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Full text of "A voyage to the Pacific ocean. Undertaken, by the command of His Majesty, for making discoveries in the Northern hemisphere, to determine the position and extent of the west side of North America; its distance from Asia; and the practicability of a northern passage to Europe. Performed under the direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore, in His Majesty's ships the Resolution and Discovery, in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780"

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:l^:6-X-'^^1x' ir 

JManm ^toiogical Ubomforu Ubrartj^ 

^oYAQ^s ' OF ♦ Exploration 



<TfiiM£hia urchitut. ncjihcW of 
nhomas Jiarnson Montgmncrtj 11873-1912), 
(MBL im'esti^atffr and Tmalla ^rmlin 
CMcnt^mcru (1874-1956), MBL Ubranan. 

^^of tharsmi Cffu^h ^mtgmert^, M.D. 
m^ l^fiunKUKi 'S. Mont^cmeru — 1987. 








Difcoverles in the Northern Hemifphere. 


The Position and Extent of the West Side of North America} 

its Distance from Asia ; and the Practicability of a 

Northern Passage to Europe. 


Captains COOK, C L E R K E, and GORE, 

In his Majesty's Ships the RESOLUTION and DISCOVERY. 
In the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780. 


VOL. I. and n. written by Captain JAMES COOK, F.R.S. 
• VOL. m. by Captain JAMES KING, LL. D. and F.R.S. 

Illuftrated with Maps and Charts, from the Original Drawings made by Lieut. Henry Roberts, 

under the Dircifiion of Captain Cook ; and with a great Variety of Portraits of Perfons, Views 

of Places, and Hirtorical Reprefentalions of Remarkable Incidents, drawn by Mr, 

Webber during the Voyage, and engraved by the moll eminent Artilh. 

Publiflied by Order of the Lords Commiffioners of the Admiralty. 

V O L. J. 







O F T H E 


Introduction. Page i 

Infcr'ipt'ion to the Memory of Captain James Cook. Ixxxvii 

■ Liji of the Plates. xci 

B O O K I. 

Tranfadions from the Beginning of the Voyage till our 
Departure from New Zealand. 
C H A P.^ I. 

J/' A R 10 U S Preparations for the J oyage. — Omai's Bebavlour on 

eviharking. — Ohfcr-vat'ions for determining the Longitude oj Sheer' 

nefy and the North Foreland. — P^ff'ige of the Refoliition front 

Deptford to PlymoutJi. — Employments there. — Complements of the 

Creivs of both Ships^ and Names of the Officers. — Obfervations to 

fx the Longitude of Plymouth. — Departure of the B.efjlution. 

Page I 
C H A P. II. 

Paffage of the Refolution to Teneriffe. — Reception there. — Dcfcription 
of Santa Cruz Road, — RefrefJjments to be met ix'ith. — Ohfervations 

A 2 for 


for fixing the Longitude of Tener'iffe. — Some Account of the Iftand. 
— Botanical Ob/ervations.-— Cities of Santa Cruz and Laguna. — 
Agriculture. — Air and Climate. — Commerce.^—hihabitants. 14 


Departure from Teneriffe.— Danger of the Ship near Bonavijla. — Iflc 
of M'lyo. — Port Pray a. — Precautions againfi the Rain and fultry 
•weather in the Neighbourhood of the Equator. — Pofition of the Coaji 
of Brazil. — Arrival at the Cape of Good Hope. — Tranfa^ions 
there. — JunSlion of the Difcovery. — Mr. Anderfons Journey up 
the Country. — Afrononiical Obfcrvations, — Nautical Remarks on 
the Pajfage from England to the Cape^ tvith regard to the Cur- 
rents and the Variation. ' 29 


The two Ships leave the Cape of Good Hope. — Tivo I/lands, tiamed 
Prince Edivard's, feen., and their Appearance defcribed. — AVr- 
guelen's Land vifited. — Arrival in Chrijlmas Harbour. — Occur- 
rences there. — Defcription of it. 51 


Departure from Chrifimas Harbour. — Range along the Coaft., to difco- 
ver its Pofitkm and Extent. — Several Promontories and Bays, and 
a Peninfula, defcribed and named. — Danger from Shoals. — Another 
Harbour and a Sound. Mr. Anderfons Obfervations on the natural 
Produflions, Animals, Soil, (^'C. of Kerguelen s Land. 70 


Paffcige from Kerguelen'' s to Van Dionens Land. — Arrival in Ad- 
venture Bay. — Incidents there. — hitervieivs luith the Natives.^ 
Their Perfons and Drefs defcribed. — Account of their Behaviour. — 
Table of the Longitude, Latitude, and Variation, — Mr. Anderfons 
Obfervations on the natural Productions of the Country, on the In- 
habitants, and their Language. 9 1 




The Pajfage from Van D'lemeiCs Land to New Zealand. — Employ- 
ments in ^leen Charlotte* s Sound. — Tranfadicns zvith the Natives 
there. — Intelligence about the MaJJ'acre of the Adventure's Boat^s 
Creiv. — Account of the Chief ivho headed the Party on that Occa- 
fion. — Of the two young Men nvho embark to attend Omai. — Various 
Remarks on the Inhabitants. — ^Jlronomical and Nautical Obferva- 
tions. I r 8 


Mr. Anderfon^s Remarks on the Country tiear ^leen Charlotte's Sound. 
— The Soil. — Climate. — Weather. — Winds. — Trees. — Plants.— 
Birds.— Fif:.— Other yl7iimals.—0f the Inhabitants — Befcription 

of their Perfons. — Their Drefs. — Ornaments. — Habitations Boats. 

— Food and Cookery. — Arts. — Weapons. — Cruelty to Prifoners. — 
Various Cujloms.— Specimen of their Language. 145 

B O O K II. 

From leaving New Zealand, to our Arrival at Otakeite, 
or the Society Iflands. 


P rofecution of the Voyage. — Behaviour of the two New Zealanden on 
board. — Unfavourable nvinds. — An I/land called Mangeca difcovered. 
—The Coaji of it examined. — Tranf anions ivith the Natives. — An 
Account of their Perfons, Drefs, and Canoe. — Defcription of the 
I/land. — A Specimen of the Language, — Difpoftion of the Inhabit^ 
ants. iGy 



The Difcovery of an Jjland called Wateeoo.— Its Coajls examined — Vifitj 
from the Natives on hoard the Ships.— Meff. Gore. Burney, and^ 
Anderfon, ivith Owal, fcnt on Shore. — Mr. Anderfoiis Narrative 
of their Reception. — Omal's Expedient to prevent their being de- 
tained. — His meeting zuUhfome of his Countrymen, a7id their difrefs- 
fiilVoy age.— -Farther A corint of Wateeoo, and of its Inhabitants, i 80 


Wenooa-ctte, or Otakootaia, vlfitcd. — AccoiKit of that If and., and of 
its Produce. Hervey''s Jfland, or Terougge 7nou Attooa., found to 
be Inhabited. — TranfiElhns ivlth the Natives. — Their Perfons, 
Drefs., Language, Canors. — Fruit lefs Attempt to land there. — Rea- 
fons for bearing away for the Friendly Iflands. — Pahnerjlons IJland 
touched at. — Defcrlptlon of t'.e tivo Places ivhere the Boats landed. 
— Refrefnicnts obtained there. — Conjtclures on the Formation of 
fuch law I/lands. — Arrival at the Friendly Jjlands. 205 


Intercourfe with the Natives of Komango, and other Iflands — Arrival 
at Annajnooka. — TranfacTions there. — Feenou, a principal Chief, 
from Tongataboo, conies on a V.ift. — "^Ibe Manner of his Receptlm in 
the Ifland, and on board. — Inf::nces of the piferlng Difpofition of 
the Natives. — Some Account of Annamooka. — The Paffage from it 
to H paee. 225 


Arrival of the Ships at Hapaee, and friendly Receptlm there. — Prc- 

fents and Solemnities on the Occafion. — Single Combats ivith Clubs. 

— Wrefling and Boxing-^natches. — Feynale Combatants. — Marines 

exercifed. — A Dance performed by Men. — Fireworks exhibited. — 

J he Night'entertainment s of finglng and dancing particularly dc- 

fcribed. 242 




T>efcription of Lefooga. — Its cultivated State.— Its Extent. — Tranfac- 
tions there. — A Female OcuUJi. — Singular Expedients for JJjaving 
off the Hair. — 'The Ships change their Station. — A remarkable 
Mount and Sto?ie. — Defer /'ptiou of Hoolaiva. — Account of Poulaho, 
King of the Friendly Iflands. — Refpcflful Manner in ivhich he is 
treated by his People. — Departure from the Hapaee Iflands. — Some 
Account of Kotoo. — Return of the Ships to Anuamooka. — Poulaho 
and Fe emu meet. — Ar-iival at Fongataboo. 2.56 

CHAP, vii: 

Friendly Reception at Fongataboo. — Manner of dfiributing a baked 
Hog and Kava to Poulaho' s Attendants, — The Obferviitory^ &c. 
ereiled. — Fhe Village inhere the Chiefs rcfuie, and the adjoining 
Country^ defcribed. — Intervieivs nvith Mareeivagee, and Tooboa, 
and the King's Syti. — A grand Haiva, or Entertainment of Songs 
and Dances, given by Maree-iuagee. — Exhibition of Fire-ivorks.— - 
Manner of WrefUng and Boxing. — Di/lribution of the Cattle.— 
Thfts committed by the Natives. — Poulaho, and the other Chiefs,, 
confined on. that Account. — Poulaho^ Prefnt., and Haiva, ayS- 

CHAP. viir. 

Some of the Officers plundered by the Natives. — A fjVing Partjf. — 
A Viftt to Poulaho. — A Fiatooka defcrihed.—Obfrvations on the 
Country Entertainment at Poulaho' s lloife. — His Mourning, Cere- 
mony: — Of the Kava Plant., and the Manner of preparing the Li- 
quor. — Account of Onevy, a little Ifland. — One of the Natives 
ivounded by a Sentinel. — Meffrs. King and Anderfon vifit the Ki>g''s 

Brother. — Their Entertainment. — Another Mourning Ceremony 

Mariner of p offing the Night. — Remarh on the Country they paffed 
through. — Preparations made for failing. — An EcHpfe of the Sun, 
imperfeSlly obferved.— Mr.. Anderfon s Account of the Ifland, aud- 
its ProduBions, 309 


C H A P. IX. 

A grand Solemnity ■> called Natche, in Jlonour of the King's Son, 
performed. — The Procejfions and other Ceremonies., during the frji 
Day., defcribed. — The Manner of pajfuig the Night at the King's 
Houfe.— Continuation of the Solemnity, the next Day. — Conj enures 
about the Nature of it. — Departure from Tongataboo, and Arrival 
at Eooa. — Account of that I/land^ and TranfaSlions there. 336 


Advantages derived from v if ting the Friendly I/lands. — Bef Articles 
for Traffic. — RcfrefJmients that may be procured. — The Number of 
the Jfands, and their Names. — Keppel's and Bofcaiven's I/lands [be- 
long to them. — Account of Vavaoo — of Hamoa — ofFeejee. — Voyages 
of the Natives in their Canoes. — Difficulty of procuring exaB In- 
formation. — Ferfons of the Inhabitants of both Sexes. — Their Colour. 

Difeafes.— Their general CharaBcr. — Manner of ivearing their 

Hair — of punHuring their Bodies. — Their Clothuig and Ornaments. 
'—Perfonal Clcanlinefs. 364. 


Employments of the Women, at the Friendly Iflands. — Of the Men. — 
Agriculture. — Confruclion of their Honfes. — Their ivorking Tools, 
— Cordage., and ffl.nng Implements. — Mufical Infruments. — Wea- 
pons. — Food, and Cookery. — Amufements. — Marriage. — Mourning 
Ceremonies for the Dead. — Their Divinities. — Notions about the 
Soul, and a future State. — Their Places of WorfJAp. — Government. 
— Manner of paying Obeifance to the King. — Account of the Royal 
FatJiilf. — Remarks on their Language, and a Specimen of it. — Nau- 

. tical and other Obfervations. 390 

Page 206, line 24, /or latitude 19° 15' South, read latitude 19° 51' South. 


TH E fpirit of difcovery, which had long animated the 
European nations, having, after its arduous and fuc- 
cefsful exertions, during the fifteenth and fixteenth cen- 
turies, gradually fubfided, and for a confiderable time lain 
dormant, began to revive in Great Britain in the late 
reign * ; and recovered all its former activity, under the 
cherifliing influence, and munificent encouragement, of his 
prefent Majefly. 

Soon after his acceflion to the throne, having happily 
clofed the deflrudlive operations of war, he turned his 
thoughts to enterprizes more humane, but not lefs bril- 
liant, adapted to the feafon of returning peace. While 
every liberal art, and ufeful fludy, flourifhed under his pa- 
tronage at home, his fuperintending care was extended to 
I'uch branches of knowledge, as required diftant examina- 
tion and inquiry ; and his fhips, after bringing back vidlory 
and conqueft from every quarter of the known world, were 

* Two voyages for difcovering a North Weft paflage, through Huclfon's Bay 
were then performed ; one under the command of Captain Middleton, in his Majefty's 
fhips the Furnace, and the Difcovery Pink, in 1741, and 1742. The other under 
the direftion of Captains Smith and Moore, in the fhips Dobbs and California, fitted 
out by fubfcription, in 1746, and 1747. 

Vol. I. a now 



now employed in opening friendly communications with its 
hitherto unexplored receffes. 

In the profecution of an object fo worthy of the Monarch 
of a great commercial people, one voyage followed another 
in clofe fucceffion ; and, we may add, in regular grada- 
tion. What Byron * had begun, Wallis f and Carteret |. 
foon improved. Their fuccefs gave birth to a far more ex- 
renfive plan of difcovery, carried into execution, in two fub- 
fequent voyages, conducted by Cook §. And that nothing 
might be left unattempted, though much had been already 
done, the fame Commander, whofe profeffional fliiil could 
only be equalled by the perfevering diligence with which 
he had exerted it, in the courfe of his former refearches, 
■was called upon, once more, to refume, or rather to com- 
plete, the furvey of the globe. Accordingly, another voyage 
was undertaken in 1776; which, though laft in the order of 
time, v/as far from being the leaft confiderable, with re- 
fped to the extent and importance of its objecfls ; yet. Hill, 
far iefs fortunate than any of the former, as thofe objefts 

* Captain, now Admiral, Byron, had, ur.der his command, the Dolphin and 
Tamer. He failed in June IjGj^, and returned in May 1766. 

f Captain Waliis had, under his command, the Dolphin and Swallow. He failed 
in AuguH 1766, and returned, with the Dolphin, in May 1768. 

X The Swallow, commanded by Captain Carteret, having been feparated from 
.Wall!?, and, by keeping a different route, having made different difcoveries, this may- 
be confidered as a diftiniSl voyage. The Swallow returned to England in March. 
J 769. 

§ Captain Cookj in the Endeavour, failed in Augufl: 1768, and returned in 
July 1771. 

In his fecond voyage, he had the Refolution and Adventure under his command. 
They failed from England in July 1772, and returned on the 30th of July X775. 




'were not accomplifhed, but at the expence of the valuable 
life of its Condudor. 

When plans, caTculated to be of general utility, are car- 
ried into execution with partial views, and upon interefted 
motives, it is natural to attempt to confine, within fomc 
narrow circle, the advantages which might have been de- 
rived to the world at large, by an unreferved difclofure of 
all that had been effeded. And, upon this principle, it has 
too frequently been confidered as found policy, perhaps, in 
this country, as well as amongfl: fome of our neighbours, 
to afFc6l to draw a veil of fecrecy over the refult of enter- 
prizes to difcover and explore unknown quarters of the 
globe. It is to the honour of the prefent reign, that more 
liberal views have been now adopted. Our late voyages, 
from the very extenfive objeds propofed by them, could not 
but convey ufeftil information to every European nation ; 
and, indeed, to every nation, however remote, which cul- 
tivates commerce, and is acquainted witli -navigation : and 
that information has moil laudably been afforded. The 
fame enlarged and benevolent fpirit, which ordered thefe 
feveral expeditions to be undertaken, has alfo taken care 
that the refult of their various difcoveries fhould be authen- 
tically recorded. And the tranfacflions of the five firft 
voyages round the world having, in due time, been com- 
municated *, under the authority of his^Majedy's naval 
Minifter; thofe of the fixth, which, befides revificing many 
of the former difcoveries in the Southern, carried its opera- 

♦ The account of the four firfl: of thcfe voyages, compiled by Dr. Hawkefworth, 
from the Journals of the feveral Commanders, was publifhed in 1772, in Three Vo- 
lumes quarto; and Captain Cook's own account of the fifth, in 1777, in Two Vo- 
lumes (-luarto, 

a 2 t-ions 


tions into untrodden paths in the Northern hemifphere, are, 
under the fame fandion, now fubmitted to the PubHc in 
thefe Volumes. 

One great plan of nautical inveftigation having been pur- 
fued throughour, it is obvious, that the feveral voyages have a 
clofe connection, and that an exa6t recolledlion of what had 
been aimed ar, and efFetfted, in thofe that preceded, will 
throw confiderable light on our period. With a view, there- 
fore, to aflift the Reader in forming a juft eflimate of the 
additional information conveyed by this Publication, it may 
not be improper to lay before him a fliort, though compre- 
henfive, abftracft of the principal objedls that had been pre- 
vioufly accomplifhed, arranged in fuch a manner, as may 
ferve to unite, into one point of view, the various articles 
which lie Scattered through the voluminous Journals al- 
ready in the hands of the Public ; thofe compiled by Dr. 
Hawkefworth ; and that which was written by Captain 
Cook himfelf. By thus fliewing what had been formerly 
done, how much ftill remained for fubfequent examina- 
tion, will be more apparent ; and it will be better underflood 
on what grounds, though the fhips of his IVIajefty had al- 
ready circumnavigated the world five different times, in the 
courfe of about ten years, another voyage JCbould ftill be 
thought expedient. 

There will be a farther ufe in giving fuch an abftra<5t a* 
place in this Introdudion. The plan of difcovery, carried 
on in fo many fucceffive expeditions, being naw, we may 
take upon us to fay, in a great meafure completed; by 
fumming up the final refult, we fhall be better able to do 
juftice to the benevolent purpofes it was defigned to anfwer;. 
and a folid foundation will be laid, on which we may build 

a' fa- 


a fatisfadory anfwer to a queftion, fometimes afked by 
peevifli refinement, and ignorant malevolence, What bene- 
ficial confequences, if any, have foUovired, or are likely to- 
follow, to the difcoverers, or to the difcovered, to the com- 
mon interefls of humanity, or to the increafe of ufeful 
knowledge, from all our boafted attempts to explore the dif- 
tant receifes of the globe ? 

The general objedl of the feveral voyages round the world 
undertaken by the command of his Majefty, prior to that 
related in this work, was to fearch for unknown traifls of 
land that might exifl: within the bofom of the immenfe 
expanfe of ocean that occupies the whole Southern hemi- 

Within that fpace, fo few refearches had been made, 
before our time, and thofe few refearches had been made 
fo imperfedlly, that the refult of them, as communicated 
to the world in any narration, had rather ferved to create 
imcertainty, than to convey information ; to deceive the 
credulous, rather thun to fatisfy the judicious inquirer; by 
blending the true geography of above half the fuperficies of 
the earth, with an endlefs variety of plauftble conjeftures, 
fuggefted by ingenious fpeculation ; of idle tales, handed 
down by obfcure tradition ; or of bold fi(5lions, invented by 
deliberate falfehood. 

It would have been very unfortunate, indeed, if jSve dif- 
ferent circumnavigators of the globe, fome of them, at 
leaft, if not all, in tracks little known, and lefs frequented', 
had produced no difcoveries, to reward the difficulties and 
perils unavoidably encountered. But the following review 
will furnifli the moft fatisfadlory proofs, that his Majefty's 
inftrutflions have been executed with ability; and that the 




repeated vifits of his lliips to the Southern hemifphepc, 
have very confiderably added to our flock o^ geographical 


The South Atlantic Ocean was the firft fcene of our ope- 
rations. Falkland's Iflands had been hitherto barely known 
to exift ; but their true pofition and extent, and every cir- 
cumftancc which could render their exiftence of any con- 
fequence, remained abfolutely undecided, till Byron vifited 
them in 1764. And Captain Macbride, who followed him 
thither two years after, having circumnavigated their coafts, 
and taken a complete furvey, a chart of Falkland's Iflands has 
been conftrucfted, with fo much accuracy, that the coafts of 
Great Britain, itfelf, are not more authentically laid down 
upon our maps. 

How little was really known of the iflands in the South 
Atlantic, even fo late as the time of Lord Anfon, v/e have 
the moft remarkable proofs, in the Fliftory of his voyage. 
Unavoidably led into miflake, by the imperfetfl mate- 
rials then in the poffeflion of the world, he had confldered 
Pepys's Ifland, and Falkland Ifles, as diftincft places, diflant 
from each other about five degrees of latitude *. Byron's 
refearches have rectified this capital error; and it is now de- 
cided, beyond all contradi6lion, that future navigators li-iH 
m'lfp end their time, if they look for Pepys's Ifland in latitude 47° ; it 
being noiv certain, that Pepys^s I/land is no other than thefe iflands 
of Falkland f . 

* See Lord Anfon's Voyage, quarto edition, p. 91. 

t Thefe are Captain Cook's words. Preface to his Voyage, p. 14.. ; and the evi- 
dence, on which he forms this judgment, may he met -with- in Hawkefworth's Journal 
of Byron's Voyage, Vol, i. p. 23, 24. — 51, 52, <l, 54. 

2 Befides 


Befides the determination of this confiderable point, other 
lands, fituated in the Soutii Atlantic, have been brought 
forward into view. If the ifle of Georgia had been for- 
merly feen by La Roche, in 1675, and by Mr. Guyot, in the 
Ihip Lion, in 175^, which feems to be probable, Captain Cook, 
in ly;^, has made us fully acquainted with its extent and 
true pofition; and, in the fame year, he added to the map 
of the world Sandwich Land, hitherto not known to exift, 
and the moll: Southern difcovery that has been ever accom- 
plifhed *. 


Though the Strait of Magalhaens had been frequently 
vifited, and failed through, by flaips of different nations, 
before our time, a careful examination of ' its bays, and 
harbours, and head-lands ; of the numerous iflands it con- 
tains, and of the coafts, on both fides, that inclofe it; and 
an exa(5l account of the tides, and currents, and foundings, 
throughout its whole extent, was a tafk, which, if Sir 
John Narborough, and others, had not totally omitted, 
they cannot be faid to have recorded fo fully, as to pre- 
clude the utility of future inveftigation. This tafk has 
been ably and efFecftually performed by Byron, Wallis, and 
Carteret ; whofe tranfadlions in this Strait, and the chart of 
it, founded on their obfervations and difcoveries, are a moft 
valuable acceflion to geography. 


If the correal information, thus obtained, about every 
part of this celebrated Strait, fliould deter future adven- 
turers from involving therafelves in the difficulties and ' 

* See the Chart of Difcoveries in the South Atlantic. Cook's Voyage, Vol. ii, 
p. 210. 

crabarraiTments - 


embarrafTments of a labyrinth, now known to be fo intri- 
cate, and the unavoidable fource of danger and delay, we 
have the fatisfa(5tion to have difcovered, that a fafer and 
more expeditious entrance into the Pacific Ocean, may be 
reafonably depended upon. The pafTage round Cape Horn, 
has been repeatedly tried, both from the Eaft and from the 
Wed, and ftript of its terrors. We fliall, for the future, be 
lefs difcouraged by the labours and diftrefles experienced by 
the fquadrons of Lord Anfon and Pizarro, when we recoi- 
led, that they were obliged to attempt the navigation of thofe 
feas at an unfavourable feafon of the year ; and that there 
was nothing very formidable met with there, when they 
were traverfed by Captain Cook. 

To this diftinguiflied navigator was referved the honour 
of being the firfl:, who, from a feries of the moft fatisfadory 
obfervations, beginning at the Wed entrance of the Strait of 
Magalhaens, and carried on, with unwearied diligence, 
round Tierra del Fuego, through the Strait of Le Maire, has 
conftruded a chart of the Southern extremity of America, 
from which it will appear, how much former navigators 
muft have been at a lofs to guide themfelves, and what 
advantages will now be enjoyed by thofe who fliall here- 
after fail round Cape Horn. 


As the voyages of difcovery, undertaken by his Majefly's 
command, have facilitated the accefs of fliips into the Pa- 
cific Ocean, they have alfo greatly enlarged our knowledge 
of its contents. 

Though the immenfe expanfe ufually diftinguifhed by 

this appellation, had been navigated by Europeans for 

'I near 


near tv/o centuries and a half*, by far the greater part of 
it, particularly to the South of the equator, had remained, 
during all this time, unexplored. 

The great aim of Magalhaens, and of the Spaniards in 
general, its firft navigators, being merely to arrive, by this 
paflage, at the Moluccas, and the other Afiatic Spice Iflands, 
every intermediate part of the ocean that did not lie conti- 
guous to their Weftern track, which was on the North fide 
of the equator, of courfe efcaped due examination ; and if 
Mendana and Quiros, and fome namelefs conducflors of 
voyages before them fj by deviating from this track, and 
holding a Wefterly one from Callao, within the Southern 
tropic, were' fo fortunate as to meet with various iflands 
there, and fo fanguine as to confider thofe iflands as marks 
of the exiftence of a neighbouring Southern continent ; in 
the exploring of which they flattered themfelves they fhould 
rival the fame of De Gama and Columbus ; thefe feeble 
efforts never led to any effedual difclofure of the fuppofed 
hidden mine of the- New World. On the contrary, their 
voyages being conduced without ajudicious plan, and their 
difcoveries being left irnperfecft without immediate fet- 
tlement, or fubfequent examination, and fcarcely recorded 
in any well-authenticated or accurate narrations, had been 
almoft forgot; or were fo obfcurely remembered, as only to 
ferve the purpofe of producing perplexing debates about 
their fituation and extent ; if not to fugged doubts about 
their very exiftence. 

* Magalhaens's Voyage v/as undertaken in 1519. 

•f- See the particulars of their difcoveries in Mr. Dalrymple's valuable Colicclion 
of Voyages in the South Pacific Ocean. 

Vol. I. b It 




It feems, indeed, to have become a very early obje^ of 
policy in the Spanilh councils, to difcontinue and to dif- 
courage any farther refearches in that quarter. Already 
mafters of a larger empire on the continent of America 
than they could conveniently govern, and of richer mines 
of the precious metals on that continent than they could 
convert into ufe, neither avarice nor ambition furnifhed rea- 
fons for aiming at a frefli acceflion of dominions. And thus, 
though fettled all along the Ihores of this Ocean, in a fitua- 
tion fo commodious for profecuting difcoveries throughout 
its wide extent, the Spaniards remained fatisfied with a 
coafting intercourfe between their own ports ; never ftretch- 
ing acrofs the vaft gulph that feparates that part of America 
from Afia, but in an unvarying line of navigation j perhaps 
in a fingle annual ftiip, between Acapulco and Manilla. 

The tracks of other European navigators of the South 
Pacific Ocean, were, in a great meafure, regulated by thofe 
of the Spaniards ; and confequently limited within the fame 
narrow bounds. With the exception, perhaps, of two in- 
flances only, thofe of Le Maire and Roggewein, no fhips of 
another nation had entered this fea, through the Strait of Ma- 
galhaens, or round Cape Horn, but for the purpofes of clan- 
deftine trade with the Spaniards, or of open hoflility againll 
them : purpofes which could not be anfwered, without pre- 
cluding any probable chance of adding much to our ftock 
of difcovery. For it was obviouily incumbent on all fuch 
adventurers, to confine their cruifes within a moderate 
diftance of the Spanifli fettlements ; in the vicinity of 
which alone they could hope to exercife their commerce,, 
or to execute their predatory and military operations. Ac- 
cordingly, foon after emerging from the Strait, or com- 


pleting the circuit of Tierra del Fuego, they began to hold 
a Northerly courfe, to the uninhabited ifland of Juan Fer- 
nandez, their ufual fpot of rendezvous and refrefliment. And, 
after ranging along the continent of America, from Chili to 
California, they either reverfed their courfe back to the At- 
lantic ; or, if they ventured to extend their voyage, by flretch- 
ing over to Alia, they never thought of trying experiments 
in the unfrequented and unexplored parts of the Ocean ; 
but chofe the beaten path (if the expreflion may be ufed), 
within the limits of which it was likely that they might 
meet with a Philippine galleon, to make their voyage pro- 
fitable to themfelves ; but could have little profped, if they 
had been defirous, of making it ufeful to the world, by gain-» 
ing any acceflion of new land to the Map of the World. 

By the natural operation of thefe caufes, it could not but 
happen, that little progrefs fhould be made toward obtain- 
ing a full and accurate knowledge of the South Pacific 
Ocean. Something, however, had been attempted by the 
induftrious, and once enterprifing Dutch ; to whom we are 
indebted for three voyages, undertaken for the purpofes of 
difcovery; and whofe refearches, in the Southern latitudes 
of this Ocean, are much better afcertained than are thofe 
of the earlier Spanifh. navigators above mentioned. 

Le Maire and Schouten, in 1616, and Roggewein, in 1722, 
wifely judging, that nothing new could be gained by ad- 
hering to the ufual paflage on the North fide of the line, 
traverfed this Ocean from Cape Horn to the Eaft Indies, 
croffing the South tropic ; a fpace which had been fo 
feldom, and fo ineffedlually vilited ; though popular belief, 
fortified by philofophical fpeculation, expe(5ted there to 
reap the richeft harveil of difcovery. 

b 2 Tafman, 


Tafman, in 1642, in his extenfive circuit from Batavia, 
through the South Indian Ocean, entered the South Pacific, 
at its greatefl diftance from the American fide, where ic 
never had been examined before. And his range continued 
from a high Southern latitude. Northward to New Guinea, 
and the iflands to the Eaft of it near the equator, produced 
intermediate difcoveries, that have rendered his voyage me- 
morable in the annals of navigation. 

But ftill, upon the whole, what was efFeded in thefe 
three expeditions, ferved only to fhew how large a field 
■ was referved for future and more perfevering examination. 
Their refults had, indeed, enabled geographers to diverfify 
the vacant uniformity of former charts of this Ocean, by 
the infertion of fome new iflands. But the number, and 
the extent of thefe infertions were fo inconfiderable, that-, 
they may be faid to appear 

Rari,, nantes in gurgite vafto.. 

And, if the difcoveries were few, thofe few v/ere mads 
very imperfedly. Some coafts were approached, but not 
landed upon ; and pafled without waiting, to examine their 
extent, and connecftion with tliofe that might exift at no 
great diflance. If others were landed upon, the vifits were, 
in general, fo tranfient, that it was fcarcely poffible to build 
upon a foundation, fo weakly laid, any information that 
could even gratify idle curiofity ; much lefs fatisfy philofo- 
phical inquiry, or contribute greatly to the fafety, or to 
the fuccefs of future navigation. 

Let us, however, do juftice to thefe beginnings of dif- 
covery. To the Dutch we muft, at leafl, afcribe the merit 
of being our harbingers, though we afterward went beyond 

S them 


them in the road they had firfl ventured to tread. And with 
what fuccefs his Majefty's fhips have, in their repeated 
voyages, penetrated into the obfeureft recefles of the South 
Pacific Ocean, will appear fromthe following enumeration 
of their various and very extenfive operations, which have 
drawn up the veil that had hitherto' been thrown over the 
geography of fo great a proportion of the globe. 

1. The feveral lands, of which any account had been 
given, as feen by any of the preceding navigators, Spanifh 
or Dutch, have been carefully looked for; and moft of 
them (at leafl; fuch as feemed to be of any confequence) 
found out and vifited ; and not vifiied in a curfory manner, 
but every means ufed to correcft former miftakes, and to 
I'upply former deficiencies, by making accurate inquiries 
afhore, and taking ikilful furveys of their coafts, by failing 
round them. Who has not heard, or read, of the boafled 
Tierra Aujlralla del Ejpiritu Santo of Quiros ? But its bold pre- 
tenfions to be a part of a Southern continent, could not 
ftand Captain Cook's examination, who failed round it, 
and afligned it its true pofition and moderate bounds, in the 
Archipelago of the New Hehrides *» 

2. Befides perfecting many of the- difcoveries of theic 
predecefTors, our late navigators have enriched geo- 
graphical knowledge with a long catalogue of theit 
own. The. Pacific Ocean, within the South tropic, re- 
peatedly traverfed, in every direcftion, was found to 

■fwarm with a feemingly endlefs profufion of habitable 
fpots of land. IHands fcatteced through theiamazing fpace 

* Bougainville, in 1768, didno more than difcover that the land here was not con- 
nefled, but compofed of iflands. Captain Cook, in 1774, explored the whole group* 
See Cook's Voyage, Vol. ii. p. 96. . 




of near fourfcore degrees of longitude, feparated at various 
diftances, or grouped in numerous cluflers, have, at their 
approach, as it were, flarted into exiftence j and fuch ample 
accounts have been brought home concerning them and 
their inhabitants, as may ferve every ufeful purpofe of in- 
quiry; and, to ufe Captain Cook's words, who bore fo con- 
siderable a fhare in thofe difcoveries, have left little more to he 
done in that part *. 

3. Byron, Wallis, and Carteret, had each of them contri- 
buted toward increafmg our knowledge of the iflands that 
exift in the Pacific Ocean, within the limits of the Southern 
tropic ; but how far that ocean reached to the Weft, what 
lands bounded it on that fide, and the conne(5lion of thofe 
lands with the difcoveries of former navigators, was ftill 
the reproach of geographers, and remained abfolutely un- 
known, till Captain Cook, during his firft voyage in 1770!, 
brought back the moft Satisfactory decifion of this import- 
ant queftion. With a wonderful perfeverance, and confum- 
mate fkill, amidft an uncommon combination of perplexi- 
ties and dangers, he traced this coaft near two thoufand 
miles from the 38° of South latitude, crofs the tropic, to its 
Northern extremity, within lo"! of the equinodlial, where 
it was found to join the lands already explored by the 
Dutch, in Several voyages from their Afiatic Settlements, and 
to which they have given the name of New Holland. 
Thofe difcoveries made in the laft century, before Tafman's 
voyage, had traced the North and the Weft coafts of this 
land; and Captain Cook, by his extenfive operations on its 
Eaft fide, left little to be done toward completing the full 
circuit of it. Between Cape Hicks, in latitude 38°, where 
his examination of this coaft began ; and that part of Van 

• Cook's Voyage, Vol. ii. p. 239. f See Hawkefworth's Collcdion, Vol. iii 

4 ' Diemen's 


Diemen's Land, from whence Tafman took his departure, 
was not above fifty-five leagues. It was highly probable, 
therefore, that they were conne6led ; though Captain Cook 
cautioufly fays, that he could not determine ivhether his New South 
Wales, that is, the Eaft Coaft of New Holland, joins to Van 
Diemen's Land, or m^. But what was thus left undetermined 
by the operations of his firft voyage, was, in the courfe of 
his fecond, foon cleared up ; Captain Furneaux, in the Ad- 
venture, during his feparation from the Refolufion (a for- 
tunate feparation as it thus turned out) in 1773, having ex- 
plored Van Diemen's Land, from its Southern point, along 
the Eaft coaft, far beyond Tafman's ftation, and on to the 
latitude 38°, where Captain Cook's examination of it in 1770 
had commenced f. 

It is no longer, therefore, a doubt, that we have now a 
full knowledge of the whole circumference of this vaft 
body ot land, this fifth part of the world (if I may fo fpeak), 
which our late voyages have difcovered to be of fo amazing 
a magnitude, that, to ufe Captain Cook's words, it is of a 
larger extent than any other country in the known ivorld^ that does 
not bear the name of a continent J. 

4. Tafman having entered the Pacific Ocean, after leav- 
ing Van Diemen's Land, had fallen in with a coaft to which 
he gave the name of New Zealand, The extent of this 
coaft, and its pofition in any dire<5lion but a part of its Weft 
fide, which he failed along in his courfe Northward, being 
left abfolutely unknown, it had been a favourite opinion 
amongft geographers, fince his time, that New Zealand was 

* Hawkefworth, Vol. iii. p. 483. 

\ Cook's Voyage, Vol. i, p. 114, ^ 

J; Hawefworth, Vol. iii. p. 622. 


a part 


a part of a Southern continent, running North and South, 
horn the 33° to the 64* of South latitude, and its Northern 
coafl, firetching crofs the South Pacific to an immenfe 
diftance, where its Eaftern boundary had been feen by 
Juan Fernandez, half a century before. .Captain Cook's 
voyage in the Endeavour, has totally deftroyed this fiippofi- 
tion. Though Tafman mud ftill have the credit of having 
firft feen New Zealand; to Captain Cook folely belongs tliat 
of having really explored it. He fpent near fix months 
upon its coafis in 1769 and 1770*, circumnavigated it com- 
pletely, and afcertained its extent and divifion into two 
iflandsf. Repeated vifits fince that, have perfecfled this im- 
portant difcovery, which, though now known to be no part 
of a Southern continent, will, probably, in all future charts 
of the world, be diftinguiflied as the largefl iflands that 
exift in that part of the Southern hemifphere. 

5. Whether New Holland did or did not join to New 
Quinea, was a queftion involved in much doubt and uncer- 
tainty, before Captain Cook's failing between them, through 
Endeavour Strait, decided it. We will not hefitate to call 
this an important acquifition to geography. For though 
the great fagacity and extenfive reading of Mr. Dalrymple, 
had difcovered fome traces of fuch a pafi^age having been 
found before:]:, yet thefe traces were fo obfcure, and fo little 
known in the prefent age, that they had not generally re- 
gulated the conftrucflion of our charts j the Prefident De 

* From October 6, 1769, to March 31, 1770. 

t Its Southern extremity nearly in latitude 47% and its Northern in 35°!. See 
Captain Cook's chart, in Hawkefworth, Vol. ii. p. 281. 

t See the track of Torre, in one of Qiiiros's fhips, in 1606, between New Hol- 
land and New Guinea, «pon Mr. Dalrymple's Chart of Difcoveries in the South 
Pacific Ocean, before 1764. 



Brofles*, who wrote in 1756, and was well verfed in geo- 
graphical refearches, had not been able to fatisfy himfelf 
about them; and Monf. de Bougainville, in 176B, who had 
ventured to fall in with the South coaft of New Guinea, near 
ninety leagues to the Weftward of its South Eaft point, chofe 
rather to work thofe ninety leagues diredly to windward, at 
a time when his people were in fuch diftrefs for provifions 
as to eat the feal-fkins from off the yards and rigging, than 
to run the rifk of finding a paHage, of the exigence of 
which he entertained the ftrongeft doubts, by perfevering in 
his Wefterly courfe -f. Captain Cook therefore in this part 
of his voyage (though he modeftly difclaims all merit:]:). 
has eftabliflied, beyond future controverfy, a fad of ef- 
fential fervice to navigation, by opening if not a new, at 
lead an unfrequented and forgotten communication be- 
tween the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. 

6. One more difcovery, for which we are indebted to Cap- 
tain Carteret, as fimilar in fome degree to that lafl men- 
tioned, may properly fucceed it, in this enumeration. 
Dampier, in failing round what was fuppofed to be part of 
the coaft of New Guinea, difcovered it to belong to a fepa- 
rate ifiand, to which he gave the name of New Britain. 
But that the land which he named New Britain, fliould be 
fub-divided again into two feparate large iflands, with many 

* M. de Broflcs fays of New Guinea : " Ceft une longue ifle, ou prefqu' ifle, 
*' fi elle touche a la Nouvelle HoUande." Navigations cux Terres Anjirales, Tom. i. 
P- 434- 

t " Le trifle etat oii nous etioiis redaits, no nous permettoit de chercher en fiifant 

" route a I'oueft, un paflage au fud de la Nouvelle Guinee, qui noiis frayat par le 

" Golfe de la Carpenterie une route nouvelle & courte aux iles Moluques. Rlen 

*' n'etoit a la virite plus proLlcmatiqui' jue Vexljlcncc de ce paffhgc^" Voyage autour du 
Monde, p. 259. ^ 

X Hawkefworth, Vol. iii. p. 660. 

Vol. I. C fmallcr 


fmaller intervening, is a point of geographical information;, 
which, if ever traced by any of the earhefi; navigators of 
the South Pacific, had not been handed down to the prefenc 
age : and its having been afcertained by Captain Carteret, 
deferves to be mentioned as a difcovery, in the flrifteft fenfe 
of the word ; a difcovery of the utmoft importance to na- 
vigation. St. George's Channel, through which his fhip 
found a way, between New Britain and New heland, from 
the Pacific into the Indian Ocean, to ufe the Captain^s own 
•words*, " is a much better and fliorter palTage, whether 
from the Eaflward or Weflward, than round all the iflands: 
and lands to the Northward f.'* 


The voyages of Byron, Wallis, and Carteret were prin- 
cipally confined to a favourite objedl of difcovery in the 
South Atlantic, and though acceffions to geography were 
procured by them in the South Pacific, they could do but 
little toward giving the world a complete view of the con- 
tents of that immenfeexpanfe of ocean, through which they 
only held a diredl track, on their v/ay homeward by the 
Eaft-Indies. Cook, indeed, who was appointed to the 
condud of the fucceeding voyage, had a more accurate ex- 
amination of the South Pacific intruded to him. But as the 
improvement of aftronomy went hand in hand, in his in- 
flrudtions, v/ith that of geography, the Captain's folicitude 

* Hawkefworth, Vol. i. p. 563. 

f The pofition of the Solomon Iflands, Mendana'S celebrated djfcovery, will no 
longer remain a matter in debate amongft geographers, Mr. Dalrymple having, on 
the moft fatisfadory evidence, proved, that they are the clufter of iflands which com- 
prizes what has fince been called New Britain, New Ireland^ &c. The great light 
thrown on that clufter by Captain Carteret's difcovery, is a ftrong confirmation of 
this. See Mr. Dali'ymple's Colledion of Voyages, Vol, i. p. i6~2i. 

6 to 

I N T R O D U ,C T I d N. xis 

to arrive at Otaheite time enough to obfervc the tranfit of 
Venus, put it out of liis power to deviate from his dire(5t 
track, in fcarch of unknown lands that might lie to the 
South Eaft of that ifland. By this unavoidable attention to 
his duty, a very confiderable part of the South Pacific, and 
that part where the richeft mine of difcovery was fuppofed 
to exift, remained unvifited and unexplored, during that 
voyage in the Endeavour. To remedy this, and to clear up 
a point, which, though many of the learned were confident 
of, upon principles of fpcculative reafoning, and many of 
the unlearned admitted, upon what they thought to be cre- 
dible teflimony, was flill held to be very problematical, if 
not abfolutely groundlefs, by others v/ho were lefs fanguine 
or more incredulous ; his Majeily, always ready to forward 
every inquiry that can add to the flock of interefting know- 
ledge in every branch, ordered another expedition to be un- 
dertaken. The fignal fervices performed by Captain Cook, 
during his firfl voyage, of which we have given the out- 
lines, marked him as the fitteft perfon to finifh an examina- 
tion which he had already fo IkilfuUy executed in part. Ac- 
cordingly, he was fenc out in 1772, with two fhips, the Re- 
folmion and Adventure, upon the moft enlarged plan of 
difcovery known in the annals of navigation. For he was 
inilru(5ted not only to circumnavigate the whole globe, but 
to circumnavigate it in high Southern latitudes, making 
fuch traverfes, from time to time, into every corner of the. 
Pacific Ocean not before examined, as might finally and ef- 
fedlually refolve the much agitated queftion about the exift- 
ence of a Southern continent, in any part of the Southern 
hemifphere accefTible by navigation. 

The ample acceflions to geography, by the difcovery of 
many iflands within the Tropic in the Pacific Ocean, in the 

c 2 courfe 


courfe of this voyage, which was carried on, with fingular 
perfevcrance, between three and four years, have been al- 
ready Hated to the reader. But the general fearch now 
made, throughout the whole Southern hemifphere, as being 
the principal objed in view, hath been refervcd for this fe- 
parate article. Here, indeed, we are not to take notice of 
lands that have been difcovered, but of feas failed through, 
where lands had been fuppofed to exift. In tracing the 
route of the Refolution and Adventure, throughout the 
South Atlantic, the South Indian, and the South Pacific 
Oceans that environ the globe, and combining it with the 
route of the Endeavour, we receive what may be called ocu- 
lar demonftration, that Captain Cook, in his perfevering re- 
fearches, failed over many an extenfive continent, which, 
though fuppofed to have been feen by former navigators, at 
the approach of his fhips, funk into the bofom of the ocean, 
and, like the bafelefs fabric of a vifion^ left not a rack behind'* » 


* It muft be obferved, however, that Monfieur le Monier, in the Memoirs of the 
French Academy of Sciences for 1776, pleads for the exiftence of Cape Circumci- 
fion, feen by Bouvet in 1738, which our Engliih navigator fought for in vain, and 
fuppofes to have been only an ifland of ice. Mr. Wales, in a paper read before the 
Royal Society, very forcibly replied to M, le Monier's objedions ; and the attack 
having been repeated, he has drawn up a more extended defence of this part of Cap- 
tain Cook's Journal, which he hath very obligingly communicated, and is here in- 

Arguments, tending to prove that Captain Cook fought for Cape Circumcifton under the pro- 
per Meridian ; a?id that the Objeiiions which have been made to his Condnil, in this 
refpeSlt are not well founded. 

In the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris for 1776, printed in 
1779, M. Le Monier has made fome remarks, with a defign to fhew that Captain 
Cook fought the land, ufually called Cape Circumcifion, in a wrong place ; and that, 
inftead of looking for it under the meridian of 9° { or lo'-' of Eaft longitude, he ought 
to have looked for it under a meridian which is only 3", or 3° 5 to the Eaft ward of the 




It has been urged, that the exigence of a Southern con- 
tinent is necelfary to preferve an equilibrium between the 


meridian of Greenwich : and confequently that this land may exift, notwithftanding 
all that has yet been done to find it. M. Le Momerhzs alfo two additional Memoirs 
on the fame fubjeft, in the volume for 1779, occafioned, as it appears, by feme ob- 
jeftions which have been made to his former Memoir before the Academy. For fome 
reafon or other, the Academy has not thought proper to print the objeaions which 
have been made to M, Le Monief-'s hypothefis ; nor has he been particular enough in 
his two Memoirs, which reply to them, to enable me to fay of what importance the 
objedions are. I can only gather, that they contain fome exceptions to the quantity 
by which M. Le Monicr aflerts the variation alters in 10° of longitude, under the 
parallel of 54° South ; and which, I conceive, has little to do in the difpute. 

Whether the land, ufually called Cape Circumcifion, exifts or not, is a point of 
fmall importance to geography ; as the mod ftrenuous a/Tcrters of its exiftcnce muft 
allow it to be a very inconfiderable ifland, and of no ufe. This, therefore is not 
in itfelf, a matter worthy of difpute : but, in afferting this, AI. Le Monur has and I 
am forry to obferve it, with fome afperity too, particularly in his fecond Memoir 
endeavoured to cenfure the judgment and condud of Captain Cook, whofe memory I 
have every reafon to revere, as well as the judgment of thofe who were with him ■ 
and, on this account, I cannot help feeling myfelf called on to explain the motives 
•which induced Captain Cook to place no dependance on the arguments, now adduced 
by M. Le Monier, in fupport of his fuppofition ; and which, M. Le Monicr muft 
know, were not unattended to, at that time, from what the Captain has faid, p. 2 ''6. 
Vol. II. of his Account of the Voyage. And it may be proper to obferve here that 
■what fell from Captain Cook, on this fubje£l, was to (hew that this circumftance was 
then attended to, and not to throw blame on M. Boitvet, for whofe memory and 
abilities Captain Cook entertained great refpedl : nor is it incompatible with the utmoft 
refped, for a man to have a favourable opinion of his own labours; or to endeavour 
to ftiew why he thinks the difagreement between them and thole of another perfon, 
when there is one, does not arife from an error committed by himfelf. There could 
therefore, be no occafion for M. Le Monier to exprefs himfelf as he has done in 
feveral parts of his fecond Memoir. 

The fubftance o( M. Le Alonier's argument is this. In, 1739, when M. Botivet's 
difcovery is fuppofed to have been made, the methods for determining the longitude 
of a fliipat fea were very defedive ; and, of courfe, the longitude of any land wliich 
happened accidentally to be feen by one, was equally uncertain. On a prefumption 
that this was the cafe with refped to Cape Circumcifion, AL Le Monier enquires into 
the quantity of the variation of the magnetic needle, obferved by M. Bouvet at tliat place, 
and alfo into obfervations of the fame kind, made at other places in the neighbourhood 
of it, about the fame time, as well as both before and fmce. And by comparing 
thefe obfervations together, he concLudes, that at the time when Captain Cook waa 





two hemifphcres. But however plaufible this theory may 
feem, at firft fight, experience has abundantly deceded its 


in thefe feas, the variation of the needle at Cape Circumclfion muft have been lo" 
Wefterly : whereas, in the moil Wefterly point of Captain Cook's traft, where he 
was fuificiently near the parallel of 54.° South, to have feen land Tituated in it, the 
v.-xriation was 1 3" { Wefterly. This difference of 3" |, in the variation, anfvvcrs to 
about 7° of longitude, in this part of the parallel of 54.° South : and by fo much did 
Captain Cook fall in with this parallel to the Eaftward of what he ought to have done 
to fee the land in queftion. " Hence (M. Le Monier infers), that it is not furpriz- 
" ing the Britifh navigator fliould not find Cape Circumcifion under a meridian 
" which is 28'' I to the Eaftward of Ferro, when it is really fituated under a meridian 
" which is but 21" | to the Eaftward of it." 

In replying to thefe allegations, I fliall, firft, fhew, that, granting the depend- 
ence v/hich M. Le Monier fuppofes may be placed on obfervations of the variation 
made at fea, hehasftated the quantity of the variation, obferved on board the Refolu- 
tion, very erroneoufly. 

Secondly, I fliall prove, beyond contraditSlion, that obfervations of the variation, 
made at fea, cannot be depended on, for the purpofes to which M. Le Monier has ap- 
plied them. 

And, laftly, that no material error had crept into M. Bouvtt's reckoning ; but that 
if any error did exift, it muft have been of a contrary nature to that which M. Le Mo' 
titer fuppofes. 

That A^. Le Monier has not given altogether a true reprefentation of the matter, 
will appear from hence. On the 16th of February, at noon *, the Refolution was in 
latitude 54.'^ 31!' South, which is fufficiently near the parallel of 54° South, to fee 
higii land, the Northern extremity of which lies to the Southward of that parallel ; 
and at that time we were in 6° Eaft of Greenwich, or 23'^ J Eaft of the ifland of 
Ferro : that is, 4" l lefs than is aiTigned for our fituation by M. Le Monier. On the 
evening of the fame day, the fhip being in latitude 54° 24', and longitude 6° 30', or 
24° i Eaft of Ferro, the variation was no more than i2~' 7 Weft, which alfo is near a 
degree and half lefs than AL Le Monier fays it was, when we firft arrived in a proper 
parallel for feeing Cape Circumcifion. It is true, the next morning, in latitude 
54° 2ii' South, longitude 8" 6' Eaft, we had 13" 42' Weft variation ; biit this was 
after we had run more than two degrees within fight of the parallel of 54° South. It 
is, moreover, highly probable, that both thefe variations were too great ; for, on the 
*7th, in the evening, latitude 54° 25' South, and longitude 9° 20' Eaft ; that is, .1° \ 


* I here go by the dates in " The Original Aftronomical Obfervations," printed by or- 
der of the Board of Longitude; which, after the 14th of February 1775, diiFer one day 
from Captain Cook's date;» 


fallacy. In confequence of Captain Cook's voyage, now 
under confideration, we have a thorough knowledge of the 


more to the Eaftward, and after we had run 3° 4 on the parallel we were then on, the 
variation was no more than 13° 16' Weft. It .is alfo worthy of remark, that on the 
14th, in the evening, latitude 56'^ 141' South, and longitude 4° 50' Eaft, which is 
but 1° 10' to the Weft ward of the point, where the Refolution came firft into a 
proper fituation to fee land, fituated in the parallel of 54° South, the variation obferved 
was no more thnn 6° 50' Weft. And we may further add, that on the ift of March, 
1774, the Adventure had no more than 12° J Weft variation, though fhe was then 
confiderably both to the Northward and Eaftward of our fituation on the 17th of Fe- 
bruary in the morning, on both which accounts the variation ought to have been 
greater, inflead of a whole degree lefs. From all thefe circumftances, there can be 
little doubt but that the two variations, obferved by us on the i6th and 17th of Fe- 
bruary, were too great ; or that the variation, at the point where the Refolution firft. 
came fufficiently near the parallel of 54" South, to fee land, the Northern extremity 
of which is fituated in that parallel, could not be more than 1 1° | Weft, inftead of • 
1 3°!, as M. Le Monicr has reprefented it,^^ 

Under this head of enquiry I may alfo obferve, that although the Refolution was too ' 
much to the Southward of the parallel of 54° South, when flie crofted the meridian 
which is 21° f to the Eaftward ofFerro; that is, 3°! Eaft of Greenwich^ the long!- • 
tude which M. Le Monier zffigns for Cape Circumcifion, to fee if it had been in that 
fituation ; yet her confort, the Adventure, was for feveral degrees on each fide of thur. 
meridian ; and efpecially when {he had 10" | of Weft variation, full as near to the pa- 
rallel of 54° South, as JH. Bouvet v/SiS to the land when he faw it * : and on the day 
that fhe aflually pafled that meridian, had fine clear weather f. Hence, therefore, 
granting J14. Le Monier his own argumentSj which, however, I have proved to be 
erroneous ; and that obfervations made at fea, for the variation of the compafs, may • 
be depended on for the purpofe of finding the longicude, it 12 utterly impoJIible that 
both the Refolution and Adventure could have palled Cape Circumcifion without 
feeing it. But I fliall now fhew, that thefe obfervations are liable to a much greater . 
error than the whole quantity, fo vigoroufly infifted on by this gentleman. 

I will not h're run the rifle of incurring M. Le Monier''s difpleafure, by calling the 
accuracy of M. Biuvet\ obfeivations in queftion ; but will admit every thing that he 
hi mfelf can think due to the inftruments and obfervations of that deferving navigaior. 
It is enough for my argument, and it is but too evident, from the obfervations them- • 
felves, that ours were by no means capable of determining the variation to fo fmsll a 


* See The Original Aflronomical Obfervations, p. 1851 and Bouvet's Voyage, publifhed 
by Mr. Dalrymple, p. 4, and 11. 

■\ See the Obfervations, p. 25S. 



4late of the Southern hemifphere, and can pronounce with 
certainty, that the equilibnm7i of the globe is effectually 

, preferved, 

<juantity as that which M. Le Monier refts his whole caufe upon ; and if fo, his argu- 
ments, which depend wholly on a fuppofition, that not only they, but M. Bouvet's 
alfo, were capable of determining it with the utmoft exadtnefs, muft fall to the 

I ft, It appears, from various inftances, that the variations obferved by the fame 
compafs would d*ffer 3" to 5", 6", and fometimes even 10°, from no other caufe what- 
ever, but putting the fliip's head a contrary way *. 

2d, That the fame compafs, in the fame fituation in every refpeft, within a few 
.miles, but at two different times of the fame day, would give variations differing from 
■one another, 3°, 4.% 5°, 6% and even f \. 

3d, That the fame compafs, on the fame day, and in the hands of the fame obferver, 
will give variations differing from one another by 5°, on board the feme ftip, whea 
under fail, and when at anchor in a road-ftead J. 

4th, Compaffes, made by the fame artift, at the fame time and place, "but on board 
different fhips, differed 3", 4°, and even 5° in the variation §. 

eth. The fame Compaffes, on board the fame fliip, and within a few miles of the 
.fame fituation, but at different times of our being there, gave variations differing by 
4° and s°, or upwards ||. 

6th, Different 

• Seethe Original Aftronomical Obfervations, made in the fecond Voyage, March 11, 
1773. P- 372- January 24, 177+.?- 375- and July 28, p. 378. 

-f- obfervations in the fecond Voyage, Febriiary J, 1773. P-37'' and January 19, 1775, 
,p. 382. Alfo Obfervations in laft Voyage, July 17, 177b, p. 179. Augult 30, p. 181. Ja- 
nuary 24, 1777. p. 192. and September 15, 177S, p. 205. 

X Aftronomical obfervations of fecond Voyage, July 14, 1775, p. 585. 

§ Compare the Aftronomical Obfervations, made in the fecond Voyage, Augnft ^, and 9, 
and September 4, 1772, p. 181. with thofe of t!ie f.. me dates, p. 369. Thole of January 
II, and 14, and Febru2ry7, 177;, p. )8z, with thofe of the fame dates, p. 371. Alfo 
Aftronomical Obfervations, made in the lail Voyage, of December 27, i>76, p. 191. Fe- 
bruary 22, 1778, p. 201. IViay 5, and 8, p. 1C2. July 9, and 64, 1779, p. 209. and. 
January 16, l7iiO, p. 212. v.'ith thtfe of the fame dates, p. 191, 295, 294, 297, 
and 298. 

II Compare Aftronomical Obfervations, made in the fecond \'oyage, February 10, 
.?■ 37;- '^'''^ Obfervations of December ii, 1774, p. 381. Alfo ObfervaciLns, made 
"iu the lall Voyng , M..y 3, and June 18, 1779, p. 208. 


prefervcd, though the proportion of fea aelually failed 
through, leaves no fufficicnc fpace for the correfponding 


6th, DifFerent compalTes^ at the fame time, on board the fame fliip, and in every 
refpedl under the fame circumftances, will give variations differing from one another, 
3°, 4% 5% and 6° *. 

Thefe differences, fcveral of wrhich happened very near the place in queflion, are all 
of them at leafl: equal to, mofl of them much greater, and fome of them double that 
which A'l. Le Monier founds his argument on, even according to his own account of it, 
which I have already fliewn is by no means admifTible, and, therefore, totally invali- 
date it. To allege that the inflruments made ufe of in Captain Cook's two voyages 
were bad, or that the obfervers were not expert in the ufe of them, will anfwer no 
purpofe : they are the inflruments and obfervers which M. Le Monier't, argument 
muft reft on ; and, therefore, let thofe of the French, or any other navigator, have 
been ever fo much better' than they|were (which few will be hardy enough to afTert, and 
fewer flill found weak enough to believe), it will avail nothing to the point in difpute, 
which mufl evidently fall to the ground, if the obfervations made for finding the varia- 
tion in Captain Cook's voyage are not fufficient to fupport it. What then mufl be- 
come of it, if M. BouveC'i obfervations, of this kind, were liable to an equal, or a 
greater error ? which, without any reafonable caufe for offence, we might fuppofe 
they were. 

It is not neceffary to account for thefe differences in the obferved variations in thts 
place, nor yet to point out the reafons why fuch anomalies have not been noticed in 
obfervations of this kind before. I fhall, however, remark, that I have hinted at 
fome of the caufes in my introdu£lion to thd obfervations which were made in Captain 
Cook's fecond voyage ; and many others will readily offer themfelves to perfons who 
have had much practice in making thefe obfervations, and who have attentively con- 
fidered the principles on which the inflruments are conflruiSed, and the manner in which 
they are fabricated. Nor is it at all furprifmg, that the errors to which the inflru- 
ments and obfervations of this kind are liable, fhould not have been difcovereJ before; 
fmce no navigators before us ever gave the fame opportunity, by multiplying their 
obfervations, and making them under fuch avariety of circumftances as we did. 

Having now fully fhewn, that the circumftances, brought forward by M. Le Mo- 
nier^ in fupport of his argument, are neither fuch as can be depended on, nor yet 


• Obfervations made in the fecond Voyage, February 2, 1773, p. 371- March 18, 
p. 372. and January 24, 1774.. p. 37?. See alfo Obfervations made laft Voyage, 
.Augull ]8, 1776, p. iSo. Odober 7, and 14, p. i8g, and 190. December 12, p. ibid. 
January 24, 1777, p. 192. March 10, p. 193. July 9, and 17, 1779, p. 209. January 16, 
i7fo, p. 21Z. March 24, p. 213. and May 19, p. 214. 

Vol. I, d 


mafs of land, which, on fpeculative arguments had been 
maintained to be necelTary *. 


fairly reprefented, I fiiall next attempt to demonftrate, that it is utterly improbable 
M. Bouvet could be out, in his account of longitude, fo much as is here fuppofed, in 
the ftort run which had been made from the ifland of St. Catherine, the place they 
took their departure from : on the contrary, that there is fufficient reafon to believe 
tiie error, of whatever magnitude it might be, was of a different nature- from that 
contended for, and that the two fliips, inflead of being to the Weftward of their ac- 
count of longitude, were actually to the Eaftward of it. For, according to their Jour- 
nals, extracted from the archives of the French Eaft-India Company, by M. D'Apres, 
printed under his infpeftion, and publiflied by Mr. Dalrymple, F. R. S. amongft 
other voyages made for the purpofe of examining the Southern parts of the Atlantic 
Ocean, the longitude, according to the Eagle's run from St. Catherine's, was 26° 27', 
and according to the Mary's, 26° 20' Eaft of TenerifF; that is, 9° 57', and 9° 50' 
Eafl of Greenwich, or 27" 43', and 27° 36' Eaft of Ferro. But the Mary, which- 
•went to the Cape of Good Hope, made 7° 13' Eaft longitude from the land in 
quellion, to that place. Confequently the Cape of Good Hope being in longitude 
18' 23' Eaft of Greenwich, Cape Circumcifion will be in 11° 10' Eaft of Green- 
wich, or 1° 20' more to the Eaftward than the run by the fame fliip from the ifland 
of St. Catherine's makes it. Again, the Eagle made the difference of longitude be- 
tween Cape Circumcifion, and the ifland of Rodrigues, 49° 44' ; and by the obferva- 
tions of Al. Pingre, this ifland is in 62° 50' of Eaft longitude from Greenwich : 
Cape Circumcifion is therefore in 13* 6' Eaft of Greenwich, or 2° 9' more to the 
Eaftward than by the Eagle's run from St. Catherine's. Hence, therefore, as the 
longitude of this land, refulting from a comparifon of that fhewn by each of the fhips, 
on their making land at places where the longitude is exceedingly well determined, is 
greater than that which refults from their run from St. Catherine's, the longitude of 
which is not known with certainty within feveral degrees, we may infer, with great 
fafety, that whatever the quantity of M. Bouvet's error might be, when he is fuppofed 
to have feen Cape Circumcifion, it muft have been in dcfed, and not in excefs, as AL 
Le Monkr fuppofes it. . 

I^hrist's Hospital, \ 
April 20, J 784. y 



The judgment of the ingenious Author of Recherches fur les A?nericains, on this 
queftion, feems to be very deferving of a place here : " Qu'on calcule, comme on 
*' voudra, on fera toujours contraint d'avouer, qu'il y a une plus grande portion de 
*' continent fituee dans la latitude feptentrionale, que dans la latitude auftrale. 

" Ce'ft fort mal a-propos, qu'on a foutenu que cette repartition inegale ne fauroit 
?' exifter, fous pretexte quelegkjbe p?rdroit fon equilibre, faute.d'un contrepoids fuf- 

" fifant 


If former navigators have added more land to the known 
globe than Captain Cook, to him, at leafl, was referved the 
honour of being foremoft in difclofmg to us the extent of 
fea that covers its furface. His own fummary view of 
the tranfadlions of this voyage, will be a proper conclufion 
to thefe remarks : " I had now made the circuit of the 
*' Southern Ocean in a high latitude, and traverfed it in 
" fuch a manner as to leave not the lead room for there 
" being a continent, unlefs near the pole, and out of the 
«* reach of navigation. By twice vifiting the Tropical Sea, 
*' I had not only fettled the fituation of fome old difcove- 
" ries, but made there many new ones, and left, I conceive, 
" very little to be done, even in that part. Thus I flatter 
" myfelf, that the intention of the voyage has, in every re- 
" fpe(5l, been fully anfwered ; the Southern hemifpherc 
" fufficiently explored ; and a final end put to the fearching 
" after a Southern continent, which has, at times, engrofled 
" the attention of fome of the Maritime Powers for near 
" two centuries pafl, and been a favourite theory amongft 
" the geographers of all ages*." 

Thus far, therefore, the voyages to difclofe new tracks 
of navigation, and to reform old defers in geography, ap- 
pear to have been profecuted with a fatisfa6lory fliare of fuc- 
cefs. A perufal of the foregoing fummary of what had 
been done, will enable every one to judge what was llill 

" fifant au pole meridionale. II eft vrai qu'un pled cube d'eau falee ne pefe pas au- 
" tant qu'un pied cube de terre ; mais on auroit du reflechir, qu'il peut y avoir fous 
" I'ocean des lits & des couches de matieres, dent la pefanteur fpecifique varie a 
" I'infini, & que le peu de profondeur d'une mer, verfee fur une grande furface, con- 
" trebalance les endroits oii il y a moins de mer, mais ou elle eft plus profonde." 
Rechercbes PhUofophiqites, Tom. ii. p. 375, 

* Cook's Voyage, Vol. ii. p. 239. 

d 2 wanting 



wanting to complete the great plan of difcovery. The 
Southern hemifphere had, indeed, been repeatedly vifited, 
and its utmoft acceffibie extremities been furveyed. But 
much uncertainty, and, of courfe, great variety of opinion, 
fublifted, as to the navigable extremities of our own hemi- 
fphere; particularly, as to the exiftence, or, at leafl, as to 
the pra(5ticability of a Northern pafTage between the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Oceans, either by failing Eaftward, roimd Afia, 
or Weftward, round North America. 

It was obvious, that if fuch a paflage could be efFecHied, 
voyages to Japan and China, and, indeed, to the Eaft Indies 
in general, would be much fhortened ; and confequently 
become more profitable, than by making the tedious circuit 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Accordingly, it became a fa- 
vourite objefl of the Englifli to effedtuate this, above two 
centuries ago ; and (to fay nothing of Cabot's original at- 
tempt, in 1497, which ended in the difcovery of Newfound- 
land, and the Labradore coaft) from Frobifher*s firfl voyage 
to find a Weftern pafTage, in 1576, to thofe of James and of 
Fox, in 1631, repeated trials had been made by our enter- 
prizing adventurers. But though farther knowledge of the 
Northern extent of America was obtained in the courfe of 
thefe voyages, by the difcovery of Hudfon's and Baffin's 
Bays, the wifhed-for pafllage, on that fide, into the Pacific 
Ocean, was flill unattained. Our countrymen, and the 
Dutch, were equally unfuccefsful, in various attempts, 
to find this pafTage in an Eaftern dire<5lion. Wood's 
failure, in 1676^ feems to have clofed the longjift of unfor- 
tunate Northern expeditions in that century ; and the difco- 
very, if not abfolutely defpaired of, by having been fo often 
milFed, ceafed, for many years, to be fought for. 



Mr. Dobbs, a warm advocate for the probability of a 
North Well pafTage tiirough Hudfon's Bay, in our own time, 
once more recalled the attention of this country to that un- 
dertaking ; and, by his a(5live zeal, and perfevering folici- 
tation, renewed the fpirit of difcovery. But it was renewed 
in vain. For Captain Middleton, fent out by Government in 
1741, and Captains Smith and Moore, by a private fociety, 
in 1746, though encouraged by an adt of Parliament pafTed 
in the preceding year, that annexed a reward of twenty 
thoufand pounds to the difcovery of a pafTage, returned 
from Hudfon's Bay with reports of their proceedings, that 
left the accomplifliment of this favourite objedl at as great 
a diftance as ever. 

When refearches of this kind, no longer left to the foli- 
citation of an individual, or to the fubfcriptions of private 
adventurers, became cherifhed by the Royal attention, in 
the prefent reign, and warmly promoted by the Minifter at 
the head of the naval department, it was impoflible, while 
fo much was done toward exploring the remoteft corners of 
the Southern hemifphere, that the Northern pafTage fliould 
not be attempted. Accordingly, while Captain Cook was 
profecuting his voyage toward the South Pole, in 1773, 
Lord Mulgrave failed with two fhips, to determine hoiv far na- 
vigation "was ■praSlicahk toward the North Pole. And though 
his Lorddiip met with the lame infuperable bar to his pro- 
grefs, which former navigators had experienced *, the 
hopes of opening a communication between the Pacific and 
Atlantic Oceans, by a Northerly courfe, were not abandoned ; 

* See the hiftory of former attempts to fai] toward the North Pole, in the Intro- 
dudtion to Lord Mulgrave's Journal. Mr. Barringtcn has colleded feveral in- 
flances of fhips advancing to v^iy high latitudes. See his MifccUanics, p. i — 124. 

% and 



and a voyage for that purpofe, was ordered to be under- 

The operations propofed to be purfued, were fo new, Co 
extenfive, and fo various, that the lldll and experience of 
Captain Cook, it was thought, would be requifite to condudt 
them. Without being Uable to any charge of want of zeal 
•for the pubUc fervice, he might have pafTed the reft of his 
days in the command to which he had been appointed in 
Greenwich Hofpital, there to enjoy the fame he had dearly 
earned in two circumnavigations of the world. But he 
cheerfully relinquiflied this honourable ftation at home; and, 
happy that the Earl of Sandwich had not caft his eye upon 
any other Commander, engaged in the condudl of the ex- 
pedition, the hiftory of which is prefented to the Public in 
thefe Volumes ; an expedition that would expofe him to 
the toils and perils of a third circumnavigation, by a track 
hitherto unattempted. Every former navigator round the 
globe had made his palTage home to Europe by the Cape 
of Good Hope ; the arduous taflc was now ailigned to Cap- 
tain Cook, of attempting it, by reaching the high Northern 
latitudes between Afia and America. So that the ufuahplan 
of difcovery was reverfed ; and, inftead of a pafTage from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, one from the latter into the 
former was to be tried. For it was wifely forefeen, that 
whatever openings or inlets there might be on the Eaft dde 
of America, which lie in a dire(5tion which could give any 
hopes of a pafTage, the ultimate fuccefs of it would ftill de- 
pend upon there being an open fea between the Weft fide of 
that continent, and the extremities of Afia. Captain Cook, 
therefore, was ordered to proceed into the Pacific Ocean, 
through the chain of his new iflands in the Southern tropic, 

7 and 


and having crofled the equator into its Northern Parts, then 
to hold fuch a courfe as might probably fix many intereft-- 
ing points in geography, and produce intermediate difco- 
veries, in his progrefs Northward to the principal fcene of 
his operations. 

But the plan of the voyage, and the various objecfts it 
embraced, will bell appear from the Inftrudlions under 
which Captain Cook failed ; and the infertion of them here, 
will convey fuch authentic information, as may enable the 
Reader to judge with precilion how far they have been car- 
ried into execution. 

By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord''. 
High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland, &c. 

Cook, Commander of his Majefly's Sloop the 

TyfT'HEREAS the Earl of Sandwich has Jignified to us his Majefly's- 
^ '^ fleajure-, that an attempt fioidd be made to find out a Northern pajfage 
hy fea from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean; and whereas we have., in pur - 
Juance thereof, caujed his Majefly's floops Refolution and Difcovery to he 
fitted, in all rejpe^s, proper to proceed upon a voyage for the purpoje 
above-mentioned, and, from the experience we have had of your abilities and 
good conduct in your late voyages, have thought fit to intrufl you with the con- 
du£l of the prejent intended voyage, and with that view appointed you to com- ■ 
mand the fir ft mentioned floop, and dircEled Captain Clerke, who commands the 
ether i to follow your orders for his further proceedings; You are hereby re- 
quired and direSfed to proceed with the /aid two floops direlily to the Cape of 
Good Hope, unlefs you fljall judge it necejfary to flop at Madeira, the Cape de 
Verd, or Canary Iflands, to take in wine for the ufe of their companies ; in 
which cafe you are at liberty to do Jo, taking care to remain there no longer 
than may be necejfary for that purpqfe. 



On your arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, you are to refrefi thejioops com' 
panies, and to caufe thejioops to befupplied with as much proviftcns and water 
as they can conveniently flow. 

Ton are-, ifpojjihle, to leave the Cape of Good Hope hy the end of OHoher, 
cr the beginning of November next, and proceed to the Southward in fear ch of 
Jome iflands faid to have been lately feen by the French., in the latitude 0/48° o' 
South, and about the meridian of Mauritius. In cafe you fnd thofe iflands, 
you are to examine them thoroughly for a good harbour ; and upon difcovering 
one, make the necejfary obfervations to facilitate the finding it again ; as a good 
-port, in that fituation, may hereafter prove very iifeful, although it fliould 
afford little or nothing more than floelter, wood, and water. You are not, 
however, to fpend too much time in looking out for thofe iflands, or in the exa- 
mination of them, if found, but proceed to Otaheite, or the Society Ifles 
(touching at New Zealand in yoiir way thither, if you foould judge it neceffary 
and convenient), and taking care to arrive there time enough to admit of your 
giving thefloops companies the refrefitnent they may fland in need of, before 
you profecute the farther objeEi of thefe inJiruSiions . 

Upon your arrival at Otaheite, or the Society Ifles, you are to land Omiah 
Gt fuch of thetn as he may choofe, and to leave him there. 

7~ou are to diftribute among the Chiefs of thofe iflands fuch part of the pre- 
fents with which you have been fupplied, as you fljall judge proper, referving 
the remainder to diftribute among the natives of the countries ycu may difcover 
in the Northern Hemijphere : And having refrefhed the people belonging to the 
flocps under your command, and taken on board fuch wood and water as they 
may refpeSiively ftand in need of, you are to leave thofe iflands in the beginning 
of February, or fooner if you fhall judge it necejfary, and then proceed in as 
direB a courfe as you can to the coaft of Nezv Albion, endeavouring to fall in 
with it in the latitude cf ^^° o' North -, and taking care, in your way thither, 
vet to lofe any time injearch of new lands, cr to flop at any you may fall in 
with, unlefs you find it neceffary to recruit your wood and water. 

Tou are alfo, in your way thither, ftritlly enjoined not to touch upon any 
part of the Spanifh dominions on the V/eftern continent of America, unlefs 
driven thither by feme unavoidable accident ; in which cafe you are to flay no 
longer there than fhall be, abfolutely neceffary, and to be very careful not to 
give any umbrage or offence to any of the inhabitants orfubje£ls of his Catholic 
Majefty. And if, in your farther progrefs to the Northward, as hereafter 
directed, ycu find any fubjeSfs of any European Prince or State upon any part 
of the coaft you may think proper to vifit, 'you are not to diftufh them, or give 



them any jujl cauje of offence, but, on the contrary, to treat them with civility 
and friendftoip . 

Upon your arrival on the coaft of New Albion, you are to put into the fir Jl 
convenient port to recruit your wood and water, and procure refrejhments, and 
then to proceed Northward along the coaft, as far as the latitude of 6^°, or 
farther, if you are not obJiruSied by lands or ice-, taking care not to lofe any 
time in exploring rivers or inlets, or upon any other account, until you get into 
the before-mentioned latitude of 6^°, where we could wip you to arrive in the 
month of June next. When you get that length, you are very carefully ta 
fear ch for, and to explore, fuch rivers or inlets as may appear to be of a con~ 
fiderable extent, and pointing towards Hudfon's or Baffin's Bays ; and if, 
from your own obfervations, or from any information you may receive from the 
natives C'^ho, there is reafon to believe, are the fame race of people, andfpeak 
the fame language, of which you are furniffed with a Vocabulary , as the Ef- 
quimaux), there fh all appear to be a certainty, or even a probability, of a 
water paffage into the afore-mentioned bays, or either of them, you are, in fuch 
cafe, to ufe your utmoft endeavours to pafs through with one or both of the 
floops, unlefs you ffall be of opinion that the paffage may be effeEled with more 
certainty, or with greater probability, by f mailer veffels -, in which cafe you 
are tofet up the frames of one or both the fmall veffels with which you are 
provided, and, when they are put together, and are properly fitted, ftored, 
and vi£luaUed, you are to difpatch one or both of them, under the care of pro- 
per officers, with afufficient number of petty officers, men, and boats, in order 
to attempt the f aid paffage ; with fuch inftruSlions for their rejoining you, if 
they floould fail, or for their farther proceedings, if they ffouldfucceed in the 
attempt, as you fijall judge moft proper. But, neverthelefs, if you Jh all find it 
more eligible to purfue any other meafures than thofe above pointed out, in or- 
der to make a difcovery of the before-mentioned paffage ( if any fuch there be), 
you are at liberty, and we leave it to your difcretion, to purfue fuch meafures 

In cafe you ffall be fatisfied that there is no paffage through to the above- 
mentioned bays, fufficient for the furpofes of navigation, you are, at the proper 
feafon of the year, to repair to the port of St. Peter and St. Paul in Kamtf- 
thatka, or wherever elfe you fh all judge more proper, in order to ref rep your 
people and pafs the Winter; and, in the Spring of the enfuing year 1778, to 
proceed from thence to the Northward, as far as, in your prudence, you may 
think proper, in further fearch of a North Eaft:, or North Weft paffage, from 
the Pacific Ocean into the Atlantic Ocean, or the North Sea : and if, from 

Vol. I. e your 



your own ohjervation., or any information you may receive, there jh all apfear 
to be a probability ofjuchpajjage, you are to proceed as above direHed: and, 
having difcovered/uch pajfage, or failed in the attempt, make the beft of your 
way back to England, byfuch route as you may think bejl for the improvement 
of geography and navigation ; repairing to Spithead with both floops, where 
they are to remain till further order. 

At whatever places you may touch in the courfe of your voyage, where accu- 
rate objervations of the nature hereafter mentioned have not already been made, 
you are, as far as your time will allow, very carefully to obferve the truefitu- 
ation of Juch places, both in latitude and longitude ; the variation of the 
needle -, bearings of head-lands ; height, dire5lion, and courfe of the tides and 
currents; depths and foundings of the fea; fhoals, rocks, i^c; and alfo to 
furvey, make charts, and take views of fuch bays, harbours, and dijfferent 
farts of the coafl, and to make Juch notations thereon, as may be ufeful either 
to navigation or commerce. You are alfo carefully to obferve the nature of the 
foil, and the produce thereof ; the animals and fowls that inhabit or frequent 
it ; the fifhes that are to be found in the rivers or upon the coafl, and in what 
plenty ; and, in cafe there are any peculiar to Juch places, to defcribe them as 
minutely, and to make as accurate drawings of them, as you can: and, if you 
find any metals, minerals, or valuable flones, or any extraneous fojfils, you 
are to bring heme Jpecimens oj each ; as aljo of the feeds of fuch trees, fhrubs, 
plants, fruits, and grains, peculiar to thoje places, as you may be able to col- 
le£f, and to tranjmit them to our Secretary, that proper examination and expe- 
riments may be made oJ them. Tou are likewije to objerve the genius, temper, 
dijpojiticn, and nmnber of the natives and inhabit atits, where you find any ; 
and to endeavour, by all proper means, to cultivate a friendfhip with them ; 
making them prefents of Juch trinkets as you may have on board, and they may 
like bejl ; inviting them to traffic ; and /hewing them every kind of civility and 
regard; but taking care, neverthelefs, not to Juffer yourjelf to be furprized by_ 
them, but to be always on your guard againfl any accidents. 

You are alfo, with the conjent oJ the natives, to take pojfeffion, in the name 
(if the King of Great Britain, of convenient Jituations in Juch countries as you 
may dijcover, that have not already been dijcovered or vijited by any other 
European power ; and to diftribute among the inhabitants Juch things as will 
remain as traces and tefiimonies of your having been there; but if you find the 
'■•' countries Jo dijcovered are uninhabited, you are to take p off ejfion of them for his 

Majefty, by Jetting up proper marks and injcriptions ^ as firft dijcoverers and 



But forafmuch as, in undertakings of this nature, Jeveral emergencies may 
arije not to he forejeen, and therefore not -particularly to be provided for by 
inJlruSlions before-hand; you are, in all fuch cafes, to proceed as you Jhall 
judge mojl advantageous to thefervice on which you are employed. 

Tou are, by all opportunities, to fend to our Secretary, for our information, 
accounts of your proceedings, and copies of the furveys and drawings you f jail 
have made; and upon your arrival in England, you are immediately to repair 
to this office, in order to lay before us a full account of your proceedings in the 
whole courfe of your voyage; taking care, before you leave the floop, to demand 
from the officers and petty officers, the log-books and journals they may have 
kept, and tofeal them up for our infpe^ion; and enjoining them, and the whole 
crew, not to divulge where they have been, until they Jhall have penmffiionfo 
to do: and you are to dire£t Captain Clerk to do the fame, with refpeSi to the 
officers, petty officers, and crew of the Difcovery. 

If any accident Jhould happen to the Refolution in the courfe of the voyage, 
fo as to difable her frotn proceeding any farther, you are, in fuch cafe, to re- 
move yourf elf and her crew into the Difcovery, and to profecute your voyage in 
her; her Commander being hereby ftriSily required to receive you on biardy 
and to obey your orders, the fame, in every refpe5l, as when you were aSiually 
on board the Refolution : And, in cafe of your inability, by ficknejs or other- 
wife, to carry thefe Injlruilions into execution, you are to be careful to leave 
them with the next officer in command, who is hereby required to execute them 
in the beft manner he can. 

Given under our hands the 6th day of July, 1776, 



By command of their Lordjhips, 


Befides ordering Captain Cook to foil on this important 
voyage, Government, in carneft about the obje6t of it, 
adopted a meafure, which, while it could not but have a 

e 2 powerful 



powerful operation on the crews of the Refolution and Dif- 
covery, by adding the motives of intereft, to the obligations 
of duty ; at the fame time encouraged all his Majefly's fub- 
je(5ls to engage in attempts toward the propofcd difcovery. 
By the ad of parliament, pafTed in 1745 *, a reward of 
twenty thoufand pounds had been held out. But it had 
been held out only to the fliips belonging to any of his Mojefy^s 
fubjeSts, exclufive of his Majefly's own fhips. The a(5l had a 
llill more capital defedl. It held out this reward only to fuch 
fliips as fliouid difcover a pafTage through Hndfon''s Bay ; and, 
as we fliall foon take occafion to explain, it was, by this 
time, pretty certain, that no fuch pafTage exiHed within 
thofe limits. EfFedual care was taken to remedy both thefe 
defers, by palling a new law ; which, after reciting the 
provifions of the former, proceeds as follows : " And 
«' whereas many advantages, both to commerce and fcience, 
" may be alfo expe(5led from the difcovery of any Northern 
*' P^Jf^S^ for vefTels by fea, between the Atlantic and Pacific 
*' Oceans— be it ena6led. That if any fhip belonging to any 
•' of his Majefly's fubjefls, or to his Majejly, fhall find out, 
'« and fail through, any pafTage by fea, between the Atlan- 
" tic and Pacific Oceans, in any dire^iion, or parallel of the 
" Northern hemifphere, to the Northward of the 52° of 
** Northern latitude, the owners of fuch fhips, if belong- 
** ing to any of his Majefly's fubjecfls, or the commander^ offi- 
*' cers, and feamen, of fuch fip belonging to his Majefy, fhall re- 
" ceive, as a reward for fuch difcovery, the fum of twenty 
" thoufand pounds. 

" And whereas fliips employed, both in the Spitzbergen 
*' Seas, and in Davis's Straits, have frequent opportunities 

• See the Statutes at Large, 18 George II. chap. 17. ^ 

I "of 


*' of approaching the North Pole, though they have not 
*' time, during the courfe of one fummer, to penetrate into 
•« the Pacific Ocean : and whereas fuch approaches may 
*' greatly tend to thedifcovery of a communication between 
" the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as well as be attended 
" with many advantages to commerce and fcience, &c. be 
*' it enacted. That if any fhip fhall approach to within i" 
«' of the North Pole, the owner, &c. or commander, &c. 
♦' fo approaching, fliall receive, as a reward for fuch firfl 
" approach, the fum of five thoufand pounds *." 

That nothing might be omitted that could facilitate the 
fuccefs of Captain Cook's expedition, fome time before he 
failed, in the beginning of the fummer of 1776, Lieutenant 
Pickerfgill, appointed Commander of his Majefty's armed 
brig the Lion, was ordered " to proceed to Davis's Straits, 
« for the protecT:ion of the Britifli whale fifliers;" and that 
firft obje<5l being fecured, " he was then required and di- 
*' reded to proceed up Baffin's Bay, and explore the coafts 
" thereof, as far as in his judgment the fame could be done 
« without apparent rifk, taking care to leave the above 
" mentioned Bay fo timely, as to fecure his return to Eng- 
•' land in the fall of the year j" and it was farther enjoined 
to him, " to make nautical remarks of every kind, and to 
•= employ Mr. Lane (Matter of the velTel under his com- 
*< mand) in furveying, making charts, and taking views of 
" the feveral bays, harbours, and different parts of thecoafts 
" which he might vifit, and in making fuch notations thereon 
•' as might be ufeful to geography and navigation f." 


* See the Statutes at Large, 1776, i6 George III. chap. 6, 
^ From his MS. Inftrudions, dated May 14, 1776. 



Pickerfgill, we fee, was not to attempt the difcovery of 
the pafTage. He was diiedled to explore the coafts of 
Baffin's Bay, with a view only to bring back, the fame 
year, fome information, which might be an ufeful di- 
redlion toward planning an intended voyage into that 
bay the enfuing fummer, to try for the difcovery of a 
paflage on that fide, with a view to co-operate with Captain 
Cook, who, it was fuppofed (from the tenor of his inllruc- 
tions) would be trying for this pafTage, about the fame time, 
from the oppofite fide of America. 

Pickerfgill, obeying his ini1ru(5lions, at lead in this in- 
ftance, did return that year ; but there were fufficient rea- 
fons tor not fending him out again ; and the command of 
the next expedition into Baffin's Bay was conferred on Lieu- 
tenant Young ; whofe Inftrudions, having an immediate 
connexion with our voyage, are here inferted. 

Young, commanding the Lion armed VefTel, 
dated 13th March 1777. 


TTT'HEREAS, in purftiance of the King's pleafure, ftgnified to us by the 
'^ Earl of Sandwich, his Majefty' s floops named in the margin have been 
Jent out under the command of Captain Cook, in order, during this and the 
enfuing year, to attempt a difcovery of a Northern pafage, by fe a, from the 
Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean ; and, for that purpofe, to run up as high as the 
latitude of 6^° IScrth, where it is hoped he will be able to arrive in the month 
of June next ; and there, and as much further to the Northward as in his 
prudence he fljall think proper, very carefully to fearch for and explore fuch 
rivers or inlets as may appeo/r to he of a confiderahle extent, and pointing to 
Hudfons or Baffin's Bays, or the North Sea; and, Upon finding any paffage 

4 through. 


through, fufficient for the purpofes of navigation, to attempt fuch pajfage with 
one or both of the floops -, or, if they are judged to be too large, with f mailer 
veffels, the frames of which have been fent out with him for that purpofe: 
And whereas, in purfuance of his Majefy's further pleafure, fignified as afcre- 
faid, the armed vejfel under your command hath been fitted in order to proceed 
to Baffin's Bay, with a view to explore the Weftern parts thereof, and to en- 
deavour to find a pajfage, on that fide, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, 
and we have though! fit to intrufl you with the cOndu5t of that voyage -, Tou 
are therefore hereby required and directed to put tofea in the faid armed vejfel, 
without a moment's lofs of time, and make the befi of your way into Baffin's 
Bay, andfo uje your bejl endeavours to explore the Weftern fhores thereof, as 
far as in your judgment the fame can be done, without apparent r if que, and to 
examine fuch confiderable rivers or inlets as you may dijcover; and, in cafe 
you find any, through which there may be a probability of paffing into the Pa- 
cific Ocean, you are to attempt fuch paffiage; and if you fucceed in the attempt, 
and fh all be able to repajs it again, Jo as to return to England this year, you 
are to make the beft of your way to Spithead, or the Nore, and remain there 
until you receive further order-, fending us an account of your arrival and pro- 
ceedings. But if you fhall Jucceed in the attempt, and ft) all find thejeajon too 
far advanced for you to return the fame way, you are then to look out for the 
tnoft convenient place to winter in, and to endeavour to return by the Jaid paj- 
fage as early in the next year as the Jeajon will admit, and then to make the-, 
heft of your way to England, as above direSled. 

In cafe, however, you.ftjould not find, or Jhould bejatisfied there is not any- 
probability of finding, any fuch paffiage, or, finding it, you ftould not be able to 
get through in the veffiel you command, you are then to return to England, as 
before mentioned, urdefs you fhall find any branch of the Jea leading to the 
Weftward which you fhall judge likely to afford a communication between the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and which you fiall not be able to explore in the 
courje of this year, it being, in that cafe, left to your dijcretion to ft ay the. 
Winter in the mcft commodious fituation you can find, in order to purj'ue the 
dijcovery next year, if you ftoall find it advijable Jo to do; and, having dijeo- 
veredjuch paffiage, or not Jucceeded in the attempt, you are to make the beft of. 
your way to England, as above directed. 



It was natural to hope, that fomething would havf' been 
done in one or other, or in both thefe voyages of the Lon, 
that might have opened our views with regard to the prac- 
ticabiUty of a palTage from this fide of America. But, un- 
fortunately, the execution did not anfwer the expe6lotions 
conceived. Pickerfgill, who had acquired profeflioriai ex- 
perience when ading under Captain Cook, juftly meriicd the 
cenfure he received, for improper behaviour when intruded 
with command in Davis's Straits ; and the talcnrs of 
Young, as it afterward appeared, were more adapted lo con- 
tribute to the glory of a vi(5lory, as Commander of a line of 
battle fliip, than to add to geographical difcoveries, by 
encountering mountains of ice, and exploring unknown 
coafts *. 

Both Pickerfgill and Young having been ordered to pro- 
ceed into Baffin's Bay ; and Captain Cook being directed 
not to begin his fearch till he fliould arrive in the latitude of 
65', it may not be improper to fay fomething here of the 
reafons which weighed with thofe who planned the voyages, 
and framed the inftru6lions, to carry their views fo far 
Northward, as the proper fituation, where the paiTage, if it 
exifted at all, was likely to be attempted with fuccefs. It 
may be afked, Why was Hudfon's Bay negleded on our 
fide of America ; and why was not Captain Cook ordered to 
begin his fearch on its oppofite fide, in much lower lati- 

* In the Philofophical Tranfaftions, Vol. Ixviii. p. 1057, we hgve the track of 
Pickerfgill's voyage, which, probably, may be of ufe to our Greenland fhips, as it 
contains many obfervations for fixing the longitude and latitude of the coafts in Davis's 
Straits. But it appears that he never entered Baffin's Bay, the higheit Northern 
latitude to which he advanced being 68^ 14'. As to Young's proceedings, having 
failed abfolutely in making any difcovery, it is of lefs confequence, that no comniu- 
pication of his journal could be procured. 

tudes ? 


ludes ? Particularly, why not explore the ftrait leading into 
the Weflern fea of John de Fuca, between the latitudes of 
47° and 48° ; the Archipelago of St. Lazarus of Admiral de 
Fonte, between 50° and 55" ; and the rivers and lakes 
through which he found a pafTage North Eaflward, till he 
met with a Ihip from Boflon t 

As to the pretended difcoveries of de Fuca, the Greek 
Pilot, or of de Fonte, the Spanifli Admiral, though they 
have fometimes found their way into fi(5litious maps, or have 
been warmly contended for by the efpoufers of fanciful 
fyftems ; to have direded Captain Cook to fpend any time 
in tracing them, would have been as wife a meafure as if 
he had been dire6led to trace the fituation of Lilliput or Brob- 
dignac. The latter are, indeed, confelTedly, mere objects 
of imagination ; and the former, deflitute of any fufficient 
external evidence, bear fo manyftriking marks of internal 
abfurdity, as warrant our pronouncing them to be the fa- 
bric of impofture. Captain Cook's inftru(ftions were found- 
ed on an accurate knowledge of what had been already 
done, and of what ftill remained to do ; and this knowledge 
pointed out the inutility of beginning his fearch for a paf- 
fage till his arrival in the latitude of 65°; of which every 
fair and capable inquirer will be abundantly convinced, by 
an attention to the following particulars. 

Middleton, who commanded the expedition in 1741 and 
1742, into Hudfon's Bay, had proceeded farther North than 
any of his predeceiTors in that navigation. But though, 
from his former acquaintance with that Bay, to which he 
had frequently failed in the fervice of the company, he had 
entertained hopes of finding out a paflage through it into 
the Pacific Ocean, the obfervations which he was now 

Vol. I. f enabled 


enabled to make, induced him to change his opinion ; and, 
on his return to England, he made an unfavourable report^. 
Mr. Dobbs, the patron of the enterprize, did not acquiefce 
in this J and, fortified in his original idea of the pradicabi- 
lity of the pafTage, by the teftimony of fome of Middleton's 
officers, he appealed to the Public, accufing him of having 
mifreprefented fa6ls, and of having, from interefted mo- 
tives, in concert with the Hudfon's Bay Company, decided 
againil the pradicability of the paffage, though the difco- 
veries of his own voyage had put it within his reach. 

He had, between the latitude of 6f and 66°, found a very 
confiderable inlet running Wefiward, into which he entered 
■with his fhips ; and, " after repeated trials of the tides, and 
^ endeavours to difcover the nature and courfe of the open- 
*' ing, for three weeks fuccefiively, he found the flood con- 
** ftantly to come from the Eaftward, and that it was a large 
«' river he had got into,*' to which he gave the name of 
Wager River *. 

The accuracy, or rather the fidelity of this report was de- 
nied by Mr. Dobbs, v\rho contended that this opening is a 
Strait, and not a frej]:t ivater river, and that Middleton, if he 
had examined it properly, would have found a paffage 
through it to the Weflern American Ocean. The failure 
of this voyage, therefore, only ferved to furnifli our zeal- 
ous advocate for the difcovery, with new arguments for at- 
tempting it once more ; and he had the good fortune, after 
getting the rev/ard of twenty thoufand pounds eftabliflied 
by a^ of parliament, to prevail upon a fociety of gentle- 
men and merchants to fit out the Dobbs and California 5 

* See the Abftraa of his Journal, publiflied by Mr. Dobbs. 



which fhips, it was hoped, would be able to find their way 
into the Pacific Ocean, by the very opening which Middle- 
ton's voyage had pointed out, and which he was believed to 
have raifreprefented. 

This renovation of hope only produced frefli difappoint- 
ment. For it is well known, that the voyage of the Dobbs 
and California, inftead of confuting, flrongly confirmed all 
that Middleton had afTerted, The fuppofed Strait was found 
to be nothing more than a frelh water river, and its utmoft 
Weftern navigable boundaries were now afcertained, by ac- 
curate examination. But though Wager's Strait had thus 
difappointed our hopes, as had alfo done Rankin's Inlet, 
which v^ras now found to be a clofe Bay ; and though 
other arguments, founded on the fuppofed courfe of the 
tides in tludfon's Bay, appeared to be groundlefsj fuch is our 
attachment to an opinion once adopted, that, even after the 
unfuccefsful iffue of the voyage of the Dobbs and California, 
a paflage through fomc other place in that Bay was, by 
many, confidered as attainable ; and, particularly, Cheflcr- 
field's (formerly called Bowden's) hilet, lying between lati- 
tude 63° and 64°, fucceeded Wager's Strait, in the fanguine 
expectations of thofe who remained unconvinced by former 
difappointments. Mr. Ellis, who was on board the fhips, 
atid who wrote the hiftory of the voyage, holds up this as 
one of the places v,^here the pafTage may be fought for, 
upon ver^L rational grounds, atid tvith 'very good effecfs *. He alfo 
mentions Repulfe Bay, nearly in latitude 6f ; but as to this 
he fpeaks kfs confidently ; only faying, that by an attempt 
tliere, we might probably approach nearer to the difcovery f. 
He had good reafon for thus guarding his expreliion; for 

« Ellis's Voyage, -p. 328. t Ibid. p. 330. 

f 2 the 


the committee, who direfted this voyage, admitting the 
impraaicability of effeaing a paffage at Rcpulfe Bay, had 
refufed allowing the fliips to go into it, hemgfatlsfied as to that 
place *. 

Setting Repulfe Bay, therefore, afide, within which we have 
no reafon for believing that any inlet exifts, there remained 
no part of Hudfon's Bay to be fearched, but Cheaerfield's. 
Inlet, and a fmall track of coaft between the latitude 62", 
and what is called the South Point of Main, which had been 
left unexplored by the Dobbs and California. 

But this laft gleam of hope has now difappeared. The 
averfion of the Hudfon's Bay Company, to contribute any 
thing to the difcovery of a North Weft pafTage, had been 
loudly reported by Mr. Dobbs ; and the Public feemed to be- 
lieve that the charge was well founded. But ft ill, in juftice 
to them, it muft be allowed, that, in 1720, they had fent 
MefTrs. Knight and Barlow, in a floop on this very difco- 
very ; but thefe unfortunate people were never more heard 
of. Mr. Scroggs, who failed in fearch of them, in 1722, 
only brought back proofs of their fhipwreck, but no frefh 
intelligence about a palTage, which he was alfo to look for. 
They alfo fent a floop, and a fliallop, to try for this difco- 
very, in ^72)7 'i ^'^^ ^° "° purpofe. If obftrudions were 
thrown in the way of Captain Middleton, and of the Com- 
manders of the Dobbs and California, the Governor and 
Committee of the Hudfon's Bay Company, fmce that time, 
we muft acknowledge, have made amends for the narrow 

» Account of the Voyage, by the Clerk of the Cnlifornia, Vol. ii. p. 273. Mr. 
Dobbs himfelf fays, That he tlmight the pajfage would he imprankable, or, at leaji, 
very difficult, in cafe then was om farther North than 67 \ 

Account of Hudfon's Bay, p. 99. 



prejudices of their predeceflbrs ; and we have it in our 
power to appeal to facfts, which abundantly tedify, that 
every thing has been done by them, that could be required 
by the Public, toward perfecting the fcarch for a North Weft 

In the year 1761, Captain Chriflopher failed from Fort 
Churchill, in the floop Churchill ; and his voyage was not 
quite fruitlefs ; for he failed up Chefterfield's Inlet, through 
which a pafTage had, by Mr. Ellis's account of it, been fo 
generally expecfled. But when the water turned brackifh, 
which marked that he was not in a ftrait, but in a river, he 

To leave no room for a variety of opinion, however, he 
was ordered to repeat the voyage the enfuing fummer, in 
the fame floop, and Mr, Norton, in a cutter, was appointed 
to attend him. By the favour of the Governor and Com- 
mittee of the Company, the Journals of Captain Chriflopher, 
and of Mr. Norton, and Captain Chriftopher's chart of the 
Inlet, have been readily communicated. From thefe au- 
thentic documents, it appears that the fearch and examina- 
tion of Chefterfield's Inlet was now completed. It was found 
to end in a frefli water lake, at the diflance of about one 
hundred and fevcnty miles from the fea. This lake was 
found alfo to be about twenty-one leagues long, and from 
five to ten broad, and to be completely clofed up on every 
fide, except to the Weft, where there was a little rivulet ; to 
furvey the ftate of which, Mr. Norton and the crew of the 
cutter having landed, and marched up the country, faw that 
it foon terminated in three falls, one above another, and not 
water for a fmall boat over them ; and ridges, moftly dry 
from fide to fide, for five or fix miles higher. 



Thus ends Cheacrfield's Inler, and all Mr. Ellis's expecta- 
tions of a pafTage through it to the Vveftern Ocean. The 
other part of the coafl, from latitude 62", to the South Point 
of Main, within which limits hopes were alfo entertained 
of finding a paflage, have, of late years, been thoroughly 
explored. It is here that Piftol Bay is ficuated ; which the 
author who has writ laft in this country, on the probahUitycf 
a North V/eJl pajfage *, fpeaks of as the only remaining part 
of Hudfon's Bay where this WeRern communication may 
exift. But this has been alfo examined ; and, on the autho- 
rity of Captain Chriflopher, we can afTure the Reader, that 
there is no inlet of any confequence in all that part of the 
coaft. Nay, he has, in an open boat, failed round the bot- 
tom of what is called Piftol Bay, and, inftead of a pafTage to 
a Weftern Sea, found it does not run above three or four 
miles inland. 

Befides thefe voyages by fea, which fatisfy us that wc 
mud not look for a paflage to the South of 67' of latitude; 
we are indebted to the Hudfon's Bay Company, for a jour- 
ney by land, which has thrown much additional light on 
this matter, by affording what may be called demonftra- 
tion, how much farther North, at leaft in fome part of their 
voyage, fliips muft hold their courfe, before they can pafs 
from one fide of America to the other. The Northern In- 
dians, who come down to the Company's forts for trade, 
had brought to the knowledge of our people, the exiftence 
► of a river ; which, from copper abounding near it, had got 

the name of the Copper-mine River. We read much about 

* Printed for Jeffreys, in 1768. His words are, " There remains then to be 
.-*' fearched for the difcovery of a paflage, the opening called Piftol Bay, in Hudfon's 
.." Bay." P. 122. 



this river in Mr. Dobbs's publications, and he conftders the 
Indian accounts of it as favourable to his fyflera. The Com- 
pany being dcfirous of examining the matter with prccifion, 
ordered their Governor of Prince of Wales's Fort, to fend a 
proper perfon to travel by land, under the efcort of fome 
trufly Northern Indians, with orders to proceed to this 
famous river, to take an accurate furvey of its courfe, and 
to trace it to the fea, into which it empties itfelf. Mr. 
Hearne, a young gentleman in their fervice, who, having 
been an officer in the Navy, was well qualified to make ob- 
fervations for fixing the longitude and latitude, and make 
drawings of the country he fliould pafs through, and of 
the river which he was to examine, v>^as appointed for this 

Accordingly, he fet out from Fort Prince of Wales, on 
Churchill River, in latitude 58' 50', on the 7th of Decem- 
ber 1770 ; and the whole of his proceedings, from time to 
time, are faithfully preferved in his written Journal. The 
publication of this would not be an unacceptable prefent to 
the world, as it draws a plain artlefs picHiure of the favage 
modes of life, the fcanty means of fubfiftence, and indeed 
of the fingular wretchednefs, in every refpedf, of the vari- 
ous tribes, who, without fixed habitations, pafs their mi- 
ferable lives, roving throughout the dreary deferts, and 
over the frozen lakes of the immenfe track of continent 
through which Mr. Hearne pafTed, and which he may be 
faid to have added to the geography of the globe. His ge- 
neral courfe was to the North Weft. In the month of June 
1 77 1, being then at a place called Conge catha luha Chaga, he 
had, to ufe his own words, two good obfer'uations, both by meri- 
dian mid double altitudes, the mean of ivhich determines this place to 
be in latitude 68" 46' North, and, by account, in longitude 24' 2' 
2 W^ 


JVeJl of Churchill River. On the 13th of July (having left 
Conge catha ivha Chaga on the 2d, and travelling dill to the 
Weft of North) he reached the Copper-mine River ; and was 
not a little furprized to find it differ fo much from the de- 
fcriptions given of it by the natives at the fort ; for, inftead 
of being likely to be navigable for a fliip, it is, at this part, 
fcarcely navigable for an Indian canoe ; three falls being in 
fight, at one view, and being choaked up with Ihoals and 
flony ridges. 

Here Mr. Hearne began his furvey of the river. This he 
continued till he arrived at its mouth, near which his 
Northern Indians maflacred twenty-one Efquimaux, whom 
they furprized in their tents. We fliall give Mr. Hearne's 
account of his arrival at the fea, in his ov^n words. " After 
*' the Indians had plundered the tents of the Efquimaux of 
*' all the copper, &c. they were then again ready to affift 
" me in making an end to the furvey; the fea then in fighc 
*' from the North Weft by Weft to the North Eaft, diftant 
*' about eight miles. It was then about five in the morning of 
" the 17th, when I again proceeded to furvey the river to 
" the mouth, ftill found, in every refped, no ways likely, 
" or a poffibility of being made navigable, being full of 
" ihoals and falls ; and, at the entrance, the river emptying 
'•' itfelf over a dry flat of the fhore. For the tide was then 
'' out, and feemed, by the edges of the ice, to flow about 
" twelve or fourteen feet, which will only reach a little 
" within the river's mouth. That being the cafe, the wa- 
•* ter in the river had not the leaft brackifli taftc. But I am 
*' fure of its being the fea, or fome part thereof, by the 
" quantity of whale-bone and feal fkins the Efquimaux had 
" at their tents ; as alfo the number of feals which I faw 
** upon the ice. The fea, at the river's mouth, was full 
3 '.' of 


«« of iflands and fhoals, as f^r as I could fee, by ilie affid- 
«' ance of a pocket telefcope ; and the ice was not yet broken 
*' up, only thawed away about three quarters of a mile 
« from the fhore, and a little way round the iilands and 
*' fhoals. 

" By the time I had completed this furvey, it was about 
« one in the morning of the i8th; but in thefe high la- 
** titudes, and this time of the year, the fun is always a 
" good height above the horizon. It then came on a thick 
*' drizzling rain, with a thick fog ; and, as finding the river 
•" and fea, in every refped, not likely to be of any utility, 
" I did not think it worth while to wait for fair weather, to 
*' determine the latitude exadlly by an obfervation. But, by 
" the extraordinary care I took in obferving the courfes and 
** diftances, walked from Congecathawhachaaga, where I had 
*' two good obfervations, the latitude may be depended on, 
" within twenty miles at fartheft." 

From the map which Mr. Hearne conftrufled of the 
country through which he pafTed, in this fmgular journey, 
and which we have been permitted to copy upon "^ 

neral chart, it appears that the mouth of the copper-mine 
river lies in the latitude 72°, and above 25° Weft longitude 
from the fort, from whence he took his departure *. 

The confequences refulting from this extenfive difcovery, 
are obvious. We now fee that the continent of North Ame- 
rica ftretches from Hadfon's Bay fo far to the North Weft, 

* Mr. Hearne's journey, back from the copper-mine river, to Fort Prince of Wales, 
lafted till June 30, 1772. From his firfl fetting out till his return, he had employed 
near a year and feven months. The unparalleled hardfhips he fuffered, and the effen- 
tial fcrvice he performed, met with a fuitabie reward from his mafters, and he is now 
the Governor of Fort Prince of AVales, where he was taken prisoner by the French 
■in 1782 ; and laft fumm"er returned to his ftation. 

Vol. I. g that 


that Mr. Hearne had travelled near thirteen hundred miles 
before he arrived at the fea. His moil Wellern diftance 
from the coafl of Hudfon's Bay was near fix hundred 
miles * ; and that his Indian guides were well apprized of 
a vafl tra<5l of continent ftretching farther on in that direc- 
tion, is certain from many circumflances mentioned in his 
journal ; one of which, as befides eftablifliing this fad, it pre- 
fents us with a very ftriking pidlure of favage life, has been 
tranfcribed in the following note -f-. 


* The Hudfon's Bay company have a trading poft called Hudfon's Houfe, above 
five hundred miles up the country, in lat. 53° 0' 32", and in long. ic6' 27' 30". 

t This day, Jan. 11, 1772, as the Indians vi'ere hunting, fome of them faw a 
ftrange fnow-ihoe track, which they followed, and at a confiderable diftance came to 
a little hut, where they found a young woman fitting alone. They brought her to the 
tents J and, on examining her, found that fhe was one of the Weftern £)<?^-n^^^i Indians, 
and had been taken prifoner by l\\tArathapefcowlnA\dim in the fummer 1770 ; and when 
the Indians, who took her prifoner, were near this part in the fummer 1771, fhe eloped 
from them, with an intent to return to her own country ; but it being fo far off, and, 
after being taken prifoner, having come the whole way in canoes, with the winding 
of rivers and lakes, fhe had forgot the way ; and had been in this little hut ever fince 
the firft fetting in of the fall. By her account of the moons part, fince her elope- 
ment, it appears to be the middle of lafl: July when fhe left the Arathapefcow Indians, 
and had not feen a human face ever fince. She fupported herfelf very well by fnaring 
of rabbits, partridges, and fquirrels, and was now in good health and flefli ; and, I 
think, as fine a woman of a real Indian, as I have feen in any part of North Ame- 
rica. She had nothing to make fnares of but the finews of rabbits legs and feet, which 
fhe twifted together for that purpofe ; and of the rabbits flcins had made hcrf;:rlf a neat 
and warm winter's clothing. The flock of materials fhe took with her when fhe 
eloped, confided of about five inches of an iron hoop for a knife ; a flone fi:eel, and 
other hard ftones as flints, together with other fire tackle, as tiiiJcr, &c. ; about an 
inch and half of the fhank of the fhoeing of an arrow, of iron, of which fhe made an 
awl. She had not been long at the tents, when half a fcore of men wreflled to fee 
who fhould have her for their wife. She fays, when the Arathapefcow Indians took 
her prifoner, that they flole on the tents in the night, when the inhabitants were all 
afleep, and killed every foul except herfelf and three other young v/omen. Her father, 
mother, and hufband were in the fame tent with her, and they were all killed. Her 
child, of about five months old, fhe took with her, wrapped in a bundle of her cloth, 
ing, undifcovered, in the night. But when arrived at the place where the Aratha- 
pefcows had left their wives, which was not far off, it being then day-break, thefe 
§ - Indian 


What is now, for the firft time, authentically laid before 
the Public, with regard to the difcoveries made by the Hud- 
fon's Bay Company, was well known to the noble Lord who 
prefided at the board of Admiralty, when this voyage was 
undertaken ; and the intimate connexion of thofe difco- 
veries with the Plan of the Voyage, of courfe, regulated 
the inflrucTtions given to Captain Cook. 

And now, may we not take it upon us to appeal to every 
candid and capable inquirer, whether that part of the in- 
ltru(5lions which dire(5led the Captain not to lofe time, in explor~ 
ing rivers or inlets^ or upon any other account, till he got into the 
latitude oi 6^°, was not framed judicioufly ; as there were 
fuch indubitable proofs that no paflage exifted fo far to 
the South as any part of Hudfon's Bay, and that, if a paf- 
fage could be effedled at all, part of it, at leafl, mufl be tra- 
verfed by the fhips as far to the Northward as the latitude 
72°, where Mr. Hearne arrived at the fca ? 

We may add as a farther confideration, in fupport of this 
article of the Inftrudlions, that Beering's Afiatic difcoveries, 
in 1728, having traced that continent to the latitude of 67°, 
Captain Cook's approach toward that latitude was to be 
wiflicd for, that he might be enabled to bring back more 

Indian women immediately began to examine her bundle ; andhaving there found the 
child, took it from her and killed it immediately. The relation of this fliocking 
fcene only ferved the favages of my gang for laughter. Her country is fo far to the 
r^^tt'^'v/, that file fays file never faw any iron, or other kind of metal, till taken 
prifoner ; thofe of her tribe making their hatchets and chifels of deers horns, and 
knives of flone and bone ; their arrows are fhod with a kind of flate, bones, and deers 
horns ; and their inllruments, to make their wood work, are nothing but beavers 
teeth. They have frequently heard of the ufeful materials the nations to the Eafi: of 
them are fupplied with from the Englifh ; but, inftead of drawing nearer to be in the 
way of trading for iron work, &c. are obliged to retreat farther back, to avoid the 
Arathapefcow Indians, as they make furprifing flaughter amongft them every year, 
both winter and fummer. Hearne's MS. Journal. 

g 3 authentic 


authentic information than the world had hitherto obtained, 
about the relative fituation and vicinity of the two conti- 
' nents, which was abfolutely neceflary to be known, before 

the pra(5licability of failing between the Pacific and Atlantic 
Oceans, in any Northern diredion, could be afcertained. 

