The Publication Committee of the Caxton Club certifies
that this is one of an edition of two hundred copies -printed
on American hand-made paper, and three copies printed
on Japanese vellum. The printing was done from type
which has been distributed.
BLACK HAWK WAR
BLACK HAWK WAR
A REPRINT OF THE FIRST EDITION BY JOHN A. \\fAKE-
FIELD, ESQUIRE, FROM THE PRESS OF CALVIN
GOUDY, JACKSONVILLE, ILLINOIS, 1834;
WITH THIRTEEN PHOTOGRAVURE
ILLUSTRATIONS, AND PREF
ACE AND NOTES
FRANK EVERETT STEVENS
THE CAXTON CLUB
THE CAXTON CLUB
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
BLACK HAWK ..... Frontispiece
MAJOR JOHN A. WAKEFIELD .... 8
COLONEL HENRY DODGE ..... 28
FORT ARMSTRONG ...... 32
COLONEL HENRY GRATIOT ..... 38
BRIGADIER-GENERAL SAMUEL WHITESIDE . . 40
CAPTAIN ADAM W. SNYDER .... 58
MAJOR JAMES W. STEPHENSON .... 70
DIXON'S FERRY ....... 72
MAJOR JOHN DEMENT . . . . . .74
CHIEF SHA-BO-NA ...... 76
BAD AXE BATTLE-GROUND . . . . 130
GENERAL HENRY ATKINSON . . . . .158
JOHN ALLEN WAKEFIELD.
JOHN ALLEN WAKEFIELD, second son of
William and Diana (Varner) Wakefield, was born
February 22, 1797, at Pendleton, South Carolina.
The father was a native of North Carolina, of Scotch-
Irish ancestry. The mother (who died at Quincy,
Illinois, at the age of nearly 107 years) was a native of
South Carolina, of Scotch-Irish and French Huguenot
ancestry. The father, William, a man of education,
spent most of his manhood as a teacher.
John Allen received his name in honor of Major-
General John Allen of Virginia, who was a cousin to
Diana Varner Wakefield.
When he was seven years old, John's parents moved
to middle Tennessee, where they remained but a short
time, and then pushed on to Barren County, Kentucky.
In 1808, the family removed to Illinois Territory, set
tling where Lebanon, St. Clair County, is now located.
During the first two years of life in Illinois, and
while the family was " forted," owing to the hostility of
the Indians, privations without number were endured.
The War of 1812-14, which followed, was particularly
aggressive and sanguinary in Illinois. Militia com
panies, organized for campaign and scouting duties,
constantly patroled the state.
Wakefield, though but sixteen years of age, mani
fested an unusual aptitude for scouting service, and
to gratify a passion for that service, he enlisted in the
company of Captain Jacob Short, in which he served
8 JOHN ALLEN WAKEFIELD
"froVn February 27 to June 9, 1813. Afterward he
. served as special scout for General Howard, earning
/'. the.Mghesi praises from that faithful officer, particularly
as the bearer of dispatches, later called "expresses/'
One of his trips was fraught with such peril that his
father applied for a writ of habeas corpus to take him
from it ; but learning of the issuance of the writ, he
stole away in the night and crossed the Mississippi in
a canoe, swimming his horse behind. The trip was
made in answer to a call from General Russell, then at
St. Louis, for a volunteer to carry dispatches to Vin-
cennes (called in the vernacular of the day Post Vin-
sari), through a trackless wilderness of 175 miles,
swarming with hostile Indians. It proved as perilous
as had been anticipated, but he made it safely, return
ing by another route. One night he camped in a sink
hole. The following morning was foggy. A war
party of unusual size was heard approaching. His
horse became nervous and liable at any moment to
attract attention ; but he hastily threw a blanket over
its head, and the party passed within a few feet of
the sink-hole, without detecting him. The dangers
and struggles of the Illinois frontiersman during those
perilous days cannot be magnified, and Wakefield had
his full share of them.
At the close of the war he went to Cincinnati, where
he studied medicine diligently for a considerable period,
afterward going to St. Louis to finish his studies. But
it seems that once in possession of his diploma, he
decided medicine did not offer him the field antici
pated, and at once turned to studying for the bar,
to which he was admitted when in his twenty-first
year. His examination was conducted at Vandalia,
where he settled and remained until 1837, during the
last three years of which time he saw much of Abraham
Lincoln. As an outgrowth of an intimacy formed in
JOHN ALLEN WAKEFIELD 9
the Black Hawk campaign, Mr. Lincoln, while a mem
ber of the legislature, lived with Mr. Wakefield in
In 1 818 Wakefield was married to Eliza Thompson,
a native of Bourbon County, Kentucky, daughter of
Abram Thompson and Elizabeth (Brown) Thompson.
One of the most important services rendered by
Wakefield, and one which should command the re
spect of every Illinoisan, was his determined stand
against the introduction of slavery in the State of
Illinois, attempted during the administration of Gov
ernor Edward Coles. The legislature which convened
at Vandalia, December 2, 1822, and adjourned Feb
ruary 1 8, 1823, passed a resolution by infamous
means, calling for a constitutional convention, at which
an amendment was expected to be framed which would
permit slavery in the State. For sixteen months the
young State was a battle-ground, during which the
anti-convention men were made targets for every man
ner of insult and assault. Wakefield, being a ready
speaker and writer, plunged into the campaign with
great vigor, paying his own expenses while canvassing
the State, and had the satisfaction of witnessing the rout
of the slavery or convention men by a decisive victory.
For his services during that campaign, he was elected
a member of the next (fourth) House of Representa
tives, which sat from November 15, 1824, to Janu
ary 1 8, 1825, and from January 2 to January 18,
From "The Vandalia Whig" of July 3, 1834, I
notice that he was a candidate for Representative
against Robert Blackwell and Colonel Samuel Hous
ton, but Mr. Blackwell was elected.
When Governor Reynolds called for volunteers to
drive out Black Hawk in 1832, Wakefield enlisted in
the company of Captain John Dement. It was mustered
io JOHN ALLEN WAKEFIELD
into service April 2Oth, but with the entire army
was mustered out May 28th, after the unfortunate
Stillman's battle. Neither Wakefield nor Captain
Dement's company participated in Stillman's battle.
When a new levy of troops reached Dixon's Ferry,
Wakefield was found enlisted in the company of
Captain William L. D. Ewing. Ewing, being elected
Major of a spy battalion, served as captain but a day
or so, and Captain Samuel Huston (or Houston)
succeeded in command.
First appointed surgeon, by reason of his medical
knowledge, Wakefield was speedily transferred to the
scouting service, in which he continued to the end of
the war. For his efficient work he was promoted to
the rank of Major. At the Bad Axe battle, fought at
the mouth of the Bad Axe River, he received a slight
wound. As that engagement finished the war and the
fighting career of Black Hawk, the army marched over
land to Dixon's Ferry, where Wakefield was discharged
by Lieutenant Robert Anderson, August 16, 1832.
The following year, Major Wakefield wrote the his
tory of that war, which is hereafter set forth. Written
when fresh in his memory, and from his daily journal
kept without interruption from its beginning to its end,
this first history of the war must be accorded accuracy
as well as general interest. Inasmuch as the records
of the War Department do not disclose the names of
many of the officers, the value of the record which
Wakefield's book supplied is inconceivable.
The first edition ofthe book was published in Jackson
ville, Illinois, in 1834, by Calvin Goudy. Its dimen
sions are 7 by 4^ inches. It contains blank leaf, title-
page, certificate of copyright, four pages of "preface,"
four pages of "contents" (all of which are numbered
as follows : iii not numbered, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix,
and x), 142 pages of text, beginning with page i (not
JOHN ALLEN WAKEFIELD n
numbered), and followed from 2 consecutively to and
including 142, and two blank leaves. The binding
was made in boards with mottled covers, calf back, and
red leather label stamped in gilt with the words, "Black
Hawk War." The edges were stained a canary color.
A second edition, thoroughly revised and very much
enlarged, was published at Cincinnati in the year 1836.
Only 300 copies were delivered, the others being
destroyed by a fire which burned the establishment and
its contents. Copies of the latter edition are so rare
that not one has been offered for sale for at least fifteen
The Black Hawk War having made the people of
southern Illinois acquainted with the fertility and rich
ness of the northern part of the State and the southern
part of Wisconsin, a series of northward migrations set
in. In 1837 Major Wakefield joined in the hegira,
and settled in Jo Daviess County, where he remained,
with the exception of the years 1839 and 1840, spent
in Carroll County, until 1846, when he crossed over
into Iowa County, Wisconsin, and there remained
until the spring of 1849. In that year he removed to
St. Paul, Minnesota, and was elected its first city judge.
The winters of Minnesota were so severe that he
moved again southward to Allamakee County, Iowa,
in 1851, where he lived until 1854. Then he went
to Kansas to enjoy its milder climate, and settled at
the point which subsequently became Lawrence, whence
not more than half a dozen families had preceded him.
Becoming a landholder, he remained at that place
until the day of his death, June 18, 1873.
Upon the history of Kansas Wakefield left an indel
ible imprint. There the question of slavery had to
be fought as he had fought it in Illinois thirty years
before. In his new home the struggle was much longer,
and he suffered the loss of much of the considerable
12 JOHN ALLEN WAKEFIELD
wealth which he had accumulated in Minnesota and
Iowa. But his fortunes improving, he became a strong
factor in moulding Kansas into a rich commonwealth,
and his declining years were prosperous.
In the struggle in Kansas with the slavery element,
he was made the first free-state candidate for delegate
to Congress, for which office he received three fourths
of the legal votes cast at the election. But it will be
remembered, that following the hint of Senator Atchi-
son of Missouri, "When you reside within one day
of the Territory, you can send five hundred of your
young men who will vote in favor of your institutions,"
voters were poured into Kansas from Missouri, and
the candidate of the slave-holding interests was elected
by an enormous majority. Indeed, he received eleven
hundred votes more than the number of legal voters
in the Territory three months afterward.
Wakefield was elected State Treasurer under the
Topeka constitution which he had helped to frame, and
as chairman of the judiciary committee of the first and
many succeeding legislatures, was largely responsible
for the State's excellent code of laws. Lawrence was the
storm-center of those perilous times. During the fierce
" border troubles," when the Territory was constantly
invaded by large bodies of armed men from Missouri,
Wakefield was constantly the leader of the free-state
settlers, and for his courage and pertinacity in opposing
the slavery forces was made the principal target for
their attacks. Just west of Lawrence he had built a
large house and many substantial out-buildings, but
the invaders, on the night of September i, 1856,
fired and burned every building on the place. The fine
library in the house and two manuscripts ready for
publication, together with 140 acres of wheat and oats in
the stack, were destroyed. That disaster involved a loss
of $ 1 0,000. The attack was so sudden and unexpected,
JOHN ALLEN WAKEFIELD 13
that the escape of the family was nothing short of
Judge Wakefield, as he was called the latter years of
his life, died at Lawrence June 18, 1873, in his seventy-
To conclude, it should be added that his wife Eliza
died in 1871. From the union twelve children were
born, eight of whom reached middle age or more.
Lysander and Alvin, first and second sons respectively,
died at Vandalia in childhood. George Washington,
the third son, lost his life by an accident in California
when about 45 years of age. Mrs. Mary A. Willard,
eldest daughter, died December 7, 1903, in Los
Angeles, California, at the age of 82. Martha Ann
Wakefield died near Lawrence in 1855. Mrs. Emily
Terry, third daughter, resides at present in the city of
Chicago. Mrs. Eliza J. Snyder, fourth daughter, died
at Lawrence, December 7, 1902. William H. T.
Wakefield, fourth son, to whom I am under obligation
for the facts herein stated, is a resident of Mound City,
Kansas. John Allen, Jr., died July 31, 1865, aged 2 9
years. Thomas J., the youngest, was accidentally
killed at Denver, Colorado, November i, 1890, by the
fall of a derrick. Two daughters, Sarah and Diana,
died in infancy.
FRANK EVERETT STEVENS.
HISTORY OF THE WAR
THE UNITED STATES AND THE SAC AND FOX NA
TIONS OF INDIANS, AND PAETS OF OTHER
DISAFFECTED TKIBES OF INDIANS,
IN THE YEARS
EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SEVEN, THIRTY-
ONE, AND THIRTY-TWO
BY JOHN A. WAKEFIELD, ESQ.
PRINTED BY CALVIN GOUDY.
District of Illinois, ss.
BE IT REMEMBERED, That on this twenty-eighth day of
August, Anno Domini eighteen hundred and thirty-three, John
A. Wakefield, of said district, hath deposited in this office the
title of a book, which is in the words following, to wit: "History
of the War between the United States and the Sac and
Fox nations of Indians, and parts of other disaffected tribes of
Indians, in the years eighteen hundred and twenty-seven, thirty-
one and thirty-two, by John A. Wakefield, Esq." The right
whereof he claims as author, in conformity with an act of Con
gress entitled "An act to amend the several acts respecting
A true copy. Attest, W. H. BROWN,
Clerk of the District of Illinois.
IN presenting this small volume to the world, the
author is aware that he is exposing his name to the
public calumny, by those who are ready at all times
to find fault; but he hopes the candid, who will reflect a
moment on the many difficulties attending the compiling
such a work, will be as charitable towards him, as the
nature of the case will admit. They must reflect that
the many actors in the late war have not all the same
views of things that took place as it is the nature of man
to differ in opinions, and those that were eye witnesses
of the events recorded in this narrative, (or history,) to
have different opinions from each other.
The writer who traces events at a remote period from
the time they transpired, stands on more favorable
ground, because they are not fresh in every one's
memory, and men are not disposed to find so much fault.
But it has been the aim of the author to track as near
the truth, as his knowledge of the different actors, and
all that were in any way concerned in the war, would
permit. If he is found in error, it will be an error of the
head and not of the heart.
But he is aware that he has not done this subject that
justice which its importance deserves. But, as he has
already observed, he hopes an honorable and patriotic
people will exercise all the charity that characterizes the
American people, and, more especially, to one that
never attempted before to write for the inspection of
an enlightened republic.
For a history of the expedition against the Indians,
the author has to depend upon public record, and such
other information as is well authenticated by men that
can be confided in ; but in the last two campaigns, the
author was an eye witness to almost all that he has here
In order to give a full detail of all the transactions and
relationship between those Indians and the United
States, the author has thought it would be more satis
factory to give all the treaties that ever were held with
them, which commenced in eighteen hundred and four.
Many false reports have gone abroad respecting the
lands of those Indians, representing that the Govern
ment has not done strict justice.
In giving an account of the frontier massacres by the
Indians, the author has to depend on newspaper infor
mation; but it is his opinion that all that have been found
upon record, which were published in this state, are
literally true, and may be relied upon as facts.
But, it is not in the power of the author to give an
account of all the massacres that the Indians have com
mitted on the frontier, as many were committed that
have not been recorded; or, if they were, the author has
not been fortunate enough to get possession of them.
In giving the different treaties, the author principally
confines himself to the Sac and Fox nations : But, in
the last treaty which has lately been made, he will be
able to give the substance, or the whole of the treaty
with the Winnebagoes.
He would be glad to enter into a history of the hos
tilities that took place between the Winnebagoes and
the United States, in 1827, but he has not such docu
ments before him as would justify a review of it. And
he is also well aware that some more able hand will, in
due time, give the whole of the transactions of those
Indians a thorough investigation ; and that the public
will not suffer by the author's passing over the partic
ulars of that expedition against those Indians.
The author deems it necessary to confine himself to
facts, and without some public documents, more than
his own knowledge, he could not with any propriety,
enter into a full history of the transactions between the
United States and those Indians, more than simply to
state, that they made an attack on some keel boats that
were running on the Mississippi, and commanded by
Captain Allen Lindsey, and the general outline of the
transactions afterward, in bringing them to a treaty.
This was the first difference, of any importance, that
took place between the United States and those In
dians, since the war with Great Britain.
The author, in order to show the cause of difference
between the United States and the Sac and Fox In
dians, thinks it best to lay before the reader many in
teresting documents, consisting of letters and a number
of depositions, to show the necessity of the Executive
in calling upon the militia of the state of Illinois, to
protect its citizens : And he flatters himself that, after
the perusal of those letters and depositions, none will
have the hardihood to say, that Governor Reynolds
did wrong in the course he pursued to subdue those
The author takes more pains, and troubles the reader
with those documents more than he would have done,
if he had not seen with regret, that misrepresentations
have gone abroad respecting those Indians.
He flatters himself that, after a perusal of the differ
ent treaties entered into by the United States and the
Sac and Fox Indians, and the many violations of those
treaties by those Indians, all will justify the course
taken to bring them to subjection, and restore peace
to our country, which is the case at this time: and
that it could not be done in any other way than a resort
to arms, as all other means were tried, both by General
Clark, and the different Indian Agents; and that with
a great degree of forbearance on the part of the Gen
eral Government, which the reader will plainly see
when he takes a full view of the many outrages and
depredations committed by those lawless savages, who
did everything except murder, before there was a call
for men to volunteer in defence of their country.
The author wishes further to observe, that he has
taken all the pains that lay in his power, to place the
different officers to their proper command, and to detail
the part they acted in the war : But he at the same
time is well aware that there may be some officers whom
he may not mention, that are deserving well of their
country ; on account of not having it in his power to
get a complete list of all the mounted volunteers, that
turned out in defence of their country ; for many of
them were stationed on the frontier, and did not march
with the main army, but performed important services
in defence of the northern frontiers ; as many of the
citizens would have certainly been destroyed by the
Indians, whose known mode of warfare, is to steal
upon the helpless part of [the] community, at the dead
hour of night, when there is no chance of defence.
So, I consider that those rangers who were placed
on the frontier, performed a high and important ser
vice, in ranging those frontiers, and protecting the law
ful settler in quietness at his own fireside, and [saving]
his wife and children from becoming a prey to the sav
age barbarity of the tomahawk and scalping knife.
VANDALIA, ILLINOIS, 1833.
The Winnebagoes attack Captain Lindsey's Keel Boats in 1827
Lose two men killed and several wounded General alarm in
the mining country Gov. Cass takes measures to punish them
He corresponds with Gov. Edwards Gov. Edwards sends
a regiment from the Northern counties to the Mines, under
Col. Neale The people of the Mines form themselves into a
corps of mounted volunteers Elect Gen. H. Dodge their
commander Gov. Cass moves against the Indians to the
portage of the Wisconsin river They sue for peace Treaty
entered into The Indians give up the Red Bird as a hostage
for the good behaviour of the rest of the nation He dies in
Jail The Sac and Fox Indians next, wage war Gen.
Gaines applies to Gov. Reynolds for mounted volunteers
They rendezvous at Beardstown Gen. Duncan appointed by
Gov. Reynolds, to take the command They march to Rock
Island The Indians sue for peace Treaty entered into. 25
The Sac and Fox Indians cross over the Mississippi to the State of
Illinois, in a warlike manner Extract of a letter from General
Hughes to General Atkinson Extract of a letter from George
Davenport to Gen. Atkinson Extract of a letter from Gen.
Atkinson to his Excellency Governor Reynolds Proclamation
of Governor Reynolds to the citizens of Illinois Visit made
to the hostile band by Henry Gratiot, Esq., sub Indian Agent
for the Winnebagoes Rendezvous of the Volunteers at Beards-
town Organized into a brigade under Gen, Whiteside
Mustered into the service of the United States at Rock Island
Col. John Ewing and the Author sent ahead to spy out the
enemy's camp; take a prisoner and return Meet the army
Arrival at Dixon's on Rock River 34
Meet Major Stillman with a battalion from the northern counties
Major Stillman takes his battalion, goes up Rock River, in order
to ascertain the movements of the enemy Falls in with them,
has a battle, and is defeated Retreats back to General White-
side Col. Ewing, Robert Black well, Esq., and the Author
sent as expresses for more troops General Whiteside marches
his Brigade to the battle ground They bury the dead Re
turn back to Dixon's Meet General Atkinson there with
provision, five hundred regulars and two hundred foot militia
They take up the line of march after the enemy March to
Fox River The Indians kill three families before they get
there They bury the persons killed Army become dissatis
fied, and are discharged Three hundred volunteer to guard
the frontier until the new levy of troops arrive 45
Capt. Snyder has a battle with the enemy Arrives at Head Quar
ters and he and his company are discharged New levy of
troops rendezvous at Beardstown and Hennepin Fort Wilbourn
(or Fort Horn) built It becomes Head Quarters The
Volunteers organized into three Brigades Attack on Apple
River Fort A party of Indians appear near Fort Hamilton,
and kill two men Gen. Dodge pursues, overtakes them, and
kills the whole party Capt. Stephenson falls in with another
war party Has an engagement Loses three men, and him
self wounded Major Dement has a battle with the enemy
The three brigades take different directions Gen. Atkinson
marches up Rock River with Gen. Henry's brigade The
three Brigades meet at lake Kushkanong; likewise a squadron
under Gen. Dodge from Michigan Territory They continue
for several days scouring the country in search of the enemy
Move up to the burnt village on White Water Col. Dunn
wounded by a sentinel A regular shot by an Indian while
fishing General Atkinson moves down to lake Kushkanong,
and builds a Fort The second and third Brigades and Col.
Dodge's squadron proceed to Fort Winnebago for provision
Gen. Posey sent to Fort Hamilton Our horses take a fright
at Fort Winnebago, and run away 58
Narrative of the imprisonment of the two Miss Halls Their treat
ment by the Indians They are purchased by Gen. Dodge
and Mr. H. Gratiot, through the Winnebagoes Their arrival
on the eleventh day after their captivity at White Oak Springs
Reverend Mr. Horn becomes a friend and protector to them
They are married Anecdote of Mr. F. stating the race that
Mr. C. rode upon his beaver hat which caused the death of
three women Poor little Susan forsaken by her mother and
about to be left to the mercy of the savage, when a kind hunter
takes charge of her 87
General Alexander returns back to Fort Kushkanong Generals
Henry and Dodge take up the line of march to intercept the
enemy, should they be making to the north March to the
Rapids on Rock River Come to a Winnebago Village
Have a talk with the Indians Send an express to General
Atkinson They come across the trail of the enemy and
return Fired on as they enter our camp We take up the
line of march next morning in pursuit Terrible storm on that
evening Second day come to the Four Lakes Encamp
there A description of those Lakes Doctor Philleo kills an
Indian We overtake the enemy the same evening, and have
a general battle We defeat the enemy They retreat across
the Wisconsin River An Indian talks to us from the top of a
mountain, before day on the next night General Henry ad
dresses his men Major Ewing with his Spy Battalion pro
ceeds the next morning to the top of the mountain Makes
but little discovery 102
Generals Henry and Dodge march to the Blue Mounds for provi
sion There meet the other two Brigades Take up the line
of march across the Wisconsin Again get on the trail of the
enemy Take a Winnebago Indian a prisoner He gives
information that the enemy is four days ahead of us We take
him along We enter the mountains Bad travelling Lose
a number of horses Overtake the enemy at the mouth of Bad
Axe, on the Mississippi General Engagement Gen. Henry
completely routs the enemy 1 1 8
Steamboat Warrior has an engagement with the enemy, the day
before we overtook them Steamboat commanded by Lieuten
ant Kingsbury Arrival of the steamboat Warrior, soon after
our engagement She returns and brings us provision Gen
eral Atkinson, believing that the enemy were nearly all de
stroyed, did not pursue them across the Mississippi March
down to Prairie du Chien We find the friendly Indians re
joicing at the defeat of the enemy Gen. Atkinson has a talk
with the Winnebagoes We march to Dixon's and are dis
Report of General Atkinson to Major General Macomb, at Washing
ton Indian talk with General Street, when they delivered
Black Hawk and the Prophet Description of Black Hawk and
the Prophet General remarks of the Author. . . . 146
HISTORY OF THE LATE
The Winnebagoes attack Captain Lindseys Keel Boats in 182?
lose two men killed and several wounded General
alarm in the mining country Gov. Cass takes measures to
punish them he corresponds with Gov. Edwards Gov.
Edwards sends a Regiment from the northern counties to the
Mines , under Col. Neale the people of the Mines form
themselves into a corps of mounted volunteers elect Gen. H.
Dodge their commander Gov. Cass moves against the In
dians to the portage of the Wisconsin river they sue for peace
treaty entered into the Indians give up the Red Bird as
a hostage for the good behaviour of the rest of the nation he
dies in Jail The Sac and Fox Indians next, wage war
Gen. Gaines applies to Gov. Reynolds for mounted volunteers
they rendezvous at Beardstown Gen. Duncan appointed
by Gov. Reynolds, to take the command they march to Rock
Island the Indians sue for peace treaty entered into.
THE author, in giving a history of the late war
between the United States and the Sac and Fox
nations of Indians, thinks it would be doing the
subject injustice, not to give an outline of the difficulties
that took place between the United States and the Win-
nebagoes, in the year eighteen hundred and twenty-
seven, which he has observed in his preface, was the
first disturbance of any kind that took place between
2 6 HISTORY OF THE
the Government of the United States and the Winne-
bagoes since the last war with Great Britain. But the
author, in giving a small outline of this disturbance, has
to depend upon his memory alone ; as, at that time, it
had never entered his head that he would be the
biographer of this small disturbance that took place
between the Government and those Indians.
But, in attempting to give the public the causes and
particulars of the war betwixt the Government and the
Sac and Fox nations of Indians, he thinks that it would
not be amiss to take a passing notice of the transac
tions that took place on this occasion.
Captain Allen Lindsey, 1 a gentleman of the first re
spectability in our country, was running a couple of keel
boats on the Upper Mississippi, in the summer of
eighteen hundred and twenty-seven ; when within a
few miles of Prairie du Chien, was visited by a number
of Winnebago Indians, some of them came aboard of
his boats and showed signs of hostility to him, such as
preyed upon his mind so much that, before he returned,
he provided himself with a few fire arms, so that, in
case of an attack by them, he might be able to defend
He was at this time on his way up to St. Peters.
He made his trip, and accordingly on his return, when
within a few miles of Prairie du Chien, he was again
visited by those same Indians. He had to pass down
the river close to their towns and habitation for several
miles ; for that is the way these wretched beings live,
in small bark wigwams, along some water course, where
they can paddle their canoes.
But agreeably to Capt. Lindsey's expectations, he
was not permitted to pass by their dwellings in peace.
-Very late in the evening, a number of those blood
thirsty savages made their appearance to him in a
menacing manner, by opening a heavy fire upon his
LATE INDIAN WAR 27
boats ; and by the help of their canoes attempted to
board them. But Capt. Lindsey, had fortunately for
him, anticipated that they did not intend to let him
pass without firing him a salute of this description.
He was prepared for them, although he had but few
men aboard of his boats, but what he had proved to be
soldiers. The Indians opened a heavy fire upon him,
which was returned by him and his boat's crew with
double interest. There were a large number of In
dians, who charged upon him in their canoes, thinking
to board his boats, but he prevented them by the hard
est kind of fighting. They came so near boarding
him, that, a number of them lashed their canoes to his
boats ; but he gave them a quietus in the act, and they
bequeathed their canoes to him in return, and became
bait for the fish of the Mississippi. At this, each one
made shift for himself. The Indians paddled their
canoes in one direction, and Captain Lindsey rowed
his boats the other.
Captain Lindsey lost two fine men in the action, and
a number wounded ; 2 but how many I do not recollect
at this time. If this officer had not anticipated mis
chief from those wretched beings, there is no doubt
but that he and his whole crew would have been
massacred by those inhuman barbarians ; for it is gen
erally supposed that it was plunder, or, in other words,
the cargo that the boats contained, they were after.
Captain Lindsey ran his boats down as soon as pos
sible, to Galena, a small town on Fever river, six
miles above where it empties itself into the Mississippi,
which is now the county seat of Jo Daviess county, in
the north-west corner of the State of Illinois.
When Captain Lindsey arrived at that point, and
gave the news, it created great fear and alarm ; to such
a degree, that expresses were sent in different direc
tions to inform the citizens of the Mines to move into
28 HISTORY OF THE
Galena, and prepare for war. The people of the Mines
took the alarm, so that in two days' time there were
not less than three thousand men, women and children,
who fled to this place for safety. Those Indians had
made many threats against the miners, and had at dif
ferent times ordered them off, and told them to quit
the diggings, saying that the ground they were digging
on was theirs. This news, coming at this time, when
they were apprehensive of mischief, gave them an alarm,
and caused them to fly to Galena for safety. They
forsook their rude habitations, and assembled at that
place, in order to assist in defending each other. There
were a few forts built in the more thickly settled parts
of the Mines, and some of the most fearless [of the]
citizens occupied them.
There was a committee of safety appointed in Galena,
who corresponded with all parts of the Mines, and
adopted measures for the safety and preservation of
all; and in the mean time had some strong block houses
built at Galena. The people likewise, who were able
and willing to bear arms, volunteered and formed
themselves into companies, and chose their own officers;
ranged the country, and kept a good lookout, for fear
the Indians would steal upon them, and take them by
Governor Cass, in the mean time, was not inactive,
but corresponded with Governor Edwards, then Gov
ernor of Illinois. Governor Edwards immediately
raised one regiment of mounted volunteers in the
northern counties, and sent them on to the relief of the
mining country, and to go against those Indians. They
elected Thomas M. Neale their commander. The
people of the Mines formed themselves into another
corps, and elected General Dodge their commander
a man well qualified to command, and who had some
experience in the same.
LATE INDIAN WAR 29
Col. Neale marched his regiment to the Mines, but
no further. Gen. Dodge, assisted by Gov. Cass, 3
marched on a force of near one thousand men, 4 to the
portage of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers, where the
Indians sued for peace. A treaty was then made with
them. They gave up their commander, who had been
the principal cause of the war, whom they called the
Red Bird. He was put in prison at Prairie du Chien,
and was to have been kept as a hostage for the good
behavior of the rest of his nation, but he soon died.
After this treaty, the forts were again forsaken, and
the citizens returned to their respective habitations,
and peace and safety seemed to be felt by all, until the
hostile movement of the Sacs and Foxes, in the spring
of eighteen hundred and thirty-one; when they invaded
the State of Illinois, by leaving their own side of the
Mississippi, crossing over, and attempting to claim the
land they had sold to the General Government, in the
neighborhood of Rock Island. Here this terrible and
warlike nation of Indians committed all kinds of out
rage on the citizens near this place. The citizens had
purchased the land they lived upon from the General
Government, and had opened good farms, built houses,
and had been living in peace and quietness for nearly
three years, when these wretched monsters in human
shape attempted to drive them from their homes, and
take possession of them themselves; which in fact they
did.* But this was not all those savage monsters did.
They turned their horses into their wheat fields, killed
their stock, and laid waste whole farms.
It was time now for those citizens to ask for assist
ance from their countrymen. They did so. Petition
after petition was sent to the Governor of Illinois,
laying before him their grievances, f Governor
* See Appendix, Note No. i.
f See Appendix, Note No. a.
3 o HISTORY OF THE
Reynolds hesitated not a moment, but addressed the
proper officers on this important subject. He addressed
letters to Generals Clark and Gaines on this subject,
and tried every means that lay in his power to dissuade
those unhappy people to desist from their designs, and
return back to their own side of the Mississippi to
their own land. But to this they turned a deaf ear
too, as well as to all kind of entreaty that could be
made through their agents, or Gen. Gaines or any
other person. They bid defiance to General Gaines,
and bantered him to fight them with his regulars.
This was enough. Gen. Gaines saw now that there
was no way of settling this business, only by a resort
to arms. He accordingly made a call upon Governor
Reynolds for seven hundred mounted volunteers to
co-operate with him in driving them from the State.*
Governor Reynolds immediately obeyed the call,
and issued his proclamation to the citizens of the
northern counties of Illinois, who turned out to the
number of fifteen hundred strong, and rendezvoused
at Beardstown, on the Illinois river; and between the
first and tenth days of June were organized into a
brigade, under the command of Gen. Joseph Duncan.
This brigade was officered in the following manner,
viz : James D. Henry, of Sangamon county, Colonel of
the first regiment; Jacob Fry, Lieutenant Colonel;
John T. Stuart, Major; Thomas Collins, Adjutant;
Edward Jones, Quarter Master; and Thomas M. Neale,
Paymaster. The Captains were as follows: Adam
Smith, William F. Elkin, A. Morris, Thomas Carlin,
Samuel Smith, John Lorton, and Samuel C. Pierce.
The second Regiment was commanded by Colonel
Daniel Leib, of Morgan County; - , Lieu
tenant Colonel; Nathaniel Butler, Major; Captains
H .Mathews, John Ha[i]nes, George Bristow, William
* See Appendix, Note No. 3.
LATE INDIAN WAR 31
Gilham, [Hiram] Kincade, Alexander Wells, William
Weatherford, and W. Jordan, Quarter Master.
There was one odd battalion, which was officered in
the following manner: Nathaniel Buckmaster, 5 Major;
James Semple, Adjutant; Joseph Gillespie, Paymaster;
[David Wright,] Quarter Master; Richard Roman, Sur-
feon ; Captains William Moore, John Loramie,
Loraine] and Solomon Miller. [Charles Higbee
was Surgeon and Roman was Mate. Ed.]
The spy battalion, next, was officered in the follow
ing manner: Samuel Whiteside, 8 Major; Samuel F.
Kendle, Adjutant; John S. Greathouse, Quarter
Master; P. H. Winchester, Pay Master; Captains
Erastus Wheeler, William B. Whiteside, William
Miller, and Solomon Prewitt. 7
Those were the officers that composed the brigade
under Gen. Joseph Duncan, with a few exceptions.
The name of the Lieutenant Colonel in Col. Leib's
regiment, I have not been fortunate enough to get in
possession of, and I have not been able to get all the
staff officers belonging to it; 8 for I have no public record
to resort to. Therefore, I hope no gentleman will
think hard of me, or feel himself slighted in not
having his name inserted in this history.
General Duncan, after his brigade was organized,
took the line of march for the seat of war, or where
the savage rebels were assembled and bidding defiance
to General Gaines and his regulars, at or near Rock
When General Duncan arrived at Rock River, he
had to cross this stream near an island; and for fear of
an ambuscade, General Gaines had it raked with a six
pounder, so that if the enemy were concealed in this
hiding place, he might drive them from it until his
men could cross. He fired his six pounder 9 a num
ber of times into this Island, but the enemy had taken
32 HISTORY OF THE
the alarm, and crossed over the Mississippi; but still
kept embodied for action. They did not much like
the sound of the six pounder.
Some of them afterwards came over to Rock Island,
where General Duncan had arrived with his men, and
joined General Gaines, who took command of all the
forces then in the field. They held a white flag in
their hands. They now sued for peace. The Black
Hawk was not one of the company. General Gaines
demanded of them to bring him. They at first refused,
but he told them that he would march his forces across
the river and cut them off, if they did not produce him.
They then returned and brought the wretched Hawk,
who had caused so much trouble to them and our own
They then entered into capitulations of a treaty;* the
articles of which they violated in a few weeks after
wards by the most daring outrage. It was stipulated
in the articles, that they were to remain on the west
side of the Mississippi, and never to cross the river,
and come into the State of Illinois, without the per
mission of the President of the United States or the
Governor of Illinois. But they soon forgot this
agreement. They crossed over in a few weeks, went
within a few hundred yards of Prairie du Chien, in the
dead hour of night, fell upon a camp of Menominie
Indians, slaughtered and killed twenty-five of them;
and that too, within gun-shot of a garrison of regulars.
Those Menominie Indians never have been at war
with the Government of the United States. They
have ever looked to it for protection. They had been
that day in an Indian frolic, and were nearly all drunk.
It is a well known thing, that, when Indians get into
one of those drunken frolics, they are dangerous, one
* See Appendix, Note No. 4. See General Gaines's Report to President U. S.,
Appendix, Note No. 5.
LATE INDIAN WAR 33
to another, and the squaws invariably make it a rule to
hide their arms until they get sober. This was the
case at this time. Those Menominies had just been
gorging with this hydra monster of all evil, and were
lying in their wigwams, lost in sleep; never dreaming
or thinking that there was the least danger of being
butchered by those hideous monsters, that were of the
same species of human beings with themselves. But
the deadly tomahawk and spear were buried in them
when in their helpless situation. The Menominies,
it is said, succeeded in killing four of these savage
monsters, who deserved to die the worst of deaths. 10
The Menominies immediately informed Gen. Street
of the massacre. He repaired immediately to the battle
ground. They appeared to be in great distress for the
loss of their friends. They had killed a number of
squaws and children. The Menominies made heavy
complaints to Gen. Street, saying, you have told us that
you would protect us, and see that the Sacs and Foxes
would let us alone. Gen. Street told them that they
would be punished for what they had done. He accord
ingly sent a communication to Governor Reynolds,
informing him of their movements, and the slaughter
of the Menominies; and at the same time, took measures
to demand the murderers; the particulars of which I
am not able to lay before the public. But instead of
the Sacs and Foxes delivering up the murderers, they,
early in the spring following, crossed over to the State
of Illinois, armed and equipped for war, and passed by,
almost in sight of Fort Armstrong, bidding defiance to
General Atkinson, the commander of the fort. Gen.
Atkinson then communicated to Governor Reynolds,
by express, their movements. Governor Reynolds
then lost no time in issuing his proclamation to the
citizens of Illinois, calling for volunteers.
The Sac and Fox Indians cross over the Mississippi to the State of
Illinois, in a warlike manner Extract of a letter from
General Hughes to Gen. Atkinson Extract of a letter from
George Davenport to Gen. Atkinson Extract of a letter
from Gen. Atkinson to his Excellency, Governor Reynolds
Proclamation of Governor Reynolds to the citizens of Illinois
Visit made to the hostile band, by Henry Gratiot, Esq., sub
Indian Agent for the Winnebagoes Rendezvous of the
Volunteers at Beardstown Organized into a brigade under
Gen. White side Mustered into the service of the United
States at Rock Island Col. 'John Ewing and the Author
sent ahead to spy out the enemy's camp; take a prisoner, and
return Meet the Army Arrival at Dixon's, on Rock river.
Extract of a letter from General Hughes, sub Indian Agent, to
General Atkinson, dated,
"Rock Island, April I3th, 1832.
"My opinion is, that the squaws and old men have gone to
the Prophet's town, on Rock river and the warriors are now
only a few miles below the mouth of Rock river, within the
limits of the State of Illinois. That those Indians are hostile
to the whites there is no doubt. That they have invaded the
State of Illinois, to the great injury of her citizens, is equally
true. Hence it is, that the public good requires that strong
as well as speedy measures should be taken against Black
Hawk and his followers.
" Respectfully I have, the honor to be,
"Your obedient servant.
(Signed.) " ANDREW S. HUGHES."
"To Brig. Gen. Atkinson."
LATE INDIAN WAR 35
Extract of a letter from George Davenport, Esq. to Brigadier
General Atkinson, dated,
"Rock Island, April I3th, 1832.
"Dear Sir: In reply to your enquiries of this morning,
respecting the Indians, I have to state, that I have been
informed by the man I have wintering with the Indians, that
the British band of Sac Indians are determined to make war
upon the frontier settlements. The British band of Sac
Indians did rendezvous at old fort Madison, and induced a
great many of the young men to join them on their arrival at
the Yellow Banks. They crossed about five hundred head
of horses into the State of Illinois, and sent about seventy
horses through the country toward Rock river. The re
mainder, some on horseback, the others in canoes, in a
fighting order, advanced up the Mississippi, and were encamped
yesterday five or six miles below Rock river, and will no
doubt endeavor to reach their strong hold in the Rock river
swamps, if they are not intercepted. From every information
that I have received, I am of opinion, that the intention of
the British band of Sac Indians, is to commit depredations on
the inhabitants of the frontier.
"Respectfully your ob't. serv't.
(Signed.) " GEO. DAVENPORT."
"To Brig. Gen. Atkinson."
Extract of a letter from Gen. Atkinson to his Excellency, Governor
"Fort Armstrong, April I3th, 1832.
"Dear Sir: The band of Sacs under Black Hawk, joined
by about one hundred Kickapoos, and a few Pottawatamies,
amounting in all to about five hundred men, have assumed a
hostile attitude. They crossed the river at the Yellow Banks,
on the sixth instant, and are now moving up on the east side of
Rock river towards the Prophet's village.
"The regular force under my command, is too small to
justify me in pursuing the hostile party. To make an unsuc
cessful attempt to coerce them, would only irritate them to
36 HISTORY OF THE
acts of hostility on the frontier, sooner than they probably
" Your own knowledge of the character of these Indians,
with the information herewith submitted, will enable you to
judge of the course proper to be pursued. I think the frontier
is in great danger, and will use all the means at my disposal
to co-operate with you, in its protection and defence.
" With great respect,
" Your most ob't. serv't.
U H. ATKINSON, Brigadier
"General of the U. S. Army."
His Excellency, Gov. REYNOLDS, Bell [e] ville, 111.
I will next give the reader Governor Reynolds's
Proclamation to the militia of Illinois, and his con
cluding remarks; and of the necessity of those that were
able to bear arms, turning out in defence of their
"To the Militia of the North-western section of Illinois:
"FELLOW CITIZENS: Your country requires your ser
vices. The Indians have assumed a hostile attitude, and
have invaded the State, in violation of the treaty of last sum
"The British band of Sacs, and other hostile Indians,
headed by the Black Hawk, are in possession of the Rock
river country, to the great terror of the frontier inhabitants.
"I consider the settlers on the frontiers in imminent dan
ger. I am in possession of the above information from gen
tlemen of respectable standing, and from Gen. Atkinson,
whose character stands so high in all classes.
"In possession of the foregoing facts and information, I
hesitate not as to the course I should pursue. No citizen
ought to remain quiet when his country is invaded, and the
helpless part of the community is in danger. I have called
out a strong detachment of militia, to rendezvous at Beards-
town, on the 22d instant; provision for the men, and corn
for the horses will be furnished in abundance. I hope my
LATE INDIAN WAR 37
countrymen will realize my expectations, and offer their ser
vices, as heretofore, with promptitude and cheerfulness, in
defence of their country.
"Commander in Chief."
I will next refer the reader to a visit made to the
hostile Indians by Henry Gratiot, Esq.
On the 1 6th day of April, Mr. Gratiot, Indian
Agent for the Rock river band of Winnebagoes, re
ceived a letter from Gen. Atkinson, informing him of
the movements of Black Hawk's band of hostile In
dians, and requesting him, if possible, to ascertain the
disposition of them. On the receipt of this informa
tion, Mr. Gratiot proceeded down Rock river, and
on the 1 9th arrived at the Turtle Village 11 of Winne
bagoes found them at the exercise of their religious
ceremonies, and consequently could not have a hear
ing with them until the 22d. He then held a talk
with them, and learned from them that the Sacs had,
at three different times, sent them the wampum, and
that the last was painted red, thereby indicating war. 12
The last wampum was not returned. They also in
formed Mr. Gratiot, that it was their determination
not to join the hostile Sacs that there were some
Winnebagoes living at the Prophet's Village who were
friendly to the whites and that they requested them
to leave it and come to their village to reside until all
the difficulties were settled.
In order to accomplish this object, Mr. Gratiot took
twenty four men of the Turtle Village to accompany
him to the Prophet's Town, at which place they
arrived on the 25th, and hoisted his flag of truce. He
was received with much attention by the Winneba
goes, who made him a large lodge, eighty feet long,
for himself and their visiting brethren. In this village
38 HISTORY OF THE
he found between two and three hundred men, women
and children, belonging to the Prophet's band. These
Indians manifested no hostile disposition, but severally
remonstrated against the conduct of the Prophet, who
was at that time with the hostile band of Sacs, a few
miles below, leading them on to his village. Mr.
