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The Publication Committee of the Caxton Club certifies 
that this is one of an edition of two hundred copies -printed 
on American hand-made paper, and three copies printed 
on Japanese vellum. The printing was done from type 
which has been distributed. 


















BLACK HAWK ..... Frontispiece 








DIXON'S FERRY ....... 72 

MAJOR JOHN DEMENT . . . . . .74 

CHIEF SHA-BO-NA ...... 76 





JOHN ALLEN WAKEFIELD, second son of 
William and Diana (Varner) Wakefield, was born 
February 22, 1797, at Pendleton, South Carolina. 
The father was a native of North Carolina, of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry. The mother (who died at Quincy, 
Illinois, at the age of nearly 107 years) was a native of 
South Carolina, of Scotch-Irish and French Huguenot 
ancestry. The father, William, a man of education, 
spent most of his manhood as a teacher. 

John Allen received his name in honor of Major- 
General John Allen of Virginia, who was a cousin to 
Diana Varner Wakefield. 

When he was seven years old, John's parents moved 
to middle Tennessee, where they remained but a short 
time, and then pushed on to Barren County, Kentucky. 
In 1808, the family removed to Illinois Territory, set 
tling where Lebanon, St. Clair County, is now located. 

During the first two years of life in Illinois, and 
while the family was " forted," owing to the hostility of 
the Indians, privations without number were endured. 
The War of 1812-14, which followed, was particularly 
aggressive and sanguinary in Illinois. Militia com 
panies, organized for campaign and scouting duties, 
constantly patroled the state. 

Wakefield, though but sixteen years of age, mani 
fested an unusual aptitude for scouting service, and 
to gratify a passion for that service, he enlisted in the 
company of Captain Jacob Short, in which he served 



"froVn February 27 to June 9, 1813. Afterward he 
. served as special scout for General Howard, earning 
/'. the.Mghesi praises from that faithful officer, particularly 
as the bearer of dispatches, later called "expresses/' 
One of his trips was fraught with such peril that his 
father applied for a writ of habeas corpus to take him 
from it ; but learning of the issuance of the writ, he 
stole away in the night and crossed the Mississippi in 
a canoe, swimming his horse behind. The trip was 
made in answer to a call from General Russell, then at 
St. Louis, for a volunteer to carry dispatches to Vin- 
cennes (called in the vernacular of the day Post Vin- 
sari), through a trackless wilderness of 175 miles, 
swarming with hostile Indians. It proved as perilous 
as had been anticipated, but he made it safely, return 
ing by another route. One night he camped in a sink 
hole. The following morning was foggy. A war 
party of unusual size was heard approaching. His 
horse became nervous and liable at any moment to 
attract attention ; but he hastily threw a blanket over 
its head, and the party passed within a few feet of 
the sink-hole, without detecting him. The dangers 
and struggles of the Illinois frontiersman during those 
perilous days cannot be magnified, and Wakefield had 
his full share of them. 

At the close of the war he went to Cincinnati, where 
he studied medicine diligently for a considerable period, 
afterward going to St. Louis to finish his studies. But 
it seems that once in possession of his diploma, he 
decided medicine did not offer him the field antici 
pated, and at once turned to studying for the bar, 
to which he was admitted when in his twenty-first 
year. His examination was conducted at Vandalia, 
where he settled and remained until 1837, during the 
last three years of which time he saw much of Abraham 
Lincoln. As an outgrowth of an intimacy formed in 


the Black Hawk campaign, Mr. Lincoln, while a mem 
ber of the legislature, lived with Mr. Wakefield in 

In 1 818 Wakefield was married to Eliza Thompson, 
a native of Bourbon County, Kentucky, daughter of 
Abram Thompson and Elizabeth (Brown) Thompson. 

One of the most important services rendered by 
Wakefield, and one which should command the re 
spect of every Illinoisan, was his determined stand 
against the introduction of slavery in the State of 
Illinois, attempted during the administration of Gov 
ernor Edward Coles. The legislature which convened 
at Vandalia, December 2, 1822, and adjourned Feb 
ruary 1 8, 1823, passed a resolution by infamous 
means, calling for a constitutional convention, at which 
an amendment was expected to be framed which would 
permit slavery in the State. For sixteen months the 
young State was a battle-ground, during which the 
anti-convention men were made targets for every man 
ner of insult and assault. Wakefield, being a ready 
speaker and writer, plunged into the campaign with 
great vigor, paying his own expenses while canvassing 
the State, and had the satisfaction of witnessing the rout 
of the slavery or convention men by a decisive victory. 
For his services during that campaign, he was elected 
a member of the next (fourth) House of Representa 
tives, which sat from November 15, 1824, to Janu 
ary 1 8, 1825, and from January 2 to January 18, 

From "The Vandalia Whig" of July 3, 1834, I 
notice that he was a candidate for Representative 
against Robert Blackwell and Colonel Samuel Hous 
ton, but Mr. Blackwell was elected. 

When Governor Reynolds called for volunteers to 
drive out Black Hawk in 1832, Wakefield enlisted in 
the company of Captain John Dement. It was mustered 


into service April 2Oth, but with the entire army 
was mustered out May 28th, after the unfortunate 
Stillman's battle. Neither Wakefield nor Captain 
Dement's company participated in Stillman's battle. 
When a new levy of troops reached Dixon's Ferry, 
Wakefield was found enlisted in the company of 
Captain William L. D. Ewing. Ewing, being elected 
Major of a spy battalion, served as captain but a day 
or so, and Captain Samuel Huston (or Houston) 
succeeded in command. 

First appointed surgeon, by reason of his medical 
knowledge, Wakefield was speedily transferred to the 
scouting service, in which he continued to the end of 
the war. For his efficient work he was promoted to 
the rank of Major. At the Bad Axe battle, fought at 
the mouth of the Bad Axe River, he received a slight 
wound. As that engagement finished the war and the 
fighting career of Black Hawk, the army marched over 
land to Dixon's Ferry, where Wakefield was discharged 
by Lieutenant Robert Anderson, August 16, 1832. 

The following year, Major Wakefield wrote the his 
tory of that war, which is hereafter set forth. Written 
when fresh in his memory, and from his daily journal 
kept without interruption from its beginning to its end, 
this first history of the war must be accorded accuracy 
as well as general interest. Inasmuch as the records 
of the War Department do not disclose the names of 
many of the officers, the value of the record which 
Wakefield's book supplied is inconceivable. 

The first edition ofthe book was published in Jackson 
ville, Illinois, in 1834, by Calvin Goudy. Its dimen 
sions are 7 by 4^ inches. It contains blank leaf, title- 
page, certificate of copyright, four pages of "preface," 
four pages of "contents" (all of which are numbered 
as follows : iii not numbered, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix, 
and x), 142 pages of text, beginning with page i (not 


numbered), and followed from 2 consecutively to and 
including 142, and two blank leaves. The binding 
was made in boards with mottled covers, calf back, and 
red leather label stamped in gilt with the words, "Black 
Hawk War." The edges were stained a canary color. 

A second edition, thoroughly revised and very much 
enlarged, was published at Cincinnati in the year 1836. 
Only 300 copies were delivered, the others being 
destroyed by a fire which burned the establishment and 
its contents. Copies of the latter edition are so rare 
that not one has been offered for sale for at least fifteen 

The Black Hawk War having made the people of 
southern Illinois acquainted with the fertility and rich 
ness of the northern part of the State and the southern 
part of Wisconsin, a series of northward migrations set 
in. In 1837 Major Wakefield joined in the hegira, 
and settled in Jo Daviess County, where he remained, 
with the exception of the years 1839 and 1840, spent 
in Carroll County, until 1846, when he crossed over 
into Iowa County, Wisconsin, and there remained 
until the spring of 1849. In that year he removed to 
St. Paul, Minnesota, and was elected its first city judge. 

The winters of Minnesota were so severe that he 
moved again southward to Allamakee County, Iowa, 
in 1851, where he lived until 1854. Then he went 
to Kansas to enjoy its milder climate, and settled at 
the point which subsequently became Lawrence, whence 
not more than half a dozen families had preceded him. 
Becoming a landholder, he remained at that place 
until the day of his death, June 18, 1873. 

Upon the history of Kansas Wakefield left an indel 
ible imprint. There the question of slavery had to 
be fought as he had fought it in Illinois thirty years 
before. In his new home the struggle was much longer, 
and he suffered the loss of much of the considerable 


wealth which he had accumulated in Minnesota and 
Iowa. But his fortunes improving, he became a strong 
factor in moulding Kansas into a rich commonwealth, 
and his declining years were prosperous. 

In the struggle in Kansas with the slavery element, 
he was made the first free-state candidate for delegate 
to Congress, for which office he received three fourths 
of the legal votes cast at the election. But it will be 
remembered, that following the hint of Senator Atchi- 
son of Missouri, "When you reside within one day 
of the Territory, you can send five hundred of your 
young men who will vote in favor of your institutions," 
voters were poured into Kansas from Missouri, and 
the candidate of the slave-holding interests was elected 
by an enormous majority. Indeed, he received eleven 
hundred votes more than the number of legal voters 
in the Territory three months afterward. 

Wakefield was elected State Treasurer under the 
Topeka constitution which he had helped to frame, and 
as chairman of the judiciary committee of the first and 
many succeeding legislatures, was largely responsible 
for the State's excellent code of laws. Lawrence was the 
storm-center of those perilous times. During the fierce 
" border troubles," when the Territory was constantly 
invaded by large bodies of armed men from Missouri, 
Wakefield was constantly the leader of the free-state 
settlers, and for his courage and pertinacity in opposing 
the slavery forces was made the principal target for 
their attacks. Just west of Lawrence he had built a 
large house and many substantial out-buildings, but 
the invaders, on the night of September i, 1856, 
fired and burned every building on the place. The fine 
library in the house and two manuscripts ready for 
publication, together with 140 acres of wheat and oats in 
the stack, were destroyed. That disaster involved a loss 
of $ 1 0,000. The attack was so sudden and unexpected, 


that the escape of the family was nothing short of 

Judge Wakefield, as he was called the latter years of 
his life, died at Lawrence June 18, 1873, in his seventy- 
seventh year. 

To conclude, it should be added that his wife Eliza 
died in 1871. From the union twelve children were 
born, eight of whom reached middle age or more. 
Lysander and Alvin, first and second sons respectively, 
died at Vandalia in childhood. George Washington, 
the third son, lost his life by an accident in California 
when about 45 years of age. Mrs. Mary A. Willard, 
eldest daughter, died December 7, 1903, in Los 
Angeles, California, at the age of 82. Martha Ann 
Wakefield died near Lawrence in 1855. Mrs. Emily 
Terry, third daughter, resides at present in the city of 
Chicago. Mrs. Eliza J. Snyder, fourth daughter, died 
at Lawrence, December 7, 1902. William H. T. 
Wakefield, fourth son, to whom I am under obligation 
for the facts herein stated, is a resident of Mound City, 
Kansas. John Allen, Jr., died July 31, 1865, aged 2 9 
years. Thomas J., the youngest, was accidentally 
killed at Denver, Colorado, November i, 1890, by the 
fall of a derrick. Two daughters, Sarah and Diana, 
died in infancy. 










District of Illinois, ss. 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on this twenty-eighth day of 
August, Anno Domini eighteen hundred and thirty-three, John 
A. Wakefield, of said district, hath deposited in this office the 
title of a book, which is in the words following, to wit: "History 
of the War between the United States and the Sac and 
Fox nations of Indians, and parts of other disaffected tribes of 
Indians, in the years eighteen hundred and twenty-seven, thirty- 
one and thirty-two, by John A. Wakefield, Esq." The right 
whereof he claims as author, in conformity with an act of Con 
gress entitled "An act to amend the several acts respecting 
copy rights." 

A true copy. Attest, W. H. BROWN, 

Clerk of the District of Illinois. 


IN presenting this small volume to the world, the 
author is aware that he is exposing his name to the 
public calumny, by those who are ready at all times 
to find fault; but he hopes the candid, who will reflect a 
moment on the many difficulties attending the compiling 
such a work, will be as charitable towards him, as the 
nature of the case will admit. They must reflect that 
the many actors in the late war have not all the same 
views of things that took place as it is the nature of man 
to differ in opinions, and those that were eye witnesses 
of the events recorded in this narrative, (or history,) to 
have different opinions from each other. 

The writer who traces events at a remote period from 
the time they transpired, stands on more favorable 
ground, because they are not fresh in every one's 
memory, and men are not disposed to find so much fault. 

But it has been the aim of the author to track as near 
the truth, as his knowledge of the different actors, and 
all that were in any way concerned in the war, would 
permit. If he is found in error, it will be an error of the 
head and not of the heart. 

But he is aware that he has not done this subject that 
justice which its importance deserves. But, as he has 
already observed, he hopes an honorable and patriotic 
people will exercise all the charity that characterizes the 
American people, and, more especially, to one that 
never attempted before to write for the inspection of 
an enlightened republic. 



For a history of the expedition against the Indians, 
the author has to depend upon public record, and such 
other information as is well authenticated by men that 
can be confided in ; but in the last two campaigns, the 
author was an eye witness to almost all that he has here 

In order to give a full detail of all the transactions and 
relationship between those Indians and the United 
States, the author has thought it would be more satis 
factory to give all the treaties that ever were held with 
them, which commenced in eighteen hundred and four. 

Many false reports have gone abroad respecting the 
lands of those Indians, representing that the Govern 
ment has not done strict justice. 

In giving an account of the frontier massacres by the 
Indians, the author has to depend on newspaper infor 
mation; but it is his opinion that all that have been found 
upon record, which were published in this state, are 
literally true, and may be relied upon as facts. 

But, it is not in the power of the author to give an 
account of all the massacres that the Indians have com 
mitted on the frontier, as many were committed that 
have not been recorded; or, if they were, the author has 
not been fortunate enough to get possession of them. 

In giving the different treaties, the author principally 
confines himself to the Sac and Fox nations : But, in 
the last treaty which has lately been made, he will be 
able to give the substance, or the whole of the treaty 
with the Winnebagoes. 

He would be glad to enter into a history of the hos 
tilities that took place between the Winnebagoes and 
the United States, in 1827, but he has not such docu 
ments before him as would justify a review of it. And 
he is also well aware that some more able hand will, in 
due time, give the whole of the transactions of those 
Indians a thorough investigation ; and that the public 


will not suffer by the author's passing over the partic 
ulars of that expedition against those Indians. 

The author deems it necessary to confine himself to 
facts, and without some public documents, more than 
his own knowledge, he could not with any propriety, 
enter into a full history of the transactions between the 
United States and those Indians, more than simply to 
state, that they made an attack on some keel boats that 
were running on the Mississippi, and commanded by 
Captain Allen Lindsey, and the general outline of the 
transactions afterward, in bringing them to a treaty. 

This was the first difference, of any importance, that 
took place between the United States and those In 
dians, since the war with Great Britain. 

The author, in order to show the cause of difference 
between the United States and the Sac and Fox In 
dians, thinks it best to lay before the reader many in 
teresting documents, consisting of letters and a number 
of depositions, to show the necessity of the Executive 
in calling upon the militia of the state of Illinois, to 
protect its citizens : And he flatters himself that, after 
the perusal of those letters and depositions, none will 
have the hardihood to say, that Governor Reynolds 
did wrong in the course he pursued to subdue those 

The author takes more pains, and troubles the reader 
with those documents more than he would have done, 
if he had not seen with regret, that misrepresentations 
have gone abroad respecting those Indians. 

He flatters himself that, after a perusal of the differ 
ent treaties entered into by the United States and the 
Sac and Fox Indians, and the many violations of those 
treaties by those Indians, all will justify the course 
taken to bring them to subjection, and restore peace 
to our country, which is the case at this time: and 
that it could not be done in any other way than a resort 


to arms, as all other means were tried, both by General 
Clark, and the different Indian Agents; and that with 
a great degree of forbearance on the part of the Gen 
eral Government, which the reader will plainly see 
when he takes a full view of the many outrages and 
depredations committed by those lawless savages, who 
did everything except murder, before there was a call 
for men to volunteer in defence of their country. 

The author wishes further to observe, that he has 
taken all the pains that lay in his power, to place the 
different officers to their proper command, and to detail 
the part they acted in the war : But he at the same 
time is well aware that there may be some officers whom 
he may not mention, that are deserving well of their 
country ; on account of not having it in his power to 
get a complete list of all the mounted volunteers, that 
turned out in defence of their country ; for many of 
them were stationed on the frontier, and did not march 
with the main army, but performed important services 
in defence of the northern frontiers ; as many of the 
citizens would have certainly been destroyed by the 
Indians, whose known mode of warfare, is to steal 
upon the helpless part of [the] community, at the dead 
hour of night, when there is no chance of defence. 

So, I consider that those rangers who were placed 
on the frontier, performed a high and important ser 
vice, in ranging those frontiers, and protecting the law 
ful settler in quietness at his own fireside, and [saving] 
his wife and children from becoming a prey to the sav 
age barbarity of the tomahawk and scalping knife. 





The Winnebagoes attack Captain Lindsey's Keel Boats in 1827 
Lose two men killed and several wounded General alarm in 
the mining country Gov. Cass takes measures to punish them 
He corresponds with Gov. Edwards Gov. Edwards sends 
a regiment from the Northern counties to the Mines, under 
Col. Neale The people of the Mines form themselves into a 
corps of mounted volunteers Elect Gen. H. Dodge their 
commander Gov. Cass moves against the Indians to the 
portage of the Wisconsin river They sue for peace Treaty 
entered into The Indians give up the Red Bird as a hostage 
for the good behaviour of the rest of the nation He dies in 
Jail The Sac and Fox Indians next, wage war Gen. 
Gaines applies to Gov. Reynolds for mounted volunteers 
They rendezvous at Beardstown Gen. Duncan appointed by 
Gov. Reynolds, to take the command They march to Rock 
Island The Indians sue for peace Treaty entered into. 25 


The Sac and Fox Indians cross over the Mississippi to the State of 
Illinois, in a warlike manner Extract of a letter from General 
Hughes to General Atkinson Extract of a letter from George 
Davenport to Gen. Atkinson Extract of a letter from Gen. 
Atkinson to his Excellency Governor Reynolds Proclamation 
of Governor Reynolds to the citizens of Illinois Visit made 
to the hostile band by Henry Gratiot, Esq., sub Indian Agent 
for the Winnebagoes Rendezvous of the Volunteers at Beards- 
town Organized into a brigade under Gen, Whiteside 
Mustered into the service of the United States at Rock Island 
Col. John Ewing and the Author sent ahead to spy out the 
enemy's camp; take a prisoner and return Meet the army 
Arrival at Dixon's on Rock River 34 




Meet Major Stillman with a battalion from the northern counties 
Major Stillman takes his battalion, goes up Rock River, in order 
to ascertain the movements of the enemy Falls in with them, 
has a battle, and is defeated Retreats back to General White- 
side Col. Ewing, Robert Black well, Esq., and the Author 
sent as expresses for more troops General Whiteside marches 
his Brigade to the battle ground They bury the dead Re 
turn back to Dixon's Meet General Atkinson there with 
provision, five hundred regulars and two hundred foot militia 
They take up the line of march after the enemy March to 
Fox River The Indians kill three families before they get 
there They bury the persons killed Army become dissatis 
fied, and are discharged Three hundred volunteer to guard 
the frontier until the new levy of troops arrive 45 


Capt. Snyder has a battle with the enemy Arrives at Head Quar 
ters and he and his company are discharged New levy of 
troops rendezvous at Beardstown and Hennepin Fort Wilbourn 
(or Fort Horn) built It becomes Head Quarters The 
Volunteers organized into three Brigades Attack on Apple 
River Fort A party of Indians appear near Fort Hamilton, 
and kill two men Gen. Dodge pursues, overtakes them, and 
kills the whole party Capt. Stephenson falls in with another 
war party Has an engagement Loses three men, and him 
self wounded Major Dement has a battle with the enemy 
The three brigades take different directions Gen. Atkinson 
marches up Rock River with Gen. Henry's brigade The 
three Brigades meet at lake Kushkanong; likewise a squadron 
under Gen. Dodge from Michigan Territory They continue 
for several days scouring the country in search of the enemy 
Move up to the burnt village on White Water Col. Dunn 
wounded by a sentinel A regular shot by an Indian while 
fishing General Atkinson moves down to lake Kushkanong, 
and builds a Fort The second and third Brigades and Col. 
Dodge's squadron proceed to Fort Winnebago for provision 
Gen. Posey sent to Fort Hamilton Our horses take a fright 
at Fort Winnebago, and run away 58 



Narrative of the imprisonment of the two Miss Halls Their treat 
ment by the Indians They are purchased by Gen. Dodge 
and Mr. H. Gratiot, through the Winnebagoes Their arrival 
on the eleventh day after their captivity at White Oak Springs 
Reverend Mr. Horn becomes a friend and protector to them 
They are married Anecdote of Mr. F. stating the race that 
Mr. C. rode upon his beaver hat which caused the death of 
three women Poor little Susan forsaken by her mother and 
about to be left to the mercy of the savage, when a kind hunter 
takes charge of her 87 


General Alexander returns back to Fort Kushkanong Generals 
Henry and Dodge take up the line of march to intercept the 
enemy, should they be making to the north March to the 
Rapids on Rock River Come to a Winnebago Village 
Have a talk with the Indians Send an express to General 
Atkinson They come across the trail of the enemy and 
return Fired on as they enter our camp We take up the 
line of march next morning in pursuit Terrible storm on that 
evening Second day come to the Four Lakes Encamp 
there A description of those Lakes Doctor Philleo kills an 
Indian We overtake the enemy the same evening, and have 
a general battle We defeat the enemy They retreat across 
the Wisconsin River An Indian talks to us from the top of a 
mountain, before day on the next night General Henry ad 
dresses his men Major Ewing with his Spy Battalion pro 
ceeds the next morning to the top of the mountain Makes 
but little discovery 102 


Generals Henry and Dodge march to the Blue Mounds for provi 
sion There meet the other two Brigades Take up the line 
of march across the Wisconsin Again get on the trail of the 
enemy Take a Winnebago Indian a prisoner He gives 
information that the enemy is four days ahead of us We take 
him along We enter the mountains Bad travelling Lose 
a number of horses Overtake the enemy at the mouth of Bad 
Axe, on the Mississippi General Engagement Gen. Henry 
completely routs the enemy 1 1 8 



Steamboat Warrior has an engagement with the enemy, the day 
before we overtook them Steamboat commanded by Lieuten 
ant Kingsbury Arrival of the steamboat Warrior, soon after 
our engagement She returns and brings us provision Gen 
eral Atkinson, believing that the enemy were nearly all de 
stroyed, did not pursue them across the Mississippi March 
down to Prairie du Chien We find the friendly Indians re 
joicing at the defeat of the enemy Gen. Atkinson has a talk 
with the Winnebagoes We march to Dixon's and are dis 
charged 135 


Report of General Atkinson to Major General Macomb, at Washing 
ton Indian talk with General Street, when they delivered 
Black Hawk and the Prophet Description of Black Hawk and 
the Prophet General remarks of the Author. . . . 146 



The Winnebagoes attack Captain Lindseys Keel Boats in 182? 

lose two men killed and several wounded General 
alarm in the mining country Gov. Cass takes measures to 
punish them he corresponds with Gov. Edwards Gov. 
Edwards sends a Regiment from the northern counties to the 
Mines , under Col. Neale the people of the Mines form 
themselves into a corps of mounted volunteers elect Gen. H. 
Dodge their commander Gov. Cass moves against the In 
dians to the portage of the Wisconsin river they sue for peace 

treaty entered into the Indians give up the Red Bird as 
a hostage for the good behaviour of the rest of the nation he 
dies in Jail The Sac and Fox Indians next, wage war 
Gen. Gaines applies to Gov. Reynolds for mounted volunteers 

they rendezvous at Beardstown Gen. Duncan appointed 
by Gov. Reynolds, to take the command they march to Rock 
Island the Indians sue for peace treaty entered into. 

THE author, in giving a history of the late war 
between the United States and the Sac and Fox 
nations of Indians, thinks it would be doing the 
subject injustice, not to give an outline of the difficulties 
that took place between the United States and the Win- 
nebagoes, in the year eighteen hundred and twenty- 
seven, which he has observed in his preface, was the 
first disturbance of any kind that took place between 


the Government of the United States and the Winne- 
bagoes since the last war with Great Britain. But the 
author, in giving a small outline of this disturbance, has 
to depend upon his memory alone ; as, at that time, it 
had never entered his head that he would be the 
biographer of this small disturbance that took place 
between the Government and those Indians. 

But, in attempting to give the public the causes and 
particulars of the war betwixt the Government and the 
Sac and Fox nations of Indians, he thinks that it would 
not be amiss to take a passing notice of the transac 
tions that took place on this occasion. 

Captain Allen Lindsey, 1 a gentleman of the first re 
spectability in our country, was running a couple of keel 
boats on the Upper Mississippi, in the summer of 
eighteen hundred and twenty-seven ; when within a 
few miles of Prairie du Chien, was visited by a number 
of Winnebago Indians, some of them came aboard of 
his boats and showed signs of hostility to him, such as 
preyed upon his mind so much that, before he returned, 
he provided himself with a few fire arms, so that, in 
case of an attack by them, he might be able to defend 

He was at this time on his way up to St. Peters. 
He made his trip, and accordingly on his return, when 
within a few miles of Prairie du Chien, he was again 
visited by those same Indians. He had to pass down 
the river close to their towns and habitation for several 
miles ; for that is the way these wretched beings live, 
in small bark wigwams, along some water course, where 
they can paddle their canoes. 

But agreeably to Capt. Lindsey's expectations, he 

was not permitted to pass by their dwellings in peace. 

-Very late in the evening, a number of those blood 

thirsty savages made their appearance to him in a 

menacing manner, by opening a heavy fire upon his 


boats ; and by the help of their canoes attempted to 
board them. But Capt. Lindsey, had fortunately for 
him, anticipated that they did not intend to let him 
pass without firing him a salute of this description. 
He was prepared for them, although he had but few 
men aboard of his boats, but what he had proved to be 
soldiers. The Indians opened a heavy fire upon him, 
which was returned by him and his boat's crew with 
double interest. There were a large number of In 
dians, who charged upon him in their canoes, thinking 
to board his boats, but he prevented them by the hard 
est kind of fighting. They came so near boarding 
him, that, a number of them lashed their canoes to his 
boats ; but he gave them a quietus in the act, and they 
bequeathed their canoes to him in return, and became 
bait for the fish of the Mississippi. At this, each one 
made shift for himself. The Indians paddled their 
canoes in one direction, and Captain Lindsey rowed 
his boats the other. 

Captain Lindsey lost two fine men in the action, and 
a number wounded ; 2 but how many I do not recollect 
at this time. If this officer had not anticipated mis 
chief from those wretched beings, there is no doubt 
but that he and his whole crew would have been 
massacred by those inhuman barbarians ; for it is gen 
erally supposed that it was plunder, or, in other words, 
the cargo that the boats contained, they were after. 

Captain Lindsey ran his boats down as soon as pos 
sible, to Galena, a small town on Fever river, six 
miles above where it empties itself into the Mississippi, 
which is now the county seat of Jo Daviess county, in 
the north-west corner of the State of Illinois. 

When Captain Lindsey arrived at that point, and 
gave the news, it created great fear and alarm ; to such 
a degree, that expresses were sent in different direc 
tions to inform the citizens of the Mines to move into 


Galena, and prepare for war. The people of the Mines 
took the alarm, so that in two days' time there were 
not less than three thousand men, women and children, 
who fled to this place for safety. Those Indians had 
made many threats against the miners, and had at dif 
ferent times ordered them off, and told them to quit 
the diggings, saying that the ground they were digging 
on was theirs. This news, coming at this time, when 
they were apprehensive of mischief, gave them an alarm, 
and caused them to fly to Galena for safety. They 
forsook their rude habitations, and assembled at that 
place, in order to assist in defending each other. There 
were a few forts built in the more thickly settled parts 
of the Mines, and some of the most fearless [of the] 
citizens occupied them. 

There was a committee of safety appointed in Galena, 
who corresponded with all parts of the Mines, and 
adopted measures for the safety and preservation of 
all; and in the mean time had some strong block houses 
built at Galena. The people likewise, who were able 
and willing to bear arms, volunteered and formed 
themselves into companies, and chose their own officers; 
ranged the country, and kept a good lookout, for fear 
the Indians would steal upon them, and take them by 

Governor Cass, in the mean time, was not inactive, 
but corresponded with Governor Edwards, then Gov 
ernor of Illinois. Governor Edwards immediately 
raised one regiment of mounted volunteers in the 
northern counties, and sent them on to the relief of the 
mining country, and to go against those Indians. They 
elected Thomas M. Neale their commander. The 
people of the Mines formed themselves into another 
corps, and elected General Dodge their commander 
a man well qualified to command, and who had some 
experience in the same. 


Col. Neale marched his regiment to the Mines, but 
no further. Gen. Dodge, assisted by Gov. Cass, 3 
marched on a force of near one thousand men, 4 to the 
portage of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers, where the 
Indians sued for peace. A treaty was then made with 
them. They gave up their commander, who had been 
the principal cause of the war, whom they called the 
Red Bird. He was put in prison at Prairie du Chien, 
and was to have been kept as a hostage for the good 
behavior of the rest of his nation, but he soon died. 

After this treaty, the forts were again forsaken, and 
the citizens returned to their respective habitations, 
and peace and safety seemed to be felt by all, until the 
hostile movement of the Sacs and Foxes, in the spring 
of eighteen hundred and thirty-one; when they invaded 
the State of Illinois, by leaving their own side of the 
Mississippi, crossing over, and attempting to claim the 
land they had sold to the General Government, in the 
neighborhood of Rock Island. Here this terrible and 
warlike nation of Indians committed all kinds of out 
rage on the citizens near this place. The citizens had 
purchased the land they lived upon from the General 
Government, and had opened good farms, built houses, 
and had been living in peace and quietness for nearly 
three years, when these wretched monsters in human 
shape attempted to drive them from their homes, and 
take possession of them themselves; which in fact they 
did.* But this was not all those savage monsters did. 
They turned their horses into their wheat fields, killed 
their stock, and laid waste whole farms. 

It was time now for those citizens to ask for assist 
ance from their countrymen. They did so. Petition 
after petition was sent to the Governor of Illinois, 
laying before him their grievances, f Governor 

* See Appendix, Note No. i. 
f See Appendix, Note No. a. 


Reynolds hesitated not a moment, but addressed the 
proper officers on this important subject. He addressed 
letters to Generals Clark and Gaines on this subject, 
and tried every means that lay in his power to dissuade 
those unhappy people to desist from their designs, and 
return back to their own side of the Mississippi to 
their own land. But to this they turned a deaf ear 
too, as well as to all kind of entreaty that could be 
made through their agents, or Gen. Gaines or any 
other person. They bid defiance to General Gaines, 
and bantered him to fight them with his regulars. 
This was enough. Gen. Gaines saw now that there 
was no way of settling this business, only by a resort 
to arms. He accordingly made a call upon Governor 
Reynolds for seven hundred mounted volunteers to 
co-operate with him in driving them from the State.* 

Governor Reynolds immediately obeyed the call, 
and issued his proclamation to the citizens of the 
northern counties of Illinois, who turned out to the 
number of fifteen hundred strong, and rendezvoused 
at Beardstown, on the Illinois river; and between the 
first and tenth days of June were organized into a 
brigade, under the command of Gen. Joseph Duncan. 

This brigade was officered in the following manner, 
viz : James D. Henry, of Sangamon county, Colonel of 
the first regiment; Jacob Fry, Lieutenant Colonel; 
John T. Stuart, Major; Thomas Collins, Adjutant; 
Edward Jones, Quarter Master; and Thomas M. Neale, 
Paymaster. The Captains were as follows: Adam 
Smith, William F. Elkin, A. Morris, Thomas Carlin, 
Samuel Smith, John Lorton, and Samuel C. Pierce. 

The second Regiment was commanded by Colonel 
Daniel Leib, of Morgan County; - , Lieu 

tenant Colonel; Nathaniel Butler, Major; Captains 
H .Mathews, John Ha[i]nes, George Bristow, William 

* See Appendix, Note No. 3. 


Gilham, [Hiram] Kincade, Alexander Wells, William 
Weatherford, and W. Jordan, Quarter Master. 

There was one odd battalion, which was officered in 
the following manner: Nathaniel Buckmaster, 5 Major; 
James Semple, Adjutant; Joseph Gillespie, Paymaster; 
[David Wright,] Quarter Master; Richard Roman, Sur- 

feon ; Captains William Moore, John Loramie, 
Loraine] and Solomon Miller. [Charles Higbee 
was Surgeon and Roman was Mate. Ed.] 

The spy battalion, next, was officered in the follow 
ing manner: Samuel Whiteside, 8 Major; Samuel F. 
Kendle, Adjutant; John S. Greathouse, Quarter 
Master; P. H. Winchester, Pay Master; Captains 
Erastus Wheeler, William B. Whiteside, William 
Miller, and Solomon Prewitt. 7 

Those were the officers that composed the brigade 
under Gen. Joseph Duncan, with a few exceptions. 
The name of the Lieutenant Colonel in Col. Leib's 
regiment, I have not been fortunate enough to get in 
possession of, and I have not been able to get all the 
staff officers belonging to it; 8 for I have no public record 
to resort to. Therefore, I hope no gentleman will 
think hard of me, or feel himself slighted in not 
having his name inserted in this history. 

General Duncan, after his brigade was organized, 
took the line of march for the seat of war, or where 
the savage rebels were assembled and bidding defiance 
to General Gaines and his regulars, at or near Rock 

When General Duncan arrived at Rock River, he 
had to cross this stream near an island; and for fear of 
an ambuscade, General Gaines had it raked with a six 
pounder, so that if the enemy were concealed in this 
hiding place, he might drive them from it until his 
men could cross. He fired his six pounder 9 a num 
ber of times into this Island, but the enemy had taken 


the alarm, and crossed over the Mississippi; but still 
kept embodied for action. They did not much like 
the sound of the six pounder. 

Some of them afterwards came over to Rock Island, 
where General Duncan had arrived with his men, and 
joined General Gaines, who took command of all the 
forces then in the field. They held a white flag in 
their hands. They now sued for peace. The Black 
Hawk was not one of the company. General Gaines 
demanded of them to bring him. They at first refused, 
but he told them that he would march his forces across 
the river and cut them off, if they did not produce him. 
They then returned and brought the wretched Hawk, 
who had caused so much trouble to them and our own 

They then entered into capitulations of a treaty;* the 
articles of which they violated in a few weeks after 
wards by the most daring outrage. It was stipulated 
in the articles, that they were to remain on the west 
side of the Mississippi, and never to cross the river, 
and come into the State of Illinois, without the per 
mission of the President of the United States or the 
Governor of Illinois. But they soon forgot this 
agreement. They crossed over in a few weeks, went 
within a few hundred yards of Prairie du Chien, in the 
dead hour of night, fell upon a camp of Menominie 
Indians, slaughtered and killed twenty-five of them; 
and that too, within gun-shot of a garrison of regulars. 
Those Menominie Indians never have been at war 
with the Government of the United States. They 
have ever looked to it for protection. They had been 
that day in an Indian frolic, and were nearly all drunk. 
It is a well known thing, that, when Indians get into 
one of those drunken frolics, they are dangerous, one 

* See Appendix, Note No. 4. See General Gaines's Report to President U. S., 
Appendix, Note No. 5. 



to another, and the squaws invariably make it a rule to 
hide their arms until they get sober. This was the 
case at this time. Those Menominies had just been 
gorging with this hydra monster of all evil, and were 
lying in their wigwams, lost in sleep; never dreaming 
or thinking that there was the least danger of being 
butchered by those hideous monsters, that were of the 
same species of human beings with themselves. But 
the deadly tomahawk and spear were buried in them 
when in their helpless situation. The Menominies, 
it is said, succeeded in killing four of these savage 
monsters, who deserved to die the worst of deaths. 10 
The Menominies immediately informed Gen. Street 
of the massacre. He repaired immediately to the battle 
ground. They appeared to be in great distress for the 
loss of their friends. They had killed a number of 
squaws and children. The Menominies made heavy 
complaints to Gen. Street, saying, you have told us that 
you would protect us, and see that the Sacs and Foxes 
would let us alone. Gen. Street told them that they 
would be punished for what they had done. He accord 
ingly sent a communication to Governor Reynolds, 
informing him of their movements, and the slaughter 
of the Menominies; and at the same time, took measures 
to demand the murderers; the particulars of which I 
am not able to lay before the public. But instead of 
the Sacs and Foxes delivering up the murderers, they, 
early in the spring following, crossed over to the State 
of Illinois, armed and equipped for war, and passed by, 
almost in sight of Fort Armstrong, bidding defiance to 
General Atkinson, the commander of the fort. Gen. 
Atkinson then communicated to Governor Reynolds, 
by express, their movements. Governor Reynolds 
then lost no time in issuing his proclamation to the 
citizens of Illinois, calling for volunteers. 


The Sac and Fox Indians cross over the Mississippi to the State of 
Illinois, in a warlike manner Extract of a letter from 
General Hughes to Gen. Atkinson Extract of a letter from 
George Davenport to Gen. Atkinson Extract of a letter 
from Gen. Atkinson to his Excellency, Governor Reynolds 
Proclamation of Governor Reynolds to the citizens of Illinois 
Visit made to the hostile band, by Henry Gratiot, Esq., sub 
Indian Agent for the Winnebagoes Rendezvous of the 
Volunteers at Beardstown Organized into a brigade under 
Gen. White side Mustered into the service of the United 
States at Rock Island Col. 'John Ewing and the Author 
sent ahead to spy out the enemy's camp; take a prisoner, and 
return Meet the Army Arrival at Dixon's, on Rock river. 

Extract of a letter from General Hughes, sub Indian Agent, to 
General Atkinson, dated, 

"Rock Island, April I3th, 1832. 

"My opinion is, that the squaws and old men have gone to 
the Prophet's town, on Rock river and the warriors are now 
only a few miles below the mouth of Rock river, within the 
limits of the State of Illinois. That those Indians are hostile 
to the whites there is no doubt. That they have invaded the 
State of Illinois, to the great injury of her citizens, is equally 
true. Hence it is, that the public good requires that strong 
as well as speedy measures should be taken against Black 
Hawk and his followers. 

" Respectfully I have, the honor to be, 

"Your obedient servant. 

(Signed.) " ANDREW S. HUGHES." 

"To Brig. Gen. Atkinson." 



Extract of a letter from George Davenport, Esq. to Brigadier 
General Atkinson, dated, 

"Rock Island, April I3th, 1832. 

"Dear Sir: In reply to your enquiries of this morning, 
respecting the Indians, I have to state, that I have been 
informed by the man I have wintering with the Indians, that 
the British band of Sac Indians are determined to make war 
upon the frontier settlements. The British band of Sac 
Indians did rendezvous at old fort Madison, and induced a 
great many of the young men to join them on their arrival at 
the Yellow Banks. They crossed about five hundred head 
of horses into the State of Illinois, and sent about seventy 
horses through the country toward Rock river. The re 
mainder, some on horseback, the others in canoes, in a 
fighting order, advanced up the Mississippi, and were encamped 
yesterday five or six miles below Rock river, and will no 
doubt endeavor to reach their strong hold in the Rock river 
swamps, if they are not intercepted. From every information 
that I have received, I am of opinion, that the intention of 
the British band of Sac Indians, is to commit depredations on 
the inhabitants of the frontier. 

"Respectfully your ob't. serv't. 
(Signed.) " GEO. DAVENPORT." 

"To Brig. Gen. Atkinson." 

Extract of a letter from Gen. Atkinson to his Excellency, Governor 
Reynolds, dated, 

"Fort Armstrong, April I3th, 1832. 

"Dear Sir: The band of Sacs under Black Hawk, joined 
by about one hundred Kickapoos, and a few Pottawatamies, 
amounting in all to about five hundred men, have assumed a 
hostile attitude. They crossed the river at the Yellow Banks, 
on the sixth instant, and are now moving up on the east side of 
Rock river towards the Prophet's village. 


"The regular force under my command, is too small to 
justify me in pursuing the hostile party. To make an unsuc 
cessful attempt to coerce them, would only irritate them to 


acts of hostility on the frontier, sooner than they probably 

" Your own knowledge of the character of these Indians, 
with the information herewith submitted, will enable you to 
judge of the course proper to be pursued. I think the frontier 
is in great danger, and will use all the means at my disposal 
to co-operate with you, in its protection and defence. 
" With great respect, 

" Your most ob't. serv't. 

U H. ATKINSON, Brigadier 

"General of the U. S. Army." 
His Excellency, Gov. REYNOLDS, Bell [e] ville, 111. 

I will next give the reader Governor Reynolds's 
Proclamation to the militia of Illinois, and his con 
cluding remarks; and of the necessity of those that were 
able to bear arms, turning out in defence of their 
country's rights. 

"To the Militia of the North-western section of Illinois: 

"FELLOW CITIZENS: Your country requires your ser 
vices. The Indians have assumed a hostile attitude, and 
have invaded the State, in violation of the treaty of last sum 

"The British band of Sacs, and other hostile Indians, 
headed by the Black Hawk, are in possession of the Rock 
river country, to the great terror of the frontier inhabitants. 

"I consider the settlers on the frontiers in imminent dan 
ger. I am in possession of the above information from gen 
tlemen of respectable standing, and from Gen. Atkinson, 
whose character stands so high in all classes. 

"In possession of the foregoing facts and information, I 
hesitate not as to the course I should pursue. No citizen 
ought to remain quiet when his country is invaded, and the 
helpless part of the community is in danger. I have called 
out a strong detachment of militia, to rendezvous at Beards- 
town, on the 22d instant; provision for the men, and corn 
for the horses will be furnished in abundance. I hope my 


countrymen will realize my expectations, and offer their ser 
vices, as heretofore, with promptitude and cheerfulness, in 
defence of their country. 


"Commander in Chief." 

I will next refer the reader to a visit made to the 
hostile Indians by Henry Gratiot, Esq. 

On the 1 6th day of April, Mr. Gratiot, Indian 
Agent for the Rock river band of Winnebagoes, re 
ceived a letter from Gen. Atkinson, informing him of 
the movements of Black Hawk's band of hostile In 
dians, and requesting him, if possible, to ascertain the 
disposition of them. On the receipt of this informa 
tion, Mr. Gratiot proceeded down Rock river, and 
on the 1 9th arrived at the Turtle Village 11 of Winne 
bagoes found them at the exercise of their religious 
ceremonies, and consequently could not have a hear 
ing with them until the 22d. He then held a talk 
with them, and learned from them that the Sacs had, 
at three different times, sent them the wampum, and 
that the last was painted red, thereby indicating war. 12 
The last wampum was not returned. They also in 
formed Mr. Gratiot, that it was their determination 
not to join the hostile Sacs that there were some 
Winnebagoes living at the Prophet's Village who were 
friendly to the whites and that they requested them 
to leave it and come to their village to reside until all 
the difficulties were settled. 

In order to accomplish this object, Mr. Gratiot took 
twenty four men of the Turtle Village to accompany 
him to the Prophet's Town, at which place they 
arrived on the 25th, and hoisted his flag of truce. He 
was received with much attention by the Winneba 
goes, who made him a large lodge, eighty feet long, 
for himself and their visiting brethren. In this village 


he found between two and three hundred men, women 
and children, belonging to the Prophet's band. These 
Indians manifested no hostile disposition, but severally 
remonstrated against the conduct of the Prophet, who 
was at that time with the hostile band of Sacs, a few 
miles below, leading them on to his village. Mr. 
Gratiot advised these Indians to go up Rock river on 
their own lands, and make a village, where they might 
rest in peace. This they promised to do. 

On the 26th, Mr. Gratiot saw at a distance, about 
two miles down Rock river, the army of the cel 
ebrated Black Hawk, consisting of about five hundred 
Sacs, well armed, and mounted on fine horses, moving 
in a line of battle. Their appearance was terrible in 
the extreme. 13 Their bodies were painted with white 
clay, with an occasional impression of their hands about 
their bodies, colored black. Around their ankles and 
bodies they wore wreaths of straw, which always indi 
cate a disposition for blood. They moved on with 
great regularity, performing many evolutions; wheeling 
every few minutes, and firing towards Fort Armstrong; 
turning, flanking, and then forming into solid columns, 
from which they would form their line of march. In 
that way they marched to the beating of a drum till 
they came to the village. 

They marched up to Gratiot's lodge, where was 
flying the neutral flag; formed a circle around it; took 
down his flag, and tauntingly hoisted the British 
colors in its place. They then fired into the air toward 
his lodge, sounded the war-whoop around it, and made 
several motions toward attacking Mr. Gratiot and the 
friendly Winnebagoes. They afterward dismounted, 
entered his lodge, shook hands with Mr. Gratiot and 
Mr. Cubbage, a gentleman who accompanied him. 
They then formed a circle within his lodge, holding 
their spears and other implements of war, and evincing, 



by their actions and countenances, an unfriendly feel 
ing. After holding a consultation among themselves, 
a friendly Winnebago Chief, ("White Crow,") who 
went with Mr. Gratiot from the Turtle Village, arose, 
went to his blanket, took out two plugs of tobacco, 
and gave them to the war-chief of the hostile band; 
after which the war party left the lodge leaving only 
Black Hawk. 