After all, that fearch, in a lower latitude, which they 
who give credit (if any fuch there now be) to the pretended 
difcoverics of deFonte, affedl to vvifh had been recommended 
to Captain Cook, has (if that will cure them of their cre- 
dulity) been fatisfadlorily made. The Spaniards, roufed 
from their lethargy by our voyages, and having caught a 
fpark of enterprize from our repeated vifits to the Pacific 
Ocean, have followed us more than once into the line of our 
difcoveries within the Southern tropic ; and have alfo fitted 
out expeditions to explore the American continent to the 
North of California. It is to be lamented, that there fhouid 
be any reafons why the tranfadions of thofe Spanifli voyages 
have not been fully difclofed, with the fame liberal fpiritof 
information which other nations have adopted. But, for- 
tunately, this exceffive caution of the court of Spain has 
been defeated, at leaft in one inftance, by the publication of 
an authentic Journal of their laft voyage of difcovery upon 
the coafl of America, in 1775, for which the world is in- 
debted to the Honourable Mr. Daines BarringLon. This 
publication, which conveys fome Information of real con- 
fequence to geography, and has therefore been referred to 
more than once in the following work, is particularly va- 
luable in this refpecSt, that fome parts of the coaft which 
Captain Cook, in his progrefs Northward, was prevented, 
by unfavourable winds, from approaching, were feen and 
examined by the Spanifli ihips who preceded him; and 
ihe perufal of the following extraft from their Journal, 



may be recommended to thofe (if any fuch there be) who 
would reprefent it as an imperfe6tion in Captain Cook's 
voyage, that he had not an opportunity of examining the 
coaft of America, in the latitude affigned to the difcoveries 
of Admiral Fonte. " We now attempted to find out the 
*' flraits of Admiral Fonte, though, as yet, we had not dif- 
** covered the Archipelago of St. Lazarus, through which he 
" is faid to have failed. With this intent, we fearched every 
*' bay and recefs of the coaft, and failed round every head^ 
'' land, lying to in the night, that we might not lofe light 
*' of this entrance. After thefe pains taken, and being favoured 
'* by a North Weft wind, it may be pronounced that no fuch firaits 
*' are to be found *." 

In this Journal, the Spaniards boail of " having reached 
*' fo high a latitude as 58°, beyond what any other naviga- 
" tors had been able to effect in thofe feas f." Without 
diminifhing the merit of their performance, we may be 
permitted to fay that it will appear very inconfiderable, in- 
deed, in comparifon of what Captain Cook efFetfled, in the 
voyage of which an account is given in thefe volumes. Be- 
fides exploring the land in the South Indian Ocean, of which 
Kerguelen, in two voyages, had been able to obtain but a 
very imperfe6t knowledge ; adding alfo many confiderable 
acceflions to the geography of the Friendly Iflands ; and 
difcovering the noble group, now called Sandwich Iflands 
in the Northern part of the Pacific Ocean, of which not 
the fainteft trace can be met with in the account of 
any former voyage ; befides thefe preliminary difcoveries 
the Reader of the following work will find, that in 

* Journal of a voyage in 1775 by Don Francifco Antonio Maurelle, in Mr. Bar- 
rington's Mifcellanies, p. 508. 

f Ibid. p. 507. We. learn from Maurelle's Journal that another voyage had been 
feme time before performed upon the coaft of America 5 but ,the iitmoft Northern 
progrefs of it was to latitude 55", 



one fummer, our Englifh Navigator difcovered a much 
larger proportion of the North Weft coaft of America than 
the Spaniards, though fettled in the neighbourhood, had, 
in all their attempts, for above two hundred years, been able 
to do ; That he has put it beyond all doubt that Beering and 
TfchcrikofF had really difcovered the continent of America 
in 1 74 1, and has alfo eftablifhed the prolongation of that 
continent Weftvvard oppolite Kamtfchatka, which fpeculative 
writers, wedded to favourite fyftems, had afFedled fo much 
to difbelieve *, and which, though admitted by Muller, had, 
fince he wrote, been confidered as difproved by later Ruffian 
difcoveries f ; That, befides afcertaining the true polition of 
the Weftern coafts of America, with fome inconfiderable in- 
terruptions, from latitude 44° up to beyond the latitude 70', 
he has alfo afcertained the pofition of the North Eaftern ex- 
tremity of Afia, by confirming Beering's difcoveries in 1728, 
and adding extenfive acceffions of his own ; That he has 
given us more authentic information concerning the iflands 
lying between the two continents, than the Kamtfchatka 
traders, ever fince Beering firft taught them to venture on 
this fea, had been able to procure X » That, by fixing the re- 

* Dr. Campbell, fpeaking of Beering's voyage in 174.1, fays, " Nothing can be 
*• plainer thar. this truth, that his difcovery does not warrant any fuch fiippofition, as 
*' that the country he touched at was a great continent making part of North America," 

t See Coxe's Ruffian Difcoveries, p. 26, 27, &c. The fiitions of fpeculative geo- 
graphers in the Southern hemifphere, have been continents ; in the Northern hemi- 
fphere, they have been feas. It may be obferved, therefore, that if Captain Cook in 
his firil voyages annihilated imaginary Southern lands, he has made amends for the 
havock, in his third voyage, by annihilating imaginary Northern feas, and filling up 
the vaft fpace, which had been allotted to them, with the folid contents of his new 
difcoveries of American land farther Weft and North than had hitherto been traced. 

J The Ruffians feem to owe much to England, in matters of this fort. It is An- 
gular enough tha't one of our countrymen, Dr. Campbell [See his edition of Harris's 



lative fituation of Afia and America, and difcovering the 
narrow bounds of the ilrait that divides them, he has throwa 
a blaze of Hght upon this important part of the geography 
of the globe, and folved the puzzling problem about the 
peopling of America, by tribes deflitute of the necelTary 
means to attempt long navigations ; and, laflly,That, though 
the principal obje(5l of the voyage failed, the world will be 
greatly benefited even by the failure, as it has brought us 
to the knowledge of the exiftence of the impediments, which 
future navigators may expei5t to meet with in attempting to 
go to the Eafl Indies through Beering's ftrait. 

The extended review we have taken of the preceding 
voyages, and the general outline we have fketched out, of 
the tranfa6tions of the laft, which are recorded at full 
length in thefe volumes, will not, it is hoped, be conlidered 
as a prolix, or unnecefTary detail. It will ferve to give a 
jull notion of the whole plan of difcovery executed by his 
Majefty's commands. And it appearing that much was 
aimed at, and much accompli(hed, in the unknown parts 
of the globe, in both hemifpheres, there needs no other 
confideratlon, to give full fatisfa<51:ion to thofe who pofTefs 
an enlarged way of thinking, that a variety of ufeful pur- 
pofes mufl have been efFecfted by thefe refearches. But 

voyages, Vol. il. p. 1021.] has preferved many valuable particulars of Beering's firft 
voyage, of which Muller himfelf, the Hiftorian of their earlier dilcoveries, makes no 
mention ; that it fhould be another of our countrymen, Mr. Coxe, who firft publiflied 
a fatisfaftory account of their later difcoveries ; and that the King of Great Britain's 
fhips fhould traverfe the globe in 1778, to confirm to the Ruffian empire, the pofieffion 
of near thirty degrees, or above fix hundred miles of continent, which Mr. Engel, in 
his zeal for the prafticability of aNorthEafl: pafFage, would prune away from the length 
of Afia to the Eafl:ward. See his Memoires Geographiques, &c. Laufanne 1765 j which^ 
however, contains much real information j ajid many parts of which are confirmed by 
Captain Cook's American difcoveries, 


Ivi t N T R O D U C T I O n; 

there are others, no doubt, who, too diffident of their owri 
abilities, or too indolent to exert them, would wifli to have 
their refle6lions affifled, by pointing out what thofe ufeful 
purpofes are. For the ufe of fuch, the following enumera- 
tion of particulars is entered upon. And if there fliould be 
any, who affeft to tindervalue the plan, or the execution of 
our voyages, what fhall now be offered, if it do not convince 
them, may, at leall, check the influence of their unfavour- 
able decifion. 

I. It may be fairly confidered, as one great advantage ac- 
cruing to the world from our late furveys of the globe, 
that they have confuted fanciful theories, too likely to give 
birth to impracfticable undertakings. 

After Captain Cook's perfevering and fruitlefs traverfes 
through every corner of the Southern hemifphere, who, for 
the future, will pay any attention to the ingenious reveries of 
Campbell, deBroires,and de Buffon ? or hope toeflablifli an in- 
tercourfe with fuch a continent as Maupertuis's fruitful ima- 
gination had pidured? A continent equal, at lead, in extent, 
to all the civilized countries in the known Northern hemi- 
fphere, where new men, new animals, new produftions of 
every kind, might be brought forward to our view, and dif- 
coveries be made, which would open inexhauflible trea- 
fures of commerce *. We can now boldly take it upon us 
to difcourage all expeditions, formed on fuch reafonings 
of fpeculative philofophers, into a quarter of the globe, 

* See Maupertuis's Letter to the King of PrufTia. The author of the Preliminary 
Difcourfe to Bougainville's Voyage aux IJles Makiiines, computes that the Southern 
continent (for the exigence of which, he owns, we muft depend more on the .con- 
jsctures of philofophers, than en the teftimony of voyagers) contains eight or ten 
millions of fauare leagues. 

-j- where 


where our perfevcring Englifli navigator, inftead of this 
promifed fairy land, found nothing but barren rocks, 
fcarcely affording flielter to penguins and feals ; and dreary 
feas, and mountains of ice, occupying the immenfe fpace 
allotted to imaginary paradifes, and the only treafures there 
to be difcovered, to reward the toil, and to compenfate the 
dangers of the unavailing fearch. 

Or, if we carry our refle6lions into the Northern hemi- 
fpherC; could Mr. Dobbs have made a fmgle con vert, muchlefs 
could he have been the fuccefsful folicitor of two different 
expeditions, and have met with encouragement from the le- 
giflature, with regard to his favourite paffage through Hud- 
fon'sBay, if Captain Chriflopher had previoufly explored its 
coafts, and if Mr. Hearne had walked over the immenfe con- 
tinent behind it ? Whether, after Captain Cook's and Captain 
Gierke's difcoveries on the Weft fide of America, and their 
report of the ftate of Bccring's Strait, there can be fufficient 
encouragement to make future attempts to penetrate into 
the Pacific Ocean in any Northern direc5lion, is a queftion, 
for the decifion of which the Public will be indebted to this 

2. Bat our voyages will benefit tlie world, not only by 
•difcouraging future unprofitable fearche?, but alfo by lef- 
fening the dangers and diftrefles formerly experienced in 
thofe feas, which are within the line of commerce and na- 
vigation, now a<5luaMy fubfifting. In how many infiances 
have the midakes of former navigators, in fixing the true 
fituations of important places, been rectified ? What acccf- 
fion to the variation chart ? Hov/ many nautical obfcrvations 
have been coiledrccl, and are now ready to be confuhed, in 
direc51:ing a iliip's courfe, along rocky fhores, through nar- 

VoL. I. h row 


row ftraits, amidft perplexing currents, and dangerous 
flioals? But, above all, what numbers of new bays, and 
harbours, and anchoring-places, are now, for the firft time, 
brought forward, where (hips may be flieltered, and their 
crews find tolerable refrefhments ? To enumerate all thefe 
would be to tranfcribe great part of the journals of our fe- 
veral Commanders, whofe labours will endear them to 
every navigator, whom trade or war may carry into their 
tracks. Every nation that fends a fliip to fea, will partake 
of the benefit ; but Great Britain herfelf, whofe commerce 
is boundlefs, mull take the lead in reaping the full advan- 
tage of her own difcoveries. 

In confequence of all thefe various improvements, leflen- 
ing the apprehenfions of engaging in long voyages, may 
we not reafonably indulge the pleafing hope, that freffi 
branches of commerce may, even in our own time, be at- 
tempted, and fuccefsfuUy carried on f Our hardy adven- 
turers in the whale-fifliery, have already found their way, 
within thefe few years, into the South Atlantic ; and who 
knows what frefli fources of commerce may flill be opened, 
if the profpeft of gain can be added, to keep alive the fpirit 
of enterprize ? If the fituation of Great Britain be too re- 
mote, other trading nations will affuredly avail themfelves 
of our difcoveries. We may foon exped: to hear that the 
Ruffians, now infl:ru(5led by us where to find the American 
continent, have extended their voyages from the Fox Iflands 
to Cook's River, and Prince William's Sound. 'And if Spain 
itfelf fhould not be tempted to trade from its moft Northera 
Mexican ports, by the frefh mine of wealth difcovered in 
the furs of King George's Sound, which they may tranfport 
in their Manilla fliips, as a favourite commodity for the 

7 Chinefe 


Chinefe market ; that market may probably be fupplied by 
a direcft trade to America, from Canton itfelf, with thofe 
valuable articles which the inhabitants of China have hi- 
therto received, only by the tedious and expenfive circuit of 
Kamtfchatka and Kiachta. 

Thefe and many other commercial improvements may 
reafonably be expedled to refult from the Britifli difcoveriesj 
even in our own times. But if we look forward to future 
ages, and to future changes in the hiftory of commerce, by 
recollecting its various pad revolutions and migrations, 
we may be allowed to pleafe ourfelves with the idea of its 
finding its way, at laft, throughout the extent of the 
regions with v/hich our voyages have opened an intercourfeJ 
and there will be abundant reafon to fubfcribe to Captain 
Cook's obfervation with regard to New Zealand, which may 
be applied to other tracks of land explored by him, that 
*' although they be far remote from the prefent trading 
" world, we can, by no means, tell what ufe future ages 
" may make of the difcoveries made by the prefent *." In 
this point of view, furely, the utility of the late voyages 
mull Hand confelTed ; and we may be permitted to fay, that 
the hiftory of their operations, which will be completed in 
thefe volumes, has the jufteft pretenfions to be called xT^|ita 
e? ecu, as it will convey to lateft pofterity a treafure of intereft- 
ing information. 

3. Admitting, however, that we may have expreiTed too 
fanguine expedlations of commercial advantages, either 
■within our own reach, or gradually to be unfolded at fome 
future period, as the refult of our voyages of difcovery ; we 

* Cook's Voyage, Vol. i. p. 02. 

h 2 may 


may flill be allowed to confider them as a laudable effort to 
add to the flock of human knowledge, with regard to an ob- 
je(5t which cannot but deferve the attention of enlightened 
man. To exert our faculties indevifing ingenious modes of 
fatisfying ourfelves about the magnitude and diftance of the 
fun; to extend our acquaintance with the fyftem to which 
that luminary is the common centre, by tracing the revolu- 
tions of a new planet, or the appearance of a new comet ; 
to carry our bold refearches through all the immenfity of 
fpace, where world beyond world rifes to the view of the 
aftoniflied obferver ; thefe are employments which none 
but thofe incapable of purfuing them can depreciate, 
and which every one capable of purfuing them muft de- 
light in;, as a dignified exercife of the powers of the human 
mind. But while we direct our ftudies to diftant worlds, 
•which, after all our exertions, we mufl; content ourfelves 
with having barely difcovered to exift, it would be a llrange 
neglect, indeed, and would argue a mod culpable want of 
rational curiofiry, if we did not ufe our bell: endeavours to 
arrive at a full acquaintance with the contents of our own 
planet; of that little fpot in the immenfe univerfe, on 
•which we have been placed, and the utmoft limits of which, 
at leafl its habitable parts, we pofTcfs the means of afceiv 
taining, and defcribing, by actual examinarion.. 

So naturally doth this reflecflion prefent itfelf, that to know 
fomething of the terraqueous globe, is a favourite obje6l 
with every one who can tafte tl>e lowed rudiments of learn- 
ing. Let us not therefore think fo meanly of thetimes in which 
we live, as to fuppofe it poffible that full juftice will not 
be done to the noble plan of difcovery,. fo lleadily and fo 
fuccefs fully carried on, fmce the acceflion of his Majefty ; 



which cannot fail to be confidered, in every fucceeding age, as 
a fplendid period in the hiftory of our country, and to add to 
our national glory, by diftinguifhing Great Britain as taking 
the lead in the mofl arduous undertakings for the common 
benefit of the human race. Before thefe voyages took place, 
nearly half the furface of the 'globe we inhabit was hid in 
obfcurity and confufion. What is ftill wanting to complete 
our geography, may juftly be termed the mlnutice of that 

4. Let us no\^'' carry our thoughts fomewhat farther. Iz 
is fortunace for the interefts of knov»?ledge, that acquifitions- 
in any one bi nch. generally, and indeed unavoidably, lead' 
to acquifitions in odier branches, perhaps of ftill greater 
Gonfequence ; and that we cannot even gratify mere curio- 
fity, without being rewarded with valuable inftru^tion. 
This obfcrvation applies to the fubje6t before us. Voyages, 
in which new oceans have been traverfed, and in which new 
countries have been vifited, can fca,rcely ever be performed, 
without bringing forward to our view frefh obje<fl:s of fci- 
ence. Even when v^e are to take our report of what was 
difcovered, from the mere failor, wbofe knovv'ledge fcarcely 
goes beyond the narrow limits of his own profeffion, and 
whofe inquiries are not directed by philofophical difcern- 
ment, it ;vill be unfortunate indeed, if fomething hatli nor 
been remarked, by which the fcholar may profit, and ufe- 
f ul acceflions be made to our old ftock of information, .nd 
if this be the cafe in general, how much more muft be 
gained by the particular voyages now under confideration I 
Befides naval officers equally flvilled to examine the coafts 
they might approach, as to delineate them accurately upon 
5; sheic 


their charts, artifts* were engaged, who, by their drawings 
might illuftrate what could only be imperfeflly defcribed ; 
mathematicianst. who might treafure up an extenfive feries 
of fcientific obfervations ; and perfons verfed in the various 
departments of the hiftory of nature, who might colledl, 
or record, all that they Ihould find new and valuable, 
throughoiu the wide extent of their refearches. But while 
moll: of thefe aflbciates of our naval difcoverers, were libe- 
rally rewarded by the Public, there was one gentleman, who 
thinking it the nobleft reward he could receive, to have an 
opportunity of making the ample fortune he inhericed 
from his anceftors, fubiervienc to the improvement of fci- 
ence, Hepped forward of his own accord, and fubmitting to 
the hardfhips and dangers of a circumnavigation of the 
globe, accompanied Captain Cook in the Endeavour. The 
learned world, I may alfo fay the unlearned, will never for- 
get the obligations which it owes to Sir Jofeph Banks. 

What real acquifitions have been gained, by this munifi- 
cent attention to fcicnce, cannot be better exprefTed than in 
the words of Mr. Wales, who engaged in one of thefe 
voyages himfelf, and contributed largely to the benefits de- 
rived from them. 

« That branch of natural knowledge which may be 
•" called nautical ajlronomy, was undoubtedly in its infancy, 

* Mefl" Hodges and Webber, whofe drawings have ornamented and illuftrated this 
and Captain Cook's fecond voyage. 

f Mr. Green, in the EnJeavour; Meffrs. Wales and Bayly, in the R^folution and 
Adventure ; Mr. Bayly, a fecond time, jointly vsfith Captains Cook and King in this 
voyage ; and Mr. Lyons, who accompanied Lord Mulgrave. The obfervations of 
Meffrs. Wales and Bayly, during Captain Cook's fecond voyage, are already in the 
hands of the Public, by the favour of the Board of Longitude ; and thofe of Captains 
Cook and King, and Mr. Bayly, during this laft, will appear immediately after our 

'i when 


" when thefe voyages were firft undertaken. Both inftru- 
" ments and obfervers, which deferved the name, were very 
" rare ; and fo late as the year 1770, it was found necefTary, 
" in the appendix to Meyer's Tables, pubHflied by the Board 
" of Longitude, to ftate fadls, in contradidlion to the ailer- 
*' tions of fo celebrated an aftronomer as the Abbe de la 
« Caille, that the altitude of the fun at noon, the eafieft and 
5' moft fimple of all obfervations, could not be taken with 
*' certainty to a lefs quantity than five, fix, feven, or even 
" eight minutes *. But thofe who will give themfelves the 
" trouble to look into ihe ajlronomical obfervations, made in 
*' Captain Cook's laft voyage, will find, that there were few, 
" even of the petty officers, who could not obfcrve the 
" diftance of the moon from the fun, or a flar, the moft de- 
*' licate of all obfervations, with fufficient accuracy. It 
" may be added, that the method of making and computing 
" obfervations for finding the variation of the compafs, is 
" better known, and more frequently pracflifed by thofe 
•* who have been on thefe voyages, than by moft others. 
" Nor is there, perhaps, a perfon who ranks as an officer, 

* The Abbe's words are, " Si ceux qui promettent una fi grande precifioii dans 
" ces fortes de mcthodes, avoient navigue quelque temps, ils auroient vu fouvent, que 
" dans I'obfervatioii la plus fimple de toutes, qui eft celle de la hauteur du foleil a ■ 
" midi, deux obfervations, munis de bons qu.artiers de reflexion, bien rectifies, dif- ' 
" ferent entr'eux, lorfqu'ils obfervent chacun a part, de 5', 6', 7', & 8'." 

Ephcmer. 1755—1765. Introduilian, p. 32. 

It mufl be, however, mentioned, in juftice to \1. de la Caille, that he attempted 
to introduce the lunar method of difcovering the longitude, and propofed a plan of 
Calculations of the moon's diftance from the fun and fixed ftars ; but through the 
imperfedlion of his inftruments, his fuccefs was much lefs than that method was ca- 
pable of affording. The bringing it into general ufe was referved for Dr. Mafkeljne, 
our Aftronomer Royal. See the preface to the Tables for corre£iing ike EjfeSis of Re 
fraillon and Parallax, publiflicd by the Board of Longitude, under the Direction of 
Dr. Shepherd, Plumian Profeffor cf Aftronomy and Experimental Philofophy at Cam- 
bridge, in 1772. - 

•' and 


« and has been concerned in them, who would nor, what- 
" ever his real fldll may be, feel afhamed to have it thought 
" that he did not know how to obferve for, and compute 
«' the time at fea; though, but a fliort while before thefe 
'' voyages were fet on foot, fuch a thing was fcarcely ever 
" heard of amongft feamen ; and even firft-rate aflro- 
*•■ nomers doubted the poilibility of doing it with fufficient 
" exaflnefs*. 

«' The number of places, at which the rife and times of 
'* flowing of tides have been obferved, in thefe voyages, is 
*' very great -, and hence an important article of ufeful 
*' knowledge is afforded. In thefe obfervations, fome very 
" curious and even unexpected circumftances have offered 

* In adi^ition to Mr. Wales's Remark, it maybe obferved, that the proficiency of 
our naval officers in taking obfervations at fea, mufl: ultimately be attributed to the 
ereat attention paid to this important ohjefl: by the Board of Longitude at home; libe- 
ral rewards having been gi\'en to mathematicians for pcrfefling the lunar tables, and 
facilitatino- calculations ; to artiiis for conftruL'Hng more accurate infrruments for ob- 
fervin>T, and watches better adapted to keeping time at fea. It appears, therefore, 
that the voyages of difcovery, and the operations of the board of longitude went hand 
in hand; and they mufl: be combined, in order to form a jufl: cflimate of the extent 
of the plan carried into execution fmce his A'lajefty's acccffion, for improving aftro- 
nomy and navigation. But, befides the eftablifhment of the Board of Longitude 
on its prefent footing, which has had fuch important confequences, it mufl: alfo beaver 
acknov/ledged, that his prefent Majefly has extended his royal patronage to every 
branch of the liberal arts and ufeful fcience. Thcmunificent prefent to the Royal 
Society for defraying theexpence of obferving the trnnjtt of Venus;— the inftitution 
of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture; — the magnificent apartments allotted to the 
Royal and Antiquary Societies, and to the Royar Academy, at Somerfet Place ; — the 
fupport of the Garden of Exotics at Kew, to improve which, Mr. Mafcn was fent to 
the extremities of Africa ; — they}c/_y?i:,-'??i'M/ encouragement aflorded to learned men and 
learned works, in various departm.ents ; and particularly, that aflorded to Mr. Her- 
fchell, "which has enabled him to devote himfelf iiitirely to the improvement of aflro- 
nomy ; thefe, and many other inflances which might be enumerated, would have 
greatly diflinguiflied his Majefly's reign, even if he had not been the patron of thofe 
fuccefsful attempts to perfect geography and navigation by fo many voyages of dif- 

'* them- 

I N T R O D U C T I O No Ixv 

" themfelves to our confideration. It will be fufficient to 
*' inftance the exceedingly fmall height to which the tide 
* rifes, in the middle of the great Pacific Ocean ; where it 
^ falls fliort, two-thirds at leaft, of what might have been 
'• expected from theory and calculation. 

*' The direction and force of currents at fea, make alfo 
** an important objecSt. Thefe voyages will be found to 
" contain much ufeful information on this head ; as well 
" relating to feas nearer home, and which, in confequence, 
'* are navigated every day, as to thofe which are more re- 
*' mote, but where, notwithftanding, the knowledge of thefe 
*' things may be of great fervice to thofe who are deftined 
*' to navigate them hereafter. To this head alfo we may refer 
" the great number of experiments which have been made 
*« for inquiring into the depth of the fea, its temperature 
" and faltnefs at different depths, and in a variety of places 
« and climates. 

" An extenfive foundation has alfo been laid for improve- 
" ments in magnetifm, for difcovering the caufe and nature 
" of the polarity of the needle, and a theory of its varia- 
*' tions, by the number and variety of the obfervations and 
" experiments which have been made, both on the variation 
*' and dip, in almoft all parts of the world. Experiments alfo 
" have been made, in confequence of the late voyages, on 
*' the effects of gravity, in different and very diflant places, 
" which may ferve to increafe our flock of natural know- 
** ledge. From the fame fource of information we have 
" learned, that the phsenomenon, ufually called the aurora 
" borealis, is not peculiar to high Northern latitudes, but be- 
*' longs, equally, to all cold climates, whether they be North 
" or South. 

Vol. L i *« But, 

Ixvi I N T R O D U C T I O K. 

" But, perhaps, no part of knowledge has been fo great 
" a gainer by the late voyages, as that of botany. We 
«' are told* that, at leaft, twelve hundred new plants have 
♦' been added to the known fyftem; and that very con- 
" fiderable additions have been made to every other branch 
" of natural hiflory, by the great fkill and induftry of Sir 
*' Jofeph Banks, and the other gentlemen t who have accom- 
*' panied Captain Cook for that purpofe." 

To our naval officers in general, or to their learned afTo- 
ciates in the expeditions, all the foregoing improvements of 
knowledge may be traced ; but there is one very fingular 
improvement indeed, flill behind, for which, as we are [o\e]y 
indebted to Captain Cook, let us ilate it in his own words ; 
«' Whatever may be the public judgment about other mat- 
" ters, it is with real fatisfa(5tion, and without claiming any 
" merit bat that of attention to my duty, that I can con- 
" elude this account wi[h an obfervation, which facts en- 
" able me to make, that our having difcovered the poffibi- 
*' lity of preferving health amongft a numerous fliip's com- 
*' pany, for fuch a length of time, in fuch varieties of cli- 
*' mate, and amidft. fuch continued hardfhips and fatigues,, 
" will make this voyage remarkable, in the opinion of 
" every benevolent perfon, when the difputes about a South- 
" ern continent fhall have ceafed to engage the attention* 
" and to divide the judgment of philofophers ij;." 

* See Dr. Shepherd's Preface, as above, 

f Dr. Solande'-, Dr. Forfter and his fon, and Dr. Sparman. Dr. Forfter has 
given us a fpeclmen of the botanical difcoveries of his voyage in the Cbara"c7-es Ge- 
7!eru»i Plantarum, &c. and much curious philofophical matter is contained in his 
Obfervations made in a Voyage round the World. Dr. Sparman alfo, on his return to 
Sweden, favoured us with a publication, in which he expatiates on the advantages 
accruing to natural hiitory, to agronomy, geography, general phyfics, and naviga- 
tion, from our South Sea voyages.. 

X Cook's Voyage, Vol. ii. p. 203. 

5. But 


5. But while our late voyages have opened fo many chan- 
nels to an increafe of knowledge in the feveral articles al- 
ready enumerated ; while they have extended our acquaint- 
ance with the contents of the globe ; while they have faci- 
litated old tracks, and have opened new ones for com- 
merce ; while they have been the means of improving the 
Ikill of the navigator, and the fcience of the aflionomer; 
while they have procured to us fo valuable acceffions in the 
feveral departments of natural hiftory, and furnifhed fucli 
opportunities of teaching us how to prefcrve the healths 
and lives of feamen, let us not forget another very import- 
ant objeit of fludy, for which they have afForded to the 
fpeculative philofopher ample materials : I mean the fludy 
of human nature in various fituations, equally interefting 
as they are uncommion. 

However remote or fecluded from frequent intercourfe 
with more poliflied nations, the inhabitants of any parts of 
the world be, if hiflory or our own obfervation fhould make 
it evident that they have been formerly vifired, and that 
foreign manners and opinions, and languages, have been 
blended with their own, little ufe can be made of what is 
obferved amongft fuch people, toward drawing a real pic- 
ture of man in his natural uncultivated flate. 7 his feems 
to be the lituation of the inhabitants of mod of the iflands 
that lie contiguous to the continent of Afia, and of whofe 
manners and inftitutions the Europeans, who occafionally vifit 
them, have frequently given us accounts. But the iflands 
which our enterprifing difcoverers vifitcd in the centre of the 
South Pacific Ocean, and are, indeed, the principal fcenes of 
their operations, were untrodden ground. The inhabitants, 
as far as could be obferved, were unmixed with any differ- 
ent tribe, by occafional intercourfe, fubfequent to their 

i 2 original 


original fettlcnient there ; left intirely to their own powers 
for every art of life ; and to their own remote traditions for 
every political or religious cuflom or inftitution ; uninform- 
ed by fcience ; unimproved by education ; in fliort, a fit foil 
from whence a careful obferver could colled fads for form- 
ing a judgment, how far unaffifted human nature will be 
apt to degenerate ; and in what refpeds it can ever be able 
to excel. Who could have thought, that the brutal ferocity 
of feeding upon human flefh, and the horrid fuperftition 
of offering human facrifices, fliould be found to exift 
amongft the natives lately difcovered in the Pacific Ocean, 
who, in other refpeds, appear to be no ftrangers to the fine 
feelings of humanity, to have arrived at a certain ftage of 
fecial life, and to be habituated to fubordination and go- 
vernment which tend fo naturally to reprefs the ebullitions 
of wild pafQon, and expand the latent powers of the 
underftanding ? 

Or, if we turn from this melancholy pidure, which will 
fugged copious matter for philofophical fpeculation, can 
we, without afionifliment, obferve to what a degree of per- 
fedion the fame tribe (and indeed we may here join, in 
feme of thofe inftances, the American tribes vifited in the 
courfe of the prefent voyage) have carried their favourite 
amufements, the plaintive fongs of their women, their dra- 
matic entertainments, their dances, their Olympian game&^ 
as we may call them ; the orations of their Chiefs ; the 
chants of their prieils ; the folemnity of their religious pro- 
ceffions; their arts and manufadures J their ingenious con- 
trivances to fupply the wantof proper materials, and of effec- 
tive tools and machines.; and the wonderful produdions of 
their perfevering labour under a complication of difadvan- 
tages J their cloth and their mats ; their weapons] their fifh- 


ing-inftruments ; their ornaments; their utenfils ; which 
in defign and in execution, may vie with whatever modern 
Europe, or claflical antiquity can exhibit ? 

It is a favourite fludy with the fcholar to trace the remains 
of Grecian or Roman workmanfhip j he turns over his 
Montfaucon with learned fatisfacfhion ; and he gazes with 
rapture on the noble colledion of Sir William Hamilton. 
The amufement is rational and inftrudlive. But will not 
his curiofity be more awakened, will he not find even more 
real matter for important refledlion, by paffing an hour in 
furveying the numerous fpecimcns of the ingenuity our 
newly difcovered friends brought from the utmoft recefTes 
of the globe, to enrich the Britifli Mufeum, and the valuable 
repofitory of Sir Afliton Lever I If the curiofities of Sir 
Afhton's Sandwich-room alone, were the only acquifition 
gained by our vifits to the Pacific Ocean, who that has tafte 
to admire, or even eyes to behold, could hcfitate to pro- 
nounce, that Captain Cook had not failed in vain ? The ex- 
pence of his three voyages did not, perhaps, far exceed that 
of digging out the buried contents of Herculaneum. And 
we may add, that the novelties of the Society or Sandwich 
iflands, feem better calculated to engage the attention of the 
fludious in our times, than the. atitiquities, which exhibit proofs 
of Roman magnificence. 

The grounds for making this remark cannot be better 
explained, than in the words of a very ingenious writer; 
*' In an age (fays Mr. "Vv'"arton *), advanced to the higheft 
'• degree of refinement, that fpecies of curiofity com- 
" mences, which is bufied in contemplating the progrcfs of 
*' focial life, in difplaying the gradation of fociety, and in 

* Preface to his Hiftory of Englifh Poetry, 

1" ** tracing 



* tracing the gradations from barbarifm to civility. Thatthefe 

* fpeculations fliould become the favourite topics of fuch a 
' period is extremely natural. We look back on the favage 

* condition of our anceflors with the triumph of fuperiority ; 
' and are pleafed to mark the fleps by which we have beea 
' raifed from rudenefs to elegance ; and our reflexions on 
' this fubjedt are accompanied with a confcious pride* 
' arifmg, in a great meafure, from a tacit comparifon of 
' the infinite difproportion between the feeble efTorcs of 
' remote ages, and our prefent improvements in knovv- 
' ledge. In the mean time, the manners, monuments, 
' cufloms, pracTiices, and opinions of antiquity, by forming 
' fo flrong a contrafl: with thofe of our own times, and 
' by exhibiting human nature and human inventions in 
' new lights, in unexpeded appearances, and in various 

' forms, are objecfls which forcibly Ilrike a feeling imagi- 

' nation. Nor does this fpedacle afford nothing more than 

' a fruitlefs gratification to the fancy. It teaches us to lee 

' a juft eflimation on our own acquifitions, and encourages 

' us to cherifh that cultivation, which is fo clofely conneded 

' with the exiflence and the exercife of every focial virtue." 

We need not here obferve, that the maimers, monuments, cufioms, 

pra5iices, and opinions of the prefent inhabitants of the Pacific 

Ccean, or of the Weft fide of North America, form the 

firongejl cont'ajl with thofe of our own time in enlightened 

Europe ; and that a feeling imagination will probably be more 

ftruck with the narration of the ceremonies of a Natche at 

Tongataboo, than of a Gothic tournament at London ; with 

the conteiTiplation of the colofTufes of Eafter Ifland, than of 

the myfterious remains of Stonehenge. 

Many fingularities, refpeding what may be called the 
natural hillory of the human fpecies, in different climates, 



will, on the authority of our late navigators, open abund- 
ant fources for philofophical difcuffion. One queftion of 
this forr, in particular, which had formerly divided the 
opinions of the inquifitive, as to the exiftence, if not of 
♦* giants on the earth," at leaft of a race (inhabiting a di- 
flri<5t bordering on the North fide pf the flrait of Magal- 
haens), whofe ftature confiderably exceeds that of the bulk 
of mankind, will no longer be doubted or difbelieved. And 
the ingenious objeftions of the fceptical author of Recherches 
fur les Americains*, will weigh nothing in the balance againft 
the concurrent and accurate teftimony of Byron, Wallis, and 

Perhaps there cannot be a more interefting inquiry than 
to trace the migrations of the various families or tribes that 
have peopled the globe ; and in no rerpe<fl have our late 
voyages been more fertile in curious difcoverics. It was 
known in general (and I fhall ufe the words of Ksmpfer-j-), 
that the Afiatic nation called Malayans, " in former times, 
" had by much the greateft trade in the Indies, and fre- 
•' quented with their merchant fliips, not only all the coafls 
*' of Afia, but ventured even over to the coafts of Africa, 
«' particularly to the great ifland of Madagafcar :j:. The title 

* Tom, i. p. 331. 

•f- Hiftory of Japan, Vol. i. p. 93. 

X That the Malayans have not only frequented Madagafcar, but have alfo been 
the progenitors of feme of the prefent race of inhabitants there, is confirmed to us 
by the teftimony of Monfieurde Pages, who vifited that iffand fo late as 1774. " lis 
" m'ont paru provenir des diverfcs Races ; leur couleur, leurs cheveux, et leur corps 
" I'indiquent. Ceux que je n'ai pas cru originaires des anciens naturels du pays, font 
" petits et trapus ; ils ont les cheveux prefque unis, et font olivatres comme les Ma~ 
" layes, avic qui i/s ont, en general, une efpece de refemb lance." 

Voyages d(5 M, des Pages, T. ii. p. 90. 

." which 



" which the king of the Malayans afRimed to himfelf, of 
" Lord of the Winds and Seas toiheEafc and to the Weft, is an evi- 
«' dent proof of this ; but much more the Malayan language, 
'' which fpread mod all over the Eaft, much after the fame 
«' manner as formerly the Latin, and of late the French, did 
*' all over Europe." Thus far, I fay, was known. But that 
from Madagafcar to the Marquefes and Eafter Ifland, that 
is, nearly from the Eaft fide of Africa, till we approach to- 
ward the Weft fide of America, a fpace including above 
half the circumference of the globe, the fame tribe or na- 
tion, the Phoenicians, as we may call them, of the Oriental 
world, fliould have made their fettlements, and founded 
colonies throughout almoft every intermediate flage of this 
immenfe tradt, in iflands at amazing diftances from the 
mother continent, and ignorant of each others exiftence -, 
this is an hiftorical fa(5l, which could be but very imper- 
f e6tly known before Captain Cook's two firft voyages difco- 
vered fo many new inhabited fpots of land lurking in the 
bofom of the South Pacific Ocean ; and it is a faft which 
does not reft folely on fimilarity of cuftoms and inftitutions, 
but has been eftabliflied by the moft fatisfadlory of all 
proofs, that drawn from afiinity of language. Mr. Marfden, 
who feems to have confidered this curious fubjeft with 
much attention, fays, that the links of the latitudinal chain ;r- 
mainyet to be traced*. The difcovery of the Sandwich Iflands 


* Archaeolog. Vol. vi. p. 155. Sec alfo his Hiftory of Sumatra, p. 166. from 
•which the following paflage is tranfcribed. " Befides the Malaye, there are a va- 
" riety of languages fpolcen on Sumatra, which, however, have not only a manifeft 
" affinity among themfelves, hut alfo. to that general language which is found to 
-" prevail in, and to be indigenous to, all the iflands of the Eaftern feas ; from Ma- 
*' dagafcar to the remoteft of Captain Cook's difcoveries, comprehending a wider 
" extent than the Roman or any other tongue has yet boafted. In different places, 
f it has been more or lefs mixed and corrupted; but between the moft di/fimilar 

** branches. 


in this laft voyage, has added fome links to the chain. 
But Captain Cook had not an opportunity of carrying his 
refearches into the more Wefterly parts of the North Pacific. 
The Reader, therefore, of the following work will not, per- 
haps, think that the Editor was idly employed when he 
fubjoined fome notes, which contain abundant proof that 
the inhabitants of the Ladrones, or Marianne iflands, and 
thofe of the Carolines, are to be traced to the fame com- 
mon fource, with thofe of the iflands vifited by our fhips. 
With the like view, of exhibiting a ftriking picflure of the 
amazing extent of this Oriental language, which marks, if 
not a common original, at leaft an intimate intercourfe be- 
tween the inhabitants of places fo very remote from each 
other, he has inferted a comparative table of their numerals, 
upon a more enlarged plan than any that has hitherto been 

Our Britifh difcoverers have not only thrown a blaze of 
light on the migrations of the tribe which has fo wonder- 
fully fpread itfelf throughout the iflands in the Eaftern 
Ocean ; but they have alfo favoured us with much curious 
information concerning another of the families of the earth, 
whofe lot has fallen in lefs hofpitable climates. We fpeak 
of the Efquimaux, hitherto only found feated on the coafts 
of Labradore and Kudlbn's Bay, and who diflfer in feveral 

*' branches, an eminent famcnefs of many radical words is apparent ; and in feme 
" very diftant from eacli other, in point of fituation : As, for inftance, the Philip- 
" pines and Madagafcar, the deviation of the words is fcarcely more than is obferved 
*' in the dialefls of neighbouring provinces of the fame kingdom." 

* We are indebted to Sir Jofeph Banks, for a general out-line of this, in Hawkef- 
worth's Collection, Vol. iii. p. 777. The Reader will fold our enlarged Tabic at 
the end of the third volume. Appendix, No. 2. 

Vol. I. k , charac- 


charafleriftic marks from the inland inhabitants of North 
America. That the Greenlanders and they agree in every 
circumftance of cufloms, and manners, and language, which 
are demonftrations of an original identity of nation, had 
been difcovered about twenty years ago *. Mr. Hearne, ia 
1772, traced this unhappy race farther back, toward that 
part of the globe from whence they had originally coafled 
along in their fkin boats, having met with fome of them at 
the mouth of the Coppermine River, in the latitude of 72% 
and near five hundred leagues farther Weft than Pickerf- 
gill's moft Wefterly ftation in Davis's Strait. Their being 
the fame tribe who now aftually inhabit the iflands and 
coafts on the Weft fide of North America, oppofite Kamt- 
fchatka, was a difcovery, the completion of which was 
referved for Captain Cook. The Reader of the following 
work will find them at Norton Sound ; and at Oonalafhka, 
and Prince William's Sound ; that is, near 1500 leagues 
diftant from their ftations in Greenland, and on the Labra- 
dore coaft. And left fimilitude of manners fliould be 
thought to deceive us, a table exhibiting proofs of afiinity 
of language, which was drawn up by Captain Cook, 
and is inferted in this work f, will remove every doubt 
from the mind of the moft fcrupulous inquirer after truth. 

There are other doubts of a more important kind, which» 
it may be hoped, v/ill now no longer perplex the ignorant, 

* See Crantz's Hiftory of Greenland, VoL i, p. 262 ; where we are told that» 
the Moravian Brethren, who, v/itli the confent and furtherance of Sir Hugh Pallifer, 
then Governor of Newfoundland, vifited the Efquimaux on the Labradore coaft, 
found that their language, and that of the Greenlanders,, do not differ fo much as 
that of the High and Low Dutch* 

X See Appendix, No. 6. The Greenlanders, as Crantz tells us, call themfelves 
Karalit ; a word not very unlike Kanagyjl, the name, aflumed by the inhabitants of 
Kodiack, one of the Schumagin iflands, as Stjehlin informs us. 



©r furniili matter of cavil to the ill-intentioned. After the 
great <lifcovery, or at lead the full confirmation of the 
great difcovery, of the vicinity of the tv^o continents of Afia 
and America, we truft that we lliall not be any more ridi- 
culed, for believing that the former could cafily furnifli its 
inhabitants to the latter. And thus, to ail the various good 
purpofes already enumerated, as anfwered by our late 
voyages, we may add this laft, though not the leafl im- 
portant, that they have done fervice to religion, by robbing 
infidelity of a favourite objciftion to the credibility of the 
Mofaic account of the peopling of the earth *. 

6. Hitherto we have confidered our voyages as having be- 
nefited the difcoverers. But it will be afked, Have they con- 
veyed, or are they likely ever to convey, any benefit to the 
difcovered? It would afford exquifite fatisfaftion to every ' 
benevolent mind, to be inftruded in facfls, whi-ch might 
enable us, without hefitation, to anfwer this queflion in the 
affirmative. And yet, perhaps, we may indulge the pleaf- 
ing hope, that, even in this refpecfl, our fhips have not 
failed in vain. Other difcoveries of new countries have, 
in efFe(fl, been wars, or rather mafTacres j nations have been 
no fooner found out, than they have been extirpated ; and 
the horrid cruelties of the conquerors of Mexico and Peru 

* A contempt of Revelation is generally the refult of ignorance, conceited of 
its poffefling fupenor knowledge. Obferve how the Author of Recherches Philofa- 
fhlques fur hs Americains, exprefl'es himf;lf on this very point. " Cctte diftance que 
•' Mr. Antermony veut trouver fi peu iinportante, efl a-peu-pres de huit cent Ueues 
" Gaulotfes au iravers d'un ocean perilleuXy et impoffible a franchir avec des canots ' 
•' aufli chetifs et aiiffi fragiles que le font, au rapport d'Yfbrand Ides, les chaloupes 
" des Tungufes," &c. &c. T. i. p. 156. Had this writer known that the two 
continents are not above thirteen leagues (inftead of eight hundred) diftant from each 
other, and that, even in that narrow fpace of fea, there are intervening iflands, he 
would not have vent^ircd to urge this argument in oppofition to Mr. Bell's notion of 
the quarter from which North America received its original inhabitants. 

k 2 can 


can never be remembered, without blulhing for religion 
and human nature. But when the recefles of the globe 
are inveftigated, not to enlarge private dominion, but to pro- 
mote general knowledge ; when we vifit new tribes of our 
fellow-crcaiures as friends ; and wifh only to learn that they 
exift, in order to bring them within the pale of the offices 
of humanity, and to relieve the wants of their imperfect 
ftate of fociety, by communicating to them our fuperior 
attainments ; voyages of difcovery planned with fuch be- 
nevolent views by George the Third, and executed by Cook, 
have not, we truft, totally failed in this refpecft. Our repeated 
vifits, and long continued intercourfe with the natives of the 
Friendly^ Society, and Sandwich Iflands, cannot but have 
darted fome rays of light on the infant minds of thofe poor 
people. The uncommon objedls they have thus had oppor- 
tunities of obferving and admiring, will naturally tend to 
enlarge their flock of ideas, and to furnifli new materials 
for the exercifc of their reafon. Comparing themfelves 
with their viliters, they cannot but be flruck with the deepefl 
convidlion of their own inferiority, and be impelled, by 
the flrongeft motives, to ftrive to emerge from it, and 
to rife nearer to a level with thofe children of the Sun who 
deigned to look upon them, and left behind fo many fpeci- 
mens of their generous and humane attention. The very 
introducflion of our ufeful animals and vegetables, by add- 
ing frefli means of fubfiftence, will have added to their com- 
forts of life, and immediate enjoyments ; and if this be the » 
only benefit they are ever to receive, who will pronounce 
that much has not been gained ? But may we not carry our 
wifhes and our hopes ftill farther ? Great Britain itfelf, 
when firft vifited by the Phcenicians, was inhabited by 
painted Savages, not, perhaps, blefled with higher attain- 

I N T R a I> U C T I O N. i'xsvii 

ments than are pofTefTed by the prefent natives of New Zea- 
land ; certainly lefs civilized than thofe of Tongataboo or 
Otaheite. Our having opened an intercourfe v^^ith them, is 
the firft flep toward their improvement. Who knows, but 
that our late voyages may be the means appointed by Pro- 
vidence, of fpreading, in due time, the bleffings of civi- 
lization, amongft the numerous tribes of the South Pacific 
Ocean ; of abolifliing their horrid repafls and their horrid 
rites ; and of laying the foundation for future and more 
effecSlual plans, to prepare them for holding an honourable 
ftation amongft the nations of the earth ? This, at leaft, is cer- 
tain, that our having, as it were, brought them into exigence 
by our extenfive refearches, will fuggeft to us frefh motives 
of devout gratitude to the Supreme Being, for having blelTed 
us with advantages hitherto withheld from fo great a pro- 
portion of the human race ; and will operate powerfully to 
incite us to perfevere in every feafible attempt, to be his 
inftruments in refcuing millions of fellow-creatures from 
their prefent (late of humiliation. 

The feveral topics, which occurred, as fuitable to this ge- 
neral Introdudrion, being now difcufled, nothing remains 
but to ftate a few particulars, about which the reader of 
thefe volumes has a right to expedl fome information. 

Captain Cook, knowing, before he failed upon this laft 
expedition, that it was expecfted from him to relate, as well 
as to execute, its operations, had taken care to prepare fuch 
a journal as might be made ufe of for publication. This 
journal, which exifts in his own hand-writing, has been 
faithfully adhered to. It is not a bare extraift from his log- 
books, but contains many remarks which, it appears,, had 
not been inferted by him in the nautical regifter ; and it is 

■ 7 alfo 


alfo enriched with confiderable communications from Mr. 
Anderfon, Surgeon of the Rcfolution. The confefTed abi- 
lities, and great afliduity, of Mr. Anderfon, in obfcrving 
every thing that related cither to natural hillory, or to man- 
ners and language ; and the defire which, it is well known. 
Captain Cook, on all occafions, fhewed to have the affiftance 
of that gentleman, ftamped a great value on his coUeflions. 
That nothing, therefore, might be wanting to convey to 
the Public the befl polTible account of the tranfadtions of 
the Voyage, his journal, by the order of Lord Sandv>^ich, 
was alio put into the hands of the Editor, who was autho- 
rized and diredled to avail himfelf of the information it 
might be found to contain, about matters imperfeflly touch- 
ed, or altogether omitted, in Captain Cook's manufcript. 
This tafk has been executed in fuch a manner, that the 
reader will fcarcely ever be at a lofs to diftinguifli in what 
inflanGes recourfe has been had to Mr. Anderfon. To pre- 
clude, if poffible, any miftake, the copy of the firll and 
fecond volumes, before it went to the printer, was fub- 
mitted to Captain King; and after it had been read over 
and corrected by one fo well qualified to point out any inac- 
curacies, the Earl of Sandv/ich had ilie goodnefs to give it 
a perufal. As to the third volume, nothing more need be 
faid, than that it was completely prepared for the prefs by 
Captain King himfelf. All that the Editor of the work has 
to anfwcr for, are the notes occafionally introduced in the 
conrfe of the two volumes, contributed by Captain Cook ; 
and this introdudlion, which was intended as a kind of 
epilogue to our Voyages of difcovery. He muft be per- 
mitted, however, to fay, that he confiders himfelf as in- 
titled to no inconfiderable Ihare of candid indulgence fjom 
ilie Public ; having engaged in a very tedious and trouble- 

J fome 


fome undertaking upon the mod dtfinterejled motives ; his 
only reward being the fatisfacStion he feels, in having been 
able to do an eflential fcrvice to the family of our great 
navigator, who had honoured him, in the journal of this 
voyage, with the appellation of Friend. 

They who have repeatedly aflced why this publication has 
been fo long delayed, need only look at the volumes, and 
their attendant illuflrations and ornaments, to be fatisfied 
that it might, with at leafl equal reafon, be wondered at, 
that it has not been delayed longer. The Journal of Captain 
Cook, from the firft moment that it came into the hands of 
the Editor, had been ready for the Prefs ; and Captain King 
had left with him his part of the narrative, fo long ago as 
his departure for the Weft Indies, when he commanded the 
Refiftance man of war. But much, befides, remained to be 
done. The charts, particularly the general one, were to be 
prepared by Mr. Roberts, who gives an account of his work 
in the note * ; the very numerous and elegant drawings of 


* Soon after our departure from England, I was inftrufled by Captain Cook to 
complete a map of the world as a general chart, from the beft materials he was in, 
pofleflion of for that purpofe ; and before his death this bufmefs was in a great mea-. 
fure accomplidied : That is, the grand outline of the whole was arranged, leaving- 
only thofe parts vacant or unlinifhed, which he expeded to fall in with and explore. 
But on our return home, when the fruits of our voyage were ordered by the Lords 
Commiffioners of the Admiialty to be publiflied, the care of the general chart being 
confignedto me, I was direded to prepare it from the lateft and beft authorities • and 
alfo to introduce Captain Cook's three fucceflive tracks, that all his difcoveries, and 
the different routes he had taken might appear together ; by this means to (^ive a 
general idea of the whole This tafk having been performed by me, it is necelTary, 
for the information of the E.eader, to ftate the heads of the fevcral authorities which. 
I have followed in fuch parts of the chart as differ from what was drawn up im- 
mediately under the infpeftion of Captain Cook : And when the Public are made 
acquainted, that many materials, necellary to complete and elucidate the work, were 
not, at the time, on board the Refolution, or in his poffeffion, the reafon will ap- 


Mr. Webber were to be reduced by him to the proper fize ; 
anifts were next to be found out who would undertake to 


pear very obvious, why thefe alterations and additions were introduced contrary to 
• ;the original drawing. 

Firft then, I have followed clofelythe very excellent and corre£l charts of the 
Northern Atlantic Ocean, publifhed by MelTrs. de Verdun de la Crenne, de Borda, 
et Pringre in 1775 and 1776 ; which comprife the coaft of Norway from the Sud 
Hoek, in the latitude of 62 degrees North, to Trelleburg, Denmark, the coaft of 
Holland, North coaft of Great Britain, Orkneys, Shetland, Fcrro Ifles, Iceland, 
coafts of France, Spain, and Portugal, to Cape St. Maria on the coaft of Africa ; 
including the Azores, Canaries, Cape de Verd, Antilles, and Weft India iflands 
from Barbadoes to the Eaft end of Cuba ; the North part of Newfoundland and the 
Labradore coaft, as far as the latitude of 57° degrees North. 

Ireland, and part of the coaft of Scotland, is laid down from Mr. Mackenzie's late 
furveys ; and the fouth coaft of England from a chart publifhed by Mr. Faden in 
1780, taken from Mr. I'Abbe Dicquemare, 

The North part of the coaft of Labradore, from the latitude of 57° North, to 
Button's Iflands in the entrance of Hudfon's Strait, is taken from Monfieur Bellin's 
chart, as is alfo the North coaft of Norway and Lapland, including the White Sea, 
Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, and the Eaft coaft of Greenland. 

The Gulf of Finland, from a large (MS) chart, now engraving for theufe of feme 
private merchants. 

The Weft India iflands, from the Eaft end of Cuba to the Weft end, including 
Jamaica and the Bahama iflajids, are from a chavt publifhed in London by Sayer and 
Bennett, in 1779. 

The South fide of Cuba from Point Gorda to Cape de Cruz, is laid down from 
Monfieur Bellin, in 1762. 

The coafts of Newfoundland, and the Gulf of St. Laurence, from the furveys 
made by Captain Cook, and MefTrs. Gilbert and Lane. 

Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Ifland of St. John, River St. Laurence, Canada, and 
New England to the River Delaware, from J. F. W. des Barres, Efq; in 1777 
and 1778 ; and charts publifhed in France by order of the King, in 1780, intituled, 
Neptune Americo-Septrentrional, &c. And from thefe cliarts alfo are taken the 
coafts of Penfylvania. New Jerfey, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, Eaft and Weft Florida, as well as the interior parts of the country to 
the Eaft- fide of Lake Ontario. 

The other parts of this lake, as likewife Lakes Eria, Huron?, Tvlichigan, and 
Superior, were copied from Mr. Green's maps of America : The Northern part of 
this laft mentioned lake is fixed from the aftrononiical cbfervations made by order of 
the Hudfon's Bay Company, at Mifhippicotton Houie. 



engrav'e them ; the prior engagements of thofe artifts were 
to be fulfilled before they could begin; the labour and Ikill 


The whole of Hudfon's Bay I took from a chart, compiled by Mr. Marley, from 
all the mod authentic maps he could procure of thofe parts with which I was favoured 
by Samuel Wegg, Efq; F. R. S. and Governor of that Company, who alio po- 
litely furnifhed me with Mr. Hearne's Journals, and the map of his route to the 
Coppermine River, which is faithfully inferted on the chart, together with the fur- 
vey of Chefterfield Inlet made by Captain Chriftopher and Mr. Mofes Norton, in 
1762 ; and the difcoveries from York Fort to Cumberland, and Hudfon Houfes 
(this iaft is the moft Weftern fettlement belonging to the Company), extending to 
Lake Winipeg, from the drafts of Mr. Philip Turnor, made in 1778 and 1779, cor- 
rected by aftronomical obfervations. And from this lake, the difpofition of the other 
lakes to the Southward of it, and which communicate with it, is formed, and laid 
down from a map conftrufted by Mr. Spurrel, in the Company's fervice. The 
Albany and Moofe rivers to Gloucefter Houfe, and to Lake Abbitibbe and Superior, 
are alfo drawn from a map of Mr. Tumor's, adjufted by obfervations for the lon- 

The Weft coaft of Greenland, as chiefly laid down from the obfervations made by 
Lieut. R. Pickerfgill in the Lion brig in 1776, which determine the line of the 
coaft only, as the immenfe quantities of ice choak up every bay and inlet on this 
coaft, which formerly were, in the fummer feafon, quite free and open. 

From the mouth of the Miffifippi River, including its fource, and the other rivers 
branching from it ; all the coaft of New Leon to Cape Rozo, and the Weftern coaft 
of America, from Cape Corrienties to the Great Bay of Tecoantepec, is taken from 
Monfieur D'Anville. 

The Gulf of California I have laid down from a German publication in 1773, 
put into my hands by Sir Jofeph Banks, Bart. P. R. S. ; and the Weftern fide of it 
is brought together from aSpanlfli MS. chart with which A. Dalrymple, Efq; F. R.S. 
obliged me. 

The coaft of Brazil from Sera to Cape Frio, is copied from a fmall chart of that 
part by Mr. Dalrymple. 

For the Southern part of Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope to Point Natal, I 
have taken the authority of the chart of Major J. Rennels, F. R. S. fliewing the ex- 
tent of the bank of Lagullus. 

For the exiftence of the fmall iflands, fhoals, and banks to the Eaftward of Ma- 
dagafcar, together with the Archipelago of the Maldive and Laccidive Iflands ; for 
the coafts of Mallacca, part of Cambodia, and the Ifland Sumatra, I have ufed the 
lateft authority of Monfieur D'Apres de Mannevillette's publications in the 
Neptune Oriental. 

The coafts of Guzerat, Malabar, Coromandel, and tb.e oppofite fhore, contain- 
ing the Great Bay of Bengal, and the Ifland of Ceylon, and exhibiting the Heads of 

Vol. I. 1 the 


to be exerted in finifliing many of them, rendered this a 
tedious operation ; paper fit for printing them upon was to 
be procured from abroad ; and after all thefe various and 
unavoidable difliculties were furmounted, much time was 
neceilarily required for executing a numerous impreffion of 
the- long lift of plates, with fo much care as might do juftice 
both to Mr. Webber, and to his feveral engravers. When 
all thefe circumftances are taken into confideration, we truft 
that we fhall hear no more of the delay j and only be grate- 

thc Ganges, and Barampooter or Sanpoo Rivers, are inferted from the work of the 
ingenious Author of the map of Hindooftan, publifhed in 1782. 

The China fea is laid down from the chart publifhed by Mr. Dalrymple ; but the 
longitudes of Pula Sapata, Pulo Condore, Pulo Timoan, Straits of Banca and 
Sunda, and the parts we faw are as fettled by us, together with the Eaft coafl: of 
Niplion, the principal of the Japenefe Iflands. 

The Jefo and Kurile iflands, the Eaft coaft of Ada and Kamtfchatka, as well as 
the fea of Okotfk, and the iflands lying between Kamtfchatka and America that were 
not feen in the voyage, are taken from a Ruffian MS. chart, got by us at the Ifland 
of Oonalafhka. 

The Northern countries from Cape Kanin, near the White Sea, as far Eaft as 
the River Lena, I have given from the Great Ruffian Map, publifiied at Peterfburg 
in 1776, including the Euxine, Cafpian, and Aral Seas, as alfo the principal lakes 
to the Eaftward ; the intent of which is to fliew the fource of the large rivers that 
empty themfclvts into the diff'erent oceans and feas. 

Every other part of the chart not mentioned in this account, is as originally placed 
by Captain Cook. 

The whole has been correfied from the lateff aftronomical obfervations, feleiSted' 
from the Tables compiled by Mr. William Wales, F. R. S. and mathematical mafter 
of Chrift's Hofpital, for the Nautical Almanacs : From thofe in the Mariner's Guide 
by the Rev. Dr. Mafkelyne, F. R. S. and Aftronomer Royal, publifhed in 1763 ; 
From the Connoiffance des Temps for 1780 and 1781 ; From Profefibr Mayer's 
Geographical Table ; From the Voy-ages of MelTrs. d'Eveux de Fleurien, Verdun, 
rie Borda, and Chabet, oic, ; From the Table lately publifhed by Mr. Dalrymple 
for the ufe of the Eaft India fhips ; From the Philofophical Tranfaftions of the Royal 
Society J and from ifie Obfervations of our late Navigators. 

Skcreham, Sussnx, May iS, 17^4. 

t ful 


ful to that munificent Patron of Science, who not onlj' di- 
recTied the hillory of the voyage to be publiflied ; but to be 
pubhflied with fuch a fplendid train of ornaments, at the 
pubHc expence, as will ftill add to the merit of having or- 
dered the voyage itfelf to be undertaken. 

And here it feems to be incumbent upon us to add, as 
another inftance of munificent attention, that care has been 
taken to mark, in the mofl fignificant manner, the juft fenfe 
entertained of the humane and liberal relief afforded to our 
fliips in Kamtfchatka. Colonel Behm, the commandant of 
that province, has not been rewarded merely by the pleafure 
which a benevolent mind feels in refled:ing upon the blelT- 
ings it confers ; but has been thanked in a manner equally 
confiftent with the dignity of his own fovercign and of ours, 
to whofe fubjecfls he extended protedlion. A magnificent 
piece of plate was prefented to him, with an infcription 
worthy of a place in the fame book where the hiftory of his 
humanity to our countrymen is recorded, and which, while 
it does honour to our national gratitude, deferves alfo to be 
pTeferved as a monument of our national tafie for elegant 
compofition. It is as follows : 

Vi R o E G R EC lo M A G N o D E B E H M ; qui, Imperatricis Augitjli/ftma 
Catherints aufpiciisjfianmdqiie aniini ben!gnitate,/£va, quibus prtsa'at, 
Kamtjchatkcs littora, navibiis nautlfqiie Brilamiicis, ho/pita prabiiit ; 
cofque-, in tenninis, ft qui ejfent Imperio RiiJ/tco, frujlra explorandis, 
mala multaperpejfos, iteratd'uice excepit, refocit, rccreavit, et comvieatll 
omni aimulate audos dimtfit\ Rei navalis Britannica; Sep- 
TEMViRi in aliqiiam benevolenti^ tarn hifignis menioriam, amicijjtmo^ 
gratijjmoqiie animo, fuo, patri(eque nomine, D. D. D. 


1 2 This 


This public teftimony of gratitude, reminds the Editor, 
that there are fimilar calls upon himfelf. He owes much to 
Captain King for his advice and diredion, in a variety of 
inllances, where Captain Cook's Journal required explana- 
tion} for filling up feveral blanks with the proper longitude 
and latitude ; and for fupplying deficiencies in the tables of 
aflronomical obfervations. 

Lieutenant Roberts was alfo frequently confulted, and was 
always found to be a ready and efFe(5lual affiflant, when any 
nautical difficulties were to be cleared up. 

But particular obligations are due to Mr. Wales, who, be- 
fides the valuable communications which have been adopted 
in this Introdu6lion, feconded moll liberally the Editor's 
views of ferving Mrs. Cook, by cheerfully taking upon him- 
felf the whole trouble of digelling, from the log books, the 
tables of the route of the fhips, which add fo greatly to the 
intrinfic merit of this publication. 

Mr. Wegg, befides fharing in the thanks fo juftly due to 
the committee of the Hudfon's Bay Company, for their 
unreferved cominunications, was particularly obliging to 
the Editor, by giving him repeated opportunities of con- 
verfing with Governor Hearne, and Captain Chriftopher. 

The Honourable Mr. Daines Barrington had the goodnefs 
to interefl himfelf, with his ufual zeal for every work of 
public utility, in procuring fome necefTary information, 
and fuggefting fome valuable hints which were adopted. 

It would be great injuftice not to exprefs our acknow- 
ledgments to Mr. Pennant, who, befides enriching the third 
volume with references to his ArSiic Zoology, the publication 
of which will be an important acceflion to Natural Hiftory, 



al/b communicated fome very authentic and fatisfaclory 
manufcript accounts of the Ruffian difcoveries. 

The vocabularies of the Friendly and Sandwich Iflands, and 
of the natives of Nootka, had been furniflied to Captain 
Cook, by his mod ufeful afibciate in the voyage, Mr. An- 
derlbn ; and a fourth, in which the language of the Efqui- 
maux is compared with that of the Americans on the op- 
pofite fide of the continent, had been prepared by the Cap- 
tain himfelf. But the comparative Table of Numerals, which 
is marked No. 2. in the Appendix, was very obligingly 
drawn up, at the requeft of the Editor, by Mr. Bryant, who, 
in his fludy, has followed Captain Cook, and, indeed, every 
traveller and hillorian, of every age, into every part of the 
globe. The Public will confider this Table as a very ftriking 
illuftration of the Vvonderful migrations of a nation, about 
whom fo much additional information has been gained by 
our voyages, and be ready to acknowledge it as a very ufe- 
ful communication. 

One more communication remains to be not only ac- 
knowledged, but to be inferted at the clofe of this Intro- 
duflion. The tejl'wiomes o^ learned contemporaries, in com- 
mendation of a deceafed Author, are frequently difplayed 
in the front of his book. It is with the great eft propriety, 
therefore, that we prefix to this pofthumous work of Cap- 
tain Cook the tejiimony of. one of his own profeffion, not 
more diftinguiflied by the elevation of rank, than by the 
dignity of private virtues. As' he wifhes to remain con- 
cealed, perhaps this allufion, for which we intreat his in- 
dulgence, may have given too exadl dire(5lion to the eyes of 
the Public where to look for fuch a characfler. Let us, how- 
ever, reft.fatisfied with the intrinlic merit of a compofition:, 



conveyed under the injun<5tion of fecrecy ; and ccwicludc 
our long preliminary diflertation with expreffing a wifli, or 
rather a well-grounded hope, that this volume may not be 
the only place where pofterity can meet with a monumental 
infcription, commemorative of a man, in recounting and 
applauding whofe fervices, the whole of enlightened Europe 
will equally concur with Great Britain. 

T O 

[ Ixsxvii j 

Captain JAMES COOK, 

The ableft and moll: renowned Navigator this 
or any country hath produced. 

JT^ raifcd hhnfdf^ filely by his merit ^ from a very obfcure hirth, to 

the rcnik of Pojl Captain in the royal navy, and was ^ unfortunately^ 

killed by the Savages of the ifland Owhybce, on the i^tb of February 

1 779 ; which if and he had, not long before, difcovered, when profe- 

aiting his third voyage round the globe. 

He poffeffed, in an eminent degree, all the qualif cations reqiiifte for 
his profejjion and great undertakings ; together with the amiable and' 
worthy qualities of the bef men. 

Cool and deliberate in judging : fagacious in determining: aBive in- 
executing : feady and perfevering in enterprifing from vigilance and 
unremitting caution : unfubdued by labour, difficulties, and dfappoint- ■ 
ments : fertile in expedients : never wanting prefence of mind : always ■ 
pofejjing himfelf and the full ife of a found under/landing. 

Mild, juf, but exadl in difcipUne : he was a father to- his 
people, tvho xvcre attached to him from cffeSlion, and obedient from 

His knowledge, his experience, his fagacity, rendered himfo intirely ■ 
mafer of. his fubjcEl, that the greatef obfacles %vere firmounted, and 
the mof dangerous navigations became eafy, and almof ffe, under his 



He explored the Southern hem'ifphere to a much higher latitude than 
had ever been reached^ and "with fewer accidents than frequently befal 
thofe ivho navigate the coafls of this if and. 

By his benevolent , and unabating attention to the welfare of his 
f^ifs company^ he difcovered and introduced a fyf em for the preferva- 
tion of the health of fame n in long voyages, which has proved wonder- 
fully eficacious : for in his fecond voyage round the world, which con- 
tinued upwards of three years, he lof only one man by difemper, of otic 
hundred and eighteen, of which his company conffed. 

The death of this eminent and valuable man was a lofs to mankind in 
general ; and particularly to be deplored by every nation that refpecis 
tfefnl accowplifmcnts, that honours fcicnce, and loves the benevolent 
and amiable affcBious of the heart. It is fill more to be deplored by this 
country, which may jufly hoaf of having produced a man hitherto 
unequalled for nautical talents ; arid that furrow is farther aggra- 
vated by the refetiion, that his country was deprived of this ornament 
by the enmity of a people, from vohom, indeed, it might have been dread' 
ed, but from whom it was not deferved. For, a£luated always by the 
viof attentive care and tender companion for the favagcs in general, this 
excellent man was ever affidnoufy endcavoui-ing, by kind treatment^ 
to dijjipate their fears, and court their fricndfip ; overlooki?/g their 
thefts and treacheries, and frequently interpofng, at the hazard of bis 
life, to protect them from the fndden rcfentment of his own injured 

"The objcB of his laf mijion was to difcover and afcertain the bounda- 
ries of Jfa and America, and to penetrate into the Northern Oceai* by 
the North Eaf Cape of Afia. 

Traveller I contemplate, admire^ revere, and onulate this great 
mafer in his profejfion ; whofe fill and labours have enlarged natural 
philofphy ; have extended 7iautical fcience \ and have difclofed the long 
concealed and admirable arrangements of the Almighty in the f:>rmatio7i 

3 € 


of this globe ^ and^ at the fame time, the arrogance of mortals, in pre- 
fuming to account, by their fpeculations, for the laws by which he was 
pleafed to create it. It is noiv df covered, beyond all doid^t, that the 
fame Great Being who created the imiverfe by his fiat, by the fame 
ordained our earth to keep ajttf poife, without a correfponding Southern 
continent — and it docs fo ! " He f retches out the North over the empty 
•' place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.'''' Job, xxvi. 7. 

If the arduous but exaSl refearches of this extraordinary man have 
not difcovered a nevo world, they have d'f covered feas unnavigated and 
unknown before. They have made us acquainted with 'i/lands, people and 
produElions, of which we had no conception- And if he has not beenfo 
fortunate as Americus to give his name to a continent, his pretenfions to 
fuch a d'i/lln£lion remain unrivalled ; and he will be revered, while there 
remains a page of his own modef account of his voyages, and as long 
as mariners and geographers fall le 'tnfruBed, by his new map of th^ 
Southern hemifphere, to trace the various courfes and d'fcoveries he has 

If public fervices merit public acknowledg7nents ; if the man who 
adorned and raifed the fame of his country is dcferving of honours, then 
Captain Cook deferves to have a monu7nent raifed to his memory, by a 
generous and grateful nation. 

Viitiuis ubemmum alimentum eft honos. 

Val, Maximus, Lib. 2. Cap. 6. 

Vol. I. m LIST 

t =^ci ] 


With Directions for placing them. 

[As many of the Purehafers of this Work may choofe to preferve 
the larger-fued Plates in a feparate volume in folio, thefe have 
been here marked with Aflerifks ; and Bookfellers are cautioned 
not to have them bound up, with the reft of the Plates, in the 
places of thefe volumes pointed out by the refpeftive References, 
unlefs they receive particular diredlions for that purpofe.J 

VOL. I. 

Page Plate N' 

I *General Chart exhibiting Captain Cook's dif- 

coveries - - - L 

51 Chart of Kerguelen's Land, with a fketch of 

Prince Edward's Iflands - - II, 

61 Sketches of Chriftmas Harbour, and Port 

Palliler in Kerguelen's Land - HI. 

71 *View of Chriftmas Harbour in Kerguelen's 

Land - - _ IV. 

83 Views on the Coaft of Kerguelen's Land f. LXXXIL 

91 Chart and Views of Van Diemen's Land V. 

96 *A Mar. of Van Diemen's Land " - VL 

101 *A Woman of Van Diemen's Land - VIl., 

109 *An Opoilum of Van Diemen's Land - VIII. 

t A fev/of the Plates are not numbered in the order in which they are to be placed | 
but no inconvenience can enfuc, as the references to the Pages of each Volmns; 
•will remedy this unavoidable imperfedion. 

m 2 



117 /*Plan of Adventure Bay, in Van Diemen's Land 

157 *The Infide of a Hippab, in New Zealand 

173 *A Man of Mangea 

225 Chart of the Friendly Iflands 

230 *View at Anamooka 

244 *The Reception of Captain Cook in FJapaee 

246 *A boxing match in Hapaee 

249 *A Night Dance by Men in Hapaee 

250 *A Night Dance by Women in Hapaee 
264 *Poiilaho, King of the Friendly Iflands 
277 Sketch of Tongataboo Harbour 

312 *Poulalio, King of the Friendly Iflands, drink- 
ing Kava - ~ 

314 * A Fiat ooka or Moral, in Tongiilahoo 

337 *The Natche, a Ceremony in honour of the 
King's Son, in Tongataboo 

2^^ "A Woman of Eaoo or Eooa 

Plate N' 




5 Sketches of Mangea, Vol. i. p. 170 ;— of Wa- 
teeoo, Vol. i. p. iSoj—of Wenooa ette, 
Vol. i. p. 205 ; — and of Toobouai - XXIV. 

32 *A Human Sacrifice in a Moral, in Otaheite XXV. 

51 *A young Woman of Otaheite bringing a pre- 

fcnt - - - XXVII. 

52 *The Body of Tee, a Chief, as preferved after 

death, in Otaheite - - XXVI. 

58 *A Dance, in Otaheite - - XXVIII. 

69 *A young Woman of Otaheite, dancing XXIX. 
79 Sketch of two Harbours on the North fide of 

Eimeo - - - XXX. 













Plate N' 
*A view of Huahelne • - XXXI. 
Chrlftmas Ifland - - XXXII. 
*A Moral in Atool - - XXXIII. 
*The Infide of the Houfe in the Moraiy in Atooi XXXIV. 
*An Inland View in Atooi - XXXV. 
Views on the Weft coaft of North America LXXXVL 
*Chart of the North Weft coaft of North Ame- 
rica, and North Eaft coaft of Afia - XXXVI. 
Sketch of Nootka Sound - - XXXVU. 
*A Sea Otter - - XLIII. 
*A man of Nootka Sound " - XXXVIII. 
*A woman of Nootka Sound - XXXIX. 
^Various Articles at Nootka Sound - XL. 

1 A bird, made of wood -, hollow, with ftones 

in the infide, which the Natives (hake when 
they dance. 

2 A Seal's head, made of wood, worn upon their 


3 A bird's head, compofedof wood and feathers, 

alfo worn upon their heads. 

4 Another for the fame purpofe, and ornament- 

ed with green talc. 

*View of the Habitations in Nootka Sound XLL 

*The Infide of a Houfe in Nootka Sound - XLII. 

Chart of Cook's River, and Prince William's 

Sound - - - XLIV. 

*A view of Snug Corner Cove in Prince Wil- 
liam's Sound - - XLV. 

*A Man of Prince William's Sound - XL VI. 

*A Woman of Prince William's Sound XLVil. 


















Plate N* 

Views on the Weft coaft of North America, to 

the Weftward of Cook's River - LXXXVII. 

*A Man of OonalaOika - - XLVIII. 

*A woman of Oonalaflika - - XLIX. 

*Canoes of Oonalaflika - - L. 

Sketch of Samganoodha Harbour at the Ifland 

Oonalaflika _ _ - LV. 

*The Tfchuktfchi, or Tfchutflii, and their Ha- 
bitations _ _ - LL 

*Sea Horfes _ - _ LIL 

Chart of Norton Sound and Beering's Strait LIU. 

Views on the coaft of Afia - LXXXIV. 

^Inhabitants of Norton Sound, and their Ha- 
bitations . - _ LIV. 

*Caps of the natives of Oonalaflika - LVI. 

*Natives of Oonalaflika, and their habitations LVII. 

*The Inflde of a Houfe in Oonalaflika - LVIII. 

Views of the Sandwich Illands - LXXXIIL. 


2 Chart of the Sandwich Iflands, and view of 

Karakakooa Bay 
3 3 * An Offering before Captain Cook in the Sand- 
wich Iflands 
17 ^Tereoboo or Terrceoboo,. King of Owhyhee, 

bringing prefents to Captain Cook 
127 *A Man of the Sandwich Iflands, dancing 
54 *A view of Karakakooa in Owhyhee 
J 25 *A young woman of the Sandwich Iflands 









*A Man of the Sandwich Iflands, with his 
helmet - - ■ 

*A Canoe of the Sandwich Iflands, the Rowers 
mafked _ _ _ 

*A Man of the Sandwich Iflands in a mafk 

^Various Articles at the Sandwich Iflands 




A wooden Inftrument or Weapon, fet round 
wi h the teeth of Sharks, with which they 
cue up their prifoners. 

Another, for the fame purpofe. 

A mufical Inftrument ; the upper partwicker- 
work, covered with feathers ; the bottom 
part a gourd with ftones in it, which the 
dancer fkakes about. — See Plate LXIl. 

An Idol upon wicktr-^vork, covered with 
feathers ; the eyes mother of pear], jvich a 
black nuti the mouth fee with teeth of 

A Bracelet, compofed of the tufks of hogs. 

A wuoden Dagger called Pahooah, 

184 Sketch of Awatflca Bay in Kamtfchatka 

201 *A Man in Kamtfchatka travelling in, winter 

*A Sledge in Kamtfchatka 

*A view at Bolcheretfkoi in Kamtfchatka 

*A white Bear _ _ _ 

.*A view of the Town and Harbour of St. Peter 
and St. Paul, in Kamtfchatka 

Views on the coafl: of Kamtfchatka 

*A Man of Kamtfchatka 

*A Woman of Kamtfchatka 

*Summer and Winter Habitations in Kamt- 





Plate N" 













Page Plate N' 

376 *The Infide of a Winter Habitation in Kamtf- 

chatka - - - LXXVIIL 

397 Chart of the Coaft of Japan - LXXIX. 

409 Sketch of Sulphur Ifland - - LXXX. 

420 Sketch of the Typa and Macao - LXXXI. 

[N. B. The longitude in thefe volumes is reckoned from tile me- 
ridian of Greenwich, and after paffing it to the Eail, in the South 
Atlantic, is carried on Eafterly beyond the i8oth degree, to the 
uttnoft extent of the voyage ; and back, to the fame meridian.] 



T O T H E 



Tranfa^lions from the Beginning of the Voyage 
till our Departure from New Zealand. 


Various Preparations for the Voyage. — -Omais Behaviour 
on e77ibarking. — Obfervatio77s for deter jnining the Lon- 
gitude of Sheernefs.i and the North Foreland. — Pajfage 
<f the RefolutioT7 fro7n Deptford to Plymouth. — E7nploy~ 
merits there, — Cample7nents of the Crews of both Ships ^ 
and Na7nes of the Officers. — Obfervations to fx tha 
Longitude of Plymouth, — Departure of the Refolution, 

AVING, on the ninth Day of February 1776, re- 1776. 
ceived a commiflion to command his Majefty's floop 7^^""^ 
the Refolution, I went on board the next day, Saturday i<»^ 
hoifted the pendant, and began to enter men. At the fame 
time, the Difcovery, of three hundred tons burthen, was 
Vol. I. B purchafed 


»77<5- purcbafed into the fervice, and the command of her given 

February, * ,-,,, r j t ■ 

X ,-.:./ to Captain Gierke, who had been my lecond Lieutenant on 

board the Rcfolution, in myfecond voyage round the world, 
from which we had lately returned. 

Thefe two fhips were, at this time, in the dock at Dept- 
ford, under the hands of the fhipwrightsj being ordered to 
be equipped to make farther difcoveries in the Pacific Ocean, 
under my diredlion. 
SaSaj9. On the 9th of March, the Rcfolution was hauled out of 
dock into the River; where we completed her rigging, and 
took on board the ftores and provifions requifite for a voyage 
of fuch duration. Both fliips, indeed, were fupplied with 
as much of every neceflary article as we could conveniently 
flow, and with the beft of every kind that could be pro- 
cured. And, befides this, every thing that had been found, 
by the experience acquired during our former extenfive 
voyages, to be of any utility in preferving the health of 
fcamen, was fupplied in abundance. 

May. It was our intention to have failed to Long Reach on the 

Monday 6. 6th of May, when a pilot came on board to carry us thither; 

but it was the igrh before the wind would permit us to 

Thurfday3o. Hiovc; and the 30th before we arrived at that ftation, where 

our artillery, powder, fhot, and other ordnance ftores were 


Tune. While we lay in Long Reach, thus employed, the Earl of 

Sandwich, Sir Hugh Pallifer, and others of the Board of Ad- 

miraltj, as the laft mark of the very great attention they 

had all along fliewn to this equipment, paid us a vifit on 

the 8th of June, to examine whether every thing had been 

completed conformably to their intentions and orders, and 

to the fatisfadion of all who were to embark in the voyage. 

4 Theva 



They, and feveral other Noblemen and Gentlenaen their '^ii^- 


friends, honoured me with their company at dinner on that v_— ^ — ^ 
day ; and, on their coming on board, and alfo on their go- 
ing afliore, we faluted them with feventeen guns, and three 

With the benevolent view of conveying fome permanent 
benefit to the inhabitants of Otaheite, and of the other 
iflands in the Pacific Ocean, whom we might happen to 
vifit, his Majefty having commanded fome ufeful animals 
to be carried out, we took on board, on the loth, a bull, Monday 1 01 
two cows witli their calves, and fome flieep, with hay and 
corn for their fubfiftence ; intending to add to thefe, other 
ufeful animals, when I fliould arrive at the Cape of Good 

I was alfo, from the fame laudable motives, furnifhed 
with a fufficient quantity of fuch of our European garden 
feeds, as could not fail to be a valuable prefentto ournewly- 
difcovered iflands, by adding frefli fupplies of food to their 
own vegetable produ<ftions. 

Many other articles, calculated to improve the condition 
of our friends in the other hemifphere in various ways, 
were, at the fame time, delivered to us by order of the 
Board of Admiralty. And both fliips were provided with 
a proper aflbrtment of iron tools and trinkets, as the means 
of enabling us to traffic, and to cultivate a friendly inter- 
courfe with the inhabitants of fuch new countries as we 
might be fortunate enough to meet with. 

The fame humane attention was extended to oiir own 
wants. Some additional cloathing, adapted to a cold cli- 
mate, was ordered for our crews: and nothing was denied to 
us that could be fuppofed in the leafl; conducive to health, 
or even to convenience. 

B 2 Nor 


J776. Nor did the extraordinary care of thofe at the head of the 

June. ■^ , ,. . 

c — , — -» naval department flop here. They were equally felicitous 
to afford us every afCftance towards rendering our voyage 
of public utility. Accordingly, we received on board, next 

•juefdayii. day, fcvcral aftronomical and nautical inftruments, which 
the Board of Longitude intruded to me, and to Mr. King, 
my fecond Lieutenant -, we having engaged to that Board to 
make all the necefTary obfervations, during the voyage, for 
the improvement of aftronomy and navigation ; and, by our 
joint labours, to fupply the place of a profefTed obfervator. 
Such a perfon had been originally intended to be fent out in 
my fliip. 

The Board, likewife, put into our pofTeffion the fame 
watch, or time-keeper, which I had carried out in my lad 
voyage, and had performed its part fo well. It was a copy 
of Mr. Harrifon's, conftrudcd by Mr. Kendall. This day, at 
noon, it was found to be too How for mean time at Green- 
wich, by 3', 31", 890; and by its rate of going, it loft, on 
mean time, i", 20^ per day. 

Another time keeper, and the fame number and fort of 
inftruments for making obfervations, were put on board the 
Difcovery, under the caj-e of Mr. William Bailey ; who, 
having already given fatisfacTiory proofs of his fkill and di- 
ligence as an obfervator, while employed in Captain Fur- 
neaux's fhip, during the late voyage, was engaged a fecond 
time, in that capacity, to embark with Captain Gierke. 

Mr. Anderfon, my furgeon, who, to Ikill in his immediate 
profeffion, added great proficiency in natural hiftory, was 
as willing as he was well qualified, to defcribe every thing 
in that branch of fcience which fhould occur worthy of no- 
tice. As he had already vifited the South Sea iflands in the 
fame fliip, and been of fingular fervice, by enabling me to 



enrich my relation of that voyage with various ufeful re- '776- 


marks on men and things *, I reafonably exped:ed to derive < — -v — -/ 
confiderable affillance from him, in recording our new pro- 

I had feveral young men amongft my fea officers who, 
under my diredlion, could be ufefully employed in con^ 
ftrucfling charts, in taking views of the coafts and head- 
lands near which we fliould pafs, and in drawing plans of 
the bays and harbours in which we fliould anchor. A con- 
ftant attention to this I knew to be highly requifite, if we 
would render our difcoveries profitable to future navigators. 

And, that we might go out with every help that could 
ferve to make the refult of our voyage entertaining to the 
generality of readers, as well as inftrucftive to the failor and 
fcholar, Mr. Webber was pitched upon, and engaged to 
embark with me, for the exprefs purpofe of fupplying the 
unavoidable imperfeiftions of written accounts, by enabling 
us to preferve, and to bring home, fuch drawings of the 
mofl memorable fcenes of our tranfacflions, as could only be 
executed by a profelTed and.fkilful artift. 

Every preparation being now completed, I received an 
order to proceed to Plymouth, and to take the Difcovery 
under my command. I accordingly gave Captain Gierke 
two orders; one to put himfelf under my command, and 
the other to carry his (hip round to Plymouth. 

On the 15th, the Refolution failed from Long Reach, Saturday 15. 
with the Difcovery in company, and the fame evening they 

* The very copious Vocabulary of the language of Otaheite, and the comparative 
fpecimen of the langtiages of the (everal other illands vifited during the former voyagcj 
and publilhed in Captain Cook's account of it, were furnifhed by Mr. Anderfon. 



I776. anchored at the Nore. Next day the Difcovery proceeded, 
v»— V- — ' in obedience to my order; but the Refolution was ordered 
to remain at the Nore till I fliould join her, being at this 
time in London. 

As we were to touch at Otaheite and the Society Iflands, 
in our way to the intended fcene of our frefh operations, it 
had been determined not to omit this opportunity (the only 
one ever likely to happen) of carrying Omai back to his native 
country. Accordingly, every thing being ready for our de- 
Monday 24. parture, he and I fet out together from London on the 24th, 
at fix o'clock in the morning. We reached Chatham be- 
tween ten and eleven o'clock ; and, after dining with Com- 
miflioner Proby, he very obligingly ordered his yacht to 
carry us to Sheernefs, where my boat was waiting to take 
us on board. 

Omai left London with a mixture of regret and fatisfac- 
tion. When we talked about England, and about thofe 
who, during his flay, had honoured him with their protec- 
tion or friendfhip, I could obfcrve that his fpirits were fea- 
fibly affe(5ted, and that it was with difficulty he could refrain 
from tears. But, the inftant the converfation turned to his 
own iflands, his eyes began to fparkle with joy. He was 
deeply imprefTed with a fenfe of the good treatment he had 
met with in England, and entertained the higheft ideas of 
the country and of the people. But the pleafing profped: he 
now had before him of returning home, loaded with what, 
he well knew, would be efl;eemed invaluable treafures there, 
and the flattering hope which the poiTcffion of thefe gave 
him, of attaining to a diftinguiflied fuperiority amongft 
his countrymen, were confiderations which operated, by 
degrees, to fupprefs every uneafy fenfation ; and he feemed 

to be quite happy when he got on board the fliip. 



He was furnifhed, by his Majefly, with an ample provi- ''76. 
lion of every article which, during our intercourfe with his *- n ' . 
country, we had obferved to be in any eflimation there, 
either as ufeful or as ornamental. He had, befides, received 
many prefents of the fame nature from Lord Sandwich, 
Mr.* Banks, and feveral other Gentlemen and Ladies of his 
acquaintance. In Ihort, every method had been employed, 
both during his abode in England, and at his departure, to 
make him the inftrument of conveying to the inhabitants 
of the iflands of the Pacific Ocean, the moft exalted opinion 
of the greatnefs and generofity of the Britifh nation. 

While the Refolution lay at the Nore, Mr. King made 
feveral obfervations for finding the longitude by the watch. 
The mean of them all, gave 0° 44' o", for the longitude of 
the fhip. This, reduced to Shcernefs, by the bearing and 
eftimated diftance, will make that place to be o" 37' o" Eail 
of Greenwich; which is more by feven miles than Mr. 
Lyons made it, by the watch which Lord Pv^'nlgrave had with 
him, on his voyage towards the North Pole. Whoever knows 
any thing of the diftance between Sheernefs and Green- 
wich, will be a judge which of thefe two obfervations is 
neareft the truth. 

The variation of the needle here, by a mean of different 
fets, taken with different compaffes, was 20" 37' Weft. 

On the 25th, about noon, we weighed anchor, and made Tuerday25, 
fail for the Downs, through the Queen's Channel, with a 
gentle breeze at North Weft by Weft. At nine in the even- 
ing we anchored, with the North Foreland bearing South by 
Eaft, and Margate Point South Weft by South, 

-* Now Sir Jofeph, 



?776- Next mornin?, at two o'clock, we weighed and flood 

June. ° '-' 

J round the ForclaPid; and when it bore North, allowing for 

Wednef. 26. 

the variation of the compafs, tlie watch gave i' 24' Eaft 
longitude, which, reduced to the Foreland, will be 1' 21' 
Eaft. Lunar obfervations made the preceding evening, 
fixed it at 1° 20' Eaft. At eight o'clock the fame morn- 
ing, we anchored in the Downs. Two boats had been built 
for us at Deal, and I immediately fent on fhore for them. 
I was told that many people had affembled there to fee 
Omai ; but, to their great difappointment, he did not land. 

Having received the boats on board, and a light breeze at 
South South Eaft fpringing up, we got under fail the next 
Thurfday27. day at two o'clock in the afternoon. But the breeze foon 
died away, and we were obliged to anchor again till ten 
o'clock at night. We then weighed, with the wind at Eafl, 
and proceeded down the channel. 

Sunday 30. Qn tTic sotli, at thrcc o'clock in the afternoon, v/e an- 
chored in Plymouth Sound, where the Difcovery had arrived 
only three days before. I faluted Admiral Amherft, whofe 
flag v/as flying on board the Ocean, with thirteen guns, and 
he returned the compliment with eleven. 

It was the firft object: of our care, on arriving at Ply- 
mouth, to replace the water and provifions that we had 
July. expended, and to receive on board a fupply of Port Wine. 
Monday i. Tliis was tlic employment which occupied us on the-ifl and 

Tuefday 2. 2d of July. 

During our ftay here, the crews were ferved with frefli 
beef every day. And I fliould not do juftice to Mr. Omman- 
ney, the Agent Victualler, if I did not take this opportunity 
to mention, that he fliewed a very obliging readinefs to fur- 
niih me with the bell of every thing that lay within his de- 


partmenr. I had been under the like obhgations to him on >776. 

my fetting out upon my lafl voyage. Commiffioner Our- " «— -^ 

ry, with equal zeal for the fervice, gave us every afliftance 
that we wanted from the naval yard. 

It could not but occur to us as a Angular and afFecT:ing 
circumftance, that at the very inftant of our departure upon 
a voyage, the objecft of which was to benefit Europe by 
making frefli difcoveries in North America, there fliould be 
the unhappy neceffity of employing others of his Majefty's 
iliips, and of conveying numerous bodies of land forces, to 
fecure the obedience of thofe parts of that continent which 
had been dilcovered and fettled by our countrymen in the 
laft century. On the 6ch, his Majeily's fliips Diamond, Am- Saturday 6. 
bufcade, and Unicorn, with a fleet of tranfports, confifting 
of fixty-two fail, bound to America, with the laft divifion of 
the HefTian troops, and fome horfe, were forced into the 
Sound by a ftrong North Weft Wind. 

On the 8th, I received, by exprefs, my inftrudions * for Monday 8. 
the voyage, and an order to proceed to the Cape of Good 
Hope with the Refolution. I was alfo direcfted to leave an 
order for Captain Gierke to follow us, as foon as he fhould 
join his fhip; he being, at this time, detained in London. 

Our firft difcoverers of the New World, and navigators of 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans, were juftly thought to have 
exerted fuch uncommon abilities, and to have accomplifhed 
fuch perilous enterprizes, that their names have been hand- 
ed down to pofterity as fo many Argonauts. Nay, even 
the hulks of the fliips that carried them, though not con- 
verted intoconftcllations in the Heavens, ufed to be honoured 
and vifited as facred reliques upon earth. We, in the pre- 

* See the iBflrudlions, in the Introduftion, 

Vol. I. G fent 

30 A V O Y A G E T O 

«776. fent aofe of improved navio;ation, who have been inftrudled 

July. u 1 a 

<— V ' by their labours, and have followed them as our guides, 

have no fuch claim to fame. Some merit, however, being 
ftill, in the public opinion, confidered as due to thofe who 
fail to unexplored quarters of the globe, in conformity to 
this favourable judgment, I prefixed to the account of my 
laft voyage the names of the officers of both my fhips, and 
a table of the number of their refpedlive crews. The like 
information will be expe(5led from me at prefent. 

The Refolution was fitted out with the fame complement 
of officers and men fhe had before ; and the I>ifcovery*& 
eflablifhment, varied from that of the Adventure, in the 
fingle inrtance of her having no marine officer on board. 
This arrangement was to be finally completed at Plymouth; 
Tutfdayg. and, on the gth, we received the party of marines allotted 
for our voyage. Colonel Bell, who commanded the divifion 
at this port, gave me fuch men for the detachment as 1 had 
reafon to be fatisfied with. And the fupernumerary feamem 
occafioned by this reinforcement, being turned over into 
the Ocean man of war, our feveral complements remained 
fixed, as reprefented in the following table i 





Officers and Men. 


Officers Names. 


Officers Names. 


James Cook. 

Charles Clerke. 



John Gore. 
James King. 
John Williamfon. 


James Burney. 
John Rickman. 



William Bligh. - 


Thomas Edgar. 



William Ewin. 


Eneas Atkins. 



James Clevely. 


Peter Reynolds. 



Robert Anderfon. 


William Peckover. 



William Anderfon. 


John Law. 

Matter's Mates, 


- — _ 




- - _ 


Surgeon's Mates, - 


- . - 


Captain's Clerk, 


- . - 


Mafter at Arms, 


- . - 






~ ^ — 


Ditto Mate, - 


- « - 


Sail Maker, - 


- . - 


Ditto Mate, 


- - 


Boatfwaln's Mates, 


_ _ _ 


Carpenter's Ditto, 


w «■ ^ 


Gunner's Ditto, 




Carpenter's Crew, 


- - _ 




- . - 


Ditto Mate, 


Quarter Mafters, - 


- . - 


Able Seamen, - - 






Molefworth Philips. 



- - - 




- - - 





- . - 




• - 








■C 2 

12 A V O Y A G E T O 

>776. On the loth, the Commiffioncr and Pay Clerks came on 

«^^ — . — -' board, and paid the officers and crew up to the 30th of laft 
month. The petty officers and feamen had, bcfides, two 
months wages in advance. Such indulgence to the latter, is 
no more than what is cuftomary in the navy. But the pay- 
ment of what was due to the fuperior officers was humanely 
ordered by the Admiralty, in confideration of our peculiar 
fituation, that we might be better able to defray the very 
great expence of furnifhing ourfelves with a (lock of necef- 
faries for a voyage which, probably, would be of unufual 
duration, and to regions where no fupply could be expetfted. 

Nothing now obftrucTring. my departure but a contrary 
•wind, which blew ftrong at South Weft, in the morning of 

Thurfdayn. the iith, I delivered into the hands of Mr. Burney, iirfl 
Lieutenant of the Difcovery, Captain Clerke's failing orders j 
a copy of which I alfo left with the Officer * com.manding 
his Majefty's fhips at Plymouth, to be delivered to the Cap- 
tain immediately on his arrival. In the afternoon, the wind 
moderating, we weighed with the ebb, and got farther out, 
beyond all the (hipping in the Sound ; where, after making 
an tmfuccefsful attempt to get to fea, we were detained 

Friday 12, moft of the following day, which was employed in receiv- 
ing on board a fupply of water; and, by the fame veiTel 
that brought it, all the empty cafks were returned. 

As I did not imagine my flay at Plymouth would have 
been fo long as it proved, we did not get aur inftruments on 
fliore to make the neceffiiry obfervations for afcertaining the 
longitude by the watch. For the fame reafon, Mr. Baily 
did not fet about this, till he found that the Difcovery would, 

* Captain Le Crafs, Admiral Amherft having ftruck his flag fomedays before 

4 ' probably. 


probably^ be detained fome days after us. He then placed 1776. 
his quadrant upon Drake's Ifland; and had time, before the 
Refolution failed, to make obfervations fufRcient for the 
purpofe we had in view. Our watch made the ifland to lie 
4° 14', and his, 4° 13^', Weft of Greenwich. Its latitude, 
as found by MelTrs. Wales and Baily, on the laft voyage, is 
50° 2 1' 30" North. 

We weighed again at eight in the evening, and flood 
out of the Sound, with a gentle breeze at North Weft by 






"Pajfage of the Refolut'wa to Teneriffe. — Reception there. — 
Defcription of Santa Cruz Road. — Refrefmients to be 
met with. — Qhfervations for fixing the Longitude of 
Teneriffe. — So?m Account of the Ifland. — Botajiical Qh- 
fervations. — Cities of Santa C?'uz and Lagu?ia. — 
Agriculture^ — Air a?id Climate. — Cojmnerce, — Inha- 

1776- 1X7^ 1^^^ "°^ ^^^"^ ^^'^S o^t o^ Plymouth Sound, before 


the wind came more weflerly, and blew frefli, io 
ff'day 12. {]^^j\^^g wzr& obliged to ply down the Channel j and it was 
Sunday 14. riot till the 14th, at eight in the evening, that we were off 

the Lizard. 
Tuefday 16. On the i6th, at noon, St. Agnes's Light-houfe on the Ifles 
of Scilly, bore North Weft by Weft, diftant feven or eight 
miles. Our latitude was, now, 49° 53' 30" North, and our 
longitude, by the watch, 6° 11' Weft. Hence, I reckon that 
St. Agnes's Light-houfe is in 49° 57' 30" North latitude, and 
in 6° 20' of Weft longitude. 

•^Wednef. 17. On the 17th * and i8th we were off Ufliant, and found the 
longitude of the ifland to be, by the watch, 5° 18' 37" Weft. 
The variation was 23° o' 50", in the fame diredion. 

* It appears from Captain Cook's log-book, that he began his judicious operations 
for preferving the health of his crew, very enly in the vcyage. On the 17th, the 
{hip was fmoked between decks with gun-powder. The fpare fails alfo were then 
well aired. 

2 With 



With a drong gale at South, on the 19th, we flood to the ^776. 
weftward, till eiffht o'clock in the morning; when, the wind " ^ ' 

Friday lo. 

fliifting to the Weft and North Weft, we tacked and ftretch- 
ed to the Southward. At this time, we faw nine fail of 
large fliips, which we judged to be French men of war. 
They took no particular notice of us, nor we of them. 

At ten o'clock in the morning of the 22d, we faw Cape Monday 2^. 
Ortegal; which at noon bore South Eaft, half South, about 
four leagues dillant. At this time we were in the latitude 
of 44° 6' North ; and our longitude, by the watch, was 8° 
23' Weft. 

After two days of calm weather we pafTed Cape Fini- 
fterre, on the afternoon of the 24th, with a fine gale at wednef. 24. 
North North Eaft. The longitude of this Cape, by the 
"watch, is 9° 29' Weft; and, by the mean of forty-one lunar 
obfervations, made betore and after we pafled if, and re- 
duced to it by the watch, tlie refult was 9° 19' 12". 

On the 3cth, at fix miniues and thirty-eight feconds paft Tuefday 30. 
ten o'clock at n'-ght, apparent time, I obferved, with a 
night telefcope, the moon lorally eclipfed. By the ephemeris, 
the fame happened at Greenwich at nine minutes paft ele- 
ven o'clock ; the difference being one hour, two minutes, 
and twenty- two feconds, or 15° 2,s' 3^" o^ longitude. The 
watch, for the fame time, gave 13° 26' 45" longitude Weft; 
and latitude 31° 10' North. No obfervation could be 
made on this eclipfe, as the moon was hid behind the 
clouds the greater part of the tirne ; andj in particular, 
when the beginning and end of total darknels, and the end 
of the eclipfe, happened. 

Finding that we had not hay and corn fufficient for the 
fubfiftence of the ftock of animals on board, till our arrival 


i6 A V O Y A G E T O 

'776- at the Cape of Good Hope, I determined to touch at Tene- 
u — V— — » riffe, to get a fupply of thefe, and of the ufual refrefliments 
for aurfelves ; thinking that ifland, for fuch purpofes, bet- 
ter adapted than Madeira. At four in the afternoon of the 
Wednef. 31. 31(1, we faw Teneriffc, and fleered for the eaftern part. At 
nine, being near it, we hauled up, and flood off and on 
during the night. 

Auguft. At day-Ught, on the morning of the ift of Augufl, we 

Thurfdayi. £-^-|g^ rouud the Eaft Point of the ifland; and, about eight 
o'clock, anchored on the South Eafl fide of it, in the Road 
of Santa Cruz, in twenty-three fathoms water ; the bottom, 
fand and owze. Punta de Nago, the Eafl point of the Road, 
bore North 64° Eafl ; St. Francis's church, remarkable for its 
high fleeple, Well South Weft ; the Pic, South 65' Weft; 
and the South Weft point of the Road, on which ftands a 
fort or caftle, South 39° Weft. In this fituation, we moored 
North Eaft and South Weft, with a cable each way, being 
near half a mile from the fliore. 

We found, riding in this Road, La BoufTole, a French fri- 
gate, commanded by the Che'uaUer de Borda ; two brigantines 
of the fame nation ; an Englifh brigantine from London, 
bound to Senegal ; and fourteen fail of Spanifla velTels. 

No fooner had wc anchored, than we were vifited by the 
Mafter of the Port, who fatisfied himfelf with afking the 
fliip's name. Upon his leaving us, I fent an oflicer afhore, 
to prefent my rcfpe<fts to the Governor ; and to afk his leave 
to take in water, and to purchafe fuch articles as we were 
in want of. All this he granted with the greateft politenefs; 
and, foon after, fent an ofhcer on board, to compliment me 
on my arrival. In the afternoon, I waited upon him in per- 
fon, accompanied by fome of my officers ; and, before 1 




returned to my lliip, befpoke fome corn and draw for the live '77<s. 
flock ; ordered a quantity of wine from Mr. M'Carrick, the 
contradlor, and made an agreement with the matter of a 
Spanifli boat to fupply us with water, as I found that we 
could not do it ourfelves. 

The road of Santa Cruz is fituated before the town of the 
fame name, on the South Eaft fide of the ifland. It is, as I 
am told, the principal road of TenerifFe, for fhelter, capa- 
city, and the goodnefs of its bottom. It lies entirely open 
to the South Eaft and South winds. But thefe winds are 
never of long continuance; and, they fay, there is not an 
inftance * of a fhip driving from her anchors on fliore. 
This may, in part, be owing to the great care they take in 
mooring them ; for I obferved, that all the (hips we met 
with there, had four anchors out ; two to the North Eaft, 
and two to the South Weft; and their cables buoyed up with 
caflcs. Ours fuffered a little by not obferving this laft pre- 

At the South Weft part of the road, a fione pier runs out 
into the fea from the town, for the convenience of loading 
and landing of goods. To this pier, the water that fupplies 
the fhipping is conveyed. This, as alfo what the inhabit- 
ants of Santa Cruz ufe, is derived from a rivulet that runs 
from the hills, the greateft part of which comes into the 
town in wooden fpouts or troughs, that are fupported by 
flender pofts, and the remainder doth not reach the fea ; 
though it is evident, from the fize of the channel, that 

* Though no fuch inftance was known to thofe from whom Captain Cook had 
this information, we learn from Glas, that fome years before he was at TenerifFe, 
ahmjl all the fhipping in the road ivcre driven on Jhorc. See G/as's Hijl. of the Canary 
IJlandst p. 235. We may well fuppofe the precautions now ufed, have prevented any 
more fuch accidents happening. This will fufficiently juftify Captain Cook's account. 

Vol. I. D fometimes 


^1776- fometimes large torrents rufli dov.rn. At this t'me thefe 

Augult, " 

v.— V ' troughs were repairing, fo that frefli water, whicii is very 

good here, was fcarce. 

Were we to judge from the appearance of the country in 
the neighbourhood of Santa Cruz, it might be concluded 
that Teaeriife is a barren fpot, infufficient to maintain even 
its own inhabitants. The ample fupplies, however, which 
we received, convinced us that they had enough to fpare 
for vilitors. Befides wine, which is the chief produce of the 
ifland, beef may be had at a moderate price. The oxen are 
fmall and boney, and weigh about ninety pounds a quar- 
ter. The meat is but lean, and was, at prefent, fold for 
half a bit (three pence fterling) a pound. I, unadvifedly, 
bought the bullocks alive, and paid confiderably more. 
Hogs, (heep, ggats and poultry, are likewife to be bought 
at the fame moderate rate ; and fruits are in great plenty. 
At this time we had grapes, figs, pears, mulberries, plan- 
tains, and muflc melons. There is a variety of other fruits 
produced here, though not in feafon at this time, Their 
pumpkins, onions, and potatoes, are exceedingly good of 
their kind, and keep better at fea tlian any I ever before 
met with. 

The Indian corn, which is alfo their produce, cofl: me 
about three Ihillings and fixpence a bufliel ; and the fruiis 
and roots were, in general, very cheap. They have not any 
plentiful fupply ot fiih from the adjoining fea; but a very 
confiderabie filliery is carried on by their vefTels upon the 
coail of Barbary ; and the produce of it fells at a reafonable 
price. Upon the whole, I found TcnerifFe to be a more 
eligible place than Madeira, for Ihips bound on long voyages 
to touch at; though the wine of the latter, according to my 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. ig 

lafte, is as much fuperior to that of the former, as ftrong 
beer is to fmall. To compenfate for this, the difFerence of 
prices is confiderabic ; for the befl TenerifFe wine was now 
fold for twelve pounds a pipe ; whereas a pipe of the belt 
Madeira would have coll confiderably more than double 
that fum *. 

The Chevalier de Borda, Commander of the French fri- 
gate now lying in Santa Cruz road, was employed, in con- 
jundtion with Mr. Varila, a Spanifli Gentleman, in making 
aftronomical obfervations for afcertaining the going of two 
time-keepers which they had on board their fhip. For this 
purpofe, they had a tent pitched on the pier head, where 
they made their obfervations, and compared their watches, 
every day at noon, with the clock on fiiore, by fignals. 
Thefe lignals the Chevalier very obligingly communicated 
to us; fo that we could compare our watch at the fame 
time. But our ftay was too ll^orr, to profit much by his 

The three days comparifons which we made, aflured us 
that the watch had not materially, if at all, altered her rate 
of going ; and gave us the fame longitude, within a very 
few feconds, that was obtained by finding the time from 
obfervations of the fun's altitude from the horizon of the 
fea. The watch, from a mean of thefe obfervations, on 
the I ft, ad, and 3d of Auguft, made the longitude 16° 31' 

* Formerly, there was made at TenerifFe a grent quantity of Canary fack, which 
theFrench c2l\\ Tin de Alalvt^e ; and we, corruptly after them, name Mt'.lmfey (trom 
Malvefia, a town in the Morea, famous for fuch lufcious wine). In the lail century, 
and lliil later, much of this was imported into England; but little v/ine is now made 
there, but of the fort defcribed by C:iptain Cook, Not more than fifty pipes of the 
rich Canary was annually made in's time ; and he lays, they now gather the 
grapes when green, and make a dry hard wine of them, fit for hot climates, p. 262. , 

D 2 Weft; 


1776. "Wed: and, in like manner, the latitude was found to be 
28° 30' n" North. 

Mr. Varila informed us, that the true longitude was 18° 35' 
30", from Paris, which is only 16° 16' 30" from Greenwich j 
lefs than what our watch gave by 1 4' 30". But, far from look- 
ing upon this as an error in the watch, I rather think it a con- 
firmation of its having gone well ; and that the longitude 
by it may be nearer the truth than any other. It is farther 
confirmed by the lunar obfervations that we made in the 
road, which gave 16' 37' 10". Thofe made before we ar- 
rived, and reduced to the road by the watch, gave 16" 33' 
30": and thofe made after we left it, and reduced back in 
the fame manner, gave i6° 28'. The mean of the three is 
16' 30' 40". 

To reduce thefe feveral longitudes, and the latitude, to 
the Pic of TenerifFe, one of the moft noted points of land 
with Geographers (to obtain the true firuation of which, I 
have entered into this particular difcuffion\ I had recourfe 
to the bearing, and a few hours of the fhip's run after leav- 
ing Santa Cruz road; and found it to be is' 11" South of 
the road, and 29.' 30" of longitude Weft of it. As the 
bafe, vjhich helped to determine this, was partly eftimated, 
it is liable to fome error; but I think I cannot be much 
miftaken Dr. Mafkelyne, in his BrittJ}} Mariners Guide, 
places the Pic in the latitude of 28'' in' 54". This, with the 
bearing from the road, will give the difference of longitude 
43', which confiderably exceeds the diftance they reckon 
the Pic to be from Santa Cruz. I made the latitude of the 
Pic to be 28° 18' North, Upon that fuppofition, its longitude 
will be as follows: 



(The Time-keeper - 17° o' 30") '776. 

Jj ne lime-Keeper - 17 o 30 ] 
Lunar obfervations - 16° 30' 20" > Weft. 
Mr. Varila - - 16" 46' o"J 

But if the latitude of it is 28' 12' 54", as in the Britiflj Man- 
ner^s Guide, its longitude will be 13' 30" more wefterly. 

The variation, when we were at anchor in the road, by 
the mean of all our compafles, was found to be 14° 41' 20" 
Weft. The dip of the North end of the needle was 61" 52' 

Some of Mr. Anderfon's remarks on the natural appear- 
ances of TenerifFe, and its produ<5lions ; and what he obferved 
himfelf, or learnt by information, about the general ftate 
of the ifland, will be of ufe, particularly in marking what 
changes may have happened there fince Mr. Glas vifited it. 
They here follow in his own words: 

" While we were ftanding in for the land, the weather 
being perfedliy clear, we had an opportunity of feeing the 
eelebrated Pic of Teneriffe. But, I own, I was much difap- 
pointed in my expecflation with refpecfl; to its appearance. 
It is, certainly, far from equalling the noble figure of Pico, 
one of the weftern illes which I have feen ; though its per- 
pendicular height may be greater. This circumftance, per- 
haps, arifes from its being furrounded by other very high. 
hills; whereas Pico ftands without a rival. 

Behind the city of Santa Cruz, the country rifes gradu- 
ally, and is of a moderate height. Beyond this, to the 
South Weftward, it becomes higher, and continues to rife- 
towards the Pic, which, from the road, appears but little 
higher than the furrounding hills. From thence it feems to 
decreafe, though not fuddenly, as far as the eye can reach. 
From a fuppofition that we fliould not ftay above one day, 

I was 




'776- I was obliged to contrad my excurfions into the country ; 
<..- T'' '-* otherwife, I had propofed to vifit the top of this famous 

mountain *. 

To the eaftvvard of Santa Cruz, the ifland appears per- 
fectly barren. Ridges of hills run towards the fea ; between 
which ridges are deep valleys, terminating at mountains or 
hills that run acrofs, and are higher than the former. 
Thofe that run towards the fea, are marked by impreffions 
on their fides, which make them appear as a fucceffion of 
conic hills, with their tops very rugged. The higher ones 
that run acrofs, are more uniform in their appearance. 

In the forenoon of the ifl of Auguft, after we had an- 
chored in the road, I went on fliore to one of thefe valleys, 
with an intention to reach the top of the remoter hills, 
which feemed covered with wood ; but time would not 
allow me to get farther than their foot. After walking 
about three miles, I found no alteration in the appearance 
of the lower hills; which produce great quantities of the 
euphorbia Canaricnfis. It is furprifmg that this large fucculent 
plant, lliould thrive on fo burnt-up a foil. When broken, 
which is eafily done, the quantity of juice is very great; 
and it might be fuppofed that, when dried, it would Ihrivel 
to nothing ; yet it is a pretty tough, though foft and light 

* See an account of a journey to the top of the Pic of TenerifFe, In Sprat's H'tjlory 
if the Royal Society, p. 200, &c. Glas alfo went to the top of it. Hijloiy of tut Ca- 
nary IJlandi, p. 252 to 259. In the Philofophical Tranfaftions, vol. xlvii. p. 353 — 
356, we have Obfrvations made, in going up the Pic of Teneriffe, by Dr. T. Hd\: - 
den. The Dodor makes its height, above the level of the fea, to be 2566 fathoms, 
or 15,396 Englifh feet; and fays, that this was confirmed by two fubfequent obfcrva- 
tions by himfelf, and another made by Mr. Crolle, the Conful. And yet, I fim , 
that the Chevalier de Borda, who meafured the height of this mountain in Aj: t 
1776, makes it to he only 1931 French toifes, or 12,340 Englifh feet. See Dot^tor 
Former's Obfervations during a Voyage round the IVorld, p. 32. 



wood. The people here believe its juice to be fo cauftic as '776- 

t^ r ■' Auguft. 

to erode the flcin * ; but I convinced them, though with " >r— ' 

much difficulty, to tlie contrary, by thrufling my finger into 
the plant full of it, without afterwards wiping it off. They 
bieak down the bufhes o^ euphorbia^ and fuffering them to dry, 
carry them home for fuel. I met with nothing elfe growing 
there, but two or three fmall fhrubs, and a few fig-trees 
near the bottom of the vallev. 

