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Full text of "A voyage to the South sea, undertaken by command of His Majesty, for the purpose of conveying the bread-fruit tree to the West Indies, in His Majesty's ship the Bounty, commanded by Lieutenant William Bligh. Including an account of the mutiny on board the said ship, and the subsequent voyage of part of the crew, in the ship's boat, from Tofoa, one of the Friendly islands, to Timor, a Dutch settlement in the East Indies .."

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Darlington AXemorial Jjibrary 

The Matiaeers of the Bounty. 

There;, is aa island in the Pacific Ocean 
wbicli Has discovered in the year 1769 
and named Pitcairn's Island, In 1789, the 
British government sent oat the Bounty 
to convey p)ant6 of the bread-fruit tree 
ttroiu Tahiti to the West Indies, but the 
Xtew mutineed, and sent Captain Bligh 
and others who would not join them 
[ btioat in an open boat, and set sail for Ta- 
i niti, where they took on board some na- 
I tive men and women, again spread their 
! sails and were not heard of till the year 
'; 1808, when Captain Folger, of Nantucket 
[ found their descendants on Pitcairn's le- 
j land, which had previously been suppos- 
'ed to be uninhabited. On the Island there 
had been a bloody fight, and only Jack 
Adams of the original mutineers remained. 
In IS.jG the whole community was remov- 
'ed to Norfolk Island, but some of them 
afterwards returned to Pitcairn's. Since 
,tUen they have scarcely been heard from 
till within a few days. About the middle 
)of the year 1870 Captain John Pardy, of 
'the ship Whittington sailed from Cfelifor- 
inia for Liverpool, and stopped at the Is- 
land, where he found between sixty and 
seventy persons living" well, but in need 
; of clothing, medicine, &c., and longing 
for nfews from the outer world.. They 
gave him the following letter, which, on 
the a.'ith of last month, he sent from 
' Edinburg to the Alta California : 
I PiTC.IlRN'S ISL.\ND, Oct. 6, 1870. 

Mr. Editor: As many ships pass this 
island on the route to and fi;om San Fran- 
cisco, bnt at too great a distance to board 
I them in our canoes, it is our opinion that 
I they do jjot know the island to be inhabit- 
ed. There are no dangers of rocks or 
] shoals, and if they come within a mile 
I they w/)uld most always get a supply of 
fruit, &c. We number' siSty or seventy 
persons, and we alwaj-s like to show hos- 
pitality to stranpers and to hear the news. 
I This is the third day we have seen ships 
I pass, and this daj' one is standing in, by 
which we send this. The landing is on 
the north side of the island. 
^ If, dear sir, you would have the kind- 
ness to give this a place in your valuable 
paper, you would greatly" oblige your 
I humble servants. 

, The <;o.M.Mf.MTY OF PlTC-^IRN I^^LA.ND. 

(■ A !' ■".' il"j I. 1 i< ' ' 




T O T H E ^ 








LIEU' TENANT WILLIAM B L I G H, ns-^ -\«?i-j._ 




SUBSEQUENT VOYAGE of Part of the Crew, in the Ship's Boat, 
From T O P O A, one of the FriendlvIslands, 
To TIMOR, a Dutch Settlement in the Eaft Indies. 








AT the time I publiilied the Narrative of the Mu- 
tiny on Board the Bounty, it was my intention 
that the preceding jxirt of the Voyage fhould be con- 
tained in a feparate account. This method I have 
fince been induced to alter. The reafon of the Nar- 
rative appearing firft, was for the purpofe of communi- 
cating early information concerning an event which 
had attracted the public notice : and being drawn up 
in a hafly manner, it required many correftions. Some 
circumftances likewife were omitted j and the notation 
of time ufed in the Narrative, being according to fea 
reckoning, in which the days begin and end at noon, 
muft have produced a degree of obfcurity and confu- 
fion to readers accuftomcd only to the civil mode. 
And this would have increafed, as the remainder of the 
voyage, on account of the numerous fhore occurrences 
at Otaheite and elfewhere, could not, with clearnefs 
and propriety, have been related in any other than the 
ufual manner of reckoning. 

a Befides 


Befides remedying thefe inconveniencies, I have 
thought a fuller account of our pafTage from Timor 
to Europe, than that contained in the Narrative, 
would not be unacceptable. Thefe reafons, with the 
manifeft convenience of compriling the whole Voyage 
in one continued narrative, in preference to letting it 
appear in disjointed accounts, will, it is hoped, be al- 
lowed a fufficient excufe for having varied from the 
original intention. Neverthelefs, for the accommoda- 
tion of the purchafers of the Narrative already pub- 
lifhed, thofe who defire it, will be fupplied with the 
other parts of the Voyage feparate ; z. e. the part pre- 
vious to the mutiny, and the additional account after 
leaving Timor. 



C H A p. I. 

p LAN of the Uxpedition. -^Outfit, and Occurrences to the 
Time of leaving England. -—Defcription of the Bread' 
Fruit ----- Page i 


Departure from England. — Arrival at Teneriffe.-f-Sail from 
thence. — Arrival off Cape Horn. — Severity of the Weather. 
— Obliged to bear away for the Cape of Good Hope - 14 


Paffage tozvards the Cape of Good Hope, and Search after 
Trijian da Cunba.—r Arrival at Falfe Bay. — Occurrences 
there. — Reports concerning the Grofvenofs People. — De^ 
parture from the Cape - - - 35 

a 3 CHAP. 



Pqffage towards Van Die men's Land. — Make the IJland of 
St. Paul. — Arrival in Adventure Bay. — Natives feen. — 
Sail from Van Diemen's Land - - Page 42 

C H A P. V. 

Rocky IJJands dijcovered. — See the IJland Maitea, and arrive 
at Otaheite. — -Ship crouded by the Natives - - 55 


Account of an Lnglijh Ship lately failed from Otaheite. — 
Death of Omai. — Captain CooJi's Pi£iure fent on board. — 
Otoo vifits the Ship. — His Vifit returned. — Natives well 
difpofed tozvards us. — Account of the Cattle left by Cap- 
tain Cook. — Bread-fruit plants promifed. — Vijit to the 
Earee Rahie. — Prefents made to the Arreoys. - - 61 


A Theft cotnmitted. — Deception of the painted Head. — Con- 
ner fation zvith a Priefi. — A Wreftling Match. — Reports of 
the Natives concerning other IJlands.—So?ne Account of 
Omai. - • - _ - - 82 



Expedition to Tettabd after a Heifer. — Extraordinary do- 
mejiic Arrangements. — Tmah's Mother vifits the Ship. — 

A Sheep 


C O N T E N r S. 

A Sheep brought from Ulietea, — Heavy Storm. — Death 
of the Surgeon. — 'Tao-wne and Toahroab Harbours ex- 
amined. _ - _ _ Page 93 

C H A P. IX. 

A IValk into the Country. — the Peeah Roah. — Prevailed on, by 
the Kindnefs of the Chiefs, to defer our Departure. — Bread- 
fruit Plants colleBed. — Move the Ship to "Toahroah Har- 
bour. — FiJJjing. — 'Three of the Ship^s Compaiiy defer t. — In- 
difcretion of our People on Shore. — Inflances of Jealoufy. — 
Mourning. — Bull brought to Oparre by a Prophet. — The 
Defer ters recovered, — Tinah propofes to vifit England. 105 

C H A P. X. 

The Ship's Cable cut in the Night.. — Coolnefs with the Chiefs 
on that Account. — Vijit to an old Lady. — Difiurbance at 
a Heiva. — Tinah's Hofpitality. — A Thief taken, and pu- 
nijloed. — Preparations for failing. •- . - 123 

* CHAP. XI. 

Arrival of an Arreoy Woman from Tethuroa. — A Prefent 
delivered by Tinah for his Majejly. — Other Occurrences to 
the Time of the Ship's Departure from Otaheite. - 135 


At the Tfland Huaheine. — A Friend of Omai vijits the Ship. — 
. Leave the Society IJIands. — A Wat er-f pout. —The IJIand 



Wbytootackee dijcovered. — Anchor in Annamooka Road. — 

Our Parties on Shore robbed by the Natives. — Sail 

from Annamooka.-— The Chiefs detained on board. — Pr>rt 

friendly - - - - Page 143 


A Mutiny in the Ship « . - - \t^^ 


Proceed in the Launch to the I/land Tofoa.— Difficulty in ob~ 
taining Supplies there. — Treacherous Attack of the Na^ 
lives. — Efcape to Sea, and bear away for New Hol- 
land - - - - - - 165 


Pajfage towards New Holland. — I/lands dif covered in our 
Route. — Our great DifireJJes, — See the Reefs of New Hol- 
land, and find a Pajfage through them - - 177 


Progrefs to the Northward, along the Coajl of New Hol- 
land. — Land on different IJlands, in fear cb of Supplies 200 


Paffage from Nezv Holland to the I/land Ti?nor. — Arrive at 

Coupang. — Reception there - - - 222 

2 CHAP. 


AtCoupang - - - _ Page 239 

From Timor to Batavia - - • - 246 


Occttrrences at Batavia^, andPaJage thence to England - 253 



Head of Lieutenant Bligh - - to front the Title page. 

Plan and profile of the deck of the Bounty - - Page i 

Sedlions of the Bread-fruit - - - - - lo 

Plan of Toahroah harbour - - - - ~ 104 

Copy of the draught from which the Bounty's launch was built 165 
Chart of Iflands difcovered from the launch - - •• lyg 

Chart of part of the N E coaft of New Holland - - 220 
Chart of the track of the launch from Tofoa to TimoF - - 238 

A V O Y- 






Plan of the Expedition. — Oiitfity and Occurrences to the Titne 
of leaving England. — Defer iption of the Bread-Fruit, 

THE King having been gracioufly pleafed to comply 1-87. 
with a requeft from the merchants and planters ^ ~'' "~ 
interefted in his Majefty's Weft India poffeffions, that the 
bread-fruit tree might be introduced into thofe iflands, a 
veffel, proper for the undertaking, was bought, and taken 
into dock at Deptford, to be provided with the neceffary 
fixtures and preparations for executing the objedl of the 
voyage. Thefe were completed according to a plan of my 
much honoured friend, Sir Jofeph Banks, which, in the 
event, proved the moft advantageous that could have been 
adopted for the intended purpofe. 

The fhip was named the Bounty : I was appointed to August, 
command her on the i6th of Auguft 1787. Her burthen 16. 
w^as nearly two hundred and fifteen tons ; her extreme 
length on deck, ninety feet ten inches; extreme breadth, 
twenty-four feet three inches ; and height in the hold 

B under 


BorBfrii- .iRMEM TK.iVSH-OllT 

s/ifier'/iofJt,- m,//i/te/ of' 

littm^- a//e/ stOHTiio- //;, lotts , 

/'/■ r«,ifmy ike 

Jiread Aiiit plants' 




SOUTH S E J S, ^c. 


Plan of the 'Expedition. — Outfit, andOccurrences to the Time 
of leaving England, — Defer iption of the Bread-Fruit. 

THE King having been gracioufly pleafed to comply j-s;. 
with a reqiieft from the merchants and planters ''" ~'~ '~ 
interefted in his Majefty's Weft India polTeffions, that the 
bread-fruit tree might be introduced into thofe iflands, a 
veflel, proper for the undertaking, was bought, and taken 
into dock at Deptford, to be provided with the necelTary 
fixtures and preparations for executing the objecfl of the 
voyage. Thefe were completed according to a plan of my 
much honoured friend. Sir Jofeph Banks, which, in the 
event, proved the moft advantageous that could have been 
adopted for the intended purpofe. 

The fhip was named the Bounty; I was appointed to August. 
command her on the i6th of Auguft 1787. Her burthen i6. 
was nearly two hundred and fifteen tons; her extreme 
length on deck, ninety feet ten inches; extreme breadth, 
twenty-four feet three inches; and height in the hold 

B under 


iinder the beams, at the main hatchway, ten feet three 
inches. In the cockpit were the cabins of the furgeon, 
gunner, botanift, and clerk, with a fteward-room and ftore- 
rooms. The between decks was divided in the following 
manner: — the great cabin was appropriated for the pre- 
fervation of the plants, and extended as far forward as 
the after hatchway. It had two large fky-lights, and on 
each fide three fcuttles for air, and was fitted with a falfe 
floor cnt full of holes to contain the garden-pots, in which 
the plants were to be brought home. The deck was 
covered with lead, and at the foremoft corners of the cabin 
Avere fixed pipes to carry off the water that drained from 
the plants, into tubs placed below to fave it for future ufe. 
I had a fmall cabin on one lide to fleep in, adjoining to the 
great cabin, and a place near the middle of the fhip to eat 
in. The buiic-head of this apartinent was at the after-part 
of the main hatchway, and on each fide of it were the 
births of the mates and midfliipmen ; between thefe births 
the arm-chefl was placed. The cabin of the matter, in 
which was always kept the key of the arms, was oppofite 
to mine. This particular defcription of the interior parts 
of the fhip is rendered necelTary by the event of the 

The fhip was mafted according to the proportion of the 
navy; but, on my application, the mafts were fhortened, 
as I thought them too much for her, confidering the nature 
sbptsm- of the voyage. 
*3 *' On the 3d of September, the fhip came out of dock i but 

the carpenters and joiners remained on board much longer, 
as they had a great deal of work to finifli. 

The next material alteration made in the fitting out, 

was, lelTening the quantity of iron and other ballaft. — 

3 ■ .1 gave 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 3 

I gave dire£lions that only nineteen tons of iron fliould be ,787. 
taken on board inftead of the cuftomary proportion, which ^"J^""' 
was forty-five tons. The ftores and provifions I judged 
would be fully fufficient to anfwer the pur]:»ofe of the 
remainder; for I am of opinion, that many of the mif- 
fortunes which attend fhips in heavy ftorms of wind, arc 
occafioncd by. too much dead weight in their bottoms. 

The eftablifliment of men and officers for the fliip were 
as follows : 

I Lieutenant to command 

I Matter 

I Boatfwain 

I Gunner 

I Carpenter 

1 Surgeon 

2 Mailer's Mates 
2 Midfliipmen 
2 Quarter Matters 
I Quarter Matter's Mate 
I Boatfwain's Mate 
I Gunner's Mate 
I Carpenter's Mate 
I Carpenter's Crew 
I Sailmaker 
I Armourer 
I Corporal 
I Clerk and Steward 

23 Able Seamen 


Two fkilful and careful men were appointed, at Sir 
Jofeph Banks's recommendation, to have the management 

B 2 of 


Thurfday 4. 

Taefday 9. 

Monday 15. 

Sunday 4. 


of the plants intended to be brought home : the one, David 
Nelfon, who had been on fimilar employment in Captain 
Cook's laft voyage ; the other, William Brown, as an 
alliftant to him. — With thefe two ovir whole number 
amounted to forty-fix. 

It was propofed, that our route to the Society Iflands 
fhould be round Cape Horn; and the greateft difpatch 
became necelTary, as the feafon was already far advanced : 
but the ftiipwrights not being able to complete their work 
by the time the fliip was ready in other refpe6ls, our failing 
was unavoidably retarded. However, by the 4th of OcSlober 
the pilot came on board to take us down the river ; on the 
9th we fell down to Long Reach, where we received our 
gunner's ftores, and guns, four four-pounders and ten 

The fliip was flored and vi6\:ualled for eighteen months. 
In addition to the cviftomary allowance of provifions, we 
were fupplied with four krout, portable foup, effence of 
malt, dried malt, and a proportion of barley and wheat in 
lieu of oatmeal. I was likewife furniflied with a quantity 
of iron-work and trinkets, to ferve in our intercourfe with 
the natives in the South Seas : and from the board of 
Longitude I received a time-keeper, made by Mr. Kendal. 

On the 15th I received orders to proceed to Spithead ; 
but the winds and weather were fo unfavourable that we 
did not arrive there till the 4th of November. On the 
24th I received from Lord Hood, who commanded at 
Spithead, my final orders. The wind, which for feveral 
days before had been favourable, was now turned diredtly 
againfi: lis. On the 28th the fhip's company received two 
months pay in advance, and on the following morning 
we worked out to St. Helen's, where we were obliged to 



We made different unfuccefsful attempts to get down 
Channel, but contrary winds and bad weather conftantly 
forced us back to St. Helen's, or Spithead, until Sunday the sanday z^. 
23d of December, when we failed with a fair wind. 

During our ftay at Spithead, the rate of the time-piece 
was feveral times examined by Mr. Bailey's obfervations at 
the Portfmouth obfervatory. On the 19th of December, 
the laft time of its being examined on fliore, it was 1' 52", 5 
too faft for mean time, and then lofing at the rate of i'', i 
per day ; and at this rate I eftimate its going when we 

The object of all the former voyages to the South Seas, 
undertaken by the command of his prefent majelty, has 
been the advancement of fcience, and the increafe of know- 
ledge. This voyage may be reckoned the firft, the in- 
tention of which has been to derive benefit from thofe 
dill:ant difcoveries. For the more fully comprehending 
the nature and plan of the expedition, and that the 
reader may be poffefled of every information neceffary 
for entering on the following Iheets, I fhall here lay be- 
fore him a copy of the inftrudlions I received from the 
admiralty, and likewife a ftiort defcription of the bread- 

By the Commiffioners for executing the office 
of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain 
and Ireland^ tic. 

WHEREx^S the king, upon a reprefentation from the 
merchants and planters interefted in his majefty's Weft 
India poffeffions, that the introdudtion of the bread-fruit 
tree into the iflands of thofe feas, to conftitute an article of 
food, would be of very effential benefit to the inhabitants, 



1787- hath, in order to promote the interefts of fo refpedtable a 
^_^— ^- "j body of his fubjeds (efpecially in an inftance which pro* 
mifes general advantage) thought fit that meafures fhould 
be taken for the procuring fome of thofe trees, and con- 
veying them to the faid Weft India iflands : And whereas 
the veflel under your command hath, in confequence 
thereof, been ftored and vi6lualled for that fervice, and 
fitted with proper conveniences and necefTaries for the 
prefervation of as many of the faid trees as, from her fize, 
can be taken on board her ; and you have been dire(5led to 
David Nei- reccive on board her the two gardeners named in the 
ErJwn. margin, who, from their knowledge of trees and plants, 

have been hired for the purpofe of fele6ling fuch as fhall 
appear to be of a proper fpecies and fize : 

You are, therefore, in purfuance of his majefty's plea- 
fure, fignified to us by Lord Sydney, one of his principal 
fecretaries of ftate, hereby required and directed to put to 
fea in the vefTel you command, the firft favourable oppor- 
tunity of wind and weather, and proceed with her, as 
expeditioufly as pofiible, round Cape Horn, to the Society 
Iflands, fituate in the Southern ocean, in the latitude of 
about eighteen degrees South, and longitude of about two 
hundred and ten degrees Eaft from Greenwich, where, 
according to the accounts given by the late Capt. Cook, 
and perfons who accompanied him during his voyages, the 
bread-fruit tree is to be found in the rnoft: luxiu'iant flate. 

Having arrived at the above-mentioned iflands, and 
taken on board as many trees and plants as may be 
thought necefTary (the better to enable you to do which, 
you have already been furniflied with fuch articles of 
merchandize and trinkets as it is fuppofed will be wanted 
to fatisfy the natives) you are to proceed from thence 



through Endeavour Streights (which Icparate New Hol- 
land from New Guinea) to Prince's Ulaiul, in the Str.eights 
of Sunda, or, if it Ihould happen to be more convenient, 
to pafs on the eaflerh fide of Java to fome port on the horth 
fide of that ifland, where any bread-fruit trees which may 
have been injured, or have died, may be replaced by man- 
gofleens, duriens, jacks, nancas, lanfas, and other fine fruit 
trees of that quarter, as w^ell as the rice plant which grows 
upon dry land ; all of which fpecies (or fuch of them as 
Ihall be judged moft eligible) you are to purchafe on the 
beft terms you can from the inhabitants of that ifland, with 
the ducats with which you have alfo been furnhhed for 
that purpofe; taking care, however, if the rice plants above- 
mentioned cannot be procured at Java, to touch at Prince's 
Ifland for them, where they are regularly cultivated. 

From Prince's Ifland, or the Ifland of Java, you are to 
proceed round the Cape of Good Hope to the Well Indies 
(calling on your way thither at any places which may be 
thought necelTary) and depofit one half of fuch of the 
above-mentioned trees and plants as may be then alive 
at his majefl:y's botanical garden at St. Vincent, for the 
benefit of the Windward Iflands, and then go on to Jamaica: 
and, having delivered the remainder to Mr. Eafl, or fuch 
perfon or perfons as may be authorized by the governor 
and council of that ifland to receive them ; refreflied your 
people, and received on board fuch provifions and fl:ores as 
may be neceflfary for the voyage, make the beft of your 
way back to England ; repairing to Spithead, and fending 
to our fecretary an account of your arrival and proceed- 

And whereas you will receive herewith a copy of the in- 
flirudions which have been given to the above-mentioned 



gardeners for their guidance, as well in procuring the faid 
trees and plants, and the management of them after they 
fliall be put on board, as for bringing to England a fmall 
fample of each fpecies, and fuch others as may be prepared 
by the fuperintendant of the botanical garden at St. 
Vincent's, and by the faid Mr. Eaft, or others, for his 
majefty's garden at Kew; you are hereby required and 
diredled to afford^ and to give directions to your officers and 
company to afford, the faid gardeners every poffible aid and 
affiftance, not only in the coUedling of the faid trees and 
plants at the places before-mentioned, but for their prefer- 
vation during their conveyance to the places of their 

Given under our hands the 20th November 1787. 





To Lieut. W"' Bligb, commanding 
his majejifs armed vejfel the 
Bounty-, at Spithead. 

By command of their Lordfhips, 

P. Stephens. 

In the foregoing orders it is to be obferved, that I was 
particularly dire6led to proceed round Cape Horn ; but, as 
the feafon was fo far advanced, and we were fo long de- 
tained by contrary winds, I made application to the Admi- 
ralty for difcretional orders on that point ; to which I receiv- 
ed the following anfwer : 



By the Commijioners for executing the office of '787- 
Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and 
Ireland, ^c. &c. 

THE feafon of the year being now fo far advanced as to 
render it probable, that your arrival, with the veffel you 
compiand, on the fouthern coaft of America, will be too 
kfe for your pafling round Cape Horn without much diffi- 
culty and hazard ; you are, in that cafe, at liberty (notwith- 
ftanding former orders) to proceed in her to Otaheite, 
round the Cape of Good Hope. 

Given under our hands the i8th December 1787. 


B A Y H A M. 

2o Lieut. JV"' Bligb, commanding 
his majejlfs armed vej'el Bounty, 

By command of their Lordlhips, 

P. Stephens, 

THE BREAD-FRUIT is fo well known and defcribed, 
that to attempt a new account of it would be unnecefTary 
and iifelefs. However, as it may contribute to the conve- 
nience of the reader, I have given the following extradls 
refpeiSling it, with the plate annexed. 

ExtraSi from the account of Dampiefs Voyage round the 

world, performed in 1688. 

"THE bread-fruit (as we call it) grows on a large tree, as 

« big and high as our largeft apple-trees : It hath a fpread- 

** ing headj full of branches and dark, leaves. The fruit 

C <' grows 





grows on the boughs like apples ; it is as big as a. penny- 
loaf when wheat is at five fhilHngs the bufliel ; it is of a 
round fliape, and hath a thick tough rind. When the 
fruit is ripe, it is yellow and foft, and the tafte is fweet 
and pleafant. The natives of Guam ufe it for breads 
They gather it, when full-grown, while it is green and 
hard ; then they bake it in an oven, which fcorcheth the 
rind and makes it black ; but they fcrape off the outfide- 
black cruft, and there remains a tender thin cruft; and the- 
inlideis foft, tender, and white like the crumb of a penny- 
loaf. There is neither feed nor Jlone in the inlide, but all 
is of a pure fubftance, like bread. It muft be eaten new ;, 
for, if it is kept above twenty-four 'hours, it grows harfh 
and choaky ; but it is very pleafant before it is too ftale. 
This fruit lafts in feafon eight months in the year, during 
which the natives eat no other fort of food of bread kind^ 
I did never fee of this fruit any where but here. The- 
natives told us, that there is plenty of this fruit growing 
on the reft of the Ladrone iflands ; and I dtd never hear 
of it any where elfeP Vol. I. p. 296. 

ExtraB from the account of Lord Anfon''s Voyage^ publijbed 
by Mr. Walter. 

"THERE was, at Tinian, a kind of fruit, peculiar to 
** thefe (Ladrone) iflands, called by the Indians rhymay, but 
*' by us the bread-fruit \ for it was conftantly eaten by us,. 
*' during our ftay upon the illand *, inftead of bread ; and 
*' fo univerfally preferred, that no fliip's bread was expended 
** in that whole interval. It grew upon, a tree which is 

* About two months} viz. from the latter end of Auguft to the latter end of 
Oftober, 174a. 

I ^ " fbmewhat 

' ^.//.v/./ n/ //u . /'hr,,,/ . //> 


** fomewhat loft 7, and which towards the top divides into ,787. 

^« large and fpreading branches. The leaves of this tree ^^*'""°^^ 

*' are of a remarkable deep green, are notched about the 

** edges, and are generally from a foot to eighteen inches 

** in length. The fruit itfelf is found indifferently on all 

*' parts of the branches ; it is, in Ihape, rather elliptical 

*' than round ; it is covered with a tough rind, and is ufu- 

*' ally feven or eight inches long; each of them grows 

<' lingly, and not in clufters. This frviit is fltteft to be ufed 

<* when it is full-grown, but ftill green ; in which llate, 

*' after it is properly prepared by being roafled in the em- 

*' bers, its tafte has fome diftant referabiance to that of an 

*' artichoke's bottom, and its texture is not very different, 

" for it is foft and fpungy." 

Extra&s from the account of the frjl Voyage of Captaitt 
Cook, Hawkefivorthf Vol. II. 


"THE bread-fruit grows on a tree that is about the fize 
" of a middling oak ; its leaves are frequently a foot and a 
*' half long, of an oblong fliape, deeply finuated like thofe 
*' of the fig-tree, which they refemble in confiftence and 
<* colour, and in the exuding of a white milky juice upon 
*' being broken. The fruit is about the lize and fliape of a 
*' child's head, and the furface is reticulated not much un- 
** like a truffle : it is covered with a thin fkin, and has a 
*' core about as big as the handle of a fmall knife. The 
<' eatable part lies between the fkin and the core ; it is as 
" white as fnow, and fomewhat of the confiftence of new 
** bread : it muft be roafted before it is eaten, being firft 
" divided into three or four parts. Its tafte is infipid, with 

G 2 "a flight 


1787. " a flight fweetnefs fomewhat refembling that of the crumb 
December. « ^f wheatcn bread mixed with a Jerufalem artichoke." 
P. 80, 81. See alfo the plate there and at p. 232. 

"OF the 'many vegetables that have been mentioned al- 
" ready 2kS ferving them for food, the principal is the bread- 
*' fruit, to procure which cofts them no trouble or labour 
*' but climbing a tree. The tree which produces it does not 
" indeed fhoot up fpontaneoufly ; but, if a man plants ten 
*' of them in his life-time, which he may do in about an 
*' hour, he will as completely fulfil his duty to his own 
** and future generations as the native of our lefs temperate 
" climate can do by ploughing in the cold winter, and 
" reaping in the fummer's heat, as often as thefe feafons 
" return ; even if, after he has procured bread for his pre- 
** fent houfehold, he Ihould convert a furplus into money, 
** and lay it up for his children. 

" It is true, indeed, that the bread-fruit is not always in 
** feafon ; but cocoa-nuts, bananas, plantains, and a great 
<' variety of other fruits, fupply the deficiency." P. 197. 

Extradi from the account of Captain Cook's lafi Voyage. 


" I (Captain Cook) have inquired very carefully into their 
*' manner of cultivating the bread-fruit tree at Otaheite ; 
*' but was always anfwered, that they never planted it. 
*' This, indeed, mufl be evident to every one who will exa- 
** mine the places where the young trees come up. It will 
*' be always obferved, that they Ipring from the roots of 
*' the old ones, which run along near the furface of the 
** ground. So that the bread-fruit trees may be reckoned 

" thofe 



" thofe that would naturally cover the plains, even fuppof- 1787 

*' ing that the ifland was not inhahited ; in the fame man- 

*' ncr that the white-barked trees, found at Van Dicmcn's 

" Land, conftitute the forefts there. And from this we 

" may obferve, that the inhabitant of Otaheite, inftcad of 

*' being obliged to plant his bread, will rather be under the 

** necellity of preventing its progrefs ; which, I fuppofe, is 

*' fometimes done, to give room for trees of another fort, to 

" afford him fome variety in his food." Voh II. p. 145. 


"THE bread-fruit trees are planted, and flourifli with 
" great luxuriance, on rifing grounds." — " Where the hills 
" rife almoft perpendicularly in a great variety of peaked 
" forms, their fteep fides and the deep chafms between 
** them are covered with trees, amongft which thofe of the 
*' bread-fruit were obferved particularly to abound." Vol. 
III. p. 105 and 114, containing Captain King's Narrative. 

" THE climate of the Sandwich Illands differs very little 
*' from that of the Weft India Iflands, which lie in the 
^^ fame latitude. Upon the whole, perhaps, it may be ra- 
" ther more temperate." Captain King, ib. p. 116. 

" THE bread-fruit trees thrive in thefe iflands, not in fuch 
" abundance, but produce double the quantity of fruit they 
" do on the rich plains of Otaheite. The trees are nearly of 
" the fame height, but the branches begin to ftrike out from 
" the trunk much lower, and w ith greater luxuriance.'* 
Capt. King, ib. p. 120. 





Departure from England. — Arrival at Teneriffe. — Sail from 
thence. — Arrival off Cape Horn. — Severity of the Weather, 
— Obliged to bear away for the Cape of Good Hope. 

,-8-. /^N Sunday morning the a3d of December 1787, we 
December. \^ failed from Spltlicad, and, paffing through the 

Sunday 23. Ncedles, direded our courfe down channel, with a frefh 
gale of wind at Eaft. In the afternoon, one of the feamen, 
in furling the main-top-gallant-fail, fell off the yard, and 
was fo fortunate as to fave himfelf hy catching hold of the 
main-top-maft-llay in his fall. At night the wind^increafed 
to a ftrong gale, with a heavy fea. It moderated, however, 

Tuefday 25. on the 25th, and allowed us to keep our Chriftmas with 
chearfnlnefs ; but the following day it blew ^ fevere ftorm 
of wind from the Eaftward, which continued till the 29th, 
in the courfe of which we fuffered greatly. One fea broke 
away the fpare yards and fpars out of the flarboard main 
chains. Another heavy fea broke into the fliip, and ftove 
all the boats. Several caiks of beer, that had been lafhed 
upon deckj were broke loofe and waflied overboard, and it was 
not without great difficulty and rifk that we were able to fe- 
cure the boats from being waflied away entirely. On the 

Saturday 29. 29th wc wcrc in latitude 39° 35' N. and longitude 14° 16 W. 

when the gale abated, and the weather became fair. Be- 

lides other mifchief done to us by the ftorm, a large quantity 

x)f our bread was damaged and rendered ufelefs, for the fea 

^ ' had 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &:c. I5 

had ftove in oiir ftern, and filled the cabin with water. 1787. 
From this time to our arrival at Teneriffe we had moderate ^ embek . 
weather, and winds moftly from the northward. 

January 4th. This forenoon we fpoke a French fhip, 1788. 
bound to the Mauritius. The next day, at nine in the fore- saoirda) 7- 
noon, we faw the ifland of Teneriffe, bearing W S W I W, Teneriffe. 
abo\it twelve leagues diftant. It was covered with a thick 
haze, except the north-weilernmoft part, which is a re- 
markable headland, refembling a horfe's head, the ears very 
diflincl. To the eaftward of this head ••■■ lie two round 
rocks, the northern boundary of Teneriffe. I had a good 
obfervation at noon, by which I make the latitude of the 
two rocks 28° 44' N, and their longitude by our timekeeper 
16° 5' W. To the fouthward of thefe, and near the fliore, 
is a high needle rock : about four leagues farther to the 
fouthward, the coaft inclines towards the Weft to the 
road of Santa Cruz, where we anchored at half paft nine 
on Sunday morning, in twenty-five fathoms water, and 
moored along fhore in the fame depth, with the cupola 
tower of the church of St. Francis bearing WIN, one 
mile, the Eaft part of the road E by N, the caftle on the 
South point S W, and the Wefl part of the Grand Canary 
S S E. A Spanifh packet, bound to Corunna, an American 
brig, and feveral other vefTels, were lying here. 

As foon as the (hip was anchored, I fent an officer (Mr. 
Chriftian) to wait on the governor, and to acquaint him I 
had put in to obtain refrelhments, and to repair the da- 
mages we had fultained in bad weather. To this I had a 
very polite anfvver from the governor -f-, that I fhould be 
fupplied with whatever the ifland afforded. I had alfo di- 
re(5ted the officer to acquaint him that I would lalute, 

* S 82° E by the compafs. t Marquis de Brancheforte. 


i6 A V G Y A G E T O 

178J, provided an eqvial number of guns were to be returned ; 

January. ^^^^^ ^g j received an extraordinary anfwer to this part of 

Teneriffe. my mefTage, purporting, that his excellency did not return 

the fame number but to j^erfons equal in rank to himfelf, 

this ceremony was omitted. 

During this interval I was vifited by the port-mafter 
(Capt. Adams) and fliortly afterwards feveral officers came 
on board from his excellency, to compliment me on my 
arrival. As foon as the fliip was moored, I went on fliore, 
and paid my refpedls to him. 
Monday;. Oil Monday morning I began to forward the fhip's bufi- 
nefs with the utmoft difpatch, and gave the neceflary 
direcftions to MeiTrs. Collogan and fons, the contradlors, for 
the fupplies 1 wanted. I alfo got leave of the governor for 
Mr. Nelfon to range the hills, and examine the country in 
fearch of plants and natural curiolities. 

As there was a great furf on the ibore, I bargain- 
ed for every thing I wanted, to be brought off by the 
Ihore boats, and agreed to give five fhillings per ton for 
water. V^ry good wine was bought at ten pounds per 
pipe, the contradl price ; but the fuperior quality was 
fifteen pounds ; and fome of this was not much inferior to 
the beft London Madeira. — I found this was an unfavour-, 
able feafon for other refrefhments : Indian corn, potatoes, 
pumpkins, and onions, were all very fcarce, and double 
the price of what they are in fummer. Beef alfo was diffi- 
cult to be procured, and exceedingly poor ; the price nearly 
fix pence farthing per pound. The corn was three current 
dollars per fanega, which is full five fhillings per bufliel ; 
and bifcuit at twenty-five fliillings for the hundred pounds. 
Poultry was fo fcarce that a good fowl coft three fliillings. 
This is, therefore, not a place for ftiips to expedt refrefli- 




ments at a reafonable price at this time of the year, wine 
excepted ; but from March to November fupplies are plen- ^ 
tiful, particularly fruit ; of which at this time we could pro- 
cure none, except a few dried figs and fonie bad oranges. 

' During our ftay here, the weather was fair, with N E Nautical Re- 
winds and calms, and fmall drizzling rain in the night. The '^"^^' 
thermometer from 66° to 69° at noon in the fliade. I could 
make no lunar obfcrv^ations for the longitude, but by the 
help of the time-keeper I have computed the fituation of 
the town of Santa Cruz to be aS'' 28' N latitude, and 16° 18' 
W longitude. I obferved the variation by two compafles 
to be 20° i' W : this much exceeded what I could have 
imagined ; for, in 1776, I obferved it only 14° 40' W ; a 
difference of above five degrees in eleven years : and this 
makes me refledt on the uncertainty of obtaining the exzO: 
deviation of the magnetic pole, and of com'fe its annual 
variation, which never can be accurately afcertained, unlefs 
the obfervations are made always in one fpot, and with the 
fame compafs. 

Teneriffe, though confiderably without the tropic, is fo 
nearly within the limits of the trade wind, that navigators 
generally fleer to it from the eaftward. The road of Santa 
Cruz lies on the eaft fide of the ifiand, at th€ end of a range 
of craggy hills, barren and very lofty ; along W'hich you 
fail W by S by compafs into the road, with a fea unfathom- 
able until near the fliore. The anchoring ground may be 
accounted from- fifty fathoms to twenty, or even fifteen. 
The bank is very fteep, and gives but little time to found ; 
for which reafon it fliould be done effeiflually with a heavy 
lead, or a fliip will be too near in before a ftranger is 
aware of it : he will likewife too foon expecft to find 
bottom, owing to the great deception of the adjacent high 

D land. 

i6' - A V O Y A G E T O 

1788. land. To obviate thefe difficulties, it is neceffary to ob- 
jANUARi.^ ferve, that while a town, which lies fome diftance to the 
fouthward of Santa Cruz, is open with the callle on the 
fouth part of the road, though you may appear near to the 
fliore, there is no anchorage ; but after it is fliut entirely 
in, yoii get on the bank. The church bearing W, or W 
by S, and the fouth point of the road S W f S, to S W by W, 
is a good lituation for anchoring : the depth about twenty- 
five fathoms. The diftance from the lliore will be three 
quarters of a mile ; and the fouthernmoft land that can be 
feen then will be a half or quarter point of the compafs 
farther out than the fouth point of the road. 

The bottom is black foft mud, with fome patches of rocks j 
for which reafon veffels, that lie here any length of time, 
buoy their cables. This precaution, belides being iifeful in 
that particular, they think makes them ride more eafy when 
there is much fea fetting into the road, which, with the 
wind any way to the fouthward of eaft, or at fouth-weif, 
muft be very confiderable ; it is, therefore, ufual to moor 
with four anchors, though more than two are fcarce ever 
of ufe. Mooring is, however, advifeable if a fliip is only 
to remain twenty-four hours, and the tighter the better, 
that the cables may keep clear of the ground. 

The landing on the beach is generally impra6licable with 
our own boats, at leaft without great rifk -, but there is a 
very fine pier, on which people may land without difficulty 
if there is not much fwell in the road. To this pier the 
water is conveyed by pipes for the ufe of fhipping, and 
for which all merchant-ffiips pay. 

There is a degree of wretchednefs and want among the 
lower clafs of people, which is not any where fo common 
as among the Spanifh and Portuguefe fettlements. To 




alleviate thefe evils, the prefent governor of TenerifFe has 1788. 
inftitiitecl a moft charitable Ibciety, which he takes the /''""*'*"; 
trouble to fuperintend ; and by confiderable contributions, 
a large airy dwelling, that contains one hundred and twenty 
poor girls, and as many men and boys, has been built, and 
endowed with a fufficiency of land round it, not only for all 
prefent purpofes, but for enlarging the building for more 
objects of charity as their funds increafe. I had the honour 
to be fliown by his excellency this afylum, (Hofpicio they 
call it) where there appeared in every countenance the ut- 
moll chearfulnefs and content. The decency and neatnefs 
of the drefs of the young females, with the order in which 
they were arranged at their fpinning-wheels and looms, in 
an extenfive airy apartment, was admirable. A governefs in- 
fpedled and regulated all their w^orks, which were the manu- 
fadluring of ribbons of all colours, coarfe linens, and tapes ; 
all which were managed and brought to perfection by tliem- 
felves, from the filk and flax in their firft ftate ; even the dy- 
ing of the colours is performed by them. Thefe girls are re- 
ceived for five years, at the end of which they are at liberty to 
marry, and have for their j^ortions their w^heel and loom, 
with a fum of money proportioned to the Hate of the fiind, 
which is affifted by the produce of their labour, and at this 
time was eftimated at two thoufand dollars per annum. 

The men and boys are not lefs attended to : they are em- 
ployed in coarfer work, blanketing and all kinds of common 
woollens : if they become infirm, they fpend the remainder 
of their days here comfortably, and under a watchful in- 
fpedlpr, who attends them in the fame manner as the gover- 
nefs does the girls. They are all vifited every day by the 
governor, and a clergyman attends them every evening. 
By this humane inftitution a number of people are rendered 

D 2 ufeful 


178S. ufeful and induflrions, in a country where the poor, from 
jANVARy^ ^l^g indulgence of the climate,' are too apt to prefer a life 
of ina6livity, thovigh attended with wretchednefs, to ob- 
taining the comforts of life by induflry and labour. 

The number of inhabitants in the ifland, I was inform- 
ed, were eftimated at between eighty and one hundred thou- 
fand. Their annual export of wine is twenty thotifand pipes^ 
and of brandy half that quantity. VelTels are frequently 
here from St. Euftatia, and from thence a great quantity of 
Tenerifre wine is carried to the different parts of the Weft 
Indies, under the name of Madeira. 

TenerifFe is conlidered of more value than all the other 
Canaries : the inhabitants, however, in fcarce feafons re- 
ceive fupplies from the Grand Canary; but their vineyards 
here are faid to be greatly fuperior. Their produce of corn> 
though exceedingly good, is not fufficient for their con- 
fumption ; and, owing to this, the Americans have an ad- 
vantageous trade here for their jELour and grain, and take 
wine in return. 

The town of Santa Cruz is about half a mile in extent 
each way, built in a regular manner, and the houfes in ge- 
neral large and airy, but the ftreets are very ill paved. I am 
told, that they are fubjeft to few difeafes ; but if any epi- 
demic diftemper breaks out, it is attended with the moft 
fatal confequences, particularly the fmall-pox, the bad ef- 
fe6ls of which they now endeavour to counteradl by ino- 
culation. For this reafon, they are very circumfped: in 
admitting lliips to have commvmication with the fhore 
without bills of health. 

Afloop from London, called theChance,VVi]liamMeridith, 
niafter, bound to Barbadoes, out nineteen days from the 
Downs, came into the road the day before we failed. She had 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. ai 

fufFered much by the bad weather ; but, having brought ,788. 
no bill of health, the governor would not allow any per- i""^^^'^ 
fon to come on fliore, unlefs 1 could vouch for them, 
that no epidemic difcafe raged in England at the time 
they failed, which I was able to do, it being nearly at the 
. fame time that I left the land^ and by that means they 
had the governor's permiffion to receive the fupplies they 
wanted, without being obliged to perforin quarantine. 

Having finifhgd our bufinefs at TenerifFe, on Thurfday Thurfdayio. 
the loth, we failed with the wind at S E, our fliip's com- 
pany all in good health and fpirits. 

I now divided the people into three watches, and gave 
the charge of the third watch, to Mr. Fletcher Chriftian, 
one of the mates. — I have always conlidered this as adelir- 
able regulation, when circumftances will admit of it, on 
many accounts ; and am perfuaded that unbroken reft not 
only contrib\ites much towards the health of a fliip's com- 
pany, but enables them more readily to exert themfelves 
in cafes of fudden emergency. 

As it was my wifli to proceed to Otaheite without flop- 
ping, I ordered every body to be at two thirds allowance 
of bread : I alfo directed the water for drinking to be fil- 
tered through dripftones that I had bought at TenerifFe for 
that pvTrpofe. 

In the evening we paffed the fouth end of TenerifFe, 
which is around lump of land, that, from the lownefs of the 
contiguous land, has at a diftance the appearance of afepa- 
rate illand. By our run from the bay Of Santa Cruz, I make 
the latitude of the fouth end of TenerifFe to be 28° 6' N. 

We ran all night towards the S S W, having the wind at 
S E. The next morning we could fee nothing of the land. 
I now made the Ihip's company acquainted with the intent 






Thu;-fday 17. 

Tuefday 29. 

Thurfday 31. 

of the voyage ; and, having been permitted to liold ot;t 
this encouragement to them, I gave aflurances of the cer- 
tainty of promotion to every one whofe endeavours fliould 
merit it. 

The winds, for fome days after leaving TenerifFe, were 
moftly from the fouthward. Fifliing-Hnes and tackle were 
diftributed amongft the people, and fome dolphins were 

On the 17th the wind came round to the N E, and con- 
tinued fteady in that quarter till the 25th ; on which day, 
at noon, we were in 3° 54' N. As the cloudinefs of the 
fky gave us reafon to expe6l much rain, we prepared the 
awnings with hofes for the convenience of faving water, 
in which we were not difappointed. From this time to qiir 
meeting with the S E trade wind we had much wet wea- 
ther, the air clofe and fultry, with calms, and light vari- 
able winds, generally from the fouthward. 

On the 29th there was fo heavy a fall of rain that we 
caught feven hundred gallons of water. 

On the 31ft, latitude at noon, 2° 5' N, found a current fet- 
ting to the N E, at the rate of fourteen miles in the twenty- 
four hours. The thermometer was at 82° in the fliade, 
and 81° I at the furface of the fea, fo that the air and the 
water were within half a degree of the fame temperature. 
At eight o'clock in the evening we obferved a violent rip- 
ling in the fea, about half a mile to the N W of us, which 
had very much the appearance of breakers. This I imagine 
to have been occafioned by a large fchool (or multitude) 
of fifli, as it was exacflly in the track the fliip had pafled, fa 
that if any real Ihoal had been there, we muft have feen 
it at the clofe of the evening, when a careful look-out was 
always kept. However, if it had appeared a-head of us, 
I inftead 




Saturday 2. 

Monda/ 4. 

inftead of a-ftern, I flioukl certainly have tacked to avoid it. 
To fuch appearances 1 attribute the accounts of many 
fhoals within the tropics, which cannot be found any 
where but in maps. Our latitude at this time was 2° 8' N, 
and longitude 19'' 43' W. The next day we had more of 
thefe appearances, from the number of fchools of fifli by 
which the fliip was furrounded. 

Saturday the 2d. This morning, we faw a fail to the 
N N W, but at too great a diftance to diftinguidi what fhe 

Monday the 4th. Had very heavy rain ; during which 
we nearly filled all our empty water cafks. So much wet 
weather, with the clofenefs of the air, covered every 
thing with mildew. The fhip was aired below with fires, 
and frequently fprinkled with vinegar ; and every little in- 
terval of dry weather was taken advantage of to open all 
the hatchways, and clean the fliip, and to have all the 
people's wet things wafhed and dried. 

With this weather, and light unfteady winds, we ad- 
vanced but 2 1 degrees in twelve days; at the end of which 
time we were relieved by the S E trade wind, which we fell 
in with on the 6th at noon, in latitude i" 21' N, and longi- 
tude 20° 42' VV. 

The next afternoon we crofled the equino6tial line, in Thurfday;. 
longitude 21° 50' W. The weather became fine, and the 
S E trade wind was frefh and fteady, with which we kept a 
point free from the wind, and got to the fouthward at a 
good rate. 

The weather continuing dry, we put feme of our bread 
in cafks, properly prepared for its reception, to preferve it 
from vermin : this experiment, we afterwards found, an- 
fwered exceedingly well. 

On the i6th, at day-light, we faw a fail to the fouth- Saturday 16. 





ward. Tiie next day we came up with her, and found her 
February, ^q \jq j-j-^g Britifli QuecH, Simon Paul, mafter, from London, 
bound to the Cape of Good Hope, on the whale-fifhery. 
She failed from Falmouth the 5th of December, eighteen 
days before I left Spithead. By this fliip I wrote to Eng- 
land. At fiui-fet file was almoft out of light a-ftern. 
Monday i8. Moiidav the 1 8th. In the courfe of this day's run, the 
variation changed from weft to eaft. According to our 
obfervations, the true and magnetic meridians coincided 
in latitude 20° o' S, and longitude 31° 15' W. At noon we 
were in latitude 20° 44' S, and longitude 31° 23' W. In 
our advances towards the fouth, the wind had gradually 
veered round to the eaft, and was at this time at ENE. 
The weather, after crofting the Line, had been fine and 
clear, but the air fo fultry as to occafton great faintnefs, 
the quickfilver in the thermometer, in the day-time, ftand- 
ing at between .81 and 83 degrees, and one time at 85 de- 
grees. In our paflage through the northern tropic, the 
air was temperate, the fun having then high fouth decli- 
nation and the weather being generally fine till we loft 
the N E trade wind ; but fuch a thick haze furrounded the 
horizon, that no object could be feen, except at a very 
fmall diftance. The haze commonly cleared away at fun- 
fet, and gathered again at fun-rife. Between the N E and 
S E trade winds, the calms and rains, if of long continu- 
ance, are very liable to produce ficknefs, unlefs great 
attention is paid to keeping the fliip clean and wholefome, 
by giving all the air poftible, drying between decks with 
fires, and drying and airing the people's clothes and bed- 
ding. Befides thefe precautions, we frequently wetted 
with vinegar; and every evening the pumps were ufed as 
ventilators. With thefe endeavours to fecure health, we 
pafled the low latitudes without a fingle complaint. 




Saturday sj. 

The currents we met with were by no means regular, j^gj. 
nor have I ever found them Co m the middle of the ocean. Feor"*»^- 
However, from the channel to the fouthward, as far as 
Madeira, there is generally a current fetting to the S S E. 

On the evening of the aift, a fliip was feen in the N E, Thm-fdayii. 
but at 'too great a diftance to diftinguifh of what country. 
The next day the wind came round to the N and N W, fo ^ "^^y Z2. 
that we could no longer confider ourfelves in the trade 
wind. Our latitude at noon v.-as 25°55 S, longitude 36°29' W. 
Variation of the compafs three degrees eaft. 

Saturday 23d, towards night the wind died away, and 
we had fome heavy fliowers of rain, of which we profited, 
by faving a ton of good water. The next day we caught 
a fhark and five dolphins. 

Tuefday 26th, we bentnew fails, and made other necelTary Tuefday 26. 
preparations for encountering the weather that was to be ex- 
pedled in a high latitude. Our latitude at noon was 29° 38' S, 
longitude 41° 44' W. Variation 7° 13' E. In the afternoon, 
the wind being w'eflerly, and blowing ftrong in fquails, 
fome butterflies, and other infedts, like what Ave call horfe- 
ilies, were blown on board of us. No birds were feen except 
fiieerwaters. Our dillance from the coaft of Brafil at this 
time was above 100 leagues. 

Sunday 2d, intlie forenoon, after feeing that every perfon 
was clean, divine fervice was performed, according to my 
"ulual cuftom on this day. I gave to Mr. Fletcher Chrii- 
tian, whom! had before direcfled to take charge of the third 
watch, a written order to adt as lieutenant. 

Saturday 8th. We were at noon in latitude 36" 50' S, 
and longitude 52° 53' W. The lafl four days, w-e feveral 
times tried for foundings, without finding bottom, though 
confiderably to the ^^'eftward of Captain Wallis's track, who 

E had 

Sunday 2. 

Saturday 8. 


1788, had foundings at fifty-four fathoms depth, in latitude' 
v_ ''^'^"•_^ 35" 40' S, and longitude 49° 54' W. This day we tried witb 
two hundred and forty fathoms of hne, hut did not find 
bottom ; at the fame time, obferving a ripHng in the water,, 
we tried the current by mooring a keg with one hundred 
fathoms of line, by which it appeared to run to the N N W, 
at the rate of a mile and a half per hour. By the noon 
obfervation, however, we were eighteen miles to the 
fouthward of our reckoning.. In the afternoon we faw a 
turtle floating, and, not having much wind, hoifted a boat 
out, and fent after it ;. but it was found tO' be in a putrid 
ftate, with a number of crabs feeding upon it. 

The change of temperature began now to be fenfibly 
felt, there being a variation in the thermometer, fince 
yefterday, of eight degrees. That the people might not 
fuifer by their own negligence, I gave orders for their light 
tropical clothing to be put by, and iTiade them drefs in a 
manner more fuited to a cold climate. I had provided for 
this before I left England, by giving directions for fuch 
clothes to be purchafed as were necelTary. 
Monday lo. Monday loth. In the forenoon we ftruck foundings at 
eighty-three fathoms depth ; our latitude 40° 8' S, and lon- 
gitude 55'' 40' W. This I conclude to have been near the 
edge of the bank ; for, the wind being at S S W, we ftood 
towards the S E ; and, after running fourteen miles in that 
direilion, we could find no bottom with one hundred and 
fixty fathoms of line. In the night we ftood towards the 
W S W, with a foutherly wind, and got again into found- 
ings. The next day we faw a great number of whales of 
an immenfe fize, that had two fpout-holes on the back of 
the head. — Upon a complaint made to me by the mafter, 
I found it neceflary to punifli Matthew Quintal, one of the 

I feamen, 


feamen, with two dozen ladies, for infolence and mutinovis 1788. 
behaviour. Before this, 1 had not had occafion to punifli . '^.^^'*'_, 
any perlbn on board. 

On the I2th, we caught a porpoife, by ftriking it with Wedncfdaj- 
the grains. Every one €at heartily of it; aiid it was fo well 
liked, that no part was wafted. 

On the 14th, in the afternoon, we faw a land-bird like Friday 14. 
ti lark, and pafled part of a dead whale that had been left 
by fome whalers after they had taken the blubber off. 
Saw, likewife, two ftrange fail. The next day, at noon, our 
Jatitude was 43'' 6' S, and longitude 58^ 42' \V. Had found- 
ings at feventy-five fathoms.; the bottom a fine greenifU 
fand. Saw two hawks. 

On the i6th another fhip was feen to the W N W, ftand- Sunday 16. 
ing to the northward. Latitude, at noon, 43" 34' S. We con- 
tinued running to the fouthward, keeping in foundings. 

On the 19th, at noon, by my account, we were within Wednefday 
twenty leagues of Port Defire ; but the wind blowing frefli ^' 

from the N W. with thick foggy weather, I did not attempt 
to make the land. We pafTed a good deal of rock- weed, 
and faw many whales, and albatrofles and other fea-birds. 

On the 20th, at noon, our latitude was 50" 24' S, and Thurfday co, 
longitude 65°5o'W. In the afternoon, the wind, which 
liad for fome time paft been northerly, fuddenly fliifted to 
the W S W, and blew hard. We fteered to the S S E ; and 
on the 23d, at two o'clock in the morning, we difcovered Sunday 23* 
the coaft of Terra del Fuego bearing S E. At nine in the 
ibrenoon we were off Cape St. Diego, the eaftern part of 
Terra del Fuego. Obferved the variation here to be 21° 23' E. 
The wind being unfavourable, 1 thought it more ad- 
vifeable to go round to the eaftward of Staten Land, than 
to attempt pafling through Straits le Maire. The two op- 

E 2 pofite 

28 A V O r A G E T O 

17S8. pofite coafts of the Straits exhibited very different appear- 
^^J^^^^ ances. The land of Terra del Fiiego hereabouts, though 
the interior parts are mountainous, yet near the coaft is of 
a moderate height, and, at the diftance we were from it,, 
had not an unpromiftng appearance. The coaft of Staten 
Land, near the Straits, is mountainoas and craggy, and 
remarkable for its high peaked hills. Straits le Maire is a 
fair opening, which cannot well be miftaken ; but if any 
doubt could remain, the different appearances of the op^- 
jxjfite fhores would fuffi'ciently make the Straits known. 

I did not fail within lefs than fix leagues of the coafi:, 
that we might have the wind more regular, and avoid 
heing expofed to the heavy fqualls that came off from the 
- land. At noon Cape St. Anthony bore S, and the weftern- 
moft of New Year's Ifles S E i S, five or fix leagues. 
Latitude obferved 54° 28' S, longitude 64° 4' W. 

