felipe y 
Santiago, now commonly known to shipmasters and other habituts of 
the Western Pacific as the ' Big Bay.' 

" The island itself is, for short, spoken of as ' Santo,' not only by 
local white men, but also by many of the natives of it and the neigh- 
bouring ones, many of whom have been in Fiji or Queensland, and 
have picked up a little Fijian or English, as the case may be. 

" The Prospector was chartered by the Government of Fiji to return 
476 of these people to their homes, in completion of contracts made 
with them a few years before, after performing a term of labour on the 
cotton and maize or cocoa-nut plantations of that group of islands, 
which, in 1874, became a British Crown colony. I was in charge of 
these returning emigrants, both medically and as representing the 
Government. 

" We passed from Malikolo to ' Santo, and worked up under the 
lee of its western side to Pusei and Tasimate, landing and recruiting 
emigrants as we went, and bartering for yams, and taro, and pigs by 
way of provisions. We rounded Cape Cumberland (the extreme N.W. 
point of the island), and worked into the bay of San Felipe y Santiago, 
making one long board to the E.N.E or N.E. by E. first, and then a 
long leg to the S.S.W., or thereabouts, which (brought us close in with 
the land on the W. side of the bay. The land there was high and 
steep, and we had deep water until quite close into the beach. We then 
went about and made short tacks towards the fundus of the bay, 
where we had to lay the barque quite close in to the shore before 
getting anchorage. The water was blue and clear, and I do not 
recollect seeing any reefs or patches. The anchorage we made for 
was known to our recruiting agents, who called it the ' river Jordan.' 
I have a recollection of hearing that we got 9 fathoms with the lead just 
before letting go. The water was quite smooth, protected by the land 
at the head of the bay from the prevailing trade-wind ; and the barque 
lay at a few boats' lengths from the beach about 300 yards W. from 
the embouchure of the river. 

" Our objects in calling there were (i) to land certain natives of the 
place whom we had on board, with their earnings ; (ii) to recruit 
others if any suitable ones offered ; and (iiij to obtain wood and fill 
water. 

" The beach, if my memory does not mislead me, was of black sand, 
which is not an uncommon thing in islands of volcanic origin, such as 
the New Hebrides : the distance from low water-mark to the edge of 
the timber and undergrowth which fringed it just above high- water 



274 BAY OF ST. PHILIP AND ST. JAMES. 

mark, was only a few yards perhaps 18 or 25 except near the 
mouth of the river, where it was more shelving, and extended out into 
a sandy foreshore or bank corresponding to the bar, the dry land 
being flat and of alluvial formation. 

" The river was about as large as the Thames at Isle worth, and 
flowed into the bay through a wide and far-reaching valley from S. 
to N. Its banks were low, and overgrown with reeds and scrub, 
and more than usually free from the customary mangrove trees and 
bushes. We did not explore it for far, because the friendly attitude of 
the natives could not be depended on to last, if they should get us into 
a 'corner ;' but I pulled into the river in one of the recruiting boats 
for a short distance, and selected a place at which we filled our 
beakers and water-casks with water of good and fresh quality. This 
was perhaps less than half a mile from the mouth : the water was 
clear, and we could see the bottom in mid-stream ; but the tide was 
at the last of the ebb, as we had chosen that time for the sake of 
getting the freshest water. 

" The natives brought us some dead logs to the beach, and others 
on bamboos to the vessel's side, much of which the sailors and officers 
bartered for in the belief that it was sandal wood. It was in reality, 
I believe, the wood known in Fijian as Sevna or Cevna, a kind of 
Pittosporum, which grows near the sea and has a strong sandal-wood 
odour. We also obtained the natives' consent to our cutting some 
firewood, which was mostly wild daiva (Nephilium pmnatum}, and 
mulomulo (Hiliuscus populnea), a littoral tree often used in Fiji to cut 
boats' knees from. 

"We recruited four men to go with us to Fiji for three years. They 
were all adults of about 20 to 24 years, tall, black, and athletic young 
men, much above the average stature of New Hebrideans anywhere 
north of Eromango ; and the other people of the locality appeared to 
me equally well-built, and some 5 ft. 10 in. or 5 ft. 1 1 in. in height. 
I cannot say whether they were the true inhabitants of the place, as 
we saw no village nor huts : they may have been mountaineers from 
the interior on an excursion to the coast, the mountaineers in these 
islands being as a rule blacker, and I think taller (with exceptions), 
than the coast people. 

"They had no canoes at least I saw none except two small 
catamarans ; and the timber they took alongside the ship was floated 
off by means of bamboos. 

" It is doubtful whether mountaineers would have possession of 
catamarans on the coast, or trust themselves to bamboo rafts. 

"The west shore of this bay rises steeply from the water throughout 
most of its extent : but there are narrow strips of low-lying flat land 
between the beach and the mountain side at intervals, continuous with 
the small valleys, where creeks or torrents, of which there are several, 
have deposited silt and boulders, and rocky debris from the higher 
slopes. But, in so far as I remember, they are all insignificant in 
extent, as the mountain ridge which forms this large promontory and 
ends abruptly in Cape Cumberland, rises, as already mentioned, 
steeply from the sea, which is deep all along and around it, with only 
here and there even a fringing shore reef. There is no barrier reef 
whatever, and consequently no lagoon. 

"As to size of the * Big Bay,' I should say that the distance from 
Cape Cumberland to the * Jordan' is something like 30 miles. The 
head of the bay runs from the river mouth in an easterly direction 



BAY OF ST. PHILIP AND ST. JAMES. 2/5 

for 3 or perhaps 4 miles, being mostly flat, low-lying alluvium, and 
then sweeps round towards the N.E. and N., being more elevated 
and undulating, and ends in Cape Quiros. This land, forming the 
eastern horn of the bay, does not project so far seaward as the western 
promontory, and is neither so high nor so steep, nor so heavily 
timbered as the latter, which is in fact a continuation of the backbone 
of the island, as far out as Cape Cumberland. The eastern horn 
extends northward perhaps 10 or 12 miles only. 

" The depth or extent of the bay itself, from its chord formed by an 
imaginary E. and W. line drawn through Cape Quiros, seemed to me 
about a dozen miles, and it is of similar width. It may, therefore, 
contain nearly 150 square miles in area. 

"The anchorage is well protected from the prevailing trade-wind, 
which blows from E.S.E., and is sheltered from that point round by 
S. to N.W. It is not exposed either from E.N.E. to E.S.E., but from 
N.W. to N. and N.E. it is unsafe." 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

Gives an account of the departure from this port, and of the return to 
it ; also of what happened, at that time, with the natives by 
reason of the three boys. 

As it was arranged that the ships should leave the port, 
understanding that the sickness was not very bad, they 
made sail on the following day, the 28th of May. In the 
afternoon the sick were so helpless that the Captain ordered 
the Pilots to keep the ships within the mouth of the bay 
until the condition of the people was seen next day. They 
were all in such a state that the Captain gave orders for 
the ships to return to port, where, the wind being fair, they 
were easily anchored. Then steps were taken to confess 
and take care of the sick, and they all got well in a short 
time. 

On the day after we anchored a number of natives were 
seen on the beach, playing on their shells. To find out 
what it was about, the Captain ordered the Master of the 
Camp to go with a party of men in the two boats to learn 
what they wanted. When our people were near them, they 
vainly shot off their arrows to the sound of their instru- 

T 2 



2/6 KIDNAPPING. 

ments. From the boats four musket-shots were fired in 
the air, and they returned to the ships. 

Soon afterwards the Captain ordered them to return to 
the shore, taking the three boys, that the natives might 
see them, and be assured that no harm had been done to 
them, the fear of which was supposed to be the cause of 
all this disturbance. When they arrived, the boys called 
to their fathers, who, though they heard them, did not 
know their sons by the voices or by sight, because they 
were dressed in silk. The boats came nearer, that they 
might get a better view ; and, when the boys were known, 
two natives waded into the water up to their breasts, show- 
ing by this, and by their joy during all the time the sweet 
discourse lasted, that they were the fathers of the boys. 

The natives were given to understand that the muskets 
were fired because they fired the arrows. To this they 
answered that it was not them, but others of a different 
tribe ; and that, as they were friends, they should be given 
the three boys. They said they would bring fowls, pigs, 
and fruit, and present them. They were told, by pointing 
to the sun, that they were to return at noon. They went 
away, and the boats went back to the ships. At the time 
arranged the natives sounded two shells, and the boats 
went back with the three boys, whose fathers, when they 
saw and spoke to them, did not show less joy than at the 
first interview. They gave us a pig, and asked for the boys. 
They said they would bring many on the next day, which 
accordingly they did, sounding the shells. 

The boats again went to the shore, taking a he- and a 
she-goat, to leave there to breed ; also taking the boys as a 
decoy to induce the natives to come, so as to take them to 
the ships, and let them return. They found two pigs on 
the beach ; and, when they were delivered up, our people 
gave the goats in exchange, which the natives looked at 
cautiously, with much talking among themselves. 



KIDNAPPING. 277 

The fathers begged for their sons ; and, because we 
would not comply, they said they would bring more pigs, 
and that we were to come back for them when they gave 
the signal. In the afternoon the same signal was made, 
and the boats returned to the shore. But they only saw 
the goats tied up, and two natives near them, who said 
that they would go to seek for others, as they did not want 
the goats. Thinking that this looked bad, a careful obser- 
vation was made, and many natives were seen among the 
trees with bows and arrows. Understanding that this was 
a plan for seizing some of our men, or for some other 
bad object, the muskets were fired off, and the natives 
hastily fled with loud shouts. Our men recovered the 
goats, and returned to the ships. Then the biggest boy, 
who was afterwards named Pablo, said to the Captain, not 
only once, but many times, with signs of great affliction, 
" Teatali"\ which was supposed to mean that he wanted to 
go on shore. The Captain replied : "Silence, child ! you know 
not what you ask. Greater good awaits you than the sight 
and the communion with heathen parents and friends." 