The bafis of the hills is a heavy, compa(5l, blueifh ftone, 
mixed with fome fhining particles ; and, on the furfacc, 
large malTes of red friable earth, or ftone, are fcattered about. 
I alfo o^'ten found the fame fubftance difpofed in thick 
Jlrata ; and the little earth, ftrewed here and there, was a 
blackifli mould. There were like wife fome pieces of ilagj 
one of which, from its weight and fmooth furfacc, feemed 
almoft wholly metalline. ' 

The mouldering ftate of thefe hills is, doubtlefs, owing 
to the perpetual a(5lion of the fun, which calcines their 
furface. This mouldered part being afterwards wafhed 
away by the heavy rains, perhaps is the caufe of their fides 
being fo uneven. For, as the different fubftances of which 
they are compofed, are more or lefs eafily affected by the 
fun's heat, they will be carried away in tiic like propor- 
tions. Hence, perhaps, the tops of the hills, being of the 
hai-deft rock, have flood, while the other parts on a decli- 
vity have been deftroyed. As I have ufually obferved, that 
the tops of Hioft mountains that are covered with trees 
have a more uniform appearance, I am inclined to believe 
that this is owing to their being fliaded. 

* Glas, p. 231, fpeaking of tliis plant, fays, that he cannot imagine why the natives 
cf the Canaries do not cxtrail the juice, and ufe it inj}end of pitch, for the bottoms of their 
boats. We now learn from Mr. Anderfon their reafon for not uimg it. 

3 The 


i77'^- The city of Santa Cruz, though not large, is tolerably 

ii_ ,- ' / well built. The churches are not magnificent without; 
but within are decent, and indifferently ornamented. They 
are inferior to fome of the churches at Madeira ; but, I 
imagine, this rather arifes from the different difpofition of 
the people, than from their inability to fupport them better. 
For the private houfes, and drefs of the Spanifh inhabitants 
of Santa Cruz, are far preferable to thofe of the Portuguefe 
at Madeira ; who, perhaps, are willing to flrip theml'elves, 
that they may adorn their churches. 

Almoft facing the ftone pier at the landing-place, is a 
handfome marble column lately put up, ornamented with 
fome human figures, that do no difcredlt to the artirt; with 
an infcription in Spanifh, to commemorate the occafion of 
the eredlion ; and the date. 

Friday 2, In the afternoon of the 2d, four of us hired mules to ride 

to the city of Laguna *, fo called from an adjoining lake, 
about four miles from Santa Cruz. We arrived there be- 
tween five and fix in the evening ; but found a fight of it 
very unable to compenfate for our trouble, as the road was 
very bad, and the mules but inddferent. The place is, in- 
deed, pretty extenfive, but fcarcely deferves to be dignified 
with the name of City. The difpofition of its ftreets is very 
irregular; yet fome of them are of a tolerable breadth, and 
have fome good lioufes In general, however, Laguna is 
inferior in appearance to Santa Cruz, though the latter is 
but fmall, if 'compared with the former. We were inform- 
ed, likewife, that Laguna is declining fall; there bemg, at 

* Its extended name is St. Chriftobal de la Laguna; and it ufed to be reckoned the 
capital of tlie ifland, the gentry and lawyers living there; tlioiigh the Governor Ge- 
neral of the Canary lilands rehdes at Santa Cruz, as being the center 0/ their trade, 
kw>th with Europe and America, See Glas's HI/}, p. 248. 

9 prefent, 


prefent, fome vineyards where houfes formerly flood j .'776- 
whereas Santa Cruz is encreafing daily. 

The road leading from Santa Cruz to Laguna runs up 
a fteep hill, which is very barren ; but, lower down, we 
law fome fig-trees, and feveral corn fields. Thefe are but 
fmall, and not thrown into ridges, as is prac^ifed in England. 
Nor does it appear that they can raife any corn here without 
great labour, as the ground is fo encumbered with ftones, 
that they are obliged to collecl and lay them in broad rows, 
or walls, at fmall diftances. The large hills that run to the 
South-weft, appeared to be pretty well furniflied with 
trees. Nothing elfe worth noticing prefented itfelf during 
this cxcurfion, except a few aloe plants in flower, near the 
fide of the road, and the cheerfulnefs of our guides, who 
amufed us with fongs by the way. 

Moft of the laborious work in this ifland is performed 
by mules ; horfes being to appearance fcarce, and chiefly 
referved for the ufe of the oflicers. They are of a fmall 
fize, but well fliaped and fpirited. Oxen are alfo employed 
to drag their calks along upon a large clumfy piece of wood; 
and they are yoked by the head ; though it doth not feem 
that this has any peculiar advantage over our method of 
fixing the harnefs on the fhoulders. In my walks and ex- 
curfions I faw fome hawks, parrots, which are natives of the 
ifland, the fea fwallow or tern, fea gulls, partridges, wag- 
tails, fwallows, martins, blackbirds, and Canary-birds in 
large flocks. There are alfo lizards of the common, and 
•another fort ; fome infecfls, as locufts 5 and three or four forts 
€f dragon flies. 

I had an opportunity of converfmg with a fenfible and 

•well-informed gentleman refiding here, and whofe veracity 

VoL. I. E " I have 


'776- I have not the leafl reafon to doubt. From him I learnt 


fome particulars, which, during the flrort flay of three days, 
did not fall within my own obfervation. He informed me, that 
a fhrub is common here, agreeing exacftly with the defcrip- 
lion given by Tourncfort and Linnsus, of the tea JJjnib, as 
growing in China and Japan. It is reckoned a weed, and 
he roots out thoufands of them every year, from his vine- 
yards. The Spaniards, however, of the ifland, fometimes 
life it as tea, and afcribe to it all the qualities of that im- 
ported from China. They alfo give it tlie name of tea ; but 
what is remarkable, they fay it was found here when the 
iflands were firfl difcovered. 

Another botanical curiolity, mentioned by him, is what 
they call the Impregnated lemon*. It is a perfeft and diftinft 
lemon, inclofed within another, differing from the outer 
one only in being a little more globular. The leaves of the 
tree that produces this fort, are much longer than thofe of 
the common one; and it was reprefented to me as being 
crooked, and not equal in beauty. 

From him I learnt alfo, that a certain fort of grape grow- 
ing here, is reckoned an excellent remedy in phthificat 
complaints. And the air and climate, in general, are re- 
markably healthful, and particularly adapted to give relief 
in fuch difeafes. This he endeavoured to account for, by 
its being always in one*s power to procure a different tem- 
perature of the air, by refiding at different heights in the 
ifland ; and he expreffed his furprize that the Englifh phy- 
ficians fhould never have thought of fending their con- 
fumptive patients to Teneriffe, inflead of Nice or Liibon. 

* The Writer of the Relation of Teneriffe, in Sprat's Hijlory, p. 207, takes notice 
ef this lemon as produced here, and calls it Pregnada,. Probably, emprennada^ the Spa- 
nilh word for htipregnatsd, is the name it goes by, 

4 How 


How much the temperature of the air varies here, I myfelf '776- 

... Auguft. 

could fenfiby perceive, only in riding from Santa Cruz up to ^- — .^ — -/ 
Laguna; and you may afcend till the cold becomes intole- 
rable. I was afTured that no perfon can live comfortably 
within a mile of the perpendicular height of the Pic, after 
the month of Augufl *. 

Although fome fmoke conflantly ifTues from near the 
top of the Pic, they have had no earthquake or eruption of 
a volcano fmce 1704, when the port of Garrachica, where 
much of their trade was formerly carried on, was deftroy- 

Their trade, indeed, mud be confidered as very confider- 
able ; for they reckon that forty thoufand pipes of wine are 
annually made; the greatell part of which is either con- 
fumed in the ifland, or made into brandy, and fent to the 
Spa nifli Weft Indies j;. About fix thoufand pipes were ex- 
ported every year to North America, while the trade with it 

* This agrees with Dr. T. Heberden's account, who fays that the fugar-loaf part 
of the mountain, or la pericnfa (as it is called), which is an eighth part of a league (or 
1980 feet) to the top, is covered with fnow the greatejl part of the year. See Philofa- 
fhical Tranfa£fions, as quoted above. 

f This port was then filled up by the rivers of burning lava that flowed into it from 
a volcano ; infomuch that houfes are now built where fliips formerly lay at anchor. 
See Glas's HiJ}. p. 244. 

X Glas, p. 342, fays, that they annually export no lefs than fifteen thoufand pipes 
of wine and brandy. In another place, p. 252, he tells us, that the number of the 
inhabitants of Teneriffe, when the lafl: account was taken, was no Icfs than 96,000. 
We may reafonably fuppofe that there has been a confiderable increafe of population 
fince Glas vifited the ifland, which is above thirty years ago. The quantity of wine 
annually confumed, as the common beverage of at leaft one hundred thoufand perfons, 
muft amount to feveral thoufand pipes. There muft be a vaft expenditure of it, by 
converfion into brandy ; to produce one pipe of which, five or fix pipes of wine muft 
be diftilled. An attention to thefe particulars will enable every one to judge, that the 
account given to Mr. Anderfon, of an annual produce of 40,000 pipes of wine, has a 
foundation in truth. 

E 2 was 

• A V O Y A G E T O 

1776' was uninterrupted ; at prefent, they think not above half 

u. \, — > the quantity. The corn they raife is, in general, infuffi- 

cient to naaintain the inhabitants ; but the deficiency ufed 
to be fupplicd by importation from the North Americans, 
who took their wines in return. 

They make a little filk ; but unlefs we reckon the filter- 
ing-flones, brought in great numbers from Grand Canary, 
the wine is the only conliderable article of the foreign com- 
merce of Teneriffe. 

None of the race of inhabitants found here when the Spa- 
riards difcovered the Canaries now remain a diftin6t peo- 
ple *, having intermarried with the Spanifli fettlers ; but 
their defcendants are known, from their being remarkably 
tall, large-boned, and ftrong. The men are, in general, of 
a tawny colour, and the women have a pale complexion, 
entirely deftitute of that bloom which diftinguiflies our 
Northern beauties. The Spanifh cuftom of wearing black 
clothes continues amongft tb£}?i ; but the men feem more 
indifferent about this, and, in fome meafure, drefs like the 
French. In other refpefts, we found the inhabitants of 
Teneriffe to be a decent and very civil people, retaining that 
grave call which diftinguifhes thofe of their country from, 
other European nations. Although we do not think that' 
there is a great fimilarity between our manners and thofe of 
the Spaniards, it is worth observing, that Omai did not 
think there was much difference. He only faid, that they 
feemed not fo friendly as the Englifli ; and that, in their; 
pcrfons, they approached thofe of his countrymen." 

* It was otherwife in Glas's time, wlien a few families of the Guanches (as they are^ 
called) remained ftill in Teneriffe, not blended with the Spaniards. Gins, p. 240. 

, . - C EI A r. 




Departure from 'Teneriffe. — Danger of the Ship near Bo- 
navifla. — Jjle of Mayo. — Port Praya. — Precautio?is 
againfl the Rain a?id fultry Weather in the Neighbour- 
hood of the Equator. — P oft ion of the Coaji of Brazil, — 
Arrival at the Cape of Good Hope. — 'Tra7fa&io7is there. 
— yu7:81io?i of the Difcovery. — Mr. Anderforis ycur?iey 
lip the Couittry. — Ajlronomical Obfervations. — Nautical 
Remarks on the Pajfage from England to the Cape., %vith 
regard to the Currents and the Variation.^ 

AVING completed our water, and got on board every 1775; ' 

other thing we wanted at Teneriffe, we weighed an- ^ _!!5"5'_^ 

chor on the 4th of Augufl, and proceeded on our voyage, Sunday 4. 
with a fine gale at North Eaft. 

At nine o'clock in the evening on the loth *, we faw the Saturday 10. 
ifland of Bonavifta bearing South, diftant little more than a 
league ; though, at this time, we thought ourfelves much 
farther off; but this proved a millake. For, after hauling 
to tlie Eaft ward till twelve o'clock, to clear the funken rocks 
that lie about a league from the South Eaft point of the 
ifland, we found ourfelves, at that time, clofe upon them, 

* As a proof of Captain Cook's attention, both to the difcipline and to the health 
of his {hip's company, it may be worth while to obferve here,, that it appears from his 
log-book, he cxercifed them at great guns and fmall arms, and cleared and fmoktd the Jbip 

heloiv decks., twice in the interval between tlie 4th and the loth ofAuguft. 




'776- and did but juft weather the breakers. Our fituation, for a 

\ >■ — ' few minutes, was very alarming. I did not chufe to found, 

as tliat might have heightened tlie danger, without any 
polTibility of lefTening it. I make the North end of the 
ifland of Bonavifta to lie in the latitude of 16' 17' North, and 
in the longitude of 22° 59' Weft. 

Sunday ii. As foou as we werc clear of the rocks, wc fteered South 
South Weft, till day-break next morning, and then hauled 
to the Weftward, to go between Fonavifta and the ille of 
Mayo, intending to look into Port Praya for the Difcovery, 
as I had told Captain Gierke that I fhould touch there, and 
did not know how foon he might fail after me. At one in 
the afternoon, we faw the rocks that lie on the South V/eft 
fide of Bonavifta, bearing South Eaft, diftant three or four 

Next morning, at fix o'clock, the ifle of Mayo bore South 
Monday 12. Soutli Eaft, diftant about five leagues. In this fituation we 
founded, and found ground at fixty fathoms. At the fame 
lime the variation, by ihe*mean of feveral azuuuths taken 
with three different compafles, was y" 32^' Weft. At eleven 
o'clock, one extreme of Mayo bore Eaft by North, and the other 
South Eaft by South. In this pofition, two roundifh hills 
appeared near its North Eaft part ; farther on, a large and 
higher hill; and, at about two-thirds of its length, a fingle 
one that is peaked. At the diftance we now faw this ifland, 
which was three or four miles, there was not the leaft ap- 
pearance of vegetation, nor any relief to the eye from that 
lifelefs brown which prevails in countries under the Torrid 
2k)ne that are unwooded. 

Here I cannot help remarking that Mr. Nichelfon, in his 
Preface to Sundry Remarks and ObfervaUons made in a Voyage to 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 3-1 

the Eaji Indies *, tells US, that " with eight degrees Weft va- ^'776. 
*' riation, or any thing above that, you may venture to fail 
*' by the Cape de Verde Iflands night or day, being well 
" afTured, with that variation, that you are to the Eailward 
" of them." Such an ailertion might prove of dangerous 
confequence, were there any that would implicitly truft to 
ir. We alfo tried the current, and found one fetting South 
Weft by Weft, fomething more than half a mile an hour. 
We had reafon to expert this, from the differences between 
the longitude given by the watch and dead reckoning, which, 
lince cur leaving Teneriffe, amounted to one degree. 

While we were amongft thefe iflands we had light 
breezes of wind, varying from the South Eaft to Eaft, and 
fome calms. This fhews that the Cape de Verde Iflands are 
either extenlive enough to break the current of the trade 
wind, or that they are fttuated juft beyond its verge, in that 
fpace v»rhere the variable winds, found on getting near the 
line, begin. The firft fuppofuion, however, is the moft 
probable, as Dampier-f- found th? wind wefterly here in the 
month of February; at which time the trade wind is fup- 
pofcd to extend fartheft towards the equinodlial. The v/ea- 
thcr was hot and fultry, with fomc rain ; and, for the moft 
part, a dull whiTenefs prevailed in the flcy, that feems a 
medium betv/een fog and clouds. In general, the tropica! 
regions feldom enjoy that clear atmofphcre obfervabie 
where variable winds blow; nor does the fun fhine with 
fuch brightnefs. This circumftance, however, feems an 
advantage ; for otherwife, perhaps, the rays of the fun,, 
being uninterrupted, would render the heat quite unfup- 

* On board his Majefty's fhip Elizabeth, from 1758 to 1764; by William Ni- 
chellbn, Mafter of the faid Ship. London, 1773. 
\ Dampier's V03 ages. Vol. iii. p. lo. 



>776. portable. The nights are, nevcrthelefs, often clear and 
*— -V ' ferene. 

Tuefday ij. At nine o^clock. in the morning of the 13th, we arrived 
before Port Praya, in the ifland of St. Jago, where we faw 
two Dutch Eaft India fiiips, and a fmall brigantine at an- 
chor. As the Difcovery was not there, and we had expended 
but Uttle water in our pafTage from Teneriffe, I did not 
think proper to go in, but flood to the Southward. Some 
altitudes of the Sun were now taken, to afcertain the true 
time. The longitude by the watch, deduced therefrom, was 
23° 48' Weft ; the little ifland in the bay bore Weft North 
Weft, diftant near three miles, which will make its longi- 
tude 23° 51'. The fame watch, on my late voyage, made 
the longitude to be 23° 30' Weft; and we obferved the lati- 
'- tude to be 14° 53' 30" North. \ 

Wednef. 14. The day after we left the Cape de Verde Iflands, we loft the 
North Eaft trade wind ; but did not get that which blows 

Friday 38. froHi the South Eaft till the 30th, when we were in the lati- 
tude of 2° North, and in the twenty-fifth degree of Weft 

During this interval *, the wind was moftly in the South 
Weft quarter. Sometimes it blew frefli, and in fqualls ; but 
for the moft part a gentle breeze. The calms were few, 
and of fhort duration. Between the latitude of 12° and of 
7° North, the weather was generally dark and gloomy, 

* On the i8th, I funk a bucket with a thermometer feventy fathoms below the 
^ ■ furface of the fea, where it remained two minutes ; and it took three minutes more to 

haul it up. The mercury in the thermometer was at 66, which before, in the air, 
ilood at 78, and in tiic furface of the fea at yg. The water wmch came up in the 
bucket contained, by Mr. Cavendifh's table, ^V, 7 P^rt fait; and that at the furface 
of the fea ^'y, 4. As this laft was taken up after a fmart fhower of rain, it might be 
lighter on that account. Captain Cook' s log-hok. 

8 with 


with frequent rains, which enabled us to fave as much wa- .1776. 

^ Auguft. 

tcr as filled moft of our empty caflcs. v- - X - -^ 

Thefe rains, and the clofe fultry weather accompanying 
them, too often bring on ficknefs in this pafTage, Every 
bad confequence, at leaf!:, is to be apprehended from them j 
and commanders of fliips cannot be too much upon their 
guard, by purifying the air between decks with fires and 
fmoke, and by obliging the people to dry their clothes at 
every opportunity. Thefe precautions were conflantly ob- 
ferved on board the Refolution * and Difcovery; and we 
certainly profited by them, for we had now fewer fick than 
on either of my former voyages. We had, however, the 
mortification to find our fhip exceedingly leaky in all her 
upper works. The hot and fultry weather we had jufl 
pafTed through, had opened her feams, which had been 
badly caulked at firfl, fo wide, that they admitted the rain 
water through as it fell. There was hardly a man that 
could lie dry in his bed ; and the officers in the gun-room 
were all driven out of their cabbiiis, by the water that came 
through the fides. The fails in the fail-room got wet; and 
before wc had weather to dry them, many of them were 
much damaged, and a great espence of canvas and of time 
became neceffary to make them in fome degree ferviceable. 
Having experienced the fame defedl in our fail-rooms on 
my late voyage, it had been reprefented to the yard officers, 
who undertook to remove it. But it did not appear to mc 
that any thing had been done to remedy the complaint. 

* The particulars are mentioned in his log-book. On the 14th of Auguft, a fire 
was made in the well, to air the (hip below. On the 15th, the fpare fails were aired 
upon deck, and a fire made to air the fail-room. On the 17th, cleaned and fmoked 
betwixt decks, and the bread-room aired with fires. On the 21ft, cleaned and fmoked 
betwixt decks ; and on the 22d, the. men's bedding was fpread on deck to air. 

Vol. I. F To 



Au^uli "^^ repair thefe defe(n:s the caulkers were fet to work, as 

' ' foon as we got into fair fettled weather, to caulk the decks 

and infide weather- works of the fliip; for I would not truft 
them over the fides while we were at fea. 

Sunday i. 

Sunday So 

On the firft of September * we crofled the Equator, in the 
longitude of 27° 38' Weft, with a fine gale at South Eaft by 
South ; and notwithftanding my apprehenfions of falling in 
with the coaft of Brazil in ftretching to the South Weft, I 
kept the fhip a full point from the wind. However, I 
found my fears were ill-grounded; for on drawing near 
that coaft, we met with the wind more and more eafterly j 
fo that, by the time we were in the latitude of 10° South, 
we could make a South Eafterly courfe good. 

On the 8th, we were in the latitude of 8* 57' South; which 
is a little to the Southward of Cape St. Auguftine, on the 
coaft of Brafil. Our longitude, deduced from a very great 
number of lunar obfervations, was 34° 16' Weft ; and by the 

* The afternoon, as appears from Mr. Anderfon's Journal, was fpent in perform- 
ing the old and ridiculous ceremony of ducking thofe who had not crofled the Equator 
before. Though Captain Cook did not fupprefs the cuftom, he thought it too trifling 
to deferve the lead mention of it in his Journal, or even in his log-book. Pernetty, 
the Writer of Bougainville's Voyage to the Falkland Iflands, in 1763 and 1764, 
thought differently ; for his account of the celebration of this childifh feftival on board 
his fhip, is extended through feventeen pages, and makes the fubjedl of an entire chap- 
ter, under the title of Baptitne de la L'tgne. 

It may be worth while to tranfcribe his introdudlion to the defcription of it. " Ce'ft 
•' un ufage qui ne remonte pas plus haut que ce voyage celebre de Gama, qui a fourni 
*' au Camoens le fujet de la Lufiade. L'Idee qu'on ne fcauroit etre un bon marin, 
" fans avoir traverfe I'Equateur, I'ennui infeparable d'une longue navigation, un cer- 
" tain efprit republicain qui regne dans toutes les petites fociete's, peut-etre toutes ces 
" caufes reunies, on pu donner naiflance a ces efpeces de faturnales. Quoiqu'il en foit, 
«' elles furent adoptees, en un infl:ant, dans toutes les nations, & les hommes les plus 
«' eclaires furent obliges de fe foumettre a une coutume dont ils reconnoiflbient I'ab- 
" furdite. Car, partout, des que le peuple parle, it faut que le fage fe raette a I'unifon.'* 
Hijioired'un Voyage anx Ijles Malouines, p. 107, 108. 




watch, 34° 47'. The former is i" 43', and the latter 2" 14' seVember 

more Wefterly than the ifland of Fernando de Noronha, the • « ' 

fituation of which was pretty well determined during my late 
voyage *. Hence I concluded that we could not now be 
farther from the continent than twenty or thirty leagues at 
moft; and perhaps not much lefs, as we neither had found- 
ings, nor any other figns of land. Dr. Halley, however, in 
his voyage, publifhed by Mr. Dalrymple, tells us f, tliat he 
made no more than ofie hundred and tivo miles, meridian diftance, from 
the ijland [Fernando de Noronha] to the coaft of Brafil; and 
feems to think that currents could not be the ivhole cauf of his 
making fo little. But I rather think that he was miftaken, 
and that the currents had hurried him far to the Weft ward 
of his intended courfe. This was, in fome meafure, con- 
firmed by our own obfervations ; for we had found, during 
three or four days preceding the 8th, that the currents fet 
to the Weftvvard; and, during the laft twenty- four hours, 
it had fet flrong to the Northward, as we experienced a dif- 
ference of twenty-nine miles between our obferved latitude 
and that by dead reckoning. Upon the whole, till fome 
better aflronomical obfervations are made on fhore on the 
Eaftern coaft of Brafil, I fhall conclude that its longitude is 
thirty-five degrees and a half, or thirty-fix degrees Weft, at 

We proceeded on our voyage, without meeting with any oaober. 
thing of note, till the 6th of 0(5lober. Being then in the Sunday 6. 
latitude of 35° 15' South, longitude f 45' Weft, we met with 
light airs and calms by turns, for three days fuccefTively. 
We had, for fome days before, feen albatroftes, pintadoes, 
and other petrels ; and here we faw three penguins, which 

* See Cook's Voyage, Vol. II. p. 278, f P. u. 

F 2. occafioned 

36 A V a Y A G E T O 

1776. occafioned us to found ; but we found no around with a line 

ill » ' of one hundred and fifty fathoms. We put a boat in the 

water, and Ihot a few birds ; one of which was a black pe- 
trel, about the iize of a. crow, and, except as to the bill and 
feet, very like one. It had a few white feathers under the 
throat ; and the under-fide of the quill-feathers were of an 
afli-colour. All the other: feathers were, jet black, as alfo 
the bill and legs. 

Tuefday 8. On the 8th, in the evening, one of thofe birds which 
failors call noddies, fettled on our rigging, and was caught. 
It was fomething larger than an Englifli black-bird, and 
nearly as black, except the upper part of the head, which 
was white, looking as if it were_powdered ; the whiteil fea- 
thers growing out from the bafe of the upper bill, from 
which they gradually alTumed a darker colour, to about the 
middle of the upper part of the neck, where the white fhade 
was loft in the black, without being divided by any line. 
It was web-footed ; had black legs and a black bill, which 
was long, and not unlike that of a curlew. It is faid thefe 
^birds never fly far from land. We knew of none nearer the 
flation we were in, than Cough's or Richmond Ifland, from 
which our dillance could not be iefs than one hundred 
leagues. But it muft be obferved tliat the Atlantic Ocean, 
to the Southward of this latitude, has been but little fre- 
quented ; fo that there may be more iflands there than we 
are acquainted with. 

We frequently, in the night, faw thofe luminous marine 
animals mentioned and defcribed in my iirfl voyage *. 
Some of them feemed to be confiderably larger than any I 

■•^ See Hawkefworth's Colledion of Voyages, Vol. II. p. 15. 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 37 

had before met with i and fometimes they were lb nume- ^7'^- 
rous, that hundreds were viftble at the fame moment. v- — ^ — * 

This cahn weather was fucceeded by a frefh gale from 
the North Weft, which lafted two days. Then we had 
again variable light airs for about twenty-four hours; when 
the North Weft wind returned, and blew with fuch ftrength, 
that on the 17th we had fight of the Cape of Good Hope; Thurrdayi7. 
and the next day anchored in Table Bay, in four fathoms Friday is. 
water, with the church bearing South Weft A South, and 
Green Point North Weft ^ Weft. 

As foon as w^e had received the ufiial vifit from the Mafter 
Attendant and the Surgeon, I fent an officer to wait on Ba- 
ron Plettenberg, the Governor; and, on his return, faluted 
the garrifon with thirteen guns, which compliment was 
returned with the fame number. 

We found in the bay two French Eaft India Ships; the 
one outward, and the other homeward bound. And two or 
three days before our arrival, another homeward bound 
fliip of the fame nation had parted from her cable, and been 
driven- on lliore at the head of the bay, where flie was loft. 
The crew were favcd; but the greatcft part of the cargo 
fhared the fame fate with the ihip, or (which amounted to 
the fame) was plundered and ftolen by the inhabitants, 
either out of the fhip, or as it was driven or carried on 
fhorc. Til is is the account the French officers gave to me; 
and the Dutch themfelves could not deny the fad:. But, by 
way of excufmg themfelves from being guilty of a crime 
difgraceful to every civilized ftate^ they endeavoured to lay 
the whole blame oil the French Captain, for not applying 
in time for a guard. 



1776. As foon as we had faluted, I went on fliore, accompanied 

■l °"'' by feme of my officers, and waited on the Governor, the Lieu- 
tenant Governor, theFifcal, and the Commander of the troops. 
Thefe gentlemen received me with the greateft civility ; and 
the Governor, in particular, promifed me every affillance 
that the place afforded. At the fame time I obtained his 
leave to fet up our obfervatory on any fpot I fliould think 
moft convenient ; to pitch tents for the failmakers and coo- 
pers ; and to bring the cattle on fhore, to graze near our 
encampment. Before I returned on board, I ordered foft 
bread, frefh meat, and greens, to be provided, every day, for 
the fliip's company. 

Tuefday22. Qu the 22d, wc fct Up the tcnts and obfervatory, and be- 
gan to fend the feveral articles out of the (hip which I 
wanted on fhore. This could not be done fooner, as the 
militia of the place were exercifmg on, or near, the ground 
which we were to occupy. 

Wednef. 23. The next day, we began to obferve equal altitudes of the 
Sun, in order to afcertain the rate of the watch, or, which 
is the fame thing, to find whether it had altered its rate. 
Thefe obfervations were continued every day, whenever the 
weather would permit, till the time of our departure drew 
near. But before this, the caulkj^rs had been fet to work 
to caulk the fliip; and I had concerted meafures with 
MelTrs. Brandt and Chiron, for fupplying both (hips with 
fuch provifions as I (hould want. Bakers, likewife, had 
been ordered, immediately after our arrival, to bake fuch a 
quantity of bread as I thought would be requifite. s faft 
as the feveral articles deftined for the Refolution were got 
ready, they were carried on board. 

o On 


On the 26th, the French fhip failed for Europe, and by J^^J.^ 

her, we fent letters to England. The next day, the Hamp- « ' 

fhire Eaft India fhip, from Bencoolen, anchored in the bay, sundV 27^. ' 
and fainted us with thirteen guns, which we returned with 

Nothing remarkable happened till the evening of the gift, Thurfdayai. 
when it came on to blow excefiively hard at South Eaft, and 
continued for three days ; during which time there was no 
communication between the Ihip and the fhore. The Re- 
folution was the only fhip in the bay that rode out the gale 
without dragging her anchors. We felt its efFecfls as fenfi- 
bly on fhore. Our tents and obfervatory were torn to pieces; 
and our aftronomical quadrant narrowly efcaped irreparable November 
damage. On the 3d of November the ftorm ceafed, and the Sunday 3. 
next day we refumed our different employments. 

On the 6th, the Hampfhire India fliip failed for England. Wednef. 6. 
In her I fent home an invalid, whom Captain Trimble was 
fo obliging as to receive on board. I was afterwards forry 
that I had not availed myfelf of this opportunity to part 
with two or three more of my crew, who were troubled 
with different complaints ; but, at this time, there was fome 
hope of their health being re-eftablilhed. 

In the morning of the loth, the Difcovery arrived in the Sunday 10, 
bay. Captain Gierke informed me that he had failed from 
Plymouth on the ift of Auguft, and fliould have been with 
us here a week fooner, if the late gale of wind had not 
blown him off the coaft. Upon the whole, he was feven 
days longer in his pafTage from England than we had been. 
He had the misfortune to lofe one of his marines, by fall- 
ing over-board ; but there had been no other mortality 
amongft his people, and they now arrived well and healthy. 


40 A V O Y A G E T O 

, ''7^'; Captain Gierke havino; reprefented to me that his fhip was 

iNoveniber. _ ' o i r 

' . ' in want of caulking; that no time might be loft in repair- 
Monday n. ing this defcd:, next day I fent all my workmen on board 
her, having already completed this fervice on board the Re- 
folution. I lent every other afliftance to the Captain to ex- 
pedite his fupply of provifions and ^vuter, halving given him 
an order to receive on board as much of both articles as he 
could conveniently (low I now found that the bakers had 
failed in baking the bread I had ordered for the Difcovery. 
They pretended a Vv-anc of liour; but the truth was, they 
were doubtful of her coming, and did not care to begin, 
till they faw her at anchor in the bay. 

I have before made mention of our getting our cattle on 
fliore. The bull and two cows, with their calves, were fent 
to graze along with fome other cattle-, but I was advifed to 
keep our flieep, fixteen in number, clofe to our tents, where 
they were penned up every night. During the night preced- 
Thurfday 14. ing the 14th, fomc dogs having got in amongft them, forced 
them out of the pen, killing four, and difperfmg the refl. 
Six of them were recovered the next day; but the two rams, 
and two of the iineft ewes in the whole flock, were amongft 
thofe miffing. Baron Plettenberg being now in the country, 
I applied to the Lieutenant Governor, Mr. Hemmy, and to 
the Fifcal. Both thefe Gentlemen promifed to ufe their en- 
deavours for the recovery of the loft fheep. The Dutch, 
we Icnow, boaft that the police at the Cape is fo carefully 
executed, that it is hardly poffible for a flave, with all his 
cunning and knowledge of the country, to eifedfuate his 
efcape. Yet my flieep evaded all the vigilance of the Fifcal's 
officers and people. However, after much trouble and ex- 
pence, by employing fome of the meaneft and loweft fcoun- 
drels in the place (who, to ufe the phrafe of the perfon who 
8 recommended 


recommended this method to me, would, for a ducatoon, ^..^'^76. 


cut their mafter's throat, burn the houfe over his head, and 
bury him and the whole family in the allies), I recovered 
them all but the two ewes. Of thefe I never could hear the 
leaft tidings ; and I gave over all enquiry after them, when 
I was told, that fmce I had got the two rams, I might think 
myfelf very well off. One of thefe, however, was fo much 
hurt by the dogs, that there was reafon to believe he would 
never recover. 

Mr. Hemmy very obligingly offered to make up this lofs, 
by giving me a Spanifli ram, out of fome that he had fent 
for from Lifbon. But I declined the offer, under a perfua- 
fion that it would anfwer my purpofe full as well, to take 
with me fome of the Cape rams : the event proved, that I 
was under a miflake. This Gentleman has taken fome 
pains to introduce European flieep at the Cape ; but his en- 
deavours, as he told me, have been fruftrated by the obfti- 
nacy of the country people, who hold their own breed in 
greater eftimation, on account of their large tails, of the fat 
of which they fometimes make more money than of the 
whole carcafs befides * ; and think that the wool of Euro- 
pean flieep will, by no means, make up for their deficiency 
in this refpetSt. Indeed, I have heard fome fenfible men 
here make the fame obfervation. And there feems to be 
foundation for it. For, admitting that European flieep were 

* " The moft remarkable thing in the Cape fheep, is the length andthiclcnefs of their 
tails, which weigh from fifteen to twenty pounds. The fat is not fo tallowifli as that 
of European mutton, and the poorer fort ufe it for butter." Kolben's Cape of Good 
Hope [Englilli tranflation]. Vol. II. p. 65. De la Caillc, who finds every thing 
wrong in Kolben, fays, the weight of the tails of the Cape flieep is not above five or 
fix pounds. Voyage de la Ca'ille, p. 343. If the information given to Captain Cook 
may be depended upon, it will prove that, in this inftance at leaft, Kolben is unjuftly 
accufed of exaggeration. 

Vol. I. G to 


, '■7'^- to produce wool of the fame quality here as in Europe, 
V— -.r- — ' which experience has fliewn not to be the cafe, the Dutch 
have not hands, at the Cape of Good Hope, to fpare for the 
manufa^Luring even their own clothing. It is certain that, 
were it not for the continual importation of flaves, this fet- 
tlement would be thinner of people than any other inha- 
bited part of the world. 

While the fhips were getting ready for the profecution of 
our voyage, fome of our officers made an excurlion to take 
a view of the neighbouring country. Mr. Anderfon, my 
Surgeon, who was one of the party, gave me the following 
relation of their proceedings * : 

Saturday 16. " On the i6th, in the forenoon, I fet out in a v/aggon,. 
with five more, to take a view of fome part of the country. 
We crofTed the large plain that lies to the Eaftward of the 
town, v/hich is entirely a white fand, like that commonly 
found on beaches, and produces only heath, and other 
fmall plants of various forts. At five in the afternoon we 
palled a large farm-houfe, with fome corn-fields, and pretty 
confiderable vineyards, ficuaced beyond the plain, near the 
foot of fome low hills,, where the foil becomes worth culti- 
vatine. Between fix and feven we arrived at Stellenbofli, 
the colony next to that of the Cape for its importance. 

The village does not confift of more than thirty houfes, 
and ftands at the foot of the range of lofty mountains, 

* In the Philofophical TranfacSions,. Vol. Ixvi. p. 26^ to 319, is an Account ofThret 
Jonrnies frofn the CapeToivn into the Southern Parts of J/rica, in 1772, 1773, and 1774 ; 
by Mr. Francis Mafibn, who had been fent from England for the difcovery of new 
plants, towards the improvement of the Royal Botanical Garden at Kcw. Much 
curious information is contained in Mr. Ma{ron''s account of thefe journies. M. de 
Pages, who was at the Cape in 1773, gives fome remarks on the ftate of that fettle- 
ment, and alfo the particulars of his journey from Falfe Bay to the Cape Town. Voyage 
vers k Pole du Sucf, p. 17 to 32, 



above twenty miles to the Eaftward of the Cape Town. The '776. 

, '^ November, 

noufes are neat ; and, with the advantage of a rivulet which < >~.«j 

runs near, and the Oielter of fome large oaks, planted at its 
lirft fettling, forms what may be called a rural profpecT: in 
this defert country. There are fome vineyards and orchards 
about the place, which, from their thriving appearance, 
feem to indicate an excellent foil; though, perhaps, they 
owe much to climate, as the air here has an uncommon 

I employed the next day in fearching for plants and in- Sunday tj. 
feds about Stellenbofli, but had little fuccefs. Few plants 
are in flower here at this feafon, and infedls but fcarce. I 
examined the foil in feveral places, and found it to confift 
of yellowifli clay, mixed with a good deal of fand. The 
fides of the low hills, which appear brown, feem to be con- 
llituted of a fort of ilone marie. 

We left Stellenbolh next morning, and foon arrived at the Monday ts. 
houfc we had paflTed on Saturday ; the owner of which, Mr. 
Cloeder, had fent us an invitation, the evening before, to 
vifit him. This Gentleman entertained us with the greateft 
hofpitality, and in a manner very different from what we 
expeded. He received us with mufic; and a band alfo 
played while we were at dinner; which, confidering the 
fituation of the place, might be reckoned elegant. Fie 
fliewed us his wine-cellars, his orchards, and vineyards; all 
which, I muft own, infpired me with a wifli to know in 
what manner thefe induftrious people could create fuch 
plenty, in a fpot where, I believe, no other European na- 
tion would have attempted to fettle. 

In the afternoon we croffed the country, and paffcd a few 
plantations, oneof which feemed very confiderable, and was 

G 2 laid 



>776. laid out in a tafte fomewhat difTerent from any other we 

November. . . -i r ^ • i • 

< „— ' faw. In the evening we arrived at a rarm-lioule, which is 

the firfl in the cultivated tradt called the Pearl. We had, at 
the fame time, a view of Drakenftein, the third colony of 
this country, which lies along by the foot of the lofty hills 
already mentioned, and contains feveral farms or planta- 
tions, not very extenlive. 

Tuefday 19. J went, on the 19th in the forenoon, in quell: of plants 
and infe6ls, which I found almofl as fcarce as at Stellen- 
bofh ; but I met with more flirubs or fmall trees, naturally 
produced, in the valleys, than in any part of the country I 
had hitherto feen. 

In the afternoon, we went to fee a ftone of a remarkable 
fize, called by the inhabitants the Tov»rer of Babylon, or 
the Pearl Diamond *. It lies, or Hands, upon the top of 
fome low hills, at the foot of which our farm-houfe was 
fituated ; and though the road to it is neither very fteep nor 
rugged, we were above an hour and a half in walking to ir,^ 
It is of an oblong fhape, rounded on the top, and lies nearly^ 
South and North. The Eafl: and Weft fides are fteep, and aU 

* In the Philofophical Tranfaclions, Vol. Ixviii. Part I. p, 102. we have a Letter 
from Mr. Anderfon to Sir John Pringle, defcribing this remarkable ftone. The ac- 
count fcnt home from the Cape, and read before the Royal Society, is much the famo 
with that now publiftled, but rather fuller. In particular, he tells Sir John, that he 
went to fee it at Mr, Majfon's defire, who, probably, had not had an opportunity of 
fafRciently examining it himfelf. In the account of his journies, above referred to, 
J). 270, he only fays, " il)erc are two large foUd rocks on the Perel Berg, each of which 
(he believes) Is 7nore than a mile In circumference at the hafe, and upwards of two hundred 
feet high. Their furfaces are nearly fmooth, without chink or fiffures ; and they are found 
to be a f pedes of granite, different from that which compofes the neighbouring mountains." 

Mr. Anderfon having, with his Letter to Sir John Pringle, alfo fent home a fpe- 
cimen of the rock, it was examined by Sir William Hamilton, whofe opinion is, that 
** this ftngular, Immcnfe fragment of granite, mojl probably has been ralfed by a volcanic 
ixplofon, or fome fuch caufe." See his Letter to Sir John Pringle, annexed to Mr. An- 
iferfon's, in the Philofophical Tranfaflioas. 

4 mod 



moft perpendicular. The South end is likewife fteep, and its '776. 

^ , ^' November. 

greatelt height IS there; from whence it declines gently to * u ' 

the North part, by which we afcended to its top, and had 
an extenfive view of the whole country. 

Its circumference, I think, muft be at leafl half a mite ; 
as it took us above half an hour to walk round it, including 
every allowance for the bad road, and flopping a little. At 
its highefl part, which is the South end, comparing it with 
a known objefl, it feems to equal the dome of St. Paul's 
church. It is one uninterrupted mafs or ftone, if we except 
fome fifFures, or rather impreffions, not above three or four 
feet deep, and a vein which runs acrofs near its North end. 
It is of that fort of ftone called, by Mineralogifts, Saxum 
conglutinatiiw, and confifts chiefly of pieces of coarfe quartz 
and glimtner, held together by a clayey cement. But the vein 
which crofTes it, though of the fame materials, is much com- 
pacfter. This vein is not above a foot broad or thick; and 
its furface is cut into little fquares or oblongs, difpofed 
obliquely, which makes it look like the remains of fome 
artificial work. But I could not obferve whether it pene- 
trated far into the large rock, or was only fuperficial. la 
defcending, \\e found at its foot a very rich black mould; 
and on the fides of the hills, fome trees of a confiderable 
fize, natives of the place, which are a fpecies of oka *. 


* It is flrange that neither Kolben nor de la Caille fhould have thought the To-u>ir 
a/ iJizZ^/os worthy of a particular defcription. The former [Vol.11, p. 52,53, Eng- 
lifh Tranflation] only mentions it as a high mountain. The latter contents liimfeif 
with telling us, that it is a very low hillock, jin tres has wonUcuk. Voyage de la Caille^ 
p. 341. We are much obliged to Mr. Anderfon for his very accurate account of this 
remarkable rock, which agrees with Mr. Sonnerat's, who was at tiie Cape of Good 
Hope fo late as 1781. His words are, " La Montagne de la Perle, merite d'etre ob- 
" lervee. Cell un des plus hautcs des environs du Cap, E!le n'elt ccrr.pofce que. 

" d'uu 




• ^ ' 

Wednel". 20. 

Saturday 23. 

In the morning on the 20th, we fet out from the Pearl; 
and going a diflerent road from that by which we came, 
pafTcd through a country wholly uncukivated, till we got 
to the Tvger hills, when fome tolerable corn-fields appeared. 
At noon, we flopped in a hollow for refre(l:iment ; bur, in 
walking about here, were plagued with a vaft number of 
mufquitoes or fand flies, which were the firfl: I faw in the 
country, hi the afternoon we fet out again, and in the 
evening arrived at the Cape Town, tired with the jolting 

On the 23d, we got on board the obfervarory, clock, &c. 
By a mean of the feveral refults of the equal altitudes of the 
Sun, taken with the aftronomical quadrant, the aftrono- 
mical clock was found to lofe on fidercal time, 1' 8",368 
each day. The pendulum was kept at the fame length as at 
Greenwich, where the daily lofs of the clock on fidereal 
time, was 4". 

The watch, by the mean of the refults of fifteen 
days obfervations, was found to be lofmg 2",26i, on 
mean time, each day; which is i",o5q more than at Green- 
wich: and on the 21ft, at noon, ihe was too flow for 
mean time by i". 20' 57", 66. From this, 6' 48",956, is 
to be fubftrafted, for what flie was too flow on the 
nth of June at Greenwich, and her daily rate fincc; 
and the remainder, i>iz. 1". 14'. 08", 704, or 18° 32' 10", 
will be the longitude of the Cape Town by the watch. Its 
true longitude, as found by MefTrs. Mafon and Dixon, is 

" d'un feul bloc de granit crevafle dans plufieurs endroits." Foya^e mix Indes, 
Tom. II. p. 91. 

Mr. Sonnerat tells us, that Mr. Gordon, Commander of the troops at the Cape, 
had lately made three journies up the country, from which, when he publifhes his 
Tournal, we may expe<n much curious information. 

8 18° 

T H E P A C; I F I C O C E A N. 47 

2'8* 23' 15". As our obfervations were made about half a ^ '775; 


mile to the Eaft or theirs, the error of the watch, in longi- ^ — ^,. — -» 
tude, is no more than 8' 25". Kencc we have rcafon to 
conclude, that fhe had gone well all the way from England, 
and that thg longitude, thus given, may be nearer the truth 
than any other. 

If this be admitted, it will, in a great meafurc, enable 
me to find the direcSlion and ftrength of the currents we met 
with on this palTage from England. For, by comparing tlie 
latitude and longitude by dead reckoning, with thofe by 
obfervation and the watch, we fliall, from time to time, 
have, very accurately, the error of the fliip's reckoning, be 
the caufe what it will. But as all imaginable care was taken 
in heaving and keeping the log, and every necelTary allow- 
ance made for lee-way, heave of the fea, and other fuch 
circumftances, I cannot attribute thofe errors that did hap- 
pen, to any other caufe but currents; but more particularly 
when ihe error was conftantly the fame way, for feveral days 

On the contrary, if we find the fliip a-head of the rec- 
koning on one day, and a-ftern of it on another, we have 
reafon to believe that fuch errors are owing to accidental 
eaufes, and not to currents. This feems to have been the 
cafe in our paiTage between England and Teneriffe. But, 
from the time of our leaving that illand, till the 15th of 
Auguft, being then in the latitude of 12" North, and longi- 
tude 24° Weft, the fhip was carried 1" 20' of longitude to the 
Weftward of her reckoning. At this ftation, the currents 
took a contrary direction, and fet to Eaft South Eaft, at the 
rate of twelve or fourteen miles a day, or twenty-four 
hours, till we arrived into the latitude of 5° North, and 
longitude of 20° Weft ; which was our moft Eafterly fitua- 



'776. tion after leavin? the Cape de Verde Iflands, till we got to 

November. 01 •-' 

the Southward. For in this fituation the wind came South- 
erly, and we tacked and flretchcd to the Weftward ; and, 
for two or three days, could not find that our reckoning was 
affefted by any current. So that, I judged, we were be- 
tween the current that generally, if not conftantly, fets to 
the Eaft upon the coaft of Guinea, and that which fets to 
the Weft towards the coaft of Brafil. 

This Weflerly current was not considerable till we got into 
2° North, and aj" Weft. From this ftation, to 3° South and 
30° Weft, the fliip, in the fpace of four days, was carried 
one hundred and fifteen miles in the diredlion of South 
Weft by Weft, beyond her reckoning ; an error by far too 
great to have any other caufe but a ftrong current running 
in the fame direction. Nor did its ftrcngth abate here ; but 
its courfe was, afterward, more Wefterly, and to the North 
of Weft; and off" Cape Auguftine, North, as I have already 
mentioned. But this Northerly current did not exift at 
twenty or thirty leagues to the Southward of that Cape ; 
nor any other, that I could perceive, in the remaining part of 
the palTage. The little difference we afterward found be- 
tween the reckoning and obfervations, might very well 
happen without the affiftance of currents ; as will appear 
by the Table of Days Works. 

In the account of my laft voyage *, I remarked, that the 
currents one meets with in this pafTage generally balance 
each other. It happened fo then ; becaufe we crofted the 
line about 20° more to the Eaftward than we did now ; fo 
that we were, of confequence, longer under the infltience 
of the Eafterly current, which made up for the Wefterly one. 

* Captain Cook's Voyage, Vol. I. p. 14. 




And this, I apprehend, will generally be the cafe, if you '776. 
crofs the line 10° or 13° to the Eafl of the meridian of St. 

From thefe remarks I fliall draw the following conclufion, 
That, after paffing the Cape de Verde Ifland, if you do not 
make above 4° or 5° Eafling, and crofs the line in, or to the 
Weilward of, the meridian of St. Jago, you may expect to 
find your fhip 3° or 4° to the Weflward of her reckoning, by 
the time you get into the latitude of 10° South. If, on the 
other hand, you keep well to the Eaft, and crofs the line 
if or 20° to the Eaft of St. Jago, you will be then as much 
to the Eaft of your reckoning ; and the more you keep to 
the Eaftward, the greater will be your error; as has been 
experienced by fome India Ihips, whofe people have found 
themfelves clofe upon the coaft of Angola, when they 
thought its diftance was above two hundred leagues. 

During the whole of our pafTage from England, no op- 
portunity was omitted of obferving, with all the attention 
and" accuracy that circumftances would permit, the variation 
of the compafs, which I have infer ted in a Table, with the 
latitude and longitude of the fhip at the time of obfervation. 
As the longitude may be depended upon, to a quarter or 
half a degree at moft, this Table will be of ufe to thofe na- 
vigators who corre(5l their reckoning by the variation. It 
will alfo enable Mr. Dun to corred his new Variation Chart, 
a thing very much wanted. 

It feems ftrange to me, that the advocates for the varia- 
tion lliould not agree amongft themfelves. We find one * of 
them telling us, as I have already obferved, that ivith ^° Weji 
yarlation^ or any thing above that, you may venture to fail by the 

* Nichelfon, 

Vol. I. H . Cape 


1776. Cape de Verde J/lands, by nwht or day, bem^ ivell afjurcd, with that 

November. -' . . *' " ' /• , . . 

'variation, that you are to the Eajlivard oj them. Another, in his 
Chart *, lays down this variation ninety leagues to the 
Weftward of them. Such a difagreement as this, is a ftrong 
proof of the uncertainty of both. However, I have no 
doubt, the former found here, as well as in other places, 
the variation he mentions. But he fliould have confidered, 
that at fea, nay even on land, the refults of the moil: accu- 
rate obfervations will not always be the fame. Different 
compaffes will give different variations ; and even the fame 
compafs will differ from itfelf two degrees, without our be- 
ing able to difcover, much lefs to remove, the caufe. 

Whoever imagines he can find the variation within a 
degree, will very often fee himfelf much deceived. For, 
befides the imperfe6lion which may be in the conftrudion 
of the inflrument, or in the power of the needle, it is cer- 
tain that the motion of the fhip, or attracftion of the iron- 
work, or feme other caufe not yet difcovered, will frequently 
occafion far greater errors than this. That the variation 
may be found, with a fhare of accuracy more than fufficient 
to determine the fliip's courfe, is allowed ; but that it can 
be found fo exacftly as to fix the longitude within a degree, 
or fixty miles, I abfolutely deny. 

* Mr. Dun. 



T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. si 


T/je two Ships leave the Cape of Good Hope. — Taw IJlands^ 
naffied Pri?ice Edward's^ Jeen^ and their Appearance 
defcrthed. — Kerguelens La?jd vifited. — Arrival in 
Chrijlmas Harbour. — Occurrences there. — Defer iptjon 
of it. 

l FTER the d i fa fie r which happened to onr fheep, it ,776 

may be well fuppofed I did not truft thofe that re- 
mained, long on (hore ; but got them, and the other cattle, 
on board as faft as poffiblc. I alfo added to my original 
flock, by purchafing two young bulls, two heifers, two 
young flone-horfes, two mares, two rams, feveral ewes and 
goats, and fome rabbits and poultry. All of them were in- 
tended for New Zealand, Otaheite, and the neighbouring 
iilands, or any other places, in the courfe of our voyage, 
where there might be a profpe^t that the leaving any of 
them would be ufeful to poflerity. 

Towards the latter end of November, the caulkers had 
finiflicd their work on board the Difcovery, and flie had re- 
ceived all her provificns and water. Of the former, both 
fhips had a fupply fufHcient for two years and upwards. 
And every other article we could think of, necefTary for fuch 
a voyage, that could be had at the Cape, was procured ; 
neither knowing when, nor where, we might come to a 
place where we could fiu-nifli ourfelves fo well. 

n 2 Having 



i?'^- Havins: q;'iven Captain Gierke a copy of my inftruc^ions, 

November. i ,- o- ,- i j • r c r 

< ^..1 and an order directing him now to proceed in cale or Icpa- 

Saturday 30. ration ; in the morning of the 30th, we repaired on board. 
At five in the afternoon a breeze fprung up at South Eaft, 
with which we weighed, and flood out of the bay. At nine 
ic fell calm, and we anchored between Penguin Ifland and 
the Eafl fhore, where we lay till three o'clock next morn- 
ing. We then weighed and put to fea, with a light breeze 
at South; but did not get clear of the land till the morning 
of the 3d, when, with a frefh gale at Weft North Weft, we 
flood to the South Eaft, to get more into the way of thefe 

Sunday I. 

Tuefday 3. 


Friday 6. 

Thurfday I 2. 

On the 5th, a fudden fquall of wind carried away the 
Refolution's mizen top-maft. Having another to replace it, 
the lofs was not fek ; efpecially as it was a bad ftick, and 
had often complained. On the 6th, in the evening, being 
then in the latitude of 39° 14' South, and in the longitude of 
23° 56' Eafl, we pafTed through feveral fmall fpots of water 
of a reddifli colour. Some of this was taken up ; and it was 
found to abound with a fmall animal, which the micro- 
fcope difcovered to be like a cray-fifli, of a reddifli hue. 

We continued our courfe to the South Eaft, with a very 
ftrong gale from the Weftward, followed by a mountainous 
fea; which made the fhip roll and tumble exceedingly, and 
gave us a great deal of trouble to preferve the cattle we had 
on board. Notwithftanding all our care, feveral goats, efpe- 
cially the males, died ; and fome flieep. This misfortune 
was, in a great meafure, owing to the cold, which we now. 
began moft fenfibly to feel. 

On the 1 2th, at noon, we faw land extending from South 
Eaft by South, to South Eaft by Eaft. Upon a nearer ap- 
4 groach^: 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 53 

proach, we found it to be two iflands. That which lies ^ '7/6. 


moii to the South, and is alfo the largeft, I judged to be 
about fifteen leagues in circuit ; and to be in the latitude of 
46° 53' South, and in the longitude of 37° 46' Eaft. The 
moft Northerly one is about nine leagues in circuit ; and 
lies in the latitude of 46° 40' South, and in 38° 8' Eaft. longi- 
tude. The diftance from the one to the other is about five 

We palled through this channel, at equal diftance from 
both iflands; and could not difcover, with the affiftance of 
our befl: glafles, either tree or flirub on either of them. 
They feemed to have a rocky and bold fliore ; and, except- 
ing the South Eaft: parts, where the land is rather low and 
flat, a furface compofed of barren mountains, which rife to 
a confiderable height, and whofe fummits and fides were 
covered with fnow, which in many places feeraed to be of a 
confiderable depth. The South Eaft parts had a much' 
greater quantity on them than the reftj owing, probably> 
to the Sun ading for a lefs fpace of time on thefe than on' 
the North and North Weft: parts. The ground, where it 
was not hid by the fnow, from the various fliades it exhi- 
bited, may be fuppofed to be covered with mofs, or, per- 
haps, fuch a coarfe grafs as is found in fome parts of Falk- 
land's Iflands. On the North fide of each of the iflands is a- 
detached rock : that near the South ifland is fhaped like a. 
tower, and feemed to be at fome diftance from the fliore. 
As we pafled. along, a quantity of fea-weed was feen, and 
the colour of the water indicated foundings. But there was- 
no appearance of an inlet, unlefs near the rock juft men- 
tioned ; and that, from its fmallnefs, did not promife a good': 





'776; Thefe t\Vo iflands, as alfo four others which lie from nine 

to twelve degrees of longitude more to the Eaft, and nearly 

in the fame latitude, vv'ere difcovered, as I have mentioned in 

my late Voyage *, by Captains Marion du Frefne, and Crozer, 

French Navigators, in January 1772, on their paflTage in two 

iliips from the Cape of Good Hope to the Philippine Iflands. 

As they have no names in the French chart of the Southern 

hemifphere, which Captain Crozet communicated to me in 

1775 -f, I (hall diftinguifh the two we now fuw, by calling 

them Prince Edv/ard's Iflands, after his Majefly's fourth 

fon ; and the other four, by the name of Marion's and 

Crozet''s Iflands, to commemorate their difcoverers. 

We had now, for the moil part, ftrong gales between 
the North and Well, and but very indifferent weather; not 
better, indeed, than we generally have in England in the 
very depth of Winter, though it was now the middle of 
Summer in this hemifphere. Not difcouraged, however, 
by this, after leaving Prince Edward's Iflands, I fliaped our 
courfe to pafs to the Southward of the others, that I might 
get into the latitude of the land difcovered by Monfieur dc 

I had applied to the Chevalier de Borda, whom, as I have 
mentioned, I found at Teneriffc, requcfling, that if he knew 
any thing of the ifland difcovered by Monfieur de Kergue- 
len, between the Cape of Good Hope and New Holland, he 

* Captain Cook's Voyage, Vol. ii. p. 266. Thefe iflands are there faid to be in the 
latitude of 48" South ; that is, two degrees farther South, than what here appears to 
be their real pofition. 

f See Cook's Voyage, as above. Dr. Forflcr, in his obj'crvations made durtiig ihat 
voyage, p. 30, gives us this defcription of the Chart then communicated by iVlonfieiir 
Crozet : that it was publified under the patronage of the Duke de Crcye, by Robert de 
Vaugondy. Captain Coolc tells us lQV>'er in this Chapter, that it was publifhed in 

1773- 5 



would be fo obliG;ine as to communicate it to me. Accord- ^ '776- 

" " - December. 

ingly, jufl before we failed from Santa Cruz bay, he fent 
me the following account of it, 'viz. " That the Pilot of the 
*' BoufTole, who was in the voyage with Monfieur de Ker- 
" giielen, had given him the latitude and longitude of a 
" little ifland, which Monfieur de Kcrguelen called the 
" Ifle of Rendezvous, and which lies not far from the 
*' great ifland which he faw. Latitude of the little ifle, by 
*' feven obfervations, 48" 26' South ; longitude, by feven ob- 
" fcrvations of the diftance of the Sun and Moon, 64° 57' 
*' Eaft from Paris." I was very forry I had not fooner known 
that there v/as on board the frigate at TenerifFe, an officer 
who had been with Monfieur de Kerguelen, efpecially the 
Pilot ; becaufe from him I might have obtained more in- 
tcrefting information about this -land than the fituation 
alone, of which I was not before entirely ignorant*. 


* Captain Cook's proceedings, as related in the remaining part of this Chapter, 
and in the next, being upon a coaft newly dilcovered by the French, it could not but 
be an objedt of his attention to trace the footfteps of the original explorers. But no 
fuperiority of profeflionah fkill, nor diligence in exerting it, could poffibly qualify him 
to do this fuccefsfully, without poiTeffing, at the fame time, full and authentic intelli- 
gence of all that had been performed here by his predeceflbrs in the difcovery. But 
that he was not fo fortunate as to be thus fufficiently inftrudled, will appear from the 
following f'.fts, which the Reader is requefted to attend to, before he proceeds to the 
perufal ofthis part of the Journal. 

How very little was knov/n, with any precifion, about the operations of Kerguelen, 
when Captain Cook failed in I 776, may be inferred from the following paragraph of 
his Inftrudlions : " You are to proceed in fearch of fome idznds/aiii to have been lately 
" feen by the French in the latitude of 48" South, and in the meridian of JVlauri- 
" tins [a]." This was, barely, the amount of the very indefinite and imperfecSt in- 
formation, which Captain Cook himfelf had received from Baron Plettenberg at the 
Cape of Good Hope, in November 1772 [b) ; in the beginning of which year Ker- 
guelen's _^r/? voyage had taken place. 

(a) See the Inftruflions in the Intiodufllon. 
{k) Sec Cartain Cook's Voyage,, Vol, i. p. 16, 





My inftmiflions dire(5ling me to examine it, with a view 
to diicov^r a good harbour, I proceeded in the fearch ; and 


The Captain, on his return homeward. In March 1775, heard, a fecond time, 
fomething about this French difcovery at the Cape, where he met with Monfieur Cro- 
zet, who very obligingly com7nimicated to him a Chart of the Southern Hemifphere, 
wherein were delineated not only his own difcoveries, hut alfo that of Captain Kerguelen {a). 
But what little information that Chart could convey, was ftiil neceiTarily confined to 
the operations of the firft voyage ; the Chart here referred to, having been publiflied 
in France in 1773 ; that is, before any intelligence could poffibjy be conveyed from 
the Southern Hemifphere of the refult of Kerguelen's fecond vifit to this now land^ 
v/hich, we now know, happened towards the clofe of the fame year. 

Of thefe latter operations, the only account (if that can be called an account, wiiich 
conveys no particular information) received by Captain Cook from Monfieur Crozet, 
was, that a later Voyage had been undertaken by the French, under the command of Captain 
Kerguelen, which had ended ?nuch to the difgrace of that commander (^). 

What Crozet had not communicated to our Author, and what we are fure, from a 
variety of circurjiftances, he had never heard of from any other quarter, he milTed an 
opportunity of learning at TenerifFe. He expreffes his being forry, as we have juft 
read, that he did not knoiu fooncr that there was on board the frigate an officer who had 
hrn with Kcrguekn, as he might have obtained from him more inter efling information about 
this land, than its fituation. And, indeed, if he had converfed with that officer, he 
might have obtained information more interefiing than he was aware of; he might have 
learnt that Kerguelen had aflually vifited this Southern land a fecond time, and that 
the little ifle of vifhich he then received the name and pofition from the Chevalier de 
Eorda, was a difcovery of this later voyage. But the account conveyed to him being, 
as the Reader will obferv'e, unaccompanied with any date, or other diflinguifliing cir- 
cumflance, he left Teneriffe, and arrived on the coafts of Kerguelen's Land, under a 
full perfuafion that it had been vifited only once before. And even, with regard to the 
operations of that firfl voyage, he had nothing to guide him, but the very fcanty ma- 
terials afforded to him by Baron Plettenberg and Monfieur Crozet. 

The truth is, the French feem, for fome reafon or other, not -furely founded on the 
importance £)f Kerguelen's difcovery, to have been very fhy of publifhing a full and 
diftindt account cf it. No fuch account had been publiflied while Captain Cook 
lived. Nay, even after the return of hi-8 fhips in 1780, the Gentleman who obligingly 
lent his afliftance to give a view of the prior obfervations of the French, and to con- 
neiTl them on the fame Chart with thofe of our Author, though his aiiuluity in procu- 
ring geographical information can be equalled only by his readinefs in communicating 
it, had not, it fhould feem, been able to procure any materials for that purpofe, but 

(0) See Cook's Voyage, Vol. ii. p. i66^ (i) Ibid. p. 268. 




on the i6th, beinp: then in the latitude of 48° a-;', and in the '776. 

^ • A e 0% a r ■ \ \- j December. 

longitude or 52 Ealt, we law pengums and divers, and / 

rock-weed floating in the fea. We continued to meet with °" ^^ ' • 

more or lefs of thefe every day, as we proceeded to the Eaft- 

ward; and on the 21ft, in the latitude of 48° 27' South, and Saturday zr. 

in the longitude of 65° Eaft, a very large feal was feen. 

We had now much foggy weather, and, as we espedled to 

fall in with the land every hour, our navigation became 

both tedious and dangerous. 

At length, on the 24th, at fix o'clock in the morning, as Tuefday24, 
we were fleering to the Eaftward, the fog clearing away a 
little, we fav/ land *, bearing South South Eafl, which, 


fuch as mark the operations of the firfl: French yoyage ; and even for thefe, he was 
indebted to a MS. drawing. 

But this veil of unnecefTary fecrecy is at length drawn afide. Kerguelen himfelf 
has, very lately, publifhed the Journal of his proceedings in two fucceffive voyages, 
in the years 1772 and 1773 ; and has annexed to his Narrative a Chart of the coafts 
cf this land, as far as he had explored them in both voyages. Monfieur de Pages, 
filfo, much about the fame time, favoured us with another account of the fecond 
voyage, in fomc refpedls fuller than Kerguelen's own, on board whofe fhip he was 
then an officer. 

From thefe fources of authentic information, we are enabled to draw every ne- 
cefTar.y material to correct what is erroneous, and to illuflrate what, otherwife, would 
have remained obfcure, in this part of Captain Cook's Journal. We fhall take occa- 
lion to do this in feparate Notes on the paffages as they occur, and conclude this 
tedious, but, it is hoped, not unneceflary, detail of fads, with one general remark, 
fully expreffive of the difadvantages our Author laboured under. He never faw that 
part of the coafl upon which the French had been in 1772 ; and he never knev/ that 
they had been upon another part of it in 1773, which was the very fcene of his own 
operations. Ccnfequently, what he knew of the forma- voyage, as delineated upon 
Crozet's Chart, only ferved to perplex and miflead his judgment; and his total igno- 
rance of the latter, put it out of his power to compare his own obfervations with thofe 
then made by Kerguelen ; though we, who are better inftrufted, can do this, by tra- 
cing the plaineft marks of coincidence and agreement. 

* Captain Cook was not the original difcovcrer of thefe fmall iflnnds which he 
now fell in with. It is certain that they had been {ten and named by Kerguelen, on 
his fecond voyage, in December 1773. Their pofition, relatively to each other, and 

Vol. I. ' I t« 


^ 1776- upon a nearer approach, we found to be an iiland of confi- 

Decembcr, ' • » ' 

derable height, and about three leagues in circuit *. Soon 
after, we faw another of the fame magnitude, one league 
to the Eaftward-f-; and between thefe two, in the diredtion 
of South Eaft, fome fmaller ones %. In the direction of 
South by Eail ^ Eaft, from the Eaft end of the firft iftand, 
a third § high ifland was feen. At times, as the fog broke 
away, we had the appearance of land over the fmall iflands j 
and I had thoughts of fleering for it, by running in between 
them. But, on drawing nearer, I found this would be a 
dangerous attempt, while the weather continued foggy. 
For if there fhould be no pafTage, or if we fhould meet with 
any fudden danger, it would have been impoflible for us to 
get off; the wind being right a-ftern, and a prodigious fea 
running, that broke on all the fhores in a frightful furf. 
At the fame time, feeing another ifland in the North Eaft 
dire<5lion, and not knowing but that there might be more, 
I judged it prudent to haul off', and wait for clearer weather, 
left we fhould get intangled amongft unknown lands in a 
thick fog. 

We did but juft weather the ifland laft mentioned. It is a 
highround rock, which was named Bligh's Cap. Perhaps 

to the adjoining coafls of tlie greater hml, as reprefented on the annexed Chart, bears 
a ftriking refeiiiblance to Kerguelen's delineation of them ; whofe Chart, however, 
the Public may be affured, was unknown in England till after ours had been engraved. 

* This is the ifle to which Kerguelen gave the Rame of Cray or Crouy. Befides 
delineating it upon his Chart, he has added a particular view of it, exactly corre- 
fponding v/ith C.'.ptaiii Cook's account of its being of confiderabk height. 

f Kerguelen called this IJJe Rilland, after the name of his own fliip. There is alfo 
a particular view of it on the French Chart. 

% The obfervaticns of the French and Englifli navigators agree exadly, as to the 
poliiion of thefe fmaller ides. 

§ The fi(uation of Kerguelen's IJle de Clugny, as marked on his Chart, fhews it to 
be the third high ifland feen by Captain Cook. 




this is the fame that Monfieur de Kerguelen called the Ifle '776- 
of Rendezvous *; but I know nothing that can rendezvous 
at it, but fowls of the air ; for it is certainly inaccefTible to 
every other animal. 

At eleven o'clock the weather began to clear up, and we 
immediately tacked, and fleered in for the land. At noon, we 
had a pretty good obfei-vation, which enabled us to deter- 
mine the latitude of Bligh's Cap, which is the northernmofl 
ifland, to be 48° 29' South, and its longitude 68° 40' Eaft f . 
We paffed it at three o'clock, Handing to the South South 
Eaft, with afrefli gale at Weft. 

Soon after we faw the land, of which we had a faint view 
in the morning; and at four o'clock it extended from South 
Eaft 4- Eaft, to South Weft by South, diHant about four miles. 
The left extreme, which I judged to be the Northern point 
of tliis land called, in the French Chart of the Southern 

* This ifle, or rack, was the Tingle point about which Captain Cook had received 
the leaft information at TenerifFe ; and we may obferve how (agacious he was in tra- 
cing it. What he could only fpeak of as prohahle, a comparifon of his Ciiart with 
that lately publifiied by Kerguelen, proves to be certain ; and if he had even read and 
copied what his predecefl'or in the difcovery fays of it, he could fcarcely have varied his 
account of its (hape. Kerguelen's words are, " Ijle de Reunion, qui n'til qu'une 
' Roche, nous fervoit de Rendezvous, ou de point de ralliement ; & reflemble a un 




coin ae mire. 

f The French and Englifii agree very nearly (as might be expe£teJ) in their ac- 
counts of the latitude of this ifland ; but the obfervations by which they fix its longi- 
tude, vary confiderably. 

The Pilot at TenerifFe made it only 64^ 57' Eaft from Paris, which is about 67" 
16' Eaft from London; or 1° 24' more Wefterly than Captain Cook's obfervations 
fix it. 

Monfieur de Pages fays it is 66° 47' Eaft from Paris, that is 69° 6' Eaft from Lon- 
don, or twenty-llx miles more Eafterly than it is placed by Cr.ptain Cook. 

Kerguelen hlmfelf only fays that it is about 68° of Eaft longitude, par eS"" de longi- 

I 2 Hemifphere, 


December Hemlfphcre, Cape' St. Louis *, terminated in a perpendicu- 
lar rock of a confiderable height j and the right one (near 
which is a detached rock) in a high indented point f. 
From this point the coaft feemed to turn fliort round to. 
the Southward ; for we could fee no land to the Weftward 
of the dire(5lion in which it now bore to us, but the iflands. 
we had obferved in the morning ; the moll Southerly | of 
them lying nearly Weft from the point, about two or three. 
leagues diftant. 

About the middle of the land there appeared to be an 
inlet, for which we fleered ; but, on approaching, found it 
was only a bending in the coaft, and therefore bore up, to 
go round Cape St. Louis §. Soon after, land opened olF the 

* Hitherto, we have only had occafion to fupply defe£ls, owing to Captain Cook's 
<t;ftV? ignorance of Kerguelen's fecond voyage in 1773; we muft now correct errors, 
owing to his very limited knowledge of the operations of the firft voyage in 1772^ 
The Chart of the Southern Hemifphere, his only guide, having given him, as he tells 
us, the name of Cape St. Louis (or Cape Louis) as the moft Northerly promon- 
tory then feen by the French ; and his own obfervations now fatisfying him that 
no part of the main land flretched farther North than the left extreme now before him -^ 
from this fuppofed fimilarity of fituation, he judged that his own perpendicular rock muft 
be the Cape Louis of the firft difcoverers. By looking upon our Chart, we fliall find 
Cape Louis lying upon a very di&rent part of the coaft ; and by comparing this Chart 
with that lately publifhed by Kerguelen, it will appear, in the cleareft manner, that the- 
Northern point now defcribed by Captain Cook, is the very fame to which the Frenclt 
have given the name of Cape Francois. 

f Th\s right extre?ne oi the co?i^, as it now fhewed itfclf to Captain Cook, feems 
to be what is reprefcnted on Kerguelen's Chart under the name of Cape Aubert. It 
may be proper to obferve here, that all that extent of coaft lying between Cape 
Louis and Cape Francois, of which the French faw very little during their firft vifit 
in 1772, and may be called the North Weft fide of this land, they had it in their power 
to trace the pofition of in 1773, and have afiigned names to feme of its bays, rivers, 
and promontories, upon their Chart. 

X Kerguelen's Ifle de Clugny. 

§ Cape Francois, as already obferved, 

9 Cape, 


Cape, in the direaion of South ss" Eaft, and appeared to be a j^^J^Te.^^^ 
point at a confiderable diftauce ; for the trending of the coaft -^ — ,/— » 
from the Cape was more Southerly. We alfo faw feveral 
rocks and iflands to the Eaftward of the above dire(5lions, 
the moft diftant of which was about feven leagues from the 
Cape, bearing South 88° Eaft *. 

We had no fooner got off the Cape, than we obferved the 
coaft, to the Southward, to be much indented by projecfling 
points and bays ; fo that we now made fure of foon finding 
a good harbour. Accordingly, we had not run a mile far- 
ther, before we difcovered one behind the Cape, into which 
we began to ply ; but after making one board, it fell calm, 
and we anchored at the entrance in forty-five fathoms wa- 
ter, the bottom black fand ; as did the Difcovery fOon after. 
I immediately difpatched Mr. Bligh, the Mafter, in a boat 
to found the harbour; who, on his return, reported it to be 
fafe and commodious, with good anchorage in every part; 
and great plenty of frefli water, fcals, penguins, and other 
birds on the fhorc; but not a flick of wood. While we lay 
at anchor, we obferved that the flood tide came from the 
South Eaft, running two knots, at leaft, in an hour. 

At day-break, in the morning of the 25th, we weighed Wednef. 25. 
with a gentle breeze at Weft ; and having wrought into the 
harbour, to within a quarter of a mile of the fandy beach at 
its head, we anchored in eight fathoms water, the bottom 
a fine dark fand. The Difcovery did not get in till two 
o'clock in the afternoon; when Captain Clerke informed ^ 
me, that he had narrowly efcaped being driven on the South 

* The obfervations of the French, round Cape Francois, remarkably coincide 
with Captain Cook's in this paragraph ; and the rocks and iflands here mentioned by 
him, alfo appear upon their Chart. 

; point 



«776. point of the harbour, his anchor having flartcd before they 
had time to fhorten in the cable. This obliged them to fet 
fail, and drag the anchor after them, till they had room to 
heave it up; and then they found one of its palms was 
broken off. 

As foon as we had anchored, I ordered all the boats to be 
hoifted out ; the fliip to be moored with a kedge anchor ; 
and the water- calks to be got ready to fend on fhore. 
In the mean time I landed, to look for the moft convenient 
fpot where they might be filled, and to fee what elfe the 
place afforded. 

I found the fliore, in a manner, covered with penguins 
and other birds, and feais. Thefe latter were not nume- 
rous, but fo infenfible of fear (which plainly indicated that 
they were unaccuftomed to fuch vifiters), that we killed as 
many as we chofe, for the fake of their fat or blubber, to 
make oil for our lamps, and other ufes. Frefli water was 
in no lefs plenty than were birds; for every gully afforded 
a large iheam. But not a fmgle tree or flarub, nor the lead 
fign of any, was to be difcovered, and but very little herb- 
age of any fort. The appearances, as we failed into the 
harbour, had flattered us with the hope of meeting with 
fomething confiderable growing here, as we obferved the 
fides of many of the hills to be of a lively green. But I now 
found that this was occafioned by a fingle plant, which, 
with the other natural produdtions, fhall be defcribed in 
another place. Before I returned to my fliip, I afcended 
the firfl ridge of rocks, which rife in a kind of amphithe- 
atre above one another. I was in hopes, by this means, of 
obtaining a view of the country; but before I reached the 
top, there came on fo thick a fog, that I could hardly find 

, 3 ""'y 


my way down again. In the evening, we hauled the feine jy^[ll^^^^ 

at the head of the harbour, but caught only half a dozen ' ' 

fmall fifh. We had no better fuccefs next day, when we 
tried with hook and line. So that our only refource here, 
for frefh provifions, were birds, of which there was an in- 
exhauftible iiore. 

The morning of the 26th proved foggy, with rain. How- ThurfdayzS. 
ever, we went to work to fill water, and to cut grafs for our 
cattle, which we found in fmall fpots near the head of the 
harbour. The rain which fell, fwelled all the rivulets to 
fuch a degree, that the fides of the hills, bounding the har- 
bour, feenied to be covered with a fheet of water. For the 
rain, as it fell, run into the fifTures and crags of the rocks 
that compoied the interior parts of the hills, and was preci- 
pitated down their fides in prodigious torrents. 

The people having wrought hard the two preceding days, 
and nearly completed our water, which v^e filled from a 
brook at the left corner of the beach, I allowed them the 
27th as a day of reft, to celebrate Chriflmas. Upon this in- i-rldaya;, 
dulgence, many of them went on fhore, and made excur- 
fions, in different directions, into the country, which they 
found barren and defolate in the higheft degree. In the ^ 
evening, one of them brought to me a quart bottle which 
he had found, faftened with fome wire to a proje(5ting rock 
on the North fide of the harbour. This bottle contained a 
piece of parchment, on which was written the following 
infcripticn : 



December. Ludov'tco XF GalliaTum 

regBy et d, * de Boynes 
regi a Secretis ad res 
maritimas annh i'j']2 et 

From this infcription, it is clear, that we were not the firft 
Europeans who had been in this harbour. I fuppofed it to 
be left by Monfieur de Boifguehenneu, who went on fhore 
in a boat on the 13th of February 1772, the fame day that 
Monfieur de Kerguelen difcovered this land ; as appears by 
a Note in the French Chart of the Southern Hemifphere, 
publifhed the following year f- 


■•* The (d), no doubt is a contradlion of the word Domino. The French Secre- 
tary of the Marine was then Monfieur de Boynes. 

t On perufing this paragraph of the Journal, it will be natural to aflc, How could 
Monfieur de Boifguehenneu, in the beginning of 1772, leave an infcription, which, 
upon the very face of it, commemorates a tranfadion of the following year ? Captain 
Cook's manner of exprefling himfelf here, ftrongly marks, that he made this fiippofi- 
lion, only for want of information to enable him to make any other. He had no 
idea that the French had vifued this land a fecond time; and, reduced to the necelTity 
of trying to accommodate what he faw himfelf, to what little he had heard of their 
proceedings, he confounds a tranfadlion which we, who have been better inftrucSled, 
inow, for a certainty, belongs to the fecond Voyage, with a funilar one, which his 
Chart of the Southern Hemifphere has recordedj and which happened in a different 
year, and at a different place. 

The bay, indeed, .in which Monfieur de Boifguehenneu landed, is upon the Weft 
fide of this land, confiderably to the South of Cape Louis, and not far from another 
more Southerly promontory, called Cape Bourboji ; a part of the coaft which our fliips 
were not upon. Its fituation is marked upon our Chart ; and a particular view of the 
bay (hi Lion Marin (for fo Boifguehenneu called it), with the foundings, is preferved 
.by Kerguelen. 

But if the bottle and infcription found by Captain Cook's people, were not left here 
•by Boilguehenneu, by whom and when were they left ? This v/e learn inoft fatif- 
faclorily, from the accounts of Kerguelen's fecond Voyage, as publiflied by himfelf and 
Monfieur de Pages, which prefent us with the following particulars : That they arrived 
on the Weft fide of this land on the 14th of December 1773; that, fleering to the 
* North 


As a memorial of our having; been in this harbour, I ^ ^''!^- 
wrote on the other fide of the parchment, « — -v — ^ 

North Eaft, they difcovered, on the 36th, the Ijl' de Remiion, and the other fmall 
iflands as mentioned abo\e ; that, oh the 17th, they had before them the principal 
land (which they were fure v/as connecled with that feen by them on the 14th), 
and a high point of that land, named by them Ca_pe Francois; that- beyond tliis 
Cape, the coaft took a South Eafterly direftion, and behind it they found a bay, callc! 
by them liaie de I'Oifeaii, from the name of their frigate ; that they then endeavoured 
to enter it, but were prevented hy contrary v/inds ar.d blowing weather, which drove 
them off the coaft Eaftward ; but that, at laft, on the 6th of January, Rlonheur de Rof- 
nevet. Captain of the Oifeau, was able to fend his boat on flioreinto this bav, under the 
command of Monfieur de Rochegude, one of his officers, who took pojpffion of that hays 
cmd of all the coutitij, in the name of the King of France, with ail the reqiiifite formalities." 

Here then we trace, by the moft unexceptionable evidence, the hiftory of the bottle 
and infcription ; the leaving of which was, no doubt, one of the reqiiifite formalities 
obferved by Monfieur de Rochegude on this occafion. And though he did net land till 
the 6th of January 1774, yet, as Kerguelen's Ihips arrived upon the coaft on the 14th 
of December 1773, and had difcovered and looked into this very bay on the 17th of 
of that month, it was with the ftrideft propriety and truth that 1773, and not 1774, 
was mentioned as the date of the difcovery. 

We need only look at Kerguelen's and Cook's Charts, to judge that the Bale de 
rDtfeau, and the harbour where the French infcription was found, is one and the 
iame place. But befides this agreement as to the general pofition, the fame conclu- 
iion refults more decifively ftill, from another circumftance v/orth mentioning: The 
French, as well as the Englifh vifiters of this bay and harbour, have given us a par- 
ticular Plan of it ; and v/hoever cempaves ours, ptiMiflied in this Volume, with 
that to be met with in Kerguelen's and de Pages's Voyages, muft be ftruck with a 
refemblance that could only be produced by copying one common original with fide- 
lity. Nay, even the foundings are the fame upon the fame fpots in both Plans, 
being forty-five fathoms betrween the two Capes, before the entrance of the bay ; fixtecn 
fathoms farther in, where the fhores begin to contradtj and eight fathoms up, near thi 
bottom of the harbour. 

To thefe particulars, which throw abundant light on this part of our Author's 
Journal, I ftinll only add, that the diftance of our harbour from that where Boifgtie- 
henneu landed in 1772, is forty leagues. For this we have the authority of Ker- 
guclen, in the following pafllige : " Monfieur de Boifguehenneu defcendit le 13 de- 
" Fevrier 1772, dans un baie, qu'il nomme Bale du Lion Mnrin, k prit pofleflion 
« de cette terre au nom de Roi ; H n'y vit aucuiie trace d'habitants. Monfieur de 
" Rochegude, en 1774, a defcendu dans un autre baie, que nous avons nomme 
" J^aie de_ I'Oifeau, & cette feconde rade eft a quarantes lieues de la premiere. 
" 11 en a egaleme.nt pris pofl'effion, & il n'y trouva egalem.cnt aucui;e trace d'habitants." 
Kergi/elen, p. 02. 


December. NaVBS Refolution 

^ ' ' et Difcovery 

de Rege Magjice Br'itajima;^ 
Decembris lyjh, 

I then put it again into a bottle, together with a filver two- 
penny piece of 1772; and having covered the mouth of the 
Saturday 28. bottlc with a leaden cap, I placed it, the next morning, in 
a pile of Hones erected for the purpofe, upon a little emi- 
nence on the North fliore of the harbour, and near to the 
place where it was firil found ; in which pofition it cannot 
efcape the notice of any European, whom chance or defign 
may bring into this port. Here I difplayed the Britifli flag, 
and named the place Chrijlmas Harbour, from our having ar- 
rived in it on that feRival. 

It is the firfl, or nonhernmoft inlet that we meet with on 
the South Eaft fide of Cape St. Louis *, which forms the 
North fide of the harbour, and is alfo the Northern point of 
this land. The fituation alone is fufiicient to didinguifli it 
from any of the other inlets ; and, to make it more remark- 
able, its South point terminates in a high rock, which is 
perforated quite through, fo as to appear like the arch of a 
bridge. We faw none like this upon tlie whole coafl f-. The 
harbour has another dilUnguifliing mark within, from a 


* Cape Francois, for reafons already affigned. 

f If there could be the lead doubt remaining of the identity of the Baie de I'Oifeau, 
and ChrifliTias harbour, the ciicumftance of the perforated rock, which divides it from 
another bay to the South, would amount to a ftrift demonftration. For Monfieur de 
Pages had obferved this difci iminating mark before Captain Cook. His words are as 
fol!o'.vs : " L'on vit que la cote de I'Efl, voifine du Cap Francois, avoit deuxbaies ; 
•♦ elles etoient feparees par une pointe tres reconnciflable par fa forme, qui reprefcntoit 
•' une forte cochere, au travers de laquclle Von voyoit lejour," Voyages du M. de Pace's, 
Vol. ii. p. 67. Lvery one knows how exactly the form of a forte cochere, or arched 



Cngle flonc or rock, of a vaft fize, which lies on the top of ^ "776- 

. * December. 

a hill on the South lide, near its bottom ; and oppofite « — -v— j 
this, on the North fide, there is another hill, much like it, 
but fmuller. There is a fmall beach at its bottom, where 
we commonly landed ; and, behind it, fome gently rifing 
ground; on the top of which is a large pool of frefh water. 
The land on both fides of the inlet is high, and it runs in 
Weft, and Wefl North Weft, about two miles. Its breadth 
is one mile and a quarter, for more than half its length ; 
above which, it is only half a mile. The depth of water, 
which is forty-five fathoms at the entrance, varies, as we 
proceed farther in, from thirty, to five and four fathoms, 
as marked upon the Plan. The fhores are fteepi and the 
bottom is every where a fine dark fand, except in fome 
places clofe to the fhore, where there are beds of fea-weed, 
which always grows on rocky ground. The head of the 
harbour lies open only to two points of the compafs ; and 
even thefe are covered by iflands in the offing, fo that no 
fea can fall in to hurt a fhip. The appearances on fliore 
confirmed this j for we found grafs growing clofe to high- 
water mark, which is a fure fign of a pacific harbour *. 


gateway, correfponds with that of the arch of a bridge. It is very fatisfadory to find 
the two navigators, neither of whom knew any thing of the other's defcription, 
adopting the fame idea ; which both proves that they had the fame uncommon objeit 
before their eyes, and that they made an accurate report. 

* In the laft Note, we faw how remarkably Monfieur de Pages and Captain Ceok 
agree about the appearance of the South Point of the harbour ; I fliall here fubjoin 
another quotation from the former, containing his account of the harbour itfelf, in 
which the Reader may trace the fame diflinguifhing features obferved by Captain Cook 
in the foregoing paragraph, 

" Le 6, Pon mit a terre dans la premiere baie a PEfl: dii Cap Francois, h Pon prit 
*' poiTefTion de ces contrces. Ce mouiUage confifte en un petite rade, qui a environs 
*' quatres encablures, ou quatre cents toifes de profondeur, fur un tiers en fus de lar- 

K 2 " geur. 

68 " A V O Y A G E T O 

'^■'r^^- It is high-water here, at the full and change days, about teH' 
o'clock J and the tide rifes and fails about four feet. 


After I had finiflied this bufinefs of the infcription, I 
went in my boat round the harbour, and landed in feveral 
places, to examine what the fliore afforded ; and, particu- 
Jarly, to look, for drift wood. For, although the land here 
was totally dciUtute of trees, this might not be the cafe in 
other parts ; and if there were any, the torrents would force 
Ibme, or, at leafl, fome branches, into the fea, which would 
afterward throw them upon the fliores ; as in all other 
countries where there is wood, and in many where there 
is none : but, throughout the whole e;stent of the harbour, 
I found, not a fmgie piece. 

In the afternoon, I went upon Cape St. Louis-*, accompa- 
nied by. Mr. King, my Second Lieutenant. I was in hopes, 
from this elevation, to have had a view of the fea^coafl, and 
of the illands lying off. it. But, when I got up, I found 
every dillant objedt below me hid in a thick fog. The 
land on. the fame plain, or of a greater height, was vifible 
cnough>^ and appeared naked and defolate in the highed 

" geur. En dedans de cette rade eft un petit port, dont I'entree, de quatres enca- 
" blures de largeur, prefente au Sud-Eft. La fonde de la petite rade eft depuis qua- 
" rante-cinq jiifqu'a trente braftes ; et ccUe du port depuis feize jufqu'a huit. Le 
«' fond des deux eft de fable noir et vafeux. La cote des deiix bords eft haute, & par 
"■ une peiite trcS rud^; elle eft couverte de verdure, &: il y a une quantite prodigieufe 
" d'Outardcs. Le fond du port eft occupe par un monticule qui hi/Te entre lui, et 
" la mer une plage de fable. Une petite riviere, de tres bonne eau, coule a la mer 
" dans cat endrok; & elle eft fournie par un lac qui eft un peu au loin, au defius du 
" monticule. II y avoit fur le plage beaucoup de pinguoins ic de lions marins. Ces 
" deux efpeces d'animaux ne fuyoient pas, & i-on au^ura que le pays n'etoit point 
" habite ; la terre rapportoitde I'herbe large, noire,- & bien nourrie, qui n'avoit ce- 
" pendant que cinque pouces ou plus de hauteur. L'on ne vit aucun arbre> nL figne 
" d'habitation." Voyage du Adcnftcur de Pa^es, Tom. ii. p. 69, 70. 
* Cape Erancois,^ 

degree j 


decree; except fome hills to the Southward, which were ^^77^- 

" . ' December. 

covered with fnow. « y— —^ 

When I got on board, I found the launch hoiiled in, the 
Ihips unmoored, and ready to put to fea; but our failing 
was deferred till five o'clock the next morning, when we Sunday zy; 
weighed anchor. 


70 A V O Y A G E T O 


Departure fro7?i Chrijlmas Harbour. — Range along the 
CoaJ}j to difcover its Pofit'ton and Extent. — Several 
Promcntorjes and Bays.^ and a Peninfula, defcribed and 
namea. — Danger front Shoals. — Another Harbour and 
a Sound. — Mr, Anderfons Obfervations on the natural 
Prcdu&ionSj Afiimals.^ Soil, &'c, of Kerguehfi s La?2d. 

J?76- A S foon as the fhips were out of Chriftmas Harbour, we 

-," — ^ l\ fleered South Eaft 4. South, along the coaft, with a 

Sun ny29. ^j-^g bj-gg^e at North North Weft, and clear weather. This 
we thought the more fortunate, as, for fome time paft, fogs 
had prevailed, more or lefs, every day; and the continu- 
ance of them would have defeated our plan of extending 
Kerguelen's difcovery. We kept the lead conflantly going ; 
but feldom flruck ground with a line of fifty or fixty 

About feven or eight o'clock, we were off a promontory, 
which I called Cape Cumberland. It lies a league and a 
half from the South point of Chriftraas Harbour, in the 
dire(5lion of South Eaft 4, South. Between them is a bay 
with two arras, both of which feemed to afford good fhelter 
for Shipping. Off Cape Cumberland is a fmall but pretty 
high iftand, on the fummit of whTch is a rock like a fen- 
try-box, which occafioned our giving that name to the 
iiland. Two miles farther to the Eaftward, lies a groupe of 



fmall iflands and rocks, with broken ground about them : '776- 

r M 1 -I 1 /- , „ December. 

we laUed between thefe and Sentry-Box Ifland, the chan- 
nel being a full mile broad, and more than forty fathoms 
deep } for we found no bottom with that length of line. 

ffeing through this channel, we difcovered, on the South 
fide of Cape Cumberland, a bay, running in three leagues to 
the Weftward. It is formed by this Cape to the North, and 
by a promontory to the South, which I named Point Pringle, 
after my good friend Sir John Pringle, Prefidcnt of the Royal 
Society. The bottom of this bay was called Cumberland 
Bay; and it feemed to be disjoined from the fea, which 
waflies the North Weft coaft of this country, by a narrow 
neck of land. Appearances, at leaft, favoured fuch a con- 

To the Southward of Point Pringle, the coaft is formed 
into a fifth bay; of which this point is the Northern ex- 
treme ; and from it, to the Southern extreme, is about four 
miles in the direction of South Sofith Eaft 4 Eaft. In this 
bay, which obtained the Name of White Bay, on account of 
fome white fpots of land or rocks in the bottom of ir, are 
feveral lefler bays or coves, which feemed to be fhehered 
from all winds. Off the South point, are feveral rocks 
which raife their heads above water ; and, probably, many 
more that do not. 

Thus far our courfe v.'as in a direcftion parallel to the 
coaft, and nor more than two miles from it. Thither our 
glafles were continually poinicd; and we could eafily fee 
that, except the bottoms of the bays and coves, which, for 
the nioft part, terminated in fandy beaches, the fhores were 
rocky, and, in many places, fwarmed with birds ; but the 
7 country 


1776- country had the fame barren and naked appearance as in 

December. ^ •' ^ ^ 

t . ' the neighbourhood of Chriftmas Harbour. 

We had kept on our larboard bow, the hmd which firll 
opened off Cape St. Louis *, in the dire(5lion of South 53° Eait, 
thinking that it was an ifland, and that we fliould find a paf- 
fage betv/een it and the main. We now difcovered this to be 
a miftake ; and found that it was a peninfula, joined to the 
refl of t!ie coait by a low iUhmus. I called the bay, formed 
by this peninfula, Repulfe Bay; and a branch of it feemed 
to run a good way inland towards the South South Weft. 
Leaving this, wc fteered for the Northern point of the penin- 
fula, which we named Howe's Foreland, in honour of Ad- 
Kiiral Lord Howe. 

As we drew near it, we perceived fome rocks and breakers 
near the North Weft part; and two iflands a league and a 
half to the Eaftward of it, which, at firft, appeared as one. 
I ileered between them and the Foreland -f , and was in the 
middle of the channel by noon. At that time our latitude, 
by obfervation, was 48° 51' South ; and we had made twenty- 
fix miles of Eaft longitude from Cape St. Louis X- 

From this fimation, the moft advanced land to the South- 
ward bore South Eaft ; but the trending of the coaft from 
the Foreland was more Southerly. The iflands which lie 

* Cape Francois. 

t Though KerguelerTs fhips, in 1773, diJ not venture to explore this part of tlic 
CGail, JVIonficur de Pages's account of it anfwers well to Captain Cook's. " Du 17 
" 3u 23, Ton ne pritd'autre connoiflance que celle de la figure de la cote, qui, courant 
" d'abord au Sud-Eft, & revenant enfuite au Nord-Eft, formoit un grand golfe. II 
" etoit occupe par des brifans & des rcch:;rs ; il avoit aufli une iflc bafiie, & afTc/, 
" etendue, & Ton ufa d'une bien foigneufe precaution, pour ne pas s'affaler d^ns ce 
" golfe." Vcynge du M. dc Pa^es, Tom. ii. p. 67. 

^ Cape Francois. 

8 .. ofF 


off Chriftmas Harbour bore North; and the North point of ^'776. 

* December. 

the Foreland, North 60° Weft, diftant three miles. The land 
of this Peninfula, or Foreland, is of a moderate height, and 
of a hilly and rocky fubftance. The coaft is low, with 
rocky points fliooting out from it ; between which points 
are little coves, with fandy beaches ; and thefe, at this time, 
were moftly covered with fea birds. We alfo faw upon 
them fome feals. 

As foon as we were clear of the rocks and iflands before 
mentioned, I gave orders to fteer South Eaft by South, along 
the coaft. But before thefe orders could be carried into ex- 
ecution, we difcovered the whole fea before us to be che- 
quered with large beds of rock- weed, which we knew to be 
faft to the bottom, and to grow on rocky fhoals. I had 
often found a great depth of water on fuch Ihoals ; and I 
had, as often, found rocks that have raifed their heads 
nearly to the furface of the water. It is always dangerous, 
therefore, to fail over them before they are well esamined ; 
but more efpecially, when there is no furge of the fea to 
difcover the danger. This was the cafe at prefent, for the 
fea was as fmooth as a mill-pond. Confequently we endea- 
voured to avoid them, by fleering through the winding 
channels by which they were feparated. We kept the lead 
continually going; but never ftruck ground with a line of 
fixty fathoms. This circumftance increafed the danger, as 
we could not anchor, whatever neceflity there might be for 
it. After running in this manner above an hour, \ye difco- 
vered a lurking rock, juft even with the furface of the fea. 
It bore North Eaft i Eaft, diftant three or four miles, and 
lay in the middle of one of thefe large beds of weeds. This 
was a fufficient warning to make us ufe every precaution to 
prevent our coming upon them. 
Vol. I. L We 


December ^^^ ^^^^ "°^ ^^°^^ ^^^ mouth of a large bay, that lies 

'— V ' about eight miles to the Southward of Howe's Foreland. In 

and before the entrance of this bay are feveral low iflands, 
rocks, and thofe beds of fea-wee'd. But there feemed to be 
winding channels between them. After continuing our 
courfe half an hour longer, we were fo much embarrafTed 
with thefe flioals, that I refolved to haul off to the Eafl- 
ward, as the likeliell means of extricating ourfelves from 
the danger that threatened us. But fo far was this from 
anfwering the intended purpofe, that it brought us into 
more. I therefore found it abfolurely neceflary to fecure 
the fliips, if poffible, in fome place before night ; efpecially 
as the weather had now become hazy, and a fog was ap- 
prehended. And feeing fome inlets to the South VVeft of 
us, I ordered Captain Gierke, as the Difcovery drew lefs- 
water than the Refolution, to lead in for the fliore ; which 
was accordingly done. 

In Handing in, it was not poflible to avoid running over 
the edges of fome of the fhoals, on which we found from 
ten to twenty fathoms water ; and the moment we were 
over, had no ground at the depth of fifty fathoms. After 
making a few boards to weather a fpit that run out from 
an iiland on our lee, Captain Gierke made the fignal for 
having difcovered an harbour ; in which, about five o'clock^ 
we anchored in fifteen fathoms water, over a bottom of fine 
dark fand, about three quarters of a mile from the fliore; 
the North point of the harbour bearing North by Eaft 4- Eafl, 
one mile diftant ; and the fmall iflands in the entrance, 
within which we anchored, extending from Eaft to South 

Scarcely were the fliips fecured, when it began to blow 

very flrong; fo that we thought it prudent to llrike top- 

7 gallant 


srallant yards. The weather, hov/ever, continued fair ; and _ '776- 

o J ' ' ' _ December. 

the wind difpcrfmg the fog that had fettled on the hills, it 
was tolerably clear alfo. The moment, therefore, we had 
anchored, I hoiifed out two boats ; in one of which I fent 
Mr. Bligh, the Mafter, to furvey the upper-part of the har- 
bour, and look for v/ood ; for not a flirub was to be feen 
from the fliip. I alfo defired Captain Gierke to fend his 
Mailer to found the channel that is on the South fide of the 
fmall ifles, between them and a pretty large ifland which 
lies near the South point of the harbour. Having given 
thefe directions, I went myfelf, in my other boat, accompa- 
nied by Mr. Gore, my firft Lieutenant, and Mr. Baily, and 
landed on the North point, to fee what 1 could difcover from 

From the higheft hill over the point, we had a pretty good 
view of the fea-coaft, as far as Howe's Foreland.' It is 
much indented, and feveral rocky points feemed to flioot 
out from it, with coves and inlets of unequal extent. One 
of the latter, the end of which I could , not fee, was dif- 
joined from that in which the fhips were at anchor, by the 
point we then flood upon. A great many fmall illands, 
rocks, and breakers appeared fcattered along the coaft, as 
well to the Southward as Northward ; and I faw no better 
channel to get out of the harbour, than by the one through 
which we had entered it. 

While Mr. Baily and I were making the obfervations, Mr. 
Gore encompafTed tlie hill ; and joined us by a different 
route, at the place where I had ordered the boat to wait for 
us. Except the craggy precipices, we met with nothing to 
obilru6l our walk. For the country was, if pofTiblc, more 
barren and defolate than about ChriRiuas Harbour. And 

L 2 yet, 


1776- yet, if there be the leafl fertihty in any part of this land, 

December. ^ ' .... 

V— — V — ' we ought to have found it in this, which is completely 
fheltered from the predominating bleak Southerly and 
Wefterly winds. I obferved, with regret, that there was 
neither food nor covering for cattle of any fort; and that, if 
I left any, they mull inevitably perifli. In the little cove 
where the boat waited for us (which I called Penguin Cove, 
as the beach was covered with thefe birds), is a fine rivulet 
of frefla water, that may be eafdy come at. Here were alfo 
fome large feals, Ihags, and a fev/ ducks ; and Mr. Baily 
had a tranfient fight of a very fraall land bird ; but it flew 
amongft the rocks, and we loft it. About nine o'clock we 
got on board. 

Soon after, Mr. Bligh returned, and reported, that he had 
been four miles up the harbour, and, as he judged, not far 
from the head of it. He found that its direction v*ras Weft 
South Weft; and that its breadth, a little above thefhips, did 
not exceed a mile ; but grew narrower towards the head. 
The foundings were very irregular, being from thirty-feven 
to ten fathoms ; and, except under the beds of fea-weed, 
which in many places extended from the fhore near half 
channel over, the bottom vv'as a fine fand. He landed on 
both fhores, which he found barren and rocky, without the 
leaft figns of tree or flirub, and with very little verdure af 
any kind. Penguins, and other oceanic birds and feals, oc- 
cupied part of the coaft; but not in fuch numbers as at 
Chriftmas Harbour. 

Finding no encouragement to continue our refearches, 
Monday 30. and, thc next morning, both wind and weather being fa- 
vourable, I weighed anchor and put to fea. To this harbour 
I gave the name of Port Pallifer, in honour of my worthy 




friend Admiral Sir Husrh Pallifer. It is fituated in the lati- ^ '77*5 

o Ijecemr 

tude of 49° 3' South, in the longitude of 69" 37' Eaft, and 
five leagues from Howe's Foreland, in the diredtion of South 
25° Eaft. There are feveral iflands, rocks, and breakers 
lying in and without the entrance, for which the annexed 
Chart of the coaft, and fketch of the harbour, may be con- 
fulted. We went in and out between them and the North 
head ; but I have no doubt that there are other channels. 

As we were {landing out of Port Pallifer, we difcovered a 
round hill, like a fugar-loaf, in the diredtion of South 72° 
Eaft, about nine leagues diftant. It had the appearance of 
an ifland lying at fome diftance fi'om the coaft; but we 
afterwards found it was upon the main land. In getting 
out to fea, we had to fteer through the winding channels 
amongft the faoals. However, we ventured to run over 
fome of them, on which we never found lefs than eighteen 
fathoms, and often did not ftrike ground with twenty- four; 
fo that, had it not been for the fea-weed growing upon all 
of them, they would not have been difcovered. 

After we had got about three or four leagues from the 
coaft, we found a clear Tea, and then fteered Eaft till nine 
o'clock, when the Sugar Loaf hill, above mentioned, which 
I named Mount Campbell, bore South Eaft, and a fmall 
ifland that lies to the Northward of ir. South South Eaft, 
diftant four leagues. I now fteered more Southerly, in or- 
der to get in with the land. At noon, the latitude by double 
altitudes was 49° 8' South; and we had made eighty miles, 
of Eaft longitude from Cape Sr. Louis*. xMount Campbell 
bore South 47° Weft, diftant about four leagues ; a low 
point, beyond which no land was to be feen, bore Souih 

* Cape Francois. 



'776. South Eafl, at the diflance of about twenty miles; and we 

December. - 

' ^ — ' were about two leagues from the more. 

The land here is low and level *. The mountains ending 
about five leagues from the low point, a great extent of low 
land is left, on which Mount Campbell is fituated, about 
four miles from the foot of the mountains, and one from 
the fea coaft. Thefe mountains have a confiderable eleva- 
tion, as alfo moft of the inland ones. They feemed to be 
compofed of naked rocks, whofe fummits Were capt with 
fnow. Nor did the valleys appear to greater advantage. 
To v.'hatever quarter we direcfted our glafles, nothing but 
flerility was to be feen. 

We had fcarcely finifhed taking the bearings at noon, 
before we obferved low land opening off the low point jufl: 
mentioned, in the diredion of South South Eaft, and eight 
miles beyond it. This new point proved to be the very 
Eaftern extremity of this land, and it was named Cape 
Digby. It is fituated in the latitude of 49' 23' South, and in 
the longitude of 70° 34' Eaft. 

Between Hov^e's Foreland and Cape Digby, the fliore 
forms (befides the feveral lelFer bays and harbours) one 
• great bay that extends feveral leagues to the South Weft, 
where it feemed to lofe itfelf in various arms running in 
between t'le mountains. A prodigious quantity of fea- 
weed grows all over it, which feemed to be the fame fort of 
weed that Mr. Banks diftinguiihed by the name of fiicus 

'* This part of the coaft feems to be what the French faw on the 5th of January 
Vl-iif Monfieur de Pages fpealis of it thus : " Nous reconnumes une nouvelle cote 
" etendue de toute veu dans I'Eil, & dans le Oueft. Les terres de cette cote etoient 
■•' moins elevees que celles que nous avions veues jufques ici; elles etoient aufli d'un 
" afped moins rude." De Pages, Tom. ii. p. 68. 



giganteiis *. Some of this weed is of a mod enormous length, 1776. 

T I 1 n • ■,■,■■.■, December. 

though the item is not much thicker than a man's thumb. 
I have mentioned, that on fome of the flaoals upon which it 
grows, we did not ftrike ground with a line of twenty-four 
fathoms. The depth of water, therefore, mufl have been 
greater. And as this weed does not grow in a perpendicu- 
lar diredlion, but makes a very acute angle with the bot- 
tom, and much of it afterwards fpreads many fathoms on 
the furface of the fea, I am well warranted to fay, that 
fome of it grows to the length of fixty fathoms and up- 

At one o'clock (having run two leagues upon a South 
Eaft i Eaft courfe, from noon) we founded, and found 
eighteen fathoms water, and a bottom of fine fand. Seeing 
a Imall bending in the coaft, on the North fide of Cape 
Digby, I fleered for it. It was my intention to anchor there, 
if I fliould find it might be done with fafety, and to land 
on the Cape, to examine what the low land within it pro- 
duced. After running in one league, we founded again, 
and found thirteen fathoms ; and immediately after, faw a 
flioal right before us, that feemed to extend off from the 
iliore, from which we were diftant about two miles. This 
difcovery obliged us to haul off, Eaft by South, one league, 
where our depth of water encreafed to twenty-five fathoms. 
We then fleered along fliore, and continued in the fame 
depth, over a bottom of fine fand, till Cape Digby bore 
Weft, two leagues diftant, when we found twenty-fix fa- 

After this we did not flrike ground, though we tried 
feveral times ; but the lliip having a good deal of way, ran 

* See Hawkefwoith's Colledion of Voyages, Vol. ii. p. 42. 



1776. the line out before ihe lead could reach the bottom ; and 


• — -v ' being difappointed in my views both of anchoring and of 

landing, I would not fhorten fail, but pufhed forward, in 
order to fee as much of the coaft as poffible before night. 
From Cape Digby, it trends nearly South Weft by South 
for about four or five leagues, or to a low point, to which, 
in honour of h^r Majefty, I gave the name of Point Char- 
lotte, and it is the Southernmoll on the low coaft. 

Six leagues from Cape Digby, in the diredion of South 
South Weft 2- Weft, is a pretty high projefting point, which 
was called Prince of Wales's Foreland ; and fix leagues be- 
yond that, in the fame diredlion, and in the latitude of 49° 
^4' South, and the longitude of 70° 13' Eaft, is the moft 
Southerly point of the whole coaft, which I diftinguillied by 
the name of Cape George, in honour of his Majefty. 

Between Point Charlotte and Prince of Wales's Foreland, 
where the country to the South Weft began again to be 
hilly, is a deep inlet, which was called Royal Sound. It 
runs in Weft, quite to the foot of the mountains which 
bound it on the South Weft, as the low land before-men- 
tioned does on the North. There are iftands lying in the 
entrance, and others higher up, as far as we could diftin- 
guifli. As we advanced to the South, we obferved, on the 
South Weft fide of Prince of Wales's Foreland, another inlet 
into Royal Sound ; and it then appeared, that the Foreland 
was the Eaft point of a large iftand lying in the mouth of it. 
There are feveral fmall iftands in this inlet ; and one about 
a league to the Southward of Prince of Wales's Foreland. 

All the land on the South Weft fide of Royal Sound, quite 

to Cape George, is compofed of elevated hills, that rife di- 

xedtly from the fea, one behind another, to a confiderable 

4 height. 


height. Moft of the fummits were capt with fnow, and j^^[ll^{^^j. 

they appeared as naked and barren as any we had feen. 

The fmalleft veftige of a tree or flirub was not difcoverable, 

either inland or on the coafl; and, I think, I may venture 

to pronounce that the country produces none. The low 

land about Cape Digby, when examined through our glafTes, 

refembled the reft of the low land we had before met with ; 

that is, it appeared to be partly naked and partly covered 

with a green turf; a defcription of which fhall be given in 

its proper place. The fliore is compofed of fandy beaches, 

on which were many penguins, and other oceanic birds ; 

and an immenfe number of fliags kept perpetually flying 

about the fhips as we failed along. 

Being defirous of getting the length of Cape George, to 
be aflured whether or no it was the moft Southerly point of 
the whole land, I continued to ftretch to the South, under 
all the fail we could carry, till half an hour paft feven 
o'clock; when, feeing no likelihood of accomplifliing my 
defign, as the wind had, by this time, fhifted to Weft South 
Weft, the very dire(51:ion in which we wanted to go, I took 
the advantage of the fhifting of the wind, and flood away 
from the coaft. 

At this time Cape George bore South 53" Weft, diftant 
about feven leagues. A fmall ifland that lies oft' the pitch 
of the Cape, was the only land we could fee to the South of 
it ; and we were farther confirmed that tliere was no more 
in that quarter, by a South Weft fwell which we met as 
foon as we brought the Cape to bear in this direction. 

But we have ftill a ftronger proof that no part of this land 
can extend much, if at all, to the Southward of Cape 
George ; and that is, Captain Furneaux's track in February 

Vol. I. M 1773, 



1773, after his reparation from me during my late voyage. 
His log-book is now lying before me; and I find from it, 
that he crofled the meridian of this land only about feven- 
teen leagues to the Southward of Cape George j a diftance 
at which it may very well be feen in clear weather. This 
feems to have been the cafe when Captain Furneaux pafled 
it. For his log-book makes no mention of fogs or hazy 
•weather ; on the contrary, it exprefsly tells us, that, when 
in this fituation, ihey had it in then- power to make obfer- 
vations, both for latitude and longitude, on board his fliip; 
fo that, if this land extends farther South than Cape George, 
it would have been fcarcely poffible that he fliould hav€ 
pafTed without feeing it. 

From thefe circumftances "we are able to determine, 
within a very few miles, the quantity of latitude that this 
land occupies ; which does not much exceed one degree and 
a quarter. As to its extent from Eaft to Weft, that ftill re- 
mains undecided. We only know, that no part of it can 
reach fo far to the Weft as the meridian of 65°; becaufe, in 
1773, under tha: meridian, I fearched for it in vain *. 

The French difcoverers, with fome reafon, imagined Cape 
St. Louis f to be the proje(5ling point of a Southern conti- 

* If the French obfervatlons, as marked upon Captain Cook's Chart, and ftill more 
authentically upon that publifhed by their own difcoverers, may be depended upon, 
tliis land doth not reach fo far to the Weft as the meridian of 68°; Cape Louis, 
which is reprefented as its moft Wefterly point, being laid down by them to the Eaft; 
of that meridian. 

■^ The idea of Cape Louis being this projefting point of a. Southern continent, mufl 
have foon vaniflied,- as Cape Francois, within a year after, was found, by the fame 
difcoverer, to lie above one third of a degree farther North upon the fame land. But 
if Kerguelen entertained any fuch imagination at firft, we are fure that, at prefent, 
bethinks very differently. This appears from the following explicit declaration of his 
fentimenis, which deferves to be tranfcribed from his late publication, as it does equal 


Tlm-cTirws ,./i\rclic.l ri>ilil .-v. KEH)iirMlj:.\:< l.l.Vli 


View »•/(-/? Aj'Ched Point firars .i'"25 /ni/e,e dishint 

Tlew o/'IiMlioirBLSX's LaJVH ji mila ,!m 

'Vxev) nl' lOcRIHTEi^EN's l.-t.TV-n w/irn IVince o/Wulrs '.r Forolaiul /ir,ir., W.S.W. 


■mm. The Englifh have fince proved that no fuch continent ^^776- 

I-L11 1 • n- • December. 

exilis ; and that the land in queltion is an lUand of no great ' -— — ' 

extent * ; which, from its fterility, I fliould, with great pro- 
priety, call the Ifland of Defolation, but that I would not 
rob Monfieur de Kerguelen of the honour of its bearing his 
name f. 

honour to his candour, and to Captain Cook's abilities. " La terre que j'ai decou- 
" verte eft certainement une IJle ; puifque le celebre Capitaine Cook a pafle au Sud, 
" lors de fon premiere voyage, fans rien rencontrer. Je jugememe, que cetteifle«V/? 
" pas bien grande. 11 y a auiTi apparence, d'apres le Voyage de Monfieur Cook, 
" que toute cette etendue de Mers IVIeridionales, eft femee d'Ifles ou dc rochers ; 
" mais qu'il n'y a nl continent ni grande terre." Kerguelen, p. ga. 