Gratiot advised these Indians to go up Rock river on
their own lands, and make a village, where they might
rest in peace. This they promised to do.
On the 26th, Mr. Gratiot saw at a distance, about
two miles down Rock river, the army of the cel
ebrated Black Hawk, consisting of about five hundred
Sacs, well armed, and mounted on fine horses, moving
in a line of battle. Their appearance was terrible in
the extreme. 13 Their bodies were painted with white
clay, with an occasional impression of their hands about
their bodies, colored black. Around their ankles and
bodies they wore wreaths of straw, which always indi
cate a disposition for blood. They moved on with
great regularity, performing many evolutions; wheeling
every few minutes, and firing towards Fort Armstrong;
turning, flanking, and then forming into solid columns,
from which they would form their line of march. In
that way they marched to the beating of a drum till
they came to the village.
They marched up to Gratiot's lodge, where was
flying the neutral flag; formed a circle around it; took
down his flag, and tauntingly hoisted the British
colors in its place. They then fired into the air toward
his lodge, sounded the war-whoop around it, and made
several motions toward attacking Mr. Gratiot and the
friendly Winnebagoes. They afterward dismounted,
entered his lodge, shook hands with Mr. Gratiot and
Mr. Cubbage, a gentleman who accompanied him.
They then formed a circle within his lodge, holding
their spears and other implements of war, and evincing,
LATE INDIAN WAR
by their actions and countenances, an unfriendly feel
ing. After holding a consultation among themselves,
a friendly Winnebago Chief, ("White Crow,") who
went with Mr. Gratiot from the Turtle Village, arose,
went to his blanket, took out two plugs of tobacco,
and gave them to the war-chief of the hostile band;
after which the war party left the lodge leaving only
This Chief 14 (Black Hawk) then told Mr. Gratiot
that he had received a letter from General Atkinson,
but refused to let him read it at the time, but said that
he would show it to him when he got to the end of his
march, which was about sixty miles above. Mr.
Gratiot replied, that he was not going that way; but
he was answered by Black Hawk, that he would let
him know about it on the next day. So it appeared
that Mr. Gratiot was then considered their prisoner of
war; 15 which the development of other facts that after
wards occurred, conclusively proved. Black Hawk
shortly afterwards left Mr. Gratiot, under a promise to
visit him again the next morning.
The hostile band were all night engaged in holding a
council among themselves. On the following morning,
the Prophet, at the head of about forty warriors, came
into Mr. Gratiot's lodge, presented General Atkinson's
letter, and told him, he might take the letter back to
General Atkinson. Mr. Gratiot insisted on reading
the letter to them; upon which request, Black Hawk
and Na-a-pope 18 were sent for, and the letter read. The
substance of which was, to adviseltlW'Jip&tHe Chiefs to
desist from their evil designs Across the Mississi ppi
river, settle down in peace, ard pl-int >hnr a>rn,.ftc.
In reply to which, they requested Mr. Gratiot to hand
back the letter, and inform General Atkinson, that their
hearts were bad, 17 and that they would not return; but to
the contrary, that if he brought his troops among them
40 HISTORY OF THE
they would fight them. Mr. Gratiot immediately went
to Rock Island and delivered the message.
Thus, reader, these documents go to show the great
necessity that Governor Reynolds had, for making the
call for mounted volunteers, to defend the rights of our
country, and drive from our State those merciless
savages, that wished to imbrue their hands in the blood
of its citizens.
Agreeably to his proclamation, the citizens of
Illinois, quit their peaceful fire-sides and homes, and
volunteered to defend our dear and sacred rights, which
had been purchased for us by our ancestors, at the price
of much blood. There was a sufficient number turned
out without drafting; the people at once saw the great
danger our frontier was in; and their patriotic feelings
would not suffer them to stay at home, when they knew
their services were wanted in the field. Accordingly, at
the appointed time, the mounted volunteers from the
different counties, that were called upon, rendezvoused
at Beardstown, on the Illinois river, where we were met
by Gov. Reynolds.
Upon our being organized into a Brigade, Governor
Reynolds appointed Brigadier General Samuel White-
side commander of the Brigade, who, for his courage
and bravery, as an officer in the last war with Great
Britain, stood pre-eminent. He at that time had the
command of a company of rangers, and was by all
acknowledged to be an excellent Indian fighter.
/The Brigade consisted of about sixteen hundred
n afcd tvfo Jumdred footmen, who w~re orgnn-
&mJHti3, and an odd spy battalion.
it^', 1 ?, ^commanded the first regiment;
Colonel Fry, 19 the second; Colonel Thomas, 20 (of St.
Clair,) the third; and Colonel Thompson, the fourth.
Colonel James D. Henry, of Sangamon county,
commanded the spy battalion.
*,, . . ;-:
LATE INDIAN WAR 41
On the twenty-seventh day of April, the troops got in
motion, and took up the line of march, under the
command of General Whiteside, accompanied by
Governor Reynolds, the Commander-in-chief. After
crossing the Illinois river, we directed our course to the
Yellow Banks, 21 on the Mississippi river, at which place,
we arrived on the third day of May. Nothing very
interesting occurred on our march to the Yellow Banks.
In crossing Henderson's river, we lost several head
of horses, the river being very high, and not having any
ferry boat to cross in; but very fortunately the men all
got over safe. We had to take the point of the Yellow
Banks, in order to draw provision, as a steam boat with
supplies was to meet us there. It is worthy of remark,
that when we got to this place, we found the citizens
quietly remaining at their homes, and not in the least
The next day after we arrived at this place, the old
principal Chief ( Ke-o-kuck,) crossed the river, with fifty
or sixty of his warriors, and a few Squaws, to our
encampment, held a war dance, and stated, that it was
not their intention to raise arms against the United
States, at the same time signifying a willingness to
assist in fighting the Black Hawk.
On the third day after our arrival at the Yellow
Banks, the steam boat arrived with a sufficient supply
of provision, which enabled us to take the line of march
for Rock river, at which place we arrived on the
following day (the seventh.) On the [May 8th] we
were mustered into the service of the United States by
Brigadier General Atkinson. 22
On the evening after having been received by
General Atkinson, Colonel John Ewing and myself
were sent by Governor Reynolds as secret spies, with
directions to keep in front of the army; he also sent a
gentleman by the name of Kinney with us as a pilot.
42 HISTORY OF THE
Our instructions were, to proceed as near the direction
as we could, according to our judgment, form, of the
course Black Hawk and his army had taken; and if
possible, for us to ascertain where the encampment of
the enemy was. According to our instructions, we
proceeded up Rock river, as near the direction that
Black Hawk had taken, as our pilot judged to be the
course. On the second day after we started, we dis
covered several signs of Indians, who appeared to be
going different directions, which led us to suppose,
that they were sent by Black Hawk to ascertain
whether or not we were following them.
On that night, we encamped in sight of the old
Prophet's Village; 23 next morning we went through
the Town, and saw where Black Hawk had encamped
with his whole army. His encampment was laid off
in a manner showing great skill in warfare. No
American General could have laid it out in a more
military style ; from the appearance of the encamp
ment, we were induced to believe that they remained
there a week ; from which place we proceeded, confin
ing ourselves to Rock river, which we were going up.
We had not proceeded more than five miles from this
place, before we discovered two Indians coming in the
direction to meet us. Col. Ewing and myself made
up to them in great haste ; on our meeting them, we
demanded of them to know their business there; on
their not being able to understand us, we directed Mr.
Kinney to enquire of them what they were doing there?
Their answer was, that they had lost their horses, and
were hunting them ; that they belonged to Ke-o-kuck's
band. We directed the interpreter to ask them, if they
knew where Black Hawk was P They signified that
they did not know, and appeared to be much alarmed.
I observed in the course of the conversation, that we
ought to take them as prisoners to which Col. Ewing
LATE INDIAN WAR 43
made no reply, but appeared to be reflecting on the
course to take, until they started and had got a short
distance from us; he then came to the conclusion to
take them ; we immediately gave chase, they had four
horses that appeared to be fresh and good, on account
of which they gained distance on us, shaping their
course for the river. During the chase, we discovered
another Indian on our left, after consulting for a
moment, we concluded to endeavor to take him pris
oner; accordingly we all pursued him, until we came
up with him ; he told us he was a Pottawattomie ; he
had two horses; we directed Mr. Kinney to take his
gun ; he appeared unwilling to surrender it, and showed
a disposition to shoot him. Upon which Colonel
Ewing drew his rifle to his face, to make ready to fire
on him, if he did not give it up : upon which he gave
it to Mr. Kinney. We directed Mr. Kinney to mount
his horse, and take the rope that was around the neck
of the Indian's horse, and lead him; the Indian made
signs to us, that there were some of his people close
by, and wished to see them, and then he would go
with us ; to which proposition, we had no desire to
accede, but forced him on. We travelled at a rapid
rate. As we were in the midst of Indians, we con
cluded that it was our better policy, to make our way
back to the camp as quick as possible. We at this
time had been three days from the army, and could
not know what distance we had separated ourselves
from it. We calculated that we would not be able to
reach it until the following day ; but we were very
agreeably disappointed, as we met the army after going
about ten miles ; it had taken the line of march the
next day after we left it, and marched a much nigher
way than our pilot took us. We delivered up our
prisoner, who underwent an examination through
an interpreter better acquainted with the Indian
44 LATE INDIAN WAR
language than Mr. Kinney ; he was found to be a Pot-
tawattomie, and stated that Black Hawk with his
army was at the Pawpaw Grove, 24 two days' march
up the river. We were now close to the old
Prophet's Town, where General Atkinson had ordered
General Whiteside to await the arrival of his boats
and regulars, (as that was the way General Atkin
son, with his regulars, and two hundred foot volun
teers were marching;) unless General Whiteside,
thought upon his arrival at the Prophet's Village, 25
it would be actually necessary to pursue, in order to
prevent the Indians from making their escape ; accord
ingly General Whiteside ordered a forced march that
evening. The country we had to pass through was an
almost continual swamp, no alternative being left for
us, we put our horses to it, sometimes wading ourselves
up to our waist, and not unfrequently getting mired ;
but by great exertions and perseverance, we succeeded
in getting through without losing any men in the
swamps. We this day marched until dark a num
ber of the men did not get up until late in the night,
and some of the baggage waggons not until next morn
ing. This day (May I2th) we got to Dixon's ferry, 28
on Rock river, where the great road 27 crosses going to
the Lead Mines.
Meet Maj. Stillman with a battalion from the northern counties
Major Stillman takes his battalion, goes up Rock river, in
order to ascertain the movements of the enemy Falls in
with them has a battle, and is defeated Retreats back
to General Whiteside Colonel Ewing, Robert Elackwell,
Esq. and the Author sent as expresses for more troops Gen
eral Wlafatndt marches his Brigade to the battle ground
They bury the dead Return back to Dixon's Meet
General Atkinson there with provision, five hundred regulars
and two hundred foot militia They take up the line of
march after the enemy March to Fox river The In
dians kill three families before they get there They bury the
persons killed Army become dissatisfied, and are discharged
Three hundred volunteer to guard the frontier until the
new levy of troops arrive.
ON our arrival here (Dixon's Ferry) we found
Major Stillman with a battalion of two hundred
and seventy-five men awaiting our arrival : they
had been there two days with a sufficient supply of
ammunition and provisions ; our provisions at this time
being nearly exhausted.
Major Stillman considered that he had a kind of
independent corps, and did not wish to be attached to
General Whiteside's Brigade. He, the Major, on the
next morning made a request of the Governor, that he
might be permitted to take his corps, go out as a scout
ing party, and see if possible whether any discoveries
could be made as to the situation of the enemy.
Accordingly, on the I2th day of May, Major Still
man and Major Bailey 28 received orders from the
46 HISTORY OF THE
Commander in Chief, to march with their respective
battalions to the neighborhood of Old Man's Creek, 29
to ascertain, if possible, the movements of the enemy.
On the morning of the ijth, Major Stillman's bat
talion took up their line of march. Major Bailey fol
lowed in a short time after ; and after having marched
eight or ten miles, both battalions encamped. The
day had been rainy, and other circumstances beyond
the control of officers or men, had a tendency to retard
The battalions had no connection with each other
whatever, previous to their meeting on their march to
Dixon's, on Rock river. There they received orders
to march, before they were organized into a regiment
each battalion being independent of the other
commanded by its own officers and three of those
claiming the command of both and perhaps with
In the result, however, the command for that expe
dition was conferred on Major Stillman, the choice of
officers to be referred to the men on their return.
On the morning of the I4th, under the temporary
organization of the corps, the march was continued in
the line, secured by strong advance and flank guards.
On this day's march several fresh trails were discovered
during the forenoon ; and at 12 o'clock the command
ing officer, was informed, that several Indian dogs had
been seen by one of the flank guards, and shortly after
wards two Indians were seen.
With some difficulty occasioned by the almost
impassable mires of the creeks which the corps had to
cross, the march was continued until nearly sunset,
when Col. Strode 30 of the advanced guard, who had
volunteered his services on this occasion, returned to
the battalion with information of a suitable place for
encampment, and conducted the corps to the point.
LATE INDIAN WAR 47
A large fresh trail was discovered, which directed its
course to a point of timber, a short distance to the left
of the encampment. Shortly after the battalion halted,
and while busily engaged in preparing supper, several
horsemen were discovered on a hill about half a mile
in front. They were at first sight taken for a part of
the enemy's advance guard. Some of the men mounted
their horses, and rode toward them. They were dis
covered to be Indians, and two of them came to the
camp, professing to be Pottawattomies and friends,
but on the approach of our advance the Indians gave
a whoop, unfurled a red flag and fell back at full speed.
Our horsemen followed, and after a chase of four
miles and a half, overtook them in a low marshy piece
of ground, where a sharp firing took place. Three
Indians were left dead, and several were dismounted;
one of our men was wounded in a personal combat,
and two were dismounted and lost their horses.
The Indians were driven into their encampment,
where they rallied to the number of six or eight hun
dred, and cautiously awaited the approach of our main
body. Our advance fell back, and joined the battal
ion -on the margin of the low ground, where the firing
An Indian approached and proposed a " talk" to an
officer who was in advance. Major Stillman, with the
field and staff" officers together with Capt. Eads, 31 as an
interpreter, went forward while the troops were advanc
ing by heads of companies through the marsh. Capt.
Eads, who had been in front, suddenly wheeled and
exclaimed that the line of Indians extended for more
than a mile.
Major Stillman now discovered that the proposed
"talk" was an expedient to obtain time, the more com
pletely to execute their plan ; for the enemy were now
seen flanking him right and left in great numbers.
48 HISTORY OF THE
He immediately gave orders to countermarch and form
on the high ground. But instead of countermarching,
the men wheeled about in their places, which threw the
officers all in the rear, and fell back. The foremost of
them on reaching the hard ground first, were able to
proceed with much greater rapidity than those who
were yet in the swamp, and by the time the officers
reached the solid ground the front was out of hearing.
The order to halt and form was only heard by a part
of each company, who immediately formed. But the
enemy knew all the passes, and had already opened a
heavy fire on both flanks, which was returned with
spirit by those who had formed.
It was now found necessary to retire to prevent the
enemy from entirely surrounding our men, which had
now become practicable. The retreat was then kept
up with occasional halting and firing, until our men
reached the camp. There an attempt was made to
maintain our ground. Capt. Barnes 32 had nearly suc
ceeded in forming his company, when orders were given
to cross the creek in rear of the camp. This order
was effected by sixty or seventy men, but not before
the enemy had got possession of the camp. The enemy
then set up a tremendous yell, which was returned by
a volley of musquetry from those who had formed in
the rear of the camp, this silenced the war-whoop in
that quarter, but in a moment more two large parties
of the enemy, who had crossed the creek above and
below, attacked both flanks and the rear. The line
was broken, and each man took his own course. One
party broke off to the right where fell some of those
who had formed at the creek. Another party took off
to the left, where others fell, the flanking parties of the
enemy pursuing them. Those of the men who took
the middle course, escaped with the loss of two killed,
and one wounded.
LATE INDIAN WAR 49
The enemy kept up the pursuit for twelve or four
teen miles. The men arrived at Dixon's ferry in
detached squads, from one o'clock A. M. until the
roll call at sunrise, when it was found that fifty-two
were missing : these continued to arrive for the two
succeeding days, until the number missing was reduced
to eleven, which were afterward found most shockingly
Capt. Adams evinced the most undaunted bravery ;
he vehemently urged the men to maintain the ground.
But the line was broken and he himself was slain.
Several personal rencounters took place. In one
of them Joseph Farris and his brother David, were
attacked and surrounded. David was mounted, and
Joseph whose horse failed or was killed, urged him to
save himself; but this he refused, until he saw him fall,
fighting, and himself struck from his horse by a blow
from the breech of a gun. He returned the blow
which stiffened the savage on the ground, and then
broke for a point of timber; he was nearly overtaken,
when he called for assistance from the timber, which
led the pursuers to fear that a force was then awaiting
their approach. It was this presence of mind which
saved his life; for the enemy immediately wheeled and
Mr. Samuel Hackelton had pursued an uniformed
Indian, until he had outstripped his comrades, and had
discharged his gun with effect, upon one who was dis
mounted immediately before him. When in the act
of reloading, he saw a horseman pass, by the name of
Maxfield, who discharged his piece, tumbled an Indian
from his pony, and kept on without reloading. He
entered the marsh where it was with difficulty that
his horse could proceed an Indian charged upon
him. Hackelton seeing this, flew to his relief, and
by a blow from his gun parried the spear, just as it
50 HISTORY OF THE
was on the point of entering his (Maxfield's) back.
The red warrior wheeled to plunge the spear into the
breast of Hackelton, which he avoided by springing
from his horse, who passed from between him and his
antagonist, when he again met the spear by darting at
his enemy, which caused it to pass between his left
arm and side, wounding his hand as he attempted to
parry the blow. He then seized the spear, both held,
eyeing each other for a moment, when the Indian being
in the act of seizing his tomahawk, Hackelton grasped
him by the throat and belt (the blanket being thrown
from the Indian's shoulder) and now a deadly struggle
ensued. The Indian was large and muscular, but
after a severe struggle, fell before his more active foe,
and broke his hold to regain his feet. Hackelton im
proved the movement to draw his steel, which he
plunged into the breast of the savage, and again
they fell locked in deadly embrace. Maxfield, whose
horse had taken fright at the yell of the Indian, ran
for a considerable distance, nearly throwing his rider,
readily returned to repay that service which had so
generously and timely been rendered him, and with
his bayonet pinned the bleeding savage to the ground.
Hackelton having lost his horse, it was with much
difficulty that he halted a horseman to take him from
the ground; indeed he rode with him but a few rods,
whilst in leaping a pool or branch, the horse fell, and
Hackelton, who was wounded in both hands, was
thrown into the water; and there the horseman left
him to shift for himself. He effected his escape by
running two or three miles, when he was relieved by
Doctor Donaldson, who generously lent him his horse,
whilst he went on foot, for the distance of two miles
further, where Hackelton succeeded in getting a pony,
on which he arrived in camp without further injury.
Major Stillman was unfortunate in this action; he
LATE INDIAN WAR 51
lost some of his most choice men. Captain Adams,
who commanded a company from Tazewell county;
Major Isaac Perkins; 83 John Walters; Cyrus Childs; 34
Joseph Farris; Bird Ellis and James Doty, were
among the slain in this battle. There were four
others, but I have not got in possession of their
names. They were all respectable men.
When this squadron of men got into camp, or part
of them, for they came in by twos, threes and fours,
and so on, all night, each company thought the rest
were all killed, and reported it as being the case.
We were all immediately to our arms, not knowing
but that Black Hawk and all his band were in close
Things were represented in their worst colors.
Some of the men seemed to think that there were at
least two thousand Indians. Others thought there
were not more than one thousand, and none would
fall below five hundred; but scarcely any two of them
could agree upon any one statement. 85
It was a complete rout, and of course each one had
to shift for himself; and it was natural for them to
have different views when they were in such frightful
condition. Next morning, at roll call, there were fifty-
two men missing. It was then thought there was no
doubt but they had all been slain in the action; but
to the great joy of the friends of the missing, they all
got in, in the course of three days, to some settlement
or other, except the eleven already mentioned. It
appears that they were so much alarmed, that they
took different directions, and some went a contrary
direction from the army. A number of them, it is
said, came very near starving with hunger before they
got to any settlement.
Gen. Whiteside, when the news of the defeat
reached camp, made preparations to march with the
52 HISTORY OF THE
main army as soon as it was light; accordingly there
were two men sent from each company to bring in our
horses. The Governor immediately went to making
out despatches for more troops, so soon as it was light.
Gen. Whiteside had a few beeves killed to take along,
with some other meat; but bread was out of the ques
tion, as we had then been without this necessary article
for two days. 36
About seven o'clock on the I5th of May, Gen.
Whiteside took up the line of march at the head of
about fourteen hundred effective men to the late battle
Here I have to leave the main army for a while.
Col. John Ewing, Robert Blackwell, Esq., and my
self, were sent as express bearers for more troops, and
the Rev. Mr. Horn, 37 (who was Chaplain to the army,)
to St. Louis for a supply of provisions. Col. Ewing
was sent to the counties bordering on the Ohio river;
Esq. Blackwell to the counties on the Wabash, on the
east side of the State; and the writer to the southern
counties bordering on the Kaskaskia river.
The Governor made a call for two thousand more
troops, besides those already in the field. His order
was for them to rendezvous at Beardstown and Hen-
nepin, both on the Illinois river those at Beardstown
to meet on the jd of June, and those at Hennepin on
the loth. The volunteers from the counties I went
to, were to meet at Beardstown; and those from the
counties to which Messrs. Ewing and Blackwell went,
at Hennepin. We started on the ifth of May, and
rode with all the celerity we possibly could. When
our horses gave out we pressed others. I arrived at
Kaskaskia on the 22d, a distance of about three hun
dred and forty miles, in seven days. We well knew
the danger our frontier settlements were in. Many of
our fellow citizens had been slain in battle, who were
LATE INDIAN WAR 53
in the field for the defence of our country; and our
unsuspecting frontier was then exposed to the ruthless
tomahawk and scalping knife of those demons in hu
man shape. We knew their mode of warfare was to
steal upon the fearful settler, in the shades and stillness
of night, and there imbrue their hands in human blood,
paying no attention to age or sex. So no obstacle
stopped us on our way.
I must here relate a small anecdote, which occurred
between a good old woman and myself. On the night
of the 3 ist of May I staid at Covington. I think I
never heard such a night's rain in all my life. The
next morning, Esq. Bradsby, the gentleman with whom
I staid all night, informed me that I would have
several creeks to swim on the way from thence to Kas-
kaskia, and it still continued raining. I replied that
I would try it at all events. I had not travelled more
than four miles before I found his words verified; but
to my great satisfaction, I found that the horse I rode
was an excellent swimmer so I stopped for none of
the creeks. The weather being very cold for the time
of year, I called at a house to empty the water out of
my shoes, and to wring my socks. An elderly looking
lady, seeing me wet all over, and hearing me say I had
swam all the creeks between that place and Covington,
and that I had come from there that morning, looked
on me (as I thought,) with an eye of suspicion, and
immediately began to make some inquiries about my
embassy, that I should not have relished quite so well
had they come from any other source, than a good old
simple woman. I soon found that she was not to be
put off", but must have the whole history of my busi
ness, and what it was that made me swim the creeks.
So that while I was trying to get some of the water
out of my socks, I informed her that I was the bearer
of an express for more men to go against the Indians;
54 HISTORY OF THE
this roused the good old dame's curiosity to the high
est pitch. I then gave her the particulars in as brief
a manner as I could. When I was done, she asked,
if I did not get a great bounty for my services? "Yes,"
I replied, "I do." --She then wanted to know how
much? I replied "the honor of serving my country."
Says she "my friend, I think you are in poor business,
and if that is all you get I think you had best go back
home." But I did not take the old lady's advice. I
got to Kaskaskia that night. The people had got the
news by way of steamboat that was at St. Louis when
the Rev. Mr. Horn arrived their (there) after provi
Colonel Stephens, commandant in Randolph county,
despatched Mr. Briggs (who afterwards became Cap
tain Briggs) at 9 o'clock in the evening, with orders
for the men to meet on the 24th, and volunteer to the
number of one hundred from this county, and that it
they were not enough that would volunteer, he would
be obliged to cause a draft to be made. But it was
here as it was in every other part of the State, there
were plenty of men who saw that their country needed
their services; and they very willingly forsook their
homes, wives and children, and turned out to defend
the rights of their brethren and fellow citizens that
were threatened to be trampled on by the merciless
I here must return to General Whiteside and the
volunteers, that marched on the morning of the I5th
to the battle ground to bury the dead that had been
slain in battle; they got there that evening, found the
bodies of eleven of our citizens scalped and mangled in
the most barbarous manner the heads of some were
cut off, and others with their hearts cut out, legs and
arms generally cut off. General Whiteside had their
remains consigned to their mother earth in as decent
LATE INDIAN WAR 55
a manner as could be expected in a wilderness country.
The next day General Whiteside had to return with
the army back to Dixon's on Rock river, on account
of his scarcity of provisions, where General Atkinson
met them with a supply.
: On Saturday the I9th, the army, amounting to about
twenty-four hundred men, regulars and militia, started
up Rock river, in pursuit of the Indians. But owing
to a variety of causes, which I am not able to lay be
fore the public, the army became dissatisfied, and
wished to be discharged from the service, so nothing
was effected on this campaign. 38 The general cry with
the men was, that they wished to return home. This
was too at a time when their services were most needed,
for the war now had begun in all its horrid shape.
Immediately after Stillman's defeat, the Indians com
menced their well known practice of warfare. They
went about the 2Oth of May to the houses of Messrs.
Hall, Daviess and Pennigrew, 39 and there killed fifteen
men, women and children, and scalped them all. But
even this was not enough to satisfy those blood thirsty
demons ; they mutilated them in the most inhuman
and .indecent manner that ever was witnessed. It is
enough to make the blood chill in a person's veins, to
think how those merciless hell hounds served those
that were not in the slightest degree able to help them
selves. After every indecency that could be practised
on their persons, the women were hung up by their
feet. The helpless children literally chopped to pieces.
The houses were burned, the furniture all destroyed,
the stock killed, even the barn-yard fowls. The work
of destruction and devastation had now begun, the
blood of helpless women and children had been spilt.
Two young and beautiful women were taken pris
oners by these monsters in human shape for it appeared
that all the bodies of the missing were found, except
56 HI STORY OF THE
these two young women, who were the daughters of
the unfortunate family of Hall, who, with his wife and
children, had become an easy prey to these barbarians,
save two boys who were in the field at work.
Mr. Hall and Mr. Daviess both had large families.
Mr. Pennigrew, his companion, and children, shared
the same fate.
This threw the country into the most perfect state
of alarm and dismay. This horrid act was done on
Indian Creek, which empties into Fox river. The
families lived about fifteen miles north of Ottawa.
Gen. Whiteside and his brigade witnessed this horrid
sight soon after it was perpetrated, and helped to con
sign them to their mother earth, 40 which is the last
duty that we can pay to human beings in this world.
Still, his brigade cried out, " Our term of service is
nearly expired, and we wish to be discharged."
Accordingly, Gov. Reynolds, on the ayth and 28th,
discharged all the volunteers that were then in the
field, at Ottawa, within fifteen miles of the place where
the Indians had just slain fifteen of our citizens, and
treated them in the manner already described. This
was enough to rend the hearts of the neighborhood in
this part of the frontier; but the hearts of a few could
not think of leaving so many valuable citizens to per
ish by the scalping knife and tomahawk. They turned
out a second time to guard the frontier, until the new
levy of troops could arrive to their protection. I am
sorry that I could not with propriety give you the
names of all those who volunteered a second time ; but
it is due to those who did so, to say it was the love of
country alone that influenced them to do so.
Gen. Samuel Whiteside was one who saw that his
country still needed his services. He here was not
above shouldering his rifle, and stepping into the ranks
to defend this beautiful country, where there had just
LATE INDIAN WAR 57
perished some of its choice citizens by those merciless
savages. The brave and patriotic Henry [,] Fry, 41 Sny-
der, James of Bond county, and many others whom I
cannot mention, were influenced by the same feeling.
They at once saw that the devastating hand of the sav
age had begun the works of death and destruction in
this region of the country, and well knew that if those
frontiers were not guarded, its helpless citizens would
become an easy prey to those demons that know no
bounds to their cruelty. The smoke of the cabins of
those that were slain, was scarcely out of sight, and
to leave those that were still living to share the same
fate, was more than they could think of doing.
Accordingly, this little band of patriots was formed
into a regiment, under the command of our noble Fry,
who never has disgraced his country, nor himself as a
commander. Our much beloved James D. Henry was
elected Lieut. Colonel, and Mr. John Thomas, Major.
There were six companies composing this regiment.
The following named gentlemen were the officers and
staff. The Captains I will set down agreeably to their
A, W. Snyder; McFadden ; Smith; Benjamin
James; Elijah lies; and James Rolls, 42 were the six
Captains of this Regiment. The Lieutenants were as
follows: James [Jesse] M. Harrison, ist, and Henry
Roberts, 2d Lieutenant in Capt. Iles's company; Cal-
vert Roberts, ist Lieutenant in Capt. James's com
pany ; James Scott, G. F. [Radford M.] Wyatt, W.
Shirley, Jacob Waggoner, Oliver Bangs, and [W. F.]
Walker. I cannot place the last Lieutenants to their
Capt. Snyder has a battle with the enemy Arrives at Head
Quarters ^ and he and his company are discharged New levy
of troops rendezvous at Eeardstown and Hennepin Fort
Wilbourn (or Fort Horn) built // becomes Head Quarters
The Volunteers organized into three Brigades Attack
on Apple River Fort A party of Indians appear near
Fort Hamilton^ and kill two men Gen. Dodge pursues;
overtakes them; and kills the whole party Capt. Stephenson
falls in with another war party Has an engagement
Loses three men, and himself wounded Major Dement has a
battle with the enemy The three Brigades take different
directions Gen. Atkinson marches on Rock river with
Gen. Henry's brigade The three Brigades meet at lake
Kushkanongj likewise a squadron under Gen. Dodge from
Michigan Territory They continue for several days scour
ing the country in search of the enemy Move up to the
burnt village on White TVater Col. Dunn wounded by a
sentinel A regular shot by an Indian while fishing Gen.
Atkinson moves down to lake Kushkanong, and builds a Fort
The second and third Brigades and Col. Dodge's squad
ron proceed to Fort Winnebago for provision Gen. Posey
sent to Fort Hamilton Our horses take a fright at Fort
Winnebago, and run away.
THIS band of patriots continued here and guarded
the country, until the new levy of troops could
arrive and be organized. And many of them
still continued until the end of the last campaign.
It will be recollected that I stated in a preceding
page that A. W. Snyder was elected Captain of one of
the six companies, who volunteered a second time to
defend the northern frontier. Capt. Snyder was
LATE INDIAN WAR 59
constantly on the march with his men, between Galena,
and Fox and Rock rivers, guarding the frontiers from
being taken by surprise by the Indians, as it was well
known that they were prowling about through the
country, as they had done considerable mischief upon
the northern frontier, and particularly in the mining
country, and on the road leading from Fort Clark to
Capt. Snyder thought that it would be best to range
between Galena and Rock and Fox rivers; as those
settlements were so exposed as easily to become a prey
to their barbarity, should they be suffered to make an
attack upon them.
On the night of the iyth of June, 43 Captain Snyder
and his company were encamped about thirty-five miles
east of Galena, and not far distant from the Burr Oak
grove. On that night his sentinels were fired upon
by the Indians; but the cowardly wretches did not
stand to fight. They fired and retreated immediately.
Next morning Captain Snyder took his company and
went in pursuit of them with all possible speed. He
pursued them to their camp. But they first discovered
his approach, and took to flight, but he was not to be
dodged. It was now day, and he had the light of the
sun to see how to trail in pursuit of them. His men
were mounted on horseback; and the word was "not
to spare them." They were put to the whip and spur;
and in a very short time Captain Snyder overtook
them. But they sought refuge in a ditch, or hole in
the ground to fight from, in order to sell their lives as
dear as possible. As it appears there were but four
of them, they in all probability were out as spies
from the main body of Indians. After they took
shelter in this hole, or gully, there was but a very
slight prospect of killing, except by a charge upon
them; so Captain Snyder surrounded the hole and
60 HISTORY OF THE
ordered his men to charge upon them, which order
was promptly obeyed. The Indians fired upon them
as they charged, and wounded one man mortally.
Col. Semple was one of the number who charged
upon them in this dangerous place, and killed one
with his pistol. They killed them all in this place of
supposed security, except one, and him they killed
within a few steps of it, after he had got out. The
wounded man was by the name of Macomson. They
now had to make a litter to carry him on, as it was
impossible for him to ride; accordingly Capt. Snyder
had one made, and eight men detailed to carry it; that
being the only way they could take him along, for it
was perceived that he could survive but a short time.
Captain Snyder thought that it would be best to
take up the line of march toward the camp, where he
had been stationed occasionally, at Kellogg's grove, in
order that if Macomson died, he might have a chance
to pay the last duty that man can pay to his fellow
men upon earth; or if there was any prospect of his
recovery, that there might be no means left untried to
save his life: but this was not destined to be the
case. They proceeded on until the men became very
much fatigued, and thirsty for want of water; likewise
they thought he was dying: so they stopt to see what
would be his fate; also to search round, and if possible
get some water, as they were by this time very thirsty,
having been in the chase ever since it was clearly light.
In their eagerness to obtain this indispensable article
to sustain life, they scattered in different directions in
search of it; not dreaming or apprehending the slight
est danger of being taken by surprise. But in this
they were mistaken. They were fired upon by about
seventy or eighty Indians. Two gentlemen, one by
the name of Scott, the other McDaniel, 44 together
with their horses, were killed the first fire, and a
LATE INDIAN WAR 61
gentleman by the name of Cornelius badly wounded.
The men being surprised so suddenly, became very
much alarmed, and some of them commenced a retreat.
Captain Snyder perceiving it, ordered a halt and
endeavoured to form them for action. Some of them
so panic struck, were still for taking to flight. Capt.
Snyder then requested General Samuel Whiteside,
who was then in his company in the capacity of a pri
vate, to try and assist him, to bring the men to a stand.
Gen. Whiteside then cried aloud that he would shoot
the first man that attempted to retreat. They then
formed, and the battle became warm on both sides,
which lasted a considerable time, both the Indians and
our men taking the advantage of trees.
General Whiteside being an excellent marksman, took
a cool and deliberate aim at the Indian Commander,
who had been yelling and hallooing all the time of the
action. As soon as his gun fired, the Indian was heard
no more ; and his horse was immediately seen without
the rider. The Indians now began to retreat, which
told us plainly that General Whiteside had killed their
commander. The panic had still fast hold of a part of
our company. They refused to pursue them further.
Captain Snyder, General Whiteside and Colonel Sem-
ple, with some others endeavored to persuade the men
to pursue them, but it was impossible to get a part of
them to consent ; they peremptorily refused. When
Captain Snyder perceived that it was impossible to
effect anything with a part of his small band ; he
ordered a march back to their camp. They did not
march far before they met Major Riley, with a detach
ment of regulars.
After a consultation between Riley and Snyder, they
came to the conclusion that it was then too late to follow
the Indians that night. They all then returned to their
encampment and abandoned the idea of further pursuit.
62 HISTORY OF THE
They did not know but that Black Hawk and his
whole army were close by, and if so small a band would
fall in with them, they might fall an easy prey to their
vengeance, for at that time it would have been almost
impossible to have made good their retreat, for they
had then been about sixty days almost constantly on
the march, and their horses a greater part of them
without corn, or any food except grass. This was a
Captain Snyder immediately marched his men to
head quarters, which was Fort Wilbourn, where the
new levy of troops had all assembled, and had been
organized into three Brigades; under officers hereafter
to be mentioned.
Captain Snyder made a report of his battle to Gen
eral Atkinson, and having been much worn out by
fatigue, and this his second term of service having
expired, he and his company were discharged, and they
all retired once more to their respective homes to
embrace their wives and children, and enjoy the happi
ness of sitting by their own firesides, without the fear
of being disturbed by the shrieks and yell of the sav
age; and those who had fought, no doubt, felt happy
that they had borne a part of the hardships of war, in
defence of their country's rights. But men who will
not fight in such a cause, hardly can be said to have
good and noble feelings. All honorable men are gen
erally brave, but a dishonorable man has nothing to
stimulate him to be brave.
I am in possession of the names of some of those
who did not do their duty in this battle, but I will
forbear mentioning any of their names ; for it may be
that they may have respectable fathers and mothers, or
wives and children, that might be seriously injured by
the exposure. So I will forbear saying anything that
would tend to injure the feelings of an honorable and
LATE INDIAN WAR 63
dutiful son, or cause a pang to reach the heart of an
affectionate wife, father or mother. But it never is
wrong, or does any harm to eulogize those who act
honorably and brave. There were some such spirits,
by all accounts, who acted that part in this little band,
that were engaged in the battle, of which I have just
been informing the reader about. Amongst them were
General Samuel Whiteside, Colonel Semple and Cap
tain Snyder himself. It is stated by all that they acted
with bravery and fearlessness ; and some others that I
am not able to name at this time.
The number of Indians that were killed in this
engagement could not be ascertained. As their num
ber was so far superior to that of the company of Cap
tain Snyder, it was thought expedient to desist, and
not stay to hunt them up. But from every account
we could get, there were a number, besides their com
mander that I have already mentioned. The men on
our part that were killed, were choice citizens, and all
had families, but one. The man who was wounded in
the first skirmish had to share the same fate of the
rest who were killed. It was out of the power of men
or officers to save him from becoming a prey to their
I shall have to dismiss this campaign for the pres
ent, and take up the second levy of troops.
Those counties, that I as an express bearer was sent
to, to raise more troops, were ordered to have them
ready for marching in due time so as to be at Beards-
town, the place of rendezvous, on the third day of
June. Accordingly in compliance with said order, the
following companies rendezvoused at that place, viz :
From Clinton county, a company of the number of
sixty-eight, commanded by Captain A. Bankson ;
from Washington county, a company containing fifty-
three, commanded by Captain Burnes ; from
64 HISTORY OF THE
Randolph, two companies, containing each fifty men,
commanded by Captains Feaman and Briggs. The
companies after their arrival, organized themselves into
a squadron, and for their officers elected Theophilus W.
Smith, of the county of Madison, their Lieutenant
Colonel; and Sidney Breese, of the county of Ran
dolph, Major. 45
On the fifth day of June, the commandant (Col.
Smith,) appointed the following persons to form his
staff, viz: John Omelvany, Adjutant; Benjamin Bond,
Paymaster; William H. Terrell, Surgeon; J. B.
Logan, 48 Surgeon's mate; C. V. Halstead, Quarter
Master; John Hawthorn, Hospital Steward.
Colonel Smith after procuring provision, and
waggons to transport them, took up a line of march
(6th May,) for General Atkinson's head quarters at
Fort Wilbourn a small fort erected by Rev. Mr.
Horn, 47 as a place to secure provision he had procured
at St. Louis ; at which place the troops from the
different parts of the State assembled, also some from
the State of Indiana. Although General Atkinson
could not receive them on account of there having been
a sufficient number from our own State, and the scarcity
of provision. Yet she certainly deserves great applause
for her patriotism in sending to our assistance.
Here all the volunteers were organized into three
Brigades, which being the I5th May. Doctor Alex
ander Posey was elected Brigadier General, of the first
Brigade ; Willis Hargrave, Colonel, of the first
regiment ; William J. Gatewood, Lieutenant Colonel ;
and James Hampton, [Huston] Major; all from the
county of Gallatin : Colonel John Ewing, from Frank
lin county, was elected Colonel, of the second regiment;
Storm, Lieut. Colonel; and Johnson Wren, Major;
the third regiment under the command of Colonel
Samuel Leach; Lieutenant, Col. Campbell; and Major
LATE INDIAN WAR 65
[Joseph] Shelton. John Dement 48 of Vandalia was
elected to the command of the spy battalion.
General Posey appointed Major Alexander P. Hall
and B. A. Clark as his Aids-de-camp, and Major
[John] Raum, Brigade Inspector.
The second Brigade from the eastern side of the State
commanded by Brigadier General M. K. Alexander;
Major Wm. B. Archer, was appointed by the General
his Aid-de-camp; and Major Sheledy, Brigade
Inspector. It also consisted of three regiments, and a
battalion of spies. The first regiment under the com
mand of Colonel J. M. Blackburn ; Lieutenant Colonel,
Wm. Wyatt; and Major Jas. S. Jones. The second
under the command of Colonel Samuel Adams ; Lieu
tenant Colonel J. W. Barlow; and Major George
Bowers. The third under the command of Colonel
Moses [Hosea] Pierce; Lieutenant Colonel C. Jones;
Major William Eubanks. The battalion of spies under
the command of Major William McHenry.
The third Brigade from the western side of the State
commanded by Brigadier General James D. Henry ;
who appointed Major Alexander P. Field, his Aid-de
camp ; Major Murray McConnel, Brigade Inspector.
This brigade had four regiments and a spy battalion.
The first regiment under command of Col. S. T.
Mathews ; Lieutenant Colonel James Gillham ; and
Major James Evans. The second, commanded by
Colonel Jacob Fry; Lieutenant Colonel J. Smith; and
Major Benjamin James. The third under command
of Colonel Gabriel Jones; Lieutenant Colonel The-
ophilus W. Smith ; 49 and Major Sidney Breese. The
fourth under command of Colonel James Collins;
Lieutenant Colonel P. H. Sharp ; and Major William
Miller. The battalion of spies under the command of
Major W. L. D. Ewing.
The aggregate strength of the three Brigades being
66 HISTORY OF THE
about three thousand two hundred, besides three
companies of Rangers 50 that were left to protect the
settlements west of the Illinois river, and the public
stores at such points as it was necessary to leave
provisions. This force, with the volunteers from the
mining country, together with the regulars, made about
four thousand effective men.
About this time the Indians attacked a fort in the
mining country, known by the name of Apple River
Fort. 51 In this attack the citizens suffered great loss by
the Indians killing their stock and destroying property;
which the following letter from Captain Flack will
more fully show, as he was in the fort during the
engagement. It is in the following words, to wit :
"Mr. John A. Wakefield:
" SIR : In reply to your request, I proceed to give an
account of the attack of the Indians on Apple River Fort.
Apple River Fort is situated about fourteen miles east of
Galena. It was on the 24th of June, when harmony and
peace appeared to reign through the fort, the day before a
waggon had been despatched to Galena for the purpose of
bringing a supply of lead and meat, which had run short in the
afternoon on Sunday, the waggon arrived with a supply of
meat and lead. About the time the team was removed from
the waggon, the ladies of the fort had assembled to go to the
river to hunt goose-berries; after starting they discovered coming
from towards Galena three men, and being anxious to hear the
news from there, they concluded to wait, expecting to hear
something about the Indians. When they arrived they proved
to be men on an express from Galena going to Dixon's ferry
on Rock river ; one of the men was a Mr. F. Dixon, the
other two I have no recollection of their names. They were
all intoxicated ; after coming up they recollected that their
guns were empty; one of the men dismounted and charged his
piece, the other two would not ; the man, after loading his gun,
mounted his horse and they all rode off in full speed, whooping
and hallooing towards Dixon's ferry. When they had got to
LATE INDIAN WAR 67
the distance of about three hundred yards, the one that carried
the loaded gun was some fifty or sixty yards ahead of the other
two, when a large number of Indians, being in ambush; arose
and fired upon him; when he fell from his horse, shot through
the thigh; his horse fled and left him; he arose and fired at
the Indians at about the distance of fifteen steps, but his fire
took no effect as was ever ascertained. The Indians made
towards him with their hatchets, when the other two coming
up to his relief with their empty guns, they presented their
guns, which caused the Indians to halt till the wounded man
had got between them and the fort, they kept giving back with
their guns presented till the wounded man gained the fort.