This Chief 14 (Black Hawk) then told Mr. Gratiot 
that he had received a letter from General Atkinson, 
but refused to let him read it at the time, but said that 
he would show it to him when he got to the end of his 
march, which was about sixty miles above. Mr. 
Gratiot replied, that he was not going that way; but 
he was answered by Black Hawk, that he would let 
him know about it on the next day. So it appeared 
that Mr. Gratiot was then considered their prisoner of 
war; 15 which the development of other facts that after 
wards occurred, conclusively proved. Black Hawk 
shortly afterwards left Mr. Gratiot, under a promise to 
visit him again the next morning. 

The hostile band were all night engaged in holding a 
council among themselves. On the following morning, 
the Prophet, at the head of about forty warriors, came 
into Mr. Gratiot's lodge, presented General Atkinson's 
letter, and told him, he might take the letter back to 
General Atkinson. Mr. Gratiot insisted on reading 
the letter to them; upon which request, Black Hawk 
and Na-a-pope 18 were sent for, and the letter read. The 
substance of which was, to adviseltlW'Jip&tHe Chiefs to 
desist from their evil designs Across the Mississi ppi 
river, settle down in peace, ard pl-int >hnr a>rn,.ftc. 
In reply to which, they requested Mr. Gratiot to hand 
back the letter, and inform General Atkinson, that their 
hearts were bad, 17 and that they would not return; but to 
the contrary, that if he brought his troops among them 


they would fight them. Mr. Gratiot immediately went 
to Rock Island and delivered the message. 

Thus, reader, these documents go to show the great 
necessity that Governor Reynolds had, for making the 
call for mounted volunteers, to defend the rights of our 
country, and drive from our State those merciless 
savages, that wished to imbrue their hands in the blood 
of its citizens. 

Agreeably to his proclamation, the citizens of 
Illinois, quit their peaceful fire-sides and homes, and 
volunteered to defend our dear and sacred rights, which 
had been purchased for us by our ancestors, at the price 
of much blood. There was a sufficient number turned 
out without drafting; the people at once saw the great 
danger our frontier was in; and their patriotic feelings 
would not suffer them to stay at home, when they knew 
their services were wanted in the field. Accordingly, at 
the appointed time, the mounted volunteers from the 
different counties, that were called upon, rendezvoused 
at Beardstown, on the Illinois river, where we were met 
by Gov. Reynolds. 

Upon our being organized into a Brigade, Governor 
Reynolds appointed Brigadier General Samuel White- 
side commander of the Brigade, who, for his courage 
and bravery, as an officer in the last war with Great 
Britain, stood pre-eminent. He at that time had the 
command of a company of rangers, and was by all 
acknowledged to be an excellent Indian fighter. 

/The Brigade consisted of about sixteen hundred 
n afcd tvfo Jumdred footmen, who w~re orgnn- 
&mJHti3, and an odd spy battalion. 
it^', 1 ?, ^commanded the first regiment; 
Colonel Fry, 19 the second; Colonel Thomas, 20 (of St. 
Clair,) the third; and Colonel Thompson, the fourth. 
Colonel James D. Henry, of Sangamon county, 
commanded the spy battalion. 

*,, . . ;-: 


On the twenty-seventh day of April, the troops got in 
motion, and took up the line of march, under the 
command of General Whiteside, accompanied by 
Governor Reynolds, the Commander-in-chief. After 
crossing the Illinois river, we directed our course to the 
Yellow Banks, 21 on the Mississippi river, at which place, 
we arrived on the third day of May. Nothing very 
interesting occurred on our march to the Yellow Banks. 

In crossing Henderson's river, we lost several head 
of horses, the river being very high, and not having any 
ferry boat to cross in; but very fortunately the men all 
got over safe. We had to take the point of the Yellow 
Banks, in order to draw provision, as a steam boat with 
supplies was to meet us there. It is worthy of remark, 
that when we got to this place, we found the citizens 
quietly remaining at their homes, and not in the least 

The next day after we arrived at this place, the old 
principal Chief ( Ke-o-kuck,) crossed the river, with fifty 
or sixty of his warriors, and a few Squaws, to our 
encampment, held a war dance, and stated, that it was 
not their intention to raise arms against the United 
States, at the same time signifying a willingness to 
assist in fighting the Black Hawk. 

On the third day after our arrival at the Yellow 
Banks, the steam boat arrived with a sufficient supply 
of provision, which enabled us to take the line of march 
for Rock river, at which place we arrived on the 
following day (the seventh.) On the [May 8th] we 
were mustered into the service of the United States by 
Brigadier General Atkinson. 22 

On the evening after having been received by 
General Atkinson, Colonel John Ewing and myself 
were sent by Governor Reynolds as secret spies, with 
directions to keep in front of the army; he also sent a 
gentleman by the name of Kinney with us as a pilot. 


Our instructions were, to proceed as near the direction 
as we could, according to our judgment, form, of the 
course Black Hawk and his army had taken; and if 
possible, for us to ascertain where the encampment of 
the enemy was. According to our instructions, we 
proceeded up Rock river, as near the direction that 
Black Hawk had taken, as our pilot judged to be the 
course. On the second day after we started, we dis 
covered several signs of Indians, who appeared to be 
going different directions, which led us to suppose, 
that they were sent by Black Hawk to ascertain 
whether or not we were following them. 

On that night, we encamped in sight of the old 
Prophet's Village; 23 next morning we went through 
the Town, and saw where Black Hawk had encamped 
with his whole army. His encampment was laid off 
in a manner showing great skill in warfare. No 
American General could have laid it out in a more 
military style ; from the appearance of the encamp 
ment, we were induced to believe that they remained 
there a week ; from which place we proceeded, confin 
ing ourselves to Rock river, which we were going up. 
We had not proceeded more than five miles from this 
place, before we discovered two Indians coming in the 
direction to meet us. Col. Ewing and myself made 
up to them in great haste ; on our meeting them, we 
demanded of them to know their business there; on 
their not being able to understand us, we directed Mr. 
Kinney to enquire of them what they were doing there? 
Their answer was, that they had lost their horses, and 
were hunting them ; that they belonged to Ke-o-kuck's 
band. We directed the interpreter to ask them, if they 
knew where Black Hawk was P They signified that 
they did not know, and appeared to be much alarmed. 
I observed in the course of the conversation, that we 
ought to take them as prisoners to which Col. Ewing 


made no reply, but appeared to be reflecting on the 
course to take, until they started and had got a short 
distance from us; he then came to the conclusion to 
take them ; we immediately gave chase, they had four 
horses that appeared to be fresh and good, on account 
of which they gained distance on us, shaping their 
course for the river. During the chase, we discovered 
another Indian on our left, after consulting for a 
moment, we concluded to endeavor to take him pris 
oner; accordingly we all pursued him, until we came 
up with him ; he told us he was a Pottawattomie ; he 
had two horses; we directed Mr. Kinney to take his 
gun ; he appeared unwilling to surrender it, and showed 
a disposition to shoot him. Upon which Colonel 
Ewing drew his rifle to his face, to make ready to fire 
on him, if he did not give it up : upon which he gave 
it to Mr. Kinney. We directed Mr. Kinney to mount 
his horse, and take the rope that was around the neck 
of the Indian's horse, and lead him; the Indian made 
signs to us, that there were some of his people close 
by, and wished to see them, and then he would go 
with us ; to which proposition, we had no desire to 
accede, but forced him on. We travelled at a rapid 
rate. As we were in the midst of Indians, we con 
cluded that it was our better policy, to make our way 
back to the camp as quick as possible. We at this 
time had been three days from the army, and could 
not know what distance we had separated ourselves 
from it. We calculated that we would not be able to 
reach it until the following day ; but we were very 
agreeably disappointed, as we met the army after going 
about ten miles ; it had taken the line of march the 
next day after we left it, and marched a much nigher 
way than our pilot took us. We delivered up our 
prisoner, who underwent an examination through 
an interpreter better acquainted with the Indian 


language than Mr. Kinney ; he was found to be a Pot- 
tawattomie, and stated that Black Hawk with his 
army was at the Pawpaw Grove, 24 two days' march 
up the river. We were now close to the old 
Prophet's Town, where General Atkinson had ordered 
General Whiteside to await the arrival of his boats 
and regulars, (as that was the way General Atkin 
son, with his regulars, and two hundred foot volun 
teers were marching;) unless General Whiteside, 
thought upon his arrival at the Prophet's Village, 25 
it would be actually necessary to pursue, in order to 
prevent the Indians from making their escape ; accord 
ingly General Whiteside ordered a forced march that 
evening. The country we had to pass through was an 
almost continual swamp, no alternative being left for 
us, we put our horses to it, sometimes wading ourselves 
up to our waist, and not unfrequently getting mired ; 
but by great exertions and perseverance, we succeeded 
in getting through without losing any men in the 
swamps. We this day marched until dark a num 
ber of the men did not get up until late in the night, 
and some of the baggage waggons not until next morn 
ing. This day (May I2th) we got to Dixon's ferry, 28 
on Rock river, where the great road 27 crosses going to 
the Lead Mines. 


Meet Maj. Stillman with a battalion from the northern counties 

Major Stillman takes his battalion, goes up Rock river, in 
order to ascertain the movements of the enemy Falls in 
with them has a battle, and is defeated Retreats back 
to General Whiteside Colonel Ewing, Robert Elackwell, 
Esq. and the Author sent as expresses for more troops Gen 
eral Wlafatndt marches his Brigade to the battle ground 
They bury the dead Return back to Dixon's Meet 
General Atkinson there with provision, five hundred regulars 
and two hundred foot militia They take up the line of 
march after the enemy March to Fox river The In 
dians kill three families before they get there They bury the 
persons killed Army become dissatisfied, and are discharged 

Three hundred volunteer to guard the frontier until the 
new levy of troops arrive. 

ON our arrival here (Dixon's Ferry) we found 
Major Stillman with a battalion of two hundred 
and seventy-five men awaiting our arrival : they 
had been there two days with a sufficient supply of 
ammunition and provisions ; our provisions at this time 
being nearly exhausted. 

Major Stillman considered that he had a kind of 
independent corps, and did not wish to be attached to 
General Whiteside's Brigade. He, the Major, on the 
next morning made a request of the Governor, that he 
might be permitted to take his corps, go out as a scout 
ing party, and see if possible whether any discoveries 
could be made as to the situation of the enemy. 

Accordingly, on the I2th day of May, Major Still 
man and Major Bailey 28 received orders from the 



Commander in Chief, to march with their respective 
battalions to the neighborhood of Old Man's Creek, 29 
to ascertain, if possible, the movements of the enemy. 
On the morning of the ijth, Major Stillman's bat 
talion took up their line of march. Major Bailey fol 
lowed in a short time after ; and after having marched 
eight or ten miles, both battalions encamped. The 
day had been rainy, and other circumstances beyond 
the control of officers or men, had a tendency to retard 
their movements. 

The battalions had no connection with each other 
whatever, previous to their meeting on their march to 
Dixon's, on Rock river. There they received orders 
to march, before they were organized into a regiment 
each battalion being independent of the other 
commanded by its own officers and three of those 
claiming the command of both and perhaps with 
equal justice. 

In the result, however, the command for that expe 
dition was conferred on Major Stillman, the choice of 
officers to be referred to the men on their return. 

On the morning of the I4th, under the temporary 
organization of the corps, the march was continued in 
the line, secured by strong advance and flank guards. 
On this day's march several fresh trails were discovered 
during the forenoon ; and at 12 o'clock the command 
ing officer, was informed, that several Indian dogs had 
been seen by one of the flank guards, and shortly after 
wards two Indians were seen. 

With some difficulty occasioned by the almost 
impassable mires of the creeks which the corps had to 
cross, the march was continued until nearly sunset, 
when Col. Strode 30 of the advanced guard, who had 
volunteered his services on this occasion, returned to 
the battalion with information of a suitable place for 
encampment, and conducted the corps to the point. 


A large fresh trail was discovered, which directed its 
course to a point of timber, a short distance to the left 
of the encampment. Shortly after the battalion halted, 
and while busily engaged in preparing supper, several 
horsemen were discovered on a hill about half a mile 
in front. They were at first sight taken for a part of 
the enemy's advance guard. Some of the men mounted 
their horses, and rode toward them. They were dis 
covered to be Indians, and two of them came to the 
camp, professing to be Pottawattomies and friends, 
but on the approach of our advance the Indians gave 
a whoop, unfurled a red flag and fell back at full speed. 
Our horsemen followed, and after a chase of four 
miles and a half, overtook them in a low marshy piece 
of ground, where a sharp firing took place. Three 
Indians were left dead, and several were dismounted; 
one of our men was wounded in a personal combat, 
and two were dismounted and lost their horses. 

The Indians were driven into their encampment, 
where they rallied to the number of six or eight hun 
dred, and cautiously awaited the approach of our main 
body. Our advance fell back, and joined the battal 
ion -on the margin of the low ground, where the firing 
first commenced. 

An Indian approached and proposed a " talk" to an 
officer who was in advance. Major Stillman, with the 
field and staff" officers together with Capt. Eads, 31 as an 
interpreter, went forward while the troops were advanc 
ing by heads of companies through the marsh. Capt. 
Eads, who had been in front, suddenly wheeled and 
exclaimed that the line of Indians extended for more 
than a mile. 

Major Stillman now discovered that the proposed 
"talk" was an expedient to obtain time, the more com 
pletely to execute their plan ; for the enemy were now 
seen flanking him right and left in great numbers. 


He immediately gave orders to countermarch and form 
on the high ground. But instead of countermarching, 
the men wheeled about in their places, which threw the 
officers all in the rear, and fell back. The foremost of 
them on reaching the hard ground first, were able to 
proceed with much greater rapidity than those who 
were yet in the swamp, and by the time the officers 
reached the solid ground the front was out of hearing. 
The order to halt and form was only heard by a part 
of each company, who immediately formed. But the 
enemy knew all the passes, and had already opened a 
heavy fire on both flanks, which was returned with 
spirit by those who had formed. 

It was now found necessary to retire to prevent the 
enemy from entirely surrounding our men, which had 
now become practicable. The retreat was then kept 
up with occasional halting and firing, until our men 
reached the camp. There an attempt was made to 
maintain our ground. Capt. Barnes 32 had nearly suc 
ceeded in forming his company, when orders were given 
to cross the creek in rear of the camp. This order 
was effected by sixty or seventy men, but not before 
the enemy had got possession of the camp. The enemy 
then set up a tremendous yell, which was returned by 
a volley of musquetry from those who had formed in 
the rear of the camp, this silenced the war-whoop in 
that quarter, but in a moment more two large parties 
of the enemy, who had crossed the creek above and 
below, attacked both flanks and the rear. The line 
was broken, and each man took his own course. One 
party broke off to the right where fell some of those 
who had formed at the creek. Another party took off 
to the left, where others fell, the flanking parties of the 
enemy pursuing them. Those of the men who took 
the middle course, escaped with the loss of two killed, 
and one wounded. 


The enemy kept up the pursuit for twelve or four 
teen miles. The men arrived at Dixon's ferry in 
detached squads, from one o'clock A. M. until the 
roll call at sunrise, when it was found that fifty-two 
were missing : these continued to arrive for the two 
succeeding days, until the number missing was reduced 
to eleven, which were afterward found most shockingly 

Capt. Adams evinced the most undaunted bravery ; 
he vehemently urged the men to maintain the ground. 
But the line was broken and he himself was slain. 

Several personal rencounters took place. In one 
of them Joseph Farris and his brother David, were 
attacked and surrounded. David was mounted, and 
Joseph whose horse failed or was killed, urged him to 
save himself; but this he refused, until he saw him fall, 
fighting, and himself struck from his horse by a blow 
from the breech of a gun. He returned the blow 
which stiffened the savage on the ground, and then 
broke for a point of timber; he was nearly overtaken, 
when he called for assistance from the timber, which 
led the pursuers to fear that a force was then awaiting 
their approach. It was this presence of mind which 
saved his life; for the enemy immediately wheeled and 

Mr. Samuel Hackelton had pursued an uniformed 
Indian, until he had outstripped his comrades, and had 
discharged his gun with effect, upon one who was dis 
mounted immediately before him. When in the act 
of reloading, he saw a horseman pass, by the name of 
Maxfield, who discharged his piece, tumbled an Indian 
from his pony, and kept on without reloading. He 
entered the marsh where it was with difficulty that 
his horse could proceed an Indian charged upon 
him. Hackelton seeing this, flew to his relief, and 
by a blow from his gun parried the spear, just as it 


was on the point of entering his (Maxfield's) back. 
The red warrior wheeled to plunge the spear into the 
breast of Hackelton, which he avoided by springing 
from his horse, who passed from between him and his 
antagonist, when he again met the spear by darting at 
his enemy, which caused it to pass between his left 
arm and side, wounding his hand as he attempted to 
parry the blow. He then seized the spear, both held, 
eyeing each other for a moment, when the Indian being 
in the act of seizing his tomahawk, Hackelton grasped 
him by the throat and belt (the blanket being thrown 
from the Indian's shoulder) and now a deadly struggle 
ensued. The Indian was large and muscular, but 
after a severe struggle, fell before his more active foe, 
and broke his hold to regain his feet. Hackelton im 
proved the movement to draw his steel, which he 
plunged into the breast of the savage, and again 
they fell locked in deadly embrace. Maxfield, whose 
horse had taken fright at the yell of the Indian, ran 
for a considerable distance, nearly throwing his rider, 
readily returned to repay that service which had so 
generously and timely been rendered him, and with 
his bayonet pinned the bleeding savage to the ground. 

Hackelton having lost his horse, it was with much 
difficulty that he halted a horseman to take him from 
the ground; indeed he rode with him but a few rods, 
whilst in leaping a pool or branch, the horse fell, and 
Hackelton, who was wounded in both hands, was 
thrown into the water; and there the horseman left 
him to shift for himself. He effected his escape by 
running two or three miles, when he was relieved by 
Doctor Donaldson, who generously lent him his horse, 
whilst he went on foot, for the distance of two miles 
further, where Hackelton succeeded in getting a pony, 
on which he arrived in camp without further injury. 

Major Stillman was unfortunate in this action; he 


lost some of his most choice men. Captain Adams, 
who commanded a company from Tazewell county; 
Major Isaac Perkins; 83 John Walters; Cyrus Childs; 34 
Joseph Farris; Bird Ellis and James Doty, were 
among the slain in this battle. There were four 
others, but I have not got in possession of their 
names. They were all respectable men. 

When this squadron of men got into camp, or part 
of them, for they came in by twos, threes and fours, 
and so on, all night, each company thought the rest 
were all killed, and reported it as being the case. 

We were all immediately to our arms, not knowing 
but that Black Hawk and all his band were in close 

Things were represented in their worst colors. 
Some of the men seemed to think that there were at 
least two thousand Indians. Others thought there 
were not more than one thousand, and none would 
fall below five hundred; but scarcely any two of them 
could agree upon any one statement. 85 

It was a complete rout, and of course each one had 
to shift for himself; and it was natural for them to 
have different views when they were in such frightful 
condition. Next morning, at roll call, there were fifty- 
two men missing. It was then thought there was no 
doubt but they had all been slain in the action; but 
to the great joy of the friends of the missing, they all 
got in, in the course of three days, to some settlement 
or other, except the eleven already mentioned. It 
appears that they were so much alarmed, that they 
took different directions, and some went a contrary 
direction from the army. A number of them, it is 
said, came very near starving with hunger before they 
got to any settlement. 

Gen. Whiteside, when the news of the defeat 
reached camp, made preparations to march with the 


main army as soon as it was light; accordingly there 
were two men sent from each company to bring in our 
horses. The Governor immediately went to making 
out despatches for more troops, so soon as it was light. 
Gen. Whiteside had a few beeves killed to take along, 
with some other meat; but bread was out of the ques 
tion, as we had then been without this necessary article 
for two days. 36 

About seven o'clock on the I5th of May, Gen. 
Whiteside took up the line of march at the head of 
about fourteen hundred effective men to the late battle 

Here I have to leave the main army for a while. 
Col. John Ewing, Robert Blackwell, Esq., and my 
self, were sent as express bearers for more troops, and 
the Rev. Mr. Horn, 37 (who was Chaplain to the army,) 
to St. Louis for a supply of provisions. Col. Ewing 
was sent to the counties bordering on the Ohio river; 
Esq. Blackwell to the counties on the Wabash, on the 
east side of the State; and the writer to the southern 
counties bordering on the Kaskaskia river. 

The Governor made a call for two thousand more 
troops, besides those already in the field. His order 
was for them to rendezvous at Beardstown and Hen- 
nepin, both on the Illinois river those at Beardstown 
to meet on the jd of June, and those at Hennepin on 
the loth. The volunteers from the counties I went 
to, were to meet at Beardstown; and those from the 
counties to which Messrs. Ewing and Blackwell went, 
at Hennepin. We started on the ifth of May, and 
rode with all the celerity we possibly could. When 
our horses gave out we pressed others. I arrived at 
Kaskaskia on the 22d, a distance of about three hun 
dred and forty miles, in seven days. We well knew 
the danger our frontier settlements were in. Many of 
our fellow citizens had been slain in battle, who were 


in the field for the defence of our country; and our 
unsuspecting frontier was then exposed to the ruthless 
tomahawk and scalping knife of those demons in hu 
man shape. We knew their mode of warfare was to 
steal upon the fearful settler, in the shades and stillness 
of night, and there imbrue their hands in human blood, 
paying no attention to age or sex. So no obstacle 
stopped us on our way. 

I must here relate a small anecdote, which occurred 
between a good old woman and myself. On the night 
of the 3 ist of May I staid at Covington. I think I 
never heard such a night's rain in all my life. The 
next morning, Esq. Bradsby, the gentleman with whom 
I staid all night, informed me that I would have 
several creeks to swim on the way from thence to Kas- 
kaskia, and it still continued raining. I replied that 
I would try it at all events. I had not travelled more 
than four miles before I found his words verified; but 
to my great satisfaction, I found that the horse I rode 
was an excellent swimmer so I stopped for none of 
the creeks. The weather being very cold for the time 
of year, I called at a house to empty the water out of 
my shoes, and to wring my socks. An elderly looking 
lady, seeing me wet all over, and hearing me say I had 
swam all the creeks between that place and Covington, 
and that I had come from there that morning, looked 
on me (as I thought,) with an eye of suspicion, and 
immediately began to make some inquiries about my 
embassy, that I should not have relished quite so well 
had they come from any other source, than a good old 
simple woman. I soon found that she was not to be 
put off", but must have the whole history of my busi 
ness, and what it was that made me swim the creeks. 
So that while I was trying to get some of the water 
out of my socks, I informed her that I was the bearer 
of an express for more men to go against the Indians; 


this roused the good old dame's curiosity to the high 
est pitch. I then gave her the particulars in as brief 
a manner as I could. When I was done, she asked, 
if I did not get a great bounty for my services? "Yes," 
I replied, "I do." --She then wanted to know how 
much? I replied "the honor of serving my country." 
Says she "my friend, I think you are in poor business, 
and if that is all you get I think you had best go back 
home." But I did not take the old lady's advice. I 
got to Kaskaskia that night. The people had got the 
news by way of steamboat that was at St. Louis when 
the Rev. Mr. Horn arrived their (there) after provi 

Colonel Stephens, commandant in Randolph county, 
despatched Mr. Briggs (who afterwards became Cap 
tain Briggs) at 9 o'clock in the evening, with orders 
for the men to meet on the 24th, and volunteer to the 
number of one hundred from this county, and that it 
they were not enough that would volunteer, he would 
be obliged to cause a draft to be made. But it was 
here as it was in every other part of the State, there 
were plenty of men who saw that their country needed 
their services; and they very willingly forsook their 
homes, wives and children, and turned out to defend 
the rights of their brethren and fellow citizens that 
were threatened to be trampled on by the merciless 

I here must return to General Whiteside and the 
volunteers, that marched on the morning of the I5th 
to the battle ground to bury the dead that had been 
slain in battle; they got there that evening, found the 
bodies of eleven of our citizens scalped and mangled in 
the most barbarous manner the heads of some were 
cut off, and others with their hearts cut out, legs and 
arms generally cut off. General Whiteside had their 
remains consigned to their mother earth in as decent 


a manner as could be expected in a wilderness country. 
The next day General Whiteside had to return with 
the army back to Dixon's on Rock river, on account 
of his scarcity of provisions, where General Atkinson 
met them with a supply. 

: On Saturday the I9th, the army, amounting to about 
twenty-four hundred men, regulars and militia, started 
up Rock river, in pursuit of the Indians. But owing 
to a variety of causes, which I am not able to lay be 
fore the public, the army became dissatisfied, and 
wished to be discharged from the service, so nothing 
was effected on this campaign. 38 The general cry with 
the men was, that they wished to return home. This 
was too at a time when their services were most needed, 
for the war now had begun in all its horrid shape. 

Immediately after Stillman's defeat, the Indians com 
menced their well known practice of warfare. They 
went about the 2Oth of May to the houses of Messrs. 
Hall, Daviess and Pennigrew, 39 and there killed fifteen 
men, women and children, and scalped them all. But 
even this was not enough to satisfy those blood thirsty 
demons ; they mutilated them in the most inhuman 
and .indecent manner that ever was witnessed. It is 
enough to make the blood chill in a person's veins, to 
think how those merciless hell hounds served those 
that were not in the slightest degree able to help them 
selves. After every indecency that could be practised 
on their persons, the women were hung up by their 
feet. The helpless children literally chopped to pieces. 
The houses were burned, the furniture all destroyed, 
the stock killed, even the barn-yard fowls. The work 
of destruction and devastation had now begun, the 
blood of helpless women and children had been spilt. 

Two young and beautiful women were taken pris 
oners by these monsters in human shape for it appeared 
that all the bodies of the missing were found, except 


these two young women, who were the daughters of 
the unfortunate family of Hall, who, with his wife and 
children, had become an easy prey to these barbarians, 
save two boys who were in the field at work. 

Mr. Hall and Mr. Daviess both had large families. 
Mr. Pennigrew, his companion, and children, shared 
the same fate. 

This threw the country into the most perfect state 
of alarm and dismay. This horrid act was done on 
Indian Creek, which empties into Fox river. The 
families lived about fifteen miles north of Ottawa. 

Gen. Whiteside and his brigade witnessed this horrid 
sight soon after it was perpetrated, and helped to con 
sign them to their mother earth, 40 which is the last 
duty that we can pay to human beings in this world. 
Still, his brigade cried out, " Our term of service is 
nearly expired, and we wish to be discharged." 

Accordingly, Gov. Reynolds, on the ayth and 28th, 
discharged all the volunteers that were then in the 
field, at Ottawa, within fifteen miles of the place where 
the Indians had just slain fifteen of our citizens, and 
treated them in the manner already described. This 
was enough to rend the hearts of the neighborhood in 
this part of the frontier; but the hearts of a few could 
not think of leaving so many valuable citizens to per 
ish by the scalping knife and tomahawk. They turned 
out a second time to guard the frontier, until the new 
levy of troops could arrive to their protection. I am 
sorry that I could not with propriety give you the 
names of all those who volunteered a second time ; but 
it is due to those who did so, to say it was the love of 
country alone that influenced them to do so. 

Gen. Samuel Whiteside was one who saw that his 
country still needed his services. He here was not 
above shouldering his rifle, and stepping into the ranks 
to defend this beautiful country, where there had just 


perished some of its choice citizens by those merciless 
savages. The brave and patriotic Henry [,] Fry, 41 Sny- 
der, James of Bond county, and many others whom I 
cannot mention, were influenced by the same feeling. 
They at once saw that the devastating hand of the sav 
age had begun the works of death and destruction in 
this region of the country, and well knew that if those 
frontiers were not guarded, its helpless citizens would 
become an easy prey to those demons that know no 
bounds to their cruelty. The smoke of the cabins of 
those that were slain, was scarcely out of sight, and 
to leave those that were still living to share the same 
fate, was more than they could think of doing. 

Accordingly, this little band of patriots was formed 
into a regiment, under the command of our noble Fry, 
who never has disgraced his country, nor himself as a 
commander. Our much beloved James D. Henry was 
elected Lieut. Colonel, and Mr. John Thomas, Major. 
There were six companies composing this regiment. 
The following named gentlemen were the officers and 
staff. The Captains I will set down agreeably to their 

A, W. Snyder; McFadden ; Smith; Benjamin 
James; Elijah lies; and James Rolls, 42 were the six 
Captains of this Regiment. The Lieutenants were as 
follows: James [Jesse] M. Harrison, ist, and Henry 
Roberts, 2d Lieutenant in Capt. Iles's company; Cal- 
vert Roberts, ist Lieutenant in Capt. James's com 
pany ; James Scott, G. F. [Radford M.] Wyatt, W. 
Shirley, Jacob Waggoner, Oliver Bangs, and [W. F.] 
Walker. I cannot place the last Lieutenants to their 
proper places. 


Capt. Snyder has a battle with the enemy Arrives at Head 
Quarters ^ and he and his company are discharged New levy 
of troops rendezvous at Eeardstown and Hennepin Fort 
Wilbourn (or Fort Horn) built // becomes Head Quarters 

The Volunteers organized into three Brigades Attack 
on Apple River Fort A party of Indians appear near 
Fort Hamilton^ and kill two men Gen. Dodge pursues; 
overtakes them; and kills the whole party Capt. Stephenson 

falls in with another war party Has an engagement 
Loses three men, and himself wounded Major Dement has a 
battle with the enemy The three Brigades take different 
directions Gen. Atkinson marches on Rock river with 
Gen. Henry's brigade The three Brigades meet at lake 
Kushkanongj likewise a squadron under Gen. Dodge from 
Michigan Territory They continue for several days scour 
ing the country in search of the enemy Move up to the 
burnt village on White TVater Col. Dunn wounded by a 
sentinel A regular shot by an Indian while fishing Gen. 
Atkinson moves down to lake Kushkanong, and builds a Fort 

The second and third Brigades and Col. Dodge's squad 
ron proceed to Fort Winnebago for provision Gen. Posey 
sent to Fort Hamilton Our horses take a fright at Fort 
Winnebago, and run away. 

THIS band of patriots continued here and guarded 
the country, until the new levy of troops could 
arrive and be organized. And many of them 
still continued until the end of the last campaign. 

It will be recollected that I stated in a preceding 
page that A. W. Snyder was elected Captain of one of 
the six companies, who volunteered a second time to 
defend the northern frontier. Capt. Snyder was 



constantly on the march with his men, between Galena, 
and Fox and Rock rivers, guarding the frontiers from 
being taken by surprise by the Indians, as it was well 
known that they were prowling about through the 
country, as they had done considerable mischief upon 
the northern frontier, and particularly in the mining 
country, and on the road leading from Fort Clark to 

Capt. Snyder thought that it would be best to range 
between Galena and Rock and Fox rivers; as those 
settlements were so exposed as easily to become a prey 
to their barbarity, should they be suffered to make an 
attack upon them. 

On the night of the iyth of June, 43 Captain Snyder 
and his company were encamped about thirty-five miles 
east of Galena, and not far distant from the Burr Oak 
grove. On that night his sentinels were fired upon 
by the Indians; but the cowardly wretches did not 
stand to fight. They fired and retreated immediately. 
Next morning Captain Snyder took his company and 
went in pursuit of them with all possible speed. He 
pursued them to their camp. But they first discovered 
his approach, and took to flight, but he was not to be 
dodged. It was now day, and he had the light of the 
sun to see how to trail in pursuit of them. His men 
were mounted on horseback; and the word was "not 
to spare them." They were put to the whip and spur; 
and in a very short time Captain Snyder overtook 
them. But they sought refuge in a ditch, or hole in 
the ground to fight from, in order to sell their lives as 
dear as possible. As it appears there were but four 
of them, they in all probability were out as spies 
from the main body of Indians. After they took 
shelter in this hole, or gully, there was but a very 
slight prospect of killing, except by a charge upon 
them; so Captain Snyder surrounded the hole and 


ordered his men to charge upon them, which order 
was promptly obeyed. The Indians fired upon them 
as they charged, and wounded one man mortally. 
Col. Semple was one of the number who charged 
upon them in this dangerous place, and killed one 
with his pistol. They killed them all in this place of 
supposed security, except one, and him they killed 
within a few steps of it, after he had got out. The 
wounded man was by the name of Macomson. They 
now had to make a litter to carry him on, as it was 
impossible for him to ride; accordingly Capt. Snyder 
had one made, and eight men detailed to carry it; that 
being the only way they could take him along, for it 
was perceived that he could survive but a short time. 
Captain Snyder thought that it would be best to 
take up the line of march toward the camp, where he 
had been stationed occasionally, at Kellogg's grove, in 
order that if Macomson died, he might have a chance 
to pay the last duty that man can pay to his fellow 
men upon earth; or if there was any prospect of his 
recovery, that there might be no means left untried to 
save his life: but this was not destined to be the 
case. They proceeded on until the men became very 
much fatigued, and thirsty for want of water; likewise 
they thought he was dying: so they stopt to see what 
would be his fate; also to search round, and if possible 
get some water, as they were by this time very thirsty, 
having been in the chase ever since it was clearly light. 
In their eagerness to obtain this indispensable article 
to sustain life, they scattered in different directions in 
search of it; not dreaming or apprehending the slight 
est danger of being taken by surprise. But in this 
they were mistaken. They were fired upon by about 
seventy or eighty Indians. Two gentlemen, one by 
the name of Scott, the other McDaniel, 44 together 
with their horses, were killed the first fire, and a 


gentleman by the name of Cornelius badly wounded. 
The men being surprised so suddenly, became very 
much alarmed, and some of them commenced a retreat. 
Captain Snyder perceiving it, ordered a halt and 
endeavoured to form them for action. Some of them 
so panic struck, were still for taking to flight. Capt. 
Snyder then requested General Samuel Whiteside, 
who was then in his company in the capacity of a pri 
vate, to try and assist him, to bring the men to a stand. 
Gen. Whiteside then cried aloud that he would shoot 
the first man that attempted to retreat. They then 
formed, and the battle became warm on both sides, 
which lasted a considerable time, both the Indians and 
our men taking the advantage of trees. 

General Whiteside being an excellent marksman, took 
a cool and deliberate aim at the Indian Commander, 
who had been yelling and hallooing all the time of the 
action. As soon as his gun fired, the Indian was heard 
no more ; and his horse was immediately seen without 
the rider. The Indians now began to retreat, which 
told us plainly that General Whiteside had killed their 
commander. The panic had still fast hold of a part of 
our company. They refused to pursue them further. 
Captain Snyder, General Whiteside and Colonel Sem- 
ple, with some others endeavored to persuade the men 
to pursue them, but it was impossible to get a part of 
them to consent ; they peremptorily refused. When 
Captain Snyder perceived that it was impossible to 
effect anything with a part of his small band ; he 
ordered a march back to their camp. They did not 
march far before they met Major Riley, with a detach 
ment of regulars. 

After a consultation between Riley and Snyder, they 
came to the conclusion that it was then too late to follow 
the Indians that night. They all then returned to their 
encampment and abandoned the idea of further pursuit. 


They did not know but that Black Hawk and his 
whole army were close by, and if so small a band would 
fall in with them, they might fall an easy prey to their 
vengeance, for at that time it would have been almost 
impossible to have made good their retreat, for they 
had then been about sixty days almost constantly on 
the march, and their horses a greater part of them 
without corn, or any food except grass. This was a 
prudent step. 

Captain Snyder immediately marched his men to 
head quarters, which was Fort Wilbourn, where the 
new levy of troops had all assembled, and had been 
organized into three Brigades; under officers hereafter 
to be mentioned. 

Captain Snyder made a report of his battle to Gen 
eral Atkinson, and having been much worn out by 
fatigue, and this his second term of service having 
expired, he and his company were discharged, and they 
all retired once more to their respective homes to 
embrace their wives and children, and enjoy the happi 
ness of sitting by their own firesides, without the fear 
of being disturbed by the shrieks and yell of the sav 
age; and those who had fought, no doubt, felt happy 
that they had borne a part of the hardships of war, in 
defence of their country's rights. But men who will 
not fight in such a cause, hardly can be said to have 
good and noble feelings. All honorable men are gen 
erally brave, but a dishonorable man has nothing to 
stimulate him to be brave. 

I am in possession of the names of some of those 
who did not do their duty in this battle, but I will 
forbear mentioning any of their names ; for it may be 
that they may have respectable fathers and mothers, or 
wives and children, that might be seriously injured by 
the exposure. So I will forbear saying anything that 
would tend to injure the feelings of an honorable and 


dutiful son, or cause a pang to reach the heart of an 
affectionate wife, father or mother. But it never is 
wrong, or does any harm to eulogize those who act 
honorably and brave. There were some such spirits, 
by all accounts, who acted that part in this little band, 
that were engaged in the battle, of which I have just 
been informing the reader about. Amongst them were 
General Samuel Whiteside, Colonel Semple and Cap 
tain Snyder himself. It is stated by all that they acted 
with bravery and fearlessness ; and some others that I 
am not able to name at this time. 

The number of Indians that were killed in this 
engagement could not be ascertained. As their num 
ber was so far superior to that of the company of Cap 
tain Snyder, it was thought expedient to desist, and 
not stay to hunt them up. But from every account 
we could get, there were a number, besides their com 
mander that I have already mentioned. The men on 
our part that were killed, were choice citizens, and all 
had families, but one. The man who was wounded in 
the first skirmish had to share the same fate of the 
rest who were killed. It was out of the power of men 
or officers to save him from becoming a prey to their 

I shall have to dismiss this campaign for the pres 
ent, and take up the second levy of troops. 

Those counties, that I as an express bearer was sent 
to, to raise more troops, were ordered to have them 
ready for marching in due time so as to be at Beards- 
town, the place of rendezvous, on the third day of 
June. Accordingly in compliance with said order, the 
following companies rendezvoused at that place, viz : 
From Clinton county, a company of the number of 
sixty-eight, commanded by Captain A. Bankson ; 
from Washington county, a company containing fifty- 
three, commanded by Captain Burnes ; from 


Randolph, two companies, containing each fifty men, 
commanded by Captains Feaman and Briggs. The 
companies after their arrival, organized themselves into 
a squadron, and for their officers elected Theophilus W. 
Smith, of the county of Madison, their Lieutenant 
Colonel; and Sidney Breese, of the county of Ran 
dolph, Major. 45 

On the fifth day of June, the commandant (Col. 
Smith,) appointed the following persons to form his 
staff, viz: John Omelvany, Adjutant; Benjamin Bond, 
Paymaster; William H. Terrell, Surgeon; J. B. 
Logan, 48 Surgeon's mate; C. V. Halstead, Quarter 
Master; John Hawthorn, Hospital Steward. 

Colonel Smith after procuring provision, and 
waggons to transport them, took up a line of march 
(6th May,) for General Atkinson's head quarters at 
Fort Wilbourn a small fort erected by Rev. Mr. 
Horn, 47 as a place to secure provision he had procured 
at St. Louis ; at which place the troops from the 
different parts of the State assembled, also some from 
the State of Indiana. Although General Atkinson 
could not receive them on account of there having been 
a sufficient number from our own State, and the scarcity 
of provision. Yet she certainly deserves great applause 
for her patriotism in sending to our assistance. 

Here all the volunteers were organized into three 
Brigades, which being the I5th May. Doctor Alex 
ander Posey was elected Brigadier General, of the first 
Brigade ; Willis Hargrave, Colonel, of the first 
regiment ; William J. Gatewood, Lieutenant Colonel ; 
and James Hampton, [Huston] Major; all from the 
county of Gallatin : Colonel John Ewing, from Frank 
lin county, was elected Colonel, of the second regiment; 
Storm, Lieut. Colonel; and Johnson Wren, Major; 
the third regiment under the command of Colonel 
Samuel Leach; Lieutenant, Col. Campbell; and Major 


[Joseph] Shelton. John Dement 48 of Vandalia was 
elected to the command of the spy battalion. 

General Posey appointed Major Alexander P. Hall 
and B. A. Clark as his Aids-de-camp, and Major 
[John] Raum, Brigade Inspector. 

The second Brigade from the eastern side of the State 
commanded by Brigadier General M. K. Alexander; 
Major Wm. B. Archer, was appointed by the General 
his Aid-de-camp; and Major Sheledy, Brigade 
Inspector. It also consisted of three regiments, and a 
battalion of spies. The first regiment under the com 
mand of Colonel J. M. Blackburn ; Lieutenant Colonel, 
Wm. Wyatt; and Major Jas. S. Jones. The second 
under the command of Colonel Samuel Adams ; Lieu 
tenant Colonel J. W. Barlow; and Major George 
Bowers. The third under the command of Colonel 
Moses [Hosea] Pierce; Lieutenant Colonel C. Jones; 
Major William Eubanks. The battalion of spies under 
the command of Major William McHenry. 

The third Brigade from the western side of the State 
commanded by Brigadier General James D. Henry ; 
who appointed Major Alexander P. Field, his Aid-de 
camp ; Major Murray McConnel, Brigade Inspector. 
This brigade had four regiments and a spy battalion. 
The first regiment under command of Col. S. T. 
Mathews ; Lieutenant Colonel James Gillham ; and 
Major James Evans. The second, commanded by 
Colonel Jacob Fry; Lieutenant Colonel J. Smith; and 
Major Benjamin James. The third under command 
of Colonel Gabriel Jones; Lieutenant Colonel The- 
ophilus W. Smith ; 49 and Major Sidney Breese. The 
fourth under command of Colonel James Collins; 
Lieutenant Colonel P. H. Sharp ; and Major William 
Miller. The battalion of spies under the command of 
Major W. L. D. Ewing. 

The aggregate strength of the three Brigades being 


about three thousand two hundred, besides three 
companies of Rangers 50 that were left to protect the 
settlements west of the Illinois river, and the public 
stores at such points as it was necessary to leave 
provisions. This force, with the volunteers from the 
mining country, together with the regulars, made about 
four thousand effective men. 

About this time the Indians attacked a fort in the 
mining country, known by the name of Apple River 
Fort. 51 In this attack the citizens suffered great loss by 
the Indians killing their stock and destroying property; 
which the following letter from Captain Flack will 
more fully show, as he was in the fort during the 
engagement. It is in the following words, to wit : 

"Mr. John A. Wakefield: 

" SIR : In reply to your request, I proceed to give an 
account of the attack of the Indians on Apple River Fort. 
Apple River Fort is situated about fourteen miles east of 
Galena. It was on the 24th of June, when harmony and 
peace appeared to reign through the fort, the day before a 
waggon had been despatched to Galena for the purpose of 
bringing a supply of lead and meat, which had run short in the 
afternoon on Sunday, the waggon arrived with a supply of 
meat and lead. About the time the team was removed from 
the waggon, the ladies of the fort had assembled to go to the 
river to hunt goose-berries; after starting they discovered coming 
from towards Galena three men, and being anxious to hear the 
news from there, they concluded to wait, expecting to hear 
something about the Indians. When they arrived they proved 
to be men on an express from Galena going to Dixon's ferry 
on Rock river ; one of the men was a Mr. F. Dixon, the 
other two I have no recollection of their names. They were 
all intoxicated ; after coming up they recollected that their 
guns were empty; one of the men dismounted and charged his 
piece, the other two would not ; the man, after loading his gun, 
mounted his horse and they all rode off in full speed, whooping 
and hallooing towards Dixon's ferry. When they had got to 


the distance of about three hundred yards, the one that carried 
the loaded gun was some fifty or sixty yards ahead of the other 
two, when a large number of Indians, being in ambush; arose 
and fired upon him; when he fell from his horse, shot through 
the thigh; his horse fled and left him; he arose and fired at 
the Indians at about the distance of fifteen steps, but his fire 
took no effect as was ever ascertained. The Indians made 
towards him with their hatchets, when the other two coming 
up to his relief with their empty guns, they presented their 
guns, which caused the Indians to halt till the wounded man 
had got between them and the fort, they kept giving back with 
their guns presented till the wounded man gained the fort. 
The firing of the guns gave the alarm just in time for the 
people to make their retreat to the fort. 

"Apple River Fort had once been an extensive smelting 
establishment, and had become a considerable village, the 
fort being small, families lived in these houses in day time, 
and every one had his own to himself, but at night all repaired 
to the fort for safety. 

u The Indians pursued these men within firing distance of 
the fort, all on horseback, they rode up, dismounted and 
hitched their horses, and 1 think in about three minutes the 
fort was surrounded by about one hundred and fifty Indians, 
with all the savage ferocity and awful appearance, that those 
monsters could possibly appear in. The inhabitants had all 
reached the fort in time to defend themselves, which appeared 
to have been a providential thing, for if it had not been for 
the firing of the Indians on the express bearers, the fort would 
have certainly been taken, as the people would have been 
taken upon a surprise when they were not apprehending the 
least kind of danger from those savage barbarians. 

" There was a very heavy fire kept up for the space of one 
hour on both sides. Early in the engagement a Mr. George 
Herclurode was shot in the neck, and never spoke afterwards, 
he being at a port hole trying to defend himself and the help 
less inmates of the fort; a Mr. James Nuting was also shot 
at the same time in the head, but not mortally. There 
appeared to be no dismay in the fort. 

" Such bravery and heroism amongst women has scarcely 


ever been surpassed in any country. Women and children 
were all actively engaged in the defence of the fort. Girls 
eight years old were busily engaged in running balls and mak 
ing cartridges, and women loading guns. 