* Kerguelen, as we fee in the laft Note, concurs with Captain Cook as to this. 
However, he tells us, that he has reafon to believe that it is about two hundred leagues 
in circuit; and that he was acquainted with about fourfcore leagues of its coaft. 
" J'en connois environs quatre-vingt lieues des cotes ; & j'ai lieu de croire, qu'ellc 
" a eaviroji deux cents lieues de circuit." Kerguelen, ibid. 

f Same of Monfieur de Kerguelen's own countrymen feem more defirous than we 
are, to rob him of this honour. It is very remarkable that Monfieur de Pages never 
once mentions the name of his commander. And, though he takes occafion to enu- 
merate the feveral French explorers of the Southern Hemifpherc, from Gonnevillc 
down to Crozet, he affects to preferve an entire filence about Kerguelen, whofe firft 
voyage, in which the difcovery of this confiderable tra£l of land was made, is kept as 
much out of fight, as if it never had taken place. Nay, not fatisficd with refufint^ to 
acknowledge the right of another, he almoft aflumes it to himfelf. For upon a Map 
of the World, annexed to his book, at the fpot where the new land is delineated, wc 
read this infcription : IJles nonvelles Aujlrales vuees par Monfieur de Pages, en 1774. 
He could fcarcely have expreffed himfelf in ftronger terms, if he had meant to convey 
an idea that he was the conduJlor of the difcovery. And yet we know, that he was 
only a Lieutenant [Enfeigne de vaifleau] on board one of the three fhips commanded 
by Kerguelen ; and that the difcovery had been already made in a former voya'fe, un- 
dertaken while he was aiRually engaged in his fingular journey round the world. 

After all, it cannot but be remarked, that Kerguelen was peculiarly unfortunate, in 
having done fo little to complete what he had begun. He difcovered a nev^ land indeed ; 
but, in two expeditions to it, he could not once bring his fhips to an anchor upon 
any part of itscoafts. Captain Cook, as we h:-,ve feen in this, and in tlie/oregoing 
Chapter, had either fewer diificulties to ftruggle with, or was more fuccefsful in fur- 
mountina them. 


M 2 Mr. 


1776. Mr. Anderfon, my Surgeon, who, as I have ah-eady men- 


w— V ■ tioned, had made Natural Hiftory a part of his ftudies, loft 

no opportunity, during the fhort time we lay in Chriftmas 
Harbour, of fearching the country in every direftion. He 
afterwards communicated to me the obfervations he made 
on its natural productions ; and I fliall infert them here 
in his own words. 

•' Perhaps no place, hitherto difcovered in either hemi- 
fphere, under the fame parallel of latitude, affords fo fcanty 
a field for the naturalift as this barren fpot. The verdure 
which appears, when at a little diftance from the fhore, 
would flatter one with the expeflation of meeting with fome 
herbage; but in this we were much deceived. For on land- 
ing, we faw that this lively colour was occafioned only by 
one fmall plant, not much unlike fome forts of Jhxifrage, 
which grows in large fpreading tufts, to a confiderable way 
up the hills. It forms a furface of a pretty large texture, 
and grows on a kind of rotten turf, into which one finks a 
foot or two at every ftep. This turf, dried, might, in cafes 
of neceffity, ferve for fuel, and is the only thing we met 
with here that could poffibly be applied to this ufe. 

There is another plant, plentifully enough fcattered about 
the boggy declivities, which grows to near the height of 
two feet, and not much unlike a fmall cabbage, when it 
has fliot into feeds. The leaves about the root are nume- 
rous, large, and rounded ; narrower at the bafe, and ending 
in a fmall point. Thofe on the ftalks are much fmaller, 
oblong, and pointed. The ftalks, which are often three 
or four, all rife feparately from the root, and run into long 
cylindrical heads, compofed of fmall flowers. It has not 



only the appearance, but the watery acrid tafle of the ami- i??^. 

fcorbutic plants, and yet differs materially from the whole • ^ ' 

tribe ; fo that we looked upon it as a producftion entirely 
peculiar to the place. We eat it frequently raw, and 
found it almofl like the New Zealand fcurvy-grals. But it 
feemed to acquire a rank flavour by being boiled ; which, 
however, fome of our people did not perceive, and efteemed 
it good. If it could be introduced into our kitchen gardens* 
it would, in all probability, improve fo far by cultivation, 
as to be an excellent pot-herb. At this time, none of its 
feeds were ripe enough to be preferved, and brought home» 
to try the experiment. 

Two other fmall plants were found near the brooks and 
boggy places, which were eaten as fallad ; the one almofl 
like garden crefTes, and very fiery; and the other very mild. 
This laft, though but fmall, is in itfelf a curiofity ; hav- 
ing not only male and female, but what the botanifts call 
androgynous plants. 

A coarfe grafs, which we cut down for the cattle, grows 
pretty plentifully in a few fmall fpots about the fides of the 
harbour, with a fmaller fort which is rarer ; and, upon 
the flat ground, a fort of goofe-grafs, and another fmall 
plant much like it. In fhort, the whole catalogue of plants 
does not exceed fixteen or eighteen, including fome forts of 
roofs, and a beautiful fpecies of lichen, which grows upon 
the rocks, higher up than the reft of the vegetable produc- 
tions. Nor is there even the leaft appearance of a flirub in 
the whole country. 

Nature has rather been more bountiful in furn idling it 
with animals ; though, ftri6lly fpeaking, they are not inha- 
bitants of the place, being all of the marine kind; and, in 



1776. general, only ufing the land for breeding, and for a refting- 
place. The molt confiderable are feals, or (as we ufed to 
call them) fea bears ; being that fort called the urfme feal. 
Thefe come afhore to reft or breed ; but they were not very 
numerous, which is not to be wondered at, as it is known 
that thefe animals rather frequent out-rocks, and little 
iflands lying off coafls, than bays or inlets. They were, at 
this time, fliedding their hair, and fo tame, that we killed 
what number we chofe. 

No other quadruped, either of the fea or of the land 
kind, was feen ; but a great number of birds, viz. ducks, 
petrels, albatrofTes, fliags, gulls, and fea-fwallows. 

The ducks are about the fize of a teal or widgeon ; but 
fomewhat different in colour from either. They were in 
tolerable plenty about the fides of the hills, or even lower; 
and we killed a confiderable number, which were good, 
and without the leaft fifhy tafte. We met with fome of 
the fame fort at the ifland of Georgia, in our late voyage. 

The Cape petrel, or Pintado bird ; the fmall blue one, 
which is always feen at fea ; and the fmall black one, or 
Mother Carey's Chicken, are not here in great numbers. 
But we found a neft of the firft with an egg in it, about the 
fize of a pullci's ; and the fecond, though fcarce, was met 
with in fome holes like rabbit-burrows. 

Another fort, which is the largcft of all the petrels, and 
called by the feamen Mother Carey's Goofc, is in greater 
numbers; and fo tame, that at fiift we could kill them 
with a ftick upon the beach. They are not inferior in fize 
to an albatrofs, and are carnivorous, feeding on the dead 
carcaiTes of feals or birds, that were thrown into the fea. 



Their colour is a futty brown, with a ffreenifh bill and feet; _ '776« 

J ' c> December* 

and, doubtlefs, they are the fame that the Spaniards call ' ' 

quebrantahnejjos, whofe head is figured in Pernetty's Voyage, 
to Falkland Iflands *. 

Of the albatrofTes, none were found on fliore except the 
grey one, which is commonly met with at fea in the higher 
Southern latitudes. Once I faw one of thefe fitting in the 
cliiF of a rock, but they were frequently flying about the 
harbour; and the common large fort, as well as a fmaller 
with a black face, were feen farther out. 

Penguins form, by far, the greatefl: number of birds here; 
and are of three forts : The firft, or largeft, I have feen 
formerly at the illand of Georgia f. It is alfo mentioned by 
Bougainville :|: ; but it does not feem to be fo folitary as he 
reprefents it, for we found confiderable numbers flocking 
together. The head is black, the upper part of the body a 
leaden grey, and the under part white, with black feet. It 
has two broad flripes of fine yellow, that begin on the fides 
of the head, and dcfcending by each fide of the neck, meet 
above its breaft. The bill is partly reddifli, and longer than 
in the other forts. 

The fecond fort of penguin fcarcely exceeds half the fize 
of the former. The upper part of the body is a blackifli 
grey, with a white fpot on the upper part of the head, 
growing broader at each fide. The bill and feet are yel- 
lowifh. A very accurate figure and defcription, both of this 
and of the preceding, is given by Mr. Sonncrat §. 

* Fig. 3. Plate VIII. 

■f- Pennant's Patagonian penguin. See his Genera of Birds. Tab. 14. p. 66;- 

X Voyage autour dii Monde., p. 69. 

§ Voyage a la Nonvdle Guin'ee, p. 18 1, 182. Tab. 113. 115. 



1776. The third fort of penguin met with here, had never been 

December. 1 

feen by any of us before. Its length is twenty-four inches, 
and its breadth twenty. The upper part of the body and 
throat are black ; the reft white, except the upper part of the 
head, which has a fine yellow arch, looking backward, 
and ending on each fide in long foft feathers, which it can 
erecT: as two crefts. 

The two firft forts were found together on the beach; the 
large ones keeping by themfelves, and walking in finall 
flocks amongft the others, which were more numerous, and 
were fometimes feen a confiderable way up the fides of the 
hills. The third fort were only found by themfelves, but 
in great numbers, on the outer fhores of the harbour. 
They were breeding at this time ; and they lay, on the 
bare ftones, only one white egg, larger than that of a duck. 
All the three forts of penguins were fo tame, that we took 
as many as we pleafed with our hands. 

The fliags of this place are of two forts ; the lefl^er corvo- 
rant or water crow, and another, which is black above, with 
a white belly ; the fame that is found in New Zealand, Ter- 
ra del Fuego, and the illand of Georgia. 

We alfo met with here the common fea-guU, fea-fwallow, 
tern, and Port Egmont henj the laft of which were tame 
and numerous. 

Another fort of white bird, flocks of which flew about 
the bay, is very fingular ; having the bafe of the bill co- 
vered with a horny cruft *. It is larger than a pigeon, with 
the bill black and the feet white, made like thofe of a cur- 

* The {heath-bill. See. Pennant's Genera of Birds, p. j^.^- 



lew. Some of our people put it in competition with the ^ '7^6. 

* December. 

<iuck, as rood. 

The feine was hauled once ; but we found only a few flfli 
about the fize of a fmall haddock ; though quite different 
from any we knew. The fnout is lengthened; the head 
armed with fome ftrong fpines ; the rays of the back- 
iin long, and very ftrong; the belly is large; and the body 
without fcales. The only fliell fifli are a few limpets and 
mufcles ; and, amongfl: the ftones, a few fmall ftar-fifli, and 
lea-anemonies, were found. 

The hills are of a moderate height; yet many of their 
tops were covered with fnow at this time, though anfwer- 
ing to our June. Some of them have large quantities of 
ftones, irregularly heaped together at their foot, or on their 
fides. The fides of others, which form fteep cliffs towards 
tlie fea, are rent from the top downward, and feem ready 
to fall off, having ftones of a confiderable fize lying in the 
fiffurcs. Some were of opinion that froft might be the caufe 
of thefe fiffures, which I fliall not difpute ; but how others 
of the appearances could be effedled, but by earthquakes, 
or fome fuch fevere fliocks, I cannot fay. 

It appears that rain muft be almoft conftant tiere, not 
only from the marks of large torrents having rufhed down, 
but from the difpofition of the country, which, even on the 
hills, is almoft an entire bog or fwamp, the ground finking 
at every ftep. 

The rocks, or foundations of the hills, are compofed 
chiefly of a dark blue, and very hard, ftone, intermixed 
with fmall particles of glimmer or quartz. This feems to 
be one of the moft univerfal produftions of Nature, as it 
conftitutes whole mountains in Sv/eden, in Scotland, at the 

Vol. I. N Canary 



1776. Canary Iflands, the Cape of Good Hope, and at this place 

December. • n ■> • \ n r 1 ,- V, 

ADOEher brownilh brittle itone forms here fome coniider- 
able rocks ; and one which is blacker, and found in de- 
tached pieces, inciofes bits of coarfe quartz. A red, a dull 
yellow, and a purplilh fand-ftone, are alfo found in fmall 
pieces ; and pretty large lumps of femi-tranfparent quartz, 
difpofed irregularly in polyedral pyramidal cryflals of long 
fhining fibres. Some fmall pieces of the common fort are 
met with in the brooks, made round by attrition ; but none 
hard enough to refifl: a file. Nor were any of the other 
ftones acfted on by aqua fortis, or attracted by the magnet. 

Nothing, that had the lead appearance of an ore or me- 
tal, was feen." 





Pajfage from Kerguelens to Van Diemens lJand> — Ar- 
rival in Adventure Bay, — Incidents there,- — Interviews 
'with the Natives. — Their Perfons and Drefs defcribed.-^ 
Account of their Behaviour, — Table of the Longitude^ 
Latitude^ and Variation. — Mr, Anderfo7ts Obfervatio?is 
on the natural ProduEiions of the Country^ on the Inha- 
hita?itSt a7id their Language, 

AFTER leaving Kerguelen's Land, I fleered Eaft by 1776. 
North, intending, in obedience to my inftrucflions, to ,/^-!^"!_^^ 
touch next at New Zealand ; to recruit our water, to take in 
■wood, and to make hay for the cattle. Their number, by 
this time, had been confiderably diminiflied j two young 
bulls, one of the heifers, two rams, and feveral of the 
goats having of late died, while we were employed in ex- 
ploring this defolate coaft. 

The 31ft, in the morning, being the day after we flood TuefJayji. 
out to fea, we had feveral obfervations of the fun and moon. 
Their refulcs gave the longitude 72° 33' 36" Eaft, The time- 
keeper, in this fituation, gave 72° 38' 15". Thefe obferva- 
tions were the more ufeful, as we had not been able to get 
any for fome time before, and they now ferved to afTure us 
that no material error had crept into the time keeper. 

On the I ft of Tanuarv, beins then in the latitude of 48° ^^'nr- 

•'•''" ' . January. 

41' South, longitude 76° 50' Eall, the variation was 30° 39 Wednef/i. 

N 2 Weft 5 


1777. Wefl:; and the next day, in the latitude of 48° 22' South,. 

January. ■' ' 

\. 1 longitude 80° 22' Eaft, it was 30° 47' 18" Weft. This was the 

greateft variation we found in this pafTage ; for afterward 

iridayj. it began to decreafe, but fo flowly, that on the 3d, in the 
evening, being then in the latitude of 48° 16' South, longi- 
tude 85° Eaft, it was 29° 38' Weft. 

Thus far we had frefli gales from the Weft and South Weft, 
and tolerably clear weather. But now the wind veered to 
the North, where it continued eight days, and was attended 
with a thick fog. During this time, we ran above three 
hundred leagues in the dark. Now and then the weather 
would clear up, and give us a fight of the fun ; but this 
happened very feldom, and was always of fliort continu- 
Tuefday 7. auce. On the 7th, I hoifted out a boat, and fent an order to 
Captain Gierke, appointing Adventure Bay, in Van Diemen's 
Land, as our place of rendezvous, in cafe of Reparation be- 
fore we arrived in the meridian of that land. But we were' 
fortunate enough, amidft all this foggy weather, by fre- 
quently firing guns as fignals, though we feldom faw each 
other, not to lofe company. 

Sunday 12. On the i2th, being in the latitude of 48° 40' South, lon- 
gitude 110° 26' Eaft, the Northerly winds ended in a calm; 
which, after a few hours, was fucceeded by a wind from 
the Southward. This, with rain, continued for twenty-four 
hours ; when it frefliened, and veered to the Weft and North 
Weft, and brought on fair and clear weather. 

We continued our courfe to the Eaftward, without meet- 
ing with any thing worthy of notice, till four o'clock in the 
Sunday 19. nioming of the 19th; when, in a fudden fquall of wind, 
though the Difcovery received no damage, our fore-top-maft 
went by the board, and carried the main-top- gallant-maft 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 95 

with it. This occalioned fome delay, as it took us up the »777- 

L 1 J 1 1 January, 

Whole day to clear the wreck, and to fit another top-maft. — ^..— -^ 
The former was accomplillied without lofing any part of it, 
except a few fathoms of fmall rope. Not having a fpare 
main-top-gallant-maft on board, the fore- top-gallant-mall 
was converted into one for our immediate ufe. 

The wind continued Wefterly, blew a frefh gale, and was 
attended with clear weather ; fo that fcarcely a day pafTed 
without being able to get obfervations for fixing the longi- 
tude, and the variation of the compafs. The latter de- 
creafed in fuch a manner, that in the latitude of 44° 18' 
South, longitude 132° 2' Eaft, it was no more than 5° 34' 18" 
Weft; and on the 22d, being then in the latitude of 43' 27' WeJnef. 22, 
South, longitude 141' 50' Eaft, it was 1° 24' 15" Eaft. So 
that we had crolTed the line where the compafs has no vari- 

On thd 24th, at three o'clock in the morning, we difco- Friday 24, 
vered the coaft of Van Diemen's Land, bearing North i 
Weft. At four o'clock, the South Weft Cape bore North 
North Weft 4 Weft ; and the Mewftone, North Eaft by Eaft, 
three leagues diftant. There are feveral iflands and high 
rocks lying fcattered along this part of the coaft, the South- 
ernmoft of which is the Mevcftone. It is a round elevated 
rock, five or fix leagues diftant from the South Weft Cape, 
in the diredion of South s^° Eaft. 

At noon, our latitude was 43° 47' South, longitude 147° 
Eaft; and the fituation of the lands round us as follows: 
An elevated round-topped hill bore North 17° Weft; the South 
Weft Cape North 74° Weft; the Mewftone Weft J. North; 
Swilly Ifle or Rock South 49° Eaft ; and the South Eaft or 
South Cape North 40* Eaft, diftant near three leagues. The 




'777- land between the South Wcfl and the South Capes is broken 
» — -V- — ' and hilly, the coafl winding, with points iliootmg out from 
it; but we v/ere too far off, to be able to judge whether the 
bays formed by thefe points were flieltered from the fea- 
winds. The bay which appeared to be the largeft and 
dcepeft, lies to the Wellward of the peaked hill above- 
mentioned. The variation of the compafs here, was 5° 15' 

At fix o'clock in the afternoon we founded, and found fixty 
fathoms water, over a bottom of broken' coral and Ihells. 
The South Cape then bore North 75° Wed, two or three 
leagues diftant -, Tafman's Head North Eaft ; and Swilly 
Rock South by Weft 4, V/eft. About a league to the Eaft- 
ward of Svvilly, is another elevated rock, that is not taken 
notice of by Captain Furneaux. I called it the Eddyftone, 
from its very great refemblance to that lighi-houfe. Nature 
feems to have left thefe two rocks here, for the fame pur- 
pofe that the Eddyftone light-houfe was built by man, viz. 
to give navigators notice of the dangers around them. For 
they are the confpicuous fummits of a ledge of rocks under 
v/ater, on which the fea, in many places, breaks very high. 
Their furface is white with the dung of fea-fowls ; fo that 
-they may be feen at forae diftance, even in the night. On 
the North Eaft fide of Storm Bay, which lies between the 
South Cape and Tafman's Head, there are fome coves or 
creeks, that feemed to be flieltered from the fea-v.inds ; and 
1 am of opinion that, were this coaft examined, there would 
be found fonie good harbours. 

Soon after we had fight of land the Wefterly winds left 

us, and were fucceeded by variable light airs and alternate 

Suiday26. calms, till the 26th at noon. At that time a breeze fprung 

7 up 


up and frefiiened at South Eaft, which put it in my power '777- 

to carry into execution the defign I had, upon due confidera- ' ^ — ' 

tion, formed, of carrying the fliips into Adventure Bay, where 
I might expecft to get a fupply of wood and of grafs for the 
cattle ; of both which articles we fhould, as I now found, 
have been in great want, if I had waited till our arrival in 
New Zealand. We therefore flood for the bay, and an- 
chored in it at four o'clock in the afternoon, in twelve fa- 
thoms water, over a bottom of fand and oufe. Penguin 
Illand, which lies clofe to the Eaft point of the bay, bore 
North 84° Eaft ; the Southernmofl. point of Maria's L^ands 
bore North 76° l Eaft; and Cape Frederic Elenry, or the 
North point of the bay, bore North 33° Eaft. Our diftance 
from the neareft fhore was about three quarters of a mile. 

As foon as we had anchored, I ordered the boats to be 
hoifted out. In one of them I went myfelf, to look for the 
moft commodious place for furnifliing ourfelves with the 
neceffary fupplies; and Captain Clerke went in his boat 
upon the fame fervice. Wood and water we found in 
plenty, and in lituations convenient enough, efpecially the 
firft. But grafs, of which we flood moft in need, was fcarce, 
and alfo very coarfe. Neceffity, however, obliged us to 
take fuch as we could get. 

Next morning early, I fent Lieutenant King to the Eaft Monday 27. 
fide of the bay with two parties j one to cut wood, and the 
other to cut grafs, under the protecflion of the marines, 
•whom I judged it prudent to land as a guard. For alrhough, 
as yet, none of the natives had'appeared, there could be no 
doubt that fome were in our neighbourhood, as-we had 
feen columns of fmoke, from the time of our approaching 
the coaft; and fome now was obfcrved, at no great diftance 


9^ A V O Y A G E T O 

/777- up in the woods. I alfo fent the launch for water; and 

January. '■ 

c — , — -^ afterwards vifited all the parties myfelf. In the evening, 
we drew the feine at the head of the bay, and, at one haul, 
caught a great quantity of fifli. We fliould have got many 
more, had not the net broken in drawing it afliore. Moft 
of them wer-e of that fort known to feamen by the name of 
elephant fiili. After this, every one repaired on board with 
what wood and grafs we had cut, that we might be ready 
to fail whenever the wind fliould ferve. 

^uefday 28. Tliis not happening next morning, the people were fent 
on fhore again, on the fame duty as the day before. I alfo 
employed the carpenter, with part of his crew, to cut fome 
fpars for the ufe of the fhip; and difpatched Mr. Roberts, 
one of the mates, in a fmall boat to furvey the bay. 

In the afternoon, we were agreeably furprifed, at the 
place where we were cutting wood, with a vifit from fome 
of the natives ; eight men and a boy. They approached us 
from the woods, without betraying any marks of fear, or ra- 
ther with the greateft confidence imaginable ; for none of 
them had any weapons, except one, who held in his hand 
a flick about two feet long, and pointed at one end. 

They were quite naked, and wore no ornaments ; unlefs 
we confider as fuch, and as a proof of their love of finery, 
fome large pimcflures or ridges raifed on different parts of 
their bodies, fome in flraight, and others in curved lines. 

They were of the common flature, but rather flender. 
Their fkin was black, and alfo their hair, which was as 
woolly as that of any native of Guinea ; but they were not 
diflinguiflied by remarkably thick lips, nor flat nofes. On 
ihe contrary, their features were far from being difagree- 



able. They had pretty good eyes; and their teeth were «777- 
tolerably even, but very du'ty. Moil of them had their hair 
and beards fmeared with a red ointment ; and fome had 
their faces alfo painted with the fame compofition. 

They received every prefent we made to them, without 
the leaft appearance of fatisfadlion. When fome bread was 
given, as foon as they underftood that it was to be eaten, 
they either returned it, or threw it away, without even ta- 
iling it. They alfo refufed fome elephant fifli, both raw and 
drefled, which we offered to them. But upon giving fome 
birds to them, they did not return thefe, and eafily made us 
comprehend that they were fond of fuch food. I had 
brought two pigs afliore, with a view to leave them in the 
woods. The inftant thefe came within their reach, they fei- 
zed them, as a dog would have done, by the ears, and were 
for carrying them off immediately ; with no other intention, 
as we could perceive, but to kill them. 

Being defirous of knowing the ufe of the flick which one of 
our vifiters carried in his hand, I made figns to them to (hew 
me ; and fo far fucceeded, that one of them fet up a piece 
of wood as a mark, and threw at it, at the diftance of about 
twenty yards. But we had little reafon to commend his 
dexterity ; for, after repeated trials, he was ftill very wide 
from the obje(5l. Omai, to fhew them how much fuperior 
our weapons were to theirs, then fired his mufquet at it; 
which alarmed them fo much, that notwithilanding all we 
could do or fay, they ran inflantly into the woods. One of 
them was fo frightened, that he let drop an axe and two 
knives, that had been given to him. From us, however, 
they went to the place, where fome of theDifcovery's people 
were employed in taking water into their boat. The officer 

Vol. I. O of 


'777- of that party, not knowing that they had paid us fo friendly 
I.; , ' / a vifir, nor what their intent might be, fired a mulquet m 

the air, which fent them otr with the greatell precipita- 

Thus ended our firft interview with the natives. Imme- 
diately after their final retreat, judging that their fears 
would prevent their remaining near enough to obferve what 
was pairing, I ordered the two pigs, being a boar and fow, 
to be carried about a mile within the woods, at the head of 
the bay. I faw them left there, by the fide of a frefii-water 
brook. A young bull and a cow, and fome fheep and goats, 
were alfo, at firfl:, intended to have been left by me, as an 
additional prefent to Van Diemen's Land. But I foon laid 
afide all thought of this, from a perfuafion that the natives^ 
incapable of entering into my views of improving their 
country, would defiroy them. If ever they fliould meet 
with the pigs, I have no doubt this will be their fate. But 
as that race of animals foon becomes wild, and is fond of 
the thickeil cover of the woods, there is great probability 
of their being preferved. An open place muil have been 
chofen for the accommodation of the other cattle ; and in 
fuch a fituation, they could not polfibly have remained con- 
cealed many days. 

Wednef. 29. The moming of the 29th was uflier^d in with a dead 
calm, which continued all day, and effectually prevented 
our failing. I therefore fent a party over to the Eaft point 
of the bay to cut grafs; having been informed that fome of 
a fuperior quality grew there. Another party, to cut wood, 
was ordered to go to the ufual place, and I accompanied them 
myfelf. We had obferved feveral of the natives, this morn- 
ing, fauntering along the fliore, which affured us, that 
7 though 


though their conllernation had made them leave us Co '777- 

" January. 

abruptly the day before, they were convinced that we in- > — -v — > 
tended them no mifchief, and were defn-ous of renewing 
the intercourfe. It was natural that I fliould wifli to be pre- 
fent on tlie occafion. 

We had not been long landed, before about twenty of them, 
men and boys, joined us, without expreffing the leafl; fign of 
fear or diftruft. There was one of this company confpicu- 
oufly deformed; and who was not more diftinguifhable by 
the hump upon his back, than by the drollery of his gef- 
tures, and the feeming humour of his fpeeches; which he 
was very fond of exhibiting, as we fuppofed, for our enter- 
tainment. But, unfortunately, we could not underfland 
him ; the language fpoken here being wholly unintelligible 
to us. It appeared to me, to be different from that fpoken by 
the inhabitants of the more northern parrs of this country, 
whom I met with in my firft voyage ; which is not extraor- 
dinary, fmce thofe we now faw, and thofe we then vifited, 
differ in many other refpecTis ■■. Nor did they feem to be 

* The moft fcrikiiig difference feems to be with regard to the texture of the hair. 
The natives whcm Captain Cook met with at Endeavour River in 1760, are faid, by 
him, to hiS'C fiattirally long and black hair, though h he untvevfally crof fed Jhart. In ge- 
neral it isjlrait, hut fomctimcs it has a flight curl. We faw none that was not matted ar.d 
filthy. Their beards were of the fame colour with the hair, and hujJiy and thick. See 
Hawkefworth's Cclleftion, Vol. iii. chap. 8. p. 632. 

It may be necefiary to mention here, on the authority of Captain Kin? that do. 
tain Cook was very unwilling to allow that the hair of the natives now "met with 'in 
At'.venture Bay was -n-ooUy, fancying that his people, who firft obfervcd this, h^d been 
deceived, from its being clotted with grer.fe and red ochre. But Captain Mine; pre- 
vailed upon him afterward, to examine carefully the hair of the boys, which was 
generally, as v/cll as that of the women, free from this dirt; .-.nd then he owned him,- 
felf fatisfied that it was naturally woolly. Perhaps we may fuppofe it poffible, that he 
himf;lf been deceived when he was in Endeavour River, from this very circuni- 
ftance ; as he exprefsly fays, that they fnw none thai was not matted and fihk\-. 

O 2 fuch 


'777- fuch miferable wretches as the natives whom Dampier men- 

January. ■* 

u — «-— ' tions to have feen on its weftern coaft *. 

Some of our prefent groupe wore, loofe, round their 
necks, three or four folds of fmall cord, made of the fur of 
fome animal; and others of them had a narrow flip of the 
kangooroo fkin tied round their ancles. I gave to each of 
them a firing of beads, and a medal ; which I thought they 
received with fome fatisfa6tion. They feemed to fet no 
value on iron, or on iron tools. They were even ignorant 
of the ufe of fifti-hooks, if we might judge from their 
manner of looking at fome of ours which we fhewed to 

We cannot, however, fuppofe it to be pollible that a peo- 
ple who inhabit a fea-coaft, and who feem to derive no part 
of their fuftenance from the producSlions of the ground, 
fhould not be acquainted with fome mode of catching fifli, 
though we did not happen to fee any of them thus employ- 
ed; nor obferve any canoe or vefTel, in which they could go 
upon the water. Though they abfolutely reje(n;ed the fort 
of fifli that we offered to them, it was evident that fhell- 

* And yet Dampier's New Hollanders, on the Weftern coaft, bear a ftriking re- 
femblance to Captain Cook's at Van Diemen's Land, in many remarkable inftances: 

ift. As to their becoming familiar with the ftrangers. 
• adly. As to their perfons ; being ftraight-bodied, and thin ; their (kin black ; and 

black, fliort, curled hair, like the Negroes of Guinea j with wide mouths. 

3dly, As to their wretched condition ; having no houfes, no garment, no canoes, no 
inftrument to catch large fifti ; feeding on broiled mufcles, cockles, and periwinckles; 
having no fruits of the earth; their weapons a ftraight pole, fliarpened and hardened^ 
at the end, &c. &c. 

The chief peculiarities of Dampier's miferable wretches are, ift, Their eye-lids be- 
ing always half clofed, to keep the flies out, which were exceflively troublefome there : 
and, 2dly, Their wanting the two fore-teeth of the upper jaw, and their having no 
beards. See Dampier's Voyages, Vol. i. p. 464, &c. There feems to be no reafon 
for fuppofing that Dampier was miftaken in the above account of what he faw. 



fifli, at leafl, made a part of their food, from the many ^777. 
heaps of mufcle-fhells we faw in different parts near the 
fhore, and about fome deferted habitations near the head of 
the bay. Thcfe were little fheds or hovels built of flicks, 
and covered with bark. We could alfo perceive evident 
figns of their fometimes taking up their abode in the trunks 
of large trees, which had been hollowed out by fire, mofl 
probably for this very purpofe. In or near all thefe habita- 
tions, and wherever there was a heap of fhells, there re- 
mained the marks of fire ; an indubitable proof that they 
do not eat their food raw. 

After flaying about an hour with the wooding party and 
the natives, as I could now be pretty confident that the latter 
■were not likely to give the former any diflurbance, I left 
them, and went over to the grafs-cutters on the Eafl point 
of the bay, and found that they had met with a fine patch. 
Having feen the boats loaded, I left that party, and returned 
on board to dinner; where, fome time after, Lieutenant 
King arrived. 

From him I learnt, that I had but jufl left the fhore, when 
feveral women and children made their appearance, and 
were introduced to him by fome of the men who attended 
them. He gave prefents to all of them, of fuch trifles as he 
had about him. Thefe females wore a kangooroo fkin (in the 
fame fhape as it came from the animal) tied over the fhoul- 
ders, and round the waifl. But its only ufe feemed to be, 
to fupport their children when carried on their backs; for 
it did not cover thofe parts which mod nations conceal; 
being, in all other refpecfls, as naked as the men, and as 
black, and their bodies marked with fears in the fame man- 
ner. But in this they differed from the men, that though 

9 their 



1777- their hair was of the fame colour and texture, feme of them 


had their heads completely fliorn or fhaved ; in others this 
operation had been performed only on one fide, while the 
r>eft of them had all the upper part of the head fhorn clofe, 
leaving a circle of hair all round, fomewhat like the tonfure 
of the Romifli Ecclefiaftics *. Many of the children had fine 
features, and were thought pretty; but of the perfons of 
the women, efpecially thofc advanced in years, a lefs fa- 
vourable report was made; However, fome of the Gentlemen 
belonging to the Difcovery, I was told, paid their addrefTes, 
and made liberal offers of prefents, which were rejected 
with great difdain ; whether from a fenfe of virtue, or the 
fear of difpleafmg their men, I fliall not pretend to deter- 
mine. That this gallantry was not very agreeable to the 
latter, is certain : for an elderly man, as foon as he obferved 
it, ordered all the women and children to retire, whicli 
they obeyed, though fomc of them fliewed a little reluc- 

This conducfl of Europeans amongft Savages, to their wo- 
men, is highly blameable ; as it creates a jealoufy in their 
men, that may be attended with confequences fatal to the 
fuccefs of the common cnterprize, and to the whole body 

* Captain Cook's account of the natives of Van Diemen's Land, in this Chapter, 
no doubt proves that they difter, in tnany refpeSls, as he fays, from the inhabitants of 
the more northerly parts of the Eaft coaft of New Holland, whom he met with in his 
firfl voyage. It feems very remarkable, however, that the only woman any of his peo- 
ple came clofe to, in Butany Bay, fhould have her hair cropped /hort ; while the man 
■who v/as with her, is faid to have had the hair of his head bufpy, and his beard long and 
rough. Hawkefworth'sColieiftion, Vol. iii. p. 502. Could the natives of Van Die- 
men's Land be more accurately defcribed, than by faying that the hair of the men's 
heads is liify-, and their beards hug and rough, and that the ivonien^s hair is cropped 
■ Jliort ? So far North, therefore, as Botany Bay, the natives of the Eaft coaft of 
New Holland fee.ii to refemble thofe of Van Diemen's Land, in this cii cumfiance. 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. lo^ 


*—.-. ^ 

of adventurers, without advancing the private purpofe of ^^777- 

. . January. 

the individual, or enabUng him to gain the objecft of his 
wifhes. I believe it has been generally found amongft un- 
civilized people, that where the women are eafy of accef?, 
the men are the firil to oiFer them to Grangers ; and that, 
where this is not the cafe, neither the allurement of pre- 
fents, nor the opportunity of privacy, will be likely to have 
the defired efFecfl. This obfervation, I am fure,. will hold 
good, throughout all the parts of the South Sea where I have 
been. Why then fliould men adl fo abfurd a part, as to rifle 
their own fafety, and that of all their companions, in pur- 
fuit of a gratification which they have no probability of 
obtaining ? 

In the afternoon I went again to the grafs-cutters, to for- 
ward their work. I found them then upon Penguin Ifland, 
where they had met with a plentiful crop of excellent grafsi 
We laboured hard till fun-fet, and then repaired on board, 
fatisficd with tlie quantity we had collected, and which I 
judged fufficient to lad till our arrival in New Zealand. 

During our whole ftay, we had either calms or light airs 
from the Eaftward. Little or no time, therefore, was lofl 
by my putting in at this place. For if I had kept the fea, 
we fliould not have been twenty leagues advanced farther 
on our voyage. And, fliort as our continuance was here, 
it has enabled me to add fomewhat to the imperfect ac- 
quaintance that hath hitherto been acquired, with this part 
of the globe. 

Van Diemen's Land has been twice vifited before. It was 
fo named by Tafman, who difcovered it inNovember 1642. 
From that time it had efcaped all farther notice by Euro- 
pean navigators, till Captain Furneaux touched at it in 



'777- March 1773. I hardly need fay, that it is the Southern 

* , ' point of New Holland, which, if it doth not deferve the 

name of a continent, is by far the largeft illand in the 

The land is, for the moft part, of a good height, diverfified 
with hills and valleys, and every where of a greenifli hue. 
It is well wooded J and, if one may judge from appear- 
ances, and from what we met with in Adventure Bay, is 
not ill fupplied with water. We found plenty of it in three 
or four places in this bay. The beft, or what is moft con- 
venient for fliips that touch here, is a rivulet, which is one 
of feveral that fall into a pond, that lies behind the beach 
at the head of the bay. It there mixes with the fea- water; 
fo that it muft be taken up above this pond, which may be 
done without any great trouble. Fire-wood is to be got, 
with great eafe, in feveral places. 

The only wind to which this bay is expofed, is the North 
Eaft. But as this wind blows from Maria's iflands, it can 
bring no very great fea along with it ; and therefore, upon 
the whole, this may be accounted a very fafe road. The 
bottom is clean, good holding ground ; and the depth of 
water from twelve, to five and four fathoms. But the an- 
nexed Chart will convey a better idea of every thing neceffary 
to be known about Adventure Bay, than any defcription. 

Captain Furneaux's fketch of Van Diemen's Land, pub- 
liflied with the Narrative of my laft Voyage*, appears to me 
to be without any material error, except with regard to Ma- 
ria's Iflands, which have a different fituation from what is 
there reprefented. What my idea of them is, will be feen 

* Vol. i. p. 115. 



in the fketch of that coaft here inferted ; and 1 infcrt ir, not j^\777^^.^ 
as the refuU of a more faithful, but merely of a fecond ^ — .'-— ' 
examination. The longitude was determined by a great 
number of lunar obfervations, which we had before we 
made the land, while v^e were in fight of ir, and after we 
had left it ; and reduced to Adventure Bay, and the feveral 
principal points, by the time-keeper. The following Table 
will exhibit both the longitude and latitude at one view : 

Adventure Bay, 
Tafraan's Head, 
South Cape, 
South Weft Cape, 
Swilly Ille, 

Latitude South. 

Longitude Eafr. 

43° 21' 
43 53 



29' 0" 


43 42 



43 37 



A3 55 



, , „ (Variation of the comnafs s° i^' Eaft. 

Adventure Bay, "J^^. ^ , ^ , t^ j r T ^t ji = / 
^ l Dip of the South End of the Needle 70 15-1'. 

We had high-water on the 29th, being two days before 
the laft quarter of the moon, at nine in the morning. The 
perpendicular rife then was eighteen inches ; and there 
was no appearance of its having ever exceeded two feet and 
a half. Thefe are all the memorials ufeful to navigation, 
which ray fhort flay has enabled me to preferve, with re- 
fpeft to Van Diemen's Land. 

Mr. Anderfon, my Surgeon, with his ufual diligence, 
fpent the few days we remained in Adventure Bay, in exa- 
mining the country. Elis account of its natural produc- 
tions, with which he favoured me, will more than com- 
penfate for my filence about them : fome of his remarks on 
the inhabitants will fupply what I may have omitted or re- 
prefented imperfedly ; and his fpecinien of their language, 

Vol. L * P however 

ic6 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- however fliorr, will be thought worth attending to, by thofc 
I J'"^''''''- • , ^,,[^Q ^^iQ^ jQ collecfl materials for tracing the origin of na- 
tions. I fhall only premifc, that the tall ftraight foreft 
trees, which Mr. Anderi'on the following ac- 
count, are of a difTerent fort from thofe which are found in 
ihe more Northern parts of this coafl. The wood is very 
long and clofe-grained ; extremely tough ; lit for fpars, oars, 
and many other ufes ; and would, on occafion, make good 
mafts (perhaps none better), if a method could be found to 
lighten it. 

" At the bottom of Adventure Bay is a beautiful fandy 
beach, which feems to be wholly formed by the particles 
waflied by the fea from a very fine white fand-ftone, that 
in many places bounds the Ihore, and of which Fluted 
Cape, in the neighbourhood, from its appearance, feems 
to be compofed. This beach is about two miles long, 
and is excellently adapted for hauling a feine, which 
both fliips did repeatedly with fuccefs. Behind this, is 
a plain or flat, with a fait, or rather brackifh lake (run- 
ning in length parallel with the beach), out of which 
we caught, with angling rods, many whitidi bream, 
and fome fmall trout. The other parts of the country ad- 
joining the bay are quite hilly ; and both thofe and the flat 
are an entire foreft of very tall trees, rendered almoft impalT- 
able by fhrubs, brakes of fern, and fallen trees; except on 
the fides of fome of the hills, where the trees are but thin, 
and a coarfe grafs is the only interruption. 

To the Northward of the bay there is low land, ftretching 
farther than the eye can reach, which is only covered with 
wood in certain fpots ; but we had no opportunity to exa- 
mine in what refpedls it differed from the hilly country. 




The foil on the fiat land is either fandy, or confifls of a yel- '777- 

lowifli mould, and, in fome places, of a reddifh clay. The ' . — ^ 

fame is found on the lower part of the hills ; but farther 
up, efpecially where there are few trees, it is of a grey tough 
caft, to appearance very poor. 

In the valleys between the hills, the water drains down 
from their fides ; and at laft, in fome places, forms fmall 
brooks; fuch indeed as were fufficient to fupply us with 
water, but by no means of that fize Vv^e might exped: in fo 
extenfive a country, efpecially as it is both hilly and well 
wooded. Upon the whole, it has many marks of being 
naturally a very dry country ; and perhaps might (inde- 
pendent of its wood) be compared to Africa, about the Cape 
of Good Hope, though that lies ten degrees farther North- 
ward, rather than to New Zealand, on its other fide, in the 
fame latitude, where we find every valley, however fmall, 
f urnifhed with a confiderable ftream of water. The heat too 
appears to be great, as the thermometer flood at 64, 70, and 
once at 74. And it was remarked, that birds were feldom 
killed an hour or two, before they were almofl covered with 
fmall maggots, which I would rather attribute merely to 
the heat ; as we had not any reafon to fuppofe there is a pe- 
culiar difpofition in the climate to render fubflances fooa 

No mineral bodies, nor indeed ftones of any other fort, 
but the white fand one already mentioned, were obferved. 

Amongll the vegetable produdlions, there is not one, that 
we could find, which afforded the fmalleft fubfiftence for 

The forell trees are all of one fort, growing to a great 
height, and in general quite flraight, branching but little, 

P 2 till 

io8 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- till towards the top. The bark is white, which makes them 

January. ^ 

V — 'v-^ appear, at a diflance, as if they had been peeled; it is alfo 
thick ; and within it arc fometimes collecfled, pieces of a red- 
difh tranTparent gum or refin, which has an aftringent tafte. 
The leaves of this tree are long, narrow, and pointed ; and 
it bears clufters of fmall white flowers, whofe cups were, 
a;t this time, plentifully fcattered about the ground, with 
another fort refembling them fomewhat in fliape, but much 
larger; which makes it probable that there are two /pedes of 
this tree. The bark of the fmailer branches, fruit, and 
leaves, have an agreeable pungent tafte, and aromatic fmelli 
not unlike peppermint; and in its nature, it has fome 
aflinity to the rnyrtus of botanifls. 

The moft com.mon tree, next to this, is a fmall one about 
ten feet high, branching pretty much, with narrow leaves, 
and a large, yellow, cylindrical flower, confifting only of a 
vafl; number of filaments; which, being fhed, leave a fruit 
like a pine top. Both the above-mentioned trees are un- 
known in Europe. 

The underwood confifls chiefly of a flirub fomewhat re- 
fembling a myrtle, and v/hich feems to be the kptofpermum 
fcoparium, mentioned in Dr. Forfler's Char. Gen. Plant. ; and, in 
fome places, of another, rather fmailer, which is a ixQw/pe-^ 
cies of the melaleuca of Linnceus. 

Of other plants, which are by no means numerous, there 
vs, 2l fpec'ies, oi gladiolus, rufh, bell-flower, famphire, a fmaii 
fort of wood-forrel, milk-wort, cudweed, and Job's tears ; 
with a few others, peculiar to the place. There are feveral, 
kinds of fern, as polypody, fpleenwort, female fern, and, 
fome mofles ; but the /pedes are either common, or at leaft 
found ill fome other countries, efpecially New Zealand. 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 109 

The only animal of the quadruped kind we got, was a '777- 
£on oi opojfmn, about twice the fize of a large rat; and is, 
mofl probably, the male of that /pedes found at Endea- 
vour River, as mentioned in Hawkefworth's Colledlion of 
Voyages * It is of a dullcy colour above, tinged with a 
brown or rufly caft, and whitifli below. About a third of 
the tail, towards its tip, is white, and bare underneath ; by 
which it probably hangs on the branches of trees, as it 
climbs tlicre, and lives on berries. Mr. Webber's drawins" 
will give a better idea of it than any defcription. The kan- 
goorco, another animal found farther Northward in New 
Holland, as defcribed in the fame Voyage -f-, without all 
doubt alfo inhabits here, as the natives we met with had 
fome pieces of their fl^ins ; and we feveral times faw ani- 
mals, though indi(lin6lly, run from the thickets when we 
walked in the woods, which, from the fize, could be no 
other. It fliould feem alfo, that they are in confiderable 
numbers, from the dung we faw almoft every where, and 
from the narrow tracks or paths they have made amongi^ 
the flirubbery. 

There are feveral forts of birds, but all fo fcarce and fliy, 
that they are evidently harafied by the natives, who, per- 
haps, draw much of their fubfiftence from them. In the 
woods, the principal forts are large brown hawks or eagles ; 
crows, nearly the fame as ours in England ; yellowifli pa- 
roquets ; and large pigeons. There are alfo three or four. 
fmall birds, one of which is of the thrufh kind; and ano- 
ther fmall one, with a pretty long tail, has part of the head 
and neck of a moll beautiful azure colour; from whence we 
named it motacilla cjauea. On the fliore were feveral com- 

*-Vol. iii. p. 586. t Ibid. p. 577. 


no A V O Y A G E T O 

mon and fea gulls 5 a few black oyfter catchers, or fea-pies; 
and a pretty plover of a ftone colour, with a black hood. 
About the pond or lake behind the beach, a few wild ducks 
were fecn ; and fome fhags ufed to perch upon the high 
leaflefs trees near the fhore. 

Some pretty large blackifli fnakes were feen in the woods; 
and we killed a large, hitherto unknown, lizard, fifteen 
inches long and fix round, elegantly clouded with black and 
yellow ; befides a fmall fort, of a brown gilded colour above, 
and rufly belov/. 

The fea affords a much greater plenty, and at lead as 
great a variety as the land. Of thefe the elephant fifli, or 
pejegallo, mentioned in Frezier's Voyage *, are the mod nu- 
merous ; and though inferior to many other fifh, were very 
palatable food. Several large rays, nurfes, and fmall lea- 
ther-jackets were caught; with fome fmall white bream, 
which were firmer and better than thofe caught in the lake. 
We likewife got a few foles and flounders; two forts of 
gurnards, one of them a new /pedes -, fome fmall fpotted 
mullet; and, very unexpectedly, the fmall fifli with a filver 
band on its fide, called cthcrina hepfetus by Hafi"elquifl-f. 

But that next in number, and fuperior in goodnefs, to the 
elephant fifli, was a fort none of us recollecTied to have feen 
before. It partakes of the nature both of a round and of a 
flat fifli, having the eyes placed very near each other ; the 
fore-part of the body much flattened or depreffed, and the 
refl: rounded. It is of a brownifh fandy colour, with rufly 
fpots on the upper part, and whitifh below. From the 

* Tom. ii. p. 211. i2mo. Planche XVII. t Iter Palajilnum. 



quantity of flime it was always covered with, it feems to ^in- 

1 r • 1 n January, 

live after the manner of flat fifh, at the bottom. < , f 

Upon the rocks are plenty of mufcles, and fome other 
fmall fliell fifli. There are alfo great numbers of fea-flars ; 
fome fmall limpets ; and large quantities of fponge ; one 
fort of which, that is thrown on fliore by the fea, but not 
very common, has a moft delicate texture; and another, is 
the fpongia dichoioma. 

Many pretty M?r//^V heads were found upon the beach; 
and the llinking laplyfia or fea-hare, which, as mentioned 
by fome authors, has the property of taking oif the hair by 
the acrimony of its juice j but this fort was deficient in this • 

InfecT:s, though not numerous, are here in confiderabic 
variety. Amongfl them are grafshoppers, butterflies, and 
feveral forts of fmall moths, finely variegated. There are 
two forts of dragon-flies, gad-flies, camel-flies 5 feveral forts 
of fpiders ; and fome fcorpions j but the lad are rather rare. 
The mofl troublefome, though not very numerous tribe of 
infects, are the mufquitoes ; and a large black ant, tlie 
pain of whofe bite is almoft intolerable, during the fhorc 
time it lafts. The mufquitoes, alfo, make up the defici- 
ency of their number, by the feverity of their venomous 

The inhabitants whom we met with here, had little of 
that fierce or wild appeardnce common to people in their 
fituation ; but, on the contrary, feemcd mild and cheerful, 
without referve or jealoufy of ftrangers. This, however,, 
may arife from their having little to lofe or care for. 


112 A V O Y A G E T O 

J777- With refpe^t to perfonal activity or genius, we can fay 

January. ^ ^ ■' ° . ■' 

but little of either. They do not feem to pofTefs the firfl: in 
any remarkable degree ; and as for the lad, they have, to 
appearance, lefs than even the half-animated inhabitants 
t)f Terra del Fuego, who have not invention fufHcient to 
make clothing for defending themfelves from the rigor of 
their climate, though furniflied with the materials. The 
fmall ftick, rudely pointed, which one of them carried in 
his hand, was the only thing we faw that required any me- 
chanical exertion, if we except the fixing on the feet of fome 
of them pieces of /^fl«^o5r(jo Ikin, tied with thongs; though 
it could not be learnt whether thefe were in ufe as flioes, or 
only to defend fome fore. It muft be owned, however, they 
are mailers of fome contrivance, in the manner of cutting 
their arms and bodies in lines of different lengths and direc- 
tions, which are raifed confiderably above the furface of the 
fldn, fo that it is difficult to guefs the method they ufe in 
executing this embroidery of their perfons. Their not ex- 
preffing that furprize which one might have expelled from 
their feeing men fo much unlike themfelves, and things, 
to which, we were well aflured, they had been hitherto utter 
fuangers ; their indifference for our prefents ; and their ge- 
neral inattention ; were fufficient proofs of their not poffeff- 
ing any acutenefs of underflanding. 

Their colour is a dull black, and not quite fo deep as that 
of the African Negroes. It fhould feem alfo, that they fome- 
times heightened their black colour, by fmutting their bo- 
dies ; as a mark was left behind on any clean fubftance, 
fuch as white paper, when they handled it. Their hair, 
however, is perfectly woolly, and it is clotted or divided 
into fmall parcels, like that of the Hottentots, with the ufe 



■of fome fort of c;rcafe, mixed with a red paint or ochre, /777. 

ci ' ^ ^ January. 

which they fmear in great abundance over their heads. 
This pradlice, as fome might imagine, has not the effect of 
changing their hair into the frizzling texture we obferved ; 
for, on examining the head of a boy, which appeared never 
to have been fmeared, I found the hair to be of the fame 
kind. Their nofes, though not flat, are broad and full. 
The lower part of the face projeifls a good deal, as is the 
cafe of mofi Indians I have feen; fo that a line let fall from 
the forehead, would cut off a much larger portion than it 
would in Europeans. Their eyes are of a middling fize, 
with the white lefs clear than in us ; and though not re- 
markably quick or piercing, fuch as give a frank cheerful 
caft to the whole countenance. Their teeth are broad, but 
not equal, nor well fet ; and, either from nature or from dirt, 
not of fo true a white as is ufual among people of a black 
colour. Their mouths are rather wide ; but this appear- 
ance feems heightened by wearing their beards long, and 
clotted with paint, in the fame manner as the hair on their 
heads. In other refpedls, they are well-proportioned ; 
though the belly feems rather projeding. This may be 
owing to the want of compreflion there, v.?-hich few nations 
do not ufe, more or lefs. The pofture of which they feem 
fondeft, is to Hand with one fide forward, or the upper pare 
of the body gently reclined, and one hand grafping (acrofs 
the back) the oppofice arm, which hangs down by the pro- 
jetfling fide. 

What the ancient Poets tell us of Fauns and Satyrs living 
in hollow trees, is here realized. Some wretched conftruc- 
tions of flicks, covered with bark, which do not even deferve 
the name of huts, v/ere indeed found near the fliore in the 
bay ; but thefe feemcd only to have been crecfted for tem- 

VoL. I. Q^ porary 


'777- porary purpofes ; and many of their largefl: trees were con- 

'— V ' verted into more comfortable habitations. Thefe had their 

trunks hollowed out by fire, to the height of fix or feven 
feet; and that they take up their abode in them fometimes, 
was evident from the hearths, made of clay, to contain the 
fire in the middle, leaving room for four or five perfons to 
fit round it *. At the fame time, thefe places of fhelter are 
durable; for they take care to leave one fide of the tree 
found, which is fufficient to keep it growing as luxuriantly 
as thofe which remain untouched. 

The inhabitants of this place are, doubtlefs, from the 
fame Hock with thofe of the Northern parts of New Hol- 
land. Though fome of the circumftances mentioned by 
Dampier, relative to thofe he met with on the Weflern coafl 
of this country, fuch as their defedlive fight, and want of 
fore-teeth, are not found here; and though Hawkefworth's 
account of thofe met with by Captain Cook on the Eall fide, 
lliews alfo that they differ in many refpecTts; yet fiill, upon 
the whole, I am perfuaded that diflance of place, entire fe- 
paration, diverfity of climate, and length of time, all concur- 
ring tq operate, will account for greater differences, both 
as to their perfons and as to their cuftoms, than really exitl 
between our Van Diemen's Land natives, and thofe defcribed 
by Dampier, and in Captain Cook's firfl voyage. This is cer- 
tain, that the figure of one of thofe feen in Endeavour Pviver, 
and reprefented in Sidney Parkinfon's Journal of that voyage, 
very much refembles our vifiters in Adventure Bay. That 
there is not the like refemblance in their language, is a cir- 
cumftance that need not create any difficulty. For though 

* Tafman, when in the bay of Frederick Henry, adjoining to Adventure Bay, 
found two trees, one of which was two fathoms, and the other two fathoms and a half 
in girth, and fixty or fixty-five feet high, from the root to the branches. See his 
Voyage, in Harris's Colkcfion, Campbell's Edition., Vol. i. p. 326. 



the agreement of the languages of people livmg diflant from j'^^^J" 
each other, may be affumed as a ftrong argument for their 
having fprung from one common fource ; difagreement of 
language is by no means a proof of the contrary *. 

However, we mufl have a far more intimate acquaintance 
with the languages fpoken here and in the more Northern 
parts of New Holland, before we can be warranted to pro- 
nounce that they are totally dilFerent. Nay, we have good 
grounds for the oppofite opinion ; for we found that the 
animal called kavgcoroo at Endeavour river, was known un- 
der the fame name here ; and I need not obferve, that it is 
fcarcely poflible to fuppofe that this was not tranfmitted 
from one another, but accidentally adopted by two nations, 
differing in language and extraftion. Befides, as it feems 
very improbable that the Van Diemen's Land inhabitants 
fliould have ever loft the ufe of canoes or failing vefTels, if 
they had been originally conveyed thither by fea, we muft 
necefTarily admit that they, as well as the kangooroo itfelf, 
have been ftragglers by land from the more Northern parts 

* The ingenious Author oi RUherche$ fur les Ainericains, illuflrates tlie grounds of 
this aflertion in the follov.'ing fatisfadlory manner : " C'eft quelque chofc de furpre- 
" nant, que la foule des idiomes, tous varies entr'eux, que parlent les naturels de 
" TAmerique Septentrionale. Qu'on reduire ces idiomes a des racines, qu'on ls= fim- 
" plifie, qu'on en fcpare les dialedtes & les jargons derives, il en refulte toujours cinq 
" ou fix langues-meres, refpeftivement incomprehenfibles. On a obferve la meme 
" fmgularite dans la Siberie & la Tartarie, ou le nombre des idiomes, & des dialedtes, 
" eft egalement multiplie j & rien n'eft plus commun, que d'y voir deux hordes voi- 
" fines qui ne fe comprennent point. On retrouve cette meme multiplicite de jar- 
" gons dans toutes les Provinces de I'Amerique Meridionale." [He might alfo have 
included Africa.] " II y a beaucoup d'apparence que !a ■uie fuimage^ en difperfant les 
" hommes par pct'itcs troupes tfolees dans des hats cpais, occafione n.cejjairement cette grande 
" dherfite des langues, dont le nombre diminue a mefbre que la fociete, en raflemblant 
" les barbares vagabonds, en forme un corps de nation. Alors I'idiome le plus 
" rjche, ou le m.oins pauvre en mots, dcvient dominant, & abforbe ks autres." 
Tom. i. p. 159, 160. 

0.2 Of 


'777- of the country. And if there be any force in this obferva- 

January. _ _ ^ ' 

« ^- — I tion, while it traces the origin of the people, it will, at the 

fame time, ferve to fix another point, if Captain Cook and 
Captain Fourneaux have not already decided it, that New 
Holland is no where totally divided by the fea into illands, 
as fome have imagined *. 

As the New Hollanders fceni all to be of the fame extrac- 
tion, fo neither do I think there is any thing peculiar in 
them. On the contrary, they much refemble many of the 
inhabitants whom I have feen at the iflands Tanna and 
Manicola. Nay, there is even forae foundation for hazard- 
ing a fuppofition, that they may have originally come from 
the fame place with all the inhabitants of the South Sea. 
For, of only about ten words which we could get from 
them, that which expreffes coM, differs little from that of 
New Zealand and Otaheite ; the firfl being Mallareede, the 
fecond Makkareede^ and the third Ma'reede. The reft of 
our very fcanty Van Diemen's Land Vocabulary is as fol- 

Quadne, -A ivoman. 

Eve'rai, The eye, 

Muidje, The nofe. 

Ka'my, The teeth, mouth, or tongue. 

Lae'renne, Afmall bird, a native of the ivcods here» 

Koy'gee, "^he ear. 

No'onga, Elevated fears on the body. 

Teegera, To eat. 

Toga'rago, I mujl be gone, or, I luill go. 

Their pronunciation is not difagreeable, but rather quick; 
though not more fo than is that of other nations of the 

* Dampier feems to be of this opinion. Vol. iii. p. 104. 125. 

^ South 

Vl K »' ,f //,',■ South •i'uU- ,'/'.i/}ri:.\Tl-/{E Ji.lY 

J^j-Ay of AuvENTriiic JS.iy 

Van .DIEME^^S ]L.\JX1> 

l^at iJ^.-iJ.ioS. I.ou^":i47.2.i_A'. \'av^\6.i^ J^./JJJ. 

Naiit'ic , Miles. 


South Sea: and, if we may depend upon the affinity of Ian- 1777- 

•' * * _ ' _ _ January. 

guages as a clue to guide us in difcovering the origin of 
nations, I have no doubt but we fliall find, on a diligent 
inquiry, and when opportunities offer to colle(51: accurately. 
a fufficient number of thefe words, and to compare them, 
that all the people from New Holland, Eaftward to Eaflei' 
Ifland, have been derived from the fame common root *." 

* We find Mr. Anderfon's notions on this fuhjeft conformable to thofe of Mr, 
Marfden, who has remarked, " that one general language prevailed (however muti- 
" lated and changed in the courfe of time) throughout all this portion of the world, 
" from Madagafcar to the mofl: diftant difcoveries Eaftward ; of which the Malay is a 
" dialecft, much corrupted or refined by a mixture of other tongues. This very ex- 
" tenfive fimilarity of language indicates a common origin of the inhabitants ; but 
" the circumftances and progrefs of their feparation are wrapped in the darkeft veil of 
" obfcurity." Hi/lory of Sumatra, p. 35. 

See alfo his very curious paper, read before the Society of Antiquaries, and pub- 
W^cA \n thexT Jrchaologia, Vol. vi. p. 155; where his fentiments on this fubjeiSt are 
explained more at large, and illuftrated by two Tables of correfponding Words. 


ii8 A V O Y A G E T O 


"The Pajfage from Van 'Dkjnens Land to New Zealand. — 
Employ?nents in ^een Charlottes Sound. — TranfaSiions 
with the Natives there. — Intellige?2Ce about the Majfacre 
of the Adventures Boats Crew. — Account of the Chief 
who headed the Party on that Occafon. — Of the two 
young Men who embark to attend Ofnai. — Various Re- 
marks on the Inhabita?its. — Aflronomical and Nautical 

,^^7, /^ T eight o'clock in the morning of the 30th of January, 

. J"''" "'""^' . x\. a Hght breeze fpringing up at Weft, we weighed an- 

Thurfday3o. ^hoF, and put to fca from Adventure Bay. Scon after, the 

wind veered to the Southward, and increafed to a perfect: 

ftorm. Its fury abated in the evening, when it veered to 

the Eaft and North Eaft. 

This gale was indicated by the barometer, for the wind 
no fooner began to blow, than the mercury in the tube bs- 
gan to fall. Another remarkable thing attended the coming 
on of this wind, which was very faint at iirft. It brought 
with it a degree of heat that was almoft intolerable. The 
mercury in the thermometer rofe, as it were inftantane- 
oufly, from about 70° to near 90°. Ihis heat v/as of fo 
fliort a continuance, that it feemed to be wafted away be- 
fore the breeze that brought itj fo that fome on board did 
not perceive it. 



We purfued our courfe to the Eallward, without meeting ^ »777- 

^ _ " February. 

with any thing worthy of note, till the night between the ■ ^--^ 

6th and 7th of February, when a marine belonging to the Friday 7. 
Difcovery fell over-board, and was never feen afterward. 
This was the fecond misfortune of the kind that had hap- 
pened to Captain Gierke fince he left England. 

On the loth, at four in the afternoon, we difcovered the Monday 10. 
land of New Zealand. The part we fliw proved to be Rock's 
Point, and bore South Eaft by South, about eight or nine 
leagues ditlant. During this run from Van Diemen's Land, 
the wind, for the firft four or five days, was at North Eaft, 
North, and North North Weft, and blew, for the moil: part, 
a gentle breeze. It afterward veered to South Eaft, where 
it remained tv^enty-four hours. It then came to Weft and 
South Weft ; in which points it continued, with very little 
deviation, till we reached New Zealand. 

After making the land, I fteered for Cape Farewell, which 
at day-break, the next morning, bore South by Weft, diftant Tuefday n, 
about four leagues. At eight o'clock, it bore South Weft by 
South, about five leagues diftant; and, in this fituation, we 
had forty-five fathoms water over a fandy bottom. In 
rounding the Cape we had fifty fathoms, and the fame fore 
of bottom. 

I now fteered for Stephens's Iftand, which we came up 
with at nine o'clock at night; and at ten, next morning, an- y/edneC. 12. 
chored in our old ftation, in Queen Charlotte's Sound *. 
Unwilling to lofe any time, our operations commenced that 
very afternoon, when we landed a number of empty water- 
cafks, and began to clear a place where we might fet up 

* See Ae Chart of Qiieen Charlotte's Sound, in Ka\vk?f\y«rth's Collection, Vol. ii. 
P- 3«5- 5 


lao A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- the two obfervatories, and tents for the reception of a ^uard, 

February. _ i <~> 

,'—— V ' and of fuch of our people whofe bufinefs might make it ne- 

cefTary for them to remain on fliore. 

We had not been long at anchor before feverai canoes, 
filled with natives, came along-fide of the fhips ; but very- 
few of them would venture on board ; which appeared the 
more extraordinary, as I was well known to them all. There 
was one man in particular amongft them, whom I had 
treated with remarkable kindnefs, during the whole of my 
day when I was lad here. Yet now, neither profelTions of 
friendfliip, nor prefents, could prevail upon him to come 
into the fhip. This fliynefs was to be accounted for only 
upon this fuppofition, that they were apprehenfive we had 
revilited their country, in order to revenge the death of Cap- 
tain Furneaux's people. Seeing Omai on board my fhip 
now, v.'hom they muft have remembered to have reen on 
board the Adventure when the melancholy affair happened, 
and whofe firft converfation with them, as they approached, 
generally turned on that fubjeifl, they muft be well alTured 
that 1 was no longer a ftranger to it. I thought it neceffary, 
therefore, to ufe every endeavour to afTure them of the con- 
tinuance of my friendfliip, and that I fliould not difturb 
them on that account. I do not know whether this had any 
weight with them; but certain it is, that they very foon laid 
afide all manner of reftraint and diftruft. 

Thurfdayi5. ^^ ^^^^ ^3^^^ ^^ ^^^ "P ^^^ tcnts, onc from each fliip; on 
the fame fpot Vv^here we had pitched them formerly. The 
obfervatories were at the fame time erecfted; and iMeffrs. 
King and Bayly began their operations immediately, to find 
the rate of the time-keeper, and to make other obfervations. 
The remainder of the empty water-caflcs were alfo fent on 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. i;i 

iliore, with the cooper to trim, and a fufficient number of '777- 

f -I J-"!! 1 nr- • . . February. 

iailors to lill them. Two men were appomted to brew \_— v-..^ 
fpruce beer ; and the carpenter and his crew were ordered 
to cut wood. A boat, with a party of men, under the di- 
recflion of one of the mates, was fent to colle(5l grafs for our 
cattle ; and the people that remained on board were em- 
ployed in refitting the fliip, and arranging the provifions. 
In this manner, we were all profitably bufied during our 
flay. For the protection of the party on fhore, I appointed 
a guard of ten marines, and ordered arms for all the work- 
men ; and Mr. King, and two or three petty ofEcers, con- 
flantly remained with them. A boat was never fent to any 
confiderable diftance from the fhips without being armed, 
and under the direc5lion of fuch officers as I could depend 
upon, and who were well acquainted with the natives. 
During my former vifics to this country, I had never taken 
fome of thefe precautions ; nor were they, I firmly believe, 
more nccefTary now than they had been formerly. But after 
the tragical fate of the Adventure's boat's crew in this 
found, and of Captain Marion du Frefne, and of fome of 
his people, in the Bay of Iflands*, it was impofTiblc totally 
to divell ourfelves of all apprehenfion of experiencing a 
limilar calamity. 

If the natives entertained any fufpicion of our revenging 
thefe ac^s of barbarity, they very foon laid it afide. For, 
during the courfe of this day, a great number of families 
came from dillerent parts of the coalt, and took up their re- 
fidence clofe to us ; fo that there was not a fpot in the cove 
where a hut could be put up, that Vv^as not occupied by 
them, except the place where we had fixed our little en- 

* In 1772. 

Vol. I. R campment. 

122 A V O Y A G E T O 

FeWr- campment. This they left us in quiet pofTefTion of; hut 
they came and took away the ruins of fonie old huts thac 
were there, as materials for their new eredlions. 

It is curious to obferve with what facility they build thefe 
occafional places of abode. I have feen above twenty of 
them eredted on a fpot of ground, that, not an hour before, 
•was covered with flirubs and plants. They generally bring 
fome part of the materials with them ; the reft they find 
upon the premifes. I was prefent when a number of people 
landed, and built one of thefe villages. The -moment the 
canoes reached the fliore, the inen leaped out, and at once 
took polTeffion of a piece of ground, by tearing up the plants 
and flirubs, or fticking up fome part of the framing of a 
hut. They then returned to their canoes, and fecured their 
weapons, by fetting them up againft a tree, or placing them 
in fuch a pofition, that they could be laid hold of in an in- 
ftant. I took particular notice that no one neglected this 
precaution. While the men were employed in raifing tlic 
huts, the women were not idle. Some were flationed to 
take care of the canoes ; others to fecure the provifions, and 
the few utenfils in their pofTeflion ; and the reft went to ga- 
ther dry fticks, that a fire might be prepared for dreffing 
their vidtuals. As to the children, I kept them, as alfa 
fome of the more aged, fufliciently occupied in fcrambling 
for beads, till I had emptied my pockets, and then I left 

Thefe temporary habitations are abundantly fufiicient to 
afford flicker from the wind and rain, which is the only 
purpofe tliey are meant to anfwer. I obferved that, gene- 
rally, if not always, the fame tribe or family, though it were 
ever fo large, afTociated and built together ; fo that we fre- 
7 quently 


quently faw a village, as well as their larger towns, divided p/J^^: 

into different diflri(5ts, by low pallifades, or fome fimilar ^' , — -» 

mode of reparation. 

The advantage we received from the natives coming to 
live with us, was not inconfiderable. For, every day, when 
the weather Vk'ould permit, fome of them went out to catch 
lifli; and we generally got, by exchanges, a good fliare of 
the produce of their labours. This fupply, and what our 
own nets and lines afforded us, was fo ample, that we fel- 
dom were in want of fifli. Nor was there any deficiency of 
other refrelliments. Celery, fcurvy-grafs, and portable foup 
were boiled v/ith the peafe and wheat, for both fhips com- 
panies, every day during our whole flay; and they had 
fpruce-beer for their drink. So that, if any of our people 
had contra6led the' feeds of the fcurvy, fuch a regimen foon 
removed them. But the truth is, when we arrived here, 
there were only two invalids (and thefe on board the Refo- 
lution) upon the fick lifls in both fliips. 

Befides the natives who took up their abode clofe to us, 
we were occafionally vifired by others of them, whofe refi- 
dence was not far off; and by fome who lived more remote. 
Their articles of commerce were, curiofities, fifh, and wo- 
men. The two firfl always came to a good market ; which 
the latter did not. The feamen had taken a kind of diflike 
to thefe people; and were either unwilling, or afraid, to 
aflbciate with them ; which produced this good effec5l, that 
I knew no inflance of a man's quitting his flation, to go to 
their habitations. 

A connexion with women I allow, becaufe I cannot pre- 
vent it ; but never encourage, becaufe I always dread its 
confequences. I know, indeed, that many men are of opi- 

R 2 nion, 

124 A V O Y A G E T O. 

^'77- nion, that fuch an intercourfe is one of our greatefl; fccurities- 

February, , i i • i j.- 

amongft favages ; and perhaps they who, either trom ne- 
ceffity or choice, are to remain and fettle with them, may 
find it fo. But with travehers and tranfient vifuers, fuch as 
we were, it is generally otherwife ; and, in our firuation, a 
connecflion with their women betrays more men it 
faves. What elfe can be reafonably expected, fmce all their 
views are felfifh, without the lead mixture of regard or at- 
tachment ? My own experience, at leaf!, which hath been 
pretty extenfive, hath not pointed out to me one inflance tO' 
the contrary. 

Amongft our occafional vifiters, was a chief named Ka- 
hoora, who, as I was informed, headed the party that cut 
off Captain Furneaux's people, and himfelf killed Mr. Rowe» 
the officer who commanded. To judge of the characfler of 
Kahoora, by what I heard from many of his countrymen, 
he feemed to be more feared than beloved amongft them. 
Not fatisfied with telling me that he was a very bad man, 
fome of them even importuned me to kill him: and, I be- 
lieve, they were not a little furprifed that I did not liften to 
them ; for, according to their ideas of equity, this ought to ^ 

have been done. But if I had followed the advice of all our 
pretended friends, I might have extirpated the whole race; 
for the people of each hamlet or village, by turns, applied 
to me to deftroy the other. One would have almoft thought 
it impoffible, that fo ftriking a proof of the divided ftate in 
which this miferable people live, could have been affigned. 
And yet 1 was fure that I did not mifconceive the meaning 
of thole who made thefe ftrange applications to me; for 
Omai, whofe language v/as a dialedt of their own, and per- 
fedly underilood all that they faid, was our interpreter. 

1 On 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 125 

On the 15th, I made an excurfion in my boat to look for , »7/7- 


grafs, and vilited the Piippah, or fortified village at tlie ^ • 

South Weft point of Motuara, and the places where our " ' ^ ^' 
gardens had been planted on that ifland. There were no 
people at the former; but the houfes and pallifades had 
been rebuilt, and were now in a ftate of good repair; and 
there were other evident marks of its having been inha- 
bited not long before. It would be unneceflary, at prefenr, 
to give a particular account of this Hippah, fufficient notice 
having been taken of it in the Account of my firft Voyage, 
to which I refer*; and to the annexed drawing, which re- 
prefents part of the infide of the village, and will convey a 
better idea of it, than any written defcription. 

When the Adventure arrived firft at Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, in 1773!, Mr. Bayly fixed upon this place for mak- 
ing his obfervations ; and he, and the people with him, at 
their leifure hours, planted f>."veral fpots with Englifh gar- 
den feeds. Not the leaft veftige of thefe now remained. It 
is probable that they had been all rooted out to make room 
for buildings, when the village was reinhabited : for, at all 
the othei gardens then planted by CaptainFurneaux, although 
now wholly over-run with the weeds of the cou^ntry, we 
found cabbages, onions, leeks, purllain, radiOies, muftard, 
&c. and a few potatoes.' Thefe potatoes, which were firft 
brought from the Cape of Good Hope, had been greatly 
improved by change of foil ; and, with proper cultivation,, 
would be fuperior to thofe produced in moll, other countries. 
Though the New Zealanders are fond of this root, it was 
evident that tliey had not taken the trouble ro plant a fingle 
one (much lefs any other of the articles which we had in^- 

* Hawkefworth's Colledion, Vol. ii. p. 395, &c, 
+ Cook's Voyage, Vol. i. p. 120. 

troduced) ;. 

126 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777- troduced) ; and if it were not for the difficulty of clearing 

Febraaiy. , , , i i i i i 

t ^ , ground where potatoes had been once planted, there would 

not have been any now remaining. 

Sunday 16. On the 1 6th, at day-break, I fet out with a party of men, 
in five boats, to colled food for our cattle. Captain Gierke, 
and feveral of the officers, Omai, and two of the natives, 
accompanied me. We proceeded about three leagues up 
the found, and then landed on the Eaft fide, at a place 
where I had formerly been. Here we cut as much grafs as 
loaded the two launches. 

As we returned down the found, we vifited Grafs Cove, 
the memorable fcene of the MalTacre of Captain Furneaux's 
people. Here I met with ray old friend Pedro, who was 
almoft continually with me the lafl: time I was in this found, 
and is mentioned in my Hiftory of that Voyage * He, and 
another of his countrymen, received us on the beach, 
armed with the pa-too and fpear. Whether this form of 
reception was a mark of their courtefy or of their fear, I 
cannot fay; but I thought they betrayed manifeft figns of 
the latter. However, if they had any apprehenfions, a few 
prefents foon removed them, and brought down to the beach 
two or three more of the family ; but the greateft part of 
them remained out of fight. 

Whilft we were at this place, our curiofity prompted us to 
inquire into the circumllances attending the melancholy 
fate of our countrymen ; and Omai was made ufe of as our 
interpreter for this purpofe. Pedro, and the reft of the na- 
tives prefent, anfwered all the queftions that were put to 
fhem on the fubjed', without refer%'e, and hke men who 

'■"■■ Captain Cook's Voyage, VoL ii. p. 158, 159. 



are under no dread of punifliment for a crime of which „ \i~i- 


they are not guihy. For we already knew that none of 
them had been concerned in the unhappy tranfacftion. They 
told us, that while our people were fitting at dinner, fur- 
rounded by feveral of the natives, fome of the latter ftole, or 
fnatched from them, fome bread and fifh, for which they 
were beat. This being refented, a quarrel enfued, and two 
New Zealanders were fhot dead, by the only two mufquets 
that were fired. For before our people had time to dif- 
charge a third, or to load again thofe that had been fired, 
the natives rufhed in upon them, overpowered thern with 
their numbers, and put them all to death. Pedro and his 
. companions, befides relating the hiflory of the mafTacre, 
made us acquainted with the very fpot that was the fcene of 
it. It is at the corner of the cove on the right-hand. They 
pointed to the place of the fun, to mark to us at what hour 
of the day it happened ; and, according to this, it muft have 
been late in the afternoon. They alfo fliewed us the place 
where the boat lay ; and it appeared to be about two hun- 
dred yards diltant from that where the crew were feated. 
One of their number, a black fervant of Captain Furneaux, 
was left in the boat to take care of her. 

We were afterv/ard told that this black was the caufe of 
the quarrel, which was faid to have happened thus: One of 
the natives dealing fomething out of the boat, the Negro 
gave him a fevere blow with a flick. The cries of the fel- 
low being heard by his countrymen at a diftance, they 
imagined he was killed, and immediately began the attack 
on our people; who, before they had time to reach the 
boat, or to arm themfelves againfl tlie unexpecfled impend- 
ing danger, fell a facrifice to the fury of their favage afTail- 



128 ■ A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- The firfl: of thefe accounts, was confirmed by the teflimony 

February. ■^ 

' . ' of many of the natives, whom we converfed with, at differ- 
ent times, and who, I think, could have no interefl in de- 
ceiving us. The fecond manner of relating the tranfa(5tion, 
refts upon the authority of the young New Zealander, who 
chofe to abandon his country and go away with us, and 
who, confequently, could have no poffible view in difguif- 
ing the truth. All agreeing that the quarrel happened when 
the boat's crew were fitting at their meal, it is highly pro- 
bable that both the accounts are true, as they perfedtly co- 
incide. For we may very naturally fuppofe, that while 
fome of the natives were Healing from the man who had 
been left in the boat, others of them might take the fame 
liberties with the propertj^ of our people who were on fliore. 

Ee this as it will, all agree, that the quarrel firft took its 
rife from fome thefts, in the commiffion of which the na- 
tives were detected. All agree, alfo, that there was no pre- 
meditated plan of bloodflied, and tliat, if thefe thefts had 
not been, unfortunately, too haftily refented, no mifchief 
would have happened. For Kahoora's greatefl enemies, 
thofe who folicited his deflrudlion mod earneftly, at the 
fame time confelTed tliat he had no intention to quarrel, 
much lefs to kill, till the fray had actually commenced. It 
alfo appears that the unhappy vicTtims were under no fort of 
apprehenfion of their fate ; otherwife they never would have 
ventured to fit down to a rdpail: at fo confiderable a dhlance 
from their boat, amongfl people who were the next moment 
to be their murderers. What became of the boat I never 
could learn. Some faid flie was pulled to pieces and burnt; 
others told us that flie was carried, they knew not whither, 
by a party of flrangers. 



We flayed here till the eveninG;, when, havin? loaded the „ '777- 

^ <^ c> February. 

reft of the boats with grafs, celery, fcurvy-grafs, &c. we *■ 
embarked to return to the fliips. We had prevailed upon 
Pedro to launch his canoe, and accompany us ; but we had 
fcarcely put off from the fhore, when the wind began to blow 
very hard at North Weft, which obliged him to put back. 
We proceeded ourfelves, but it was with a good deal of dif- 
ficulty that we could reach the fliips ; where fome of the 
boats did not arrive till one o'clock the next morning; and Monday 17: 
it was fortunate that they got on board then, for it after- 
ward blew a perfetft florm, with abundance of rain, fo that 
no manner of work could go forward that day. In the 
evening the gale ceafed, and the wind having veered to the 
Eaft, brought with it fair weather. 

The next day we refumed our works ; the natives ven- Tuefdayis. 
tured out to catch fifli ; and Pedro, with all his family, came 
and took up hi§ abode near us. This Chief's proper name 
is Matahouah ; the other being given him by fome of my 
people during my lafl Voyage, which I did not know till 
now. He was, however, equally well known amongfl his 
countrymen by both names. 

On the 20th, in the forenoon, we had another florm from Thurfday2o4 
the North Weft. Though this was not of fo long continu- 
ance as the former, the gufts of wind from the hills were 
far more violent, infomuch that we were obliged to ftrike 
the yards and top-mafts to the very utmofl ; and, even with 
all this precaution, it was with difSculty that we rode it 
out. Thefe florms are very frequent here, and fometimes 
violent and troublefome. The neighbouring mountains, 
which at thefe times are always loaded with vapours, not 
only increafe the force of the wind, but alter its direcTiion in 

Vol. I. . K.. S fucli 




fuch a manner, that no two blafts follow each other from 
the fame quarter ; and the nearer the fliore, the more their 
efFe(fb3 are felt. 

The next day we were vifited by a tribe or family, con- 
fifling of about thirty perfons, men, women, and children, 
■who came from the upper part of the Sound. I had never 
feen them before. The name of their Chief was Toma- 
tongeauooranuc ; a man of about forty-five years of age, 
with a cheerful open countenance. And, indeed, the reft 
of his tribe were, in general, the handfomeft of the New 
Zealand race I had ever met with. 

By this time more than two-thirds of the inhabitants of 
the Sound had fettled themfelves about us. Great numbers 
of them daily frequented the fliips, and the encampment on 
fhore: but the latter became, by far, the moft favourite 
place of refort, while our people there were melting fome 
feal blubber. No Greenlander was ever fonder of train-oil, 
than our friends here feemed to be. They relifhed the very 
fkimmings of the kettle, and dregs of the cafks; but a little 
of the pure ftinking oil was a delicious feafl, fo eagerly de- 
fired, that 1 fuppofe it is feldom enjoyed. 

Having got on board as much hay and grafs as we judged 
fufficient to ferve the cattle till our arrival at Otaheite, and 
having completed the wood and water of both lliips, on 
Sunday 23. the 23d we fcruck our tents, and carried every thing off 
Monday 24. from the fhore; and next morning we weighed anchor, and 
flood out of the Cove. But the wind not being very fair, 
and finding that the tide of ebb would be fpent before we 
could get out of the Sound, we caft anchor again a little 
without the ifland Motuara, to wait for a more favour- 
able opportunity of putting into the ftrait. 




While we were unmooring and getting under fail, To- 1777- 
matongeauooranuc, Matahouah, and many more of the ^ '^"*'^^* 
natives, came to take their leave of us, or rather to obtain, 
if they could, fome additional prefents from us before we 
left them. Thefe two Chiefs became fuitors to me for fome 
goats and hogs. Accordingly, I gave to Matahouah two 
goats, a male and female with kid ; and to Tomaton- 
geauooranuc two pigs, a boar and a fow. They made me 
a promife not to kill them ; though I muft own I put no 
great faith in this. The animals which Captain Furneaux 
fent on fliore here, and which foon after fell into the hands 
of the natives, I was now told were all dead ; but I could get 
no intelligence about the fate of thofe I had left in Weft Bay, 
and in Cannibal Cove, when I was here in the courfe of my 
laft Voyage. However, all the natives, whom I converfed with 
agreed, that poultry are now to be met with wild in the 
woods behind Ship Cove ; and I was afterward informed, 
by the two youths who went away with us, that Tiratou, a 
popular Chief amongft them, had a great many cocks and 
hens in his feparate pofleffion, and one of the fows. 

On my prefent arrival at this place, I fully intended to have 
left not only goats and hogs, but flieep, and a young bull, 
with two heifers, if I could have found either a Chief power- 
ful enough to protecft and keep them, or a place where 
there might be a probability of their being concealed from, 
thofe who would ignorantly attempt to deftroy them. But 
neither the one nor the other prefented itfelf to me. Tira- 
tou was now abfent ; and Tringoboohee, whom I had met 
with during my lad Voyage *, and who fcemed to be a,per- 
fon of much confequence at that time, had been killed five 

* Sec Cook's Voya2,e, Vol, ii. p. 157. 

S 2 months 

132 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777. months a.20, with about feventy perfons of his tribe: and I 

February. '-' , "^ '^ 

could not learn that there now remained in our neighbour- 
hood any tribe, whofe numbers could fecure to them a fu- 
periority of power over the reft of their countrymen. To 
have given the animals to any of the natives who pofTefTed 
no fuch power, would not have anfwered the intention. 
For in a country like this, where no man's property is fe- 
cure, they would foon have fallen a prey to different parties, 
and been either feparated or killed ; but moft likely both. 
This was fo evident, from what we had obferved fince our 
arrival, that I had refolved to leave no kind of animal, till 
Matahouah and the other Chief folicited me for the hogs 
and goats. As I could fpare them, I let them go, to take 
their chance. I have, at different times, left in New Zea- 
land, not lefs than ten or a dozen hogs, befides thofe put 
on Ihore by Captain Furneaux. It will be a little extraor- 
dinary, therefore, if this race fliould not increafe and be 
preferved here, either in a wild or in a domeftic ftatc, or in 

We had not been long at anchor near Motuara, before 
three or four canoes, filled with natives, came off to us 
from the South Eaft fide of the Sound; and a briflc trade was 
carried on with them for the curiofities of this place. In one 
of thefe canoes was Kahoora, whom I have already men- 
tioned as the leader of the party who cut oil the crew of the 
Adventure's boat. This was the third time he had vifited 
us, without betraying the fmalleft appearance of fear. I 
was afhorc when he now arrived, but had got on board juft 
as he was going away. Omai, who had returned with me, 
prefently pointed him out, and folicited me to flioot him. 
Not fatisfied with this, he addrefled himfelf to Kahoora, 



threatening to be his executioner, if ever he prcfumed to ^ yiii- 

" * February. 

vifit us again. < , — ^ 

The New Zealander paid fo little regard to thefe threats, 
that he returned, the next morning, with his whole family, Tuefday 25, 
men, women, and children, to the number of twenty and 
upwards. Omai was the iirft who acquainted me with his 
being along-fide the fliip, and defired to know if he fhould 
afli him to come on board. I told him he might; and ac- 
cordingly he introduced the Chief into the cabin, faying, 
" There is Kahoora; kill him!" Bur, as if he had forgot 
his former threats, or were afraid that I fliould call upon 
him to perform them, he immediately retired. In a fhorc 
time, however, he returned ; and feeing the Chief unhurt, 
he expoilulated with me very earneftly, faying, '' Why do 
'« you not kill him? You tell me, if a man kills another in 
" England, that he is hanged for it. This man has killed 
" ten, and yet you will not kill him ; though many of his 
" countrymen defire it, and it would be very good." Omai's 
arguments, though fpecious enough, having no weight 
with me, I defired him to afic the Chief, why he had killed 
Captain Furneaux's people ? At this queftion, Kahoora fold- 
ed his arms, hung down his head, and looked like one 
caught in a trap : And, I firmly believe, he expected inftant 
death. But no fooner was he aflTured of his fafety, than he 
became cheerful. He did not, however, feem willing to 
give me an anfwer to the quefl:ion that had been put to him, 
till I had, again and again, repeated my promife that he 
fhould not be hurt. Then he ventured to tell us, That one 
of his countrymen having brought a ftone hatchet to barter, 
the man, to whom it was offered, took it, and would neither 
return it, nor give any thing for it ; on which the owner of 
8 it 

134 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777- it fnatched up the bread as an equivalent; and then the quar- 


rel began. 

The remainder of Kahoora's account of this unhappy af- 
fair, differed very little from what we had befoi'e learnt, 
from the reft of his countrymen. He mentioned the narrow 
efcape he had, during the fray; a mufquet being levelled at 
him, which he avoided by fkulking behind the boat ; and 
another man, who ftood clofe to him, was fliot dead. As 
foon as the mufquet was difcharged, he inftantly feized the 
opportunity to attack Mr. Rowe, who commanded the party, 
and who defended himfelf with his hanger (with which he 
wounded Kahoora in the arm), till he was overpowered by 

Mr. Burney, who was fent by Captain Furneaux the next 
day *, with an armed party, to look for his miffing people, 
upon difcovering the horrid proofs of their (hocking fate, 
had fired feveral vollies amongft the crowds of natives who 
ftill remained aflembled on the fpot, and were, probably, 
partaking of the deteftable banquet. It was natural to fup- 
pofe that he had not fired in vain ; and that, therefore, fome 
of the murderers and devourers of our unhappy country- 
men had fufFered under our juft refentment. Upon inquiry, 
however, into this matter, not only from Kahoora, but 
from others who had opportunities of knowing, it appeared 
that our fuppofition was groundlefs, and that not one of the 
fliot fired by Mr. Burney's people had taken ellecT:, fo as to 
kill, or even to hurt, a fingle perfon. 

It was evident, that moft of the natives we had met with 
fince our arrival, as they knew I was fully acquainted with 

* See his Narrative. Cook's Voyage, Vol. ii, p. 255 — 259. 



the hiftory of the maflacre, expecfted I fliould avenge it with „ 1777- 

' * " February. 

the death of Kahoora. And many of them feemed not only ' r-—^ 

to wifli it, but exprcfled their furprize at my forbearance. 
As he could not be ignorant of this, it was a matter of won- 
der to me, that he put himfelf fo often in my power. When 
he vifited us while the fhips lay in the Cove, confiding in 
the number of his friends that accompanied him, he might 
think himfelf fafe. But his two laft vifits had been made 
under fuch circumftances, that he could no longer rely 
upon this. We were then at anchor in the entrance of the 
Sound, and at fome diftance from any fhore ; fo that he 
could not have any affiftance from thence, nor flatter him- 
felf he could have the means of making his efcape, had I 
determined to detain him. And yet, after his firft fears, on 
being interrogated, were over, he was fo far from enter- 
taining any uneafy fenfations, that, on feeing a portrait of 
one of his countrymen hanging up in the cabin, he defired 
to have his own portrait drawn ; and fat till Mr. Webber 
had finifhed it, without marking the lead impatience. I 
mull confefs, I admired his courage, and was not a little 
pleafed to obferve the extent of the confidence he put in 
me. For he placed his whole fafety in the declarations I 
had uniformly made to thofe who folieited his death, That 
I had always been a friend to them all, and would continue 
fo, unlefs they gave me caufe to a(5t otherwife : that as to 
their inhuman treatment of our people, I fliould think no 
more of it, the tranfadion having happened long ago, and 
when I was not prefent; but that, if ever they made a 
fecond attempt of that kind, they might reft alTured of feel- 
ing the weight of my refentmenc. 

For fome time before we arrived at New Zealand, Omai 
had expreffed a defire to take one of the natives with him to 

9 his 


^'777- his own country. We had not been there many days, be- 
fore he had an opportunity of being gratified in this ; for a 
youth about feventeen or eighteen years of age, named 
Taweiharooa, offered to accompany him ; and took up his 
refulence on board. I paid Httle attention to this at firft, 
imagining that he would leave us when we were about to 
depart, and after he had got what he could from Omai. 
At length, finding that he was fixed in his refolution to go 
with us, arui having learnt that he was the only fon of a 
deceafed Chief, and that his mother, fiill living, was a wo- 
man much refpe6ted here, I was apprehenfive that Omai 
had deceived him and his friends, by giving them hopes 
and afiTurances of his being fent back. I therefore caufed it 
to be made known to them all, that if the young man went 
away with us, he would never return. But this declaration 
feemed to make no fort of impreffion. The afternoon be- 
fore we left the Cove, Tiratoutou, his mother, came on 
board, to receive her lad prefent from Omai. The fame 
evening, flie and Taweiharooa parted, with all the marks of 
tender affection that might be expedled between a parent 
and a child, who were never to meet again. But flie faid 
fhe would cry no more; and, fure enough, (he kept her 
word. For when fhe returned the next morning, to take 
her lall farewell of him, all the time fhe was on board llie 
remained quite cheerful, and went away wholly uncon- 

That Taweiharooa might be fent away in a manner be- 
coming his birth, another youth was to have gone with him 
as his fervant ; and, with this view, as we fuppofed, he re- 
mained on board till we were about to fail, when his friends 
took him afliore. However, his place was fupplied, next 
morning, by another, a boy of about nine or ten years of 



aee, named Kokoa. He was prefented to me bv his own ^^p7- 

o ' r ^ ' ^ Fsbruar}*. 

father, who, I believe, would have parted with his dog 
with far lefs indifference. The very little clothing the boy- 
had, he llript him of, and left him as naked as he was born. 
It was to no purpofe that I endeavoured to convince thefe 
people of the improbability, or rather of the impoffibility, 
of thefe youths ever returning home. Not one, not even 
their nearefl: relations, feemed to trouble themfelves about 
their future fate. Since this was the cafe, and I was well 
fatisfied that the boys would be no lofers by exchange of 
place, I the more readily gave my confent to their going. 

From my own obfervations, and from the information of 
Taweiharooa and others, it appears to me that the New 
Zealanders muft live under perpetual apprehenflons of be- 
ing deftroyed by each otlier; there being few of their tribes 
that have not, as they think, fuftained wrongs from fome 
other tribe^ which they are continually upon the watch to 
revenge, And, perhaps, the defire of a good meal may be 
no fmall incitement. I am told that many years will fome- 
times elapfe, before a favourable opportunity happens, and- 
that the fon never lofes fight of an injury that has been 
done to his father. Their method of executing their hor- 
rible defigns, is by Healing upon the adverfe party in the 
night ; and if they find them unguarded (which, however, 
I believe, is very feldom the cafe), they kill every one indif- 
criminately ; not even fparing the women and children. 
When the maffacre is completed, they either feafl and gorge 
themfelves on the fpot, or carry off as many of the dead 
bodies as they can, and devour them at home, with a6ls of 
brutality too fhocking to be defcribed. If they are difco- 
vered before they can execute their bloody purpofe, they 
generally fleai off again j and fometimes are purfued and 

Vol. I. T attacked 


^'777- attacked by the Other party, in their turn. To eive quarter, 

February. ■> i j > 017 

or to take prifoners, makes no part of their military law; 
Ho that the vanquifhed can only fave their lives by flight. 
This perpetual flate of war, and deftru(rtive method of con- 
ducting it, operates fo fl:rongly in producing habitual cir- 
cumfpe(5tion, that one hardly ever finds a New Zealander off 
his guard, either by night or by d^j. Indeed, no other man 
can have fuch powerful motives to be vigilant, as the pre- 
fervation both of body and of foul depends upon it. For, 
according to their fyflem of belief, the foul of the man 
■whofe flefli is devoured by the enemy, is doomed to a per- 
petual fire, while the foul of the man whofe body has been 
refcued from thofe who killed bim, as well as the fouls of 
all who die a natural death, afcend to the habitations of the 
Cods. I afked, Whether they eat the flefh of luch of their 
friends as had been killed in war, but whofe bodies were 
faved from falling into the enemy's hands ? They feemed 
furprifed at the queftion, which they anfwered in the nega- 
tive, exprefling fome abhorrence at the very idea. Their 
common method of difpofing of their dead, is by depofit- 
ing their bodies in the earth; but if they have more of 
their flaughtered enemies than they can eat, they throw 
them into the iea. 

They have no fuch thing as morais, or other places of 
public worfhip; nor do they ever afTemble together with 
this view. But they have Priefts, who alone addrefs the 
Gods in prayers, for the profperity of their temporal affairs ; 
fuch as an enterprife againft a hoftile tribe, a fifliing party, 
or the like. 

Whatever the principles of their religion may be, of which 
we remain very ignorant, its inftrudions are very ftrongly 



inciilcated into them from their very infancy. Of this I ^ '777- 

•' rebruary.- 

faw a remarkable inftance, in the youth who was firft de- ' . ' 

ftincd to accompany Taweiharooa. He refrained from eat- 
ing the gfcateft part of the day, on account of his hair being 
cut ; though every method was tried to induce him to break 
his refokuion ; and he was tempted with the oifer of fuch 
vidluals as he was known to efteem the moft. He faid, if 
h-e eat any thing that day, the Eatooa would kill him. How- 
ever, towards evening, the cravings of nature got the better 
of the precepts of his religion, and he eat, though but 
fparingly. I had often conjedlured, before this, that they 
had fome fuperftitious notions about their hair, having fre- 
quently obferved quantities of it tied to the branches of 
trees near fome of their habitations j but what thefe notions 
are, I never could learn. 

Notwithftanding the divided and hoflile flate in which the 
New Zealanders live, travelling ftrangers, who come with 
no ill defign, are well received and entertained during tlieir 
ftayj which, however, it is expe(fled, v^ill be no longer 
than is requifite to tranfadf the bufinefs they come upon. 
Thus it is that a trade iox foenammoo^ or green talc, is carried 
on throughout the whole northern ifland. For they tell us, 
that there is none of this flone to be found, but at a place 
which bears its name, fomewhere about the head of Queen 
Charlotte's Sound, and not above one or two d:Lys journey, 
at moft, from the ftation of our iliips. I regretted much 
that I could not fpare time fufficient for paying a vifit to 
the place J as we were told a hundred fabulous flories about 
this ftone, not one of which carried with it the leaft proba- 
bility of truth, though fome of their moft fenfible men 
would have us believe them. One of thefe {lories is, that 
this ftone is originally a fiih, which they flrike with a gig 

T % in 


^>777- in the water, tie a rop6 to it, and dra? it to the fliore, to 

February. » t" ' & 

which they faflen it, and it afterward becomes flone. As 
•they all agree, that it is fiflied out of a large lake, or col- 
le6lion of waters, the mod probable conje6ture is, that it 
is brought from the motintains, and depofited in the water, 
by the torrents. This lake is called by the natives Tavai 
■Poeuammoo ; that is, the water of Green Talc ; and it is only 
the adjoining part of the country, and not the whole Southern 
ifland of New Zealand, that is known to them by the name 
/which hath been given to it on my chart *. 

Polygamy is allowed amongfl: thefe people ; and it is not 
uncommon for a man to have two or three wives. The 
women are marriageable at a very early age; and it fliould 
leem, that one who is unmarried, is but in a forlorn ftate. 
She can with difficulty get a fubfiftence ; at leaft, fhe is, in 
a great meafure, without a protedor, though in conllant 
want of a powerful one. 

The New Zealanders feem to be a people perfe6lly fatif- 
fied with the little knowledge they are mafters of, without 
attempting, in the leaft, to improve it. Nor are they re- 
markably curious, either in their obfervations, or their in- 
quiries. New objed:s do not ftrike them with fuch a degree 
of furprize as one would naturally expect ; nor do they 
even fix their attention for a moment. Omai, indeed, who 
was a great favourite with them, would fometimes attract a 
circle about him ; but they feemed to liflen to his fpeeches, 
like perfons who neither underftood, nor wifhed to under- 
lland, what they heard. 

One day, on our inquiring of Taweiharooa, how many 
ihips, fuch as ours, had ever arrived in Queen Charlotte's 

* See Captain Cook's rhart of New Zealand, in HawkeC Coll. vol. ii. p. 281. 

7 Sound, 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 141 

Sound, or in any part of its neighbourhood? He began with p'7''7- 
giving an account of one abfolutely unknown to us. This, he 
faid, had put into a port on the North Weft coaftof Teerawitte, 
but a very few years before I arrived in the Sound in the En- 
deavour, which the New Zealanders diftinguifli, by calling 
Tupia's fhip. At firft, I thought he might have been miftaken 
as to the time and place ; and that the fhip in queftion might 
be eitherMonfieurSurville's, who is faid to have touched upon 
the North Eaft coaft of Eaheinomauwe, the fame year I was 
there in the Endeavour; or elfe Monfieur Marion du Frefne's, 
who was in the Bay of Iflands, on the fame coaft, a few 
years after. But he afTured us, that he was not miftaken, 
either as to the time, or as to the place of this fhip's arrival ; 
and that it was well known to every body about Queen 
Charlotte's Sound and Teerawitte. He faid, that the Captain 
of her, during his ftay here, cohabited with a woman of 
the country; and that fhe had a fon by him ftill living, and 
about the age of Kokoa ; who, though not born then, feemed 
to be equally well acquainted with the ftory. We were alfo 
informed by Taweiharooa, that this fhip firft introduced the 
venereal difeafe amongft the New Zealanders. I wi.di that 
fubfcquent vifiters from Europe may not have their fliare 
of guilt, in leaving fo dreadful a remembrance of them 
amongft this unhappy race. The diforder nov^ is but 
too common here ; though they do not feem to regard 
it ; faying, that its effects are not near fo pernicious at pre- 
fent, as they were at its firft appearance. The only method, 
as far as I ever heard, that they make ufc of as a remedy, 
is by giving the patient the ufe of a fort of hot bath, which 
they produce by the fteam of certain green plants laid over 
hot ftones. 

I regretted 


1777- r reerctted much that we did not hear of this fhip while 

we were in the Sound; as, by means of Omai, we might 
have had full and corredl information about her from eye- 
witnefles. For Taweiharooa's account was only from what 
he had been told, and therefore liable to many miftakes. 
I have not the leaft doubt, however, that his teftimony may 
fo far be depended upon, as to induce us to believe, that 
a fhip really had been at Teerawitte prior to my arrival in 
the Endeavour, as it correfponds with what I had formerly 
heard. For in the latter end of 1773, the fecond time I 
vifited New Zealand, during my laft voyage, when we were 
continually making inquiries about the Adventure, after 
our feparation, fome of the natives informed us of a fliip's 
having been in a port on the coaft of Teerawitte. But, at 
that time, we thought we mull have mifunderllood them, 
and took no notice of the intelligence. 

The arrival of this unknown fhip has been marked by the 
New Zealanders with more caufes of remembrance, than the 
unhappy one juft mentioned. Taweiharooa told us, their 
country was indebted to her people for the prefent of an 
animal, which they left behind them. But as he had not 
feen it himfelf, no fort of judgment could be formed from, 
his defcription, of what kind it was. 

We had another piece of intelligence from him, more 
Gorrecftly given, though not confirmed by our own obferva- 
tions, that there are fnakes and lizards there of an enormous 
£ze. He defcribed the latter as being eight feet in length, 
and as big round as a man's body. He faid, they fometimes 
feize and devour men ; that they burrow in the ground ; 
and that they are killed by making fires at the mouths of 
the holes. We could not be miftaken as to the animal ; for, 
^ with 



with his own hand, he drew a very good reprefentation of a '777- 
lizard on a piece of papery as alfo of a fnake, in order to 
fhew what he meant. 

Though much has been faid, in the Narratives of my Two 
former Voyages, about this country and its inhabitants, 
Mr. Anderfon's Remarks, as ferving either to confirm or to 
corredt our former accounts, may not be fuperfluous. He 
had been three times with me in Queen Charlotte's Sound, 
during my laft Voyage ; and, after this fourth vilit, what 
he thought proper to record, may be confidered as the re- 
fult of fufficient obfervation. The Reader will find it in the 
next Chapter ; and I have nothing farther to add, before I 
quit New Zealand, but to give fome account of the aftro- 
nomical and nautical obfervations made during our flay 

The Longitude of the Obfervatory in Ship 
Cove, by a mean of 103 fets of obferva- 
tions, each fet confiding of fix or more 
obferved diftances, was _ _ _ 174*25' 15" Eafl, 

By the time-keeper, at Greenwich rate, it 
was - - - _ _ « 

By ditto, at the Cape rate, it was 

Variation of the compafs, being the mean 
of fix needles, obferved on board the fhip 

By the fame needles on fhore, it was 

The dip of the South end, obferved on 

fhore, was ... » - 63 42 o 

By a mean of the refults of eleven days obfervations, the 
time-keeper was too flow for mean time, on February 22 at 
noon, by II* 50' 37",396; and fhe was found to be lofing 















1777- on mean time, at the rate of 2",9i3 per day. From this rate 
the longitude will be computed, till fome other opportunity 
offers to afcertain her rate anew. The aftronomical clock, 
with the fame length of pendulum as at Greenwich, was 
found to be lofmg on lidereal time 40", 2 39 per day. 

It will not be amifs to mention, that the longitude, by lu- 
nar obfervations, as above, differs only 6' 45" from what 
Mr. Wales made it during my lafl Voyage j his being fo 
much more to the Weft, or 174° 18' 30". 

The latitude of Ship Cove is 41° 6' o", as found by Mr, 

C H A.P. 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N, ^^^ 



Mr. Anckrfofis Remarks 07i the Cnuntry 7iear ^^terz 
Charlotte's Sound. — The SoiL — Climate. — Weather, — • 
■ Winds. — Trees, — Pla^its. — Birds. — Fip^ — Other Ani^ 
mals, — Of the Irihabitants. — Defcription of their Per- 
fons. — Their Drefs. — Orrinments. — Habitations. — Boats, 
— Food a7id Cookery. — Arts. — Weap07ts. — Cruelty to 
Prifoners, — Various Cuflonis. — Speci?nei7 of their La?2-' 

THE land every wliere about Queen Charlotte's Sound ./^-^, 
is uncommonly mountainous, rifnig immediately from .^^^'"'^'"■^'^ 
the fea into large hills with blunted tops. At confiderable 
dillances are valleys, or rather impreilions on. the fides of 
the hills, which are not deepi each terminating toward the 
fea in a fmall cove, with a pebbly or fandy beach; behind 
which are fmall fiats, where the natives generally build 
their huts, at the fame time hauling their canoes upon the 
beaclies.' This fituation is the more convenient, as in every 
cove a brook of very fine water (in which are fome fmall 
trout) empties itfelf into the fea. 

The bafes of thefe mountains, at leaft toward the fhore, 
are conflituted of a brittle, yellowilh fand-ftone, which ac- 
quires a bluifli call:, where the fea waflies it. It runs, at 
fome places, in horizontal, and, at other places, in oblique 
fraia; being frequently divided, at fmall diilances, by thin 
•Vol. L U veins 

J4^ A V O Y A G E T O 

1777. reins of coarfe quartz, which commonly follow the dire^Ttion 


*- — ^ ' of the other; though they fometimes interfe6t it. The 

mould, or foil, which covers this, is alfoof a yello\yifh call, 
not unlike marl ; and is commonly from a foot to two, or 
more, in thicknefs. 

The quality of this foil is bed indicated by the luxuriant 
growth of its producflions. For the hills (except a few to- 
ward the fca, which are covered with fmalier bufhes) are 
one continued foreft of lofty trees, flourifhing with a vigour 
almoft fuperior to any thing that imagination can conceive, 
and affording an auguft profpedl to thofe v/ho are delighted 
with the grand and beautiful works of nature. 

The agreeable temperature of the climate, no doubt, con- 
tributes much to this uncommon ftrength in vegetation. 
For, at this time, though anfwering to our month of Au- 
p-uft, the weather was never difagreeably warm ; nor did it 
raife the thermometer higher than 66°. The winter, alfo, 
feems equally mild with refpecfl to cold : for in June 1773, 
which correfponds to our December, the mercury never fell 
lower than 48°; and the trees, at that time, retained their 
verdure, as if in the Summer feafon ; fo that, I believe, 
their foliage is never flied, till puflied off by the fucceeding 
leaves in fpring. 

The weather, in general, is good; but fometimes windy* 
with heavy rain; which, however, never lafts above a day; 
nor does it appear that it is ever excelTive. For there are no 
marks of torrents rufliing do'wn the hills, as. in many coun- 
tries ; and the brooks, if we may judge from their chan- 
nels, feem never to be greatly increafed. I have obferved, 
in the four different times of my being here, that the winds 




from the South Eaftward are commonly moderate, but at- 1777- 
tended with cloudy weather, or rain. The South Weft uU!!!Z^ 
winds blow very ftrong, and are alfo attended with rain; 
but they feldom lad long. The North Weft winds are the 
* moft prevailing; and though often pretty ftrong, are al- 
moft conftantly conneded with fine weather. In fhort, 
the only obftacle to this being one of the fineft coimtries 
upon earth, is its great' hillinefs ; which, allowing the woods 
to be cleared away, would leave it lefs proper for pafturage 
than flat land ; and ftill more improper for cultivation, 
which could never be effected here by the plough. 

The large trees which cover the hills are chiefly of two 
forts. .One of them, of the fize of our largeft firs, grows 
much after their manner; but the leaves, and fmall ber- 
ries on their points, are much liker the yew. It was 
this which fupplied the place of fpruce in making beer ; 
Vv^hich we did with a ftrong decocftion of its leaves, fer- 
mented with treacle or fugar. And this liquor, when well 
prepared, was acknowledged to be little inferior to the 
American fpruce beer, by thofe who had experience of both. 
The other fort of tree is not unlike a maple ; and grows 
often to a great fize ; but it only ferved for fuel, as the 
wood, both of this and of the preceding, was found to be 
rather too heavy for raafts, yards, and other fimilar re- 

There is a greater variety of trees on the fmall flat fpots 
behind the beaches. Amongft thefe are tv/o that bear a 
kind of plum of the fize of prunes ; the one yellow, called 
karraca; and the other black, called maitao ; but neither of 
them of a very agreeable tafte ; though the natives eat both, 
and our people did the fame. Thofe of the firft fort grow 

U 2 ■oit 


,,'77'- on fmall trees, always facin? the fea ; but the others belong 
to larger trees that Hand farther within the wood, and which; 
we frequently eut down for fuel. 

A fpecies of Pbi/adelphns grows on the eminences which jut 
out into the fea j and alfo a tree bearing flowers almoft like 
myrtle, with roundifli fpotted leaves of a difagreeable fmell. 
We drank the leaves of the PbiladeJphus as tea; and found 
that they had a pleafant tafte and fmell, and might make 
an excellent fubfritute for the oriental fort *. 

Among other plants that were ufeful to us, may h<^ 
reckoned wild celery, which grows plentifully in almoft 
every cove; efpecially if the natives have ever refided there 
before ; and one that we ufed to call fcurvy-grafs, though 
entirely different from the plant to which we give that 
name. This, however, is far preferable to ours for com- 
mon ufe ; and may be known by its jagged leaves, and fmall 
clufters of white flowers on the top. Both forts were boiled 
every morning, with wheat ground in a mill, and with" 
portable foup, for the people's breakfaft; and alfo amongft 
their peafe-foup, for dinner. Sometimes they were ufed as 
fallad, or drclTed as greens. In all which ways they arc 
good ; and, together v/ith the fifli, with which v<iq. were con- 
flantly fupplied, they formed a fort of refrefliment, perhaps 
little inferior to what is to be met with in places moft noted' 
by navigators for plentiful fupplies of animal and vegetable 

Amongil the known kinds of plants met with here, are 
common and rough bindweed ; night-lhade and nettles, both 

* See a reprefentation of thi?, Plate N" XXII. in Captain Cook's Juount of hi- 
Second Voya^Cj Vol. i. p. ico, 



which grow to the fize of fmall trees ; a flirubby fpeedwell, '777 

found near all the beaches ; fow-thiftles, virgin's bower, 
vanelloe, French willow, euphorbia, and crane's-bill: alfa 
cudweed, rufhes, bull-ruflies, flax, all-heal, American night- 
Hiade, knot-grafs, brambles, eye-bright, and groundfel; but 
xhe/pecies of each are different ffom any wc have in Europe. 
There is alfo polypody, fpleenwort, and about twenty othep 
different forts of ferns, entirely peculiar to the place; with- 
feveral forts of moffes, either rare, or produced only here; 
befides a great nimiber of other plants, whofe ufes are not 
yet known, and fubjetfts fit only for botanical books. 

Of thefe, liowever, there is one which deferves particular 
notice here, as the natives make their garments of it, and 
it produces a fine filky flax, fuperior in appearance to any 
thing we have; and probably, at leafl:, as flrong. It grows 
every where near the fea, and in fome places a confiderable 
way up the hills, in bunches or tufts, with fedge-like leaves, 
bearing, on a long ftalk, yellowifli flowers, which are fuc- 
ceeded by a long roundifli pod, filled v,?'ith very thin fhining 
black feeds. A fpecies of long pepper is found in great 
plenty; but it has little of the aromatic flavour that makes 
fpices valuable ; and a tree much like a palm at a diilance, 
is pretty frequent in the woods, though the deceit appears 
as you come near it. It is remarkable that, as the greatefl: 
part of the trees and plants had, at this time, loft their 
flowers, we perceived they were generally of the berry- 
bearing kind ; of which, and other feeds, I brought away 
about thirty different forts. Of thefe, one in particular, 
which bears a red berry, is much like the fupple-jack, and 
grows about the trees, ftretching from one to another, in 
fuch a manner as to render the woods almoft wholly im» 





'777- The birds, of which there is a tolerable Hock, as well as 

February. ^^^^ vegetable produtftions, are altnoft entirely peculiar to 
the place. And though it be difficult to follow them, on 
account of the quantity of underwood, and the climbing 
plants, that render travelling, for pleafure alone, uncom- 
monly fatiguing, yet a perfon, by remaining in one place, 
may Ihoot as many in a day as would ferve fix or eight 
others. The principal forts are, large brown parrots, with 
white or greyifli heads; green parroquets, with red fore- 
heads ; large wood pigeons, brown above, with white bel- 
lies, the reft green, and the bill and feet red. Two forts of 
cuckoos, one as large as our common fort, of a brown co- 
lour, variegated with black ; the other not larger than a 
Iparrow, of a fplendid green caft above, and elegantly va- 
ried with waves of golden, green, brown, and white colours 
below. Both thefe are fcarce; but feVeral others are in 
greater plenty ; one of which, of a black colour, with a 
greenifh caft, is remarkable for having a tuft of white curled 
feathers hanging under the throat, and was called the Poy 
bird * by our people. Another fort, rather fmaller, is black, 
with a brown back and wings, and two fmall gills under 
the root of the bill. This we called the fmall wattle bird, 
to diftinguifli it from another, which we called the large 
one, of the fize of a common pigeon, with two large yellow 
and purple membranes alfo, at the root of the bill. It is 
black, or rather blue, and has no refemblance of the other 
but in name ; for the bill is thick, fhort, and crooked, and 
has altogether an uncommon appearance. A grofs-beak, 
about the fize of a thrufli, of a brown colour, with a red- 
difli tail, is frequent ; as is alfo a fmall greenifli bird, which 

* See a drawing of this bird, Plate N° LII. in Captain Cook's Account of his Second 
Voyage^ Vol. i. p. 97. It had this name from its tuft of fetithers, refembling the white 
.£owexs ufed as ornameiUs in the ears at Otaheite, and called there Poowa. 

z is 



is almoll the only mufical one here, but is fufiicient by itfelf 1777- 
to fill the woods with a melody, that is not only fweer, but '^"^'^^' 
fo varied, that one would imagine he was furrounded by a 
hundred different forts of birds, when the little warbler is 
near. From this circumftance we named it the mocking 
bird. There are likewife three or four forts of fmaller 
birds ; one of which, in figure and taraenefs, .exactly re- 
fembles our robin, but is black where that is brown, and 
white where that is red. Another differs but little from this» 
except in being fmaller ; and a third fort has a long tail, 
which it expands as a fan on coming near, and makes a 
chirping noife when it perches. King-fifhers are feen, 
though rare, and are about the fize of our Englifli ones, 
but with an inferior plumage. 