The firing of the guns gave the alarm just in time for the
people to make their retreat to the fort.
"Apple River Fort had once been an extensive smelting
establishment, and had become a considerable village, the
fort being small, families lived in these houses in day time,
and every one had his own to himself, but at night all repaired
to the fort for safety.
u The Indians pursued these men within firing distance of
the fort, all on horseback, they rode up, dismounted and
hitched their horses, and 1 think in about three minutes the
fort was surrounded by about one hundred and fifty Indians,
with all the savage ferocity and awful appearance, that those
monsters could possibly appear in. The inhabitants had all
reached the fort in time to defend themselves, which appeared
to have been a providential thing, for if it had not been for
the firing of the Indians on the express bearers, the fort would
have certainly been taken, as the people would have been
taken upon a surprise when they were not apprehending the
least kind of danger from those savage barbarians.
" There was a very heavy fire kept up for the space of one
hour on both sides. Early in the engagement a Mr. George
Herclurode was shot in the neck, and never spoke afterwards,
he being at a port hole trying to defend himself and the help
less inmates of the fort; a Mr. James Nuting was also shot
at the same time in the head, but not mortally. There
appeared to be no dismay in the fort.
" Such bravery and heroism amongst women has scarcely
68 HISTORY OF THE
ever been surpassed in any country. Women and children
were all actively engaged in the defence of the fort. Girls
eight years old were busily engaged in running balls and mak
ing cartridges, and women loading guns.
" The Indians got into those houses before spoken of, and
knocked out the chinking and kept up their fire until they got
discouraged. They then commenced plundering the houses,
chopt, split and tore up a quantity of fine furniture. There
was scarcely a man or woman that was left with a second suit
of clothing. They went into my father's house; there was a
large bureau full of fine clothes, they took six fine cloth coats
and a number of fine ruffle shirts, with their tomahawks they
split the drawers and took the contents. They ripped open
the bedticks, emptied the feathers, took all the bedclothing,
and broke all the delf in the cupboards. Some of the out
houses were kept for the purpose of storing away provisions;
they got into those houses where a number of flour barrels
were stowed away; they would lie down on their faces and
roll a barrel after them until they would get into a ravine,
where they were out of danger; they then would empty the
barrels of flour, after they had destroyed this necessary article,
and when they found they could not succeed in taking the
fort as they expected, they then commenced the warfare upon
the stock; they killed all the cattle that were near the fort
and took a number of fine horses to the number of about
twenty, which were never got again by the owners. The
horse that lost his rider in the first onset ran to the fort,
which the Indians did not get.
" Mr. Dixon on his retreat never stopt at the fort, think
ing from the large number of Indians the fort would be taken,
he made for Galena, and not being acquainted with the
country he missed his road, and went to the house of Mr.
John McDonald, who had a very large farm, of which Apple
river formed a part of the fence. When he got to the house
he found a large number of Indians at that place, and in a few
minutes found himself completely surrounded; he lit from his
horse, let down a pair of draw-bars, and made his escape
across the river to Galena. At the time the Indians com
menced the fire upon the express bearers, the people of the
LATE INDIAN WAR 69
fort started an express to Galena for assistance, which never
came until about eleven o'clock the next day. Colonel
Strode who had the command at Galena, marched to their
assistance with about one hundred men. But this little band
of men, women and children, had bravely stood their ground
and kept the field, in spite of the Black Hawk and his fero
cious savage brothers, with all their frightful yells and war-
"But it was not without some suffering that this small
handful did it. There was no water in the fort, and being
taken upon a surprise, the people had not time to lay any in
after the attack was first made upon the express bearers, and
the weather being very warm, the men and women became
so fatigued and exhausted in time of the engagement that
they were compelled to drink dish water, to quench their
" This fort was commanded by Captain Stone, and there
were twenty-five men besides women and children. This small
force stood their ground before the great and mighty chief
called Black Hawk, and upwards of one hundred and fifty of
those hideous monsters, that take so much delight in their
savage warfare; as it was afterwards ascertained that Black
Hawk commanded in person at this engagement.
" It was supposed that the Indians lost several of their
number in this skirmish, as they were seen putting several
Indians on their horses and packing them off during the
engagement, and after it was over there was a quantity of
blood discovered on the ground.
" The Indians in killing the cattle would skin and take out
of a beef such pieces as they seemed to like best, leaving the
balance on the ground.
"Apple River Fort is about sixteen miles from Kellogg's
Grove, and it is believed by all that this was the war party
of Indians that attacked Major Dement's spy batallion on the
next day at this grove.
" Sir, this is an outline of the transactions of this skirmish,
and agreeably to my memory is a correct one, &c.
"Yours respectfully, with sentiments of the highest esteem.
yo HISTORY OF THE
In and about this time, perhaps a day or two before,
another scouting party of Indians came within a
quarter of a mile of Fort Hamilton, on the waters of
the Pickatoleca. 52 Three men had just left the fort,
and gone to the farm of a Mr. Spafford. They made
an attack on them and killed two, 53 the third fled, an
Indian seeing he had got away without falling as the
other two, pursued him in order to despatch him like
wise, but in this the savage had made a bad calculation,
the white man was not hurt, and in place of the Indian
killing him he killed the Indian, and made shift to
hide from the vigilant eye of the rest ; after staying in
his place of concealment for some time he ventured to
sally forth to go to the fort, but about that time
Colonel William S. Hamilton 54 arrived at the fort with
a large number of Menominie Indians who had volun
teered to go against the Sac and Fox nations, in order
to assist in subduing the common enemy of both them
and the whites. The frightened man who had run so
narrow a risk of being killed by them in the attack
they had made upon him and his companions, seeing
those friendly and harmless Menominies pouring into
the fort, retreated back to his place of concealment
where it is said he kept himself secreted for six or
eight days, living upon nothing but the vegetation that
grew out of the earth. But at last he was obliged to
yield to the pangs of hunger and venture forth and
risk all consequences, for he found it was as well to die
by the sword as famine, when to his great joy he found
One of the men killed in the attack was by the name of
Appleton, 55 but the other I do not recollect, neither do I
know the name of the brave fellow that made his escape
and so manfully gave the Indian that pursued him a qui
etus. Which in the sequel the reader will find the others
of this party all shared the same fate on that day.
LATE INDIAN WAR 71
Those cowardly wretches as soon as they had killed
the two men, took to flight which is their general prac
tice, especially scouting parties. But General Dodge,
who happened to arrive at the fort soon after those
daring wretches had committed this depredation, with
about twenty men, pursued with all possible speed,
and in about six or eight miles overtook them. When
they saw they were pursued they made for the Picke-
toleca, and got under the bank of the creek. General
Dodge stopped not for the advantage they had got of
him, by being under the bank, but rushed up within a
few feet of them and killed the whole band of them,
consisting of eleven in number as was supposed at that
time, report says since that the Indians give an account
of two of them getting away.
General Dodge in this skirmish had four men
wounded, three of which proved mortal, Samuel Black,
was one; he lived ten days; Samuel Wells, was another
who lived twenty-two days; and Montaville 58 Morris
who lived twenty-four days. Thomas Jenkins was
shot through the hip, but not mortal.
It appears that there was about this time a number
of those scouting parties prowling about the mines in
order to take scalps, and steal horses.
Captain James W. Stephenson about this time, per
haps the same day, fell in with another party of those
miserable beings, between Apple River Fort and Kel-
logg's Grove; when they discovered him and his men
they took to flight. And the Captain and men gave
them chase, he pursued them something like five miles
before he was able to overtake them. They succeeded
in reaching a large thicket, here they had every advan
tage of him, they lay concealed in the bushes and were
completely hid from him, he had no other way to get
at them than to charge upon them in their hiding
place; which he did, and opened a brisk fire upon them,
72 HISTORY OF THE
in a very few feet of where they were laying. But the
enemy having all advantage of him, he was compelled
to fall back with the loss of some of his men, but the
Captain and men not willing to give up the contest,
charged a second and third time upon them. On the
third charge the Captain received a wound in his
breast, which was thought to have been mortal at that
time, also three of his men were killed dead on the
ground. One by the name of Howard, one by the
name of Ames, and a Mr. Fowler. 57 The men now
seeing that the Indians had every advantage of them,
thought it was best not to put the lives of good men
in stake against the lives of those filthy savages.
It could not be ascertained in this skirmish how
much execution was done to the Indians, as the men
had to retreat and give the field to the enemy. As
Captain Stephenson had but a small detachment of his
company, and three of them lay dead on the ground,
and himself wounded.
I will now return to the army at Fort Wilbourn.
The first Brigade, marched on the twentieth day of
June. The second on the twenty-first. And the third
on the twenty-second. 58 All ordered to concentrate at
Major Dement who commanded the spy battalion
of the first Brigade was ordered on ahead, in order if
possible to overtake a band of Sacs who had been
doing mischief at Bureau river. He proceeded on
with his battalion in front of the Brigade, until he came
to a grove that is generally known by the name of
On the 25th day of June, about two hours before
day, an express arrived from Gratiot's Grove informing
Major Dement that traces of Indians had been seen
the day previous leading .southwestward, supposed to
have been about five hundred in number. The
LATE INDIAN WAR 73
express was continued to General Posey at Dixon's ferry,
thirty-seven miles distant from Kellogg's Grove.
At daylight Major Dement, with twenty-five men,
made preparations for leaving the fort on an excursion
towards where the Indians had passed, about five miles
from the fort, but previous to his leaving gave orders
to those who remained to saddle their horses and hold
themselves in readiness to act as circumstances might
During this time the party who were to accompany
Major Dement 59 to examine the Indian trail had ad
vanced about three hundred yards from the main body
when they discovered seven Indian spies, and imme
diately pursued them some of them however returned
to the camp and informed Major Dement of this cir
cumstance, who fearing that they might be led into an
ambuscade, (first endeavoring to quell excitement
which the appearance of Indians had occasioned at the
fort, and requiring the prompt execution of his order,
to put themselves in readiness for any emergency)
started out in haste to prevent further pursuit of the
Indian spies; and advancing in the direction of the
Indians about one mile from the camp for that pur
pose, he succeeded in retaining twelve or fourteen
the remainder still further ahead.
Meantime Major Dement apprehensive that an attack
might be made by a large body of Indians whom he
suspected to be concealed in the grove, and observing
that a number of his men had followed him out from
the fort, determined on the expediency of forming his
men in the prairie, then about one mile from the fort,
in order to cover the retreat of those who had pursued
the Indian spies.
While Major Dement was taking the necessary steps
to put this determination into execution, the Indians
amounting to between two and three hundred, rushed
74 HISTORY OF THE
from the grove, raised a yell and commenced firing.
About twenty-five men who were within hearing,
formed in a body to resist the attack, and to cover the
retreat of the party who had pursued the Indian spies
to the grove, the remainder of those who came out from
the fort immediately returning. The small company
thus hastily formed, bravely stood their ground until
they were in danger of being surrounded by superior
numbers. Major Dement then ordered his men to
retire to the fort closely pursued by the Indians. On
their retreat they overtook three men on foot, who were
making towards the fort, but not being able to reach it
were cut off by the enemy.
The Indians kept up a brisk fire on the stockade for
nearly an hour; but finding themselves unable to stand
against the steady aim of the brave riflemen within, gave
up all hopes of carrying it, and withdrew to the woods.
About three hours after the Indians had left the
ground, General Posey arrived with a reinforcement,
with which he had started from the encampment
immediately after the arrival of the express from Major
The Indians remained in sight of the fort till within
an hour or two of General Posey's arrival.
Next day General Posey marched to the north, in the
direction in which the Indians had last been seen,
crossed their trail, returned to Kellogg's Grove, where
he encamped to await the arrival of the baggage
The loss of our troops were five killed, and three
wounded ; that of the enemy nine killed that were found
on the ground, and it is supposed five others fell in the
engagement, as that number of the enemy's horses
came into the camp without their riders.
There were some choice spirits in this action, or the
superior number of Indians would certainly have cut
LATE INDIAN WAR 75
off this small band of men, as the place of refuge they
were in was very little better than the open field.
In this small band of soldiers was our much beloved
and respected Lieutenant Governor Zadock Casey; he
was one of the number who formed to cover the retreat
of those that had advanced in pursuit of the enemy.
It is natural always for honorable men to be brave,
there is something in their breast [s] that always stimu
lates them to noble acts, and on our cool reflection
they would court death before dishonor.
This, in my opinion, is what stimulates men to act
bravely and patriotic. They are not only acting for the
good of their country but they believe it to be an
imperative duty for them to do so.
General Posey marched his whole Brigade from this
place to Fort Hamilton, where he remained for some
days. Here Major Dement resigned his command.
I must here dismiss General Posey for the present,
and return back to Dixon's, where the second and third
Brigades had arrived when the express came stating that
Major Dement had had a battle. General Alexander,
who commanded the second Brigade, was despatched
with his Brigade with all speed across Rock river, and
ordered to march his troops toward Plum river, a stream
running into the Mississippi, there to intercept the
Indians on their retreat, if they should attempt to cross
the Mississippi. General Atkinson remained at Dixon's
with the infantry, and General Henry with his Brigade
of volunteers for two days, in order if possible to
ascertain what direction the Indians were taking; where
he ascertained that the Indians had retreated back up
Rock river, and that it was only a war party of about
one hundred and fifty. He came to the conclusion to
pursue his intended route up Rock river on the east side
of the Four Lakes ; where it was stated that Black
Hawk had fortified himself with his whole army, and
76 HISTORY OF THE
intended to give General Atkinson a general fight.
On the evening of the 26th of June, Captain George
Walker and three Pottawattomies from Chicago, came
into the camp at Dixon's, and stated that there were
seventy-five Pottawattomies awaiting to join the whole
army at Sycamore creek, that they had been there
several days awaiting our arrival, and that they had
become suspicious that they were in great danger as it
was their opinion that the Sacs was [were] not far away.
Next morning General Henry sent on Colonel Fry with
his regiment, with orders to reach there as soon as pos
sible, and await our arrival. Colonel Fry always strictly
doing his duty, moved on with all possible celerity,
with Capt. Walker as his pilot, to where these children
of the forest were awaiting to join in the chase against
Black Hawk and his band, with Mr. Caldwell who acts
as their principal chief in council. They had also their
war chief Shabbaney[Sha-bo-na] along.
Mr. Caldwell has been an interpreter to the Indian
Agent for some years. He is a man of fine education
and general information. His father was a British
officer and his mother was a Pottawattomie squaw.
But for a half breed he is very fair skinned.
The whole of the third Brigade under command of
General Henry, with General Atkinson at our head,
took up the line of march from Dixon's on the 2yth of
June, directing our course up Rock river, towards the
Four Lakes. We lay on the night of the 28th, at
Major Stillman's battle ground. On the 29th, we
overtook Col. Fry, with the seventy-five Pottawatto
mie Indians with him.
The Indians appeared to be highly pleased to think
they were honored so far as to take a hand with us
against the Sacs. They were well armed, with both
guns and spears.
The 3Oth, we passed through the Turtle village,
LATE INDIAN WAR 77
which is a considerable Winnebago town, but it was
deserted. We marched on about one mile, and en
camped in the open prairie near enough to Rock river
to get water from it. We here saw very fresh signs
of the Sac Indians, where they had been apparently
fishing on that day. General Atkinson believed we
were close to them, and apprehended an attack that
night. The sentinels fired several times, and we were
as often paraded, and prepared to receive the enemy,
but they never came. But from what the sentinels
gave into the officers of the day, there was no doubt
that Indians had been prowling about the camp. July
first, we had not marched but two or three miles before
an Indian was seen across Rock river at some distance
off in a very high prairie, which no doubt was a spy,
and likely was one that had been prowling about our
encampment the night before. We proceeded a few
miles further and came to the place where the Indians
who had taken the two Miss Halls prisoners had
stayed several days. It was a strong position, where
they could have withstood a very powerful force, which
we afterwards discovered they always encamped in
such places. We had not marched but a few miles
from this place, before one of our front scouts came
back meeting the army in great haste, and stated that
they had discovered a fresh trail of Indians where they
had just gone along in front of us. Major Ewing,
who was in front of the main army some distance,
immediately formed his men in line of battle and
marched in that order in advance of the main army
about three quarters of a mile. We had a very thick
wood to march through, where the undergrowth stood
very high and thick ; the sign looked very fresh and
we expected every step to be fired upon from the
thickets. We marched in abreast in this order about
two miles, not stopping for the unevenness of the
78 HISTORY OF THE
ground or any thing else, but keeping in a line of
battle all the time, until we found the Indians had
scattered, then we resumed our common line of march,
which was in three divisions. Soon after we had
formed into three divisions, the friendly Indians that
were with us raised an alarm by seven or eight of them
shooting at a deer some little in advance of the army.
The whole army here formed for action ; but it was
soon ascertained that these children of the forest, had
been at what their whole race seems to have been born
for, tradesmen to shooting at the beasts of the forest.
We here camped by a small lake this night and had to
drink the water which was very bad, but it was all that
could be found. Here this night a very bad accident
happened. One of the sentinels mistaking another
that was on post with a blanket wrapped around him,
for an Indian, he shot him just below the groin in the
thick of the thigh. At first the wound was thought
mortal. I understood before I left the army, the man
was nearly well. Here General Atkinson had on this
night breast works thrown up which was easy done ; as
we were encamped in thick heavy timber; this was a
precaution which he was always after famous for, which
went to show that he set a great deal by the lives of
his men, and by no means was any marks of cow
ardice ; for generalship consists more in good man
agement than any thing else. July 2nd. We started
this morning at the usual time, but went but a few
miles, before Major Ewing, who was still in front with
his battalion, espied a very fresh trail, making off at
about a left angle. He dispatched ten men from the
battalion, in company with Captain George Walker,
and a few Indians, to pursue it and see if possible
where it went to. He moved on in front of his battalion
a small distance further, when he came on the main Sac
trail of Black Hawk's whole army; which appeared to
LATE INDIAN WAR 79
be about two days old. Captain Early, 80 who com
manded a volunteer independent company, and had
got in advance this morning, called a halt, so did Major
Ewing with his battalion. Then Major Ewing sent
back one of his staff officers for the main army to call
a halt a few minutes. He with Major Anderson of
the Infantry, Captain Early, and Jonathan H. Pugh,
Esquire, went a little in advance, where Major Ander
son, 81 with a telescope, took a view across the lake, as
we had now got to Lake Kushkanong. They then
discovered three Indians, apparently in their canoes.
Major Ewing went himself and informed General
Atkinson what discovery was made, and requested
General Atkinson to let him take his battalion round
through a narrow defile that was between two of those
lakes, where we supposed the Indians were. By this
time our scouts, who had taken the trail that led off
on our left, returned, bringing with them five white
men's scalps. They followed the Indian trail until it
took them to a large Indian encampment that they
had left a few days before. They reached it; the
scalps were sticking up against some of their wigwams;
some of them were identified, but I do not recollect
the names of any, except one, which was said to be an
old gentleman by the name of [William] Hale. Major
Ewing then marched his battalion about one mile, where
the pass on the side of the lake appeared so narrow, that
he dismounted his men, and had the horses all tied,
and a few men left to guard them, and the rest of us
marched on foot about one mile through a narrow
defile on the bank of Kushkanong lake. This was
considered a dangerous procedure, but Col. Ewing,
who was in front with Major Anderson, would have
been first in danger. We now found that we were
getting too far in advance of our horses; so Major
Ewing sent a part of the men back for them. When
8o HISTORY OF THE
we mounted our horses, we were joined by Captain
Early and his independent corps. We then marched
some distance around the lake, and went in between
two of them, in a narrow defile, until we found another
deserted encampment. We now saw clearly that the
Indians were gone from the Kushkanong lake. So
the next thing to be done was to find which direction
they had steered their course. July 4th. Major
Ewing and his spy battalion, with Colonel Collins and
Colonel Jones, were sent up the river in the way the
trail of the Indians seemed to be making, to see what
discoveries could be made. They at last saw that they
were still making up the river on the east side. We
returned to the camp late in the evening. On the
evening before, General Alexander had come up with
us. He stated that he had been to the Mississippi,
and had explored the country on Plum river, and had
made no discoveries of the Indians making their escape.
July 5th. General Atkinson lay by this day with the
main army; but Col. Fry, who was always a man that
wished to be actively engaged for the welfare of his
country, marched across Rock river on this day, to see
if there was any sign of the enemy passing up on the
west side. Colonel Fry did not return until late in
the evening. He reported, he had seen another Indian
trail on the opposite side from us, and that he had
followed it until it went into a tremendous thicket,
such as his horses could not penetrate. On the 4th
of July, some of our scouts had taken an old Sac In
dian a prisoner, which in their flight, the rest of the
Indians had run off and left. He was nearly starved
to death, and literally blind. After feeding him.
General Atkinson had him examined, telling him at
the same time that if he caught him in a lie he would
have him put to death. The old fellow told all he
knew, which was not very much. He stated that
LATE INDIAN WAR 81
Black Hawk had passed on up the river, on the east
side, the same that they were then on. He stated that
he was so old that they never thought it worth while
to tell him anything about their movements ; that in
marching, he frequently did not get up to their camp
till late in the night, and sometimes not until the next
morning. So our prisoner was not of much benefit
to us. He had but few days to live, and to shorten
his days we concluded the best plan would be to give
him plenty to eat, and leave him to kill himself in that
pleasant way. But we learnt afterwards that he was
denied this satisfaction, for some of General Posey's
men came upon him, and he soon became an easy prey
to their deadly rifles. July 6th. General Atkinson
on this day took up the line of march, still up Rock
river, on the east side. We this day reached a Winne-
bago village called the Burnt Village, on White Water,
a small stream running into Rock river, but one that
was almost impassable, as it was a perfect swamp on
each bank, and very deep in the middle of the channel.
Next morning, on the Jth of July, one of the regulars
went to this stream, which was not more than one
hundred and twenty yards from our encampment, to
fish. While fishing, three Indians fired on him from
the opposite side of the river and wounded him very
badly with two balls. This was a hard case, for the
enemy to come within one hundred and twenty yards
of our encampment, and wound one of our men, and
we not able to help ourselves, for this dismal stream.
The night we got here, (to White Water) General
Posey's brigade, in company with Col. Dodge's squad
ron, came up to us. They were out of provisions, and
in a state of suffering, and were compelled to push on
to where we were to get something to sustain nature.
Colonel John Ewing and his regiment did not reach us
that night, and encamped about one mile and a half off
82 HISTORY OF THE
from the main army. Here an awful accident happened.
Col. Dunn, who was a Captain of a company, was here
what is generally called the officer of the day, whose
duty it is to visit the sentinels once or more through
the course of the night. Captain Dunn in perform
ing this duty, just before day in the morning, was
fired upon by one of the sentinels, and severely
wounded; he was shot in the groin, a place that gener
ally proves fatal. When he was examined, his sur
geons pronounced it mortal, which threw all his friends
into mourning; for he was a man much beloved by all
that knew him. But here I must stop. It won't do
to write his epitaph yet, for he is still a living man,
and is young and in the bloom of life. He still may
be a useful member of society, and a friend and public
servant to his country, which he has already been for
several years, holding some of the most important
offices in the gift of the legislature, such as Canal
Commissioner, which he still holds, and many more.
So, if he had died, the State would have sustained a
great loss, in losing so good a citizen.
Soon after the Indians shot the regular, General
Atkinson took up the line of march, still up the river,
and made shift to cross one branch of this dismal
stream, White Water ; but it was with much difficulty,
as many a horse mired down, and threw his rider into
the water, where he and his gun were literally buried
in mud and water; but all made shift to get out.
Here we expected to have been fired upon by the
enemy. Major Ewing, still in advance of the main
army some distance, got over first. He then formed
his men in battle order, and stood as a front guard,
until the main army could cross this dismal stream ;
which they had to bridge with grass, as they after
wards had to do many more the same way. In this
swampy country the grass grows very high, the ground
LATE INDIAN WAR 83
being very rich. There were plenty of scythes, and
men to use them ; so it was an easy job to make a
temporary bridge with this substitute, such as the
heaviest kind of baggage waggons could pass with
safety. We marched on this day about fifteen miles up
the river. On this evening the whole forces got
together, and camped together for the first time. Our
forces looked like they were able to whip all the
Indians in the north western territories.
At this place the old blind chief, a Winnebago In
dian, came with General Dodge's corps. General
Atkinson on the next morning, July the 8th, had a
talk with him, in order if possible to find out where
Black Hawk was with his forces. The old blind or
one eyed chief, told him that the Indians that we were
in pursuit of, were still down on the Island opposite
the Burnt Village, where they shot the regular, and
stated that if we did not find them there he would give
General Atkinson leave to take his life. Upon this
General Atkinson made a retrograde movement, and
measured the ground and fathomed the muddy
branches of the celebrated White Water, that we crossed
the day before. We took up our abode that night on
the same ground that we left before at the Burnt
Village. Next morning, July the 9th, Colonel Fry
undertook to make a bridge across the almost impass
able gulf. He was furnished with a number of the
regulars, who were always ready for such undertak
ings. A strong guard was placed on the bank of the
stream on the opposite side, for fear of those suffering
who passed over on a raft. Captain Early, in the
course of the day, took a part of his men and pene
trated some distance into the Island. They brought
back word that they had seen a good deal of fresh
sign, and were of opinion that the Indians were there.
Colonel William S. Hamilton, who had a small band
84 HISTORY OF THE
of Menominie Indians under his command, took
them and went clear through the Island and hunted
it out thoroughly. They returned in the evening,
bringing the news that the Indians had left this Island.
General Atkinson was again deceived by those treach
erous Winnebagoes, but in place of putting the old
one eyed chief to death, he still consulted them [him].
They [He] next told him that Black Hawk was still
higher up the stream, on what was called the Tumbling
Land. 62 Colonel Fry's bridge, that he had spent the
best part of this day at with more than one hundred
hands, was now kicked over and abandoned.
We now found that there was no dependence to be
placed in those treacherous Winnebagoes. The men
now had been marching through swamps for a con
siderable length of time without success; and no exe
cution done, only what General Posey's men had done
by killing the old blind Indian. We now plainly saw
that Black Hawk knew we were in his neighborhood.
He knew all the passes between those swamps, and
could evade our pursuit for some time; which dis
couraged our men very much.
Here his Excellency Governor Reynolds and his
aids left us; likewise Colonel T. W. Smith, who had
been promoted to the office of Adjutant General,
which office was not then of much service to us.
Col. A. P. Field, General Henry's aid, and Major
Breese, also left us, (some on furlough and some
discharged,) and returned home: These men at this
time did not believe, that there would be any fighting,
or I think they would not have left the army.
We here were in another bad box. We were in a
manner out of provision; and the nearest point to us,
where we could get a supply was Fort Winnebago,
which was about eighty miles distant from us; and to
get it, we were compelled to go through the most
LATE INDIAN WAR 85
swampy country that an army ever was marched
through. July loth. General Atkinson this morning
sent Col. Ewing with his regiment down Rock river to
Dixon's with Colonel Dunn, who was supposed to be
General Posey with the rest of his brigade, was sent
to Fort Hamilton, as a guard to that frontier part of
the country, which was in a very exposed situation, on
account of General Dodge having the troops from
there with him.
General Henry and his brigade, Gen. Alexander's
brigade and General Dodge's squadron, were all this
day sent to Fort Winnebago after provision. Gen.
Atkinson dropped down a short distance from our
present encampment, near to the Kushkanong lake,
and there built a fort, which he called Fort Kushka
nong, after the lake. 63
General Atkinson gave Generals Alexander, Henry,
and Dodge, orders to return as soon as they drew
provision. Here, when we got to Fort Winnebago,
we were still surrounded by the Winnebagoes. A
half breed Indian by the name of Poquet, told us he
thought we might find Black Hawk by going around
the head of Fox river, a stream of considerable size
which empties into Green Bay; and offered to go with
some of the Winnebagoes as a pilot.
At this place we met with a misfortune which we
had been very much troubled with during our march,
which I omitted mentioning before. Our horses were
given to fright and running in a most fearful manner;
the army was constantly in danger of suffering great
damage by their taking those frights. There is no
one can tell what a horrid sight it is, to see two thou
sand horses coming at full speed toward an encamp
ment in the dead hour of night. This night they got
more scared than common. There were about three
86 LATE INDIAN WAR
hundred head on this night, that run about thirty
miles before they stopped; and that, too, through the
worst kind of swamps. This circumstance caused us
to stay here two days, trying to recover our horses,
but all could not be found. Our road back the way
we had come, was hunted for upwards of fifty miles;
and still a great number of them were missing.
Narrative of the imprisonment of the two Miss Halls Their
treatment by the Indians They are purchased by General
Dodge and Mr. H. Gratiot, through the Wmnebagoes
Their arrival on the eleventh day after their captivity at
White Oak Springs Reverend Mr. Horn becomes a friend
and protector to them They are married Anecdote of Mr.
F. stating the race that Mr. C. rode upon his beaver
hat, which caused the death of three women Poor little
Susan forsaken by her mother, and about to be left to the
mercy of the savage, when a kind hunter takes charge of
THE reader will recollect that, in a former chapter
it was stated that two young and beautiful females
were taken prisoners by the Indians, on Indian
creek, where they so inhumanly murdered and muti
lated the families of Messrs. Hall, Daviess, and
Pedigrew [Pettigrew] .
Reader, didst thou not shudder when you read of
this horrid act, that was done in open day in our
country? But, alas! if we shudder at the thought of
this inhuman act, what must have been the feelings of
those two young and unoffending women? Can I
find language to describe them? No! The reader
can better imagine, than pen can write it.
But reader, you shall have the narrative of their
captivity as given to me by one of them in person,
which was Silbey, 84 the eldest. I will give it in her
own language, which I think will be more satisfactory
to the reader; which is as follows:
88 HISTORY OF THE
"On the 2Oth of May, 1832, a party of Indians
came to my father's house early in the morning. Mr.
Pedigrew, one of the neighbors was there. They
first shot him; they then commenced killing my father
and mother, and the rest of the family that were at
home, in the midst of which two Indians seized me,
and two more my sister Rachel, by the arms, and bore
us off as fast as possible. As we passed out of the
door, we saw our mother sinking under the instruments
of death. They compelled us to run on foot as fast as
we were able, about one mile and a half, and about
thirty Indians following to where their horses were
left. There they awaited the arrival of those who
staid back at the house to murder the family, during
which delay they caught and carried away several of
my father's horses. After the party that staid behind
came up, we were mounted on horseback. The rest
all at the same time mounted their horses. We rode
in great haste until about midnight. They then halted
and dismounted, and spread a blanket down, bidding
us to sit on it. They then formed a circle around
us. We rested here about two hours. They then
mounted their horses, and rode at as fast a gait as we
were able to go, until about ten o'clock in the morn
ing, when they again dismounted and spread down
their blankets, and bid us to sit upon them. We by
this time were almost fatigued to death, and faint with
hunger; they here scalded some beans, and eat them
heartily. They gave some to us, telling us to eat;
but to eat raw beans was what we could not do. After
they had satisfied themselves on the raw beans, they
again mounted their horses, compelling us again
to mount ours. The saddles were the common Indian
saddles, just the tree, and a grained deer skin
stretched over it, and the roughest going kind of
horses. We thought every day it would be the last
LATE INDIAN WAR 89
with us. We rode on this day, until about sun down,
when they again halted. They here roasted a piece
of prairie chicken and gave us to eat. I suppose we
stayed here about an hour and a half. They then
mounted again and rode until about three hours in the
night, when they met the main army under Black
Hawk. We now fared a little better. When they
found we were prisoners, they appeared to be much
pleased, and presented us with their best diet, consist
ing of the kernels of hazelnuts and sugar mixed
together, as a token of friendship; at the same time
they gave us some tobacco and parched meal, making
signs to us to burn it, which we did out of obedience
to them. They also this night suffered us to sleep
together, which they had before refused. They staid
next morning until a late hour. They prepared red
and black paints, and painted one side of our head and
face red, and the other black. After this was done
eight or ten of their leading warriors took us by the
hand and marched round their encampment several
times. They then took us into the midst of the
whole band of warriors, spread down some blankets,
and set us down upon them. They then commenced
dancing around us, singing and yelling in a most
horrid manner. We here thought they intended to
kill us. After they had danced until they were tired,
and quit jumping around us, two squaws came to us
and took us by the hand, and led us into one of their
wigwams, where we staid undisturbed until they all
could pack up and start, which they did in a very
short time. We now all took up the line of march
together, and rode until about midnight, when we
stopped. We were again separated, and had not the
satisfaction of sleeping together. Next morning, which
was the fourth day of our captivity, they cleaned off a
place fifteen or twenty feet round, and stuck a pole
90 HISTORY OF THE
down in the middle of it. We were, as I stated before,
again placed in the midst, and they danced around us,
still singing their war song. They here staid all day,
and the next morning took up the line of march again,
and marched on until late in the evening, when they
again cleared off another place as before, and placing
us in it, commenced dancing around us, making us
kneel down, and bow our faces to the earth. Here
once more, from their actions, we thought we were
going to be killed; which we would almost as soon
they would have done as not, for we were nearly
exhausted with fatigue, on account of the long and
forced marches that we had made. Next morning,
which was the sixth day after our captivity, we were
again mounted on our horses, and marched till in the
afternoon, when they again stopped and went through
the same wretched and disagreeable ceremony of clear
ing off a place, and dancing and singing around, while
the squaws and young ones were generally engaged
when we stopped, in gathering roots, which was our
" When they killed my father and mother, and the
rest of the families, they took what coffee there was in
the houses, parched it, and made it in the same man
ner that the white people do; we frequently got some
of it to drink while it lasted.
"On the next day four Winnebago Indians came to
the place where we were encamped. Here a long coun
cil was held with the principal war chiefs or head men
of the nation. After the talk was over, one of the Sacs
came and took me by the hand, and led me up to where
the Winnebagoes were seated, and where they had been
for some time in council. The four Winnebagoes then
all arose and shook me by the hand. Then one of
them made signs for me to sit down by him, which I
did. He then told me by signs that I belonged to him,
LATE INDIAN WAR 91
and gave me to understand, in the same way, that I
must go along with him. I then asked him if they
were not going to let my sister go with me? which he
understood. I now discovered that I had been pur
chased, but Rachel had not. The Indians who had
purchased me, again renewed their talk with the Sacs and
Foxes. Here another long council was held, and much
warmth appeared to be excited on both sides. I thought
several times they would not succeed in getting my sis
ter. But at the close of the talk they came to where I
was, leading Rachel by the hand, and sat her down by
me. This was about an hour by sun in the evening.
A number of the Sac and Fox Indians now came and
shook us by the hands, and bid us good bye.
" We then started and rode until about an hour in
the night, as fast as our horses were able to run, when
we came to where their squaws were encamped: we here
staid all night. Next morning we went up the Wis
consin river in canoes, and rowed on until about an hour
by sun in the evening. Then they stopped and lay by
that night and all next day, and till eleven or ten o'clock
the third day; when twenty-four of the Winnebagoes
started with us towards the settlements in Illinois; for
they had I suppose, taken us a great way into the Mich
igan territory. We on this night came to another
Indian encampment. We here were permitted once
more to taste of food that we could eat a little of. They
had pickle pork and Irish potatoes cooked up together.
Our appetites by this time could take this food, although
we were greatly distressed in mind.
" Next day they travelled until nearly night, when
they chanced to kill a deer. They cooked it, and
devoured it in a very few minutes; but they gave us
what we could eat of it. They had a little salt which
they gave us to salt our part of the deer.
"We on this evening got to the Blue Mounds, in
92 HISTORY OF THE
the mining country. There was a small fort at this
place, and a few families. It was an outside place of
the inhabited part, and on the north side of the mining
country, something like fifty miles north of the south
line of Michigan territory.
" Next morning we started on to Gratiot's Grove, as
it was called, in company with two hundred and seven
ty-three soldiers, and the same twenty-four Winnebago
Indians. In five or six miles we met Henry Gratiot,
Indian agent, coming to meet us. We then understood
that he and General Dodge had employed the Indians
that came after us, to do so."
I then inquired of her, if she knew how much the
Winnebagoes had to pay for them. She replied, " I
understood that General Dodge and Mr. Gratiot had
given them, the Winnebagoes, two thousand dollars,
paid in forty horses, wampum and other trinkets, to
purchase us of the Sacs and Foxes."
"We on this night reached the White Oak Grove
in the settlement of the mines. Next day we reached
Mr. Henry Grariot's. We here remained in the neigh
borhood, at a small fort, at what was called the White
Oak Springs, about two weeks. We then went to Gale
na and remained about one week."
I then inquired of her, if she did not think that some
of the Indians that were engaged in taking them, were
Pottawattomies? to which she replied, that "the four
who took them by the hand at first, were Pottawatto
mies; for one of them she had frequently seen before."
Oh, reader, let us here stop and pause for one
moment, and place ourselves in the situation of these
two weak and feeble young women, who had just been
prisoners in the hands of those barbarians for eleven
days. Alas! go back to the scene of the massacre of
their father, mother, brothers and sisters ! What were
their feelings ? But, oh ! how shall I begin to describe
LATE INDIAN WAR 93
them? Alas! if I were only a Hervey, a Milton, or a
Newton, I might then give a faint glimmer of one half
of the anguish of their bursting hearts. Torn with vio
lence, by frightful savages, from the abodes of peace
and innocence ; and, oh ! still worse, to behold a bleed
ing mother, sinking under the sharp spear, pierced to
her heart by the inhuman butchers ; and to see a dear
and beloved father struggling with death's last grasp to
save his beloved family, who were shrieking around him,
and beseeching the inhuman murderers to spare their
lives ! The imagination can only think the pain they suf
fered ; but it is impossible to write it. Forced on with
all possible speed to where the butchers were prepared
to lead them captive into a wilderness, where no friendly
voice could salute their ears, no soothing comforter to
pour the oil and balm of consolation into their swelling
and almost bursting hearts. The yell of the war-song
was all they heard, as they were forced away with all
possible speed into the wilderness.
Solitude and sorrow appeared now to be their
doom. All their tears and entreaties were unheard.
Their persecutors were deaf to any feeling for the
anguish of soul that appeared to wring their bosoms.
Yea, the sea of trouble and sorrow that they were
engulfed in, never moved their savage hearts.
What was now the prospect of future happiness on
earth ? their beloved friends inhumanly murdered,
and they shut out from all the civilized world, far,
far away in the wilderness, where the foot of a white
man had scarcely ever trod their meat and drink
only bitter tears nights passed in sorrow, mornings
awaked to cares and fatigue the few hours that they
had to rest, the war dance around them harrowed up
the most awful sensations in their breast [s], expecting
at every dance to become a prey to their vengeance.
Oh, horrid thought! It is enough to start a tear in
94 HISTORY OF THE
the eye of the most stout hearted to think of the
swelling bosoms of those forlorn and disconsolate
But let us with the poet say,
"Why should we weep, why should we weep,
When heaven throws such beams of love around,
That, mingled with the darkest woes,
The rays of hope are found ?
Why should we weep, when every storm
That sweeps o'er ocean's breast,
Awakes a gem whose sparkling form
Had else remained at rest?
Why should we weep, when every flower
That closes with the night,
Shall blush anew in beauty's power,
When morn renews its light ?
Why should we weep, when placed on high,
The bow, divinely sent,
Still shows, when clouds obscure the sky,
How quickly they are spent ?
Why should we weep, when dawning days
And years so swiftly run ?
We only lose their setting light,
To hail their brighter dawn."
It appears that the Winnebagoes had much trouble
to purchase Rachel, and from the best information
that can be obtained on the subject, they had to use
threats, and had to pay an additional sum of ten
horses. A young warrior, it appears, claimed her as
his prize, and at first positively refused to give her up.
When he did so, he cut a lock of her hair out of her
head. This I suppose he intended to keep as a
trophy of his warlike exploits.
This now must have been the worst cut of all, to
LATE INDIAN WAR 95
attempt a separation of them, as they now supposed,
the only survivors of the family, and to take one away
from the other, would be worse than death to them;
but an all-wise Providence did not see fit to inflict this
wound upon them. He had watched over them in
the trying scene that they had already undergone, and
he saw fit to release them from savage bondage. He
heard their cries, and saw the distress they were in.
They were now alone, and orphans in the world.
What now was most interesting to them, was peace
of mind. To forget their murdered father and mother
was impossible. Were all joys on earth now gone?
Were they forsaken by all the world? Were none
left to pour the oil of balm and comfort into their
wounded bosoms? Yes, there were. The guardian
angels of heaven had prepared a second father to take
them by the hand, and point to them the path to happi
ness ; and that path was an interest in the blood of a
crucified Redeemer, which is a source of happiness to the
mind when all earthly happiness fails, if there is such
a thing as earthly happiness. That person they found
in the Reverend Mr. Horn. He had known them
when they were children he had been a companion
and friend of their deceased father and mother; he
felt now for the fatherless and unoffending orphans;
with the affections of a father he flew to them to ad
minister comfort to their heaving bosoms, which were
wrung with the keenest pangs, when they thought of
the loss of their friends. He now saw that there was
only one way that they could see any degree of happi
ness, and that was, to point to them the comfort of re
ligion, which he did by exhortation, entreating them to
prepare to meet father, mother, brothers, and sisters, on
the banks of deliverance beyond the grave, where the
wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are at rest.
They took the preacher's advice, and sought and
96 HISTORY OF THE
obtained comfort in the blood of a crucified Redeemer,
and, as I have every reason to believe, are now happy
in the cause of religion, and preparing to meet their
kindred friends in heaven.
One of them, Silbey, [Sylvia] the eldest, is married,
and living with a second father indeed; his son William
became a partner of her cares and sorrows. The
younger, Rachel, is also married, to Mr. William
Munson, and living in Putnam county.
There is one thing more I cannot dismiss this sub
ject and leave unnoticed. Although they were with
the savage barbarians, and the worst of inhuman
butchers that probably the earth affords, they never
attempted to violate their chastity.
This is one of the noblest traits in the character of
a savage, and one that appears to be held sacred and
inviolate with them. But nevertheless, they are fond
of making wives of prisoners. But it must be done
agreeably to the custom of their nation. This they
hold sacred, for they think if they were to violate this
rule and practice, the Great Spirit would be offended
Thus, reader, terminates the account of the two
unfortunate Miss Halls, who suffered everything but
death with those Indian barbarians.
It may not here be amiss and unprofitable to give
the reader the following anecdote, which will go to
show how easy the mind of a man can be alarmed, and
the imagination wrought up to the highest pitch, and
the great danger of excitement of this kind upon the
In travelling through the county of Fulton not long
since, I chanced to stay all night with an elderly looking
and familiar old gentleman; and with other subjects
which we had talked not a little upon, we chanced to
dwell upon the Black Hawk war. I asked Mr. F. if the
LATE INDIAN WAR 97
people had forted in that neighborhood during the great
horror and alarm that were excited at the news of Major
Stillman's defeat ? to which he replied, that he had not ;
but had been much derided for being so foolhardy, as
they called it, by several of his friends and neighbors ;
to which the good old man told me he replied to them,
that if he could see a man running towards him with a
bullet hole in him, and the blood running out of it, and
hear unknown voices in pursuit, he then would think
there was danger.