It is to be noted that a cross, which had been left on the 
banks of the river Salvador, was found raised in its 
place, and that the natives had put branches and flowers 
round it. 

There was not wanting one who said to the Captain 
that, as he had before him a land with so many rivers and 
ravines, he should make tests to ascertain whether they 
contained the metal called gold, so acceptable in the eyes 
of men. The Captain replied to this that he had only 
come to discover lands and people ; and that, as God had 
been pleased to show him what he sought, it would be 
neither just nor reasonable to risk the whole for a part ; 
that, if it could be done, understanding that this might 
have the colour of an excuse, he would have done it with- 
out the interference of another ; and that it will be for the 



278 RESOLUTION TO DEPART. 

settlers who may come to these lands to undertake, with 
proper security, these and other cares. The man replied 
to this that the time was now full for such work ; that if it 
was not known that there was gold and silver, there would 
not be the incentive to come and settle. To put an end to 
the argument, the Captain answered that the cause was 
that of God ; and when the hour chosen by the Divine 
Majesty arrived, there would be given for this his estate, 
overseers, and workers, not only for gold, but for the saving 
of souls. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

The causes which led the Captain to leave this port a second time ; 
and how, in returning to it, the Capitana parted company with 
the other vessels ; how a better view was obtained of the plains 
that were seen before entering the bay, and of that great and 
high range of mountains far away to the S.E., and how an island 
was discovered. 

THE Captain, seeing that the natives of that bay continued 
toH^e hostile, owing to the bad treatment they had received, 
resolved to proceed to get a near view of that great and high 
chain of mountains, desiring by the sight of them to reani- 
mate all his companions ; because, if he should die, they 
would remain with the ardour to continue the work until it 
was finished. He considered that, failing his person, discord 
and danger would not be wanting, owing to the pretensions 
of those who wished to be chief ; also that, of necessity, 
there should be agreement respecting the route that should 
be followed. There did not fail to be diverse opinions 
whether it should be to windward, leaving as a possibility 
what it was so much desired that we should see. It also 
seemed to many who had a look-out from the mast-head, 
that all those lands were joined one to the other. To the 
Captain it seemed that what was desired to be seen was of 



PARTING COMPANY. 2/9 

great importance, and that it would be well to keep that 
port to leeward. 

To give effect to this desire, he left the bay with the 
three vessels on Thursday, the 8th of June, in the after- 
noon, three days after the conjunction of the moon, there 
being a light wind from the E., which was the point from 
which the wind had blown most of the time we had been 
there. Outside it veered to S.E., and blew with some force. 
So that we were all that day working against it without 
being able to make any progress. For this cause the 
Pilots cried from one ship to another : " Where are we 
going?" The Captain had these and other reasons sub- 
mitted to them, and resolved to return to the port, with the 
intention of wintering there, building a strong house, 
sowing the land, getting a better knowledge of the season, 
and building a brigantine to send, with the launch, to dis- 
cover what was so much desired, it being clear to all that 
this was very necessary ; because the place which seemed 
so important to the sight had as yet yielded but a bad 
account. 

All night we were beating on different tacks at the 
mouth of the bay. At dawn the Almiranta was 3 leagues 
to windward, and at three in the afternoon she and the 
launch were near the port. The Captain asked the reason 
why these vessels, which were not so good on a bowline as 
the Capitana, were so far ahead. He was told that they 
had met with more favourable winds. Presently it was 
said that there had been very little sail on the Capitana, 
and that she had made very short tacks, and that this was 
the reason, and it seems a good one, that she was so much 
behind. The force of the wind was increasing, and the 
night was near, owing to which the Pilot ordered that if 
they could not reach the port, they were to anchor where- 
ever it was possible. The night came on very dark. The 
Almiranta and the launch appeared to have anchored. 



280 PARTING COMPANY. 

They saw the lanterns lighted, to give the Capitana leading 
marks, as she was also going to anchor. Soundings were 
taken, and they found 30 fathoms, not being an arquebus 
shot from the port. The wind came down in a gust over 
the land. Sails were taken in, and the ship was only 
under a fore course, falling off a little. The Chief Pilot, 
exaggerating very much the importance of being unable 
to find bottom, together with the darkness of the night, 
the strong wind, the numerous lights he saw without 
being able to judge with certainty which were those of 
the two ships, said to the Captain that he was unable to 
reach the port. The Captain commended his zeal and 
vigilance. 

There was one who said, and made it clearly to be 
understood, that more diligence might easily have been 
shown to anchor or to remain without leaving the bay ; and 
that, with only the spritsail braced up, she might have run 
for shelter under the cape to windward. It was also said 
that they went to sleep. In the morning the Captain asked 
the Pilot what was the position of the ship. He replied 
that she was to leeward of the cape, and the Captain told 
him to make sail that she might not make leeway. The 
Pilot answered that the sea was too high and against them, 
and that the bows driving into the water would cause her 
timbers to open, though he would do his best. I say that 
this was a great misfortune, owing to the Captain being 
disabled by illness on this and other occasions when the 
Pilots wasted time, obliging him to believe what they said, 
to take what they gave, measured out as they pleased. 
Finally, during this and the two following days, attempts 
were made to enter the bay. The other vessels did not 
come out ; the wind did not go down ; while, owing to the 
force of the wind the ship, having little sail on, and her 
head E.N.E., lost ground to such an extent that we found 
ourselves 20 leagues to leeward of the port, all looking at 



RETROSPECTIVE EXCUSES. 281 

those high mountains with sorrow at not being able to get 
near them. 

The island of " Virgen Maria" was so hidden by mist 
that we could never get a sight of it. We saw the other 
island of " Belen," 1 and passed near another, 7 leagues long. 
It consists of a very high hill, almost like the first. It 
received the name of " Pilar de Zaragoza." 2 Many growing 
crops, palms, and other trees, and columns of smoke were 
seen on it. It was about 30 leagues to the N.W. of the 
bay ; but no soundings and no port. We diligently sought 
its shelter, but were obliged to give it up owing to the 
wind and current ; and on the next day we found ourselves 
at sea, out of sight of land. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Gives the sorrowful discourses made by the Captain and others, to 
mitigate the grief they felt at having lost the port, and to settle 
what must be done with the consent of all. 

HERE it was represented to the Captain that if in Lima 
they had given him his despatch on the day of St. Francis, 
so ordered that he should go on with his plan, which 
was to steer for the thirtieth degree towards the south, 
for this forty days or less seemed sufficient. If by that 
route the sought-for land was found, it would be the best 
time of the year for exploring its coasts and islands. If 
land was not found on that parallel, there was still a month 
and a-half before the sun took its turn, for them to navigate 
towards the W., or with tacks to S.W. and N.W., to cross 
those seas until it was made clear that the supposed lands 
do not exist ; and he might make many other researches, 
according to the position in which he found himself. 

1 Probably Vanua Lava. 

2 Ureparopara, or islands to N.W. 



282 DELAYS AT CALLAO BLAMED. 

In short, I say that from the day of St. Francis to the 
end of May there are eight months less those four days, 
and that to go from Lima by the usual route to Manilla 
two months and a-half, or at most three months, are 
sufficient. The other five months give plenty of time to 
discover and see very extensive lands and many ports, or 
to go in May to Manilla, which is before the S.W. winds 
begin, and in October or November, which is the beginning 
of the N. winds ; and by these breezes to leave that city 
and go outside the two Javas to the S.S.W. in search ot 
lands, passing the Cape of Good Hope in January, February, 
or March, the best months in the year for that, so as to 
reach Spain in July, August, or September, which is the 
summer. To make such a grand voyage as this twenty 
months are enough, or at the outside two years, and this 
truth will be confessed by all who know how to navigate ; 
and also how great will be the regrets of him who knows 
that this time he is unable to get from such labours those 
fruits for others which he so truthfully expected. With 
his great loads of sorrow the Captain said in public that all 
of us should be witnesses, because if he sheuld die, it should 
remain in the memory of the people that these two months 
and a-half of summer that he was delayed at Callao had 
robbed him of the power of following up so great an 
enterprise as was the present, while only half an hour of 
time took it from his hands. 

He considered the strong contrary winds, the very 
threatening weather, the fact that their present position 
was unknown, that the ship must need repairs, the necessity 
for going to a place where she could be either got into 
harbour or careened on a coast, and that all was ended 
there. He had very prominently in his mind that at the 
first difficulty or danger there would be a want of resolu- 
tion or of management, or of the desire to apply a remedy ; 
for which reason it might with truth be said that he was 



WANT OF INSTRUCTIONS BLAMED. 283 

without pilots on whom he could rely, and that from some 
other persons there was little to be expected or hoped. 
Then there were his own infirmities ; so that altogether 
the case was one of evident danger. 

Putting on one side the ordinances of God, His high and 
secret decrees, and how limited was his understanding to 
enable him to decide whether what happened was or was 
not in conformity with them, the sorrowful Captain said 
discretion was of little use to arrange things, nor the mind 
to undertake business, though it be easy, if there be any 
one who has the will and power to take away all his just 
value or great part of it. Sovereigns, he said, when they 
undertake great enterprises, ought to distinguish, make 
clear, and strengthen their orders in such a way that the 
persons to whom their execution is entrusted can have no 
room for doubt, nor to contend, nor any one who can make 
excuses ; and not pledge men so that they find themselves 
in positions so confused and difficult as had the Captain 
For he could not tell what advice was mature nor what was 
inexperienced, nor the choice he should make, nor the 
resolution he should take which, if followed, might lead 
at least to part of the remedy for the evils which were 
menaced in so important a matter. 

He arranged to go, as we were then steering to N.E. and 
N. as far as 10 30' S., the latitude of the island of Santa 
Cruz, which being settled, the Captain made the following 
discourses. 

In the first place the S.E. wind had the same force, and 
if with such threatening weather he steered to the W. in 
search of the island of Santa Cruz, it might remain at the 
E., and, without the danger in which he would have to put 
the vessel, he would place himself still more distant from 
help if he did not make the landfall. 