About the rocks are feen black fea-pies with red bills ; and 
crefted fliags of a leaden colour, with fmall black fpots on 
the wings and (lioulders, and the reft of the upper part, of 
a velvet black tinged with green. We frequently fliot both 
thefe, and alfo a more common fort of fliags, black above 
and white underneath, that build their nefts upon trees, on 
which fometimes a dozen or. more lit at once. There are 
alfo, about the fliore, a few fea-gulls; fome blue herons; 
and fometimes, though very rarely, wild ducks ; a fmall fandy 
coloured plover, and fome fand larks. And fmall penguins 
black above, with a white belly, as v/ell as numbers of 
little black divers, fwim often about the Sound. We like- 
wife killed two or three rails of a brown or yellowifli co- 
lour, variegated with black, which feed about the fmall 
brooks, and are nearly as large as a common fowl. No 
Giber fort of game was feen, except a fingle fnipe, which was 
ihot, and differs but little from that of Euro-pe. 



,.'777- The princioal fifli we caut^ht by the Seine were muliefs 

lebruary. ^ ' o / 

and elephant filh, with a few foles and flounders ; but thoCe 
.«hac the natives moftly fupplied us with, were a fort of fea- 
bream of a filvcr colour with a black fpot on the neck, 
large Conger eels, and a fifh in fliape much like the bream, 
but fo large as to weigh five, fix, or feven pounds. It is 
blackifh with thick lips, and called Mogge by the natives. 
With hook and line we caught chiefly a blackiQi fifli of the 
fize of a haddock, called cole-fifh by the feamen, but differ- 
ing much from that known by the fame name in Europe ; 
and another of the fame fize, of a reddifh colour with a liiclc 
beard, which we called night walkers, from the greateft 
number being caught in the night. Sometimes we got a 
fort of fmall falmon, gurnards, fliate, and nurfes ; and the 
natives, now and then, brought hake, paracutas, a fmall fort 
of mackerel, parrot-fifh, and leather-jackets; befides another 
•fifh- which is very rare, fhaped almoft like a dolphin, of a 
black colour, with ftrong bony jaws, and tiie back-fin, as 
well as thofe oppofite to it, much lengthened at the end. 
All thefe forts, except the laft, which we did not try, are ex- 
cellent to eat ; but the Moggc, fmall falmon, and cole-fifli 
are fuperior to the reft. 

The rocks are abundantly furniflied with great quantities 
of excellent mufcles ; one fort of which, that is not very 
common, meafures above a foot in length. There are alfo 
cockles buried in the fand of the fmall beaches; and in fome 
places oyflers, which, though very fmall, are well tafted. 
Of other fhell-fifli there are ten or twelve forts, fuch as peri- 
"vvinckles, wilks, limpets, and fome very beautiful fea-ears; 
9lfo another fort which flick to the weeds; with fome other 
things, as fea-eggs, ftar-fifli, &c. feveral of which are pe- 




culiar to the place. The natives Hkewife fometimes brought 'nr- 
us very fine cray-fifh, equal to our largeft lobflers, and cuttle "'"''' 
fifli, which they eat themfelves. 

Infeils are very rare. Of thefe, we only faw two forts 
of dragon-flies, fome butterflies, fmall graflioppers, feveral 
forts of fpiders, fome fmall black ants, and vaft numbers 
of fcorpion flies, with whofe chirping the woods refound. 
The only noxious one is the fand-fly, very numerous here, 
and almoft as troublcfome as the mufquitoe ; for we found 
no reptile here, except two or three forts of fmall harmlefs 
lizards *. 

It is remarkable, that, in this extenfive land, there fhould 
not even be the traces of any quadruped, only excepting a 
few rats, and a fort of fox-dog, which is a domeftic animal 
with the natives. 

Neither is there any mineral worth notice, but a green 
jafper or ferpent-flone, of which the New Zealanders make 
their tools and ornaments. This is efteemed a precious ar- 
ticle by them ; and they have fome fuperflitious notions 
about the method of its generation, which we could not 
perfedly underftand. It is plain, however, that wherever 
it may be found (which, they fay, is in the channel of a large 
river far to the Southward), it is difpofed in the earth in thin 
layers, or, perhaps, in detached pieces, like our flints ; for 
the edges of thofe pieces, which have not been cut, are co- 
vered with a whitifli crufl: like thefe. A piece of this fort 
was purchafed, about eighteen inches long, a foot broad, 
and near two inches thick ; which yet feemed to be only 
the fragment of a larger piece. 

* In a feparate memorandum-book, Mr. Anderfon mentions the monflrous ani- 
mal of the lizard kind, defcribcd by the two boys after they left the iiland. 

Vol. I. X The 


ipT . The naiivcs, da no: exceed the common ftature of Euro^ 

February. i 

peans ; ^nd, m general, are not fo well made, efpecially 
about the Umbs. This is, perhaps, the effect of fitting, for 
the moft part, on, their hanis ; and of being confined, by the 
hilly dilpofitidn of the country; from ufmg that fort of ex- 
ercife which contributes to render the body flraight and 
well-proportioned. There arc, however, feveral exceptions 
to this ; and fomc are remarkable for their large bones and. 
mufcies 5 but few that I have feen are corpulent. 

Their colour is of different cads, from a pretty deep black to 
a yellowifh or olive tinge ; and their features alfo are various, 
fome refembling Europeans. Biu, in general, their faces are 
round, v/ith their lips full, and alfo their nofes toward the 
point ; though the firfl. are not uncommonly thick, nor the 
laft flat. I do not, however, recoiled to have feen an in- 
flance of the true aquiline nofe amongft them. Their teeth 
are commonly broad, white, and well fet ; and their eyes 
large, with a very free motion, which feems the efFed of 
habit. Their hair is black, flraight, and flrong, commonly 
cut (hort on the hind part, with the reft tied on the crown 
of the head : but fome have it of a curling difpofition, or 
of a brown colour. In the young, the countenance is ge- 
nerally free or open ; but in many of the men it has a fe- 
rious caft, and fometimes a fuUennefs or referve, efpecially 
if they are flrangers. The women arc, in general, fraaller 
than the men ; but have few peculiar graces, either in form- 
or features, to diftinguifh them. 

The drefs of both fexes is alike ; and confifts of an oblon 
garment about five feet long, and four broad, made from 
the fllky flax already mentioned. This feems to be their 
moft material and complex manufacture, which is executed 

4 ^7 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 155 

by knotting; and their work is often ornamented with ^^777- '^ 

r 1 n • i 1 ■ , , February. 

pieces or dog-lkin, or chequered at the corners. They \— v— -# 
bring two corners of this garment over the flioulders, and 
faften it on the breafl. with the other part, which covers the 
body ; and about the belly, it is again tied with a girdle 
made of mat. Sometimes they cover it with large feathers 
of birds (whch feem to be wrought into the piece of cloth 
when it is made), or with dog-fl^in ; and that alone we 
have feen v/orn as a covering. Over this garment many of 
them wear mats, which reach from the flioulders to near 
the heels. But the moft common outer-covering is a quan- 
tify of the above fedgy plant, badly drefTed, which they 
faften on a ftring to a confiderable length, and, throwing it 
about the flioulders, let it fall down on all fides, as far as 
the middle of the thighs. When they fit down with this upon 
them, either in their boats, or upon the fiiore, it would be 
difficult to diftinguifh them from large grey ftoncs, if their 
black heads, projecting beyond their coverings, did not en- 
gage one to a flridler examination. 

By way of ornament, they fix in their heads feathers, or 
combs of bone, or wood, adorned with pearl fliell, or the 
thin inner flcin of fome leaf. And in the ears, both of 
men and women, which are pierced, or rather flit, are 
hung fmall pieces of jafper, bits of cloth, or beads when 
they can get them. A few alfo have the feptum of the riofe 
bored in its lower part; but no ornament was worn there that 
we faw ; though one man pafiTed a twig through it, to lliew 
us that it was fometimes ufed for that purpofe. They wear 
long beards, but are fond of having them Ihaved. 

Some are punftured or flained in the face with curious 
fpiral a'nd other figures, of a black or deep blue colour; 

X 2 but 


1777- but it is doubtful whether this be ornamental, or intended 


as a mark of particular diftindion ; and the women, who 
are marked fo, have the puncfture only on their lips, or a 
fmall fpor on their chins. Both fexes often befmear their 
faces and heads with a red paint, which feems to be a 
martial ochre mixed with greafe j and the women forae- 
times wear necklaces of fhark's teeth, or bunches of long 
beads, which feem to be made of the leg-bones of fmall 
birds, or a particular fhell. A few alfo have fmall trian- 
gular aprons adorned with the feathers of parrots, or bits 
of pearl ftiells, furnifhed with a double or treble fet of 
cords to fallen them about the waift. I have fometimes 
feen caps or bonnets made of the feathers of birds, which 
may be reckoned as ornaments ; for it is not their cuftom 
to wear any covering on their heads. 

They live in the fmall coves formerly defcribed, in com- 
panies of forty or fifty, or more ; and fometimes in fingle 
families, building their huts contiguous to each other; 
which, in general, are miferable lodging-places. The beft 
I ever faw was about thirty feet long, fifteen broad, and fix 
high, built exadlly in the manner of one of our country 
barns. The infide was both ilrong and regularly made of 
fupporters at the fides, alternately large and fmall, well 
faftened by means of withes, and painted red and black. 
The ridge pole was firong; and the large bull-rulhes, 
which corapofed the inner part of the thatching, were laid 
with great exacflnefs parallel to each other. At one end 
was a fmall fquare hole, which ferved as a door to creep in 
at ; and near it another much fmaller, feemingly for letting 
out tlie fmoke, as no other vent for it could be feen. This, 
however, ought to be confidered as one of the beft, and the 
lefidence of fome principal perfon ; for the greateft part o-f 
3 them 



them arc not half the above fize, and feldom exceed four '777. 
feet in height ; being, befides, indifferently bulk, though '"^'^' 
proof againft wind and rain. 

No other furniture is to be feen in them, than a few fmall 
bafkets or bag?, in which rhey put their fifliing-hooks, and 
c;her trifles; and they fit down in the middle round a fmall 
iire, where they alfo probably fleep, without any other co- 
vering than what they wear in the day, or perhaps without 
that ; as fuch confined places mufl be very warm, though 
inhabited but by a few pcrfons. 

They live chiefly by fifhing, making ufe either of nets of 
different kinds, or of wooden lifh- hooks pointed with bone; 
but fo oddly made, that a flranger is at a lofs to know how 
they can anfwer fuch a purpofe. It alfo appears, that they 
remove their habitations fiom one place to another when 
the fiHi grow fcarce, or for fome other reafon ; for we found 
houfes now built in feveral parts, where there had been 
none when we were here during our laft voyage, and even 
thefe have been already deferted. 

Their boats are well built, of planks raifed upon each 
other, and fattened with ftrong withes, which alfo bind a 
long narrow piece on the outfide of the feams to prevent 
their leaking. Some are fifty feet long, and fo broad as to 
be able to fail without an outrigger ; but the fmaller fort 
commonly have oncj and they often fatten two together by 
rafters, which we then call a double canoe. They carry 
from five to thirty men or more ; and have often a large 
head ingenioufly carved, and painted with a figure at the 
point, which leems intended to reprefent a man, with his 
features diitorted by rage. Their paddles are about four 
or five feet long, narrow, and pointed ; with which, when 


1^8 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- they keep time, the boat is puflied along pretty fwiftly. 
y.J '!"''' '^ Their fail, which is feldom ufed, is made of a mat of a 
triangular fliape, having the broadefl part above. 

The only method of drefling their fifli, is by roafling, or 
rather baking; for they are in' i rely ignorant of the art of boil- 
ing. In the fame manner they drefs the root, and part of 
the ftalk, of the large fern-tree, in a great hole dug for that 
. purpofe, ■which ferves as an oven. After which they fplit 
it, and find, witliin, a fine gelatinous fubftance, like boiled 
fngo powder, but firmer. They alio ufe another fmaller 
fern root, which feems to be their fubftitute for bread, as it 
is dried and carried about with them, together with dried 
fifh in great quantities, when they remove their famiHes, 
or go far from home. This they beat with a flick till it 
becomes pretty foFt, v,'hen they chew it fufficiently, and 
fpit out the hard fibrous part, the other having a fweetifh 
mealy tafle not at all difagrecable. 

When they dare not venture to fea, or perhaps from 
choice, they fupply the place of other fifh with mufcles and 
fea-ears ; great quantities of the fliells of which lie in 
heaps near their houfes. And tliey fometimes, though 
rarely, find means to kill rails, penguins, and fliags, which 
help to vary their diet. They alfo breed confiderable num- 
bers of the dogs, mentioned before, for food ; but thefe 
cannot be confidered as a principal article of diet. From 
whence we may conclude, that, as there is not the leafl 
fign of cultivation of land, they depend principally for their 
fubfiflence on the fca, which, indeed, is very bountiful in^ 
its fupply. 

Their method of feeding correfponds with the naftinefs 
of their perfons, v^'hich often fmell difagreeably from the 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. ip^ 

quantity of sreafe about them, and tlieir clothes never be- ^777- 

!■■'<-' ' _ Februsry, 

ing waflied. We have feen them eat the vermin, with 
which their heads are fuliiciently ftocked. 

They alfo ufed to devour, with the greatefl eagernefsy 
large quantities of (linking train oil, and blubber of feals, 
which we were melting at the tent, and had kept near two 
months ; and, on board the fliips, they were not fatisfied 
with einptying the lamps, but acflually fwallowed the cotton', 
and fragrant Vi^ick, with equal voracity. It is v/orthy of no- 
tice, that though the inhabitants of Van Diemen's land ap- 
pear to have but a fcanty fubfiftence, they would not even 
tafte our bread, though they law us eat it ; whereas thefe 
people devoured it greedily, when both mouldy and rotten. 
But this muft not be imputed to any defe6l in their fenfa- 
tions ; fori have obferved them throw away things which 
we eat, with evident difgufl, after only fmeliing to them. 

They fliew as much ingenuity, both in invention and 
execution, as any uncivilized nations under fimilar cir- 
eumftances. For, without the ufe of any metal tools, 
they make every thing by which they procure their fubfift- 
ence, clothing, and warlike weapons, with a degree of 
neatnefs, ftrength, and convenience for accomplKhing their 
feveral purpofes. Their chief mechanical tool is iormed 
exacftly after the manner of our adzes; and is made, as are 
alfo the chifTcl and goudge, of -the green ferpent-flone or 
jafper, already mentioned; though fometimes they are com-- 
pofed of a black-, fmooth, and very folid flone. But their' 
niafter-piece fcems to be carving, which is found upon the 
moil trifling things ; and, in particular, the heads of their 
canoes are fometimes ornamented with it in fuch a manner, 
as not only fhews much defign, bat is alfo an example of 


j6o a V O Y a G E T O 

'777- their 2;rcat labour and patience in execution. Their cordage 

February. "-' -.nit r ^ 

for fifliing-Unes is equal, in Itrengch and evennefs, to that 
made by us ; and their nets not at all inferior. But what 
muft cofl them more labour than any other article, is the 
making the tools we have mentioned ; for the flone is ex- 
ceedingly hard, and the only method of fafliioning it, we 
can guefs at, is by rubbing one ftone upon another, which 
can have but a flow efFetft. Their fubftitute for a knife is 
a fhell, a bit of flint, or jafper. And, as an auger, to bore 
holes, they fix a fliark's tooth in the end of a fmall piece of 
wood. It is true, they have a fmall favv made of fome jag- 
ged fiflies teeth, fixed on the convex edge of a piece of wood 
nicely carved. But this, they fay, is only ufed to cut up 
the bodies of their enemies whom they kill in battle. 

No people can have a quicker fenfe of an injury done to 
them, and none are more ready to refent it. Bur, at the fame 
time, they will take an opportunity of being infolent when 
they think there is no danger of punifliment ; which is fo 
contrary to the fpirit of genuine bravery, that, perhaps, 
their eagernefs to refent injuries is to be looked upon rather 
as an efFe<51: of a furious difpofition than of great courage. 
They alfo appear to be of a fufpicious or miflruflful temper 
(which, however, may rather be acquired than natural), for 
flrangers never came to our fhips immediately, but lay in 
their boats at a fmall diftance, either to obferve our motions, 
or confult whether or no they fliould rifk their fafety with 
us. To this they join a great degree of diflionefly ; for 
they fleal every thing they can lay their hands on, if there 
be the lead hope of not being detected ; and, in trading, I 
have little doubt but they would take advantages, if they 
thought it could be done with fafety j as they not only refufe 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. i6i 

to truft a thins in one's hand for examination, but exult if ^'777. 

*-> _ _ Febiuary. 

they think they have tricked you in the bargain. 

Such conduct:, however, is, in fome meafure, to be ex- 
pc(5led where there appears to be but little fubordination, 
and confequently few, if any, laws, to punifli tranfgreffions. 
For no man's authority feems to extend farther than his 
own family ; and when, at any time, they join for mutual 
defence, or any other purpofc, thofe amongfl them who 
are eminent for courage or prudence, are direclors. How 
their private quarrels are terminated is uncertain ; but, iri 
the few we faw, which were of little confequence, the 
parties concerned were clamorous and diforderly. 

Their public contentions are frequent, or rather perpetual; 
for it appears, from their number of weapons, and dexterity 
in ufmg them, that war is their principal profeffion. Thefe 
weapons are fpears, patoos and halberts, or fometimes 
ftoncs. The firft are made of hard wood pointed, of differ- 
ent lengths, from five, to twenty, or even thirty feet long. 
The fliort ones are ufed for throwing as darts. The patoo or 
emeete is of an elliptical fhape, about eighteen inches long, 
with a handle made of wood, ftone, the bone of fome fea 
animal, or green jafper, and feems to be their principal 
dependence in battle. The halbert, or long club, is about 
five or fix feet long, tapering at one end with a carved head, 
and at the other, broad or flat, with fliarp edges. 

Before they begin the onfet, they join in a war-fong, to 
which they all keep the exadefl time, and foon raife their 
paflion to a degree of frantic fury, attended with the moll 
horrid diilortion of their eyes, mouths, and tongues, to 
ftrike terror into their enemies ; which, to thofe who have 
not been accuftoraed to fuch a pradiice, makes them ap- 

VoL. I. Y pear 

i62 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777- pear more like demons than men, and would almofl chili 


the boldeil with fear. To this fucceeds a circumilance, al- 
moft foretold in their fierce demeanor, horrid, cruel, and 
difgraceful to human nature; which is, cutting in pieces, 
even before being perfedlly dead, the bodies of their ene- 
mies, and, after drefling them on a fire, devouring the 
flefli, not only without reluctance, but with peculiar fatif- 

One might be apt to fuppofe, that people, capable of 
fuch excefs of cruelty, muft be deflitute of every humane 
feeling, even amongft their own party. And yet we find 
them lamenting the lofs of their friends, with a violence 
of expreffion which argues the moft tender remembrance of 
them. For both men and women, upon the death of thofe 
connedled with them, whether in battle or otherwife, be- 
wail them with the moft doleful cries ; at the fame time 
cutting their foreheads and cheeks, with fliells or pieces 
of flint, in large gaflies, until the blood flows plentifully and 
mixes with their tears. They alfo carve pieces of their 
preen ftone, rudely fliaped, as human figures, which they 
ornament with bright eyes of pearl-fliell, and hang 
them about their necks, as memorials of thofe whom they 
held mofl; dear; and their afFedlions of this kind are fo 
ftrong, that they even perform the ceremony of cutting, 
and lamenting for joy, at the return of any of their friends, 
who have been abfent but for a fhort time. 

The children are initiated, at a very early age, into all 
the practices, good or bad, of their fathers ; fo that you find 
a boy or girl, nine or ten years old, able to perform all the 
motions, and to imitate the frightful geftures, by which the 
more aged ufe to infpire their enemies with terror, keeping 
8 ^^^s 


the flricHrefc time in their fon?. They likewife fino', with ^ '777- 

° . , . February. 

lome degree of melody, the traditions of their forefathers, 
their ad:ions in war, and other indifferent fubjedls ; of all 
■which they are immoderately fond, and fpend much of 
their time, in thefe amufements, and in playing on a fort of 

Their language is far from being harfli or difagreeable, 
though the pronunciation is frequently guttural ; and what- 
ever qualities are requilite in any other language to make 
it mulical, certainly obtain to a confiderable degree here, 
if we may judge from the melody of feme forts of their 
fongs. It is alfo fufficiently comprehenfive, though, in 
many refpe6ts, deficient, if compared with our European 
languages, which owe their perfedlion to long improve- 
ment. But a fmall fpecimen is here fubjoined, from which 
fome judgment may be formed. I collected a great many 
of their words, both now and in the courfe of our former 
voyage ; and being equally attentive, in my inquiries, about 
the languages of the other iflands throughout the South 
Sea, I have the ampleft proof of their wonderful agreement, 
or rather identity. This general obfervation has, indeed, 
been already made in the accounts of the former voyages *. 
I fhall be enabled, however, to confirm and ftrengthen it, 
by a frefh lift of words, feledled from a large vocabulary 
in my pofTeffion ; and by placing, in the oppofite column^, 
the correfponding words as ufed at Otaheite, the curious 
reader will, at one view, be furniftied with fufficient mate- 
rials for judging by what fubordinate changes the difference 
of dialedt has been effedled. 

* See Hawkefworth's CoUeaion, Vol, iii. p, 474, 475. and Captain Cook's 
VoyagCj Vol. ii. p. 364. 

Y 2 




F.K;y. E°g"*- 

New Zealand. 


' " ' Wafer, 



A tail of a dog. 



Death, dead^ 

Kaoo, matte, 

Matte, roa. 




A houfct 















A butterfly. 



To cheiv, or eaf^ 









The hand. 








Oora, oora. 




Where is it ? 






A jyian. 




Purra, purra 

Ere, ere. 




To rejide, or dtt'ell. 



Out, not -within. 



Male kind (of any animal), 

, Toa, 








To tinderfland. 















New Zealand, 




























The New Zealanders to thefe numerals prefix Ma ; as. 

Eleven, Matahee. 

Twelve, Sec. Sec. Marooa, &'c. &c. 

Twenty, Mangahoora. 







From leaving New Zealand, to our Arrival at 
Otaheite, or the Society Iflands. 

C H A P. I. 

Profecuiion of the Voyage, — Behaviour of the Two Nem 
Zealanders on board, — Unfavourable Winds. — A71 
Jfand called Mangeea difcovered. — The Coafl of it 
examined. — TranfaBions with the Natives, — An Ac- 
count of their Perfons^ Drefs^ and Canoe. — Defer iption 
of the If and, — A Specimeii of the Language, — Df- 
foftion of the Inhabitants, 


N the 25th, at ten o'clock in the morning, a light 1777. 
breeze fpringing up at North Weft by Weft, we ^ '^"^'^' 

weighed, ftood out of the Sound, and made fail through TueWay z^. 
the ftrait, with the Difcovery in company. We had hardly 
got the length of Cape Tierawhitte, when the wind took 
us aback at South Eaft:. It continued in this quarter till 


. i68 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- two o'clock the next mornins;, when we had a few hours 


« . — — ' cahii. After which we had a breeze at North ; but here it 

fixed not long, before it veered to the Eaft, and after that to 

Thiirfday27. the South. At length, on the 27th, at eight o'clock in the 
morning, we took our departure from Cape Pallifcr, which, 
at this time, bore Weft, feven or eight leagues diftant. We 
had a fine gale, and I (leered Eaft by North. 

We had no fooner loft fight of the land than our two 
New Zealand adventurers, the fea ficknefs they now expe- 
rienced giving a turn to their refle(5lions, repented heartily 
of the ftep they had taken. All the foothing encourage- 
ment we could think of, availed but little. They wept, 
both in public and in private ; and made their lamentations 
in a kind of fong, which, as far as we could comprehend 
the meaning of the words, was exprellivc of their praifes 
of their country and people, from which they were to be 
feparated for ever. Thus they continued for many days, 
till their fea ficknefs wore oiF, and the tumult of their 
minds began to fubfide. Then thefe fits of lamentation 
became lefs and lefs frequent, and at length entirely 
ceafed. Their native country and their friends were, by 
degrees, forgot, and they appeared to be as firmly attached 
to us, as if they had been born amongft us. 

The wind had not remained many hours at South, before 
it veered to South Eaft and Eaft; and, with this, we ftood to 
Friday 28. the North, till the 28th at noon. Being then in the latitude 
of 41° 17', and in the longitude of 177° 17' Eaft, we tacked 
and ftood to the South Eaft, with a gentle breeze at Eaft 
North Eaft. It afterward frefliened, and came about to 
North Eaft; in which quarter it continued two days, and 
fomerimes blew a frefh gale with fqualls, accompanied 
with fhowers of rain. 3 



On the 2cl of March at noon, being in the latitude of '777- 
42° 5S' so", longitude 180° 8' Eaft, the wind fliifted to North 

Weft; afterward to South Weft; and between this point and ^"""^^y'' 

North it continued to blow, fometimes a ftrong gale with 

hard fqualls, and at other times very moderate. With this 

wind we fteered North Eaft by Eaft and Eaft, under all the 

fail we could carry, till the nth at noon, at which time we Tuefaay n. 

were in the latitude of 39° 29', longitude 196° 4' Eaft. 

The wind now veered to North Eaft and South Eaft, and 
I ftood to the North, and to the North Eaft, as the wind 
would admit, till one o'clock in the morning on the i6th, Sunday i6. 
when having a more favourable gale from the North, I 
tacked and ftood to the Eaft ; the latitude being 33° 40', and 
the longitude 198° 50' Eaft. We had light airs and calms 
by turns, till noon the next day, when the wind began to Monday 17, 
frefhen at Eaft South Eaft, and I again ftood to the North 
Eaft. But as the wind often veered to Eaft and Eaft North 
Eaft, we frequently made no better than a northerly courfe; 
nay fometimes to the Weftward of North. But the hopes 
of the wind coming more Southerly, or of meeting with it 
from the Weftward, a little without the Tropic, as I had 
experienced in my former vifits to this ocean, encouraged 
me to continue this courfe. hideed it was neceftary that I 
fliould run all rifks, as my proceeding to the North this 
year, in profccution of the principal objed of the voyage, 
depended entirely on my making a quick pafTage to Ota- 
heite, or the Society Iflands. 

The wind continued invariably fixed at Eaft South Eaft, 
or feldom fhifting above two points on either fide. It alfo 
blew very faint, fo that it was the 27th before wc crofTcd Thurfdayz;. 
the Tropic, and then we were only in the longitude of 
301° 23' Eaft, which was nine degrees to the Weftward of 

Vol. I. Z our 





'777- our intended port. In all this run we faw nothing, except 

March. ' i i 1 i ■ 

t— -V— — ' now and then a Tropic bird, that could induce us to think 
we had failed near any land. In the latitude of 34° 20', 
longitude 199°, wc pafTcd the trunk of a large tree, which 
was covered with barnacles ;. a fign that it had been long 
at fca. 

Saturday 29» On the 29th, at ten in tlie morning, as we were {landing 
to the North EafI:, the Difcovery made the fignal of feeing 
land. We faw it from the maft-head almoft the fame mo- 
ment, bearing North Eail by Eafl by compafs. We foon 
difcovered it to be an ifland of no great extent, and flood 
for it till funfet, when it bore North Nordi Eaft, diflant 
about two or three leagues. 

The night was fpent in ftanding off and on, and at day- 
Snnday 30. break the next morning, I bore up for the lee or Weft fide 
of the ifland, as neither anchorage nor landing appeared 
to be pratfticable on the South iide, on account of a great 
furf *, which broke every where with violence againft the 
fhore, or againft the reef that furroimded it. 

We prefently found that the ifland was inhabited, and 
faw feveral people, on a point of the land we had pafled, 
wading to the reef, where, as they found the fhip leaving 
them quickly, they remained. But others, who foon ap- 
peared in diflcrent parts, followed her courfe ; and fome- 
iimes feveral of them colleded into fmall bodies, who made 
a fliouting noife all together, nearly after the manner oS 
the inhabitants of New Zealand. 

Between feven and eight o'clock, we were at the Wefl; 
North Weft part of the ifland, and, being near the fliore, we 

* A very ingenious and fatisfaflory account of the caufe of the furf, is to be met 
•with in Marfden's Hiftory of Sumatra, p. 29. 32, 



could perceive with our glafles, that feveral of the natives, 
who appeared upon a fandy beach, were all armed v/ith 
long fpears and clubs, which they brandiflied in the air 
with figns of threatening, or, as forae on board interpreted 
their attitudes, with invitations to land. Moll of them ap- 
peared naked, except having a fort of girdle, which, being 
brought up betvi^een the thighs, covered that part of the 
body. But fome of them had pieces of cloth of different 
colours, white, ftriped, or chequered, which they wore as 
a garment, thrown about their Ihoulders. And almoll all 
of them had a white wrapper about their heads, not much 
tmlike a turban ; or, in fome inftances, like a high conical 
cap. We could alfo perceive that they were of a tawny 
colour, and in general of a middling llature, but robuft, 
and inclining to corpulence. 

At this time, a fmall canoe was launched in a great 
hurry from the further end of the beach, and a man get- 
ting into it, put off, as with a view to reach the fliip. On 
perceiving this, I brought to, that we might receive the 
vilit; but the man's refolution failing, he foon returned 
toward the beach, where, after fome time, another man 
joined him in the canoe ; and then they both paddled to- 
ward us. They llopt fiiort, hov^ever, as if afraid to ap- 
proach, until Omai, who addrelTed them in the Otaheite 
language, in fome meafure quieted their apprehenfions. 
They then came near enough to take fome beads and nails, 
which were tied to a piece of wood, and thrown into the 
canoe. They feemed afraid to touch thefe things, and put 
the piece of wood afide without untying them. This, how- 
ever, might arife from fuperllition ; for Omai told us, that 
when they faw us offering them prefents, they aflced fome- 
thing for their Eatooa, or god. He alfo, perhaps impro- 

Z 2 ^ perly. 



'777- perly, put the qiieftion to them, Whether they ever eat 
«—— V — '-^ human flefli r which they anfwered in the negative, with a 
mixture of indignation and abhorrence. One of tliem, 
whofe name was Mourooa, being afked how he came by a 
fear on his forehead, told us that it was the confcquence of 
a wound he had got in fighting with the people of an 
ifland, which lies to the North Eallward, who foraetimes 
came to invade them. They afterward took hold of a 
rope. Srill, however, they would not venture on board ; 
but told Omai, who underflood them pretty well, that their 
countrymen on fliore had given them this caution, at the 
fame time dire(5ling them to inquire, from whence our fliip 
came, and to learn the name of the Captain. On our part, 
we inquired the name of the ifland, which they called 
Mangya or Mangeea ; and fometimes added to it Nooe, naiy 
naiiva. The name of their Chief, they faid, was Orooaeeka. 

Mourooa was lufly and well made, but not very tall. His 
features were agreeable, and his difpofuion feemingly no 
lefs fo ; for he made feveral droll gefticulations, which 
indicated both good-nature and a fhare of humour. He 
alfo made others which feemed of a ferious kind, and re- 
peated fome words with a devout air, before he ventured to 
lay hold of the rope at the (hip's ftern ; which was pro- 
bably to recommend himfelf to the protedion of fome Di- 
vinity. His colour v>ra3 nearly of the fame caft with that 
common to the mod fouthern Europeans. The other man 
was not fo handfome. Both of them had llrong, ftraight 
hair, of a jet colour, tied together on the crown of the 
head with a bit of cloth. They wore fuch girdles as we 
had perceived about thofe on Ihore, and we found they 
were a fubflance made from the Morus pa'jrifera, in the 
fame manner as at the other illands of this ocean. It was 




glazed like the fort ufed by the natives of the Friendly '777- 
Iflands ; but the cloth on their heads was white, like that \, , 1 
which is found at Otaheite. They had on, a kind of fan- 
dais, made of a grafTy.fubftance interwoven, which we alfo 
obferved were worn by thofe who flood upon the beach ; 
and, as we fuppofed, intended to defend their feet againft 
the rough coral rock. Their beards were long ; and the in- 
fide of their arms, from the fhouldcr to the elbow, and fome 
other parts, were pundured or tatooed, after the manner of 
the inhabitants of almofl: all the other iflands in the South 
Sea. The lobe of their ears was pierced, or rather flit, and 
to fuch a length, that one of them fluck there a knife and 
fome beads, which he had received from us ; and the 
fame perfon had two polifhed pearl-fhells, and a bunch of 
human hair, loofely twifted, hanging about his neck, which 
was the only ornament we obferved. The canoe they came 
in (which was the only one we faw), was not above ten 
feet long, and very narrow ; but both ftrong and neatly 
made* The forepart had a flat board fattened over it, and 
projedling out, to prevent the fea getting in on plunging, 
like the fmall Evaas at Otaheite; but it had an upright 
ftern, about five feet high, like fome in New Zealand ; and 
the upper end of this ftern-poft was forked. The lower 
part of the canoe was of white wood ; but the upper was 
black, and their paddles, made of wood of the fame co- 
lour, not above three feet long, broad at one end, and 
blunted. They paddled either end of the canoe forward 
indifferently ; and only turned about their faces to paddle 
the contrary way. 

We now flood off and on ; and as foon as the fliips were 
in a proper ftation, about ten o'clock I ordered two boats, 
one of them from the Difcovery, to found the coaft, and to 





1777- endeavour to find a landinsr-place. With this view, I went 
in one of them myfelf, taking with me fuch articles to 
give the natives, as I thought might ferve to gain their 
good-will. I had no fooner put off from the fhip, than the 
canoe, with the two men, which had left us not long be- 
fore, paddled towards my boat ; and, having come along- 
side, Mourooa ftept into her, without being afkcd, and 
without a moment's hefitation. 

Omai, who was with me, v/as ordered to inquire of him, 
where we could land ; and he dirc6ted us to two diflerent 
places. Rut I faw, with regret, that the attempt could not 
be made at either place, unlefs at the rifk of having our 
boats filled with water, or even ftaved to pieces. Nor were 
we more fortunate in our fearch for anchorage ; for we 
could find no bottom, till within a cable's length of the 
breakers. There we met with from forty to twenty fathoms 
depth, over fharp coral rocks ; fo that anchoring would 
have been attended with much more danger than landing. 

While we were thus employed in reconnoitring the 
fliore, great nurnbers of the natives thronged down upon 
the reef, all armed as above mentioned. Mourooa, who 
was now in my boar, probably thinking that this warlike 
appearance hindered us from landing, ordered them to 
retire back. As many of them complied, I judged he mud 
be a perfon of fome confequence among them. Indeed, if 
we underdood him right, he was the king's brother. So 
great was the curiofity of feveral of them, that they took 
to the water, and, fwiniming off to the boats, came on 
board them without referve. Nay, we found it difficult 
to keep them out ; and ilill more difficult to prevent 
their carrying off every thing they could lay their hands 



tipon. At length, when they perceived that we were re- '777- 

1, r March. 

turning to the mips, they all left us, except our original 
vifiter Mourooa. He, though not without evident figns of 
fear, kept his place in my boat, and accompanied me on- 
board the fliip. 

The cattle and other new objects, that prcfented them- 
felves to him there, did not ftrike him with fo much fur- 
prife as one might have expefted. Perhaps his mind was- 
too much taken up about his own fafety, to allow him to 
attend to other things. It is certain, that he feemed very 
uneafy ; and the fhip, on our getting on board, happening 
to be Handing off fliore, this circumftance made him the 
more fo. I could get but little new information from him ; 
and therefore, after he had made a fliort (lay, I ordered 
a boat to cany him in toward the land. As foon as he got 
ou' of the cabin, he happened to Humble over one of the 
goats. Plis curiofiry now overcoming his fear, he flopped, 
looked at it, and afked Omai, what bird this was ? and not 
receiving an immediate anfwer from him, he repeated the 
queftion to foime of the people upon deck. The boat hav- 
ing conveyed him pretty near to the furf, he leaped into 
the fea, and fv/am afliore. He had no fooner landed, than 
the multitude of his countrynien gathered I'ound him, as if 
with an eager curiofity to learn from him what he had 
feen ; and in this (ituation they remained, when we loft 
fight of them. As foon as the boat returned, we hoifted her 
in, and made fail from the land to the Northward. 

Thus were we obliged to leave, unvifited, this fine iiland, 

which feemed capable of fupplying all oar wants. It lies 

in the latitude of i>i° 57' South; and in the longitude of 

201° 53' Eaft. Such parts of the coaft, as fell under our 

4t obfervation,. 


•777; obfervation, are guarded by a reef of coral rock, on the outfide 

March. " 

of which the fea is of an unfathomable depth. It is full five 
leagues in circuit, and of a moderate and pretty equal 
height ; though, in clear weather, it may be certainly fctn 
at the diftance of ten leagues; for we had not loft fight of it 
at night, when we had run above feven leagues, and the 
weather was cloudy. In the middle, it rifes into little hills, 
from whence there is a gentle defcent to the fliore, which, 
at the South Weft part, is ftecp, though not above ten or 
twelve feet high; and has feveral excavations made by the 
beating of the waves againft a brownifli fand-ftone of 
which it is compofed. The defcent here is covered with 
trees of a deep green colour, very thick, but not high, 
which feem all of one fort, unlefs neareft the fluore, where 
there are great numbers of that fpecies of dracena found in 
the woods of New Zealand, which are alfo fcattered in 
fome other places. On the North Weft parr, the fhore, as 
we mentioned above, ends in a fandy beech ; beyond which 
the land is broken down into fmall chafms or gullies, and 
has a broad border of trees refembling tall willows ; which, 
from its regularity, might be fuppofed a work of art, did 
not its extent forbid us to think fo. Farther up on the 
afcent, the trees were of the deep green mentioned before. 
Some of us fuppofed thefe to be the rima^ intermixed with 
low cocoa palms; and a few of fome other forts. They 
feemed not fo thick as on the South Weft part, and higher ; 
which appearance might be owing to our nearer approach 
to the fhore. On the little hills, were fome trees of a taller 
fort, thinly fcattered ; but the other parts of them were 
either bare, and of a reddifii colour, or covered with fome- 
thing like fern. Upon the whole, the illand has a pretty 
afped, and might be made a beautiful fpot by cultivation. 
J As 



As the inhabitants feemed to be both numerous and well 
fed, fuch articles of provillon as the ifland produces mufl be 
in great plenty. It might, however, be a matter of curiofity 
to know, particularly, their method of fubfiftence ; for our 
friend Mourooa told us, that they had no animals, as hogs 
and dogs, both which, however, they had heard of j but 
acknowledged they had plantains, bread-fruit, and taro. 
The only birds we faw, were fome white egg-birds, terns, 
and noddies j and one white heron, on the fliore. 

The language of the inhabitants of Mangeea is a dialed 
of that fpoken at Otaheite ; though their pronunciation, as 
that of the New Zealanders, be more guttural. Some of 
their words, of which two or three are perhaps peculiar 
to this ifland, are here fubjoined, as taken, by Mr. Ander- 
fon, from Omai, who had learnt them in his converfations 
with Mourooa. The Otaheite words, where there is any 
refemblance, are placed oppofite.. 





A cocoa nut. 



Bread 'fruity. 



A canoe. 




Naoo, mou. 

A man. 

Taata, or Tangata, 


Cloth, or cloth plant. 

, Taia, taia aoutee, 





A club, 










Afght, or battle, 



A woman. 



Vol, I. 

A a 







A daughter, 



The fun. 

Heetaia matooa. 




The JJjore, 


Euta. is that ? 

Ehataieee f 

Owytaieeoa ' 



A chief, 



Great, oxfow 

, f J ^ Manna fan 
^^"'1 tothelajl). 



To kin. 


The natives of Mangeea feem to refemble thofe of Otaheite 
and the Marquefas in the beauty of their perfons, more than 
any other nation I have feen in thefe feas ; having a fmooth 
fkin, and not being mufcular. Their general difpofition 
alfo correfponds, as far as we had opportunities of judging, 
witli that which diflinguiflies the firfl mentioned people. 
For they are not only cheerful, but, as Mourooa fhewed us, 
are acquainted with all the lafcivious gefticulations which the 
Otaheiteans pratTtife in their dances. It may alfo be fiip- 
pofed, that their method of living is fimilar. For, though 
the nature of the country prevented our feeing many of 
their habitations, we obferved one houfe near the beach, 
which much refembled, in its mode of conflrudion, thofe 
of Otaheite. It was pleafantly fituated in a grove of trees, 
and appeared to be about thirty feet long, and feven or 
eight high, with an open end, which reprefented an ellipfe 
divided tranfverfely. Before it, was fpread fonicthing white 
on a few buflies ; which we conjedured to be a fifliing net, 
and, to appearance, of a very delicate texrure. 



They f\ilutc flrangers much after the manner of the New i777- 
Zealanders, by joining nofes ; adding, however, the addi- v— — v — -* 
tional ceremony of taking the hand of the perfon to whom 
they are paying civilities, and rubbing it with a degree of 
force upon their nofe and mouth *. 

* The inhabitants of the Palaos, New Philippine, or rather Caroline IHands, at 
the ciiftance of almofl: fifteen hundred leagues from Mangeea, have the Hime mode of 
falutation. " Leur civilite, & la marque de leur refpecS, confifte a prendre la main 
" ou le pied de celui a qui ils veulent faire honneur, & s'en frotter doucement tout 
*' le vifage." Lettres Edifa/iUs iff Curieufes, Tom. xv. p. 208. Edit, 1781. 

A a 2 CHAT. 

iSd a V o y a g e t O 


iToe Difcovery of an IJland called IVateeoo. — Its Coafls 
exami7ied, — Fi/its from the Natives on hoard the Ships, 
— Me^[f. Gore^ Burney^ and Anderfo7ty with Omai, 
fent on Shore. — Mr, Anderfons Narrative of their 
Reception. — Oinais Expedient to prevent their being de- 
tained. — His meeting with fome of his Counttyfnen, a?td 
their difrefsfid Voyage.— Farther Account of Wateeoo^ 
and of its hihabitaitts. 

^111- A FTE R leaving Mangeea, on the afternoon of the 30th, 

March. /"^ 

« .^ 1 ^ -M»- we continued our courfe Northward all that night, 

MondayV- '^'^^ ^^^^ noon On the 3 lit ; when v/e again faw land, in the 

direction of North Eaft by North, diflant eight or ten 


ffda'v'i. Next morning, at eight o'clock, we had got alM-eaft of its 
North end, within four leagues of it, but to leeward ; and 
could now pronounce it to be an ifland, nearly of the fame 
appearance and extent with that we had fo lately left. At 
the fame time, another ifiand, but much fmaller, was Ceen 
right ahead. We could have foon reached this ; but the 
largetl one had the preference, as moll likely to furnifli a 
fupply of food for the cattle, of which we began to be in 
great want. 

With this view I determined to work up to it; but as 
there was but little wind, and that little was unfavourable, 


Tuefday j 


THE P A C I F I C O C E A N. i8i 

we were fcill two leaj^ues to leeward at eic:hc o'clock the ^'n- 
following morning. Soon after, I lent two armed boats ' — ^ — -i 
from the Refolution, and one from the Difcovery, under 
the command of Lieutenant Gore, to look for anchoring- 
ground, and a landing-place. In the mean time, we plyed 
up under the illand with the fhips. 

Jud as the boats were putting off, we obferved feveral 
fingle canoes coming from the flrore. They went firft to 
the Difcovery, flie being the nearcft fhip. It was not long 
after, when three of thefe canoes came along-fide of the 
Pvcfolution, each conducted by one man. They are long 
and narrow, and fupported by outriggers. The flern is 
elevated about three or four feet, fomething like a fhip's 
flern-poft. The head is flat above, but prow-like below, and 
turns down at the extremity, like the end of a violin. Some 
knives, beads, and other trifles were convc}'ed to our vi- 
fiters ; and they gave us a few cocoa-nuts, upon our afking 
for them. But they did not part with them by way of ex- 
change for what they had received from us. For they 
feemed to have no idea of bartering ; nor did they appear 
to eftimate any of our prefents at a high rate. 

With a little perfuafien, one of them made his canoe faft 
to the fliip, and came on board ; and the other two, en- 
couraged by his example, foon followed him. Their whole 
behaviour marked that they were quite at their eafe, and 
felt no fort of apprehenfion of our detaining, or uflng 
them ill. 

After their departure, another canoe arrived, condu(5t- 
ed by a man who brought a bunch of plantains as a 
prefent to me ; afldng for me by name, having learnt it 
from Omai, who was fent before us in the boat with Mr. 

8 Gore. 


■777- Gore. In return for this civility, I s:ave him an axe, and 

Aon!. JO 

\ — A. ' a piece of red cloth ; and he paddled back to the fliore 

well fatisfied. I afterward underflood from Omai, that 
this prefent had been fent from the king, or principal Chief 
of the ifland. 

Not long after, a double canoe, in which were twelve 
men, came toward us. As they drew near the Ihip, they 
recited fome words in concert, by way of chorus *', one of 
tlieir number iirfl: Handing up, and giving the word before 
each repetition. When they had finifhed their folemn 
chant, they came along-fide, and aflicd for the Chief. As 
foon as I fliewed myfelf, a pig and a few cocoa-nuts were 
conveyed up into the fliip ; and the principal perfon in the 
canoe made me an additional prefent of a piece of mat- 
ting, as foon as he and his companions got on board. 

Our vifiters were conducfted into the cabin, and to 
other parts of the lliip. Some objects feemed to ftrike 
them with a degree of fiirprize ; but nothing fixed their at- 
tention for a moment. They were afraid to come near the 
cov,/s and horfes ; nor did they form the leaft concep- 
tion of their nature. But the fheep and goats did not fur- 
pafs the limits of their ideas ; for they gave us to under- 
ftand, that they knew them to be birds. It will appear rather 
incredible, that human ignorance could ever make fo 

* Something like this ceremony was performed by the inhabitants of the Marquefas, 
when Captain Cook vifited them in 1774. See his Voyage, Vol. i. p. 301. It is 
curious to obferve, at what immenfe diftances this mode of receiving ftrangers pre- 
vails. Padiilo, who failed from Manilla in 1710, on a voyage to difcover the 
Paiacs Iflands, was thus received there. The writer of the relation of iiis voyage 
fays, " AufTitot qu'ils approcherent dc notre bord, ils fe mirent a chanter. lis 
*' regloicnt la cadence, en frappant des mains fur leurs cuifles." 

Leit/es Edifiantcs Lf Curicujls, Tom. xv. p. 323. 



firano-e a miftake: there not beino; the mod diflant fimili- \~77- 

" ' " April. 

tilde between a flieep or goat, and any winged animal. ' . ' 

But thcfe people feemed to know nothing of the exiftence of 
any other land-animals, bcfides hogs, dogs, and birds. 
Our flieep and goats, they could fee, were very different 
creatures from the two firft, and therefore they inferred, 
that they muft belong to the latter clafs, in which they 
knew there is a confiderable variety of fpecies. I made a 
prefent to my new friend of what I thought might be moll 
acceptable to him ; but, on his going away, he feemed ra- 
ther difappointed than pleafed. I afterward underllood 
that he was very defirous of obtaining a dog, of which 
animal this illand could not boaft, though its inhabitants 
knew that the race exifled in other iflands of their ocean. 
Captain Clerke had received the like prefent, with the fame 
view, from another man, who met with from him the like 

The people in thefe canoes were in general of a middling 
fize, and not unlike thofe of Mangeea ; though feveral 
were of a blacker call than any we faw there. Their hair 
was tied on the crown of the head, or flowing loofe about 
the flioulders ; and though in fome it was of a frizzling 
difpofition, yet, for the moft part, tliat, as well as tlie 
flraight fort, was long. Their features were various, and 
fome of the young men rather hand fome. Like thofe of 
Mangeea, they had girdles of glazed cloth, or fine matting, 
the ends of which, being brought betwixt their thighs, co- 
vered the adjoining parts. Ornaments, compoled of a fore 
of broad grafs, ftained with red, and ftrung with berries of 
the night-Ihade, were worn about their necks. Their ears 
were bored, but not flit ; and they were puncTiured upon 
the legs, from the knee to the heel, which made them ap- 

i84 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- pear as if they wore a kind of boots. They alfo refembled 

April. . . 

<— — V-— J the inhabitants of Mangeea in the length of their beards, 
and, Uke them, wore a fort of fandals upon their feet. 
Their behaviour was frank and cheerful, with a great deal 
of good-nature. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon, Mr. Gore returned with 
the boat, and informed me, that he had examined all the 
Weft fide of the ifland, without finding a place where a 
boat could land, or the fhips could anchor, the fliore being 
every where bounded by a ftecp coral rock, againft which 
the fea broke in a dreadful furf. But as the natives feemed 
very friendly, and to exprefs a degree of difappointmenn 
when they faw that our people failed in their attempts to 
land, Mr. Gore was of opinion, that by means of Omai, 
who could bed explain our requeft, they might be pre- 
vailed upon to bring off to the boats, beyond the furf, fuch 
articles as we moft wanted ; in particular, th€ ftems of plan- 
tain trees, which make good food for the cattle. Having 
little or no wind, the delay of a day or two was not of any 
moment ; and therefore 1 determined to try the experiment, 
and got every thing ready againft the next morning. 

Thurfdayj, Soou aftcr day-brcak, we obferved fome canoes coming 
off to the fliips, and one of them diredled its courfe to the 
Refolution. hi it was a hog, with fome plantains and 
Gocoa nuts, for which th€ people, who brought them, de- 
manded a dog from us, and refufed every other thing tlia: 
we offered in exchange. One of our gentlemen on board, 
happened to have a dog and a bitch, which were great 
nuifances in the fliip, and might have been difpofed of on 
>. this occafion for a purpofe of real utility, by propagating a 
race of fo ufeful an animal in this ifland. But their owner 
had no fuch views, in making them the companions of his 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N, i8j- 

voyage. However, to gratify thefe people, Omai parted 1777- 
with a favourite dog he had brought from England -, and 
with this acquifition they departed highly fatisficd. 

About ten o'clock, I difpatched Mr. Gore with three 
boats, two from the Refolution, and one from the Difco- 
very, to try the experiment he had propofed. And, as I 
could confide in his diligence and ability, I left it entirely 
to himfelf, to a6l as, from circumftances, he fliould judge to 
be mofl proper. Two of the' natives, who had been on 
board, accompanied him, and Omai went with him in his 
boat as an interpreter. The fhips being a full league from 
the ifland when the boats put off, and having but little 
wind, it was noon before we could work up to it. We then 
faw our three boats riding at their grapplings, juft without 
the furf, and a prodigious number of the natives on the 
fliore, abreaft of them. By this we concluded, that Mr. 
Gore, and others of our people, had landed, and our impa- 
tience to know the event may be eafily conceived. In order 
to obferve their motions, and to be ready to give them fuch 
affiftance as they might want, and our refpe^live fituations 
would admit of, I kept as near the fhore as was prudent. I 
was fenlible, however, that the reef was as effe<5lual a barrier 
between us and our friends who had landed, and put them 
as much beyond the reach of our prote6lion, as if half the 
circumference of the globe had intervened. But the 
iflanders, it was probable, did not know this fo well as we 
did. Some of them, now and then, came off to the iliips in 
their canoes, with a few cocoa nuts ; which they exchanged 
for whatever was offered to them, without feeming to give 
the preference to any particular article. 

Thefe occafional vifits ferved to lefTen my folicitude about 

our people who had landed. Though we could get no in- 

VoL. I. B b formation 

i86 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777- formation from our vifiters ; yet their venturino: on board 

March. ' •' <=» 

feemed to imply, at leaft, that their countrymen on fiiore 
had not made an improper ufe of the confidence put in 
them. At length, a little before fun-fet, we had the fatisfac- 
tion of feeing the boats put off. When they got on board, 
I found tha,t Mr. Gore himfelf, Omai, Mr. Anderfon, and 
Mr. Barney, were the only perfons who had landed. The 
tranfa(5lions of the day were now fully reported to me by 
Mr. Gore ; but Mr. Anderfon's account of them being very 
particular, and including fome remarks on the iiland and 
its inhabitants, I fhall give it a place here, nearly in his 
own ViTords. 

" We rowed toward a fmall fandy beach, upon which, 
and upon the adjacent rocks, a great number of the natives 
had affembled ; and came to an anchor within a hundred 
yards of the reef, which extends about as far, or a little 
farther, from the fliore. Several of the natives fwam off, 
bringing cocoa nuts ; and Omai, with their countrymen, 
whom we had with us in the boats, made them fenfiblc of 
our wifli to land. But their attention was taken up, for a 
little time, by the dog, which had been carried from the 
Ihip, and was juft brought on fhore, round whom they 
flocked with great eagernefs. Soon after, two canoes came 
off; and, to create a greater confidence in the iflanders, we 
determined to go unarmed, and run the hazard of being 
treated well or ill. 

Mr. Burney, the firft Lieutenant of the Difcovery, and I, 
went in one canoe, a little time before the other ; and our con- 
ductors, watching attentively the motions of the furf, landed 
us fafely upon the reef. An iflander took hold of each of 
us, obvioufly with an intention to fupport us in walking, 
2 over 


over the rugged rocks, to the beach, where feveral of the ^777- 

others met us, holding the green boughs, of a fpecies of ' . — ' 

Mimofa, in their hands, and faluted us by applying their 
nofes to ours. 

. We were conducT:ed from the beach by our guides, 
amidft a great crowd of people, who flocked with very 
eager curiolity to look at us ; and would have prevented our 
proceeding, had not fome men, who feemed to have au- 
thority, dealt blows, with little diflinclion, amongft them, to 
keep them off. We were then led up an avenue of cocoa- 
palms ; and foon came to a number of men, arranged in 
two rows, armed with clubs, which they held on their 
flioulders, much in the manner we reft a mufquet. After 
walking a little way amongft thefe, we found a perfou 
■who feemed a Chief, fitting on the ground crofs-legged, 
cooling himfelf with a fort of triangular fan, made from 
a leaf of the cocoa-palm, with a polifhed handle, of 
black wood, fixed to one corner. In his ears were large 
bunches of beautiful red feathers, which pointed forward. 
But he had no other mark, or ornament, to diftinguifli him 
from the reft of the people ; though they all obeyed him 
with the greateft alacrity. He either naturally had, or at 
this time put on, a ferious, but not fevere countenance ; and 
we were deftred to falute him as he fat, by fome people 
who feemed of confequence. 

We proceeded ftill amongft the men armed with clubs, 
and came to a fecond Chief, who fat fanning himfelf, and 
ornamented as the firft. He was remarkable for his fize, 
and uncommon corpulence, though, to appearance, not 
above thirty years of age. In the fame manner, we were 
conducted to a third Chief, who feemed older than the two 

B b 2 former, 


1777- former, and, though not fo fat as the fecond, was of a large 
^ , -^"'_f lize. He alfo was fitting, and adorned with red feathers ; and 
after fainting him as we had done the others, he defired 
us both to fit down. Which we were very willing to do, 
"being pretty well fatigued with walking up, and with the 
excefiive heat we felt amongfl the vaft crowd that fur- 
rounded us. 

In a few minutes, the people were ordered to feparate ; 
and we faw, at the diftance of thirty yards, about twenty 
young women, ornamented as the Chiefs, with red fea- 
thers, engaged in a dance, which they performed to a flow 
and ferious air, fung by them all. We got up, and went 
forward to fee them ; and though we muft have been 
firange objects to them, they continued their dance, with- 
out paying the lead attention to us. They feemed to be 
dire<5ted by a man who ferved as a prompter, and mentioned 
each motion they were to make. But they never changed 
the fpot, as we do in dancing, and though their feet were 
not at reft, this exercife confifted more in moving the fingers 
very nimbly, at the fame time holding the hands in a prone 
pofition near the face, and now and then alfo clapping them 
together*. Their motions and fong were performed in 
fuch exad: concert, tliat it fliould feem they had been taught 
- with great care ; and probably they were felec5led for this 
ceremony, as few of thofe whom v^e faw in the crowd 
equalled them in beauty. In general, they were rather 
fi.out thanflender, with black hair flowing in ringlets down 
the neck, and of an olive complexion. Their features were, 

* The dances of the inhabitants of the Caroline Iflands, have a great refemblance 
to thofe hc-re defcribed. See Lettres Edif. et Ciirieufes, Tom. xv. p. 315. See alio, iix 
the fame volume, p. 207. what is faid of the finging and dancing of the inhabitants 
of the Palaos Iflands, which belong to the fame group. 



rather, fuller than what we allow to perfe<5t beauties, and '777- 
much alike ; but their eyes were of a deep black, and each v - ^" '_f 
countenance exprelTed a degree of complacency and mo- 
defty, peculiar to the fex in every part of the world ; ibut 
perhaps more confpicuous here, where Nature prefented us 
with her produ6lions in the fulleft perfedlion, unbiafled in 
fentiment by cuilom, or unreftrained in manner by art. 
Their fliape and limbs were elegantly formed. For, as 
their drefs confifted only of a piece of glazed cloth faftened 
about the waift, and fcarcely reaching fo low as the knees, 
in many we had an opportunity of obferving every parr. 
This dance was not finiilied, when we heard a noife, as if 
fome horfes had been galloping toward us ; and, on looking 
afide, we faw the people armed with clubs, who had been 
defired, as we fuppofed, to entertain us with the light of 
their manner of fighting. This they now did, one party 
purfuing another who fled. 

As we fuppofed the ceremony of being introduced to the 
Chiefs was at an end, we began to look about for Mr. Gore 
and Omai ; and, though the crowd would hardly fuffer us 
to move, we at length found them coming up, as much in- 
commoded by the number of people as we had been, and 
introduced in the fame manner to the three Chiefs, whofe 
names were Otteroo, Taroa, and Fatouweera. Each of 
thefe expected a prefent; and Mr. Gore gave them fuch 
things as he had brought with him from the fhip, for that 
purpofe. After this, making life of Omai as his inter- 
preter, he informed the Chiefs with v^^hat intention we had 
come on fliore ; but was given to underftand, that he mull 
wait till the next day, and then he fliould have what was- 




>777- They nov<7 feemed to take fome pains to feparate us from 

1,^ — >, — J each other; and every one of us had his circle, to furround and 
gaze at him. For my own part, I was, at one time, above an 
hour apart from my friends; and when I told the Chief, with 
whom I fat, that I wanted to fpeak to Omai, he perempto- 
rily refufed my requeft. At the fame time, I found the 
people began to fleal feveral trifling things which I had in 
my pocket ; and when I took the liberty of complaining to 
the Chief of this treatment, he juftified it. From thefe cir- 
cumftances/I now entertained apprehenlions, that they might 
have formed the delign of detaining us amongft them. 
They did not, indeed, feem to be of a difpolition fo favage, 
as to make us anxious for the fafety of our perfons ; but it 
was, neverthelefs, vexing to think, we had hazarded being 
detained by their curiofity. In this fi tuation, I aflced for 
fcmething to eat; and they readily brought to me fome 
cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, and a fort of four pudding, which 
was prefented by a woman. And on my complaining much 
of the heat, occafioned by the crowd, the Chief himfelf con- 
defcended to fan me, and gave me a fmall piece of cloth, 
which he had round his waifl. 

Mr. Burney happening to come to the place where I was, 
I mentioned my fufpicions to him ; and, to put it to the 
teft, whether they were well-founded, we attempted to get 
to the beach. But we were flopped, when about half-way, 
by fome men, who told us, that we mufl: go back to the 
place which we had left. On coming up, we found Omai 
.entertaining the fame apprehenfions. But he had, as he 
fancied, an additional reafon for being afraid ; for he had 
obferved, that they had dug a hole in the ground for an 
oven, which they vvere now heating; and he could affign no 
other reafon for this, than that they meant to roaft, and eat 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. ipi 

tis, as is pra(5tifed by the inhabitants of New Zealand. Nay, '777- 
he went fo far as to aflc them the qiieftion ; at which they 
were greatly furprifed, afking, in return, whether that was 
a cuftom with us? Mr. Burney and I were rather angry 
that they fhould be thus fufpcfled by him ; there having, 
as yet, been no appearances, in their condu(51: toward us, of 
tlieir being capable of fuch brutality. 

In this manner we were detained the greateft part of the 
day, being fometimes together, and fometimes feparated ; 
but always in a crowd ; who, not fatisfied with gazing at 
us, frequently defired us to uncover parts of our flcin ; the 
fight of which commonly produced a general murmur of 
admiration. At the fame time, they did not omit thefe op- 
portunities of rifling our pockets ; and, at laft, one of them 
fnatched a fmall bayonet from Mr. Gore, which hung in its 
fheath by his fide. This was reprefented to the Chief, 
who pretended to fend fome perfon in fearch of it. Bar, 
in all probability, he countenanced the theft ; for, foon 
after, Omai had a dagger llolen from his fide, in the fame 
manner; though he did not mifs it immediately. 

Whether they obferved any figns of unealinefs in us, or 
that they voluntarily repeated their emblems of friendfliip 
when we exprefled a defire to go, I cannot tell; but, at this 
time, they brought fome green boughs, and, flicking their 
ends in the ground, defired we might hold them as we 
fat. Upon our urging again the bufinefs we came upon, 
they gave us to underftand, that we mufl: flay and eat with 
them ; and a pig which we faw, foon after, lying near the 
oven, which they had prepared and heated, removed Omai's 
apprehenfion of being put into it himfelf; and made us 
think it might be intended for our repaft. The Chief alfo 




1777^ promifed to fend fome people to procure food for the cattle j 
but it was not till pretty late in the afternoon, that we faw 
them return with a few plantain-trees, which they carried 
to our boats. 

In the mean time, Mr. Burney and I attempted again to 
go to the beach ; but when we arrived, found ourfelves 
watched by people, who, to appearance, had been placed 
there for this purpofe." For v/hen I tried to wade in upon 
the reef, one of them took hold of my clothes, and dragged 
me back. I picked up fome fmall pieces of coral, which 
they required me to throw down again ; and, on my refu- 
fal, they made no fcruple to take them forcibly from me. 
I had gathered fome fmall plants ; but thefe alfo I could not 
be permitted to retain. And they took a fan from Mr. 
Burney, which he had received as a prefent on coming 
afhore. Omai faid, we had done wrong in taking up any 
thing ; for it was not the cullom here to permit freedoms of 
that kind to flrangers, till they had, in fome meafure, na- 
turalized them to the country, by entertaining them with 
feflivity for two or three days. 

Finding that the only method of procuring better treat- 
ment was to yield implicit obedience to their will, we went 
up again to the place we had left ; and they now promifed, 
that we fliould have a canoe to carry us off to our boats, 
after we had eaten of a repaft which had been prepared 
for us. 

Accordingly, the fecond Chief, to whom we had been in- 
troduced in the morning, having feated himfelf upon a low 
broad ftool of blackifli hard wood, tolerably poliflied, and 
directing the multitude to make a pretty large ring, made 
us fit down by him. A confiderable number of cocoa-nuts 
9 were 


were now brought; and, fhortly after, a long green bafkef, '777. 

with a fufficient quantity of baked plantains to have ferved ' >.~— ^ 

a dozen perfons. A piece of the young hog, that had 
been drefled, was then fet before each of us, of which we 
were defued to eat. Our appetites, however, had failed, 
from the fatigue of the day ; and though wq did eat a little 
to pleafe them, it was without fatisfadion to ourfelves. 

It being now near fun-fet, we told them it was time to eo 
on board. This they allowed; and fent down to the beach 
the remainder of the vi(5luals that had been dreffed, to 
be carried with us to the fhips. But, before we fet out, 
Omai was treated with a drink he had been ufed to in his 
own country; which, we obferved, was made here, as at other 
illands in the South Sea, by chewing the root of a fort of 
pepper. We found a canoe ready to put us off to our boats; 
which the natives did, with the fame caution as when we 
landed. But, even here, their thievifli difpofition did not 
leave them. For a perfon of fome confequence among them, 
who came with us, took an opportunity, juft as they were 
pufhing the canoe into the furf, to fnatch a bag out of her, 
which I had, with the greateft difficulty, prefcrved all the 
day; there being in it a fmall pocket-piftol, which I was 
unwilling to part with. Perceiving him, I called out, exprefT- 
ing as much difpleafure as I could. On v;hich he thought 
proper to return, and fwim with the bag to the canoe ; but de- 
nied he had ftolen it, though detedled in the very a6l. They ■ 
put us on board our boats, with the cocoa-nuts, plantains, 
and other provifions, which they had brought; and we 
rowed to the fliips, very well pleafed that we had at Jaft got 
out of the hands of our troublelbrae mailers. 

Vol. I. Co We 




1777- We regretted much, that our redrained fituation eave \i3 

April. " 

— ,/ ' fo little opportunity of making obfervations on the country. 

For, during the whole day, we were fcldom a hundred 
yards from the place where we were introduced to the 
Chiefs on landing; and, confequently, were confined to the 
furrounding objects. The firfl: thing that prefented itfelF, 
worthy of our notice, was the number of people; which muft 
have been, at leaft, two thoufand. For thofe who welcomed 
us on the fliore, bore no proportion to the multitude we 
found amongft the trees, on proceeding a little way up. 

We could alfo obferve, that, except a few, thofe we had 
hitherto feen on board, were of the lower clafs. For a great 
number of thofe we now met with, had a fuperior dignity in 
their air, and were of a much whiter caft. In general, they 
had the hair tied on the crown of the head, long, black, 
and of a moft luxuriant growth. Many of the young men 
were perfe<5l models in fliape, of a complexion as delicate 
as that of the women, and, to appearance, of a difpofuion 
as amiable. Others, who were more advanced in years, 
were corpulent ; and all had a remarkable fmoothnefs of 
the fkin. Their general drefs was a piece of clotli, or mat, 
wrapped about the waift, and covering the parts which mo- 
deily conceals. But fome had pieces of mats, moft curi- 
ouily varied with black and white, made into a fort of 
jacket without lleeves ; and others wore conical caps of co- 
coa-nut core, neatly interwoven with fraall beads, made of a 
fheliy fubftance. Their ears were pierced ; and in them 
they hung bits of the membraneous part of fome plant, or 
iluck there an odoriferous flower, which feemed to be a 
fpecies o^ gardenia. Some, who were of a fuperior clafs, and 
alfo the Chiefs, had two little balls, with a common bafe,, 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 195 

made from the bone of fome animal, whicln was huno; '777- 


round the neck, with a great many folds of fmall cord. 1 — ^ — -> 
And afcer the ceremony of introduclion to the Chiefs was 
over, they then appeared without their red feathers ; which 
are certainly confidered here as a particular mark, of dif- 
tin(5tion ; for none but themfelves, and the young women 
who danced, affUmcd them. 

Some of the men were pun6lured all over the fides and 
back, in an uncommon manner ; and fbme of the women 
had the fame ornament on their legs. But this method vv'as 
confined to thofe who feemed to be of a fuperior rank ; and 
the men, in that cafe, were alfo generally diftinguiflied by 
their fize and corpulence, unlefs very young. The women 
of an advanced age had their hair cropped fiiort ; and many 
were cut, in oblique lines, all over the fore-part of the body; 
and fome of the wounds, which formed rhomboidal figures, 
had been fo lately inflicted, that the coagulated blood ftill 
remained in them. 

The wife of one of the Chiefs appeared with her child, 
laid in a piece of red cloth, which had been pre fen red to her 
hufband ; and feemed to carry it with great tendernefs, fuck- 
ling it much after the manner of our women. Another 
Chief introduced his daughter, who was yotmg and beauti- 
ful ; but appeared with all the timidity natural to the fex ; 
though flie gazed on us with a kind of anxious concern, 
that feemed to flruggle with her fear, and to exprefs her 
aftonifliment at fo unufual a fight. Others advanced with 
more firmnefs, and, indeed, were lefs referved than we ex- 
pcifled ; but behaved with a becoming modefty. We did 
not obferve any perfonal deformities amongfl either fex ; 
except in a few who had fears of broad fuperficial ulcers, 

C c 2 remaining 

196 A V O Y A G E T O 

•777- remaining on the face and other parts. In proportion to 
the number of people afTembled, there appeared not many 
old men or women ; which may eafily be accounted for, by 
fuppofing that fuch as were in an advanced period of life, 
might neither have the inclination, nor the ability, to come 
from the more didant parts of the ifland. On the other 
hand, the children were numerous; and both thefe, and the 
men, climbed the trees to look at us, when we were hid by 
the furrounding crowd. 

About a third part of the men were armed with clubs and 
fpears j and, probably, thefe were only the perfons who 
had come from a diftance, as many of them had fmall baf- 
kets, mats, and other things, faflened to the ends of therr 
•weapons. The clubs were generally about fix feet long, 
made of a hard black wood, lance-fliaped at the end, but 
much broader, v/ith the edge nicely fcolloped, and the whole 
neatly poliflied. Others of them were narrower at the 
point, much fliorter, and plain ; and fome were even fb 
fmall, as ufed with one hand. The fpears were made 
of the fame wood, limply pointed; and, in general, above 
twelve feet long ; though fome were fo fliort, that they 
feemed intended to be thrown as darts. 

The place where we were all the day, was under the 
ihade of various trees ; in which they preferved their 
canoes from the fun. About eight or ten of them were 
here, all double ones ; that is, two fmgle ones faflened toge- 
ther (as is ufual, throughout the whole extent of the Pacific 
Ocean), by rafters laflied acrofs. They were about twenty 
feet long, about four feet deep, and the fides rounded with 
a plank raifed upon them, which was faflened flrongly by 
means of withes. Two of thefe canoes were mofl curioufly 


THE P A C I F I C O C E A N. 197 

ftained, or painted, all over with black, in numberlcfs fmall 1777. 
figures ; as fquarcs, triangles, &c. and excelled, by far, ^" ' 
any thing of that kind I had ever feen at any other ifland 
in this ocean. Our friends here, indeed, feemed to have ex- 
erted more fldll in doing this, than in pundluring their own 
bodies. The paddles were about four feet long, nearly ellip- 
tical ; but broader at the upper end than the middle. Near 
the fame place v/as a hut or fhed, about thirty feet long, 
and nine or ten high; in which, perhaps, thefe boats are 
built ; but, at this time, it was empty. 

The greateftnumber of the trees around us were cocoa-palms; 
fome forts of hiblfcus; a fpecies oi euphorbia \ and, toward the 
fea, abundance of the fame kind of trees we had feen at 
Mangeea Nooe Nainaivva ; and which feemed to furround 
the fhores of this iiland in the fame manner. They are tall 
and ilender, not much unlike a cyprefs; but with bunches 
of long, round, articulated leaves. The natives call them 
etoa. On the ground we faw fome grafs ; a fpecies of con- 
volvulns ; and a good deal of treacJe-muJiard. There are alfo, 
doubilefs, other fruit-trees and ufeful plants which we did 
not fee. For, bcfides feveral forts of plantains, they brought, 
at different times, roots which they call taro (the coccos of 
other countries) ; a bread-fruit ; and a bafket of roafled nuts, 
of a kidney-fhape, in tafle like a chefnut, but coarfer. 

What the foil of the ifland may be, farther inland, we 
could not tell. But, toward the fea, it is nothing more 
than a bank of coral, ten or twelve feet high, fleep, and 
rugged; except where there are fmall fandy beaches, at 
fome clefts where the afcent is gradual. The coral, though 
it has, probably, been expofed to the weather for many 
oenturies, has undergone no farther change than becom- 
?-., ing; 


ing black on the furface ; which, from its iiTCgularity, is 
not much unhke large mafles of a burnt fubftance. Bur, 
on breaking fome pieces ofF, we found, that, at the depth 
of two or three inches, it was jufl as frefli as the pieces that 
had been lately thrown upon the beach by the waves. The 
reef or rock, that lines the fliore entirely, runs to different 
breadths into the fea, where it ends, all at once, and be- 
comes like a high, fteep wall. It is, nearly, even with the 
furface of the water, and of a brown or brick colour ; but 
the texture is rather porous, yet fufficient to withftand the 
wafliing of the furf which continually breaks upon it." 

Though the landing of our Gentlemen proved the means 
of enriching my Journal with the foregoing particulars, 
the principal objedt I had in view was, in a great meafurc, 
unattained; for the day was fpent without getting any one 
thing from the ifland worth mentioning. The natives, 
however, were gratified with a fight they never befo?e had ; 
and, probably, will never have again. And mere curiofity 
feems to have been their chief motive for keeping the 
gentlemen under fuch reflraint, and for ufmg every art to 
prolong their continuance amongft them. 

It has been mentioned, that Omai was fent upon this ex- 
pedition; and, perhaps, his being Mr. Gore's interpreter 
was not the only fcrvice he performed this day. He was 
aflced, by the natives, a great many queftions concerning 
us, our fhips, our country, and the fort of arms we ufed ; 
and, according to the account he gave me, his anfwcrs were 
not a little upon the marvellous. As, for inftance, he told 
them, that our country had Ihips as large as their ifland ; on 
board vv-hich were inflruments of war (defcribing our guns), 
ol fuch dimenfions, that feveral people might fit within them ; 
I and 


and that one of them was fufficient to crufli; the whole ifl-and 
at one fhot. This led them to inquire of him, what fort of 
guns we a6lually had in our two (hips. He faid, that though 
they were but fmall, in comparifon with thofe he had juft 
defcribed, yet, with fuch as they were, we could, with the 
greatefl eafe, and at the diftance the fhips were from the 
Ihore, deftroy the ifland, and kill every foul in it. They, 
perfevered in their inquiries, to know by what means this 
could be done; and Omai explained the matter as well as he 
could. He happened luckily to have a few cartridges in his 
pocket. Thefe he produced ; the balls, and the gunpowder 
which was to fet them in motion, were fubmitted to infpec- 
tion ; and, to fupply the defecfls of his defcription, ,an ap- 
peal was made to the fenfes of the fpe6lators. It has been 
mentioned above, that one of the Chiefs had ordered the 
multitude to form themfelves into a circle. This furnifhed ; 
Omai with a convenient ftage for his eshibition. In the 
center of this amphitheatre, the inconfiderable quantity of 
gunpowder, collecfled from his cartridges, was properly • 
difpofed upon the ground, and, by means of a bit of burn- 
ing wood from the oven, where dinner was dreiling, fet on- 
fire. The fudden blaft, and loud report, the mingled flame 
and fmoke, that inftantly fucceeded, now filled the^whole 
aflembly with aftonifhment ; they no longer doubted the ■ 
tremendous power of our weapons, and gave full credit to 
all that Omai had faid. 

If it had not been for the terrible ideas they conceived ' 
of the guns of our (hips, from this fpecimen of their mode 
of operation, it was thought that they would have detained 
the gentlemen all night. For Omai afllired them, that, if 
he and his companions did not return on board the fame 
day, they might exped that I would fire upon the ifland. 




'^pl: And as we flood in nearer the land in the evening, than 
we had done any time before, of which polition of the 
fliips they were obferved to take great notice, they, pro- 
bably, thought we were meditating this formidable attack; 
and, therefore, fuffered their guefts to depart ; under the 
expeiftation, however, of feeing them again on fliore next 
morning. But I was too fcnfible of the riflv they had al- 
ready run, to think of a repetition of the experiment. 

This day, it feems, was deftined to give Omai more oc- 
cafions than one, of being brought forward to bear a prin- 
cipal part in its tranfacTiions. The ifland, though never 
before vilited by E,uropeans, ac5lually happened to have 
other ftrangers refiding in it ; and it was entirely owing to 
Omai's being one of Mr. Gore's attendants, that this cu- 
rious circumllance came to our knowledge. 

Scarcely had he been landed upon the beach, when he 
found, amongfl the crowd there allembled, three of his own 
countrymen, natives of the Society Iflands. At the diftance 
of about two hundred leagues from thofe iflands, an im- 
menfe, unknown ocean intervening, with fuch wretched* 
fea-boats as their inhabitants are known to make ufe of, 
and fit only for a palTage where fight of land is fcarcely 
ever lofl, fuch a meeting, at fuch a place, fo accidentally 
vifited by us, may well be looked upon as one of thofe un- 
expctfled fituations, with which tiie writers of feigned ad- 
ventures love to furpiife their readers, and which, when 
they really happen in common life, deferve to be recorded 
for their Angularity. 

It may eafily be guelTed, with what mutual furprife and 
fatisfaflion Omai and his countrymen engaged in conver- 
fation. Their fiory, as related by them, is an afTcifting one. 



About twenty perfons in number, of both fexes, had em- -y'j- 

barlced on board a canoe at Otahcite, to crois over to the v= — . » 

neighbouring ifland Uhetea. _ A violent contrary vi^ind ari- 
fing, they could neither reach the latter, nor get back to 
the former. Their intended paffage being a very fhort one, 
their flock of provifions was fcanty, and foon exhaufted. 
The hardlhips they fufFered, while driven along by the 
florm, they knew not whither, are not to be conceived. 
They pafTed many days without having any thing to eat or 
drink. Their numbers gradually diminiflaed, worn out by 
famine and fatigue. Four men only furvived, when the 
canoe overfet ; and then the perdition of this fmali rem- 
nant feemed inevitable. However, they kept hanging 
by the fide of their veffel, during fome of the laft days, 
till Providence brought them m fight of the people of 
this ifland, who immediately fent out canoes, took them 
oil" their wreck, and brought them afliore. Of the four 
who were thus faved, one was lince dead. The other three, 
who lived to have this opportunity of giving an account of 
their almoft miraculous tranfplantation, fpoke highly of 
the kind treatment they here met with. And fo well fa- 
tisfied were they with their fituation, that they refufed the 
offer made to them by our gentlemen, at Omai's requefl, of 
giving them a pafTage on board our fhips, to reflore them 
to their native iflands. The fimilarity of manners and lan- 
guage, had more than naturalized them to this fpot ; and 
the frefh connexions which they had here formed, and 
which it would have been painful to have broken off, after 
fuch a length of time, fufficiently account for their de- 
clining to revifit the places of their birth. They had ar- 
rived upon this ifland at leaft twelve years ago. For I 
learnt from Mr. Anderfon, that he found they knew no- 
VoL. I. D d thing 

j>02 A V O Y A G E T O 

^777- tiling of Captain Wallis's vific to Otaheite in 1765; nor of 
feveral other memorable occurrences, fuch as the ccnqueft 
of Ulietea by thofe of Bolabola, which had preceded the 
arrival of the Europeans. To Mr. Anderfon I am alfo in- 
debted for their names, Orououte, Otirreroa, and Tavee ; 
the firft, born at Matavai in Otaheite; the fecond, at Uhetea; 
and the third at Huaheine. 

The landing of our gentlemen on this ifland, though 
they failed in the objedl of it, cannot but be confidered as 
a very fortunate circumftance. It has proved, as we have 
ieen, the means of bringing to our knowledge a matter of 
fa(5t, not only very curious, but very inftruclive. The ap- 
plication of the above narrative is obvious. It will ferve to 
explain, better than a thoufand conjedtures of fpeculative 
reafoners, how the detached parts of the earth, and, in 
particular, how the iflands of the South Sea, may have 
been firft; peopled; efpecially thofe that lie remote from 
any inhabited continent, or from each other*. 

* Such accidents as this here related, probably happen frequently in the Pacific 
Ocean. In 1696, two canoes, having on board thirty perfons of both fexes, were 
driven, by contrary winds and tempeftuous weather, on the ifle of Samal, one of the 
Philippines, after being toft about at fea feventy days, and having performed a voyage, 
from an ifland called by them Amorfot, 300 leagues to the Eaft of Samal. Five of 
the number who had embarked, died of the hardfhips fuffered during this extraordinary 
pafiage. See a particular account of them, and of the iflands they belonged to, in 
-Lettres Ed'ifiantcs is Curieiifes, Tom. xv. from p. 196. to p. 215. In the fame Volume, 
from p. 282. top. 320. we have the relation of a fimilar adventure, in 1721, when two 
canoes, one containing twenty-four, and the other fix perfons, men, women, and 
children, were driven, ffom an ifland they called Farroilep, Northward to the ifle of 
Guam, or Guahan, one of the Ladrones or Mariannes. But thefe had not failed {o 
far as their countrymen, who reached Samal as above, and they had been at fea only 
twenty days. There feems to be no reafon to doubt the general authenticity of thefe 
two relations. The information contained in the letters of the Jefuits, about thefe 
iflands, now known under the name of the Carolines, and difcovered to the Spaniards 
by the arrival of the canoes at Samal and Guam, has been adopted by all our later 
writers. See Prefuient de Brofle's Voyages aux Tcrres Jujirales, Tom. ii. from 
p. 443. to p. 490. See alfo the Modern U'liverfal Hl/iory, 



This ifland is called Wateeoo by the natives. It lies, in Yj77- 

•' Apr.1i. 

the latitude of 20° i' South, and in the longitude qoi" 45' ' ,r— «# 

Eaft, and is about fix leagues in circumference. It is a 
beautiful fpot, with a furface compofed of hills and plains, 
and covered with verdure of many hues. Our gentlemen 
found the foil, where they palTed the day, to be light and 
fandy. But farther up the country, a different fort, per- 
haps, prevails; as we faw from the fhip, by the help of 
our ghilfes, a reddilh call upon the rifing grounds. There 
the inhabitants have their houfes ; for we could perceive 
two or three, which were long and fpacious. Its prodtice, 
■with the addition of hogs, we found to be the fame as at 
the lafl ifland we had vifited, which the people of this, to 
whom we pointed out its pofition, called Owhavarouah ; a 
name fo different from Mangeea Nooe Nainaiwa, which we 
learnt from its own inhabitants, that it is highly probable 
Owhavarouah is another ifland. 

From the circumdances already mentioned, it appears, 
that Wateeoo can be of little ufe to any fliip that wants re- 
frefliment, unlefs in a cafe of the moll abfolute neceffity. 
The natives, knowing now the value of fome of our com- 
modities, might be induced to bring off fruits and hogs, to 
a fliip ftanding off and on, or to boats lying off the reef, as 
ours did. It is doubtful, however, if any frefh water could 
be procured. For, though fome was brought, in cocoa nut 
fliells, to the gentlemen, they were told, that it was at a 
confiderable diftance ; and, probably, it is only to be met 
with in fome flagnant pool, as no running ftream was any 
where feen. 

According to Omai's report of what he learnt in conver- 
fation with his three countrymen, the manners of thefe 

D d 2 iflandcrs. 

204 - A V O Y A G E T O 

1777. iflanders, their method of treating ilrangers, and their ge- 
neral habirs of life, are much Hke thofe that prevail at 
Otaheite, and its neighbouring ifles. Their religious cere- 
monies and opinions are alfo nearly the fame. For, upon 
feeing one man, who was painted all over of a deep black 
colour, and inquiring the reafon, our gentlemen were told, 
that he had lately been paying the laft good offices to a de- 
ceafed friend; and they found, that it was upon fimilar 
occafions, the women cut themfelves, as already mentioned. 
From every circumflance, indeed, it is indubitable, that the 
natives of Wateeoo fprung, originally, from the fame ftock, 
which hath fpread itfelf fo wonderfully all over the im- 
menfe extent of the South Sea. One would fuppofe, how- 
ever, that they put in their claim to a more illuftrious ex- 
tradlion ; for Omai afTured us, that they dignified their 
ifland with the appellation of E^efiooa no te Ealooa, that is, A 
land of gods ; efteeming themfelves a fort of divinities, 
and poffefTed with the fpirit of the Eatooa. This wild en- 
thufiallic notion Omai feemed much to approve of, telling 
us there were inftances of its being entertained at Otaheite; 
but that it was univerfally prevalent amongft the inhabit- 
ants of Mataia, or Ofnaburg Ifland. 

The language fpoken at Wateeoo was equally well un- 
derftood by Omai, and by our two New Zealanders. What 
its peculiarities may be, when compared with the other 
diale6ls, I am not able to point out ; for, though Mr. An- 
derfon had taken care to note down a fpecimen of it, the 
natives, who made no diflin(5lion of the objetfts of thei? 
theft, ftole the memorandum book. 



CHAP. iir. 

JVenooa-ette.^ or Otakootata, vifited. — Account of that 
IJland, and of its Produce* — Herveys IfJand^ or Te- 
rougge mou Attooa^ foimd to be inhabited. — Tranfac- 
tions with the Natives. — Their Per/ons^ Dre/s, Lan- 
guage^ Canoes. — Fruitlefs Attejnpt to la?id there. — Rea- 
fons for bearing away for the Friendly Iflunds, — Pal- 
■merfions Ifland touched at. — Defcription of the two 
Places where the Boats landed. — Refrefhments obtained 
there. — Conje&ures on the Formation of fuch low Ifands, 
— Arrival at the Frie7idly Iflands, 

LIGHT airs and calms having prevailed, by turns, all 1777. 
the night of the 3d, the Eafterly fwell had carried the ._. ^ " "_ 
lliips fome diftance from Wateeoo, before day-break. But Fridays. 
as I had failed in my objecT; of procuring, at that place, 
fome effecftual fupply, I faw no reafon for flaying there any 
longer. I, therefore, quitted it, without regret, and fleered 
for the neighbouring ifland, w^hich, as has been mentioned, 
we dif covered three days before. 

With a gentle breeze at Eafl, we got up with it, before 
ten o'clock in the morning, and I immediately difpatched 
Mr. Gore, with two boats, to endeavour to land, and get 
fome food for our cattle-. As there feemed to be no inhabit* 
ants here to obflrucTt our taking away whatever we migl^t 
think proper, I was confident of his being able to make 
amends for our late difappointment, if the landing coulci 
I be.: 

2o6 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777- be efFe(5led. There was a reef here furroundinor the land, 

April. ^ 

as at Watecoo, and a confidcrable furf breaking againft the 
rocks. Notwithftanding which, our boats nolboner reached 
the lee, or Weft fide of the ifland, but they ventured in, and 
Mr. Gore and his party got fafe on fhore. I could, from . 
the fhip, fee that they had fucceeded fo far ; and I immedi- 
ately fent a fmall boat to know what farther afliftance was 
wanting. She did not return till three o'clock in the after- 
noon, having waited to take in a lading of what ufeful 
produce the iiland afforded. As loon as flae was cleared, 
Ihe was fent again for another cargo ; the Jolly boat was 
alfo difpatched, and Mr. Gore was ordered to be on 
board, with all the boats, before night j which was com- 
plied with. 

The fupply obtained here, confided of about a hundred 
cocoa nuts for each fhip; and befides this refrefliment for 
ourfelves, we got for our cattle fome grafs, and a quantity 
of the leaves and branches of young cocoa trees, and of 
the wharra tree, as it is called at Otaheite, the pandanus of 
the Eaft Indies. This latter being of a foft, fpungy, juicy 
nature, the cattle eat it very well, when cut into fmall 
pieces ; fo that it might be faid, without any deviation from 
truth, that we fed them upon billet wood. 

This ifland lies in the latitude of 19' 15' South, and the 
longitude of 201° 37' Eaft, about three or four leagues from 
Wareeoo, the inhabitants of which called it Otakootaia ; and 
fometimes they fpoke of it under the appellation of Wenooa- 
ette, Vk'hich fignifies little ifland. Mr. Anderfon, who was 
on fhore with our party, and walked round it, guefTed that 
it could not be much more than three miles in circuit. 
From him I alio learned the following particulars. The 
2 beach, 


beach, within the reef, is compofed of a white coral fand ; ^777- 

above which, the land within does not rife above fix or v— ^ll. 
feven feet, and is covered with a light reddifli foil ; but is 
entirely deflitute of water. 

The only common trees found there were cocoa-palms, 
of which there were feveral cluflers ; and vaft numbers of 
the ivharra. There were, likewife, the callophyllum, furiana, 
gtiettarda, a fpecies of toiirnefort'ia, and tahcrnx montance^ with a 
few other flirubs ; and fome of the etoa tree feen at Wateeoo. 
A fort of hind'iveed over-ran the vacant fpaces ; except in 
fome places, where was found a confiderable quantity of 
treacle-mujlard, a fpecies of /purge, with a few other fmall 
plants, and the mor'mda citrlfoUa ; the fruit of which is eaten 
by the natives of Otaheite in times of fcarcity. Omai, who 
had landed with the party, drefled fome of it for their din- 
ner ; but it proved very indifferent. 

The only bird feen amongfl the trees, was a beautiful 
cuckoo, of a chefnut brown, variegated with black, which 
was fliot. But, upon the fhore, were fome egg-birds ,- a 
fmall fort of curlew ; blue and white herons ; and great 
numbers of noddies ; which laft, at this time, laid their eggs, 
a little farther up, on the ground, and often refted on the 
ivharra tree. 

One of our people caught a lizard, of a moll forbidding 
afpecl, though fmall, running up a tree; and many, of an- 
other fort, were feen. The buflies toward the fea, v/ere 
frequented by infinite numbers of a fort of moth, elegantly 
fpeckled with red, black, and white. There were alfo fe- 
veral other forts of moths, as well as fome pretty butter- 
flies ; and a few other infefts. 




'777- Though there were, at this time, no fixed inhabitants 

L_. "-^J- ' .» upon the ifland, indubitable marks remained of its being, 
at Icaft, occafionally frequented. In particular, a few empty 
huts were found. There were alfo feveral large Itones 
ere(5ted, like monuments, under the fhade of fome trees ; 
.and feveral fpaces inclofed with fmaller ones ; where, pro- 
bably, the dead had been buried. And, in one place, a 
^reat many cockle-fliells, of a particular fort, finely groov- 
ed, and larger than the fifl, were to be feen ; from which 
it was reafonable to conjecture, that the ifland had been 
vifited by perfons who feed, partly, on fhell-fifli. In one of 
the huts, Mr. Gore left a hatchet, and fome nails, to the full 
. value of what we took away. 

As foon as the boats were hoiftcd in, I made fail again to 
the northward, with a light air of wind Eailerly ; intend- 
ing to try our fortune at Hervey's Ifland, which was difco- 
vered in 1773, during my lafl voyage*. Although it was 
not above fifteen leagues diftanr, yet we did not get fight of 
Sunday 6. it till day-break in the morning of the 6th, when it bore 
Weft South Weft, at the diftance of about three leagues. 
As we drew near it, at eight o'clock, we obferved feveral 
<:anoes put off from the fliore ; and they came direcStly to- 
ward the fliips. This was a fight that, indeed, furprized 
me, as no figns of inhabitants were feen when the ifland 
was firft difcovered ; which might be owing to a pretty 
briflc wind that then blew, and prevented their canoes ven- 
turing out, as the fliips pafTed to leeward ; whereas now we 
were to windward. 

* See Captain Cook''s Vopge, Vol. i. p. igo. where this ifland is faid to be about 
fix leagues in circuit. 




As we ftill kept on toward the ifland, fix or feven of the >777- 
canoes, all double ones, foon came near us. There were, ■_'-^ ".- 
from three to fix men, in each of them. They flopped at 
the diflance of about a ftone's throw from the fhip j and it 
was fome time before Omai could prevail upon them to 
come along-fide; but no intreaties could induce any of 
them to venture on board. Indeed their dilbrderly and cla- 
morous behaviour, by no means indicated a difpofition to 
trufl us, or treat us well. We afterward learnt that they 
had attempted to take fome oars out of the Difcovery's boat, 
that lay along-fide, and ftruck a man who endeavoured to 
prevent them. They alfo cut away, with a fliell, a net 
with meat, which hung over that fhip's ftern, and abfo- 
lutely refufed to reftore it ; though we, afterward, pur- 
chafed it from them. Thofe who were about our fliip, be- 
haved in the fame daring manner ; for they made a fort of 
hook, of a long flick, with which they endeavoured, open- 
ly, to rob us of feveral things ; and, at laft, actually got a 
frock belonging to one of our people, that was towino- 
over-board. At the fame time, they immediately fhewed a 
knowledge of bartering, and fold fome fifli they had 
(amongft which was an extraordinary flounder, fpotted like 
porphyry; and a cream-coloured eel, fpotted with black), 
for fmall nails, of which they were immoderately fond, and 
called them goore. Rut, indeed, they caught, with the 
greateft avidity, bits of paper, or any thing elfe that was 
thrown to them; and if what was thrown fell into tlie 
fea, they made no fcruple to fwim after it. 

Thefe people feemed to differ as much in pcrfon, as in 
difpofition, from the natives of' Wateeoo ; though the dil- 
tance between the two iflands is not very great. Their co- 
lour was of a deeper caft ; and feveral had a fierce, rugged 

Vol. I. E e afpeft, 

210 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777- afpc(5l, refembling the natives of New Zealand ; but fome 
were fairer. They had flrong black hair, which, in general, 
they wore either hanging loofe about the flioulders, or tied 
in a bunch on the crown of the head. Some, however, had 
it cropped pretty iliort ; and, in two or three of them, it 
was of a brown, or reddifli colour- Their only covering 
was a narrow piece of mat, wrapt feveral tinies round the 
lower part of the body, and which paiTed between the 
thighs ; but a fine cap of red feathers was feen lying in 
one of the canoes. The (hell of a pearl-oyller polifhed, and 
hung about the neck, was the only ornamental falhion that 
we oblerved amongfl them ; for not one of them had adopted 
that mode of ornament, fo generally prevalent amongft the 
natives of this Ocean, of pun(5luring, or tatooing their bodies. 

Though Angular in this, we had the mofl unequivocal 
proofs of their being of the fame common race. Their 
language approached ftill nearer to the dialed: of Otaheite, 
than that of Wateeoo, or Mangeea. Like the inhabitants ' 
of thefe tvv^o iflands, they inquired from whence our fliips 
came; and whither bound ; who was our Chief; the num- 
ber of our men on board; and even the Uiip's name. And 
they very readily anfwered fuch queilions as we propofed 
to them. Amongft other things, they told us, they had feen 
two great fhips, like ours, before ; but that they had not 
fpoken with them as they failed part. There can be no 
doubt, that thefe were the Resolution and Adventure. We 
learnt from them, that the name of their iiland is Te- 
rouggemou Atooa ; and tiiat they were fubjed: to Teere- 
vatoocah, king of Wateeoo*- According to the account 

* The reader will obferve, that this name bears little affinity to any one of the 
names of the three Chiefs of Wateeoo, as preferved by Mr. Anderfon, 



that they grve, their articles of food are cocoa-nuts, fifli, '^77- 
and turtle ; the ifland not producing plantains, or bread- • — v— * 
fruit; and being deftitute of hogs and dogs. Their canoes, 
of which near thirty were, at one time, in fight, are pretty 
large, and well built. In the conftru6lion of the ftern, they 
bear fome refemblance to thofe of Wateeoo -, and the head 
projects out nearly in the fame manner ; but the extremity 
is turned up inftead of down. 

Having but very little wind, it was one o'clock before we 
drew near the North Weft part of the ifland ; the only part 
where there feemed to be any probability of finding an- 
chorage for our fhips, or a landing-place for our boats. In 
this pofition, I fent Lieutenant King, with two armed boats, 
to found and reconnoitre the coaft, while we flood off and on 
with the fliips. The inftant the boats were hoifted out, our 
vifiters in the canoes, who had remained along-fide all the 
while, bartering their little trifles, fufpended their traffic, 
and, pufliing for the fliore as faft as they could, came near 
us no more. 

At three o'clock, the boats returned; and Mr. King in- 
formed me, " That there was no anchorage for the fliips ; 
and that the boats could only land on the outer edge of the 
reef, which lay about a quarter of a mile from the dry 
land. He faid, that a number of the natives came down 
upon the reef, armed with long pikes and clubs, as if they 
intended to oppofe his landing. And yet, when he drew 
near enough, they threw fome cocoa-nuts to our people, 
and invited them to come on fhore ; though, at the very 
fame time, he obferved that the women were very bufy ' 

bringing down a freih fupply of fpears and darts. But, as 

E e 2 he 


^777j he had no motive to land, he did not give them an oppor- 
tunity to ufe them." 

Having received this report, I confidered, that, as the fliips 
could not be brought to an anchor, we fliould find that the 
attempt to procure grafs here, would occafion much delay, 
as well as be attended with fome danger. Befides, we 
were equally in want of water ; and though the inhabitants 
had told us, that there was water on their ifland, yet we 
neither knew in what quantity, nor from v^^hat diftance, we 
might be obliged to fetch it. And, after all, fuppoling no 
other obftru6tion, we were fure, that to get over the reef, 
would be an operation equally difhcult and tedious. 

Being thus difappointed at all the illands we had met 
with, fmce our leaving New Zealand, and the unfavourable 
winds, and other unforefeen circumftances, having unavoid^ 
ably retarded our progrefs fo much, it was now impof- 
fible to think of doing any thing this year, in the high lati^ 
tudes of the Northern hemifphere, from which we were ftill 
at fo great a diftance, though the feafon for our operations 
there was already begun. In this ficuation, it was abfolutely 
necelTary to purfue fuch meafures as were moft likely to 
preferve the cattle we had on board, in the firft place ; and, 
in the next place (which was ftill a more capital objedl), to 
fave the ftores and provifions of the fhips, that we might 
be better enabled to profecute our Northern difcoveries, 
which could not now commence till a year later than was 
orginally intended. 

If I had been fo fortunate as to have procured a fupply of 
water, and of grafs, at any of the iftands we had lately vifited, 
it was my purpofe to have ftood back to the South, till I 



had met with a Wefterly wind. But the certain confequence \ti7: 

of doing this, without fuch a fupply, would have been the ' r—^ 

lofs of all the cattle, before we could poflibly reach Ota- 
heite, without gaining any one advantage, with regard to 
the great objetft of our voyage. 

I, therefore, determined to bear away for the Friendly 
Illands, where I was fure of meeting with abundance of 
every thing I wanted : and it being neceffary to run in the 
night, as well as in the day, I ordered Captain Gierke to 
keep about a league ahead of the Refolution. I ufed this 
precaution, becaufe his fhip could bed claw off the land ; 
and it was very poflible we might fall in with fome, in our 

The longitude of Hervey's liland, when firft difcovered, 
deduced from Otaheite, by the time-keeper, was found to 
be 201° 6' Eaft, and now, by the fame time-keeper, deduced 
from Queen Charlotte's Sound, 200° 56' Eaft. Hence I con- 
clude, that the error of the time-keeper, at this time, did 
not exceed twelve miles in longitude.^ 

When we bore away, I fleered Weft by South, with a fine 
breeze Eafterly. I propofed to proceed firft to Middleburgh, 
or Eooa ; thinking, if the wind continued favourable, that 
we had food enough on board, for the cattle, to laft till we 
fliould reach that ifland. But, about noon, next day, thofe Monday 7, 
faint breezes, that had attended and retarded us fo long, 
again returned ; and I found it neceiTary to haul more to the 
North, to get into the latitude of Palmerfton's and Savage 
Illands, difcovered in 1774, during my laft voyage*; that, if 
necefiity required it, we might have recourfe to them, 

* See Cook's Voyage, Vol, ii. p. 2, 3. 




'777- This day, in order to fave our water, I ordered the dill to 

April- - r- 1 1 • 1 • r 

"<— -v ' be kept at work, from fix o'clock in the morning to tour 

in the afternoon ; during which time, we procured from 
thirteen to fixtcen gallons of frefh water. There has been 
lately made fome improvement, as they are pleafed to call 
it, of this machine, which, in my opinion, is much for the 

Thurfdayio. Thcfc light breczes continued till the loth, when we had, 
for fome hours, the wind blowing frefli from the North, 
and North North Weft ; being then in the latitude of i8° 38', 
and longitude 198° 24' Eaft. In the afternoon, we had fome 
thunder fqualls from the South, attended with heavy rain; 
of which v/ater, we collefted enough to fill five puncheons. 
After thefe fqualls had blown over, the wind came round 
to the North Eaft, and North Weft ; being very unfettled 

Friday ii. botli in ftrcngth and in pofition, till about noon the next day, 
when it fixed at North Weft, and North North Weft, and 
blew a frefli breeze, with fair weather. 

Thus were we perfecuted with a wind in our teeth, wliich- 
ever way we direifled our courfc ; and we had the additional 
mortification to find here, thofe very winds, which we had 
reafon to expe(5t 8° or 10' farther South. They came too 
late ; for I durft not truft their continuance ; and the event 
proved that I judged right. 

Sunday 13. At length, at day-break, in the morning of the 13th, we 
faw Palmerfton Ifland, bearing Weft by South, diftant about 
five leagues. However, we did nor get up v,'ith it, till eight 

Mond:iy 14. o'clock the next morning. 1 then fent four boats, three 
from the Refolution, and one from the Difcovery, with an 
officer in each, to fearch the coaft for the moft convenient 
landing-place. For, now, we were under an abfolute necef- 

3 ^^fy 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 215 

fity of procuring, from this ifland, fome food for the cattle; '777* 
otherwife we mud have lofl them. 

What is comprehended under tlie name of Palmerilon's 
liland, is a group of fmall iflots, of which there are, in 
the whole, nine or ten, lying in a circular direction, and 
conncifted together by a reef of coral rocks. The boats firfl 
examined the South Eafternmoftof the iflots which compofe 
this group ; and, failing there, ran down to the fccond, 
where we had the fatisfacT;ion to fee them land. I then 
bore down with the fhips, till abreaft of the place, and 
there we kept {landing off and on. For no bottom was to 
be found to anchor upon ; which was not of much confe- 
queftce, as the party who had landed from our boats, were 
the only human beings upon the iiland. 

About one o'clock, one of the boats came on board, laden 
with fcurvy-grafsand young cocoa-nut trees ; which, at this 
time, was a feaft for the cattle. The fame boat brought a 
meflage from Mr. Gore, who commanded the party, in- 
forming me, that there vvas plenty of fuch produce upon 
the ifland, as alfo of the ivharra tree, and fome cocoa-nuts. 
This determined me to get a good fupply of thefe articles, 
before I quitted this ftation ; and, before evening, I went 
afliore in a fmall boat, accompanied by Captain Gierke. 

We found every body hard at work, and the landing 
place to be in a fmall creek, formed by the reef, of fome- 
thing more than a boat's length in every direction, and co- 
vered from the force of the fea, by rocks projecting out on 
each fide of it. The ifland is fcarcely a mile in circuit; and 
not above three feet higher than the level of the fea. It ap- 
peared to be compofed entirely of a coral fand, with a fmall 
mixture of blackilh mould, produced from rotten vege- 

2i6 A V Y A G E T O 

»777- tables. Notwithflanding this poor foil, it is covered with 
trees and bufhes of the fame kind as at Wenooa-ette, though 
with lefs variety; and amongft thefe are forae cocoa palms. 
Upon the trees or bullies that front the fea, or even farther 
in, we found a great number of men of war birds. Tropic 
birds, and two forts of boobies, which, at this time, were 
laying their eggs, and fo tame, that they fufTered us to take 
them off with our hands. Their nefts were only a few 
flicks loofely put together ; and the Tropic birds laid their 
eggs on the ground, under the trees. Thefe differ much from 
the common forr, being entirely of a moll fplendid white, 
nightly tinged with red, and having the two long tail-fea- 
thers of a deep crimfon or blood colour. Of each fort, our 
people killed a confiderable number ; and, though not the 
mod delicate food, they were acceptable enough to us who 
had been long confined to a fait diet, and who, confe- 
quently, could not but be glad of the moll indilTerent va- 
riety. We met with vaft numbers of red crabs, creeping 
about, every where amongft the trees ; and v/e cauglu feve- 
ral fifli that had been left in holes upon the reef, when the 
fea retired. 

At one part of the reef, which looks into, or bounds, the 
lake that is within, there was a large bed of coral, almoft 
even with the furface, which afforded, perhaps, one of the 
moft enchanting profpe6ls, that Nature has, any where, 
produced. Its bafe was fixed to the fliore, but reached fo 
far in, that it could not be feen ; fo that it feemed to be fu- 
fpended in the water, which deepened fo fuddenly, that, ar 
the diftance of a fev\^ yards, there might be feven or eight 
fathoms. The fea was, at this time, quite unruiHed ; and 
the fun, fliining bright, expofed the various forts of coral, 
in the moft beautiful order ; fome parts branching into the 



water with great luxuriance ; others, lying collecfled in \77> 
round balls, and in various other figures ; all which were < — ^-— ^ 
greatly heightened by fpangles of the richeil colours, that 
glowed from a number of large clams, which were every 
where interfperfed. But the appearance of thefe was fliil 
inferior to that of the multitude of fiflies, that glided gently 
along, feemirigly with the moft perfefl fecurity. The co*- 
lours of the ditTerent forts were the moft beautiful that can 
be imagined ; the yellow, blue, red, black, &c. far exceed- 
ing any thing that art can produce. Their various forms, 
alfo, contributed to increafe the richnefs of this fubmarine 
grotto, which could not be furveyed without a pleafmg 
tranfport, mixed, however, with regret, that a work, fo llu- 
pendoufly elegant, fhould be concealed, in a place where 
mankind could feldom have an opportunity of rendering 
the praifes juftly due to fo enchanting a fcene. 

There were no traces of inhabitants having ever been 
here ; if we except a fmall piece of a canoe that was found 
upon the beach ; which, probably, may have drifted from 
fome other ifland. But, what is pretty extraordinary, we 
faw feveral fmall brown rats on this fpot ; a circumftance> 
perhaps, difficult to account for, unlefs we allow that they 
wer« imported in the canoe of which we faw the remains. 

After the boats were laden, I returned on board, leaving 
Mr. Gore, with a party, to pafs the night on fliore, in order 
to be ready to go to work early the nest morning. 

That day, being the ij:th, was accordingly fpent, as the Tuefdsy ij^ 
preceding one had been, in collecting, and bringing on 
board, food for the cattle, confiding chiefly of palm-cab- 
bage, young cocoa-nut trees, and the tender branches of 
the ivharra tree. Having got a fufficient fupply of thefe. 

Vol. L F f by 

2i8 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777- by funfet, I ordered every body on board. But having little 
V — -V- — ' or no wind, I determined to wait, and to employ the next 
day, by endeavouring to get fome cocoa-nuts for our people, 
from the next ifland to leeward, where we could obferve 
that thofe trees were in much greater abundance, than upon 
that where we had already landed, and where only the 
wants of our cattle had been relieved. 

Wednef. 16. With this vicw, I kept flanding off and on, all night ; 
and, in the morning, between eight and nine o'clock, I 
went with the boats to the Weft fide of the ifland, and 
landed with little difficulty. I immediately fet the people 
with me to work, to gather cocoa-nuts, which we found in 
great abundance. But to get them to our boats was a tedi- 
ous operation ; for we were obliged to carry them at leaft 
half a mile over the reef, up to the middle in water. Omai^ 
who was with me, caught, with a fcoop net, in a very lliorc 
time, as much fifli as ferved the whole party on fliore for 
dinner, befides fending fome to both fhips. Here were alfo 
great abundance of birds, particularly men-of-war and 
Tropic birds ; fo that we fared fumptuoufty. And it is but 
doing juftice to Omai to fay, that, in thefe excurfions to 
the uninhabited iflands, he was of the greateft ufe. For he 
not only caught the fifli, but drefled thefe, and the birds we 
killed, in an oven, with heated ftones, after the fafliion of 
his country, with a dexterity and good-humour that did 
him great credit. The boats made two trips, before night, 
well laden j with the laft, I returned on board, leaving Mr. 
Williamfon, niy third Lieutenant, with a party of men, to 
prepare another lading for the boats which I propofed to 
fend next morning. 

Thurfdayij. I, accordingly, difpatchcd them at feven o'clock, and they 
returned laden by noon. No time was loft in fending them 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 219 

back for another carffo; and they carried orders for every '777- 

Till April. 

body to be on board by funfet. This being complied with, 
we hoifted in the boats and made fail to the Weftward, with 
a light air of wind from the North. 

We found this illot near a half larger than the other, 
and almoft entirely covered with cocoa-palms ; the greateft 
part of which abounded with excellent nuts, having, often, 
both old and young on the fame tree. They were, in- 
deed, too thick, in many places, to grow with freedom. 
The other produ6lions were, in general, the fame as at the 
firft iilot. Two pieces of board, one of which was rudely 
carved, with an elliptical paddle, were found on the beach. 
Probably, thefe had belonged to the fame canoe, the remains 
of which were feen on the other beach, as the two iflots are 
not above half a mile apart. A young turtle had alfo been 
lately thrown afliore here, as it was flill full of maggots. 
There were fewer crabs than at the laft place ; but w^e found 
fome fcorpions, a few other infecT:s, and a greater number 
of fifli upon the reefs. Amongfl; thefe were fome large 
eels, beautifully fpotted, which, when followed, would raife 
themfelves out of the water, and endeavour, with an open 
mouth, to bite their purfuers. The other forts were, chiefly, 
parrot-fifh, fnappers, and a brown fpotted rock-fifli, about 
the fize of a haddock, fo tame, that, inftead of fwimming 
away, it would remain fixed, and gaze at us. Had we been 
in abfolute want, a fufficient fupply might have been had ; 
for thoufands of the clams, already mentioned, ftuck upon 
the reef, fome of which weighed two or three pounds. There 
were, befides, fome other forts of fhell-fifli ; particularly, 
the large periwinkle. When the tide flowed, fevcral fliarks 
came in, over the reef, fome of which our people killed ; 

F f 2 but 

220 A V O Y A G E T O 

^777- but they rendered it rather dangerous to walk in the water 
at that time. 

The party who were left on fliore v/ith Mr. Williamfon, 
were a good deal peflered (as Mr. Gore's had been) with 
mufquitoes, in the night. Some of them, in tlieir excur- 
fions, fhot two curlews, exadlly like thofe of England; and 
faw fome plovers, or land-pipers, upon the fhore; but, in the 
wood, no other bird, befides one or two of the cuckoos that 
were feen at Wenooa-ette. 

Upon the whole, we did not fpend our time unprofitably 
at this lafl iflot ; for we got there about twelve hundred 
cocoa-nuts, which were equally divided amonglt the whole 
crew ; and were,, doubtlefs, of great ufe to them, both on 
account of the juice and of the kernel. A fliip, therefore, 
pafling this way, if the weather be moderate, may expeA 
to fucceed as we did. But there is no water upon either of 
the illots where we landed. Were that article to be had, and 
a palTage could be got into the lake, as we may call ir, fur- 
rounded by the reef, where a fhip could anchor, I fhould 
prefer this to any of the inhabited iflands, if the only want 
were refrefhment. For the quantity of fifh that might be 
procured, would be fufficient; and the people might roam 
about, unmolelled by the petulance of any inhabitants. 

The nine or ten low iflots, comprehended under the name 
of Palmerflon's Ifland, may be reckoned the heads or fum* 
mits of the reef of coral rock, that connec5ls them together, 
covered only with a thin coat of fand, yet clothed, as air- 
ready obfeived, with trees and plants, mofl of which are of 
the fame forts that are found on the low grounds of the high 
lllands of this ocean. 



There are difFerent opinions, amonefl: infrenious theories, '777. 

r ^ o <j) April, 

concerning the formation of fuch low illands as Pahner- ^ , — -* 

lion's. Some will have it, that, in remote times, thefe Httle 
feparate heads or iflots were joined, and formed one conti- 
nued and more elevated tracft of land, which the fea, in the 
revolution of ages, has wafhed away, leaving only the 
higher grounds ; which, in time, alfo, will, according to 
this theory, ftiare the fame fate. Another conjedure is, 
that they have been thrown up by earthquakes, and are the 
eflfedl of internal convulfions of the globe. A third opinion, 
and which appears to me as the mod probable one, main- 
tains, that they are formed from llioals, or coral banks, and, 
of confequence, increafing. Without mentioning the feve- 
ral arguments made ufe of in fupport of each of thefe, 
fyftems, I fhall only defcribe fuch parts of Palmerflon's. 
Illand, as fell under my own obfervation when Ilanded. 
upon it. 