This declaration of the old gentleman made me
almost think with his neighbors, until he stated to me
the cause of it; which I here Would give in the good old
man's own language, but as he understood the German
language better than the English, I might not quote it
precisely right. But what the old gentleman told me,
and from his general character that I afterwards learnt
from a number of his neighbors, his statement was
As near as I could collect, both from him and his
family, who joined in confirming what the old landlord
stated, and which could be proven by a number of his
neighbors, it was as follows: Soon after Stillman's
defeat, a party of the troops from Fulton county, on
their return home, when within a few miles of Canton,
in said county, came across a gang of wolves, and having
got into the settled part where they were not afraid,
being from the seat of war, fired upon them, at the same
time raising the war-whoop, which they had got by
heart from the Indians in the memorable Indian school
on the night of the fourteenth of May, on Sycamore
creek. This frightful yelling, at a time when danger
was expected, and accompanied with the firing of guns,
was heard by another good old citizen of this county,
away from the "far east," who happened to be out a little
ways from home, who took the alarm, and supposed
98 HISTORY OF THE
that it was the Indians killing his neighbors, made shift
to get to the first of his horses that he came to, and
putting on a bridle to guide it, never took time to
consult the great benefit of a saddle in riding a long race,
mounted bareback ; and raising the cry of " murder ! "
" murder ! ! " put his charger to the lash. He passed
by home, and told his family to fly with all possible
speed, who it appears was in the act of moving. But
one of the family, who was not so badly alarmed by the
shrieks of the dying neighbors, observed to him that he
had left his son in the mill; to which he replied, "never
mind my son, he is a cripple and cannot run, they
are certain to kill him each one of you save your
selves if you can ! " So saying, he put his charger to it
might and main, and at the same time crying out
" murder ! " " murder !! " to all he passed or met, he
left all the world behind him, never dreaming that he
was suffering for the want of a saddle until he had got
many miles from the scene of action. He then beheld
the blood trickling down his legs, from, I suppose the
hard jolts of his charger, carrying a large body upon a
sharp and bony back. But the ingenious old son of the
pilgrim fathers soon found means to supply the want of
a saddle. He had, a few days before the action took
place, helped himself to a new hat ; and not regarding
the price of a hat when he expected every moment to
hear the horrid war-whoop of an Indian behind him, he
made a saddle of his new beaver, on which he rode, as
Mr. F. informed me, until he came to Ross's ferry, on
the Illinois river, where as Mr. F. stated the citizens of
that place stopped him, or he would, giving it in the
good old Dutchman's own language, have been running
yet ; that is, if his horse and beaver saddle would have
lasted so long. This was about twenty-six miles from
the scene of action, where he remained many days,
apparently in a state of insanity. He was constantly
LATE INDIAN WAR 99
trying to devise a plan to fix stirrups to his hat, and
declared that if he only had a pair of stirrups hung to
his beaver, he would not be in the least dread of an
Indian ever overtaking him; but he was frequently heard
to cry out " murder ! " in his sleep, as at first, when he
started on his race, and lamented the loss of the poor
crippled mill boy.
But Mr. F. stated the poor crippled mill boy stood
his ground, and his father having plenty of powder and
lead in store, issued it out to those who were willing to
fight in defence of the crippled boy and the women
Now, reader, the laughable part of this story is over,
but the sorrowful one has yet to come, which almost
sickens my heart to relate, and I would fain hope it was
false ; but as I observed in the beginning of this story,
it has come from too respectable a source for me to
When the old frightened Mr. C. first started upon
his race, he cried out "murder!" as before stated, and
told the people as he went that the Indians were
butchering and killing the people behind him ; which,
Mr. F. stated, frightened the neighbors in such a horrid
manner that they took to flight. The women
attempted to run, each carrying one of their children,
or two of them, perhaps, if my memory serves me, on
their hips ; running in this way something like six
miles. They all three expired in a few days, with fright
The other anecdote is something similar to the first ;
but it is no pain for me to relate it, as it was not of so
serious a nature ; for death was not produced by it.
Mr. F. stated, that some place on the eastern side
of the state, perhaps near the Iroquois, a small stream
in the north east corner of the state of Illinois, the peo
ple being much alarmed soon after the murder of the
ioo HISTORY OF THE
families on Indian creek, the citizens sent out a spying
party to the frontiers to see if they could see any signs
of the enemy approaching toward the settlements where
they lived. The men who had been spying for the
enemy, on their return late in the evening, thought
they saw some signs of Indians, and concluded to hasten
and report danger to the neighborhood. In a few
minutes after they came to this conclusion, they heard
a volley of guns fired in quick succession behind them,
at the same time hallooing by a number of voices, and
dogs barking behind them. This was enough to con
firm their fears. They put spurs to their horses ; each
one making for his family. As they proceeded, they
cried out to the citizens to fly, and said the Indians
were coming, murdering all before them, for they had
heard them killing a family behind them ; and that they
had heard the shrieks of the dying. In this horrid
rout that took place at this time, there was a family
that lived near the river before mentioned ; they had
no horses, but a large family of small children ; the
father and mother each took a child ; the rest were
directed to follow on foot as fast as possible. The
eldest daughter also carried one of the children that
was not able to keep up. They fled to the river where
they had to cross. The father had to carry over all the
children, at different times, as the stream was high, and
so rapid the mother and daughter could not stem the
current with such a burden. When they all, as they
thought, had got over, they started, when the cry of
poor little Susan was heard on the opposite bank, ask
ing if they were not going to take her with them. The
frightened father again prepared to plunge into the strong
current for his child, when the mother, seeing it, cried
out, " never mind Susan ; we have succeeded in getting
ten over, which is more than we expected at first and
we can better spare Susan than you, my dear." So
LATE INDIAN WAR 101 ..,
poor Susan, who was only about four y^ars old v .w.?s
left to the mercy of the frightful savage. ,- . .
But poor little Susan came off unhurt ; one of the
neighbors who was out a hunting, came along and took
charge of little Susan, the eleventh, who had been so
miserably treated by her mother.
When I commenced telling of these two anecdotes,
I observed that the mind of man, when there was cause
of fear or suspicion of danger, was frequently apt to
suffer his imaginations to lead them [him] astray, which
was the case at this time, as it was before with the good old
cheese-maker. Now this last fright was occasioned by
a parcel of boys who had assembled together to go
squirrel hunting; for the squirrels at that season of the
year were very bad at pulling up corn : it appears that
they were very plenty, and several of them shot at or
near the same time, and one of the boys wounding one,
brought it to the ground, and the boys gave it chase.
It was this, also which caused poor little Susan to weep
and be forsaken by father and mother.
General Alexander returns back to Fort Kusbkanong Generals
Henry and Dodge take up the line of march to intercept the
enemy, should they be making to the north March to the
Rapids on Rock River Come to a Winnebago Village
Have a talk with the Indians Send an express to General
Atkinson They come across the trail of the enemy and
return Fired on as they enter our camp We take up the
line of march next morning in pursuit Terrible storm on that
evening Second day come to the Four Lakes Encamp
there A description [description^ of those Lakes Doctor
Philleo kills an Indian We overtake the enemy the same
evening^ and have a general battle We defeat the enemy
They retreat across the Wisconsin River An Indian talks
to us from the top of a mountain ^before day, on the next night
General Henry addresses his men Major Ewing with his
Spy Battalion proceeds next morning to the top of the moun
tain Makes but little discovery.
GENERALS HENRY AND DODGE had by
this time, come to the conclusion to go back
around the head of Fox river, to see if they could
not fall in with Black Hawk, and stop his passage to
the north ; as they supposed he was intending to make
his way to the Chippeway nation.
General Alexander concluded 88 that it was best to
obey General Atkinson's order. He accordingly returned
the same way we came, to join General Atkinson ; tak
ing with him twelve days' provision. We drew the
same number of days' rations.
July 1 5th. We took up the line of march on this
day, with General Henry at our head, with the intention
LATE INDIAN WAR 103
to try and see if we could not hunt out Black Hawk.
But on account of our horses taking the fright on the
night of the i2th, our brigade was very much weak
ened. The next morning after we started, the morn
ing report was made out: General Henry had six
hundred effective men ; and Colonel Dodge's corps was
reduced to one hundred and fifty, or nearly so ; but
their weakness did not discourage these true men, nor
any of their officers.
We had now the brave General Henry at our head,
and our intention was to find the enemy, if they were
to be found in this region of the country. We now
went with more speed than we had done before; the
men appeared to have imbibed new spirit. They had
a prospect of falling in with the enemy, and they well
knew, that, if we went back to Gen. Atkinson by the
way we came to fort Winnebago, there would be but
a very slight chance of ever seeing an Indian; for they
now had been watching him some time; and being
intimately acquainted with the situation of the country,
they could dodge from swamp to swamp, and bid him
defiance. We now thought that while they were
watching Gen. Atkinson, we could steal upon old
Black Hawk, and take him by surprise.
We had Poquet, the half-breed, whom I have men
tioned before, and twelve Winnebago Indians with us
as pilots, and progressed with considerable speed.
Nothing of importance occurred on our march from
the 1 5th to the i8th. We this day came to a small
Winnebago village, on Rock river; having reached
that river once more, though some distance above Gen.
Generals Henry and Dodge 87 here called a halt,
and had a talk with this nation of the forest for for
est it really was. It might have been supposed, from
the appearance of the place they were in, that they
104 HISTORY OF THE
had tried to hide from all the world, as their bark
wigwams were in the midst of a very large growth of
timber, in a bend of the river, and the earth was
covered with an almost impenetrable undergrowth.
Gen. Dodge who was well acquainted with the
Winnebagoes, attended strictly to the examination.
They were asked where Black Hawk and his band
were? They replied that they were above, on Rock
river, at a place called the Cranberry Lake, about
half a day's travel from where we then were. Gen
erals Henry and Dodge consulted with the officers
generally, in relation to the course most proper to pur
sue. They came to the conclusion to send an express
to Gen. Atkinson, informing him that they had
learned where Black Hawk was, and that they would
march against him on the next day. We were then,
from the best information we could obtain from the
Indians, about thirty-five miles above Gen. Atkinson
where he was still engaged in building a fort, at Lake
It may not be considered a digression to state, here,
the reasons we had for believing that the Winnebagoes
were telling us the truth; for \ve had been a long time
very suspicious that they were secret allies of Black
Hawk, as we caught them in many lies. There was
one fellow, who, on examination, stated that he had
come from Black Hawk only two days before. He
was then asked what he had been up there after r He
replied that he had two sisters married to Sac men,
and that each of his sisters had six daughters, who
were also married to Sac men, and that he had been
up to see them. This was a very reasonable story,
and we thought that it might be true. But, at the
same rime, it went to show that they were to some
extent, allies of the Sacs, as thev were intermarried so
much with each other.
LATE INDIAN WAR 105
Generals Henry and Dodge now made application
for a pilot to go with two of our men to Gen. Atkin
son, to inform him where the Indians were, and that
we were going in pursuit of them the next day. After
some Indian chat among themselves, they reluctantly
consented that Little Thunder should go. The next
thing was, to get two of our men, possessed of suffi
cient courage and perseverance to go. Doctor E. H.
Merryman, Adjutant of Col. Collins's regiment, and
Mr. W. W. Woodbridge, Adjutant of Gen. Dodge's
squadron, were the men who volunteered to perform
this important and hazardous service. They started
about 2 o'clock P. M., in company with Little Thunder
as their pilot, intending to reach Gen. Atkinson's
camp that night; but they had not proceeded more than
eight miles before they came upon a large fresh trail,
which they soon learnt, by its appearance, and the
signs and gestures of Little Thunder, their pilot, was
that of Black Hawk and his whole army making their
escape. They pursued their course a little further,
intending to go on with the message; but this Indian
petitioned them to go back, intimating by signs that
they would soon be killed if they went on. The
expresses could not speak his language, nor could
he speak theirs; but they made signs for him to pro
ceed with them, but they did not succeed in getting
him more than two miles further, when he suddenly
wheeled his horse to the right-about, and giving him
timber, left them. It was now nearly night, and the
country they were in impassable to a stranger; the
ground being covered with prickly ash and white
thorn; and in the midst of these thickets were the
worst kind of swamps. They were therefore com
pelled to return to their camp. It was some time
before they overtook their pilot, and after dark when
they got back. On entering the encampment the
io6 HISTORY OF THE
sentinels fired at one of them, and came very near killing
him. They now told the joyful news, that they had
discovered the trail of Black Hawk and his band mak
ing out of the swamps, which seemed to give new life
to every heart; as now there appeared to be a prospect
of bringing our toils and troubles to a speedy issue.
Orders were accordingly given for all hands to be
ready for an early march next morning in pursuit of
the enemy. At the dawn of day the bugle sounded.
All now were up, making ready with great eagerness
for a march. Here we had to leave every thing that
was calculated to retard our march. Five baggage
waggons, sutlers' stores and a number of other valuable
articles were left, in order that we should have nothing
to impede us on our march.
July 1 9th. This day we had, for about twelve miles,
the worst kind of road. To look at it, it appeared
impossible to march an army through it. Thickets and
swamps of the worst kind we had to go through ; but
the men had something now to stimulate them. They
saw the Sac trail fresh before them, and a prospect of
bringing our campaign to an end. There was no
murmuring, no excuses made ; none getting on the sick
report. If we came to a swamp that our horses were
not able to carry us through, we dismounted, turned our
horses before us, and stepped in ourselves, sometimes
up to our arm-pits in mud and water. In this way we
marched with great celerity. In the evening of this
day, it commenced thundering, lightening, and raining
tremendously. We stopped not, but pushed on. The
trail appeared to be still getting fresher, and the ground
better; which still encouraged us to overcome every
difficulty found in the way. It continued raining until
dark, and indeed until after dark. We now saw the
want of our tents in the morning; a great number of us
having left this necessary article behind, in order to
LATE INDIAN WAR 107
favor our horses. The rain ceased before day, and it
turned cold and chilly. In the morning we arose early,
at the well known sound of the bugle, and prepared in
a very short time our rude breakfast, dried our clothes
a little, and by seven o'clock were on the march at a
On this day some of our scouts took an Indian as a
prisoner. On examination he was found to be a
Winnebago. He stated that Black Hawk was but a
little distance ahead of us, and that he had seen some
of his party not more than two miles ahead. But it was
a bad piece of conduct on our part, that this Indian was
not kept as a prisoner of war, but was set at liberty, and
let go : no doubt, he that night informed the Sacs of
We halted, and the order of battle was formed, as we
expected we would overtake them this evening. The
order was as follows : General Dodge and Major Ewing
were to bring on the battle. Major Ewing was placed
in the centre, with his spy battalion ; Captain Gentry
and Captain Clark's companies on our right; and
Captain Camp and Captain Parkinson 68 on our left.
Our own battalion (Major Ewing's) was reduced to two
companies, (as Captain Webb and his company had
been left at Fort Dixon .;) Captain Lindsey, of our
battalion, was placed on the right, and Captain Huston's
company on the left ; Colonel Fry and his regiment on
the right; and Colonel Jones with his regiment on the
left; and Colonel Collins in the centre. In this order
we marched in quick time, with all possible speed, in
hope that we would overtake the enemy on that evening.
We were close to the Four Lakes, and we wished to come
up with them before they could reach that place, as it
was known to be a strong hold for the Indians ; but the
day was not long enough to accomplish this desirable
object. We reached the first of the Four Lakes about
io8 HISTORY OF THE
sun down. General Henry here called a halt, and
consulted with Poquet, our pilot, as to the country we
were approaching. Poquet, who was well acquainted
with this country, told him he could not get through it
after night ; that we had to march close to the margin
of the lake for some distance, as the underwood stood so
thick, one man could not see another ten steps. General
Henry concluded to encamp here until the break of day.
General Dodge sent Captain Dixon [Joseph Dickson]
on ahead with a few men, to see if they could make any
discovery of the enemy, who returned in a very short
time, and stated they had seen the enemy's rear guard
about one mile and a half distant.
General Henry gave strict orders for every man to
tie up his horse, so as to be ready to start as soon as it
was daylight. The order was strictly obeyed, and after
we took our frugal supper, all retired to rest, except
those who had to mount guard ; for we had marched a
great way that day, and many were still wet by the rain
that fell the preceding night; but being very much
fatigued we were all soon lost in sleep, except those
July 2 1 st. At the break of day the bugle sounded,
and all were soon up, and in a few minutes had break
fast ready; and after taking a little food, we mounted
our horses, and again commenced the pursuit.
We soon found that the pilot had told us no lie; for
we found the country that the enemy was leading us into,
to be worse if possible, than what he told us. We could
turn neither to the right nor left, but were compelled to
follow the trail the Indians had made; and that too, for
a great distance at the edge of the water of the lake.
Here it may not be uninteresting to the reader, to
give a small outline of those lakes. From a description
of the country, a person would very naturally suppose
that those lakes were as little pleasing to the eye of the
LATE INDIAN WAR 109
traveller, as the country is. But not so. I think they
are the most beautiful bodies of water I ever saw. The
first one that we came to, was about ten miles in cir
cumference, and the water as clear as crystal. The
earth sloped back in a gradual rise ; the bottom of the
lake appeared to be entirely covered with white pebbles,
and no appearance of its being the least swampy. The
second one that we came to, appeared to be much larger.
It must have been twenty miles in circumference. The
ground rose very high all around; and the heaviest
kind of timber grew close to the water's edge. If
those lakes were anywhere else, except in the country
they are, they would be considered among the wonders
of the world. But the country they are situated in is
not fit for any civilized nation of people to inhabit. It
appears that the Almighty intended it for the children
of the forest. The other two lakes we did not get close
enough to for me to give a complete description of
them ; but those who saw them, stated that they were
very much like the other. I am digressing and leaving
my subject too long ; so I will go back and pursue our
We had not marched more than five miles, before
Doctor Philleo " came back, meeting us, with the scalp
of an Indian. He had been on ahead with the front
scouts, and came on this Indian, who had been left as a
rear guard to watch our movements. There were sev
eral shots fired at him about the same time, and I
suppose all hit him, from the number of bullet holes
that were in him ; but Doctor Philleo scalped him ; so
he was called Philleo's Indian ; which reminds me of
the hunters : He who draws the first blood is entitled
to the skin, and the remainder to the carcase, if there
are several in the chase ; which was the case at this time.
But I am not done with Doctor Philleo yet. I will
show you that he is a good soldier, and something of
no HISTORY OF THE
an Indian fighter. The signs now began to get very
fresh, and we mended our pace very much. We had
not proceeded more than ten or fifteen miles further,
before our fighting Doctor run afoul of two more
Indians; he showed his bravery in assisting to kill
them. I suppose he killed one, and Mr. Sample Jour
ney the other ; so there was a scalp for each. But one
of those miserable wretches sold his life as dear as pos
sible. He, in the act of falling after he was shot, fired,
and shot three balls into a gentleman who was himself
in the act of shooting at him. The balls were all small ;
one went through his thigh, one through his leg, and
the other through his foot. I am sorry that I have for
gotten the gentleman's name ; he belonged to General
We now doubled our speed, all were anxious to press
forward, and as our horses were nearly worn out, we
carried nothing, only what was actually necessary for us
to eat; camp kettles, and many such articles, were thrown
The trail was now literally, in many places, strewed
with Indian trinkets, such as mats, kettles, &c. ; which
plainly told us that they knew we were in pursuit. We
too, saw from the face of the country that we were
drawing close to the Wisconsin river, 70 and our object
was to overtake them before they reached it ; so we now
went as fast as our horses were able to carry us ; but
this was too severe for our poor horses ; they began to
give out; but even this did not stop a man. When
ever a horse gave out, the rider would dismount, throw
off his saddle and bridle, and pursue on foot, in a run,
without a murmur. I think the number of horses left
this day, was about forty. The rear guard of the enemy
began by this time (about three o'clock P. M.) to make
feint stands ; and as the timber stood thick, we did not
know but that the whole army of Black Hawk was
LATE INDIAN WAR in
forming for action ; in consequence of which, we got
down and formed as often as twice, before we found out
that their object was to keep us back until they could
gain some strong position to fight from. Our front
scouts now were determined not to be deceived any
more ; but the next they came to, they stopped not for
their feigned manoeuvre, but pursued them to the main
body of the enemy. They returned to us in great haste,
and informed General Henry that the Indians were
forming for action.
We all dismounted in an instant. The line of battle
was then formed in the same order that it had been laid
off the preceding day : General Dodge's corps and
Major E wing's spy battalion still in front. The horses
were left, and every fourth man detailed to hold them ;
which gave seven horses to each man to hold.
We had scarcely time to form on foot, before the
Indians raised the war-whoop, screaming and yell
ing hideously, and rushed forward, meeting us with a
heavy charge. General Dodge and Major Ewing met
them also with a charge, which produced a halt on the
part of the enemy. Our men then opened a tremen
dous volley of musquetry upon them, and accompanied
it with the most terrific yells that ever came from the
head of mortals, except from the savages themselves.
They could not stand this. They now tried their well-
known practice of flanking : but here they were headed
again by the brave Colonel Jones and his regiment who
were on our left, where he met them in the most fear
less manner, and opened a heavy fire upon them. Colo
nel Fry was placed on the extreme right. They tried
his line, but were soon repulsed. Their strong position
was on the left, or near the centre, where Colonels
Jones, Dodge, and Ewing, kept up a constant fire upon
them for something like half an hour.
The enemy here had a strong position. They had
ii2 HISTORY OF THE
taken shelter in some very high grass, where they could
lie down and load, and be entirely out of sight. After
fighting them in this position for at least thirty minutes,
during which time Colonel Jones had his horse shot
from under him, and one of his men killed, 71 and sev
eral wounded. Colonels Dodge, Ewing and Jones, all
requested General Henry to let them charge upon them
at the point of the bayonet, which General Henry
readily assented to, and gave the order, " charge !" which
was obeyed by both men and officers in a most fearless
manner. All were intent upon the charge. We had
to charge up a rising piece of ground. When we got
on the top, we then fired perfectly abreast. They could
not stand this. They had to quit their hiding place,
and made good their retreat. When they commenced
retreating, we killed a great number.
Their commander, who, it was said, was Na-pope,
was on a white poney [pony] on the top of a mountain
in the rear of his Indians ; who certainly had one of the
best voices for command I ever heard. He kept up a
constant yell, until his men began to retreat ; when he
was heard no more. Colonel Collins was kept during
this engagement, in the rear, as a reserve, and to keep
the enemy from flanking, and coming in upon us in the
rear, which was a very good arrangement of General
It was now nearly sun down, and still raining as it
had been all the evening ; but so slow that we made
shift to keep our guns dry. The enemy retreated
toward the river with considerable speed. The ground
they were retreating to, appeared to be low and swampy ;
and on the bank of the river there appeared to be a
heavy body of timber, which the enemy could reach
before we could bring them to another stand. So
General Henry concluded not to pursue them any fur
ther that night, but remain on the battle ground until
LATE INDIAN WAR 113
next morning; and then he would not be in danger
of losing so many of his men; knowing that, in the
dark, he would have to lose a number; for the In
dians would have the timber to fight from, while we
would have to stand in the open prairie.
Next morning, (July 22d,) the troops were paraded,
and put in battle order on foot, except Colonel Fry's
regiment, and took up the line of march to the river ;
leaving Col. Collins's regiment to guard the horses
and baggage, and take care of the wounded.
We marched down to the river, which was about
one mile and a half off; but before we reached the
bank, we had a very bad swamp to go through, fifty
or sixty yards on this side of the timber, which stood
very high on the bank of the river. We now saw
that General Henry had acted very prudently. If he
had attempted to follow them the evening before, he
would have lost a great many of his men.
When we got to the bank, we found they had made
their retreat across the river during the night, leaving
a great many articles of their trumpery behind. We
also saw a good deal of blood, where their wounded
had Wed. We now returned to the camp ; seeing
there was no chance to follow them this day across the
We in this battle were very fortunate indeed. We
had only one man killed and eight wounded ; and we
have learned since the battle, that we killed sixty-eight
of the enemy, and wounded a considerable number;
twenty-five of whom, they report, died soon after the
We now were nearly out of provision, and to take
up the line of march against them, in the condition
our horses were in, told us plainly that we would suffer
for something to eat before we could get it.
We buried the brave young man who was killed,
n 4 HISTORY OF THE
with the honors of war. It was stated that he had just
shot down an Indian, when he received the mortal
wound himself. His name was John Short, and
belonged to Captain Briggs's company from Randolph
county. He had a brother and a brother-in-law in the
same company, who witnessed his consignment to his
mother earth. The wounded were all well examined,
and none pronounced mortal.
We continued this day on the battle ground, and
prepared litters for the wounded to be carried on. We
spent this day in a more cheerful manner than we had
done any other day since we had been on the campaign.
We felt a little satisfaction for our toils, and thought
that we had no doubt destroyed a number of the very
same monsters that had so lately been imbruing their
hands with the blood of our fair sex the helpless
mother and unoffending infant.
We dried our clothes which then had been wet for
several days. This day was spent in social chat
between men and officers. There were no complaints
made ; all had fought bravely ; each man praised his
officers, and all praised our General.
Late in the evening, some of our men, who had
been out to see if there were any signs of the enemy
still remaining near us, returned, and stated that they
saw smoke across the river.
General Henry had been of the opinion through the
day, that if the Indians did ever intend fighting any
more, they would attack us that night, and this report
went to confirm him in his belief more fully. That
night he had a larger guard than usual. He made use
of another excellent precaution. He had fires made
in advance of our lines, at least forty yards, and had
them kept burning all night. Orders were given for
every man to sleep upon his arms : so that he could be
ready for action at the shortest notice, should an alarm be
LATE INDIAN WAR 115
given. We had scarcely got to sleep, when we were
alarmed by the running of our horses ; we had to
parade, as usual, to keep them from killing us. Men
and officers now fully expected that it was the enemy
who frightened them. Orders were now given, for no
man to sleep that night, but for every man to stand to
his arms, and be ready to receive the enemy. We all
now expected to have hard fighting, and were prepared
for the worst. There was not a man who shrunk from
his duty. All punctually obeyed the orders of his
officers, and made every preparation to receive the
enemy, should he come.
About one hour and a half before day, on the same
mountain from which the Indian Chief had given his
orders on the evening of the battle, we heard an Indian
voice, in loud shrill tones, as though he was talking to
his men, and giving them orders.
General Henry had his men all paraded in order of
battle, in front of the tents, and the fires roused up.
After all were paraded, General Henry addressed his
men in the most beautiful manner I ever heard man
speak on such an occasion. I am sorry I cannot give
the precise words, but I will attempt an outline of
them. The Indian was still yelling in the most loud
and terrific manner. General Henry commenced:
" My brave soldiers, now is the critical and trying
moment; hear your enemy on the same mountain from
which you drove them only on the evening before
last, giving orders for a charge upon you: there is no
doubt but that they have mustered all their strength at
this time: now let every mother's son be at his post:
Yes, my brave soldiers, you have stemmed the tor
rent of every opposition you have stopped not for
rivers, swamps, and, one might say almost impenetra
ble forests; suffered through the beating storm of
night, amidst the sharpest peals of thunder, and when
n6 HISTORY OF THE
the heavens appeared a plane of lightning. My brave
boys, hear their yells; let them not daunt you; remem
ber the glory you won on the evening before last; be
not now the tarnishers of this reputation, that you are
so justly entitled to: remember that you are fighting
a set of demons, who have lately been taking the lives
of your helpless and unoffending neighbors. Stand
firm my brave Suckers* until you can see the whites
of their eyes, before you discharge your muskets, and
then meet them with a charge as you have before
done, and that too with great success."
The Indian all this time was talking as though he
was addressing his men, and appeared to approach
nearer. Every officer then on the ground, was at his
post, and had his particular station assigned to him,
and the ground he was to occupy during the action.
In this order we stood until daylight. Just before
day the Indian quit talking. When it was just light
enough to discover a man a short distance, the brave
and fearless Ewing took his battalion of spies, and
mounted on horseback, we were soon at the top of the
mountain to see who it was that had serenaded us so
long, at that late hour of the night. We found only
the sign of a few horse tracks, that appeared as though
they had been made that night. We marched in
quick time around every part of the mountain, and
found no one. We took a circuitous route back to
camp, but found no one on the way. What it was
that made this Indian act so, was now a mystery that
no one could solve. But before the reader gets
through the history of this war, he will find out the
cause. I cannot inform him now, as it does not come
in its proper place.
It will be recollected that Doctor Merryman and
Adjutant Woodbridge, were both started as express
* Suckers, a familiar name the Illinoisans are known by.
LATE INDIAN WAR 117
bearers by Generals Henry and Dodge, as soon as the
Winnebagoes informed them that the Indians were
at the Cranberry Lake; and had to return on
account of Little Thunder (who was their pilot,) get
ting frightened. The day after that, late in the even
ing, they started again still in company with the same
pilot. They now left the Sac trail, and this child of
the forest was less afraid; so, knowing the country
well, he took them on that night, amidst the storm,
to General Atkinson's camp, or fort Kushkanong,
where General Atkinson was, with his Infantry, and
those of our volunteers, who had lost their horses at
Fort Winnebago. The next day Adjutants Wood-
bridge and Merryman, still with the same pilot, started
back to General Henry, with an express from General
Atkinson. They got to General Henry during the
action, (July2ist,) but there was no time then for
reading expresses; nor did those two men think of
delivering expresses at that time; but immediately
went to fighting. So those gentlemen performed a
double duty, and deserve well of their country for the
important services they rendered.
Now for the expresses. General Atkinson directed
General Henry to pursue on the trail of Black Hawk
until he could overtake him and to defeat or capture
him, also stating, that he would start himself, with the
Infantry and General Alexander's Brigade; and that
the rest of the volunteers who were with him under
Lieutenant Colonel [P. H.] Sharp, would be left to
guard the Fort; and that they would go by way of the
Blue Mounds; and directed us, if we got out of pro
vision, to go to that place for a supply.
Generals Henry and Dodge march to the Blue Mounds for provi
sion There meet the other two Brigades Take up the line
of march across the Wisconsin Again get on the trail of the
enemy Take a Winnebago Indian a prisoner He gives
information that the enemy is four days ahead of us We
take him along We enter the Mountains Bad travel
ling Lose a number of horses Overtake the enemy at the
mouth of Bad- Axe, on the Mississippi General Engage
ment General Henry completely routs the enemy.
E were now out of provisions, and were obliged
to abandon further pursuit, and go to the Blue
Mounds to procure a supply. Accordingly on the
we got in motion again ; not in pursuit of the
enemy, but for bread and meat, to satisfy our appe
tites as we were now out of every thing to eat.
Our wounded this day suffered very much on account
of having rough ground to pass over, and some very
muddy creeks. When they got to the Blue Mounds,
they were very hospitably treated. There was a small
fort and citizens plenty, who did not think it the least
hardship to wait on those who had been shedding their
blood to revenge the wrongs those people had suffered.
For the Indians had killed three valuable men within
one mile of this place ; and one within view of the citi
zens who were in it, a gentleman by the name of
Green, of high standing in society, and who had recently
emigrated from the east. I have forgotten the names
of the other gentlemen, but can say that the citizens
spoke in high terms of their worth, and seemed to
lament their loss. [Emerson Green and George Force.]
LATE INDIAN WAR 119
We here found a part of General Posey's brigade, who
had been sent from Fort Hamilton, to assist in guarding
this frontier place. An express had been sent by General
Atkinson to General Posey, to march as soon as possible
to a small town on the Wisconsin river, to intercept the
Indians, should any of them go down the river. So, in
the afternoon, General Posey, from Fort Hamilton,
passed on his way to Helena ; and late in the evening
General Atkinson and General Alexander arrived with
their brigades; leavingColonel Sharp, with thosewho had
lost their horses, still at Fort Kushkanong; also Captain
Low [Gideon Lowe], with one company of regulars.
We here drew three days' provision, and on the
twenty-fifth we took up the line of march for Helena,
on the Wisconsin river, where we intended to cross,
again to take up the pursuit against the enemy. Accord
ingly we got to this place on the 26th, where we found
General Posey with his brigade, busily employed in
making rafts to cross on. This once bid fair to be a
prosperous place ; there were some tolerable good pine
buildings that had been put up ; the logs had been
hewed, and of course were very light. So this deserted
village was pulled down, and converted into rafts for
the army to cross the river on. The river at this place
is nearly as wide as the Mississippi; but not near so
deep. There is a great number of Islands and sand
bars in it, which will always prevent it from being good
for steam boat navigation.
We now once more had all the Generals together,
but not all the men ; there had been a great falling off
in all the brigades.
General Posey who commanded the first brigade, had
but about two hundred men ; a great number having
lost their horses, and some being on the sick report.
Colonel Ewing's regiment had been sent down to
Dixon's, which weakened it very much.
120 HISTORY OF THE
The second brigade was nearly in the same condi
tion ; a great many being on foot, and some on the sick
report. There were but about three hundred and fifty
in this brigade.
General Henry's brigade was very much reduced,
also. So the whole three brigades were not stronger
than one of them was at first setting out in the cam
paign. There was now more dissatisfaction prevailing
than I observed during the whole campaign. The gen
eral cry with all, appeared to be, that we would never
again see an Indian that they had been gone so long
ahead of us, we would never be able to overtake them ;
and the men generally had become tired of hunting
trails ; and now we had to hunt this trail up again. So,
there was nothing to stimulate the men, because all
were of the opinion that the Indians were then near
the Mississippi ; as the distance was said not to be more
than eighty miles ; and as no one of us had ever been
across, we had no idea of what kind of country we would
have to pass through.
The army commenced crossing this stream on the
2yth, and by twelve o'clock on the 28th, we were over,
and ready to take up the line of march.
Two of our men at this place, whilst fishing, found
a dead Indian, which no doubt had been killed at our
battle on the Wisconsin; as I have no doubt the
Indians threw many of their dead into the river during
the night after the battle ; and many that were wounded
and died on that night ; in order to keep us from scalp
ing them ; as those superstitious beings think it the
greatest disgrace for one of their nation to lose his scalp.
Colonel William B. Archer had, on our arrival at this
place, taken about twenty men, and gone up the river to
our battle ground, to ascertain if they could discover any
fresh signs of the Indians returning, or what direction
they had gone from that place. They found no new
LATE INDIAN WAR 121
sign of their crossing back. The remains of Mr.
Short, who was killed in the battle, had not been
interrupted, [sic.] which plainly showed, that they had
not been back since we had left there ; for if they had
they would have dug up the corpse for the purpose of
taking his scalp off; as they prize a scalp above any
thing else in their warfare ; and one that is so fortunate
as to get a scalp, feels as proud as if he had killed a
white man and lost the scalp.
Colonel Archer spent one day in searching for the
main trail, but was not able to get upon it. The
friendly Indians, who were sent with him as pilots, as
usual, seemed to act cowardly. So he returned to the
main army, and was ready to take up the line of march
July 28th. We this day, at 12 o'clock, again got
in motion, with General Atkinson at our head.
The brigades of Posey, Alexander and Henry, were
all now together; and about four hundred and fifty
regulars under the command of General Brady. The
regular field officers were Colonel Taylor, Major W.
Riley, 72 Major Morgan, and the others not recollected.
Captain Johnson, and Thomas C. Brown, (volunteer
aids,) Aids-de-Camp of General Atkinson ; and Lieu
tenant Anderson, 73 Brigade Major. The author is
sorry that he cannot give the names of the other regu
lar officers, as they were all deserving well of their
We had not this day marched more than five miles,
before we came upon the main Indian trail. We had
started up the river in order to get on it, opposite to
where we had the battle, or near that place; as we
were of opinion they would make up the river, rather
than down. But here we were greatly disappointed.
We got upon the trail much sooner than we expected,
and found that we could follow it without any difficulty.
122 HISTORY OF THE
It appeared to be making down the river, too,
which pleased us still better. We had understood
that, north of us, the country was very mountainous,
and almost impassable.
We followed the trail until a late hour this evening.
Nothing of importance occurred this night. All now
were once more satisfied, that we had again got on the
trail, without having to hunt for it, as we heretofore
had done. There was now a hope once more, of fall
ing in with the enemy, all murmuring again ceased.
The great object then was, with all, to push ahead, for
fear the enemy might cross the Mississippi before we
could overtake them.
July 29th. We started this morning very early,
and had proceeded but a short distance, before we
came upon one of their encampments. We found
that they were still killing their horses to eat. They
here had killed the willing animal, that had carried
them, no doubt for miles, and through many dangers.
We now discovered that the enemy was about four
days ahead of us, and were still flying from us with all
July joth. We this morning quickened our pace,
and marched as fast as the nature of the case would
admit of; but we soon found that the game that we
were in chase of, had taken a track to the north ; and
our troubles, seemed to be returning on us. We dis
covered they were making up a bad swampy stream,
apparently in order to find a crossing place. Before
we succeeded in crossing this stream, we found our
selves going back, in the same direction we had come ;
but after we had crossed, we, not unlike a parcel of
hounds after a fox, had to take another track to the
south. We now found that we were leaving the Wis
consin river, and were getting into a miserable country.
We had proceeded but a few miles, before we came to
LATE INDIAN WAR 123
another stream, that appeared to be worse than any we
had yet met with. We here had to make a retrograde
movement, and go up a short distance, and make a
bridge ; which we soon did. As soon as we crossed,
we measured our course back to the trail, the general
direction of which we now found, to be west by north
west; but found that we were likely to get into a
dreadful country. That, however mattered naught ;
we were on the trail of the enemy, and had, as we then
thought, gone through the worst country in the known
world. We had not the most distant thought that we
would see another half as bad as that we had passed
through. The idea that we would soon get into a
more level, and better travelling country, encouraged
us to push on, and surmount, for awhile, every difficulty
that might come in our way.
We went on, that day, with considerable celerity,
until about one o'clock, at which time some of our
front scouts caught an Indian, who, upon examination,
turned out to be a Winnebago. We here stopped and
let our horses graze, while the Indian was undergoing
Captain Craig, 74 from Galena, with a very respectable
company from the county of Jo Daviess, came up and
joined General Dodge's squadron, which added very
much to the strength of it. The Indian that was taken
here as a prisoner, said on examination, that the Indians
had encamped close by there, and had been gone four
days. He stated that they had a number of wounded
that were laying on their horses, and that two of them
died the night they staid here. We did not get much
information from this son of the forest ; nevertheless,
we concluded to take him with us. He at first wanted
to stay ; but, after finding out that we would not injure
him, and that there was a tolerable good chance to get
plenty to eat, he went cheerfully. There was another
i2 4 HISTORY OF THE
old fellow, taken as a prisoner, who was suffered to go
away. He went to where the Winnebagoes had a small
village. Three more of the children of these wild and
dreary looking mountains came to us, after we had
stopped to encamp. They came with a sort of white
flag, which they carried on a stick. Mr. Chiler Arm
strong, a gentleman belonging to General Dodge's corps,
was the only one that could talk with them in their
language. The Indians were examined respecting the
country, but could not tell us any thing about it. They
stated that they never knew of any person to cross
these mountains but once; that was in the year 1827,
when the Winnebagoes attacked Captain Lindsey's
keel boats ; the same Captain Lindsey who then com
manded a company of spies belonging to Major Ewing's
battalion; who, after their attack upon the keel boats,
made their retreat across these mountains. We found
the Sacs were keeping the same trail the Winnebagoes
We had just entered those mountains ; and as an all-
wise Providence had so directed it, no one knew how
bad they were ; for if they had known the difficulty of
crossing, and the distance across, them and besides,
that there was nothing for our horses to eat, but weeds
neither officers or men, would have undertaken to go
But an all-wise Creator has ordained it, that man is not
to know one day, that which he has to undergo on the
next ; for if he did, he would be a miserable, unhappy
being; but as it is with man, he is kept in blindness
as to his pilgrimage through life. But hope steps in,
and tells him his path will be smoother by-and-by ; so
hope keeps the creature in good spirits, which causes
him to pursue more diligently still thinking things
will change for the better, and the rough path through
life will become smooth, and then his toils will be over.
LATE INDIAN WAR 125
This was our situation at the time : no one knew,
what a country we were now about to approach.
July joth. We started early this morning, thinking
that we would soon come to some good range for our
horses, as we had encamped on the side of a mountain
that was so barren, that it had no vegetation on it fit
for a horse to eat. But to our extreme disappointment,
we continued going from mountain to mountain; and in
the place of getting better grazing, we found it getting
worse. About twelve o'clock we were obliged to stop
and refresh our horses, by letting them graze on weeds,
and browse on such few things as they could get. The
horses were not choice now, as to what they took hold
of; they were extremely hungry, and soon filled their
stomachs with whatever they could catch on the sides
of the mountains ; which were principally weeds, and a
kind of a vine which grew close to the ground.
General Atkinson had succeeded in getting a waggon
on thus far ; but here it was found impossible to take it
any further. The waggon contained his own private
stores ; but here all had to be left that could not be
packed on horse-back. A number of articles were
packed on horses, that I never saw before : All medical
stores, such as boxes and kegs were lashed on the pack-
horses, and carried over those almost impenetrable
We now saw ourselves enveloped in a mass of the
tallest and steepest mountains we had ever seen, and no
one to tell us how long it would be before we would get
But the whole army was in good health, and in fine
spirits. We were not like Bonaparte, when he crossed
the Alps we lost none of our men in heaps of snow,
nor did any die with hunger.
General Atkinson had been famous from the com
mencement of the campaign, for providing plenty of
126 HISTORY OF THE
provisions. We had our horses well packed with this
necessary article. We also had a number of good
beeves along ; so we had no fear of starving.
On this day we began to find the trail strewed with
the dead bodies of Indians, who had died with the
wounds they had received in the battle near the Wis
On the next day, which was July 3 ist, we were about
the center of those majestic mountains. It most
certainly was a grand and majestic sight. They were
very lofty, and generally covered with the largest kind
of timber, with a thick undergrowth. This was truly
a lonely and disheartening place. The matin song of
the red bird, nightingale and sparrow were all that
could be heard, and the only inhabitants of those grand
and majestic looking mountains.
There are places, where we at once are at home with
nature where she seems to take us to her bosom,
with all the fondness of a mother, although in a strange
land. But not so here: There was nothing to entice
the traveller to make a stop, except a view of the
height and grandeur of those piles of earth, which do
not seem to look as though they ever can be inhabited
by any civilized people in the world.
There is not the smallest kind of bottom between
those mountains. We generally found good water at
the foot of them; but scarcely ever enough to have
afforded ground for a small garden. So it appears
that this country was formed by the great I-Am, for
some purpose that the children of men have not yet
It cannot be for those unhappy children of the
forest, for they are disposed to reside where they can
make t'heir living by the chase. But here was no
game for them to chase; no lakes or streams for them
to paddle their canoes in, or fish to angle for. We
LATE INDIAN WAR 127
were the first civilized people that ever had entered
this tremendous pile of mountains. They are now
found out, and I must leave them, for some person
more able to describe further than I have done.
August i st. We this day passed a number of dead
Indians, who had died in consequence of wounds they
had received at the battle near the Wisconsin river.
There were five found, it is said, in going the distance
of five miles.
About twelve o'clock this day, we came to a small
river, which was called Kickapoo. We here found
that the country was about to change. A short dis
tance before we got to this stream, we came to a beau
tiful body of pine timber, which was tall and large.
As soon as we crossed this stream, we found the
mountains were covered with prairie grass. We here
found the Indian trail was getting fresher. They had
encamped at this creek.
We had now been three days in those mountains,
and our horses had lived on weeds, except those that
became debilitated and were left behind; for a great
number had become so, and left to starve in this
We here for the first time in three days, had an
opportunity of turning our horses out to graze.
Accordingly we let them graze for about an hour,
which they made good use of, and during which we
took a cold check. About one o'clock we started, at
a faster gait than usual. We found from the face of
the country, that we were not a great way from the
Mississippi. The country was still hilly, but the hills
of a small size, and almost barren; so we could get
along with more speed. It gave the men new spirits.
