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"studies in RUSSIA," "DAYS NEAR PARIS," ETC., ETC. 

PONIMUS." CiCERO de Fin. v. 



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London and Glasgow 



Walks in Paris. 50 Illustrations. One volume, $3.00. 

Days near Paris. 42 Illustrations. One volume, $2.50. 

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9 Lafayette Place, New York. 

Copyright, 1888, 
Bv Joseph L. Blamire. 


A BETTER book than this might easily have been pub- 
lished, but no one else has tried to write anything of the 
kind, and I have done my best. This volume and " Days 
near Paris" have been the conscientious hard work of two 
years. As in my " Cities of Italy," the descriptions are 
my own, but, for opinions and comments, 1 have quoted 
from others, choosing those passages which seem pleasant 
to read upon the spot, and likely to impress what is seen 
upon the recollection. The woodcuts, with very few ex- 
ceptions, are from my own sketches, transferred to wood 

by Mr. T. Sulman. , x ^ x 

Augustus J. C. Hare. 


In this Edition the numerous citations from French 
writers of history or memoirs^ in illustration of the vari- 
ous historical edifices that still remai?t, have been translated 
into E?iglish, and contain most valuable information respect- 
ing the France of pre-revolutionary times. 



























INDEX 519 


ALMOST all educated Englishmen visit Paris some time 
x\ in their lives, yet few really see it. They stay at the 
great neighboring capital to enjoy its shops and theatres 
and to drive in the Bois de Boulogne, and they describe it 
as a charming modern city, from which the picturesqueness 
of an historic past has been utterly obliterated. But, whilst 
it is true that much has perished, those who take the trouble 
to examine will be surprised to find how many remnants of 
past times still exist, more interesting than those in any pro- 
vincial town, because the history of France, more especially 
of modern France, is so completely centred in its capital. 

" It was at Paris anr" ''ersailles, its royal suburb, that the his- 
tory of France was maùc, from the time of Louis XIII. Paris 
sends her rays uvc. France and absorbs it. All the memoirs 
and reports speak of Paris." — Albert Babcau. 

" France is to-day the country of the world where the capital 
presents the mos- ^ liferent aspect from the rest of the nation. 
Thirty-five millions of provincials are confronted by a city, or 
rather by a little State, superior in population to Greece, Servia, 
Denmark, Norway, and some other more or less constitutional 
kingdoms. This republic, enclosed in the greater, is represented 
by an aggressive assembly which demands, every day, more com- 
plete autonomy. It boasts of being cosmopolitan and does not 
despair of breaking, some day, some of the bonds which subordi- 
nate its lot to that of the whole country. Its preponderance, al- 
though opposed by the laws, has long been favored by politics, 
and after having imposed three or four revolutions on the prov- 
inces, it can not console itself for the loss of this privilege. 
Every year, a powerful party celebrates the anniversary of the day 


when this little State, exasperated by a siege of four months, 
turned its arms against the national will. Even manners seem to 
perpetuate the causes of misunderstanding between the two un- 
equal fractions of the country. It is in vain that the population 
of the capital is incessantly renewed by provincial elements, to 
such an extent that of every ten Parisians five at least belong to 
families that have their origin elsewhere. In breathing the air of 
Paris the same individual changes his character and his languages, 
he forgets his old bonds, believes that he has escaped from the 
tyranny of trivial and contradictory incidents, and flings himself 
headlong into the world of general ideas. Paris is the Holy Land 
of abstractions, where every thing is judged by principles, and 
where the flower of civilization is plucked without consideration 
of root or branch. To Paris we owe our reputation as a people 
of theories and humanitarian maxims. From its habit of handling 
ideas rather than facts, the capital views the rest of France from 
a distance, from above, and under an abstract form. The spec- 
tator, attentive to the drama played on the front of the stage, 
scarcely distinguishes, at the back of the theatre, a confused 
crowd which he distinguishes by the convenient and vague ex- 
pression of the 'masses,' that is a dust heap of individuals, an 
aggregation of the monads of which Leibnitz speaks." — Rene 
Belloc, *' Revue des Deux-Mondes," Ixx. 

Peter the Great said of Paris that if he possessed such 
a town he should be tempted to burn it down, for fear it 
should absorb the rest of his empire ; and the hearts of all 
Frenchmen, and still more of all Frenchwomen, turn to 
their capital as the wished-for, the most desirable of resi- 
dences, the most beautiful of cities, the intellectual, com- 
mercial, and political centre of their country. 

" Francigenae princeps populosa Lutetia gentis 
Exerit immensum clara sub astra caput. 
Hie cives numerum, ars pretium, sapientia finem 

Exuperant, superant thura precesque Deos. 
Audiit obstupuitque hospes, factusque viator 
Vidit, et baud oculis credidit ipse suis." 

Julius Caesar Scaliger. 

Long ago Charles V. declared " Lutetia non urbs, sed 


orbis," and now Paris covers an area of thirty square miles, 
and is the most cosmopolitan town in Europe, the city to 
which members of every nationality are most wont to resort, 
for interest, instruction, and most of all for pleasure. 

** J'ai voulu voir Paris ; les fastes de l'histoire 
Célèbrent ses plaisirs, et consacrent sa gloire,"* 

is an impulse which every day brings throngs of strangers 
to its walls. To most of these the change from their or- 
dinary life, which is to be found in the " distraction " of 
Paris, forms its chief charm, and Londoners delight in the 
excess of its contrast to all they are accustomed to. But 
to Frenchmen Paris is far more than this : the whole coun- 
try looks to it as the mother-city, whilst those who have 
been brought up there can seldom endure a long separa- 
tion from it. 

" Paris a mon cœur dès mon enfance ; et m'en est advenu 
comme des choses excellentes ; plus i'ay veu, depuis, d'autres 
villes belles, plus la beauté de celte-cy peult et gaigne sur mon 
affection ; ie l'aime tendrement, jusques à ses verrues et à ses 
taches." — Montaigne. 

" Where can there be found a city with a physiognomy at once 
more full of life and more characteristic, more her own, more 
adapted to tempi the pencil and the pen, to inspire dreams or 
pique curiosity. 

" Paris lives, has a face, gestures, habits, whims, and crazes. 
Paris, when one knows it, is not a city but a living being, a real 
person, with moments of fury, of folly, of stupidity, of enthu- 
siasm, of honesty, and of lucidity, like a man who is sometimes 
charming and sometimes unbearable, but never indifferent. We 
love or hate Paris, it attracts or repels, but never leaves us cold." 
— D' Hérisson . 

" Here, then, I reflected, is that city which for centuries has 
served as a model of taste and fashion to all Europe, that city, the 
name of which is pronounced with veneration in all parts of the 
world by the wise and the ignorant, by philosophers and dandies, 
by artists and even by loungers ; a name that I knew almost as 

^ Voltaire. 


soon as my own, that I found in numberless romances, in the 
mouth of travellers, in my dreams, and in my thoughts. Here is 
Paris, and I am in it ! Ah, my friends, this was the most fort- 
unate moment of my life. Nothing equals the vivid sensations of 
curiosity and of impatience that I then experienced." — Karamsine. 
" All find there what they have come to seek, and the shock 
of conflicting interests, and the contact of varied industries, of 
numerous talents in a thousand difFçrent branches, of countless 
imaginations devoted to labor and to research of all kinds, give 
birth to this activity, this continual movement of fabrication, 
these prodigies of art and science, these daily improvements, 
these learned and ingenious conceptions, these surprising dis- 
coveries, and these admirable marvels which seize, astonish, and 
captivate us, and render Paris without an equal in the world." — 
Balzac^ ^'^ Esquisses Parisiennes." 

However long a stay be made in Paris, there will always 
remain something to be discovered. All tastes may be 
satisfied, all pleasures satiated, and to the lovers of historic 
reminiscence its interest is absolutely inexhaustible. 

"Paris is a veritable ocean. Drop in your sounding-line, 
and you will never learn its depth. Traverse it, describe it, if 
you will, yet with whatever care you traverse or describe it, and 
however numerous and eager may be explorers of this sea, there 
will alwa)^s be found one spot still virgin and another unknown, 
flowers, pearls, monsters, or something unheard of or forgotten 
by literary divers." — Balzac, " Z^ Père Goriot y 

" Our strange city of Paris, in its population and its aspects, 
seems to be a sample of the whole world. In the Marais we find 
narrow streets with old carved doors, overhanging gables, bal- 
conies or verandas that revive memories of old Heidelberg. The 
faubourg St. Honoré where it opens out around the Russian 
church with its white minarets and golden balls, recalls a quarter 
of Moscow. I know at Montmartre a picturesque, huddled-up 
corner that is genuine Algiers. Small houses, low and trim, each 
with its own gate and brass door-plate, and its own garden, are 
ranged in English streets between Neuilly and the Champs 
Elysees, while all the apse of Saint Sulpice, the Rue Ferron, the 
Rue Cassette, tranquil beneath the shadow of the huge towers, 
badly paved, with knockers on every door, seem brought from 
some provincial ecclesiastical city, Tours or Orleans, for example. 


where tall trees, rising above the walls, swing to the sound of 
bells and chants." — Daudet^ " Le Nabab." 

"What is Paris? There never has been a man who could 
answer the question. If I had the hundred mouths, the hundred 
tongues, and the iron voice of which Homer and Virgil speak, 
I could never recount half of its virtues, its vices, or its absurd- 
ities. What is Paris? It is an assemblage of contradictions, a 
tissue of horrors and delights, both rendered more striking by 
their proximity. It is a land of superficiality and of depth, of 
great simplicity and exaggerated pretentions. One might go on 
with such contrasts for ever." — Sherlock, 1781.* 

There are many points in Paris, many facts and phases 
of Parisian life, which interest strangers, whilst they pass 
unnoticed by those w^ho live amongst them, for differences 
always excite more attention than similitudes, and no one 
thinks it worth while to describe what he sees every day 
— manners, customs, or appearances with which he has 
been familiar from childhood. To a foreigner, especially 
to one who,has never left his own country before, half an 
hour spent on the boulevards or on one of the chairs in the 
Tuileries gardens has the effect of an infinitely diverting 
theatrical performance, whilst, even to a cursory observer, 
it will seem as if the great object of French men and women 
in every class were to make life as easy and pleasant as pos- 
sible — to ignore its present and to forget its past troubles 
as much as they can. 

"In no country and in no age has a social art of such per- 
fection rendered life so agreeable. Paris is the school of Europe, 
a school of politeness where the youth of Russia, Germany, and 
England come to get rid of their rudeness. When we know these 
salons we never quit them, or, if obliged to quit them, always 
regret them. ' Nothing,' says Voltaire, ' is to be compared to the 
sweet life that one leads there in the bosom of the arts and of a 
tranquil and refined voluptuousness ; strangers and kings have 
preferred this repose, so agreeably occupied and so enchanting, to 

* The first edition of Sherlock's Lettres d'un Voyageur anglais^ 1781, was 
published in French. 


their native lands and their thrones. . . . The heart grows 
tender and dissolves, just as aromatic substances gently melt at a 
moderate heat and exhale a delicious perfume,' " — Taine, ''Oiigines 
de la France Conle/nponiine." 

"There is nothing wanting to the character of a Frenchman 
that belongs to that of an agreeable and worthy man. There are 
only some trifles surplus, or which might be spared." — Ben. 

On the rare occasions when a Frenchman, destined by 

his nature to be gay and animated, allows himself to be 

conquered by depression, he is indeed to be pitied. 

" Que je plains un françois, quand il est sans gaieté ; 
Loin de son élément le pauvre homme est jette." — Voltaire. 

Pleasure at Paris becomes business ; indeed, a large por- 
tion of the upper classes of Parisians have no time for 
anything else. 

" Here at Paris I belong to myself no longer. I have scarcely 
the time to talk with my husband or keep up my correspondence. 
I do not know how the women do who lead this life' habitually ; 
they must have neither a household to keep nor children to bring 
up.' ' — Marie d ' Oberkirk. 

An Englishman may learn many a lesson in outward 
forms of politeness on the public promenades of Paris, for 
the rules of good manners which were so rigidly inculcated 
by Louis XIV. bear their fruit still ; and if outward de- 
meanor could be received as a sign of inner char- 
acter, Parisians would be the most delightful people in 
the world. Sometimes the grandiloquence of expressions 
used about trifles will strike the hearer with amusement— 
" Comment Madame veut-elle que sa robe soit organisée ? " 
is an ordinary inquiry of a dress-maker from her lady- 

In all classes the routine of life is simplified, and made 
easier than with us. This is partly owing to all the apart- 
ments of a residence being usually on the same level. The 


letting-out of the houses at Paris in different floors is a com- 
fortable arrangement which Londoners may well envy. 
Often each house, as Alphonse Karr says, becomes like a 
mountain inhabited from the valley to the summit, in 
which you may study the differences of manners and habits 
which have existed from all time between lowlanders and 

Confined to the Island of La Cite' in its early existence, 
Paris has gone on spreading through centuries, swallowing 
up fields, forests, villages. The history of its gradual in- 
crease is written in the names of its streets. One may 
almost trace the limits of the boundary of Paris under 
Philippe Auguste or Charles V. in following the Rues des 
Fossés-St.-Bernard, des Fossés-St-Victor, des Fossés-St- 
Marcel, de la Contrescarpe-St.-Marcel, des Fossés-St- 
Jacques, des Fossés-Monsieur-le-Prince, de la Contres- 
carpe-Dauphine, des Fossés-St.-Germain-l'Auxerrois, des 
Fossés-Montmartre, des Fossés-du-Temple, du Rem- 
part, &c. 

Of other streets, many take their names from churches 
and chapels ; some (as des Grands Augustins, des Blancs 
Manteaux, des Mathurins, Petits-Pères Récollets, &c.) from 
convents; some (as Filles-du-Calvaire, Filles-St.-Thomas, 
Nonnains d'Yères, Ursulines) from monasteries ; the streets 
of St. Anne, Bellefond and Rochechouart from three 
Abbesses of Montmartre. A number of streets are named 
from hotels of nobles, as d'Antin, de Duras, Garancière, 
Lesdiguières, de Rohan, du Roi de Sicile ; others from 
nobles themselves, as Ventadour, de Choiseul, de Gram- 
mont, &c. In the Marais many of the streets are named 
from the palace of the Hôtel de St. Paul and its surround- 
ings, as the Rue du Figuier-St.-Paul, from its fig-garden; 
Beautreillis, from its berceau of vines ; Cerisaie, from its 


cherry-orchard ; Lions-St.-Paul, from its menagerie. A vast 
number of streets are named from bourgeois inhabitants, 
as Coquilliere, Geoffroy-Lasnier, Gît-le-Cœur (Gilles le 
Queux), Simon-le-Franc (Franque) ; others from trades- 
men, as Aubry-le-Boucher, Tiquetonne, &c. ; others from 
municipal officers, as Mercier, The'venot, &c. ; others from 
officers of Parliament, as Bailleul, Meslay, Popincourt, &c. 
Still greater in number are the streets named from the 
signboards which formerly hung over the shops, as de 
l'Arbalète, de l'Arbre Sec, du Chaudron, du Coq-Héron^ 
du Coq-St.-Jean, des Deux-Ecus, de l'Hirondelle, des Cise- 
aux, du Sabot, du Cherche-Midi, &c. Many streets take 
names from history or legends, as the Rue Pierre -Levée, 
where a menhir is believed to have stood ; the Rue des 
Martyrs, by which Sts. Denis, Rusticus, and Eleutherius are 
supposed to have gone to their death at Montmartre ; the 
Rue des Frondeurs, where the barricades of the Fronde 
were begun ; the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois, of which the 
inhabitants were free from taxation. The Rue de l'Enfer, 
formerly Rue Inférieur, had its name corrupted in the 
reign of St. Louis, when the devil was supposed to haunt 
the Château de Vauvert. The evil character of their 
inhabitants gave a name to such streets as the Rue Mau- 
vais-Garçons, Mauconseil, Vidé-Gousset, &c. In the 
more modern Paris a vast number of streets are named 
from eminent men, as Bossuet, Corneille, Casimir-Dela- 
vigne, d'Aguesseau, Richelieu, Montaigne, &c. ; and some 
from victories, as Rivoli, des Pyramides, Castiglione, 
d'Alger, &c. 

As in London, fashionable life has moved constantly 
from one quarter to another, and constantly westwards. 

"The life of Paris, its most striking feature, was in 1500 the 
Rue Saint Antoine ; in 1600, the Place Royale ; in 1700, at the 


Pont Neuf ; in 1800, at the Palais Ro)'al. Ail these places were 
in turns the boulevards. The soil there has been trodden as 
passionately as the asphalt is to-day, beneath the feet of the stock- 
brokers, at the doorway of Tortoni's. In 1580 the court was 
at Les Tourncllcs, under the protection of the Bastille. In 1600 
the aristocracy lived at the famous Rue Royale, of which Corneille 
sang, as some time future poets will sing of the boulevards." — 
Balzac, ''Esquisses Parisiennes.^^ 

-The suppression of the religious orders, who once 
occupied a third of the area of the town, has done more 
than anything else to remove the old landmarks in Paris, 
and many fine old monastic buildings have perished with 
their owners, who were such a mighty power before the 
Revolution. But, in later years, the spirit of religion seems 
to have died in France, and the very churches are almost 
deserted now, except when any fashionable preacher is 
announced. A congregation of twenty is not unusual even 
at high mass in the metropolitan cathedral of Notre Dame. 
The numberless priests officiate to bare walls and empty 
chairs. Only, in the parish churches, poor women are still 
constantly seen buying their tapers at the door, and light- 
ing them before the image of the Madonna or some 
favorite saint, praying while they burn — a custom more 
frequent in Paris than anywhere else. 

" Every day four or five thousand masses are sung at fifteen 
sous apiece. The Capucins do it cheaper, for three sous. All 
these numberless masses were founded by our good ancestors, 
who, for the sake of a dream, ordered the perpetual celebration 
of the bloodless sacrifice. Every will founded masses ; the 
omission would have been an impiety, and the priests would 
have refused the rites of sepulture to any one who had forgotten 
this clause, as ancient evidence proves. Enter a church ; to right, 
to left, in front, behind, on each side, a priest is consecrating or 
elevating the host, or partaking, or pronouncing the Ite, missa est." 
— Tableau de Paiis, 1782. 

The great Revolution changed the whole face of Paris 


SO completely, that it is difficult to imagine it as it was 
before that time ; but the many other revolutions have 
passed by, leaving few marks upon the town, seldom even 
affecting the daily life of the people for more than a few 
days. Thus Balzac writes after that of 1830 : 

"26 September. — The streets have resumed their accustomed 
aspect. The carriages and fashionables roll and stroll as before, 
and, except a few trees less, the boulevards are just the same. 
The sums raised for the wounded are paid into bank, the wounds 
heal, and all is forgotten." — Lettres stir Paris. 

It will probably be remarked that there are far fewer 
idle waifs in Paris than in London. Industry is a passion 
— " Les Français changeraient les rochers en or, si on les 
laisserait faire," was a saying of the minister Colbert. 
**Dans ce Paris plein d'or et de misère,"^ poverty is 
seldom apparent. Even in the Rue de Beaubourg and its 
side streets, which have the reputation of being the poorest 
parts of the city, there is an amount of movement and 
activity which is very different to the hunger-stricken 
inanition of the poorer quarters in English cities. 

An old proverb says that, " Paris is the paradise of 
women, the purgatory of men, and the hell of horses." 
But however true the first of these dictums may be, its bad 
reputation in the last instance has long been a tale of the 

Absorbed in the pursuit of pleasure, setting the 
fashions of ladies' dress to the universe, Paris has prob- 
ably had less influence upon literature or art than any 
other of the great capitals. 

"This town, into which, by so many gates, every day and 
ceaselessly, there enter cattle, flour, milk, and poets, and from 
which nothing but manure comes out." — Alphonse Karr, " Clovis 

* Béranger. 


But its political state has always penetrated the rest of 
Europe; it has never had a revolution without shaking the 
stability of other European powers. 

" Ville qu'un orage enveloppe ! 
C'est elle, hélas ! qui nuit et jour 
Réveille le géant Europe 
Avec sa cloche et son tambour ! 
Sans cesse, qu'il veille ou qu'il dorme, 
Il entend la cité difforme 
Bourdonner sur sa tête énorme 
Comme un essaim dans la forêt. 
Toujours Paris s'écrie et gronde. 
Nul ne sait, question profonde, 
Ce qui perdrait le bruit du monde 
Le jour où Paris se tairait." 

Victor Hugo, " Les Voix Intérieures ^ 

The excitable nature of the French, their intense love 
of change, and their passion for everything noisy, natu- 
rally tends to revolutions, and, a revolution once effected, 
everything belonging to the last régime is swept away as 
soon as possible ; buildings are pulled down, statues 
dashed to pieces, names recalling those lately adored are 
changed as unendurable, and their memories are insulted 
and dragged in the mire. 

" In France, that country of vanity, as soon as an opportunity 
for making a noise presents itself, a crowd of people seize it ; 
some act in honest simplicity, others from the consciousness of 
their own merits." — C/iateaubriand. 

Nowhere is existence cheaper than in Paris for those 
who know how to manage. A bachelor who does not 
mind mounting five pairs of stairs may have a charming 
little apartment for about i/. a week. At the similar 
private hotels, an admirably furnished room, with break- 
fast, lights, and attendance, seldom comes to more than 
i/. los. At the admirable Restaurants Duval, which are 


scattered everywhere over the town, an excellent dinner, 
with coffee and "petit verre," costs from 2 fr. to 2 ix. 50 c. 
Carriages are reasonable, omnibuses ply in all directions 
upon the most admirable and equitable of systems, and a 
complete circle of railways connects the city with its 
environs, containing a thousand charming spots, which 
the Parisian of the middle classes can choose for the point 
of the Sunday excursion which he almost invariably makes 
into the country. 

" No one ever left Paris with a light heart; whether he has 
lost his health or his money, whether he has left attachments 
which it will be difficult to replace in other countries, or inter- 
esting acquaintances which it is impossible to quit without regret. 
Whatever be the reason, the heart is always sad at leaving Paris." 
— Sherlock, 1 78 1. 

"Happy nation! You have pretty rooms, pretty furniture, 
pretty jewels, pretty works of literature, and you revel in these 
charming trifles. May you long prosper with your pretty fancies, 
and perfect further that pretty persiflage which wins to you the 
love of Europe, and, always marvellously pillowed, may you 
never awake from the pretty dream which gently lulls in slumber 
your bright light \\iQ "--Tableau de Fatis, 


Arrival. — Cabs from the station, i fr. and 2 fr. : at night, 
2^ and 2 1 fr. Each piece of luggage 25 centimes. Trav- 
ellers are pressed to take an onmibus de famille^ but these 
are only desirable for large parties. 

Travellers arriving late in Paris and leaving early the 
next morning by another line, may do well to sleep at one 
of the hotels near the Gare du Nord, such as Hotel 
du Chemin de Fer du Nord (good), opposite the station. Or 
they may prefer a hotel near the station of departure, such 
as — near the Gare de PEst (for Strasbourg and Nancy 
or Basle), Hotel de V Europe (good), 74 Boulevard de 
Strasbourg : Hotel St. Laurent, 4 Rue de Metz : H. de 
Bale, 6 Rue de Metz : H. de Strasbourg, 78 Boulevard de 
Strasbourg ; near the Gare de Lyon, Hotel du Chemin de 
Fer de Lyon ; near the Gare d Orléans, H. du Chemin de 
Fer, 8 Boulevard de l'Hôpital j near the Gare Montpar- 
nasse (for Chartres and Brittany), H. de France et de 
Bretagne, i Rue du Départ ; near the Gare St. Lazare (for 
Rouen and Normandy), H. de Londres et New York, 15 
Rue du Havre; H. Anglo- Américain, 113 Rue S. Lazare. 

Hotels. — The best hotels are those on the western boule- 
vards, in the Rue de Riv^oli, Place Vendôme, Rue de la 
Paix, and their neighborhood. In these hotels the price of 
bedrooms varies from 4 to 10 fr.. according to the size and 
floor. Pension in winter is from 15 to 20 fr. a day. 


Hotels in the Rue St. Honoré are less expensive and often 
more comfortable — pension in winter from lo to 15 fr. 
a day. 

The three largest Hotels are — H. Continental, 3 Rue de 
Castiglione, with a view of the Tuileries gardens ; Grand 
Hotel, 12 Boulevard des Capucins, close to the new Opera 
House ; Grand Hotel dit Louvre, Rue de Rivoli, opposite 
the Louvre, and close to the Palais Royal 

Important and comfortable hotels are — Yl.Bristol, 3 and 
5 Place Vendôme ; H. du Rhin, 4 and 6 Place Vendôme ; 
H. Meurice, 228 Rue de Rivoli; H. Windsor, 226 Rue de 
Rivoli; H. Brighton, 218 Rue de Rivoli; H. Wagram, 
208 Rue de Rivoli ; H. Mirabeau, 8 Rue de la Paix ; H. 
Westminster, 11 and 13 Rue de la Paix; H. de Hollande, 
20 Rue de la Paix; H. Splendide, 24 Rue de la Paix; H. 
Chatham, 17 Rue Daunou ; H. de T Empire, 7 Rue Daunou; 
H. des Deux-Mondes, 22 Avenue de l'Opéra. 

Comfortable hotels for a long residence are — H. St. 
James, 211 Rue St. Honoré; H. de Lille et d'Albion, 223 
Rue St. Honoré; H. Richmond, 11 Rue du Helder. 

The hotels north of the boulevards or south of the 
Seine are much less expensive, and quite unfrequented by 

Bachelors making a long stay in Paris may live very 
comfortably and reasonably at Maisons Meublées, such as 
Hotel Noel-Peter, Rue d'Amboise, H. de Rastadt, 4 Rue 
Daunou, and many small hotels on the Quai Voltaire, 
and in the neighboring streets. Travellers are never 
required to have luncheon or dinner in the Parisian 
hotels, but are generally expected to breakfast there. 

Restaurants. — The best as well as the most expensive 
restaurants are those on the boulevards and in the Palais 
Royal. Here a good dinner costs from 10 to 15 fr., exclu- 


sive of wine. Restaurants of high reputations are — le 
Gra?id Véfour, 79 Galerie Beaujolais, Palais Royal ; Mai- 
son Dorée, 20 ; Café Ric/ie, 29 ; Café Anglais, 13 ; Café du 
Heldcr, 29 — Boulevard des Italiens ; Bignon, 32 Avenue 
de l'Opéra. 

Travellers who are not connoisseurs will, however, prob- 
ably be satisfied with the Restaura7its Duval, which are 
admirably managed and very moderate in price. These 
establishments are scattered all over the town, and a list of 
them is found on the card which is presented to every one 
on entering, and on which the waitress (dressed in a 
costume) marks articles as they are ordered. Payment is 
made at a desk, three or four sous being left on the table 
for the attendant. Some of the most convenient Restau- 
rants Duval are — 194 Rue de Rivoli; 31 Avenue de 
l'Opéra; 27 Boulevard delà Madeleine; 10 Place delà 
Madeleine; 10 Boulevard Poissonnière; 21 Boulevard 
Montmartre ; 26 Boulevard St. Michel (near Hotel de 

Cabs. — When a cab is engaged the driver should be 
asked to give you his ticket {numéro), which is marked 
with the tariff of prices. 

Om7iibuscs. — The fares in all Parisian omnibuses are the 
same, for any distance whatever within the barriers — 30 c. 
inside, 15 c. outside. If no omnibus runs to the exact point 
a traveller wishes to reach, he demands correspondance 
(permission to change from one line to another), on enter- 
ing a vehicle. Receiving a ticket, he will be set down at 
the point where the two lines cross, and the ticket will give 
him a prior right to a seat in the corresponding omnibus, 
and, in some cases, free him from a second payment. 
There are tramway-lines to St. Cloud, Versailles, and other 
places in the suburbs. 


Theatres. — Tickets for theatres may be purchased be- 
forehand at a bureau de location^ where a plan of the theatre 
is shown. Seats secured thus are slightly more expensive 
than those demanded au bureau (at the door). The most 
important theatre is the Théâtre Français on the S.W. of 
the Palais Royal. 

The performances of the Opera take place on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, and, in the winter, on Saturdays 

History. — The founder of the Merovingian dynasty (of 
which few monarchs resided at Paris) was Clovis, c. 496. 
The Carlovingiaft dynasty was founded by Pepin-le-Bref, 
752. This dynasty was deposed, after the Norman in- 
vasion of 885, and the crown given to Count Eudes, 
who founded the Capetian dynasty. From this time 
France was ruled by — 

Hugues Capet, 987. 
Robert II. (le Pieux), 1031. 
Henri I., 1031. 
Philippe I., 1060. 
Louis VI. (le Gros), 1108. 
Louis VII.' (le Jeune), 1137. 
Philippe II. (Auguste), 1180. 
Louis VIII. (le Lion), 1223, 
Louis IX. (St. Louis), 1226. 
Philippe III, (le Hardi), 1270. 
Philippe IV. (le Bel), 1285. 
Louis X. (le Hutin), 1314. 
Philippe V. (le Long), 1316. 
Charles IV. (le Bel), 1322. 

House of Valois : — 

Philippe VI., 1328. 
Jean (le Bon), 1350. 
Charles V. (le Sage), 1364, 
Charles VI. (le Bien-aimé), 1380. 
Charles VII., 1422. 


Louis XI., 1461. 

Charles VIII., 1483. 

Louis XII. (Père du peuple), 1498. 

François I., 1515. 

Henri IL, 1547. 

François IL, 1559. 

Charles IX., 1560. 

Henri IIL, 1574. 

House of Bourbon : — 
Henri IV., 1589. 
Louis XIII. , 1610. 
Louis XIV., 1643. 
Louis XV., 1715. 
Louis XVI., 1774. 

Republic. — Sept. 22, 1792-1799. 
Napoleon I. — First Consul, Dec. 25, 1799. 
Emperor, Dec. 2, 1804. 

House of Bourbon : — 
Louis XVIII., 1814. 
Charles X.,1824. 

Louis Philippe (d'Orléans), 1830. 

Republic, 1848-1852. 

Napoleon III. — President, Dec. 20, 1848. 

Emperor, Dec. 2, 1852. 
Republic proclaimed, Sept. 4, 1870. 



THOSE who visit Paris now, and look down the ave- 
nues of the Champs Elysées and gardens which lead 
to nothing at all, or mourn over the unmeaning desolate 
space once occupied by the central façade of the Tuileries, 
can scarcely realize the scene as it was before the Revo- 
lution of 1870. Then, between the beautiful chestnut 
avenues, across the brilliant flowers and quaint orange 
trees of the gardens, beyond the sparkling glory of the 
fountains, rose the majestic façade of a palace, infinitely 
harmonious in color, indescribably picturesque and noble 
in form, interesting beyond description from its associa- 
tions, appealing to the noblest and most touching recollec- 
tions, which all its surroundings led up to and were glori- 
fied by, which was the centre and soul of Paris, the first 
spot to be visited by strangers, the one point in the capital 
which attracted the sympathies of the world. 

It is all gone now. Malignant folly ruined it: apa- 
thetic and narrow-minded policy declined to restore and 
preserve it. 

Till the beginning of the XVI. c. the site of the Tui- 
leries was occupied by a manufactory of tiles, which ex- 
isted in some of the open grounds belonging to the cour- 
tille of the Hospital of the Quinze Vingts, founded in the 


middle of the XIII. c. on a site which is now crossed by 
the Rue de Rivoli. 

"This Pallacc is called Tuilleries, because heretofore they 
used to burn tile there, before the Pallace was built. For this 
French word Tuillerie doth signifie in the French a place for 
burning of tile." — Coryafs ''Crudities," i6ii. 

It was in 15 18 that Louise de Savoie, Duchesse d'An- 
goulême, mother of François I., finding the Hôtel des 
Tournelles an unhealthy residence, on account of its 
neighborhood to the great drain of the Marais, obtained 
the Tuileries — /^rr<^ Tegidariorum —irom. her son, with the 
neighboring villa of Nicolas de Neufville, Secrétaire des 
Finances. Louise died in 1531, and her villa continued 
to be a prize given to favorites in thé royal household, till 
Catherine de Medicis greatly enlarged the domain of the 
Tuileries by purchase, and employed Philibert Delorme to 
build a magnificent palace there. He erected the façade 
towards the gardens, till lately the admiration of Europe, 
and his work — "le grand avant-corps du milieu" — was 
continued by Jean Bullant, who built the pavilions at 
either end of his façade. This was continued by Du Cer- 
ceau under Henri IV. to the Pavilion de Flore, close to 
the site then occupied by the Porte Neuve and the circu- 
lar Tour du Bois belonging to the city walls, which ran 
behind the palace to the Porte St. Honoré, across the 
present site of the Place du Carrousel. Du Cerceau also 
continued the south side of the palace from the Pavilion 
de Flore, parallel with the Seine, interrupting the line of 
the city walls by great galleries which connected his 
building with the Louvre. The space on the north still 
continued to be unoccupied, except by the detached build- 
ings of the Grande Ecurie, until the north side of the 
palace, with the Pavilion de Marsan towards the Rue de 


Rivoli, was built for Louis XIV. by Levau and his son-in- 
law, François d'Orbay. Under the second empire the 
Tuileries was finally united on the north side with the 
Louvre, with which it thenceforth formed one vast palace. 
The Pavilion de Flore was rebuilt 1863-68. 

The Tuileries was seldom inhabited by royalty till the 
present century. Under Louis XIV. Versailles became 
the royal residence. Louis XV. spent some time at the 
Tuileries during his minority and the regency, and com- 
ical are the accounts of the way in which his governess, 
Mme de Ventadour, faced there the difficulties of his edu- 

"A young lad of poor family, of the same age as Louis XV., 
was chosen as the companion of his studies, and became the com- 
petitor of the king, who took a great liking to him. Whenever 
Louis XV. missed his duties or failed in his lessons, his little 
friend was flogged or punished. This unjust expedient had 
slight success." — Mémoires de Dticlos. 

After he grew up Louis XV. always resided at Versailles. 
Louis XVI. lived either at Versailles or St. Cloud, till he 
was brought to Paris as a prisoner to find the palace al- 
most unfurnished. " Tout y manquait, lits, tables, chaises, 
et jusqu'aux objets les plus nécessaires de la vie." In a 
few days some of the furniture of the royal apartments at 
Versailles was brought to Paris, and the royal family then 
established themselves — the king, queen, and royal chil- 
dren in the central apartments on the ground floor and 
entresol of the left wing, Mme de Lamballe on the ground 
floor, and Madame Elizabeth on the first floor of the Pa- 
vilion de Flore. Thus accommodated, they were com- 
pelled to reside at the Tuileries from October 6, 1789, to 
August 10, 1792. After the execution of Louis XVI. 
(condemned at the Manège) the Convention held its meet- 


ings at the Tuileries, till it was replaced by the Conseil 
des Anciens in 1796. 

On February i, 1800, Bonaparte came to reside at the 
Tuileries, which still bore placards inscribed with '• 10 Août, 
1792. La royauté en France est abolie et ne se relèvera 
jamais." " Eh bien, Bourienne, nous voilà donc aux Tuile- 
ries. Maintenant il faut y rester," were the first words of 
the future emperor to his faithful secretary on arriving. 
Henceforward regiments defiled through the court of the 
Tuileries every five days. 

" It was here that Bonaparte showed himself to the troops and 
to the multitude who were always eager to follow his steps. 
There, pale, drooping on his horse, he presented an interesting 
and striking figure, by his grave and sad beauty, and by an 
appearance of ill health which began to cause much disquietude, 
for never was the preservation of a man so much desired as his." 
— Thiers. 

T\ïQ Jieurs-de- lis were now picked out of the furniture 
of the Tuileries, and replaced by the bee of the Bonapartes. 
In the chapel Napoleon I. was married by Cardinal Fesch 
to Josephine (who had long been his wife by the civil bond\ 
Berthier and Talleyrand being witnesses ; in the palace 
he received Pius VII., who was given the Pavilion de 
Flore as a residence ; thence he went to his coronation ; 
there the different marriages of the imperial brothers and 
sisters took place ; there the divorce of Josephine was pro- 
nounced ; and there in 1812, when intending to unite the 
Tuileries to the Louvre, he especially bade the architect to 
prepare vast apartments for the vassal sovereigns who would 
form part of his cortège on his triumphant return from 
Russia ! 

Napoleon I. fell, but the Tuileries continued to be the 
habitual seat of the executive power till 1870. At the 
Restoration of 18 14 the last survivor of the five prisoners of 


the Temple, the Duchesse d'Angoulême, was received there 
by two hundred ladies dressed in white embroidered with 
the Bourbon lily. There she watched over the last hours 
of Louis XVIII., and there, through the reigns of Louis 
XVIII. and Charles X., she lived apart from the dis- 
sipations of the Court, in a room hung with white velvet, 
upon which lilac daisies had been worked by the hands 
of her mother and Madame Elizabeth, and in which, in 
an oratory, she kept the memorials of their last days — 
the cap which the queen had made with her own hands to 
wear at her trial ; the handkerchief torn from the bosom 
of Madame Elizabeth on the scaffold ; the coat, white 
cravat, and black silk waistcoat in which Louis XVI. had 
gone to death — all preserved in a drawer of the rude 
bench on which her brother had died. 

Another revolution, and the numerous members of the 
Orleans family crossed the road from the Palais-Royal to 
reside at the Tuileries. Louis Philippe at once began to 
prepare for a revolution by making a fosse concealed by 
lilacs and screened by an iron balustrade along the garden 
front of the palace. But eighteen years of alternations of 
joy and mourning, public sympathy and unpopularity, 
were allowed to pass over the family, increasing the re- 
spect felt for the virtues of Marie- Amélie, and the want of 
confidence in the feeble king, before the end came in 
February, 1848, two months after Louis Philippe had lost 
his right hand and directing moral influence in his strong- 
minded sister, Madame Adélaïde, who died in the Pavil- 
ion de Flore, December 31, 1847. As King Louis Philippe 
passed out of the Tuileries into exile he uttered on the 
threshold the significant last words of his reign, " Tout 
comme Charles Dix ! " 

From the time of the sudden death of the young Due 


d'Orléans, July 13, 1842, his widow had lived for six years 
in the apartment which had belonged to him in the Pavil- 
ion de Marsan, turing it into a sanctuary. 

"Not a piece of furniture moved, not a thing taken away; 
near the fireplace was a large arm chair on which the prince had 
thrown, wide open, the number of \\iQ Journal des Débats oi K^q 
day, and the journal had not been lifted for six years ; the bed 
was in disorder and had never been made ; the trunks prepared 
for the journey to Plombières, where the duke was to meet the 
duchess, remained o^an^'—Imbert de St. Amand. 

After the flight of the rest of the royal family on Feb- 
ruary 24, 1848, the Duchess, with her two children, escorted 
by her faithful brother-in-law, the Due de Nemours, left 
the Tuileries to make her futile claim upon the protection 
and sympathy of the Chamber of Deputies. In the after 
sack of the Tuileries her rooms and the chapel were the 
only apartments respected. Two cartloads of the finest 
Sèvres china alone were destroyed, and the Orleans collec- 
tion of pictures was cut to pieces. 

On January i, 1852, the second empire made its trium- 
phal entry into the Tuileries in the person of Louis Napoleon. 
There on January 29, 1853, he was affianced to the beautiful 
Comtesse de Te'ba ; there the Prince Imperial was born, 
March 16, 1856; there the empress, long the idol of fickle 
France, heard of the misfortune of Sedan ; and thence she 
fled from the fury of the mob on September 4, 1870. 

No sovereign should ever again inhabit the Tuileries. 
The palace, which had been four times already attacked by 
the people of Paris (June 20, 1792 ; August 10, 1792 ; July 
29, 1830; February 24, 1848), was wilfully burnt by the 
Commune— by barrels of petroleum and gunpowder placed 
in the different rooms— May 23, 1871, after the troops from 
Versailles had entered the city. Internally, it was complete- 
ly destroyed, but the walls, roofless and gutted, remained 


nearly entire, and the beautiful central pavilion of Phili- 
bert Deloime was almost entirely unhurt. Yet, through 
want of energy for their restoration, these, by far the most 
interesting ruins in France, were razed to the ground, and 
its greatest ornament and its central point of interest were 
thus lost to Paris for ever. 

All that remains of the past now is the Tuileries garden, 
with its great orange trees in tubs and its vast population of 
statues. Most of these date from the Revolution; but the 
older statues, brought hither from the gardens of Marly, are 
of the time of Louis XIV. As a work of art we may notice 
the Winter of Sébastien Stodtz (1655-1726). It was be- 
hind the statue of Venus Pudica, at one of the angles of 
the principal avenue, that Henri concealed himself when 
he fired upon Louis Philippe, July 29, 1846. The finest 
of all the sculptures are the equestrian statues by An- 
toine Coysevox, brought from Marly, and now placed 
on either side of the entrance from the Place de la Con- 

"These two admirable groups, La Renommée and Alerenre, 
were cut from two enormous blocks of marble by the artist him- 
self who made the models ; he inscribed on the plinth of the 
Mercury : T/iese two groups were done in two years. " — Razf/ Lacroix, 
^^ Dix huitième Siècle." 

The original plan of the gardens, as laid out by Reg- 
nard under Louis XIII. and afterwards by Levau and 
D'Orbay, was much altered by Lenotre with a judgment 
which time has completely justified. 

"The plan was not to begin the covert oi the garden at less 
than ninety-two toises from the façade of the palace in order that 
the building might enjoy fresh air ; and he laid out the surface of 
this open space in parterres of flowers in compartments, mingled 
with expanses of green sward, that might be regarded as so many 
master-pieces. " — Blondel. 



The portion of the gardens nearest the Champs Ely- 
sees is hiid out in groves of chestnut trees. I'here is a 
tradition that one of these trees heralds spring by flower- 
ing on March 22, on which day orthodox Parisians go to 
look for the phenomenon. 

On either side of the gardens are raised terraces. That 
on the south above the Seine formerly ended in the hand- 
some Porte de la Conférence (on the walls of Charles 
IX.), which was destroyed in 1730. It derived its name 



from the Spanish ambassadors having entered there to 
confer with Mazarin about the marriage of Maria Theresa 
with Louis XIV. The north terrace, above the Rue de 
Rivoli, is still one of the most popular promenades in 
Paris. Its western end, being the warmest and sunniest 
part of the garden, has obtained the name of Za Petite 
Provence. Here it was that Louis XV. first saw Mile de 
Romans, brought hither as a beautiful little girl to see 
the show of the king's entry, sent to inquire at the lemon- 
ade stall (existing then as now) who she was, and then 


took her away from her parents to become his mistress 
and the mother of the Abbé de Bourbon.' Along this 
same Terrasse des Feuillants his grandson, Louis XVI., 
and his family, escaped from the Tuileries on the terrible 
August lo, 1792, to take refuge in the National Assembly, 
then held in the Manege or riding-school, which joined 
the old buildings of the Couvent des Feuillants. Only 
two of the queen's ladies were permitted to accompany 
them, Mme de Lamballe as being a relation, and Mme de 
Tourzel as being governess of the Children of France. 

"While passing at a slow pace from the palace to the Feu- 
illants, Marie Antoinette wept ; she wiped her eyes and wept 
again. The hedge of Swiss Grenadiers and of the Grenadiers of 
the National Guard was broken through by the populace that 
pressed so close upon her that her watch and purse were stolen. 
When she came opposite the Café de la Terrasse, the queen hardly 
saw that she was stepping into a mass of leaves. ' Lots of 
leaves,' said the king; ' they have fallen early this year.' At the 
foot of the stairs of the Terrasse, men and women, brandishing 
clubs, barred the passage of the royal family, ' No,' cried the 
crowd, ' they shall not enter the Assembly. They are the cause 
of all our woes ; this must end. Down with them ! Down with 
them!' At last the family passed on." — De Concourt, '' L'Hist. 
de Marie Antoinette y 

Nothing remains now of the old convent of the Feu- 
illants (destroyed to make the Rue de Rivoli), which gave 
the terrace its name, and where the royal family spent the 
days from August to to 13 (when they were taken to the 
Temple) in cells, beneath which the people constantly de- 
manded the death of the queen with cries of "Jetez-nous 
sa tête !" 2 

Close to the Terrasse des Feuillants is the Allée des 
Orangers^ where orange trees in tubs, many of them his- 

• Mme Campan, A necdotes. 
2 Lettre de M. Aubier. 


toric trees of great age, are placed in summer. In the 
groves of trees between this and the southern terrace are 
two hémicycles of white marble — Carres (VAtalante — which 
are interesting as having been erected from a fancy of 
Robespierre in 1793, that the old men might sit there to 
watch the floral games of youth. 

In the gardens, where Horace Walpole was so sur- 
prised to find in reality the lopped trees and clipped and 
trimmed nature portrayed in the pictures of Watteau, we 
may recall many of the scenes of which those and other 
pictures of the time are perhaps the best existing record. 
Here Louis XIII. as a boy was taught to build little for- 
tresses. Here Arthur Young (January, 1790) saw the 
Dauphin (Louis X VI I. )," a -pretty good-natured looking 
boy of five or six years old," at work with his little rake 
and hoe in his miniature railed-off garden, but not without 
a guard of two grenadiers. Here also, of the early days 
of the Revolution, Chateaubriand wrote : — 

"The palace of the Tuileries, a great jail filled with con- 
demned, rose up in the midst of the fêtes of destruction. The 
doomed were playing while waiting for the tutnbiil, the shears, the 
red shirt, that had been hung out to dry, and through the windows 
the dazzling illuminations of the queen's circle were visible." — 
Mémoires (T Outre- Tombe. 

Here also it was that (March 20, 181 1) the vast breath- 
less multitude waited for the sound of the guns which were 
to announce the birth of a child of Napoleon and Marie 
Louise, and burst into a shout of joy when the twenty- 
second gun made known that the child was a son — the 
King of Rome. 

"One tradition that will live forever, is that of the 20th of 
March, 1811, when the first sound of the cannon announced at 
last that Marie Louise was a mother. At this first boom, everj-^- 
thing in motion stopped .... everything. In a moment the 


great city was smitten with silence as if by enchantment. The 
most important business conversations, the most delirious words 
of love were suspended .... and without the booming of the 
cannon one might have fancied one's self in that city of the Arabian- 
Nights which the wave of a wand had petrified At length 

a twenty-second cannon thundered in the silence ! . . . . Then 
one single shout, one single one, .... but uttered by a million 
of voices, boomed over Paris, and shook the walls of the very 
palace where the son of the hero was just born, and around which 
the crowd was so close packed that a fly could not have alighted 
on the ground." — Me'moires de la Duchesse (VAbrante. 

A similar crowd waited here, March i6, 1856, for the 
birth of the brave and unfortunate prince who was the son 
of Napoleon III. and Eugénie de Guzman. 

In the palace which looked upon the garden Napoleon 
II. at five years old had been taught to " représenter no- 
blement et avec 'grâce," receiving a mimic Court every 

But all the memories of the Tuileries sink into insig- 
nificance compared with those which surround the events 
of 1792. Weber, "frère de lait" of Marie Antoinette, 
describes how he was driving by the Seine on the after- 
noon of June 20. 

" Returning along the quay, I saw the gate opposite the Pont- 
Royal open ; and as all the world was entering, I left my carriage 
and mingled with the crowd, never doubting but that there was 
there plenty of respectable people ready to throw themselves into 
the palace to defend the king's life if it was threatened ; and 
indeed I found a large number. I asked several of them how 
many they were, and they replied, ' Six or seven hundred.' 
There were there forty thousand ruffians ! Besides, as soon as I 
entered the garden, I saw no sign of danger. A triple rank of 
National Guards, the two rear ones having their bayonets fixed, 
lined the terrace from the Pont-Royal gate to that opposite S. 
Roch. The ruffians marched on quietly enough ; some squads 
only stopped from time to time beneath the windows of the royal 
apartments, brandishing their arms, and crying: ^A bas Veto I 
Vive la nation!^ I heard one of those that carried the most 


horrible weapons, whose honest face contrasted singularly with 
his wild costume, say, as he looked at the closed windows of the 
king : ' Why docs he not show himself? What is the poor dear man 
afraid of? We will not hurt him.' I heard the old saying re- 
peated, ' He is deceived,' and another answered : ' But why does he 
believe six men rather than seven hundred and forty-five? They 
gave him a veto and he does not know how to manage it: A huge 
construction, shaped like the tables of the law of Moses, and on 
which was written, in letters of gold, the declaration of the rights 
of man, was the chief object borne in the procession. Alongside 


women, who carried sabres and spits, were men carrying olive 
branches. The Red Caps were there by thousands, and on every 
musket or pike was a streamer inscribed : ' The Constitution or 

Later in the day the masses of the people advanced 
upon the palace. The guard then fraternized with the 
invaders, and a cannon was pointed at the inner entrance 
of the king's apartments. Louis XVL, perfectly calm in 
the midst of danger, urged Marie Antoinette to secure her 
children, and, followed only by his heroic sister Elizabeth, 
who insisted upon sharing his fate, went down to the 



entrance. " Let them think I am the queen," said the 
princess, as they shouted for the head of Marie Antoinette, 
" that she may have time to escape. " 

"'AH defense is useless,' said the king; 'there is only one 
thing to do, that is to open the door and show one's self calmly ; ' 
and at the same time he ordered Edouard the Suisse to open it. 
He obeyed, and the whole crowd that believed the king was con- 
cealed, manifested an instant of surprise. His friends took 
advantage of this moment to make him mount on an entablature, 
where he was less exposed to the individual fury of those who 
sought his life. It was M. de Bougainville who thought of this 
expedient, and M. Deloque and his other friends pressed around 
and formed a rampart. The spectacle then presented to the king 
was horrible. In the midst of this filthy mob, formed of men of 
every region, but more particularly of unknown vagabonds from 
the southern provinces, three standards, or kinds of standards, 
were displayed. One was formed of a knife resembling the 
famous machine called the guillotine, with this inscription : 
'For the tyrant;' the second represented a woman on a gibbet, 
with the words: ' For Antoinette;' on the third was displayed a 
piece of flesh in the form of a heart, nailed to a plank, with 
this inscription : ' For the priests and aristocrats.'' 

"For nearly four hours those who marched under these ter- 
rible standards pointed their pikes, over the heads of the group 
of gentlemen, towards the king, and bade him sanction the decree 
against the priests, under penalty of deposition or death, and he 
replied constantly : ' I will renounce the crown rather than par- 
ticipate in such a tyranny over conscience ! ' To prove his resig- 
nation, he allowed the bonnet rouge to be placed on his head while 
he was speaking these words by a very handsome young man 
named Clément. 

"A bottle of wine was presented to him, and he was asked 
to drink to the patriots. ' It is poisoned,' his neighbor whis- 
pered, and he replied : 'Well, then, I will die without sanctioning 
the measure.' He drank without hesitation. ' They only wished 
to frighten Your Majesty,' he was told some time afterwards by a 
grenadier of the National Guard, who thought he had need of being 
re-assured. 'You see it is calm,' replied the king, taking the 
man's hand and placing it on his heart. ' The man who does his 
duty is tranquil.'" — Beaulieu, '^ Essais historiques.'* 


Mme Campan describes the scene in the interior of 
the Palace. 

" The queen had not been able to reach the king ; she was in 
the council chamber, and some one had the idea of placing her 
behind the large table, to protect her, as far as possible, from the 
approach of these barbarians. In this horrible situation, she 
preserved a noble and dignified demeanor, and held the Dauphin 
before her seated on the table. Madame stood beside her, 
Mdmes the Princess de Lamballe, the Princess de Tarante, 
Mmcs de Roche Aymon, de Tourzel, and de Mackau surrounded 
her. She had fastened to her head a tricolor cockade which a 
National Guard had given her. The poor little Dauphin, like the 
king, was muffled in an enormous bonnet roiige. The horde 
defiled before this table ; the kind of standards they bore were 
symbols of the most atrocious barbarity. One of them repre- 
sented a gallows to which a hideous doll was suspended, and these 
words below it , * Marie Antoinette à la lanterne ! ' Another was a 
plank, on which was fixed a bullock's heart, around it being 
written : ' The heart of Louis XVI.^ 

"One of the most furious women Jacobines who marched 
past with these wretches, stopped to vomit a thousand impreca- 
tions against the queen. Her Majesty asked if she had ever seen 
her ; she replied no ; if she had ever done her any personal 
wrong, the answer was the same, but she added : 'It is you who 
cause the miser}' of the nation.' 'They have told you so,' re- 
plied the queen, ' and have deceived you. The wife of a king of 
France, the mother of a Dauphin of France, I shall never see 
my native land again ; I cannot be happy or unhappy except 
in France. I was happy when you loved me.* This Megara 
burst into tears, and asked pardon. ' I did not know you ; I see 
you are very good.' 

"It was eight o'clock when the palace was entirely evacu- 
ated.' ' — Méfnoires. 

Yet the horrors of this terrible day paled before those 
of August 10, 1792. 

" At midnight the tocsin was heard at the Cordeliers ; in a 
few instants it sounded through all Paris. The générale was 
beaten in all the quarters, and the noise of cannon was mingled, 
at intervals, with that of the drums. The seditious assembled in 


their sections, and troops of ruffians poured in from all sides. 
The assassins, armed with daggers, only awaited the moment of 
entering into the rooms which contained the royal family to ex- 
terminate them. The columns of the factions set themselves in 
motion and marched without meeting any obstacle. A munic- 
ipal officer, by his own authority, had annihilated nearly all the 
arrangements for defense. The Pont Neuf, stripped of troops 
and cannon, gave the seditious all facility for marching on the 
palace. The platoons of troops, distributed in the garden, in the 
courts, and in the interior of the palace, were then the only 
resource ; moreover, they had no experienced chief to direct 
their movements. The officers in command, drawn from the 
bourgeoisie of Paris, and nearly all belonging to professions alien 
to that of arms, had not either the tactical knowledge or the reso- 
lution which the conjuncture demanded." — Hue,'' Mémoires ." 

' ' The Swiss were drawn up like walls, and stood with a military 
silence which contrasted with the ceaseless noise of the National 
Guard. The king communicated to M. de J., an officer of the 
staff, the plan of defense prepared by General Viomenil. M. de 
J. told me after this private interview, ' Put your jewels and your 
money in your pocket ; danger is inevitable, means of defense 
do not exist ; they could only be found in the energy of the king, 
and this is the only virtue he does not possess.' 

"An hour after midnight, the queen and Madame Elizabeth 
said they went to sleep on a sofa in a little room of the entresol, 
the windows of which looked on the Court of the Tuileries. 

" The queen told me that the king had refused her request to 
put on his mailed vest, to which he had consented on the 14th 
of July, because he was going simply to a ceremony at which the 
dagger of an assassin might be feared, but that at a time when 
his party might be in combat with the revolutionists, he deemed 
it cowardly to preserve his life by such means. 

"During this time, Madame Elizabeth took off some of her 
clothes to lie down on the sofa ; she took from ^xç^x fichu a coral pin, 
and before placing it on the table she showed it to me, and told me 
to read the legend engraved around a slip of lily. I read these 
words: Oubli des offenses, pardon des injures. 'I fear,' added 
this high-principled princess, ' that this maxim has little influence 
on our enemies, but it ought not to be less dear to us.' 

"The queen ordered me to sit beside her ; the two princesses 
could not sleep, and were conversing in a melancholy way about 
their situation, when a musket was fired in the court. They both 

tiip: tenth of august ^^ 

left the sofa, saying, 'There is the first shot; unfortunately it 
will not be the last ; let us go up to the king.' The queen told 
me to follow her, and many of her women went with me." — Mvic 
CamJ>an., " J\/e/noi7rs." 

" Between four and five in the morning the queen and Madame 
Elizabeth were in the council-room. One of the chiefs of a legion 
entered. 'This,' said he to the two princesses, 'this is your 
last day ; the people is the stronger ; what carnage there will 
be!' 'Monsieur,' replied the queen, 'save the king, save my 
children.' At the same time this weeping mother ran to the 
room of the Dauphin, and I followed her. The young prince 
awoke ; his looks and his caresses blended a certain sweetness 
with the melancholy sentiments of maternal love. ' Mamma,' 
said the Dauphin, kissing the queen's hands, ' why should they 
hurt papa? He is so good ! ' " — Iltic, " Me/noircs." 

"The queen told us she had no hope more, that M. Mandat, 
who had gone to the Hôtel de Ville to receive new orders, had 
just been murdered, and that his head was being carried through 
the streets. The day had come ; the king, the queen, Madame 
Elizabeth, Madame, and the Dauphin descended to pass through 
the ranks of the sections of the National Guard ; there were cries 
of Vive le roi at some points. I was at a window on the garden 
side ; I saw some cannoneers quit their posts and approach the 
king, putting their fists into his face and insulting him with the 
grossest remarks. MM. de Salvert and de Briges vigorously 
repulsed them. The king was pale, as if he had ceased to exist. 
The royal family returned ; the queen told me that all was lost, 
that the king had shown no energy, and this kind of review 

had done more harm than good During this time the 

numerous bands of the faubourg, armed with pikes and cutlasses, 
filled the Carrousel and the streets adjacent to the Tuileries. 
The bloody men of Marseilles were at their head, and the can- 
nons trained against the palace. In this extremity, the king's 
council sent M, Dejoly, Minister of Justice, to the Assembly to 
ask them to send to the king a deputation which might serve as a 
guard to the Executive. His ruin was resolved on ; they passed 
to the order of the day. At eight o'clock, the department appeared 
at the palace ; the procureur-syndic seeing that the guards inside 
were ready to unite with the assailants, entered the king's closet 
and demanded a private audience." — Mme Cainpan, ''Mémoires^ 

" M. Roederer joined the king's ministers, and, with one ac- 
cord, all conjured him to save himself and the royal family and 


take refuge in the bosom of the National Assembly. ' Sire,' 
said M. Roederer, ' there alone, in the midst of the repre- 
sentatives of the people, can Your Majesty, the queen, and the 
royal family be in safety ; come, let us flee. Another quarter of 
an hour and retreat, perhaps, will not depend on us.' The 
king hesitated, the queen displayed the most lively discontent. 
' What ! * said she. ' We are alone, no one can act. . . . ' 
' Yes, madame, alone ; action is useless, and resistance impos- 
sible.' " — Montjoie, ''Hist, de Marie Antoinette ^ 

"The commissioners, seeing that all the persons who, from 
duty or from zeal, were assembled in the apartments of their 
Majesties, resolved to defend them or perish with them, used 
every effort to oppose it. . . . Roederer, now addressing the 
king, now the queen, represented to them with warmth that ' such 
an escort, irritating still more the fury of the people, could only 
add to their dangers.' Their Majesties thought only of that to 
which their faithful servants devoted themselves, and, without 
perceiving the perils still greater to which they would remain ex- 
posed, prayed all insistently not to follow them." — Weber, ''Mé- 

" The queen took with her only Mme. the Princess de la Lam- 
balle and, Mme de Tourzel. The Princess de Tarente and Mme 
de Roche-Aymon were in despair at being left in the Tuileries. 
They and all the rest went down to the apartments of the queen. 
We saw the royal family defile between two lines formed by Swiss 
grenadiers and those of the battalions of the Petit Pères and the 
Filles Saint Thomas. They were so pressed on by the crowd that 
during the passage the queen was robbed of her watch and purse. 
A man of terrible stature and atrocious countenance, such as 
seen at the head of every insurrection, approached the Dauphin, 
whom the queen was holding by the hand, lifted him up, and took 
him in his arms. The queen uttered a cry of terror, and nearly 
fainted. The man said to her, ' Do not be afraid, I'll do him no 
harm,' and restored him to her at the entrance of the hall. 

"The assailants were ignorant that the king and his family 
had betaken themselves to the bosom of the Assembly ; and those 
who defended the palace on the side of the court were also igno- 
rant ; it is presumed that if they had been informed the siege 
would not have taken place. 

"The Marseillais began to drive from their posts several 
Swiss, who gave way without resistance ; some of the assailants 
began to shoot them, and some Swiss officers, indignant at seeing 



their soldiers fall, and believing, perhaps, that the king was still 
at the Tuileries, ordered a battalion to fire. The aggressors were 
thrown into confusion, the Carrousel was cleared in an instant, 
but they soon returned, animated with fury and vengeance. The 
Swiss only numbered eight hundred ; they fell back into the in- 
terior of the palace ; some doors were burst by cannon, others 
by axe-blows ; the people rushed from all sides into the palace ; 
nearly all the Swiss were massacred ; some noblemen, flying by 
the gallery leading to the Louvre, were poniarded or killed by 
pistol shots, and their bodies thrown out of the windows. MM. 
Pallas and de Marchais, ushers of the king's chamber, were killed 
in defending the door of the council chamber ; many other ser- 
vants of the king fell victims to their attachment to their master. 
I cite these two persons because, with their hats pressed down on 
their foreheads, and sword in hand, they cried, while defending 
themselves with a useless but laudable courage, ' We do not wish 
to live ; this is our post, our duty is to die here.* M. Diet behaved 
in the same way at the door of the queen's bedroom, and met the 
same fate. Mme the Princess of Tarente had fortunately had the 
door of the suite of rooms opened, otherwise this horrible band, 
seeing so many women together in the queen's room, would have 
thought she was there, and would have massacred us on the spot 
if its rage had been augmented by resistance. Nevertheless, we 
were all about to perish, when a man with a long beard exclaimed, 
in the name of Pétion, ' Mercy to women ; do not dishonor the na- 
tion.' A peculiar incident placed me in greater peril than the 
others. In my distress, I believed, an instant before the entrance 
of the assailants into the queen's apartments, that my sister was 
not among the group of ladies assembled there, and I went up to 
an entresol, where I supposed she had taken refuge, to induce her 
to come down, deeming it important to our safety not to be sepa- 
rated. I did not find her there ; I saw only our maids and one of 
the queen's two heidtikes, a man of a very tall stature, and a very 
soldier-like aspect. I saw he was pale, and sitting on the bed, 
and I said, ' Save yourself ; the footmen and our people have 
already done so.' ' I cannot,' replied this man ; ' I am dead with 
fear.' As he said these words, I heard a troop of men hurriedl)'^ 
mounting the staircase ; they flung themselves upon him, and I 
saw them murder him. I ran to the stairs, followed by our maids. 
The murderers left the heiduke and came to me. The girls flung 
themselves at their feet, and seized their sabres. The narrowness 
of the staircase impeded the murderers, but I had already felt a 



terrible hand at my back to lay hold of my dress, when some one 
cried from the foot of the stairs, 'What are you doing up there?' 
The horrible Marseillais who was going to kill me answered by a 
hein, the sound of which will never leave my memory. The other 
voice replied In these words, 'We do not kill women.' 

" I was on my knees ; my executioner left me, and said, ' Get 
up, wench, the nation shows mercy.* The rudeness of his words 
did not prevent me from feeling an inexpressible sentiment which 
was allied as much to the love of life as to the idea that I should 
see my son and all that was dear. A moment before I had not 
thought of death so much as had a presentiment of the pain which 
the sword suspended over my head would cause. 

" Five or six men seized me and the maids, and. having made 
us mount on the staging before the windows, ordered us to cry, 
' Vive la Nation ! ' 

" I passed over many corpses ; I recognized that of the old 
Vicomte de Broves. The queen, at the commencement of the 
night, had sent me to tell him and another old man that she wished 
they would go to their homes. ' We have obeyed only too often 
the orders of the king, under all circumstances,' replied these 
brave gentlemen, ' where it was necessary to risk our lives to save 
him ; this time we will not obey, and will only preserve the rec- 
ollection of the goodness of the queen.' 

' Mme la Roche-Aymon and her daughter. Mile Pauline de 
Tourzel, Mme de Ginestoux, lady of the Princess de Lamballe, 
the other ladies of the queen, and the old Count d'Affry, were 
conveyed together to the prisons of the Abbaye." — Mme Campan, 
" Mémoires." 

The palace of the Tuileries is destroyed, but the Lou- 
vre still remains to us. 

On the site of a hunting lodge which Dagobert had 
built in the woods which then extended to the Seine, 
Philippe Auguste, in 1200, erected a fortress, to which 
S. Louis added a great hall which was called by his name. 
The fortress was used as a state prison, and its position 
was at first outside the city, in which it was enclosed in 
1367. From the great dungeon tower in the centre of this 


castle,^ which was called the Louvre, all the great fiefs in 
France had their source. When the great feudatories came 
to take or renew the feudal oath, it was there that the cer- 
emony took place. Thus when François I. destroyed the 
great tower of the Louvre in the building of his new pal- 
ace, the expression that the fiefs were held de la tour du 
Louvre was changed to de la cour du Louvre? 

The Louvre was greatly enlarged by Charles V., who 
added many towers and surrounded it with a moat which 
was supplied from the Seine. He made the palace into a 
complete rectangle, always preserving the great central 
dungeon tower. In spite, however, of his additions, space 
was wanting in the labyrinthine apartments of the Louvre 
for his splendid receptions, such as that of the Due de 
Bretagne in 1388, so he only inhabited the fortress for a 
short time, and devoted himself principally to building the 
Hôtel St. Paul, the royal residence till Charles VIL left it 
for the neighboring Hôtel des Tournelles, which was the 
Parisian residence of Louis XL, Charles VIIL, Louis XII. 
and François I. When the Emperor Charles V. was com- 
ing to Paris, François decorated the old palace of the 
Louvre for his reception. This drew attention to its dilapi- 
dated state, and he determined to rebuild it. The great 
tower, as strong as the day it was built, took five months 
(1527) to destroy. It was especially regretted by the popu- 
lace, because they lost the pleasure of seeing great lords 
imprisoned there. The cost of demolition was enormous, 

1 The prisoners in this tower included— Ferrand, Comte de Flandres, 1214 
(after the victory of Bou vines) ; Enguerrand de Coucy ; Guy, Comte de 
Flandres, 1299 ; Louis, Comte de Flandres, 1322 ; Enguerrand de Marigny ; 
Jean IV., Duc de Bretagne ; Charles II., King of Navarre ; le Captai de Buch, 
Jean de Grailly : and Jean II., Duc d'Alençon. 

* A fragment of the XIII. c. fortress remains in one of the walls of the 
Salle des Cariatides. To the left of the window, concealed by a door, is a 
winding staircase of the original building. 


" et fist ce faire le roy pour appliquer le chasteau du Louvre, 
logis de plaisance." Under the renaissance, strongholds 
everywhere began to make way for lieux de plais a7ice. The 
existing palace was begun, under Pierre Lescot, in 1541. 

" Francis I., wishing to have at Paris a palace worthy of his 
magnificence, and disdaining the old Louvre and the Hôtel des 
Tournelles, an irregular pile of little towers and gothic pavilions, 
ordered the destruction, in 1528, of the great tower of the Louvre, 
the donjon of Philippe Auguste, from which all the fiefs of the 
realm were held. This was an act destructive of history itself ; 
it was the monarchy of the Renaissance overthrowing the old 
feudal royalty." — Martin, "■Hist, de France'' 

Lescot continued his work through the twelve years' 
reign of Henri II. The palace which he built was the 
whole western side of the court of the Vieux Louvre, and 
the wing which contains the Galerie d'Apollon. The pavil- 
ion which connected the two wings was called Pavillo7t du 
Roi. After the death of Henri II., his widow, Catherine 
de Medicis, left the Palais des Tournelles, and came with 
her children to live in the new palace, which she enlarged 
by erecting a portico with rooms above it along the quay. 
It was whilst he was at work upon these buildings that the 
great sculptor Jean Goujon perished. On the day after 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew he had gone as usual to 
his work upon a scaffold ; he thought that his art would 
save him, but a ball from an arquebus struck him down. 
In these buildings the Huguenot gentlemen, who were 
"marqués à tuer," fled from chamber to chamber, and 
from gallery to gallery, and were cut down one after an- 
other, except M. de Lezac, who took refuge within the ruelle 
of the bed of the Pnncess Marguerite, married six days 
before to the King of Navarre. " Moi," says the queen in 
her memoirs, " sentant cet homme qui me tenait, je me 
jette à la ruelle, et lui après moi, me tenant toujours à 


travers le corps. Je ne connaissais point cet homme, et 
ne savais s'il venait là pour m'offenser, ou si les archers en 
voulaient à lui ou à moi. Nous crions tous deux et étions 
aussi effrayés l'un que l'autre." The young bridegroom, 
Henri de Navarre, for whom Catherine de Medicis had 
made " les noces vermeilles," was amongst those whom she 
wished to save. The queen-mother "grilla si bien, pour 
un matin, ses fenêtres, qu'il ne put jamais échapper, comme 
il en avait volonté." According to Brantôme and d'Au- 
bigné (neither of them at Paris at the time), Charles IX. 
stood at his chamber window, shooting down those who 
were taking refuge in the Pré-aux-Clercs. ^ 

The Louvre was still inconveniently small for the num- 
ber of persons who had to live in it. These, under Henri 
III., included four queens— the reigning queen, Louise de 
Vaudemont ; the queen-mother, Catherine de Medicis ; the 
Queen of Navarre, Marguerite de Valois ; and Elizabeth 
d'Autriche, widow of Charles IX., usually known as " la 
reine Blanche." When Marie de Medicis, who measured 
palaces by the Florentine Pitti, arrived in France, she 
could not conceal her astonishment at the inferiority of the 
Louvre. "Plusieurs foys," says Cheverny, "je lui ai ouy 
répéter depuys qu'elle ne fust jamais presqu'en toute sa vie 
si estonnée et effrayée, croyant que ce n'estoit le Louvre, 
ou que l'on faisoit cela pour se moquer d'elle." 

Henri IV., therefore, wished, in 1595, to unite the 
buildings of Catherine de Medicis with the other palace 
which she had built, and which, under the name of the 
Tuileries, was still outside the limits of the town. For 
this purpose, he ordered Antoine du Cerceau ^ to erect the 

^ The window of the little gallery, marked by an inscription falsely record- 
ing this event as having taken place there, existed at the time, but was walled 

"^ All the plans of Du Cerccaw still exist. 


(original) Pmnllon de Flore beyond the south extremity of 
the Tuileries, and to unite it to the Tuileries of Philibert 
Delorme on one side, and to the Louvre on the other, by 
buildings which extended to the pavilion which under 
Louis XV. took the name of de Lesdiguières, from a 
neighboring hotel, enclosing the three arches called Guichets 
des Sts, Peres ^ by which carriages cross from the banks of 
the Seine to the Rue de Rivoli. The porticoes of Cather- 
ine de Medicis were then enclosed, and an upper story 
added, to make them harmonize with the later construc- 

From this time no one touched the Louvre till the 
supremacy of Richelieu, who demolished all that remained 
of the old feudal buildings (the north and east façades) 
and employed Antoine le Mercier to continue the palace. 
Intending to double the dimensions of the original plan, 
this great architect used each of the existing wings as the 
half of a façade for his new Louvre, and built two others 
on the same plan, so as to make the building a perfect 
square. Whilst the minority of Louis XIV. lasted, Anne 
of Austria lived with her children at the Palais-Cardinal, 
now Palais-Royal, but Levau was employed to continue 
the works at the Louvre, and an apartment there was be- 
stowed upon the exiled Henrietta Maria of England (daugh- 
ter of Henri IV.), who was treated with the greatest gener- 
osity by her sister-in-law, A number of hotels of the no- 
bility — de Bourbon, de Longueville, de Villequier, d'Au- 
mont — had hitherto occupied the ground close to the 
Louvre, but those on the east side were now demolished, 
and all the architects of France were invited to compete 
with designs for a façade which should be of such mag- 
nificence as to satisfy Colbert, while Bernini, then at the 
height of his fame, was summoned from Italy for the same 



purpose. The plans chosen were those of Claude Per- 
rault, who built the east façade, adorned with twenty-eight 
Corinthian pillars, called the Colonnade du Louvre, for 
Louis XIV., 1665-70. Levau died of grief because his 
plan — a very noble one — was not chosen. Still, the Louvre 
remained unfinished, so that Parisians used to say the only 
chance of seeing it completed would be to make it over 
to one of the four great mendicant orders, to hold their 
chapters and lodge their General there. Louis XV. and 
XVI. did nothing more than repair the buidings already 
existing, and then came the Revolution. Even in the 
time of Napoleon I., the space between the Louvre and 
the Tuileries was invaded by a number of narrow, dirty 
streets, which, with the royal stables and several private 
hotels, destroyed the effect of the two palaces. After the 
Revolution of 1848, these were swept away, and Napoleon 
III., from the commencement of his power, determined to 
unite the Louvre and the Tuileries into one great whole. 
This was carried out and completed in 1857. The differ- 
ence of the axis of the two palaces was then cleverly con- 
cealed by the arrangement of buildings which enclose the 
" Square du Louvre,'^ though the destruction of the Tuileries 
has since rendered the design ineffectual. 

Entering the Louvre from the Rue de Rivoli by one of 
the five entrances under the Favillofi de Rohan in the north 
façade, we find ourselves in the Place du Carrousel of 
Napoleon I., which is a great enlargement of the little 
square in front of the Tuileries occupying the site of the 
"Jardin de Mademoiselle " (de Montpensier , and originally 
named from a carrousel or tournament which Louis XIV. 
gave there in 1662. In the centre of the grille of what was 
formerly the court of the Tuileries still stands the graceful 
Arc de Triomphe du Cn?'?'ousel, built in 1806, by Fontaine 


and Percier, for Napoleon I. The car and horses which 
surmount it are modelled in imitation of the famous horses 
of St. Mark, restored to Venice by the Allies; the figures and 
reliefs commemorate the successes of the first emperor at 
Austerlitz, Ulm, Presburg, Vienna, and Munich. The 
initials and monograms of their different builders mark 
many of the surrounding buildings. Opposite the point at 
which we entered, is the Pavillofi de Lesdiguières, dividing 
the renaissance Louvre of Charles IX., adorned with 
Tuscan columns supporting mezzanini, from the later build- 
ings continued under Louis XIV., which have no mezzanini, 
and where the pediments rest on coupled Corinthian 
columns as a stylobate. The modern buildings on the 
north-east, occupy the site of the Hôtel de Longueville, 
famous for the intrigues of the Fronde,^ and those on the 
south-east beyond the entrance of the Square du Louvre 
that of the church of St. Thomas du Louvre, which fell in 
upon its congregation, October 15, 1739. The buildings 

* This famous mansion, originally called Hôtel de Vieuville, was built by- 
Clement Metezeau for the Marquis de Vieuville. He sold it, 1620, to the Due de 
Luynes (the tyrant minister of Louis XIH,), who died in the following year. 
His widow sold it to Claude de Lorraine, Due de Chevreuse, whom she after- 
wards married, and who received the Duke of Buckingham here when he came 
over to fetch Henrietta Maria. The duchess, celebrated in a thousand love- 
affairs, was driven into exile by the enmity of Richelieu, and at his death only 
came back to be again banished for a time by the influence of Mazarin. She 
returned, however, to make her hôtel a centre for the intrigues of the Fronde, 
seconded by her daughter, " qui avait les yeux capables d'embraser toute la 
terre " (Mme de Motteville), and by the Duchesse de Longueville, " l'héroine 
de la Fronde," who eventually purchased the hôtel and gave it a new name. 
Her daughter-in-law, the Duchesse de Nemours, bequeathed the hôtel to Henri 
de Bourbon, Prince de Neuchâtel, whose daughter brought it back by mar- 
riage into the family of Luynes. The hôtel existed in a degraded condition till 
1832, when it was pulled down to enlarge the Place du Carrousel. Another 
building, demolished about the same time, was the church of St. Louis du 
Louvre, where a protestant congregation continued to worship during the great 
Revolution (John Moore, Journal 0/ Residence in France^ December, 1792), and 
which contained the tomb of Cardinal Fleury, the Prime Minister of Louis 
XV. (who had proposed to pull down the Louvre and sell the materials), rep- 
resented expiring in the arms of religion. 


of Napoleon III. are surrounded by statues of eminent 
Frenchmen. All around is magnificence — 

" Le palais pompeux, dont la France s'honore." 

Voltaire, " Ilcnriade.'" 

The most interesting associations of the Place du Car- 
rousel are those which belong to the fruitless flight of the 
royal family on June 20, lygc/. / 

" Madame Elizabeth went out first with Madame Royale, fol- 
lowed, at a little distance, by Mme de Tourzel leading the Dau- 
phin. One of the three body-guards accompanied her. Either by 
accident or on purpose, one of the sentinels in the courts who, in 
his walk, crossed the path by which the two princesses had to 
pass, turned round just at the time when he was near them 
and about to meet them. Madame Royale remarked it, and 
whispered to Madame Elizabeth, My atint, we are recognized. 
They left the court, however, without being remarked, and 
followed, as I have already said, by Mme de Tourzel and the 
young prince, crossed the Little Carrousel to the court of the 
Rue de l'Echelle, where M. de Fersen was waiting for them with 
a carriage. It was a hired vehicle, resembling, in its shape and 
by the horses that drew it, what is called in Paris a fiacre. He 
had hired it in a distant quarter, and he himself acted as coach- 
man, dressed as this species of coachman dresses. He was so well 
disguised that while he was waiting, having already in the carriage 
the two princesses, the Dauphin and Mme de Tourzel, an empty 
fiacre stopped near him, and the driver, who thought he was 
addressing one of his comrades, commenced a conversation on 
such subjects as ordinarily interest this class of men ; the con- 
versation lasted a long time, and M. de Fersen sustained it with 
such sufficient presence of mind in the slang of hackmen, that his 
brother-whip had no suspicion. He got rid of him after having 
giving him a pinch of snuff from a shabby box which he had. 
Soon afterwards the king arrived, followed by the second body- 
guard ; there had been a pretty long interval between his leaving 
the palace and the departure of the first party, but it was equally 
fortunate, although one of the buckles of his shoes broke quite 
near the sentinel of the gate of the Carrousel, and he was obliged 
to fix it under his very eyes. The queen, who was to come last, 
caused half an hour's delay and gave the travellers much anxiety. 



The third body-guard had been left to accompany her and give 
her his arm. All went well as far as the great gate of the Cour 
Royale, but, just as she was leaving, she saw the carriage of M. 
de Lafayette approaching with torches and his ordinary attend- 
ants ; he was going home, and crossing the Carrousel to reach 
the Pont-Royal. The queen had on a hat that hid her face. The 
night was very dark ; she drew up against the wall to let the car- 
riage pass. Having escaped this danger, she told her attendant 
to take her to the Little Carrousel, at the corner of the Rue de 
l'Echelle, about two hundred paces from the spot where they 
were. The man knew less of Paris than she did ; it was danger- 
ous to ask the way so close to the gate of the Tuileries ; they 
turned, by chance, to the right instead of to the left, passed the 
wickets of the Louvre, Crossed the Pont-Royal, and wandered 
about a long time on the quays and in the Rue du Bac. They 
were compelled at last to make up their minds to ask their way. 
A sentinel on the bridge pointed it out. They had to retrace 
their steps, repass the wickets, and skirt the courts of the Tuiler- 
ies to arrive at the Rue de l'Echelle. At last, they reached the 
vehicle without other accident than loss of time. But this was a 
very serious loss, for the value of every minute was incalculable. 
When all the illustrious caravan was re-united, they set out to 
catch the vehicle which was waiting for them beyond the barrier 
Saint Martin." — Weber, '' Mémoires, ^^ 

Under the Consulate, the Place du Carrousel was the 
scene of the weekly reviews of Napoleon I. 

"A very curious spectacle was presented by these parades, 
especially under the Consulate. Under the empire they might be 
more magnificent, but in 1800 their splendor was entirely national ; 
it was the glory of France that was visible in these battalions 
which, whether of recruits or veterans, equally made the stranger 
tremble who saw them from the windows of the palace." — 
Métnoires de la Duchesse d^ Abrantes. 

The Place was constantly used for military pageants 
under the first empire, and of these none took a greater 
hold upon the spectators than the reviews of the Old 
Guard by Napoleon I. 

" In this vast square the regiments of the Old Guard were 


drawn up before being passed in review. They presented oppo- 
site to the palace, imposing lines of blue twenty ranks deep. Be- 
yond the enclosure, and in the Carrousel, there stood in other 
parallel lines several regiments of infantry and cavalry, ready at 
the least signal to manoeuvre and pass under the triumphal arch 
which adorns the middle of the railings, on the summit of which, 
at this time, the magnificent horses of Venice were displayed. 
The bands of the regiments were placed on each side of the gal- 
leries of the Louvre, and these two military orchestras were 
masked by the Polish Lancers on duty. A great part of the 
sandy square remained vacant, like an arena prepared for the 
movements of all these silent bodies. These masses, disposed 
with all the symmetry of the military art, reflected the sun from 
the triangular flashes of ten thousand glittering bayonets. The 
air waved the plumes of the soldiers and made them undulate 
like the trees of a forest bent by an impetuous wind. These 
veteran bands, mute and glittering, presented a thousand con- 
trasts of color in the diversity of the uniforms, the facings, the 
arms, and the aiguillettes. This immense picture, a miniature of 
a battle-field before the combat, was admirably framed, with all 
its accessories and striking peculiarities, b}' these high majestic 
buildings, whose immobility chiefs and soldiers were at that mo- 
ment imitating. 

"An indescribable enthusiasm was displayed in the expectant 
attitude of the crowd. France was about to say ' Good-bye ' to 
Napoleon, on the eve of a campaign which involved dangers 
foreseen by the humblest citizen. 

"The clock of the palace struck the half-hour. At, that 
instant the hum and murmur of the crowd ceased, and the silence 
became so profound that a child's voice could have been heard. 

"Then those who seemed to have life only in their eyes, 
could distinguish quite a peculiar clank of spurs and clash of 
swords, echoing from the sonorous peristyle of the palace. 

"A little man, dressed in a green uniform, with white 
breeches and riding boots, suddenly appeared, keeping on his 
head a three-cocked hat that shared the prestige of the man him- 
self. A large red ribbon of the Legion of Honor floated over his 
breast. A small sword was at his side. 

" He was perceived by all the multitude and from all points 
at once. 

"At his appearance, the drums beat aux champs, and the 
bands burst out with a phrase whose warlike expression called 


out every instrument, from the bass drum to the softest fîute. To 
these military sounds, souls thrilled, flags saluted, the soldiers 
presented arms, with a unanimous and regular movement which 
shook the muskets from the first rank away to the last one just 
visible in the Carrousel ; the words of command were repeated 
like echoes, and cries of * Vive V Empereur' were uttered by the 
enthusiastic multitude. All was in motion, vibrating and quiv- 

"The man, surrounded by such love, such enthusiasm, de- 
votion, and vows, for whom the very sun had dispersed the clouds 
of heaven, remained motionless on his horse, three paces in front 
of the little gilded squadron which followed him, having the 
Grand Marshal on his left, the Marshal on duty at his right. In 
the midst of all the emotions excited by him, no line in his face 

" Yes. Even so. Such was he at Wagram in the midst of the 
fire, such was he at the Moskowa among the dead." — Balzac, " Z^ 
Rendezvous .'' 

The first French sovereign who formed a collection of 
pictures was François I. This was enormously increased, 
under Louis XIV., by Colbert, who bought for a ridicu- 
lously small sum the greater part of the collection of pict- 
ures and drawings of Charles I. of England, of which the 
original purchaser was Everard Jabach the banker, who 
was afterwards compelled by poverty to re-sell them. This 
became the germ of the existing collection, enriched 
under Louis XV. by the sale of the Prince de Carignan 
and by works ordered from the best French artists of the 
time, and, under Louis XVL, by a collection of Flemish 
pictures. Under the Republic, the pictures at Versailles 
were added to those of Paris, and the collections were 
offered to the public as Le Mtcscum de la République. 
With the Italian campaigns of Napoleon I ., such a vast 
mass of works of art deluged Paris as even the immense 
galleries of the Louvre were quite insufficient to contain. 


" Sous quels débris honteux, sous quel amas rustique 
On laisse ensevelir ces chefs-d'œuvres divins ! 
Quel barbare a mêlé sa bassesse gothique 
A toute la grandeur des Grecs et des Romains ! " 


" Vous avez enrichi le Muséum de Paris de plus de 
cinq cents objets, chefs-d'œuvre de l'ancienne et de la 
nouvelle Italie ; et qu'il a fallu trente siècles pour pro- 
duire," said Napoleon to his soldiers after the taking of 
Mantua. But nearly the whole of this collection was 
restored to its rightful owners in 18 15. Under Louis 
Philippe and the second empire a vast number of be- 
quests added greatly to the wealth of the original 

The collections of the Louvre are of various kinds — 
paintings, drawings, engravings, ancient sculpture, sculpt- 
ure of the middle ages and renaissance, modern French 
sculpture, Assyrian antiquities, Egyptian antiquities, Greek 
and Etruscan antiquities, Algerine museum, marine mu- 
seum, ethnographical museum, collection of enamels and 
jewels, the Sauvageot museum, the Campana museum, the 
La Gaze museum, the Oriental museum, the Le Noir 
museum. It is not possible to visit many of these col- 
lections separately without crossing and re-crossing others. 
As those who are only a short time in Paris will prefer 
to take the more important collections on the first floor 
first, we will begin with those, entered on the right of the 
Pavilion Sully, which faces the Arc du Garrousel in the 
centre of the front of the Louvre. The staircase (in part 
of the building of François I.) is due to Henri II., and 
bears his chiffre, arms, and emblems frequently repeated ; 
its sculptures are by Jean Goujon. Reaching the first 
floor, a door on the right opens into the Salle des Seavces, 


containing the collections bequeathed to the Louvre by 
M. Louis La Caze, 1870. Each room should be visited 
from right to left. We may notice in this room — 

221. Largilliere : Portrait of President de Laage. 

165. Boucher : Female Portrait. 

260. Watteau : "Gilles" — of the Comédie Italienne. 

*242. Rigaud : Portrait of De Créqui, Duc de Lesdiguières. 

78. N. Macs, 1648 : Grace before Meat. 

16. Tinto7'et : Susanna and the Elders. 

18. Tintoret : Portrait of Pietro Mocenigo. 
32. Ribera, 1642 : "Le Pied-Bot " — a young beggar. 
170. Chardin : Children's grace. 
37. Velasques : Portrait of the Infanta Maria Theresa, after- 
wards Queen of France. 
98. Rembrandt, 1651 : Male Portrait. 

17. Tintoret: Virgin and Child, with Sts. Francis and Sebas- 

tian, and a donor in adoration. From the gallery of 
Cardinal Fesch. 
243. Rigaud : Portrait of Président de BéruUe. 


The pictures of Watteau here, and in the rooms de- 
ted to the French school, are chiefly interesting as the 
best representations we possess of the aristocratic society 
of France in the time of Louis XV. and Mme de Pomj^a- 
dour — 

"To see this society, embroidered, powdered, perfumed, of 
which Watteau has left so charming a portrait, who could have 
thought that it bore in its womb the greatest and most furious 
revolution that history tells of? How could such energy and 
wrath be nurtured into life beneath that surface of wit, gallantry, 
and gaiety?" — Balzac, " Six Rois de France y 

The next room, Salle de Henri II., only contains some 
pictures by French artists, of no great importance, though 
No. 47 is an interesting portrait of Descartes, by Bourdon. 

The Salo7i des Sept Chemmèes (forming part of the Pa- 
vilion du Roi, and once inhabited by the Cardinal de Guise, 
uncle of Marie Stuart) is devoted to the French school. 


Its works are exceedingly stiff and mannered. Yet there 
are few visitors to the Louvre, especially young visitors, 
who have not in time become interested in these pictures ; 
therefore we may especially mention — 

240. Gérard : Portraits of M. Isabey and his daughter. 

277. GuJrin : The Return of Marius Sextus from Exile, He 
finds his daughter weeping by his dead wife. Collec- 
tion of Charles X. 
1252. Girodet : Attala borne to the Tomb. Bought from Cha- 
teaubriand for 50,000 francs. 

236. Gérard: Psyche receives the first Kiss of Love. From 
the collection of Louis XVIH. Gérard was the most 
popular painter of the Restoration. Three sovereigns 
— of France, Russia, and Prussia — sat to him on the 
same day. 

802. Mme Lebrun, 1786 : Portrait of Mme Mole Raymond, of 
the Comédie Française. From the collection of Na- 
poleon in. 

156. David : Portrait of the artist as a young man. David 

gave this portrait to Isabey ; M. Eugène Isabey gave 

it to the Louvre. 

83. Mme Lebrun : Portrait of the artist and her daughter — a 

lovely picture. From the collection of Louis Philippe. 

242. Géricault : Scene on the Raft of the Medtcsa, when, on 
the twelfth day after its shipwreck, the brig A7'gus ap- 
pears on the horizon. From the collection of Charles 
X. This picture is said to have inaugurated modern 
emotional French art-. 
*I59. David, 1805 : Portrait of Pius VII. The Pope holds a 
letter on the back of which is inscribed, " Pio VII. 
bonarum artium patrono." A grand portrait, executed 
during the residence of the Pope at the Tuileries. 
*i6o. David: Portrait of Mme Récamier. A masterpiece of 
the artist. 

"In her whole composition there was nothing but simple 
grace, refinement, and goodness, and all these united together and 
harmonized by that attraction which forms the only charm by 
which love is won. It was the soul that animated her eyes and 
shone through her long drooping lashes and on her brow, flush- 
ing beneath the bandeau of pale yellow, the only ornament for 



many years of that charming head. In the smile which so often 
opened her rosy lips, could be seen equally the simple joy of a 
young ravishing creature, happy to please, happy to be loved, 
seeing only the joys of nature and responding to the salutations 
of love that greeted her ever)^where by an expression of silent 
benignity. She was grateful to life for being so fair and so joy- 
ous." — Mémoires de la Duchesse d'Abi-anth. 

459. Prtid'hon, 1808 : Justice and Divine Vengeance pursuing 
Crime. Ordered for the Criminal Court in the Palais 
de Justice, by Frochot, préfet de la Seine. 

833. Frudlwn, 1796 : Portrait of a Girl (Marie-Marguerite 
Lagnier). From the collection of Napoleon III. 

251. CzVW<?/ .• Endymion Asleep. Painted in the Villa Medici 
at Rome in 1792. From the collection of Louis XVIII. 

14g. David, 1799 : The Sabines ; designed in the prisons of 
the Luxembourg during the Great Revolution. 

"In the midst of his work, the turnkey arrived with some 
armed men. 'Citizen David is summoned to the tribunal,' said 
a hoarse voice. David continued without answering. Fortu- 
nately the turnkey was sober that day and the men with him were 
not very drunk. Otherwise our great painter might have met the 
fate of Archimedes. ' Come, citizen,' the turnkey resumed, ' thou 
wilt have time to scrawl on the wall at thy return. The tribunal is 
waiting.' * I only ask an hour,' replied David, scarcely turning 
round ; * but I must have it, I have no time now.' The jailer went 
out stupefied ; the reply was carried to the tribunal, and men- 
tioned in the record. Thus the artist made the executioner wait 
his good pleasure. By good luck, he waited in vain." — Félix 

Passing through a room containing Etruscan jewels, 
from the left of the circular vestibule, we enter the Gal- 
erie d'Apollon. At its portal is a splendid XVII. c grille 
brought from the château of Mansart at Maisons-sur- 

This magnificent gallery, decorated with paintings by 
Lebrun, and stucco ornaments by Girardon and other 
great masters, contains a collection of gems and jewels. 
Amongst historic relics, we may notice — 


Case /. — 

Reliquary of the arm of Charlemagne. Early XIII. c. 
Reliquary of St. Henri. End of XII. c. 
"Cassette de St. Louis." 

Crystal vase of Eleanor of Aquitaine. XII. c. 
Precious objects from the altar of the St. Esprit. 

Case III.— 

Crown used at the coronation of Louis XV. 
Casket of Anne of Austria. 

Case VII. {in a central windoiv). — 

Bed-candlestick and mirror of Marie de Medicis, given 
by the Republic of Venice on her marriage with Henri 
Livre d'heures of Catherine de Medicis, with miniatures 
representing all the family of Valois. 

Case at the end of room on the left. — 
Sword and spurs of Charlemagne. 
Hand of Justice and Sceptre, used at the coronations of 

Kings of France. 
Clasp of the mantle and ring of St. Louis. 
Reliquary of Jeanne d'Evreux, given to the Abbey of St. 

Denis in 1329. 
Buckler and helmet of Charles IX. in enamelled gold. 

Case at the end of room on the right. — 
Armor of Henri II. 

The Salon Carre contains the masterpieces of all the 
different schools collected in the Louvre — 

Qui sur tous les beaux arts a fondé sa gloire." ' 

Thus, every picture in this room is more or less worthy 
of study ; we must at least notice — 

\sl Wail, right of entrance, — 

426. Pentgino {VxqXxo Vannucci) : Madonna and Child adored 
by Angels. From the collection of the King of Hol- 
land. An early work of the master. 

* Voltaire. 


380. Andrea del Sarto (d'Agnolo), 1487-1553 : Holy Family. 
Collection of François I. 

" Strangely enough, this painter, so unhappy in real life, gives 
to his figures an air of candid happiness and unaffected goodness ; 
a kind of innocent joy lifts the corners of their lips and they 
beam, illuminated with a sweet serenity, in the warm, colored at- 
mosphere with which the artist surrounds them. A painter paints 
his dreams, not his life." — Théophile Gautier. 

59. Gentile Bellifii (elder brother of Giovanni), 1426-1507 : 
Two male Portraits. From the collection of Louis XIV. 
100. Fatil Veronese (Paolo Cagliari), 1528-88 : Jupiter anni- 
hilating Crime. Brought from the ceiling of the Hall 
of the Council of Ten in the Ducal Palace at Venice, 
to decorate the chamber of Louis XIV. at Versailles. 

" The crimes are Rebellion, Treason, Lust, and Embezzlement, 
punished by the Council of Ten, and Paul Veronese has charac- 
terized them in an ingenious and poetic manner. He painted 
this ceiling after a journey to Rome, where he saw the antique 
and Michael Angelo." — Théophile Gautier. 

*446. Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), 1477-1576 : The Entombment. 

A replica of the noble picture at Venice, which has 

belonged in turn to the Duke of Mantua, Charles I. 

of England, and Louis XIV. 
536. Herrera (Francisco de), 1576-1656 : S. Basil dictating 

his Rule. From the collection of Marshal Soult. 
*4io. Rembrandt (van Ryn), 1608-69 • The Carpenter's Home. 

Signed 1640. 

" Rembrandt takes for his background a humble Dutch inte- 
rior, with its brown-toned walls, its funnel-shaped chimney lost 
in shadow, and its narrow window, from which a ray of light 
penetrates through the yellow panes ; he paints a mother stooping 
over the cradle of a child, a mother, nothing more, with her 
bosom lighted from a side window ; near her an old matron, and 
beside the window a carpenter at work planing some pieces of 
wood. Such is his manner of comprehending the Virgin, St. 
Anne, the child Jesus, and St. Joseph. He renders the scene 
more domestic, more human, more commonplace, if you like, 
than it has ever been painted. You are at liberty tosee in it onl}^ 
the poor family of a carpenter, but the ray which strikes the 


cradle of the infant Jesus indicates that he is God, and that from 
this liunible cradle will burst forth the light of the world." — 'J'hc- 
ophilc Gautier. 

" A rustic interior. Mary, seated in the centre, is suckling 
her Child. St. Anne, a fat, Flemish grandame, has been reading 
the volume of the Scriptures, and bends forward in order to re- 
move the coverlet, and look in the Infant's face. A cradle is 
near. Joseph is seen at work in the background." — Jameson, 
''Legends of the Madonna^ 

370. Adrian van Ostade : The Schoolmaster. Signed 1662. 

Collection of Louis XVI. 
325. Gtiido Rent, 1575-1642 : Deïanira and the Centaur Nessus. 

Collection of Louis XIV. 
* Unnumbered. Perugino (long attributed to Raffaelle): Apollo 
and Marsyas. An exquisitely beautiful picture. From 
the Palazzo Litta at Milan. 
Un. Jehan Perçai, ox Jehan de Paris: Madonna and the Donor. 

2Jid( Right) Wall— 

434. N. Potissin : St. Francis Xavier raising a Girl to Life at 
Cangorima in Japan. Painted 1640. Collection of 
Louis XV. 

41g. Re^nbratidt : Portrait of a Woman. 1654. 

526. Gérard Terbu7'g : A Soldier offering Gold to a Young 
Woman. Collection of Louis XVI. 

293. Gabriel M etsti : An Officer receiving the Visit of a Lady. 
89. Philippe de Champaigne, 1602-74 : His own Portrait. His 
birth-place, Brussels, is seen in the background. 
Painted 1668. 
*i2i. Gérard Dou, 1598-1674 : The Woman with the Drops)'. 
Signed 1663. This picture was bought by the Elector 
Palatine for 30,000 florins, and given by him to Prince 
Eugène. At the death of the Prince, it was placed in 
the Royal Gallery at Turin. At the moment of his 
abdication, Charles Emmanuel IV. gave it to Clausel, 
Adjutant-General of the army of Italy, in gratitude 
for the loyalty with which he had carried out the mis- 
sion entrusted to him. Clausel gave it to the French 

229. Sebastian del Piombo (Sebastiano Luciani), 1485-1547 : 
The Visitation. Signed 1521. The design has been 
attributed to Michelangelo. 


87. Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo), 1502-1572 : Portrait of a 

Sculptor. Collection of Louis XIV. 
*539- Mtuillo (Bartholomé Esteban), 1616-82 : The Immaculate 

Conception. Bought, 1852, from the heirs of Marshal 

Soult, for 615,500 francs. 
*96. Paul Veronese : The Supper at the House of Simon the 

Pharisee. Painted 1570-75 for the refectory of the 

Servi at Venice, and given by the Republic to Louis 

XIV. in 1665. This is only one of four great " Cenas" 

painted by the master. 

"These four Holy Suppers, marvellous agapœ of painting, 
were assembled together at Paris in the years vii. and viii. A 
prodigious exhibition, from- which we do not see that the art of 
that epoch profited much in regard to color." — Théophile Gautier, 

*452. Titian : Alfonso I. of Ferrara (fourth husband of Lucre- 
zia Borgia), and Laura de' Dianti, first his mistress, 
afterwards his wife, whom he called "Eustochia" — 
the happy choice. From the collection of Charles I., 
afterwards of Louis XIV. 

*523. Incognito (probably Franciabigio) : Portrait of a Young 
Man. In the Pitti Palace at Florence is an almost 
similar portrait by Franciabigio. 

"A sombre portrait of a young man standing, with his elbow 
on a ledge. His hollow eyes are sunk under a marked bony 
brow. His hair, cap, and dress are black. The forms of the 
face and hands are scant in flesh and broken in contour, the cavi- 
ties and retreating parts in deep, unfathomable shadow." — Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle. 

82. Paris Bordone, 1 500-70 : Portrait. 
202. Domenico Ghirlandajo, 1449-94 : The Visitation, An ad- 
mirable picture from St. Maria degli Angeli at Flor- 

■^363. Raffaelle : Madonna and Child, " La Vierge au Voile" 
or "au Diadème," The Madonna lifts a veil to show 
the Infant to St. John, who kneels in adoration. This 
picture belonged to Phélypeaux, Marquis de la Vril- 
lière, then to the Comte de Toulouse, and afterwards 
to the Prince de Carignan, who sold it to Louis XV. 

^462. Lionardo da Vinci, 1452-1519 : Portrait of Mona Lisa 
("La Joconde"), wife of Francesco del Giocondo, the 



friend of the artist. This portrait, a miracle of paint- 
ing, in which the art of portraiture has probably ap- 
proached nearest to perfection, occupied the artist 
four years, and he then pronounced it unfinished. A 
thousand explanations have been given of this " sphinx 
of beauty." The picture was bought by François I. 

150. Vandyke: Portraits of Jean Grusset Richardot, Presi- 
dent of the Privy Council of the Netherlands, and his 
son. Sometimes attributed to Rubens. Collection 
of Louis XVI. 

543. Mtirillo : The Holy Family. The Virgin, seated, holds 
the Holy Child, to whom St. John, standing by the 
Kneeling St. Elizabeth, presents a cross. Collection 
of Louis XVL 

121. Annibale Caracci, 1560-1609 : Appearance of the Virgin 
to SS. Luke and Catherine. Painted for the cathedral 
of Reggio. 
*i62. F«;? ivi'r/C', 1 390-1441 : " La Vierge au Donateur." The 
Holy Child blesses the kneeling old man, who ordered 
this picture as an ex-voto ; an angel crowns the Ma- 
donna. Bought by François L from the Duke of 

" The Virgin is seated on a throne, holding in her arms the 
Infant Christ, who has a globe in his left hand, and extends the 
right in the act of benediction. The Virgin is attired as a queen, 
in a magnificent robe falling in ample folds around her, and 
trimmed with jewels ; an angel, hovering with outstretched wings, 
holds a crown over her head. On the left of the picture, a votary, 
in the dress of a Flemish burgomaster, kneels before a prie-dieu, 
on which is an open book ; and with clasped hands adores the 
Mother and her Child. The locality represents a gallery or por- 
tico paved with marble, and sustained by pillars in a fantastic 
Moorish style. The whole picture is quite exquisite for the deli- 
cacy of color and execution." — Jamesoti^ ^^ Legends of the Ma- 

447. Nicholas Poussin, 1650 : A noble portrait of the artist, 
aged 56. 
*364. Raffaelle : The Holy Family. 

*368. Raffaelle: St. Michael, painted, 1504, for Guidobaldo di 
Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino. 
123. Annibale Caracci : Pietà. 


Wall of Exit— 

87. Philippe de Chai/ipaigne : Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu. 
From the Hôtel de Toulouse. 
*365. Raffaelle : Holy Family. The Madonna holds up the 
Child in his cradle ; St. Elizabeth presents the little St. 

" In care and uniformity of execution, in fulness and grand- 
eur of the nude, in breadth and delicacy of drapery, in lightness 
and freedom of motion, and in powerful effects of color, this 
work approaches most nearly to the Transfiguration." — IVoagen. 

375. School of Raffaelle: Abundance — evidently executed 
under the direction of Raffaelle. 

232. Luini (Bernardino), c, 1530 : Salome, with the head of 
John the Baptist. Collection of Louis XIV. 
*362. Raffaelle: "La Belle Jardinière," 1507. The Madonna 
sits amongst flowering shrubs ; the Infant Christ 
stands at her knee ; St. John kneels. The picture was 
painted by Raffaelle for the city of Siena, and bought 
by François I. It has been injured in parts, and over- 

394. Andrea Solario, ob. c. 1530 : " La Vierge à l'oreiller 
vert" — named from the pillow upon which the Child 
is lying. This picture, perhaps from a drawing o~f 
Lionardo, was given by Marie de Medicis to the con- 
vent of the Cordeliers at Blois, whence it passed to the 
gallery of Cardinal Mazarin. 
79. Philippe de Champaigne : The Dead Christ. From the 
church of Port Royal. 

301. fouvenet : The Descent from the Cross, 1697. 

" Jouvenet, a grave and learned artist, with a certain majesty, 
the breadth of whose compositions somewhat recall Veronese, is 
to Poussin and Lesueur what the Caracci and Dominichino are 
to Lionardo and Raphael." — Henri Martin. 

477. Rigatid{^yxc\xi\h€), 1659-1743. Portrait of Jacques-Bé- 
nigne Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux ; painted for his 
family, afterwards in the collection of Louis XVIII. 

288, 289. Manling (Hans), flourished 1470-1484 : Sts. John 
Baptist and Mary Magdalene. From the gallery of 
Lucien Bonaparte, 


208. llolhàn {//ans) le Jeune, 1498-1554 : Portrait of Erasmus. 
Collection of Charles 1., afterwards of Louis XIV. 
*459. Lionardo da Vinci : Madonna and Child with St. Anne — 
"La Sainte Anne." An authentic and important 
picture, brought from Italy by Cardinal de Richelieu, 
and taken from the Palais Cardinal to the collection 
of Louis XIV. The sketches for this picture are at 
37. Antonello da /\/essina : Male Portrait. From the Palazzo 
Martinengo at Venice, afterwards in the Galerie 

" A marvel, a masterpiece, a miracle of painting." — Théophile 

46. Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri), 1 591-1666 : The 
Patron Saints of Modena — Gemignano, George, J. 
Baptist, and Peter Martyr. Ordered by the Duke of 
Modena in 1651 for the church of St. Pietro. 

Left Wall.— 

433. N. Ponssin : The Vision of St. Paul. Collection of 
Scarron, afterwards of Louis XIV. 

523. Zt-j-z/é'^r (Eustache), 1617-16.55 : Appearance of St. Scho- 
lastica to St. Benedict, From the Abbey of Marmou- 
tiers, near Tours. 

433. Rubens (Peter Paul), 1577-1640 : Tomyris, Queen of 
Scythia, causes the head of Cyrus to be plunged into 
a bath of blood. Collection of Louis XIV. A repe-- 
tition of subject, somewhat altered, is in the gallery 
of Lord Darnley, at Cobham in Kent. 
*395- Paul Veronese : The Feast of Cana. A picture 30 feet 
wide, from the refectory of the monastery of St. Giorgio 
at Venice. An important picture, if only from the 
portraits introduced, including Francis I., Eleanore 
of Austria, and Charles V. * Amongst the group of 
musicians are Titian and Tintoret, Bassano, and Paul 
Veronese himself. 

"The scene is a brilliant atrium, surrounded by majestic 
pillars. The tables at which the guests are seated form three 
sides of a parallelogram ; the guests are supposed to be almost 
entirely contemporary portraits, so that the figures of Christ 



and the Virgin, of themselves suflSciently insignificant, entirely 
sink in comparison. Servants with splendid vases are seen in 
the foreground, with people looking on from raised balustrades, 
and from the loggie and roofs of distant houses. The most 
remarkable feature is a group of musicians in the centre in front, 
round a table ; also portraits — Paul Veronese himself is playing 
the violoncello, Tintoretto a similar instrument, the grey-haired 
Titian, in a red damask robe, the contra-bass." — Ktcgler. 

" In this gigantic composition, Paul Veronese has introduced 
the portraits of a great number of celebrated contemporary per- 
sonages. A tradition, written down and preserved in the con- 
vent of St. George the Great, where the ' Marriage of Cana ' 
was originally placed, and communicated to Zanetti, indicates 
the names. According to this key, the bridegroom, seated at the 
left of the table, is Don Alphonso d'Avalos, Marquis de Guast. 
A negro standing on the other side offers him a cup of the 
miraculous wine. The young woman by the side of the Mar- 
quis represents Eleanore of Austria, Queen of France. Behind 
her a jester, quaintl)'' hooded with a cap and bells, puts his head 
between two pillars. Quite near the young woman is Francis I., 
then comes Queen Mary of England, dressed in a yellow robe. 
Further on is Soliman, Sultan of Turkey, who appears in no 
wise surprised at finding himself at the Marriage of Cana, a few 
steps from Jesus Christ ; he had some one to talk to besides. A 
negro prince, descended beyond doubt from one of the three 
Kings, the Abyssinian one, we may suppose, or from Prester 
John, is speaking to the servants, while Vittoria Colonna, Mar- 
quise de Pescara, chews a tooth-pick ; and at the corner, at the 
end of the table, the Emperor Charles the Fifth, without heed 
to chronology, tranquilly wears on his neck the order of the 
Golden Fleece." — Théophile Gautier. 

*I9. Correggio : Marriage of St. Catherine. Mazarin vainly 
tried to persuade the Barberini family of Rome to sell 
him this picture, which was constantly refused. At 
last he induced Anne of Austria to ask for it, when it 
was reluctantly given up to her entreaties, and was 
soon transferred by her to the Palais Mazarin, to the 
great mortification of the donors. After the death of 
Mazarin, it passed to the gallery of Louis XIV. 
39. Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli), 1478-1514 : A rural Con- 
cert. From the collection of Charles I., afterwards of 
Louis XIV. Two young men and two young women 


are represented with musical instruments ; one of the 
latter draws water from a well. 
*I42. Vandyke (Anton van Dyck), 1600-1649 • Charles 1. of 
England, a magnificent full-length portrait. From 
the Orleans gallery in the Palais Royal, where the 
picture seemed to have a touching association with 
the palace in which the widow and children of Charles 
had so long received a generous hospitality. 

" Under the pretext that the page who accompanied Charles 
I., in that monarch's flight, was a Du Barry or Barrymore, the 
Countess du Barry was induced to buy at London the fine portrait 
which we have at present in the Museum. She had the picture 
placed in her salon, and when she saw the king uncertain re- 
specting the violent measures he had to take to quash the par- 
liament and form the one called the Maupeou Parliament, she 
told him to look at the portrait of a king who had bent before his 
parliament." — Alme Campan, ''Anecdotes.'' 

"The unfortunate Louis XVL had a kind of presentiment of 
his tragic fate. He had carefully read the trial of Charles L, and 
often spoke of it, telling his friends that the perusal had been 
profitable to him. One of his most constant preoccupations dur- 
ing the three last years of his reign was to avoid the faults which, 
in his opinion, had ruined the King of England. 

" He was often seen to turn his eyes on the masterpiece of 
Van Dyck, which represents Charles L on foot, with his horse 
behind him held by an equerry. The picture had been bought, 
in the preceding reign, by Mme du Barry for the sum of twenty 
thousand livres, and placed by her in a saloon where it was con- 
stantly beneath the eyes of Louis XV." — Mémoires secrets. 

260. Roger van der Weyden : Madonna and Child. 
*370, Raffaelle : St. Michael and the Dragon, painted for 
Françoise L in 1517. The king left the choice of the 
subject to the painter, and he selected the military 
patron of France, and of that knightly order of which 
the king was Grand Master. 

" Like a flash of lightning the heavenly champion darts upon 
Satan, who, in desperation, writhes at his feet. The angel is 
clad in scaly armor, and bears a lance in his hands, with which 
he aims a death-blow at his antagonist. The air of grandeur, 
beauty, and calm majesty in the winged youth, the rapidity of 


the movement, the bold foreshortening of Satan, hurled on the 
lava rocks, have a most impressive effect." — Kiigler. 

" St. Michael — not standing, but hovering on his poised wings, 
and grasping the lance with both hands — sets one foot lightly on 
the shoulder of the demon, who, prostrate, writhes up, as it were, 
and tries to lift his head and turn on his conqueror with one last 
gaze of malignant rage and despair. The archangel looks down 
upon him with a brow calm and serious ; in his beautiful face is 
neither vengeance nor disdain — in his attitude, no effort ; his 
form, a model of youthful grace and majesty, is clothed in a 
brilliant panoply of gold and silver ; an azure scarf floats on his 
shoulders ; his widespread wings are of purple, blue, and gold ; 
his light hair is raised, and floats outward on each side of his 
head, as if from the swiftness of his downward motion. The 
earth emits flames, and seems opening to swallow up the adver- 
sary. The form of the demon is human, but vulgar in its pro- 
portions, and of a swarthy red, as if fire-scathed ; he has the 
horns and serpent-tail ; but, from the attitude into which he is 
thrown, the monstrous form is so foreshortened that it does not 
disgust, and the majestic figure of the archangel fills up nearly 
the whole space — fills the eye — fills the soul — with its victorious 

"That Milton had seen this picture, and that when his sight 
was quenched the 'winged saint' revisited him in darkness, 
who can doubt ? — 

" * Over his lucid arms 

A military vest of purple fiow'd 

Livelier than Meliboean, or the grain 

Of Sarra, worn by kings and heroes old 

In time of truce 

By his side, 

As in a glittering zodiac, hung the sword, 

Satan's dire dread, and in his hand the spear.' " 

Jameson's " Sacred atid Legetidaiy Art.'' 

42. Guercino : The Resurrection of Lazarus. Collection of 

Louis XVL 
306. Francia (Francesco Raibolini), 1450-1517 : The Nativity. 