The fight of New Year's Harbour almoft tempted me to 
put in; but the latenefs of the feafon, and the people 
being in good health, determined me to lay afide all 
thoughts of refrefhment, until we fliould reach Otaheite. 
At two o'clock in the afternoon, the eafternmoft of New 
Year's Ifles, where Captain Cook obferved the latitude to be 
55° 40' S, bore from- us fouth four leagues. We faw the en- 
trance ifles of New Year's harbour ; at the back of which 
the land is very craggy and mountainous. This muft be 
a very convenient port to touch at, as the accefs to it is fafe 
and eafy. The harbour lies S S E, by compafs, from the N E 
part of the eafkernmoft of the New Year's Iflands. 

About two leagues to the weftward of Cape St. John, I 
obferved the feparation of the mountains that Captain Cook 
has taken notice of, which has the appearance of Staten 
Land, being tl^ere divided into two ifkuids. 






At fun-fet, Cape St. John bore S S E five or fix leagues. 
The land hereabouts is of lefs height, and not fo rugged as 
near New Year's Harbonr. The night coming on, I could 
get no good view af the coaft near the Cape ; and at day- 
light, next morning, we were at too great a diftance. 

Monday 24th. We had ftood to the fouthward all night, Monday 14., 
with the wind at W S W and SW. At eight in the morn- 
ing. Cape St. John bore N W, ten leagues diftant. Soon 
after we loft fight of the land. 

From the reiult of my lunar obfervations, afllfted by the • 
time-keeper, I make the longitude of the weft fide of 
Straits le Maire to be 64° 48' W ; the eafternmoft of the 
New Year's ifles 63° 52' W ; and the longitude of Cape St. 
John 63° 19' W. 

In our run from the latitude of 12 degrees S to 48' S,' 
the.fliipwas fet 2.° 30' to the eaftward by currents; and 
from the latitude of 48° S to Staten Land, the currents fef 
us to the weft ward 2° 43'; which I imagine to have been 
occafioned by an indraught into the Straits of Magellan, 

From the time we loft fight of the land, to the end of the 
month, we were ftruggling with bad weather and contrary 
winds: but on the. morning of the 31ft the wind came to 
the N N E, and made us entertain great hopes that we 
fliould be able to accomplifli our paffage round the Cape 
without much difficulty. At noon we were in latitude 
60'' i' S, and in 71° 45' W longitude, which is 8'-26' W of 
the meridian of Cape St. John. This flattering appear- 
ance was not of long continuance : in the night the wind 
became variable, and next day fettled again in the W and 
N W, with very bad weather. 

On the 2d, in the morning, the wind, which had blown 
frelh all night from the N W, came round to the S W, 


Monday 3J. 

Wedncfday 2. 


and increafed to a heavy gale. At fix in the morning the 
ftorm exceeded what I had ever met with before ; and the 
fea, from the frequent fliifting of the wind, running m con- 
trary dire<5tions, broke exceeding high. Our fhip, however, 
lay too very well, under a main and fore-ftay fail. The gale 
continued, with fevere fqualls of hail and fleet, the remain- 
Frida7 4. der of this, and all the iiext day. — On the 4th, the wind 
was lefs violent, but far from moderate. With fo Hnuch 
bad weather, I found it necejjary to keep a conftant fire, 
night and day ; and one of the watch always attended 
to dry the people's wet clothes : and this, I have no 
doubt, contributed as much to their health as to their com- 

Our companions in this inhofpitable region, were al- 
batroffes, and two beautiful kinds of birds, the fmall blue 
petterel, and pintada. A great many of thefe were fre- 
quently about the wake of the Ihip, which induced the 
people to float a line with hooks baited, to endeavour to 
catch them ; and their attempts were fuccefsfui. The 
method they ufed, was to faflen the bait a foot or two 
before the hook, and, by giving the line a fudden jerk 
when the bird was at the bait, it was hooked in the feet or 
Sunday 6. On the 6th the weather was moderate, and contmued fo 
till the 9th, with the wind veering between the N W and 
S W ; of which we were able to take advantage. 
Monday 7. On the 7th, obfcrved the variation 27" 9' E ; our latitude 
Wednefdayg. 6o° 24' S ; and longitude 75° 54' W. On the 9th, at noon, 
we were in latitude 59° 31'' Sj.and our longitude 76* 58' W, 
which is farther to the weft than we had yet been. The 
weather was now unfavourable again, blowing ftrong from 
the weft ward, with a high fea. 



On the loth, we faw fome fifh, which appeared fpotted, 1788. 
and about the fize of bonetos : thefe were the only fifh we ^ -.- j 
had feen in this high latitude. 

The ftormy weather continued with a great fea. The fhip Saturday 12. 
now began to complain, and required to be pumped every 
hour ; which was no more than we had reafon to expedt 
from fuch a continuance of gales of wind and high feas. 
The decks alfo became fo leaky, that I was obliged to allot 
the great cabin, of which L made little ufe, except in 
fine weather, to thofe people who had wet births, to hang 
their hammocks in ; and by this means the between decks 
was lefs cronded. 

Every morning all the hammocks were taken down 
from where they hung, and, when the weather was too 
bad to keep them upon deck, they were put in the cabin; 
fo that the between decks were cleaned daily, and air- 
ed with fires, if the hatchways could not be opened. 
With aU this bad weather, we had the additional mor- 
tification to find, at the end of every day, that we were lofing 
ground; for notwithftanding our utmofi: exertions, and keep- 
ing on the mofl: advantageous tacks, (which, if the wea- 
ther had been at all moderate, would have fufficiently an- 
fwered our purpofe) yet the greater part of the time, we 
were doing little better than drifting before the wind. 

Birds as ufual were about the fliip, and fome of them Sunday 13, 
caught; and, for the firft time fince we left StatenLand, we 
faw fome whales. This morning, owing to the violent rfiotion 
of the fliip, the cook fell and broke one of his ribs, and ano- 
ther man, by a fall, diflocated his flioulder. The gunner, 
who had the charg-e of a watch, was laid up with the rheu- 
matifm: and this was the firft fick hft that appeared onboard 
the fliip. The time of full moon, which was approaching, 


33 A V O Y A G E T O 

'788. made me entertain hopes, that, after that period we 

April. . /-, ,- 

i_ -.- _■ ihoiild experience lome change of wmd or weather in 
our favour; but the event did not at all anfwer our 
expectations. The latitude, at noon this day, was 58' 9'S, 
and longitude 76° i' W. 

As -we caught a good many birds, but Which were all 
lean, and tafted fiihy, we tried an experiment upon them, 
which fucceeded admirably. By keeping them cooped up, 
and cramming them with ground corn, they improved 
wonderfully in a fliort time ; fo that the pintada birds be- 
came as fine as ducks, and the ilbatrolTes were as fat, and 
not inferior in tafte to fine geefe. Some of the latter birds 
were caught that rneafured feven feet between the extre- 
mities of the wings, when fpread. This unexpedled fup- 
ply came *very opportunely; for none of our live flock 
remained except hogs, the fheep and poultry not being 
hardy enough to ftand the feverity of the weather. 

£unday,2o. ' This momiug, the wind died away, and we had a 
calm for a few hours, which gave us hopes that the 
next would be a more favourable wind. A hog was 
killed -for the Ihip's company, which gave them an 
excellent meal. Towards noon, to o\ir great difappoint- 
ment, the wind fprung up again from the weflward, and 
in the afternoon blew ftrong, with fnow and hail fi:orms. 

Monday 2 J. This was the fccoud day after the full moon-; but, as 
I have remarked before, it had no influence on tl\e wea- 
ther. At noon our latitiide was 58° 31'' S, and longitude 
70° 7' W, which is near feven degrees to theeaftward of our, 
fituation on the morning of the -9th inftant, when we had 
advanced the fartheft in our power to the weftward, being 
then in 76° 58' W, three degrees to the weft of Cape De- 
.feada, the weft part of the Straits of Magellan j and 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 33 

at this time \vc were 3' 52 to the call of it, and hourly 1788. 

, ^ , ' A p n I r,. 

lolmg ground. ^ _ __ ^ 

It was with much concern I law how hopelefs, and even 
unjuftifiable it was, to perlilt any longer in attempting a 
pallage this way to the Society Illands. We had been 
thirty days in this tempelluous ocean. At one time we had 
advanced fo far to the wellward as to have a fair profpedl: 
of making our palVage round ; but from tliat period hard 
gales of wefterly wind had continued without intermiliion, a 
few hours excepted, which, to borrow an exprellion in 
Lord Anfon's voyage, were " like the elements drawing 
" breath to return upon us with redoubled violence." The 
feafon was now too far advanced for us to expert more 
favoiu'able winds or weather, and we had fufficiently ex- 
perienced the impoflibility of beating round againft the 
wind, or of advancing at all without the help of a fair 
wind, for which there was little reafon to hope. Another 
confideration, which had great weight with me, was, that 
if I perfifted in my attempt this way, and fliould, after all, 
fail to get round, it would occallon fuch a lofs of time, 
that our arrival at Otaheite, foon enough to return in the 
proper fealbn by the Eaft Indies, would be rendered pre- 
carious. On the other hand, the prevalence of the wefter- 
ly winds in high fouthern latitudes, left me no realbn to 
doubt of making a quick pafPage to the Cape of Good 
Hope, and thence to the eaftward round New Holland. 
Having maturely confidered all circumftances, I determin- 
ed to bear away for the Cape of Good Hope ; and at five 
o'clock on the evening of the 22d, the wind then blowing xuefdayzz. 
ftrong at weft, I ordered the helm to be put a weather, 
to the great joy of every perfon on board. Our fick lift at 
this time had increafed to eight, moftly with rheumatic 

F complaints : 



complaints : in other refpedts the people were in good 
health, though exceedingly jaded. 

The paiTage round Cape Horn, into the South Seas, 
during the fummer months, has feldom been attended 
with difficulty, and is to be preferred, in the moderate fea- 
fons, to the more diftant route to the eaftward, round the 
Cape of Good Hope and New Holland. If we had been 
one month earlier, or perhaps lefs, I doubt not but we 
lliould have effected our palTage. 

The foundings that are met with off the coafl of Ame- 
rica, from the latitude of 36° S to the fouthward, are very 
convenient to enable lliips to judge of their diftance from 
the land, as thick fogs are very frequent near that coaft. 
If the winds are favourable, to go through Straits le Maire 
muft confiderably llrorten the paffage round Cape Horn, 
as all the diftance faved is fo much gained to the weft- 
ward. I am informed, that feveral harbours have been 
lately difcovered by the South Sea whalers, on the north 
fide of Staten Illand, that afford fafe anchorage, with 
fupplies of wood and water. - 

While we were off" Cape Horn, I did' not obferve that 
our fituation was at all affe<5ted by currents. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 35 


PaJJage tozvards the Cape of Good Hope, and fearcb after 
trifian da Cunha. — Arrival at Falfe Bay. — Occurrences 
there. — Reports concerning the Grofvenor's People. — De- 
parture from the Cape. 

THE wefterly winds and ftormy weather continu- 
ing, gave me no reafon to repent of my determina- 
tion. On the 25th, at noon, y/e were in latitude 54° 16' S, 
and longitude 57° 4' W. The neareft of the Falkland 
Illands, by my reckoning, then bore N 13° W ; diftance 
23 leagues. Our flock of water being fufficient to ferve 
lis to the Cape of Good Hope, I did not think it worth 
while to flop at thefe iflands, as the refrefliment we might 
obtain there, would fcarce rejiay us for the expence of 
tinie: we therefore continued our courfe towards the 
NE and ENE. 
On the oth of Mav, at eight o'clock in the evening. May. 

1 r- •r-rr-.-zn i , Friday 9. 

we were near the lituation of Trillan da Cunha, our 
latitude being 37° f S, and longitude 15° 16' W. All 
the afternoon, the weather had been clear enough for land 
of a moderate height to be {^en at leaft Icven leagues ; 
I therefore concluded that we had not yet palTed the me- 
ridian of the illand ; for the mofl weflern polltion given 
to it from any authority, is i5''o'W. 

As I wiflicd to make this ifland, we kept our wind on 
ditferent tacks during the night, that we might be nearly 
in the fame place at day-light in the morning, as on 

F a the 


1788. the preceding evening : in the morning, no land being 
t ^-'_» in fight, we continued to fteer to the eaftward. 
Saturday 10. Wc Tan on all day, having clear weather, but with- 
out feeing any thing to indicate our being near land. 
At noon our latitude obferved was 37° 27' S, which being 
more to the fouthward than we had reafon to expedt, 
I altered the courfe to the northward, and fleered N E 
all the afternoon. At fix o'clock in the evening, we 
were in latitude 37° o' S, and longitude 12° 42' W, hav- 
ing a clear horizon, but not the leaft fign of being 
in the neighbourhood of land. With the night came 
thick rainy weather, and we were now to the eaftward 
of the fituation afcribed to Triftan da Cunha ; I therefore 
determined to give over the fearch, and to refume our 
courfe towards the Cape of Good Hope. 

The illand of Triftan da Cunha, by Robertfon's Elements, 
is laid down in 37° 12' S latitude, and 13° 23' W longitude. 
In Captain Cook's general map, prefixed to his laft voyage, 
it is placed in the fame latitude, but in 15 degrees W 
longitude. From our track, and the clearnefs of the wea- 
ther, I am convinced, if the latitude afcribed to it as above 
is corredl, that it is not to be found between the meridians 
of 16° 30' W, and 12° 30' W. On the 13th I had a num- 
ber of lunar obfervations for the longitude, the mean 
ef which agreed exactly with the time-keeper *. 

In this paffage the weather was generally fo cloudy^ 
that I had few opportunities to make obfervations of any 
kind, except for the noon latitudes. I could not deter- 
mine when we croffed the line of no variation. The twa 

• In Mr. Dalryniple's Colleftion of Plans, which I had not with me, the northernmoffi 
ef-the IJlaniis of Trijian d'Jcuuha is placed in latitude 37° 22' S, and longitude 13" 17' W. 
1 tlunk it probable wc mifl'ed them by being too much to the northward. 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 37 

neareft obfervations to it, were, the firft in vf ci' S la- >788- 


titude, and 26° 11' W longitude, where the variation of ._ -^- '_f 
the compafs was found to be 3° 17' E ; and the other in 
latitude 35° 30' S, and longitiide 5° 21' W, where I ob- 
ferved the variation 1 1° 35' W ; between thefe we had no 
intermediate obfervation for the variation. 

Thurfday 22, at two in the afternoon, we faw the Table Thurfdayzz^ 
Mountain of the Cape of Good Hope. As it is reckoned- 
xmfafe riding in Table Bay at this time of the year, I fleer- 
ed for Falfe Bay. The next evening we anchored in the 
outer part, and on the forenoon of the 24th got the fliip Saturday 24. 
fecured in Simon's Bay, which is in the inner i:>art of Falfe 
Bay. When moored, Noah's ark bore S 35° E three quar- 
ters of a mile, and the hofpital S 72° W. We found lying 
here, one outward bound Dutch Indiaman, five other 
Dutch fhips, and a French fhip. 

After fainting the fort, which was returned by an equal 
number of guns, I went on fhore, and difpatches were fenf 
away to Cape Town, to acqviaint the governor of our ar- 
rival. A Dutch fhip at this time lying in Table Bay, 
bound for Europe, I fent letters by her to the Admiralty. 
It is very nnufual for fhips to be in Table Bay fo late in the 
year, on account of the flrong N W wmds. April is the 
time limited. 

I gave the necefTary directions for getting our wants 
fupplied. The fliip required to be caulked in every part, 
for fhe was become fo leaky,, that we had been obliged 
to pump every hour in our palfage from Cape Horn. This 
we immediately fet about, as well as repairing our fails and 
rigging. The fevere weather we had met with, and the 
leakinefs of the fliij), made it necefTary to examine into the 
Hate of all the flores and provifions. Of the latter, a good 
deal was found damaged, particularly the bread. — The 

8 time-keeper 



time-keeper I took on fliore to afcertain its rate, and other 
inflruments, to make the neceffary aftronoraical ohferva- 
tions. — Frefh meat, with foft bread, and plenty of vege- 
tables, were ilTued daily to the fhip's company, the whole 
time we remained here. A few days after our arrival, I 
went over to Cape Town, and waited on his excellency 
M. Vander Graaf, the governor, who obligingly arranged 
matters fo much to onr advantage, that we fcarcely felt the 
inconvenience of being at a diftance from the Cape Town, 
whence we received all our fupplies. 

The Cape Town is conliderably increafed within the laft 
eight years. Its refpedtability, wdth regard to ftrength, 
has kept pace with its other enlargements, and rendered it 
very fecure agaiiift any attempt which is not made with 
confiderable force. Great attention is paid to military 
order and difcipline ; and monthly fignals are eftablifhed 
to communicate with their lliipping as they arrive near 
the coaft, that they may not run unawares into the hands 
of an enemy. I found every thing much dearer than 
when I was here in 1780. Sheep coft four Spanifli dol- 
lars each, and were fo fmall, that it anfwered better to 
purchafe the mutton, for the fliip's daily ufe, at four pence 
per pound. 

During our ftay here, I took care to procure feeds and 
plants that would be valuable at Otaheite, and the dif- 
ferent places we might touch at in our way .thither. 
In this I was grea<:ly affifted by colonel Gordon, the cora- 
•mander of the tro.ops. In company with this gentleman^ 
thelofs of the GrofvenorEaft Indiaman was mentioned: on 
this fubjedt, colonel Gordon expreffed great concern, that, 
from any thing he had faid, hopes w^ere ftill entertained 
to flatter the aftedionate whiles of the furviving friends 
fof thofe unfortunate people. .I5e Aid that, in his U'a- 




vels into the Caffre country, he had met with a native 
who defcribed to him, that there was a white woman iJllT-Il 
among his countrymen, who had a child, and that flie fre- 
quently embraced the child, and cried moft violently. 
This was all he (the colonel) could underftand ; and, being 
then on his return home, with his health much impaired 
by fatigue, the only thing that he could do, was to make a 
friend of the native, by prefents, and promifes of reward, 
on condition that he would take a letter to this woman, 
and bring him back an anfwer. Accordingly he wrote 
letters in Englifh, French, and Dutch, defiring, that fome 
lign or mark might be returned, either by writing with 
a burnt Itick, or by any means Ihe fhould be able to 
deviie, to fatisfy him that flie was there ; and that on re- 
ceiving fuch token from her, every effort fliould be made 
to enfure her fafety and efcape. But the Caffre, although 
apparently delighted with the commiflion which he had 
undertaken, never retiu-ned, nor has the colonel ever heard 
any thing more of liim, though he had been inftrudled 
in methods of conveying information through the Hot?- 
tentot country. 

To this account, that I may not again have occallon to 
introduce fo melancholy a fubje6l, I lliall add the little in- 
formation. I received refpe6ling it, when I re-vilited the 
Gape, in my return towards Europe. — A reputable far- 
mer, of the name of Holhoufen,. who lives at Sv.^ellendam, 
eight days journey from the Gape,, had information from 
Ibme Gaffre Hottentots, that at a crawl, or village, in their 
country, there were white men and women. On this in- 
telligence, Mr. Holhoufcn alked pcrmiffion of the go- 
vernor to make an expedition, with fome of the farmers, 
into the country, requiring a thoufand rix-doilai^s to bear 
his expences. The governor referred him to Mr. Wocke, 
6 the 


1788. the Landros of Graverennet, a new colony, in his way. 
^''^- But from the place where Mr. Holhoufen lives, to the 
Landros, Mr. Wocke's refidence, is a month's journey, 
which he did not chufe to undertake at an uncertainty, 
as Mr. Wocke might have difapproved of the enterprize. 
It was in Odtoher laft that Mr. Holhoufen offered to go on 
this fervice; He was one of the party who went along the 
fea-coaft in fearch of thefe unfortunate people, when a 
few of them firft made their appearance at the Cape. I 
am, however, informed, that the Dutch farmers are fond 
of making expeditions into the country, that they may 
have opportunities of taking away cattle ; and this, I ap- 
prehend, to be one of the chief reafons why undertakings 
of this kind are not encouraged. 

On the 13th of June, the Dublin Eaft Indiaman arrived 
from England ; on board of which fhip, was a party of the 
77th regiment, under the command of colonel Balfour. 

The refult of my lunar obfervations gave for the longi- 
tude of Simon's Bay, 18° 48' 34'' E ; tlie latitude 34° 11' 34" S. 
The time-keeper likewife made the longitude 18' 47' E. 
The longitude, as eftabliflied by former obfervations, is 
18° 33' E. The variation of the compafs on fhore was 
24° 4' W ; but, on board of the fhip, it was only aa" 28' W. 
— The time of high water was three quarters paft two on 
the full and change, and it then flowed fix feet. 

With refpecft to the Cape Promontory, it lies about 
three miles eaft of the meridian of Simon's Town. All 
the tables of latitude and longitude place the Cape in 
34° 29' S latitude ; but from many obfervations off it, with 
good inftruments, I make it to lie in 34° 23' S, which 
agrees with its fituation as laid down in major Kennel's map. 
The part which I call the Cape, is the fouthernmoft point 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 41 

of the land between Table Bay and Falfe Bay ; but the 
Dutch confider the weftcrnmoft part of the coaft to be the 

On the 29th, being ready for fea, I took the time- Sunday 2> 
keeper and inftrum^ nts on board. The error of the 
time-keeper was 3' 33 ', a too flow for the mean time at 
Greenwich, and its rate of going 3" per day, lofing. 
The thermometer, dunLg our ftay here, was from 51 
to 66 degrees. 

We had been thirty-eight days at this place, and ^Jw^tr. 
my people had received all the advantage that could 
be derived from the refrefliments of every kind that 
are here to be met with. We failed at four o'clock 
this afternoon, and faluted the platform with thirteen 
guns as we ran out ojf the bay, which were returnedt 

Tuefday i. 



C H A P. IV. 

Pq[fage towards Van Diemen's Land. — Make the IJland of 
St. Paul. — Arrival in Adventure Bay. — Natives feen.- — 
Sail from Van Bienun's Land.. 

1788. "^XZ^ ^°^ fight of the land the day after leaving Falfe 
juLv. YY Bay, and fleered towards the ESE, h a vmg varia- 
ble winds the firft week, with much thunder, lightning-, 
and rain. The remainder of this paffage, the winds were 
moftly between the S and W, blowing ftrong. There 
were almofl: every day great numbers of pintada, alba- 
troffes, blue petterels, and other oceanic birds, about us ; 
but it was obferved, that if the wind came from the north- 
ward, only for a few hours, the birds generally left us,, 
and their prefenee again was the forerunner of a foutherly 

Sunday 13. The Variation of the compafs was 30° 34' W, which was 
the greateft variation we found in this track. Our latitude 
36° 28' S, and longitude 39° o' E. 

Sunday 20. The latitude, at noon, was 40° 30' S, and longitude 
60° 7' E. We were at this time fcudding under the 
fore-fail and clofe-reefed main-top-fail, the wind blow- 
ing ftrong from the weft. An hour after noon the gale in- 
creafed, and blew with fo much violence, that the fliip 
was almoft driven forecaftle under, before we could get 
the fails clewed up. As foon as the fails were taken in, 
we brought the Ihip to the wind, lowered the lower yards, 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &:c. .43 

and got the top-galbnt-mafts upon deck, which cafcd 
the fliip very much. We remained lying to till eight the 
next morning, when we bore away under a reefed fore- Mondavi,. 
fail. In the afternoon the fea ran Co high, that it became 
very unfafe to ftand on : we therefore brought to the 
wind again, and remained lying to all night, without acci- 
dent, excepting that the man at the fteerage was thrown 
over the wheel, and much bruifed. Towards noon, the Tucfdayiz, 
violence of the florm abated, and we again bore aw^ay 
imder the reefed fore-fail. Our latitude, at noon, 38'' 49' S : 
in the afternoon faw fome whales. 

We continued running to the eaftward in this parallel, 
it being my intention to make the ifland St. Paul. On 
Monday the 28th, at fix in the morning, we faw the iiland, Monday 2t. 
bearing E by N, 12 leagues diitant: between 10 and 
II o'clock, we ran along the fouth fide, at about a league 
diftant from the fhore. There was a verdure that co- 
vered the higher parts of the land ; but I believe it was 
nothing more than mofs, w^hich is commonly found on 
the tops of moft rocky illands in thefe latitudes. We faw 
feveral whales near the fliore. The extent of this ifland 
is five miles from E to W ; and about two or three from 
N to S. As we palTed the eaft end, we faw a re- 
markable high fugar-loaf rock, abreall of which, I have 
been informed, is good anchorage in 23 fathoms, the 
eaft point bearing S W by S, by true compafs. I had this 
information from the captain of a Dutch packet, in 
wliich I returned to Europe. He likewife faid there 
was good frefli water on the ifland, and a hot fi)ring, 
which boiled fifh in as great perfc<5lion as on a fire. By 
his account, the latitude, which he obferved in the road, 
is 38° 39' S ; and from the anchoring place, the ifland of 

G 2 Amlterdain 


Amfcerdam was in fight to the northward. We had fair 
•veather all the forenoon, bnt juft at noon, a fquall 
came on, which was unfavourable for our obfcrvation. 
I had, however, two fets of double altitudes, and a good 
altitude exasStly at noon, according to the time-keeper. 
The refult of thefe give for the latitude of the center of ' 
St. Paul, 38° 47' S.- The longitude I make 77° 39' E. The 
variation of the compafs, taking the mean of what it was 
obferved to be the day before we faw the ifland, and the 
day after, is 19° 30! W. 

At noon, we were three leagues paft' the ifland. We 
kept on towards the E S E, and for feveral days continued 
to fee rock-weed, which is remarked to be generally the 
cafe after fliips pafs St. Paul's ; but to the weflward of 
it, very feldom any is feen. 

August. In latitude 44° u6' S, longitude 122° 7' E, I obferved the 
WeaneHay variation of the compafs to be 6° 23' W. I had no oppor- 
tunity to obferve it again till in the latitude of 43° 56' Sj 
longitude 133° 16' E, when it was 1° 38' E ; fo that we 
had pafTed the line of no variation. In 1780, on board 
the Refolution, in latitude 44° 23' S, longitude 131° 28' E,. 
the variation, was obferved 6° o' W, which is a remark- 
able difference. We had much bad weather, with fnow 
and hail, and in our approach to Van Diemen's Land, no- 
thing was feen to indicate the nearnefs of the coaft, except 
a feal, when we were within the diftance of 20 leagues. 

Tuefdayig., At two o'clock this aftemoou, we faw the rock named 
the Mewftone, that lies near the S W cape of Van Die- 
men's Land,-, bearing NE about fix leagues. The wind 
blew ftrong from the NW. As foon as we had pafled 
the Mewftone, we were flieltered from a very heavy fea,^ 
which ran from, the weftward. At eight o'clock at night 



THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 45 

vre were abreaft of the fouth cape, when the wind be- 
came light and variable. Saw feveral fires inland. 

The Mewftone is a high bold rock, that lies five leagues 
to the S £ of the S W cape, and is the part that all fliips 
bovmd this way Ihould endeavour to make. Its latitude 
is 43° 46' or 47'. Several iflands lie to the northward, be- 
tween that and the main, among^ which, bearing N by W 
from the Mewftone, is a high rock much refembling it ; 
and N N E from the Mewftone, on the main land, is a 
remarkable high mountain, which, in this diredlion, ap- 
pears notched like a cock's comb ; but as viewed from the 
eaftward, feems round. 

All the 20th, we wer6 endeavouring to get into Adven- Wdnefday 
ture Bay, but were prevented by variable winds. The 
next morning, at five o'clock, we anchored in the outer 
part, and at fun-rife weighed again : at noon, we anchor- 
ed well in the bay, and moored the fliip, Penguin Illand 
bearing N 57** k E, about two miles diftant; Cape Fre- 
deric Henry N 23° E ; and the mouth of the Lagoon 

In our pafTage from the Cape of Good Hope, the winds 
were moftly from the weftward, with very boifterous 
weather: but one great advantage, that this feafonofthe 
year has over the iiimmer- months is, in being free from 
fogs. I have already remarked, that the approach of 
ftrong foutherly winds is announced by many kinds of 
birds of the albatrofs or petterel tribe, and the abatement 
of the gale, or a lliift of wind to -the northward, by their 
keeping away. The thermometer alfo very quickly fhews 
when a change of thefe winds may be expelled, by vary- 
ing fometimes fix and feven degrees in its height. I have 
reafon to believe, that after we palfed the illand St. Faal, 




there was a weatherly current ; the fhip being every day to 
the weilward of the reckoning, whicli in the whole, from 
St. Paul to Van Diemen's land, made a difference of four 
degrees between the longitude by the reckoning and the 
true longitude. 
Thurfday The fliip being moored, I went in a boat to look out 
for the moft convenient place to wood and water at, which 
I found to be at the weft end of the beacl^ : for the furf, 
though conijderab],e, Wjas lefs there thai> at any other part 
of the bay. The water was in a gully about fixty yards 
from the beach ; it was perfe^ly good, but being only a 
colle(5tion from the rains, the place is; always dry in the 
fummer months ; for we found no water in it when I was 
here with captain Cook in January, 1777. — We had very 
little fuccefs in hauling the feine ; about twenty fmall 
flounders, and flat -headed fifh, called foxes, were all that 
were taken. 

I foxmd no figns of the natives having lately freqviented 
this bay, or of any European velTels having been here 
fince the Refolution and Difcovery in 1777. . Froi;n fome 
of the old trunks of trees, then cut down, I faw flioots 
about twenty-five feet high, and fourteen inches in cii:- 

In the evening, I returned on board. The next morn- 
Friday 22. ing, the 22d, at day-light, a jjarty was fent on fliore for 
wooding and watering, under the command of Mr. Chrif- 
tian and the gunner ; and I direiled that one man fliould 
be conftaiitly emj loy.ed in wafliing the people's clothes. 
There was fo much furf that the wood was obliged 
to be rafted off in bundles to the boat. Mr. Nelfon in- 
formed me, that, in his walks to-day, he faw a tree, in a 
very healthy Hate, which he meafured, and found to be 


T H fe S O U T H S E A S, &c. 47 

fhirty-thrcc feet and a half in girt ; its height was proper- 1733. 
tioned to its hulk. u^I^TIj. 

Saturday the 23d, The furf was rather greater than Saturday ^j. 
yefterday, which very much'intcrruj^ted our wooding and 
watering. Nelfon to-day picked up a male opofTuin that 
had been recently killed, or had died, for we could not 
pefceive any wound, unlefs it had received a blow on the 
back, where there was a bare place about the fize of a 
fliilling. It meafured fourteen inches from the ears to 
tlie beginning of the tail, which was ' exadly the fame 

Molt of the forefl treies were at this time fliedding their 
bark. There are three kinds, which are diftinguifhed 
from erfch other by their leaves, though the wood appears 
to be th^ fam^. Many of them ai'e full one himdred and 
fifty feet high ; but mdft of thofe that we cut down, were de- 
cayed at the heart. There are, befides the forcft trees, fe- 
veral other kind's that are firm good wood, and may be cut 
for moft purpofes, except mails ; neither are the foreft 
trees good for mafts, on account of their weight, and the 
difficulty of finding them thoroughly Ibund. Mr. Nelfon 
alTerted that they llied their bark every year, and that they 
increafe more from the feed than by fuckers. 

I found the tide made a difference of full two feet in 
the height of the water in the lake, at the back of the 
beach. At high water, it was very brackidi, but at low 
tide, it was perfedlly frefli to the tafle, and foap fliewed 
no fign of its being the leaft impregnated. We nad bet- 
ter fuccefs in filhing on board the fliip, than by hauling 
the feine on fliorc ; for, with hooks and lines, a number of 
fine rock cod were caught. — I favv to-day feveral eagles, 
fome beautiful blue-plumaged herons, and a great ViU"iety 
9> of 


of paroquets. A few oyfter-catchers and gulls were gene- 
rally about the beach, and in the lake a few wild ducks. 

Being in want of plank, I diredted a faw-pit to be dug, 
and employed fome of the people to faw trees into plank. 
The greater part of this week the winds were moderate, 
Friday 29. with uufettlcd wcather. On Friday ii blew ftrong from 
the S W, with rain, thunder, and lightning. We conti- 
nued to catch fifh in fufficient quantities for every body, 
and had better fuccefs with the feine. — We were for- 
tunate, alfo, in angling in the lake, where we caught fome 
very fine tench. Some of the people felt a ficknefs from 
eating mufcles, that were gathered from the rocks ; but 
I believe it was occafioned by eating too many. We 
found fome fpider-crabs, moft of them not good, being 
the fernale fort, and out of feafon. The males were to- 
lerably good, and were known by the fmallnefs of their 
two fore claws, or feeders. We faw the trunk of a dead 
tree, oi;i which had been cut " A. D. 1773." The fi- 
gures were very diftindtj even the flips made with the 
knife were difcernible. This muft have been done by 
fome of captain Furneaux's people, in March, 1773, fifteen 
years before. The marks of the knife remaining fo unal- 
tered, I imagine the tree muft have been dead when it was 
cut ; but it ferves to iliew the durability of the wood, for 
it was perfedlly found nt this time. I fliot two gannets ? 
thefe birds were of the fame fize as thofe in England; 
their colour is a beautiful white, with the wings and tail 
tipped with jet black, and the top and back of the head 
of a very fine yellow. Their feet were black, with four 
claws, on each of which, was u yellow line the whole 
length of the foot. The Lill was four inches long, wrth-o 
out noftrils, and very taper and fharp-pointed. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 49 

The eaft Ade of the bay being not Co thick of wood as 1788. 
the other parts, and the foil being good, I fixed on it, at .^"''"^"^•. 
Nelfon's recommendation, as the moil proper fituation for 
planting fome of the fruit-trees which I had brought from 
the Cape of Good Hope. A circumftance much againft any- 
thing fucceeding here, is, that in the dry feafon, the fires 
made by the natives are apt to communicate to the dried 
grafs and underwood, and to fpread in fuch a manner as 
to endanger every thing that cannot bear a fevere fcorch- 
ing. We, however, chofe what we thought the fafeft fitu- 
ations, and planted three fine young apple-trees, nine 
vines, fix plantain-trees, a number of orange and lemon- 
feed, cherry - flones, plum, peach, and apricot -ftones, 
pumkins, alfo two forts of Indian corn, and apple and 
pear kernels. The ground is well adapted for the trees, 
being of a rich loamy nature. The fpot where we made 
our plantation was clear of i;nderwood ; and we marked the 
trees that flood nearefl to the different things which were 
planted. Nelfon followed the circuit of the bay, planting 
in fuch places as appeared mofl eligible. I have great 
hopes that fome of thefe articles will fucceed. The par- 
ticular fituations I had defcribed in my furvey of this place, 
but I was unfortunately prevented from bringing it home. 
Near," the watering place, likewife, we planted on a flat, 
which appeared a favourable fituation, fome onions, cab- 
bage-roots, and potatoes. 

For fome days paft, a number of whales were feen in the 
bay. They were of the fame kind as thofe we had generally 
met with before, having two blow-holes on the back of the septem- 
head. ber. 

On the night of the ifl of September, wc obfervcd, for Monday i. 
the firfl time, figns of the natives being in the neighbour- 
hood. Fires were feen on the low land, near Cape Frederick 

II Henry, 



Henry, and at day-light, we faw the natives with our glalTes. 
As I expe(Sted they would come round to us, I remained all 
the forenoon near the wooding and watering parties, mak- 
ing obfervations, the morning being very favourable for that 
purpofe. I was, however, difappointed in my conjecture, 
for the natives did not appear, and there was too great a furf 
for a boat to land on the part where we had feen them. 
Taefday 2. The natives not coming near us, I determined to go after 
them, and we fet out, in a boat, towards Cape Frederick 
Henry, where we arrived about eleven o'clock. I found 
landing impracticable, and therefore came to a grapnel, in 
hopes of their coming to us, for we had paffed feveral 
iires. After waiting near an hour, I was furprifed to fee 
Nelfon's afliftant come out of the wood : he had wandered 
thus far in fearch of plants, and told me that he had met 
with fome of the natives. Soon after we heard their voices 
like the cackling of geefe, and twenty perfons came out of 
the wood, twelve of whom went round to fome rocks, where 
the boat could get nearer to the fliore than we then were. 
Thofe who remained behind were women. 

We approached within twenty yards of them, but there 
was no poffibility of landing, and I could only throw to 
the fhore, tied up in paper, the prefents which I intended 
for them. I fliowed the different articles as I tied them 
x\p, but they would not untie the paper till I made' an ap- 
pearance of leaving them. They then opened the parcels, 
and, as they took the articles out, placed them on their 
heads. On feeing this, I returned towards them, when 
they inftantly put every thing out of their hands, and 
would not appear to take notice of any thing that we had 
given them. After throwing a few more beads and nails on 
ftiore, I made figns for them to go to the fliip, and they, 

like wife, 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. I^i 

Jikewife, made figns for me to land; but as this could not 
be efieded, I left them, in hopes of a nearer interview at 
the watering place. 

When they firft came in fight, they made a prodigious 
clattering in their fpeecli, and held their arms over their 
heads. They fpoke fo quick, that I could not catch one 
fingle word they uttered. We recoUetSted one man, whom 
we had formerly feen. among the party of the natives 
that came to us in 1777, and who is particularifed in the ac- 
count of Captain Cook's laft voyage, for his humour and 
deformity. Some of them had a fmall flick, two or three 
feet long, in their hands, but no other weapon. 

Their colour, as Captain Cock remarks, is a dull black : 
their fkin is fcarified about their flioulders and breaft. 
They were of a middle ftature, or rather below it. One 
of them was" diftinguifhed by his body being coloured 
with red oker, but all the others were painted black, with 
a kind of foot, which was laid on fo thick over their faces 
and flioulders, that it is difficult to fay what they were 

They ran very nimbly over the rocks, had a very quick 
fight, and caught the fmall beads and nails, which I threw to 
them, with great dexterity. They talked to us fitting on 
their heels, with their knees clofe into their armpits, and 
were perfe(Stly naked. 

In my return towards the fliip, I landed at the jDoint 
of the harbour near Penguin Ifland, and from the hills, 
faw the water on the other fide of the low ifthmus of 
Cape Frederick Henry, which forms the bay of that . 
name. It is very extenfive, and in, or near, the middle of 
the bay, there is a low ifland. From this fpot, it has the 
appearance of being a very good and convenient harbour. 

H 2 The 


1788. The account which I had from Brown, the botanift's affifl- 

^lll!*' ^nt, was, that in his fearch for plants, he had met an old 
man, a young woman, and two or three children. The 
old man at firft appeared alarmed, but became familiar 
on being prefented with a knife. He neverthelefs fent 
away the young woman, who went very reluctantly. He 
faw fome miferable wigwams, in which were nothing but 
a few kanguroo fkiiis fpread on the ground, and a bafket 
made of ruflies. 

Among the wood that we cut here^ we found many 
fcorpions and centipes, with numerous black ants that were 
an inch long. We faw no mufquitos, though in the fum- 
mer months they are very troublefome. 

Wh^at is called the New Zealand' tea plant, grew here in 
great abundance ; fo that it was not only gathered and dried 
to ufe as tea, but made excellent brooms. It bears a fmall 
pointed leaf, of a pleafant fmellj and its feed is contained 
in a berry, about the fize of a pea, notched into five equal 
parts on the top. The foil, on the weft and fouth fides 
of the bay, is black mould, with a mixture of fine white 
fand, and is very rich. The trees are lofty and large, and 
the underwood grows fo clofe together, that in many 
places it is impaffable. The eaft fide of the bay is a rich 
loamy foil ; but, near the tops of the hills, is very much in- 
cumbei"ed with ftones and rocks : the underwood thinly 
placed and fmall. The trees on the S, S E, and S W fides of 
the bills, grow to a larger fize than thofe that are expofed 
to the oppofite points ; for the fides of the trees, open 
or expofed to the north winds are naked, with few 
branches ; while the other fides are in a fiourifhing ftate. 
From this I do not infer, that the equatorial are more 
hurtful than the polar winds; but that the trees, by 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, fee. 53 

their' fitnation, were more flieltered from the one than 
from the other. 

A calm prevented our faiUng to day. The friendly inter- 
view which we had had with the natives, made me exped; Wednefday 
tliat they would have paid us a vifit ; but- we faw nothing '' 

more of them, except fires in the night, upon the low land 
to the northward. 

The refult of the obfervations which I made here, reduced 
to Penguin Ifland, place it in 43° 21' 11" S latitude, and in 
l6ngitude 147° 33' 29" E, which fcarcely differs from the 
obfervations made in 1777. The variation of the compafs, 
obferved on Ihore, was 8° 38' E ; and on board the fliip 
8°a9'E.- It was high water, at the change of the moon, 
at 49 minutes paft fix in the morning. The rife was 
two feet eight inches. Southerly winds, if of any con- 
tinuance, make a confiderable difference in the hjeight of 
the tides. 

This forenoon, having a pleafant breeze at N W, we Thurfday^. 
weighed anchor, and failed out of Adventure Bay. - At 
noon the fouthernmoft part of Maria's Ifles bore N 52° E, 
about five leagues diflant ; Penguin Ifland S 86° W ; and 
Cape Frederick Henry N 65° W. In this poiition we had 
foundings at 57 fathoms, a fandy bottom. Latitude ob- 
ferved 43° 22' S. 

The fouthern part of Maria's Iflands lie in latitude 
43° 16' S. The country is not in general woody, but in 
fome of the interior parts, there appeared great abundance. 
Among thefe iflands, I have no doubt of there being 
many convenient places for fliiping. On the eafl fide, 
in latitude 42° 42' S, and longitude 148' 24' E, in July, 
1789, Captain Cox, of the Mercury, found a convenient 
and fecure harbour from all winds, which he named 
I Oyl^er 


Oyfter Bay. Here he found wood, water, and filh, in 
great abundance. It has two outlets, and hes north, a 
little eafterly, diftant 34 miles from the fouth-eafternmoft 
ifland, or point, feen from Adventure Bay. 

Adventure Bay is a convenient and fafe place for any 
number of fliips to take in wood and water, during the 
fummer months : but in the winter, when the foutherly 
winds are ftrong, the furf, on all parts of the fhore, makes 
the landing exceedingly troublefome. The bay of Frederick 
Henry may, perhaps, be found preferable, as it appears 
to be equally eafy of accefs. The foundings in Adventure 
Bay are very regular : near the weft Ihore, are fome 
patches of weed, but no fhoal or danger, the depth on 
them being from five to nine fathoms. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. .55 


Rocky IJJands difcovered, — See the Ifland Maitea, and arrive 
at Otaheite. — Ship crouded by the Natives, 

BEING clear of the land, we fleered towards the 1788. 
E S E, it being my intention to pafs to the fouth- ^"""* 
ward of New Zealand, as I expefled in that route to meet *— nr-** 
with conftant wefterly winds ; in which, however, I was 
difappointed, for they proved variable, and frequently 
from the eaftward blowiijg ftrong, with thick mifty wea- 
ther. The thermometer varied from 41 to 46 degrees. 

On the 14th, at noon, we were in 49° 24' S latitude, and Sunday 14. 
in 168° 3' E longitude, which is on the fame meridian 
with the fouth end of New Zealand. We altered our 
courfe, fleering to the northward of eaft, and frequently 
faw rock- weed, which I fuppofed to have drifted from 
New Zealand. The fea now became rougher, from our 
being expofed to a long fwell, which came from the N E. 

On the 19th, at day-light, we difcovered a clufter of fmall Friday ig. 
rocky iflands, bearing eaft by north four leagues diftant from 
us. We had feen no birds, or any thing to indicate the near- 
nefs of land, except patches of rock-weed, for which the vi- 
cinity of New Zealand fufficiently accounted. The wind 
being at N E prevented our near approach to thefe illes ; fo 
that we were not lefs than three leagues diftant in pafTing 
to the fouthward of them. The weather was too thick to 
fee diflinctly : their extent was only 3 5 miles from eaft 


56 A V O Y A G E TO 

to weft, and about half a league from north to fouth:: 
their number, including the fmaller ones, was thirteen. I 

. could not obferve any verdure on any of them : there were 
white fpots like patches of fnow.; but, as Captain Cook, 
in defcribing the land of New Zealand, near Cape South, 

.fays, in many places there are patches like white marble,'it 
i§ probable that what we faw might be of the fame kind 

. as what he had obferved. The wefternmoft ofthefe iflands 
is the largeft ; they are of fufficient height to be feen at the 
diftance of feven leagues from a Ihip's deck. When the 

•eailernmoft bore north, I tried for foundings, being tlien 
lo miles diftant from the neareft of them, and found 
bottom at 75 fathoms, a fine white fand : and again at 
noon, having run fix leagues more to the E S E, we had 
foundings at 104 fathoms, a fine brimftone-coloured fand. 
The latitude of thefe illands is 47° 44^ S ; their longitude 
179° 7' E, which is about 145 leagues to the eaft of the 
Traps, near the fouth end of New Zealand. Variation of 
the compafs here 17° E. While in fight of the iflands, we 
iaw fome penguins, and a white kind of gull with a 
forked tail. Captain Cook's track, in 1773, was near this 
fpot, bufhe did not fee the iflands : he faw feals and pen- 
guins hereabouts, but confidered New Zealand to be the 
neareft land. I have named thena after the fliip, the Bounty 
Sunday 21. This day we faw a feal, fome rock- weed, and a great 
many albatroflis. I tried for foundings, but found no bot- 
tom at 230 fathoms depth. Our latitude 47° 33' S, longitude 
182° 36' E. 
jDcTOBER. Were in 40° 27' S latitude, and 214° 4' E longitude. It 
being calm, and a number of fmall blubbers about thefhip, 
I took up fome in a bucket, but I faw no difference be- 


Thurfday 2. 


tween them and the common blubbers in the Weft Indies. 1788. 
We frequently, in the night-time, obferved the fea to be . ^1°L'^ 
covered with luminous fpots, caufed by prodigious quan- 
tities of fmall blubbers, that, from the ftrings which extend 
from them, emit a light like the blaze of a candle, while 
the body continues perfedly dark. 

The 3d in the morning, we faw a feal. Captain Cook Friday j* 
has remarked feeing fea weed, when nearly in the fame 
place. Our latitude 40° 21' S, longitude 215° E. Variation of 
the compafs 7° 45' E. Being now well to the eaftward of 
the Society Illands, I fleered more to the northward. 

We continued to have the fouthern oceanic birds ac- 
company us, and a few whales. The people caught alba- 
trolTes, and fattened them in the fame manner which they 
had done when off Cape Horn. Some of thefe meafured 
near eight feet between the tips of the wings, when 

On Thurfday the 9th, we had the misfortune to lofe Thurfdayjj 
one of our feamen, James Valentine, who died in the 
night, of an afthmatic complaint. This poor man had 
been one of the moft robuft people on board, until our 
arrival at Adventure Bay, where he firft complained of 
fome flight indifpofition, for which he was bled, and 
got better. Some time afterwards, the arm in which he 
had been bled, became painful and inflamed : the inflam- 
mation increafed, with a hollow cough, and extreme dif- 
ficulty of breathing, to his death. 

The 13th, in the afternoon, we faw two land birds, like Monday 13* 
what are called fand-larks. Our latitude at this time was 
28° 3' S, and longitude 223° 26' E. The next morning we Tuefday 14. 
faw a tropic bird, and fome filh. The winds were light 
jmd variable, with calms, from this time to the 19th, when a 

I, breeze 

^§ A V O Y A G E T O 

1783. breeze fprung up from the NE, which gradually came 
^CTOBER.^ round to the eaftward, and proved to be the trade wind. 
Our latitude on the 19th, at noon, was 24° 13' S, longitude 
222° 17' E. Variation of the compafs 5° 19' E. 
Saturday 25. On the 25th, at half paft feven in the morning, we faw 
the Ifland Maitea, called Ofnaburg by Captain Wallis, who 
firfl: difcovered it. At noon it bore S W by W | W, fix miles 
diftant. Our latitude 17° 50' S, longitude 212° 24' E. Va- 
riation five degrees eaft. As Captain Wallis and Captain 
Cook had both paflfed near the fouth fide, I ran along the 
north fide, which is remarkably fl:eep. The ifland is high 
and round, and not more than three miles in its greateft 
extent. The fouth fide, where the declivity from the hill 
is more gradual, is the chief place of refidence of the na- 
tives ; but the north fide, from the very fummit down 
to the fea, is fo fi:eep, that it can afford no fupport to 
the inhabitants. We fleered pretty clofe in to the north- 
- ward of the eaft end, where we faw but few habitations : 

a very neat houfe on a fmall eminence, delightfully fituated 
in a grove of cocoa-nut-trees, particularly attra6led ovu* no- 
tice. About twenty of the natives followed us along fliore, 
waving and fhowing large pieces of cloth ; but the furf on 
the fliore was too high to think of having any communica- 
tion with them. I obferved a great number of cocoa-nut- 
trees, but did not fee one plantain-tree. There were other 
trees, but of what kind we could not diftinguifh : near 
the eaft end are two remarkable rocks, and a reef runs 
off to the eaftward about half a league. 

The latitude of Maitea is 17° 53' S ; and by cup time- 
keeper, its longitude is i° 24' E from Point Venus. Varia- 
tion of the compafs 5° 36' E. 

We continued our cx>urfe to the weftward, and at fix 
a - ill 


in the evening faw Otaheitc, bearing WIS; the ifland 1788. 
Maitea, then in fight, bearing E i S, eight leagues diftant. Q*^^"'"*^ 
As there was great probabiUty that we fliould remain a 
confiderable time at Otaheite, it could not be expedled that 
the intercourfe of my people Avith the natives Ihould be of 
a very referved nature : I therefore ordered that every per- 
fon Ihould be examined by the furgeon, and had the fa- 
tisfacSlion to learn, from his report, that they were all per-^ 
fedtly free from any venereal complaint. 

On the 26th, at four o'clock in the morning, having run Sunday 26^ 
tv/enty-five leagues from Maitea, we brought to till day- 
light, when we faw Point Venus bearing S W by W, diftant 
about four leagues. As we drew near, a great number 
of canoes came off to us. Their firft enquiries were, if wo 
were Tyos, which fignifies friends ; and whether we came 
from Pretanie, (their pronunciation of Britain), or from Li- 
ma : they were no fooner fatisfied in this, than they crouded 
on board in vaft numbers, notwithftanding our endeavours 
to prevent it, as we were working the fliip in ; and in lefs 
than ten minutes, the deck was fo full that I could fcarce 
find my own people. At nine in the forenoon, we were 
obliged to anchor in the outer part of Matavai Bay, in 
thirteen fathoms, being prevented by light variable winds 
from placing the fliip in a proper birth. In this ftation the 
weft part of One-tree hill bore S by E i E one mile diftant. 

This paftage of fifty-two days from Van Diemen's land 
may be rated as moderate failing. We paiTed New Zealand 
with the fpring equinox, and the winds, though ftrong, 
were at no time violent. To the fouthward of 40° o' S 
they were variable ; between the latitudes of 40 and 33° S, 
the wind kept in the N V/ quarter ; afterwards, till we got 
into the trade, the winds were variable, moftly from the 

I a eaftward, 


1788. eaftward, but light, and inclinable to calms. The Ihip 
Octobe r^ ^^^^ ^o ^^ -^^ longitudc to the eaftward of the dead reckon- 
ing, which the time-keeper almoft invariably proved. to be 
owing to a current giving iis more eafting than the log. 
Our track was as diftant from any courfe of former fliips 
as I could conveniently make it ; and though we made no 
new difcoveries, except the fmall clufter of iflands near 
New Zealand, yet in other parts of the track, as has been 
noticed, we met with ligns of being in the neighbourhood 
of land. 

It may not be unworthy of remark, that the whole dif- 
tance which the fliip had run by the log, in direcft and 
contrary courfes, from leaving England to our anchoring at 
Otaheite, was twenty-feven thoufand and eighty-fix miles, 
which, on an average, is at the rate of an hundred and 
eight miles each twenty-four hours. 






Account of an Englijh Jhip lately failed from Otaheite. — 
Death of Omai. — Captain Cook's piBure fent on board. — 
Of 00 vifits the flnp. — His vifit returned, — Natives well 
difpofed towards us. — Accoimt of the cattle left by Cap- 
tain Cook. — Bread-fruit plants projnifed. — Viftt to the 
Earee Rahie. — Frefejits made to the Arreoys. 

THE Ihip being anchored, onr number of vifitors con- 178s. 
tinued to increafe ; but as yet we faw no perfon that ^"^^" "^^ 
we covild recollect to have been of much confequence. Sunday 26^ 
Some inferior chiefs made me prefents of a few hogs, and 
I made them prefents in return. We were fupplied with 
cocoa-nuts in great abundance, but bread-fruit was 

Many enquiries' were made after Captain Cook, Sir 
Jofeph Banks, and many of their former friends. They 
faid a fliip had been here, ffom which they had learnt that 
Captain Cook was dead ; but the circumftances of his 
death they did not appear to be acquainted with ; and I 
had given particular diredlions to my officers and fliip'a 
company, that they lliould not be mentioned. The fhip 
fpoken of, they informed me, ftaid at Otaheite one month, 
and had been gone four months, by fome of their ac- 
counts ; according to others, only three months. The cap- 
tain they called Tonah. 1 imderftood likewife from them, 


6a» A V O Y A G E T O 

1788. that Lieutenant Watts was in the lliip ; who, having been 
October^ -j^q^q j^-j ^^iQ Refolution With Captain Cook, was well known 
to them. — One of my firft enquiries, as will naturally be 
imagined, was after our friend Omai ; and it was a fenfible 
mortification and difapiDointment to me to hear that not 
only Omai, but both the New Zealand boys who had been 
left with him, were dead. Every one agreed in their in- 
formation that they died a natural death. Otoo, who was- 
the chief of Matavai when Captain Cook was here the laft 
time, was abfent at another part of the ifland ; they told 
me meffengers were fent to inform him of our arrival, and 
that he was expecEted to return foon. There appeared 
among the natives in general great good-will towards us, 
and they feemed to be much rejoiced at our arrival. This 
whole day we experienced no inftance of difhonefty. W^ 
were fo much crouded, that I could not undertake to re- 
move to a more proper ftation, -without danger of dif- 
obliging our vifitors, by defiring them to leave the ihip : 
this bufinefs was, therefore, deferred till the next morn- 
Monday 27. Early in the morning, before the natives began to flock 
off to vis, we weighed anchor, to work farther into the bay, 
and moored at about a quarter of a mile diftance from the 
Ihore ; Point Venus bearing N i6° E ; the weft part of One- 
tree-hill S W by S ; and the point of the reef N 37° W ; the 
Ihip lying in feven fathoms water. 

Several chiefs now came on board, and exprelTed great 
pleafure at feeing me. Among thefe were Otow, the fa-, 
thcr of Otoo, and Oreepyah, his brother ; alfo another 
chief of Matavai, called Poeeno : and to thefe men 1 made 
prefents. Two meffengers likewife arrived from Otoo, to 
acquaint me of his being on his way to the fliip ; each of 



whom brought me, as a prefent from Otoo, a fmall pig, 
and a young plantain-tree, as a token of friendfliip. The 
fhip was now plentifully fupplied with provifions ; every 
perfon having as much as he could confume. 