The foundation is, every where, a coral rock ; the foil" 
is coral fund, with which the decayed vegetables have, but 
in a few places, intermixed, fo as to form any thing like 
mould. From this, a very ftrong prefumption may be 
drawn, that thefe little fpots of land, are not of very an- 
cient date, nor the remains of larger iflands now buried in 
the ocean. For, upon either of thefe fuppofitions, more 
mould muft have been formed, or fome part of the original 
foil would have remained. Another circumftance con- 
firmed this do(ftrine of the increafe of thefe iflots. We 
found upon them, far beyond the prefent reach of the 
fiea, even in the moft violent llorms, elevated coral rocks, 
which, on examination, appeared to have been perforated, 
in the fame manner that the rocks are, that now compofe 
the outer edge of the reef. This evidently iliews, that the, 



'777- fea had formerly reached fo farj and fome of thefe perfo- 
» , ' rated rocks were almofl in the centre of the land. 

But the flrongeft proof of the increafe, and from the caufe 
Ave have affigned, was the gentle gradation obfervable in 
the plants round the flcirts of the iflands ; from within a 
fev/ inches of high-water mark, to the edge of the wood. 
In many places, the divifions of the plants, of different 
growths, were very diftinguifhable, efpecially on the lee, or 
• wefl-fide. This, I apprehend, to have been the operation 
of extraordinary high tides, occafioned by violent, accidental 
gales from the Weilward ; which have heaped up the fand 
beyond the reach of common tides. The regular and gentle 
operation of thefe latter, again, throw up fand enough to 
form a barrier againft the next extraordinary high tide, or 
florm, fo as to prevent its reaching as far as the former 
had done, and deftroying the plants that may have begun 
to vegetate from cocoa-nuts, roots, and feed brought thither 
by birds, or thrown up by the fea. This, doubtlefs, hap- 
pens very frequently ; for we found many cocoa-nuts, and 
fome other things, juft fprouting up, only a few inches 
beyond where the fea reaches at prefent, in places where, 
it was evident, they could not have had their origin from 
thofe, farther in, already arrived at their full growth. At 
the fame time, the increafe of vegetables will add fa|l to 
the height of this nevz-created land ; as the fallen leaves, 
and broken branches, are, in fuch a climate, foon con- 
verted into a true black mould, or foil *. 



* Mr. AntJerfon, in his Journal, mentions the following particulars, rela- 
; tive to Palmerfton's Ifland, v/hich ftrongly confirm Captain Cook's opinion about 
, its formation. " On the Lift of the two rflots, where we landed, the trees, being in 

" great 


Perhaps there is another caufe, which, if allowed, will ^777- 

accelerate the increafe of thefe iflands as much as any other; ^ , — -* 

and will alfo account for the fea having receded from thofe 
elevated rocks before-mentioned. This is, the fpreading of 
the coral bank, or reef, into the fea ; which, in my opi- 
nion, is continually, though imperceptibly, affected. The 
waves receding, as the reef grows in breadth and height, 
leave a dry rock behind, ready for the reception of the 
broken coral and fand, and every other depofit neceffary 
for the formation of land fit for the vegetation of plants. 

In this manner, there is little doubt, that, in time, the 
whole reef will become one ifland ; and, I think, it will ex- 
tend gradually inward, either from the increafe of the 
iflots already formed ; or from the formation of new ones, 
upon the beds of coral, within the inclofed lake, if once 
they increafe fo as to rife above the level of the fea. 

After leaving Palmerfton's Ifland, 1 fleered Weft, with a 
view to make the beft of my way to Annamooka. We ftill 
continued to have variable winds, frequently between the 
North and Weft, with fqualls, fome thunder, and much 
rain. During thefe fliowers, which were, generally, very 
copious, we faved a confiderable quantity of water; and 
finding that we could get a greater fupply by the rain, in 

" great numbers, had already formed, by their rotten parts, little rifings or eminences, 
" which, in time, from the fame caufe, may become fmall hills. Whereas, on the firft 
*' iflot, the trees being lefs numerous, no fuch thing had, as yet, happened. Neverthe- 
** lefs, on that little fpot, the manner of formation was more plainly pointed out. 
" For, adjoining to it, was a fmall ifle, which had, doubtlefs, been very lately formed ■ 
*' as it was not, as yet, covered with any trees, but had a great many fhrubs, fome 
" of which were growing among pieces of coral that the fea had thrown up. There 
" was Itill a more fure proof of this method of formation a little farther on, where 
" two patches of fand, about fifty yards long, and a foot or eighteen inches high,, 
*' lay upon the reef, but not, as yet, furniflied with a fingle bufli, or tree." 


224 A V O Y A G E T O 

»777- one hour, than we could set bv diftillation in a month, I laid 

Aurii. ° ' 

«— .^v — -• afide the flill, as a thing attended v;ith more trouble than 

The heat, which had been great for about a month, 
became now much more difagreeable in this clofe rainy 
weather ; and, from the moifture attending it, threatened 
foon to be noxious ; as the fhips could not be kept dry, nor 
the ilcuttles open, for the fea. However, it is remarkable 
enough, that though the only refrefliment we had received 
fmce leaving the Cape of Good Hope, was that at New Zea- 
land ; there was not, as yet, a fingle perfon, on board, fick, 
from the conflant ufe of fait food, or viciflitude of climate. 

Thurfday24. In the night between the 24th and 25th we pafled Savage 
Friday 25. jflaud, which I had difcovered in 1774*; and on the 28th, 

Monday 28. y- i r- 1 • n 1 

at ten o'clock in the morning, we got fight or the illands 
which lie to the Eallward of Annamooka, bearing North by 
Weft, about four or five leagues diftant. I fleered to the 
South of thefe iflands, and then hauled iip for Annamooka ; 
which, at four in the afternoon, bore North Weft by North, 
Fallafajeea South Weft by South, and Komango North by 
Weft, diftant about five miles. The v/eather being fqually, 
with rain, I anchored, at the approach of night, in fifteen 
fathoms deep water, over a bottom of coral-fand, and 
fhells ; Komango bearing North Weft, about two leagues 

* For an account of the difcovery of Savage Iflaml ; a defcription of it ; and the 
behaviour of its inhabitants, on Captain Cook's landing, fee his Voyage, Vol. ii. 
-p. 3, to p. 7. 




nl I, ~^ I 'i^L 


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T~^' I ■ ' I ' ■ I ' ' I, ' Orr-T-r-i-l- | I I I I 


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M -L-l I [ I I I I r I l-U- L-l- l-l-J t.L_ - 

t-J-i-l I I n-T- p ;=i=i=i_i:j^i_i_i_i- i I I I I I I I I I I I I I = 1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I [_j_i__L4 -i_l- 1 I [ I I 1 i: 

Inn I) en t K^^ii 

C H A R T 


fMiENVJ.r Islands. 



hitercourfe with the Natives of Komango, and other IJJands, 
— Arrival at Annamooka. — TranfaSiions there. — Fee- 
noUy a principal Chiefs from "Tongataboo^ co??tes on a Vift, 
— The Manner of his Reception in the IJland^ and on 
hoard. — Inflames of the pilfering Difpoftion of the Na- 
tives. — So?fie Account of Annamooka. — 'The Paffage from 
it to Hapaee, 


OON after we had anchored, two canoes, the one with 1777. 

four, and the other with three men, paddled toward t ^"_' j 
us, and came along-fide without the lead heiitation. They ^°"'^*y *^- 
brought fome cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, plantains, and fugar- 
cane, which they bartered with us for nails. One of the 
men came on board ; and when thefe canoes had left us, 
another vifited us ; but did not ftay long, as night was ap- 
proaching. Komango, the ifland neareft to us, was, at leaft, 
five miles off; which fliews the hazard thefe people would 
run, in order to poflefs a few of our moft trifling articles. 
Befides this fupply from the fliore, we caught, this even- 
ing, with hooks and lines, a confiderable quantity of fifh. 

Next morning, at four o'clock, I fent Lieutenant King, Tuefday 29. 
with two boats, to Komango, to procure refrefhments ; and, 
at five, made the fignal to weigh, in order to ply up to An- 
namooka, the wind being unfavourable at North Weft. 

Vol. I. G g It 

226 A V O Y A G E T O 

I777' It was no fooner day-lighr, than we were vifited by fix or 

\> — w— -■-' feven canoes from ditTerent iilands, bringing with them, 
befides fruits and roots, two pigs, feveral fowls, fome large 
wood-pigeons, fmall rails, and large violet-coloured coots. 
All thefe they exchanged with us for, nails, hatchets, 
&c. They had alfo other articles of commerce ; fuch as 
pieces of their cloth, fifla-hooks, fmall bafl^ets, mufical reeds, 
and fome clubs, fpears, and bows. But I ordered, that no 
curiofities fhould be purchafed, till the fhips fhould be fup- 
plied with provifions, and leave given for that purpofe. 
Knowing, alfo, from experience, that, if all our people might 
trade with the natives, according to their own caprice, per- 
petual quarrels would enfue, I ordered that particular perfons 
fliould manage the traffic both on board and on fhore, pro- 
hibiting all others to interfere. Before mid-day, Mr. King's 
boat returned with feven hogs, fome fowls, a quantity of 
fruit and roots for ourfelves, and fome grafs for the cattle. 
His party was very civilly treated at Komango. The inha- 
bitants did not feem to be numerous; and their hurs, which; 
flood clofe to each other, within a plantain walk, were but 
indifferent. Not far from them, was a pretty large pond of 
frefh water, tolerably good ; but there was not any appear- 
ance of a flream. With Mr. King, came on board the Chief: 
of the ifland, named Tooboulangee j and another, whofe. 
name was Taipa. They brought with them a hog, as a 
prefent to me, and promifed more the next day. . 

As foon as the boats were aboard, I flood for Annamooka; , 
and the wind being fcant, 1 intended to go betv/een Anna^ 
aiooka-ette *", and the breakers to the Souih Eafl of it. But, 

* That is,^ Little Annamooka. 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 227 

on drawing near, we met with very irregular foundings, i7'7- 

n 1 r April. 

varying, every calt, ten or twelve fathoms. This obliged t- -.--^ 
me to give up the defign, and to go to the Southward of all; 
which carried us to leeward, and made it neceiTary to fpend 
the night under fail. It was very dark ; and we had the 
wind, from every direcSlion, accompanied with heavy (howers 
of rain. So that, at day-light the next morning, we found Wednef. 30. 
ourfelves much farther off than we had been the evening 
before ; and the little wind that now blew, was right in our 

We continued to ply, all day, to very little purpofe; and, 
in the evening, anchored in thirty-nine fathoms water j 
the bottom coral rocks, and broken fhells ; the Weft point 
of Annamooka bearing Eaft North Eaft, four miles diftant. 
Tooboulangee and Taipa kept their promife, and brought 
off to me fome hogs. Several others were alfo procured by 
bartering, from different canoes that followed us ; and as 
much fruit as we could well manage. It was remarkable, 
that, during the whole day, our vifiters from the iflands 
would hardly part with any of their commodities to any body 
but mc. Captain Gierke did not get above one or two hogs. 

At four o'clock next morning, I ordered a boat to be May. 
hoifted out, and fent the Maftcr to found the South Weft '^^"''"'^'y '^ 
fide of Annamooka ; where there appeared to be a harbour, 
formed by the ifland on the North Eaft, and by fmall iflots, 
and flioals, to the South Weft and South Eaft. In the mean 
time, the fhips were got under fail, and wrought up to the 

When the Mafter returned, he reported, that he had found- 
ed between Great and Little Annamooka, where he found 
ten and twelve fathoms depth of water, the bottom coral 

Gg 2 fandj 


'^W fand ; that the place was very well flickered from all winds'; 

May. ' r y 

but that there was no frefli water to be found, except at 
fonie diftance inland ; and that, z\xix\ there, little of it was 
to be got, and that little not good. For this reafon only, 
and it was a very fufficient one, I determined to anchor on 
the North fide of the ifland, where, during my laft voyage, 
I had found a place fit both for watering and landing. 

Tt was not above a league diftant; and yet we did not 
reach it till five o'clock in the afternoon, being conliderably 
retarded by the great number of canoes that continually 
crowded round the fhips, bringing to us abundant fupplies 
of the produce of their ifland. Amongft thefe canoes, there 
were fome double ones, with a large fail, that carried be- 
tween forty and fifty men each. Thefe failed round us, ap- 
parently, with the fame eafe, as if we had been at anchor. 
There were feveral women in the canoes, who were, per- 
haps, incited by curiofity to vifit us ; though, at the fame 
time, they bartered as eagerly as the men, and ufed the 
paddle with equal labour and dexterity. I came to an an- 
chor in eighteen fathoms wattr, the bottom coarfe coral 
fand ; the ifland extending from Eafl to South Weft ; and the 
Wefl point of the Wefternmoft cove South Eaft, about three 
quarters of a mile diftant. Thus- I refumed the very fame 
ftation which I had occupied when I vifited Annamooka 
three years before*; and, probably, almoft in the fame 
place where Tafman, the firft difcoverer of this, and fome of 
the neighbouring iflands, anchored in 1643 f. 

* See Captain Cook's laft Voyage, Vol. ii. p. g. 

\ See Tafman's account of this ifland, in Mr. Dalrymple's valuable Colleflion of' 
Voyages to the Pacific Ocean, Vol. ii. p. yg, 80. The few particulars mentionad 
l)y lafman, agree remarkably with Captain Cook's more extended relation. 


Tlie following day, while preparations were makin? for '777- 

" May. 


watering, I went afliore, in the forenoon, accompanied by 
Captain Gierke, and fome of the Officers, to fix on a place 
where the obfervatories might be fee up, and a guard be 
ftationed ; the natives having readily given us leave. They 
alfo accommodated us with a boat-houfe, to ferve as a tenr, 
and fhewed us every other mark of civility. Toobou, the 
Chief of the ifland, conducted me and Omai to his houfe. 
We found it fituated on a pleafant fpot, in the centre of his 
plantation. A fine grafs-plot furrounded it, which, he gave 
tis to underftand, was for the purpofe of cleaning their feet, 
befoie they went within doors. 1 had not, before, obferved 
fuch an inftance of attention to cleanlinefs at any of the 
places I had vifiied in this ocean ; but, afterward, found that 
it was very common at the Friendly Iflands. The floor of 
Toobou's houfe was covered with mats ; and no carpet, in 
the moft elegant Englifh drawing-room, could be kept 
neater. While we were on fhore, we procured a few hogs-, 
and fome fruit, by bartering ; and, before we got on board 
again, the fliips were crowded with the natives. Few of 
them coming empty-handed, every necefiTary refrefliment 
was now in the greateft plenty. 

I landed again in the afternoon, with a party of marines ■>■ 
and, at the fame time, the horfes, and fuch of the cattle as 
were in a weakly fiate, were fent on fliore. Every thincr 
being fettled to my fatisfacflion, I returned to the fiiip at 
funfet, leaving the command upon rhe ifland to Mr. King. 
Taipa, who was now become our fall friend, and who 
feemed to be the only a(5five perfon about us, in order to be 
near our party in the night, as well as the day, had a houfe 
brought, on men's flioulders, a full quarter of a mile, and 
placed clofe to the fhed which our party occupied. 


1" riday 


1777- Next day, our various operations on fhore began. Some 

vj ^ were employed in making hay for the cattle ; others in fill- 

aturayj. ^^_^^ ^^^ Water calks at the neighbouring ftagnant pool; 

and a third parry in cutting wood. The greateil plenty of 
this lafl article being abreail of the fliips, and in a fituation 
the mod convenient for getting it on board, it was natm'al 
to make choice of this. But the trees here, which our 
people erroneouHy fuppofed to be manchineel, but were a 
fpecies of pepper, called faitanoo by the natives, yielded a 
juice of a milky colour, of fo corroiive a nature, that it 
raifed blifters on the fkin, and injured the eyes of our work- 
men. They were, therefore, obliged to deliit at this place, 
and remove to the cove, in which our guard was iiationed, 
and where we embarked our water. Other wood, more 
fuitable to our purpofes, was there furniflied to us by the 
natives. Thefe were not the only employments we were 
engaged in, for MefTrs. King and Bayly began, this day, to 
obferve equal altitudes of the fun, in order to get the rate 
of the time-keepers. In the evening, before the natives 
retired from our poft, Taipa harangued them for fome time. 
We could only guefs at the fubje(51: ; and judged, that he 
was inftrudlin? them how to beiiave toward us, and encou- 
raging them to bring the produce of the ifland to market. 
We experienced the good eiTe;5ls of his eloquence, in 
the plentiful fupply of provilions which, nest day, we 

Sunday 4. Nothing worth notice happened on the 4th and 5th, ex- 

°" ^^ ^' cept that, on the former of thefe days, the Difcovery loft 

her fmall bower anchor, the cable being cut in two by the 

rocks. This misfortune, made it neceflary to examine the 

cables of the Refolution, which were found to be unhurt. 

4 On 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 231 

Tuel'dav 6. 

On the 6th, we were vifired bv a great Chief from Tonffa- ^777- 

^ .<-> <-> May. 

taboo, whofe name was Feenou, and whom Taipa was 
pleafed to introduce to us as King of all the Friendly liles. 
I' was now told, that, on my arrival, a canoe had been dif- 
patched to Tongataboo with the news ; in confequence of 
which, this Chief immediately palTed over to Annamooka, 
The Officer on fhore informed me, that when he firft ar- 
rived, all the natives were ordered out to meet him, and 
paid their obeifance by bowing their heads "as low as his 
feet, the foles of which they alfo touched with each hand, 
firft with the palm, and then with the back part. There 
could be little room to fufpe<5l that a perfon, received with- 
fo much refpect, could be any thing lefs than the King. 

In the afternoon, I went to pay this great man a vifit, hav- 
ing firft received a prefent of two fi(h from him, brought 
on board by one of his fervants. As foon as I landed, he 
came up to me. He appeared to be about thirty years of 
age, tall, but thin, and had more of the European features, 
than any I had yet feen here. When the firft falutation was 
over, I afked if he was the King. For, notwithftanding 
what I had been told, finding he was not the man whom I 
remembered to have feen under that character during" my 
former voyage, I began to entertain doubts. Taipa offici- 
ouily anfvvered for- him, and enumerated no lefs than one 
hundred and fifty-three iflands, of v;hich, he faid, Feenou- 
was the Sovereign. After a fliort ftay, our nev/ vifiter, and 
five or fix of his attendants, accompanied me on board. I 
gave fuitable prefents to them all, and entertained them iai 
fuch a manner, as I thought would be moft agreeable. 

In the evening, I attended them on fliore in my boat, into • 
v/hich the Chief ordered three hogs to be put, as a return. 


aS3 A V O Y A G E T O 

'»777- for the prefents he had received from me. I was now in- 

■May. '^ 

V- — ^— — / formed of an accident which had juft happened, the rela- 
tion of which will convey fome idea of the extent of the 
authority exercifed here over the common people. While 
Feenou was on board my fliip, an inferior Chief, for what 
■reafon our people on fliore did not know, ordered all the na- 
tives to retire from the pod we occupied. Some of them 
'having ventured to return, he took up a large flick, and 
beat them raoft unmercifully. He ftruck one man, on the 
fide of the face, with fo much violence, that the blood 
gufhed out of his mouth and noflrils ; and, after lying fome 
time motionlefs, he was, at laft, removed from the place, 
in convulfions. The perfon who had inflicfled the blow, 
being told that he had killed the man, only laughed at it ; 
and, it was evident, that he was not in the leafl forry for 
what had happened. We heard, afterward, that the poor 
fufferer recovered. 

The Difcovery having found again her fmall bower an- 
Wednef. 7. chor, fliiftcd her birth on the 7th ; but not before her belt 
bower cable had (hared the fate of the other. This day, I 
had the company of Feenou at dinner; and alfo the next 
Thurfday 8. day, whcu he was attended by Taipa, Toobou, and fome 
•other Chiefs. It was remarkable, that none but Taipa 
was allowed to fit at table with him, or even to eat in his 
prefence. I own that I confidered Feenou as a very conve- 
nient gueft, on account of this etiquette. For, before his 
arrival, I had, generally, a larger coxnpany than I could 
well find room for, and my table overflowed with crowds 
of both fexes. For it is not the cufiom at the Friendly 
Iflands, as it is at Otaheite, to deny to their females the pri- 
vilege of eating in company with the men. 



The firfl; day of our arrival at Annamooka, one of the 'J/r- 

. . May. 

natives had ftolen, out of the fliip, a large junk axe. I now ' ,r-—» 

applied to Feenou to exert his authority to get it reflored to 
■me ; and fo implicitly was he obeyed, that it was brought 
on board while we were at dinner. Thefe people gave us 
very frequent opportunities of remarking what expert 
thieves they were. Even fome of their Chiefs did not think 
this profeflion beneath them. On the 9th, one of them was Friday 9. 
detedled carrying out of the fliip, concealed under his 
clothes, the bolt belonging to the fpun yarn winch ; for 
which I fentenced him to receive a dozen laflies, and kept 
him confined till he paid a hog for his liberty. After this, 
we were not troubled with thieves of rank. Their fervants, 
or Haves, however, were flill employed in this dirty work ; 
and upon them a flogging fcemed to make no greater im- 
preffion, than it would have done upon the main-maft. 
When any of them happened to be caught in the acft, their 
mafters, far from interceding for them, would often advife 
us to kill them. As this was a punifliment we did not . 
choofe to infliift, they generally efcaped without any punifli- 
ment at all ; for they appeared to us to be equally infen- 
fible of the fliame, and of the pain of corporal chaftifement. 
Captain Gierke, at lad, hit upon a mode of treatment, which, 
■we thought, had fome efFecft. He put them under the hands 
of the barber, and completely fhaved their heads ; thus 
pointing them out as objecfts of ridicule to tlieir country- 
men, and enabling our people to deprive them of future 
opportunities for a repetition of their rogueries, by keeping 
them at a diflance. 

Feenou was fo fond of aflbciating with us, that he dined 
on board every day ; though, fometimes, he did not partake 
of our fare. On the loth, fome of his fervants brought a Saturday 10. 

Vol. I. H h mefs, 


'777- mefs, which had been drefled for him on fliore. It confifted 


^c— ^, — J of fifli, foup, and yams. Inftead of common water to make 
the foup, cocoa-nut liquor had been made ufe of, in which 
the fifii had been boiled or ftewed ; probably in a wooden 
veflel, with hot ftones ; but it was carried on board in a 
plantain leaf. I tafted of the mefs, and found it fo good, 
that I, afterward, had fome fiili drefTed in the fame way. 
Though my cook fuccecded tolerably well, he could pro- 
duce nothing equal to the diili he imitated. 

Finding that we had quite exhaufted the ifland, of alraofl 
Sunday II. cvcry article of food that it afforded, I employed the nth 
in moving off, from the fhore, the horfes, obfervatories, and 
other things that we had landed, as alfo the party of ma- 
rines who had mounted guard at our ftation, intending to 
fail, as foon as the Difcovery fliould have recovered her beft 
bower anchor. Feenou, underftanding that I meant to pro- 
ceed direflly to Tongataboo, importuned me ftrongly to 
alter this plan, to which he expreffed as much averfion, as 
if he had fome particular intereft to promote by diverting 
me from it. In preference to it, he warmly recommended 
an ifland, or rather a group of iflands, called Hapaee, lying 
to the North Eaft. There, he affured us, we could be fup- 
plied pleniifuUy with every refrefliment, in the eafieft man- 
ner; and, to add weight to his advice, he engaged to attend 
us thither in perfon. He carried his point with me ; and 
Hapaee was made choice of for our next ftation. As it had 
never been vifited by any European fliips, the examination 
of it became an object with me. 

Mondays. The i2th, and the 13th, were fpent in attempting the re- 
ay 13. j,Qygj,y. q£ Captain Gierke's anchor, which, after much 
Wednef. 14. trouble, was happily accomplifhed ; and on the 14th, in the 
morning, we got under fail, and left Annamooka. 

5> This 


This ifland is fomewhat higher than the other fmall ifles '"7 

that furround it ; but, flill, it cannot be admitted to the 
rank of thofe of a moderate height, fuch as Mangeea and 
Wateeoo. The fliore, at that part where our fliips lay, is 
compofed of a lleep, rugged coral rock, nine or ten feet 
high, except where there are two fandy beaches, which 
have a reef of the fame fort of rock extending crofs their 
entrance to the fliore, and defending them from the fea. 
The fait water lake that is in the centre of the ifland, is 
about a mile and a half broad ; and round it, the land rifes 
like a bank, with a gradual afcent. But we could not trace 
its having any communication with the fea. And yet, the 
land that runs acrofs to it, from the largell fandy beach, 
being flat and low, and the foil fandy, it is moil likely that 
it may have, formerly, communicated that way. The foil, 
on the rifmg parts of the ifland, and efpecially toward the 
fea, is either of a reddifli clayey difpofition, or a black, loofe 
mould J but there is, no where, any llream of frefli water. 

The ifland is very well cultivated, except in a few places ; 
and there are fome others, which, though they appear to 
lie wafte, are only left to recover the flrength exhaufted by 
conftant culture; for we frequently faw the natives at work 
upon thefe fpots, to plant them again. The plantations 
confifl chiefly of yams and plantains. Many of them are 
very extenfive, and often inclofed with neat fences of reed, 
difpofed obliquely acrofs each other, about fix feet high. 
Within thefe, we often faw other fences of lefs compafs, 
furrounding the houfes of the principal people. The bread- 
fruit, and cocoa-nut trees, are interfperfed with little order ; 
but chiefly near the habitations of the natives ; and the 
other parts of the ifland, efpecially toward the fea^ and 
about the fides of the lake, are covered with trees and 
buflics of a moil luxuriant growth ; the lafc place having a 

H h 2 great 



'77r- great many mangroves, and the firft a vaft number of the 

< ^-L^ faitanoo trees already mentioned. There feem to be no rocks, 

or Hones, of any kind, about the illand, that are not coral ; 
except in one place, to the right of the fandy beach, where 
there is a rock twenty or thirty feet high, of a calcareous 
fl:one,of a yellowifl-i colour, and a very clo(e texture. But even 
about that place, which is the higheft part of the land, are 
large pieces of the fame coral rock that compofes the fliore; 

Befides walking frequently up into the country, which we 
were permitted to do without interruption, we fometimes 
amufed ourfelves in fliooting wild ducks, not unlike the 
widgeon, which are very numerous upon the fait lake, and 
the pool where we got our water. In thefe excurlions, we 
found the inhabitants had often deferted their houfes to 
come down to the trading place, without entertaining any 
fufpicion, that ftrangers, rambling about, would take away» 
or deftroy, any thing that belonged to them. But though, 
from this circumftance, it might be fuppofed that the 
greater part of the natives were fometimes collected at the 
beach, it was impoffible to form any accurate computation 
of their number ; as the continual refort of vifiters from 
other iflands, mixing with them, might eafily miflead one; 
However, as there was never, to appearance, above a thou- 
fand perfons collecT;ed at one time, it would, perhaps, be 
fufficient to allow double that number for the whole ifland. 
The place where fuch numbers aflembled daily, and the 
bay where our boats landed, are faithfully reprefented in a. 
drawing by Mr. V/ebber. 

To the North and North Eaft of Annamooka, and in the 

diredl track to Hapaee, whither we were now bound, the fea 

is fprinkled with a great number of fmall ifles. Amidft the 

llioals and rocks adjoining to this group, I could not be 

4^. ailured 


aiTured that there was a free or fafe pafTage for fuch large 177T- 

fhips as ours; though the natives failed through the in- < r~-~J 

tervals in their canoes. For this fubilantial reafon, when 
we weighed anchor from Annamooka, I thought it ne- 
celTary to go to the Weftward of the above iflands, and wednef. i4»- 
fleered North North Weft, toward Kao * and Toofoa, the 
two moft Weftcrly iflands in fight, and remarkable for 
their great height. Feenou, and his attendants, remained 
on board the Refolution till near noon, when he went into 
the large failing canoe, which had brought him from Ton^ 
gataboo, and ftood in amongft the clufter of iflands above- 
mentioned, of which we were now almoft abreaft ; and a 
tide or current from the Weftward had fet us, fmce our fail^ 
ing in the morning, much over toward them. 

They lie fcattered, at unequal diftances, and are, in ge- 
neral, nearly as high as Annamooka ; but only from two or 
three miles, to half a mile in length, and fome of them 
fcarcely fo much. They have either ftecp rocky fliores like 
Annamooka, cr reddiOi cliffs ; but fome have fandy beaches 
extending almoft their whole leagch. Moft of them are en- 
tirely clothed with trees, amongft which are many cocoa- 
palms, and each forms a piofpedt like a beautiful garden 
placed in the fea. To heighten this, the ferene weather we 
now had, contributed very much; and the whole might 
fupply the imagination with an idea of fome fairy land 

* As a proof of the great difficulty of knowing accurately the. exadl names of 
the South Sea Iflands, as procured from the natives, I obfe'rve that what Captain 
Cook calls Aghao, Mr. Anderfon calls Kao; and Tafman's drawing, as I. find it iri' 
Mr. Dalrymple's Collection of Voyages, gives the name of Knyhay to the fame ifland. • 
T'afnaan's and Captain Cook's Jmattafoa^ is, with Mr. Anderfon, Tofoa.- Captain ■ 
Cook's Komango, is Tafman's Amango. There is fcarcely an inftance, in which fuclt. 
variations are not obfervable. Mr. Anderfon's great attention to matters of this fort 
being, as we learn from Captain King, well knov/n to every body on board, and adi 
mitted always by Captain Cook himlelf, his mode of fpelling has been adopted on the 
engraved chart of the Friendly Iflands ; which has made it neceffary to adopt it alfo, ., 
in printing the journal., 



>777- realized. It lliould feera, that fome of them, at leaft, may 
V— V— "> have been formed, as we fuppofed Palmerfton's Ifland to 
have been ; for there is one, which, as yet, is entirely fand, 
and another, on which there is only one bufli, or ^ree. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon being the length of 
Kotoo, the Wefternmofl of the above clufter of fmall illands, 
we fleered to the North, leaving Toofoa and Kao on our lar- 
board, keeping along the Weft lide of a reef of rocks, which 
lie to the Weftwardof Kotoo, till we came to their Northern 
extremity, round which we hauled in for the ifland. It was 
our intention to have anchored for the night ; but it came 
upon us beforr; we could find a place in lefs than fifty- 
five fathoms water ; and rather than come to in this depth, 
I chofe to fpend the night under fail. 

We had, in the afternoon, been within two leagues of 
Toofoa, the fmoke of which we faw feveral times in the 
day. The Friendly Iflanders have fome fuperflitious notions 
about the volcano upon it, which they call Kolhfeea, and fay 
it is an Otooa^ or divinity. According to their account, it 
fometimes throws up very large ftones ; and they compare 
the crater, to the fize of a fmall iflot, which has never ceafed 
fmoking in their memory ; nor have they any tradition 
that it ever did. We fometimes faw the fmoke rifing from 
the centre of the ifland, while we were at Annamooka, 
though at the diftance of at leail ten leagues. Toofoa, we 
were told, is but thinly inhabited, but the water upon it 
is good. 

Tiiurfdnyij. At day-brcak the next morning, being then not far from 
Kao, which is a vaft rock of a conic figure, we fleered to 
the Eaft, for the pafiage between the iflands Footooha and 
Hafaiva, with a gentle breeze at South Eafl. About ten 
o'clock, Feenou came on board, and remained with us all 



day. He brought with him two hogs, and a quantity of 1777. 
fruit ; and, in the courfe of the day, feveral canoes, from » -^J' ^ 
the different iflands round us, came to barter quantities of 
the latter article, which was very acceptable, as our flock 
was nearly expended. At noon, our latitude was 19° 49' 45" 
South, and we had made feven miles of longitude from Anna- 
mooka; Toofoa bore North, 88° Weft; Kao North, 71° Weftj 
Footooha North, 89° Weft ; and Hafaiva South, 12^ Weft. 

After palling Footooha, we met with a reef of rocks -, and, 
as there was but little wind, it coft us fome trouble to keep 
clear of them. This reef lies between Footooha and Neeneeva, 
•which is a fmall low ifle, in the diredion of Eaft North Eaft 
from Footooha, at the diftance of feven or eight miles. 
Footooha is a fmall ifland, of middling height, and bounded 
all round by a fteep rock. It lies South 67° Eaft, diftant fix 
leagues from Kao, and three leagues from Kotoo, in the 
diredlion of North 33" Eaft. Being paft the reef of rocks 
juft mentioned, we hauled up for Neeneeva, in hopes of 
finding anchorage ; but were again difappointed, and 
obliged to fpcnd the night, making fhort boards. For, 
although we had land in every diretftion, the fea was un- 

In the courfe of this night, we could plainly fee flames 
iffuing from the volcano upon Toofoa, though to no great 

At day-break in the morning of the i6th, with a gentle Friday i6„ 
breeze at South Eaft, we fteered North Eaft for Hapaee, 
which was now in fight j and we could judge it to be low 
land, from the trees only appearing above the water. About 
nine o'clock, we could fee it plainly forming three iftands, 
nearly of an equal fizej and foon after, a lourth to the 




Ma^' -Southward of thefe, as large as the others. Each feemed to 

s— >, > ,be about fix or feven miles long, and of a fimilar height and 

appearance. The Northernmoft of them is called Haanno, 
the next Foa, the third Lcfooga, and the Southernmoft Hoo- 
iaiva ; but all four are included, by the natives, under the 
general name Hapaee. 

The wind fcanting upon us, we could not fetch the land ; 
fo that we were forced to ply to windward. In doing this, 
we once palTed over fome coral rocks, on which we had 
only fix fathoms water ; but the moment we were over 
them, found no ground with eighty fathoms of line. At this 
time, the ifles of Hapaee__bore, from North, 50° Eaft, to South, 
9° Weft. We got up with the Northernmoft of thefe ifles by 
funfet } and there found ourfelves in the very fame diftrefs, 
for want of anchorage, that we had experienced the two pre- 
ceding evenings ; fo that we had another night to fpend 
under fail, with land and breakers in every dire6lion. To- 
ward the evening, Feenou, who had been on board all day, 
went forward to Hapaee, and took Omai in the canoe with 
him. He did not forget our difagreeable lituation ; and 
kept up a good fire, all night, by way of a land- mark. 

Saturday 17. As foou as the day-light returned, being then clofe in 
with Foa, we faw it was joined to Haanno, by a reef 
running even with the furface of the fea, from the one 
ifland to the other. I now difpatched a boat to look for an- 
chorage. A proper place was foon found ; and we came to, 
abreaft of a reef, being that which joins Lcfooga to Foa (in 
the fame manner that Foa is joined to Haanno), having 
twenty-four fathoms depth of water ; the bottom coral fand. 
In this ftation, the northern point of Hapaee, or the North 
end of Haanno, bore North, 16° Eaft. The Southern point 



of Hapaee, or the South end of Foolaiva, South, 29° Weft; 
and the North end of Lefooga, South, 65° Eaft. Two ledges 
of rocks lay without us ; the one bearing South, 50° Weil ; 
and the other Weft by North 4 North, diftant two or three 
miles. We lay before a creek in the reef, which made it 
convenient landing at all times ; and we were not above 
three quarters of a mile from the fliore. 

Vol. L I i CHAP. 



C H A P. V. 

Arrival of the Ships at Hapaee, and friendly Reception 
there, — Prefents and Solemnities on th& Occafon. — 
Single Combats with Clubs, — Wreftlmg and Boxing 
Matches, — Fe??iale Combatants, — Marines exercifed, — A 
Da7ice performed by Men. — Fireworks exhibited. — The 
Night-entertainments of finging and da?icing particu- 
larly defcribed. 

1777. TT^ Y the time we had anchored, the fhips were filled with 
»_, -!■-'._/ JD the natives, and furrounded by a multitude of canoes, 
Saturday 17. g^j^^ ^j^^ ^^^-^j^ ^1^^^^^ ^j^^y brought, from the ihore, hogs, 

fowls, fruit, and roots, which they exchanged for hatchets, 
knives, nails, beads, and cloth. Feenou and Omai having 
come on board, after it was light, in order to introduce me 
to the people of the iiland, I foon accompanied them on 
fliore, for that purpofe, landing at the North part of Lefooga, 
a little to the right of the fliip's ftation. 

The Chief conducSted me to a houfc, or rather a hut, 
fituated clofe to the fea-beach, which I had feen brought 
thither, but a few minutes before, for our reception, hi 
this Feenou, OiTiai, and myfelf, were feated. The other 
Chiefs, and the multitude, compofed a circle, on the out- 
fide, fronting us; and they alfo fat down. I was then 
aflied, How long I intended to flay ? On my faying, Five 
days, Taipa was ordered to come and fit by me, and pro- 
7 claim 



T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 243 

•claim this to the people. He then harangued them, in a '^77 
fpeech moftly dicflated by Feenou. The purport of it, as I v. 
learnt from Omai, was, that they were all, both old and 
young, to look upon me as a friend, who intended to remain 
with them a few days ; that, during my ftay, they mufl 
not fteal any thing, nor molefl me any other way ; and that 
it was expecSted, they lliould bring hogs, fowls, fruit, &c. 
to the fliips, where they would receive, m exchange for 
them, fuch and fuch things, which he enumerated. Soon 
after Taipa had finiflied this addrefs to the alfembly, Fee- 
nou left tis. Taipa then took occafion to fignify to me, 
that it was necelfary I fliould make a prefent to the Chief of 
the ifland, whofe name was Earoupa. I was not unprepared 
for this; and gave him fuch articles as far exceeded his ex- 
pedlation. My liberality to him brought upon me demands, 
of the fame kind, from two Chiefs of other ifles who were 
prefent; and from Taipa himfelf. When Feenou returned, 
which was immediately after I had made the laft of thefe 
prefents, he pretended to be angry with Taipa for fuffering 
me to give away fo much ; but I looked upon this as a mere 
finefle ; being confident that he a(5led in concert with the 
others. He now took his feat again, and ordered Earoupa 
to fit by him, and to harangue the people as Taipa had 
done, and to the fame purpofej dit5lating, as before, the 
heads of the fpeech. 

Thefe ceremonies being performed, the Chief, at my 
requeft, conduced me to three flagnant pools of frefli wa- 
, ter, as he was pleafed to call it : and, indeed, in one of thefe 
the v^rater was tolerable, and the fituation not inconvenient 
for filling our caflcs. After viewing the watering-place, 
we returned to our former flation, where I found a baked 
hog, and fome yams, fnioking hot, ready to be carried on 

I i 2 board 


?,777- board for my dinner. I invited Feenou, and his friends, to 

May. ' 

< ,/ \ partake of it ; and we embarked for the fliip ; but none but 

himfelf fat down with us at the table. After dinner I con- 
duced them on fhore; and, befcre I returned on board, the 
Chief gave me a fine large turtle, and a quantity of yams. 
Our fupply of provifions was copious; for, in the courfe of 
the day, we got, by barter, along-fide the fliip, about twenty 
fmall hogs, befide fruit and roots. I was told, that, on my firfl 
landing in the morning, a man came off to the fliips, and 
ordered every one of tlie natives to go on fliore. Probably, 
this was done with a view to have the whole body of inha- 
bitants prefent at the ceremony of my reception ; for when 
that was over, multitudes of them returned again to the 

Sunday 18. Ncxt momiug early, Feenou, and Omai, who fcarcely 
ever quitted the Chief, and now flept on fliore, came on 
board. The obje6l of the vifit, was to require my prefence 
upon the ifland. After fome time, I accompanied them ; 
and, upon landing, was condu6led to the fame place where 
I had been feared the day before ; and where I faw a large 
conco'.irfe of people already aflembled. I guefTcd that 
fomething more than ordinary was in agitation; but could 
not tell what, nor could Omai inform me. 

I had not been long feated, before near a hundred of the 
natives appeared ia fight, and advanced, laden with yams^ 
bread-fruit, plantains, cocoa-nuts, and fugar-canes. They 
depofited their burdens, in two heaps, or piles, upon our 
left, being the fide they came from. Soon after, an-ived a 
number of others from the right, bearing the fame kind 
of articles -, which were collecTbcd into two piles upon that 
fide. To thefc were tied two pigs, and fix fowls ; and to 



tliofe, upon the Icfr, fix pigs, and two turtles. Earoupa ^ni' 
featecl himfelf before the feveral articles upon the left ; and ^ - ,~ j 
another Chief before thofe upon the right j they being, as I 
judged, the two Chiefs who had collet^led them, by order 
of Feenou, who feemed to be as implicitly obeyed liere, as 
he had been at Annamooka ; and, in confequence of his 
commanding fuperiority ever the Chiefs of Hapaee, had laid 
this tax upon them for the prefent occafion. 

As foon as tiiis munificent collecftion of provifions was 
laid down in order, and difpofed to the beft advantage, the 
bearers of it jcnned the multitude, who formed a large circle 
round the whole. Prefently after, a number of men en- 
tered this circle, or area, before us, armed with clubs, made 
of the green branches of the cocoa-nut tree. Thefe paraded 
about, for a few minutes, and then retired ; the one half to 
one fide, and the other half to the other fide ; feating them- 
fclves before the fpe^ators. Soon after, they fuccellively 
entered the lifts, and entertained us with fingle combats. 
One champion, rifing up and ftepping forward from one 
fide., challenged thofe of the other fide, by exprcfiive gef- 
tures, more than by words, to fend one of their body to op- 
pofe him. If the challenge was accepted, which was ge- 
nerally the cafe, the two combatants put themfelves in proper- 
attitudes, and then began the engagement, which continued 
till one or other owned himfelf conquered, or till their 
weapons were broken. As foon as each combat was over,, 
the v!(5for fquatted himfelf down facing the Chief, then rofe 
up, and retired. At the fame time, fome old men, who 
deemed to fit as judges, gave their plaudit in a few v/ords ; 
and the multitude, efpecially thofe on the fide to which the 
vidor belonged, celebrated the glory he had acquired, in. 
two or three huzzas. 


:^46 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- This entertainment was, now and then, fufpendcd for a few 

May. . 

r — '■ minutes. During thefe intervals there were both wrcftling 

and boxing matches. The firfl: were performed in the fame 

manner as at Otaheite ; and the fecond differed very little 

from the method pra(5tifed in England. But what ftruck us 

with moft furprife, was, to fee a couple of lufty wenches 

flep forth, and begin boxing, without the leaft ceremony, 

and \vith as much art as the men. This contefl, however, 

did not laft above half a minute, before one of them gave 

it up. The conquering heroine received the fame applaufe 

from the fpedlators, which they beftov/ed upon the fuccefs- 

ful combatants of the other fex. We expreffed fome dif- 

like at this part of the entertainment ; which, however, did 

not prevent two other females from entering the lifts. They 

feemed to be girls of fpirit, and would certainly have given 

each other a good drubbing, if two old women had not in- 

terpofed to part them. All thefe combats, were exhibited in 

the midft of, at leaft, three thoufand people ; and were 

condu6led with the greateft good humour on all fides ; 

though fome of the champions, women as well as men, 

received blows, which, doubtlefs, they muft have felt for 

fome time after. 

As foon as thefe diverfions were ended, the Chief told me, 
that the heaps of provifions, on our right-hand, were a pre- 
fent to Omai ; and that thofe, on our left-hand, being about 
two-tliirds of the whole quantity, were given to me. He 
added, that I miglit take them on board whenever it was 
convenient; but that there would be no occafion to fet any 
of our people as guards over them, as I might be affured, 
that not a fingle cocoa-nut would be taken away by the 
natives. So it proved ; for I left every thing behind, and 
returned to the fliip to dinner, carrying the Chief with me; 




and when the provifions were removed on board, in the af- '777- 


ternoon, not a fingle article was miffing. There was as " ^ — ■* 

much as loaded four boats •, and I could not but be flruck 
with the munificence of Feenou ; for this prefent far ex- 
ceeded any I had ever received from any of the Sovereigns 
of the various illands I had vifited in the Pacific Ocean. I 
loft no time in convincing my friend, that I was not infen- 
fible of his liberality ; for, before he quitted my fliip, I be- 
flowed upon him fuch of our commodities, as, I guefTed, 
were moft valuable in his eftimation. And the return I 
made was fo much to his fatisfacflion, that, as foon as he 
got on fliore, he left me ftill indebted to him, by fending 
me a frefh prefent, confifting of two large hogs, a confider- 
able quantity of cloth, and fome yams. 

Feenou had expreffed a defire to fee the marines go 
through their military exercife. As I was defirous to gratify 
his curiofity, I ordered them all afhore, from both fliips, in 
the morning of the 20th. After they had performed various TuefJay zo. 
evolutions, and fired fevcral voUies, with which the nume- 
rous body of fpedlators feemed well pleafed, the Chief en- 
tertained us, in his turn, with an exhibition, which, as was 
acknowledged by us all, was performed with a dexrerity 
and exadlnefs, far furpafiing the fpecimen we had given of 
our military manoeuvres. It was a kind of a dance, fo en- 
tirely different from any thing I had ever feen, that, I fear, 
1 can give no defcription that will convey any tolerable idea 
of it, to my readers. It was performed by men ; and one 
hundred and five perfons bore their parts in it. Each of 
them had in his hand an inftrument neatly made, fliaped 
fomewhat like a paddle, of two feet and a half in length, 
with a fmall handle, and a thin blade ; fo that they were 
very light. With thefe inftruments they made m.any and 



1777- various flouriflies, each of which was accompanied with a 
^'^' different attitude of th€ body, or a different movement. At 
fn ft, the performers ranged themfelves in three lines ; and, 
by various evolutions, each man changed his ftation in fuch 
a manner, that thofe who had been in the rear, came into 
the front. Nor did they remain long in the fame pofition ; 
but thefe changes were made by pretty quick tranfuions. 
At one time, tliey extended themfelves in one line ; they, 
then, formed into a femicircle ; and, laftly, into two fquare 
columns. While this lall movement was executing, one of 
them advanced, and performed an antic dance before me ; 
with which the whole ended. 

The mufical inftruments confided of two drums, or rather 
two hollow logs of wood, from which fome varied notes 
were produced, by beating on them with two flicks. It did 
nor, however, appear to me, that the dancers were much 
aflifted or direded by thefe founds, but by a chorus of vocal 
muiic, in Mhich all the performers joined at the fame time. 
Their fong was not deftitute of pleafing melody ; and all 
their correfponding motions v/ere executed with fo much 
ilcill, that the numerous body of dancers feemed to ac!il, as 
if they were one great machine. It was the opinion of every 
one of us, that fuch a performance would have met with 
univerfal applaufe on a European theatre ; and it fo far ex^ 
ceeded any attempt we had made to entertain them, that 
they feemed to picque themfelves upon the fuperiority they 
had over us. As to our mufical inflruments, they held none 
of them in the leail efteem, except the drum ; and even 
that they did not think equal to their own. Our French 
horns, in particular, feemed to be held in great contempt ; 
for neither here, nor at any other of the iflands, would they 
pay the fmalleft attention to them. 

3 In 

T H E P A C I F I C O G E A N. 249 

111 order to give them a more favourable opinion of Eng- '777- 
lifh amufements, and to leave their minds fully imprelTed 
with the deepeft fenfe of our fuperior attainments, I direded 
fome fireworks to be got ready ; and, after it was dark, 
played them off in the prefence of Feenou, the other 
Chiefs, and a vaft concourfe of their people. Some of the 
preparations we found damaged ; but others of them were 
in excellent order, and fucceeded fo perfectly, as to anfwer 
the end I had in view^. Our water and flcy-rockets, in par- 
ticular, pleafed and aftoniflied them beyond all conception ; 
and the fcale was now turned in our favour. 

This, however, feemed only to furnifh them with an 
additional motive to proceed to frefh exertions of their very 
fmgular dexterity; and our fireworks were no fooner ended, 
than a fucceffion of dances, which Feenou had got ready 
for our entertainment, began. As * a prelude to them, a 
band of mufic, or chorus of eighteen men, feaced them- 
felves before us, in the centre of the circle, compofed by 
the numerous fpe<5lators, the area of which was to be the 
fcene of the exhibitions. Four or five of this band, had 
pieces of large bamboo, from three to five or fix feet long, 
each managed by one man, who held it nearly in a vertical 
pofition, the upper end open, but the other end clofed by 
one of the joints. With this clofe end, the performers kept 
conftantly ilriking the ground, though flowly, thus pro- 
ducing different notes, according to the different lengths of 
the inilruments, but all of them of the hollow or bafe fort ; 
to countera(5l which, a perfon kept llriking quickly, and 
with two flicks, a piece of the fame fubilance, fplit, and 

* A'Ir. Anderfon's account of the night dances being much fuller than Captain 
Cook's, the reader will not be difpleafed that it has been adopted. 

Vol. I. K k laid 



'777' laid along the ground, and, by that means, furnifhing a 
tone as acute, as thofe produced by the others were grave. 
The reft of the band, as well as thofe who performed upon 
the bamboos, fung a flov/ and foft air, which fo tempered 
the harflier notes of the above inftruments, that no bye- 
flander, however accuftoraed to hear the moft perfedf and 
varied modulation of fweet founds, could avoid confell^ 
ing the vaft power, and pleafmg effed, of this fimple 

The concert having continued about a quarter of an 

hour, twenty women entered the circle. Moft of them had, 

"Upon their heads, garlands of the crimfon flowers of the 

China rofe, or others ; and many of them had ornamented 

their perfons with leaves of trees, cut with a great deal of 

nicety about the edges. They made a circle round the 

chorus, turning their faces toward it, and began by finging 

a foft air, to which refponfes were made by the chorus in 

the fame tone; and thefe were repeated akernately. All 

this while, the women accompanied their fong with feveral 

very graceful motions of their hands toward their faces, 

and in other dire6lions at the fame time, making conftantly 

a ftep forward, and then back again, with one foot, while 

the other was fixed. They then turned their faces to the af- 

fem,bly, fung feme time, and retreated flowly in a body, to 

that part of the circle which was oppoflte the hut where the 

principal fpe(5tators fat. After this, one of them advanced 

from each fide, meeting and paffing each other in the fi'ont, 

and continuing their progrefs round, till they came to the 

reft. On which, two advanced from each fide, two of whom 

alfo paflTed each other, and returned as the former ; but 

the other two remained, and to thefe came one, from each 



fide, by intervals, till the whole number had again formed »777. 
a circle about the chorus. 

Their manner of dancing was now changed to a quicker 
meafure, in which they made a kind of half turn by leap- 
ing, and clapped their hands, and fnapped their fingers, 
repeating fome words in conjunf^ion with the chorus. To- 
ward the end, as the quicknefs of the mufic increafed, 
their geftures and attitudes were varied with wonderful 
vigour and dexterity ; and fome of their motions, perhaps, 
would, with us, be reckoned rather indecent. Though this 
part of the performance, moll probably, was not meant to 
convey any wanton ideas, but merely to difplay the aftonifla- 
ing variety of their movements. 

To this grand female ballet, fucceeded one performed by 
fifteen men. Some of them were old ; but their age feemed 
to have abated little of their agility or ardour for the dance. 
They were difpofed in a fort of circle, divided at the front, 
with their faces not turned out toward the alTembly, nor 
inward to the chorus ; but one half of their circle faced for- 
ward as they had advanced, and the other half in a con- 
trary diredion. They, fometimes, fung flowly, in concert 
with the chorus ; and, while thus employed, they alfo made 
feveral very fine motions with their hands, but different 
from thofe made by the v/omen, at the fame time inclining 
the body to either fide alternately, by raifing one leg, which 
was ftretched outward, and reding on the other; the arm of 
the fame fide being alfo flretched fully upward. At other 
times, they recited fentences in a mufical tone, which were 
anfwered by the chorus ; and, at intervals, increafed the 
meafure of the dance, by clapping the hands, and quick- 
ening the motions of the feet, which, however, were never 
yaricd. At the end, the rapidity of the mufic, and of the 

K k 2 dancing, 


!777- dancing, increafed fo much, that it was fcarcely poflible to 
.t— V — ; diftinguifli the different movements ; though one might 
fuppofe the adtors were now almoft tired, as their perform- 
ance had lafted near half an hour. 

After a confiderable interval, another adt, as we may call 
it, began. Twelve men now advanced, who placed them- 
felves in double rows fronting each other, but on oppolite 
fides of the circle ; and, on one fide, a man was ftationed, 
who, as if he had been a prompter, repeated feveral fen- 
tences, to which the twelve new performers, and the chorus, 
replied. They then fung flowly ; and afterward danced and 
fung more quickly, for about a quarter of an hour, after 
the manner of the dancers whom they had fucceeded. 

Soon after they had finiflied, nine women exhibited tliem- 
felves, and fat down fronting the hut where the Chief was. 
A man then rofe, and flruck the firfl of thefe women on the 
back, with both fills joined. He proceeded, in the fame 
manner, to the fccond and thirds but when he came to the 
fourth, whether from accident or defign I cannot tell, in- 
ftead of the back, he ftruck her on the breaft. Upon this, a 
perfon rofe inftantly from the crov/d, who brought him to 
the ground with a blow on the head ; and he was carried 
off without the leaft noife or diforder. But this did not fave 
the other five women from fo odd a difcipline, or perhaps 
neceffary ceremony ; for a perfon fucceeded him, who 
treated them in the fame manner. Their difgrace did not 
end here ; for when they danced, they had the mortification 
to find their performance twice difapproved of, and were 
obliged to repeat it. This dance did not differ much from 
that of the firll women, except in this one circumftance, that 
the prefent fct, fometimes raifed the body upon one \cg, 



T H E P A C I F r C O C E A N. i^^ 

by a fort of double motion, and then upon the other alter- 1777* 
nately, in which attitude they kept fnapping their fingers ; 
and, at the end, they repeated, with great agility, the briflc 
movements, in which the former group of female dancers 
had Ihewn themfelves fo expert. 

In a little time, a perfon entered unexpe6ledly, and faid 
fomething in a ludicrous way, about the fireworks that had 
been exhibited, which extorted a burft of laughter from the 
multitude. After this, we had a dance compofed of the 
men who attended, or had followed, Feenou. They formed 
a double circle (i. e. one within another) of twenty-four 
each, round the chorus, and began a gentle foothing fong,. 
with correfponding motions of the hands and head. This 
lafted a confiderable time, and then changed to a much 
quicker meafure, during which they repeated fentences^ 
either in conjuncTiion with the chorus, or in anfwer to fome 
fpoken by that band. They then retreated to the back part 
of the circle, as the women had done, and again advanced^ 
on each fide, in a triple row, till they forined a femicircle, 
which was done very flowly, by inclining the body on one 
leg, and advancing the other a little way, as they put it 
down. They accompanied this, with fuch a foft air as they 
had fung at the beginning ; but foon changed it to repeat 
fentenccs in a harfher tone, at the fame time quickening the 
dance very much, till they finilhed with a general fliout 
and clap of the hands. The fame was repeated feveral 
times; but, at laft, they formed a double circle, as at the 
beginning, danced, and repeated very quickly, and finally 
clofed with feveral very dexterous tranfpofitions of the two 

The entertainments of this memorable night concluded 
with a dance, in which the principal people pre feat 





K. . ' 


exhibited. It refembled the immediately preceding one, in 
fome refpeds, having the fame number of performers, who 
began nearly in the fame way , but their ending, at each 
interval, was different. For they increafed their motions to 
a prodigious quicknefs, fhaking their heads from fhoulder 
to fliouldcr, with fuch force, that a fpedlator, unaccuftomed 
to the fight, would fuppofe, that they ran a rifk of dillo- 
cating their necks. This was attended with a fmart clap- 
ping of the hands, and a kind of favage holla ! or fhriek, 
not unlike what is fometimes pra6lifed in the comic dances 
on our European theatres. They formed the triple femi- 
circle, as the preceding dancers had done ; and a perfon, 
who advanced at the head on one fide of the femicirclc, 
began by repeating fomething in a truly mufical recitative, 
which was delivered with an air fo graceful, as might put 
to the blufli our mod applauded performers. He was an- 
fwered in the fame manner, by the perfon at the head of 
the oppofice party. This being repeated feveral times, the 
whole body, on one fide, joined in the refponfes to the 
whole correfponding body on the oppofite fide, as the femi- 
circlc advanced to the front ; and they finiflied, by finging 
and dancing as they had begun. 

Thefe two lafl dances were performed with fo much 
fpirit, and fo great exacHinefs, that they met with univerfal 
approbation. The native fpecTiators, who, no doubt, were 
perfeft judges whether the feveral performances were pro- 
perly executed, could not withhold their applaufes at fome 
particular parts ; and even a flranger, who never faw the 
diverfion before, felt fimilar fatisfacflion, at the fame in- 
flant. For though, through the whole, the moft ilridt con- 
cert was obferved, fome of the gcftures were fo expreflive, 
that it might be faid, they fpoke the language that accom- 
panied them J if we allow that there is any connexion be- 

l\ tweea 


tween motion and found. At the fame time, it fliould be '777- 


obferved, that though the mufic of the chorus, and that of 
the dancers, correfponded, conftant pracftice in thefe favourite 
amufements of our friends, feems to have a great fhare in 
effecting the exadl time they keep in their performances. 
For we obferved, that if any of them happened accidentally 
to be interrupted, they never found the fmalleft difficulty in 
recovering the proper place of the dance or fong. And 
their perfe(5t difcipline was, in no inftance, more remark- 
able, than in the fudden tranfitions they fo dexteroufly made 
from the ruder exertions, and harfh founds, to the fofteft 
airs, and gentleft movements*. 

The place where the dances were performed, was an 
open fpace amongfl the trees, juft by the fca, with lights, at 
fmall intervals, placed round the infide of the circle. The 
concourfe of people was pretty large, though not equal to . 
the number alTembled in the forenoon, when the marines 
exercifed. At that time, fome of our gentlemen guefTed 
there might be prefent about five thoufand perfons j others 
thought there were more; but they who reckoned that 
there were fewer, probably, came nearer to the truth. 

* In a former note, at p. i88. it was obferved, that the fongs and dances of the Caro- 
line Iflanders, in the North Pacific, bear a great refemblance to thofe of the inhabitants 
of Wateeoo. The remark may be now extended to thofe of the Friendly Iflanders, 
defcribed at large in this chapter. That the reader may judge for himfelf, I have 
fcletted the following particulars from Father Cantova's account. " Pendant la 
" nuit, au clair de la lune, ils s'aflemblent, de temps en temps, pour chanter & danfer 
*' devant la maifon de leur TavuU. Leurs danfes fe font au fon de la voix, car ils 
" n'ont point d'inftrumctit de mufique. Labeautede la danfe, confilte dans I'exaitc 
♦' uniformite des mouvemens du corps. Les honimes, fepares des femmcs, fe poflcnt 
" vis-a-vis les uns des autres ; apres quoi, ils remuent la tete, les bras, les mains, les 
" pieds, en cadence. — Leur tete eft couverte de plumes, ou de fleurs ; — et I'on voit, at- 
*' tachees a leurs oreilles, des feuilles de palmier tifTues avec aflezd'art. — Les femmes, 
" de leur cote, — fe regardant les unes les autres, commencent un chant pathetique U 
" langoureux, accompagnant le fon de leur voix du mouvement cadence de la tete ii 
•' des bras." Lettrci EcUfiantes & CHrku/es, Tom. xv. p. 314, 315. 


256 A V O Y A G E T O 


Defcriptio7i of Lefooga. — Its cultivated State. — Its Ex- 
tent. — T7-anfa&ions there. — A Female Oculiji — Sin- 
gular Expedients for JJjavi?tg off the Hair.— The Shps 
change their Station, — A rema?'kabie Mount and Stone. 
— Defa'iption of Hoolaiva. — Account of Poulaho^ King 
of the Friendly Ifafids. — RefpeEijul Manner in which 
he is treated by his People. — Departw^e. from the 
Hapaee Iflands — Some Accou7it of Kotoo — Retur7i of 
the Ships to A?iJ!a?nooka. — Pouluho and Feenou fneet.—^ 
Arrival at Tongataboo. 

Mly! /CURIOSITY, on both fides, being now fuffidenrly 
*■ — ->- — ' V^ gratified, by the exhibition of the various entertain- 
ments I have defcribed, I began to have time to look about 
Wednef. 21. me. Accordingly, next day, I took a walk into the ifland of 
Lefooga, of which I was defirous to obtain fome know- 
ledge. I found it to be, in feveral refpecTts, fuperior to An- 
namooka. The plantations were both more numerous, and 
more extenfive. In many places, indeed, toward the fea, efpe- 
cially on the Eaft fide, the country is ftill wafte ; ovvring, 
perhaps, to the fandy foil; as it is much lower than Anna- 
mooka, and its furrounding ifles. But, toward the middle 
of the ifland, the foil is better ; and the marks of confider- 
able population, and of improved cultivation, were very 
confpicuous. For we met here with very large plantations, 
X inclofed 



mclofed in fuch a manner, that the fences running; parallel 1777- 

" ^ May 

to each other, form fine fpacious public roads, that would « /' < 

appear ornamental in countries where rural conveniences 
have been carried to the greateft perfedion. We obferved 
large fpots covered with the paper mulberry-trees ; and the 
plantations, in general, were well flocked with fuch roots 
and fruits as are the natural produce of the ifland. To thefe 
I made fome addition, by fowing the feeds of Indian corn, 
melons, pumpkins, and the like. At one place was a 
houfe, four or five times as large as thofe of the common 
fort, with a large area of grafs before it ; and, I take it for 
granted, the people refort thither on certain public occafions. 
Near the landing-place, we faw a mount, two or three feet 
high, covered with gravel ; and on it flood four or five fmall 
huts, in which, the natives told us, the bodies of fome of 
their principal people had been interred. 

The ifland is not above feven miles long ; and, in fome 
places, not above two or three broad. The Eaft fide of it, 
which is expofed to the trade-wind, has a reef, running to 
a confiderable breadth from it, on which the fea breaks 
with great violence. It is a continuation of this reef thac 
joins Lefooga to Foa, which is not above half a mile diftant; 
and, at low water, the natives can walk upon this reef, 
which is then partly dry, from the one ifland to the other. 
The fhore itfelf is either a coral rock, fix or feven feet high, 
or a fandy beach; but higher than the -Weft fide; which, 
in general, is not more than three or four feet from the 
level of the fea, with a fandy beach its whole length. 

When I returned from my excurfion into the country, and 
went on board to dinner, I found a large failing canoe faft 
to the fliip's ftern. In this canoe was Latooliboula, whom 

Vol. I. LI I had 

258 A %^ O Y A G E T O 

«777- I had feen at Tongataboo, during my laft voyage ; and who 


u— V — -} was then fuppofcd by us to be the King of that ifland. He 
fat in the canoe, with all that gravity, by which, as I have 
mentioned in my Journal*, he was fo remarkably diflin- 
guiilied at that time ; nor could I, by any intreaties, prevail 
upon him now to come into the fhip. Many of the iflanders 
were prefent; and they all called him Areekee, which fignifies 
King. I had never heard any one of them give this title to 
Feenou, however extenfive his authority over them, both 
here, and at Annamooka, had appeared to be; which had, 
all along, inclined m>e to fufpe(5l, that he was not the King; 
though his friend Taipa had taken pains to make me be- 
lieve he was. Latooliboula remained under the ftern till 
the evening, when he retired in his canoe to one of the 
illands. Feenou was on board my fhip at the fame time 5 
but neither of thefe great men took the lead notice of the 

Thurfday22. Nothing material happened the next day, except that fome. 
of the natives ilole a tarpaulin, and other things, from ofT 
the deck. They were foon mifTed, and the thieves purfued ; 

* See Captain Cook' s Voyage, Vol. i. p. 2o5, 207. The name of this extraordinary 
perfonage is there faid to be Kohagee-Uo Faliangou ; which cannot, by the mofl fkil- 
ful etymologift-, be tortured into the leaft mod diflant refemblance of Latooi'ibouLT. It: 
is remarkable, that Captain Cook fliould not take any notice of his having called the 
fame perfon by two names fo very difFerent. Perhaps we may account for this by 
fuppofing one to be the name of the perfon, and the other the defcription of his title 
or rank. This fuppofition feems well founded, when we confider, that Latoo, in the 
language of thefe people, is fometimes ufcd to fignify a Great Chief; and Dr. Fofter, 
in his Ohfervatiom, p. 378, 379. and elfewhere, fpeaks of the fovereign of Tonga- 
taboo, under the title of their Laioo. This very perfon is called, by Dr. Foiler, 
p. 370. Latco-Nipoo-rco -y which furniflies a very flriking. inftance of the variations 
of our people in writing down the fame word as pronounced hy the natives-. Hov/- 
ever, we can eafily trace the affinity between Nupooroo and Liboula, as the changes of 
ths confonants are fuch as are perpetually made, upon hearing a word pronounced, to 
wliich our ears have not been accuftonied. Air. Anderfoii here agrees with Captain 
Cuok in writing Latooliboula. 




but a little too late. I applied, therefore, to Feenori, who, ^-77- 
if he was not king, was at lead veiled with the highell: v__^-,L_/ 
authority here, to exert it, in order to have my things re- 
flored. He referred me to Earoupa ; who put me off, from 
time to time ; and, at laft, nothing was done. 

In the morning of the 23d, as we were going to unmoor, in F.-iday 2:. 
order to leave the illand, Feenou, and his prime-minifler 
Taipa, came along- fide in a failing canoe, and informed me, 
that they were fetting out for Vavaoo, an iiland, which, they 
faid, lies ahout two days fail to the Northward of Hapaee. 
The objecfl of their voyage, they would have me believe, 
was to get for me an additional fupply of hogs, and feme 
red-feathered caps for Omai, to carry to Otaheitc, where 
they are in high efteem. Feenou aflured me, that he fliould 
be back in four or five days ; and defired me not to fail till 
his return, when, he promifed, he would accompany me 
to Tongataboo. I thought this a good opportimity to gee 
fome knowledge of Vavaoo, and propofed to him to go 
thither with the fliips. But he feemed not to approve of 
the plan; and, by way of diverting me from it, told me, 
that there v/as neither harbour, nor anchorage about it. 
I, therefore, confented to wait, in my prefent ilation, for 
his return ; and he immediately fet out. 

The next day, our attention was, for fome time, taken Saturday 24, 
up v/ith a report, induflrioufly fpread about by fome of 
the natives, that a fiiip^ like ours, had arrived at Anna- 
mooka fince we left it ; and was now at anchor there. The 
propagators of the report were pleafed to add, that Toobou, 
the Chief of that ifland, was haftening thither to receive 
thefe new-comers ; and as we knew that he had acflually 
left us, we were the more ready to believe there might be 

L 1 2 fome 

26o A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- forae foundation for the flory of this unexpecled arrival. 
1....-)^-^ tJowever, to gain fome farther information, I went on Ihore 
with Omai, in quell of the man who, it was faid, had 
brought the firft account of this event from Annamooka. 
We found him at the houfe of Earoupa ; where Omai pu-t 
fuch queftions to him as I thought necefTury ; and the an- 
fwers he gave, were fo clear and fatisfa6lory, that I had not 
a doubt remaining. But, juft about this time, a Chief, of 
fome note, whom we well knew, arrived from Annamooka; 
and declared, that no fliip was, at that ifland, nor had 
been, fmce our leaving it. The propagator of the report, 
finding himfelf detected in a falfehood, inllantly withdrew, 
and we faw no more of him. What end the invention of 
this tale could anfwer, was not eafy to conjecture ; unlefs 
we fuppofe it to have been artfully contrived, to get us re- 
moved from the one iiland to the other. 

Sunday 25. In my walk, on the 25th, I happened to ftep into a houfe, 
where a woman was dreffing the eyes of a young child, who 
feemed blind ; the eyes being much inflamed, and a thin 
film fpread over them. The inftruments flie ufed were tw3 
llender wooden probes, with which fhe had bruflied the 
eyes fo as to make them bleed. It fecms worth mention^ 
ing, that the natives of thefe illands fhould attempt an ope*- 
ration of this fort; though I entered the houfe too late,, to 
defcribe exactly how this female ocuiifi: employed the 
wretched tools fhe had to work with. 

I was fortunate enough to fee a different operation going 
on in the fame houfe, of which I can give a tolerable ac- 
count. I found there another woman fhaving a child's 
head, witii a fhark's tooth, (luck into the end of a piece of 
flick. I obfervcd, that flie iiril wet the hair with a rag 



dipped in water, applying her indrument to that part which '777- 
Ihe had previoully foaked. The operation feemed to give no v— 


pain to the child; ahhougli the hair was taken ofTas clofe 
as if one of our razors liad been employed. Encouraged by 
•what I now faw, I, foon after, tried one of theie fingular 
inftruments upon myfelf, and found it to be an excellent 
Jncccdaneiim. However,, the men of thefe illands have re- 
courfe to ajiother contrivance when they fhave their beards. 
The operation is performed with two fhells ; one of which 
they place under a fmall part of the beard, and with the 
other, applied above, they fcrape that part off. In this 
manner they are able to fhave very clofe. The procefs 
is, indeed, rather tedious, but not painful; and there are 
men amongll them who feem to prcfefs this trade. It 
was as common, while we were here, to fee our failors go 
afhore to have their beards fcraped off, after the fafhion of 
Hapaee, as it was to fee their Cliiefs come on board to be 
lliaved by our barbers. 

Finding that little or nothing of the prodiice of the ifland 
was now brought to the fliips, I refolved to change our 
flation, and to wait Feenou's return from Vavaoo, in fome 
other convenient anchoring-place, where refrefhments might 
flill be met with. Accordingly, in the forenoon of the 26th, Monday zS.' 
we got under fail, and flood to the Southward along the 
reef of the ifland ; having fourteen and thirteen fathoms' 
water, with a fundy bottom. However, v/e met with feveral 
detached ilioals. Some of them were difcovered by breakers; 
fome, by the water upon them appearing difcoloured j.. 
and others, by the lead. At half paft two in the afternoon, 
having already pafTed feveral of thefe flioals, and feeing 
more of them before us, I hauled into a bay, that lies be- 
tween the South end of Lefooga, and the North end of Hoo- 



^117' laiva, and there anchored in feventeen fathoms water; the 


bottom a coral- fand; the point of Lefooga bearing South Eaft 
by Eafl, a mile and a half diilanr. The Difcovery did not get 
to an anchor till funfcr. She had touched upon one of the 
flioals ; but backed off again, without receiving any da- 

As foon as we had anchored, I fent Mr. Bligh to found 
the bay v/here we were now flationed ; and myfelf, accom- 
panied by Mr. Gore, landed on the Southern part of Le- 
fooga, to examine the couniry, and to look for fredi water. 
t<ot that we now wanted a fupply of this article, having 
iilled all the caflcs at our late ftation ; but I had been told, 
that this part of the idand could afford us fo;iie, preferable 
■to any we had got at the former watering-place. This will 
not be the only time I fliall have occafion to remaik, that 
thefe people do not know what good water is. We were 
conducted to two wells ; but the water in both of them 
proved to be execrable ; and the natives, our guides, affured 
us that they had none better. 

Near the South end of the ifland, and on the Weft fide, 
we met with an aitiiicial mount. From the fize of fome 
trees that were growing upon it, and from other appear- 
ances, 1 gucffcd that it had been raifed in remote times. I 
judged it to be about forty feet high ; and the diameter of 
its fummit meafurcd fifty feet. At the bottom of this mount, 
ilood a ftone, which mull have been hewn out of coral rock, 
it was four feet broad, two and a half thick, and fourteen 
high; and we were told by the natives prefent, that not 
above half its length appeared above ground. 1 hey called 
i.t Tangata Arckce'^; and faid, that it had beenfetup, and the 

* Xangaia, in their language, is man ; Arekee, king. 



mount raifed, by fome of their forefathers, in memory of ^777- 
one of their kings ; but how long fmce, they could not tell. « ^— «# 

Night coming on, Mr. Gore and I returned on board ; and, 
at the fame time, Mr. Bligh got back from founding the bay, 
in which he found from fourteen to twenty fathoms water; 
the bottom, for the moft part, fand, but not without fome 
coral rocks. The place where we now anchored is much 
better flickered than that which we liad lately come from ; 
but between the two is another anchoring flation, much 
better than either. Lefooga and Hoolaiva are divided from 
each other by a reef of coral rocks, which is dry at low 
water ; fo that one may walk, at that time, from the one 
to the other, without wetting a foot. Some of our Gentle- 
men, who landed in the latter ifland, did not find the lead 
mark of cultivation, or habitation, upon it; except afingle 
hut, the refidence of a man employed to catch Hih. and 
turtle. It is rather extraordinary, that it fliould be in this 
deferted ftate, communicating fo immediately with Lefooga, 
which is fo perfedly cultivated. For, though the foil is 
quite fandy, all the trees and plants found, in a natural 
ftate, on the neighbouring iflands, are produced here with' 
the greateft vigour. The Eaft fide of it has a reef like Le^- 
fooga; and the Weft fide has a bending, at the North part, 
where there feems to be good anchorage. Uninhabited as 
Hoolaiva is, an artificial mount, like that at the adjoining 
ifland, has been raifed upon it, as high as fome of the fur- 
rounding trees. 

At day-break, next morning, I made the fignal to weigh; Tuefda7 275r 
and, as I intended to attempt a palTage to Annamooka, 
in my way to Tongataboo, by the South Weft, amongft 
the intervening iflands, I fent the Mafler in a boat to- 
found before the fliips. But before we could get under 


■1777. fail, the wind became imfetded ; which made it un- 
^^ ' J fafe to attempt a pailage this way, till we were better ac- 
quainted with it. I, therefore, lay faft, and made the fignal 
for the Mafter to reiurn ; and afterward fent him and the 
Mafler of the Difcovery, each in a boat, with inftru6tions 
to examine the channels, as far as they could, allowing 
themfelves time to get back to the Ihips before the clofe of 
the day. 

About noon, a large failing canoe came under our flem, 
in which was a perfon named Futtafaihe, or Poulaho, or 
both ; who, as the natives then on board told us, was King 
of Tongataboo, and of all the neighbouring iflands that we 
had feen or heard of. It was a matter of furprize to me, to 
have a flranger introduced under this charadler, which I 
had fo much reafon to believe really belonged to another. 
But they perfifted in their account of the fupreme dig- 
nity of this new vifiter ; and now, for the firft time, they 
owned to me, that Feenou was not the King, but only a 
fubordinate Chief, though of great power ; as he was often 
fent from Tongataboo to the other iflands, on warlike expe- 
ditions, or to decide differences. It being my intereft, as 
well as my inclination, to pay court to all the great men, 
without making inquiry into the vahdity of their af- 
fumed titles, I invited Poulaho on board ; as I underftood he 
was very defirous to come. He could not be an unwelcome 
guefl ; for he brought with him, as a prefent to me, two 
good fat hogs ; though not fo fat as himfelf. If weight of 
body could give weight in rank or power, he was certainly 
the moft eminent man in that refpecT:, we had feen ; for, 
though not very tall, he was very unwieldy, and almoft 
fliapelefs with corpulence. He feemed to be about forty 
years of age, had llraight hair, and his features differed a 
§ good 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 26^- 

good deal from thofe of the bulk of his people. I found '777- 
him to be a fedate, fenfible man. He viewed the fhip, and 
the feveral new obje(5ls, with uncommon attention; and 
afl^ed many pertinent queftions ; one of which was. What 
could induce us to vifit thefe iflands ? After he had fatisfied 
his curiofity in looking at the cattle, and other novelties 
which he met with upon deck, I defired him to walk down 
into the cabin. To this, fome of his attendants objeded, 
faying, that, if he were to accept of that invitation, it muft 
happen, that people would walk over his head ; which could 
not be permitted. I directed my interpreter Omai, to tell 
them, that I would obviate their objeflion, by giving orders, 
that no one fhould prefume to walk upon that part of the 
deck which was over the cabin. Whether this expedient 
would have fatisfied them, was far from appearing ; but the 
Chief himfelf, lefs fcrupulous, in this refpedl, than his at- 
tendants, waved all ceremony, and walked down without 
any ftipulation. He now appeared to be as folicitous him- 
felf, as his people were, to convince us that he was king, 
and not Feenou, who had pafled with us as fuch. For he 
foon perceived, that we had fome doubt? about it ; which 
doubts Omai was not very defirous of removing. The 
clofeft conne<ftion had been formed between him and Fee- 
nou, in tellimony of which, they had exchanged names ; 
and, therefore, he was not a little chagrined, that another 
perfon now put in his claim to the honours which his 
friend had hitherto enjoyed. 

Poulaho fat down with us to dinner; but he eat little, and 
drank lefs. When we rofe from the table, he defired me to 
accompany him afhore. Omai was aflced to be of the party ; 
but he was too faithfully attached to Feenou, to fhew any 
attention to his competitor; and, therefore, excufed him- 

Vol. I. Mm felf. 


'777- felf. I attended the Chief in my own boat, having firfl 


made prefents to him, of fuch articles as, I could obferve, 
he valued much, and were even beyond his expectation to 
receive. I was not difappointed in my view of thus fecur- 
ing his friendfhip ; for the moment the boat reached the 
beach, and, before he quitted her, he ordered two more 
hogs to be brought, and delivered to my people to be con- 
veyed on board. He was then carried out of the boat, by 
fome of his own people, upon a board refembling a hand- 
barrow, and went and feated himfelf in a fmall houfe near 
the fhore ; which feemed to have been ere(5ted there for his 
accommodation. He placed me at his fide; and his attend- 
ants, who were not numerous, feated themfelves in a femi- 
circle before us, on the outfide of the houfe. Behind the 
Chief, or rather on one fide, fat an old woman, v/ith a fort 
of fan in her hand, whofe ofEce it was to prevent his being 
peftered with the flies. 

The feveral articles which his people had got, by trading 
on board the fliips, were now difplayed before him. He 
looked over them all, with attention, inquired what they 
had given in exchange, and feemed pleafed with the bar- 
gains they had made. At length, he ordered every thing to 
be reftored to the refpedtive owners, except a glafs bowl, 
with which he was fo much pleafed, that he referved it for 
himfelf. The perfons who brought thefe things to him, 
firll fquatted themfelves down before him, then they depo- 
fited their feveral purchafes, and immediately rofe up and 
retired. The fame refpedful ceremony was obferved in 
taking them away ; and not one of them prefumed to fpeak 
to him {landing. I flayed till feveral of his attendants lefc 
him, firfl paying him obeifance, by bowing the head down 
to the fole of his foot, and touching or tapping the fame,, 
^ wiili 


with the upper and under fide of the fingers of both hands. '777- 
Others, who were not in the circle, came, as it feemed, on l^-^'^. 
purpofe, and paid him this mark of refpefl, and then re- 
tired, without fpeaking a word. I was quite charmed with 
the decorum that was obferved. I had, no where, feen-the 
like, not even amongfl: more civilized nations. 

I found the mafter returned from his expedition, when I 
got on board. He informed me, that, as far as he had pro- 
ceeded, there was anchorage, and a pafTage for the fhips ; 
but that, toward the South and South Eaft, he faw a num- 
ber of fmall iiles, flioals, and breakers. Judging, from this 
report, that my attempting a pafTage that way would be at- 
tended with fome rifk, I now dropped all thoughts of it ; 
thinking it better to return toward Annamooka by the 
fame route, which we had fo lately experienced to be a 
fafe one. 

Having come to this refolution, I fhould have failed next wednef. 28. 
morning, if the wind had not been too far Southerly, and, 
at the fame time, very unfettled. Poulaho, the king, as I 
ihall now call him, came on board betimes ; and brought, 
as a prefent to me, one of their caps, made, or, at leaft, 
covered, with red feathers. Thefe caps were much foughc 
after by us ; for we knew they would be highly valued at 
Otaheite. Bur, though very large prices were offered, not one 
was ever brought for fale ; which fliewed, that they were no * 

lefs valuable in the eflimation of the people here ; nor was 
there a perfon in either fliip, that could make himfelf the 
proprietor of one, except myfelf. Captain Gierke, and Omai. 
Thefe caps, or rather bonnets, are compofed of the tail fea- 
thers of the Tropic bird, with the red feathers of the parro- 
quets wrought upon them, or jointly with them. They are 

M m 2 made 


m7* ^^^^ ^o as to tie upon the forehead without any crown, and 

,1 ^ — ; have the form of a femicircle, whofe ra^iius is eighteen or 

twenty inches. But a drawing which Mr. Webber has made 
of Poulaho, drcffed in one of thefe bonnets, will convey 
the bell idea of them. The Chief flayed on board till the 
evening, when he left us ; but his brother, whofe name was 
alfo Futtafaihe, and one or two, or more, of his attendants, 
continued in the fliip all night. 

Thurfdayz^. At day-break, the next morning, I weighed with a fine 
breeze, at Eaft North Eaft, and flood to the Weftward, 
with a view to return to Annamooka, by the track we 
had already experienced. We were followed by feveral 
failing canoes, in one of which was the king. As foon 
as he got on board the Refolution, he inquired for his 
brother, and the others who had remained with us all 
night. It now appeared, that they had flayed without 
his leave ; for he gave them, in a very few words, fuch 
a reprimand as brought tears from their eyes ; and 
yet they were men not lefs than thirty years of age. He 
was, however, foon reconciled to their making a longer 
flay ; for, on quitting us, he left his brother, and five of 
his attendants, on board. We had alfo the company of a 
Chief, jufl: then arrived from Tongataboo, whofe name was 
Tooboueitoa. The moment he arrived, he fent his canoe 
away, ^n^* declared, that he and five more, who came with 
him, would lleep on board; fo that Ihad now my cabin 
filled with vifiters. This, indeed, was fome inconvenience ; 
but I bore with it more willingly, as they brought plenty of 
provifions with them, as prefents to me ; for wliich they 
always had fuitable returns. 

"•""""- About 


About one o'clock in the afternoon, the Eafterly wind was ^m- 


fucceeded by a frem breeze at South South Eaft. Our courfe, < . ' 

now being South South Weft, or more Southerly, we were 
obliged to ply to windward, and did but juft fetch the North 
Side of Footooha by eight o'clock, where we fpent the 
night, making Ihort boards. 

The next morning, we plyed up to Lofanga, where, 
according to the information of our friends, there was an- 
chorage. It was one o'clock, in the afternoon, before we 
got foundings, under the lee or North Weft fide, in forty 
fathoms water, near half a mile from the fliore ; but the 
bank was fteep, and the bottom rocky, and a chain of 
breakers lay to leeward. All thefe circumftances being 
againft us, I ftretched away for Kotoo, with the expedation 
of finding better anchoring ground under that ifland. But 
fo much time had been fpent in plying up to Lofanga, 
that it was dark before we reached the other ; and, finding 
no place to anchor in, the night was fpent as the preced- 
ing one. 

At day- break, on the 31ft, I ftood for the channel which Saturday 31. 
is between Kotoo, and the reef of rocks that lie to the 
Weftward of it ; but, on drawing near, I found the wind 
too fcant to lead us through. I, therefore, bore up on the 
outfide of the reef, and ftretched to the South Weft, till near 
noon, when, perceiving that we made no progrefs to wind- 
ward, and being apprehenfive of lofmg the iflands, with fo 
many of the natives on board, I tacked and ftood back, in- 
tending to wait till fome more favourable opportunity. We 
did but juft fetch in with Footooha, between which and 
Kotoo we fpent the night, under reefed topfails and forefail. 
The wind blew frefli, and by fqualls, with rain ; and we 




1777- were not without apprehenfions of danger. I kept the deck 


till midnight, when I left it to the Mailer, with fuch direc- 
tions as, I thought, would keep the fhips clear of the fhoals 
and rocks, that lay round us. But, after making a trip to 
the North, and Handing back again to the South, our fliip, 
by a fmall fhift of the wind, fetched farther to the wind- 
ward than was expedled. By this means flie was very near 
running full upon a low fandy ifle, called Pootoo Pootooa* 
furrounded with breakers. It happened, very fortunately, 
that the people had juft been ordered upon the deck, to put 
the fhip about, and the mofl of them were at their llations ; 
fo that the necelTary movements were not only executed with 
judgment, but alfo with alertnefs ; and this alone faved us 
from deftrui^ion. The Difcovery being aftern, was out of 
danger. Such hazardous iituations are the unavoidable 
companions of the man, who goes upon a voyage of 

This circumftance frightened our pafTengers fo much, 
that they exprdfTed a flrong defire to get afhore. Accord- 
June, ingly, as foon as day-light returned, I hoifted out a boar, 
and ordered the Officer who commanded her, after landing 
them at Kotoo, to found along the reef that fpits off from 
that iiland, for anchorage. For I was full as much tired as 
they could be, with beating about amongft the furrounding 
ifles and flioals, and determined to get to an anchor, fome- 
where or other, if poflible. While the boat was abfent, we 
attempted to turn the fliips through the channel, between 
the fandy ifle and the reef of Kotoo, in expe(5tation of find- 
ing a moderate depth of water behind them to anchor in. 
But, meeting with a tide or current againft us, we were 
obliged to defift, and anchor in fifty fathoms water, with the 

fandy ifie bearing Eaft by North, one mile diftant. 


Sunday I 



We lay here till the 4th. While in this ftation we 1777* 
were, feveral times, vifited by the king, by Tooboueitoa, ^ ,' ^ 
and by people from the neighbouring iflands, who came 
off to trade with us, though the wind blew very frefli 
moft of the time. The raafler was now fent to found the 
channels bet'A'een the iflands that lie to the Eaftward ; and 
I landed on Kotoo, to examine it, in the forenoon of 
the 2d. ^'"^'^ ^ 

This ifland is fcarcely acceffible by boats, on account of 
coral reefs that furround it. It is not more than a mile 
and half, or two miles, long; and not fo broad. The North 
Weft end of it is low, like the iflands of Hapaee ; but it rifcs 
fuddenly in the middle, and terminates in reddifh clayey 
cliffs, at the South Eaft end, about thirty feet high. The 
foil, in that quarter, is of the fame fort as in the clifls; but, 
in the other parts, it is a loofe, black mould. It produces 
the fame fruits and roots which we found at the other 
iflands ; is tolerably cultivated, but thinly inhabited. While 
I was walking all over it, our people were employed in 
cutting fome grafs for the cattle; and we planted fome 
melon feeds, with which the natives feemed much pleafed, 
and inclofed them with branches. On our return to the boat, 
we paffed by two or three ponds of dirty vv'ater, which was 
more or lefs brackifh in each of them ; and faw one of their 
burying-places, which was much neater than thofe that 
were met with at Hapaee. 

On the 4th, at feven in the morning, v/e weighed ; and, Wedner.4. 
with a frefh gale at Eaft South Eaft, flood away for Anna- 
mooka, where we anchored, next morning, nearly in the ThurfJays?' 
fame ftation which we had fo lately occupied. 

I went 



1777- I went on fliore foon after, and found the inhabitants 


w — ^— » very bufy in their plantations, digging up yams to bring to 
market -, and, in the courfe of the day, about two hundred 
of them had affembled on the beach, and traded with as 
much eagernefs, as during our late vifit. Their flock ap- 
peared to have been recruited much, though we had re- 
turned fo foon ; but, inftead of bread-fruit, which was the 
only article we could purchafe on our firft arrival, nothing 
was to be feen now but yams, and a few plantains. This 
Ihews the quick fucceffion of the feafons, at leafl of the dif- 
ferent vegetables produced here, at the feveral times of the 
year. It appeared alfo that they had been very bufy, while 
we v/ere abfent, in cultivating; for we now faw feveral large 
plantain fields, in places which we had, fo lately, feen lying 
wafle. The yams were now in the greatefl perfecflion ; and 
we procured a good quantity, in exchanges for pieces of 

Thefe people, in the abfence of Toobou, whom we left 
behind us at Kotoo, with Poulaho and the other Chiefs, 
feemed to be under little fubordination. For we could not 
perceive, this day, that one man afTumed more authority 
than another. Before I returned on board, I vifited the 
feveral places where I had fown melon feeds, and had the 
mortificatron to find, that mofl of them were deflroyed by 
a fmall ant; but fome pine-apple plants, which I had alfo 
left, were in a thriving ftate. 

I'riday 6. About uoon, ncxt day, Feenou arrived from Vavaoo. He 
told us, that feveral canoes, laden with hogs, and other 
provilions, which had failed with him from that ifland, had 
been loft, owing to the late blowing weather ; and that every 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 273 

body on board them had periflied. This melanchoh'- tale 1777- 

•' fune, 

did not feem to affecT; any of his countrymen who heard it ; ' — -v — -* 
and, as to ourfelves, we were, by this time, too well ac- 
quainted with his character, to give much credit to fuch a 
flory. The truth, probably, was, that he had not been able 
to procure at Vavaoo the fupplies which he expected ; or, if 
he got any there, that he had left them at Hapaee, which 
lay in his way back, and w^here he could not but receive 
intelligence that Poulaho had been with us; who, therefore, 
he knew, would, as his fuperior, have all the merit and 
reward of procuring them, though he had not any fliare of 
the trouble. The invention of this lofs at Tea was, however, 
well imagined. For there had lately been very blowing 
weather ; in fo much, that the King, and other Chiefs, who 
had followed us from Hapaee to Kotoo, had been left there, 
not caring to venture to fea when we did ; but defu'cd I 
might wait for them at Annamooka, which was the reafon 
of my anchoring there, this fecond time, and of my not pro- 
ceeding diredly to Tongataboo. 

The following morning, Poulaho, and the other Chiefs Saturday;. 
who had been wind-bound v/ith him, arrived. I happened, 
at this time, to be afliore in company with Feenou ; who 
now feemed to be fenfiblc of the impropriety of his con- 
dud;, in aflliming a charader that did not belong to him. 
For he not only acknowledged Poulaho to be King of Ton- 
gataboo, and the other ifles ; but afTeded to infill: much 
on it, which, no doubt, was with a view to make amends 
for his former prefumption. I left him, to vifit this greater 
man, whom I foimd fitting with a few people before him. 
But, every one haftening to pay court to him, the circle in- 
creafed pretty faft. I was very defirous of obferving Feenou's 
behaviour on this occafion ; and had the mod convincing 

Vol. I. N n . proof 



1777. proof of his fuperiorky ; for he placed himfelf amongft the 
w-J^^)^l-j lefl; that fat before Poulaho, as attendants on his majefty. 
He feemed, at firft, rather abaflicd ; as fome of us were 
prefent who had been ufed to fee him acl a different part ^ 
but he foon recovered himfelf. Some Httle converfation 
paffed between thefe two Chiefs, which none of us under- 
Ilood ; nor were we fatisfied with Omai's incerpretation of 
it. We were, however, by tjiis time, fufficiently unde- 
ceived as to Feenou^s rank. Both he and Pouiaho went on 
board with me to dinner; but only the latter fat at table. 
Feenou, having made his obeifance, in the ufual way, fa- 
luting his fovereign's foot with his head and hands, re- 
tired out of the cabin *. The king had before told us, that 
this would happen ; and it now appeared, that Feenou could 
not even eat nor drink in his royal pre fence. 

Sunday s. At eight o'clock, ncst morning, v/e weighed and fleered 

for Tongataboo, having a gentle breeze at North Eaft. About 
fourteen or fifteen failing veilels, belonging to the natives^ 
fet out with us ; but every one of them outrun the fhips 
■ confiderably. Feenou was to have taken his pafTage in tlie 
Refolution ; but preferred his ov^rn canoe; and put two men on 

* Marks of profound refpeft, very fimihr to thofe paid by natives of the Friendly 
Iflands to their fovereign, are alib paid to the principal Chiefs, or Tamoles of the Ca^ 
roline Iflands, as appears from father Cantova's account here tranfcribed. " Lorf- 
'^ qu'un Tamole donne audience, il paroit affis fur une table eleve'e : les peuples s'in- 
" clinent devantlui jufqu'a terre ; h du plus loin qu'ils arrivent, ils marchent le 
" corps tout courbe, & la tete prefqu'entre les genoux, jufqu'a ce qu'ils foient au-v 
^ . « pres de fa perfonne ; alors ils s'affeyent a plate terre ; &, les yeux baifies, ils re- 

« f oivent fes ordres avec le plus profond refpe£l. Qiiand le Tamole les congedie, ils. 
*' fe retirent, en fe courbant de la meme maniere que quand ils font venus, & ne fe 
<• relevent que lorfqu'ils font hors de fa prefence. Ses pnroles font autant d'on'.cles 
" qu'on revere; on rend a fes ordres une obcifTance aveugle ; enfin, on baife les 
" mains & Ics piedoj quand on lui demande quelque grace." 

Lcttres Mifianiis ^ Curieufes, Tom. xv. p. 312, 313. 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 275 

board, to conduct: tis to the befc anchoraee. We fleered »77;- 


South by Weft by compafs. > "—,.-. ^ 

At five in the afternoon we faw two fmall iflands, bearing 
Weft, about four leagues diftant. Our pilots called the one 
Hoonga Hapaee, and the other Hoonga Tonga. They lie 
in the latitude of 20* 36' ; and ten or eleven leagues from 
the Weft point of Annamooka, in the diredion of South, 
46' Weft. According to the account of the iflanders on 
board, only five men refide upon Hoonga Hapaee ; and 
Hoonga Tonga is uninhabited ; but both of them abound 
with fea-fowl. 

We continued the fame courfe till two o'clock next morn- Monday g^- 
ing, when, feeing fome lights ahead, and not knowing whe- 
ther they were on fhore, or on board the canoes, we hauled 
the wind, and made a fhort trip, each way, till day-break. 
We then refumed our courfe to the South by Weft ; and, 
prefently after, faw feveral fmall iflands before us, and 
Eooa and Tongataboo beyond them. We had, at this 
time, twenty-five fathoms water, over a bottom of broken 
coral and fand. The depth gradually decreafed as we drew 
near the ifles above mentioned, which lie ranged along the 
North Eaft fide of Tongataboo. By the direction of our pilots 
we fteered for the middle of it, and for the wideft fpace be- 
tween the fmall ifles which we were to pafs ; having our 
boats ahead, employed in founding. We were, infenfibly, 
drawn upon a large flat, upon which lay innumerable coral 
rocks, of different depths, below the furface of the water. 
Notwithtlanding all our care and atteniion to keep the fhip 
clear of them, we could not prevent her from ftriking on 
one of thefe rocks. Nor did the Difcovery, though behind 
us, efcape any better. Fortunately, neither of the fhips ftuck 

N n 2 faft, 

j,76 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777' faft, nor received any damage. We could not get back with- 

f unc. 

s_ -.— ' out increafing the danger, as we had come in almoft before 
the ^vind. Nor could we call anchor, but with the certainty 
of having our cables inftantly cut in twa by the rocks. We 
had no other refource but to proceed. To this, indeed, we 
were encouraged, not only by being told, but by feeing, 
that there was deeper water between us and the fliore- 
However, that we might be better informed, the moment 
we found a fpot where we could drop the anchor, clear of 
rocks, we came to; and fent the Mailers, with the boats, to 

Soon after we had anchored, which was abcut noon, fe- 
veral of the inhabitants of Tongataboo came off in their 
canoes to the (hips. Thefe, as well as our pilots, afTured 
us, that we fliould find deep water farther in, and a bottom 
free from rocks. They were not miflaken ; for, about four 
o'clock, the boats made the fignal for having found good 
anchorage. Upon this we weighed, and Hood in till dark, 
and then anchored in nine fathoms, having a fine, clear, 
fandy bottom. 

During the night we had fome fliowers of rain ; but to- 
ward the morning, the wind fliifted to the South, and South 
Tucfday lo. Eaft, and brought on fair weather. At day- break v/e weigh- 
ed, and, working in to the fhore, met with no obftrudions, 
but fuch as were vifibie, and eafily avoided. 

While we were plying up to the harbour, to which the 
natives dire(5ted us, the king kept failing round us in 
his canoe. There were, at the fame time, a great many 
fmall canoes about the fliips. Two of thefe, which could 
not get out of the way of his royal veflel, he run quite 
over, v/ith as little concern, as if they had been bits of 



T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 277 

wood. Amongfl many others who came on board the Re- '777. 


folution, was Otago *, who had been fo ufeful to me when ' <' ' 

I vificed Tongataboo during my laft voyage ; and one Too- 
bou, who, at that time, had attached himfell:' to Captain 
Furneaux. Each of them brought a hog, and fome yams, 
as a teftimony of his friendfhip ; and I was not wanting, on 
my part, in making a fuitable return. 

At length, about two in the afternoon, we arrived at our 
intended llation. It was a very fnug place, formed by the 
ihore of Tongataboo on the. South Eaft, and two fmall 
iflands on the Eail and North Eaft. Here we anchored in ten 
fathoms water, over a bottom of oozy fand ; diftant from 
the fhore one-third of a mile. 

* See a print of him in Captain Cook's Voyage, Vol. i. p. 197. 



c r-i A P. Vlf. 

Ft'kndly Reception at 'Tongatahoo. — Manner of dijlribut- 
in^ a baked H07 and Kava to Poidahd s Attejidants, — 
The Obfcrvatory, ^c, ereSied. — The Village where the 
Chiefs refidx^ and the adjoining Cowitry^ defcrihed, — 
hitervieivs with Mareewagee^ and Toobou^ and the Kings 
Son. — A grand Haiva^ or Entertain??ie?it of Songs 
and Dances, given by Mareewagee. — Exhibition of Fire- 
works. — Manner of Wreflling and Boxing, — Diflribu- 
tioft of the Cattle. — Thefts committed by the Natives. — 
Fotdahoy a?td the other Chiefs-) confined on that Account,, 
— Poidaho s Prefenty and Haiva. 

,,77. ^OON after we had anchored, having firfl: dined, I 
i_. ""—,.. I ^ landed, accompanied by Oraai, and Ibme of the Of- 
Tuefday lo. ^j^^j-g '^yg found the king waiting for us upon the beach. 
He, immediately, conducfted us to a fmall neat houfe, fitu- 
ated a little within the fkirts of the woods, with a fine large 
area before it. This houfe, he told me, was at my fervice, 
during our ftay at the iiland ; and a better fituation we coiild 
not wifli for. 

We had not been long in the houfe, before a pretty large 
circle of the natives were afTembled before us, and feated 
upon the area. A root of the kava plant being brought, and 
laid down before the king, he ordered it to be fplit into pieces, 
and diftributed to feveral people of both fexes, who began 



the operation of chcwin? it; and a bowl of their favourite '777- 


liquor was foon prepared. In the mean time, a baked hog, 
and two bafkets of baked yams, were produced, and after- 
ward divided into ten portions. Thefe portions were then 
given to certain people prefent ; but how many were to 
fliare in each, I could not tell. One of them, I obferved, 
was beftowed upon the king's brother ; and one remained 
undifpofed of, which, I judged, was for the king himfelf, 
as it was a choice bit. The liquor was next ferved out ; but 
Poulaho feemed to give no dire(5lions about it. The firft 
cup was brought to him, which he ordered to be given to 
one who fat near him. The fecond was alfo brought to 
him, and this he kept. The third was given to me ; but 
their manner of brewing having quenched my thirfl, it be- 
came Omai's property. The reft of the liquor was diftri- 
buted to different people, by direftion of the man who had 
the management of it. One of the cups being carried to 
the king's brother, he retired with this, and with his mefs 
of vi(51:uals. Some others alfo quitted the circle with their 
portions; and the reafon was, they could neither eat nor 
drink in the royal prefence -, but there were others prefent, 
of a much inferior rank, of both fexes, who did both. Soon 
after, moft of them witiidrew, carrying with them what 
they had not eat of their fhare of the feaft. 

I obferved, that not a fourth part of the company had 
tailed either the victuals or the drink j thofe who partook of 
the former, I fuppoJed to be of the king's houfehold. The 
fervants, who diitributed the baked meat, and the kavn, al- 
ways delivered it out of their hand fitting, not only to the 
king, but to every other perfon. It is worthy of remark, 
though this was the firft time of our landing, and a great 
many people were prefent who had never feen us before, 
8 yet. 


1777' yet no one was troublefome ; but the greatefl: good order 
w— v~— ' was preferved, throughout the whole affembly. 

Before I returned on board, I went in fearcli of a water- 
ing place, and was condu6led to fome ponds, or rather holes, 
containing frefh water, as they were pleafed to call it. The 
contents of one of thefe, indeed, were tolerable ; but it was 
at fome diflance inland, and the fupply to be got from it 
was very inconfiderable. Being informed, that the little 
ifland of Pangimodoo, near which the fliips lay, could 
better furnifli this necefTary article, I went over to it, next 
Wednef. ii. morning, and was fo fortunate as to find there a fmall pool, 
that had rather freflier water, than any we had met with 
amongfl thefe iflands. The pool being very dirty, I or- 
dered it to be cleaned j and here it was that we watered 
the lliips. 

As I intended to make fome flay at Tongataboo, we 
pitched a tent, in the forenoon, jufl by the houfe which 
Poulaho had affigned for our ufe. The horfes, cattle, and 
(heep, were afterward landed, and a party of marines, 
with their Officer, Rationed there as a guard. The obferva- 
tory was then fet up, at a fmall diftance from the other tent; 
and Mr. King refided on fhore, to attend the obfervations, 
and to fuperintend the feveral operations neceiliu-y to be 
condutfled there. For the fails were carried thither, to be 
repaired ; a party was employed in cutting wood for fuel, 
arid plank for the ufe of the fliips ; and the gunners of 
both, were ordered to remain upon the fpot, to conduil the 
traffic with the natives, who thronged from every part of 
the illand, with hogs, yams, cocoa-nuts, and other articles 
of their produce. Jn a fliort time, our land pofl was like a 
fair, and the fliips were fo crowded with vifiters, that we 
had hardly room to flir upon the decks. 



Feenou had taken up his refidence in our neighbourhood ; i"77- 
but he was no longer the leading man. However, we ftill v_— ^ — ^ 
found him to be a perfon of confequencc, and we had daily- 
proofs of his opulence and liberality, by the continuance of 
his valuable prefents. But the king was equally attentive 
in this refpect ; for fcarcely a day palT'ed, without receiving 
from him fome confiderable donation. We now heard, that 
there were other great men of the ifland, whom we had 
not, as yet, feen. Otago and Toobou, in particular, men- 
tioned a perfon named Mareewagee, who, they faid, was 
of the firft confequence in the place, and held in great vene- 
ration ; nay, if Omai did not mifunderftand them, fuperior 
even to Poulaho, to whom he was related ; but, being old, 
lived in retirement; and, therefore, would not vifit us. 
Some of the natives even hinted, that he was too great a 
man to confer that honour upon us. This account exciting 
my curiofity, I, this day, mentioned to Poulaho, that I was 
very defirous of waiting upon Mareewagee ; and he readily 
agreed to accompany me, to the place of his refidence, the 
next morning. 

Accordingly, we fet out, pretty early, in the pinnace; Thurfdayiz. 
and Captain Gierke joined me in one of his own boats. 
We proceeded round, that is, to the Eaftward of the little ifles 
that form the harbour, and then, turning to the South, ac- 
cording to Poulaho's direcfkions, entered a fpacious bay or 
inlet, up which we rowed about a league, and landed amidft 
a confiderable number of people, who received us with a 
fort of acclamation, not unlike our huzzaing. They im- 
mediately feparated, to let Poulaho pafs, who took us into a 
fmall inclofure, and fliifted the piece of cloth he wore, for 
a new piece, neatly folded, that was carried by a young 
man. An old woman affifted in dreffing him, and put a 

Vol. I. O o mat 


«777- mat over his cloth ; as we fuppofed, to prevent its being 


' w ' dirtied when he fat down. On our now aflcing him where 

Mareewagee was, to our great furprize, he faid, he had 
gone from the place, to the fliip, juft before we arrived. 
However, he defired us to walk with him to a malaee, or 
houfe of public refort, which ftood about half a mile up 
the country. But when we came to a large area before it, 
he fat down in the path, and defired us to walk up to the 
houfe. We did fo, and feated ourfelves in front, while the 
crowd that followed us filled up the reft of the fpace. After 
fitting a little while, we repeated our inquiries, by means of 
Omai, Whether we were to fee Mareewagee ? But receiving 
no fatisfadlory information, and fufpedling that the old 
Chief was purpofely concealed from us, we went back to 
our boats, much piqued at our difappointment ; and when 
I got on board, I found that no fuch perfon had been there. 
It afterward appeared, that, in this affair, we had laboured 
under fome grofs miftakes, and that our interpreter Omai 
had either been mifmformed, or, which is more likely, had 
mifundcrftood what was told him about the great man, on 
whofe account we had made this excurfion. 

The place we "went to was a village, moft delightfully 
iituated on the bank of the inlet, \vhere all, or moft of the 
principal perfons of the ifland refide ; each having his houfe 
in the midft of a fmall plantation, with lefTer houfes, and 
offices for fervants. Thefe plantations are neatly fenced 
round ; and, for the moft part, have only one entrance. 
This is by a door, faftened, on the infidc, by a prop of wood j 
fo that a perfon has to knock, before he can get admittance. 
Public roads, and narrow lanes, lie between each planta- 
tion ; fo that no one trefpaffeth upon another. Great part of 
fome of thefe inclofures is laid out in grafs- plots, and 



planted with fuch thinq-s as feem more for ornament than '777- 

* '■^ June. 

tife. But hardly any were without the kava plant, from >— ,.— ^ 
which they make their favourite liquor. Every article of 
the vegetable produce of the iiland, abounded in others of 
thefe plantations ; but thefe, I obferved, are not the reli- 
dence of people of the firll rank. There are fome large 
houfes near the public roads, with fpacious fmooth grafs- 
plots before them, and uninclofcd. Thefe, I v/as told, be- 
longed to the king ; and, probably, they are the places 
where their public afTemblies are held. It was to one of 
thefe houfes, as I have already mentioned, that we were 
condu6ted, foon after our landing at this place. 

About noon, the next day, this Mareewagee, of whom Friday 13, 
we had heard fo much, actually came to the neighbour- 
hood of our poll on fliore ; and, with him, a very confide- 
rable number of people of all ranks. I was informed, that 
he had taken this trouble, on purpofe to give me an oppor- 
tunity of waiting upon him ; having, probably, heard of 
the difpleafure I had fliewn, on my difappointment the day 
before. In the afternoon, a party of us, accompanied by 
Feenou, landed, to pay him a vilir. We found a perfon fit- 
ting under a large tree, near the fliore, a little to the right 
of the tent. A piece of cloth, at lead forty yards long, was 
fpread before him, round which a great number of people, 
of both fexes, were feated. It was natural to fuppofc, that 
this was the great man ; but we were undeceived by Feenou ; 
who informed us, that another, who fat on a piece of mat, 
a little way from this Chief, to the right hand, was Maree- 
wagee, and he introduced us to him, who received us very 
kindly, and delired us to fit down by him. The perfon, who 
,fat under the tree, fronting us, was called Toobou ; and, 
when I have occafion to fpeak of him afterward, 1 fliall call 

O o 2 him 

284 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- him old Toobou, to diftineuifli him from his namcfake, 

June. " 

< — -v 1 Captain Furneaux's friend. Both he and Mareewagee had 

a venerable appearance. The latter is a flender man, and, 
from his appearance, feems to be confiderably above three- 
fcore years of age. The former is rather corpulent, and 
almoft blind with a diforder of his eyes ; though not fo old. 

Not expecting to meet with two Chiefs, on this occafion, I 
had only brought on fhore a prefent for one. This I now 
found myfelf under a neceffity of dividing between them ; 
but it happened to be pretty confiderable, and both of them 
feemed fatisfied. After this, we entertained them, for about 
an hour, with the performance of two French horns, and a 
drum. But they feemed moft pleafed with the firing ofT a 
piftol, which Captain Clerke had in his pocket. Before I 
took my leave, the large piece of cloth was rolled up, and, 
with a few cocoa-nuts, prefented to me. 

SiturJay 14. The ncxt moming, old Toobou returned my vifit on 
board the fliip. He alfo vifited Captain Clerke; and if the 
prefent we made to him, the evening before, was fcanty, 
the deficiency was now made up. During this time, Maree- 
wagee vifited our people afliore; and Mr, King Ihewed to 
him every thing we had there. He viewed the cattle with 
great. admiration j and the crofs-cut faw fixed his attention 
for fome time. 

Toward noon, Poulaho returned from the place where 
we had left him two days before, and brought with him his 
fon, a youth about twelve years of age, I had his company 
at dinner ; but the fon, though prefent, was not allowed to 
fit down with him. It was very convenient to have him for 
my gueft. For when he was prefent, which was generally 
the cafe while we flayed here, every other native was 



excluded from the table; and but few of them would re- '777' 


main in the cabin. Whereas, if, by chance, it happened, ' r—~J 

that neither he nor Feenou were on board, the inferior 
Chiefs would be very importunate to be of our dining party, 
or to be admitted into the cabin at that time ; and then we 
were fo crowded, that we could not fit down to a meal with 
any fatisfadlion. The king was very foon reconciled to our 
manner of cookery. But Hill, I believe, he dined thus fre- 
quently with me, more for the fake of what we gave him 
to drink, than for what we fet before him to eat. For he 
had taken a liking to our wine, could empty his bottle as 
well as moft men, and was as cheerful over it. He now 
fixed his refidence at the houfe, or Malaee, by our tent ; and 
there he entertained our people, this evening, with a dance. 
To the furprife of every body, the unwieldy Poulaho en- 
deavoured to vie with others, in that aftive amufement. 

In the morning of the 15th, I received a mefTage from Sunday jj. 
Old Toobou, that he wanted to fee me afliore. Accordingly 
Oraai and I went to wait upon him. We found him, like 
an ancient patriarch, feated under the fliade of a tree, with a 
large piece of the cloth, made in the ifland, fpread out at full 
length before him ; and a number of refpedtably looking 
people fitting round it. He defired us to place ourfelves by 
him ; and then he told Omai, that the cloth, together with 
a piece of red feathers, and about a dozen cocoa-nuts, were 
his prefent to me. I thanked him for the favour; and de- 
fired he would go on board with me, as I had noihing on 
fhore to give him in return. 

Omai now left me, being fent for by Poulaho ; and, foon 
after, Feenou came, and acquainted me that young Fatta- 
faihe, Poulaho's Ton, defired to fee me. I obeyed the fum- 
mons, and found the prince, and Omai, fitting under a 



'777. Iar2;e canopy of the finer fort of cloth ; with a piece of the 

June. CD I J 1 

' K ' coarfer fort, fpread under them and before them, that was 

feventy-fix yards long, and feven and a half broad. On one 
fide was a large old boar ; and on the odier fide a heap of 
cocoa-nuts. A number of people were feated round the 
cloth ; and, amongft them, I obferved Mareewagee, and 
others of the firil rank. I was defned to fit down by the 
prince ; and then Omai informed me, that he had been 
inflrudfed by the king to tell me, that, as he and I were 
friends, he hoped that his fon might be joined in this 
friendfliip ; and that, as a token of my confent, I would 
accept of his prefent. I very readily agreed to the propofal ; 
and, it being now dinner-time, I invited them all on 

Accordingly, the young prince, Mareewagee, old Toobou, 
three or four inferior Chiefs, and two refpe(rtable old ladies 
of the firfl rank, accompanied me. Mareewagee was drefied 
in a new piece of cloth, on the flcirts of which were fixed 
fix pretty large patches of red feathers. This drefs feemed 
to have been made, on purpofe, for this vifit ; for, as foon 
as he got on board, he put it off, and prefented it to me; 
having, I guefs, heard that it would be acceptable, on account 
of the feathers. Every one of my vifiters received from me 
fuch prefents, as, I had reafon to believe, they were highly 
fatisfied with. When dinner came upon table, not one of 
them would fit down, or eat a bit of any thing that was 
ferved up. On expreffingmy furprife at this, they were all 
taboo, as they faid ; which word has a very comprehenfive 
meaning; but, in general, fignifies that a thing is forbidden. 
Why they were laid under fuch reftraints, at prefent, was not 
explained. Dinner being over, and, having gratified their 
curiofity, by fhewing to them every part of the fhip, I then 
conducflcd them afliore. 