Collection of Napoleon IIL 
108. François Cloitet, dit Janet, 1551-1592 : Portrait of Queen 

Elizabeth d'Autriche, wife of Charles IX. 
211. Holbein the Younger : Portrait of Anne of Cleves, Queen 

of England. Collection of Louis XIV, 


To the right of the Salon Carré, is a small room, con- 
taining some beautiful frescoes by Luini from the Palazzo 
Litta at Milan, whither they were brought from a ruined 
church j also (1887) from the legacy of the Comtesse 
Duchâtel — 

683, 684. Sir Antonio More (Moro van Dashorst), 1512-15S1 : 
Portrait supposed to represent Louis del Rio, Maître 
des requêtes, and his wife. 
*68o. Memling : The Virgin and Child adored by the Do- 

796. Lngrcs{].A. Dominque), 1780-1867 : Oedipus explaining 

the Enigma. 

797. Ingres, "La Source," 1856: considered the most perfect 

example of the nude in modern painting. 

Leaving the Salon Carré by the door opposite that by 
which we entered, we reach the Grande Galerie, imme- 
diately to the right of which opens the Salle des Sept Mè- 
tres, containing a precious collection of the earlier Italian 
school — chiefly brought together by Napoleon III. 

252. Andrea Alantegna : The Parnassus. Originally in the 
collection of Isabella d'Este-Gonzaga, taken in the 
sack of Mantua in 1630. 
156. Lorenzo di Credi (di Andrea d'Oderigo), 1459-1537 : Ma- 
donna and Child with Sts. Julien and Nicholas. From 
St. Maria degli Angeli at Florence. 
32. Ansa7io,ox Sano di Pietro{oi^\(ixv3),\ùf'o(i-'i\'ii: St. Jerome 

in the Desert. 
31. Sano di Pietro : The Vision of St. Jerome. 
72. ^^//r«^^ (Giovanni Antonio, of Milan), 1467-1516 : "La 
Vierge de la famille Casio." Al'tar-piece painted for 
the church of the Misericordia, near Bologna, the best 
work of the artist. 
113. G7;7^arr/<? (Vittore), flourished 1490-15 19 : The Preaching 
of St. Stephen at Jerusalem. 
*25i. Mantegna {Kx\àiX&-x, of Padua), 1431-1506 : "La Vierge 
de la Victoire." A dedication picture for the victory 
which Gonzaga of Mantua obtained over Charles VI IL 
of France in 1495. F. di Gonzaga with his wife kneel 


at the feet of the Virgin. Behind are Sts. Michael and 
Andrew. On the right St. Elizabeth kneels ; the little 
St. John stands by the Virgin, with Sts. George and 
Longinus, distinguished by his lance. This is the 
most celebrated easel picture of the master. From St. 
Maria della Vittoria at Mantua. 
6i. Giovanni Bellini, 1427-1516 : Holy Family. From the 
collection of the Prince of Orange, afterwards of Lord 

78. // Moretto (Alessandro Bonvicino), 1499-1555 : St. Ber- 

nardino of Siena and St. Louis, Bishop of Toulouse. 
*250. Andrea Mantegna : The Crucifixion. A fragment from 
the predella of the altar-piece of St. Zeno at Verona. 
The two other portions of the predella are in the mu- 
seum at Tours. The way in which the head of the 
Crucified is thrown back is very striking. 
85. Borgog-no7ie {Amhrogio Stefani di Fossano), ob. 1524: St. 
Peter of Verona and a (female) kneeling donor. From^ 
the Litta Collection. 
427. Perugino : Holy Family. 

79. Bonvicino : Sts. Buenaventura and Antonio di Padova. 
155. Lorenzo Costa (of Ferrara), 1460-1535 : Mythological 

scene — painted for the palace at Mantua. 
*22i. Fra Filippo Lippi (di Tommaso) 1412 7-1469 : Virgin and 
Child, from St. Spirito at Florence. 

261. Giovanni Massone (end of XV. c.) : An Altar-piece. In 
the centre is the Nativity ; on left, St. Francis as pro- 
tector of Sixtus IV. ; on right, St. Antonio di Padova 
as protector of Cardinal Giulio della Rovere, after- 
wards Julius II. From the sepulchral chapel of Sixtus 
IV. at Savona. 

*23. Niccolo Alimno (da Foligno), painted c. 1458-1499 : A 
Predella. Two angels bear a scroll with the names of 
Alunno and the donatrix Brisida. From St. Niccolo 
at Foligno. 

275. Marco Palmezzafio (of Forli), 1456-1537 : The Dead 

258. Cotignola (Girolamo Marchesi da), i48o?-i550?: The 
Bearing of the Cross. Signed. 

-391. Liica Signorclli (of Cortona), 1441-1523 : A Fragment. 

185. Filipepi (school of Botticelli) : Venus. 

41 S. Cosimo Tiira (of Ferrara), c. 1420-c. 1498 : Pietà. 


307. F, Lyancia : The Crucifixion, Painted for Si. (iiobbe at 

272. Ncri di Bicci (of Florence), 1419-1486 : Madonna and 

288. /'6'j-^/////^ (Francesco di Stefano), 1422-1457 : Dead Christ, 
and Scenes from Lives of Saints. 

157. Lorenzo di Crcdi : Christ and the Magdalen. 

290. Pintiaicchio (Bernardino di Betto), 1454-1513 : Madonna 
and Child. 
33. 34. 35- -S"^"^ di Pietro : Scenes from the Story of St. Je- 

187. Agjiolo Gaddi : The Annunciation. 

55. Taddco Bartolo (of Siena), 1363-1422 : St. Peter. 
*I92. Giotto (di Bondone) : St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. 
In the predella — the Vision of Innocent III.; the Pope 
approving the Order of St. Francis ; St. Francis preach- 
ing to the Birds. Signed. From St. Francesco at 
"A picture full of awe and devotion, and although signed 
without the prefix ' Magister,' certainly of later date than the 
works in the Arena by the argument of the single nail in the feet 
of the crucifix, a type adopted by Giotto subsequent to his works 
there." — Lord Lijidsays " CJuistian Art." 

Left Wall {returning), — 

153. Ciinabuc (Giovanni Gualtieri), 1240 7-1302?: Madonna 

and Child with Angels. From St. Francesco at Pisa. 

188. Taddeo Gaddi: A Predella. 

199. Bcnozzo Goz'zoli, 1420-1498 : The Triumph of St. Thoinas 
Aquinas. From the Cathedral of Pisa. 

154. Lorenzo Costa : The Court of Isabella d'Este, Duchess of 

Mantua. From the palace at Mantua, afterwards in 

the collection of Richelieu. 
*I70. Gentile da Fabtiano, 1370 7-1450?: The Presentation in 

the Temple. 
287. Pesellino : St. Francis receiving the Stigmata, and the 

holy Doctors, Cosmo and Damian, taking care of a 

sick man. Full of simplicity and beauty. 
419. Cosimo Tura : A monastic Saint. 
171. Gejitileda Fabriano : The Madonna holds the Child, who 

blesses the kneeling Pandolfo Malatesta, lord of 



220. Fra Filippo Lippi : The Nativity. From a church at 

276. Domeriico Panetti (of Ferrara), i46o?-i5i2?: The Na- 
664. Bartolommeo Montagna (of Vicenza), ob. 1523 : Three 
Children playing on Musical Instruments. A very 
good specimen of the master. 
243. Mainardi (Sebastiano, of St. Gemignano) : Madonna and 

Child with Angels. 
189. Raffaellino del Garbo, 1466-1524 : The Coronation of the 

270. Bart. Alontagna : Ecce Homo. 

347. Cosimo Rosselli (of Florence), 1438-1507 : Madonna in 
Glory, with Sts. Bernard and Mary Magdalen. 
*i82. Fra Angelica (Fra Giovanni da Fiesole), 1387-1455 : The 
Coronation of the Virgin. In the predella — the Story 
of St. Dominic. Vasari says that Fra Giovanni sur- 
passed himself in the execution of this picture, which 
was the best altar-piece in the church of Fiesole. 

" It is especially in the Coronation of the Virgin that Fra An- 
gelico has so profusely displayed the inexhaustible riches of his 
imagination. It may be said that painting with him served as a 
formulary to express the emotions of faith, hope, and charity. In 
order that his task might not be unworthy of Him in whose sight 
it was undertaken, he always implored the blessing of Heaven 
before he began his work ; and when an inward feeling told him 
that his prayer was answered, he considered himself no longer at 
liberty to deviate in the slightest degree from the inspiration 
vouchsafed him from on high, persuaded that in this, as in every- 
thing else, he was only an instrument in the hand of God." — Rio, 
" Poetry of Christian Art." 

*i84. j5^^//<r^///(Alessandro Filipepi), 1447-1510: The Madonna 

and Child with St. John. From the collection of Louis 

409. Bartolommeo Suardi, ob. c. 1530: The Circumcision. 
84. Borgognone : The Presentation in the Temple. From the 

Villa Melzi. 
354. Pier Francesco Sacchi{oi Pavia), early XVI. c. : The Four 

Doctors of the Church. 
396. Andrea Solario (of Milan), ob. c. 1530 : Crucifixion. 

Signed, 1503. 



259. Marco Uggionc {yti^iW^axi), c. 14O0-1530: Holy Family at 

289. Fiero di Cosi/no {oi Florence), 1462-1521?: The Corona- 
tion of the Virgin. 

404. Lo Spagna : Virgin and Child. 

389. Liica Signorelli : The Birth of the Virgin. Collection of 

Louis XVIII. 
403. Lo Spagna : The Nativity. Given by the town of Perugia 
to the Baron di Gerando. 

"The infant Jesus lies on the ground with his thumb in his 
mouth, like a baby, not yet conscious of his divinity. — Théophile 

*I52. Cima di Concgliano : Madonna and Child with Sts. J. 
Baptist and Mary Magdalen, and a landscape in 
Friuli. Signed. 

467. Bartolo?nmeo Vivarini (of Murano), ob. c. 1500 : St. Gio- 
vanni Capistrano. Signed, 1459. 

429. Pietro Perugino : The Contest between Love and Chastity. 
From the gallery of Isabella d'Este. 

390. Luca Signorelli: Adoration of the Magi. 

246, 247, 248. Gio. Nicola Manni : The Baptism of Christ, 
Assumption of the Virgin, and Adoration of the* Magi. 
70. P./. Bianchi (" Il Prari") : Madonna and Child. 

Za Grande Galerie, begun by Catherine de Medicis 
and continued by Henri IV., is divided by marble columns 
plundered from the churches of Paris, where they usually 
served to support a baldacchino. It will be found most 
convenient and least fatiguing to take the best pictures on 
the right in descending and those on the left in ascending ; 
but the schools are divided — first Italian, then Spanish, 
then German, Flemish, and Dutch. Numbers of artists are 
usually engaged in copying the pictures. Manon Vauber- 
nier, afterwards the famous Comtesse du Barry, was dis- 
covered by Lebel, a myrmidon of Louis XV., when she 
was a copyist in this gallery. 

"It is a piece of stupidity not to write the subjects on the 
frames." — Zola, " L' Assommoir " 


Right: ist Division : — 

1 6. Mariotto Albertinelli. 
*227. Lorenzo Lotto (of Treviso), 1480 7-1554 : St. Jerome in the 

Desert. Signed, 1500, 
448. Titian : The Council of Trent. Collection of Louis XV. 
379. Andrea del Sa7-to : Charity. Signed, 1518. Collection of 

François I. 
337. Tintoret (Jacopo Robusti), 1512-1594: Portrait of the 

274. Pabna Vecchio : The Annunciation to the Shepherds. 
Collection of Louis XIV. A very beautiful Holy 
Family, with a young shepherd adoring. 
336. Tintoret : Sketch for the Paradise at Venice. 
442. Titian : Holy Family, From the collection of Cardinal 
Mazarin, afterwards of Louis XIV. 
*463. Lionardo da Vinci: Bacchus. Collection of Louis XIV. 
Probably originally intended for St. J. Baptist and 
altered to represent the pagan god. 
231. Luini : The Holy Family — the Holy Child asleep. Col- 
lection of Louis XIV. 
102. Paul Veronese : St. Mark crowning the Theological 
Virtues. From the Sala della Bussola in the Ducal 
Palace at Venice. 
*373. Raffaelle : Joanna of Arragon, wife of Ascanio Colonna, 
Constable of Naples, Painted for Cardinal Bibbiena, 
who gave it to François I, Vasari says that only the 
head was executed by Raffaelle. 
93. Paul Veronese : Holy Family. From the collection of 

the Comte de Brienne, afterwards of Louis XIV. 
395. Andrea Solario : Portrait of Charles d'Amboise. 
*458. Lionardo da Vinci : St, John Baptist, Given by Louis 
XIII. to Charles I. ; afterwards in the collection of 
Louis XIV. 
*367. Raffaelle (J) : St. Margaret. Collection of François I. 

"The famous St. Margaret of Raffaelle was painted for 
François I. in compliment to his sister, Margaret of Navarre. 
It represents the saint in the moment of victory, just stepping 
forward with a buoyant and triumphant air, in which there is also 
something exquisitely sweet and girlish : one foot on the wing of 
the dragon, which crouches open-mouthed beneath ; her right 
hand holds the palm, her left sustains her robe. The aim of 


Raffaelle has evidently been to place before us an allegory : it is 
innocence triumphant over the power of sin." — Jameson's " Sacred 

ICI. Paul Veronese : Portrait of a Young Woman. From the 

Bevilacqua Gallery at Verona. 
230. Luini : Holy Family. 
*450. Titian : Portrait of François I. The king wears a 
medallion of St. Margaret round his neck. From the 
collection of François I. 
73. Bonifazio : The Resurrection of Lazarus. Formerly in 
St. Luigi dei Francesi at Rome. 

" The gravity of the scene is a little spoiled by a detail rather 
too natural. One of the Jews present at the miracle holds his 
nose to prevent his perceiving the fetid odor of the open sepulchre. 
It is a want of taste ; but the gesture is so true and the personage 
so well painted ! " — Théophile Gatiticr. 

*366. Raffaelle : St. John Baptist. This picture differs much 

in composition from that in the Tribune at Florence. 
86. Bronzino : Christ and the Magdalen. Mentioned by 

Vasari as existing in St. Spirito at Florence — an 

intensely vulgar picture. 
384. Girolamo Savoldo : Male Portrait. 
439. Titian : Madonna and Child with Sts. Stephen, Ambrose, 

and Maurice. Collection of Louis XIV. There is a 

repetition of this picture in the gallery at Vienna. 
52. Fedeiigo Barocci, 1528-1612 : The Circumcision. From 

an Oratory at Pesaro. 
309. Bagnacavallo : The Circumcision. This picture was 

bought by Charles Lebrun at the sale of Fouquet, and 

resold to Louis XIV. 
332. (On a screen.) Daniele da Volterra : David and Goliath. 

Hard and violent, but so masterly as to have been 

attributed to Michelangelo. 

2nd Division. — 

68. Pietro da Cortona (P. Berrettini) : Romulus and Remus. 

Collection of Louis XV. 
67. Pietro da Cortona : Madonna and Child, with St. Martina 

offering a lily. 
312. Rembrandt : The Presentation in the Temple. 


321. Guido Reni : S>i. SébdiSiidiii. Collection of Mazarin, after- 
wards of Louis XIV. 

181. Dometiico Fed : The Guardian Angel. 

139. Lodovico Caracci : Madonna and Child. Collection of 
Louis XV. 
9-12. Francesco Albani : Mythological Scenes. 

400. Lionello Spada (of Bologna), 15 76-1622 : The Martyrdom 
of St. Christopher. The giant kneels with bound hands : 
the executioner, who has raised himself on a step to 
reach him, prepares to strike off his head. Considered 
by Waagen to be the masterpiece of the artist. 

257. Carlo Maratta : Portrait of the Artist. 

129. Annibale Caracci : Martyrdom of St. Stephen. Collection 
of Louis XIV. 

557. Zurbaran : St. Apollina. From the collection of Marshal 

546. Murillo : The Miracle of St. Diego — "La Cuisine des 
Anges." The angels prepare the dinner of the monk 
absorbed in his devotions. Signed, 1646. Collection 
of Marshal Soult. 

3^^ Division. — 

556. Zurbaran : The Funeral of St. Pedro Nolasco. 

548. Jose de ^/^^ra (L'Espagnolet), 1588-1656 : The Adoration 

of the Shepherds. Signed, 1650. 
555. Zîirbaran : St. Pedro Nolasco and St. Raymond ds 


4M Division. — 

*672. Albert D tirer : Head of an Old Man. 

343. Sir Antonio More : The Dwarf of Charles V. with a dog. 
*277. Jan van Mabuse : Portrait of Jean Carondelet, Chancellor 
of Flanders. Signed, 1517. In a niche is the chan- 
cellor's device " Matura." 
279. Quentin Matsys : A Banker and his Wife. Signed, 1518. 

209. Holbein: Male Portrait. Collection of Louis XIV. 

210. Holbein : Portrait of Sir Thomas More, Chancellor of 

England. Collection of Louis XIV. 
98. Lucas Cranach, 1472-1553 : Venus. Dated 1529. 

109. Cuyp (Aalbert Kuyp), 1605-c. 1672 : Sea Piece. 

151. Vandyke: Portrait of the Duke of Richmond. Collec- 
tion of Louis XIV. 


The twenty-three large pictures which now hang on 
either side the gallery — called " La Galerie Mcdicis " — 
were ordered from Rubens by Marie de Medicis in 1620, 
to decorate the gallery at the Luxembourg which she had 
just built. Painted especially for their places in the Lux- 
embourg, and exceedingly interesting there, as commemo- 
rating the foundress and first inhabitant of that palace, 
they are out of place here. They are not hung in their 
order, which is — 

The Destiny of Marie de Medicis. 

Her Birth at Florence, April 26, 1575. 

Education of Marie de Medicis. 

Henri IV. receives her Portrait. 

Her Marriage with Henry IV. 

Her Landing at Marseilles, Nov. 3, 1600. 

Her Marriage at Lyons, Dec. 10, 1600. 

Birth of Louis XIII. at Fontainebleau, Sept. 27, 1601. 

Henri IV. leaving for the war in Germany, and placing the 
government in the hands of the Queen. 

The Coronation of Marie de Medicis. 

The Government of Marie de Medicis. 

Journey of the Queen to Pont-au-Cé, in Anjou. 

Exchange of the French and Austrian princesses, Nov. 9,1615. 

Happiness of the Regency. 

Majority of Louis XIII. 

The Escape of the Queen from Blois, Feb. 21, 1619. 

Reconciliation of Louis XIII. with Marie de Medicis. 

Conclusion of the Peace. 

Interview between Marie de Medicis and her son. 

The Triumph of Truth, 

Marie de Medicis as Bellona. 

Her father, François de Medicis, Grand Duke of Tuscany. 

Her mother, Jane of Austria, daughter of the Emperor Fer- 
dinand I. 

The outlines were drawn in chalk, under the personal 
supervision of the queen, but the paintings were executed 
at Antwerp ; the sketches for them are at Munich. 

The collection of Dutch pictures is a very fine one, 


though when Louis XIV. looked at those which were here 

in his time he exclaimed, " Otez-moi ces magots ! " We 

may notice — 

R. 5. Backhîiiscn : A Dutch Fleet. 

91. Philippe de Champaigne : Portrait of a Girl. 

574. Wouvermann : Huntsmen halting before a Public-house. 

516. Teniers : Wine-shop near a river. 

396. Porbus le Jetme : Portrait of Marie de Medicis : a pict- 
ure of great interest, as the only one preserved from 
the fire of Feb. 6, 1661, from the portraits of kings and 
queens of France (by Porbus, Bunel, and his wife, 
Marie Bahuche) which hung, in la galetie des rois of 
Henri IV., between the windows, nine on the west, 
twelve on the east. That of Henri IV. is only known 
by the engraving of Thomas de Leu. This picture 
happened to have been moved into another room, dur- 
ing alterations, just before the fire occurred. 
86. Philippe de Chat?ipaigne : Louis XIII. crowned by Vic- 
tory — beneath open the halls of the Ecole Française — 
from the Hôtel de Toulouse. 

547. Vei'kolie : An Interior. 

295. £. Metzu : The Chemist. 

308. Van der Meulen : The Passage of the Rhine. 

486. Slingelandt : A Dutch Family. 

204. Van der Heyden : Village on a Canal. 

143. Vandyke: The Children of Charles I. (Charles II., 
James II., and Mary of Orange). A charming minia- 
ture sketch for a great picture at Turin. 

377. Van Ostade : The Halt. 

127. Gerard Dou : Men weighing Gold. 

301. Van der Meulen: Entry of Louis XIV. and Marie 
Thérèse into Douai, August, 1667. 
*I29. Gerard Don : An Old Woman reading the Bible to her 
Peasant husband. 

5 M Division. — 

*400. Paul Potter: "The Prairie." Signed, and dated 1652, 
when the artist was twenty-six (two years before his 
94. Philippe de Champaigne : Portraits of the architects Fran- 
çois Mansart and Claude Perrault. 


515. Teniers le Jeune : The Village Festival. 

'^ i' \ Rembrandt : Portraits. 
416. S 

*527. G. Terburg : The Music Lesson. 1660. From the col- 
lection of Louis XVL 
*83. Philippe de Champaigne : Portrait of Suzanne, the daugh- 
ter of the artist, a nun of Port Royal, recovering from 
dangerous illness (fever and paralysis) in 1662, in an- 
swer to the prayers of Sister Catherine Agnes Arnauld 
— a most graphic picture of unparalleled care in the 
treatment of its homely details. From the Convent 
of Port Royal. 
551. Ary de Voys (of Leyden), 1641-1698 : Male Portrait. 
371. Van Ostade: The Fish Market. 
78. Philippe de Champaigne : The Crucifixion. 
*I46. Vandyke : Portrait of Francesco de Moncada, Marquis 
d'Aytona, Spanish general in the Netherlands. 
459. Rnbens : Portrait of Elizabeth of France, daughter of 
Henri IV., who married the Infante of Spain, after- 
wards Philippe IV. Collection of Louis XIV. 
*I45. Vandyke : Portrait of Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of 
Spain, Governess of the Netherlands, as a widow. 
Collection of Louis XIV. 
27. Berghejn : Landscape and Animals. 

6th Division. — 

462. Rîibens : The Village Festival. 

579. Wynants (Jan), c. 1600-c. 1677 : The Edge of the Forest. 

155. Vandyke : Mz\e Y*onx2i\t. 

473. Ruysdael : Landscape. 
*I44. Vandyke : Portraits of Charles Lodovic, Duke of Bava- 
ria, and his brother. Prince Rupert. From the col- 
lection of Charles I.; afterwards in the Salon d'Apol- 
lon at Versailles. 

190. Franz Hals, 1 5 54-1666 : Portrait of René Descartes. 

Returning by the South Wall. — 

582. Wyntrack : The Farm. 

405. Rembrandl : The Sa-maritan' s House. Dated 1648. CoK 

lection of Louis XVI. 
689. Paul Potter: The Wood at the Hague. 1650. 
379. Isack 7.>an Ostade, 1617-c. 1654. A Frozen Canal. 


471. Rîtysdacl : Storm on a Dutch Canal. 
500. Jan -van Steen, 1636-1689. Flemish Alehouse Festival. 
*88. Philippe de Champaignc : Portrait of Robert Arnauld 
d'Andilly. 1650. 

" This portrait is well conceived and highly finished in exe- 
cution : the tone is warm, and the hand is peculiarly beautiful." 
— Waageti. 

580. Wyftants : Landscape. 

137. Vandyke: " La Vierge aux Donateurs." Collection of 
Louis XIV. 

2nd Division. — 

304. Van der Meulen, 1634-1690 : Entrance of Louis XIV. and 
Marie Thérèse into Arras, 1667. Louis XIV. and 
Monsieur, on horseback, follow the carriage, which 
shows how ladies used to sit "à la portière." 

104. Cîiyp : Cows. 

*I48. Vandyke: Portrait of a gentleman (supposed to be the 
brother of Rubens) and little girl. Collection of 
Louis XIV. 

105. Cuyp : Starting for a Ride. Collection of Louis XVI. 

106. Cttyp : The Promenade. 

149. Vandyke : Portrait of a lady (supposed to be sister-in- 
law of Rubens) and her daughter. Formerly at Ver- 
sailles in the collection of Louis XIV. 

470. Ruysdael : The Forest. 

674. Holbein : A Water-mill. Signed. Collection of Napo- 
leon III. 

2,rd Division. — 

41. F. Bol : Portrait of a Mathematician. Collection of 
Louis XV. 

566. Wouvermann : The Wooden Bridge over the Torrent. 

528. Geraj'd Terburg : The Concert. 

152. Vandyke : Portrait of the Artist. From the Bedchamber 
of Louis XIV. at Versailles. 

147. Vandyke : Portrait of Francesco de Moncada. From 
the Chamber of Louis XIV. 

514. Teniers (David) : The Temptation of St. Anthony. Col- 
lection of Louis XVIII. 

113. Z>t'Z'/Y;- (Conrad), XVII. c. : Landscape. 


397. Porlnis k Jeune : Portrait of Guillaume le Vair, Chan- 
cellor of France under Louis XIII. 

3^^- i l\vi dcr Meiilcii : Battle Pieces. 
317- ) 

472. Ruysdael : Landscape. 

545. Van der Venne : Fête on the Peace between Belgium 
and Holland, 

^3^' !- Van Huysum : Fruit and Flowers. 

237. ) 

172. G. Flinck : Portrait of a Girl. 

567. Wouvermann : Departure for the Chase. 

581. Wynants : Landscape. 

417. Rembrandt: Portrait of a Young Man. 

123. Gerard Don : The Village Grocer. 

197. Van der Heist: Distribution of Prizes. Marvellous in 

536. Van de Welde : Beach at Schevening. 
569. Wouvermann : A Stag Hunt. 
224. Pieter de Hoogh : Dutch Interior. 

19. Berghem : The Ford. 
128. Gerard Doîi : The Dentist. Collection of Louis XIV. 
461. Rubens : Portrait of a Lady. 
369. Van Ostade : The Family of Adrian van Ostade. 

394- \ Franz Porbus : Portrait of Henri IV. 

395- ) 

518. Teniers (le Jeune) : Interior of an Alehouse. 
*407. Rembrandt : The Supper at Emmaus. 1648. Collection 
of Louis XVI. 
414. Rembrandt : Portrait of the Artist. 1637. Collection of 

Louis XVI. 
458. Rubens : Portrait of Henri de Vicq, Ambassador from 
the Netherlands in France. From the collection of 
William II. The portrait was painted by Rubens in 
gratitude for the recommendation of De Vicq having 
caused his choice for decorating the gallery of the 
69. Bretighel : The Battle of Arbela. 
*207. Holbein: Portrait of William Warham, Archbishop of 

Canterbury. 1527. Collection of Louis XV. 
*2o6. Holbein : Nicholas Kratzer, Astronomer to Henry VIII. 
Collection of Louis XIV. 
100. Lucas Cranach : Male Portrait. 


280, Lucas Cranach? : The Deposition. From a Jesuit con- 
vent in the Rue St. Antoine, afterwards in the church 
of Val de Grâce. 

"A picture of the deepest religious feeling. The Virgin — 
though very German — is a creature of meekness and purity, lost 
in the abandonment of sorrow." — Lindsay's " Christian Arty 

/^th Division, (Spanish. ) — 

537. Morales (Luiz-" El Divino "), 1 509-1 566 : The Cross- 

bearing. Collection of Louis XVIII. 

538. Murillo : The Immaculate Conception. Collection of 

Louis XVIII. 
542. Muiillo : "La Vierge au Chapelet." Collection of Louis 

*547. Mmillo : The Young Beggar Boy. Collection of Louis 

545. Murillo : Christ bound to the Column and St. Peter on 

his knees. 
544. Mtiiillo : The Agony of Gethsemane. Collection of 

Louis XVL 

553. Velasquez : Portrait of Don Pedro Moscoso de Altamira, 

dean of the Chapel Royal at Toledo, and afterwards 

5/// Division. — 

540. Mmillo : The Birth of the Virgin. Collection of Napo- 
leon III. 

551. Velasquez: Portrait of Maria Margareta, daughter of 

Philip IV. 

554. Velasquez : A Group of Men. Valasquez and Murillo 

are represented on the left. 

552. Velasquez : Philip IV. — a full length — with a dog. 

549. Ribera : The Burial of Christ. Collection of Napoleon 

474. Domenichino : St. Cecilia. Collection of Louis XIV. 
344. Salvator Rosa : Battle Piece. 

" An admirable picture, with an angry yellow light." — Kugler. 

224. Guido Reni : Hercules and Achelous. 
180. Domenico Feti : Melancholy. Replica of a picture at 



343. Salvator Rosa : The Apparition of Samuel to Saul. Col- 
lection of Louis XIV. 

318. Guida Reni : Ecce Homo. Collection of Louis XIV. 

256. Carlo Maratta : Portrait of Maria Maddalcna Rospigli- 
osi. A very favorable specimen of the master. 
24. Caravaggio : The Death of the Virgin. From the gallery 
of the Duke of Mantua this picture passed to that of 
Charles L, then of Louis XIV. 

134. Ann. Caracci : Fishermen. 
*ii9. Ann. Caracci : " La Vierge aux Cerises." 

The name is in allusion to the legend, often repeated in old 
carols, that, before the birth of our Saviour, the Virgin longed 
for cherries which hung high on a tree, and that Avhen Joseph was 
about to get them for her, the bough bent to his hand. 

dth Division. — 

455. Titian : Male Portrait. Collection of Mazarin, after- 
wards of Louis XIV. 
451. Titian : An Allegory. Collection of Louis XIV. 
*46i. Lionardo da Vinci (sometimes attributed to the Milanese 
Bernardino de' Conti) : Female Portrait, called in 
France "La Belle Féronnière," mistress of François 
I., but really representing Lucrezia Crivelli, a lady 
beloved by Ludovico Sforza. 
*440. Titian: "La Vierge au Lapin." Signed. Collection 
of Louis XIV. The Virgin holds a white rabbit, to- 
wards which the infant Christ, in the arms of St. Cath- 
erine, eagerly stretches his hand. 
92. Patd Vero7iese : The Swoon of Esther. Collection of 
Louis XIV. 
*372. Raffaelle : Portrait of a Young Man, said to be the ar- 
tist. Collection of Louis XIV. 
*56. Era Bartolo77inieo : li\iç, KnnyxxvzxzXxon. 1515. Collection 
of François I. 

"The Virgin seated under a niche, and attended by standing 
or kneeling saints, bends backwards as she sees the messenger 
who flies down to her. It is clear that the latter was thrown off 
on the background of architecture at the moment when the rest 
was finished. Fra Bartolommeo has reached a point where he 
defies every sort of difficulty." — Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

"A most brilliant and original composition, in which the 



Virgin, instead of being represented kneeling in some retired 
spot, is seated on a throne receiving the homage of various saints, 
when the angel Gabriel appears before her." — Rio, " Christian 

*37i. Raffaelle : Portrait of Balthasar Castiglione, the famous 
author of " II Cortigiano." Collection of Charles I., 
afterwards of Mazarin and Louis XIV. 

445. Titian : Christ crowned with Thorns. From St. Maria 
delle Grazie at Milan. 

441. Titian : The Holy Family. 

*99. Paul Veronese : The Supper at Emmaus. 
*46o. Lionardo da Vinci: " La Vierge aux Rochers." Collec- 
tion of François I. A replica, with some difTerences, 
of the famous picture, in the National Gallery, from 
the collection at Charlton. 

291. Giulio Romano : The Nativity. From St. Andrea at Man- 
tua ; afterwards in the gallery of the Duke of Mantua ; 
then of Charles I, ; finally of Louis XIV. 

443. Titian : The Disciples at Emmaus. A subject often 
painted by the master. Gallery of the Duke of Man- 
tua, Charles I. and Louis XIV. 

" Titian, according to tradition, has placed at the right of our 
Saviour in the dress of a pilgrim, the emperor Charles V., and at 
his left, in the same disguise, Cardinal Ximenes. The page who 
brings a dish to the table is Philip II., afterwards King of Spain." 
— The'ophile Gautier. 

57. Fra Bartolovwieo : Virgin and Child throned, with Saints. 

225. Lorenzo Lotto : St. Laurence, with St. Agnes and St. Mar- 
garet. Collection of Napoleon III. 

453. Titian : Male Portrait. Collection of Louis XIV. 
*449. Titian: Jupiter and Antiope, known as "La Venus 
del Pardo," with a glorious landscape. Given by 
Philip IV. of Spain to Charles I., afterwards in the 
collection of Mazarin, then of Louis XIV. 

382. Andrea del Sarto : The Annunciation. A replica of the 
picture in the Pitti at Florence. 

*38. Giorgione : The Holy Family, with Sts, Sebastian and 
Catherine, in a poetic landscape. Collections of 
Duke of Mantua, Charles I., Mazarin, and Louis 

irOA'A'S OF LE su RU R 77 

454, Titian : A Man holding a Glove. Collection of Louis 

177. Gaudcnzio Ferrari (of Valduggia), 1484-1550: St. Paul. 
Signed, 1543. From St. Maria delle Grazie at Milan. 
*374. Raffacllc : Two Male Portraits : supposed to represent 
Raffaelle and his fencing-master : by some ascribed 
to Pontormo or Sebastian del Piombo. 
74. Bonifazio : Holy Family and Saints. Collection of 
Mazarin, afterwards of Louis XIV. 

The third door we have passed on the right of La 
Grande Galerie is the entrance to five rooms devoted to 
French and English artists. Here we may notice — 

\st Room. — Containing interesting examples of XIV. 
c. art in France. Two pictures by François Clouet dit 
Janet (1500-1572), and a number by his pupils. 

Ô53. Jean Foiicquet, c. 1450 : Charles VII. 
*652. Id. : Guillaume Jouvenel, Chancellor of Charles VII. 
A very noble work. 
137. Jean Cousin : The Last Judgment. 

2nd Room. — A noble collection of pictures of Eustache 
Lesueur (16 17-1655) representing the life of St. Bruno, and 
executed for one of the cloisters of a Carthusian monas- 
tery which stood on the site now occupied by the Luxem- 

" Lesueur was twenty-eight years old, when he was commis- 
sioned to paint the gallery of the Chartreux. In less than three 
years (1645-1648), assisted by his brothers and his brother-in-law 
in the less important parts of the work, he executed the twenty- 
two pictures of the life of St. Bruno. The public admiration was 
not expressed by any noisy burst of enthusiasm, but by a sort of 
seizure that held the spectator. This serenity, this celestial purity, 
this color, limpid and transparent as a clear summer sky, this re- 
ligious sentiment, with its penetrating sweetness, which united 
the fervor of ecstasy with the calm of the soul reposing in the 
light, were like a new revelation. Lesueur, after Poussin, was 
the Gospel after antiquity and the Old Testament." — Martin, 
" Hist, de France." 


The pictures are — 

1. Raymond, a learned doctor at Paris, and canon of Notre 

Dame, is lecturing on theology to his pupils, one of 
whom, sitting in front, with a book under his arm, is 
St. Bruno, a native of Cologne. 

2. Raymond dies. A priest attended by two students, one 

of whom is St. Bruno, extends the crucifix. A demon 
awaits the departing soul. 

3. As, three several times, the people were attempting to 

carry Raymond to the grave, when they were chanting 
the words, " Responde mihi quantas habes iniquitates," 
the dead man lifted himself up and with terrible voice 
exclaimed : " By the justice of God I am condemned." 
On the third occasion the body was flung aside, as 
unworthy of Christian burial. St. Bruno witnesses the 
awful scene. 

4. St. Bruno kneels before the crucifix. In the background 

Raymond is being buried in unconsecrated ground. 

5. Bruno teaches theology at Rheims. 

6. Bruno, dreading the temptations of the world, persuades 

six friends to adopt the life of anchorites. 

7. St. Bruno and his companions prepare to set out to Gre- 

noble and distribute their goods to the poor. 

8. Hugo, Bishop of Grenoble, has a vision of seven mov- 

ing stars, which become stationary at a fixed point in 
his diocese ; when Bruno and his companions appear, 
he sees the interpretation of his vision and gives them 
a retreat on a mountain near Grenoble. 

9. Bruno and his friends, preceded by St. Hugo on a mule, 

journey to the village of Chartreux. 
ID. St. Bruno founds the monastery of the Grande Chartreuse. 

11. St. Hugo invests Bruno with the habit of his order. 

12. The rule of Bruno is confirmed by Pope Victor HI. 

13. St. Bruno, as abbot, receives )^oung novices. 

14. Pope Urban H., who had been a pupil of Bruno at 

Rheims, sends for St. Bruno to aid him in his affairs : 
the summons causes consternation. 

15. Bruno received by Urban H. 

16. Bruno refuses the Archbishopric of Reggio. 

17. Bruno, unable longer to endure Court life, retires to a 

desert in Calabria. 


i8. Bruno lias obtained leave to found a convent in Calabria ; 
he prays and the monks clear the ground. 

19. Count Roger of Sicily, lost in the forest, finds the her- 

mitage of St. Bruno. 

20. Whilst besieging Capua, Count Roger has a vision of St. 

Bruno, who warns him of treachery in his camp, so that 
he is able to guard against it. 

21. The death of St. Bruno (iioo), surrounded by his monks. 

22. The apotheosis of St. Bruno — the worst, as the last was 

the best, of the series. 

T^rd Room. — Pictures by Eustache Lesueur^ chiefly from 
the Hôtel Lambert, in the Isle St. Louis. 

"The decoration of the Hôtel Lambert, divided between the 
rivals, Lesueur and Lebrun, was again a triumph for Lesueur. 
He gave a quite novel character to the mythological allegory al- 
ready treated by Poussin with great depth, but in another style. 
It was, as M. Vitet has well said, antiquit}' as Fénelon conceived 
it. Christian and still martial. It was not the antiquity of Homer, 
but that of Plato and of Virgil. These ravishing nymphs of 
Lesueur are ideas descending from the empyrean of Plato, so 
closely akin to the heaven of St. John." — Henri Martin. 

4M Room. — Pictures by Horace Vernet (17 14-1789). 

t^th Room. — Pictures by English artists — none remark- 

From this room one may turn (right at the head of a 
staircase to the Galerie Mollien^ containing a vast collec- 
tion of the works of N. Poussin and Claude. 

Right Wall— 

804. Lenaiti : Portrait of Henri IL, Duc de Montmorenci. 

828. N. Poussin : Apollo and Daphne. The last work of the 
artist ; left unfinished. 

515. Lesueur: Tobias instructed by his Father. Very beau- 
tiful in color. 
65. Lebrun : Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 

" In a certain sense it is a specimen of what may be called 
the academic school ; great talent in composition, a noble style, 
a skilful execution, but a theatrical manner, declamator}' and su- 


perficial, to which the serenity of true art is wanting, and where 
we feel that soul is absent." — Henri Martin. 

This picture was a votive offering executed by Lebrun at the 
age of thirty-two, for the Confrérie des Orfèvres, who presented 
it, on May i, 1651, to the chapter of Notre Dame. 

421. N. Poussin: The Philistines smitten with the Plague. 
521. Le sueur : St. Paul preaching at Ephesus. 

"After the Dispute du Saint Sac7'e?Hent and the School of 
Athens, nothing had appeared that could be compared to the 
Sai?it Paul, a creation which is perhaps the masterpiece of the 
French school, A dominant ideal breathes in all this composi- 
tion, a divine breath stirs the apostle's hair, the spirit of God 
shines in his look." — Hetiri Martin. 

■ /■ Claude Lorraine : Landscapes. 
222. ) 

453. N. Poussin : Diogenes. The landscape is magnificent. 

195. Claude Lefevre : A Master and his Pupil. 

290. Laurent de Lahyre (1606-1656) : Pope Nicholas V. wit- 
nessing the opening of the grave of St. Francis of 
Assisi. The Pope (1449) descends into the tomb at 
Assisi, which has never been opened since the death 
of the saint. He finds the body entire and standing 
upright ; kneeling, he lifts the robe to examine the 
traces of the stigmata ; attendants and monks with 
torches stand around. 

224. Claude Lorraine : David crowned by Samuel. 
*3o6. Jouvenet : Fagon, physician of Louis XIV. A most 
powerful and speaking portrait. 

226. Claude Lorraine : A Seaport. 

479. Rigaud: Portrait of Martin van den Bogaert, known as 
Desjardins, the sculptor. 

415. N. Poussin : Eleazar and Rebecca. 

232. Clatide Lorraine: Entering a Port (Genoa?) at Sunrise. 

Left WalL^ 

473, Rigaud: Presentation in the Temple. The last work of 
the master (1743), bequeathed by him to Louis XV. 

233. Claude Lorraine : The Landing of Cleopatra. 
48. Sebastian Bourdon: Portrait of the Artist. 

386. Oudry : Blanche, a favorite dog of Louis XV. 


446. N. Poîissin: Time saving Truth from the attacks of 
Envy and Discord. Executed in 1641 for Cardinal 
Richelieu, afterwards in the "grand cabinet du roi" 
at the Louvre. 

225. Claude Lof'7'ai ne : Ulysses restoring Chryseis to her Fa- 

392. Mignard: Madonna and Child, with a cluster of grapes. 

475. Rigaud: Louis XIV. An interesting portrait (1701) of 
the great king, "silencieux et mesuré," as St. Simon 
describes him, whose minutest actions endured the 
• scrutiny of his courtiers, from whose presence he was 
never relieved, a prince of the blood handing him his 
shirt, a duke holding a mirror whilst he shaved, &c. 

480. Rigaud : Portrait of Charles Lebrun and Pierre Mignard. 

351. Mignard : Ecce Homo. 

At the end of this gallery we enter Le Pa^nllon Denon^ 
containing pictures of the Battles of Alexander by Charles 

On the right opens a gallery in which a collection of 
the Modern French School has been recently arranged. We 
may notice — 

Right Wall,— 

Guérin : Death of Caesar. 
Constant Troyon: Oxen going to Work. 
Ary Scheffer: St. Augustin and St. Monica. 
Ingres: The Apotheosis of Homer. 
Prudhon : The Empress Josephine. 
Delaroche : The English Princes in the Tower. 

End Wall— 

Delaroche: The Death of Elizabeth of England. 

Left Wall.— 

Scheffer: The Temptation. 
100. David: The Vow of the Horatii. 
Gros: Bonaparte at Areola. 
Benonville : The Death of St. Francis of Assisi. 
Troyon: Le Retour de la Ferme. 


Returning to the Pavilion Denon, we enter the Galerie 

Right Wall.— 

284-288. Oudry: Favorite Dogs of Louis XV., with their 

311. Lancret: Summer. 
587. Jean François de Troy : First Chapter of the Order of St. 

Esprit, held by Henri IV. in the Convent of the Grands 

Augustins at Paris, January 8, 1595. • 

*265. Gretize : The Broken Pitcher. 
330. Vanloo: Portrait of Queen Marie Leczinska, 1747. 

52. Mme Lebrun: Portrait of the Artist and her Daughter. 
332. Vanloo: Portrait of the artist Jean Germain Drouais. 
261, 262. Gj-euze: The Father's turse, and the Return of the 

Prodigal Son. Collection of Louis XVIH. 

Left Wall,— 

264. Greuze : Portrait of an Artist. 
678. Angelica Kauffman : A Lady and Child. 
28, 29. Boucher: Pastoral Subjects. Good specimens of the 

187. F. N. Drotiais, 1763 : Portrait of the Comte d'Artois, 

afterwards Charles X., at six, and his sister, Clotilde, 

at four. 
577. Louis Tocqué: Portrait of Queen Marie Leczinska. 
*99. Chardin : The Benedicite. Collection of Louis XV. 
724. Chardin: " La Pourvoyeuse." 

98. Chardin: The Industrious Mother. 
403. Pater, 1728 : A Pastoral Feast. 
*26o. G7'euze: The Village Bride, "L'Accordée du Village." 

The father has just paid the dowry of his daughter, 

and is commending her to the care of her bridegroom ; 

the mother exhibits satisfaction at the match ; the 

younger sister, grief at the parting. 
168. Desportes: Folle and Mitte, dogs of Louis XIV. 
162. Desportes: Portrait of the Artist. 
367. Oudry: Wolf Hunt. 

On leaving the last hall of the French School we find 
ourselves at the top of the Escalier Daru. Crossing the 


landing half-way up the staircase, entering the Vestibule, 
and leaving the Galerie d'Apollon to the right, we reach 
again the Salle des Sept Cheminées. If we cross this, by 
the furthest door on the opposite wall we may enter the 
Miisce Campana, containing the — 

Salle Asiatique. — (The ceiling has " Poussin presented to 
Louis XII. b)'^ Richelieu," by Alaiix.) Phoenician terra-cottas, 
Babylonian alabasters, &c. 

Salle des Terres-cuites. — (Ceiling, "Henri IV. after the Battle 
of Ivry," by Steuben.) Terra-cottas, chiefly from Magna Graecia. 

Salle des Vases Noirs. — (Ceiling, " Puget presenting to Louis 
XIV. his Group of Milo of Crotona," by Deveria.) Very ancient 
Etruscan vases. • 

Salle du Tombeau Lydien. — (Ceiling, " Francis I. receiving 
the Statues brought from Italy by Primaticcio," by Frago?iard.) 
In the centre of the room is the great terra-cotta tomb of a hus- 
band and wife, from Cervetri, which was the masterpiece of the 
Campana collection. 

Salle des Vases Corinthiens. — (Ceiling, " The Renaissance of 
the Arts in France," and eight scenes of French history from 
Charles VIII. to the death of Henri II.) All the vases in this 
hall are anterior to Pericles. 

Salle des Vases à Figurines N'oires. — (Ceiling, "Francis I. 
armed by Bayard," b}' Eragonard.) Vases before the time of 
Alexander the Great. 

Salle des Vases à Figurines Eouges. — (Ceiling, " Charlemagne 
and Alcuin," by Schnetz.) 

Salle des Rhytons. — (Ceiling, "Louis XII. at the States-Gen- 
eral of Tours in 1506," by Drolling.) Many of the rhytons are 

Salle des Eresqzies. — (Ceiling, " Egj'-ptian Campaign under 
Bonaparte," by Cogniet.) Frescoes and relics from Pompeii. 
Three frescoes of first-rate excellence were given by Francis I. of 

Returning to the Salle des Vases Corinthiens, the vis- 
itor may enter, on the left, the Musée Charles A'., or des 
Antiquités Grecques., and, beginning with the furthest room, 
visit — 


Salle d'Homère : Greek Pottery and Glass. Objects in wood 
and plaster from the tombs of Kertch. 

Salle des Vases Feints, à figures rotiges. 

Salle Grecque. 

Salle des Vases Peints, à figures noires. 

The five succeeding halls and staircase of the Musée 
Egyptien contain a very precious and important collection. 
Their names express their contents — 

Hall of the Gods and other monuments. 

Hall of the Gods. 

Hall of funereal monuments. 

Hall of monuments relating to civil life. 

Hall of historical monuments. 

(Staircase) Larger sculptures. Statue of Rameses H. 

Turning left, we find Les Anciennes Salles du Musée des 
Souverai?ts, which are full of interest. Their collections 
are chiefly due to the energy and historic judgment of the 
Empress Eugénie. 

Salle I. is panelled from the apartments which Louis XHL 
prepared for Anne of Austria in the château of Vincennes. The 
stained glass is of XVL and XVH. c. 

Salle II., " La Chambre à Alcôve," is panelled from the apart- 
ment of Henri H. in the Louvre, which occupied the site of the 
Salon carré de l'Ecole Française. The four enfants in the alcove, 
sustaining a canopy, are by Gilles Guérin. This alcove is especi- 
ally interesting, as the body of Henri IV. was laid there, after his 
murder by Ravaillac. 

"We see not only the emblems ' Crescents and Fleurs-de-lys,' 
the devices and cyphers that recall the loves of Henri H. and 
Diane de Poitiers, but even a part of the details which Sauvai 
admired when he described it ; the ceiling of walnut, sculptured 
and relieved by ormolu, from the centre of which stand out 'the 
arms of France, in a heap of casques, swords, lances, &c,,' and on 
the doors, 'the designs and delicacy of the half-reliefs,' as well 
as two marvellous serpents 'with delicate, close-fitting scales.'" 
— Paris à travers les âges. 

Salle III., ''La Chambre de Parade.'' — The faded tapestries 


belonged to Mazarin. The wood panelling is from the chamber 
of Henri II. 

" Musicians and the curious found it so perfect that they not 
onl}' called it the most beautiful room in the world, but asserted 
that, in this style, it is the summit of all the perfections of which 
imagination can form an idea." — Sauvai. 

The silver statue of Peace in the centre of the room is by 
Claudet, 1806. Over the chimney is a portrait of Henri II. 

Salle IV. — In the middle is a silver statue of Henry IV. as a 
boy, by F. Bosio (taken from a picture). In a case on the right 
is the curious copper basin, called Baptistère de St. Louis, in which 
all the children of Kings of France were baptized. A collection 
of small objects in the same case belonged to Marie Antoinette. 

In the Pavilion Cent?'a I (covered with bees) which Napoleon I. 
intended to use as a throne-room, and which bears his name on 
the ceiling, are a number of works of art — the best, Italian. 
Opening from this room is a hall containing various works of 
art, gifts to the Louvre. 

By the landing of the Assyrian staircase we reach the 
Collections of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 

Hall of the Terra-cottas and Delia Robbia ware. 
Hall of the faience of Italy and Nevers. 
Hall of the Hispano-moorish and Italian faience. 
Hall of French faience. A case of exquisite XVI. c. 
Hall of the small bronzes. Many most beautiful. 
Hall of glass ware. 

Hall Sauvageot. Mediaeval art. (Called after a former con- 
Hall of the ivories. 

The Musée des Dessins occupies fourteen rooms. The 
drawings of the French School are especially interesting. 
The foreign collection includes exquisite sketches by Fra 
Bartolommeo, Raffaelle, Michelangelo, Perugino, Titian, 
Leonardo da Vinci, Albert Durer, &c. 

Passing the head of a staircase, a wrought-iron gate 
from Maisons leads to the Salle des Bronzes^ containing 
a precious collection, including — 


Beautiful Head of a Young Man, from Beneventum. 
Apollo in gilt bronze, found at Lillebonne, 1823. 
Apollo from Piombino, with an inscription in silver let into 
the left heel. 

We now find ourselves at the head of the stairs by 
which we entered, or, if we care to ascend the staircase we 
have just passed, we may visit the Musk de Marine, the 
Salle Ethnographique, and the Musk Chinois, which are 
not of general interest to an English traveller. 

The Sculpture Galleries on the ground floor of the 
Louvre are entered by the Pavilion Defton, on the right of 
the Place du Carrousel. Following the gallery on the left, 
adorned with fragments or copies of antique sculpture, 
ascending several steps, and leaving the new staircase to 
the right, we descend to the — 

Vestibule Daru, where we should notice — 

Eight bas-reliefs from the Palace at Thessalonica. 

Sarcophagus from Salonica, with Battle of the Amazons. 

Salle de la Rotonde. — The ceiling is colored with figures in 
stucco by Michel Auguier. We must notice — 
ht Centre. The Mars Borghese. 
r. 75. Lycian Apollo, 

(Turning right.) Salle de Méchie — 

Almost all the statues here and in most of the other rooms 
are so much " restored " that they have little interest ; the heads, 
though antique, seldom belong to the statues. 

The Salles des Saisons were decorated by Romanelli with the 
allegories of the Seasons, alternating with the story of Apollo 
and Diana. Under Louis XV. this was the hall of audience of 
the Minister of War and of the President of the Great Council. 

The great Mithraic relief (569) here is very important, as the 
first known to antiquaries, and as bearing inscriptions which 
have given rise to great discussion. It comes from the cave of 
Mithras on the Capitoline Hill. 


Salle de la Paix (or Salle de Rome) — named from paintings by 
Romanelli, framed- in bas-reliefs by Auguier — which formed the 
first of the apartments of Anne of Austria, and which looks upon 
the little garden ctAXq^ Jardin de V Infante (from the Spanish In- 
fanta, who came in 1721 as an intended bride for Louis XV.) : a 
garden laid out by Nicholas Guérin, and admired by Evelyn. 

In the Centre (465). Rome — a porphyry statue — seated on a 
rock, from the collection of Cardinal Mazarin. 

Salle de Septime- Severe, 
r. 315. Antinous. A most beautiful bust. 
/. Six busts of Septimius Severus. 
/. Statue of Julian the Apostate. 

Salle de Antonins. — 
/. 12. Colossal head of Lucilla. Found at Carthage, 1847. 
/. Fine busts of Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius. 

From the villa of Lucius Verus, at Acqua Traversa, 

near Rome. 

Salle d' Auguste. — 

Centj-e. Colossal bust of Antinous, represented as an 

Egyptian god with the lotus in his hair. From the 

Villa Mondragone, at Frascati. 
*i84. Roman Orator, as Mercury. Signed by the Athenian 

sculptor Cleomenes ; from the Villa Borghese. 
468. Colossal bust of Rome, with two wolves suckling 

Romulus and Remus on the helmet. From Villa 

Efid IVall. A beautiful statue of Augustus, once in the 

Vatican. Amongst the busts, those of Octavia, sister 

of Augustus, and Vitellius, are the best. 

Returning to the Salle de la Rotonde, we find, on the 
right, the — 

Salle de Phidias. — 

Centre. Headless statue of Juno (Here) from her temple at 

r. 9, 10, II, Reliefs from Thasos. Above 125 fragments 
of the frieze of the Parthenon. 126 : Metope from the 
/. Relief of the Story of Orpheus and Eurydice. 
Reliefs from the Temple of Assos in the Troad. 


Side near Court, \st Recess. Relief from the tomb of Philis, 
daughter of Clemedes of Thasos. 

Salle du Tibre. — 

*449. The Tiber — found at Rome in the XIV. c. — with the 
wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, discovered with 
the Nile of the Vatican in the XVI. c. 
250. Silenus and Bacchus. From the Villa Borghese. 
98. Diana of Versailles, or Diane à la Biche. 

Salle du Gladiateur. — 

Centre. 97. Diana (?). From Gabii. 

276. Bust of Satyr. Found at Vienne. 
(Second Window.) * "The Borghese Gladiator" — from the 
Villa Borghese — really the statue of an armed runner 
in the hoplitodromos. The inscription bears the 
name of the sculptor — Agesias of Ephesos. Found 
at Antium in the XVII. c. 
135. Venus Genitrix. The Venus d'Arles, which was re- 
stored by Girardon, and placed by Louis XIV. in 
the Grande Galerie of Versailles. 

Salle de Pallas.— 

70. Apollo Sauroctonos. 
137. Venus. Found at Aries in 1651. 
493. " Le Génie du Repos Eternel." 
*ii4. In the centre, the famous Pallas of Velletri, the best 
statue of Minerva known ; found in 1797. This is 
a Roman copy of a Greek work of the best period. 

Salle de Melpomene. — 
386. Colossal statue of the Tragic Muse. Ceded to France 
by the treaty of Tolentino. 

{Left.) Salle de la Vénus de Milo.— 
*I36. The Venus of Milo, found February, 1820, near the 
mountain-village of Castro, in the island of Melos, 
by a peasant named Jorgos and his son, Antonio 
Bottonis. They offered it for sale for 25,000 francs 
to the French consul, Louis Brest, but he hesitated 
to disburse so large a sum for his Government, and 
it was the account which Dumont d'Urville, a young 
lieutenant on board the man-of-war " La Chevrette," 
took to the Marquis de la Rivière, ambassador at 


Constantinople, of the marvellous statue he had 
seen upon his voyage, which secured the Melian 
Venus for Paris. The statue was at first believed 
to be the work of Praxiteles, till, on the pedestal, 
the Messieurs Debay found, in Greek characters, 
the inscription — " Andros, Menides' son, from 
Antioch, on the Meander, made the work," But 
the pedestal underwent a change in the workshop 
of the Louvre : the inscription is no longer there, 
its ever having existed is denied by many, and the 
author of the statue is still uncertain. It is, how- 
ever, universally allowed that when the statue was 
first found, its left arm was in existence, out- 
stretched, and holding an apple — perhaps a symbol 
of the island of Melos. 

" In every stroke of the chisel, art judges will discover evi- 
dence of the fine perception the Hellenic master had for every 
expression, even the slightest, of a nobly-developed woman's 
form. In the whole, and in every part, one finds the full-blown 
flower of womanly beauty. In every contour there is a moderation 
that includes luxuriance and excludes weakness. To the flesh 
the words of Homer have been applied, * It blooms with eternal 
youth,' and anything comparable to it will not have been seen, 
be it in the sculptured works of the old or the new. Even the 
manner in which the outer skin, the 'epidermis,' is reproduced 
in the marble, is praised as unsurpassable. After rubbing with 
pumice stone, it was customary with the Hellenic sculptors of the 
good period to let the chisel skim lightly over the surface of the 
marble, when they wished to produce the effect of a skin warm 
with life, and soft as velvet. On far too many antique works, 
however, this outer skin has been destroyed by polishing. Here 
nothing of the kind has taken place ; the naked parts shine like 
an elastic cellular tissue, in the warm tint of the Parian marble." — 
I Iktor Rydberg. 

Salle de la Psyché. — 
/. 371. Greek statue of Pysche. From the Villa Borghese. 
r. 265. Dancing Faun. From the collection of Cardinal 

Salle d^ Adonis. — 
/. 172. Sarcophagus representing the Departure, Accident, 
and Death of Adonis. 


Salle d'Herctde et Télephc— 

I. 325. Eros Farnèse. Found in the Farnese garden, 1862. 
r. 461. Hermaphrodite. From Velletri. 

Salle de Me'dée. — 

/. 282. Splendid sarcophagus representing the Vengeance 
of Medea. 

Centre. Venus — a stooping figure. Found at Vienne. 
Conidor de Pan, whence, on the left, we enter the — 
Salle des Cariatides — formerl)»^ the Salle des Gardes, or des 
Cent Suisses (of the hundred Swiss guards) — which preceded the 
apartments of Catherine de Medicis. The beautiful caryatides, 
which sustained the tribune, are masterpieces of Jean Goujon. 

"The art of the Renaissance has produced nothing more 
beautiful than the four figures of women by Jean Goujon, placed 
as supports to the tribune. Always graceful and delicate, Jean 
Goujon has here surpassed himself. None of his works seem to 
us to reach the same degree of distinction and majestic serenity, 
or the same purity of form and sentiment. Some columns are 
grouped on the walls and disposed in a portico towards the 
chimney. The bandeaux which cross the vault are covered with 
sculpture, a ' Huntress Diana,' a ' Venus Anadyomene,' attributes 
of the chase, dogs, garlands of towers and fruits." — De Guilhermy. 

Here, in March 1583, the hundred and twenty pages of Henri 
HI. were soundly whipped for having laughed at the king as he was 
walking in Ùïq procès sio7i des flagella7its. Here was celebrated the 
marriage of Henri IV. with Marguerite des Valois ; and here the 
wax effigy of the king lay in a chapelle ardente after his murder, 
May 14, 1610. It was also here that the Huguenot sister of Henri 
IV. would edify the Court by her preachings, and then comfort 
their hearts by dancing in a ballet. And in this room Molière 
played his first pieces, and the Institute used to hold its meetings. 

Centre, 217. Bacchus. From the château of Richelieu. 

31. Jupiter " de Versailles." Given by Marguerite 
d'Autriche to Cardinal de Granville, and 
brought from Besançon to Versailles after 
being presented to Louis XIV. 
*235. Vase Borghese. From the Gardens of Sallust. 
217. Bacchus (de Richelieu). 
Minerva. From Crete. 


*476. Victory, found in Samothrace, 1863 — a draped 
figure in rapid motion. 
r. Bust of Sophocles. 

"The face is that of an elderly and very thoughtful man, with 
noble features, and of great beauty, but not without an expression 
of patience and of sorrow such as became him who has been well 
called der Prophet des Weltschmerzes'^ — Mahaffy. 

I. In a window. Dog, from Gabii ; very beautiful. 
/. In a window, 374. The Borghese Hermaphrodite. 

The Musée de Sculpture du Moyen Age et de la Re- 
naissance is entered from the south façade of the court of 
the Louvre, on the east side of the south gate. It is full 
of interest to any one who has travelled much in France. 
The tombs and sculptures removed from still existing 
churches in Paris would be of much greater interest in the 
places for which they were intended, but, in the city of 
constant revolutions, they are safer here. 

Corridor d'entrée. — 
70. Painted statue of Childebert (XIII. c.) which stood at 

the entrance of the refectory in the abbey of St. Germain 

des Prés. 
72. Four angels (XIII. c), from the abbey of Poissy. 

76. Statue of the Virgin and Child (XIV. c), from the church 

of Maisoncelles, near Provins. 

77. Pierre de Fayet, canon of Paris. 1303. 

80. Tomb of Pierre d'Evreux-Navarre, Comte de Mortain 

(XVI. c). 

"A true and simple statue: head and hands striking and 
natural : military coat thrown back." — Liibke. 

81. Catherine d'Alençon, wife of Pierre d'Evreux (XV. c.) 

" Even finer than the statue of her husband, with simple and 
beautiful drapery. Both these figures are from the Chartreuse in 
Paris." — Lubke. 

82. Anne de Bourgogne, Duchess of Bedford, 1450. By 

Guillaufne Viniten. 

The Corridor leads to the Salle de Jean Goujon. — 


Centre. loo. Diana. From the Château d'Anet. By Jean 
*ii2. Funeral Monument, by Germain Pilon, ordered 
(1559) by Catherine de Medicis, which con- 
tained the heart of Henri II. in the church 
of the Celestines. It is supported by the 
Graces (supposed by the Celestines to be the 
Theological Virtues) on a triangular pedestal 
by the Florentine Domenico del Barbiere. 
This would more appropriately find a place 
at St. Denis. 
118-121. The Four Cardinal Virtues by Germain Pilon. 
Wooden figures which, till the Revolution, 
supported the shrine of St. Geneviève in St. 
Etienne du Mont. 

Beginning from the right wall we see — 

97-99. Fragments of the original Fontaine des Innocents, by 
Jean Goujon. 
152. Medallion portrait of the poet Philippe Desportes, 

from his tomb at Bonport, in Normandy. 
136. Henri HI., by Genyiain Pilon. 

117. Tomb of René Birague, Chancellor of France, and 
Cardinal Bishop of Lodève, an active agent in the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew, by Germain Pilon. 
130. Charles IV., by Germain Pilon. 
103. Philippe de Chabot, Admiral of France. Attributed 

io Jean Cousin. 
129. Henri II., by Germain Pilon. 
107. Part of the tomb of François de la Rochefoucault and 

his wife, Anne de Polignac, 1517, hy Jean Cousin. 
*90. The Judgment of Daniel upon Susanna, a relief by 
Daniel Rihier of Lorraine. A haut-relief. 
91. Angels, hy Daniel Rihier. 

146. Figures from a tomb in St. André des Arts, by Barthe'- 
lemy Prieur. 
*I44. Tomb of Madeleine de Savoie, Duchesse de Mont- 
morency, wife of the Constable Anne. From St. 
Martin of Montmorency. Barthélémy Prieur. 
*I35i 135- Nymphs. Jean Goujon. 

85, 86. Tomb of the historian Philippe de Commynes, Prince 
de Talmont, 1511, and his wife, Hélène de Chambres, 


1531. From the chapel which they built in the 
Grands Augustins. 
123-127. Part of the pulpit of the Grands Augustins, by Germain 
143. Part of the Tomb of the Constable Anne, Due de 
Montmorency. Barthélemey Prieur. From St. 
Martin, Montmorency. 
113. Tomb of Valentine Balbiani, wife of Rene Birague, by 
Germain Pilon. From St. Catherine de la Coul- 
92-96. The Deposition from the Cross and the Four Evan- 
gelists. From the rood-loft of St. Germain I'Auxer- 
rois ; hy Jean Goujon. 
106, 107. Funeral Genii from the tomb of Admiral Philippe de 
Chabot. Jean Goujon. From the church of the 
138-142. Parts of the grand tomb of Anne de Montmorency, 
once in the church of St. Martin de Montmorency. 
Barthlélemy Prieur. 
122. Chimney-piece from the Château de Villeroy, by Germain 
Pilon ; with (loi) Henri II., hy Jean Goujon. 
1 1 5-1 1 7. Part of the tomb of the family of Cossé-Brissac. Etienne 
le Hongre, 1690. 

r. Salle de Michel- Ange. — 

17. In the centre is a fountain from the Château of Gaillon, 
of Italian work, the gift of the Republic of Venice to 
Cardinal d'Amboise. 
High on right Wall. The Nymph of Fontainebleau, by Ben- 
venuto Cellini, ordered by François I. Instead of 
placing it at Fontainebleau, Henri II. gave it to Diana 
of Poitiers, who placed it in her château of Anet. It 
was brought to Paris at the Revolution. 

36. Tomb of Albert de Savoie, 1535, by Ponzio (Maître 

38. Tomb of André Blondel de Roquencourt, 1538, by 
12 bis. Madonna, by Mino da Fiesole. 

48. Bronze Madonna. From the Château of Fontainebleau 
(XV. c). 

57. St. John Baptist. Donatello. 

Hercules and the Hydra. A bronze group given by 


Louis XIV. to Richelieu, which in turn has orna- 
mented Marly, Meudon, and St. Cloud. 
Filippo Strozzi, by Benedetto de Majano, 1491. 
28-29. Two slaves, by Michelangelo, executed for the tomb of 
Julius II., but given by the sculptor to Roberto Strozzi, 
who gave them to François I. The king gave them 
to the Connétable de Montmorency for the Château of 
Ecouen, whence they passed, after his death, into the 
hands of Richelieu, who took them to his château in 
Touraine. The Maréchal de Richelieu brought them 
back to Paris in the middle of the XVIII. c, and 
they were seized for the state when about to be sold 
by his widow in 1795. They now stand on either side 
of a magnificent XV. c. doorway from the Palazzo 
Spanga at Cremona. Beyond this are — 

87. Tomb of Louis Poncher, Secrétaire du Roi, 1491, and 

Minister of Finance to François I. This, and the 
statue of his wife, Roberte (1520 and 1521), were prob- 
ably executed soon after 1505, when Poncher founded 
the chapel of St. Germain I'Auxerrois, whence they 
were brought. 

" Both are represented as lying in the calm sleep of death ; 
the treatment of the husband is grand and noble, the draper)' 
splendidly arranged, and the heads exhibit much fine individual 
characterization ; the beautiful features of the lady especiall)' 
wear the touching calmness of a glorified condition. These 
works are amongst the most exquisite productions of their glori- 
ous time." — Liihke. 

37. Statue of Charles de Magny, Capitaine de la Porte du 

Roi. Fonzio, 1556. 
16. Louis XII., a statue by Lorenzo da Mugiano. From 

84 bis. Virgin and Child. French, early XVI. c. 

84. St. George. A relief by Michel Colo?nb, 1508, executed 

for the chapel in the château of Gaillon. 

88. Tomb of Roberte Legendre, the wife of Louis Poncher, 

1522. From St. Germain I'Auxerrois ; very beautiful 
and simple. 

In the embrasure of the windows are bas-reliefs in bronze 
from the tomb of Marc-Antonio della Torre, physician of Padua, 
by Andrea Riccio. 



Salle des Auguicr. — 
Centre. Monument of Henri de Longucvillc, by François 
Auguier. From the church of the Celestines. 

164. " La Renommée." From the tomb of the Due d'Eper- 

non at Cadillac in Guienne. 
60 his. Mercury, by Giovattni da Bologna. 

64, 67. Four conquered nations, by Pierre Francheville, 1548. 
From the base of the equestrian statue of Henri IV, 
by Giovanni da Bologna and Pietro Pacca on the 
Pont Neuf, where it was destroyed at the Revolution. 
;-. 161, 162. Four Bronze Dogs. From the Château de Fontaine- 
bleau ; by Francheville. 
r. 193. Tomb of Jacques Souvré de Courtenvaux, \iy F. Atiguier, 
147. Henri IV. Bat'thelemy Prietir. 
63. David and Goliath. Pierre Francheville. 
191. Tomb of Jacques August de Thou. François Auguier. 

From St. André des Arts. 
62. Orphée. Pierre Francheville. 
170. Louis XIII. Jean Warin. 
169. Tomb of Charlotte de la Tremouillc, Princesse de 

Condé. From the Convent of Ave Maria. 
167. Anne d'Autriche. Simon Gtiillain. 

165. Louis XIV. as a child. Simon Guillain. 

166. Louis XIII. Simon Guillain. 

These three statues, and the relief above, commemorated the 
bridge begun (1639) under Louis XIII. and finished (1647) under 
the regency of Anne of Austria. 

Mercury : Pierre Francheville. 
Salle de la Chemine'e de Bruges (left of corridor on entering). — 
Centre, 70 bis. Copper sepulchral statue of Blanche de Cham- 
pagne, wife of Jean I., Due de Bretagne, 1283, executed at Li- 
moges early XIV. c. for the abbey of Joie, near Hennebout, of 
which she had been the foundress. 

r. The celebrated historic skeleton figure from the Cimetière 
des Innocents, commonly called ''La Mort Saint-Itinocent" of 
alabaster, attributed to François Gentil of Troves. In the ceme- 
tery it stood under the fifth arcade of the " charnier de Messieurs 
les Martins," having been ordered by them. It was in a box, of 
which the churchwardens had the keys. On All Saints' Day, and 


till the middle of the day after, the effigy was shown to the people. 
With its right hand the skeleton holds the folds of a shroud, its 
left points with a dart to a scroll, on which is engraved — 

" II n'est vivant, tant soit plein d'art. 
Ni de force pour résistance. 
Que je ne frappe de mon dard. 
Pour bailler aux vers leur pitance." 

In 1670 the canons of St. Germain removed the skeleton, that it 
might not be injured by new buildings in the Rue de la Ferro- 
nerie. On December 13, 1671, la figure de jaspe représentant la 
mort, which had been given to the care of the churchwardens, was 
reclaimed, and a judgment of July 31, 1673, ordered its restitu- 
tion to its old position. But in 1686 the skeleton seems to have 
been still in the care of a churchwarden named Noiret in the Rue 
des Fers, who tried to sell it, but was forced to restore it in 1688, 
when it was placed between the pillars in the Charnier de la 
Vierge in a closed box. Here it remained forty-eight years. But 
(October 29, 1736) the canons of St, Germain I'Auxerrois moved 
it, and placed it at the back of the cemetery tower. Upon this 
the Curé des Innocents and the churchwardens, forgetting that 
the canons were the owners of the charniers, climbed the tower 
and carried off the skeleton. A lawsuit ensued and (July 10, 
1737) 3. judgment was obtained forcing the restitution of the 

On suppression of the church, cemetery, and charniers of the 
Innocents, in 1786, the skeleton was carried to St. Jacques la 
Boucherie, then to the Museum of Alexandre Lenoir, whence it 
passed to the Louvre. 

Statues from the central pavilion of the Tuileries. 

Salle Chrétienne {right of Conidor.). — 

Tomb of St. Drausin, twenty-second bishop of Soissons. 
From the abbey of Notre Dame de Soissons — early Mero- 
vingian sculpture. The cover of the sarcophagus does not 
belong to it, and comes from St. Germain des Prés. 

Sarcophagus of Livia Primitiva. From Rome. 

Sarcophagus from Riguieux-le-Franc, with Christ and the 
Apostles, placed two and two in compartments divided 
by columns. 

Altar-front of St. Ladrc from the Abbaye de St. Denis. 


Salle Juda ïq uc. — 

I. La stèle de Mcsah. A Semitic inscription of thirty-four 
lines, containing the history of the wars of Moab witli 
Israel, 896 a.c. 
5. Fragment of a lava door from the cities of Moab. 
Sarcophagi from the tombs of the kings 

The Egyptian Museum of Sculpture is entered from the 
east side of the Court of the Louvre, by the door on the 
right as you face St. Germain I'Auxerrois. The collection 
is magnificent. One cannot but recall here the words of 
Napoleon I. to his army before the Pyramids : " Allez et 
pensez que, du haut de ces monuments, quarante siècles 
vous observent.'' The museum forms a complete encyclo- 
paedia of the religion, arts and customs of the Egyptians. 
In the Salle He?iri IV. the hieroglyphics on the granite 
sphinx from Tanis (numbered 23^;) record the name of 
King Meneptah, under whom the exodus of the Israelites 
took place, and of Sheshouk I., the Shishak who was the 
conqueror of Rehoboam. The Salle d'Apis is called after 
the bull in the centre, sacred to Ptah, the god of Memphis. 

Facing the entrance of the Egyptian collection is that 
of the Musée Assyrien. Most of the objects here come 
from the palace of King Sargon VIII. (b.c. 722-705) at 
Khorsabad, or from that of Sardanapalus V. (VII. c.) at 
Nineveh. Most magnificent are the four winged bulls, 
• whose heads are supposed to be portraits of kings. 

From the north side of the court of the Louvre is the 
entrance of the Musée de Gravure ou de Chalcographie. An 
enormous plan of Paris, engraved 1739, is invaluable to 
topographers. A collection of portraits in pastel includes 
that of Mme de Pompadour, by Latour. 

The Sculpture Moderne Française is reached on the north 
of the Pavilion Sully, on the west of the court of the Louvre. 
It is contained in the — 


Salle de Puget. — 

204. Perseus and Andromeda, Milo and Croton, by Puget. 

From the gardens of Versailles. 
209. A small copy by Girardon of the statue of Louis 

XIV., in the Place Vendôme, destroyed in the 

245, 246. Geometry and Charity, by Legros, 

Salle de Coysevox. — 
227. Tomb of Cardinal Mazarin. From the chapel of the 
Collège des Quatre Nations, now the Institute. C 
Ant. Coysevox. 
234. Shepherd and Young Satyr. From the private garden 
of the Tuileries. Coysevox. 
The Rhone. From St. Cloud. Coysevox. 
233. Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie, Duchesse de Bourgogne, 
as a hunting Diana. Coysevox. From the gardens 
of Trianon. 
Bronze bust of Louis II. de Bourbon — "le grand 

C o n d é . " Coysevox. 
Venus, from the gardens of Versailles. Coysevox. 
Busts of Lebrun, Bossuct, Richelieu, Marie Serre 
(the mother of Rigaud), and of the sculptor himself. 
193. Amphitrite. Michel Auguier, 

Salle de Coustou. — 

150 his. Adonis reposing after the Chase. Nicolas Cou- 

151, 155. Louis XV. and Marie Leczinska. From the 
gardens of Trianon. Gtcillaume Coustou. 

250. Julius Caesar. Nicolas Coustou. 

268. Hannibal. Sébastien Slodtz. 
Music. Falconnet. 

Bas-reliefs in bronze. From the pedestal of the 
statue of Louis XIV. in the Place des Victoires. 

170. Mercury attaching the Wings of his Heels. Pilgale. 

Salle de Houdon. — 
296. Diana, Houdon. 
284 bis. Bacchante. Pajou. 


272. Cupid. Bouchardon. 

284. Bust of Mme du Barry. Pajou. 

Model of Statue of Louis XV. Bouchardon. 

Salle de Chaudet. — 
314. Cupid. Chatidet. 
307. Homer. Roland. 
338. Daphnis and Chloe. Cortot. 
383. Cupid and Psyche, Canova. 
313. The Shepherd Phorbas and Oedipus. Chaudet. 

Salle de Rude. — 

Mercury, Jeanne Dare, Young Neapolitan Fisherman, 
Christ, Louis David. Rude. 

Theseus contending with the Minotaur. Ramey. 

Psyche, Sappho, a son of Niobe, the Toilette of Ata- 
lanta. Pradier. 

Venus. Simart. 

Spartacus. Foyatier. 
382. Philopoemon. David d^ Angers . 

Fisherman dancing the Tarantella, a Vintager impro- 
vising. Duret. 

Despair, and the Infancy of Bacchus. Joseph Perraud. 

It was from the end of the palace facing St. Germain 
I'Auxerrois that the Empress Eugenie escaped, at 2\ p.m., 
on September 4, 1870. 

" They reached the colonnade of Louis XIV., opposite the 
Church of St. Germain I'Auxerrois, and there, in front of the 
gilded railing, the Empress and Mme Lebreton entered a fiacre. 
M. de Metternich gave the driver the order : * Boulevard Haus- 

"A lad of fifteen, in a cap and blouse, who happened to be 
passing, cried out : 

" 'She is a good one all the same .... Why, it is the 
Empress ! ' 

" His exclamation, luckily for the fugitives, was lost in the 
noise of the vehicle, which was already in motion and going in 
the direction of the Rue de Rivoli." — Comte d'Hérisson. 

The Rue du Louvre occupies the site of several famous 


buildings, including the later Hôtel de Condé or Hôtel de 
Bourbon, destroyed 1758, where Louis de Bourbon, son 
of le Grand Condé, the eccentric savage, who played so 
conspicuous a part in the reign of Louis XIV., and who 
married one of his daughters by Mme de Montespan, died 
suddenly in 17 10, while his wife was giving a carnival ball. 
Here also stood the Maison du Doyen (de St. Germain), in 
which Gabrielle d'Estrees, the famous mistress of Henri 
IV., died suddenly on Easter Eve, 1599, after supping with 
Sebastian Zamet, a former lover. It was at this entrance 
of the Louvre that the unpopular minister, Concini, 
beloved by Marie de Medicis, was murdered, April 27, 
16 1 7, with the connivance of her son, Louis XIII. Facing 
us is the parish church of the Louvre, St. Germam VAuxer- 
rois, which was founded in 560, by St. Germain of Paris, in 
memory of his great namesake of Auxerre. As the royal 
church, it held the first rank in Paris after the cathedral. 
It was taken and turned into a fortress by the Normans in 
886, and at that time it was called, from its form, St, Ger- 
main le Rond. Robert the Pious rebuilt the church 
997-1031.^ But the earliest parts of the present building 
are the tower against the south wall, the choir, and the 
principal entrance, of early XIII. c. ; the chapels of the 
nave are XV. c. ; the porch, built by Jean Gaussel (1435), 
the façade, transepts and chapels of choir are of XV. and 
XVI. c. 

"The porch of the beginning of the fifteenth century is per- 
fectl)^ conceived. In front are three principal arcades the whole 
breadth of the nave, and two narrower and lower arcades for the 
aisles ; a similar arcade on each side is returned for the side 
entrances. The vaulting, closed in the two lowest bays at each 
end, is surmounted by two chambers, covered in by two gables, 
pointed and lighted by little windows, pierced in the tympanum, 

* As is described in his Life by the monk Helgaud. 


and concealing the difference of height between the great and the 
little arches. A balustrade crowns this construction, whirh 
forms a terrace under the rose window, in the central portion. 

"The sculpture and details of this porch, which has been 
often retouched and scraped to the quick, are deficient in char- 
acter, weak and poor. The porch is to be studied only for its 
ensemble and happy proportions. It will be seen that the arcades 
at the extremities being lower than those of the centre, the wor- 
shippers, gathered in this exterior vestibule, which is also of 
considerable depth, are perfectly sheltered from the wind and 
the rain, while movement is eas)^" — Viollet-le-Diu, vii. 304. 

The statues of St. Francis of Assisi and St. Mary of 
Egypt are the only figures adorning the porch which are 
contemporary with it ; the rest are modern, in imitation of 
the early idealistic style, the angel on the gable being by 
Marochetti. But the effect is picturesque, and the corridor, 
with its frescoes by Mettez, and the groups of beggars 
who are always to be found on its steps, has afforded sub- 
ject for many a picture. The central portal is XIII. c. 
Of its six statues, that of St. Geneviève deserves notice, 
with a candle which a demon is trying to extinguish, whilst 
an angel holds a chandelier ready to give a fresh light if 
he succeeds. On the left of the porch is the Salle des 
Archives^ an interesting room, which preserves its old pave- 
ment, doors, and wooden ceiling. 

The church is cruciform, with double aisles, and an 
encircling wreath of chapels. Once the interior was full 
of interest, but this, for the most part, has been " restored " 
away. The gothic choir was modernized by the miserable 
architect, Bacarit, in 17 15 ; the noble rood-loft, designed by 
Pierre Lescot, and sculptured by Jean Goujou, has been 
removed, and many of the ancient tombs and sculptures 
have vanished. Still there is an aspect of antiquity, color 
and shadow here which is wanting in most Parisian 
churches. The pulpit and stalls have survived the Revo- 


lution, and the state seat occupied by the royal family on 
great solemnities, executed in 1681, from designs of 
Lebrun, by François Mercier. The choir grille is one of 
the best pieces of metal work of the last century. The 
ancient bosses of the nave and chapels have escaped 
being restored away, as they could not be touched without 
weakening the fabric. 

"They bear the figures of St. Vincent and St. Germain, who 
were the patron saints of the church, of St. James the Greater, St. 
Landry, and St. Christopher, who is crossing a torrent with the 
infant Christ on his shoulders. The most graceful of all is St. 
Germain in his bishop's robes, painted and gilt, which stands 
with a pierced rose background, at the last bay of the chapel of 
the Virgin. Some of them seem to have been painted with ar- 
morial bearings. The clustered columns have no capitals." — De 

Making the round of the church we see — 

r. The 2nd Chapel {oi Notre Dame, XIV. c), with a wooden 
screen, is a complete church, with stalls, organ, pulpit, 
&c. In the retable is framed a stone Tree of Jesse, XIV. 
c, from a church in Champagne. Three statuettes, dis- 
covered behind some panelling, are coeval with the 
chapel — a Madonna and Child, with Sts, Vincent and 

Right Transept. Guichard : The Descent from the Cross. 

South Door, XV. c, with a Virgin of XIV. c. 

û,th Chapel of Choir. Statues, by Laurent Magnier, of the 
two Etiennes d'Aligre, father and son (1635, 1677), Chan- 
cellors of France. 

The greater part of the stained glass is modern, but 
some glass of the XV. c. and XVI. c. remains in the tran- 
septs, especially in the rose windows. In the original 
church, in 656, was buried St. Landericus or Landry, ninth 
bishop of Paris, who founded the Hôtel Dieu, and sold 
the furniture of his house to feed the poor in a famine. 
In the present church the jester of Charles V. (for whom 


the king made a splendid tomb) ; the poet Malherbe ; the 
philosopher André Dacier ; the painters Coypel, Houasse, 
Stella and Santerre j the sculptors Sarazin, Desjardins 
and Coysevox ; the architects Louis Levau and François 
d'Orbay ; the geographer Sanson, and the Comte de Cay- 
lus, were buried, but their tombs are destroyed. Here 
also was interred (1617) the ambitious Concini, Maréchal 
d'Ancre, the influential favorite of Marie de Medicis (to 
whose foster-sister, Leonora Galigai, he was married), 
murdered by order of her son Louis XIIL, with the en- 
thusiastic approval of his subjects, before the eastern en- 
trance of the Louvre ; but his rest here was brief. 

"Next morning, the lackeys of the great nobles, followed 
by the scum of the populace, went to the church of St. Germain 
I'Auxerrois, where the Marshal d'Ancre had been secretly buried, 
exhumed the body and dragged it through the city with hoots and 
obscene shouts, in which the name of the Queen-mother was 
joined with that of Concini ; they ended by cutting his remains 
in pieces and burning them. One madman roasted the heart and 
ate it." — Henri Martin, " Hist, de France.'" 

St. Germain, being the parish church of the Louvre, 
was attended by the sovereigns, when they were residing 
there, on all great religious festivals. Louis XVL and his 
family, followed by the Assembly, walked in the proces- 
sion of the Fête-Dieu to this church, as late as May 23, 
1790. In the revolution of July, 1830, the church was 
transformed into an ambulance, and the dead were buried 
in a trench hastily dug opposite the entrance. It was here 
that the dog of one of the victims, "le chien du Louvre," 
as Casimir Delavigne calls him, lay for weeks, and died 
upon the grave of the master he had followed through the 
combat. On February 14, 1831, when an anniversary 
service for the death of the Due de Berry was being cele- 
brated, the people burst in and sacked the church; the 



stained-glass and stalls were broken, and the tombs muti- 
lated. For six years after this the building was closed for 
worship, the sacristy and presbytery being used as a mairie. 
Then its demolition was decided on, to make way for a 
direct street from the Louvre to the Hôtel de Ville. It 
was only saved as a concession to the entreaties of Cha- 
teaubriand that the authorities would spare " un des plus 
anciens monuments de Paris, et d'une époque dont il ne 
reste presque plus rien." In 1837 its restoration was 

It was the bell of St. Germain I'Auxerrois which, at 
2 A.M. of August 24, 1572, gave the first signal for the 
Massacre of St. Bartholomew, at the order of the young 
king, Charles IX., goaded on by his mother, Catherine de 
Medicis. The bell was the sign agreed upon for the mas- 
sacre to begin in the quarter of the Louvre ; a little later 
the bell of the Tour de l'Horloge, on the island, announced 
the massacre on the left bank of the Seine. The modern 
tower now marks the spot where an attempt had been 
made two days before to murder Admiral Coligny (the first 
victim of the massacre) as he was returning from an inter- 
view with the king to his residence in the Hôtel de Pon- 
thieu, in the Rue des Fossés St. Germain. 

" He walked slowly, reading a petition just presented to him, 
and when he arrived at the Rue des Fossés St. Germain I'Aux- 
errois, opposite a house inhabited by a man named Villemur, an 
old tutor of the Duke de Guise, an arquebuse, loaded with two 
copper balls, was fired from this house and struck Coligny. One 
ball cut off the index finger of the right hand ; the other made a 
large wound on the left arm. Coligny, without exhibiting as 
much emotion as his companions, pointed out the house whence 
the shot came, and ordered one of his suite to go and tell the 
king what had happened, and, supported by his servants, re- 
turned on foot to his house. 

" The house whence the gun was fired, was entered ; the ar- 


quebuse was found, but the assassin Maurcvcrt, immediately 
after the shot, had fled by a back door, and, mounting a horse 
waiting for him, reached the Porte St. Antoine, where he found an- 
other horse, on which he got away from Paris." — Dulaure, ''Hist, 
de Paris." 

A cloister formerly surrounded the church, which, in 
the reign of Charlemagne, already enclosed a famous 
school which has left its name to the Place de l'Ecole. 
Here Etienne Marcel, Prévôt de Paris, lived, and, as chief 
of the Jacquerie, roused the fury of the people in the 
XIV. c. ; and here Calvin lodged, at fourteen, with his 
uncle Richard, a locksmith, in a little room looking on 
the church, of which the chants awakened him in the 
morning to attend the Collège de la Marche, 



From the Rue St. Honoré to the Quartier des Halles and Quartier du 


ENGLISHMEN are often specially impressed with 
Paris as a city of contrasts, because one side of the 
principal line of hotels frequented by our countrymen looks 
down upon the broad, luxurious Rue de Rivoli, all modern 
gaiety and radiance, whilst the other side of their court- 
yards opens upon the busy working Rue St. Hotiore^ lined 
by the tall, many-windowed houses which have witnessed 
so many Revolutions. They have all the picturesqueness 
of innumerable balconies, high, slated roofs, with dormer 
windows, window-boxes full of carnations and bright with 
crimson flowers through the summer, and they overlook an 
ever-changing crowd, in great part composed of men in 
blouses and women in white aprons and caps. Ever since 
the fourteenth century the Rue St. Honoré has been one of 
the busiest streets in Paris. It was the gate leading into 
this street which was attacked by Jeanne Dare in 1429. 
It was the fact that the Cardinal de Bourbon and the Due 
de Guise had been seen walking together at the Porte St. 
Honoré that was said to have turned half the moustache of 
Henri of Navarre suddenly white, from a presentiment of 
the crime which has become known as the Massacre of St. 

ST. ROCH 107 

Bartholomew. Here, in 1648, the barricade was raised 
which gave the signal for all the troubles of the Fronde. 
It was at No. 3 — then called L'Auberge des Trois Pigeons 
— that Ravaillac was lodging when he was waiting to mur- 
der Henry IV. ; here the first gun was fired in the Revo- 
lution of July, 1830, which overturned Charles X. ; and 
here, in the Revolution of 1848, a bloody combat took 
place between the insurgents and the military. Through- 
out this street, as Marie Antoinette was first entering Paris, 
the poissardes brought her bouquets, singing — 

" La rose est la reine des fleurs, 
Antoinette est la reine des cœurs ; " 

and here, as she was being taken to the scaffold, they 
crowded round her execution-cart and shouted — 

" Madame Veto avait promis 
De faire égorger tout Paris, 
Mais son coup a manqué 
Grâce à nos canonniers ; 
Dansons la carmagnole 
Au bruit du son 
Du canon ! " 

Turning east towards Old Paris, we pass, on the right 
of the Rue St. Honoré, the Church of St. Roch, of which 
Louis XIV. laid the foundation-stone in 1633, replacing a 
chapel built on the site of the Hôtel Gaillon. The church 
was only finished, from designs of Robert de Cotte, in 
1740. The flight of steps which leads to the entrance has 
many associations. 

"Before St. Roch, the tumbrel in which was Marie Antoi- 
nette, stopped in the midst of howling and hooting. A thousand 
insults were hurled from the steps of the church as it were with 
one voice, saluting with filth their queen about to die. She, 
however, serene and majestic, pardoned the insults by disregard- 
ing them." — De Goncotirt. 


It was from these steps, in front of which an open space 
then extended to the Tuileries gardens, that Bonaparte 
ordered the first cannon to be fired upon the royalists who 
rose against the National Convention, and thus prevented 
a counter-revolution. Traces of this cannonade of 13 Ven- 
démiaire are still to be seen at the angle of the church 
and the Rue Neuve St. Roch. The portal of St. Roch is 
doric below and corinthian above. The interior of the 
church, due to Antoine Le Mercier, consists of a wide 
central nave with side aisles bordered by eighteen chapels, 
a transept with chapels, and a choir with three chapels, 
one behind the other — a plan confused, and contrary to all 
laws of architecture, but certainly rather picturesque. 
Theological Virtues sustain the pulpit, where the veil of 
Error, represented by a ponderous sculptured curtain, is 
giving way before Catholic Truth. Against the pillar on 
the north of the organ is a medallion monument to Cor- 
neille, who died in the Rue d'Argenteuil, October i, 1684. 
Making the round of the church we may notice — 

n 1st Chapel. Tomb of Maupertuis. Huez. Medallion of 
Maréchal d'Asfeld, 1743 ; bust of François, Duc de Créqui ; 
medallion of Mme Lalève de Juilly. Falconnet. 

ind Chapel. Bust of Mignard by Desjardins, part of a monu- 
ment to which the figure of his daughter, Mme de Feu- 
quières, belonged, now taken hence, to represent a Mag- 
dalen at the foot of the Calvary. Tomb of the Comte 
d'Harcourt, hy Renard. Fine bust of Lenotre, by Coysevox. 
Tomb, by Gidllaume Coustou, of the infamous Cardinal 
Dubois, minister under the Orleans Regency and during 
the early years of Louis XV. This monument was brought 
from the destroyed church of St. Honoré. The face of 
the kneeling figure wears a most complacent expression. 

" He died absolute master of his master, and less prime min- 
ister than exercising, in all its extent and independence, the 
whole power and authority of the king ; superintendent of Posts, 
Cardinal, Archbishop of Cambrai, with seven abbeys, for which 

ST. ROC H 109 

he was insatiable. The public follies of the Cardinal Dubois, 
especially after his master no longer restrained him, would fill a 
book. It is enough to show what a monster the man was, whose 
death brought comfort to great and small, and, in truth, to all 
Europe, even to his own brother, whom he treated like a negro." 
— St. Simon, ''Mémoires.'' 

" He is the worst and most selfish priest that can be seen, 
and God will punish him." — Correspondance de Madaine {Duchesse 

2,rd Chapel. Tomb of Charles, Due de Créqui. 

Transept. " La Guérison du Mal des Ardents," a picture 
by Doyen, which, with the " Prédication de St. Denis," by 
Vie)t, in the opposite transept, made a great sensation at 
the time they appeared. 

"It was already an anticipation of the quarrel between the 
classicists and romanticists. The younger men were enthusiastic 
for the full, theatrical composition of Doyen ; the 'burgraves' of 
the day exclaimed against the decay of art, and reserved their ad- 
miration exclusively for the learned, calm, and harmonious com- 
position of Vien." — A. J. du Fays. 

i\th Chapel. Of St. Clotilde, by Deve'ria. In the apse are 
several pictures by Vien. 

Behind the Chapel of the Virgin (on left) is the entrance of 
the Chapel of Calvary, rebuilt 1845. It contains : a group 
of the Entombment by De Seine; a Crucifixion hy Dus ei- 
gneur ; and a Christ on the Cross by Michel Auguier, for- 
merly on the high-altar of the Sorbonne. The statue of 
the Virgin is by Bogino. The statue of the Madeleine, by 
Lemoine, was originally intended to represent the Com- 
tesse de Feuquières, daughter of Mignard. 

1st Chapel of Nave. Monument of the Abbé de l'Epée, 
1789, celebrated for his noble devotion to ameliorating 
the condition of the deaf-and-dumb, and founder of the 
institutions in their favor. 

'ird Chapel. Monument erected, 1856, to Bossuet, who died, 
1704, in the Rue St. Anne, in this parish. 

^th Chapel, or Baptistery. Group of the Baptism of Christ, 
by Le??toine, formerly in St. Jean-en-Grève. 

Running north-west from the Rue St. Honore', behind 


St. Roch, is the Rtte d^ Argenteuil, where No. i8 was in- 
habited by Corneille. The street is crossed by the hand- 
some Rue des Pyramides, at the end of which, facing the 
Louvre, is an equestrian statue of Jeanne Dare, by 

It was at the corner of the next street, the Rue de 
V Echelle, that the carriage, with M. de Fersen as coach- 
man, waited, with its agonized freight, for Marie Antoi- 
nette, whilst she lost her way by leaving the Tuileries at 
the wrong exit and wandering into the Rue du Bac, on 
the night of the flight to Varennes. 

Crossing the Place Royale (to which we shall return 
later), we find on the left of Rue St. Honore', running 
north-east, the Rue dc Jean-Jacques Rousseau (formerly Rue 
Plâtrûre and Grenelle St. Honore'). Rousseau was born 
on the second floor of No. 2, in 1622. In a neighboring 
house, the poet François Rayner was born, in the same 
year. In the garden of No. 12 are some remains of a 
tower belonging to the walls of Philippe Auguste. At 
No. 41 are some vestiges of the Hotel de Ferriére, which 
belonged to Jean de la Ferriére, Vidame de Chartres, 
where Jeanne d'Albret, mother of Henri IV., died, June 
9, 1572. No. 58 was the Hbtel des Fermes, where the 
fermiers-généraux had their offices. It is of the XVI c, 
and became, in 16 12, the property of Chancellor Seguier^ 
who rebuilt it and offered it as a site to the Académie 
Française. No. 51, the Hbtel de Bullion, was formerly 
Hôtel d'Herwert or Epergnon. La Fontaine died in the 
street in 1695. At the end of the street, on the left, is the 
back of the new Post Office. The Rue de Sartine leads 
hence at once to the Halle de Blé {see after). 

On the right of the Rue St. Honoré, at the entrance of 
the Rue de l'Oratoire, is the Church of the Oratoire. It 


occupies the site of the Hôtel de Montpensier, which 
belonged to Joyeuse, one of the minions of Henri HI., 
then of the Hôtel du Bouchage, in which Gabrielle 
d'Estre'es lived for a time, and where Henri IV. received 
(December 27, 1594) from Jean Châtel that blow on the 
mouth with a knife, which caused the bold D'Aubigné to 
say to him : " Sire, God has struck you on the lips because 
you have hitherto only denied Him with your mouth ; be- 
ware, for if you deny Him with your heart, He will strike 
you in the heart." M. de Bérulle bought the hotel for 
the Pères de la Congrégation de l'Oratoire in 16 16, and 
Le Mercier was employed by Louis XIIL in 162 1 to erect 
a church for them, that they might not suffer by the de- 
struction of the chapel of the Hotel du Bourbon, within 
the present courts of the Louvre, which he was about to 
pull down. Thenceforth the edifice was called V Oratoire 
royal. It was built at a peculiar angle that it might follow 
the direction of the palace, and this adds to the effect of 
its stately portico. Cardinal de Bérulle died suddenly 
within its walls in 1690, whilst saying mass in a chapel. 
He was, in France, the founder of the Oratorians, "un 
corps oil tout le monde obéit et où personne ne com- 
mande."^ Here the licentious Régent d'Orléans used to 
go into retreat, " à faire ses pâques." The church was 
once famous for the preaching of Massillon and Mas- 
caron. At the Revolution it was used as a hall for pub- 
lic meetings, and continued to be thus employed till 
1832, when it was given to the protestants, and has since 
been celebrated for the eloquence of Grétry, Coquerel, 
and Adolphe Monod. It was at the end of the street 
nearest the Rue St. Honoré that Paul Stuard de Caussado, 
Comte de St. Megrim, lover of the Duchesse de Guise, 

» General Talon. 


was murdered as he came from the Louvre, July 21, 

On the left is the Rue d'Orleans. "Voici la rue 
d'Orléans," said Louis XVL as he crossed it on his way 
to his trial. " Dites la rue de l'Egalité," answered Chau- 
mette, the procureur-syndic of the Commune, who accom- 
panied him.' In this street stood the Hôtel de Harlay, 
now destroyed. 

At the corner of the Rue de V Arbre Sec is a singular 
house with a fountain beneath it, dating from 1529, but 
reconstructed 1775. It was formerly called Fontaine de 
la Croix du Trahoir, and marks one of the places of execu- 
tion before the Revolution, where a guillotine stood en 
permanence, at the foot of a gibbet. A nymph between 
the windows on the first floor is by Jean Goujon. The 
original name of the street — Rue du Trahoir — is said to 
have resulted from Brunehaut, daughter, wife, mother, 
and grandmother of kings, having been dragged through 
it, at eighty, at a horse's tail. This was one of the spots 
used for the burning of protestants, and Nicholas Valeton 
was burnt here, under François I. 

" Henri III. was passing the Croix dti Trahoir when a man was 
being hanged. The king being told by the court officer that his 
crime was great, said with a laugh, "Well, do not hang him till 
he has said his in mantis." The ruffian swore that he would 
never utter the words in his life, as the king had given orders 
not to hang him before. He persisted so that they had to appeal 
to the king, who, seeing he was a good fellow, pardoned him." — 
Tallcfnant des Réaux. 

Near this, in the Rue des Poulies, the first restaurant 
was opened in 1785, Boulanger, the master, taking as his 
sign, " Venite ad me omnes qui stomacho laboratis, et ego 

' Lamartine. 


VOS restauraho " — whence the name which has ever re- 
mained to his imitators.^ 

The Rue de l'Arbre Sec led into the Rue des Fosse's 
St. Germain I'Auxerrois, which took again, in its later 
existence, a name it had borne in 886. Here, when the 
street was called Rue de la Charpenterie, Jacques de 
Bethizy, Advocate of the Parliament of Paris, built an 
hotel in 141 6. The prolongation of the street was called 
Rue de Ponthieu, from the Hôtel de Ponthieu, in which 
(and not, as sometimes stated, in the destroyed Rue de 
Bethizy) Admiral Coligny was murdered. 

"The Duke de Guise, followed by some armed men, hurried 
to the house of Admiral Coligny. He forced the outer door, 
and the Swiss of the Guard of Navarre attempted resistance, but 
their captain and some men were killed on the spot. The duke, 
who had awaited in the court the issue of the first enterprise, 
ordered some of his soldiers to go up to Coligny's bedroom, the 
door of which was entrusted to a German valet. The latter, 
opposing any entrance to his master, received a ball in the head. 
Although at the first disturbance at the outer door, the admiral 
had gone to the window to learn the cause of the tumult, and 
although it was easy to see that they were after him, he made no 
attempt to escape ; on the contrary, he lay down again in his 
dressing-gown, and pretended to be asleep, when three armed 
men entered the room. One of the three assassins, who was a 
gentleman, seized him by the arm, crying : 'Admiral, you sleep 
too much ! ' Coligny pretended to awake from his first sleep, 
and turning to the man Avho addressed him, received a sword 
thrust in the left side and a dagger thrust in the right side. The 
Swiss were then ordered to throw him out of the window. But 
Coligny was not yet dead, and made such a resistance when they 
tried to lay hold of him, that four Swiss could not succeed, in 
spite of the blows of their halberds which they gave him on the 
shins. They made a second effort to execute the order they had 
received, and all four seized him by the body, but, seeing that 
the French soldiers were busy plundering his cash-box, they let 
Coligny fall and joined in the plunder. All at once a voice was 

* Fournier, Paris démoli. 



heard from the court below, ' Is the Admiral dead ? Fling him 
out of the window ! ' A French soldier then, approaching 
Coligny, who, although prostrate on the floor, still made a 
vigorous resistance, put the muzzle of his gun into his mouth 
and killed him. He was still making some movement when he 
was thrown from the window. After this murder they massacred 
about forty persons who were found in the house, and who were 
for the most part in Coligny's service." — Letter of a German priest, 
written on the day after the massacre to Lambert Gruter, Bishop of 

The Hôtel de Ponthieu, after belonging to the family 
of Rohan-Montbazon, became, as Hôtel de Lisieux, a 
public-house, where the great comédienne, Sophie Arnauld, 
the daughter of the publican, was born, in the very room in 
which the admiral was murdered. All is destroyed now. 

Left of Rue St. Honoré, the Rue Sauvai leads to the 
Halle au Blé, a circular edifice on a very historic site. 

"The dome of the Halle-au-Blé is an English jockey-cap on 
a high ladder." — Victor Hugo. 

Here stood the Hôtel de Nesle, built in the XHI. c, by 
Queen Blanche of Castille, who received there the homage 
of Thibault, the poet-king of Navarre, when he sang — 

"Amours me fait comencier 
Une chanson nouvèle ; 
Et me vuet enseignier 
A amer la plus belle 
Qui soit el mont vivant," 

Hence, also, when wearied of the importunity of his 
love. Queen Blanche sent Thibault to fight in the Holy 
Land, where he hoped to conquer the affections of the queen 
by his deeds of valor. Here the beautiful queen died (1253) 
on a bed of straw, from necessity's sake, and the hotel, 
after passing through a number of royal hands, was given 
by Charles VI. to his brother, the Duke of Orleat.s— " afin 
de le loger commodément près du Louvre, et dans un lieu 


qui répondit à sa qualité." Hence, as the guilty paramour 
of his sister-in-law, Isabeau de Bavière, the Duke went to 
his murder in the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois. 

It was Catherine de Medicis who pulled down the Hôtel 
de Nesle, and who, weary of the Tuileries as soon as she 
had completed its central façade, employed Builant to build 
a more splendid palace on this site, called, from its later 
proprietors. Hôtel de Soissons. The cruel queen had her 
observatory here, and when a light was seen passing there 
at night, the passers-by used to say, " The queen-mother is 
consulting the stars ; it is an evil omen ! " After the death 
of Catherine de Medicis, the hôtel belonged to Catherine 
of Navarre, sister of Henri IV., then to Olympia Mancini, 
Comtesse de Soissons (mother of Prince Eugène, born here 
Oct. 18, 1660), who fled from France to escape being tried 
for poisoning her husband, after the exposure of Mme de 
Brinvilliers and the institution of the court of inquiry called 
" la Chambre des Poisons. " Even of the second palace 
nothing remains to this day except a fluted column, resting 
on a fountain, adorned with the arms of Paris, and attached 
to the exterior of the Halle. This column, erected by 
Builant in 1572, is said to have been used for the observa- 
tions of Catherine's astrologer ; it now bears a sun-dial, the 
work of Pingre, canon of St. Geneviève. The Revolution 
has destroyed the monograms, crescents, fleurs-de-lis, &c., 
which once adorned it. Such was the fame of the Hôtel 
de Soissons, that Piganiol de la Force declares that, ex- 
cept the Louvre, no dwelling-house was more noble and 
illustrious, while to give its history, or rather that of the 
Hôtels de Nesle, de Bahaigue, d'Orléans, de la Reine- 
Mère, and des Princes, as it was successively called, it 
would be necessary to touch on the great events of every 
reign during its long existence. 


Houses now cover the gardens of the Hôtel de 
Soissons, which, under the Regency, were covered by the 
wooden booths used in the stock-jobbing of Law and his 
Mississippi scheme. 

On the left of the Rue St. Honoré is the little Rue des 
Prouvaires (Prouaires, Prêtres), where Alphonso of Por- 
tugal was lodged in the time of Louis XL, and for his 
amusement taken to hear a theological discussion at the 
University which lasted five hours ! " Voilà un monarque 
honorablement logi et bien amusé," says St. Foix. 

If we continue the Rue de Rivoli, the Rue des Bour- 
donnais (named from Adam and Guillaume Bourdon) 
opens on the left : now of no interest, but once of great 
importance as containing the glorious Hôtel de la Tré- 
mouille, built 1490, rivaling the noblest buildings of the 
age in France, but wantonly destroyed in 1840. The 
hotel long belonged to the family of Bellievre, to which 
Mme de Sévigné was related. "Ils n'ont pas voulu la 
vendre," she wrote, " parce que c'est la maison paternelle, 
et que les souliers du vieux chancelier en ont touché le 

" The architecture of this hotel was one of the most graceful 
creations of the end of the fifteenth century. The tower at the 
left, the great staircase, the porticoes, with their first story, had 
undergone only slight mutilations. The façade, looking on the 
court, was sadly spoiled, but all the elements of its decoration 
existed in part under the modern plaster work. On the garden 
side the façade was very simple. Too much admiration cannot 
be expressed for the delicate taste displayed by the architect in 
this charming piece of work. The grouping of the smooth and 
decorated surfaces was most happy." — VioUet-le-Duc, vi. 284. 

We are close to the Halles Centrales (which may be 
reached directly from the Halle au Blé), occupying the 
district formerly called Champeaux, which, from time im- 


memorial, was at once a centre for provisions and a place 
of sepulture. The great roads leading to Roman towns 
were always bordered by tombs, and the highways leading 
to the Roman Lutece, on the island in the Seine, were no 
exception to the rule. Especially popular as a place of 
sepulture was the road across the marshes, afterwards 
known as "grant chaussée Monsieur Saint Denys." A 
chapel dedicated here to St. Michael at a very early date 
was the precursor of a church dedicated to the Holy 
Innocents, built under Louis le Gros, whose favorite oath 
was " par les saints de Bethle'em." The whole surround- 
ing district had by this time become a cemetery, and the 
ancient oratory was exclusively used for prayers for the 
dead. Philip Augustus surrounded the cemetery with 
walls, and it became, as the Cimetière St. Jean or 
Cimetière Vert, the favorite burial-place of the middle 
classes.^ Of great extent, it was surrounded by cloisters, 
decorated with frescoes of the Dance of Death — La Danse 
Maccabre — of great local celebrity, and contained a very 
fine old lanterne des morts and several hermitages, some of 
which were inhabited from motives of devotion, but one 
at least as an enforced penance, by Rene'e de Vendôme — 
" la recluse de St. Innocent " — shut up here for life as a 
punishment for adultery. Louis XI. erected a monument 
in the church, with a statue, to another hermit of the 
cemetery, the nun Alix la Bourgotte. The church, and 
the cemetery with its cloisters, were closed in 1786. Their 
site is now covered by the vast buildings of the modern 
Halles, replacing the famous Marché aux Innocents, which 
had its origin in booths, erected in the time of Philippe le 

^ Corrozet preserves this epitaph : " Cy-gist JoUande Bailh, qui tr(5passa l'an 
1518, le 88« an de son âp:e, le 42*' de son veuvage, laquelle a vu, devant son tré- 
pas, deux-cents quatre-vingt-quinze enfans issus d'elle." 


Hardi, when the cloisters of the cemetery were a fashion- 
able walk. The huge existing market, consisting of six 
pavilions separated by three streets, only dates from 1858. 
The best time for visiting it, and seemg the crowds which 
frequent it, is between 6 and 8 a.m. 

" A bright gleam announced the day. The great voice of the 
Halles roared higher, and, at intervals, peals of bells in a distant 
steeple broke this rolling and swelling clamor. They entered 
one of the covered streets between the fish market and the fowl 
market. Florent raised his eyes and looked at the lofty vault 
with its interior wood-work shining between the "black lace-work 
of the cast-iron girders. When he reached the great central 
street, he dreamed he was in some strange city, with its distinct 
quarters, its suburbs, its villages, its promenades and roads, its 
squares and places, placed, just as it was, entire, under a shed, 
some wet day, by some gigantic caprice. The shadows, slum- 
bering in the angles of the crossing roofs, multiplied the forest 
of pillars, enlarged to infinity the delicate mouldings, the de- 
tached galleries, the transparent Venetian blinds, and, above this 
city, in the deepest darkness, was a vegetation, an efflorescence, 
a monstrous outgrowth of metal, whose stems, climbing and 
twining, and branches, twisting and interlacing, covered a world 
with the tracery of the foliage of some primeval grove. The 
quarters were still asleep, their railings closed. The butter 
and fowl markets displayed a line of small trellised shops, and 
long deserted alleys, under the rows of gas-jets. The fish 
market was just opened ; some women crossed the rows of white 
slabs, spotted with the shadow of baskets or forgotten rags. In 
the market for vegetables, for flowers and fruits, the' hubbub in- 
creased. Gradually the city awoke, from the popular quarter, 
where the cabbages had been heaped up since four o'clock, to the 
rich and idle quarter, that only took from the hooks its pullets 
and pheasants about eight o'clock. 

" But in the great open streets there was an affluence of life. 
Along the footwalks, on each side, the market gardeners were 
there ; the small cultivators from the neighborhood of Paris, dis- 
played in their baskets the crops gathered the evening before, 
boxes of vegetables or handfuls of fruit. 

"In the midst of the incessant ebb and flow of the crowd, 
wagons entered under the arches, checking the sounding trot of 

fontainp: des innocents 


their horses. Two of these vehicles, left across, barred the road. 
Florent, to pass, had to lean his hand against one of the gray 
sacks, like those of charcoal, whose enormous weight bent down 
the springs ; the sacks had the odor, fresh and moist, of seaweed ; 
one of them, broken at one corner, let a black mass of big mus- 
sels escape. At every step they had to pause. The fish was 
coming in ; the trucks came, one after the other, with big wooden 
cages full of baskets, that the railroads brought full from the 
ocean. And to get out of the way of the fish-trucks, which be- 
came more and more numerous and disturbing, they flung them- 
selves under the wheels of the trucks of butter, eggs, and cheese, 
big yellow wagons with four horses and red lamps ; strong men 
picked up the cases of eggs, the baskets of butter and the 
cheese and carried them to the auction-room, where clerks, in 
low caps, were writing in note-books by the glare of the gas. 

" Claude was delighted with the tumult ; he lost himself in an 
effect of light, in a group of blouses or in the unloading of a 
vehicle. At last, they were free. As they were traversing the 
long street, they walked into an exquisite odor, which floated 
around them and seemed to follow them. They were in the 
middle of the market of cut flowers. In the square, right and 
left, women were sitting with square baskets before them, full of 
bunches of roses, of violets, of dahlias, and of daisies. The 
bunches looked dull, like spots of blood, and gently pale with 
silvery gray tints of great delicacy. Near a stall, a lighted 
candle struck, in the black background, a sharp note of color, 
the bright tufts of the daisies, the blood-red hue of the dahlias, 
the blueness of the violets, the living flesh tints of the roses. 
Nothing was more sweet or spring-like than the tender per- 
fumes encountered on the footpath after the pungent odors of the 
fish or the pestilential smell of the butter and cheese." — Zola, 
'^ Le Ventre de Paris. ^^ 

" Les Piliers des Halles " were formerly very pict- 
uresque, but nothing now remains of the past, except the 
Fo7itame des Iniiocents^ which now stands in a shady square 
at the south-east corner of the Halles. Originally dating 
from the XHI. c, it was reconstructed in 1550 after a plan 
of Pierre Lescot, and decorated with sculpture by Jean 
Goujon. But it was then attached to the church wall, 



which gave it quite a different appearance. John Evelyn 
says, "Joyning to this church is a com'on fountaine, with 
good rehevo's on it." Since its removal to its present 
site, its aspect has been further altered by the addition of 
a cupola and disproportionate base : at the same time new 
nymphs by Pajou were added to those of Jean Goujon. 
Stripped of its original interest, the fountain is still a chef- 


(V œuvre oi the French renaissance of the XVI. c, and its 
earlier and still existing decorations, by Jean Goujon, are 
of the greatest beauty. 