As foon as the fhip was fecured, I went on fhore with 
the chief Poeeno, and accompanied by a multitude of the 
natives. He condud^ed me to the place where we had fixed 
our tents in 1777, and defired that I woiild now appropriate 
the fpot to the fame ufe. We then went acrofs the beach, 
and through a walk delightfully fhaded with bread-fruit 
trees, to his own houfe. Here we found two women at work 
ftaining a piece of cloth red. Thefe I found were his wife 
and her fitter. They defired me to fit down on a mat, which 
was fpread for the purpofe, and with great kindnefs offered 
me refrelhments. I received the congratulations of feveral 
ftrangers, who came to us and behaved with great decorum 
and attention. The people, however, thronged about the 
houfe, in fuch numbers, that I was much incommoded by 
the heat, which being obferved, they immediately drew 
back. Among the croud I faw a man who had loft his 
arm juft above the elbow; the ftump was well covered, 
and the cure feemed as perfedl as could be expecfled from 
the greateft profeflional fkill. 

I made enquiries about the cattle that had been left here 
by Captain Cook, but the accounts I received were very 
unfavourable, and fo various, that, for the prefent, I fliall 
forbear fpeaking of them. After flaying about an hour, I 
got up to take leave, when the women, in a very obliging 
manner, came to me with a mat, and a piece of their fineft 
cloth, which they put on me after the Otaheite fafliion. 
When I was thus dreft, they each of them took one of my 



hands, and accompanied me to the water-fide, and at part- 
ing promifed that they would foon return my vifit. 

In this walk, I had the fatisfadtion to fee, that the ifland 
had received fome benefit from our former vifits. Two 
fhaddocks were brought to me, a fruit which they had 
not, till we introduced it. And among the articles which 
they brought off to the fliip, and offered for fale, were 
capficoms, pumkins, and two young goats. 

On my return to the fliip, I found that a fmall difturbance 
had been occafioned by one of the natives making an at- 
tempt to fieal a tin pot; which, on being known to Oreepyah, 
he flew into a violent rage, and it was with fome difficulty 
that the thief efcaped with his life. He drove all his country- 
men out of the fliip ; and when he faw me, he defired, if 
at any time I found a thief, that I would order him to be 
tied up and puniflied with a fevere flogging. 

This forenoon, a man came on board with Captain Cook's 
pidure, which had been drawn by Mr. Webber, in 1777, 
and left with Otoo. It was brought to me to be repaired. 
The frame was broken, but the pi6lure no way damaged, 
except a little in the back ground. They called it I'oote 
(which has always been their manner of pronouncing 
Captain Cook's name) Earee no Otaheite, chief of Ota- 
heite. They faid Toote had defired Otoo, whenever any 
Englifli fliip came, to fliow the picture, and it would be 
acknowlec^ed as a token of friendfhip. The youngeft 
brother of Otoo, named Whydooah, vifited me this after- 
noon : he appeared fl:upified with drinking Ava. At fun?^ 
fet all our male vifitors left the fhip. 
Tsefday 28. The ncxt morning early, I received a mefl^age from Otoo, 
to inform me of his arrival, and requefi:ing that I would fend 
a boat for him ; which I immediately did, with an oflicer 



(Mr. Chriflian) to condud: him on board. He came with 
numerous attendants, and exprefled much latisfadlion at 
our meeting. After introducing his wife to me, we join- 
ed nofes, the cullomary manner of fahiting, and, to per- 
petuate our friendfliip, he delired we fhould exchange 
names. I was furprized to find, that, inftead of Otoo, the 
name by which he formerly went, he was now called 
Tinah. The name of Otoo, with the title oi Earee Rabie, 
I was informed had devolved to his eldeft fon, who was 
yet a minor, as is the cuftom of the country. The 
name of Tinah's wife was Iddeah : with her was a woman, 
dreffed with a large quantity of cloth, in the form of a 
hoop, which was taken off and prefented to me, with a 
large hog, and fome bread-fruit. I then took my vifitors 
into the cabin, and after a fliort time produced my pre- 
fents in return. The prefent I made to Tinah (by which 
name I fliall hereafter call him) confided of hatchets, 
finall adzes, files, gimblets, faws, looking-glafies, red fea- 
thers, and two fiiirts. To Iddeah I gave ear-rings, neck- 
laces, and beads; but fhe expreflTed a defire alfo for iron, 
and therefore I made the fame aflbrtment for her as I had 
for her hufband. Much converfation took place among 
them on the value of the different articles, and they ap- 
peared extremely fatisfied ; fo that they determined to fpend 
the day with me, and requefted I would fliew them all over 
the fliip, and particularly the cabin where I flept. This, 
though I was not fond of doing, 1 indulged them in ; and 
the confequence was, as I had apprehended, that they 
took a fancy to fo many things, that they got from me 
nearly as much more as I had before given them. After- 
wards, Tinah defired me to fire fome of the great guns : this 
I Ukewife complied with, and, as the ihot fell into the fea 

K . at 


i78». at a great diftance, all the natives expreffed their furprize 

^CTOBER.^ ^^ loud lliouts and acclamations. 

I had a large company at dinner; for, befides Tinah 
and his wife, there was Otow, the father of Tinah, 
Oreepyah, and Whydooah, two of his brothers, Poeeno, 
and feveral other chiefs. Tinah is a very large man, 
much above the common ftature, being not lefs than fix 
feet four inches in height, and proportionably flout : his 
age about thirty-five. His wife (Iddeah) I judged to be 
about twenty-four years of age : fhe is likewife much 
above the common fize of the women at Otaheite, and has 
a very animated and intelligent countenance. Whydooah, 
the younger brother of Tinah, was highly fpoken of as a 
warrior, but had the chara<Ster of being the greateft 
drunkard in the country ; and indeed, to judge from the 
withered appearance of his Ikin, hs mufl: have ufed the 
pernicious drink called Ava, to great excefs. Tinah was 
fed by one of his attendants, who fat by him for that 
purpofe, this being a particular cuftom among fome of 

^ the fuperior chiefs ; and I muft do him the juftice to 

fay, he kept his attendant conftantiy employed : there 
was indeed little reafon to complain of want of appetite 
in any of my^uefts. As the women are not allowed to 
•eat in prefence of the men, Iddeah dined with fome of 
her companions, about an hour afterwards, in private, 
except that her hufband Tinah favoured them with his 
company, and feemed -to have entirely forgotten that he 
had already dined. 

Provifions were brought off to the fliip in the greateft 
plenty ; and, to prevent as much as poflible any thing which 
inight occafion difputes, I defired Mr. Peckover, the gun- 
ner, to undertake the management of our traffic with the 
8 natives. 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 67 

natives. Some of the hogs brought to-day weighed 20olb. 
and we purchafed feveral for faking. Goats were Hkewife 
brought off for fale, and 1 bought a fhe-goat and kid for 
lefs than would have piirchafed a fmall hog. — Our friends 
here exprefled much difappointment, that there was no por- 
trait-painter on board; Tinah in particular, who wiQied to 
have had pictures of his father and family. 

An intimacy between the natives, and our people, was 
already fo general, that there was fcarce a man in the Ihip 
who had not his tyo or friend. Tinah continued with me 
the whole afternoon, in the courfe of which he eat four 
times of roaft pork, befides his dinner. When he left the 
fhip, he requefted I would keep for him all the prefents I 
had given to him, as he had not, at Matavai, a place 
fufficiently fafe to fecure them from being ftolen ; I there- 
fore lliewed him a locker in my cabin for his ufe, and gave 
him a key to it. This is perhaps not fo much a proof of 
his want of power, as of the eftimation in which they hold 
European commodities, and which makes more than the 
common means of fecurity requilite to prevent theft. 

I had fent Nelfon and his afliftant to look for plants, 
and it was no fmall pleafure to me to find, by their report, 
that, according to appearances, the object of my miffioii 
would probably be accomplillied with eafe. I had given 
direcflions to every one on board not to make known to 
the illanders the purpofe of our coming, left it might 
enhance the value of the bread-fruit plants, or occafion 
other difficulties. Perhaps fo much caution was not ne- 
ceflhry, but at all events I wifhed to referve to myfelf the 
time and manner of communication. Nelfon met with 
two fine fhaddock-trees, which he had planted in 1777 > 
they were full of fruit, but not ripe. 

K 2 In 


6»' A V O Y A G E T O 



In the morning I returned Tinah's vifit, for I found 
he expected it. He was in a fmall flied about a quarter 
Wednefday of a mile to the eaftward of Matavai point, Avith his wife 
and three children, not their own, but who they faid 
were relations. In my walk I had picked up a numerous 
attendance, for every one I met followed me; fo that I 
had collected fuch a croud, that the heat was fcarce 
bearable, every one endeavouring to get a look to fatisfy 
their curiolity : they however care ully avoided preffing 
againft me, and welcomed me with chearful countenances, 
and great good-nature. 

I made Tinah underftand, that my vifit was particularly 
to him, and gave him a fecond prefent, equal to the firft, 
which he received with great pleafure ; and to the people 
of confequence, that were about him, I alfo prefented 
fome article or other. There were great numbers of 
children ; and, as I took notice of the little ones that 
were in arms and gave them beads ; both fmaU and great, 
but with much drollery and good-humour, endeavoured 
to benefit by the occafion. Boys of ten and twelve years 
old were caught up in arms and brought to me, which 
created much laughter ; fo that in a fliort time I got 
rid of all I had brought on fhore. 

In my return I called on Poeeno, and an elderly chief, a 
relation of his, called Moannah, the principal men of this 
cUftridl, and with whom I judged it my intereft to be on 
good terms. I gave them feveral valuable articles; and, as 
the fituation here was eligible for a garden, I planted me- 
lon, cucumber, and fallad-feeds. I told them many other 
things Ihould be fown for their ufe ; and they appeared 
mu^h pleafed when they underftood I intended to plant 
fuch things as would grow to be trees and produce fruit. I 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 69 

faw large patches of tobacco growing without culture, and 
many pumpkin vines. — The bread-fruit trees and cocoa-nut 
trees at this time were full of fruit. 

I went on board to dinner, and Moannah accompanied 
me. In the afternoon I returned to Poeeno's, with fome 
additional feeds to improve the little garden I had began to" 
make in the forenoon. While I was giving dire6lions, I 
received a meffage from Tinah, inviting me to come 
to him at his brother Oreepyah's houfe, which was near 
the beach. At this place I found a great number of peo- 
ple colledled, who, on my appearance, immediately made 
way for me to fit down by Tinah. The croud being or- 
dered to draw back, a piece of cloth, about two yards wide 
and forty-one yards in length, was fpread on the ground ; 
and another piece of cloth was brought by Oreepyah, 
which he put over my fliouldersj and rountl my waift, in the 
manner the chiefs are clothed. Two large hogs, weighing 
each above two hundred pounds, and a quantity of baked 
bread-fruit and cocoa-nuts, were then laid before me, as a 
prefent, and I was dellred to walk from one end of the 
cloth fpread on the groiind to the other, in the courfe of 
which, Tyo and Ehoah * were repeated with loud acclama- 
tions. This ceremony being ended, Tinah defired I would 
fend the things on board, which completely loaded the boat ; 
we, therefore, waited till fhe came back, and then I took 
them on board with me ; for I knew they expedted fome re- 
turn. — The prefent which I made on this occafion, was equal 
to any that I had made before; but I difcovered that Tinah 
was not the fole proprietor of what he had given to me, for 
the prefent I gave was divided among thofe who, I guelTed, . 

♦ Tyo and Ehoah arc words pf the fame figni£caUon; i. i, friend. 




i78i!. had contributed to fupport his dignity ; among whom were 
Oe^oB^R.^ Moannah, Poeenah, andOreepyah; Tin ah, 'however, kept 
the greateft part of what I had given, and every one feemed 
fatisfied with the proportion he allotted them. 

The Otaheite breed of hogs feems to be fupplanted by 
the European. Originally they were of the China fort, 
fliort, and very thick-necked ; but the, fuperior fize of the 
European have made them encourage our breed. 
I'hurfday 30. At break of day, Tinah and his wife came again to the 
fliip, and, as their attendants were numerous, I provided a 
breakfaft for them of broiled and roafted pork, which they 
preferred to tea. Our arrival being knowai all over the 
illand, we had this day a great number of ftrangers on 
board, who came from the moft remote parts, and in the 
forenoon fome hooks and thimbles w^ere cut but from the 
blocks. This induced me to order all the natives out of the 
fhip, except the chiefs and their attendants. In executing 
thefe orders, a daring fellow attacked the centinel, but 
eicaped among the croud. Every one knew^ the confequence 
of offending the centinel, and were exceedingly alarmed at 
the appearance of anger I thought necelTary to alTume. = 

Among thofe who vifited us to-day, were two chiefs of 
great confequence, Marremarre and his fon Poohaitaiah 
Otee, Earees of the diftridls of Itteeah and Attahooroo. 
Otee was fed at dinner in the fame manner as Tinah. It 
was evident that the attention which I fliewed to thefe 
chiefs feemed to give uneafinefs to Tinah. At fun-fet^my 
vifitors took leave, and w^ere carried on fliore by one of the 
fhip's boats, which has always been regarded as a mark of 
diftindtion, and, on that account, preferred by them to 
going in their own canoes. At their requeft, a race was 
rowed between our five-oared cutter and one of their 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 71 


double canoes with four paddles. Great exertions were 
ufed on both fides, but the cutter firft reached the fhore. 
In their return to the fliip, Oreepyah flopped them, till 
a large piece of cloth, that he had fent for, was brought; 
■which he tied to the boat-hook, and defired fliould be 
carried off as a trophy of their vidtory. 

The next morning, at fun- rife, Moannah came on board Fri<iay 31. 
with a meffage from Tinah, to acquaint me that he was 
mattow (afraid to fee me) till he had recovered fome 
things that had been ftolen from the fliip, and which he 
had fent after. I knew there was fomething wrong, as 
no canoes came off to us, and, on looking about, we found 
the buoy of the befl: bower anchor had been taken away^ 
I imagine, for the fake of fome iron hoops that were on 
it. That this might not create any coolnels, 1 fent a boat 
to Tinah, to invite him and his friends to come on board ; 
which they immediately did, and were no longer under 
any apprehenfions. I had made an appointment with 
Oreepyah, for him to go with me to Oparre this morning ; 
but the accident juft mentioned caufed him to break his 
engagement, he having gone, I was informed, in fearch of 
what had been flolen. 

Oparre is the diftri(Sl: next to the wefhvard of Matavai* 
One of my reafons for going to Oparre, was to fee if Nel- 
(bn would be able to procure plants there ; but I gave the 
credit of my vifit to young Otoo, the fon of Tinah, who- 
was the Earee Rahie, and lived with the reft of Tinah's- 
children at Oparre» 1 prepared a magnificent prefent for 
this youth, who was reprefented to me as the perfbnof the 
greateft confequence, or rather of the higheft rank, in 
the iiland. At noon I left the fliip, accompanied by 
Tinah, his wife Iddeah, and Poeeno. Moannah was to 




have been of the party, but he inlifted on remaining in the 
Ihip, to prevent his countrymen from attempting to Ileal 
any thing. 

After half an hour's failing, we arrived at Oparre. Dur- 
ing this time,Tinah gave me a more circumftantial account 
of the cattle and flieep, that had been left with him : he 
-related, that after five years from the time of Captain Cook's 
departure (counting 63 moons) the people of the Ifland 
Eimeo joined with thofe of Attahooroo, a diftri6t of Ota- 
heite, and made a defcent on Oparre : that after fome re- 
iiftance, by which many men were killed, Tinah and his 
people fled to the mountains, leaving all their property to 
the mercy of the vi6lorious party, who deftroyed almoft 
every thing which they found not convenient to take away 
with them. Some of the cattle were killed and eaten, but 
the greater part were taken to Eimeo. The cows, he faid, 
had prodiTced eight calves, and the ewes ten young ones. 
The ducks, among which they clafled the geefe, had greatly 
increafed ; but the turkeys and peacocks, whatever was the 
caufe, had not bred. It feemed to give Tinah great plea- 
fure to obferve how much I was concerned for the 
deftru6lion of fo many ufeful animals ; but the caufe of 
his fatisfa6tion, I found, djxi not proceed from any expec- 
tation that I fliould replace them, but from the belief 
that I would take vengeance on the people who had de- 
prived him of them ; for with refpecSt to the lofs of the 
•cattle, he appeared fo unconcerned and indifferent, that 
I was very angry with him. There is, however, fuflicient 
-excufe for his refentment againft the people of Eimeo ; 
for the large extenfive houfes, which we had feen in this 
part of Otahcite, in the year 1777, were all deftroyed, and 
■jaX. prefent they had no -other habitations than light flieds, 
5 which 

T H E S O U T II S E A S, &c. 73 

which might be taken by the four corners, and removed 1788. 

by four men ; and of the many large canoes which they u— v'.J 

then had, not more than three remained. Tinah, under- 

ftanding from my converfation, that I intended vifiting 

fome of the other iflands in this neighbourhood, very 

earneftly defu'cd I would not think of leaving Matavai. 

" Here," faid he, " you fliall be fupplied plentifully with 

" every thing you want. All here are your friends, and 

<' friends of King George : if you go to the other iflands, 

*' ypu will have every thing ftolen from you." I replied, 

that, on account of their good-will, and from a defire to 

ferve him and his country, King George had fent out 

thpfe valuable prefents to him ; " and will not you, Tinah, 

** fend fpmething to King George in return ?" — " Yes," he 

faid, " I will fend him any thing I have ;" and then began to 

enumerate the different articles in his power, among which 

he mentioned the bread-fruit. This was the exa6l point 

to which I wiflied to bring the converfation ; and, feizing 

an opportunity, which had every appearance of being un- 

defigned and accidental, I told him the bread-fruit-trees 

were what King George would like ; upon which he pro- 

mifed me a great many fliould be put on board, and feem- 

ed much delighted to find it fo eafily in his power to fend 

any thing that would be well received by King George. 

On landing at Oparre, an immenfe croud of natives, as 
nfual, immediately thronged about us. I enquired for 
Oreepyali, whom 1 expected to have met me here, but he 
was not yet returned from his fearch after the thieves ; 
we therefore went under a flied of his to wait for him, 
and in about a quarter of an hour he joined us, bring- 
ing with him an iron fcraper, and one of the hoops of 
the buoy. I thanked him for the trouble which he had 

L taken, 



taken, and affured him that I was perfe(5tly fatisfied; far 
he ftill feemed apprehenfive of my difpleafure. 

We took leave for a fhort time of Oreepyah, and I pro- 
ceeded with Tinah to make my vifit to the young Otoo, 
the EareeRahie. When we had walked about five minutes, 
Tinah flopped, and informed me that no perfon could 
be permitted to fee his fon, who was covered above the 
fhoulders. He then took off his upper garments, and 
requeued I would do the fame. I replied, that I had no 
objection to go as I would to my own king, who was the 
greatefl in all the world ; and, pulling off my hat, he 
threw a piece of cloth round my llioulders, and we 
went on. About a quarter of a mile farther towards the 
hills, through a dehghtful lliade of bread-fruit trees, we 
flopped at the fide of a fmall ferpentine river : here I was 
in view of a houfe on the other fide, at about fifty yards 
diflance. From this houfe the young king was brought 
out on a man's fhoulders, clothed in a piece of fine white 
cloth, and I was defired by Tinah to falute him by the name 
of 'Too Earee Rahie. The prefent which 1 had prepared 
"was divided into three parts, and two other children made 
their appearance in the fame manner. The firlt prefent 
I gave to a melTenger who attended for that purpofe ; and 
I was inllrudled by Tinah to fay, that it was for the Earee 
Rabie ; that I was his friend ; that I hated thieves ; and that 
I came from Britannia. The fecond prefent was fent in 
the fame manner, with a fimilar meffage, to one of the 
other children; and likewife the third. 

As I could not fee the Earee Rahie dtflindly, I defired 
to be permitted to go over the river to him ; but this, it 
feems, could not be complied with : therefore, after fee- 
ing the prefents delivered, 1 returned with Tinah towards 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 75 

Oreepyah's houfe. I was informed that Tinah had four 
children by his wife, Iddcah. Otoo, or Too, the Earce 
Rabie, appeared to be about lix years olJ : the fecond is a 
girl, named Terrcnah Oroah : the third, a boy, Terrectap- 
panooai ; and a fourth, an infant girl, whom I did not lee, 
named Tahamydooah. 

When we came to the place where wc had firft flopped, 
Tinah took the cloth from my flioulders, and dellred me 
to put my hat on ; I exprefled a defire to fee more of the 
place, and he took me back by a different way. On pafling 
a trunk of a tree, rudely carved, I was dellred again to puil 
my hat off, and all uncovered their Ihoulders. This I 
difcovered to be nothing more than the boundary of the 
king's land ; on which, whoever fet their feet, uncovered 
themfelves out of refpedt. 

We flopped at a houfe belonging to Tinah, where I was 
treated with a concert of one drum and three flutes, with 
flnging by four men. I made fome prefents to the per- 
formers, and we removed to Oreepyah's houfe, where, 
after paying my compliments to him, which I found was 
expetfled, Tinah made me a prcfent of a large hog, and 
fome cocoa-nuts. He then introduced an uncle of his, 
called MowAVoroah, a very old man, much tattowcd, and 
almoil bUnd. To this chief I made a prefent; and foon 
after I embarked, with Tinah, Oreepyah, their wives, and 
Poeeno. A vaft number of people were collected on the 
beach to fee us depart; and as foon as the boat had put off, 
Tinah defired me to fire my pocket piftol, the poopooe 
cte ete, as he called it : the report feemed to ele(5lrify the 
whole croud ; but finding rjo harm done, they gave great 
ihouts of approbation. 

Nelfon, who accompanied me in this expedition, had 

J> 2 but 




but little opportunity to fearch after plants, the natives 
having crouded fo much about him : he faw enough, how- 
ever, to aiTure him tl:iat they were to be procured here as 
plentifully as at Matavai. 

In our paffage to the fliip, which we rowed in one hour, 
nothing but Britannie was enquired after, and of the 
number of fliips and guns. When I told them we had 
fliips of loo guns, they could not believe it, till I drew 
one on paper : they then afked me if it was not as big as 
Tarrah, which is a high projecting head-land, half way 
between Matavai and Oparre, called by us One-tree Hill. 
Tinah much wiflied that one of thefe large fliips fhould 
be fent to Otaheite, and that myfelf fliould come in her, 
and bring him a number of things that he wanted ; 
among 'which he particularly delired beds and high- 
backed elbow chairs might not be forgotten : a requeft 
perfc6lly according with the indolent chara6ler of Tinah. 
November. As we had occafion to fix a tent on Point Venus, this 
Saturday i. j^gming wc movcd the fliip nearer to it, and moored again 
in fix fathoms, the point bearing N N E. 

Tinah and feveral other chiefs dined on board with me. 
After dinner I went on fliore with Tinah, and made a vifit 
to his father, Otow. I likewife went to the garden which 
I had made near Poeeno's houfe, and found every thing- 
had been taken care of. After this, I was invited to an 
entertainment called Heha, which Tinah had ordered, and 
which confifted of finging and dancing by three men and 
a young girl. When this performance was finifned 1 re- 
turned to the fliip. 
Sumhy 2. At day-light,. I fent Mr. Chriftian with a party to eretft 
our tent, and foon after followed myfelf with Tinah, 
Moannah, and Poeeno, With their .confent I fixed a 
4 boundary, 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 77 

boundary, within which the natives were not to enter '788- 
without leave, and the chiefs cautioned them againft it. t_^!."_°^^.' 

The principal ule of the tents on fhore was for a lodg- 
ment for the plants ; and I had now, inftead of appearing 
to receive a favour, brought the chiefs to believe that I was 
doing them a kindnefs in carrying the plants, as a prefent 
from them to the Earee Rabie no Britanee. The party at 
the tent coniilled of nine perfons, including Nelfon and his 

Tinah dined with me on board, and was to-day my 
onlv vifitor : neverthelefs, the ceremonv of being fed he 
fo fcrupuloully obfervcd, that, even after all the attendants 
Avere fent away, and we were left by ourfelves, I was 
obliged to lift the wine to his mouth. The wives of 
xh.t Earecs are fometimes fubjedt to this reftri6tion after 
the birth of a child, but are releafed after a certain time; 
on performing a ceremony called Oammo. 

After dinner, Tinah invited me to accompany him with 
a prefent of provilions to a party of the Arreoys, a ibciety 
defcribed in the accounts of the former voyages : in this 
ceremony, he made me the principal perfon. Our way to 
the place where the offering was to be made, was by the 
fide of a river, along the banks of which I had always 
walked before this time : but on the prefent occafion a 
canoe was provided for me, and dragged by eight men. 
On arriving at the landing-place, I faw a large quantity of 
bread-fruit, with Tome hogs ready drefled, and a quantity 
of cloth. At about forty yards diftant fat a man, who, I 
was informed, was a principal Arreoy. A lane being made 
by the croud, he was addreffed by one of Tinah's people, 
ftanding on the canoe, in a Ipeech compofed of fliort fen- 
tences, which lafted about a quarter of an hour. During 



this, a piece of cloth was produced, one end of which I was 
defired to hold, and five men, one with a fucking pig, 
antl the others having each a bafket of bread-fruit, pre- 
pared to follow me. In this order we advanced to the 
Arreoy, and laid the whole down before him. I then 
Ipoke feveral fentences dictated to me by Tin ah, the 
meaning of which I did not underftand ; and, my pronun- 
ciation not being very exa£t, caufed a great deal of mirth. 
This fpeech being finillied, I was fliewn another Arreoy, 
who had come from Ulietea, and to him likewife I was re- 
quired to deliver an oration. Tinah tinderftanding from 
me, that I had children in my own country, he defired 
me to make one more offering on their account. There 
flill remained three bafkets of bread-fruit, a fmall pig, and 
another piece of cloth : with thefe, affifled as before, I 
made the offering in favour of my children to the man 
whom I had firft addreffed. He made no reply to all my 
fine fpeeches, but fat with great gravity, and received 
every thing as a matter of right, and not of courtefy. 

All that I could make out of this ftrange ceremony was, 
that the ^rr^oyj" are highly refpe(fted, and that the fociety 
is chiefly compofed of men diflinguiflied by their valour or 
fome other merit, and that great truft and confidence is 
repofed in them; but I could not comprehend what this 
had to do with my children, -or why it fliould be imagined 
that an offering made on theiii account to a fociety of 
men, who deflroy all their children, fliould be propitious. 
I learnt from Tinah, in talking about his children, that 
his firft-born child was killed as foon as it came into the 
world, he being then an Arreoy \ but before his fecond 
child was bor», he quitted the fociety. The Arreoys are 
allowed great latitude in their amours, except in times of 
8 danger. 


danger. Then, as they are almoft all fighting men (tafa 1788. 
toa) they are reftridted, that they may not weaken or ener- ^ °''^""^' 
vate themfelves. 

Thefe ceremonies heing ended, I returned to the fliip. 

Such of the natives, as I converfed with about the in- 
ftitution of fo extraordinary a fociety as the Arreoy, af- 
ferted that it was neceflary, to prevent an over population. 
Worrozv worroiv no te mydidde, "worrozv "joorrozv te tata. 
We have too many children, and too many men, was 
their conftant excufe. Yet it does not appear, that they 
are apprehenfive of too great an increafe of the lower 
clafs of people, none of them being ever admitted into the 
Arreoy fociety. The moft remarkable inftance, related to 
me, of the barbarity of this inftitution, was of Teppahoo, 
the Earee of the diftrift of Tettaha, and his wife, Tettee- 
howdeeah, who is fifter to Otow, and conlidered a& a per- 
fon of the firft confequence. I was told that they have 
had eight children, every one of which was deftroyed as 
foon as born. That any human beings were ever fo devoid 
of natural afFe<5tion, as not to wifli to preferve alive one of 
fo many children, is not credible. It is more reaibnable 
to conclude, that the death of thefe infants was not an adt 
of choice in the parents ; but that they were facrificed in 
compliance with fome barbarous fuperftition, with which 
we are unacquainted* What ftrengthens this conjecture 
is, that they have adopted a nephew as their heir, of whom 
they are excelTively fond. 

In countries fo limited as the iflands in the South Seas, the 
natives of which, l>efore they were difcovcred by European 
navigators, probably had not an idea of the exiftence of 
other lands, it is not unnatural that an increaling popula- 
tion Ihould occafion apprehenfioiis of univerfal diftrefs. 




178S. Orders of celibacy, which have proved fo prejudicial in 
1°^!*- R. Qj-j^gj, countries, might perhaps in this have been beneficial; 
fo far at leaft as to have anfwered their purpofe by means 
not criminal. The number of inhabitants at Otaheite have 
been eftimated at above one hundred thoufand. The ifland, 
however, is not cultivated to the greateft advantage : yet, 
\vere they continually to improve in hufbandry, their im- 
provement could not, for a length of time, keep pace with 
an unlimited population. 

An idea here prefents itfelf, which, however fanciful it 

may appear at firfl: fight, feems to merit fome attention: — . 

While we fee among thefe iflands fo great a waite of the 

human fpecies, that numbers are born only to die ; and, at 

, the fame time, a large continent fo near to them as, New 

f Holland, in which there is fo great a wafte of land uncul- 

f « tivated, and almoft deftitute of inhabitants ; it naturally oc- 

' curs, how greatly the two countries might be made to be- 

nefit each other; and gives occafion to regret that the 
iflanders are not inftru6led in the means of emigrating to 
New Holland, which feems as if defigned by nature to 
ferve as an afylum for the fuperflux of inhabitants in the 
iflands. Such a plan of emigration, if rendered practica- 
ble to them, might not only be the means of abolifliing 
the horrid cuflom of deflroying children, as it would re- 
move the plea of neceflity, but might lead to other im- 
portant purpofes. A great continent would be converted 
from a defert to a populous country j a number of our fel- 
low - creatures would be faved ; the inhabitants of the 
iflands would become more civilized ; and it is not impro- 
bable, but that our colonies in New Holland' would derive 
£0 much benefit as to more than repay any trouble or ex- 


pence, that might be incurred in endeavouring to promote 
lb humane a plan. 

The hitter, however, is a remote confideration, for the 
intertropical parts of New Holland, are thofe moft fuited to 
the habits and manner of living of the illanders; and like- 
wife the foil and climate are the beil adapted to their modes 
of agriculture. Man j'tlaced by his Creator in the warm 
climates, perhaps, wouhl never emigrate into the colder, 
iinlefs under the tyrannous influence of neceflity ; and ages 
might elapfe before the new inhabitants would fpread to 
our fettlers, though they are but barely within the limits 
of froft, that great caufe of nine tenths of the neceflities 
of Europeans. Neverthclefs, befides forwarding the pur- 
pofes of humanity and general convenience, in bringing a 
people without land to a land without people, the benefit 
of a mutual intercourfe with a neighbouring and friendly 
colony, would in itfelf be no inconliderable advantage. 

Among people fo free from oftentation as the Ota- 
heiteans, and whofe manners are fo fimplc and natural, 
the ftridlnefs with which the pundlilios of rank are ob- 
ferved, is furprifing. I know not if any a<5lion, however 
meritorious, can elevate a man above the clafs m which he 
was born, unlefs he were to acquire fufficient power to 
confer dignity on himfelf. If any woman of the inferior 
claiTes has a child by an Earee, it is not fufFered to live. 
Perhaps the offspring of Teppahoo and Tetteehowdeeah 
were deftined to fatisfy forae cruel adjuftment of rank and 




j^ Theft committed. — Deception of the painted Head. — Con- 
verfation with a Priefl. — A Wrejiling Match. — Reports of 
the Natives concerning other Iflands. — Sojjie Account of 

1788. ' I ^HE trade for provifions I dire(5ted to be carried on at 

^''^_"°'^', A the tent by Mr. Peckover, the gunner. Moannah 

Monday 3. Hkcwife refided there, as a guard over his countrymen; but 

though it appeared to be the willi of all the chiefs, that we- 

fliould remain unmolefted, it was not poflible entirely to 

prevent them from pilfering. 

My table at dinner was generally crouded. Tinah, Oree- 
pyah, Poeeno, and Moannah, were my regular guefts, and 
I was feldom without fome chiefs from other dillri 6ts. 
Almoft every individual of any confequence has feveral 
names, which makes it frequently perplexing, when the 
fame perfon is fpoken of, to know who is meant. Every 
chief has perhaps a dozen or more names in the courfe of 
thirty years ; fo that the perfon who has been fpoken of by 
one vifitor, will not perhaps be known to another, unlefs 
other circumftances lead to a difcovery. The father of 
Tinah, at this time called Otow, was known in 1769 by 
the name of Whappai. 

I fhowed Tinah the preparations I was making to take 
on board the bread-fruit plants, which pleafed him exceed- 
ingly, but iie tUd not forget to remind me, that when the 
3 next 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 83 

next fliip came out he hoped King George would fend him ^ lyss- 
large axes, files, laws, cloth of all kinds, hats, chairs, and ,_ . _ V 
bedltcads, with arms, ammunition, and in Ihort every 
thing he coidd think, of mentioning. 

This afternoon, the gudgeon of the rudder belonging to 
the large cutter, was drawn out and Itolen, without being 
perceived by the man that was ftationed to take care of 
her. Several petty thefts having been committed by the 
natives, moftly owing to the negligence of our own people ; 
and as thefe kind of accidents generally created alarm, 
and had a tendency to interrupt the good terms on which 
we were with the chiefs, I thought it would have a good 
efFedt to punifli the boat-keeper in their prefence, many of 
them happening to be then on board ; and accordingly I 
ordered him a dozen laflies. Tinah, with feveral of 
the chiefs, attended the punifliment, and interceded very 
earneftly to get it mitigated : the women fhowed great 
fympathy, and that degree of feeling which charadterifes 
the amiable part of their fex. 

The natives brought off to-day two different kinds of 
roots that grow like yams : one they call Ettee, which is 
a Aveet root, common alfo to the Friendly Iflands, and 
may be eaten as a fweetmeat : the other they call Ap- 
pay, a root hke the Tyah or Eddie in the Weft Indies. A 
fruit called Ayyah, which is the jambo of Batavia, was 
likewife brought off to us : they are as large as middle-fized 
apples, very juicy and refrefliing, and may be eaten in 
large quantities. Alfo fome Avees, which are the real Ota- 
heite apple; but they were not yet in feafon. Thefe are 
a delicious high-flavoured fruit, and before they are ripe, 
anfwer the culinary purpofcs of our apples. 

A chief called Tootaha, who came from the ifland Ulie- Tuefday4. 

M 2 tea. 


tea, was introduced to me to-day, by Tinah, as one of his 
particular friends. I was told that he was a prieft, and a 
perfon of great knowledge. I delired Tinah to take w^hat 
he thought proper as a prefent for him ; and 1 muft do 
Tinah the juftice to fay, he was more fparing than I fliould 
have been. I hkewife received a vifit to-day from Oedii- 
dee, the man who had been at fea with Captain Cook in 
1773 and 1774, as related in the account of that voyage- 
He ftill retained fome of the Englifli words which he had 
learnt in that expedition. 
WednefJay The wcathcr variable, with lightning, and frequent fliow— 
^- ers of rain. Wind E N E. 

This was the firft day of our beginning to take up 
plants : we had much pleafure in collecting them, for the 
natives offered their affiflance, and perfectly imderftood 
the method of taking them up and pruning them. 

The croud of natives was not fo great as hitherto it had 
been : the curiofity of ftrangers was fatisfied ; and, as the 
weather began to be unfettled and rainy, they had almoft 
all returned to their homes ; fo that only the people of 
Matavai and Oparre remained with us, except a few chiefs 
, from other illands : our fupplies however were abundant; 
and what I confidered as no fmall addition to our comforts, 
we ceafed to be incommoded, when on fhore, by the na- 
^ lives following us, and could take our walks almoft un- 

noticed. In any houfe that we wiflied to enter, we always 
experienced a kind reception, and v/ithout officioufnefs. 
The Otaheiteans have the moft perfe£t eafinefs of man- 
ners, equally free from forwardnefs and formality.. When 
they offer refrefliments, if they are not accepted, they do 
not think of offering them the fecond time ; for they have 
not the leaft idea of that ceremonious kind of refufal 


THE SOUTH SEAS, ?cc. 85 

which expedls a fecontl invitation. In like manner, at ^ss. 
taking; leave, we were never troubled with Iblicitntions to ^^^°^'^^^- 
prolong our vifit, but went without ceremony, except 
making ule of a farewell exprefllon at parting. Another 
advantage, feklom found in warm countries, was, in this 
jjart of Otaheite being free from mulkitoes, though, at par- 
ticular time? of the year, the inhabitants arc peftered with 
great numbers of flies. 

Moannah continued our conftant friend at the tent, and, 
with Tinah and all his friends, dined with me every day. 

The fliip's barber had brought with him from London, a 
painted head, fuch as the hair-drelTers have in their fliops, 
to fliewthe different falliions of drefling-hair ; and it being 
made with regular features, and well coloured, I delired him 
to drefs it, which he did with much neatnefs, and with a 
flick, and a quantity of cloth, he formed a body. It was then 
reported to the natives that we had an Englifli woman 
on board, and the quarter-deck was cleared of the croud, 
that file might make her appearance. Being handed up 
the ladder, and carried to the after-part of the deck, there s 

was a general fliout of *' Himbeitie no Brittanne myty^^ 
Huaheine fignifies woman, and myty, good. Many of tliem 
thovight it was living, and afked if it was my wife. One 
old woman ran with prefents of cloth and bread-fruit, and 
laid them at her feet ; at laft they found out the cheat ; but 
continued all delighted with it, except the old lady, who 
felt herfelf mortified, and took back her prefents, for 
which (lie was laughed at exceedingly. Tinah and all the 
chiefs enjoyed the joke,' and, after making many enquiries 
about the Britifli women, they ftri^tly Enjoined me, when 
I came again, to bring a fhip full of them; 

Some very fine fugar-cane was brought to me ; each of 



the pieces was fix inches round. I had before told Tinah 
that our fugar was made of it, and he was very defirotis 
to difcover the means ; for they were fo fond of our loaf 
fugar, that a prefent to any chief would have been in- 
complete without a piece of it. Another article in great 
eftimation, and like wife expe6ted to make part of a pre- 
fent, was fciffars, which they made life of to keep their 
beards in order. 

By this time Nelfon had, with affiftance from the fliip, 
completed a large garden near the tents ; in whicli were 
fown feeds of different kinds, that we had collected at the 
Cape of Good Hope. I likewife diftributed fruit-ftones 
and almonds for planting, among the chiefs, who, I hope, 
will endeavour to make them fucceed : and, as they are 
very fond of fweet - fmelling flowers, with which the 
women delight to ornament themfelves, I gave them fome 
Thurfday6. We had Very variable weather, much rain, and fome 
wefterly winds ; fo that a confiderable fwell ran into the 
bay, and a number of fpotted white and black porpulTes 
made their appearance. 

I had the mortification to fee that our garden-ground 
had been much trod over ; and, what was worfe, the chiefs 
appeared but little concerned at it. To this kind of care- 
lefihefs and indifference I attribute the mifcarriage of many 
of the plants left here by Captain Cook. I had now in a 
flourifliing ftate, two orange plants, fome vines, a fig-tree, 
and two pine-apple plants, which I gave to Poeeno, whofe 
refidence is a place favourable for their growth. 

We got on fuccefsfully with our plants, having a hun- 
dred potted at the tent, and in a fair way of doing well. 


T H E S O U T n S E A S, Sec. 87 

The cabin alfo was completed, and ready to receive them on 17S8. 

board. November. 

I have before remarked, that my friend Tinah was ra- 
ther of a felfifli difpofition, and this afternoon he fliowed a 
ftronger inftance of it than I was witnefs to at any time be- 
fore or after. His brother Oreepyah fcnt on boartl to me, 
a prefent of a large hog, and a quantity of bread-fruit : 
but thefe kind of prelents are much more expenfive than 
purchafing at the market. Soon after Oreepyah himfelf 
came on board. Tinah was with me at the time, and 
whifpered me to tell Oreepyah not to bring any more 
hogs or fruit, and to take thofe back which he had fent. 
This advice, as may be fuppofed, did not produce the effedt 
intended. Oreepyah appears to be a man of great fpirir, 
and is highly refpedled by his countrymen. Among other 
vifitors to-day, was one of the men who had been to Lima, 
in 1776. 

Our plants had now encreafed to 252: as they were all Saturdays;, 
kept on fliore at the tent, I augmented the guard there, 
though, from the general condu6t of the natives, there did 
not appear the leaft occafion for fo much caution. 

While I was at dinner, Tinah defired I would permit a man 
to come down into the cabin, whom he called his Taoivab, 
or prieft; for I was obliged to keep a centinel at the hatch- 
way to prevent being incommoded at my hieals with too 
much company; a reftritlion which pleafed the chiefs, who 
always afked leave for any particular perfon to be admitted 
of whom they wiflied me to take notice. The company of 
the prieft brought on a religious converfation. He faid,, 
their great God was called Oro ; and that they had many 
others of lefs confequence^ He aikcd me if I had a God? — 
if he had a fon ? and who was his wife I I told tiiem he had' 

a. fon,. 


178S. a fon, but no wife. Who was his father and mother ? was 

. "^^'^J"^",' the next quefticn. I faid, he never had father or mother ,- 

at this they laughed exceedingly. You have a God then 

who never had a father or mother^ and has a child with- 

' out a wife I Many other queftions were afked, -which my 

little knowledge of the language did not enable me to an- 

The weather was now fine again, and a great number of 
people were come from other parts of the ifland. Tinali 
informed me that there was to be a helva and a wreftling- 
match on fliore, and that the performers waited for our at- 
tendance ; we therefore fet off, with feveral of our friends, 
and, about a quarter of a mile from the tents, we found a 
great concourfe of people formed into a ring. As foon as we 
were feated, a dancing heiva began, which was perform- 
ed by two girls and four men : this lafted half an hour, 
and coniifted of wanton geflures and motions, fuch as have 
been defcribed in the account of former voyages. When 
the dance ended, Tinah ordered a long piece of cloth to be 
brought ; his wife Iddeah, and myfelf, were defired to 
hold the two firft corners, and, the remaining part being 
fupported l)y many others, we carried it to the performers, 
and gave it them. Several other chiefs made a like pre- 
fent or payment. The performers were flrollers, that tra- 
velled about the country as in Europe. 

After this, the wreftling began, and the place foon be- 
came a fcene of riot and confufion. A party of the Ar- 
reoys alfo began to exercife a privilege, which it feems 
they are allowed, of taking from the women fuch of their 
clothes as they thought worth it; fo that fome of them 
were left little better than naked. One young woman, who 
was attacked, oppofed them with all her llirength, and held 



faft her cloth, though they almoft dragged her along the 1788. 
ground. Obferving that I took notice of her, flie held out j^^)!!^"' 
her hand, and begged my alTiftance; and at my requell flie 
efcaped being pillaged. 

Soon after, a ring was again made, but the wreftlers were 
fo numerous within it, that it was impoffible to reftore 
order. In the challenges, they lay one hand upon their 
breaft, and on the bending of the arm at the elbow, with 
the other hand, they ftrike a very fmart blow, which, as the 
hand is kept hollow, creates a found that may be heard at 
a confiderable diltance ; and this they do fo frequently, and 
with fuch force, that the flefli becomes exceedingly bruif- 
ed, and, the fkin breaking, bleeds confiderably. At this 
time, the found from fo many refembled that of a number 
of people in a wood felling trees. This is the general 
challenge ; but when any two combatants agree to a trial, 
they prefent their hands forward, joining them only by 
the extremities of the fingers. They begin by watching to 
take an advantage ; at length they clofe, feize each other 
by the hair, and are moft commonly parted before either 
receives a fall. Only one couple performed any thing like 
the part of good wreftlers ; and, as they were an equal 
match, this conflict lafted longer than any of the others ; 
blit they alio were parted. 

Itldeah was the general umpire, and fhe managed with 
fo much addrefs as to prevent any quarrelling, and there 
was no murmuring at her decillons. As her perfon waS' 
large, fhe was very confpicuous in the circle. Tinah took 
no part in the management. Upon the whole, this per- 
formance gave me a better opinion of their ftrength than 
of their fkill or dexterity. 

For fomc time paft, Tinah had talked of going to the Tuefday ui 

N illand , 



ifland of Tethuroa, which lies eight or ten leagues north 
from Otaheite, to fetch his mother; but I found I had only 
half underftood him ; for this morning he enquired when 
we were to fail there in the fhip : however he feemed to 
feel no great difappointment at my not complying with his 
Willi. Tethuroa, he informed me, is the property of his 
family. He likewife fpoke to me about an ifland called 
Koo-opow, the fitnation of which he defcribed to be to 
the eaftward -of Otaheite four or five days fail, and that 
there were large animals upon it with eight legs. The 
truth of this account he very ftrenuoufly infifted iipon, 
and wifhed me to go thither with him. I was at a lofs to 
know whether or not Tinah himfelf gave credit to this 
whimlical and fabulous account; for though they have 
credulity fufficient to believe any thing, however improba- 
ble, they are at the fame time fo much addidled to that 
fpecies of wit which we call humbug, that it is frequently 
difficult to difcover whether they are in jeft or earneft. 
Their ideas of geography are very fimple : they believe the 
world to be a fixed plane of great extent ; and that the fun, 
moon, and ftars, are all in motion round it. I have been 
frequently afked by them, if I have not been as far as the 
fun and moon ; for they think we are fuch great travellers, 
that fcarce any undertaking is beyond our ability^ 

Another ifland, called Tappuhoi, fituated likewife to the 
eaftward, was defcribed to me by Tinah, the ii^habitants 
of which were faid to be all warriors, and that the people 
of Otaheite did not dare to go there. He told me, that very 
lately a canoe from Tappuhoi was at the ifland Maitea ; 
that as foon as they landed they began to fight with the 
people of Maitea, who killed them all, except a young lad, 
and a woman, who have fince been at Otaheite. I faw the 
a boy, 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, 8cc. 91 

boy, but could get no information from him. It is moft 1788. 
probable, that this unfortunate vifit of the canoe from ■_ - ^ 
Tappuhoi was not defigned, but occalioned by adverfc 
winds, which forced them {o far from their own ifland ; 
and that the people of Maitea began the attack, taking ad- 
vantage of their fuperior numbers, on account of fome 
former quarrel. 

Thurfday 13th. I had a large company to dine with me Thurfday 
to-day. Some of my conftant vifitors had obferved, that '^* 
we always drank his Majefly's health, as fooii as the cloth 
was removed ; but they were by this time become fo fond 
of wine, that they would frequently remind me of the 
health in the middle of dinner, by calling out King George 
Earee no Brittannee ; and would banter me if the glafs was 
not filled to the brim. Nothing could exceed the mirth 
and jollity of thefe people, when they met on board. 

I was alTured by Oediddee, and feveral others, that the 
vines planted at the illand Huaheine by Captain Cook, had 
fucceeded and bore fruit ; and that fome of the other plants, 
both at Huaheine, and at Oaitepeha, a diftridl on the SE 
part of Otaheite, had been preferved, and were in a thriving 
ftate. I was like wife informed, that there was a bull and 
a cow ahve at Otaheite, but on different parts of the ifland ; 
the former at a place called Itteah, the latter at the diftricft of 
Tettaha. All the reft were taken away or deftroyed by the 
people of Eimeo. As Tettaha was at no great diftance, I 
iletermined to go thither myfelf, the firft opportunity, and 
make enquiries, in hopes that the breed might Hill be pre- 

I had much difcourfe with my guefts about Omai : they 
confirmed to me, that he died about thirty months after 
Captain Cook left the iflands. Soon after Captain Cook's 

N 2 departure 


1788. departure from Huaheine, there were fome difputes be- 
tween the people of that ifland and thofe of Ulietea, 
in which alfo the natives of Bolabola took a part. 
Omai, who was become of eonfequence from the pof- 
feffing three or four mnfkets, and fome ammunition, was 
confulted on the occaiion. Such was his opinion and 
affurances of fuccefs, that a war was determined on, and 
took place immediately. — Vi6lory" foon followed, through 
the means of thofe few arms, and many of the Ulietea and 
Bolabola men were killed. In this conteft their flints, 
proved bad, or probably the locks of the mufkets had got 
out of order : this they remedied by a lighted ftick, one 
man prefenting the mufket, and another with the burnt 
ftick fetting fire to the priming; without which contri- 
vance, their arms would have proved ufelefs. This ex- 
pedition, it feems, confumed all their ammunition. Peace 
was foon after eftabliflied, but I did not underftand that 
Omai had increafed his pofleffions or his rank. Neverthe- 
lefs, I have reafon to conclude, that he was in fome degree 
of favour with his countrymen, from the general good cha- 
racter which they give of him. It appears, that he always 
remembered England with kindnefs ; for his accounts to 
his countrymen have been fuch as to give them, not only 
a great idea of our power and eonfequence, but of our 
friendfhip and good-will towards him. 

Tyvarooah, the eldeft of the New Zealand boys that 
were left with him, died a fliort time after Omai : about 
Coah,. tlie youngeft, I had always doubtful accounts till I 
came to Huaheine,. where I learnt that he likewife was 




Expedition to Tettaba after a Heifer. — Extraordinary do- 
mejiic Arrangements. — Tinah's Mother vifits the Ship. — 
A Sheep brought from Ulietea. — Heavy Storm. — Death of 
the Surgeon. — I'aowju and Toahroab Harbours examined. 


FTER dinner, I went on fliore, and while I was at i788- 
the tents, from having expofed mylelf too much in ._°'^!"J'",' 
the fun, I was taken ill, and continued in much pain for 
near an hour. This was foon known among the natives,, 
and I was exceedingly furprifed to fee Tinah, and all the 
principal people, both men and women, colle(5ling round 
me, and offering then' alliftance. For this iliort illnefs, I 
was made ample amends, by the pleafure I received from 
the attention and appearance of affedlion in thefe kind 

Friday 14th. — This morning I had numberlefs enquiries Friday 14^ 
after my health. The weather being fine, I invited Tinah, 
Oreepyah, and Poeeno, to accompany me to Tettaha, in, 
order to enquire after the cowj and foon after fun-rife we 
fet off in the launch. Tettaha is nearly four leagues from 
Point Venus. On our arrival, Tinah fent a man to give 
notice of our vifit. The chief of the diftrict, whofe 
nanae was Teppahoo, did not appear, but fent a mxf- 
fenger to demand, if I came only to fee the cow, or to take 
it away with me. In anfwer to this, I fent alfurances,, 
that I only defired to fee it; and the chiefs who were 




with me fpoke to the fame efFe6t. I was then dellred to 
proceed in the boat farther along fhore to the weftward. 
In our way Tinah made me flop among fome filhing ca- 
noes to purchafe fifh for him, which he eat raw, with fait 
water for favice. When we arrived at the landing place, a 
great number of people had collected, and foon after Tep- 
i:)ahoo arrived. Oreepyah and I went with him about a 
quarter of a mile, when I was iliown one of the moft beau- 
tiful heifers I ever faw. I afked if they had any more, but 
they all faid there was no other than a bull at Itteah, as 
before-mentioned. I covild not refrain from exprelling my 
difpleafure at the deftruition, and the foolilh feparation of 
thefe fine animals. I had fliared with Captain Cook in 
the trouble of this bufmefs, and had been equally anxious 
for the fuccefs. 

The diftricft of Tettaha is not fo luxuriant and fruitfal as 
the country about Matavai. As I faw nothing of confe- 
quence to detain me, I made a prefent to Teppahoo, and, 
after inviting him to vilit me on board the fliip, which he 
promifed to do, I took leave. Tinah had remained all this 
timein the boat. I obferved that no refpe6t was fhewn to him 
at this place, nor was he able to procure a cocoa-nut, or a 
bread-fruit, otherwife than by purchafing it. The heifer 
being here, is a proof of this diftri6t not having been friend- 
ly to the people of Matavai and Oparre. 

In our way back, having to row againft the wind, we 
ftopped to refrefli at Oparre, and it was eight o'clock by 
the time- we arrived at the fhip. I kept my fellow tra- 
vellers on board to fupper, and they did not fail to remind 
me. of the king's health. 
Monday 17. Qur colle<5lion of bread-fruit plants at the tents, con- 
tinued increafing. This morning I fent twelve on board, 



in pots, to dilcovcr where they would thrive the beft, the 
air being more temperate on board the fliip than on fliore. 
While I was abfent from the fliip, Teppahoo had been on 
board, and left a hog as a j^refent for me. 

After dinner to-day, Tinah, who was my conftant vifitor, 
left the table fooner than vifual. When he was gone, Oree- 
pyah, his brother, and Oc(hdde, told me a piece of fcandal, 
which had been before hinted to me, but w^hich till now 
I had not heard of with certainty : this was, that Iddcah, 
Tinah's wife, kept a gallant, who was a towtow, or fervant, 
and the very perfon who always fed Tinah at dinner: and 
this was fo far from being without Tinah's knowledge or 
confent,that they faid it was by his defire. They added many 
other circumftances, and, as I appeared to doubt, they took 
feveral opportunities, in the courfe of the day, of mentioning, 
it to other people, w-ho all declared it was true. 

Tuefday 18th. This afternoon, I faw Teppahoo, and in- Tuefday is, 
vited him on board : before we parted, I bargained with him 
for the heifer, which he promifed to bring in five days. 
My intention was, that if I got the heifer, I w^ould endea- 
vour to purchaf2 the bull at Itteah : but if that could not be 
done, then I could fend the heifer as a prefent to the pofTeflbr 
of the bull, which might equally well anfwer my purpofe. 

It has been mentioned, that Tinah had a place in my 
cabin to keep thofe things which I gave him, as being 
more fecure on board than on lliore. I had remarked 
lately, that his hoard feemed to diminifli the more I en- 
deavoured to increafe it : at length I difcovered that Iddeali 
kept another hoard in the matter's cabin, which llie regu- 
larly enriched from her hufband's, whenever I made him 
a prefent, apprehending that I fliould ceafe giving, when I 
faw Tinah's locker full. At his requeft, I fet the carpen- 


1788. ters to work to make him a cheft large enough for himfelf 
November. ^^^ ^-^^ ^^ flccp on. Caf)tain Cook had formerly given 
him fuch a cheft, but it had been taken from him by the 
Eimeo people. 
Friday 21, This forenoon, I received a meffage from Teppahoo, to 
acquaint me the heifer was brought to Matavai. I imme- 
diately went on fliore, and found that he had been as good as 
his word. The purchafe money was paid, which confift- 
ed of a fliirt, a hatchet, a fpike nail, a knife, a pair of 
fciffars, a gimlet, and file; to which was added, a fmall 
quantity of loaf-fugar. Teppahoo appeared well pleafed 
with his bargain ; and I fent the heifer to Poeeno's reli- 
dence, near which was plenty of grafs. 

In the afternoon, I was invited to a heiva, the moft ex- 
traordinary part of which was an oration, with fome cere- 
monies in compliment to us. Twelve men were divided 
into four ranks, with two women in the front : behind 
them all ftood a prieft, who made a fpeech which lafted 
ten minutes, and which was liftened to with fome atten- 
tion. During this, the picture of Captain Cook, which 
had been brought for that purpofe, was placed by my fide. 
When the prieft- left off fpeaking, a piece of white cloth 
was wrapt round the pidure, and another piece round me. 
The prieft then fpoke again for a ftiort time, and an old 
man placed a piece of plaited cocoa-nut leaf at my feet ; 
the faaie was done to Tinah, and one piece was put under 
the pi6ture. After this the dancing began, which was in 
the fame ftile that we had already feen. 