" The Indians got into those houses before spoken of, and 
knocked out the chinking and kept up their fire until they got 
discouraged. They then commenced plundering the houses, 
chopt, split and tore up a quantity of fine furniture. There 
was scarcely a man or woman that was left with a second suit 
of clothing. They went into my father's house; there was a 
large bureau full of fine clothes, they took six fine cloth coats 
and a number of fine ruffle shirts, with their tomahawks they 
split the drawers and took the contents. They ripped open 
the bedticks, emptied the feathers, took all the bedclothing, 
and broke all the delf in the cupboards. Some of the out 
houses were kept for the purpose of storing away provisions; 
they got into those houses where a number of flour barrels 
were stowed away; they would lie down on their faces and 
roll a barrel after them until they would get into a ravine, 
where they were out of danger; they then would empty the 
barrels of flour, after they had destroyed this necessary article, 
and when they found they could not succeed in taking the 
fort as they expected, they then commenced the warfare upon 
the stock; they killed all the cattle that were near the fort 
and took a number of fine horses to the number of about 
twenty, which were never got again by the owners. The 
horse that lost his rider in the first onset ran to the fort, 
which the Indians did not get. 

" Mr. Dixon on his retreat never stopt at the fort, think 
ing from the large number of Indians the fort would be taken, 
he made for Galena, and not being acquainted with the 
country he missed his road, and went to the house of Mr. 
John McDonald, who had a very large farm, of which Apple 
river formed a part of the fence. When he got to the house 
he found a large number of Indians at that place, and in a few 
minutes found himself completely surrounded; he lit from his 
horse, let down a pair of draw-bars, and made his escape 
across the river to Galena. At the time the Indians com 
menced the fire upon the express bearers, the people of the 


fort started an express to Galena for assistance, which never 
came until about eleven o'clock the next day. Colonel 
Strode who had the command at Galena, marched to their 
assistance with about one hundred men. But this little band 
of men, women and children, had bravely stood their ground 
and kept the field, in spite of the Black Hawk and his fero 
cious savage brothers, with all their frightful yells and war- 

"But it was not without some suffering that this small 
handful did it. There was no water in the fort, and being 
taken upon a surprise, the people had not time to lay any in 
after the attack was first made upon the express bearers, and 
the weather being very warm, the men and women became 
so fatigued and exhausted in time of the engagement that 
they were compelled to drink dish water, to quench their 

" This fort was commanded by Captain Stone, and there 
were twenty-five men besides women and children. This small 
force stood their ground before the great and mighty chief 
called Black Hawk, and upwards of one hundred and fifty of 
those hideous monsters, that take so much delight in their 
savage warfare; as it was afterwards ascertained that Black 
Hawk commanded in person at this engagement. 

" It was supposed that the Indians lost several of their 
number in this skirmish, as they were seen putting several 
Indians on their horses and packing them off during the 
engagement, and after it was over there was a quantity of 
blood discovered on the ground. 

" The Indians in killing the cattle would skin and take out 
of a beef such pieces as they seemed to like best, leaving the 
balance on the ground. 

"Apple River Fort is about sixteen miles from Kellogg's 
Grove, and it is believed by all that this was the war party 
of Indians that attacked Major Dement's spy batallion on the 
next day at this grove. 

" Sir, this is an outline of the transactions of this skirmish, 
and agreeably to my memory is a correct one, &c. 

"Yours respectfully, with sentiments of the highest esteem. 



In and about this time, perhaps a day or two before, 
another scouting party of Indians came within a 
quarter of a mile of Fort Hamilton, on the waters of 
the Pickatoleca. 52 Three men had just left the fort, 
and gone to the farm of a Mr. Spafford. They made 
an attack on them and killed two, 53 the third fled, an 
Indian seeing he had got away without falling as the 
other two, pursued him in order to despatch him like 
wise, but in this the savage had made a bad calculation, 
the white man was not hurt, and in place of the Indian 
killing him he killed the Indian, and made shift to 
hide from the vigilant eye of the rest ; after staying in 
his place of concealment for some time he ventured to 
sally forth to go to the fort, but about that time 
Colonel William S. Hamilton 54 arrived at the fort with 
a large number of Menominie Indians who had volun 
teered to go against the Sac and Fox nations, in order 
to assist in subduing the common enemy of both them 
and the whites. The frightened man who had run so 
narrow a risk of being killed by them in the attack 
they had made upon him and his companions, seeing 
those friendly and harmless Menominies pouring into 
the fort, retreated back to his place of concealment 
where it is said he kept himself secreted for six or 
eight days, living upon nothing but the vegetation that 
grew out of the earth. But at last he was obliged to 
yield to the pangs of hunger and venture forth and 
risk all consequences, for he found it was as well to die 
by the sword as famine, when to his great joy he found 
his mistake. 

One of the men killed in the attack was by the name of 
Appleton, 55 but the other I do not recollect, neither do I 
know the name of the brave fellow that made his escape 
and so manfully gave the Indian that pursued him a qui 
etus. Which in the sequel the reader will find the others 
of this party all shared the same fate on that day. 


Those cowardly wretches as soon as they had killed 
the two men, took to flight which is their general prac 
tice, especially scouting parties. But General Dodge, 
who happened to arrive at the fort soon after those 
daring wretches had committed this depredation, with 
about twenty men, pursued with all possible speed, 
and in about six or eight miles overtook them. When 
they saw they were pursued they made for the Picke- 
toleca, and got under the bank of the creek. General 
Dodge stopped not for the advantage they had got of 
him, by being under the bank, but rushed up within a 
few feet of them and killed the whole band of them, 
consisting of eleven in number as was supposed at that 
time, report says since that the Indians give an account 
of two of them getting away. 

General Dodge in this skirmish had four men 
wounded, three of which proved mortal, Samuel Black, 
was one; he lived ten days; Samuel Wells, was another 
who lived twenty-two days; and Montaville 58 Morris 
who lived twenty-four days. Thomas Jenkins was 
shot through the hip, but not mortal. 

It appears that there was about this time a number 
of those scouting parties prowling about the mines in 
order to take scalps, and steal horses. 

Captain James W. Stephenson about this time, per 
haps the same day, fell in with another party of those 
miserable beings, between Apple River Fort and Kel- 
logg's Grove; when they discovered him and his men 
they took to flight. And the Captain and men gave 
them chase, he pursued them something like five miles 
before he was able to overtake them. They succeeded 
in reaching a large thicket, here they had every advan 
tage of him, they lay concealed in the bushes and were 
completely hid from him, he had no other way to get 
at them than to charge upon them in their hiding 
place; which he did, and opened a brisk fire upon them, 


in a very few feet of where they were laying. But the 
enemy having all advantage of him, he was compelled 
to fall back with the loss of some of his men, but the 
Captain and men not willing to give up the contest, 
charged a second and third time upon them. On the 
third charge the Captain received a wound in his 
breast, which was thought to have been mortal at that 
time, also three of his men were killed dead on the 
ground. One by the name of Howard, one by the 
name of Ames, and a Mr. Fowler. 57 The men now 
seeing that the Indians had every advantage of them, 
thought it was best not to put the lives of good men 
in stake against the lives of those filthy savages. 

It could not be ascertained in this skirmish how 
much execution was done to the Indians, as the men 
had to retreat and give the field to the enemy. As 
Captain Stephenson had but a small detachment of his 
company, and three of them lay dead on the ground, 
and himself wounded. 

I will now return to the army at Fort Wilbourn. 
The first Brigade, marched on the twentieth day of 
June. The second on the twenty-first. And the third 
on the twenty-second. 58 All ordered to concentrate at 

Major Dement who commanded the spy battalion 
of the first Brigade was ordered on ahead, in order if 
possible to overtake a band of Sacs who had been 
doing mischief at Bureau river. He proceeded on 
with his battalion in front of the Brigade, until he came 
to a grove that is generally known by the name of 
Kellogg's Grove. 

On the 25th day of June, about two hours before 
day, an express arrived from Gratiot's Grove informing 
Major Dement that traces of Indians had been seen 
the day previous leading .southwestward, supposed to 
have been about five hundred in number. The 


express was continued to General Posey at Dixon's ferry, 
thirty-seven miles distant from Kellogg's Grove. 

At daylight Major Dement, with twenty-five men, 
made preparations for leaving the fort on an excursion 
towards where the Indians had passed, about five miles 
from the fort, but previous to his leaving gave orders 
to those who remained to saddle their horses and hold 
themselves in readiness to act as circumstances might 
render necessary. 

During this time the party who were to accompany 
Major Dement 59 to examine the Indian trail had ad 
vanced about three hundred yards from the main body 
when they discovered seven Indian spies, and imme 
diately pursued them some of them however returned 
to the camp and informed Major Dement of this cir 
cumstance, who fearing that they might be led into an 
ambuscade, (first endeavoring to quell excitement 
which the appearance of Indians had occasioned at the 
fort, and requiring the prompt execution of his order, 
to put themselves in readiness for any emergency) 
started out in haste to prevent further pursuit of the 
Indian spies; and advancing in the direction of the 
Indians about one mile from the camp for that pur 
pose, he succeeded in retaining twelve or fourteen 
the remainder still further ahead. 

Meantime Major Dement apprehensive that an attack 
might be made by a large body of Indians whom he 
suspected to be concealed in the grove, and observing 
that a number of his men had followed him out from 
the fort, determined on the expediency of forming his 
men in the prairie, then about one mile from the fort, 
in order to cover the retreat of those who had pursued 
the Indian spies. 

While Major Dement was taking the necessary steps 
to put this determination into execution, the Indians 
amounting to between two and three hundred, rushed 


from the grove, raised a yell and commenced firing. 
About twenty-five men who were within hearing, 
formed in a body to resist the attack, and to cover the 
retreat of the party who had pursued the Indian spies 
to the grove, the remainder of those who came out from 
the fort immediately returning. The small company 
thus hastily formed, bravely stood their ground until 
they were in danger of being surrounded by superior 
numbers. Major Dement then ordered his men to 
retire to the fort closely pursued by the Indians. On 
their retreat they overtook three men on foot, who were 
making towards the fort, but not being able to reach it 
were cut off by the enemy. 

The Indians kept up a brisk fire on the stockade for 
nearly an hour; but finding themselves unable to stand 
against the steady aim of the brave riflemen within, gave 
up all hopes of carrying it, and withdrew to the woods. 

About three hours after the Indians had left the 
ground, General Posey arrived with a reinforcement, 
with which he had started from the encampment 
immediately after the arrival of the express from Major 

The Indians remained in sight of the fort till within 
an hour or two of General Posey's arrival. 

Next day General Posey marched to the north, in the 
direction in which the Indians had last been seen, 
crossed their trail, returned to Kellogg's Grove, where 
he encamped to await the arrival of the baggage 

The loss of our troops were five killed, and three 
wounded ; that of the enemy nine killed that were found 
on the ground, and it is supposed five others fell in the 
engagement, as that number of the enemy's horses 
came into the camp without their riders. 

There were some choice spirits in this action, or the 
superior number of Indians would certainly have cut 


off this small band of men, as the place of refuge they 
were in was very little better than the open field. 

In this small band of soldiers was our much beloved 
and respected Lieutenant Governor Zadock Casey; he 
was one of the number who formed to cover the retreat 
of those that had advanced in pursuit of the enemy. 

It is natural always for honorable men to be brave, 
there is something in their breast [s] that always stimu 
lates them to noble acts, and on our cool reflection 
they would court death before dishonor. 

This, in my opinion, is what stimulates men to act 
bravely and patriotic. They are not only acting for the 
good of their country but they believe it to be an 
imperative duty for them to do so. 

General Posey marched his whole Brigade from this 
place to Fort Hamilton, where he remained for some 
days. Here Major Dement resigned his command. 

I must here dismiss General Posey for the present, 
and return back to Dixon's, where the second and third 
Brigades had arrived when the express came stating that 
Major Dement had had a battle. General Alexander, 
who commanded the second Brigade, was despatched 
with his Brigade with all speed across Rock river, and 
ordered to march his troops toward Plum river, a stream 
running into the Mississippi, there to intercept the 
Indians on their retreat, if they should attempt to cross 
the Mississippi. General Atkinson remained at Dixon's 
with the infantry, and General Henry with his Brigade 
of volunteers for two days, in order if possible to 
ascertain what direction the Indians were taking; where 
he ascertained that the Indians had retreated back up 
Rock river, and that it was only a war party of about 
one hundred and fifty. He came to the conclusion to 
pursue his intended route up Rock river on the east side 
of the Four Lakes ; where it was stated that Black 
Hawk had fortified himself with his whole army, and 


intended to give General Atkinson a general fight. 
On the evening of the 26th of June, Captain George 
Walker and three Pottawattomies from Chicago, came 
into the camp at Dixon's, and stated that there were 
seventy-five Pottawattomies awaiting to join the whole 
army at Sycamore creek, that they had been there 
several days awaiting our arrival, and that they had 
become suspicious that they were in great danger as it 
was their opinion that the Sacs was [were] not far away. 
Next morning General Henry sent on Colonel Fry with 
his regiment, with orders to reach there as soon as pos 
sible, and await our arrival. Colonel Fry always strictly 
doing his duty, moved on with all possible celerity, 
with Capt. Walker as his pilot, to where these children 
of the forest were awaiting to join in the chase against 
Black Hawk and his band, with Mr. Caldwell who acts 
as their principal chief in council. They had also their 
war chief Shabbaney[Sha-bo-na] along. 

Mr. Caldwell has been an interpreter to the Indian 
Agent for some years. He is a man of fine education 
and general information. His father was a British 
officer and his mother was a Pottawattomie squaw. 
But for a half breed he is very fair skinned. 

The whole of the third Brigade under command of 
General Henry, with General Atkinson at our head, 
took up the line of march from Dixon's on the 2yth of 
June, directing our course up Rock river, towards the 
Four Lakes. We lay on the night of the 28th, at 
Major Stillman's battle ground. On the 29th, we 
overtook Col. Fry, with the seventy-five Pottawatto 
mie Indians with him. 

The Indians appeared to be highly pleased to think 
they were honored so far as to take a hand with us 
against the Sacs. They were well armed, with both 
guns and spears. 

The 3Oth, we passed through the Turtle village, 


which is a considerable Winnebago town, but it was 
deserted. We marched on about one mile, and en 
camped in the open prairie near enough to Rock river 
to get water from it. We here saw very fresh signs 
of the Sac Indians, where they had been apparently 
fishing on that day. General Atkinson believed we 
were close to them, and apprehended an attack that 
night. The sentinels fired several times, and we were 
as often paraded, and prepared to receive the enemy, 
but they never came. But from what the sentinels 
gave into the officers of the day, there was no doubt 
that Indians had been prowling about the camp. July 
first, we had not marched but two or three miles before 
an Indian was seen across Rock river at some distance 
off in a very high prairie, which no doubt was a spy, 
and likely was one that had been prowling about our 
encampment the night before. We proceeded a few 
miles further and came to the place where the Indians 
who had taken the two Miss Halls prisoners had 
stayed several days. It was a strong position, where 
they could have withstood a very powerful force, which 
we afterwards discovered they always encamped in 
such places. We had not marched but a few miles 
from this place, before one of our front scouts came 
back meeting the army in great haste, and stated that 
they had discovered a fresh trail of Indians where they 
had just gone along in front of us. Major Ewing, 
who was in front of the main army some distance, 
immediately formed his men in line of battle and 
marched in that order in advance of the main army 
about three quarters of a mile. We had a very thick 
wood to march through, where the undergrowth stood 
very high and thick ; the sign looked very fresh and 
we expected every step to be fired upon from the 
thickets. We marched in abreast in this order about 
two miles, not stopping for the unevenness of the 


ground or any thing else, but keeping in a line of 
battle all the time, until we found the Indians had 
scattered, then we resumed our common line of march, 
which was in three divisions. Soon after we had 
formed into three divisions, the friendly Indians that 
were with us raised an alarm by seven or eight of them 
shooting at a deer some little in advance of the army. 
The whole army here formed for action ; but it was 
soon ascertained that these children of the forest, had 
been at what their whole race seems to have been born 
for, tradesmen to shooting at the beasts of the forest. 
We here camped by a small lake this night and had to 
drink the water which was very bad, but it was all that 
could be found. Here this night a very bad accident 
happened. One of the sentinels mistaking another 
that was on post with a blanket wrapped around him, 
for an Indian, he shot him just below the groin in the 
thick of the thigh. At first the wound was thought 
mortal. I understood before I left the army, the man 
was nearly well. Here General Atkinson had on this 
night breast works thrown up which was easy done ; as 
we were encamped in thick heavy timber; this was a 
precaution which he was always after famous for, which 
went to show that he set a great deal by the lives of 
his men, and by no means was any marks of cow 
ardice ; for generalship consists more in good man 
agement than any thing else. July 2nd. We started 
this morning at the usual time, but went but a few 
miles, before Major Ewing, who was still in front with 
his battalion, espied a very fresh trail, making off at 
about a left angle. He dispatched ten men from the 
battalion, in company with Captain George Walker, 
and a few Indians, to pursue it and see if possible 
where it went to. He moved on in front of his battalion 
a small distance further, when he came on the main Sac 
trail of Black Hawk's whole army; which appeared to 


be about two days old. Captain Early, 80 who com 
manded a volunteer independent company, and had 
got in advance this morning, called a halt, so did Major 
Ewing with his battalion. Then Major Ewing sent 
back one of his staff officers for the main army to call 
a halt a few minutes. He with Major Anderson of 
the Infantry, Captain Early, and Jonathan H. Pugh, 
Esquire, went a little in advance, where Major Ander 
son, 81 with a telescope, took a view across the lake, as 
we had now got to Lake Kushkanong. They then 
discovered three Indians, apparently in their canoes. 
Major Ewing went himself and informed General 
Atkinson what discovery was made, and requested 
General Atkinson to let him take his battalion round 
through a narrow defile that was between two of those 
lakes, where we supposed the Indians were. By this 
time our scouts, who had taken the trail that led off 
on our left, returned, bringing with them five white 
men's scalps. They followed the Indian trail until it 
took them to a large Indian encampment that they 
had left a few days before. They reached it; the 
scalps were sticking up against some of their wigwams; 
some of them were identified, but I do not recollect 
the names of any, except one, which was said to be an 
old gentleman by the name of [William] Hale. Major 
Ewing then marched his battalion about one mile, where 
the pass on the side of the lake appeared so narrow, that 
he dismounted his men, and had the horses all tied, 
and a few men left to guard them, and the rest of us 
marched on foot about one mile through a narrow 
defile on the bank of Kushkanong lake. This was 
considered a dangerous procedure, but Col. Ewing, 
who was in front with Major Anderson, would have 
been first in danger. We now found that we were 
getting too far in advance of our horses; so Major 
Ewing sent a part of the men back for them. When 


we mounted our horses, we were joined by Captain 
Early and his independent corps. We then marched 
some distance around the lake, and went in between 
two of them, in a narrow defile, until we found another 
deserted encampment. We now saw clearly that the 
Indians were gone from the Kushkanong lake. So 
the next thing to be done was to find which direction 
they had steered their course. July 4th. Major 
Ewing and his spy battalion, with Colonel Collins and 
Colonel Jones, were sent up the river in the way the 
trail of the Indians seemed to be making, to see what 
discoveries could be made. They at last saw that they 
were still making up the river on the east side. We 
returned to the camp late in the evening. On the 
evening before, General Alexander had come up with 
us. He stated that he had been to the Mississippi, 
and had explored the country on Plum river, and had 
made no discoveries of the Indians making their escape. 
July 5th. General Atkinson lay by this day with the 
main army; but Col. Fry, who was always a man that 
wished to be actively engaged for the welfare of his 
country, marched across Rock river on this day, to see 
if there was any sign of the enemy passing up on the 
west side. Colonel Fry did not return until late in 
the evening. He reported, he had seen another Indian 
trail on the opposite side from us, and that he had 
followed it until it went into a tremendous thicket, 
such as his horses could not penetrate. On the 4th 
of July, some of our scouts had taken an old Sac In 
dian a prisoner, which in their flight, the rest of the 
Indians had run off and left. He was nearly starved 
to death, and literally blind. After feeding him. 
General Atkinson had him examined, telling him at 
the same time that if he caught him in a lie he would 
have him put to death. The old fellow told all he 
knew, which was not very much. He stated that 


Black Hawk had passed on up the river, on the east 
side, the same that they were then on. He stated that 
he was so old that they never thought it worth while 
to tell him anything about their movements ; that in 
marching, he frequently did not get up to their camp 
till late in the night, and sometimes not until the next 
morning. So our prisoner was not of much benefit 
to us. He had but few days to live, and to shorten 
his days we concluded the best plan would be to give 
him plenty to eat, and leave him to kill himself in that 
pleasant way. But we learnt afterwards that he was 
denied this satisfaction, for some of General Posey's 
men came upon him, and he soon became an easy prey 
to their deadly rifles. July 6th. General Atkinson 
on this day took up the line of march, still up Rock 
river, on the east side. We this day reached a Winne- 
bago village called the Burnt Village, on White Water, 
a small stream running into Rock river, but one that 
was almost impassable, as it was a perfect swamp on 
each bank, and very deep in the middle of the channel. 
Next morning, on the Jth of July, one of the regulars 
went to this stream, which was not more than one 
hundred and twenty yards from our encampment, to 
fish. While fishing, three Indians fired on him from 
the opposite side of the river and wounded him very 
badly with two balls. This was a hard case, for the 
enemy to come within one hundred and twenty yards 
of our encampment, and wound one of our men, and 
we not able to help ourselves, for this dismal stream. 
The night we got here, (to White Water) General 
Posey's brigade, in company with Col. Dodge's squad 
ron, came up to us. They were out of provisions, and 
in a state of suffering, and were compelled to push on 
to where we were to get something to sustain nature. 
Colonel John Ewing and his regiment did not reach us 
that night, and encamped about one mile and a half off 


from the main army. Here an awful accident happened. 
Col. Dunn, who was a Captain of a company, was here 
what is generally called the officer of the day, whose 
duty it is to visit the sentinels once or more through 
the course of the night. Captain Dunn in perform 
ing this duty, just before day in the morning, was 
fired upon by one of the sentinels, and severely 
wounded; he was shot in the groin, a place that gener 
ally proves fatal. When he was examined, his sur 
geons pronounced it mortal, which threw all his friends 
into mourning; for he was a man much beloved by all 
that knew him. But here I must stop. It won't do 
to write his epitaph yet, for he is still a living man, 
and is young and in the bloom of life. He still may 
be a useful member of society, and a friend and public 
servant to his country, which he has already been for 
several years, holding some of the most important 
offices in the gift of the legislature, such as Canal 
Commissioner, which he still holds, and many more. 
So, if he had died, the State would have sustained a 
great loss, in losing so good a citizen. 

Soon after the Indians shot the regular, General 
Atkinson took up the line of march, still up the river, 
and made shift to cross one branch of this dismal 
stream, White Water ; but it was with much difficulty, 
as many a horse mired down, and threw his rider into 
the water, where he and his gun were literally buried 
in mud and water; but all made shift to get out. 
Here we expected to have been fired upon by the 
enemy. Major Ewing, still in advance of the main 
army some distance, got over first. He then formed 
his men in battle order, and stood as a front guard, 
until the main army could cross this dismal stream ; 
which they had to bridge with grass, as they after 
wards had to do many more the same way. In this 
swampy country the grass grows very high, the ground 


being very rich. There were plenty of scythes, and 
men to use them ; so it was an easy job to make a 
temporary bridge with this substitute, such as the 
heaviest kind of baggage waggons could pass with 
safety. We marched on this day about fifteen miles up 
the river. On this evening the whole forces got 
together, and camped together for the first time. Our 
forces looked like they were able to whip all the 
Indians in the north western territories. 

At this place the old blind chief, a Winnebago In 
dian, came with General Dodge's corps. General 
Atkinson on the next morning, July the 8th, had a 
talk with him, in order if possible to find out where 
Black Hawk was with his forces. The old blind or 
one eyed chief, told him that the Indians that we were 
in pursuit of, were still down on the Island opposite 
the Burnt Village, where they shot the regular, and 
stated that if we did not find them there he would give 
General Atkinson leave to take his life. Upon this 
General Atkinson made a retrograde movement, and 
measured the ground and fathomed the muddy 
branches of the celebrated White Water, that we crossed 
the day before. We took up our abode that night on 
the same ground that we left before at the Burnt 
Village. Next morning, July the 9th, Colonel Fry 
undertook to make a bridge across the almost impass 
able gulf. He was furnished with a number of the 
regulars, who were always ready for such undertak 
ings. A strong guard was placed on the bank of the 
stream on the opposite side, for fear of those suffering 
who passed over on a raft. Captain Early, in the 
course of the day, took a part of his men and pene 
trated some distance into the Island. They brought 
back word that they had seen a good deal of fresh 
sign, and were of opinion that the Indians were there. 
Colonel William S. Hamilton, who had a small band 


of Menominie Indians under his command, took 
them and went clear through the Island and hunted 
it out thoroughly. They returned in the evening, 
bringing the news that the Indians had left this Island. 
General Atkinson was again deceived by those treach 
erous Winnebagoes, but in place of putting the old 
one eyed chief to death, he still consulted them [him]. 
They [He] next told him that Black Hawk was still 
higher up the stream, on what was called the Tumbling 
Land. 62 Colonel Fry's bridge, that he had spent the 
best part of this day at with more than one hundred 
hands, was now kicked over and abandoned. 

We now found that there was no dependence to be 
placed in those treacherous Winnebagoes. The men 
now had been marching through swamps for a con 
siderable length of time without success; and no exe 
cution done, only what General Posey's men had done 
by killing the old blind Indian. We now plainly saw 
that Black Hawk knew we were in his neighborhood. 
He knew all the passes between those swamps, and 
could evade our pursuit for some time; which dis 
couraged our men very much. 

Here his Excellency Governor Reynolds and his 
aids left us; likewise Colonel T. W. Smith, who had 
been promoted to the office of Adjutant General, 
which office was not then of much service to us. 
Col. A. P. Field, General Henry's aid, and Major 
Breese, also left us, (some on furlough and some 
discharged,) and returned home: These men at this 
time did not believe, that there would be any fighting, 
or I think they would not have left the army. 

We here were in another bad box. We were in a 
manner out of provision; and the nearest point to us, 
where we could get a supply was Fort Winnebago, 
which was about eighty miles distant from us; and to 
get it, we were compelled to go through the most 


swampy country that an army ever was marched 
through. July loth. General Atkinson this morning 
sent Col. Ewing with his regiment down Rock river to 
Dixon's with Colonel Dunn, who was supposed to be 
mortally wounded. 

General Posey with the rest of his brigade, was sent 
to Fort Hamilton, as a guard to that frontier part of 
the country, which was in a very exposed situation, on 
account of General Dodge having the troops from 
there with him. 

General Henry and his brigade, Gen. Alexander's 
brigade and General Dodge's squadron, were all this 
day sent to Fort Winnebago after provision. Gen. 
Atkinson dropped down a short distance from our 
present encampment, near to the Kushkanong lake, 
and there built a fort, which he called Fort Kushka 
nong, after the lake. 63 

General Atkinson gave Generals Alexander, Henry, 
and Dodge, orders to return as soon as they drew 
provision. Here, when we got to Fort Winnebago, 
we were still surrounded by the Winnebagoes. A 
half breed Indian by the name of Poquet, told us he 
thought we might find Black Hawk by going around 
the head of Fox river, a stream of considerable size 
which empties into Green Bay; and offered to go with 
some of the Winnebagoes as a pilot. 

At this place we met with a misfortune which we 
had been very much troubled with during our march, 
which I omitted mentioning before. Our horses were 
given to fright and running in a most fearful manner; 
the army was constantly in danger of suffering great 
damage by their taking those frights. There is no 
one can tell what a horrid sight it is, to see two thou 
sand horses coming at full speed toward an encamp 
ment in the dead hour of night. This night they got 
more scared than common. There were about three 


hundred head on this night, that run about thirty 
miles before they stopped; and that, too, through the 
worst kind of swamps. This circumstance caused us 
to stay here two days, trying to recover our horses, 
but all could not be found. Our road back the way 
we had come, was hunted for upwards of fifty miles; 
and still a great number of them were missing. 


Narrative of the imprisonment of the two Miss Halls Their 
treatment by the Indians They are purchased by General 
Dodge and Mr. H. Gratiot, through the Wmnebagoes 
Their arrival on the eleventh day after their captivity at 
White Oak Springs Reverend Mr. Horn becomes a friend 
and protector to them They are married Anecdote of Mr. 
F. stating the race that Mr. C. rode upon his beaver 
hat, which caused the death of three women Poor little 
Susan forsaken by her mother, and about to be left to the 
mercy of the savage, when a kind hunter takes charge of 

THE reader will recollect that, in a former chapter 
it was stated that two young and beautiful females 
were taken prisoners by the Indians, on Indian 
creek, where they so inhumanly murdered and muti 
lated the families of Messrs. Hall, Daviess, and 
Pedigrew [Pettigrew] . 

Reader, didst thou not shudder when you read of 
this horrid act, that was done in open day in our 
country? But, alas! if we shudder at the thought of 
this inhuman act, what must have been the feelings of 
those two young and unoffending women? Can I 
find language to describe them? No! The reader 
can better imagine, than pen can write it. 

But reader, you shall have the narrative of their 
captivity as given to me by one of them in person, 
which was Silbey, 84 the eldest. I will give it in her 
own language, which I think will be more satisfactory 
to the reader; which is as follows: 


"On the 2Oth of May, 1832, a party of Indians 
came to my father's house early in the morning. Mr. 
Pedigrew, one of the neighbors was there. They 
first shot him; they then commenced killing my father 
and mother, and the rest of the family that were at 
home, in the midst of which two Indians seized me, 
and two more my sister Rachel, by the arms, and bore 
us off as fast as possible. As we passed out of the 
door, we saw our mother sinking under the instruments 
of death. They compelled us to run on foot as fast as 
we were able, about one mile and a half, and about 
thirty Indians following to where their horses were 
left. There they awaited the arrival of those who 
staid back at the house to murder the family, during 
which delay they caught and carried away several of 
my father's horses. After the party that staid behind 
came up, we were mounted on horseback. The rest 
all at the same time mounted their horses. We rode 
in great haste until about midnight. They then halted 
and dismounted, and spread a blanket down, bidding 
us to sit on it. They then formed a circle around 
us. We rested here about two hours. They then 
mounted their horses, and rode at as fast a gait as we 
were able to go, until about ten o'clock in the morn 
ing, when they again dismounted and spread down 
their blankets, and bid us to sit upon them. We by 
this time were almost fatigued to death, and faint with 
hunger; they here scalded some beans, and eat them 
heartily. They gave some to us, telling us to eat; 
but to eat raw beans was what we could not do. After 
they had satisfied themselves on the raw beans, they 
again mounted their horses, compelling us again 
to mount ours. The saddles were the common Indian 
saddles, just the tree, and a grained deer skin 
stretched over it, and the roughest going kind of 
horses. We thought every day it would be the last 


with us. We rode on this day, until about sun down, 
when they again halted. They here roasted a piece 
of prairie chicken and gave us to eat. I suppose we 
stayed here about an hour and a half. They then 
mounted again and rode until about three hours in the 
night, when they met the main army under Black 
Hawk. We now fared a little better. When they 
found we were prisoners, they appeared to be much 
pleased, and presented us with their best diet, consist 
ing of the kernels of hazelnuts and sugar mixed 
together, as a token of friendship; at the same time 
they gave us some tobacco and parched meal, making 
signs to us to burn it, which we did out of obedience 
to them. They also this night suffered us to sleep 
together, which they had before refused. They staid 
next morning until a late hour. They prepared red 
and black paints, and painted one side of our head and 
face red, and the other black. After this was done 
eight or ten of their leading warriors took us by the 
hand and marched round their encampment several 
times. They then took us into the midst of the 
whole band of warriors, spread down some blankets, 
and set us down upon them. They then commenced 
dancing around us, singing and yelling in a most 
horrid manner. We here thought they intended to 
kill us. After they had danced until they were tired, 
and quit jumping around us, two squaws came to us 
and took us by the hand, and led us into one of their 
wigwams, where we staid undisturbed until they all 
could pack up and start, which they did in a very 
short time. We now all took up the line of march 
together, and rode until about midnight, when we 
stopped. We were again separated, and had not the 
satisfaction of sleeping together. Next morning, which 
was the fourth day of our captivity, they cleaned off a 
place fifteen or twenty feet round, and stuck a pole 


down in the middle of it. We were, as I stated before, 
again placed in the midst, and they danced around us, 
still singing their war song. They here staid all day, 
and the next morning took up the line of march again, 
and marched on until late in the evening, when they 
again cleared off another place as before, and placing 
us in it, commenced dancing around us, making us 
kneel down, and bow our faces to the earth. Here 
once more, from their actions, we thought we were 
going to be killed; which we would almost as soon 
they would have done as not, for we were nearly 
exhausted with fatigue, on account of the long and 
forced marches that we had made. Next morning, 
which was the sixth day after our captivity, we were 
again mounted on our horses, and marched till in the 
afternoon, when they again stopped and went through 
the same wretched and disagreeable ceremony of clear 
ing off a place, and dancing and singing around, while 
the squaws and young ones were generally engaged 
when we stopped, in gathering roots, which was our 
principal diet. 

" When they killed my father and mother, and the 
rest of the families, they took what coffee there was in 
the houses, parched it, and made it in the same man 
ner that the white people do; we frequently got some 
of it to drink while it lasted. 

"On the next day four Winnebago Indians came to 
the place where we were encamped. Here a long coun 
cil was held with the principal war chiefs or head men 
of the nation. After the talk was over, one of the Sacs 
came and took me by the hand, and led me up to where 
the Winnebagoes were seated, and where they had been 
for some time in council. The four Winnebagoes then 
all arose and shook me by the hand. Then one of 
them made signs for me to sit down by him, which I 
did. He then told me by signs that I belonged to him, 


and gave me to understand, in the same way, that I 
must go along with him. I then asked him if they 
were not going to let my sister go with me? which he 
understood. I now discovered that I had been pur 
chased, but Rachel had not. The Indians who had 
purchased me, again renewed their talk with the Sacs and 
Foxes. Here another long council was held, and much 
warmth appeared to be excited on both sides. I thought 
several times they would not succeed in getting my sis 
ter. But at the close of the talk they came to where I 
was, leading Rachel by the hand, and sat her down by 
me. This was about an hour by sun in the evening. 
A number of the Sac and Fox Indians now came and 
shook us by the hands, and bid us good bye. 

" We then started and rode until about an hour in 
the night, as fast as our horses were able to run, when 
we came to where their squaws were encamped: we here 
staid all night. Next morning we went up the Wis 
consin river in canoes, and rowed on until about an hour 
by sun in the evening. Then they stopped and lay by 
that night and all next day, and till eleven or ten o'clock 
the third day; when twenty-four of the Winnebagoes 
started with us towards the settlements in Illinois; for 
they had I suppose, taken us a great way into the Mich 
igan territory. We on this night came to another 
Indian encampment. We here were permitted once 
more to taste of food that we could eat a little of. They 
had pickle pork and Irish potatoes cooked up together. 
Our appetites by this time could take this food, although 
we were greatly distressed in mind. 

" Next day they travelled until nearly night, when 
they chanced to kill a deer. They cooked it, and 
devoured it in a very few minutes; but they gave us 
what we could eat of it. They had a little salt which 
they gave us to salt our part of the deer. 

"We on this evening got to the Blue Mounds, in 


the mining country. There was a small fort at this 
place, and a few families. It was an outside place of 
the inhabited part, and on the north side of the mining 
country, something like fifty miles north of the south 
line of Michigan territory. 

" Next morning we started on to Gratiot's Grove, as 
it was called, in company with two hundred and seven 
ty-three soldiers, and the same twenty-four Winnebago 
Indians. In five or six miles we met Henry Gratiot, 
Indian agent, coming to meet us. We then understood 
that he and General Dodge had employed the Indians 
that came after us, to do so." 

I then inquired of her, if she knew how much the 
Winnebagoes had to pay for them. She replied, " I 
understood that General Dodge and Mr. Gratiot had 
given them, the Winnebagoes, two thousand dollars, 
paid in forty horses, wampum and other trinkets, to 
purchase us of the Sacs and Foxes." 

"We on this night reached the White Oak Grove 
in the settlement of the mines. Next day we reached 
Mr. Henry Grariot's. We here remained in the neigh 
borhood, at a small fort, at what was called the White 
Oak Springs, about two weeks. We then went to Gale 
na and remained about one week." 

I then inquired of her, if she did not think that some 
of the Indians that were engaged in taking them, were 
Pottawattomies? to which she replied, that "the four 
who took them by the hand at first, were Pottawatto 
mies; for one of them she had frequently seen before." 

Oh, reader, let us here stop and pause for one 
moment, and place ourselves in the situation of these 
two weak and feeble young women, who had just been 
prisoners in the hands of those barbarians for eleven 
days. Alas! go back to the scene of the massacre of 
their father, mother, brothers and sisters ! What were 
their feelings ? But, oh ! how shall I begin to describe 


them? Alas! if I were only a Hervey, a Milton, or a 
Newton, I might then give a faint glimmer of one half 
of the anguish of their bursting hearts. Torn with vio 
lence, by frightful savages, from the abodes of peace 
and innocence ; and, oh ! still worse, to behold a bleed 
ing mother, sinking under the sharp spear, pierced to 
her heart by the inhuman butchers ; and to see a dear 
and beloved father struggling with death's last grasp to 
save his beloved family, who were shrieking around him, 
and beseeching the inhuman murderers to spare their 
lives ! The imagination can only think the pain they suf 
fered ; but it is impossible to write it. Forced on with 
all possible speed to where the butchers were prepared 
to lead them captive into a wilderness, where no friendly 
voice could salute their ears, no soothing comforter to 
pour the oil and balm of consolation into their swelling 
and almost bursting hearts. The yell of the war-song 
was all they heard, as they were forced away with all 
possible speed into the wilderness. 

Solitude and sorrow appeared now to be their 
doom. All their tears and entreaties were unheard. 
Their persecutors were deaf to any feeling for the 
anguish of soul that appeared to wring their bosoms. 
Yea, the sea of trouble and sorrow that they were 
engulfed in, never moved their savage hearts. 

What was now the prospect of future happiness on 
earth ? their beloved friends inhumanly murdered, 
and they shut out from all the civilized world, far, 
far away in the wilderness, where the foot of a white 
man had scarcely ever trod their meat and drink 
only bitter tears nights passed in sorrow, mornings 
awaked to cares and fatigue the few hours that they 
had to rest, the war dance around them harrowed up 
the most awful sensations in their breast [s], expecting 
at every dance to become a prey to their vengeance. 
Oh, horrid thought! It is enough to start a tear in 


the eye of the most stout hearted to think of the 
swelling bosoms of those forlorn and disconsolate 
young women. 

But let us with the poet say, 

"Why should we weep, why should we weep, 

When heaven throws such beams of love around, 

That, mingled with the darkest woes, 
The rays of hope are found ? 

Why should we weep, when every storm 

That sweeps o'er ocean's breast, 
Awakes a gem whose sparkling form 

Had else remained at rest? 

Why should we weep, when every flower 

That closes with the night, 
Shall blush anew in beauty's power, 

When morn renews its light ? 

Why should we weep, when placed on high, 

The bow, divinely sent, 
Still shows, when clouds obscure the sky, 

How quickly they are spent ? 

Why should we weep, when dawning days 

And years so swiftly run ? 
We only lose their setting light, 

To hail their brighter dawn." 

It appears that the Winnebagoes had much trouble 
to purchase Rachel, and from the best information 
that can be obtained on the subject, they had to use 
threats, and had to pay an additional sum of ten 
horses. A young warrior, it appears, claimed her as 
his prize, and at first positively refused to give her up. 
When he did so, he cut a lock of her hair out of her 
head. This I suppose he intended to keep as a 
trophy of his warlike exploits. 

This now must have been the worst cut of all, to 


attempt a separation of them, as they now supposed, 
the only survivors of the family, and to take one away 
from the other, would be worse than death to them; 
but an all-wise Providence did not see fit to inflict this 
wound upon them. He had watched over them in 
the trying scene that they had already undergone, and 
he saw fit to release them from savage bondage. He 
heard their cries, and saw the distress they were in. 
They were now alone, and orphans in the world. 

What now was most interesting to them, was peace 
of mind. To forget their murdered father and mother 
was impossible. Were all joys on earth now gone? 
Were they forsaken by all the world? Were none 
left to pour the oil of balm and comfort into their 
wounded bosoms? Yes, there were. The guardian 
angels of heaven had prepared a second father to take 
them by the hand, and point to them the path to happi 
ness ; and that path was an interest in the blood of a 
crucified Redeemer, which is a source of happiness to the 
mind when all earthly happiness fails, if there is such 
a thing as earthly happiness. That person they found 
in the Reverend Mr. Horn. He had known them 
when they were children he had been a companion 
and friend of their deceased father and mother; he 
felt now for the fatherless and unoffending orphans; 
with the affections of a father he flew to them to ad 
minister comfort to their heaving bosoms, which were 
wrung with the keenest pangs, when they thought of 
the loss of their friends. He now saw that there was 
only one way that they could see any degree of happi 
ness, and that was, to point to them the comfort of re 
ligion, which he did by exhortation, entreating them to 
prepare to meet father, mother, brothers, and sisters, on 
the banks of deliverance beyond the grave, where the 
wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are at rest. 
They took the preacher's advice, and sought and 


obtained comfort in the blood of a crucified Redeemer, 
and, as I have every reason to believe, are now happy 
in the cause of religion, and preparing to meet their 
kindred friends in heaven. 

One of them, Silbey, [Sylvia] the eldest, is married, 
and living with a second father indeed; his son William 
became a partner of her cares and sorrows. The 
younger, Rachel, is also married, to Mr. William 
Munson, and living in Putnam county. 

There is one thing more I cannot dismiss this sub 
ject and leave unnoticed. Although they were with 
the savage barbarians, and the worst of inhuman 
butchers that probably the earth affords, they never 
attempted to violate their chastity. 

This is one of the noblest traits in the character of 
a savage, and one that appears to be held sacred and 
inviolate with them. But nevertheless, they are fond 
of making wives of prisoners. But it must be done 
agreeably to the custom of their nation. This they 
hold sacred, for they think if they were to violate this 
rule and practice, the Great Spirit would be offended 
with them. 

Thus, reader, terminates the account of the two 
unfortunate Miss Halls, who suffered everything but 
death with those Indian barbarians. 

It may not here be amiss and unprofitable to give 
the reader the following anecdote, which will go to 
show how easy the mind of a man can be alarmed, and 
the imagination wrought up to the highest pitch, and 
the great danger of excitement of this kind upon the 
female sex. 

In travelling through the county of Fulton not long 
since, I chanced to stay all night with an elderly looking 
and familiar old gentleman; and with other subjects 
which we had talked not a little upon, we chanced to 
dwell upon the Black Hawk war. I asked Mr. F. if the 


people had forted in that neighborhood during the great 
horror and alarm that were excited at the news of Major 
Stillman's defeat ? to which he replied, that he had not ; 
but had been much derided for being so foolhardy, as 
they called it, by several of his friends and neighbors ; 
to which the good old man told me he replied to them, 
that if he could see a man running towards him with a 
bullet hole in him, and the blood running out of it, and 
hear unknown voices in pursuit, he then would think 
there was danger. 

This declaration of the old gentleman made me 
almost think with his neighbors, until he stated to me 
the cause of it; which I here Would give in the good old 
man's own language, but as he understood the German 
language better than the English, I might not quote it 
precisely right. But what the old gentleman told me, 
and from his general character that I afterwards learnt 
from a number of his neighbors, his statement was 
true. 85 

As near as I could collect, both from him and his 
family, who joined in confirming what the old landlord 
stated, and which could be proven by a number of his 
neighbors, it was as follows: Soon after Stillman's 
defeat, a party of the troops from Fulton county, on 
their return home, when within a few miles of Canton, 
in said county, came across a gang of wolves, and having 
got into the settled part where they were not afraid, 
being from the seat of war, fired upon them, at the same 
time raising the war-whoop, which they had got by 
heart from the Indians in the memorable Indian school 
on the night of the fourteenth of May, on Sycamore 
creek. This frightful yelling, at a time when danger 
was expected, and accompanied with the firing of guns, 
was heard by another good old citizen of this county, 
away from the "far east," who happened to be out a little 
ways from home, who took the alarm, and supposed 


that it was the Indians killing his neighbors, made shift 
to get to the first of his horses that he came to, and 
putting on a bridle to guide it, never took time to 
consult the great benefit of a saddle in riding a long race, 
mounted bareback ; and raising the cry of " murder ! " 
" murder ! ! " put his charger to the lash. He passed 
by home, and told his family to fly with all possible 
speed, who it appears was in the act of moving. But 
one of the family, who was not so badly alarmed by the 
shrieks of the dying neighbors, observed to him that he 
had left his son in the mill; to which he replied, "never 
mind my son, he is a cripple and cannot run, they 
are certain to kill him each one of you save your 
selves if you can ! " So saying, he put his charger to it 
might and main, and at the same time crying out 
" murder ! " " murder !! " to all he passed or met, he 
left all the world behind him, never dreaming that he 
was suffering for the want of a saddle until he had got 
many miles from the scene of action. He then beheld 
the blood trickling down his legs, from, I suppose the 
hard jolts of his charger, carrying a large body upon a 
sharp and bony back. But the ingenious old son of the 
pilgrim fathers soon found means to supply the want of 
a saddle. He had, a few days before the action took 
place, helped himself to a new hat ; and not regarding 
the price of a hat when he expected every moment to 
hear the horrid war-whoop of an Indian behind him, he 
made a saddle of his new beaver, on which he rode, as 
Mr. F. informed me, until he came to Ross's ferry, on 
the Illinois river, where as Mr. F. stated the citizens of 
that place stopped him, or he would, giving it in the 
good old Dutchman's own language, have been running 
yet ; that is, if his horse and beaver saddle would have 
lasted so long. This was about twenty-six miles from 
the scene of action, where he remained many days, 
apparently in a state of insanity. He was constantly 


trying to devise a plan to fix stirrups to his hat, and 
declared that if he only had a pair of stirrups hung to 
his beaver, he would not be in the least dread of an 
Indian ever overtaking him; but he was frequently heard 
to cry out " murder ! " in his sleep, as at first, when he 
started on his race, and lamented the loss of the poor 
crippled mill boy. 