It was to the Halles that Jacques d'Armagnac, Duc de 
Nemours, after having been confined in an iron cage, was 
brought from the Bastille to be beheaded, August 4, 1477, 
by order of Louis XL, and there that his children, dressed 



in white, were forced to stand beneath the scaffold, that 
their robes might be saturated with their father's blood. 

Behind the Halles, which are ever filled with a roar of 
voices like a storm at sea, rises the huge mass of the great 
church of St. Eustache, the most complete specimen of 
renaissance architecture in Paris, a gothic five-sided 
church in essentials, but classical in all its details, and 
possessing a certain quaint, surprising and imposing gran- 
deur of its own, though brimming with faults from an 


architectural point of view. Henri Martin, who calls it 

" the poetical church of St. Eustache," considers it the last 

breath of the religious architecture of the Middle Ages. 

Begun in 1532, it was completed as we now see it (except 

the principal portal — altered since, and still incomplete), 

by the architect David, in 1642. 

" The Renaissance effaced the last traces of the old national 
art. . . . The forms of ancient Roman architecture, which 
were not well known, were applied to the system of construction 
of the Gothic churches, which was despised without being under- 


stood. Under this equivocal inspiration the great church of St. 
Eustache was begun and ended, an edifice badly conceived, badly 
built, a confused mass of details borrowed from all sides, with- 
out connection and without harmony ; a kind of Gothic skeleton 
clothed in Roman rags, stitched together like a harlequin's 
dress." — VioUet-le-Diu, i. 240. 

The richly-decorated renaissance portals are sur- 
mounted by gothic rose-windows, divided by balustrades, 
and, at the summit of the south gable, a stag's head with 
a crucifix between its horns, in memory of the miraculous 
animal by which the saint was converted when hunting. 
Classical pilasters divide the windows, and decorate the 
flying buttresses, and a very graceful classical campanile 
of the XVII. c. surmounts the Lady Chapel. 

With all its faults, the vast and lofty interior will prob- 
ably strike the ordinary visitor with admiration for its 
stately magnificence.^ He may notice : — 

/\th Chapel. Gourlier: Marriage of the Virgin — a relief. 
5/// Chapel. Magitnel : Ecce Homo — a relief. 
Transepts. Statues by Del/ay ; frescoes by Sigtiol. 

The windows of the choir and apse are of 1631, and bear, 
constantly repeated, the name of their artist, Soulignac, unknown 

4M Chapel of Choir. Restored frescoes of XVII. c. 

^th {Tertninal) Chapel. The statue of the Virgin, by Pigalle, 
sculptured for the dome of the Invalides. 

9/// Chapel. The tomb of Jean Baptist Colbert, 1683, the 
famous minister. He is represented kneeling on a sar- 
cophagus, at the base of which are figures of Religion and 

"In the parish church of St. Eustache is the life-size statue 
of M. Colbert, grand treasurer of the order of the Holy Ghost, 
with the mantle and collar of the knights. There is no one who 
would not take him for a knight." — St. Simon. 

^ It is the largest church in Paris except Notre Dame, being 318 feet long, 
and 132 feet wide at the transept. 



'* Mazarin left the king a precious legacy. * Sire,' he said in 
presenting to him a simple clerk of the finance office, ' I owe 
everything to you, but I think I shall balance my account with 
your Majesty by giving you Colbert.'" — To uc hard-La fosse, ''Hist, 
de Paris" 

" The people were as ungrateful as the king had been. It 
was necessary to convey his corpse from his hotel in the Rue 
Neuve des Petits Champs to the church of St. Eustache by night, 
for fear lest the funeral be insulted by the market folk. The 
people of Paris only saw in Colbert the author of heavy and vex- 
atious taxes established after the war with Holland, and the peo- 
ple of France, in general, accustomed by Colbert himself to refer 
to the king all the good and great measures which the minister 
had suggested, assigned to the king the glory and to the Comp- 
troller General of Finance the miseries that glory cost. The 
people had no suspicion of the struggles that took place in the 
council, and the better informed class of citizens, who were 
brought into contact with Colbert, alone was in a position to ap- 
preciate him. We must always recognize this fact, that for great 
men there are only two judges : God and posterity. 

"With Colbert ended the line of great ministers." — Martin, 
" Hist, de France." 

N. Transept. On the bénitier, Pope Telesiphorus (139, who 
instituted Holy Water) blessing the water. 

Left of the Organ. Medallion monument of General Fran- 
çois de Chevert, 1760, with an epitaph by Diderot, telling 
how "sans ayeux, sans fortune, et sans appui, il s'éleva 
malgré l'envie, à la force de mérite." 

The magnificent sculptures which Jacques Sarrazin executed 
for the high-altar and apse, all perished in the Revolution. The 
St. Louis, Virgin, and infant Saviour were portraits of Louis 
XHL, Anne of Austria, and Louis XIV. ! The " banc d'œuvre " 
was executed by Lepautre from designs of Cartaud for the Ré- 
gent Duc d'Orléans, at a cost of 20,000 livres. All memorials are 
destroyed of Admiral de Tourville ; the Due de la Feuillade ; 
d'Armenonville, keeper of the seals ; Marin de la Chambre, 
physician of Louis XIV. ; Voiture, Vaugelas, Furetière, Ben- 
serade, La Mothe le Vayer, and the painter Charles de la Fosse, 
buried in this church. Besides the tomb of Colbert, only the 
monument of Chevert (which was taken to the Musée des Monu- 
ments Français) has been preserved. 


" It is impossible to point to a single detail which is not ele- 
gant, or to anything offensively inappropriate. Yet the eye is 
everywhere offended by the attenuation of classical details, and 
the stilting that becomes necessary from the employment of the 
flatter circular arch instead of the taller pointed one. The hol- 
low lines of the corinthian capitals are also very ill-adapted to 
receive the impost of an arch ; and when the shaft is placed on a 
base taller than itself, and drawn out, as is too often the case 
here, the eye is everywhere shocked, the great difference being, 
that the gothic shaft was in almost all instances emplo)^ed only 
to indicate and suggest the construction, and might therefore be 
loo diameters in height without appearing weak or inappropri- 
ate. " — Fergusson. 

It was in this church that 720 wreaths of roses were 
distributed to mark the Burgundians during the terrible 
massacre of the followers of Armagnac in 141 8. Here in 
the beginning of the XVI. c, whilst the rivalry between 
Church and theatre was at its height — 

" The curé of St. Eustache was in the pulpit doing his best 
to edify his audience, when Jean du Pontalais happened to pass 
before the church. The sound of the little drum with which 
Pontalais was summoning the crowd, forced the preacher to raise 
his voice and broke the thread of his discourse. The more the 
tambourine sounded, the louder bawled the parson, and the con- 
test began to amuse the audience. At last the harassed preacher 
gave orders to go and silence the mountebank. Some pious 
members went out, .... and never came back. They went to 
increase the crowd around the thumper, instead of stopping his 
thumping. The noise of the tambourine redoubled. At last the 
curé, out of patience, left the pulpit, came out of the church 
and went straight up to Pontalais. 'Hello!' cried Pontalais, 
' who has given you the impudence to preach while I am playing 
the drum?' Then the preacher, more vexed than ever, took the 
cutlass of his Famulus (the beadle) who was with him, and made 
a great gash in the tambourine. As he returned to the church to 
finish his sermon, Pontalais takes his drum, runs after the priest 
and claps it on his head like an Albanian hat, with the cut end 
downwards. The preacher wished to mount the pulpit in the 
state in which he was, to show the insult that had been done 
him, and how the word of God was despised. But the people 

ST. EU ST A CHE 125 

laughed so loud at seeing him with the drum on his head, that he 
could not keep his audience that day and was forced to retire and 
hold his tongue, for a remonstrance was made to him to the effect 
that it was not the act of a wise man to quarrel with a fool." — 

Dcschancl, " La vie des conie'diejis." 

St. Eustache has always been the special church of the 
Halles, and it was here, in 1701, that the Dames de la 
Halle, with whom he was very popular, caused a special 
Te Deum to be sung for the recovery from dangerous ill- 
ness of Monseigneur, son of Louis XIV. 

"The Revolutionary Society sat at St. Eustache. It was 
composed of lost women, female adventurers, recruited in vice 
or in the haunts of misery, or the cells of the madhouse. The 
scandal of their sessions, the tumult of their motions, the oddity 
of their eloquence, the audacity of their petitions, troubled ex- 
cessively the Committee of Public Safety. These women were 
going to dictate the law under the pretext of giving advice to the 
Convention." — Lamartine, ^^ Hist, des Girondins.'^ 

This church also was especially connected with the 
J^êtes de la Raison. 

"St. Eustache presented the appearance of a large drinking 
shop. The choir represented a landscape ornamented with 
cottages and clumps of trees. In the distance were mysterious 
thickets, and some ' practicable ' footpaths had been cut in the 
great piles of rock work. These precipices of common deal were 
not inaccessible. Troops of prostitutes, who impudently 
marched in file, ran after the men, and the creaking of the 
planks under their hurried tread was continually audible, 

"Around the choir were ranged tables laden with bottles, 
sausages, chitterlings, pies, and other meats. On the altars of 
the lateral chapels sacrifices were made at the same time to lust 
and gluttony, and hideous traces of intemperance were seen on 
the consecrated slabs, 

"The guests streamed in by every door; every one who 
came took part in the feast. Children of seven and eight, girls 
as well as boys, put their hands into the dishes in sign of liberty, 
and even drank from the bottles, and their quick intoxication 
excited the laughter of the' vile beings who shared in it," — Mer- 
cier. " Le nouveau Pat is.'' 


The Rue du jfour^ just behind the west end of St. 
Eustache, was formerly Rue du Séjour, from a residence of 
Charles V. The Hotel du Royaumotit (No. 4) was built 
here in 1613, by the Abbé du Royaumont, and afterwards 
became the property of the Comte de Montmorency- 
Boutteville, the famous duellist. Its old portal remains. 

The Rue du Jour falls into the Rue Montmartre^ which 
contained the Chapelle St. Joseph, built by the Chancellor 
Séguier, and in which Molière and La Fontaine were 
buried ; it was destroyed in the Revolution. 

Opening from the Rue Montmartre, on the left, is 
(much curtailed by modern improvements) the Rue de la 
Jussienne, a name commemorating the popular pronun- 
ciation of the church of St. Marie l'Egyptienne, which dated 
from the XIV. c, and stood at the angle of the Rue 

"The stained windows of the time of Francis I. represented 
the life of the patron saint, and inscriptions of singular quaint- 
ness explained the circumstances — even those which the saint 
herself thought it necessary to expiate by a long course of 
penitence." — De Guilhermy. 

It was in going to his devotions at this church that 
Henri III. drew from under the little dogs, which he 
carried slung in a basket around his neck, and gave to 
Chancellor Chiverny the edict which took away from the 
bourgeois of Paris the rights of nobility granted them by 
Charles V. 

No. 2, Rue de la Jussienne, belonged to the Hôtel of 
Mme du Barry, and the financier Peruchet had his bureau 
there in the time of Louis XV. It has the handsome 
decorations of heads and garlands of the time of Louis 
XV. The next street on the left of the Rue Montmartre 
was the Rue des Vieux Augustins, where, at No. 17, 


Charlotte Corday lodged in 1793, ^"^ ^^e Hôtel de la 

The modem Rue de Turbigo runs north-east from St. 
Eustache to the Place de la Re'publique on the Boulevards, 
crossing the site of the fine hotel of the Marquis de I'Hos- 
pital. In the great modern cross street, called Rue 
Etienne Marcel, a grand and picturesque old tower is to 
be seen, in a court on the right side, sadly hemmed in by 
modern houses. This is all that remains of the Hotel de 
Bourgogne, sometimes called Hôtel d'Artois, having been 
built — in the " quartier Mauconseil " — by the Comte d'Ar- 
tois in the XHI. c. Under Charles VI. the hôtel was often 
the residence of Jean sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy. It 
was bought in 1548 by the Confrérie de la Passion, that 
they might represent their mysteries there. After a few 
years they let it to " les Enfants Sans Souci," a society of 
amateur actors of good family; from them it passed to 
more regular actors, known as " Come'diens de l'Hôtel de 

" Me'lite," the first play of Corneille, was represented at 
the Hôtel de Bourgogne in 1625 ; his other plays were 
acted there as they appeared, and it was here that Chris- 
tina of Sweden shocked Anne of Austria by sitting at the 
performance " dans une position si indécente, qu'elle avait 
ies pieds plus hauts que la tête." There was a perpetual 
rivalry between this theatre and that of Petit-Bourbon, 
where the plays acted were those of Molière, who ridiculed 
the actors of the Hôtel de Bourgogne in his " Précieuses 
ridicules." But the "Alexandre " of Racine drew back 
the wavering admirers of the older theatre. After its 
appearance at the Hôtel de Bourgogne, St. Evremond wrote, 
" que la vieillesse de Corneille ne l'alarmait plus, et qu'il 
n'appréhendait plus tant de voir finir la tragédie après lui," 



though when "Andromache" and "Bajazet" had been 
represented here Mme de Se'vigné wrote, " Racine fait des 
comédies pour la Champmesle'^; ce n'est pas pour les 
siècles à venir. Vive donc notre vieil ami Corneille ! " 
In 1680 the "Comédiens italiens" took the theatre of the 
Hôtel de Bourgogne, where they obtained a great success 


for seventeen years, but were suppressed in May, 1697, for 
having produced a piece called " La fausse Prude," in 
which Mme de Maintenon fancied herself represented, and 
thus drew upon herself a qualification not originally 
intended for her. The Comédiens Italiens were restored 
by the Régent d'Orléans, and obtained a great celebrity 

' "La plus miraculeusement bonne comédienne." 


through the performance of Riccoboni and Benozzi, and 
the plays of Marivaux and Delisle. In 1723, the actors of 
the Hôtel de Bourgogne were called " Comédiens ordi- 
naires du Roi," and their title was inscribed over the gate 
of the hôtel. The theatre was closed and pulled down in 
1783, but it may be regarded as having been the cradle of 
the Comédie Française. 

Nothing now remains of the ancient buildings of the 
hôtel except the great square tower, built by Jean sans 
Peur, and containing a winding staircase and vaulted 
gothic hall. This was probably the chamber which the 
Duke (who by no means deserved his surname) built after 
the murder of the Duke of Orleans, "toute de pierre de 
taille, pour sa sûreté, la plus forte qu'il put et terminée 
de mâchicoulis, où toutes les nuits il couchoit." 

" The steps of the staircase turn around a column terminating 
in a very simple capital, which serves as a support to a round 
drum of stone, encircled by three double rings, from which spring 
the vigorous shoots of an oak, whose branches describe four 
pointed bays, while the foliage covers luxuriantly the entire 
vault. We know nothing like it in the mediaeval monuments of 
Paris ; it is a style of ornamentation no less remarkable for its 
rarity than its elegance. In the pointed tympanum of one of the 
exterior bays two planes and a plumb-line are sculptured in the 
middle of gothic flowers. The Duke Jean sans Peur took the 
planes for his emblem, in opposition to the knotty clubs chosen 
by the Duke of Orleans." — De Guilhcrmy. 

Should we return to the Rue St. Honoré we should now 
reach the spot where Henri IV. was assassinated (beyond 
the entrance of the Rue de la Tonnellerie), May 14, 16 10, 
on his way to see Sully at the Arsenal. The Rue St. 
Honoré at that time ceased here and became exceedingly 
narrow, under the name of Rue de la Ferronnerie. The 
house in front of which the murder took place (No. 6) 
was marked by a Maltese cross painted red, and was called 



Maison de la Croix rouge. It was a false tradition which 
represented the event as having occurred opposite a house 
(now destroyed — No. 3 Rue St. Honoré) upon which a 
notary named Portrain, to honor the king's memory, 
placed his bust with an inscription, now in the Carnavalet 

" Francis Ravaillac was a sort of visionary, of a dark, strange 
disposition, and a sinister look. He had been a lawyer's clerk, a 
novice in the convent of the Feuillants at Paris, than a school- 
master at Angouleme, his native city. He had always sought the 
society of monks and priests remarkable for their bigotry and 
violence. . . . He hesitated a long time before he became 
fixed on the horrible idea which haunted him. He came from 
Angouleme to Paris in the preceding January to speak to the 
king. He had had, he said, revelations from Heaven touching 
the interests of religion ; he wished to persuade the king to re- 
voke the edict of Nantes, but his evil look made him repulsed 
everywhere, and he departed without being able to approach the 
king. He returned to Paris at the end of April. He remained, 
from early morning, near the gate of the Louvre, where he saw 
the king's carriage pass out. He followed it. In turning from 
the Rue St. Honoré into the Rue de la Ferronnerie, which was 
then very narrow, the carriage met two carts, which forced it to 
graze the stalls that stood up against the wall of the Cemetery des 
Innocents. The king's small suite was separated from him by 
this accident. While the carts were being made to back, Francis 
Ravaillac glided between the stalls and the carriage, which was 
quite open, and, seeing the king at the door close to him, he put 
one foot on a stone-post, the other on one of the wheels, and 
struck Henry with a knife between the ribs. The king raised his 
arm and cried, ' I am wounded !' At the same instant a second 
blow pierced his heart. Henry did not speak again or give any 
sign of life. 

" Ravaillac remained motionless, without attempting to escape, 
or flinging away his knife. The nobles who accompanied the 
king prevented the murderer being massacred on the spot, and 
had him arrested and placed in safe-keeping ; then, closing the 
windows of the carriage, they cried to the people that the king 
was only wounded and returned to the Louvre. They took there 
only a corpse." — Henri Martin, ''Hist, de France,'' x. 568. 


Ancient streets in this district which have vanished of 
late years under modern improvements, are the Rue de la 
Tixeranderie, the Rue des Mauvais Garçons, and the Rue 
St. Faron (where the abbots of St. Faron had their hotel), 
with the Place Baudoyer, a name which recalled the re- 
volt of the Bagaudes against the Roman dominion, and 
which was corrupted from that of the neighboring Porta 
Bagaudarum to Place Baudéer, Baudier, Bauder, Baudois, 

The next opening, left of the Rue St. Honoré, forming 
one side of the little square which contains the Fontaine 
des Innocents, is the Rue St. Denis, originally important 
both as leading to the tomb of St. Denis and as having 
the privilege of the royal entries into the capital after the 
coronations at Rheims. 

"The Rue St. Denis is one of the oldest streets in Paris, and 
is said to have been first marked out by the track of the saint's 
footsteps, when, after his martyrdom, he walked along it, with 
his head under his arm, in quest of a burial-place. This legend 
may account for any crookedness of the sti'eet, for it could not 
reasonably be asked of a headless man that he should walk 
straight. " — Hawthorne, ' 'Note-Books " 

Two low slated spires mark the picturesque little gothic 
church of Sts. Leu et Gilles^ — of which the houses only 
allow the west front and the apse to be seen — a dependency 
of the Abbey of St. Magloire. The church dates from 
1320, but, with the exception of the central portal, the 
façade is of 1727, when the spire now on the south tower 
was transported thither from a tower falling into ruins on 
the north side, which was rebuilt. The side aisles are of 
the XVI. c. ; but the choir and apse were rebuilt in 1780. 
Beneath these is a crypt — the Chapel of Calvary — con- 

1 St. Loup, the famous Bishop of Sens, and St. Gilles, the hermit of Pro- 



taining beneath the altar a fine dead Christ of the XV. c. 
or XVI. c. from the old church of St. Sepulchre. The 
pictures are not worth much notice, except, from the sub- 
ject, a portrait of St. François de Sales (left of altar), 
executed after his death by Philippe de Champaigne. 

" In the first chapel to the south, a picture, dated 1772, repre- 
sents the crime and the punishment of a soldier who was burned 
in 1415 for having struck with his sword the image of the Virgin, 
placed at the corner of the Rue aux Ours, near the church of St. 
Leu. The image, according to tradition, shed blood in abun- 
dance. To preserve the memory of this extraordinary fact, an 
annual fête was still celebrated in the time immediately preceding 
the Revolution. A lay figure representing the soldier was carried 
in procession through the town for three days, and finally given 
to the flames in the Rue aux Ours, in the midst of an illumina- 
tion and a display of fireworks." — De Guilhermy. 

To the right of the choir are three curious XV. c. 
marble reliefs. A XVII. c. St. Geneviève once stood 
near the shrine of the saint. The church formerly con- 
tained the tomb of Marie Delandes, wife of the Président 
Chrétien de Lamoignon, with a relief representing her 
being secretly buried here by the poor she had succored, 
and who would not allow her to be taken from their parish 
church to that of the Récollets. 

Very near this stood at a very early period the Oratoire 
de St. Georges, which became the church of St. Magloire 
when the body of that Breton saint was sent hither to pre- 
serve it from the Normans. To this church a Benedictine 
abbey was attached, afterwards given to Les Filles Péni_ 
tentes. The very large church dated from the XII. c. 

On the other side of the Rue St. Denis, at the junction 
of the Rue Grande et Petite Truanderie and Mondetour, 
was the Puits d^Amotir, where a girl named Agnes Hellébie 
drowned herself because of her lover's treachery, in the 



time of Philippe Auguste. Three hundred years after, a 
man threw himself into the well on account of the cruelty 
of his love, who repented and drew him up by a cord, 
after which he restored the well, which was inscribed 
''L'amour m'a refait en 1525, tout-à-fait." 

This is one of the poorest parts of Paris, and the Rue 
Maubuee, one of the cross streets in descending the Rue St. 
Denis, is pointed out as the Seven Dials of Paris. It is 
a curious and picturesque old winding street. Its name, 
Maubuee — " mauvaise fumée " — comes from its being the 
place where Jews used to be roasted with green faggots, to 
punish, said the counsellor De l'Ancre, " Leur anthropo- 
mace, les admirables cruautés dont ils ont toujours usé 
envers les chrétiens, leur forme de vie, leur synagogue 
déplaisante à Dieu, leur immondicité et puanteur." 

In the Rue de Tracy, which diverges north near the top 
of the Rue St. Denis, a Greek building is the chapel of the 
community of St. Chaumont. Behind (east of) the lower 
part of the Rue St. Denis runs the Rue Qumcampoix. This 
district was the scene of the speculations of Law under 
the Regency. In 17 10 (November 2) we find the Duch- 
esse d'Orléans writing : — 

"The Rue Quincampoix has put a stop to gambling in Paris. 
It is a real madness ; I am tired of it ; nothing else is talked 
about, and there never passes a day that I do not receive three or 
four letters from persons who ask me for shares. It is very tire- 
some." — Correspondance de Afada?ne. 

Crossing the ugly Boulevard de Sebastopol, in forming 
which the chapels at the back of the church ofSts. Leu et 
Gilles were curtailed, we find ourselves in the Rue de 
Rambuteau, and the next cross street is the Rue St. Mar- 
tin. Descending towards Rue St. Honoré (at No. 80) we 
may observe a relief of the Annunciation. At the corner 



of the Rue de la Verrerie is the church of St Merri^ origi- 
nally built in the IX. c. on the site of a chapel of St. 
Pierre, where St. Merri, who had been prior of the monas- 
tery of St. Martin at Autun, was buried. But the present 
church, begun under François I., was only finished in 1612. 
The great gothic portal, with two smaller portals at the 
sides, is very rich in effect ; but its statues are only mod- 
ern copies from those at the south transept of Notre Dame ; 
the woodwork is of the time of the construction. The 
adjoining tower is gothic below, renaissance above, with 
pilasters of the XVII. c. This is the tower which has 
given the war-note of many revolutions, and whence the 
"tocsin de St. Merri," sounding day and night, has sent 
a thrill through thousands. In the Revolution of June 5 
and 6, 1832, the church was long and obstinately defended 
by the insurgents against the royal troops. 

The interior of St. Merri has two side aisles on the 
right, and only one on the left, the second being here re- 
placed by a passage through the chapels. The choir has a 
single aisle surrounded by thirteen chapels. In spite of 
classical innovations under Louis XIV., by which the gothic 
architecture has been mutilated, the vaulting, the rose- 
windows at the sides, and fragments of XVI. c. glass re- 
main to be admired. The sculpture of the high-altar is by 
Dubois^ that of the pulpit by Michel Ange Slodtz. Under 
the fifth bay of the left aisle a staircase leads to a crypt, 
reconstructed in the XVI. c, when the church was built, 
on the site of that which contained the tomb of St. Merri. 
In this, which was his parish church, Charles V. con- 
structed a richly-carved wooden oratory for a certain Guil- 
lemette, esteemed a saint, who never left that place, and 
might be seen there in ecstacy. All the Court had great 
faith in her holiness, and recommended themselves to her 


prayers.^ Nothing remains of the tomb of Jean Chapelain, 
author of "La Pucelle," or of that of Arnaud de Pom- 
ponne, ambassador and minister of state under Louis XIV. 
Reascending the Rue St. Martin, we may see, on the 
right, the openings of the Rue Maubuce and Rue de Venise^ 
formerly the bankers' quarter, but which now, with their 
side alleys, may be looked upon as perhaps the most mis- 
erable part — the St. Giles's— of Old Paris. On the right 
is the opening of the Rue de Mofttmore?icy, which contains, 
marked by an inscription, the house of the philanthropist, 
Nicolas Flamel, partly destroyed in 1852. 

"The great gable {grand pigno?i), to which it owed its name 
in the last centuries, no longer exists, but one can still read, in 
gothic characters, above the ground floor, the inscription which 
is the most touching part of its history. The poor ' laboring men 
and woinen dwelling iti the porch of this house ^ speak in it of the 
' Pater noster and the Ave Maiia,' which they had to say every day 
for the departed, and thus recall the hospitality which Flamel gave 
them, only asking this prayer in return. He understood the 
rights of property as we understand them no longer. With the reve- 
nue derived from the best parts of each of his houses, which were 
numerous in this quarter, he lodged in the other stories, and sup- 
ported some poor people; 'and,' says Guillebert de Metz, 'he 
built several houses, where people of means lived in the lower 
stories, and from the rent they paid poor working people were 
maintained in the upper stories.' " — Edouard Eournier. 

"Nicolas Flamel founded and endowed fourteen hospitals. 
During the time of plague, he bought deserted houses, provided 
they seemed large enough, and changed them into hospitals. The 
plague ceased, the hospitals remained. He rebuilt three chapels, 
he left annuities to seven churches, among others to St. Geneviève 
des Ardens. He repaired three cemeteries, including that of the 
Innocents." — Edouard Plouvier, " Paris Guide." 

The house in the Rue de Montmorency, opposite the 
entrance to the Passage des Panorames, was that of Des- 
marest, Minister of Finance. 

' Viollet-le-Duc, viii. 5. 


Far up the Rue St. Martin, on the right, is the church 

of St. Nicolas des Champs,^ founded in the open country — 

" porro ante Parisiacae urbis portam " — and dedicated in 

1067, though chiefly dating, as it is now, in its west part 

from 1420, in its east from 1576, the change from gothic to 

renaissance having a striking effect in the interior. There 

is a beautiful west porch of the earher date. The church 

is a parallelogram, with two ranges of aisles, bordered by a 

succession of chapels. The high-altar was designed by 

Mansart. The tombs included those of Pierre de Mor- 

villier, Chancellor of France, and his parents, Philippe de 

Morvillier and Jeanne de Drac, who founded (1426) a 

chapel here to St. Nicholas, on quaint conditions attached 

to one of its pillars, long carefully observed. 

" Every year, at the eve of St. Martin, in the winter, the afore- 
said religious persons, by their mayor and one of their body, 
must give to the first president of the parliament two caps with 
ear flaps, one double, the other single, saying the while certain 
words, and to the first usher of the parliament a glove and writing 
utensils, saying certain words." 

Other persons buried here were the learned Guillaume 
Budé, 1540 ; the philosopher Pierre Gassendi ; the broth- 
ers Henri and Adrien de Valois, known by their historic 
works ; and the celebrated Mile de Scudéry. In one of 
the chapels is an altar-piece representing St. Martin curing 
a leper by embracing him, and an inscription tells that the 
spot where this miracle was performed was close to St. 
Nicolas des Champs. 

Close by (at No. 292) a handsome gateway forms the 
entrance to the courtyard of the Co7iservatoire des Arts et 
Métiers (open daily from 10 to 4), which has a fine stair- 
case by Antoine, 1786, and two floors of galleries filled 

* One of three churches in Paris dedicated to this most popular saint, the 
others being St. Nicolas du Louvre and St. Nicolas du Chardonnet. 



with models of machinery, freely open to the public, and 
very interesting to scientific students. 

The Conservatoire occupies the buildings which be- 
longed to the priory of St. Martin des Champs, founded by 
Henri I. in 1060. It was only enclosed within the limits 
of the town on the construction of its fourth ramparts in 
the beginning of the XIV. c. Hence its strong walls and 
towers, of which a specimen is to be seen in this street 
near the Fontaine du Vert Bois. The priory of St. Martin 
was given to Cluny by Philippe I. in 1067, and bore the 
title of second daughter of that famous abbey. At the 
Revolution, the monastery was at first converted into a 
manufactory of arms, but was appropriated to its present 
use in 1798. Of all the ancient religious establishments of 
Paris this is the one which has most preserved the charac- 
teristics of a monastery, retaining portions of its outer walls, 
its church, a cloister, the refectory, and the buildings which 
were inhabited by the monks. The monks themselves un- 
fortunately destroyed the old chapter house, the tower of 
the archives, and chapel of the Virgin, as well as the old 
cloister, which contained statues of Henri L, Philippe L, 
and Louis VI., and which Piganiol de la Force described 
as unequalled in Paris for its size and the number of its 

The Refectory^ now used as a library, is wrongly attrib- 
uted to Pierre de Montereau, who was a child when it 
was completed. Nevertheless it is a masterpiece of XIII. 
c. architecture. Its two ranges of vaults are divided by 
slender stone pillars, and lighted at the ends by beautiful 
rose-windows. The rich gothic portal on the south led to 
the first cloister, facing the lavabo. 

"The builder of the work having skilfully thrown on the 
walls and external buttresses, the chief weight of the vaults, 


found himself able to reduce at pleasure the size of his middle 
columns on which only the vertical pressure acted. Our readers 
will admire, on the spot, the noble character of this architecture, 
the marvellous execution of the capitals, the consoles, the key- 
stones of the vaults, the foliated tracery of the roses which are 
pierced above the windows." — De Guilhermy. 

At the side of the hall the reader's graceful pulpit re- 
mains, and is one of the oldest and best refectory pulpits 
in existence. 

"Worthy of remark is the ingenious disposition of the stair- 
case, worked in the thickness of the wall ; on the interior side it 
is only closed in by open work ; but to prevent the pressure of 
the wall above from crushing this open work, the builder has 
placed a relieving arch to take off the weight, and to meet the 
thrust of this arch the lower jambs of the open work are sloped 
as to oppose a buttress to this thrust. To-day we should de- 
mand the employment of artifice to obtain the result of a buttress 
without rendering it apparent ; at the beginning of XIII. century 
they used no subterfuges." — Viollet-le-Duc 

Of the old priory Church, the single nave, with a 
wooden roof, was rebuilt in the XIII. c. ; but its choir 
and radiating chapels are of the XI. c, and the earliest 
examples of gothic architecture in Paris, though their 
vaultings were renewed in the XII. c. 

"The plan presents one peculiarity — a large bay pierced in 
the axis of the choir, and a grand central chapel. The disposi- 
tion of the chapels seems to be that common in abbey churches. 
The chapels have large openings to the aisles, are shallow and in 
communication with each other by a sort of narrow aisle, which 
produces a grand effect. ... In the coupled capitals of the 
choir, where the sculpture rises to the height of perfect art, 
Byzantine elements are found. This sculpture reminds us of 
that of the ivory diptychs and plaques, or of Byzantine metal 
work. The feeling of the composition is grand, clear, and re- 
strained. — Viollet-le-Duc. 

In recent restorations a tourelle has been constructed 
on the right of the entrance, to match an original tourelle 



on the left : these turrets are hexagonal, with gothic orna- 
ments, and pointed roofs. The church is now occupied 
by a Museum of Hydraulic Machinery. 

Crossing into the Rue du Temple and turning south, on 
the left is the Rue St. Avoye^ which commemorates St. 
Hedwige, daughter of Berthold, Duke of Carinthia. In 
this dirty street lived and worked the famous portrait- 
painter Largilliere — " le peintre des éclatants velours." 
At No. 7 1 Rue du Temple, near the angle of the Rue de 


Rambuteau, is the Hbtcl de St. Aigiiafi^ built by Pierre 
Lemuet for M. de Mesmes, Comte d'Avaux, a celebrated 
diplomatist of the XVII. c. It afterwards belonged to the 
Due de St. Aignan, " chef du conseil royal des finances " 
under Louis XIV. The stately entrance, which retains its 
magnificently carved doors, leads to a court surrounded 
by arcades, and the same engaged corinthian pilasters, 
reaching the whole height of the building, which we shall 



see again at the Hôtel de Lamoignon. The Hôtel de St. 
Aignan is now used for warehouses. 

Almost opposite this the Rue Rambuteau has cut 
through the Hôtel de Mesmes, where the famous Con- 
stable, Anne de Montmorency, died of the wounds he had 
received at the battle of St. Denis, November 12, 1567. 


He was so ignorant that he could not read ; but he had 
served five kings, had fought in eight great battles, and 
had been employed in ten treaties of peace. At the age 
of seventy-four he had given so violent a blow to Robert 
Stuart, who called upon him to surrender, that he had 
hurled him from his horse and broken two of his teeth.^ 

On the east side of the Rue du Temple, the Rue de 
Braque leads to an ancient and picturesque gateway, 
which is the only remaining remnant of the Hotel de 

^ M, 'moires de Castelnau, 



Clisson^ built by the famous Constable, friend and com- 
panion inarms of Duguesclin, in 137 1. It was called at 
first Hôtel de la Miséricorde, because of the pardon 
Clisson obtained from Charles V. for the Parisians, when 
they came crying " Miséricorde ! " here under his windows. 


In the XVI. c. this hotel occupied, with the Hôtels 
Roche-Guyon and Laval, a vast quadrangular space, 
bounded by the Hôtel de Rohan, the Rue de Quatre, 
Rue Chaume, and Rue de Paradis. The Ducs de 
Guise became the proprietors of these hotels in 1550, and 
François de Lorraine, the Due de Guise murdered by a 
Protestant fanatic near Orleans, pulled them down and 


built a vast Hôtel de Guise, on their site. This famous 
mansion became the cradle of the Ligue, and from hence 
the order was issued for the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. 
It was also from one of the windows of this palace that 
Henri de Guise — " le Balafré " — hurled the handsome 
Comte de St. Megrim, whom he discovered in the 
chamber of his wife, Catherine de Cléves, and whom he 
caused to be assassinated, a few days after, in the Rue St. 
Honoré, as he was leaving the Louvre. Hither Henri HI. 
sent to implore the Due de Guise to still a revolution, and 
hence he issued an order which was productive of instant 
calm, after which the people cried so constantly "Vive 
Guise ! vive Guise ! " that at length their idol thought it 
needful to say, " C'est assez, messieurs ; c'est trop ; criez 
un peu * Vive le roi ! ' " This triumph was too great for a 
subject. In the words of Voltaire, — 

" Guise en ces grands desseins dès ce jour affermi, 
Vit qu'il n'était plus temps d'offenser à demi, 
Et qu'élevé si haut, mais sur un précipice. 
S'il ne montait au trône, il montait au supplice," 

and he had reached the verge of a rebellion against his 
sovereign, which would probably have been successful, 
when he was assassinated by the king's order at Blois. 

In 1700 the hotel once more changed its name, being 
bought by Mme de Soubise, " que le roi aida fort à payer," 
says St. Simon, for at that time she was the favorite of 
the moment with Louis XIV. The king made her hus- 
band, François de Rohan, a prince, a favor which he 
appreciated at its proper value when he answered con- 
gratulations with " Hélas ! cela me vient par ma femme ; 
je n'en dois pas recevoir de compliment." M. de Sou- 
bise, however, devoted himself to the embellishment of 
his hotel ; he pulled down the Hôtel de Laval and built a 


grand court of honor, surrounded by arcades in the form 
of a horseshoe. This court still exists, with an entrance 
of which the tympanum is adorned by an allegorical figure 
of History, from a design of Eugène Delacrois. The next 
Prince de Soubise rendered the hotel famous by the mag- 
nificence of his fetes ; his social qualities made him ex- 
ceptionally popular, and his misfortunes as a general 
failed to alienate the goodwill of Louis XV., a leniency 
which he repaid by being the one faithful friend who 
accompanied the king's corpse to St. Denis. 

The Hôtel de Soubise is now occupied by the Archives 
Natiofiales. The principal façade was reconstructed by 
Lemaire (1706), and has a noble portico surrounding a 
semicircular garden. The hotel has been so much added 
to and altered internally that it possesses little of its 
ancient decorations except the woodwork of the oval 
saloon, and the paintings in that room and over the doors 
of several other apartments, by Boucher, Carl Vanloo, &c. 
It retains, however, its beautiful chapel (seldom shown), 
painted by Niccolo del Abbate, and the gallery in which 
the Due de Guise was walking and meditating upon the 
possible death of Henri III., when he said, looking at the 
frescoes on the walls, "Je regarde toujours avec plaisir 
Duguesclin ; il eut la gloire de de'trôner un tyran." " Oui 
certes," the gentleman to whom he spoke^ had the courage 
to answer, " mais ce tyran n'était pas son roi ; c'était 
l'ennemi de son pays." 

The Museum of the Archives (open to the public on 
Sundays only, from 12 to 3) is exceedingly interesting. 
A vast number of curious documents are displayed and 
well seen in glass cases, beginning with the diplomas of 

^ He was the son of Jean le Seneschal, who threw himself in the way to 
save the life of François I. in the battle of Pavia, and was killed in his place. 


the Merovingian, Carlovingian, and Capetian kings, and 
continuing through the reigns of the Valois and Bourbon 
sovereigns to the Republic, Consulate, and Empire. Of 
special interest are the papers relating to the trial of 
Jeanne Dare. A very curious picture — J>^//i- religionis — 
shows all the faithful of different centuries in an ark, 
attacked by devils, and boats manned by apostates, evil- 
thinkers, &c. The Musée Sigillographiqiie displays a col- 
lection of seals from the time of Childeric I. (457). 

Ascending the noble staircase, which has a painted 
ceiling, we find several rooms devoted to the later Ar- 
chives of French History. In the beautifully-decorated 
Salle des Bourbons are letters of d'Aguesseau, d'Antin, 
Dubois, the Due de Maine, Due de Richelieu, Marshal 
Saxe, Maupeou, Voltaire, Crebillon, Due de Choiseul, 
Cardinal de Bernis, Buiïon, Turgot, Mesdames Louise, 
Sophie, and Victoire, Princesse de Lamballe (with beauti- 
ful handwriting), de Montmorin, Bailly, de Lamoignon, 
Due d'Orléans, Montgolfier, Florian, &c. Here also are 
the Procès of Damiens, the Letters of St. Simon about 
the prerogatives of dukes, the Will of Marie Leczinska, 
&c. Inside the railing of the ruelle which contained the 
bed, are the greatest treasures. The volumes of the 
Journal of Louis XVI. ; his autograph Will executed in 
the Temple ; the procès-verbal for his burial j and the last 
touching letter of Marie Antoinette to Madame Elizabeth 
(written in the Conciergerie, October 10, 1793). 

In the next room, with letters of Barnave, Mirabeau, 
Necker, &c., are the Declaration concerning the Etats Na- 
tionaux, June 23, 1789 ; the Oath of Louis XVI. accepting 
the constitution, September 14, 1791 ; and some playing 
cards inscribed at the back by Louis XVI. with the names 
of all the persons to be admitted to his intimate circle. 


In the Salle du Consulat^ which has many letters in the 
admirable hand of Napoleon I., is a table from the cabinet 
of Louis XVL, which was taken to the Comité de Salut 
public at the Tuileries, and on which the wounded Robes- 
pierre was laid when he was brought from the Hôtel de 

The Rue des Archives was formerly divided between 
the Rue du Grand Chantier and Rue des Enfants 

Behind the Musée, at the entrance of the Rue Chariot, 
is the Church of St. Jean and St. François ^ founded 1623, 
to serve a Capuchin convent. It contains two beautiful 
statues — St. Denis, by Jacques Sarrazi?t, and St. François 
d'Assise, by Germain Filon, ordered by Anne of Austria 
for the abbey of Montmartre. 

A little south of the Musée des Archives, by the Rue 
de l'Homme Armée, is the Rue des Fillettes. To expiate 
the crime of the Jew Jonathas, who was burnt alive in 
1290, for piercing the Host with a penknife, a chapel was 
built here, to which Philippe le Bel annexed a monastery 
of the Hospitallers of la Charité de Notre Dame. These 
were suppressed and their convent ceded to the Carmel- 
ites, in 163 1. Sold in 1793, the convent was repurchased 
in 1808, and its church given to Lutheran worship. It 
will be found on the left of the Rue des Billettes in de- 
scending to the Rue St. Antoine. The door to the left of 
the church portal is the entrance to a beautiful little 
Cloister of the end of the XV. c, unique in Paris, and 
little known there. 

Further up the Rue du Temple, the Rue de Gravilliers 
(on left) has a house (No. 69) of the time of Henri III., 
perhaps built by a relation of Gabrielle d'Estrées, to whom 
it is attributed. During the Revolution this street was 


considered to be a patriot centre ; at No. 38, the accom- 
plices of Georges Cadoudal were arrested. 

In the Rue du Temple, we now come (right) to a 
garden-square with fountains. This is all that remains to 
mark the site of the Tetnple, with which the saddest asso- 
ciations of Paris are connected, and which gave its name 
to the street called Rue de la Milice du Temple in 1235, 
and Rue de la Chevalerie du Temple in 1252. 

The Temple was a moated citadel, surrounded by 
battlemented walls, with round towers at intervals. Thus 
it continued for 500 years. It was only finally destroyed 
in 1820. The Rues du Temple, de Vendôme, de Chariot, 
and de la Corderie, now cover the greater part of its en- 
closure ; the Marché du Temple and the adjoining square 
only represent the space around the central donjon. 

The Maison du Temple is mentioned in a charter of 
Bishop Eudes, of 1205 ; the Commanderie du Temple in a 
charter of 12 11. The already fortified Temple was not 
enclosed in the walls of Philippe Auguste (1185). Henry 
III. of England made it his residence for eight days in 
1254, when he came to Paris to visit St. Louis, and adore 
his collection of relics. Under Philippe le Hardi, the 
Grand Priors of the Templars began to have disputes with 
the kings of France; and under Philippe le Bel their 
cupidity and their vast wealth became fatal to them. The 
king beheld the great riches of Jacques de Molay whilst 
he was receiving his protecting hospitality during an insur- 
rection in Paris. Soon afterwards (October 13, 1307), 
the Grand Master was arrested in the Temple, with 140 
knights who had come thither to attend a chapter of the 
Order. Torture wrung from some of the number a confes- 
sion, true or false, of the many accusations brought against 
them, but they all died protesting their innocence, the 



Grand Prior and the Commanders of Aquitaine and Nor- 
mandy being the last to suffer (March 12, 1311). The Or- 
der was abolished by Clement V. in 1313, and its riches be- 
stowed upon that of St. John of Jerusalem, but Philippe had 
already seized upon all the riches of the Templars in Paris. 
The Knights of St. John had become Knights of 
Rhodes, when their Grand Master Foulque de Villant con- 
quered the infidels in Rhodes in 1307, but henceforth, in 
Paris, they always bore the name of Chevaliers du Temple. 
Under their rule, the Temple remained for 200 years much 
as the Templars had left it — crowned with towers, de- 
fended by a moat, and for some time lookmg down upon 
vast open lands — marais^ cultures and courtilles^ though a 
great part of these were built over when a new circuit of 
walls was begun under Jean in 1356, and finished under 
Charles V., in 1380. A vast open space within the walls 
of the fortress remained unenclosed till Henri IV. planned 
the Place de France, and when his death cut short his de- 
sign, new streets were erected, bearing names of provinces 
and chief towns of France. Within the walls (which con- 
tinued to be entered by a single gate, between two great 
towers opposite the Rue des Fontaines^), many of the old 
buildings were pulled down by the Hospitallers. Thus, in 
the XVII. c, there only remained the square Tour de 
César, destroyed in 1816; the old Chapel of the first 
Templars, destroyed 1650; the hospital, the cloister, the 
great church with its tombs of Grand Masters ^ and hand- 
some campanile ; and, above all, the Tour du Temple, a 
massive square building, with a dry moat, and round 
tourelles at each angle. 

» Which contained the Convent of St. Elizabeth, and that of La Madeleine, 
known, during the Revolution, as the Prison of Les Madelonnettes. 

- It contained many relics, supposed to include the head of St. John the 
Baptist, also claimed by the Cathedral of Amiens. 


The accommodation in the tower consisted of four sto- 
ries, of a single room, in which a central pillar supported 
the arched vaulting of the roof. One of the tourelles was 
a staircase, the others contained little chambers communi- 
cating with the central one. 

" The Tower of the Temple dated from the end of the XIII. 
c. and was finished in 1306, a little before the dissolution of the 
order. This tower was square in plan, with turrets at the four 
corners rising from the ground. It served as a muniment room, 
treasury and prison, like most of the donjons belonging to the 
establishments of the Knights of the Temple. The building was 
destroyed in 1805." — Viollet-le-Duc, ix. 169. 

Up to the end of the XVII. c, the Temple continued 
to be almost in the country. Mme de Coulanges, living 
within its precincts, writes to Mme de Sévigné of the un- 
interrupted view of the country prolonging her garden as 
far as the eye could reach. 

From the time of the Templars the Tour du Temple 
had been occasionally used as a state prison. The Grand 
Priors had long ceased to live in it, and in the XVII. c. 
they built a hotel for themselves, with a handsome entrance 
upon the Rue du Temple. Part of this hotel still existed 
in 1789. It had been enlarged by the Chevalier d'Or- 
léans, and adorned with paintings by Nattier and Raoux. 
Its little garden, exacdy marked out by the present square, 
contained one of the finest and oldest chestnut-trees in 
France. A number of smaller hotels collected round 
that of the Grand Prieur, where many aristocratic families 
settled. The Hôtel de Boisboudrand was inhabited by the 
Abbé de Chaulieu, called by Voltaire "l'Anacréon du 
Temple ;" Rousseau lived in 1770 at the Hôtel de Guise, 
where Mile de Guise was born and whither she returned 
to live and die in her birthplace, soon after her marriage 
with the Maréchal Duc de Richelieu : in the Hôtel de 



Boufflers lived the charming Marquise de Boufflers, to be 
near her friend the Grand Prior, Louis Franc^ois de 
Bourbon-Conti. Tiie freedom of taxes which was en- 
joyed there made a great number of artisans settle within 
the Temple walls, whilst the right of sanctuary brought 
thither a number of debtors, who supported themselves by 
trades which were prohibited in Paris itself, especially the 
manufacture of false jewelry — " bijoux du Temple." 

From the XVI. c, the office of Grand Prior and the 
Commanderie of the Temple was the richest appanage of 
the bastards of the royal family. Henri d'Angouleme, 
son of Henri II. by a Scotch lady, held it from 1507 to 
1586 ; Charles de Valois, Duc d'Angouleme, son of 
Charles IX. and the Dame de Belleville, succeeded ; 
Alexandre de Vendôme, son of Henri IV and the Duch- 
ess of Beaufort, was instituted in 1604, at six years old, 
in the church of the Temple — "lieu propre et de tout 
temps aiïecté aux bâtards." ^ In 1678 the office was ob- 
tained by the brilliant Philippe de Vendôme (great-grand- 
son of Henri IV. and Gabrielle d'Estrees), who, under the 
Regency, instituted the " Soupers du Temple," famous for 
their wit. In 17 19 he resigned the office of Grand Prieur 
(continuing to be Prieur de Vendôme) to Jean Philippe 
d'Orléans, son of the Regent, by Mile de Sery, Comtesse 
d'Argenton. The last two Grand Priors were not bastards, 
but Princes of the Blood — Louis François de Bourbon, 
Prince de Conti (ob. 1776) and Louis Antoine de Bour- 
bon, Duc d'Angouleme, son of the Comte d'Artois. The 
latter was in his cradle when he succeeded and did not 
keep the office till his majority, as the Order of Malta 
was suppressed, with all the religious Orders, June 10, 

* Pierre de I'Estoile. 



In August, 1793, in answer to the demand of the 
Commune to the Assembly, Louis XVI . and his family 
were brought as prisoners to the Temple. 

" Overwhelmed with grief, the Royal Family arrived at the 
Temple, and Santerre was the first person who presented himself 
in the court where they alighted. He made a sign to the munic- 
ipal officers, which at the time I could not explain. After I be- 
came acquainted with the locality of the Temple, I concluded 
that the object of the signal was to conduct the king, at the mo- 
ment he arrived, to the tower. A movement of the head on the 
part of the municipal officers announced that it was not yet 

" The royal family was introduced into the part of the build- 
ings which was called the palace, the ordinary lodging of Mon- 
seigneur, the Duke d'Artois, when he came to Paris. The mu- 
nicipal officers remained near the king, with their hats on, and 
gave him no other title than Monsieur, A man with a long 
beard, whom at first I took to be a Jew, took every opportunity to 
repeat the word. 

"The king, entertaining the persuasion, that henceforth the 
palace of the Temple was to be his abode, wished to see the 
apartments. While the municipals felt a cruel pleasure in the 
king's mistake with the expectation of better enjoying his sur- 
prise afterwards, His Majesty was pleased to distribute in ad- 
vance the various suites of rooms. 

"The interior of the Temple was already furnished with nu- 
merous sentinels, and the watch was so strict that one could not 
take a step without being stopped. In the midst of this throng 
of keepers, the king exhibited a calmness which depicted the 
ease of his conscience. 

" At ten o'clock, supper was served. During the repast, 
which was short, Manuel stood by the king's side. Supper over, 
the royal family returned to the salon. From that moment, Louis 
XVI. Avas abandoned to that factious commune which set over 
him guards, or rather jailers, to whom it gave the title of commis- 
sioners. On entering the Temple, the municipals had warned 
the persons on duty that the ro)^al family would not sleep in the 
palace, but would occupy it only in daytime ; so we were not 
surprised to hear, about eleven o'clock, one of the commissioners 
give us the order to take the little baggage and few clothes we 
had been able to procure, and follow him. 


"A municipal, bearing a lantern, went before us. By the 
feeble light it shed, I sought to discover the place destined to the 
royal family. We stopped at the foot of a mass of building 
which the shades of night made me believe a large one. Without 
being able to distinguish anything, I nevertheless saw a difference 
between the form of this edifice and the palace we had left. The 
front of the roof, which seemed to me to be surmounted by 
spires that I took for clock towers, was crowned with battle- 
ments, on which some lamps were burning at intervals. In spite 
of light they gave, I did not comprehend what this building could 
be, built on such an extraordinary plan, and quite new, at least 
to me. 

"At this instant, one of the municipals broke the solemn 
silence which he had preserved during the passage. ' Thy mas- 
ter,' he said to me, 'has been accustomed to gilded roofs. Well, 
he will see how the assassins of the people are lodged. Follow 
me ! ' I went up several steps ; a low narrow door conducted me 
to a spiral staircase. When I passed from this principal staircase 
to a smaller one that rose to the second floor, I perceived I was 
in a tower. I entered into a room, lighted by a solitary window, 
unprovided with the commonest necessaries, and having only a 
wretched bed and three or four chairs, ' Thy master will sleep 
here,' said the municipal. Chamilly had now joined me ; we 
looked at each other without saying a word ; they flung us, as if 
it was a favor, a couple of sheets. Then they left us alone for 
some moments. 

"An alcove, without hangings or curtains, held a small 
couch, which an old wicker hurdle announced to be full of ver- 
min. We endeavored to render the room and the bed as neat as 
possible. The king entered, and displayed neither surprise nor 
ill-humor. Some engravings, mostly indecent, were hung on the 
walls, and he removed them himself. ' I do not want to leave 
such things,' he said, ' under the eyes of my daughter.' His 
Majesty lay down and slept peacefully. Chamilly and I remained 
all night seated near his bed. We contemplate with respect the 
calmness of the irreproachable man struggling with adversity, 
and subduing it by his courage. The sentries, posted at the 
door of the room, were relieved every hour, and every day the 
municipals on duty were changed. 

" It was only at the moment when I was assisting the king 
into or out of bed, that he ventured to say to me a few words. 
Seated and covered with the curtains, what he said to me was not 



heard by the commissioner. One day when his Majesty had his 
ears insulted by the vile language the municipal on guard had 
hurled at him, ' You have had much to suffer to-day,' said the 
king to me. 'Well, for love of me, continue to endure every- 
thing ; make no reply.' It was easy to execute this order. The 
heavier the misery that oppressed my master, the more sacred 
became his person. 

" Another time, when I was fastening to the bed-head a black 
pin which I had made into a kind of support for his watch, the 
king slipped into my hand a roll of paper. ' Some of my hair,' 
he said, 'the only present I can give you now.'" — Htie, ''Mé- 

The faithful valet of Louis XVI. has given us details 
of the life of the royal prisoners in the Temple. 

" The king usually rose at six o'clock, and shaved himself; 
I trimmed his hair and helped him with his clothes. He then 
went to his closet or study. The room was very small, and the 
municipal remained in the bedroom, with door half open, so 
as to have the king always in sight. His Majesty knelt down 
and prayed for five or six minutes, and then read till nine o'clock. 
During this interval, after cleaning up the bedroom and laying 
the table for breakfast, I went down to the queen. She did not 
open the door till I came, in order to prevent the municipal en- 
tering the room. I dressed the young prince's hair, arranged the 
queen's toilet, and went to perform the same duty in the room of 
Madame Royale and Madame Elizabeth. This period was one 
of those when I could tell the queen and the princesses what I 
had heard. A sign indicated I had something to say to them, 
and one of them diverted the attention of the municipal officer 
by talking to him. 

"At nine, the queen, her children, and Madame Elizabeth 
ascended to the king's room for breakfast ; after having served 
them, I made the rooms of the queen and the princesses. At ten, 
the king and his family went down to the queen's chamber and 
passed the day there. He devoted himself to his son's education, 
making him recite passages from Corneille and Racine, giving 
him lessons in geography, and practising him in tinting the maps. 
The premature intelligence of the young prince responded to the 
tender cares of the king perfectly. His memory was so good 
that on a map covered hy 3. sheet of paper he indicated the de- 
partments, the districts, the towns, and the course of the rivers ; it 


was the new geography of France that the king taught him. The 
queen, on her side, was occupied in educating her daughter, and 
these different lessons lasted till eleven. The rest of the morning 
was passed in sewing, knitting or working at tapestry. At noon 
the three princesses went to the room of Madame Elizabeth to 
take oft' their morning gowns. No municipal officer went with 

" At one o'clock, when it was fine, the royal family went down 
to the garden, and four municipal officers and a chief of the Legion 
of the National Guard accompanied them. As there were many 
workmen in the Temple, engaged on the demolition of the houses 
and building new walls, only a part of the Alley of Chestnuts was 
assigned for a promenade. I was permitted to take part in these 
promenades, during which I played with the young prince at 
foot-ball, quoits, running, or other exercises. 

"At two o'clock we returned to the tower, where I served 
dinner, and every day, at the same hour, Santerre, the brewer, 
commandant general of the National Guard of Paris, came to the 
Temple with two aides-de-camp. He carefully examined all the 
rooms. Sometimes the king addressed him, the queen never. 
After the repast, the royal family returned to the queen's cham- 
ber. Their Majesties usually made up a party for picquet or 
backgammon. During this time I dined. 

"At four o'clock the king took a short nap, the princesses 
sitting around him, each with a book in her hands ; the greatest 
silence prevailed during this slumber. 

" When the king awoke, conversation was resumed. He used 
to make me sit near him, and, under his inspection, I gave his 
son writing lessons, copying for the headlines passages from the 
works of Montesquieu and other celebrated authors, at the king's 
selection. After this lesson, I conducted the young prince to the 
room of Madame Elizabeth, where I made him play at ball or 

"At the end of the day the royal family gathered round a 
table ; the queen read aloud from historical or other well-chosen 
works fitted to instruct and amuse the children, but in which 
unforeseen analogies with the situation often presented them- 
selves and gave rise to very sad thoughts. Madame Elizabeth 
read in her turn, and this reading continued till eight o'clock. 
I then served supper for the young prince in the room of Madame 
Elizabeth. The royal family was present, and the king amused 
himself by entertaining the children, making them guess some 


riddles taken from a collection of the Mercure de France, which 
he had found in the library. 

" After the Dauphin's supper I undressed him. The queen 
made him say his prayers, and he made a special prayer for the 
Princess de Lamballe, and in another he besought God to protect 
the life of the Marquise de Tourzel, his governess. When the 
municipals were too near, the young prince had, of himself, the 
precaution to say these two last prayers in a low voice. I then 
took him into the cabinet, and, if I had anything to tell the queen, 
I seized the opportunity. I told her the contents of the news- 
papers ; none were admitted into the tower, but a crier, sent ex- 
pressly every evening at seven, came to the wall on the side of the 
Rotunda in the enclosure of the Temple, and repeated several 
times a summary of all that had taken place in the National 
Assembly, the Commune, and the armies. I placed myself in 
the king's cabinet to listen, and there, in the silence, it was easy 
to remember all I heard. 

"At nine the king had supper. The queen and Madame 
Elizabeth remained alternately with the Dauphin during this re- 
past, and I brought them what they wished for supper. This was 
another of the moments when I could speak to them without 

" After supper, the king went up for a moment to the queen's 
chamber, giving to her his hand in token of adieu, as also to his 
sister, and receiving the embraces of his children. He then went 
to his room, retired to his cabinet, and read till midnight. The 
queen and the princesses closed their doors. One of the 
municipals remained in the little room which separated their 
bedrooms, and passed the night there: the other followed his 
Majesty."— y^z^;-«a/^^ Cîéry. 

Here, on January 20, 1793, the day before his execu- 
tion, Louis XVI. took leave of his family. 

" At half-past eight the door opened, the queen appeared first, 
holding her son by the hand ; then Madame Royale and Madame 
Elizabeth ; they all flung themselves into the king's arms. A 
melancholy silence reigned for some minutes, and was only inter- 
rupted by sobs. The queen made a movement to draw the king 
to her room, but he said, ' No, let us go into this hall, I cannot 
see you elsewhere.' They entered, and I closed the door, which 
was of glass. The king sat down, the queen on his left, Madame 


Elizabeth on his right, Madame Royale almost opposite, and the 
young prince remained standing between the king's knees. All 
bent towards him, and he often clasped them in his embrace. 
This scene of sorrow lasted an hour and three-quarters, during 
which it was impossible to hear anything ; all that could be seen 
was that, after every phrase of the king, the sobs of the princesses 
redoubled, and lasted for several minutes, and that then the king 
recommenced speaking. It was easy to judge by their movements 
that he himself had told them of his condemnation. 

" At a quarter to ten, the king rose up first, and all followed 
him ; I opened the door ; the queen held the king by the right 
arm. Their Majesties each gave a hand to the Dauphin ; Madame 
Royale on the left clasped the king by the waist ; Madame Eliza- 
beth on the same side, but more in the rear, grasped the arm of 
her august brother ; they made some steps towards the entrance 
door, uttering the most lamentable groans. ' I assure you,' said 
the king, 'I shall see you to-morrow morning at eight o'clock.' 
' You promise that?' they all cried together. ' Yes, I promise it.' 
'Why not at seven?' said the queen. 'Well, yes, at seven,' re- 
plied the king. 'Adieu.' He pronounced this adieu in such an 
expressive manner that their sobs redoubled. Madame Royale 
fainted at the king's feet which she clasped ; I raised her and 
helped Madame Elizabeth to support her. The king, wishing to 
put an end to this heart-rending scene, gave them the tenderest 
embraces, and had the courage to tear himself from their arms. 
'Adieu, . . . Adieu, . . , ' he said, and returned to his cham- 
ber."— yi9z^r«a/â?'<? Cléry. 

On July 3, the queen was deprived of her son. 

"Louis XVII. was torn from the queen's arms, and confined 
in the part of the tower which the king had occupied. There, the 
young prince, whom some of the regicides called the wolf-cub of 
the Temple, was abandoned to the brutality of a man called 
Simon, who had been a cobbler, and was a drunkard, gambler, 
and debauchee. The age, innocence, misfortune, celestial visage, 
the languor and the tears of the royal child, could not soften this 
savage keeper. One day when drunk he nearly knocked out, 
with a blow of his napkin, the eye of the prince, whom, by a 
refinement of cruelty, he had compelled to wait on him at table. 
He beat him mercilessly. 

"One day, in a fit of rage, he took up one of the andirons, 
and, holding it over him, threatened to brain him. The heir of 


so many kings heard, at every instant, nothing but coarse words 
and obscene songs. ' Capet,' said Simon one day, ' if these men 
of La Vendée deliver thee, what wouldest thou do?' 'I would 
pardon you' replied the young king." — Iftie, '' Dernières années de 

Louis xvir 

The Dauphin died in his prison, of the ill-treatment he 
had received, on June 9, 1795. 

On August 2, 1793, the queen was separated from her 
daughter and Madame Elizabeth, and removed to the 
Conciergerie. Madame Royale relates — 

"On the 2d of August, at two in the morning, they awoke 
us to read to my mother the decree of the Convention, which 
ordered that, on the requisition of the Procurer of the Commune, 
she was to be taken to the Conciergerie for trial. She heard the 
decree read without emotion, or saying a single word ; my aunt 
and I asked at once to accompany my mother, but the favor was 
not granted. While she was packing up her clothes the municipals 
never quitted her ; she was even obliged to dress in their presence. 
They asked for her pockets ; she gave them over, and they 
searched them and took all that was in them. . . . My mother, 
after tenderly embracing me, and bidding me to take courage, to 
take care of my aunt, and obey her as a second mother, repeated 
the instructions of my father ; then, flinging herself in my aunt's 
arms, she commended her children to her. I made no reply, so 
afraid was I of seeing her for the last time ; my aunt said some 
words in a very low tone. Then my mother departed without 
casting her eyes on us, from fear, no doubt, lest her firmness 
should leave her. As she went out, she struck her head against 
the wicket, having forgotten to stoop. Some one asked if she 
was hurt. ' Oh, no,' she replied, * nothing can hurt me now ! ' " — 
Récit des événements anivés au Temple. 

On May 9, 1794, Madame Elizabeth was carried off to 
execution, and her niece was left alone in her prison. 

"The 9th of May, just as we were going to bed, the bolts 
were drawn back and there was a knock at our door. My aunt 
replied she was putting on her dress ; the answer was, that that 
could not take such a long time, and the knocking became so 
violent that we thought the door would be forced. She opened 



it when she was dressed. 'Citizeness,' they said, 'wilt thou come 
down?' 'And my niece?' ' She will be attended to after.' My 
aunt embraced me and told me to calm myself, as she would return. 
'No, citizeness, thou wilt not return,' some one said; 'get thy 
cap and come down !* Insults of the coarsest kind were heaped 
upon her ; she bore them with patience, took her cap, embraced 
me again, bade me have courage and firmness, to put my trust 
in God, to observe the principles of religion taught me by my 
parents, and never to forget the last advice of my father and my 
mother. She went out. When she had descended, they asked for 
her pockets ; there was nothing in them. At last, after a 
thousand insults, she departed with the usher of the tribunal."— 
Récit des événements arfivés au Temple. 

Madame Royale was released from the Temple, De- 
cember 19, 1795, ^ft^'^ 3. captivity of three years, four 
months and five days. 

" She left no other trace of her captivity and her tears in her 
person than these two lines engraved by her on the stone of the 
window during the long inaction of her confinement. ' O my 
father, watch over me from heaven above ! O my God, pardon 
those who slew my father!'" — Lamartine, ''Hist, de la Res- 

Nothing is now left of the Temple, but (near a rock on 
the south side of the square) the weeping-willow which 
Madame Royale, then Duchesse d'Angoulême, planted in 
1 8 14, on the site of the prison of her sorrows. 

Higher up the Rue du Temple (left) is the Church of 
St. Elizabeth^ founded by Marie de Medicis in 1628, for a 
convent of Franciscan nuns. It contains a singular font 
of 1654, and 100 little XVI. c. sculptures in wood, of Bible 
History, said to come from a church at Arras. 

In the Rue de Bretagne, running along the lower side 
of the Jardin du Temple, No. i is the ancient Hotel de 
Tallard^ the staircase of which is a masterwork of Bullet. 
The Rue de Bretagne will take us into the Rue Vieille du 
Temple^ one of the busiest streets of the quarter. 


On the east, the Rue des Coutures St. Gervais contains 
(No. i), the entrance to the Ecok Centrale des Arts et 
Manufactures. The hotel was built, in 1656, for the 
financier, Aubert de Fontenay. His monogram remains 
on the balustrude of the splendid staircase. His having 
become enriched by the salt-tax at one time gave his 
house the name- of Hôtel Salé. Long the Venetian em- 
bassy, it became the property of the Maréchal de Villeroy, 


then of M. de Juigné, archbishop of Paris. The archi- 
épiscopal kitchens are now laboratories. A great hall is 
called the Salle de Jupiter. 

The Rue Vieille du Temple is full of fine old houses. 
No. 108 has a handsome courtyard in brick and stone. 
At No. 54 is the Tourelle of the Hôtel Barbette, which 
we shall return to in the next chapter. The gateway 
at No. 87 leads into the courtyard of the stately Palais 



Cardinal^ begun, in 17 12, upon part of the site pre- 
viously occupied by the Hôtel de Soubise. The court 
of this place and its surroundings are magnificent of their 
kind, and were famous as the residence of the handsome 
and dissolute Cardinal de Rohan, who, utterly duped 
by the intrigues of a woman calling herself Comtesse 
Lamotte Valois, was arrested for the " affaire du collier," 
and imprisoned in the Bastille. It was his trial (followed 
by an acquittal) which rendered Marie Antoinette unpopu- 
lar with the clergy and a great part of the aristocracy, 



besides causing an exposure of court scandals and extrava- 
gance fatally injurious to her with the people. This was 
the Cardinal Grand Almoner of France, who, when his 
brother, the Grand Chamberlain, failed for thirty-three 
millions, announced proudly — " II n'y a qu'un roi ou un 
Rohan qui puisse faire une pareille banqueroute; c'était 
une banqueroute de souverain." 

The Palais Cardinal is now used for the Impri??ierie 
Natio?iale (open to visitors provided with an order at 2 p.m. 
on Thursdays). The institution has its origin in the Im- 


primerie Royale established by François I. in the Louvre. 
It was partly transferred to the Elysée Bourbon in 1792, 
and was established in the Hôtel de Toulouse in 1798. 
In 1809 it was brought to its present site. The most 
interesting typographical curiosity here is the set of mat- 
rices of the Grec du Roi — Greek characters engraved 
for François I. 

At No. 47, opposite the Marché des Blancs-Manieaux, 
is the Hôtel de Hollande, which was the residence of the 
ambassador of Holland under Louis XIV. It was built 
in the XVII. c. by Pierre Cottard for Amelot de Bisseul, 
and was, at one time, the residence of Beaumarchais. 
The splendid entrance recalls that of the Ecole de Dessin ; 
its gates are decorated with Medusa heads, angels sup- 
porting shields, &c. The court is very rich in sculptured 
Caryatides. At the back of the entrance portal is a great 
relief by Regnaudin of Romulus and Remus suckled by 
the wolf and found by the shepherd Faustulus. The 
rooms were adorned with bas-reliefs and paintings by 
Sarazin, Poerson, Vouet, Dorigny, and Corneille. 




THERE are, as a whole, more historic relics remaining 
in the Marais than in any other part of Paris. In 
the XVIII. c. the Marais was regarded rather as a prov- 
ince than as a quarter of Paris : thus we read in the song 
of Collé and Sedaine : 

"On n'est plus de Paris quand on est du Marais, 
Vive, vive le quartier du Marais."* 

" Here you find at least the age of Louis XIII., with its super- 
annuated manners and opinions. The Marais is to the brilliant 
quarter of the Palais Royal what Vienna is to London. Want 
does not reign there, but a perfect mass of old prejudices ; small 
fortunes take refuge there. There are seen old grumblers, dull, 
enemies to all new ideas, and imperious dowagers who find 
fault, without reading, with the authors whose names reach their 
ears. There philosophers are called 'people to be burnt.' If 
one has the misfortune to sup there, one meets only stupid peo- 
ple ; it is in vain to look for amiable men who adorn their idea^ 
with the brilliancy of wit and the charms of sentiment." — TablecM 
de Pmis, 1782. 

Turning east from the Rue Vieille du Temple, by the 
Rue des Francs-Bourgeois, we find at the angle a pictur- 
esque and beautiful old house, with an overhanging tourelle, 

* " Mauvaise plaisanterie sur le quartier du Marais." 


ornamented by niches and pinnacles. It takes its name of 
Hôtel Barbette from Etienne Barbette, Master of the Mint, 
and confidential friend of Philippe de Bel, " directeur de la 
monnoie et de la voierie de Paris," who built a house here 
in 1298. At that time the house stood in large gardens 
which occupied the whole space between the Cultures St. 


Catherine, du Temple, and St. Gervais, and which had 
belonged to the canons of St. Opportune. Three more of 
these vast garden spaces, then called courtilles, existed in 
this neighborhood, those of the Temple, St. Martin, and 
St. Boucelais. It is recorded that when the king offended 
the people in 1306, by altering the value of the coinage, 

HÔTEL BAKBirrrii 163 

they avenged themselves by tearing up the trees in the 
Courtille Barbette, as well as by sacking the hotel of the 
minister, for which twenty-eight men were hanged at the 
principal gates of Paris. Afterwards the Hôtel Barbette 
became the property of Jean de Montagu, then sovereign- 
master of France, and vidame de Laonois ; and, in 1403, 
it was bought by the wicked Queen Isabeau de Bavière, 
wife of Charles VI., and became her favorite residence, 
known as " le petit séjour de la reine." 

At the Hôtel Barbette, Queen Isabeau was not only 
freed from the presence of her insane husband, who re- 
mained at the Hôtel St. Paul under the care of a mistress, 
but could give herself up without restraint to her guilty 
passion for her brother-in-law, Louis, Due d'Orléans, who, 
in the words of St. Foix, "tâchoit de désennuyer cette 
princesse à l'hôtel Barbette." Here, also, were decided 
all those affairs of state with which the queen and her lover 
played, as the poor king, at the Hôtel St. Paul, with his 
cards, though, whatever his faults, the Due d'Orléans was 
at this time the only rampart of fallen monarchy, and the 
only protector of the future king against the rapacity of the 
Duke of Burgundy. 

It was on Wednesday, November 23, 1407, that the 
queen had attired herself for the evening in her trailing 
robes and head-dress " en cornes merveilleuses, hautes et 
longues enchâssées de pierreries," to receive the Duc 
d'Orléans, whom Brantôme describes as " ce grand des- 
baucheur des dames de la cour et des plus grandes." 
Whilst they were supping magnificently, one of the royal 
valets named Schas de Courte Heuse, entered, and an- 
nounced that the king desired the Duke of Orleans to come 
to him immediately, as he wanted to speak to him on mat- 
ters of the utmost importance. A presentiment of evil pos- 



sessed the queen; but the duke, "sans chaperon, après 
avoir mis sa houppelande de damas noir fourre'e," went out 
at once, playing with his glove as he went, and mounted 
his mule, accompanied only by two squires riding on the 
same horse, by a page called Jacob de Merre, and three 
running footmen with torches. But Raoul d'Octouville, 
formerly head of the finances, who had been dismissed 
from his post by the duke, was waiting in the shade, ac- 
companied by seventeen armed men, and instantly rushed 
upon him, with cries of " A mort ! à mort ! " By the first 
blow of his axe Raoul cut off the hand with which the duke 
guided his mule, and by another blow cleft open his head. 
In vain the duke cried out, " Je suis le duc d'Orléans ; " 
no one attempted to help him, and he soon tottered and 
fell. One of his servants flung himself upon his prostrate 
body to defend it, and was killed upon the spot. Then, as 
Raoul held over his victim a torch which he had snatched 
from one of the footmen, and exclaimed, " II est bien 
mort ! " it is affirmed that a hooded figure emerged from 
the neighboring Hôtel Notre-Dame, and cried, " Extin- 
guish the lights, then, and escape." On the following day 
the same figure was recognized at the funeral of the Duke 
of Orleans in his owe chapel at the Celestins ; it was his 
first cousin, the Due de Bourgogne. Only two years later 
Jean de Montagu, Prime Minister and Superintendent of 
Finances, the former owner of the Hôtel Barbette, was be- 
headed at the Halles, and afterwards hanged, on an accu- 
sation of peculation, but in truth for no other reason than 
because he was the enemy of the Due de Bourgogne. 
Queen Isabeau left the Hôtel Barbette after the murder of 
her lover, and shut herself up in Vincennes. 

In 152 1 the Hôtel Barbette was inhabited by the old 
Comte de Brézé, described by Victor Hugo — 


" Affreux, mal bâti, mal tourné, 
Marqué d'une verrue au beau milieu du né. 
Borgne, disent les uns, velu, chétif et blême 


and it is said that his beautiful wife, Diane de St. Vallier, 
was leaning against one of the windows of the hotel, when 
she attracted the attention of François I., riding through 
the street beneath, and first received from that king a 


passing adoration which laid the foundation of her fort- 
unes, as queen of beauty, under his successor, Henri II. 
After the death of Diane in 1566, her daughters, the 
Duchesses Aumale and Bourbon, sold the Hôtel Barbette, 
which was pulled down, except the fragment which we 
still see, and which was restored in 1886. 

The J^iâe des Fra?ics- Bourgeois^ formerly called Rue des 



Vieilles Poulies, takes its name from the charity of Jean 
and Alix Roussel in 1350, who built twenty-four chambers 
here for the poor, and bequeathed them to the Grand 
Prior of France, on condition that two poor persons were 
to be lodged in each, at a very small rent, but free from 
all taxes. The street is full of fine old houses, with stately 
renaissance doorways, of which we give a specimen taken 
from No. 30. 

No. 14 is of the end of the XVI. c. Its brick façade 


is framed in stone with round niches. Its garden and 
lead fountain existed till lately. It was inhabited at one 
time by Barras. 

The stately house known as the ffofd de jfeajine 
d'Alhret is of the time of Louis XV. At the angle of the 
Rue Pavée, on the right, is the Hotel de La?noig7iofi, a 
magnificent historic mansion, begun by Diane de France, 
legitimatized daughter of Henri II., and Diane de Poitiers. 
She herself watched the building, and is commemorated in 
the D's and stags' heads amongst the ornaments. Her 


life here was like an expiatory offering for that of her 
mother. " L'hostel de la Duchesse," said Mathieu de 
Morgues, in her funeral oration, in 1612, " estoit un 
gynéce'e de pudeur." She bequeathed her hotel to the 
Due d'Angouleme, son of Charles IX. and Marie Touchet, 
half prince and half bandit. 


"When his servants asked for their wages, he used to say: 
' Shift for yourselves. Four streets run past the Hôtel d'Angou- 
leme. You are in a good spot. Take advantage of it, if you 
like.' " — Tallemant des Réaux. 

The two wings of the house are of the time of the 
Duke. His arms, which surmounted them, have dis- 
appeared from the cornices and pilasters. The wings 


were constructed to accord with the rest of the building : 
in the north wing is a beautiful balcony. The great 
engaged pilasters, with corinthian capitals, rising to the 
whole height of the building, often copied since, here find 
their prototype. The initials remaining over the entrance 
are those of M. de Lamoignon, though he did not come to 
the hotel till long after the date inscribed on the shield : 
the widow of the Due d'Angouleme lived there long after 
his death. The square tourelle at the angle overlooks the 
crossways, where the Due bade his servants to provide for 
their own subsistence. 

The hotel was bought in 1684, by the Président 
Chrétien-François de Lamoignon, who gave it his name. 
The first library of the town of Paris was installed here in 
1763, and added to the fame of the hotel till the Revolu- 
tion, when it was sold. 

The Riie Pavée once contained the Hôtels de la Houze, 
de Gaucher, de Châtillon, d'Herbouville, and de Savoisi. 
Here also, in the centre of an old aristocratic quarter, 
stood the hotel of the Due de la Force,^ which afterwards 
became the terrible prison of La Force. It was intended 
for those in a state of suspicion, and contained five courts, 
capable of holding twelve hundred captives. During the 
Great Revolution, these included numbers of the inmates 
of the neighboring hotels. One hundred and sixty-four 
innocent victims were massacred here alone. The prison 
was only destroyed in 185 1. Of all the tragedies con- 
nected with it, that which made most impression was the 
death of the Princesse de Lamballe, the most faithful of 
the friends of Marie Antoinette, who, having made good 

^ The original hotel, called du Roi de Sicile^ was built by Charles d'Anjou, 
brother of St. Louis. It was often rebuilt, and, in 1621, was called Hôtel de 
Roquelaure after its sale to Antoine de Roquelaure in the XVI. c, and Hôtel 
de st. Paul after its sale to the C mte de St. Paul in the XVII. c. 


her escape at the time of the flight of the royal family to 
Vincennes, insisted upon returning to share the mistort- 
unes of her royal mistress. The prisoners in La Force, 
who included Mme de Tourzel and Mme de St. Brice, 
also members of the household of Marie Antoinette, were 
tried by a self-instituted tribunal, composed from the dregs 
of Paris. When Mme de Lamballe was dragged before 
them, surrounded by men whose faces, hands, clothes, and 
weapons were covered with blood, and heard the cries of 
the unfortunates who were being murdered in the streets, 
she fainted away. After she was restored by the care of 
her lady-in-waiting, who had followed her, the so-called 
judges demanded if she was cognizant of the plots of the 
tenth of August. " I do not even know if there were any 
plots," she replied. " Swear liberty, equality, hatred of 
the king, the queen, and royalty." " I can easily swear 
the two first," she answered. " I cannot swear the last ; it 
is not in my heart." " Swear, or you are lost 1 " whispered 
one of the assistants. The Princess did not answer, lifted 
her hands, covered her face, and made a step towards the 
entrance. The formula, " Madame is at liberty," which 
meant certain death, was pronounced ; two men seized her 
by the arms and dragged her forward. She had scarcely 
passed the threshold before she received a blow from a 
sabre at the back of her head. The monsters who held 
her then tried to force her to walk in the blood and over 
the corpses of others, to the spot marked out for her own 
fate, but, happily, her bodily powers again failed, and she 
sank unconscious. She was immediately despatched by 
blows from pikes, her clothes were torn off, and her body 
was exposed for more than two hours to the horrible in- 
sults of the people. Then her heart was torn out, and her 
head cut off, an unhappy hairdresser was compelled to curl 


and powder its long hair, and finally head and heart, pre- 
ceded by fifes and drums, were carried at the end of pikes, 
first to the Abbaye, to be exhibited to the intimate friend 
of the Princess, Mme de Beauveau, then to the Temple to 
be shown to the Queen !' 

"The assassins who had come to murder her made useless 
efforts to force her to repeat the insults with which they loaded 
the sacred name of the Queen. ' No, no,' she replied, ' Never ! 
Never ! Death sooner ! ' Her butchers dragged her to the heap 
of corpses and forced her to kneel ; then, after giving her several 
sabre cuts, they tore open her bosom, cut out her heart, cut off 
her head, and painted its cheeks with blood ; a wretched barber 
was forced to curl and powder her long blonde tresses, the most 
beautiful in the world, and then these cannibals formed them- 
selves into a hideous procession, preceded by fifes and drums ; 
they carried the head on a pike and displayed it to the Duke of 
Orleans, who showed himself on a balcony of his hotel by the 
side of Mme Agnès de Buffon." — Souvenirs de la Marquise de 

At the corner of the Rue des Francs- Bourgeois and the 
Rue de Sévigné, formerly Rue Culture St. Catherine, 
stands the famous Hotel Carnavalet, built 1544, for the 
Président de Ligneris, from designs of Pierre Lescot and 
De Bullant, and sold in 1578 to Françoise de la Baume, 
dame de Kernevenoy, a Breton name which has remained 
attached to the hotel in its softened form of Carnavalet, 
Under her son. Du Cerceau built the left wing of the 
court, and figures of the Four Elements, in the style of 
Jean Goujon, were added from his designs. In 1664, M. 
de Carnavalet, lieutenant of the guard, sold the hotel to 
M. d'Agaurri, a magistrate of Dauphine, for whom Van 
Obstal added the reliefs of the outer walls, and the figures 
of Force and Vigilance on the façade. Mansart was em- 
ployed to restore the whole building, but the great master 

» Bertrand de Moleville, Mémoires. 



wisely forbore much to alter what he considered an archi- 
tectural masterpiece. He added a row of his ma7isanies 
towards the garden, and some Ionic pilasters to the inner 
façade of the court, but refused to touch the outer front. 
Being kept away from, Paris by his duties in Dauphine', M. 
d'Agaurri let the hotel he had restored at so much expense 
— first, in 1677, to Mme de Lillebonne, who ceded it in a 


few months to Mme de Se'vigné, who found " La Carna- 
valette " exactly to her fancy. 

It is to having been the residence of the famous Mar- 
quise de Sévigné from 1677 to 1698, that the hotel owes 
its celebrity. On October 7, 1677, she was able to write, 
"Dieu merci, nous avons l'hôtel Carnavalet. C'est une 
affaire admirable, nous y tiendrons tous, et nous aurons le 
bel air." She was delighted with the neighborhood of the 
Annondades, whom she called "les bonnes petites filles 


bleues," in whose chapel she could hear mass. But she 
was long in installing herself, all her friends had their inais^ 
their si, their car, and her daughter's discontented tempera- 
ment always found something to find fault with in the fire- 
place of the time of Henri II., old-fashioned by a century, 
the antiquated distribution of the rooms, the insufficient 
parquet, &c. Thus it took two years before Mme de Sé- 
vigné was settled in the hotel. " Nous voilà donc arrêtés à 
l'hôtel Carnavalet, nous ne pouvions mieux faire," she 
wrote on October i8, 1679, and henceforward the society 
of the Hôtel Carnavalet, which may be said to have 
brought about the renaissance of the French language, be- 
came typical of all that was most refined and intellectual 
in France, uniting many of those familiar to us from the 
portraits of Lebrun and Hyacinthe Rigaud. It was hence, 
too, that many of the famous letters were written by the 
adoring mother to the absent daughter, after her marriage 
with the Marquis de Grignan, mingled with complaints 
that she could not let her daughter's unoccupied room — 
*' ce logis qui m'a fait tant songer à vous ; ce logis que tout 
le monde vient voir, que tout le monde admire ; et que 
personne ne veut louer." 

"Mme de Sévigné never left it afterwards ; she was its soul, 
and remains its glory. High above all that succeeded her, her name 
floats with a splendor which prevents a glance at anything else. 
' The misfortune of not having her is always a new sorrow to 
me,' wrote Mme de Coulanges, a year after her death ; ' there is 
too great a void in the Hôtel Carnavalet.' Since then there has 
been a void still, whatever were the persons or personages who 
came there. Brunet de Rancy, two years after her, brought only 
his importance as Farmer General with its clinking gold, which 
soumded less loudly than the wit that had disappeared. Then 
came the charlatans, with their transfusion of blood, and, later, 
chance placed the storeroom of the library where the marquise had 
made the most charming of books, while she was believing that 



she was only writing letters. The school of Ponts et Chaussées was 
then established there, as if to level whatever remained of wit. 
Luckily, a scholar with wit, M. de Prony, was the director, and 
the salon of Mme de Sévigné could imagine that there was no 
geometry in the house. The last tenants were a boarding-school 
keeper and his scholars." — Edouaj'd Fottrnier, '^^ Paris Guide" 

The main building of the hotel is flanked by two pavil- 
ions. The lions which adorn its façade are from the hand 
of Jean Goujon, as well as the tympanums and the winged 
figure on the keystone of the gateway. In the court, the 
building facing th*e entrance is adorned with statues of the 
Four Seasons, from the school of Jean Goujon ; the cen- 
tral group, of Fame and her messengers, is by the great 
artist himself. 

"The door has a bold arch, and is surmounted by a light, 
female figure, with a floating, diaphanous robe, like the Naiads of 
Jean Goujon, exquisite, smiling, slender, like all his figures, 
erect on one foot, this foot placed on a charming mask. Below 
the mask, a part, I suppose, of the ' canting arms' of Carnavalet, 
is an escutcheon mutilated by the hammer, where doubtless once 
were seen the black and white armorial bearings of Sévigné, and 
the four crosses of Rabutin, of which the Count de Bussy was so 
proud. Lions, Victories, Roman bucklers, and Fames extended in 
long bas-reliefs on each side of the door, which an artist of bad 
taste, in the time of Louis XIV., had worked eji rocaille, in * ver- 
miculated embossings,' as the architects said, in words as barba- 
rous as the thing." — A. Loeve-Veimars. 

Mme de Sévigné and her daughter, when at Paris, in- 
habited the first floor of the main building, reached by the 
stone staircase which still exists, and her chamber is still 
pointed out. M. de Grignan, on his brief visits to Paris, 
occupied the ground-floor rooms below. The young Mar- 
quis de Sévigné had the apartment towards the street ; and 
the Abbé de Coulanges, uncle of the Marquise, the right 
wing towards the court. The left wing contained the prin- 
cipal reception-rooms. 


The hotel is now occupied as the Musée Municipal, 
chiefly devoted to memorials of the Great Revolution 
{open from 11/^4 o?i Thursdays and Saturdays^, and a 
Library of Books on the History of Paris [open from \o to 
4 daily). 

On the ground floor are remains of Roman tombs found at 
Paris, and fragments of the early basilica which preceded Notre 
Dame. At the top of the stairs we should notice remains of the 
prison doors of the Conciergerie from the cells of Mme Roland 
and Robespierre, and also the door of a cell iij the Hotel des Hari- 
cots (the prison of the National Guard), decorated by the pris- 

In the Grande Salle is a model of the Bastille, and the banner 
of the Emigration ; in a glass case (on the side of the entrance) 
are Jacobin caps. Amongst the pictures is one of Robespierre 
at twenty-four — a family portrait, painted at Arras by Boilly in 
1783. In the second window is an official notice of the execution 
of Louis XVI. On the side of the armoire is a sketch of Marie 
Antoinette taken in the Conciergerie by Prieur. 

Amongst the china in the Gallery is the famous " tasse de la 
guillotine." In the middle of the second gallery is a bust of 
Bailly, given" by his daughter, and one of the official busts of 
Marat, erected in all the halls of sections in Paris, after his assas- 

In the Salon central, the carved panelling comes from the 
Hôtel des Stuarts, in the Rue St. Hyacinthe. Here is the arm- 
chair in which Voltaire died, from his chamber in the Hôtel de 
Villette, Rue de Beaune. 

The decorations of the Salon des Tableaux were those of the 
salle-à-manger in the Hôtel de Dangeau, in the Place Royale. 

The garden (which will be entered by an arch transported 
from the Rue de Nazareth) contains a number of historic relics — 
statues from Anet ; a statue of Abundance from the Marché St. 
Germain ; a relief by Auguier from the Porte St. Antoine ; the 
old Fontaine St. Michel ; a retable from a chapel at St. Mery, 
1542, by Pierre Berton de St. Quentin, &c. 

The name of Rue Culture or Couture St. Catherine, 
now changed to Rue de Sévigné, was all that remained of 
the convent and church of St. Catherine du Val des Eco- 

RUE DE ru RENNE ly^ 

liers, which was a thanksgiving for the victory of Bovines/ 
the street having been built on cultivated land belonging 
to the convent. In this street, at the corner near the Ho- 
tel Carnavalet, lived the beautiful Jewess of whom the 
Due d'Orléans was enamored, and at whose door the Con- 
nétable Olivier de Clisson was attacked by assassins, hired 
by the Baron de Craon, and left for dead, though he event- 
ually recovered. 

"A celebrated event, so circumstantially told by our his- 
torians, that we seem to be present at it. We see him passing 
in a dark night, this Grand Constable, armed only with a small 
cutlass, trotting on his good horse along this narrow deserted 
street. The assassins are hid under the awning of the baker, 
where they were waiting for him ; we hear the sound of the heavy 
fall of the horse, pierced by three deep sword cuts, the noise of 
the fall of the Constable, whose head struck against a door which 
it burst open ; his entreaties, his groans, the steps of the fleeing 
assassins, and then silence. Then the cries of the townsfolk 
running with torches, barefooted, hatless, and the king, who was 
aroused just as he was going to bed, to whom they announced 
the death of his good Constable, and who wrapped himself in a 
great coat, se fait bouter ses souliers es pieds, and ran to the spot 
where they told him his good Constable had just been slain." — 
A. Lolve-Veimars. 

The Rue du Roi de Sicile^ which turns to the right from 
the Rue de Sévigné close to the Rue de Rivoli, com- 
memorates Charles d'Anjou, brother of St. Louis. 

The next turn from the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois on 
the left is the Rue de Tureime^ formerly St. Louis aux 
Marais, which takes its present name from the hotel of 
the famous marshal, turned into a monastery in 1684, and 
destroyed during the Revolution. The hotel occupied the 
site of the Church of St. Deitis du Sacre77ie?it. The poet 
Crébillon lived next door. The chancellor Boucherat 

» The fine tomb of Mme de Birague, now in the Louvre, came from this 
church, destroyed at the Revolution. 


resided, at the end of the XVII. c, at No. 40, afterwards 
the Hôtel d'Ecquevilly. 

It was in the Rue St. Louis that Mme de Maintenon 
lived with her first husband, the poet Scarron, and made 
his little dinners so entertaining that their simple servant 
would whisper in her ear, " Madame, encore une histoire, 
nous n'avons pas le rôti." Such was her poverty before 
her marriage that she was obliged to borrow the dress she 
was married in from her friend Mile de Pons, who after- 
wards, as Mme d'Heudicourt, had an apartment at Ver- 

From the Rue Turenne opens on the right the Rtie des 
Minimes^ which formerly contained the splendid Hôtel de 
Vitry, and which took its name from the Minimi of the 
Capuchin Convent. Its church, celebrated for the ser- 
mons of Bourdaloue, contained magnificent tombs of the 
families of Colbert, Villarcerf, Vieville, Perigny, Le Jay, 
and Castille. In one chapel were those of two royal 
bastards — Diane, Duchesse d'Angoulême, daughter of 
Henri IL, and Charles, Due d'Angoulême, famous for his 
conspiracies against Henri IV. All these tombs were 
destroyed or dispersed at the Revolution. 

"Two doors farther, a house of a courtesan opened at early- 
dawn and a man came out, his cloak up to his nose, and glided 
along the walls. The house was well known ; it was that of the 
fair Roman, the most famous courtesan of the time of Henri II. 
The man was well known also ; he was called Charles of Lor- 
raine, Due de Guise, cardinal, archbishop, the most daring, the 
most eloquent, the most vicious man of his times. His company 
of guards, which never quitted him, even at the altar, where it 
mingled the smell of gunpowder and fuses with the odor of the 
incense, was dispensed with when he visited such places. A bad 
arrangement, for he had all the trouble in the world to escape 
the ruffians who followed him, and to reach his beautiful Hôtel de 
Cluny, with its three hundred halberdiers." — A. Loeve-Veimars. 


Higher up, the Rue de Normandie idXX'à^ on the left, into 
the Rue de Turenne. 

" The Rue de Normandie is one of those streets in the midst 
of which one could fancy one was in the provinces. The grass 
is growing, a passer-by is an event, everybody knows everybody. 
The houses date from the epoch when, under Henri IV., a 
quarter was commenced, in which each street bore«the name of a 
province, and in the centre was to be a beautiful square dedi- 
cated to France. The idea of the ' quartier de V Europe' was a 
repetition of this plan. The world repeats itself in everything, 
even in speculations." — Balzac, '' Les parents pauvres.'" 

On the right the Rue St, Claude connects the Rue de 
Turenne with the Boulevard. Here Cagliostro lived, in 
the house of the Marquis d'Orville. 

The Rue des Francs-Bourgeois now leads into the 
Places des Vosges, which may be regarded as the heart of 
the Marais. Imagined by Sully, carried out by Henri IV. 
in his early existence as the Place Royale, this was one of 
the most celebrated squares in Europe. 

" Great edifices in brick and stone, ornamented with panels, 
bosses, and heavy moulded windows. It is the style of old 
French architecture which followed the Renaissance and pre- 
ceded the modern era ; we see it with its front of two colors, its 
pilasters, its partitions, its great roofs of slate, topped by leaden 
ridges formed into divers ornaments. The judicious arrange- 
ment of the Place Royal deservedly receives praise ; vast gal- 
leries reserved for foot passengers surround it, then there are 
four broad roads for riders and carriages, and in the centre a 
garden protected by an iron railing." — De Guilhermy. 

The site had been previously occupied by the palace 
called Hôtel des Tournelles, a name derived from the 
endless turrets with which its architect had loaded it, 
either for ornament or defence. Pierre d'Orgemont, 
chancellor of France, built the first stately house here in 
1380, and bequeathed it to his son, who was bishop of 


Paris. The bishop sold it, in 1402, to Jean, Due de Berry, 
one of the uncles of Charles VI., from whom it passed to 
his nephew, the Due d'Orléans, and from him to the king. 
In its original state, the hotel stood like a eountry house 
in a wood ealled the Pare des Tournelles, whieh has left 
a name to the Rue du Pare- Roy al. " En cet hostel," says 
Dubreul in his Théâtre des Antiquitez de Paris, "s'allaient 
réeréer souventefois nos Roys, pour la beauté et eom- 
modité dudit lieu." Léon de Lusignan, king of Armenia, 
died here in 1393. The Duke of Bedford, regent of 
France after the death of Henri V., lived in the Hôtel des 
Tournelles, and kept flocks of peacocks and multitudes of 
rarer birds in its gardens. There also he established the 
royal library of the Louvre (of which he had become the 
possessor, and which he afterwards carried to England), 
and there he lost his beautiful wife, Anne de Bourgogne, 
buried close by, in the Célestins under an exquisite monu- 
ment. Whenever Louis XI. visited Paris, the hotel was 
his residence, and it was there that, in 1467, he received 
his queen, Margaret of Scotland. In his later life, how- 
ever, Louis XL only cared to live in Touraine, where he 
died at Plessis les Tours, and his son, Charles VI 1 1., 
made his home exclusively at Blois, of which he had 
watched the building. But Louis XII. always liked the 
Hôtel des Tournelles, where he spent his happiest days 
with his beloved Anne of Brittany. Thither he returned 
after his third marriage with Mary, of England, the young ^ 
wife who so entirely upset all his old-fashioned ways — 
forcing him to dine at 12, instead of 8 o'clock a.m., and 
to go to bed at midnight, instead of at 6 p.m. — that she 
caused his death in a few months. He expired on 
January 2, 15 15, at the Hôtel des Tournelles, where the 
crieurs du corps rang their bells round the building in whieh 


the dead king lay, and cried lamentably, " Le bon roi 
Louis, père du peuple, est mort ! " The two successors 
of Louis, François l. and Henri II., were so occupied 
with the building of their country châteaux at Fontaine- 
bleau, Compiègne, Rambouillet, St. Germain, Chambord, 
&c , that they only came to the Hôtel des Tournelles for 
the tournaments, which in earlier days had taken place in 
the grounds of the Hôtel de St. Paul, but were now trans- 
ferred to the Rue St. Antoine. It was in a tournament of 
this kind, held in honor of the marriage of Elizabeth of 
France with Philippe II. of Spain, that Henri (June 28, 
1559), bearing the colors of Diane des Poitiers, in tilting 
with the Comte de Montgomery, captain of the body- 
guard, received a wound in the eye, of which, ten days 
after, he died in great agony, in the old palace, through 
which the people of Paris poured for many days, to visit 
his body, lying in a chapelle ardente. 

After this catastrophe the kings of France abandoned 
what they considered the ill-omened Hôtel des Tournelles. 
The insistence of Catherine de Medicis, widow of Henri 
IL, even procured an order for the destruction of the 
hotel, but it was only carried out as regarded that part of 
the building where the king had died, and a fragment of 
the palace was still existing in 1656, when it was sold to 
the Filles de Sainte-Croix. In 1578 a horse-market occu- 
pied part of the grounds of the hotel, and it was there that 
the famous Co77ibat des Mignons took place, and was fatal 
to several of the unpopular favorites of Henri IIL 

Henri IV. had used the last existing remains of the 
palace to hold two hundred Italian workmen, whom he 
jiad brought from their own country in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century that they might establish the manu- 
facture of stuffs woven with gold and silver tissue in 


France. At that time Henri had already formed the idea 
of making the Marais the handsomest quarter of Paris. 
The plans adopted for the Place Royale were those fur- 
nished by the austere Huguenot, Antoine du Cerceau. 
The king built the side towards the Hôtel de Sully (in the 
Rue St. Antoine) entirely at his own expense, and then 
conceded plots of land on the other sides to his courtiers, 
on condition of their erecting houses at once, according to 
the designs they received, each landowner only being 
required to pay an annual tax of a golden crown, so that 
only thirty-six gold crowns were received for the thirty-six 
pavilions surrounding the square. 

At the same time the king opened the four streets 
leading to the square : the Rue du Parc-Royal, the Petite 
Rue Royale, afterwards called the Pas-de-la-Mule, and the 
Rue de la Coulture St. Catherine, and he erected the two 
central pavilions on the south and north, which were called 
respectively, Pavilion du Roi and Pavilion de la Reine. 
Every day, whilst he was at Paris, Henri IV. came him- 
self to visit and stimulate the workmen, and when he was 
at Fountainebleau he wrote constantly to Sully to beg him 
to urge them on. "Je vous recommande la Place Royale," 
he would add to his letters on other subjects. Coming 
one day to look at the work, he was mortified to find that 
one of the private individuals to whom he had allotted a 
site was vaulting in stone the portico under his house, 
which the king in his own building had only ceiled with 
wood. Mortified to be outdone by a subject, he consulted 
his mason, who cleverly propitiated the royal pride by 
promising to imitate the superior work in plaster so well 
that no one would find out the difference. Henri declared 
that as soon as it was ready for him he should come and 
inhabit the Pavilion du Roi ; but the square was unfinished 


at the time of his death, in 1610, and it was only opened 
with great magnificence five years later, on the occasion 
of the marriage of î^lizabeth, sister of Louis XllL, with 
the Infant of Spain. It was the splendid court fête then 
given which made the new square become at once the 
fashion, and the Place Royale remained the centre of all 
that was most aristocratic, till the financial world invaded 
it at the end of the seventeenth century. In the proudest 
time of the square, however, the celebrated Marion de 
Lorme inhabited the pavilion which had been purchased 
by the Due de la Meilleraie, and there she died in 1650, 
and, in the words of Tallemant des Réaux, " On la vit 
morte, durant vingt-quatre heures, sur son lit avec une 
couronne de pucelle." 

With the comparative lawlessness of the times, though 
Louis XIII. had issued severe ordinances for the repres- 
sion of dueling, not only were duels of frequent occurrence 
in the Place Royale, but the balconies and windows of the 
square used to be filled with spectators to witness them, 
like a theatrical representation in broad daylight. Six of 
the noblest young gentlemen of the Court fought thus, 
with fatal results, on May 12, 1627. The last duel in the 
Place Royale was that of the Due de Guise and the Comte 
de Coligny, in December, 1643, ^^ decide the hereditary 
quarrels of their two houses, which ended fatally for the 
latter. As a warning and menace to duellists, Richelieu 
erected, in the centre of the square, a statue by Biard fils 
of Louis XIII. — "le très-grand, très-invincible, Louis le 
Juste," "armed after the mode of his age, and his plume 
of feathers on his head-piece," as the traveller Lister 
described it (1698). The figure was placed upon a horse 
which had been unemployed for three quarters of a cent- 
ury, but was the work of Daniele Ricciarelli da Volterra. 


The famous statue, which stood on a pedestal with proud 
inscriptions by the cardinal in honor of his master, was 
melted down for cannon in the Revolution of 1793. In 
1 70 1 a magnificent iron grille, bearing the emblems of 
Louis XIV., had been placed around the gardens. Even 
the Revolution itself respected its beauty ; but, in spite of 
the eloquent remonstrances of Victor Hugo (who was then 
living at No. 6, the house where Marion de Lorme died), 
it was removed in the reign of Louis Philippe to make 
way for a cast-iron railing in the commonplace taste of the 

" How many public and domestic events has this Place not 
seen during all the seventeenth century ! What noble tourna- 
ments, what haughty duels, what loving meetings ! What con- 
versations has it not heard, worthy of those of the Decameron, 
which Corneille collected in one of his earlier comedies, La Place 
Royale, and in several acts of Le Menteur ! What graceful creat- 
ures have dwelt in these pavilions ! What sumptuous furniture, 
what treasures of elegant luxury have not been assembled here ! 
What illustrious personages of all kinds have mounted these 
beautiful stairs ! Richelieu and Condé, Corneille and Molière 
have passed here a hundred times. It was while walking in this 
gallery that Descartes, conversing with Pascal, suggested to him 
the idea of his beautiful experiments on the weight of the air ; 
here, too, one evening, on leaving the house of Mme de Gué- 
ménée, the melancholy De Thou received from Cinq-Mars the 
involuntary confession of the conspiracy which was to bring 
them both to the scaffold. Here, to conclude, Mme de Sévigné 
was born, and near here she lived." — Victor Cousin, ^' Lajetmesse 
de AI me de Longueville." 

Many of the hotels of the Place Royale were like 
museums of historic relics and works of art, especially that 
of Richelieu and that of the Marquis de Dangeau. The 
ceilings of the hotel of M. de Nouveau were painted 
by Lebrun and Mignard. Houses were furnished with the 
utmost magnificence by the Comte de Tresmes, the Mar- 



qiiis de Breteuil, and the Marquis de Canillac ; but most 
of these hotels were already abandoned by their aristo- 
cratic owners at the time of the Revolution, when the 
Comte de Favras, who had only lately settled in the Place 
Royale, was accused of plotting against the government, 



and hanged like a common malefactor. Many think that 
the golden period of the Place did not arrive till it became 
the centre of the Society of the Nouvelles Précieuses (de- 
serters from the superior literary atmosphere of the Hôtel de 
Rambouillet), which Molière satirizes in his comedy of the 
Précieuses ridicules. One of the leaders of this society was 
Mile de Scudéry, authoress of the long allegorical romance 
of Cyrus, who came to settle in the Rue de Beauce, and 
whose Saturdays soon became the fashion, "pour recon- 
trer des beaux esprits." For thirty years, under the name 
of Sapho, she ruled as a queen in the second-class literary 
salons of the Marais, which was known as Leolie or I'Eolie 
in the dialect of the Précieuses, when the Place Dorique, 
as they called the Place Royale, was inhabited by Artémise 


or Mile Aragonois, Roxane or Mile Robineau, Glicerie or 
the beautiful Mile Legendre ; whilst Le gra7id Diction- 
naire des Précieuses (1661) informs us that Crisolis or Mile 
de Chavigny, and Nidalie or Mile de l'Enclos, lived close 
by. Molière had full opportunity of studying the eccen- 
tricities of this society whilst living in the quarter of the 
Arsenal in 1645. 

" Our heroes and heroines are devoted entirely to madrigals. 
Never were so many made, or so rapidl)^ This man has scarcely 
recited one, when that man feels another stirring in his brain. 
Here, four verses are repeated ; there some one is writing twelve. 
All was done gaily and without grimaces. No one bit his nails 
or lost his part in the laughter or the \2i\\i:'—PeUisson, '' Chro- 
tiiques du Sa??iedi.'^ 

The Place Royale, with its high-roofed houses of red 
brick coped with stone, surmounted by high roofs, and 
supported by arcades — the famous arcades where Cor- 
neille places the scene of one of his comedies— has never 
changed its ancient aspect. No. 21 was the house of 
Richelieu. In No. 9, which she had furnished splendidly, 
the great come'dienne, Mme Rachel, lay in state. A statue 
of Charles X. by Carot, on a horse by Dupaty, now takes 
the place of the statue of Louis XIII. in the centre of the 
square— an excellent example of the most deplorable stat- 
uary. Many of the old contemporar)^ hotels which occu- 
pied the precincts of the Place have been destroyed. 
Nothing remains of the Hôtel Nicolaï, at the entrance of 
the Rue de Turenne, or of the Hôtel de St. Géran, in the 
Rue du Parc-Royal. The Hôtel de Gue'ménée can no 
longer be distinguished from an ordinary house. 

Running east from the upper side of the square is the 
Rue des Vosges, till recently Rue Pas-de-la-Mule. Here 
Gilles le Maistre, first president of the Parliament of Paris, 


was daily seen passing on his mule, followed by his wife 
in a cart, and a servant on an ass. 

On the further side of the Rue des Toiirnelks which 
runs behind the houses on the east side of the Place des 
Vosges we may still visit (No. 28) the handsome Hbtel of 
Nino7i de /'^;;^/^j-— l'Eternelle Ninon — the friend of St. 
Evremond and the Duchesse de Mazarin, at whose beau- 
tiful feet three generations of the proud house of Sevignc 
knelt in turn, and who may be regarded as the last of the 
Précieuses of the Marais and Place Royale. The vestibule 
of the hotel retains its masks and caryatides ; the boudoir 
its painted ceiling; the staircase has only changed its 
stone balustrade for one of wood, and a well-preserved 
medallion of Louis XIV. remains in its place ; the salon 
on the first floor has a ceiling-painting of Apollo sur- 
rounded by the nine muses, by a pupil of Lebrun. 

"Ninon, the famous courtesan, known, when age made her 
quit that profession, as Mile de l'Enclos, was a fresh example of 
the triumph of vice conducted with wit and talent and relieved 
by some virtues. The noise she made, and, still more, the dis- 
order she caused among the highest and most brilliant )'oung 
men, compelled the queen-mother, in spite of the extreme indul- 
gence which, not without cause, she had for persons of gallantry 
and more than gallantry, to send her an order to retire to a con- 
vent. One of the exempts of Paris carried to her the lettre de 
cachet ; she read it, and remarking that no convent was especially 
designated, she said to the exempt, without being at all discon- 
certed, ' Monsieur, since the queen has been good enough to 
leave to me the choice of the convent into which she wishes me 
to retire, I beg of you to tell her that I choose that of the Grands 
Cordeliers of Paris,' and she returned the lettre de cachet with a fine 
courtesy. The exempt, stupefied at this unparalleled effrontery, 
had not a word to reply, and the queen found it so amusing that 
she left her in repose. 

" Ninon had illustrious friends of all sorts, and had such 
talent, that she preserved them all and kept them in harmony 
among themselves, or at least without any open disturbance. In 


all her proceedings there was an air of external decency and de- 
corum such as the highest princesses rarely maintain when they 
have weaknesses. She had, by good fortune, as friends all that 
was most elevated and most trusted at the court, so that it be- 
came the fashion to be introduced to her, and, with good reason, 
for the sake of the connections formed at her house. No gam- 
bling, no loud laughter, no disputes, no talk of religion or the 
government ; much wit with brilliancy, stories old and new, stories 
of gallantry, always without opening a door to slander ; every- 
thing was refined, light, and measured and formed conversations, 
which she knew how to sustain by her wit and by her knowledge 
of the events of every age. The consideration, an extraordinary 
thing, which she acquired, the number and distinction of her 
friends and acquaintances continued to attract the world to her 
when her charms had faded, and when propriety and fashion 
forbade her any longer to mix the carnal and the intellectual. 
She knew all the intrigues of the old and of the new court, seri- 
ous or otherwise ; her conversation was charming ; she was dis- 
interested, faithful, secret, trustworthy to the last degree or al- 
most to weakness, and she could be described as virtuous and 
full of probity." — St. Si?non. 

" L'indulgence et sage nature 
A formé l'âme de Ninon, 
De la volupté d'Epicure 
Et de la vertu de Caton." — St. Evrei7iond. 

From hence the Boulevard Beaumarchais., remarkable 
for its antiquity shops, and the Boulevard des Filles du 
Calvaire, named from a monastery founded 1633 by Père 
Joseph, the friend of Richelieu, and suppressed 1790, run 
north-west to join the Boulevard du Temple. 

The south end of the Rue des Tournelles falls into the 
Place de la Bastille, containing La Colonne de Juillet, sur- 
mounted by a statue of Liberty, and erected 1831-1840. 
This marks the site of the famous castle-prison of the Bas- 
tille, which for four centuries and a half terrified Paris, 
and which has left a name to the quarter it frowned upon. 
Hugues Aubriot, Mayor of Paris, built it under Charles V. 


to defend the suburb which contained the royal palace of 
St. Paul. Unpopular from the excess of his devotion to 
his royal master, Aubriot was the first prisoner in his own 
prison. Perhaps the most celebrated of the long list of 
after captives were the Connétable de St. Pol and Jacques 
d'Armagnac, Duc de Nemours, taken thence for execution to 
the Place de Grève under Louis XL ; Charles de Gontaut, 
Due de Biron, executed within the walls of the fortress 
under Henri IV.; and the "Man with the Iron Mask," 
brought hither mysteriously, September 18, 1698, and who 
died in the Bastille, November 19, 1703. 

A thousand engravings show us the Bastille as it was— 
as a fort-bastide—hvMx. on the line of the city walls just to 
the south of the Porte St. Antoine, surrounded by its own 
moat. It consisted of eight round towers, each bearing a 
characteristic name, connected by massive walls, ten feet 
thick, pierced with narrow slits by which the cells were 
lighted. In early times it had entrances on three sides, 
but after 1580 only one, with a drawbridge over the moat 
on the side towards the river, which led to outer courts 
and a second drawbridge, and wound by a defended 
passage to an outer entrance opposite the Rue des Tour- 


Close beside the Bastille, to the north, rose the Porte 
St. Antoine, approached over the city fosse by its own 
bridge, at the outer end of which was a triumphal arch 
built on the return of Henri III. from Poland in 1573- 
Both gate and arch were restored for the triumphal entry 
of Louis XIV. in 1667 ; but the gate (before which Etienne 
Marcel was killed, July, 1358). was pulled down in 1674. 

The Bastille was taken by the people, July 14, 1789» 
and the National Assembly decreed its demolition. 

> See the plans and views in Paris à travers les âges. 


"About eleven o'clock the attack became serious, and the 
people had carried the first bridge. Then M. de Launay, the 
governor, gave orders to fire ; it was obej^ed, and the discharge 
dispersed the multitude. It returned soon, enraged and more 
numerous. They were driven back afresh by a discharge of 
grape-shot, but the arrival of a detachment of Gardes Françaises, 
who joined the assailants, shook the courage of the garrison, 
and it began to speak of surrender. M. de Flue, commandant 
of the thirty-two soldiers of Salis, declared he would prefer death. 
M. de Launay, seeing that the garrison was ready to abandon 
him, took the match of a cannon to set fire to ihe magazine, which 
would have blown up a part of the Faubourg St. Antoine. Two 
non-commissioned officers prevented him. In a council held on 
the spot he proposed to blow up the fortress rather than fall into 
the hands of a furious populace that would massacre the garrison. 
This proposition was rejected. M. de Flue demanded from the 
beseigers terms of capitulation, promising to lower the draw- 
bridges and lay down arms if the lives of the beseiged were 
spared. An officer of the Queen's Regiment, one of the com- 
mandants, and nearest the fortress, promised this on his honor. 
The bridges were at once lowered, and the people entered without 
difficulty. Its first task was to search for the governor. He was 
seized, and, in despite of the capitulation, the unfortunate man 
was laden with insults and ill-treatment from the Bastille as far 
as the Arcade de St. Jean, where he was murdered." — Détails 
donnés par M. d^Agay. 