The head of the fliip was the figure of a woman, and 
not ill carved. As we were painting the Ihip's upper 
works, I diredled this figure to be painted in colours, with 
which the iflanders were much pleafed. Not only the 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 97 

men, but the women, delired me to bring Englifli women 1788. 
when I came again. To-day Oedidde, thinking I was not ,° "'_!"'" 
convinced of the truth of what he had told me about Id- 
deah, mentioned the affair to the lady herfelf in my hear- 
ing, at which jflie laughed, but faid he did ill to tell me 
of it. However, it was evident flie was not much offended ; 
for they were both very much diverted in difcourfing upon 
tlie lubjedt. 

I find it is not at all uncommon for brothers to have 
connedtion with the wives of each other, particularly elder 
brothers with the wives of their younger brothers, which 
is generally allowed, and no offence taken : but if any per- 
fon, not belonging to the family, endeavours at the fame 
intimacy, it is refented as an injury. Inclination feems to 
be the only binding law of marriage at Otaheite. 

As I purpofed to get inflruments on fliore at Point 
Venus, to make obfervations, I defired Tinah to order a 
houfe to be brought there for me ; which was done, and 
fixed in half an hour, being only a light flied fupported by 

To-day I bought a turtle, that was caught on the reefs. Monday 34. 
As Tinah was going to leave me for a few days, I had it 
drefl for his dinner. He told me that his mother, Oberree- 
roah, was arrived from the ifland Tethuroa, and begged that 
I would fend for her in the morning, and take care of her 
till he returned ; which I willingly promiied. 

Tuefday the 25th. This morning, I fent a boat to Oparre, TuefJay 25, 
which returned in the afternoon with Oberree-roah, and 
two women, her fervants. As flie was old and corpulent, it 
was with difEculty that we helped her up the fliip's fide. 
As loon as flie was in the fhip, fhe fat down on the gangway, 
and, clafping my knees in her arms, exprefled her pleafure at 
feeing me by a flood of tears. Her fervants then produced 

O three 




three pieces of cloth, which, with a large hog, fome bread- 
fruit, plantains, and cocoa-nuts, flie had brought as a pi^e" 
fent. As file was fatigued by her journey, flie wiflied to 
remain on board all night; and I directed accommodations 
to be prepared, which was done with little trouble, as no- 
thing more was necelTary than a mat, and fome cloth 
fpread on the deck. She had with her a favourite cat, 
bred from one that had been given her by Captain Cook. 
She told me all the misfortunes that had befallen her fon and 
friends, lince Captain Cook left Otaheite. All the accounts 
agree in fome of the cattle being now alive at the ifland 
Eimeo : in the number they differ ; but that there are 
Weanefday eight, is the Icaft account. In the morning Oberree-roah 
being defirous to go on fhore, I made her a prefent of feve- 
ral things, which flie did not care to take with her then, 
but requefted that 1 would keep them fafe for her. Only 
Moannah and Poeeno dined with me to-day. They told 
me that Tinah and his brother Oreepyah were not on good 
terms together ; and it was imagined that they would fight 
as foon as the fhip was gone. I had obferved a coolnefs 
between them, and had at times endeavoured to make 
them more cordial, but with very little efFedl. Their 
quarrel has arifen from a difagreement between their 

In the afternoon, a canoe from Ulietea arrived, in which 
was an Earee, or chief, of that iftand, who is a nephew ta 
Oberree-roah. He brought a flieep with him : the poor 
animal was infe6led with the mange, and in very poor 
condition. The climate had not, as far as I could judge^ 
altered the quality of the wool, with which he was well 
covered, except a part about the flioulders. I imagine this 
animal to be the Englifh ewe left by Captain Cook. The 
owner affured me that there were ten llieep at Huaheine ; 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &:c. 99 

the truth of which I much doubted. I was furprifcd, and 
rather mortified, to find that he fet fo Httlc vahie on this, as 
to let me have it, at the firft word, for a fmall adze. I 
fent it to he kept at Poecno's, with the heifer. 

Friday the 28th. Tinah and his wife returned to Matavai, Friday z8. 
and, from appearances which I have no reafon to miftrurt, 
were fincerely glad to fee me again after their fliort abfence. 
They brought, as ufual, a prefent of a hog and fruit. This 
morning there was an eclipfe of the fun, but the weather 
was fo cloudy, that I had only an opportunity of obferving 
the end of the eclipfe, which was at 19' 43' 53". 

I fent a man to fliear the ewe, by whicl:i a remedy could Saturday 29. 
more ealily be applied to cure the difeafe with which it 
w^as infe61:ed. The garden made near the tents was not 
in a profperous condition : moft of the melons and cucum- 
bers were deftroyed by infedts ; and the foil, being fandy, 
was not favourable to the other feeds. I therefore chofe 
another fpot of ground, farther from the fea-fide, aud had 
an affortment of feeds fown. 

December the ift. In the night, the rudder of one of Monday ». 
the boats was ftolen from the tents. On landing in the 
morning, neither Tinah nor any of his family came near 
me, being, I was informed, afraid of my difpleafure. As 
the lofs was not great, I immediately fent to affarc them 
that I had no anger, except againft the perfon who com- 
mitted the theft. In confequence of this melTage, Tinah 
and fome of the other chiefs came to the tents, and pro- 
mifed that they would exert themfelves to difcover the 
thief, and get the rudder reftored. This was the firfl theft, 
of any confequence, that had been committed fince the 
tents were on fliore ; and my fufpicions fell chiefly on the 
"people \Nho were here from fome of the other illands. 

O a Tinah 

100 A V O Y A G E T O 


Tinah had jtift began to build a houfe for himfelf, and I 
promifed that our carpenters fhould affift him. Why- 
dooah, the youngeft brother of Tinah, had lately been one 
of my conftant vifitors, and feemed to have left off his 
former cuftom of getting drank with the Ava. He was 
efteemed one of their bell warriors ; and I was told that in 
the quarrel with the people of Eimeo, he killed Maheine 
the chief of that ifland. 

Friday 5, The w^cather for fome time pafl had been very unfet- 

tled. This afternoon, the wind blew frefli from the N W, 
which occafioned the fea to break very high acrofs the 
Dolphin bank ; and in the night fuch a heavy broken fea 
came into the bay, that we were obliged to batten all the 
hatchways down, and to keep every body upon deck all 
night, though the rain came down in torrents. The lliip 

Saturday 6. rolled in a moft violent manner. In the morning the wind 
increaling, and there being no poflibility of putting to fea, 
we ftruck yards and topmafts, and trufted to our anchors. 
The river fwelled fo much with the rain, that the point of 
land on which the tents flood became an ifland; and, to 
preferve the bread-fruit plants from being endangered, the 
people were obliged to cut a paflage for the river through 
a })art of the beach, at a diftance from the tents. The fea 
broke very high on the beach ; neverthelefs, a canoe put 
off, and, to my furprife, Tinah, his wife, and Moannah, 
made their way good through the furf, and came on board 
to fee me. There was no other perfon in the canoe, for 
the weather did not admit of ufelefs paffengers : each of 
them had a paddle, which they managed with great acfti- 
vity and ikiW. Thefe kind people embraced me with many 
tears, and expreffed their apprehenfions for the fafety of 
the fliip. Towards noon, however, the fea abated confide- 
6 rably. 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. loi 

rably, but the wind continued to blow ftrong from the 1788. . 
N W. At fvui-fet, Iddeah went on Ihorc, but Tinah would ^_' ""_'"; 
remain with me the whole night. 

Sunday the 7th. The wind continued between the Sunday 7. 
North and N W, but had fo much moderated, that I no 
longer confidered our lituation to be alarming. At noon 
Iddeah returned to the fhip, with a large hog, and a fup- 
ply of bread-fruit, and cocoa-nuts ; and foon after, flie 
and Tinah left the fhip, having exa(5led a promife from 
me, that if the weather was moderate, I would go on fliore 
in the morning, and vifit their parents and fiftcr, w^ho, they • 

told me, had been much alarmed on our account. I re- 
ceived a vifit likewife from Poeeno and his wife. This wo- 
man had always fliewn great regard for us; and now, on 
our meeting, before I could be aware of it, fhe began beat- 
ing her head violently with a fliark's tooth, fo that her 
face was covered with blood in an inilant. I put a flop to 
this as foon as I could, and, w-ith the drying up of the 
blood, her agitation fubfided. This ceremony is fre- 
quently performed, upon occalions either of joy or grief. 
Her hufband faid, that, if any accident happened to the 
Ihip, I fliould hve with him, and that they would cut down 
trees, and build me another fliip. 

From this lample of the weather, and the information of 
the natives, I was convinced it would not be fafe to conti- 
nue in Matavai Bay much longer ; and I determined to get 
every thing ready for failing as fpeedily as 1 could. 

The night proved moderate ; and in the morning, I went Monday 8. 
on fliore, where I was received by Oberree-roah, and feve- 
ral other friends, with great affecStion. 

The plants received no injury from the bad weather, 
having been carefully covered from the fpray of the fea : 
fome were in a dormant ftate, and others were ftriking 


1S2 A V O y A G E TO 


out young flioots. Nelfon thought that it was better to 
refrain a few days from taking them on board ; I therefore 
confented to defer it. He was of opinion that the plants 
could be propagated from the roots only, and I directed 
fome boxes to be filled, as we could flow them where no 
(Mihers could be placed. 

Tuefday 9* This aftemoon, in hauling the launch on fhore to be re- 

paired, many of the natives aflifting, one of them, a fine boy 
about ten years old, was thrown down, and a roller which 
was placed under the boat went over him. The furgeon 
being ill, I fent off for his afliftant. Fortunately no limb 
was broken, nor did he receive any material injury. The 
fvirgeon had been a long time ill, the effe<5l of intemperance 
and indolence. He had latterly fcarce ever flirred out of 
his cabin, but was not apprehended to be in a dangerous 
ftate ; neverthelefs, this evening he appeared to be fo 
much worfe than ufual, that it was thought necefl^ary to 
remove him to fbme place where he could have more air; 
but to no effe6l, for he died in an hour afterwards. This 
unfortunate man drank very hard, and was fo averfe to 
exercife, that he never would be prevailed on to take half 
a dozen turns upon deck at a time, in the whole courfe of 
the voyage. 

Wednefday ^g J wifhcd to bury the furgeon on fhore, I mentioned 
it to Tinah ; who faid there would be no obje(5lion, but that 
it would be neceffary to afk his father's confent firft; 
which he undertook to do, and immediately left me for 
that purpofe. By this circumftance it appears, that though 
the eldeft fon of an Earee fucceeds to the title and ho- 
nours of the father as foon as he is born, yet a confide- 
ra-ble portion of aiithority remains with the father, even 
after the fon is of age. When Tinah returned, I went 
with him to the fpot intended for the burial place, taking 
3 with 



T II E S O U T H S E A S. 8cc. 103 

with us two men to dig the grave; but on our arrival, I 178S. 
found the natives had already begun it. Tinah alked me, if ^^,— [_ '^ 
they were doing right ? " There," fays he, " the fun rifcs, 
and there it fets." The idea that the grave fliould be call 
and weft, I imagine they learnt from the Spaniards, as the 
captain of one of their fliips was buried at Oeitepeha in 
1774. Certain it is, tliey had not the information from 
any body belonging to our fliip ; for I believe we Ihould 
not have thought of it. The grave, however, was marked 
out very exacftly. At four in the afternoon, the body was ■ . 
interred : the chiefs, and many of the natives, came to fee 
the ceremony, and fliewed great attention during the fer- 
\ice. Some of the chiefs were very inquilitive about what 
was to be done with the furgeon's cabin, on account of ap- 
jjaritions. They faid, when a man died in Otaheite, and was- 
carried to the Tupapow, that as fopn as night came, he was 
furrounded by fpirits, and if any perfon went there by him- 
felf, they would devour him : therefore they faid that not lefs 
than two people together Ihould go into the furgeon's ca- 
bin for fome time. I did not endeavour to dilTuade them 
from this belief, otherwife than by laughing, and letting 
them know that we had no fuch apprehenfions. 

In the afternoon, the effects of the deceafed were difpofcd' 
of, and I appointed Mr. Thomas Denman Ledward, the 
furgeon's mate, to do duty as furgeon* 

1 went in a boat to examine the harbours about Oparre, Friday 12. 
and found two formed by the reefs. The wefternmoft is 
the moft convenient for failing in or out, but is not well 
fheltered from a N W wind or fea. This harbour is called 
by the natives Taowne : it is about a league and a half 
diftant from Point Venus, and may be known by a re- 
markable mountain, called by the natives Wawry, which 
bears S S E from the entrance. 




The eafternmoft harbour is called Toahroah. It is fmall, 

but as fecure as a reef harbour can well be. It is about 

three miles diftant from Point Venus. The chief objec- 
tion to this harbour is the difficulty of getting out Mdth 
the common trade wind, the entrance being on the eaft 
fide, not more than one hundred yards wide, and the depth 
without, inconvenient for warping. On the fouth fide of 
the entrance is a Moral : the reef fide is to be kept on 
board, and a look-out to be kept from aloft, whence the 
llioal water is better difcerned than from the deck. 
Sunday 14. This forcuoon, we performed divine fervice. Many of 
the principal natives attended, and behaved with great 
decency. Some of the women at one time betrayed an in- 
clination to laugh at our general refponfes ; but, on my 
looking at them, they appeared much alhamed. After the 
fervice, I was alked if no offering was to be made for the 
Eatua to eat. 

The weather had been fair all the laft week, and at this 
time appeared quite fettled ; fo that I was under no appre- 
henfions of danger from continuing a little longer in Ma-» 
tavai bay. 

C H A 1>. 



D 1 C £ M B E R . 

The eaflernmoft harbour is called Toahroah. It is fmall, 
^ __ but as fecure as a reef harbour can well be. It is about 

three miles diftant from Point Venus. The chief objec- 
tion to this harbour is the difficulty of getting out Mdth 
the common trade wind, the entrance being on the eaft 
fide, not more than one hundred yards wide, and the depth 
without, inconvenient for warping. On the fouth fide of 
the entrance is a Moral : the reef fide is to be kept on 
board, and a look-out to be kept from aloft, whence the 
flioal water is better difcerned than from the deck. 
Sunday 14. This forenoon, we performed divine fervice. Many of 
the principal natives attended, and behaved with great 
decency. Some of the w^omen at one time betrayed an in- 
clination to laugh at our general refponfes ; but, on my 
looking at them, they appeared much alliamed. After the 
fervice, I was aflied if no offering was to be made for the 
Eatua to eat. 

The weather had been fair all the laft week, and at this 
time appeared quite fettled ; fo that I was under no appre- 
henfions of danger from continuing a little longer in Ma- 
tavai bav. , 


C H A P. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 105 


A Walk into the Country. — 'fbe Peeab Roah. — Prevailed any by 
the Kindnefs of the Chiefs^ to defer our Departure. — Bread- 
fruit Plants colle&ed. — Move the Ship to 'Toabroah Har- 
bour. — Fijljino-. — 'Three of the Ship's Company defer t. — In- 
difcretion of our People on' Shore. — Inflances of Jealoufy .—• 
Mourning. — Bull brought to Oparre by a Prophet. — The 
Defer ters recovered.— Ti?iab propofes to vifit England. 


EDNESDAY the 17th. This morning I took a 1788, 


walk into the country, accompanied by Nclfon and 
my old friend Moannah. The breadth of the border of wednefday 
low land, before we arrived at the foot of the hills, was '^' 
near three miles. This part of our journey was through 
a delightful country, well covered with bread-fruit and co- 
coa-nut trees, and flrewed with houfes, in which were 
fwarms of children. We then proceeded along a valley, 
ilill among houfes, with plantations of yams, tarro, the 
cloth-plant, and their favourite root the Ava : there were 
bread-fruit trees on the fides of the hills, which were dwarfs 
in comparifon of thofc on the low land. Our walk was 
very much interrupted by a river, the courfe of \\hich 
was fo ferpentine, that we had to crofs it fevcral times, 
being carried over on men's flioulders. 

On arriving at a Morai, I faw a number of the natives 
collevfted, and was informed that the pricfts were performing 
their devotions. Sixteen men were fitting on their heels; 

P in 

I06 A V O Y A G E T O 

1788. in the front was 3. pole covered with a plaited cocoa-nut 
branch, and before each of the men there was a number of 
fmall pieces of the fame leaf plaited, which they call Ha-- 
hyree, and each had likewife a piece round his wrift. One, 
who appeared to be the chief prieft., prayed aloud, and was 
anfwered by all the reft together : after a few fhort fen- 
tences and refponfes, they rofe, and^ach carried an hahyree, 
which they placed at the foot of the pole, and returned to 
prayer : this was repeated till all the hahyree were deliver- 
ed, and then the ceremony ended. I muft not forget to 
mention, that they had placed, -near the pole, an oifering of 
plantains and bread-fruit, which they left for the Eatua. 
They very kindly alked us to partake of a roafted hog, that 
liad been prepared for them whilft they were praying ; but 
as I wiflied to make the moft of the morning, before the 
fun was too high, I declined their offer, and Moannah be- 
ipoke refrefhments to be ready for us when we returned. 

We continued our walk up the valley, which became 
very narrow, and had advanced a conliderable way beyond 
all the houfes and plantations, when we were fuddenly 
flopped by a cafcade, that fell into the river from a height 
of above 200 feet : the fall at this time was not great, but 
in the heavy rains muft be conliderable. The natives look 
upon this as the moft wonderful light in the illand. The 
fall of water is the leaft curious part ; the cliff, over which 
it comes, is perpendicular, forming an appearance as if fup- 
ported by fquare pillars of ftone, and with a regularity that 
IS furprifing. Underneath is a pool eight or nine feet deep, 
into which the water falls ; and in this place all the natives 
make a point of bathing once in their lives, probably from 
fome religious idea. 
The hills here approach each other within a few yards, 

3 and 

T HE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 107" 


and are well covered with wood. As the road appeare<I 
difficult, I did not care to proceed towards the mountain. I 
cannot with certainty lay how far this ciu-ious precipice is 
from the bay, but think, in the road by which we went, it 
cannot be lefs than fevcn miles. It is called Peeah Roah. 

hi ovir return, we found a young pig prepared for us, and 
we made a hearty meal. We dined in the houfe of an old ac- 
quaintance of Nelfon's ; for whom he had, in 1777, planted 
the two fliaddock. plants, formerly mentioned, which he hail 
brought from the I'^riendly Ulands. Thefe we had the fa- 
tisfa(5tion to fee were grown to tine trees, and full of fruit. 

In their plantations they do not take much pains, except- 
with the Ava and the Cloth-plant, both of which they are 
careful to keep clear of weeds. Many of the plantations of 
the cloth-plant were fenced with ftone, and furrounded 
with a ditch. The yams and plantains are moftly on the 
higher grounds. As foon as we had linifhed our dinner, 
we returned towards the fliip. I was much delighted, in 
this walk, with the number of children that I faw in every 
part of the country : they are very handfome and fpright- 
ly, and full of antic tricks. They have many diverfions 
that are common with the boys in England ; fuch as flying 
kites, cats cradle, fwinging, dancing or jumping in a rope, 
walking upon ftilts, and wreftling. 

Friday the 19th. The wind to-day blew frefh, but conti- Friday 
nued regular from the E and E S E. We hadlikewife much 
rain, and a long fwell fet into the bay, I had not yet deter- 
mined, whether, on leaving Matavai bay, I would go to the 
ifland Eimco, or to the harbour of Toahroah near Oparre : 
this uncertainty made Tinah, and the reft of my friends, 
very anxious ; and they appeared much diftreffed on my 
defiring them, this afternoon, to fend on board all the things 

P 2 which 


1788. which they wiflied to have repaired by the forge, without cTc- 
PtcEMCER. j^^^^ ^^^^j. ^]^3t j-jjgy wanted might be done before the fliip left 
Matavai, which I told them would be in a few days. They 
very earneftly intreated 1 would ftay one month longer. I 
reprefented this as impoffiblc, and afkecl Tinah if he would 
not go with me to Eimeo ; but he faid, that, notwithftand- 
ing my protection, he was certain the Eimeo people would 
watch for an opportunity to kill him. He remained on 
board with me all night, but his wife went on fliore, and 
returned early in the morning, bringing with her fome 
axes and other things, that were in need of repair. 
Saturday 20. When I went on lliore, I found Otow, Oberree-roah,, 
Moannah, and feveral others, in great tribulation at the 
thoughts that we were fo foon to leave them. All the 
people of Matavai, I faw, were much concerned at my 
intention of going to Eimeo, and took every opportunity 
to prejudice me againft the people of that ifland ; to which 
I paid very little attention, as their motive was obvious^ 
Their expreffions of friendfhip and affeftion for me, how- 
ever, I could not difregard, as I had no doubt of their being 
genuine and unaffected; and I felt my unwillingnefs to 
leave thefe kind people fo much increafed, that the next 
Sunday 21. day, I lent the mafter in the launch to re-examine the depth 
of water between this bay and Toahroah harbour. He 
returned in the evening, and acquainted me, that he found 
a o^ood bottom, with not lefs than fixteen fathoms depth aU 
the way. The harbour of Toahroah appearing every way 
fafe, I determined to get the fliip there as fpeedily as pof- 
fible, and I immediately made my intention public, which 
occafioned great rejoicing. 
Wednefday This day, we took the plants on board, being 774 pots, all 
^** in a healthy Hate ; for whenever any plant had an unfa- 
-5 vourable 



vonrabic appearance, it was replaced by another. The 
number of thofe rejedied was 302, of which not one in ten 
but was found to be growing at the root. 

The natives reckon eight kinds of the bread-fruit tree, 
each of which they diltinguifli by a different name. i.Pat- 
tcab. 1. Eroroo. 3. Aivaiuta. 4. Mi-re. 5. Oree. 6. Powerro. 
7. Af^peere. 8. RoiDdeeab. In the firft, fourth, and eighth 
clafs, the leaf differs from the reft; the fourth is more fi- 
nuated ; the eighth has a large broad leaf, not at all finuated. 
The difference of the fruit is principally in the lirft and 
eighth clafs. hi the lirft, the fruit is rather larger and more 
of an oblong form : in the eighth, it is rountl and not above 
half the fize of the others. I enquired if plants could be 
produced from the feed, and was told they could not, but 
that they muft be taken from the root. The plants are beft 
coUedled after wet weather, at which time the earth balls 
round the roots, and they are not liable to fuffer by being, 

The moft common method of dividing time atOtaheiteis 
by moons ; but they likewife make a divillon of the year 
into fix parts, each of which is diftinguiflied by the name 
of the kind of bread-fruit then in fealbn. In this divifioii 
they keep a fmall interval called 'Taivay in which thev do 
not ufe the bread-fruit. This is about the end of Februarv^ 
when the fruit is not in perfcdion ; but there is no part: 
of the year in which the trees are entirely bare. 

Thurfday the asth. At day-light we unmoored, and I Thur/dayzs- 
fent the tents in the launch to Oparre, with dire61:ions 
that after landing them, the launch ftiould meet the fliip 
in the entrance of Toahroah harbour, to Ihow the fifeft 
part of the channel. At half part ten, we got the fliip 
under fail, and ran down uiuler to^j-fails : when wq were 




near the launch, it fell calm, and the fliip fhot paft her. We 
immediately let the anchor go, but, to our great farprife, 
we found the fliip was aground forwards. She had run 
on fo eafy, that we had not perceived it at the time. This 
accident occafioned us much trouble, as we were obliged 
to fend anchors out aftern to get the fliip afloat : in doing 
this, one of the cables fwept a rock, and was not got clear 
again without much difficulty. When the fliip was moor- 
ed. Point Venus bore N 46° E. The eaft point of the har- 
bour N 65" E ^ of a mile. Our diftance from the fliore half 
a cable's length ; depth of water 8 i fathoms. 
Friday z6. The next morning, on my landing, I was welcomed by 
all the principal people ; I may fay by the whole croud, 
and congratulated on the fafety of the fliip. Tinah fliewed 
me a houfe near the water fide, abreaft the fliip, which 
he defired I would make ufe of, and which was large 
enough for all our purpofes. He and his brother Oree- 
pyah then defired I would fl:ay and receive a formal addrefs 
and prefent, which they called Otee. To this I affented, 
and a ftool was brought for me to fit on. They then left 
me with Moannah, and in a fliort time I faw Tinah re- 
turning with about twenty men, who all made a flop at 
fome diftance, and a priefi; faid a fliort prayer to the Eatua, 
to which the refl: made reply. A man was then fent to 
me three feveral times, at each time bringing me a fmall 
pig, and the ftem of a plantain leaf. The firft they told 
me was for the God of Brittannee, the next for King 
George, and the laft for myfelf. Moannah then got up, and, 
without being di(5lated to, made an oration for me ; the 
purport of which I underfl;ood to be, that I received their 
offering with thanks; that we were good people and 
friends; and therefore he exhorted them to commit no 

thefts : 

THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. ill 

thefts : he told them to bring their pigs, cocoa-nuts, ami 1788. 
bread-fruit, and they would receive good things in return ; Z^^",'' , ' 
that we took nothing without their confcnt ; and finally, 
that every man was to quit the place (the houfe we occu- 
pied) at night ; for if they made any vifit in the dark, they 
would be killed. With this fpeech the ceremony ended. 

I found this a delightful fituation, and in every refpedt 
convenient. The fliip was perfecftly flieltered by the reefs 
in fmooth water, and clofe to a fine beach without the Icaft 
fiirf. A finall river, with very good water, runs into the 
fea about the middle of the harbour. I gave direilions for 
the plants to be landed, and the fame party to be with 
them as at Matavai. Tinah fixed his dwelling clofe to our 

Some of the natives took advantage of the butcher's neg- Monday ;rj. 
ligence, and flole his cleaver. I complained of this to the 
chiefs who were on board, and they promifed that they 
would endeavour to recover it; but an article fo valuable 
as this was to the natives, I had no great expectation of 
feeing reftored. 

The Ihip continued to be fupplied by the natives as ufual. 
Cocoa-nuts were in fuch plenty, that I believe not a pint 
of water was drank on board the fhip in the twenty-four 
hours. Bread-fruit began to be fcarce, though we pur- 
chafed, without difficulty, a fvifficient quantity for our con- 
fumption : there was, however, another harveft approach- 
ing, which they expedled would be fit for ufe in five or fix 
weeks. The better kind of plantains alfo were become 
fcarce ; but a kind which they call Vayhee were in great 
plenty. This fruit does not hang on the trees like the 
other kinds, but grows upon an upright ftalk of confider- 
able firength and fubliance. Though this plantain is in- 


1788. ferior in quality to moft of the others, it affords great fab- 
^cE^MB^ fiftence to the natives. We received, almoft every day, 
prefents of fifli, chiefly dolphin and albacore, and a few 
fmall rock fifli. Their fifliing is moftly in the night, 
when they make ftrong lights on the reefs, which attract 
the fifli to them. Sometimes, in fine weather, the canoes 
are out in fuch numbers, that the whole fea appears illumi- 
nated, hi the canoes they fifli with hook and Ihie, and on 
the reefs they ftrike the fifli with a fpear. Some likewife 
carry out fmall nets, \vhich are managed by two men. 
In the day-time their filhing canoes go without the reefs, 
fometimes to a confiderable diftance, where they fifli with 
rods and lines, and catch bonetas, and other fifli. When- 
ever there is a fliow of fifli, a fleet of canoes immediately 
proceeds to fea. Their hooks being bright, are nfed with- 
out bait, in the manner of our artificial flies. Their rods 
are made of bamboo ; but when there are any very large 
fifli, they make ufe of an out-rigger over the fore part of 
the canoe, about twenty-five feet in length, which has two 
prongs at the extremity, to each of which is faftened a 
hook and line ; and when a fifli takes the hook, it is raifed by 

January. Topcs managed by two men in the flern of the canoe. 

Thmfdayi. Contrary to my expe6tation, Tinah, this afternoon, 
brousht on board the cleaver that had been ftolen. The 


thief had taken it to Attahooroo, and Tinah told me, which 
I could eafily believe, that it was given up wdtli great re- 
FriJaja. Iu6lance. The next morning I offered Tinah a prefent of 
axes, and other things ; but, as he fufpedted this was meant 
by way of return for getting the cleaver reflored, he would 
not be prevailed with to accept a fingle article. 

I had conftantly the company of Tinah, his wife, and 
fome of his relations ; but the royal children, though fo 



near us, never came in fight of the fliip. The river fepa- 1789. 
rated them from the place occupied by our people on i*""^^'*'- 
fhore ; and, for fear of giving alarm or offence, I gave ftri<St 
orders that no one fliould attemi^t to go near their place of 

Monday the 5th. At the relief of the watch, at four Mond*y 5. 
o'clock this morning, the fmuU cutter was miffing. I was 
immediately informed of it, and multered the fliip's com- 
])any ; when it appeared, that three men were abfent, Charles 
Churchill, the Ihip's corporal, and two of the feamen, Wil- 
liam Mufprat, and John Millward; the latter of whom had 
been centinel from twelve to two in the morning. They had 
taken with them eight ftand of arms and ammunition ; but 
what their plan was, or which way they had gone, no one 
on board feemed to have the lead knowledge. I went on (hore 
to the chiefs, and foon received information, that the boat 
was at Matavai ; and that the deferters had departed in a fail- 
ing canoe for the ifland Tethuroa. On this intelligence, I 
fent the mafter to Matavai to fearch for the fmall cutter, and 
one of the chiefs went with him ; but before they had got 
half way, they met the boat with five of the natives, who 
were bringing her back to the fliip. This fervice, rendered 
me by the people of Matavai, pleafed me much, and I re- 
warded the men accordingly. 

I told Tinah, and the other chiefs, that I expected they 
would get the deferters brought back ; for that I was de- 
termined not to leave Otaheite without them. They aflur- 
cd me, that they would do every thing in their power to have 
them taken ; and it was agreed, that Oreepyah and Moan- 
nah fliould depart the next morning for Tethuroa. Oree- 
pyah enquired if they had pocket piftols, " for," faid he, 
** though we may furprife and feize them before they can 

Q " make 



15189. " make ufe of their mufkets ; yet if they have piftols, they 
^ANUARY.^ <( ^^^y ^^ mifchief, even while they are held." I quieted 
thefe apprehenfions, by affuring them, that the deferters 
had no piftols with them. 
Tuefday 6. At day-light, Oreepyah and Moannah fet off in two canoes 
for Tethuroa, but the weather became fo boifterous, that 
they were obliged to return in the forenoon, and I was 
happy to fee them get fafe in, as the fea ran very high 
without the harbour. From the firft of this month, the 
weather and winds had been much unfettled, with a great 
deal of rain. Our former ftation at Matavai appeared not 
at all fafe, the fea at times breaking high over the Dolphin 
bank, and making a great fwell in the bay. Oreepyah and 
Moannah both promifed me, that they would fail again as 
foon as the weather fliould be fine. 
Friday 9. The wind continued to blow ftrong at fea, though in the 
harbour we had, at times, but light breezes. Poeeno, from 
Matavai, came to fee me to-day : he faid, he was appre- 
henfive that I was difpleafed with him, on account of our 
deferters having been carried to Tethuroa, by a canoe from 
Matavai. This, he declared, had been done before he 
heard of it; and that the only fervice in his power, he had 
not negieded to do for me, which was the fending our boat 
back. As this was really an a6t of friendiliip, I received 
him with great cordiality; and he alfured me, that there could 
be no doubt, from the dire6lions Tinah had given, of the 
deferters being brought to the Ihip, as foon as the weather 
would admit canoes to go after them. 
Saturday 10. One of the officers, this morning, on fliore, inadvertently 
plucked a branch from a tree called Tutuee, that bears 
the oil nut, which was growing at a Moral. On entering 
with it into the houfe occupied by our people, all the 
4 natives, 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. ri5 

natives, both men and women, immediately went away. 1789. 
When I went on fhore, I found this branch tied to one of Z*""''"'^' 
the pofts of the houfe, although the effecl it had on the 
natives was known. I was much difpleafed at this piece of 
Avantonnefs, and ordered the branch to betaken away; but 
the natives, notwithftanding, would not come near the place. 
They faid the houfe was taboo^ which 1 underftand to figiiify 
interdidted, and that none of them might approach it till 
the taboo was taken off, which could only be done by Ti- 
nah. To take any thing away from a Morai is regarded as 
a kind of facrilege, and, they believe, gives great offence to 
the Eatua. At my requeft, Tinah took off the taboo^ but 
not before the afternoon. This was performed by an of- 
fering of a plantain leaf at the Morai, and a prayer made 
to the Eatua. After this ceremony, the houfe was reforted 
to by the natives, as ufual. 

I had not yet given up the hope of obtaining the bull 
from Itteah, though I had hitherto received no fatisfadlory 
anfwer to the meflages which Tinah had fent at my defire : I 
therefore fpoke to Poeeno, who undertook to negotiate this 
bufinefs, and I commiflioned him to make very liberal of- 
fers. He left me after dinner, to return to Matavai. In the 
evening, a meffenger arrived from him, to acquaint me, that, 
in his abfence, the {heep which I had trufted to his care, had 
been killed by a dog ; and that he had fent the culprit, hop- 
ing that I would kill him for the offence he had committed. 
This poor fheep had been fo much difeafed, that I could not 
help fufpedting'he died without the dog's alliftance, and 
that the flory of the dog was invented to prevent my at- 
tributing it to want of care. This doubt did not appear 
in my anfwer; as for the dog, I told the meffenger to do 
with him what he pleafed. 
Tuefday the 13th, This morning, the weather being Tuefdayij. 

Q 2 more 

ii6 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. more moderate than it had been for fome days paft, Oree- 

jANUART^ pyah failed with two canoes for Tethuroa. Some bufinefs 

prevented Moannah from accompanying him, but he fol- 

Wednefday lowed the ncxt day with two other canoes. The wood 

^' that we had got at Matavai being expended, I appUed to 

Tin ah, who fent three trees down to the water fide before 

night, which when cut up made a good launch load. 

I faw two inftances of jealoufy to-day, one of which had 
nearly produced fatal confequences. A man was detected 
with a married woman, by the hufband, who ftabbed him 
in the belly with a knife: fortunately the inteftines efcaped, 
and the wound did not prove dangerous. The other in- 
ftance was, a girl, who had conftantly lived with my cox- 
fwain, beating another girl, that llie difcovered to have been 
too intimate with him. 
Friday 16. In Walking to-day with Tinah near a Tupapow, I was 
furprifed by a fudden outcry of grief. As I expreffed a de- 
fire to fee the diftrelTed perfon, Tinah took me to the place, 
where we found a number of women, one of whom was the 
mother of a young female child that lay dead. On feeing 
us their mourning not only iinmediately ceafed, but to my 
aftonifliment, they all burft into an immoderate fit of laugh- 
ter, and, while we remained, appeared much diverted with 
our vifit. I .told Tinah the woman had no forrow for her 
child, otherwife her grief would not have fo eafily fubfid- 
ed; on which he jocofely told her to cry again : they did 
not, however, refume their mourning in our prefence. This 
ftrange behaviour would incline us to think them hard- 
hearted and imfeeling, did we not know that they are fond 
parents, and, in general, very afFedlionate : it is therefore to 
be afcribed to their extreme levity of difpofition ; and it is 
probable, that death does not appear to them with fo many 
terrors, as it does to people of a more ferious cafl:. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 117 

Sunday the 18th. I received a meflage from Poeeno, to 1787. 
acquaint me that he had been fuccefsful in his negotiation C.!li|A^ 
for the bull, which he had driven part of the way by land, Sunday lu. 
but could not get farther on account of the rivers, and 
therefore defired a boat lliould be font for him. I accord- 
ingly ordered the launch to be got ready, and at two o'clock 
the next morning, Mr. P'ryer, the mailer, fct off in her. Monday 19. 

hi the afternoon, the launch returned with the bull, and 
my friend Poeeno. For the night I directed that the bull 
Ihould remain at Oparre, and the next day he was taken 
to the cow at Matavai. 

Wedncfday the 21ft. To-day, Poeeno brought to me the wednefjay 
perfon from whom he had the bull, to receive the ftipulated ^'" 
payment, which was one of every article of traffic that I had 
in my pofleirion. This man, whofe name was Oweevee, 
they told me, was infpired by a divine fpirit ; and that in all 
matters of confequence he was confulted, for that he.con- 
verfed with the Eatua. It was, they faid, the Eatua that or- 
dered him to demand the bull from Tinah, which not to 
have complied with, would have been the height of im- 
piety. I endeavoured to convince them of the roguery 
of this man, thinking I had a fair argument to prove it 
by his felling that which the Eatua had ordered him to 
keep ; but here I was ealily defeated, for it feems the Eatua 
told him to fell me the beaft. This being the cafe, I faid, I 
would not give the animals to any perfon ; that they were 
now mine, and that I would leave them nnder the protec- 
tion of Poeeno and Tinah, who I hoped would take care of 
them for me till I returned. They both entered into my 
views, and promifed the animals fliould be attended to, and 
told me, that while they w'ere confidered as my property, 
no one would attempt to take them away. 



»789- Thurfday the 22d. This afternoon, I received a meflaffe 


■ - - I from Teppahoo, to inform me that our deferters had paffed 
Thurfday 22. this harbour, and were atTettaha, about five miles diftant. I 
ordered the cutter to be got ready, and a Uttle before fun-fet 
left the fhip, taking Oedidee with me. By his advice I landed 
at fome diftance from the place where the deferters were ; 
but thinking it neceflary to have the boat within call, and 
Oedidee affuring me that there was fafe landing farther on, I 
diredted the boat to proceed along fhore, whiift Oedidee 
and I walked along the beach. The night was very dark 
and windy, and the fhore being rocky, I foon loft fight of 
the boat. A few of the natives had joined us in our walk; 
and, from their manner, I had reafon to fufpedl them of a 
defign to clofe upon us, with an intention, no doubt, to 
plunder : I was provided with pocket-piftols, and on pro- 
ducing one, they left us. Oedidee was fo much alarmed that 
I could fcarce prevail on him to proceed. When we arrived at 
Teppahoo's houfe, we were very kindly received by him and 
his wife. The cutter was arrived, but, there being 'a very 
high furf, fhe could not come within a hundred yards of the 

The deferters, I was informed, were in a houfe clofe to 
us, and I imagined there would be no great difficulty in 
fecuring them, with the afliftance of the natives. They 
had, however, heard of my arrival ; and when I was near 
the houfe, they came out, without their arms, and delivered 
themfelves up. I fent direcSlions off to the boat for one of 
my people to come on fhore, and for the boat to return to 
r the place where I had landed. My next bufinefs was to fe- 

cure the arms, which I delivered to Teppahoo to take charge 
of for the night. One mufket and two bayonets were mif- 
fing, which they faid were loft, by the canoe in which they 


THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 119 

came from Tethiiroa having overfet. I then took leave of 1789. 
Teppahoo, who prefented us with a plentiful fupply of {^^^jl"^ 
provifions, and we proceeded with the deferters towards 
the boat; but as the wind had increafcd, and it rained hard, 
I determined to remain on fliore till the morning ; and 
having found flielter for the people, we pafTcd the remain- 
der of the night without accident. At daylight, 1 fent for Friday 23. 
the arms, and we returned to the fliip. 

I learnt from the deferters, that at Tethuroa they had 
feen Oreepyah and Moan n ah, who had made an attempt to 
fecure them. They faid it was their intention to have re- 
turned to the Ihip ; and it is probable that they were fo much 
harrafled by the natives watching for an opportunity to fur- 
prife them, that they might willi to have the merit of re- 
turning of their own accord, to avoid the difgrace of being 
feized and brought back. At the time they delivered them- 
felves up to me, it was nor in their power to have made re- 
iiftance, their ammunition having been fpoiled by the wet. 

In confequcnce of my having been kept all night from 
the fl^ip by the tempcftuous weather, the time-keeper 
went down at 10" 5°' 36'. Its rate, previous to this, was i", 7 
lofing in 24 hours, and its error from the mean time at 
Greenwich was 7' 09", 2 too flow. I fet it going again by a 
common watch, corredled by obfervations, and endea- 
voured to make the error the fame as if it had not flopped ; 
but being over cautious, made me tedious in fetting it in mo- 
tion, and increafed the error from mean time at Greenwich. 
The rate of going I did not find to have altered. 

At dinner. Tin ah congratulated me on having recovered 
my men, but exprelTed fome concern that they had not been 
brought by Oreepyah and Moannah ; left I fliould imagine 
they had not done every thi ng in their power. To this I replied, 
that I was perfet5tly fatisfied of their good intentions to ferve 



1789. jYigj jind that I confidered myfelf under great obligations to 
«— — V — -« them for the trouble they had been at on my account. 
I learnt afterwards that they had aftually feized and bound 
the deferters, but had been prevailed upon, by fair promifes 
of their returning peaceably to the fliip, to let them loofe : 
the deferters, however, finding an opportunity to get pof- 
feffion of their arms again, fet the natives at defiance. 
Friday 30, This aftemoon, I puniflied one of the feamen, Ifaac Mar- 

tin, with nineteen lafhes, for ftriking an Indian. This was 
a tranfgreffion of fo ferious a nature, and fuch a diredt vio- 
lation of my orders, that I would on no account be pre- 
vailed on to forgive it, though great interceffion was made 
by fome of the chiefs. 

Oreepyah and Moannah were not yet returned from Te- 
thuroa. This place is reforted to by the principal people of 
this part of Otaheite, at particular feafons, when fifli are in 
great plenty there. It was defcribed to me to be a group 
of fmall keys, furrounded by a reef: their produce is 
chiefly cocoa-nuts and plantains. During the feafon, bread- 
fruit and other provifions are daily carried over from 
Otaheite. Not lefs than a hundred fail of canoes were at 
Tethuroa when our deferters were there. 

Teppahoo and his wife were become my conftant vifi- 
tors : he had for fome time paft been ill, and had made 
Oparre his place of refidence, for the benefit of our furgeon's 
advice and affiflance. At this time he complained of a 
hoarfenefs and fore-throat. Mr. Ledward, on examining 
him, difcovered there had been two holes in the roof of his 
mouth, which, though healed, had the appearance of having 
been large : the adjacent parts appeared found, yet the fvir- 
geon was of opinion that they were cancerous, and would 
in the end occafion his death. 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, fee. lar 

This morninff, I ordered all the chefts to be taken on , '789- 

'~ January^ 

fliore, and the infide of the fliip to be waflied with boiling v__, — u 
water, to kill the cockroaches. We were conftantly obliged Saturday 31 
to be at great pains to keep the fliip clear of vermin, on ac- 
count of tbe plants. — By the help of traps and good cats, we 
were freed from rats and mice. When I was at Otaheite 
with Captain Cook, there were great numbers of rats about all 
the houfes, and fo tame, that they flocked round the people 
at their meals for the offals, which were commonly thrown 
to them; but, at this time, we fcarce everfaw a rat, which 
muft be attributed to the induftry of a breed of cats left 
here by European fliips. 

After breakf aft, I walked withTinah to Matavai, to fee the 
cattle and th« gardens. Tinah had already taken fo large a 
dofe of the Ava, that he was perfed:ly ftupified. Iddeah, 
however, was with us, and (he is one of the moft intelligent 
perfons 1 met with at Otaheite. We M^ent firft to Poeeno's 
houfe, and faw the bull and cow together in a very fine 
pafture. I was informed that the cow had taken the bull ; fo 
that, if no untoward accident happens, there is a fair 
chance of the breed being eftabliflied. In the garden, near 
Poeeno's houfe, many things had failed. The Indian corn 
was in a fine ftate, and I have no doubt but they will culti- 
vate it all over the country. A fig-tree was in a very thriving 
way, as were two vines, a pine-apple plant, and fome flips 
of a fliaddock-tree. From this place, we walked to the gar- 
den at Point Venus; but I had the mortification to find 
almoft every thing there deftroyed by the hogs. Some un- 
derground peafe and Indian corn had efcaped, and likewiie 
the caliloo green and ocra of Jamaica. 

We returned to the fliip ; and after dinner I was not a lit- 
tle furprifed to hear Tinah ferioufly propofe that he and his 

R "wife 


1789. -^vife Ihould go with me to England. He faid he would 
». — \, — J only take two fervants ; that he much willied to fee King 
George, who, he was fure, would be glad to fee him. 
- Tinah and many of his countrymen were become ex- 
tremely eager to get a knowledge of other countries, and 
were continually enquiring about the fituations of the 
iilands which we told them of in thefe feas. To quiet his 
importunity, I was obliged to promife, that I would afk the 
king's permiffion to carry them to England, if I came 
again ; that then I lliould be in a larger Ihip, and could 
have accommodations properly fitted up. I was forry to 
find, that Tinah was apprehenfive he fhould be attacked by 
his enemies, as foon as our fliip left Otaheite, and that if 
they joined, they would be too powerful for him. The 
illnefs of Teppahoo, with whom he was on good terms, gave 
him much uneafinefs ; Teppahoo's wife being a filler of 
Otow's and aunt to Tinah. They have no children, as has 
been before related ; and if Teppahoo were to die, he would 
be fucceeded, as Earee of the diftridt of Tettaha, by his bro- 
ther, who is an enemy to Tinah. I have on every occa- 
fion endeavoured to make the principal people believe that 
v/e fhould return again to Otaheite, and that we lliould 
revenge any injury done in our abfence to the people of 
Matavai and Oparre. 

The wife of Oedidee is likewife an aunt to Tinah, 
and filler to Otow. His native place is Ulietea, where he 
has fome property; but which, I imagine, is not of fuch 
confequence to him as the countenance of the chiefs with 
whom he is connetSted at Otaheite. 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, fee. 123 


Tbe Ship's Cable cut in the Night. — Coolnefs with the Chiefs 
on that Account. — Vifit to an old Lady. — Dijlurbance at 
a Heiva. — Tinab's Hofpitality. — A Thief takeny and pu- 
nijbed. — F reparations for failing. 

I WAS prefent, this afternoon, at a wreftling match, 1789, 
where a young man, by an unhicky fall, put his arm ^^°!l"^'^' 
out of joint at the elbow : three flout men immediately Tucfday j. 
took hold of him, and two of them fixing their feet 
againft his ribs, replaced it. I had fent for our furgeon, but 
before he arrived, all was well, except a fmall fwelUng of 
the mufcles, in confequence of the ftrain. I enquired what 
they would have done if the bone had been broken ; and, 
to fhew me their pra(5lice, they got a number of flicks 
and placed round a man's arm, which they bound with 
cord. That they have confiderable fkill in furgery is not 
to be doubted. 1 have before mentioned an inftance of an 
amputated arm being perfe6lly healed, and which had 
every appearance of having been treated with great pro- 

The part of the beach nearefl the fliip, was become the 
general place of refort towards the clofe of the day. An 
hour before fun-fet, the inhabitants began to colledl, and 
here they amufed themfelves with exercifing the lance, 
dancing, and various kinds of merriment, till nearly dark, 
when they retired to their homes. Of this cheerful fcene, 
we were fpedators and partakers, every fine evening, 

R a Friday 



1789. Friday the 6th. An occurrence happened to-day that 

' -.-'' J gave me great concern, not only on account of the danger 
Friday 6. with which the fliip had been threatened, but as it tend- 
ed greatly to diminifli the confidence and good imder- 
ftanding which had hitherto been conftantly preferved 
between us and the natives. The wind had blown 
frefh in the night, and at day-light we difcovered that 
the cable, by which the fliip rode, had been cut near 
the water's edge, in fuch a manner, that only one ftrand 
remained whole. While we were fecuring the fhip, Tinah 
came on board. I could not but believe he was perfecSlly 
innocent of the tranfaftion ; neverthelefs, I fpoke to him in 
a very peremptory manner, and inlifted upon his difcover- 
ing and bringing to me the offender. I was wholly at a lofs 
how to account for this malicious a6t. My fufpicions fell 
chiefly, I may fay wholly, on the flrangers that came to us 
from other parts of the ifland ; for we had on every oc- 
' cation, received fuch tmreferved and unafFe6led marks of 
good-will from the people of Matavai and Oparre, that in 
my own mind I entirely acquitted them. The anger 
which 1 expreffed, however, created fo much alarm, that 
old Otow and his wife (the father and mother of Tinah) 
immediately quitted Oparre, and retired to the mountains 
in the midft of heavy rain, as did Teppahoo and his family. 
Tinah and Iddeah remained, and expoftulated with me on 
the unreafonablenefs of my anger againft them. He faid,that 
he would exert his utmoft endeavours to difcover the guilty 
perfon ; but it might poflibly not be in his power to get 
him delivered up, which would be the cafe, if he was either 
. of Tiarraboo, Attahooroo, or of the ifland Eimeo. That 
the attempt might have been made as much out of en- 
mity to the people of Matavai and Oparre as to me; every 
one knowing the regard I had for them, and that I had de- 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. . 125 

clared I would i>rote(5l them againft their enemies. All 
this I was inclined to believe ; but I did not think proper to 
appear perfe6lly fatisfied, left Tinah, who was naturally 
very indolent, fliould be remifs in his endeavours to detecSt 
the offender. To guard as mnch as poflible againft future 
attempts of this kind, 1 diretfled a ftage to be built on the 
forecaftle, fo that the cables fliould be more directly under 
the eye of the centinel ; and I likewife gave orders that one 
of the midfliipmen fliould keep watch forward. 

In the afternoon, Oreepyah returned from Tethuroa. He 
told me, that Moannah and hinifelf had narrowly efcaped 
being loft in the bad weather, and that Moannah had been 
obliged to take flielter at Eimeo. Several canoes had been 
loft lately in their pafTage to or from Tethuroa. The over- 
ietting of their canoes is not the only rifk they have to en- 
counter, but is productive of another danger more dread- 
ful; for at fuch times many become a prey to the fliarks, 
which are very numerous in thefe feas. I was informed 
likewife, that they were fometimes attacked by a fifli, which, 
by their defcription, I imagine to be the barracoota, as they 
attribute to it the fame propenfity. 

Saturday pafTed without my feeing any thing of Tinah, 
the whole day. The next morning, he and Iddeah came Sunday a. 
to me, and affured me that they had made the i1:ri<5left 
enquiries concerning the injury intended us, but had 
not been able to difcover any circimiftance which could 
lead them to fufpedt who were concerned in it. This was 
not at all fiuisfacftory, and I behaved towards Them with 
great coolnefs, at which they were much diftrelTed ; anci 
Iddeah, at length, gave vent to her forrow by tears. I could 
no longer keep up the appearance of miftrufting them; 
but I earncftly recommended to them, as they valued the 






Taefday 10. 


King of England's friendfhip, that they woitW exert their 
utmoft endeavours to find out the offenders ; which they 
faithfully promifed. Our reconciliation accordingly took 
place, and melTengers were fent to acquaint Otow and 
Teppahoo, and to invite them to return. 

It has fince occurred to me, that this attempt to cut the 
Ihip adrift, was moft probably the a<3: of fome of our own 
people ; whofe purpofe of remaining at Otaheite might have 
been effedlually anfwered, without danger, if the Ihip had" 
been driven on fhore. At the time, I entertained not the 
leaft thought of this kind, nor did the poflibility of it enter 
into my ideas, having no fufpicion that fo general an incli- 
nation, or fo ftrong an attachment to thefe iflands, could 
prevail among my people, as to induce them to abandon 
every profpedt of returning to their native country. 

A melTenger came to me this afternoon, from the Earee 
of Tiarrabou, the S E divifion of Otaheite, with an invita- 
tion for me to vifit him. I excufed myfelf on account of 
the diftance, and, at Tinah's requeft, fent back by the 
meffenger a handfome prefent, which I hope Tinah will 
get the credit of. I obferved, with much fatisfa6tion, that 
a great part of what Tinah had received from me, he had 
diftributed ; to fome, out of friendfliip and efteem, and to 
others, from motives of political civility. 

Teppahoo and his family left us to-day to go to Tettaha, 
where a grand heiva was to be performed, at which their 
prcfence was required. 

A fmall party of heiva people paffed through Oparre this 
morning, in their way to Tettaha, where they were going 
by appointment. They had the civility to fend me word, 
that, if I chofe, they would ftay to perform a fliort heiva 
before me ; and I immediately attended. It began by a 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 127 

dance of two young girls, to the mufic of drums and flutes, 1789. 
which laftcd no long time ; at the conchifion, they fudden- .^^""""""J' 
ly dropped all their drefs, which was left as a prefent for 
me, and went ofF\\ithout my feeing them any more. Af- 
ter this, the men danced : their performance was more in- 
decent than any I had before feen, but was not the lefs ap- 
plauded on that accoimt by the natives, who feemed much 

After this entertainment, I went with Tinah and Iddeah, 
to pay a vifit to an old lady named Wanow-oora, widow to 
Towah, the late Earee of Tettaha, who condudted the ex- 
pedition againft Eimeo, when Captain Cook was here in 
1777. The old lady had juft landed, and we found her fit- 
ting on the beach, by the head of her canoe. With Tinah, 
was a prieft and three men, who carried a young dog, a 
fowl, and two young plantain boughs : thefe were intend- 
ed for the offering, or prefent, called Otee. Tinah and his 
party feated themfelves at about ten yards diftance from 
Wanow-oora, and were addreffed by her, infhortfentences, 
for a few minutes, and received her Otee, which was exacSl- 
ly the fame as his. Tinah's prieft, in return, made a fliort 
prayer, and his offering was prefented to the old lady. Ti- 
nah then rofe and went to her, and embraced her in a very 
affe<5lionate manner ; and flie returned his kindnefs with 
tears, and many expreflions which I could not underftand. 
Soon after, he conducfled her to a Ihed, and we remained 
with her till it was time to go on board to dinner. I in- 
vited her to be of the party, but fhe excufed herfelf on ac- 
count of age and infirmity. Tinah gave dirediions for her 
and her attendants to be fupplied with whatever they had 
occafion for, and we went off to the fliip. 

Friday the 13th. This forenoon, Tinah fent to inform me, Friday 13. 
§ that 

128 A V O Y A G E T O 

that many flrangers were arrived from all parts, to be prefent 
at a grand heiva, which he had prepared in compliment to 
me. I accordingly went on fliore, and found a great crowd 
of people colle6led together. A ring was made at a little 
diftance from our poft, and Tin ah and feveral other chiefs 
came to meet me. When we were all feated, the heiva 
began by women dancing ; after which, a prefent of cloth, 
and a tawme or breaft-plate, was laid before me. This 
ceremony being over, the men began to wreftle, and regu- 
larity was no longer preferved. Old Otow came to me, and 
defired I would help to put a ftop to the wreftling, as the 
people came from different diftri^Sls, fome of which were ill 
difpofed towards others. What Otow had apprehended 
was not without reafon, for in an inftant the whole was 
tumult : every man took to his arms, and, as I foimd my 
fingle interference could be of no fervice, I retired to our 
poft, and ordered all my people there under arms. At the 
time the difturbance began. Tin ah and Iddeah were ab- 
fent : their firft care was for me, and Iddeah came to fee if 
I was fafe at the poft. She had a double covering of cloth 
round her, and her waift was girded with a large rope. I 
defired her to ftay under my protedlion : this Ihe would not 
confent to, but faid fhe would return as foon as all was over ; 
and away flie went. 

I immediately gave orders for two guns to be fired from 
the fliip without fliot, which had a good effedt : and, as no 
chief was concerned in the tumult, but, on the contrary, all 
of them exerted their influence to prevent mifchief, every 
thing was foon qviiet, and Tinah and Iddeah returned to let 
me know that all was fettled. They went on board, with 
fome other chiefs, and dined with me. 