Secondly, he knew, for he had already made the voyage 
to the Philippines, there was the beginning of those furious 



284 THE CREW BLAMED. 

westerlies which last at least until the first days of October, 
for which cause it was impossible to go there at that 
season. 

Thirdly, to undertake the voyage to Acapulco ; the 
distance was very long, and it would be necessary to cross 
the equator without knowing which time would be the 
best ; while there was very little water left and no meat : 
for the Chief Pilot had buried the casks among the ballast 
where the bilge-water sucked in, and for that reason it had 
all turned bad. 

He felt that he had many sick, and no medical man, nor 
the necessary comforts to nourish them. 

He knew that in the ship he had some few friends and 
all the rest enemies ; and those he had to help him and 
take part of his duties were those who were soonest tired, 
and were least able to manage things, or to treat of more 
than the security of their own persons, while they disliked 
work. 

He did not certainly know what had happened to the 
other two vessels ; so that he reflected that only the ship 
in which he was, was available to bring the news of the 
discoveries and how much they imported, and that the 
same news should be given by those who remained. He 
made other very sorrowful discourses, and the following, 
which were more consolatory. 

The first was that many exploring ships and fleets, full 
of men and riches, have been lost in known seas, without, 
in many cases, having secured their objects, either in whole 
or part. 

The second, that he had completed the discovery of 
such good peoples and lands without knowing where they 
ended, with such a large bay and good port within it, and 
had taken possession in the name of His Majesty, without 
the loss of a single man ; and that all this was a beginning, 
with very great foundations, for the settling and completing 



HOPE FROM THE OTHER SHIP. 285 

the discovery of all that those lands contain ; and that so 
arduous an undertaking could not be finished in one 
voyage, nor in three, even with very efficient help, and 
with men who would work with the same love for the 
cause as the Captain felt. 

The third, that as God had been served to guide them 
to those parts, and to give them time for all that had been 
done, it was very just that he should be consoled and in 
conformity with the will of the Lord of times and seasons. 
He could understand that if another voyage should be 
desired, that also it could be made, although it should be 
more in the winter, and though men should contradict or 
favour, and other thousands of opponents should bar the 
way. It would be well to agree to what had happened, for 
causes which, at present, are not comprehended. 

The fourth is that, in the other two vessels, there 
remained the instructions that had been given, and it was 
understood that, if they were safe, they would do all in 
their power to discover more lands, and bring from them 
such news as might be hoped from God, and the Admiral, 
and his Pilot, Juan Bernardo de Fuentiduena, a person 
from whom great things might be hoped ; and also from 
the Captain of the ship, Gaspar de Gaya, and from three 
very respectable monks ; in fine, from all the people con- 
nected with that ship, as likely to be useful. Finally, he 
said that the present time ought to be cared for to ensure 
the time to come, and that he who rules must entrust to 
some man all or part of the business, present or absent, 
great or small ; and if those who are so trusted deceive 
those who put confidence in them, where can there be a 
remedy except in heaven. 

The Captain saw that it was indispensable to decide at 
once what ought to be done ; and, therefore, he called a 
meeting of all the officers and other persons in the ship, 
telling them that they must carefully consider all the 



286 BEARS UP FOR ACAPULCO. 

reasons he would put before them, the present state of 
affairs, and what should be dorle. There were some who, 
through the mouth of one as ignorant as themselves, said 
that they should go to the Philippines. To this, others 
replied that as they had money they wanted to go and get 
employment in the porcelain and silks of China, where the 
work should pay them, or at least the Royal Treasury. In 
the end all were of opinion that they should make for the 
port of Acapulco, and they signed their names to this 
resolution on the i8th of June. 

The Captain at once ordered the Pilots to shape a course 
N.E. by N., if the weather would allow it, and if in the 
southern part where we were any islands should be found, 
we were to anchor there to build a launch and come to a 
new resolution, in order that God and His Majesty might 
be better served. In case no such island could be found, 
we were to continue on the same course until the ship was 
in 13 30' N. latitude, the parallel of the island of Guan in 
the Ladrones, on the route of ships going from Acapulco 
to the Philippines. There, with reference to the feelings of 
the crew, the weather, the condition of the ship, and the 
provisions, another final agreement was to be made, and a 
resolution taken with reference to the route to be adopted 
for reaching a friendly port. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Relates how a quantity of water was collected from two great showers 
of rain ; how the ship crossed the equator ; how an island was 
discovered ; how the last agreement was made at a meeting ; 
and of the courses and latitudes as far as a certain point. 

WITH the wind S.E., which had now broken its fury, they 
continued to navigate until the eve of St. John the Baptist. 
On that day God was served by giving us a great shower 



ABUNDANT RAIN SHOWERS. 287 

of rain. With twenty-eight sheets stretched all over the 
ship, we collected, from this and another rainfall, three 
hundred jars of water : a relief for our necessities, and a 
great consolation for all the people. With a few changes 
of wind and some calms, heading to the N., we reached the 
line on the 2nd of July. That night the needle was 
marked, and it was found that the variation was to the 
N.E. by E., a notable thing, for in the bay it was 7 almost 
on the same meridian, and the distance so short. 

With the wind S. and S.W. we continued to navigate 
until the 8th of July. On that day we saw an island, 
about 6 leagues in circumference. As until now we had 
not met with any island or rock whatever to impede our 
road, we gave it the name of " Buen Viaje." Its latitude is 
3 30' N. It was decided not to approach it nearer, as it 
was not convenient, and for fear of rocks. In this part, in 
a higher latitude, we had some rain, especially one shower, 
which filled all the jars that were empty, and it was drunk 
without doing the least harm, nor did it ever get bad. In 
short, after God, the rain showers saved our lives. 

On the 23rd of July the Captain ordered the Pilots to 
state the latitude they were in, and the distance in leagues 
from the Philippines and from the coast of New Spain, 
according to their calculations ; also, they were to declare 
definitely in which direction the ship's head was to be 
turned. 

They gave 3 10' N. as the latitude, 780 leagues east of 
Manilla, and 780 leagues S.W. of the coast of New Spain, 
adding that the ship could not go to Manilla owing to 
contrary winds 1 at that time ; and it was, therefore, their 
opinion that the course should be steered for the coast of 
New Spain and the port of Acapulco. 

It appeared to the Captain that the best service he 

1 Vendavales. 



288 COMPLAINTS OF QUIROS. 

could do to His Majesty at present was to save the ship, 
save time, save the expenses caused if they went to 
Manilla, and the cost of the ship with all hands during a 
whole year ; and being so far to windward of the meridian 
of Japan, there was no wind that could impede their 
reaching a higher latitude or to reach the coast. He 
also considered that the ship was well supplied with water 
and biscuit, and all the crew healthy, and that there were 
two natives of those parts on board to give information ; 
that if he should die at sea there would be others to 
navigate the ship, so that His Majesty would be informed 
of all that had been discovered and promised, and that he 
was bound to choose the least of two evils ; he ordered the 
Pilots to shape a course for New Spain and the port of 
Acapulco, and to give an account of the route they 
followed, and the latitude each day. He said to them 
that he who suffered most and should be most useful, 
would be most worthy of reward. 

Considering the state of affairs owing to the delayed 
despatch at the Court of Spain and in Callao, I say that, 
for its grandeur and importance, and the facility with 
which the Captain is able to demonstrate all his thoughts 
and wishes by his works, so many times made known, it 
has been the greatest of the injuries done to a man who 
has bought it by such continual labour and misery, and 
other very high costs, wandering and finding in so long a 
journey very great difficulties. For all these, and a 
thousand other reasons, the Captain did not know whether 
to throw the blame on ignorance or malice, and ended by 
attributing it to his many* great sins. He, therefore, con- 
fessed that he was not worthy to see the end of a work in 
which those who lived righteously would be well employed, 
having all the qualifications that so sacred an enterprise 
requires. 



SUPPLY OF FRESH FISH. 289 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

Relates how a great shoal of albacore fish accompanied the ship for 
many days ; the fishing of them ; and the rest that happened 
until they sighted the land of New Spain. 

WITH the winds between E. and N.N.E. we navigated 
until the 26th of July, when we were in 18 N. On this 
day we had the sun at the zenith, and crossed the tropic of 
Cancer on the ist of August. Up to this position we had 
seen gulls and other birds almost every day. 

On the 5th we had the wind aft and ran before it, with 
an E. course, for nearly three days, then more northerly 
as far as 25 N. This day, which was that of St. Lawrence, 
they collected from a shower of rain fifty jars full of water, 
Certain albacore and bonito^ in a large shoal, had hitherto 
followed the ship, and every day the men fished with nets, 
fizgigs, and harpoons, catching ten, twenty, thirty, even 
fifty, some of them weighing 3, 4, and 5 arrobas. We ate 
them fresh, and salted them down, filling many jars. 
About 2,500 arrobas^ of fish supplied the place of meat, 
and lasted until we reached the port of Acapulco, with 
some over. 

The voyage was prolonged owing to scarcity of wind and 
calms, and it was necessary to go as far N. as 38; and we 
kept working to the E. with wind S.S.E., not always 
steady. 

On the ist of September, at three o'clock in the after- 
noon, there was a great trembling of the sea and of the ship 
a notable thing, and new to me. Then, with wind S. and 
S.W., we navigated until the 26th of September. On that 
day, at three o'clock in the morning, there was a great 
eclipse of the moon, which lasted three hours. The varia- 



An arroba = 2t > Ibs. 

U 



290 CALIFORNIA SIGHTED. 

tion of the needle was here very slight. The pilots were 
making for land, and all the people were tired of the long 
voyage, with the allowance of water reduced to a quartilla, 
and other hardships, caused by so many months at sea. 
They were most anxious to see land, or signs of it, when a 
great weed was seen on the sea, called " porra" In that 
season the wind is S.E., and the course E.N.E. The wind 
changed to N.E., and it has been necessary to go further N. ; 
but the Captain, knowing by that weed, and many others of 
the same kind, that the land was near, ordered an E.S.E. 
course to be steered. So they proceeded, meeting with 
signs that consoled them : such as the sight of seals, leaves 
of trees, and birds of the sea-shore sitting on a tree- 
trunk. 