The massive circular pedestal upon which the Colonne 
de Juillet now rests was intended by Napoleon I. to sup- 
port a gigantic fountain in the form of an elephant, 
instead of the column which, after the destruction of the 
Bastille, the " tiers état " of Paris had asked to erect " à 
Louis XVI., restaurateur de la liberté publique." It is 
characteristic of the Parisians that on the very same spot 
the throne of Louis Philippe was publicly burnt, February 
24, 1848. The model for the intended elephant existed 
here till the middle of the reign of Louis Philippe, and is 
depicted by Victor Hugo as the lodging of "Le petit 


"This monument, rude, broad, heavy, rough, austere, and 
almost shapeless, but most assuredly majestic, and imprinted with 
a species of magnificent and savage gravity, has disappeared to 
allow the sort of gigantic stove, adorned with its chimney-pot, to 
reign in peace, which was substituted for the frowning fortalice 
with its nine towers, much in the same way as the bourgeoisie are 
substituted for feudalism. It is very simple that a stove should 
be the symbol of an epoch in which a kettle contains the power. 

"The architect of the elephant managed to produce some- 
thing grand with plaster, while the architect of the stove-pipe has 
succeeded in making something little out of bronze. This stove- 
pipe, this spoiled monument of an abortive revolution, was 
christened a sonorous name, and called the Column of July."^ — 
Les Misérables. 

Looking on to the Bastille stood the Hôtel de Beaumar- 
chais, built by the author of Le Mariage de Figaro, the 
famous satire upon the Court of Louis XVI., who, when 
he read it in MS.,. exclaimed, "Si l'on jouait cette pièce, 
il faudrait de'truire la Bastille ! on ne la jouera jamais ! " 
yet which all the great world witnessed immediately after 
at the Théâtre Français. The gardens of the hotel are 
now covered by warehouses. 

"The Hôtel de Beaumarchais, erected on the designs of Le 
Moine, is, I believe, meant to be a perfect rtisin urbe, for wilder- 
nesses, grottoes, subterranean caverns, and gurgling fountains, 
are all assembled in a space not much larger than that usually 
assigned to the flower-knot of an English villa. A very pretty 
temple is raised to the memory of Voltaire ; and under the shade 
of a willow, marked by an urn filled with the golden flowers of 
l'immortelle, repose the ashes of Beaumarchais himself." — Lady 
Morgan^ s ^^ France." 

The Boulevard Henri IV., running south-west from the 
Place de la Bastille to the Quartier de l'Arsenal, destroys 
many associations. It is more interesting to reach the 
same point by a more circuitous route, re-entering the 
Marais by the picturesque Rue St. Antoine, which is on a 

' Designed by Alavoine, executed by Due. 



direct line with the Rue de Rivoli. No street is more 
connected with the story of the different revolutions than 
this, and, from its neighborhood to the two royal hotels of 
Des Tournelles and St. Paul, none is more associated 
with the early history of France. It was here that Henry 
II., tilting in a tournament, received his death-wound. 

" The joyous sounds on the occasion of the double marriage 
of the princesses of France were to be soon extinguished in the 
silence of death. On the 20th of June, Madame Elizabeth of 
France was married at Notre -Dame to the Duke of Alba, as 
proxy of the King of Spain ; on the 27th the contract between the 
Duke of Savoy and Madame Marguerite was signed. Splendid 
lists were erected at the end of the Rue St. Antoine, before the 
Royal Hôtel des Tournelles, and near the foot of the Bastille, in 
which the magistrates, torn from the bench, were confined ; for 
three days princes and lords were jousting there in presence of 
the ladies ; on the 2gth of June, the defenders of the lists were 
the Dukes of Guise and Nemours, the son of the Duke of 
Ferrara, and the king himself, wearing the colors of his sixty- 
year-old lady, the black and white livery of widows, which Diana 
never laid aside. When the passage of arms was finished, the 
king, who had ridden some courses as a ' stout and skilful 
knight,' wished to break another spear before retiring, and, in 
spite of the prayers of the queen, he ordered the Count de Mont- 
gommeri to ride against him. He was the captain of the guards, 
who had brought Du Bourg and Du Faur to the Bastille. Mont- 
gommeri in vain endeavored to excuse himself. The two jousters 
charged each other violently, and broke their lances with dexterity, 
but Montgommeri forgot to throw at once, as was usual, the frag- 
ment remaining in his hand ; he involuntaril}'- struck with it the 
king's helmet, raised the vizor, and sent a splinter of wood into 
the eye. The king fell on the neck of his horse, which bore him to 
the end of the course ; his squires received him in their arms, and 
he was carried to the Tournelles in the midst of unspeakable 
confusion and alarm. All the resources of art were useless, the 
splinter had penetrated the brain ; the illustrious Vesalius in 
vain hurried from Brussels by order of King Philip H. ; Henri 
languished eleven days, and expired on the loth of July, after 
having ordered the celebration, on the day before his death and 
in his chamber, of the marriage of his sister Margaret and the Duke 


of Savoy, He was forty years and a few months old. i\ll Prot- 
estant Europe recognized the arm of the Lord in this lightning 
stroke which smote the persecuting king in the midst of the 
festivities of the 'impious.'" — Henri Martin ^ ''Hist, de France" 

On the left is the former Church of the Visitation, 
adding everywhere to the picturesqueness of the street by 
the marvellous grace of its outline, now, as the Temple St. 
Marie, given to the Calvinists. The Visitandines were 
brought from Annecy to Paris by Sainte Marie Chantai. 
They bought the Hôtel de Cosse, where their admirable 
domed church was begun by François Mansart in 1632, 
and dedicated, in 1634, to Notre Dame des Anges. André 
Fremiot, Archbishop of Bourges, brother of the foundress, 
Baronne de Chantai, rested in one of its chapels ; in an- 
other lay the minister Fouquet, celebrated for his sudden 
disgrace and imprisonment in 1680 ; in its crypt were a 
number of coffins of the house of Sévigné. The church 
occupies the site of the Hôtel de Boissy, where for thirty- 
three days Henri IH. watched by his dying " Mignon " 
Quélus, mortally wounded in the great duel of April 27, 
1578, promising 100,000 francs to the surgeons in atten- 
dance if they could save the life of one to whom he bore 
*' une merveilleuse amitié." But it was of no use, and 
when Quélus had breathed his last, crying out, " Oh, mon 
roi, mon roi ! " it was the king who, with his own hands, 
took out the earrings he had given him, and cut off his 
long chestnut hair. 

Within two doors of the church (No. 212) is the Hotel 
de Mayenne, or iV Ormesson, or du Fetit-Musc^ a very hand- 
some house built by Du Cerceau for the Due de Mayenne, 
and afterwards inhabited by the Président d'Ormesson. 
It now belongs to the Frères des Ecoles Chrétiennes. 

A little further down the street, on the right (No. 143), 



is the finest of all the ancient hotels which still remain in 
the neighborhood of the Place Royale, that of the great 
minister who superintended its erection. The Hôtel de 
Sully or de Béthime was built from designs of Androuet du 
Cerceau for Maximilien de Be'thune, Due de Sully, the 
friend and minister of Henri IV., upon part of the site of 
the Hôtel des Tournelles, with the fortune he made in the 
king's service. 

" 'Give me,' wrote the king, 'your word and honor to be as 
good a manager of my property for my profit as I have always 
seen you to be of your own, and not to desire to increase your 
own except with my knowledge and by my liberality, which will 
be ample enough to satisfy a man of honor and a mind as well 
regulated as )-ours.'" — Œccnomies royales, i. 207. 

The rich front of the hotel still looks down upon the 
Rue St. Antoine, and the four sides of its stately court are 
magnificently adorned with sculptures of armor and 
figures of the Four Seasons ; masques and leaves decorate 



its windows. The noble saloon on the first floor has 
remains of the monogram of Sully ; in another room is an 
ancient mosaic pavement. After Sully the hotel belonged 
to Turgot, then to Boisgelin, by whose name it is still 
often known. Two other ancient hotels remain in this 
part of the Rue St. Antoine. One is the picturesque 
Hotel de Beauvais (No. 62), built by Antoine Lepautre for 
Pierre de Beauvais. His wife, Catherine Bellier, who was 
first waiting-woman to Anne of Austria, is commemorated 
in the heads of rams {tctes de bélier) which alternate with 
those of lions in the decorations. Catherine owed so 
much to Anne of Austria that it used to be a saying that 
she had taken the stones of the Louvre to build her house 
with. The oval court has masks and pilasters ; the vesti- 
bule has doric columns sustaining trophies ; a staircase, 
with Corinthian columns, bas-reliefs, and a rich balustrade, 
leads to the principal rooms on the first floor, from one of 
which, on August 26, 1660, Anne of Austria watched the 
triumphal entrance into the capital of Louis XIV. ai^d 
Marie Thérèse. At No. 162 is the Passage St. Pierre, on 
the site of the Prison of the Grange St. Eloy. On its way 
to the Rue St. Paul it traverses part of the ancient XV. c. 
cloister of St. Paul, supported by solid buttresses, and 
ceiled with timber in panels. 

Opposite the Hôtel de Sully, the 'Rue de St. Paul leads 
from the Rue St. Antoine into the ancient Quartier de St. 
Paul, which, with the adjoining Quartier de l'Arsenal, were 
suburbs of the city before they were included within the 
walls of Charles V. and thus united to the Northern part 
of the town. The quarter was chiefly inhabited by those 
who were " hommes d'eau,'^ or persons whose interests lay 
in the part of the Seine upon which it abutted, being the 
place where all the boats coming from the upper Seine and 


the Marne were moored for the lading and unlading of 
their merchandise. The great Port de St. Paul took its 
name from a church, which dated from the VII. c, and it 
was divided into several smaller ports, each of which had 
its own name and destination, under the superintendence 
of the confraternity of Marchands de feau. In this mer- 
cantile quarter three great religious establishments were 
situated — the church of St. Paul, the convent of Ave 
Maria, and the convent of the Celestins. The church was 
founded in 633 by St. Eloy, prime minister of the Merovin- 
gian King Dagobert. But this building, which contained 
the tomb of the sainted abbot Quintilianus, was only a 
chapel on the site of the existing Rue de St. Paul, in a 
spot once called Grange of St. Eloy. Its cemetery, which 
extended as far as the Rue Beautreillis, was intended as a 
burial-place for the nuns of the great monastery of St. 
Martial, which St. Eloy had founded in the Cité, for, at 
that time, in accordance with the pagan custom, all burials 
took place outside the town. It was only at the end of 
the XL c. that the church of St. Paul les Champs became 
parochial. Charles V. rebuilt it in the severe gothic style, 
and it was reconsecrated with great magnificence in 143 1. 
Its entrance, on the Rue St. Paul, had three gothic portals, 
beneath a tower surmounted by a lofty spire. Its win- 
dows were of great beauty, and were not finished till the 
close of Charles VII.'s reign, for amongst the personages 
represented in them was the Maid of Orleans, with the 
legend, Et moy le Roy. Through its neighborhood to Vin- 
cennes and afterwards to the Hôtel de St. Paul and the 
Hôtel des Tournelles, the royal church of St. Paul was for 
several centuries the paroisse du roi. All the dauphins, 
from the reign of Philippe de Valois to that of Louis XL, 
were baptized there, in a font which still exists at Medan, 


near Poissy, whither it was removed by one Henri Per- 
drier, Alderman of Paris, when the old church was rebuilt. 
It became a point of ambition with the illustrious persons 
of the Court to be buried either in its cemetery or in its 
side chapels, which they had themselves adorned with 
sculpture, hangings, or stained glass. The cloisters were 
approached by an avenue (the present Passage St. Pierre) 
and exhibited in themselves all the different periods of 
gothic architecture, as these buildings were only completed 
in the XVI. c. ; decorations were even added to them under 
Louis XIV. Their galleries had stained windows, by Pi- 
naigrier, Porcher, and Nicolas Desangives. In the church 
the earliest recorded epitaph is that of Denisette la Berti- 
chiere, laundry-maid to the king, 13 11. The splendid 
Chapelle de la Communion was the burial-place of the 
House of Noailles. The name Sérail des Mignons was at 
one time given to the church from the mignons of Henry 
III. — Quelus, Maugiron, and Saint-Megrin ^ — buried there. 
The king erected magnificent tombs to them ; but their 
statues were destroyed in 1588 by the people, led on by 
the preaching of the monks, who were infuriated at the 
murder of the Guises. In the choir lay Robert Ceneau 
(Cenalis), Bishop of Avranches, who died, April 27, 1560, 
''en expurgant les heresies." Nicole Gilles, the historian 
of the Annales de France, was buried in the chapel of St. 
Louis, which he had built de ses deniers. Pierre Biard, 
sculptor and architect; the famous architect François 
Mansart, and his nephew Jules Hardouin ; Jean Nicot, 
ambassador of France in Portugal, and the importer of 
tobacco, called at first la iiicotiana in his honor ; the philos- 
opher Pierre Sylvain Régis, and Adrien Baillet, the 

^ Saint-Megrin, who was looked upon as the mignon of the Duchesse de 
Guise, was murdered by her brother-in-law, the Due de Mayenne, m the Rue 
St. Honoré, July 21, 1578. 


learned librarian of the Président de Lamoignon, were 
also buried here. Under an old fig-tree in the cemetery 
was the grave of François Rabelais, curé of Meudon, who 
died (April 9, 1553) in the Rue des Jardins, and was laid 
here because he was connected with the parish as priest or 
canon of the collegiate church of St. Maur des Fossés. 

'* Rabelais received the viaticum before dying, but at the mo- 
ment of extreme unction, he could not refrain from saying that 
they were greasing his boots for a long journey. He left, it is 
said, duly signed and sealed, a will thus conceived : ' I have no 
money, I owe much ; I leave the rest to the poor." Two other 
sayings, quite in character, are attributed to him : ' I am going 
in search of a great perhaps,' and then with a burst of laughter, 
' Down with the curtain, the farce is over.'" — P. Barrère, ''Les 
e'crivains Français." 

The body of Charles de Gontaut, Due de Biron, exe- 
cuted in the Bastille under Henri IV., was brought to the 
churchyard of St. Paul, with that of the " Man with the 
Iron Mask," who died in the Bastille in 1703, and here 
also were buried the four skeletons which were found 
chained in the dungeons of the Bastille in June, 1790. 
One year more and both church and cemetery were closed ; 
they were sold as national property in December, 1794, 
and two years afterwards they were demolished for house- 
building:. The crowded bodies which formed the foun- 
dation were not removed before the hurried erection of 
Nos. 30, 32, 34 of the Rue St. Paul, for fifty years later 
the proprietors, making new cellars, came upon masses of 
bones, and even entire cofBns, in lead and wood. 

The convent of the Ave Maria only received that 
name under Louis XI. It was originally occupied by 
Béguines, brought by Louis IX. from Nivelle in Flanders 
in 1230. Gradually the number of these uncloistered nuns 
(who took their name from St. Bague, daughter of a maire 



du palais of King Sigebert) amounted to four hundred, 
known in Paris as Dh'ofrs, tliougli, according to the poet 
Thomas Chan tpre, they led by no means an exemplary 
life. When they afterwards dwindled in numbers, Louis 
XI. gave their convent, under the name of Ave Maria, to 
the Poor Clares, who flourished greatly under the patron- 


age of his widow, Queen Charlotte. Their house was 
entered from the Rue des Barre's by a gateway bearing 
statues of Louis XL and Charlotte de Savoie, and their 
church was full of tombs of great ladies, including 
those of Jeanne de Vivonne, daughter of the lord of Chas- 
taigneraie ; of Catherine de la Tremoille, and Claude 

igg • WAlfKS IN PARIS 

Catherine de Clermont, Duchesse de Retz. The Presi- 
dent Mole and his wife, Rene'e de Nicolai, reposed alone 
in the chapter-house. At the Revolution the convent was 
turned into a cavalry barrack ; this gave place to a market ; 
now nothing is left. 

Opposite the main entrance of the Ave Maria was the 
Jeu de Paume de la Croix Noire, on the ramparts of the 
town. After the Jeu de Paume became unfashionable, at 
the end of the reign of Louis XIII., its place was taken 
here for a short time by the Illustre Théâtre, where Molière 
was chief actor, and whence, having made himself respon- 
sible for the debts of the company, he was soon carried off 
to prison in the Grand Châtelet. The site occupied by 
the Jeu de Paume had originally been a convent of Car- 
melites, called Barrés, on account of their long mantles 
divided into checks of black and white. It was these 
nuns who gave a name to the J^tie des Barrés. 

The Carmelites were removed by St. Louis to the Rue 
du Petit-Musc, and afterwards they moved to the Quartier 
St. Jacques, selling their land in the Quartier de St. Paul 
to Jacques Marcel, merchant of Paris, whose son. Gamier 
Marcel, bestowed it in 1352 upon the Celestins, established 
here under the patronage of the dauphin Charles, during 
the captivity of his father, king Jean, in England. As 
Charles V., he built them a magnificent church, whose 
portal bore his statue and that of his wife Jeanne de Bour- 
bon (now at St. Denis). Henceforth the Celestins be- 
came the especial royal foundation, and its monks were 
spoken of by the kings as their hien-aimés chapelains et 
serviteurs de Dieu. From the XIV. c. to the XVI. c. bene- 
factors of the convent were dressed in the Celestin habit 
before receiving the last sacraments, and thus they were 
represented upon their tombs in the pavement of the 


church. Amongst the sepulchral inscriptions here were 
those of the family of Marcel ; of Jean Lhuiller, counsellor 
of parliament, and of the famous doctor, Odo de Creil 
(1373). In the choir were many cenotaphs, containing 
only the hearts of the princesses of France buried at St. 
Denis, but it was also adorned by the tombs of Jeanne de 
Bourbon, wife of Charles V., 1377 (now at St. Denis) ; of 
Léon de Lusignan, last king of Armenia, 1393 (at St. 
Denis) ; and of Anne de Bourgogne, Duchess of Bedford, 
1432 (now at the Louvre).^ Annexed to the church by the 
CoJifrerie des dix mille martyrs in the XV. c. was the chapel 
which became the burial-place of the united families of 
Gesvres and Beaune, and contained the body of Jacques 
de Beaune, lord of Semblançay, Controller of Finances 
under François I., unjustly hanged on a gallows at Mont- 
faucon in 1543. Near his forgotten grave rose the mag- 
nificent monuments of the Potier des Gesvres and de Lux- 
embourg, with their kneeling figures. Three little chapels, 
communicating with the Chapelle des Gesvres, belonged to 
other families — that of Rochefort, which produced two 
chancellors of France in the reigns of Louis XL, Charles 
VIIL, and Charles XIL, of whom one, Guy de Rochefort, 
had a curious tomb ; that of the family of Zamet, which 
began with the financier Sébastien Zamet, who died in 
1614 in his magnificent hotel of the Rue de la Cerisaie, 
and which ended with his son Jean Zamet, governor of the 
Château of Fontainebleau, who died in battle in 1622 ; and 
that of Charles de Maigné, gentleman of the chamber to 
Henri II., with a beautiful statue by the Florentine Paolo 
Poncio, now in the Louvre. 

A more magnificent building, like a succursale to St. 

' On the destruction of the church her remains — being those of the daugh- 
ter of Jean sans Peur— were removed to St. Bt'nigne at Dijon. 


Denis, rose attached to the Celestins — the great Chapelle 
d'Orléans, built in 1393 by Louis d'Orléans, the younger 
son of Charles V. (who was murdered in the Rue Barbette), 
in fulfilment of a vow of his wife, Valentine de Milan, for 
his escape from perishing by fire in the terrible masquerade 
called le ballet des ardents, given in the old hotel of Blanche 
of Castille. Here; in the monastery which he had richly 
endowed, he was buried with his wife (who only survived 
him a short time), and all his descendants ; and here his 
grandson, Louis XIL, erected a magnificent monument 
(now at St. Denis) to his memory and that of his sons. 
Beside it stood the urn (also at St. Denis) which contained 
the heart of François IL, and the beautiful group of the 
three Graces by Germain Pilon (now at the Louvre) which 
upheld the bronze urn holding the hearts of Henri IL, 
Catherine de Médicis, Charles IX., and his brother, Fran- 
çois de Maine, Duc d'Anjou. Near this rose a pyramid 
in honor of the house of Longueville, and two sarcophagi 
which contained the hearts of a Comte de Cossé-Brissac 
and a Duc de Rohan. Here also was the tomb, with a 
seated statue, of Philippe de Chabot, and that of the 
Maréchal Anne de Montmorency, by Barthélémy Prieur 
(both now in the Louvre). All the precious contents of 
the Celestins, except the few statues now in the galleries, 
perished in the Revolution. Its church served as a barn 
and stable for half a century, and was destroyed in 1849. 
Amongst the coffins thrown up at this time was that of 
Anne, Duchess of Bedford, daughter of Jean sans Peur. 
She was buried here, because after her death her husband 
recollected how, one night "qu'elle s'esbattoit à jeux hon- 
nestes"with the gentlemen and ladies of her household, 
she heard the bells of the Celestins sound for matins, and 
rising up, and inviting her ladies to follow her, went at 


once to the church, and assisted at the holy office, by the 
tomb of that Due d'Orle'ans whom her flxther had caused 
to be assassinated. 

Whilst Jean le Bon was a prisoner in England, his son, 
afterwards Charles V., was oppressed by the growing power 
of the Confrérie des Bourgeois, the municipal authorities of 
Paris. Under their formidable provost, Etienne Marcel, 
they had broken into the Louvre and murdered his two 
favorite ministers in his presence, his own life only being 
saved by his consenting to put on the red and green cap 
of the republican leader, and giving him his own of cloth 
of gold, arrayed in which he showed himself triumphantly 
to the people. The king for the time escaped from Paris, 
and after Marcel had been killed, July 31, 1358, at the 
Bastille St. Antoine, he determined to seek a more secure 
residence with the Association de la Marchmtdise de Peau, 
which had always been submissive and devoted to the 
royal authority. Every preceding king had held his Court 
either in the Cité or at the Louvre, but Charles now bought, 
near the Port de St. Paul, the hotel of the Comte d'Etam- 
pes, which occupied the whole space between the Rue St. 
Antoine and the Cemetery of St. Paul. In 1363 he added 
to his purchase the hotel of the Archbishop of Sens, with 
gardens which reached to the Port, and he had also become 
the owner of the smaller hôtels d'Estomesnil and de Pute- 
y-Muce, and of that of the abbots of St. Maur, who built 
another for themselves in the Rue des Barrés. By an edict 
of July, 1364, Charles V., after coming to the throne, de- 
clared the Hôtel de St. Paul to be for ever part of the do- 
main of the Crown— the hotel where " he had enjoyed 
many pleasures, endured and recovered from many ill- 
nesses, and which, therefore, he regarded with singular 
pleasure and affection." No plan of the Hôtel de St. 


Paul has come clown to us, but we know that it was rather 
a group of palaces than a single building, the Hôtel de 
Sens being the royal dwelling-place ; the Hôtel de St. 
Maur, under the name of Hôtel de la Conciergerie, being 
the residence of the Due d'Orléans, Duc de Bourgogne, 
and other princes of the royal family ; the Hôtel d'Etampes 
being called Hôtel de la Reine, afterwards Hôtel de Beau- 
treillis ; whilst, on the other side of the Rue du Petit-Musc, 
were the Hôtel du Petit-Musc, and Maison du Pont-Perrin, 
probably occupied by Court officials. The palace, as a 
whole, was surrounded by high walls, inclosing six mead- 
ows, eight gardens, twelve galleries, and a number of 
courts. We know many of the names of the royal dwell- 
ing-rooms, such as the Chambre de Charlemagne, so called 
from its tapestries ; the Galerie des Courges ; the. Chambre 
de Theseus ; the Chambre Lambrissée ; the Chambre 
Verte ; Chambre des Grandes Aulnoires, &c. The garden 
walks were shaded by trellises covered with vines, which 
produced annually a Targe quantity of Vin de r Hotel, In 
their shade Charles V. amused himself by keeping a me- 
nagerie, and many accounts exist of sums disbursed to 
those who brought him rare animals. Here the queen and 
her ladies appeared in the new dress of the time, in which 
their own arms were always embroidered on one side of 
their gown, and their husbands' on the other. 

From his twelfth year to his death at fifty-four, Charles 
VI. lived constantly at the Hôtel de St. Paul ; there he 
found himself practically a prisoner in the hands of the 
provost of the merchants, whom his father had come 
thither specially to avoid, and there, in 1392, he showed 
the first symptoms of the insanity which returned, with in- 
tervals of calm and sense, till his death ; there his twelve 
children by Isabeau de Bavière were born, most of them 


during his madness ; there he several times saw his palace 
attacked by a mob, and his relations and courtiers arrested 
without being able to help them ; and there, abandoned 
by his wife and children, he died, Oct. 20, 1422, being 
only cared for by a mistress, Odette de Champdivers, 
nicknamed ia petite reine. For thirteen years after her hus- 
band's death, Isabeau de Bavière remained shut up from 
the detestation of the French, in the Hôtel St. Paul. 
" Even her body was so despised," says Brantôme, "that 
it was transported from her hotel, in a little boat on the 
Seine, without any kind of ceremony or pomp, and was 
thus carried to her grave at St. Denis,' just as if she had 
been a simple demoiselle." From this time the Hôtel de 
St. Paul was deserted by royalty. When Charles VH. 
returned victorious to Paris he would not lodge even in 
the Hôtel des Tournelles, contaminated for him by the 
residence of the Duke of Bedford, and, whenever he was 
in Paris, he stayed at the Hôtel Neuf, which is sometimes 
supposed to have been the same as the Hôtel du Petit- 
Musc, afterwards (when given by Charles VHI. to Anne of 
Brittany) known as Hôtel de Bretagne. In spite of the 
letters patent of Charles V. declaring the Hôtel de St. 
Paul inalienable from the domains of the Crown, Louis XI. 
bestowed several of the satellite hotels dependent on the 
palace upon his friends, and during the reign of François I. 
the Rues des Lions, Beautreillis, and de la Cerisaie, re- 
calling by their names the ancient sites they occupied, had 
invaded the precincts of the palace. A great part of the 
buildings and land extending from the Rue des Barre's to 
the Rue du Petit-Musc, with the great royal palace "fort 
vague et ruineux," was alienated in 15 16 for the benefit of 
Jacques de Geroilhac, grand-master and captain-general 
of the artillery of France, in reward for his public service, 


especially at the battle of Marignan; finally, in 1542, all 
the rest of the royal domain in th.e Quartier de St. Paul, 
comprising a great number of hotels under different illus- 
trious names, was sold, and the sites were soon occupied 
by fresh buildings. Scarcely any fragments of the vast 
royal palace remain. At the corner of the Rue de St. 
Paul and Rue des Lions is a tourelle, which may have be- 
longed to one of the minor hotels of the royal colony. 

"This street took its name from the building and the courts 
in which the large and small lions of the king were confined. 
One day that Francis I. was amusing himself by watching the 
lions fight, a lady, having let her glove fall, said to De Lorges, 
' If you wish me to believe that you love me as mnch as you 
swear you do every day, go and pick up my glove.' De Lorges 
went down, picked up the glove amidst these terrible animals ; 
came back and flung it at the lady's face, and then in spite of all 
her advances and allurements, would never see her again." — De 
Saint-Foix, ''Essais stir Paris " 1776. 

Of the streets on the left of the Rue de St. Paul, the 
Rue Charles V. leads to the Rue de la Cerisaie, where, at 
No. 21, are remains of the house which Philibert Delorme 
built for himself, and which he intended as a specimen of 
his finished work. His book, Nouvelles inventions pour bien 
bastir, draws attention to it as a model "estant le tout 
proposé par manière d'exemple et pour montrer comme 
l'on doit appliquer les fenêtres et portes." At the back of 
the garden of No. 22 is the façade of the back part of the 
house, with a winding staircase of massive stone. 

The Hotel de Fieuville, the courtyard of which opens 
on the left at the angle of the Rue de St. Paul and the 
Quai des Ce'lestins, picturesque as it is in its high dormer 
windows of brick, only dates from the time of Henri HI, 
It appears in the plan of Gomboust of 1652. 

The old hotel behind the Hôtel de Vieuvillc is the 


Hotel des Lions du Roi, which was appropriated by Jacques 
de Geroilhac as his residence, in his quaUty of grand 
ècuyer, because it adjoined the vast royal stables, which 
still exist, surmounted by granaries, lighted by lofty orna- 
mented windows. The hotel has long been an establish- 
ment for distilled waters, but it retains some of its halls 
with painted ceilings, and walls decorated in stucco. Its 
entrance from the Qiiai des Cckstins, much altered, is per- 
haps the main entrance to the royal palace of St. Paul, but 
a row of houses has taken the place of the fortified wall 
which protected the royal residence towards the river. 

Opening from the Rue de St. Paul to the east is the 
Rjie Charles F., where No. 12 was the Bldel dAubray, in- 
habited by the Marquise de Brinvilliers, the famous mur- 
deress. During her trial, Mme de Se'vigne' wrote— 

"3 July, 1676. The trial of the Brinvilliers is still going on. 
She poisoned some pigeon pies, of which many persons died ; 
she had no reason for getting rid of them, she was merely making 
experiments to assure herself of the effect of her poisons. The 
Chevalier du Guet, who had one of these nice dishes, died three 
or four years afterwards ; she asked the other day if he were dead, 
and was answered ' no ' ; she turned round and said, ' He has a 
tough life.' " 

and, after her execution — 

" 17 July, 1676. At length all is over. Brinvilliers is now in 
the air ; her poor little body was thrown, after her execution, into 
a good large fire, and her ashes scattered to the wind ; so that we 
are breathing her, and by the communication of litde spirits, 
some poisonous humor will seize us, by which we shall be much 

" Brinvilliers died as she had lived ; that is to say, resolutely. 
She entered the place where they Avere to put her to the torture, 
and, seeing three buckets of water, said, ' That must certainly be 
to drown me ; for it cannot be supposed that with my figure I can 
drink all that.' She listened to her sentence in the morning, 
without fear or weakness, and at the end asked them to recom- 


mence, as the word ' tumbril ' had struck her at the beginning, 
and she had not given attention to the rest. She told her confes- 
sor, on the road, to place the executioner before her, in order, she 
added, that she might not see that rogue, Degrais, who took her. De- 
grais was on horseback in front of the tumbril. Her confessor 
reprimanded her for such a sentiment, and she replied, ' Oh, 
heavens, I beg your pardon ; let me see that strange sight.' She 
ascended, alone and barefoot, the ladder and the scaffold, and for 
a quarter of an hour she was put in trim, and her hair cut, and 
placed in this or that position by the executioner ; this caused 
much murmuring, and was a great cruelty. Next morning, her 
bones were collected, because the people believed she was a 
saint. She had, she said, two confessors ; one told her to confess 
everything, the other not ; she laughed at this diversity and said, 
' I can conscientiously do what I please.' It pleased her to con- 
fess nothing." 

Turning along the quay, at the angle of the Rue du 
Petit-Musc is the Hotel dc Lavalette, formerly Hôtel Fieu- 
bet, built under the regency of Anne of Austria, stately 
and beautiful, and decorated with paintings by Lesueur, 
though overcharged with ornament by Le Gros for its 
possessor since the Revolution. 

"The Hôtel Fieubet is not as old as the Hôtel Vieuville, and 
had not changed its aspect till M. A. de Lavalette took the 
notion of completely remodelling it, by overcharging it with 
sculpture, which gives it a hybrid, yet very picturesque char- 
acter. This beautiful house was built under the regency of Anne 
of Austria for one of her chancellors, Gaspard Fieubet, who 
became counsellor of state during the reign of Louis XIV., and 
was more inclined to intellect and wit than to the vanities of the 
court. He formed in his hotel a select society, and rivalled the 
Saturdays of Mile de Scudéry. Poets took precedence of prose 
writers with Fieubet, who made a few verses and was the friend 
of la Fontaine." — Paris a travers les âges. 

Behind the Boulevard Henri IV., on the west, was the 
Hôtel de Lesdiguières, built by the Italian financier 
Sébastien Zamet, the friend of Henri IV., who constantly 
came with Gabrielle d'Estrees to this hotel, called by the 

I/o 77': L DE LA VA LET TE 207 

people le palais d'amour du roi. It was after a supper here 
that Gabrielle first felt the pangs of which she died (1599), 
and which are supposed to have been caused by poison. 
After the death of Sébastien Zamet, in 16 14, the hotel was 
sold to the Constable de Lesdiguières, who gave his name 
to it. A century later, 17 17, the Czar Peter I., of Russia 
lodged there during his visit to Paris. The hotel has long 
been destroyed, but the formation of the boulevard disclosed 


the sculptured tomb of a cat of François Marguerite de 
Gondy, Duchesse de Lesdiguières, inscribed — 

" Cy-gist une chatte jolie ; 
Sa maîtresse, qui n'aima rien, 
L'aima jusques à la folie . . . 
Pourquoi le dire? On le voit bien." 

The Quai Henri IV. beyond the Quai des Célestins, 
occupies the site of the Ile Louviers, now united to the 


At the entrance of the Boulevard Henri IV., opposite 
the Hôtel de Lavalette, is the entrance of the Rue de Sully, 
bordered on the right by the building still called the Ar- 
senal, though no cannon have been cast in Paris since the 
reign of Louis XIV. From the time of Philippe Auguste 
all weapons of war were made in the Louvre, till Charles 
v., for security, transferred the seat of government to 
the Hôtel de St. Paul. After this, weapons were manu- 
factured within the walls of the hotel in the Marais, and 
were laid up in the great round Tour de Billy, which 
stood outside the city, beyond the Ce'lestins. 

Sully was made Grand Master of Artillery by Henri 
IV., who was constantly coming hither from the Louvre to 
visit him, and who, whilst Sully was looking after his 
magazines and foundries, delighted to improve the resi- 
dence and gardens of his favorite minister. Sully built for 
the king Le Cabinet de Henri IV., a charming summer 
pavilion, containing one good chamber, with an oratory 
attached, looking upon the He Louviers. But one day, 
on his way to Sully at the Arsenal, the king was murdered. 
Marie de Cossé-Brissac, wife of the Grand Master Due 
de la Meilleraie, entrusted the internal decoration of the 
Cabinet de Henri IV. — which had never been completed — 
some say to Simon Vouet, others to Claude Vignon. 

"The great room of the Cabinet de Henri IV., which the 
duchesse designed to be her bed-room, was divided into two dis- 
tinct parts by the subjects of the paintings that adorned it. In 
the larger part, the ceiling and wainscot represented allegori- 
cally the principal deeds of arms of Marshal de la Meilleraie ; 
among others the siege of La Rochelle and that of Hesdin and 
the capture of several towns of Roussillon. It is indisputable 
then that these paintings were done in the year 1643 or 1644. A 
painting which appears original and may go back to the times 
of Sull)% represents the entry of Henri IV. into Paris in 1594, 
when the Duke de Brissac opened the gates to him. This paint- 


ing is a family memorial which Marie Cossé, duchesse de Meil- 
leraie, must have kept to figure among the military trophies of 
her husband. In the smaller portion of the cabinet, which 
formed the ruelle and contained the state bed of the duchess, the 
artist has executed paintings in harmony with the destination of 
a bed-chamber ; they represent the god of sleep, surrounded by 
happy dreams. The little chamber connecting with the cabinet 
of Henri IV. indicates, by the paintings that adorn it, that it was 
used as an oratory. There may be seen also on the ceiling, 
which presents subjects taken from the glories of heaven, the 
heroines of the Bible, to whom the painter has- taken the 
liberty of adding the Maid of Orleans and the duchesse de Meil- 
leraie herself. Her costume has been afterwards altered with a 
black widow's dress, when she lost her husband, whom her son 
succeeded as Grand Master of the Artillery at the Arsenal." — 
" Paris a travers les âges^ 

The office of Grand Master of the Artillery was always 
given to the greatest personages of the Court. The Due 
de la Meilleraie was succeeded by his son the Due de 
Mazarin, then followed the Due de Lude, 1669; and the 
Due d'Humieres, 1683. At this time the Arsenal was the 
seat of an extraordinary criminal tribunal, to inquire into 
the crimes of magic and poisoning, concerning which ter- 
rible revelations were made during the trial of the 
Marquise de Brinvilliers, and which involved the Comtesse 
de Soissons and many others of the greatest ladies in 
France. In 1694, Louis XIV. gave the office of Grand 
Master of Artillery to the Due de Maine (his much-in- 
dulged son by Mme de Montespan), and his wife, Anne 
Louise de Bourbon-Condé, established herself there for a 
time, and inserted her portrait, as a nymph, by J. B. 
Vanloo, over the chimney-piece of the Cabinet de Henri 
IV. " L'arsenal était renversé pour y bâtir un beau loge- 
ment pour le Duc de Maine," says St. Simon. The last 
Grand Master was his brother, the Comte de Toulouse. 

The old hotel of the Grand Master was rebuilt under 


the Régent d'Orle'ans by Boffrand, but he presented all 
that was interesting in the house, only encasing the outer 
walls which contained the rooms of Sully and Henri IV. 
When the office of Grand Master of Artillery was sup- 
pressed, that of Governor of the Arsenal remained, and 
to this Marc-Antoine René Voyer de Paulmy, son of the 
Marquis d'Argenson, was appointed. He cared nothing 
about cannons, but devoted his whole time and fortune to 
the acquisition of a magnificent library, which comprised 
100,000 printed works and 3,000 MSS. Just before his 
death he sold his library to the Comte d'Artoise, who, by 
purchase, added to it the library of the Prince de Soubise. 
At the Revolution, the collection was seized and became a 
Public Library, and at the Restoration, when urged to 
claim what was his own, the Comte d'Artois refused to do 
so, only stipulating that the library should be called Bib- 
liothèque de Monsieur. The library (open daily from 10 
to 3, except on Sundays and holidays) is well worth visit- 
ing. Its collection now amounts to about 360,000 
volumes, and is generally known as the Bibliothèque de 
Paulmy. It is especially rich in early French poetry. 

In the Rue de Figuier^ behind the Hôtel de St. Paul, 
will be found the remains of the Hotel de Sens, once en- 
woven with the immense pile of buildings which formed 
the royal residence. Jean le Bon, returning from his 
captivity in London, was here for some time as the guest 
of the Archbishop of Sens. Charles V. bought the hotel 
from Archbishop Guillaume de Melun, but upon the 
destruction of the rest of the palace, that part which had 
belonged to them was restored to the Archbishop of Sens. 
In the beginning of the XVI. c. the hotel was rebuilt by 
Archbishop Tristan de Salazar. 

Under Hem i IV. , the palace was inhabited for a time 



by Marguerite de Valois (daughter of Henry IL), the 
licentious Reine Margot, when, after her divorce, she left 
Auvergne, and obtained the king's permission to estab- 
lish herself in Paris. Here it is said she used to sleep 
habitually in a bed with black satin sheets, in order to 
give greater effect to the whiteness of her skin. She came 
to the hotel in August, 1605, and left it before a year was 
over, because, as she was returning from mass at the 


Célestins, her page and favorite Julien was shot dead at 
the portiere of her carriage, in a fit of jealousy, by Ver- 
mond, one of her former lovers. The queen swore that 
she would neither eat nor drink till she was revenged on 
the assassin, and he was beheaded two days after, in her 
presence, opposite the hôtel. That evening she left Paris, 
never to return, as the people were singing under her 
windows — 


" La Royne-Vénus demi-morte 
De voir mourir devant sa porte, 
Son Adonis, son cher Amour, 
Pour vengeance a devant sa face 
Fait défaire en la mesme place 
L'assassin presque au mesme jour." 

It was within the walls of the Hôtel de Sens, addi- 
tionally decorated by Cardinal Dupont, that Cardinal de 
Pellevé, archbishop of Sens, one of the principal chiefs of 
the Ligue, united the leaders of the Catholic party, and 
there he died, March 22, 1594, whilst a Te Deiwi was 
being chanted at Notre Dame for the entry of the king to 

After the archbishops of Sens ceased to be metro- 
politans of Paris (which was raised from a bishopric to an 
archbishopric in 1622), they deserted their hotel, though 
they were only dispossessed as proprietors by the Revo- 
lution. In the last century the hotel became a diligence 
office ; now 2l fabrique de confitures occupies the chamber of 
la galante reine^ but the building is still a beautiful and 
important specimen of the first years of the XVI. c, and 
no one should fail to visit its gothic gateway defended by 
two encorbelled tourelles with high peaked roofs. A 
porch, with vaulting irregular in plan, but exquisite in 
execution ; its brick chimneys, great halls, the square don- 
jon tower at the back of the court, and the winding stair 
of the tourelle, remain entire ; only the chapel has been 
destroyed. On the left of the entrance is an eight-pounder 
ball, which lodged in the wall, July 28, 1830, during the 
attack on the convent of Ave Maria. 

A short distance hence, facing the Rue St. Antoine, is 
the Church of St. Paul and St. Louis, erected 1627-41, by 
François Derrand for Louis XIII., on the site of a Jesuit 
church built (1580) on ground formerly occupied by the 


hotel of the Cardinal de Bourbon. Ravaillac, the mur- 
derer of Henri IV., declared that the Jesuit d'Aubignc 
met him in this earlier church and instigated his crime. 
The first mass in the present church was celebrated by 
Cardinal de Richelieu. The munificence of Louis XIII., 
who paid for the existing church, was commemorated by 
the Jesuits in a medal inscribed Fia^ iit David, aedificat nt 
Salomon. Richelieu added the portal, from designs of the 
Jesuit Marcel Ange. The church has a reminiscence of 
St. Andrea della Valle and St. Ignazio at Rome, but is 
greatly their inferior. Two inscriptions on black marble 
against the last pillars of the nave commemorate Bour- 
daloue("Hic jacet Bourdaloue "), 1704, and Huet, bishop 
ofAvranches, 1 721, buried here. The interesting monu- 
ments in this church, destroyed in the Revolution, included 
those of the great Conde and his father Henri de Bourbon, 
by Sarazin, also that of the cruel Chancellor René de Bira- 
gue, now in the Louvre. The heart of Louis XIII. was also 
preserved here in a rich case by Sarazin, and the heart of 
Louis XIV. in a case by Coustou le Jeune. In the left tran- 
sept is Christ in the garden of Olives, an early work of 
Eugene Delacroix. A representation of the Abbey of Long- 
champs is said to be by Philippe de Champaigne. In the 
right transept a picture of St. Isabelle (sister of St. Louis) 
offering that abbey to the Virgin is perhaps by the same 
hand. The crucifix in the sacristy comes from the old 
chapel of the Bastille. The shells which serve as bénitiers 
were given by Victor Hugo when his first child was baptized. 
The name of St. Paul was added to that of St. Louis when 
the old church of St. Paul was destroyed in 1796. 

Around the fountain opposite the church, the Cour des 
Aides and the Chambre des Comptes fought for preced- 
ence at the funeral of Cardinal de Birague. 



At No. 1 02 Rue St. Antoine is the entrance of the 
Passage Charlemagne, which crosses the courtyard of the 
Hotel du Prévôt de Paris, sometimes called Hotel dc 
Gr avilie^ Hotel d^Aubryot, or du Porc-cpic, which belonged 
to Hugues Aubryot, founder of the Bastille. We hear of 
his residing, not at the Petit Châtelet, the official residence 

hÔtel du prévôt de paris. 

of the provosts, but (1381) at his hôtel, called Porc-épic — 
"à la poterne Saint-Pol." Having incurred the hatred of 
the University by his stern repression of its disorders, he 
was accused of heresy and favoring the Jews (a terrible 
crime at that time), and condemned, on a scaffold before 
Notre Dame, to pass the rest of his life " on the bread 
and water of affliction " in the dungeons of For I'EvCque, 



whence he was transferred to the Bastille, but, being set 
free in a popular insurrection^ escaped to Burgundy. 
After the time of Aubryot, the hotel became a séjour of 
Louis d'Orléans, the builder of Pierrefonds, who created 
the order of Porc-épic. Then followed J. de Montaigu, 
the Connétable de Richemont, Estouteville, the Admiral 


de Graville and the Connétable de Montmorency, whose 
widow sold it to the Cardinal de Bourbon, by whom it was 
bequeathed to the Jesuits, after which it became a dépend- 
ance of their college, now Lycée Charlemagne. In the 
plan of Paris of 1570, attributed to Du Cerceau, this hotel 
is inscribed as " Logis du Preuost de Paris." The build- 
ings are of the time of François L They are very little 




known, and have therefore happily escaped " restoration," 
so that their color is glorious. In the dark arcades of the 
court, the delicate friezes, broadly over-hanging eaves, 
arched doorways, twisted staircase, brilliant flowers in the 
windows, bright glints of green seen through dark entries, 
and figures and costumes full of color — for such are still 
to be seen in the Marais— an artist may find at least a 
dozen subjects worthy of his skill. 


The southern side of the Hôtel du PreVôt opens upon 
the Rue Charlemagne, formerly Rue des Jardins St. Paul, 
where there is much to repay a student of street archi- 
tecture. In this street Rabelais died and Molière passed 
the first years of his dramatic apprenticeship. In the 
court of the barrack is a tower given by Charles VIII. to 


the nuns of the Ave Maria. Crossing the Rue des Non- 
nai?is d'Hyeres, so called from an offshoot of the Abbey of 
Hyeres established here in 1182, we reach the Rue de 
Jouy, where the Abbot of Jouy had his residence. Its site 
is now occupied by the Hotel d'Aumont^ built by François 
Mansart for the Due d'Aumont. It afterwards belonged 
to the Abbé Terray. The courtyard is magnificent, and 
there are several richly-decorated rooms, though the 
splendid ceiling on which Lebrun represented the apo- 
theosis of Romulus is gone. Altogether this is one of 
the finest hotels of the period in France. It is now occu- 
pied as the Pharmacie Générale. In the garden was once 
a Vétius coucliée^ regarded as a masterpiece of Auguier. 

On the left opens the Rue Geoffroy d' Asnier, where we 
find the Hotel de Chalons Luxembourg, of the XVII. c, 
with an entrance gate of noble proportions. Its little 
courtyard of brick and stone is very richly decorated with 
masks and pilasters after the fashion of the time. The 
entrance is preceded by d. perron. 

Almost opposite, down a narrow entry, we have a most 
picturesque view of the back of the old Church of St. Ger- 
vais : though at the end of the alley, as we emerge into 
sunshine, we seem to enter upon a younger Paris, and 
leave the narrow historic streets of the Marais. The last 
of these, however, at the back of the church, is the Rue des 
Barres, where the handsome Louis de Bourdon, one of the 
lovers of Queen Isabeau de Bavière, was met by Charles 
VI., as he was on his way to his mistress. The king 
ordered Tannegui du Chatel to arrest him, and he was 
tried that night, sewn up in a sack, and thrown into the 
Seine, with these words upon the sack— " Laissez passer 
la justice du roi."i 

1 Monstrelet, p. 244. 


The church of Sts. Gervais and Protais^ founded 
under Childebert I. in the VI. c, is chiefly XVI. c. The 
Grecian portico, intensely admired at the time of its erec- 
tion, was added'in 1616 by the greatest architect of the 
time of Louis XIII. — Jacques Debrosse. 

" Debrosse squandered w&xy distinguished talents in un- 
happy attempts to unite the three Greek orders superimposed to 
a principle incompatible with the antique system of construction. 
The porch of St. Gervais, stuck to a Gothic church, could only 
be admired at a period when the notion of harmony in art was 
lost." — McD'tin, '^ Hist, de France." 

" St. Gervais, which a porch in good taste has ruined." — Vic- 
tor Hugo, 

The gothic tower on the north had a classical story 
added at the same time with the portico. The interior is 
one of the best specimens of gothic architecture in Paris. 
The XVIII. c. ornaments of the high-altar belonged to 
the abbey church of St. Geneviève. The XVI. c. stalls 
are the only ones of the kind in Paris. The subjects on 
the miséricordes are exceedingly curious. The second 
chapel of the choir contains a fine (restored) window by 
Robert Pinaigrier, 1531. Only fragments remain of glori- 
ous windows by Jean Cousin. In the chapel, right of the 
apse, is the tomb, by Mazeline and Hurtelle, of the Chan- 
cellor Michel le Tellier, 1685, preserved in the museum of 
the Petits-Augustins during the Revolution. His son, the 
Archbishop of Reims, the chancellors Louis Boucherat 
and Charles Voysin, the painter Philippe de Champaigne, 
the philosopher Ducange, and the poet Crebillon, were 
buried here in the vaults, but their tombs are destroyed. 
The Lady Chapel, of 1417, is a beautiful specimen of flam- 
boyant gothic, spoilt by paint and gilding. The three 

* Martyred at Milan under Nero. 


windows of the apse are attributed to Pinaigrier. The 
vaulting is a chef-d'œuvre. 

" Without lingering longer on the pendentive keystones, or 
the little angels suspended in the groins, we must mention the 
crown, perforated clear through, which seems to descend from 
the vaulting, as a magnificent emblem of that which the Virgin 
received in heaven. It is six feet across and three feet and a 
half in depth. Of course, iron has here come to the assistance 
of the builder's skill. But, still, it required much practical dex- 
terity, even with this aid, to overcome the difficulties of cutting 
and to place such a piece of ornamentation as the brothers Jacquet 
accomplished, who were regarded, for other reasons, as the most 
ingenious masons of their time. The date of 1547 is visible in 
letters in relief on the rim of the crown. A fortified donjon and 
some stars recall the titles of Tower of David and Star of the Morn- 
ing, given in the litanies to the mother of Jesus." — De Gtiilhermy. 

The chapel of St. Denis (left transept) has a picture 
(1500), of many compartments, representing the Passion 
and Crucifixion, attributed to Albert Durer. From the 
first chapel of the nave (descending) is entered the ora- 
tory, called the Chapelle de Scarron, built by Jacques 
Betaud, Président de la Cour des Comptes (1684), and 
adorned by Francks with Scriptural subjects, the saints 
being represented in periwigs. Paul Scarron, first hus- 
band of Mme de Maintenon, was buried here. In the 
chapel of St. Philomene the saint is represented in a 
grotto. The altar-piece of the chapel of St. Laurence is 
XVI. c. : but all the best pictures of the church have been 
carried off to the Louvre. St. Gervais was one of the 
especial scenes of the Fête de la Raison. 

" At St. Germain, there was no banquet at the ceremony ; the 
women from the market St. Jean came in with fish knives, and 
all the church smelled of herrings. The saloop sellers clinked 
their glasses, to quench the thirst produced by the salted food. 
There was a ball in the Lady Chapel, where some lamps that 
gave out more smoke than light, served for chandeliers. In 



fact, in order not to leave a single moment for modesty, night 
was added to depravity, so that in the midst of the confusion of 
these assemblies, the abominable lusts, kindled during the da)% 
might be freely gratified during the darkness." — Mercier, ''Le 
Nouveau Paris." 

A house, now pulled down, which concealed the view of 
the portico de St. Gervais, was long inhabited by Voltaire. 


The open space in front of St. Gervais was long known 
as Place du Martroy. This name, with that of the Rue du 
Martroy (from martreium, martyrium), commemorated the 
many executions which took place there, beginning with a 
priest and a woman burnt for heresy and a relapsed Jew — 


under Philippe le Bel; followed (April, 13 14) by the hor- 
rible execution of Philippe and Gauthier d'Aulnay, the 
supposed lovers of Marguerite and Blanche, wives of Louis 
le Hutin and his brother and successor Charles — roasted, 
mutilated, and finally beheaded. 

We now reach the Hotel de Ville, rebuilt by Ballu and 
Deperthes after the destruction (May 24, 1871) of its more 
magnificent predecessor during the reign of the Commune, 
which had been proclaimed there on the 26th of the pre- 
ceding March. The name of the Salle Stjeafi is ail that 
recalls the existence of the old church of St. Jean-en- 
Greve,' once the baptistery of St. Gervais, where the miracu- 
lous Host of the Rue des Billettes was constantly adored, 
and which was afterwards swallowed up in the buildings 
of the municipal palace. 

From Roman times Paris, or Lutece, as a municipal 
town, had administrators elected by the chief citizens, with 
a préfet named by government, who afterwards took the 
name of comte, then of vicomte. These early préfets 
resided on the Isle de la Cité, and the earliest municipal 
council appears to have been the Collège des Nantes 
(Bateliers), which held its meetings on the island, on the 
site afterwards occupied by the Hôtel des Ursins. It is 
supposed, however, that the first building erected as a kind 
of Hôtel (de Ville was an old edifice (only destroyed in 
1744) near the Petit Pont. At the same time Le Parloir 
aux Bourgeois, which existed in the Rue St. Jacques, was 
a tribunal of commerce. 

It was Etienne Marcel, mayor of Paris, who first estab. 
lished the municipal council at the Place de Grève, at that 

' Famous in 1508 for the revivalist sermons of FrCre Maillard, the Savona- 
rola uf France. His vigorous, fearless discourses {Maillardi Sermones) are 
well worth examining, as an exposure of the luxury and licentiousness of the 
time, especially amongst the clergy. 


time the only large square in Paris. In July, 1357, he 
purchased as un Hostel de Ville the Maison aux Piliers, 
which had been inhabited by Clémence d'Hongrie, widow 
of Louis le Hutin, and which afterwards took the name of 
Maison du Dauphin ("Domus domini Delphini in Grieve") 
from her nephew and heir, Guy, Dauphin de Viennois. In 
1532 a new Hôtel de Ville was begun and finished by the 
architect Marin de la Vallée in the reign of Henri IV. 
This was so much altered by successive restorations and 
revolutions that only a staircase, two monumental chim- 
ney-pieces in the Salle du Trône, and some sculptured 
doorways and other details remained from the interior 
decorations in the old building at the time of its destruc- 

Till the time of Louis XVI. the history of the Hôtel 
de Ville was entirely local ; after that it became the his- 
tory of France. It was there that Louis XVI. received 
the tri-colored cockade from Bailly, mayor of Paris, July 
17, 1789 ; and there, in the chamber called, from its hang- 
ings, Le Cabinet Vert, ^ that Robespierre was arrested, in 
the name of the Convention, during one of the meetings 
of the Commune, July 27, 1794. 

" Here, in the great hall, the Robespierrists awaited in silence 
the result of the appeal to the sections. Robespierre and his 
more immediate friends had withdrawn to an adjoining room for 
private conversation. Suddenly several shots were heard in the 
hall, and a terrible report spread like wildfire that Robespierre 
had taken his own life. On receiving the intelligence that the 
National Guard had everj^Avhere decided for the Convention, St. 
Just and Lebas called on their chief to go forth in person and 
lead his few faithful followers to attack the Convention. ' When 
Robespierre, broken in spirit, refused compliance, Lebas, who 
on the previous day had already expected an unfavorable issue, 

^ This famous room was pulled down before the destruction of the late 
Hôtel de Ville. 


cried, 'Well, then, there is nothing left for us but to die.' He 
had a pair of pistols with him, one of which he handed to Robes- 
pierre, and shot himself with the other at the same moment. St. 
Just remained on this occasion and during the whole day in a 
state of gloomy repose, but Robespierre put his weapon to his 
mouth and pulled the trigger with an unsteady finger ; in his hesi- 
tation he shattered his chin, but did not wound himself mortally. 
Almost at the same moment Léonard Bourdon led his troops into 
the Hôtel de Ville, where the city party, in their wild confusion 
and despair, were unable to decide on any common course of 
action. The younger brother of Robespierre jumped out of the 
window to the pavement, but was still alive when he was seized 
below. Henriot was shot through the panes by one of his own 
party who was enraged at his want of self-possession, and fell 
upon a heap of rubbish only slightly wounded. They were all 
arrested within a few minutes. After the declaration of outlawry 
there was no need of any further judicial proceedings, but it was 
not until the afternoon that the preparations for their execution 
had been completed. Robespierre had been laid on a table, with 
a box under his wounded head ; he remained still and silent, and 
only moved to wipe the blood, which flowed copiously from his 
face, with pieces of paper ; he heard nothing about him but words 
of wrath and triumph, yet he never moved a muscle, and regarded 
his persecutors with fixed and glassy eyes. At last the carts ar- 
rived to bear him and his twenty-one companions to the place of 
execution. On the scaffold the executioner tore away the scanty 
bandage from his head, and then he uttered a shrill cry of pain, 
the first sound which had proceeded from him since his arrest, 
and the last. On the following day seventy-one members of the 
municipality followed him to death : the Reign of Terror ended 
in a terrible sea of blood." — Heinrich von Sybel, ''Hist, of the 

After the fall of Robespierre it was seriously proposed 
to pull down the Hôtel de Ville, because it had been his 
last asylum — "Le Louvre de Robespierre." It was only 
saved by the common-sense of Le'onard Bourdon. 

But most of all, in the popular recollection, is the 
Hôtel de Ville connected with public fêtes — with those on 
the second marriage of Napoleon I. (18 10), on the entry 


of Louis XVIII. (1814), on the coronation of Charles X. 
(1825), on the marriage of the Duke of Orleans (1837), 
on the visits of different foreign potentates to Napoleon 
III. Here also was the Republic proclaimed, September 
4, 1870. 

It was in one of the windows of the Hôtel de Ville 
that Louis Philippe embraced Lafayette (August, 1830) in 
sight of the people, to evince the union of the July mon- 
archy with the bourgeoisie. On the steps of the building 
Louis Blanc proclaimed the Republic, February 24, 1848. 
From September 4, 1870, to February 28, 187 1, the hotel 
was the seat of the " gouvernement de la de'fense na- 
tionale," and from March 19 to May 22, 1871, that of the 
pretended " Comité du salut public " of the Communists. 
On May 24 it was burnt by its savage defenders, many of 
whom happily perished in the flames. 

The Place de V Hotel de Ville is so modernized that it 
retains nothing of the Place de Grève but its terrible his- 
toric associations. Amongst the many fearful executions 
here, it is only necessary to recall that of Jean Hardi, torn 
to pieces by four horses (March 30, 1473) on an accusa- 
tion of trying to poison Louis XI. ; that of the Comte de 
St. Pol (December 19, 1475), long commemorated by a 
pillar ; those of a long list of Protestants, opened by the 
auto-de-fe of Jacques de Povanes, student of the Uni- 
versity, in 1525; tiiat of Nicolas de Salcède, Sieur d'Au- 
villers, torn to pieces by four horses in the presence of the 
king and queens, for conspiracy to murder the Due d'Anjou, 
youngest son of Catherine de Medicis. More terrible still 
was the execution of Ravaillac (May 27, 16 10), murderer 
of Henri IV. 

*' The executioner cut off his hand with an axe, and threw it 
and the murderous knife into the fire. His breasts, his arms and 


his legs were torn with pincers, and boiling oil and melted lead 
poured into the open wounds. He was then dismembered by 
four strong horses, which pulled for no less than an entire hour. 
They dismembered only a corpse. 'He expired,' said L'Estoile, 
' at the second or third pull {tirade). When the executioner had to 
throw the limbs into the fire that the ashes, according to the sen- 
tence, might be flung to the winds, the whole crowd rushed on to 
claim them.' ' But,' adds the same chronicler, * the people rushed 
on so impetuously that ever}'^ mother's son had a piece, even the 
children, who made fires of them at the corners of the streets.' " — 
Fai is à travers les âges. 

The next great execution here was that of Leonora 

Galigai, Maréchale d'Ancre, foster-sister of Marie de 

Medicis, beheaded, crying, " Oime' poveretta ! " Then 

came three noble young men, a Montmorency, a Boute- 

ville, and a Des Chapelles, executed for having fought in 

the duel of three against three, June 27, 1627. The 

Maréchal de Marillac, executed by Richelieu, was allowed 

to suffer upon a scaffold on the steps of the Hôtel de 

Ville. Under Louis XIV. came the execution of the 

Marquise de Brinvilliers, of whom Mme de Sévigné wrote 

(in allusion to her ashes being thrown to the winds) : 

" Enfin, c'en est fait, la Brinvilliers est en Pair." March 

28, 1757, was marked by the horrible execution of 

Damiens, the fanatic who tried to kill Louis XV. 

" The aforesaid prisoner, we read in the official report, was 
bound to the scaffold, where at first he had his hand burnt, hold- 
ing in the same the knife with which he committed the parricide. 
His nipples, arms, thighs and calves were torn by pincers, and 
into the said places was poured melted lead, boiling oil, pitch 
and sulphur melted together ; during all this punishment the 
prisoner kept crying, ' My God, strength, strength ! O Lord, 
my God, have pity on me ! O Lord, my God, how I suffer ! O 
Lord, my God, give me patience ! ' At length he was drawn by 
four horses, and after several pulls was dismembered and the 
limbs and body thrown into the fire." — Paris h travers les âges. 

After the capture of the Bastille its brave governor, 


M. de Launay, was beheaded on the steps of the Hôtel de 
Ville, and his major, M. de Losme-Salbray, was massacred 
under the Arcade St. Jean. These were the first victims 
of the Revolution. Foulon, Intendant du Commerce, 
suffered here soon afterwards, hung from the cords by 
which a lamp was suspended, whence the expression, 
which soon resounded in many a popular refrain, of 
" mettre les aristocrats à la lanterne " — especially in the 
famous " carillon national : " ^ 

* Ah ! ça ira, ça ira, ça ira, 
Les aristocrate' à la lanterne ! 
Ah ! ça ira, ça ira, ça ira, 
Les aristocrate', on les pendra." 

"The ex-minister Foulon was conducted to the Hôtel de 
Ville. He was detested by the people ; he was accused of 
peculation during the Seven Years' War, of great harshness, and 
of the improbable remark that ' the people would be too happy 
if they had grass to eat.' . . . The report of the electors shows 
what efforts La Fa3^ette made to rescue the unhappy man from 
the inexpressible rage of the people, and it is impossible to say 
what would have been the result when terrible cries came from 
the square of the Hôtel de Ville. Several voices, at the end of 
the hall, exclaimed that the Palais Royal and the Faubourg St. 
Antoine were coming to take away the prisoner. The stairs and 
passages of the HOtel de Ville resounded with appalling cries. 
A new crowd pressed on the crowd that filled already the large 
hall ; all were in confusion at once, and all borne on with violence 
towards the desk and the table where M. Foulon was seated. 
The chair was upset, and then M. de la Fayette pronounced in a 
loud voice the words, ' Take him to prison ! ' 

"To this account, which is exact, it must be added that M. 
de la Fayette, after again attempting to appease the multitude, 
was loudly applauded, when Foulon took the unfortunate notion 
of applauding also. A voice exclaimed, ' See, there is an under- 
standing between them!' At these words, Foulon, torn from 
the hands of the electors, who surrounded and endeavored to 
protect him, was dragged out and massacred at the Grève, while 

* Sung at ' la première FLcIération, July 14, 1790. 


there was not the physical possibility for La Fayette, I do not 
say to protect him, but even to make himself \\G^ràr—LaFayeiit; 

Louvel, the murderer of the Due de Berry, was the last 
person executed at the Place de Grève, his last request 
having been granted, that he might go into mourning for 
himself ! 

It was here that a pig ran between the legs of the horse 
which the young king Philippe (son of Louis le Gros) was 
riding, and caused the fall of which he died the next day 
(October, 1131), in consequence of which it was forbidden 
to any one to let his pigs wander in the streets, those of 
the abbey of St. Antoine only being excepted, out of 
respect to their patron saint.^ 

The Pont de la Grève is now the Pont d'Arcole. 

"On the 28th July, 1830, during the attack on the Hôtel de 
Ville by the Parisians, a young man, one of the group of combat- 
ants who where firing from the Cité on the Place de Grève, 
darted on the bridge, and almost at once fell mortally wounded,' 
crying, ' Souvenez-vous que je m'appelle d'Arcole!' Truth or fable 
devised by popular imagination, this gave the bridge the name it 
still bears." — Frédéric Lock. 

Now the magnificent Tour de St. Jacques rises before us. 
It is- the only remnant of a great church— St. Jacques de 
la Boucherie, which formerly gave sanctuary to murderers. 
The church dated from the XL c. to the XV. c, but was 
sold and pulled down during the Revolution. The tower, 
which dates from the reign of Louis XII., 1508-22, is the 
finest in Paris. It looked far better, however, when rising 
from a group of houses, than on the meaningless platform 
which now surrounds it, and, unfortunately, instead of re- 
storing the old chapel of St. Quentin, which formerly 
existed beneath it, the tower has been used as a canopy 

^ Saint-Foix, Essais hist, sur Paris. 


for a feeble Statue of Pascal by Cavelier, placed here be- 
cause from hence he continued his experiments on the 
weight of the air, begun in the Puy-de-Dôme. There is a 
fine view from the summit of the tower, where the north- 
west pinnacle is surmounted by a statue of St. James the 
Great by Rault, the others by the mystic animals of the 
Evangelists ; a spire thirty feet high once crowned the 
whole. Different confraternities had their chapels in the 
church. In that of the spur-makers, both on the windows 
and cornice, were representations of the XV. c. philan- 
thropist Nicolas Flamel, who was buried here (141 7) 
with his wife Perenelle (1397) ; his curious gravestone is 
now in the Hôtel de Cluny with an epitaph ending in the 
lines — 

" De terre je suis venu et en terre retorne, 
L'âme rends à toi J.H.S. qui les péchiés pardonne."^ 

The Boulevard de Sébastopol now leads past the tower 
to the Place du Châtelet, where the ugly Fontaine de la Vic- 
toire^ designed by Bralle, marks the site of the picturesque 
and curious old fortress of Le Grande Châtelet, through 
which a vaulted passage formed the approach to the Rue 
St. Denis from the Pont du Change, formerly lined with 
houses. The fortress, which had a massive tower at the 
north-east angle, was of considerable size, and enclosed 
several courtyards, surrounded by prisons, known by 
familiar and often very terrible names. The horrors of 
the prisons and of the torture chamber of the Châtelet 
were portrayed in the verses of Clément Marot and in 

^ It was long believed in Paris that Nicolas and Perenelle were not really- 
dead. It was said that they had feigned sickness, caused two logs of wood to 
be buried in their place, and escaped to Switzerland, thence to Asia Minor, 
where Paul Lucas, a traveller of the end of the XVII. c, affirms that he met a 
dervish who had recently seen them and knew them intimately. See Voyage de 
Paul Lucas dans r Asie-Mineure, vol. ii. ch. 12. 



endless engravings and ballads, through a long 'course of 
years. Jn the crypt, under "le père des lettres," François 
I., ''on donnait aux imprimeurs relaps la question à seize 
crans." On September 2, 1792, 214 prisoners were 
massacred in the Châtelet. Within the valuted passage, 
on entering from the river, was a morgue, predecessor of 
that now existing on the island. 

Between the Châtelet and the bridge, on the east side, 
were, first, a " Parloir aux Bourgeois," in which municipal 
meetings were held, and then the church of St. Leufïroi, 
which dated from 1113. The monks of the abbey of St. 
Croix de Leuffroi in the diocese of Evreux, had brought 
hither the bodies of Sts. Leuffroi and Thuriaf to preserve 
them from the Normans. When the danger was over they 
reclaimed their relics, but could only obtain an arm of St. 
Thuriaf. The church was rebuilt in the XIV. c, but was 
pulled down in 1684 to enlarge the prisons of the Châ- 
telet. In the last century a narrow street called Rue 
Trop-va-qui-dure (an inexplicable name) ran between the 
front of the Châtelet with its great round towers, and a 
block of buildings called the Pointe du Pont au Change, 
on the front of which, facing down the bridge, was a curi- 
ous monument to Louis XIII., on which he was repre- 
sented with Anne of Austria and Louis XIV. as an infant. 

The money-changers took possession of the Grand 
Pont in the middle of the XII. c, after which it received 
the name of the Pont an Change. Here, in accordance 
with an old custom, when a sovereign made his first public 
entry into Paris, the bird-sellers were bound to give liberty 
to 2,400 birds, "so that the air was darkened by the beat- 
ing of their wings." The bridge was rebuilt in 1639, and 
is the widest of the Parisian bridges. 

The Avenue Victoria, which runs behind the site of the 



Châtelet, crosses (a little to the north-west) the site of the 
Hôtel du Chevalier du Guet, a curious gothic building, 
dating from the time of St. Louis, and used as a mairie, 
till its most deplorable destruction in 1864. A little 
further, in. the Rue des Orfèvres, a narrow street between 
this and St. Germain I'Auxerrois, stood the Chapelle St. 
Eloy, dating from 1403, but rebuilt by Philibert Delorme, 
with ornaments by Gepmain Pilon. It was sold in the 

A house behind the Quai de la Mégisserie, at the 
corner of Rue Bertin-Poire'e and Rue St. Germain 
I'Auxerrois, stands on the substructions of For TEveque 
(Forum Episcopi),^ the seat of the temporal jurisdiction of 
the bishops of Paris. Here the bishop's provost inflicted 
his sentences. If people were to be burned alive it must 
be outside the banlieue of Paris, but if only their ears were 
to be cut off it would be executed at the Place du Trahoir. 
Du Chastel, who tried to murder Henri IV. at the Hôtel 
du Bouchage, was imprisoned here. For I'Eveque was 
suppressed under Louis XVI. by the advice of Necker. 

The Place du Châtelet is the point where curious visit- 
ors usually enter Subterraneaîi Paris ^ with its vast system 
of sewers [egouts). They are generally shown once every 
week in summer. Visitors must make a written applica- 
tion to the Préfet de la Seine, who will send a card of 
admittance announcing the time and starting-point. The 
ramifications of the vast system by which the drainage of 
Paris is conducted are a yery curious sight, and evil odors 
are not much to be dreaded. 

" Digging the sewerage of Paris was no small task. The 
last ten centuries have toiled at it without being able to finish, no 

^ Adrien de Valois says that the name came from the Four I'Eveque, be- 
cause there was an oven here whither the bishop's vassals came to bake their 


more than they could finish Paris. The sewer, in fact, receives 
all the counterstrokes of the growth of Paris. It is in the ground 
a species of dark polype with a thousand antennae, which grows 
below, equally with the city above. Each time that the city 
forms a street, the sewer stretches out an arm. The old monar- 
chy only constructed twenty-three thousand three hundred metres 
of drain, and Paris had reached that point on Januar)^ ist, 1806. 
From this period, to which we shall presently revert, the work 
has been usefully and energetically taken up and continued. 
Napoleon built — and the figures are curious — four thousand 
eight hundred and four metres ; Charles X., ten thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-six ; Louis Philippe, eighty-nine thousand 
and twenty ; the Republic of 1848, twenty-three thousand three 
hundred and eighty-one ; the present government seventy thou- 
sand five hundred ; altogether two hundred and twenty-six thou- 
sand six hundred metres, or sixty leagues of sewer — the enor- 
mous entrails of Paris — an obscure ramification constantly at 
work, an unknown and immense construction. 

" At the present day the sewer is clean, cold, straight and cor- 
rect, and almost realizes the ideal of what is understood in Eng- 
land by the word ' respectable.' It is neat and gray ; built with 
the plumb-line, we might almost say coquettishly. It resembles 
a contractor who has become a councillor of state. You almost 
see clearly in it, and the mud behaves itself decently. At the 
first glance you might be inclined to take it for one of those sub- 
terranean passages so common formerly, and so useful for the 
flights of monarchs and princes in the good old times 'when the 
people loved its kings.' The present sewer is a handsome sewer, 
the pure style prevails there ; the classic rectilinear Alexandrine, 
which, expelled from poetry, appears to have taken refuge in 
architecture, seems blended with all the stones of this long, 
dark, and white vault ; each vomitory is an arcade, and the Rue 
de Rivoli sets the fashion even in the cloaca. However, if the 
geometric line be anywhere in its place, it is assuredly so in the 
stercoreous trench of a great city, where everything must be 
subordinated to the shortest road. The sewer has at the present 
day assumed a certain official aspect, and the police reports of 
which it is sometimes the object, are no longer deficient in re- 
spect to it. The words which characterize it in the administrative 
language are lofty and dignified ; what used to be called a gut is 
now called a gallery, and what used to be a hole is now a ' look.' 
This net-work of cellars still has its population of rodents, pul- 



lulating more than ever ; from time to time a rat, an old mus- 
tache, ventures his head at the window of the drain and exam- 
ines the Parisians ; but even these vermin are growing tame, 
as they are satisfied with their subterranean palace. The cloaca 
no longer retains its primitive ferocity, and the rain which sul- 
lied the drain of olden times, washes that of the present day. 
Still, do not trust to it too entirely, for miasmas still inhabit it, 
and it is rather hypocritical than irreproachable. In spite of all 
the prefecture of police and the board of health have done, it 
exhales a vague suspicious odor, like Tartuffe after confession." 
— Victor Hugo, '^ Les Misérables.''^ 

Zola describes the marvellous effects of sunset which 
so many will have admired from the quays on this side of 
the Seine. 

" On days when the sky was clear, as they debouched from 
the Pont Louis Philippe, the whole valley of the quays — im- 
mense, infinite — unfolded before them. From one end to the 
other, the sloping sun warmed with golden notes the houses on 
the right bank, while the left bank, the islands and the buildings, 
stood out a clear cut black line against the fiaming glory of the 
sunset. Between this brilliant margin and this sombre margin, 
the Seine gleamed, all spangled, cut by the thin bars of its 
bridges, the five arches of the Pont Notre Dame beneath the 
single arch of the Pont d'Arcole, then the Pont au Change, then 
the Pont Neuf, finer and ever finer, displayed, each beyond its 
shadow, a bright streak of light and a water of blue satin, pale 
as if reflected in a mirror ; and while the twilight outlines on the 
left were terminated by the silhouette of the pointed towers of 
the Palais de Justice, drawn in charcoal on the void, a soft curve 
swept round to the right in clear radiance, so long drawn out, so 
lost in distance, that the pavilion of Flora, far away, standing 
forth like a citadel at the extreme point, seemed a castle of 
dreamland, blue, light and quivering in the midst of the rosy 
vapors of the horizon. But they, bathed in sunlight beneath the 
leafless planetrees, turned their eyes away from this dazzling 
splendor, to rest them on certain nooks always the same, a block 
of very old houses above the Mail, little shops of old metal trum- 
pery and fishing tackle in one story, surmounted by terraces, 
green with laurels and virgin vines ; then, behind, higher houses, 
dilapidated, with clothes at the windows, a whole pile of quaint 


constructions, an interlacing of wood-work and masonry, of 
crumbling walls and hanging gardens, where balls of glass 
shone like stars. They walked on, and soon left the great 
buildings that follow, the Barracks, the Hôtel de Ville, to centre 
their attention on the other bank of the stream, on the Cité, 
packed in its straight smooth walls, without a beach. Above 
the shadowy houses, the towers of Notre Dame looked, in their 
resplendence, newly gilt. Old book-stalls began to invade the 
parapets, a lighter laden with charcoal was struggling against the 
terrible current, beneath an arch of the Pont Notre Dame, And 
there, on the market days for flowers, in spite of the severity of 
the season, they paused to breathe the first violets and the early 
gilliflowers. On the left, nevertheless, the bank still stretched, 
lengthening out ; beyond the pepper-castor turrets of the Palais 
de Justice, appeared the little faded houses of the Quai de l'Hor- 
loge down to the clumps of trees beyond the embankment ; then, 
as they still advanced, other quays leaped out of the mist ; far off, 
the Quai de Voltaire, the Quai Malaquais, the cupola of the In- 
stitute, the square building of the Mint, a long gray line of 
façades where even the windows were indistinguishable, a pro- 
montory of roofs, which the chimney-pots made resemble a rocky 
cliff, were plunged in the midst of a phosphorescent sea. In 
front, on the contrar)»-, the Pavilion de Flore came out of dream- 
land and grew solid in the last flashes of the orb. And then, 
to right, to left, on each bank of the water, were distant perspec- 
tives of the Boulevard Sébastopol, and the Boulevard du Palais ; 
the new buildings of the Quai de la Mégisserie, and the new 
Prefecture of Police in front, the old Pont Neuf with the ink- 
stain on its statue, the Louvre, the Tuileries, then, beyond Gre- 
nelle, distances without limit, the slopes of Sèvres and the 
country bathed in a flood of rays," — Zola, *' H Œuvre.'' 



THE Faubourg St. Antoine has always borne an active 
part in the different revolutions. It was at the en- 
trance of the street bearing the name, on the left of the 
Place de la Bastille, that the great barricade of June, 1848, 
was erected. 

"The St. Antoine barricade was monstrous, it was three 
stories high and seven hundred feet in width. It barred from 
one corner to the other the vast mouth of the Faubourg, that is 
to say, three streets ; ravined, slashed, serrated, surmounted by 
an immense jagged line, supported by piles which were them- 
selves bastions, pushing out capes here and there, and power- 
fully reinforced by the two great promontories of the houses of 
the Faubourg, it rose like a Cyclopean wall at the back of the 
formidable square which had seen July 14. There were nineteen 
barricades erected in the streets behind the mother barricade, 
only on seeing it you felt in the Faubourg the immense agonizing 
suffering which had reached that extreme stage in which misery 
desires a catastrophe. Of what was this barricade made? of 
three six-storied houses demolished expressly some say, of the 
prodigy of all anger others say. It possessed the lamentable as- 
pect of all the buildings of hatred, ruin. You might ask who 
built this? and you might also ask who destroyed this? It was 
the improvisation of the ebullition. Here with that door, that 
grating, that awning, that chimney, that broken stove, that cracked 
stew-pan. Give us anything, throw everything in ! push, roll, 
pick, dismantle, overthrow, and pull down everything ! it was a 
collaboration of the pavement-stones, beams, iron bars, planks, 



broken windows, unseated chairs, cabbage-stalks, rags, tatters, 
and curses. It was great and it was little, it was the abyss par- 
odied on the square by the tohubohu. It was the mass side by 
side with the atom, a pulled-down wall and a broken pipkin, a 
menacing fraternization of all fragments, into which Sysiphus 
had cast his rock and Job his potsherds. Altogether it was ter- 
rible, it was the acropolis of the barefooted. Overturned carts 
studded the slope, an immense wain spread out across it, with 
its wheels to the sky, and looked like a scar on this tumultuous 
façade, an omnibus gayly hoisted by strength of arm to the very 
top of the pile, as if the architects of this savage edifice had 
wished to add mockery to the horror, offered its bare pole to the 
horses of the air. This gigantic mound, the alluvium of the 
riot, represented to the mind an Ossa upon Pelion of all revolu- 
tions, '93 upon '89, the 9th Thermidor upon the loth August, the 
i8th Brumaire upon January 21st, Vendémiaire upon Prairial, 
1848 upon 1830. The square was worth the trouble, and this 
barricade was worthy of appearing upon the very spot whence the 
Bastille had disappeared. If the ocean made dykes it would 
build them in this way, and the fury of the tide was stamped on 
this shapeless encumbrance. What tide? the people. You fan- 
cied that you saw a petrified riot, and heard the enormous dark 
bees of violent progress humming about this barricade as if they 
had their hive there. Was it a thicket? was it a Bacchanalian 
feast? was it a fortress? Vertigo seemed to have built it with 
the flapping of its wings. There was a sewer in this redoubt, 
and something Olympian in this mass. You saw there in a pell- 
mell full of desperation, gables of roofs, pieces of garrets with 
their painted paper, window-frames with all their panes planted 
in the confusion and awaiting the cannon, pulled down mantel- 
pieces, chests of drawers, tables, benches, a howling overthrow, 
and those thousand wretched things cast away even by a beggar 
which contain at once fury and nothingness. It may be said that 
it was the rags of a people, rags of wood, of iron, of bronze, of 
stone, and that the Faubourg St. Antoine had swept them to their 
door with a gigantic broom, and made a barricade of their 
misery. Logs resembling executioners' blocks, anvil frames of 
the shape of gallows, broken chains, horizontal wheels emerging 
from the heap, produced on this edifice of anarchy the represen- 
tation of the old punishment suffered by the people. The St. 
Antoine barricade made a weapon of everything. All that civil 
war can throw at the head of society came from it ; it was not a 


fight, but a paroxysm : the muskets which defended this redoubt, 
among whicli were several blunderbusses, discharged stones, 
bones, coat-buttons, and even the castors of night-commodes, 
very dangerous, owing to the copper. This barricade was furious, 
it hurled an indescribable clamor into the clouds ; at certain mo- 
ments when challenging the army it was covered with a crowd and 
a tempest, it had a prickly crest of guns, sabres, sticks, axes, pikes, 
and bayonets, a mighty red flag fluttered upon it in the breeze, 
and the cries of command, the songs of attack, the rolling of the" 
drum, the sobs of women, and the sardonic laughter of men 
dying of starvation, could be heard there. It was immeasurable 
and living, and a flash of lightning issued from it as from the 
back of an electric animal. The spirit of revolution covered with 
its cloud this summit, where that voice of the people which re- 
sembles the voice of God was growling, and a strange majesty 
was disengaged from this Titanic mass of stones. It was a dung- 
heap, and it was Sinai." — Victor Hugo, ''Les Misérables." 

On the third day of the contest at the barricade, Arch- 
bishop Affre, whilst exhorting the people to peace, was 
killed on this spot by a ball from one of the insurgents. 
He was carried to the hospital of the Quinze- Vingts, es- 
corted by some of the Gardes Mobiles. To one of these, 
whom he recognized as having fought with especial bravery 
— one François Delavriguière — the dying prelate gave a 
little crucifix which he wore, saying, " Never part with this 
cross ; lay it on your heart ; it will make you happy." ^ 

This same spot was one of the last strongholds of the 
Communists, and was only taken by the Versailles troops 
after a desperate conflict. May 25, 187 1. 

"This old faubourg, peopled like an ant-heap, laborious, 
courageous, and passionate as a hive of bees, receives the coun- 
ter-stroke of commercial crises, bankruptcies, stoppages, and 
cessation of work, which are inherent in all political convulsions. 
In revolutionary times misery is at once the cause and the effect, 
and the blow which it deals falls upon itself again. This popu- 
lation, full of haughty virtue, capable of the highest amount of 

' Constitutionnel. 



latent calorie, ever ready to take up arms, prompt to explode, 
irritated, profound, and undermined, seemed to be only waiting 
for the fall of a spark. Whenever certain sparks fîoat about the 
horizon, driven by the wind of events, we cannot help thinking 
of the Faubourg St. Antoine and the formidable chance which 
has placed at the gates of Paris this powder-magazine of suffer- 
ings and ideas. 

" The wine-shops of the Faubourg Antoine, which have been 
more than once referred to in this sketch, possess an historic 
notoriety. In times of trouble people grow intoxicated in them 
more on words than wine ; and a species of prophetic spirit and 
an effluvium of the future circulates there, swelling hearts and 
ennobling minds. The Faubourg St. Antoine is a reservoir of 
the people in which the revolutionary earthquake makes fissures, 
through which the sovereignty of the people flows. This sover- 
eignty can act badly, it deceives itself like other things, but even 
when led astray it remains grand. We may say of it, as of the 
blind Cyclops, Ingens.'" — Victor Hugo, '' Les Misérables.'" 

From the Place de la Bastille, the Rue de la Roquette 
leads to the Cemetery of Père Lachaise, just before reach- 
ing which we pass on the right the Prison of La Roquette^ 
or Nouveau Bicctre, also called the *' Dépôt des Con- 
damnés." Executions take place on the space between 
the prison and the Rue de la Roquette. There are usually 
about 400 prisoners here, who are generally obliged to 
work at a trade — ^joinery, tool-making, shoe-making, tailor- 
ing — and one half of what they have earned is paid to 
them when they are discharged. A marble slab in the 
prison records the brutal murder here of Archbishop 
Darboy ; Duguerry, Curé de la Madeleine ; the president 
Bonjean, and other hostages, by the Communists, May 24, 
187 1, at the moment when the troops of the Government 
were entering Paris. The cell of the archbishop is pre- 
served as he left it for his execution. 

" The archbishop went first, rapidly descended the five steps 
and turned round. When his companions in martyrdom were all 
on the steps he raised his right hand, the first three fingers 



extended, and pronounced the formula of absolution : Ego vos 
absolvo ab omnibus censuris et peccatis ! Then, approaching M. 
Bonjean, who walked with difficulty, he offered him his arm. 
Still preceded by the sergeant Ramain, and surrounded behind 
and on each flank, by the fédérés, the procession turned to the 
right, and entered the long first passage, which ended near the 
first court of the prison. In front, a little ahead of the others, 
the Abbé Allard walked, shaking his hands above his brow. A 
witness, speaking of him, used an expression of atrocious sim- 
plicity : * He walked fast, gesticulating and humming some- 
thing.' The something was the prayer for the dying, which the 
unhappy man repeated half aloud. All the others were silent. 

"They came to the railing called the ' railing of the dead,' 
which closes the first circular passage ; it was closed. Ramain, 
who was very much troubled in spite of his efforts at self-control, 
looked in vain for the key in the bunch he carried. At this time, 
M. Darboy, less perhaps to save his life from his murderers than 
to spare them a crime, tried to argue with them : ' I have always 
loved the people, and always loved liberty.' A fédéré replied : 
' Thy liberty is not ours — you tire us ! ' The archbishop was 
silent and waited patiently till Ramain opened the railing. The 
Abbé Allard turned round, looked to the window of the fourth 
section, and saw some terrified prisoners who were watching them 
in tears. They turned to the left, then again to the left, and 
entered the second circular passage, the high wall of which 
seemed in mourning. At the end rose the wall which separates 
the prison from the grounds adjacent to the Rue de la Folie- 

"The spot was well chosen and hidden from all view; it was 
a kind of sunk ditch, the very spot for ambushes and murders. 
Ramain went away. The victims and the executioners remained 
face to face, without a witness who could hereafter appeal to 
justice. The place where the bodies were found indicates that 
the hostages were arranged in the hierarchical order which dictated 
their classification in their cells. They were ranged against the 
wall, on the right, opposite the firing party. Mgr Darboy first, 
then President Bonjean, the Abbé Deguerry, Father Ducoudray, 
Father Clerc, both belonging to the Society of Jesus, and then 
Abbé Allard, the chaplain of the ambulances which, during the 
siege and the first fights of the Commune, had rendered such 
services to the wounded. The firing party halted at thirty paces 
from the six men, who remained erect and resigned. Two vol- 


leys were fired and some scattering shots. It was then a quarter 
to eight in the evening." — Maxime du CatJip, ^^ Les convulsions de 

On the left of the road is the Maison Centrale (V Educa- 
tion Correctionnelle or Prison des jeunes Déteîius, intended 
for male offenders under the age of sixteen. They are 
taught twelve trades, to work at in their cells, which they 
never leave except to hear mass, to see their friends by 
permission in the parloir, or for an hour's walk in one of 
the courts ; but the prisoners never meet, and they are 
only known — even to the overseer — by a number over the 
door of their cell. 

Père Lachaise is the largest and richest of the Parisian 
cemeteries. It occupies land formerly called Champ de 
'Evêque, because it belonged to the Archbishop of Paris. 
In the time of Louis XIV., under the name of Mont 
Louis, it became the head-quarters of the Jesuits, and was 
much embellished by their superior, the celebrated Père 
Lachaise, confessor of Louis XIV. — " l'ennemi le plus 
acharné des re'formés," as " Madame," the Duchesse d'Or- 
léans, calls him. After the expulsion of the Order, the 
land, sold to pay their debts, continued to bear his name, 
and was converted into a public cemetery in 1804. Bron- 
gniart, who was employed to lay out the ground for its new 
destination, spared the avenues of limes which led to the 
terrace of the old gardens, and the avenue of chestnuts at 
the top of the hill. The chapel occupies the site of the old 
château, and its orangery still exists, used as a dwelling for 
the guardians. 

Conducteurs are to be found in the small building at the 
entrance, and will be useful to those who wish to find any 
especial graves in this vast labyrinth. 

On entering the cemetery, the pagan character of the 


monuments will strike every one. It is exceedingly difficult 
to find any particular tomb, and, except in cases of per- 
sonal interest, no visitor need waste his time in trying. 
All the tombs are hideous, all have exactly the same 
characteristics, and the chief of these is weight. It is as 
if every family tried to pile as much stone, granite, or mar- 
ble as possible upon their lost relatives. A few of the 
monuments are pyramids and columns ; but the favorite 
design is a heavy little chapel with a gabled front, usually 
surmounted by a cross. Each bears the name of its owners, 
*' Famille Henri," "Famille Cuchelet," &c. Through the 
grating, or a glazed cross in the door, you may see inside 
a little altar with a crucifix and vases of artificial, or occa- 
sionally fresh, flowers, and sometimes a stained window at 
the back. There is often room for a prie-dieu or two chairs 
for the relations in the tiny space, and the steps of the 
altar are piled with wreaths, sometimes real, but generally 
of flowers made of black, white and grey beads. Often, 
too, these wreaths are exhibited outside the tombs, or 
sometimes an immense Pensée in a round glass. If real 
flowers are planted on a humbler grave, it is a pleasant 

"Père Lachaise — well and good! To be buried at Père 
Lachaise is like having mahogany furniture — a mark of re- 
spectability ! " — Victor Hugo. 

The poor, who are buried gratuitously, are laid in Fosses 
Commu?ies, containing forty or fifty coffins each ; but these 
now only exist in the cemeteries outside the city, at St. 
Ouen and Ivry. 150 fr. are paid for a concession temporaire^ 
that the grave shall be undisturbed for ten years ; 500 fr. 
for a concession à perpétuité. The spaces allowed for this 
sum are only 22^ square feet. 

Following the main avenue till it is divided by flower- 

PÈRE LA Cil A I SE 241 

beds, the path on the right passes the tomb of the astrono- 
mer Arago, member of the provisional government, 1848 ; 
on the left are those of Visconti, architect of the new 
Louvre, Rossini the mathematician, Louis Poinsot, and 
Alfred de Musset, engraved with a verse from one of his 
poems. Further on lies Roederer, one of the chiefs of 
the July Revolution, and opposite, on the other side of an 
avenue of limes. Maréchal Grouchy. Ascending to the 
chapel by the left staircase, we pass the tombs of General 
Nègre and the painter David. 

Returning towards the entrance by a lime avenue 
which leaves the great avenue to the right, we see the 
monuments of Auber, Potier, Beauvisage, &c. Turning to 
the left beyond the guardian's house, we reach the gate of 
the Jewish Cemetery (closed on Saturdays), containing the 
tombs of Mme Rachel, the families of Rothschild and 
Fould, and the curious monument of one Jacob Robles. 

To the left of the Avenue Casimir-Pe'rier, which makes 
a great curve before reaching the " Rond Point," are tombs 
of Bichat, Mile Mars, Lesurques, Pigault-Lebrun, J. Che'- 
nier, Robertson the aeronaut, &c. 

To the right is the canopied gothic monument which 
covers the remains of Abelard, the poet-philosopher, who 
founded a doctrine in his twenty-third year, and Ht'loise, 
abbess of the Paraclete, heroine of the most famous love- 
story in the world. 

" By itself, the name of Abelard would have been known 
to-day only to scholars ; united with that of Héloïse, it is graven 
on every memory. Paris above all, 'the city of glory, but also 
the city of forgetfulness,' has preserved an exceptional and un- 
alterable fidelity to the memory of the immortal daughter of the 
Cité. The eighteenth century and the Revolution, so merciless to 
the middle ages, kept alive this tradition with the same passion 
which drove them to efface so many memories. The children of 



Rousseau's disciples still come as pilgrims to the monument of 
the great saint of Love, and every spring sees pious hands renew 
the crowns of flowers on the tomb, in which the Revolution re- 
united the two lovers. 

" Abélard died at the priory of St. Marcel of Chalons, 21st of 
April, 1142. His last wish was to be laid at the Paraclete. He 
thought, at least when dying, of her who had never had a thought 
but for him. The Church herself respected the mystic bond be- 
tween the philosopher and the great abbess. Peter the Venerable, 
who wrote an epitaph for Abélard, in which he called him the 
Socrates of Gaul, the Plato and Aristotle of the West, sent his 
mortal remains to Héloïse. ' The Lord,' he wrote to the Abbess of* 
the Paraclete, with a vision of another heaven than that of the 
ascetics, ' the Lord preserve him for you to restore him to you by 
his grace.' Héloïse survived, in silence, till the i6th of May, 
1 164. Only at the end of twenty-two years was she buried near 
her spouse." — Martin, ^^ Hist, de France.'''' 

Part of the monument which we see was erected in 1779 
at the Abbey of the Paraclete, and was removed for safety 
to the Musée des Petits- Augustins during the Revolution. 
It was transported to Père Lachaise in 18 17. The canopy 
is made to include a few ancient fragments from the Abbey 
of Nogent-sur-Seine, but, in itself, is quite modern. It 
encloses the tomb erected by Peter the Venerable at the 
Priory of St. Marcel. But the figure of Héloïse is really 
that of a lady of the Dormans family, plundered from their 
interesting chapel in the old Collège de Beauvais. How- 
ever, all the world looks upon her as the beloved of Abé- 
lard, long severed in reality, united to him in the tomb. 
Perhaps when Dante wrote of Francesca di Rimini he had 
in his mind the words of Abélard in a letter to his friend : 
" Nous ouvrions nos livres, mais nous avions plus de 
paroles d'amour que de lecture, plus de baisers que de 

The centre of the Rond Point is occupied by a statue 
of Casimir-Périer, Prime Minister under Louis Philippe, 


1832. On the left are a number of tombs of musicians, 
including Bellini, Cherubini, and Chopin ; then, behind 
these, Brongniart the mineralogist, Laharpe, Delille, Ber- 
nardin de St. Pierre, Denon of Egyptian reputation, and, 
nearer the chapel. Talma and Géricault. In the south 
part of the cemetery, between the Rond Point and the en- 
closing wall, are the chapel of General Maison ; the tomb 
of Lebrun, Duc of Piacenza ; the monument erected by 
the town of Paris to soldiers killed in the insurrection of 
June, 1832 ; that of Colonel Labédoyère, shot at the 
Restoration for having proclaimed Napoleon on his return 
from Elba ; and many others. Amongst the tombs on the 
hill behind the monument of Casimir-Pe'rier, is that of the 
families Thiers and Dosne. On the right is the tomb of 
General Macdonald and that of Count Lavalette, with a 
relief representing his rescue from prison by the devotion 
of his wife. 

On the other side of the avenue are the tombs of 
General Gobert, with reliefs by David d'Angers, and a 
group of Ney, Massena, Suchet, and other soldiers of the 

"The cluster of glory formed by the union of all the great 
dignitaries of the imperial crown on the same eminence, eclipses 
all other splendors ; the magnificence of their mausoleums attests 
the truth of the remark of Napoleon, which the people and the 
army confirmed : ' I have made my marshals too rich.' " — Etigene 

Here, near Massena, in " le quartier des mare'chaux," 
rests Lefebvre, who said — 

" Remember that if I die in Paris, I wish to be buried near 
Massena. We lived together in camps and combats ; our ashes 
ought to have the same asylum." 

On reaching the summit of the hill, the tomb of Eugène 


Scribe is amongst those on the left. Returning to the 
Rond Point by the north paths, we pass the tombs of 
Beaumarchais the dramatist, David d'Angers the sculptor, 
De Béranger, Benjamin Constant, General Foy (by David), 
Garnier-Pages, the two Geoiïroy-Saint-Hilaire, Racine, the 
Princess Demidoff, Pradier, of Molière and Lafontaine — 
the first to be laid in Père Lachaise — of Laplace the 
astronomer, Lussac the great chemist, St. Simon, Mme de 
Genlis, Junot (Due d'Abrantès), and Ingres. 

" There is a testimony to the Saint-Simonian faith on a tomb 
in Père Lachaise ; a woman, Marie Simon, died in that faith, 
happy if this sentence of their creed could unveil for her a future 
life and console her for her death : ' God is all that is. . . . All is 
in him, all is by him, nothing is without him.' Her coreligionists, 
in leaving her, uttered as their last words, ' Hope ! ' and have en- 
graved it on her tomb." — Eugene Rock. 

Where the Mahommedan cemetery opens, are tombs of 
Condore and Amédee Achard. Returning towards the 
chapel, amongst a crowd of minor celebrities we find 
Nodier, Casimir Delavigne the poet, Emile Souvestre, De 
Sèze (the heroic advocate who defended Louis XVL), and 
the illustrious Balzac. Frederic Soulié and Michelet are 
buried in this part of the cemetery. 

If the Cemetery of Picpus be visited on leaving Père 
Lachaise, take the tramways, turning left from the gate, 
to the Place de la Nation. 

North of Père Lachaise is Ménilmontant^ once looked 
upon as a tempting place of residence. 

"The Duke de Chaulnes always hoped to possess Ménil- 
montant, and the Duchess always opposed him. She is not very 
reasonable, sometimes, your fair friend ; as for me, I sing out 
loud with the liberty that God has given me, in despite of her 
black looks. It is the duke I am addressing. 
" Achetez le Ménil-montant, 
C'est le repos de votre vie ; 


Avez-vous de l'argent comptant, 
Achetez le Ménil-montant, 
Madame n'en dit pas autant ; 
Mais satisfaites votre envie ; 
Achetez le Ménil-montant, 
C'est le repos de votre vie." 

M. de Coîilaiiges à Mme de Se'vigné, 1695. 

Turning to the left on leaving the Père Lachaise by 
the Avenue de Philippe- Auguste, and then turning to the 
left down the Rue Charonne, we reach the Church of St. 
Marguerite, of the XVII. c. and XVIII. c. The Chapelle 
des Ames du Purgatoire was designed by Louis, 1765. 
Some pictures of the life of St. Vincent de Paul brought 
from the Lazaristes, are interesting from the portraits they 
contain. A Descent from the Cross was sculptured for 
the destroyed Church of St. Landry, in La Cite', by Le 
Lorrain and Nourrisson, pupils of Girardon. The tomb of 
Antoine Fayet, Curé de St. Paul, was (^. 1737) formerly 
buried under the choir, on account of the nudity of the 
figures ! 

"The nth of May, 1792, the city saw the first example of a 
Catholic priest being married, and solemnly avowing the act in 
conformity with the laws of the primitive church. The vicar of St. 
Marguerite presented himself on that day at the bar of the legis- 
lative assembly with his wife and father, and was received with 
applause. He had many imitators." — Dulaiire, ''Hist, de Paris." 

The Cimetière de St. Marguerite is interesting because 
Louis XVII. , who died in the prison of the Temple, June 
^? 1795? ag^d ten years and two months, was buried there, 
though in 1815 his uncle, Louis XVIIL, vainly searched 
there for his remains. 

"The Convention, which had assured Louis XVI., just before 
his death, that the French people, always magnanimous, would 
provide for his family, ordered, as the first proof of its solicitude, 
that Louis should be separated from his mother. With this the 



martyrdom of the royal child began. The Convention placed 
him in the hands of the cobbler Simon and his wife, whom it 
described by the titles of ttctor and governess. This was one of 
the pleasantries of the Revolution, This execrable couple proved 
worthy of the confidence of the nation as represented by the 
conventional committees, and set to work to degrade the moral 
and physical faculties of the son of Louis XVI. The reader 
shudders at the official account of the barbarous and infamous 
treatment to which he was subject. Not content with making 
him endure hunger, cold, and humiliation, with heaping blows 
on him, depriving him of air, amusement, and exercise, and 
leaving him in the most painful destitution, Simon took pleas- 
ure in making him drink spirits, and in teaching him obscene 
songs and stories. But his barbarity was an antidote to his im- 
morality. The young prince gave many proofs of an elevation 
of feeling and ideas, astonishing for his age, of which the per- 
versity of his keeper had not been able to destroy the germ. Si- 
mon having asked him what he would do if the Vendeans deliv- 
vered him, he replied : 

" ' I would pardon you ! ' 

" Marasmus was the natural result of the filth and continual 
suffering in which the prince lived. For more than a year he 
was deprived of linen, and without the most indispensable atten- 
tions. The length of time he resisted proves how strong his con- 
stitution was. . . . The Convention, which could cut off the 
heads of kings, did not know how their children are brought up, 
and therefore inflicted on these children an agony of years. We 
do not fear to say that the slow and obscure death of the young 
Louis XVn. is a more horrible stain on France than the bloody, 
open death of the virtuous Louis XVL" — Balzac, '' Six rois de 

From the Place de la Bastille, the Rue du Faubourg 
St. Antoine leads east to the Place du Trône, commemo- 
rating in its name the throne placed here, upon which Louis 
XIV. was seated when he received the homage of all the 
different officials of Paris, upon his triumphant entry with 
Marie Thérèse. On this spot 1,300 victims of the Reign 
of Terror died by the guillotine. 

"More than eight thousand 'suspects' filled the prisons of 


Paris. In one single night there was flung into them three hun- 
dred families of the Faubourg St. Germain, all the great names 
of France in history, in arms, in parliament, and in the epis- 
copacy. There was no embarrassment about inventing a crime ; 
their names were sufficient, their wealth denounced them, their 
rank surrended them. The quarter they lived in, their rank, fort- 
une, parentage, family, religion, opinions, or their presumed sen- 
timents made them guilty, or rather there was no longer innocent 
and guilty, but proscribers and proscribed. Neither age, nor 
sex, nor advanced years, nor infancy, nor infirmity, which ren- 
dered all criminality physically impossible, could save from ac- 
cusation and condemnation. Paralytic old men followed their 
sons, children followed their fathers, wives their husbands, and 
daughters their mothers. One died for his name, another for 
his fortune, this one for having uttered an opinion, that one for 
silence ; this one for having served royalty, that one for having 
ostentatiously embraced the republic ; one for not having adored 
Marat, another for having regretted the Girondins * one for hav- 
ing applauded the excesses of Hébert, another for smiling at the 
clemency of Danton ; one for having emigrated, one for having 
stayed at home ; one for having starved the people by not spend- 
ing his income, and another for having adopted a luxury insult- 
ing to the public misery. Reasons, suspicions, contradictory 
pretexts, all were good. It was enough to find informers in the 
section, and the law encouraged them by giving them a share in 
the confiscations. 

" The funeral cars often gathered together husband and wife, 
father and son, mother and daughters. These tearful faces that 
gazed on each other with the supreme tenderness of a last look, 
these heads of young girls resting on the knees of their mothers ; 
these brows of wives, falling as if to find strength there, on the 
shoulders of their husbands ; these hearts pressed to other hearts 
about to stop beating ; these white hairs, these fair hairs, cut by 
the same scissors ; these venerable heads, these charming heads, 
mowed down by the same blade, the slow march of the proces- 
sion, the monotonous noise of the wheels, the sabres of the gen- 
darmes forming a hedge of steel around the cars, the suppressed 
sobs, the howls of the populace, this cold, periodic vengeance, 
which was kindled and extinguished at a fixed hour in the streets 
through which the procession passed, gave to these immolations 
something worse than mere murder, for it was murder presented 
as a spectacle and a pleasure to a whole people. 

248 IVALJ^S IN F A m S 

" So perished, decimated in their flower, all classes of the 
population, the nobility, the church, the citizens, the magistrac}-, 
the commercial classes, even the people themselves ; so perished 
all the great and obscure citizens who represented in France the 
ranks, professions, light, offices, wealth, industries, opinions, or 
sentiments proscribed by the sanguinary regeneration of the Ter- 
ror. Thus fell, one by one, four thousand heads in a few months, 
among them bearers of the names of Montmorency, Noailles, La 
Rochefoucauld, Mailly, Mouchy, Lavoisier, Nicolai, Sombreuil, 
Brancas, Broglie, Boisgelin, Beauvilliers, Maillé, Montalembert, 
Roquelaure, Roucher, Chénier, Grammont, Duchatelet, Cler- 
mont-Tonnerre, Thiard, Moncrif, Molé-Champlatreux. Democ- 
racy made room for herself by the sword, but in so doing did 
horror to humanity." — La?nartine, " Hist, des Girondins." 

The first side street on the left of the Faubourg St. 
Antoine returning citywards from the Place du Trône, is 
the Rue de -J^icpus, where the Bernardin-Bénédictin Con- 
vent was situated, of which Victor Hugo has so much to 
tell us. 

"The part of Paris where Jean Valjean now was, situated 
between the Faubourg St. Antoine and la Râpée, was one of 
those which have been utterly transformed by those recent works, 
which some call disfigurements, others beautifying. The fields, 
the timber-yards, and old buildings have been removed, and 
there are now bran-new wide streets, arenas, circuses, hippo- 
dromes, railway stations, and a prison, Mazas — progress as we 
see with its corrective. Half a century back, in that popular 
language all made up of traditions which insists on calling the 
Institute ' les Quatre Nations,' and the Opera Comique ' Feydeau,' 
the precise spot where Jean Valjean now stood was called * le 
Petit Picpus.' The Porte St. Jacques, the Porte Paris, the Bar- 
rière des Sergents, the Porcherons, the Galiote, the Célestins, the 
Capucins, the Mail, the Bourbe, the tree of Cracow, little Poland, 
and little Picpus, are names of old Paris, swimming on the sur- 
face of the new. The memory of the people floats on the flotsam 
of the past. 

"The convent of the Petit Picpus St. Antoine filled almost 
entirely the vast trapeze formed by the intersections of the Rue 
Polonceau, the Rue Droit-Mur, the Little Rue Picpus, and the 
lane, named in old plans, Rue Aumarais. These four streets 


surrounded the trapeze as a moat would have donc. This holy 
house was built on the very site of a tennis court of the four- 
teenth or sixteenth century, called le tripot des onze mille diables. 
AU these streets, moreover, were among the oldest in Paris. The 
names Droit-Mur and Aumarais are very old, the streets so called 
still older. The lane Aumarais was called the lane Maugout, 
and the Rue Droit-Mur the Rue des Eglantiers, for God opened 
the flowers before man cut stone." — " Les Misérables^ 

At No. 35 Rue de Picpus is a Convent of the Sacré 
Cœur. Visitors are admitted by the porter and taken 
through the long convent garden to visit the closed but 
most interesting Cimeticre de Picpus. Here only the repre- 
sentatives of those noble families whose ancestors perished 
on the guillotine have been laid ; and there ace long lines 
of tombs of the De Larochefoucauld, De Noailles, De 
Clermont-Tonnerre, De Rochefort, De la Mothe, De 
Boiselin, De Montboissier, De Talleyrand, &c. At the 
end are the tombs of General Lafayette and his wife. 
Here, through a grated door, you look upon the green en- 
closure of a little second cemetery, planted with cypresses, 
belonging to the German Prince of Salm Kyrbourg, whose 
ancestor was the last victim of the guillotine. Around 
his tomb lie no less than 1,306 of his fellow-sufferers— " les 
victimes "—the flower of the French aristocracy. Close 
to the entrance of the outer enclosure, near the tomb of a 
bishop who was founder of the " Sainte Enfance," and of 
the foundress of the adjoining convent, is the tomb of 
Charles, Comte de Montalembert, 1870. 

•' He was buried, by his own desire, not among the gaudy 
flowers and wreaths of an ordinary Parisian cemetery, but in the 
hallowed ground at the Picpus convent, where lie the victims of 
the Revolution, and where only thor e who are descended from 
those victims, or connected with them, can lie. Count de 
Montalembert had this privilege by right of his wife, and of the 
noble and saintly ladies guillotined under the Terror, from whom 


she was descended. He chose his last rest there by the side of 
the unfortunate, by those who had perished either for the sake of 
religion, or for their honorable adherence to a fallen cause ; as 
became one who never loved victorious causes, and who fought 
most of his life on the losing side, after the fashion of the earth's 
best and purest heroes." — Mrs. Oliphant. 

On the left of the Rue du Faubourg St. Antoine (No. 
184) is the Hôpital St A?itoine, occupying the buildings of 
the famous Abbaye de St. Antoine, founded in 1198 by 
Foulques, Curé de Neuilly, the preacher of the fourth 
crusade. The buildings were reconstructed by Lenoir in 
1770, except the glorious gothic church (built by Blanche 
of Castille as a thank-offering for the birth of St. Louis, 
and containing the tombs of Jeanne and Bonne de France, 
daughters of Charles V.), which was utterly destroyed at 
the Revolution. 

In the Rue de Charenton, the next parallel street south, 
the old Hotel des Mousquetah-es Noirs is now occupied by 
the Hospice des Quinze Vingts^ founded by St. Louis in 1260, 
and removed hither by Cardinal de Rohan from the Rue 
St. Honoré. The Rue de Charenton, under its former name 
of Rue de la Planchette, was notorious for the unpunished 
massacre (Sept. 28, 1621) of several hundred protestants, 
coming out of a church which they had built in the street. 
No. I Faubourg St. Antoine, at the corner of the Place de 
la Bastille, was inhabited by Pépin, executed as an accom- 
plice of Fieschi against the life of Louis Philippe, 1835. 

On the Boulevard Mazas is the Prison of Mazas, where 
prisoners are placed in solitary confinement immediately 
upon their arrest, when the cases are not likely to be of 
long detention. 



THE principal island in the Seine, which in early times 
bore the name of Lutèce, was the cradle of Paris. 
Caesar, who is the first to speak of it, calls it Lutecia. 
Strabo wrote Lucotocia ; Ptolemy, Lucotecia ; the Emperor 
Julian, who resided long in the ancient city, wrote of it 
as Louchetia, the different denominations probably all 
originating in the whiteness of the plaster used in its 

Paris began to spread beyond the boundaries of Lutèce 
from Roman times onwards. The rays emerging from this 
centre have absorbed all the villages in the neighborhood, 
and for many miles in every direction all is now one vast 
and crowded city. But the island, where the first palaces 
were grouped around the fishermen's huts, has ever been as 
it were the axis of the kingdom, the point whence the laws 
were disseminated, and where the metropolitan cathedral 
has existed for fifteen centuries. In early times two islets 
broke the force of the river beyond the point of the He de 
la Cité. These were the He de la Gourdaine, or du 
Passeur aux Vaches, and the Ile aux Javiaux, or Ile aux 
Treilles. Upon the latter, which was then opposite the 
end of the royal gardens (March ii, 1314)» Jacques de 
Molay, grand master of the Templars, and Guy, Dauphin 



d'Auvergne, prieure de Normandie, were burnt alive après 
salut et complies, i.e., at 5 p.m. The Templars had been 
arrested all over France, Oct. 13, 1307, but it was only on 
May 12, 13 10, after three years' imprisonment, that fifty- 
four were burnt at the Porte St. Antoine, and four years 
more elapsed before their chiefs suffered, after protesting 
before Notre Dame the innocence of their order and the 
falsehood of the accusations which had been made against 
it. Even to present times Templars dressed in mourning 
may be seen making a pilgrimage, on March 11, to the 
scene of their chieftain's martyrdom. 