After dinner, I went on Ihore with Tinah and his 

friends ; 


friends ; and I found three large hogs drefled, and a quan- 
tity of bread-fruit, which he had ordered to be ])repared 
l>efore he went on board, and now defired I would prefent 
them to tlie different parties that had come to fee the enter- 
tainment : — one to the chief people of Attahooroo, one to 
the Arreoys, and a third to the performers of the hciva. I 
prefented them according to his diredtions, and they were 
received with thank fulnefs and pleafure. This 1 looked 
upon as very handfomely done on the partof Tinah, and I 
was glad to fee that it was regarded in the fame light by his 
guefts. Thefe inftances of liberality make full amends for 
the little flips which I have formerly noticed in Tinah. At this 
time, a day feldom pafTcd, that he did not give proofs of his 
hofpitality, by entertaining the principal people that came 
from different parts of the ifland to vifit him, or to fee the 
fliip. Some of the chiefs he commonly invited to dine on 
board, and made provifion for others on fhore. Scarce any 
perfon of confequence went away without receiving fome 
prefent from him. This I encouraged, and was glad it was in 
my power to affift him. But, belides the political motives 
that I have alluded to, it would be unjuft to Tinah not to ac- 
knowledge that his difpofition feemed improved: he was 
more open and unreferved in his manners tlian formerly, 
and his hofpitality was natural and without oftentation. 

Monday the i6th. I was prefent this afternoon, at a Monday 16. 
wTcrtling match by women. The manner of challeng- 
ing, and method of attack, was exadlly the fame as among 
the men. The only difference that I could obferve, was 
not in favour of the fofter fex ; for in thefe contefls 
they fhewed lefs temper and more animofity than I could 
have imagined them capable of. The women, I was told, 
■not only wreftle with each other, but fometinies with 

S the 



Tuefday 17. 

Monday 23. 


the men ; of this I have never feen an inftance, and ima- 
gine it can happen but feldom, as the women in general 
are fmall, and by no means mafculine. Iddeah is faid to be 
very famous at this exercife. 

I walked with Tinah towards the hills, to fee his country 
refidence, which was at a very neat houfe, pleafantly litu- 
ated, and furrounded with plantations. From this place we 
faw the ifland Tethuroa. The next morning, I went to 
Matavai, to look after the Indian corn, which I judged 
would be full ripe for gathering ; but, on my arrival, I found 
that the natives had been before hand with, me, the whole 
being taken away. This I was not at all forry for, as it 
fhows that they value it too much to negledt cultivating it. 

Iddeah £ent on board, for our dinners to-day, a very fine 
tarro pudding; and Tinah brought a btmch of bananas, that 
weighed 8i lbs. on which were 286 fine fruit : ten had 
broken off in the carriage. The tarro pudding is excellent 
eating, and eafily made : I Ihall defcribe this piece of 
cookery, as the knowledge of it may be ufeful in the Weft 
Indies. The tarro being cleared of the outfide fkin, is grat- 
ed down, and made up in rolls of about half a pound each, 
which they cover neatly with leaves, and bake for near 
half an hour. An equal quantity of ripe cocoa-nut meat is 
likewife grated, from which, through a flrainer, the rich 
milky juice is expreflTed. 7 his juice is heated, by put- 
ting fmooth hot ftones in the vefiel that contains it, and the 
tarro is then mixed with it, and kept conftantly ftirring to 
prevent burnings till it is ready, which is known by the 
cocoa-nut juice turning to a clear oil. 

Iddeah was very uneafy to-day, on account of her 
youngeft child being ill. She would not accept of aflSftance 
from our furgeon, but faid flie had fent to Tettaha for a 


THE SOUTH SEAS, fee. 131 

man, who flie expe<5led would come and tell her what to do. 1789. 
Thefe phyfical people are called Tata rapaozv. ^b^ru^. 

Thurfday the 26th. This morning, a man died of a con- Thurfday 26. 
fumption, about two miles from our poft. I was informed of 
it by Mr. Peckover, the gunner, who I had defired to look out 
for fuch a circumftance. I therefore went, accompanied by 
Iddeah, in hopes of feeing the funeral ceremony ; but before 
we arrived, the body was removed to the Toopapow. It lay- 
bare, except a piece of cloth round the loins, and another 
round the neck : the eyes were clofed : the hands were pla- 
ced, one over the pit of the ftomach, and the other upon 
his breaft. On a finger of each hand was a ring, made of 
platted fibres of the cocoa-nut tree, with a fmall bunch of 
red feathers. Under the Toopapow a hole was dug, in 
which, at the end of a month, the corpfe was to be buried. 
The deceafed was of the lower clafs ; the Toopapow, how- 
ever, was neat, and offerings of cocoa-nuts and platted leaves 
lay on the ground. 

The dead are fometimes brought to the Toopapow in 
•wooden coflSns, v/hich are not fhaped like ours, but are 
limply a long box. This cuftom, Iddeah informed me, 
they learnt from the Europeans, and is not very common, 
as making plank is a work of great labour. 

Monday, March the 2d. When I landed this morning, Mondaya. 
I found the inhabitants, that lived near to us, had left their 
houfcs, and retired towards the mountains ; and was in- 
formed that in the night a water cafk, part of an azimuth 
compafs, and Mr. Peckover's bedding, had been ftolen from 
the poft on fhore; the' knowledge of which had caufed a 
genera] alarm. I fent a meflage to complain of this theft 
to Tinah, who did not come near me. About two hours 
elapfed, during which time I went on board to breakfaft, 

S 2 and 

J32 A V O Y A G E T O 

i7?9, and returned, when I faw Tinah and Oreepyah-, with a 
March, number of people, at a houfe at fome diftance; and foon 
after they all marched to the eaftward, paffing clofe by our 
poft. Oedidee, who was with me, told me that they had in- 
telligence of the thief, and were gone in queft of him : and 
in lefs than an hour, news was brovight that they had taken 
him. Shortly after, the whole party appeared, with the 
water-cafk and compafs. Tinah had hold of the thief by the 
-ariTi, and, fliewing him to me, defiredthat I would kill him. 
The bedding, he faid, he had not heard of, but would go in 
fearch of it. I applauded him for the pains he had taken in 
this bufinefs, and explained, with fome fuccefs, the injuftice 
of ftealing from us : that if any of our people committed 
the leaft offence againft them, it did not pafs unnoticed ; 
and that friendfhip required on their part, that thofe who 
injured us Ihould not be protedled by them. Tinah ftop- 
ped me from faying more by embracing me, and the 
whole crowd cried out 7>'o mity (i, e. good friends) 
Tinah then left me, to enquire after the bedding, and I 
fent the offender on board, whom I punillied with a fevere 
flogging. I was glad to find this man was not of Oparre 
or Matavai. 

The fine fruit, called Avee, was juil coming into fea- 
fon : it was likewife in feafon at the time of our ar- 
rival in October. The bread-fruit trees, I have no doubt, 
bear all the year round : we have feen a fcarcity of bread- 
fruit, but have never been v/hoUy without it. Some fern- 
root was fiiewn to me, which, in fcarce feafons, is ufed 
by the natives as bread. It bears a long even-edged leaf, 
about an inch wide ; the tafte fdmewhat refembled that of 
a yam. I was informed by our people, that in their walks 
they faw, in many places, patches of Indian corn juil mak- 

THE SOUTH SEAS, ^cc. 133 

ing their appearance through the ground. This convinces 1789. 
me that the corn taken from Matavai could not have been y^]^l"^ 
better difpofed of. 

Goats are frequently offered for fale, hut I rather cUfcou- 
raged the buying of them, for fear of injuring the breed. 
The natives will not eat them, neither will they tafte 
the milk ; and afk, with fdme appearance of difguft, why 
we do not milk the fows ? I endeavoured to prevail on 
Tinah and Iddeah to eat the goats milk, by mixing it with 
fruit, but they would only try one fpoonfid. 

We had began to make preparations for failing ; and 
Tinah fupplied us with a fufficient ftock of wood, by or- 
dering trees to be brought tlown from the country. He 
had frequently expreffed a wifli that I would leave fome 
fire-arms and ammunition with him, as he expeded to be 
attacked after the fhip failed ; and, perhaps, chiefly on ac- 
count of our partiality to him : I, therefore, thought it 
but reafonable to attend to his requeft ; and I was the more 
readily prevailed on, as he faid his intentions were to adt 
only on the defcnfive. This indeed feems moft fuited to 
his difpofition, which is neither acftive nor enterprifing. If 
Tinah had fpirit in proportion to his fize and ftrength, he 
would probably be the greateft warrior in Otaheite : but 
courage is not the moft confpicuous of his virtues. When 
I promifed to leave with him a pair of piftols, which they 
prefer to mufkets, he told me, that Iddeah would fight with 
one, and Ocdidee with the other. Iddeah has learnt to load 
and fire a mufquet with great dexterity, and Oedidee is an 
excellent markfmun. It is not common for women in this 
comitry to go to war, but Iddeah is a very refolute woman, 
of a large make, and has great bodily ftrength. 



1789. Friday the 6th. I fent Mr. Fryer, the matter, to found 

^March^^ Taowne harbour. The knowledge that we intended fliortly 
Friday 6. to fail, having fpread among the natives, a great many 
broken iron tools were brought from all parts of the ifland, 
to be repaired at our forge ; and this morning, a meffenger 
arrived from Waheatua, the Earee of Tiarraboo, with feve- 
ral pieces of Spanifli iron, which he defired to have made 
into fmall adzes. This requeft "sras, of courfe, complied 



C H A P. XI. 

Arrival of aft jirreoy Woman from Tetburoa. — A prefent 
delivered by "tinah for bis Majejly. — Other Occurrences to 
tbe Time of the Ship's Departure from Otabeite. 

FROM the cth to the 14th of this month, the wind blew ,J789- 
-' ~ ' March. 

conftantly from between the N W and S W, with a <_ ,- / 

great deal of rain. This was the longefl continviance of 
wefterly winds without interruption, that we experienced. 
On the 13th, feveral canoes arrived here, and at Matavai, 
from Tethuroa : in thefe were a large tribe of the Arreoys, 
and among them Huheine Moyere, the wife of Oreepyah> 
who is an Arreoy woman, and remained at Tethuroa after 
Oreepyah came away. On her arrival, a ceremony was 
performed, called Hooepippee, which feemed to be defign- 
ed as a public vifit to all their friends, who are collecfled on 
the occafion. In this ceremony, there was nothing re- 
markable : the Arreoy men took their opportunity to plun- 
der the women who were near them, and Iddeah made a 
prefent of fome cloth to Huheine Moyere, and a baked 
hog to the Arreoys. 

After this ceremony, a prefent was produced from many Friday 13, 
of the principal people, for young Otoo, the Earee Rahie ; 
which was received by Iddeah, Tinah being abfent. This 
preient conlifted of five hogs, and forty-eight bafkets filled 
with bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, tarro, and diflferent kinds of 
puddings. The bafkets were decorated with flips of cloth> 
4 itained 

136 A V O Y A G E T O 

i7?9. ftained with variety of colours, and carried by 24 men, 
March. ^^^|^ ^f whom had a pole on his llioulder, at each end of 
which was abaflcet. 

I have feldom fpoken of Otoo, who was too young to 
have any Ihare in the management of affairs, and with 
whom we were not permitted to have any intercourfe, 
except fpeaking to him now and then, acrofs a river ; at 
which times, I did not negled to fend the children fome 
little prefents, fo that they always rejoiced to fee me. I 
might have been admitted to a nearer acquaintance, if I 
would have gone with my flioulders uncovered, as his pa- 
rents did, but this I declined. The children do not all live 
under the fame roof, the two lifters eating and fleeping 
in a feparate houfe, though at other times, they are gene- 
rally together. 

The ifland Tethuroa may very properly be compared to 
fome of our watering places in England, producing a fimi- 
lar efFe6t upon thofe who vilit it. Many, who went there 
covered with fcurf, returned plump and fair, and fcarce 
like the fame people. This alteration for the better, is in a 
great meafure to be attributed to the difcontinuance of the 
Ava, which Tethuroa does not produce: the cocoa-nut 
trees, like wife, which fupply them with their only beve- 
rage, growing on low iandy keys, and having their roots 
below the level of the fea, may probably have qualities dif- 
ferent from the cocoa-nuts of Otaheite; which, with a 
plenty of fifli, that at other times they are not accuftomed 
to, muft no doubt contribute to the amendment defcribed. . 
Saturday 14. Saturday 14th. I was vifited to-day by a very old mian, 
an uncle to Tupia, the perfon who went from thefe iflands 
in the Endeavour, in the year 1769, and who died at Bata- 
•via. He appeared to be aear 70 years old, and w,as treated 



with much rcfpedl by the natives. He made feveral en- .,'789- 


quiries concerning his nephew, and requefted that when I ■_ -— j 
came again, I would bring his hair. At the time that Ti» 
nah mentioned to me his dciire of vifiting England, I afked 
Avhat account I could give to his friends, if he fhould not 
live to return ; to which he replied, that I muft cut off his 
hair, and carry it to them, and they would be perfectly 
fatisfied. ■» 

On the i6th, I was informed, that a flop was put to the Monday i6. 
fale of hogs, in the diftridl of Tettaha. Teppahoo, the Earee 
of that diflridt, told me that they had very few hogs left 
there, and that it was necelTary, for a certain time, to pro- 
hibit every perfon from killing or felling, that they might 
have time to breed. I did not think it reafonable to folicit 
any indulgence on this head : my friends at Matavai and 
Oparre promifed to fupply us, as long as we remained 
here, though we had confiderably thinned their ftock. 
After our departure, the fame reftricftion was to take place 
inthefe diftrids, and it being delayed on our account, cer- 
tainly defcrves to be regarded among their aifls of friend- 
iliip towards us. 

As it was generally known that we were prej^aring to 
fail, a number of the natives from other parts of the ifland 
were conftajitly with us, and petty thefts were committed, 
whenever the negligence of our people afforded an op- 
portunity : but no attempt of any confequence was 

This evening, Mr. Samwel, my clerk, returned from an Thurfday 
(Cxcurfion to the mountains, having been two days abfent. '^' 
He defcribcd the hills to be well clothed with wood, except 
the tops of the higher mountains, which only produced 
■buflies and fern. The birds he faw, Merc blue paroquets 

T and 


1789. and green doves, except one, which he found burrowing in 

^ **[!"'. the ground, and brought to me. This bird was about the 

lize of a pigeon, and proved to be a white-beUied peterel, 

^ of the fame kind as thofe feen in high latitudes, which are 

called fheerwaters. He like wife brought a branch of a 
plant, like the New Zealand tea-plant, and which, at Van 
Diemen's land, we had made ufe of for brooms. From the 
hills he faw the iflands Maitea and Huaheine, which are 
Htuated nearly in oppofite direflions from Otaheite, and 
are 70 leagues diftant from each other. 
Friday 37. por fome days paft, Tinah had been bufied in getting 

two ParaiSf or mourning- drefles, made, which he intended 
as a prefent to King George. Being finifhed, they were 
this morning hung up in his houfe, as a public exhibition, 
and a long prayer made on the occalion ; the fubftance of 
which was, that the King of England might for ever re-- 
main his friend, and not forget him. When he prefented 
the parais for me to take on board, he could not refrain 
from flieding tears. During the fliort remainder of our 
flay here, there appeared among the natives an evident de- 
gree of forrow, that we were fo foon to leave them, which 
they fhewed by unufual kindnefs and attention. 

We began, this afternoon, to remove the plants to the 
fhip. They were in excellent order : the roots had appear- 
ed through the bottom of the pots, and would have Ihot 
into the ground, if care had not been taken to pre- 
vent it. 

The weather was cpnliderably altered for the better, and 
the trade-wind appeared fettled. The rainy and bad feafon 
of the year, may be reckoned to begin towards the end of 
November, and to continue till near the end of March. 
During this time, the winds are variable, and often wef- 
X terly^, 

T II E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 139 

terly, though we fcldom found them to blow flrong in 
that diredtion. We likewife experienced frequent intervals 
of fine weather ; but, during thefc months, fo open a road 
as Matavai bay is not a fafe anchoring-place for fliips that 
intend remaining any length of time at Otaheite. 

Tuefday the 31ft. To-day, all the plants were on board, Tuefday 31. 
being in 774 pots, 39 tubs, and 24 boxes. The number of 
bread-fruit plants were 1015 : befides which, we had collected 
a number of other plants. The avee, which is one of the 
fineft-flavoured fruits in the world. The a\yah^ which is 
a fruit not fo rich, but of a fine flavour and very refrelliing. 
The rattah^ not much unlike a chefnut, w4iich grows on a 
large tree, in great quantities : they are fingly in large 
pods, from one to two inches broad; and may be eaten 
raw, or boiled in the fame manner as Windfor beans, and 
fo dreffed, are equally good. The orai'ttb, which is a very 
fuperior kind of plantain. All thefe I was particularly 
recommended to collect, by my worthy friend. Sir Jofeph 
Banks. I had alfo taken on board fome plants of the ettow 
and matte^ with which the natives here make a beautiful 
red colour ; and a root called /^f^Z*, of which they make an 
excellent pudding. 

I now made my laft prefents to feveral of my friends, 
with whom I had been moft intimate, particularly to 
Teppahoo. Several people expreflTed great defirc to go 
with us to England. Oedidee, who was always very much 
attached to us, faid, he confidered it as his right, having 
formerly left his native place, to fail with Captain Cook. 
Scarce any man belonging to the fliip was without a tyo^ 
who brought to him prefents, chiefly of provifions for a 
fea ftore. 

T % Friday 

140 . A V O Y A G E TO 

Friday the 3d of April. Tinah and his wife, with his- 
parents, brothers, and lifter, dined w'ith me to-day, and, aS' 

Fridays. I meant to fail early the next morning, they all remained, 
onboard for the night. The fliip was crouded the whole 
day with the natives, and we were loaded with cocoa-nuts,, 
plantains, bread-fruit, hogs, and goats. In the evening, 
there was no dancing or mirth on the beach, fuch as we 
had been accuftomed to, but all w^as iilent. 

Saturday 4. At day-light, we unmoored: the flock of the befl: bower 
anchor was fo much eaten by the worms, that it broke in 
flowing the anchor •. the fmall bower had an iron flock ; and 
in thefe voyages, it is very necefTary that fliips fhould be 
provided with iron anchor flocks. At half pall fix, there 
being no wind, we v/eighed, and, wdth our boats and two 
fweeps, towed the fhip out of the harbour. Soon after, the. 
fea breeze came, and we flood off towards the fea. 

The outlet of Toahroah harbour being narrow, I could 
permit only a few of the natives to be on board : many 
others, how^ever, attended in canoes, till the breeze came, 
when I was obliged to leave them. We flood off and on, 
almoft all the remainder of the day. Tinah and Iddeah, 
prefTed me very flrongly to anchor in Matavai bay, and Hay 
one night longer ; but, as I had already taken leave of moll 
of my friends, I thought it better to keep to my intention of' 
failing. After dinner, I ordered the prefents which I had re- 
ferved for Tinah and his wife, to be put in one of thelliip's- 
boats, and, as I had promifed him fire-arms, I gave hini 
two mufkets, a pair of piflols, and a good flock of ammu-- 
nition. 1 then reprefented to them, the neceffity of their 
going away, that the boat might return to the lliip before 
it was dark -, on which they took a molt affedlionate leave 



of me, and went into the boat. One of their expreOion?, 
at parting, was " Vourab no f Eatua tee eveerah.'^ " May 
*' the Eatua proteiSl you, for ever and ever." 

All the time that we remained at Otaheite, the pidlure of 
Captain Cook, at the dellre of Tinah, was kept on board 
thefliip. On dehvering it to him, I wrote on the back, the 
time of the fliip's arrival and departure, with an account of 
the number of plants on board. 

Tinah had defired that I would falute him, at his depar- 
ture, with the great guns, which I could not comply with, for 
fear of dillurbing the plants; but, as a parting token of our 
regard, we manned fliip with all hands, and gave him three 
cheers. At fun-fet, the boat returned, and we made fail, 
bidding farewell to Otaheite, where for twenty-three weeks 
w^e had been treated with the utmoft afFe6lion and regard, 
and which feemed to increafe in proportion to our Itay. 
That we were not infenfible to their kindnefs, the events 
which followed more than fufficiently proves : for to the 
friendly and endearing behaviour of thefe people, may be 
afcribed the motives for that event which efFecSled the ruin 
of an expedition, that there was every reafon to hope, 
would have been completed in the moft fortunate manner. 
~ To enter into a defcription of the ifland, or its inhabi- 
rants, I look upon as- fuperfluous. From the accounts of 
former voyages, and the fa(5ts which I have related, the 
charader of the people will appear in as true a light, as by 
any defcription in my power to give. The length of time 
that we remained at Otaheite, with the advantage of hav- 
ing been there before, gave me opportunities of making, 
perhaps, a more. perfect vocabulary of the language, than 
has yet appeared ; but I have chofen to defer it for the pre- 


14* A V O Y A O E T O 

i^gp, fent, as tliwe is a probability that I may hereafter be better 


qualified for fuch a tafk. 

We left Otaheite with only two patients in the venereal 
lift, which fliows that the difeafe has not gained ground. 
The natives fay that it is of little confequence, and we faw 
feveral inftances of people that had been infed:ed, who, after 
abfenting themfelves for 15 or 20 days, made their appear- 
ance again, without any vilible fymptom remaining of the 
difeafe. Their m.ethod of cure I am unacquainted with ; but 
their cuftomary diet, and mode of living, muft contribute 
towards it. We faw a great many people, however, with 
fcrophulous habits, and bad fores : thefe they denied to be 
produced from any venereal caufe ; and our furgeon was of 
the fame opinion. 

The refult of the mean of 50 fets of lunar obfervations, 
taken by me on fhore, gives for the Longitude of Point 
Venus — — — 210 33 57 E 

Capt. Cook, in 1769, places it in — aio 27 30 

In 1777, his laft voyage — — 210 22 28 

The tide, in Toahroah harbour, was very inconfiderable, 
and not regular. The greateft rife that I obferved, was 1 1 
inches; but, what was moft lingular, the time of high water 
did not appear to be governed by the moon, it being at the 
higheft, every day, between noon and two o'clock. The 
variable winds and weather, at this time of the year, has no 
doubt an influence on the tides : on fome days, fcarce any 
rife was perceptible. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 143 

R I L. 

CHAP. xn. 

ylt the Ijland Huaheine — A Friend of Oinai vifits the Ship. — 

Leave the Society IJlands. — A Water-fpout. — The Ijland 

IVbytootackee difcovered. — Anchor in Annamooka Road. — 

Our Parties on Shore robbed by the Natives. — Sail 

from Annamooka. — The Chiefs detained o« board. — Part 


WE fleered towards the illand Huaheine, which we 1789, 
got fight of the next morning. At noon we 
brought to, near the entrance of Owharre harbour, it not Sundays. 
being my intention to anchor. We could fee every part 
of the harbour dirtin(5lly, but my attention was particularly 
direcfled to the fpot where Omai's houfe had flood, no part 
of which was now vifible. It was near three o'clock, before 
any canoes came off to us, for the people on fhore imagined 
that the fhip was coming into the harbour. The firft that 
arrived, had three men in it, who brought a few cocoa-nuts. 
I enquired about the chief, or Earee Rabie ; and one of the 
fellows, with great gravity, faid, he was the Earee Rabie, 
and that he had come to defire I would bring the fliip into 
the harbour. I could not help laughing at his impudence : 
however, I gave him a few nails for his cocoa-nuts, and he 
left us. Immediately after, a double canoe, in which were 
ten men, came alongfide; among them was a young man,, 
who recollected and called me by my name. Several other 


144 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. canoes arrived, with hogs, yams, and other provilions, 
L -!- ^Lf which we purchafed. My acquaintance told me that he had 
lived M'ith our friend Omai. He confirmed the account 
that has already been given, and informed me, that, of all the 
animals which had been left with Omai, the mare only re- 
mained ahve. He faid that Omai and himfclf had often 
rode together ; and I obferved, that many of the iflanders, 
who came on board, had the reprefentation of a man on 
horfeback tattowed on their legs. After the death of Omai, 
his houfe was broken to pieces, and the materials flolen. 
The fire-arms were at Ulietea, but ufelefs. I enquired after 
the feeds and plants, and was informed that they were all 
deftroyed, /except one tree ; but of what kind that was, I 
could not make out from their defcription. I was much 
prefled to take the fliip into the harbour, and Omai's com- 
panion requ^fted me to let him go to England. When they 
found that I would not flop among them, they feemed jealous 
of our going to Ulietea, and it appeared to give them fome 
latisfadion, when I told them that I lliould not go near 
that ifland. 

The canoes had left us, and we were making fail, when 
we difcovered an Indian in the water, fwimming towards 
the Ihore, which in all probability he would not have been 
able to reach. We took him up, and, luckily, another canoe 
coming alongfide, we put him in her. The people of the 
canoe faid that the man was infar.e ; but how he came to be 
fMdmmit-ig fo far from the land, \\ e could not conje(5tiu:e.. 
At fix o'clock we made fail, and ran all night to the S W, 
and S W by S, between the illands Huaheine and Ulietea. 
The next morning, I altered the courfe, fleering more to 
the weilward, for the Friendly Hlands. 
Tixurfdayp. Gil tlic 9th, at nine o'clock in the inoniing, the weather 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 145 

Lecame fqually, and a body of thick black clouds coUe^lcd 17S9. 
in the eaft. Soon after, a water-fpout was feen at no great ._ 1^^ ''\ 
tliftance from us, which appeared to great advantage from 
the darknefs of the clouds behind it. As nearly as could 
judge, it was about two feet diameter at the upper i>art, and 
about eight inches at the lower. 1 had fcarce made thefc 
remarks, when I obferved that it was advancing rapidly to- 
wards the Ihip. We immediately altered our courfe, and 
took in all the fails, except the forefliil; loon after which, it 
paffed within ten yards of our Itern, making a ruflling 
noife, but without our feeling the lealt effect from its being 
fo near us. The rate at which it travelled, I' judged to be 
about ten miles per hour, going towards the well in the di- 
rection of the wind. In a quarter of an hour after palling us, 
it difperfed. I never was fo near a water-fpout before : the 
conne6lion between the column, which was higher than our 
maft-heads, and the water below, was no otherwife vifible, 
than by the fea being difturbed in a circular fpace of about fix 
yards in diameter, the centre of which, from the whirling of 
the water round it, formed a hollow; and from the outer parts 
of the circle, the water was thrown up with much force, in a 
fpiral direction, and could be traced to the height of fifteen 
or twenty feet. At this elevation we loft fight of it, and 
could fee nothing of its juncTtion with the column above. 
It is impoflible to fay what injury we fliould have fuffered, 
if it had paffed dire(5tly over us. Malts, I imagine, might 
have been carried away, but I do not apprehend it would 
have endangered the lofs of a fliip. 

As we failed very near the track made in former voyages, 
I had little reafon to expe»ftthat we fliould at this time make 
any new difcovery: neverthelefs, on the nth, at day-light, Saturday u. 
land was {qqh to the S S \V, at about five leagues dillance, 

U which , 

146 A V O Y A G E T O 


which appeared to be an iiland of a moderate height. On 
the north part was a round hill : the N W part was higheft 
and fteep : the S E part floped off to a low point. 

The wind had been wefterly lince the prece(4ing noon^ 
and at the time we law the land, the fliip was {landing to 
the N W. At fix, we tacked to the fouthward, and, as we- 
advanced in that dire6tion,, difcovered a number of low 
keys, of which at noon we counted nine : they were all- 
covered with trees. The large iiland firft feen had a moib 
fruitful appearance, its fhore being bordered with flat land, 
on which grew innumerable cocoa-nut and other trees; and 
the higher grounds beautifully interfperfed with lawns» 
The wind being light and unfavourable, we endeavoured 
all day, but without fiiccefs, to get near the land. In the 
night we had a heavy fquall, which obliged us to clew up. 
all our fails, and foon after it fellcalmi 
Sunday 12. On the lath, the winds were light and variable all day,, 
with calms. At two in the afternoon, we were within three 
miles of the fouthernmoft key, and could fee a number of 
people within the reefs. Shortly after, a canoe, in which 
were four men, paddled off to us, and came alongfide,. 
without fliewing any figns of apprehenfion or furprife. I, 
gave them a few beads, and they came into the Ihip. One 
man, who feemed to have an afcendency over the others,, 
looked about the fliip with fome appearance of curiolity,. 
but none of them would venture to go below. They afked; 
for fome boiled frefh pork, which they faw in a bowl, be- 
longing to one of the feamen, and it was given them to eat,, 
with boiled plantains. Being told that I was the Earee or 
chief of the fhip, the principal perfon came and joined nofes 
with me, and prefented to me a large mother of pearl fliell, 

7 which 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c.. 147 

which hung with platted hair round his neck ; this he 
faftencd round ray neck, with figns of great fatisfaction. 

They Ipoke the fame language as at Otaheite, with very 
little variation, as far as I could judge. In a fmall vocabu- 
lary, that I made whillt converfing with thefe men, only 
four Mords, out of tw^enty-four, difi'ered from the Otaheite. 
The name of the large illand, theytoldme,wasWytootackee, 
and the Earee was called Lomakkayah. They faid that there 
were no hogs, dogs, or goats upon the ifland, nor had they 
yams, or tarro ; but that plantains, cocoa-nuts, fowls, bread- 
fruit, and avees, were there in great abundance. Notwith- 
ftanding they faid that no hogs were on the illand, it w^as 
evident they had feen luch animals; for they called them 
by the fame name as is given to them at Otaheite, which 
made me fufpedl that they were deceiving me. However, I' 
ordered a young boar and fow to be put into their canoe, 
with fome yams and tarro, as we could afford to part 
with fome of thefe articles. I alfo gave to each of them a 
knife, a fmall adze, fome nails, beads, and a looking-glafs. 
The latter they examined with great curioiity ; but with the 
iron- work they appeared to be acquainted ; calling it aouree, 
which is the common name for iron among the illands where 
it is known. 

As they were preparing to leave us, the chief of the canoe 
took poffeffion of every thing that I had given to the others. 
One of them fliewed fome figns of diffatisfa6tion ; but, after 
a little altercation, they joined nofes, and were reconciled. I 
now thought they were going to leave the fliip; but only two 
of them went into the canoe, the other two purpofmg to 
Itay all night with us, and to have the canoe return for them 
in the morning. I would have treated their confidence 
with the regard it merited, but it was impolTible to fay how 

U 2 far 





Saturday 18. 

Tuefday 21. 

far the fliip might he driven from the ifland in the nightr. 
This I explained to them, and they rehidtantly confented 
to leave us. They were very folicitous that fomebody from 
the Ihip fliould go on fliore with them ; and juft before they 
quirted us, they gave me a wooden fpear, which was the 
only thing, the paddles excepted, they had brought with 
them in the canoe. It was a common long ftafF, pointed 
with the toa wood. 

The ifland of Wytootackee is about ten miles in circuit ;; 
its latitude from i8° 50' to 18° 54' S, and longitude 200° 19' E. 
A group of fmall keys, eight in number, lie to the S E, four 
or five miles diftant from Wytootackee, and a lingle one to 
the W S W ; the fouthernmoft of the group is in latitude 
18° 58' S. Variation of the compafs 8° \\ E. 

The people that came off to us did not differ in appearance 
from the natives of Hervey's Iflands, feen in Captain Cook's 
lait voyage, though much more friendly and inoffenfive in 
their manners. They were tattowed acrofs the arms andlegSy 
but not on the loins or pofteriors,.like the people of Otaheite.. 
From their knowledge of iron, they have doubtlefs commu- 
nication with Hervey's lilands, which are not more thaii. 
eighteen leagues diftant from them. 

In the night, a breeze fpriuig up from the fouth, and 
Ave continued our courfe to the weft ward. 

On the 1 8th, at fun-fet, we faw Savage Ifland; and in 
the night, pafTed by to the fouth ward of it. 

At eleven o'clock in the forenoon of the 21ft, we faw the 
ifland Caow, from the raaft-head, bearing N W by W % W. 
This ifland is a high mountain, with a (liarp-pointed top, 
and is the northwelfernmoft of all the Friendly Iflands. At 
noon we faw it very diftindlly from the deck, it being 
then nineteen leagues diilant from us. 


. T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 149 

The wind being to the fouthwani, we could not fetch 
Annamooka, at which illand I intended to rtop, before the 
evening of the 23d, when we anchored in the road, in Thurfday 23. 
twenty-three fathoms; the extremes of Annamooka bearing 
E by N and S by E, our diltance from tlie lliore being half 
a league. In the middle of the day, a canoe had come off 
to us from the illand Mango, in ^^»hicll was a chief, named 
Latoomy-lange, who dined with me. Immediately on 
our anchoring, feveral canoes came alongfide, with yams 
and cocoa-nuts, but none of the natives offered to come on 
board, without firlf alking permiflion. As yet, I had feen 
no perfon with whom 1 could recolleil to have been for- 
merly acquainted. I made enqtiiries after fome of our old 
friends, particularly the chiefs, but I found myfelf not fuf- 
liciently mailer of the language to obtain the information 
I wanted. 

Friday the 24th. Our flation being inconvenient for FrLday24. 
watering, at daylight we weighed, and worked more to the 
eaftward, where we anchored in twenty-one fathoms ; the 
extremes of Annamooka bearing N 85° E, and S 33° W; the 
Sandy bay S 73' E ; our diftance from the Ihore, half a 
league. Sounded all round the fliip, and found the ground 
to be a coarfe coral bottom, but with even foundings. 

By this time, fome large failing canoes were arrived from 
different iflands in the neighbourhood of Annamooka ; and 
an old lame man, named Tepa^ whom I had known in 1777, 
and immediately recolle^fted, came on board. Two other 
chiefs, whofe names were Noocaboo and Kunocappo, were 
with him. Tci^i having formerly been accuftomed to our 
manner of fpeaking their language, I found I could con- 
verfe with him tolerably well. He informed me, that 
Poulaho, Feenow, and Tubow, were alive, and at Tonga- 

i^o A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. taboo, and that they wonld come hither as foon as they 
n_ ^~'[-^'_> heard of our arrival, of which he promifed to fend them 
immediate notice. He faid that the cattle which we had 
left at Tongataboo, had aU bred, and that the old ones were 
yet living. He enquired after feverai people who were 
here with Captain Cook. Being defirous to fee the fliip, I 
took him and his companions below, and fhewed them the 
bread-fruit and other plants, at feeing which they were 
greatly furprifed. I made each of them a prefent ; and, 
when they had fitisfied their curiolity, I invited them to 
go on fliore with me in the fliip's boat. 

I took Nelfon with me to procure fome bread-fruit plants, 
one of our flock being dead, and two or three others a little 
lickly. When we landed, there were about two hundred 
people on the beach, moft of them women and children. 
Tepa fliewed me a large boat-houfe, which, he told me, 
we might make ufe of; thinking we fliould have a party 
on fliore, as our fliips had formerly. I went with him in 
fearch of water, but could find no better place than where 
Captain Cook had watered, which is a quarter of a mile in- 
land from the eaft end of the beach, I next walked to the 
weft point of the bay, where fome plants and feeds had 
been fown by Captain Cook; and had the fatisfaition to fee, 
in a plantation ciofe by, about twenty fine pine-apple plants, 
but no fruit, this not being the proper feafon. They told me, 
that they had eaten many of them, that they were fine and 
large, and that at Tongataboo there were great numbers. 

When I returned to the landing-place, I was defired to 
fit down, and a prefent was brought me, which confifled 
of fome btindles of cocoa-nuts only. This fell fliort of my 
expedtations ; however, I appeared fatisfied, and diflributed 
beads and trinkets to the women and children near me. 


T H E S O U T H S £ A S, &c. 151 

Numerous were the marks of mourning with which 
chefe people disfigure themlelves, fuch as bloody temples, 
their heads deprived of moft of the hair, and, what was 
worfe, almort all of them with the lofs of fome of their 
fingers. Several fine boys, not above fix years old, had loft 
both their little fingers; and fomeof the'men, befidesthefe, 
had parted with, the middle finger of the right hand. 

The chiefs went off with me to dinner, and I found a 
brifk trade carrying on at the Ihip for yams ; fome plan- 
tains and bread-fruit were likewife brought on board, but 
no hogs. In the afternoon, more failing canoes arrived, 
fome of which contained not lefs than ninety paffengprs. 
We purchafed eight hogs, fome dogs, fowls, and fhad- 
docks. Yams were in great abundance, very fine and 
large; one yam weighed above forty-five pounds. Among 
the people that came this afternoon, were two of the 
name of Tubow, which is a family of the firft diftindlion 
among the Friendly Iflands ; one of them was chief of 
the illand Lefooga ; with him and Tepa I went on fliore to 
fee the wooding place. 1 found a variety of fizeable trees ; 
but the kind which I principally pitched upon, was the 
Barringtonia, of Forfl:er. 1 acquainted Tepa with my in- 
tention of fending people to cut wood, which meeting with, 
his approbation, we parted. 

X On the a5th, at daylight, the wooding and watering par- Saturday 25. 
ties went on fhore. I had directed them not to cut the 
kind of tree *, which, when Captain Cook wooded here 
in 1777, blinded, for a time, many of the wood-cutters.. 
They had not been an hour on fliore^ before one man had 
an axe ftolen from him, and another an adze. Tepa was 

• Excxcarta Agalhcha Linn. Sp. PL called in the Malay Language, Caju Maia 
Baata, which fignifies, the tree that wounds the eyes. 


152 A V O Y A G E T O 

applied to, who got the axe reftored, but the adze was not 
recovered. In the evening we completed wooding. 
Sunday z6. Sundav the 26th. In the morning, Nelfon went on fliore 
to get a few plants ; but, no principal chief being among 
the people, he was infulted, and a fpade taken from him. 
A boat's grapnel was likewife flolen from the watering 
party. Tepa recovered the fpade for us ; but the croud of 
natives was become fo great, by the number of canoes 
that had arrived from different illands, that it was impof- 
fible to do any thing, where there was fuch a multitude of 
people, without a chief of fufficient authority to command 
the whole. I therefore ordered the watering party to go 
on board, and determined to fail ; for 1 could not difcover 
that any canoe had been fent to acquaint the chiefs of 
Tongataboo of our being here. For fome time after the 
thefts were committed, the chiefs kept away, but before 
noon, they came on board. 

At noon, we unmoored, and at one o'clock, got under 
fail. The two Tubows, Kunocappo, Latoomy-lange, and 
another chief, were on board, and I acquainted them, that, 
unlefs the grapnel was returned, they mult remain in the 
fliip. They were furprifed, and not a little alarmed. Ca- 
noes were immediately difpatched after the grapnel, which, 
I was informed, could not poffibly be brought to the Ihip 
before the next day, as thofe who had ftolen it, in:ime- 
diately fajled with their prize to another ifland. Never- 
thelefs, 1 detained them till fun-fet, when their uneafinefs 
and impatience increafed to fuch a degree, that they began 
to beat themfelves about the face and eyes, and fome of 
them cried bitterly. As this diitrefs was more than the 
grapnel was worth, and I had no reafon to imagine that they 
were privy to, or in any manner concerned in the theft, 

1 could 

THE SOUTH SEAS, l<c, 153 

I could not think, of detaining them longer, and called their 1789. 
canoes alongfide. I then told them they were at liberty to ^_ — .— ^'j 
go, and made each of them a prefent of a hatchet, a faw, 
with fome knives, gimblets, and nails. This unexpedted 
prefent, and the fudden change in their fituation, afFe<Sled 
them not lefs with joy than they had before been with 
apprehenfion. They were imbounded in their acknow- 
ledgments ; and I have little doubt but that we parted bet- 
ter friends than if the affair had never happened. 

We ftood to the northward all night, with light winds; 
and on the next day, the 27th, at noon, were between the Monday 27. 
iflands Tofoa and Kotoo. Latitude obferved 19° 18' S. 

Thus far, the voyage had advanced in a courfe of imin- 
terrupted profperity, and had been attended with many 
circumftances equally pleafing and fatisfa<5lory. A very 
different fcene was now to be experienced. A confpiracy 
had been formed, which was to render all our paft labour 
produdlive only of extreme mifery and diflrefs. The 
means had been concerted and prepared with fo much fe- 
crecy and circumfpe(5tion, that no one circumftance aji- 
peared to occafion the fmalleft fufpicion of the impending 

G H A P. 



A Mutiny in the Ship: 

1789. "^XZ"^ kept near the ifland Kotoo, all the afternoon, in 
'_ -^- !l; * '^ hopes that feme canoes would come off to the fliip ; 
Monday 27. bvit in this I was difappointed. The wind being northerly, 
in the evening, we fleered to the weflward, to pafs to the 
fouth of Tofoa. I gave dire<5lions for this conrfe to be con- 
tinued during the night. The mailer had the firft watch; 
the gunner the middle watch; and Mr. Chriftian the 
morning watch. This was the turn of duty for the 
Tucfday 28. Tuefday the 28th. Jufl before fun-riling, while I was yet 
afleep, Mr. Chriftian, with the matter at arms, gunner's 
mate, and Thomas Burkitt, feaman, came into my cabin, 
and feizing me, tied my hands wdth a cord behind my 
back, threatening me with inftant death, if I fpoke or made 
the leaft noife : I, however, called as loud as I could, in 
hopes of alliftance ; but they had already fecured the offi- 
cers who were not of their party, by placing centinels at 
their doors. There were three men at my cabin door, be- 
fides the four within ; Chriftian had only a cutlafs in his 
hand, the others had mufkets and bayonets. I was hauled 
out of bed, and forced on deck in my fliirt, fuffering great 
pain from the tightnefs with which they had tied my 
hands. I demanded the reafon of fuch violence, but re- 
3 ceived 


ceived no other anfvver than abufe, for not holding my 1789. 
tongue. The mafter, the gunner, the furgeon, Mr. El- 
phinftone, mafter's mate, and Nelfon, were kept confined 
below ; and the fore hatchway was guarded by centinels. 
The boatfwain and carpenter, and alfo the clerk, Mr. Sa- 
muel, were allowed to come upon deck, where they faw me 
{landing abaft the mizen-niaft, with my hands tied behind' 
my back, under a guard, witk Chriftian at their head. 
The boatfwain was ordered to hoift the launch out, with 
a threat, if he did not do it inftantly, to take care of 

When the boat was out, Mr. Hayward and Mr. Hallet, 
two of'the midfliipmen, and Mr. Samuel, were ordered 
into it. I demanded what their intention was in giving this 
order, and endeavoured to perfuade the people near me 
not to pcrfift in fuch a6ls of violence ; but it was to no 
effetfl : " Hold your tongue, Sir, or you are dead this in- 
" ftant," was conftantly repeated to me. 

The mafter, by this time, had fent to requeft that he 
might come on deck, which was permitted ; but he was 
foon ordered back again to his cabin. 

I continued my endeavours to turn the tide of affairs, when 
Chriilian changed the cutlafs which he had in his hand for 
a bayonet that was brought to him, and, holding me with 
a flrong gripe by the cord that tied my hands, he with 
many oaths threatened to kill me immediately, if I woidd 
not be quiet: the villains round me had their pieces cocked 
and bayonets fixed. Particular people were called on to go 
into the boat, and were hurried over the fide ; whence I 
concluded that with thefe people I was to be fet adrift : 1 
therefore made another effort to bring about a change, but 

X 2 with 


1789, with no other efFe£l than to be threatened with having my 
t ^-^'-^jj brains blown out. 

The boatfwain and feamen, who were to go in the boat, 
were allowed to colleil twine, canvas, lines, fails, cord- 
age, an eight and twenty gallon cafk. of water, and Mr. 
Samuel got 150 lbs. of bread, with 3. fmall quantity of rum 
and wine, alfo a quadrant and compafs ; but he was for- 
bidden, on pain of death, to touch either map, ephemeris, 
book of aitronomical obfervations, fextant, time-keeper, or 
any of my furveys or drawings. 

The mutineers having forced thofe of the feamen whom 
they meant to get rid of, into the boat, Chriftian directed a 
dram to be ferved to each of his own crew. I then un- 
happily faw that nothing could be done to effeil: the reco- 
very of the fliip: there was no one to affift me, and every 
endeavour on my part was anfwered with threats of 

The officers were next called upon deck, and forced over 
the fide into the boat, while I was kept apart from every 
one, abaft the mizen-maft; Chriflian, armed with a bayo- 
net, holding me by the bandage that fecured my hands. 
The guard round me had their pieces cocked, but on my 
daring the ungrateful wretches to fire, they uncocked 

Ifaac Martin, one of the guard over me, I faw, had an 
inclination to affift me, and as he fed me with ffiaddock, 
(my lips being quite parched) we explained our wifhes tO' 
each other by our looks ; but this being obferved, Martin 
was removed from me. He then attempted to leave the ffiip, 
for which purpofe he got into the boat; but with many 
threats they obliged him to return, 


THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 137 

The armourer, Jofeph Coleman, and two of the carpcn- i;?^. 
ters, M'Intofli and Norman, were ahb kept contrary to their ^_^ -''l^ 
incUnation ; and they begged of me, after I was aftern in 
the boat, to remember that they declared they had no hand 
in the tranfatSlion. Michael Byrne, I am told, likewife 
wanted to leave the fliip. 

It is of no moment for me to recount my endeavours to 
bring back the offenders to a lenfe of their duty : all I 
could do was by fpeaking to them in general; but it was to- 
no purpofe, for I was kept fecurely bound, and no one ex- 
cept the guard fufFered to come near me. 

To Mr. Samuel I am indebted for fecuring my journals 
and commiflion, with feme material fhip papers. Without 
thefe I had nothing to certify what I had done, and my 
honour and characfler might have been fufpecfted, without 
my poffefling a proper document to have defended them. 
All this he did with great refolution, though guarded and 
fl:ri<5tly watched. He attempted to fave the time-keeper, 
and a box with my furveys, drawings, and remarks for 
fifteen years paft, which were numerous; when he was 
hurried away, with " Damn your eyes, you are well off to 
" get what you have." 

It appeared to me, that Chriftian was fome time in doubt 
whether he fhould keep the carpenter, or his mates ; at 
length he determined on the latter, and the carpenter was 
ordered into the boat. He was permitted, but not w^ithout 
fome oppofition, to take his tool chert. 

Much altercation took place among the mutinous crew 
during the whole bufinefs: fome fwore " I'll be damned if 
** he does not find his way home, if he gets any thing with 
** him," (meaning me); and, when the carpenter's cheft 
was carrying away, " Damn my eyes, he v/ill have a vcf- 

" fel: 

158 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. " fel built in a month." While others laughed at the 

'- ''-!-^-' ^^Ipl^^s fituation of the boat, being very deep, and fo little 

room for thofe who were in her. As for Ghriftian, he 

feemed as if meditating defl:ru6tion on himfelf and every 

one elfe. 

I afked for arms, but they laughed at me, and faid I was 
well acquainted with the people among whom 1 was going, 
and therefore did not want them ; four cutlafles, however, 
were thrown into the boat, after we were veered aftern. 

The officers and men being in the boatj they only waited 
for me, of which the mafter at arms informed Ghriftian; 
who then faid — " Come, captain Bligh, your officers and 
*' men are now in the boat, and you muft go with them ; if; 
" you attempt to make the leaft refiftance you will inftantly 
*' be put to death :" and, without further ceremony, with a 
tribe of armed ruffians about me, I was forced over the fide, 
where they untied my hands. Being in the boat, we were 
veered aftern by a rope. A few pieces of po^k ^y■ere thrown, 
to us, and fome clothes, alfo the cutlaffes I have already 
mentioned ; and it was then that the armourer and car- 
penters called out to me to remember that they had no 
hand in the tranfaftion. After having undergone a great 
deal of ridicule, and been kept fome time to make fport 
for thefe unfeeling wretches, we were at length call adrift 
iti the open ocean. 

1 had with me in the boat the following perfons : 

Names, Stations. 

John Fryer _ - _ - Mafter. 
Thomas Ledward - - - A<fViiig Surgeon. 
David Nelson - - - Botaniil, 





William Peckover 
William Cole 
William Purcell - 
William Elphinston 
Thomas Hayward - 
John Hallet - 
John Norton 
Peter Linkletter 
Lawrence Lebogue 
John Smith - - - 
Thomas Hall - - 
George Simpson 
Robert Tinkler - 
Robert Lamb - - 
Mr. Samuel _ _ - 




Mafter's Mate. 


Quarter Mafters. 



Quarter Mafter's Mate. 

A boy. 



There remained on board the Bounty, 
Fletcher Christian - - Mafter's Mate. 
Peter Haywood - - -•> 
Edward Young - - - 
George Stewart - - 
Charles Churchill 
John Mills - _ _ . 


- Mafter at Arms. 

- Gunner's Mate. 

James Morrison 
Thomas Burkitt - 
Matthew Quintal 
John Sumner - - _ 
John Millward 
William M'KoY 
Henry Hillbrant - - 
Michael Byrne - - - 

- Boatfwain's Mate. 

- Able Seaman. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto. 





William Musprat ■ 
Alexander Smith - 
John Williams 
Thomas Ellison - 
Isaac Martin 
Richard Skinner 
Matthew Thompson 
William Brown 
Joseph Coleman 
Charles Norman 
Thomas M'Intosh ■ 


- Dittp. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto. 

- Ditto, 

- Gardiner, 

- Armourer. 

- Carpenter's Mate. 

- Carpenter's Crew. 

Jn all 25 hands, and the moft able men of the 
fliip's company. 

Having little or no wind, we rowed pretty faft towards 
Tofoa, which bore N E about 10 leagues from us. While 
the fliip was in fight flie fteered to the W N W, but 1 
confidered this only as a feint ; for when we were fent 
away — " Huzza for Otaheite," was frequently heard among 
the mutineers. 

Chriftian, the chief of the mutineers, is of a refpecStable 
family in the north of England. This was the third voyage 
he had made with me ; and, as I found it neceflary to keep 
my fhip's company at three watches, I had given him an 
order to take charge of the third, his abilities being tho- 
roughly equal to the tafk ; and by this means the matter 
and gunner were not at watch and watch. 

Haywood is alfo of a refpedable family in the north of 
England, and a young man of abilities, as well as Chriftian. 
Thefe two had been objects of my particular regard and at- 
tention, and I had taken great pains to inftrudt them, hav- 


iiig entertained hopes, that, as profefllonal men, they would 
have become a credit to their country. 

Yonng was well recommended, and had the look of an 
able flout leaman : he, however, fell fliort of what his ap- 
pearance promifed. 

Stewart was a young man of creditable parents, in the 
Orkneys; at which place, on the return of the Refolution 
from the South Seas, in 1780, we received fo many civilities, 
that, on that account only, I fhould gladly have taken him 
with me : but, independent of this recommendation, he 
was a feaman, and had always borne a good charadter. 

Notwithftanding the roughnefs with which I was treated, 
the remembrance of pail: kindnelTes produced fome figns 
of remorfe in Chriftian. When they were forcing me out 
of the fliip, I afked him, if this treatment was a proper 
return for the many inftances he had received of my 
friendlliip ? he appeared difturbed at my queftion, and 
anfwered with much emotion, " That, — captain Bligh, — 

*' that is the thing ; 1 am in hell — I am in hell." 

As foon as I had time to refle6t, I felt an inward fatisfac- 
tion, which prevented any depreflion of my fpirits : con- 
fcious of my integrity, and anxious folicitude for the good 
of the fervice in which I had been engaged, I found my 
mind wonderfully fupported, and I began to conceive hopes, 
notwithftanding fo heavy a calamity, that I fhould one day 
be able to account to my King and country for the misfor- 
tune. — A few hours before, my fituation had been pecu- 
liarly flattering, I had a fhip in the moft perfedt order, 
and well ftored with every neceflary both for fervice and 
health : by early attention to thole particulars I had, as 
much as lay in my power, provided againft any accident, 

Y in 


i?89. in cafe I could not get through Endeavour Straits, as well 
^''^ ' '^ as againft what might befal me in them; add to this, the 
plants had been fuccefsfully preferved in the moft fiourifh- 
ing ftate : fo that, upon the whole, the voyage was two 
thirds completed, and the remaining part, to all appearance, 
in a very promiling way ; every perfon on board being in 
perfedl health, to eftablilh which was ever amongft the 
principal obje6ls of my attention. 

It will very naturally be afked, what could be the reafon 
for fuch a revolt ? in anfwer to which I can only conjec- 
ture, that the mutineers had flattered themfelves with the 
hopes of a more happy life among the Otaheiteans, than 
they could poflibly enjoy in England ; and this, joined to 
fome female connections, moft probably occafioned the 
whole tranfaftion. 

The women at Otaheite are handfome, mild and cheer- 
ful in their manners and converfation, polTefled of great 
feniibility, and have fufficient delicacy to make them 
admired and beloved. The chiefs were fo much attached 
to our people, that they rather encouraged their ftay among 
them than otherwife, and even made them promifes of 
large pofleffions. Under thefe, and many other attendant 
circumftances, equally delirable, it is now perhaps not fo 
much to be wondered at, though fcarcely poffible to have 
been forefeen, that a fet of failors, moft of them void of 
connections, ftiould be led away; efpecially when, in addi- 
tion to fuch powerful inducements, they imagined it in their 
power to fix themfelves in the midft of plenty, on one of the 
fineft illands in the world, where they need not labour, 
and where the allurements of diffipation are beyond any 
thing that can be conceived. The utmoft, however, that 



T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 163 

any commander could have fnppofed to have happened is, 
that fome of the people would have been tempted to defert. 
But if it fliould be aflerted, that a commander is to guard 
againft an a6l of mutiny and piracy in his own fliip, more 
than by the common rules of feyvice, it is as much as to 
fay that he mull lleep locked up, and when awake, be gird- 
ed with piftols. 

Defertions have happened, more or lefs, from moft of 
the fliips that have been at the Society Iflands; but it has 
always been in the commanders power to make the chiefs 
return their people : the knowledge, therefore, that it was 
imfafe to deferf, perhaps, firfl led mine to confider with 
what eafe fo fmall a fliip might be furprized, and that fo 
favourable an opportunity would never offer to them 

The fecrecy of this mutiny is beyond all conception. 
Thirteen of the party, who were with me, had always lived 
forward among the feamen ; yet neither they, nor the mefs- 
mates of Chriftian, Stewart, Haywood, and Young, had ever 
obferved any circumftance that made them in the leaft fuf- 
pedt what was going on. To fuch a clofe-planned a6t of 
villainy, my mind being entirely free from any fuipicion, 
it is not wonderful that I fell a facrifice. Perhaps, if there 
had been marines on board, a centinel at my cabin-door 
might have prevented it ; for I flept with the door always 
open, that the officer of the watch might have accefs to me 
on all occafions, the poffibility of fuch a confpiracy being 
ever the fartheft from my thoughts. Had their mutiny 
been occafioned by any grievances, either real or imagi- 
nary, I muft have difcovered fymptoms of their difcontent, 
which wonld have put me on my guard: but the cafe was 

Y 2 far 


1789. far other^ife, Chriftian, in particular, I was on the moft 
^^'iHit friendly terms with : that very day he was engaged to have 
dined with me; and the preceding night, he excnfed him- 
felf from flipping with me, on pretence of being unwell; 
for which I felt concerned, having no fufpicions of his in- 
tegrity and honour. 

C HA P. 





Proceed in the Launch to the IJland Tofoa. — Difficulty in ob- 
taining Supplies there. — Treacherous Attack of the Na- 
tives. — EJcape to Sea^ and bear a-zvay for Kezv Holland. 

MY firll determination was to feek. a fupply of bread- 
fruit and water at Tofoa, and afterwards to fail for 
Tongataboo, and there rilk a folicitation to Poulaho, the 
king, to equip our boat, and grant us a fupply of water and 
provifions, fo as to enable us to reach the Eaft Indies. 