Much care was exercised with regard to the look-outs. 
At night there were two men on the bowsprit, and in the 
daytime one at each masthead. At last, on September 
23rd, early in the morning, one Silvestre Marselles reported 
with great joy : " I see land ahead. It is high, bare, and 
dry." Many went aloft to see, and confirmed the news. 
The Pilots took the sun at noon, and found the latitude 
34 N. Presently, the Captain told four men to look out 
carefully, to see if it was islands. All said it was mainland, 
But they were wrong : for on the first night, with a very 
clear sky, we found ourselves between two islands, the 
sight of which disgusted everybody, and caused the Captain 
much sorrow. For, during that day and night much care 
was required, and even more from not knowing who to 
trust, each day bringing its trials. As a remedy, he 
stationed an overseer on the poop, but very soon he went 
with all the rest, who had their own methods. In fine, 
it was God's pleasure that the channel should be clear. We 
sailed out of it ; and, coasting along the main-land, we 
passed the island of " Cerros," with the loss of some days 
from calms and light winds. 



A STRANGE WILL. 29! 

Will of the Captain. 

" I desire much that in these regions which it has been 
the will of God to show me, and in all those still hidden 
but, no doubt, as well peopled as those I saw, there be 
designed and fabricated some nests without brambles, 
nor other kinds of thorns, refuges and pleasant abiding- 
places of pelicans, who first tear their flesh, open their 
bosoms, and clearly show entrails and heart ; and, not 
content with that, they should give to these people dishes 
cooked in many ways in the braziers of enlightened charity 
being the pots and pans of piety and pity, and the table- 
service of all equity ; and that for drink there should be 
the sweat of their brows, if they prefer not giving the 
blood of their veins ; all this with pure and clear love, 
always without ever a step backwards. 

" I should not wish, in no way whatever, that among 
these new and tender people there should come to settle 
and to live, or to enter into grand palaces for their nests, 
any falcons, or sakers, or other birds of prey, which, 
circling and dissimulating, spring suddenly on their prey 
and grasp them with their cruel talons, and with their 
fierce and sharp beaks tear them into two thousand pieces, 
without ever being gorged, or picking the bones when there 
is no flesh left on them. To give a relish to dishes of such 
impious wickedness, there is offered certain salts ; and they 
give for fruit certain honeyed excuses void of all the law of 
reason and unworthy of all good memory, but very worthy 
of due punishment. An example of this is in the Indies 
with their islands. Ask all the natives respecting all that 
affects life, liberty, honour, and estate (I leave the spiritual 
out of account), what there is to say as compared with 
their state in those former times, and they will say how 
things go now : and how they hope they will go, though not 
by a post which goes in haste. 

V 2 



A STRANGE WILL. 

" But I answer for them, and say in this wise, that the 
force, injuries, injustices, and great evils that have been 
done, and are done, are incredible, the methods infernal, the 
number not to be counted : and that never have I seen 
their masters, nor others who enjoy great part of the toil of 
the people, to lament the evil things they have done and 
do, that they alone may take their ease in all comfort. If 
perchance I have heard one grumble, cry, or quarrel, it 
is for me a pretence, and nothing more. For they have not 
pardoned, nor pardon, nor intend to pardon, for the least 
thing they want, much less excuse any payment of 
money. It is money, I say, that they want, and more 
money, though it be torn from men's entrails. This 
I have seen, and how much the loss comes in, so much 
the more money they want ; and they do not return that 
which they have taken by force, but rather seek anew 
and with increased eagerness, dyed in unknown, dark, 
and strange colours. I say they require from them always 
more, and never less, though it should be in the depriva- 
tion of the glory and eternity of their hell and that of 
their victims. 

" They see this with eyes of the body and soul, those 
gentlemen who have to be the judges in so pious a cause 
as is represented here; for with theirs I discharge my 
conscience, announcing in all I have written and shown 
with much facility that, if it is desired to mitigate such 
diabolical avarice, it will be shown that there is plenty for 
all ; and that in this and other gentle and reasonable 
means there will not be so many fishermen, huntsmen, 
owners, with such correspondence as I have seen and 
well noted. They will do works so honourable and beauti- 
ful as will make all others of the same kind look ugly. 
And more also : for God and His Majesty will be served in 
all those regions, and the natives will be made to prosper, as 
is just and right, under heavy penalties, to be attempted 



WEAKNESS OF QUIROS. 293 

and seen to in the great and the small affairs ; and this 
will be my reward." 

The reasons the Captain gave for Punishing Certain Men, 
and those he gave for not doing so. 

There were in the ship some persons who always desired all 
the good things of the voyage, which they obtained at the 
cost of much care and vigilance, but who were annoyed to 
have been seen, and to be seen by others, to have little will 
for the work, and to make a bad return for the affectionate 
treatment and the benefits they had received from the 
Captain. Others spoke to him many times, wishing to 
incite him to punish them, or to give them permission 
to stab such people. 

To this the Captain replied that he had duties to all, and 
that it was for him, for just causes, to dissimulate and 
to suffer. And he did suffer ; and those who were his 
friends suffered with him, and they would bear witness 
that during the expedition he was determined never to take 
life or reputation ; and if he had done so, he would have 
been discontented and unquiet for all the rest of his life. 
For the rest, who could seek to have dead men present 
with him, or dishonoured men ? 

They said that these men did not recognise good works, 
nor do they merit untiring courtesies ; nor could it be 
suffered that these men should go about with the full inten- 
tion, as soon as they put their feet on shore, to speak evil 
of his person and services, and to ruin the cause he loved 
so well, without regard for what is true or reasonable and 
just, and merely with the object of avenging themselves. 

The Captain said to this that it would be great cowardice 
to fear for the truth on account of lies; and that, if he 
should take account of ten or twelve worthless men, it 
would be here that it should be shown. He well knew, he 
said, the bad recompense of men, and that he never hoped 



294 WEAKNESS OF QUIROS. 

for good report, so that he was not deceived ; nor did he 
wish to waste a single moment on such nonsense, having 
need for time for more important matters. 

They said that God punishes those who deserve it. 

The Captain answered that God pardons, has long suffer- 
ing and waits, and that when He determines to punish, 
He cannot deceive nor be deceived. He himself had 
understood the naturally evil dispositions of some, and the 
unstable and changeable characters of others. He feared 
from many the vengeance desired by their passions, which 
being blind, can deceive as much as he can be deceived by 
his enemies. To pardon ingrates and enemies without 
having cause to do so to do them good by force, if they 
wish to know was a very great vengeance ; and greater 
courage was shown by having power and not using it, and 
still greater to defend them, being enemies, and to over- 
come them when he addressed his discourses to them. He 
had come out of this first attempt without blood having 
been on his knife, although he had bought this result very 
dear, and it would cost him more hereafter. He considered 
himself well employed in securing that this expedition 
should have fame equal to that of other passed expedi- 
tions ; and that over the bones of so many martyrs 
there should rise such a good work, with good repute 
in the world, which was that for which he took most 
heed. 

They said that piety was very good, and also that it was 
reasonable to punish the bad. 

The Captain replied to this that the Emperor Theodosius 
said, on a certain occasion, that he would like to have the 
power to give life to all who are dead. Charles V suffered, 
and pardoned very many ; deemed it right to give punish- 
ment measured out by his will ; and the same was done by 
George Castriot and many valorous and prudent Captains 
mirrors in which he was looking night and day, with the 



WEAKNESS OF QUIROS. 2Q5 

desire to imitate them. Piety is worthy of praise, and is 
the more celebrated when it is most observed. If to pardon 
the faults of men, as he was, hoping for their amendment, 
was not caused by natural piety, it would have been less 
so to treat, so much at his cost, a work altogether pious. 
For his part, piety was so applauded and practised in the 
greater ; but this did not appear a reason to deny it in 
lesser, nor that suffering should come -to an end for all. 
Being about to die, and at a time when he was seeking 
a port in which to bring the voyage to an end, all the 
ill-will that had appeared and the concealed spite might 
also end ; and the more to humiliate them, though they 
might be rebels, he would protect them ; saying that he had 
experienced this time, for the undeceiving of others, that 
there were men with hearts so hard that kindness would 
not soften them, and that they would give evil for good. 
When it should be so, he would say what he wished and do 
what he could ; that his voice had been as little heard 
as the little justice done him, and the low opinion of him. 
It is certain that the vulgar will have to judge this business 
with very different feelings from what he intended; and that 
when he should give sentence it was more desirable that it 
should be pious than cruel rather reputable than severe. 
He said, finally, that justice was an excellent virtue, and 
very necessary in the world ; but yet let it be exercised by 
others who have the habit, rather than by him among those 
who use little reason, the witnesses being enemies, to 
investigate the truth without more or less help. 

A Notable Event. 

There was a sailor in our company, of Aragonese nation- 
ality : a well-disposed and soldierly youth, so well endowed 
with parts and graces, that for them his person deserved 
and was highly esteemed by all on board. Being in 24 
N., and two leagues from the shore, this lad was called and 



296 A HAZARDOUS DESERTION. 

searched for in all parts of the ship and in the parts aloft, 
without an answer and without being found, being wanted 
to take the helm in the morning watch. It was reported 
to the Captain, who ordered the ship to be put about and 
further search to be made. All parts of the sea were 
examined, his name was cried out, signals were made with 
fire, all the rest of the night and part of the following day 
being devoted to the search, without getting a sight of him, 
nor any mark to guide us. 