The two islets were artificially united to the He de la 
Cité, when Androuet du Cerceau was employed to build 
the Pont-Neuf in the reign of Henri III. The king laid 
the first stone on the very day on which his favorite Quelus 
died of the wounds he received in the famous Combat des 
Mignons, for which Henri was in such grief during the 
ceremony that it was said that the new bridge ought to be 
called le Po?it des Fleurs. Owing to the emptiness of the 
treasury, a very long time elapsed before the side of the 
bridge nearest the right bank was completed, and great was 
the lamentation over this delay amongst those who were 
proud of the beauties of the capital. " La fortune," says 
Montaigne, " m'a fait grand desplaisir d'interrompre la belle 
structure du Pont-Neuf de nostre grande ville, et m'oster 
l'espoir avant mourir d'en veoir en train de service." In 
1604 the Pont-Neuf was finished by Guillaume Marchand 
for Henri IV. : but up to his time the piles for the wider 
branch of the bridge only reached to the level of the water. 
Of late years, the noble and beautiful proportions of the 
bridge have been considerably injured by the lowering of 
the platform, and new arches being constructed at a lower 
level than the old ones. Still the bridge, with its twelve 


round-headed arches and massive cornice, is most pictur- 
esque, and with the varied outline of tall houses and the 
grey cathedral behir d it, and the feathery green of its island 
trees glittering against the purple shadows in the more 
distant windings of the river, it still forms the most beauti- 
ful scene in the capital. So central an artery is the Pont- 
Neuf, that it used to be a saying with the Parisian police, 
that if, after watching three days, they did not see a man 
cross the bridge, he must have left Paris. In the XVI. c. 
the Pont-Neuf was so much the resort of news-venders 
and jugglers, that any popular witticism was described as 
"a Pont-Neuf." On the piers were shops for children's 
toys, and on Jan. 15 "la foire aux jouets " was held on the 

" In truth, this bridge, so celebrated in song and romance, 
which the vaudevilles have so much abused, and which boat- 
men, dog-sellers, and poets have haunted, which L'Etoile calls 
marvellous, which Ronsard sang and Germain Pilon decorated, it 
is said, with his charming sculpture, is worthy of all our attention 
and all our respect." — Adolphe Joanne. 

Henri was not satisfied with completing the bridge 
itself; as soon as it was finished, he began to build the 
Place Dauphine where the bridge crossed the end of the 
island, and employed the Flemish Lintlaër to construct a 
pump on one of the piers of the bridge, with machinery to 
supply the Tuileries and Louvre with the water in which 
they had been hitherto deficient. " L'eau de la pompe du 
Pont-Neuf est aux Tuileries," Malherbe wrote in triumph 
on Oct. 3, 1608. The little Château d'Eau, in which the 
machine was contained, was quite a feature in the river 
views, and on its façade toward the bridge it bore a sculpt- 
ured group called la Samaritaine (of Jesus receiving water 
from the woman of Samaria at Jacob's well), with a chim- 
ing clock which had great popularity — " a very rare dyall 



of several motions," as John Evelyn calls it. The Samari- 
taine was remade in 17 15, the figure of Christ being by 
Philippe Bertrand, that of the woman by Rene' Fre'min. 
They were spoilt by being gilt in 1776, when little pavil- 
ions were erected upon all the piers of the bridge. The 
group perished in July, 1792, when the statues of the kings 
were destroyed — " il rappelait trop l'Evangile ! " 

After the bridge was finished, when Henri IV. was at 
the height of his popularity, it was decided to erect his 
statue on the central platform which was formed by the 
islets recently united to the mainland. Franqueville, first 


sculptor to the king, was employed to make a model to be 
sent to Florence for casting by John of Bologna ; but when 
the great sculptor received the model he began by the 
horse, and died in 1608 before he had proceeded farther. 
Pietro Tacca, his favorite pupil, took up his work, but had 
finished nothing when Henri IV. was assassinated two 
years later, and though pressed hard by the Grand Duke 
(cousin of Marie de Medicis), who gave 30,000 crowns "de 
ses deniers propres" for the work, man and horse were 


only completed in 16 13. Then le colosse du grand roy 
Henri, as it was called at the time, was brought by sea 
from Leghorn to Havre, and thence by the Seine to Paris, 
where it was raised to a temporary pedestal on August 23. 
The widowed queen was enchanted with the resemblance, 
"degna veramente di quello che rappresenta," as she 
gratefully wrote to Tacca, and the late king's subjects 
were of the same opinion. "La figure est une des plus 
ressemblantes que nous ayons d'Henri IV.," records 
Sauvai, who had conversed with the king's contemporaries. 
The horse, however, was less admired, being thought too 
heavy for its rider and its legs too short. It was not till 
1635 that the whole was placed on a magnificent pedestal 
guarded at the corners by four chained slaves, designed by 
the Florentine Luigi Civoli, and finished by his son-in-law, 
Bordoni. The blame of the long delay in completing the 
work was laid upon the Italian minister Concino Concini, 
with the result that after his murder, when the people ex- 
humed his body after his hasty burial at St. Germain 
I'Auxerrois, they dragged it through the mud to the Pont- 
Neuf, and hacked it to pieces at the foot of the statue 
which he had neglected. Here a cannibal roasted the 
heart of Concini and ate it up, the rest of the body being 
distributed to the people in morsels. 

The feeling about Henri IV. was such that, from the 
death of the Grand Dauphin, the people used to carry 
their petitions of complaint to the foot of the king's 
statue, and leave them there. In 1789 the people forced 
those who passed in carriages to descend and kneel before 
Henri IV. : this genuflection was inflicted on the Duke of 

" Tlie statue of the good King Henr)^ IV., although isolated, 
is much more interesting than all the other royal statues. The 



figure has an honest, winning face, and this it is which is regarded 
with tenderness and veneration." — Tableau de Paris. 

" The statue is inclos'd with a strong and beautifull grate of 
yron, about which there are allways mountebancs shewing their 
feates to idle passengers."— yi^/zw Evelyn. 

At the foot of the statue, Cardinal de Retz, in his 
pontifical robes, met the people in the revolution of 1648 
("la journe'e des barricades") and persuaded them to re- 
tire peaceably. But the great Revolution of 1792 melted 
down horse and rider alike, to make cannon. The exist- 
ing statue, by Lemot, only dates from the Restoration in 
18 1 8, and is made from the bronze of the destroyed statues 
of Napoleon in the Place Vendôme and at Boulogne-sur- 
mer, together with that of General Desaix, which stood in 
the Place des Victoires. One of the inscriptions on the 
pedestal is a copy of that belonging to the original statue. 
The reliefs represent Henri IV. entering Paris, and his 
passing bread over the walls to the besieged citizens. 

" N'en doutez pas ; l'aspect de cette image auguste 
Rendra nos maux moins grands, notre bonheur plus doux, 
O Français ! louez Dieu ; vous voyez un roi juste, 

Un Français de plus parmi vous." — Victor Hugo. 

The Corps de Garde near the statue is that where the 
poet Gilbert, "dying of genius and hunger," used to seek 
a refuge and share the food of the soldiers. The proverb 
" Solide comme le Pont-Neuf " was set at nought in De- 
cember, 1885, by the sudden subsidence of the smaller end 
of the bridge, connecting the island with the south bank of 
the Seine. 

Very striking is the view from the bridge near the 
statue : 

"On the west the horizon is bounded by the green hills of 
Saint Cloud and Meudon, and in this direction the Tuileries and 
the Louvre display their majestic mass. The Pont des Arts, a 



light and graceful construction, divides admirably the foreground 
of the picture, while the river, filled with vessels of all forms, 

gives to it the activity of life Behind you is Paris in its 

3'outh and its virility, the great city, the queen of the Isle of 
France, adorned with all the ornaments of her royalty, but to the 
east, before you, is the old Paris of Hugues Capet and of Marcel, 
the Provost of the Merchants ; there all the recollections of the 
nation's history are unfolded in monuments of another age black- 
ened by time. The Isle of St. Louis, which, in the background 
of the view, occupies almost the centre of the stream, is peopled 
with tall edifices, the effect of which is extraordinary, especially 
at this hour when the pale and distant gleam of the lamps throws 
on it a doubtful light. Still on the same line, but inclining more 
towards the left bank of the stream, we discover the gothic towers 
of Notre Dame, whose summit, surrounded with the gaseous 
vapors that rise from Paris, seems to lose itself in the bosom of 
the clouds. The island, where this monument is placed, is the 
beloved Lutecia of Julian, and it is allowed to retain the name of 
Cité which recalls its right of seniorit)\ There is not one of these 
streets, so dark and tortuous, that does not recall events told in 
our old chronicles. Then, in the nearer distance, you see what 
remains of the old Palace bequeathed by the kings of France to 
Justice." — A. Bariquet. 

"The Conciergerie, the Palace, the Cité, form the old centre 
of Lutecia, the heart of Paris. Hence started all these houses 
which have enlarged the cit}^ and propagated it into the distance ; 
here were the loves of Julian ; from this centre the rays diverged 
which have swallowed up whole villages in their progress. And 
in this old prison, what tears have been shed since the day when 
some boatmen occupied the island, around which so many pal- 
aces are now grouped. In this dungeon, with which the whole 
life of the queen city is connected, what human sorrows have not 
centred ! As soon as the city is planned, the jail opens ; the 
first germ and the pivot of a great city is a prison." — Paris, ou le 
livre des cent-et-tm, 

The point of the island, of the original He de Treilles, 
behind the statue of Henri IV., is one of those bright 
spots of green which leave an unrecognized impression 
upon the summer visitor to Paris. 

" The western point of the island, that ship's prow continu- 


ally at anchor, which, in the flow of two currents, looks at Paris, 

Avithout ever reaching it A lonely strand, planted with 

fjreat trees, a delicious retreat ; an asylum in the midst of the 
crowd." — Zola, '' L'Œtcvre." 

The Place Dauphifie, which Henri IV. surrounded by 
Ihe brick and stone houses characteristic of his time, oc- 
cupies, with the Rue de Harlay, the site of the royal gar- 
den where St. Louis administered justice. 

"Je le vis aucune fois en été, que pour délivrer [expédier] sa 
j^cnt [son peuple] il venoit ou jardin de Paris, une cote de came- 
lot vestue, un surcot de tyreteinne sans manche, un mantel de 
ceudal noir entour son col, moult bien pigné, et sans coife, et un 
chapel de paon blanc sur la teste, et faisoit estendre tapis pour 
nous seoir entour li, et tout le peuple qui avoit à faire par devant 
H, estoit entour, et lors il les faisoit délivrer en la manière, que 
je vous ai dit devant, du bois de Vincennes." — Joinville. 

Very few of the old houses now remain, and though 
those at the entrance retain their high roofs and overhang- 
ing cornices, their brick fronts are painted white. 

Till late years, a monument to General Desaix in the 
Place Dauphine bore his last words — ^' Allez dire au pre- 
mier consul que je meurs avec le regret de n'avoir pas 
assez fait pour la France et la postérité." 

It was here, in the last days of the garden, that Jean 
Robin, arboriste et si7Tipliciste du roy, cultivated the first 
acacia, or robinier, a tree which has since spread over the 
length and breadth of France. 

Let us now explore the island. 

"What Parisian, foreigner or provincial, who, although he 
has remained only two or three days in Paris, has not remarked 
the black walls flanked by three large towers with pepper-box 
roofs, two of which are almost coupled, that form the sombre and 
mysterious ornament of the Ouai des Lunettes ? This quay be- 
gins at the bottom of the Pont du Change, and extends to the 
Pont Neuf. A square tower, called la tour de VHorloge, from 


which the signal for the massacre of St. Bartholomew was given, 
a tower as high as that of St. Jacques la Boucherie, indicates the 
palace and forms the corner of the quay. These four towers 
and these walls are clothed with that blackish shroud which all 
fronts facing the north assume at Paris. Toward the middle of 
the quay, at a deserted arcade, begin the private constructions 
which were made in the reign of Henri IV. on account of the 
opening of the Pont Neuf. The Place Royale was a replica of 
the Place Dauphine ; and displays the same system of architect- 
ure of brick framed with cut stone. This arcade and the Rue de 
Harlay mark the limits of the Palace to the west. Formerly the 
Prefecture of Police and the hotel of the first presidents of the 
Parliament, were dependencies of the Palace. The Cour des 
Comptes and the Cotir des Aides completed the supreme court of 
justice, that of the sovereign. 

" This square, this island of houses and monuments, which 
comprises the Sainte Chapelle, the most magnificent jewel of the 
shrine of St. Louis, this space is the sanctuary of Paris, the 
sacred spot, the holy ark. At first this space was the whole 
primitive city, for the site of the Place Dauphine was a field de- 
pendent on the royal domain in which was a mill to coin money. 
Hence, the name of the Rue de la Monnaie, given to the street 
leading to the Pont Neuf, Hence also the name of one of the 
three round towers, the second one, which is called the Tour d'Ar- 
gent, which would seem to prove that money was originally coined 
there. The famous mill, which is seen in the old plans of Paris, 
was probably later than the time when money was coined in the 
palace itself, and was due doubtless to an improvement in the 
art of coining. The first tower, almost united to the Tour d'Ar- 
gent, is called the Montgommer>^ tower. The third and smallest, 
but the best preserved, for it retains its crenellations, is named 
the Tower Bonbec. The Sainte Chapelle and its four towers, in- 
cluding the Tour de V Horloge, defines perfectly the boundary, the 
perimeter, as a topographer would say, of the Palace, from the 
times of the Merovingians to those of the first House of Valois. 
For us, however, in consequence of its transformations, the pal- 
ace represents, most specially, the epoch of Saint Louis. 

"Charles V. was the first to abandon the Palace to the Par- 
liament, a newly-created institution, and to inhabit, under the 
shadow of the Bastille, the famous Hôtel de St. Pol, to which 
afterwards the palace of the Tournelles was added. Then, un- 
der the last Valois kings, royalty returned to the Louvre, which 


had been its first bastille. The original abode of the kings of 
France, the palace of St. Louis, which has preserved the name 
of the Palace without addition, to signify the Y*z].2ice par excellence, 
is entirely buried under the Palace of Justice, and forms the cel- 
lars ; for it was, like the cathedral, built in the Seine, and built 
so carefully that the highest floods of the river scarcely covered 
the first steps. The Quai de V Horloge covers about twenty feet of 
these thousand-year-old buildings. Carriages pass on a level 
with the capitals of the strong columns of these three towers, 
the elevation of which, in olden times, must have been in har- 
mony with the elegance of the palace, and had a picturesque 
effect on the water, since, even now, these towers vie in height 
with the most elevated monuments of Paris. As we view the 
immense capital from the top of the lantern of the Pantheon, the 
Palace, with the Samte Chapelle, still appears the most monu- 
mental of all the monuments. This royal palace, over which 
you walk as )'Ou traverse the immense hall des Fas Perdus, was 
a marvel of architecture, and is so still to the e)^es of the poet who 
comes to study it while examining the Conciergerie. Alas ! the 
Conciergerie has invaded the palace of the kings. The heart 
bleeds to see how jails, cells, corridors, dwelling-rooms, and 
halls without light or air have been cut into this magnificent 
composition in which Byzantine, Roman, and Gothic, the three 
faces of ancient art, have been harmonized by the architecture of 
the XII. c. This palace is to the monumental history of France 
of the first period what the Castle of Blois is to the monumental 
history of the second period. Just as at Blois you can admire, 
in the same court, the castle of the Counts of Blois, of Louis XII., 
of Francis I., and of Gaston, so at the Conciergerie you will 
discover, in the same circuit, the characteristics of the early race, 
and in the Sainte Chapelle, the architecture of St. Louis." — Balzac, 
" Scènes de la vie parisienne." 

We are now facing the back of the pile of buildings 
occupying the site of the palace inhabited by many of the 
early sovereigns of France. Even in Roman times there 
was a palace here, for it is evident from the allusions in his 
Misopogon that Julian the Apostate lived, not, as has been 
often stated, at the Palais des Thermes, but upon the 
Island in the Seine. Thence he must have seen the lumps 


of ice floating down the river, which he compared to huge 
blocks of Phrygian stone ; there he tried to subdue the 
cold of his chamber by a stove and was nearly suffocated 
by its charcoal ; and there the troops, revolting against 
Constantius II., surrounded, at midnight, the palace where 
Julian was living with his wife Helena, and proclaimed 
him emperor. Relics of the strong wall which surrounded 
the Roman palace — the hasileia as Ammianus and Zosi- 
mus call it — existed till recent times at the corner of the 
Rue de Jérusalem, and remains of columns belonging to 
an Ionic portico facing the river were exposed when the 
new police courts were built. Amongst the many other 
Roman memorials unearthed here, we may notice a cippus 
adorned with figures of Mercury, his mother Maia, Apollo, 
and another god, which was discovered at the western end 
of the island. 

It is certain that several of the early kings of Paris, 
from the time of Dagobert, lived upon the island of La 
Cité. There Childebert and Clotaire murdered their 
nephews, the grandsons of Clotilde. There the priest 
Heraclius visited Clotaire, and there his queen Ingoberge 
reproached him for his infidelities with the sisters Marco- 
vese and Méroflède, contemptuously pointing out to him 
their father, a common workman, who was busied in wash- 
ing the palace linen in the Seine, at the bottom of the gar- 
den. It was in the island palace that Frédégonde shut 
herself up after the murder of Chilpéric, flying thence 
after a time, for greater security, to the church of Notre 
Dame. The Roman building appears to have lasted till 
the time of Comte Eudes, who defended Paris from the 
Normans, and he rebuilt the palace as a square fortress, 
defended by lofty towers, and having a façade with four 
great round-headed arches flanked by two-story bastions, 


of which the remains were discovered when the Cour de 
Harlay was pulled down : this palace of Count Eudes was 
called the Palais-Nouveau. The tower to the right was 
supposed to have been that inhabited by Queen Blanche, 
mother of St. Louis. 

Louis le Gros and Louis le Jeune, who endowed re- 
spectively chapels of St. Nicholas and of Notre Dame de 
l'Etoile in the palace, both died within its walls. Philippe 
Auguste was married here to a Danish princess. Raoul 
Glaber describes how (1186) the king loved to lean from 
the window of the great hall and watch the Seine. In the 
palace vestibule, or in its garden under an oak, St. Louis 
administered justice in t\\e plaids de la porte. 

But the mention of St. Louis urges us to hasten on to 
the buildings of his time. The façade towards the Place 
Dauphine only dates from 1869, when it was designed by 
M.Duc. To gain the main entrance of the palace we can 
either turn to the right by the Qiiai des Orfèvres,'' which 
recalls St. Eloy,^ goldsmith, prime minister, finally bishop, 
who settled here in the jDrimitive time of Dagobert, and 
which was afterwards entiely lined by jewellers' shops; 
or, we may turn to the left by the Quai de r Horloge, named 
from what is still the chief external feature of the palace, 
the Tour de V Horloge, which has been restored on its old 
lines, and is partially old. Its great clock, with decora- 
tions by Germain Pilon, commemorates the oldest clock in 
Paris, constructed by the German Henri Vic, and erected 
by Charles V. 

It was the bell of this tower which gave the signal for 

* It was on the Quai des Orfèvres that the Ménippée^ the famous satire of 
the XVI. c, was composed, in the house of Jacques Gillot, by the owner and 
his friends, and in the same house that his great nephew, Nicolas Boileau 
Desprearix, was born, 

- St. Eligius, 

PA LA /s DR LA CLTÊ 263 

the Massacre of St. Bartholomew on the left bank of the 
Seine, which the bell of St. Germain FAuxerrois had al- 
ready given on the right. 

" The bell of the Horloge of the Palace gave the second signal 
of massacre. . . . This old tower still exists, from which that 
frightful tocsin sounded ; in the evening, as he returns home, 
the inhabitant of Paris looks at the gloomy edifice with indigna- 
tion, and hurries away with a shudder. . . . From that moment 
blood flows in streams on both banks of the Seine ; in all quar- 
ters doors are forced, citizens murdered, and their bodies flung 
from the windows. The fleeing citizen hears the distant echo of 
cries of rage and despair, the blasphemies of those who murder, 
the supplications of those who beg for life, the sound of the 
arquebusses that kill, the clash of swords that attack and defend, 
the groans of victims that expire ; then a sinister sound of broken 
glass, of doors burst open, of furniture dragged over the pave- 
ment to be burned, and whirlwinds of flame and smoke crown 
this Paris, abandoned to the furies and demons, who massacre, 
rob, violate, and burn." — Touchard-La fosse, " IList. de /\ir/s." 

Only part of the buildings adjoining the Tour de 
l'Horloge is ancient. Two round towers — t/e Cesar and dc 
Mfliitgommcry — retain little that is really old, though they 
have been reconstructed in the style of the XIV. c. The 
latter commemorates the tower, pulled down in 1776, 
where the Earl of Montgomery was imprisoned after fotally 
wounding Henri II. at a tournament, and where Ravaillac 
murderer of Henri IV., and Damiens, who attempted to 
murder Louis XV., spent their last days. A third tower, 
called Tour d'Argefif, encloses the bell called Tocsin du 
Palais, which repeated the signal for the Massacre of St. 
Bartholomew, given by St. Germain TAuxerrois. 

"The residence of the kings of France in the Island of the 
Cité was designated as the Palace par excellence, while the ex- 
pression was always the Château of the Louvre, or the Château 
of Vincenncs. This palace, in which the sovereigns held their 
court from the days of the Capetians to Charles V., presented at 
the commencement of the fourteenth century a mass of buildings, 


the oldest of which went back to the epoch of St. Louis, and the 
latest dated from the reign of Philippe le Bel. Excavations re- 
cently made within the palace have brought to light some remains 
of Gallo-Roman constructions, especially on the side of the Rue 
de la Barillerie, but in the general appearance of the buildings 
nothing remains anterior to the reign of Louis IX." — Viollet-le- 

Very little of the ancient palace remains. The beauti- 
ful gothic buildings of the XVI. c, erected by Louis XII., 
which surrounded the Cour du Mai, after having long been 


much mutilated, totally perished in the three fires of 16 18, 
1737, and 1776. These fires also destroyed the halls of 
St. Louis ; the Hôtel Isabeau, once occupied by the faith- 
less wife of Charles VI.; the rooms in which the Burgun- 
dians (June 10, 1467) seized the Comte d'Armagnac, Con- 
stable of France, the Chancellor Henri de Masle, and 
others, and dragged them forth to murder them " bien in- 
humainement ; " the '' Grand Salle," which beheld the coro- 
nation banquet of Henry VI. of England as King of France ; 
and the room in which St. Louis passed the first night after 
his marriage, and in which all kings of France were ex 


pected to sleep the night after their arrival in Paris. Most 
of the buildings erected after the fire of 1776, perished 
during the savage and ignorant furies of the Commune in 
1871. The existing buildings — a central body, with two 
wings — only date from 1874. The only important remnant 
of antiquity now remaining is a vaulted hall of the time of 
St. Louis, with four large chimneys at its angles, which 
goes by the name of les aiisines de St. Louis, 

"A hall vaulted on a series of rows of columns with four 
large chimneys at the angles can still be seen. This hall, look- 
ing on the quay to the north, alongside the Tour de V Horloge, is 
known as ' St. Louis' kitchen.' The building, however, belongs 
to the end of the XIII. c. or the beginning of the XIV. c, and is 
contemporaneous with the work built under Philippe le Bel. 
The mantles of the four chimneys form, horizontally projecting, 
an obtuse angle, and the key stones are supported by a kiitd of 
stone buttress. An examination of the spot leads us to suppose 
that this kitchen had two stories. The lower one, which still 
exists, was probably reserved for the household, and the kitchen 
on the upper story devoted to serve the king's table."— F^W/^/Vf- 

The main portal of the palace is approached from the 
Cour i}' Honneur by a great staircase and perron— sign of 
power and jurisdiction, replacing the famous perron erected 
by Enguerrand de Marigny in the time of Philippe le Bel, 
and where, under Louis le Hutin, when the architect was 
condemned to be hanged, his effigy was "jettee du haut 
en bas des grands degrez du palais." ^ A little to the left, 
in front of this staircase, was planted the May. At its 
foot, stood the Montoir, used by the judges when they 
mounted their mules after their day's work. Public ex- 
posures formerly took place here upon a platform opposite 
the grille, originally provided with the purchase-money for 

» Corrozet, AntiquitJs de Paris. 


the site of the house of Jean Chastel, razed to the ground 
by order of Parhament. 

The interior of the palace can be visited daily from lo 
to 4, except on Sundays and holidays. A passage on the 
left leads to the advocates' library, and on the right to the 
lower story of the Salle des Pas Perdus^ rebuilt, after its 
destruction under the Commune, on the lines of the re- 
construction (1622) of the famous hall called Grande Salle 
du Palais, erected in the time of Philippe le Bel, by En- 
guerrand de Marigny, Comte de Longueville, where all the 
great solemnities of the monarchy were carried out, and to 
which the jDeople were always admitted. Its vaulted roof 
is supported by three ranges of pillars, the central the 
strongest. At the end of the ancient hall stood the royal 
dining-table, of a single block of marble, so ' large "que 
jamais on vit pareille tranche de marbre au monde." This 
table was sometimes used as a pillory, and often as a stage 
for the theatrical representations of the clerks of the 
palace, in which they were allowed to burlesque their 
superiors. At the other end of the hall, a beautiful gothic 
chapel was added by Louis XI. The old hall is thus de- 
cribed by Victor Hugo : * 

" Over our head is a double vault of gothic groining, lined 
with carved wainscoting, painted azure, and sprinkled with 
golden fleurs-de-lis. Under our feet, a pavement of black and 
white marble in alternate squares. A few paces from us, an 
enormous pillar — then another — then another, making, in all, 
seven pillars in the length of the hall, supporting, in a central 
line, the internal extremities of the double vaulting. Around 
the four first pillars are little shops or stalls, all glittering with 
glass and trinkets ; and around the three last are oaken benches, 
worn and polished by the breeches of the pleaders and the gowns 
of the procureurs. Around the hall, along the lofty walls, be- 
tween the doors, between the windows, between the pillars, we 
behold the interminable range of the statues of all the French 



kings, from Pharamond downward. Then, in the long pointed 
windows, glows painted glass of a thousand colors ; at the large 
entrances of the hall are rich doors finely carved ; and the whole 
— vaults, pillars, walls, cornices, and door-cases, wainscoting, 
doors, and statues — are splendidly illuminated from top to bot- 
tom with blue and gold." — " N'otre Dame de Paris." 

On one side of the existing hall is a monument by 
Durnoiit to Malesherbes, the defender of Louis XVI., with 
a statue, and the inscription " Strenue, semper fidelis rcgi 
suo, in solio veritatem, praesidium in carcere attulit." 
Another monument, with a statue by Chapji^ commemo- 
rates Berryer. 

Leaving the hall by the gallery which runs parallel to 
the Cour d'Honneur, and turning at once to the right by 
the Galerie Marchande or des Merciers — named from the 
tradesmen who once had stalls there — we reach a new 
Salle des Pas Perdus, the work of Due, decorated at one 
end with statues of St. Louis and Philippe Auguste, at the 
other with those of Charlemagne and Napoleon I. 
Grouped around this hall are the different law courts. 
The Galerie St. Louis (on the right of the Galerie des 
Marchands) reproduces the style of the time of Louis IX. 
Near the prison of Marie Antoinette are shown the stone 
tables " des charités de St. Louis." 

From the time of St. Louis, Parliament shared the 
palace with the king, and after the accession of Henri IL, 
who lived entirely at the Hôtel des Tournelles, it was left 
in sole possession. But the Parliament perished with the 
Revolution, which it had contributed to bring about. Sus- 
pended by a law of November 3, 1789, it was suppressed on 
August 29 following. Then the massacres in the prisons 
were organzied in the former hotel of its President, and 
the tribunal of executioners sat in the Cour de Mai, at 
the foot of the grand staircase, opposite what was then the 


principal entrance to the Conciergerie. M. de Montmorin, 
the former governor of Fontainebleau ; Bachmann, the 
major of the Swiss guard, and seven of his officers, were 
the first victims, sentenced and executed here on the spot. 
Then, for twenty-four hours the palace was given up to 
massacre, in the corridors, in the courts, in the cells. 
Most of the prisoners were killed without any examination. 
If thirty-six were allowed to escape, it was because they 
were known to be thieves, or assassins of the worst de- 
scription. The women were spared, only one out of 
seventy being executed with the most refined tortures. 

"A young girl of wonderful beauty, known as la Belle Bou- 
quetière, accused of having wounded, in a fit of jealousy, a sub- 
officer of the Gardes Françaises, her lover, vvas to be tried in 
a few days. The murderers, among whom were some avengers 
of the crime and some instigators animated by her rival, antici- 
pated the executioner's duty. Théroigne de Méricourt lent her 
genius to the torture. The victim was tied to a post with her 
legs apart, her feet nailed to the ground, and her body burned 
with lighted wisps of straw. Her breasts were cut off with a 
sword, and red hot pikes were thrust into her flesh. At last, she 
was impaled on these red hot irons, and her screams were heard 
across the Seine, and struck with horror the inhabitants of the 
other bank. Fifty women whom the murderers had released 
from the Conciergerie lent a hand to these tortures and surpassed 
the men in ferocity." — Lamartine. 

From March, 1791, the revolutionary tribunal met in 
the Grand Chamber, which — much altered otherwise — still 
retained the vaulted roof of Louis XII. The president sat 
beneath a bust of Socrates, to which busts of Le Pelletier 
and Marat were added after their death. It was here that 
Charlotte Corday, Marie Antoinette, the Girondins, Mme 
Roland, and hundreds of others, were tried in turn, in 
sittings by day and night, whence Fouquier emerged so 
fatigued with his horrible task, that he could scarcely drag 


himself to his own rooms near the Conciergerie, which the 
secretaries of the procureur general occupy now. So dazed 
was he with the blood he poured out, that one day, pass- 
ing the Pont-Neuf with Seran, he declared that instead of 
water he saw the Seine rolling blood. 

Two parasite buildings, the Conciergerie, and the Pre- 
fecture of Police, are now annexed to the Palais de Justice. 
The Co7iciergerie takes its name from the house of the con- 
cierge in the time of the royal residence here, who had a 
right to two " poules " a day and to the cinders and ashes 
of the king's chimney. It has always been a prison, and it 
was here that the Comte d'Armagnac was murdered, June 
12, 1418. Here was made, below the level of the Seine, 
the prison called La Souricière, from the rats which had 
the reputation of eating the prisoners alive. The present 
Conciergerie occupies the lower story of the right wing of 
the existing Palais de Justice, and extends along the Quai 
de l'Horloge, as far as the towers of Montgommery and 
César. It has an entrance on the quay, before which the 
guillotine-carts received the victims of the Reign of Terror, 
and another to the right of the great staircase in the Cour 

The Conciergerie can only be visited on Thursdays from 12 
to 4, with an order from the Prefecture of Police. 

All other associations of the Conciergerie are lost in 
those which were attached to it by the great Revolution. 
The cell in which Marie Antoinette suffered her seventy- 
five days' agony — from August 2 till October 15, when she 
was condemned — was turned into a chapelle expiatoire in 
1816. The lamp still exists which lighted the august pris- 
oner and enabled her guards to watch her through the 
night. The door still exists (though changed in position' 
which was cut transversely in half and the upper part fixed 


that the queen might be forced to bend in going out, be- 
cause she had said that whatever indignities they might 
inflict upon her they could never force her to bend the 

"The pity of Richard the concierge, sustained and en- 
couraged by the mute approbation and secret support of some 
officers of the municipality, disregarded the orders of Fouquier, 
and the queen was installed, not in a cell, but in a room with two 
windows looking on the women's yard. It was a pretty large 
square room, the old Council Hall, where the magistrates of the 
supreme courts, before the Revolution, used to come and receive 
the complaints of the prisoners. On the wall, as if inanimate 
things had, near the queen, a soul and speech, the old paper dis- 
played the Jleurs-de-lys, peeling off in strips and fading under 
the saltpetre. A partition, in the middle of which was a large 
opening, divided the room lengthwise into two rooms nearly 
equal, and each lighted by a window on the yard. The inner 
room was that of the queen ; the other, on which the door opened, 
was the room where two gendarmes remained day and night, 
separated from the queen only by a screen unfolded before the 

" All the furniture in Marie Antoinette's room was a little 
wooden bed, to the right of the entrance, facing the window, and 
a straw chair in the bay of the window, in which the queen used 
to pass nearly the whole day Avatching the people going to and fro 
in the yard, or catching, from the conversations held in a loud 
voice near her window, the news which the women prisoners 
gave her. 

" The queen had not been able to bring her linen, which was 
under seal at the Temple, and Michouis wrote on the 19th of 
August to the municipal officers on duty at the Temple : ' Citi- 
zen colleagues, Marie Antoinette has charged me to send her four 
chemises and a pair of slippers not numbered, of which she is in 
pressing need.' These four hapless chemises asked for by 
Michouis, soon reduced to three, are not delivered to the queen 
but at intervals of ten days. The queen had only two gowns, 
which she put on, one every two days ; her poor black gown and 
her poor white gown — both rotted by the dampness of the room. 
. . . We must stop here, words fail us. 

"Long days, long months ! She prayed, read, and kept her 
courage unbroken." — De Concourt, ''Hist, de Marie Antoinette" 



After her condemnation, Marie Antoinette was not 
brought back to this chamber. It was a far more miser- 
able cell which saw her write her last touching farewell to 
Madame Elizabeth. But this was the room in which the 
Girondins spent their last night, when, as Riouffe, himself 
in the prison at, the time, says, " toute cette nuit affreuse 
retentit de leurs chants, et s'ils les interrompaient c'était 
pour s'entretenir de leur patrie." The adjoining cell, now 
used as a sacristy, was the prison of Robespierre. 

Lighted by narrow windows from the same inner court 
of the prison are cells occupied in turn by Bailly, Males- 
herbes, Madame Elizabeth, Mme Roland, Camille Des- 
moulins, Danton, and Fabre d'Eglantine. In 1792, 288 
prisoners were massacred in the prison. Afterwards 
Georges Cadoudal was imprisoned here. The Comte de 
Lavalette was rescued from hence by the courage of his 
wife. In later days Louvel, the assassin of the Due de 
Berri, Teste, Béranger, and Proudhon, have been amongst 
the prisoners of the Conciergerie. 

" The great entrance hall, receiving only a doubtful light from 
two wickets, for the only window looking on the court of arrival 
is entirely occupied by the clerk's office enclosing it, presents to 
the eye an atmosphere and a light perfectly in keeping with the 
images preconceived by the imagination. It is the more appall- 
ing that, parallel to the towers d'Argent and Montgommery, 
you perceive the mysterious crypts, and heavy vaults, without 
light, which run around the parloir and lead to the cells of the 
queen and Madame Elizabeth and the dungeons called les secrets." 
— Balzac, " Scènes de la vie parisienne. " 

"The rules of the Conciergeri*e were the same for all ; the 
duke was not distinguished from the thief by the simple fact of 
being duke, but only because he paid better. Here equality was 
realized as far as it is possible to conceive such a system, but it 
was the equality of misery. 

"One day, as he saw, wandering round and round, through 
the huge bars which divided the prison, murderers, philosophers, 


dukes, princes, poets, financiers, and thieves, Barnave said to 
me : * As you behold these powerful princes, these philosophers, 
these legislators, these miserable outcasts, all confounded to- 
gether, does it not seem to you that we are transported to the 
banks of that infernal river of which fable speaks, and which one 
must pass without hope of return ? ' ' Yes,' I replied, ' and we are 
on the front of the stage.' The unfortunate man was killed a few 
days afterwards. 

" At midnight the concierge visited all the cells and rooms, 
accompanied by two turnkeys and two enormous dogs. While 
he talked with us, one of the turnkeys sounded the walls and 
ceiling with a long pike to make sure that we had made no holes. 

" If the river rises a little, the floor of the Conciergerie, which 
is close to it, is on the same level, then dampness rules every- 
where, and the water drips down the walls. A dense smoke 
choking the breath, the state of misery, the disgusting ailments 
of the dwellers in these places, affects your sight and makes your 
gorge rise as soon as you set foot therein ; it is the vapor of the 
infernal regions exhaling from the mouth of Avernus. It seems 
as if by design the spot where these horrors arc all accumulated, 
was chosen for the abode of the hapless Marie Antoinette. 

"Among the countless victims I have seen condemned to 
lose their lives, I know of only three or four at most who showed 
any weakness. Of this number was the famous Mme Dubarry ; 
I saw her faint in the Conciergerie after her condemnation ; she 
cried out ' Help ! help ! ' as she went to execution. In a similar 
situation, the Duke du Châtelet, having no means to take away 
his life, dashed his head against the wall. Having no offensive 
weapons, he broke a pane of glass and attempted to stab himself 
in the side with the broken glass ; he did not succeed, and only 
inundated himself with blood. He was taken to the scaffold in 
this condition. With these exceptions, all the condemned were 
as tranquil, sometimes as gay, after their condemnation as be- 
fore." — Bemilieti, ''Essais historiques.^' 

Let us now turn to the left by one of the three vaulted 
passages which lead from the Cour d'Honneur to the 
Samte Chapelle (open to the public daily, except Monday 
and Friday, from 12 to 4) which, in spite of a restoration 
almost amounting to renewal, is still one of the most 
beautiful buildings in France. The earliest chapel of the 


LA sainte-ciiapkllp: 273 

palace, which is supposed to have occupied the same site, 
was dedicated to St. Barthélémy ; the second, to St. 

It was the reception of the Crown of Thorns from Jean 
de Brienne, Emperor of Constantinople,' and a great por- 
tion of the True Cross from his successor Baudouin,^ 
which made St. Louis determine to build a shrine worthy 
to contain them. Pierre de Montereau was employed as 
an architect, and the Sainte Chapelle, begun in 1242, was 
finished in 1247. The two stories of the building, forming 
two chapels, were consecrated April 25, 1248, the upper 
under the title of St. Couronne and St. Croix, the lower 
under that of St. Marie. 

" From all time, this building, due to Master Pierre de Mon- 
tereau, was considered with justice as a masterpiece. The king, 
Saint Louis, spared nothing to make it the most brilliant jewel of 
his dominions, and if there is one surprising thing about it, it is 
the short time employed in its construction. Taking the widest 
dates, we must admit that the Sainte Chapelle was founded and 
completely finished in the space of five years ; eight hundred 
thousand livres tournois were expended on its erection, its decora- 
tion, and the acquisition of the precious relics it contained. A 
scrupulous observation of the archaeological characteristics of the 
Sainte Chapelle compels an acceptance of the truth of the historic 
dates. The mode of construction and the ornamentation belong 
to that brief portion of the thirteenth century. During the reigns 
of Philip Augustus and of Saint Louis, the progress of architecture 
is so rapid, that a period of five years introduces perceptible 
modifications ; now, the great-est unity reigns in this building, 
from base to summit." — Viollet-de-Diic. 

The great height of the building, without visible aisles 

or transept, is very striking. The lower part of the north 

* A similar relic— the duplicate of this— is preserved, under three keys, in 
the Dominican monastery at Vicenza ! 

2 Those believed to be possessed by evil spirits were brought hither on the 
night of Good Friday to be freed from the devil by the sight of the True Cross. 


side and part of the chevet are hidden by modern build- 
ings. The buttresses, which sustain all the weight of the 
vaults, rise to the full height of the building between the 
windows, and terminate in rich foliated pinnacles. Be- 
tween them, gables, richly sculptured, surmount the win- 
dows of the upper chapel. Beneath the fourth window is 
an oratory constructed by Louis XI. that he might hear 
mass without being seen, and beneath this an oratory 
formerly dedicated to St. Louis. The steeple is a modern 
restoration of one erected by Charles VIII. and burnt in 
1630. The portal is on the west facing the buildings of 
the Hôtel du Pre'fet de Police. Above the platform over 
the porch is the great flamboyant rose-window which was 
added by Charles VIII. in 1495, surmounted by a balus- 
trade of fleurs-de-lis and by turrets on either side of the 
gable, which contains a smaller rose-window. On the 
balustrade two angels crown the chiffre of King Charles. 
On the pinnacles hangs the Crown of Thorns. 

The sculptures of the lower porch refer to the Virgin, 
as those of the upper to Christ. The lower portal is 
divided into two bays, between which an ancient statue of 
the Virgin has been restored, as well as a relief of her 
Coronation in the tympanum. In the lozenges of the 
stylobate of the columns, the lilies of France alternate with 
the towers of Castille, in honor of Queen Blanche, mother 
of St. Louis. The chapel is a nave with narrow aisles. 
Forty pillars sustain the vaulting, of which the keys, in 
sculptured cl^stnut-wood, are very remarkable. The 
windows are curved triangles. The wall-decorations are 
restorations from traces of ancient work. The floor is 
paved with thirty-four curious gravestones, chiefly of 
canons of the Sainte Chapelle. Boileau was buried 
amongst them. The tomb-stone of his brother Jacques 



Still remains here, but the remains of the poet were re- 
moved, after the Revolution, to St. Germain des Prés. 

" He was interred, not at St. Jean-Ie-Rond or at Notre Dame, 
as the situation of his last dwelling' seemed to require, but in the 
Sainte Chapelle^ the parish in which he was born, and the scene 


where the heroes of his epic combated. He had so ordered in 
his last will. In complying with this last injunction, by a strange 
chance, it happened that his tomb was placed just below that 
' Lutrin ' which he sang in such comic strains." — Fournie?; " Pm-is 

No external stair leads to the upper chapel, because it 

^ In the Cloître Notre Dame. 


was the royal oratory opening from the palace. We ascend, 
by an inner staircase, to the platform of the upper porch, 
a vast covered balcony, forming the real approach, by 
which the royal family entered, and communicating on the 
north with the palace galleries. Hence the upper chapel 
is entered by a gothic double portal, of which the beautiful 
wreathed-work at the sides is ancient ; the statue of Christ 
is a restoration. On the lintel is the Last Judgment, and 
in the tympanum is the Saviour with his hands raised, 
having the Virgin and St. John at the sides. The bas- 
relief of the Creation and History of the Old Testament 
at the base, are also restorations. 

The upper church is a mass of gilding, and harmonious 
in color from the fifteen stained windows, which, as far as 
possible, are restorations of the old windows mutilated 
during and after the Revolution. Eleven are filled with 
scenes from Old Testament history, but three in the apse 
and one in the nave are devoted to legendary history and 
that of the translation of the chapel relics. In the great 
rose of Charles VIH., the subjects are taken from the 
Apocalypse. Below the windows is an arcade, with 
sculptures representing martyrdoms. Beautiful statues of 
the twelve apostles lean against the lower pillars, all bear- 
ing a cross of consecration. The fourth, fifth, and sixth 
statues on the left, and the third, fourth, and fifth on the 
right, are ancient. These statues and the small figures of 
angels have shaken off the stillness and stiffness which 
characterized the earlier style (as at Notre Dame, Amiens, 
&c.), and are represented in movement, displaying the 
germ of theatrical mannerism, but as yet simple and full 
of grace. ^ 

"These figures are executed in sandstone, and are of admirable 
» Lubke. 


workmanship, covered with ornaments, painted and gilded in 
imitation of rich stuffs turned up witli Ijorders sewn with precious 
stones." — Viollit-le-Duc, i. 27. 

Under the windows of the fourth bay on either side the 
nave are niches, containing the places of honor reserved 
for the king and queen. In the fifth bay (right) a grille 
permitted Louis XI. to assist, unseen, at mass. Left of 
the altar a door opens to the sacristy. In the second bay 
left) a little door communicated with an external gallery. 
The altar, before which many royal marriages had taken 
place, and several queens (amongst others Isabeau de 
Bavière) had been crowned, was destroyed during the 
Revolution, and, with the reliquary above it, is a restora- 

" It is a grand ark of bronze, gilt and ornamented with some 
figures on the front, and raised on a gothic vault placed behind 
the high altar, at the apse of the church, and is closed by ten 
keys with different wards, six of which close the two exterior 
doors, and the other four an interior trellis work of two leaves." — 
JérÔ7ne Morand, ''Hist, de la Sainte-Chapelle" 

One of the little tourelles at the sides of the shrine, that 
on the north, still contains the actual wooden stair which 
was ascended by St. Louis, when he went to take from its 
tabernacle the Crown of Thorns, which he, and he alone, 
was permitted to exhibit to the people below, through a 
large pane of glass, purposely inserted and alwa3'S mov- 
able, in the end window of the apse. 

"A little behind the altar, a pierced arcade crosses the whole 
breadth of the apse; itg location is like that of the old rood-lofts ; 
but it has not the same object. It is composed of seven light 
pointed arches, supported by delicate columns, lightened up by 
glass mosaics, and ornamented with angels. The central arch, 
wider than its companions, is crowned by a platform on which a 
gothic baldaquin sculptured in wood rises to a great height, and 
beneath this the casket of holy relics used to be shown. This 


casket, glittering with precious stones, dominated the whole 
chapel from the summit of its platform." — F. de Guilhermy. 

It is recorded that when St. Louis was in Paris, he 
would rise to pray three times in the night, always ap- 
proaching the altar on his knees. As an old chronicler 
says of the Sainte Chapelle — " c'étoit son arsenal contre 
toutes les traverses du monde." 

Une femme, qui avoit nom Sarrette, et qui plaidoit en la 
cour du roi, lui dit un jour : ' Fi ! fi ! devrois-tu être roi de 
France? moult mieux seroit qu'un autre fût roi que toi; car tu 
es roi tout seulement des frères Mineurs, des frères Prêcheurs, 
des prêtres et des clercs. Grand dommage est que tu sois roi de 
France, et c'est grand'merveille que tu n'es bouté hors du 
royaume.' Les sergents du benoît roi la vouloient battre et mettre 
dehors ; mais Loys défendit qu'ils la touchassent, et lui répondit 
en souriant : * Certes, tu dis vrai, je ne suis digne d'être roi, et, 
s'il avoit plu à notre Seigneur, mieux eût valu qu'un autre fût 
roi, qui mieux sût gouverner le royaume.' Et il commanda à 
l'un de ses chambellans de donner de l'argent à cette femme." — 
Geoffroi de Beaulieu. 

The precious relies of the Sainte Chapelle are now in 
the treasury of Notre Dame. The head of St. Louis had 
been brought hither from St. Denis. 

"The head of St. Louis is in this church. It belonged to 
the treasury of St. Denis, but King Philippe le Bel obtained 
license from the pope that the head and one rib of Saint Louis 
might be transported to the chapel in Paris. Nevertheless, not 
to distress the Benedictines too much, who were lamenting their 
loss, the lower jaw of the head was left in their treasury. 

" The precentor carries on the end of his staff an ancient head 
of the Emperor Titus, which, from some slight resemblance, has 
been transformed into that of St. Louis. * 

"Thus the Emperor Titus is present every day at the office 
in the Sainte Chapelle, holding in one hand a little cross, and in 
the other a crown of thorns. Beyond peradventure the emperor 
never expected it !" — Tableau de Paris, 1782. 

Every year, at the opening of the law courts, the 


Messe rouge or des révérences used to be said in the Sainte 
Chapelle, and was so called because the members of 
Parliament assisted at it in full dress, and made reverences 
on either side as they advanced to the altar. 

Under the kings, and afterwards, as long as the Palace 
was the seat of the Parliament, the Sainte Chapelle was 
served by canons who held their office directly from the 
pope. The treasurer wore a mitre and officiated pontifie- 
ally, and is designated in different deeds as ''pape de la 
Saijîte Chapelier The first who enjoyed these preroga- 
tives, celebrated by Boileau in the Lutrin, was Hugues 
Boileau (confessor of Charles V.), a member of the poet's 

In the court of the palace, opposite the Sainte Chapelle, 
Boileau came to live, after his father's death, in 1657. 

The Hotel de la Cour de Comptes, built (1740) from 
designs of Gabriel, replaces the beautiful renaissance 
Hôtel des Comptes, built by Jean Joconde under Louis 
XH., and destroyed by the fire of 1757. 

The Avenue de Constantine will lead us to the Rue de 
la Cité (formerly Rue de la Lanterne, de la Juiverie, and 
du Marché-Palu), which crosses the island from the Pont 
Notre Dame to the Petit Pont. Neither of these bridges 
is now of the slightest interest, but in the last century the 
Pont Notre Dame, built in 1500, defended at the ends by 
tourelles and lined on either side by quaint gabled 
houses, with open shops beneath, was especially pictur- 
esque. One of its bridge-shops belonged to the famous 
picture-dealer Gersaint, and had a sign painted and given 
by Watteau. Close to the bridge, and by the spot where 
the ancient Porte de la Cité stood, was the Prison de 
Glaucin, where St. Denis, the Apostle of the Gauls, was 
immured. From very early times this cell was transformed 


into an oratoiy, and as early as 1015 the knight Ansolde 
and his wife Rotrude founded a convent of secular canons 
opposite it, in honor of Mojiskur Saint Dcfiis. The 
oratoiy, under various names, St. Catherine, St. Denis de 
la Chartre, and St. Symphorien, existed till 1704, when 
the building was given to the Academy of St. Luke. The 
conventual church contained, till its demolition in 18 10, 
a group by Michel Anguier representing St. Denis in 
prison receiving the sacrament from the Saviour himself, 
and over the portal was inscribed, " Icy est la chartre en 
laquelle saint Denis fut mis prisonnier. 011 notre Sauveur 
Jésus le \'isita et lui bailla son pre'cieux corps et sang. Il 
y a grand pardon pour toutes personnes qui visiteront ce 
saint lieu." The site of St. Denis de la Chartre is now 
covered by the new wing of the Hôtel Dieu. 

The street which opened opposite St. Denis first bcre 
the name of Micra Madiana — the little Midian — from its 
Jewish inhabitants. It was afterwards called Rue de la 
Pelleterie, from the trade which at one time almost exclu- 
sively occupied it. At the end of the street was the church 
of St. Barthe'lemy. which served as a chapel to the palace 
of the Merovingian kings, and which Hugues Capet en- 
dowed with the relics of St. Magloire, Bishop of Dol. It 
became a parish church in 1140 ; its rebuilding in the style 
of Louis XVI. was begun in 1775, but it was unfinished at 
the Revolution, when it was totally destroyed, together 
with the neighboring church of St. Pierre des Arcis and 
that of St. Croix, which had become parochial in 1134. 

On the right of the broad avenue Constantine, which 
leads from the Palais de Justice, across the centre of the 
island, to the Rue de la Cite', on the site now occupied by 
the great Caserne de la Cite, was the Ceinture St. Eloi. 
This contained the vast monastery of St. Eloi, which the 


sainted goldsmith founded in a house facing the palace 
that he had received from Dagobert, and placed under the 
government of St. Aure, who died there of the plague in 
October, 666, with 160 of her nuns. In the monastic 
church, Philippe de Villette, abbot of St. Denis, escaped 
from the terrible massacre by the Burgundians, by clinging 
to the altar, dressed in his pontifical robes, and with the 
Host in his hands. The monastery of St. Eloi was be- 
stowed in 1629 upon the Barnabites, for whom its church 
was rebuilt in 1703. Church and monastery were alike 
destroyed in 1859 to build the barrack. At the entrance 
of the precincts of St. Eloi, opposite the palace, at the 
angle of the Rue de la Vieille Draperie and de la Baril- 
lerie, stood, till 1605, a pyramidal monument, marking the 
site of the paternal home of the nineteen-years-old student, 
Jean Chastel, razed to the ground by decree of Parliament, 
after he had been persuaded by the Jesuits to his attack 
upon Henri IV. (Dec. 27, 1594), whom he only succeeded 
in wounding in the upper lip. The site was afterwards oc- 
cupied by the Fontaine du Palais, inscribed — 

" Hie, ubi manabant sacri monumenta furoris, 
Eluit infandum Miroris unda scelus." 

The street which ran along the side of the northern 
walls of St. Eloi was called, from its inhabitants, the Rue 
de la Draperie. Opposite where it fell into the Rue de la 
Juiverie, as the second part of the Rue de la Cité was for- 
merly called, stood the church of La Madeleine, into 
which a Jewish synagogue was converted in the reign of 
Philippe Auguste, and which consequently observed the 
custom of reciting the office of Good Friday upon ever}' 
Friday in Lent to the intention of the conversion of the 
Jews. From the XHL c. the curé of La Madeleine bore 


the title of arch-priest, which secured him a supremacy 
over all other curés of the diocese : the Uttle church was 
also the seat of the oldest of Parisian confraternities — la 
grande confrérie de Notre Dame aux seigneurs, prêtres, et 
bourgeois de Paris, which had the archbishop for its abbot 
and the president of Parliament for its dean, and pos- 
sessed 25,000 livres of rental. La Madeleine was sold 
and pulled down at the Revolution, but a pretty side door 
belonging to it, which opened, from 15 12, upon the Rue 
de Licorne, continued in existence here till 1843, when, on 
the opening of the Rue de Constantine, it was adapted to 
the presbytery of St Severin. Opposite la Madeleine was 
the famous tavern of the Pomme de Pin, the great resort 
of XVI. c. and XVIL c. wits, which Rabelais counted 
amongst " les tabernes méritoires où cauponisoient joyeuse- 
ment les escholiers de Lutèce," and of which Régnier 
writes — 

" Où maints rubis balais, tous rougissants de vin, 
Montraient un Hac itur k la Pomme de Pin." — Sat. x. 

A little farther down the Rue de la Juiverie on the 
western side, was the Halle de Beauce, a corn exchange, 
which existed from immemorial times till the XVL c. 
Beyond this the Rue de la Calandre opened westwards, 
and here, in the " Maison du Paradis," St. Marcel, Bishop 
of Paris, is said to have been born in the VI. c, in honor 
of which, on Ascension Day, the chapter of Notre Dame 
visited it, in solemn procession, annually. In the Rue de 
la Calandre, at the house called from its sign, du Grand 
Coq, Théophraste Renaudot, in 1630, printed the first Pa- 
risian newspaper, La Gazette de France. 

" Théophrastus Renaudot, a physician of Paris, gathered 
news from all quarters to amuse his patients ; he soon found 
himself more in the fashion than his brethren, but as a whole city 


is not sick, and does not fancy itself so, he reflected, after some 
years, tJiat he could make a very considerable income by giving 
every week to the public some fly-sheets containing the news of 
different countries. He needed a license, and obtained one, cum 
ptivilegio, in 1632. Such flying sheets had been thought of long 
before in Venice, and were c?i\\eé. gazettes, because, tma gazetta, a 
small piece of money, was paid for reading them. This is the 
origin of our gazettes and their name." — Saint-Foix, " Essais hist, 
sur Paris " 1776. 

Beyond the opening of the Rue de la Calandre, the 
Rue de la Cité was called Rue du Marché Palu {paie or 
raised). Here, on the right, beyond the Grande Orberie 
(Herberie, afterwards the Marché Neuf, destroyed i860), 
stood the ancient basilica of St. Germain le Vieux, founded 
by Chilperic after the death of St. Germain, bishop of 
Paris, in the hope of eventually endowing it with the body 
of that prelate, provisionally buried in the abbey of St. 
Vincent, afterwards St. Germain des Prés. The church 
never obtained so great a relic except as a visitor, when it 
was brought for refuge here within the walls of the Cité, 
from the Normans, but when it was taken back in peace to 
the mainland, an arm was left here in recognition of the 
hospitality it had received. St. Germain le Vieux was sold 
and entirely destroyed at the Revolution. The space east 
of the Rue de la Cité is now occupied by the huge build- 
ings of the Hôtel Dieu, which, from the earliest times, 
though on a much smaller scale, has been the neighbor of 
Notre Dame. The ground now occupied by the hospital 
was covered, till the present century, by a labyrinth of little 
streets and curious old buildings. Between the Rue de la 
Lanterne and Rue de la Juiverie (both now swallowed up 
in the Rue de la Cité) the Rue des Marmousets ran east- 
wards to the Cloister of Notre Dame, taking its name 
from a house described as Domus Marmosetorum, from 


the little sculptured figures on its front. It had a door 
decorated with medallion portraits, and an octagonai tower 
of the XV. c. (destroyed 1838). Another honse pointed 
out in this street, inspired the neighbors with terror. It 
was said to have been inhabited by a pastry-cook, who 
made an alliance with his next neighbor, a barber. When 
any one entered the barber's room to be shaved, as soon as 
he was seated, a trap-door opened beneath his chair, and 
he disappeared into a cellar communicating with the house 
of the pastry-cook, who served up his flesh to his cus- 
tomers in little patties, which long enjoyed an extraordi- 
nary popularity in Paris. De Breul, who tells this story, 
states that the house was razed to the ground, and that it 
was forbidden ever to build on its site, but Jaillot proves 
that Pierre Balut, counsellor of Parliament, was permitted 
to build on the spot by letters patent of François I. in 
January, 1536. A curious round tourelle, with a well at 
its foot, belonging to the house which was then erected, 
stood till the middle of the present century. The first 
street towards the river, on the left of the Rue des Mar- 
mousets, was the Rue de Glatigny, named from a house 
which belonged to Robert and Guillaume de Glatigny in 
1241. Title deeds of 1266 speak of houses in GlategJiiaco. 
Here was the Val d'Amour, and here, according to Guil- 
lot, " Maignent [demeurent] dames au corps gent, folles de 
leurs corps." The priests were forbidden to marry, but, on 
payment, were permitted to have concubines, till it was 
forbidden at the Council of Paris in 12 12.1 Behind the 
Rue de Glatigny, close to the back of St. Denis de la 
Chartre, was the little church of St. Luc, where the relics 
of St. Cloud were secured from the English, from 1428 to 
1443. Eastward from the Rue de Glatigny ran the Haute 

* See Dulaure, ii. io6. 


and Basse Rue des Ursins, part of which still exists. In 
the Rue Hauie des Ursins (also called de I'Ymage) stood 
the old Hôtel des Ursins with encorbelled towers above 
the river, where Jean Juvenal des Ursins lived (1360- 
143 1 ), who was counsellor to the Châtelet, advocate to 
Parliament, provost of the trades, advocate and counsellor 
of the king, and chancellor of the dauphin. He is repre- 
sented with his wife and eleven children in a curious pict- 
ure, formerly in Notre Dame and now in the Louvre, and 
another portrait in the Louvre represents his son Jean 
Guillaume, Baron de Traynel, Chancellor of France under 
Charles VH. and Louis XL It is said that Racine re- 
sided for a time at No. 9. Rue Basse des Ursins^ of which 
a fragment still exists. Close to the end of this street was 
the interesting church of St. Landry, which, in 1160, was 
already parochial. It contained a shrine, enriched, in 
1418, by Pierre d'Orgemont, with some bones from the 
shrine of St. Landry at Notre Dame. The Dauvet family 
restored the church in the XV. c, and it contained the 
fine tombs of Jehan Dauvet (1471) and Jehan Baudran 
(1459) his wife, as well as several XVIII. c. monuments 
to the family of Boucherat, and the epitaph of Pierre de 
Broussel, surnamed '^ patriarche de la Fronde " and " le 
père du peuple," who died in the time of Louis XIV. 
Here also was the mausoleum of Catherine Duchemin, 
wife of the famous sculptor François Girardon, bearing a 
beautiful Pietà inscribed, " Le sieur Girardon, voulant 
consacrer à Jésus-Christ tout ce qu'il peut avoir acquis 
d'intelligence et de lumières dans son art, a fait et donné à 
l'église de Saint-Landry, cet ouvrage au pied duquel il 
repose dès premier Septembre mdccxv." St. Landry, sold 
in the Revolution, was occupied as a carpenter's shop till 
1829, when it was pulled down. In the Rue St. Landry 


lived the Councillor Pierre Broussel, famous as a frondeur, ' 
and there he was arrested by Comminges, August 26, 
1648. A very curious account of his seizure is to be found 
in the Mémoires de Briemie. Behind the church of St. 
Landry, the Rue d'Enfer ran parallel to the river, having 
the Hôtel de Clavigny on the left. In its early existence 
it was called Rue Port St. Landry, as it led to the only 
point of embarkation at the east end of the island, the 
spot where the coffin of Isabeau de Bavière, who had died 
in the Hôtel St. Paul, was embarked for St. Denis, accom- 
panied by a few servants only, after a service in Notre 
Dame. On the right of the Rue d'Enfer was the church 
of St. Agnan, founded {c. 11 18) by Archdeacon Etienne 
de Garlande, formerly Dean of St. Agnan at Orleans. 
Here the Archdeacon of Notre Dame found St. Bernard 
despairing at the inefficiency of his preaching in Paris, 
lamenting through a whole day at the foot of the humble 
altar, and consoled him with his counsels. The church 
was sold at the Revolution, but existed, divided into two 
stories of a warehouse, till late years. Racine lived, 
c. 1670, in a house on the south side of the Rue d'Enfer. 

Returning in imagination to the site of St. Landry, the 
Rue du Chevet led under the east end of the church, to the 
Rue St. Pierre aux Bœufs, on the eastern side of which was 
the church of that name, the especial church of the 
butchers, mentioned in a bull of Innocent II. (1136) as 
Capella Sancti, Petri de Bobus. It was sold at the Revolu- 
tion, and, after long serving as a wine-cellar, was pulled 
down in 1837, though its picturesque portal was preserved 
and applied to the western façade of St. Séverin. It was 
in this church that the student Hemon de la Fosse, con- 
verted to paganism by classical studies, attacked the 
Host in 1503, and proclaimed the worship of Jupiter, for 


which he had his tongue branded with hot iron, his hand 
cut off, and was finally burnt alive. It is said that as an 
expiatory procession was passing after this execution, two 
cows, being led to the butcher, knelt before the sacrament, 
whence the name of the church. Close behind St. Pierre, 
the little church of St. Marine stood from the XI. c, with 
a parish of twenty houses, and a curé who was chaplain to 
the episcopal prisons. Sold at the Revolution, St. Marine 
was used first as a popular theatre, then for workshops : it 
existed till recent times. On the opposite side of the Rue 
St. Pierre, the Rue Cocatrix ran west, named from the fief 
of a family which existed here in the XIII. c. 

All these sites are now swallowed up. Most of them 
are covered by the vast modern buildings of the Hotel Dieu ^ 
the Maison Dieu of the middle ages. This is said to have 
originated in a hospital founded by St. Landry, and was 
probably the same which a charter of 829 mentions under 
the name of St. Christophe. But the first building which 
bore the name of Hôtel Dieu, and which stood on the south 
side of the Place du Parvis Notre Dame, was begun by 
Philippe Auguste, who gave the title of Salle St. Denis to 
its first ward. To this, Queen Blanche of Castille added 
the Salle St. Thomas, and St. Louis continued the work 
by building the Salle Jaune, with two attendant chapels, 
along the banks of the river. After being long neglected 
during the hundred years' war, the Hôtel Dieu found a 
great benefactor in Louis XL, who built the beautiful 
gothic portals of the two chapels near the Petit Pont, 
which, with the noble renaissance gable by their sides 
belonging to the Salle du Le'gat, were the great feature of 
the building till the whole was destroyed by fire on 
December 30, 1772, when many of the sick perished, the 
rest being received by the archbishop in Notre Dame. In 


its next form the Hôtel Dieu had no interest, except that 
under the peristyle was a statue of the philanthropist 
Montyon, who desired that his remains might rest there 
(1838) in the midst of the poor and sick. It was in this 
hospital that the poet Gilbert died. The whole of its 
buildings were pulled down and the present Hôtel Dieu, 
built by Diet, was inaugurated August 11, 1877. 

More open and airy, the island has nowhere lost more 
in picturesqueness than in the opening out of the Parvis 
Notre Dame to its present dimensions, and lining it on 
the left with a straight line of buildings of featureless 
houses. The ancient Parvis (paradisus, the earthly para- 
dise — whence the great church, the figure of the heavenly 
Jerusalem, was seen in all its glory), the spot where the 
scaffold was erected upon which the Templars protested 
their innocence before their execution, had been gradually 
made narrower and surrounded by lofty houses of varied 
outline. On its right was a fountain (destroyed 1748), 
and in front of this a statue of unknown origin ^ (represent- 
ing a man holding a book), which was called by the people 
Le Grand Jeusneur, and became the recipient of all the 
satires of the time, as the statue of Pasquin at Rome. 

" In certain workshops it is still the custom to send the 
apprentices to borrow from the knife-grinder a tvhetstone for the 
tongue, or buy at the grocer's a pennyworth of elbow-grease. In 
years past they never failed to send the newcomer to M. Legris, 
le vendeur de gris. The novice, when he came to the parvis, 
would ask a passer-by the address of the celebrated tradesman, 
and this antiquated joke always provoked a laugh." — E. Drumont, 
" Paris à travers les âges.'' 

On the south of the Parvis, where the buildings of the 
Hôtel Dieu now stand, stood the Hôpital des Enfants 

^ The Abb ' T.ebœuf considers it to have represented Christ holding the book 
of the New Testament. 


Trouvés, having its origin in a house called La Couche, 
which resulted from the preaching of St. Vincent de Paul, 
for the lescue of children who used previously to be openly 
sold, in the Rue St. Landry, for a franc apiece to acrobats 
or professional beggars. The hospital was rebuilt in 
1746-48, with a chapel, celebrated for its ceiling, painted 
in an imaginary state of ruin, with such power that it 
seemed to those below as if it must fall and crush them. 
The second hospital swallowed up the church of St. 
Geneviève des Ardents, whither legend asserted that the 
shepherd-patroness was wont to resort for prayer. The 
dedication of Sancta Genovefa Parva commemorated the 
cure, as the shrine of St. Geneviève was carried by, of a 
vast multitude, attacked by the terrible epidemic called 
des Ardefits.^ The hospital of the Enfants Trouvés has 
been recently demolished to expose the indifïerent front 
of the southern division of the Hôtel Dieu. The ugliness 
and bareness of the hospital, internal and external, does 
not contrast favorably with similar institutions in many 
provincial towns, notably Beaune, Tonnerre, and Angers. 

The metropolitan cathedral of Notre Dame now faces 
us in all its gothic magnificence. The remains of an altar 
of Jupiter discovered in 17 11 indicate that a pagan temple 
once occupied the site, where c. 375, a church dedicated to 
St. Stephen, was built under Prudentius, eighth bishop of 
Paris. In 528, through the gratitude of Childebert— " le 
nouveau Melchisedech "—for his recovery from sickness by 
St. Germain, another far more rich and beautiful edifice 
arose by the side of the first church, and was destined to 
become ecdesia parisiaca, the cathedral of Paris. Childe- 

» No wonder that multitudes died of the mal des ardents. The cure pre- 
scribed was wine and holy water mingled with scrapings from a stone of the 
Holj' Sepulchre, and in which relics of the saints had been dipped. See His- 
toriens de France^ xi. 



bert endowed it with three estates — at Chelles-en-Brie, at 
La Celle near Montereau, and at La Celle near Fréjus, 
which last supplied the oil for its sacred ordinances. The 
new church had not long been finished when La Cité, in 
which the monks of St. Germain had taken refuge with 
their treasures, was besieged by the Normans, but it was 
successfully defended by Bishop Gozlin, who died during 
the siege. It is believed that the substructions of this 
church were found during recent excavations in the Parvis 



Notre Dame, and architectural fragments then discovered 
are now preserved at the Palais des Thermes. 

The first stone of a new and much larger cathedral was 
laid by Pope Alexander IIL in 1163, under Bishop Mau- 
rice de Sully: A fu7idamentis extrjixit ecdesiam cui preerat, 
writes his contemporary, Robert of Auxerre. On its first 
altar Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, celebrated mass. 
The work advanced rapidly. The choir was finished in 
1 185, and two years later Geoffrey Plantagenet, son of 


Henry IL of England, was buried in front of the high 
altar. A few years later Isabelle de Hainault, wife of 
Philippe Auguste, was laid in the same place. Early in the 
XIII. c, under Bishop Pierre de Nemours, the nave, 
towers, and façade were completed. It was then that the 
old church of St. Etienne, where Fredegonde had taken 
refuge with her treasures after the murder of Chilperic 
(584) was pulled down. The south porch was begun, as its 
inscription tells, by Jehan de Chelles, master mason, Feb- 
ruary 12, 1257, the north portal about the same time, and 
the cathedral was finished by the beginning of the reign of 
St. Louis, whose funeral service was performed here. 

In spite of serious injuries from fire, no serious restora- 
tion ruined the glory of the cathedral before the XVII. c. 
But under Louis XIII. and Louis XIV. the XIV. c. stalls, 
tombs, roodloft, the open clôture, and XII. c. windows of 
the choir were swept away, and in 1771, to give a freer 
passage for processions, the central pillar of the western 
portal was removed, with the lower sculptures of its tym- 
panum. Every year after this saw some destruction under 
the name of improvement, till the great Revolution broke 
out, when the greater part of the statues of the portals and 
choir chapels were destroyed, and the cathedral became a 
Temple of Reason, Mile Maillard, attended by her priest- 
esses — figurantes de l'opéra — being adored as Goddess of 
Reason à la place du ci-devant Saint Sacrement ! Since 
1845 the urgency of M. de Montalembert has led to much 
of these injuries being repaired, and to a magnificent res- 
toration of the entire fabric under Viollet-le-Duc, though 
the whole has since narrowly escaped perishing under the 
Commune, when all its chairs were piled up in the choir 
and set on fire, and only the want of air and the damp- 
ness of the walls saved the building. 


The magnificent west façade consists of three stories. 
The triple portal is surmounted by La Galerie des Rois (de 
Juda, as being ancestors of Notre Dame) — saved by the 
intervention of the astronomer Dupuis, when their de- 
struction was ordered by the Municipal Council in 1793. 
In the second story is a great rose-window flanked by 
double windows enclosed in wide-spreading gothic arches. 
The third story is an open gallery of slender arches and 
columns — La Galerie de la Vierge : the statues here are 
modern.^ Four buttresses rising to the top of the building 
divide it into equal parts, and also mark the width of the 
towers. They have niches with statues representing Re- 
ligion, Faith, St. Denis, and St. Stephen. 

"There are assuredly few finer architectural pages than that 
front of that cathedral, in which successively and at once, the 
three receding pointed gateways ; the decorated and indented 
band of the twenty-eight royal niches ; the vast central circular 
window, flanked by the two lateral ones, like the priest by the 
deacon and sub-deacon ; the lofty and slender gallery of tri- 
foliated arcades, supporting a heavy platform upon its light and 
delicate columns ; and the two dark and massive towers, with 
their eaves of slate^ — harmonious parts of one magnificent 
whole — rising one above another in five gigantic stories — unfold 
themselves to the eye, in, combination unconfused — with their 
innumerable details of statuar)^ sculpture, and carving, in pow- 
erful alliance with the grandeur of the whole — a vast S3^mphony 
in stone, if we may so express it — the colossal work of a man 
and of a nation — combining unity with complexity, like the Iliads 
and the Romanceros to which it is a sister production — the pro- 
digious result of a draught upon the whole resources of an era — 
in which, upon every stone, is seen displayed in a hundred varie- 
ties, the fancy of the workman disciplined by the genius of the 
artist — a sort of human creation, in short, mighty and prolific as 
the Divine Creation, of which it seems to have caught the double 
character — variety and eternity." — Victor Htigo, '' Notre Dame.'" 

1 The ori2;inal statue of Adam from this gallery, now in the Magasin at St. 
Denis, is a very interesting XIV. c. work, and ought to be in one of the chapels 
of Notre Dame. 

2 These are now unfortunately removed. 


The central portai — Porte du Jugement — recently re- 
stored from abominable mutilations by Soufflot, bears a 
statue of Christ by Geoffroy Dechaume on its dividing 
pillar. At the sides are the Apostles ; in the medallions 
the Virtues and Vices. The tympanum (the lower part 
modern) and vaulting represent the Last Judgment. It 
was beneath this portal that most of the royal and other 
great marriages have taken place. When Elizabeth of 
France, daughter of Henri II., married Philippe II. of 
Spain, it is recorded that Eustace de Bellay, Bishop of 
Paris, met her here, " et se fit la celebration des épou- 
sailles audit portrail, selon la coutume de notre mère Sainte 

On the left is the Portail de la Vierge. 

"This doorway is a poem in stone. On the plinth of the 
central pier is placed the image of the Virgin holding the Child ; 
under her feet she treads the dragon with a woman's head, whose 
tail is twined round the trunk of the tree of knowledge. Adam 
and Eve, at each side of the tree, are tempted by the Serpent. 
On the left side of the plinth is sculptured the creation of Eve, 
and on the right the angel driving our first parents from Paradise. 
A rich canopy, supported by two angels bearing thuribles, sur- 
mounts the Virgin's head, and terminates in a charming little 
shrine, covering the Ark of the Covenant. It must be borne in 
mind that the litanies give to the Virgin the title of Ark of the 
Covenant. Thus on this pier the glorification of the mother of 
God is complete. She holds the Redeemer in her arms ; accord- 
ing to the Scriptures she bruises the serpent's head, and her 
divine function is symbolized by the Ark of the Covenant. On 
the lintel of the doorway, divided into two portions by the little 
shrine that crowns the canopy, are sculptured, on the right, the 
Virgin, three prophets seated, with their heads covered by a veil, 
holding a single phylactery with a meditative air ; on the left, 
three kings crowned, in the same attitude. These six figures are 
the most beautiful of all those of that epoch. The presence of 
the prophets is explained by the announcement of the coming 
of the Messiah, and the kings are present at the scene as ances- 
tors of the Virgin. The heads of these personages are remark- 



able by the expression of meditative intelligence which seems to 
give them life. 

" The second lintel represents the Entombment of the Virgin. 
Two angels hold the shroud and lower the corpse into a rich sar- 
cophagus. Behind the tomb is Christ giving his benediction to 
the body of his mother ; around him are the twelve Apostles, 
whose countenances express grief. In the upper t3^mpanum the 
Virgin is seated on the right of her Son, who places on her head 
a crown brought by an angel. Two other angels, kneeling at 
each side of the throne, hold torches. In the four rows of votis- 
sûirs which surround these bas-reliefs, are sculptured angels, the 
patriarchs, the ro)^al ancestors of the Virgin and the prophets. A 
band covered by magnificent ornaments terminates the voussoirs. 
But as if to give greater amplitude to the final curve, a large 
moulding in the form of a gable frames it in. This frame rests 
on two slight columns. 

" Eight statues adorn the sides of the splay, and these figures 
are thus arranged. Beginning from the jamb on the right of the 
Virgin, is St. Denis, carrying his head and accompanied by two 
angels, then Constantine. On the opposite side-piece, facing 
Constantine, is Pope Sylvester, then St. Geneviève, St. Stephen 
and St. John Baptist. The statues are placed on the little col- 
umns of the lower arcade ; the tympans between the arches which 
surmount these columns are consequently beneath the feet of the 
figures. Each of these tympans bears a sculpture referring to the 
person above. Under Constantine, two animals, a dog and a 
bird, to signify the triumph of Christianity over the Devil ; under 
St. Denis, the executioner with his axe ; under the two angels, 
a lion and a monster bird, symbols of the powers which the an- 
gels tread under foot ; under St. Sylvester, the city of Byzan- 
tium ; under St. Geneviève, a demon ; under St. Stephen, a Jew 
holding a stone ; under St. John the Baptist, King Herod. In 
the back of the arcade, under the little pointed arches, are sculp- 
tured in very low relief scenes referring equally to the statues 
above. Thus, under Constantine, is a king holding a banderole, 
and kneeling at the feet of a woman veiled and crowned, with a 
nimbus around her head and a sceptre in her hand. This woman 
is the Church, to whom the emperor does homage. Under the 
angels, are the combats of these spirits of light against the re- 
bellious spirits. Under St. Denis, is his martyrdom ; under St. 
Sylvester, a pope conversing with a crowned personage ; under 
St. Geneviève, a woman blessed by a hand issuing from a cloud, 


and receiving the assistance of an angel ; under St. Stephen, the 
representation of his martyrdom ; under St. John the Baptist, the 
executioner giving the head of the Precursor to the daughter of 
Herodias. At the same elevation, on the jambs, are sculptured 
the Earth, represented by a woman holding plants in her hand ; 
the Sea, figured as a woman seated on a fish and holding a ship. 
The exterior jambs of the doorway are covered with vegetation 
sculptured with rare delicacy ; the trees and shrubs are evidently 
symbolical ; the oak, the beech, a pear tree, a chestnut, a wild 
rose, can be perfectly recognized. 

"Thirty-seven bas-reliefs, sculptured on the two faces of 
each of the jambs of the doorway, compose an almanac of stone 
above the bas-reliefs of the Earth and the Sea. They consist of 
the figures of the zodiac and the various labors and occupations 
of the year. 

" In such wise did the artists of the beginning of the XIII. c. 
know how to compose a cathedral portal." — Viollct-le-Duc, vii. 421. 

The portal on the right, de St, Anne or de St. Marcel, 
is the most ancient of the portals, and is composed, in its 
upper part, of fragments from that of St. Etienne, executed 
at the expense of Etienne de Garlande, who died in 1142. 
Other portions come from the central portal of the façade 
begun by Bishop Maurice de Sully (ob. 1196), who is him- 
self represented amongst the sculptures^ together with 
Louis VII. On the central pillar is the statue of St. Mar- 
cel, ninth bishop of Paris (ob. 436) ; it is of early XIII. c. 
The hinges of this door, magnificent specimens of metal 
work, are also relics of St. Etienne. 

The beautiful south façade bears, with its date 1257, 
the name of the only known architect of Notre Dame — 
Jean de Chelles. The portal of the north transept is de- 
voted to the history of the Virgin, and bears a beautiful 
statue of her, with the mantle fastened under the right 
arm. The reliefs give the history of the Virgin. The 
statuettes of angels are very charming.^ Beneath the third 

1 Lubke. 


window, belonging to a choir chapel beyond this portal, is 
the graceful Forte Rouge, a chef-d'œuvre early XIV. c, 
which has a representation of the Coronation of the Virgin 
in its tympanum and scenes from the life of St. Marcel in 
its vaulting. It takes its name from its doors having been 
originally painted red. Its statues represent St. Louis and 
Marguerite de Provence. 

"The little Porte Rouge attains almost the limits of the 
gothic delicacy of the XV. c," — Victor Hugo. 

The cathedral spire is a recent " restoration " by Viollet- 


High mass on Sundays is at 9.30 a.m. ; Vespers followed 
by Benediction, at 2.30 p.m. On Fridays in Lent the great relic, 
the Crown of Thorns, is exhibited after 2 r.M. in the choir. 

On entering the church from the sunlit square the ex- 
treme darkness is at first almost oppressive, then infinitely 
imposing. The chief light comes from above, from the 
windows of the clerestory, which, in the choir, are filled 
with gorgeous stained glass. The five aisles, with their 
many pillars, afford most picturesque cross views. In the 
choir Henry VI. of England (1431), when only ten years 
old, was crowned king of France, The whole church, 
now so bare of historic memorials, was formerly paved 
with sepulchral stones. The monuments included : Phi- 
lippe, archdeacon of Paris, son of Louis VI., 1161 ; Prince 
Geoffrey of England, 1186 ; Queen Isabelle of Hainault, 
1 189; Louis de France, dauphin, son of Charles VI., 
1415 j Louise de Savoie, mother of François I. (her heart), 
1531 ; Louis XIII. (his entrails), 1643; Eudes de Sully, 
Bishop of Paris, 1208; Bishop Etienne IL, dit Templier, 
1279; Cardinal Aymeric de Magnac, 1384; Bishop Pierre 
d'Orgemont, 1409 ; Denis Dumoulin, Patriarch of Antioch, 
1447 ; Archbishop Pierre de Marca, 1662 \ Archbishop 



Hardouin de Pcréfixe, 167 1 ; Archbishop François de Har- 
lay, 1695 ; and Renaud de Beaune, Archbishop of Sens, 

"The church itself — that vast edifice — wrapping her, as it 
were, on all sides — protecting her — saving her — was a sovereign 
tranquillizer. The solemn lines of its architecture ; the religious 
attitude of all the objects by which the girl was surrounded ; the 
pious and serene thoughts escaping, as it were, from every pore 
of those venerable stones — acted upon her unconsciously to her- 
self. The structure had sounds, too, of such blessedness and 
such majesty, that they soothed that suffering spirit. The monot- 
onous chant of the performers of the service ; the responses of 
the people to the priests, now inarticulate, now of thundering 
loudness ; the harmonious trembling of the casements ; the or- 
gans bursting forth like the voice of a hundred trumpets ; the 
three steeples humming like hives of enormous bees — all that 
orchestra, over which bounded a gigantic gamut, ascending and 
descending incessantly, from the voice of a multitude to that of 
a bell — lulled her memory, her imagination, and her sorrow. The 
bells especially had this effect. It was as a powerful magnetism 
which those vast machines poured in large waves over her." — 
Victor Hugo, " N'otre Damey 

The form of the church is a Latin cross. The central 
aisle is of great width/ and, besides the chapels, there are 
double side-aisles, above which run the immense galleries 
of the triforium, united at the transept walls by very nar- 

* The length of Notre Dame is 390 feet ; width at transepts, 144 feet ; height 
of vaulting, 102 feet ; height of west towers, 204 feet ; width of west front, 128 
feet ; length of nave, 225 feet ; width of nave, 39 feet. 

An engraved copper tablet hung against one of the pillars formerly gave 
the dimensions of the church- 
Si tu veux sçavoir comme est ample, 

De Nostre-Dame le grand temple, 

Il y a, dans œuvre, pour le seur, 

Dix et sept toises de hauteur, 

Sur la largeur de vingt-quatre, 

Et soixante-cinq sans rebattre, 

A de long aux tours haut montées 

Trente-quatre sont comptées ; 

Le tout fondé sur pilotis, 

Aussi vrai que je te le dis. 

De Brett l^ " A niîquités de Par is. ^^ 



row passages. The choir retains some of its wood carving, 
executed under Louis XIII., from designs of Jean de 
Goulon. The group called Le Vœu de Louis XLLL., con- 
sists of a Descent from the Cross by Nicolas Coustou. 
The kneeling figure of Louis XIII. is by Guillaume Cous- 
tou, that of Louis XIV. by Antoine Coysevox. The tapes- 
tries hung up on festivals were given by Napoleon I. The 
dead Christ in gilt copper comes from the chapel of the 
Louvois in the Capucines of the Place Vendôme. En- 
closing the west end of the choir is part of the curious 
XIV. c. screen, sculptured by Jean Ravy — a remnant of 
that destroyed under Louis XIV. 

"The earlier series on the north contains a crowded repre- 
sentation of the History of Christ, in an unbroken line from the 
Annunciation to the Prayer in Gethsemane, These representa- 
tions are vividly conceived, and the style in which they are exe- 
cuted breathes the spirit of the XIII. c. Perhaps they belong to 
the end of that period or the beginning of the XIV. c. The 
reliefs on the south side are different on many points. They 
continue the History of Christ, and, indeed, the whole was so 
arranged that the cycle which began at the east passed along the 
north side to the 'west end of the choir, and was continued on 
the lectern, where the Passion, Crucifixion and Resurrection 
were depicted in front of the congregation, concluding at the 
south side in a scene moving from west to east. Of the later 
scenes, the only ones now in existence are those which extend 
from the meeting of Christ as the Gardener with Mary Magdalen, 
to the farewell to the Disciples after the Resurrection, The 
artist of these later scenes left his name, in an inscription that 
has now also disappeared, as Jehan Rav}^ who for twenty-six 
years conducted the building of Notre Dame, at the end of which 
time it was completed under his nephew, Master Jehan le Bou- 
teiller, in 1351. Master Ravy evidently thought that he could 
improve upon his predecessor's work on the north side ; for 
while the latter had formed the scenes into one unbroken series, 
he divided into separate compartments by arcades, so that the 
later representations, which are still in existence, are separated 
from each other by small columns." — Lubke. 



The chapels have been decorated in fresco, at great 
expense, under Viollet-le-Duc, rather to the destruction, 
most will consider, of the general harmony of the building. 
We may notice in the choir chapels, beginning on the right 
(the south) — 

Chapelle St. Denis. Statue of Archbishop Affre, by Auguste 
de Bay, The Archbishop is represented at the moment 
when, appearing with an olive branch on the barricade of 
the Faubourg St. Antoine, he was struck by a ball, June 
25, 1848. 

Chapelle St. Madeleine. Kneeling statue of Archbishop Si- 
bour (murdered in St. Etienne du Mont, January 8, 1857), 
by Dubois. Grave of the papal nuncio Garibaldi, Arch- 
bishop of Myra, 1853. 

Chapelle St. Guillaume. Statue of the Virgin and Child, at- 
tributed to Bernini. Mausoleum of General Henri-Charles 
d'Harcourt, 1769, by Pigalle — a singular work of dramatic 

Chapelle St. Georges, Statue of Archbishop Darboy (murdered 
by the Communists in the prison of La Roquette, May 27, 
1871), by Bonnassieux. Kneeling statue of Archbishop 
Morlot, 1862, by Lescorné. 

La Chapelle de Notre Dame des Sept Dotdetirs (north of choir) 
contains a restored fresco (of XIV. c.) of the Virgin and 
Child throned, with St. Denis on the right, and Bishop 
Simon Matiffas de Buci, who built the first three chapels 
on the left of the apse, as was told on his monument, and 
whose tomb was originally beneath it. 

Chapelle St. Marcel. Immense tomb of Cardinal de Belloy, 
1808, by Pierre Deseine. Tomb, with reclining figure, of 
Archbishop de Quélen. 

Chapelle St. Louis. Kneeling statue of Archbishop Louis- 
Antoine de Noailles, 1729, by de Chaume. 

Chapelle St. Germaifi. Tomb of Archbishop Leclerc de Juigné, 
1811. A kneeling figure in relief. 

Chapelle St. Ferdinand. Slab tomb, with medallion, of Arch- 
bishop de Beaumont, 1781. 

Chapelle St. Martin. Tomb (restored by Viollet-le-Duc) of 
Jean Baptiste de Vardes, Comte de Guébriant, Marshal of 
France, 1643, ^iid his wife Renée du Bec-Crespin, who was 


sent as ambassadress extraordinary to Poland, and died 

Behind the sanctuary, moved from its rightful place, is the 
tomb, with an interesting jewelled effigy, of Archbishop 
MatifFas de Buci, 1304. 

Against a pillar at the entrance of the choir on left is a 
statue of St. Denis, by Nicolas Coustou. Against the cor- 
responding pillar on the right is a XIV. c. statue of the 
Virgin and Child. 

"After the battle of Poitiers, the towns-people of Paris, in 
order to obtain relief from the woes that afflicted France, made a 
vow to present annually to Notre Dame a taper as long as the 
city. The 14th of August, 1437, the Provost of the Merchants and 
the échevins presented this offering to the chapter for the first 
time. When Paris had expanded and it became difficult to find 
a taper of such dimensions, the taper was changed into a silver 
lamp, which was to remain always burning, and which Francis 
Morin carried in great pomp to Notre Dame, in 1605." — Fat is à 
travers les âges. 

Among the historic memorials which perished in the 
Revolution was the equestrian statue of Philippe le Bel, 
clothed in the armor which he wore at Mons-en-Puelle, 
which stood by the last pillar on the right of the nave. 
A gigantic St. Christopher, destroyed by the chapter in 
1786, was given, in 1413, by Antoine des Essarts, whose 
tomb, with its armed statue, stood near it. Tastes have 
changed, for a famous traveller of the XVII. c. found St. 
Christopher the only thing worth seeing in the church. 

" I could see no notable matter in the cathedrall church, sav- 
ing the statue of St. Christopher on the right hand at the coming 
in of the great gate, which is indeed very exquisitely done, all 
the rest being but ordinary." — Coryafs " Crudities." 

The realistic tomb of Canon Jean Etienne Yver (1467) 

still exists uninjured.^ The archbishops have been buried 

^ Other monuments belonging to Notre Dame which still exist and might 
be restored (from the Musée at Versailles) with great advantage to the interest 
of the church, are those of Jean Jouvenel des Ursins (1431) and his wife, Mi- 
chelle de Vitry ; and of Maréchal Albert de Gondi, Due de Retz (1602) and his 
brother Pierre de Gondi, Bishop of Paris (1616). 


since 171 1, in a vault under the choir; if they are cardi- 
nals their hats are hung over their coffins. 

The Treasury of Notre Dame is open from 10 to 4 
(50 c.) except on Sundays and holidays. It was despoiled 
at the Revolution, but a few of the most precious objects 
escaped, and others have since been collected from other 
churches. It is approached through the east arcade of a 
little cloister, with stained glass representing the story of 
St. Geneviève. The greatest treasures of all, the Crown 
of Thorns given to St. Louis and brought hither from the 
Sainte Chapelle, and the nail of the True Cross which be- 
longed to the abbey of St. Denis, are only exposed on 
Fridays in Lent. 

The other treasures include the gold XII. c. cross of 
the Emperor Manuel Comnenus, bequeathed by Anne de 
Gonzague to St. Germain des Prés in 1683 ; the relic of 
the True Cross sent to Galon, bishop of Paris, in 1109 ; 
the cross, in wood and copper, of Bishop Eudes de Sully ; 
the discipline of St. Louis ; the crucifix which St. Vincent 
de Paul held over Louis XIII. when he was dying ; the 
coronation mantle of Napoleon I. and the chasuble which 
Pius VII. wore at the coronation ; chasubles embroidered 
in XV. c. and XVI. c. ; the pastoral cross of Archbishop 
Affre ; the dress worn by Archbishops Affre, Sibour, and 
Darboy in their last moments, with the marks left by the 
instruments of their death ; the magnificent silver image 
of the Virgin and Child given by Charles X. (1821) ; the 
ostensoir given by Napoleon L, and many magnificent 
church vestments and services of church plate presented 
by Napoleon I. and III. on occasion of marriages, bap- 
tisms, &c. On the walls of the treasury are full-length 
portraits of Archbishops de Quélen and Sibour. 

The Chapter House, with the throne where the arch- 



bishop presides every month at a council, contains a 
portait of Archbishop Affre and a picture of his death 
upon the barricade of the Faubourg St. Antoine. An 
armoire, adorned with paintings of the hfe of St. Louis, 
contains a precious rehquary of St. Louis ; other rehquaries 
of XIIL c, and XIV. c. ; rehquaries of XV. c, support- 
ing busts of St. Louis and St. Denis j and a massive 
ostensoir given by Napoleon L, who also presented the 
great paschal candlestick of the church. 

The most magnificent scene ever witnessed in Notre 
Dame was the coronation of Napoleon I. and Josephine, 
at an expense of eighty-five million francs. 

" What soul can ever have forgotten such a day? I have seen 
Notre Dame since that time, I have seen it in sumptuous and 
solemn feast-days, but nothing has ever recalled the impression 
made on the eye by the coronation of Napoleon. The vaulted 
roof, with its gothic arches, and its illuminated windows, echoed 
to the sacred chant of the priests, invoking the blessings of the 
Most High on the ceremony to be performed, and waiting for the 
Vicar of Christ, whose throne was prepared near the altar. Along 
the old walls, covered by magnificent tapestry, were ranged in 
order all the great bodies of the States, the deputies from all the 
towns, all France indeed, who by her representatives uttered her 
vows to bring down the blessing of Heaven on the head on which 
she was placing the crown. There thousands of floating plumes 
shadowing the hats of senators, councillors of State, and tribunes ; 
here courts of justice, with their costume rich and yet at the 
same time severe ; there uniforms glittering with gold, the clergy 
in all their pomp, and away in the galleries, above the nave and 
choir, young women, beautiful, sparkling with jewels, and 
dressed at the same time with that elegance which is peculiarly 
our own, formed a ravishing garland to contemplate. 

"The Pope was the first to arrive. As he entered the cathe- 
dral, the clergy intoned the Tti es Pctriis, and the solemn and 
religious strain made a profound impression on the audience. 
Pius Vn. advanced from the back of the church with an air at 
once majestic and humble. We saw he was our sovereign, but 



that in his heart he recognized himself as the humble subject of 
him whose throne was the cross. 

"The moment that perhaps attracted most glances to the 
steps of the altar was when Josephine received from the emperor 
the crown, and was solemnly consecrated Empress of the French, 
When it was time for her to appear actively in the great drama, 
the empress descended from the throne and advanced to the 
altar, where the emperor was waiting for her, followed by her 
ladies of honor and in waiting, and having her mantle borne by 
the Princess Caroline, the Princess Julie, the Princess Eliza, and 
the Princess Louise. I have had the honor of being presented to 
many real princesses, as they say in the Faubourg St. Germain, 
and I must say, in all truth, that I never saw one so imposing as 
Josephine. She was elegance and majesty combined ; and when 
she once had her court train behind her, there was no trace of 
the rather frivolous woman of the world ; she suited the part at 
all points, and no queen ever throned it better without having 
learned the lesson. 

"I saw all that I am just saying in the eyes of Napoleon. 
He rejoiced as he saw the empress advancing towards him, and 
when she knelt, . . . when the tears she could not restrain rolled 
over the clasped hands, which she raised rather to him than to 
God, in that moment when Napoleon, or rather Bonaparte, was 
in her eyes a real Providence, then there passed between these 
two beings one of those fleeting minutes, unique in a life, which 
fill up the void of many years. The emperor displayed perfect 
grace in the least of the actions he had to perform during the 
ceremony ; especially so when he had to crown the empress. This 
had to be done by the emperor, who, after having received the 
small crown, closed and surmounted by a cross, which he was to 
place on Josephine's head, had first to place it on his own, and 
then on that of the empress. He executed these two movements 
with a graceful slowness which was quite remarkable. But when 
he was at the moment of crowning her who was, according to a 
fixed opinion, his lucky star, he was playful, if I may say so. 
He arranged the little crown which surmounted the diadem, 
diamond-wise, placed it, displaced it, replaced it again ; it seemed 
as if he wished to promise her that the crown should be light 
and easy." — Mémoires de la Duchesse iVAbrantcs. 

In later times, the most magnificent ceremonials at 
Notre Dame have been the marriage of Napoleon III. to 



the Comtesse Eugénie de Teba, January 29, 1853, and 
the baptism of the Prince Imperial. 

Those miss a great sight who do not ascend the Towers 
of Notre Dame. The entrance (40 c.) is on the north side 
of the north tower, left of portal. The staircase is easy. 
On the first landing is a large chamber, containing the 


admirable little spiral staircase (giving access to the 
roofs) of which we give an illustration. A gallery, with a 
glorious view, runs round the final base of the towers and 
across the west façade. It is worth while to have accom- 
plished the ascent if only to make the acquaintance of 
the extraordinary population of strange beasts and birds 



which guard the parapet. Two hundred and ninety-seven 

steps have to be mounted before reaching the summit of 

the south tower, 223 feet in height. 

" It is a magnificent and captivating spectacle to look down 
upon Paris from the summit of the towers of Notre Dame, in the 
fresh light of a summer dawn. The day might be one of the 
early ones of July. The sky was perfectly serene, A few 
lingering stars were fading away in diflferent directions, and east- 
ward there was one very brilliant, in the lightest part of the 
heavens. The sun was on the point of making his appearance. 


Paris was beginning to stir. A very white, pure light showed 
vividly to the eye the endless varieties of outline which its build- 
ings presented on the east, while the giant shadows of the steeples 
traversed building after building from one end of the great city 
to the other. Already voices and noises were to be heard from 
several quarters of the town. Here was heard the stroke of a 
bell — there that of a hammer — and there again the complicated 
clatter of a dray in motion. Already the smoke from some of 
the chimneys was escaping scatteredly over all that surface of 
roofs, as if through the fissures of some vast sulphur-work. The 
river, whose waters are rippled by the piers of so many bridges 



and the points of so many islands, was wavering in folds of 
silver. Around the town, outside the ramparts, the view was 
lost in a great circle of fleecy vapors, through which were indis- 
tinctly discernible the dim line of the plains and the graceful 
swelling of the heights. All sorts of floating sounds were 
scattered over that half-awakened region. And eastward, the 
morning breeze was chasing across the sky a few light locks 
plucked from the fleecy mantle of the hills." — Victor Hugo, 
" Notre Dame de Paris." 

In the south tower is the great bell, *' le bourdon de 
Notre Dame," which has announced all the great French 
victories. The famous "Jacqueline," given in 1400, was 
named after Jacqueline de la Grange, wife of its donor, 
Jean de Montaigu (brother of Bishop Gérard), beheaded 
at the Halles in 1409 ; but when recast, in 1686, the bell 
was called " Emmanuel Louise Thérèse," in honor of Louis 
XIV. and his queen. A smaller bell shown here was 
brought from Sebastopol, and is of Russian workmanship. 

Notre Dame has always been celebrated for its 
preachers. Many of the finest orations of Bossuet and 
Bourdaloue were delivered here. Latterly the religious 
feelings of the middle ages have seemed to be awakened 
at Notre Dame, when twelve thousand persons have lis- 
tened at once to the preaching of the Dominican Lacor- 
daire, grand and majestic, but free from all mannerism and 
affectation, full of sympathy, telling of salvation, not dam- 
nation ; when the Carmelite Père Hyacinthe has drawn an 
immense audience, though rather appealing to the moral 
and intellectual than the religious feelings ; or when as 
many as eight thousand have been led to a general com- 
munion by the fiery words of the Jesuit Père de Ravignan. 

Nothing remains now of the episcopal palace, sacked 
February 14, 183 1, when, under Monseigneur de Quélen, 
its library of twenty thousand volumes was destroyed, with- 


out the slightest interference from the government of Louis 
Philippe, who remained utterly impassive to the scenes 
which were going on. 

"The building, invaded by a numerous and furious crowd, 
was a ruin at the end of a few minutes. At the same time, the 
railings and the banisters were torn up, the walls sapped, the 
roof broken, and marbles, woodwork, glass, and furniture hurled 
out of the windows. A troop of barbarians made a line from the 
library of the palace to the parapet of the quay ; books and pre- 
cious manuscripts passed from hand to hand, each hand in turn 
tore them, and the last flung them into the river. All this was 
done amid Avild songs and frightful yells. To add to the outrage, 
a drunken band, covered with filth, and dressed in priestly vest- 
ments, formed a grotesque and sacrilegious procession around 
the enclosure. In this fashion the archbishops of Paris were de- 
prived of their ancient abode." — De Gtiilhenny, '' Itin. arch, dc 

" Persecution and assassination seem, in our hours of trouble, 
to be the predestined lot of those who occupy a see threatened by 
such hate. Mgr. de Quélen saw his archiépiscopal palace sacked ; 
Mgr. Afïre was mortally wounded in a barricade, victim of his 
heroic devotion ; Mgr. Sibour was stabbed by Verger, and if 
Mgr. Marlot died in his bed, Mgr. Darboy fell under the balls of 
the fédérés." — Edouard Drwnont, " Faiis à travel's les âges." 

It was in this Archevêché that the National Assembly 
held its first meeting in Paris, after the removal from Ver- 
sailles. The Sacristy now occupies the site of the palace. 
The archbishop's garden occupied the site of the hillock 
known, in early times, as La Motte aux Papelards, a name 
not inappropriate during the dissolute life of Archbishop 

Behind the cathedral is the Place Notre Dame, with a 
gothic fountain of 1843. Here, at the end of the garden, 
shuddering figures are always pressing against the win- 
dows of a low, one-storied building. It is the Morgue, 
where bodies found in the river or streets are exposed for 
recognition during three days. The name Morgue comes 


from the old French word for visage. Formerly at the en- 
trance of all the prisons was a chamber called the Morgue, 
where, on their arrival, prisoners were detained for some 
minutes, that their physiognomies might be well studied 
for after-recognition. The bodies are seen through a glass 
screen, and are kept constantly watered to impede decom- 
position. The clothes in which the bodies are found are 
removed, which is perhaps a reason why mistakes are fre- 
quently made, and people meet alive and well the rela- 
tions whom they have mourned and buried, after recogniz- 
ing them at the Morgue. More than 300 is the average 
of bodies annually exposed here. Nothing can be more 
appalling than the interior of the Morgue, where death is 
seen in its utmost horror. 

" The populace is greedy of this frightful spectacle, which is 
the most revolting that imagination can form." — Tableau de Paris, 

"The Morgue is 'the lying in state' of misfortune and 
crime. . . . Some days of the year the Morgue is too small, as on 
the day after a riot, the day after Shrove Tuesday, or the day after 
a national holiday." — Nodier, Régnier et Champin, ^' Paris histo- 

" The Morgue is a spectacle within the reach of every purse ; 
be they poor or rich who pass, they pay nothing for admission. 
The door is open, enter who will. Some amateurs will go out 
of their way not to miss one of these representations of death. 
When the slabs are bare they go away disappointed, swindled, 
and grumbling between their teeth. When the slabs are well 
filled, and there is a fine display of human flesh, visitors crowd 
it, and get a cheap emotion ; they are appalled, amused, applaud 
or hiss as at a theatre, and retire satisfied, with the declaration 
that the Morgue is a success that day." — Zola, " Thérèse Raqtiin." 

Nothing remains now of Le Cloître Notre Dame, on 
the northern side of the church, with its thirty-seven ca- 
nonical houses and its famous episcopal schools, in which 
St. Anselm defeated Roscelin and St. Bernard combated 


Abélard. Here was the earliest public library in France, 
sold in the last century. The cloister was commemorated 
in the names of the Rue du Cloître Notre Dame, the Rue 
des Chanoinesses, and Rue des Chantres, the last of the 
ancient streets of the quarter. At the corner of the latter 
street and the Quai aux Fleurs (formerly Napoléon), look- 
ing on the ancient Port St. Landry, Héloïse lived with her 
uncle, the Canon Fulbert. On a house here (now rebuilt) 
was inscribed — 

' Abeilard, Héloïse, habitèrent ces lieux, 
Des sincères amans modèles précieux. 1118." 

In No. 7 of the destroyed Rue du Cloître, Racine and 
Boileau both lived for a time. A fragment of the Rue des 
Ursins still commemorates the famous hotel of that name. 
At the entrance of the Rue du Cloître was the church of 
St. Jean le Rond (destroyed 1748), which served as the 
Baptistery of the Cathedral. It was on the steps of St. 
Jean le Rond that the celebrated mathematician D'Alem- 
bert was exposed as an infant by his unnatural mother, the 
chanoinesse Tencin, and was picked up by the poor gla- 
zier's wife, who brought him up, and whom he ever after 
regarded as his true mother, though his own tried to 're- 
claim him when he became famous. 

On the second floor of the last house of the Quai de 
l'Horloge, Jeanne Marie Philipon, afterwards the famous 
Mme Roland, was bom, and she has described how she 
lived on the " pleasant quays " as a girl with her grand- 
mother, and was accustomed to '' take the air by the wind- 
ing course of the river," with her aunt Angelica. 

In the Rue Chanoinesse it is said that the epistles of 
Pliny, afterwards published by Aldus, were found by the 
monk Joconde. 

The Isle St Louis^ which belonged to the chapter of 


Paris, remained uninhabited till the XVII. c. It has still 
much the character which we find given to it in descrip- 
tions of the last century. 

"This quarter seems to have escaped the general corruption 
of the town. The citizens watch each other, and know their 
neighbors' habits ; a girl who is imprudent becomes an object of 
censure, and will never get a husband in that quarter. Nothing 
gives a better idea of a country town of the third order than the 
Isle de St. Louis. It has been well said — 

" ' L'habitant du Marais est étranger dans risk.' " 

Tableau de Paris, 1782. 

From the entrance of* the Isle St. Louis, Notre Dame 

looks especially grand — 

" The view of the apse, colossal and crouching amid its flying 
buttresses, like paws in repose, and dominated by the double 
head of its towers, above its long monster-like spire." — Zola, 
" V Œuvre y 

The Church of St. Louis eti Vlsle^ with a perforated stone 
spire, only dates from 1 679-1 721. It contains some pict- 
ures by Mignard and Lemoine. 

At the end of the long quiet street of St. Louis en 
risle, is (on the left) a garden, shading the front of the 
Hôtel Lambert, magnificently restored by the Czartoriski 
family. This hotel was built in the middle of the XVII. 
c, by Levau, for the President Lambert de Thorigny, and 
all the great artists of the time — Lebrun, Lesueur, François 
Périer, and the Flemish sculptor Van Obtal — were em- 
ployed in its decorations. " C'est un hôtel bâti par un des 
plus grands architectes de France, et peint par Lebrun et 
Lesueur. C'est une maison faite pour un souverain qui 
serait philosophe," wrote Voltaire to Frederic the Great. 
The Galerie de Lebruft retains all the decorations by that 
great artist ; the ceiling represents the Marriage of Her- 
cules and Hebe. Only a few paintings in grisaille remain 


from the hand of Lesueur, all his larger works having been 
taken hence to the Louvre. Voltaire was living here, 
with Mme du Châtelet, his "Emilie," when he planned 
his Henriade, having as his chamber the room where 
Lesueur painted the Apollo and the Muses, now in the 
Louvre. After Mme du Châtelet, the financiers Dupin 
and Delahaye resided here ; then, under the empire, M. 
de Montalivet, with whom Napoleon held here the confer- 
ence, in 1815, in which his cause was decided to be hope- 

No. 29 Quai de Bourbon is a fine old XVII. c. hotel. 
At No. 17 Quai d'Anjou is the handsome Hbtel Pimodan 
or de Lauzun of the XVII. c. At the point of the island 
is the site once occupied by the Hôtel Bretonvilliers. 

The Po?it de la Toiirnelle and the quay of the same 
name commemorate the tour or tournelle which joined the 
Porte St. Bernard, the first gate in the walls of Philippe 
Auguste. Hence a long chain joined to a tower on the 
Isle Notre Dame, could defend, when required, the passage 
of the river. 

It was on the Isle St. Louis that the famous combat 
took place, in the presence of Charles V. and his court, 
between the dog of Montereau and the Chevalier Macaire, 
whom the dog had insisted on recognizing as the murderer 
of his master, Aubin de Montdidier, and attacking where- 
ever he met him. 

"The lists were marked out on the island, which was then un- 
inhabited. Macaire was armed with a large club ; the dog had a 
barrel to retreat to and sally from. He was let loose, and at 
once ran around his adversary, avoiding his blows, threatening 
him first on one side, then on the other, tiring him out, till he 
finally dashed forward, seized him by the throat, pulled him 
down, and forced him to confess his crime in the presence of^ the 
king and all the QQ\xx\r—Saint.Foix, " Essais hist, sur Paris r 



THE Faubourg takes its name from the old collegiate 
church of St. Marcel, destroyed in the Revolution. 

"In this suburb the people are more mischievous, more in- 
flammable, more quarrelsome, and more disposed to revolt than 
in any other quarter. The police dread to drive them to ex- 
tremities, they handle them delicately, for they are capable of 
going to the greatest excesses." — Tahlemi de Paris, 1782. 

From the eastern point of the Isle St. Louis the Pont 
de la Tournelle leads to the south bank of the Seine, 
where, on the Quai de la Tournelle (right), is the Hbtel 
Pimodan or Nesmond of the age of Henri IV. It was 
built by Mme de Nesmond, daughter of Mme de Mira- 
mion, who established on the same quay a nunnery, which 
gave it the name of Quai des Miramionnes. 

A little to the left is the vast lïalle aux Vins, and be- 
yond it is the Jardin des Plantes (open daily from 1 1 to 7 
in summer, 11 to 5 in winter), the charming Botanical 
Garden of Paris, founded by Richelieu at the instigation 
of Labrosse, physician to Louis XHI. — especially attract- 
ive to botanists from its unrivalled collections of wild and 
herbaceous plants. The peonies, in May and June, are 
especially magnificent. There are many shady and de- 
lightful walks, in some of which Boileau composed the 
verses^ which end in the famous lines — 

^ Fournier, Paris démoli. 


" Mon cœur, vous soupirez au nom de l'infidèle, 
Avez-vous oublié que vous ne l'aimez plus?" 

"These solitary walks had always a great charm for Bona- 
parte. He was more open and confiding, and felt himself nearer 
the divinity, 'of whom,' he said, 'a true friend is the faithful 
image.' " — Mémoires de la Duchesse d^ Abranû s. 

The Natu7'al History Collections^ which occupy the west 
portion of the gardens, are open from i to 4, the gallery of 
savage beasts being open on Thursdays only, when they 
are not to be seen outside. 

During the siege of Paris in 1870, the elephants and 
most of the larger animals were sold and eaten up. Two 
elephants sold to butchers fetched 27,000 francs, two 
camels 4,000 francs ; but it was not only in the beasts of 
its menagerie that the Jardin contributed to the public 

"The rats at Paris have certain favorite spots. One of their 
beloved paradises is ihe Ja?-din des Fiantes, where they fight for 
the food with rare animals or birds. T\i& Jardin des Plantes was 
a luckless abode for them at this epoch, as the employés of the 
museum made hecatombs of them and ate them." — U Hérisson. 

Behind the Jardin des Plantes is the Hospice de la 
Pitié, now annexed to the Hôtel Dieu, originally founded 
by Louis XIII., 1612. In the Rue du Puits I'Hermite is 
the Prison of St. Pélagie, notorious from the horrors of the 
great Revolution, and celebrated as the place where Jo- 
sephine de la Pagerie, the future empress, was iinprisoned 
and inscribed her name on the wall of her cell, and where 
Mme Roland wrote her Memoirs. 

" I never slept at Sainte-Pélagie without waking with a start. 
I lived on black bread and dirty water for six daj-s, and had no 
linen for over a month. But what gave me most suffering at 
Sainte-Pélagie was the necessity of finding myself in contact with 
a horrible coverlet." — Souvenir's de A/me de Créqtii. 

To the east of the Jardin des Plantes the Boulevard de 


r Hôpital leads to L'Hospice de la Salpètriere, built as an 
arsenal by Louis XIII., and used as a hospice for old men 
and women. The church — a Greek cross with an altar in 
the centre under an octagonal dome — dates from 1670. 

On the right of the Boulevard de l'Hôpital, where the 
Boulevard St. Marcel branches off westwards, is the Marché 
aux Chez'aiix, moved hither from the site of the Hôtel des 
Tournelles. Here Rosa Bonheur has studied. 

The Boulevard de l'Hôpital leads into the wide and 
handsome Botilevard d'Italie, which forms a pleasant drive, 
with fine views over the south of Paris. 

Following the Boulevard St. Marcel for some distance, 
we find on the right the Rue Scipion. Here a house, at the 
corner of the Rue Fer-à-Moulin, has a court decorated with 
fine terra-cotta medallions. These and the name attached 
to the street, are all that remain of the hotel built by the 
rich Scipion Sardini, under Henri III. 

The Boulevard St. Marcel leads to (left) the Avenue des 
Gobelins, on the right of which is the Manufacture Générale 
des Gobelijis, open to the public on Wednesdays and Satur- 
days from 12 to 3. The work existed in France long 
before the time of Gilles Gobelin, who lived in the middle 
of the XV. c. ; but he acquired a fortune by the manufact- 
ure, in the art of which he instructed all the members of 
his own family, and henceforth his name was connected 
with it. It was long supposed that the waters of the little 
stream, Bievre, which flows by the establishment, had 
peculiar properties for the use of dyeing ; but the stream 
is now so adulterated that Seine water is used instead. 
The establishment comprises a school, and ateliers for the 
three branches of the art — the dyeing, the tapestry, and 
the carpet manufacture called Savonnerie, from the house 
at Chaillot, to which this part of the industry was at one 


time removed. Much of the old tapestry preserved here 
was destroyed by the Communists in 187 1. The best 
remaining pieces are of the time of Louis XIV., with two 
of Louis XIIL, and are taken from the works of eminent 
French painters— Poussin, Vouet, Lebrun, Mignard, Le- 
febre, Rigaud, Coypel, Oudry, Boucher, &c. There are 
a few pieces of Flemish and Florentine tapestry, chiefly 
of XVIL c. A piece executed at Bourges in 1501 repre- 
sents Louis XL raising the siege of Dole and Salins. 

An average of six inches square is the daily task of a 
skilled workman : so that the execution of the larger pieces 
occupies many years 

" Des Gobelins l'aiguille et la teinture 
Dans ces tapis surpassent la peinture." 

Voltaire, " Mondain. ^^ 

"Many of the tapestry hangings in the old hotels of France 
record family pride and sense of high antiquity. On the hang- 
ings of a room in the hotel of the Comte de Croy is represented 
a scene from the deluge, in which a man pursues Noah, with the 
words : ' Mon ami, sauvez les papiers des Croys.' On a tapestry 
in the château of the present Duc de Levis, the Virgin Mary was 
represented saying to one of the family who stood bare-headed 
before her : ' Mon cousin, couvrez-vous,' who replies : * Ma 
cousine, c'est pour ma commodité.'" — Lady Morgan's ''France." 

Outside the neighboring Barrière d'Italie is the suburb 
of the Maison Blanche (named from a destroyed house in 
the Rue St. Hippolyte, supposed to have belonged to 
Queen Blanche), where General Bréa was murdered in 
June, 1848. A little church marks the spot. The Avenue 
d'Italie was the scene of the celebrated massacre of the 
Dominicans of Arceuil under the Commune, 187 1. 