We now saw that our horses would not have to starve,
as we had begun to think it probable that they would.
On this evening we came across the grave of an
128 HISTORY OF THE
Indian chief, who was buried in the grandest style of
Indian burials; painted, and otherwise decorated, as
well as those wretched beings were able to do. He
was placed on the ground, with his head resting against
the root of a tree, logs were placed around him, and
covered over with bark; and on top of which green
bushes were laid; so intended, that we might pass by
without discovering the grave. He was examined, and
found to have been shot.
It was now late in the evening, and we had pro
ceeded but a short distance from here, before some of
our front spies, came across an Indian that had been
left behind from some cause or other. The spies
interrogated him about Black Hawk and his band.
He stated that they would get to the river on that day,
and would cross over on the next morning. The old
sinner then plead for quarters; but that being no time
to be plagued with the charge of prisoners, they had to
leave the unhappy wretch behind, which appeared to
be a hard case. But, no doubt, he had been at the
massacre of a number of our own citizens, and deserved
to die for the crimes which he had perpetrated, in
taking the lives of harmless and unoffending women
We this day made a tolerable push, having marched
until eight o'clock at night before we stopt. We
then halted, and formed our encampment: But it was
for a short time only.
General Atkinson gave orders for all to confine
their horses, and be ready to march by two o'clock T in
pursuit of the enemy.
We were now all tired and hungry: and something
to eat was indispensably necessary. We had a long
way to go after water, and the worst kind of a precipice
to go down and up to procure it. All was now a
bustle for a while to prepare something to sustain
LATE INDIAN WAR 129
nature, and to do it in time to get a little rest, before
we would have to march. About nine o'clock, the
noise began to die away, so that, by ten o'clock, all
was [were] lost in sleep, but the sentinel who was at
At the appointed hour the bugle sounded: all were
soon up, and made preparations for a march at quick
step; moving on to complete the work of death upon
those unfortunate children of the forest.
General Atkinson, this morning, had the army laid off
and arranged in the following manner: General Dodge,
with his squadron was placed in front the Infantry
next the second brigade next, under the command
of General Alexander the first brigade next, under
the command of General Posey the third brigade
next, under the command of General Henry.
In this order the march commenced. We had not
proceeded more than four or five miles, before there
was a herald sent back, informing us that the front
spies had come in sight of the enemy's rear guard.
The intelligence was soon conveyed to General Atkin
son, and then to all the commanders of the different
brigades. The celerity of the march was then doubled,
and it was but a short time before the firing of the
front spies commenced, about half a mile in front of
the main army. The Indians retreated toward the
Mississippi, but kept up a retreating fire upon our
front spies for some time, until General Dodge, who
commanded, began to kill them very fast. The
Indians then retreated more rapidly, and sought refuge
in their main army, which was lying on the bank of
the Mississippi, where they had joined in a body to
defend themselves, and sell their lives as dear as pos
sible; for they now found that they could not get away
from us, and the only chance for them, was, to fight
until thev died.
ijo HISTORY OF THE
General Henry had this morning been put in the
rear, but he did not remain there long. Major Ewing
who commanded the spy battalion, sent his Adjutant
back to General Henry, informing him that he was on
the main trail. Major Ewing, at the same time,
formed his men in order of battle, and awaited the
arrival of the brigade, which marched up in quick
time. When they came up, General Henry had his
men formed as soon as possible for action; he placed
Colonel Jones and Major Ewing in front. General
Atkinson called for one regiment from General Hen
ry's brigade, to cover his rear. General H. dispatched
Colonel Fry with his regiment. Colonel Collins
formed on the right of Colonel Jones and Major Ewing;
when all were dismounted and marched on foot in the
main trail, down the bluff into the bottom.
Here it is worthy of remark, that Colonel E. C.
March, who was the volunteer Aid to General Atkin
son, displayed the part of a good and fearless soldier;
likewise Major McConnel. They went ahead and
searched out the main trail of the enemy. We here
had to charge for some considerable distance, over the
worst kind of ground; the logs, and weeds being in
some places as high as a man's head. All this did
not stop us; General Henry, with his Aids, Majors
Johnson 75 and McConnel, in front, and the brave
Colonel March leading the van.
We pursued on, until Colonel Jones and Major
Ewing commenced a fire on the main body of the
enemy; at which time General Henry sent back an
officer to bring up Colonel Fry with his regiment.
Colonel Collins was by this time in the heat of the
action with his regiment. Captain Gentry from Gen
eral Dodge's corps, was by this time also up, and
opened a heavy fire. He fell into the lines of Colonel
Jones and Major Ewing. Captains Gruer 78 and
LATE INDIAN WAR 131
[John F.] Richardson, from General Alexander's brig
ade, with their companies, and a few scattering gentle
men from General Dodge's corps, were also up; who
all joined General Henry, and fought bravely.
Colonel Fry obeyed the call of his General, and was
soon there with his regiment, who shrank not from
their duty. They all joined in the work of death
for death it was. We were by this time fast getting
rid of those demons in human shape.
About half an hour after the battle commenced,
Colonel Taylor with the infantry, and General Dodge
with his squadron, got on the ground, and joined in the
battle with us. They had been thrown on the extreme
right, by following the rear guard of the enemy. 77
Those men are both brave officers, and would have
gloried in being in front of the battle; but it appears
that this was intended by the God of battles for our
much beloved Henry, who here displayed the part of
a General indeed. He was placed in the rear in the
morning, and was first in battle. This may appear
strange to the reader, but it was nevertheless the truth.
General Atkinson stationed Generals Posey and
Alexander, up the river, on the extreme right, in order
to prevent the Indians from making their escape in
that direction; which appeared to be one of those hard
cases, for the men had marched a great way, through
swamps, over mountains, and through the worst kind
of forests; had suffered much with fatigue and many
other hardships which a person necessarily has to
undergo in a campaign: and that, too, they had done
without a murmur, in order that they might have it in
their power to assist in expelling from their country,
those wretched children of the forest.
The battle lasted about three hours: when we came
upon the enemy, they were fixing their bark canoes to
cross the river. Some of them had crossed; others
HISTORY OF THE
had just launched their canoes; and some had not got
them made; but I suppose all were busy in making the
necessary arrangements to cross and get out of our way.
But the Ruler of the Universe, He who takes ven
geance on the guilty, did not design those guilty wretches
to escape His vengeance for the horrid deeds they had
done, which were of the most appalling nature. He
here took just retribution for the many innocent lives
those cruel savages had taken on our northern frontiers.
It can never be ascertained how many were killed in
this battle ; but from the best calculation that could be
made, I suppose we killed about one hundred and fifty;
and I think it altogether probable, that as many more
were drowned in attempting to cross the river. The river
where they attempted to cross, was full of islands. A
number of them succeeded in reaching one of those
islands, and had taken shelter behind old logs and
willows, where they kept up a constant fire upon us
during the engagement. Colonel Taylor 78 ordered an
officer and a part of his infantry to cross over to the
island, and rout the enemy from this position ; but it
being the nature of an Indian to sell his life as dear as
possible, they did so here. They killed five of the
regulars, before they could drive them from their strong
hold that they had got into; and then, it had to be done
by a charge, which those men were not afraid to do. 79
I am sorry, that, I cannot recollect the name of the
officer who commanded and took this band of regulars
into this island.
There were a number of gentlemen belonging to the
militia, who crossed also into this island, and assisted
in driving the enemy from this hiding place. Mr.
William Bradford, Adjutant of Major Ewing's spy
battalion, and many other brave and fearless men from
the militia, crossed.
The part of the river they had to wade, took a man
LATE INDIAN WAR 133
up to his arm-pits ; but even this appeared to be no
obstacle in their way. The enemy were there, doing
mischief by annoying us, and they had to be routed or
killed. The latter was most desirable, and was nearly
done, there being but few who made their escape from
During the engagement we killed some of the squaws
through mistake. It was a great misfortune to those
miserable squaws and children, that they did not carry
into execution [the plan] they had formed on the morn
ing of the battle that was, to come and meet us, and
surrender themselves prisoners of war. It was a horrid
sight to witness little children, wounded and suffering
the most excruciating pain, although they were of the
savage enemy, and the common enemy of the country.
It was enough to make the heart of the most
hardened being on earth to ache.
We took about fifty prisoners, principally women
and children. They during the engagement, had con
cealed themselves in the high weeds and grass, and
amongst old logs and brush, which lay very thick in the
bottom, and some had buried themselves in the mud
and sand in the bank of the river, just leaving enough
of their heads out to breathe the breath of life. The
soldiers drew them out, and brought them to what was
then called head quarters, the place where the officers
were principally assembled, and where the Surgeons and
Surgeon's mates were busily engaged in dressing
and examining the wounded. We lost here in killed
and wounded twenty-seven men. Three of the wounded
died next day, among whom was Lieutenant [Samuel]
Bowman. He had command of the company, the Cap
tain being absent. The loss of this officer was very much
lamented by his men and brother officers. He fought
bravely until he received the mortal wound. He be
longed to Colonel Fry's regiment. I have been told
i 3 4 LATE INDIAN WAR
that he had a wife and one child to lament his death ;
but the child can have it to say, when he arrives to the
years of maturity, that his father died fighting the bat
tles of his country, and he was proud that he had a
father that died in such a cause.
As soon as the battle was over, all the wounded were
collected to one place, and, with those of our enemy,
were examined, and their wounds dressed ; there was no
difference here between our men and our enemy. The
different Surgeons did their best for both. They were
no longer able to do us any harm, but were in our
power, and begging for mercy, and we acted like a civil
ized people, although it was with the worst kind of
enemies, and one that had done so much mischief, and
had taken away so many of the lives of our fellow
citizens. After the Indians were all collected together
that we had taken prisoners, they were examined
respecting many things ; and among others what it was
that the Indian Chief was saying when he talked so long
J O O
on the mountain at the Wisconsin. They stated, that he
was telling us in the Winnebago language, that they
had their squaws and children with them, and that
they were starving for something to eat, and were not
able to fight us ; and that if we would let them pass
over the Mississippi, they would do no more mischief.
They stated that he spoke this in the Winnebago
language, believing that the same Winnebagoes that
were with us in the battle, were still there. But here
he was mistaken : as soon as the battle was over, the
Indians, with our pilot Poquet, all left us ; so there
was no one among us, that understood the Winnebago
Steam boat Warrior has an engagement with the enemy, the day
before we overtook them Steam boat commanded by Lieu
tenant Kingsbury Arrival of the steam boat Warrior, soon
after our engagement She returns and brings us provision
General Atkinson, believing that the enemy were nearly all
destroyed, did not pursue them across the Mississippi March
down to Prairie du Chlen We find the friendly Indians
rejoicing at the defeat of the enemy General Atkinson has a
talk with the Wlnnebagoes We march to Dixon's and are
SOON after the battle was over, the steam boat War
rior arrived. When she came near to where we
were, she commenced raking the Island with a six
pounder. We in return fired a salute, thinking she
was apprised of our battle, and that she was firing us a
salute ; but the truth was, she had the first fight with
the enemy herself, 80 and was then raking the Island
with her six pounder, not knowing but the enemy were
still there. When she came up, we then learnt that on
the evening before, she had been there for the express
purpose of preventing the Indians from crossing, until
the main army might get up with them. Lieutenant
Kingsbury, who commanded, stated that they hoisted
a white flag, but would not send aboard the steam boat.
He told them if they did not do it, he would fire upon
them ; but they still refused, and appeared to be mak
ing preparation for action ; so, accordingly, he fired his
six pounder, and likewise opened a fire of musquetry upon
them, when they commenced a heavy fire upon the
boat. The battle now became general, and lasted for
136 HISTORY OF THE
some time, as the boat was anchored. All were at their
posts, and would have, it is stated, continued at this
place until the main army got up, if they had not been
out of wood. So she had to drop down, in order to
lay in wood ; but it is stated, she killed five in this
action and, I suppose, wounded a number; but the
number I do not think has been ascertained ; but Lieu
tenant Kingsbury and all the other officers deserve
great credit for the bravery and industry they made use
of, in trying to prevent the Indians from crossing until
the army could come up with them ; they dropped down
that night as low as Prairie du Chien, and took in wood,
and returned to the scene of action the next day, by
twelve o'clock, a distance of forty miles or upwards.
But when they got back to their old play place, the
boys that they had been sporting with the day before,
were no more. We had killed and wounded a great
many of these wretched wanderers, that have no home
in the world, but are like the wild beasts more than
man wandering from forest to forest, and not making
any improvement in the natural mind. All their study
is, how to proceed in the chase, or take scalps in time
of war. But although they are a miserable race of peo
ple, and live a wretched life, they are much frightened
when they see death stare them in the face ; which was
the case at this time. When we came upon the squaws
and children, they raised a scream and cry loud enough
to affect the stoutest man upon earth. If they had shown
themselves, they would have come orT much better,
but fear prevented them ; and in their retreat, trying
to hide from us, many of them were killed ; but con
trary to the wish of every man, as neither officer nor
private intended to have spilt the blood of those squaws
and children. But such was their fate ; some of them
were killed, but not intentionally by any man ; as all
were men of too much sense of honor and feeling to
LATE INDIAN WAR 137
have killed any but those who were able to harm us.
We all well knew the squaws and children could do us
no harm ; and could not help what the old Black Hawk
and the other chiefs did. The prisoners we took
seemed to lament their ever having raised arms against
the United States, and appeared to blam e the Black H awk
and the Prophet, for the miserable condition that their
tribe was then in ; but at the same time, appeared to re
joice that they were prisoners of war, which plainly
showed that they had some faith in our humanity, and
that they would exchange the life they then were living, for
any other. They appeared to manifest every token of
honesty in their examination. They stated that Black
Hawk had stolen off up the river, at the commence
ment of the battle, with some few of his warriors, and
a few squaws and children. I think the number of
warriors was ten, and thirty-five women and children,
or, in other words, four lodges, which is the Indian
phrase as they do not know how to count by numbers.
They were examined respecting the first battle we had
with them on the Wisconsin, and they stated that we
killed sixty-eight on the field of action ; and that twenty-
five had died since with their wounds ; making in all
ninety-three that we are certain we killed in that battle,
besides a number more, that there is no doubt still lin
gered and died with their wounds. Putting together
what were killed in the two battles, and all the little
skirmishes, we must have destroyed upwards of four
hundred of these unhappy and miserable beings, which
was occasioned, no doubt, by the superstitious ideas
which were instilled into their minds by the Prophet. 81
Although I have already stated that those unhappy
wanderers make no improvement in the natural mind,
they still, by instinct, believe in an over-ruling Provi
dence, and are the most credulous people upon earth.
They pay much attention to their dreams, and if one
138 HISTORY OF THE
of their nation dreams much, he soon takes the name
of prophet, as they believe it to be a visitation of the
Great Spirit. One morning I chanced to rise very
early; and taking a walk through the encampment,
accidently wandered to where thelndians were encamped.
It was just at the dawn of day, and they were just
beginning their morning worship of the Great Spirit. I
had often heard that these uninformed children of the
forest, believed that there was a God, and tried to wor
ship him, which made me call a halt to see if what I had
heard respecting this unhappy people was true. They
commenced by three of them standing up with their
faces to the east ; one of them commenced a kind of
talk, as though he was talking to some person at a dis
tance, at the same time shaking a gourd, which, from
the rattling, I should have taken to be full of pebbles
or beans. The other two stood very still, looking
towards the east ; the others were all sitting round in
the most perfect silence, when the old priest, prophet,
or whatever they called him, commenced a kind of
song, which, I believe, is the common one sung by the
Indians on all occasions. It was, as near as I could
make out, in the following words. He-aw-aw-he-aw-
how-he-aw-hum with a great many elevations and
falls in their tone, and beating time with the gourd of
pebbles. When this song was sung they commenced
a kind of prayer, which I thought the most solemn
thing I had witnessed. It was a long, monotonous
note, occasionally dropping by a number of tones at
once, to a low and unearthly murmur. When he had
done he handed the gourd of pebbles to one of the two
that stood by him, who went, as near as I could ascer
tain, through the same ceremony, still shaking the
gourd. When he had done, he handed it to the third,
who went through the same motions, and making
use of the same words that the first two had done,
LATE INDIAN WAR 139
which I suppose was a supplication or prayer to the
Great Spirit to give them plenty to eat, and strength
to conquer their enemies. It is stated, by those who
are acquainted with this race of people, that they are
very much afraid of offending the Great Spirit. If
they have bad luck in hunting, they think it is caused
by their having offended the Great Spirit, and they
make an atonement, by offering up or making a sacri
fice of something that they set much store by, such as
burning their tobacco, 82 or something else that they
doat upon very much, but there is nothing in this
world that they think more of than tobacco, as smok
ing they think is almost as indispensably necessary as
eating. I must now return to the battle ground with
my subject. After the battle was all over, and the
wounded all attended to, the prisoners and the wounded
of both parties, were put on board of the steamboat
Warrior, and taken down to Prairie du Chien, where
the wounded were taken to the hospital, and the
prisoners put in confinement. The boat returned to
us the next morning. We were still at the battle
ground, or near it ; whilst we lay there, our men were
still picking up scattering Indians. They brought in
an old chief who was wounded. He was very poor,
was between six and seven feet high ; what hair was on
his head was gray, but that was not much, as the most
of it was shaved off, just leaving enough for hand hold
to scalp him by; as these superstitious beings think it
would be a mark of cowardice to cut off this tuft of
hair, which they call their scalp. These superstitious
beings believe that if they are maimed or disfigured
in this world, they will appear in the next in the same
form, which is the reason they scarcely ever bury their
dead. If he should chance to lose his scalp, they think
that it would show in the next world that he had been
conquered and scalped by an enemy, which would go
to show that he was not a great warrior. 83
140 HISTORY OF THE
Gen. Atkinson now thought that he had taken just
retribution for the blood these Indians had spilt on
our frontiers, and saw that it would be useless to cross
the river in pursuit of those wretched beings, for they
were now scattered and hid in the swamps, so that it
was an impossible thing to take many of them. He
finally came to the conclusion, to drop down to Prairie
du Chien, and have a talk with the Winnebagoes ; for
it was now manifest that they had been allies to the
Sacs and Foxes ; for the prisoners that we took in this
action, put all doubts to rest on this score. We had
a long time believed that they were acting treacher
ously, and General Atkinson now thought that it was
time to bring them to an account for their conduct.
He, accordingly, on the second day after the battle,
which was the fourth of August, took up the line of
march for Prairie du Chien ; but before General
Atkinson left the battle ground, he provisioned a
number of Sioux 84 and some Winnebagoes, and sent
them in search of Black Hawk to see if they could
not capture him, and bring him in as a prisoner, which
the Sioux appeared to be anxious to do, as the Sacs
and they had been at variance a long time ; and they
saw that there was no chance of taking revenge for the
many injuries the Sacs had done them. General
Atkinson and the infantry went down on the steam
boat Warrior, and reached Prairie du Chien on the
same day we started. The mounted men, baggage
and all went down by land, and reached Prairie du
Chien the next day, which was the fifth of August.
On entering the settlement of Prairie du Chien, we
witnessed a very novel scene. The Menominie
Indians were rejoicing at the defeat of the Sacs and
Foxes, and were expressing it by music and dancing.
They had obtained several scalps, amongst which were
some of the squaws, which they always give to their
LATE INDIAN WAR 141
squaws. They had given their squaws several of them,
and were making music for them to dance around
them. It was, as near as I could observe, in the fol
lowing way : The men all stood in a row with gourds
in their hands, shaking them in very regular order,
while one old fellow was beating on the head of a kind
of drum, which is generally a deer skin stretched over
a hollow gum, sawed to the length of our drums.
They never use but one stick, and that very slow.
The squaws were all paraded in front of the men,
facing them, and the squaws who were related to those
whom the Sacs and Foxes killed in 1831, held the
scalps of the Sacs and Fox squaws on long poles, and
stood in the center between the two lines, shaking
them, while the other squaws and the men danced
around them, apparently trying to keep time with the
rattling of the gourds, and sound of the drum, and all
at the same time singing the song usually sung by all
nations of Indians, consisting only of a few simple
words that I have already repeated; but they rise and
fall very singular, and always beat time to the song
with their feet; when the song gets to the highest
pitch, they jump up very high, and sometimes stamp
with their feet. They generally bend forward toward
each other, sometimes with their noses so close as to
touch. The squaws appeared to exert all the power
they were master of, in shaking the scalps, and using
their feet at the same time, with the drummer and the
gourd-shakers; and, from their countenances, they
appeared to be perfectly happy. General Atkinson,
on the second day after we arrived at Prairie du Chien,
had the principal Chiefs of the Winnebagoes, and a
few of the Menominies, at Gen. Street's, the Indian
Agent at Prairie du Chien, and had a talk with them.
He told them that they had given him reason to think
they were not true to him, as he had caught them in
142 HISTORY OF THE
many lies, which they tried to deny. He then ac
cused Wisshick of aiding the Sacs, and inquired of
him where his two sons were. The answer of Wisshick
was, that he did not know where they were. General
Atkinson then asked him if they were not with Black
Hawk. His answer was, that one had been with him,
but he did not know where he was then. General
Atkinson then ordered him to be put in prison until
his sons could be produced. He then had a talk with
the Menominies, who had never been at war with the
United States. They professed all the friendship in
the world for our Government ; and stated that they
had never done us any harm, and did not tell lies, and
that if they wanted to do any harm now, they would
not know how. This was a little Menominie Chief
whose name I do not recollect. Gen. Atkinson talked
very friendly to him, and advised him to pursue the
same friendly course towards the United States, and
they would be well treated. When this Chief was
done, he made a request of Gen. Atkinson, whom he
termed father, to give each of his young men a pair
of shoes, and stated that their feet were worn out with
walking. He then went on to explain, that when he
said shoes, he meant horses, and stated that his young
men had been promised a horse apiece, and had not
got them. General Atkinson promised that they
should have them, or that he would see to it, I do not
recollect which. On the next day about eleven o'clock,
Wisshick's sons were brought in, both badly wounded,
which went to confirm that he and his sons were allies
to the Sacs and Foxes. They had been wounded in
the battle on the Mississippi. They were put in con
finement July yth.
General Scott 85 and suite arrived this morning in
the steam boat Warrior, and assumed the command of
the whole army, to which station he had been appointed
LATE INDIAN WAR 143
some time previous, but was unable to come on sooner
in consequence of the cholera breaking out in his
army. He came past several posts, and discharged
the men wherever he found them.
General Scott concluded to discharge the army (or
the Mounted Volunteers) that were then in the field,
and demanded Black Hawk of Keokuck; 86 as both men
and horses were nearly worn out with fatigue. Accord
ingly, on the 8th day of August, we left the tented
fields, and took up our line of march to Dixon's on
Rock river, the place appointed for us to be discharged
at (or mustered out of the service of the United States.)
All now were eager to press forward. We had turned
our faces toward our respective homes; and notwith
standing that we as well as our horses, were nearly
worn out with the fatiguing marches through the
swamps, and over the mountains, yet all were cheerful,
and every heart seemed to leap for joy at the thought
of being free from the toils and hardships of a soldier,
to return again to the embraces of a wife and children,
or a father and mother, brothers and sisters, and to
mingle once more, in the walks and society of the fair
sex which appears to be a sovereign balm to man in
all his afflictions.
On this day just at night, we met about three
hundred Menominie Indians, in company of an
American Officer from Green Bay, 87 coming to join in
pursuit of the Sac and Fox Indians. We happened to
meet them in a prairie. The officer advanced and met
us, or we certainly would have fired upon them.
When we came up to them, they appeared almost to
lament, that they had not got in before we had the last
battle, in order that they could have had an oppor
tunity of assisting us in the work of death to our
common enemy. For they are, as I have already
stated, great enemies to the Menominie Indians.
i 4 4 HISTORY OF THE
When they left us, they seemed to press forward with
more vigour, as it was their object to pursue the
balance of the Sacs and Foxes, who had made their
On the next day, we began to reach the settlements
in the mining country. This was again a solemn scene.
The farms had mostly been sown in grain of some
kind or other. Those that were in small grain, were
full ripe for the sickle; but behold! the husbandman
was not there, to enjoy the benefits of his former
labor by thrusting in the scythe and sickle, and
gathering in his grain, which was fast going to destruc
tion. All appeared to be solitary, and truly presented
a state of mourning. But as we advanced a little
further into the more thickly settled parts, we would
occasionally see the smoke just beginning to make its
appearance from the tops of the chimneys; as some of
the inhabitants thought that it would be as well to risk
dying by the tomahawk and scalping knife, as to lose
their grain, and die by famine; and others had received
information that we had slain in battle their trouble
some enemy, who had driven them from their homes,
and had slain many of their neighbors. Whenever
we approached a house, there is no telling the joy it
would give to the desolate man who had lately emerged
from some fort, and had left his wife and children still
in it, while he ventured to his home, to save something
for them to subsist upon.
I must confess, that it filled my heart with gratitude
and joy, to think that I had been instrumental, with
many others, in delivering my country of those merci
less savages, and restoring those people again to their
peaceful homes and firesides, there to enjoy in safety
the sweets of a retired life; for a fort is to a husband
man, what a jail is to a prisoner. The inhabitants of
this district of [the] country had been shut up in forts
LATE INDIAN WAR 145
for the last three months, through fear of becoming a
prey to Indian barbarity.
Nothing very interesting occurred on our march to
Dixon's. Lieutenant Anderson, 88 of the United States
army, met us at this point, and by the i yth of August,
mustered us all out of the service of the United States.
We sheathed our swords, and buried our tomahawks,
and each man again became his own commander, and
shaped his own course towards his home, to enjoy the
social society of his relatives and friends, in the pursuit
of their different avocations in life.
Report of Gen. Atkinson to Major General Ala comb at Washing
ton Indian talk with General Street, when they delivered
Black Hawk and the Prophet Description of Black Hawk
and the Prophet General remarks of the Author.
WHEN General Atkinson dropped down to Prairie
du Chien, after the battle on the Mississippi, he
made the following report to Major General
Macomb, Commander in Chief at Washington City.
"Head Quarters, ist A. Corps, N. Western)
Army, Prairie du Chien, Aug. 5, 1832.)
"SIR I have the honor to report to you, that I crossed
the Wisconsin on the 2yth and 28th ult., with a select
body of troops, consisting of the regulars under Col. Taylor,
four hundred in number, part of Henry's, Posey's and Alex
ander's brigades, and Dodge's battalion of mounted volunteers ;
amounting in all to thirteen hundred men; and immedi
ately fell upon the trail of the enemy, and pursued it by
forced marches through a mountainous and difficult country,
till the morning of the second instant, when we came up
with his main body, on the left bank of the Mississippi, nearly
opposite the mouth of the Iowa; which we attacked, defeated,
and dispersed, with a loss on his part of about one hundred and
fifty men killed, and thirty-nine women and children prison
ers. The precise number could not be ascertained, as the
greater portion was slain after being forced into the river.
Our loss in killed and wounded, which is stated below, is
very small in comparison with the loss of the enemy ; which
may be attributed to the enemy's being forced from his posi
tions by a rapid charge at the commencement, and through
the engagement. The remnant of the enemy, cut up and
disheartened, crossed to the opposite side of the river, and has
LATE INDIAN WAR 147
fled into the interior, with a view it is supposed of joining
Keokuck and Wapilo's 89 bands of Sacs and Foxes.
" The horses of the volunteer troops being exhausted by
long marches, and the regular troops without shoes, it was
not thought advisable to continue the pursuit. Indeed a stop
to the further effusion of blood seemed to be called for, until
it might be ascertained if the enemy would not surrender.
"It is ascertained from our prisoners, that the enemy lost in
the battle of Ouisconsin, sixty-eight killed, and a very large
number wounded. His whole loss does not fall short of three
hundred. After the battle of the Ouisconsin, the enemy's
women and children, and some who were dismounted,
attempted to make their escape by descending that river, but
judicious measures being taken here by Captain Loomis and
Gen. Street, and Indian Agent, thirty-two women and
children, and four men, have been captured, and some fifteen
killed by the detachment under Lieut. Ritner.
"The day after the battle on this river, I fell down with the
regular troops to this place by water, and the mounted men
will join us to day. It is now my purpose to direct Keokuck
to demand a surrender of the remaining principal men of the
hostile party ; which, from the large number of women and
children we hold as prisoners, I have every reason to believe
will be complied with. Should it not, they should be pursued
and subdued ; a step Major General Scott will no doubt take
on his arrival.
" I cannot speak too highly of the conduct of the regular
and volunteer forces engaged in the last battle, and the
fatiguing march that preceded it.
" As soon as the reports of the officers of brigades and
corps are handed in, they shall be submitted with further
"I have the honor to be, with great respect,
" Your obdt. servant,
"H. ATKINSON, Bt. Bgdr. Gen. U. S. A.
" Major Gen. Macomb, Commander in Chief, )
" Washington City." J
The reader will recollect that I have, in a preceding
chapter, given the substance of a talk between Gen.
148 HISTORY OF THE
Atkinson and Gen. Street, agent for the Winnebagoes,
and several Winnebago Chiefs, on our arrival at
Prairie du Chien, after the battle on the Mississippi
near the Bad- Axe. In this talk, Gen. Street told the
principal chiefs that if they would bring in the Black
Hawk and the Prophet, it would be well for them,
and that the government of the United States would
hold them in future as friends, and treat them kindly,
and not any more consider them friends to the Sacs
On this declaration the old one-eyed chief, called
the Decorri, and Cheater, 90 took some of their men
with them and went in pursuit of these Sac chiefs, in
order if possible to take them prisoners, and bring
them and deliver them up to the Indian agent at
Prairie du Chien.
Accordingly, on the 2yth of August, these two
Winnebago chiefs returned, bringing with them the
Black Hawk and the Prophet, the principal movers
and instigators of the war. The interview with them
on their arrival at Prairie du Chien, I have been told,
was a very interesting scene. I will give the reader the
substance of their talk with General Street and Col.
Taylor, which will go to show how vigilant, and with
what perseverance, these Winnebago chiefs acted to
take these prisoners. They were upwards of twenty days
gone after they left Prairie du Chien before they
returned with them.
When they arrived, Black Hawk desired to speak to
General Street. The amount of what he said was, that
he was not the originator of the war; that he was going
where he would meet Keokuck, and then he would tell
the truth ; that he would then tell all about this war,
which had caused so much trouble ; 91 that there were
chiefs and braves of his nation, who were the cause of
the continuance of the war; that he did not want to
LATE INDIAN WAR 149
hold any council with him ; that when he got where
Keokuck was, he would tell the whole of the origin of
the difficulties, and of those who continued it; that he
wanted to surrender long ago, but others refused : that
he wanted to surrender to the steamboat Warrior, and
tried to do so until the second fire; that he then ran
and went up the river, and never returned to the battle
ground ; that his determination then was to escape if
he could ; that he did not intend to surrender after that,
but that, when the Winnebagoes came upon him, he
gave up and that he would tell all about the disturb
ance when he got to Rock Island.
The one eyed Decorri and the Cheater both in like
manner addressed General Street, whom they term their
father; which almost all the Indians do their agents.
The one eyed Decorri rose first, and addressed him
in the following manner:
"My father, I now stand before you. When we parted, I
told you we would return soon ; but I could not come any
sooner. We had to go a great distance, (to the Dale on the
Wisconsin river, above the Portage ;) you see we have done
what you sent us to do. These are the two you told us to
get, (pointing to Black Hawk and the Prophet.) We always
do what you tell us to do, because we know it is for our good.
My father, you told us to get these men, and it would be the
cause of much good to the Winnebagoes. We have brought
them, but it has been very hard for us to do it ; that one,
Macatamish Kakacky, was a great way off. You told us to
bring them alive ; we have done so. If you had told us to
bring their heads alone, we would have done so ; and it would
have been less difficult for us to do, than what we have done.
My father, we deliver these men into your hands ; we would
not deliver them even to our brother, the chief of the warriors,
but to you, because we know you, and believe you are our
friend. We want you to keep them safe. If they are to be
hurt, we do not wish to see it, wait until we are gone before it
is done. My father, many little birds have been flying about
150 HISTORY OF THE
our ears of late, and we thought they whispered to us, that
there was evil intended for us ; but now we hope the evil birds
will let our ears alone.
"My father, we know you are our friends, because you take
our part ; this is the reason we do what you tell us to do.
"My father, you say you love your red children; we think
we love you as much or more than you love us.
"My father, we have been promised a great deal if we would
take these men, that it would do much good for our people, we
now hope to see what will be done for us.
"My father, we have come in haste, and are tired and hungry,
we now put these men in your hands ; we have done all*you
told us to do/'
General Street then said :
"My children, you have done well ; I told you to bring these
men to me, and you have done so. I am pleased at what you
have done. It will tend to your good, and for this reason I
am well pleased. I assured the great chief of the warriors that
if these men were in your country, you would find them, and
bring them to me; that I believed you would do what I directed
you to do. Now I can say much for your good. I will go
down to Rock Island with the prisoners, and I wish you who
have brought these men especially to go with me, and such
other chiefs and warriors as you may select. My children,
the great chief of the warriors, when he left this place, directed
me to deliver these and all other prisoners to the chief of the
warriors, Col. Taylor, who is by my side.
"Some of the Winnebagoes on the south side of the Wis
consin river have befriended the Sacs, and some of the Indians
of my agency have given them aid ; this was wrong, and dis
pleased the great chief of the warriors and your great father
the President, and was calculated to do you much harm. My
children, your great father the President, at Washington, has
sent a great war chief from the far east, General Scott, with a
fresh army of soldiers, who is now at Rock Island.
"Your great father has sent him and the governor of Illinois,
to hold a council with the Indians at Rock Island ; he has sent
a speech to you ; and wishes the chiefs and warriors of the
LATE INDIAN WAR 151
Winnebagoes, to meet him in council, on the loth of Sep
tember next ; I wish you to be ready to go along with me to
" My children, I am well pleased that you have taken Black
Hawk and the Prophet, and so many others; because it will
enable me to say much for you to the great chief of the war
riors, and your great father the President. I shall now deliver
these two men, Black Hawk and the Prophet, to the chief of
the warriors here, Col. Taylor, who will take good care of
them until we start to Rock Island."
Col. Taylor then said :
u The great chief of the warriors told me to take the pris
oners, when you should bring them, and send them to Rock
Island to him ; I will take them, and keep them safe, but use
them well, and will send them by you and Gen. Street when
you go down to the council, which will be in a few days.
Your friend Gen. Street advised you to get ready and go down
soon, and so do [I] . I tell you again, I will take the prisoners
and keep them safe, but will do them no harm. I will deliver
them to the great chief of the warriors, and he will do with
them and use them in such manner as he may be ordered by
your great father the President."
Cheater, a Winnebago, said to General Street,
" My father, I am young, and don't know how to make
speeches. This is the second time I ever spoke to you before
the people. My father, I am no Chief. I am no orator, but
I have been allowed to speak to you. My father, if I should
not speak as well as others, still you must listen to me.
"My father, when you made the speech to the Chiefs,
Waugh-kon-decorri, Carimanee, the one-eyed Decorri, and
others, the other day, I was there. I heard you. I thought
what you said to them, you also said to me. You said, if
these two (pointing to Black Hawk and the Prophet,) were
taken by us, and brought to you, there would never any more
a black cloud hang over your Winnebagoes. My father,
your words entered into my ears, into my brains, and into my
heart. I left here that very night, and you know you have
152 HISTORY OF THE
not seen me since, until now. My father, I have been a
great way. I had much trouble; but when I remembered
what you said, I know you was right. This made me keep
on, and do what you told me to do. Near the Dale on the
Wisconsin river, I took Black Hawk. No one did it but me.
I say this in the ears of all present, and they know it ; and I
now appeal to the Great Spirit, our Grand Mother, for the
truth of what I say. My father, I am no Chief, but what I
have done is for the benefit of my own nation, and, I hope,
for the good that has been promised us. My father, that one,
Waboki-shick, is my relation. If he is to be hurt, I do not
wish to see it.
" My father, soldiers sometimes stick the ends of their guns
(bayonets) into the backs of Indian prisoners, when they are
going about in the hands of the guard. I hope this will not
be done to these men."
So ended this long talk of the uninformed savage,
which goes to show that they have a warm feeling for
their red brethren.
It appears that they at this time were true friends to
our Government; but they were, I have no doubt,
frightened into this friendship by the first talk at
Prairie du Chien, which Generals Street and Atkinson
held with them, on our arrival at that place, after the
battle of Bad- Axe.
It may not here be uninteresting to the reader, to
give a description of those two distinguished prisoners,
respecting whom so much has been said. No doubt
they were the sole movers and cause of the late war.
Black Hawk is a Pottawattomie 92 by birth, but raised
by the Sacs. He appears to be about sixty years old ;
has a small bunch of grey hair on the crown of his
head, the rest of which is bare ; has a high forehead ;
a Roman nose ; and full mouth, which generally in
clines to be a little open ; has a sharp chin ; no eye
brows, but a very fine eye. His head is frequently
thrown back on his shoulders. He is about five feet
LATE INDIAN WAR 153
four or five inches high ; at present he is thin, and
appears much dejected ; but now and then he assumes
the aspect of command. He held in his left hand a
white flag; in the other, the tail with the back, skin,
head, and beak of the Caumet Eagle. With this he
frequently fans himself. His Indian name is Mucata-
The Prophet, a half Sac and half Winnebago, is
about forty years old ; nearly six feet high ; is stout
and athletic; has a large broad face; short blunt nose;
large full eyes ; broad mouth ; thick lips ; with a full
suit of hair. He wore a white cloth head-dress which
rose several inches above the top of his head ; the
whole man exhibiting a deliberate savageness; not that
he would seem to delight in honorable war, or fight;
but making him as the priest of assassination, or cleri
cal murder. He had in one hand a white flag, while
the other hung carelessly by his side. They were both
clothed in very white dressed deer skin, fringed at the
seams with short cuttings of the same. His Indian
name is Wabokie-shick, (the White Cloud.)
According to the directions of General Street and
Colonel Taylor, those two Chiefs (or braves,) accom
panied by the Winnebago Chiefs, and braves, went
down to Rock Island at the stipulated time, under the
command of Col. Taylor. 94 But when they got to this
point, which had been the place designated to hold the
treaties with those nations of Indians, the cholera pre
vailed to such an extent, that they found it was
impossible to treat at that point; so Gen. Scott,
Governor Reynolds, and those concerned in the treaty,
dropped down the Mississippi to Jefferson Barracks,
where a number of other Chiefs and braves were
brought to them, amongst which was Napope, a cele
brated Sac Chief, also Wisshick, who it appears cele
brated himself at the battle on the Mississippi, for it
154 HISTORY OF THE
appears he had the command at that place, and
from his own statement did much execution himself.
Here the Commissioners made and concluded trea
ties both with the Sacs and Foxes, and the Winne-
bagoes, which the reader will find in the appendix of
this book.* It was a fair equitable treaty; the govern
ment purchased all the claims they had to lands in the
state of Illinois, and pays [paid] them a liberal sum for
the same. They kept Black Hawk, Napope, Wisshick,
and the Prophet, as hostages for the good behaviour
of the rest of the nation of Sacs and Foxes.
Thus terminated a short but laborious war, between
the United States and those nations of Indians; but it
was not without the loss of some of our valuable
citizens, that peace was again restored to our country.
In the accomplishment of this desired object, it is just
to remark, that both officer and soldier did all that lay
in their power to bring this unhappy war to a close as
soon as possible.
Our citizen soldiers hesitated not when the sound of
alarm was given, to forsake all other interests, dear as
it must have been to some, to defend the rights of their
common country. They at once saw that these Indians
had violated the solemn obligations of a solemn treaty,
entered into but a few months before. This bold and
daring defiance of us, and unprovoked outrage upon
the provisions of the treaty, aroused the indignation of
the whole country; it was more than the free sons of
Illinois could think of bearing. They immediately
at the call of their chief, flew to arms. Their Governor
was with them, and one of the first in the field, who,
together with his efficient Adjutant General, organized
the troops in as quick time as ever it was done in any
country, notwithstanding they labored under many
difficulties on account of the great scarcity of
* See Appendix, notes 6 and 7.
LATE INDIAN WAR 155
provisions in our state at that time; for a visitation of
Providence had almost entirely cut off our crops the
last two years. To provision this army was very per
plexing at this time. What was Governor Reynolds
to do? At this critical moment our state was invaded
by a savage foe, and he knew not how soon the help
less citizens on the frontiers might become an easy
prey to their barbarity. But justice says to my pen,
write it down, and say to your reader, that he flew to
one of the ablest and most efficient men, Col. March. 95
Provisions, forage, arms, munitions of war, and every
thing that was necessary was soon furnished and con
veyed up the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, to such
points as Governor Reynolds directed him. There
were provisions in St. Louis, and this energetic and
unsurpassable man got them, let the prices be what
they might please to ask. There was no lack of
But the first campaign proved unsuccessful; but
such is the fate of war, and none ought to lay the
blame on the Commander-in-Chief, which some have
had the boldness to do, but I think unjustly. I was
an eye witness a greater part of the campaign, and I
thought he did not spare time or pains to hunt out
the enemy, and chastise them for their temerity. I
think he must be a man of a reckless disposition, who
would charge the ill success to him in this first cam
paign. Those who were out on the second can testify
to the many difficulties we had to encounter before we
fell in with the enemy. But did the Governor, when
the first campaign proved unsuccessful, fold his arms
in this trying and critical moment, and abandon the
bleeding frontier to the merciless savages? Did he
abandon the camp for a life of ease, in the repose of
his own domestic habitation? The answer, I think,
reader, will be No ! by all who know anything of the
156 HISTORY OF THE
first and last campaigns. Did he not see that a fair
portion of the State, which he had the honor to govern,
was exposed to the midnight and noon day assassina
tion by the ruthless savage? Were the cries of his
people listened to unheeded? No! he left a devoted
band under the command of those heroic soldiers,
Henry and Fry, and issued a proclamation to his
countrymen to come forth to the frontier and protect
the rights of their country.
Was this appeal, too, unheeded by the gallant
sons of Illinois? Did they turn a deaf ear to the
cries of the people of the mining country, when the
savage had killed some of its choice citizens in open
Look at the massacre on Indian Creek, of the Halls,
Daviess, and Penigrew families ; the highway murder
of St. Vrain, Durley, Howard, Green, Hall, and many
others. Who could see or hear of all those massacres,
and not turn out in defence of his country ? Or what
Governor would tamely lose one moment, before he
would fly with all its force to its relief? Was not this
the case at this time? Did not Governor Reynolds a
second time invoke the patriotism of his people for
a fresh supply of troops? The people heard, and
abandoned their ploughs, when in the act of planting
their corn ; the courts of justice were suspended ; the
lawyer quit the bar; the minister of divine truth for
sook the pulpit for the tented fields of a soldier's life.
They plainly saw, that if the arm of succour was not
held out to those frontiers, the country bordering on
the Mississippi and Illinois, and the Mining District,
would soon be left a barren wilderness, and present a
blaze of conflagration, and the voice of our friends and
neighbors heard no more.
Our chief gave the word, " to arms " and that was
sufficient; all were soon at the place of rendezvous;
LATE INDIAN WAR 157
none slumbered by the way ; they were going forth to
avenge the murders of their butchered brethren.