In this confusion and in great sorrow we continued on our 
course. The Captain was anxious to clear up the mystery, 
and made enquiries. He found that, on certain days, the 
lad had filled two pitchers with seeds, beads, bells, twine, 
nets, knives, and a hatchet; that he had closed their mouths 
with wax of Nicaragua, that he had put wine and a small box 
of conserves into a moderate-sized jar, and had taken his 
sword. On that same morning he had been very attentive, 
listening to the life of St. Anthony the hermit being read 
to him, and praising it much. He turned down the page 
and kept the book. All the afternoon he was at the mast- 
head looking out, and taking bearings of the land with a 
compass he possessed. On the night that he disappeared it 
was noticed that he was very watchful. It was conjectured 
that with a board, and some battens and cord he had 
in his berth, he had made a raft, and that he went away on 
it, taking with him all the things that have been mentioned, 
for none of them were to be found. It was also said that 
he had a strong wish to remain with the natives of the 
discovered land, and that he had asked one man to stay 
with him ; but as our departure had been sudden, he had 
no opportunity of carrying out his intention. He had, 
therefore, determined to leave us here, to teach the heathens 
or to live in solitude. His chest was opened, and there was 
found his clothes, his money, and a memorandum of all 
that did not belong to him and had been given to him to 



A HAZARDOUS DESERTION. 297 

take care of, desiring that it should be returned to the 
owners. 

This was the act of a man whom we held to be rational 
and a good Christian, and when I think of his strange 
resolution it causes me sorrow, much more that he should 
have launched himself on such a raft, with great risk that 
he would never put his feet on land. Even if he did, he 
might not find the requisites to sustain him. If he tried 
to go inland, or to the banks of some river, or along the 
shore, who was to carry the two pitchers for him, with the 
things he had with him, and the other necessaries to main- 
tain life? If eventually he met with natives, they might 
be those who would receive him and treat him well, or 
they might be those who eat human flesh. Then, to think 
of the solitude, of his nakedness, and of the inclemency of 
the weather. If he finds that the land does not suit him, 
from not offering the means of carrying out his intention, 
or from having repented of what he had done, how far he 
will be from any remedy, and how near to danger and evil! 
There are other things well worthy of consideration ; above 
all, his being cut off from the divine offices and the sacra- 
ments. As I know not his motives, I will not venture to 
be his judge in this matter ; only desiring that the Lord 
may have been served by guiding his destiny in such a 
way that he may have been saved, and many* others 
with him. 

A Great Storm. 

We continued on our course, the men ready with their 
arms, and look-out men at the mast-heads, because we 
were approaching a cape called San Lucas, where the 
Englishman, Thomas Cavendish, robbed the ship Santa 
Ana. We soon passed it and in peace, and on Wednesday 
the nth of October, the sky was serene, the sea smooth, 
without conjunction or opposition of the moon. But, in 
the mouth of the Gulf of California, towards dawn, a wind 



298 GREAT STORM. 

sprung up from the N.E., with very thick weather. At 
nine o'clock the wind shifted to N., and increased so that 
we were obliged to batten down the hatchways, and run 
before it only under the foresail, which was soon blown to 
ribbons, and the ship broached to, breaking the rudder 
pintels. The rudder being thus left free, gave such violent 
blows on either side that the least harm to be feared was 
that it would be smashed into splinters and leave the ship 
ungovernable. Presently the sailors, understanding what 
that signified, helped each other and rigged tackles, with 
which the rudder came under control. In bending another 
foresail the man who was at the yard-arm was twice 
covered with water, and was under water for long spaces 
of time. 

Presently we tried to make sail and run before it ; but 
the wind increased to such an extent that the violent seas 
threw up spray which seemed like showers of rain, and 
the drops made the eyes smart. 

The waves filled the boat with water, and it was quickly 
washed into the sea. It was scarcely gone when three seas 
broke over the ship, with such force that they left her with 
the waist half full of water. With this weight and the 
violence of the wind the ship could not rise to it. Seeing 
this, the Moorish drummer said : " Here we have nothing 
more to hope for." Presently he tossed himself into the 
sea, and such was his luck that another wave brought him 
on board again. That he might not commit such an act 
of folly again, he was taken into custody. 

The scuppers, where the water flows out of a ship, were 
small and few. With water up to their waists, the men 
succeeded with bars and levers in tearing away some of 
the planks, so as to allow the water to escape. Here was 
seen those who helped without intelligence, and others who 
ought to have helped but did not. Some were to be seen 
at the pumps, others trying to lighten the ship, and many 



GREAT STORM. 299 

hoarse with crying : " Cut away the main mast ; it is that 
which is taking us to the bottom." Some said Yes, others 
said No ; but, in an instant, with knives and hatchets, they 
were cutting away the weather rigging. The Captain 
called to the Pilots to look out. They remained deaf. He 
sent to tell them all to wait another hour. Many, seeing 
that the remedy was delayed and the knife was only 
threatened, the diligence they used was for what was 
important for their souls. Some confessed, others sought 
pardon and pardoned, embraced and took leave of each 
other. Some groaned and others wept, and many went 
into corners awaiting death. 

The Captain, in great haste, ordered the two natives to 
be brought to the bed where he was lying, and the 
Franciscan Father to ask them whether they wished to be 
Christians. Both replied in the affirmative very fervently, 
and, when they had recited the creed, he baptized them, 
calling them Pedro and Pablo. 

The Captain was their godfather, and embraced them 
with his eyes full of tears. Seeing that they were frightened, 
he consoled them, saying : " To God be the thanks that I 
owe and ought to give, oh eternal Father ! for such signal 
mercies. For you have been served that I should go 
through such labours, without meriting this small fruit : 
small as compared with my desires, but really great, for 
they are two souls newly baptized and brought into the 
bosom of our Catholic Church." 

Pedro and Pablo were very devout and constant in 
prayers, with their hands joined, and when the ship 
appeared to be sinking they cried : " Jesus ! Mary !" making 
the sign of the cross towards the sea. It was enough to 
see and hear them, to melt the hardest hearts. The ship 
ran on, and hope arose. There was one who said : " Fear 
nothing ; for such a work is done that God will add what is 
needed to save the ship and crew." 



3OO THE WIND GOES DOWN. 

It was three in the afternoon. The wind and sea did 
not work nor seem to fight with our poor ship, which was 
so much over on one side, when a great sea arose, followed 
by two frightful claps of thunder, and by such a fierce gust 
of wind that there seemed to be nothing left for the ship 
but to turn over on her keel. Then the semblances of the 
dead were seen, the most courageous ordering they knew 
not what, and the Pilots dumb. Sighs, vows, promises, and 
colloquies with God could be heard, and one who said : 
" O Lord ! for what have I served in all that has been done 
and seen if this ship is to go the bottom ?" and he passed 
on with great demonstrations of faith. In short, all were 
crying out, seeking help from God, who was served that the 
fury of the wind passed from N.E. to W., and it began to 
go down. The ship, raising her neck and shaking her 
sides, quickly righted, and before night we made sail and 
shaped an E.S.E. course, making for Cape Corrientes. 

Death of the Father Commissary. 

Now we proceeded under all sail with the wind astern 
and the people happy, recounting the events of the recent 
battle with the elements that it was well to note ; some to 
arouse laughter, others with amazement at having been 
witnesses of such a violent storm, the rigour of which 
would have been greater and the damage worse if it had 
continued through the night. Some praised the ship, its 
handiness and strength ; others the courage and nerve, 
and the prompt diligence, and all the most high Lord for 
His mercies. Others there were who said that the tempest 
and its furies were necessary to humiliate the proud, to 
make the ungrateful grateful, and that might come to an 
end all the enmities caused from want of love. For with 
such love can be suffered, with manly fortitude, what had 
passed and a little more. Such events more quickly give 
than offer ; how much more where there was not one who 



DEATH OF THE FATHER COMMISSARY. 301 

had a bad taste except this, which it was more difficult to 
suffer, one to another for so long a time, in one ship always 
seeing the same faces. I say no wonder, if fathers tire of 
their sons, brothers and friends quarrel, and a husband 
sometimes comes to abhor his dear wife. 

Our Father Commissary, who had been ill for some 
time (I think from want of proper nourishment, and owing 
to his great age), was attacked with paroxysms and 
agonies in the middle of the following night, and God was 
served in taking his life. Having worn his habit for forty 
years, and being nearly eighty years old ; also having died 
in a just cause, having gained the jubilee conceded to the 
expedition, we may well hope that he enjoys the presence 
of God. For the rest of the night his body was lighted 
with four wax candles. When the day came, the Father, 
his companion, with the crew of the ship, prayed to God 
for his soul, and with much feeling he was buried in the 
sea in sight of the islands called "Las Tres Marias." 1 

The native named Pablo was very attentive, looking on 
at what was taking place. As he saw that the body, owing 
to the weight attached to its feet, went down, while, at the 
time of his baptism, they told him that when Christians 
die they go to heaven, he asked how it was that the 
Father, being a Christian, went to the bottom of the sea. 
As best we could, he was given to understand that only 
the soul went to heaven. As he knew little about that, he 
remained doubtful ; and all were full of admiration at seeing 
a boy of eight years old ask such a question, who, only 
the other day, was a brutish gentile. 

1 Wooded islands, off the port of San Bias, on the west coast of 
Mexico. 



302 A COURSE SHAPED FOR NAVIDAD. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

What else happened until the ship anchored in the port of 
Navidad. 

WE were in sight of land, and sailed along the coast, 
making the short hours long, for the longing we felt to see 
the ship anchored in the port of Zalagua for which we were 
making. Being almost there, it fell calm. We struggled 
against it, but could never enter. It was very unlucky, for 
the want of one hour's wind robbed us of the great satis- 
faction of reaching port after all the want of rest during 
our past labours. 

There was much discourse touching the necessity in 
which we were placed, and meanwhile there was such a 
strong current that, in a short time it nearly made us lose 
the 4 leagues there are between the port of Zalagua and 
that of Navidad. Although it was a bad coast, it was 
agreed to send two men on shore to seek for people and 
help. But, as one of the barrels, on which they were, was 
carried away by the current, the Captain ordered the men 
to come on board again lest they should be drowned. If 
the ship passed the port of Navidad, for which both wind 
and current were favourable, there was no other known 
port near where we could be refreshed. 