The quantity of provifions 1 found in the boat, was 
1501b. of bread, 16 pieces of pork, each piece weighing 
1 lb, 6 quarts of rum, 6 bottles of wine, with 28 gallons of 
water, and four empty barrecoes. 

Fortunately it was calm all the afternoon, till about four 
o'clock, when we were fo far to windward, that, with a mode- 
rate eafterly breeze which fprung up, we were able to fail. 
It was neverthelefs dark when we got to Tofoa, where I 
expected to land ; but the fhore proved to be fo lleep and 
rocky, that we were obliged to give up all thoughts of it, 
and keep the boaf under the lee of the illand with two oars; 
for there was no anchorage. Having fixed on this mode of 
proceecUng for the night, I ferved to every perfon half a 
pint of grog, and each took to his reft as well as our un- 
happy fituation would allow. 

In the morning, at dawn of day, we rowed along fliore in 
fearch of a landing-place, and about ten o'clock Vvc difcovered 

a cove 


Ap R I i 



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Proceed in the Launch to the IJland T'ofoa. — Difficulty ift ob- 
taining Supplies there. — Treacherous Attack of the Na- 
tives. — EJcape to Sea, and bear away for Kezv Holland. 

MY firft determination was to feek a fupply of bread- 
fruit and water at Tofoa, and afterwards to fail for 
Tongataboo, and tbere rilk a folicitation to Poulaho, the 
king, to equip our boat, and grant us a fupply of water and 
l^rovilions, fo as to enable us to reach the Eaft Indies. 

The quantity of provifions I found in the boat, was 
1501b. of bread, 16 pieces of pork, each piece weighing 
2 lb. 6 quarts of rum, 6 bottles of wine, with 28 gallons of 
water, and four empty barrecoes. 

Fortunately it was calm all the afternoon, till about four 
o'clock, when we were fo far to windward, that, with a mode- 
rate eafterly breeze which fprung up, we were able to fail. 
It was neverthelefs dark when we got to Tofoa, where I 
expected to land ; but the fhore proved to be fo fteep and 
rocky, that we were obliged to give up all thoughts of it, 
and keep the boai!* under the lee of the ifland with two oars; 
for there was no anchorage. Having fixed on this mode of 
proceeding for the night, I fervcd to every perfon half a 
pint of grog, and each took to his reft as well as our un- 
happy fituation would allow. 

Ill the morning, at dawn of day, we rowed along fhore in 
fearch of a landing-place, and about ten o'clock Vv'c difcovered 

a cove 

Ap R I i - 


i66 A V O Y A G E T O 

a cove with a ftony beach, at the N W part of the ifland, 
where I dropt the grapnel within 20 yards of the rocks. A 
great furf ran on the fhore ; but, as I was unwilling to 
diminifli our flock of provifions, I landed Mr. Samuel, 
and fome others, who climbed the cliffs, and got into the 
coimtry to fearch for fupplies. The reft of us remained at 
the cove, not difcovering any other way into the covintry, 
than that by which Mr. Samuel had proceeded. It was great 
confolation to me to find, that the fpirits of my people did 
not fink, notwithflanding our miferable and almofl: hopelefs 
fituation. Towards noon, Mr. Samuel returned, with a few 
quarts of water, which he had found in holes ; but he had 
met with no fpring, or any profpe6t of a fufficient fupply in 
that particular, and had feen only the figns of inhabitants. 
As it was uncertain what might be our future neceHities, 
I only ifTued a morfel of bread, and a glafs of wine, to each 
perfon for dinner. 

I obferved the latitude of this cove to be 19" 41'' S. This 
is the N W part of Tofoa, the north- wefternmoft of the 
Friendly Iflands. 

The weather was fair, but the wind blew fo flrong from 
the E S E that we could not venture to fea. Our detention 
made it abfolutely necefTary to endeavour to obtain fome- 
thing towards our fupport; fori determined, if poflible, to 
keep our firfl flock entire. We therefore weighed, and 
rowed along fhore, to fee if any thing could be got; and at 
laft difcovered fome cocoa-nut trees; but they were on the 
top of high precipices, and the furf made it dangerous land- 
ing : both one and the other we, however, got the better of. 
Some of the people, with much difficulty, climbed the cliffs, 
and got about 20 cocoa-nuts, and others flung them to 
ropes, by which we hauled them through the furf into the 
§ boat. 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 367 

boat. This was all that could be done here; and, as I found 1789. 
no place fo fafe as the one we had left, to fpend the night at, ,^ ^ 1,^ 
I returned to the cove, and, having ferved a cocoa-nut to each 
perfon, we went to reft again in the boat. 

At daylight, we attempted to put to fea; but the wind Thurfdayjo. 
and weather proved fo bad, that I was glad to return to 
our former ll:ation ; where, after iffuing a morfel of bread 
and a fpooniul of rum to each perfon, we landed, and I 
went oflf with Mr. Nelfon, Mr. Samuel, and fome others, 
into the country, having hauled ourfelves up the precipice 
by long vines, which were fixed there by the natives for 
that purpofe ; this being the only way into the country. 

We found a fewdeferted huts, and a fmall plantain walk, 
but little taken care of; from which we could only colled: 
three fmall bunches of plantains. After pafling this place, 
we came to a deep gully that led towards a mountain, 
near a volcano ; and, as I conceived that in the rainy fea- 
ibn very great torrents of water muft pafs through it, 
we hoped to find fufiicient for our ufe, remaining in fome 
holes of the rocks ; but, after all our fearch, the whole that 
we colle<Sted was only nine gallons. We advanced within 
two miles of the foot of the higheft mountain in the iiland, 
on which is the volcano that is almoft conftantly burning. 
The country near it is covered with lava, and has a moft 
dreary appearance. As vv-e had not been fortunate in our dif- 
toveries, and faw nothing to alleviate our dillrefles, except 
the plantains and water abovementioned, we returned to the 
boat, exceedingly fatig-ued and faint. When I came to the 
precipice whence we were to defcend into the cove, I was 
feizcd with fuch a dizzinefs in my head, that I thought 
it fcarce polTible to eft'ecl: it : however, by the ailiftance of 
Nelfon and others, they at laft got me down, in a weak 


i68 A V O Y A G E T O 

condition. Every perfon being returned by noon, I gave 
about an ounce of pork and two plantains to each, with 
half a glafs of wine. I again obferved the latitude of this 
place 19° 41' fouth. The people who remained by the 
boat I had diretled to look for fifh, or w^hat they could pick 
up about the rocks ; biit nothing eatable could be found : 
fo that, upon the whole, we confidered ourfelves on as mi- 
ferable a fpot of land as could well be imagined. 

I could not fay poljtively, from the former knowledge 
I had of this ifland, whether it was inhabited or not ; but 
I knew it was confidered inferior to the other iflands, and 
1 was not certain but that the Indians only reforted to it at 
particular times. I was very anxious to afcertain this 
point ; foi', in cafe there had been only a few people here, 
and thofe could have furnifhed us with but very mode- 
rate fupplies, the remaining in this fpot to have made 
preparations for our voyage, would have been preferable 
to the rifk of going amongfc multitudes, where perhaps 
we might lofe every thing. A party, therefore, fuffi- 
ciently ftrong, I determined fliould go another route, as 
foon as the fun became lower ; and they cheerfully under- 
took it. 

About two o'clock in the afternoon the party fet out; 
but, after fuffering much fatigue, they returned in the 
evening, without any kind of fuccefs. 

At the head of the cove, about 150 yards from the water- 
fide, there was a cave ; the diftance acrofs the ftony beach 
was about 100 yards, and from the country into the cove 
there was no other way than that wliich I have already 
defcribed. The fituation fecured us from the danger of 
being furprifed, and 1 determined to remain on fliore for 
the night, with a part of my people, that the others might 


THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 169 

have more room to reft in the boat, with the mailer; whom 1739. 

I direiSlecl to lie at a grapnel, and be watchful, in cafe we .•'^''^' '^ 

fliould be attacked. I ordered one plantain for each perfon to 

be boiled ; and, having fupped on this fcanty allowance, 

with a quarter of a pint of grog, and fixed the watches for 

the night, thofe whofe turn it was, laid down to fleep in the 

cave, before which we kept up a good lire ; yet notwithlland- 

ing we were much troubled with flies and muf(]uitoes. m a v. 

Friday, May the ift. At dawn of day, the party fet out ^"'^^>' '• 
again in a different route, to fee what they could find ; in 
the courfe of which, they fuffered greatly for want of 
w^ater : they, however, met with t^^•o men, a \\oman, and 
a child : the men came with them to the cove, and brought 
two cocoa-nut fliells of w^ater. I endeavoured to make 
friends of thefe people, and fent them away for bread-fruit, 
plantains, and water. Soon after, other natives came to us ; 
and by noon there were thirty about us, from whom we ob- 
tained a fmall fupply ; but I could only afford one ounce of 
pork, and a quarter of a bread-fruit, to each man for dinner, 
with half a pint of water ; for I was fixed in my refolutioa 
not to ufe any of the bread or water in the boat. 

No particular chief was yet among the natives : they 
were, notwithftanding, tradtable, and behaved honeftly, 
exchanging the provifions they brought for a few buttons 
and beads. The party wlio had been out, informed me of 
their having, feen feveral neat plantations ; fo that it re- 
mained no longer a doubt of there being fettled inhabitants 
on the ifland ; for which reafon I determined to get what 
I could, and to fail the firft moment that the wind and 
weather would allow us to put to fca. 

I was much puzzled in what manner to account to the 
natives for the lofs of my fhip : I knew they had too much 

% fenfc 

I70 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. fenfe to be amufed with a ftory tliat the fliip was to join me, 
„— v» — 9 when fhe was not in fight from the hills. I was at firft 
doubtful whether I fhould tell the real fa6t, or fay that the 
fhip had overfet and funk, and that we only were faved : 
the Ir.tter appeared to be the moft proper and advantageous 
for us, a:nd I accordingly inftru6ted my people, that we 
might all agree in one ftory. As I expe6ted, enquiries were 
made about the fliip, and they feemed readily fatisfied with 
our account ; but there did not appear the leaft'fymptom of 
joy or forrow in their faces, although I fancied I difcovered 
fome marks of furprife. Some of the natives were coming 
and going the whole afternoon, and we got enough of. 
' bread-fruit, plantains, and cocoa-nuts for another day ; but 
of water they only brought us about five pints. A canoe 
alfo came in with four men, and brought a few cocoa-nuts 
and bread-fruit, which I bought as I had done the reft. 
Nails were much enquired after, but I would not fuffer any 
to be fliewn, as they were wanted for the ufe of the boat. 

Towards evening, I had the fatisfa6lion to find our ftock 
of provifions fomewhat increafed ; but the natives did not 
appear to have much to fpare. What they brought was 
in fuch fmall quantities, that I had no reafon to hope 
we fhould be able to procure from them fufficient to ftock 
us for our voyage. At fun-fet, all the natives left us in 
quiet pofTeflion of the cove. I thought this a good fign,. 
and made no doubt that they would come again the next 
day with a better fupply of food and water, with w^hich 
I hoped to fail without farther delay : for if, in attempting 
to get to Tongataboo, we fhould be driven to leeward of the 
iflands, there would be a larger quantity of provifions to 
■ fnpport us againft fuch a misfortune. 

.9 At 

THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 171 

At night, I ferved a quarter of a bread-fruit and a cocoa- 1789- 
nut to each perfon for fupper ; and, a good fire being made, ,_ -'^-^'_f 
all but the watch went to llecp. 

At day-break, the next morning, I was pleafed to find Satmday :. 
every one's fpirits a little revived, and that they no longer 
regarded me with thofe anxious looks, which had conftantly 
been diredlcd towards me fince we loll fight of the fliip : 
every countenance appeared to have a degree of cheerful- 
nefs, and they all feemed determined to do their beft. 

As there was no certainty of our being fupplied with 
water by the natives, I fent a party among the gullies in 
the mountains, with empty fliells, to fee what could be 
found. In their abfence the natives came about us, as I 
expedted, and in greater numbers ; two canoes alfo came in 
from round the north fide of the ifiand. In one of them 
was an elderly chief, called Macca-ackavow. Soon after, 
fome of our foraging party returned, and with them catne 
a good-looking chief, called Egijeefow, or perhaps more 
properly Eefow, Egij or Eghee, figftifying a chief. To each 
of thefe men I made a prefent of an old fliirt and a knife, 
and I foon found they either had feen me, or had heard of 
my being at Annamooka. They knew I had been with 
captain Cook, who they enquired after, and alfo captain 
Clerk. They were very inquifitive to know in what man- 
ner I had lofl: my fhip. During this converfation, a young 
man, named Nageete, appeared, whom I remembered to 
have feen at Annamooka: he expreflTed much pleafiire at 
our meeting. I enquired after Poulaho and Feenow, who, 
they faid, were at Tongataboo ; and Eefow agreed to accom- 
pany me thither, if I would wait till the weather moderated. • 
The readinefs and affability of this man gave me much fa- 

Z 2 This, 

lya - A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. This, however, was but of fliort duration, for the natiires 

^ -^-^ I "began to increafe in number, and I obferved fome fymp- 
toms of a defign againft us. Soon after they attempted to 
haul the boat on fliore, on which I brandiflied my cutlafs 
in a threatening manner, and fpoke to Eefow to defire them 
to defift ; which they did, and every thing became quiet 
again. My people, who had been in the mountains, now 
returned with about three gallons of water. I kept buying 
up the little bread-fruit that was brought to us, and like- 
wife fome fpears to arm my men with, having only four 
cutlalTes, two of which were in the boat. As we had no 
means of improving our lituation, I told our people I would 
wait till fvm-fet, by which time, perhaps, fomething might 
happen in our favour : for if we attempted to go at prefent, 
we muft fight our way through, which we could do more 
advantageoully at night ; and that in the mean time we 
would endeavour to get off to the boat what we had bought. 
The beach was lined with the natives, and we heard nor- 
thing but the knocking of flones together, which they had 
in each hand. I knew very well this was the fign of an 
attack. At noon, I ferved a cocoa-nvit and a bread-fruit to 
each perfon for dinner, and gave fome to the chiefs, with 
whom I continued to appear intimate and friendly. They 
frequently importuned me to fit down, but I as conftantly 
refufed : for it occurred both to Nelfon and myfelf, that 
they intended to feize hold of me, if I gave them fuch 
an opportunity. Keeping, therefore, conftantly on our 
o-uard, we were fufFered to eat our uncomfortable meal in 
fome quietnefs. 

After dinner, we began by Tittle and little to get our 
things into the boat, which was a troublefome buiinefs, 
on account of the furf. I carefully Vvatched the motions 



of the natives,- who continued to increale in number; and 1789. 
found that, in Head of their intention being to leave us, lires J _,_ ' , 
were made, and places fixed on for their (lay during the 
night. Confukations were alfo held among them, and 
every thing alTurctl me we fliould be attacked. I fcnt 
orders to the nialler, that when he lliw us coming down, he 
llioidd keep the boat clofe to the fliore, that we might the 
more readily embark. 

I had my journal on fliore with me, writing the occur- 
rences in the cave, and in fending it down to the boat, it 
was nearly fnatched away, but for the timely affiftance of 
the gunner. 

The fun was near fetting, when I gave the word, on 
which every perfon, who was on fliore with me, boldly 
took up his proportion of things, and carried them to the 
boat. The chiefs aflced me if I would not flay with them 
all night, I faid, " No, I never fleepout of my boat ; but in 
" the morning we will again trade with you, and I fliall 
" remain till the weather is moderate, that we may go, 
" as we have agreed, to fee Poulaho, at Tongataboo." 
Macca-ackavow then got up, and faid, " You will not lleep 
" on fliore ? then Mattie," (which direcflly fignifies we 
will kill you) and he left me. The onfet was now prepar- 
ing; every one, as I have defcribed before, kept knocking 
llones together, and Eefow quitted me. Ail but two or 
three things were in the boat, when I took Nageete by the 
hand, and we walked down the beach, every one in a filent 
kind of horror. 

While I was feeing the people embark, Nageete wanted 
me to ftay to fpeak to Eefow; but I found he was en- 
couraging them to the attack, and it was my determination, 
i{ they had then began', to have killed him for his treache- 

174 A V O Y A G E T O 

M A 

rous behaviour. I ordered the carpenter not to quit me 
till the other people were in the boat. Nageete, finding 
I would not flay, loofed himfelf from my hold and went 
ofF, and we all got into the boat except one man, who, 
while I was getting on board, quitted it, and ran up-the 
beach to caft the Hern fail: off, notwithftanding the mafter 
and others called to him to return, while they were hauling 
me out of the water. 

I was no fooner in the boat than the attack began by 
about 200 men ; the unfortunate poor man who had run 
up the beach was knocked down, and the ftones flew like 
a fliower of fliot. Many Indians got hold of the Hern rope, 
and were near hauling the boat on fhore ; which they would 
certainly have efte6led, if I had not had a knife in my 
pocket, with which I cut the rope. We then hauled oif to 
the grapnel, every one being more or lefs hurt. At this 
time, I faw five of the natives about the poor man they had 
killed, and two of them were beating him about the head 
with ftones in their hands. 

We had no time to refledt, for to my furprife, they filled 
their oanoes with ftones, and twelve men came off after us 
to renew the attack, which they did fo efFe6lually as nearly 
to difable us all. Our grapnel was foul, but Providence 
here affifted us; the fluke broke, and we got to our oars, 
and pulled to fea. They, however, could paddle round us, 
fo that we were obliged to fuftain the attack without being 
able to return it, except with fuch ftones as lodged in the 
boat, and in this I found we were very inferior to them. 
We could not dole, becaufe our boat was lumbered and 
heavy, of which they well knew how to take advantage : I 
therefore adopted the expedient of throwing overboard 
fome clothes, which, as I expe^fted, they flopped to pick 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 175 

up; and, as it was by this time almoft dark, they gave over '789- 
the attack, and returned towards the fliore, leaving us to re- ■ / ^'^ 
flecft on our unhappy fituation. 

The poor man killed by the natives was John Norton : 
this was his fecond voyage with me as a quarter-mafter, 
and his worthy chara6ler made me lament his lofs very 
much. He has left an aged parent, I am told, whom he 

1 once before fuftained an attack of a fimilar nature, with 
a fmaller number of Europeans, againft a multitude of In- 
dians : it was after the death of Captain Cook, on the Moral 
at Owhyhee, where I was left by Lieutenant King. Yet, 
notwithftanding this experience, I had not an idea that the 
power of a man's arm could throw ftones, from two to eight 
pounds weight, with fuch force and exadlnefs as thefe 
people did. Here unhappily we were without fire-arms, 
which the Indians knew; and it was a fortunate circum- 
Itance that they did not begin to attack us in the cave ; for 
in that cafe our deftrudlion muft have been inevitable, and 
we fhould have had nothing left for it but to fell our lives 
as dearly as we could ; in which I found every one cheer- 
fully difpofed to concur. This appearance of refolution 
deterred them, fuppofing that they could efFe(5t their pur- 
pofe without rilk after we were in the boat. 

Taking this as a fample of the difpofition of the natives, 
there was but little reafon to expecfl much benefit by perfe- 
vering in the intention of viliting Poulaho; for I confidered 
their good behaviour formerly to have proceeded from a 
dread of our fire-arms, and which, therefore, was likely to 
ceafe, as they knew we were nowdeftitute of them : and, even 
fuppofing our lives not in danger, the boat and every thing 
>Te had, would moft probably be taken from us, and thereby 


176 A V O Y A G E T O 


all hopes precluded of ever being able to return to our na- 
tive country. 

We fet our fails, and fleered along lliore by the weft 
fide of the ifland Tofoa ; the wind blowing freih from 
the eaftward. My mind was employed in conlidering what 
Mas bsft to be done, when I was folicited by all hands to take 
them towards home : and, when I told them that no hopes 
of relief for ns remained (except what might be found at 
New Holland) till I came to Timor, a diftance of full 1200 
leagues, where there was a Dutch fettlement, but in what 
part of the itland I knew not ; they all agreed to live on 
one ounce of bread, and a quarter of a pint of water, per 
day. Therefore, after examining our ftock of provifions, 
and recommending to them, in the moll folemn manner, 
not to depart from their promife, we bore away acrofs a 
fea, where the navigation is but little known, in a fmall 
boat, twenty-three feet long from ftem to ftern, deep laden 
;vvith eighteen men. I was happy, however, to fee that 
every one feemed better fatisfied with our fituation than 

Our ftock of provifions confifted of about one hundred and 
fifty pounds of bread, twenty-eight gallons of water, twenty 
pounds of pork, three bottles of wine, and five quarts of rum. 
The difference between this and the quantity we had on 
leaving the fliip, was principally owing to our lofs in the 
buftle and confufion of the attack. A few cocoa-nuts were 
in the boat, and fome bread-fruit, but the latter was 
trampled to pieces. 


THE SOUTH SEA S> &c. 177 


Pajfage to'ucards Nezv Holland. — Ijlands difcovcred in our 
Route.— Our great Dijirejfes. — See the Reefs of Nezv Hoi- 
landf and find a Paffage through them. 

IT was about eight o'clock at night when we bore away yl^^'x. 
under a reefed lug fore-fail : and, having divided the ^- — - — 
people into watches, and got the boat in a little order, we 
returned God thanks for our miraculous prefervation, and, 
fully confident of his gracious fupport, I found my mind 
more at eafe than it had been for fome time paft. 

At day-break, the gale increafed ; the fun rofe very fiery Sunday t. 
and red, a fure indication of a fevere gale of wind. At 
eight it blew a violent florm, and the fea ran very high, fo 
that between the feas the fail was becalmed, and when on 
the top of the fea it was too much to have fet : but we 
could not venture to take in the fail, for we were in very 
imminent danger and diftrefs, the fea curling over the flern 
of tlie boat, which obliged us to bale with all our might. 
A fituation more diflreHing has, perhaps, feldom been ex- 

Our bread was in bags, and in danger of being fpoiled 
by the wet : to be flarved to death was inevitable, if this 
could not be prevented : I therefore began to examine 
what clothes there were in the boat, and what other things 
could be fpared ; and, having determined that only two 
fuits fliould be kept for each perfon, the refl was thrown 

A a overboard, 

178 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. overboard, with fome rope and fnare fails, which ligh- 
, ^ ^/' , tened the boat conliderably, and we had more room to bale 
the water out. Fortunately the carpenter had a good cheft 
in the boat, in which we fecvired the bread the firft favour- 
able moment. His tool cheft alfo was cleared, and the tools 
ftowed. in the bottom of the boat, fo that this became a 
fecond convenience. 

I ferved a tea-fpoonful of rum to each perfon, (for we 
were very wet and cold) with a quarter of a bread-fruit,, 
which was fcarce eatable, for dinner : our engagement was 
now ftri6tly to be carried into execution, and I tvas fully 
determined to make our proviiions laft eight weeks, let the 
daily proportion be ever fo fmall. 

At noon, I confidered our courfe and diftance from 
Tofoa to be W N W i W 86 miles, latitude 19° 27' S. I 
diredled the courfe to the W N W, that we might get a, 
fight of the iilands called Feejee, if they laid in the direc- 
tion the natives had pointed out to me. 

The weather continued very fevere, the wind veering 
from N E to E S E. The fea ran higher than in the fore- 
noon, and the fatigue of baling, to keep the boat from 
filling, was exceedingly great. We could do nothing more 
than keep before the fea ; in the courfe of which the boat 
performed fo well, that I no longer dreaded any danger 
in that refpe<f1:. But among the hardfhips we were to un- 
dergo, that of being conftantly wet was not the leaft : the 
Monday 4. night was very cold, and at day-light our limbs were fo be- 
numbed, that we could fcarce find the ufe of them. At 
this time I ferved a tea-fpoonful of rum to each perfon^ 
from which we all found great benefit. 

As I have mentioned before, I determined to keep to 
the W N W, till I got more to the northward ; for I not 




A Y. 

fday 5. 


1789. overboard, with fome rope and fpare fails, which ligh- 
, _''J' . tened the boat confiderably, and we had more room to bale 
the water out. Fortunately the carpenter had a good cheft 
in the boat, in which we fecured the bread the firft favour- 
able moment. His tool cheft alfo was cleared, and the tools 
ftowed. in the bottom of the boat, fo that this became a 
fecond convenience. 

I ferved a tea-fpoonful of rum to each perfon, (for we 
were very wet and cold) with a quarter of a bread-fruity 
which was fcarce eatable, for dinner: our engagement was 
now ftri6lly to be carried into execution, and I Was fully 
determined to make our provilions laft eight weeks, let the 
daily proportion be ever fo fmall. 

At noon, I confidered our courfe and diftance from 
Tofoa to be W N W J W 86 miles, latitude 19° 27' S. I 
direiled the courfe to the W N W, that we might get a. 
iight of the iflands called Feejee, if they laid in the direc- 
tion the natives had pointed out to me. 

The weather continued very fevere, the wind veering 
from N E to E S E. The fea ran higher than in the fore- 
noon, and the fatigue of baling, to keep the boat from 
filling, was exceedingly great. We could do nothing more 
than keep before the fea ; in the courfe of which the boat 
performed fo well, that I no longer dreaded any danger 
in that refpeift. But among the hardfhips we were to un- 
dergo, that of being conftantly wet was not the leaft : the 
Monday 4. uiglit was vcry cold, and at day-light our limbs were fo be- 
numbed, that we could fcarce find the ufe of them. At 
this time I ferved a tea-fpoonful of rum to each perfon,, 
from which we all found great benefit. 

As I have mentioned before, I determined to keep to 
the W N W, till I got more to the northward ; for I not 





.!; ' }: ' ' , 

./o so /J 3 




M A 


DifcoTci-cd III/ J.'. WUiam Blig-li m //it- TJountr's I^annch 

a a y//<- IVack r/'//,e l^aunck 









May IjSfl 






only expecfled to have better weather, but to fee the Feejcc 1789. 
Iflands, as I have often underftood, from the natives of An- . * ^_, 
namooka, that they He in that dire<5lion. Captain Cook 
likewife confidercd them to be N W by W from Tongata- 
boo. Juft before noon, we difcovered a fmall flat illand, of 
a moderate height, bearing W S W, 4 or 5 leagues. I ob- 
ferved our latitude to be 18* 58' S ; our longitude was, by 
account, 3° 4' \V from the ifland Tofoa, having made a 
N 72° W courfe, diftance 95 miles, fince yefterday noon. 
I divided five fmall cocoa-nuts for our dinner, and every 
one was fatisfied. 

A little after noon, other iflands appeared, and at a quar- 
ter paft three o'clock we could count eight, bearing from S 
round by the weft to N W by N ; thofe to the fouth, which 
were the neareft, being four leagues diftant from us. 

I kept my courfe to the N \V by W, between the iflands, 
the gale having confiderably abated. At fix o'clock, we 
difcovered three other fmall iflands to the N W, the 
wefternmoft of them bore N W i W 7 leagvies. I fleered 
to the fouthward of thefe iflands, a VV N W courfe for the 
night, under a reefed fail. 

Served a few broken pieces of bread-fruit for fupper, 
and performed prayers. 

The night turned out fair, and, having had tolerable 
reft, every one feemed conflderably better in the morning, Tuefday 5. 
and contentedly breakfaftcd on a few pieces of yams that 
were found in the boat. After brcakfaft we examined our 
bread, a great deal of which was damaged and rotten ; this, 
neverthclefs, we were glad to keep for ufe. 

I had hitherto been fcarcely able to keep any account 
of our run ; but we now equipped ourfelves a little bet- 
ter, by getting a log-line marked, and, having praiftifed at 

A a 2 countin? 

i8o A V O Y A G E T O- 


comiting fecondsj fevcral could do it with fome degree of 
, exa£lnefs. 

The iflands we had palTed, He between the latitude of 19' 
5' S and 18° 19' S, and, according to my reckoning, from 
3° 17' to 3° 46' W longitude from the illand Tofoa : the 
largeft may be about fix leagues in circuit; but it is im- 
poifible for me to be very corre6t. To fliow where they are 
to be found again is the moft my fituation enabled n^e to 
do. The fketch I have made, will give a comparative view 
of their extent. I believe all the larger iflands are inha- 
bited, as they appeared very fertile. 

At noon I obferved, in latitude 18" 10' S, and confidered 
my courfe and diftance from yefterday noon, N W by W 
i W, 94 miles ; longitude, by account, from Tofoa 4' 29' W. 

For dinner, I ferved fome of the damaged bread, and a. 
quarter of a pint of water. 

About fix o'clock in the afternoon, we difcovered twO' 
iflands, one bearing W by S 6 leagues, and the other N W 
by N 8 leagues ; I kept to windward of the northernmofi:,, 
and pafling it by 10 o'clock, I refumed our courfe to the. 
N W and VV N W for the night. 
Wednefday Wcdncfday the 6th. The weather was fair and the wind 
^' moderate ail day from the E N E. At day-light, a number 
of other iflands w ere in fight from S S E to the W, and 
ro\md to N E by E ; between thofe in the N W I deter- 
mined to pafs. At noon a fmall fandy ifland or key, two 
miles diftant from me, bore from E to S i W. I had pafled: 
ten iflands, the largeft of which I judged to be 6 or 8 
leagues in circuit. Much larger lands appeared in the S W 
and N N W, between which I direded my courfe. Lati- 
tude obferved 17" 17' S ; courfe fince yefterday noon N 50° W ; . 
diftance 84 miles ; longitude made, by account, 5° 37' W. 



Our allowance for the day was a quarter of a pint of 1739. 
Gocoa-nut milk, and the meat, which did not exceed two , J^^J^'^^ 
ounces to each perfon : it was received very contentedly, 
but we fuffcrcd great drought. I darft not venture to land, 
as we had no arms, and were lefs capable of defending 
ourfclves than we were at Tofoa. 

To keep an account of the boat's run was rendered diffi- 
cult, from being conflantly wet with the fea breaking over 
us i but, as we advanced towards the land, the fea became 
fmoother, and I was enabled to form a fketch of the iflands', 
Avhich will ferve to give a general knowledge of their ex- 
tent and pofition. Thofe we were near, appeared fruitful 
and hilly, feme very mountainous, and all of a good height. 

To our great joy we hooked a fifli, but we were miferably 
difappointed by its being loft in trying to get it into the 

We continued fteering to the N W, between the iflands, 
which, by the evening, appeared of confiderable extent, 
woody and mountainous. At fun-fet, the fouthernmoft 
bore from S to S VV by W. and the northernmoft from 
N by W s W to N E f E. At fix o'clock we were nearly 
mid-way between them, and about 6 leagues diftant from 
each fliore, when we fell in with a coral bank, on which 
we had only four feet water, without the leaft break on it, . 
or ruflie of the fea to give tis warning. I could fee that it 
extended about a mile on each fide of us ; but, as it is pro- 
bable that it may extend much farther, I have laid it down 
fo in my fketch. 

I directed the courfe W by N for the night, and ferved 
to each perfon an ounce of the damaged bread, and a quar- 
ter of a pint of water, ibr fupper. 


iSa A V O Y A G E T O 

As our lodgings were very miferable, and confined for 
want of room, I endeavoured to remedy the latter defea, by 
putting ourfelves at Avatch and watch ; fo that one half al- 
ways fat up while the other lay down on the boat's bottom, 
or upon a cheft, with nothing to cover us but the heavens. 
Our limbs were dreadfully cramped, for we could not ftretch 
them out; and the nights were fo cold, and we fo conftantly 
wet, that, after a few hours fleep, we could fcarce move. 
Thurfday;. At dawn of day, we again difcovered land from W S W 
to W N W, and another ifland N N W, the latter a high 
round lump of but Uttle extent : the fouthern land that we 
had paffed in the night was ftill in fight. Being very wet 
and cold, I ferved a fjDoonful of rum and a morfel of bread 
for breakfaft. 

The land in the wefi: was diftinguillied by fome extraor- 
dinary high rocks, which, as we approached them, aflumed 
a variety of forms. The country appeared to be agreeably 
interfperfed with high and low land, and in fome places co- 
vered with wood. Off the N E part lay fome fmall rocky 
iflands, between which and an ifland 4 leagues to the N E, I 
diredled my courfe ; but a lee current very unexpedtedly fet 
:us very near to the rocky ifles, and we could only get clear 
■of it by rowing, palling clofe to the reef that furrounded 
them. At this time we obferved two large failing canoes 
coming fwiftly after us along Ihore, and, being apprehenfive 
of their intentions, we rowed with fome anxiety, fully fen- 
fible of our weak and defencelefs ftate. At noon it was calm 
.and the weather cloudy; my latitude is therefore doubtful to 
3 or4 miles. Our courfe fince yefterday noon N W by W, dif- 
tance 79 miles ; latitude by accoimt, i6°29'S, and longitude 
by account, trom Tofoa, 6° 46' W. Being conllantly wet, it 
w^s with the utmofl difficulty I could open .a book to write, 


THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 183 

and I am fenfible that what I have done can only ferve to 17S9. 
point out where thefe lands are to be found again, and give ,JVJ1;^ 
an idea of their extent. 

All the afternoon, we had light winds at N N E : the wea- 
ther was very rainy, attended with thunder and lightning. 
Only one of the canoes gained ujion us, which by three 
o'clock in the afternoon was not more than two miles off, 
when flic gave over chafe. 

If I may judge from the fail of thefc vefTels, they are of a fi- 
milar conftrudlion v.ith thofe at the Friendly Hlands, which, 
with the nearnefs of their fituation, gives reafon to believe 
that they are the fame kind of people. Whether thefe 
canoes had any hoflile intention againft us muft remain 
a doubt : perhaps we might have benefited by an inter- 
courfe with them; but in our defencelefs fituation, to have 
made the experiment would have been rifking too much. 

1 imagine thefe to be the iflands called Feejee, as their ex- 
tent, dire6lion, and diftance from the Friendly Iflands, an- 
fwers to the defcription given of them by thofe Illanders. 
Heavy rain came on at four o'clock, when every perfon did 
their ntmoft to catch feme water, and we increafed our 
ftock to 34 gallons, befides quenching our thirft for the firft 
time fmce we had been at fea; but an attendant confe- 
qiience made us pafs the night very miferably, for being 
extremely wet, and having no dry things to fhift or cover 
lis, we experienced cold and fliiverings fcarce to be con- 
ceived. Mofl fortunately for us, the forenoon turned out Friday 8. 
fair, and we ftripped and dried our clothes. The allowance 
I iffued to-day, was an ounce and a half of pork, a tea- 
fpoonful of rum, half a pint of cocoa-nut milk, and an 
ounce of bread. The rum, though fo fmall in quantity, 
was of the greateft fervice. A fifhing-line was generally 
X towing 

i84 A V O Y A G E T O 

towing from the ftern of the boat, but though we faw great 
numbers of fifli, we could never catch one. 

At noon, I obferved, in latitude i6° 4' S, and found we 
had made a courfe, from yefterday noon, N 62° W, diftance 
62 miles ; longitude, by account, from Tofoa, 7* 42' W. 
. The Jand palTed yefterday, and the day before, is a 
group of iflands, 14 or 16 in number, lying between the la- 
titude of 16' 26' S and 17° 57' S, and in longitude, by my 
account, 4° 47' to 7° 17' W from Tofoa. Three of thefe iflands 
are very large, having from 30 to 40 leagues of fea-coaft. 

In the afternoon we cleaned out the boat, and it employed 
us till fun-fet to get every thing dry ajid in order. Hitherto 
I had ilTued the allowance by guefs, but I now made a pair 
of fcales, with two cocoa-nut fliells ; and, having acciden- 
tally fome piftol-balls in the boat, 25 of which weighed 
■ one pound, or 16 ounces, I adopted one*, as the proportion 
of weight that each perfon fhould receive of bread at the 
times I ferved it. I alfo amufed all hands, with defcribing 
the lituation of New Guinea and New Holland, and gave 
them every information in my power, that in cafe any ac- 
cident happened to me, thofe who furvived might have 
fome idea of what they were aljout, and be able to find 
their way to Timor, which at prefent they knew nothing 
of, more than the name, and fome not even that. At night, 
1 ferved a quarter of a pint of water, and half an ounce of 
bread, for fupper. 
Saturday 9. Saturday May the 9th. In the morning, a quarter of a 
pint of cocoa-nut milk, and fome of the decayed bread, was 
ferved for breakfaft ; and for dinner, I divided the meat of 
four rocoa-nuts, with the remainder of the rotten bread, 
whicli 'was only eatable by fuch diftreflTed people. 

* It weighed 272 grains. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 185 

At noon, I obferved the latitude to be 15° 47' S ; courfe '739- 

M A V. 

ilnce yefterday N 75° W, diltance 64 miles ; longitude made, «_ -g— ,'_ 
by account, 8" 45' W. 

In the afternoon, I fitted a pair pf fhrouds for each mad, 
and contrived a canvafs weather cloth round the boat, and 
raifed the quarters about nine inches, by nailing on the feats 
of the ftern flieets, -which proved of great benefit to us. 

The wind had been moderate all day, in the S E quarter, 
with fine weather; but, about nine o'clock in the evening, 
the clouds began to gather, and we had a prodigious fall of 
rain, with fcvere thunder and lightning. By midnight we 
caught about twenty gallons of water. Being miferably 
wet and cold, I ferved to the people a tea-fpoonful of rum 
each, to enable them to bear with their diftrefTed fituation. 
The weather continiied extremely bad, and the wind in- 
creafed ; we fpent a very miferable night, without fleep, ex- 
cept fuch as could be got in the midft of rain. The day Sunday 10. 
brought no relief but its light. The fea broke over us fo 
much, that two men were conftantly baling ; and we had no 
cho'ce how to rteer, being obliged to keep before the waves 
for fear of the bout filling. 

The allowance now regularly ferved to each perfon was 
one 25th of a pound of bread, and a qiiarter of a pint of wa- 
ter, at eight in the morning, at noon, and at fun-fet. To- 
day I gave about half an ounce of pork for dinner, which, 
though any moderate perfon would have confidered only as 
a mouthful, was divided into three or four. 

The rain abated towards noon, and I obferved the lati- 
tude to be 15° 17' S; courfe N 67° W diftance 78 miles; 
longitude m\.le 10° W. 

The wind continued i\rong from SSE to SE, with very 
fqiK'Uy weather, and a high breaking fea, fo that we were 
miferably wet, and fuli'ered great cold in the night. 

B b Monday 


1789. Monday the nth. In the morning at day-break, I ferved 

t_ '1'^' J to every perfon a tea-fpoonful of rum, our hmbs being fo 

Monday u. cramped that we could fcarce move them. Our fituation 

was now extremely dangerous, the fea frequently running 

over our ftern, which kept us baling with all our ftrength. 

At noon, the fun appeared, which gave us as much 
pleafure as in a winter's day in England. I iffued the 25th 
of a pound of bread, and a quarter of a pint of water, as 
yefherday. Latitude obferved 14° 50' S ; courfe N 71° W, 
diftance 102 miles; and longitude, by account, 11° 39' W 
from Tofoa. 

In the evening it rained hard, and we again experienced 
Tuefday 12. a dreadful night. At length the day came, and fhowed 
to me a miferable fet of beings, full of wants, without 
any thing to relieve them. Some complained of great 
pain in their bowels, and every one of having almoft 
loll the ufe of his limbs. The little fleep we got was no 
ways refrefliing, as w^e were covered with fea and rain. 
1 ferved a fpoonful of rum at day-dawn, and the ufual 
allowance of bread and water, for breakfaft, dinner, and 
f upper. 

At noon it was almoft calm, no fun to be feen, and fome 
of us fliivering with cold. Courfe iince yefterday W by N, 
diftance 89 miles ; latitude, by account, 14° 33' S ; longitude 
made 13° 9' W. The direction of our courfe was to pafs to 
the northward of the New Hebrides. 

The wet weather continued, and in the afternoon the 
wind came from the fouthward, blowing frelli in fqualls. 
As there was no profpe6l of getting ovir clothes dried, 
I recommended to every one to ftrip, and wring them 
through the fait water, by which means they received a 
warmth, that, while wet with rain, they could not have. 

# This 

T H E S O U T II S E A S, c^c. 187 

This afternoon, we faw a kind of fruit on the water, 1789. 
which Nelfon told me was the Barringtonia of Fbrfter; , _^ ^'^^ 
and, as I law the fame again in the morning, and Ibme 
men of war birds, I was led to believe that we were not far 
from land. 

We continued conftantly fliipping feas, and baling, and 
were very wet and cold in the night ; bvit I could not afford 
the allowance of rum at day^break. 

Wednefday the 13th. At noon I had a fight of the fun, Wednefday 
latitude 14° 17' S; courfe W by N 79 miles ; longitude '^" 
made 14° 28' W.. All this day, we were conftantly fliipping 
water, and fuffercd much cold and fliiverings in the night. 

Thurfday the 14th. Frelh gales at S E, and gloomy wea- Thurfday 14, 
ther, with rain, and a high fea. At fix in the morning, we 
faw land, from S W by S eight leagues, to N W by W i W 
fix leagues, which foon after appeared to be four illands, 
one of them much larger than the others, and all of them 
high and remarkable. At noon, we difcovered a fmall 
ifland and fome rocks, bearing N W by N four leagues, and 
another illand W eight leagues, fo that the whole were 
fix in number ; the four I had firft feen bearing from S f E 
to S W by S ; our diftance three leagues from the nearelt 
ifland. My latitude obferved was 13° 29' S, and longitude, 
by account, from Tofoa, 15'' 49' W ; courfe fince yelterday 
noon N 63" W, diftance 89 miles. At four in the after- 
noon, we pafTed the wefternmoft ifland. 

Friday the 15th. At one in the morning, another illand Friday ij. 
was difcovered, bearing'W N W, five leagues diftance, and 
at eight o'clock wc faw it for the Lift time, bearing N E 
feven leagues. A number of gannets, boobies, and men of 
war binls were feen. 

Thefc illands lie between the latitude of 13" 16' and 

B b 2 14' ■ 


1789. 14° 10' S: their longitude, according to my reckoning, 

J^J^^-^ 15° 51' to 17° 6' W from the iQandTofoa*. The largeit 

illaiid I judged to be about twenty leagues in circuit, the- 

others five or fix. The eafternmoft is the fmalleft ifland,. 

and moft remarkable, having a high fugar-loaf hill. 

The fight of theie iflands' ferved only to increafe the 
mifery of our fituation. We were very little better than 
fliarving, wdth plenty in view ; yet to attempt procuring 
any relief was attended with fo much danger, that pro- 
longing of life, even in the midft of mifery, Avas thought 
preferable, while there remained hopes of being able to 
furmount our hardfliips. For my own part, I confider the 
general run of cloudy and wet weather to be a bleffing of 
Providence. Hot weather would have caufed us to have 
died with thirft ; and probably being fo confl:antly covered 
■with rain or fea protected us from that dreadful calamity. 

As 1 had nothing to aflaft my memory, I could not then 
determine whether thefe iflands w^ere a part of the New 
Hebrides or not : I believed them to be a new difcovery, 
which I have fince found true; but, though they were 
not feen either by Monfieur Bougainville or Captain Cook,, 
they are fo nearly in the neighbourhood of the New He- 
brides, that they muft be confidered as part of the fame 
group. They are fertile, and inhabited, as I faw fmoke in 
feveral places. 

The wind w^as at S E, with rainy weather all day. The 
night was very dark, not a fl:ar could be feen to fteer by, 
and the fea broke continually over us. I found it neceflTary 

* By making a proportional allowance for the error afterwards found in the dead 
reckoning, I eftimate the longitude of thefe iflands to be from 167° if E to 168° 34' 
E from Greenwich. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 189 

to countcraJl as much as pofTiblc the effc(St of the foutherly 178Q. 
winds, to prevent being driven too near New Guinea ; for ^_ .-''- _f 
in general we were forced to keep fo much before the fea, 
that if we had not, at intervals of moderate weather, fteercd 
a more foutherly courfe, we fliould inevitably, from a 
continuance of the gales, have been thrown in fight of that 
coaft : in which cafe there would molt probably have been 
an end to our voyage. 

Saturday the 16th. In addition to our miferable allow- Saturday i6, 
ance of one 25th of a pound of bread, and a quarter of a 
pint of water, I iffued for dinner about an ounce of fait pork 
to each perfon. I was often folicited for this pork, but I 
confidered it more proper to iffue it in fmall quantities than 
to fuffer it to be all ufed at once or twice, which would have 
been done if I had allowed ir. 

At noon I obferved, in 13° 33' S; longitude made from 
Tofoa, 19° 27' Wj courfe N 82° W, diftance loi miles ► 
The fun breaking out through the clouds, gave us hopes 
of drying our wet clothes ; but the funfhine was of fliort 
duration. We had ftrong breezes at 8 E by S, and dark 
gloomy weather, with ftorms of thunder, lightning, and 
rain. The night was truly horrible, and not a il;ar to be 
{ten ; fo that our fteerage was uncertain. 

Sunday the 17th. At dawn of day, I found every Sunday 17; 
perfon complaining, and fome of them folicited extra al- 
lowance ; which 1 pofitively refufed. Our fituation was 
miferable ; always wet, and fufFering extreme cold in the 
night, without the leaft flielter from the weather. Being 
conrtantly obliged to bale, to keep the boat from filling, 
■was, perhaps, not to be reckoned an evil, as it gave us 



1789. The little rum we had was of great fervice : when our 

^_ ^*-''_f nights were particularly diftreffing, I generally ferved a tea- 
fpoonful or two to each perfon : and it was always joyful 
tidings when they heard of my intentions. 

At noon, a water-fpotit was very near on board of us. I 
ilTued an ounce of pork, in addition to the allowance of 
bread and water ; but before we began to eat, every per- 
fon ftript, and having wrung their clothes through the fea- 
water, found much warmth and refrefliment. Courfe iince 
yefterday noon W S W, diftance 100 miles ; latitude, by ac- 
count, 14° 11' S, and longitude made 21° 3' W. 

The night was dark and difmal ; the fea conflantly 
breaking oyer iis, and nothing but the wind and waves to 
dire6t our fteerage. It was my intention, if poflible, to make 
New Holland, to the fouthward of Endeavour ftraits, being 
fenfible that it was neceffary to pieferve fuch a fituation as 
would make a foutherly wind a fair one ; that we might 
range along the reefs till an opening fliould be found into 
fmooth water, and we the fooner be able to pick up fome 
refrefliment s. 
Monday 18. Monday, May the iSth. In the morning, the rain abated, 
when we ftripped, and wrung our clothes through the fea- 
water, as ufual, which refreflied us greatly. Every perfon 
complained of violent pain in their bones : I was only fur- 
prifed that no one was yet laid up. The cuftomary allow- 
ance of one 25th of a pound of bread, and a quarter of 
a pint of water, was ferved at breakfaft, dinner, and 

At noon, I deduced my fituation, by account, for we had 
no glimpfe of the fun, to be in latitude 14° 52' S ; courfe 
fmce yefterday noon, WSW 106 miles; longitude made 


THE SOUTH SEAS, ?cc. 391 

from Tofoa 22° 4;' \V. Saw manv boobies and noddies, a ^|7^9- 

^■' ' May. 

fign of being in the neighbourhood of land. In the night, u— ^ j 

\\Q had very fevere lightning, with heavy rain ; and were 

obliged to keep baling without intermillion. 

Tuefday the 19th. Very bad weather and conftant rain. Tuefdayip. 

At noon, latitude, by account, 14° 37' S ; courfe fince yefter- 

day N 81° \V, diltance roo miles ; longitude made 24° 30' 

W. With the allowance of bread and water, fcrved half 

an ounce of pork, to each perfon, for dinner. 

Wednefday, May the 20th. Frefh breezes E N E with wednefdav 
. 20. 

conftant ram ; at times a deluge. Always baling. 

At dawn of day, ft)me of my people feemed half dead: 
our appearances were horrible; and I could look noway, 
but I caught the eye of fome one in dillrefs. Extreme 
hunger was now too evident, but no one fuffered from thirfV, 
nor had we much inclination to drink, that defire, perhaps, 
being fatisfied through the Ikin. The little fleep we got 
was in the miilft of water, and we conftantly awoke with 
fevere cramps and pains in our bones. This morning I 
ferved about two tea-fpoonfuls of rum to each perfon, and 
the allowance of bread and water, as ufual. At noon the 
ftin broke out, and revived every one. I found we were 
in latitude 14° 49' S ; longitude made 25° 46' W; courfe S 
88° W, diftance 75 miles. 

All the afternoon, we were fo covered with rain and fait 
water, that we coiild fcarcely fee. We fuffered extreme 
cold, and every one dreaded the approach of night. Sleep, 
though we longed for it, atforded no comfort : for my own 
part, I almoit lived without it. About two o'clock in the Thuifda) .21, 
morning we were overwhelmed with a deluge of rain. It 
fell fo heavy that we were afraid it would fill the boat, and 
were obliged to bale with all our might. At dawn of day, I 




1789. ferved a larger allowance of rum. Towards noon, the rain 

t, - J"/^ abated and the fun Ihone, but we were miferably cold and 

wet, the fea breaking conftantly over us ; fo that, notwith- 

ftanding the heavy rain, we had not been able to add to our 

ftock of frefli water. Latitude, by obfervation, 14° 29' S, 

and longitude made, by account, from Tofoa, 27° 25' W ; 

courfe, lince yeiterday noon, N 78° W, 99 miles. I now 

confidered myfelf nearly on a meridian with the eaft part 

of New Guinea. 

Friday 23. Friday, May the 22d. Strong gales from E SE to S S E, a 

• high fea, and dark difmal night. 

Our lituation this day was extremely calamitous. We 
were obliged to take the courfe of the fea, running right 
before it, and watching with the utmoft care, as the leaft 
error in the helm would in a moment have been our de- 

At noon it blew very hard, and the foam of the fea kept 
running over our ftern and quarters ; I however got prop-^ 
ped up, and made an obfervation of the latitude, in 14° 17' 
S ; courfe N 85° W, diftance 130 miles ; longitude made 
29° 38 W. 

The mifery we fufFered this night exceeded the ' preced- 
ing. The fea flew over us with great force, and kept us 
Saturday 23. baling with horror and anxiety. At dawn of day I found 
every one in a moft diftreffed condition, and I began to fear 
that another fuch night would put an end to the lives of 
feveral, who feemed no longer able to fupport their fuffer- 
ings. I ferved an allowance of two tea-fpoonfuls of rum ; 
after drinking which, having wrung our clothes, and 
taken our breakfaft of bread and water, we became a little 



Towards noon, the weather became fair, but v/irh very 1789. 
little abatement of the gale, and the fea remained equally ._ -l -'_ f 
high. With feme difficulty I obferved the latitude to be 
13° 44' S : courfe fince yefterday noon N 74" W, diftancc 
116 miles ; longitude made 31° 32' W from Tofoa. 

The wind moderated in the evening, and the weather 
looked much better, which rejoiced all hands, fo that they 
eat their fcanty allowance with more fatisfadliou than for 
fome time paft. The night alfo was fair; but being al- 
ways wet with the fea, we fuffered much from the cold. A 
fine morning, I had the pleafure to fee, produce fome Sunday 24. 
chearful countenances ; and, the firft time for 15 days paft, 
we experienced comfort from the warmth of the fun. We 
ftripped, and himg our clothes up to dry, which were by 
this time become fo thread-bare, that they would not keep 
out either wet or cold. 

At noon, I obferved iii latitude 13° 33' S ; longitude, by ac- 
count, from Tofoa 33° 28' W ; courfe N 84^" W, diftance 
114 miles. With the ufual allowance of bread and water 
for dinner, I ferved an ounce of pork to each perfon. This 
afternoon we had many birds about us, which are never 
feen far from land, fuch as boobies and noddies. 

As the fea began to run fair, and we fliipped but little 
water, I took the opportunity to examine into the ftate of our 
bread, and found, that according to the prefent mode of iflii- 
4ng, there was a fufficient quantity remaining for 29 days al- 
lowance; by which time I hoped we fliould be able to reach 
Timor. But as this was very uncertain, and it was poffihle 
that, after all, we might be obliged to go to Java, I determined 
to proportion the allowance fo as to make our ftock hold Allowance 
out fix weeks. I was apprehenfive that this would l)e ill ''='^'="'''- 
jeceived, and that it would require my utmoft refolution 

C c to 

194 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. to enforce it ; for, fmall as the quantity was which I intended' 
i^t^^,:^ to take away, for onr future good, yet it might appear to my 
people like robbing them of life; and fome, who. were lefs pa- 
tient than their companions, I expected would very ill brook 
it. However, on my reprefenting the neceffity of guarding 
againft delays that might be occafioned in our voyage by 
contrary winds, or other caufes, and promiling to enlarge 
upon the allowance as we got ou, they chearfully agreed to. 
my propofal. It was accordingly fettled, that every perfon 
iliould receive one 25th of a pound of bread for breakfaft, 
and the fame quantity for dinner; fo that by omitting the 
proportion for fupper, we had 43 days allowance. 
Monday t^- Monday the 25th. At noon fome noddies came fo neat 
to us, that one of them was caught by hand. This bird 
was about the lize of a fmall pigeon. I divided it, with its 
entrails, into 18 portions, and by a well-known method at 
fea, of. Who JJoall have-this^f it was diftributed, with the 
allowance of bread and water for dinner, and eat up bones 
and all, with fait water for fauce. I obferved the latitude 
13° 32' S ; longitude made 35" 19' W ; courfe N 89° W,: 
diftance 108 miles. 

In the evening, feveral boobies flying very near to us, 
we had the good fortune to catch one of them. This bird' 
is as large as a duck : like the noddy, it has received 
its name from feamen, for fuffering itfelf to be caught on 
the mafts and yards of fhips. They are themoft prefump- 
tive proofs of being in the neighbourhood of land of any 
fea- fowl we are acquainted with. I directed the bird to be 

* One perfon turns his back on the objedl that is to be divided: another then points 
feparately to the portions, at each of them afking aloud, " Who fhall have this?" to 
which tlie firft anfwers by naming fomebody. This impartial method of divifion gives 
every man an equal chance of the beft ihare. 

9 killed 


killed for fuppcr, and the blood to be given to three of the 1789. 
people ^vho were the molt diltrefled for want of foot.J. ■ ' --'■^ 
The body, with the entrails, beak, and feet, I divided into 
18 fliares, and with an allowance of bread, which I made 
a merit of granting, we made a good fupper, compared 
with our ufual fare. 

Tuefday the 26th. Frcfli breezes from the S E, with Tuefd.iy z6. 
fine weather. In the morning we caught another booby, 
fo that Providence appeared to be relieving our wants in 
an extraordinary manner. Towards noon, we paffed a 
great many pieces of the branches of trees, fome of which 
appeared to have been no long time in the water. I had a 
good obfervation for the latitude, and found our fituation 
to be in 13° 41' S ; longitude, by account, from Tofoa, 37' 
13' W ; courfe S 85° W, iia miles. The people were over- 
joyed at the addition to their dinner, which was dilMbuted 
in the fame manner as on the preceding evening ; giving 
the blood to thofe who were the moft in want of food. 

To make the bread a little favoury, moft of the people 
frequently dipped it in fait water; but I generally broke 
mine into fmall pieces, and eat it in my allowance of 
water, out of a cocoa-nut Ihell, w4th a fpoon ; economi- 
cally avoiding to take too large a piece at a time, {b that 
I was as long at dinner as if it had been a much more 
plentiful meal. 