3 As 


As foon as the boat reached the beach, Feenou, and '777' 

J ""sv 

fome others, inftantly ftepped out. Young Fattafaihe fol- 
lowing them, was called back by Mareewagee, wlio now 
paid the heir apparent the fame obeifance, and in the 
lame manner, that I had feen it paid to the king. And 
when old Toubou, and one of the old ladies, had fliewn 
him the fame marks of refpedt, he was fufFercd to land. 
This ceremony being over, the old people fiepped from my 
boat, into a canoe, that was waiting to carry them to their 
place of abode. 

I was not lorry to be prefent on this occafion, as I was 
thus furniihed with the moft unequivocal proofs of the fu- 
preme dignity of Poulaho and his fon, over the other prin- 
cipal Chiefs. Indeed, by this titne, I had acquired fome 
certain information about tlie relative fituations of the fe- 
veral great n)en, whofe names have been fo often men- 
tioned. I now knew, that Mareewagee and old Toobou 
were brothers. Both of them were men of great property 
in the illand, and fcemed to be in high eftimation with the 
people; the former, in particular, had the very honourable 
appellation given to him, by every body, of Motooa Tonga; 
that is to fay, Father of Tonga, or of his Country. The 
nature of his relationfliip to the king was alfo no longer a 
fecret to us j for we now underftood, that he was his fa- 
ther-in-law ; Poulaho having married one of his daughters, 
by whom he had this fon ; fo that Mareewagee was the 
prince's grandfather. Foulaho's appearance having fatisfied 
us, that we had been under a miltake, in confidering Fee- 
nou as the fovereign of thefe iflands, we had been, at firft, 
much puzzled about his real rank ; but that was, by this 
time, afccrtaincd. Feenou was one of Mareewagee's fons; 
and Tooboueitoa was another. 



>777- On my landing, I found the king, in the houfe adjoining 

to our tent, along with our people who refided on fliore. 
The moment I got to him, he bellowed upon me a prefent 
of a large hog, and a quantity of yams. About the dulk 
of the evening, a number of men came, and, having fat 
down in a round group, began to ling in concert with 
the mulic of bamboo drums, which were placed in the 
centre*. There were three long ones, and two thort. With 
thefe they flruck the ground endwife, as before defcribed. 
There were two others, which lay on the ground, fide by 
fide, and one of them was fpHt or fhivered ; on thefe a man 
kept beating with two fmall flicks. They fung three fongs 
while I flayed ; and, I was told, that, after I left them, the 
entertainment lafled till ten o'clock. They burnt the leaves 
of the wharra palm for a light ; which is the only thing I 
ever faw them make ufe of for this purpofe. 

While I was pafling the day in attendance on thefe great 
men, Mr. Anderfon, with fome others, made an excurfion 
into the country, which furniflied him with the following 
remarks: " To the Weftward of the tent, the country is 
totally uncultivated for near two miles, though quite co- 
vered with trees and bufl:ies, in a natural flate, growing 
with the greateft vigour. Beyond this is a pretty large 
plain, on which are fome cocoa-trees, and a few fmall 
plantations that appear to have been lately made ; and, 
feemingly, on ground that has never been cultivated before. 
Near the creek, which runs to the Weftward of the tent, 
the land is quite flat, and partly overflowed by the. fea every 

* The fame fort of evening concert is performed round the houfe of the Chief, or 
Tamole., at the Caroline Iflawis. " Le Tamole ne s'endort qu'au bruit d'un concert 
*' de mufique que forme une troupe de jeunes gens, qui s'afTemblent le foir, autour de 
«' fa maifon, & qui chantent, a leur maniere, certaines poefies." Lettres Edifiantez 
fcf Curieufes, Tom. xv. p. 314. 



tide. "When that retires, the furface is fecn to be compofed ^m- 
of coral rock, with holes of yellowilh mud icattcred up and ■_ ,-._]» 
down ; and toward the edges, where it is a little firmer, are 
innumerable little openings, from which ilTue as many 
fmall crabs, of two or three different forts, which fwarm 
upon the fpot, as flies upon a carcafe; but are fo nimble, 
that, on being approached, they difappear in an inilant, and 
baiHe even the natives to catch any of them. 

At this place is a work of art, which fhews, that thefe people 
are capable of fome defign, and perfeverance, when they 
mean to accomplifh any thing. This work begins, on one fide, 
as a narrow caufeway, which, becoming gradually broader, 
rifes, with a gentle afcent, to the height of ten feet, where 
it is five paces broad, and the whole length feventy-four 
paces. Joined to this is a fort of circus, whofe diameter is 
thirty paces, and not above a foot or two higher than the 
caufeway that joins it, with fome trees planted in the 
middle. On the oppofice fide, another caufeway of the fame 
fort defcends ; but this is not above forty paces long, and 
is partly in ruin. The whole is built with large coral 
flones, with earth on the furface, which is quite overgrown 
with low trees and fhrubs ; and, from its decaying in feve- 
ral places, feems to be of no modern dare. Whatever may 
have been its ufe formerly, it feems to be of none now ; 
and all that we could learn of it from the natives was, that 
it belonged to Poulaho, and is called Etched'' 

On the i6th, in the morning, after vifiring the feveral Monday 16. 
works now carrying on afliore, Mr. Gore, and I, took a walk 
into the country ; in the courfe of which nothing remark- 
able appeared, but our having opportunities of feeing the 
whole procefs of making cloth, w4iich is the principal 

Vol. I. P p manufacture 

290 A V O Y A G E T O 

»777- manufacture of thefe iflands, as well as of many others in 


< ir— / this Ocean. In the narrative of my firil: Voyage *, a minute 

defcription is given of this operation, as performed at 
Otaheite ; but the procefs, here, differing in fome parti- 
cvilars, it may be worth while to give the follov>^ing ac- 
count of it: 

The raanufadlurers, who are females, take the flender 
ftalks or trunks of the paper-mulberry, which they cul- 
tivate for that purpofe ; and which feldom grows more 
than fix or feven feet in height, and about four fingers in 
thicknefs. From thefe they ftrip the bark, and fcrape off 
the outer rind with a mufcle-lhell. The bark is then rolled 
up to take off the convexity which it had round the ftalk, 
and macerated in water for fome time (they fay, a night). 
After this, it is laid acrofs the trunk of a fmall tree fquared, 
and beaten with a fquare wooden inftrument, about a foot 
long, full of coarfe grooves on all fides; but, fometimes, with 
one that is plain. According to the fize of the bark, a piece 
is foon produced -, but the operation is often repeated by an- 
other hand, or it is folded feveral times, and beat longer, 
which feems rather intended to clofe than to divide its 
texture. When this is fufficiently effedled, it is fpread out 
to dry ; the pieces being from four to fix, or more, feet in 
length, and half as broad. They are then given to another 
perfon, who joins the pieces, by fmearing part of them 
over with the vifcous juice of a berry, called tooo, which 
ferves as a glue. Having been thus lengthened, they arc 
laid over a large piece of wood, with a kind of ftamp, made 
of a fibrous fubftance pretty clofely interwoven, placed be- 
neath. They then take a bit of cloth, and dip it in a juice,, 

» Hawkefworth's Colkdion of Voyages, Vol. ii. p. 210. 




exprefTed from the bark of a tree, called kokhi, which they '777- 


rub brifkly upon the piece that is making. This, at once, 
leaves a dull brown colour, and a dry glofs upon its fur- 
face ; the ftamp, at the fame time, making a flight impref- 
fion, that anfwers no other purpofe that I could fee, but to 
make the feveral pieces, that are glued together, flick a 
little more firmly. In this manner they proceed, joining 
and ftaining by degrees, till they produce a piece of cloth, 
of fuch length and breadth as tliey want ; generally leav- 
ing a border, of a foot broad, at the fides, and longer at the 
ends, unflained. Throughout the whole, if any parts of 
the original pieces are too thin, or have holes, which is 
often the cafe, they glue fpare bits upon them, till they be- 
come of an equal thicknefs. When they want to produce a 
black colour, they mix the foot procured from an oily nut, 
called dooedooe, with the juice of the kokka, in different quan- 
tities, according to the propofed depth of the tinge. They 
fay, that the black fort of cloth, which is commonly mofl: 
glazed, makes a cold drefs, but the other a warm one; and, 
to obtain ftrength in both, they are always careful to join 
the fmall pieces lengthwife, which makes it impofTible to 
tear the cloth in any diredlion but one. 

On our return from the country, we met with Feenou, 
and took him, and another young Chief, on board to din- 
ner. When our fare was fet upon the table, neither of 
them would eat a bit ; faying, that they were taboo a%>y. 
But, after enquiring how the vidluals had been drcflcd, 
having found that no avy (water) had been ufed in cooking 
a pig and fome yams, they both fat down, and made a 
very hearty meal ; and, on being affured that there was no 
water in the wine, they drank of it alfo. From this we con- 
jecHiured, that, on fome account or another, they were, at 

P p 2 this 



1777- this time, forbidden to ufe water ; or, which was more pro- 

^— V • bable, they did not Hke the water we made ufe of, ir being 

taken up out of one of their bathing-places. This was not 
the only time of our meeting with people that were taboo 
a<vy ; but, for what reafon, we never could tell with any de- 
gree of certainty. 

TaefJay 17. Ncxt day, the 17th, was fixed upon by Mareewagee, for 
giving a grand Hai'ua, or entertainment ; to vs^hich we were 
all invited. For this purpofe a large fpace had been cleared, 
before the temporary hut of this Chief, near our poft, as 
an area where the performances were to be exhibited. In 
the morning, great mukitudes of the natives came in from 
the country, every one carrying a pole, about fix feet long,, 
upon his flioulder J and at each end of every pole, a yam 
was fufpended. Thefe yams and poles were depofited on 
each fide of the area, fo as to form two large heapSj deco- 
rated with dififerent forts of fmall fifh, and piled up to the 
greateft advantage. They were Mareewagee's prefent to 
Captain Gierke and me ; and it was hard to fay, whether the 
wood for fuel, or the yams for food, were of mofl value to- 
us. As for the fifh, they might ferve to pleafe the fight, 
but were very ofFenfive to the fmell ; part of them having 
been kept two or three days, to be prefented to us on this 

Every thing being thus prepared, about eleven o'clock; 
they began to exhibit various dances, which they call mai. 
The mufic * confified, at firft, of feventy men as a chorus, 
who fat down ; and amidil them were placed three inftru- 
ments, which we called drums, though very unlike them. 
They are large cylindrical pieces of wood, or trunks of 

* Mr. Anderfon's defcription of the entertainments of this day being much fuller- 
ihan Captain Cook's, it has been adopted as oa a former occafion. 




fi-ees, from three to four feet long, fome twice as thick as '777- 
an ordinary fized man, and fome fmaller, hollowed emirely 
out, but clofe at both ends, and open only by a chink, about 
three inches broad, running alniolt the whole length of the 
drums; by which opening, the reft of the wood is certainly 
hollowed, though the operation muft be difficult. This in- 
flrument is called 7inffa ; and, with the chink turned toward 
them, they fit and beat ftrongly upon it, with two cylindrical 
pieces of hard wood, about a foot long, and as thick as the 
wrift ; by which means they produce a rude, though loud and 
powerful found. They vary the ftrength and rate of their 
beating, at different parts of the dance ; and alfo change the 
tones, by beating in the middle, or near the end, of their drum. 

The firft dance confided of four ranks, of twenty-four 
men each, holding in their hands a little, thin, light, 
wooden inftrument, above two feet long, and, in fliape, 
not unlike a fmall oblong paddle. With thefe, which are 
called pcigge, they made a great many different motions; fuch 
as pointing them toward the ground on one fide, at the fame 
time inclining their bodies that way, from which they were 
fliifted to the oppofite fide in the fame manner ; then pafling 
them quickly from one hand to the other, and twirling 
them about very dextroufly ; with a variety of other ma- 
nceuvjes, all which were accompanied by correfponding at- 
titudes of the body. Their motions were, at firlt, flow, but 
quickened as the drums beat fafter; and they recited fen- 
lences, in a mufical tone, the whole time, which were an- 
fwered by the chorus ; but at the end of a fliort fpace they 
all joined, and finiflaed with a fhout; 

After ceafing about two or three minutes, they began as 
before, and continued, with fhort intervals, above a quarter 




1777' of an hour ; when the rear rank dividing, fliiftcd themfelves 


very flowly round each end, and, meeting m the front, 
formed the firft rank| the whole number continuing to re- 
cite the fentences as before. The other ranks did the fame 
fucceffively, till that which, at firft, was the front, became 
the rear ; and the evolution continued, in the fame manner, 
till the laft rank regained its firft fituation. They then 
began a much quicker dance (though flow at firft), and 
fung for about ten minutes, when the whole body divided 
into two parts, retreated a little, and then approached, 
forming a fort of circular figure, which finifhed the dance ; 
the drums being removed, and the chorus going off the 
field at the fame time. 

The fecond dance had only two drums, with forty men 
for a chorus ; and the dancers, or rather acftors, confifted of 
two ranks, the foremoft having feventeen, and the other fif- 
teen perfons. Feenou was at tb.eir head, or in the middle 
of the front rank, which is the principal place in thefe cafcs. 
They danced and recited fentences, with fome very fhort in- 
tervals, for about half an hour, fometimes quickly, fome- 
times more flowly, but with fuch a degree of exa'sftnefs, as 
if all the motions were made by one man, which did them 
great credit. Near the clofe, the back rank divided, came 
round, and took the place of the front, which again re- 
fumed its fituation, as in the firft dance ; and when they 
finifhed, the drums and chorus, as before, went off. 

Three drums (which, at leaft, took two, and fometimes 
three men to carry them) were now brought in ; and fe- 
venty men fat down as a chorus to the third dance. This 
confifted of two ranks, of fixteen perfons each, with young 
Toobou at their head, who was richly ornamented with a 



fort of garment covered with red feathers- Thefe danced, |777- 
fung, and twirled the pagge, as before ; but, in general, < — -v— ^ 
much quicker, and performed fo well, that they had the 
conftant applaufes of the fpedators. A motion that met 
with particular approbation, was one in which they held 
the face afide, as if afliamed, and the p^gge before it. The 
back, rank clofed before the front one, and that again re- 
fumed its place, as in the two former dances ; but then they 
began again, formed a triple row, divided, retreated to each 
end of the area, and left the greatell part of the ground 
clear. At that inftant, x.v>io men entered very haflily, and ex- 
crcifed the clubs which they ufe in battle. They did this, by 
firfl: twirling them in their hands, and making circular ftrokes 
before them with great force and quicknefs ; but fo flvilfully 
managed, that, though Handing quite clofe, they never in- 
terfered. They fhifted their clubs from hand to hand, 
with great dexterity; and,. after continuing a little time, 
kneeled, and made different motions, tolling the clubs up 
in the air, which they caught as they fell -, and then went 
off as haflily as they entered. Their heads were covered 
with pieces of v/hite cloth, tied at the crown (almofl like a 
night- cap) with a wreath of foliage round the forehead ; 
but they had only very fmall pieces of white cloth tied about 
their waifls ; probably, that they might be cool, and free 
from every incumbrance or weight. A perfon with a fpear, 
drefTed like the former, then came in, and in the fame hafly 
manner; looking about eagerly, as if in fearch of fomebody 
to throw it at. He then ran haftily to one fide of the crov,?d in 
the front, and put himfelf in a threatening attitude, as if he 
meant toflrike with his fpearatoneof them, bending the knee 
a little, and trembling, as it were with rage. He continued 
in this manner only a few feconds, when he moved to the 



'777- Other fide,' and having Hood in the fame pofture there, 
*— — « — •' for the fame fhort time, retreated from the ground, as faft 
as when he made his appearance. The dancers, who had di- 
vided into two parties, kept repeating fomething flowly all 
this while; and now advanced, and joined again, ending 
with univerfal applaufe. It fhould feem, that this dance was 
confidered as one of their capital performances, if we might 
judge from fome of the principal people being engaged in 
it. For one of the drums was beat by Futtafaihe, the bro- 
ther of Poulaho, another by Feenou, and the third, which 
did not belong to the chorus, by Mareewagee himfelf, at 
the entrance of his hut. 

The laft dance had forty men, and two drums, as a chorus. 
It confifted of fixty men, who had not danced before, dif- 
pofed in three rows, having twenty-four in front. But, be- 
fore they began, we were entertained with a, pretty long 
preliminary harangue, in which the whole body made re- 
fponfes to a iingle perfon who fpoke. They recited fen- 
tences (perhaps verfes) alternately with the chorus, and 
made many motions witli the pagge^ in a very brifk mode, 
which were all applauded with mareeal ! and fvfogge ! words 
expreffing two different degrees of praife. They divided 
into two bodies, with their backs to each other ; formed 
again, fliifted their ranks, as in the other dances; divided 
and retreated, making room for two champions, who ex- 
ercifed their clubs as before; and after them two others: 
the dancers, all the time, reciting flowly in turn with the 
chorus J after which they advanced, and finiflied. 

Thefe dances, if they can properly be called ^o, lafled 

from eleven till near three o'clock ; and though they were, 

doubtlefs, inten led, particularly, either in honour of us, 

or to fliew a fpecimen of their dexterity, vaft numbers of 

4 ^ their 


their own people attended as fpe(f(:ators. Their numbers '777* 
could not be computed exactly, on account of the inequality v,- — , — =» 
of the ground ; but, by reckoning the inner circle, and the 
number in depth, which was between twenty and thirty in 
many places, we fuppofed that there mufl be near four 
thoufand. At the fame time, there were round the trading 
place at the tent, and ftraggling about, at lead as many 
more; and fome of us computed, that, at this time, there , 
were not lefs than ten or twelve thoufand people, in our 
neighbourhood ; that is, within the compafs of a quarter 
of a mile ; drawn together, for the mod part, by mere 

It is with regret I mention, that we could not underftand 
what was fpoken, while we were able to fee what was aded, 
in thefe amufements. This, doubtlefs, would have afforded 
us much information, as to the genius and cuftoms of thefe 
people. It was obfervable, that, though the fpedlators al- 
ways approved of the various motions, when well made, a 
great ihare of the pleafure they received feemed to arife 
from the fentimental part, or what the performers delivered 
in their fpeeches. However, the mere acfling part, inde- 
pendently of the fentences repeated, was well worth our no- 
tice, both with refpe6l to the extenfive plan on which it was 
executed, and to the various motions, as well as the exadl 
unity, with which they were performed. The drawings 
which Mr. Webber made of the performances at Hapaee* 
and which are equally applicable to thofe exhibited now, 
will ferve much to illuflrate the account here given of the 
order in which the a(5lors range themfelves. But neither 
pencil nor pen can dcfcribe the numerous actions and 
motions, the fmgularity of which was not greater, than 

Vol. I. <^^q was 

298 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777. was the eafe and cracefulnefs with which they were 

June. *-' J '^ 


At night, we were entertained with the 6mnm', or night 
dances, on a fpace before Feenou's temporary habitation. 
They lalled about three hours ; in which time we had about 
twelve of them performed, much afrer the fame manner as 
thofe at Hapaee. But, in two^ that were performed by wo- 
men, a number of men came and formed a circle within 
their's. And, in another, confiding of twenty-four men^ 
there were a number of motions with the hands, that we 
had not feen before, and were highly applauded. The 
mufic was, alfo,. once changed, in the courfe of the night j 
and in one of the dances, Feenou appeared at the head of 
fifty men who had performed at Hapaee, and he was well 
drelTed with linen, a large piece of gauze, and fome little 
pictures hung round his neck. But it was evident, after 
the diverfions were clofed, that we had put thefe poor 
people, or rather that they had put themfelves, to much in- 
convenience. For being drawn together on this unin- 
habited part of their ifland, numbers of them were obliged 
to lie down and fleep under the bullies, by the fide of a tree, 
or of a canoe ; nay many either lay down in the open air, 
which they are not fond of, or walked about all the night. 

The whole of this entertainment was conducHied with far 
better order, than could have been expefted in fo large an 
aiTembly. Amongfl fuch a multitude, there muft be a 
number of ill-difpofed people; and we, hourly, experienced 
ir. All our care and attention did not prevent their plunder- 
ing us, in every quarter; and that, in the moll daring and 
infolent manner. There was hardly any thing that they did 
not attempt to Heal ; and yet, as the crowd was always fo 



great, I would not allow the fentries to fire, left the inno- ^m- 

n -r- June. 

cent lliould fuiier for the guilty. They once, at noon day, ' ^— ^ 

ventured to aim at taking an anchor from oil the Difcovery's 
bows ; and they would certainly have fucceeded, if the flook 
had not hooked one of the chain plates in lowering down the 
fhip's fide, from which they could not difengage it by hand; 
and tackles were things they were unacquainted with. 
The only a£l of violence they were guilty of, was the break- 
ing the fhoulder bone of one of ou^ goats, fo that fhe died 
foon after. This lofs fell upon themfelves, as fhe was one 
of thofe that I intended to leave upon the iftand ; but of 
this, the perfon who did it, was ignorant. 

Early in the morning of the 1 8th, an incident happened, Wednef. 18. 
that Itrongly marked one of their cuftoms. A man got out 
of a canoe into the quarter gallery of the Refolution, and 
flole from thence a pewter bafon. He was difcovered, pur- 
fued, and brought along-fide the fhip. On this occafion, 
three old women, who were in the canoe, made loud la- 
mentations over the prifoner, beating their breafts and faces 
in a moft violent manner, with the infide of their fifts ; and 
all this was done without fliedding a tear. This mode of 
exprefTing grief is what occafions the mark Vt^hich almoft 
all this people bear on the face, over the cheek bones. The 
repeated blows which they infii(ft upon this part, abrade the 
fldn, and make even the blood flow out in a confiderable 
quantity ; and when the wounds are recent, they look as if 
a hollov/ circle had been burnt in. On many occafions, 
they adually cut this part of the face with an inftrument; 
in the fame manner as the people of Otaheite cut their 

This day, I bcftowed on Marcevv^agee fomc prcfents, in 
return for thofe we had received from him the day before; 

<^q 2 and 



'777- and as the entertainments which he had then exhibited for 


our amufement, called upon us to make feme exhibition m 
our way, I ordered the party of marines to go through their 
exercife, on the fpot where his dances had been performed ; 
and, in the evening, played off fome fireworks at the fame 
place. Poulaho, with all the principal Chiefs, and a grpat 
number of people, of all denominations, were prefent. The 
platoon firing, which was executed tolerably well, feemed 
to give them pleafure ; but they were loft in aftonifliment 
when they beheld our water rockets. They paid but little 
attention to the fife and drum, or French horns, that played 
during the intervals. The king fat behind every body, 
becaufe no one is allowed to fie behind him; and, that 
his view might not be obftruded, nobody fat immedi- 
ately before him j but a lane, as it were, was made by the 
people from him, quite down to the fpace allotted for the 

In expedlation of this evening fliew, the circle of natives 
about our tent being pretty large, they engaged, the greateft 
part of the afternoon, in boxing and wrefdin'g ; the firft of 
which exercifes they call fangatooa, and the fecond foohoo. 
When any of them choofes to wreftle, he gets up from one 
fide of the ring, and crofiTes the ground in a fort of mea- 
fured pace, clapping fmartly on the elbow joint of one arm, 
v/hich is bent, and produces a hollow found ; that is rec- 
koned the challenge. If no perfon comes out from the oppo- 
fite fide to engage him, he returns, in the fame manner, and 
fits down ; but fometimes Hands clapping, in the midft of 
the ground, to provoke fome one to come out. If an 
opponent appear, they come together with marks of the 
greateft good-nature, generally fmiling, and taking time to 
adjuft the piece of cloth which is faftened round the waift. 
^ They 


They then lay hold of each other by this ffirdle, with a '777- 

■' ■' JO June. 

hand on each fide ; and he who fuccceds in drawing his 
antagonift to him, immediately tries to lift him upon his 
breafl, and throw him upon his back ; and if he be able to 
turn round with him two or three times, in that polition, 
before he throws him, his dexterity never fails of procuring 
plaudits from the fpeclators. If they be more equally 
matched, they clofe foon, and endeavour to throw each 
other by entwining their legs, or lifting each other from 
the ground ; in which ftruggles they Ihew a prodigious ex- 
ertion of flrength, every mufcle, as it were, being ready to 
burft with ftraining. When one is thrown, he immediately 
quits the field, but the vi(5lor fits down for a few feconds, 
then gets up, and goes to the fide he came from, who pro- 
claim the vi(5tory aloud, in a fentence delivered fiowly, and 
in a mufical cadence. After fitting a fliort fpace, he rifes 
again and challenges; when fometimes feveral antagonifts 
make their appearance; but he has the privilege of choo- 
fing which of them he pleafes to wreftle with ; and has, 
likewife, the preference of challenging again, if he fhould 
throw his adverfary, until he himfelf be vanquiflied ; and 
then the oppofite fide fing the fong of vidtory in favour of 
their champion. Italfo often happens, that five or fix rife 
from each fide, and challenge together ; in which cafe, it is 
common to fee three or four couple engaged on the field at 
once. But it is aftonifhing to fee what temper they preferve 
in this exercife ; for we obferved no inftances of their leav- 
ing the fpot, with the leafl difpleafure in their counte- 
nances. When they find, that they are fo equally matched 
as not to be likely to throw each other, they leave off by 
mutual confent. And if the fall of one is not fair, or if it 
does not appear very clearly who has had the advantage, 




»777- both fides fing the vidory, and then they engage again. 
Eiit no perfon, who has been vanquillied, can engage with 
his conqueror a fecond time. 

The boxers advance fide-v/ays, changing the fide at every 
pace, with one arm (Iretched fully out before, the other be- 
hind; and holding a piece of cord in one hand, which they 
wrap firmly about it, when they find an antagonift, or elfe 
have done fo before they enter. This, I imagine, they do, 
to prevent a diflocation of the hand or fingers. Their blows 
are directed chiefly to the head; but fometimes to the fides j 
.and are dealt out with great activity. They fhift fides, 
and box equally well with both hands. But one of their 
favourite and mofl dextrous blows, is, to turn round on 
their heel, jufl as they have flruck their antagonift, and to 
give him another very fmart one v/ith the otlier hand back- 

The boxing matches feldom lafl long ; and the parties 
either leave off together, or one acknowledges his being beat. 
But they never fing the fong of victory in thefe cafes, unlefs 
one flrikes his adverfary to the ground ; which fliews, that, 
of the two, wi-eflling is their moft approved diverfion. 
Not only boys engage, in both the exercifes, but frequently 
little girls box very obflinately for a fliort time, hi all 
which cafes, it doth not appear, that they ever confider it 
as the fmalleft difgrace to be vanquiflied ; and the perfon 
overcome fits down, with as much indifference, as if he had 
never entered the lifts. Some of our.people ventured to con- 
tend with them in both exercifes, but were always worfted; 
except in a few inftances, where it appeared, that the fear 
they were in of offending us, contributed more to the vic- 
,jX)Ey, than the fuperiority of the perfon they engaged. 

r|- The 


The cattle, which we had broughr, and which were all '777- 
on fhore, however carefully guarded, I was fenfiblc, run no <. "-^'_p 
fmall riflv, when I confidered the thievifli difpofition of many 
of the natives, and their dexterity in appropriating to them- 
felves by fleahh, what they faw no profpecfl of obtaining by 
fair means. For this reafon I thought it prudent to declare 
my intention of leaving behind me fome of our animals ; 
and even to make a diflribution of them previoully to 
my departure. 

With this view, in the evening of the ipth, I aflembled Thujfda/^g». 
all the Chiefs before our houfe, and my intended prefents 
to them w^ere marked out. To Poulaho, the king, I gave a 
young Englifli bull and cow ; to Mareewagec, a Cape ram, 
and two ewes; and to Feenou, a horie and a mare. As my 
defign, to make fuch a diflribution, had been made known 
the day before, mofl of the people in the neighbourhood 
were then prefent, I inftruc^ed Omai to tell them, that there 
were no fuch animals within many months fail of their 
ifland; that we had brought them, for their ufe, from that 
immenfe diftance, at a vafl trouble and cxpence ; that, , 
therefore, they mud be careful not to kill any of them 
till they had multiplied to a numerous race ; and, laftly, 
that they and their children ought to remember, that they 
had received them from the men of Britane. He alfo ex- 
plained to them their feveral ufes, and what elfe was ne- 
ceflary for them to know, or rather as far as he knew ; 
for Omai was not very well verfed in fuch things himfelf. 
As I intended that the above prefents fhould remain with 
the other cattle, till we were ready to fail, I defired each of 
the Chiefs to fend a man or two to look after their refpecT:ive 
animals, along with my people, in order that they might 
be better acquainted with them, and with the manner 



1777- of treating them. The king and Feenou did fo ; but neither 

« w ' Mareewagee, nor any other perfon for him, took the leafl 

notice of tae fheep afterward ; nor did old Toobou attend at 
this meeting, though he was invited, and was in the neigh- 
bourhood. I had meant to give him the goats, viz. a ram 
and two ewes ; which, as he was fo indifferent about them, 
I added to the king's fhare. 

Friday 20. It foon appeared, that fome were diflfatisfied with this 
allotment of our animals ; for, early next morning, one of 
our kids, and two turkey-cocks, were milTing. I could not 
be fo fimple as to fuppofe, that this was merely an acci- 
dental lofs ; and I was determined to have them again. 
The firil flep I took was to feize on three canoes that hap- 
pened to be along-fide the fhips, I then went afliore, and, 
having found the king, his brother, Feenou, and fome 
other Chiefs, in the houfe that we occupied, I immediately 
put a guard over them, and gave them to underfland, that 
they muft remain under reftraint, till not only the kid and 
the turkeys, but the other things, that had been llolen from 
us, at different times, were reftored. They concealed, as well 
as they could, their feelings, on finding themfelves prifoners ; 
and, having aflured me, that every thing fhould be reftored, 
as I denred, fat down to drink their ka%>a, feemingly much at 
their eafe. It was not long before an axe, and an iron wedge, 
were brought to me. In the mean time, fome armed natives 
began to gather behind the houfe ; but, on a part of our guard 
marching againft them, they difperfed ; and I advifed the 
Chiefs to give orders, that no more Hiould appear. Such or- 
ders were accordingly given by them, and they were obeyed. 
On aflcing them to go aboard with me to dinner, they 
readily confented. But fome having afterward objeded to 
- the king's going, he inftantly rofe up, and declared he 



would be the firft man. Accordingly we came on board. '777- 
I kept them there till near four o'clock, when I conduded 
them afhore ; and, foon after, the kid, and one of the 
turkey-cocks, were brought back. The other, ihey faid, 
Ihould be reftored the next morning. I believed this would 
happen, and releafed both them and the canoes. 

Afcer the Chiefs had left us, I walked out with Omai, 
to obferve how the people about us fared ; for this was the 
time of their meals. I found that, in general, they were 
at lliort commons. Nor is this to be wondered at, fince 
moft of the yams, and other provifions which they brought 
with them, were fold to us ; and they never thought of re- 
turning to their own habitations, while they could find 
any fort of fubliftence in our neighbourhood. Our ftation 
was upon an uncultivated point of land ; fo that there 
were none of the iflanders, who, properly, relided within 
half a mile of us. But, even at this diftance, the multitude 
of ftrangers being fo great, one might have expected, that 
every houfe would have been much crowded. It was quite 
otherwife. The families refiding there were as much left 
to themfelves, as if there had not been a fupernumerary 
vifiter near them. All the ftrangers lived in little tempo- 
rary flieds, or under trees and buflies ; and the cocoa-trees 
were ilripped of their branches, to eredl habitations for the 

In this walk we met with about half a dozen womx?n, in 
one place, at fupper. Two of the company, I obfcrved, 
being fed by the others, on our afking the reafon, they 
faid taboo tnattee. On farther inquiry we found, that one of 
them had, two months before, wa(hed the dead corpfe of 
a Chief; and that, on this account, fhe was not to handle 
any food for five months. The other liad performed the 

Vol. J. Rr fame 


'777- fame office to the corpfe of another perfon of inferior rank^ 


^— -> ' and was now under the fame reftridlion ; but not for io 

long a time. At another place, hn-rd by, we faw another 
woman fed j and we learnt, that flie had affifted in wafhing 
tlic Gorpfe of the above-mentioned Chief. 

Sajurdayai,. Early the next morning, the king came on board, to in- 
■ vite me to an entertainment, which he propofed to give the 
fame day. He had already been under the barber's hands j 
his head being all befmeared with red pigment, in order 
to redden his hair, which was naturally of a dark brown 
colour. After breakfaft, I attended him to the fliore; and 
we found his people very bufy, in two places, in the front 
of our area, fixing, in an upright and fquare pofition, 

thus [ o o ]» ^^^^ "^'^'T ^*^"S polls, near two feet from each 
other. The fpacc between the polls was afterward filled 
up with yams ; and as they went on filling it, they faften- 
cd pieces of flicks acrofs, from poll to poll, at the diflance of 
about every four feet ; to prevent the pods from feparating, 
by the weight of the inclofed yams, and aifo to get-up 
by. When the yams had reached the top of the firlt pofts, 
they faftened others to them, and fo continued till each 
pile was the height of thirty feet, or upward. On the 
top of one, they placed two baked hogs ; and on the top of 
the other, a living one ; and another they tied by the legs, 
half-way up. It was matter of curiofity to obferve, with 
what facility and difpatch thcfe two piles were raifed. Had 
our feamen been ordered to execute fuch a work, they 
would have fworn that it could not be performed with- 
out carpenters ; and the carpenters vsrould have called to 
iheir aid a dozen different forts of tools, and have cx~ 
pended, at leafi:, a hundred weight of nails ; and, after all, 
it would have employed them as many days, as it did 

I tbef« 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 307 

tbefe people hours. But feamen, like mod other amphi- '77/- 

, June. 

bious animals, are always the mod helplefs on land. After 
they had completed thefe two piles, they made feveral 
other heaps of yams and bread-fruit on e;u:h fide of the 
area ; to which were added a turtle, and a large quantity of 
excellent fifli. All this, with a piece of cloth, a mat, and 
fome red feathers, was the king's prefcnt to me ; and he 
feemed to picque himfelf on exceeding, as he really did, 
Fecnou's liberality, which I experienced at Hapaee. 

About one o'clock they began the mat, or dances ; the firfl 
of which was almoil a copy of the firll that was exhibited at 
Mareewagee's entertainment. The fecond was condudlcd 
by Captain Furneaux's Toobou, who, as we mentioned, had 
alfo danced there; and in this, four or five women were in- 
troduced, who went through the feveral parts with as much 
exacftnefs as the men. Toward the end, the performers di- 
vided to leave room for two champions, who exerciled their 
clubs, as defcribed on a former occafion. And, in the third 
dance, which was the lad now prefented, two more men, 
with their clubs, difplayed their dexterity. The dances 
were fucceeded by wredling and boxing ; and one man en- 
tered the lifts with a fort of club, made from the dem of a 
cocoa-leaf, which is firm and heavy ; but could find no an- 
tagonift to engage him at fo rough a fport. At night we 
had the bomai repeated; in which Foulaho himfelf danced, 
dreded in Englifli manufa(fture. But neither thefe, nor the 
dances in the day-time, were fo confiderable, nor carried 
on with fo much fpirit, as Feenou's, or Mareewagee's ; and, 
therefore, there is lefs occafion to be more particular in our 
defcription of them. 

. In order to be prefent the whole time, I dined afliore. 
The king fat down with us ; but he neither eat nor drank. 

R r 2 I found 



«777' I found that this was owing to the prefence of a female^ 

J"^- _. whom, at his defire, I had admitted to the dining party; and 

who, as we afterward underftood, had fuperior rank to him- 

felf. As foon as this great perfonage had dined, flie Hepped 

■up to the king, who put his hands to her feet ; and then Ihe 

retired. He immediately dipped his fingers into a glafs of 

wine, and then received the obeifance of all her followers. 

This was the fmgle inftance we ever obferved of his paying 

this mark of reverence to any perfon. At the king's defire, 

I ordered fome fireworks to be played oflF in the evening ; 

but, unfortunately, being damaged, this exhibition did not 

anfwei: expe<^ation. 




Some of the Officers plundered by the Natives. — A jipDing 
Party. — A Vift to Poiilaho. — A Fiatooka defer ibed. — ^> 
Obfervations on the Cotmtry EntertatJjment at Poulahos 
Houfe, — His Mourning Ceremony. — Of the Kava Plants 
a7id the Mawier of preparing the Liquor. — Account of 
Onevy, a little If and. — One of the Natives wotmded by 
a Sentinel. — Meffrs. Kif2g and Anderfon vifit the Kings 
Brother. — T'heir Kntertaintnent, — Another Mourni?ig 
Ceremony. — Manner of p(ijf^^g the Night, — Rema?~ks o?t 
the Country they pajfed through. — Preparations made 
for failing. — An Eclipfe of the Sun^ imperfe&ly ob- 
ferved. — Mr. Anderfon s Account of the Ifand^ and its 

S no more entertainments were to be expecT:ed, on 1777- 
either fide, and the curiofity of the populace was, c^ -"-^ 
by this time, pretty well fatisfied ; on the day after Poula- Sunday 22. 
ho's haiva, moft of them left us. We Hill, however, had 
thieves about us; and, encouraged by the negligence of 
our own people, we had continual inflances of their depre- 

Some of the officers, belonging to both fliips, who had 

made an excurfion into the interior parts of the ifland, 

without my leave, and, indeed, without my knowledge^ 

returned this evening, after an abfence of two days. They 

9 had 



'777- had taken with them their muflicts, with the necefTary 
<i— i-v— ^^ ammunition, and feveral fmall articles of the favourite 
commodities ; all v^hich the natives had the dexterity to 
ileal from them, in the courfe of their expedition. This 
aflair was likely to be attended with inconvenient confe- 
quences. For, our plundered travellers, upon their return, 
without confulcing me, employed Omai to complain to the 
king of the treatment they had met with. He, not knowing 
what ftep I Ihould take, and, from what had already hap- 
pened, fearing left I might lay him again under reftraint, 
Monday 23. wcut olF early the next morning. His example was fol- 
lowed by Feenou ; fo that we had not a Chief, of any au- 
thority, remaining in our neighbourhood. I was very much 
difpleafed at this, and reprimanded Omai for having pre- 
fumed to meddle. This reprimand put him upon his metal 
to bring his friend Feenou back ; and he fucceeded in the 
. negociation ; having this powerful argument to urge, that 
he might depend upon my ufing no violent meafures to 
oblige the natives to reftore what had been taken from the 
gentlemen. Feenou, trufting to tliis declaration, returned 
toward the evening ; and, encouraged by his reception, 
Poulaho favoured us with his company the day after. 

:Tuerday24. Both thcfc Chiefs, upon this occafion, veryjuftly obferved 
to me, that, if any of my people, at any time, wanted to 
go into the country, they ought to be acquainted with it ; 
in which cafe they would fend proper people along with 
them ; and then they would be anfvverable for their fafety. 
And I am convinced, from experience, that, by taking this 
very reafonable precaution, a man and his property may be 
as fafe among thefe iflanders, as in other pares of the more 
civilized world. Though I gave myfelf no trouble about 
the recovery of the things llolcn upon this occafion, mod 



of them, through Feenou's interpoficion, were recovered ; 
except one muHvCt, and a few other articles of inferior 
value. By this time alfo, we had recovered the turkey- 
cock, and moft of the tools, and other matters, that had 
been llolen from our workmen. 

On the 25th, two boats, which I had fent to look for a Wednef. 25, 
channel, by which we might, moft commodioufly, get to 
fca, returned. The Mafters, who commanded them, re- 
potted, that the channel to the North, by which we came 
in, was highly dangerous, being full of coral rocks from 
one fide to the other ; but that, to the Eaftward, there was 
a very good channel j which, however, was very much con* 
trailed, in one place, by the fmall iflands ; fo that a lead- 
ing wind would be requifite to get through it; that is, a 
Wefterly wind, which, we had found, did not often blow 
here. We had now recruited the fliips with wood and 
water ; we had finifiicd the repairs of our fails ; and had 
little more to expe(5t from the inhabitants, of the produce of 
their ifland. However, as an eclipfe of the fun was to hap- 
pen upon the 5th of the next month, I refolved to defer failing 
till that time had elapfed, in order to have a chance of ob- 
ferving it. 

Having, therefore, fome days of leifure befoire me, a 
party of us, accompanied by Poulaho, fet out, early next 
morning, in a boat, for Mooa, the village where he and the ThurfdayzS* 
other great men ufually refide. As we rowed up the inlet, 
we met with fourteen canoes fifhing in cotnpany ; in one of 
which was Poulaho's fon. In each canoe was a triangular 
net, extended between two poles ; at the lower end of which 
was a cod to receive and fecure the fifh. They had already 
caught fome fine mullets y and they put about a dozen into 



our boat. I defired to fee their method of fifhing ; which 
they readily compHed with. A flioal of fifli was fuppofed 
to be upon one of the banks, which they inftantly inclofed 
in a long net like a feine, or fet-net. This tlie fifhers, one 
getting into the water out of each boat, furrounded with 
the triangular nets in their hands ; vrith which they fcooped 
the fitli out of the feine, or caught them as they attempted 
to leap over it. They fliewed us the whole procefs of this 
operation (which feemed to be a fure one), by throwing in 
fome of the fifli they had already caught ; for, at this time, 
there happened to be none upon the bank that was in- 

Leaving the prince and his fifhing party, we proceeded to 
the bottom of the bay, and landed where we had done be- 
fore, on our fruitlefs errand to fee Mareewagee. As foon 
as we got on fliore, the king defired Omai to tell me, that I 
need be under no apprehenfions about the boat, or any 
thing in her, for no: a fingle article would be touched by 
any one ; and we afterv/ard found this to be the cafe. We 
were immediately condu6ted to one of Poulaho's houfes not 
far off, and near the public one, or malaee, in which we had 
been, when we firft vifited Mooa. This, though pretty 
large, feemed to be his private habitation, and wasfituated 
within a plantation. The king took his feat at one end of 
the houfe, and the people, who came to vifit him, fat down, 
as they arrived, in a femicircle at the other end. The firil 
thing done, was to prepare a bowl of kava, and to order 
fome yams to be baked for us. While thefe were getting 
ready, fome of us, accompanied by a few of the king's at- 
tendants, and Omai as our interpreter, walked out to take a 
view of ;ijiatooka, or burying-place, which we had obl'erved 
to be almofi clofe by the houfe, and was much more exten- 



five, and feemins-ly of more confequence, than any we had ^vi- 

. June. 

feen at the other iflands. We were told, that it belonged to 
the king. It conlifted of three pretty large houfes, fituated 
upon arifing ground, or rather juft by the brink of it, with 
a fmall one, at fome diftance, all ranged longitudinally. 
The middle houfe of the three firft, was, by much, the 
largeft, and placed in a fquare* twenty-four paces by twenty- 
eight, raifed about three feet. The other houfes were 
placed on little mounts, raifed artificially to the fame height. 
The floors of thefe houfes, as alfo the tops of the mounts 
round them, were covered with loofe, fine pebbles, and the 
whole was inclofed by large flat ftones * of hard coral rock, 
properly hewn, placed on their edges ; one of which ftones 
meafured twelve feet in length, two in breadth, and above 
one in thicknefs. One of the houfes, contrary to what we 
had feen before, was open on one fide ; and within it were 
two rude, wooden bufts of men ; one near the entrance, 
and the other farther in. On inquiring of the natives, who 
had followed us to the ground, but durft not enter here. 
What thefe images were intended for? they made us as 
fenfible as we could wifli, that they were merely memorials 
of fome Chiefs who had been buried there, and not the re- 
prefentations of any deity. Such monuments, it fliould 
feem, are feldom raifed ; for thefe had, probably, been 
ere(5ted feveral ages ago. We were told, that the dead had 
been buried in each of thefe houfes ; but no marks of this 
appeared. In one of them, was the carved head of an Ota- 
heite canoe, which had been driven afliOre on their coaft, 
and depofited here. At the foot of the rifing ground, was 
a large area, or grafs--plot, with diflerent trees planted about 

^ * The burying-places of the Chiefs at the Caroline Iflands, are alfo inclofed ia 
this manner. See Lettres Ed'ifianUs ^ Curieufes, Tom, xv. p. 309. 

Vol. I. Sf itj 



J7:'7- it; amongfl: which were feveral of thofe called etoa^ very 
large. Theie, as they refemble the cyprefs, had a fine effect 
in fuch a place. There was, alfo, a row of low palms near 
one of the houfes, and behind it a ditch, in which lay a 
great number of old bafkets. Mr. Webber's drawing of 
\\\\.% jiatooka^ will fupply the defecfts of my defcription. 

After dinner, or rather after we had refreQied ourfelves 
with fome provifions which we had brought with us from 
our fhip, we made an excurfion into the country, taking a 
pretty large circuit, attended by one of the king's miniflers. 
Our train was not great, as he would not fuffer the rabble 
to follow us. He alfo obliged all thofe whom we met 
upon our progrefs, to fit down, till we had pafi!ed ; which is 
a mark of refped: due only to their Sovereigns. We found 
by far the greateft part of the country cultivated, and 
planted with various forts of producTcions ; and moft of 
thefe plantations were fenced round. Some fpots, where 
plantations had been formerly, now produced nothing, lying 
fallow ; and there were places that had never been touched, 
but lay in a Hate of nature ; and, yet, even thefe were ufe- 
ful, in affording them timber, as they were generally co- 
vered with trees. We met with feveral large uninhabited 
houfes, which, we were told, belonged to the king. There 
were many public and well-beaten roads, and abundance of 
foot-paths leading to every part of the ifland. The roads 
being good, and the country level, travelling was very eafy. 
It is remarkable, that when we were on the moft elevated 
parts, at leaft a hundred feet above the level of the fea, 
we often met with the fame coral rock, which is found 
at the fliore, projeding above the furface, and perforated 
and cut into all thofe inequalities which are ufually feen in 
rocks that lie within the wafli of the tide. And yet thefe 



^"^ery fpots, with hardly any foil upon them, were covered '777- 

with luxuriant vegetation. We were condu6ted to feveral « ,r—.u 

little pools, and to fome fprings of water ; but, in general, 
they were either ftinking or brackifh, though recom- 
mended to us by the natives as excellent. The former 
were, moftly, inland, and the latter near the fliore of the 
bay, and below high-water mark; fo that tolerable water 
could be taken up from them, only when the tide was 

When we returned from our walk, which was not till the 
dufk of the evening, our fupper was ready. It confided of 
a baked hog, fome fifli, and yams, all excellently well 
cooked, after the method of thefe iilands. As there was 
nothing to amufe us after fupper, we followed the cuflom 
of the country, and lay down to lleep, our beds being mats 
fpread upon the floor, and cloth to cover us. The king, 
who had made himfelf very happy with fome wine and 
brandy which we had brought, flept in the fame houfe, as 
well as feveral others of the natives. Long before day- 
break, he and they all rofe, and fat converfing by moon- 
light. The converfation, as might well be gueifed, turned 
wholly upon us ; the king entertaining his company with 
an account of what he had feen, or remarked. As foon as 
it was day, they difperfed, fome one way, and fome another; Friday 27. 
but it was not long before they all returned, and, with 
them, feveral more of their countrymen. 

They now began to prepare a bowl of kava-, and, leaving 
them fo employed, I went to pay a vilit to Toobou, Captain 
Furneaux's friend, who had a houfe hard by, which, for 
fize and neatnefs, was exceeded by few in the place. As I 
had left the others, fo I found here a company, preparing a 
morning draught. This Chief made a prefent to me of a 

S f 2 living 

Si6 A V O Y A G E T O 

»777- living hog, a baked one, a quantity of yams, and a large- 
piece of cloth. When I returned to the Icing, I found hitn» 
and his circle of attendants, drinking the fecond bowl of ^ 
kava. That being emptied, he told Omai, that he was 
going prefently to perform a mourning ceremony, called 
1'ooge, on account of a fon v/ho had been dead forae time ; 
and he defired us to accompany him. We were glad of the 
opportunity, expecting to fee fpmewliat new or curious. 

The firil thing the Chief did, was to flep out of the houfe, 
attended by two old women, and put on a new fuit of 
clothes, or rather a new piece of cloth, and, over it, an old 
ragged mat, that might have ferved his great grandfather, 
on fome fuch occafion. His fervants, or thofc who attended 
him, were all dreffed in the fame manner, excepting that 
none of their mats could vie, in antiquity, with that of their 
mafter. Thus equipped, we marched off, preceded by about 
eight or ten perfons, all in the above habits of ceremony, 
each of them, befides, having a fmall green bough about 
his neck. Poulaho held his bough in his hand, till we drew 
near the place of rendezvous, when he alfo put it about 
his neck. We now entered a fmall inclofure, in which was 
a neat houfe, and we found one man fitting before it. As 
the company entered, they pulled off the green branches 
from round their necks, and threw them away. The king 
having firft feated himfelf, the others fat down before him, 
in the ufual manner. The circle increafed, by others drop- 
ping in, to the number of a hundred or iipward, moftly 
old men, all drefled as above defcribed. The company 
being completely alTembled, a large root of kava, brought by 
one of the king's fervants, was produced, and a bowl which 
contained four or five gallons. Several perfons now began 
10 chew the root, and this bowl was made brirafuU of 



liquor. While it was preparing, others were employed in '777' 

making drinking cups of plantain leaves. The firft cup * /-— / 

that was filled, was prefented to the king, and he ordered 
it to be given to another perfon. The fecond was alfo 
brought to him, which he drank, and the third was offered 
to me. Afterward, as each cup v/as filled, the man who 
filled it, aflced, who was to have it ? Another then named the 
perfon ; and to him it was carried. As the bowl grew low, 
the man who diflributed the liquor feemed rather at a lofs 
to whom cups of it fliould be next fent, and frequently con- 
fulted chofe who fat near him. This mode of diflribution 
continued, while any liquor remained ; and though not 
half the company had a fliare, yet no one feemed diflatif- 
fied. About half a dozen cups ferved for all ; and each, as 
it was emptied, was thrown down upon the ground, where 
the fervants picked it up, and carried it to be filled again. 
During the whole time, the Chief and his circle fat, as was 
ufually the cafe, with a great deal of gravity, hardly fpeak- 
ing a word to each other. 

We had long waited in expe<5lation, each moment, of 
feeing the mourning ceremony begin ; when, foon after 
the kava was drank out, to our great furprize and difap- 
pointment, they all rofe up and difperfed ; and Poulaho told 
us, he was now ready to attend us to the fhips. If this was 
a mourning ceremony, it was a ftrange one. Perhaps, it 
was the fecond, third, or fourth mourning; or, which was- 
not very uncommon, Omai might have mifunderftood what 
Poulaho faid to him. For, excepting the change of drefa, 
and the putting the green bough round their necks, no- 
thing feemed to have pafTed at this meeting, but what we 
iaw them pradife, too frequently, every day. 

« We 

jiS A V O Y A G E T O 

1777. -ct * YVe had feen the drinkine of ka^ua fometimes, at the 


Other iflands ; but, by no means, fo frequently as here, 
where it feems to be the only forenoon employment of the 
principal people. The kava is a fpecies of pepper, which 
they cultivate for this purpofe, and efteeni it a valuable ar- 
ticle, taking great care to defend the young plants from 
any injury ; and it is commonly planted about their houfes. 
It feldom grows to more than a man's height ; though I 
have feen fome plants almoft double that. It branches con- 
fiderably, with large heart-fhaped leaves, and jointed ftalks. 
The root is the only part that is ufed at the Friendly Iflands, 
which, being dug up, is given to the fervants that attend, 
who, breaking it in pieces, fcrape the dirt off with a fliell, 
or bit of (tick ; and then each begins and chews his portion, 
which he fpits into a piece of plantain leaf. The perfon, 
v/ho is to prepare the liquor, colletT:s all thefe mouthfuis, 
and puts them into a large wooden difli or bov;l, adding as 
much water as will make it of a proper ftrength. It is, 
then, well mixed up with the hands; and fome loofe fluff, 
of which mats are made, is thrown upon the furface, 
which intercepts tlie fibrous part, and is wrung hard, to 
get as much liquid out from it, as is poffible. The manner 
of diftributing it need not be repeated. The quantity which 
is put into each cup, is commonly about a quarter of a pint. 
The immediate effect of this beverage is not perceptible on 
thefe people, who ufe it fo frequently ; but on fome of 
ours, who ventured to try it, though fo haflily prepared, it 
had the .fame power as fpirits have, in intoxicating them ; 
or, rather, it produced that .kind of flupefaiTtion, which is 

* The following account of kava, to the end of this paragraph, is inferted frorji 
iMr. Anderfon's journai. 

:f- tke 



the confequence of ufiiig opium, or other fubftances of that ^^77 
kind. It fhoiild be obferved, at the fame time, that though 
thefe iflandcrs have this liquor always frefli prepared, and I 
have feen them drink it feven times before noon, it is, ne- 
vx^rthelefs, fo difagreeable, or, at lead, feems fo, that the 
greateft part of them cannot fwallow it without making wry 
facesj and fhuddcring afterward." ' 

As foon as this mourning ceremony was over, wc left 
Mooa, and fet out to return to the fhips. While we rowed 
down the lagoon or inlet, we met with two canoes coming 
in from fifhing. Poulaho ordered them to be called along- 
fide our boat, and took from them every fifli and fbell they 
bad got. He, afterward, flopped two other canoes, and 
fearched them, but they had •nothing. Why this was done; 
I cannot fay ; for we had plenty of provifions in the boar. 
Some of this fifii he gave to me ; and his fervants fold the 
reft on board the fliip. As v/e proceeded down the inlet, we ■ 
overtook a large failing canoe. Every perfon on board hen 
that was upon his legs when we came up, fat down till we 
had paired ; even the man who fleered, though he could 
not manage the helm, except in a flanding poflure. 

Poulaho, and others, having informed me, that there 
was fome excellent water on Onevy, a little ifland, which 
lies about a league oft the mouth of the inlet, and on 
the North fide of the Eaflern channel, we Landed therei 
in order to tafte it. But I found it to be as brackifh as 
moft that we had met with. This ifland is quite in a 
natural flate, being only frequented as a filliing place, 
and has nearly the fame productions as Palmerfton's 
Ifland, with fome etoa trees. After leaving Onevy, where 
we dined, in our way to the fhip, we took a view of a cu-^ 
rious coral rock, which feems to have been thrown upon 


320 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777- the reef where it flands. It is elevated about ten or twelve 


*- — , — -J feet above the furface of the fea that furrounds it. The 
bafe it refts upon, is not above one-third of the circumfe- 
rence of its projecting fummit, v;hich I judged to be about 
one hundred feet, and is covered with etoa and pandanus 

When we got on board the fliip, I found that every thing 
had been quiet during my abfence, not a theft having been 
committed; of which Feenou, and Futtafaihe, the king's 
brother, who had undertaken the management of his 
countrymen, boafted not a little. This fhews what power 
the Chiefs have, when they have the will to execute it; 
which we were feldom to expecfl, fmce, whatever was 
flolen from us, generally, if not always, was conveyed to 

The good conducH: of the natives was of fliort duration ; 
Saturday 28. for, the ucxt day, fix or eight of them alTaulted fome of our 
people, who were fawing planks. They were fired upon 
by the fentry ; and one was fuppofed to be wounded, and 
three others taken. Thefe I kept confined till night; and 
did not difmifs them without punifhment. After this, they 
behaved with a little more circumfpecftion, and gave us 
much lefs trouble. This change of behaviour, was cer- 
tainly occafioned by the man being wounded ; for, before, 
they had only been told of the effecfh of fire-arms, but now 
they had felt it. 7 he repeated infolence of the natives, had 
induced me to order the mufkets of the fejitrics to be 
loaded with fmall fl:iot, and to authorize them to fire on par- 
ticular occafions„ I took it for granted, therefore, that this 
man had only been wounded with fmall fliot. But Mr. 
King and Mr. Anderfon, in an excurfion into the country, 
met with him, and found indubitable marks of his having 
4 been 


been wounded, but not danfferoufly, with a mufket ball. I ^ni- 

. -, June, 

never could find out how this mulliet happened to be charged u — , 1 

with ball ; and there were people enough ready to fwear, 
that its contents were only fmall fliot. 

Mr. Anderfon's account of the excurfion, jufl; mentioned, 
will fill up an interval of two days, during which nothing 
of note happened, at the fliips : " Mr. King and I went, on the 
30th, along with Futtafaihe as vifiters to his houfe, which Monday 30. 
is at M002, very near that of his brother Poulaho. A flioit 
time after we arrived, a pretty large hog was killed ; which 
is done by repeated flrokes on the head. The hair was then 
fcraped off, very dextroufly, with the fharp edge, of pieces 
of fplit bamboo ; taking the entrails out at a large oval hole 
cut in the belly, by the fame fimple inftrument. Before 
this, they had prepared an oven ; which is a large hole dug 
in the earth, filled at the bottom with flones, about the fizc 
of the fift, over which a fire is made till they are red hot. 
They took fome of thefe flones, wrapt up in leaves of tlie 
bread-fruit tree, and filled the hog's belly, fluffing in a 
quantity of leaves, to prevent their falling out, and putting 
a plug of the fame kind in the anus. The carcafe was then 
placed on fome flicks laid acrofs the flones, in a flanding 
pofture, and covered with a great quantity of plantain 
leaves. After which, they dug up the earth, all round ; 
and having thus effecflually clofed the oven, the operation 
of baking required no farther interference. 

In the mean time, we walked about the country, but met 
with nothing remarkable, except a fatooka of one houfe, 
{landing on an artificial mount, at leafl tlurty feet high. A 
little oa one fide of it, was a pretty large open area ; and, 
not far off, was a good deal of uncultivated ground ; which, 
on inquiring, why it lay wafte ; our guides feemed to fay, 

Vot. I. T t belonged 

022 A V O Y A G E T O 

'>777- belonged to the fiatooka (which was Poulaho's), and was not, 

June. </ \ 

by any means, to be touched. There was alfo, at no great 
diftance, a number of eiooa trees, on which clung vaft num- 
bers of the large tcniate bats, making a difagreeable noife. 
We could not kill any, at this time, for want of mufkets ; 
but fome, that were got at Annamooka, meafured near 
three feet, when the wings were extended. On our return- 
ing to Futtafaihe's houfe^ he ordered the hog, tliat had been 
drelTed, to be produced, with feveral balkets of baked yams, 
and fome cocoa-nuts. But we found, that, inftead of his 
entertaining us, we were to entertain him ; the property of 
the feall being entirely transferred to us, as his guefts, and 
we were to difpofc of it as we pleafed. The fame perfon 
who cleaned the hog in the morning, now cut it up (but 
not before we defired him), in a very dexterous manner, 
with a knife of fplit bamboo; dividing the feveral parts, and 
hitting the joints, v;ith a quicknefs and flcill that furprized 
us very much. The whole was fet down before us, though 
at lead fifty pounds weight, until we took a fmall piece- 
away, and defired, that they would fliare the reft amongft 
the people fitting round. But it was not without a great 
many fcruples they did that at laft ; and then they afl<:ed, 
what particular perfons they fhould give it to. However, 
they were very well pleafed, when they found, that it was 
not contrary to any cuftom of ours ; fome carrying olr the 
portion they had received, and others eating it upon the 
fpot. It was vv^ith great difficulty, that we could prevail 
upon Futtafaihe himfelf to eat a fmall bit. 

After dinner, we went Vv^ith him, and five or fix people, 

his attendants, toward the place v^here Poulaho's mourning 

ceremony was tranfacSted, the laft time we were at Mooa j 

but we did not enter the inclofure. Every perfon who went 

4 with. 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 323 

with us, had the mat tied over his cloth, and fome leaves \'n- 

' June. 

about the neck, as had been done on the former occafion ; 
and when we arrived at a large open boat-houfe, where a 
few people were, they threw away their leaves, fat down 
before it, and gave their cheeks a few gentle ftrokes with 
the fift J after which they continued fitting, for about ten 
minutes, with a very grave appearance, and then difperfed, 
without having fpoken a fingle word. This explained what 
Poulaho had mentioned about Tooge ; though, from the ope- 
ration only lading a few feconds, he had not been obferved 
to perform it. And this feems to be only a continuation of 
the mourning ceremony, by way of condolence. For, upon 
inquiring, on whofe account it was now performed ; we 
were told, that it was for a Chief who had died at Vavaoo, 
fome time ago ; that they had prac5lifed it ever fmce, and 
fhould continue to do fo, for a confiderable time longer. 

In the evening, we had a pig, drefTed as the hog, with 
yams and cocoa-nuts, brought for fupper ; and Futtafaihe 
finding, that we did not like the fcruples they had made 
before, to accept of any part of the entertainment, aflced 
us immediately to (hare it, and give it to whom we pleafed. 
When fupper was over, abundance of cloth was brought 
for us to fleep in ; but we were a good deal diflurbed, by 
a fmgular inltance of luxury, in which their principal men 
indulge themfelves; that of being beat while they are afleep. 
Two women fat by Futtafaihe, and performed this operation, 
which is called tooge tooge^ by beating briflcly on his body and 
legs, with both fifts, as on a drum, till he fell afleep, and con- 
tinuing it the whole night, with fome fhort intervals. When 
once the perfon is afleep, they abate a little in the ftrength 
and quicknefs of the beating ; but refume it, if they obferve 
any appearance of his awaking, hi the morning, we found 

T t 2 that 


'777- that Futtafaihc's women relieved each other, and went to 
,' — '--^ — ' fleep by turns. In any other country, it would be fuppofed, 
that fuch a practice would put an end to all reft ; but 
here it certainly a6ls as an opiate ; and is a ftrong proof of 
what habit may efFe6l. The noife of this, however, was 
not the only thing that kept us av^^ake ; for the people, who 
palTed the night in the houfe, not only converfed amongft 
each other frequently, as in the day ; but all got up before 
it was light, and made a hearty meal on fifli and yams, 
which were brought to them by a perfon, who feemed to 
know very well the appointed time for this no(5lurnal re- 

July, Next morning we fet out with Futtafaihe, and walked 

Tuefday i. (Jq^q t^g Eaft fide of the bay, to the point. The country,, 
all along this fide, is well cultivated ; but, in general, not 
fo much inclofed as at Mooa ; and amongft many other 
plantain fields that we paiTed, there was one at leaft a mile 
long, which was in excellent order, every tree growing 
with great vigour. We found, that, in travelling, Futta- 
faihe exercifed a pov^rer, though by no means wantonly, 
which pointed out the great authority of fuch principal 
men ; or is, perhaps, only annexed to thofe of the royal 
family. For he fent to one place for fifli ; to another for 
yams ; and fo on, at other places ; and all his orders were 
obeyed with thegreateft readinefs, as if he had been abfolute 
mafter of the people's property. On coming to the point, the 
natives mentioned fomething of one, who, they faid, had been 
fired at by fome of our people ; and, upon our wifliing to 
fee him, they condudted us to a houfe, where we found a 
man, who had been fliot through the fiioulder, but nor 
dangcroufly ; as the ball had entered a little above the inner 
part of the collar bone, and palTed out obliquely backward. 
I We 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 325 

"We were fure, from the ftate of the wound, that he was the 1777- 
perfon who had been fired at by one of the fentinels, three u-i"/-^ 
days before ; though pofitive orders had been given, that none 
of them fhould load their pieces with any thing but fmall 
flaof. We gave fome dire<5tions to his friends how to ma- 
nage the wound, to which no appHcation had been made; 
and they feemed pleafed, when we told them it would get 
well in a certain time. But, on our going away, they alked 
us to fend the wounded man fome yams, and other things 
for food ; and in fach a manner, that we could not help 
thinking they confidered it to be our duty to fupport him, 
till he fhould get well. 

In the evening we crofTed the bay to our ftation, in a 
canoe, which Futtafaihe had exercifed his prerogative in 
procuring, by calling to the firft that pafTed by. He had 
alfo got a large hog at this place -, and brought a fervant 
from his houfe with a bundle of cloth, which he wanted 
us to take with us, as a prefent from him. But the boat 
being fmall, we objecfled ; and he ordered it to be brought 
over to us the next day." 

I had prolonged my ftay at this iiland, on account of the 
approaching eclipfe ; but, on the yd of July, on looking Wednef. 2, 
at the micrometer belonging to the board of longitude, I 
found fome of the rack work broken, and the inflrument 
ufelefs till repaired; which there was not time to do before 
it was intended to be ufed. Preparing now for our de- 
parture, I got on board, this day, all the cattle, poultry, and 
other animals, except fuch as were deftined to remain. I 
had defigned to leave a turkey-cock and hen; but having, 
now only two of each undifpofed of, one of the hens, , 
through the ignorance of one of my people, was llrangled, . 


«26 A V O Y A G E T O 


»777- and died upon the fpot. I had brought three turkey-hens 
v_ -J^_f to thefe iflands. One was killed, as above mentioned; and 
-the other, by an ufelefs dog belonging to one of the officers. 
Thefe two accidents put it out of my power to leave a pair 
here j and, at the fame time, to carry the breed to Ota- 
heite, for which illand they were originally intended. I 
was forry, afterward, that I did not give the preference to 
Tongataboo, as the prefent would have been of more value 
there than at Otaheite ; for the natives of the former ifland, 
I am perfuaded, would have taken more pains to multiply 
the breed. 

Thurfday 3. The ucxt day we took up our anchor, and moved the 
fhips behind Pangimodoo, that we might be ready to take 
the advantage of the firft favourable wind, to get through 
the narrows. The king, who was one of our company, 
this day, at dinner, I obferved, took particular notice of the 
plates. This occafioned me to make him an oflfer of one, 
either of pewter, or of earthen ware. He chofe the firft ; 
and then began to tell us the feveral ufes to which he in- 
tended to apply it. Two of them are fo extraordinary, that 
I cannot omit mentioning them. He faid, that, whenever 
be fliould have occalion to vifit any of the other iflands, he 
would leave this plate behind him at Tongataboo, as a fort 
of reprefentative, in his abfence, that the people might pay 
it the fame obeifance they do to himfelf in perfon.* He 
was afked, what had been ufually employed for this pur- 
pofe, before he got this plate ; and we had the fatisfadlion 
of learning from him, that this fingular honour had hither- 
to been conferred on a wooden bowl in which he wafhed 
his hands. The other extraordinary ufe to which he meant 
to apply it in the room of his wooden bowl, was to difcover 
a thief. He faid, that, when any thing was ftolen, and the 



fhief could not be found out, the people were all afTembled '777- 

together before him, when he waflied his hands in water in < „ ' 

this vefTel ; after which it was cleaned, and then the whole 
multitude advanced, one after another, and touched it in the 
fame manner that they touch his foot, when they pay him 
obeifance. If the guilty perfon touched it, he died imme- 
diately upon the fpot ; not by violence, but by the hand of 
Providence ; and if any one refufed to touch it, his refufal 
was a clear proof that he was the man. 

In the morning of the j-th, the day of the eclipfe, the Saturday;,. 
■weather was dark and cloudy, with fliowers of rain ; fo 
that we had little hopes of an obfervation. About nine 
o'clock the fun broke out at intervals for about half an hour; 
after which it was totally obfcured, till within a minute or 
two of the beginning of the eclipfe. We were all at our 
telefcopes, viz. Mr. Bayly, Mr. King, Captain Gierke, Mr. 
Bligh, and myfelf. I loft the obfervation, by not having a 
dark glafs at hand, fuitable to the clouds that were conti- 
nually palling over the fun ; and Mr. Bligh had not got; 
the fun into the field of his telefcope ; fo that the com- 
mencement of the eclipfe was only obferved by the other 
three gentlemen ; and by them, with an uncertainty of fe— 
veral feconds, as follows: 

H. M. S. 

B^. Mr. Bayly, at n 46 23^' 

Mr. King, at 1 1 46 28 I Apparent time. . 
Capt. Gierke, at 1 1 47 5 

Mr. Bayly and Mr. King, obferved, with the achromatic 
telefcopes, belonging to the board of longitude, of equal 
magnifying powers ; and Gaptain Gierke obferved with one 
of the reflcctois. The fun appeared at intervals, till about 
the middle of the eclipfe ; after which it was feen no more 


"28 A V O Y A G E T O 


'777- during: the day ; fo that the end could not be obferved. -The 

July. , 

difappointment was of little confeqiience, fince the longi- 
tude was more than fufRciently determined, independently 
of this eclipfe, by lunar obfervations, which will be men- 
tioned hereafter. 

As foon as we knew the eclipfe to be over, we packed up 
the inftruments, took down the obfervatories, and fent every 
thing on board that had not been already removed. As none 
of the natives had taken the leaft notice or care of the three 
Iheep allotted to Mareewagee, I ordered them to be carried 
back to the fliips. I was apprehenfive, that, if I had left 
them here, they run great rifli of being deflroyed by dogs. 
That animal did not exifl: upon this ifland, when I firft vi- 
fired it in 1773; but I now found they had got a gCod ma- 
ny, partly from the breed then left by myfelf, and partly 
from fome, imported fmce that time, from an ifland not 
very remote, called Feejee. The dogs, however, at prefent, 
had not found their way into any of the Friendly Iflands, 
except Tongataboo ; and none but the Chiefs there had, as 
yet, got poiFeflion of any. 

Being now upon the eve of our departure from this illand, 
I Ihall add fome particulars about it, and irs produiflions, 
for which I am indebted to I\Ir. Anderfon. And, having fpent 
as many weeks there, as I had done days * when I vifited it 
in 1773; the better opportunities that now occurred, of gair- 
ing more accurate information, and the fkill of that gentle- 
man, in direc'^ing liis inquiries, will, in fome meafure, fup- 
ply the imperfection of my former account of this ifland. 

*' Amfterdam, Tongataboo, or (as the natives alfo veiy 
frequently called ic) Tonga, is about twenty leagues in 

* From the 4th to the 7th of O>flob;r. 



circuit, fomewhat oblon?, though, b}'' much, broadefl at »777' 


the Eafl end ; and its greateft length from Eaft to Weft. The u 
South fliore, which I faw in i Tj2i-> is ftraight, and confifts of 
coral rocks, eight or ten feet high, terminating perpendicu- 
larly, except in fome places where it is interrupted by fmall 
fandy beaches ; on which, at low water, a range of black 
rocks may be feen. The Weft end is not above five or fix 
miles broad, but has a lliore fomewhat like that of the 
South fide ; whereas the whole North fide is environed with 
Ihoals and iflands, and the fliore within them low and 
fandy. The Eaft fide or end is, moft probably, like the 
South ; as the fhore begins to afTume a rocky appearance, 
toward the North Eaft point, though not above feven or 
eight feet high. 

The ifland may, with the greateft propriety, be called a 
low one, as the trees, on the Weft part, where we now lay 
at anchor, only appeared ; and the only eminent part, 
which can be feen from a fhip, is the South Eaft point ; 
though many gently rifing and declining grounds are ob- 
fervable by one who is afhore. The general appearance of 
the country does not afford that beautiful kind of landfcape 
that is produced from a variety of hills and valleys, lawns, 
rivulets, and cafcades ; but, at the fame time, it conveys to 
the fpe6lator an idea of the moft exuberant fertility, whe- 
ther we refpecT: the places improved by art, or thofe ftill in 
a natural ftate ; both which yield all their vegetable pro- 
du(5lions v>?ith the greateft vigour, and perpetual verdure. 
At a diftance, the furface feems entirely clothed with trees 
of various fizes ; fome of which are very large. But, above 
the reft, the tall cocoa-palms aKvays raife their tufted 
heads ; and are far from being the fmalleft ornament to 
any country that produces them. The hoogo^ which is a 

Vol. I. U u fpecies 




fpecies of fig, with narrow pointed leaves, is the largeft 
fized tree of the ifland ; and on the uncuhivated fpots, efpe- 
cially toward the fea, the moft common bufhes and fmall 
trees are the pandanus ; feveral forts of hihifcus ; the faitanoo, 
mentioned more than once in the courfe of our voyage ; 
and a few ethers. It ought alfo to be obferved, that though 
the materials for forming grand landfcapes are wanting, 
there are many of what might, at lead, be called neat pro- 
fpedls, about the cultivated grounds and dwelling-places ; 
but, more efpecially, about the fatookas ; where foxTietimes 
art, and fometimes nature, has done much to pleafe the 

From the fituation of Tongataboo, toward the tropic, the 
climate is more variable, than in countries farther within 
that line ; though, perhaps, that might be owing to the 
feafon of the year, which was now the winter folftice. The 
winds are, for the moft part, from fome point between 
South and Eaftj and, when moderate, are commonly at- 
tended with fine weather. When they blow freiher, the 
weather is often cloudy, though open ; and, in fuch cafes, 
there is frequently rain. The wind fometimes veers to the 
North Eaft, North North Eaft, or even North North Weft, 
but never lafts long, nor blows ftrong from thence •, though it 
is commonly accompanied by heavy rain, and clofe fultry 
weather. The quick fucceffion of vegetables has been al- 
ready mentioned ; but I am not certain that the changes of 
weather, by which it is brought about, are confidefable 
enough to make them perceptible to the natives as to their 
method of life, or rather that they lliould be very fenfible 
of the different feafons. This, perliaps, may be inferred 
from the ftate of their vegetable productions, which are 
never fo much affeded, with refped to the foliage, as to flied 
J that 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 331 

that all at once ; for every leaf is fucceeded by another, \7-7- 

^ July. 

as fad as it falls ; which caufes that appearance of univerfal 
and continual fpring found here. 

The bafis of the ifland, as far as we know, is entirely a 
coral rock, which is the only fort that prefents itfelf on the 
fliore. Nor did we fee the leaft appearance of any other 
{tone, except a few fmall blue pebbles (Irewed about the 
fatookas; and the fmooth, folid black ftone, fomething like 
the lapis lydius, of which the natives make their hatchets. But 
thefe may, probably, have been brought from other iilands 
in the neighbourhood ; for a piece of liatey, iron-coloured 
ftone was bought at one of them, which was never feen here. 
Though the coral projefts in many places above the farface, 
the foil is, in general, of a confiderable depth. In all cul- 
tivated places, it is, commonly, of a loofe, black colour ; 
produced, feemingly, in a great meafure, from the rotten 
vegetables that are planted there. Underneath which is, 
very probably, a clzy qj Jl rat mi ; for a foil of that kind is often 
feen both in the low, and in the rifmg grounds ; but efpecially 
in feveral places toward the fliore, where it is of any height; 
and, when broken off, appears fometimes of a reddifh, 
though oftener of a brov/nifh yellow colour, and of a pretty 
llifF confiftence. Where the lliore is low, the foil is com- 
monly fandy, or rather compofed of triturated coral; which, 
however, yields bufhes growing with great luxuriance ; 
and is fometimes planted, not unfuccefsfully, by the na- 

Of cultivated fruits, the principal are plantains ; of which 
they have fifteen different forts or varieties; bread-fruit j 
two forts of fruit found at Otaheite, and known there un- 
der the names of jambu and eeevec ; the latter a kind of 

U u 2 plumb J 

332 A V O Y A G E T O 

I777- plumb; and vaft numbers of fliaddocks, which, however, 

July. ■* ' » J 

u..-^-«. ^ are found as often in a natural Hate, as planted. 

The roots are yams, of which are two forts ; one black, 
and fo large, that it often weighs twenty or thirty pounds ; 
the other white, and long, feldom weighing a pound; a 
large root, called kappe ; one not unlike our white potatoes, 
called viaivhaba ; the talo, or coccos of other places ; and an- 
other, n^va&djeejee. 

Befides vaft numbers of cocoa-nut trees, they have three 
other forts of palms, two of which are very fcarce. One of 
them is called beeoo; which grows almoft as high as the 
cocoa-tree, has very largd leaves plaited like a fan, and 
clufters or bunches of globular nuts, not larger than a fmall 
piftol ball, growing amongft the branches, with a very hard 
kernel, which is fometimes eat. The other is a kind of 
cabbage-tree, not diftinguifhable from the cocoa, but by 
being rather thicker, and by having its leaves more ragged. 
It has a cabbage three or four feet long; at the top of which 
are the leaves, and at the bottom the fruit, which is fcarcely 
two inches long, refembling an oblong cocoa-nut, with an 
infipid tenacious kernel, called, by the natives, jiecoo^oola, or 
red cocoa-nut, as it afTumes a reddifli caft when ripe. The 
third fort is called ongo ongo, and much commoner, being 
generally found planted about their fatooka^. It feldom 
grows higher than five feet, though fometimes to eight; 
and has a vail number of oval comprefled nuts, as large as 
a pippin, flicking immediately to the trunk, amongfl: the 
leaves, which are not eat. There is plenty of excellent 
fugar-cane, which is cultivated; gourds; bamboo; turmeric; 
and a fpecies of fig, about the fize of a fmall cherry, called 
77iatte, which, though wild, is fometimes eat. But the ca- 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N, 333 

talogue of uncultivated plants is too large to be enumerated '777. 
here. Befides the pemphis dccafpermum, rnallococca, 7nal;a, and 
fome other new genera, defcribed by Dr. Fofter *, there are 
a few more found here ; which, perhaps, the different fea- 
fons of the year, and his fhort ftay, did not give him an 
opportunity to take notice of. Although it did not appear, 
during our longer ilay, that above a fourth part of the trees, 
and other plants, were in flower ; a circumftance abfolutely 
necefTary, to enable one to diflinguifli the various kinds. 

The only quadrupeds, befides hogs, are a few rats, and 
fome dogs, which are not natives of the place, but produced 
from fome left by us in 1773, and by others got from Feejee. 
Fowls, which are of a large breed, are domefticated here. 

Amongft the birds, are parrots, fomewhat fmaller than 
the common grey ones, of an indifferent green on the back 
and wings, the tail bluifh, and the reft of a footy or choco- 
late brown ; parroquets, not larger than a fparrow, of a 
fine yellowifli green, with bright azure on the crown of the 
head, and the throat and belly red ; befides another fort as 
large as a dove, with a blue crown and thighs, the throat 
and under part of the head crimfon, as alfo part of the belly, 
and the reft a beautiful green. 

There are owls about the fize of our common fort, but of 
a finer plumage ; the cuckoos, mentioned at Palmerfton's 
Ifland ; king-fiihcrs, about the fize of a thruflTt, of a green- 
ifli blue, Vi^ich a white ring about the neck ; and a bird of 
the thrufh kind, almoft as big, of a dull green colour, v/ith 
two yellow wattles at the bafe of the bill, which is the only 
finging one we obferved here : but it compenfates a good deal 

* See his Characferes Generum Plantaruin. Lond. 1776. 


334 A V O Y A G E T O 

1777- for the want of others by the flrength and melody of its 

< w ' notes, which fill the woods at dawn, in the evening, and at 

ihe breaking up of bad weather. 

The other land birds are rails, as large as a pigeon, of a 
variegated grey colour, with a rufty neck ; a black fort with 
red eyes, not larger than a lark; large violet-coloured coots, 
■with red bald crowns ; tv/o forts of fly-catchers ; a very 
fmall fvvallow ; and three forts of pigeons, one of which is 
le ramter cuivre of Monf. Sonnerat * ; another, half the fize 
of the common fort, of a light green on the back and wings, 
with a red forehead ; and a third, fomewhat lefs, of a purple 
brown, but whitifh underneath. 

Of water- fowl, and fuch as frequent thefea, are the ducks 
feen at Annamooka, though fcarce here; blue and white 
herons; tropic birds; common noddies; white terns; anew 
fpecies of a leaden colour, with a black crefl; a fmall blu- 
ilh curlew; and a large plover, fpotted with yellow. Be- 
fides the large bats, mentioned before, there is alfo the com- 
mon fort. 

The only noxious or difguding animals of the reptile or 
infect tribe, are fea fnakes, three feet long, with black 
and white circles alternately, often found on fhore ; fome 
fcorpions, and centipedes. There are fine gxt(^n guanoes, a foot 
and a half long ; another brown and fpotted lizard, about a 
foot long; and two other fmall forts. Amongft the other in- 
fects are fome beautiful moths; butterflies; very large fpiders; 
and others; making, in the whole, about fifty different forts. 

The fea abounds with fifli, though the variety is lefs than 
might be expected. The mofl frequent forts are mullets; 

* J oyagt (■ la Nouvclle Guinee, Tab. CII. 



feveral forts of parrot-fifli ; filver fifli ; old wives ; fome beau- ^'ht- 


tifully fpotted foles ; leather-jackets ; bonnetos ; and albi- ' . — -/ 

cores ; befides the eels mentioned at Palmerfton's Ifland ; 
fome fliarks ; rays \ pipe-fiili ; a fort of pike ; and fome 
curious devil-fifli. 

The many reefs and fhoals on the North fide of the ifland, 
afford llieher for an endlefs variety of fhell-fifh ; amongft 
which are many that are efteemed precious in Europe. Such 
as the true hammer oyfter j of which, however, none could 
be obtained entire ; a large indentated oyfter, and feveral 
others; but none of the common fort; panamas ; cones; a 
fort of gigantic cockle, found alfo in the Eafl: Indies; -pearl 
fliell oyfters ; and many others ; feveral of which, 1 believe, 
have been hitherto unknown to the moft diligent inquirers 
after that branch of natural hiftory. There are, likewife, 
feveral forts of fea eggs; and many very fine ftar-fifli ; be- 
fides a confiderable variety of corals ; amongft v/hich are 
two red forts ; the one moft elegantly branched, the other 
tubulous. And there is no lefs variety amongft the crabs 
and Cray fifli, v/hich are very numerous. To which may be 
added, feveral forts of fponge ; the fea hare, hohthur'ut, and, 
the like." 

G H A V. 

336 A V O Y A G E T a 


jj grand Solemnity^ called Natche, in Honour of the 
Kings Son^ performed. — The Procejfwns and other Ce- 
remonies^ during the jirjl Day^ dejcribed. — ""The Man- 
72er of faffing the Night at the Kings Houfe. — Cvnti^m- 
ation of the Solemnity^ the next Day, — ConjeEiures about 
the Nature of it. — Departure from 'Tongataboo^ ajid 
Arrival at Eooa, — Account of that If and ^ and Tranf- 
aSlions there, 

i-j-j-j. WJ "^ were now ready to fail ; but the wind being Eaft- 
. ■^"'^' . W erly, we had not fufficient day Hght to turn through 
Sunday 6. ^|^g narrows, either with the morning, or with the evening 

flood ; the one falHng out too early, and the other too late. 

So that, without a leading wind, we were under a neceflity 

of wahing two or three days. 

I took the opportunity of this delay, to be prefent at a 
public folemnity, to which the king had invited us, when 
we went laft to vifit him, and which, he had informed us, 
was to be performed on the 8th. With a view to this, he 
and all the people of note, quitted our neighbourhood on 
Monday 7. the 7th, and repaired to Mooa, where the folemnity was to 
Tuefday 8. be exhibited. A party of us followed them, the next morn- 
ing. We underftood, from what Poulaho had faid to us, 
that his fon and heir was now to be initiated into certain 
X privileges ; 

T H E P A C IF I C O G E A N. 337 

privileges ; amongfl: which was, that of eating with his fa- '777- 
iher ; an honour he had not, as yet, been admitted to. 

We arrived at Mooa about eight o'clock, and found the 
king, with a large circle of attendants fitting before him, 
Vi/^ithin an inclofure fo fmall and dirty, as to excite my won- 
der that any fuch could be found in that neighbourhood. 
They were intent upon their ufual morning occupation, in 
preparing a bowl of kava. As this was no liquor for us, we 
walked out to vifit fome of our friends, and to obferve what 
preparations might be making for the ceremony, which was 
foon to begin. About ten o'clock, the people began to alTemble, 
in a large area, which is before the malaee^ or great houfe, to 
whichr we had been conducted the firft time we vifited Mooa. 
At the end of a road, that opens into this area, flood fome 
men with fpears and clubs, who kept conftantly reciting, or 
chanting, fliort fentences, in a mournful tone, which con- 
veyed fome idea of diftrefs, and as if they called for fome- 
thing. This was continued about an hour; and, in the 
mean time, many people came down the road, each of them 
bringing a yam, tied to the middle of a pole, which they 
laid down, before the perfons who continued repeating the 
fentences. While this was going on, the king and prince 
arrived, and feated themfelves upon the area ; and we were 
defired to lit down by them, but to pull off our hats, and 
to untie our hair. The bearers of the yams being all come 
in, each pole was taken up between two men, who carried 
it over their fhoulders. After forming themfelves into com- 
panies, of ten or twelve perfons each, they marched acrofs 
the place, with a quick pace ; each company, headed by a 
man bearing a club or fpear, and guarded, on the right, by 
feveral others, armed with different weapons. A man car- 
rying a living pigeon on a perch, clofed the rear of the 

Vol. I. X X proceffion. 


«777- procefllon, in which about two hundred and fifty perfons 

July. '^ 

' w ' walked. 

Omai was defired by me, to alk the Chief, to what place 
the yams were to be thus carried, with fo much folemnity ? 
bur, as he feemed unwilling to give us the information we 
wanted, two or three of us followed the procefhon, contrary 
to his inclination. Wc found, that they flopped before a ?/iorai 
or fatooka * of one houfe flanding upon a mount, which was 
hardly a quarter of a mile from the place where they firfl 
affembled. Here we obferved them depofiting tiie yams, 
and making them up into bundles ; but for what purpofe, 
we could not learn. And; as our prefence feemed to give 
them uneafinefs, wc left them, and returned to Poulaho, who 
told us, we might amufe ourfelves by walking about, as no- 
thing would be done for fomc time. The fear of lofing any 
part of the ceremony, prevented our being long abfent. When 
we returned to the king, he defired me to order the boat's 
crew not to ilir from the boat ; for, as every thing would, very 
foon, be taboo, if any of our people, or of their own, fliould 
be found walking about, they would be knocked down 
with clubs ; my matccd, that is, killed. He alfo acquaintexl 
us, that we could not be prefent at the ceremony; but that 
we Ihould be condu(5ted to a place, where we might fee 
every thing that palFed. Objecftions were made to our 
drefs. Wc were told, that, to qualify us to be prefent, it 
was neceffary that we fliould be naked as low as tlie bread, 
with our hats oif, and our hair untied. Omai offered to 
conform to thefe requifites, and began to ftrip ; other objec- 
tions were then ftarted ; fo that the exclufion was given to 
him equally with ourfelves. 

♦ This is the Jjgiooia mentioned above by Mr. Anderfon, p. 321, 

t I did 


I did not much like this reftriclion ; and, therefore, flolc 
our, to fee what might now be going forward. I found 
very few people ilirring, except thofe dreflcd to attend tlic 
ceremony ; feme of wliom had in their hands fniall poles, 
about four feet long, and to the under-part of thefe were 
faCtened two or three other flicks, not bigger than one's 
finger, and about fix inches in length. Thefe men were 
going toward the anrai juft mentioned. I took the fame 
road, and was, feveral times, flopped by them, all crying 
out taboo. However, I went forward, without much regard- 
ing them, till I came in fight of the moral., and of the people 
who were fitting before it. I was now urged, very (Irongly 
to go back; and, not knowing what might be the confe- 
quence of a refufal, I complied. I had obferved, that the 
people, who carried the poles, pafTed this morai, or what I 
may, as well, call temple ; and gueffing, from this circum- 
flance, that fomething was tranfadling beyond it, which 
might be worth looking at, I had thoughts of advancing, 
by making a round, for tliis purpofe ; but I was fo clofely 
watched by three men, that I could not put my defign in 
execution. In order to fliake thefe fellows od', I returned 
to the vuilacc, where I had left the king, and, from thence, 
made an elopement a fecoiid time ; but I inilantly met with 
ihe fame thice men ; io that it feemed, as if they had been 
ordered to watch my morions. I paid no regard to what 
they faid or did, till I came within light of the king's prin- 
cipal /^/oi (.2 or moral, which I have already defcribed*, before 
which a great number of men were fitting, being the fame 
perfons whom I had jud before feen pafs by the other moral., 
from which this was but a little diftant. Obferving, that I 
could watch the proceedings of this company from the 

* See p. 313. 

X :i 2 king's 




1777- king's plantation, I repaired thither, very much to the fa- 
i^L-^ tisfa(ftion of thofe who attended me. 

As foon as I got in, I acquainted the gentlemen who had 
come with me from the fhips, with what I had feen y 
and we took a proper ftation, to watch the refult. The 
number of people, at the Jiatvoka, continued to increafe for 
fome time ; and, at length, we could fee them quit their fit- 
ting poilure, and march off in procellion. They walked in 
pairs, one after another, every pair carrying, between them, 
one of the fmall poles above-mentioned, on their Ihoulders. 
We were told, that the fmall pieces of flicks, faftened to the 
poles, were yams ; fo that, probably, they were meant to 
reprefent this root emblematically. The hindmoft men of 
each couple, for the moft part, placed one of his hands to 
the middle of the pole, as if, without this additional fup- 
port, it were not flrong enough to carry the weight that 
hung to it, and under which they all feepied to bend, as 
they walked. This proceffion confifted of one hundred and 
eight pairs, and all, or mofl of thcra, men of rank. They 
came clofe by the fence behind which we flood j fo that we 
had a full view of them. 

Having waited here, till they had all paffed, we then re- 
paired to Poulaho's houfe, and faw him going out. We 
could not be allowed to follow him ; but were, forthwith, 
condu(51;ed to the place allotted to us, which was behind a 
fence, adjoining to the area of the Jiatooka where the yams 
had been depofitcd in the forenoon. As we were not the 
only people v»?ho were excluded from being publicly preient 
at this ceremony, but allowed to peep from behind the cur- 
tain, we had a good deal of company ; and I obfervecl, that 
all the other inclofures, round the place, were filled with 
7 people. 


people. And, yef, all imaginable care feemed to be taken, 'j;?- 
that they mould fee as little as poffible ; for the fences had 
not only been repaired that niorning, but, in many places, 
raifed higher than common ; fo that the talleft man could 
not look over them. To remedy this defe6l in our flation, 
we took the liberty to cut holes in the fence, with our 
knives; and, by this means, we could fee, pretty diflincfliy, 
every thing that was tranfac^ing on the other fide. 

On our arrival at our flation, we found two or three 
hundred people, fitting on the grafs, near the end of the 
road that opened into the area of the moral-, and the num- 
ber continually increafed, by others joining them. At length, 
arrived a few men carrying fome fmall poles, and branches 
or leaves of the cocoa-nut tree ; and, upon their firft ap- 
pearance, an old man feated himfelf in the road, and, with 
his face toward them, pronounced a long oration in a feri- 
ous tone. He then retired back, and the others advancing 
to the middle of the area, began to eredl a fmall fhed j em- 
ploying, for that purpofe, the materials above-mentioned. 
When they had finifhed their work, they all fquatted down, 
for a moment, before it, then rofe up, and retired to the refl 
of the company. Soon after, came Poulaho's fon, preceded 
by four or five men, and they feated themfelves a little afide 
from the flied, and rather behind it. After them, appeared 
twelve or founeen women of the firft rank, walking flowly 
in pairs, each pair carrying between them, a narrow piece 
of v^hite cloth extended, about two or three yards in length. 
Thefe marched up to the prince, fquatted dov/n before him j 
and, having wrapped fome of the pieces of the cloth they 
had brought, round his body, they rofe up, and retired in 
the fame order, to fome diftance on his left, and there feated 
themfelves. Poulaho himfelf foon made his appearance, 



'777- preceded by four men, who walked two and two abreafl;, 
and fat down on his fon's left hand, about twenty paces 
from him. The young prince, then> quitting his firll: po- 
firion, went and fat down under the fhed, with his attend- 
ants ; and a confiderable number more placed themfelves 
on the grafs, bef-ore this royal canopy. The prince himfelf 
fat facing the people, with his back to the morai. This 
being done, three companies, of ten or a dozen nien in 
each, ftarted up from amongft the large crovs^d, a little after 
each other, and running haftily to the oppofue fide of the 
area, fat down for a few feconds ; after which, they re- 
turned, in the fame manner, to their former flations. To 
them fucceeded two men, each of whom held a fmall 
green branch in his hand, who got up and approached the 
prince, fitting down, for a few feconds, three different 
times, as they advanced; and then, turning their backs, tie- 
tired in the fame manner, inclining their branches to each 
other as they fat. In a little time, two more repeated this 

The grand proceffion, which I had feen march off from 
the other morai, now began to come in. To judge of the 
circuit they had made, from the time they had been abfent, it 
muft have been pretty large. As they entered the area, they 
marched up to the right of the fhed, and, having proftratcd 
themfelves on the grafs, depofited their pretended bur- 
thens (the poles above-mentioned), and faced round to the 
prince. They then rofe up, and retired in the fame order, 
clofmg their hands, which rhey held before them, with the 
moil ferious afpedl, and feated themfelves along the front 
of the area. During all the time that this numerous band 
were coming in, and depofiting their poles, three men, who 
fat under the flie^, with the prince, continued pronouncing 


T H E P A C I F I G O C E A N. 543 

feparate fentcnces, in a melancholy tone. After this, a pro- yj^- 
found filcnce enfucd, for a little time, and then a man, who <— -v^ — •* 
fat in the front of the area, began an oration (or prayer), 
during which, at feveral different times, he went and broke 
one of the poles, which had been brought in by thofe who 
had walked in proceffion. When he had ended, the people, 
fitting before the flied, feparated, to make a lane, through 
which the prince and his attendants pafled, and the affembly 
broke up. 

Some of our party, fatisfied with what they had already 
feen, now returned to tiie fliips ; but I, and two or three 
more of the officers, remained at Mooa, to fee the conclu- 
fion of the folcmnity, which was not to be till the next day; 
being defirous of omitting no opportunity, which might 
afford any information about the religious or the political 
ir^ftitutions of this people. The fmall (licks or poles, which 
had been brought into the area, by thofe who walked in 
proceffion, being left lying on the ground, after the crowd 
had difperfed, I went and examined them. I found, that to 
the middle of each, two or three fmall (licks were tied, as 
has been related. Yet we had been repeatedly told by the 
natives, who flood near us, that they were young yams; 
infomuch that fome of our gentlemen believed them, ra- 
ther than their own eyes. As I had the demonftration of 
my fenfes to fatisfy me, that they were not real yams, it is 
clear, that we ought to have underflood them, that they 
were only the artificial reprefentations of thefe roots. 

Our fa pper was got ready about feven o'clock. It con- 
fifted of fifh and yams. We might have had pork alfo ; but 
we did not choofe to kill a large hog, which the king had 
given to us for that purpofe. He fupped with us, and drank 
pretty freely of brandy and water; fo that he went to bed 





1777- with a fufEcient dofe. We pafled the night in the fame 


w^ — ^ » houfe with him, and feveral of his attendants. 

Wednef. 9. About onc OF two o'clock in the morning they waked, 
and convened for about an hour, and then went to lleep 
again. All, but Poulaho himfelf, rofe at day-break, and 
went, I know not whither. Soon after, a woman, onc of 
thofe who generally attended upon the Chief, came in, and 
inquired where he was. I pointed him out to her; and 
flie immediately fat down by him, and began the fame 
operation, which Mr. Anderfon had feen pra6tifed upon 
Futtafaihe, tapping or beating gently, with her clinched 
lifts, on his thighs. This, inftead of prolonging his fleep, 
as was intended, had the contrary effeft ; however, though 
he awaked, he continued to lie down. 

Omai, and I, now went to vifit the prince, who had part- 
ed from us early in the evening. For he did not lodge with 
the king ; but in apartments of his own, or, at leaft, fuch 
as had been allotted to him, at fome diftance from his fa- 
ther's houfe. We found him with a circle of boys, or 
youths, about his ov/n age, fitting before him; and an old 
woman, and an old man, who feemed to have the care of 
him, fitting behind. There were others, both men and 
women, employed about their necefTary affairs, in differ- 
ent departments ; who, probably, belonged to his houfe- 

From the prince we returned to the king. By this time 
he had got up, and had a crowded circle before him, com- 
pofed chiefly of old men. While a large bowl of kava was 
preparing, a baked hog and yams, fmoking hot, were 
brought in ; the greateft part of which fell to our fliare, 
and was very acceptable to the boat's crew : for thefe people 



cat very little in a morning; efpecially the ka'va drinkers. i;?;- 
I afterward walked out, and vifited feveral other Chiefs ; 
and found, that all of them were taking their morning 
draught, or had already taken it. Returning to the king, F 
found him aileep in a fmall retired hut, with two women 
tapping on his breech. About eleven o'clock he arofe again ; 
and then fome fifli and yams, which tailed as if they had 
been flewed in cocoa-nut milk, were brought to him. Of 
thefe he eat a large portion, and lay down once more to 
ilcep. I now left him, and carried to the prince a prefent of 
cloth, beads, and other articles, which I had brought with 
me from the fliip for the purpofe. There was a fufficient 
quantity of cloth to make him a complete fuit j and he 
was immediately decked out with it. Proud of his drefs, 
he firft went to fliew himfelf to his father; and then con- 
du(5led me to his mother; with whom were about ten or a 
dozen other women of a refpedlable appearance. Here the 
prince changed his apparel, and made me a prefent of two 
pieces of the cloth manufacftured in the ifland. By this time, 
it was paft noon, when, by appointment, I repaired to the 
palace to dinner. Several of our gentlemen had returned, 
this morning, from the fliips ; and we v/ere all invited to 
the feaft, which was prefently ferved up, and conliiled of 
two pigs and yams. I roufed the drowfy monarch, to 
partake of what he had provided for our entertainment. 
In the mean time, two mullets, and fome fliell-fifli, were 
brought to him, as I fuppofed, for his feparate portion. But 
he joined it to our fare, fat down with us, and made a 
hearty meal. 

When dinner was over, we v/ere told that the cere- 
mony would foon begin ; and were xlridly enjoined not to 
walk out. I had refolved, however, to peep no longer 

Vol. I. y y from 


I777- from behind the curtain, but to mix with the a6lors them- 


' „ ' felves, if pollible. With this view, I ftole out from the 

plantation, and walked toward the moral, the fcene of the 
folemnity. I was, feveral times, defired to go back, by 
people whom I met ; but I paid no regard to them ; and they 
fufFered me to pafs on. When I arrived at the morai^ I found 
a number of men feated on the fide of the area, on each 
fide of the road that leads up to it. A few were fitting on 
the oppofite fide of the area ; and two men in the middle of 
if, with their faces turned to the 'inorai. When I got into 
the midfl of the firft company, I was delired to fit down 5 
which I accordingly did. Where I fat, there were lying a 
number of fmall bundles or parcels, compofed of cocoa-nut 
leaves, and tied to flicks made into the form of hand- 
barrows. All the information I could get about them was, 
that they were taboo. Our number kept continually in- 
creafing ; every one coming from the fame quarter. From 
time to time, one or another of the company turned himfelf 
to ihofe who were coming to join us, and made a fiiorc 
fpeech ; in which I could remark that the word arekce, that 
is King, was generally mentioned. One man faid fome- 
thing that produced burfts of hearty laughter from all the 
crowd ; others, of the fpeakers, met with public applaufe. 
I was, feveral times, defired to leave the place ; and, at lafl,, 
when they found that I would not llir, after fome feeming 
confukation, they applied to me to uncover my fhoulders 
as theirs were. Witli this requeft I complied ; and then they 
feemed to be no longer uneai'y at my prefence. 

I fat a full hour, without any thing more going forward,^ 
befide what I have mentioned. At length the prince, the 
women, and the king, all came in, as they had done the 
day before. The prince, being placed under the flied, after 



his father's arrival, two men, each carrying a piece of mar, >777- 
came, repeating fomething ferioufly, and put them about him. 
The affenibled people now began their operations; and firft, 
three companies ran backward and forward acrofs the area, as 
defcribed in the account of the proceedingsof the former day. 
Soon after, the two men, who fat in the middle of the area, 
made a fliort fpeech or prayer ; and then the whole body, 
amongft whom I had my place, ftarted up, and ran and 
feated themfelves before the flied under which the prince, 
and three or four men, were fitting. I was now partly under 
the management of one of the company, who feemed very 
affiduous to ferve me. By his means, I was placed in fuch 
a fituation, that, if I had been allowed to make ufe of my 
eyes, nothing that pafTed could have efcaped me. But it 
was necefTary to fu with dovvn-caft looks, and demure as 

Soon after, the proceffion came in, as on the day before ; 
each two pcrfons bearing on their fhoulders a pole, round 
the middle of which, a cocoa-nut leaf was plaited. Thefe 
were depofited with ceremonies fimilar to thofe obferved 
on the. preceding day. This firft proceffion was followed 
by a fecond ; the men compofing which, brought baflcets, 
fuch as are ufually employed by this people to carry pro- 
vifions in, and made of palm leaves. Thefe were followed ' 
by a third proceffion, in which were brought different kinds 
of fmall fifli ; each fixed at the end of a forked flick. The 
baflvcts were carried up to an old man, whom I took to be 
the Chief Prieff, and who fat on the prince's right-hand, 
v;ithout the flied. He held each in his hand, while he made a 
Ihort fpeech or prayer ; then laid it down, and called for 
another, repeating the fame words as before ; and thus he 
went through the whole number of bafkets. The fifli were 

Y y 2 prefented, 


»777- prefented, one by one, on the forked flicks, as they came 

; v-..^ in, to two men, who fat on the left ; and who, till now, 

held green branches in their hands. The firfl fifh they 
laid down on their right, and the fecond on their left. When 
the third was prefented, a ftout looking man, who fat be- 
hind the other two, reached his arm over between them, 
and made a fnatch at it ; as alfo did the other two, at the 
very fame time. Thus they feemed to contend for every 
fifh that was prefented; but as there were two hands againft 
one, belides the advantage of fituation, the man behind got 
nothing but pieces ; for he never quitted his hold, till the 
fifh was torn out of his hand ; and what little remained in 
it, he fliook out behind him. The others laid what they 
got, on the right and left alternately. At length, either by 
• accident or defign, the man behind got pofTefTion of a whole 
fifh, without either of the other two fo much as touching 
it. At this, the word mareeai, which fignifies very good, or 
well dotie, was uttered in a low voice throughout the whole 
crowd. It feemed, that he had performed now all that was 
expected from him ; for he made no attempt upon the 
few fifh that came after. Thefe fifli, as alfo the baflvcts, 
were all delivered, by the perfons who brought them in, 
fitting ; and, in the fame order and manner, the fmall 
poles, which the firfl procefTion carried, had been laid upon 
the ground. 

The laft procefTion being clofed, there was fome fpeak- 
ing or praying, by different perfons. Then, on fome lignal 
being given, we all flarted up, ran feveral paces to the lefr^ 
and fat down with our backs to the prince, and the few 
who remained with him. I was defired not to look behind 
me. However, neither this injundion, nor the remem- 
brance of Lot's wife, difcouraged me from facing about. 

5 I now 


I now faw that the prince had turned his face to the morai. 1777- 
But this lafl movement had brought fo many people be- "^' 
tween him and me, that I could not perceive what was 
doing. I was afterward afTured, that, at this very time, the 
prince was admitted to the high honour of eating with his 
father ; which, till now, had never been permitted to him ; 
a piece of roafted yam being prcfented to each of them for 
this purpofe. This was the more probable, as we had been 
told, before-hand, that this was to happen during the fo- 
lemnity ; and as all the people turned their backs to them, 
at this time, which they always do when their monarch 

After fome little time, we all faced about, and formed a 
femicircle before the prince, leaving a large open fpace be- 
tween us. Prefendy there appeared fome men coming to- 
ward us, two and two, bearing large flicks, or poles, upon 
their flioulders, making a noife that might be called fing- 
ing, and waving their hands as they advanced. When they 
had got clofe up to us, they made a fliew of walking very 
faft, without proceeding a fingle ftep. Immediately after, 
three or four men ftarted up from the crowd, with large 
Hicks in their hands, who ran toward thofe new-comers. 
The latter inftantly threw down the poles from their fhoul- 
dcrs, and fcampered off; and the others attacked the poles ; 
and, having beat them moft unmercifully, returned to their 
places. As the pole-bearers ran oiF, they gave the challenge 
that is ufual here in wreflling ; and, not long after, a num- 
ber of flout fellows came from the fame quarter, repeating 
the challenge as they advanced. Thefe were oppofed by a. 
party, who came from the oppofite fide almoil at the fame 
inftant. The two parties paraded about the area for a 
few minutes, and then retired, each to their own fide. After 



ISO A ^^ O Y A G E T O 

^777- this, there were vvreftlins; and boxine-matches for about 

July. , '-' " 

half an hour. Then two men feated themfelves before the 
prince, and made fpeeches, addrefled, as I thought, entirely 
to him. With this the folcmnity ended, and the whole af- 
fembly broke up. 

I now went and examined the feveral baflcets which had 
been prefented ; a curiofity that I was not allowed before to 
indulge ; becaufe every thing was then taboo. But the fo- 
lemnity being now over, they became, limply, what I found 
them to be, empty baflvets. .So that, whatever they were 
fuppofcd to contain, was emblematically reprefented. And 
fo, indeed, was every other thing which had been brought 
in proceffion, except the fifli. 

We endeavoured, in vain, to find out the meaning, not 
only of the ceremony in general, which is called Natche, but 
of its different parts. We feldom got any other anfwer to 
our inquiries, h\xi taboo ; a word, which, I have before ob- 
ferved, is applied to many other things. But, as the prince 
■was, evidently, the principal perfon concerned in it ; and 
as we had been told by the king, ten days before the cele- 
bration of the Natche^ that the people would bring in yams 
for him and his fon to eat together; and as he even de- 
fcribed fome part of the ceremony, we concluded, from 
what he had then faid, and from what we now faw, that 
an oath of allegiance, if I may fo exprefs myfelf, or folemn 
promife, was, on this occafion, made to the prince, as the 
immediate fucceffor to the regal dignity, to fland by him, 
and to furnifli him with the feveral articles that were here em- 
blematically reprefented. This feems the more probable, as 
all the principal people of the ifland, whom we had ever feen, 
affifted in the proceffions. But, be this as it may, the whole 
6 was 


was conducfled with a great deal of myfterious foleranity ; 
and, that there was a mixture of leligion in the inditutionj 
was evident, not only from the place where it was per- 
formed, but from the manner of performing it. Our drefs 
and deportment had never been called in quefiion, upon any 
former occafion whatever. Now, it was expetfled that we 
fhould be uncovered as low as the waift ; that our hair 
fhould be loofe, and flowing over our flioulders; that we 
Ihould, like themfelves, lit crofs-legged ; and, at times, in 
the mod humble poflurc, with down-cafl eyes, and hands 
locked together ; all which requilites were mofl devoutly 
obfcrved by the whole alTcmbly. And, laflly, every one 
was CAcluded from the folemnity, but the principal people, 
and thofe who aflifted in the celebration, All thefe circum- 
ftances were to me a fufFiclent teftimony, that, upon this- 
occafion, they confidered themfelves as acTcing under the 
immediate infpe(5tion of a Supreme Being, 

The prefent Natche may be conlidered, from the above ac- 
count of it, as merely figurative,. For the fmall quantity of 
yams, v/hich we faw the firft day, could not be intended as 
a general contribution ; and, indeed, we were given to un- 
derftand, that they were a portion confecrated to the 0/o5^, 
or Divinity. But we were informed, that, in about three 
months, there would be performed, on the fame account, 
a far more important and grander folemnity ; on which oc- 
cafion, not only the tribute of Tongaraboo, but that of Ha- 
paee, Vavaoo, and of all the other iflands, would be brought 
to the Chief, and confirmed more awfully, by facrificing 
ten human vidims fror.i amongft the inferior fort of people. 
A honid folemnity indeed i and which is a moft fignificant 
inflance of the influence of gloomy and ignorant fuperfli- 
tion, over the minds of one of the moft benevolent and liu- 

• . mane-. 


y77- mane nations upon earth. On inquiring into the reafons 
of fo barbarous a pracflice, they only faid, that it was a ne- 
ccffary pare of the Natche; and that, if they omitted it, the 
Deity would certainly deftroy their king. 

Before the aflembly broke up, the day was far fpentj and 
as we were at fome diftance from the fliips, and had an in- 
tricate navigation to go through, we were in hafte to fet out 
from Mooa. When I took leave of Poulaho, he preiTed me 
much to ftay till the next day, to be prefent at a funeral ce- 
remony. The wife of Mareewagee, who was mother in-law 
to the king, had lately died ; and her corpfe had, on account 
of the Natche, been carried on board a canoe that fay iu 
the lagoon. Poulaho told me, that, as foon as he had paid the 
laft offices to her, he would attend me to Eooa ; but, if I did 
not wait, that he would follow me thither. I underflood, 
at the fame time, that, if it had not been for the death of 
this woman, mod of the Chiefs would have accompanied us 
to that ifland ; where, it feems, all of them have pofTeffions. 
I would gladly have waited to fee this ceremony alio, had 
'not the tide been now favourable for the fhips to get 
through the narrows. The wind, befides, which, for fc- 
veral days pail, had been very boifterous, was now mode- 
rate and fettled ; and to have loft this opportunity, might 
have detained us a fortnight longer. But what was de- 
ciiive againft my waiting, we underflood that the funeral 
ceremonies would laft five days, which was too long a time, 
as the fhips lay in fuch a fituation, that I could not get to 
fea at pleafure. I, however, afTured the king, that, if we 
did not fail, I fhould certainly vifit him again the next day. 
And fo we all took leave of him, and fet out for the fliips, 

•where we arrived about eight o'clock in the evening. 

I had 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. sr? 


I had forgot to mention, that Omai was prcfcnt at this fc- 
cond day's ceremony, as well as myfelf ; but we were not 
together ; nor did I know that he was there, till it was al- 
moft over. He afterward told me, that, as foon as the 
king faw that 1 had ftolen out from the plantation, he fent 
feveral people, one after another, to delire me to come back. 
Probably, thefe mefTcngcrs were not admitted to the place 
where I was ; for I faw nothing of them. At lall, intelli- 
gence was brought to the Chief, that I had actually ftrip- 
ped, in conformity to their cuftom ; and then he told Omai, 
that he might be prefent alfo, if he would comply with all 
the neceflary forms. Omai had no objedlion, as nothing 
was required of him, but to conform to the cuftom of his 
own country. Accordingly, he was furniQicd with a proper 
drefs, and appeared at the ceremony as one of the natives. 
It is likely, that one reafon of our being excluded at firft, 
was an apprehenfion, that we would not fubrait to the re- 
quiiitcs to qualify us to aflift. 

While I was attending the Natche at Mooa, I ordered the "^ 
horfes, bull and cow, and goats, to be brought thither ; 
thinking that they would be fafer there, under the eyes of 
the Chiefs, than at a place that would be, in a manner, de- 
ferted, the moment after our departure. Beiidcs the above- 
mentioned animals, we left, with our friends here, a young 
boar, and three young fows, of the Englifh breed. They 
were exceedingly defirous of them, judging, no doubt, that 
they would greatly improve their own breed, which is ra- 
ther fmall. Fcenou alfo got from us two rabbits, a buck 
and a doe ; and, before we foiled, we were told, that young 
ones had been already produced. If the cattle fuccecd, of 
which I make no doubt, it will be a vaft acquifition to thefe 

Vol. I. Z z iHands; 




'777- iflands ; and, as Ton^ataboo is a fine level country, the- 


« ' horfes cannot but be ufcful. 

Thurfdayio. On the loth, at eight o'clock in the morning, we weighed 
anchor, and, with a fleady gale at South Eaft, turned 
through the channel, between the fmall ifles called Makka- 
haa and Monooatai ; it being nauch wider than the channel 
between the laft mentioned ifland and Pangimodoo. The 
flood fet ftrong in our favour, till we were the length of the 
channel leading up to the lagoon, where the flood from the 
Eaftward meets that from the Weft. This, together with 
the indraught of the lagoon^ and of the fhoals before it, 
caufeth ftrong riplings and whirlpools. To add to thefe 
dangers, the depth of water in the channel exceeds the 
length of a cable ; fo that there is no anchorage, except 
clofe to the rocks, where we meet with forty and forty-five 
fathoms, over a bottom of dark fand. But then, here, a 
fliip would be expofed to the whirlpools. This fruftrated 
the defign which I had formed, of coming to an anchor, as 
foon as we were through the narrows, and of making an 
excurfion to fee the funeral. I chofe rather to lofe that ce- 
remony, than to leave the fliips in a fituation, in which I 
did not think them fafe. We continued to ply to windward, 
between the two tides, without either gaining or lofing an 
inch, till near high water, when, by a favourable flant, we 
got into the Eaftern tide's influence. We expeded, there, to 
find the ebb to run ftrong to the Eafl:ward in our favour ; 
but it proved fo inconfiderable, that, at any other time, it 
would not have been noticed. This informed us, that mofl: 
of the water, which flows into the lagoofi, comes from the 
North Weft, and returns the fame way. About five in the 
afternoon, finding that we could not get to fea before it was 
4 dark, 

T H E P A G I F I C O C E A N. sss 

<3ark, I came to an anchor, under the fliorc of Tongataboo, '777- 

in forty-live fathoms water; and about two cables length i ,— ^ 

from the reef, that runs along that lide of the ifland. The 
Difcovery dropped anchor under our ftern ; but before the 
anchor took hold, fhe drove off the bank, and did not re- 
cover it till after midnight. 