Seeing the disgust and disquiet of the crew that the ship 
rolled, and that there were only forty jars of water left on 
board, for all this, and so as to run no further risks, it was 
resolved to make for the port of Navidad. The Captain 
explained to the Chief Pilot the causes which moved him to 
do so, the chief of which was the desire to send the news 
to Mexico, that the Viceroy might send it to His Majesty, 
touching all that happened, being that for which he had 
most care, finding himself so near to death. The Pilot 



ANCHORED AT NAVIDAD. 303 

showed himself to be lukewarm about it ; in consequence 
of which the Captain issued an order to go at once to that 
port, on pain of grave penalties, because so it was ordered. 
So the night closed in. The most expert of the sailors 
was stationed on the bowsprit to give notice of the steering 
when she entered. Helped much by the light wind, and 
much more by the current, we proceeded, though slowly, 
and entered near a great rock, with a reef to leeward. The 
night being dark, there was temerity in entering. Some 
anxiety was caused at seeing the ship near the rocks, and 
some men stripped ready to swim. There were these 
alarms, but good government in the ship, which went further 
in. Then it fell a dead calm, and we anchored in an 
insecure place, so as not to be carried out by the tide. Soon 
a fresh S.E. breeze sprang up. The anchor was raised in 
a great hurry, sail was made, and we were able to anchor 
further in. At last, having passed the night in these brief 
voyages, the day came, and we entered the port, anchoring 
in 12 fathoms in front of a beach exposed to several 
winds. The ship was, therefore, secured with four cables 
on the 2 ist of October, 1606. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Relates what happened in this port of Navidad until we left it. 

THE ship was anchored ; but, as we had no boat, we made 
a raft of two barrels and a yard. The Captain ordered 
four men, with the necessary provision of biscuits and 
arquebuses, to go on shore and look for some settlements, 
of which he had notice. The raft was taken on shore 
by the force of the waves. Tl iree sailors who were on it 
found a new boat in a certain place, and two jars in a straw 
hut They also found a river, from which they filled the 



304 ANCHORED AT NAVIDAD. 

jars. From this supply, and the twenty-seven jars that 
remained full on board, the crew were allowed to drink 
freely and quench their great thirst. They then waited 
hopefully for a good report from their four companions. 
A day and night passed, and on the next morning the four 
sailors came back, who had been wandering all night among 
dense and thick trees, along rivers and swamps, without 
having found a sign of any settlement. The crew were 
very sad at this news ; but presently two courageous sailors 
came forward one from Ayamonte, the other from Galicia 
and said to the Captain that, if he would give them 
leave, they would go on shore and search for villages or 
people where God might guide them. 

That day they finished building a small boat on board. 
Some tents and booths were set up on shore. The Captain 
landed with the standard and banner, and with half the 
men armed ; and he ordered that three pieces should be 
fired from the ship at sunrise, and sunset, and at noon : for 
by chance the report might be heard by cowherds or other 
people. 

Soon they began to try to catch birds, rabbits, and to 
fish; thinking that, when provisions failed, they could in 
this way supply present necessities. 

Things being in this state, one afternoon two mounted 
men were seen to ride on to the beach in great haste, and 
dismount, Our people received them with incredible joy, 
and gave them many cordial embraces. One was an 
Indian farmer, a sharp fellow ; the other one, Jeronimo 
Jurado de San Lucar de Barrameda, who said that when he 
heard the report of the guns he concluded that there must 
be a ship in need, for which cause he had come ; and there 
he was to do what he could that they might be relieved. 

The Captain, seeing his good will, embraced him a second 
time, and contented both by giving them things from the 
ship. He asked Don Jeronimo to return with the Ser- 



AT NAVIDAD. 305 

geant-Major, who would go to Mexico with the letter for 
the Viceroy, and with two other persons, who would take 
money to buy provisions. Next day they sent fowls, eggs, 
chickens, a calf and an ox, which sufficed, and more. 

The two good sailors arrived the same day, with natives, 
horses, and succour of all kinds. It seemed to the crew 
that, coming second, their work was not so much esteemed. 
But the Captain embraced them, and said how much he 
valued their honourable resolves, and how pleased he was, 
as all ought to be, with the trouble they had taken. 

The news of our being in the port, and of the good 
treatment we extended to all who came to it, soon spread. 
Many natives, who were concealed in the woods, by reason 
of those aggregations of one village with others, came to 
bring us fruits, maize, and other things, for which double 
their value was paid. In order that they might continue to 
help, the Captain gave them biscuits, salt, wine, and other 
things, and dressed three or four in silk. 

The Chief Admiral of Colima, Don Juan de Ribera, at 
the request of the Captain, and on payment, sent a quan- 
tity of biscuits and fowls. So, in the twenty-seven days 
that we were there, we were gaining new strength, and 
recovering from a certain disease in the gums, which 
on these coasts usually attacks those who come from 
Manilla. 

Satan did not neglect to sow bad and mischievous seeds 
in this port, such as he had sown up to this time ; and, 
what was worse, he found soil disposed to receive, to 
blossom, and to yield fruit, which was all he wanted. 

As soon as our Father saw natives, he wanted that they 
should find him horses, to go to Mexico. The Captain 
knew this, and asked him many times to consider the little 
space of time that was needed for reaching Acapulco, and 
that nothing would be more noteworthy than to complete 
the voyage. To this the priest replied, that he knew what 

x 



306 COMPLAINTS AT NAVIDAD. 

suited him best ; that he did not want in that short space 
to die and be thrown into the sea, like the Father Commis- 
sary, but to go direct to his cell, and there live and die 
surrounded by his brethren. The Captain answered that it 
would certainly look very bad to leave the ship without a 
priest to attend to such spiritual needs as might arise. 
After the loss of the other priest, his companion, he was our 
curate ; that he should not leave us without any one, but 
use charity, for which God would give him as much life as 
He gave health. To this he replied : " Let what may 
appear, appear : for I owe more to myself, and charity 
must begin at home." Other replies there were, which 
need not be repeated ; and, with regard to what has been 
told, and what silence has been kept about it, the Captain 
said : " My Father, at the end of so long a voyage, let us 
be blind to our passions we who have another voyage to 
make." On this, the Father threw himself at the feet 
of the Captain ; and, without the Captain being able to 
stop him, owing to his weakness, he kissed both his groins. 
The Captain stretched himself out, as the Father had done, 
and kissed the soles of both his feet, saying : " I do not 
intend to be behind in this." 

There were certain people who, for themselves and 
others, wished to be left on shore. The Captain said to 
this, that for the service they had done until now they 
might as well be on shore. 

Another there was who asked the Captain to certify that 
he had not received royal pay, he himself having given it. 
He also wanted the title of Admiral while another did the 
duty. Many others each wanted to be the person to take 
the letters to the Viceroy, each alleging his own great 
merits. Owing to this, and for many other reasons which 
need not be specified, there were many disputes and com- 
plaints ; from which it may be judged, as well as from all 
that has gone before, how much the discoveries cost, made 



DEPARTURE FROM NAVIDAD. 307 

by the wills of men who thought little of discovering 
new lands. 

There had come on the voyage, serving the Fathers, an 
Indian youth aged about twenty years, named Francisco, a 
native of Peru. He wore the habit of a lay*brother, his 
life being one of self-denial. He was a humble, frugal, and 
grateful man, very peaceful, and so zealous for the good of 
the souls in the new discoveries that he wished to be left 
behind with them. He had a great love and respect for 
God, and in everything, however hard it might be, he 
conformed to His will. To all he showed a good disposi- 
tion and pleasant countenance, did good for evil, never 
complained, or sought recompence nor treated of it. His 
example aroused envy in the mind of a soldier who was 
annoyed at hearing his virtues praised. So I say that there 
is no escape from the tongues of men, and whether high 
or low he has to receive their blows. 

The feast of All Saints was approaching, which was one 
of the jubilee days of the voyage. For this all our people 
confessed, and an altar was prepared under a tent, having 
obtained hosts from a village called Utlan, and invited all 
the people in the farms to come. They came, Spaniards, 
Indians, and others, to hear the Mass said by our Father. 
Pedro and Pablo were on their knees, each one with a 
lighted torch, throwing light all the time that the sacrifice 
and the communion lasted. A few days afterwards this 
monk departed by land, while we got ready to go by sea. 

Being very desirous of flying from this beach, and from 
the annoyance of such a quantity of mosquitos, sand-flies, 
and jiggers, which swarm in this port day and night, 
without the possibility of any defence from them, we made 
sail on the i6th of November. 



X 2 



3O8 ARRIVAL AT ACAPULCO. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

The remainder of the voyage, and how the ship anchored in the 
port of Acapulco. 

WE navigated with little wind to the purpose, and with 
land and sea breezes. For some time there was a current 
against us, and we were obliged to go in shore until we 
grounded on the beach of Citala. We touched bottom 
twice ; but at last we came near the port, and a boat under 
sail and oars came out to know what ship we were. The 
Captain sent a messenger in the dingey, and ordered the 
boat to keep off until we anchored in the port of Acapulco, 
on the 23rd of November, 1606. We had only one death 
that of the Father Commissary and all were in good 
health. Thanks be to God for these and all His other 
mercies shown to us during the voyage ! 

It is to be noted that when from the bay the S.E. wind 
rushed upon us, it was not settled to come to New Spain, 
for which reason we did not come, as we might have done, 
to E.N.E. To cross the line 400 leagues further east than 
we crossed it, would have made a shorter passage. If the 
N.W. wind we had when we went from Taumaco to the 
bay is constant, it would be much shorter. 

The following day was the Feast of St. Catherine the 
Martyr. The Captain left the ship with all his crew, 
following the royal standard, accompanied by many of the 
townspeople, and proceeded from the beach to the church. 
They brought Pedro and Pablo, both dressed in new 
clothes, to the font. Having said Mass, the Vicar gave 
them the oil and chrism, what they had not received before, 
because the ship was rolling so much when they were 
baptized. They returned to the ship in the same order. 