In obedience to the call of their Governor, in two
weeks there was a force of nearly four thousand
assembled at Fort Wilbourn, a distance of at least three
hundred and fifty miles from the homes of some of the
volunteer companies. Here we again found our Gov
ernor in arms in defence of his country. The army
was soon organized, by the aid of Adjutant General
Berry, into three Brigades. We wanted a Bruce or a
Wallace to lead us to victory. Such a man was the
brave James D. Henry 98 to become. He was elected
Brigadier General of the third brigade, as I have before
mentioned. Generals Posey and Alexander are like
wise deserving men, and stand high in the estimation
of their country. But an all-wise Providence saw fit
to crown the Bruce-like Henry with the glory of
avenging our country's wrongs, and restoring peace to
I must next speak of Gen. Atkinson, who has a
thousand times received the thanks of Illinois and the
general government. He had the command of all the
northwestern army, until succeeded by General Scott;
which was not until after the last battle was fought,
and the enemy completely conquered. This officer
is also deserving well of his country, for the long and
vigilant perseverance in pursuing the enemy through
every difficulty that presented itself. He can truly
have it to say, that he marched an army over a country
that cannot be surpassed in the inhabited world, and
one that no white man ever approached before. Not
even the savage himself attempts to penetrate this
country, only when he is forced, then he resorts to
this mountainous forest to evade pursuit, thinking that
no white man can penetrate it. This was done as I
have before remarked, in the year eighteen hundred
158 HISTORY OF THE
and twenty- seven, by the Winnebagoes, after they
attacked Captain Lindsey's boats on the Mississippi.
But General Atkinson stopt not at this time for the
tall and lofty mountains, or the low and marshy swamp.
His word of command to his generals, was " onward,
march" and at the sound of the morning bugle, he
was one of the first to rise and prepare for the pursuit.
Although stricken in years, he would leap offhis charger,
when he would come to an impassable mud hole or preci
pice, like a boy of sixteen. This officer, throughout the
whole of this long campaign, which lasted for three
months, used every precaution to save the lives of his
men, when danger was expected, his men never failed
to have breast works thrown up when they encamped,
for fear of a surprise at the dead hour of the night.
Thus, by his perseverance, and the gallant officers
under him, and a brave and chivalrous set of soldiers,
the war was brought to an end, with honor to both
men and officers.
But whilst we rejoice at the honorable result of the
close of this war, we cannot at the same time help
lamenting the loss of so many valuable citizens, who
were either massacred at their own private dwellings,
or assassinated on the highway, or fell in fighting the
battles of their country.
The author has been led to the foregoing reflections,
from seeing in many of the eastern prints, that many
erroneous statements have gone abroad, respecting the
origin and management of this war; and some of them
casting reflections on the Governor of our State, and
crying out, "poor Indians." But as I have before
observed, none but the reckless and abandoned hearted
man, would have the hardihood to cast imputations
upon our Executive, and cry out, "poor Indians,"
after a thorough perusal of the many outrages these
hell-hounds committed on our frontier settlements.
The author must now begin with the Sac and Fox
nations of Indians; and it is his intention to confine
himself principally to the war between them and the
In order to show the cause of hostilities between
those Indians and the United States, he has to trouble
the reader with petitions sent by the settlers near Rock
Island, to his Excellency Gov. Reynolds, praying for
protection ; and then the course pursued to dissuade
those Indians from their evil designs, by Gen. Clark,
Gov. Reynolds, Gen. Gaines, and the Indian Agent,
without a resort to arms. But it would not do ; a
resort to arms was indispensably necessary to restore
peace and safety to our citizens. The letters and peti
tions are as follows :
"April 30, 1831.
u His Excellency the Governor of the State of Illinois :
" We the undersigned, being citizens of Rock River and its
vicinity, beg leave to state to your honor, the grievances which
we labor under, and pray your protection against the Sac and
Fox tribe of Indians, who have again taken possession of our
lands near the mouth of Rock River and its vicinity. They
have, and now are, burning our fences, destroying our crops
of wheat now growing, by turning in all their horses. They
also threaten our lives if we attempt to plant corn, and say they
will cut it up ; that we have stolen their lands from them ;
and they are determined to exterminate us, provided we don't
leave the country. Your honor no doubt is aware of the out
rages that were committed by said Indians, heretofore. Par
ticularly last fall, they almost destroyed all our crops, and
made several attempts on the owners' lives when they
attempted to prevent their depredations, and actually wounded
one man by stabbing him in several places. This spring they
act in a much more outrageous and menacing manner, so that
we consider ourselves compelled to beg protection of you ;
which the agent and garrison on Rock Island refuse to give,
inasmuch as they say they have no orders from government ;
therefore, should we not receive adequate aid from your honor,
we shall be compelled to abandon our settlement, and the
lands which we have purchased of government. Therefore,
we have no doubt but that your honor will better anticipate our
condition, than it is represented, and grant us immediate relief in
the manner that to you may seem most likely to produce the
desired effect. The number of Indians now among us, is
about six or seven hundred. They say there are more com
ing, and that the Pottawattomies and some of the Winneba-
goes will help them in case of an irruption with the whites.
The warriors now here, are the Black Hawk's party, with
other chiefs, the names of whom we are not acquainted with.
Therefore, looking up to you for protection, we beg leave to
remain, yours, &c.
B. F. Pike,
John L. Bain,
David B. Hail,
M. S. Hulls,
G. V. Miller,
Joel Wells, Jun.,
J. W. Spencer,
Jonah H. Case,
It will be seen that this petition was sent to the
Governor on the joth of April. The citizens waited
until the I9th of May, when they found they would
have to send a second embassy to his Excellency by
express, in as much haste as possible, as they were
hourly in danger of being all massacred by those
Indians. They accordingly drew up the following
petition and sent it by one of the most respectable of
their citizens, who was able in person to lay before the
Governor their grievances.
FARNHAMBURG, May i 9 th, 1831.
" To his Excellency the Governor of the State of Illinois :
"We the undersigned, citizens of Rock River and its
vicinity, having previously sent a petition to your honor,
praying your protection against these Sac Indians, who were
at that time doing every kind of mischief, as was set forth and
represented to your honor : but feeling ourselves more
aggrieved, and our situation more precarious, we have been
compelled to make our distress known to you by sending one of
our neighbors, who is well acquainted with our situation. If
we do not get relief speedily, we must leave our habitations to
these savages, and seek safety for our families, by taking them
down into the lower counties -, and suffer our houses and fences
to be destroyed; as one of the principal war chiefs has threat
ened, if we do not abandon our settlement, his warriors should
burn our houses over our heads. They were, at the time we
sent our other petition, destroying our crops of wheat, and are
still pasturing their horses in our fields; burning our fences, and
have thrown the roof off one house. They shot arrows at our
cattle, killed our hogs; and every mischief. We have tried
every argument to the agent for relief, but he tells us they are
a lawless band, and he has nothing to do with them until
further orders; leaving us still in suspense, as the Indians say,
if we plant we shall not reap, a proof of which we had last
fall ; they almost entirely destroyed all our crops of corn ,
potatoes, &c. Believing we shall receive protection from your
Excellency, we shall go on with our farms until the return of
the bearer; and ever remain your humble supplicants, &c."
I omit giving the names of the signers of this petition
as it was signed by nearly the same citizens who signed
I will next give the reader the deposition of Ben
jamin F. Pike, the bearer of the above petition to
Gov. Reynolds, and also the depositions of Hirah
Sanders and Ammyson Chapman, taken before John H.
Dennis, a Justice of the Peace for St. Clair, and Stephen
Dewey a Justice of the Peace for Fulton county.
"STATE OF ILLINOIS, ST. CLAIR COUNTY.
"Present, Benjamin F. Pike, before me, a Justice of the
Peace in and for the said county, and made oath and deposed,
that he has resided in the vicinity of Rock River, in the State
of Illinois, for almost three years last past; that he is well
acquainted with the band of Sac Indians, whose chief is the
Black Hawk, and who have resided and do now reside near the
mouth of Rock River in this State; that he understands so much
of the said Indian language, as to converse with the said Indians
intelligibly ; that he is well satisfied that said Indians, to the
amount of about three hundred warriors, are extremely
unfriendly to the white people; that said Indians are determined;
if not prevented by force, to drive off the white people, who
have some of them purchased land of the United States, near
said Indians; and said Indians to remain the sole occupiers of
the said country. That said Indians do not only make threats
to this effect, but have, in various instances, done much damage
to said white inhabitants, by throwing down their fences,
destroying the fall grain, pulling off the roofs of houses, and
positively asserting that if the whites did not go away, they
would kill them; that there are about forty inhabitants and
heads of families in the vicinity of said Indians, who are
immediately affected by said band of Indians; that said Pike is
certain that said forty heads of families, if not protected, will
be compelled to leave their habitations and homes from the
actual injury that said Indians will commit on said inhabitants.
That said band of Indians, consist, as above stated, of about
three hundred warriors, and that the whole band is actuated by
the same hostile feelings towards the white inhabitants ; and
that, if not prevented by an armed force of men, will commit
murders on said white inhabitants. That said Indians have
said, that they would fight for their country where they reside,
and would not permit the white people to occupy it at all.
That said white inhabitants are desirous to be protected, and
that immediately, so that they may raise crops this spring and
"BENJAMIN F. PIKE.
"Sworn and subscribed before me, this 26th May, 1831.
JOHN H. DENNIS, J. P."
The deposition of Hirah Sanders and Ammyson
Chapman, taken before Stephen Dewey, Esq., a Justice
of the Peace for Fulton county.
" STATE OF ILLINOIS, FULTON COUNTY.
" Personally appeared before me, Stephen Dewey, an acting
Justice of the Peace in and for the said county of Fulton, and
State of Illinois, Hirah Sanders, and Ammyson Chapman, of the
aforesaid county and State, and made oath that some time in
the month of April last, they went to the old Indian Sac town,
about thirty miles up Rock River, for the purpose of farming
and establishing a ferry across said river, and the Indians
ordered us to move away, and not to come there again, and
we remained there a few hours. They then sent for their
chief, and he informed us that we might depart peaceably, and
if we did not that he would make us go. He therefore
ordered the Indians to throw our furniture out of the house ;
they accordingly did so, and threatened to kill us if we did not
depart. We therefore discovered that our lives were in danger,
and consequently moved back again to the above county.
We supposed them to be principally Winnebagoes.
"Sworn and Subscribed this nth day of May, 1831.
STEPHEN DEWEY, J. P."
There were several other petitions sent the Gover
nor from Henderson river and elsewhere, which I will
not trouble the reader with at this time; likewise a
number of depositions were taken, the substance of
which will be found in Gen. Gaines's report to the
President of the United States.
I will trouble the reader with those documents, in
order to show that Governor Reynolds and Gen.
Gaines did not act premature, but acted with too much
forbearance towards those Indians. Likewise I hope
it will put the seal of disapprobation upon many false
reports that have gone abroad, to the prejudice of those
men, making out that justice has not been done them,
as I have before stated. I think if they are to blame
at all, it is for not calling out an armed force sooner
than what they did, for the citizens certainly suffered
very much by the annoyance of those Indians. It has
been plainly proven that those lands were sold by those
Indians to the United States, and the United States
had sold many of them to those individuals, which
they had paid their money for, and as individuals are
bound to protect their Government, and support its
laws. It also is the duty of the government to protect
I will next give the reader the correspondence that
took place between Governor Reynolds, General
Clark, and General Gaines, which goes fully to show
that those Indians were not to be persuaded to sur
render the idea of taking those lands by force, only by
an army superior to themselves in numbers.
Copy of a letter to General Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
"BELLEVILLE, May 26, 1831.
" General Clark, Superintendent, &c.
" SIR : In order to protect the citizens of this State, who
reside near Rock Island, from Indian invasion and depreda
tion, I have considered it necessary to call out a force of
militia of this State, of about 700 strong, to remove a band of
the Sac Indians, who reside now about Rock Island. The
object of the government of the State is to protect those citi
zens by removing those Indians, peaceably if they can, but
forcibly if they must. Those Indians are now, and so I have
considered them, in a state of actual invasion of the State.
" As you act as the general agent of the United States in
relation to said Indians, I consider it my duty to inform you
of the above call on the militia, and that in or about fifteen
days a sufficient force will appear before said Indians to re
move them, dead or alive, over to the west side of the Missis
sippi. But to save all this disagreeable business, perhaps a
request from you to them, for them to remove to the west
side of the river, would affect the object of procuring peace to
the citizens of the State. There is no disposition on the part
of the people of this State to injure those unfortunate savages,
if they will let us alone ; but a government that does not pro
tect its citizens, deserves not the name of a government.
u Please correspond with me on this subject.
" Your obedient servant,
"SUPERINTENDENCY of INDIAN AFFAIRS, 1
St. Louis, May 28, 1831. J
" SIR : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your
letter of the 26th inst. informing me of your having consid
ered it necessary to collect a force of militia of about seven
hundred, for the protection of the citizens of Illinois who
reside near Rock Island, from Indian invasion ; and for the
purpose of removing a band of Sac Indians, who are now
about Rock Island.
" You intimate that to prevent the necessity of employing
this force, perhaps a request from me to those Indians to
remove to the west side of the Mississippi, would effect the
object of procuring peace to the citizens of your State. In
answer to which, I would beg leave to observe, that every
effort on my part has been made to effect the removal from
Illinois of all the tribes who had ceded their lands.
" For the purpose of affording you a view of what has been
done (in part) in relation thereto, I enclose herewith extracts
from the reports of the agent of the Sac and Fox tribes, by
which it will be seen that every means has been used short of
actual force to effect their removal.
ct I have communicated the contents of your letter to Gen
eral Gaines, who commands the Western Division of the
Army, and has full power to execute any military movement
deemed necessary for the protection of the frontier. I shall
also furnish him with such information, regarding the Sac
and Foxes, as I am possessed of; and would beg (cave to
refer you to him for any further proceedings in relation to this
subject. I have the honor to be,
" With high respect,
u Your most ob't serv't,
"His Excellency, JOHN REYNOLDS,
" Governor of the State of 111. "
Copy of a letter to Major Gen. Gaines.
BELLEVILLE, May 28, 1831.
u General Gaines :
" SIR : I have received undoubted information, that the
section of this State near Rock Island, is actually invaded by
a hostile band of the Sac Indians, headed by Black Hawk; and
in order to repel said invasion, and to protect the citizens of
the State, I have, under the provisions of the Constitution of
the United States, and the laws of this State, called on the
militia, to the number of seven hundred men, who will be
mounted and ready for service in a very short time. I con
sider it my duty to lay before you the above information, so
as you, commanding the military forces of the United States
in this part of the Union, may adopt such measures in regard
to said Indians as you deem right.
" The above mentioned mounted volunteers (because such
they will be) will be in readiness immediately to move against
said Indians, and, as Executive of the State of Illinois, respect
fully solicit your co-operation in this business. Please honor
me with an answer to this letter.
" With sincere respect for your character,
" I am, your obdt. servant,
Copy of a letter of Major General Games.
"H. Q. WESTERN DEPARTMENT, May 29, 1831.
u His Excellency, Governor Reynolds :
" SIR: I do myself the honor to acknowledge the receipt
of your letter of yesterday's date, advising me of your having
received undoubted information that the section of the frontier
of your State near Rock Island, is invaded by a hostile band
of Sac Indians, headed by a chief called Black Hawk. That
in order to repel said invasion, and to protect the citizens of
the State, you have called on the militia to the number of
seven hundred militiamen, to be in readiness immediately to
move against the Indians, and you solicit my co-operation.
" In reply, it is my duty to state to you, that I have ordered
six companies of the regular troops stationed at Jefferson Bar
racks, to embark to-morrow morning, and repair forthwith to
the spot occupied by the hostile Sacs. To this detachment I
shall, if necessary, add four companies from Prairie du Chien,
making a total of ten companies. With this force I am sat
isfied that I shall be able to repel the invasion, and give
security to the frontier inhabitants of the State. But should
the hostile band be sustained by the residue of the Sac, Fox,
and other Indians, to an extent requiring an augmentation of
my force, I will, in that event, communicate with your Excel
lency by express, and avail myself of the co-operation which
you propose. But, under existing circumstances, and the
present aspect of our Indian relations on the Rock Island sec
tion of the frontier, I do not deem it necessary or proper to
require militia, or any other description of force, other than
that of the regular army at this place and Prairie du Chien.
u I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
" Your obedient servant,
"EDMUND P. GAINES,
" Major Gen. by Brevet Commanding."
General Games to Governor Reynolds.
" HEADQUARTERS, ROCK ISLAND, 5th June, 1831.
" 'John Reynolds, Governor of Illinois :
" SIR : I do myself the honor to report to your Excellency
the result of my conference with the chiefs and braves of the
band of Sac Indians, settled within the limits of your State
near this place.
u I called their attention to the facts reported to me of their
disorderly conduct towards the white inhabitants near them.
They disavow any intention of hostility, but at the same time
adhere with stubborn pertinacity, to their purpose of remain
ing on the Rock River land in question.
" I notified them of my determination to move them peace
ably if possible, but at all events to move them to their own
side of the Mississippi river ; pointing out to them the appar
ent impossibility of their living on lands purchased by the
whites without constant disturbance. They contended that
this part of their country had never been sold by them. I
explained to them the different treaties of 1804, '16 and '25,
and concluded with a positive assurance that they must move off,
and that I must as soon as they are ready assist them with boats.
" I have this morning learned that they have invited the
Prophet's band of Winnebagoes on Rock River, with some
Pottawattomies and Kickapoos, to join them. If I find this
to be true I shall gladly avail myself of my present visit to see
them well punished ; and therefore, I deem it to be the only
safe measure now to be taken to request of your Excellency
the battalion of mounted men, which you did me the honor to
say would co-operate with me. They will find at this post a
supply of rations for the men, with some corn for their horses ;
together with a supply of powder and lead.
" I have deemed it expedient under all the circumstances
of the case, to invite the frontier inhabitants to bring their
families to this post until the difference is over.
"I have the honor to be, with great respect,
u Your obedient servant,
"EDMUND P. GAINES,
"Major Gen. by Brevet Commanding."
P. S. Since writing the foregoing remarks, I have learned
that the Winnebagoes and Pottawattomie Indians have actu
ally been invited by the Sacs to join them. But the former
evince no disposition to comply ; and it is supposed by Col.
Gratiot, the Agent, that none will join the Sacs, except per
haps some few of the Kickapoos.
"E. P. G."
" Articles of agreement and capitulation, made and con
eluded this thirtieth day of June, one thousand eight hundred
and thirty one, between E. P. Gaines, Major General of the
United States Army, on the part of the United States, John
Reynolds, Governor of Illinois, on the part of the State of
Illinois, and the Chiefs and Braves of the band of Sac Indians,
usually called the British band of Rock River, with their
old allies of the Pottawattomie, Winnebago, and Kickapoo
" Witnesseth, that whereas, the said British band of Sac
Indians, have, in violation of the several treaties entered into
between the United States and the Sac and Fox nations, in the
years 1804, 1816, and 1825, continued to remain upon, and
to cultivate the lands on Rock River, ceded to the United
States by the said treaties, after the said lands had been sold
by the United States, to individual citizens of Illinois and
other States : And whereas, the said British band af Sac
Indians, in order to sustain their pretensions to continue upon
the said Rock River lands, have assumed the attitude of actual
hostility towards the United States, and have had the audacity
to drive citizens of the State of Illinois from their homes,
destroy their corn, and invite many of their old friends of the
Pottawattomie, Winnebago, and Kickapoos to unite with them
(the said British band of Sacs) in war, to prevent their removal
from said lands : And whereas, many of the most disorderly
of their several tribes of Indians, did actually join the said
British band of Sac Indians prepared for war against the
United States, and more particularly against the State of Illi
nois ; from which purpose they confess that nothing could
have restrained them but the appearance of force far exceed
ing the combined strength of the said British band of Sac
Indians, with such of their aforesaid allies as had actually
joined them ; but being now convinced that such a war would
tend speedily to annihilate them, they have voluntarily aban
doned their hostile attitude and sued for peace.
" Peace is therefore granted them upon the following con
ditions, to which the said British band of Sac Indians, with
their aforesaid allies agree ; and for the faithful execution of
which the undersigned Chiefs and Braves of the said band
and their allies mutually bind themselves, their heirs and
assigns for ever.
" 2. The British band of Sac Indians are required peace
ably to submit to the authority of the friendly Chiefs and
Braves of the United Sac and Fox nations, and at all times
hereafter to reside and hunt with them upon their own lands
west of the Mississippi river, and be obedient to their laws
and treaties, and no one or more of the said band shall ever
be permitted to recross said river to the place of their usual
residence, nor to any part of their old hunting ground east of
the Mississippi, without the express permission of the Presi
dent of the United States, or the Governor of the State of
u 3. The United States will guarantee to the united Sac and
Fox nations, including the said British band of Sac Indians, the
integrity of all the lands claimed by them west of the Mississippi
river pursuant to the treaties of the years 1825 and 1830.
" 4. The United States require the united Sac and Fox
nations, including the aforesaid British band,toabandon all com
munication and cease to hold any intercourse with any British
post, garrison or town, and never again to admit among them
any agent or trader who shall not have derived his authority to
hold commercial or other intercourse with them from the
President of the United States or his authorized agent.
"5. TheUnited States demand an acknowledgment of their
right to establish military posts and roads within the limits of
the said country guaranteed by the third article of this agree
ment and capitulation, for the protection of the frontier
" 6. It is further required by the United States, that the
principal friendly Chiefs and head men of the Sacs and Foxes
bind themselves to enforce as far as may be in their power,
the strict observance of each and every article of this agree
ment and capitulation, and at any time they may find them
selves unable to restrain their allies the Pottawattomies, Kick-
apoos or Winnebagoes, to give immediate information thereof
to the nearest military post.
" 7. And it is finally agreed by the contracting parties,
that henceforth permanent peace and friendship be established
between the United States and the aforesaid band of Indians.
(Signed) "EDMUND P. GAINES,
" Major Gen. by Brevet Commanding.
(Signed) "JOHN REYNOLDS,
" Governor of the State of Illinois.
Pashepaho, or Stabbing Chief, his X mark.
Weeshat, or Sturgeon Head, his X mark.
Chakinpoxepaho, or Little Stabbing Chief, his X mark.
Chicohalico, or Turtle Shell, his X mark.
Pemexee, or The one that flies, his X mark.
Warriors and Braves.
Mucata Muhicatak, or the Black Hawk, his X mark.
Menacon, or The Lead, his X mark.
Kakekamah, or All Fish, his X mark.
Crepesh, or Water, his X mark.
Casamesan, or The one that flies too fast, his X mark.
Paunenanee, or Paune Man, his X mark.
Wawapalosa, or White Walker, his X mark.
Wapaquat, or White Horse, his X mark.
Keokuck, or Walker, his X mark. [Not the principal chief
of that name.]
Wapello, or The Prenee, his X mark.
Katemse, or The Eagle, his X mark.
Pawsheet, or The one who threw, his X mark.
Namer, or The one that has gone, his X mark.
Fox Braves and Warriors.
Allotoh, or Morgan, his X mark.
Kakakew, or The Crow, his X mark.
Shesveguanas, or Little Guard, his X mark.
Kokaskee, his X mark.
Takona, or The Prisoner, his X mark.
Crakiskowa, or The one that meets, his X mark.
Pametekeh, or The one that clouds about, his X mark.
Tapokea, or The Light, his X mark.
Moransot, or The one that has his hair pulled, his X mark.
Kakenekapeo, or Setting in the Grass, his X mark.
Jos. M. Street, United States Indian Agent, Prairie du
Chien ; Aby. [W.] Morgan, Colonel U. S. Infantry; J. Bliss,
Bvt. Maj. 3d Infantry; Geo. A. McCall, Aidecamp; Saml.
Whiteside; Felix St. Vrain, Indian Agent; John S. Great-
house ; M. K. Alexander ; A. S. West ; Antoine Le Claire,
Interpreter; Joseph Da n forth ; Daniel S. Witter; Benj. F.
" H. Q. WESTERN DEPARTMENT,
' NASHVILLE, TENN. Aug. 10, 1831.
" SIR : I have the honor to report for the information of
the President of the United States, the several depositions and
original letters, to w.hich I have hitherto referred, since the
date of my last, of the first ultimo. In relation to the late
disorderly conduct of the British band of Sac Indians, in
attempting to retake and hold possession of the Rock River
lands ; and for this purpose to enter into alliances, and form
combinations with the most disorderly of their red neighbors,
against the States of Missouri and Illinois and the Territory
of Michigan, viz :
"No. i. The deposition of Rennah Wells, Samuel
Wells, Benjamin Pike, Joseph Danforth, Moses Johnson,
John Wells, John W. Spencer, Joseph H. Case, and Charles
Case, sworn to and subscribed June loth, 1831, before
WILLIAM T. BRASHER, J. P.
" No. 2. The deposition of John Wells, sworn to the
loth of June, 1831, before
JOEL WELLS, J. P.
" No. 3. The deposition of Rennah Wells, and Samuel
Wells, sworn to and subscribed the loth of June, 1831,
JOEL WELLS, J. P.
" No. 4. The deposition of Nancy Wells and Nancy
Thompson, sworn to and subscribed the loth of June, 1831,
WILLIAM T. BRASHER, J. P.
u No. 5. The deposition of Joseph Danforth, sworn to
and subscribed the loth of June, 1831, before
JOEL WELLS, J. P.
"No. 6. The copy of a letter for [from] P. L. Chouteau, In
dian Agent for the Osage nation, to General William Clark,
Superintendent of Indian affairs, dated the ayth of June, 1831.
"No. 7. A letter from Felix St. Vrain, agent for the Sac
and Fox Indians, dated the I5th of June, 1831.
" No. 8. A letter from Colonel Henry Gratiot, sub-agent
for the Winnebago Indians, dated the nth of June, 1831.
" No. 9. A letter from Colonel Henry Gratiot, sub-agent
for the Winnebago Indians, dated the 2id of June, 1831,
with a copy of a communication from John Dixon to J. G.
Soulard, dated the iyth of June, 1831.
"No. 10. A letter from Colonel Henry Gratiot, dated ist
July, 1831, enclosing a talk, or communication, signed by
some of the chiefs of the Winnebago nation of his sub-
" These depositions numbered one to five inclusively, and
which are in substance similar to those on which Governor
Reynolds's communication of the 2gth of May last was
based, and which he promised to forward to the War
Department, sufficiently establish the facts of the return
of the British band of Sac Indians to the place of their
former residence on Rock river, after the lands had
been sold, surveyed, and in part inhabited by several of
these deponents ; and the hostile conduct of this band with
determined purpose forcibly to hold those lands, in violation
of the several treaties of 1804, i8i6,and 1825. The second
article of the last mentioned treaty, clearly shows that the Sac
and Fox Indians have no claim to any lands whatsoever east
of the Mississippi river, and it puts an end to all doubt or
cavil that might possibly arise under the seventh article of the
treaty of 1804; inasmuch as, by the aforesaid second article
of treaty of 1825, the Sac and Fox Indians expressly re
linquished all their claims to land east of the Mississippi river.
The enclosed No. 6 copy of a letter from Colonel P. L.
Chouteau, U. S. agent for the Osage Indians, to General
Clark, with enclosure No. 7, a letter from Felix St. Vrain,
taken in connection with the other letters herewith, Nos. 8,
9, and 10, together with the enclosed depositions, established,
as clearly as could be desired, the long continued restlessness
and enmity of this band of Sac Indians against the United
States, as well as the great exertions and systematic efforts on
the part of the offenders, to organize an opposition, as for
midable as the Indians near us have ever wielded against us
when aided by the forces of England, as in 1812 and 1813,
for their object was, as extravagant as it may seem, to make
a simultaneous attack upon, and break up the whole line of
frontier settlements from Detroit along our western border to
the Sabine or Texas. Long as I have known our southern
and western Indians, and often as I have witnessed their
lamentable ignorance of our strength, and of the utter impos
sibility of their affecting, without the aid of a civilized power,
any thing like a formidable array of force against us, I found
among the Winnebago and Sac Indians, a still greater degree
of ignorance and arrogance and stupidity.
u The reports which first reached me, of the Sac Indians
having sent a deputation to the Osage and nations to the south
west as far as Texas, with a view to invoke their aid in a war
against the United States, seemed too extravagant to merit the
least notice. Nor did I place any reliance on the report, until
it was confirmed by the evidence of their interpreters and
traders, with the assurance of Col. Gratiot and other persons
long acquainted with those Indians; that they frequently
indulge in the habit of boasting, that they have always beaten
our troops in battle, often when their number were much
inferior to ours ; and that they believed that more red men
can be brought out against us than we can oppose to them
" This impression is of course confined to the Indians who
have never visited the interior of our middle and eastern states.
Those who have visited the city of Washington, are generally
better informed ; but these have not that influence among
their more savage brethren, which superior information would
seem to entitle them to ; and they are, moreover, much
influenced in their views and policy by the prevailing impres
sion, that, let the Indians do what they may towards us in
violation of existing treaties, they have nothing to do but to sue
for peace whenever they please, and by a new treaty, give us
satisfaction, and obtain for themselves rations, presents, annui
" I take this occasion to remark, that, though satisfied of
the necessity of my movement, and of the employment, under
the circumstances of the case, of the volunteers called for,
even whilst without definite information as to the extent of
the arrangements by the Sac Indians ; to obtain the assist
ance of their old brother warriors, who served with them un
der Tecumseh, in the years 1812 and 1813, the information
obtained by me at Rock Island in the early part of the month
of June, and more especially that which I enclose herewith,
convinced me that without the increased force brought out by
Gov. Reynolds, the lives of many of our frontier families
would in all probability have been lost in an Indian war, in
that quarter, before the close of the present summer. If my
measures shall have contributed to arrest a calamity so much
and so justly to be deprecated, I shall rejoice at the result,
inasmuch as I have acted in accordance with a maxim which
has borne me through the most difficult service. I have
hitherto encountered the maxim which requires that in pre
paring against Indian or other foes, we should rely for success
mainly on our own strength and vigilance, rather than upon
the supposed feebleness of our adversary.
" I have delayed this report in expectation of receiving and
forwarding with the enclosed, some additional statements of
facts designating more particularly the different notions or
tricks of Indians, applied to, or engaged by the Sac deputa
tion, but the last mail from the west having brought me noth
ing upon this subject, I deem it proper to make no further
" All which is respectfully submitted,
(Signed) "E. P. GAINES,
" Major General by Bt. Commanding."
The following is the substance of the depositions of sun
dry citizens of the Rock river settlement, taken before William
Brasher, J. P. and Joel Wells, J. P. on the loth of June, 1831.
"i. John Wells, John W. Spencer, Jonah H. Case,
Rennah Wells, Samuel Wells, Benjamin T. Pike, Joseph
Danforth, and Moses Johnson, before William Brasher, J. P.,
swore that the Sac Indians, did through the last year repeat
edly threaten to kill them for being on their ground, and
acted in the most outrageous manner, threw down their
fences, burnt or destroyed their rails, turned horses into their
corn-fields, and almost destroyed their crops, stole their pota
toes, killed and ate their hogs, shot arrows into their cattle, and
put out their eyes, thereby rendering them useless to the
owners, saying the land was theirs, and that they had not sold
it. In April they ordered the deponents to leave their houses,
and turned from fifty to one hundred horses into one man's
wheat field, threatening that the fields should not be reaped,
although the owners should plough them, and although said
owners had purchased the land of the United States govern
ment. The Indians also leveled deadly weapons at the
citizens, and on some occasions hurt some of the said citizens,
for attempting to prevent the destruction of their property.
Also that the Indians stole their horses, some of which were
returned by the agent six or eight months after, and in a mis
erable condition; others were never heard of again. Nearly
fifty Indians headed by their notorious war chief, all armed
and equipped for war, came to the house of Rennah Wells,
and ordered him to be off, or they would kill him, which, for
the safety of his family, he obeyed. They then went to
another house, rolled out a barrel of whisky, and destroyed it,
as well as committing many other outrages, to the knowledge
of the deponents.
" 2. John Wells, before Joel Wells, J. P., swore, That
on the 30th of September, 1830, he saw two Sac Indians
throwing down his fence, who said they were doing it for the
purpose of going through, in which they persisted although
forbidden by the owner, and when the owner attempted to
prevent them, one of them made a pass at him with his fist,
and drew his knife on him.
" 3. Rennah and Samuel Wells, before Joel Wells, J. P.,
swore, That on the 2gth of May, a party of Sac Indians,
calling themselves chiefs, with Black Hawk at their head,
came to the house of Rennah Wells, near the mouth of Rock
River, and said that he must let the squaws cultivate his field,
which Wells refusing, they became much displeased, and told
him to go off; upon Wells's refusal they went away. That
on the next day the same chiefs, with about fifty warriors,
came, armed, and told Wells that he must move, or they
would cut the throats of himself and family, and making
motions to that effect, upon which said Wells told them that
he would take counsel, and tell them at three o'clock the next
day what would be his determination. They consented, and
went away ; at the appointed time they returned, and told
Wells that he must go off; which he accordingly did, leaving
all his possessions to the Indians.
" 4. Nancy Thompson, and Nancy Wells, before W. J.
Brasher, swore, That in October, 1830, two Indians, residing
in the village forty or fifty miles above the mouth of Rock
River, and called Sacs or Winnebagoes, came to the house of
Rennah Wells, and commenced chasing some sheep, as if
they would kill them ; those Indians were ordered to desist,
upon which they drew their knives and made at the women,
who being alarmed, called for assistance, Samuel Wells being
sick in the house at the time, ran out with a pitch-fork, and
the Indians pursued no farther. London L. Case heard the
alarm given, and joined. The Indians then returned to the
river bank eighty or one hundred yards distant; when Case,
thinking they were still in pursuit of the sheep, went to ascer
tain the truth, and coming near the Indians they wounded him
severely in three places with a knife and tomahawk.
"5. Joseph Danforth, before Joel Wells, J. P., swore,
i 7 8 APPENDIX
That he saw Sacs at a fence belonging to John Wells, who
forbid them going through, when they continued throwing
down the fence. Wells attempted to prevent them, when
one of the Indians struck him with his fist, and drew his
knife ; Danforth got a stick, and the Indians making several
attempts towards Danforth, he (Danforth) knocked one of
them down with his stick. The Indian rose several times
and made at Danforth with his knife, and finally deserted the
ground, leaving his knife.
The above is the substance of the depositions above
" Whereas, a treaty between the United States of America
and the Winnebago nation of Indians, was made and con
cluded at Fort Armstrong, in the State of Illinois, on the
fifteenth day of September, one thousand eight hundred and
thirty-two, by Winfield Scott and John Reynolds, Commis
sioners on the part of the United States, and certain Chiefs,
Headmen, and Warriors of the Winnebago nation, on the
part of the said nation, which treaty is in the words following,
''Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Arm
strong, Rock Island, Illinois, between the United States of
America, by their Commissioners, Major General Winfield
Scott, of the United States' Army, and his Excellency John
Reynolds, Governor of the State of Illinois, and the Winne
bago nation of Indians, represented in general Council by the
undersigned Chiefs, Headmen, and Warriors.
"ART. I. The Winnebago nation hereby cede to the
United States, forever, all the lands to which said nation have
title or claim, lying to the south and east of the Wisconsin
river, and the Fox river of Green Bay ; bounded as follows,
viz: beginning at the mouth of Pee-kee-tol-a-ka river; thence,
up Rock River to its source ; thence, with a line dividing the
Winnebago nation from other Indians east of the Winnebago
lake, to the Grand Chute ; thence, up Fox river to the Win
nebago lake, and with the northwestern shore of said lake, to
the inlet of Fox River; thence up said river to lake Puck-
away, and with the eastern shore of the same to its most south
easterly bend ; thence with the line of purchase made of the
Winnebago nation, by the treaty at Prairie du Chien, the first
day of August, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine,
to the place of beginning.
"ART. II. In part consideration of the above cession, it is
hereby stipulated and agreed, that the United States grant to
the Winnebago nation, to be held as other Indian lands are
held, that part of the tract of country on the west side of the
Mississippi, known, at present, as the neutral ground, embraced
within the following limits, viz : beginning on the west bank
of the Mississippi river, twenty miles above the mouth of the
upper loway river, where the line of the lands purchased of the
Sioux Indians, as described in the third article of the treaty of
Prairie du Chien, of the fifteenth day of July, one thousand
eight hundred and thirty, begins ; thence with said line, as
surveyed and marked, to the eastern branch of the Red Cedar
creek ; thence down said creek, forty miles, in a straight line,
but following its windings, to the line of purchase, made of
the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians, as designated in the second
article of the before recited treaty; and thence along the
southern line of said last mentioned purchase, to the Mississippi,
at the point marked by the surveyor, appointed by the President
of the United States, on the margin of said river ; and thence
up said river to the place of beginning. The exchange of the
two tracts of country to take place on or before the first day
of June next ; that is to say, on or before that day, all the
Winnebagoes now residing within the country ceded by them
as above, shall leave the said country, when and not before,
they shall be allowed to enter upon the country granted by the
United States, in exchange.
"ART. III. But, as the country hereby ceded by the
Winnebago nation is more extensive and valuable than that
given by the United States in exchange; it is further stipulated
and agreed, that the United States pay to the Winnebago
nation, annually, for twenty-seven successive years, the first
payment to be made in September of the next year, the sum
of ten thousand dollars in specie ; which sum shall be paid to
the said nation at Prairie du Chien and Fort Winnebago, in
sums proportional to the numbers residing most conveniently
to those places respectively.
"ART. IV. It is further stipulated and agreed, that the
United States shall erect a suitable building, or buildings, with
a garden or field attached, somewhere near Fort Crawford, or
Prairie du Chien, and establish and maintain therein, for the
term of twenty-seven years, a school for the education,
including clothing, board and lodging, of such Winnnebago
children as may be voluntarily sent to it ; the school to be
conducted by two or more teachers, male and female, and the
said children to be taught reading, writing, arithmetic, garden
ing, agriculture, carding, spinning, weaving ; and sewing,
according to their ages and sexes, and such other branches of
useful knowledge as the President of the United States may
prescribe ; Provided, That the annual cost of the school shall
not exceed the sum of three thousand dollars. And, in order
that the said school may be productive of the greatest benefit
to the Winnebago nation, it is hereby subjected to the visits
and inspections of his Excellency the Governor of the State
of Illinois for the time being; the United States' General
Superintendents of Indian affairs ; of the United States' agents
who may be appointed to reside among the Winnebago Indians,
and of an officer of the United States' Army, who may be of,
or above the rank of Major : Provided that the commanding
officer of Fort Crawford shall make such visits and inspections
frequently, although of an inferior rank.
"ART. V. And the United States further agree to make
to the said nation of Winnebago Indians the following allow
ances, for the period of twenty-seven years, in addition to the
considerations hereinbefore stipulated ; that is to say ; for the
support of six agriculturists, and the purchase of twelve yokes
of oxen, ploughs and other agricultural implements, a sum not
exceeding two thousand five hundred dollars per annum ; to
the Rock River band of Winnebagoes, one thousand five
hundred pounds of tobacco, per annum ; for the services and
attendance of a physician at Prairie du Chien, and of one at
Fort Winnebago, each, two hundred dollars per annum.
"ART. VI. It is further agreed that the United States
remove and maintain, within the limits prescribed in this treaty,
for the occupation of the Winnebagoes, the blacksmith's shop,
with the necessary tools, iron, and steel heretofore allowed to
the Wrnnebagoes, on the waters of the Rock River, by the
third article of the treaty made with the Winnebago nation,
at Prairie du Chien, on the first day of August, one thousand
eight hundred and twenty-nine.
"ART. VII. And it is further stipulated and agreed by the
United States, that there shall be allowed and issued to the
Winnebagoes, required by the terms of this treaty to remove
within their new limits, soldiers' rations of bread and meat,
for thirty days : Provided, that the whole number of such
rations shall not exceed sixty thousand.
"ART. VIII. The United States, at the request of the
Winnebago nation of Indians, aforesaid, further agree to pay,
to the following named persons, the sums set opposite their
names respectively, viz :
"To Joseph Ogee, two hundred and two dollars and fifty
"To William Wallace, four hundred dollars, and
"To John Dougherty, four hundred and eighty dollars;
amounting in all, to one thousand and eighty-two dollars and
fifty cents, which sum is in full satisfaction of the claims
brought by said persons against said Indians, and by them
acknowledged to be justly due.
"ART. IX. On demand of the United States' Commis
sioners, it is expressly stipulated and agreed, that the Winne
bago nation shall promptly seize and deliver up to the
commanding officer of some United States' military post, to
be dealt with according to law, the following individual
Winnebagoes, viz : Koo-zee-ray-Kaw, Moy-che-nun-Kaw,
Tshik-o-ke-maw-kaw, Ah-hun-see-Kaw, and Waw-zee-ree-
kay-hee-wee-kaw, who are accused of murdering, or of being
concerned in the murdering of certain American citizens, at
or near the Blue Mounds, in the territory of Michigan ; Nau-
saw-nay-he-kaw, and Toag-ra-naw-koo-ray-see-ray-kaw ; who
are accused of murdering or of being concerned in murdering,
one or more American citizens, at or near Kellogg's Grove,
in the State of Illinois ; and also Waw-kee-aun-shaw and his
son who wounded, in attempting to kill, an American soldier,
at or near lake Kosh-ke-nong, in the said territory ; all of
which offences were committed in the course of the past
spring and summer. And till these several stipulations are
faithfully complied with by the Winnebago nation, it is further
agreed that the payment of the annuity of ten thousand
dollars, secured by this treaty, shall be suspended.
"ART. X. At the special request of the Winnebago
nation, the United States agree to grant, by patent, in fee
simple, to the following named persons, all of whom are
Winnebagoes by blood, lands as follows : To Pierre Paquette,
three sections ; to Pierre Paquette, junior ; one section, to
Therese Paquette, one section ; The lands to be designated
under the direction of the President of the United States,
within the country ceded by the Winnebago nation.
"ART. XL In order to prevent misapprehensions that
might disturb peace and friendship between the parties to this
treaty, it is expressly understood that no band or party of Win
nebagoes shall reside, plant, fish, or hunt after the first day of
June next, on any portion of the country herein ceded to the
" ART. XII. This treaty shall be obligatory on the con
tracting parties, after it shall be ratified by the President and
Senate of the United States.
" Done at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, this fif
teenth day of September, one thousand eight hundred and
Prairie du Chi en Deputation.
Tshee-o-nuzh-ee-kaw, War Chief, (Kar-ray-mau-nee) his x
Wau-kaun-hah-kaw, or Snake Skin, (Day-kan-ray) his x mark.
Khay-rah-tshoan-saip-kaw, or Black Hawk, his x mark.
Wau-kaun-kaw, or Snake, his x mark.
Sau-sau-mau-nee-kaw, or He who walks naked, his x mark.
Hoantsh-skaw-skaw, or White Bear, his x mark.
Hoo-tshoap-kaw, or Four Legs, his x mark.
Mau-hee-her-kar-rah, or Flying Cloud, son of Dog Head,
his x mark.
Tshah-shee-rah-wau-kaw, or he who takes the leg of a deer in
his mouth, his x mark.
Mau-kee-wuk-kaw, or Cloudy, his x mark.
Ho-rah-paw-kaw, or Eagle Head, his x mark.
Hash-kay-ray-kaw, or Fire Holder, his x mark.
Eezhook-hat-tay-kaw, or Big Gun, his x mark.
Mau-wau-ruck, or The Muddy, his x mark.
Mau-shoatsh-kaw, or Blue Earth, his x mark.
Wee-tshah-un-kuk, or Forked Tail, his x mark.
Ko-ro-ko-ro-he-kaw, or Bell, his x mark.
Haun-heigh-kee-paw-kaw, or The Night that meets, his x
Fort Winnebago Deputation.