We remained at this llation, till eleven o'clock, the next Friday n.. 
day, when we weighed, and plyed to the Eaftward. But it 
was ten at night, before we weathered the Baft end of the 
illand, and were enabled to flretch away for Middleburg, or 
Eooa (as it is called by the inhabitants), where we anchored, 
at eight o'clock, the next morning, in forty fathoms water, Saturday 12, 
over a bottom of fand, interfperfed with coral rocks ; the 
extremes of the illand extending, from North, 40° Eaft, to 
South, 22° Well; the high land of Eooa, South, 45° Eall^ 
and Tongataboo, from North, 70° Weft, to North, 19° Weft; 
diftant about half a mile from the Ihore ; being nearly the 
fame place where I had my ftation in 1773, and then named 
by me, Eng/t/h Road. 

We had no fooner anchored, than Taoofa the Chief, and 
feveral other natives, vifited us on board, and Teemed to re- 
joice much at our arrival. This Taoofa * had been my Tayot 
when I was here, during my iaft voyage ; confequently, we 
were not ftrangers to each other. In a little time, I went 
afliore with him, in fearch of frefli water; the procuring 
of which, was the chief objed: that brought me to Eooa. I 
had been told, at Tongataboo, that there was here a ftream, 
running from the hills into the fea ; but this was not the 
cafe now. I was firft conducted to a brackifli fpring, be- 
tween low and high water mark, amongft rocks, in the 

* In the account of Captain Cook's former voyage, he calls the only Chief he 
ihen met with, at this place, Tioony. See Vol. i. p. 102. 

Z z 2 cove 

;;i5 A V O Y A G E T Q 

cove where we landed, and where no one would ever have 
thought of looking for what we wanted. However, I be- 
lieve, the water of this fpring might be good, were it pof- 
fible to take it up, before the tide mixes with it. Finding 
that we did not like this, our friends took us a little way 
into the ifland ; where, in a deep chafm, we found very 
good water ; which, at the expence of fome time and 
trouble, might be conveyed down to the Ihore, by means of 
fpouts or trouglis, that could be made with plantain leaves, 
and the flera of the tree. But, rather than to undertake 
that tedious tafk, I refolved to reft contented with the fupply 
the fliips had got at Tongataboo. 

Before I returned on board, I fet on foot a trade for hogs 
and yams. Of the former, we could procure but few ; bur, 
of the latter, plenty. I put afliore, at this ifland, the rara 
and two ewes, of the Cape of Good Hope breed of flieep ; 
intrufting them to the care of Taoofa, who feemed proud 
of his charge. It v^-as fortunate, perhaps, that Mareewa- 
gee, to whom I had given them, as before-mentioned, 
flighted the prefent. Eooa, not having, as yet, got any dogs 
upon it, feems to be a properer place than Tongataboo for 
tlie rearing of lliccp. 

As we lay at anchor, this iHand bore a very different 
afpe<5t from any we had lately feen, and formed a moft 
beautiful landfcape. It is higher than any we had paffed, 
iince leaving New Zealand (as Kao may juftly be reckoned 
an immenfe rock), and from its top, which is almoft flat, 
declines very gently toward the fea. As the other ifles, of 
this clufter, are level, the eye can difcover nothing but the 
trees that cover them ; but here the land, rifmg gently up- 
ward, prefents us with an extenfive profpecT:, where groves 
of trees are only interfperfed at irregular diftanccs, ia 




Beautiful diforder, and the i-cft covered with q-rafs. Near »777- 


the fliore, again, it is quite fliaded with various trees, ' — 

amongft v/hich are the habitations of the natives ; and to 
the right of our ftation, was one of the moil extenfivc groves 
of cocoa-palms we had ever feen. 

The 13th, in the afternoon, a party of us made an excur- Sunday 13. 
Con to the higheft part of the ifland, whicii was a little to 
the right of our fhips, in order to have a full view of the 
country. About half way up, we crofled a deep valley, the 
bottom and fides of which, though compofed of hardly any 
thing but coral rock, were clothed with trees. We were 
now about two or three hundred feet above the level of the 
fea, and yet, even here, the coral was perforated into all the 
holes and inequalities, which ufually diverfify the furface 
of this fubllance within the reach of the tide* Indeed, wc 
found the fame coral, till we began to approach the fum- 
mits of the highefl hills ; and, it was remarkable, that 
thefe were chiefly compofed of a yellowiih, foft, fandy 
flone. The foil, there, is, in general, a reddiih clay ; which, 
in many places, feemcd to be very deep. On the iiioft ele- 
vated part of the whole ifland, we found a round platform, 
or mount of earth, fupported by a wall of coral itones ; to 
bring which, to fuch a height, mull have cort. much labour. 
Our guides told us, that this mount had been ere(5tcd by 
order of their Chief; and that they, fometimes, met there 
to drink kava. They called it Etchee ; by which name, an 
erecftion, which we had feen at Tongataboo, as already 
mentioned, was diilinguifhed. Not many paces from it, 
was a fpring of excellent water; and, about a mile lower 
down, a running ftream, which, we were told, found its 
way to the fea, when the rains were copious. Wc alfo met 



7u7* ^^^^'^ water, in many little holes ; and, no doubt, great 
*-— -V ' plenty might be found, by digging. 

From the elevation, to which we had afcended, wc had a 
full view of the whole illand, except a part of the Soutli 
point. The South Eafl: fide, from which the higheft hills, we 
were now upon, are not far diftant, rifes with very great in- 
equalities, immediately from the fea ; fo that the plains and 
meadows, of which there are here fome of great extent, lie 
all on the North Weft fide ; and, as they are adorned with 
tufts of trees, intermixed with plantations, they form a very 
beautiful landfcape, in every point of view. While I was 
furveying this delightful profped, I could not help flatter- 
ing myfelf with the pleafmg idea, that fome future naviga- 
tor may, from the fame llation, behold thefe meadows 
Hocked with cattle, brought to thefe iflands by the fhips of 
England ; and that the completion of this lingle benevolent 
purpofe, independently of all other confiderations, would fuf- 
ficiently mark to pofterity, that our voyages had not been 
ufelefs to the general interefts of humanity. Befides the 
plants common on the other neighbouring iflands, we 
found, on the height, a fpecies of acrojiicum, melojloma, and 
fern tree ; with a few other ferns and plants, not common 
lower down. 

Our guides informed us, that all, or moft of the land, on 
this ifland, belonged to the great Chiefs of Tongataboo; 
and that the inhabitants were only tenants, or vafllds, to 
them. Indeed, this feemed to be the cafe at all the other 
neighbouring ifles, except Annamooka, where there v/ere 
fome Chiefs, who feemed to a(5l with fome kind of inde- 
pendence. Omai, who was a great favourite with Fecnou, 
and thefe people in general, was tempted v/ith the ofl'er of 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 359 

bein? made Chief of this ifland, if he would have flaid \T^^^ 
o July. 

amongft them ; and it is not clear to mc, that he would ' ^ — ' 

not have been glad to ftay, if the fcheme had met with my 
approbation. 1 own, I did difapprove of it ; but not becaufe 
I thought that Omai would do better for himfelf in his own 
native ifle. 

On returning from my country expedition, we were in- 
formed that a party of the natives had, in the circle where 
our people traded, ftruck one of their own countrymen 
with a club, which laid bare, or, as others faid, fradured 
his fkull, and then broke his thigh with the fame ; when 
our men interpofed. He had no figns of life, when carried 
to a neighbouring houfe ; but afterward recovered a little. 
On my afking the reafon of fo fevere a treatment, we were 
informed, that he had been difcovered in a fituation rather 
indelicate, with a woman who was tahoo'd. We, however, 
underftood, that fhe was no otherwife tahoo'd, than by be- 
longing to another perfon, and rather fuperior in rank to 
her gallant. From this circumftance, we had an opportu- 
nity of obferving, how thefe people treat fuch infidelities. 
But the female linner has, by far, the fmaller fliare of pu- 
nifliment for her mifdemeanor ; as they told us, that fhe 
would only receive a flight beating. 

The next morning, I planted a pine-apple, and fowed the Monday i^,- 
feeds of melons, and other vegetables in the Chief's plant- 
ation. I had fome encouragement, indeed, to flatter my- 
felf, that my endeavours of this kind would not be fruit- 
lefs ; for, this day, there was ferved up at my dinner, a difh 
of turnips, being the produce of the feeds I had left here 
during my lafl voyage. 


36o A V O Y A G E T O 

»777- I had fixed upon the ij:th for failing, till Taoofa prefled 

« I me to flay a day or two longer, to receive a prefent he had 

•^J '5- prepared for me. This reafon, and tire daily expecftation of 
feeing fome of our friends from Tongataboo, induced me to 
defer my departure. 

Wcdnef. i6. Accordingly, the next day, I received the Chief's prefent ; 
confiding of two fmall heaps of yams, and fome fruit, which 
fcemed to be collecfled by a kind of contribution, as at the 
other iflcs. On this occafion, moft of the people of the 
ifland had affembled at the place ; and, as we had expe- 
rienced on fuch numerous meetings amongrt their neigh- 
bours, gave us not a little trouble to prevent them from pil- 
fering whatever they could lay their hands upon. We were 
entertained with cudgelling, wreftiing, and boxing matches; 
and in the latter, both male and female combatants exhi- 
bited. It was intended to have finiflied the fhew with the 
bo^aait or night-dance ; but an accident either put a total flop 
to it, or, at leafl, prevented any of us from flaying afhore 
to fee it. One of my people, walking a very little way, 
was furrounded by twenty or thirty of the natives, who 
knocked him down, and flripped him of every thing he 
had on his back. On hearing of this, I immediately feized 
two canoes, and a large hog ; and infifted on Taoofa's 
caufmg the clothes to be reftored, and on the offenders be- 
ing delivered up to me. The Chief feemed much concern- 
ed at what had happened ; and forthwith took the nccef- 
fary fleps to fatisfy me. This affair fo alarmed the affem- 
bled people, that moft of them fled. However, when they 
found that I took no other meafures to revenge the infulr, 
they returned. It was not long before one of the offenders 
was delivered up to me, and a fhirt and a pair of trowfers 

2 reftored. 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 361 

rcdored. The remainder of the ftolen ffoods not coming in ^'i^^• 
before night, I was under a neceffity of leaving them to go >. — . — ^ 
aboard ; for the fea run fo high, that it was with ilie grear- 
efl difficulty the boats could get out of the creek with day- 
light, much lefs in the dark. ^ 

The next morning, I landed again, having provided my- Thurfdayi/. 
felf with a prefent for Taoofa, in return for what he had 
given me. As it was early, there were but few people at 
the landing-place, and thofe few not without their fears. 
But on my defiring Omai to aflure them, that we meant no 
harm; and, in confirmation- of this alTurance, having re- 
florcd the canoes, and releafed the offender, whom they had 
delivered up to me, they refumed their ufual gaiety ; and, 
prefently, a large circle was formed, in which the Chief, 
and all the principal men of the ifland, took their places. 
The remainder of the clothes were now brought in; but, as 
they liad been torn off the man's back, by pieces, they 
were not worth carrying on boarA Taoofa, on receiving 
my prefent, fliared it with three or four other Chiefs, keep- 
ing only a fmall part for liimfelf. This prefent exceeded 
their expedlation fo greatly, that one of the Chiefs, a vene- 
rable old man, told me, that they did not deferve it, con- 
fidering how little they had given to me, and the ill treat- 
ment one of my people had met with. I remained with 
them, till they had finiflied their bowl ol^kava-, and 
having then paid for the hog, which I had taken the 
day before, returned on board, with Taoofa, and one of 
Poulaho's fervants, by whom I fent, as a parting mark 
of my efteem and regard for that Chief, a piece of bar 
iron; being as valuable a prefent as any I could make . 
to him. 

Vol. L 3 A Soon 



1777- Soon after, we weiehed, and with a lidit breeze at South 


— .,. — » Haft, flood out to fea ; and then Taoofa, and a few other 
natives, that were in the fhip, left us. On heaving up the 
anchor, we found, that the cable had fuffered confiderably 
by the rocks ; fo that the bottom, in this road, is not to be 
depended upon. Befides this, we experienced, that a pro- 
digious fwell rolls in there from the South Weft. 

.We had not been long under fail, before we obferved a fail- 
ing canoe coming from Tongataboo, and entering the creek 
before which we had anchored. Some hours after, a fmall 
canoe, conducfted by four men, came off to us. For, as we 
had but little wind, we were, ftill, at no great diftance from 
the land. Thefe men told us, that the failing canoe, which 
we had fcen arrive from Tongataboo, had brought orders 
to the people of Eooa, to furnifh us with a certain number 
of hogs ; and that, in two days, the king, and other Chiefs, 
v/ould be with us. They, therefore, defired we would re- 
turn to our former ftation. There was no reafon to doubt 
the truth of what thefe men told us. Tv^^o of them had 
acTiually come from Tongataboo, in the failing canoe ; and 
they had no view in coming off to us, but to give this in- 
telligence. However, as we were now clear of the land, it 
was not a fufficient inducement to bring me back ; efpe- 
cially as we had. already, on board, a flock of frefh provi- 
fions, fufficient, in all probabiUty, to laft during our paf- 
fage to Otaheite. Befides Taoofa's prefent, we had got a 
good quantity of yams at Eooa, in exchange chiefly for 
fmall nails. Our fupply of hogs was alfo confiderably in- 
creafed there ; thoughVdoubtlefs, we fliould have got many 
more, if the Chiefs of Tongataboo had been with us, whole 
property they moftly were. At the approach of night, tl)efe 



men, finding that we would not return, left us ; as alfo 1777. 
fome others, who had come off in two canoes, with a few 
cocoa-nuts, and fliaddocks, to exchange them for what 
they couki get ; the eagernefs of thefe people to get into 
their pofTtirion more of our commodities, inducing them to 
follow the fliips out to fea, and to continue their intercourfe 
with us to the laft moment. 

J A 2' C H A P, 

364 A V O Y A G E T O 

C H A P. X. 

Advantages derived from vijlting the Friendly Ijlaiids.-—^ 
Beji Articles for Trafic. — RefreJJjments thai may he 
procured. — "The IVumher of the lfla?ids, and their Name^. 
— KeppePs a?id Bofcawens Ifands belo7tg to them. — Ac- 
count of Vavaoo — of Hamoa — of Feejee. — Voyages of 
the Natives in their Canoes. — Difficulty of procuring 
exaSi Information, — Perfons of the Inhabitants of both 
Sexes. — 'Their Colour. — Dif cafes. — Their gejieral Cha- 
ra&er. — Manner of wearing their Hair — of punSiur- 
tjtg their Bodies. — Their Clothhig and Ornaments. — 
Perfo?2al Cleanlinefs. 

^ni' ' I ^ HUS we took leave of the Friendly Iflands, and their 
t,_ ._" ^ _,. -S. inhabitants, after a ftay of between two and three 
months ; during which time, we Hved together in the moft 
cordial friendfliip. Some accidental differences, it is true, 
now and then happened, owing to their great propenfity to 
thieving; but, too often, encouraged by the negligence of 
our own people. But thefe differences were never attended 
with any fatal confequences ; to prevent which, all my 
meafures were directed ; and, I believe, few, on board our 
Ihips, left our friends here without fome regret. The time, 
employed amongft them, was not thrown away. We ex- 
pended very little of our fea provifions ; fubfiiling, in ge- 
neral, upon the produce of the iilands, while we ftaidi and 
carrying away with us a quantity of refrclhm<?nts fufhcient 



to lad till our arrival at another ftation, where we could 
depend upon a frefh. fupply. I was not forry, befides, to 
have had an opportunity of bettering the condition of thefe 
good people, by leaving the ufeful animals, before-men- 
tioned, among them ; and, at the fame time, thofe defigned 
for Otaheite, received frefli fhength in the pailures of Ton- 
gataboo. Upon the whole, therefore, the advantages we 
received, by touching here, were very great ; and I had the 
additional fatisfadlion to reflecft, that they were received, 
without retarding, one moment, the profecution of the 
great object of our voyage ; the feafon, for proceeding to 
the North, being, as has been already obferved, loft, before 
I took the refolution of bearing away for thefe iflands. 

But, befides the immediate advantages, which both the 
natives of the Friendly Iflands, and ourfelves, received by 
this vifir, future navigators from Europe, if any fuch fliould 
ever tread our fteps, will profit by the knowledge I acquired 
of the geography of this part of the Pacific Ocean ; and the 
more philofophical reader, who loves to view human nature 
in new fituations, and to fpeculate on Angular, but faichful 
reprefentations of the perfons, the cuftoms, the arts, the 
religion, the government, and the language of uncultivated 
man, in remote and frefli difcovered quarters of the globe, 
will, perhaps, find matter of amufement, if not of inftruc- 
tion, in the. information which I have been enabled to con- 
vey to him, concerning the inhabitants of this Archipelago. 
I fhall fufpend my narrative, of the progrefs of the voyage, 
while I faithfully relate what I had opportunities of collect- 
ing on thefe feveral topics. 

\Ve found, by our experience, that the befl articles for 
traffic, at thefe iflands, are iron tools in general. Axes and 
liarchets ; nails, from the largefl fpike down to tenpenny 

7 ones i 

3^^ A V O Y A G E T O 

>|777' ones ; rafps ; files ; and knives, are much fought after^ 
Red cloth ; and linen, both white and coloured ; looking- 
glaffes, and beads, are alfo in eftimation ; but, of the lat- 
ter, thofe that are blue, are preferred to all others ; and 
white ones are thought the leaft valuable. A firing of large 
blue beads would, at any time, purchafe a hog. But it muft 
be obferved, that fuch articles as are merely ornaments, 
may be highly efleemed at one time, and not fo at another.. 
When we firlt arrived at Annaraooka, the people there 
would hardly take them in exchange even for fruit ; but 
when Feenou came, this great man fet the fafliion, and 
brought them into vogue, till they rofe in their value to 
what I have juft mentioned. 

In return for the favourite commodities which I have 
enumerated, all the refrefliments may be procured that the 
iflands produce. Thefe are, hogs, fowls, fifli, yams, bread- 
fruit, plantains, cocoa-nuts, fugar-cane, and, in general, 
every fuch fupply as can be met with at Otaheite, or any of 
the Society Illands. The yams of the Friendly iflands are 
excellent, and, when gr-own to perfe6tion, keep very vjell at 
fea. But their pork, bread fruit, and plantains, though far 
from defpicable, are, neverthelefs, much inferior in quality 
to the fame articles at Otaheite, and in its neighbourhood. 

Good water, which fliips, on long voyages, fland fo much 
in need of, is fcarce at thefe iflands. It may be found, it is 
tru-e, on them all ; but, flill, either in too inconfiderable 
quantities, or in fituatious too inconvenient, to fervc the- 
purpofes of navigators. However, as the iflands afford 
plenty of proviiions, and particularly of cocoa-nuts, fliips 
may make a tolerable fhift with fuch water as is to be got ;. 
and if one is not over-nice, there will be no want. While 
we lay at anchor, under Kotoo, on our return from Hapaee, 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 36; 

fome people, from Kao, informed us, that there was a {Iream w/- 
of water there, which, pouring down from the mountain, 
runs into the fea, on the South Weft fide of the iiland ; that is, 
on the fide that faces Toofoa, another iiland remarkable for 
its height, as alfo for having a confiderable volcano in it, 
which, as has been already mentioned, burnt violently all 
the time that we were in its neighbourhood. It may be 
worth while for future navigators, to attend to this intelli- 
gence about the ftream of water at Kao ; efpecially as we 
learned that there was anchorage on that part of the coaft. 
The black ftone, of which the natives of the Fiiendly Iflands 
make their hatchets, and other tools, we were informed, ig 
the produdlion of Toofoa. 

Under the denomination of Friendly Iflands, we mufl in- 
clude, not only the group at Hapaee, which I vifited, but 
alfo all thofe iflands, that have been difcovered nearly'- 
under the fame meridian, to the North, as well as fome 
others that have never been feen, hitl'^erto, by any Euro- 
pean navigators ; but are under the dominion of Tongata- 
boo, which, though not the largeft, is the capital, and feat 
of government. 

According to the information that we recei\'^d there, this 
Archipelago is very extenfive. Above one hundred and 
fifty iflands were reckoned up to us by the natives, who 
made ufe of bits of leaves to afcertain their number ; and 
Mr. Anderfon, with his ufual diligence, even procured 
all their names. Fifteen of them are faid to be high, or 
hilly, fuch as Toofoa, and Eooa ; and thirty-five of them 
large. Of thefe, only three were feen this voyage; Ha- 
paee (w^iich is confidered by the natives as one ifland), Ton-. 
gataboo, and Eooa : of the fize of the unexplored thirty- 
two, ivithing more can be mentioned, but that they muft 
2 be 




be all larger than Annamooka ; which thofe, from whom 
v/e had our information, ranked amongR the fmaller ifles. 
Some, or indeed feveral, of this latter denomination, are 
mere fpots, without inhabitants. Sixty-one of thefe illands 
have their proper places and names marked upon our chart 
of the Friendly Iflands, and upon the fketch of the harbour of 
Tongataboo, to both which I refer the reader. But it mull be 
left to future navigators, to introduce into the geography 
of this part of the South Pacific Ocean, the exadl fituation 
and fize of near a hundred more iflands in this neigh- 
bourhood, which we had not an opportunity to explore ; 
and whofe exiftence we only learnt from the teftimony of 
our friends, as above-mentioned. On their authority, the 
following lift of them was made; and it may ferve as a 
ground-work for farther inveftigation. 

Names of the Friendly Ijlajidsy and others ^ i?i that Neigh- 
bourhood^ inejitioned by the Inhabitants of Annamoohay 
Hapaee, and Tongataboo^, 















Goof 00^ 

Modooanoogoo noo 












Fonooa eeka. 



* Thcfe iflands, which the natives reprcfented as large ones, are diftinguiflied in 
Italics. » 







































































I have not the leaft doubt, that Prince William's Iflands, 
difcovered, and fo named by Tafman, are included in the 
foregoing lift. For while we lay at Hapaee, one of the na- 
tives told me, that, three or four days fail from thence, 
to the North Weft, there was a clufter of fmall iflands, con- 
fifting of upward of forty. This fituation correfponds very 
well with that affigned, in the accounts we have of Taf- 
man's voyage, to his Prince William's Iflands *. 

* Tafman faw eighteen or twenty of thefe fmall iflands, every one of which was 

furrounded with fands, ftioals, and rocks. They are alfo called, in fome charts, 

\'0L. I. 3 B Hwnjkhies 



'777- We have alfo very good authority to beUcve, that Keppel's 

and Bofcawen's Illands, two of Captain Wallis's difcoveries 
in 1765, are comprehended in our Hft ; and that they are not 
only well knov^n to tliefe people, but arc under the fame 
fovercign. The following information feemed to me deci- 
five as to this. Upon my inquiring, one day, of Poulaho 
the king, in what manner the inhabitants of Tongataboo 
had acquired the knowledge of iron, and from what quain- 
ter they had procured a fmali iron tool, which I had feen 
amongft them, when I firil vifited their ifland, during my 
former voyage, he informed me, that they had received this 
iron from an ifland, which he called Neeootabootaboo. 
Carrying my inquiries further, I then defired to know, whe- 
ther he had ever been informed, from whom the people of 
Neeootabootaboo had got it. I found him perfectly acquaint- 
ed with its hiftory. He faid, that one of thofe iflanders fold 
a club, for five nails, to a Ihip which had touched there; 
and that thefe five nails afterward were fent to Tongataboo. 
He added, that this was the firft iron known amongfl: them ; 
fo that, what Tafman left of that metal, muft have been 
worn out, and forgot long ago. I was very particular in 
my inquiries about the fituation, fize, and form of the ifland ; 
exprcfling my defire to know when this fliip had touched 
there ; how long fhe fl^aid ; and whether any more were in 
company. The leading facfls appeared to be frelli in his 
memory. He faid, that there was but one fhip; that fhe 
did not come to an anchor, but left the ifland after her 
boat had been on fliore. And from many circumflances, 
which he mentioned, it could not be many years fince this 

Heemjllrk's Banks. See Dalrymple's Colleftlon of Voyages to the South Pacific 
Ocean, Vol. ii. p. 83. ; and Campbell's edition of Harris's, Vol. i. p. 325. 



had happened. Accordins; to his information, there are '777- 

two iflands near each other, which he himfelf had heen at. ' u — 

The one he defcnbed as high, and peaked hke Kao, and he 

called it Kootahee; the other, where the people of the ihip 

landed, called Neeootabootaboo, he reprefented as much 

lower. He added, that the natives of both are the fame fort 

of people with thofe of Tongataboo; built their canoes 

in the fame manner ; that their iflands had hogs and 

fowls ; and, in general, the fame vegetable produdlions. 

The fliip, fo pointedly referred to, in this converfation, could 

be no other than the Dolphin ; the only fmgle fliip from 

Europe, as far as we have ever learned, that had touched, 

of late years, at any ifland in this part of the Pacific Ocean, 

prior to my former vifit of the Friendly Iflands *. 

But the moft confiderable iflands in this neighbourhood, 
that we now heard of (and we heard a great deal about 
them), are Hamoa, Vavaoo, and Feejee. Each of thefe was 
reprefented to us as larger than Tongataboo. No European, 
that we know of, has, as yet, feen any one of them. Taf- 
man, indeed, lays down in his chart, an ifland nearly in 
the fituation where I fuppofe Vavaoo to be ; that is, about 
the latitude of 19° f. But, then, that ifland is there marked 


* See Captain Wallis's Voyage, in Hawkefworth's Colledion, Vol. i. p. 492 — 
494. Captain V/allis there calls both thefe iflands high ones. But the fuperior 
iieight of one of them may be inferred, from his faying, that it appears Hie a fugcir- 
loaf. This ftrongly marks its refemblance to Kao. From comparing Poulaho's in- 
telligence to Captain Cook, with Captain Wallis's account, it feems to be part all 
doubt, that Eofcawen's Ifland is our Kootahee, and Keppel's Ifland our Neeootaboo- 
taboo. The laft is one of the large iflands marked in the foregoing lift. The 
reader, who has been already apprized of the variations of our people in writing 
down what the natives pronounced, will hardly doubt that Kottejeea and Kootahee are 
the fame. 

f Neither Dalrymple nor Campbell, in their accounts of Tafman's voyage, take 
any particular notice of his having feen fuch an ifland. The chart here referred to, 

3 B 2 by 



37a A V O Y A G E T O 

1777' as a very fmall one ; whereas Vavaoo, according to the- 
united teflimony of all our friends at Tongataboo, exceeds 
the fize of their own ifland, and has high mountains. I 
Ihould certainly have viiited it ; and have accompanied Fee- 
nou from Hapaee, if he had not then difcouraged me, by 
reprefenting it to be very inconfiderable, and without any 
harbour. But Poulaho, the king, afterward aiTured me, that 
it was a large ifland ; and that it not only produced every 
thing in common with Tongataboo, but had the peculiar 
advantage of polTelling feveral ftrearas of freQi w^ater, with 
as good a harbour as that which we found at his capital 
ifland. He offered to attend me, if I would vifit it ; adding, 
that, if I did not find every thing agreeing with his repre- 
fentation, I might kill him. I had not the leaft doubt 
of the truth of his intelligence ; and was fatisfied that 
Feenou, from fome interelled view, attempted to de- 
ceive me. 

Hamoa, which is alfo under the dominion of Tongataboo, 
lies two days fail North Weft from Vavaoo. It was de- 
fcribed to me, as the largeft of all their iflands ; as affording 
harbours and good water ^ and as producing, in abundance, 
every article of refrefliment found at the places we vifited. 
Poulaho, himfelf, frequently refides there. It fhould feem,. 
that the people of this ifland are in high eftimation at Ton- 
gataboo ; for we were told, that fome of the fongs and 
dances, with which we were entertained, had been copied, 
from theirs ; and we faw fome houfes, fliid to be built after 
their fajliion. Mr. Anderfon, alv/ays inquifltive about fuch 

by Captain Cook, i?, probably, Mr. Dalrymple's, in his Colleflicn of Voyage?,, 
where Tafman's track is marked accurately ; and feveral very fmall fpots of land are 
laid down in the fituation here mentioned. 




matters, learnt the three followins; words of the dialetH: of \777 

■-• July 

Tamolao*, a chief man. 

Tamaety^ a chief woman. 

Solle^ a common man,. 


* In two or three preceding notes, extrafls have been made from the Lettres Edi- 
jkmtes y Cr.trieufes, as marking a ftrong refemblance between fome of the cuftoms of 
the inhabitants of the Caroline Iflands, and thofe which Captain Cook defcribes as 
prevailing at an immenfe diftance, in the iflands which he vifited in the South Pacific 
Ocean. PofCbly, however, the prefumption, arifing from this refemblance, that all 
thefe iflands were peopled by the fame nation, or tribe,^ may be refifted, under the 
plauf.ble pretence, that cuftoms very fimilar prevail amongft very diftant people, with- 
out inferring any other common fource, befides the general principles of human na- 
ture, the fame in all ages, and every part of the globe. The reader, perhaps, will 
not tiiink this pretence applicable to the matter before us, if he attends to the follow- 
ing very obvious diftinclion : Thofe cuftoms which have their foundation in wants 
that are common to the whole human fpecies, and which are confined to the contri- 
vance of means to relieve thofe wants, may well be fuppofed to bear a ftrong refem- 
blance, without warranting the conclufion, that they who ufe them have copied each 
other, or have derived them from one common fource ; human fagacity being the fame 
every where, and the means adapted to the relief of any particular natural want, efpe- 
cially in countries fimilarly uncultivated, being but few. Thus the moft diftant 
tribes, as widely feparatcd as l^rra del Fuego is from the iflands Eaft of Kamt- 
fchatka, may, both of them, produce their fire, by rubbing two fticks upon each other, 
without giving us the leaft foundation for fuppofing, that either of them imitated the 
other, or derived the invention from a fource of inftrudion common to both. But 
this feems not to be the cafe, with regard to thofe cuftoms to which no general 
principle of human nature has given birth, and which have their eftablifhment folely 
from the endlefs varieties of local whim, and national fafhion. Of this latter kind, 
thofe cuftoms obvioufly are, that belong both to the North, and to the South 
Pacific Iflands, from which, we would infer, that they were originally one nation ; 
and the men of Mangeea, and the men of the New Philippines, who pay their re- 
fpefls to a perfon whnm they mean to honour, by rubbing his hand over their faces, 
bid fair to have learnt their mode of falutation in the fame fchool. But if this obfer- 
vation fhould not have removed the doubts of the fceptical refiner, probably he will 
hardly venture to perfift in denying the identity of race, contended for in the prefent 
inftance, when he ftiall obfci've, that, to the proof drawn from afBnity of cuftoms, 
we have it in our power to add that nioft unexceptionable one, drawn from affinity of 
lan^uao-e. Tamoha, we now knov/, is the word ufed at Hamoa, one of the Friendly 
Iflands, to fignify a Chief; and whoever looks into the Lettres EdtfimtesiS Curieufes, 
will lee, that this is the very name by which the inhabitants of the Caroline Iflands 


174 A V O Y A G E T O 

'777- Feejee, as we were told, lies three days fail from Tonga- 

taboo, in the direction of North Weft bv Weft. It was de- 
fcribed to us as a high, but very fruitful ifland ; abounding 
with hogs, dogs, fowls, and all the kinds of fruit and roots 
that are found in any of the others ; and as much larger 
than Tongataboo ; to the dominion of which, as was re- 
prefented to us, it is not fubjecft, as the other iflands of this 
archipelago are. On the contrary, Feejee and Tongataboo 
frequently make war upon each other. And it appeared, 
from feveral circumftances, that the inhabitants of the lat- 
ter are much afraid of this enemy. They ufed to exprefs 
their fenfe of their own inferiority to the Feejee men, by 
bending the body forward, and covering the face with their 
hands. And it is no wonder, that they fliould be under 
this dread; for thofe of Feejee are formidable on account: 
of the dexterity with which they ufe their bows and flings ; 
"but much more fo, on account of tlie favage pratflice to 
which they are addided, Hke thofe of New Zealand, of 
mating their enemies, whom they kill in battle. We were 
fatisfied, that this was not a mifrcprefentation. For we met 
with feveral Feejee people at Tongataboo, and, on inquir-r 
ingof them, they did not deny the charge. 

Now, that I am again led to fpeak of cannibals, let me 
afk thofe who maintain, that the want of food firft brings 
jnen to feed on human fiefli, What is it that induceth tlic 

.diftinguifli their principal men. We have, in two preceding notes, infertcd paRages 
from Father Cantova's account of thern, where xh€\x Tamdes are fpolcsn of; and he 
repeats the word at Icail a dozen times, in the courfe of a few pages. But I cannot 
avoid tranfcribing, from him, the following very decifive teltimony, which renders 
any other quotation fuperfluous. " L'autoritic du Goiiverneraent fe par;age cntre 
" pluf:eurs families nobles, dont ies Chefs s'appellent Tamsles. II y a outre cela, 
" dans chaque province, un principale Tawole, auquel tous ies autres font foumis.", 

Lettrcs EdlfianUs ^ Cur'wufcs, Tom. xv. p. 312. 

q Feejee 


Feejee people to keep it up, in ihe midfl of plenty? This 1777- 
practice is detefted, very much, by thofe of Tongataboo, 
who cultivate the friendfhip of their favage neighbours of 
Feejee, apparently out of fear ; though they fometimes ven- 
ture to flcirtniili with them, on their own ground; and 
carry ofF red feathers, as their booty, which are in great 
plenty there, and, as has been frequently mentioned, are 
in great eftimation amongil our Friendly IHanders. When 
the two iflands are at pe ice, the intercourfe between them 
fecms to be pretty frequent ; though they have, doubtlefs, 
been but lately known to each other ; or we may fuppofe, 
that Tongataboo, and its adjoining iflands, would have been 
fupplied, before this, with a breed of dogs, which abound 
at Feejee, and had not been introduced at Tongataboo, fo 
late as 1773, when I firft vifited it. The natives of Feejee, 
whom we met with here, were of a colour that was a full 
fliade darker, than that of the inhabitants of the "Friendly 
Iflands in general. One of them had his left ear flit, and 
the lobe was fo diftended, that it almofl: reached his 
llioulder ; which Angularity I had met with at other iflands 
of the South Sea, during my fecond voyage. It appeared 
to me, that the Feejee men, whom we now faw, were much 
rerpecT;ed here ; not only, perhaps, from the power, and 
cruel manner of their nation's going to war, but, alfo, from 
their ingenuity. For they feem to excel the inhabitants of 
Tongataboo in that refpecl, if we might judge from feve- 
ral fpecimens of their flcill in workmanfliip, which we faw; 
fuch as clubs and fpears, which were carved in a very 
mafterly manner; cloth beautifully chequered; variegated 
mats ; earthen pots ; and fome other articles ; all which 
had a call of fuperiority in the execution. 

T have 




I have mentioned, that Feejce lies three days fail from 
Tongataboo, bccaufe thefe people have no other method of 
meafuring the didance from ifland to ifland, but by expreff- 
ing the time required to make the voyage, in one of their 
canoes. In order to afcertain this, with fome precifion, or, 
at lead, to form fome judgment, how far thefe -canoes can 
fail, in a moderate gale, in any given time, I went on board 
one of them, when under fail, and, by feveral trials with 
the log, found that fhe went feven knots, or miles, in an 
hour, clofe hauled, in a gentle gale. From this I judge, 
that they will fail, on a medium, with fuch breezes as ge- 
nerally blow in their fea, about feven or eight miles in an 
hour. But the length of each day is not to be reckoned at 
twenty-four hours. For when they fpeak of one day's fail, 
they mean no more than from the morning to the evening 
of the fame day ; that is, ten or twelve hours at moft. And 
two days fail, with them, fignifies from the morning of 
the firft day, to the evening of the fecond; and fo for 
any other number of days. In thefe navigations, the fun 
is their guide by day, and the ftars by night. When thefe 
are obfcured, they have recourfe to the points from v/hence 
the winds and the waves came upon the vefFel. If, during 
the obfcuration, both the v/ind and the waves fliould fliift 
(which, within the limits of the trade-wind, feldom happens 
at any other time), they are then bewildered, frequently 
mifs their intended port, and are never heard of more. The 
hiftory of Omai's countrymen, who were driven to Wa- 
teeoo, leads us to infer, that thofc not heard of, are not 
always loft. 

Of all the harbours and anchoring places I have met with, 
amongft thefe inlands, that of Tongataboo is, by far, the 

5 bell ; 

T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 377 

bell ; not only on account of its great fecurity, but of its «777- 
capacity, and of the goodnefs of its bottom. The rifk that 
we ran, in entering it from the North, ought to be a fuffi- 
cient caution, to every future Commander, not to attempt 
that paffage again with a fliip of burden ; fince the other, by 
which we left it, is fo much mere eafy and fafe. To fail 
into it, by this Eaflern channel, fleer in for the North Eaft 
point of the ifland, and keep along the North Ihore, with 
the fmall ifles on your ftarboard, till you are the length of 
the Eaft point of the entrance into the lagoon', then edge 
over for the reef of the fmall ifles ; and, on following its 
diredlion, it will conducTt you through between Makkahaaa 
and Monooafai, or the fourth and fifth ifles, which you will 
perceive to lie off the Weft point of the lagoon. Or you may 
go between the third and fourth iflands, that is, between 
Pangimodoo and Monooafai ; but this channel is much 
narrower than the other. There runs a very flrong tide in 
both. The flood, as I have obferved before, comes in from 
the North Weft, and the ebb returns the fame way ; but I 
fliall fpeak of the tides in another place. As loon as you 
are through either of thefe channels, haul in for the fhore 
of Tongataboo, and anchor between it and Pangimodoo, 
before a creek leading into the lagoon; into which boats 
can go at half flood. 

Although Tongataboo has the beft harbour, Annamooka 
furniflies the beft water ; and yet, it cannot be called good. 
However, by digging holes near the fide of the pond, we 
can get what may be called tolerable. This iflanJ, too, is 
tlie beft fituated for drawing refrefliments from all the 
others, as being nearly in the centre of the wliole group. 
Befides the road in which we anchored, and the harbour 
within the South Weft point, there is a creek in the reef, 

Vol. I. 3 C before 


»777- before the Eadern fandy cove, on the North fide of the 

July. _ _ ■' 

ifland, in which two or three fhips may lie very fecurely, 
by mooring head and Hern, with their anchors or moorings 
faft to the rocks. 

I have ah'eady defcribed the Hapaee iflands ; and fliall 
only add to that defcription, by mentioning, that they ex- 
tend South Weft by South, and North Eaft by North, about 
nineteen miles. The North end lies in the latitude of 19° 
39' South, and 33' of longitude to the Eaft of Annamooka. 
Between them, are a great many fmall iflands, fand-banks, 
and breakers ; fo that the fafeft way to arrive at Hapaee, is 
either by the courfe I held, or round by the North ; accord- 
ing to the fituation of the fliip bound thither. Lefooga, ofF 
which we anchored, is the moft fertile ifle of thofe that are 
called Hapaee ; and, confequently, is the beft inhabited. 
There is anchorage along the North Weft fide of this ifland; 
but it will be neceflary to examine the ground well before 
you moor. For, although the lead may bring up fine fand, 
there are, neverthelefs, fome fliarp coral rocks, that would 
foon deftroy the cables. 

They who want a more particular defcription of the 
Friendly Iflands, muft have recourfe to the chart that we 
conftrucfted. There, every thing is delineated with as much 
accuracy as circumftances would permit. Recourfe muft, 
alfo, be had, to the fame chart, for the better tracing the fe- 
veral ftations of the fhips, and their route from the one ifland 
to the other. To have fwellcd my journal with a minute 
account of bearings, tackings, and the like, would neither 
have been entertaining nor inftrudive. 

What has been here omitted, concerning the geography 

of thcfe iflands, will be found in the narrative of my 

X laft 


laft voyage*. To that narrative I mud alfo refer f, for 
fuch particulars concerning the inhabitants, their manners, 
and arts, as I had obferved then, and about which I faw no 
reafon to change my judgment. At prefent, I fliall confine 
myfelf to fuch interefting particulars, as either were not 
mentioned in that narrative, or were imperfectly and incor- 
redlly reprefented there ; and to fuch as may ferve to ex- 
plain fome pafTages in the foregoing account of our tranf- 
a(.T:ions with the natives. 

It may, indeed, be expedled, that, after fpending between 
two and three months amongft them, I fliould be enabled 
to clear up every difficulty, and to give a tolerably fatisfac- 
tory account of their cuftoms, opinions, and inftitutions, 
both civil and religious ; efpecially as we had a perfon on 
board, who might be fuppofed qualified to ad the part of 
an interpreter, by underilanding their language and ours. 
But poor Omai was very deficient. For unlefs the objecft or 
thing we wanted to inquire about, was adlually before us, 
we found it difficult to gain a tolerable knowledge of it, 
from information only, without falling into a hundred 
mifiakes ; and to fuch miftakes Omai was more liable than 
we v/ere. For, having no curiofity, he never gave himfelf 
the trouble to make remarks for himfelf; and, when he 
was difpofed to explain matters to us, his ideas appeared to 
be fo limited, and, perhaps, fo diiferent from ours, that his 
accounts were often fo confafed, as to perplex, inftead of 
inflrucfting us. Add to this, that it was very rare that we 
found, amongft the natives, a perfon, v/ho united the abi- 
lity and the inclination to give us the information we 
wanted ; and, Vv^e found, that moft of them hated to be 

* Cook's Vopge, \'ol. i. p. 2!i. 213. f IbiJ. p. 213. 225. 

3 C « troubled 


38o A V O Y A G E T O 

"77. troubled wic]i what they, probably, thought idle quef- 
tions. Our fituation at Tongataboo, where we remained 
the longed, was, likewife, unfavourable. It was in a part 
of the country, where there were few inhabitants, except 
liflicrs. It was always holiday with our vifiters, as well as 
with thofe we vifited ; fo that we had but few opportunities 
of obferving, what was really the domeftic way of living 
of the natives. Under thefe difadvantages, it is not fur- 
prizing, that we fiiould not be able to bring away with us 
fatisfacflory accounts of many things ; but fome of us en- 
deavoured to remedy thofe difadvantages, by diligent obfer- 
vation ; and I am indebted to Mr. Andcrfon, for a confiderable 
Ihare of what follows, in this and in the following chapter. 
In other matters, I have only exprefTed, nearly in his words, 
remarks that coincided with minej but what relates to 
the religion and language of thefe people, is entirely his 

The natives of the Friendly Iflands feldom exceed the 
common flature (though we have meafured fome, wha 
were above fix feet) ; but are very ftrong, and well made ;. 
efpecially as to their limbs. They are generally broad 
about the flioulders j and though the mufcular difpofition 
of the men, which feems a confequence of much aftion,. 
rather conveys the appearance of ftrength than of beauty, 
there are feveral to be feen, who are really handfome. 
Their features are very various ; infomuch, that it is- 
fcarcely poffible to fix on any general likenefs, by which to 
chara6lerize them, unlefs it be a fuUnefs at the point of the 
nofe, which is very common. But, on the other hand, we 
met with hundreds of truly European faces, and many ge- 
nuine Roman nofes, amongft them. Their eyes and teeth 
are goodj but the lafl neither fo remarkably white, nor fo 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N, 38t 

weli fct as is often found amongft Indian nations ; though, '777- 
to balance that, few of them have any uncommon thick- 
nefs about the Ups, a defeat as frequent as the other per- 

The women are not fo much diflinguiflied from the men 
by their features as by their general form, which is, for 
the moft part, deflitute of that ftrong flefhy firmnefs that 
appears in the latter. Though the features of fome are fo 
delicate, as not only to be a true index of their fex, but to 
lay claim to a confiderable fhare of beauty and expreffion, 
the rule is, by no means, fo general as in many other coun- 
tries. But, at the fame time, this is frequently the moft 
exceptionable part ; for the bodies and limbs of mofl of the 
females are well proportioned; and fome, abfolutely, perfecft 
models of a beautiful figure. But the moft remarkable dif- 
tincflion in the women, is the uncommon fmallnefs and 
delicacy of their fingers, which may be put in competition; 
with the fined in Europe. 

The general colour is a caft deeper than the copper brown ; 
but feveral of the men and women have a true olive com- 
plexion ; and fome of the laft are even a great deal fairer ;. 
which is probably the eifedt of being lefs expofed to the 
fun ; as a tendency to corpulence, in a few of the principal 
people, feems to be the confequence of a more indolent 
life. It is alfo amongft the laft, that a foft clear fkin is moft 
frequently obferved. Amongft the bulk of the people, the 
fkin is, more commonly, of a dull hue, with fome degree of 
roughnefs, efpecially the parts that are not covered ; which, 
perhaps, may be occafioned by fome cutaneous difeafe. 
We faw a man and boy at Hapaee, and a child at Anna- 
mooka, perfe^flly white. Such have been found amongft all- 



1.777- black nitioiis ; but, I appiehend, that their colour is ra- 
■— /' ^ ther a difeafe, than a natural phsenomenon. 

There are, neverthelefs, upon the whole, few natural 
defeats or cleformities to be found amongft them ; though 
we faw two or three with their feet bent inward ; and fome 
afflicTied wirh a fort of blindncfs, occafioned by a difeafe of 
the cornea. Neither are they exempt from fome other dif- 
eafes. The mofi: common of which is the tetter, or ring- 
worm, that fecms to afFe(5l almoft one half of them, and 
leaves whitifii ferpentine marks, every whc:re, behind it. 
But this is of Icfs confequence than another difeafe, which 
is very frequent, and appears on every part of the body, in 
large broad ulcers with thick white edges, difcharging a 
thin, clear matter ; fome of which had a very virulent ap- 
pearance, particularly thofe on the face, winch were 
fliocking to look at. And yet we met with fome who 
feemed to be cured of *it, and others in a fair way of being 
cured ; but this was not affeded without the lofs of the n>fe, 
or of the beft part of it. As we know for a certainty * (and 
the fa61; is acknowledged by themfelves}, that the people of 
tliefe iflands were fubjedf to this loathfome difeafe before the 
Englifli firfl vifued them, notwithflanding the fimilarity of 
fymptoms, it cannot be the effecSf of the' venereal contagion ; 
unlefs we adopt a fuppoficion, which I could wifli had 
fufficient foundation in truth, that the venereal diforder was 
not introduced. here from Europe, by our fliips in 1773. It, 
afluredly, was now found to exiit amongft them ; for we 
had not been long there, before fome of our people received 

* See Vol. ii, p. 20. of Captain Cook's Voyage, where he gives a particular ac- 
count of meeting with a perlbn afflicted witli this difeafe, at Annamooka, on his 
landing there in 1773. 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 383 

the infe(?tion ; and I had the mortification to learn from i777- 


thence, that all the care I took, when I firft vifited thefe 
illands, to prevent this dreadful difeafe from being commu- 
nicated to their inhabitants, had proved inefre(5luaL What 
is extraordinary, they do not feem to regard it much ; and 
as we faw few ligns of its deftroying effefts, probably the 
climate, and the way of living of thefe people, greatly abate 
its virulence. There are two other difeafes frequent amongft 
them ; one of which is an indolent firm fwelling, which 
affedls the legs and arms, and increafes them to an extra- 
ordinary lize in their whole length. The other is a tumour 
of the fame fort, in the tefticles, which fometimes exceed 
the fize of the two fifts. But, in other rcfpevSIs, they may 
be confidered as uncommonly healthy ; not a fingle perfon 
having been feen, during our {lay, confined to the houfc, 
by ficknefs of any kind. On the contrary, their flrength 
and adlivity are, every way, anfwerable to their mvifcular 
appearance; and they exert both, in their ufual employ- 
ment, and in their diverfions, in fuch a manner, that there 
can be no doubt of their being, as yet, little debilitated by 
the numerous difeafes that are the confequence of indolence,^ 
and an unnatural method of life. 

The graceful air and firm Itep with which thefe people 
walk, are not the leafl obvious proof of their perfonal accom- 
plifbmenrs. They confider this as a thing fo natural, or fo 
neceflary to be acquired, that nothing ufed to excite their 
laughter fooner, than to fee us frequently flumbling upon 
the roots of trees, or other inequalities of the ground. 

Their countenances very remarkably exprefs the abun- 
dant mildnefs, or good nature, which they poiTefs ; and are 
entirely free from that favage keennefs which marks na- 


^PJ' tions in a barbarous flate. One would> indeed, be apt to 

July. ' * 

^— V ' fancy, that they had been bred up under the feverefl reftric- 

tions, to acquire an afpedl fo fettled, and fuch a command 
of their paffions, as well as fteadinefs in conduct. But they 
are, at the fame time, frank, cheerful, and good-humoured; 
though, fometimes, in the prefence of their Chiefs, they 
put on a degree of gravity, and iuch a ferious air as becomes 
ftiffand awkward, and has an appearance of referve. 

Their peaceable difpofition is fufficiently evinced, from the 
friendly reception all ftrangers have met with, who have 
viiited them. Inftead of offering to attack them openly, or 
clandeftinely, as has been the cafe with moft of the inhabit- 
ants of thefe feas, they have never appeared, in the fmalleft 
degree, hoflile ; but, on the contrary, like the moil civil- 
ized people, have courted an intercourfe with their vifiters, by 
bartering, which is the only medium that unites all nations 
- in a fort of friendfliip. They underfland barter (which they 
call fukkatouj fo perfecftly, that, at firft, we imagined they 
might have acquired this knowledge of it by commercial 
intercourfe with the neighbouring iflands ; but we were 
afterward affured, that they had little or no traffic, except 
with Feejee, from which they get the red feathers, and the 
few other articles, mentioned before. Perhaps, no nation 
in the world traffic v;irh more honefly and lefs ditlruft. We 
could always fafely permit them to examine our goods, and 
to hand them about, one to another ; and they put the fame 
confidence in us. If either party repented of the bargain, 
the goods were re-exchangcd with mutual confent and 
good-humour. Upon the whole, they feem pofTefTed of 
many of the mofl excellent qualities that adorn the human 
mind j fuch as induftry, ingenuity, perfeverance, affability^ 



and, perhaps, other virtues which our ihort flay with them "777. 
might prevent our obferving. v— v ' 

The only defecft fullying their characfier, that we know 
of, is a propenfity to thieving ; to which, we found, thofe 
of all ages, and both fexes, addi(5led ; and to an uncommon 
degree. It fliould, however, be conildered, that this excep- 
tionable part of their conduct feemcd to exifl merely with 
refpect to us ; for, in their general intercourfe with one an- 
other, I had reafon to be of opinion, that thefts do not 
happen more frequently (perhaps lefs fo) than in other 
countries, the diChoneft pra(fl:ices of whofe worthlefs indivi- 
duals are not fuppofed to authorize any indifcriminate 
cenfure on the whole body of the people. Great allow- 
ances fhould be made for the foibles of thefe poor natives 
of the Pacific Ocean, whofe minds we overpowered with 
the glare of objedls, equally new to them, as they were cap- 
tivating. Stealing, amongft the civilized and enlightened 
nations of the world, may well be confidered as denoting a 
charadler deeply flained with moral turpitude, with avarice 
unreftrained by the known rules of right, and with profli- 
gacy producing extreme indigence, and neglecfling the 
means of relieving it. But at the Friendly and other iflands 
which we vifited, the thefts, fo frequently committed by 
the natives, of what we had brought along with us, may 
be fairly traced to lefs culpable motives. They feemed 
to arife, folely, from an intenfe curiofity or defire to poffefs 
fomething which they had not been accuftomcd to before, 
and belonging to a fort of people fo different from them- 
felves. And, perhaps, if it were poffible, that a fet of be- 
ings, feemingly as fuperior in our judgment, as we are in 
theirs, fliould appear amongft us, it might be doubted, 
whether our natural regard to juflice would be able to re- 

VoL. I. 3D flrain 



1777' flrain many from falline into the fame error. That I have 

July. , . 

afligned the true motive for their propenfity to this pra6tice, 
appears from their fteaUng every thing indifcriminately at 
iirft light, before they could have the leafl conception of 
converting their prize to any one ufeful purpofe. But, I 
believe, with us, no perfon would forfeit his reputation, or 
expofe himfelf to punifliment, without knowing, before 
hand, how to employ the ftolen goods. Upon the whole, 
the pilfering difpofition of thefe iflanders, though certainly 
difagreeable and troublefome to flrangers, was the means 
of affording us fome information as to the quicknefs of 
their intelledls. For their fmall thefts were committed with 
much dexterity ; and thofe of greater confequence with a 
plan or fcheme fuited to the importance of the objedls. An 
extraordinary inflance of the laft fort, their attempts to 
carry away one of the Difcovery's anchors, at raid-day, 
has been already related. 

Their hair is, in general, ftraight, thick, and ftrong ; 
though a few have it bulliy or frizzled. The natural co- 
lour, I believe, almofl wiihout exception, is black; but the 
greareft part of the men, and fome of the women, have it 
Itained of a brown, or purple colour; and a few of an 
orange caft. The firft colour is produced by applying a 
fort of plafter of burnt coral, mixed with water ; the fe- 
cond, by the rafpings of a reddidi wood, which is made 
up wiih water* into a poultice, and laid over the hairj and 
the third is, I believe, the effedl of tunjieric root. 

When I firft vifited thefe iflands, I thought it had been an 
univerfal cuflom for both men and women to wear the hair 
Ihort ; but, during our prelent longer ftay, we faw a great 
many exceptions. Indeed, they are fo whimfical in their fa- 


fliions of wearing it, that it is hard to tell which is moft in '777- 
vogue. Some have it cut off one fide of the head, while ' — . — • 
that on the other fide remains long ; fome have only a por- 
tion of it cut fliort, or, perhaps, fliaved ; others have it en- 
tirely cut off, except a fingle lock, which is left common- 
ly on one fide ; or, it is fuffered to grow to its full length, 
without any of thefe mutilations. The women, in gene- 
ral, wear it fhort. The men have their beards cut ftiort ; 
and both men and women flrip the hair from their arm- 
pits. The operation by which this is performed has been 
already defcribed. The men are ftained from about the 
middle of the belly, to about half way down the thighs, 
with a deep blue colour. This is done with a flat bone in- 
ftrument, cut full of fine teeth, which, being dipped in the 
llaining mixture, prepared from the juice of the dooe dooe, is 
llruck into the fkin with a bit of flick ; and, by that means, 
indelible marks are made. In this manner they trace lines 
and figures, which, in fome, are very elegant, both frorn 
the variety, and from the arrangement. The women have 
only a few fmall lines or fpots, thus imprinted, on the infide 
of their hands. Their kings, as a mark of diftincflion, are 
exempted from this cuflom, as alfo from inflidling on them- 
felves any of thofe bloody marks of mourning, which fliall 
be mentioned in another place. 

The men are all circumcifed, or rather fupercifed j as the 
operation confifls in cutting off only a fmall piece of the 
forefkin, at the upper part ; which, by that means, is ren- 
dered incapable, ever after, of covering the glans. This is 
all they aim at; as they fay, the operation is pradlifed from 
a notion of cleanlinefs. 

The drefs of both men and women is the fame ; and 
confifts of a piece of cloth or matting (but moflly the 

3 D 2 former), 


J777- former), about two yards wide, and two and a half long; 
v_.^-.'-- . at lead, fo long as to go once and a half round the waift, 
to which it is confined by a girdle or cord. It is double 
before, and hangs down, like a petticoat, as low as the 
middle of the leg. The upper part of the garment, above 
the girdle, is plaited into feveral folds ; fo that, when un- 
folded, there is cloth fufficient to draw up and wrap round 
the flioulders; which is very feldom done. This, as to 
form, is the general drefs ; but large pieces of cloth, and 
fine matting, are worn only by the fuperior people. The 
inferior fort are fatisfied with fmall pieces ; and, very often, 
wear nothing but a covering made of leaves of plants, or 
the maro, which is a narrow piece of cloth, or matting, like 
a fafli. This they pafs between the thighs, and wrap 
round the waift ; but the ufe of it is chiefly confined to the 
men. In their great haivas, or entertainments, they have 
various drelTes made for the purpofe ; but the form is al- 
ways the fame ; and the richeft dreffes are covered, more or 
lefs, with red feathers. On what particular occafion their 
Chiefs wear their large red feather-caps, I could not 
learn. Both men and women fometimes fhade their 
faces from the fun with little bonnets, made of various 

As the clothing, fo are the ornaments, worn by thofe 
of both fexes, the fame. The moft common of thefe are 
necklaces, made of the fruit of the pandanu:, and various 
fweet-fmelling flowers, which go under the general name 
of kahulla. Others are compofed of fmall fhells, the wing 
and leg-bones of birds, fliark's teeth, and other things ; all 
which hang loofe upon the breaft. In the fame manner, 
they often wear a mother-of-pearl fliell, neatly polifhed 
or a ring of the fame fubftance carved, on the upper part 
I of 

T H E P A. C I F I C O C E A N. 3H9 

of the arm ; rin^s of tortoife-fliell on the finders ; and a '777' 
number of- thefe, joined together, as bracelets on the 

The lobes of the ears (though, mod frequently, only 
one) are perforated with two holes, in which they wear 
cylindrical bits of ivory, about three inches long, intro- 
duced at one hole, and brought out of the other ; or bits 
of reed of the fame fize, filled with a yellow pigment. This 
feeras to be a fine powder of turmeric, with which the wo- 
men rub themfelves all over, in the fame manner as our 
ladies ufe their dry rouge upon the cheeks. 

Nothing appears to give them greater pleafure thaji per- 
fonal cleanlinefs; to produce which, they frequently bathe 
in the ponds, which feem to ferve no other purpofe *. 
Though the water in mod of them llinks intolerably, they 
prefer them to the fea ; and they are fo fenfible that fak 
water hurts their fkin, that, when neceflity obliges them 
to bathe in the fea, they commonly have fome cocoa-nut 
Ihells, filled with frelh v/ater, poured over them, to wafli 
it off. They are immoderately fond of cocoa-nut oil for 
the fame reafon; a great quantity of which they not only 
pour upon their head and Ihoulders, but rub the body all 
over, brifkly, with a fmaller quantity. And none but thofe 
who have feen this pra(5lice, can eafily conceive how the. 
appearance of the fkin is improved by it. This oil, how- 
ever, is not to be procured by every one; and the inferior' 
fort of people, doubtlefs, appear iefs fmooth for want of it. 

* So at the Caroline Iflands. " lis font accoutemes a fe baigner trois fois, le 
*' jour, le matin, a midi, & fur le foir." 

Lettres Edlfiantes t). Curieufes, Tom, xv. p. 314,. 





Employments of the Wojmn^ at the Friendly IJlands.^— 
Of the Me?i. — /Agriculture, — Cofifiru&iofi of their 
Houfes. — Their working Tools — Cordage, and fjljtng 
Implements. — Mufcal Injiruments. — JVeapons. — Food, 
and Cookery. — A?nujements. - — Marriage. — - Mourning 
Ceremonies for the Dead. — Their Divinities. — Notions 
about the Soul, and a Juture State. — Their Places of 
TVorfhip. — Govermnent. — Manner of paying Obeifance 
to the Kijig. — Account of the Royal Family. — Rejnarks 
on their Language, a?id a Specimen of it. — Nautical^ 
and other Ob/ervatiojjs. 

VJl' ^~r^HEIR domeftic life is of that middle kind, neither 
J. fo laborious as to be difagreeable, nor fo vacant as to 
fufFer them to degenerate into indolence. Nature has done 
fo much for their country, that the firft can hardly occur, 
and their difpofition feems to be a pretty good bar to the 
laft. By this happy combination of circumftances, their 
necelTary labour feems to yield, in its turn, to their recrea- 
tions, in fuch a manner, that the latter are never inter- 
rupted by the thoughts of being obliged to recur to the 
former, till fatiety makes them wifh for fuch a tranfition. 

The employment of the women is of the eafy kind, and, 
for the moll part, fuch as may be executed in the houfe. 
The manufaduring their cloth, is wholly configned to their 




care. Having already defcribed the proccfs, I fhall only '777« 

add, that they have this cloth of different degrees of fine- „-— .» 

nefs. The coarfer fort, of which they make very large 
pieces, does not receive the impreflion of any pattern. Of 
the finer fort, they have feme that is ftriped, and chequered, 
and of other patterns differently coloured. But how thefe 
colours are laid on, I cannot fay, as I never faw any of this 
fort made. The cloth, in general, will refift water, for fome 
time ; but that which has the flrongeft glaze will refill 

The manufacflure next in confequence, and alfo within 
the department of the women, is that of their mats, which 
excel every thing I have feen at any other place, both as 
to their texture and their beauty. In particular, many of 
them are fo fuperior to thofe made at Otaheite, that they 
are not a bad article to carry thither, by way of trade. Of 
thefe mats, they have feven or eight different forts, for the 
purpofes of wearing or fleeping upon ; and many are merely 
ornamental. The hift are chiefly made from the tough, 
membraneous part of the flock of the plantain tree ; thofe 
that they wear, from the pandanus, cultivated for that pur- 
pofe, and never fuffered to fhoot into a trunk ; and the 
coarfer fort, which they fleep upon, from a plant called 
evarra. There are many other articles of lefs note, that 
employ the fpare time of their females ; as combs, of which 
they make vafl numbers ; and little bafkets made of the 
fame fubdance as the macs, and others of the fibrous cocoa- 
nut hufk, either plain, or interwoven with fmali beads ; 
but all, finiflied with fuch neatnefs and taflc in the difpofi- 
tion of iiie various parts, that a flranger cannot help ad- 
miring their affiduity and dexterity. 

5 The 



'777- The province allotted to the men is, as might be expected, 


far more laborious and extenfive than that of the women. 
Agriculture, archite(5lure, boat-building, fifliing, and other 
things that relate to navigation, are the objeds of their 
care*. Cultivated roots and fruits being their principal 
fupport, this requires their conftant attention to agriculture, 
which they purfue very diligently, and feem to have 
brought almofl: to as great perfedtion as circumftances will 
permit. The large extent of the plantain fields has been 
taken notice of already; and the fame may be faid of the 
yams ; thefe two together, being, at lead, as ten to one, 
v>^ith refpeft to all the other articles. In planting both thefe, 
tiiey dig fmall holes for their reception, and, afterward, root 
up the furrounding grafs, w^hich, in this hot country, is 
quickly deprived of its vegetating power, and, foon rotting, 
becomes a good manure. The inftruments they ufe for 
this purpofe, which they call hooo^ are nothing more than 
pickets or flakes of different lengths, according to the depth 
they have to dig, Thefe are flattened and fliarpened to an 
edge at one end ; and the largeft have a Ihort piece fixed 
tranfverfely, for preffing it into the ground with the foot. 
With thefe, though they are not more than from two to 
four inches broad, they dig and plant ground of many 
acres in extent. In planting the plantains and yams, they 
obferve fo much cxadlinefs, tliat, whichever way you look, 
the rows prefent themfelves regular and complete. 

* Hov/ remarkably does Captain Cook's account of the employments of the women 
and men here, agree with Father Cantova's, of the Caroline Iflanders ? — " La 
" principale occupation des hommes, eft de conftruire des barques, de pccher, & de 
" cukivtr la terre. L'afFaire des fcmmes eft de faire la cuifine, & de mettre en 
'*' .oetvte un efp«cc de plantc fauvage, h un arbre, — pour en faire de la tc-^fe." 

Lcitres EdiJianUi (J Curkufesy Tom. xv. p. 313. 



The cocoa-nut and bread-fruit trees are fcattcred about, \777- 
without any order, and feem to give them no trouble, after v . — ^-^^ 
they have attained a certain height. The fame may be faid 
of anotlier large tree, which produces great numbers of a 
large, roundifh, comprefled nut, called eeefee ; and of a 
fmaller tree, that bears a rounded oval nut, two inches long, 
with two or three triangular kernels, tough and infipid, 
called 7nabba, mod frequently planted near their houfes. 

The kappe is, commonly, regularly planted, and in pretty 
large fpots ; but the maijubaha is interfperfed amongft other 
things, as the jeejee and yams are ; the laft of which, I have 
frequently feen, in the interfpaces of the plantain trees, at 
their common diftance. Sugar-cane is commonly in fmall 
fpots, crowded clofely together ; and the mulberry, of 
which the cloth is made, though without order, has fuffi- 
cient room allowed for it, and is kept very clean. The 
only other plant, that they cultivate for their manufac- 
tures, is the pandanus ; which is generally planted in a row, 
clofe together, at the fides of the other fields ; and they 
confider it as a thing fo diftincT: in this ilate, that they have 
a different name for it ; which fliews, that they are very 
fenfible of the great changes brought about by cultivation. 

It is remarkable, that thefe people, who, in many things, 
fliew much talle and ingenuity, fliould fliew little of either 
in building their houfes ; though the defeift is rather in the 
defign, than in the execution. Thofe of the lower people 
are poor huts, fcarcely fufficient to defend them from the 
weather, and very fmall. Thofe of the better fort, are 
larger and more comfortable ; but not what one might ex- 
pert. The dimenfions of one of a middling fize, are about 
thirty feet long, twenty broad, and twelve high. Their 
houfe is, properly fpeaking, a thatched roof or fhed, fup- 

VoL. I. 3 E ported 



1777. ported by poils and rafters, difpofed in a very judicious 
"' '' manner. The floor is raifcd with earth fmoothed, and co- 
vered with ftrong, thick matting, and kept very clean. The 
moft of them are doled on the weather fide (and fomc 
more than two-thirds round), with ftrong mats, or with 
branches of the cocoa-nut tree, plaited or woven into each 
other. Thefe they fix up edgewife, reaching from the 
eaves to the ground ; and thus they anfwer the purpofe of 
a wall. A thick, flrong mat, about two and one half or three 
feet broad, bent into the form of a femicircle, and fet upon 
its e<]ge, with the ends toucliing the fide of the houfe, in 
fliape rcfcmbling the fender of a fire hearth, inclofes a fpace 
for the mafler and miftrefs of the family to fleep in. The 
lady, indeed, fpends moil; of her time, during the day, within 
it. The red of the family fleep upon the floor, v^'herever they 
pleafe to lie down ; the unmarried xnen and women apart 
from each other. Or, if the family be large, there are fmall 
huts adjoining, to which the fervants retire in the nighty 
fo that privacy is as much obferved here, as one could ex- 
pect. They have mats made on purpofe for fleeping on j 
and the clothes that they v.^ear in tlie day, ferve for their 
covering in the night. Their whole furniture confifts of a 
bowl or two, in which they make kava ; a ievj gourds; 
cocoa-nut fliells ; fome fmall wooden ftoolsy which ferve 
them for pillows ; and, perhaps, a large flool for the Chief, 
or Mafler, of the family to flt upon. 

The only probable reafon I can allign for their negleft of 
ornamental architecture, in the conftruftion of their houfes, 
is their being fond of living much in the open air. Indeed, 
they feem to confldcr their houfes, within which they feldom 
eat, as of little ufe but to fleep in, and to retire to in bad 
v/eather. And the lower fort of people, who fpend a great' 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 595 


part of tlicir time in clofe attendance upon the Chiefs, ^pp 
can have little ufc for their own houfes, but in the lad 

They make amends for the defefls of their hoiifes, hy 
their great attention to, and dexterity in, naval architeiTture, 
if I may be allowed to give it that name. But I refer to the 
narrative of my laft voyage, for an account of their canoes, 
and their manner of building and navigating them.* 

The only tools which they ufe, to conftrucH: thefe boats, are 
hatchets, or rather thick adzes, of a fmooth black flone that 
abounds at Toofoa i;^ augres, made of fhark's teeth, fixed on 
fmall handles ; and rafps, of a rough flcin of a fifli, faftened 
on flat pieces of wood, thinner on one fide, which alfo have 
handles. The labour and time employed in finifliing their 
canoes, which are the mofl perfc6l of their mechanica} 
produdtions, will account for their being very careful of 
them. For they are built and preferved under flieds ; or 
they cover the decked part of them with cocoa-leaves, when 
they are hauled on fliore, to prevent their being hurt by 
the fun. 

The fame tools are all they have for other works ; if we 
except different fliells, which they ufc as knives. But there 
arc few of their producftions that require thefe, unlefs it be 
feme of their weapons ; the other articles being chiefly their 
fifliing materials, and cordage. 

The cordatre is made from tlic fibres of the cocoa-nut 
huHv, wi)ich, though not more than nine or ten inches long, 
they plait, about the fize of a quill, or Icfs, to any length 

*^ Cook's Voyage, \'oI. i. p. 215, 216. The reader, by comparing that account, 
vv!t!i .what Cantova fays of the fc:i-bo.its of the Caroline IflanJf, will find, in this 
iiiftancc, aifo, the greatefl: fimilaVjty. See Lettres Edijiaiitcs is Cuiievfcs, p. 286. 

3 E 2 that 


>777- that they pleafe, and roll it up in balls ; from which the 

July. ' ' 

larger ropes are made, by twifting feveral of ihefe together. 
The lines, that they fifh with, are as ftrong and even as the 
beft cord we make, refembling it almoft in every refpe(5t. 
Their other fifhing implements, are large and Imall hooks. 
The laft are compofed entirely of pearl-fliell ; but the firft 
are only covered with it on the back; and the points of 
both, commonly, of tortoifc-fliell ; thofe of the fmall be- 
ing plain, and the others barbed. With the large ones, they 
catch bonnetos and albicores, by putting them to a bamboo 
rod, twelve or fourteen feet long, with a line of the fame 
length, which refts in a notch of a piece of wood, fixed in 
the flern of the canoe for that purpofe, and is dragged on 
the furface of the fea, as flie rowes along, without any 
other bait than a tuft of flaxy fluff near the point. They 
have alfo great numbers of pretty fmall feines, fome of 
which are of a very delicate texture. Thefe they ufe to 
catch fifli with, in the holes on the reefs, when the tide 

The other manual employments, confift chiefly in making 
mufical reeds, flutes, warlike weapons, and flools, or rather 
pillows, to fleep on. The reeds have eight, nine, or ten 
pieces placed parallel to each other, but not in any regular 
progreflion ; having the longeft, fometimes, in the middle, 
and feveral of the fame length ; fo that I have feen none 
with more than fix notes -, and they feem incapable of play- 
ing any muficon them, that is diftinguifliable by our ears*. 
The flutes are a joint of bamboo, clofe at both ends, with a 
hole near each, and four others ; two of which, and one of 
the firfl: only, are ufed in playing. They apply the thumb 

* See a drawing of one of thefe mufical reed?, in Captain Cook's Voyage, Vol. i.- 
p. 221. Plate XXI, 

7 of 

of the left hand, to clofe the left noftril, and blow into the 1777- 

T 1 

hole at one end, with the other. The middle finger of the ' ^ 

left hand is applied to the firft hole on the left, and the fore- 
finger of the right, to the loweft hole on that fide. In this 
manner, though the notes are only three, they produce a 
pleafing, yet fimple, mufic, which they vary much more 
than one would think polTible, with fo imperfetft an inftru- 
ment. Their being accuftomed to a mufic which confifts of 
fo tew notes, is, perhaps, the reafon why they do not feem 
to reiilh any of ours, which is fo complex. But they can 
tafte what is more deficient than their own ; for, we ob- 
ferved, that they ufed to be well pleafed with hearing the 
chant of our two young New Zealanders, which confided 
rather in mere fl:rength, than in melody of exprefllon. 

The weapons, which they make, are clubs of different 
forts (m the ornamenting of which they fpend much time), 
fpears, and darts. They have alfo bows and arrows; but thefe 
feemed to be defigned only for amufement, fuch as fhoot- 
ing at birds, and not for military purpofes. The ftools are 
about two feet long, but only four or five inches high, and 
near four broad, bending downward in the middle, with 
four ftrong legs, and circular feet ; the whole made of one 
piece of black or brown wood, neatly poliflied, and fome- 
times inlaid with bits of ivory. They alfo inlay the handles 
of fly flaps with ivory, after being neatly carved ^ and they 
fliape bones into fmall figures of men, birds, and other 
things, which muft be very diflScult, as their carving inflru- 
ment is only a fhark's tooth. 

Yams, plantains, and cocoa nuts, compofe the grcateft 
part of their vegetable diet. Of their animal food, the chief 
articles are hogs, fowls, fifli, and all forts of fhcll fifli; but 
the lower people eat rats. The two firft vegetable articles, 




>777- with bread-fruir, arc, what may be called, the bafis of 

|aly. ^ ^ 

their f-ood, at diilerent times of the year, with fifli and 
faeir-Iiih ; for hogi, fowls, and turtle, feem only to be 
occafional dainties, refcrved for their Chiefs. The in- 
tervals between the feafons of thcfe vegetable produc- 
tions mull be, fometimes, conliderable, as they prepare a 
fort of artificial bread from plantains, which they put under 
ground before ripe, and fufFcr them to remain, till they 
ferment, when they are taken out, and made up into fmall 
balls ; but fo four and indifferent, that they often faid our 
bread was preferable, though fomewhat mufty. 

Their food is, generally, drefTed by baking, in the fame 
manner as at Otaheite ; and they have the art of making, 
from different kinds of fruit, feveral difhes, which moil of 
us efteemed very good. I never faw them make ufe of any 
kind of fauce ; nor drink any thing at their meals but 
water, or the juice of the cocoa-nut ; for the kava is only 
their morning draught. I cannot fay, that they are cleanly 
either in their cookery, or manner of eating. The gene- 
rality of them will lay their vi(5luals upon the firll leaf 
they meet with, however dirty it may be ; but when food is 
ferved up to the Chiefs, it is, commonly, laid upon green 
plantain leaves. When the king made a meal, he was, for 
the mofl part, attended upon by three or four perfons. One 
cut large pit^ces of the joint, or of the fiflii another divided it 
into mouthfuls ; and others flood by with cocoa-nuts, and 
whatever elfe he might want. I never faw a large com- 
pany fit down to what v/e fhould call a fociable meal, by 
eating from the fame difli. The food, be what it will, is al- 
ways divided into portions, each to ferve a certain number; 
thefe portions are again fubdivided ; fo that one feldom fees 
above two or three perfons eating together. The women 
X are 



are not excluded from eating with the men ; but there are '777' 

certain ranks or orders amongft them, that can neither eat ^.. ' ^ » 

nor drink together. This diftin(5lion begins with the king ; 
but where it ends, I cannot fay. 

They feem to have no fet time for meals ; though it 
fliould be obferved, that, during our ftay amongfb them, 
their domeftie oeconomy was much difturbed by their con- 
flant attention to us. As far as we could remark, thofe of" 
the fuperior rank, only drink kava in the forenoon; and the 
others ear, perhaps, a bit of yam ; but we commonly faw all 
of them eat fomething in the afternoon. It is probable that 
the pra'flice of making a meal in the night is pretty common^ 
and their reft being thus interrupted, they frequently lleep 
in the day. They go to bed as foon as it is dark, and rife- 
with the dawn in the morning *. 

They are very fond of aiTociating together; fo that it is- 
eommon to find feveral houfes empty, and the owners of 
them convened in fome other one, or, rather, upon a con- 
venient fpot in the neighbourhood, where they recreate 
themfelves by converfmg, and other amufeinents. Their 
private diverfions are chiefly finging, dancing, and mufic 
performed by the women. V/hen two or three women fing 
in concert, and fnap their fingers, it is called oobai ; but 
when there is a greater number, they divide into feveral 
parties, each of which fings on a different key, which makes 
a very agreeable mufic, and is called heeva, or baha. In the 
fame manner, they vary the mufic of their flutes, by play- 
ing on thole of a diiTerent fize ; but their dancing is much' 
rhe fame as when they perform publickly. The dancing 

* Canrova fays ofhis if.andcrs, " Us prennent leur repos des que le folci! eft coiiche,, 
" Si i's fe levent ;ivec r'aurore." Lcttres Ed'ifianta IJ (hirleujh, Tom. xv. p. 314. 




1777. of the men (if it is to be called dancing), although it does 
not confifl: much in moving the feet, as we do, has a thou- 
fand different motions with the hands, to which we are 
entire ftrangers ; and they are performed with an eafe and 
grace which are not to be defcribed, nor even conceived, 
but by thofe who have feen them. But I need add nothing 
to what has been already faid on this fubjecft, in the account 
of the incidents that happened during our flay at the 
iflands *. 

Whether their marriages be made lafling by any kind of 
folemn contrad:, we could not determine with precifion; but 

* If, to the copious defcriptions that occur in the preceding pages, of the parti- 
cular entertainments exhibited in Hapaee and Tongataboo, we add the general view 
g{ the ufual amufements of the inhabitants of thefe iflands, contained in this para- 
graph, and compare it with the quotation from the Jefuit's Letters, in a former note 
(p. 255.), we fliall be ftill more forcibly ftruck with the reafonablenefs of tracing 
fuch fingularly refembling cuftoms to one common fource. The argument, in 
confirmation of this, drawn from identity of language, has been already illuflrated, by' 
obferving the remarkable coincidence of the name, by wliich the Chiefs at the Caroline 
Iflands, and thofe at Hamao, one of the Friendly ones, are diftinguifhed. But the 
argument does not reft on a firgle inftance, though that happens to be a very flriking 
one. Another of the very few fpecimens of the dialedl of the North Pacific Iflanders, 
preferved by father Cantova, furnifhes an additional proof. Immediately after the 
paiTage above referred to, he proceeds thus : " Ce divertifi'ement s'appelle, en leur 
" langue, tanger ifaifil; qui veut dire, la plainte des femmes." Lettres EdifianUs ^ Cu' 
rietifes, Tom. xv. p. 315, Now it is very remarkable, that we learn from Mr. An- 
derfon's colleflion of words, which will appear in this chapter, that la plainte des 
ft-mrnes, or, in Englifli, the mournful fong of the wornen, which the inhabitants of the 
Caroline Iflands exprefs in their language tanger ifaifily would, by thofe of Tongata- 
boo, be exprefied tangee vefaine. 

If any one fliould flill doubt, in fpite of this evidence, it may be recommended to 
his confideration, that long feparation, and other caufes, have introduced greater va- 
riations in the mode of pronouncing thefe two words, at places confefledly inhabited 
by the fame race, than fubfift in the fpecimen juft given. It appears, from Mr. An- 
derfon's vocabulary, printed in Captain Cook's fecond voyage, that what is pronounced 
tangee at the Friendly Iflands, is taee at Otaheite; and the vefaine of the former, is 
the waheine of the latter. 



it is certain, that the bulk of the people fatisfied themfelves '777- 

•With one wife. The Chiefs, however, have, commonly, ' , ' 

feveral women * ; though fome of us were of opinion, 
that there was only one that was looked upon as the miflrefs 
of the family. 

As female chaftity, at firfl; fight, feemed to be held in no 
great eftimation, we expe6ted to have found frequent 
breaches of their conjugal fidelity ; but we did them great 
injuflice. I do not know that a fingle infiance happened 
during our whole flay f . Neither are thofe of the better 
fort, that are unmarried, more free of their favours. It is 
true, there was no want of thofe of a diiFerent charadler ; 
and, perhaps, fuch are more frequently met v^^ith here, in 
proportion to the number of people, than in many other 
countries. But it appeared to me, that the moft, if not all 
of them, were of the loweft clafs ; and fuch of them as per- 
mitted familiarities to our people, were proflitutes by pro- 

Nothing can be a greater proof of the humanity of thefe 
people, than the concern they fhew for the dead J. To ufe 
a common expreflion, their mourning is not in words but 
deeds. For, befides the looge mentioned before, and burnt 
circles and fears, they beat the teeth with flones, ftrike a 
Ihark's tooth into the head until the blood flows in flreams, 
and thruft fpears into the inner part of the thigh, into their 

* Cantova fays of his Caroline iflanders, " La pluralite des femmcs eft non 
" feulement permife a tous ces infulaires, elle eft encore une marque d'honneur & 
" de diftindlion. Le Tamole de I'ille d'Huogoleu en a neuf." 

Lettres Edif antes bf Curieufes, Tom. xv. p. 310. 

^ At the Caroline Iflands, " lis ont horreur de I'adultere, comme d'une grand 
" peche." Ih'id. Tom. xv. p. 310. 

:•: Flow the inhabitants of the Caroline Iflands exprefs their grief on fuch occa- 
fions, may be feen. Ibid, Tom. xv, p. 308. ' 

Vol. I. 3 F fides 



1777- fides below the arm-pits, and through the cheeks into the 


mouth. All thefe operations convey an idea of fuch rigorous 
difcipline, as muft require either an uncommon degree 
of affedion, or the groireft fuperftition, to exadl. I will not 
fay, that the laft has no fliare in it ; for, fometimes, it is fo 
univerfal, that many could not have any knowledge of the 
perfon for whom the concern is exprelfed. Thus we faw 
the people of Tongataboo mourning the death of a Chief at 
Vavaoo ; and other fimilar inftances occurred during our 
ftay. It fliould be obferved, hov^ever, that the more pain- 
ful operations are only praiTcifed on account of the death of 
thofc mod nearly conncfted with the mourners. When a 
perfon dies, he is buried, after being wrapped up in mats 
and cloth, much after our manner. The Chiefs feem to 
have the fiatookas appropriated to them as their burial- 
places ; but the common people are interred in no parti- 
cular fpot *. What part of the mourning ceremony follows, 
immediately after, is uncertain ; but, that there is fome- 
thing befides the general one, which is continued for a con- 
fiderable length of time, we could infer, from being inform- 
ed, that the funeral of INIareewagce's wife, as mentioned 
before, was to be attended with ceremonies that were to 
laft five days ; and in which all the principal people were to 
commemorate her. 

Their long and general mourning, proves that they con- 
fider death as a very great evil. And this is confirmed by a 

* Cantova's account of the practice of the Caroline Iflands is as follov/s : " Lorl- 
" qu'il nneurt quelque perfonne d'un rang diftingue, ou qui leur eft chere par d'autres. 
" endroits, fes obftques fe font avec pompe. II y en a qui renferment le corps du 
" defunfl; dans un petit edifice de pierre, qu'iis gardent au-dedans de icur maifons, 
" D'autfcs lesenterrent loin de leurs habitations." 

Lettrcs Edif antes b' Curieufes, Tom. xv. p. 308, 300, 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 40; 

very odd cuftom which they pradlife to avert it. When I '"77- 

firft vifited thefe Iflands, during my laft voyage, I obferved « , ■ 

that many of the inhabitants had one or both of their little 
fingers cut off; and we could not then receive any fatisfac- 
torv account of the reafon of this mutilation*. But we 
now learned, that this operation is performed when they 
labour under fome grievous difeafe, and think themfelves 
in danger of dying. They fuppofe, that the Deity will ac- 
cept of the little finger, as a fort of facrifice efficacious 
enough to procure the recovery of their health. They cut 
it off with one of their (lone hatchets. There was fcarcely 
one in ten of them whom we did not find thus mutilated, in 
one or both hands ; which has a difagreeable effe6l, efpe- 
cially as they fom.etimes cut fo clofe, that they encroach 
upon the bone of the hand which joins to the amputated 
finger f. 

From the rigid feverity with which fome of thefe mourn- 
ing and religious ceremonies are executed, one would ex- 
pert to find, that they meant thereby to fecure to themfelves 
felicity beyond the grave ; but their principal objecfl relates 
to things merely temporal. For they feem to have little 
conception of future punifhment for faults committed in 
this life. They believe, however, that they are juftly pu- 
niflied upon earth ; and, confequently, ufe every method to 
render their divinities propitious. The Supreme Author of 
moft things they call Kallafootonga ; who, they fay, is a fe- 
male, refiding in the fky, and diredling the thunder, wind, 
rain ; and, in general, all the changes of weather. They 

* See Cook's Voyage, Vol. i. p. 222- 

-|- It may be proper to mention here, on the authority of Captain King, that it is 
common for the inferior people to cut off a joint of their little finger, on account of 
the ficknefs of the Chiefs to whom they belong. 

3 F 2 believe, 



J777. believe, that when (lie is angry with them, the produftions 
u, %i! — I of the earth are blafted; that many things are deftroycd by 
iightning; and that they themfelves are afflicted with fick- 
nefs and death, as well as their hogs and other animals. 
When this anger abates, they fnppofe that every thing is 
reftored to its natural order ; and it fliould feem, that they 
have a great reliance on the efficacy of their endeavours 
to appeafe their offended divinity. They alfo admit a 
plurality of deities, though all inferior to Kail afoot on ga. 
Amongft them, they mention Toofooa-hoolootoo^ God of the 
clouds and fog; Tdleteboo, and fome others, refiding in the 
heavens. The firfl in rank and power, who has the go- 
vernment of the fea, and' its produ<flions, is called Fnttafaihe^ 
or, as it was fomctimes pronounced, Footafooa ; who, they 
fay, is a male, and has for his wife Fykava hajeea : and here, 
as in heaven, there are feveral inferior potentates, fuch as 
Vahaa fonooa, Tareea'va, Mattaba, Evaroo, and others. The 
fitme religious fyftem, however, does not extend all over the 
duller of the Friendly Ifles; for the fupreme God of Hapaee, 
for inftance, is called ^/o ^/o ; and other ifles have two or 
three, of different names. But their notions of the power, and 
other attributes of thefc beings, are fo very abfurd, that they 
fuppofe they have no farther concern with them after death* 

They have, however, very proper fentiments about the 
immateriality and the immortality of the foul. They call it 
life, the living principle, or, what is more agreeable to their 
notions of it, an Ctooa ; that is, a divinity, or invifible be- 
ing. They fay, that, immediately upon death, the fouls of 
their Chiefs feparate from their bodies, and go to a place 
QTiW^dBoolootoo; the Chief, or god, of which, is Gookho. This 
Gooleho feems to be a perfonification of death ; for they ufed 
to fay to us, " You, and the men of Fcejee (by this junc- 
8. " tiou. 


" tlon, meaning to pay a compliment, expreffive of their 
*' confeffion of our fuperiority over theinfelves), are alfo 
" fubjei5l to the power and dominion of. GookhoJ'^ His 
country, the general receptacle of the dead, according to 
their mythology, was never fcen by any perfon ; and yet, 
it feems, they know that it lies to the Weilward of Feejee ;, 
and that they who are once tranfporccd thither, live for 
ever; or, to ufe their own expreflion, are not fubject to 
death again ; but feafl upon all the favourite products of 
their own country, with which this everlafting abode is 
fuppofed to abound. As to the fouls of the lower fort of 
people, they undergo a fort of tranfmigration ; or, as they 
fay, are eat up by a bird called hat a, which walks upon 
their graves for that pvirpofc. 

I think I may venture to aflert, that they do not worfliip- 
any thing that is the work of their own hands, or any vi- 
iible part of the creation. They do not make offerings of 
hogs, dogs, and fruit, as at Otaheite, unlefs it be emblem- 
atically ; for their morals were perfecfhly free from every, 
thing of the kind. But that they offer real human facrifices, 
is, with me, beyond a doubt. Their morals, orjiatookas (for 
they are called by both names, but moflly by the latter), 
are, as at Otaheite, and many other parts of the world, bu- 
rying-grounds, and places of worfliip ; though fome of 
them feemed to be only appropriated to the firft purpofe ; 
but thefe were fmall, and, in every other refpeift, inferior 
to the others. 

^ Of the nature of their government, we know no more than 
the general outline. A fubordination is ellabliflied among 
them, that refembles the feudal fyflem of our progenitors 
in Europe. But of its fubdivifions, of the conflituent parts, 



1777- and in what manner they are conne6t:ed, fo as to form a body 
poUtic, I confefs myfelf totally ignorant. Some of them told 
us, that the power of the king is unlimited, and that the life 
and property of the fubje6t is at his difpofal. But the few 
circumftances that fell under our obfervation, rather contra- 
didled than confirmed the idea of a defpotic government. 
Mareewagee, old Tooboo, and Feenou, acffed each like petty 
fovereigns, and frequently thwarted the meafures of the 
king; of which he ofren complained. Neither was his 
court more fplendid than thofe of the two firft, who are the 
mod powerful Chiefs in the iflands ; and, next to them, 
Feenou, Mareewagee's fon, feemed to ftand higheft in 
authority. But, however independent on the defpotic 
power of the king the great men may be, we fav/ inilances 
enough to prove, that the lower order of people have no 
property, nor fafety for their perfons, but at the wall of the 
Chiefs to whom they refpecflively belong. 

Tongataboo is divided into many diftri6ls; of above thirty 
of which we learned the names. Each of thefe has its par- 
ticular Chief, who decides differences, and diftributes juf- 
tice within his own diftridt. But we could not form any 
fatisfadiory judgment about the extent of their power in ge- 
neral, or their mode of proportioning punifliments to 
crimes. Moll of thefe Chiefs have poflefTions in other 
iflands, from v;hence they draw fupplies. At leaft, we know 
this is fo with refpeift to the king, who, at certain eftablifla- 
ed times, receives the product of his diftant domains at Ton- 
gataboo ; which is not only the principal place of his refi- 
dence, but, feemingly, of all the people of confequence 
amongft thefe ifles. Its inhabitants, in common converfation, 
call it the Land of Chiefs -, while the fubordinate ifles are 
diflinguilhed by the appellation of Lands of Servants. 

6 Thefe 



Thefc Chiefs are, by the people, ftyled not only Lords of '777. 
the Earth, but of the Sun and Sky ; and the king's family \^1J^ 
affurne the name of Futtafaihe, from the God fo called, who 
is probably their tutelary patron, and perhaps their common 
anceftor. The fovereign's peculiar earthly title is, how- 
ever, fimply Tooee T'ojiga. 

There is a decorum obferved in the prefence of their prin- 
cipal men, and particularly of their king, that is truly ad- 
mirable. Whenever he fits down, whether it be in an houfe,. 
or without, all the attendants feat themfelves, at the fame 
time, in a femicircle before him; leaving always a convenient 
fpace between him and .them, into which no one attempts 
to come, unlefs he has fome particular bufmefs. Neither 
is any one allowed to pafs, or fit, behind him, nor even near 
him, without his order or pcrmiflion ; fo that our having 
been indulged with this privilege, was a lignificant proof 
of the great refpe6t duic was paid us. When any one wants 
to fpeak with the king, he advances and fits down before 
him ; delivers what he has to fay in a few words ; and, 
having received his anfwer, retires again to the circle. But if 
the king fpeaks to any one, that perfon anfwers from his fear, 
unlefs he is to receive fome order; in which cafe he gets up 
from his place, and fits down before the Chief with his legs 
acrofs ; which is a poflure to which they are fo much accuf- 
tomed, that any other mode of fitting is difagreeable to 
them*. To fpeak to the king ftanding, would be accounted 
here as a ftriking mark of rudensfs, as it would be, with us, 
for one to fit down and put on his hat, v/hen he addrelles - 
himfelf lo his fuperior, and that fupedor on his feet, and 

* This is peculiar to the men; the women always fitting with both legs thiov/!V'- 
a little on one fide. We owe tliis remark to Captain King. 


4o€ A V O Y A G E T O 

■"^rr- It does nor, indeed, appear, that any of the moft civil- 

July. ... 

ized nations, have ever exceeded this people, in the great 
order obferved, on all occafions ; in ready compliance with 
the commands of their Chiefs ; and in the harmony that 
fubfiils throughout all ranks, and unites them, as if they 
were all one man, informed with, and directed by, the fame 
•principle- Such a behaviour is remarkably obvious, when- 
ever it is requifire that their Chiefs il^ouid harangue any 
body of them collecfled together, which is fiequently done. 
The mofl: profound fdence and attention is obferved during 
the harangue, even to a much greater degree than is prac- 
.tifed amongft us, on the moft interefting and ferious deli- 
berations of our moft refpeftable aflemblies. And, what- 
ever might have been the fubjecfl of the fpeech delivered, 
we never faw an inftance, when any individual prefenr, 
Hiewed figns of his being difpleafed, or that indicated the 
leaft inclination to difpute the declared will of a perfon who 
had a right to command. Nay, fuch is the force of thefe 
verbal laws, as I may call them, that I have feen one of 
their Chiefs exprcfs his being aftoniflied, at a perfon's hav- 
ing a6ted contrary to fuch orders ; though it appeared, that 
the poor man could net pofFibly have been informed, in 
time, to have obferved them *. 

Though foroe of the more potent Chiefs may vie with the 
king in point of adlual pofTeflions, they fall very fhort in 
rank, and in certain marks of rcfpe(5t, which the colleclivc 
body have agreed to pay the monarch. It is a particular 
privilege annexed to his fovereignty, not to be punfiured, 

* Cantova gives us tiie fame accouiirt of the profound fubmiffioii of the Caroline 
Iflanders, to the orders of the Tmnole. " lis resolvent fes ordres avec le plus pro- 
<' fond refpeft. Ses paroles font autant d'oracles, qu'on revere." 

l,ettres EcUJiantds ^ Cuileufes, Tom, xv. p. 312- 



nor circumcifed, as all his fubie(5ls are. Whenever he '777- 


walks out, every one whom he meets mull fit down till he 
has paiTed. No one is allowed to be over his head ; on the 
contrary, all muft come under his feet ; for there cannot 
be a greater outward mark of fubmiflion, than that which 
is paid to the fovereign, and other great people of thefe 
illands, by their inferiors. The method is this ; the perfon 
•who is to pay obeifance, fquats down before the Chief, 
and bows the head to the fole of his foot; which, when he 
fits, is fo placed, that it can be eafily come at ; and, having 
tapped, or touched it with the under and upper fide of the 
fingers of both hands, he rifes up, and i-etires. It fliould 
feem, that the king cannot refufe any one who choofes to 
pay him this homage, which is called moe moea ; for the 
common people would frequently take it into their heads to 
do it when he was walking ; and he was always obliged to 
Hop, and hold up one of his feet behind him, till they had 
performed the ceremony. This, to a heavy unwieldy man, 
like Poulaho, muft be attended with fome trouble and pain; 
and I have, fometimes, feen him make a run, though very 
unable, to get out of the way, or to reach a place where he 
might conveniently lit down. The hands, after this appli- 
cation of them to the Chief's feet, are, in fome cafes, ren- 
dered ufelefs for a time ; for, until they be wafhed, they 
mull not touch any kind of food. This interdi(5lion, in a 
country where water is fo fcarce, would feem to be attend- 
ed with fome inconvenience ; but they are never at a lofs 
for a fuccedaneum; and a piece of any juicy plant, which 
they can eafily procure immediately, being rubbed upon 
them, this ferves for the purpofe of purification, as well as 
walhing them with water. When the hands are in this llate. 
Vol. I, 3 G they 

.ID A V O Y A G E T O 


lu^r ^^^^ ^^^^ ^' '^"^^^ rema. Taboo, in general, fignifies forbidden j, 
and rema is their word for hand. 

When the taboo is incurred, by paying obeifance to a great 
perfonage, it is thus eafily wallied oiF. But, in fome other 
cafes, it muft necefTarily continue for a certain time. We 
have frequently feen women, who have been taboo rema, fed 
by others. At the expiration of the time, the interdicfted 
perfon waflies herfelf in one of their baths, which are dirty 
holes, for the moft part, of brackilli water. She then waits 
upon the king, and, after making her obeifance in the ufual 
way, lays hold of his foot, and applies it to her breaft, 
llioulders, and other parts of her body. He then embraces 
her on each fhoulder ; after which Ihe retires, purified from, 
her uncleannefs. I do not know, that it is always neceflary 
to come to the king for this purpofe ; though Omai afRired 
me it was. If this be fo, it may be one reafon why he is, 
for the moft parr, travelling from illand to ifland. I faw 
this ceremony performed, by him, two or three times ; and 
once by Feenou, to one of his own women; but as Omai 
was not then with me, I could not afk the occafion. 

Taboo, as I have before obferved, is a word of an extenfive 
fignification. Human facrifices are called tangata taboo; and 
when any thing is forbidden to be eat, or made ufe of, they 
fay, that it is taboo. 1 hey tell us, that, if the king fliould 
happen to go into a houfe belonging to a fubjedlr, that houfe 
would be taboo, and could never more be inhabited by the 
owner; fo that, wherever he travels, there are particular 
houfes for his reception. Old Toobou, at this time, pre- 
lided over the taboo ; that is, if Omai comprehended the 
matter rightly, he and his deputies infpecTred all the pro- 
duce ot the ifland ; taking care that every man fliould cul- 

a tivate 


tlvate and plant his quota; and ordering what fliould be '777. 
eat, and what not. By this wife regulation, they efFecftually wl^L^ 
guard againft a famine ; a fufficient quantity of ground is 
employed in raifing provifions ; and every article, thus raifed, 
is fecured from unnece/Tary walle. 

By another prudent regulation, in their Government, 
they have an officer over the police ; or fomething like it. 
This department, when we were amongft them, was admi- 
niftered by Feenou ; whofe bufmefs, we were told, it was, to 
punifli all offenders, whether againft the ftate, or againft in- 
dividuals. He was alfo Generaliffimo, and commanded the 
warriors, when called out upon fervice ; but, by all ac- 
counts, this is very feldom. The king, frequently, took 
fome pains to inform us of Feenou's office; and, among other 
things, told us, that if he himfelf fliould become a bad man, 
Feenou would kill him. What I underftood, by this expref- 
fion of being a bad man, was, that, if he did not govern 
according to law, or cuftom, Feenou would be ordered, by 
the other great men, or by the people at large, to put him 
to death. There fliould feem to be no doubt, that a Sove- 
reign, thus liable to be controuled, and puniflied for an abufe 
of power, cannot be called a defpotic monarch. 

When we confider the number of iflands that compofe 
this little ftate, and the diftance at which fome of them lie 
from the feat of Government, attempts to throw off the 
yoke, and to acquire independency, it fliould feem, might 
be apprehended. But they tell us, that this never happens. 
One reafon why they are not thus difturbed, by domeftic 
quarrels, may be this : That all the powerful Chiefs, as we 
have already mentioned, rcfide at Tongataboo. They alfo 
fecure the dependence of the other iflands, by the celerity 
of their operations ; for if, at any time, a troublefomc and 

3 G 2 popular 



'777- popular man fhould ftart up, in any of them, Feenou, or 
whoever holds his office, is immediately difpatched thither 
to kill him. By this means, they crufli a rebellion in its 
very infancy. 

The orders, or clafles, amongft their Chiefs, or thofe who 
call themfelves fuch, feemed to be almoft as numerous as 
amongft us; but there are few, in comparifon, that are 
lords of large diflrids of territory; the reft holding their 
lands under thofe principal barons, as they may be called. 
I was, indeed, told, that when a man of property dies, 
every thing he leaves behind him falls to the king ; but that 
it is ufual to give it to the eldeft fon of the deceafed, with 
an obligation to make a provifion, out of it, for the reft of 
the children. It is not the cuftom here, as at Otaheite, for 
the fon, the moment he is born, to take from the father the 
homage and title ; but he fucceeds to them, at his deceafe ; 
fo that their form of government is not only monarchical, 
but hereditary. 

The' order of fucceffion to the crown, has not been of late 
interrupted ; for we know, from a particular circumftance, 
that the Futtafaihes (Foulaho being only an addition, to dif- 
tinguiflithe king from the reft of his family) have reigned, 
in a dired Hne, for, at leaft, one hundred and thirty-five 
years. Upon inquiring, whether any account had been 
prelerved amongft them, of the arrival of Tafinan's fliips, 
we found, that this hiftory had been handed down to them, 
from their anceftors, with an accuracy which marks, that 
oral tradition may fometimes be depended upon. For they 
defcribed the two Ihips, as refembhng ours ; mentioning 
the place where they had anchored ; their having ftaid buc 
a few days; and their moving from that ftation to Anna- 
mooka. And, by way of informing us how long ago this 


T H E P A C I F I C O C E A N. 413 

had happened, they told us the name of the Futtafaihe '777- 

who was then king, and of thofe who had fucceeded, down < — -v— ^j 
to Poulaho, who is the fifth fince that period ;. the firft being 
an old man, at the time of the arrival of the fliips. 

From what has been faid of the prefent king, it would be 
natural to fuppofe, that he had the highefl rank of any per- 
fon in the iflands. But, to our great furprize, we found it 
is not fo ; for Latoolibooloo, the perfon who was pointed out 
to me as king, v*?hen I firft vifited Tongataboo, and three 
women, are, in fome refpedts, fuperior to Poulaho himfelf. 
On our inquiring, who thefe extraordinary perfonages were, 
whom they diftinguifli by the name and title of Tammaha'^ I 
we were told, that the late king, Poulaho's father, had a 
fifter of equal rank, and elder than himfelf ; thai llie, by a 
man who came from the illand of Feejee, had a fon and 
two daughters; and that thefe three perfons, as well as 
their mother, rank above Futtafaihe the king. We endea- 
voured, in vain, to trace the reafon of this fingular pre- 
eminence of the Tammahns ; for we could learn nothing be- 
fides this account of their pedigree. The mother, and one 
of the daughters, called Tooeela-kaipa, live at Vavaoo. 
Latoolibooloo, the fon, and the other daughter, whofe name 
is Moungoula-kaipa, refide at Tongataboo. The latter, is 
the woman who is mentioned to have dined with me on the 
sift of June. This gave occafion to our difcovering her fu- 
periority over the king,, who would not eat in her prefence, 
though Ihe made no fcruple to do fo before him, and re- 
ceived from him the cuftomary obeifance, by touching her 
foot. We never had an opportunity of feeing him. pay this 

*-The reader need not be reminded- that Tanioka, wiiich fignifies a Chief, in tlie 
dialodl of Hamao, .and Tmnmaha, become the fame word, by the change of a fingle 
letter, the articulation of which is not very flrongly marked. ; 

J mark- 

414 A V O Y A G E T O 

J777« mark of i'erpe<5t to Latoolibooloo ; but we have obferved 


\_.^^.»^ him leave off eating, and have his victuals put alide, when 
the latter came into the fame houfe." Latooliboaloo affumed 
the privilege of taking any thing from the people, even if 
it belonged to the king ; and yet, in the ceremony called 
Natcbe, he aflifted only in the fame manner as the other 
principal men. He was looked upon, by his countrymen, 
as a madman ; and many of his actions feemed to confirm 
this judgment. At Eooa, they fliev/ed me a good deal 
of land, faid to belong to him ; and I faw there a fon of his, 
a child, whom they diftinguiflied by the fame title as his 
father. The fon of the greateft Prince in Europe could 
not be more humoured and carefled than this little Tarn- 
maha was. 

The language of the Triendly Iflands, has the greateft 
affinity imaginable to that of New Zealand, of Wateeoo, and 
Mangeea ; and, confequently, to that of Otaheite, and the 
Society Iflands. There are alfo many of their words the 
fame with thofe ufed by the natives of Cocos Ifland, as ap- 
pears from the vocabulary collected there by Le Maire and 
Schouten*. The mode of pronunciation differs, indeed, 
confiderably, in many inftances, from that both of New 
Zealand, and Otaheite; but, flill, a great number of words 

* See this vocabulary, at the end of Vol. ii. of Dalrymple's Colle£lion of Voyages. 
And yet, though Tafman's people ufed the words of this vocabulary, in fpeaking to 
the. natives of Tongataboo (his Amfterdam), we are told, in the accounts of his 
voyage, that they did not underftand one another. A circumftance worth obferving, 
as it fhews hov/ cautious v/e fliould be, upon the fcanty evidence afforded by fuch 
tranfient vifits as Tafman's, and, indeed, as thofe of moft of the fubfequent naviga- 
tors of the Pacific Ocean, to found any argument about the affinity, or want of af- 
finity, of the languages of the different iflands. No one, now, will venture to fay, 
that a Cocos man, and one of Tongataboo, could not underftand each other. Some 
of the words of Horii Illand, another of Schouten's difcoveries, alfo belong to the 
diale(^ pf Tongataboo. See Dalrymple, as above. 



are either exa(flly the fame, or fo little changed, that their '777. 

common original may be fatisfacftorily traced. The Ian- ' r—-J-j 

guage, as fpoken at the Friendly lilands, is fufficiently co- 
pious, for all the ideas of the people ; and we had many 
proofs of its being eafily adapted to all mufical purpofes, 
both in fong and in recitative ; befidcs being harmonious 
enough in common converfation. Its component parts, as 
far as our fcanty acquaintance with it enabled us to judge, 
are not numerous; and, in fome of its rules, it agrees 
v/itli other known languages. As, for inllance, we could 
eafily difcern the feveral degrees of comparifon, as ufed 
in the Latin ; but none of the infledcions of nouns and 

We were able to colle6l feveral hundreds of the words ; 
and, amongfl: thefe, are terms that exprefs numbers as far as 
a hundred thoufand ; beyond which they never would 
i-eckon. It is probable, indeed, that they are not able to go 
farther ; for, after having got thus far, we obferved, that 
they commonly ufed a word which expreifes ar^ indefinite 
number. A fhort fpecimen, felecfted from the larger voca- 
bulary, is here inferted, with the correfponding words, of 
the fame lignification, as ufed at Otaheite, on the oppofite 
column ; which, while it will give, as we may fay, ocular 
demonftration of their being dialecfls of the fame language, 
will, at the fame time, point out the particular letters, by 
the infertion, omiffion, or alteration of which, the varia- 
tions of the two dialecls, from each other, have been 

It mull: be obferved. however, that our vocabularies, of 
thi^ mud necefTanly be liable to great miftakcs. The 

ideas- of tiiofe, from whom we were to learn the words, 



»7T7- were fo diiferent from ours, that it was difficult to fix them 


to the objeft of inquiry. Or, if this could be obtained, to 
learn an unknown tongue, from an inftru(5lor who did not 
know a fingle word of any language that his fcholar was 
converfant with, could not promife to produce much. But 
even, when thefe difficulties were furmounted, there ftill re- 
mained a fruitful fource of miftake. I mean, inaccuracy in 
catching, exadly, the true found of a word, to which our 
ears had never been accuftomed, from perfons whofe mode 
of pronunciation was, in general, fo indiftinft, that it feldom 
happened that any two of us, in writing down the fame 
word, from the fame mouth, made ufe of the fame vowels, 
in reprefenting it. Nay, we even, very commonly, differed 
about confonants, the founds of which are leafl liable to am- 
biguity. Befides all this, we found, by experience, that we 
had been led into ftrange corruptions of fome of the moll 
common words, either from the natives endeavouring to 
imitate us, or from our having mifunderllood them. Thus, 
cheeto was univerfally ufed by us, to exprefs a thief, though 
totally different from the real word, in the language of 
Tongataboo. The miftake arofe from a prior one, into 
which v/e had run, when at New Zealand. For though the 
word that fignifies thief there, be abfolutely the fame that 
belongs to the dialecft of the Friendly Iflands (being kaechaa 
at both places), yet, by fome blunder, we had ufed the word 
teete, firil at New Zealand, and, afterward, at Tongataboo, 
on our arrival there. The natives, endeavouring to imitate 
us, as nearly as they could, and fo fabricating the word 
cheeto, this, by a complication of miftakes, was adopted by 
us as their own. All pollible care has been taken to make 
the following table as correal as pofiible : 





Friendly IJlands. 






>^ ^ 










The windt 






The cloudSf 












A many 



A ivomany 



A young girl, 



A fervant, or peifon 
mean rank. 

' ^/|Tooa, 

Toutou, or teou. 

The dazun, or day-bn 

■:ak, Aho, 


The hairy 



The tongue y 



The ear. 



The beard, 



The feay 



A boat, or canoe. 








Oora, oora. 

A lance, ox f pear. 



A parei\t. 



What is that ? 

Kohaeea I 

Yahaeca : 

To hold f aft. 



To wipe, or ckan any ] ty 
thin^, S 


Vol. I. 



4i8 A V O Y A G E T O 



Friendly IJIaiuJs. 

. Otahsite, 

\ * 

To rife upt 



To cry, ox Jloed tears^ 



To eat, or chezv. 


















Having now concluded my remarks on thefe iflands and 
people, I fliall take my final leave of them, after giving 
fome account of the aftronomical and nautical obfcrvations 
that were made during our ilay. 

And, firft, I mull take notice, that the difference of lon- 
gitude, between Annamooka and Tongataboo, is fomewhat 
lefs than was marked in the chart and narrative of my laft 
voyage. This error might eafily arife, as the longitude 
of each was then found without any connection w^ith the 
other. But, now, the diflance between them is determined 
to a degree of precifion, that excludes all pofTibility of 
miftake ; which the following table will illuflrate ; 

The latitude of the obfervatory at 
Tongataboo, by the mean of fe- 
veral obfervations, - - - 21° 8' 19" South. 

The longitude, by the mean of one 
hundred and thirty-one fets of lu- 
nar obfervations, amounting to 
above a thoufand obferved dif- 
tances, between the moon, fun, 
and flars, - - - - 184 55 1 8 Eafl. 



The difFerence of longitude, made '777- 

by the time-keeper, between the 
above obfervatory, and that at 
Annamooka, - - - o"" 16' 

Hence, the longitude of Annamo- 

ka is - - - - - i8f ir iS Eaft, 

By the time- { Greenwich rate, - 

keeper it is, t New Zealand rate, 

Its latitude - - _ 











N. B. The obfervatory at Tongataboo was near the 
middle of the North fide of the ifland ; and that at Anna- 
mooka, on its Weft fide; but the chart will elucidate this. 

The time-keeper was too flow for mean time at Green- 
wich, on the firft of July at noon, by 12'' 34™ 33%2 ; and 
her daily rate, at that time, was lofing, on mean time, 
i'")783 per day. This rate will now be ufed for finding the 
longitude by the time-keeper; and 184° 55' 18", or 12" 19"" 
4i%2, will be taken as the true longitude of Tongataboo, 
Eaft from Greenwich. 

By the mean of feveral obfervations, the South end of the 
needle was found to dip 

f Lefooga, one of the Hapace iflands, 36° 55' 
J Tongataboo, - - _ ng jj.. 

The variation of the compafs was found to be 

TAnnamooka, onboard, - ~ - 8° 30' 34." Eaft- 

Anchor ofF Kotoo, between 7 „ 

I (. - 8 12 20^ 

Annamooka and Hapace, 3 

Anchor off Lefooga, - - 10 11 40 

Tongataboo, on board, - - 9 44 5". 

Ditto, on fhore, - - - 10 12 58 

3 H 2 I can 

At S 




1777- I can aflign no reafon why the variation is fo much lefg 

-J^Il^ at, and near, Annamooka,. than at either of the other two 
places. I can only fay, that there is no fault in the ob- 
fervations ; and that the variation ought to be more at An- 
namooka than the above, as it has been found to be fo to the 
Northward, Southward, Eaftward, and Weflwardof it. But 
difagreements in the variation, greater than this, even in 
the fame needle, have been often obferved. And I fliould 
not have taken notice of this inftance, but from a belief 
that the caufe, whatever it is, exifts in the place, and not 
in the needles ; for Mr. Bayly found the fame, or rather 
more difference. 

The tides are more confiderable at thefe iflands, than at 
any other of my difcoveries in this ocean, that lie within 
the tropics. At Annamooka it is high water, on the 
full and change days, nearly at fix o'clock ; and the tide 
rifes and falls there, upon a perpendicular, about fix feet. 
In the harbour of Tongataboo, it is high water, on the 
full and change days, at fifty minutes paft fix. The tide 
rifes and falls, on thofe days, four feet nine inches ; and 
three feet fix inches at the Quadratures. In the channels be- 
tween the iflands, which lie in this harbour, it flows near 
tide and half tide ; that is, the flood continues to run up 
near three hours, after it is high water by the fliore; and 
the ebb continues to run down, after it is flood by the 
lliore. It is only in thefe channels, and in a few ottiei* 
places near the fliores, that the motion of tlie water or 
tide is perceivable ; fo chat I can only guefs at the quarter 
from which the flood comes. In the road of Annamooka, it 
fets Weil South Weft, and the ebb the contrary ; but it falls 
into the harbour of Tongataboo from the North Weft, 
5 pafles 




palTes through the two narrow channels, on each fide of >777- 
Hoolaiva, where it runs with confiderable rapidity, and » .' V' ..r 
then fpends itfelf in the lagocii. The ebb returns the 
fame way, and runs with rather greater force. The North 
Weft tide is met, at the entrance of the Iagoo?2, by one 
from the Eaft ; but this, as I have before obferved, was 
found to be very inconfiderable.