The weather was now ferene, which, neverthelefs, was 
not without its inconveniences, for we began to feel diftrefs 
of a different kind from that which we had lately been ac- 
cuftomed to fuffer. The heat of the fun was fo powerful, 
that feveral of the people were feized with a languor and 
faintnefs, which made life indifferent. We were fo fortu- 
nate as to catch two boobies in the evening : their ftomachs 

C c a contained 

196 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789; contained feveral flying-fifh and fmall cuttlefifh, all of 

L^ltl™; which I faved to be divided for dinner the next day. 

■svedn^fday Wedncfday the 27th. A frefh breeze at E S E, with fair 

^''" weather. We paffed much drift wood this forenoon, and 

iaw many birds ; I therefore did not hefitate to pronounce 

that we were near the reefs of New Holland. From my 

recoUedion of Captain Cook's furvey of this coaft, I con- 

fidered the direction of it to be N W, and I was therefore 

fatisfied that, with the wind to the fouthward of E, I could 

always clear any dangers. 

At noon, I obferved in latitude 13° 26' S ; courfe fince 
yefterday N 82° W, diftance 109 miles ; longitude made 
39° 4' W. After writing my account, I divided the two 
birds with their entrails, and the contents of their maws, 
into 18 portions, and, as the prize was a very valuable one, 
it was divided as before, by calling- out Who pall have this'? 
fo that to-day, with the allowance of a 25th of a pound of 
bread at breakfaft, and another at dinner, with the propor- 
tion of water, I was happy to fee that every perfon thought 
he had feafted. 

In the evening, M'e faw a gannet; and the clouds re- 
mained fo fixed in the weft, that I had little doubt of our 
being near the land. The people, after taking their 
allowance of water for fupper, amufed themfelves with 
converfing on the probability of what we Ihould find. 
ThBrfdayzS. ^ Thurfday the aSth. At one in the morning, the perfon' 
at the helm heard the found of breakers, and I no- fooner 
lifted up my head, than I faw them clofe under our lee, not 
more than a quarter of a mile difl:ant from us. I imme- 
diately hauled on a wind to the N N E, and in ten minutes 
lime we could neither fee nor hear them, 

I have 

T H E S O U T FI S E A S, &:c. 197 

I have already mentioned my reafoa for making New 17R9. 
Holland fo far to the fouthward : for I never doubted of J^J', 
numerous openings in the reef, through which I could 
have accefs to the lliore : and, knowing the incUnation of 
the coail to be to the N W, and the wind moilly to the 
fouthw-ard of E, I could with eafe range fuch a barrier of 
reefs till I fhould find a paffage, which now became ab- 
folutely necefTary, without a moment's lofs of time. The 
idea of getting into fmooth water, and finding refrefli- 
ments, kept my people's fpirits up : their joy was very 
great after we had got clear of the breakers, to which we 
had approached much nearer than I thought was poffible, 
without firft difcovering them. 

In the morning, at day-light, we could fee nothing of Friday 29* 
the land or of the reefs. We bore away again, and at nine 
o'clock, faw the reefs. The fea broke furioufiy over every 
part, and we had no foonergot near to tliem, than the wind 
came at E, fo that we could only lie along the line of the 
breakers ; within w^hich we faw the water fo fmooth, that 
every perfon already anticipated the heart-felt fatisfacftion 
he fiiould receive, as foon as we could get within them. I 
now found we were embayed, for we could not lie clear with 
the fails, the wind having backed againft us ; and the fea let 
in fo heavy towards the reef, that our fituation was become 
imfafe. We could effe^ but little with the oars, having 
fcarce ftrength to pull them ; and I began to apprehend that 
we fhould be obliged to attempt pudiing over the reef. 
Even this I did not defpair of eife6ling with faccefs, when 
happily we difcovercd a break in the reef, about one mile 
from us, and at the fame time an ifland of a moderate 
height within it, nearly in the fame direcflion, beaiing 
W £ N. I entered the paflagc with a flrong Itream run- 



M A Y. 

ning to the weftward, and found it about a quarter of a mile 
broad, with every appearance of deep water. 

On the ontfide, the reef inclined to the N E for a few 
miles, and from thence to the N W : on the fouth fide of 
the entrance, it inclined to the S S W as far as I could fee it; 
and I conjecSture that a fimilar paffage to this which we now 
entered, may be found near the breakers that I firft dif- 
covered, which are 23 miles S of this channel. 

I did not recolleit what latitude Providential channel * 
lies in, but I confidered it to be within a few miles of this, 
which is lituate in 12° 51' S latitude. 

Being now happily within the reefs, and in fmooth 
water, I endeavoured to keep near them to try for fifh ; 
but the tide fet us to the N W, I therefore bore away in 
that dire6tion, and, having promifed to land on the firft 
convenient fpot M^e could find, all our paft hardfhips feemed 
already to be forgotten. 

At noon, I had a good obfervation, by which our latitude 
was 12° 46' S, whence the foregoing fituations may be confi- 
dered as determined with fome exacflnefs. The ifland firft 
feen bore W S W five leagues. This, which I have called 
the illand Dire6tion, will in fair weather always fhew the 
channel, from which it bears due W, and may be feen as 
foon as the reefs, from a ftiip's maft-head : it lies in the 
latitude of 12' 51' S. Thefe, however, are marks too fmall for 
a fiiip to hit, unlefs it can hereafter be afcertained that paf- 
fages through the reef are numerous along the coaft, which 
I am inclined to think they are, in which cafe there would 
be little rilk, even if the wind was direcSlly on the fiiore, 

* Providential Channel is laid down by Captain Cook, in 12° 34' S, longitude 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. ' 199 

My longitude, made by dead reckoning, from the ifland 1789. 
Tofoa to our palTagc through the reef, is 40° 10' W. Provi- ._^^^_'|'^ 
dential channel, I imagine, muft lie very nearly under the 
fame meridian with onr paffage ; by which it appears wc 
had out-run our reckoning 1° 9'. 

We now returned God thanks for his gracious protec- 
tion, and with much content took our miferablc allowance 
of a 25th of a pound of breads and a quarter of a pint of 
water, for dinner. 

C H A P. 

200 A V O Y A G E T O 



.Frogr.ejs to the Northward^ along the Coajl of New Holland.- 
Land on different IJlands^ in fear ch of Supplies. 

1789; y^ S we advanced within the reefs, the coaft began to 
±\. fliew itfelf very diftindlly, in a variety of high and low 
land ; fome parts of which were covered with wood. In 
our way towards the fliore, we fell in with a point of a reef 
which is conne6led with that towards the fea, and here we 
came to a grapnel, and tried to catch fifli, but had no fuc- 
cefs. The ifland Direcftion at this time bore S three or four 
leagues. Two illands lay about four miles to the W by N, 
and appeared eligible for a refting- place, if for nothing 
more ; but on our approach to the neareft ifland, it proved 
to be only a heap ©f ftones, and its fize too inconliderable 
to flicker the boat. We therefore proceeded to the next, 
which was clofe to it and towards the main. On the N W 
fide of this, I found a bay and a fine fandy point to land at. 
Our difl:ance was about a quarter of a mile from a projedling 
part of the main, which bore from S W by S, to N N W | W. 
We landed to examine if there were any figns of the natives 
being near us: we faw fome old fire-places, but nothing 
to make me apprehend that this would be an unfafe fitua- 
tion for the night. Every one was anxious to find fome- 
thing to eat, and it was foon difcovered that there were 
oyfters on the rocks, for the tide was out ; but it was nearly 


THE.SOUT.H SEAS, Sec. 201 

<Iark, and ouly a few could be gathered. I determined 1789. 
therefore to wait till the morning, when I fliould better ._ -*_'_; 
Tcnow how to proceed, and I direded that one half of our 
company^ flioiild fleep on fliore, and the other half in the 
boat. We would. gladly have made a fire, but, as we could 
not accpn)plifli it, we took our reft for the night, which 
happily was calm and undifturbed. 

Friday the 29th. The dawn of day brought greater Friday 29. 
ftrength and fpirits to us than I expetfled ; for, notwith- 
ftanding every one was very weak, there appeared ftrength 
fufficient remaining to make me conceive the moft favour- 
able hopes of our being able to furmount the difficulties we 
might yet have to encounter. 

As there were no appearances to make me imagine that 
any of the natives were near us, I fent out parties in fearch 
of fupplies, while others of the people were putting the boat 
in order, that we might be ready to go to fea in cafe any 
unforefeen caufe fliould make it neceffary. One of the 
gudgeons of the rudder had come out in the courfe of the 
night, and was loft. This, if it had happened at fea, might 
have been attended with the moft ferious confequences, as 
the management of the boat could not have been fo nicely 
preferved as thefe very heavy fens required. I had been ap- 
prehenfive of this accident, and had in fome meafure pre- 
pared for it, by having grummets fixed on each quarter of 
the boat for oars ; but our utmoft readinefs in ufing them, 
would not probably have faved us. It appears, therefore, a 
providential circumftance, that it happened in a place of 
fafety, and that it was in our power to remedy the defedl ; 
for by great good luck we found a large ftaple in the boat, 
which anfwered the purpofe. 

D d ' The 


1789. The parties returned, highly rejoiced at having found 

^''^- plenty of oyfters and frefh water. I had alfo made a fire, 
by the help of a fmall magnifying glafs ; and, what was 
ftill more fortunate, we found among the few things which 
had been thrown into the boat and faved, a piece of brim- 
ftone and a tinder-box, fo that I fecured fire for the fu- 

One of the people had been fo provident as to bring away 
with him from the fhip, a copper pot : by being in polTef- 
lion of this article we were enabled to make a proper ufe of 
the fupply we now obtained; for, with a mixture of bready 
and a little pork, we made a ftew that might have been re- 
liflied by people of far more delicate appetites, and of which 
each perfon received a full pint. 

The general complaints of difeafe among us, were a diz- 
zinefs in the head, great weaknefs of the joints, and violent 
tenefmus ; moft of us having had no evacuation by flool 
Jince we left the fhip. I had conftantly a fevere pain at my 
ftomach ; but none of our complaints were alarming : on 
the contrary, every one retained marks of flrength, that, 
Avith a mind poflTefled of a tolerable fhare of fortitude, feemed 
able to bear more fatigue than I imagined we Ihould have to 
undergo in our voyage to Timor. 

As I would not allow the people to expofe themfelves to 
the heat of the fun, it being near noon, every one took his 
allotment of earth where it was fliaded by the bufhes, for a 
lliort fleep. 

The oyfters which we found, grew fo faft to the rocks, 
that it was with diflficulty they could be broken off; and at 
length we difcovered it to be the moft expeditious way to 
open them wh^re they were fixed. They were of a good 



fize, and well taftcd. To add to this happy circumftance, 1789. 
ill the hollow of the land there grew Ibme wire grafs, '^ * *^' 
which indicated a moift lituation. On forcing a ftick, about 
three feet long, into the ground, wc found water, and with 
little trouble dug a well, which jirodiKed as much as our 
occafions required. It was very good, but I could not de- 
termine if it was a fpring or not. We were not obliged 10 
make the well deep, for it flowed as full as we emptied it ; 
which, as the foil was apparently too loofe to retain water 
from the rains, render^ it probable to be a ipring. On the 
foutU lide of the iiland like\A ilc, we fotind a fmall run of 
good water. 

Befides places where fires had been made, there were 
other figns of the natives fometimes reforting to this iiland. 
I faw two ill-conftrudled huts or wigwams, which had only 
one fide loofely covered; and a pointed Hick was found, about 
three feet long, with a Hit in the cud of it, to fling fliones 
with ; the fame as the natives of Van Diemen's land ufe. 

The track of fome animal was very diicernible, and Nel- 
fon agreed M'ith me that it was the Kanguroo ; but whether 
thefe animals fwim over from the main land, or are brought 
here by the natives to breed, it is impoflible to determine. 
The latter is not improbable ; as they may be taken with 
lefs difficulty in a confined fpot like this, than on the con- 

The ifland ig about a league in circuit : it is a high 
lump of rocks and flones covered with wood ; but the trees 
are fmall, the foil, which is very indifferent and fandy, 
being barely fuflicient to produce them. The trees that 
came within our knowledge were the manchineal and 
a fpecies of purow : alfo fome palm-trees, the tops of which 

D d 2 wc 

204 A V O Y A G E T O 

M A 

789. we cut down, and the foft interior part or heart of them 
was fo palatable that it made a good addition to our mefs. 
Nelfon difcovered fome fern-roots, which I thought might 
be good roafted, as a fubftitute for bread, but in this I 
was miftaken : it hovv^ever was very ferviceable in its na- 
tural ftatc to allay thirft, and on that account I directed a 
quantity to be colle6ted to take into the boat. Many pieces 
of cocoa-nut fliells and huflv were found about the fhore, 
but we could find no cocoa-nut trees, neither did I fee any 
on the main. 

I had cautioned the people not to touch any kind of 
berry or fruit that they might find ; yet they were no 
fooner out of my fight than they began to make free with 
three different kinds, that grew all over the ifland, eating 
without any referve. The fymptoms of having eaten too 
much, began at laft to frighten fome of them ; but on 
queftioning others, who had taken a more moderate allow- 
ance, their minds were a little quieted. The others, how- 
ever, became equally alarmed in their turn, dreading that 
fuch fymptoms would come on, and that they were all 
poifoned, fo that they regarded each other with the 
llrongefl: marks of apprehenfion, uncertain what would be 
the iffue of their imprudence. Fortunately the fruit proved 
wholefome and good. One fort grew on a fmall delicate 
kind of vine ; they were the fize of a large goofeberry, and 
very like in fubftance, but had only*^ a fweet tafte ; the 
ikin was a pale red, ftreaked with yellow the long way of 
the fruit : it was pleafant and agreeable. Another kind 
grew on buflies, like that which is called the fea-fide grape 
in the Weft Indies ; but the fruit was very different, being 
more like elder-berries, and grew in clufters in the fame 


T H E S O U T II S E A S, 8cc. 205 

manner. The third fort was a blac:k-berry ; this was not in i7<?9. 
fucli plenty us the others, and rclemblcd a bulhce, or large ^_ _^_^' , 
kind of floe, both in lize and talle. When I faw that thclb 
fruits were eaten by the birds, I no longer doubted of their 
being wholefomc, and thofe who had already tried the ex- 
periment, not finding any bad effe6l,made it.a certainty that 
we might eat of them without danger. 

Wild pigeons, parrots, and other birds, were about the 
fummit of the ifland, but, having no fire-arms, relief of 
that kind was not to be expelled, unlefs we fliould find 
fome unfrequented fi)Ot where the birds were fo tame that 
we might take them with our hands. 

The fliore of this ifland is very rocky? except the place at 
which we landed, and here I picked up many pieces of jdu- 
mice-fione. On the part of the main neareft to us, were fe- 
veral fandy bays, which at low-water became an extenfive 
rocky flat. The country had rather a barren appearance, 
except in a few places where it w'as covered with wood. 
A remarkable range of rocks lay a few miles to the S W, 
and a high peaked hill feemed to terminate the coaft to- 
' wards the fea, with iilands to the fouthward. A high fair 
cape fliowed the direction of the coafl to the N W, about 
feven leagues diflant; and two finall ifles lay three or four 
leagues to the northward of our prefent ftation. 

I faw a few bees or wafps, and feveral lizards -, and the 
black-berry bufhes were full of ants nefts, webbed like a 
fpider's, but fo clofe and compadl as not to admit the 
rain. A trunk of a tree, about 50 feet long, lay on the 
beach ; from which I conclude that a heavy fea fets in here, 
with a northerly wind. 

This day being, the anniverfary of the reftoration of king 


2o6 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789- Charles the Second, and the name not being inapplicable to 
; .^ »,— ,.^ our prefent fimation (for we were reftored to frelh life and. 
ftrength), I named this Reftoration liland ; for I thought it 
probable that captain Cook might not have taken notice of 
it. The other names which I have prefumed to 9give the 
different parts of the coaft, are meant only to fhow my 
route more difliniVly. 

At noon, I obferved the latitude of the ifland to be 
12° 39' S; our courfe having been N 66° W, diftance 18 
jniles from yefterday noon. The wind was at E S E, with 
very fine weather. 

In the afternoon, I fent parties out again to gather oyfters, 
with which and fome of the inner part of the jialm-top, we 
made another good ftew for fupper, each perfon receiving 
a full pint and a half; but I refufed bread to this meal, for 
I confidered that our wants might yet be very great, and 
was intent on faving our principal fupport whenever it 
was in my power. After fupper, we again divided, and 
thofe'who were on fhore flept by a good iire. 
Saturday )o, Saturday, May the 3Pth. In the morning, I difcovered a 
vifible alteration in our company for the better, and I fent 
them away again to gather oyfters. We had now only two 
pounds of pork left. This article, which I could not keep 
under lock and key as I did the bread, had been pil- 
fered by fome inconflderate perfon, but every one denied 
having any knowledge of this a6t; I therefore refolved 
to put it out of their power for the future, by fharing what 
remained, for our dinner. While the party was out picking 
up oyfters, I got the boat in readinefs for fea, and filled all 
our water veflels, which amounted to nearly 60 gallons. 

The party being returned, dinner was foon ready, which 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 207 

was as plentiful a meal as the fupper on the preceding even- 1789. 
ingf and with the pork I gave an allowance of bread. As it ^,^^!^fZ^ 
was not yet noon, I fent the people once more to gather 
oyftcrs for a fea ftore, recommending to them to be as dilifr 
gent as pofTible, for that I was determined to fail in the 

At noon, I again obferved the latitude 12° 39' S ; it was 
then high-water, the tide had rifen three feet, but I could 
not be certain from whence the flood came. I deduce the 
time of high-water at full and change to be ten minutes 
paft feven in the morning. 

Early in the afternoon, the people returned with the few 
oyfters that they had collc'fted, aad every thing w^as put 
into the boat. I then examined the quantity of bread re- 
maining, and found 38 days allowance, according to the laft 
mode of ilTuing a 25th of a pound at breakfaft and at din- 

Fair weather, and moderate breezes at E S E and S E. 

Being ready for lea, I directed every perfon to attend 
prayers. At four o'clock we were preparing to embark ; 
w'hen about twenty of the natives appeared, running and 
hallooing to us, ©n the oppofite fliore. They were each 
armed with a fpear or lance, and a fliort weapon w^hicli they 
carried in their left hand : they made figns for us to come 
to them. On the top of the hills we faw the heads of 
many more : whether thefc were their wives and children,- 
or others who waited for our landing, meaning not to fhow 
themfelves, left we might be intimidated, I cannot fay; but, 
as I found we were difcovered to be on the coaft, I thought 
it prudent to make the beft of our way, for fear of being 
purfued by canoes ; though, from the accounts of captain 

3 Cook, 


1789. Cook, the chance was that there were very few if any of 
^_^^ ^ "^' . confequence. on any part of the coaft. I palTed thefe peo- 
ple as near as I could with fafety : they were naked, and 
apparently black, and their hair or wool bulliy and fliort. 

I dire6ted my courfe within two fmall iflands that lie to 
the north of Reftoration Illand, pafling between them and 
the main land, towards Fair Cape, with a ftrong tide in my 
favour ; fo that I was abreaft of it by. eight o'clock. The 
coaft we paffed was high and woody. As I could fee no 
land without Fair Cape, I concluded that the coaft inclmed 
to the N W and W N W : I therefore fteered more to- 
wards the W ; but by eleven o'clock at night, we met 
with low land, which inchned to the NE; and at three 
o'clock in the morning I found that we were embayed, 
which obliged us to ftand back for a flaort time to the 
Sunday 31. Sunday the 31ft. At day-break, I was exceedingly fur- 
prifed to find the appearance of the country entirely 
changed, as if in the courfe of the night we had been 
tranfported to another part of the world; for we had now 
a low fandy coaft in view, with very little verdure, or 
any thing to indicate that it was at all habitable to a hu- 
man being, except a few patches of fmall trees or brufh- 

Many fmall iflands were in fight to the N E, about fix 
miles diftant. The E part of the main bore N four miles, 
and Fair Cape S S E five or fix leagues. I took the chan- 
nel between the neareft ifland and the main land, which 
were about one mile apart, leaving all the iflands on the 
ftarboard fide. Some of thefe were very pretty fpots, covered 
with wood, and well fituated for fifliing : large flioals of 


THE SOUTH si: AS, gcc. ^09 

filli were about us, but we could not catch any. In pafling i7«9- 
this ftrait we faw another party of Indians, Teven in num- u-^-^-^ 
her, running towards us, fliouting and making llgns for us to 
land. Some of them waved green branches of the bulh^s 
which were near them, as a token of frienchliip ; but fome 
of their other motions were Icfs friendly. A Uttle farther off, 
we faw a larger party, who likcwife came towards us. I 
therefore determined not to land, though I much willied to 
have had fome intercourfe with thcfe people. Nevcrthe- 
lefs I laid the boat clofe to the rocks, and beckoned to 
them to approach ; but none of them would come within 
200 yards of us. They were armed in the fame manner 
as the people we had feen from Reftoration liland ; they 
were ftark naked, their colour black, with fliort buQiy hair 
or wool, and in their appearance were llmilar to them in 
every refpedf. An ifland of a good height bore N r W, four 
miles from us, at which I refolved to land, and from thence 
to take a look at the coaft. At this ille we arrived about 
eight o'clock in the morning. The fliore was rocky, but 
the water was fmooth, and we landed without clifHculty. 
I fent two parties out, one to the northward, and the 
other to the fouthward, to feek for fupplies, and others 
I ordered to ftay by the boat. On this occafion, fatigue 
and weaknels fo far got the better of their {eni'e of duty, 
that fome of the people exprefled their difcontent at hav- 
ing worked harder thnn their companions, and declared 
that they would rather be without their (Unner than go in 
fearch of it. One perfon, in particular, went fo far as to 
tell mc, with a niutinous look, that he was as good a man 
as myfelf. It was not poflible for me to judge where this 
might have an end, if not (topped in time; therefore to 
prevent fuch difputcs in future, I determined either to pre- 

E c forve 

2IO A V O Y A G E T O 

>789- ferve my command, or die in the attempt : and, feizing a 
_ -_-^'j . cntlafs, I ordered him to take hold of another and defend 
himfelf ; on which he called out that I was going to kill him, 
and immediately made conceffions. I did not allow this to 
interfere further with the harmony of the hoat's crew, and 
every thing foon became quiet. 

The parties continued colle6ling what they could find, 
which were fome fine oyfters and clams, and a few fmall 
dog-fifli that were caught in the holes of the rocks. We 
alfo found fome rain-water in the hollow of the rocks, on 
the north part of the ifland, fo that of this eflential article 
we were again fo fortunate as to obtain a full fupply. 

After regulating the mode of proceeding, I walked to the 
higheft part of the ifland, to confider our route for the 
night. To my furprife, no more of the main land could be 
{een here than from below, the northern moft part in fight, 
which was full of fand-hills, bearing W by N, about 
three leagues. Except the ifles to the E S E and S, that 
we had palfed, I could only difcover a fmall key N W by N. 
As this was confiderably farther from the main than the fpot 
on which we were at prefent, I judged it would be a more 
fecure refting-place for the night; for here we were liable 
to an attack, if the Indians had canoes, as they undoubt- 
edly muft have obferved our landing. My mind being made 
upon this point, 1 returned, after taking a particular look at 
the iiland we were on, which I found only to produce a few 
bullies, and iome coarfe grafs ; the extent of the whole not 
being two miles in circuit. On the north fide, in a fandy 
bay, I faw an old canoe, about 33 feet long, lying bottom 
upwards, and half buried in the beach. It was made of three 
pieces, the bottom entire, to which the fides were fewed in 
the common way. It had a fiiarp pr-oje£ling prow rudely 



carved, in refcmblancc of the head of a fifli ; the extreme 1789. 
breadth was about three feet, and I imagine it was capable ._ -V'_ 
of carrying 20 men. The cUfcovery of fo large a canoe, con- 
firmed me in the purpofe of feeking a more retired place 
for our night's lodging. 

AT: noon, the parties were all returned, but had found 
much difficulty ingathering the oyfters, from their clofe 
adherence to the rocks, and the clams were fcarce : I there- 
fore faw, that it would be of little ufe to remain longer in 
this place, as we fliould not be able to collect more than we 
could eat. I named this Sunday Uland : it lies N by W J W 
from Reftoration llhnd ; the latitude, by a good obferva- 
tion, ii°58'S. 

We had a frefli breeze at S E by S, with fair weather. 
At two o'clock in the afternoon, we dined; each perfon 
having a full pint and a half of ftewed oyftcrs and clams, 
thickened with fmall beans, which Nelfon informed mc 
were a fpecies of Dolichos. Having eaten heartily, and 
completed our water, I waited to determine the time of 
high-water, which I found to be at three o'clock, and the 
rife of the tide about five feet. According to this, it is higli- 
water on the full and change at 19 minutes paft 9 in the 
morning : I obferved the flood to come from the fouth- 
ward, though at Reftoration Ifland, I thought it came from 
the northward. I think captain Cook mentions that he found 
great irregularity in the fet of the flood on this coaft. 

We fleered for the key feen in the N W by N, where 
we arrived juft at dark, but found it fo furrounded by 
a reef of rocks, that I could not land without danger of 
fl:aving the boat ; and on that accoxint we came to a grapnel 
tbr the night. 

Monday, June the ifl. At dawn of day, we got on fliore, Monday'i, 

E c 2 and 

212 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. and tracked the boat into fhelter; for the wind blowing 
^"^ _^'_, frefli without, and the ground being rocky, it was not fafe 
to truft her at a grapnel, left llie fhonld be blown to fea : I 
was, therefore, obliged to let her ground in the courfe of 
the ebb. From appearances, I expe6ted that if we remained 
till night we ftiould meet with turtle, as we difcovered 
recent tracks of them. Innumerable birds of the noddy- 
kind made this ifland their refting-place ; fo that we had 
reafon to flatter ourfelves with hopes of getting fupplies 
in greater abundance than it had hitherto been in our 
power. Our lituation was at leaft four leagues diftant from 
the main. We were on the north-wefternmoft of four 
fmall keys, which were furrounded by a reef of rocks 
connecfled by fand-banks, except between the two nor- 
thernmoft ; and there likewife it was dry at low water; the 
whole forming a lagoon ifland, into which the tide flowed : 
at this entrance I kept the boat. 

As ufual, I fent parties away in fearch of fupplies, but, 
to our great difappointment, we could only get a few clams 
and Ibme dolichos : with thefe, and the oyfters we had 
brought from Sunday Ifland, I made up a mefs for din- 
ner, with the addition of a fmall quantity of bread. 

Towards noon, Nelfon, and fome others, who had been 
to the eafternmoft key, returned ; but Nelfon was in fo 
weak a condition, that he was obliged to be fupported by 
two men. His complaint was a violent heat in his bowels, 
a lofs of fight, much drought, and an inability to walk. 
This I found was occafioned by his being unable to fupport 
the heat of the fun, and that, when he was fatigued and 
faint, inftead of retiring into the fliadc to reft, he had con- 
tinued to attempt more than his ftrength was equal to. 
1 was glad to find that he had no fever; and it was now 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. ai; 

tliat tlic little wine, which I had lb carefully faved, be- 17S9. 
came of real life. I gave it in very fmall quantities, with ^_ " 1*' 
fome pieces of bread foaked in it ; and he foon began to 
recover. The boatfwain and carpenter alfo were ill, and 
complained of head-ach, and fickncfs of the ftomach. 
Others, who had not had any evacuation by ftool, became 
fliockingly diftrcffed with the tenefmus ; fo that there 
were but few without complaints. An idea prevailed, that 
the ficknefs of the boatlwain and carpenter was occa- 
fioncd by eating the dolichos. Myfelf, however, and fome 
others, who had taken the lame food, felt no inconveni- 
ence; but the truth was, that many of the people had 
eaten a large quantity of them raw, and Nelfon informed 
me, that they were conftantly teazing him, whenever a 
berry was found, to know if it was good to eat -, fo that it 
would not have been furpriling if many of them had been 
really poifoned. 

Our dinner was not fo w'ell relilhed as at Sunday Ifland, 
bccaufe we had mixed the dolichos with our ftew. The 
oyfters and foup, however, were eaten by every one, except 
Nelfon, whom I fed with a few fmall pieces of bread foaked 
in half a glafs of wine, and he continued to mend. 

In my walk round the ifland, I found feveral cocoa-nut 
fliells, the remains of an old wigwam, and the backs of two 
turtle, but no fign of any quadruped. One of the people 
found three fea-fowl's eggs. 

As is common on fuch fpots, the foil is little other than 
fund, yet it produced fmall toa-trees, and fome others, that 
we were not acquainted with. There were lilli in the la- 
goon, but we could not catch any. Our wants, therefore, 
were not likely to be fupplied here, not even with water 
for our daily expence : neverthelefs, I determined to wait 



till the morning, that we might try our fuccefs in the 
night for turtle and birds. A quiet night's reft alfo, I 
conceived, would be of elTential fervice to thofe who were 

The wigwam and turtle fliell, were proofs that the natives 
at times vilited this place; and that they had canoes, the 
remains of the large canoe that we faw at Sunday Illand, 
left no room to doubt : ' but I did not apprehend that we 
ran any rifk by remaining here a fhort time. I directed 
our fire, however, to be made in the thicket, that we 
might not be difcovered by its light. 

At noon, I obferved the latitude of this ifland to be 
11° 47' S. The main land extended towards the N W, and 
was full of white fand-hills : another fmall ifland lay with- 
in us, bearing W by N J N, three leagues diftant. Our 
Htuation being very low, we could fee nothing of the reef 
towards the fea. 

The afternoon was advantageoufly fpent in fleep. There 
were, however, a few not difpofed to it, and thofe were 
employed in drefling fome clams to take with us for the next 
day's dinner : others we cut up in flices to dry, which I 
knew was the moft valuable fupply we could find here ; 
but they were very fcarce. 

Towards evening, I cautioned every one againft making 
too large a fire, or fuffering it after dark to blaze up. Mr. 
Samuel and Mr. Peckover had the fuperintendence of this 
bufinefs, while I was ftrolling about the beach to obferve if 
I thought it could be feen from the main. I was juft fatif- 
fied that it could not, when on a fudden the ifland appear- 
ed all in a blaze, that might have been difcerned at a much 
more confiderable diftance. I ran to learn the caufe, and 
found that it was occafioned by the imprudence and obftinacy 
7 of 

T H E S O U T II S E A S, &c. 215 

of one of the party, who, in my abfence, had iiififted on 
having a fire to himfclf ; in making which the flames 
caught the neighbouring grafs and rapidly fprcad. This 
milconduct might liave produced very ferious confequences, 
by dilcovering our fituation to the natives ; for, if they had 
attacked us, we had neither arms nor ftrength to oppofe 
an enemy. Thus the rchef which I expccTted from a little 
flecp was totally loft, and I anxioully waited for the flowing 
of the tide, that we might proceed to fea. 

It was high-water at half paft five this evening, whence 
I deduced the time, on the full and change of the moon, 
to be 58 paft 10 in the morning : the rife was nearly five 
feet. I could not obferve the fet of the flood ; but ima- 
gined it to come from the fouthward, and that I was mif- 
taken at Reftoration Ifland, as I found the time of high- 
water gradually later the more we advanced to the north- 

At Reftoration Ifland, high water, full and change, 7' 10' 
Sunday Ifland, - - - - -- 919 

Here, -- _«__ -10 58 

After eight o'clock, Mr. Samuel and Mr. Peckover went 
out to watch for turtle, and three men went to the eaft key 
to endeavour to catch birds. All the others complaining of 
being Tick, took their reft, except Mr. Hayward and Mr. 
Elphinfton, whom I directed to keep watch. About mid- 
night the bird party returned, with only twelve noddies, 
birds which I have already delcribed to be about the fize 
of pigeons: but if it had not been for the folly and obfti- 
nacyof one of the party, v. ho feparated from the other two, 
and difturbed tlie birds, they might have caught a groat 
number. 1 was lb much provoked at my plans being thus 


2i6 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. defeated, that I gave this offender * a good beating. I now 
yJjJLlj went in fearch. of the turtling party, who had taken great 
pains, but without fuccefs. This did not furprife me, 
as it was not to be expe6led that turtle would come 
near us, after the noife which had been made at the be- 
ginning of the evening in extinguifliing the fire. I there- 
fore defired them to come back, but they requefted to ftay 
a little longer,'-as they ftill hoped to find fome before day- 
light ; however, they returned by three o'clock, without 
any reward for their labour. 

The birds we half dreffed, that they might keep the 
better: and thefe, with a few clams, made the whole of the 
fupply procured here. I tied a few gilt buttons and fome 
pieces of iron to a tree, for any of the natives that might 
come after us ; and; finding my invalids much better for 
their night's reft, we embarked, antl departed by dawn of 
Tuefday 2. day. Wind at S E ; courfe to the N by W. 

When we had ran two leagues to the northward, the fea 
fuddenly became rough, which not having before experi- 
enced fince we were within the reefs, I concluded to be oc- 
cafioned by an open channel to the ocean. Soon afterwards, 
we met with a large flioal, on which were two fandy keys ; 
between thefe and two others, four miles to the weft, I 
paffed on to the northward, the fea ftill continuing to be 
rough . 

Towards neon, I fell in with fix other keys, moft of 
which prodviced fome fmall trees and brufli-wood. Thefe 
formed a pleafing contraft with the main land we had 

* Robert Lamb. — This man, when he came to Java, acknowledged he had eaten 
pine birds raw, after lie feparated from his two companions, 



pafTed, which M'as full of fand-hills. The country continued 
hilly, and the northernmoft land, the fame we had feen 
from the lagoon ifland, api")eared like downs, Hoping to- 
wards the Tea. Nearly abreaR of us, was a flat-topped 
hill, which on account of its fliapc, I called Pudding-pan 
hill ; and a little to the northward were two other hills, 
which we called the Paps ; and here was a fniall trai5t of 
country without fand, the eailern part of which forms a 
cape, whence the coait inclines to the N W by N. 

At noon, I obfervcd in the latitude of ii" i8' S, the cape 
bearing W, diftant ten miles. Five fmail keys bore from 
N E to S E, the neareft of them about two miles diftant, 
and alow fandy key between us and the cape bore W, dif- 
tant four miles. My courfe from the lagoon ifland had 
been N k W, diftant 30 miles. 

I am forry it was not in my power to obtain a fufficient 
knowledge of the depth of water ; but in our fituation 
nothing could be undertaken that m-ight have occafioned 
delay. It may however be underftood, that, to the beft of 
my judgment, from appearances, a fhip may pafs where- 
ever I have omitted to reprefent danger. 

I divided fix birds, and iflued one 25th of a pound of 
bread, with half a pint of water, to each perfon for dinner, 
and I gave half a glafs of wine to Nelfon, who was now 
fo far recovered as to require no other indulgence. 

The gunner, when he left the fhip, brought his watch 
with him, by which we had regulated our time till to-day, 
when unfortunately it flopped ; fo that noon, fun-rife, and 
fun-fet, are tlie only parts of the 24 hours of which from 
henceforward I can fpeak with certainty, as to time. 

The wind blew frefli from the S S E and S E all the after- 
noon, with fair weather. As we flood to the N by W, 

F f we 

2i8 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. we found more fea, which I attributed to our receiving 
^ju N^i.^^ j^^g flielter from the reefs to the eaftward : it is probable 
they do not extend fo far north as this ; at leaft, it may be 
concluded that there is not a continued barrier to prevent 
Ihipping having accefs to the Ihore. I obferved that the 
ftream fet to the N W, which I confidered to be the flood. 
In feme places along the coaft, we faw patches of wood. 
At five o'clock, fteering to the N W, we pafled a large and 
fair inlet, into which, I imagine, there is a fafe and com- 
modious entrance; it lies in latitude 11° S. About three 
leagues to the northward of this is an ifland, at which we 
arrived about fun-fet, and took fhelter for the night under 
a fandy point, which was the only part we could land at. 
This being rather a wild fituation, I thought it belt to fleep 
in the boat : neverthelefs I fent a party away to fee if any 
thing could be got, but they returned without fuccefs. They 
faw a great number of turtle bones and fhells, where the 
natives had been feafting, and their laft vifit feemed to be 
of late date. The ifland was covered with wood, but in 
other refpe6ls, it was a lump of rocks. 
Wednefdays. Wcdnefday the 3d. We lay at a grapnel till day-light, 
with a very frefli gale and cloudy weather. The main bore 
from S E by S to N N W f W, three leagues ; and a moun- 
tainous ifland, with a flat top, N by W, four or five 
leagues ; between which and the main land were feveral 
other iflands. The fpot we were at, which I call Turtle 
Ifland, lies in latitude, by account, 10° 52' S ; and 42 miles 
W from Reftoration Ifland. Abreaft of it, the coaft has 
the appearance of a fandy defert, but improves about three 
leagues farther to the northward, where it terminates in 
a point, near to which are many fmall iflands. I failed 
between thefe iflands, where I found no bottom at twelve 

fathoms ; 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 219 

fathoms; the high mountainous ifl and with a flat top, and 
four rocks to the S E of it, that I call the Brothers, being on 
my (larboard hand. Soon after, an extenfive opening ap- 
peared in the main land, in which were a num'")er of high 
illands. I called this the Bay of Iflands. We continued 
fleering to the N W. Several iflands and keys were in light 
to the northward: the mofl northerly ifland was mountain- 
ous, ha\ ing on it a very high round hill ; and a fmaller was 
remarkable for a Angle peaked hill. 

* The coaft to the northward and weftward of the Bay of 
Iflands, is high and woody, and has a broken appearance, 
. with many iflands clofe to it ; among which there are fine 
bays, and convenient places for fliipping. The northern- 
moft of thefe iflands I call Wednefday Ifland : to the N W 
of this we fell in with a large reef, which I believe joins a 
number of keys that were in fight from the N W to the 
E N E. We therefore flood to the S W half a league, when 
it was noon, and I had a good obfervation of the latitude 
in 10'' 31' S. Wednefday Ifland bore E by S five miles ; the 
wefternmoft land in fight S W two or three leagues ; the 
iflands to the northward, from N W by W, to N E, and 
the reef from W to N E, diftant one mile. I was now 
tolerably certain that we fhould be clear of New Holland in 
the afternoon. 

I know not how far this reef extends. It may be a con- 
tinuation, or a detached part of the range of flioals that 
furround the coaft. I believe the mountainous iflands 
to be feparate from the flioals ; and have no doubt that 
near them may be found good paflages for fliips. But I 
rather recommend to thofe who are to pafs this ftrait from 
the eaftward, to take their direcSlion from the coaft of New 

F f 2 . Guinea: 


Guinea : yet, I likewife think that a fhip coming from the 
fouthward, will find a fair llrait in the latitude of ia° S. I 
much wifhed to have afcertained this point ; but in our 
diftrefsful fituation, any increafe of fatigue, or lofs af 
time, might have been attended with the moft fatal 
confeqiiences. I therefore determined to pafs on without 

As an addition lo our dinner of bread and water, I ferved 
to each perfon fix oyfters. 

At two o'clock in the afternoon, as we were fleering to 
the S W, towards the wefternmoft part of the land in fight, 
we fell in with fome large fand-banks that run off from 
the coaft : I therefore called this Shoal Cape. We were 
obliged to fteer to the northward again, till we got round 
the fhoals, when I directed the courfe to the W. 

At four o'clock, the wefternmoft of the iflands to the 
northward, bore N four leagues ; Wednefday ifland E by N 
five leagues ; and Shoal Cape S E by E two leagues. A 
fmall ifland was feen bearing W, at which we arrived 
before dark, and found that it was only a rock, where 
boobies refort, for which reafon I called it Booby llland. 
Here terminated the rocks and flioals of the N part of 
New Holland, for, except Booby Ifland, no land was feen 
to the weftward of S, after three o'clock this after- 

I find that Booby Ifland was feen by Captain Cook, andy 
by a remarkable coincidence of ideas, received from- him 
the fame name ; but 1 cannot with certainty reconcile the 
fituation of fome parts of the coaft that I have feen, to 
his furvey. I afcribe this to the various forms in which 
land appears, when feen from the different heights of a fliip 



and a boat. The chart I have given, is by no means meant '789- 
to fuperfede that made by Captain Cook, who had better ^_^ _ - ,- 1 , 
opportunities than I had, and was in every rcliJCcl pro- 
perly provided for furveying. The intention of min^ is 
chiefly to render this narrative more intelUgible, and to 
fhevv in what manner the coaft appeared to me from an 
open boat. I have httle doubt but that the opening, 
which I named the Bay of Iflands, is Endeavour Straits; 
and that our track was to the northward of Prince of 
Wales's Ifles. Perhaps, by thofe who fliall hereafter na- 
vigate thefe feas, more advantage may be derived from 
the pofieffion of both o\ir charts, than from either of them 

c HA p. 


CHAP. xvir. 

Tajjage from New Holland to the IJland 'Timor. — Arrive at 
Coupang. — Reception there. 

T eight o'clock in the evening, we once more launch- 
ed into the open ocean. Miferable as our lituation 
Wedne/day3. was in every refpe(5t, I was fecretly furprifed to fee that it 
did not appear to afFedl any one fo ftrongly as myfelf ; on 
the contrary, it feemed as if they had embarked on a 
voyage to Timor, in a velTel fufficiently calculated for fafe- 
ty and convenience. So much confidence gave me great 
pleafure, and I may venture to affert, that to this caufe our 
prefervation is chiefly to be attributed. 

I encouraged every one with hopes that eight or ten days 
would bring us to a land of fafety ; and j after praying to 
God for a continuance of his moft gracious protedtion, I 
ferved an allowance of water for fupper, and diredted our 
courfe to the W S W, to counteract the foutherly winds, in 
cafe they Ihould blow ftrong. 

We had been juft fix days on the coaft of New Holland, 
in the courfe of which we found oyflers, a few clams, fome 
birds, and water. But perhaps a benefit nearly eqvial to this 
we received, by having been relieved from the fatigue of 
being conftantly in the boat, and enjoying good reft at night. 
Thefe advantages certainly preferved our lives ; and, fmall 
as the fupply was, I am very fenfible how much it alleviated 
4 our 

T H E S O U T H S E A S, 8cc. 223 

our diftrefles. By this time, nature muft have funk under 
the extremes of hunger and fatigue. Some would have 
ceafed to ftruggle for a life that only promifed wretched- 
nefs and mifery ; and others, though pofTcflcd of more bodily 
ftrength, muft foon have followed their unfortunate com- 
panions. Even in our prefent fituation, \vc were moll de- 
plorable objecSIs ; but the hopes of a fjicedy rdicf kept up 
our fpirits. For my own part, incredible as it may appear, 
I felt neither extreme hunger nor thirft. My allowance 
contented me, knowing that I could have no more. 

Thurfday the 4th. I ferved one 25th of a pound of Thurfday 4. 
bread, and an allowance of water, for breakfaft, and the 
fame for dinner, with an addition of fix oyfters to each per- 
fon. At noon, latitude obferved 10" 48' S ; courfe fince 
yefterday noon S 81° W, diftance iii miles; longitude, by 
account, from Shoal Cape, 1° 45' W. A ftrong trade wind 
at E S E, with fair weather. 

This day, we faw a number of water-fnakes, that were 
ringed yellow and black, and towards noon we pafled a 
great deal of rock-weed. Though the weather was fair, 
we were conftantly lliipping water, which kept two men 
always employed to bale the boat. 

Friday the 5th. At noon, I obferved in latitude 10° 45' S ; Friday j. 
our courfe fmce yefterday W i N, 108 miles ; longitude 
made 3° 35' W. Six oyfters were, as yefterday, ferved to 
each man, in addition to the ufual allowance of bread and 

In the evening, a few boobies came about us, one of 
which I caught with my hand. The blood was divided 
among three of the men who were weakeft, but the bird I 
ordered to be kept for our dinner the next day. Served 

a quarter 



a quarter of a pint of water for fupper, and to fome, who 
were moft in need, half a pint. In the courfe of the night, 
being conftantly wet with the fea, we fufFered much cold 
and fliiverings. 
Saturday 6. Saturday the 6th. At day-light, I found that fome of 
the clams, which had been hung up to dry for fea-ftore, 
were ftolen ; but every one folemnly denied having any 
knowledge of it. This forenoon we faw a gannet, a fand- 
lark, and fome water-fnakes, which in general were from 
two to three feet long. 

The tifuai allowance of bread and water was ferved for 
breakfaft, and the fame for dinner, with the bird, which I 
diftributed in the ufual way, of Who fhall have this ? I 
propofed to make Timor about the latitude of 9° 30' S, or 
10" S. At noon I obferved the latitude to be 10" 19' S ; 
courfe N 77° W, diftance 117 miles ; longitude made from 
. the Shoal Cape, the north part of New Holland, 5" 31' W. 

In the afternoon, I took an opportunity of examining 
our ftore of bread, and found remaining 19 days allow- 
ance, at the former rate of ferving one 25th of a pound 
three times a day : therefore, as I faw every profpe6t of a 
quick paflage, I again ventured to grant an allowance for 
fupper, agreeable to my promife at the time it was dif- 

We pafTed the night miferably wet and cold, and in the 
Sunday 7. morniug I heard heavy complaints. The fea was high and 
breaking over us. I could only afford the allowance of 
bread and water for breakfaft ; but for dinner I gave out 
an ounce of dried clams to each perfon, which was all that 

At noon, I altered the courfe to the W N W, to keep more 


THE SOUTH S E A S, &c. 225 

from the Tea, as the wind blew ftrong. Latitude obferved 
9° 31' S; courle N 57° W, diftance 88 miles; longitude 
made 6° 46' \V. 

The fea ran very high all this day, and we had frequent 
fliowers of rain, fo that we were continually wet, and fuf- 
fered much cold in the night. Mr. Ledward, the furgeon, 
and Lawrence Lebogue, an old hardy feaman, appeared to 
be giving way very faft. I could only afhlt them by a tea- 
fpoonful or two of wine, which I had carefully faved, ex- 
pedting fuch a melancholy necellity. 

Monday the 8th. Wind at S E. The weather was more Mondays, 
moderate than it had been for fome days pad. A few 
gannets were feen. At noon, I obferved in 8° 45' S ; courfe 
W N VV i W, 106 miles ; longitude made 8° 23' W. The 
fca being fmooth, I ftecred W by S. 

At four in the afternoon, we caught a fmall dolphin, 
which was the firft relief of the kind that we obtained. 
I iifued about two ounces to each perfon, including the 
offals, and faved the remainder for dinner the next day. 
Towards evening the wind frefliened, and it blew ftrong 
all night, fo that we fliipped much water, and fuffered 
greatly from the wet and cold. 

Tuefday the gth. At day-light, as ufual, I heard much TaefJayg. 
complaining, which my own feelings convinced me was too 
well founded. I gave the furgeon and Lebogue a little 
wine, but I could atford them no farther relief, except en- 
couraging them with hopes that a very few days longer, at 
our prefcnt fine rate of failing, would bring us to Timor. 

Gannets, boobies, men of war and ti-opic birds, were 
conftantly about us. Served the ufual allowance of bread 
and water, and at noon we dined on the remains of the 

G g dolphin, 


1789. dolphin, which amovinted to about an ounce per man. 

^ J " " ^' , I obferved the latitude to be 9° 9' S; longitude made 
10° 8' W; courfe fince yefterday noon S 76° W; diftance 
307 miles. 

This afternoon, I fufFered great ficknefs from the nature 
of part of the flomach of the fifh, which had fallen to my 
lliare at dinner. At fun-fet I ferved an allowance of bread 
and water for lupper. 
Wednefday Wcducfday the lotli. In the morning, after a very com- 
fortlefs night, there was a viiible alteration for the worfe in 
many of the people; which gave me great apprehenlions. 
An extreme weaknefs, fwelled legs, hollow and ghaftly 
countenances, a more than common inclination to fleep, 
with an apparent debility of underftanding, feemed to me 
the melancholy prefages of an approaching diffolution. The 
furgeon and Lebogue, in particular, were moft miferable 
objedls. I occafionally gave them a few tea-fpoonfuls of 
wine, out of the little that remained, which greatly affifted 
them. The hopes of being able to accoraplilh the voyage, 
was our principal fupport. The boatfwain very innocently 
told me, that he really thought I looked worfe than any 
one in the boat. The fimplicity with which he uttered 
fuch an opinion amufed me, and I returned him a better 

Our latitude at noon, was 9* 16' S. Longitude from the 
north part of New Holland, 12° i' W. Courfe fince yefler- 
day noon, W 5 S, iii miles. Birds and rock- weed lliewed 
that we were not far from land ; but I expecfted fuch figns- 
here, as there are many iflands between the eafl part of 
Timor and New Guinea. The night was more moderate 
than the lall. 

Thurfdayij. Thurfday the nth. Every one received the cuftomary 


THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 217 

allowance of bread and water, and an extra allowance of 1789. 
water was given to thofe who were moft in need. At ._ 'I'L" ,, 
noon I obferved in latitude 9° 41' S ; courfe S 77° W, dif- 
tance 109 miles ; longitude made 13* 49' W. I had little 
doubt of having now pafTed the meridian of the eaftern 
part of Timor, which is laid down in 128"* E. This diffufed 
univerfal joy and fatisfadion. 

In the afternoon, we faw gannets, and many other birds, 
and at fun-fet we kept a very anxious look-out. In the 
evening we caught a booby, which I referved for our din- 
ner the next day. 

Friday the r2th. At three in the morning, with an ex- Friday i*. 
cefs of joy, we difcovered Timor bearing from W S W to , 
W N W, and I hauled on a wind to the N N E till day- 
light, when the land bore from S W by S to N E by N. 
Our diftance from the fliore, two leagues. 

It is not poflible forme to defcribe the pleafure which the 
bleiling of the fight of this land diffufed among us. It ap- 
peared fcarce credible to ourfclvcs, that in an open boat, 
and fo poorly provided, we fliould have been able to reach 
the coaft of Timor in forty-one days after leaving Tofoa, 
having in that time run, by our log, a diftance of 3618 
miles ; and that, notwithftanding our extreme diftrels, no 
one fhould have perifhed in the voyage. 

I have already mentioned, that I 'knew not where the 
Dutch fettlement was fituated ; but I bad a faint idea 
that it was at the S W part of the ifland. I therefore, 
after day-light, bore away along fliore to the S S W, which 
I was the more readily induced to do, as the wind would 
not fuffer us to go towards the N E without great lofs of 

G g 2 The 

228 A V O Y A G E T O 

1789. The day gave us a moft agreeable profpe(5t of the land, 

siZ-^^J^ which was interfperfed with woods and lawns ; the interior 
part mountainous, but the fliore lov.^ Towards noon, the 
coaft became higher, with fome remarkable head-lands. 
We were greatly delighted with the general look of the 
country, which exhibited many cultivated fpots and beau- 
tifid fituations ; but we could only fee a few fmall huts, 
Avhence I concluded that no European refided in this part 
of the iiland. Much fea ran on the fliore, which made 
landing impradlicable. At noon, we were abreaft of a 
high head-land ; the extremes of the land bore S W f W, 
and N N E I E ; our diftance off fliore being three miles ; 
latitude, by obfervation, 9° 59' S ; and my longitude, by 
dead reckoning from the north part of New Holland, 15° 
6' W. 

With the ufual allowance of bread and water for dinner, 
I divided the bird we had caught the night before j and 
to the furgeon and Lebogue I gave a little wine. 

The wind blew freHi at E, and E S E, with very hazy 
weather. During the afternoon, we continued our courfe 
along a low fhore, covered with innumerable palm-trees, 
called the Fan Palm from the leaf fpreading like a fan ; but 
here we faw no figns of cultivation, nor had the country 
fo fine an appearance as to the eaflward. This, however, 
was only a fmall tradl, for by fun-fet it improved again, and 
I faw feveral great fmokes where the inhabitants were 
clearing and cultivating their grounds. We had now ran 
25 miles to the W S W fince noon, and were W five miles 
from a low point, which, in the afternoon, I imagined had 
been the fouthernmoft land ; and here the coaft formed a 
deep bend, ^yith low land in the bight that appeared like 



iflands. The weft fliore was high ; but from this part of 1739. 
the coaft to the high cape which we were al)reall of ,_ ".^Jjf 
at noon, the fliore is low, and I beheve flioal. I particu- 
larly remark this fituation, becaufe here the very high ridge 
of mountains, that run from the eaft end of the ifland, 
terminate, and the appearance of the country changes for 
the worfe. 

That we might not run paft any fettlement in the 
night, I determined to preferve my ftation till the morn- 
ing, and therefore broxight to under a clofe-rcefed fore- 
fail. We were here in flioal water, our diftance from 
the fhore being half a league, the wefternmoft land in 
fight bearing W S W i W. Served bread and water for 
flipper, and the boat lying to very well, all but the ofiicer 
of the watch endeavoured to get a little lleep. 

Saturday the 13th. At two in the morning, we wore, and Saturday 13. 
ftood in lliore till day-light, when I found we had drifted, 
during the night, about three leagues to the W S W, the 
fouthernmoft land in fight bearing W. On examining 
the coaft, and not feeing any fign of a fettlement, we 
bore away to the weftward, having a ftrong gale, againft 
a weather current, which occafioned much fea. The fhore 
was high and covered with wood; but we did not run 
far, before low land again formed the coaft, the points of 
which opening at weft, I once more fancied we were on 
the fouth part of the iftand ; but at ten o'clock we found 
the coaft again in dining towards the fouth, part of it bear- 
ing W S W s W. At the fame time, high land appeared in 
theS W ; but the weather was fo hazy, that it was doubtful 
whether the two lands were feparated, the opening only ex- 
tending one point of the compafs. For this rcafon I ftood 


250 A V O Y A G E T O 

towards the outer land, and found it to be the ifland 

I returned to the iliore we had left, and brought to a grap- 
nel in a fandy bay, that I might more conveniently calculate 
my fituation. In this place, we faw feveral fmokes, where 
the natives were clearing their grounds. During the lit- 
tle time we remained here, the mafter and carpenter very 
much importuned me to let them go in fearch of fupplies ; 
to which, at length, I aiTented ; but, not finding any other 
perfon willing to be of their party, they did not choofe to 
qtiit the boat. I flopped here no longer than for the pur- 
pofe jufl mentioned, and we continued fleering along fhore. 
We had a view of a beautiful-looking country, as if formed 
by art into lawns and parks. The coafl is low, and covered 
with woods, in which are innumerable fan palm-trees, that 
look like cocoa-nut walks. The interior part is high land, 
but very different from the more eaftern parts of the ifland, 
where it is exceedingly mountainous, and to appearance, 
the foil better. 

At noon, the ifland Roti bore S W by W feven leagues. 
I had no obfervation for the latitude, but by account, we' 
were in lo" 12 S ; our courfe fince yefterday noon being S 
77° W, 54 miles. The ufual allowance of bread and water 
was ferved for breakfail: and dinner, and to the furgeon and 
Lebogue, I continued to give wine. 