"They were taken to the House of Correction, No. 38 Ave- 
nue d'Italie. On the 25th of May they were ordered to leave. 
The first who advanced was Father Contrault ; he had not taken 
three steps before he was struck by a ball. He raised his arms 



to heaven, and said, 'Is it possible?' and fell. Father Captier 
turned to his companions, and in a very gentle but very firm 
voice exclaimed, ' Come, my children, it is for the sake of God ! ' 
All rushed forward after him, and ran through the fusillade. It 
was a hunt, not a massacre. The poor human game ran, hid be- 
hind trees, or glided along the walls. In the windows women 
clapped their hands, on the foot-paths men shook their fists at the 
unhappy fugitives, and everybody laughed. Some of them, more 
active and .more favored than the others, dashed into side streets 
and escaped the fusillade. Five Dominicans and seven em- 
ployés of the school were shot down almost in front of the 
Chapelle Bréa." — Maxi/ne du Cainp, ^' Les Convulsions de Paris y 

Returning down the Avenue des Gobelins, on the right 
is the Church of St. Médard, founded before the XII. c, 
but much altered and enlarged in the XVI. c. and XVII. 
c. It consists at present of a gothic nave with aisles of the 
XVI. c, and a loftier renaissance choir. Olivier Petru and 
Pierre Nicole, the theological writers, are buried in this 
church, which was besieged, December 21, 1 561, by 2,000 
protestants, who wished to avenge themselves on the 
priests of the church for ringing all their bells to disturb 
the service in the neighboring "temple." Lebceuf^ nar- 
rates that in the XIV. c. or XV. c. a reclusoir or cell was 
constructed in this church in which a female recluse was 
shut up for the rest of her days. 

" A charming little picture by Watteau exhibits St. Geneviève 
keeping sheep, and reading a volume of the Scriptures which lies 
open upon her knee." — Jameson's " Sacred Arty 

In the little churchyard adjoining, the bienheureux 
deacon Paris was buried, at whose grave numbers of en- 
thusiastic Jansenists came to pray in 1727, believing that 
miracles were wrought there, and excited themselves into 
such religious frenzy, that as many as 800 persons were 
seen in convulsions together around the tomb.^ The con- 

* Hist, du dioc. de Paris. " Naturalisme des Convulsions., ii. 



vulsions of St. Médard soon presented one of the most 
extraordinary instances of religious delirium ever known. 

"Like the Sibyls of antiquity, when the god possessed them, 
the young women experienced violent agitations and made ex- 
traordinary motions, and incredible leaps and jumps. They were 
called the Jtunpcrs. Others who shouted or uttered strange cries 
or imitated the barking of dogs or the mewing of cats, received 
the names of the Barkers or the Mewers. 

" Pretended cases of miraculous healing then appeared ; the 
infirm, cripples, sufferers from all kinds of maladies, came to try 
the virtue of lucky Paris. In September, 1727, it is said, this 


tomb performed its first miracle on a person named Lero. It 
was followed by many others. 

" Miracles were succeeded by prophesies. The convulsion- 
ists, during the crisis, gave utterance to disconnected words, 
which were carefully collected, and formed into a volume and 
printed under the title of Recueil des prédictions inte'ressantes faites 
^" 1733- These pretended prophets were called seers. 

" In August, 1731, the convulsions, without losing the dis- 
tressing and ridiculous features they presented, took a new char- 
acter, a repulsive character hitherto unnoticed. Cod changes his 



ways, was the remark of a partisan of these extravagances ; in 
order to effect the healing of the sick, God's will was to make 
them pass through severe pains and extraordinary and very vio- 
lent convulsions. 

"Then commenced the practice of what was called in the 
language of the convulsionists, the grands secours, les secours 
meurtriers, and the cemetery of St. Médard was converted into a 
place of torture, the ' succorers ' became executioners, and the 
crises of a real or factitious malady were succeeded by fits of 

" The young women convulsionists asked for blows and bad 
usage, and demanded punishment as a benefit. They wanted to 
be beaten, tortured, put to martyrdom. It seemed as if the ex- 
citement of the brain had produced a total revolution in their 
sensory system ; the keenest pain gave them voluptuous en- 

" The ' succorers,' strong young fellows, struck them violent 
blows of the fist on their backs, chests or shoulders, as the 
patient pleased. The wretched girls asked their executioners for 
still more cruel treatment. The ' succorers ' leaped on them as 
they lay extended on the ground, and trampled and danced upon 
them till they were tired." — Dulaurc, '''Hist, de Fans sous Louis 


The government tried in vain to put an end to these 
scenes by imprisonment and other punishments. Voltaire 
did more to stop them by his satire. 

" Un grand tombeau, sans ornemens, sans art. 
Est élevé non loin de Saint-Médard ; 
L'esprit divin, pour éclairer la France, 
Sous cette tombe enferme sa puissance. 
L'aveugle y court, et d'un pas chancelant, 
Aux Quinze-Vingts retourne en tâtonnant. 
Le boiteux vient, clopinant sur la tombe, 
Crie : Hosanna ! saute, gigotte et tombe. 
Le sourde approche, écoute et n'entend rien. 
Tout aussitôt de pauvres gens de bien, 
D'aise pâmés, vrais témoins du miracle. 
Du bon Paris baisent le tabernacle." — La Pucelle, iii. 

At length, by an ordinance of January, 1732, the grave- 


yard was closed, and the day after a placard appeared on 

the gates with the epigram — 

" De par le roi, défense à Dieu 
De faire miracle en ce lieu. 

The convulsions long continued in other places in 
Paris, leading to the most horrible orgies. 

Now the churchyard of St. Médard is a charming little 
garden, and, being in a crowded quarter, its many benches 
are constantly filled. This and many church gardens of 
Paris are an example of what might have been done in 
London, every object of interest being preserved, every 
inequality of ground made the most of, and thickets of 
shade planted, instead of the ground being levelled, di- 
vided by hideous straight asphalte or gravel walks, and a 
few miserable shrubs being considered as sufficient. 

The name of the Rue Monffetard, which leads north 
from hence into the quarter of the University, commemo- 
rates the Mons Cetardus (Mont Cetard, MouiTetard). In 
this district considerable remains of a Roman cemetery 
have been found during different excavations. Here also 
was the famous oratory of St. Marcel of the XI. c. and 
crypt of the IX. c, containing the tomb of the saint upon 
which Gregory of Tours informs us that Bishop Ragne- 
mode in the VI. c. passed a whole day in praying to be 
cured of ague, fell asleep, and awoke quite well. After 
the body of St. Marcel had been moved to Notre Dame to 
preserve it from the Normans, the pilgrims to his grave 
found that filings from his tombstone, swallowed in a glass 
of water, were as efiicacious as his relics had been. Pierre 
Lombard, Bishop of Paris, who died 1160, was buried 
here, where the revolutionists, who broke upon his tomb in 
1793, saw his body lying intact, and stole the jewels from 
his pontifical robes. 


On the east of the Rue Mouffetard opens the Rue de 
VEpèe de Bois, where the famous and beloved Sœur Rosa- 
lie lived as superior of the house of the Sœurs de la Cha- 
rité, and where she died, February 6, 1856. 

"Sister Rosalie became the means of a reconciliation be- 
tween the society and the Faubourg Saint-Marceau. She dissi- 
pated the prejudices that existed against it, and justified it by 
making it better known ; if it was attacked in her presence or 
any reproach directed against it, she defended it with spirit, and 
protested energetically against the injustice. . . . Under all gov- 
ernments and down to the day of her death, Sister Rosalie was, 
in the eyes of the poor, the true representative of all the good 
done in the Faubourg Saint-Marceau." — De Meliat. 

The Rue Claude Bernard (left) and the Rue St. 
Jacques (left) lead to the grille (left) of the Val de Grâce, 
once a Benedictine abbey, founded by Anne of Austria, 
who promised a " temple au seigneur " if, after twenty-two 
years of sterile married life, she should give birth to a son. 
The birth of Louis XIV. was the supposed result. After 
the suppression of the abbey at the Revolution its build- 
ings were turned into a school of medicine and a military 
hospital. The rooms of Anne of Austria are preserved — 
the same rooms which Louis XII L and Cardinal Richelieu 
ransacked for evidence of her political intrigues in 1637. 

The first stone of the Church (not open before 12) was 
laid for his mother by Louis XIV. in 1645, when he was 
seven years old. François Mansart was its original archi- 
tect and began the work, which was continued by Jacques 
Lemercier and completed by Pierre Lemuet, for it was not 
finished till 1665. The façade is inscribed " Jesu nascenti 
Virginique Matri," and all the decorations of the interior 
have reference to the birth of Christ, in allusion to that of 
Louis XIV. The dome, which has considerable beauty, 
and is the most important in Paris after the Pantheon and 


the Invalides, is covered witli paintings by Pierre Mignard, 
representing Anne of Austria (assisted by St. Louis) offer- 
ing the church to the Trinity in her gratitude, in the pres- 
ence of all catholic Christendom, portrayed in two hundred 
figures. The coffered roof is too rich for the height of the 

The paintings in the Chapel of the St. Sacrement are 
hy Philippe 3.nd Jean Baptiste de Cha7npaigne^ the sculptures 
by Michel Auguier. The high-altar is in (far-away) imita- 
tion of that of St. Peter at Rome. Joseph and Mary are 
represented adoring the Infant, with the inscription "Qui 
creavit me requievit in tabernaculo meo." Henrietta 
Maria, Queen of England, widow of Charles I., and 
daughter of Henri IV. of France, is buried here, and 
hither the twent}'-six hearts of royal persons buried at St. 
Denis were carried with great pomp, attended by princes 
and princesses of the blood. Hither the heart of Anne of 
Austria herself was brought, soon after she had carried 
that of her little granddaughter Anne-Elizabeth de France, 
with her own hands, to the Val de Grâce. The hearts of 
three dauphins — son, grandson, and great-grandson of 
Louis XIV. — were all brought hither in the melancholy 
year of 17 12. In the court before the church is a statue 
of the surgeon Larrey (i 766-1842), who followed the 
French armies in the Peninsular war — one of the last 
works of David d'Angers. Three people were burnt alive 
in the courtyard for upsetting the Host as it was being 
carried by. 

Opposite the hospital, the Rue Val de Grâce leads to 
the Rue d''Enfer^ on the site of Vauvert, a hunting lodge 
of the early kings. 

"The Rue d'Enfer, where no devils or ghosts are seen any 
longer, but which leads to quarries much more dangerous, was 



given by St. Louis to the Chartreux, to banish the phantoms. 
Since this time no more spectres are visible, and the said houses, 
well peopled, bring in good sound cash." — Tableau de Paris. 

In the Rue Val de Grâce and Rue d'Enfer was the 
Church of Notre Dame des Carmelites^ built upon a crypt 
in which St. Denis is said to have taken refuge. A priory 
called Notre Dame des Champs existed here and be- 
longed to the Benedictines; Catherine d'Orle'ans, Duchesse 
d'Longue ville, bought it for Spanish Carmelites in 1605, 
The church was adorned with the utmost magnificence, 


the vault being painted by Philippe de Champaigne, and 
contained some of the finest pictures in Paris, and a num- 
ber of tombs, including those of Cardinal de BéruUe (15 17) 
and of Antoine Varillas (1696). The crypt was of great 
antiquity and was supposed to belong to a temple of Mer- 
cury, of whom there was said to be a statue at the top of 
the gable of the church, more probably intended for St. 
Michael.^ It was here that so many of the princesses of 

1 See Hist, de F Acad, des Inscrip. iii. 300. 


the blood royal and other eminent persons were buried in 
the time of Louis XIV., the Regency, and Louis XV. 

Here Louise François de la Baume le Blanc, Mlle de 
la Vallière, mistress of Louis XIV. and mother of the 
Comte de Vermandois and Princesse de Conti, took the 
veil, June 3, 1675, ^^ ^^^^ thirty-first year, as Sister Marie 
de la Miséricorde. 

"She performed this, like all other actions of her life, in a 
noble and thoroughly charming manner. She was endowed with 
a beauty which surprised all the world." — Mtne de Sévigné. 

"Jan. 1680. — I was yesterday at the Grandes Carmelites w'lih. 
Mademoiselle. We entered that sacred spot. I saw Mme Stuart 
beautiful and content. I saw Mile d'Epernon, who appeared to 
me horribly changed. But what an angel appeared at last ! There 
were in my eyes all the charms we used to see ; I did not find her 
either pufFy or yellow ; she is not so thin and is more contented ; 
she has the same eyes and the same looks ; austerity, poor nour- 
ishment and want of sleep, have neither wrinkled nor dulled 
them ; her strange robe took nothing from her grace or her air ; as 
for modesty, it is no greater than when she brought the Princesse 
de Conti into the world ; but it is enough for a Carmelite. M. 
de Conti loves and honors her tenderly ; she is his spiritual ad- 
viser. In truth, this robe and this retreat lend her great dignity." 
— Alme de Sévigne'. 

Mlle de la Vallière died here in 17 10. 

" Her fortune and her shame, the modesty, and the goodness 
with which she bore herself, the unalloyed good faith of her heart, 
all that she had done to prevent the king from immortalizing the 
memory of her weakness and sin, by recognizing and legitimating 
the children he had by her, all that she suffered from the king 
and Mme de Montespan, her two flights from the court, the first 
to the Benedictines of St. Cloud, where the king went personally 
to have her restored, and ready to order the convent to be burned, 
the second, to the nuns of St. Marie de Chaillot, where the king 
sent M, de Lauzun, his Captain of the Guards, with force to storm 
the convent, who brought her back ; that touching and public 
farewell to the queen whom she had always respected and striven 
to spare, and the humble pardon which she craved kneeling at 


her feet before all the court, when she left for the Carmelites, the 
penance lasting all the days of her life, far beyond the austerities 
of the rule, her exact fulfilment of the duties of the house, the 
continual recollection of her sin, her constant avoidance of all 
intrigues and interference in any matter, these are things which, 
for the most part, do not belong to our time, any more than the 
faith, the strength and the humility she exhibited at the death of 
the Count de Vermandois, her son." — St. Simon, 1710. 

Here Mme de Genlis describes "qu'elle s'était jete'e 
en religion'' — really becoming a pensionnaire at the con- 
vent. The Carmelite monastery was entirely destroyed at 
the Revolution. But the Carmelites are now re-estab- 
lished on part of their former site; though nothing re- 
mains of the ancient glories of the church except a mar- 
ble statue from the tomb of Cardinal de Bérulle, founder 
of the order in France, by Jacques Sarazin, which was pre- 
served by having been removed by Alexandre Lenoir. 

In the Rue Nicole (close to No. 19) between the 
Rue Val de Grâce and the Boulevard de Port Royal, 
stands, in a courtyard, a picturesque and neglected little 
XVII. c. chapel, said to be that in which the remains of 
Sister Louise formerly reposed. 

In the Rue d'Enfer also was the convent of the Char- 
treuse, also called Notre Dame de Vauvert, from the lands 
bestowed upon it, demolished in the Revolution. Its 
church contained the tombs of Pierre de Navarre, son of 
Charles le Mauvais (141 2) ; Jean de la Lune, nephew of 
the antipope Benedict XIII. (1414) ; Louis Stuart, seigneur 
d'Aubigné (1665 ; and Cardinal Jean de Dormans, Bishop 
of Beauvais (1374), with a bronze statue. It was for the 
little cloister of this convent that Lesueur painted the 
famous pictures of the life of St. Bruno, now in the 
Louvre. They are now the only relic of a convent which 
was founded by St. Louis. 


Till late years a building existed within the precincts of 

the Chartreuse, where the famous Calvin found a refuge in 


"The parliament ordered to its bar the rector of the Uni- 
versity, Nicolas Cop, suspected of heresy, and bade him seize at 
once a law student who was concealed in the Chartreuse. In 
place of arresting the young lawyer, Cop warned him and escaped 
with him. The pupil was Calvin." — Touc hard- La fosse, '' 

Close by was Port Royal de Paris, formerly the Hôtel 
Clagny, purchased and founded by Mme Arnauld, mother 
of the famous Mère Angélique, as a succursale of the cele- 
brated abbey of Port Royal des Champs near Chevreuse, 
of which the original name Porrois was corrupted to Port 
Royal. The nuns were dispersed and the abbey seized 
by the archbishop of Paris in the Jansenist persecution of 
1664. M. d'Andilly had six daughters nuns here at the 
time, and had six sisters, of whom Agnès and Eugénie 
were still living. The famous Mère Angélique had re- 
moved hither in her last days from Port Royal des 
Champs, and died in the convent, aged seventy, August 6, 
1 66 1. During the Revolution the buildings of Port 
Royal de Paris were used as a military prison, called in 
derisioTi Port Libre. An alabaster urn which was much 
venerated in the church of Port Royal as having borne a 
part in the feast of Can a, still exists, neglected, in a ware- 
house of one of the museums.^ 

3 k. outside the old Barrière de Fontainebleau is the 
great Hospital of Biccfre, founded by Richelieu, for old or 
insane men, on the site of a palace which the Due de 
Berry, uncle of Charles VI., built on a spot formerly 

* Two famous works of Philippe de Champaigne in the Louvre come from 
hence — the Last Supper, and the Miraculous Cure of a Nun, the painter's 


occupied by a castle which was erected in 1290 by John, 
Bishop of Winchester — of which name Bicetre is regarded 
as a corruption. 

A little south-west of Val de Grâce is the Observatoire 
(supposed to stand on the site of the Château de Vauvert, 
which St. Louis gave to the Carthusians), built after the 
ideas of Colbert, and from the designs of the physician 
Perrault (1667-72). 

It was in the Allée de V Observatoire^ behind the Luxem- 
bourg garden, that Marshal Ney, Prince de la Moscowa, 
called "le brave des braves" by Napoleon L, was exe- 
cuted for high treason, November 21, 18 15, because, when 
in the service of Louis XVIII. (who had made him a peer 
of France), he deserted, with his army, to Napoleon after 
his escape from Elba. A statue by Rude marks the spot 
of execution. 

"At nine in the morning, Ney, dressed in a blue frock-coat, 
entered a common hired coach. The Grand Referendary accom- 
panied him to the fiacre. The Curé of St. Sulpice was at his side, 
two officers of gendarmerie sat on the front seat of the vehicle. 
The sad procession crossed the garden of the Luxembourg by the 
side of the Observatory. On passing the railing, it turned to the 
left and halted fifty paces farther on beneath the wall of the 
avenue. The carriage having stopped, the marshal descended 
briskly, and, standing at eight paces from the wall, said to the 
officer, 'Is it here, sir?' "Yes, M. le Maréchal.' Then Ney 
took off his hat with his left hand, placed the right on his heart, 
and, addressing the soldiers, cried, ' Comrades, take aim at me !' 
The officer gave the signal to fire, and Ney fell without making a 
movement." — Hist, de la Restauration, par tin homme d'état. 

"What is especially striking in this horrible execution was its 
gloom and the absence of solemnity. There was no crowd at the 
last moment ; it was misled, and was at the plain of Grenelle. 
Michel Ney, Marshal of France, Prince of the Moscowa, Duke of 
Elchingen, was shot in a dumb, deserted spot at the foot of a wall 
by soldiers in concealment, by order of a government afraid of its 
own violence," — Loitis Blanc, ''Hist, de dix ans." 


Just outside the Barrière d'Enfer, close to the Observa- 
toire (in the garden of the west octroi building) is the 
principal entrance to the Catacombs^ formed out of the 
ancient stone-quarries which underlie — about 200 acres — 
a great part of Paris between this and the Jardin des 
Plantes. The sinking of these galleries in the latter part 
of the last century made it necessary to consolidate them, 
and gave rise to the idea of using them as cemeteries, 
when it became necessary to transport the bones in the 
Cimetière des Innocents to some other site. The cata- 
combs were solemnly consecrated, April 7, 1786, since 
which they have become a vast ossuary. Ninety steps 
lead down from the level of the Barrière d'Enfer. Each 
set of bones has an inscription saying whence and when 
it was brought here, with poetical inscriptions from differ- 
ent French authors. The tomb of the poet Gilbert bears, 
from his last elegy, the words — 

"Au banquet de la vie, infortuné convive, 
J'apparus un jour et je meurs ; 
Je meurs ! et sur la tombe où lentement j'arrive, 
Nul ne viendra verser des pleurs." 

Several rooms, like chapels, are inscribed "Tombeau de 
la Révolution," "Tombeau des Victimes," &c., and contain 
the victims of the massacre of September 2 and 3, 1789. 
At one point is a fountain called ''' Fontaine de la Samari- 
taine." Amongst the coffins brought here was the leaden 
one of Mme de Pompadour, buried in the vaults of the 
Capucines, April, 1764 ; but it was destroyed in the Revolu- 
tion. Any visitor left behind in the catacombs would soon 
be devoured alive by rats, and accidents which have occur- 
red have led to the prohibition of all visits, except those 
which take place en masse three or four times a year, and 
for which an order has to be obtained at the Hôtel de Ville. 



"All that has lived in Paris sleeps here, undistinguishable 
crowds and great men, canonized saints, and the victims of the 
gibbets of Montfaucon and the Grève. In this confused equality 
of death the Merovingian kings keep eternal silence by the side 
of those massacred in September, 1792. Valois, Bourbons, 
Orleans and Stuarts here decay together, lost among the ma- 
lingerers of the Cour des Miracles and two thousand Protestants 
whom the Saint Bartholomew sent to death." — Nadar. 

On the Boulevard Montparnasse, which leads from the 
Observatoire to the Invalides, is La Graiide Chaumière^ 
one of the oldest of the Parisian dancing gardens, where 
strangers may look derrière les coulisses de la société. A little 
south of this, outside the Barrière, on the Boulevard de 
Montrouge, is the Cimetière Montparnasse {du Sud), opened 
1824, on the suppression of the Cimetière Vaugirard. 
Amongst the tombs are those of the famous Jesuit preacher 
Père de Ravignan, the Père Gratry, Edgar Quinet, and the 
artist Henri Regnault, killed in the siege of Paris, January 
19, 187 1, by one of the last shots fired under the walls, 
and whose funeral was one of the most touching cere- 
monies of that time.^ Near the entrance (right), behind 
the family tomb of Henri Martin, the historian, is a space 
railed in as the burial-place of the Sisters of Charity, 
amongst whom lies Sœur Rosalie (^Rendu), the '-mother 
of the poor," who, equally courageous in the dangers of 
revolutions and of cholera, as wise and clear-sighted as 
she was simple and self-sacrificing, has probably in- 
fluenced a greater number of persons for good than any 
woman of the present century. 

" The day of the funeral was one of those days which are 
never forgotten and which, in the life of a people, redeem many 
evil days. At eleven o'clock, the procession started from the 
house of mourning ; the clergy of St. Médard, with a large num- 
ber of other ecclesiastics, marched at the head, preceded by the 

^ Seo Arthur Duparc, Correspondance de Henri Regnault. 


cross ; the girls of the school and sisterhood recalled the works 
of their mother. The Sisters of Charity surrounded the coffin 
placed in the hearse of the poor, as Sister Rosalie had requested, 
in order that St. Vincent de Paul might recognize her as one of 
his daughters to the very last ; the city authorities and the de- 
partment of charities of the twelfth arrondissement followed ; 
then, behind them, thronged one of those multitudes which can- 
not be counted or described, of every rank, of every age, of 
every profession ; a whole people, great and small, rich and 
poor, scholars and workmen, with all that was most illustrious 
and most obscure, all mingled and confounded together, express- 
ing in various ways and different words, the same regrets and 
the same admiration ; all having to thank for a service or to 
praise for a noble action, her to whom they came to render the 
last duties. It might be said that the sainted deceased had ap- 
pointed her coffin as a meeting place for all those whom she had 
visited, succored or counselled during the long years of her 
life, and that she still exercised over them the ascendancy of her 
presence and her speech ; for these men, coming from the most 
opposite extremities of society, separated by education, ideas 
and positions, who perhaps had never met before except in con- 
test, were united on that day in one and the same thought and 
one and the same meditation."— Z>^ Mchtn, " Vie de la Sœur 
Rosalie. '' 

Returning to the Rue St. Jacques, which runs north 
from the Observatoire, we find ourselves in the region of 
convents. In the Rue des Capucins was the Convent of 
the Capucins du Faubourg St. Jacques, afterwards turned 
into the Hôpital des Vènèrie7is, the cruelties of which have 
left a lasting impression at Paris. 

"They slept till eight in the same bed, or rather they lay 
stretched out on the ground from eight in the evening till one 
o'clock in the morning, and then made those who occupied the 
bed get up, and took their places. Twenty or twenty-five beds 
usually served two hundred patients, two-thirds of whom died. 
Nor was this all ; according to the orders of the management, 
the patient had to be chastised and whipped before and after 
treatment. This horrible state of affairs lasted till the eighteenth 
century, and a resolution of 1700 renewed in express terms the 
order to flog the patients."— Z)«/azm', " Hist, de Paris.'* 


Side-streets bear the names of the Feuillantines, Ursu- 
lines. A house, close to the Val de Grâce, now used as a 
school (Institution Notre Dame, No. 269), was the con- 
vent of the Bénédictins Anglais, founded by Marie de Lor- 
raine, Abbess of Chelles. It was here that the body of 
James IL, who died at St. Germain, remained for many 
years under a hearse, awaiting sepulture, in order that his 
bones, like those of Joseph, might accompany his children 
when they returned to the English throne, and repose at 
Westminster in accordance with his will. It was only when 
the hopes of the Stuarts had completely withered that the 
king was buried under a plain stone inscribed, "Ci-gist 
Jacques IL, Roi de la Grande Bretagne." By his side, 
after her death (in 17 12), rested his daughter Louisa, born 
at St. Germain. Queen Marie Béatrice was buried at 
Chaillot. The bodies were lost at the "Revolution. 

The old winding Rue St. Jacques is here very pictur- 
esque, with a great variety of roofs and dormer windows. 
This, one of the oldest of Parisian streets, is full of move- 
ment and noise, but the side streets in all this quarter are 
quietude itself 

" Silence reigns in the close-packed streets between the 
dome of the Val de Grâce and the dome of the Pantheon, two 
edifices which change the condition of the atmosphere by impart- 
ing to it yellow tones, and darkening everything by the heavy 
tints thrown by their cupolas. There, the pavements are dry, the 
gutters have neither mud nor water, and the grass grows along 
the walls. The most careless man becomes as melancholy as all 
the passers-by ; the noise of a carriage is an event, the houses 
are gloomy, the walls are like those of a prison. A Parisian 
who loses his way there would see only boarding-houses or 
public Institutions, want or ennui, youth compelled to work and 
old age that dies. No quarter of Paris is more horrible, nor, we 
may say, less known." — Balzac, ''Le Phe Goriot.'' 

On the left of the Rue St. Jacques we pass the Institu- 

s T. JA CQ UES D U HA UT PAS 33 1 

tion des Sourds-Muets^ occupying the buildings of the an- 
cient Seminary of St. Magloire. A conspicuous feature 
rising above the courtyard is a magnificent elm, of very 
great height, supposed to have been planted by Henri IV., 
and to be the oldest tree in Paris. Massillon is said often 
to have sat reading at its foot. 

Close by, is the Church of St. Jacques du Haut Pas, 
built 1630-84, partly at the expense of the Duchesse de 
Longueville. During the Revolution it became Le Temple 
de la Bienfaisatice. The portal was designed by Daniel 
Gittard. The pulpit comes from the old church of St. 
Benoît. The Duchesse de Longueville (the faithful friend 
of the Port-Royalists), who died April 15, 1679, is buried 
in the second chapel (right), but without a tomb. 

"The Duchesse of Longueville died in great devotion, but 
her early life had been gay and gallant. Her husband was Gov- 
ernor of Normandy ; she had to accompany him to his post, and 
was much chagrined at having to quit the court, where she left 
persons, one in particular, whom she loved better than her hus- 
band, so that time was heavy for her. Many friends said to her, 
' How happens it, madame, that you let yourself suffer from 
ennui, as you do? Why do you not play?' *I do not like 
gambling,' she replied. ' If you would like to hunt, I would find 
the dogs,' said another. 'No, I do not like hunting.' 'Would 
you like some work ? * ' No, I never work.' ' Would you like a 
walk ? There are pretty walks here.' ' No, I do not like to 
walk.' * What do you like then ? ' She replied, 'What do you 
want me to say? I do not like innocent pleasures.'" — Corre- 
spondance de Madame. 

The gravestone still remains of M. de St. Cyran, who 
died Oct. 11, 1672, aged 62, the founder of the celebrity 
of Port Royal, the master of the Arnaulds, Lemaitres, 
Nicole, and Pascal. 

On the left is the Place St. Jacques, where Fieschi, 
Pepin and Morey, conspirators against Louis Philippe, 
were executed in 1835. 


The Rue St. Jacques has always been, as it is still, 
celebrated for its booksellers' shops and stalls. 

" The Via Jacobaea is very full of bookc-sellers that have 
faire shoppes most plentifully furnished with bookes." — Coryafs 
" Crudities,'' l6li. 

Now we reach the handsome open space in front of the 
Pantheon, and all around us are buildings famous in the 
Pays Latin^ which we must leave for another chapter. 



THE University has given its name to the district in 
which most of its teachers and scholars resided, a 
district now outwardly blended with the surrounding 
streets and houses, but which was once defined as includ- 
ing all the space within the wall of Philippe Auguste on 
the left bank of the Seine. This wall began at the Pont 
de la Tournelle on the east, skirted the Rues des Fossés 
St. Bernard and des Fossés St. Victor, embraced the 
Abbey of St. Geneviève (then the Jacobin Convent), 
descended from the Porte St. Michel to the Porte de 
Buci,i and ended, on the west, at the Tour de Nesle. 
The name of Pays Latin was first given to the district by 

"The University of Paris had its inviolable privileges, its 
own endowments, government, laws, magistrates, jurisdiction ; it 
was a state within a state, a city within a city, a church within a 
church. It refused to admit within its walls the sergeants of the 
Mayor of Paris, the apparitors of the Bishop of Paris ; it opened 
its gates sullenly and reluctantly to the king's officers." — Milinan, 
"Hist, of La t m Christ." Bk. xi. 

The Boulevard St. Michel and the Boulevard St. 
Germain, the Rue des Ecoles and the Rue Monge have 

1 From Simon de Buci, the first to bear the title of Premier Président, killed 
in 1369. 


recently put old Old Paris to flight, by cutting into this 
thickly-packed quarter, with wide streets and featureless 
houses, destroying endless historic landmarks in their 
course. The greater part of its interesting buildings, 
however, had already disappeared, either during the Revo- 
lution, or in the great clearance made on the building of 
the Pantheon. Yet a walk through this quarter of the 
" Civitas philosophorum " will still recall many historic 
associations from the very names which are met on the 
way, whilst here and there a precious relic of the past will 
still be found in existence. 

A minute examination of the Quartier Latin will be in- 
teresting to antiquarians, but cursory visitors will only care 
to see St. Etienne du Mont, the Pantheon, possibly the 
Sorbonne, and certainly the Hôtel de Cluny. In order to 
visit all the historic points, we must not only frequently 
retrace our steps, but penetrate many of the narrowest 
streets and alleys in this part of the town. 

' ' Do not conceive a hatred for a whole quarter of Paris, and cut 
off from your communion the half of the town. These young men 
are less graceful, less elegant beyond question, than their neighbors 
on the other side of the water, and the pit of the Odéon is not the 
place where taste and fashion will come to seek their favorites ; 
but it is from these young men that all the celebrities of the 
epoch are recruited ; the bench, the bar, the sciences and the arts 
belong to them ; their days, sometimes their nights, are devoted 
to labor, and it is thus that publicists, poets, and orators prepare 
themselves in silence. Are they to be condemned because they 
prefer substance to form, toil to idleness, science to pleasure? 
Let us condemn no one, and only repeat that there are two classes 
of youth in France : one enjoys life, the other employs it — one 
waits for a future, the other discounts it. The first is the wiser 
beyond doubt, but it makes a very awkward bow ! " — Balzac, 
''Esquisses Parisiennes." 

Crossing the island by the Rue de la Cité, we reach 


the Petit Font, formerly, like many of the bridges, covered 
with old houses, which were only abolished here by Act of 
Parliament in 17 18. In one of these houses on this bridge 
lived Perinet le Clerc, who opened the gates of Paris to the 
Due de Bourgogne in 1418. On the south bank of the 
Seine the bridge was defended by the Petit Châtelet (Cas- 
tellatum), which guarded the approach to La Cité, on the 
site now called Place du Petit Pont. It was a massive 
quadrangular castle, having round towers on the side 
towards the river, and a gothic gate in the centre, with a 
vaulted passage for carriages running under the middle of 
the building. The Provosts of Paris had their official 
residence here, but the rest of the castle was used as a 
prison, in which, after the capture of Paris by the Bur- 
gundians (1418), all the prisoners were massacred, in- 
cluding the Bishops of Bayeux, Evreux, Coutances, and 
Senlis. Here also was the President Brisson murdered 
Nov. 16, 1591. By old custom, the clergy of Notre Dame 
walked hither annually in procession on the Dimanche des 
Rameaux and delivered one prisoner. The interesting old 
buildings of the Petit Châtelet were pulled down in 1782. 
It was on its site, at the entrance of the Rue St. Jacques, 
that the great barricade of 1848 was raised. 

The first turn (left) from the Rue du Petit Pont is the 
Rue delà Bûcherie, on the left of which, in a courtyard, is 
the deserted Church of St. Julien le Pauvre ^ (which can 
only be seen with an order from the Directeur of the 
Hôtel Dieu). It long served as a chapel to the Hôtel 
Dieu, and once belonged to a priory attached to the 

^ The St. Julien to whom this church is dedicated was a poor man who, in 
penitence, devoted himself, with his wife, to ferrying passengers, day and 
night, over an otherwise impassable river. One day a poor leper thus received 
their charity, and, on reaching the shore, revealed himself as Christ himself, 
and promised them a heavenly reward. The story is told in a relief over a door 
in No. 42 Rue Galande. 


abbey of Longchamps, in which, in tlie XIII. c. and XIV. 
c, the general assemblies of the University were held. 
The church was built towards the end of the XII. c. on 
the site of a basilica of the III. c. Its portal and tower 
were demolished in 1675. ^"^^^ interior consists of a nave 
of four bays, with side aisles, ending in three apses. 

"The two bays of the choir, the central apse and the two 
smaller lateral apses, have lost nothing of their original arrange- 
ment. They preserve their elegant columns — some of them mon- 
ostyle, some of them clustered, their foliated capitals, their vaults 
supported on round torus-like mouldings, and their sculptured 
keystones. Columns and mouldings decorate the windows. 
The aspect of this part of the church is of a noble character." — 
Dc Guilhcrmy. 

St. Julien contains a Calvary of XIV. c. let into the 
altar, a bas-relief of the same date representing one 
Oudard and his wife, founders of the chapel of the Hôtel 
Dieu, destroyed in the XVI. c; the XV. c. sepulchral 
bas-relief of Henri Rousseau, advocate of Parliament ; a 
XVI. c. statue of St. Landry; and a pretended statue of 
Charlemagne, a coarse work in terracotta. Gregory of 
Tours tells us that when he came to Paris in the VI. c. he 
inhabited the hospice for pilgrims at St. Julien le Pauvre. 

In the Rue dc la Biuherie were early schools of medi- 
cine. Over one of its houses the arms of the Faculty may 
still be seen with the motto, "Urbi et orbi salus." 

The Rue du Fouarre (down which there is a beautiful 

glimpse of Notre Dame) runs (left) from the Rue de la 

Bûcherie to the Rue Galande. This street contained the 

famous school, held in the straw market, where both his. 

earliest biographers, Boccaccio and Villani, affirm that 

Dante attended the lectures of Siger de Brabant. 

" Essa è la luce eterna di Sigieri, 

Che leggendo nel vico degli Strami 
Sillogizzô invidiosi veri.' — Par, x. 136. 


The pupils bought bundles of straw and sat on them dur- 
ing the lectures.^ 

The narrow Rue des Anglais leads (right) from the 
Rue Galande to (right) the Rue Domat^ where (at No. 20) 
some buildings remain from the ancient' Breton College de 
Cor?îoiiailles,- founded in the XIV. c. Near this, at the 
angle of the Rue St. Jacques, was the Chapelle St. Yves, 
destroyed in 1793. 

The Place Maubert, an open space at the end of the 
Rue Galande, below the modern Boulevard St. Germain, 
probably received its name from Mgr. Aubert, abbot of 
St. Germain des Prés, to which this site belonged, and who 
must first have authorized its being built ujDon. 

" It is the centre of all the bourgeoise gallantry of the quarter, 
and is well frequented because there are pretty unrestricted oppor- 
tunities for conversation. Here at noon arrives a train of young 
girls whose mothers, ten years ago, used to wear the hood, the 
true mark and character of the bourgeoisie, but which they have, 
little by little, so sniffed away that it is quite vanished. No need 
to say that dandies and gallants came there, for that is a natural 
consequence. Each girl had her following more or less numer- 
ous, according as her beauty or her good fortune attracted them." 
— Le Roman Bourgeois. 

In the Rue du Haut Pavé, which connects the Place 
Maubert with the river, stood the little Collège de Chanac, 
founded by Guillaume de Chanac, Bishop of Paris, who 
died 1348. It was connected with the Collège St. Michel, 
in the next street on the left of the Boulevard St. Germain, 
the Rue de Bievre, where, at No. 12, one may still see a 
canopied statue of St. Michael trampling upon the devil, 
in strong relief A very poor student here in the XVIII. c. 

' At that time the people sat upon straw in the churches, in which there 
were then no chairs. 

^ The names of colleges are only given iu italics when something of their 
buildings remains. 



was the man who, without faith or morals, rose by his 
intrigues under the Régent d'Orléans, to be Archbishop 
of Cambrai, Cardinal, and Prime Minister — the Abbé 

Returning to the Boulevard St. Germain, we find on 
the right the apse of the Church of St. Nicolas du Char- 
donnetj founded 1230, but in its present state a very hand- 


some specimen of the end of the XVII. c, when it was 
rebuilt, except the tower, by Lebrun the artist, who is 
buried in the fourth chapel on the left of the choir, with a 
bust by Coysevox. Close by is the striking and terrible 
monument of his mother, by Callignon and Tuby, which 
recalls the tomb of Mrs. Nightingale at Westminster. 


Mme Lebrun is reiDresented rising from the grave at the 
voice of the archangel, with an expression of awe, yet hope 
most powerfully given. 

In the second chapel on the right of the choir, is the 
tomb by Girardon with a bust (and portrait over it) of 
Jerome Bignon (1656), saved during the Revolution by 
being transferred to the Musée des Monuments Français. 
The poet Santeuil, who died at Dijon in 1697, now lies in 
this church, after having four times changed his resting- 
place; his death was due to a practical joke of Louis III., 
Due de Bourbon-Conde'. 

"One evening, when the duke was supping with him, he 
amused himself by making Santeuil drink champagne, and be- 
coming more merry, he diverted himself by emptying his snuff- 
box, full of Spanish snuff, into a great glass of wine, and making 
Santeuil drink it, to see what would happen. He was not long 
in being enlightened. Vomiting and fever seized him, and in 
forty-eight hours the poor man died in all the pains of the 
damned, but with sentiments of true repentance. He received 
the sacraments, and caused as much edification as regret to a 
company little inclined to edification, but that detested such a 
cruel trick." — St. Sivioii. 

In the almost destroyed Rue des Ber?iardms, opposite 
the west end of the church, was the Hôtel de Torpane, 
built in*i566 by Jacques Lefevre, abbot of the Chaise 
Dieu, and councillor of Charles IX. From him it passed 
to the family of Bignon, illustrious in politics and literature, 
whose last representative, a priest, sold it to M. de Torpane, 
Chancellor of Dombes. In his family it remained till the 
Revolution. It was pulled down in 1830, and its sculpt- 
ures are now in the second court of the Beaux Arts. 

A striking Statue of Voltaire by Houdon, 1781, was 
erected in the square near the entrance of the Rue 
Monge in 1872. 

On the left, in the Rue de Poissy\ a range of gothic 


arches, shaded by trees and built into the walls of the 
Caserne des Pompiers, is a remnant of the Couvent des Ber- 
nardins or du Chardonnet, founded in 1245, ^7 Abbot 
Etienne de Lexington. Its monks rapidly became cele- 
brated for their lectures on theology, and Pope Benedict 
XII., who had attended them in his youth, began to build 
a new church for the convent in 1338. This church was 
pulled down at the Revolution, and a bust from one of its 
tombs (that of Guillaume de Vair, bishop of Lisieux, 
Keeper of the Seals under Louis XIII.) is now at Ver- 
sailles. The Refectory became a warehouse, and the 
Dormitory, for some time, held the archives of the Pre- 
fecture de la Seine. 

A little further on the east, the Rue des Ecoles is 
crossed by the Rue du Cardinal Lemoine, which is so 
modernized as to have nothing but its name to recall the 
College du Cardinal Lemoine^ once one of the greatest col- 
leges of the University. It was founded in the middle of 
the XIII. c. by Cardinal Jean Lemoine and his brother 
André, bishop of Noyon. The brothers were buried, side 
by side, in the chapel, where a very curious service, called 
la solennité du cardi?ial, was always celebrated on January 
13, one of the scholars being dressed up as a cardinal, to 
represent Lemoine. The college was sold at the Revolu- 
tion. A massive building belonging to it long existed at 
the end of ground belonging to No. 22 Rue du Cardinal 
Lemoine, and has only recently perished. This street now 
crosses the site of the Collège des Bons Enfants, which 
stood at the top of the Rue des Fossés St. Bernard. It 
was founded before 1248, at which date a bull of Innocent 
IV. authorized its students to build a chapel. Its Prin- 
cipal from 1624 to 1634 was M. Vincent, afterwards known 
as St. Vincent de Paul, who founded here his Congre- 


gatioM des Prêtres de la Mission. After St. Vincent had 
moved to St. Lazare, the Se'minaire de St. Firmin was 
established here by the Archbishop of Paris. At the 
Revolution this was the terrible prison in which ninety-two 
priests were confined. In the massacres of September i 
and 2, 1792, fifteen were saved, but seventy-seven were 
thrown from the windows^ stabbed, or had their throats 
cut. The buildings were sold, and have now entirely 
perished. It was in the Rue des Bons Enfants that the 
Constable Bernard d'Armagnac had his hotel, whence, when 
Perinet le Clerc introduced the Burgundians into Paris, 
May 29, 14 1 8, he fled for refuge to the house of a neigh- 
boring mason, who betrayed him. 

The Collège des Bons Enfants joined the walls of 
Philippe Auguste, the moat of which is still commemo- 
rated in the name of the Rue des Fossés St. Ber?iard, which 
extended north as far as the Porte St. Bernard near the 
Seine, transformed into a triumphal arch in honor of Louis 
XIV., and since destroyed. Its continuation, the Rue des 
Fossés St. Victor^'' in great measure swallowed up by the 
upper part of the Rue du Cardinal Lemoine, united with 
it in marking the direction of the walls to the south, and 
commemorated the famous abbey of St. Victor, founded c. 
1 1 13, on the site of a hermit's cell, by Guillaume de 
Champeaux, who was driven to take monastic vows by his 
disgust at his lectures being abandoned for those of his 
rival — the famous Abelard. Members of this community 
were the famous writers and theologians, Hugues and 
Richard de St. Victor, and Adam de St. Victor, celebrated 
for his hymns. The epitaph of the latter, engraved on 
copper, and preserved in the Bibliothèque Mazarine, is 
probably the only relic remaining of the abbey, which was 

* Part of the Rue des Fossés St. Victor remains below the Rue Monge. 


totally destroyed in the Revolution. It was at one time 
the favorite burial-place of the bishops of Paris/ and was 
also the place where the provost and other officers of the 
city met a newly-appointed bishop on his entry into the 
capital, which he always made upon a white horse. 

In the Rue d^ Arras, which opens from the Rue Monge 
opposite the site of the Collège du Cardinal Lemoine, was 
the little XIII. c. Collège d'Arras, destroyed at the Revo- 

Returning to the Place Maubert, we find on the south 
side of the Boulevard St. Germain the small fragment left 
of the Rue St. Jeafi de Beauvais, in which the learned 
Charron fell down dead,^ and which takes its name from a 
college founded by Cardinal Jean de Dormans, Bishop of 
Beau vais and Chancellor of France, 1365-72. Here St. 
François Xavier was a teacher, and here the famous Ra- 
mus was killed during the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
whilst he was working in his study. 

After the expulsion of the Jesuits, the masters and 
scholars of the Collège de Beauvais were transported to 
the buildings of the Collège Louis le Grand, from which 
the Jesuits had been driven out, and their own buildings 
were given to the occupants of the Collège de Lisieux, 
which was about to be destroyed to make the Place St. 
Geneviève. In the Revolution the former Collège de 

^ The only monuments saved from this church are the marble statue of 
Guillaume de Chanac, twenty-seventh Bishop of Paris and Patriarch of Alex- 
andria (1348), which lay upon his tomb in the chapel of the Infirmary, and is 
now in the Musée at Versailles ; the epitaph of Adam de St. Victor (1192), now 
in the Bibliothèque Mazarine : and the epitaph of Santeuil removed (with his 
remains) to St. Nicolas du Chardonnet. 

2 " Le 16 de ce mois, sur les onze heurs du matin, tomba mort en la rue St. 
Jean de Beauvais, M. Charron, homme d'église et docte, comme ses écrites en font 
foi. A l'instant qu'il se sentit mal, il se jeta à genoux, dans la rue, pour prier 
Dieu ; mais il ne fut sitôt genouillé, que, se tournant de l'autre côté, il rendit 
Vâme à son cxésLiQur."— Journal de fEstoille, November, 1603. 


Beauvais became the meeting-place of a section of tlie 
Panthe'on français. At the Restoration it was used as a 
miUtary hospital and barrack. In 186 1 it was purchased 
by the Dominicans. They have restored its graceful XIV. 
c. chapel, the foundation stone of which was laid by Charles 
V. On a marble altar-tomb before the high-altar lay the 
bronze effigies of Milus de Dormans, Bishop of Beauvais, 
nephew of the founder (1387), and of Guillaume de Dor- 
mans, Archbishop of Sens (1405). At the sides were six 
life-size statues representing three males and three females 
of the house of Dormans, with gothic inscriptions in Latin 
and French. Of these the statues of Jean de Dormans, 
Chancellor of Beauvais (1380), and his brother Renaud, 
Archdeacon of Chalons sur Marne (1380), are now in the 
Musée at Versailles. One of the ladies has had a more 
remarkable fate, in being used to represent Héloïse in the 
tomb which was composed of ancient fragments for the 
Père Lachaise. 

The Collège de Beauvais joined the Collège de Presles, 
established in 13 13 by Raoul de Presles for the benefit 
of natives of Soissons. Higher up the street stood the 
ancient Ecole de Droit, where the Duchesse de Bourbon, 
mother of the unfortunate Due d^Enghien, and aunt of king 
Louis Philippe, died, January 10, 1822. 

"The Duchess of Bourbon, struck with apoplexy in the 
church St. Geneviève, was transported to the Law School, where 
she died at the house of M, Grapp, one of the professors." — Dtis- 

sieitx, " Généalogie des Bourbons.'' 

The Ecole de Droit stood opposite the Commanderie 
de St. Jean de Latran, where the Frères Hospitaliers de 
St. Jean de Jérusalem had their hotel. In their church 
was placed, under Louis XIV., the cenotaph of Jacques 
de Souvré, Grand Prieur de France, by François Auguier, 


which is now in the Louvre. The church, partly destroyed 
at the Revolution, became a communal school ; its tower — 
"la tour des pèlerins" — was used as an anatomical the- 
atre by the famous Bichat. Though strikingly simple and 
beautiful from an architectural point of view, and though 
an undoubted work of the time of Philippe Auguste, the 
town of Paris, to its eternal disgrace, permitted the destruc- 
tion of the Tour des Pèlerins in 1854. 

Crossing by the Rue des Ecoles into the Rue des 
Carmes, the parallel street on the east, we find, in the court 
of No. 15, the old chapel, like an Oxford college chapel, 
belonging to the Irish Seminary in the Rue des Postes, 
which was attached to the Collège des Lombards, founded 
in 1333 by André Ghini, Bishop of Arras, for the benefit 
of Italian merchants. Under Louis XII. its Principal was 
the famous Greek scholar, Jerome Alexandre, afterwards 
cardinal. In the reign of François I. its printing office was 
celebrated. Under Louis XIV., as few Italians came to 
Paris, the college declined, and was ceded to Irish priests 
employed in education. Most of the buildings were de- 
stroyed at the Revolution. 

At the corner of the Rue St. Hilai7'e stood the church 
of St. Hilaire, pulled down in the last century, and oppo- 
site it was the Collège de la Merci, founded in the XVI. 
c. for brothers of Notre Dame de la Rédemption des 

The Marché des Carmes marks the site of the Carmel- 
ite convent, which was founded by Jeanne d'Evreux, wife 
of Philippe le Bel, for monks brought from Mount Carmel 
by St. Louis. The convent was moved hither from the 
Marais, where the Carmelites are commemorated in the 
Rue des Barrés. The cloister had a beautiful gothic open- 
air pulpit. 


Hence we may ascend the Rue de la Montagne. On 
the left was the XIII. c. College de la Marche. 

Further on the left the vast buildings of the Ecole 
Polytechnique swallow up the sites of the ancient colleges 
of Navarre, Boncourt, and Tournai, the first of which was 
founded by Jeanne de Navarre, wife of Philippe le Bel, the 
second (in 1355), by eight scholars of the diocese of Thé- 
rouanne. Cardinal Fleury was grand-master of the Col- 
lege de Navarre, which numbers the great Bossuet amongst 
its pupils, also Andre' and Marie Joseph Chenier. On the 
right, the Rue Laplace, formerly Rue des Amandiers, con- 
tained the entrance to the College des Grasshis, one of the 
ten great colleges before the Revolution. It was founded 
at the end of the XVI. c. by Pierre Grassin d'Ablon, 
Councillor of Parliament, for poor men of Sens. Its 
buildings were sold at the Revolution, but part of the apse 
of the chapel, with gothic windows, is said still to remain 
at the back of the houses. 

In the upper part of the Rue des Amandiers, close to 
St. Etienne du Mont, stood the Collège de Huban, founded 
(in 1339) by Jean de Huban, Président des Enquêtes, for 
six scholars from Huban in Nivernais. This college was 
sometimes called Ave Maria, from the inscription under 
an image over the gate. Its chapel contained monuments 
to the founder and Egasse du Boulay, historian of the Uni- 
versity of Paris. The buildings were sold at the Revolu- 

The Church of St. Etie7ine du Mont — " fine et délicate 
merveille de l'art français" — was built (15 17-1626) on the 
site of an earlier edifice of the XIII. c, which had been 
intended as a succursale to the adjoining church of St. 
Geneviève, that it might afford accommodation for its pil- 
grims. The existing church is a curious specimen of 


renaissance, with a high gabled front of three stories, of 
which Queen Marguerite, first wife of Henri IV., laid the 
first stone, and a tall gothic tower flanked by a round 
tourelle. The building has been well described as "a 
gothic church disguised in the trappings of classical de- 

" The great western doorway, erected in the early years of the 
XIV. c, is distinguished by the originality of its form, and the 
beautiful execution of its sculpture. In the first order, four en- 
gaged composite columns sustain a triangular pediment on which 
is sculptured the Last Judgment (by Debay), and enclose two 
side niches containing the statues of St. Stephen and Sainte 
Geneviève (by Hébert). The shafts arc fluted and cut at intervals 
by scrolls engraved with roses and palms. The workmanship of 
the capitals is excellent. The wreaths which accompany the col- 
umns, the foliage of the friezes and panels, the corbels and 
tracery of the pediment, are remarkable for breadth of style and 
finish of workmanship. The tympan of the principal door repre- 
sents ' The Stoning of St. Stephen ' (by Thomas). In the upper 
part of the façade, a rose-window of twelve compartments is 
placed under a broken semicircular pediment. On each side of 
the rose is a niche containing on the right, the statue of the Vir- 
gin, on the left, that of Gabriel. A second elliptical rose is 
pierced in the gable." — Be Gtdlhermy. 

The aisles are the whole height of the church. The 
triforium gallery merely runs from pillar to pillar along 
the sides of nave and choir, and is interrupted at the tran- 
septs. In the choir it is reached by twisted staircases 
wreathed round the pillars on either side of the eccentric 
rood-loft — the only one left in Paris— sculptured by Biard 

"The flattened arch thrown boldly across the choir, the 
pierced turrets which contain the stairs and rise in spirals far 
above the platform, the suspended balustrade which serves as a 
support, are so many difficulties that the architect has proposed 
to himself, to better display all the resources of his skill. Angels, 
palms, wreaths, knots, masks, decorate the archivolts and friezes. 



The rood-loft is finished by two doors closing the aisles of the 
choir. The leaves are of open work, and above the entablature, 
in the middle of broken triangular pediments, two worshippers, 
gracefully executed, are seated." — De Guilhermy. 

" Religious art died in St. Etienne du Mont." — Martin, 
" Hist de France^ 

The pulpit, which Samson carries on his shoulders, 


was designed by Laurent de la Hire. The windov/s of the 
nave are round-headed, those of the choir pointed. Some 
of the windows have splendid examples of XV. c. and 
XVII. c. glass, and Cousin, Pinaigrier, and other great 
masters have worked on them: the earliest are in the 
apse. Amongst the stories told in the windows the most 


remarkable is the legend of the Jew Jonathas, who on 
April 12, 1290, whilst living in the Rue des Jardins, com- 
pelled a woman who owed him money to give up to him a 
consecrated wafer received at the communion. He pierced 
the wafer in various ways, and blood gushed forth : then 
he threw it into a cauldron full of boiling water, which 
immediately became the color of blood. The story got 
wind. A woman swallowed the wafer. The Jew was 
seized, condemned, and burnt alive. His house was 
pulled down, and on its site a chapel, called des Miracles, 
was built. The street was known henceforth as Rtie où 
Dieu fut bouilli. 

In the third chapel (right) are inscriptions recording 
the celebrated persons buried in this or other churches of 
the parish, including St. Geneviève, St. Clotilde, Clovis 
and his daughter Clotilde, Pascal, Tournefort, RoUin, and 
Lemaistre de Sacy, the anatomist. 

In the fifth chapel is a Saint Sépulcre, of eight life-size 
terra-cotta figures of the XVI. c.,* from the destroyed 
church of St. Benoît — an excellent work, full of unex- 
aggerated feeling. An old picture, in the same chapel, 
represents Louis XIII. offering his crown to the crucified 
Saviour. Against the wall of the south aisle of the choir 
is the gravestone of Blaise Pascal, with a Latin inscription 
by Boileau, brought from the village church of Magny-les- 
Hameaux, to which it came from Port Royal ; and that 
of the anatomist Jacques Bénigne Winslow (converted to 
Catholicism by Bossuet), brought hither from the destroyed 
church of St Benoît. 

In the choir aisles are the gravestones of Racine, who 
was buried behind the high-altar, and Pascal, whose coffin 
was brought to the chapel of St Jean Baptiste after the 
ruin of Port Royal. In the second chapel, on the right of 


the choir, the modem gilt shrine of St. Geneviève, 
patroness of Paris, rises in gothic glory. Her original 
shrine was sent to the mint to be melted down in 1793. 
The sarcophagus of St. Geneviève was found in the crpyt 
of the abbey church, but it is empty, for her bones were 
burnt by the mob in the Place de Grève in 180 1. Candles, 
however, are always burning around the existing shrine. 
It is the custom for devotees to buy a taper, and pray 
while it burns. Every year the neiivaine of St. Geneviève 
brings a pious crowd, from every part of Paris, to pray by 
the tomb of its patroness. In one of the apsidal chapels 
is the empty stone coffin in which the body of the saint 
was laid, on January 3, 511, and from which her relics 
were removed to the original shrine. 

St. Geneviève was a peasant girl, born at Nanterre, 
near Paris, in 421, and employed 'in her childhood as a 
shepherdess. When she was seven years old, St Germain, 
Bishop of Auxerre, passing through her village, became 
miraculously aware of the future glory of la pucdette 
Gefievieve, and consecrated her to the service of God. 
Her course was henceforth marked by miracles, which be- 
gan when her mother, struck blind for boxing her ears, 
was restored by her prayers. After the death of her 
parents Geneviève resided with an aged relation in Paris, 
and led a life of piety and humility, varied by victorious 
conflicts with demons. When the city was besieged by 
Attila, and the inhabitants were preparing to fly, she 
emerged from her solitude and urged them to remain, 
assuring them that Heaven would deliver them ; and in 
truth the barbarians withdrew without sacking the town. 
During the siege by Childeric, Paris was provisioned by 
boats on the Seine personally commanded by Geneviève, 
and, after the city was taken, Clovis and Clotilde were 



converted by her to Christianity. Then the first Christian 
church was built, in which, dying at eighty-nine, the 
shepherdess Geneviève was buried by the side of King 
Clovis and Queen Clotilde. In her latter years she is 
said to have lived in a convent near St. Jean en Grève, 
afterwards called l'Hôpital des Landriettes. Here a bed 


was shown as hers, and it was affirmed that in the great 
flood of the time of Louis le Débonnaire, the water, which 
filled her chamber, formed a solid arch over that sacred 
couch, leaving it untouched. 

It was in St. Etienne du Mont, in 1857, "in the very 
sanctuary itself, at the very steps of the altar, in the 


midst of his clergy, clothed in his sacred vestments, with 
mitre on head and crozier in hand, and in the very act 
of blessing the prostrate congregation," that Archbishop 
Sibour was foully murdered by a profligate priest of his 
own diocese. 

The north porch of St. Etienne, with the little house 
above it, and its quaint tourelle, is a favorite subject with 

Along the south side of St. Etienne runs the Rue Clovis, 
at the end of which (right), in a garden, a bit of the wall of 
Philippe Auguste may be seen. Near this is the Cabaret 
du Roi Clovis^ which played a part in the affair of the 
sergeants of La Rochelle. 

Opposite the end of the Rue Clovis (in the upper part 
of the new Rue du Cardinal Lemoine) is the Institution 
Chevalier. Over its door, the inscription College des 
Ecossais, in old characters, tells its former history. It 
was founded, in 1313, by David, Bishop of Moray, for 
four poor scholars of his diocese desiring to study in 
Paris. Visitors are allowed to ascend the fine old oak 
staircase to the chapel (on the left of the first landing). 
It is like a college chapel at Oxford in its dark woodwork, 
stained glass, and picture (of the martyrdom of St. 
Andrew) over the altar. James II. of England, who died 
at St. Germain in 1701, bequeathed his brains to this 
chapel, where they were preserved in a gilt urn (given by 
the Duke of Perth) resting on a white marble obelisk, 
which stood on a black pedestal. Recently, in making a 
passage, the leaden case containing the brains of the king 
was found intact. A similar coffer which was found con- 
tained, it is believed, the heart of the Duchess of Perth, 
which formerly lay under an incised slab in the chapel 
floor. In the recess of one of the windows on the left is 


an epitaph of a Monteith, mortally wounded at the siege 
of Dachstern in Alsace, in 1675. 

In the anteehapel is, first, the tomb of Frances Jen- 
nings, Duchess of Tyrconnell^ lady-in-waiting to Queen 
Mary Beatrice (1731) ; then the black-marble tomb which 
the faithful James, Duke of Perth, erected to his master 
(" moerens posuit "), with a long epitaph describing the 
king's gentleness and patience in adversity, when driven 
from his throne by the impiety of Absalom, the treachery 
of Achitophel, and with the cruel taunts of Shimei, when, 
"ipsis etiam inimicis amicus, superavit rebus humanis 
major, adversis superior, et coelestis gloriae studio inflam- 
matus, quod regno caruerit sibi visus beatior, miseram 
banc vitam felici, regnum terrestre coelesti, commutavit." 

Opposite IS the monument of " Marianus O'CruoUy," 
an Irish knight (1700). 

In the Rue Clovis, opposite the church of St. Etienne 
(observe here, externally, its flat east end), are the build- 
ings of the Lycée Henri IV.^ enclosing the beautiful Tower 
of the destroyed church of St. Geneviève, which is roman- 
esque at the base, but XIV. c. and XV. c. in its upper 
stories. The east side of the Lycée, looking upon the 
quiet Rue Clotilde at the back of the Pantheon, occupies 
the site of the Abbaye de St. Geneviève, founded by Clovis 
and Clotilde in 508. The principal existing remnant of 
the abbey is the XIII. c. refectoiy, a great vaulted hall, 
without columns, partially restored externally in 1886. 
The cloister was rebuilt, and a XIII. c. chapel of Notre 
Dame de la Miséricorde, on its south side, destroyed in 

We now reach the Pantheon^ which has divided its 
existence between being a pagan temple and a Christian 
church dedicated to St. Geneviève. Clovis built the first 


church near this site, and dedicated it to Sts. Peter and 
Paul, and tliere he, St. Clotilde, the murdered children of 
Clodomir, and St. Geneviève were buried. The early 
church was burnt by the Normans, but restored, and from 
the X. c. the miracles wrought at the tomb of St. Gene- 
vieve changed its name. In 1148 the church was given to 
the canons-regular of St. Victor. The shrine of St. Gene- 
vieve, supported on the shoulders of four statues, stood on 
lofty pillars behind the altar, and thence in time of flood 
or sickness it was carried forth in procession, and river 
and pestilence were supposed to recede before it. Much 
amusement was excited by the tomb erected here to Car- 
dinal de la Rochefoucauld, on which he was represented 
with an angel carrying his train. The steeple of the church 
was destroyed by lightning in 1489. On June 25, 1665, 
the remains of the philosopher Descartes, brought from 
Stockholm, were received in state by the abbot, and buried 
near the Chapelle St. Geneviève, though a funeral oration 
was forbidden by Louis XIV. ^ When Louis XV. recov- 
ered from serious illness at Metz, the canons, who dis- 
liked their old gothic church, urged upon him that as his 
restoration must be due to the prayers of St. Geneviève he 
owed her a fashionable Grecian church as a reward. The 
king acquiesced in ordering the new church, though the 
old one was not pulled down till 1801-7.^ Jacques Ger- 
man Soufflot was employed to design the new edifice, and 
great difficulties, caused by the discovery of quarries under 

^ Descartes is now commemorated in the name of a neighboring street. 

2 The capitals of the nave of St, Geneviève are in the second court of the 
Beaux Arts. The statues by Germain Pilon, w^hich supported the shrine, are 
at the Louvre, The statue of Clovis is at St. Denis. The tomb of Cardinal 
François de la Rochefoucauld (1645) is at the Hospice de Femmes Incurables, 
which was founded by him; the tomb and effigy of a Chancellor of Notre 
Dame de Noyon (1350) are at the Beaux Arts ; the gravestone of Descartes is at 
St. Germain des Prés. 


the building, which had to be filled up, were laboriously 
removed. The first stone of the new church was laid by 
Louis XV. in 1764; its original architect, Soufflet, died in 
1780, but it was completed under his pupil Rondelet. 

"M. Soufflot's St. Geneviève is certainly the prettiest Savoy 
biscuit ever made in stone." — Victor Hiigo. 

After the death of Mirabeau, the building was conse- 
crated as the burial-place of illustrious citizens, and " Aux 
grands hommes la patrie reconnaissante" was inscribed 
in large letters upon the façade, as it now appears. At 
the Restoration, however, this inscription was for a time 
replaced by another saying that Louis XVIII. had re- 
stored the church to worship. With the government of 
July the building became a Pantheon again. From 1851 
to 1885 it was again a church, and then was once more 
taken away from God that it might be given to — Victor 

The Pantheon is open daily from 10 to 4. Visitors collect on 
the right of the east end till the guardian chooses to show the 
vaults {caveaux). Twenty is the nominal number allowed, but he 
will usually wait for a part}'^ of sixty to save himself trouble 
(50 c). To ascend the dome an order from the Beaux Arts is 

The peristyle and dome of the Pantheon are magnifi- 
cent. The former is adorned with a relief, by David 
d'Angers, of France distributing palm-branches to her 
worthiest children ; Napoleon I. is a portrait. In the por- 
tico are groups of St. Geneviève and Attila, and the Bap- 
tism of Clovis. The steps (1887) are covered with wreaths 
offered to the memory of Victor Hugo. Stately and har- 
monious, the interior is cold, though color is being grad- 
ually given by frescoes which seem to belong more to the 
former than the present character of the building, as they 


represent the story of the saints especially connected with 
Paris — the childhood, miracles, and death of St. Gene- 
vieve ; the justice and judgment of St. Louis ; the martyr- 
dom of St. Denis (first chapel, left — a terrific picture), &c. 
Some of these frescoes have much beauty. In the dome, 
the apotheosis 'of St. Geneviève is represented by Gros^ 
in which the shepherd maiden was originally portrayed as 
receiving the homage of Clovis, Charlemagne, St. Louis, 
and Napoleon I. After the return of the Bourbons, Napo- 
leon disappeared and Louis XVIIL took his place. Louis 
XVI., Marie Antoinette, Madame Elizabeth, and Louis 
XVII. appear in the upper sphere of celestial glory. 
Against the piers are masses of wreaths in honor of the 
citizens who "fell in defence of liberty" in 1850. 

The first tomb usually shown in the crypt is (right) 
that of Victor Hugo. Facing him is Molière. On the 
left are Voltaire, with a statue by Houdon, and the archi- 
tect Soufflot. The tombs of Voltaire and Rousseau are 
empty, having been pillaged at the Revolution, though the 
tomb of Rousseau is still inscribed — " Ici repose l'homme 
de la nature et de la vérité." The tomb of Voltaire bears 
the epitaph — 

" Poète, historien, philosophe, il agrandit l'esprit humain, et 
l'apprit, qu'il devait être libre ; il défendit Calas, Serven, De la 
Barre, et Mont Bally ; il combattait les athées et les fanatiques, 
il inspira la tolérance, il réclama les droits de l'homme, contre le 
monstre de la féodalité." 

Lagrange the mathematician, Bougainville the great 
navigator, and Marshal Lannes, lie near. The remains of 
Mirabeau and Marat, brought hither in triumph, were 
soon expelled by the fickle Parisians. Caprice exiled 
Mirabeau, who had been entombed amid the mourning of 
the city, to a corner of the cemetery of St. Etienne du 



Mont : " II n'y a qu'un pas du capitole à la Roche Tarpe- 
ienne " had been an observation in one of his last speeches. 
At the same time a decree was passed that all the monu- 
ments in the Pantheon, except those of Voltaire and 
Rousseau, should be cleared away. 

There is a famous echo in one part of the crypt, shown 
off in an amusing way by the guardian, who produces a 
cannonade, a cracking of whips, &c. The great statesmen 
all lie one above another, in great sarcophagi, exactly 
alike : many of them, especially the cardinals, seem oddly 
placed in a pagan temple. 

From the west front of the Pantheon the broad Rue 
Soufflot, which has the Ecole de Droit at its entrance on 
the right, crosses (beyond the Rue St. Jacques) the site 
formerly occupied by the famous convent of the Jacobins. 
A chapel, of which the University had the patronage, and 
which was dedicated to St. Jacques, being given to the 
Frères Prêcheurs in 122 1, only five years after the confir- 
mation of their order, brought them the name of Jacobins. 
Their celebrity as professors of theology brought pupils 
and riches to their convent, and, till the middle of the 
XIV. c. the Dominicans were as much the leaders of 
thought and education at Paris as the Franciscans were 
at Oxford ; in the XVIII. c. they paled before the popu- 
larity of the Jesuits. The buildings of the Jacobins were 
confiscated at the Revolution. Almost all the confessors 
of the kings and queens of France from the time of St. 
Louis to that of Henri II. were monks of this convent, 
and perhaps from this reason their church was especially 
rich in royal monuments. The tomb of Charles d'Anjou, 
King of Sicily, brother of St. Louis, buried here, was 
saved, during the Revolution, by Lenoir, and is now in St. 


On the north of the Place du Pantheon is the Biblio- 
thèque St. Genevieve^ moved from the ancient and admir- 
ably suitable cruciform galleries of the abbey, and now 
occupying the site of the Collège de Montaigu, founded 
by Gilles Aiscelin de Montaigu, Archbishop of Rouen 
(13 1 4), and Pierre Aiscelin de Montaigu, Bishop of Laon 
(1388). At the Revolution the college buildings were 
turned into a military hospital and barrack ; in 1844 the 
present uninteresting library was built on their site. Theo- 
dore de Bèze says that Calvin, after he left the Collège de 
la Marche, spent some years here under a Spanish pro- 
fessor. This was the college whose severities, notorious 
in the XV. c, are described by the tutor of Gargantua to 

"Ne pensez pas que je I'aye mis au college de pouillerye 
qu'on nomme Montaigu ; mieulx leusse voulu mettre entre les 
guenaulx de Sainct-Innocent, pour lenorme crualté et villenye 
que j'y ay congneu ; car trop mieulx sont traictez les forcez en- 
tre les Maures et Tartares, les meutriers en la prison criminelle, 
voire certe les chiens de vostre maison, que ne sont ces malauc- 
trus ou diet college. Et, si j'estois roy de Paris, le d)'able mem- 
porte si je ne mettoys le feu dedans ; et feroys brusler et prin- 
cipal et regens qui endurent cette inhumanité devant leuryeulx 
estre exercée." — Rabelais. 

"Gilles d'Aiscelin, the weak archbishop, the terrible judge 
of the Templars, founded this terrible college of Montaigu, the 
poorest and most democratic of the university houses, where the 
wits and the teeth were equally sharp. There the inspiration of 
hunger raised up the poor masters who rendered illustrious the 
name capettes ; their food was poor, but their privileges ample ; 
they were dependent, in matters of confession, neither on the 
bishop of Paris nor on the pope." — Michelet, ''Hist, de Erance." 

Behind the Bibliothèque St. Geneviève, with an en- 
trance beyond it, is the College St. Barbe, probably founded 
in 1460 by Geoffroy Normant. Its most illustrious scholars 
have been St. Ignatius Loyola and St. François Xavier, 


who joined Loyola here when he left the Collège de Beau- 
vais. Closed during the Revolution, this college was re- 
opened in 1800, under the title of Collège des Sciences et 
des Arts. It was enlarged in 1841. Only separated from 
this by the Rue de Reims, was the Collège de Reims, 
founded early in the XV. c. by Guy de Roye, Archbishop 
of Rheims ; it perished at the Revolution. The Collège de 
Fortef^ on the other side of the Rue des Sept Voies, was 
founded, in 1391, by Pierre Fortet, canon of Notre Dame, 
for eight scholars. It was here, in a chamber then in- 
habited by Boucher, Curé de St. Benoît, that the Ligue 
had its origin. The buildings of this little college still 
exist, and possess an hexagonal tower, enclosing a stair- 

Beyond the Bibliothèque, at the angle of the Rue des 
Cholets and Rue Cujas (formerly St. Etienne des Grès) 
stood the Collège des Cholets, founded for poor scholars 
of the dioceses of Beauvais and Amiens, by the executors 
of Cardinal Jean Cholet, in 1295. Its site, and even that 
of the street, are now swallowed up by buildings of the 
Lycée Louis le Grand. Opposite the college, in the Rue 
St. Etienne des Grès, was the church of that name, which, 
as an oratory, dated from the VII. c. St. François de 
Sales frequented it for prayer whilst a student in Paris. 
It was sold and pulled down at the Revolution, but its 
image of Notre Dame de la Bonne Délivrance, which had 
once great celebrity, still exists in the chapel of a con- 
vent of St. Thomas de Villanueva, in the Rue de Sèvres. 

The College Louis le Grand owed its original foundation 
to Guillaume Duprat, Bishop of Clermont, a faithful friend 
to the Jesuits, whom he received, when persecuted, in his 
episcopal residence, and to whom at his death, in 1560, he 
bequeathed the funds necessary for founding the Collège 


de Clermont. To this, the Collège de Marmoutier and 

the Collège de Mans were afterwards added by the favor 

of Louis XIV., in gratitude for which his name was given 

to the united institution, destined to become the favorite 

place of education for sons of illustrious French families. 

When the inscription " Collegium Claromontanum Socie- 

tatis Jesu " over the gate was changed to " Collegium Lu- 

dovici Magni," a bold hand wrote — 

" Sustulit hinc Jesum posuitque insignia regis 
Impia gens : alium nescit habere deum." 

At the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1763, the University 
took possession of their buildings, and made them its prin- 
cipal centre. Twenty-six of the small colleges were then 
suppressed and united to the Collège Louis le Grand, only 
ten colleges altogether being allowed to prolong their ex- 
istence. At the Revolution the buildings of the Collège 
Louis le Grand were used as a prison ; under the first em- 
pire it became the Lycée Impériale, but it recovered its 
old name at the Restoration, 

A few steps lower down the Rue St. Jacques (on the 
right) stood the Collège de Plessis, founded in 1323 by 
Geoffroy de Plessis, Abbé de Marmoutier, and restored by 
Richelieu. Opposite, occupying the space between the 
Rue St. Jacques and the Sorbonne, was the Cloître St. 
Benoît. Its church, which was of great antiquity, was 
originally called St. Bacchus, probably from some asso- 
ciation with a vintagers' feast. Its later name of St. 
Benoît le Restourné arose from its altar being at the west, 
its entrance at the east end ; after François I. altered it to 
the usual plan it was called St. Benoît le Bientourné. It 
contained an immense number of monuments, including 
that of the architect Claude Perrault, now preserved at the 
Hôtel de Cluny, with the principal portal of the church. 


No. 2 Rue St. Benoît, recently destroyed, was the house 
occupied by Desmarteaux, the engraver for the painter 
Boucher, and had an entire chamber exquisitely decorated 
by his hand. 

We now reach the College de Frafice, first of the literary 
and scientific institutions of the kingdom. It was founded 
by François I. as Collège Royal, and afterwards called 
Collège des Trois Langues, because the three languages, 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, were taught there. In later 
times it was superior to the Sorbonne in its teaching of 
mathematics, medicine, and surgery. Colbert founded pro- 
fessorships here of Arabic and French law, and history 
and moral philosophy were afterwards added. There are 
now twenty-eight professors. The buildings have swal- 
lowed up the Collège de Tre'quier, founded in 1325 by 
Guillaume de Coetmahon of Tréquier, and the Collège de 
Cambrai, or des Trois Evêques, which dated from the 
XIII c. In the court is a statue of G. Bude (1540). The 
principal front is approached from the Rue des Ecoles by 
a handsome staircase, at the top of which is a statue of 
Claude Bernard by Guillaume, erected 1875. 

A few steps along the modern Rue des Ecoles, and a 
turn to the left, will bring us, at the very heart of Academic 
Paris, to the Sorbonne — "■ le Louvre du corps enseignant." 

The University of the Sorbonne was founded in 1256, 
by Robert de Sorbonne (or Rathelois), almoner and con- 
fessor of St. Louis, who persuaded the king, instead of 
founding a nunnery on that site, as he intended, to 
institute a charity — "ad opus Congregationis pauperum 
magistrorum, Parisiensis, in theologia studentium." At 
first it was only a humble college for sixteen poor theo- 
logical students, called la pauvre 7naiso?t, and its professors 
pauvres maîtres (" pauperes magistri ") ; but these soon be- 


came celebrated, and the assembly of doctors of the 
Sorbonne formed a redoubtable tribunal, which judged 
without appeal all theological opinions and works, and 
did not hesitate to condemn pope and kings. The stat- 
utes remained the same in 1790 as in 1290. A chronicler 
of the time of Henri III. speaks of the Sorbonne as 
" thirty or forty pedants, besotted masters of arts." 

"To have the right to bear the title of ' Doctor of the Sor- 
bonne,' the candidate had to have studied in the college, to have, 
for ten years, argued, disputed and sustained divers public acts 
or theses, which were distinguished into viajor, mhior, sabbatical, 
tentative, and the small and great Sorbonic. In these last, the 
candidate for the doctor's degree had to sustain, without drink- 
ing, eating or quitting the place, the attacks of twenty assailants 
or ergoteurs, who came in relays of half an hour and harassed 
him from six in the morning to seven in the evening. 

"The habit of skirmishing in theology on subjects of useless 
or often dangerous curiosity, or on matters demanding the most 
profound submission, contributed in no small degree to diffuse 
in the nation that quarrelsome disposition which, while retarding 
the reign of truth, often troubled public tranquillity and en- 
gendered so many errors, which a barbarous and clumsy policy 
believed it had the right to extinguish by erecting gibbets, dig- 
ging dungeons, lighting fires around the stake, and by making 
the best tempered nation into a people of cannibals." — Duvernet, 
^'Hist. de la Sorbonne." 

It was here that the disputes between the Jesuists and 
Jansenists were carried on. "Voilà une salle, où l'on 
dispute depuis quatre cents ans," said one of the doctors, 
as he was showing the building to Casaubon. " Eh bien ! 
qu'est-ce qu'on a decide ? " he answered. It was of this 
theatre of religious argument that Pascal said — "Qu'il 
étoit plus aisé d'y trouver les moins, que les arguments." 

"The Sorbonne had a moral jurisdiction in scholasticism. 
It forced John XXII. to retract his theory of the Beatific Vision ; 
it declared quinquina an accursed bark, and thereupon Parlia- 
ment forbade quinquina to effect any cuxqs"— Victor Hugo. 


Whatever, however, may have been the folHes of the 
Sorbonne, it will always possess the honor of having 
established within its walls the first printing-press known 
in Paris. 

The collegiate buildings were reconstructed by Jacques 
Lemercier for Cardinal Richelieu, who was elected Grand- 
Master in 1622. He incorporated with the Sorbonne the 
Collège Duplessis, founded (1322) by Geoffroy Duplessis, 
Secretary of Philippe le Long. The little Collège de Calvi 
or des Dix-Huit was also swallowed up by the site of the 
Church, built 1629-59, with a stately dome. It is entered 
from the principal quadrangle of the college, remarkable 
for its curious sun-dials, and is adorned internally with 
paintings of the Latin Fathers by Philippe de Champaigne. 
The bare interior is very fine in its proportions. An 
inscription records the restoration of the church by 
Napoleon HI., "régnante gloriosissime." 

" It is a church of no very great dimensions, being about 150 
feet in length, and its dome 40 feet in diameter internally. .The 
western façade has the usual arrangement of two stories, the 
lower one of corinthian three-quarter columns, surmounted by 
pilasters of the same order above, and the additional width of 
the aisle being made out by a gigantic console. The front of the 
transept towards the court is better, being ornamented with a 
portico of detached columns on the lower story, with a great 
semicircular window above ; and the dome rises so closely be- 
hind the wall that the whole comp'osition is extremely pleasing." — 
Fergus s on. 

The right transept contains the tomb of Richelieu, by 
François Girardon (1694). The cardinal is represented 
reclining in death in the arms of Religion, who holds the 
book he wrote in her defence. A weeping woman is 
intended for Science, and these two figures are portraits 
of the cardinal's nieces, the Duchesses de Guyon and de 
Fronsac. In its time this was regarded as the finest 


monument of funereal sculpture in the world. Alexandre 
Lenoir, to whose energy and self-sacrifice Paris owes all 
the historic sculpture it still preserves, was wounded by a 
bayonet while making a rampart of his body to protect it 
from the mob in the Revolution, when he succeeded in 
removing it to the Petits Augustin s. 

"Cardinal Richelieu died December 4, 1642. 'He was a 
great statesman,' said the king, when he heard of his death. 
Posterity has confirmed this judgment." — Balzac, ''Six rois de 

" He respected no rule of equity or morality. He confessed 
himself, 'When I have once formed a resolution, I go on to the 
end ; overthrow everything, cut down everything, and then 
cover all with my red cassock.' Bussi-Rabutin says that under 
Richelieu the king counted for nothing." — Dulaure, ''Hist, de 
Paris sous Lotcis XIII." 

The grave of Richelieu was violated at the Revolution, 
and his head, which was carried off and paraded through 
the streets on a pike, was only restored to its resting-place 
in 1867. Above the tomb is a large fresco representing 
Theology and all those who have illustrated it. 

In the opposite transept is a monument to the gay 
Lothario, Maréchal Duc de Richelieu, minister of Louis 
XVIIL, by Ramey. 

A great picture by Hesse represents Robert Sorbonne 
presenting the pupils in theology to St. Louis. 

"In the month of October, 1832, there was written above a 
door, in the Place de Sorbonne, ' Constitutional Church of 
France.' The day when such an inscription has been quietly 
engraved on the front of the Sorbonne, it ceased to live. The 
history henceforth will begin with a funeral ox2i\.\on."— Antoine 
de Latour. 

The Boulevard St. Michel, running in front of the Place 
de la Sorbonne, has swept away the Rue des Maçons, 
where Racine lived for a time, and where Dulaure died. 


It crosses the site of the Collège du Trésorier, founded 
(1268) by Guillaume de Saana, treasurer of the cathedral 
of Rouen ; and of the Collège de Cluny, founded (in 1269) 
by Yves de Vergy, Abbot of Cluny. The chapel of this 
college was a model of architectural loveliness, and has 
been thought worthy of being compared with the Sainte 
Chapelle, as it had the same delicacy of sculpture and the 
same elegance of proportions. It was filled with rich stall- 
work, and its pavement was composed of gravestones of 
abbots, two of which — of 1349 and 1360 — were removed, 
with the rose-windows, to the Hôtel de Cluny, on the 
destruction of the building in 1834. Close by, where the 
Rue M. le Prince now falls into the boulevard, was the 
Port St. Michel (on the wall of Philippe Auguste) destroyed 
1684. Just beyond, the Lycée St. Louis now occupies the 
site of the Collège d'Harcourt, founded by Raoul d'Har- 
court in 1280: it was closed at the Revolution, but re- 
established, under a new name, by Louis XVIII. A little 
lower down was the Collège de Justice, at the corner of 
the Rue de la Harpe, founded (1354) by the executors of 
Jean de Justice, Canon of Bayeux. Opposite, on a site 
now covered by the boulevard, were the little colleges of 
Narbonne (1307), Bayeux (1308), and Secy (1428). The 
gate of the last is now at the Hôtel de Cluny. The Collège 
Sts. Come et Damien, at the angle of the Rue de la 
Harpe and Rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, was founded 
early in the XIII. c. ; its chapel contained the tomb of 
Nicolas de Bèze, with an inscription (by his nephew, 
Théodore de Bèze, the famous Calvinist) in Greek, Latin, 
and French. The college, sold at the Revolution, was 
demolished in 1836, to enlarge the Rue Racine. 

It is now a few steps right, or, if we have evaded these 
forgotten sites, the Rue de la Sorbomie will lead us down- 



hill into the J^ue de Sommerard, opposite the famous Hôtel 
de Climy, which is open daily to the public except on Mon- 
days and fete-days — from 11 to 5 from April i to Septem- 
ber 30; from II to 4 from October i to March 31. 

"L'hôtel de Cluny, qui subsiste encore pour la consolation 
de l'artiste." — Victor Htigo. 

The site of the ancient Roman Baths was bought by 


the Abbot Pierre de Chalus for the Abbey of Cluny, and 
its abbots decided to build a palace there as their town 
residence. This was begun by Abbot Jean de Bourbon, 
bastard of John, Duke of Burgundy, and finished by 
Jacques d'Amboise, Abbot of Jumieges, and Bishop of 
Clermont, sixth brother of the Minister of Louis XII. 
Coming seldom to Paris, however, the Abbots of Cluny let 
their hotel to various distinguished personages : thus Mary 
of England, widow of Louis XII., lived there for a time 



after her husband's death, and was married there to Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. Here also James V. of Scot- 
land was married to Madeleine, daughter of François I. 
The Cardinal de Lorraine, his nephew the Due de Guise, 
and the Due d'Aumale, were living here in 1565. After- 

•'• ,r* • 7 )i3^'Ki*-';fi''-. >■.,'■->.■* 


wards the hotel was inhabited by actors, then by nuns of 
Port Royal. In the early part of the XIX. c. the illus- 
trious antiquarian M. de Sommerard bought the hotel 
and filled it with his beautiful collection of works of art, 
and the whole was purchased by the State after his death. 
Approaching from the Rue de Sommerard, by a gate 


surmounted by the arms of the Abbey of Cluny, we find 
the principal building flanked by two wings. A many- 
sided tower projects from the front, containing a stone 
staircase, and bearing the rose-medallions and cockle- 
shells of St. James, in allusion to the builder Jacques 
d'Amboise. Opposite to this i^ an old well from the 


manor of Tristan I'Hermite, near Amboise. The building 
on the west is the most richly decorated portion of the 
whole. On the north side of the hotel, towards the gar- 
den, are a beautiful bay-window and a vaulted hall called 
la chapelle basse, the upper floor being supported by a 
single column, on the capital of which are seen the arms 
of Jacques d'Amboise and a crowned K (Karolus) for 


Charles VIII. A gothic flamboyant staircase leads from 
this hall to the chapel, which is on the first floor. The 
east wing formerly contained, on its ground floor, the 
kitchens of the hotel. The great circle traced on the wall 
on this side is supposed to mark the dimensions of the 
famous bell of Rouen, known as Georges d'Amboise, which 
is said to have been cast in the Hôtel de Cluny, The 
open balustrade above the first floor, the chimneys and the 
windows in the roof, are of marvellous richness and beauty. 
The interior of the hotel is as interesting as the exterior. 
The room called La Chambre de la Reine Blanche takes its 
name from the white weeds of the widowed Queens of 
France, which Mary of England wore when she inhabited 
it. The vaulting of the exquisitely graceful chapel rests 
on a single pillar. 

In this beautiful and harmonious old house all the 
principal rooms are now occupied by an archaeological 
museum of the greatest interest. The building, furniture, 
and ornaments are in perfect keeping. The precious con- 
tents are all named and catalogued, but not arranged ac- 
cording to their numbers. As historic objects or memo- 
rials of old France we may especially notice when we meet 
with them — 

56. The original central pillar of the Porte St. Anne of 
Notre Dame, with the figure of St, Marcel. Replaced 
in the cathedral by a copy. 

86. Porch of the Benedictine cloister at Argenteuil, demol- 
ished 1855. 

88, 89. XIII. c. fragments from the famous tower of the 
Commanderie de St. Jean de Latran at Paris, destroyed 


107. Column from the church of the Collège de Cluny, de- 
stroyed 1859, for the Boulevard St. Michel. 

135. Principal entrance of the Collège de Bayeux, destroyed 
1859, for the Boulevard de Sébastopol. 


137. Principal portal of the church of St. Benoît, destroyed 
in making the Rue des Ecoles. 

160. Curious tombstone of the XV. c, from the destro)^ed 

church of St. Benoît. 

161. A monument with symbols of pilgrimage. From St. 

164, 165. Sculptures from St. Gervais of Paris. XIV. c. 

188. Splendid XV. c. chimney-piece from a house at Le Mans. 

189. Chimney-piece, XV. c, from Le Mans. 

191. Chimney-piece, by Hugues Lallement (1562), from a 

house at Chalons-sur-Marne. 

192. Chimney-piece, XVL c, by Hugues Lallement, from 


193. Chimney-piece of XVL c, from Troyes. 

194. Chimney-piece, XVL c, from the Rue de la Croix de 

Fer, at Rouen. 

196-201. Sculptures from the old Louvre. 

208. Portal of the house of Queen Blanche, Rue du Foin St. 
Jacques, destroyed 1858, in making the Boulevard St. 

233. XVn. c. obelisk from the Cimetière des Innocents. 

237. Retable of the high-altar of the St. Chapelle of St. 
Germain, built by Pierre de Wuessencourt, in 1259. 
An exquisite relief of XIIL c. 

242-246. Statues from the church of St. Jacques in the Rue 
St. Denis. Attributed to Robert de Launoy. 

251. The Virgin of the Priory of Arbois, late XV. c, 

259-261. Sepulchral statues from the chapel of the Château 
of Arbois. 

329. Tomb of an abbess of Montmartre. 
*345. Tomb of the philanthropist Nicolas Flamel, from the 

old church of St. Jacques de la Boucherie. 1418. 
*40i. Statue of the emperor Julian, found at Paris. 

422-426. Tombs of the French Grand-Masters of the Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem ; brought from Rhodes. 

428, 429. Figures of monks executed by Claux Sluter, for 
Philippe le Hardi. 

430, 431. Figures from the tomb of Philippe le Hardi. XIV. c. 
*448. The Three Fates, attributed to Germain Pilon, and sup- 
posed to represent Diane de Poitiers and her daugh- 
ters. From the gardens of the Hôtel Soicourt, Rue 
de l'Université. 


449. Diane de Poitiers as Ariadne. XVI. c. Found in the 

Loire, opposite the Château de Chaumont, 

450. Venus and Cupid, by Jean Cousin. XVI. c. 

451. Catherine de Medicis as Juno. A medallion from Anet, 

probably by Germain Pilon. XVI. c. 
456. " Le Sommeil." XVI. c. 

710. Great retable of abbey of Everborn near Liege. XV. c. 
764-767. A retable representing the Creed, from the abbey of 

St. Riquier. 1587. 
1025. Reliquary from the abbey of St. Yved of Braisne-en- 

Soissonais. Ivory of XII. c. 
1035. Ivory relief of the marriage of Otho I., Emperor of the 

East, with Théophane, daughter of Romanus II. X. c. 
1055. Mirror case representing St. Louis and his mother 

Queen Blanche. From the treasury of St. Denis. 
*I079. "Oratoire des Duchesses de Bourgogne." A set of 

pictures in ivory of XIV. c. From the Chartreux of 

1080. Id. Ivories of the life of Christ. 
1152. "L'insouciance du jeune âge." An ivory statuette by 

Duquesnoy. XVII. c. 
1337. Coffre de Mariage. From the château of Loches. 
1424. Cabinet of time of Henry II. From the abbey of Clair- 

1679. Mary Magdalen at Marseilles. A painting on wood by 

King René of Provence. XV. c. 
1682. Coronation of Louis XII. A painting on wood. XV. c. 
1742. Venus and Cupid. Portrait of Diane de Poitiers by 

Primaticcio. XVI. c. 
1746. Portrait of Marie Gaudin, Dame de la Bourdaisière, 

first mistress of François I., at that time Due de 

1761. The head of St. Martha, given by Louis XI. to the 

church of St. Martha at Tarascon. 1478. 
4498. Reliquary of St. Fausta, in enamel of Limoges. XIII. 

c. From the treasury of Ségry, near Issoudun. 
4979-4987. Golden crowns found at La Fuente de Guarrazar, 

near Toledo. 
*4988. Golden altar of Henry II. (St. Henry) of Germany, given 

by him {c. 1019) to the cathedral of Basle, where it 

escaped destruction in the crypt till 1824, when it was 

sold for the benefit of the canton. This is perhaps 


the most precious object in the collection. The me- 
dallions represent the cardinal virtues. In the centre 
Sts. Henry and Cunegunda kneel at the feet of the 
Saviour ; on the right are Sts. Michael and Benedict ; 
on the left Sts. Gabriel and Raphael. Two Latin 
verses contain a prayer and 3. mystic explanation of 
the names of the three angels. 
5005. " La rose d'or de Bale." Given by Clement V. to the 
Prince Bishop of Basle. XIV. c. 

5015. Reliquary of St. Anne, by Hans Greiff. 1472. 

5016. Silver reliquary from the treasury of Basle. XV. c. 
5064. Cross of the abbots of ClairVaux in gilt copper. XII. c. 

7386. Tombstone with the epitaph of Anne of Burgundy, 

Duchess of Bedford. XV. c. From the church of 
the Célestins. 

7387. Epitaph of Pierre de Ronsard on the death of Charles 

de Boudeville, 1571. 

7398. Coffin-plate of King Louis XIV. From St. Denis. 

7399. Coffin-plate of Marie Adélaïde de Savoie, wife of the 

Due de Bourgogne, grandson of Louis XIV. 1712. 
From St. Denis. 

7400. Cofl5n-plate of Louise Elizabeth de France (Madame 

rinfante, eldest daughter of Louis XV.), who died at 
Versailles, 1769. From St. Denis. 

7404. Coffin-plate of Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse, Duchesse 

de Montpensier. 1656. From the convent of the 

7405. Gravestone of Louise Henriette de Bourbon, Duchesse 

d'Orléans, daughter of Louis XIV. and Mme de 
7408. Heart (enclosed in lead) of Louis de Luxembourg, 
Comte de Roussy. 1571. From the Célestins. 

In a modern side-room is an interesting collection of 
carriages, sledges, sedan chairs, &c., of the XVIL c. and 
XVIII. c, including — 

6951. Carriage of the Tanara family of Bologna, supposed to 

have belonged to Paul V. (Camillo Borghese, 1603- 

6952. State carriage of a French ambassador to Milan, under 

Louis XV. 


6961. The little carriage which served as a model for the coro- 
nation coach of Louis XV. 

The Roman remains, always known as Palais des 
Thermes, in the garden adjoining the Hôtel de Cluny, 
probably belong to buildings erected a.d. 300, when 
Paris was a Gallo-Roman town, by Constantius Chlorus. 
It has been sometimes affirmed that the Emperor Julian 
the Apostate was proclaimed and resided here, but it is far 
more probable that he lived on the island in the Seine, and 
that these buildings were simply those of magnificent 
baths. The most perfect part of the baths is a great hall, 
decided to have been the frigidarium, which is exceed- 
ingly massive and majestic ; of the tepidarium, only the 
ruined walls remain. 

"Nothing had been spared to make the Palais des Thermes 
a truly splendid abode. An aqueduct brought pure and whole- 
some water from the springs of Rungis, that is, about three 
leagues from the centre of Paris. For the longest part of its 
course it was underground, but it crossed the valley of Arcueil 
by a series of high arches, some foundations of which time has 
respected, admirably constructed and finished like the walls of 
the hall of the Thermes." — De Guilhermy. 

Some columns and a large corinthian capital, preserved 
in the Frigidarium, were found in the Parvis Notre Dame, 
and are interesting as probable remnants of the original 
basilica of Childebert. Here also are the original XI. c. 
capitals of St. Germain des Pre's. In the gardens are pre- 
served other architectural fragments, such as the portals 
of the old church of St. Benoît and of the Collège de 
Bayeux, three romanesque arches from the Abbey of Ar- 
genteuil, &c. The door which leads to the garden from 
the court of the hotel comes from the house called Maison 
de la Reine Blanche (of temp. Henri IL) at the angle of 
the Rues de Boutebrie and du Foin. 


The Théâtre de Cluny occupies the site of the convent 
of Les Mathurins. A very ancient chapel existed liere, in 
which the body of St. Mathurin was buried and performed 
miracles. Here the order called " Religieux de la St. 
Trinité de la Rédemption des Captifs," founded by St. 
Giovanni de Matha, found a refuge in the latter part of 
the XIII. c. They were protected by St. Louis, who 
helped them to erect a convent. This was rebuilt in the 
XVI. c. by Robert Gaguin, theologian and diplomatist, 
who was buried in its church, before the high-altar. Be- 
fore the expulsion of the Jesuits gave the Collège de Louis 
le Grand to the University, its chief meetings were held 
here. It was hither that it summoned its general assem- 
blies ; here that it recognized as king Philippe V., second 
son of Philippe le Bel, and here that it protested against 
the bull " Unigenitus." The conventual buildings per- 
ished in the Revolution. In the Rue Mathurin the Li- 
brairie Delalain was the house of Catinat. Just opposite 
the Palais des Thermes was the old hotel of the Comtes 
d'Harcourt, destroyed in the XVII. c. 

Along the side of the opposite Rtie de Boutebrie ran 
the buildings of the Collège de Maître Gervais, founded 
in the XIV. c. (by a canon of Bayeux and Paris, who was 
physician to Charles le Sage), as a college of astrology 
and medicine. 

The Rue de Boutebrie leads to the fine church of St. 
Séverm, one of the best gothic buildings in Paris, said to 
occupy the site of a hermitage where St. Séverin lived in 
the VI. c, under Childebert I. The oratory on the site of 
the hermitage was sacked by the Normans. It was rebuilt 
in the XI. c. as " Ecclesia Sancti Severi Solitarii." But 
to the worship of the sainted hermit the people afterwards 
united that of another St. S.lverin, Bishop of Agaune, who 


gave the monastic habit to St. Cloud, and who miracu- 
lously cured King Clovis by laying his chasuble upon him. 
In former days this church was held in great estimation. 
One of its chapels was dedicated to St. Martin, especially 
invoked by travellers, and its door was covered with horse- 
shoes deposited there for good luck ; whilst travellers about 
to ride a great distance would brand their horses' hoofs 
with the church-key, made red hot for the purpose. At 
Pentecost a great flight of pigeons used to be sent down 
during mass through holes in the vaulting, to typify the 
descent of the Holy Spirit. The principal porch had the 
figure of a lion on either side, seated between which the 
magistrates of the town administered justice : whence 
many judgments end with " donne entre les deux lions." ^ 

The church has been frequently enlarged and modern- 
ized, but the three western compartments of the nave, the 
triforium of the fourth, with the tower, portal, and lower 
part of the façade, are of 1210 ; the rest of the nave, aisles, 
and choir probably of 1347 ; the apse and its chapels, of 
1489. The early XIII. c. portal of the façade formerly 
belonged to St. Pierre aux Bœufs in -the Cité, and was 
brought here on the destruction of that church in 1837 ; 
but the bas-relief of the tympanum is modern. The portal 
preserves its XVII. c. doors, adorned with medallions of 
Sts. Peter and Paul. There are double aisles, besides 
the side chapels ; behind the high-altar is a twisted col- 
umn. South of the choir are remains of a XV. c. cloister, 
the only one in Paris except that of les Billettes. To the 
right of the chevet is the XVII. c. chapel of Notre Dame 
d'Espérance, containing a "miraculous" Virgin. The 
other chapels contain an immense number of pictures of 
the French school. The baldacchino was erected from 

^ Lebœuf. 



designs of Lebrun, at the expense of Mlle de Montpensier. 
The ancient rood-loft, erected (in 141 4) by a bequest of 
Antoine de Compaigne and his wife Oudette, was de- 
stroyed in the XVII. c. With three unimportant excep- 
tions all the ancient monuments have perished, but there 
is a good deal of XV. c. and XVI. c. stained glass. 

"The church of St. Séverin is one of the first of Paris in 
which organs were seen. They were there in the reign of King 
John, but of small size ; the church too was then neither so long 
nor so wide. I have seen an extract from a manuscript necrology 
of the church, to this effect : ' The year 1358, the Monday after 
Ascension, master Reynaud de Douy, scholar in theology at 
Paris and governor of the high schools of the parish of St. Sé- 
verin, gave to the church a good organ in good condition.' Those 
that were shown, down to 1747, in the tower of the church, were not 
made till 1512." — Lebœiif, " Hisf. de la ville et du diocese de Parish 

It was publicly, in the churchyard of St. Séverin, that 
the first operation for stone took place, in January, 1474, 
on the person of a soldier, condemned to be hanged for 
theft, and who, when it succeeded, was pardoned and re- 
warded. ^ The dissection of a dead body was considered 
sacrilegious till the time of François I. 

Over the gate which led from the Cimetière de St. Sé- 
verin to the Rue de la Parcheminerie was inscribed — 

" Passarit, penses-tu passer par ce passage. 
Où, pensant, j'ai passé? 
Si tu n'y penses pas, passant, tu n'es pas sage ; 
Car en n'y pensant pas, tu te verras passé."'' 

"Alfred de Musset was born December 11, 1810, in the cen- 
tre of old Paris, near the Hôtel de Cluny, in a house which still 
bears the number 33 Rue de Noyers. At No. 37 lived his grand- 
father Desherbiers, and his great-aunt who owned a garden run- 
ning to the old church of St. John Latran. All Mme Denoux's 
grand-nephews learned to walk in this garden." — Paul de Musset. 

A few steps west from the Hôtel de Cluny bring us to 

» Chronique de Louis XI. - Dulaure, Hist, de Paris, 


the modern Place St. Michel, with a great fountain of i860, 
decorated with a group of St. Michael and the Dragon, by 
Duret. The site was once of interest as being that (at the 
angle of the Rue de la Harpe and Rue St. André des 
Arts) where a fountain and mutilated statue marked the 
treachery of Perinet le Clerc, who opened here the Porte 
St. Germain (afterwards Porte de Buci) in 14 18 to the 
Burgundians, an act which led to the murder of the Comte 
d'Armagnac at the Conciergerie, and a general massacre 
of his adherents. It was in the Pue delà Harpe that Mme 
Roland was living at the time of her arrest. The Boule- 
vard St. Michel now swallows up the greater part of the 
Rue de la Harpe, and also of the Rue d'Enfer. The Place, 
Boulevard, and PoJit St. Michel take their name from a 
destroyed church on the island. On the centre of the 
bridge stood an equestrian statue of Louis XHI., destroyed 
in the Revolution. 

The Quai des Augustins, which stretches along the 
bank of the Seine, west from the Place St. Michel, com- 
memorates a famous convent. The " Hermits of St. Au- 
gustine," as they were officially called, had their first con- 
vent in Paris in a street off the Rue Montmartre, now 
called Rue des Vieux Augustins ; their second convent 
was near the Porte. St. Victor. This was their third, and 
here, August 10, 1652, occurred that combat between the 
monks and the royal archers which made La Fontaine run 
across the Pont Neuf, exclaiming " Je vais voir tuer les 
Augustins ! " In the church, built by Charles V., Henri 
III. instituted the Order of the St. Esprit ; the child Louis 
XIII. was proclaimed King, and Marie de Medicis 
Regent ; and many French ecclesiastical assemblies were 
held. The historian Philippe de Commines and his wife,^ 

^ Their statues are now in the Louvre. 



and the XVI. c. poet Rémi Belleau, were amongst those 
buried there. The church was pulled down in the Revo- 
lution. In the Rue des Grands Augustms, Nos. 3, 5, and 
7 belong to the Hotel d^ Hercule, inhabited by François I. 
in his youth, and given by him, in the first year of his 

HÔTEL d'hercule. 

reign, to the Chancellor Duprat, by whom it was greatly 
enlarged and embellished. 

Under François I. the Hôtel d'Hercule communicated 
with a hotel of the Duchesse d'Etampes, in the Rue de 
l'Hirondelle, which was richly decorated with the sala- 
manders of François and other emblems. " De toutes ses 
devises," says Sauvai, " qu'on voyoit il n'y a pas encore 


long-tems, je n'ai pu me ressouvenir que de celle ci; 
c'estoit un cœur enflamme', placé entre un alpha et un 
omega, pour dire apparément, il brûlera toujours." The 
house was still well preserved when Sauvai saw it. " Les 
murs," he says in his Galanteries des rois de France, "sont 
couverts de tant d'ornements et si finis, qu'il paroît bien 
que c'estoit un petit palais d'amour, ou la maison des 
menus plaisirs de François I." 

The Rue St. André des Arts (which turns south-west 
from the Place St. Michel) commemorates the church of 
that name, a beautiful gothic building, with a renaissance 
façade, demolished at the Revolution. It contained a 
famous tomb by Auguier to the Thou family. Of later 
monuments, those of André Duchesne — " père de l'histoire 
de France," the engraver Robert Nanteuil, and the poet 
Houdart de la Motte, were remarkable. On the right and 
left of the altar were the tombs of the Prince de Conti, by 
Nicolas Coustou (now at Versailles), and of his mother, by 
Girardon (destroyed in the Revolution). The little Col- 
lege d'Autun, on the right of the street, was founded for 
fifteen scholars (in 1327) by Cardinal Pierre Bertrand, 
Bishop of Autun ; it was pulled down in the Revolution. 
At the same time perished the Collège de Boissi, behind 
the church, which was founded (in 1358) by Etienne Vidé, 
of Boissi le Sec. 

From the Place St. André des Arts, the Rue Haute- 
feiiille runs south, and is perhaps in its domestic architect- 
ure the most interesting and the best worth preserving of 
all Parisian streets. The name Hautefeuille comes from a 
fortress — altiim folitim, the lofty dwelling — which existed 
close to this in very early times. No. 5 has an admirable 
round tourelle belonging to the Hôtel de Fecamp. No. 9 
is a very curious house with turrets. No. 21 has a well- 



proportioned octangular tourelle. The Rue Hautefeuille 
crosses the Rue Serpente, in which, to the east, stood the 
Collège de Tours, which was swallowed up in the Collège 
Louis le Grand. It was founded (in 1375) by Etienne de 
Bourgueil, Archbishop of Tours. To the west, a sculpt- 
ured glory on a building, at the angle of the Rue Mignon, is 


a still existing relic (the end of the chapel) of the College de 
Mignon (afterwards Grandmont), founded in the XIV. c. 
by Jean Mignon, Archdeacon of Chartres, and sold at the 
Revolution. It was at one time occupied by the archives 
of the Royal Treasury. A quaint bit of old Paris may be 
seen by following the Rue du Jardinet from the Rue 



Serpente to the Coiir de Rohan, where part of the wall and 
the base of a tower of Philippe Auguste still exist. Hence, 
a gateway opens into the Cour de Covimerce, by which we 
may reach the Rue de l'Ancienne Come'die. 

The Rue Hautefeuille falls into the Rue de V Ecole 
de Médecine, just opposite the interesting remains of the 


famous Conve?it of the Cordeliers, now used to contain the 
surgical Mtisee Dupuytren. The convent took its popular 
name from the waist-cord of its Franciscan or Minorite 
friars, and was supposed to possess the actual " cordon de 
St. François." Its church was built by St. Louis, with the 
line levied upon Enguerrand de Coucy, for having pun- 
ished with death three young men who were poaching on 



his land. The heart of Jeanne d'Evreux, wife of Philippe 
le Bel, was deposited here, by her desire. Other impor- 
tant monuments in the church were those of Pio, Prince 
di Carpi, and of Alexandre d'Ales or Hales, "la fleur 
des philosophes." It was here that the Duchesse de 
Nemours, a furious partisan of the Ligue, mounted the steps 


of the altar, after the death of Henri IH., and harangued 
the people, pouring forth a torrent of abuse against the 
murdered tyrant. The theological lectures of the convent 
were celebrated, especially those of Alexandre Hales, " le 
docteur irréfragable " ; St. Buonaventura, " le docteur séra- 
phique"i and duns Scotus, "le docteur subtil." Marie 



Thérèse d'Autriche added a large chapel to the church in 
honor of St. Elizabeth of Hungary, in 1672. 

At the Revolution the confiscated convent became the 
place where Camille Desmoulins founded the club of the 
Cordeliers, of which he and Danton were the principal 
orators ; and it was the tocsin of the Cordeliers which gave 
the signal for the attack upon the Tuileries, on August 10, 


1792. It was in the church of the Cordeliers that Marat 
lay in state, upon a catafalque, in his bloody shirt ; and in 
the little court close by, he was buried at midnight by 
torchlight, to rest (till his removal to the Pantheon) in the 
very place where he had harangued and excited the people 
in life. Every Sunday pilgrimages were organized hither 
to the grave of Marat. 



Part of the site of the convent is now occupied by the 
Ecole de Dessin^ founded by Bachelier in 1767, and entered 
from the Rue de l'Ecole de Médecine by a portal of great 
beauty, richly ornamented with caryatides in relief, by Con- 
stant Defeux. Its buildings are amongst the best speci- 
mens of XVII. c. architecture in Paris. 


The Ecole de Médecine^ on the other side of the street, 
swallows up the site of the Collège de Dainville, founded 
(in 1380) by Michel de Dainville, Archdeacon of Arras ; 
of the little Collège des Prémontre's; and of the once 
famous Collège de Bourgogne, founded by Jeanne de Bour- 
gogne, widow of Philippe le Long, for twenty Burgundian 
scholars to come to Paris to study logic and natural phi- 


losophy. Of the education there, contemporary memoirs 
allow us to judge. 

" I was sent to the college of Burgundy in 1542, in the third 
class ; in less than a year I was in the first. I find that these 
eighteen months of college did me much good. I learned to re- 
cite, dispute, and speak in public. I made the acquaintance of 
good boys, learned the frugal life of a scholar, and to regulate my 
time, so that on leaving I recited in public many Latin verses, 
and two thousand Greek verses, in the fashion of the time, and 
repeated Homer by heart from one end to the other. This was 
the cause why I was afterwards regarded favorably by the first 
men of the time." — Henri de Ales/nes, ^^ Me'moires" 

The Collège de Bourgogne was comprised in the col- 
leges united to the Collège Louis le Grand. Its buildings 
were given to the School of Surgery, and were pulled down, 
and the handsome buildings of the Ecole de Médecine 
(formerly de Chirurgie) founded by Louis XV. (1769) 
erected in their place. 

An admirable tourelle, at the corner of the Rue Larrey, 
has perished in recent times. At No. 20 Rue de l'Ecole 
de Médecine (recently destroyed) was the house where, in 
a back room, Charlotte Corday stabbed Marat — ^' l'ami du 
peuple" — in his bath, July 13, 1793. 

" Charlotte avoided fixing her eyes on him, for fear of be- 
traying the horror of her soul. Standing erect, with her eyes 
lowered, her hands hanging near the bath, she waited for Marat 
to interrogate her respecting the condition of Normandy. She 
replied briefly, giving to her answers the sense and the color 
proper to flatter the assumed disposition of the demagogue. He 
asked her at last the names of the deputies who had taken refuge 
at Caen. She dictated them to him, and he noted them down. 
Then when he had finished writing the names, he exclaimed, ' It 
is well ! ' with the accent of a man sure of his vengeance ; 'within 
eight days they will be at the guillotine ! ' 

"At these words, as if she had waited for a last crime to 
make her resolve to strike the blow, she drew from her bosom a 
knife, and plunged it with supernatural force to the hilt into 


Marat's heart. By the same movement she drew out the bleed- 
ing knife from the body of the victim, and let it fall at her feet. 
' Help, my love, help ! ' cried Marat, and expired under the 
blow." — Lamartine, ''Hist, des Gironditis." 

The illustration represents the old houses which ad- 
joined that of Marat — now destroyed. 

The Rue de l'Ecole de Médecine is henceforth swal- 
lowed up in the Boulevard St. Germain, on the right of 
which is the Ftie de r Ancienne Comédie, which once con- 
tained the Théâtre Français j and opposite it, the Café 
Procope, the resort of Voltaire and all the literary celebri- 
ties of his time. 



THE Pont Pvoyal, opposite the site of the Tuileries, 
leads us to the Qicai Voltaire^ so called because 
Voltaire died in the hotel of his friend the Marquis de 
Vilette, at the angle of the quai and the Rue de Beaune. 
The house was afterwards closed till the empire, a circum- 
stance which was taken advantage of in using it as a hid- 
ing-place for priests. Beyond the Quai Voltaire is the 
Quai Malaqiiais ; both are lined with bookstalls, where 
literary treasures may often be discovered. No. 17, with a 
great courtyard opening upon the Quai Malaquais, is the 
XVIII. c. Hotel de Bouillon or de Juigné^ occupied under 
the empire by the Ministère de Police. 

From the Pont des St. Feres, which crosses the Seine 
opposite the Rue des St. Peres, is one of the best of the 
Paris river views. 