A few days after our arrival, a ship came from the 



PROCEEDINGS AT ACAPULCO. 309 

Philippines with the news that Don Pedro de Acufia, the 
Governor of them, had taken the island of Ternate with 
little loss. This was very joyful news, and was celebrated 
here by ringing of bells and rejoicing of the people. In 
Mexico they made high festival, worthy of so desirable a 
victory. I say this, and hope there will be greater festivi- 
ties for the discovery of so many islands it pleased God to 
show me. All is under one master, and it will be very just 
that they should be known to the world for the greater 
glory of God and honour of our Spain. Another ship also 
arrived, on board of which sixty-nine persons died at sea, 
of a great sickness that broke out during the voyage. I 
was told that, during the voyage, a fowl was bought for 
2,400 reals and another for 3,200, yet the owners did not 
wish to sell. 



Account of the solemnity with which the cross of orange wood 
was landed and received, that had been raised in the bay 
of St. Philip and St. James. 

Fray Juan de Mendoza, Guardian of the Convent of 
Barefoot Franciscans in this port, with much endear- 
ment, asked the Captain for the cross of orange wood, 
being envious of the veneration with which it had been 
received by the two monks of his order on the day that it 
was set up in the bay of St. Philip and St. James. He 
said he wanted to receive it on the beach, and carry it in 
procession to his convent. Over this there was a very 
honourable and holy discussion, for the Vicar of the town 
wanted to receive it with the same reverence, to put it into 
the parish church. The question was argued by both sides ; 
and, finally, owing to certain prayers, the Vicar gave up 
his claim, and the Captain gave it to the Guardian, to 
remain in his power. 

On the day of the Conception of the Mother of God, the 



310 PROCEEDINGS AT ACAPULCO. 

Captain, with the greatest solemnity possible, took the 
cross from the ship to the sea shore, and delivered it to the 
said Father Guardians, with six other monks. They 
received it on their knees with much devotion, then 
forming in procession. On each side of the cross were 
Pedro and Pablo, with lighted torches. Behind were all 
the people of the town, carrying banner and box. So we 
marched to the convent. At the door of the church there 
was a Father in vestments. The Captain, who arrived first, 
was acting as mace-bearer until he came to where the 
Guardian was, who on his knees delivered the cross to him. 
The Captain gave it to the Father, who took it into the 
church and fastened it to the high altar, with ringing of 
bells at both churches, sound of trumpets, and discharge of 
guns and of arquebuses and muskets by the soldiers. All 
the people showed their joy ; and not less did the Captain, 
although he had desired to go to Rome and put this cross 
in the hands of the Pontiff, and tell him that it was the 
first that had been raised in those new lands in the name 
of the Catholic Church. He wished to bring the natives 
as first-fruits, and to ask for all those and other great 
favours and concessions. It happened that events robbed 
him of this triumph : but he gave many thanks to God, 
through whose goodness he hopes to return the cross to 
the place whence it came. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

What happened to the Captain in Mexico, and in his voyage, until 
he arrived at the Court of Spain. 

No sooner had the crew disembarked, than there were 
persons who, to gratify their evil passions, wrote to the 
Marquis of Montes Claros, Viceroy of Mexico, and sowed 



QUIROS AT MEXICO. 311 

many letters all over the land, trying to misrepresent and 
discredit the expedition. I did my best to satisfy people 
through others, proclaiming my truthfulness and zeal. I 
sent one letter to the Viceroy, asking for orders respecting 
the disposal of the ship. They were that I was to deliver 
her to the royal officers at Acapulco, as she belonged to 
His Majesty. I did this, and left Acapulco on the first 
day of the year 1607, entering the city of Mexico on 
St. Anthony's Day. On that of St. Sebastian the Viceroy 
received me kindly, and by his order I made a report and 
narrative of all that had happened. Hearing that Don 
Luis de Velasco, who had been Viceroy of Peru at the 
time when I first proposed this voyage, was living near 
Mexico, I went to see him, and gave him an account of all 
that had happened. He gave me encouragement and 
showed me much kindness. 

Pedro, who was in Mexico, was now very conversant in 
our language. He made certain very important statements 
in answer to questions asked of him, respecting his country 
and the surrounding regions ; making known its extent, 
its food resources and riches, and how there were silver, 
gold, and pearls in abundance ; and describing the idols 
they worship, their rites and ceremonies, and how they 
ordinarily converse with the Devil. Showing him some of 
our things, he gave the names for them in his language. 
But in a short time he died, and so did the other native, 
Pablo, who was a boy with a very beautiful countenance 
and disposition. 

I again spoke with the Viceroy respecting my departure 
and my necessities. He gave me no remedy for them, but 
treated me with kindness, and said that he was about to go 
to Peru, where he had been appointed Viceroy, and that if 
I should return during his time he would issue good orders 
which all would obey, and that he felt an interest in my 
enterprise, which he understood to be a great affair. With 



312 QUIROS AT .MADRID. 

this he took leave of me, and the day of my departure 
arrived without my possessing a single dollar to set me on 
the road. But God helped me through the kindness of one 
Captain Caspar Mendez de Vera and one Leonardo de 
Oria, in San Juan de Ulloa, who received me on board his 
ship. We arrived safely at Cadiz, where I landed. I sold 
my bed to reach San Lucar, where I pawned something 
else, which enabled me to go on to Seville. There I sold 
all I had left to sustain me, and with 500 reals given to me 
by Don Francisco Duarte, and other help from my com- 
-panion, named Rodrigo Mejia, I arrived at Madrid on the 
9th of October, 1607. 



CHAPTER XL. 

What happened to the Captain during this his last visit to the Court, 
until he negotiated the issue of an order for his despatch. 

DURING the first eleven days after my arrival at the Court, 
I could not obtain the convenience for writing my memo- 
rials, nor succeed in getting an interview with the Count of 
Lemos, who was President of the Council of the Indies. At 
last he saw me, read much of this narrative, and said : 
" What right have we to these regions ? " I replied : " The 
same right as we had to possess ourselves of the others." I 
had several other interviews with him, and he ordered me 
to kiss the hand of His Majesty, and that I should see the 
Duke of Lerma, which I did. I presented many and very 
difficult memorials, giving my reasons, and declaring my 
enterprise and its advantages, and soliciting and urging my 
despatch. 

I had these memorials printed when I had the means ; 
and when I had not, they were copied, presented and dis- 
tributed among the members of the Councils of State, of 



NEWS FROM TORRES. 313 

War, and of the Indies, and the Ministers. Most of them 
received the memorials well, and seemed to value them ; 
but not for this did my despatch progress any faster. On 
the contrary, on the 6th of March, 1608, His Majesty, 
through the Duke of Lerma, sent a long memorial to the 
Council of the Indies, by which my affairs were treated 
carelessly and harshly, because on the first occasion they 
had been managed by the Council of State. In effect, they 
told me that I should receive their reply from Don 
Francisco de Tejada, who was a member of the said 
Council of the Indies. He told me that I should return to 
Peru, to the city of the Kings ; and that there the Viceroy 
would give orders as to what was to be done. I answered 
that it would not be well to send me on so long a voyage, 
on so serious a business, without knowing what would be 
done. So I went on sending my memorials, and I had 
hopes for better success : because, at that time, the Council 
received a letter, which Juan de Esquirel, Master of the 
Camp at Ternate, wrote to the Audience of the city of 
Manilla, in which he said that there had arrived in that 
port a vessel, whose Captain was one Luis Velcz de Torres, 
said to be one of the three under the command of the Cap- 
tain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, with which he left Peru 
to discover the unknown parts to the south. " He says he 
parted company 1,500 leagues from here, and had coasted 
along for 800 leagues of a land. He arrived in want, 
and I supplied him with what I could. He goes to 
Manilla, and will send a more particular account to your 
Highness." 

Afterwards,! saw the narrative of the voyage of Luis Vaez, 
in possession of the Constable of Castille, which gave me 
great pleasure, and incited me to send in more memorials, 
praying for my despatch, and for the things that must be 
conceded with a view to it. But my ill-luck was so great, that 
I could never get anything settled. All appeared to point 



3 14 DESPATCH OF QUIROS. 

to my detention, and at times I was depreciated by the 
Ministers, and especially by those of the Council of the 
Indies ; for I always found more recognition from those 
of the Council of State. 

Seeing this, I procured another audience of His Majesty, 
and obtained what I wanted, on Epiphany, in the year 
1609, after dinner, being favoured in this, as in other 
things, by the Marquis of Velada. I showed my papers, 
maps and sea-charts : explained which were the lands I 
proposed to seek, and their grandeur ; and related the 
events of the voyages I had already made. Having seen all 
my demonstrations with interest, he rose ; and, asking for 
my despatch, the Marquis answered that all would be well. 

So, on the 7th of February, a decree was issued really 
treating of this business, and granting me some money in 
aid. After several consultations, and an order for me to 
frame an estimate of the expenses of the expedition, 
another decree came out, passing the business on to the 
Council of the Indies ; where I had to begin all over again, 
and at the end of many months an order was given to me, 
according to the following tenor : 

Royal Order. 