But Mr. F. stated the poor crippled mill boy stood 
his ground, and his father having plenty of powder and 
lead in store, issued it out to those who were willing to 
fight in defence of the crippled boy and the women 
and children. 

Now, reader, the laughable part of this story is over, 
but the sorrowful one has yet to come, which almost 
sickens my heart to relate, and I would fain hope it was 
false ; but as I observed in the beginning of this story, 
it has come from too respectable a source for me to 
disbelieve it. 

When the old frightened Mr. C. first started upon 
his race, he cried out "murder!" as before stated, and 
told the people as he went that the Indians were 
butchering and killing the people behind him ; which, 
Mr. F. stated, frightened the neighbors in such a horrid 
manner that they took to flight. The women 
attempted to run, each carrying one of their children, 
or two of them, perhaps, if my memory serves me, on 
their hips ; running in this way something like six 
miles. They all three expired in a few days, with fright 
and fatigue. 

The other anecdote is something similar to the first ; 
but it is no pain for me to relate it, as it was not of so 
serious a nature ; for death was not produced by it. 

Mr. F. stated, that some place on the eastern side 
of the state, perhaps near the Iroquois, a small stream 
in the north east corner of the state of Illinois, the peo 
ple being much alarmed soon after the murder of the 


families on Indian creek, the citizens sent out a spying 
party to the frontiers to see if they could see any signs 
of the enemy approaching toward the settlements where 
they lived. The men who had been spying for the 
enemy, on their return late in the evening, thought 
they saw some signs of Indians, and concluded to hasten 
and report danger to the neighborhood. In a few 
minutes after they came to this conclusion, they heard 
a volley of guns fired in quick succession behind them, 
at the same time hallooing by a number of voices, and 
dogs barking behind them. This was enough to con 
firm their fears. They put spurs to their horses ; each 
one making for his family. As they proceeded, they 
cried out to the citizens to fly, and said the Indians 
were coming, murdering all before them, for they had 
heard them killing a family behind them ; and that they 
had heard the shrieks of the dying. In this horrid 
rout that took place at this time, there was a family 
that lived near the river before mentioned ; they had 
no horses, but a large family of small children ; the 
father and mother each took a child ; the rest were 
directed to follow on foot as fast as possible. The 
eldest daughter also carried one of the children that 
was not able to keep up. They fled to the river where 
they had to cross. The father had to carry over all the 
children, at different times, as the stream was high, and 
so rapid the mother and daughter could not stem the 
current with such a burden. When they all, as they 
thought, had got over, they started, when the cry of 
poor little Susan was heard on the opposite bank, ask 
ing if they were not going to take her with them. The 
frightened father again prepared to plunge into the strong 
current for his child, when the mother, seeing it, cried 
out, " never mind Susan ; we have succeeded in getting 
ten over, which is more than we expected at first and 
we can better spare Susan than you, my dear." So 


poor Susan, who was only about four y^ars old v .w.?s 
left to the mercy of the frightful savage. ,- . . 

But poor little Susan came off unhurt ; one of the 
neighbors who was out a hunting, came along and took 
charge of little Susan, the eleventh, who had been so 
miserably treated by her mother. 

When I commenced telling of these two anecdotes, 
I observed that the mind of man, when there was cause 
of fear or suspicion of danger, was frequently apt to 
suffer his imaginations to lead them [him] astray, which 
was the case at this time, as it was before with the good old 
cheese-maker. Now this last fright was occasioned by 
a parcel of boys who had assembled together to go 
squirrel hunting; for the squirrels at that season of the 
year were very bad at pulling up corn : it appears that 
they were very plenty, and several of them shot at or 
near the same time, and one of the boys wounding one, 
brought it to the ground, and the boys gave it chase. 
It was this, also which caused poor little Susan to weep 
and be forsaken by father and mother. 


General Alexander returns back to Fort Kusbkanong Generals 
Henry and Dodge take up the line of march to intercept the 
enemy, should they be making to the north March to the 
Rapids on Rock River Come to a Winnebago Village 
Have a talk with the Indians Send an express to General 
Atkinson They come across the trail of the enemy and 
return Fired on as they enter our camp We take up the 
line of march next morning in pursuit Terrible storm on that 
evening Second day come to the Four Lakes Encamp 
there A description [description^ of those Lakes Doctor 
Philleo kills an Indian We overtake the enemy the same 
evening^ and have a general battle We defeat the enemy 
They retreat across the Wisconsin River An Indian talks 
to us from the top of a mountain ^before day, on the next night 
General Henry addresses his men Major Ewing with his 
Spy Battalion proceeds next morning to the top of the moun 
tain Makes but little discovery. 

this time, come to the conclusion to go back 
around the head of Fox river, to see if they could 
not fall in with Black Hawk, and stop his passage to 
the north ; as they supposed he was intending to make 
his way to the Chippeway nation. 

General Alexander concluded 88 that it was best to 
obey General Atkinson's order. He accordingly returned 
the same way we came, to join General Atkinson ; tak 
ing with him twelve days' provision. We drew the 
same number of days' rations. 

July 1 5th. We took up the line of march on this 
day, with General Henry at our head, with the intention 


to try and see if we could not hunt out Black Hawk. 
But on account of our horses taking the fright on the 
night of the i2th, our brigade was very much weak 
ened. The next morning after we started, the morn 
ing report was made out: General Henry had six 
hundred effective men ; and Colonel Dodge's corps was 
reduced to one hundred and fifty, or nearly so ; but 
their weakness did not discourage these true men, nor 
any of their officers. 

We had now the brave General Henry at our head, 
and our intention was to find the enemy, if they were 
to be found in this region of the country. We now 
went with more speed than we had done before; the 
men appeared to have imbibed new spirit. They had 
a prospect of falling in with the enemy, and they well 
knew, that, if we went back to Gen. Atkinson by the 
way we came to fort Winnebago, there would be but 
a very slight chance of ever seeing an Indian; for they 
now had been watching him some time; and being 
intimately acquainted with the situation of the country, 
they could dodge from swamp to swamp, and bid him 
defiance. We now thought that while they were 
watching Gen. Atkinson, we could steal upon old 
Black Hawk, and take him by surprise. 

We had Poquet, the half-breed, whom I have men 
tioned before, and twelve Winnebago Indians with us 
as pilots, and progressed with considerable speed. 
Nothing of importance occurred on our march from 
the 1 5th to the i8th. We this day came to a small 
Winnebago village, on Rock river; having reached 
that river once more, though some distance above Gen. 

Generals Henry and Dodge 87 here called a halt, 
and had a talk with this nation of the forest for for 
est it really was. It might have been supposed, from 
the appearance of the place they were in, that they 


had tried to hide from all the world, as their bark 
wigwams were in the midst of a very large growth of 
timber, in a bend of the river, and the earth was 
covered with an almost impenetrable undergrowth. 

Gen. Dodge who was well acquainted with the 
Winnebagoes, attended strictly to the examination. 
They were asked where Black Hawk and his band 
were? They replied that they were above, on Rock 
river, at a place called the Cranberry Lake, about 
half a day's travel from where we then were. Gen 
erals Henry and Dodge consulted with the officers 
generally, in relation to the course most proper to pur 
sue. They came to the conclusion to send an express 
to Gen. Atkinson, informing him that they had 
learned where Black Hawk was, and that they would 
march against him on the next day. We were then, 
from the best information we could obtain from the 
Indians, about thirty-five miles above Gen. Atkinson 
where he was still engaged in building a fort, at Lake 

It may not be considered a digression to state, here, 
the reasons we had for believing that the Winnebagoes 
were telling us the truth; for \ve had been a long time 
very suspicious that they were secret allies of Black 
Hawk, as we caught them in many lies. There was 
one fellow, who, on examination, stated that he had 
come from Black Hawk only two days before. He 
was then asked what he had been up there after r He 
replied that he had two sisters married to Sac men, 
and that each of his sisters had six daughters, who 
were also married to Sac men, and that he had been 
up to see them. This was a very reasonable story, 
and we thought that it might be true. But, at the 
same rime, it went to show that they were to some 
extent, allies of the Sacs, as thev were intermarried so 
much with each other. 


Generals Henry and Dodge now made application 
for a pilot to go with two of our men to Gen. Atkin 
son, to inform him where the Indians were, and that 
we were going in pursuit of them the next day. After 
some Indian chat among themselves, they reluctantly 
consented that Little Thunder should go. The next 
thing was, to get two of our men, possessed of suffi 
cient courage and perseverance to go. Doctor E. H. 
Merryman, Adjutant of Col. Collins's regiment, and 
Mr. W. W. Woodbridge, Adjutant of Gen. Dodge's 
squadron, were the men who volunteered to perform 
this important and hazardous service. They started 
about 2 o'clock P. M., in company with Little Thunder 
as their pilot, intending to reach Gen. Atkinson's 
camp that night; but they had not proceeded more than 
eight miles before they came upon a large fresh trail, 
which they soon learnt, by its appearance, and the 
signs and gestures of Little Thunder, their pilot, was 
that of Black Hawk and his whole army making their 
escape. They pursued their course a little further, 
intending to go on with the message; but this Indian 
petitioned them to go back, intimating by signs that 
they would soon be killed if they went on. The 
expresses could not speak his language, nor could 
he speak theirs; but they made signs for him to pro 
ceed with them, but they did not succeed in getting 
him more than two miles further, when he suddenly 
wheeled his horse to the right-about, and giving him 
timber, left them. It was now nearly night, and the 
country they were in impassable to a stranger; the 
ground being covered with prickly ash and white 
thorn; and in the midst of these thickets were the 
worst kind of swamps. They were therefore com 
pelled to return to their camp. It was some time 
before they overtook their pilot, and after dark when 
they got back. On entering the encampment the 


sentinels fired at one of them, and came very near killing 
him. They now told the joyful news, that they had 
discovered the trail of Black Hawk and his band mak 
ing out of the swamps, which seemed to give new life 
to every heart; as now there appeared to be a prospect 
of bringing our toils and troubles to a speedy issue. 

Orders were accordingly given for all hands to be 
ready for an early march next morning in pursuit of 
the enemy. At the dawn of day the bugle sounded. 
All now were up, making ready with great eagerness 
for a march. Here we had to leave every thing that 
was calculated to retard our march. Five baggage 
waggons, sutlers' stores and a number of other valuable 
articles were left, in order that we should have nothing 
to impede us on our march. 

July 1 9th. This day we had, for about twelve miles, 
the worst kind of road. To look at it, it appeared 
impossible to march an army through it. Thickets and 
swamps of the worst kind we had to go through ; but 
the men had something now to stimulate them. They 
saw the Sac trail fresh before them, and a prospect of 
bringing our campaign to an end. There was no 
murmuring, no excuses made ; none getting on the sick 
report. If we came to a swamp that our horses were 
not able to carry us through, we dismounted, turned our 
horses before us, and stepped in ourselves, sometimes 
up to our arm-pits in mud and water. In this way we 
marched with great celerity. In the evening of this 
day, it commenced thundering, lightening, and raining 
tremendously. We stopped not, but pushed on. The 
trail appeared to be still getting fresher, and the ground 
better; which still encouraged us to overcome every 
difficulty found in the way. It continued raining until 
dark, and indeed until after dark. We now saw the 
want of our tents in the morning; a great number of us 
having left this necessary article behind, in order to 


favor our horses. The rain ceased before day, and it 
turned cold and chilly. In the morning we arose early, 
at the well known sound of the bugle, and prepared in 
a very short time our rude breakfast, dried our clothes 
a little, and by seven o'clock were on the march at a 
quick pace. 

On this day some of our scouts took an Indian as a 
prisoner. On examination he was found to be a 
Winnebago. He stated that Black Hawk was but a 
little distance ahead of us, and that he had seen some 
of his party not more than two miles ahead. But it was 
a bad piece of conduct on our part, that this Indian was 
not kept as a prisoner of war, but was set at liberty, and 
let go : no doubt, he that night informed the Sacs of 
our pursuit. 

We halted, and the order of battle was formed, as we 
expected we would overtake them this evening. The 
order was as follows : General Dodge and Major Ewing 
were to bring on the battle. Major Ewing was placed 
in the centre, with his spy battalion ; Captain Gentry 
and Captain Clark's companies on our right; and 
Captain Camp and Captain Parkinson 68 on our left. 
Our own battalion (Major Ewing's) was reduced to two 
companies, (as Captain Webb and his company had 
been left at Fort Dixon .;) Captain Lindsey, of our 
battalion, was placed on the right, and Captain Huston's 
company on the left ; Colonel Fry and his regiment on 
the right; and Colonel Jones with his regiment on the 
left; and Colonel Collins in the centre. In this order 
we marched in quick time, with all possible speed, in 
hope that we would overtake the enemy on that evening. 
We were close to the Four Lakes, and we wished to come 
up with them before they could reach that place, as it 
was known to be a strong hold for the Indians ; but the 
day was not long enough to accomplish this desirable 
object. We reached the first of the Four Lakes about 


sun down. General Henry here called a halt, and 
consulted with Poquet, our pilot, as to the country we 
were approaching. Poquet, who was well acquainted 
with this country, told him he could not get through it 
after night ; that we had to march close to the margin 
of the lake for some distance, as the underwood stood so 
thick, one man could not see another ten steps. General 
Henry concluded to encamp here until the break of day. 
General Dodge sent Captain Dixon [Joseph Dickson] 
on ahead with a few men, to see if they could make any 
discovery of the enemy, who returned in a very short 
time, and stated they had seen the enemy's rear guard 
about one mile and a half distant. 

General Henry gave strict orders for every man to 
tie up his horse, so as to be ready to start as soon as it 
was daylight. The order was strictly obeyed, and after 
we took our frugal supper, all retired to rest, except 
those who had to mount guard ; for we had marched a 
great way that day, and many were still wet by the rain 
that fell the preceding night; but being very much 
fatigued we were all soon lost in sleep, except those 
on guard. 

July 2 1 st. At the break of day the bugle sounded, 
and all were soon up, and in a few minutes had break 
fast ready; and after taking a little food, we mounted 
our horses, and again commenced the pursuit. 

We soon found that the pilot had told us no lie; for 
we found the country that the enemy was leading us into, 
to be worse if possible, than what he told us. We could 
turn neither to the right nor left, but were compelled to 
follow the trail the Indians had made; and that too, for 
a great distance at the edge of the water of the lake. 

Here it may not be uninteresting to the reader, to 
give a small outline of those lakes. From a description 
of the country, a person would very naturally suppose 
that those lakes were as little pleasing to the eye of the 


traveller, as the country is. But not so. I think they 
are the most beautiful bodies of water I ever saw. The 
first one that we came to, was about ten miles in cir 
cumference, and the water as clear as crystal. The 
earth sloped back in a gradual rise ; the bottom of the 
lake appeared to be entirely covered with white pebbles, 
and no appearance of its being the least swampy. The 
second one that we came to, appeared to be much larger. 
It must have been twenty miles in circumference. The 
ground rose very high all around; and the heaviest 
kind of timber grew close to the water's edge. If 
those lakes were anywhere else, except in the country 
they are, they would be considered among the wonders 
of the world. But the country they are situated in is 
not fit for any civilized nation of people to inhabit. It 
appears that the Almighty intended it for the children 
of the forest. The other two lakes we did not get close 
enough to for me to give a complete description of 
them ; but those who saw them, stated that they were 
very much like the other. I am digressing and leaving 
my subject too long ; so I will go back and pursue our 

We had not marched more than five miles, before 
Doctor Philleo " came back, meeting us, with the scalp 
of an Indian. He had been on ahead with the front 
scouts, and came on this Indian, who had been left as a 
rear guard to watch our movements. There were sev 
eral shots fired at him about the same time, and I 
suppose all hit him, from the number of bullet holes 
that were in him ; but Doctor Philleo scalped him ; so 
he was called Philleo's Indian ; which reminds me of 
the hunters : He who draws the first blood is entitled 
to the skin, and the remainder to the carcase, if there 
are several in the chase ; which was the case at this time. 

But I am not done with Doctor Philleo yet. I will 
show you that he is a good soldier, and something of 


an Indian fighter. The signs now began to get very 
fresh, and we mended our pace very much. We had 
not proceeded more than ten or fifteen miles further, 
before our fighting Doctor run afoul of two more 
Indians; he showed his bravery in assisting to kill 
them. I suppose he killed one, and Mr. Sample Jour 
ney the other ; so there was a scalp for each. But one 
of those miserable wretches sold his life as dear as pos 
sible. He, in the act of falling after he was shot, fired, 
and shot three balls into a gentleman who was himself 
in the act of shooting at him. The balls were all small ; 
one went through his thigh, one through his leg, and 
the other through his foot. I am sorry that I have for 
gotten the gentleman's name ; he belonged to General 
Dodge's squadron. 

We now doubled our speed, all were anxious to press 
forward, and as our horses were nearly worn out, we 
carried nothing, only what was actually necessary for us 
to eat; camp kettles, and many such articles, were thrown 

The trail was now literally, in many places, strewed 
with Indian trinkets, such as mats, kettles, &c. ; which 
plainly told us that they knew we were in pursuit. We 
too, saw from the face of the country that we were 
drawing close to the Wisconsin river, 70 and our object 
was to overtake them before they reached it ; so we now 
went as fast as our horses were able to carry us ; but 
this was too severe for our poor horses ; they began to 
give out; but even this did not stop a man. When 
ever a horse gave out, the rider would dismount, throw 
off his saddle and bridle, and pursue on foot, in a run, 
without a murmur. I think the number of horses left 
this day, was about forty. The rear guard of the enemy 
began by this time (about three o'clock P. M.) to make 
feint stands ; and as the timber stood thick, we did not 
know but that the whole army of Black Hawk was 


forming for action ; in consequence of which, we got 
down and formed as often as twice, before we found out 
that their object was to keep us back until they could 
gain some strong position to fight from. Our front 
scouts now were determined not to be deceived any 
more ; but the next they came to, they stopped not for 
their feigned manoeuvre, but pursued them to the main 
body of the enemy. They returned to us in great haste, 
and informed General Henry that the Indians were 
forming for action. 

We all dismounted in an instant. The line of battle 
was then formed in the same order that it had been laid 
off the preceding day : General Dodge's corps and 
Major E wing's spy battalion still in front. The horses 
were left, and every fourth man detailed to hold them ; 
which gave seven horses to each man to hold. 

We had scarcely time to form on foot, before the 
Indians raised the war-whoop, screaming and yell 
ing hideously, and rushed forward, meeting us with a 
heavy charge. General Dodge and Major Ewing met 
them also with a charge, which produced a halt on the 
part of the enemy. Our men then opened a tremen 
dous volley of musquetry upon them, and accompanied 
it with the most terrific yells that ever came from the 
head of mortals, except from the savages themselves. 
They could not stand this. They now tried their well- 
known practice of flanking : but here they were headed 
again by the brave Colonel Jones and his regiment who 
were on our left, where he met them in the most fear 
less manner, and opened a heavy fire upon them. Colo 
nel Fry was placed on the extreme right. They tried 
his line, but were soon repulsed. Their strong position 
was on the left, or near the centre, where Colonels 
Jones, Dodge, and Ewing, kept up a constant fire upon 
them for something like half an hour. 

The enemy here had a strong position. They had 


taken shelter in some very high grass, where they could 
lie down and load, and be entirely out of sight. After 
fighting them in this position for at least thirty minutes, 
during which time Colonel Jones had his horse shot 
from under him, and one of his men killed, 71 and sev 
eral wounded. Colonels Dodge, Ewing and Jones, all 
requested General Henry to let them charge upon them 
at the point of the bayonet, which General Henry 
readily assented to, and gave the order, " charge !" which 
was obeyed by both men and officers in a most fearless 
manner. All were intent upon the charge. We had 
to charge up a rising piece of ground. When we got 
on the top, we then fired perfectly abreast. They could 
not stand this. They had to quit their hiding place, 
and made good their retreat. When they commenced 
retreating, we killed a great number. 

Their commander, who, it was said, was Na-pope, 
was on a white poney [pony] on the top of a mountain 
in the rear of his Indians ; who certainly had one of the 
best voices for command I ever heard. He kept up a 
constant yell, until his men began to retreat ; when he 
was heard no more. Colonel Collins was kept during 
this engagement, in the rear, as a reserve, and to keep 
the enemy from flanking, and coming in upon us in the 
rear, which was a very good arrangement of General 

It was now nearly sun down, and still raining as it 
had been all the evening ; but so slow that we made 
shift to keep our guns dry. The enemy retreated 
toward the river with considerable speed. The ground 
they were retreating to, appeared to be low and swampy ; 
and on the bank of the river there appeared to be a 
heavy body of timber, which the enemy could reach 
before we could bring them to another stand. So 
General Henry concluded not to pursue them any fur 
ther that night, but remain on the battle ground until 


next morning; and then he would not be in danger 
of losing so many of his men; knowing that, in the 
dark, he would have to lose a number; for the In 
dians would have the timber to fight from, while we 
would have to stand in the open prairie. 

Next morning, (July 22d,) the troops were paraded, 
and put in battle order on foot, except Colonel Fry's 
regiment, and took up the line of march to the river ; 
leaving Col. Collins's regiment to guard the horses 
and baggage, and take care of the wounded. 

We marched down to the river, which was about 
one mile and a half off; but before we reached the 
bank, we had a very bad swamp to go through, fifty 
or sixty yards on this side of the timber, which stood 
very high on the bank of the river. We now saw 
that General Henry had acted very prudently. If he 
had attempted to follow them the evening before, he 
would have lost a great many of his men. 

When we got to the bank, we found they had made 
their retreat across the river during the night, leaving 
a great many articles of their trumpery behind. We 
also saw a good deal of blood, where their wounded 
had Wed. We now returned to the camp ; seeing 
there was no chance to follow them this day across the 

We in this battle were very fortunate indeed. We 
had only one man killed and eight wounded ; and we 
have learned since the battle, that we killed sixty-eight 
of the enemy, and wounded a considerable number; 
twenty-five of whom, they report, died soon after the 

We now were nearly out of provision, and to take 
up the line of march against them, in the condition 
our horses were in, told us plainly that we would suffer 
for something to eat before we could get it. 

We buried the brave young man who was killed, 



with the honors of war. It was stated that he had just 
shot down an Indian, when he received the mortal 
wound himself. His name was John Short, and 
belonged to Captain Briggs's company from Randolph 
county. He had a brother and a brother-in-law in the 
same company, who witnessed his consignment to his 
mother earth. The wounded were all well examined, 
and none pronounced mortal. 

We continued this day on the battle ground, and 
prepared litters for the wounded to be carried on. We 
spent this day in a more cheerful manner than we had 
done any other day since we had been on the campaign. 
We felt a little satisfaction for our toils, and thought 
that we had no doubt destroyed a number of the very 
same monsters that had so lately been imbruing their 
hands with the blood of our fair sex the helpless 
mother and unoffending infant. 

We dried our clothes which then had been wet for 
several days. This day was spent in social chat 
between men and officers. There were no complaints 
made ; all had fought bravely ; each man praised his 
officers, and all praised our General. 

Late in the evening, some of our men, who had 
been out to see if there were any signs of the enemy 
still remaining near us, returned, and stated that they 
saw smoke across the river. 

General Henry had been of the opinion through the 
day, that if the Indians did ever intend fighting any 
more, they would attack us that night, and this report 
went to confirm him in his belief more fully. That 
night he had a larger guard than usual. He made use 
of another excellent precaution. He had fires made 
in advance of our lines, at least forty yards, and had 
them kept burning all night. Orders were given for 
every man to sleep upon his arms : so that he could be 
ready for action at the shortest notice, should an alarm be 


given. We had scarcely got to sleep, when we were 
alarmed by the running of our horses ; we had to 
parade, as usual, to keep them from killing us. Men 
and officers now fully expected that it was the enemy 
who frightened them. Orders were now given, for no 
man to sleep that night, but for every man to stand to 
his arms, and be ready to receive the enemy. We all 
now expected to have hard fighting, and were prepared 
for the worst. There was not a man who shrunk from 
his duty. All punctually obeyed the orders of his 
officers, and made every preparation to receive the 
enemy, should he come. 

About one hour and a half before day, on the same 
mountain from which the Indian Chief had given his 
orders on the evening of the battle, we heard an Indian 
voice, in loud shrill tones, as though he was talking to 
his men, and giving them orders. 

General Henry had his men all paraded in order of 
battle, in front of the tents, and the fires roused up. 
After all were paraded, General Henry addressed his 
men in the most beautiful manner I ever heard man 
speak on such an occasion. I am sorry I cannot give 
the precise words, but I will attempt an outline of 
them. The Indian was still yelling in the most loud 
and terrific manner. General Henry commenced: 
" My brave soldiers, now is the critical and trying 
moment; hear your enemy on the same mountain from 
which you drove them only on the evening before 
last, giving orders for a charge upon you: there is no 
doubt but that they have mustered all their strength at 
this time: now let every mother's son be at his post: 
Yes, my brave soldiers, you have stemmed the tor 
rent of every opposition you have stopped not for 
rivers, swamps, and, one might say almost impenetra 
ble forests; suffered through the beating storm of 
night, amidst the sharpest peals of thunder, and when 


the heavens appeared a plane of lightning. My brave 
boys, hear their yells; let them not daunt you; remem 
ber the glory you won on the evening before last; be 
not now the tarnishers of this reputation, that you are 
so justly entitled to: remember that you are fighting 
a set of demons, who have lately been taking the lives 
of your helpless and unoffending neighbors. Stand 
firm my brave Suckers* until you can see the whites 
of their eyes, before you discharge your muskets, and 
then meet them with a charge as you have before 
done, and that too with great success." 

The Indian all this time was talking as though he 
was addressing his men, and appeared to approach 
nearer. Every officer then on the ground, was at his 
post, and had his particular station assigned to him, 
and the ground he was to occupy during the action. 
In this order we stood until daylight. Just before 
day the Indian quit talking. When it was just light 
enough to discover a man a short distance, the brave 
and fearless Ewing took his battalion of spies, and 
mounted on horseback, we were soon at the top of the 
mountain to see who it was that had serenaded us so 
long, at that late hour of the night. We found only 
the sign of a few horse tracks, that appeared as though 
they had been made that night. We marched in 
quick time around every part of the mountain, and 
found no one. We took a circuitous route back to 
camp, but found no one on the way. What it was 
that made this Indian act so, was now a mystery that 
no one could solve. But before the reader gets 
through the history of this war, he will find out the 
cause. I cannot inform him now, as it does not come 
in its proper place. 

It will be recollected that Doctor Merryman and 
Adjutant Woodbridge, were both started as express 

* Suckers, a familiar name the Illinoisans are known by. 


bearers by Generals Henry and Dodge, as soon as the 
Winnebagoes informed them that the Indians were 
at the Cranberry Lake; and had to return on 
account of Little Thunder (who was their pilot,) get 
ting frightened. The day after that, late in the even 
ing, they started again still in company with the same 
pilot. They now left the Sac trail, and this child of 
the forest was less afraid; so, knowing the country 
well, he took them on that night, amidst the storm, 
to General Atkinson's camp, or fort Kushkanong, 
where General Atkinson was, with his Infantry, and 
those of our volunteers, who had lost their horses at 
Fort Winnebago. The next day Adjutants Wood- 
bridge and Merryman, still with the same pilot, started 
back to General Henry, with an express from General 
Atkinson. They got to General Henry during the 
action, (July2ist,) but there was no time then for 
reading expresses; nor did those two men think of 
delivering expresses at that time; but immediately 
went to fighting. So those gentlemen performed a 
double duty, and deserve well of their country for the 
important services they rendered. 

Now for the expresses. General Atkinson directed 
General Henry to pursue on the trail of Black Hawk 
until he could overtake him and to defeat or capture 
him, also stating, that he would start himself, with the 
Infantry and General Alexander's Brigade; and that 
the rest of the volunteers who were with him under 
Lieutenant Colonel [P. H.] Sharp, would be left to 
guard the Fort; and that they would go by way of the 
Blue Mounds; and directed us, if we got out of pro 
vision, to go to that place for a supply. 



Generals Henry and Dodge march to the Blue Mounds for provi 
sion There meet the other two Brigades Take up the line 
of march across the Wisconsin Again get on the trail of the 
enemy Take a Winnebago Indian a prisoner He gives 
information that the enemy is four days ahead of us We 
take him along We enter the Mountains Bad travel 
ling Lose a number of horses Overtake the enemy at the 
mouth of Bad- Axe, on the Mississippi General Engage 
ment General Henry completely routs the enemy. 

E were now out of provisions, and were obliged 
to abandon further pursuit, and go to the Blue 
Mounds to procure a supply. Accordingly on the 
we got in motion again ; not in pursuit of the 
enemy, but for bread and meat, to satisfy our appe 
tites as we were now out of every thing to eat. 

Our wounded this day suffered very much on account 
of having rough ground to pass over, and some very 
muddy creeks. When they got to the Blue Mounds, 
they were very hospitably treated. There was a small 
fort and citizens plenty, who did not think it the least 
hardship to wait on those who had been shedding their 
blood to revenge the wrongs those people had suffered. 
For the Indians had killed three valuable men within 
one mile of this place ; and one within view of the citi 
zens who were in it, a gentleman by the name of 
Green, of high standing in society, and who had recently 
emigrated from the east. I have forgotten the names 
of the other gentlemen, but can say that the citizens 
spoke in high terms of their worth, and seemed to 
lament their loss. [Emerson Green and George Force.] 


We here found a part of General Posey's brigade, who 
had been sent from Fort Hamilton, to assist in guarding 
this frontier place. An express had been sent by General 
Atkinson to General Posey, to march as soon as possible 
to a small town on the Wisconsin river, to intercept the 
Indians, should any of them go down the river. So, in 
the afternoon, General Posey, from Fort Hamilton, 
passed on his way to Helena ; and late in the evening 
General Atkinson and General Alexander arrived with 
their brigades; leavingColonel Sharp, with thosewho had 
lost their horses, still at Fort Kushkanong; also Captain 
Low [Gideon Lowe], with one company of regulars. 

We here drew three days' provision, and on the 
twenty-fifth we took up the line of march for Helena, 
on the Wisconsin river, where we intended to cross, 
again to take up the pursuit against the enemy. Accord 
ingly we got to this place on the 26th, where we found 
General Posey with his brigade, busily employed in 
making rafts to cross on. This once bid fair to be a 
prosperous place ; there were some tolerable good pine 
buildings that had been put up ; the logs had been 
hewed, and of course were very light. So this deserted 
village was pulled down, and converted into rafts for 
the army to cross the river on. The river at this place 
is nearly as wide as the Mississippi; but not near so 
deep. There is a great number of Islands and sand 
bars in it, which will always prevent it from being good 
for steam boat navigation. 

We now once more had all the Generals together, 
but not all the men ; there had been a great falling off 
in all the brigades. 

General Posey who commanded the first brigade, had 
but about two hundred men ; a great number having 
lost their horses, and some being on the sick report. 
Colonel Ewing's regiment had been sent down to 
Dixon's, which weakened it very much. 


The second brigade was nearly in the same condi 
tion ; a great many being on foot, and some on the sick 
report. There were but about three hundred and fifty 
in this brigade. 

General Henry's brigade was very much reduced, 
also. So the whole three brigades were not stronger 
than one of them was at first setting out in the cam 
paign. There was now more dissatisfaction prevailing 
than I observed during the whole campaign. The gen 
eral cry with all, appeared to be, that we would never 
again see an Indian that they had been gone so long 
ahead of us, we would never be able to overtake them ; 
and the men generally had become tired of hunting 
trails ; and now we had to hunt this trail up again. So, 
there was nothing to stimulate the men, because all 
were of the opinion that the Indians were then near 
the Mississippi ; as the distance was said not to be more 
than eighty miles ; and as no one of us had ever been 
across, we had no idea of what kind of country we would 
have to pass through. 

The army commenced crossing this stream on the 
2yth, and by twelve o'clock on the 28th, we were over, 
and ready to take up the line of march. 

Two of our men at this place, whilst fishing, found 
a dead Indian, which no doubt had been killed at our 
battle on the Wisconsin; as I have no doubt the 
Indians threw many of their dead into the river during 
the night after the battle ; and many that were wounded 
and died on that night ; in order to keep us from scalp 
ing them ; as those superstitious beings think it the 
greatest disgrace for one of their nation to lose his scalp. 

Colonel William B. Archer had, on our arrival at this 
place, taken about twenty men, and gone up the river to 
our battle ground, to ascertain if they could discover any 
fresh signs of the Indians returning, or what direction 
they had gone from that place. They found no new 


sign of their crossing back. The remains of Mr. 
Short, who was killed in the battle, had not been 
interrupted, [sic.] which plainly showed, that they had 
not been back since we had left there ; for if they had 
they would have dug up the corpse for the purpose of 
taking his scalp off; as they prize a scalp above any 
thing else in their warfare ; and one that is so fortunate 
as to get a scalp, feels as proud as if he had killed a 
white man and lost the scalp. 

Colonel Archer spent one day in searching for the 
main trail, but was not able to get upon it. The 
friendly Indians, who were sent with him as pilots, as 
usual, seemed to act cowardly. So he returned to the 
main army, and was ready to take up the line of march 
with us. 

July 28th. We this day, at 12 o'clock, again got 
in motion, with General Atkinson at our head. 

The brigades of Posey, Alexander and Henry, were 
all now together; and about four hundred and fifty 
regulars under the command of General Brady. The 
regular field officers were Colonel Taylor, Major W. 
Riley, 72 Major Morgan, and the others not recollected. 
Captain Johnson, and Thomas C. Brown, (volunteer 
aids,) Aids-de-Camp of General Atkinson ; and Lieu 
tenant Anderson, 73 Brigade Major. The author is 
sorry that he cannot give the names of the other regu 
lar officers, as they were all deserving well of their 

We had not this day marched more than five miles, 
before we came upon the main Indian trail. We had 
started up the river in order to get on it, opposite to 
where we had the battle, or near that place; as we 
were of opinion they would make up the river, rather 
than down. But here we were greatly disappointed. 
We got upon the trail much sooner than we expected, 
and found that we could follow it without any difficulty. 


It appeared to be making down the river, too, 
which pleased us still better. We had understood 
that, north of us, the country was very mountainous, 
and almost impassable. 

We followed the trail until a late hour this evening. 
Nothing of importance occurred this night. All now 
were once more satisfied, that we had again got on the 
trail, without having to hunt for it, as we heretofore 
had done. There was now a hope once more, of fall 
ing in with the enemy, all murmuring again ceased. 
The great object then was, with all, to push ahead, for 
fear the enemy might cross the Mississippi before we 
could overtake them. 

July 29th. We started this morning very early, 
and had proceeded but a short distance, before we 
came upon one of their encampments. We found 
that they were still killing their horses to eat. They 
here had killed the willing animal, that had carried 
them, no doubt for miles, and through many dangers. 
We now discovered that the enemy was about four 
days ahead of us, and were still flying from us with all 

July joth. We this morning quickened our pace, 
and marched as fast as the nature of the case would 
admit of; but we soon found that the game that we 
were in chase of, had taken a track to the north ; and 
our troubles, seemed to be returning on us. We dis 
covered they were making up a bad swampy stream, 
apparently in order to find a crossing place. Before 
we succeeded in crossing this stream, we found our 
selves going back, in the same direction we had come ; 
but after we had crossed, we, not unlike a parcel of 
hounds after a fox, had to take another track to the 
south. We now found that we were leaving the Wis 
consin river, and were getting into a miserable country. 
We had proceeded but a few miles, before we came to 


another stream, that appeared to be worse than any we 
had yet met with. We here had to make a retrograde 
movement, and go up a short distance, and make a 
bridge ; which we soon did. As soon as we crossed, 
we measured our course back to the trail, the general 
direction of which we now found, to be west by north 
west; but found that we were likely to get into a 
dreadful country. That, however mattered naught ; 
we were on the trail of the enemy, and had, as we then 
thought, gone through the worst country in the known 
world. We had not the most distant thought that we 
would see another half as bad as that we had passed 
through. The idea that we would soon get into a 
more level, and better travelling country, encouraged 
us to push on, and surmount, for awhile, every difficulty 
that might come in our way. 

We went on, that day, with considerable celerity, 
until about one o'clock, at which time some of our 
front scouts caught an Indian, who, upon examination, 
turned out to be a Winnebago. We here stopped and 
let our horses graze, while the Indian was undergoing 
an examination. 

Captain Craig, 74 from Galena, with a very respectable 
company from the county of Jo Daviess, came up and 
joined General Dodge's squadron, which added very 
much to the strength of it. The Indian that was taken 
here as a prisoner, said on examination, that the Indians 
had encamped close by there, and had been gone four 
days. He stated that they had a number of wounded 
that were laying on their horses, and that two of them 
died the night they staid here. We did not get much 
information from this son of the forest ; nevertheless, 
we concluded to take him with us. He at first wanted 
to stay ; but, after finding out that we would not injure 
him, and that there was a tolerable good chance to get 
plenty to eat, he went cheerfully. There was another 


old fellow, taken as a prisoner, who was suffered to go 
away. He went to where the Winnebagoes had a small 
village. Three more of the children of these wild and 
dreary looking mountains came to us, after we had 
stopped to encamp. They came with a sort of white 
flag, which they carried on a stick. Mr. Chiler Arm 
strong, a gentleman belonging to General Dodge's corps, 
was the only one that could talk with them in their 
language. The Indians were examined respecting the 
country, but could not tell us any thing about it. They 
stated that they never knew of any person to cross 
these mountains but once; that was in the year 1827, 
when the Winnebagoes attacked Captain Lindsey's 
keel boats ; the same Captain Lindsey who then com 
manded a company of spies belonging to Major Ewing's 
battalion; who, after their attack upon the keel boats, 
made their retreat across these mountains. We found 
the Sacs were keeping the same trail the Winnebagoes 
then made. 

We had just entered those mountains ; and as an all- 
wise Providence had so directed it, no one knew how 
bad they were ; for if they had known the difficulty of 
crossing, and the distance across, them and besides, 
that there was nothing for our horses to eat, but weeds 
neither officers or men, would have undertaken to go 
through them. 

But an all-wise Creator has ordained it, that man is not 
to know one day, that which he has to undergo on the 
next ; for if he did, he would be a miserable, unhappy 
being; but as it is with man, he is kept in blindness 
as to his pilgrimage through life. But hope steps in, 
and tells him his path will be smoother by-and-by ; so 
hope keeps the creature in good spirits, which causes 
him to pursue more diligently still thinking things 
will change for the better, and the rough path through 
life will become smooth, and then his toils will be over. 


This was our situation at the time : no one knew, 
what a country we were now about to approach. 

July joth. We started early this morning, thinking 
that we would soon come to some good range for our 
horses, as we had encamped on the side of a mountain 
that was so barren, that it had no vegetation on it fit 
for a horse to eat. But to our extreme disappointment, 
we continued going from mountain to mountain; and in 
the place of getting better grazing, we found it getting 
worse. About twelve o'clock we were obliged to stop 
and refresh our horses, by letting them graze on weeds, 
and browse on such few things as they could get. The 
horses were not choice now, as to what they took hold 
of; they were extremely hungry, and soon filled their 
stomachs with whatever they could catch on the sides 
of the mountains ; which were principally weeds, and a 
kind of a vine which grew close to the ground. 

General Atkinson had succeeded in getting a waggon 
on thus far ; but here it was found impossible to take it 
any further. The waggon contained his own private 
stores ; but here all had to be left that could not be 
packed on horse-back. A number of articles were 
packed on horses, that I never saw before : All medical 
stores, such as boxes and kegs were lashed on the pack- 
horses, and carried over those almost impenetrable 

We now saw ourselves enveloped in a mass of the 
tallest and steepest mountains we had ever seen, and no 
one to tell us how long it would be before we would get 
through them. 

But the whole army was in good health, and in fine 
spirits. We were not like Bonaparte, when he crossed 
the Alps we lost none of our men in heaps of snow, 
nor did any die with hunger. 

General Atkinson had been famous from the com 
mencement of the campaign, for providing plenty of 


provisions. We had our horses well packed with this 
necessary article. We also had a number of good 
beeves along ; so we had no fear of starving. 

On this day we began to find the trail strewed with 
the dead bodies of Indians, who had died with the 
wounds they had received in the battle near the Wis 
consin river. 

On the next day, which was July 3 ist, we were about 
the center of those majestic mountains. It most 
certainly was a grand and majestic sight. They were 
very lofty, and generally covered with the largest kind 
of timber, with a thick undergrowth. This was truly 
a lonely and disheartening place. The matin song of 
the red bird, nightingale and sparrow were all that 
could be heard, and the only inhabitants of those grand 
and majestic looking mountains. 

There are places, where we at once are at home with 
nature where she seems to take us to her bosom, 
with all the fondness of a mother, although in a strange 
land. But not so here: There was nothing to entice 
the traveller to make a stop, except a view of the 
height and grandeur of those piles of earth, which do 
not seem to look as though they ever can be inhabited 
by any civilized people in the world. 

There is not the smallest kind of bottom between 
those mountains. We generally found good water at 
the foot of them; but scarcely ever enough to have 
afforded ground for a small garden. So it appears 
that this country was formed by the great I-Am, for 
some purpose that the children of men have not yet 
found out. 

It cannot be for those unhappy children of the 
forest, for they are disposed to reside where they can 
make t'heir living by the chase. But here was no 
game for them to chase; no lakes or streams for them 
to paddle their canoes in, or fish to angle for. We 


were the first civilized people that ever had entered 
this tremendous pile of mountains. They are now 
found out, and I must leave them, for some person 
more able to describe further than I have done. 

August i st. We this day passed a number of dead 
Indians, who had died in consequence of wounds they 
had received at the battle near the Wisconsin river. 
There were five found, it is said, in going the distance 
of five miles. 

About twelve o'clock this day, we came to a small 
river, which was called Kickapoo. We here found 
that the country was about to change. A short dis 
tance before we got to this stream, we came to a beau 
tiful body of pine timber, which was tall and large. 
As soon as we crossed this stream, we found the 
mountains were covered with prairie grass. We here 
found the Indian trail was getting fresher. They had 
encamped at this creek. 

We had now been three days in those mountains, 
and our horses had lived on weeds, except those that 
became debilitated and were left behind; for a great 
number had become so, and left to starve in this 
dreary waste. 

We here for the first time in three days, had an 
opportunity of turning our horses out to graze. 
Accordingly we let them graze for about an hour, 
which they made good use of, and during which we 
took a cold check. About one o'clock we started, at 
a faster gait than usual. We found from the face of 
the country, that we were not a great way from the 
Mississippi. The country was still hilly, but the hills 
of a small size, and almost barren; so we could get 
along with more speed. It gave the men new spirits. 
We now saw that our horses would not have to starve, 
as we had begun to think it probable that they would. 

On this evening we came across the grave of an 


Indian chief, who was buried in the grandest style of 
Indian burials; painted, and otherwise decorated, as 
well as those wretched beings were able to do. He 
was placed on the ground, with his head resting against 
the root of a tree, logs were placed around him, and 
covered over with bark; and on top of which green 
bushes were laid; so intended, that we might pass by 
without discovering the grave. He was examined, and 
found to have been shot. 

It was now late in the evening, and we had pro 
ceeded but a short distance from here, before some of 
our front spies, came across an Indian that had been 
left behind from some cause or other. The spies 
interrogated him about Black Hawk and his band. 
He stated that they would get to the river on that day, 
and would cross over on the next morning. The old 
sinner then plead for quarters; but that being no time 
to be plagued with the charge of prisoners, they had to 
leave the unhappy wretch behind, which appeared to 
be a hard case. But, no doubt, he had been at the 
massacre of a number of our own citizens, and deserved 
to die for the crimes which he had perpetrated, in 
taking the lives of harmless and unoffending women 
and children. 

We this day made a tolerable push, having marched 
until eight o'clock at night before we stopt. We 
then halted, and formed our encampment: But it was 
for a short time only. 

General Atkinson gave orders for all to confine 
their horses, and be ready to march by two o'clock T in 
pursuit of the enemy. 

We were now all tired and hungry: and something 
to eat was indispensably necessary. We had a long 
way to go after water, and the worst kind of a precipice 
to go down and up to procure it. All was now a 
bustle for a while to prepare something to sustain 


nature, and to do it in time to get a little rest, before 
we would have to march. About nine o'clock, the 
noise began to die away, so that, by ten o'clock, all 
was [were] lost in sleep, but the sentinel who was at 
his post. 

At the appointed hour the bugle sounded: all were 
soon up, and made preparations for a march at quick 
step; moving on to complete the work of death upon 
those unfortunate children of the forest. 

General Atkinson, this morning, had the army laid off 
and arranged in the following manner: General Dodge, 
with his squadron was placed in front the Infantry 
next the second brigade next, under the command 
of General Alexander the first brigade next, under 
the command of General Posey the third brigade 
next, under the command of General Henry. 