" In the foreground was the Port St. Nicolas, the low sheds 
of the shipping offices, the broad, paved slope covered with heaps 
of sand, barrels, and sacks, and lined by a row of lighters, still 
full, in which a crowd of 'longshoremen were swarming beneath 
the shadow of a huge iron crane ; while on the other side of the 
water, a cold bath, enlivened by the shouts of the last bathers of 
the season, gave to the wind its awning of gray canvas which 
served as a roof. In the middle ground the Seine, with no boat 
on its surface, swelled in greenish tints with little dancing rip- 
ples, spotted with white, blue, and rose. The Pont des Arts gave 


a second background, standing high on its iron beams, delicate 
as black lace, and animated by the perpetual corning and going of 
foot passengers, a cavalcade of ants on the thin line of its road- 
way. Below, the Seine continued far into the distance ; the old 
arches of the Pont Neuf, brown with its weather-beaten stones, 
were in sight ; a gap opened to the left as far as the Isle de St. 
Louis, a flashing mirror of blinding narrowness, and the other 
arm of the stream was shortened where the dam of La Monnaie 
seemed to stop the view with its bar of foam. Along the Pont 
Neuf the great yellow omnibuses and wagons with striped tilts de- 
filed with the mechanical regularity of a child's toy. The whole 
background was framed in the perspective of the two banks ; on 
the right, the houses on the quays were half hid by a clump of tall 
trees, from which, at the horizon, stood out a corner of the Hôtel 
de Ville, and the square tower of St. Gervais lost in a confusion 
of suburb; on the left, awing of the Institute, the flat façade of the 
Mint, and more trees in a long file were visible. But the centre 
of the immense picture, rising up from the river, towering and 
reaching to heaven, was the Cité, that prow of an antique ship 
eternally gilded by the setting sun. Lower down, the poplars on 
the level ground formed a strong, green mass, that hid the statue. 
High up, the sun produced marvellous contrasts, bur)ing in 
shadow the gray houses of the Quai de l'Horloge, and lighting 
up the pink houses of the Ouai des Orfèvres, and the files of 
irregular houses, so clearly outlined that the eye could distin- 
guish the smallest details, the shops, the signs, and the window 
curtains. Higher still, amid the indentations of the chimney?, 
behind the oblique checkers of the little roofs, the pepper-boxes 
of the Palais de Justice and the top of the Prefecture, a wide 
expanse of slates was broken by a colossal white advertisement 
painted on a wall, whose giant letters, visible to all Paris, seemed 
to be the efflorescence of the modern fever on the brow of the 
city. Higher and higher still, above the twin towers of Notre 
Dame, in tones of old gold, two spires soared upward ; behind 
was the spire of the cathedral, and to the left the spire of the St. 
Chapelle, both so delicate and fine that they seemed to shiver in 
the breeze, the tall masts of the ship of ages, plunging in open 
day into light."— Z^'/«, "■ V Œuvre:'' 

Close to the entrance of the Rue Bonaparte (formerly 
Pot-de-Fer), on the right of the street, is the Ecole des 
Beaux- Arts (open daily from 10 to 4, except Sundays and 


holidays, when it opens at 12), occupying the site of the 
Couvent des Petits Augustins, founded by Marguerite de 
Valois,! first and divorced wife of Henri IV. (the " grosse 
Margot " of her brother, Charles IX.). One of her eccen- 
tric ideas was to have a Chapelle des Louanges^ served by 
fourteen friars, who were never to leave the convent, and 
never to cease singing, two and two at a time. 

" Queen Margaret brought hither the Bare-footed Augustines 
(Petits-Pères), to whom she gave a house, six arpents of land, and 
ten thousand livres annually, on condition that they should sing 
hymns and the praises of God to airs composed by her orders. Their 
fathers, assuredly, did not love music, for they persisted in sing- 
ing psalm-tunes. The queen drove them out, and put in their 
place some of the "shod" Augustines, who have since then 
rounded out pretty well and given their name to the street." — 
Saint Foix, ^^ Ess. hist, sur Paris" 1776. 

The famous Duke of Lauzun died at the Petits Augus- 
tins in December, 1723, at above ninety, having married 
Mile de Lorges after the death of La Grande Mademoiselle. 
During the Revolution the convent was used as a Musée 
des Monuments français., and more than twelve hundred 
pieces of sculpture from churches, palaces, and convents, 
were saved from destruction and collected here by the 
energy and care of Alexandre Lenoir. The admiration 
excited by the collection thus formed laid the foundation of 
a revived interest throughout France in the art of the 
middle ages, so that the Musée des Petits Augustins may 
be considered to have done a great work, though it was 
suppressed in 18 16. A few — too few — of its precious 
contents were then restored to their proper sites ; most of 
those unclaimed were transferred to the Louvre, Ver- 
sailles, or St. Denis : several remain here. Nothing but 

1 The Queen intended her foundation to be called Couvent de Jacob, a 
name which has passed to a neighboring street. She bequeathed her heart lo 
the convent, to be preserved in its chapel. 


the convent chapel and an oratory called after Marguerite 
de Valois remains of the conventual buildings. The 
present magnificent edifice was begun under Louis XVIII. 
and finished under Louis Philippe. In the midst of the 
first court is a Corinthian column surmounted by a figure 
of Abundance, in the style of Germain Pilon. To the left 
are a number of XV. c. sculptures from the Hôtel de la 
Trémouille in the Rue des Bourdonnais, destroyed 1841. 
On the right is the convent chapel, its portal replaced by 
that of the inner court of the Château d'Anet — a beautiful 
work of Jean Goujon and Philibert Delorme. Dividing 
the first from the second court is a façade from the 
château of Cardinal d'Amboise at Gaillon. 

Amongst the fragments in the second court are sym- 
bolical sculptures executed for the chapel of Philippe de 
Commines at the Grands Augustins ; capitals from the old 
church of St. Geneviève (XL c.) ; incised tombs, greatly 
injured by exposure to the weather ; and two porticoes (at 
the sides) from Gaillon. In the centre is the graceful 
shallow fountain ordered for the cloister of St. Denis by 
the Abbot Hugues (XII. c). 

The amphitheatre is adorned with the Hémicycle of 
Paul Delaroche. In the Cour du Mûrier is a monument 
to Henri Regnault, the sculptor, killed in the defence of 
Paris, 1870-71. 

The enlarging of the Beaux Arts towards the Quai 
Malaquais has destroyed the Hôtel de Cre'qui or Mazarin, 
where Fouche and Savary had their secret police office. 
In the next house (also destroyed now) Henrietta Maria 
once lived, and afterwards Marie Mancini, Duchesse de 
•Bouillon : it had paintings by Lebrun. 

The Rue Visconti, almost opposite the Beaux Arts (now 
called after the famous architect), was, as Rue des Marais, 


the great centre of the Huguenots. D'Aubigné says that 
it used to be called "le petit Genève." No. 19 in this 
street is the Hotel des Ranes^ on the site of the Petit Pré 
aux Clercs, and was the house in which Racine died, 
April 22, 1699. Adrienne Lecouvreur lived there in 
1730, and it was also inhabited by Champmele and Hip- 
polyte Clairon. 

In the Rue Jacob, behind the Beaux Arts, is (No. 47) 
the Hôpital de la Charité, founded by Marie de Medicis, 
who established the brothers of St. Jean de Dieu (Ben- 
fratelli) in Paris in 1602. The buildings mostly date from 
1 606-1 63 7. Antoine, architect of La Monnaie, added a 
wing at the end of the last century. The ancient chapel 
of the convent, now occupied by the Acade'mie de 
Médecine, has a façade on the Rue des St. Pères. 

The part of the Rue Jacob east of the Rue Bonaparte, 
formerly Rue du Colombier, contained, on its south side, 
the ancient chapel of St. Martin le Vieux (or des Orges), 
and afterwards, on the same site, a house with a very 
picturesque tourelle, destroyed 1850.^ 

Returning to the Quai, and passing an admirable Statue 
of Voltaire, we reach the Institut de France^ held in a palace 
built on the site of the Hôtel de Nesle, in pursuance of the 
will of Cardinal Mazarin, who left a fortune to build a 
college for sixty gentlemen of Pignerol, the States of the 
Church, Alsace, Flanders, and Roussillon. The works, 
begun from designs of Levau, were finished in 1662, and 
the new college received the official name of Collège 
Mazarin, but the public called it Collège des Quatre 
Nations. Cardinal Mazarin was buried in its church, 
where his niece, the Duchesse Mazarin, too famous during' 
the reign of Charles II., dying in England in 1699, was 

^ See Adolphe Bertz, Top. hist, du vieux Paris. 


buried by his side, after her body had been carried about 
for two years by her husband, from whom she had been 
separated in life since her twenty-fourth year J 

Under the Revolution the buildings of the college were 
used as a prison. The Institute was installed there on 
October 26, 1795, having been originally designed by 
Colbert, though only founded by the National Convention 
to replace the academies it had destroyed. The five 
academies united here are now: i. Académie Française; 
2. Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres; 3. Aca- 
démie des Sciences ; 4. Académie des Beaux- Arts ; 5. 
Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. The 
library and collections of the Institute are common to all 
the academies. A general meeting for the distribution of 
prizes is held every year on October 25. 

The Académie Frafiçaise was founded by Richelieu 
(1635). It has never numbered more than forty members. 
Their object is supposed to be the perfecting of the 
French language and the advancement of literature. The 
expression, " Couronné par l'Académie Française," means 
that the author has received one of the prizes of the 
French Academy. The reputation of the Academy has, 
however, been by no means untarnished. It was the 
Academy of flatterers which, in the time of Louis XIV., 
proposed as a subject, " Laquelle des vertus du roi est la 
plus digne de l'admiration ? " It was the Academy which 
rejected both Racine and Boileau, till the king insisted on 
their admission ; which never admitted Molière ; which 
never invited Helvetius, Rousseau, Diderot, Raynal ; and 
which expelled the patriot St. Pierre. 

" Des que j'eus l'air d'un homme heureux, tous mes con- 
frères, les beaux esprits de Paris, se déchaînèrent contre moi 

» St. Simon. 


avec toute l'animosité et l'acharnement qu'ils devaient avoir 
contre quelqu'un à qui on donnait les récompenses qu'il méri- 
tait." — Voltaire, 

The Palais de l'Institut was begun from plans of Levau 
in 1 66 1. Its front is a concave semicircle, ending in 
pavilions, and, in the centre, the domed church, which 
contained the tomb of Mazarin, the masterpiece of Coyse- 
vox, now in the Louvre. This is now the hall of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the different sections of the Institute. 

Mazarin collected books from his earliest years, and, 
after he became Prime Minister, opened every Thursday 
his library of 45,000 volumes to the public. But, in 165 1, 
during the troubles of the Fronde, Parliament ordered the 
Cardinal's books to be sold, and his library was entirely 
dispersed. When, only two years after, Mazarin returned 
more powerful than ever, he left no effort untried to re- 
cover his books, which was rendered easier because their 
bindings bore his arms. By 1660 the library was recov- 
ered, and in the following year he bestowed it upon his 
foundation of the Collège des Quatre Nations. At the 
Revolution, the collection was increased by 50,000 books 
seized from religious houses or private collections, includ- 
ing those of " Louis Capet, Veuve Capet, Adélaïde Capet," 
&c. The Library is open to the public daily from 10 to 5, 
except on Sundays and holidays. The vacation is from 
July 15 to September i. 

The Bibliothèque Mazarine is entered from the left of 
the courtyard. In the anteroom is a copper globe exe- 
cuted by the brothers Bergwin for Louis XVI. and at 
which he is believed to have worked with his own hands. 
The library itself is a long chamber, full of dignity and 
repose. The bookshelves are divided by pillars, with 
busts in front : that of Mazarin stands at the end. In the 


centre are cases full of books attractive from rare bindings 
or autographs of previous possessors, and a collection of 
models of Pelasgic buildings very interesting to those who 
have travelled in Greece and Italy. 

The dome of the Institute is always a great feature in 
views of Paris, but especially at sunset. 

"In no primeval forest, in no mountain path, in no expanse 
of plains, will there ever be such triumphal closes of the day as 
behind the cupola of the Institute. Paris slumbers in their 
glory." — Zola, '' V Œuvre." 

The Tour de Nesle (Nigella) which formerly occupied 
the site of the Institution, was a lofty round tower with 
a loftier tourelle, containing a winding staircase, attached 
to it. It corresponded with another tower on the other 
side of the river, which stood at some distance from the 
Louvre, at the angle of the city walls, and was known 
as "la Tour qui fait le coin." Sometimes, for the protec- 
tion of the river, a chain was stretched from one tower to 
the other. The Tour de Nesle, enclosed in the walls of 
Philippe Auguste, was part of a hotel which belonged to 
Amauri de Nesle, who sold it to Philippe le Bel in 1308. 
Jeanne de Bourgogne, wàfe of Philippe le Long, always 
lived in the Hôtel de Nesle during the eight years of her 
widowhood. Her being the heiress of Franche Comté 
had caused her to be acquitted and reconciled to her hus- 
band after she was accused of adultery together with the 
two other daughters-in-law of Philippe le Bel, though the 
Princesses Blanche and Marguerite were imprisoned for 
life, and their supposed lovers, Philippe and Gautier 
d'Aulnoi, beheaded, after the most cruel tortures. At the 
same time, many persons, as well of lofty as of humble 
degree, supposed to have favored the loves of the prin- 
cesses, were sewn up in sacks and thrown into the river. 


It is probable that Jeanne, who was accused of the same 
galanteries as her sisters-in-law, and who actually lived at 
the Tour de Nesle, was the heroine of its famous legend. 

" C'étoit une reine qui se tenoit à l'hôtel de Nesle, faisant le 
guet au passants, et ceux qui lui revenaient et agréaient le plus, 
de quelque sorte de gens que ce fussent, les faisait appeler et 
venir à soy de nuit, et après en avoir tiré ce qu'elle en voulait, 
les faisait précipiter du haut de la tour qui paraît encore en bas 
en l'eau, et les faisait noyer. Je ne veux pas dire que cela soit 
vrai, mais le vulgaire, au moins plupart de Paris, l'affirme, et 
n'y a si commun, qu'en lui monstrant la tour seulement et en 
l'interrogeant, que de lui-même ne le die." — Brantôme, ^* Dames 

"Robert Gaguin, an historian of the end of the XV. c, re- 
lates that a scholar named Jean Buridan, having escaped this 
peril, proposed in the schools the celebrated sophism, Licitum 
est occidere reginaju. ' The same Buridan was, at the time when 
Philip of Valois was reigning, a very famous regent in arts.' 
According to others, the cruel queen, on the contrary, made 
attempts on the life of the celebrated Doctor Buridan, one of the 
chiefs of the philosophical sect of the nominalists, because he 
warned his scholars against the illicit loves of this Messalina of 
the middle ages." — Martin, ''Hist, de France." 

The poet Villon, who was born in 143 1, writes in his 
" Ballade des Dames du temps jadis " — 

" Semblablement où est la royne 
Qui commanda que Buridan 
Fut jeté en un sac en Sceine." 

It was to this same Hôtel de Nesle that Henriette de 
Clèves, wife of Louis de Gonzague, Duc de Nemours, 
brought the head of her lover Coconas (beheaded 1574), 
which had been exposed on the Place de Grève, and 
which she carried off at night, and kept ever after in a 
cabinet behind her bed.^ The same chamber was watered 
with the tears of her granddaughter, Marie Louise de Gon- 

^ See Mémoires de Nevers, i. 57. 


zague de Clèves, whose lover, Cinq-Mars, had the same 
fote as Coconas, and was beheaded in 1642. 

Henry V. of England inhabited the Tour de Nesle 
when he was at Paris, and caused " Le mystère de la pas- 
sion de Saint Georges " to be acted there. In 1552, Henri 
H. sold the hotel, and soon after it was all pulled down, 
except the tower and gateway (by which part of the army 
of Henri IV. entered Paris), which stood till 1663, when 
they were demolished to make way for the Collège Mazarin. 

The painter Jouvenet lived and worked in the pavilion 
of the Collège Mazarin which touches the Quai Conti. 
On the Quai Conti^ a house at the corner of the Rue de 
Nevers, was that in which Napoleon I. lived, on the fifth 
floor, as a simple officer of artillery, fresh from the school 
of Brienne. 

Behind the Institute, on the west, runs the Rue Maza- 
rin^ famous for its curiosity-shops, where, behind the houses, 
are remains of the walls of Philippe Auguste. 

A little east of the Institute is the Hotel de la Monnaie 
(the Mint), a fine building by Jacques Denis Antoine, 
erected 1768-17 75, on a site previously occupied by the 
Hôtel de Guénégand,^ then by the Grand et Petit Hôtels 
de Conti. The original Mint was in the He de la Cité. 
The museum of coins, medals, &c., is open to the public 
on Tuesdays and Fridays from 2 to 3. The laboratory is 
only shown by a special permission from the Commission 
des Monnaies et Médailles. On the garden side a stately 
front of the Petit Hotel de Conti may still be seen enclosed 
in later buildings. 

We may now turn south, following the Rue de la Seine, 

^ The literary soirées of Mme de Guénégand had a great celebrity. The 
Mémoires de Coulanges describe Boileau reciting his verses there to a society 
composed of Mmes de Sévigné, de Feuquières, and de la Fayette, MM. de la 
Rochefoucauld, de Sens, de Saintes, de Léon, and de Caumartin. 


where Marguerite de Valois, the repudiated and licentious 
first wife of Henri IV., having leave to reside in Paris, 
lived after she left the Hôtel de Sens in the Marais till her 
death, which occurred here, March 27, 16 15. She chose 
this residence because " il lui parut piquant de demeurer 
vis-à-vis du Louvre, où régnait Marie de Medicis." Sully, 
however, praises the sweetness of temper, resignation, and 
disinterestedness of Queen Marguerite. 

" I saw Queene Margarite, the king's divorced wife, being 
carried by men in the open streets under a stately canopy." — 
Coryafs " Crudities'' 1611. 

It was in the house of Queen Marguerite that the first 
literary academy met, under Antoine Leclerc de la Forêt 
as president. 

The Rue de la Seine will bring us to the Palace of the 
Luxembourg^ now the Palace of the Senate (open from 9 to 4 
in winter, 9 to 5 in summer), built by Marie de Medicis 
"on the site of a hotel erected by Robert de Harlay de 
Saucy early in the XVI. c, which was bought by the Due 
de Pincy-Luxembourg. The queen employed Jacques De- 
brosses as her architect in 16 15, and his work was com- 
pleted in 1620. The ground floor, in the Tuscan style, 
was intended to convey a reminiscence of the Florentine 
Palazzo Pitti, in which Marie de Medicis was born ; the 
upper stories are Grecian. 

" I think this one of the most noble, entire, and finish'd piles 
that is to be seen, taking it with the gardens and all its accom- 
plishments." — Johji Evelyn. 

"In plan, the Luxembourg is essentially French, consisting 
of a magnificent corps de logis 315 feet in width by 170 feet in 
depth, and three stories in l^eight, from which wings project 230 
feet, enclosing a courtyard, with the usual screen and entrance 
tower in front. By the boldness of his masses, and the variety of 
light and shade he has introduced everywhere, the architect has 
sought to relieve the monotony of detail by the variety of outline. 


He has done this with such success that even now there are few 
palaces in France which, on the whole, are so satisfactory and so 
little open to adverse criticism." — Fergusson. 

The queen intended to call the palace Palais Medicis, 
though the name has always clung to it which is derived 
from François de Luxembourg, prince de Tingry, who 
owned the site in 1570. The palace was bequeathed by 
Marie de Medicis to her younger son, Gaston, Due d'Or- 
léans, from whom it came to his two daughters, who each 
held half of the Luxembourg — "La Grande Mademoiselle," 
and the pious Duchesse de Guise (whose mother, sister of 
the Due de Lorraine, had clandestinely become the second 
wife of Monsieur), who was terribly tyrannized over by her 
rich half-sister. It was here that Mademoiselle received 
the visits of M. de Lauzun, whilst La Fosse was painting 
the loves of Flore and Zephyr, and here that she astonished 
Europe by the announcement of her intended marriage, to 
which — for a few days — Louis XIV. was induced to give 
his consent. 

" I am going to tell you something, the most astonishing, the 
most surprising, the most marvellous, the most miraculous, the 
most triumphant, the most stupifying, the most unheard-of, the 
most singular, the most extraordinary, the most incredible, the 
most unforeseen, the greatest, the smallest, the rarest, the com- 
monest, the most striking, the most secret till to-day, the most 
dazzling, the most enviable thing, a thing of which only one 
example can be found in times past, and yet this example is not 
parallelled, a thing which we cannot believe in Paris, so how can 
it be believed at Lyons? a thing which makes all the world say 
' Mercy on us ! ' a thing which will take place on Sunday, when 
those who shall see it will believe they are short-sighted, a thing 
which will take place on Sunday, and which will not have taken 
place on Monday — I cannot make up m}' mind to tell you — guess 
then ; I will give you three times. •' Do you give it up ?' Well, 
then, I must tell you : M. de Lauzun is to be married on Sun- 
day at the Louvre. Guess to whom ! I will give you four 
guesses, I will give you six, I will give you a hundred ! Mme 


dc Coulanges said : ' It is very hard to guess. It is Mme do. 
la Vallière.' ' Not at all, Madame.' 'Then it is Mile de Retz.' 
' Not at all — how countrified you are ! ' ' Ah, truly we are very 
stupid, 'you say ; ' it is Mile Colbert.' ' Worse and worse ! ' 'It 
is certainly Mile de Créqui.' You are not near it. I must then 
at last tell you. He marries on Sunday, at the Louvre, by per- 
mission of the king, Mademoiselle . . . Mademoiselle de . . . 
Mademoiselle — guess the name ! He marries Mademoiselle, 
daughter of the late Monsieur, Mademoiselle, granddaughter of 
Henri IV., Mademoiselle d'Eu, Mademoiselle de Dombes, Made- 
moiselle de Montpensier, Mademoiselle d'Orléans, Mademoiselle, 
the cousin-german of the king. Mademoiselle, destined to the 
throne. Mademoiselle, the only parti in France worthy of Mon- 
sieur. Here's a pretty subject to talk about." — M?ne de Sévigné, 
15 Décembre, 1670. 

Unforunately for Mademoiselle, she did not take the 
king at his word and marry at once, but waited for a mag- 
nificent ceremonial. Four days later we read — 

" What is called 'tumbling from the clouds ' happened yes- 
terday evening at the Tuileries. But I must begin further back. 
You know the joy, the transports, the raptures of the Princess 
and her happy lover. On Monday the announcement was made, 
as I have told you. Tuesday was passed in talking, wondering, 
and complimenting. On Wednesday Mademoiselle made a set- 
tlement on M. de Lauzun, with the design of giving him the 
titles, names, and styles necessary to be named in the marriage 
contract, which was drawn up the same day. She gave him then, 
while waiting for something more, four duchies. The first was, 
the countyship of Eu, which is the first peerage of France, and 
gives precedence ; the duchy of Montpensier, the name of which 
he bore all the day yesterday ; the duchy of Saint-Fangeau, and 
the duchy of Chatellerault ; in all about twenty-two millions. 
The contract was then drawn up, and he took in it the name of 
Montpensier. Friday morning, yesterday. Mademoiselle hoped 
that the king would sign the contract as he promised ; but about 
seven o'clock in the evening, the queen. Monsieur, and some grey- 
beards gave his majesty to understand that this affair would cause 
him much discredit, so that, after summoning Mademoiselle and 
M. de Lauzun, the king declared, in the presence of the Prince, 
that he absolutely forbade them to think of the marriage. M. de 


Lauzun received the order with all the respect, all the submission, 
all the firmness, and all the despair befitting such a fall. As for 
Mademoiselle, with her disposition, she burst into tears, cries, 
violent laments and excessive complaints, and kept her bed all 
day, taking nothing but beef-tea. Here is a pretty dream, a fine 
subject for a romance or a tragedy." 

The independent spirit of Mademoiselle was not con- 
fined to her love affairs. 

"When the Court of France went into mourning for Crom- 
well, Mademoiselle was the only one who did not render that 
homage to the memory of the murderer of a king who was her 
relative." — Voltaire. 

At her death, Mademoiselle bequeathed her right in 
the Luxembourg to her cousin Philippe, Due d'Orléans, 
brother of Louis XIV. During the Regency, the palace 
was the residence of the Duchesse de Berry (daughter of 
the Regent, Philippe d'Orléans), who, by her orgies here 
rivalled those of her father at the Palais Royal. The 
Luxembourg was bought by Louis XV., and given by 
Louis XVL to his brother, " Monsieur," who resided in it 
till his escape from Paris at the time of the flight to 

Treated as national property during the Revolution, 
the Luxembourg became one of the prisons of the Reign of 
Terror. Amongst other prisoners, comprising the most 
illustrious names in France, were the Viscomte de Beau- 
harnais and his wife Josephine, afterwards Empress of the 
French ; " De quoi se plaignent donc ces damnés aristo- 
crates ? " cried a Montagnard ; " nous les logeons dans 
les châteaux royaux." David the painter designed his 
picture of the Sabines during his imprisonment at the 
Luxembourg, in a little room on the second floor. Here 
also, in a different category, were imprisoned Hébert, 
Danton, Camille Desmoulins, Philippeaux, Lacroix, Hé- 


rault de Séchelles, Payne, Bazire, Chabot, and Fabre 
d'Eglantine. In 1793 people used to come and stand for 
hours in the garden in the hope of being able to have a 
last sight of their friends, from their being allowed to show 
themselves at the windows. 

" Beyond the pain of seeing every day some comrade, whose 
society and misfortune had often made him a precious friend, 
torn from one's side ; beyond the cruel suspense in which each 
of us was in, of being taken out and guillotined ; beyond the 
numberless persecutions which the barbarous ingenuity of the 
concierge and his assistant inflicted every day ; beyond the per- 
petual alarms into which the forced silence of their families and 
the refusal of newspapers plunged the prisoners ; beyond all 
these, came a new calamity calculated to work in our physique the 
evils which had already affected our minds. I speak of the com- 
mon tables, an institution precious in itself, but abandoned to 
greedy men who speculated on poisoning or starving to death the 
citizens they ought to feed What was sought for, hap- 
pened. Sickness increased ; the patients had no attention ; to 
get a cooling drink, required an order from the medical man, 
which had to be countersigned by the police, in whose office the 
license would then remain for many da)^s ; and then when this 
license was obtained, it was only for a high price that the drugs 
prescribed could be procured. We all wasted away ; death was 
painted on every face ; the only news we received was from the 
sepulchral voice of a hired ruffian, who came beneath the windows 
of the unfortunate prisoners, and cried : List of the sixty or eighty 
winners in the Lottery of Saint Guillotine. Some barriers de- 
prived the prisoners of the last consolation they could have, the 
sight of their families or friends. All gave up hopes of life, and 
waited in sad resignation the moment of execution. The prison- 
ers who dared to anticipate it, were regarded by these cannibals 
as the most consummate scoundrels, and their corpses and mem- 
ory barbarously insulted." — " Mémoires sur les prisons " 

"Among the female prisoners in the Luxembourg were the 
Duchesses of Noailles and Ayen ; the former was about eighty- 
three years old, and almost entirely deaf ; she could scarcely 
walk, but was obliged to go like the rest to the common trough, 
and carry with her a bottle, a plate and a dish of wood, for any 
other was prohibited. As they were dying of hunger when they 



went to this wretched dinner, each strove to be there as early as 
possible, without paying attention to those near. The old Maré- 
chale was pushed about like the others, and, being too weak to 
resist such shocks, she dragged herself on by the wall, so as not 
to be upset at every step ; she dared not advance or retreat, and 
only reached the table when all the others were seated. The 
jailer took her roughly by the arm, swung her round and placed 
her on the seat as if she had been a bundle." — Bcaidieu, ''Essais 
Historiques y 

" I found in the same prison the Maréchal and Maréchale 
de Mouchy, the Princess Joseph of Monaco, the Duchess dc 
Fleury, Mme de la Rivière, her daughter, Mme de Chaunéau- 
Breteuil, and Mme de Narbonne, and I do not know how many 
other ladies of my kindred or friends, who received me with open 
arms, but with heavy hearts. 

" I shall never forget the moment of the departure of the 
Maréchale de Mouchy, who insisted on accompanying her hus- 
band to the revolutionary tribunal. The jailer and his wife, and 
all the turnke)'s, told her in the courtyard to which we had de- 
scended and gathered together to bid them our sad farewells: 
' Stop here ; go awa3% citizeness ; you are not summoned to the 
tribunal.' ' Citizens,' she said, 'have pity on us, have the charity 
to let me go with M. de Mouchy ; do not part us.' Her cap fell 
off, and she stooped down painfully and picked it up to cover 

her poor white hair At length her devotion triumphed 

over the resistance of her jailers, and she was permitted to mount 
the fatal car by her husband's side, and, two hours afterwards, 
they had ceased to exist." — Souvenirs de la Marqtiise de Cre'qui. 

It was at the Luxembourg, that (December 10, 1797) 
Bonaparte presented the treaty of the peace of Campo 
Formio to the Directory, after returning from his first 
campaign in Italy. At the end of 1799, the palace be- 
came for a time Le Palais du Consulat: under the empire 
it was Le Palais du Sénat, then de la Pairie. Marshal Ney 
was condemned to death here, under the Restoration 
(November 21, 18 15), and was executed in the AUe'e de 
l'Observatoire, at the end of the garden, on December 7. 
The iron wicket still remains in the door of his prison, 
opening west at the end of the great gallery of archives. 


The ministers of Charles X. were also judged at the Lux- 
embourg, and Fieschi and the other conspirators of July, 
1835, were condemned here; as was Prince Louis Napoleon 
Bonaparte, after the attempt at Boulogne in 1840. 

The Luxembourg is only shown when the Senate is 
not sitting. The apartments best worth seeing are the 
Chapel of 1844, decorated with modern paintings; and 
the Ancie7i7ie Salle du Livre d^or, where the titles and arms 
of peers were preserved under the Restoration and Louis 
Philippe, adorned with the decorations of the apartment 
of Marie de Medicis. The ceiling of the gallery which 
forms part of the hall represents the Apotheosis of Marie. 
The arabesques in the principal hall are attributed to 
Giovanni da Udine : the ceiling represents Marie de Me- 
dicis re-establishing the peace and unity of France. The 
first floor is reached by a great staircase which occupies 
the place of a gallery once filled with the twenty-four great 
pictures of the life of the Regent Marie by Rubens, now 
in the Louvre. The oratory of the queen and another 
room are now united to form the Salle des Gardes, her 
bedroom is the Salle des Messagers d'Etat, and her recep- 
tion-room is known as the Salon de Napoleon I. The 
cupola of the Salle du Trône by Alaux represents the Apo- 
theosis of the first emperor. 

The Hotel du Petit Ltixembourg is a dependency of the 
greater palace, and was erected about the same time by 
Richelieu, who resided here till the Palais Royal was 
built. When he moved thither, he gave this palace to his 
niece, the Duchesse d'Aiguillon, from whom it passed to 
Henri Jules de Bourbon-Condé, after which it received the 
name of Petit Bourbon. Anne, Palatine of Bavaria, lived 
here, and added a hotel towards the Rue Vaugirard to ac- 
commodate her suite. Under the first empire the Petit 


Luxembourg was occupied for some time by Joseph Bona- 
parte. It is now the official residence of the President of 
the Senate. The cloister of the former convent of the 
Filles du Calvaire, whom Marie de Medicis established 
near her palace, is now a winter garden attached to the 
Petit Luxembourg. The chapel, standing close to the 
grille of the Rue de Vaugirard, is an admirable specimen of 
the renaissance of the end of the XVL c. : on the summit 
of its gable is a symbolical Pelican nourishing its young. 

Beyond the Petit Luxembourg, is a modern building 
containing the Musée du Luxembourg. The collection 
now in the galleries of the Louvre was begun at the Lux- 
embourg and only removed in 1779, when Monsieur came 
to reside here. In 1802 a new gallery was begim at the 
Luxembourg, but, in 18 15, its pictures were removed to 
the Louvre to fill the places of those restored to their 
rightful owners by the Allies. It was Louis XVIII. who 
ordered that the Luxembourg should receive such works 
of living artists as were acquired by the State. The col- 
lection, recently moved from halls in the palace itself, is 
always interesting, but as the works of each artist are re- 
moved to the Louvre ten years after his death, the pict- 
ures are constantly changing. They are open to the pub- 
lic daily, except on Mondays, from 10 to 4 in winter, and 
9 to 5 in summer. 

The Gardens of the Luxembourg^ the " bel-respiro " of 
Paris, as Lady Morgan calls it, are delightful, and are the 
best type of an ancient French palace pleasaunce — indeed, 
they are now the prettiest and pleasantest spot in Paris. 
Diderot, in his Neveu de Rameau, alludes to his walks in 
these gardens, and Rousseau took his daily exercise here, 
till he found the gardens becoming too frequented for his 
misanthropic disposition. 


" There is everything in this garden, and everything is of ex- 
traordinary grandeur ; grand railings, grand long alleys, grand 
groves, many grand gardens filled with simples, and a parterre 
which is the most magnificent in Europe." — Sauvai. 

" The parterre is indeed of box, but so rarely design'd and 
accurately kept cut, that the embroidery makes a wonderful 
effect to the lodgings which front it. 'Tis divided into four 
squares, and as many circular knots, having in ye centre a noble 
basin of marble neere thirty feet in diameter, in which a triton 
of brasse holds a dolphine that casts a girandola of water neere 
thirty foote high, playing perpetually, the water being convey'd 
from Arcueil by an aqueduct of stone, built after ye old Roman 
magnificence."— /c'/iw Evelyn, 1644. 

There is a noble view of the Pantheon down one of 
the avenues. The parterres were decorated by Louis 
Philippe with statues of the queens of France and other 
illustrious Frenchwomen, the best statue being that of 
Mile de Montpensier by Desmesnay. Towards the Rue 
de Medicis, on the east, is the handsome fountain of Marie 
de Medicis, erected by Jacques Debrosses (1620). The 
forcible closing of these gardens by the Duchesse de Berry 
during the minority of Louis XV. was an early and fruit- 
ful source of irritation for the people of Paris against the 
arbitrary conduct of the aristocracy. Those who spend a 
quiet morning hour here will appreciate the description 
which Victor Hugo gives of the gardens on a June morn- 

" The Luxembourg, solitary and depopulated, was delicious. 
The quincunxes and flower-beds sent balm and dazzlement into 
the light, and the branches, wild in the brilliancy of midday, 
seemed trying to embrace each other. There was in the syca- 
mores a twittering of linnets, the sparrows were triumphal, and 
the woodpeckers crept along the chestnut, gently tapping the 
holes in the bark. The beds accepted the legitimate royalty of 
the lilies, for the most august of perfumes is that which issues 
from whiteness. The sharp odor of the carnations was inhaled, 
and the old rooks of Marie de Medicis made love,on the lofty 


trees. The sun gilded, purpled, and illumined the tulips, which 
are nothing but all the varieties of flame made into flowers. All 
around the tulip-beds hummed the bees, the flashes of these fire- 
flowers. All was grace and gayety, even the coming shower, for 
that relapse, by which the lilies and honey-suckles would profit, 
had nothing alarming about it, and the swallows made the deli- 
cious menace of lying low. What was there aspired happiness : 
life smelt pleasantly, and all this nature exhaled candor, help, 
assistance, paternity, caresses, and dawn. The thoughts that fell 
from heaven were as soft as a little child's hand we kiss. The 
statues under the trees, nude and white, were robed in dresses of 
shadow shot with light ; these goddesses were all ragged with 
sunshine, and beams hung from them on all sides. Around the 
great basin the earth was already so dry as to be parched, and 
there was a breeze sufficiently strong to create here and there 
small riots of dust. A few yellow leaves remaining from the last 
autumn joyously pursued each other, and seemed to be sporting. 
Thanks to the sand, there was not a speck of mud, and, thanks 
to the rain, there was not a grain of ash. The bouquets had just 
performed their ablutions, and all the velvets, all the satins, all 
the varnish, and all the gold which issue from the earth in the 
shape of flowers, were irreproachable. This magnificence was 
cleanly, and the grand silence of happy nature filled the garden. 
A heavenly silence, compatible with a thousand strains of music, 
the fondling tones from the nests, the buzzing of the swarms, 
and the palpitations of the wind. The whole harmony of the 
season was blended into a graceful whole, the entrances and exits 
of spring took place in the desired order, the lilacs were finish- 
ing, and the jessamine beginning, a few flowers were retarded, a 
few insects before their time, and the vanguard of the red butter- 
flies of June fraternized with the rearguard of the white butter- 
flies of May. The plane trees were putting on a fresh skin, and 
the breeze formed undulations in the magnificent enormity of the 
chestnut-trees. It was splendid. A veteran from the adjoining 
barracks, who was looking through the railings, said, ' Nature is 
wearing her full-dress uniform.' "— " Les Misérables:' 

The gardens do not, however, always produce such a 
favorable impression. 

" Dare you venture your feet into the depths of the trans- 
pontine suburb? The sight of the veteran, sad and solemn as 
Time,— will it not make you pause at the gates of the Luxem- 


bourg ? Children cry, nurses scold, go on quickly ; then some 
old men, who live on their incomes, display their gout, their 
rheumatism, their phthisis, or their paralysis ; go on quickly 
again. The Luxembourg is the meeting-place of dyspeptic and 
tiresome old age, and crying and troublesome infancy ; sticks 
and perambulators are met at every step ; the place is the Elysium 
of the gouty, the fatherland of nurses." — Balzac, ''Esquisses 

Close to the Luxembourg, on the north-east, is the 
great Odeon Theatre (by Wailly and Peyre), which occu- 
pies the site of the older Hôtel de Condé. In its earlier 
existence this was the Hôtel de Gondi, having been bought 
by Jérôme de Gondi, Duc de Retz, one of an Italian 
family who came to France in the service of Catherine de 
Medicis, and made an immense fortune there. Being sold 
for debt, the hotel was acquired (in 1612) by Henri de 
Bourbon, Prince de Condé, but his son left it for the sec- 
ond Hôtel de Condé, near the Louvre. 

In the Rue M. le Prince (a little east) is the house — 
No. 10 — where Comte lived and wrote \\\?, Positive Polity. 
He occupied the first floor, where his rooms are preserved 
by the Positivists in the same state in which he left them 
at his death — his salon, bedroom, bed, sofa, and even his 
old clothes in the cupboard, are cherished. He was buried 
at Père Lachaise. 

The Rue de Tournon leads direct north from the en- 
trance of the Luxembourg. It was at the angle of this 
street and the Rue du Petit Bourbon that the furious 
Duchesse de Montpensier lived, sister of the Guises mur- 
dered at Blois. Here she is said to have plotted the mur- 
der of Henry HI., and here she received the mother of 
Jacques Clément, when she came from her village of Sor- 
bonne, near Sens, to claim a reward for the assassination 
by her son, and returned, having obtained it, and accom- 


panied by 140 ecclesiastics as a guard of honor for a league 
out of the town, 

'" The man who brought the first news to the Duchess of 
Montpensier (Catherine Marie de Lorraine) and her mother, Mme 
de Nemours, was received as a savior ; the duchess flung her 
arms round his neck and kissed him, crying, ' Ah, my friend, 
welcome ! But it is true, is it not? Is the scoundrel, the traitor, 
the tyrant, dead ? God, how you relieve me ! I am only crossed 
by one thing ; that is, that he did not know before he died that it 
was I who had him killed ! ' " — Pmil Lacroix. 

The Hotel de V E7iiperew Joseph (No. 33 at the top of 
the street on the right), is where that prince, who preferred 
an inn, staid when he came to visit his sister Marie Antoi- 
nette. An inscription at No. 34 marks the house where 
the tragic actor Henri Lekain was living at the time of his 
death in 1778. No. 6, on the left, formerly known as the 
Hotel Nii^ernais^ of the XVIII. c, stands on the site of the 
Hôtel of Concini, Maréchal d'Ancre, minister of Marie de 
Medicis ; it is low, and built of light materials, for fear it 
should go through to the catacombs beneath. 

Along the front of the Luxembourg runs the Rue de 
Vaugirard. Here, at the corner of the Rue Ferou (right), 
is, nearly unaltered, the Hotel de Madame de la Fayette. 

" The garden of Mme de la Fayette is the prettiest thing in 
the world, all flowers and perfume. We pass many an evening 
there, for the poor woman dare not go in a carriage." — Mme dc 
Sévi^né, 30 mai, 1672. 

At the corner of the Rue Cassette (right) is the Hbtel 
de Hemiisdal, formerly de Brissac, named in golden letters 
above its gate, and retaining its old garden, with a grille of 

No. 70 is the Dominican convent to which the famous 
Père Lacordaire belonged. The foundation stone of its 
chapel was laid by Marie de Medicis in 161 2. The heart 


of Archbishop Affre, killed on the Barricade St. Antoine, 
in the revolution of 1848, is preserved here, and the 
epitaph of Cardinal de Beausset, historian of Fe'nelon and 

As Les Carmes^ this convent (founded by Louis XIII.) 
was the scene of the terrible massacre of priests in Sep- 
tember, 1792. 

"The massacre of the priests who were in the Abbaye being 
finished, the other prisons, containing a much larger number, 
were opened to the assassins. They went, first, to the Carmelite 
Convent, whither the municipality had sent, a few days pre- 
viously, one hundred and eighty-five priests, including three 
archbishops or bishops ; that is to say, the Archbishop of Aries 
(Dulau), late agent of the clergy, and one of the prelates of the 
Church of France, most estimable for his profound views, his 
zeal and his virtues ; the Bishop of Beauvais (La Rochefoucauld) 
and his brother, the Bishop of Saintes. They were all made to 
leave the church half an hour before the arrival of the murderers, 
and to pass into the garden after a roll-call had proved that no 
one was absent. The threatening cries that they heard from all 
sides, the pikes and sabres which they saw gleaming through the 
rails and barred windows that looked into the garden told them 
that their last hour had come, and they awaited it with the most 
heroic resignation. 

"Four o'clock struck; the murderers entered the church, 
belching out oaths and insults well fitted to revive and augment 
their rage and harden them to the greatest crimes. After having 
assured themselves that no priest was hidden in the church, they 
sallied out by the gate which leads to the garden. This gate, 
guarded by the National Gendarmerie, was opened to them with- 
out the least resistance. At their approach the priests dispersed ; 
some, in the hope of saving themselves, climbed trees, or scaled 
walls, with a view of flinging themselves into the street or the yards 
of the adjacent houses ; these were the first to be chased, and 
they were nearly all brought down by muskets ; then sabres, pikes, 
and bayonets finished the slaughter. Others scattered through 
the garden and quietly awaited their lot ; others, almost thirty in 
number, gathered around the three prelates, in a little chapel at 
the end of the garden, and there, on their knees, implored divine 
mercy, mutually bestowing the benediction, and embracing each 


other for the last time. Ten ruffians advanced; one of the priests 
stepped out to speak with them, but a ball struck him and laid 
him low. The murderers called aloud for the Archbishop of 
Aries ; no one replied ; one of them recognized him by the 
description that had been given of him. 'Thou, then,' he said, 
'art the Archbishop of Aries?' ' Gentlemen, I am,' the prelate 
replied coolly. 'Wretch, thou wert the man who shed the blood 
of the patriots of Aries.' 'Gentlemen, I have never caused the 
shedding of any one's blood, and never in my life have I done 
harm to any one ! ' 'Well, I'll do some to thee,' and with these 
words he struck him across the brow with a sabre. The arch- 
bishop remained motionless ; he received a second stroke on the 
face, and his blood, streaming in great jets, deluged him till he 
was past recognition. A third blow struck him down ; he fell 
without uttering the slightest complaint ; one of the wretches 
thrust his pike into his chest with such violence that he could not 
withdraw it ; he then leaped on the palpitating corpse, trampled 
on it, pulled out the broken pike, stole his watch, and gave it 
with an air of triumph to one of his comrades as the trophy and 
just reward of his ferocity. Thus was completed the martyrdom 
of the venerable prelate, whose death and life were equally honor- 
able to religion. 

" The other two bishops were still kneeling at the foot of the 
altar with the priests who had joined them. A railing separated 
them from the murderers ; the latter fired repeatedly point-blank 
and killed most of them. The Bishop of Beauvais survived this 
first massacre, but the Bishop of Saintes had his leg broken. The 
ten assassins then joined their comrades, who were chasing and 
killing the priests scattered through the garden. This horrible 
butchery lasted nearly a quarter of an hour longer, when a man, 
undoubtedly sent by Danton, ran in and stopped the firing, sa)'- 
ing, ' Gentlemen, this is not the way to do it, you are mismanaging 
it sadly ; do as I tell )^ou ! ' Then he ordered the priests to be put 
into the church again. All those who could walk were driven in 
by blows from the fiat of a sabre ; about a hundred remained, the 
two bishops in the number ; the Bishop of Saintes, having his 
leg broken, was carried in by the assassins and laid on a mattress. 
The arranger of this new manoeuvre then placed a sufficient 
number of assassins at the foot of the stair that went down to the 
garden, and ordered the priests to be brought out two by two ; 
then as they came out they were killed. When the turn of the 
Bishop of Beauvais came they went to seize him at the foot of " 



the altar which he was embracing and clinging to ; he rose and 
went to die. The Bishop of Saintes was one of the last sum- 
moned ; the National Gendarmes, who surrounded the bed, pre- 
vented his being seen, and seemed to be anxious to save him, 
but the cowards, though equal in number to the assassins and 
better armed, permitted them to take him out. He replied to the 
executioners who ordered him to follow them, ' I do not refuse 
to die like the others, but you sec the state I am in ; I have a leg 
broken. I beg you to help me to support myself.' Two ruffians 
took him under the arms and thus led him to execution. 

"At half-past seven in the evening, the massacre of the 
priests being nearly over, either from the small number remaining 
to be slaughtered, or from the weariness of the murderers, the 
doors of the church were opened to the people in order that it 
might legitimatize by its presence the horrible deeds just com- 
mitted, to which it assured impunity. One man, stepping out 
from the crowd of spectators, advanced to the murderers, dared 
to speak to them of humanity, and by flattering them succeeded 
in saving some priests who remained, and whom he- made step 
behind him. 'The people,' he said, 'is always just in its venge- 
ance, and the priests are wretches, who deserve any punish- 
ment, even death, but the law demands that they be judged.' 
The number of those saved by this harangue, and of those who 
escaped by climbing the garden walls, was about thirty-four ; one 
hundred and fifty-one were murdered, and some laymen who had 
been committed to the Carmes met the same fate. At the Semi- 
nary of St. Firmin, the number of priests martyred was eighty- 
eight ; only fifteen escaped the steel of the murderers. This 
horrible event, announced first by Tallien and then by Danton, 
in the discourses they delivered in the assembly, was not the 
unforeseen effect of a popular movement or of a spontaneous out- 
break of ruffians ; it was the result of a plan carefully made some 
days before. The grave-digger of the parish of St. Sulpice 
received in advance an assignat of one hundred crowns for 
preparing at Montrouge the pit to which the bodies were trans- 
ported the next day in ten tumbrels. Danton, Robespierre, 
Marat, Tallien, and some other members of the commune were 
the authors of this plan and the principal arrangers of its execu- 
tion. Three or four hundred ruffians, selected from the Mar- 
seillais and Xhe féd/rés, were their instruments. The people took 
part only in the last acts of massacre committed at the Carmes, 
and, as we have seen, only appeared to puta stop to them. The 


people did not enter the Seminary of St, Firmin where the priests 
were killed in the dormitories, cells, «S:c, ; it saw only those 
hurled alive from the windows, who were slaughtered in the 
street by the murderers outside, with blows from hatchets." — 
Bertrand de Moleville, "Annales.'' 

The historic chapel, in which the priests were murdered, 
was destroyed by the opening of the Rue de Rennes in 
1867. Their bones were transferred to a crypt under the 
church (open on Fridays). 

The well-known Eau de Mélisse was first made at this 

" The devotion of the faithful was not the only mine worked 
by the Bare-footed Carmelites ; they possessed the secret of two 
compositions in which they drove a rattling trade : Carmelite 
7vhitc, a white which gave to the surfaces of walls to which it 
was applied the brilliancy of polished marble, and Eaii de Mélisse, 
called also Cai-melite Water. There was not a fashionable lady in 
Paris who did not carry a flask of it." — Dulaure, ''Hist, de Paris 
{sous Louis XIII.)" 

No. 74 Rue de Vaugirard is the Université Catholique 
de Paris, founded (1875) by thirty archbishops and bishops 
of France. 

Near the corner of the Boulevard Montparnasse stood 
the Hotel de Turenne of the XVII. c, probably the house 
where Mme de Maintenon brought up the children of 
Louis XIV. and Mme de Montespan. At the end of the 
Rue de Vaugirard is the Barrière of the same name, out- 
side which is the Cimetere de Vaugirard (now closed). 

" It was what might be called a faded cemetery, and it was 
falling into decay ; green mould was invading it, and the flowers 
deserted it. Respectable tradesmen did not care to be buried at 
Vaugirard, for it had a poverty-stricken smell. Le père Lachaise, 
if you like ! to be buried there was like having a mahogany suit 
of furniture. The Vaugirard cemetery was a venerable enclosure, 
laid out like an old French garden ; in it were straight walks, 
box-trees, holbMrees. old tombs under old yew-trees, and very 



tall grass. At night it was a tragical-looking spot." — Les Misér- 

Returning down the Rue de Vaugirard to the front of 
the Luxembourg, the Rj^c Garanciere leads towards the 
river. The Hotel de la Duchesse de Savoie (No. 8) was 
built by F. Gautier in 1538. In the time of Charles IX. 


it belonged to Marguerite de France, Duchesse de Berry, 
and wife of Emmanuel Philibert, Duc de Savoie. She 
gave it, in gratitude for his services, to her secretary, Ray- 
mond Forget, who sculptured the words " de la libe'ralite 
de ma princesse " above the portal. At one time the 
hotel was inhabited by the Marquis de Sourdaic, one of 

ST. SU LP I CE 412 

the creators of the Opera. It preserves its façade of tall 
Corinthian pilasters, with heavy capitals adorned with rams' 
heads and foliage, and its court, where Mile Lecouvreur 
made her début in an impromptu theatre. The fountain in 
this street was erected (in 17 15) by Anne of Bavaria, 
widow of the Prince de Condé. At No. 19 Rue Visconti, 
near this, is the Hotel de René d'Argouges, where Racine 
lived at one time, and where Lecouvreur lived for some 
years and died. 

At the end of the Rue Garanciere we reach (left) the 
east end of the Church of St. Sulpice, perhaps the finest 
example of the peculiar phase of architecture to which it 
belongs. A parish church was built on this site in the 
XII. c. In the XVII. c. its rebuilding was begun from 
designs of Gamart, Gaston d'Orléans laying the first stone ; 
but it was soon found that this church would be too small, 
and Anne of Austria laid the foundation stone of the 
present building, finished in 1749, under the Florentine 
Giovanni Servandoni, who is commemorated in the name 
of a neighboring street. The original plan of Servandoni 
would have made the church a model of modern architect- 
ure. The façade, which presents two ranges of porticoes, 
doric and ionic, is exceedingly noble and imposing. On 
either side are square pavilions, upon which Servandoni 
erected two towers, but these were thought so bad that, 
after his death, one Maclaurin was employed to rebuild 
them j since that, the tower on the north, which is different 
to the other, was, a second time, rebuilt by Chalgrin, in 
1777. Under the Revolution the church became a Temple 
of Victory, and the great banquet to Napoleon on his 
return from Egypt, was given within its walls. 

The interior is chiefly striking from its vast propor- 
tions. Its chapels are decorated with marble from the 



cascade at Marly.^ In the pavement of the south transept 
is a meridian line^ traced by Lemonnier in 1743. The 
ugly pulpit given (1788) by the Maréchal de Richelieu is 
surmounted by a group representing Charity surrounded 
by children. The organ (1862) is one of the finest in 

In the first chapel (of St. Agnes) on the right are three 
great frescoes by Eughie Delacroix — St. Michael triumph- 
ing over Satan (on the ceiling) ; Heliodorus thrown down 
and beaten with rods ; and Jacob wrestling with the angel. 
All are fine, but the last is the most remarkable. 

"The figures do not hold the principal place here. It may be 
said they are only accessories, such passion and life, such an 
active and animated rôle are displayed in the landscape. From 
the foreground to the crest of those mountains gilded by the ris- 
ing sun, all is captivating and winning in this strong conception, 
which has no parallel, even among the Italian masters who have 
treated most broadly, decorative landscape. Nothing is common- 
place, nothing useless. How skilfully is that hollow way thrown 
across that pendant corner of the picture ! How you can see, 
passing in the dust, these flocks, shepherds, women and chil- 
dren ! How one can trace afar off, the meanders of that long 
caravan, and how all that world runs noisily on, without dream- 
ing that a lonely struggle is going on within two paces." — 
Z. Vitety '^ Revue des Deux Mondes" April, 1862. 

In the fifth chapel is the tomb of the Cure' Languet 
(1750), a fine work of Michel- Ange Slodtz. The magni- 
ficent chapel of the Virgin (with an illusory effect of 
lights), behind the high-altar, is from designs of Wailly ; 
its sculptured decorations are by Slodtz, the others by' 
Vanloo. The statue of the Virgin is by Pajou. 

The third chapel (of St. Paul), on the left in descend- 
ing the nave, has, in its frescoes, the best works of Drolli7ig. 
Against the wall of the left transept is a curious Gnomon 

» Diderot. 


Astronomicus. In the crypt are statues of St. Paul and 
St. John the EvangeHst by Pradier. The Church of St. 
Sulpice is one of those especially frequented on New 
Year's Eve. 

Members of the royal family buried at St. Sulpice have 
been— Marie de Bourbon, Princesse de Savoie-Carignan, 
1656 ; the Princesse de Luxembourg, wife of Louis Henri 
de Bourbon-Soissons, 1736 ; her daughter, Louise de Bour- 
bon-Soissons, Duchesse de Luynes, 1758; Charles de St. 
Albin, Archbishop of Cambrai, bastard of the Regent of 
Orleans, 1764 ; Louise-Elizabeth de Bourbon Conde, Prin- 
cesse de Conti, granddaughter of Louis XIV., 1775 ; and 
Louise- Elizabeth d'Orléans, Queen of Spain, daughter of 
the Regent, 1742. 

The handsome Fountain of St. Sulpice (1847) is from 
designs of Visconti, and is adorned with statues of the 
four most celebrated French preachers — Bossuet (1704), 
Fenelon (1715), Massillon (1742), and Fle'chier (1710). 
A flower-market is held here on Mondays and Thursdays. 

A little east of St, Sulpice is the Marché St. Germain. 
The fountain in the market formerly decorated the Place 
St. Sulpice. In the adjoining Rue Lobinot a bird-market 
is held every Sunday morning. 

Continuing north from St. Sulpice, we soon reach the 
modern Boulevard St. Germain. One of the streets which 
cross it, Rue Grégoire de lours, in its former name of Rue 
des Mauvais Garçons, commemorated the wild conduct of 
the neighboring university students. 

Included in the line of the modern Boulevard is the 
famous church of St. Germain des Prés. When (in 542) 
Childebert (son of Clovis) was besieging Saragossa in 
Spain, he was astonished to see that the inhabitants used 
no arms for their defence, but were satisfied with walking 


round the walls chaunting and bearing with them the tunic 
of St. Vincent. This inspired the superstitious king with 
such terror that he raised the siege,^ and, when he returned 
to France, persuaded the Bishop of Saragossa to allow him 
to bring the precious relic with him.- To receive the 
blessed garment and other relics he built a monastery and 
church on this site, and on December 23, 558, the church 
was consecrated as the Basilica of St. Vincent and St. 
Croix by St. Germain, Bishop of Paris, who was buried 
within its walls in 576, after which it was called St. Ger- 
main and St. Vincent, and was known from its splendor as 
"the golden basilica." As the burial-place of Merovin- 
gian kings the monastery soon became rich and celebrated. 
Its estates included the whole south bank of the Seine, 
from the Petit Pont in Paris to Sèvres. The Kings Childe- 
bert I., Caribert, Chilperic I., Clotaire II., Childeric IL; 
the Queens Ultrogothe, Fredegonde, Bertrude, and Bili- 
hilde ; the Merovingian princes Clovis and Dagobert ; with 
Chrodesinde and Chrotberge, daughters of Childebert I., 
were interred within its walls ; and here many of their 
bodies were seen lying on beds of spices, wrapped in pre- 
cious stuffs embroidered in gold, when their plain stone- 
coffins were opened at the Revolution.^ In 861 the mon- 
astery was burnt by the Normans, was restored, and de- 
stroyed again in 886. The existing church, begun by the 
twenty-ninth Abbot, Morardus (990-1019), was only finished 
in the following century, and was dedicated by Pope Alex- 
ander III. in 1 163. The tomb of Childebert was then 
placed in the centre of the present building. From its 
riches, the abbacy was usually given to a cardinal, some- 
times to kings. Up to 1503 the abbots were elected by 

* Gregory of Tours, iii. 21. ^ Gesta Regum Francorum, xxvi. 

=» What remains of their tombs is now at St. Denis. 



the monks, but afterwards the Crown insisted on appoint- 
ing, and Hugues Capet, King of France, and Casimir V. 
of Poland, were amongst the abbots of St. Germain des 
Prés. The Comte du Vexin, son of Louis XIV. and Mme 
de Montespan, died as abbot, in the abbey of St. Germain 
des Prés (1683), aged ten and a half years. The abbey 


(whose first monks were brought from St. Symphorien at 
Auxerre by St. Germain) long stood isolated in the midst 
of the meadows called the Pré aux Clercs, fortified on all 
sides by towers, and by a moat supplied by a canal called 
la Petite Seine, and entered by three gates. The refectory 
was one of the noblest works of Pierre de Montereau 


(1240)— a vaulted hall, 115 feet long by 32 feet wide, 
lighted on each side by sixteen stained windows, and pos- 
sessing a beautiful reader's-pulpit : "portée sur un gros 
cul-de-lampe chargé d'un grand cep de vigne coupé et 
fouillé avec une patience incroyable." ^ This hall, and the 
famous and beautiful chapel of Notre Dame, also built by 
Pierre de Montereau (1239-1255), stood on the site of the 
present Rue de l'Abbaye, where one of the gables of the 
refectory still exists, built into a house on the left. On the 
north of the church were the cloisters, built by Abbot Oddo 
in 1277. 

The principal entrance of the church is in the Rue 
Bonaparte. It dates from the XVII. c, but encloses some 
precious fragments of the XII. c. romanesque portal 
(altered by a gothic arch), which has a bas-relief of the 
Last Supper on its lintel. Till the Revolution there were 
four statues on either side of the porch, supposed to repre- 
sent St. Germain, Clovis, Clotilde, Clodomir, Childebert 
and Ultrogothe, Clotaire and Chilperic. The porch is 
under the romanesque belfry, which has two round-headed 
windows on each side of its upper story, and a tall spire 
covered with slates. Two other towers, less lofty, stood at 
the angles of the choir and transept, and gave the popular 
name of " l'église aux trois clochers " to St. Germain, but 
were destroyed in 1822 to avoid the expense of their re- 
pair : only the bases remain. The choir and apse are sur- 
rounded by chapels, some square, some polygonal. Ex- 
cept some capitals and some columns employed in the 
apsidal gallery, which belonged to the church of Childe- 
bert, nothing which we see is earlier than the XI. c. 

The interior is an interesting specimen of transidon. 
The arches of the nave, which has no triforium, are roman- 

* Lebœuf, Hist, de Paris^ i. 341. 


esque, of the time of the Abbot Morardus ; the choir was 
added by Abbot Hugues III. in 1163. The original capi- 
tals of the nave were carried to the Palais des Thermes by 
the absurdity of a "restoration" in 1824, and replaced 
here by copies, which, however, have not the slightest re- 
semblance to them. A polychrome decoration by Hippo- 
lyte Flandrin, though its pictures are admirable as works 
of art, has, since 1845, spoilt the interior of St. Germain. 
The XIII. c. statue of Childebert and the mosaic monu- 
ment of Fredegonde, preserved by Alexandre Lenoir at 
the Revolution, are now at St. Denis ; the tombs of St. 
Germain, Chilperic,^ and Bilihilde were destroyed. Very 
few objects of interest remain. In the right aisle near the 
west door, surrounded by burning lights, is the statue of 
Notre Datne la Blanche, given to the abbey of St. Denis by 
Queen Jeanne d'Evreux in 1340, and brought here after 
the Revolution. The chapel of St. Symphorien (the last 
on the south of the nave), consecrated by St. François de 
Sales in 16 19, replaces that where St. Germain was origi- 
nally buried. In the chapel of St. Marguerite, in the 
transept, are a statue of St. Marguerite by Jacques Bour- 
let, monk of the abbey, and the tomb of Olivier and Louis 
de Castellan, killed in the service of the king (1644, 1669), 
by Girardon. 

The first chapel of the apse contains the tomb of James 
Douglas (1645), who died in the service of Louis XIII., 
with his figure on a sarcophagus. A number of the members 
of this family are buried under the chapel of St. Christophe. ^ 
The second chapel contains the black gravestones (now 
raised against the wall) of Descartes, Montfaucon and Ma- 
billon, all Benedictine monks of this abbey, after it was 

1 Vv .iich had the simple inscription : " Rex Chilpericus hoc tegitur lapide." 
* Hisi. de P Abbaye de St. Germain des Fres. p. 215. 



incorporated with the congregation of St. Maur. In the 
third chapel (of Sts. Pierre et Paul) left of the choir (in 
descending) is the inscription which marked the remains 
of Boileau, transported hither from the Sainte Chapelle in 
1819. In the fourth, is the tomb of William, Earl of 
Douglas, 1611, who died in the service of Henri IV. 

" In the abbey church of St. Germain des Prés at Paris, is the 
chapel of St. Marguerite, which had been granted to the noble 
family of Douglas. I have seen the tomb of William, the seven- 
teenth earl, v^ho died in 161 1. He had been bred in the new 
religion, which was preached in that age ; but coming to Paris in 
the reign of Henri HI., he was converted by sermons at the Sor- 
bonne. Having abjured these errors, he returned to Scotland. 
Though full of piety towards God and of fidelity towards his king, 
he was persecuted for the Catholic faith, and was given his choice 
either of a prison or banishment. He preferred the latter, and 
returned to France, where he ended his days in the practice of 
great devotion. He was so given to prayer, that he used to attend 
the canonical hours of the abbey church, and he used even to rise 
at midnight, though the doors of the abbey were always shut at 
matins. He died greatly honored, and reverenced by all classes, 
in the fifty-seventh year of his age." — Kenelm Digby, " Broadstone 
of Honora 

In the left transept is a striking statue of St. Francis 
Xavier by Coustou le jeune, and the tomb of John Casimir, 
King of Poland, who became abbot of St. Germain in 1669, 
and died in 1672. The kneeling statue of the king is by 
Marsy. The relief below, by Jean Thibaut, a Benedictine 
monk, represents à victory over the Turks. In the left aisle 
of the nave is a good modern monument erected to Hippo- 
lyte Flandrin (1864) by his pupils and admirers. 

The columns which supported a baldacchino over the 
high-altar, and which were brought from the ruins of a 
Roman town in Africa in the time of Louis XIV., are now 
part of the decorations of the picture-gallery of the Louvre. 


Nothing remains of the splendid shrine of St. Germain, 
which contained 160 precious stones and 197 pearls. 

When Henri IV. was besieging Paris in 1589, and his 
army was encamped in the Pré aux Clercs, he wished to 
examine Paris unobserved, and mounted the tower of St. 
Germain, accompanied by a single monk. " Une appre- 
hension m'a saisi," he said, when he came down, to the 
Maréchal de Biron, "étant seul avec un moine, et me 
souvenant du couteau de frère Clément." 

The precious library of St. Germain des Prés was 
spared at first in the Revolution, but perished by fire 
August 19, 1794, except 10,000 MS., which were added to 
the Bibliothèque Nationale. 

In the garden attached to the church, towards the Bou- 
levard St. Germain, is a Statue of Bernard Palissy by 
Barras (1880). 

It was only in the middle of the present century that 
the twelve monastic cells were destroyed which were de- 
voted to monks employed in literary labor. There it was 
that Jordan visited the learned Montfaucon in 1733, and 
found him " un vieillard octogénaire, plein de politesse et 
d'honnêteté, d'une humeur douce et gaie," occupied over 
some old Greek MSS. which had just arrived. 

The abbot's palace, built by Cardinal de Bourbon in 
1586, still exists in the Rue de V Abbaye, opposite the Rue 
de Furstemberg. A mutilated cardinal's hat may still be 
seen on a shield on the pavilion at the angle. 

"The architecture of brick and stone, decorated with but- 
tresses, pilasters, and pediments, has the merit of pleasing the 
eye by the harmony of its colors and the picturesqueness of its 
disposition. At the top of a pavilion, a seated female figure holds 
an escutcheon, with the arms of the founder. The edifice is mostly 
inhabited by working people. In front of the Abbot's Palace, 
some very plain buildings, still partly preserved, served for 



stables, granaries, rooms for the servants of the establishment, 
the office of the steward, &c." — F. de Guilhermy. 

" Louis XIII. gave to the widow of the Duke of Lorraine the 
Abbey of St. Germain des Prés, and she was named abbess of a 
convent of monks. I stop here with my examples of the ancient 
abuses." — Dulaure. 

The Boulevard St. Germain has swallowed up the site 
of the Prison de l'Abbaye, rebuilt in the XVIL c. at the 
southeast angle of the enclosure. Here Mme Roland 
wrote her memoirs, and Charlotte Corday spent her last 
days. The prison is also connected with some of the most 
agonizing scenes of the Revolution, especially during the 
massacres of September. It existed, as a military prison, 
till 1854. 

"On Sunday, September 2, our turnkey served our dinner 
earlier than usual. His wild looks, his haggard eyes, made us 
anticipate something disastrous. At two o'clock he returned, 
and we gathered around him ; he was deaf to all our ques- 
tions, and after he had, contrary to his ordinary habit, collected 
all the knives which we had taken pains to place in our napkins, 
be abruptly ordered the nurse-tender of the Swiss officer Reding 
to leave. 

" If this turnkey had not been informed of what was to take 
place, why these precautions? A municipal officer had pre- 
viously taken the names of the prisoners, and it was in the mid- 
dle of the night that this list was made. 

"The prisons being surrounded, four or five of these 
wretches who called themselves judges of the people, installed 
themselves beside the wicket, and ordered the prisoners to ap- 
pear before them. 

" By the glare of two torches, I beheld the terrible tribunal 
which was to give me life or death. The president, in a gray 
dress, sabre by his side, was standing leaning against a table on 
which were papers, a writing desk, some pipes and some bottles. 
This table was surrounded by ten persons, sitting or standing, 
two of them in their shirt-sleeves with aprons ; others were sleep- 
ing on the benches ; two men in blood-stained shirts, with sabres 
in their hands, guarded the door, and an old turnkey had his 


hand on the bolts. In front of the president, three men were 
holding a prisoner who seemed about sixty years old. 

" I was placed at the corner of the wicket ; the guards crossed 
sabres before my breast, and warned me that, at the slightest 
movement to escape, I should be stabbed. 

"These men, drinking, smoking, or sleeping in the midst of 
the cries of their fellow-men, pitilessly slaughtered, and of the 
fury of those whose thirst for blood was increased in proportion 
as it was shed, presented a picture as yet unknown in the history 
of the human heart. I do not believe that, before our Revolution, 
any man had seen such a spectacle. 

"The judges had a list of all the prisoners, with their de- 
scriptions, containing, by the side of their names, the reasons of 
their imprisonment ; the members of the Committee of the Com- 
mune, the municipals and other persons initiated into these fright- 
ful mysteries, had added notes, more or less fatal, that indicated 
to the executioner-judges the course they ought to follow. After 
a brief examination, often dispensed with, especially in the case 
of some unfortunate priests who had not taken the oath, the two 
assassins to whom the custody of the prisoners had been con- 
fided pushed them into the street, crying, 'A la Force !' if the 
Abbaye was the scene of trial, and 'A V Abbaye r if they were to 
be massacred at the prison of La Force, and they fell into the 
midst of sabres, pikes and clubs, which crushed and mutilated 
them all at once, in the most horrible manner. 

"At ten in the evening, the Abbé l'Enfant, the king's con- 
fessor, and the Abbé Chapt de Rastignac, appeared in the trib- 
une of the chapel which served as our prison, to which they 
entered by a door opening on the stairs. They announced to us 
that our last hour approached and invited us to prepare ourselves 
to receive their benediction. An indefinable electric movement 
sent us all to our knees, and with hands folded, we received 
it. . . . On the eve of appearing before the Supreme Being, 
kneeling before two of his ministers, we presented a spectacle 
beyond ^description. The age of the two old men, their positiori 
above us, death floating over our heads and encircling us on all 
sides, all gave this ceremony a mournful but august color ; it 
brought us near to God, it gave us courage ; all reasoning facul- 
ties were suspended ; the coldest and most incredulous received 
as ffreat an impression as the most ardent and most susceptible. 
Half an hour afterwards, the two priests were murdered ; we 
heard their cries. . . . 


" Our most important occupation was studying what position 
we ought to take to receive death with least pain when we were 
conducted to the scene of the massacres. We sent, from time to 
time, some of our comrades to the window of the turret to tell 
us what was the attitude assumed by the unfortunate victims, and 
to deduce, from their report, the one we ought to take. They re- 
ported that those who stretched out their hands suffered much 
longer, because the sword strokes were deadened before reaching 
the head ; that in some cases, the hands and arms fell before the 
body did, and that those who put their hands behind their backs, 
suffered much less. Such were the horrible details that we dis- 
cussed." — Saint-Méard, ''Relation des massacres de Sepfefnbre." 

" The massacres lasted at the Abbaye from Sunday evening 
to Tuesday morning ; at La Force, longer ; at Bicetre, four days, 
&c. I owe to my detention in the first of these prisons details 
which make one shudder, and which I have not the courage to 
trace. One fact, however, I cannot pass over in silence, because 
it tends to prove that it was a carefully prepared scheme. There 
was in the Faubourg St. Germain a house of detention in which 
prisoners were kept when the Abbaye was too crowded to receive 
them, and the police chose, for the transfer, the Sunday evening 
just before the general massacre ; the murderers were ready, and 
rushed on the carriages, five or six fiacres, and stabbed and slew, 
with swords and pikes, in the midst of the street, those who were 
in them, to the terrible sound of their death cries. All Paris 
was witness of these horrible scenes perpetrated by a small num- 
ber of executioners ; there were only fifteen at the Abbaye, at the 
door of which, in despite of all the requisitions made to the 
commune and the commandant, only two nationals formed the 
whole defence. All Paris let these things be done. All Paris 
was accursed in my eyes, and I shall not hope to see liberty estab- 
lished among cowards, insensible to the last outrages that could 
be committed against nature and humanity, cold spectators of 
murders which the courage of fifty armed men could have easily 
prevented." — Bertrand de Moleville, '' Anfiales." 

A little south, by the J^ue du Four, we find the Carre- 
four de la Croix Rouge, a spot where six streets now meet, 
but which, in the XVI. c, was considered the extreme 
limit of the town towards the country. The Rue du 
Cherche- Midi commemorates in its name a sundial with a 


representation of two persons looking for noon at two 
o'clock : at No. 19 (left) a quaint relief represents this. 
No. 37 (left) is the old Hotel' de Toulouse, with a noble 
gateway. The Rue du Dragon was formerly the Rue St. 

Returning to the Carrefour de la Croix Rouge, we find 
near the entrance of the Rue de Sèvres, on the right, the 
Abbaye aux Bois, belonging to a convent of nuns of Notre 
Dame des Bois. The church has a Madonna and Dead 
Christ by Lebrun. In this convent the great ladies of the 
faubourg were in the habit of going into retreat in the last 
century, but rather to enjoy the interests of a kind of lit- 
erary club than for religious exercises. Then, also, the 
Abbaye aux Bois was the most fashionable place of female 
education in Paris. The Journal of He'lene Massalska, 
Princesse de Ligne, shows how the noble -young ladies 
were then taught to be efficient mistresses of a household 
by themselves learning cooking, washing, housemaid's 
work, &c., in the convents. In later days, owing to want 
of ready money, the convent has sold several of its exte- 
rior apartments. Mme Récamier inhabited three different 
apartments there at three different times ; Mrs. Clark and 
her daughter, afterwards the well-known Mme Mohl, went 
to live there in 183 1 ; and here Chateaubriand read aloud 
his Mémoires d' Ouh-e-Tombe, before their publication, de- 
siring, in his lifetime, *•' escompter les louanges" which he 
expected, but hardly received. 

Turning (right) down the Rue du Bac, on the left (No. 
138) is the Hospice des Ménages, formerly des Petites Mai- 
sons, instituted in 1407, and renewed in the XVII. c. It 
is used for old people. The chapel, open from 2 to 3, 
and picturesque with its many kneeling sisters, contains 
many inscriptions, the oldest of 1587. The Rue du Bac 


takes its name from a ferry-boat (Bac), formerly estab- 
lished at its extremity, for crossing the Seine. 

At No. 1 20 was the well-known salon of Mm^ Mohl, 
who died here in February, 1882. Chateaubriand lived 
on the ground floor, and his last days were spent here. 

" M. de Chateaubriand, like an old oak struck by lightning, 
beautiful in its decay, sat, seemed to listen, and smiled when one 
of his old favorites entered. Mme Récamier went to him every 
day at the hour he used to come here. Though blind and nervous, 
she never missed a day in coming to the Rue du Bac. Since her 
blindness she had been unable to walk in the street, and as the 
coaches were in danger [1848] of being taken and piled up for 
barricades, the drivers were unwilling to go out. 

" Before the terrible days of June, M. de Chateaubriand had 
taken to his bed, to rise no more. Mme Récamier would leave 
the room to conceal her tears. His eyes followed her, but he 
scarcely ever spoke ; not once after extreme unction had been ad- 
ministered. She could not see him, and his silence seemed cruel. 
She dreaded his dying in the night, when it might be impossible 
to send for her in time, and it was a comfort to her that he had a 
friend living upstairs [Mme Mohl] who could give her a room, 
where she spent three nights. On the morning of July 3, at about 
seven, she was called down ; in about an hour all was over. 

" The current of her life was dried up. She wished for noth- 
ing in the world but to be good enough to die." — Mme Mohl, 
" Mme Re'camier^ 

No. 128 Rue du Bac, at the angle of the Rue de Baby- 
lone, is the Missiofis Etrangères, with the Church of St. 
François Xavier, containing (left of entrance) a monument 
to " thirteen venerable servants of God," including Bishops 
Dufresse and Dumoulin Borie' and nine Chinese mission- 
aries, beheaded and strangled in Cochin China, 18 15-1840 ; 
also the monument of Jean Théophane Venard, beheaded 
at Tong-King, February 2, 1861. A little garden, on the 
right of the church, leads to La Chambre des Martyrs, 
surrounded by terrible memorials of the tortures suffered 
by the martyred missionaries, the blood-stained clothes in 


which they died, and curious Chinese pictures of their 

No. 140 (left) Rue du Bac, is the Hotel du Chatillon, 
built by Mansart, and has two very rich portals. On the 
opposite side of the street is the huge shop of the Bon 
Marché^ a very characteristic sight of modern Paris. 

We are now in the centre of the last-century hotels of 
the aristocratic faubourg. " Faire monter un hotel " was 
the ambition of every Frenchman of good family before 
the great Revolution. Then, when the aristocracy were 
forbidden to have armorial bearings of any kind, they 
plastered over those above their doors, and put a veil of 
paint upon those of their carriages, as if to indicate that 
the existing season was only one of passing cloud. In- 
deed, one nobleman, who feared that his conduct might 
be misunderstood, inscribed as his device instead, "Ce 
nuage n'est qu'un passage." But almost all the aristo- 
cratie characteristics of the Faubourg are now a tale of the 

" Le faubourg Saint Germain n'est plus à cette heure qu'un 
nom, le nom d'une ruine, le nom d'une chose morte. Il n'a plus 
ni caractère ni accent qui lui soient propres. Il ne garde plus 
d'autres supériorités que celle qu'il partage avec la bourgeoisie." 
— Daniel Stern. 

There is very little variety in the characteristics of the 
hotels : they have almost all the same curtain wall in front, 
with either a double or s\ug\e p07'te cochere, and are adorned 
with caryatides, pilasters, and garlands, of much the same 
description. They will be of little interest to passing 
travellers. We will note the best, only retracing our steps 
where it cannot be avoided. 

The Rue du Bac now crosses the Rue de Varennes, a 
long street, in which we may notice No. 53 as the Hôtel 


Motiaco or Hbtel de Matignon, built by Brongniart for Ma- 
dame Adélaïde, sister of Louis Philippe, and belonging 
now to the Due de Galliera; General Cavaignac resided 
here when head of the executive power in 1848. No. 69 
is the Hôtel d'Orsay. No. 77 is the XVIII. c. Hôtel de 
Biron, built for Peirene de Moras, a barber enriched by 
legal speculations. No. 78 was erected by the Régent 
d'Orléans for the actress Desmares, and was afterwards 
used as the Ministère de Commerce. Into the Rue de 
Varennes on the left falls the Rue Va?ineau, where No. 14 
(right) is a restored house of the time of François I., and 
No. 24 is the Hôtel de Ca?ialeilles. 

Continuing the Rue du Bac, it is crossed by the Rue de 
Grenelle, where, a few steps to the right, is the handsome 
Fontaine de Grefielle, constructed (1739-43) for Louis XV. 
Its reliefs and figures are by Bouchardon. 

We must see more of the Rue de Grenelle, but, for an 
instant, continue the Rue du Bac to the Boulevard St. Ger- 
main, where, immediately on the south, is the Hostel de 
Luynes, which was built by Pierre Lemuet for Marie 
Rohan -Montbazon, Duchesse de Chevreuse. Its gates are 
very handsome specimens of iron work. 

"This beautiful house still belongs to the family of de 
Luynes, and, more than any other, it recalls the old hotels where 
the great lords of other days, the born protectors of art, loved to 
assemble books, pictures, and curiosities of every kind." — De 

Opposite the Hôtel de Luynes is the approach to the 
Church of St. Thomas Aqiwias, which answers, as a temple 
of Hymen in Paris, to what St. George's, Hanover Square, 
was till recently in London. It belonged to the convent 
of "Jacobins du Faubourg St. Germain," founded by Car- 
dinal Richelieu, and was built (1682-17 70) from designs 


of Pierre Bullet. Of later construction, by Frère Claude, 
a monk of the convent, in 1787, is the portal, before which 
republican France generally affords a few spectators " pour 
voir monter et descendre des duchesses." The ceiling of 
the sanctuary representing the Transfiguration, is a great 
work of Lemoifie. 

"La plus grande partie des demoiselles bien élevées se sou- 
mettent à l'hymen sans que l'amour s'en mêle, et elles n'en sont 
pas fâchées. Elles sentent que c'est par le mariage qu'elles sont 
quelque chose dans le monde ; et c'est pour être établies, pour 
avoir un état qu'elles se marient. Elles semblent sentir qu'un 
mari n'a pas besoin d'être amant. A Paris ce même esprit règne 
parmi les hommes, et voilà pourquoi la plupart des mariages 
sont des liens de convenance. Les Français sont jaloux de 
leurs maîtresses, et jamais de leurs femmes." — Casanova, ''Mé- 

The Boulevard St. Germain has swallowed up a great 
part of the Rue St. Dominique, but some of the street still 
remains. Its most noticeable houses are No. 62, motel de 
la Duchesse douairière d'Orléans, once inhabited by Cam- 
bacérès ; No. 113, the Hotel de Granimont, and No. 115, 
the Hotel de Périgord, of Prince Demidofï. 

The Rue du Bac next crosses the Rue de /' Université^ 
where, a little to the right, No. 15, is a good XVII. c. 
hotel, and No. 13, the Hotel d'Aligré, now a museum of 
marine charts. 

Returning, as we came, to the Rtie de Grenelle, we 
should now follow it (turning right) to the end. No. 106 
(right) was the old convent of Notre Dame de Pentémont 
or du Verbe Incarné, founded 1643 ; its admirable domed 
chapel remains. Mme de Beauharnais, afterwards the Em- 
press Josephine, lived for several years in this convent, 
after the birth of her daughter Hortense. No. loi (left), 
the ancient Hotel Conti, is now the Ministère des Postes. 


No. ii6 (right), the Hôtel Forbi?i, j^anson, or de Brissac, 
has a fine entrance ; it is now the Mairie du VII"^® Arron- 

The Rue Casimir Périer leads (right) to the Church 
of St. Clotilde, a large cruciform gothic building erected 
in 1846-1857, from plans of Gau. The design of build- 
ing this church (in the place of a little church dedicated to 
St. Valere) originated with Queen Marie Amélie. The 
interior is exceedingly handsome. In the apse are a num- 
ber of reliefs representing the story of St. Clotilde. The 
Place de Belle-chasse, in which the church stands, occupies 
part of the Pré aux Clercs, the jurisdictions of which was 
long disputed by the University and the Abbey of St. 

The last cross street of the Rue de Grenelle, is the Rue 
de Bourgogne, in which, at the angle of the Rue St. Domi- 
nique, is the Hotel Béranger, where Adrienne Lecouvreur 
was buried by some faithful friends, the offices of the 
Church having been refused to her. 

At the end of the Rue de Grenelle, on the right, is 
(No. 142) the XVIII. c. Hôtel de Bezenval ; and on the 
left (No. 127) the Hôtel du Châtelet, of the time of Louis 
XV., now the Palais Archiépiscopal. 

We emerge from the Rue de Grenelle opposite the 
gardens to the north of the magnificent Hotel des Invalides 
(open daily from 11 to 4), planned by Henri IV., and 
begun by Louis XIV. in 167 1, as a refuge for old soldiers, 
who, before it was built, had to beg their bread on the 

" The Hôtel des Invalides, the work of the architect Libéral 
Bruant, answers, both in its character and its military ornamen- 
tation, to its noble purpose. It was finished in 1674. The 
church, commenced by Bruant and completed b)^ Mansart, was 
not finished till thirty years later. To the latter we owe the 



dome, covered with azure and gold, and crowned by a bold spire, 
one of the most striking ornaments of Paris. The details and 
ornaments of the dome show the decay of taste which became 
less and less pure towards the end of the reign ; but the 
general view is striking, and no building in Paris, except Notre 
Dame, produces at a distance such an imposing effect." — Martin, 
" Hist, de France y 

"We feel that a nation that built such palaces for the old age 
of its armies, has received the power of the sword as well as the 
sceptre of art." — Chateaubriand. 

"The Hôtel des Invalides is the most noble spot on the 
earth. I would, if I were a prince, have rather built this estab- 
lishment than have gained three battles." — Motitesqtdeti. 

The institution is under the management of the Min- 
ister of War^ and nothing can be more comfortable than 
the life of its inmates. The number of these is now small ; 
in the time of Napoleon I.^ when the institution was called 
the "Temple of Mars/' it was enormous. 

On the terrace in front of the building are a number of 
cannon, trophies taken in different campaigns. Standing 
before the hotel is the statue of Prince Eugène. On either 
side of the entrance are statues of Mars and Minerva by 
Coustou jeune. In the tympanum of the semicircle over 
the centre of the façade is Louis XIV. on horseback, with 
the inscription : " Ludovicus magnus, militibus regali mu- 
nificentia in perpetuum providens, has aedes posuit, an 
16 15.*' Behind the façade is a vast courtyard surrounded 
by open corridors lined with frescoes of the history of 
France : those of the early history on theleft by Benedict 
Masson^ 1865, have much interest. In the centre of the 
façade opposite the entrance is the statue of Napoleon I. 
Beneath this is the approach to the Church of St. Louis, 
built 1671-79, from designs of Libéral Bruant, and in 
which many banners of victory give an effect of color to an 
otherwise colorless building. 



"Here are the colors captured from the armies of all Europe 
during the Revolution and the Empire. In 1814 the allies hurried 
to this temple of glory to retake the prizes of their long and 
numerous defeats : but the old warriors whom Napoleon had 
made their guardians knew how to withdraw them from their 
search. ' If we cannot preserve these banners,' said the Invalides, 
'we will burn them and swallow the ashes.' " — Touc hard- La fosse, 
^^ Hist, de Parish 

Against the walls are monuments to marshals or 
governors of the Invalides — the Due de Coigny, Due de 


Conegliano (Moncey), Duc de Reggio (Oudinot), Marshal 
Jourdan, Duc de Malakoff (Pe'lissier), &c. 

The Tombeau Napoléon^ under the magnificent dome of 
the Invalides, which was added to the original church by 
Jules Hardouin Mansart, and is treated as a separate build- 
ing, is entered from the Place Vauban at the back, or by 
the left cloister and a court beyond. It is only open to 
the public on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday, 
from 12 to 3, but should on no account be left unseen. 


On the façade are statues of Charlemagne by Coysevox, 
and St. Louis by Nicolas Coustou. 

On entering the vast interior, a huge circular space 
is seen to open, beneath the cupola painted by Charles 
de Lafosse 2i\-\d Jotcve?iet, and, in it, surrounded by caryatides 
and groups of mouldering banners, the huge tomb of 
Finland granite, given by the Emperor Nicholas. Hither 
the remains of the great Emperor were brought back from 
St. Helena by the Prince de Joinville, in 1841, though 
Louis Philippe, whilst adopting this popular measure as 
regarded the dead, renewed the sentence of exile against 
the living members of the Bonaparte family. 

"The name Napoleon glitters on the cover in pretty large 
letters. ' In what metal are these letters ? ' I asked. He replied, 
'In copper, but they will be gilded.' 'These letters,' I replied,' 
' ought to be in gold. Before a hundred years have elapsed the 
copper letters will be oxydized and have eaten into the wood of the 
coffin. How much would letters in gold cost the State ? ' ' About 
twenty thousand francs, sir.' That same evening I went to M. 
Thiers, then president of the council, and told him the matter. 
' You are right,' said M. Thiers ; ' the letters shall be in gold. I 
will give the order at once.' Three days afterwards came the 
treaty of July 15. I do not know whether M. Thiers gave the 
orders, or whether they were executed, or whether the letters at 
present on the coffin are letters in gold"— Victor Hugo, " Choses 

Four smaller cupolas encircle the great dome. In the 
first, on the right, is the tomb of Joseph Bonaparte. On the 
left are the tombs of Jerom'e Bonaparte, with a statue, and 
of his eldest son and the Princess Catherine of Wurtemberg. 
The other two cupolas are still empty : when ever-changing 
France again changes her idols, and the dynasty of the 
Bonapartes is once more in the ascendant, they will prob- 
ably be occupied, amid universal acclamation, by the 
tombs of Napoleon III. and his ill-fated and heroic son. 



The transept contains the tomb of Turenne (formerly 
buried at St. Denis), by Tubi from designs of Lebrun. It 
represents the hero expiring (at the battle of Salzbach, July 
27, 1675) in the arms of Immortality. Upon the violation 
of the tombs at St. Denis, the body of Turenne had been 
found in a state of complete preservation, and, whilst the 
royal remains were scattered to the winds, his were re- 
moved to the Jardin des Plantes, and afterwards to the 
Museum of the Petits Augustins. Napoleon, as first 
Consul, translated them with great honor to the Invalides, 
September 22, 1800. In the left transept is the tomb to 
which the remains of the illustrious Vauban were after- 
wards transferred. The minister Louvois, under whose 
auspices the hotel was built, was buried here by order of 
Louis XIV. in 1692, but afterwards removed to the 
Capucines of the Rue St. Honoré. 

Descending the steps behind the splendid baldacchino, 
we find black-marble tombs of Marshals Duroc and Ber- 
trand guarding the approach to that of Napoleon I. His 
own words, taken from his will, appear in large letters 
over the entrance. 

"Je désire que mes cendres reposent sur les bords de la 
Seine, au milieu de ce peuple Français que j'ai tant aimé." 

The sentiment, the tomb, and the dome have a unique 
splendor. A white-marble statue of Napoleon I. by 
Stuart is in a black-marble chapel. His Austerlitz sword, 
the crown voted by Cherbourg, and colors taken in his 
different battles, were formerly shown in a chapelle ardente, 

"Take away the dome and the Invalides is nothing more 
than a barrack, a cloister, or a hospital. The dome makes it a 
palace, a temple — ay, more than a temple. If, at present, there 
are persons who do not comprehend what purpose the dome of 
the Invalides serves, for the money it cost, let them go and ask 


the old martyrs of the battle-fields, whose resplendent aureole it 
is, and they will proudly answer, ' It serves for beauty.' " — Emile 

The Musée d^ Artillerie, entered from the cloister on 
the right of the principal court, is only shown on Tues- 
days, Thursdays, and Sundays, from 12 to 4 in winter, and 
12 to 5 in summer. 

The collection of arms begins with the rude flint 
weapons found in the valley of the Somme, and the caverns 
of Aurignac and Moustier. Then comes the age of 
polished-flint weapons, found in the lake cities of Switzer- 
land, &c. The age of bronze succeeds, of which one of 
the finest specimens is a bronze sword found at Uzes. 
The arms introduced by the Romans follow, and the 
gradual changes which led to the steel armor of the 
XIV. c. The collection of bows and cross-bows is full of 
interest, as well as that of firearms from their earliest 

The collection of plans of fortresses, in relief, executed 
under Louis XIV. and Louis XV., is interesting to the 
archaeologist as showing (as at Arras, St. Omer, Besançon) 
many buildings of the middle ages which have ceased to 
exist. Amongst the historic arms preserved here are the 
helmet of Henri IV., the sword of Duguesclin, and the 
cuirass of Bayard. 

The great barracks behind the Invalides formerly con- 
tained the military school now at St. Cyr. They face the 
end of the Champ de Mars, an immense open oblong space 
used for reviews, and temporarily occupied by the great 
Exhibitions of 1867 and 1878. It was formed in 1790 for 
the famous Fête de la Federation (July 14), when the Autel 
de la Patrie was erected in the centre, and Louis XVI. 
took an oath there to observe the new constitution. 


Here also Napoleon I. held the famous Champs de 
Mai before the battle of Waterloo. 

" Le Champ de Mai avait eu cela de remarquable qu'il avait 
été tenu au mois de juin et au Champ de Mars." — Victor Hugo, 

At the entrance of the Quai d'Orsay (No. 103) is the 
temporary Garde-Meuble (open on Sundays and Thursdays 
from 10 to 4), containing a vast collection of tapestries, 
curious furniture, and jewels which belonged to the Crown. 
Many of the latter were put up to public auction in 1887. 
Amongst the jewels reserved is the diamond known as 
^^ Le Régent/' purchased by Régent Philippe d'Orléans, 
and valued at 12,000,000 fr. 

Returning by the Quai d'Orsay, on the site formerly 
called La Grenouilliere, we find, opposite the Pont des 
Invalides, the Manufacture des Tabacs, shown on Thurs- 
days only from 10 to 12 and i to 4. It employs 200 work- 
people, and manufactures 6,200 tons of tobacco annually. 

Near the Pont de Solferino is the Palais de la Légion 
d''Hon7teur,, built (1786) by Prince Salm-Kyrburg, and in- 
teresting as the scene of Mme de Staël's receptions dur- 
ing the Directory. 

Opposite the Pont de la Concorde is the Palais du 
Corps Législatif,, or Chambre des Députés (open from 9 to 
5). This palace, originally Palais Bourbon, was built by 
the Prince de Condé (1789), the first Hôtel de Condé, on 
the site now occupied by the Odéon, and the second hotel, 
near St. Germain I'Auxerrois, having been destroyed. 
Confiscated in 1790, it became known as ^^ Maison de la 
Révolution." From 1805 to 1870 it was used as a parlia- 
ment-house, the State having bought the property from the 
Prince de Condé at the Restoration. It is here that Ben- 
jamin Constant, Casimir Périer, Guizot, Thiers, Berryer, 
Lamartine, Montalembert, and Jules Favre, have in turn 


displayed their eloquence, and it was also in the Salle du 
Corps Législatif th<\t, in 1848, the Duchesse d'Orle'ans pre- 
sented herself with her two little boys to claim the re- 
gency, and was met by the words ^^ Too late." 

" The large door opposite the tribune on a level with the 
highest seats of the hall, is opened. A woman, the Duchess 
of Orleans, appears. She is in mourning ; her veil, half turned 
back on her bonnet, displays her countenance, marked with an 
emotion and a sadness that enhance its j^outh and beauty. She 
holds in her right hand the young king, who stumbles on the 
steps, and in her left the little Duke of Chartres, children to 
whom their downfall is but a show. The Duke de Nemours 
walks by the side of the Duchess of Orleans, loyal to the mem- 
ory of his brother in the persons of his nephews. Some gen- 
erals in uniform, some officers of the National Guard, follow the 
steps of the princess. She saluted the assembly with timid grace ; 
it remained motionless. She seated herself between her two 
children at the foot of the tribune, an innocent defendant before 
a tribunal without appeal, which is about to hear the cause of 
royalty pleaded. At that instant the cause was won in the eyes 
and hearts of all." — Lamartine, ''Révolution de 1848." 

The handsome façade towards the Seine has a Corin- 
thian portico by Poyet (1804-7). When the Chamber is 
sitting, visitors are only admitted to the Salle des Séances, 
for which they require a ticket from a deputy or from the 
Secrétaire de la Questure. 



The Place Vendôme and Place de la Concorde. The Champs Elyse'es 
and Bois de Boulogne. The Fatibourg St. Honoré and the 

TURNING west along the Rue de Rivoli, the street— 
which commemorates the Battle of Rivoli — always 
wears a festive aspect. On the right are arcades, contain- 
ing some of the shops most frequented by foreigners ; on 
the left, railings, formed by gilt-headed spears, enclose the 
radiant gardens of the Tuileries. 

" The city swims in verdure, beautiful 
As Venice on the waters, the sea swan. 
What bosky gardens, dropped in close-walled courts, 
As plums in ladies' laps, who start and laugh ; 
What miles of streets that run on after trees, 
Still carrying the necessary shops, 
Those open caskets, with the jewels seen ! 
And trade is art, and art's philosophy, 
In Paris." Mrs. Browning, ^^ Aurora Leigh." 

The Rue St. Roch was, till recently, known as the Rue 
du Dauphin — a name of historic value. The street was 
originally closed at night by a grille on the side of the 
Tuileries, and it was known as Le Cul-de-Sac de St. Vin- 
cent till 1744. Then, Louis XV., as a boy, spent some 
time at the Tuileries, and St. Roch being the parish church 
of the Court, he went thither for his daily devotions. Dur- 


ing the first mass which he heard there, the citizens, being 
good courtiers, scratched out part of the old inscription 
and altered it, and as the little prince returned to the 
palace he read " Cul-de-Sac du Dauphin." 

The Rue Mojit Thabor crosses the site of the most 
important of the four convents of Les Capucins at Paris, 
founded (1575) by Catherine de Medicis. Alfred de Mus- 
set died in the Rue Mont Thabor, May i, 1857. 

"Insomnia had always been his implacable enemy. At one 
in the morning I saw him suddenly sit up with his right hand on 
his breast, seeking the place of the heart, as if he had felt some 
extraordinary trouble in that organ. His face took a strange 
expression of astonishment and attention. His eyes opened be- 
yond measure. I asked him if he was in pain ; he made a sign 
that he was not. To my other questions, he only replied, laying 
his head on his pillow, ' Sleep ! ... at last I am going to sleep.' 
It was death." — Paul de Musset. 

The Rue de Castiglione — commemorating the victory of 
Bonaparte over the Austrians (August 5, 1796), and occu- 
pying the site of the old monastery of the Feuillants, leads 
(right) to the Place Vendôme, a handsome old-fashioned 
octagonal square, begun under Louis XIV. (the king him- 
self furnishing the leading ideas of the plan), and finished 
by the Ville de Paris, from designs of Jules Hardouin 
Mansart. The square was first called Place des Con- 
quêtes, then Place Louis le Grand, finally Place Vendôme, 
from the Hôtel of the Due de Vendôme (son of Henri IV. 
by Gabrielle d'Estrees), which once occupied this site. A 
bronze statue by Girardon at first ornamented the centre 
of the square. It represented Louis XIV. " in the habit 
of a Roman emperor, and on his head a large French 
periwig à la mode.'" '^ This statue was destroyed by the 
people on August 14, 1792 — the day on which Louis XVL 

^ Lister's Travels i?i France^ 1698. 


and his family were removed from the Chancellerie in this 
square to the Temple. ^"^The king saw this destruction as 
he passed, but showed no emotion."^ 

"The king's carriage was for some time stopped in the mid- 
dle of the Place Vendôme ; they wished him to contemplate at 
leisure the equestrian statue of Louis le Grand, hurled from its 
pedestal, broken by the people and trampled under foot. " Such 
is the treatment of tyrants," the raging populace cried unceas- 
ingly." — Hîie, " Mémoires." 

The bronze figures which ornamented the base of the 
statue are still to be seen in the Louvre. During the 
Revolution the name of the square was changed to Place 
des Conquêtes, then to Place des Piques. The Column 
was erected by Napoleon I., in imitation of that of Trajan 
at Rome, and is covered with bas-reliefs representing his 
German campaign, from designs of Bergeret, cast from 
Austrian cannon. At the top was originally placed a 
statue of the Emperor by Chaudet, which was pulled down 
after the allies entered Paris and melted down to make 
part of the second bronze horse of Henri IV. on the Pont 
Neuf. A second statue by Seurre, made from cannon 
taken in Algeria (magnanimously erected by Louis Phil- 
ippe in 1833), was replaced in 1863 by a copy from the 
first statue by Chaudet. On May 16, 187 1, the ridiculous 
Communists threw down the whole column, though it was 
able to be rebuilt from the fragments (in 1874) as it is 
now seen. The height is 135 feet. The proprietor of the 
Hôtel du Rhin had offered the Communists 500,000 fr. if 
they would spare the column, and those robbers had an- 
swered, '' Donnez un million et l'on verra ! " 

Up to 1870 the railings around, and the base of this 
column in honor of Napoleon, were always hung with 

^ Beaulieu, Essais historiques. \ 


wreaths of immortelles : now all is bare, but Parisians are 
apt to change the historic objects of their idolatr}' accord- 
ing to — circumstances. 

"La gloire de l'empire! .... Eh quoi! quand elle est 
chantée par des voix comme Victor Hugo, Lamartine, Chauteau- 
briand, Casimir Delavigne, toutes nos sommités littéraires, une 
voix s'en viendrait murmurer au bas des aigles triomphantes de 
la colonne ! . . . . ' Ah ! silence ! silence ! ' " — Mémoires de la 
Duchesse iV Ahrantes, 

The Hôtel du Rhin was the residence of Napoleon 
IIL as Deputy to the National Assembly in 1848. 

From the Place Vendôme the handsome Rue de la Paix 
(formerly Rue Napole'on), dating from 1807, leads to the 
Place de l'Opéra. It occupies the site of the convent of 
the Capucines (founded under Henri IV.), in which Louise 
de Lorraine, widow of Henry IIL, Mme de Pompadour, 
Louvois (minister of war to Louis XIV.), and the Due de 
Cre'qui, were buried.^ 

In the Rue St. Florentin, the Hotel de la Vrilliere, also 
called Hôtel de I'lnfantado, was built for the minister M. 
de St. Florentin, who gave a name to the street. It was 
afterwards inhabited by the Spanish grandee who at one 
time gave a name to the house, then by M. de Talleyrand, 
who received the Emperor Alexander there in 18 14. 

" Sans cœur et sans talent, beaucoup de suffisance, 
A la Banque, à la Bourse, escroquant dix pour un. 
Dans ses propos rompus outrageant la décence, 
Tel était autrefois le pontife d'Autun. 
Plus heureux aujourd'hui, sa honte est moins obscure ; 
Froidement, du mépris il affronte les traits ; 
Il enseigne le vol et prêche le parjure. 
Et sème la discorde en annonçant la paix. 
Sans cesse on nous redit qu'il ne peut rien produire, 

• The monument of Queen Louise is now at St. Denis ; that of Louvois, at 
the hospital of Tonnerre ; that of the Due de Crcqui, at St. Roch. 


Et que de ses discours il n'est que le lecteur ; 
Mais ce qu'un autre écrit, c'est d'Autun qui l'inspire." 

M??ie de Montrond. 

" We shall see the Bishop of Autun, Charles Maurice de Tal- 
leyrand-Périgord, serve with an equal convicton of loyalty, the 
directory, the consulate that overthrew the directory, the empire 
which overthrew the consulate, the restoration which overthrew 
the empire, and the revolution of July which overthrew the resto- 
ration. There are strange dispensations of morality for political 
convictions," — Touc hard- La fosse, "■Hist, de Parish 

" The palace, which is in a noble, rich and sombre style, was, 
for a long time, called Hôtel de V Infantado j to-day it bears on its 
front, above the principal door, Hôtel Talleyrand. 

" He was a strange, redoubtable and important personage ; 
his name was Charles Maurice de Périgord ; he was noble like 
Macchiavelli, a priest like Gondi, unfrocked like Fouché, witty 
as Voltaire, and lame as the devil. It might be said that every- 
thing about him was lame ; his nobility, which he made the hand- 
maid of the republic ; his priesthood, which he dragged in the 
Champ de Mars, and then flung into the gutter ; his marriage, which 
he broke by a score of scandals and a voluntary separation ; his 
intellect, which he dishonored by baseness. 

" Into this palace, like a spider into its web, he drew and kept 
in succession, heroes, thinkers, great men, conquerors, kings, 
princes, emperors ; Bonaparte, Sieyès, Mme de Staël, Chateau- 
briand, Benjamin Constant, Alexander of Russia, William of 
Prussia, Francis of Austria, Louis XVIII., Louis Philippe, all 
the golden and radiant flies which buzz in the history of these last 
forty years. All this glittering swarm passed in succession through 
that sombre doorway which bears inscribed on its architrave. Hôtel 
Talleyrand. '' — Victor Hugo, " Choses vties." 

In the Rue de Luxembourg is the church of V Assomp- 
tion^ built (1670-76) for a convent of Augustinian nuns, 
now a barrack. Robespierre lived long opposite this 
church, at No. 396 Rue St. Honore', in the house of the 
carpenter Duplay (destroyed by the Rue Duphot). All 
that was human in his character was bestowed upon the 
family of his host : for them chiefly he showed the grimace 
meant for a smile on the pinched countenance which 


made Mirabeau compare him to ''un chat qui a bu du 
vinaigre y 

Where the Rue Royale opens towards the Madeleine, 
we pass the Miftisûre de la Marine et des Colonies, built 
(1760-68) by Gabriel, and gutted during the Commune, 
and reach the Place de la Concorde, stately and beautiful 
with its obelisk, fountains, and statues, its delightful views 
down green avenues to the Louvre on the east, and the Arc 
d'Etoile on the west, and towards the magnificent church 
of the Madeleine on the north, and the Chambre des De- 
putes on the south. The square was made under Louis XV., 
and was decorated with his equestrian statue by Bouchar- 
don, placed on a pedestal surrounded by bas-reliefs and al- 
legorical figures of the Virtues by Pigalle, which imme- 
diately drew forth the epigram — 

" Oh ! la belle statue ! oh ! le beau piédestal '. 
Les vertus sont à pied, le vice est à cheval," 

followed a few days later by — 

" Il est ici comme à Versailles : 
Il est sans cœur et sans entrailles," 

The Legislative Assembly demolished the statue in the 
Place Louis XV. (1792), and replaced it by a statue of 
Liberty. Soon, however, the square took the name of 
Place de la Révolution, when the expression guillotiner 
effaced that of lanterner, and, under the Reign of Terror, 
the scaffold was permanently established here. Thus the 
most terrible memories of the great Revolution are concen- 
trated on this spot, where 2,800 persons perished between 
January 21, 1793, and May 3, 1795. The fountain on the 
south side, decorated with figures emblematic of Marine 
Navigation, marks the exact spot where Louis XVL died, 
January 21, 1793. 



" The deepest silence reigned on all sides. On arriving at 
the Place de la Revolution, the king repeatedly commended his 
confessor to the care of the lieutenant, and descended from the 
carriage. He was at once placed in the hands of the executioner ; 
he took off his coat and necktie himself, and remained covered 
by a simple vest of white flannel. He objected to his hair being 
cut, and, above all, to being tied. A few words from his con- 
fessor decided him at once. He mounted the scaffold, and 
walked to the left side ; his face was very red, and for some 
minutes he looked at the objects around him ; then he asked if 
the drums would not stop beating ; he wished to speak, but 
several voices cried to the executioners, who were four in number, 
to do their duty. Nevertheless, while they were putting the 
straps on him, he pronounced distinctly these words : ' I die 
innocent, I pardon my enemies, and I hope my blood will be 
useful to the French and appease the anger of God.' At ten 
minutes past ten o'clock, his head was separated from his body, 
and then shown to the people. On the instant cries of ' Vive la 
République !' were heard from all sides." — Les Révolutions de Fans. 

"When they reached the place of execution and they offered 
to tie his hands, the king resisted, and said, ' C'est trop,' but on 
Mr. Edgeworth's reminding him how acceptable the humiliation 
would be in the eyes of God, and citing his Saviour's example, 
he held both his hands out, and suffered them to be tied. When 
on the scaffold, the trumpets and drums sounded according to 
their orders, the king bowed, as desiring leave to speak. Every 
instrument ceased ; all was silence and attention. The king 
said, ' I die innocent ; I forgive my enemies, and pray God to 
avert His vengeance for my blood, and to bless my people.' He 
took two turns on the scaffold, and then prepared himself for 
death. Mr. Edgeworth was kneeling by him, and in the excess 
of feeling had lost all recollection, till he was roused by the 
words, ' the head of a traitor,' and, looking up, saw his sovereign's 
head streaming over him in the monster's hands." — Journal of 
Miss Ann Porter, Nov. 3, 1796, after meeting the Abbé Edgeworth, 
confessor of Louis X VI. 

"The king showed himself, in the presence of the scaffold, 
what he had always been in the midst of the bowlings of a furious 
multitude, and amid the outrages of his imprisonment. He was 
sublime in his calmness, his resignation, and his courage. His 
august firmness did not abandon him, either during his farewells 
to the queen and his children, or on the platform of the scaffold. 


He protested his innocence, and prayed God not to let his blood 
fall on France. But his voice fell only on the deaf ears of 
soldiers who surrounded the scaffold on all sides." — Balzac, " Six 
rois de France y 

"Can this be the same individual, crowned and conse- 
crated at Rheims, mounted on a dais, surrounded by all the 
great of the realm, all kneeling before him, greeted with a 
thousand acclamations, almost adored as a god ; whose look, 
voice, and gesture had the accent of command ; satiated with 
respect, honor and enjoyment ; separated, so to speak, from the 
human race ; can this be the same man whom I see pulled about 
by the headsman's four assistants, stripped by force while the 
drums drown his voice, bound to a plank still struggling, and 
receiving so awkwardly the stroke of the guillotine, that it was 
not his neck but the occiput and lower jaw that were cut in a 
horrible manner? 

" His blood flows : the joyous cries of eighty thousand armed 
men strike the air and my ears ; they are repeated along the 
quays ; I see the scholars of the Four Nations fling their hats in 
the air ; his blood flows, and it is who shall dip into it his finger- 
tip, a feather, a bit of paper ; one man tastes it, and says, 'It is 
horribly salt.' An executioner, at the edge of the scaffold, sells 
and distributes little packets of his hair ; a man buys the string 
that bound them ; every one takes away a little piece of his 
clothes, or a bloody vestige of this sanguinary tragedy. I saw the 
people march away, arm-in-arm, laughing, chatting, just as if 
returning from a fête." — Mercier, " Le nouveau Parish 

The king was taken to death in a carriage, the queen 
in a cart. 

" It was midday, October i6th, 1793. The guillotine and the 
people were impatient of waiting, when the cart, with Marie 
Antoinette, arrived at the Place de la Révolution. The widow 
of Louis XVI. stepped down to die where her husband had died. 
The mother of Louis XVII. turned her eyes for a moment to the 
Tuileries, and became paler than she had been before. Then the 
Queen of France mounted the scaffold and went to her death. 

" ' Vive la Républiqtte !' cried the people. Sanson displayed 
the head of Marie Antoinette to the people, while beneath the 
guillotine the gendarme Mingault dipped his handkerchief in the 
blood of the xnd^iXyi"— Concourt, " Hist, de Marie- Antoinette" 


On October 31, 1793, the weird death procession of the 
Girondins reached the Place. 

"At the first step from the Conciergerie the Girondins sang 
with one voice and as a funeral march, the first verse of the Mar- 
seillaise, emphasizing with significant energy the lines suscep- 
tible of a double meaning : 

' Contre nous de la tyrannie 
V étendard sanglant est levé. ' 

From that moment they ceased to think of themselves, but were 
occupied with the example of a republican death, which they 
wished to leave to the people. Their voices never sank a moment 
at the end of a strophe, but to be raised more energetic and more 
sonorous at the first line of the succeeding strophe. Their march 
and their death-agony were but a song. There were four in each 
cart ; one only had five of them. The body of Valazé was in the 
last cart ; the head, uncovered and jolted by the uneven pavement, 
bobbed up and down, beneath the looks and on the knees of his 
friends, who were obliged to close their eyes to avoid the spec- 
tacle of that livid face. Still they sang like the others. When 
they arrived at the foot of the scaffold, they embraced each other 
in token of communion in liberty, in life, and in death. Then 
they resumed the funeral chant to strengthen each for his doom, 
and to send, till the last moment, to the ears of him who was 
undergoing execution, the voices of his companions in death. 
All died without weakness ; Siller}^ with irony, for on his as- 
cending the platform he walked round it, saluting the people, 
right and left, as if to thank them for the glory of the scaffold. 
Every fall of the axe reduced the number of voices by one ; the 
ranks at the foot of the scaffold grew thinner ; one solitary voice 
continued the Marseillaise ; it was that of Vergniaud, the last to 
die. These final notes were his last words. Like his com- 
panions, he did not die, he vanished in enthusiasm, and his life, 
begun by immortal speeches, ended in a hymn to the eternity of 
the Revolution. 

"One and the same tumbrel took away the decapitated bod- 
ies ; one and the same grave covered them by the side of that of 
Louis XVL" — Lamartine, ''Hist, des Girondins.'" 

Even in that cruel time, sympathy was aroused by the 
death of Mme Roland, on November 10, 1793. 


"Many carts full of victims bore that day their loads of con- 
demned to the scafîbld. Mme Roland was placed in the last, by 
the side of a weak and infirm old man named Lamarchc, who had 
been the director of the manufacture of assignats. She was 
dressed in a white robe, a protestation of innocence with which 
she wished to strike the people. Her beautiful black hair fell in 
waves to her knees. She bent with filial tenderness over her 
companion in death ; the old man wept. She spoke to him, and 
exhorted him to firmness ; she even tried to cheer the funereal 
ride, and succeeded in making him smile. 

"The scaffold was erected by the side of the colossal Statue 
of Liberty, Arriving there, Mme Roland descended. When the 
executioner took her by the arm to make her mount the scaffold 
first, she had one of those inspirations of devotion which a wo- 
man's heart alone can conceive or reveal in such an hour. ' I ask 
of you only one favor ; it is not for myself,' she said, resisting 
slightly the arm of the executioner ; ' grant it to me ! ' Then turn- 
ing to the old man, ' Go up first,' she said to Lamarche ; ' the 
shedding of my blood before your eyes will cause you to suffer 
death twice ; you ought not to have the pain of seeing my head 
fall.' The executioner consented. After the execution of La- 
marche, which she heard without paling, she mounted the scaffold 
with a light step, and, inclining towards the Statue of Liberty, as 
if to confess her faith in it while d^ing for it, she cried : ' O 
liberty ! O liberty ! What crimes are committed in thy name ! ' 
She then gave herself into the hands of the executioner, and her 
head fell into the basket." — Lamartine, ''Hist, des Girondins. '' 

May 9, 1794, saw the execution of Madame Elizabeth. 