The King. To the Marquis of-Montes Claros, my cousin, 
my Viceroy, Governor, and Captain- General of the provinces of 
Peru ; or to the person or persons in whose charge the govern- 
ment may be. The Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, who, as 
you have been informed, is the person who has undertaken the 
discovery of the unknown land in the south, has represented to 
me how that, I having ordered the necessary despatch through my 
Council of State, for him to make the said discoveries, and that 
the Viceroys, your predecessors, were to supply him with all that 
was necessary for the voyage, he sailed with this object from the 
port of Callao on the 2ist of December, of the year 1605, with 
two ships and a launch, having on board crews and the rest that 
was needed, and steered W.S.W. until he reached the latitude of 
26 S., by which course, and by others, he discovered twenty 
islands twelve inhabited by various tribes and three-parts of a 
land which he conceived to be all one, and suspected to be conti- 



DESPATCH OF QUIROS. 315 

nental, and a great bay with a good port within it ; whence he 
sailed with the three vessels, with the object of exploring a great 
and high chain of mountains to the S.W. ; and in returning to the 
said port the Almiranta and the launch anchored. But the Capi- 
tana, in which he was, could not, and was driven out ; for which 
cause, and for many others which obliged him, he arrived at the 
Port of Acupulco, whence he came to Spain to give me an account 
of the success of the voyage, in the year 1607. He stated that 
the land he had discovered was pleasant, temperate, and yielding 
many different kinds of fruits ; the people domestic and disposed 
to receive our Holy Faith ; and that what was left to be seen and 
discovered is much more beyond comparison. With great per- 
severance he has prayed and supplicated me to consider the 
importance of this discovery and settlement, and the great service 
it will be to our Lord that this land should be settled and the 
Faith planted in it, bringing to the bosom of the Church and to 
a knowledge of the truth such an infinite number of souls as there 
are in that new world, where he has taken possession in a good 
port, and celebrated Mass; as well as the usefulness and aggran- 
dizement that will result to my crown, and to all my kingdoms. 
His object and intention is no more than to perform this service 
to our Lord, and to follow that cause which he had served for so 
many years, suffering shipwrecks and hardships ; it is now ordered 
that he be provided with all things necessary again to make that 
voyage and form a settlement ; for which it is necessary that he 
should have a thousand men of this kingdom, of which twelve to 
be monks of the Order of St. Francis, or Capuchins, who must 
be learned, with the necessary powers, and provided with requisites 
and ornaments ; also six Brothers of St. John of God, medical man, 
surgeon, barbers, and medicines ; and that in these provinces he 
be given ships, artillery, muskets, arquebuses, and other weapons 
and stores that may be necessary ; also a quantity of things for 
bartering with natives, a good store of iron in sheets, and tools to 
cultivate the land and work mines. 1 

By reason of my great desire that the said discovery and settle- 
ment should take effect, for the good of the souls of those natives, 
I have ordered the said Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros to 
return to Peru by the first opportunity ; and I charge and order 
you that as soon as he arrives you are to make arrangements for 
his despatch, and provide all he requires for the voyage, by account 
of my royal treasury, so that it may be done with all speed, not 
offering any obstacle, but giving all the supplies necessary, and 
orders that he may be obeyed by all who go with him and under 
his command ; and let all else be done that is convenient and 
usual in making other similar voyages, discoveries, and settle- 



6,000 quintals in the second Order. 



316 QUIROS NOT SATISFIED. 

ments. I order the officers of my royal revenues to comply in 
conformity with this decree ; and for this compliance this is my 
command. 1 I again charge you to despatch the Captain Quiros 
well and speedily ; and you advise me that you have done so, for 
I shall be pleased to know it, honouring, favouring, and treating 
him well : for in this you will serve me. I, the King. By com- 
mand of the King our Lord. Gabriel de Hoa. Witnessed by 
those of the Council. 

Copy of a letter which the Secretary, Gabriel de Hoz> sent to 
the Viceroy with the Royal Order. 

Captain Quiros returns to the kingdom with the enclosed des- 
patch, in pursuance of his discovery : " I have assisted here in 
this cause with much trouble and inconvenience, and with great 
zeal, for the service of our Lord and of His Majesty. Your Excel- 
lency animates, enforces, and helps this enterprise in furtherance 
of the orders of His Majesty, whose will is that Captain Quiros 
shall have quick despatch and good treatment, which your Excel- 
lency will know how to extend to one whose labours and voyages 
merit recognition, and who again offers himself for other greater 
labours. May our Lord guard your Excellency as I desire. 
Madrid, December iQth, 1609." 



CHAPTER XLI. 

Of what the Captain did after he had received this Order, and 
how he was given another. 

I WAS not satisfied with this Order, because it was confused, 
and did not give me the power that was necessary to order 
myself what was necessary for my despatch ; and because 
in effect it left it open for the Viceroy to order from what 
port in Peru I should sail as he might choose. Remember- 
ing how badly the orders and decrees of His Majesty are 
complied with in distant provinces, even when they are 
very imperative, I began again to send in more memorials 



1 In the second Order : " In this kingdom I have ordered 6,000 
ducats in aid of expenses on the way out, and 3,000 quintals of iron to 
be bought at Seville, and sent out." 



REVISED ORDER. 317 

representing these inconveniences, and declaring that 
500,000 ducats were required for my undertaking, and for 
what I had to spend and distribute ; and 1 sent in a 
detailed account of how I had spent what was given me 
for the last expedition. 

Don Francisco de Tejada told me that there were not 
wanting those who considered that the despatch they had 
given me was well enough. I replied that it must have 
been measured out according to my small merits, not 
according to the grandeur and necessities of the work. 
So I went on sending in more and more memorials to His 
Majesty, his Councils and Councillors, until in the month 
of May I was sent for by the Secretary, Antonio de 
Aroztegui, who told me that things had been arranged 
as I wished, as regards the terms of the Order and the 
expenses. I answered that the expenses of a cabin boy 
were enough for me personally if the despatch was good ; 
that I did not put a price on my services. With this 
object I began new memorials to the Council of State, 
and when I thought that I was about to secure my desires, 
the business was again turned over to the Council of the 
Indies. In this Council, as the feeling was cold towards 
me and my cause, they turned and twisted much that His 
Majesty had ordered. On the 1st of November, 1610, they 
gave me an Order of the following tenor : 

Revised Royal Order. 

The King. To the Marquis of Montes Claros, my cousin, my 
Viceroy and Captain General of the provinces of Peru, or 
to the person or persons in whose charge their government 
may be. 1 . 

Dated at San Lorenzo, the ist of November, 1610. I the 
King. By order of the King our Lord, Pedro de Ledesma. 

1 Same as the former Order, except that 6,000 ducats are granted 
for expenses on the way out ; and the quantity of sheet iron is specified 
and ordered to be bought at Seville. 



318 MORE DELAYS. 

CHAPTER XLII. 

Of what the Captain did after having received the above Order. 

SEEING the weakness of the new Royal Order, and that 
there was wanting in it many things for which I had 
stipulated and which I held to be important for my 
enterprise, I again renewed my representations to the 
Council of State that they might be conceded to me, and 
sent in several memorials with this object, and others 
to represent the harm done to the enterprise by the 
delay ; that now the English and Dutch would hear of it, 
and that if we did not occupy first, they might get those 
lands and seas into their power. The result was that I 
was detained longer, with an Order that a certain quantity 
of money was to be allowed to me each month for my 
sustenance, and 300 ducats to pay my debts, which was 
insufficient. Other help was given me by the good secre- 
tary, Antonio de Aroztegui. 

I also submitted a memorial in which I proposed the 
way that, in my opinion, the discovery, settlement, and 
government of those nations should be conducted; avoiding 
the evils which, by adopting other ways, had accompanied 
former discoveries. All this was heard and received well, 
but unluckily my despatch was delayed, and at the end of 
many years 1 the Secretary, Juan de Eiriza, read to me and 
gave me a letter to this effect : " Resolved by His Majesty 
in the business of Captain Quiros, that in an affair of such 
magnitude it is necessary to proceed circumspectly, and to 
be sure of the consequences of each step. His Majesty will 
rejoice that half should be given for the discovery desired 
by Quiros. For this he is to return to Peru, and follow the 

1 Months (?). 



HOPE FROM THE NEW VICEROY. 319 

instructions given to him by the Viceroy, with the assurance 
that they will be such as if he alone had the conduct of the 
discovery." To this decree I answered what appeared 
convenient, referring to my honour and that of the cause ; 
and declaring that I could not go except with sufficient 
papers and securities very clearly and positively drawn up. 

But the more time slipped away the more my claims 
went back, owing to those who were against me, and the 
little confidence they had in myself and in my promises. 
As the Council of State would not decide anything without 
first referring it to the Council of the Indies, my prospects 
became worse. Don Luis de Velasco, who had come as 
President of that Council, instead of helping me, owing to 
having been the person who first received my project in 
Peru, and to having received such full notice of it, was 
the least favourable. Finally, Don Francisco de Borja, 
Prince of Esquilache, having been appointed Viceroy of 
Peru, both Councils concurred in giving me an order to go 
out with him, assuring me that he had an urgent order 
from His Majesty to despatch me as soon as I should 
arrive at Callao, and to arrange for everything that was 
necessary for my voyage. On this subject there was a 
meeting in the house of the President of the Council of the 
Indies, at which the new Viceroy was present. He assured 
me that what I wanted would certainly be done : that he 
was able to promise ; and that if there was any wrong in 
the business of my despatch, it was not to be charged 
to him for the value of the whole world, because he was 
jealous of his reputation. 

With this, and seeing that in so many years I could not 
negotiate anything else, and that my life and patience were 
worn out, I determined to put into his hands my life and 
work. He said : " Trust me, and see what I shall do." 
Afterwards I spoke with him several times, and made him 
thoroughly acquainted with my affairs, and with what was 



320 QUIROS TRUSTS THE VICEROY. 

necessary for them. I had been anxious to send to Rome 
to ask for certain grants from His Holiness. I petitioned, 
and the Prince gave me the following certificate : 

Don Francisco de Borja, Prince of Esquilache, Count of 
Mayalda, Gentleman of the Chamber of the King our Lord, and 
his Viceroy and Captain-General of his kingdoms of Peru : I 
certify that His Majesty has ordered me to take in my company 
the Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, that I may despatch him 
from the Port of Callao to the settlement of the southern region ; 
and that this will be when I may judge it to be convenient, and 
the state of affairs in Peru makes it proper to carry it out. 
Given in Madrid on the aist of October, 1614. 





PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



G 

288 
Q55 
v.l 



Queiros, Pedro Fernandes de 

The voyages of Pedro 
Fernandez de Quiros