In this order the march commenced. We had not 
proceeded more than four or five miles, before there 
was a herald sent back, informing us that the front 
spies had come in sight of the enemy's rear guard. 
The intelligence was soon conveyed to General Atkin 
son, and then to all the commanders of the different 
brigades. The celerity of the march was then doubled, 
and it was but a short time before the firing of the 
front spies commenced, about half a mile in front of 
the main army. The Indians retreated toward the 
Mississippi, but kept up a retreating fire upon our 
front spies for some time, until General Dodge, who 
commanded, began to kill them very fast. The 
Indians then retreated more rapidly, and sought refuge 
in their main army, which was lying on the bank of 
the Mississippi, where they had joined in a body to 
defend themselves, and sell their lives as dear as pos 
sible; for they now found that they could not get away 
from us, and the only chance for them, was, to fight 
until thev died. 


General Henry had this morning been put in the 
rear, but he did not remain there long. Major Ewing 
who commanded the spy battalion, sent his Adjutant 
back to General Henry, informing him that he was on 
the main trail. Major Ewing, at the same time, 
formed his men in order of battle, and awaited the 
arrival of the brigade, which marched up in quick 
time. When they came up, General Henry had his 
men formed as soon as possible for action; he placed 
Colonel Jones and Major Ewing in front. General 
Atkinson called for one regiment from General Hen 
ry's brigade, to cover his rear. General H. dispatched 
Colonel Fry with his regiment. Colonel Collins 
formed on the right of Colonel Jones and Major Ewing; 
when all were dismounted and marched on foot in the 
main trail, down the bluff into the bottom. 

Here it is worthy of remark, that Colonel E. C. 
March, who was the volunteer Aid to General Atkin 
son, displayed the part of a good and fearless soldier; 
likewise Major McConnel. They went ahead and 
searched out the main trail of the enemy. We here 
had to charge for some considerable distance, over the 
worst kind of ground; the logs, and weeds being in 
some places as high as a man's head. All this did 
not stop us; General Henry, with his Aids, Majors 
Johnson 75 and McConnel, in front, and the brave 
Colonel March leading the van. 

We pursued on, until Colonel Jones and Major 
Ewing commenced a fire on the main body of the 
enemy; at which time General Henry sent back an 
officer to bring up Colonel Fry with his regiment. 
Colonel Collins was by this time in the heat of the 
action with his regiment. Captain Gentry from Gen 
eral Dodge's corps, was by this time also up, and 
opened a heavy fire. He fell into the lines of Colonel 
Jones and Major Ewing. Captains Gruer 78 and 


[John F.] Richardson, from General Alexander's brig 
ade, with their companies, and a few scattering gentle 
men from General Dodge's corps, were also up; who 
all joined General Henry, and fought bravely. 

Colonel Fry obeyed the call of his General, and was 
soon there with his regiment, who shrank not from 
their duty. They all joined in the work of death 
for death it was. We were by this time fast getting 
rid of those demons in human shape. 

About half an hour after the battle commenced, 
Colonel Taylor with the infantry, and General Dodge 
with his squadron, got on the ground, and joined in the 
battle with us. They had been thrown on the extreme 
right, by following the rear guard of the enemy. 77 
Those men are both brave officers, and would have 
gloried in being in front of the battle; but it appears 
that this was intended by the God of battles for our 
much beloved Henry, who here displayed the part of 
a General indeed. He was placed in the rear in the 
morning, and was first in battle. This may appear 
strange to the reader, but it was nevertheless the truth. 

General Atkinson stationed Generals Posey and 
Alexander, up the river, on the extreme right, in order 
to prevent the Indians from making their escape in 
that direction; which appeared to be one of those hard 
cases, for the men had marched a great way, through 
swamps, over mountains, and through the worst kind 
of forests; had suffered much with fatigue and many 
other hardships which a person necessarily has to 
undergo in a campaign: and that, too, they had done 
without a murmur, in order that they might have it in 
their power to assist in expelling from their country, 
those wretched children of the forest. 

The battle lasted about three hours: when we came 
upon the enemy, they were fixing their bark canoes to 
cross the river. Some of them had crossed; others 


had just launched their canoes; and some had not got 
them made; but I suppose all were busy in making the 
necessary arrangements to cross and get out of our way. 

But the Ruler of the Universe, He who takes ven 
geance on the guilty, did not design those guilty wretches 
to escape His vengeance for the horrid deeds they had 
done, which were of the most appalling nature. He 
here took just retribution for the many innocent lives 
those cruel savages had taken on our northern frontiers. 

It can never be ascertained how many were killed in 
this battle ; but from the best calculation that could be 
made, I suppose we killed about one hundred and fifty; 
and I think it altogether probable, that as many more 
were drowned in attempting to cross the river. The river 
where they attempted to cross, was full of islands. A 
number of them succeeded in reaching one of those 
islands, and had taken shelter behind old logs and 
willows, where they kept up a constant fire upon us 
during the engagement. Colonel Taylor 78 ordered an 
officer and a part of his infantry to cross over to the 
island, and rout the enemy from this position ; but it 
being the nature of an Indian to sell his life as dear as 
possible, they did so here. They killed five of the 
regulars, before they could drive them from their strong 
hold that they had got into; and then, it had to be done 
by a charge, which those men were not afraid to do. 79 

I am sorry, that, I cannot recollect the name of the 
officer who commanded and took this band of regulars 
into this island. 

There were a number of gentlemen belonging to the 
militia, who crossed also into this island, and assisted 
in driving the enemy from this hiding place. Mr. 
William Bradford, Adjutant of Major Ewing's spy 
battalion, and many other brave and fearless men from 
the militia, crossed. 

The part of the river they had to wade, took a man 


up to his arm-pits ; but even this appeared to be no 
obstacle in their way. The enemy were there, doing 
mischief by annoying us, and they had to be routed or 
killed. The latter was most desirable, and was nearly 
done, there being but few who made their escape from 
the place. 

During the engagement we killed some of the squaws 
through mistake. It was a great misfortune to those 
miserable squaws and children, that they did not carry 
into execution [the plan] they had formed on the morn 
ing of the battle that was, to come and meet us, and 
surrender themselves prisoners of war. It was a horrid 
sight to witness little children, wounded and suffering 
the most excruciating pain, although they were of the 
savage enemy, and the common enemy of the country. 

It was enough to make the heart of the most 
hardened being on earth to ache. 

We took about fifty prisoners, principally women 
and children. They during the engagement, had con 
cealed themselves in the high weeds and grass, and 
amongst old logs and brush, which lay very thick in the 
bottom, and some had buried themselves in the mud 
and sand in the bank of the river, just leaving enough 
of their heads out to breathe the breath of life. The 
soldiers drew them out, and brought them to what was 
then called head quarters, the place where the officers 
were principally assembled, and where the Surgeons and 
Surgeon's mates were busily engaged in dressing 
and examining the wounded. We lost here in killed 
and wounded twenty-seven men. Three of the wounded 
died next day, among whom was Lieutenant [Samuel] 
Bowman. He had command of the company, the Cap 
tain being absent. The loss of this officer was very much 
lamented by his men and brother officers. He fought 
bravely until he received the mortal wound. He be 
longed to Colonel Fry's regiment. I have been told 


that he had a wife and one child to lament his death ; 
but the child can have it to say, when he arrives to the 
years of maturity, that his father died fighting the bat 
tles of his country, and he was proud that he had a 
father that died in such a cause. 

As soon as the battle was over, all the wounded were 
collected to one place, and, with those of our enemy, 
were examined, and their wounds dressed ; there was no 
difference here between our men and our enemy. The 
different Surgeons did their best for both. They were 
no longer able to do us any harm, but were in our 
power, and begging for mercy, and we acted like a civil 
ized people, although it was with the worst kind of 
enemies, and one that had done so much mischief, and 
had taken away so many of the lives of our fellow 
citizens. After the Indians were all collected together 
that we had taken prisoners, they were examined 
respecting many things ; and among others what it was 
that the Indian Chief was saying when he talked so long 

J O O 

on the mountain at the Wisconsin. They stated, that he 
was telling us in the Winnebago language, that they 
had their squaws and children with them, and that 
they were starving for something to eat, and were not 
able to fight us ; and that if we would let them pass 
over the Mississippi, they would do no more mischief. 
They stated that he spoke this in the Winnebago 
language, believing that the same Winnebagoes that 
were with us in the battle, were still there. But here 
he was mistaken : as soon as the battle was over, the 
Indians, with our pilot Poquet, all left us ; so there 
was no one among us, that understood the Winnebago 


Steam boat Warrior has an engagement with the enemy, the day 
before we overtook them Steam boat commanded by Lieu 
tenant Kingsbury Arrival of the steam boat Warrior, soon 
after our engagement She returns and brings us provision 
General Atkinson, believing that the enemy were nearly all 
destroyed, did not pursue them across the Mississippi March 
down to Prairie du Chlen We find the friendly Indians 
rejoicing at the defeat of the enemy General Atkinson has a 
talk with the Wlnnebagoes We march to Dixon's and are 

SOON after the battle was over, the steam boat War 
rior arrived. When she came near to where we 
were, she commenced raking the Island with a six 
pounder. We in return fired a salute, thinking she 
was apprised of our battle, and that she was firing us a 
salute ; but the truth was, she had the first fight with 
the enemy herself, 80 and was then raking the Island 
with her six pounder, not knowing but the enemy were 
still there. When she came up, we then learnt that on 
the evening before, she had been there for the express 
purpose of preventing the Indians from crossing, until 
the main army might get up with them. Lieutenant 
Kingsbury, who commanded, stated that they hoisted 
a white flag, but would not send aboard the steam boat. 
He told them if they did not do it, he would fire upon 
them ; but they still refused, and appeared to be mak 
ing preparation for action ; so, accordingly, he fired his 
six pounder, and likewise opened a fire of musquetry upon 
them, when they commenced a heavy fire upon the 
boat. The battle now became general, and lasted for 



some time, as the boat was anchored. All were at their 
posts, and would have, it is stated, continued at this 
place until the main army got up, if they had not been 
out of wood. So she had to drop down, in order to 
lay in wood ; but it is stated, she killed five in this 
action and, I suppose, wounded a number; but the 
number I do not think has been ascertained ; but Lieu 
tenant Kingsbury and all the other officers deserve 
great credit for the bravery and industry they made use 
of, in trying to prevent the Indians from crossing until 
the army could come up with them ; they dropped down 
that night as low as Prairie du Chien, and took in wood, 
and returned to the scene of action the next day, by 
twelve o'clock, a distance of forty miles or upwards. 
But when they got back to their old play place, the 
boys that they had been sporting with the day before, 
were no more. We had killed and wounded a great 
many of these wretched wanderers, that have no home 
in the world, but are like the wild beasts more than 
man wandering from forest to forest, and not making 
any improvement in the natural mind. All their study 
is, how to proceed in the chase, or take scalps in time 
of war. But although they are a miserable race of peo 
ple, and live a wretched life, they are much frightened 
when they see death stare them in the face ; which was 
the case at this time. When we came upon the squaws 
and children, they raised a scream and cry loud enough 
to affect the stoutest man upon earth. If they had shown 
themselves, they would have come orT much better, 
but fear prevented them ; and in their retreat, trying 
to hide from us, many of them were killed ; but con 
trary to the wish of every man, as neither officer nor 
private intended to have spilt the blood of those squaws 
and children. But such was their fate ; some of them 
were killed, but not intentionally by any man ; as all 
were men of too much sense of honor and feeling to 


have killed any but those who were able to harm us. 
We all well knew the squaws and children could do us 
no harm ; and could not help what the old Black Hawk 
and the other chiefs did. The prisoners we took 
seemed to lament their ever having raised arms against 
the United States, and appeared to blam e the Black H awk 
and the Prophet, for the miserable condition that their 
tribe was then in ; but at the same time, appeared to re 
joice that they were prisoners of war, which plainly 
showed that they had some faith in our humanity, and 
that they would exchange the life they then were living, for 
any other. They appeared to manifest every token of 
honesty in their examination. They stated that Black 
Hawk had stolen off up the river, at the commence 
ment of the battle, with some few of his warriors, and 
a few squaws and children. I think the number of 
warriors was ten, and thirty-five women and children, 
or, in other words, four lodges, which is the Indian 
phrase as they do not know how to count by numbers. 
They were examined respecting the first battle we had 
with them on the Wisconsin, and they stated that we 
killed sixty-eight on the field of action ; and that twenty- 
five had died since with their wounds ; making in all 
ninety-three that we are certain we killed in that battle, 
besides a number more, that there is no doubt still lin 
gered and died with their wounds. Putting together 
what were killed in the two battles, and all the little 
skirmishes, we must have destroyed upwards of four 
hundred of these unhappy and miserable beings, which 
was occasioned, no doubt, by the superstitious ideas 
which were instilled into their minds by the Prophet. 81 
Although I have already stated that those unhappy 
wanderers make no improvement in the natural mind, 
they still, by instinct, believe in an over-ruling Provi 
dence, and are the most credulous people upon earth. 
They pay much attention to their dreams, and if one 


of their nation dreams much, he soon takes the name 
of prophet, as they believe it to be a visitation of the 
Great Spirit. One morning I chanced to rise very 
early; and taking a walk through the encampment, 
accidently wandered to where thelndians were encamped. 
It was just at the dawn of day, and they were just 
beginning their morning worship of the Great Spirit. I 
had often heard that these uninformed children of the 
forest, believed that there was a God, and tried to wor 
ship him, which made me call a halt to see if what I had 
heard respecting this unhappy people was true. They 
commenced by three of them standing up with their 
faces to the east ; one of them commenced a kind of 
talk, as though he was talking to some person at a dis 
tance, at the same time shaking a gourd, which, from 
the rattling, I should have taken to be full of pebbles 
or beans. The other two stood very still, looking 
towards the east ; the others were all sitting round in 
the most perfect silence, when the old priest, prophet, 
or whatever they called him, commenced a kind of 
song, which, I believe, is the common one sung by the 
Indians on all occasions. It was, as near as I could 
make out, in the following words. He-aw-aw-he-aw- 
how-he-aw-hum with a great many elevations and 
falls in their tone, and beating time with the gourd of 
pebbles. When this song was sung they commenced 
a kind of prayer, which I thought the most solemn 
thing I had witnessed. It was a long, monotonous 
note, occasionally dropping by a number of tones at 
once, to a low and unearthly murmur. When he had 
done he handed the gourd of pebbles to one of the two 
that stood by him, who went, as near as I could ascer 
tain, through the same ceremony, still shaking the 
gourd. When he had done, he handed it to the third, 
who went through the same motions, and making 
use of the same words that the first two had done, 


which I suppose was a supplication or prayer to the 
Great Spirit to give them plenty to eat, and strength 
to conquer their enemies. It is stated, by those who 
are acquainted with this race of people, that they are 
very much afraid of offending the Great Spirit. If 
they have bad luck in hunting, they think it is caused 
by their having offended the Great Spirit, and they 
make an atonement, by offering up or making a sacri 
fice of something that they set much store by, such as 
burning their tobacco, 82 or something else that they 
doat upon very much, but there is nothing in this 
world that they think more of than tobacco, as smok 
ing they think is almost as indispensably necessary as 
eating. I must now return to the battle ground with 
my subject. After the battle was all over, and the 
wounded all attended to, the prisoners and the wounded 
of both parties, were put on board of the steamboat 
Warrior, and taken down to Prairie du Chien, where 
the wounded were taken to the hospital, and the 
prisoners put in confinement. The boat returned to 
us the next morning. We were still at the battle 
ground, or near it ; whilst we lay there, our men were 
still picking up scattering Indians. They brought in 
an old chief who was wounded. He was very poor, 
was between six and seven feet high ; what hair was on 
his head was gray, but that was not much, as the most 
of it was shaved off, just leaving enough for hand hold 
to scalp him by; as these superstitious beings think it 
would be a mark of cowardice to cut off this tuft of 
hair, which they call their scalp. These superstitious 
beings believe that if they are maimed or disfigured 
in this world, they will appear in the next in the same 
form, which is the reason they scarcely ever bury their 
dead. If he should chance to lose his scalp, they think 
that it would show in the next world that he had been 
conquered and scalped by an enemy, which would go 
to show that he was not a great warrior. 83 


Gen. Atkinson now thought that he had taken just 
retribution for the blood these Indians had spilt on 
our frontiers, and saw that it would be useless to cross 
the river in pursuit of those wretched beings, for they 
were now scattered and hid in the swamps, so that it 
was an impossible thing to take many of them. He 
finally came to the conclusion, to drop down to Prairie 
du Chien, and have a talk with the Winnebagoes ; for 
it was now manifest that they had been allies to the 
Sacs and Foxes ; for the prisoners that we took in this 
action, put all doubts to rest on this score. We had 
a long time believed that they were acting treacher 
ously, and General Atkinson now thought that it was 
time to bring them to an account for their conduct. 
He, accordingly, on the second day after the battle, 
which was the fourth of August, took up the line of 
march for Prairie du Chien ; but before General 
Atkinson left the battle ground, he provisioned a 
number of Sioux 84 and some Winnebagoes, and sent 
them in search of Black Hawk to see if they could 
not capture him, and bring him in as a prisoner, which 
the Sioux appeared to be anxious to do, as the Sacs 
and they had been at variance a long time ; and they 
saw that there was no chance of taking revenge for the 
many injuries the Sacs had done them. General 
Atkinson and the infantry went down on the steam 
boat Warrior, and reached Prairie du Chien on the 
same day we started. The mounted men, baggage 
and all went down by land, and reached Prairie du 
Chien the next day, which was the fifth of August. 
On entering the settlement of Prairie du Chien, we 
witnessed a very novel scene. The Menominie 
Indians were rejoicing at the defeat of the Sacs and 
Foxes, and were expressing it by music and dancing. 
They had obtained several scalps, amongst which were 
some of the squaws, which they always give to their 


squaws. They had given their squaws several of them, 
and were making music for them to dance around 
them. It was, as near as I could observe, in the fol 
lowing way : The men all stood in a row with gourds 
in their hands, shaking them in very regular order, 
while one old fellow was beating on the head of a kind 
of drum, which is generally a deer skin stretched over 
a hollow gum, sawed to the length of our drums. 
They never use but one stick, and that very slow. 
The squaws were all paraded in front of the men, 
facing them, and the squaws who were related to those 
whom the Sacs and Foxes killed in 1831, held the 
scalps of the Sacs and Fox squaws on long poles, and 
stood in the center between the two lines, shaking 
them, while the other squaws and the men danced 
around them, apparently trying to keep time with the 
rattling of the gourds, and sound of the drum, and all 
at the same time singing the song usually sung by all 
nations of Indians, consisting only of a few simple 
words that I have already repeated; but they rise and 
fall very singular, and always beat time to the song 
with their feet; when the song gets to the highest 
pitch, they jump up very high, and sometimes stamp 
with their feet. They generally bend forward toward 
each other, sometimes with their noses so close as to 
touch. The squaws appeared to exert all the power 
they were master of, in shaking the scalps, and using 
their feet at the same time, with the drummer and the 
gourd-shakers; and, from their countenances, they 
appeared to be perfectly happy. General Atkinson, 
on the second day after we arrived at Prairie du Chien, 
had the principal Chiefs of the Winnebagoes, and a 
few of the Menominies, at Gen. Street's, the Indian 
Agent at Prairie du Chien, and had a talk with them. 
He told them that they had given him reason to think 
they were not true to him, as he had caught them in 


many lies, which they tried to deny. He then ac 
cused Wisshick of aiding the Sacs, and inquired of 
him where his two sons were. The answer of Wisshick 
was, that he did not know where they were. General 
Atkinson then asked him if they were not with Black 
Hawk. His answer was, that one had been with him, 
but he did not know where he was then. General 
Atkinson then ordered him to be put in prison until 
his sons could be produced. He then had a talk with 
the Menominies, who had never been at war with the 
United States. They professed all the friendship in 
the world for our Government ; and stated that they 
had never done us any harm, and did not tell lies, and 
that if they wanted to do any harm now, they would 
not know how. This was a little Menominie Chief 
whose name I do not recollect. Gen. Atkinson talked 
very friendly to him, and advised him to pursue the 
same friendly course towards the United States, and 
they would be well treated. When this Chief was 
done, he made a request of Gen. Atkinson, whom he 
termed father, to give each of his young men a pair 
of shoes, and stated that their feet were worn out with 
walking. He then went on to explain, that when he 
said shoes, he meant horses, and stated that his young 
men had been promised a horse apiece, and had not 
got them. General Atkinson promised that they 
should have them, or that he would see to it, I do not 
recollect which. On the next day about eleven o'clock, 
Wisshick's sons were brought in, both badly wounded, 
which went to confirm that he and his sons were allies 
to the Sacs and Foxes. They had been wounded in 
the battle on the Mississippi. They were put in con 
finement July yth. 

General Scott 85 and suite arrived this morning in 
the steam boat Warrior, and assumed the command of 
the whole army, to which station he had been appointed 


some time previous, but was unable to come on sooner 
in consequence of the cholera breaking out in his 
army. He came past several posts, and discharged 
the men wherever he found them. 

General Scott concluded to discharge the army (or 
the Mounted Volunteers) that were then in the field, 
and demanded Black Hawk of Keokuck; 86 as both men 
and horses were nearly worn out with fatigue. Accord 
ingly, on the 8th day of August, we left the tented 
fields, and took up our line of march to Dixon's on 
Rock river, the place appointed for us to be discharged 
at (or mustered out of the service of the United States.) 
All now were eager to press forward. We had turned 
our faces toward our respective homes; and notwith 
standing that we as well as our horses, were nearly 
worn out with the fatiguing marches through the 
swamps, and over the mountains, yet all were cheerful, 
and every heart seemed to leap for joy at the thought 
of being free from the toils and hardships of a soldier, 
to return again to the embraces of a wife and children, 
or a father and mother, brothers and sisters, and to 
mingle once more, in the walks and society of the fair 
sex which appears to be a sovereign balm to man in 
all his afflictions. 

On this day just at night, we met about three 
hundred Menominie Indians, in company of an 
American Officer from Green Bay, 87 coming to join in 
pursuit of the Sac and Fox Indians. We happened to 
meet them in a prairie. The officer advanced and met 
us, or we certainly would have fired upon them. 
When we came up to them, they appeared almost to 
lament, that they had not got in before we had the last 
battle, in order that they could have had an oppor 
tunity of assisting us in the work of death to our 
common enemy. For they are, as I have already 
stated, great enemies to the Menominie Indians. 


When they left us, they seemed to press forward with 
more vigour, as it was their object to pursue the 
balance of the Sacs and Foxes, who had made their 

On the next day, we began to reach the settlements 
in the mining country. This was again a solemn scene. 
The farms had mostly been sown in grain of some 
kind or other. Those that were in small grain, were 
full ripe for the sickle; but behold! the husbandman 
was not there, to enjoy the benefits of his former 
labor by thrusting in the scythe and sickle, and 
gathering in his grain, which was fast going to destruc 
tion. All appeared to be solitary, and truly presented 
a state of mourning. But as we advanced a little 
further into the more thickly settled parts, we would 
occasionally see the smoke just beginning to make its 
appearance from the tops of the chimneys; as some of 
the inhabitants thought that it would be as well to risk 
dying by the tomahawk and scalping knife, as to lose 
their grain, and die by famine; and others had received 
information that we had slain in battle their trouble 
some enemy, who had driven them from their homes, 
and had slain many of their neighbors. Whenever 
we approached a house, there is no telling the joy it 
would give to the desolate man who had lately emerged 
from some fort, and had left his wife and children still 
in it, while he ventured to his home, to save something 
for them to subsist upon. 

I must confess, that it filled my heart with gratitude 
and joy, to think that I had been instrumental, with 
many others, in delivering my country of those merci 
less savages, and restoring those people again to their 
peaceful homes and firesides, there to enjoy in safety 
the sweets of a retired life; for a fort is to a husband 
man, what a jail is to a prisoner. The inhabitants of 
this district of [the] country had been shut up in forts 


for the last three months, through fear of becoming a 
prey to Indian barbarity. 

Nothing very interesting occurred on our march to 
Dixon's. Lieutenant Anderson, 88 of the United States 
army, met us at this point, and by the i yth of August, 
mustered us all out of the service of the United States. 
We sheathed our swords, and buried our tomahawks, 
and each man again became his own commander, and 
shaped his own course towards his home, to enjoy the 
social society of his relatives and friends, in the pursuit 
of their different avocations in life. 


Report of Gen. Atkinson to Major General Ala comb at Washing 
ton Indian talk with General Street, when they delivered 
Black Hawk and the Prophet Description of Black Hawk 
and the Prophet General remarks of the Author. 

WHEN General Atkinson dropped down to Prairie 
du Chien, after the battle on the Mississippi, he 
made the following report to Major General 
Macomb, Commander in Chief at Washington City. 

"Head Quarters, ist A. Corps, N. Western) 

Army, Prairie du Chien, Aug. 5, 1832.) 
"SIR I have the honor to report to you, that I crossed 
the Wisconsin on the 2yth and 28th ult., with a select 
body of troops, consisting of the regulars under Col. Taylor, 
four hundred in number, part of Henry's, Posey's and Alex 
ander's brigades, and Dodge's battalion of mounted volunteers ; 
amounting in all to thirteen hundred men; and immedi 
ately fell upon the trail of the enemy, and pursued it by 
forced marches through a mountainous and difficult country, 
till the morning of the second instant, when we came up 
with his main body, on the left bank of the Mississippi, nearly 
opposite the mouth of the Iowa; which we attacked, defeated, 
and dispersed, with a loss on his part of about one hundred and 
fifty men killed, and thirty-nine women and children prison 
ers. The precise number could not be ascertained, as the 
greater portion was slain after being forced into the river. 
Our loss in killed and wounded, which is stated below, is 
very small in comparison with the loss of the enemy ; which 
may be attributed to the enemy's being forced from his posi 
tions by a rapid charge at the commencement, and through 
the engagement. The remnant of the enemy, cut up and 
disheartened, crossed to the opposite side of the river, and has 


fled into the interior, with a view it is supposed of joining 
Keokuck and Wapilo's 89 bands of Sacs and Foxes. 

" The horses of the volunteer troops being exhausted by 
long marches, and the regular troops without shoes, it was 
not thought advisable to continue the pursuit. Indeed a stop 
to the further effusion of blood seemed to be called for, until 
it might be ascertained if the enemy would not surrender. 

"It is ascertained from our prisoners, that the enemy lost in 
the battle of Ouisconsin, sixty-eight killed, and a very large 
number wounded. His whole loss does not fall short of three 
hundred. After the battle of the Ouisconsin, the enemy's 
women and children, and some who were dismounted, 
attempted to make their escape by descending that river, but 
judicious measures being taken here by Captain Loomis and 
Gen. Street, and Indian Agent, thirty-two women and 
children, and four men, have been captured, and some fifteen 
killed by the detachment under Lieut. Ritner. 

"The day after the battle on this river, I fell down with the 
regular troops to this place by water, and the mounted men 
will join us to day. It is now my purpose to direct Keokuck 
to demand a surrender of the remaining principal men of the 
hostile party ; which, from the large number of women and 
children we hold as prisoners, I have every reason to believe 
will be complied with. Should it not, they should be pursued 
and subdued ; a step Major General Scott will no doubt take 
on his arrival. 

" I cannot speak too highly of the conduct of the regular 
and volunteer forces engaged in the last battle, and the 
fatiguing march that preceded it. 

" As soon as the reports of the officers of brigades and 
corps are handed in, they shall be submitted with further 

"I have the honor to be, with great respect, 

" Your obdt. servant, 

"H. ATKINSON, Bt. Bgdr. Gen. U. S. A. 
" Major Gen. Macomb, Commander in Chief, ) 
" Washington City." J 

The reader will recollect that I have, in a preceding 
chapter, given the substance of a talk between Gen. 


Atkinson and Gen. Street, agent for the Winnebagoes, 
and several Winnebago Chiefs, on our arrival at 
Prairie du Chien, after the battle on the Mississippi 
near the Bad- Axe. In this talk, Gen. Street told the 
principal chiefs that if they would bring in the Black 
Hawk and the Prophet, it would be well for them, 
and that the government of the United States would 
hold them in future as friends, and treat them kindly, 
and not any more consider them friends to the Sacs 
and Foxes. 

On this declaration the old one-eyed chief, called 
the Decorri, and Cheater, 90 took some of their men 
with them and went in pursuit of these Sac chiefs, in 
order if possible to take them prisoners, and bring 
them and deliver them up to the Indian agent at 
Prairie du Chien. 

Accordingly, on the 2yth of August, these two 
Winnebago chiefs returned, bringing with them the 
Black Hawk and the Prophet, the principal movers 
and instigators of the war. The interview with them 
on their arrival at Prairie du Chien, I have been told, 
was a very interesting scene. I will give the reader the 
substance of their talk with General Street and Col. 
Taylor, which will go to show how vigilant, and with 
what perseverance, these Winnebago chiefs acted to 
take these prisoners. They were upwards of twenty days 
gone after they left Prairie du Chien before they 
returned with them. 

When they arrived, Black Hawk desired to speak to 
General Street. The amount of what he said was, that 
he was not the originator of the war; that he was going 
where he would meet Keokuck, and then he would tell 
the truth ; that he would then tell all about this war, 
which had caused so much trouble ; 91 that there were 
chiefs and braves of his nation, who were the cause of 
the continuance of the war; that he did not want to 


hold any council with him ; that when he got where 
Keokuck was, he would tell the whole of the origin of 
the difficulties, and of those who continued it; that he 
wanted to surrender long ago, but others refused : that 
he wanted to surrender to the steamboat Warrior, and 
tried to do so until the second fire; that he then ran 
and went up the river, and never returned to the battle 
ground ; that his determination then was to escape if 
he could ; that he did not intend to surrender after that, 
but that, when the Winnebagoes came upon him, he 
gave up and that he would tell all about the disturb 
ance when he got to Rock Island. 

The one eyed Decorri and the Cheater both in like 
manner addressed General Street, whom they term their 
father; which almost all the Indians do their agents. 

The one eyed Decorri rose first, and addressed him 
in the following manner: 

"My father, I now stand before you. When we parted, I 
told you we would return soon ; but I could not come any 
sooner. We had to go a great distance, (to the Dale on the 
Wisconsin river, above the Portage ;) you see we have done 
what you sent us to do. These are the two you told us to 
get, (pointing to Black Hawk and the Prophet.) We always 
do what you tell us to do, because we know it is for our good. 
My father, you told us to get these men, and it would be the 
cause of much good to the Winnebagoes. We have brought 
them, but it has been very hard for us to do it ; that one, 
Macatamish Kakacky, was a great way off. You told us to 
bring them alive ; we have done so. If you had told us to 
bring their heads alone, we would have done so ; and it would 
have been less difficult for us to do, than what we have done. 
My father, we deliver these men into your hands ; we would 
not deliver them even to our brother, the chief of the warriors, 
but to you, because we know you, and believe you are our 
friend. We want you to keep them safe. If they are to be 
hurt, we do not wish to see it, wait until we are gone before it 
is done. My father, many little birds have been flying about 


our ears of late, and we thought they whispered to us, that 
there was evil intended for us ; but now we hope the evil birds 
will let our ears alone. 

"My father, we know you are our friends, because you take 
our part ; this is the reason we do what you tell us to do. 

"My father, you say you love your red children; we think 
we love you as much or more than you love us. 

"My father, we have been promised a great deal if we would 
take these men, that it would do much good for our people, we 
now hope to see what will be done for us. 

"My father, we have come in haste, and are tired and hungry, 
we now put these men in your hands ; we have done all*you 
told us to do/' 

General Street then said : 

"My children, you have done well ; I told you to bring these 
men to me, and you have done so. I am pleased at what you 
have done. It will tend to your good, and for this reason I 
am well pleased. I assured the great chief of the warriors that 
if these men were in your country, you would find them, and 
bring them to me; that I believed you would do what I directed 
you to do. Now I can say much for your good. I will go 
down to Rock Island with the prisoners, and I wish you who 
have brought these men especially to go with me, and such 
other chiefs and warriors as you may select. My children, 
the great chief of the warriors, when he left this place, directed 
me to deliver these and all other prisoners to the chief of the 
warriors, Col. Taylor, who is by my side. 

"Some of the Winnebagoes on the south side of the Wis 
consin river have befriended the Sacs, and some of the Indians 
of my agency have given them aid ; this was wrong, and dis 
pleased the great chief of the warriors and your great father 
the President, and was calculated to do you much harm. My 
children, your great father the President, at Washington, has 
sent a great war chief from the far east, General Scott, with a 
fresh army of soldiers, who is now at Rock Island. 

"Your great father has sent him and the governor of Illinois, 
to hold a council with the Indians at Rock Island ; he has sent 
a speech to you ; and wishes the chiefs and warriors of the 


Winnebagoes, to meet him in council, on the loth of Sep 
tember next ; I wish you to be ready to go along with me to 
Rock Island. 

" My children, I am well pleased that you have taken Black 
Hawk and the Prophet, and so many others; because it will 
enable me to say much for you to the great chief of the war 
riors, and your great father the President. I shall now deliver 
these two men, Black Hawk and the Prophet, to the chief of 
the warriors here, Col. Taylor, who will take good care of 
them until we start to Rock Island." 

Col. Taylor then said : 

u The great chief of the warriors told me to take the pris 
oners, when you should bring them, and send them to Rock 
Island to him ; I will take them, and keep them safe, but use 
them well, and will send them by you and Gen. Street when 
you go down to the council, which will be in a few days. 
Your friend Gen. Street advised you to get ready and go down 
soon, and so do [I] . I tell you again, I will take the prisoners 
and keep them safe, but will do them no harm. I will deliver 
them to the great chief of the warriors, and he will do with 
them and use them in such manner as he may be ordered by 
your great father the President." 

Cheater, a Winnebago, said to General Street, 

" My father, I am young, and don't know how to make 
speeches. This is the second time I ever spoke to you before 
the people. My father, I am no Chief. I am no orator, but 
I have been allowed to speak to you. My father, if I should 
not speak as well as others, still you must listen to me. 

"My father, when you made the speech to the Chiefs, 
Waugh-kon-decorri, Carimanee, the one-eyed Decorri, and 
others, the other day, I was there. I heard you. I thought 
what you said to them, you also said to me. You said, if 
these two (pointing to Black Hawk and the Prophet,) were 
taken by us, and brought to you, there would never any more 
a black cloud hang over your Winnebagoes. My father, 
your words entered into my ears, into my brains, and into my 
heart. I left here that very night, and you know you have 


not seen me since, until now. My father, I have been a 
great way. I had much trouble; but when I remembered 
what you said, I know you was right. This made me keep 
on, and do what you told me to do. Near the Dale on the 
Wisconsin river, I took Black Hawk. No one did it but me. 
I say this in the ears of all present, and they know it ; and I 
now appeal to the Great Spirit, our Grand Mother, for the 
truth of what I say. My father, I am no Chief, but what I 
have done is for the benefit of my own nation, and, I hope, 
for the good that has been promised us. My father, that one, 
Waboki-shick, is my relation. If he is to be hurt, I do not 
wish to see it. 

" My father, soldiers sometimes stick the ends of their guns 
(bayonets) into the backs of Indian prisoners, when they are 
going about in the hands of the guard. I hope this will not 
be done to these men." 

So ended this long talk of the uninformed savage, 
which goes to show that they have a warm feeling for 
their red brethren. 

It appears that they at this time were true friends to 
our Government; but they were, I have no doubt, 
frightened into this friendship by the first talk at 
Prairie du Chien, which Generals Street and Atkinson 
held with them, on our arrival at that place, after the 
battle of Bad- Axe. 

It may not here be uninteresting to the reader, to 
give a description of those two distinguished prisoners, 
respecting whom so much has been said. No doubt 
they were the sole movers and cause of the late war. 
Black Hawk is a Pottawattomie 92 by birth, but raised 
by the Sacs. He appears to be about sixty years old ; 
has a small bunch of grey hair on the crown of his 
head, the rest of which is bare ; has a high forehead ; 
a Roman nose ; and full mouth, which generally in 
clines to be a little open ; has a sharp chin ; no eye 
brows, but a very fine eye. His head is frequently 
thrown back on his shoulders. He is about five feet 


four or five inches high ; at present he is thin, and 
appears much dejected ; but now and then he assumes 
the aspect of command. He held in his left hand a 
white flag; in the other, the tail with the back, skin, 
head, and beak of the Caumet Eagle. With this he 
frequently fans himself. His Indian name is Mucata- 
mish-ka-kack. 93 

The Prophet, a half Sac and half Winnebago, is 
about forty years old ; nearly six feet high ; is stout 
and athletic; has a large broad face; short blunt nose; 
large full eyes ; broad mouth ; thick lips ; with a full 
suit of hair. He wore a white cloth head-dress which 
rose several inches above the top of his head ; the 
whole man exhibiting a deliberate savageness; not that 
he would seem to delight in honorable war, or fight; 
but making him as the priest of assassination, or cleri 
cal murder. He had in one hand a white flag, while 
the other hung carelessly by his side. They were both 
clothed in very white dressed deer skin, fringed at the 
seams with short cuttings of the same. His Indian 
name is Wabokie-shick, (the White Cloud.) 

According to the directions of General Street and 
Colonel Taylor, those two Chiefs (or braves,) accom 
panied by the Winnebago Chiefs, and braves, went 
down to Rock Island at the stipulated time, under the 
command of Col. Taylor. 94 But when they got to this 
point, which had been the place designated to hold the 
treaties with those nations of Indians, the cholera pre 
vailed to such an extent, that they found it was 
impossible to treat at that point; so Gen. Scott, 
Governor Reynolds, and those concerned in the treaty, 
dropped down the Mississippi to Jefferson Barracks, 
where a number of other Chiefs and braves were 
brought to them, amongst which was Napope, a cele 
brated Sac Chief, also Wisshick, who it appears cele 
brated himself at the battle on the Mississippi, for it 


appears he had the command at that place, and 
from his own statement did much execution himself. 

Here the Commissioners made and concluded trea 
ties both with the Sacs and Foxes, and the Winne- 
bagoes, which the reader will find in the appendix of 
this book.* It was a fair equitable treaty; the govern 
ment purchased all the claims they had to lands in the 
state of Illinois, and pays [paid] them a liberal sum for 
the same. They kept Black Hawk, Napope, Wisshick, 
and the Prophet, as hostages for the good behaviour 
of the rest of the nation of Sacs and Foxes. 

Thus terminated a short but laborious war, between 
the United States and those nations of Indians; but it 
was not without the loss of some of our valuable 
citizens, that peace was again restored to our country. 
In the accomplishment of this desired object, it is just 
to remark, that both officer and soldier did all that lay 
in their power to bring this unhappy war to a close as 
soon as possible. 

Our citizen soldiers hesitated not when the sound of 
alarm was given, to forsake all other interests, dear as 
it must have been to some, to defend the rights of their 
common country. They at once saw that these Indians 
had violated the solemn obligations of a solemn treaty, 
entered into but a few months before. This bold and 
daring defiance of us, and unprovoked outrage upon 
the provisions of the treaty, aroused the indignation of 
the whole country; it was more than the free sons of 
Illinois could think of bearing. They immediately 
at the call of their chief, flew to arms. Their Governor 
was with them, and one of the first in the field, who, 
together with his efficient Adjutant General, organized 
the troops in as quick time as ever it was done in any 
country, notwithstanding they labored under many 
difficulties on account of the great scarcity of 

* See Appendix, notes 6 and 7. 


provisions in our state at that time; for a visitation of 
Providence had almost entirely cut off our crops the 
last two years. To provision this army was very per 
plexing at this time. What was Governor Reynolds 
to do? At this critical moment our state was invaded 
by a savage foe, and he knew not how soon the help 
less citizens on the frontiers might become an easy 
prey to their barbarity. But justice says to my pen, 
write it down, and say to your reader, that he flew to 
one of the ablest and most efficient men, Col. March. 95 
Provisions, forage, arms, munitions of war, and every 
thing that was necessary was soon furnished and con 
veyed up the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, to such 
points as Governor Reynolds directed him. There 
were provisions in St. Louis, and this energetic and 
unsurpassable man got them, let the prices be what 
they might please to ask. There was no lack of 

But the first campaign proved unsuccessful; but 
such is the fate of war, and none ought to lay the 
blame on the Commander-in-Chief, which some have 
had the boldness to do, but I think unjustly. I was 
an eye witness a greater part of the campaign, and I 
thought he did not spare time or pains to hunt out 
the enemy, and chastise them for their temerity. I 
think he must be a man of a reckless disposition, who 
would charge the ill success to him in this first cam 
paign. Those who were out on the second can testify 
to the many difficulties we had to encounter before we 
fell in with the enemy. But did the Governor, when 
the first campaign proved unsuccessful, fold his arms 
in this trying and critical moment, and abandon the 
bleeding frontier to the merciless savages? Did he 
abandon the camp for a life of ease, in the repose of 
his own domestic habitation? The answer, I think, 
reader, will be No ! by all who know anything of the 


first and last campaigns. Did he not see that a fair 
portion of the State, which he had the honor to govern, 
was exposed to the midnight and noon day assassina 
tion by the ruthless savage? Were the cries of his 
people listened to unheeded? No! he left a devoted 
band under the command of those heroic soldiers, 
Henry and Fry, and issued a proclamation to his 
countrymen to come forth to the frontier and protect 
the rights of their country. 

Was this appeal, too, unheeded by the gallant 
sons of Illinois? Did they turn a deaf ear to the 
cries of the people of the mining country, when the 
savage had killed some of its choice citizens in open 

Look at the massacre on Indian Creek, of the Halls, 
Daviess, and Penigrew families ; the highway murder 
of St. Vrain, Durley, Howard, Green, Hall, and many 
others. Who could see or hear of all those massacres, 
and not turn out in defence of his country ? Or what 
Governor would tamely lose one moment, before he 
would fly with all its force to its relief? Was not this 
the case at this time? Did not Governor Reynolds a 
second time invoke the patriotism of his people for 
a fresh supply of troops? The people heard, and 
abandoned their ploughs, when in the act of planting 
their corn ; the courts of justice were suspended ; the 
lawyer quit the bar; the minister of divine truth for 
sook the pulpit for the tented fields of a soldier's life. 
They plainly saw, that if the arm of succour was not 
held out to those frontiers, the country bordering on 
the Mississippi and Illinois, and the Mining District, 
would soon be left a barren wilderness, and present a 
blaze of conflagration, and the voice of our friends and 
neighbors heard no more. 

Our chief gave the word, " to arms " and that was 
sufficient; all were soon at the place of rendezvous; 


none slumbered by the way ; they were going forth to 
avenge the murders of their butchered brethren. 

In obedience to the call of their Governor, in two 
weeks there was a force of nearly four thousand 
assembled at Fort Wilbourn, a distance of at least three 
hundred and fifty miles from the homes of some of the 
volunteer companies. Here we again found our Gov 
ernor in arms in defence of his country. The army 
was soon organized, by the aid of Adjutant General 
Berry, into three Brigades. We wanted a Bruce or a 
Wallace to lead us to victory. Such a man was the 
brave James D. Henry 98 to become. He was elected 
Brigadier General of the third brigade, as I have before 
mentioned. Generals Posey and Alexander are like 
wise deserving men, and stand high in the estimation 
of their country. But an all-wise Providence saw fit 
to crown the Bruce-like Henry with the glory of 
avenging our country's wrongs, and restoring peace to 
its citizens. 

I must next speak of Gen. Atkinson, who has a 
thousand times received the thanks of Illinois and the 
general government. He had the command of all the 
northwestern army, until succeeded by General Scott; 
which was not until after the last battle was fought, 
and the enemy completely conquered. This officer 
is also deserving well of his country, for the long and 
vigilant perseverance in pursuing the enemy through 
every difficulty that presented itself. He can truly 
have it to say, that he marched an army over a country 
that cannot be surpassed in the inhabited world, and 
one that no white man ever approached before. Not 
even the savage himself attempts to penetrate this 
country, only when he is forced, then he resorts to 
this mountainous forest to evade pursuit, thinking that 
no white man can penetrate it. This was done as I 
have before remarked, in the year eighteen hundred 


and twenty- seven, by the Winnebagoes, after they 
attacked Captain Lindsey's boats on the Mississippi. 
But General Atkinson stopt not at this time for the 
tall and lofty mountains, or the low and marshy swamp. 
His word of command to his generals, was " onward, 
march" and at the sound of the morning bugle, he 
was one of the first to rise and prepare for the pursuit. 
Although stricken in years, he would leap offhis charger, 
when he would come to an impassable mud hole or preci 
pice, like a boy of sixteen. This officer, throughout the 
whole of this long campaign, which lasted for three 
months, used every precaution to save the lives of his 
men, when danger was expected, his men never failed 
to have breast works thrown up when they encamped, 
for fear of a surprise at the dead hour of the night. 

Thus, by his perseverance, and the gallant officers 
under him, and a brave and chivalrous set of soldiers, 
the war was brought to an end, with honor to both 
men and officers. 

But whilst we rejoice at the honorable result of the 
close of this war, we cannot at the same time help 
lamenting the loss of so many valuable citizens, who 
were either massacred at their own private dwellings, 
or assassinated on the highway, or fell in fighting the 
battles of their country. 

The author has been led to the foregoing reflections, 
from seeing in many of the eastern prints, that many 
erroneous statements have gone abroad, respecting the 
origin and management of this war; and some of them 
casting reflections on the Governor of our State, and 
crying out, "poor Indians." But as I have before 
observed, none but the reckless and abandoned hearted 
man, would have the hardihood to cast imputations 
upon our Executive, and cry out, "poor Indians," 
after a thorough perusal of the many outrages these 
hell-hounds committed on our frontier settlements. 