Hee-tshah-wau-saip-skaw-skaw, or White War Eagle, De-
kaw-ray sr. his x mark.
Hoo-wau-nee-kaw, or Little Elk, (orator) one of the Kay-ra-
men-nees, his x mark.
Wau-kaun-tshah-hay-ree-kaw, or Roaring Thunder, Four
legs Nephew, his x mark.
Mau-nah-pey-kaw, or Soldier, (Black Wolf's son) his x mark.
Wau-kaun-tsha-ween-kaw, or Whirling Thunder, his x mark.
Wau-nee-ho-no-nik, or Little Walker, son of Fire Brand, his
To-shun-uk-ho-nik, or Little Otter, son of Sweet Corn, his
Tshah-tshun-hat-tay-kaw, or Big Wave, son of Clear Sky, his
Rock River Deputation.
Kau-ree-kaw-see-kaw, White Crow, (the blind) his x mark.
Mo-rah-tshay-kaw, or Little Priest, his x mark.
Mau-nah-pey-kaw, or Soldier, his x mark.
Ho-rah-hoank-kaw, or War Eagle, his x mark.
Nautsh-kay-peen-kaw, or Good Heart, his x mark.
Keesh-koo-kaw, his x mark.
Wee-tshun-kaw, or Goose, his x mark.
Wau-kaun-nig-ee-nik, or Little Snake, his x mark.
Hoo-way-skaw, or White Elk, his x mark.
Hay-noamp-kaw, or Two Horns, his x mark.
Ee-nee-wonk-shik-kaw, or Stone Man, his x mark.
Signed in presence of,
R. Bache, Captain Ord. Secretary to the Commission.
Jos. M. Street, United States Indian Agent.
John H. Kinzie; Sub Agt. Indian Affairs.
H. Dodge, Major U. S. Rangers.
Alexr. R. Thompson, Major United States Army.
William [S.] Harney, Capt. ist Infantry.
E. Kirby, Paymaster United States Army.
Albion T. Crow.
Pierre Paquette, Interpreter, his x mark.
P. H. Gait, Assistant Adjutant General.
S. W. Wilson.
Benj. F. Pike.
J. B. F. Russell, Captain 5th Infantry.
S. Johnson, Captain 2d Infantry.
John Clitz, Adj. 2d Infantry.
Jno. Pickell, Lieutenant 4th Artillery.
A. Drane, A. Qr. U. S. A.
J. R. Smith, ist Lieutenant 2d Infantry.
H. Day, Lieutenant 2d Infantry.
William Maynadier, Lieutenant and A. D. C.
P. G. Hambaugh.
S. Burbank, Lieutenant ist Infantry.
J. H. Prentiss, Lieutenant ist Artillery.
E. Rose, Lieutenant 3d Artillery.
L. J. Beall, Lieutenant ist Infantry.
Antoine Le Claire. "
" Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Jackson,
President of the United States of America, having seen and
considered said Treaty, do, by and with the advice and consent
of the Senate, as expressed by their resolution of the ninth
instant, accept, ratify and confirm the same, and every clause
and article thereof.
" In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the
United States to be hereunto affixed, having signed the same
with my hand.
u Done at the City of Washington, this thirteenth day of
February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hun
dred and thirty-three, and of the Independence of the United
States, the fifty-seventh.
u By the President :
"EDW. LIVINGSTON, Secretary of State."
Whereas a treaty, between the United States of America
and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians, was made
and concluded at Fort Armstrong, in the State of Illinois, on
the twenty-first day of September, one thousand eight hundred
and thirty-two, by Winfield Scott, and John Reynolds, Com
missioners on the part of the United States, and certain Chiefs,
Headmen and Warriors of the confederated tribes of Sac and
Fox Indians, on the part of said tribes, which Treaty is in
the words following, to wit:
" Articles of a Treaty of peace, friendship and cession,
concluded at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, between
the United States of America, by their Commissioners, Major
General Winfield Scott, of the United States Army, and his
Excellency John Reynolds, Governor of the State of Illinois,
and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians, repre
sented in general Council, by the undersigned Chiefs, Headmen
" Whereas, under certain lawless and desperate leaders, a
formidable band, constituting a large portion of the Sac and
Fox nation, left their country in April last, and, in violation
of treaties, commenced an unprovoked war upon unsuspecting
and defenceless citizens of the United States, sparing neither
age nor sex; and whereas, the United States, at a great expense
of treasure have subdued the said hostile band, killing or cap
turing all its principal chiefs and warriors the said States,
partly as indemnity for the expense incurred, and partly to
secure the future tranquility of the invaded frontier, demand
of the said tribes, to the use of the United States, a cession
of a tract of the Sac and Fox country, bordering on said frontier,
more than proportional to the numbers of the hostile band
who have been so conquered and subdued.
" ART. I. Accordingly the confederated tribes of Sacs
and Foxes hereby cede to the United States forever, all the
lands to which the said tribes have title, or claim, (with the
exception of the reservation hereinafter made,) included within
the following bounds, to wit : Beginning on the Mississippi
river, at the point where the Sac and Fox northern boundary
line as established by the second article of the treaty of Prairie
du Chien, of the fifteenth of July, one thousand eight hundred
and thirty, strikes said river ; thence, up said boundary line to
a point fifty miles from the Mississippi, measured on said
line: thence, in a right line to the nearest point on the Red
Cedar of the loway, forty miles from the Mississippi river ;
thence, in a right line to a point in the northern boundary
line of the State of Missouri, fifty miles, measured on said
boundary, from the Mississippi river ; thence, by the last
mentioned boundary to the Mississippi river, and by the west
ern shore of said river to the place of beginning. And the
said confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes hereby stipulate
and agree to remove from the lands herein ceded to the United
States, on or before the first day of June next ; and, in order
to prevent any future misunderstanding, it is expressly under
stood, that no band or party of the Sac or Fox tribes shall
reside, plant, fish, or hunt on any portion of the ceded country
after the period just mentioned.
"ART. II. Out of the cession made in the preceding
article, the United States agree to a reservation for the use of
the said confederated tribes, of a tract of land containing four
hundred square miles, to be laid off under the directions of
the President of the U. States, from the boundary line cross
ing the loway river, in such manner that nearly an equal
portion of the reservation may be on both sides of said river,
and extending downwards, so as to include Keokuck's princi
pal village on its right bank, which village is about twelve
miles from the Mississippi river.
"ART. III. In consideration of the great extent of the
foregoing cession the United States stipulate and agree to pay
to the said confederated tribes, annually, for thirty successive
years, the first payment to be made in September of the next
year, the sum of twenty thousand dollars in specie.
"ART. IV. It is further agreed that the United States
shall establish and maintain within the limits, and for the use
and benefit of the Sacs and Foxes, for the period of thirty
years, one additional black and gun smith shop, with the
necessary tools, iron and steel, and finally make a yearly allow
ance for the same period, to the said tribes, of forty kegs of
tobacco, and forty barrels of salt, to be delivered at the mouth
of the loway river.
"ART. V. The United States, at the earnest request of
the said confederated tribes, further agree to pay to Farnham
and Davenport, Indian traders at Rock Island, the sum of
forty thousand dollars without interest, which sum will be in
full satisfaction of the claims of the said traders against the
said tribes, and by the latter was, on the tenth day of July,
one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, acknowledged to
be justly due, for articles of necessity, furnished in the course
of the seven preceding years, in an instrument of writing of
said date, duly signed by the Chiefs and Headmen of said
tribes, and certified by the late Felix St. Vrain, United States'
Agent, and Antoine Le Claire, United States' Interpreter, both
for the said tribes.
"ART. VI. At the special request of the said confeder
ated tribes, the United States agree to grant, by patent, in fee
simple, to Antoine Le Claire, Interpreter, a part Indian, one
section of land opposite Rock Island, and one section at the
head of the first rapids above said Island, within the country
herein ceded by the Sacs and Foxes.
"ART. VII. Trusting to the good faith of the neutral
bands of Sacs and Foxes, the United States have already
delivered up to those bands the great mass of prisoners made
in the course of the war by the United States, and promise to
use their influence to procure the delivery of other Sacs and
Foxes, who may still be prisoners in the hands of a band of
Sioux Indians, the friends of the United States ; but the fol
lowing named prisoners of war, now in confinement, who
were Chiefs and Headmen, shall be held as hostages for the
future good conduct of the late hostile bands, during the
pleasure of the President of the United States, viz. Muk-
ka-ta-mish-a-ka-kaik (or Black Hawk) and his two sons ;
Wau-ba-kee-shik (the Prophet) his brother and two sons ;
Napope ; We-sheet loway ; Pamaho ; and Cha-kee-pa-shi-
pa-ho (the little stabbing Chief.)
" ART. VIII. And it is further stipulated and agreed
between the parties to this treaty, that there shall never be
allowed in the confederated Sac and Fox nation, any separate
band, or village, under any chief or warrior of the late hostile
bands ; but that the remnant of the said hostile bands shall be
divided among the neutral bands of the said tribes according
to blood the Sacs among the Sacs, and the Foxes among
" ART. IX. In consideration of the premises, peace and
friendship are declared, and shall be perpetually maintained
between the United States and the whole confederated Sac
and Fox nation, excepting from the latter the hostages before
"ART. X. The United States, besides the presents
delivered at the signing of this treaty, wishing to give a strik
ing evidence of their mercy and liberality, will immediately
cause to be issued to the said confederated tribes, principally
for the use of the Sac and Fox women and children, whose
husbands, fathers and brothers, have been killed in the late
war, and generally for the use of the whole confederated
tribes, articles of subsistence as follows : thirty-five beef
cattle ; twelve bushels of salt ; thirty barrels of pork ; and fifty
barrels of flour, and cause to be delivered for the same pur
poses, in the month of April next, at the mouth of the lower
loway, six thousand bushels of maize or Indian corn.
"ART. XI. At the request of the said confederated
tribes, it is agreed that a suitable present shall be made to them
on their pointing out to any United States agent, authorized
for the purpose, the position or positions of one or more mines,
supposed by the said tribes to be of a metal more valuable
than lead or iron.
" ART. XII. This treaty shall take effect and be obliga
tory on the contracting parties, as soon as the same shall be
ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the
consent of the Senate thereof.
u Done at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, this
twenty-first day of September, in the year of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, and of the Independ
ence of the United States the fifty-seventh.
Kee-o-kuck, or He who has been every where, his x mark.
Pa-she-pa-ho, or the Stabber, his x mark.
Pia-tshe-noay, or the Noise Maker, his x rnark.
Wawk-kum-mee, or Clear Water, his x rnark.
O-sow-wish-kan-no, or Yellow Bird, his x rnark.
Pa-ca-to-kee, or Wounded Lip, his x mark.
Winne-wun-quai-saat, or the Terror of Men, his x mark.
Mau-noa-tuck, or He who controls many, his x mark.
Wau-we-au-tun, or the Curling Wave, his x mark.
Wau-pel-la, or He who is painted white, his x mark.
Tay-wee-mau, or Medicine Man, (Strawberry) his x mark.
Pow-sheek, or the Roused Bear, his x mark.
An-nau-mee, or the Running Fox, his x mark.
Ma-tow-e-qua, or the Jealous Woman, his x mark.
Mee-shee-wau-quaw, or the Dried Tree, his x mark.
May-kee-sa-mau-ker, or the Wampum Fish, his x mark.
Chaw-co-saut, or the Prowler, his x mark.
Kaw-kaw-kee, or the Crow, his x mark.
Mau-que-tee, or the Bald Eagle, his x mark.
Ma-she-na, or Cross Man, his x mark.
Kaw-kaw-ke-moute, or the Pouch, (running bear) his x mark.
Wee-she-kaw-ka-skuck, or He who steps firmly, his x mark.
Wee-ca-ma, or Good Fish, his x mark.
Paw-qua-nuey, or the Runner, his x mark.
Ma-hua-wai-be, or Wolf Skin, his x rnark.
Mis-see-quaw-kaw, or Hairy Neck, his x mark.
Waw-pee-shaw-kaw, or White Skin, his x mark.
Mash-shen-waw-pee-teh, or Broken Tooth, his x mark.
Nau-nah-que-kee-she-ko, or Between Two Days, his x mark.
Paw-puck-ka-kaw, or Stealing Fox, his x mark.
Tay-e-sheek, or the Falling Bear, his x mark.
Wau-pee-maw-ker, or the White Loon, his x mark.
Wau-co-see-nee-me, or Fox Man, his x mark.
u In presence of R. Bache, Cap. Ord. Sec. to the Commis
sion ; Abrm. Eustis 5 Alex. Cummings, Lt. Col. 2d Infantry;
Alex. R. Thompson, Major U. S. Army ; B. Riley, Major
U. S. Army; H. Dodge, Major; W. Campbell; Hy. Wilson,
Major 4th U. S. Infantry; Donald Ward; Thos. Black
Wolf; Sexton G. Frazer; P. H. Gait, Ast. Adj. Gen.; Benj.
F. Pike; Wm. Henry; James Craig; John Aukeney ; J. B.
F. Russell; Isaac Chambers; John Clitz, Adj. Inf. John
Pickell, Lieut. 4th Arty.; A. G. Miller, Lt. ist Inf.; Geo.
Davenport, Asst. Q. Mas. Gen. 111. mil.; A. Drane, ^neas
Mackay, Capt. U. S. Army; I. R. Smith, ist Lt. id Inf. ;
Wm. Maynadier, Lt. and A. D. C.; I. L. Gallagher, ist Lt.
A. C. S.; N. B. Bennet, Lt. 3d Arty.; Horatio A. Wilson,
Lt. 4th Arty.; H. Day, Lt. 2d Inf.; Jas. W. Penrose, Lt.
2d Infy.; J. E. Johnston, Lt. 4th Arty.; S. Burbank, Lt. ist
Infy.; I. H. Prentiss, Lt. ist Arty.; L. I. Beale, Lt. ist
Infy.; Addison Philleo ; Thomas L. Alexander, Lt. 6th Infy. ;
Horace Beale, Actg. Surg. U. S. Army; Oliver W. Kellogg;
Jona. Leighton, Actg. Surg. U. S. Army ; Robt. C. Buchanan,
Lt. 4th Infy.; Jas. S. Williams, Lt. 6th Infy.; John W.
Spencer; Antoine Le Claire, Interpreter.
" Now therefore, be it known, that I, Andrew Jackson,
President of the United States of America, having seen and
considered said Treaty, do, by and with the advice and con
sent of the Senate, as expressed by their Resolution of the
ninth instant, accept, ratify and confirm the same and every
clause and article thereof.
"In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the
United States to be hereunto affixed, having signed the same
with my hand.
" Done at the City of Washington, this thirteenth day of
February in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred
and thirty-three, and of the Independence of the United
States the fifty-seventh.
" By the President :
" Edw. Livingston, Secretary of State. "
"Articles of a treaty made at St. Louis, in the district of
Lousiana, between William Henry Harrison, Governor of the
Indiana Territory and of the District of Louisiana, Super
intendent of Indian affairs for the Territory and District, and
Commissioner Plenipotentiary of the United States, for con
cluding any treaty or treaties which may be found necessary,
with any of the north-western tribes of Indians, of the one
part, and the chiefs and head men of the united Sac and Fox
tribes of Indians of the other part.
"ART. I. The United States receive the United Sac and
Fox tribes into their friendship and protection, and the said
tribes agree to consider themselves under the protection of the
United States, and no other power whatsoever.
"ART. II. The general boundary line between the lands
of the United States and of the said Indian tribes, shall be as
follows, to wit : Beginning on a point on the Missouri river,
opposite to the mouth of the Gasconade river, thence in a
direct course, so as to strike the river Jefferson at a distance
of thirty miles from its mouth, and down the said Jefferson, to
the Mississippi, thence up the Mississippi, to the mouth of the
Ouisconsin river, and up the same, to a point which shall be
thirty-six miles in a direct line from the mouth of said river ;
thence by a direct line to a point where the Fox river, a branch
of the Illinois, leaves the small lake called Lakacgan ; thence
down the Fox river, to the Illinois river, and down the same
to the Mississippi. And the said tribes, for and in consider
ation of the friendship and protection of the United States,
i 9 2 APPENDIX
which is now extended to them, and of goods to the value of
two thousand two hundred and thirty-four dollars and fifty
cents, which are now delivered, and of the annuity hereinafter
stipulated to be paid, do hereby cede and relinquish forever to
the United States, all the lands included within the above
" ART. III. In consideration of the cession and relinquish-
ment of land made in the preceding article, the United States
will deliver to the said tribes, at the town of St. Louis, or some
other convenient place on the Mississippi, yearly and every
year, goods suited to the circumstances of the Indians, of the
value of one thousand dollars, six hundred of which are intended
for the Sacs and four hundred for the Foxes, reckoning that
value at the first cost of the goods in the city or place in the
United States, where they shall be procured ; and if the said
tribes shall hereafter, at an annual delivery of the goods afore
said, desire that a part of their annuity should be furnished in
domestic animals, implements of husbandry, and other utensals
(utensils) convenient for them, or in compensation to useful
artificers who may reside with or near them, and be employed
for their benefit ; the same shall, at the subsequent annual
delivery, be furnished accordingly.
"ART. IV. The United States will never interrupt the
said tribes in the possession of the lands which they rightfully
claim ; but will, on the contrary, protect them in the quiet
enjoyment of the same against their own citizens, and against
all other white persons who may intrude upon them ; and the
said tribes do hereby engage that they will never sell their
lands or any part thereof, to any sovereign power but the
United States, nor to the citizens or subjects of any other
sovereign power, nor to the citizens of the United States.
"ART. V. Lest the friendship which is now established
between the United States and the said Indian tribes should be
interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, it is hereby
agreed, that for injuries done by individuals, no private revenge
or retaliation shall take place, but instead thereof, complaints
shall be made by the party injured to the other, by the said
tribes, or either of them, to the superintendent of Indian
affairs, or one of his deputies, and by the superintendent or
other person appointed by the president, to the chiefs of the
said tribes ; and it shall be the duty of the said chiefs, upon
complaint being made as aforesaid, to deliver up the person or
persons against whom the complaint is made, to the end that
he or they may be punished agreeably to the laws of the State
or Territory where the offence may have been committed; and
in like manner, if any robbery, violence, or murder shall be
committed on any Indian or Indians belonging to said tribes,
or either of them, the person or persons so offending, shall be
tried, and if found guilty, shall be punished in like manner, as
if the injury had been done to a white man ; and it is further
agreed, that the chiefs of the said tribes, shall, to the utmost
of their power, exert themselves to recover horses or other
property which may be stolen from any citizen or citizens of
the United States, by any individual or individuals of their
tribes ; and the property so recovered, shall be forthwith
delivered to the superintendent, or other person authorized to
receive it, that it may be restored to the owner, and in cases
where the exertions of the chiefs shall be ineffectual in
recovering the property stolen as aforesaid, if sufficient proof
can be obtained that such property was actually stolen by any
Indian or Indians belonging to the said tribes, or either of
them, the United States may deduct from the annuity of the
said tribes, a sum equal to the value of the property which has
been stolen, and the United States hereby guaranty to any
Indian or Indians of the said tribes, a full indemnification for
any horses or other property which may be stolen from them,
by any of their citizens ; provided the property so stolen
cannot be recovered, and that a sufficient proof is produced
that it was actually stolen by a citizen of the United States.
"ART. VI. If any citizen of theUnited States, or other white
person, should form a settlement upon lands which are the prop
erty of the Sac and Fox tribes, upon complaint being made there
of to the superintendent, or other person having charge of the
affairs of the Indians, such intruder shall forthwith be removed.
"ART. VII. As long as the lands which are now ceded
to the United States remain their property, the Indians belong
ing to the said tribes shall enjoy the privilege of living and
hunting upon them.
i 9 4 APPENDIX
"ART. VIII. As the laws of the United States regulating
trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes are already
extended to the country inhabited by the Sacs and Foxes, and
as it is provided by those laws, that no person shall reside as
a trader in the Indian country, without a license under the
hand and seal of the superintendent of Indian affairs ; or other
person appointed for the purpose by the President, the said
tribes do promise and agree that they will not suffer any trader
to reside amongst them without such license, and that they
will from time to time give notice to the superintendent, or to
the agent for their tribes, of all the traders that may be in
"ART. IX. In order to put a stop to the abuses and
impositions which are practiced upon the said tribes by the
private traders, the United States will, at a convenient time,
establish a trading house or factory, where the individuals of
said tribes can be supplied with goods at a more reasonable
rate than they have been accustomed to procure them.
" ART. X. In order to evince the sincerity of their friend
ship and affection for the United States, and a respectful
deference for their advice, by an act which will not only be
acceptable to them, but to the common Father of all nations
of the earth, the said tribes do hereby solemnly promise and
agree, that they will put an end to the bloody war which
has heretofore raged between their tribes and those of the
Great and Little Osages ; and for the purpose of burying the
tomahawk, and renewing the friendly intercourse between
themselves and the Osages, a meeting of their respective
chiefs shall take place, at which, under the direction of the
above named commissioner, or the agent of Indian affairs,
residing at St. Louis, an adjustment of all their differences
shall be made, and peace established upon a firm and lasting
" ART. XI. As it is probable that the government of the
United States will establish a military post at or near the
mouth of the Wisconsin river ; and as the land on the lower
side of the river may not be suitable for that purpose, the said
tribes hereby agree that a fort may be built either on the
upper side of the Wisconsin, or on the right bank of the Mis-
sissippi, as the one or the other may be found most convenient,
and a tract of land not exceeding two miles square shall be
given for that purpose ; and the said tribes do further agree
that they will, at all times, allow to traders and other per
sons traveling thro' their country, under the authority of the
United States, a free and safe passage for themselves and their
property of every description, and that for such passage they
shall at no time, and on no account whatever, be subject to
any toll or exaction.
" ART. XII. This treaty shall take effect, and be obliga
tory on the contracting parties, as soon as the same shall have
been ratified by the President, by and with the advice and con
sent of the Senate of the United States.
" ADDITIONAL ARTICLE. It is agreed that nothing
in this treaty contained shall affect the claim of any individual
or individuals, who may have obtained grants of land from the
Spanish government ; and which are not included within the
general boundary line laid down in this treaty, provided that
such grants have at any time been made known to the said
tribes and recognized by them."
Ratified the 25th of February, 1805.
Recognitions of the preceding Treaty which was held at
St. Louis 1 3th May, 1816.
Treaty with the Sacs of Rock River and the United States,
by William Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau.
[This appears to be a Treaty of amity, but the following
article is considered proper to be inserted.]
" ART. I. The Sacs of Rock River, and the adjacent
country, do hereby unconditionally assent to, recognize,
re-establish, and confirm the treaty between the United States
of America and the united tribes of Sacs and Foxes, which
was concluded at St. Louis, on the 3d of November, 1804,
as well as all other contracts and agreements heretofore made
between the Sac tribe or nation and the United States."
"Treaty with the Sacs residing on Missouri river, by
William Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, at
Portage de Sioux, I3th Sept., 1815."
" ART. I. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for
themselves, and that portion of the Sacs which they represent,
do hereby assent to the treaty between the United States of
America, and the United tribes of Sacs and Foxes, which was
concluded at St. Louis, on the 3d of November, 1804, and
they moreover promise to do all in their power to re-establish
and enforce the same. "
" Treaty with the Fox tribe, by William Clark, Ninian
Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau.
" ART. IV. The Fox tribe or nation do hereby assent
to, recognize, re-establish and confirm, the treaty of St.
Louis, concluded on the 3d of November, 1804, to the full
extent of their interest in the same, as well as all other con
tracts and agreements between the parties ; and the United
States promise to fulfil all the stipulations contained in the
said treaty in favour of the Fox tribe or nation."
" Treaty with the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians, concluded
at the City of Washington, the 4th of August, 1824.
" To perpetuate peace and friendship between the United
States and the Sac and Fox tribes or nations of Indians, and
to remove all future cause of dissensions which may arise from
undefined territorial boundaries, the President of the United
States of America, by Wm. Clark, Superintendent of Indian
affairs, and sole commissioner, specially appointed for that
purpose, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs and head
men of the Sac and Fox tribes or nations fully deputized to
act for and in behalf of their said nations of the other part,
have entered into the following articles and conditions, viz.
"ART. I. The Sac and Fox tribes or nations of Indians,
by their deputations in council assembled, do hereby agree, in
consideration of certain sums of moneys, &c., to be paid to
the said Sac and Fox tribes,by the government of the U. States,
as hereinafter stipulated, to cede and forever quit claim, and
do, in behalf of their said tribes or nations, hereby cede, relin
quish, and forever quit claim unto the United States, all right,
title, interest, and claim to the lands which the said Sac and
Fox tribes have or claim within the limits of the State of Mis
souri, which are situated, lying and being, between the Missis
sippi and Missouri rivers, and a line running from the Missouri
at the entrance of the Kansas river, north one hundred miles
to the north-west corner of the State of Missouri, and from
thence east of the Mississippi. It being understood, that the
small tract of land lying between the rivers Des Moine and
the Mississippi, and the section of the above line between the
Mississippi and the Des Moine is intended for the use of the
half breeds belonging to the Sac and Fox nations ; they hold
ing it, however, by the same title, and in the same manner
that other Indian titles are held.
"ART. II. The chiefs and head men who signed this
convention, for themselves and in behalf of their tribes, do
acknowledge the lands east and south of the lines described
in the first article, so far as the Indians claimed the same, to
belong to the United States, and that none of their tribes shall
be permitted to settle or hunt upon any part of it, after the
first day of January, 1826, without special permission from
the Superintendent of Indian affairs.
"ART. III. It is hereby stipulated and agreed on the
part of the United States, as a full consideration for the claims
and lands ceded by the Sac and Fox tribes in the first article,
there shall be paid to the Sac and Fox nations within the
present year, one thousand dollars in cash or merchandise ;
and, in addition to the annuities stipulated to be paid to the
Sac and Fox tribes, by a former treaty, the United States do
agree to pay to the said Sac tribe, five hundred dollars, and to
the Fox tribe five hundred dollars, annually, for the term of
ten succeeding years ; and at the request of the chiefs of the
said Sac and Fox nations, the commissioner agrees to pay to
Maurice Blondeau, a half breed Indian of the Fox tribe, the
sum of five hundred dollars, it being a debt due by the said
nation, to the aforesaid Blondeau for property taken from him
during the late war.
" ART. IV. The United States engage to provide and
support a blacksmith for the Sac and Fox nations, so long as
the President of the United States may think proper, and to
furnish the said nations with such farming utensils, and cattle,
and to employ such persons to aid them in their agriculture, as
the President may deem expedient.
u ART. V. The annuities stipulated by the third article
198 . APPENDIX
are to be paid either in money, merchandise, provisions, or
domestic animals, at the option of the aforesaid tribes, and
when the annuities, or part thereof is paid in merchandise, it
is to be delivered to them at the first cost of the goods at St.
Louis, free from cost of transportation.
" ART. VI. This treaty shall take effect and be obliga
tory upon the contracting parties so soon as the same shall be
ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the
advice and consent of the Senate thereof.
" Ratified the i8th of January, 1825."
The original text has been followed herein, faithfully,
with two or three exceptional typographical errors of
so glaring a nature that their correction was made
imperative, and with the further exceptional alterations
demanded by the seven lines of Wakefield's "Errata,"
which close his narrative, and which have been omitted
The type used in printing the book was found to be
so excessively small that reading it placed a heavy tax
upon the eyes, and for that reason the present volume
has been printed from type large enough to be easily
read. This very much needed enlargement has nec
essarily changed the pagination.
In some instances where Wakefield could not recall
initials or Christian names, he supplied the omission
with dashes, thus :- . In a very few other instan
ces he made errors in names. These have been supplied
or corrected in the text between brackets, thus : .
In other instances where surnames alone were given,
the Christian names have been supplied in the notes
The same may be said of some dates. In one or two
such cases, where the proper name was not available to
the editor until a very late moment, the index alone
has been made to supply the correction. But it has
been supplied. In two or three instances, brief ex
planations of names or events served a much better
purpose by being placed in the index alone.
200 EDITOR'S APPENDIX
NOTE i. Stevens' s "The Black Hawk War," 73 etseq.
The same Captain Lindsey mentioned on page 124 hereafter.
Movements of the militia from eastern Illinois are mentioned fully in the paper by
Hon. H. W. Beckwith, number ten (10) Fergus Historical Series, page 47 et seq.
From Sangamon and Morgan counties in Illinois, a regiment of mounted volunteers,
under command of Colonel Thomas M. Neale of Springfield, marched to Galena ; but
when that point had been reached, Red Bird, the moving spirit in the uprising, had
surrendered and the regiment saw no service. Its movements, however, are to be found
in an article written by Hon. William Thomas of Jacksonville, and published in the
Jacksonville Journal of August 17, 1871.
The reason for the Winnebago War, so frequently attributed to brutality to certain
squaws, by the whites, has not a shadow of foundation in fact.
NOTE 2. The losses were two whites killed and four wounded, two mortally and
Reports of losses by the Indians vary from seven to twelve killed, and many wounded.
NOTE 3. Governor Cass was not present as intimated.
NOTE 4. The number of men employed in the expedition was 600 regulars
under General Henry Atkinson and about 1 30 militia from the lead mines under Captain
Samuel Whiteside, who was present at Galena at the time of the trouble, took com
mand of another company of about the same strength as Dodge's company, and marched
or ranged through the country to the north, emerging at Prairie du Chien.
A dispute had arisen as to whether Whiteside or Dodge should be given command of
the militia, which was settled by giving each a company.
James M. Strode was captain of a company which remained at Galena doing guard
NOTE 5. Major Nathaniel Buckmaster, youngest child of a family of eight children,
son of Nathaniel and Ann (Ward) Buckmaster, was born May I, 1787, in Calvert
County, Maryland, on a plantation owned by his parents, that extended to the shores of
the Chesapeake Bay.
In 1796 the family moved to Frederick County, Virginia, on a farm about 30 miles
In the year 1803 Nathaniel, then 16 years old, went to a place seven miles from
Harper's Ferry, to live with his sister, Catherine Anderson, where he learned the trade
of brick and stone mason.
In the spring of the year 1818, clad in knee-breeches, ruffled shirt, high stock,
with shoes ornamented with great silver buckles, Nathaniel Buckmaster came to
Edwardsville, Illinois, to seek his fortune, and verily, fortune seemed to be awaiting
his arrival, for he was elected to represent Madison County in the Second General
Assembly, which met at Vandalia, December 4, 1820.
In the year 1823 we find him sheriff" of Madison County, which office he held for
so long (in 1838 he was still in office) that finding no other means open to them
to get him out of the office, rhe Whigs pushed through a constitutional amendment
prohibiting a tenure of more than one term.
In 1832 he married, in Edwardsville, Miss Harriet Bartling, from which marriage
four children were born, Virginia, Henry, Catherine, and Ellen.
EDITOR'S APPENDIX 201
The Black Hawk War coming on in April of that year, he enlisted early, and was
second in command of the army, with the title Brigade Major. His record as major
of a spy battalion in the campaign of 1831 against the same Indian had much to do
with his advanced rank in this second campaign, and in his various books the "Old
Ranger Governor" was fond of referring to " Buck," as he called him, as one of the
few men who stuck to his colors from the first day of the first campaign to the last
day of the last campaign. At the mouth of Fox River when the first levy, of troops
was mustered out, it was he who performed the function with the aid of Lieutenant
Robert Anderson, of Fort Sumter memory, and he was the first to re- enlist.
As the departure of the troops for their homes left the frontiers entirely unprotected,
he was made major of a battalion of spies, and, stationed at Fort Payne (now Naper-
ville, Illinois) , he cleared the country of every hostile Indian between Chicago and Ottawa.
In 1839-40 we find him Postmaster of Alton, and soon after he was made warden
of the penitentiary there, then a position of high importance. He remained at Alton
to the end of his life.
In the same year, 1840, his wife died at Alton, on the spot where stands the present
depot of the C. & A. R. R. Co., and it is recorded of him as a remarkable incident
for those days, that he never remarried.
In 1844, having for a long time interested himself in public transportation problems
and ventures, he obtained the franchise for operating the " upper ferry," which he
held during his lifetime, and after death it passed to his heirs.
On June 4, 1855, ^ e died at his home, and was buried beside his wife in the
Upper Alton cemetery. Major Buckmaster was essentially a business man. Trans
portation problems engaged most ot his attention, either as the owner of ferries or
builder of turnpikes and railroads, and for his enterprise, the State of Illinois is under
We find him an incorporator of The Alton and Shawneetown Railroad Company,
The Madison Railroad Company, and The Illinois and Pacific Railroad Company, in
which Lyman Trumbull cooperated. He was president of The Alton Marine and
Fire Insurance Company, as well as of the company which built the first plank road in
As a builder he was famous, as many of the old-time Edwards County buildings,
public and private, testify to this day. The old first brick jail and the hotel at Alton
are of the number.
As sheriff of his county, he showed the goodness of his nature.
A part of his duty was to sell the lands of his county for delinquent taxes, which
many persons who lost their money in the panic of 1 8 37 were unable to pay. To them
he opened his purse, saving their farms at an inconvenience almost calamitous to his own
business interests. This explains, to a large degree, the inability of the Whigs to get
him out of office.
In personal appearance he was an unusually handsome man, well dressed, with a
fine physique and carriage, six feet tall, and to his last days active.
In politics he was a Jackson Democrat. In religion he was reared a Methodist,
and during his business activities, he was never so busy as to be unable to pursue a close
study of the bible.
NOTE 6. Brigadier General Samuel Whiteside. The Whiteside family, a very nu
merous one, was among the first to settle permanently on Illinois soil. In the year
1793, William and John, brothers, and both soldiers in the Revolutionary War, settled
in what is now Monroe County, on the road between Cahokia and Kaskaskia, about
half-way between the present towns of Waterloo and Columbia. There William built
a log fort, which became widely known as Whiteside' s station.
In the year 1802 John, the father of Samuel Whiteside, moved to the Goshen
settlement in Madison County and settled near Samuel Judy, whose wife was a sister
202 EDITOR'S APPENDIX
to Samuel Whiteside. The latter, with his brother Joel, afterward settled in the north
east part of the present township of Collinsville, and there Samuel made the first
improvements on the Ridge prairie.
Samuel Whiteside was born in the State of North Carolina in the year 1783, and
there remained with his rather until the latter came to Illinois ten years later.
According to his grandson, J. D. Henderson, Samuel Whiteside married Nancy
Miller just before moving to Madison County, which must have been in his twentieth
year if true. But early marriages were characteristic of the young pioneer of those days,
who so much needed a helpmeet to begin work at his " clearing." In Madison
County, Samuel Whiteside lived until the last of his children had married, and his
wife died in March, 1854. At that time, with his daughter Mrs. Henderson and
her husband, he moved to a farm in Christian County, near Mt. Auburn, and there
lived until his death, in June, 1866. He is buried in what is known as the " Old
During the Indian troubles of 1 8 10, Samuel Whiteside, in command of a company of
rangers, was almost constantly in the saddle. During that period, it was a common
occurrence when tidings of a murder were received, to rendezvous at the nearest fort,
organize a company and start in hasty pursuit of the murderers. It was customary
to elect a captain and subordinate officers, and when the offenders had been brought
to justice or escaped to other states, to disband. Hence it is that we see the name
of Samuel Whiteside so many times in the early annals as captain of a company.
By common consent, he became the leader in every important Indian pursuit or fight.
Thus the War of 1812 with England coming closely upon the heels of the contin
ued Indian disturbances, Samuel Whiteside was almost the first man to be appointed
captain of a company of militia by Governor Edwards. In Campbell's notable battle
just oft Campbell's Island, near the present city of Moline, the company of Captain
Samuel Whiteside took conspicuous part. The battle, which was fought from keel
boats by the militia against the overwhelming land forces of British and Indians, among
which Black Hawk was a conspicuous figure, was a bloody one, and well worth study
by the student of Illinois history.
When peaceful times were restored, Samuel Whiteside turned to peaceful pursuits,
and though nominally a farmer, much of his time was occupied with surveying large
areas, two instances being the boundaries of the states of Illinois and Missouri.
When, in 1831, it became necessary for Governor Reynolds to send troops to the
mouth of Rock River to drive Black Hawk and his band across the Mississippi River,
General Whiteside was appointed major of a spy battalion.
That campaign was so successful, that when it became necessary in the following
year for Governor Reynolds to pursue the wily Sac again and with larger forces, atten
tion was naturally attracted to Samuel Whiteside, and the Governor appointed him
Brigadier General and commander of all the state forces.
Though but five feet tall, it has been said of him that he contained more " fight"
than a battalion of the average raw militia. He knew not fear or danger. At the
village of Kapas, the Pottawattomie Indian, where the duty was put upon him to decide
whether the troops should be mustered out or forced to continue the pursuit of Black
Hawk up into Wisconsin, he mounted a whisky-barrel and declared that with one
hundred men he would fight and whip Black Hawk ; but with an army of cowards
he would have nothing whatever to do, and he voted to send the levy of troops back
home again. In his harangue, which has been only partially preserved, Colonel Zachary
Taylor ably seconded him, from the head of the same whisky-barrel.
General Whiteside knew nothing of politics, and for that reason never secured
office or aspired to it.
When at the mouth of Fox River, the troops had been mustered out by Major
Buckmaster and Lieutenant Robert Anderson, it was considered necessary to protect the
frontier with an emergency regiment. Such a regiment was recruited from the ranks
EDITOR'S APPENDIX 203
of the few who were willing to remain, and General Whiteside enlisted as a private in
the company of Captain Adam W. Snyder. In Snyder's battle at Kellogg's Grove,
a bullet from General Whiteside's rifle killed the leader of the Indians and terminated
the fight decisively in favor of the whites. He was a dead shot. It may be added that
Abraham Lincoln, who had been a captain in the first campaign, re-enlisted as a pri
vate in the company of Elijah lies in the same emergency regiment.
Whiteside County, Illinois, was named in honor of Gen. Samuel Whiteside.
NOTE 7. The orthography of foregoing names is incorrect in many instances.
NOTE 8. Governor Reynolds' s aids were James D. Henry and M. K. Alexander.
Upon Henry's resignation, for active service John Dement was appointed. Enoch
C. March was made Quartermaster General, and William Thomas Brigade Quarter
NOTE 9. The Indians had returned to the west side of the Mississippi River during
the previous night instead of during the action, as might be inferred herein.
NOTE 10. This affair is fully related in correspondence between General Joseph
M. Street, the agent at Prairie du Chien, and General William Clark of St. Louis,
to be found in report of Secretary of War made shortly after the affair was reported to
Twenty-five Menominies were killed outright in the attack, while many others
NOTE II. Now Beloit, Wisconsin.
NOTE 12. 'Black Hawk in his autobiography was insistent that he was going to
the Winnebago country by invitation, and for the sole purpose of " making corn."
NOTE 1 3 . The author states numbers accurately, but magnifies their ferocity.
NOTE 14. Black Hawk was not a chief. He was simply a brave and leader of the
band known as "the British Band" ; so called by reason of its adhesion to British
interests. It may be said that its hatred of everything American was more to the point
than love of British interest, because so late as July 12, 1821, Captain T. G. An
derson, British Indian Agent, rebuked Black Hawk severely for his fault-finding.
NOTE 15. It was Black Hawk's boast that he never violated a neutral or flag of
truce. This is one instance of violation.
NOTE 1 6. This name is generally spelled Ne-a-pope, and is pronounced Naw-pope.
NOTE 17. Another admission that the mission of the band was not of peace.
NOTE 1 8. 'Abraham B. DeWitt, of Morgan County. But DeWitt commanded
the Third Regiment.
NOTE 19. Jacob Fry.
NOTE 20. John Thomas of St. Clair County. But Thomas commanded the
NOTE 21. Oquawka, Illinois.
204 EDITOR'S APPENDIX
NOTE 22. For many years it was contended that the volunteers, a company ot
which was commanded by Captain Abraham Lincoln, were sworn into the United
States service at Dixon's Ferry, now Dixon, Illinois, by Lieutenant Jefferson Davis,
then a Lieutenant in the regular establishment serving under Lieutenant Colonel
Zachary Taylor. But Wakefield is right as to the place. The editor owns a letter
written by Major Nathaniel Buckmaster on May 9, 1832, at the mouth of Rock
River, wherein it is specifically stated that General Atkinson swore the troops into
the service at that point.
NOTE 23. The whites burned the village on their march up Rock River.
NOTE 24. Paw Paw Grove was in the southwest township of DeKalb County
and the southeast township of Lee County as now defined, named respectively Paw Paw
and Wyoming townships, and not up on the river as indicated. Near Paw Paw Grove
was Sha-bo-na's village ; in the grove of that name, now within the township of
Shabbona in DeKalb County.
The fact that Black Hawk was recruiting from the Pottawattomies at Paw Paw
Grove, and that Sha-bo-na had consented to a parley at the mouth of Old Man's Creek
in Ogle County, brought about this confusion in Wakefield' s mind.
NOTE 25. Within the present boundaries of Whiteside County.
NOTE 26. Dixon, Illinois.
NOTE 27. Kellogg' s Trail, running from Peoria to Galena and Gratiot's Grove,
made by O. W. Kellogg in 1827.
NOTE 28. Isaiah Stillman and David Bailey.
NOTE 29. Now Stillman's Run in Ogle County. So called from the "run"
subsequently made by the cowardly volunteers.
NOTE 30. Colonel James M. Strode of Galena, Illinois. A very amusing ac
count of his actions at Stillman's battle may be found in Ford's History of Illinois.
NOTE 31. Captain Abner Eads, then of Peoria, later of Galena.
NOTE 32. Captain David W. Barnes of Fulton County.
NOTE 33. " Major" was a nickname only. Isaac Perkins was a private in the
company of Captain John G. Adams.
NOTE 34. Tyrus M. Childs was his name; not Cyrus. He was a private in Cap
tain Barnes's company.
NOTE 35. The author, who was not present at the fight, has adopted to a con
siderable extent the version given in a St. Louis paper by Stillman soon after it
occurred. The encampment was just north of the present village of Stillman Valley,
in Ogle County, while the thick of the fight was on the slope and at the top of the
hill about half a mile to the south, upon whose summit the dead were buried. It
was upon this eminence, now in the midst of the village, that Captain John G. Adams
made his heroic stand, and there the State of Illinois has recently erected a handsome
monument costing $5,000.
The strength of the Indians was in reality much under 100 men, which when known
made the retreat of the whites appear much more cowardly.
EDITOR'S APPENDIX 205
NOTE 36. When Reynolds and Whiteside, just above the Prophet's town, deter
mined to make a forced march to Dixon's Ferry, the wagons and provisions were stacked
together and left behind, after a limited supply of rations was issued to the troops.
Small as the issue may have been, the famine which appeared later would have been
avoided had it been providently conserved ; but with profound contempt for everything
orderly or systematic, the provisions were wantonly wasted, and but for the sacrifice by
John Dixon of his milch cows, Reynolds never could have held the men together until
NOTE 37. Rev. Reddick Horn of Cass County.
NOTE 38. The army reached a Pottawattomie village on Sycamore Creek, now
the left fork of the Kishwaukee River, the site of which subsequently became known
as Coltonville, in DeKalb County. It was once the county seat, but was abandoned and
is now part of a farm about a mile and a half southwest of Sycamore. There a crisis
arose. The troops were still murmuring as they had been doing almost from the day
they were sworn into service, and demanded their discharge, though but half of their
time of enlistment had expired. To the north lay the path to Black Hawk, to the
south their homes.