We had a ftrong breeze at E S E, with hazy weather, all the 
afternoon. At two o'clock, having run through a very dan- 
gerous breaking fea, the caufe of which I attributed to be a 
ftrong tide fetting to windward, and flioal water, we difco- 
vered a fpacious bay or found, with a fair entrance about 
two or three miles wide. I now conceived hopes that our 
2 voyage 


voyage was nearly at an end, as no place could appear more 
eligible forfliipping, or more likely to bechofen for an Eu- 
ropean fcttlement : I therefore came to a grapnel near the 
call fide of the entrance, in a fmall fimdy bay, where we 
law a hut, a dog, and fomc cattle ; and 1 immediately fent 
the boatfwain and gunner away to the hut, to difcover the 

The S \V point of the entrance bore W { S three miles ; 
the S E point S by W three quarters of a mile ; and the 
ifland Roti from S by W i W to S W i W, about five 

While we lay here, I found the ebb came from the north- 
ward, and before our departure the falling of the tide 
difcovered to us a reef of rocks, about two cables length 
from the fliore : the whole being covered at high-wa- 
ter, renders it dangerous. On the oppolite fliore alfo 
appeared very high breakers ; but there is neverthelels 
plenty of room, and certainly a fafe channel for a firft- 
rate man of war. 

The bay or found within, feemed to be of a confiderable 
extent ; the northern part being about five leagues diftant. 
Mere the land made in moderate rifings joined by lower 
grounds. But the illand Roti to the fouthward, is the beft 
mark by which to know this place. 

I had juil time to make thefe remarks, n\ hen I faw the 
boatfwain and gunner returning with fome of the natives r 
1 therefore no longer doubted of our fuccefs, and that our 
expectations would be fully gratified. They brought five In- 
dians, and informed me that they had found two families,, 
where the women treated them with European politenefs. 
V ron\ thele people 1 learned, that the governor refided at a 




place called Coupang, which was fome diflance to the N E. 
I made figns for one of them to go in the boat, and fhow 
lis the way to Coupang, intimating that I would pay him 
for his trouble : the man readily complied, and came into 
the boat. 

Thefe people were of a dark tawny colour, had long black 
hair, and chewed a great deal of beetle. Their drefs was, a 
fquare piece of cloth round the hips, in the folds of which 
was ftuck a large knife ; a handkerchief wrapped round 
the head ; and another hanging by the four corners from 
the llioulders, which ferved as a bag for their beetle equi- 
page. They brought us a few pieces of dried turtle, and 
fome ears of Indian corn. This laft was the moft welcome ; 
for the turtle was fo hard, that it could not be eaten with- 
out being firft foaked in hot water. They offered to bring 
lis fome other refrefliments if I would wait ; but, as the 
pilot was willing, I determined to pufh on. It was about 
half an hour paft four when we failed. 

By dire6tion of the pilot, we kept clofe to the eaft Ihore 
under all our fail ; but as night came on, the wind died 
away, and we were obliged to try at the oars, which I was 
furprifed to fee we could ufe with fome effedt. At ten 
o'clock, finding we advanced but flowly, I came to a grap- 

■ nel, and for the firft time, I iffued double allowance of 
bread and a little wine to each perfon. 
Sunday M. Sunday the 14th. At one o'clock In the morning, after 

the moft happy and fweet fleep that ever men enjoyed, we 
weighed, and continued to keep the eaft ftiore on board, in 
very fmooth water; when at laft 1 found we were again 
open to the fea; the whole of the land to the weft ward, that 
we had paiTed, being an illand, which the pilot called Pulo 

. Samow. The northern entrance of this channel is about a 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, &c. 233 

mile and a half or two miles wide, and I had no ground at 
ten fathoms. 

The report of two cannon that were fired, gave new 
life to every one; and foon after we difcoveiied two fquare- 
rigged veffels and a cutter at anchor to the eaftward. We 
endeavoured to work to windward, but were obliged to 
take to our oars again, having loft ground on each tack. 
We kept clofe to the fliore, and continued rowing till four 
o'clock, when I brought to a grapnel, and gave another al- 
lowance of bread and wine to all hands. As foon as we had 
refted a little, \ye weighed again, and rowed till near day- 
light, when we came to a grapnel, off a fmallfort and town, 
which the pilot told me was Conpang. 

Among the things which the boatfwain had thrown 
into the boat before we left the ftiip, was a bundle of 
fignal flags that had been ufed by the boats to Ihow the 
depth of water in founding : with thefe we had, in the 
courfe of the paffage, made a fmall jack, which I now 
hoifted in the main flirouds, as a fignal of diftrefs ; for I 
did not think proper to land without leave. 

Soon after day-break, a foldier hailed us to land, which I 
immediately did, among a crowd of Indinns, and was agree- 
ably furprifed to meet with an Englifh fiiilor, who belonged 
to one of the veffels in the road. His captain, he told mc, 
was the fecond perfon in the town ; I therefore defired to 
be conduded to him, as I was informed the governor was 
ill, and could not then be fpoken with. 

Captain Spikerman received me with great humanity. 
I informed him of our diftreffed fituation ; and requefted 
that care might be taken of thole who were me, 
without delay. On which he gave diredions for their 
immediate reception at his own houfe, and wont himfelf to 

n h the 


the governor, to know at what time I could be permitted 
to fee him ; which was fixed to be at eleven o'clock. 

I now defired my people to come on fhore, which was as 
much as fome ef them could do, being fcarce able to walk : 
they, however. Were helped to the houfe, and found tea with 
bread and butter provided for their breakfaft. 

The abilities of a painter, perhaps, could feldom have 
been difplayed to more advantage, than in the delineation 
of the two groups of figures, which at this time prefented 
themfelves to each other. An indifferent fpedlator would 
have been at a lofs which moft to admire ; the eyes of fa- 
mine fparkling at immediate relief, or the horror of their 
prefervers at the fight of fo many fpe6tres, whofe ghaftly 
countenances, if the caufe had been unknown, would rather 
have excited terror than pity. Our bodies were nothing 
but Ikin and bones, our limbs were full of fores, and we 
were clothed in rags : in this condition, with the tears of 
joy and gratitude flowing down our cheeks, the people of 
Timor beheld us with a mixture of horror, furprife, and 

The governor, Mr. William Adrian Van Efte, notwith- 

ftanding extreme ill-health, became fo anxious about us, 

that I law him before the appointed time. He received me 

with great affe^lion, and gave me the fulleft proofs that he 

was polfelfed of every feeling of a humane and good mam 

Sorry as he was, he faid, that fuch a calamity could ever 

have happened to us, yet he confidered it as the greateft 

bleffing of his life that we had fallen under his protecSlion ; 

and, though his infirmity. was fo great that he could not do 

the office of a friend himfelf, he would give fi;ch orders 

as I might be certain would procure us every fupply 

we wanted. A houfe (liould be immediately prepared for 
8 me, 


me, and, with refpccft to my people, he laid, that I miq;ht 
have room for them either at the hofpital or on board of 
captain Spikerman's fliip, which lay in the road ; and he 
exprefled much uneafmefs that Coiipang ^could not afford 
them better accommodations, the houfe alTigned to me 
being the only one uninhabited, and the fituation of the 
few families that lived at this place fuch, that they could not 
conveniently receive ftrangers. For the prefent, till matters 
could be properly regulated, he gave dire<5\ions that vic- 
tuals for my people fliould be dreffed at his own houfe. 

On returning to Captain Spikerman's houfe, I found that 
every kind relief had been given to my people. The furgeon 
had dreffed their fores, and the cleaning of their perfons 
had not been lefs attended to, feveral friendly gifts of ap- 
parel having been prefented to them. 

. I defired to be fhewn to the houfe that was intended 
for me, which I found ready, with fervants to attend. It 
confifted of a hall, with a room at each end, and a loft 
over-head ; and was furrounded by a piazza, with an outer 
apartment in one corner, and a communication from the 
back part of the houfe to the flreet. I therefore deter- 
mined, inftead of feparating from my people, to lodge them 
all with me ; and I divided the houfe as follows : One room 
1 took to myfelf, the other I allotted to the maimer, furgeon, 
Mr. Nelfon, and the gunner ; the loft to the other officers ; 
and the outer apartment to the men. The hall was com- 
mon to the officers, and the men had the back piazza. Of 
this difpofition I informed the governor, and he fcnt down 
chairs, tables, and benches, with bedding and other necef- 
faries for the ufe of every one. , 

The governor, when I took my leave, had defired me to 
acquaint him with every thing of which I ftood in need ; 

H h 2 but 


.^36 A V O Y A G E T O 

but it was only at particular times that he had a few mo- 
ments of eafe, or could attend to any thing ; being in 
a dying flate, with an incurable difeafe. On this ac- 
count, I tranfadled whatever bufinefs I had, with Mr, 
Timotheus Wanjon, the lecond of this place, who was the 
governor's fon-in-law ; and who alfo contributed every- 
thing in his power to make our lituation comfortable. I 
had been, therefore, mifinformed by the feaman, who told 
me that captain Spikerman was the next perfon in com- 
mand to the governor. 

At noon, a dinner was brought to the houfe, fufficiently 
good to make perfons, more accuftomed to plenty, eat too 
much. Yet I believe few in fuch a iituation would have 
obferved more moderation than my people did. My greateft 
apprehenfion was, that they would eat too much fruit, 
of which there was great variety in feafon at this time. 

Having feen every one enjoy this meal of plenty, I dined 
myfelf with Mr. Wanjon ; but I felt no extraordinary in- 
clination to eat or drink. Refl and quiet, I conildered, as 
more necelTary to the re-eftablifliment of my health, and 
therefore retired foon to my room, which I found furnifhed 
with every convenience. But, inftead of refl, my mind 
was difpofed to reflecSl on our late fufferings, and on the 
failure of the expedition ; but, above all, on the thanks due 
to Almighty God, who had given us power to fupport and 
bear fuch heavy calamities, and had enabled me at laft, to 
be the means of faving eighteen lives. 

In times of difficulty, there will generally arife circum- 
ftances that bear particularly hard on a commander. In 
our late lituation, it was not the leaft of my diftrelTes, to 
be conftantly affailed with the melancholy demands of my 
people for an increafe of allowance, which it grieved me 



to refufe. The neceflity of obf^rving the moft rigiil 
oeconomy in the diftribution of our provifions, was fo evi- 
dent, that I reHlled their felicitations, and never deviated 
froin the agreement we maile at fctting out. The confe- 
quence of this care was, that at our arrival we had ftill re- 
maining fuflicicnt for eleven days, at our fcanty allowance ^ 
and if we had been i'o unfortunate as to have milled the 
Dutch fettlement at Timor, we could have proceeded to 
Java, where I was certain that every fupply we wanted could 
be procured. 

Another difagreeable circumftance, to which my fitua- 
tion cxpofed me, was the caprice of ignorant people. Had 
I been incapable of adling, they would have carried the 
boat on fliore as foon as we made the iiland of Timor, 
without conlidering that landing among the natives, at a 
diftance from the European fettlement, might have been 
as dangerous as among any other Indians. 

The quantity of provifions with which we left the fliip, 
was not more than we fhould have confumed in five days, 
had there been no necefTity for hufbanding our ftock. 
The mutineers muft naturally have concli;^led, that wc 
could have no other i)lace of refuge than the Friendly 
Iflands; for it was not likely they fliould imagine, that, fo 
poorlv equipped as we were in every refpecfl, there could 
have been a poflibility of our attempting to return home- 
wards : much lefs can they fufpedt that the account of their 
viUany has already reached their native country. 

When 1 refltd: how providentially our lives were faved 
at Tofoa, by the Indians delaying their attack ; and that, 
with fcarce any thing to fupport life, we crofle 1 a fea of 
more than 1200 leagues, without fhelter from the incle- 
mency of the v/cather ; when I reiicvft that in an open: 
■■'' bcat^ 


boat, with fo much ftorray weather, we efcaped founderhig, 
that not any of us were taken off by difeafe, that we had 
the great good fortune to pafs the unfriendly natives of 
other countries without accident, and at laft happily to 
meet with the moft friendly and heft of people to relieve 
our diftreffes ; I fay, when I reflet: on all thefe wonder- 
ful efcapes, the remembrance of fuch great mercies en- 
ables me to bear, w^ith refignation and chearfulnefs, the 
failure of an expedition, the fuccefs of which I had fo 
much at heart, and which was fruftrated at a time when I 
was congratulating myfelf on the faireft profpe6t of being 
able to complete it in a manner that would fully have an- 
fwered the intention of his Majefty, and the humane pro- 
moters of fo benevolent a plan. 

With refpe6l to the prefervation of our health, during a 
courfe of i6 days of heavy and almoft continual rain, I 
would recommend to every one in a fimilar fituation, the 
method we prailifed, which is, to dip their clothes in the 
falt-water, and wring them out, as often as they become 
filled with rain : it was the only refource we had, and I be- 
lieve was of the greateft fervice to us, for it felt more like 
a change of dry clothes than could well be imagined. We 
had occafion to do this fo often, that at length all our 
clothes were wrung to pieces : for, except the few days we 
pafTed on the coaft of New Holland, we were continually 
wet either with rain or fea. 

Thus, through the afliftance of Divine Providence, we 
furmounted the difficulties and diftreffes of a moft perilous 
voyage, and arrived fafe in an hofpitable port, where every 
neceffary and comfort were adminiftered to us with a moft 
liberal hand. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 259 


At Coupang. 

FROM the great humanity and attention of the gover- 
nor, and the gentlemen, at Coupang, we received 
every kind of afliftance, and were not long without evi- 
dent figns of returning health. Shortly after our arrival, 
I prefented to the governor, a formal account of the lofs 
of the Bounty; and a requifition, in his Majefty's name, 
that inftrudions might be fent to all the Dutch fettlements, 
to iiop the fliip if flie made her appearance. With this, a 
complete defcriptive lift of the mutineers was given, 

I likewife requefted, in one of my firft vilits to the go- 
vernor, that Nelfon might have permillion to walk about 
the country in fearch of plants, which was readily grant- 
ed, with an offer of whatever afliftance I fliould think ne- 
cefTary: and the governor affured me that the country was 
well worth examination, as it abounded with many curious 
and medicinal plants. From this indulgence I derived no 
benefit; for Nelfon, who fince we left New Holland, had 
been but in a weak condition, about this time was taken 
ill, in confequence of a cold caufed by imprudently leaving 
off warm clothing. 

To fecure our arrival at Batavin, before the October fleet 
failed for Exirope, 1 gave public notice of my intention to 
hire a vcHel to carry us to Batavia. In confequence of 



THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 259 


At Coupang. 

FROM the great humanity and attention of the gover- 
nor, and the gentlemen, at Coupang, we received 
every kind of afliftance, and were not long without evi- 
dent figns of returning health. Shortly after our arrival, 
I prefented to the governor, a formal account of the lofs 
of the Bounty ; and a requilition, in his Majefty's name, 
that inftru(flions might be fent to all the Dutch fettlements, 
to Hop the fliip if flie made her appearance. With this, a 
complete defcriptive lift of the mutineers was given. 

I likewife requefted, in one of my firft viiits to the go- 
vernor, that Nelfon might have permiffion to walk about 
the country in fearch of plants, which was readily grant- 
ed, with an offer of whatever afliftance I fliould think ne- 
cefTary: and the governor affured me that the country was 
well worth examination, as it abounded with many curious 
and medicinal plants. From this indulgence I derived no 
benefit ; for Nelfon, who fince we left New Holland, had 
been but in a weak condition, about this time was taken 
ill, in confequence of a cold caufed by imprudently leaving 
off warm clothing. 

To fecure our arrival at Batavia, before the October fleet 
failed for Europe, I gave public notice of my intention to 
hire a veflel to carry us to Batavia. h\ confequence of 




'789- this notice, feveral offers were made, but none that I thought 
*» — .——J reafonable ; which determined me to purchafe a fmall 
fchooner in the road, that was 34 feet long ; for which I 
gave 1000 rix-dollars, and fitted her for fea, under the 
name of His Majefty's fchooner Refource. As the coafl of 
Java is frequently infefled with fmall piratical velfels, it was 
neceffary that we fliould be provided with the proper means 
of defence. In this 1 was affifted by the friendfliip of Mr. 
Wanjon, who fupplied me with four brafs fwivels, 14 ftand 
of fmall arras, and ammunition, which he obligingly let me 
have as a loan, to be returned at Batavia. 
July 20. On the 20th of July, I had the misfortune to lofe Mr. 

David Nelfon: he died of an inflammatory fever. The lofs 
of this honefl man I very much lamented : he had, with 
great care and diligence, attended to the objed: for which 
he was fent, and had always been ready to forward every 
plan that was propofed, for the good of the fervice in 
which we were engaged. He was not lefs ufeful in our 
voyage hither, in the courfe of which he gave me great 
fatisfacSiion, by the patience and fortitude with which he 
conducled himfelf. 
July 21. July 21ft, This day, I was employed attending the fu- 

neral of Mr. Nelfon. The corpfe was carried by twelve 
foldiers dreit in bla^k, preceded by the minilter ; next fol- 
lowed myfelf and the fecond governor ; then ten gentlemen 
of the town and the officers of the fliips in the harbour; 
and after them my own officers and people. 

After reading our biuial-fervice, the body was interred 
behind the chapel, in the burying-ground appropriated 
to the Europeans of the town. I was forry 1 could get no 
tombrtone to place over his remains. 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, Sec. 241 

This was the fecond voyage Mr. Nelfon had undertake a 
to the South Seas, having been lent out by Sir Jollph 
Banks, to colletfl plants, feeds. Sec. in Captain Cook's laft 
voyage. And now, after furmounting {b many difficulties, 
and in the midll of thankfuhiefs for his deUverance, he 
was called upon to pay the debt of nature, at a time leaft 

Our fchooner being vidtualled and ready for feaj on the 
20th of Augufi:, I took an afFe<5lionate leave of the hofpi- Auguft lo. 
table and friendly inhabitants of Coupang, and embarked. 
In the afternoon we failed, having the launch, which had 
fo much contributed to our prefervation, in tow. We ex- 
changed falutes with the fort and fliipping as we ran out of 
the harbour. 

The town of Coupang is fituated in a great bay, which 
is an excellent road for fliipping. The latitude of the town 
is 10° 12' S. According to the Dutch charts, it is in 121° 51' E 
longitude. Taking the mean between the longitude by my 
reckoning on our arrival at Coupang, and the longitude af- 
terwards calculated from our run to Batavia, gives me for 
the longitude of Coupang 124° 41' E. 

This fettlement was formed in the year 1630, and is the 
only one the Dutch have on the illand Timor. They have 
refidents in different parts of the country. On the north 
fide of Timor, there is a Portuguefe fettlement. The pro- 
duce of the ill and is chiefly fandal wood and bees wax : 
the former article is now fcarce. Wax they have in great 
plenty. The bees build their nefts in bullies, and in the 
boughs of trees, to which the natives cannot approach but 
with lire. The honey is put into jars, and the wax is run 
into blocks of three feet in length, and from 12 to 15 inches 
fqnare. The natives, at leaft thofe who live in the ncighbour- 

I i hood 

1242 AVOYAGfiTO 

hood of Cotipang, are of a very indolent difpofition, of which 
the Chinefe have taken advantage ; for though the Malays 
are very fond of traffic, moft of their trade is carried on in 
fmall Chinefe veffels, of from lo to 30 tons burthen. 
There is a market at Coupang for the country people, 
in which, however, there is little bufinefs done. I have 
feen a man from the country, come to market with 
two potatoes : and this is not unufual. Thefe being 
fold for two doits (equal to a halfpenny Englifli) ferve 
to fupply him with beetle to chew; and the remainder 
of the day is paffed in lounging about the town. The 
inland people, who live at a diftance from the Europeans, 
are ftrong and a<Slive; but their want of cleanlinefs, fubjecSts 
them to filthy difeafes. 

The chief of the natives, or king of the ifland, is by the 
Dutch ftiled Keyfer (Emperor.) This prince lives at a 
place called Backennaffy, about four miles diftant from 
Coupang. His authority over the natives is not wholly un- 
difputed ; which is by the Dutch attributed to the intrigues 
of the Portuguefe, who aie on the north part of Timor. 
The ifland has lately fuffered much by a competition be- 
tween the prefent king and one of his nephews, which 
caufed a civil war, that lafted from the beginning of the 
year .1786 to 1788, when their differences were fettled by 
a treaty, chiefly in favour of the king. The ravages com- 
mitted in thefe difputes, have occafioned a fcarcity of pro- 
vifions, that probably, from the want of induftry in the 
natives, will not foon be remedied. I had an opportunity 
of making a vilit to the king. His dwelling was a large 
houfe, which was divided into only three apartments, and 
furrounded by a piazza : agreeably fituated, but very dirty, 
as was all the furniture. The king, who is an eldedy 




man, received me with much civility, and ordered rcfrefli- ,78,. 
ments to be fet before me, which were tea, rice cakes, ^ Auomr. 
roalled Indian corn, and dried bufTalo flcfli, with about a 
pint of arrack, which I beheve was all he had. His drcfs 
was, a cheque wrapper girded round his waifl: with a filk 
and gold belt, a loofe linen jacket, and a coarfe handker- 
chief about his head. A few of his chiefs were with him, 
who partook of our rcpaft; after which, the king retired 
with three of them for a fliort time, and when he returned, 
prefented me with a round plate of metal, about four inches 
diameter, on wdiich was ftamped the figure of a ftar. As I 
had been informed that arrack would be an acceptable pre- 
fent, I was prepared to make a return, which was well re- 
ceived. They never dilute their liquor, and, from habit, 
are able to drink a large quantity of fpirits at a time, with- 
out being intoxicated. 

When a king dies, a large feaft is made, to which all the 
inhabitants are invited. The body, after a few days, is put 
into a coffin, w hich is clofed up and kept three years before 
it is interred. 

The Dutch have been at fome pains to eflablifh Chrif- 
tianity among the natives: but it has not gained much 
ground, except in the neighbourhood of Coupang. The 
prefent king was chriftened by the name of Barnardus. His 
Indian name is Baccbee Bannock. The fcriptures are tranf- 
lated into the Malay language, and prayers are performed, 
in the church at Coupang, by a Malay clergyman, in that 

• I met, at Timor, with moft of the fruits that are dcfcribed 
in Captain Cook's firft voyage, as natives of Batavia, ex- 
cept the Mangoftan. The bread-fruit tree, called by the 
Malays Soccoom, likewife grows here with great luxuriance, 
and appears to be as much a native of this illand as it is of 

I i 2 Otaheite. 



Otaheite. The fruit is exadtly of the fame kind, but not fo 
good. A bread-fruit of Timor, weighs half as much more 
as one of equal lize at Otaheite. It is not ufed here as 
bread, but generally eaten with milk and fugar. At Backen- 
naffy I faw about twenty of the trees, larger than any I 
have feen at Otaheite. Here is alfo a fort of bread-fruit tree, 
that produces feeds, not unlike Windfor beans, and equally 
palatable, either boiled or roafted. No other part of the 
fruit is eatable ; and though the tree, I am told, is to all ap- 
pearailce the fame as the other, the fruits have but little re- 
femblance ; the fruit of this being covered with projecting 
points, nearly half an inch in length. 

I received a prefent of fome fine plants, from the gover- 
nor, which I was afterwards unfortunately obliged tq leave 
. at Batavia, for want of proper room to take care of them, 
in the packet by which I returned to Europe. Mr. Wan- 
jon likewife favoured me with fome feeds for his Ma- 
jefty's garden at Kew, which I had the good fortune to 
deliver fafe, on my return : and fome of the mountain 
rice, cultivated at Timor, on the dry land, which was 
forwarded to his Majelly's botanic garden at St. Vincent, 
and to other parts in the Weft Indies. 

A refemblance of language between the people of the 
South Sea iflands, and the inhabitants of many of the 
iflands in the Eaft Indies, has been remarked in Captain 
Cook's firft voyage. Here, the refemblance appeared 
Itronger than has yet been noticed; particularly in cheir 
numerals. But belides the language, I obferved fome 
cuftoms among the people of Timor, ftill more ftrikingj 
for their limilarity. They practife the Tooge-tooge * of 

* The Totgc-tooge is deferibed in Captain Cook's laft voynge. Vol. L page 323,; 
and the Roomecj in the fame voyage. Vol. II. page 64. 


T II E S O U T FI S E A S, 8cc. 245 

the Friendly Iflands, which they c^ll Toomlfoc/: : and the 17S9. 
Roomee of Otuheite, which they call Ramas. I hkewife ^"'="'^- 
faw, placed on their graves, oiferings of bafkets with to- 
bacco and beetle. 

I left the governor, Mr. Van Efte, at the point of 
death. To this gentleman our moft grateful thanks are 
due, for the humane and friendly treatment that we re- 
ceived from him. His ill ftate of health only prevented 
him from fliowing us more particular marks of attention. 
Unhappily, it is to his memory only that I now pay this 
tribute. It was a fortunate circumftance for us, that 
Mr. Wanjon, the next in place to the governor, was 
equally humane and ready to relieve us. His attention 
was unremitting, and, when there was a doubt aboi^t fup- 
plying me with money, to enable me to purchafe a vefTel, 
he chearfully took it upon himfelf ; without which, it was 
evident, I fliould have been too late at Batavia to have failed 
for Europe with the 0<5lober fleet. I can only return fuch 
fervices by ever retaining a grateful remembrance of 

Mr. Max, the town furgeon, likewife behaved to us with 
the moft difinterefted himianity : he attended every one 
with the utmoft care ; for which I could not prevail on him 
to receive any payment, or to render me any account, oc 
other anfwer, than that it was his duty. 


2t46 A V O Y A G E T O 


From Timor to Batavia^ 

hJovlr. IT* R- O M Coupang, we fleered N W by W, having a mode- 

^ — V— ' X rate breeze at S E with fair weather. 

Jatuxday 2°'. SatuMay the 22d. At day-hght, we faw the ifland Flores 
to the northward. At noon, latitude obferved 9° 27' S, and 
longitude by account, from Coupang, 2° 10' W. Our dif- 
tance from the coaft of Flores was about 10 leagues ; and 
two high peaked mountains bore N j E and N N W. 
Thefe two mountains referable each other in fhape, and 
the wefternmoft is a volcano. The interior parts of Flores 
are mountainous and woody: but near the fea-coaft is a 
fine open country, A Dutch map, with which I was pro- 
vided, places the fouth part of Flores in 9° 3' S, which I am 
of opinion is too far fouth. We fleered along the fouth 
fide of Flores, moftly with light winds and hazy weather, 
fo that we did not conftantly keep fight of the coaft. 

Tuefday ^5. Tucfday the 25th. At noon, we were off Toorns ifland, 
which bore N W by N, three or four leagues diftant. Our 
latitude obferved, was 8° 57' S, and longitude made by 
dead reckoning from Coupang, 3° 27' W. Toorns ifland is 
about four leagues in circuit, and has a craggy and uneven 
appearance. There is a curious high peak on the S W part: 
the land ne ar the fliore is low and woody, 

S ' On 

T H E S O U T PI S E A S, 8cc. 247 

On the 27th, at noon, we were near the entrance of the 1789. 
Straits of Mangaryn, which not appearing fo open and . ^°"'J[) 
clear as reprerentcd in the map, I fleered for the Straits Thurfdayz/. 
of Sapi, intending to pafs through ; but was obHged to 
give up this plan, by ftrong currents fetting to the S E, 
which there was not fufTicient wind to enable us to Item. 
I therefore again ftood for the Straits of Mangaryn, 
which we ran through in the afternoon of the 29th, being saturiiy 29. 
favoured with a frefli breeze from the SS E. On our firft 
entering the ft raits, we got clofe to the Florcs Ihore : 
our courfe through was N i E. We tried for foundings, 
hut could not any where find bottom at 25 and 30 fathoms 
depth. On the Flores fide, there are many good harbours 
and bays, where veflTels may anchor ; but the country here- 
abouts appears burnt up and defolate. 

I had no azimuth-compafs, and confequently could not 
obferve very accurately the variation ; but I believe there is 
fo little in Mangaryn Straits, that no great error will be 
occafioned by confidering the true and magnetic bearings 
to be the fame. 

When we had paffed the ftraits, we kept to the weft- 
ward, running along the north fide of the illand Sumbawa, 
where there is a very high mountain near the coaft ; at the 
foot of which, I am informed, are many runs of good water, 
conveniently fituated for fliips to fupply themfelves. The 
latitude of the north part of Sumbawa I make, by my obfer- 
vations and bearings, to be 8"^ 6' S, which differs very little 
from the Dutch charts. 

In the night of the 31ft, feveral prows were rowing about Monday 31, 
us, on which account, we kept all night under arms. 

Thurfday the 3d. This and the two following days, we septsm- 
were failing along the north fide of the iftand Lombock, on xhJfdav 


248 - A V O Y A G E T O 

which is a high mountain. Moft of the iflands in this route 
are diilinguiflied by high mountains. Lombock appears 
to be well clothed with wood. In the nights, we faw fires 
upon the high lands, at a diflance from the coaft. 
Sunday 6. Sunday the 6th. hi the afternoon, we faw the high land 

of Cape Sandana, which is the NE part of Java. 
Monfiay 7. The ucxt day, we were off Cape Sandana, which is a low 
, cape, projecting from the high land already mentioned. 
This cape is placed by the Dutch maps in 7° 52' S. But ac- 
cording to my obfervation, and our eftimated diftance from 
the land, I make it in 7° 46' S latitude. The longitude, by 
my dead reckoning, from Coupang to Cape Sandana, was 
11° 33' W. 

We fteered to the wellward, along the coaft of Java; 
Tharfday 10. and on the loth, at noon, we anchored off Paffourwang, 
a Dutch fettlement on the coaft of Java, in two fathoms ; 
diftant from the fliore half a league ; the entrance of 
the river bearing S W. The coaft hereabouts is fo Ihoal, 
that large fliips are obliged to anchor three or four miles 
from the land. As foon as we were at anchor, I got 
in my boat and went on fliore. The banks of the river, 
near the entrance, were mud, on which grew a few man- 
grove buflies. Among them we faw hogs running, and 
many were laying dead in the mud, which caufed a moft 
intolerable ftench and made me heartily repent having 
come here ; but after proceeding about a mile up the 
river, the courfe of which was Terpentine, we found a 
'■ very pleafant country, and landed at a fmall and well- 
conftru<3:ed fort ; where I was received in a friendly and 
polite manner by M. Adrian Van Rye, the commandant. 
By the return of the boat, I fent on board a fmall bul- 
Jock, and other provifions. I like wife took a pilot to con- 
dia<3: us to Sourabya. 



The hoiifes at PafTourwang are neatly built, and the 1789. 
country appears to be well cultivated. The produce of this 'ber "' 
fettlement is rice, of which they export large quantities. ^ — v— » 
There are but few Dutch here : the Javancfc are nume- 
rous, and their chief lives with conliderable fplendour. 
They have good roads, and ports arc eftablilhed along the 
coaft ; and it appears to be a bufy and well-regulated fettle- 
ment. Latitude 7° 36' S. Longitude 1° 44' W of Gape San- 

The next day, about noon, we failed ; and on the 12th, in Friday n. 
the evening, anchored in Sourabya road, in feven fathoms : ''"""'^^y "• 
the flag-ftaff bearing S i W ; diftance from the fliore one 
mile. We found riding here, feven fquare-rigged, and 
feveral fmaller veffels. 

It was too late, when we anchored, to fend a boat on 
ihore. The next morning, before day-light, three guard- Sunday i}. 
boats ftationed themfelves near us, and I was informed, 
that I muft not land or fend a boat on Ihore. This re- 
ftri6lion, I learnt from the officer of the guard-boats, was 
in conformity to general orders concerning all flrange vef- 
fels on their firft arrival. At nine in the forenoon, leave 
came off for us to land, and foon after the guard-boats 
quitted us. 

I was received on fhore with great civility and friendihip 
by the governor, or Opperhooft, M. Ant. Barkay, and the 
commandant of the troops, M. de Bofe. By thefe gentle- 
men I was hofpitably entertained, and advifed to remain 
till the i6th, when fome velTels were to fail, with whom I 
might keep company, which they recommended on account 
of pirates. 

Sourabya is one of the moft pleafant places I ever faw. 
it is lituated on the banks of a river, and is a mile and a 

Kk half 



1789. half diftant from the fe9,-lliore, £0 that only the flag-ftafF can 
^"Jr"" be feen from the road. The river is navigable up to the 
*-" .-»~ ~J town for velTels of 100 tons burthen, and the bank on one 
iide is made convenient for tracking. The Chinefe carry- 
on a conliderable trade here? and have a town or camp on 
the iide of the river oppoJdte to Sourabya. The country 
near the town is fiat, and the foil light, fo that they plow 
with a fingle bullock or buffalo, (Kcirrabozv). The inte- 
rior parts of the country, near the mountains, are infefted 
with a breed of fierce tygers, which makes travelling inland 
very dangerous. They have here a breed of horfes, which 
are fmall, but they are handfome and ftrong. 

The Javanefe in this neighbourhood are numerous. M. 
Barkay and M. de Bofe took me with them to pay a vilit to 
two of the principal natives, whom we found attended by a 
number of men armed with pikes, in great military order. 
We were entertained with a concert of mufic ; the inftru- 
raents were gongs, drums, and a fiddle with two firings. 
I hired a pilot here to carry vis to Batavia. Our latitude ob- 
ferved in Sourabya road was 7° 1 1' S. Longitude made from 
Ga^e Sandana 1° 52" W. 
Thurfdayiy. On the lyth, we failed from Sourabya, in company with 
three prows. At noon, we anchored at Crifley, which 
is a town with a fmall fort, belonging to the Dutch. 
We remained here about two hours, and then weighed. 
Latitude of C rifle y 7° 9' S. Longitude from Gape Sandana, 

The navigation through the Straits of Madura is fo in- 
tricate, that, with the little opportunity I had, I am unable 
to undertake a defcription of it. The next day, (September 
Friday i8. i8th) having pafled the ftraits, we bore away to the well- 
ward, along the coaft of Java, in company with the prows 


THE SOUTH SEAS, fcc. 251 

before mentioned. Wc had regular Immdings all the way ,789. 
to Samarang, off which place we anchored on the iid in the ^^H^**' 
afternoon ; the church bearing S E ; dirtancc froii-» the fliore «— — >'-— ■ 
half a league : depth of water two fathonns. The flioalnefs Tuefdaysj. 
of the coaft here, makes the road of Samarang very inconve- 
nient, both on account of the great diftance that large fl-iips 
(of which there were feveral in the road) are obliged to lay 
from the lliore, and of the landing, which h in a river that 
cannot be entered before half-flood. This river refembles 
the one at Paflburwang, the fliores being low, with oifenfive 
dead animals laying about. I was met at the landing-place 
by the equipage-mafter, and he furniflied me with a car- 
riage to carry me to the governor, whofe refidcnce is about 
two miles from the town of Samarang. I requefted, and 
obtained leave to have our wants fupplied, w^hich were, to 
recruit our proviflons, and to get a new main-maft, having 
fprung ours in the paffage from Sourabya. 

Samarang is a fortified town, furrounded by a wall and 
ditch; and is the moft confiderable fettlement, next to Ba- 
tavia, that the Dutch have in Java. Here is a very good 
hofpital, and a public fchool, chiefly for teaching the 
mathematics. They have likewife a theatre. Provifions 
are remarkably cheap here, beef being at ten doits per 
pound, and the price of a fowl 12 doits. 

I experienced great civility from fome of the gentlemen 
at Samarang, particularly from M. Le Baron de Bofe, a 
merchant, brother to the M. de Bofe, commandant of the 
troops at Sourabya: and from M. Abegg, the furgeon of 
the hofpital, to whom we were indebted for advice and me- 
dicines, for which he would not confcnt to receive pay- 

K k z The 


The latitude of Samarang is 6° 57' S. Longitude, by my 

reckoning, from Cape Sandana, 4° 7' W. 
^;^^^^Xy^, On the 26th, we failed from Samarang ; and with us, a 

galley mounting fix fwivels, which the governor had di- 

redted to accompany us to Batavia. 
October. On the ill of Odtobcr we anchored in Batavia road, where 
Thurfday i. ^^^ found riding, a Dutch fliip of war, and 20 fail of Dutch 

Eaft India fhips, befides many fmaller veflels. 




Occurrences at Baiavia, andFaJfage thence to England. 

IN the afternoon, at four o'clock, I went on fhore, and 1789. 
landed at a houfe by the river, where ftrangers firft flop ^^^""'•' 
and give an account who they are, whence they came, 
&:c. From this place, a Malay gentleman took me in a 
carriage to the Sabandar, Mr. Englehard, whofe houfe was 
in the environs of the city, on the fide neareft the fliip- 
ping. The Sabandar is the officer with whom all ftran- 
gers are obliged to tranfadl their biifinefs : at leaft, the 
whole muft go through his hands. With him, I went to 
pay my refpeits to the governor-general, who received me 
with great civility. I acquainted his excellency with my 
iituation, and requefted my people might be taken care of, 
and that we fliould be allowed to take a paflage to Europe 
in the firft Ihip that failed. I likewife defired permiffion 
to fell the fchooner and launch. All this his excellency 
told me fliould be granted. I then took leave, and returned 
with the Sabandar, who wrote down the particulars of my 
wants, in order to form from them a regular petition, to be 
prefented to the council the next day. I had brought from 
the governor of Coupang, direifled for the governor-gene- 
ral at Batavia, the account of my voyage and misforturte, 
tranflated into Dutch, from an account that I had given 



1789. to Mr. Van Efle. So attentive had they been at Timor to 

October. , . , , , 

^^ - - . every thuig that related to us. 

There is a large hotel at Batavia, fitted up purpofely for 
the accommodation of ftrangers, who are not allowed to 
refide at any other place. It is lituated near the great 
river, in a part of the city that is reckoned the moft airy 
and healthy. Neverthelefs, I found the air hot and fufFo- 
cating, and was taken ill in the night with a violent pain 
Friday 2. jn my head. The next morning, at nine, the council fat, 
and I attended, accompanied by the Sabandar ; and was in- 
formed that the council had complied with all I had re- 

When I returned to the hotel, my head-ach increafedy 
and a violent fever came on. I fent to acquaint the Saban- 
dar of my fituation, and was foon after attended by the 
head furgeon of the town hofpital, Mr. Aanforp; by whofe 
care and ficill, in lefs than 24 hours, the fever confiderably 
abated, but a fevere head-ach continued. I had an invita- 
tion from the governor-general to dine with him ; which, 
of Gourfe, I was obliged to decline. 

I hired a carriage, which coft three dollars per day, for the 
benefit of taking an airing. My lodgings at the hotel were 
fo clofe and hot, that I defired the Sabandar to apply to the 
Governor General, for leave to hire a houfe in the country ; 
which requefl his excellency not only immediately complied 
with, but gave diredlions for my being accommodated at the 
houfe of the phyfician or furgeon-general, Mr. Sparling. 

One of my people, Thomas Hall, being ill with a flux, I 

obtained leave for him to be fent to the country hofpital, 

which is a convenient airy building. 

TucfJay 6 Tucfday the 6th. This morning, at fun-rife, I left the 

hotel,, and was carried to Mr. Sparling^s houfe, about four 

4 - miles 


miles diftant from the city, and near the convalcfcent hof- 1789. 
pital, which at this time had alio lick men in it, the whole ^_'^1° !,''^ 
number of patients amounting to 800. I found every 
thing prepared for my comfort and convenience. Mr. 
Sparhng would fufter me to take no medicine, though I 
had flill confiderable fever with head-ach : but I found fo 
much relief from the difference of the air, that in the even- 
ing I was able to accompany Mr. Sparling on a vilit to the 
governor-general, at one of his country feats; where we 
found many ladies, all drefTed in the Malay fafhion, fome 
of them richly ornamented with jewels. 1 had invitations 
from feveral gentlemen, and fome very kindly prelTcd me 
to make their country houfes my abode, till my health 
fliould be re-eftablifhed. 

My indifpofition increafing, Mr. Sparling advifed me ThuWdays. 
to quit Batavia as fpeedily as poflible, and reprefented the 
neceffity of it to the governor-general. I was informed 
from his excellency, that the homeward-bound fhips were 
fo miich crowded, that there would be no poflibility of all 
my people going in one fliip, and that they could be accom- 
modated no other way than by dividing them into different 
fhips. Seeing, therefore, that a feparation was unavoid- 
able, I determined to follow the advice of the phylician, 
and, as a packet was appointed to fail for Europe on the 
i6th inftant, I fent to requeft of the governor that I might 
be allowed to take a paffage in her for myfelf, and as many 
of my people as they were able to receive. In anfwer to 
this, I was acquainted that myfelf and two more could be 
accommodated in the packet, (he being too fmall to ad- 
mit a greater number; but that I might reft affured of paf- 
fages being provided for thofe that remained, by the 
earlieft opp^^rtunities. 



1789- Friday the 9th, This clay, anchored in the road, the 

^ cTOB^ER, Qgj|gj.aj Elliot, an Englilli fhip, commanded by Captain 
Friday g. Lloyd. In the Straits of Banca, he had met with fome 
boats belonging to the Eaft India Company's Ihip Van- 
iittart, that was loft in the Straits of Billaton, by having 
iiruck on a rock that went through her bottom. Captain 
Wilfon, who commanded the Vanfittart, I was informed, 
had juft finiflied a furvey of thofe Straits, and was hoifting 
his boat in, when the fhip ftruck. Immediately on receiv- 
ing the intelligence. Captain Lloyd, in the General Elliot, 
and another fliip in company, called the Nonfuch, failed for 
the wreck. They found the fliip had been burnt down to 
the water's edge by the Malays. They however faved 40 
chefts of treafure out of 55, which were faid to have been 
on board. Moft of the fliip's company were faved : one 
man only was loit in the Ihip, and five others in a fmall 
boat were miffing, who were fuppofed to have taken fome 
of the treafure. —The greater part of the people went with 
Captain Wilfon to China, and fome were with Captain 
Ssturdayio. Saturday the loth. This morning, the Refource was fold 
by public au6tion : the cuftom at Batavia, is to begin high, 
and to lower the price, till fome perfon bids ; and the firft 
bidder is the buyer. She was accordingly put up at 2000 
rix-dollars, but, to my great difappointment, no one offered 
to purchafe before the au6lioneer had lowered the demand 
to 295 rix-dollars, for which price fhe was fold ; the pur- 
chafer being an Englifhman, Captain John Eddie, who 
commanded an Englifli fliip from Bengal. If no ftrangers 
had been prefent at the fale, I imagine they would have let 
her run down to 200 dollars, in which cafe I fliould have had 
no alternative. 


T H E S O U T H S E A S, 8cc. 2.^7 

The launch likewifc was fold. The fcrvices flic had ren- 
dered us, made mc feci great rcluvtlance at parting with her ; 
which I would not have done, if I coulil have found a con- 
venient opportunity of getting her conveyed to Europe. 

Little as the Ichooner had fold for, I found I was in dan- 
ger of having the lum leflened ; for the S.ibandar informed 
me, that, by an order of the council, there was a duty on the 
fale of all veflcls. With this demand 1 would by no means 
comply ; for I thought I had fufliciently fufFcred, in fuftain- 
ing a lols of 705 rix-doUars out of 1000, by the purchafe and 
fale of the velfel, flic having coll 1000 rix-dollars. 

This day, Thomas Hall, whom I had fent to be taken 
care of at the hofpital, died. He had been ill of a Hux 
from the time of our arrival at Timor. 

I agreed with the captain of the packet for a paflage to Monday i; 
Europe, for myfelf, my clerk, and a fervant. The Sa- 
bandar informed me, it was neceffary that my officers and 
people flioulcT be examined before a notary, refpeding the 
lofs of the Bounty, as otherwife the governor and coun- 
cil were not legally authorized to detain her, if flie fliould 
be found in any of the Dutch fettlements. They were 
therefore, at my defire, examined ; and afterwards made 
affidavit before the governor and council at the Stadt- 

My officers complaining to me of the luireafonablenefs of 
fome tradefmen's bills, I fpoke to the Sabandar. A bdl of 
51 dollars for five hats, he reduced to 30 dollars, and in 
other articles made proportionable dedudtions. 

Paper money is the currency of Batavia, and is fo under- 
ftood in all bargains. At this time, paper was at 28 per 
cent difcount : there is likewife a difference in the value of 
the ducatoon, which at Batavia is 80 (livers, and in Hol- 
land only 63 ftivers : this occafions a lofs of 211 per cent, on 

L 1 remittance 


1789. remittance of money. It therefore follows, that if any perfon 
^"°"''; at Batavia remits money by bills of exchange to Europe, 
they lofe by the difcount and the exchange 49 i per cent. 

Thofe who have accounts to pay, and can give unexcep- 
tionable bills on Europe, will find a confiderable faving 
by negociating their bills with private people; who are 
glad to give for them a premium of 20 per cent, at the leaft. 
This difcovery, I made fomewhat too late to profit by. 

One of the greateft difficulties that fl:rangers have to en- 
counter, is, their being obliged to live at the hotel. This 
hotel was formerly two houfes, which by doors of com- 
munication have been made one. It is in the middle of a 
range of buildings, more calculated for a cold country than 
for fuch a climate as Batavia. There is no free circulation 
of air, and what is equally bad, it is always very dirty; 
and there is great want of attendance. What they call 
cleaning the houfe, is another nuifance ; for they never 
ufe any water to cool it or to lay the dufi, but fweep daily 
with brooms, in fuch a manner, that thofe in the houfe are 
' almoft fuffbcated by a cloud of duft. 

The months of December and January are reckoned the 
moil unhealthy of the year, the heavy rains being then let 

in. The account of the feafons, as given to me here, I 

believe may be relied on. 

The middle of November, the weft monfoon begins, 
and rain. 

December and January. Continual rain with ftrong 
wefterly wind. 

February. Wefterly wind. Towards the end of this 
month the rain begins to abate. 

March. Intervals of fine weather. Wind wefterly. 
April. In this month the eaft monfoon begins. Wea- 
ther generally fine with lliowers of rain. 


THE SOUTH SEAS, 8cc. 259 

May. Eafl: monfoon fixed. Showery. 1789. 

June ami July. Clear weather. Strong eaftwmd. i"""*^ 

Auguft and September. Wind more moderate. 

Odtober. hi this month, the wind begins to be variable, 
with lliowers of rain. 

The current is faid always to run with the wind. Never- 
thelcls, I found the reverfc in fiiiling from Timor to Java. 
Between the end of Odlober and the beginning of the en- 
fuing year, no Dutch lliip bound for Europe is allowed to 
fail from Batavia, for fear of being near the Mauritius, at 
the time of the hurricanes, which are frequent there in 
December and January. 

My illnefs prevented me from gaining much knowledge 
of Batavia. Of their public buildings, I faw nothing that 
gave me fo much fatisfa<5lion as their country hofpital for 
feamen. It is a large commodious and airy building, about 
foiir miles from the town, dofe to the fide of the river, or 
rather in the river : for the ground on which it flands has, 
by labour, been made an ifland of, and the fick are carried 
there in a boat : each ward is a feparate dwelling, and the 
different difeafes are properly claffed. They have fome- 
times 1400 patients in it : at this time there were 800, but 
more than half of thefe were recovered, and fit for fervice, 
of whom 300 were deftined for the fleet that was to fail for 
Europe. I went through raoft of the wards, and there 
appeared great care and attention. The filieets, bedding, 
and hnen, of the fick were perfectly neat and clean. 
The houfe of the phyfician, Mr. Sparling, who has the 
management of the hofpital> is at one extremity of the 
building : and here it was that I refided. To the attention 
and care of this gentleman, for which he woidd receive no 
payment, I am probably indebted for my life. 

L 1 2 The 


1789. The hofpital in the town is well attended ; but the fitu- 

y_ l-^ , J, ation is fo ill chofen, that it certainly wovild be the faving of 
many lives, to build one in its flead up the river ; which 
might be done with great advantage, as water carriage is 
fo eafy and convenient. A great neglect in fome of the 
commanders of the fhipping here, was, ftiffering their peo- 
ple to go dirty, and frequently without frock, fhirt, or any 
thing to cover their bodies; which, befldes being a public 
nuifance, mnft probably be produdlive of ill health in the 
moft robuft conftitution. 

The governor-general gave me leave to lodge all my 
people at the country hofpital, which I thought a great 
advantage, and with which they were perfedlly fatisfied. 
The officers, however, at their own requeft, remained in 
the town. 

The time fixed for the failing of the packet, approach- 
ing, I fettled my accounts with the Sabandar, leaving open 
the vi(5lualling account, to be clofed by Mr. Fryer, the 
mafter, previous to his departure ; who I likewife autho- 
rized to fupply the men and officers left under his com- 
raiand, with one month's pay, to enable them to purchafe 
clothing for their paflage to England. 

I had been at great pains to bring living plants from Ti- 
mor, in fix tubs; which contained jacks, nancas, karambolas, 
uamnaras, jambos, and three thriving bread-fruit plants. 
Thefe I thought might be ferviceable at the Cape of Good 
Hope, if brought no farther : but I had the mortification 
of being obliged to leave them all at Batavia. I took thefe 
plants on board at Coupang, on the 20th of Augufl: : they 
had experienced a paflage of 42 days to my arrival here. 
The bread-fruit plants died to the root, and fpronted afrelh 
fron* thence. The karambolas, jacks, nancas, and nam- 
nams, I had raifed from the feed, and they were in fine 

7 order. 

THE SOUTH SEAS, &c. 261 

order. No judgment can hence be formed of the fiicccfs 
of tranfporting plants, as in the prcfcnt trial, they had 
many difadvantages. 

This morning, before fun-rife, I embarked on board the Friday 16. 
Vlydte packet, commanded by Captain Peter Couvret, 
bound for Middleburgh. With me likewife embarked 
Mr. John Samwell, clerk, and John Smith, feaman. Thofe 
of our company who rtaid behind, the governor promifcd 
me fliould follow in the firft fhips, and be as little di- 
vided as poffible. At 7 o'clock, the packet weighed, and 

failed out of the road. 

On the i8th, we fpoke the Rambler, an American brig, sunJay is, 
belonging to Bofton, bound to Batavia. After paffing the 
Straits of Sunda, we ileered to the north of the Cocos Ifles. 
Thefe illands. Captain Couvret informed me, are full of 
cocoa-nut trees : there is no anchorage near them, but 
good landing for boats. Their latitude 12° o' S. Longi- 
tude 96° 5' E. 

In the paffage to the Cape of Good Hope, there occurred 
nothing worth remark. I cannot however forbear no- 
ticing the Dutch manner of navigating. They iieer by 
true compafs, or rather endeavour fo to tlo, by means of a 
fmall moveable central card, which they fet to the meri- 
dian : and whenever they difcover the v-nriation has altered 
2f degrees, fince the laft adjuftment, they again correcl the 
central card. This is fleering within a quarter of a point, 
without aiming at greater exadnefs. The officer of the 
watch likewife corrects the courfe for lee-way, by his own 
judgment, before it is marked down in the log board. 
They heave no log : I was told that the company do not 
allow it. Their manner of computing their run, is by 
means of a meafured diftance of 40 feet, along the fliip's 
fide : they take notice of any remarkable patch of froth, 



when it is abreaft the foremoft end of the meafiired dif- 
tance, and count half feconds till the mark af froth is a- 
breaft the after end. With the number of half feconds 
thus obtained, they divide the number 48, taking the pro- 
dud for the rate of failing in geographical miles in one 
hour, or the number of Dutch miles in four hours. 

It is not ufual to make any allowance to the fun's declina- 
tion, on account of being on a different meridian from that 
for which the tables are calculated : they in general, com- 
pute with the numbers juft as they are found in the table.. 
From all this, it is not difficult to conceive the reafon why 
the Dutch are frequently above ten degrees out in their 
reckoning. Their paffages likewife are confiderably length- 
ened, by not carrying a fufficient quantity of fail. 
December 16. December the i6th, in the afternoon, we anchored in Ta- 
Decemberi7. blc Bay. The ncxt morning, I went on lliore, and waited 
on his excellency M. Vander Graaf, who received me in the 
moft polite and friendly manner. The Guardian, command- 
ed by Lieutenant Riou, had left the Cape about eight days 
before, with cattle and ftores for Port Jackfon. This day, 
anchored in Table Bay, the Aftree, a French frigate, com- 
manded by the Count de St. Rivel, from the Ifle of France, 
on board of which fhip was the late governor, the Chevalier 
d'Entrecaftreaux. Other lliips that arrived during my llay 
at the Cape, were, a French 40 gun frigate, an Eait In- 
dia fhip, and a brig, of the fame nation: likewife two 
other French fhips, with flaves, from the coaft of Mofam- 
bique, bound to the Weft Indies : a Dutch packet from 
Europe, after a four months paffage : and the Harpy, a 
. South Sea Whaler, w^ith 500 barrels of fpermaceti, and 
400 of feal, and other oils. There is a flanding order 
from the Dutch Eaft India Company, that no perfon who 
takes a paffage from Batavia for Europe, in any of their 


T H E S O U T II S E A S, &c. 263 

fliips, fl\all be allowed to leave the fliip before fhc arrives 1789. 
at her intended port. According to which regulation, I P'""_"^ 
muft have gone to Holland in the packet. Of this, I was 
not informed till I was taking leave ot the governor- 
general, at Batavia, when it was too late for him to give 
the Captain an order to permit me to land in the channel. 
He however defired I would make ufe of his name to go- 
vernor Vandcr Graaf, who readily complied with my re- 
queft, and gave the necelTary orders to the Captain of the 
packet, a copy of which his excellency gave to me ; and at 
the fame time, recommendatory letters to people of confe- 
quence in Holland, in cafe I fliould be obliged to proceed 
fo far. 

I left a letter at the Cape of Good Hope, to be forward- 
ed to governor Phillips, at Port Jackfon, by the firft oppor- 
tunity ; containing a fliort account of my voyage, with a 
defcriptive lilt of the pirates : and from Batavia I had writ- 
ten to Lord Cornwallis; fo that every part of India will be 
prepared to receive them. 

We failed from the Cape, in company with the Aftrce Saturday t. 
French frigate. The next morning, neither fliip nor land 
were in liglit. On the 15th, we palled in fight of the illand 
St. Helena. The 2111:, we faw the illand Afcenfion. On 
the loth of February, the wind being at N E, blowing 
frefli, our fails were covered with a fine orange-coloured 
duft. Fuego, the wefternmoft of the Cape de Verd iflands, 
and the ncareft land to us, on that day at noon bore N E 
by E ^ E, diftance 140 leagues. When we had paficd the 
latitude of the Weftern iflands, a look-out was kept for 
fome rocks, which Captain Couvrct had been informed lay- 
in latitude 44* 25' N, and 2° 50' caft longitude from the 
eaft end of St. Michael. This information, Captain Cou- 
vret had received from a perfon that he knew, and who 

§ laid 

af^ A VOYAGE, &:c.. 

faid he had fecn them. On the 13th of March, we faw the 
Bill of Portland, and on the evening of the next day, Sun- 
March 14. day March the 14th, I left the packet, and was landed at 
Portfmouth, by an Ifle of Wight boat. 

Thofe of my officers and people whom I left at Batavia, 
were provided with paflages in the earlielt lliips ; and at 
the time Me parted, were apparently in good health. Never- 
thelefs, they did not all live to quit Batavia. Mr. Elphin- 
ftone, mailer's mate, and Peter Linkletter, feaman, died 
within a fortnight after my departure ; the hardfhips they 
had experienced having rendered them unequal to cope 
with fo imhealthy a climate as that of Batavia. The re- 
mainder embarked on board the Dutch fleet for Europe, 
and arrived fafe at this country, except Robert Lamb, 
who died on the palTage, and Mr. Ledward, the fvirgeon, 
who has not yet been heard of. Thus, of nineteen who 
were forced by the mutineers into the launch, it has pleafed 
God that twelve fliould furmount the difficulties and dangers 
of the voyage, and live to re-vifit their native country,