NOTE i. 

The author must now begin with the Sac and Fox 
nations of Indians; and it is his intention to confine 
himself principally to the war between them and the 
general government. 

In order to show the cause of hostilities between 
those Indians and the United States, he has to trouble 
the reader with petitions sent by the settlers near Rock 
Island, to his Excellency Gov. Reynolds, praying for 
protection ; and then the course pursued to dissuade 
those Indians from their evil designs, by Gen. Clark, 
Gov. Reynolds, Gen. Gaines, and the Indian Agent, 
without a resort to arms. But it would not do ; a 
resort to arms was indispensably necessary to restore 
peace and safety to our citizens. The letters and peti 
tions are as follows : 

"April 30, 1831. 
u His Excellency the Governor of the State of Illinois : 

" We the undersigned, being citizens of Rock River and its 
vicinity, beg leave to state to your honor, the grievances which 
we labor under, and pray your protection against the Sac and 
Fox tribe of Indians, who have again taken possession of our 
lands near the mouth of Rock River and its vicinity. They 
have, and now are, burning our fences, destroying our crops 
of wheat now growing, by turning in all their horses. They 
also threaten our lives if we attempt to plant corn, and say they 
will cut it up ; that we have stolen their lands from them ; 
and they are determined to exterminate us, provided we don't 




leave the country. Your honor no doubt is aware of the out 
rages that were committed by said Indians, heretofore. Par 
ticularly last fall, they almost destroyed all our crops, and 
made several attempts on the owners' lives when they 
attempted to prevent their depredations, and actually wounded 
one man by stabbing him in several places. This spring they 
act in a much more outrageous and menacing manner, so that 
we consider ourselves compelled to beg protection of you ; 
which the agent and garrison on Rock Island refuse to give, 
inasmuch as they say they have no orders from government ; 
therefore, should we not receive adequate aid from your honor, 
we shall be compelled to abandon our settlement, and the 
lands which we have purchased of government. Therefore, 
we have no doubt but that your honor will better anticipate our 
condition, than it is represented, and grant us immediate relief in 
the manner that to you may seem most likely to produce the 
desired effect. The number of Indians now among us, is 
about six or seven hundred. They say there are more com 
ing, and that the Pottawattomies and some of the Winneba- 
goes will help them in case of an irruption with the whites. 
The warriors now here, are the Black Hawk's party, with 
other chiefs, the names of whom we are not acquainted with. 
Therefore, looking up to you for protection, we beg leave to 
remain, yours, &c. 

John Wells, 
B. F. Pike, 
H. McNeil, 
Albert Wells, 
Griffith Ausbury, 
Thomas Gardiner, 
J. Vandruff, 
S. Vandruff, 
John L. Bain, 
Horace Cook, 
David B. Hail, 
John Barrel, 
William Henry, 

Arastus Kent, 
Levi Wells, 
Joel Wells, 
Michael Bartlet, 
Huntington Wells, 
Thomas Davis, 
Thomas Lovitt, 
William Heans, 
Charles French, 
M. S. Hulls, 
Eri Wells, 
Asaph Wells, 

G. V. Miller, 
Edward Burner, 
Joel Thompson, 
Joel Wells, Jun., 
J. W. Spencer, 
Joseph Danforth, 
William Brasher, 
Jonah H. Case, 
Samuel Wells, 
Charles French, 
Benjamin Goble, 
Gentry McCall." 


NOTE 2. 

It will be seen that this petition was sent to the 
Governor on the joth of April. The citizens waited 
until the I9th of May, when they found they would 
have to send a second embassy to his Excellency by 
express, in as much haste as possible, as they were 
hourly in danger of being all massacred by those 
Indians. They accordingly drew up the following 
petition and sent it by one of the most respectable of 
their citizens, who was able in person to lay before the 
Governor their grievances. 

FARNHAMBURG, May i 9 th, 1831. 

" To his Excellency the Governor of the State of Illinois : 

"We the undersigned, citizens of Rock River and its 
vicinity, having previously sent a petition to your honor, 
praying your protection against these Sac Indians, who were 
at that time doing every kind of mischief, as was set forth and 
represented to your honor : but feeling ourselves more 
aggrieved, and our situation more precarious, we have been 
compelled to make our distress known to you by sending one of 
our neighbors, who is well acquainted with our situation. If 
we do not get relief speedily, we must leave our habitations to 
these savages, and seek safety for our families, by taking them 
down into the lower counties -, and suffer our houses and fences 
to be destroyed; as one of the principal war chiefs has threat 
ened, if we do not abandon our settlement, his warriors should 
burn our houses over our heads. They were, at the time we 
sent our other petition, destroying our crops of wheat, and are 
still pasturing their horses in our fields; burning our fences, and 
have thrown the roof off one house. They shot arrows at our 
cattle, killed our hogs; and every mischief. We have tried 
every argument to the agent for relief, but he tells us they are 
a lawless band, and he has nothing to do with them until 
further orders; leaving us still in suspense, as the Indians say, 
if we plant we shall not reap, a proof of which we had last 
fall ; they almost entirely destroyed all our crops of corn , 


potatoes, &c. Believing we shall receive protection from your 
Excellency, we shall go on with our farms until the return of 
the bearer; and ever remain your humble supplicants, &c." 

I omit giving the names of the signers of this petition 
as it was signed by nearly the same citizens who signed 
the first. 

I will next give the reader the deposition of Ben 
jamin F. Pike, the bearer of the above petition to 
Gov. Reynolds, and also the depositions of Hirah 
Sanders and Ammyson Chapman, taken before John H. 
Dennis, a Justice of the Peace for St. Clair, and Stephen 
Dewey a Justice of the Peace for Fulton county. 


"Present, Benjamin F. Pike, before me, a Justice of the 
Peace in and for the said county, and made oath and deposed, 
that he has resided in the vicinity of Rock River, in the State 
of Illinois, for almost three years last past; that he is well 
acquainted with the band of Sac Indians, whose chief is the 
Black Hawk, and who have resided and do now reside near the 
mouth of Rock River in this State; that he understands so much 
of the said Indian language, as to converse with the said Indians 
intelligibly ; that he is well satisfied that said Indians, to the 
amount of about three hundred warriors, are extremely 
unfriendly to the white people; that said Indians are determined; 
if not prevented by force, to drive off the white people, who 
have some of them purchased land of the United States, near 
said Indians; and said Indians to remain the sole occupiers of 
the said country. That said Indians do not only make threats 
to this effect, but have, in various instances, done much damage 
to said white inhabitants, by throwing down their fences, 
destroying the fall grain, pulling off the roofs of houses, and 
positively asserting that if the whites did not go away, they 
would kill them; that there are about forty inhabitants and 
heads of families in the vicinity of said Indians, who are 
immediately affected by said band of Indians; that said Pike is 
certain that said forty heads of families, if not protected, will 
be compelled to leave their habitations and homes from the 


actual injury that said Indians will commit on said inhabitants. 
That said band of Indians, consist, as above stated, of about 
three hundred warriors, and that the whole band is actuated by 
the same hostile feelings towards the white inhabitants ; and 
that, if not prevented by an armed force of men, will commit 
murders on said white inhabitants. That said Indians have 
said, that they would fight for their country where they reside, 
and would not permit the white people to occupy it at all. 
That said white inhabitants are desirous to be protected, and 
that immediately, so that they may raise crops this spring and 


"Sworn and subscribed before me, this 26th May, 1831. 

The deposition of Hirah Sanders and Ammyson 
Chapman, taken before Stephen Dewey, Esq., a Justice 
of the Peace for Fulton county. 


" Personally appeared before me, Stephen Dewey, an acting 
Justice of the Peace in and for the said county of Fulton, and 
State of Illinois, Hirah Sanders, and Ammyson Chapman, of the 
aforesaid county and State, and made oath that some time in 
the month of April last, they went to the old Indian Sac town, 
about thirty miles up Rock River, for the purpose of farming 
and establishing a ferry across said river, and the Indians 
ordered us to move away, and not to come there again, and 
we remained there a few hours. They then sent for their 
chief, and he informed us that we might depart peaceably, and 
if we did not that he would make us go. He therefore 
ordered the Indians to throw our furniture out of the house ; 
they accordingly did so, and threatened to kill us if we did not 
depart. We therefore discovered that our lives were in danger, 
and consequently moved back again to the above county. 
We supposed them to be principally Winnebagoes. 


"Sworn and Subscribed this nth day of May, 1831. 


There were several other petitions sent the Gover 
nor from Henderson river and elsewhere, which I will 
not trouble the reader with at this time; likewise a 
number of depositions were taken, the substance of 
which will be found in Gen. Gaines's report to the 
President of the United States. 

I will trouble the reader with those documents, in 
order to show that Governor Reynolds and Gen. 
Gaines did not act premature, but acted with too much 
forbearance towards those Indians. Likewise I hope 
it will put the seal of disapprobation upon many false 
reports that have gone abroad, to the prejudice of those 
men, making out that justice has not been done them, 
as I have before stated. I think if they are to blame 
at all, it is for not calling out an armed force sooner 
than what they did, for the citizens certainly suffered 
very much by the annoyance of those Indians. It has 
been plainly proven that those lands were sold by those 
Indians to the United States, and the United States 
had sold many of them to those individuals, which 
they had paid their money for, and as individuals are 
bound to protect their Government, and support its 
laws. It also is the duty of the government to protect 

I will next give the reader the correspondence that 
took place between Governor Reynolds, General 
Clark, and General Gaines, which goes fully to show 
that those Indians were not to be persuaded to sur 
render the idea of taking those lands by force, only by 
an army superior to themselves in numbers. 

Copy of a letter to General Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 

"BELLEVILLE, May 26, 1831. 
" General Clark, Superintendent, &c. 

" SIR : In order to protect the citizens of this State, who 
reside near Rock Island, from Indian invasion and depreda 
tion, I have considered it necessary to call out a force of 


militia of this State, of about 700 strong, to remove a band of 
the Sac Indians, who reside now about Rock Island. The 
object of the government of the State is to protect those citi 
zens by removing those Indians, peaceably if they can, but 
forcibly if they must. Those Indians are now, and so I have 
considered them, in a state of actual invasion of the State. 

" As you act as the general agent of the United States in 
relation to said Indians, I consider it my duty to inform you 
of the above call on the militia, and that in or about fifteen 
days a sufficient force will appear before said Indians to re 
move them, dead or alive, over to the west side of the Missis 
sippi. But to save all this disagreeable business, perhaps a 
request from you to them, for them to remove to the west 
side of the river, would affect the object of procuring peace to 
the citizens of the State. There is no disposition on the part 
of the people of this State to injure those unfortunate savages, 
if they will let us alone ; but a government that does not pro 
tect its citizens, deserves not the name of a government. 
u Please correspond with me on this subject. 
" Your obedient servant, 



St. Louis, May 28, 1831. J 

" SIR : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 26th inst. informing me of your having consid 
ered it necessary to collect a force of militia of about seven 
hundred, for the protection of the citizens of Illinois who 
reside near Rock Island, from Indian invasion ; and for the 
purpose of removing a band of Sac Indians, who are now 
about Rock Island. 

" You intimate that to prevent the necessity of employing 
this force, perhaps a request from me to those Indians to 
remove to the west side of the Mississippi, would effect the 
object of procuring peace to the citizens of your State. In 
answer to which, I would beg leave to observe, that every 
effort on my part has been made to effect the removal from 
Illinois of all the tribes who had ceded their lands. 

" For the purpose of affording you a view of what has been 
done (in part) in relation thereto, I enclose herewith extracts 


from the reports of the agent of the Sac and Fox tribes, by 
which it will be seen that every means has been used short of 
actual force to effect their removal. 

ct I have communicated the contents of your letter to Gen 
eral Gaines, who commands the Western Division of the 
Army, and has full power to execute any military movement 
deemed necessary for the protection of the frontier. I shall 
also furnish him with such information, regarding the Sac 
and Foxes, as I am possessed of; and would beg (cave to 
refer you to him for any further proceedings in relation to this 
subject. I have the honor to be, 

" With high respect, 

u Your most ob't serv't, 

"His Excellency, JOHN REYNOLDS, 

" Governor of the State of 111. " 

Copy of a letter to Major Gen. Gaines. 

BELLEVILLE, May 28, 1831. 
u General Gaines : 

" SIR : I have received undoubted information, that the 
section of this State near Rock Island, is actually invaded by 
a hostile band of the Sac Indians, headed by Black Hawk; and 
in order to repel said invasion, and to protect the citizens of 
the State, I have, under the provisions of the Constitution of 
the United States, and the laws of this State, called on the 
militia, to the number of seven hundred men, who will be 
mounted and ready for service in a very short time. I con 
sider it my duty to lay before you the above information, so 
as you, commanding the military forces of the United States 
in this part of the Union, may adopt such measures in regard 
to said Indians as you deem right. 

" The above mentioned mounted volunteers (because such 
they will be) will be in readiness immediately to move against 
said Indians, and, as Executive of the State of Illinois, respect 
fully solicit your co-operation in this business. Please honor 
me with an answer to this letter. 

" With sincere respect for your character, 
" I am, your obdt. servant, 



Copy of a letter of Major General Games. 

"H. Q. WESTERN DEPARTMENT, May 29, 1831. 

u His Excellency, Governor Reynolds : 

" SIR: I do myself the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of yesterday's date, advising me of your having 
received undoubted information that the section of the frontier 
of your State near Rock Island, is invaded by a hostile band 
of Sac Indians, headed by a chief called Black Hawk. That 
in order to repel said invasion, and to protect the citizens of 
the State, you have called on the militia to the number of 
seven hundred militiamen, to be in readiness immediately to 
move against the Indians, and you solicit my co-operation. 

" In reply, it is my duty to state to you, that I have ordered 
six companies of the regular troops stationed at Jefferson Bar 
racks, to embark to-morrow morning, and repair forthwith to 
the spot occupied by the hostile Sacs. To this detachment I 
shall, if necessary, add four companies from Prairie du Chien, 
making a total of ten companies. With this force I am sat 
isfied that I shall be able to repel the invasion, and give 
security to the frontier inhabitants of the State. But should 
the hostile band be sustained by the residue of the Sac, Fox, 
and other Indians, to an extent requiring an augmentation of 
my force, I will, in that event, communicate with your Excel 
lency by express, and avail myself of the co-operation which 
you propose. But, under existing circumstances, and the 
present aspect of our Indian relations on the Rock Island sec 
tion of the frontier, I do not deem it necessary or proper to 
require militia, or any other description of force, other than 
that of the regular army at this place and Prairie du Chien. 

u I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 
" Your obedient servant, 

" Major Gen. by Brevet Commanding." 


NOTE 3. 

General Games to Governor Reynolds. 

" 'John Reynolds, Governor of Illinois : 

" SIR : I do myself the honor to report to your Excellency 
the result of my conference with the chiefs and braves of the 
band of Sac Indians, settled within the limits of your State 
near this place. 

u I called their attention to the facts reported to me of their 
disorderly conduct towards the white inhabitants near them. 
They disavow any intention of hostility, but at the same time 
adhere with stubborn pertinacity, to their purpose of remain 
ing on the Rock River land in question. 

" I notified them of my determination to move them peace 
ably if possible, but at all events to move them to their own 
side of the Mississippi river ; pointing out to them the appar 
ent impossibility of their living on lands purchased by the 
whites without constant disturbance. They contended that 
this part of their country had never been sold by them. I 
explained to them the different treaties of 1804, '16 and '25, 
and concluded with a positive assurance that they must move off, 
and that I must as soon as they are ready assist them with boats. 

" I have this morning learned that they have invited the 
Prophet's band of Winnebagoes on Rock River, with some 
Pottawattomies and Kickapoos, to join them. If I find this 
to be true I shall gladly avail myself of my present visit to see 
them well punished ; and therefore, I deem it to be the only 
safe measure now to be taken to request of your Excellency 
the battalion of mounted men, which you did me the honor to 
say would co-operate with me. They will find at this post a 
supply of rations for the men, with some corn for their horses ; 
together with a supply of powder and lead. 

" I have deemed it expedient under all the circumstances 
of the case, to invite the frontier inhabitants to bring their 
families to this post until the difference is over. 

"I have the honor to be, with great respect, 
u Your obedient servant, 

"Major Gen. by Brevet Commanding." 


P. S. Since writing the foregoing remarks, I have learned 
that the Winnebagoes and Pottawattomie Indians have actu 
ally been invited by the Sacs to join them. But the former 
evince no disposition to comply ; and it is supposed by Col. 
Gratiot, the Agent, that none will join the Sacs, except per 
haps some few of the Kickapoos. 

"E. P. G." 

NOTE 4. 

" Articles of agreement and capitulation, made and con 
eluded this thirtieth day of June, one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty one, between E. P. Gaines, Major General of the 
United States Army, on the part of the United States, John 
Reynolds, Governor of Illinois, on the part of the State of 
Illinois, and the Chiefs and Braves of the band of Sac Indians, 
usually called the British band of Rock River, with their 
old allies of the Pottawattomie, Winnebago, and Kickapoo 

" Witnesseth, that whereas, the said British band of Sac 
Indians, have, in violation of the several treaties entered into 
between the United States and the Sac and Fox nations, in the 
years 1804, 1816, and 1825, continued to remain upon, and 
to cultivate the lands on Rock River, ceded to the United 
States by the said treaties, after the said lands had been sold 
by the United States, to individual citizens of Illinois and 
other States : And whereas, the said British band af Sac 
Indians, in order to sustain their pretensions to continue upon 
the said Rock River lands, have assumed the attitude of actual 
hostility towards the United States, and have had the audacity 
to drive citizens of the State of Illinois from their homes, 
destroy their corn, and invite many of their old friends of the 
Pottawattomie, Winnebago, and Kickapoos to unite with them 
(the said British band of Sacs) in war, to prevent their removal 
from said lands : And whereas, many of the most disorderly 
of their several tribes of Indians, did actually join the said 
British band of Sac Indians prepared for war against the 
United States, and more particularly against the State of Illi 
nois ; from which purpose they confess that nothing could 


have restrained them but the appearance of force far exceed 
ing the combined strength of the said British band of Sac 
Indians, with such of their aforesaid allies as had actually 
joined them ; but being now convinced that such a war would 
tend speedily to annihilate them, they have voluntarily aban 
doned their hostile attitude and sued for peace. 

" Peace is therefore granted them upon the following con 
ditions, to which the said British band of Sac Indians, with 
their aforesaid allies agree ; and for the faithful execution of 
which the undersigned Chiefs and Braves of the said band 
and their allies mutually bind themselves, their heirs and 
assigns for ever. 

" 2. The British band of Sac Indians are required peace 
ably to submit to the authority of the friendly Chiefs and 
Braves of the United Sac and Fox nations, and at all times 
hereafter to reside and hunt with them upon their own lands 
west of the Mississippi river, and be obedient to their laws 
and treaties, and no one or more of the said band shall ever 
be permitted to recross said river to the place of their usual 
residence, nor to any part of their old hunting ground east of 
the Mississippi, without the express permission of the Presi 
dent of the United States, or the Governor of the State of 

u 3. The United States will guarantee to the united Sac and 
Fox nations, including the said British band of Sac Indians, the 
integrity of all the lands claimed by them west of the Mississippi 
river pursuant to the treaties of the years 1825 and 1830. 

" 4. The United States require the united Sac and Fox 
nations, including the aforesaid British band,toabandon all com 
munication and cease to hold any intercourse with any British 
post, garrison or town, and never again to admit among them 
any agent or trader who shall not have derived his authority to 
hold commercial or other intercourse with them from the 
President of the United States or his authorized agent. 

"5. TheUnited States demand an acknowledgment of their 
right to establish military posts and roads within the limits of 
the said country guaranteed by the third article of this agree 
ment and capitulation, for the protection of the frontier 


" 6. It is further required by the United States, that the 
principal friendly Chiefs and head men of the Sacs and Foxes 
bind themselves to enforce as far as may be in their power, 
the strict observance of each and every article of this agree 
ment and capitulation, and at any time they may find them 
selves unable to restrain their allies the Pottawattomies, Kick- 
apoos or Winnebagoes, to give immediate information thereof 
to the nearest military post. 

" 7. And it is finally agreed by the contracting parties, 
that henceforth permanent peace and friendship be established 
between the United States and the aforesaid band of Indians. 
(Signed) "EDMUND P. GAINES, 

" Major Gen. by Brevet Commanding. 

" Governor of the State of Illinois. 

[Sac] Chiefs. 

Pashepaho, or Stabbing Chief, his X mark. 
Weeshat, or Sturgeon Head, his X mark. 
Chakinpoxepaho, or Little Stabbing Chief, his X mark. 
Chicohalico, or Turtle Shell, his X mark. 
Pemexee, or The one that flies, his X mark. 

Warriors and Braves. 

Mucata Muhicatak, or the Black Hawk, his X mark. 
Menacon, or The Lead, his X mark. 
Kakekamah, or All Fish, his X mark. 
Crepesh, or Water, his X mark. 

Casamesan, or The one that flies too fast, his X mark. 
Paunenanee, or Paune Man, his X mark. 
Wawapalosa, or White Walker, his X mark. 
Wapaquat, or White Horse, his X mark. 

Keokuck, or Walker, his X mark. [Not the principal chief 
of that name.] 

Fox Chiefs. 

Wapello, or The Prenee, his X mark. 
Katemse, or The Eagle, his X mark. 
Pawsheet, or The one who threw, his X mark. 
Namer, or The one that has gone, his X mark. 


Fox Braves and Warriors. 
Allotoh, or Morgan, his X mark. 
Kakakew, or The Crow, his X mark. 
Shesveguanas, or Little Guard, his X mark. 
Kokaskee, his X mark. 
Takona, or The Prisoner, his X mark. 
Crakiskowa, or The one that meets, his X mark. 
Pametekeh, or The one that clouds about, his X mark. 
Tapokea, or The Light, his X mark. 

Moransot, or The one that has his hair pulled, his X mark. 
Kakenekapeo, or Setting in the Grass, his X mark. 


Jos. M. Street, United States Indian Agent, Prairie du 
Chien ; Aby. [W.] Morgan, Colonel U. S. Infantry; J. Bliss, 
Bvt. Maj. 3d Infantry; Geo. A. McCall, Aidecamp; Saml. 
Whiteside; Felix St. Vrain, Indian Agent; John S. Great- 
house ; M. K. Alexander ; A. S. West ; Antoine Le Claire, 
Interpreter; Joseph Da n forth ; Daniel S. Witter; Benj. F. 

NOTE 5. 


' NASHVILLE, TENN. Aug. 10, 1831. 

" SIR : I have the honor to report for the information of 
the President of the United States, the several depositions and 
original letters, to w.hich I have hitherto referred, since the 
date of my last, of the first ultimo. In relation to the late 
disorderly conduct of the British band of Sac Indians, in 
attempting to retake and hold possession of the Rock River 
lands ; and for this purpose to enter into alliances, and form 
combinations with the most disorderly of their red neighbors, 
against the States of Missouri and Illinois and the Territory 
of Michigan, viz : 

"No. i. The deposition of Rennah Wells, Samuel 
Wells, Benjamin Pike, Joseph Danforth, Moses Johnson, 
John Wells, John W. Spencer, Joseph H. Case, and Charles 
Case, sworn to and subscribed June loth, 1831, before 



" No. 2. The deposition of John Wells, sworn to the 
loth of June, 1831, before 


" No. 3. The deposition of Rennah Wells, and Samuel 
Wells, sworn to and subscribed the loth of June, 1831, 


" No. 4. The deposition of Nancy Wells and Nancy 
Thompson, sworn to and subscribed the loth of June, 1831, 


u No. 5. The deposition of Joseph Danforth, sworn to 
and subscribed the loth of June, 1831, before 


"No. 6. The copy of a letter for [from] P. L. Chouteau, In 
dian Agent for the Osage nation, to General William Clark, 
Superintendent of Indian affairs, dated the ayth of June, 1831. 

"No. 7. A letter from Felix St. Vrain, agent for the Sac 
and Fox Indians, dated the I5th of June, 1831. 

" No. 8. A letter from Colonel Henry Gratiot, sub-agent 
for the Winnebago Indians, dated the nth of June, 1831. 

" No. 9. A letter from Colonel Henry Gratiot, sub-agent 
for the Winnebago Indians, dated the 2id of June, 1831, 
with a copy of a communication from John Dixon to J. G. 
Soulard, dated the iyth of June, 1831. 

"No. 10. A letter from Colonel Henry Gratiot, dated ist 
July, 1831, enclosing a talk, or communication, signed by 
some of the chiefs of the Winnebago nation of his sub- 
agency. " 

" These depositions numbered one to five inclusively, and 
which are in substance similar to those on which Governor 
Reynolds's communication of the 2gth of May last was 
based, and which he promised to forward to the War 
Department, sufficiently establish the facts of the return 
of the British band of Sac Indians to the place of their 
former residence on Rock river, after the lands had 
been sold, surveyed, and in part inhabited by several of 
these deponents ; and the hostile conduct of this band with 
determined purpose forcibly to hold those lands, in violation 


of the several treaties of 1804, i8i6,and 1825. The second 
article of the last mentioned treaty, clearly shows that the Sac 
and Fox Indians have no claim to any lands whatsoever east 
of the Mississippi river, and it puts an end to all doubt or 
cavil that might possibly arise under the seventh article of the 
treaty of 1804; inasmuch as, by the aforesaid second article 
of treaty of 1825, the Sac and Fox Indians expressly re 
linquished all their claims to land east of the Mississippi river. 
The enclosed No. 6 copy of a letter from Colonel P. L. 
Chouteau, U. S. agent for the Osage Indians, to General 
Clark, with enclosure No. 7, a letter from Felix St. Vrain, 
taken in connection with the other letters herewith, Nos. 8, 
9, and 10, together with the enclosed depositions, established, 
as clearly as could be desired, the long continued restlessness 
and enmity of this band of Sac Indians against the United 
States, as well as the great exertions and systematic efforts on 
the part of the offenders, to organize an opposition, as for 
midable as the Indians near us have ever wielded against us 
when aided by the forces of England, as in 1812 and 1813, 
for their object was, as extravagant as it may seem, to make 
a simultaneous attack upon, and break up the whole line of 
frontier settlements from Detroit along our western border to 
the Sabine or Texas. Long as I have known our southern 
and western Indians, and often as I have witnessed their 
lamentable ignorance of our strength, and of the utter impos 
sibility of their affecting, without the aid of a civilized power, 
any thing like a formidable array of force against us, I found 
among the Winnebago and Sac Indians, a still greater degree 
of ignorance and arrogance and stupidity. 

u The reports which first reached me, of the Sac Indians 
having sent a deputation to the Osage and nations to the south 
west as far as Texas, with a view to invoke their aid in a war 
against the United States, seemed too extravagant to merit the 
least notice. Nor did I place any reliance on the report, until 
it was confirmed by the evidence of their interpreters and 
traders, with the assurance of Col. Gratiot and other persons 
long acquainted with those Indians; that they frequently 
indulge in the habit of boasting, that they have always beaten 
our troops in battle, often when their number were much 


inferior to ours ; and that they believed that more red men 
can be brought out against us than we can oppose to them 
white men. 

" This impression is of course confined to the Indians who 
have never visited the interior of our middle and eastern states. 
Those who have visited the city of Washington, are generally 
better informed ; but these have not that influence among 
their more savage brethren, which superior information would 
seem to entitle them to ; and they are, moreover, much 
influenced in their views and policy by the prevailing impres 
sion, that, let the Indians do what they may towards us in 
violation of existing treaties, they have nothing to do but to sue 
for peace whenever they please, and by a new treaty, give us 
satisfaction, and obtain for themselves rations, presents, annui 
ties, &c. 

" I take this occasion to remark, that, though satisfied of 
the necessity of my movement, and of the employment, under 
the circumstances of the case, of the volunteers called for, 
even whilst without definite information as to the extent of 
the arrangements by the Sac Indians ; to obtain the assist 
ance of their old brother warriors, who served with them un 
der Tecumseh, in the years 1812 and 1813, the information 
obtained by me at Rock Island in the early part of the month 
of June, and more especially that which I enclose herewith, 
convinced me that without the increased force brought out by 
Gov. Reynolds, the lives of many of our frontier families 
would in all probability have been lost in an Indian war, in 
that quarter, before the close of the present summer. If my 
measures shall have contributed to arrest a calamity so much 
and so justly to be deprecated, I shall rejoice at the result, 
inasmuch as I have acted in accordance with a maxim which 
has borne me through the most difficult service. I have 
hitherto encountered the maxim which requires that in pre 
paring against Indian or other foes, we should rely for success 
mainly on our own strength and vigilance, rather than upon 
the supposed feebleness of our adversary. 

" I have delayed this report in expectation of receiving and 
forwarding with the enclosed, some additional statements of 
facts designating more particularly the different notions or 


tricks of Indians, applied to, or engaged by the Sac deputa 
tion, but the last mail from the west having brought me noth 
ing upon this subject, I deem it proper to make no further 

" All which is respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) "E. P. GAINES, 

" Major General by Bt. Commanding." 

The following is the substance of the depositions of sun 
dry citizens of the Rock river settlement, taken before William 
Brasher, J. P. and Joel Wells, J. P. on the loth of June, 1831. 

"i. John Wells, John W. Spencer, Jonah H. Case, 
Rennah Wells, Samuel Wells, Benjamin T. Pike, Joseph 
Danforth, and Moses Johnson, before William Brasher, J. P., 
swore that the Sac Indians, did through the last year repeat 
edly threaten to kill them for being on their ground, and 
acted in the most outrageous manner, threw down their 
fences, burnt or destroyed their rails, turned horses into their 
corn-fields, and almost destroyed their crops, stole their pota 
toes, killed and ate their hogs, shot arrows into their cattle, and 
put out their eyes, thereby rendering them useless to the 
owners, saying the land was theirs, and that they had not sold 
it. In April they ordered the deponents to leave their houses, 
and turned from fifty to one hundred horses into one man's 
wheat field, threatening that the fields should not be reaped, 
although the owners should plough them, and although said 
owners had purchased the land of the United States govern 
ment. The Indians also leveled deadly weapons at the 
citizens, and on some occasions hurt some of the said citizens, 
for attempting to prevent the destruction of their property. 
Also that the Indians stole their horses, some of which were 
returned by the agent six or eight months after, and in a mis 
erable condition; others were never heard of again. Nearly 
fifty Indians headed by their notorious war chief, all armed 
and equipped for war, came to the house of Rennah Wells, 
and ordered him to be off, or they would kill him, which, for 
the safety of his family, he obeyed. They then went to 
another house, rolled out a barrel of whisky, and destroyed it, 
as well as committing many other outrages, to the knowledge 
of the deponents. 


" 2. John Wells, before Joel Wells, J. P., swore, That 
on the 30th of September, 1830, he saw two Sac Indians 
throwing down his fence, who said they were doing it for the 
purpose of going through, in which they persisted although 
forbidden by the owner, and when the owner attempted to 
prevent them, one of them made a pass at him with his fist, 
and drew his knife on him. 

" 3. Rennah and Samuel Wells, before Joel Wells, J. P., 
swore, That on the 2gth of May, a party of Sac Indians, 
calling themselves chiefs, with Black Hawk at their head, 
came to the house of Rennah Wells, near the mouth of Rock 
River, and said that he must let the squaws cultivate his field, 
which Wells refusing, they became much displeased, and told 
him to go off; upon Wells's refusal they went away. That 
on the next day the same chiefs, with about fifty warriors, 
came, armed, and told Wells that he must move, or they 
would cut the throats of himself and family, and making 
motions to that effect, upon which said Wells told them that 
he would take counsel, and tell them at three o'clock the next 
day what would be his determination. They consented, and 
went away ; at the appointed time they returned, and told 
Wells that he must go off; which he accordingly did, leaving 
all his possessions to the Indians. 

" 4. Nancy Thompson, and Nancy Wells, before W. J. 
Brasher, swore, That in October, 1830, two Indians, residing 
in the village forty or fifty miles above the mouth of Rock 
River, and called Sacs or Winnebagoes, came to the house of 
Rennah Wells, and commenced chasing some sheep, as if 
they would kill them ; those Indians were ordered to desist, 
upon which they drew their knives and made at the women, 
who being alarmed, called for assistance, Samuel Wells being 
sick in the house at the time, ran out with a pitch-fork, and 
the Indians pursued no farther. London L. Case heard the 
alarm given, and joined. The Indians then returned to the 
river bank eighty or one hundred yards distant; when Case, 
thinking they were still in pursuit of the sheep, went to ascer 
tain the truth, and coming near the Indians they wounded him 
severely in three places with a knife and tomahawk. 

"5. Joseph Danforth, before Joel Wells, J. P., swore, 


That he saw Sacs at a fence belonging to John Wells, who 
forbid them going through, when they continued throwing 
down the fence. Wells attempted to prevent them, when 
one of the Indians struck him with his fist, and drew his 
knife ; Danforth got a stick, and the Indians making several 
attempts towards Danforth, he (Danforth) knocked one of 
them down with his stick. The Indian rose several times 
and made at Danforth with his knife, and finally deserted the 
ground, leaving his knife. 

The above is the substance of the depositions above 

NOTE 6. 

" Whereas, a treaty between the United States of America 
and the Winnebago nation of Indians, was made and con 
cluded at Fort Armstrong, in the State of Illinois, on the 
fifteenth day of September, one thousand eight hundred and 
thirty-two, by Winfield Scott and John Reynolds, Commis 
sioners on the part of the United States, and certain Chiefs, 
Headmen, and Warriors of the Winnebago nation, on the 
part of the said nation, which treaty is in the words following, 
to wit: 

''Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Arm 
strong, Rock Island, Illinois, between the United States of 
America, by their Commissioners, Major General Winfield 
Scott, of the United States' Army, and his Excellency John 
Reynolds, Governor of the State of Illinois, and the Winne 
bago nation of Indians, represented in general Council by the 
undersigned Chiefs, Headmen, and Warriors. 

"ART. I. The Winnebago nation hereby cede to the 
United States, forever, all the lands to which said nation have 
title or claim, lying to the south and east of the Wisconsin 
river, and the Fox river of Green Bay ; bounded as follows, 
viz: beginning at the mouth of Pee-kee-tol-a-ka river; thence, 
up Rock River to its source ; thence, with a line dividing the 
Winnebago nation from other Indians east of the Winnebago 
lake, to the Grand Chute ; thence, up Fox river to the Win 
nebago lake, and with the northwestern shore of said lake, to 


the inlet of Fox River; thence up said river to lake Puck- 
away, and with the eastern shore of the same to its most south 
easterly bend ; thence with the line of purchase made of the 
Winnebago nation, by the treaty at Prairie du Chien, the first 
day of August, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine, 
to the place of beginning. 

"ART. II. In part consideration of the above cession, it is 
hereby stipulated and agreed, that the United States grant to 
the Winnebago nation, to be held as other Indian lands are 
held, that part of the tract of country on the west side of the 
Mississippi, known, at present, as the neutral ground, embraced 
within the following limits, viz : beginning on the west bank 
of the Mississippi river, twenty miles above the mouth of the 
upper loway river, where the line of the lands purchased of the 
Sioux Indians, as described in the third article of the treaty of 
Prairie du Chien, of the fifteenth day of July, one thousand 
eight hundred and thirty, begins ; thence with said line, as 
surveyed and marked, to the eastern branch of the Red Cedar 
creek ; thence down said creek, forty miles, in a straight line, 
but following its windings, to the line of purchase, made of 
the Sac and Fox tribe of Indians, as designated in the second 
article of the before recited treaty; and thence along the 
southern line of said last mentioned purchase, to the Mississippi, 
at the point marked by the surveyor, appointed by the President 
of the United States, on the margin of said river ; and thence 
up said river to the place of beginning. The exchange of the 
two tracts of country to take place on or before the first day 
of June next ; that is to say, on or before that day, all the 
Winnebagoes now residing within the country ceded by them 
as above, shall leave the said country, when and not before, 
they shall be allowed to enter upon the country granted by the 
United States, in exchange. 

"ART. III. But, as the country hereby ceded by the 
Winnebago nation is more extensive and valuable than that 
given by the United States in exchange; it is further stipulated 
and agreed, that the United States pay to the Winnebago 
nation, annually, for twenty-seven successive years, the first 
payment to be made in September of the next year, the sum 
of ten thousand dollars in specie ; which sum shall be paid to 


the said nation at Prairie du Chien and Fort Winnebago, in 
sums proportional to the numbers residing most conveniently 
to those places respectively. 

"ART. IV. It is further stipulated and agreed, that the 
United States shall erect a suitable building, or buildings, with 
a garden or field attached, somewhere near Fort Crawford, or 
Prairie du Chien, and establish and maintain therein, for the 
term of twenty-seven years, a school for the education, 
including clothing, board and lodging, of such Winnnebago 
children as may be voluntarily sent to it ; the school to be 
conducted by two or more teachers, male and female, and the 
said children to be taught reading, writing, arithmetic, garden 
ing, agriculture, carding, spinning, weaving ; and sewing, 
according to their ages and sexes, and such other branches of 
useful knowledge as the President of the United States may 
prescribe ; Provided, That the annual cost of the school shall 
not exceed the sum of three thousand dollars. And, in order 
that the said school may be productive of the greatest benefit 
to the Winnebago nation, it is hereby subjected to the visits 
and inspections of his Excellency the Governor of the State 
of Illinois for the time being; the United States' General 
Superintendents of Indian affairs ; of the United States' agents 
who may be appointed to reside among the Winnebago Indians, 
and of an officer of the United States' Army, who may be of, 
or above the rank of Major : Provided that the commanding 
officer of Fort Crawford shall make such visits and inspections 
frequently, although of an inferior rank. 

"ART. V. And the United States further agree to make 
to the said nation of Winnebago Indians the following allow 
ances, for the period of twenty-seven years, in addition to the 
considerations hereinbefore stipulated ; that is to say ; for the 
support of six agriculturists, and the purchase of twelve yokes 
of oxen, ploughs and other agricultural implements, a sum not 
exceeding two thousand five hundred dollars per annum ; to 
the Rock River band of Winnebagoes, one thousand five 
hundred pounds of tobacco, per annum ; for the services and 
attendance of a physician at Prairie du Chien, and of one at 
Fort Winnebago, each, two hundred dollars per annum. 

"ART. VI. It is further agreed that the United States 


remove and maintain, within the limits prescribed in this treaty, 
for the occupation of the Winnebagoes, the blacksmith's shop, 
with the necessary tools, iron, and steel heretofore allowed to 
the Wrnnebagoes, on the waters of the Rock River, by the 
third article of the treaty made with the Winnebago nation, 
at Prairie du Chien, on the first day of August, one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-nine. 

"ART. VII. And it is further stipulated and agreed by the 
United States, that there shall be allowed and issued to the 
Winnebagoes, required by the terms of this treaty to remove 
within their new limits, soldiers' rations of bread and meat, 
for thirty days : Provided, that the whole number of such 
rations shall not exceed sixty thousand. 

"ART. VIII. The United States, at the request of the 
Winnebago nation of Indians, aforesaid, further agree to pay, 
to the following named persons, the sums set opposite their 
names respectively, viz : 

"To Joseph Ogee, two hundred and two dollars and fifty 
cents ; 

"To William Wallace, four hundred dollars, and 

"To John Dougherty, four hundred and eighty dollars; 
amounting in all, to one thousand and eighty-two dollars and 
fifty cents, which sum is in full satisfaction of the claims 
brought by said persons against said Indians, and by them 
acknowledged to be justly due. 

"ART. IX. On demand of the United States' Commis 
sioners, it is expressly stipulated and agreed, that the Winne 
bago nation shall promptly seize and deliver up to the 
commanding officer of some United States' military post, to 
be dealt with according to law, the following individual 
Winnebagoes, viz : Koo-zee-ray-Kaw, Moy-che-nun-Kaw, 
Tshik-o-ke-maw-kaw, Ah-hun-see-Kaw, and Waw-zee-ree- 
kay-hee-wee-kaw, who are accused of murdering, or of being 
concerned in the murdering of certain American citizens, at 
or near the Blue Mounds, in the territory of Michigan ; Nau- 
saw-nay-he-kaw, and Toag-ra-naw-koo-ray-see-ray-kaw ; who 
are accused of murdering or of being concerned in murdering, 
one or more American citizens, at or near Kellogg's Grove, 
in the State of Illinois ; and also Waw-kee-aun-shaw and his 


son who wounded, in attempting to kill, an American soldier, 
at or near lake Kosh-ke-nong, in the said territory ; all of 
which offences were committed in the course of the past 
spring and summer. And till these several stipulations are 
faithfully complied with by the Winnebago nation, it is further 
agreed that the payment of the annuity of ten thousand 
dollars, secured by this treaty, shall be suspended. 

"ART. X. At the special request of the Winnebago 
nation, the United States agree to grant, by patent, in fee 
simple, to the following named persons, all of whom are 
Winnebagoes by blood, lands as follows : To Pierre Paquette, 
three sections ; to Pierre Paquette, junior ; one section, to 
Therese Paquette, one section ; The lands to be designated 
under the direction of the President of the United States, 
within the country ceded by the Winnebago nation. 

"ART. XL In order to prevent misapprehensions that 
might disturb peace and friendship between the parties to this 
treaty, it is expressly understood that no band or party of Win 
nebagoes shall reside, plant, fish, or hunt after the first day of 
June next, on any portion of the country herein ceded to the 
United States. 

" ART. XII. This treaty shall be obligatory on the con 
tracting parties, after it shall be ratified by the President and 
Senate of the United States. 

" Done at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, this fif 
teenth day of September, one thousand eight hundred and 


Prairie du Chi en Deputation. 
Tshee-o-nuzh-ee-kaw, War Chief, (Kar-ray-mau-nee) his x 


Wau-kaun-hah-kaw, or Snake Skin, (Day-kan-ray) his x mark. 
Khay-rah-tshoan-saip-kaw, or Black Hawk, his x mark. 
Wau-kaun-kaw, or Snake, his x mark. 

Sau-sau-mau-nee-kaw, or He who walks naked, his x mark. 
Hoantsh-skaw-skaw, or White Bear, his x mark. 
Hoo-tshoap-kaw, or Four Legs, his x mark. 


Mau-hee-her-kar-rah, or Flying Cloud, son of Dog Head, 

his x mark. 
Tshah-shee-rah-wau-kaw, or he who takes the leg of a deer in 

his mouth, his x mark. 
Mau-kee-wuk-kaw, or Cloudy, his x mark. 
Ho-rah-paw-kaw, or Eagle Head, his x mark. 
Hash-kay-ray-kaw, or Fire Holder, his x mark. 
Eezhook-hat-tay-kaw, or Big Gun, his x mark. 
Mau-wau-ruck, or The Muddy, his x mark. 
Mau-shoatsh-kaw, or Blue Earth, his x mark. 
Wee-tshah-un-kuk, or Forked Tail, his x mark. 
Ko-ro-ko-ro-he-kaw, or Bell, his x mark. 
Haun-heigh-kee-paw-kaw, or The Night that meets, his x 


Fort Winnebago Deputation. 

Hee-tshah-wau-saip-skaw-skaw, or White War Eagle, De- 

kaw-ray sr. his x mark. 
Hoo-wau-nee-kaw, or Little Elk, (orator) one of the Kay-ra- 

men-nees, his x mark. 
Wau-kaun-tshah-hay-ree-kaw, or Roaring Thunder, Four 

legs Nephew, his x mark. 

Mau-nah-pey-kaw, or Soldier, (Black Wolf's son) his x mark. 
Wau-kaun-tsha-ween-kaw, or Whirling Thunder, his x mark. 
Wau-nee-ho-no-nik, or Little Walker, son of Fire Brand, his 

X mark. 
To-shun-uk-ho-nik, or Little Otter, son of Sweet Corn, his 

X mark. 
Tshah-tshun-hat-tay-kaw, or Big Wave, son of Clear Sky, his 

X mark. 

Rock River Deputation. 

Kau-ree-kaw-see-kaw, White Crow, (the blind) his x mark. 
Mo-rah-tshay-kaw, or Little Priest, his x mark. 
Mau-nah-pey-kaw, or Soldier, his x mark. 
Ho-rah-hoank-kaw, or War Eagle, his x mark. 
Nautsh-kay-peen-kaw, or Good Heart, his x mark. 
Keesh-koo-kaw, his x mark. 
Wee-tshun-kaw, or Goose, his x mark. 


Wau-kaun-nig-ee-nik, or Little Snake, his x mark. 
Hoo-way-skaw, or White Elk, his x mark. 
Hay-noamp-kaw, or Two Horns, his x mark. 
Ee-nee-wonk-shik-kaw, or Stone Man, his x mark. 

Signed in presence of, 

R. Bache, Captain Ord. Secretary to the Commission. 
Jos. M. Street, United States Indian Agent. 
John H. Kinzie; Sub Agt. Indian Affairs. 
Abrm. Eustis. 

H. Dodge, Major U. S. Rangers. 
Alexr. R. Thompson, Major United States Army. 
William [S.] Harney, Capt. ist Infantry. 
E. Kirby, Paymaster United States Army. 
Albion T. Crow. 
John Marsh. 

Pierre Paquette, Interpreter, his x mark. 
P. H. Gait, Assistant Adjutant General. 
S. W. Wilson. 
Benj. F. Pike. 