Colonel Zachary Taylor vigorously demanded that they continue northward, while
Governor Reynolds pleaded, but to no purpose. A vote on the question by the cap
tains, as to whether or net the army should disband, resulted in a tie, which was decided
affirmatively by Whiteside, who declared he would no longer lead cowards. There
upon he ordered the march resumed to the mouth of Fox River, where the men were
mustered out of service.
Along the line of march, the troops lawlessly robbed Indian villages, including Sha-
bo-na's, and otherwise disgraced themselves.
NOTE 39. Davis and Pettigrew.
NOTE 40. This is a mistake. A detachment from Fort Dearborn marched to Fort
Beggs (Plainfield, Will County), thence to Indian Creek, and there buried the victims.
NOTE 41. A comma should appear between the two names, thus : Henry, Fry ;
meaning James D. Henry and Jacob Fry.
NOTE 42. William C. Rails from Schuyler County.
Abraham Lincoln re-enlisted as a private in the company of Captain Elijah lies.
Before this re-enlistment he was captain of a company in the Fourth (Col. Thompson's)
NOTE 43. The date should be June I5th instead of June iyth.
Adam Wilson Snyder was born in Connellsville, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, on
the sixth day of October, 1799. ^ n ear ty ^ e he learned the trade of wool carding,
which he followed in Pennsylvania up to the day of his departure for the west.
He left Pennsylvania for the purpose of joining relatives in Indiana, but tiring of his
long journey, which was made afoot, he tarried at a cross-roads store in Knox County,
Ohio, to engage with its solitary owner as clerk. There he remained until persuaded
to remove to Illinois by Jesse Burgess Thomas, later United States Senator, for the
purpose of undertaking the management of a woolen mill which had been erected by
the latter a short while before. Once more turning his face westward, he arrived at
Cahokia in June of the year 1817, footsore and weary.
Under Judge Thomas, Snyder, who had steadfastly aspired to a professional career so
206 EDITOR'S APPENDIX
soon as the moment became auspicious, began the study of law, and was admitted to
practice in the year 1820, though he had not attained his majority.
In 1823 he was elected by the legislature to fill the office of District Attorney.
In 1830 and in 1832 he was elected state senator, and in 1836 he was elected
Representative in Congress, defeating 'John Reynolds. This was regarded at the time
as the greatest achievement in Illinois politics. Again, in 1 840, he was elected state
senator and a presidential elector.
On December u, 1841, he was nominated for the office of Governor by the Dem
ocratic convention, to which office he would have been elected beyond doubt, but his
death occurred on May 14, 1842, from pulmonary consumption. Thomas Ford, who
was appointed to assume his candidacy on the ticket, was elected.
NOTE 44. The names in full are : William B. Mecomson, Benjamin Scott, and
NOTE 45. Theophilus W. Smith, then a Judge of the Supreme Court, was ap
pointed to the general staff, on which occasion Major Breese, later United States Sen
ator and Judge of the Supreme Court, was made Lieutenant Colonel, and John D.
NOTE 46. Father of General John A. Logan.
NOTE 47. Rev. Reddick Horn.
NOTE 48. Major John Dement. Few men, indeed, have been allowed the priv
ilege of participating actively and influentially in the councils of their party and in the
affairs of their state for a period of more than fifty years ; yet such is the record of
the commander of the Spy Battalion who met Black Hawk in person at Kellogg' s
Grove, and for the first time convinced the wily Sac that the whites could fight well. It
is the fact, that from the time Major Dement stopped Black Hawk at Kellogg's Grove,
that Indian was kept upon a constant retreat until his band was driven into the Missis
sippi River at the mouth of the Bad Axe. And for the commander's bravery, Black
Hawk paid him the handsomest compliment to be found in the biography which the
latter subsequently published.
John Dement was born at Gallatin, Sumner County, Tennessee, in April, 1804,
where he lived until the family moved to Town Mound in Franklin County, Illinois, in
1817. In 1826 he was elected sheriff of Franklin County. In 1827 he served in
the expedition sent from Illinois to assist in the Winnebago War. The same year he
represented Franklin County in the General Assembly, as he did in the succeeding session
In the first campaign against Black Hawk, in 1831, he was made aid to Governor
Reynolds. During the same year, in the face of keen opposition, he was elected state
treasurer, which office he continued to hold until 1836, when he resigned it at the
solicitation of the friends of Vandalia, to enter the General Assembly and lead the fight
against moving the capital to Springfield.
It is worthy of note that when his son, Hon. Henry D. Dement, became Secretary
of State many years after, he found some of the reports of his father as state treasurer.
They were written upon foolscap paper, and showed that $40,000 was collected for
each of two years ; but as the money then in circulation was worth but 25 cents on the
dollar, the income of the State in reality was but $10,000 per annum.
Appointed Receiver of the Galena Land Office in 1837, he removed to Galena and
remained there until the land office was moved to Dixon, in 1840, to which place he
moved and remained till his death. In 1841, for political reasons, he was removed by
President Harrison, but upon coming into office, President Polk reappointed him in
EDITOR'S APPENDIX 207
1845. He held the office again for four years, or until 1849, when a change of
administration retired him for another four years. Again, in 1853, President Pierce
reappointed him, and he held the office until it was abolished.
In 1834, while state treasurer, he was married to Miss Louise Dodge, daughter of
the then General Henry Dodge, afterward Governor, Representative, and United
States Senator in Congress from Wisconsin.
In 1 844 he was made Presidential Elector for James K. Polk.
Major Dement was made a member of every Constitutional Convention held in
Illinois up to the date of his death, with the exception of the first one, held in 1818,
which of course met before he had reached his majority, and this too in the face of the
fact that in 1862 and in 1870 his party at home was in a hopeless minority. Of
those two conventions he was made the temporary presiding officer. In the last in
stance the honor was unusual, for the reason that his party was in the minority.
On January 1 6, 1883, he died at his home in Dixon.
While at Vandalia, as state treasurer, Stephen A. Douglas made his appearance as
a candidate for the office of district attorney, his first political aspiration. Almost
destitute of friends and entirely destitute of money, Major Dement divided his room
with young Douglas, and assisted him to what might now be denominated a meal-
ticket. Better than either, he introduced the aspiring candidate to powerful friends, and
before Douglas was ready to return home Dement had secured for him the desired
The late General Usher F. Linder has told a story wherein he credits Major Dement
with saving both the life and honor of the former: "General Linder had offended a des
perate member of the state senate, for which a challenge very promptly followed through
General James Turney, the senator's second. As Linder' s second, Major Dement
accepted, and replied that ' the fight must be with pistols at close quarters, each
man holding a corner of the same handkerchief in his teeth.' General Turney was
thunderstruck, and expostulated but to no purpose, that such a condition meant the
deliberate murder of both. 'It don't matter,' answered Dement, 'your principal is
cool, desperate, and deliberate, while my friend is nervous and excitable, and if he has
to lose his life, your friend must bear him company.' The duel was called off without
a moment's delay."
While receiver, Major Dement engaged in the business of smelting quite extensively,
and during the latter years of his life, he was an extensive manufacturer of plows and
flax bagging. At the time of his death, he was one of the largest land-owners in the
NOTE 49. Lieutenant Colonel Theophilus W. Smith was later appointed Adjutant
General by Governor Reynolds, Major Breese succeeding him, as above stated.
NOTE 50. An independent company of spies, commanded by Captain Jacob M.
Early, was organized also. In that company Abraham Lincoln served as a private
until it was mustered out July loth.
NOTE 51. Captain Clack Stone commanded Apple River Fort during the fight
and during the campaign. The place is now Elizabeth, Jo Daviess County.
From correspondence with Mr. N. B. Craig of Hanover, Illinois, who as a boy
served in the company of his father, Captain James Craig of Jo Daviess County, it is
concluded that the Flack referred to above was private John Flack, of Captain Craig's
Ezekiel Rawlins, father of General John A. Rawlins, was a member of Captain
NOTE 52. Pecatonica.
2o8 EDITOR'S APPENDIX
NOTE 53. Five were killed on Spafford's farm, to wit: Spafford, Searles, Spencer,
Mcllwaine, and an Englishman nicknamed "John Bull."
NOTE 54. Son of Alexander Hamilton.
NOTE 55. Henry Appel.
NOTE 56. Montraville. The word Pecatonica is again misspelled on this page.
NOTE 57. Those killed were Charles Eames, Michael Lovell, and Stephen P.
NOTE 58. Twenty-third.
NOTE 59. Colonel John Dement, subsequently of Dixon, Illinois.
NOTE 60. Upon the discharge of Captain Iles's company after its twenty days
of service, Abraham Lincoln, who had been a private therein, re-enlisted in the inde
pendent company of Captain Jacob M. Early and was engaged in scouting duty.
The company was mustered out finally at Lake Koshkonong July 10, 1832.
NOTE 61. Subsequently General Robert Anderson of Fort Sumter fame. Thus
it will be observed that a remarkably large number of great Americans served
together in the Black Hawk campaigns.
NOTE 6z. Sometimes called "trembling lands." So called from the fact that
when trod by man or beast, a trembling movement or sensation was observed, attrib
uted to the surface being supported by muck or water instead of a subsoil.
NOTE 63. Present site of Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin.
NOTE 64. Sylvia.
NOTE 65. The so-called " Westerfield scare."
NOTE 66. Had Henry concluded to obey Atkinson's orders literally, by returning
direct to Koshkonong as soon as the provisions had been drawn, the campaign would
have ended in disgrace just as the others had ended. On receipt of news purporting
to locate Black Hawk's forces, he called a council of war, at which Alexander de
clined to disobey orders. While Dodge was in favor of immediate pursuit, he main
tained that his forces were so crippled and decimated that the plan was impossible
so far as his command was concerned. Thereupon Henry declared he would pursue
the enemy if he had to move alone.
At this juncture, the usual pusillanimity of the volunteers was displayed in the form
of a remonstrance headed by Lieutenant Colonel Jeremiah Smith and other petty
officers, in which they refused to obey their General.
Henry ordered them under arrest and appointed Colonel Collins's regiment an escort
to march the offenders back to Atkinson's headquarters, where, as he then told them,
he had no doubt that every man would be shot. Such firmness was so unexpected,
that the recalcitrants recoiled and in a body called upon Henry with an apology,
protesting that ignorance alone was the cause. Henry as promptly forgave them.
To their credit, be it said, they were among the very best fighters thereafter.
The company of Captain James Craig arrived opportunely with its fresh horses and
men, from Jo Daviess County, to join Dodge's squadron, which so strengthened the
EDITOR'S APPENDIX 209
latter that he at once reported to Henry for duty. Had Henry been given supreme
command in the first instance, untrammeled by suggestions or orders from Reynolds,
the Black Hawk War had ended at Old Man's Creek. In fact, it may be said that
had it been possible to send Henry for Black Hawk when the latter was at the
Prophet's village, defying Atkinson with messages that his heart was bad and that he
would not return, the poor deluded old fellow would have returned with an impression
left upon his mind that he had no further business east of the Mississippi River.
NOTE 67. Wakefield inadvertently writes of Dodge as " General" in many
places, which is an error. He was in 1832, a Colonel of volunteers for the Territory
of Michigan, of which Wisconsin was then a part, and not a General until later years.
NOTE 68. The companies of Gentry, Clark, Camp, and Parkinson were Michigan
companies belonging to Dodge's squadron.
NOTE 69. Philleo did not kill the Indian at all, though he scalped him. Many
other complaints could be lodged against the man's pretensions.
NOTE 70. Prairie du Sac, opposite which the battle was fought.
NOTE 71. Private Thomas J. Short of Captain Briggs's company. Eight men
were wounded in the engagement.
NOTE 72. Should be Bennet Riley. Morgan was Colonel Willoughby Morgan.
Brady was General Hugh Brady.
NOTE 73. General Robert Anderson of Fort Sumter fame.
NOTE 74. This is a mistake. Captain Craig joined Dodge at Fort Winnebago, as
stated in foot-note 66.
NOTE 75. Albert Sidney Johnston.
NOTE 76. Should be Abner Greer.
NOTE 77. -When our army appeared in sight Black Hawk deployed a band of
about twenty Indians to meet Atkinson, engage his attention, and gradually draw that
General away from camp. They did their work so well that Atkinson was deceived
and placed his forces to attack an enemy which in reality was far below him. Major
Ewing discovered the main trail, and reporting it to Henry, that officer (who had been
assigned to guard the baggage in the rear) followed it with such vigor that the fight
was won before Atkinson could participate.
NOTE 78. Zachary Taylor, who was then a Lieutenant Colonel in the regular
NOTE 79. This attack upon the willow island caused almost the entire number of
casualties sustained by the whites, and the names of the United States officers which
Wakefield did not remember were, Taylor himself in command, Major John Bliss,
Captain W. S. Harney, and Captain Henry Smith.
NOTE 80. The Warrior's fight was on the day before. Captain John Throck-
morton commanded her.
210 EDITOR'S APPENDIX
NOTE 81. The Prophet was a cross-bred Winnebago-Sac, whose village in what
is now Whiteside County, Illinois, it will be remembered, was burned by Whiteside's
men in passing that point.
There is no doubt about the fact that his evil genius had much to do with influencing
Black Hawk's conduct.
NOTE 8z. This ceremony is very similar to those performed around the Hall girls
during their captivity.
NOTE 83. This disposition of the scalp-lock was very common among Indians of
the Mississippi River and Valley. Travelers up and down the valley during the early
part of the nineteenth century have unanimously testified to the fact. The boast of
inviting an enemy to come and take it, so frequently made by Black Hawk, was
pure fiction. With the same show of reason he might have claimed that plucking out
the beard was peculiar to his individuality alone.
NOTE 84. The Sioux inhabited the western bank of the Mississippi River. Find
ing their ancient enemies, the Sacs, crushed, they asked the privilege of pursuing those
fugitives who had made their escape to the west side of the river. Without thought
of the possible consequences, General Atkinson unfortunately granted them such per
mission. The scene of slaughter which followed was reported to be sickening.
NOTE 85. The progress of General Scott with his army around the lakes j the
spread of the cholera among his men, and his heroic efforts to stamp it out, should be
read in full by every person who loves to read of noble deeds. Another notable name
should be added at this point, that of Lieut. Joseph E. Johnston, Gen. Scott's aid,
who accompanied the latter.
NOTE 86. The impression prevailed at the time among the United States army
officers that Keokuk had been aiding and abetting Black Hawk in secret, and he was
even then suspected of harboring him from capture, an unjust and cruel suspicion.
NOTE 87. Colonel S. C. Stambaugh.
NOTE 88. Later General Robert Anderson.
NOTE 89. Should be Wa-pel-lo. Emphasis on the first syllable.
NOTE 90. Cha-e-tar. Pronounced in three syllables.
NOTE 91. It is regrettable that when confronted by Keokuk, Black Hawk had
forgotten all about the promised disclosures. His neglect in that particular gives plausi
bility to the theory that there was no truth to his assertions. Keokuk was found
trying at all times to persuade Black Hawk to abandon his shadow chasing when at
liberty, and when confined in Jefferson Barracks he sought to make Black Hawk's
confinement bearable by taking him presents and ultimately bringing to him his wife
Some measure of gratitude should have been manifested for such favors ; but prior
to 1832 the record is not illuminated with many examples of gratitude from Black
NOTE 9Z. This is a mistake. He was a full-blood Sac.
NOTE 93. The name given in his autobiography is Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak.
EDITOR'S APPENDIX 211
NOTE 94. Wakefield is in error. Lieutenant Jefferson Davis took the prisoners
down to Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis. Lieutenant Colonel Taylor was not pres
ent on the trip.
NOTE 95. The efficiency of Colonel Enoch C. March in the campaigns has been
universally pronounced marvelous.
NOTE 96. James Dougherty Henry has been styled by so respectable an authority
as Judge Joseph Gillespie as the most remarkable man in Illinois down to the day of his
death at New Orleans, March 4, 1834.
Born in Pennsylvania, he removed to Delaware, Ohio, in 1816, and there remained
until the year 1822, when in a rage he whipped three or four fellow-workmen. That
unwarrantable act compelled him to leave the place in haste. By keel boat he reached
the mouth of Wood River, from which point he went to Edwardsville, and at once be
gan work at his trade of shoemaker. To overcome his educational deficiencies, and
gratify a passion for knowledge, he attended night school taught by William Barrett,
beside which he induced the boy, Joseph Gillespie, to read to him during the day, while
at work, biographies of such military heroes as Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Caesar
and Napoleon. Meagre as were those sources, his advancement in learning was phe
In 1826, Mr. Jonathan Atwater established him in business at Springfield, where
he was enabled to take his first ambitious step. He was made sheriff of the county.
His nature was composed of numerous and painfully abnormal contrarieties. He
was melancholy, retiring, and withal insanely ambitious for military renown. The
same Judge Gillespie has said, " He was as mild as a May morning and as terrible as a
tornado. ' ' Once, at Edwardsville, he suspected a negro named Jarrett, the slave of
Joseph Conway, of doing him an injury, a wholy unjust suspicion. Henry dragged the
unfortunate wretch to the barn of Rowland P. Allen, stripped him to the waist, tied
him to a hay-rack, and proceeded to lash him with hickory withes. The crowd of men
which gathered stood helplessly and stupidly watching the act, afraid to antagonize the
giant form of Henry and his fiendish rage ; but when the cries of the negro reached
the ears of Mrs. Allen, she seized a carving-knife from her table and rushed between
the slave's bleeding body and Henry, who recoiled in astonishment, while Mrs. Allen
cut the cords and led the negro to safety.
While that brutishness mellowed and at last disappeared almost entirely, its reappear
ance at Fort Winnebago, together with his powerful physique, awed an army and per
mitted him to advance and win the battles of the Wisconsin and the Bad Axe, the
latter in the face of the fact that Atkinson purposely relegated him to the rear of the
army in charge of the baggage, in a spirit of jealousy for having, contrary to orders,
pursued Black Hawk, and whipped him at the Wisconsin.
The man was a fatalist, said to have been accentuated by reason of the misfortune
of his birth, and when the Winnebago war, the 1831 campaign, and the first half of
the 1832 campaign ended without presenting to him the opportunity to win fame, he
Rugged as he had been, the severities of the last campaign undermined his health.
Early in 1834 he sought relief in the milder climate of New Orleans, but without
avail, and he passed away so quietly that until it became noised about that General Henry
was dead, his presence in the city was almost unknown.
Before departing he had been nominated by a " People's Party " for Governor, and
so reliable an authority as Governor Ford has stated that nothing but his death could
have prevented his election by 20,000 majority. The coincidence might be called
remarkable that two of the Black Hawk heroes were nominees for the office of Gov
ernor when death snatched away the honor.
Adams, Captain John G. At
Stillman's battle 49,51.
Adams, Samuel. Elected Colonel
6 5 .
Alexander, General Milton K.
Elected Brigadier General 65.
Ordered to Plum River 75.
Joins main army at Lake Kosh-
konong 80. Sent to Fort
Winnebago 85. Returns to
Atkinson 102. Arrives at
Blue Mounds 1 19. At Helena
121. At Bad Axe battle 129,
Ames, Charles. Should be
Eames, which see.
Anderson, Lieutenant Robert.
Scouting 79. Mentioned 121.
Musters out troops 145.
Appel, Henry. Murder of 70.
Apple River Fort. Attacked
Archer, William B. Appointed
Aid 65. At Helena i 20, 121.
Armstrong, Chiler. Acts as in
terpreter I 24.
Atkinson, General Henry. Com
municates with Governor
Reynolds 3 3. Letters to 34,
35. Letter to Governor Rey
nolds respecting militia 35.
Letter to Black Hawk and Ne-
a-pope 39. Musters army into
U. S. service 41. Receives
Captain Snyder's report
62. At Fort Wilbourn 64.
At Dixon's Ferry 75. Marches
up Rock River 76. Move
ments around Lake Koshko-
nong 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,83.
Retrograde movement down
stream 83. Leaves Fort Kosh-
konong 117. Arrives at Blue
Mounds 119. At Helena 121.
Arranges for the Bad Axe battle
i 29. At the Bad Axe bat
tle 130, et seq. Report to
General Macomb 146, 147.
Bad Axe. Battle of 129, et seq.
Bailey, Major David. Reaches
Dixon's 45. Receives or
ders to march with Stillman 45.
Bangs, Lieutenant Oliver. Men
Bankson, Captain Andrew. Men
Barlow, J. W. Elected Lieu
tenant Colonel 65.
Barnes, Captain David W. At
Stillman's battle 48.
Beardstown. Troops concentrate
therein 1831 30. Concentrate
there in 1832 52. Troops
ordered to concentrate there for
final campaign in 1832 63.
Beloit, Wis. 203.
Berry, Adjutant General E. C.
Black, Samuel. Killed at Peca-
Blackburn, J. M. Elected Col
Black Hawk. Sent for by Gen.
Gaines 32. Signs Treaty
32. Conduct with Gratiot
39. Black Hawk and Ne-a-
pope sent for 39. Skill in
plans 42. Course taken up
Rock River 42. Retires far
ther up Rock River 75. His
rendezvous discovered 84, 104.
His trail for the Mississippi
105. Pursuit of 1 06, et
seq. At battle of Wisconsin
Heights in. After Bad
Axe battle 137, 140. A
prisoner 148. Talk 148.
His appearance 152. His
feint at the Bad Axe 209.
Blackwell, Robert. Carries Rey
nolds* call for more troops 52.
Bliss, Maj. John. At the Bad
Axe battle 209.
Block Houses. Built at Galena
Blue Mounds. Troops form a
junction there 1 18.
Bond, Benjamin. Appointed
Bowers, George. Elected Ma
Bowman, Lieutenant Samuel.
Killed at Bad Axe battle 133,
Bradford, William . At Bad Axe
Bradsby, Esq. Wakefield stops
with 5 3 .
Brady, General Hugh. Men
Breese, Major Sidney. Made
Major 64, 65. Leaves army
Briggs, Captain Josiah S. Dis
patched to call militia 54.
Reaches Beardstown 64.
At battle of Wisconsin Heights
Bristow, Captain George 30.
Brown [Browne], Thomas C.
Aid. Mentioned 121.
Buckmaster, Major Nathaniel.
Major Odd Battalion in 1831
31. Biography 200.
Bureau River or Creek. Major
Dement ordered to reconnoitre
Burns, Captain James. Men
Burnt Village. Reached 81.
Burr Oak Grove. Battle 59-61.
Butler, Major Nathaniel 30.
Caldwell, Billy. At Sycamore
Camp, Captain. At battle of
Wisconsin Heights 107.
Campbell. Elected Lieutenant
Carlin, Thomas. Made Captain
Casey, Zadock. In Dement' s
battle 7 5 .
Cass, Governor Lewis. Actions
in Winnebago War 28, 29.
Cha-e-tar. Mentioned 148.
Chapman, Amyson. Deposi
Childs, Cyrus [should be Ty-
rus]. Killed at Stillman's
battle 5 1 .
Chouteau, Auguste. Treaty of
Clark, Captain. At the battle
of Wisconsin Heights 107.
Clark, B. A. Appointed Aid
to Posey 65.
Clark, General William. For
bearance 20. Addressed by
Gov. Reynolds 30. Letter
from Reynolds 164. Letter
to Reynolds 165. Treaty
Collins, Adjutant Thomas. 30.
Collins, James. Elected Colonel
65. Sent up Rock River 80.
At battle of Wisconsin Heights
112-114. At the Bad Axe
battle 130, et seq.
Committee of Safety. At Galena
in 1827 28.
Cornelius, Dr. I. N. McTy.
Covington. Mentioned 53.
Craig, Captain James. Joins
Cranberry Lake. Black Hawk
said to be there 104. Men
Cubbage, Mr. With Gratiot 38.
Davenport, George. Letter to
General Atkinson 35.
Daviess [Davis] Family. Mur
dered 55, 56.
Davis, Jefferson. A Lieutenant
204. Takes Black Hawk to
Jefferson Baracks 211.
Decorri. Mentioned 149. Talk
Dement, Major John. Elected
Major 65. His battle 72-75.
Resigns 75. Biography 206.
Deposition of B. F. Pike 162-3.
Of Sanders and Chapman 163.
DeWitt, Colonel Abraham B.
Dickson [misspelled Dixon],
Captain Joseph. At battle of
Wisconsin Heights 108.
Dissatisfaction of troops 55, 120.
Dixon, F. At Apple River Fort
Dixon, John. Slaughters cows for
The act made him army contractor
Dixon's Ferry. Whiteside's
Brigade reaches there 44.
Stillman and Bailey leave 44.
Troops return after Stillman's
battle 49. Whiteside moves
52. Returns 55. Atkinson
reaches there 55. Army
leaves 55. Troops ordered to
concentrate there 72. Atkin
son and Henry advance up
Rock River 76. Troops
mustered out 145. Lincoln
and Davis at 204.
Dodge, Colonel Henry. In
Winnebago War 28, 29. Bat
tle of the Pecatonica 7 1 . Joins
main army at the Whitewater
8 1 . Sent to Fort Winnebago
85. He and Gen. Henry
pursue Black Hawk 102, et
seq. At battle of Wisconsin
Heights 110-114. At Bad
Axe battle I 29, et seq.
Donaldson, Dr. At Stillman's
Doty, James. Killed at Still
man's battle 5 Ig
Duncan, Gen. Joseph. Com
mands forces in 1831 30.
Marches for Rock River 3 I .
Dunn, Captain Charles. Shot
82. Sent to Dixon's Ferry
Eads, Captain Abner. At Still
man's battle 47.
Eames [misspelled Ames],
Charles. Killed at Stephen -
Early, Captain Jacob M. Scout
ing 79, 80. Penetrates island
Edwards, Governor Ninian.
During Winnebago War 28.
Treaty of 1 815 I95~9 8
Elkin, Captain William F. 30.
Ellis, Bird. Killed at Stillman's
battle 5 1 .
Eubanks, William. Elected Ma
Evans, James. Elected Major.
Ewing, Colonel John. Sent as
spy 41. Carries Reynolds'
call for more troops 5 2. Elect
ed Colonel 64. At the
Whitewater 8 1 . His regiment
sent as escort to Dixon's Ferry
Ewing, W. L. D. Elected Ma
jor 65. Forms line of bat
tle 77. Discovers trail 77,
78. Sent up Rock River
79, 80. Crosses White
water 82. At battle of Wis
consin Heights ii o, ill, 112.
At Bad Axe battle 130, et seq.
Farris, Joseph and David. At
Stillman's battle 49, 51.
Feaman, Capt. Jacob. Reaches
Fever River. Mentioned 27.
Field, Alexander P. Appointed
Aid to Henry 65. Leaves
the army 84.
Flack, Captain. Narrates attack
on Apple River Fort 66-69.
Forbearance by the Government
Fowler [John]. Said to have
been killed in Stephenson's
battle [error] 72.
Foxes and Sacs. See "Sacs and
Fry, Jacob. Lieut. Col. regiment,
1831 30. Elected Colonel
1832 40. Elected Colonel
temporary regiment 57. Elect
ed Colonel Second regiment,
Third Brigade 65. Sent up
Rock River 76. Overtaken
76. Crosses Rock River 80.
Bridges the Whitewater 83.
At battle of Wisconsin Heights
113. At the Bad Axe
battle 130, et seq.
Ft. Armstrong. Black Hawk's
band pass, in 1832 33.
Ft. Hamilton. Murders at
Spafford's 70. Posey's Bri
gade sent to 85.
Ft. Koshkonong [written Kus-
kanong]. Built 85.
Ft. Madison. Sacs rendezvous
Ft. Wilbourn. Snyder's com
pany discharged 62. Erected
by Horn 64. Col. Smith
marches thence 64. Troops
Gaines, General Edmund P.
Calls on Gov. Reynolds for
militia 30. Campaign of 1831
31. Demands Black Hawk
32. Makes treaty 32. Let
ter from Reynolds 166. Let
ter to Reynolds 167, 1 68.
Treaty 1831 169-172. To
Secretary of War 172-176.
Galena. Location of and general
reference 27. Capt. Lindsey
reports engagement 27. Cit
izens move there for safety 28.
Gatewood, William J. Elected
Lieutenant Colonel 64.
Gentry, Captain James H. At
battle of Wisconsin Heights
107. At battle of the Bad
Axe 1 30, et seq.
Gillespie, Joseph. Paymaster
Odd Battalion 31.
Gillham, James. Elected Lieu
tenant Colonel 65.
Gillham (spelled Gilham herein),
Captain William 30.
Grass bridges 28.
Gratiot, Colonel Henry. Mis
sion to the Turtle village and
Prophetstown 37, 38, 39, 40.
Meets Hall sisters 92.
Greathouse, John S. Quarter
master 3 1 .
Green [Emerson]. Killed 118.
Greer (or Grier), Captain Ab-
ner. At battle of the Bad
Hackelton, Samuel. At Still-
man's battle 49.
Hale [William]. His scalp
Hall, Alexander P. Appointed
Aid to Posey 65.
Hall, Rachel and Sylvia. Men
tioned 55. Their story
Hall [William] . Killed at Indian
Halstead, C. V. Appointed
Hamilton, Colonel William S.
Arrives at Fort Hamilton 70.
Scouting 83. Son of Alexan
der Hamilton 208.
Hampton [Houston] , James.
Elected Major 64.
Hanes [Haines], Captain John.
Hargrave, Colonel Willis.
Elected Colonel 64.
Harney, Capt. W. S. At the
Bad Axe 209.
Harrison, First Lieutenant James
M. Mentioned 57.
Harrison, Governor William
Henry. Treaty 1804 191-
Hawthorn, John. Appointed
Hospital Steward 64.
Helena. Troops proceed thence
Henderson's River. Horses lost
Hennepin. Troops ordered to
concentrate there 52.
Henry, James D. Colonel of
First Regiment in 1831 30.
Major of Spy Battalion in 1832
40. Enlists as private; elected
Lieutenant Colonel 57. Elect
ed Brigadier General 65. At
Dixon's Ferry 75. Sends Fry
up Rock River 76. Sent to
Fort Winnebago 85. He and
Dodge pursue Black Hawk
1 02, et seq. Addresses his
men 115. At the Blue
Mounds 1 1 8. At Helena 1 20.
At the Bad Axe battle 130,
etseq. Conduct at Ft. Win
nebago 208. Biography 2 1 1 .
Herclurode, George. Killed at
Apple River Fort 67.
Higbee, Charles. Made Surgeon
Horn, Rev. Reddick. Sent to
St. Louis for supplies 52.
Reaches St. Louis 54. Erects
Fort Wilbourn 64. Befriends
Hall sisters 95.
Howard, Stephen P. Killed at
Stephenson's battle 72.
Hughes, General Andrew S.
Letter to General Atkinson 34.
Huston, or Houston [written
Hampton], James. Made
Huston [Houston], Captain Sam
uel. At battle of Wiscon
sin Heights 107.
lies, Elijah. Capt. in emergency
Indiana. Offers troops 64.
Indian Creek. Massacre 55-6.
James, Captain Benjamin. Tem
porary regiment 57. Elected
Jefferson Barracks. *53-
Jenkins, Thomas. Wounded at
the battle of the Pecatonica 7 1 .
Jo Daviess County. Mentioned
Johnson, Captain. Aid to Gen.
Johnston, Albert Sidney. At the
Bad Axe battle 130.
Johnston, Joseph E. 210.
Jones, C. Elected Lieutenant
Jones, Edward. Quartermaster
Jones, Colonel Gabriel. Elected
Colonel 65. Sent up Rock
River 80. At battle of the
Wisconsin ill, 112. At
battle of the Bad Axe 130,
Jones, Major James S. Elected
Jordan, W. Elected Quarter
master 3 1 .
Journey, Sample. Kills an In
Kapas' Village. Army ordered
to disband 205.
Kaskaskia. Wakefield arrives
Keel Boats. Attacked by In
dians in Upper Mississippi
Kellogg's Grove. Snyder's battle
58-63. Dement's battle 72-76.
Kendle, Samuel F. Adjutant
Spy Battalion 31.
Keokuk, with warriors and squaws
visits Reynolds at Yellow Banks
41. Black Hawk demanded
of 143. Mentioned 148.
Kickapoo River. Reached 127.
Kickapoos. Join Sacs and Foxes
Kincade, Captain Hiram. 31.
Kingsbury, Lieutenant Julius J.
B. At the battle of the Bad
Axe 135, 136.
Kinney. Sent as pilot 41.
Koshkonong [written Kuskanong]
Lake. Reached 79, 80.
Movements near 81, 82, 83.
Leach, Samuel. Elected Colonel
Leib [?], Colonel Daniel. Men
Lincoln, Abraham. A Captain
204. Next a private in Capt.
He's' company 203, 208.
Next a private in Capt. Early's
company 207, 208.
Lindsey, Captain Allen. Attacked
by Indians 19, 26. His
losses 27. At the battle of
Wisconsin Heights 107.
Little Thunder. Guide to At
kinson's camp 105, 117.
Logan, J. B. Appointed Sur
geon's Mate 64. Father of
Gen. John A. Logan 206.
Loomis, Captain G. Mentioned
Loramie (should be Loraine),
Captain John. Mentioned 3 1 .
Lorton, Captain John. Men
Low [Lowe is probably correct],
Captain Gideon. At Ft. Kosh
Macomson, William B. Killed
March, Colonel E. C. At Bad
Axe battle 130, et seq. Men
Mathews, Captain H. 30.
Mathews, S. T. Elected Col
Maxfield, . At Stillman's
battle 49, 50.
Menominies. Massacred in 183 I
32. Under Col. W. S. Ham
ilton, scouting 84. Rejoice
over defeat of Sacs 140. A
"talk" 141, 142. In Stam-
baugh's expedition 143.
Merryman, Dr. E. H. As ex
press to Atkinson 105, 116.
From Atkinson 117.
Miller, Captain Solomon. Of
Odd Battalion 3 1 .
Miller, Captain William. Of
Spy Battalion 31. Elected
Mines, The. Mentioned 28.
Moore, Captain William. In
Odd Battalion 31.
Morgan, Major Willoughby.
At Helena 121.
Morris, Captain Achilles. Men
Morris, Montraville. Killed at
Pecatonica 7 1 .
Mustered into service 41.
McConnel, Murray. Appointed
Brigade Inspector 65. At bat
tle of the Bad Axe 1 30, et seq.
McDaniel, Benjamin. Killed 60.
McDonald, John. House of 68.
McFadden, Captain George. In
temporary regiment 57*
McHenry, William. Elected
Na-a-pope (should be Ne-a-
pope). Sent for 39. At Wis
consin Heights battle 1 1 2.
Neale, Thomas M. In Winne-
bago War 28. Marches to
mines 29. Appointed Pay
Nuting, James. Wounded 67.
Officers named in campaign of
1831 3>3 l -
Old Man's Creek. Mentioned
Omelvany, John. Appointed
Oquawka, Illinois 203.
Organization of 1831 forces 30.
Organization of volunteers in
1832 40. Of Whiteside's
Organization of Volunteers, sec
ond campaign, 1832 64.
Ottawa. Troops mustered out
Parkinson, Captain. At battle
of Wisconsin Heights 107.
Paw Paw Grove. Indians said
to be there 44, 204.
Pecatonica. Battle of the 71.
Perkins, Isaac. Killed at Still-
man's battle 5 1.
Petition to Governor Reynolds
29. By John Wells, et al.
159, 160, 161.
Pettigrew [written Pennigrew],
William. Murder of 55, 56.
Philleo, Dr. Addison. At battle
of Wisconsin Heights 109,
Pierce, Moses [Hosea]. Elected
Pierce, Samuel C. (Captain.)
Pike, B. F. Deposition of 162.
Plum River. Alexander sent
there 75. Explored 80.
Poquet, Pierre. Information at
Fort Winnebago 85. Pilot
for Henry and Dodge 103. At
battle of Wisconsin Heights
Portage of the Wisconsin. Red
Bird captured 29.
Posey, Dr. Alexander. Elected
Brig. Gen. 64. Reaches De
ment at Kellogg' s Grove 74.
Moves for Fort Hamilton 75.
Joins main army at Rock River
(in Wis.) 81. Sent to Fort
Hamilton 85. Moves to Blue
Mounds 1 19. Moves to Hel
ena 119, 121. At Bad Axe
battle 131, et seq.
Pottawattomies. Join Sacs and
Prairie du Chien. Mentioned
29, 32, 136, 140.
Prewitt [Preuitt], Captain Solo
mon. Spy Battalion 31.
Prophet, The. Gratiot incident
37, 40. At Bad Axe battle
137. Prisoner^S, 149, 151.
Personal appearance I 53. His
Prophet's Village. Indians march
thence 34. Gratiot's mission
there 37-40. Arrival and de
parture of militia 44.
Pugh, Jonathan H. Scouting
Rails, Captain William C. [writ
ten James Rolls]. Enlists in
temporary regiment 57.
Raum, John. Appointed Brig
ade Inspector 65.
Rawlins, Ezekiel [Father of Gen
eral John A. Rawlins] 207.
Red Bird. Surrender and death
Reynolds, Governor John. Jus
tified in calling militia 19. Pe
titioned in 1831 29. Writes
Generals Clark and Gaines 30.
Issues proclamation in 1831
30. His proclamation in 1832
33, 36. Meets troops at
Beardstown 40. Calls for more
troops 52. Discharges White-
side's Brigade 56. Leaves the
army 84. Mentioned 153.
Letter to General Clark 164.
Letter from General Clark
165. Letter to General
Gaines 166. Letter from
General Gaines 167, 168.
Treaty with the Winnebagoes
178-85. Treaty with Sacs
and Foxes 185-91.
Richardson, Captain John F.
At Bad Axe battle 131.
Riley, Major Bennet. Near
Snyder's battlefield 61. At
Roberts, First Lieutenant Calvert.
Roberts, Second Lieutenant
Henry. Mentioned 57.
Rock Island [not the city of
that name] 29, 32.
Roman, Surgeon Richard. In
Odd Battalion 31.
Roster of 1 83 1 officers 30-3 1 .
Roster of Whiteside's Brigade 40.
Roster of officers elected for
the final campaign 64.
Sacs and Foxes. Mentioned 1 8,
19. In 1831 29. Their
conduct 29. Assemble at
Rock River 29. Cross to
west side of the Mississippi 32.
Make treaty 32. Attack Me-
nominies 32. Cross Rock
River in 1832 33-35. Pass
up Rock River 35. Treaty
of 1832 185-191. Treaty
of 1804 191-195.
Sanders, H. et at. Deposition
Scott, Benjamin. Killed 60.
Scott, Lieutenant James. Men
Scott, General Winfield. Arrives
at Prairie du Chien 142.
Orders discharge of militia
143. Treaty with the Win
nebagoes 178-185. Treaty
with Sacs and Foxes 185-91.
The cholera 210.
Semple, Adjutant James. Men
Sentinel shot. 78.
Sha-bo-na [written Shabbaney].
At Sycamore Creek 76.
Sharp, P. H. Elected Lieut.
Colonel 65. Left in com
mand at Fort Koshkonong 117.
Sheledy, Stephen B. Made
Inspector 2d Brigade 65.
Shelton, Joseph. Elected Major
6 5 .
Shirley, Lieutenant W. Men
Short, John. Wounded 114.
Sioux, The. At Prairie du Chien
Smith, Captain Adam. Of First
regiment. Campaign 1831
Smith, Capt. Henry. At the
Bad Axe 209.
Smith, Jeremiah. Elected Lieu
tenant Colonel 65.
Smith, Captain Samuel. In 1831
30 . In temporary regiment 5 7 .
Smith, Theophilus W. Elected
Lieutenant Colonel 64.
Leaves army 84.
Snyder, Captain Adam W. Of
the temporary regiment 57.
His battle 58-63. His com
pany discharged 62. Biog
Spafford. Murders at his farm
Stambaugh, Col. S. C. 210.
Stampede of horses. 85.
Stephens, Colonel. Mentioned.
Stephenson, Captain James W.
His battle 7 1 .
Stillman, Major Isaiah. Receives
orders to march from Dixon's
Ferry 45. His battle 47-51,
Stone, Captain Clack. At Apple
River Fort 69.
Storm, . Elected Lieuten
ant Colonel 64.
Street, General Joseph M. No
tifies Governor Reynolds of
attack on Menominies 33.
Talk 141, 152. Sends
prisoners downstream 153.
Strode, Colonel James M. At
Stillman' s battle 46. At Apple
River Fort 69. Commands a
company at Galena 200.
Stuart, Major John T. Elected
Major in 1831 30.
St. Peter's. Mentioned 26.
Sycamore Creek. Mentioned 76.
Table of Contents. 19-24.
Taylor, Lieutenant Colonel Zach-
ary. Mentioned 121. At Bad
Axe battle 131, et seq. Talk
151. Sends prisoners down
stream 153. Denounces
Terrell, William H. Appointed
Thomas, John. Elected Colonel
Third Regiment 40. Elected
Major temporary regiment 57.
Thompson, Samuel M. Made
Throckmorton, Captain John.
Commands the Warrior 209.
Treaty of 1831. Made 32.
Set out in full 169-172.
Treaty of 1832. Made 154.
With Winnebagoes 154. Set
Treaty with Sacs and Foxes in
1804 191-95. In 1832
Treaty of 1815 195-98.
Trembling [written Tumbling]
Turtle Village. Reached by
Gratiot 37. Reached by
Wa-bo-kie-shick. (See "The
Prophet. ") 153.
Waggoner, Lieutenant Jacob.
Wakefield, John A. Biography
7. Sent as a spy 41. Sent
as a messenger for more
troops 52-54. Anecdote re
lated 5 2 -54-
Walker, Captain George E. Calls
at Dixon's Ferry 76. Dis
patched on Black Hawk's trail
Walker, Lieutenant[W. F.]Men-
Walters, John. Killed at Still-
man's battle 51.
Wap-el-lo [written Wapilo].
Warrior. Steamboat of that name
135, 139, 142.
Weatherford, Captain William
Webb, Captain. Left at Fort
Wells, Captain Alexander. Men
tioned 3 1 .
Wells, Samuel. Killed at Peca-
tonica 7 1 .
Westerfield Scare. 96, et seq.
Wheeler, Captain Erastus. 31.
White Cloud. (See "The
White Crow. Mission to the
Prophet's village 39.
Whiteside, General Samuel. As
Major in i 83 i 31. Appointed
Brigadier General 1832 40.
Orders a forced march 44.
Reaches Dixon's 44. Orders
Stillman and Bailey to move
45. Moves to field of
Stillman's battle 52. Buries
dead and returns to Dixon's
Ferry 54-55. Enlists as a
private 56. Kills Indian
leader 6 1 . Restores order by
threat 61. At Galena 200.
Whiteside, Captain William B.
Of Spy Battalion in 1831 31.
Whitewater River. Mentioned
81. Crossed 82. Recrossed
Winchester, P. H. Paymaster
of Spy Battalion 1831 31.
Winnebagoes. Attack keel boats
19. Visit Captain Lindsey 26.
Attack him 26, 27. Gratiot' s
visit 37. At Prairie du Chien
141. They hold a talk 141.
Treaty of 1832 178-185.
Winnebago War in 1827. Men
tioned 19. Account thereof
26-29. See notes 200.
Wisconsin. Battle of the, or
battle of Wisconsin Heights, as
it is many times called 109-
114. General Atkinson's re
port of it 146, 147.
Wisshick. At Bad Axe battle
142. At Jefferson Barracks
Woodbridge, W. W. On ex
press to Atkinson 105, 116.
From Atkinson 1 1 7.
Wren, Johnson. Elected Major Wyatt, William. Elected Lieu-
64. tenant Colonel 65.
Wright, David. Made Quarter- y
master 3 * Yellow Banks. Indians arrive at
Wyatt, Lieutenant G. F. Men- the 35,41. Reached by
tioned 57. Whiteside's Brigade 41.
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