J. B. F. Russell, Captain 5th Infantry. 
S. Johnson, Captain 2d Infantry. 
John Clitz, Adj. 2d Infantry. 
Jno. Pickell, Lieutenant 4th Artillery. 
A. Drane, A. Qr. U. S. A. 
J. R. Smith, ist Lieutenant 2d Infantry. 
H. Day, Lieutenant 2d Infantry. 
William Maynadier, Lieutenant and A. D. C. 
P. G. Hambaugh. 

S. Burbank, Lieutenant ist Infantry. 
J. H. Prentiss, Lieutenant ist Artillery. 
E. Rose, Lieutenant 3d Artillery. 
L. J. Beall, Lieutenant ist Infantry. 
Antoine Le Claire. " 

" Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Jackson, 
President of the United States of America, having seen and 
considered said Treaty, do, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate, as expressed by their resolution of the ninth 


instant, accept, ratify and confirm the same, and every clause 
and article thereof. 

" In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the 
United States to be hereunto affixed, having signed the same 
with my hand. 

u Done at the City of Washington, this thirteenth day of 
February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hun 
dred and thirty-three, and of the Independence of the United 
States, the fifty-seventh. 


u By the President : 

"EDW. LIVINGSTON, Secretary of State." 

NOTE 7. 

Whereas a treaty, between the United States of America 
and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians, was made 
and concluded at Fort Armstrong, in the State of Illinois, on 
the twenty-first day of September, one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-two, by Winfield Scott, and John Reynolds, Com 
missioners on the part of the United States, and certain Chiefs, 
Headmen and Warriors of the confederated tribes of Sac and 
Fox Indians, on the part of said tribes, which Treaty is in 
the words following, to wit: 

" Articles of a Treaty of peace, friendship and cession, 
concluded at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, between 
the United States of America, by their Commissioners, Major 
General Winfield Scott, of the United States Army, and his 
Excellency John Reynolds, Governor of the State of Illinois, 
and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians, repre 
sented in general Council, by the undersigned Chiefs, Headmen 
and Warriors. 

" Whereas, under certain lawless and desperate leaders, a 
formidable band, constituting a large portion of the Sac and 
Fox nation, left their country in April last, and, in violation 
of treaties, commenced an unprovoked war upon unsuspecting 
and defenceless citizens of the United States, sparing neither 
age nor sex; and whereas, the United States, at a great expense 


of treasure have subdued the said hostile band, killing or cap 
turing all its principal chiefs and warriors the said States, 
partly as indemnity for the expense incurred, and partly to 
secure the future tranquility of the invaded frontier, demand 
of the said tribes, to the use of the United States, a cession 
of a tract of the Sac and Fox country, bordering on said frontier, 
more than proportional to the numbers of the hostile band 
who have been so conquered and subdued. 

" ART. I. Accordingly the confederated tribes of Sacs 
and Foxes hereby cede to the United States forever, all the 
lands to which the said tribes have title, or claim, (with the 
exception of the reservation hereinafter made,) included within 
the following bounds, to wit : Beginning on the Mississippi 
river, at the point where the Sac and Fox northern boundary 
line as established by the second article of the treaty of Prairie 
du Chien, of the fifteenth of July, one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty, strikes said river ; thence, up said boundary line to 
a point fifty miles from the Mississippi, measured on said 
line: thence, in a right line to the nearest point on the Red 
Cedar of the loway, forty miles from the Mississippi river ; 
thence, in a right line to a point in the northern boundary 
line of the State of Missouri, fifty miles, measured on said 
boundary, from the Mississippi river ; thence, by the last 
mentioned boundary to the Mississippi river, and by the west 
ern shore of said river to the place of beginning. And the 
said confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes hereby stipulate 
and agree to remove from the lands herein ceded to the United 
States, on or before the first day of June next ; and, in order 
to prevent any future misunderstanding, it is expressly under 
stood, that no band or party of the Sac or Fox tribes shall 
reside, plant, fish, or hunt on any portion of the ceded country 
after the period just mentioned. 

"ART. II. Out of the cession made in the preceding 
article, the United States agree to a reservation for the use of 
the said confederated tribes, of a tract of land containing four 
hundred square miles, to be laid off under the directions of 
the President of the U. States, from the boundary line cross 
ing the loway river, in such manner that nearly an equal 
portion of the reservation may be on both sides of said river, 


and extending downwards, so as to include Keokuck's princi 
pal village on its right bank, which village is about twelve 
miles from the Mississippi river. 

"ART. III. In consideration of the great extent of the 
foregoing cession the United States stipulate and agree to pay 
to the said confederated tribes, annually, for thirty successive 
years, the first payment to be made in September of the next 
year, the sum of twenty thousand dollars in specie. 

"ART. IV. It is further agreed that the United States 
shall establish and maintain within the limits, and for the use 
and benefit of the Sacs and Foxes, for the period of thirty 
years, one additional black and gun smith shop, with the 
necessary tools, iron and steel, and finally make a yearly allow 
ance for the same period, to the said tribes, of forty kegs of 
tobacco, and forty barrels of salt, to be delivered at the mouth 
of the loway river. 

"ART. V. The United States, at the earnest request of 
the said confederated tribes, further agree to pay to Farnham 
and Davenport, Indian traders at Rock Island, the sum of 
forty thousand dollars without interest, which sum will be in 
full satisfaction of the claims of the said traders against the 
said tribes, and by the latter was, on the tenth day of July, 
one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, acknowledged to 
be justly due, for articles of necessity, furnished in the course 
of the seven preceding years, in an instrument of writing of 
said date, duly signed by the Chiefs and Headmen of said 
tribes, and certified by the late Felix St. Vrain, United States' 
Agent, and Antoine Le Claire, United States' Interpreter, both 
for the said tribes. 

"ART. VI. At the special request of the said confeder 
ated tribes, the United States agree to grant, by patent, in fee 
simple, to Antoine Le Claire, Interpreter, a part Indian, one 
section of land opposite Rock Island, and one section at the 
head of the first rapids above said Island, within the country 
herein ceded by the Sacs and Foxes. 

"ART. VII. Trusting to the good faith of the neutral 
bands of Sacs and Foxes, the United States have already 
delivered up to those bands the great mass of prisoners made 
in the course of the war by the United States, and promise to 


use their influence to procure the delivery of other Sacs and 
Foxes, who may still be prisoners in the hands of a band of 
Sioux Indians, the friends of the United States ; but the fol 
lowing named prisoners of war, now in confinement, who 
were Chiefs and Headmen, shall be held as hostages for the 
future good conduct of the late hostile bands, during the 
pleasure of the President of the United States, viz. Muk- 
ka-ta-mish-a-ka-kaik (or Black Hawk) and his two sons ; 
Wau-ba-kee-shik (the Prophet) his brother and two sons ; 
Napope ; We-sheet loway ; Pamaho ; and Cha-kee-pa-shi- 
pa-ho (the little stabbing Chief.) 

" ART. VIII. And it is further stipulated and agreed 
between the parties to this treaty, that there shall never be 
allowed in the confederated Sac and Fox nation, any separate 
band, or village, under any chief or warrior of the late hostile 
bands ; but that the remnant of the said hostile bands shall be 
divided among the neutral bands of the said tribes according 
to blood the Sacs among the Sacs, and the Foxes among 
the Foxes. 

" ART. IX. In consideration of the premises, peace and 
friendship are declared, and shall be perpetually maintained 
between the United States and the whole confederated Sac 
and Fox nation, excepting from the latter the hostages before 

"ART. X. The United States, besides the presents 
delivered at the signing of this treaty, wishing to give a strik 
ing evidence of their mercy and liberality, will immediately 
cause to be issued to the said confederated tribes, principally 
for the use of the Sac and Fox women and children, whose 
husbands, fathers and brothers, have been killed in the late 
war, and generally for the use of the whole confederated 
tribes, articles of subsistence as follows : thirty-five beef 
cattle ; twelve bushels of salt ; thirty barrels of pork ; and fifty 
barrels of flour, and cause to be delivered for the same pur 
poses, in the month of April next, at the mouth of the lower 
loway, six thousand bushels of maize or Indian corn. 

"ART. XI. At the request of the said confederated 
tribes, it is agreed that a suitable present shall be made to them 
on their pointing out to any United States agent, authorized 


for the purpose, the position or positions of one or more mines, 
supposed by the said tribes to be of a metal more valuable 
than lead or iron. 

" ART. XII. This treaty shall take effect and be obliga 
tory on the contracting parties, as soon as the same shall be 
ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the 
consent of the Senate thereof. 

u Done at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, this 
twenty-first day of September, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, and of the Independ 
ence of the United States the fifty-seventh. 



Kee-o-kuck, or He who has been every where, his x mark. 
Pa-she-pa-ho, or the Stabber, his x mark. 
Pia-tshe-noay, or the Noise Maker, his x rnark. 
Wawk-kum-mee, or Clear Water, his x rnark. 
O-sow-wish-kan-no, or Yellow Bird, his x rnark. 
Pa-ca-to-kee, or Wounded Lip, his x mark. 
Winne-wun-quai-saat, or the Terror of Men, his x mark. 
Mau-noa-tuck, or He who controls many, his x mark. 
Wau-we-au-tun, or the Curling Wave, his x mark. 


Wau-pel-la, or He who is painted white, his x mark. 
Tay-wee-mau, or Medicine Man, (Strawberry) his x mark. 
Pow-sheek, or the Roused Bear, his x mark. 
An-nau-mee, or the Running Fox, his x mark. 
Ma-tow-e-qua, or the Jealous Woman, his x mark. 
Mee-shee-wau-quaw, or the Dried Tree, his x mark. 
May-kee-sa-mau-ker, or the Wampum Fish, his x mark. 
Chaw-co-saut, or the Prowler, his x mark. 
Kaw-kaw-kee, or the Crow, his x mark. 
Mau-que-tee, or the Bald Eagle, his x mark. 
Ma-she-na, or Cross Man, his x mark. 

Kaw-kaw-ke-moute, or the Pouch, (running bear) his x mark. 
Wee-she-kaw-ka-skuck, or He who steps firmly, his x mark. 


Wee-ca-ma, or Good Fish, his x mark. 
Paw-qua-nuey, or the Runner, his x mark. 
Ma-hua-wai-be, or Wolf Skin, his x rnark. 
Mis-see-quaw-kaw, or Hairy Neck, his x mark. 
Waw-pee-shaw-kaw, or White Skin, his x mark. 
Mash-shen-waw-pee-teh, or Broken Tooth, his x mark. 
Nau-nah-que-kee-she-ko, or Between Two Days, his x mark. 
Paw-puck-ka-kaw, or Stealing Fox, his x mark. 
Tay-e-sheek, or the Falling Bear, his x mark. 
Wau-pee-maw-ker, or the White Loon, his x mark. 
Wau-co-see-nee-me, or Fox Man, his x mark. 

u In presence of R. Bache, Cap. Ord. Sec. to the Commis 
sion ; Abrm. Eustis 5 Alex. Cummings, Lt. Col. 2d Infantry; 
Alex. R. Thompson, Major U. S. Army ; B. Riley, Major 
U. S. Army; H. Dodge, Major; W. Campbell; Hy. Wilson, 
Major 4th U. S. Infantry; Donald Ward; Thos. Black 
Wolf; Sexton G. Frazer; P. H. Gait, Ast. Adj. Gen.; Benj. 
F. Pike; Wm. Henry; James Craig; John Aukeney ; J. B. 
F. Russell; Isaac Chambers; John Clitz, Adj. Inf. John 
Pickell, Lieut. 4th Arty.; A. G. Miller, Lt. ist Inf.; Geo. 
Davenport, Asst. Q. Mas. Gen. 111. mil.; A. Drane, ^neas 
Mackay, Capt. U. S. Army; I. R. Smith, ist Lt. id Inf. ; 
Wm. Maynadier, Lt. and A. D. C.; I. L. Gallagher, ist Lt. 
A. C. S.; N. B. Bennet, Lt. 3d Arty.; Horatio A. Wilson, 
Lt. 4th Arty.; H. Day, Lt. 2d Inf.; Jas. W. Penrose, Lt. 
2d Infy.; J. E. Johnston, Lt. 4th Arty.; S. Burbank, Lt. ist 
Infy.; I. H. Prentiss, Lt. ist Arty.; L. I. Beale, Lt. ist 
Infy.; Addison Philleo ; Thomas L. Alexander, Lt. 6th Infy. ; 
Horace Beale, Actg. Surg. U. S. Army; Oliver W. Kellogg; 
Jona. Leighton, Actg. Surg. U. S. Army ; Robt. C. Buchanan, 
Lt. 4th Infy.; Jas. S. Williams, Lt. 6th Infy.; John W. 
Spencer; Antoine Le Claire, Interpreter. 

" Now therefore, be it known, that I, Andrew Jackson, 
President of the United States of America, having seen and 
considered said Treaty, do, by and with the advice and con 
sent of the Senate, as expressed by their Resolution of the 
ninth instant, accept, ratify and confirm the same and every 
clause and article thereof. 


"In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the 
United States to be hereunto affixed, having signed the same 
with my hand. 

" Done at the City of Washington, this thirteenth day of 
February in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-three, and of the Independence of the United 
States the fifty-seventh. 


" By the President : 

" Edw. Livingston, Secretary of State. " 

NOTE 8. 

"Articles of a treaty made at St. Louis, in the district of 
Lousiana, between William Henry Harrison, Governor of the 
Indiana Territory and of the District of Louisiana, Super 
intendent of Indian affairs for the Territory and District, and 
Commissioner Plenipotentiary of the United States, for con 
cluding any treaty or treaties which may be found necessary, 
with any of the north-western tribes of Indians, of the one 
part, and the chiefs and head men of the united Sac and Fox 
tribes of Indians of the other part. 

"ART. I. The United States receive the United Sac and 
Fox tribes into their friendship and protection, and the said 
tribes agree to consider themselves under the protection of the 
United States, and no other power whatsoever. 

"ART. II. The general boundary line between the lands 
of the United States and of the said Indian tribes, shall be as 
follows, to wit : Beginning on a point on the Missouri river, 
opposite to the mouth of the Gasconade river, thence in a 
direct course, so as to strike the river Jefferson at a distance 
of thirty miles from its mouth, and down the said Jefferson, to 
the Mississippi, thence up the Mississippi, to the mouth of the 
Ouisconsin river, and up the same, to a point which shall be 
thirty-six miles in a direct line from the mouth of said river ; 
thence by a direct line to a point where the Fox river, a branch 
of the Illinois, leaves the small lake called Lakacgan ; thence 
down the Fox river, to the Illinois river, and down the same 
to the Mississippi. And the said tribes, for and in consider 
ation of the friendship and protection of the United States, 


which is now extended to them, and of goods to the value of 
two thousand two hundred and thirty-four dollars and fifty 
cents, which are now delivered, and of the annuity hereinafter 
stipulated to be paid, do hereby cede and relinquish forever to 
the United States, all the lands included within the above 
described boundary. 

" ART. III. In consideration of the cession and relinquish- 
ment of land made in the preceding article, the United States 
will deliver to the said tribes, at the town of St. Louis, or some 
other convenient place on the Mississippi, yearly and every 
year, goods suited to the circumstances of the Indians, of the 
value of one thousand dollars, six hundred of which are intended 
for the Sacs and four hundred for the Foxes, reckoning that 
value at the first cost of the goods in the city or place in the 
United States, where they shall be procured ; and if the said 
tribes shall hereafter, at an annual delivery of the goods afore 
said, desire that a part of their annuity should be furnished in 
domestic animals, implements of husbandry, and other utensals 
(utensils) convenient for them, or in compensation to useful 
artificers who may reside with or near them, and be employed 
for their benefit ; the same shall, at the subsequent annual 
delivery, be furnished accordingly. 

"ART. IV. The United States will never interrupt the 
said tribes in the possession of the lands which they rightfully 
claim ; but will, on the contrary, protect them in the quiet 
enjoyment of the same against their own citizens, and against 
all other white persons who may intrude upon them ; and the 
said tribes do hereby engage that they will never sell their 
lands or any part thereof, to any sovereign power but the 
United States, nor to the citizens or subjects of any other 
sovereign power, nor to the citizens of the United States. 

"ART. V. Lest the friendship which is now established 
between the United States and the said Indian tribes should be 
interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, it is hereby 
agreed, that for injuries done by individuals, no private revenge 
or retaliation shall take place, but instead thereof, complaints 
shall be made by the party injured to the other, by the said 
tribes, or either of them, to the superintendent of Indian 
affairs, or one of his deputies, and by the superintendent or 


other person appointed by the president, to the chiefs of the 
said tribes ; and it shall be the duty of the said chiefs, upon 
complaint being made as aforesaid, to deliver up the person or 
persons against whom the complaint is made, to the end that 
he or they may be punished agreeably to the laws of the State 
or Territory where the offence may have been committed; and 
in like manner, if any robbery, violence, or murder shall be 
committed on any Indian or Indians belonging to said tribes, 
or either of them, the person or persons so offending, shall be 
tried, and if found guilty, shall be punished in like manner, as 
if the injury had been done to a white man ; and it is further 
agreed, that the chiefs of the said tribes, shall, to the utmost 
of their power, exert themselves to recover horses or other 
property which may be stolen from any citizen or citizens of 
the United States, by any individual or individuals of their 
tribes ; and the property so recovered, shall be forthwith 
delivered to the superintendent, or other person authorized to 
receive it, that it may be restored to the owner, and in cases 
where the exertions of the chiefs shall be ineffectual in 
recovering the property stolen as aforesaid, if sufficient proof 
can be obtained that such property was actually stolen by any 
Indian or Indians belonging to the said tribes, or either of 
them, the United States may deduct from the annuity of the 
said tribes, a sum equal to the value of the property which has 
been stolen, and the United States hereby guaranty to any 
Indian or Indians of the said tribes, a full indemnification for 
any horses or other property which may be stolen from them, 
by any of their citizens ; provided the property so stolen 
cannot be recovered, and that a sufficient proof is produced 
that it was actually stolen by a citizen of the United States. 

"ART. VI. If any citizen of theUnited States, or other white 
person, should form a settlement upon lands which are the prop 
erty of the Sac and Fox tribes, upon complaint being made there 
of to the superintendent, or other person having charge of the 
affairs of the Indians, such intruder shall forthwith be removed. 

"ART. VII. As long as the lands which are now ceded 
to the United States remain their property, the Indians belong 
ing to the said tribes shall enjoy the privilege of living and 
hunting upon them. 


"ART. VIII. As the laws of the United States regulating 
trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes are already 
extended to the country inhabited by the Sacs and Foxes, and 
as it is provided by those laws, that no person shall reside as 
a trader in the Indian country, without a license under the 
hand and seal of the superintendent of Indian affairs ; or other 
person appointed for the purpose by the President, the said 
tribes do promise and agree that they will not suffer any trader 
to reside amongst them without such license, and that they 
will from time to time give notice to the superintendent, or to 
the agent for their tribes, of all the traders that may be in 
their country. 

"ART. IX. In order to put a stop to the abuses and 
impositions which are practiced upon the said tribes by the 
private traders, the United States will, at a convenient time, 
establish a trading house or factory, where the individuals of 
said tribes can be supplied with goods at a more reasonable 
rate than they have been accustomed to procure them. 

" ART. X. In order to evince the sincerity of their friend 
ship and affection for the United States, and a respectful 
deference for their advice, by an act which will not only be 
acceptable to them, but to the common Father of all nations 
of the earth, the said tribes do hereby solemnly promise and 
agree, that they will put an end to the bloody war which 
has heretofore raged between their tribes and those of the 
Great and Little Osages ; and for the purpose of burying the 
tomahawk, and renewing the friendly intercourse between 
themselves and the Osages, a meeting of their respective 
chiefs shall take place, at which, under the direction of the 
above named commissioner, or the agent of Indian affairs, 
residing at St. Louis, an adjustment of all their differences 
shall be made, and peace established upon a firm and lasting 

" ART. XI. As it is probable that the government of the 
United States will establish a military post at or near the 
mouth of the Wisconsin river ; and as the land on the lower 
side of the river may not be suitable for that purpose, the said 
tribes hereby agree that a fort may be built either on the 
upper side of the Wisconsin, or on the right bank of the Mis- 


sissippi, as the one or the other may be found most convenient, 
and a tract of land not exceeding two miles square shall be 
given for that purpose ; and the said tribes do further agree 
that they will, at all times, allow to traders and other per 
sons traveling thro' their country, under the authority of the 
United States, a free and safe passage for themselves and their 
property of every description, and that for such passage they 
shall at no time, and on no account whatever, be subject to 
any toll or exaction. 

" ART. XII. This treaty shall take effect, and be obliga 
tory on the contracting parties, as soon as the same shall have 
been ratified by the President, by and with the advice and con 
sent of the Senate of the United States. 

" ADDITIONAL ARTICLE. It is agreed that nothing 
in this treaty contained shall affect the claim of any individual 
or individuals, who may have obtained grants of land from the 
Spanish government ; and which are not included within the 
general boundary line laid down in this treaty, provided that 
such grants have at any time been made known to the said 
tribes and recognized by them." 

Ratified the 25th of February, 1805. 

Recognitions of the preceding Treaty which was held at 
St. Louis 1 3th May, 1816. 

Treaty with the Sacs of Rock River and the United States, 
by William Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau. 

[This appears to be a Treaty of amity, but the following 
article is considered proper to be inserted.] 

" ART. I. The Sacs of Rock River, and the adjacent 
country, do hereby unconditionally assent to, recognize, 
re-establish, and confirm the treaty between the United States 
of America and the united tribes of Sacs and Foxes, which 
was concluded at St. Louis, on the 3d of November, 1804, 
as well as all other contracts and agreements heretofore made 
between the Sac tribe or nation and the United States." 

NOTE 9. 

"Treaty with the Sacs residing on Missouri river, by 
William Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, at 
Portage de Sioux, I3th Sept., 1815." 


" ART. I. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for 
themselves, and that portion of the Sacs which they represent, 
do hereby assent to the treaty between the United States of 
America, and the United tribes of Sacs and Foxes, which was 
concluded at St. Louis, on the 3d of November, 1804, and 
they moreover promise to do all in their power to re-establish 
and enforce the same. " 

" Treaty with the Fox tribe, by William Clark, Ninian 
Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau. 

" ART. IV. The Fox tribe or nation do hereby assent 
to, recognize, re-establish and confirm, the treaty of St. 
Louis, concluded on the 3d of November, 1804, to the full 
extent of their interest in the same, as well as all other con 
tracts and agreements between the parties ; and the United 
States promise to fulfil all the stipulations contained in the 
said treaty in favour of the Fox tribe or nation." 

" Treaty with the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians, concluded 
at the City of Washington, the 4th of August, 1824. 

" To perpetuate peace and friendship between the United 
States and the Sac and Fox tribes or nations of Indians, and 
to remove all future cause of dissensions which may arise from 
undefined territorial boundaries, the President of the United 
States of America, by Wm. Clark, Superintendent of Indian 
affairs, and sole commissioner, specially appointed for that 
purpose, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs and head 
men of the Sac and Fox tribes or nations fully deputized to 
act for and in behalf of their said nations of the other part, 
have entered into the following articles and conditions, viz. 

"ART. I. The Sac and Fox tribes or nations of Indians, 
by their deputations in council assembled, do hereby agree, in 
consideration of certain sums of moneys, &c., to be paid to 
the said Sac and Fox tribes,by the government of the U. States, 
as hereinafter stipulated, to cede and forever quit claim, and 
do, in behalf of their said tribes or nations, hereby cede, relin 
quish, and forever quit claim unto the United States, all right, 
title, interest, and claim to the lands which the said Sac and 
Fox tribes have or claim within the limits of the State of Mis 
souri, which are situated, lying and being, between the Missis 
sippi and Missouri rivers, and a line running from the Missouri 


at the entrance of the Kansas river, north one hundred miles 
to the north-west corner of the State of Missouri, and from 
thence east of the Mississippi. It being understood, that the 
small tract of land lying between the rivers Des Moine and 
the Mississippi, and the section of the above line between the 
Mississippi and the Des Moine is intended for the use of the 
half breeds belonging to the Sac and Fox nations ; they hold 
ing it, however, by the same title, and in the same manner 
that other Indian titles are held. 

"ART. II. The chiefs and head men who signed this 
convention, for themselves and in behalf of their tribes, do 
acknowledge the lands east and south of the lines described 
in the first article, so far as the Indians claimed the same, to 
belong to the United States, and that none of their tribes shall 
be permitted to settle or hunt upon any part of it, after the 
first day of January, 1826, without special permission from 
the Superintendent of Indian affairs. 

"ART. III. It is hereby stipulated and agreed on the 
part of the United States, as a full consideration for the claims 
and lands ceded by the Sac and Fox tribes in the first article, 
there shall be paid to the Sac and Fox nations within the 
present year, one thousand dollars in cash or merchandise ; 
and, in addition to the annuities stipulated to be paid to the 
Sac and Fox tribes, by a former treaty, the United States do 
agree to pay to the said Sac tribe, five hundred dollars, and to 
the Fox tribe five hundred dollars, annually, for the term of 
ten succeeding years ; and at the request of the chiefs of the 
said Sac and Fox nations, the commissioner agrees to pay to 
Maurice Blondeau, a half breed Indian of the Fox tribe, the 
sum of five hundred dollars, it being a debt due by the said 
nation, to the aforesaid Blondeau for property taken from him 
during the late war. 

" ART. IV. The United States engage to provide and 
support a blacksmith for the Sac and Fox nations, so long as 
the President of the United States may think proper, and to 
furnish the said nations with such farming utensils, and cattle, 
and to employ such persons to aid them in their agriculture, as 
the President may deem expedient. 

u ART. V. The annuities stipulated by the third article 


are to be paid either in money, merchandise, provisions, or 
domestic animals, at the option of the aforesaid tribes, and 
when the annuities, or part thereof is paid in merchandise, it 
is to be delivered to them at the first cost of the goods at St. 
Louis, free from cost of transportation. 

" ART. VI. This treaty shall take effect and be obliga 
tory upon the contracting parties so soon as the same shall be 
ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate thereof. 

" Ratified the i8th of January, 1825." 


The original text has been followed herein, faithfully, 
with two or three exceptional typographical errors of 
so glaring a nature that their correction was made 
imperative, and with the further exceptional alterations 
demanded by the seven lines of Wakefield's "Errata," 
which close his narrative, and which have been omitted 

The type used in printing the book was found to be 
so excessively small that reading it placed a heavy tax 
upon the eyes, and for that reason the present volume 
has been printed from type large enough to be easily 
read. This very much needed enlargement has nec 
essarily changed the pagination. 

In some instances where Wakefield could not recall 
initials or Christian names, he supplied the omission 
with dashes, thus :- . In a very few other instan 
ces he made errors in names. These have been supplied 
or corrected in the text between brackets, thus : []. 
In other instances where surnames alone were given, 
the Christian names have been supplied in the notes 
and index. 

The same may be said of some dates. In one or two 
such cases, where the proper name was not available to 
the editor until a very late moment, the index alone 
has been made to supply the correction. But it has 
been supplied. In two or three instances, brief ex 
planations of names or events served a much better 
purpose by being placed in the index alone. 




NOTE i. Stevens' s "The Black Hawk War," 73 etseq. 

The same Captain Lindsey mentioned on page 124 hereafter. 

Movements of the militia from eastern Illinois are mentioned fully in the paper by 
Hon. H. W. Beckwith, number ten (10) Fergus Historical Series, page 47 et seq. 

From Sangamon and Morgan counties in Illinois, a regiment of mounted volunteers, 
under command of Colonel Thomas M. Neale of Springfield, marched to Galena ; but 
when that point had been reached, Red Bird, the moving spirit in the uprising, had 
surrendered and the regiment saw no service. Its movements, however, are to be found 
in an article written by Hon. William Thomas of Jacksonville, and published in the 
Jacksonville Journal of August 17, 1871. 

The reason for the Winnebago War, so frequently attributed to brutality to certain 
squaws, by the whites, has not a shadow of foundation in fact. 

NOTE 2. The losses were two whites killed and four wounded, two mortally and 
two slightly. 

Reports of losses by the Indians vary from seven to twelve killed, and many wounded. 

NOTE 3. Governor Cass was not present as intimated. 

NOTE 4. The number of men employed in the expedition was 600 regulars 
under General Henry Atkinson and about 1 30 militia from the lead mines under Captain 
Henry Dodge. 

Samuel Whiteside, who was present at Galena at the time of the trouble, took com 
mand of another company of about the same strength as Dodge's company, and marched 
or ranged through the country to the north, emerging at Prairie du Chien. 

A dispute had arisen as to whether Whiteside or Dodge should be given command of 
the militia, which was settled by giving each a company. 

James M. Strode was captain of a company which remained at Galena doing guard 

NOTE 5. Major Nathaniel Buckmaster, youngest child of a family of eight children, 
son of Nathaniel and Ann (Ward) Buckmaster, was born May I, 1787, in Calvert 
County, Maryland, on a plantation owned by his parents, that extended to the shores of 
the Chesapeake Bay. 

In 1796 the family moved to Frederick County, Virginia, on a farm about 30 miles 
from Charlestown. 

In the year 1803 Nathaniel, then 16 years old, went to a place seven miles from 
Harper's Ferry, to live with his sister, Catherine Anderson, where he learned the trade 
of brick and stone mason. 

In the spring of the year 1818, clad in knee-breeches, ruffled shirt, high stock, 
with shoes ornamented with great silver buckles, Nathaniel Buckmaster came to 
Edwardsville, Illinois, to seek his fortune, and verily, fortune seemed to be awaiting 
his arrival, for he was elected to represent Madison County in the Second General 
Assembly, which met at Vandalia, December 4, 1820. 

In the year 1823 we find him sheriff" of Madison County, which office he held for 
so long (in 1838 he was still in office) that finding no other means open to them 
to get him out of the office, rhe Whigs pushed through a constitutional amendment 
prohibiting a tenure of more than one term. 

In 1832 he married, in Edwardsville, Miss Harriet Bartling, from which marriage 
four children were born, Virginia, Henry, Catherine, and Ellen. 


The Black Hawk War coming on in April of that year, he enlisted early, and was 
second in command of the army, with the title Brigade Major. His record as major 
of a spy battalion in the campaign of 1831 against the same Indian had much to do 
with his advanced rank in this second campaign, and in his various books the "Old 
Ranger Governor" was fond of referring to " Buck," as he called him, as one of the 
few men who stuck to his colors from the first day of the first campaign to the last 
day of the last campaign. At the mouth of Fox River when the first levy, of troops 
was mustered out, it was he who performed the function with the aid of Lieutenant 
Robert Anderson, of Fort Sumter memory, and he was the first to re- enlist. 

As the departure of the troops for their homes left the frontiers entirely unprotected, 
he was made major of a battalion of spies, and, stationed at Fort Payne (now Naper- 
ville, Illinois) , he cleared the country of every hostile Indian between Chicago and Ottawa. 

In 1839-40 we find him Postmaster of Alton, and soon after he was made warden 
of the penitentiary there, then a position of high importance. He remained at Alton 
to the end of his life. 

In the same year, 1840, his wife died at Alton, on the spot where stands the present 
depot of the C. & A. R. R. Co., and it is recorded of him as a remarkable incident 
for those days, that he never remarried. 

In 1844, having for a long time interested himself in public transportation problems 
and ventures, he obtained the franchise for operating the " upper ferry," which he 
held during his lifetime, and after death it passed to his heirs. 

On June 4, 1855, ^ e died at his home, and was buried beside his wife in the 
Upper Alton cemetery. Major Buckmaster was essentially a business man. Trans 
portation problems engaged most ot his attention, either as the owner of ferries or 
builder of turnpikes and railroads, and for his enterprise, the State of Illinois is under 
lasting obligation. 

We find him an incorporator of The Alton and Shawneetown Railroad Company, 
The Madison Railroad Company, and The Illinois and Pacific Railroad Company, in 
which Lyman Trumbull cooperated. He was president of The Alton Marine and 
Fire Insurance Company, as well as of the company which built the first plank road in 
Madison County. 

As a builder he was famous, as many of the old-time Edwards County buildings, 
public and private, testify to this day. The old first brick jail and the hotel at Alton 
are of the number. 

As sheriff of his county, he showed the goodness of his nature. 

A part of his duty was to sell the lands of his county for delinquent taxes, which 
many persons who lost their money in the panic of 1 8 37 were unable to pay. To them 
he opened his purse, saving their farms at an inconvenience almost calamitous to his own 
business interests. This explains, to a large degree, the inability of the Whigs to get 
him out of office. 

In personal appearance he was an unusually handsome man, well dressed, with a 
fine physique and carriage, six feet tall, and to his last days active. 

In politics he was a Jackson Democrat. In religion he was reared a Methodist, 
and during his business activities, he was never so busy as to be unable to pursue a close 
study of the bible. 

NOTE 6. Brigadier General Samuel Whiteside. The Whiteside family, a very nu 
merous one, was among the first to settle permanently on Illinois soil. In the year 
1793, William and John, brothers, and both soldiers in the Revolutionary War, settled 
in what is now Monroe County, on the road between Cahokia and Kaskaskia, about 
half-way between the present towns of Waterloo and Columbia. There William built 
a log fort, which became widely known as Whiteside' s station. 

In the year 1802 John, the father of Samuel Whiteside, moved to the Goshen 
settlement in Madison County and settled near Samuel Judy, whose wife was a sister 


to Samuel Whiteside. The latter, with his brother Joel, afterward settled in the north 
east part of the present township of Collinsville, and there Samuel made the first 
improvements on the Ridge prairie. 

Samuel Whiteside was born in the State of North Carolina in the year 1783, and 
there remained with his rather until the latter came to Illinois ten years later. 

According to his grandson, J. D. Henderson, Samuel Whiteside married Nancy 
Miller just before moving to Madison County, which must have been in his twentieth 
year if true. But early marriages were characteristic of the young pioneer of those days, 
who so much needed a helpmeet to begin work at his " clearing." In Madison 
County, Samuel Whiteside lived until the last of his children had married, and his 
wife died in March, 1854. At that time, with his daughter Mrs. Henderson and 
her husband, he moved to a farm in Christian County, near Mt. Auburn, and there 
lived until his death, in June, 1866. He is buried in what is known as the " Old 
Hunter Cemetery." 

During the Indian troubles of 1 8 10, Samuel Whiteside, in command of a company of 
rangers, was almost constantly in the saddle. During that period, it was a common 
occurrence when tidings of a murder were received, to rendezvous at the nearest fort, 
organize a company and start in hasty pursuit of the murderers. It was customary 
to elect a captain and subordinate officers, and when the offenders had been brought 
to justice or escaped to other states, to disband. Hence it is that we see the name 
of Samuel Whiteside so many times in the early annals as captain of a company. 
By common consent, he became the leader in every important Indian pursuit or fight. 
Thus the War of 1812 with England coming closely upon the heels of the contin 
ued Indian disturbances, Samuel Whiteside was almost the first man to be appointed 
captain of a company of militia by Governor Edwards. In Campbell's notable battle 
just oft Campbell's Island, near the present city of Moline, the company of Captain 
Samuel Whiteside took conspicuous part. The battle, which was fought from keel 
boats by the militia against the overwhelming land forces of British and Indians, among 
which Black Hawk was a conspicuous figure, was a bloody one, and well worth study 
by the student of Illinois history. 

When peaceful times were restored, Samuel Whiteside turned to peaceful pursuits, 
and though nominally a farmer, much of his time was occupied with surveying large 
areas, two instances being the boundaries of the states of Illinois and Missouri. 

When, in 1831, it became necessary for Governor Reynolds to send troops to the 
mouth of Rock River to drive Black Hawk and his band across the Mississippi River, 
General Whiteside was appointed major of a spy battalion. 

That campaign was so successful, that when it became necessary in the following 
year for Governor Reynolds to pursue the wily Sac again and with larger forces, atten 
tion was naturally attracted to Samuel Whiteside, and the Governor appointed him 
Brigadier General and commander of all the state forces. 

Though but five feet tall, it has been said of him that he contained more " fight" 
than a battalion of the average raw militia. He knew not fear or danger. At the 
village of Kapas, the Pottawattomie Indian, where the duty was put upon him to decide 
whether the troops should be mustered out or forced to continue the pursuit of Black 
Hawk up into Wisconsin, he mounted a whisky-barrel and declared that with one 
hundred men he would fight and whip Black Hawk ; but with an army of cowards 
he would have nothing whatever to do, and he voted to send the levy of troops back 
home again. In his harangue, which has been only partially preserved, Colonel Zachary 
Taylor ably seconded him, from the head of the same whisky-barrel. 

General Whiteside knew nothing of politics, and for that reason never secured 
office or aspired to it. 

When at the mouth of Fox River, the troops had been mustered out by Major 
Buckmaster and Lieutenant Robert Anderson, it was considered necessary to protect the 
frontier with an emergency regiment. Such a regiment was recruited from the ranks 


of the few who were willing to remain, and General Whiteside enlisted as a private in 
the company of Captain Adam W. Snyder. In Snyder's battle at Kellogg's Grove, 
a bullet from General Whiteside's rifle killed the leader of the Indians and terminated 
the fight decisively in favor of the whites. He was a dead shot. It may be added that 
Abraham Lincoln, who had been a captain in the first campaign, re-enlisted as a pri 
vate in the company of Elijah lies in the same emergency regiment. 

Whiteside County, Illinois, was named in honor of Gen. Samuel Whiteside. 

NOTE 7. The orthography of foregoing names is incorrect in many instances. 

NOTE 8. Governor Reynolds' s aids were James D. Henry and M. K. Alexander. 
Upon Henry's resignation, for active service John Dement was appointed. Enoch 
C. March was made Quartermaster General, and William Thomas Brigade Quarter 

NOTE 9. The Indians had returned to the west side of the Mississippi River during 
the previous night instead of during the action, as might be inferred herein. 

NOTE 10. This affair is fully related in correspondence between General Joseph 
M. Street, the agent at Prairie du Chien, and General William Clark of St. Louis, 
to be found in report of Secretary of War made shortly after the affair was reported to 

Twenty-five Menominies were killed outright in the attack, while many others 
were wounded. 

NOTE II. Now Beloit, Wisconsin. 

NOTE 12. 'Black Hawk in his autobiography was insistent that he was going to 
the Winnebago country by invitation, and for the sole purpose of " making corn." 

NOTE 1 3 . The author states numbers accurately, but magnifies their ferocity. 

NOTE 14. Black Hawk was not a chief. He was simply a brave and leader of the 
band known as "the British Band" ; so called by reason of its adhesion to British 
interests. It may be said that its hatred of everything American was more to the point 
than love of British interest, because so late as July 12, 1821, Captain T. G. An 
derson, British Indian Agent, rebuked Black Hawk severely for his fault-finding. 

NOTE 15. It was Black Hawk's boast that he never violated a neutral or flag of 
truce. This is one instance of violation. 

NOTE 1 6. This name is generally spelled Ne-a-pope, and is pronounced Naw-pope. 
NOTE 17. Another admission that the mission of the band was not of peace. 

NOTE 1 8. 'Abraham B. DeWitt, of Morgan County. But DeWitt commanded 
the Third Regiment. 

NOTE 19. Jacob Fry. 

NOTE 20. John Thomas of St. Clair County. But Thomas commanded the 
First Regiment. 

NOTE 21. Oquawka, Illinois. 


NOTE 22. For many years it was contended that the volunteers, a company ot 
which was commanded by Captain Abraham Lincoln, were sworn into the United 
States service at Dixon's Ferry, now Dixon, Illinois, by Lieutenant Jefferson Davis, 
then a Lieutenant in the regular establishment serving under Lieutenant Colonel 
Zachary Taylor. But Wakefield is right as to the place. The editor owns a letter 
written by Major Nathaniel Buckmaster on May 9, 1832, at the mouth of Rock 
River, wherein it is specifically stated that General Atkinson swore the troops into 
the service at that point. 

NOTE 23. The whites burned the village on their march up Rock River. 

NOTE 24. Paw Paw Grove was in the southwest township of DeKalb County 
and the southeast township of Lee County as now defined, named respectively Paw Paw 
and Wyoming townships, and not up on the river as indicated. Near Paw Paw Grove 
was Sha-bo-na's village ; in the grove of that name, now within the township of 
Shabbona in DeKalb County. 

The fact that Black Hawk was recruiting from the Pottawattomies at Paw Paw 
Grove, and that Sha-bo-na had consented to a parley at the mouth of Old Man's Creek 
in Ogle County, brought about this confusion in Wakefield' s mind. 

NOTE 25. Within the present boundaries of Whiteside County. 
NOTE 26. Dixon, Illinois. 

NOTE 27. Kellogg' s Trail, running from Peoria to Galena and Gratiot's Grove, 
made by O. W. Kellogg in 1827. 

NOTE 28. Isaiah Stillman and David Bailey. 

NOTE 29. Now Stillman's Run in Ogle County. So called from the "run" 
subsequently made by the cowardly volunteers. 

NOTE 30. Colonel James M. Strode of Galena, Illinois. A very amusing ac 
count of his actions at Stillman's battle may be found in Ford's History of Illinois. 

NOTE 31. Captain Abner Eads, then of Peoria, later of Galena. 
NOTE 32. Captain David W. Barnes of Fulton County. 

NOTE 33. " Major" was a nickname only. Isaac Perkins was a private in the 
company of Captain John G. Adams. 

NOTE 34. Tyrus M. Childs was his name; not Cyrus. He was a private in Cap 
tain Barnes's company. 

NOTE 35. The author, who was not present at the fight, has adopted to a con 
siderable extent the version given in a St. Louis paper by Stillman soon after it 
occurred. The encampment was just north of the present village of Stillman Valley, 
in Ogle County, while the thick of the fight was on the slope and at the top of the 
hill about half a mile to the south, upon whose summit the dead were buried. It 
was upon this eminence, now in the midst of the village, that Captain John G. Adams 
made his heroic stand, and there the State of Illinois has recently erected a handsome 
monument costing $5,000. 

The strength of the Indians was in reality much under 100 men, which when known 
made the retreat of the whites appear much more cowardly. 


NOTE 36. When Reynolds and Whiteside, just above the Prophet's town, deter 
mined to make a forced march to Dixon's Ferry, the wagons and provisions were stacked 
together and left behind, after a limited supply of rations was issued to the troops. 
Small as the issue may have been, the famine which appeared later would have been 
avoided had it been providently conserved ; but with profound contempt for everything 
orderly or systematic, the provisions were wantonly wasted, and but for the sacrifice by 
John Dixon of his milch cows, Reynolds never could have held the men together until 
Atkinson arrived. 

NOTE 37. Rev. Reddick Horn of Cass County. 

NOTE 38. The army reached a Pottawattomie village on Sycamore Creek, now 
the left fork of the Kishwaukee River, the site of which subsequently became known 
as Coltonville, in DeKalb County. It was once the county seat, but was abandoned and 
is now part of a farm about a mile and a half southwest of Sycamore. There a crisis 
arose. The troops were still murmuring as they had been doing almost from the day 
they were sworn into service, and demanded their discharge, though but half of their 
time of enlistment had expired. To the north lay the path to Black Hawk, to the 
south their homes. 

Colonel Zachary Taylor vigorously demanded that they continue northward, while 
Governor Reynolds pleaded, but to no purpose. A vote on the question by the cap 
tains, as to whether or net the army should disband, resulted in a tie, which was decided 
affirmatively by Whiteside, who declared he would no longer lead cowards. There 
upon he ordered the march resumed to the mouth of Fox River, where the men were 
mustered out of service. 

Along the line of march, the troops lawlessly robbed Indian villages, including Sha- 
bo-na's, and otherwise disgraced themselves. 

NOTE 39. Davis and Pettigrew. 

NOTE 40. This is a mistake. A detachment from Fort Dearborn marched to Fort 
Beggs (Plainfield, Will County), thence to Indian Creek, and there buried the victims. 

NOTE 41. A comma should appear between the two names, thus : Henry, Fry ; 
meaning James D. Henry and Jacob Fry. 

NOTE 42. William C. Rails from Schuyler County. 

Abraham Lincoln re-enlisted as a private in the company of Captain Elijah lies. 
Before this re-enlistment he was captain of a company in the Fourth (Col. Thompson's) 

NOTE 43. The date should be June I5th instead of June iyth. 

Adam Wilson Snyder was born in Connellsville, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, on 
the sixth day of October, 1799. ^ n ear ty ^ e he learned the trade of wool carding, 
which he followed in Pennsylvania up to the day of his departure for the west. 

He left Pennsylvania for the purpose of joining relatives in Indiana, but tiring of his 
long journey, which was made afoot, he tarried at a cross-roads store in Knox County, 
Ohio, to engage with its solitary owner as clerk. There he remained until persuaded 
to remove to Illinois by Jesse Burgess Thomas, later United States Senator, for the 
purpose of undertaking the management of a woolen mill which had been erected by 
the latter a short while before. Once more turning his face westward, he arrived at 
Cahokia in June of the year 1817, footsore and weary. 

Under Judge Thomas, Snyder, who had steadfastly aspired to a professional career so 


soon as the moment became auspicious, began the study of law, and was admitted to 
practice in the year 1820, though he had not attained his majority. 

In 1823 he was elected by the legislature to fill the office of District Attorney. 

In 1830 and in 1832 he was elected state senator, and in 1836 he was elected 
Representative in Congress, defeating 'John Reynolds. This was regarded at the time 
as the greatest achievement in Illinois politics. Again, in 1 840, he was elected state 
senator and a presidential elector. 

On December u, 1841, he was nominated for the office of Governor by the Dem 
ocratic convention, to which office he would have been elected beyond doubt, but his 
death occurred on May 14, 1842, from pulmonary consumption. Thomas Ford, who 
was appointed to assume his candidacy on the ticket, was elected. 

NOTE 44. The names in full are : William B. Mecomson, Benjamin Scott, and 
Benjamin McDaniel. 

NOTE 45. Theophilus W. Smith, then a Judge of the Supreme Court, was ap 
pointed to the general staff, on which occasion Major Breese, later United States Sen 
ator and Judge of the Supreme Court, was made Lieutenant Colonel, and John D. 
Wood, Major. 

NOTE 46. Father of General John A. Logan. 
NOTE 47. Rev. Reddick Horn. 

NOTE 48. Major John Dement. Few men, indeed, have been allowed the priv 
ilege of participating actively and influentially in the councils of their party and in the 
affairs of their state for a period of more than fifty years ; yet such is the record of 
the commander of the Spy Battalion who met Black Hawk in person at Kellogg' s 
Grove, and for the first time convinced the wily Sac that the whites could fight well. It 
is the fact, that from the time Major Dement stopped Black Hawk at Kellogg's Grove, 
that Indian was kept upon a constant retreat until his band was driven into the Missis 
sippi River at the mouth of the Bad Axe. And for the commander's bravery, Black 
Hawk paid him the handsomest compliment to be found in the biography which the 
latter subsequently published. 

John Dement was born at Gallatin, Sumner County, Tennessee, in April, 1804, 
where he lived until the family moved to Town Mound in Franklin County, Illinois, in 
1817. In 1826 he was elected sheriff of Franklin County. In 1827 he served in 
the expedition sent from Illinois to assist in the Winnebago War. The same year he 
represented Franklin County in the General Assembly, as he did in the succeeding session 
of 1830. 

In the first campaign against Black Hawk, in 1831, he was made aid to Governor 
Reynolds. During the same year, in the face of keen opposition, he was elected state 
treasurer, which office he continued to hold until 1836, when he resigned it at the 
solicitation of the friends of Vandalia, to enter the General Assembly and lead the fight 
against moving the capital to Springfield. 

It is worthy of note that when his son, Hon. Henry D. Dement, became Secretary 
of State many years after, he found some of the reports of his father as state treasurer. 
They were written upon foolscap paper, and showed that $40,000 was collected for 
each of two years ; but as the money then in circulation was worth but 25 cents on the 
dollar, the income of the State in reality was but $10,000 per annum. 

Appointed Receiver of the Galena Land Office in 1837, he removed to Galena and 
remained there until the land office was moved to Dixon, in 1840, to which place he 
moved and remained till his death. In 1841, for political reasons, he was removed by 
President Harrison, but upon coming into office, President Polk reappointed him in 


1845. He held the office again for four years, or until 1849, when a change of 
administration retired him for another four years. Again, in 1853, President Pierce 
reappointed him, and he held the office until it was abolished. 

In 1834, while state treasurer, he was married to Miss Louise Dodge, daughter of 
the then General Henry Dodge, afterward Governor, Representative, and United 
States Senator in Congress from Wisconsin. 

In 1 844 he was made Presidential Elector for James K. Polk. 

Major Dement was made a member of every Constitutional Convention held in 
Illinois up to the date of his death, with the exception of the first one, held in 1818, 
which of course met before he had reached his majority, and this too in the face of the 
fact that in 1862 and in 1870 his party at home was in a hopeless minority. Of 
those two conventions he was made the temporary presiding officer. In the last in 
stance the honor was unusual, for the reason that his party was in the minority. 

On January 1 6, 1883, he died at his home in Dixon. 

While at Vandalia, as state treasurer, Stephen A. Douglas made his appearance as 
a candidate for the office of district attorney, his first political aspiration. Almost 
destitute of friends and entirely destitute of money, Major Dement divided his room 
with young Douglas, and assisted him to what might now be denominated a meal- 
ticket. Better than either, he introduced the aspiring candidate to powerful friends, and 
before Douglas was ready to return home Dement had secured for him the desired 

The late General Usher F. Linder has told a story wherein he credits Major Dement 
with saving both the life and honor of the former: "General Linder had offended a des 
perate member of the state senate, for which a challenge very promptly followed through 
General James Turney, the senator's second. As Linder' s second, Major Dement 
accepted, and replied that ' the fight must be with pistols at close quarters, each 
man holding a corner of the same handkerchief in his teeth.' General Turney was 
thunderstruck, and expostulated but to no purpose, that such a condition meant the 
deliberate murder of both. 'It don't matter,' answered Dement, 'your principal is 
cool, desperate, and deliberate, while my friend is nervous and excitable, and if he has 
to lose his life, your friend must bear him company.' The duel was called off without 
a moment's delay." 

While receiver, Major Dement engaged in the business of smelting quite extensively, 
and during the latter years of his life, he was an extensive manufacturer of plows and 
flax bagging. At the time of his death, he was one of the largest land-owners in the 

NOTE 49. Lieutenant Colonel Theophilus W. Smith was later appointed Adjutant 
General by Governor Reynolds, Major Breese succeeding him, as above stated. 

NOTE 50. An independent company of spies, commanded by Captain Jacob M. 
Early, was organized also. In that company Abraham Lincoln served as a private 
until it was mustered out July loth. 

NOTE 51. Captain Clack Stone commanded Apple River Fort during the fight 
and during the campaign. The place is now Elizabeth, Jo Daviess County. 

From correspondence with Mr. N. B. Craig of Hanover, Illinois, who as a boy 
served in the company of his father, Captain James Craig of Jo Daviess County, it is 
concluded that the Flack referred to above was private John Flack, of Captain Craig's 

Ezekiel Rawlins, father of General John A. Rawlins, was a member of Captain 
Stone's company. 

NOTE 52. Pecatonica. 


NOTE 53. Five were killed on Spafford's farm, to wit: Spafford, Searles, Spencer, 
Mcllwaine, and an Englishman nicknamed "John Bull." 

NOTE 54. Son of Alexander Hamilton. 

NOTE 55. Henry Appel. 

NOTE 56. Montraville. The word Pecatonica is again misspelled on this page. 

NOTE 57. Those killed were Charles Eames, Michael Lovell, and Stephen P. 

NOTE 58. Twenty-third. 

NOTE 59. Colonel John Dement, subsequently of Dixon, Illinois. 

NOTE 60. Upon the discharge of Captain Iles's company after its twenty days 
of service, Abraham Lincoln, who had been a private therein, re-enlisted in the inde 
pendent company of Captain Jacob M. Early and was engaged in scouting duty. 
The company was mustered out finally at Lake Koshkonong July 10, 1832. 

NOTE 61. Subsequently General Robert Anderson of Fort Sumter fame. Thus 
it will be observed that a remarkably large number of great Americans served 
together in the Black Hawk campaigns. 

NOTE 6z. Sometimes called "trembling lands." So called from the fact that 
when trod by man or beast, a trembling movement or sensation was observed, attrib 
uted to the surface being supported by muck or water instead of a subsoil. 

NOTE 63. Present site of Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin. 

NOTE 64. Sylvia. 

NOTE 65. The so-called " Westerfield scare." 

NOTE 66. Had Henry concluded to obey Atkinson's orders literally, by returning 
direct to Koshkonong as soon as the provisions had been drawn, the campaign would 
have ended in disgrace just as the others had ended. On receipt of news purporting 
to locate Black Hawk's forces, he called a council of war, at which Alexander de 
clined to disobey orders. While Dodge was in favor of immediate pursuit, he main 
tained that his forces were so crippled and decimated that the plan was impossible 
so far as his command was concerned. Thereupon Henry declared he would pursue 
the enemy if he had to move alone. 

At this juncture, the usual pusillanimity of the volunteers was displayed in the form 
of a remonstrance headed by Lieutenant Colonel Jeremiah Smith and other petty 
officers, in which they refused to obey their General. 

Henry ordered them under arrest and appointed Colonel Collins's regiment an escort 
to march the offenders back to Atkinson's headquarters, where, as he then told them, 
he had no doubt that every man would be shot. Such firmness was so unexpected, 
that the recalcitrants recoiled and in a body called upon Henry with an apology, 
protesting that ignorance alone was the cause. Henry as promptly forgave them. 
To their credit, be it said, they were among the very best fighters thereafter. 

The company of Captain James Craig arrived opportunely with its fresh horses and 
men, from Jo Daviess County, to join Dodge's squadron, which so strengthened the 


latter that he at once reported to Henry for duty. Had Henry been given supreme 
command in the first instance, untrammeled by suggestions or orders from Reynolds, 
the Black Hawk War had ended at Old Man's Creek. In fact, it may be said that 
had it been possible to send Henry for Black Hawk when the latter was at the 
Prophet's village, defying Atkinson with messages that his heart was bad and that he 
would not return, the poor deluded old fellow would have returned with an impression 
left upon his mind that he had no further business east of the Mississippi River. 

NOTE 67. Wakefield inadvertently writes of Dodge as " General" in many 
places, which is an error. He was in 1832, a Colonel of volunteers for the Territory 
of Michigan, of which Wisconsin was then a part, and not a General until later years. 

NOTE 68. The companies of Gentry, Clark, Camp, and Parkinson were Michigan 
companies belonging to Dodge's squadron. 

NOTE 69. Philleo did not kill the Indian at all, though he scalped him. Many 
other complaints could be lodged against the man's pretensions. 

NOTE 70. Prairie du Sac, opposite which the battle was fought. 

NOTE 71. Private Thomas J. Short of Captain Briggs's company. Eight men 
were wounded in the engagement. 

NOTE 72. Should be Bennet Riley. Morgan was Colonel Willoughby Morgan. 
Brady was General Hugh Brady. 

NOTE 73. General Robert Anderson of Fort Sumter fame. 

NOTE 74. This is a mistake. Captain Craig joined Dodge at Fort Winnebago, as 
stated in foot-note 66. 

NOTE 75. Albert Sidney Johnston. 
NOTE 76. Should be Abner Greer. 

NOTE 77. -When our army appeared in sight Black Hawk deployed a band of 
about twenty Indians to meet Atkinson, engage his attention, and gradually draw that 
General away from camp. They did their work so well that Atkinson was deceived 
and placed his forces to attack an enemy which in reality was far below him. Major 
Ewing discovered the main trail, and reporting it to Henry, that officer (who had been 
assigned to guard the baggage in the rear) followed it with such vigor that the fight 
was won before Atkinson could participate. 

NOTE 78. Zachary Taylor, who was then a Lieutenant Colonel in the regular 

NOTE 79. This attack upon the willow island caused almost the entire number of 
casualties sustained by the whites, and the names of the United States officers which 
Wakefield did not remember were, Taylor himself in command, Major John Bliss, 
Captain W. S. Harney, and Captain Henry Smith. 

NOTE 80. The Warrior's fight was on the day before. Captain John Throck- 
morton commanded her. 


NOTE 81. The Prophet was a cross-bred Winnebago-Sac, whose village in what 
is now Whiteside County, Illinois, it will be remembered, was burned by Whiteside's 
men in passing that point. 

There is no doubt about the fact that his evil genius had much to do with influencing 
Black Hawk's conduct. 

NOTE 8z. This ceremony is very similar to those performed around the Hall girls 
during their captivity. 

NOTE 83. This disposition of the scalp-lock was very common among Indians of 
the Mississippi River and Valley. Travelers up and down the valley during the early 
part of the nineteenth century have unanimously testified to the fact. The boast of 
inviting an enemy to come and take it, so frequently made by Black Hawk, was 
pure fiction. With the same show of reason he might have claimed that plucking out 
the beard was peculiar to his individuality alone. 

NOTE 84. The Sioux inhabited the western bank of the Mississippi River. Find 
ing their ancient enemies, the Sacs, crushed, they asked the privilege of pursuing those 
fugitives who had made their escape to the west side of the river. Without thought 
of the possible consequences, General Atkinson unfortunately granted them such per 
mission. The scene of slaughter which followed was reported to be sickening. 

NOTE 85. The progress of General Scott with his army around the lakes j the 
spread of the cholera among his men, and his heroic efforts to stamp it out, should be 
read in full by every person who loves to read of noble deeds. Another notable name 
should be added at this point, that of Lieut. Joseph E. Johnston, Gen. Scott's aid, 
who accompanied the latter. 

NOTE 86. The impression prevailed at the time among the United States army 
officers that Keokuk had been aiding and abetting Black Hawk in secret, and he was 
even then suspected of harboring him from capture, an unjust and cruel suspicion. 

NOTE 87. Colonel S. C. Stambaugh. 

NOTE 88. Later General Robert Anderson. 

NOTE 89. Should be Wa-pel-lo. Emphasis on the first syllable. 

NOTE 90. Cha-e-tar. Pronounced in three syllables. 

NOTE 91. It is regrettable that when confronted by Keokuk, Black Hawk had 
forgotten all about the promised disclosures. His neglect in that particular gives plausi 
bility to the theory that there was no truth to his assertions. Keokuk was found 
trying at all times to persuade Black Hawk to abandon his shadow chasing when at 
liberty, and when confined in Jefferson Barracks he sought to make Black Hawk's 
confinement bearable by taking him presents and ultimately bringing to him his wife 
and family. 

Some measure of gratitude should have been manifested for such favors ; but prior 
to 1832 the record is not illuminated with many examples of gratitude from Black 

NOTE 9Z. This is a mistake. He was a full-blood Sac. 

NOTE 93. The name given in his autobiography is Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak. 


NOTE 94. Wakefield is in error. Lieutenant Jefferson Davis took the prisoners 
down to Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis. Lieutenant Colonel Taylor was not pres 
ent on the trip. 

NOTE 95. The efficiency of Colonel Enoch C. March in the campaigns has been 
universally pronounced marvelous. 

NOTE 96. James Dougherty Henry has been styled by so respectable an authority 
as Judge Joseph Gillespie as the most remarkable man in Illinois down to the day of his 
death at New Orleans, March 4, 1834. 

Born in Pennsylvania, he removed to Delaware, Ohio, in 1816, and there remained 
until the year 1822, when in a rage he whipped three or four fellow-workmen. That 
unwarrantable act compelled him to leave the place in haste. By keel boat he reached 
the mouth of Wood River, from which point he went to Edwardsville, and at once be 
gan work at his trade of shoemaker. To overcome his educational deficiencies, and 
gratify a passion for knowledge, he attended night school taught by William Barrett, 
beside which he induced the boy, Joseph Gillespie, to read to him during the day, while 
at work, biographies of such military heroes as Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Caesar 
and Napoleon. Meagre as were those sources, his advancement in learning was phe 

In 1826, Mr. Jonathan Atwater established him in business at Springfield, where 
he was enabled to take his first ambitious step. He was made sheriff of the county. 

His nature was composed of numerous and painfully abnormal contrarieties. He 
was melancholy, retiring, and withal insanely ambitious for military renown. The 
same Judge Gillespie has said, " He was as mild as a May morning and as terrible as a 
tornado. ' ' Once, at Edwardsville, he suspected a negro named Jarrett, the slave of 
Joseph Conway, of doing him an injury, a wholy unjust suspicion. Henry dragged the 
unfortunate wretch to the barn of Rowland P. Allen, stripped him to the waist, tied 
him to a hay-rack, and proceeded to lash him with hickory withes. The crowd of men 
which gathered stood helplessly and stupidly watching the act, afraid to antagonize the 
giant form of Henry and his fiendish rage ; but when the cries of the negro reached 
the ears of Mrs. Allen, she seized a carving-knife from her table and rushed between 
the slave's bleeding body and Henry, who recoiled in astonishment, while Mrs. Allen 
cut the cords and led the negro to safety. 

While that brutishness mellowed and at last disappeared almost entirely, its reappear 
ance at Fort Winnebago, together with his powerful physique, awed an army and per 
mitted him to advance and win the battles of the Wisconsin and the Bad Axe, the 
latter in the face of the fact that Atkinson purposely relegated him to the rear of the 
army in charge of the baggage, in a spirit of jealousy for having, contrary to orders, 
pursued Black Hawk, and whipped him at the Wisconsin. 

The man was a fatalist, said to have been accentuated by reason of the misfortune 
of his birth, and when the Winnebago war, the 1831 campaign, and the first half of 
the 1832 campaign ended without presenting to him the opportunity to win fame, he 
was inconsolable. 

Rugged as he had been, the severities of the last campaign undermined his health. 
Early in 1834 he sought relief in the milder climate of New Orleans, but without 
avail, and he passed away so quietly that until it became noised about that General Henry 
was dead, his presence in the city was almost unknown. 

Before departing he had been nominated by a " People's Party " for Governor, and 
so reliable an authority as Governor Ford has stated that nothing but his death could 
have prevented his election by 20,000 majority. The coincidence might be called 
remarkable that two of the Black Hawk heroes were nominees for the office of Gov 
ernor when death snatched away the honor. 



Adams, Captain John G. At 

Stillman's battle 49,51. 

Adams, Samuel. Elected Colonel 

6 5 . 

Alexander, General Milton K. 
Elected Brigadier General 65. 
Ordered to Plum River 75. 
Joins main army at Lake Kosh- 
konong 80. Sent to Fort 
Winnebago 85. Returns to 
Atkinson 102. Arrives at 
Blue Mounds 1 19. At Helena 
121. At Bad Axe battle 129, 
et seq. 

Ames, Charles. Should be 
Eames, which see. 

Anderson, Lieutenant Robert. 
Scouting 79. Mentioned 121. 
Musters out troops 145. 

Appel, Henry. Murder of 70. 

Apple River Fort. Attacked 


Archer, William B. Appointed 
Aid 65. At Helena i 20, 121. 

Armstrong, Chiler. Acts as in 
terpreter I 24. 

Atkinson, General Henry. Com 
municates with Governor 
Reynolds 3 3. Letters to 34, 
35. Letter to Governor Rey 
nolds respecting militia 35. 
Letter to Black Hawk and Ne- 
a-pope 39. Musters army into 

U. S. service 41. Receives 
Captain Snyder's report 
62. At Fort Wilbourn 64. 
At Dixon's Ferry 75. Marches 
up Rock River 76. Move 
ments around Lake Koshko- 
nong 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,83. 
Retrograde movement down 
stream 83. Leaves Fort Kosh- 
konong 117. Arrives at Blue 
Mounds 119. At Helena 121. 
Arranges for the Bad Axe battle 
i 29. At the Bad Axe bat 
tle 130, et seq. Report to 
General Macomb 146, 147. 


Bad Axe. Battle of 129, et seq. 

Bailey, Major David. Reaches 
Dixon's 45. Receives or 
ders to march with Stillman 45. 

Bangs, Lieutenant Oliver. Men 
tioned 57. 

Bankson, Captain Andrew. Men 
tioned 63. 

Barlow, J. W. Elected Lieu 
tenant Colonel 65. 

Barnes, Captain David W. At 
Stillman's battle 48. 

Beardstown. Troops concentrate 
therein 1831 30. Concentrate 
there in 1832 52. Troops 
ordered to concentrate there for 
final campaign in 1832 63. 

2I 4 


Beloit, Wis. 203. 

Berry, Adjutant General E. C. 
Mentioned 157. 

Black, Samuel. Killed at Peca- 
tonica 71. 

Blackburn, J. M. Elected Col 
onel 65. 

Black Hawk. Sent for by Gen. 
Gaines 32. Signs Treaty 
32. Conduct with Gratiot 
39. Black Hawk and Ne-a- 
pope sent for 39. Skill in 
plans 42. Course taken up 
Rock River 42. Retires far 
ther up Rock River 75. His 
rendezvous discovered 84, 104. 
His trail for the Mississippi 
105. Pursuit of 1 06, et 
seq. At battle of Wisconsin 
Heights in. After Bad 
Axe battle 137, 140. A 
prisoner 148. Talk 148. 
His appearance 152. His 
feint at the Bad Axe 209. 

Blackwell, Robert. Carries Rey 
nolds* call for more troops 52. 

Bliss, Maj. John. At the Bad 
Axe battle 209. 

Block Houses. Built at Galena 


Blue Mounds. Troops form a 
junction there 1 18. 

Bond, Benjamin. Appointed 
Paymaster 64. 

Bowers, George. Elected Ma 
jor 65. 

Bowman, Lieutenant Samuel. 
Killed at Bad Axe battle 133, 


Bradford, William . At Bad Axe 
battle 132. 

Bradsby, Esq. Wakefield stops 
with 5 3 . 

Brady, General Hugh. Men 
tioned 121. 

Breese, Major Sidney. Made 

Major 64, 65. Leaves army 


Briggs, Captain Josiah S. Dis 
patched to call militia 54. 
Reaches Beardstown 64. 
At battle of Wisconsin Heights 

Bristow, Captain George 30. 

Brown [Browne], Thomas C. 
Aid. Mentioned 121. 

Buckmaster, Major Nathaniel. 
Major Odd Battalion in 1831 
31. Biography 200. 

Bureau River or Creek. Major 

Dement ordered to reconnoitre 


Burns, Captain James. Men 
tioned 63. 

Burnt Village. Reached 81. 
Mentioned 83. 

Burr Oak Grove. Battle 59-61. 

Butler, Major Nathaniel 30. 


Caldwell, Billy. At Sycamore 
Creek 76 

Camp, Captain. At battle of 
Wisconsin Heights 107. 

Campbell. Elected Lieutenant 
Colonel 64. 

Carlin, Thomas. Made Captain 
1831 30. 

Casey, Zadock. In Dement' s 
battle 7 5 . 

Cass, Governor Lewis. Actions 
in Winnebago War 28, 29. 

Cha-e-tar. Mentioned 148. 
Talk 151-2. 

Chapman, Amyson. Deposi 
tion 163. 



Childs, Cyrus [should be Ty- 
rus]. Killed at Stillman's 
battle 5 1 . 

Chouteau, Auguste. Treaty of 
1815 195-198. 

Clark, Captain. At the battle 
of Wisconsin Heights 107. 

Clark, B. A. Appointed Aid 
to Posey 65. 

Clark, General William. For 
bearance 20. Addressed by 
Gov. Reynolds 30. Letter 
from Reynolds 164. Letter 
to Reynolds 165. Treaty 
1815 195-198. 

Collins, Adjutant Thomas. 30. 

Collins, James. Elected Colonel 
65. Sent up Rock River 80. 
At battle of Wisconsin Heights 
112-114. At the Bad Axe 
battle 130, et seq. 

Committee of Safety. At Galena 
in 1827 28. 

Contents 21-24. 

Cornelius, Dr. I. N. McTy. 
Wounded 61. 

Covington. Mentioned 53. 

Craig, Captain James. Joins 
Dodge 123. 

Cranberry Lake. Black Hawk 
said to be there 104. Men 
tioned 117. 

Cubbage, Mr. With Gratiot 38. 


Davenport, George. Letter to 
General Atkinson 35. 

Daviess [Davis] Family. Mur 
dered 55, 56. 

Davis, Jefferson. A Lieutenant 
204. Takes Black Hawk to 
Jefferson Baracks 211. 

Decorri. Mentioned 149. Talk 
149, 150. 

Dement, Major John. Elected 
Major 65. His battle 72-75. 
Resigns 75. Biography 206. 

Deposition of B. F. Pike 162-3. 
Of Sanders and Chapman 163. 

DeWitt, Colonel Abraham B. 
Mentioned 40. 

Dickson [misspelled Dixon], 
Captain Joseph. At battle of 
Wisconsin Heights 108. 

Dissatisfaction of troops 55, 120. 

Dixon, F. At Apple River Fort 


Dixon, John. Slaughters cows for 
army 205. 

The act made him army contractor 
thenceforth. [Ed.] 

Dixon's Ferry. Whiteside's 
Brigade reaches there 44. 
Stillman and Bailey leave 44. 
Troops return after Stillman's 
battle 49. Whiteside moves 
52. Returns 55. Atkinson 
reaches there 55. Army 
leaves 55. Troops ordered to 
concentrate there 72. Atkin 
son and Henry advance up 
Rock River 76. Troops 
mustered out 145. Lincoln 
and Davis at 204. 

Dodge, Colonel Henry. In 
Winnebago War 28, 29. Bat 
tle of the Pecatonica 7 1 . Joins 
main army at the Whitewater 
8 1 . Sent to Fort Winnebago 
85. He and Gen. Henry 
pursue Black Hawk 102, et 
seq. At battle of Wisconsin 
Heights 110-114. At Bad 
Axe battle I 29, et seq. 



Donaldson, Dr. At Stillman's 

battle 5- 

Doty, James. Killed at Still 

man's battle 5 Ig 

Duncan, Gen. Joseph. Com 

mands forces in 1831 30. 

Marches for Rock River 3 I . 
Dunn, Captain Charles. Shot 

82. Sent to Dixon's Ferry 

Eads, Captain Abner. At Still 

man's battle 47. 

Eames [misspelled Ames], 

Charles. Killed at Stephen - 




Early, Captain Jacob M. Scout 

ing 79, 80. Penetrates island 


Edwards, Governor Ninian. 
During Winnebago War 28. 
Treaty of 1 815 I95~9 8 

Elkin, Captain William F. 30. 

Ellis, Bird. Killed at Stillman's 
battle 5 1 . 

Eubanks, William. Elected Ma 
jor 65. 

Evans, James. Elected Major. 


Ewing, Colonel John. Sent as 
spy 41. Carries Reynolds' 
call for more troops 5 2. Elect 
ed Colonel 64. At the 
Whitewater 8 1 . His regiment 
sent as escort to Dixon's Ferry 

Ewing, W. L. D. Elected Ma 
jor 65. Forms line of bat 
tle 77. Discovers trail 77, 

78. Sent up Rock River 

79, 80. Crosses White 
water 82. At battle of Wis 

consin Heights ii o, ill, 112. 

At Bad Axe battle 130, et seq. 


Farris, Joseph and David. At 
Stillman's battle 49, 51. 

Feaman, Capt. Jacob. Reaches 
Beardstown 64. 

Fever River. Mentioned 27. 

Field, Alexander P. Appointed 
Aid to Henry 65. Leaves 
the army 84. 

Flack, Captain. Narrates attack 
on Apple River Fort 66-69. 

Forbearance by the Government 
19, 20. 

Fowler [John]. Said to have 
been killed in Stephenson's 
battle [error] 72. 

Foxes and Sacs. See "Sacs and 

Fry, Jacob. Lieut. Col. regiment, 

1831 30. Elected Colonel 

1832 40. Elected Colonel 
temporary regiment 57. Elect 
ed Colonel Second regiment, 
Third Brigade 65. Sent up 
Rock River 76. Overtaken 
76. Crosses Rock River 80. 
Bridges the Whitewater 83. 
At battle of Wisconsin Heights 
113. At the Bad Axe 
battle 130, et seq. 

Ft. Armstrong. Black Hawk's 
band pass, in 1832 33. 

Ft. Hamilton. Murders at 
Spafford's 70. Posey's Bri 
gade sent to 85. 

Ft. Koshkonong [written Kus- 
kanong]. Built 85. 

Ft. Madison. Sacs rendezvous 




Ft. Wilbourn. Snyder's com 
pany discharged 62. Erected 
by Horn 64. Col. Smith 
marches thence 64. Troops 
concentrate 72. 

Ft. Winnebago. 


Sought for 
84, 85. 

Gaines, General Edmund P. 
Calls on Gov. Reynolds for 
militia 30. Campaign of 1831 

31. Demands Black Hawk 

32. Makes treaty 32. Let 
ter from Reynolds 166. Let 
ter to Reynolds 167, 1 68. 
Treaty 1831 169-172. To 
Secretary of War 172-176. 

Galena. Location of and general 
reference 27. Capt. Lindsey 
reports engagement 27. Cit 
izens move there for safety 28. 

Gatewood, William J. Elected 
Lieutenant Colonel 64. 

Gentry, Captain James H. At 
battle of Wisconsin Heights 
107. At battle of the Bad 
Axe 1 30, et seq. 

Gillespie, Joseph. Paymaster 
Odd Battalion 31. 

Gillham, James. Elected Lieu 
tenant Colonel 65. 

Gillham (spelled Gilham herein), 
Captain William 30. 

Grass bridges 28. 

Gratiot, Colonel Henry. Mis 
sion to the Turtle village and 
Prophetstown 37, 38, 39, 40. 
Meets Hall sisters 92. 

Greathouse, John S. Quarter 
master 3 1 . 

Green [Emerson]. Killed 118. 

Greer (or Grier), Captain Ab- 
ner. At battle of the Bad 
Axe 130. 


Hackelton, Samuel. At Still- 
man's battle 49. 

Hale [William]. His scalp 
found 79. 

Hall, Alexander P. Appointed 
Aid to Posey 65. 

Hall, Rachel and Sylvia. Men 
tioned 55. Their story 

Hall [William] . Killed at Indian 
Creek 55. 

Halstead, C. V. Appointed 
Quartermaster 64. 

Hamilton, Colonel William S. 
Arrives at Fort Hamilton 70. 
Scouting 83. Son of Alexan 
der Hamilton 208. 

Hampton [Houston] , James. 
Elected Major 64. 

Hanes [Haines], Captain John. 
Mentioned 30. 

Hargrave, Colonel Willis. 
Elected Colonel 64. 

Harney, Capt. W. S. At the 
Bad Axe 209. 

Harrison, First Lieutenant James 
M. Mentioned 57. 

Harrison, Governor William 

Henry. Treaty 1804 191- 


Hawthorn, John. Appointed 
Hospital Steward 64. 

Helena. Troops proceed thence 
119, 120. 

Henderson's River. Horses lost 


Hennepin. Troops ordered to 
concentrate there 52. 



Henry, James D. Colonel of 
First Regiment in 1831 30. 
Major of Spy Battalion in 1832 
40. Enlists as private; elected 
Lieutenant Colonel 57. Elect 
ed Brigadier General 65. At 
Dixon's Ferry 75. Sends Fry 
up Rock River 76. Sent to 
Fort Winnebago 85. He and 
Dodge pursue Black Hawk 
1 02, et seq. Addresses his 
men 115. At the Blue 
Mounds 1 1 8. At Helena 1 20. 
At the Bad Axe battle 130, 
etseq. Conduct at Ft. Win 
nebago 208. Biography 2 1 1 . 

Herclurode, George. Killed at 
Apple River Fort 67. 

Higbee, Charles. Made Surgeon 
1831 31. 

Horn, Rev. Reddick. Sent to 
St. Louis for supplies 52. 
Reaches St. Louis 54. Erects 
Fort Wilbourn 64. Befriends 
Hall sisters 95. 

Howard, Stephen P. Killed at 
Stephenson's battle 72. 

Hughes, General Andrew S. 
Letter to General Atkinson 34. 

Huston, or Houston [written 
Hampton], James. Made 
Major 64. 

Huston [Houston], Captain Sam 
uel. At battle of Wiscon 
sin Heights 107. 


lies, Elijah. Capt. in emergency 

regiment 57. 

Indiana. Offers troops 64. 

Indian Creek. Massacre 55-6. 


James, Captain Benjamin. Tem 
porary regiment 57. Elected 
Major 65. 

Jefferson Barracks. *53- 

Jenkins, Thomas. Wounded at 
the battle of the Pecatonica 7 1 . 

Jo Daviess County. Mentioned 


Johnson, Captain. Aid to Gen. 
Atkinson 121. 

Johnston, Albert Sidney. At the 
Bad Axe battle 130. 

Johnston, Joseph E. 210. 

Jones, C. Elected Lieutenant 
Colonel 65. 

Jones, Edward. Quartermaster 


Jones, Colonel Gabriel. Elected 
Colonel 65. Sent up Rock 
River 80. At battle of the 
Wisconsin ill, 112. At 
battle of the Bad Axe 130, 
et seq. 

Jones, Major James S. Elected 
Major 65. 

Jordan, W. Elected Quarter 
master 3 1 . 

Journey, Sample. Kills an In 
dian 110. 


Kapas' Village. Army ordered 
to disband 205. 

Kaskaskia. Wakefield arrives 
there 54. 

Keel Boats. Attacked by In 
dians in Upper Mississippi 
19, 26-28. 

Kellogg's Grove. Snyder's battle 

58-63. Dement's battle 72-76. 



Kendle, Samuel F. Adjutant 
Spy Battalion 31. 

Keokuk, with warriors and squaws 
visits Reynolds at Yellow Banks 
41. Black Hawk demanded 
of 143. Mentioned 148. 

Kickapoo River. Reached 127. 

Kickapoos. Join Sacs and Foxes 


Kincade, Captain Hiram. 31. 
Kingsbury, Lieutenant Julius J. 

B. At the battle of the Bad 

Axe 135, 136. 

Kinney. Sent as pilot 41. 

Koshkonong [written Kuskanong] 

Lake. Reached 79, 80. 

Movements near 81, 82, 83. 


Leach, Samuel. Elected Colonel 


Leib [?], Colonel Daniel. Men 
tioned 30. 

Lincoln, Abraham. A Captain 
204. Next a private in Capt. 
He's' company 203, 208. 
Next a private in Capt. Early's 
company 207, 208. 

Lindsey, Captain Allen. Attacked 
by Indians 19, 26. His 
losses 27. At the battle of 
Wisconsin Heights 107. 
Mentioned 124. 

Little Thunder. Guide to At 
kinson's camp 105, 117. 

Logan, J. B. Appointed Sur 
geon's Mate 64. Father of 
Gen. John A. Logan 206. 

Loomis, Captain G. Mentioned 


Loramie (should be Loraine), 

Captain John. Mentioned 3 1 . 

Lorton, Captain John. Men 
tioned 30. 

Low [Lowe is probably correct], 
Captain Gideon. At Ft. Kosh 
konong 119. 


Macomson, William B. Killed 


March, Colonel E. C. At Bad 
Axe battle 130, et seq. Men 
tioned 155. 

Mathews, Captain H. 30. 

Mathews, S. T. Elected Col 
onel 65. 

Maxfield, . At Stillman's 

battle 49, 50. 

Menominies. Massacred in 183 I 
32. Under Col. W. S. Ham 
ilton, scouting 84. Rejoice 
over defeat of Sacs 140. A 
"talk" 141, 142. In Stam- 
baugh's expedition 143. 

Merryman, Dr. E. H. As ex 
press to Atkinson 105, 116. 
From Atkinson 117. 

Miller, Captain Solomon. Of 
Odd Battalion 3 1 . 

Miller, Captain William. Of 
Spy Battalion 31. Elected 
Major 65. 

Mines, The. Mentioned 28. 

Moore, Captain William. In 
Odd Battalion 31. 

Morgan, Major Willoughby. 
At Helena 121. 

Morris, Captain Achilles. Men 
tioned 30. 

Morris, Montraville. Killed at 
Pecatonica 7 1 . 

Mustered into service 41. 



McConnel, Murray. Appointed 
Brigade Inspector 65. At bat 
tle of the Bad Axe 1 30, et seq. 

McDaniel, Benjamin. Killed 60. 

McDonald, John. House of 68. 

McFadden, Captain George. In 
temporary regiment 57* 

McHenry, William. Elected 
Major 65. 


Na-a-pope (should be Ne-a- 
pope). Sent for 39. At Wis 
consin Heights battle 1 1 2. 
Mentioned 153. 

Neale, Thomas M. In Winne- 
bago War 28. Marches to 
mines 29. Appointed Pay 
master 30. 

Nuting, James. Wounded 67. 


Officers named in campaign of 

1831 3>3 l - 
Old Man's Creek. Mentioned 

4 6. 

Omelvany, John. Appointed 
Adjutant 64. 

Oquawka, Illinois 203. 

Organization of 1831 forces 30. 
Organization of volunteers in 

1832 40. Of Whiteside's 
Brigade 40. 

Organization of Volunteers, sec 
ond campaign, 1832 64. 

Ottawa. Troops mustered out 
there 56. 


Parkinson, Captain. At battle 
of Wisconsin Heights 107. 

Paw Paw Grove. Indians said 
to be there 44, 204. 

Pecatonica. Battle of the 71. 

Perkins, Isaac. Killed at Still- 
man's battle 5 1. 

Petition to Governor Reynolds 

29. By John Wells, et al. 

159, 160, 161. 

Pettigrew [written Pennigrew], 
William. Murder of 55, 56. 

Philleo, Dr. Addison. At battle 
of Wisconsin Heights 109, 

I 10. 

Pierce, Moses [Hosea]. Elected 
Colonel 65. 

Pierce, Samuel C. (Captain.) 
Mentioned 30. 

Pike, B. F. Deposition of 162. 

Plum River. Alexander sent 
there 75. Explored 80. 

Poquet, Pierre. Information at 

Fort Winnebago 85. Pilot 

for Henry and Dodge 103. At 

battle of Wisconsin Heights 


Portage of the Wisconsin. Red 
Bird captured 29. 

Posey, Dr. Alexander. Elected 
Brig. Gen. 64. Reaches De 
ment at Kellogg' s Grove 74. 
Moves for Fort Hamilton 75. 
Joins main army at Rock River 
(in Wis.) 81. Sent to Fort 
Hamilton 85. Moves to Blue 
Mounds 1 19. Moves to Hel 
ena 119, 121. At Bad Axe 
battle 131, et seq. 

Pottawattomies. Join Sacs and 
Foxes 35. 

Prairie du Chien. Mentioned 
29, 32, 136, 140. 

Preface 17-20. 

Prewitt [Preuitt], Captain Solo 
mon. Spy Battalion 31. 



Prophet, The. Gratiot incident 
37, 40. At Bad Axe battle 
137. Prisoner^S, 149, 151. 
Personal appearance I 53. His 
ancestry 210. 

Prophet's Village. Indians march 
thence 34. Gratiot's mission 
there 37-40. Arrival and de 
parture of militia 44. 

Pugh, Jonathan H. Scouting 


Rails, Captain William C. [writ 
ten James Rolls]. Enlists in 
temporary regiment 57. 

Raum, John. Appointed Brig 
ade Inspector 65. 

Rawlins, Ezekiel [Father of Gen 
eral John A. Rawlins] 207. 

Red Bird. Surrender and death 
of 29. 

Reynolds, Governor John. Jus 
tified in calling militia 19. Pe 
titioned in 1831 29. Writes 
Generals Clark and Gaines 30. 
Issues proclamation in 1831 
30. His proclamation in 1832 
33, 36. Meets troops at 
Beardstown 40. Calls for more 
troops 52. Discharges White- 
side's Brigade 56. Leaves the 
army 84. Mentioned 153. 
Letter to General Clark 164. 
Letter from General Clark 
165. Letter to General 
Gaines 166. Letter from 
General Gaines 167, 168. 
Treaty with the Winnebagoes 
178-85. Treaty with Sacs 
and Foxes 185-91. 

Richardson, Captain John F. 
At Bad Axe battle 131. 

Riley, Major Bennet. Near 

Snyder's battlefield 61. At 

Helena 121. 

Roberts, First Lieutenant Calvert. 

Mentioned 57. 

Roberts, Second Lieutenant 

Henry. Mentioned 57. 

Rock Island [not the city of 

that name] 29, 32. 

Roman, Surgeon Richard. In 

Odd Battalion 31. 

Roster of 1 83 1 officers 30-3 1 . 
Roster of Whiteside's Brigade 40. 
Roster of officers elected for 

the final campaign 64. 


Sacs and Foxes. Mentioned 1 8, 
19. In 1831 29. Their 
conduct 29. Assemble at 
Rock River 29. Cross to 
west side of the Mississippi 32. 
Make treaty 32. Attack Me- 
nominies 32. Cross Rock 
River in 1832 33-35. Pass 
up Rock River 35. Treaty 
of 1832 185-191. Treaty 
of 1804 191-195. 

Sanders, H. et at. Deposition 
of 163. 

Scott, Benjamin. Killed 60. 

Scott, Lieutenant James. Men 
tioned 57. 

Scott, General Winfield. Arrives 
at Prairie du Chien 142. 
Orders discharge of militia 
143. Treaty with the Win 
nebagoes 178-185. Treaty 
with Sacs and Foxes 185-91. 
The cholera 210. 

Semple, Adjutant James. Men 
tioned 31,61. 

Sentinel shot. 78. 



Sha-bo-na [written Shabbaney]. 
At Sycamore Creek 76. 

Sharp, P. H. Elected Lieut. 
Colonel 65. Left in com 
mand at Fort Koshkonong 117. 

Sheledy, Stephen B. Made 
Inspector 2d Brigade 65. 

Shelton, Joseph. Elected Major 

6 5 . 

Shirley, Lieutenant W. Men 
tioned 57. 

Short, John. Wounded 114. 

Sioux, The. At Prairie du Chien 


Smith, Captain Adam. Of First 
regiment. Campaign 1831 

Smith, Capt. Henry. At the 
Bad Axe 209. 

Smith, Jeremiah. Elected Lieu 
tenant Colonel 65. 

Smith, Captain Samuel. In 1831 
30 . In temporary regiment 5 7 . 

Smith, Theophilus W. Elected 
Lieutenant Colonel 64. 

Leaves army 84. 

Snyder, Captain Adam W. Of 
the temporary regiment 57. 
His battle 58-63. His com 
pany discharged 62. Biog 
raphy 205. 

Spafford. Murders at his farm 


Stambaugh, Col. S. C. 210. 

Stampede of horses. 85. 

Stephens, Colonel. Mentioned. 

Stephenson, Captain James W. 

His battle 7 1 . 

Stillman, Major Isaiah. Receives 

orders to march from Dixon's 

Ferry 45. His battle 47-51, 


Stone, Captain Clack. At Apple 
River Fort 69. 

Storm, . Elected Lieuten 
ant Colonel 64. 

Street, General Joseph M. No 
tifies Governor Reynolds of 
attack on Menominies 33. 
Talk 141, 152. Sends 
prisoners downstream 153. 

Strode, Colonel James M. At 
Stillman' s battle 46. At Apple 
River Fort 69. Commands a 
company at Galena 200. 

Stuart, Major John T. Elected 
Major in 1831 30. 

St. Peter's. Mentioned 26. 

Sycamore Creek. Mentioned 76. 


Table of Contents. 19-24. 

Taylor, Lieutenant Colonel Zach- 
ary. Mentioned 121. At Bad 
Axe battle 131, et seq. Talk 
151. Sends prisoners down 
stream 153. Denounces 
troops 205. 

Terrell, William H. Appointed 
Surgeon 64. 

Thomas, John. Elected Colonel 
Third Regiment 40. Elected 
Major temporary regiment 57. 

Thompson, Samuel M. Made 
Colonel 40. 

Throckmorton, Captain John. 
Commands the Warrior 209. 

Treaty of 1831. Made 32. 
Set out in full 169-172. 

Treaty of 1832. Made 154. 
With Winnebagoes 154. Set 
out 178-85. 

Treaty with Sacs and Foxes in 

1804 191-95. In 1832 




Treaty of 1815 195-98. 

Trembling [written Tumbling] 
lands. 84. 

Turtle Village. Reached by 
Gratiot 37. Reached by 
Atkinson 76. 


Wa-bo-kie-shick. (See "The 
Prophet. ") 153. 

Waggoner, Lieutenant Jacob. 
Mentioned 57. 

Wakefield, John A. Biography 
7. Sent as a spy 41. Sent 
as a messenger for more 
troops 52-54. Anecdote re 
lated 5 2 -54- 

Walker, Captain George E. Calls 
at Dixon's Ferry 76. Dis 
patched on Black Hawk's trail 

Walker, Lieutenant[W. F.]Men- 
tioned 57. 

Walters, John. Killed at Still- 
man's battle 51. 

Wap-el-lo [written Wapilo]. 
Mentioned 147. 

Warrior. Steamboat of that name 
135, 139, 142. 

Weatherford, Captain William 


Webb, Captain. Left at Fort 
Dixon 107. 

Wells, Captain Alexander. Men 
tioned 3 1 . 

Wells, Samuel. Killed at Peca- 
tonica 7 1 . 

Westerfield Scare. 96, et seq. 

Wheeler, Captain Erastus. 31. 

White Cloud. (See "The 
Prophet.") 153. 

White Crow. Mission to the 
Prophet's village 39. 

Whiteside, General Samuel. As 
Major in i 83 i 31. Appointed 
Brigadier General 1832 40. 
Orders a forced march 44. 
Reaches Dixon's 44. Orders 
Stillman and Bailey to move 
45. Moves to field of 
Stillman's battle 52. Buries 
dead and returns to Dixon's 
Ferry 54-55. Enlists as a 
private 56. Kills Indian 
leader 6 1 . Restores order by 
threat 61. At Galena 200. 
Biography 201. 

Whiteside, Captain William B. 
Of Spy Battalion in 1831 31. 

Whitewater River. Mentioned 
81. Crossed 82. Recrossed 

Winchester, P. H. Paymaster 

of Spy Battalion 1831 31. 
Winnebagoes. Attack keel boats 
19. Visit Captain Lindsey 26. 
Attack him 26, 27. Gratiot' s 
visit 37. At Prairie du Chien 

141. They hold a talk 141. 
Treaty of 1832 178-185. 

Winnebago War in 1827. Men 
tioned 19. Account thereof 
26-29. See notes 200. 

Wisconsin. Battle of the, or 
battle of Wisconsin Heights, as 
it is many times called 109- 
114. General Atkinson's re 
port of it 146, 147. 

Wisshick. At Bad Axe battle 

142. At Jefferson Barracks 


Woodbridge, W. W. On ex 
press to Atkinson 105, 116. 
From Atkinson 1 1 7. 

224 INDEX 

Wren, Johnson. Elected Major Wyatt, William. Elected Lieu- 

64. tenant Colonel 65. 

Wright, David. Made Quarter- y 

master 3 * Yellow Banks. Indians arrive at 

Wyatt, Lieutenant G. F. Men- the 35,41. Reached by 

tioned 57. Whiteside's Brigade 41.