"Madame Elizabeth was seated in the same cart with Mmes 
de Sénozan and de Crussol-Amboise, and conversed with them 
during the passage from the Conciergerie to the Place Louis XV. 
To the laments which escaped some of the condemned, she re- 
plied by touching exhortations, . . . On their arrival at the Place 
de la Révolution, Madame was the first to alight. The execu- 
tioner, as if to assist her, extended his hand ; she looked aside, 
and did not rest on the arm offered to her. The victims found at 
the foot of the scaffold a bench, on which they had to sit. No 
one displayed weakness. Encouraged by the presence and the 
looks of the sister of Louis XVL, each of the condemned re- 
solved to rise resolutely when his name was called, and to 
accomplish his task with firmness. The first name pronounced 



by the executioner was that of Mme de Crussol. She rose at 
once and bowed to Madame Elizabeth, and in testimony of the 
respect and love with which the princess inspired her, asked per- 
mission to embrace her. 'Willingly and with all my heart,' the 
princess replied, with that expression of affability which was so 
natural to her ; and the royal victim held her face forward and 
gave her the kiss of farewell, of death, and of g\ory. All the 
ladies followed and obtained the same testimony of affection. 
The men too did themselves the honor of testifying their respect 
for Madame Elizabeth ; each, in his turn, bent to her the head 
which a minute afterwards would fall beneath the knife of the 
guillotine. . . . During all the time that the sacrifice lasted, the 
holy woman, who seemed to preside there, never ceased saying 
the De profundis. Awaiting her death she prayed for the dead. 
She was reserved to be the last to perish. When the twenty-third 
came and bowed before her, she said to him, 'Courage and faith 
in the mercy of God ! ' Then she rose herself to be ready for the 
executioner's summons ; she mounted the steps of the scaffold 
with a firm foot, and looking towards heaven, placed herself in 
the hands of the executioner. Her neckerchief fell to the ground 
at the moment when she was being bound to the fatal plank, 
and displayed a silver medal. To the executioner's man, think- 
ing it his duty to take from her this emblem of piety, she said, 
' In the name of your mother, monsieur, cover me up.' This was 
the last word of Madame Elizabeth." — A. M. de Beauchesne. 

On July 28, 1794, Robespierre paid the penalty of his 


" In place of occupying the throne of a dictator, Robespierre 
was half reclined on a cart, which bore his accomplices, Couthon 
and Henriot. Around him was a roar and a tumult of a thou- 
sand confused cries of joy and mutual congratulations. His 
head was wrapped up in a dirty and bloody piece of linen ; only 
his pale and ferocious half-face was visible. His companions, 
mutilated and disfigured, were less like criminals than wild beasts 
caught in a trap, which could not be captured without crushing 
some part of their limbs. A burning sun did not prevent the 
women from exposing the lilies and roses of their cheeks to its 
rays ; they wished to see the executioner of their fellow-citizens. 
The horsemen, escorting the cart, brandished their sabres and 
pointed to him with the naked blades. The pontiff-king no 
longer dragged the Convention after him at ten paces distance ; 


he seemed to retain life only to attest divine justice and its 
terrible vengeance on hypocritical and bloodthirsty men. 

"The people made him stop near the place of execution, 
before the house where he lodged, and a group of women then 
performed a dance amid the clapping of hands of the crowd. 
One of them took this opportunity to address him by voice and 
gesture, crying, ' Thy punishment makes me drunk with jo)'^; go 
to hell with the curses of all wives and mothers of families.' He 
remained dumb. 

" When he mounted the scaflfold, the executioner, as if ani- 
mated by the public hatred, roughly tore the bandages from his 
wounds ; he uttered a scream like a tiger ; the lower jaw fell 
down from the upper one, and, as the blood came out in jets, 
made this human head into the head of a monster, the most hor- 
rible that could be painted. His two companions, not less hide- 
ous in their torn and bloody clothes, were the acolytes of the 
great criminal whose sufferings did not inspire the slightest pity 
in any one. Although he was mortally wounded, public venge- 
ance demanded from him a second death, and crowds ran not to 
lose the instant which he had made so many others experience. 
The applause lasted for fifteen minutes. 

"Twenty-two heads fell with his. The next day, seventy 
members of the Commune went to join the chief whom they had 
chosen ; they were men who had entered our cells to take away 
our food and deluge us with humiliations. The following day, 
twelve other members of the Commune paid with their heads for 
their complicity with the chief of the conspirators, but these 
ignoble and vulgar heads of dull satellites had no name ; that of 
Robespierre alone was taken into account." — Mercier, " Le nou- 
veau Paris y 

The Obelisk of the Place de la Concorde, brought from 
Luxor, and given to France by Mahomet- Ali, was erected 
here under Louis Philippe, in 1836. It is covered with 
hieroglyphics celebrating Rameses IL, or Sesostris, who 
reigned in the fourteenth century before Christ. The 
history of its transport from Egypt is represented upon the 

It was at the foot of this obelisk, on the spot where 
Louis XVI. died, that Louis Philippe and Marie Amélie, 


flying on foot by the gardens before the popular invasion 
of the Tuileries, on February 24, 1848^ waited in agony for 
their carriages (which were being burnt at that moment by 
the insurgents in the Place du Carrousel) and eventually 
were rescued by a private brougham. 

Eight allegorical statues typify the great cities of France 
— Lyons, Marseilles, Bordeaux, Nantes, Lille, Strasbourg, 
Rouen, and Brest. Since that city has ceased to be 
French, the statue of Strasbourg (by Pradier) has always 
been draped in mourning ! 

At every hour of the day the Place de la Concorde is 

beautiful and imposing. 

" It was four o'clock ; the lovely day was ending in a golden 
haze of sunlight. To right and left, towards the Madeleine and 
the Corps Législatif, the lines of houses touched the sky, while 
in the garden of the Tuileries the round summits of the great 
chestnut trees towered aloft. Between the two green borders of 
the side alleys, the avenue of the Champs Elysées soared till lost 
to sight beneath the colossal gate of the Arc de Triomphe, wide- 
gaping on infinity. A double current of crowd, a double stream 
rolled on, furrowed with the living tracks of equipages, and 
studded with the fleeting waves of carriages, which the reflection 
of a panel or the gleam from the glass of a lamp seemed to 
whiten into foam. Below, the Place, with its immense foot- 
paths and causeways, as wide as lakes, was filled by this continu- 
ous tide, crossed in all directions by flashing wheels, and peopled 
with black spots that were men ; and the two fountains flowed 
and exhaled freshness into this burning life." — Zola, " VŒtcvre" 

Two groups of sculpture by Guillaume Coustou, known 
as Les Chevaux de Marly, decorate the entrance to the 
noble promenade originally called " Le Grand Cours," but 
which has been known as Les Champs Elysées since the 
time of Louis XV. It extends from the Place de la Con- 
corde to the Arc de l'Etoile, and is the favorite afternoon 
walk of the fashionable world of Paris, where the badaud, 
or French cockney, is seen in perfection. 


" There is not one blade of grass in all these Elysian Fields, 
nothing but hard clay, often covered with white dust. This gives 
the whole scene the air of being a contrivance of man, in which 
Nature has either not been invited to take any part, or has de- 
clined to do so. There are merry-go-rounds, wooden horses, 
and other provision for children's amusement among the trees ; 
and booths, and tables of cakes, and candy women, and restau- 
rants on the borders of the wood." — LLawthonie, ^^ Note-Books^ 

Behind the principal avenues are ranges of exhibition 
booths, and cafés-concerts, which attract a humbler crowd. 
Here idolizing parents will stand for hours to watch their 
petits boîishommes caracolling on wooden horses, while la 
bonfie, in a snowy cap, holds the babies. Here the sellers 
of souprf-s and gâteaux de Nanterre drive a busy trade. 

" Paris is the only city of the world where you will meet the 
sights which make the boulevards a continual drama, played by 
the French people for the benefit of art." — Balzac, ''Le Cousin 

" Look ! everything is flying, fleeing, and buzzing. Here are 
the light calèches with four horses, manes floating, nostrils dilated, 
calèches with women so delicate and so perfumed, so rosy and so 
white, that one would call them, so quick do they pass, fragrant 
baskets of flowers. Here are the tilburys, with their share-bro- 
kers, perched on double cushions ; they love to fall from a good 
height, your share-brokers ! Here are English horses, French 
horses, Arab horses, all proud, all prancing, all with heads held 
high, a rosette at the ear, and a fool on the back. Here is noise 
and dust, show and laughter, admiring women and admiring 
dolts ; here are glances of love cast in passing, plumes that fly 
away, equipages that cross each other ; here is coquetry and 
rivalry, here is gold, here is sun, here is everything. . . . Every- 
thing, alas ! except happiness." — Atnédc'e Gratiot. 

" Vanity and economy, which seem as if they ought to be 
eternally at war, are, in the life of a Parisienne, two forces in equi- 
librium, that walk submissively with fraternal steps towards the 
end assigned them. . . . 'We must make an appearance,' says 
the one. . . . ' At little expense,' adds the other. . . . There is 
no concession they will not mutually make to obtain this com- 
plex result." — E, Raymond, 



" The promenade, properly so called, of the Champs Elysées 
stops at the Rond Point ; farther on, it is merely a wide avenue 
bordered on two sides by fine houses of grand appearance, and 
rising slowly in a gentle slope to the Arc de l'Etoile. In the morn- 
ing nobody is seen in the Champs Elysées, in the afternoon all 
the world ; but on one particular day this great avenue presents 
an appearance of striking character and originality. That day is 

"Then, from two o'clock, the space between the Horses of 
Marly and the Arc de Triomphe disappears beneath a moving 
mass of vehicles of all sorts. Calèches harnessed à la Daumont 
are mingled with fiacres. Landaus with armorial bearings on their 
panels drive alongside carts with awnings. Coupés and mylords, 
carrioles and baskets meet there ; and in this confusion of vehicles 
of all shapes and forms, the omnibuses, like lofty ships, pass to 
and fro, slowly. 

" In this coming and going, where the movement and duration 
tire the eye, all classes of society are represented, the millionaire 
and the workman. The man who has won his rank and fortune 
by laborious efforts, shoulders the heir of a great name." — Amédée 
A chard. 

Chateaubriand saw the royal captives of Versailles 
brought into Paris by the Champs Elyse'es. 

" On the 5th October, 1789, I ran to the Champs Elysées ; the 
first things I saw were cannons on which harpies, thieves and pros- 
titutes were mounted astride, making the most obscene remarks 
and the most immodest gestures. Then, in the midst of a horde 
of all ages and both sexes, the body-guard marched on foot, having 
exchanged hats, swords and belts with the National Guards, and 
each of their horses carried two or three fishwomen, dirty bac- 
chanals, drunk and dishevelled. The deputation of the National 
Assembly came next, the king's carriages followed, and rolled on 
in the dusty obscurity of a forest of pikes and bayonets. Rag- 
pickers in tatters, butchers with their bloody aprons and their 
knives in their belts, their shirt-sleeves rolled up, walked at the 
doors ; other monsters had climbed to the roof, others perched on 
the footboard of the lackeys and the drivers' seats. Guns and 
pistols were discharged, and cries were raised of Vive le boulanger, 
la botilangère et le petit mitron ! In place of the oriflamme in front 
of the son of St. Louis, the Swiss halberts raised aloft the heads 


of two body-guards, curled and powdered by a barber of Sèvres." 
— " Mémoires d' Outre- l\vube.'" 

On the left of the Champs Elysees is the Palais iV In- 
dustrie^ built (1852-55) for the Great Exhibition, and used 
since for the annual Exhibitions of Painting and Sculpture, 
open daily from 8 to 6, except on Mondays, when it opens 
at 12 (admission, i f r. ; free on Saturdays after 10, and 
Tuesdays from 12 to 6). Beyond this, the Avenue Moti- 
taigne branches off (left), containing the quaint Hotel Pom- 
péien, built (i860) for Prince Napoleon. The Avenue 
d'Antin leads to the river, where, at the angle of the Rue 
Bayard and Cour de la Reine — nearly opposite the Pont 
des Invalides —is the quaint Maison de François I., built 
by that king (in 1523) at Moret, near the forest of Fon- 
tainebleau, for his sister Marguerite, purchased by a private 
individual, transported hither in 1827, and rebuilt, stone 
for stone. It bears medallions of Louis XII., Anne de 
Bretagne, François IL, Marguerite de Navarre, Henri IL, 
Diane de Poitiers, and François I. Ail the sculptures are 
attributed to Jean Goujon. On the back of the house, 
which is a perfect square, is inscribed — 

" Qui scit frenare linguam sensumque domare, 
Fortior est illo qui frangit viribus urbes ! " 

Voltaire, returning to Paris from Berlin, lived with the 
Marquis de Villette, at the corner of the Rue de Beaune, 
and died there, May 30, 1778. 

From the Ro7id Point, the Aveiiue Kleber leads to the 
Place du Trocadèro. George, King of Hanover, lived in 
the corner-house of the Rue de Presbourg and Avenue 
Kleber, and there he died, June 12, 1878. The Palais du 
Trocadèro, built in the Oriental style (in 1878), is of the 
same character internally as the Crystal Palace at Syden- 


ham. It contains a Muste de Sculpture Comparée or des 
Moulages^ and an Ethnographical Museum. There are fine 
views from the galleries and balconies. Zola describes a 
sunset as seen from here. 

" Paris, that morning, displayed a charming laziness in 
awakening. A vapor, following the valley of the Seine, bathed 
both banks. It was a light, almost milky haze which the sun, as 
it gradually grew brighter, lighted up. Nothing could be seen of 
the town beneath that floating muslin, gray as time. In the folds, 
the cloud thickened into a bluish tint, while on the broader 
spaces were delicately transparent gleams, where a golden dust 
indicated the lines of streets ; and, higher up, domes and spires 
pierced the fog, rearing up their gray outlines, still wrapped in 
drifts of the mist which they penetrated. At times, flakes of yel- 
low smoke were detached as by the heavy stroke of the wing of 
some giant bird, and then melted into the air that seemed to 
swallow them up. Above this immensity, and this cloud, lower- 
ing and sleeping over Paris, a pure sky of a tender blue, almost 
white, spread out its deep vault. The sun rose in a haze soft- 
ened by its rays. A white cloud, white with the vague whiteness 
of infancy, burst into showers, and filled the space with its warm 
quiverings. It was a feast, the sovereign peace and tender gaiety 
of the infinite, while the city, smitten with golden darts, lazy and 
sleepy, did not make up her mind to show herself under her 

"At the horizon, long shudders coursed over the sleeping 
lake. Then, suddenly, this lake seemed to give way, gaps were 
visible, and from one end to the other, a crack announced the 
break up. The sun, still higher, in the triumphant glory of his 
beams, victoriously attacked the fog. Gradually the great lake 
seemed to sink as if some invisible drain had emptied it. The 
vapors, just now so deep, became thinner and transparent as they 
assumed the bright colors of the rainbow. All the left bank was 
of a tender blue, slowly deepening into violet on the side of the 
Jardin des Plantes. On the right bank, the quarter of the Tuil- 
eries had the pale rose tint of flesh color, and towards Montmar- 
tre, there was, as it were, the glare of flame, carmine flushing 
into gold, and then, farther away, the working faubourgs exhib- 
ited their dull brick tones, bit by bit, passing into the bluish gray 
of the slates. Even yet one could not distinguish the city, tram- 



drawing a second pistol from his pocket. The Emperor, 
without a sign of fear or emotion, quietly rode on to over- 
take the Empress, and assure her himself of his safety. It 
had been near this that the people fired upon Louis Phi- 
lippe in his flight, and killed two horses of the escort. 

The Champs Elysees are closed by the huge Arc de 
r Etoile, one of the four triumphal arches which Napoleon 
I. intended to erect in commemoration of his victories, and 
which he began from designs of Chalgrin, in 1806, though 
the work was not completed till 1836, long after founder 
and architect had passed away. It is the largest triumphal 
arch in the world ; the arch itself being 90 feet high and 
45 feet wide. The groups of sculpture which adorn it are 
by Rude, Cortot, and Etex : that by Rude, of the Genius 
of War summoning the nation to arms, is the best. There 
is, however, nothing fine about the Arc de l'Etoile except 
its size. The arch itself is far too narrow for its height, 
and the frippery ornament along the top of the structure 
destroys all grandness of outline. The hugeness of the 
building is in itself a disfigurement, and, like the giant 
statues in St. Peter's at Rome, it puts all its surroundings 
out of proportion. 

Perhaps more than any other monument in Paris, this 
arch seems erected to show the instability of thrones and 
the fleeting power of man : yet Victor Hugo wrote of it — 

" Quand des toits, des clochers, des ruches tortueuses, 
Des porches, des frontons, des dômes pleins d'orgueil 
Qui faisaient cette ville, aux voix tumultueuses, 
Touffue, inextricable et fourmillante à l'œil, 

Il ne restera plus dans l'immense campagne 
Pour toute pyramide et pour tout Panthéon, 
Que deux tours de granit, faites par Charlemagne 
Et qu'un pilier d'airain fait par Napoléon, 

Toi ! tu compléteras le triangle sublime . . ." 


From the arch, the Avenue de Neiiilly leads to the' 
village of that name. About i k.^ opposite the entrance to 
the Bois de Boulogne called Port Maillot, is the Chapelle 
St, Ferdinaîid (shown daily), enclosing the room in which 
Ferdinand, Due d'Orléans, died from injuries received in 
trying to jump from his carriage, at this spot, when its 
horses were running away.^ The touching cenotaph of the 
duke (who is buried with his family at Dreux) is by Trin- 
queti from designs of Ary Scheffer. The angel on the 
right is one of the last works of the Princess Marie. The 
prie-dieu in the chapel are all embroidered by different 
members of the Orléans royal family. A Descent from the 
Cross, by Trinqueti, from designs of Ary Scheffer, occupies 
a niche behind the high-altar. A picture by Jacquand 
represents the touching scene on this spot during " Les 
Derniers Moments du Duc d'Orléans. " His august mother, 
the Queen Marie Amélie, has left an account of them. 

"We entered the tavern, and there, in a little room, on a 
mattress stretched on the floor, we found Chartres, whom the doc- 
tor was just then bleeding. ... I went for a moment into the 
little room to the right, where I flung myself on my knees, and 
prayed to God from the bottom of my soul that if he demanded 
a victim he would take me, and save our dear child. Soon after 
Doctor Pasquier came. I said to him, ' Monsieur, you are a man 
of honor ; if you believe the danger imminent, I beg you to tell 
me, so that my child may receive extreme unction.' He bowed 
his head and said, ' Madame, it is time.' The curé of Neuilly en- 
tered, and administered the sacrament, while we knelt around 
the bed, weeping and praying. I took from my neck a small 
cross containing a piece of the true cross, and placed it in the 
hand of my poor child, that God the Saviour might have pity on 
him during his passage to eternity. . . . M. Pasquier rose and 
whispered to the king. Then this venerable and unfortunate 
father, his face bathed in tears, knelt by his eldest son, embraced 
him tenderly, and cried, ' Oh, if it were I in his place ! ' 

» The road was then called Chemin de la Révolte. 


" I also drew near and kissed him thrice, for myself, for 
Hélène, and for his children. I put to his mouth the little cross, 
the sign of our redemption, and then placed and left it on his 
heart. All the family in succession embraced him, and each re- 
turned to his place. His respiration became uneven, it was in- 
terrupted and resumed twice, and I then asked the priest to return 
and say the prayers for the dying. He had scarcely knelt down 
and made the sign of the cross, when my dear child gave a last, 
deep inspiration, and his soul, so beautiful, good and generous, 
and noble, quitted his corpse. The priest, at my request, said a 
De profîindis ; the king wished to remove me, but I entreated 
him to let me kiss, for the last time, this beloved son, the object 
of my deepest affection. I took that beloved head in my hands, 
and kissed the pale and discolored lips. I placed on them the 
little cross, and removed it as I said a last farewell to him whom I 
loved so much, whom perhaps I loved too much. The king led 
me into the next room. I flung m)^self on his neck, and we were 
wretched together ; our irreparable loss was common to both, 
and I suffered as much on his account as on my own. There 
was a crowd in the little room. I wept, and talked, and was be- 
side myself. 

"At the end of some minutes it was announced that all was 
ready. The corpse was placed on a bier, covered by a white 
sheet. It was borne by four men of the house, and steadied by 
two gendarmes. We left by the carriage door of the stables ; an 
immense crowd was outside. Two battalions of the 2d and the 
17th 'light,' who had with him passed the Iron Gates, and forced 
the pass of Mouzaïa, lined the road, and escorted us. We all 
followed on foot the inanimate corpse of this well-loved son, who 
a few hours before had come by this road full of health, strength, 
happiness, and hope, to embrace his parents, who were now 
plunged into the deepest woe." 

Victor Hugo narrates how — 

"For the dying Duke of Orleans, a mattress was hurriedly 
placed on the ground, and a pillow was made of an old straw 
arm-chair turned over. 

"A cracked stove was behind the prince's head. Pots and 
pans and coarse earthenware furnished some shelves along the 
wall. Some big shears, a fowling-piece, some twopenny colored 
pictures, nailed up at the four corners, represented Mazagran, 
the Wandering Jew, and the attempt of Fieschi. A portrait of 


Napoleon, and one of the Duke of Orleans (Louis Philippe) as' 
colonel-general of hussars, completed the armaments of the wall. 
The floor was of red bricks, not painted. Two old chests stood 
at the left of the prince's death-bed." — " Choses vues." 

The Bridge of Neuilly, twice rebuilt since, was origi- 
nally erected by Henri IV., who was nearly drowned in 
crossing the ferry here with Marie de Medicis. Here, 
also, Pascal had that narrow escape of being drowned by 
runaway horses, which led to his renunciation of the world. 

The Château de Neuilly, built by the Comte d'Argen- 
son in 1740, and afterwards inhabited by Talleyrand, Mu- 
rât, and Pauline Bonaparte, was given by Louis XVIII. to 
his cousin the Due d'Orléans. Almost all the children of 
Louis Philippe were born there, and there, in 1830, he ac- 
cepted the French crown. The château was the scene of 
most of the happy events of the family life of Louis Phi- 
lippe, and in its chapel the king and queen watched, from 
his death to his funeral, beside the body of their beloved 
eldest son. 

" Louis Philippe was a king who was too much a father, and 
this incubation of a family, which is intended to produce a 
dynasty, is frightened at everything, and does not like to be dis- 
turbed. Hence arises excessive timidity, which is offensive to a 
nation which has July 14th in its civil traditions, and Austerlitz 
in its military annals. However, when we abstract public duties 
which should ever be first fulfilled, the family deserved Louis 
Philippe's profound tenderness for it. This domestic group was 
admirable, and combined virtue with talent. One of the daugh- 
ters of Louis Philippe, Marie d'Orléans, placed the name of her 
race among artists as Charles d'Orléans had done among the 
poets, and she produced a statue which she called Joan of Arc. 
Two of Louis Philippe's sons drew from Metternich this dema- 
gogic praise : 'They are young men whose like can be found no- 
where, and such princes as were never seen before.'" — Victor 
Hugo, " Les Misérables'' 

During the crisis of 1848, the French pillaged and 


plundered the home of their king, and 600,000/. worth of 
his private property was destroyed by the robbers of the 
Revolution, though the private charities of Louis PhiHppe 
and Marie AmeUe during their seventeen years' reign had 
amounted to 21,650,000 fr. or 800,000/., and those of the 
Due and Duchesse d'Orléans to an annual sum of nearly 
20,0000/ A cruel decree of Louis Napoleon compelled the 
royal family to sell their estates in 185 1. Since that time 
the royal park of Neuilly has been cut up for avenues of 
villas. Nothing remains of Villiers, the residence of the 
last Duke of Orléans, except a pavilion on the Place de 
Villiers-la-Garenne. The Palace of Madame Adélaïde, sis- 
ter of Louis Philippe, was (in 1863) occupied by the Con- 
servatoire de Notre Dame des Arts, and is now a school. 

From the Arc de l'Etoile several long and rather dreary 
avenues lead to the Bois. That called Aveîiice du Bois de 
Boulogne (formerly de l'Impératrice) is the most animated, 
but the Aveuue d'Eylau leads more directly to the gate of 
the Bois called Porte de la Muette, The heights of Mont 
Valérien are always a fine feature, rising behind the woods. 
At the corner of the Avenue Malakoff and that of the Bois 
de Boulogne is the house of Dr. Evans, the American 
dentist, where the Empress Eugénie spent the first night 
(September 4-5, 1870) after her flight from the Tuileries. 

The Bois de Boulogne is part of the ancient forest of 
Rouvray i— of which Louis XL made his barber, Olivier le 
Daim, Grand-Forester {gruyer)—^\i^xQ. Henri IL and Diane 
de Poitiers loved to give hunting fêtes, and where Louis XV. 
held orgies in the Château de la Muette which Charles IX. 
had built. The name was changed after pilgrims in 13 19) 
had erected a church in honor of Notre Dame de Boulogne 
in the neighboring village of Menus-les-St. -Cloud, which 

> Roveritum, Rouvret, Rouvrai. 


forthwith took the name of Boulogne. Ceded to the town' 
of Paris by Napoleon III., the Bois has ever since been the 
favorite play-ground of the Parisians, and in this " nature si 
artistement mondaine " ^ all that is possible of luxury of 
equipages and toilette may be seen especially from 3 to 5 
in winter, and 5 to 7 in summer. 

" Of course we drove in the Bois de Boulogne, that limitless 
park, with its forests, its lakes, its cascades, and its broad 
avenues. There were thousands upon thousands of vehicles 
abroad, and the scene was full of life and gaiety. There were 
very common hacks, with father, mother, and all the children in 
them ; conspicuous little open carriages, with celebrated ladies 
of doubtful reputation in them ; there were dukes and duchesses 
abroad, with gorgeous footmen perched behind, and equally 
gorgeous outriders perched on each of the six horses ; there were 
blue and silver, and green and gold, and pink and black, and all 
sorts and descriptions of startling liveries out. 

"I will not attempt to describe the Bois de Boulogne. I 
cannot do it. It is simply a beautiful, cultivated, endless, 
wonderful wilderness. It is an enchanting place. It is in Paris 
now, but a crumbling old cross in one portion of it reminds one 
that it was not always so. The cross marks the spot where a 
celebrated troubadour was waylaid and murdered in the four- 
teenth century. It was in this park that the fellow with the un- 
pronounceable name made the attempt on the Russian Czar's life 
with a pistol. The bullet struck a tree. Now, in America that 
interesting tree would be chopped down and forgotten within five 
years, but it will bé treasured here. The guides will point it 
out to visitors for the next 800 years, and when it decays and falls 
down they will put up another there and go on with the old story 
just the same." — Mark Twain, " The Innocents Abroad." 

"The Bois de Boulogne is still Paris ; the Paris of fêtes and 
promenades, the Paris of green trees and country pleasures, the 
Paris of duels and amours. In the morning, a duel and break- 
fast ; at two o'clock, a stroll and ennui ; in the evening, dinner 
and intrigue. There are people who live in Paris, have their 
houses and pay taxes in Paris, whose whole existence is passed 
in the Bois de Boulogne." — Amédée Gratiot. 

"You who have seen the Bois de Boulogne in its days of 

1 Zola, La Curée. 



splendor, with its alleys thronged by brilliant horsemen and 
sumptuous equipages that seem to glide beneath domes of ver- 
dure ; you who have followed these heroes of fashion, with their 
elegant yet simple dress, and their noble, easy and graceful bear- 
ing, retrace for us with bright colors, that youth devoted solely to 
luxury and pleasure, which shows itself wherever vanity can 
exhibit her pomp, or idleness can display her ennui. 

"Grace, folly, wit, and debt are still the heritage of the 
young Frenchmen of our days. The nineteenth century need not 
blush before its ancestors ; there is always the same amiable 
frivolity of character, the same ease of manner, the same love of 
luxury and adornment of which our predecessors were accused. 
I recognize the worthy sons of the men, who, according to the 
saying of a great king, "wore on their backs their farms and 
their timber trees.' " — Balzac, " Esquisses parisiennes y 

Entering the Bois by the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, 
the Route de Suresnes soon leads us to the Lac Supérieur. 
On the further side of the lake, between it and the Pré 
Catelan, is the Pare aux Daims. Beyond the Lac Supérieur 
is the Butte Mortemart, a hillock whence there are views 
towards the heights of Issy, Meudon, Bellevue, St. Cloud, 
Suresnes, and Mont Vale'rien. Between this and the Porte 
d'Auteuil is the Champ de Courses for steeple-chases. On 
the further side of the Bois, reached most quickly by 
taking the direct road from the Carrefour des Cascades 
between the two lakes, is the plain of Longchamp, divided 
into a Hippodrome and Champ d^ Entrahiement^ between 
which are to be seen some small remains of the Abbaye de 
Longchamp, founded (1256) by St. Isabelle of France, 
sister of St. Louis, who passed the rest of her life and was 
buried (1269) within its walls. The sanctity acquired by 
the abbey from the miracles wrought at her tomb called 
many princesses to take the veil there, and Philippe le 
Long died (in 132 1) whilst he was the guest of the con- 
vent, of which his daughter, Blanche de France, was the 
abbess. In the XVI. c, however, Longchamp began to 



lose its saintly reputation. Henri IV. made love to one 
of its nuns, Catherine de Verdun, and in 1652 St. Vincent 
de Paul complained bitterly to Cardinal Mazarin of the 
irregularities of the convent and the luxury of its sisters, 
ill befitting those who bore the name of " Sœurs mineures 
encloses de l'Humilité Notre Dame." After this, Long- 
champ fell into disrepute, and the tomb of Isabelle was 
deserted, till the nuns reconquered their popularity by the 
splendor of their musical services, in which they were 
greatly aided by the famous opera-singer, Mile Le Maure, 
who took the veil in the convent in 1727. From that 
time till the Revolution all the most distinguished persons 
in Paris frequented the church, and the "promenade de 
Longchamp " became an established fashion. 

The Hippodrome of Longchamp is the principal race- 
course in the neighborhood of Paris. The Grand Prix of 
100,000 fr. is contended for in the beginning of June, and 
answers to the English " Derby." 

Near the Carrefour de Lo?igchamp are the Grande 
Cascade and the Mare de Longchamp^ fed by a stream from 
the Mare aux Biches. From the Carrefour, the Route de la 
Longue Queue leads to the Porte de Madrid by the Château 
de Bagatelle, occupying the site of a villa of Mile de 
Charolais (daughter of Louis, Prince de Condé), whose 
fancy for being painted as a monk drew forth the lines of 

Voltaire .. YxhxQ Ange de Charolais, 

Dis-nous par quel aventure 
Le cordon de Saint François 
Sert à Vénus de ceinture." 

Bagatelle afterwards became the property of the Comte 
d'Artois, brother of Louis XVL, who laid a wager with 
Marie Antoniette that he would build a château there in 
the space of a month, and won it, inscribing '' Parva sed 



apta" over the entrance. Sold at the Revolution, Baga- 
telle was afterwards restored to the Due d'Artois, who gave 
it to the Due de Berry, who often resided there. It now 
belongs to Sir Richard Wallace, 

Crossing the Allée de Longchamp, by the cafe'-restaurant 
called Pré Catelan, we may reach the Croix Catelaii — a 
stone pyramid replacing a cross raised by Philippe le Bel 
to Arnauld de Catelan, a troubadour from Provence, mur- 
dered, with his servant, by the military escort which the 
king had given him, because they fancied that the chest of 
liqueurs which he was taking to the king was full of jewels : 
the murderers were burnt alive. 

Towards the north end of the Bois is the restaurant of 
Madrid^ occupying the site of the villa which François I. 
built on the model of that in which he lived as the captive 
of Charles V. Its rich decorations of plaques of Palissy- 
ware, gave it the name of Château de Faïence. 

" Madrid was built by Francis I., and called by that name to 
absolve him of his oath that he would not go from Madrid, in 
which he was prisoner in Spayne, but from whence he made his 
escape." — John Evelyn, 1644. 

Here François I. was greatly tempted to retaliate for 
his own captivity by imprisoning Charles V. during his 
visit to France in 1539. 

" Triboulet, le bouffon de François I', avait inscrit le nom de 
Charles V. sur son Journal des fous, où il se plaisait à inscrire 
toutes les personnes qui commettaient quelque action impru- 
dente, irréfléchie ou dangereuse. Un jour que ce jovial person- 
nage, dans le langage approprié à sa profession, parlait à son 
maître de l'empereur, ' Sire,' disait-il, 'votre majesté a fait bâtir 
le château de Madrid près du village de Boulogne ; pourquoi ne 
prierait-elle pas messire Charles d'y prendre un logement? . . . 
Madrid pour Madrid, la difference ne serait que dans le fossé qui 
entoure le château.' ' Et si je laisse passer l'empereur,' répondit 
le roi, en riant, 'que feras-tu?' 'Ce que je ferai, sire? Tenez, 


voilà le nom de Charles-quint sur mon journal des fous : eh bien, 
je l'effacerai, et mettrai le vôtre à sa place.' " — Touc hard- La fosse, 
" Hist, de Paris." 

It was at Madrid that François I. first caused ladies to 
become a necessary part of his Court, because " une cour 
sans femmes est une année sans printemps, et un printemps 
sans roses." Henri II. and Diane de Poitiers frequently 
resided at Madrid. Charles IX. was here with Mlle de 
Rouet, daughter of Louis de la Baraudière, and Henri III. 
collected a menagerie here, and settled the château Madrid 
upon his sister Marguerite, first wife of Henri IV., who 
spent much of her last years there, after her divorce. 
Louis XVI. ordered the demolition of the château. Its 
loss is more to be regretted than that of any building of 
its period, for it was as elegant as it was palatial. 

To the left lies the Jardin d^ Acclimatation (with en- 
trances near the Porte de Sablons and Porte de Neuilly : 
admission, week-days i fr., Sundays 50 c), pleasant zoolog- 
ical gardens, crowded on fine Sundays, when elephants 
and camels laden with people stalk about the drives, and 
children are driven in llama and even in ostrich carts. 
The collection of dogs is a remarkable one. 

Re-entering Paris by the Arc de Triomphe, the Rue de 
l'Oratoire (on the left in descending the Champs Elysées) 
leads to the Pare Monceaux^ a pretty public garden, origi- 
nally planted from plans of Carmontel for Philippe d'Or- 
léans (father of Louis Philippe) on a site once occupied 
by the village of Monceaux. The enormous sums which 
the duke spent here gave the place the name of " folies de 

"J'en atteste, O Monceaux, tes jardins toujours verts ; 
Là, des arbres absents les tiges imitées, 
Les magiques berceaux, les grottes enchantées. 
Tout vous charme à la fois." — Delille. 


Confiscated at the Revolution, Monceaux was given 
back to the Orleans family by Louis XVIII. , and was in 
their possession till the decrees of 1852. It is now one of 
the prettiest gardens in Paris, and is surrounded by hand- 
some houses. The artificial pool called La Naiunachie is 
backed by a colonnade said to be part of that erected by 
Catherine de Medicis on the north of the church of St. 
Denis, to receive her own tomb and that of Henri II. 

The Boulevard de Monceaux passes over the site of the 
cemetery where the saintly Madame Elizabeth was buried 
in an unmarked grave, with all the aristocratic victims of 
the Revolution who perished with her. 

All the streets in this district are featureless and ugly. 
In the Boulevard Malesherbes (a little south) is the great 
Church of St. Augustin^ built 1860-68 — a climax of vul- 
garity and bad taste, in which the use of cast iron has its 
horrible apotheosis. 

Almost all the houses in this, as indeed in most parts 
of Paris, are let in apartments, all depending upon the 
same all-important individual, the concierge, or porter at 
the entrance, upon whose character much of the comfort 
of the inmates depends ; he may be either a self-important 
and arrogant tyrant, or a long-suffering friend — the civilest 
person in the world, who will say, "Je serai toujours aux 
ordres de monsieur, à minuit, comme à midi." 

" A Paris, chaque maison est une petite ville ; chaque étage, 
un quartier. Toutes les classes de la société s'y résument à la 

" Le portier de Paris est l'être important d'une maison. C'est 
le ministre du propriétaire ; l'intermédiare entre ceux qui paient 
et celui qui reçoit. Il écoute les plaintes, et les transmet. Il est 
chargé aussi quelquefois, et par circonstances extraordinaires, 
d'être le juge de paix de la maison."— /ac^w^j Raphael. 

Returning to the Rue du Faubourg St. Hoîioré, and 


turning eastwards, we pass, on the left, the doric Church 
of St. Philippe du Roule, erected (1769-84) from plans of 
Chalgrin. At the corner of the Place Beauveau (right) is 
the Palais du V Elysée Napoléon, built (17 18) by Molet for 
the Comte d'Evreux. It was inhabited by Mme de Pom- 
padour till her death, and afterwards by her brother the 
Marquis de Marigny, from whom Louis XV. bought it as a 
residence for Ambassadors Extraordinary. After this it 
was the residence of the Duchesse de Bourbon-Condé, till 
her emigration in 1790. Confiscated in the Revolution, it 
was sold in 1803 to Murat, who lived in it (as governor of 
Paris in the beginning of the Empire) till he left France 
for Naples in 1808. The Elysée was a favorite residence 
with Napoleon I., who slept there during his last stay in 
Paris after the battle of Waterloo, and signed his abdica- 
tion there. In 18 14-18 15 it was inhabited by the Duke of 
Wellington and the Emperor of Russia. Then, at the 
Restoration, this palace, of many changes, passed into the 
hands of the Due de Berry, who inhabited it, under the 
name of Palais Elysée Bourbon, till his murder (February 
13, 1820). For a short time the residence of the Due de 
Bourdeaux, it was again confiscated, and was chosen as 
a residence by Prince Louis Napoleon from the time of his 
proclamation as President of the Republic (December 20, 
1849), continuing to be his dwelling till he moved to the 
Tuileries, after the proclamation of the Second Empire. 
In the Salle du Conseil of the Elysée he prepared the Coup 
d'Etat of December 2, 185 1. 

Behind the palace is the garden where Napoleon I. was 
walking with his brother Lucien after his return from 
Waterloo, when — 

"The avenue of Marigny was filled with a numerous crowd, 
attracted by the fatal news of the disaster of Waterloo. The wall 


which separated the garden of the Elysée from the avenue was 
much lower than to-day, and the crowd were separated from Na- 
poleon by a barrier that amounted to almost nothing. On seeing 
him it burst into frenzied cries of * V^ivc V Empereur !' Many men 
approached the garden wall, and extended their hands to him, 
asking to be led against the enemy. Napoleon waved a salute, 
gave them a sad and affectionate look, and then having signed 
to them to be calm, continued his walk with Lucien." — Thiers, 

To the east of the Elysée stood the (now destroyed) 
Hôtel Sebastiani, which, in 1847, ^^^ ^^^ scene of the ter- 
rific murder of the Duchesse de Praslin by her husband. 

The Hotel Fould is build in brick and stone, in the 
style of Louis XII L The neighboring Hôtel Furtado is 
handsome. Th.Q Hotel de Marbœuf is XVIII. c. No. 39 
Rue du Faubourg St. Honoré is the Hôtel Charost, now the 
British Embassy. It was formerly the residence of Pauline 
Bonaparte, Princesse Borghese, who here gave herself 
those airs of self-assertion which caused her brother the 
emperor to say, " Ces coquines-là croient que je les ai 
privé du bien du feu roi notre père." Much furniture still 
remains of her time, and the bed which once belonged to 
the prettiest woman of France is now occupied by the 
British ambassador. The garden of this and other stately 
mansions which line the Champs Elysees embalm the air 
in spring with the scent of their lilacs. 

"Ces premiers pousses de lilas, fête printanière qui n'est 
savourée dans toute son étendue qu'à Paris, où, durant six mois, 
les Parisiens ont vécu dans l'oubli de la végétation, entre les 
falaises de pierre où s'agite leur océan humain." — Balzac, " La 
Cousine Bette." 

On the left the Rue d'Anjou St. Honoré turns north, 
containing (right) the Chapelle Expiatoire erected on the 
site of the cemetery (belonging to the Madeleine) where 
Louis XVI. and Marie Antoniette were buried in 1793. 


•' On the 20th of January, 1793, the executive power charged 
M. Pécavez, curé of the parish of the Madeleine, to see to the 
execution of their orders respecting the obsequies of Louis XVI. 
M. Pécavez, not feeling himself possessed of the courage neces- 
sary to discharge such a painful and sad duty, feigned illness, 
and employed me as his first assistant to take his place, and to 
watch, on my own responsibility, over the strict execution of the 
orders given by the executive power. 

"When we arrived at the cemetery I enjoined the strictest 
silence. The body of his Majesty was delivered to us ; he was 
dressed in a vest of white piqué, gray silk breeches and stock- 
ings to match. We sang vespers, and recited all the prayers 
customary at the service for the dead, and, I must speak the 
truth, all this same populace which had just been rending the air 
with its shouts, listened with the most religious silence to the 
prayers offered for the repose of the soul of his Majesty." — Dépo- 
sition de M. Renard, le 20 Janvier, 181 5, devant le chevalier d' Am- 
bray, chancelier de France. 

" On the evening of the i6th October, a man, having finished 
his day's work, wrote out this, which the hands of history cannot 
touch without a shudder : 

" ' Memorandum of expenses and interments, by Joly, grave- 
digger of the Madeleine de la Ville l'Evêque, for the persons put 
to death by the judgment of the said tribunal : 

" ' That is to say 

ist month . . . 
25th ditto. 
The Widow Capet. For the bier, 6 livres. 
For the grave and the diggers, 25.' " 

Concourt, ''Hist, de Marie Antoinette'' 

The ground was afterwards bought by a M. Desclo- 
seaux, who planted it as an orchard, to preserve the royal 
graves from insult during the Revolution. At the Resto- 
ration, the orchard was purchased by the royal family, and 
the royal remains transported with great pomp to St. 
Denis. The remains of the other victims of the Revolu- 
tion, including the Swiss guard buried here, were collected 
into two large graves, and, at the instigation of Chateau- 
briand, the Chapelle Expiatoire was built by Louis XVIII. 


It contains statues of the king and queen, his will being 
inscribed on the pedestal of that of Louis, and portions of 
her last touching letter to Madame Elizabeth on that of 
Marie Antoinette. A group by François Joseph Bosio 
(1769-1845), one of the best of the modern classic French 
sculptors, represents Louis XVL sustained by an angel ; 
and a group by Jean Pierre Cortot (i 787-1843) represents 
Marie Antoinette supported by Religion. Though well- 
conceived, neither is successful. 

The Rue de la Madeleine will now lead us to the great 
Church of the Madeleine — resembling a magnificent pagan 
temple — which has frequently changed its destination. It 
was begun (1764) under Louis XV. as a church, from de- 
signs of Constant dTvry, whose plans were thrown aside 
by his successor Couture (1777). The work was stopped 
by the Revolution, and taken up again in consequence of 
a decree issued from Posen in 1806 by Napoleon I., who 
ordered Pierre Vignon to finish the building as a Greek 
Temple of Victory — " le temple de la Gloire," in honor of 
the soldiers of the Grand Army. But the Restoration 
changed everything, and the building was given back to 
its first destination, though the plan was unaltered, and the 
church was finished under Louis Philippe in 1832. 

" An imitation of the Parthenon, grand and beautiful, what- 
ever may be said, but spoiled by the infamous coffee-house sculpt- 
ures that dishonor the lateral friezes." — Balzac. 

" That noble type is realized again 

In perfect forms and dedicate — to whom ? 
To a poor Syrian girl of lowest name — 
A hapless creature, pitiful and frail 
As ever wore her life in sin and shame ! " 

J^. M. Milnes. 

" Glorious and gorgeous is the Madeleine. The entrance to 
the nave is beneath a most stately arch ; and three arches of equal 


height open from the nave to the side aisles ; and at the end of' 
the nave is another great arch, rising, with a vaulted half-dome, 
over the high-altar. The pillars supporting these arches are 
Corinthian, with richly sculptured capitals : and wherever gilding 
might adorn the church, it is lavished like sunshine ; and within 
the sweeps of the arches there are fresco paintings of sacred sub- 
jects, and a beautiful picture covers the hollow of the vault over 
the altar : all this, besides much sculpture, and especially a group 
above and around the high-altar, representing the Magdalen, 
smiling down upon angels and archangels, some of whom are 
kneeling, and shadowing themselves with their heavy marble 
wings." — Hawthorne, " Note-Books.'' 

The interior (only open to visitors after i, when the 
morning services are over) contains, under the first pillar — 

R. Monument to the Curé Deguerry, murdered at La Ro- 
quette by the Communists, May 24, 1871 — "mort pour la foi et 
la justice." He is buried in the crypt. 

High-altar. Marochetti : Assumption of the Magdalen. 

Behind the Madeleine, a very pretty and popular ^ower- 
market is held on Tuesdays and Fridays. 

It was in the Rue Royale, which leads from the Made- 
leine to the Place de la Concorde, that 132 lives were lost 
in the terrible accident which took place during the festivi- 
ties upon the marriage of the Dauphin and Marie Antoi- 
nette, May 30, 1774. 

Here the barricade erected by the Communists in May, 
187 1, offered a serious obstacle to the troops which entered 
Paris from Versailles on the 21st, and was only taken after 
great slaughter. 

Behind the Madeleine, in the Rue Tronchet, is the mag- 
nificent modern Hotel Pourtales^ by Duban. 



The Boulevards. The quarters of Montmartre, La Villette, and 
Belleville. The Bourse. The Bibliothèque Nationale, The 
Place des Victoires, Batik, and Palais Royal. 

WE now enter the Boulevards, which have only really 
existed since the Revolution. Paris now pos- 
sesses an endless number of Boulevards, but when the 
Boulevard is spoken of, it means the Boulevard from the 
Madeleine to the site of the Bastille, in its different and 
varied divisions. 

" Oxford Street gives one aspect of London, Regent Street 
another, the Strand another ; but the Boulevards, running directly 
through Paris, display the character of the town in all its dis- 
tricts, and the character of its inhabitants in all their classes."— 
Henry Lytton Bulwer. 

The paved walks at the sides of the Boulevard are 
lined with trees, between which, at intervals, are kiosques. 

Following the Boulevard de la Madeleine, and the Bou- 
levarde des Capuchies, we reach, facing the entrance to the 
Rue de la Paix, the magnificent Opera, built from designs 
of Charles Gamier (1861-1875), and adorned with busts 
of great composers and musicians. The marble staircase 
is magnificent. (It can be visited on Sundays from 12 to 2.) 
Four great balls are given at the Opera House during the 


Carnival. (Entrance: gentlemen, 20 frs., ladies, 10 frs.)- 
The first opera house in Paris was opened in 167 1 ; but 
the first opera was the tragedy of Orphée, by Jodelle, 
acted with dancing and singing on the marriage of Fran- 
çois IL and Mary Stuart.^ The next opera we hear of is 
Le Ballet comique de la Royne, given on the occasion of the 
marriage of the Due de Joyeuse, favorite of Henri III. 
The establishment of the opera in France was due, 
strangely enough, to the persistent efforts of a cardinal — 

"C'est à deux cardinaux (Richelieu et Mazarin) que la tragé- 
die et l'opéra doivent leur établissement en France." — Voltaire. 

Women first appeared as dancers in a ballet in 1681. 

Before that time their places were filled by men disguised. 

" II faut se rendre à ce palais magique, 
Où les beaux vers, la danse, la musique. 
L'art de charmer les yeux par les couleurs, 
L'art plus heureux de séduire les cœurs. 
De cent plaisirs font un plaisir unique." — Voltaire. 

On the east of the Opéra, the Rue Chaussée d^Aiitin 
(formerly Chemin de l'Hôtel Dieu, because it was on land 
belonging to the hospital) leads to the large mongrel 
Church of La Trinité, whence the steep Rue de Clichy 
ascends to the suburb of Batignolles. All this part of 
Paris is indescribably ugly and featureless. 

On the right, at the entrance of Rue Louis le Grand 

(No. 30), on the south of the boulevard, is the quaint 

and picturesque Pavillo?i d'Hanovre, built by Chevotet 

for the marshal-duke, with money accumulated in the 

Hanoverian war, and long regarded and looked upon as a 

model of such small houses in the XVIII. c. 

" The reaction of 1795 led to the ' Ball of the Victims ' at the 
pavilion of Hanover. They were balls to which no one was ad- 

* See Brantôme and Les Chroniques dg F Opéra. 



mitted but by proving connection with one of the countless 
families decimated by the Terror, and, difficult as it is to believe 
without having seen it, the toilets of the women recalled some- 
what the bloody apparatus of the scaffold."— iV^^zVr, Régnier, and 
Champin, " Paris historique y 

No. 33 Rue Louis le Grand was built by the Maréchal 
de Richelieu in 1760. No. 9 has two fountains, brought 


from the house of M. d'Etoiles in the Rue du Sentier, and 
an admirable balustrade from the Hôtel de Boulainvilliers, 
in the Rue Notre Dame des Victoires. The painter Ri- 
gaud lived and worked at the corner of the Rue Louis le 
Grand and the Rue Neuve des Petits Champs. 

The Rue de la Michodiere (called after a Prévôt des 


Marchands in 1777) leads to the Carrefour Gaillon, with' 
an admirable fountain erected (1828) from designs of Vis- 
conti. The Rue des Moulins, which opens just beyond on 
the left, contains the house (No. 14) of the well-known 
Abbé de I'Epe'e (Charles Michel de l'Epée, 1712-89), the 
friend of the deaf and dumb. The poet Piron lived and 
died in this street. 

The Boulevard des Italiens, the gayest street in modern 
Paris, leads eastwards. 

"Sur le boulevard passent des Anglaises longues et angu- 
leuses, des Havanas jaunes, des Espagnols basanés, des Ita- 
liennes au teint mat, des Valaques rose-thé, des Allemandes 
sentimentales mais dodues, des Russes élégantes mais déhan- 
chées. Le marchant de puros de la Vuelta de Abayo, aux bijoux 
massifs et au chapeau à large bord, coudoie le Hongrois en 
bottes à la Souvacow, et l'ingénieur de New-York, à la longue 
barbiche, passe-affairé, cachant sous son vêtement un revolver et 
un projet de canon monstre." — C. Yriarte. 

This Boulevard is almost exclusively lined by hotels 
and cafés, the most celebrated being (left). No. 16, Café 
Riche, and No. 20, Maison Dorée. Lines of men are 
always seated in front of them in fine weather. 

"The persons who are there, everyday, seated on chairs, 
surrendering themselves to the pleasure of analyzing the passers- 
by, with that smile, peculiar to the Parisians, and which ex- 
presses so much of irony, mockery or compassion." — Balzac, 
" Le Cousin Pons." 

" At seven in the morning, not a footstep sounds on the flags, 
not a carriage rolls over the street. The Boulevard awakens 
about half-past eight, with the noise of some cabs, beneath the 
heavy tread of some porters with their loads, to the cries of some 
workmen in blouses going to their shops. Not a single Venetian 
blind moves ; the stores are as tight shut up as oysters. This is a 
sight, unknown to many Parisians, who believe the Boulevard is 
always in full dress, just as they believe, with their favorite critic, 
that lobsters are alwa)^s red. At nine, the Boulevard washes 
its feet all along the line, the shops open their eyes and display 



inside a frightful disorder. Some minutes afterwards, it is as 
busy as a grisette, and some second-class intriguers mark its 
footwalks. About eleven, there are cabs hurrying after lawsuits 
or payments, attorneys and notaries, carrying bankruptcies in 
bud, junior share-brokers, compromises, intrigues with pensive 
faces, successes with buttoned-up overcoats, tailors, shirtmakers, 
the whole early business world of Paris. The Boulevard is 
hungry towards noon, it has breakfast ; the Stock Exchange men 
arrive. Then, from two to five o'clock, its life attains its apogée, 
and gives its great performance gratis. Its three thousand shops 
glitter, and the great poem of window-dressing sings its song of 
a thousand colors, from the Madeleine to the Porte St. Denis. 
Passengers, who are artists without knowing it, play for you the 
part of the chorus in ancient tragedy ; they laugh, make love, 
shed tears, smile and think deeply. They come like shadows or 
will-o'-the-wisps. . . . One cannot do two boulevards without 
meeting a friend or an enemy, an original who causes a smile or 
a thought, a pauper who begs a penny, a dramatist looking for a 
subject — all in want, but one richer than the other. Here you ob- 
serve the comedy of dress. So many men, so many different 
dresses ; so many dresses, so many characters. In fine days, the 
women show themselves, but not in full toilets. Full toilets to- 
day go to the avenue of the Champs Elysées, or the Bois. Re- 
spectable women who walk on the Boulevard have only their 
whims to gratify or amuse themselves by shopping ; they pass 
quickly and recognize no one." — Balzac, " Esquisses parisiennes." 

On the right the Rue de Grammo?it is pierced across 
the site of the magnificent Hôtel Crozat, which had beau- 
tiful gardens and terraces. ^ 

On the left opens the Rue Laffitte, named from the 
great banker, who laid the foundation of his fortune by 
attracting the attention of his master through his careful- 
ness in picking up a pin. At the end of this street is the 
Church of Notre Dame de Lorette^ built (1823-36) from 
designs of Le Bas. The interior is very richly decorated 
by modern French artists, especially Orsel, Perrin, and 

^ Germain Brice, Description de Paris, i. 378. 


" Notre Dame de Lorette a la réputation d'être la plus riche' 
et en même temps la plus coquette église de Paris ; on a dit 
d'elle que c'était un botidoir religieux. Mais cette petite église ne 
mériterait pas une mention apart, si elle ne devait au luxe de ses 
décorations intérieures une espèce de réputation, et si ce lieu qui 
devait être si saint, n'avait été et n'était encore une cause de 
scandale pour bien des âmes pieuses." — Le Bas. 

The church occupies the site of the Marché aux Pour- 
ceaux, where Jeanne de l'Epine was burnt alive in 1430 
for personating Jeanne Dare. 

"This spot was the Marché aux Pourceaux. Here, in the 
name of those princes who, among other monetary tricks, in- 
vented the tournois noir, who, in the fourteenth century, found the 
means, in the space of fifty years, of making bankrupt the public 
treasury seven times in succession, a royal phenomenon renewed 
under Louis XV. ; in the name of Philip I., who declared bits of 
brass were money ; in the name of Louis VL and Louis VIL, 
who constrained all Frenchmen, except the townsfolk of Com- 
piègne, to take sous for livres ; in the name of Philippe le Bel, 
who made gold angevins of doubtful value, called ' long-wooled 
sheep' and ' short-wooled sheep;' in the name of Philip of 
Valois, who debased the Georges florin ; in the name of King 
John, who raised leather disks with a silver stud in the middle 
to the dignity of gold ducats ; in the name of Charles VIL, the 
gilder and plaiter of farthings, which he styled sahits d'or and 
blancs d'argents ; in the name of Louis XL, who decreed that a 
penny should be worth three ; in the name of Henry IL, who 
made Gold Henrys of lead ; here, for five centuries, coiners of 
false money were boiled alive in an iron boiler." — Victor Hugo. 

In the Rue de Châfeaudun, which passes in front of the 
church, is Notre Dame des Blancs Manteaux, named from 
monks who called themselves " serfs de la Sainte Vierge." 
The convent is now appropriated to the Mont-de-piété. 

The Rue Notre Dame de Lorette leads from the Church 
of Lorette to the new quarter known as La Nouvelle 
Athènes. In the Place St. Georges, decorated with a 
fountain, No. 37 was the residence of M. Thiers, destroyed 


during the Commune, and rebuilt at the expense of the 

Hence the Rue Fontaine leads to the Boulevard de 
Clichy^ close to which is the Cimetière Montmartre^ formerly 
called " Le Champ de Repos." This is less hideous than 
Père Lachaise, and, though it has the same characteristics 
of heavy masses of stone, or little chapels piled upon the 
dead and hung with wreaths of beads, they are more 
divided by trees. At the end of the short main avenue, 
on the left, is a bronze statue of Godefroy Cavaignac, by 
François Rude (i 785-1855), marking the tomb of the 
Cavaignac family, of whom the most illustrious member 
was Eugène, head of the executive power in 1848. 

" The body is' represented in rude reahty, the head with its 
wild, rough hair thrown stiffly back, the arms and hands extended, 
the neck, breast, and shoulders bare. The rest of the body is 
covered by the grave-cloth, in large well arranged masses. The 
execution, as is always the case in Rude's works, is very able." — 

Amongst other remarkable tombs, behind the cross- 
ways, are those of General Bazaine and the Comte de 
Se'gur d'Aguesseau. Near these, on the edge of the 
Avenue du Buisson, are the tombs of Ponson du Terrail 
and Henry Boyle (Stendhal). 

To the left of the crossways, a long avenue leads to 
the tombs of Caussidière, General Travot, De Bougain- 
ville, and Mme de Girardin. Returning from these tombs, 
and taking the first avenue on the left, we reach, on a 
terrace, an obelisk to the memory of the Duchesse de 
Montmorency (1829). Near this is the monument of 
Prince Ernest of Saxe-Coburg (1832). The Avenue de 
Montmorency leads to that of Montebello, where a statue 
by Franceschi marks the tomb of Micislas Kamienski 


(killed in the service of France at Magenta), of Paul 
Delaroche, and of Marshal Lannes (only his heart being 
here, his body at the Pantheon). To the east of this 
avenue is the Jewish Cemetery^ with its own walls, to the 
south of which, in the Avenue Cordier, are the tombs of 
Henri Murger (1861) and Théophile Gautier (1873). 
On the side of the Avenue de la Cloche are the tombs of 
Armand Marrast, president of the National Assembly 
(1852), of Heinrich Heine (1856), of Greuze, and of Carl 
Vernet. In another part of the cemetery a medallion 
by David d'Angers marks the tomb of the Duchesse 
d'Abrantès, wife of Marshal Junot (1838). 

The name of Montmartre is usually derived from Mons 
Martyrum, because St. Denis, Bishop of Paris in the III. c, 
and his companions, Rusticus and Eleutherius, were be- 
headed at the foot of the hill, and " afterwards the body of 
Dionysius rose upon its feet, and taking up its head in its 
hands, walked up the hill, angels singing hymns by the 
way," to the spot where St. Geneviève raised a church to 
their honor. Hence, in the reign of Dagobert, the relics 
of St. Denis were removed to the abbey of St. Denis. 
The Chapelle des Martyrs at Montmartre, visible in the 
XVII. c, has now disappeared. It was interesting as the 
place where Ignatius Loyola pronounced his first vows 
with nine of his companions (August 15, 1534). Every 
army which has attacked Paris has in turn occupied the 
heights of Montmartre. They were abandoned by Joseph 
Bonaparte and occupied by Blucher in 18 14. It was 
there that the Communist insurrection of 187 1 was begun. 

From the Boulevard Rochechouart, the Rue Lepic 
leads up to the Butte Montmartre, with the remaining 
Mills of Montmartre — weather-worn, blackened, and pictur- 
esque. An obelisk near the Moulin Debray marks the 


boundaries of Paris. From the terrace of the Rue 
Lamarck there is a splendid view over the town. A waste 
of grey houses reaches ahnost to the horizon, only those 
nearest catch a few red and yellow tones, and are very 
scantily interspersed with green. For a panorama so vast 
it wants central points of interest, such as St. Paul's and 


Westminster supply to views of London— the Pantheon, 
St. Sulpice, and the Invalides, the most prominent objects 
here, are not large enough. Still, it is a very remarkable 
view, and one which no visitor to Paris should miss see- 
ing.i It is difficult to believe that, as late as the time of 

» It is easily reached by omnibus from the Bourse to the Place Pigalle, 
below the hill. 



Henri II., there were so few buildings between the Louvre' 
and Montmartre, that when a fire broke out (1559) in the 
dormitory of the abbey at the top of the hill, the king, 
walking in the gallery of the palace, was one of the first to 
perceive it and send assistance. Now, every house in 
Montmartre might be burnt without any one in the Louvre 
being the wiser. 

A great church — the Eglise du Sacré Cœur^ from de- 
signs of Abadie — is in progress on the highest summit of 
Montmartre, where temples of Mars and Mercury are sup- 
posed to have stood. 

The famous quarries of Montmartre (whence the gyp- 
sum called plaster of Paris was derived), now closed, are 
on the north-west of the hill. On the south and east of 
the hill are several dancing-gardens : that of the Château 
Rouge has a house which a local legend affirms to have 
been built by Henri IV. for Gabrielle d'Estrees. Its 
name comes from the red bricks with which it is partially 

The Church of St. Pierre de Mo?itmartre (in the Rue St. 
Denis à Montmartre) was built in the XII. c. by Louis VI. 
(le Gros) and his queen, Alix of Savoy, and consecrated 
by Pope Eugenius III. in the presence of St. Bernard. and 
Peter the Venerable. The church, in which Queen Alix 
and many abbesses were buried, now completely modern- 
ized, served as a chapel to the Benedictine convent, also 
founded by Louis VI., and rebuilt by Louis XIV. The 
Calvary of the later convent remains in the garden, with a 
Holy Sepulchre, containing a much revered figure of 
Christ au tombeau ; a good XII. c. tomb of an abbess, 
with her engraved effigy ; and the chœur aux darnes^ re- 
served for the nuns. The tomb of Queen Alix perished in 
the Revolution. This convent was royal, /. ^., its abbesses 


were appointed by the king, not elected by the nuns. 
Marie de Beauvilh'ers, the nun carried off by Henri IV., 
described in the Amour Philosophe — 

. . . . " Son habit blanc. 
Son scapulaire, — et le rang 
Qu'elle tient dans son cloître" — 

was afterwards appointed abbess by the king and devoted 
her latter days to the reformation of the abbey. 

The abbess and the nuns of Montmartre were amongst 
the most commiserated victims of the Reign of Terror. 

" Carts carried to execution all the nuns of the Abbey of 
Montmartre. The abbess was Mme de Montmorency. These 
poor women of all ages, from tender youth to white hairs, placed 
as children in convents, had no crime except the will of their 
parents and fidelity to their vows. Grouped around their abbess, 
they intoned with their feminine voices the sacred chants as they 
mounted the carts, and sang them in chorus to the scaffold. As 
the Girondins sang their own death-hymn, so these women sang, 
to the last voice, the hymn of their martyrdom. These voices 
troubled, like remorse, the hearts of the people. Childhood, 
beauty, piety, slain all at once, compelled the multitude to turn 
aside their eyes." — Lamartine, "'LList. des Girondins." 

In the Rue des Rosiers, now merged into the Rue de 
la Fonteîielle, in a private house, the first two victims of the 
Commune — Generals Lecomte and Clément-Thomas, were 
brutally murdered, March 18, 187 1. A monument in Père 
Lachaise has been erected to their memory by the city of 

" General Lecomte was killed at once ; then they fired at his 
corpse. As for Clément Thomas, it was a piteous sight ; he 
walked backwards, holding his hat in his left hand and shelter- 
ing his face by his right arm ; the blood flowed down his breast ; 
at times he dropped his arm and cried to his murderers, ' Cow- 
ards, blackguards, scoundrels, you murder the Republic for 
which I have suffered so much ! ' At last he fell, and they con- 


tinued to fire at him ; he received more than a hundred shots ; 
even the soles of his feet were pierced." — Maxime Ducajup. 

Returning to the Boulevard des Italiens we find, 
opening on the left, the ^ue le Peletier^ famous for the 
attempt of Orsini to murder Napoleon III., January 14, 

At the end of the Boulevard des Italiens the Rue 
Drouotxuns north. Here the Mairie of the IX*" Arrondis- 
sement occupies the old Hôtel Aguado. On the left is the 
Hotel des Ventes Mobilières, the Christie and Hanson's of 

In the Rue Montmartre, which falls into the Boulevard 
on the right, was the Cimetière St. Joseph, where Molière 
was buried (in 1732), and where, in severe winters, his 
widow lighted a huge fire upon his grave, that the poor 
might warm themselves there. 

The Boulevards called Montmartre, Poissonnière, and 
Bonne Nouvelle continue the line of the Boulevard des 
Italiens. In the Rue du Faubourg Poissonnière, on the 
north, is the Conservatoire de Musique et de Déclamation, 
founded (1784) for the training of singers and actors. 
Those who win its Grand Prix obtain an allowance of 
3000 frs. for four years, that they may visit Italy. The 
interesting Collection of Musical Bistruments is shown on 
Mondays and Thursdays from 12 to 4. 

The Rue Hauteville now leads north from the Boule- 
vard to the Place Lafayette and the Church of St. Vincent de 
Paul, built (1824-44) i^om designs of Lepère and Hittorf. 
It is decorated internally with a frieze, by Hippolyte 
Flandrin, representing a procession of saints towards the 
Saviour, in imitation of those at St. Apollinare Nuovo at 
Ravenna. The figures on the stalls (mutilated in 1848, 
and restored) represent the patron saints of the house of 


Orleans. The admirable modem glass is by Maréchal 
and Giiyon. 

A little north of St. Vincent is the great railway station 
of the Chemin de Fer du No?'d, and a little east that of the 
Chemin de Fer de l'Est. Behind the Gare du Nord, at the 
end of the Rue St. Vincent de Paul, is the Hôpital Lari- 
boisiere, erected (1849-53) by a bequest from the Comtesse 
Lariboisière, who is buried in the chapel, with a monument 
by Marochetti. 

On the right of the Rue du Faubourg Montmartre, which 
leads (left) from the Boulevard, is the Rue Geoffroy-Marie, 
a last reminiscence of the past in this modern district. Its 
name commemorates Geoffroy, sueur [sutor^ en cuir, and his 
wife Marie, who, having no children, made over a little 
farm, which they possessed here, to the Hôtel Dieu (Au- 
gust I, 1260), on condition of being furnished for life with 
the same humble fare and clothing with which the brethren 
of the Hôtel Dieu were themselves provided. The prop- 
erty which Geoffroy and Marie then disposed of was sold, 
in 1840, for 3,075,600 francs ! 

The name of Grange Batelière, on the other side of 
the Rue du Faubourg Montmartre, was originally Grange- 
Batailliere, and is supposed to mark a Champ de Mars 
of the IX. c. The farm which formerly stood here occu- 
pied a rising ground in marshy land, commemorated in 
the Rue Chante-Raine (frog's croak). The site was after- 
wards occupied by a château which was part of the dowry 
of Catherine de Vendôme, who married Jean de Bourbon, 
great-great-grandfather of Henri IV. 

In the XVIII. c. the Rue de la Gra7ige- Batelière be- 
came one of the most fashionable in Paris. But its for- 
tunes paled after the death of the Due de Choiseul in 1785, 
and the sale of his hotel in the street by the duchess. 


On the right of the Boulevard Bonne Nouvelle, the Rue 
Pourtales was formerly the Rue Neuve St. Etienne, where 
(at No. 30) a distich over one of the doors of the interior 
commemorates the residence of the anchorite historian 

" 1697. I begin to feel and to love more than ever the pleas- 
ures of rural life, since I have had a little garden, that takes the 
place of a country house, and is for me Fleury and Villeneuve, 
I have no long alleys stretching away till lost to sight, but only 
two little ones, one of which gives me shade in a neat little nook, 
and the other, open to the south, gives me sun during a good 
part of the day, and promises me a good crop of fruit in the sea- 
son. A little espalier, covered with five apricot trees and ten 
peach trees, is all my orchard. I have no bee-hives, but have the 
pleasure of seeing, every day, the bees fluttering over the blossoms 
of my trees, and clinging to their prey while they enrich them- 
selves with the juice they extract, without doing me any harm. 
My joy, however, is not free from inquietude, and the love I have 
for my litde espalier and some lilies of the valley makes me 
dread the cold nights which, without them, I would not." — 
Rollin à Le Pelletier. 

In this street Descartes lived, Pascal died, Bernardin 
de St. Pierre studied, and Mme Roland was brought up in 
the convent of Augustines (No. 6). 

At the entrance of the Rue du Faubourg St. Denis, from 
the boulevards, is the Porte St. Denis, a heavy and hideous 
Arch of Triumph, built, as a medal attests (1670-72), by 
Bullet, a pupil of Blondel, to commemorate the earlier Ger- 
man victories of Louis XIV. To erect this arch the ancient 
XIV. c. Porte St. Denis on the walls of Charles V. was 
demolished— perhaps the most interesting of the city gates. 

"'Nos roys,' dit Dubreul, 'faisant leurs premières entrées 
dans Paris, entrent par cette porte, qui est ornée d'un riche avant- 
portail, où se voyent par admiration diverses statues et figures 
qui sont faictes et dressées exprès, avec plusieurs vers et sen- 
tences pour explications d'icelles. . . . C'est aussi par cette 
porte que les corps des defuncts rois sortent pour être portez en 

RUE D' A BO U KIR 489 

pompes funèbres à Saint Denys.' The Porte St. Denis of Paiis 
was built in a bold salient before the curtain and formed a veri- 
table castle capable of holding a body of troops. In 1413, the 
Duke of Burgundy presented himself before Paris, at St. Denis, 
with the wish, it is said, of speaking to the king ; but, as a Journal 
of a townsman of Paris in the reign of Charles VI. says, 'on lui 
ferma les portes, et furent murées, comme autreifois avoit esté, 
avecques ce très grant foison de gens d'armes les gardoient jour 
et nuyt.' " — Viollet-le-Duc. 

A little way clown the Rue du Se7itier, which runs south 
from the boulevard, No. 32 (left) was the house of M. 
d'Etoiles, the husband of Mme de Pompadour ; it has a 
good balcony towards the court, and a salon adorned with 
paintings attributed to Fragonard. 

Running south-west is the Rue d^Aboukir, on the left of 
which the Passage du Caire crosses the site of the convent 
of the Filles Dieu, founded by St. Louis in 1226, before 
which all persons condemned to be executed at the gibbet 
of Montfaucon, stopped on their way to execution, when 
they were taken to kiss a crucifix which hung on the east 
wall of the church. Holy water was then given them, with 
the more material consolation of three pieces of bread and 
a glass of wine. A similar custom existed at St. Giles's in 
London, for those about to suffer at Tyburn. 

A little south of the Rue d'Aboukir was the most re- 
markable of the nine courts (in different quarters of Paris) 
which were called Cours des Miracles, because when the 
beggars who inhabited them reached home they laid aside 
their acting and returned to their natural condition — the 
blind seeing, the lame walking, and the paralyzed recover- 
ing the use of their limbs. 

"The beggars were driven into certain quarters assigned to 
them, which were carefully closed ; the most considerable of 
these haunts was the Cinir des Miracles, where these social ver- 
min retired at nightfall. In the morning, when these mendi- 



cants, or truands, spread over the town, they were lame, blind, 
crippled, or covered with sores ; in the evening, on re-entering 
their den, they were sound, healthy, and joyous, and passed the 
night in orgies and debauch. This ingenious knavery gave the 
name Cour des Miracles to this haunt of the beggars." — La fosse, 
'' Hist, de Paris." 

The space between the Rue du Faubourg St. Denis, 
and the Rue de Faubourg St. Martin, is the busiest and 
most commercial quarter of Paris. In the Rue du Fau- 
bourg St. Denis (No. 107) is the Prison of St. Lazare, on 
the site of the Leper Hospital of St. Ladre, which existed 
in the XII. c, and which (in 1632) was given to St. Vin- 
cent de Paul, who made it the centre of his Congrégation 
des Missions (Lazaristes), though he was still obliged by 
the archbishop to receive the lepers of the town and sub- 
urbs. The cell of St. Vincent is preserved as an oratory. 
The enclosure of the conventual buildings was so vast as 
to include both the site of the church of St. Vincent de 
Paul and that of the Gare du Nord. The prison is now 
only used for women. In the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion (July 13, 1789) St. Lazare was invaded and sacked 
by the people under the idea that it was a depot of arms. 
It was afterwards crowded with royalist prisoners, and 
thence many noble victims, including the Comte de Mon- 
talembert, passed to the scaffold. 

The Boulevard Sèbastopol now diverges (on the right), 
and the Boulevard de Strasbourg (on the left) leading to 
the Gare de l'Est. A considerable distance down the lat- 
ter (on the right), at the entrance of the Boulevard Ma- 
genta, is the Church of St. Laurent, which belonged to a 
monastery where St. Domnole was abbot in the VL c. 
The older parts of the church (apse and tower) are early 
XV. c. ; the nave and transept, of the end of the XVI. c. j 
and the main west façade, of 1622. There is some good 


Stained-glass in the handsome renaissance -gothic inte- 

" The choir and apse have kept, better than the nave, some 
details of gothic ornament. We will mention a niche containing a 
grand figure of St. John Baptist, of the fifteenth century ; some 
consoles under the gargoyles, such as winged female figures, a 
monster with a negro's head and lion's claws, &c.; lastly and 
specially, the carved cornice that crowns the highest part of the 
walls. In this, amid branches of foliage, a crowd of little creat- 
ures, most daintily conceived, are running and climbing. Chil- 
dren, with fools' caps, are making contortions ; one is kneeling 
down, with a piteous expression, to get a birching from a stern 
old schoolmaster ; angels have their bodies terminating in beasts' 
tails ; a hunter, in a quaint costume, is shooting arrows at a spe- 
cies of salamander." — Guilhcnny, ''Hist, de Parish 

There is a line of omnibuses down the Boulevard de 
Strasbourg (falling into the Faubourg St. Martin and Rue 
Lafayette) to La Villette, where Le Gravid Abattoir may be 
seen, between the Canal St. Denis and the Canal de 
rOurcq. It is worth while to ascend to the Buttes Chau- 
iiioiit — curious steep hillocks covered with grass, and quar- 
ried for gypsum. In the further part of these, one of the 
most charming pleasure-grounds in Paris has been created 
— the Pare des Buttes Chaujnont — with delightful drives 
and walks winding amongst the hills, and with views which 
an artist may well paint : on one side, across to the Pan- 
theon and the churches of the southern bank of the Seine ; 
on the other, to where the heights of Montmartre call up a 
reminiscence of the Acropolis of Athens, as they stand 
up, crowned with picturesque groups of buildings, against 
the misty town and faint hills. The Pare des Buttes Chau- 
mont may be reached by the station of La Villette on the 
Chemin de Fer de Ceinture. 

In this district, on an ofTshoot of the heights of Chau- 
mont, between the Faubourg du Temple and St. Martin, 


stood the famous gallows of Montfaucon, the Tyburn of 
France. In feudal language this place of execution was 
called 3. justice, more commonly 2ifou7rhe patibulaire. 

" It was a pile of masonry raised from 15 to 18 feet above the 
surface of the soil ; on this pile, 42 feet long by about 30 wide, 
stood 16 pillars of hard stone, each 32 feet high. These pillars 
supported large beams of wood, from which iron chains were 
suspended ; to these chains the bodies of criminals executed at 
Paris were attached. Fifty or sixty corpses, dried up, mutilated, 
rotting, and shaken by the winds, were to be seen. This horri- 
ble spectacle did not prevent the Parisians from coming to hold 
orgies around the gibbet. 

"When all the places were occupied, then, in order to attach 
to the gibbet new corpses, the old ones were taken down and 
thrown into a pit, the opening of which was in the centre of the 

"A large stairway led to this frightful structure; a stout 
gate forbade admission to the circuit, without doubt from the 
fear that the bodies might be taken away by relatives to be buried, 
or by sorcerers, to serve for their magical operations." — Dulanje, 
^'Hist. de Paris." 

"A little on this side Paris, even at the towns end, there is 
the fayrest gallowes that ever I saw, built upon a small hillocke 
called Mount Falcon, which consisteth of fourteene fair pillars of 
free-stone : this gallowes was made in the time of the Guisian 
massacre, to hang the admiral of France Chatillion, who was a 
protestant. Anne Dom. 1572." — Coryafs " Crudities,'' 1611. 

The gallows were really only repaired at the time 
Coryat speaks of, and were of very early date. Pierre la 
Brosse was hanged there in the time of Philippe III., for 
bearing false witness against the Queen, Marie de Brabant. 
Enguerrand de Marigny, who had himself repaired the gal- 
lows, was hanged there under Louis le Hutin (1315), being 
unjustly accused of treason by one of the courtiers. The 
long list of those who afterwards suffered here comprises 
Remy de Montigny, the Provost Henri Taperel, Jourdain 
de ITsle, Jean de Montagu, Pierre des Essarts, Olivier le 



Daim, Jacques de Sablançay (Minister of Finance, victim 
of tlie injustice of François I., and the avarice and false- 
liood of his mother, Louise de Savoie), and Laurent Gar- 
nier ; and here the body of Admiral Coligny was exposed. 
Returning to the Boulevard St. Denis, at the entrance 
of the Rue du Faubourg St. Martin, is the heavy Porte St. 
Martin^ built (i 670-1 674) to commemorate the capture of 
Besançon, upon the site of another gate in the old city- 
walls of Charles V. 

" On one side of the Porte St. Martin, a sculptor, who doubt- 
less loved nature unadorned, has represented Louis XIV. naked, 
absolutely naked, with floating hair, and a mace in his hand," — 
Saint- Foix, " Essais hist, stir Paris." 

In former times duels used to be fought here on the 
boulevards, in broad daylight, without interference. 

"A terrible combat took place beneath the windows of our 
room, in which Blancrochet and Daubri, the two most famous 
swordsmen in Paris, were killed after a vigorous resistance. It 
was four o'clock in the afternoon, and everybody looked on with- 
out trying to separate them ; for at Paris people are allowed to 
kill each other if they like. ... M. de Lubière, d'Orange, M. de 
Roncoulle, and my uncle Cotton, were at the windows while this 
was going on, and they admired the bravery of one of these 
swordsmen, who defended himself alone against four of his ene- 
mies, one of whom at last gave him a stroke in the back, which 
made him fall about four feet from the body of his companion." 
— MtTie de Noyer, " Lettres." 

Continuing "the Boulevard St. Martin (which contains 
the Café Parisieii and the Theatre des Folies Dramatiques)^ 
the Rue du Faubourg du Temple leads (north-east) to the 
suburban heights oi Belleville, where the " Battle of Paris" 
was fought (March 30, 1814), and gained by the allied 
sovereigns, who forthwith occupied the capital. The 
Church of St. Jeafi Baptiste wdiS built (1855-59) ^^^^ plans 
of Lassus. 


The Rue de Belleville leads to the Jiue Haxo^ where' 
forty-two hostages were murdered (May 26, 187 1), includ- 
ing ten priests and mzxiy gardiens and gendarmes. With 
the priests was a young seminarist, Paul Seigneret, " un 
jeune homme de vingt-six ans," says Ducamp, "un être 
d'une candeur et d'une foi extraordinaire." 

"The agony these unhappy men had to support was incon- 
ceivable. There was no one in the crowd surrounding them not 
anxious to strike a blow, utter an insult, or fling a stone. They 
were dripping with sweat ; the soldiers kept a steady front, and, 
under the shower of filthy projectiles which fell on them, marched 
as under fire in the best days of their youth. Behind them the 
priests, in loud tones, exhorted them to die nobl}-. There was 
no need. Around them the mob sang, danced, and yelled, . . . 
The hostages, pressed by the crowd, were driven into a pretty 
large square, separated by a weak barrier of wood from a large 
garden where some buildings, interrupted by the war, had been 
commenced. The Maréchal de logis Geanty was placed against 
the wall of one of these houses. He stood motionless, his arms 
crossed, impassable beneath the stones and mud flung at him by 
the women. He tore open his coat and exposed his breast. An 
aged priest placed himself before him and received the shot 
meant for him. The priest fell and Geanty was seen still erect, 
still displaying his breast. He was struck down. Gun shots 
and revolver shots were discharged at the unhappy men. Hip- 
polyte Parent erect on a little wooden balcony, smoking a cigar, 
with his hands in his pockets, was looking on, and looked on to 
the end. Massacre was not enough ; it was turned into sport. 
The unhappy victims were compelled to leap over the little wall ; 
the gendarmes leaped and the murderers shot them ' flying ; ' 
this caused laughter. The last soldier who remained erect was 
a Garde de Paris, a fine fellow of thirty, who, without doubt, 
when on duty at the Comédie Française, had seen Ponsard's 
Lions amoureux performed ; at least we may suppose so from the 
manner of his death. He walked slowly to the low wall which 
he had to cross, turned round, saluted the red turf, and cried, 
' Gentlemen, long live the Emperor ! ' then jerking his Cj^p into 
the air, he gave a spring and fell back, struck by three balls, on 
the heap of wounded, who still moved and groaned. The priests 
were ordered to leap the wall. They refused. One of them said, 


' We are ready to confess our faith ; but it does not suit us to die, 
doing hand-springs.' . , . When the corpses were collected, on 
Monday, the 29th of May, it was proved that one of the bodies 
had received sixty-nine gunshot wounds, and that Father de 
Bengy had been pierced by seventy-two thrusts of bayonets." — 
Maxime Ducamp. 

A monument now rises in the street to their memory. 

The Rue Bichat leads (north) from the Rue du Fau- 
bourg du Temple to the Hôpital St. Louis^ founded by 
Henri IV. in 1607. The chapel is of that date. In the 
entrance-court is a statue of Montyon. 

It was on the ascent to Belleville that one of the great 
barricades of 1848 was erected. 

" You could see in the distance across the canal, and at the 
highest point of the ascent to Belleville, a strange wall rising to 
the second fîoor and forming a sort of connecting link between 
the houses on the right and those on the left, as if the street had 
folded back its highest wall in order to close itself up. This was 
built of paving-stones ; it was tall, straight, correct, cold, per- 
pendicular, and levelled with the plumb-line and the square ; of 
course there was no cement, but, as in some Roman walls, this 
in no way disturbed its rigid architecture. From its height, its 
depth could be guessed, for the entablature was mathematically 
parallel to the basement. At regular distances almost invisible 
loopholes, resembling black threads, could be distinguished in 
the gray wall. This street was deserted as far as could be seen, 
and all the windows and doors closed. At its end was this barri- 
cade which made the street impassable ; an immovable, quiet 
wall ; no one was visible there, nothing was heard, not a cry, not 
a noise, not a breath. A sepulchre ! 

"The dazzling sun of June flooded with light this terrific 

"This was the barricade of the Faubourg du Temple." — 
Victor Hugo, " I^es Misth-ahlcsy 

The Boulevard du Tetnple leads (south-east) from the 
end of the Boulevard St. Martin. No. 42 occupies the site 
of the house of Fieschi, whence the infernal machine ex- 


ploded (July 28, 1835), killing Marshal Mortier and four- 
teen other persons, and wounding forty. 

" Fieschi was a bravo, a condottiere, nothing more. He had 
served and mixed up with his crime some sort of military ideas. 
' Your deed is very horrible,' said M. Pasquier, ' to shoot down 
innocent persons who have never wronged you, passers-by!' 
Fieschi replied coolly, ' It is what soldiers do in ambush.'" — Vic- 
tor Hugo, " Choses vues." 

The Boulevard is much altered — all its character gone 

— since we read — 

" La seul' prom'nade qu'ait du prix, 
La seule dont je suis épris, 
La seule, où j'm'en donne, où c'que j'ris. 
C'est l'boul'vard du Temple à Paris," — Dhaugiers. 

In the Place de la République (formerly the Château 
d'Eau) is a tasteless bronze Statue of the Republic^ with 
representations on its pedestal from scenes in the differ- 
ent revolutions ; an animal, meant for a lion, crouches in 

"Soon the deserting of the boulevards begin; there are no 
strollers on the wastes of these royal promenades. Ennui lays 
hold of you, the air of factories is scented in the distance. There 
is nothing original here. The man out of business walks about 
in his dressing-gown if he likes, and, on fine days, blind men 
may be seen playing cards. In pisccm desinit elegantia. Little 
palaces of glass or metal work are displayed on tables. The 
shops are hideous, the goods displayed, sickening. The head is 
at the Madeleine, the feet at the Boulevard des Filles-du-Calvaire. 
Life and movement begin again on the Boulevard Beaumarchais, 
on account of the shops of some dealers in bric-a-brac, and of the 
population that is gathered around the Column of July. There 
is a theatre there, which has taken from Beaumarchais nothing 
but his name." — Balzac, ^ ^ Esqtiisses parisiennes." 

Returning as far as the Boulevard Montmartre, the Rue 
Vivienne diverges on the left.^ Here is the Bourse (the 

> Formerly Vivien, after Louis, Michel, and Anne Vivien, ancient pos- 
sessors of the soil. 


Exchange, open on week-days from 12 to 3), built (1808-27) 
from plans of Brongniart — magnificent, yet not undeserving 
of the description, "grenier à foin, bâtard du Parthenon." 
"There is nothing concealed except the central hall, which 
is the one thing that ought to be showi)." 

" The building is merely a rectangular palace. It is 234 feet 
in length by 161 in width, measured over the bases of the col- 
umns, and these are each 40 feet in height. Two of the stories 
of windows are shown beneath the colonnade, the third par- 
tially concealed by its balustrade at the top ; but the existence 
of the attic prevents the roof having any connection with the 
peristyle, and, as the proportions of the building approach 
much more nearly to a square than they ought, the roof is far 
too heavy and important for the rest of the edifice. Notwith- 
standing all this, a peristyle of sixty-six well-proportioned Corin- 
thian columns (twenty on each flank and fourteen on each front, 
counting the angle pillars both ways) cannot fail to produce a cer- 
tain effect ; though more might have been produced by a less 
expenditure of means." — Fergussoti. 

" As for the Bourse, which is Greek by its colonnade, Roman 
by its arches and doors and windows. Renaissance by its flat 
vault, it is unquestionably a very correct and pure structure, and 
the proof is, it is crowned by an attic such as Athens never saw, 
a fine right line, gracefully cut, here and there, by chimney 
pots." — Victor LIugo. 

The annual amount of business transacted on the 
Bourse is estimated at 2,000,000,000/. 

We must cross in front of the Bourse to the Rue de 
Richelieu ^ — the magnificent street which the great cardinal 
pierced to indemnify himself for his expenses in building 
the Palais Cardinal. Turning south, we find (on the left) 
the great buildings of the Bibliothèque Nationale. The 
library is open for study from 10 to 4 ; the collections are 
only visible to the public on Tuesdays and Fridays from 

1 On the Boulevard, between the entrance to the Rue Vivienne and the 
Rue de Richelieu, is the shop of Messrs. Goupil, the engravers, of European 


10.30 to 4. The first national library was that of Charlesr 
V. (1373), afterwards sold to the Duke of Bedford and 
carried to England. Louis XI. brought together at the 
Louvre all the volumes dispersed throughout the royal 
residences, and this collection was carried by Louis XIL 
to Blois, where the library of Pavia was added to it. 
François I. began a new and magnificent collection at 
Fontainebleau, and moved that of Blois to his new palace. 
The library united there was transferred to the convent of 
the Cordeliers, and in 1666 to the Rue Vivienne. It was 
enormously increased under Louis XIII., Louis XIV. and 
Louis XV. At the suppression of convents in the Revo- 
lution their precious libraries were added to the national 
collection, which now possesses above 100,000 MSS. of 

The library occupies part of the magnificent hotel of 
Cardinal Mazarin. The cardinal bought the hotel of 
President Tubeuf, built by Le Muet, at the corner of the 
Rue Vivienne, and the Hôtel Chivry, at the corner of the 
Rue Richelieu. These he united in one splendid palace, 
in which his private library (confiscated during his exile 
and afterwards gradually recovered) occupied the great 
gallery. Here also he formed the magnificent collection 
of pictures which were the delight of his latter years. 

"After a consultation of nine physicians, Gueneau, the cardi- 
nal's medical attendant, undertook to warn him of his approach- 
ing end. It was thought advisable to exchange the noise and 
bustle of the Palais Mazarin for the quiet of his château of Vin- 
cennes, and the stricken virtuoso determined to take a last fare- 
well of his treasures. With his tall figure, ashy-pale and wasted, 
enveloped tout mi in his fur-lined dressing-gown, he stole into 
his picture galleries, and the Comte de Brienne, hearing the 
shuffling sound of his slippers as he dragged his limbs feebly and 
wearily along, hid himself behind the arras. At each step the 
cardinal's weakness obliged him to halt, and he murmured, ' I 


must leave all this ! ' He went further on, holding, so as to 
support himself, first on one object and then on another, and as 
he looked round at each pause he said again, with a deep sigh, 
' I must leave all this.' At length he saw Brienne, and called 
to him in a very mournful • voice, ' Give me your hand : I am 
very weak, and quite helpless ; still I like to walk, and I have 
something to do in my library.' Leaning on the count's arm, 
he pointed to his favorite pictures. ' See,' he said, 'this beau- 
tiful canvas of Correggio, and this Venus of Titian, and this in- 
comparable Deluge of Caracci. Ah, my poor friend, I must 
leave all this. Adieu, my dear pictures, which I have loved so 
well ! ' " — Quarterly Review, No. 30g. 

After the death of the cardinal, his books were taken 
to the Collège Mazarin, with the wood-carving of his 
library, and now form the Bibliothèque Mazarine. His 
palace was divided between his heirs. The Hôtel Tubeuf 
fell to the Due de la Meilleraye, the other parts to the 
Marquis de Mancini, Due de Nivernais, who gave them 
the name of Hôtel de Nevers. The Hôtel Tubeuf, bought 
by Louis XIV., became the seat of the Compagnie des 
Indes ; afterwards the Bourse was installed there, and re- 
mained there till the present century. The Hôtel de Ne- 
vers was used for the bank of Law, and in 1721 was 
bought by the Regent, that the Bibliothèque du Roi might 
be placed there. 

The older parts of the existing building belong to what 
was once the Hôtel Tubeuf; the Hôtel Chivry has been 
pulled down. 

The library is entered by visitors from the Rue Riche- 
lieu by the door nearest the boulevards. Passing the Salic 
de Travail^ and ascending the staircase, hung with a tapes- 
try from Château Bayard, they find, in an anteroom, the 
curious bronze Parnasse Français, executed by Titon du 
Tillet in 172 1. The Apollo, who is attended by the nine 
Muses, is Louis XIV. 


The magnificent Galerie Mazarine, which looks upon 

the Rue Vivienne, has a beautiful mythological ceiling by 

Romanelli, and is one of the finest galleries of its date in 


"The progress of the Palais Mazarin excited the liveliest 
interest among the Court ladies. All classic mythology was to 
be reproduced upon the ceiling of the great galleries ; and, as a 
bevy of beauties looked on approvingly, Romanelli silently in- 
troduced the portrait of the fairest into his design. On their 
next visit the likeness was detected, and a clamor of discontent 
and jealousy arose. In vain did the artist plead, ' How could I, 
with one pair of hands, paint you all at once?' He could only 
appease them by painting every one of them in turn." — Quarterly 
Review, No. 309. 

Here many of the great MS. treasures of France are 
exhibited in cases — the " Evangiles de Charlemagne ; " 
" Evangiles " of the Emperor Lothaire ; " Evangiles des 
Messes " of the time of St. Louis ; Bible and Psalm-book 
of St. Louis, Bible of Charles le Chauve, Bible of Philippe 
le Bel, and Bible of Louis XL; a "Vie de St. Denis," 
which belonged to Philippe le Long; "Les Vigiles de 
Charles VIL ; " a copy of the "Evangiles" given to the 
Sainte Chapelle by Charles V. (1379); the "Armorial 
General de Gilles de Bouvier, premier héraut de Charles 
VIL ;" the " Livre d'Heures de Louis XIV.," &c. 

The collection of bindings — in metal, ivory, and leather 
— is most important and beautiful. Specimens are shown 
of the earliest books printed in France. There is a rich 
collection of autographs, including the MS. sermons of 
Bossuet, of the Pensées of Pascal, the Télèmaque of Féne- 
lon, and letters of Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, La 
Bruyère, Mme de Maintenon, Mme de Sévigné, Turenne, 
Racine, Boileau, Corneille, Molière, Malherbe, Diderot, 
Lesueur, Père Lachaise, St. François de Sales, St. Vin- 
cent de Paul, &c. 


The interesting portrait of King John — " Jehan Rey 
de France " — formerly in the Sainte Chapelle, is now pre- 
served here, and La Cuve de Dagobcrt^ brought from Poi- 
tiers, in which St. Martin is said to have been baptized by 
St. Hilaire. A side gallery is hung with ancient charters 
and maps. 

A door lower down the Rue de Richelieu is the en- 
trance to the Colledion of Bronzes^ Medals, &^c. The prin- 
cipal treasures are shown in cases in the centre of the 
rooms on the right, and comprise many valuable speci- 
mens of old church plate, especially an exquisite XI. c. 
chalice from St. Remy at Rheims, and many specimens 
from St. Denis ; the treasures found in a shrine of Mer- 
cury near Berthonville, in 1830 ; and the cup of Chosroes 
I., King of Persia (575), from the treasuryof St. Denis, 
where it was shown as the cup of Solomon. The Collec- 
tion of Cameos is of marvellous beauty, and includes a 
priceless Apotheosis of Augustus — the largest cameo in 
the world — which formed part of the treasury of the Sainte 
Chapelle. Charles V. imagined that it represented the 
triumph of the patriarch Joseph, and, as such, had it framed 
in enamel, with the four Evangelists. A room to the left 
is devoted to the collections bequeathed by the Due de 
Luynes (1867). 

Behind the Library (a little east) is the Church of 
Notre Dame des Victoires or des Petits Peres, founded by 
Louis XIIL (in 1629) to commemorate the victories over 
the protestants at La .Rochelle, and given to the Augustins 
déchaussés, known in Paris as Petits Pères. In the first 
chapel (right) is the tomb of Jean Vassal, secretary of 
Louis XIIL, by Cotton. The chapel of the Virgin, a 
famous goal of pilgrimage, is covered with ex-votos. 

A few steps east take us into the circular Place des 


Victoires, constructed from designs of Mansart (1685), at 
the expense of a private individual —the Due de la Feuil- 
lade — " le courtisan qui a passé tous les courtisans,"' on the 
site of the Hôtel d'Emery and the Hôtel de Senneterre, to 
flatter Louis XIV. The bronze statue of the king, by 
Desjardins,^ was placed in the centre, trampling on a 
Cerberus, whose three heads represented the triple alliance. 
At the angles of the pedestal, inscribed " Viro immortali," 
were the four statues of chained nations, now at the Hôtel 
des Invalides. The statue of the king was destroyed in 
the Revolution, and replaced by a ridiculous plaster pyra- 
mid, with inscriptions recording the Republican victories. 
This was exchanged, in 1806, for a bronze statue of 
Desaix, melted down in 18 14 to make the present peri- 
wigged equestrian statue by Bosio, erected by " Ludovicus 
XVIII. atavosuo." 

"Si je traverse la place des Victoires, je me dis: on voloit 
en plein jour sur ce terrein où l'on voit aujourd'hui la figure 
d'un Roi qui vouloit être conquérant. Le quartier s'appelloit 
le quartier Vuide-Gonsset. Un petit bout de rue, qui conduit à la 
place où le Souverain est représenté en bronze, en a retenu le 
nom ; et dans cette place des Victoires, qui a si long-temps 
révolté l'Europe, je ne puis m'empêcher de me rappeller ce 
courtisan qui, selon l'Abbé de Choisy, avoit eu le dessein 
d'acheter une cave dans l'église des Petits-Pères, de la pousser 
sous terre jusqu'au milieu de cette place, afin de se faire enterrer 
et de pourrir religieusement sous la statue de Louis XIV., son 
maître, V homme iiiunorteiy — Tableau de Paris. 

Close to the Place des Victoires is the Hotel des Postes^ 
finished 1887. In the Rue du Mail (which runs north- 
east from the Place des Victoires to the Rue de Cléry), the 
residence of Colbert, at No. 7 — a very richly ornamented 
house — is commemorated by the serpents (his arms) in 
the decorations. No. 278 Rue de Clêry was the house of 

1 Mme de Sévigné. - Martin Van Den Bogaert. 


Cagliostro. The famous Mme Lebrun had her studio in 
this Street. 

Close to the Place des Victoires (on the south-west) is 
the Banque de France in the Rue de la Vrillicre^ which 
commemorates the hotel built (in 1620) for Raymond 
Phe'lippeaux, Due de la Vrilliere, Secretary of State, by 
François Mansart. It was bought from the family of La 
Vrilliere, in 1705, by M. Rouillé, afterwards Directeur- 
Général des Finances, and, in 17 13, it was purchased by 
the Comte de Toulouse, son of Louis XIV. and Mme de 
Montespan, who gave it a new name and employed the 
royal architect, Robert Cotte, to change its arrangements, 
Nicholas Coustou in its sculptures, and Oudry in its 
pictorial decorations. Here the Count, who was "l'hon- 
neur, la droiture, l'équité même," ^ lived with his beloved 
wife, who was sister of the Due de Noailles, and widow 
(when twenty-four) of the Marquis de Gondrin. Their 
only son was the brave Due de Penthièvre, who married 
Marie Thérèse d'Esté. His only daughter married 
Philippe Egalité, Duc d'Orléans, in 1769, and in the 
chapel of the hotel, his son, the Prince de Lamballe, was 
married (in 1767) to Louise de Savoie Carignan, the 
unfortunate friend of Marie Antoinette, who, after the 
death of her dissipated husband, had a home here with 
her father-in-law, who vainly strove to avert her fate, and 
bitterly lamented her — purchasing the head of his beloved 
child at an enormous price from her assassins. 

" ' I think I still hear her,' the Duke de Penthièvre said in 
his last conversations with his daughter. ' I think I still see her 
seated near the window in this little room. You remember, my 
child, with what assiduity she worked there, from morning to 
evening, on her woman's work for the poor. I passed many 
years with her ; I never detected a thought of her soul that was 

1 St. Simon. 



not for the queen, for me, or for the unhappy ; and this is the 
angel they cut to pieces. Ah ! I feel that thought is digging my 
grave ; I feel as if I were an accomplice in her death ; that I 
ought to have forced her to return to her family ; that her attach- 
ment to me was the cause of her loss.' " — " Vie du duc de Pen- 
thièvie" Paris, 1803. 

Into the palace of the Due de Penthièvre, which 
" exhaled the perfume of virtue, and which calumny never 
dared to corrupt,"^ the young poet Florian was admitted 
as a page, afterwards becoming captain of the Penthièvre 
dragoons, and gentleman-in-waiting to the semi-royal 
duke, and many of his idyls and fables were written 
here. Upon the death of the Due de Penthièvre (in 1793) 
his body was thrown ignominously into the common ditch, 
and the National Printing Office was established in his 
hotel, where it remained till i8c8. But in 1803 the Bank 
of France had purchased the hotel from the Government, 
and in 181 1 it entered upon its occupation. The buildings 
have since been greatly increased, and the most remark- 
able remains left from the famous Hôtel de Toulouse are, 
externally, the projecting angle by Mansart, bracketed 
over the Rue Radziwill, which is regarded as a master- 
piece of stone-work ; and, internally, the incomparable 
Galerie Dorée of Mansart. The interior is not shown 
without a special permission, to be obtained by written 
application to the governor. 

In the Rue du Boulot, which leads north-east near this, 
No. 4 is a very fine old mansion, and No. 11, the Hôtel 
des Empires, was the hotel of the Maréchal de Cléram- 
bault, the friend of St. Evremond ; the staircase has a 
splendidl3^-wrought iron balustrade. 

Between the Rue du Bouloi and the Rue Jean Jacques 
Rousseau, formerly Grenelle St. Honoré (entered from the 

* Charles Nodier, preface of the Fables de Florian. 



latter at No. 41), the Cours des Fermes occupy the site 
of the Hôtel de Conde', built by Françoise d'Orle'ans 
Rothelin, " fort belle et très-honeste princesse," ' in order 
the better to be able to pay her court to Catherine de 
Medicis,' who had left the Tuileries for the Hôtel de 


Soubise. It took the name of Hôtel de Soissons under 
her son, Charles de Bourbon. He sold it to Henri de 
Bourbon, Due de Montpensier, whose daughter was the 
first wife of Gaston d'Orléans. By his widow it was sold 
to the handsome Roger de St. Larry, Due de Bellegarde, 

* Brantôme, Vie des datnes galantes. 
= Piganiol de la Force, Desc. de Paris, 


who employed Andronet Ducerceau to rebuild it magnifi; 
cently, but was exiled to Anjou by Henri IV. for being 
too familiar with Gabrielle d'Estre'es. At a later date the 
poet Racan lived in the hotel as page of M. de Bellegarde. 
In 1633 the house was bought by Chancellor Seguier, 
who received Louis XIV. and Anne of Austria here at à 
splendid banquet and ball to celebrate the end of the war 
of the Fronde, and who first conceived the idea of the 
Académie Française, founded by Richelieu. After the 
death of the cardinal he was chosen president of the 
society, and for thirty years its meetings were held at the 
Hôtel Seguier. The chancellor died here in 1672, and 
his magnificent funeral service at the Oratoire is described 
by Mme de Sévigné. His hotel was then pulled down, 
and the Hôtel des Fermes du Roi built on its site by 
Ledoux. At the Revolution this was sequestrated and 
became a prison, then a theatre, finally a diligence office. 
Little now remains of it. 

In the Rjie Neuve des Petits Champs, which leads west- 
wards from the Place deâ Victoires, No. 45, at the corner 
of the Rue St. Anne, is the noble mansion of Lulli, built 
for him by Gittard in 167 1, with 11,000 livres (lent by 
Molière, and only repaid in ingratitude). The land which 
Lulli purchased for building, and which up to that time re- 
mained quite unoccupied, was at the foot of the hillock 
called Butte St. Roch. Lulli, who died in the house, be- 
queathed it to his father-in-law, Lambert. It is very richly 
adorned with Corinthian capitals, comic masks, and a sheaf 
of lyric attributes. The Hôtel de St. Pouange, on the op- 
posite side of the Rue St. Anne, was destroyed by the 
Rue Chabanais. 

The Rue des Petits Champs became the great centre 
for the wig-makers of the XVIII. c, from having been the 


residence of M. Binet, wig-maker to Louis XIV., and in- 
ventor of the decoration which, at first, was called a binette. 

" Les perruques s'établirent sur toutes les têtes. Louis XIV. 
et toute sa cour en portaient qui pesaient plusieurs livres, et 
coûtaient jusqu'à mille ecus ; les tresses descendaient sur les 
hanches, et le toupet dominait sur le front à une hauteur de cinq 
à six pouces. Plus la binette était large, plus le respect du 
peuple croissait." ' — Salgues, " De Paris.'" 

The next side street on the left of the Rue des Petits 
Champs, beyond the Rue St. Anne, is the Rue des Moulitis, 
which records the windmills on the Butte St. Roch, the 
now levelled hill, which rose behind the church on this 

Nearly the whole space between the Rue St. Anne and 
the Rue de Gaillon (right) was at one time occupied by 
the magnificent Hôtel de Lyonne, which then gave a name 
to that part of the Rue des Petits Champs. Under its 
later denomination of Hôtel Pontchartrain it served as a 
residence for Ambassadors Extraordinary coming to Paris. 
On the front of the principal façade was the immense sun- 
dial which Rousseau, who lived opposite, made use of for 
the education of Thérèse. " Pendant plus d'un mois," he 
says in his CofifessioJis, "je m'efforçai de lui faire connaître 
les heures. A peine les sait-elle à présent." 

Returning to the Rue de Richelieu, the Hôtel du Com- 
mandeur de jfars, famous during the Fronde, was built by 
Mansart. The Hotel de rinte7ida7it Foucault retains some 
of its ancient decorations. 

Opening from the Rue de Richelieu, opposite the 
library, is the Place Louvois, with a graceful fountain by 
Visconti, marking the site of the Opera House where the 
Due de Berry was murdered (February 13, 1820). The 

^ At present, when the common people wish to describe that a head is 
ridiculous^ they say, " Quelle binette ! " 


duke had just handed the duchess into her carnage, and- 
was about to re-enter the Opera House, when Pierre Louis 
Louvel, having knocked down the aide-de-camp, M. de 
Beauffremont, seizing the prince by the arm, plunged a 
dagger into his side. The duke cried, " I am murdered ! " 
The duchess jumped out of the carriage with her lady, 
Mme de Béthizy, and she herself drew out the dagger, and 
was covered with blood. The Due and Duchesse d'An- 
goulême were summoned at once with the Dues de Bour- 
bon and d'Orléans, and at 5 a.m. the king arrived, to 
whom the Due de Berry said at once, " Sire, permettez 
que la dernière grâce que je vous demande soit celle de 
mon assassin ! " Louis XVIIL only answered, " Il n'est 
plus temps de parler de cela -, ne songeons qu'à vous." 

" * Ah ! you do not s^y yes,' replied the duke, with an accent 
of painful doubt. ' Oh ! say it, say it, that I may die in peace ! 
Mercy, mercy, spare the man's life ! ' . . . He died a few mo- 
ments afterwards. 

" He died in the act of pardon ; a great soul, obscured in 
life, resplendent in death, the hero of clemency, who, at the first 
stroke, did what is the most difficult and the most meritorious act 
of man, die nobl)\" — Lamartine. 

Louvel fled by the Rue de Richelieu, whence he tried 
to reach the Rue Vivienne by the Passage Colbert, where 
he was arrested. A Chapelle Expiatoire, erected in the 
Rue de Richelieu to the Due de Berry, was demolished, in 
spite of the eloquent remonstrance of Balzac. 

The Rue Thérèse, which falls into the Rue de Richelieu 
on the right, commemorates Marie Thérèse, queen of 
Louis XIV. 

A fountain erected at the angle of the Rues de la Fon- 
taine Molière and de Richelieu, in 1844, commemorates 
the death of the poet in the house of the tailor Bandelet, 
the opposite house (No. 34), which has been since rebuilt. 



" In the midst of the ardent activity of his toils, and the joys 
of his triumphs, Molière felt his life ebbing away. On the 17th 
Februar}^ 1673, he had to play in Le Malade Imaginaiy-e the part 
of Argan, which he had played often before. As he sufTercd from 
his chest more than usual, his friends wished to persuade him not 
to appear on the stage that evening. ' Eh ! what will they do,' 
he replied, ' tlie poor people who have only their day's work to 
live on? I should reproach myself for having neglected to give 
them their bread for a single day, if I could possibly do it.' lie 
pla)'ed the part, and in the divertissement, when he uttered the 
word jure, he was seized by a convulsion, which he vainly strove 
to conceal by a forced laugh. He was carried home. He began 
to spit blood freely, and died some hours afterwards in the arms 
of two nuns, who had come to beg in Paris during Lent, and to 
whom he had given the hospitality of his house. He was fifty- 
one years old. The monarch who had supported him during his 
life against the fanatic zeal of the devout, ought to have protected 
his ashes against their anathemas and insults. But the prejudice 
then existing in all its force against the profession of the play 
actor did not permit Louis XIV. any license to pay respect to the 
remains of the great man who had glorified his reign. Every 
church was closed to the corpse of Molière, and it was only by 
favor that it could be conveyed, without pomp or honor, to the 
cemetery of St. Joseph. The anathemas of the clergy had drawn, 
on the day of the funeral, a tumultuous and threatening crowd 
about his house, and this mob would, perhaps, have insulted the 
corpse, if his widow in alarm had not thrown some money out of 
the windows, and this calmed the superstitious rage of these 
wretches." — P. le Bas. 

No. 2^^ Rue Fontaine Molière (formerly Rue Traver- 
siëre), at the corner of the Rue du Clos-Georgeau, was 
inhabited by Voltaire, with Mme du Châtelet, " la sublime 
Emilie." After her death, in 1749, Voltaire shared the 
house with Lekain, the actor. 

South of the National Library, flights of steps will lead 
us down into the Palais Royal. It was built by Cardinal 
Richelieu (1624-34), and known at first as Palais Cardinal. 

" Quelque Amphion nouveau, sans l'aide des maçons, 
En superbes palais a changé ces buissons ; 


Paris voit tous les jours de ces métamorphoses. 
Dans tout le Pré-aux-Clercs tu verras mêmes choses. 
Et l'univers entier ne peut rien voir d'égal 
Aux superbes dehors du palais cardinal." 

Corneille, '''' Le Menteur" Act. H. se. 5. 

The great cardinal died here December 4, 1642, be- 
queathing his palace to the king, Louis XIII., who only 
survived him five months. But in the following year 
Anne of Austria came to live here with her two children, 
Louis XIV., then aged five, and Philippe d'Orléans. The 
Duchesse d'Orléans ^ declares that, during her residence 
here, the Queen Regent, not contented with loving Car- 
dinal Mazarin, ended by marrying him, and that the secret 
passage by which he reached the queen's chamber was to 
be seen at the Palais Royal in her time. When Queen 
Anne came to reside in it, the name of the palace was 
changed to Palais Royal. The splendid gallery, with a 
ceiling by Philippe de Champaigne, which had been built 
by the cardinal, was then destroyed : it occupied the site 
of the present Rue de Valois, and was called La Galerie 
des Hommes Illustres^ from the twenty-four portraits with 
which It was hung, amongst which the cardinal did not 
scruple to include his own, as well as that of Louis XIII. 
The only building remaining of the time of Richelieu is 
part of the second court, on the right, adorned by doric 

Henrietta Maria, Queen of England, daughter of 
Henri IV., was allowed, in her exile, to reside in the 
Palais Royal with her daughter Henrietta, who afterwards 
became its mistress, as the wife of Philippe I., Due d'Or- 
léans, to whom it was given by Louis XIV. 

Under Philippe II. d'Orléans, the palace became the 

• Mémoires de Madame. 


scene of the celebrated suppers and orgies which disgraced 
the Regency. 

" He was accustomed to debauch, and still more to the 
noise of debauch, till he could not do without it, and found no 
amusement except in noise, tumult, and excess. It was this tiuit 
led him to such strange and scandalous orgies, and, as if he would 
surpass all debauchees, to introduce into his parties the most im- 
pious discourses and to find a precious refinement in the most 
extravagant debauches, on the holiest days, as during his regency 
often happened when he chose Good Friday or other days most 
religiously kept. The more original, old or extravagant a man 
was in impiety and debauchery, the more he admired his de- 
bauches, and I have seen him incessantly admiring or rather ven- 
erating the Grand Prior because he had never gone to bed sober 
for forty years, or ceased to keep women openly, or to talk con- 
tinually impiously and irreligiously. With such principles, it is 
not surprising that he was false to the indiscreetest degree of boasts 
ing to be so, and pluming himself on being a subtle deceiver. 

" Madame was full of fairy talcs. She used to say that all 
the fairies had been invited to her lying-in, that all had come, and 
each had given her son a talent, such as they possessed ; but, un- 
fortunately, one old fairy had been overlooked. She had disap- 
peared so long ago that she was quite forgotten, and this fairy, 
piqued by this neglect, came, leaning on her little staff, just after 
all the other fairies had made their gifts to the infant, and, being 
more and more annoyed, took her vengeance by rendering abso- 
lutely useless all the talents received from the other fairies, none 
of which he was ever able to make use of, although he retained 
them all. It must be confessed, that, taking it in the whole, it is 
a speaking portrait." — St. Simon, ''Mémoires" 1715. 

Under Louis Philippey^randson of the Regent d'Or- 
le'ans) a great part of the palace was destroyed by fire, 
which led the next duke, Louis Philippe Joseph (Philippe 
Egalité), father of King Louis Philippe, to design great 
alterations, including the arcades surrounding the gardens, 
which he let to tradesmen, thereby making his palace the 
most magnificent bazaar in the world. It was this duke 
who was the remorseless enemy of Marie Antoinette, and 


who looked unmoved from the balcony upon the head of 
his own sister-in-law, the Princesse de Lamballe, when her 
assassins brought it from La Force to be exhibited to him. 

"The Duke of Dorset told me, that as early as 1786, or 1787, 
the queen (Marie Antoinette) had said to him, on her seeing the 
Duke of Orleans at Versailles : ' Monsieur le Duc, regardez cet 
homme-là. 11 me déteste, et il a juré ma perte. Je le vois dans 
ses yeux, toutes les fois qu'il me fixe. Il ne sera jamais content, 
jusqu'à ce qu'il me voit étendue morte à ses pieds.'" — Wraxall's 
" AI e moi r 5." 

The duke was arrested here, April 4, 1793, with his 
third son, the Comte de Beaujolais, and executed on 
November 6. 

Under the first consul the building became known as 
Palais du Tribunat. Lucien, Prince of Canino, inhabited 
it during the hundred days. In i8i4it became once more 
the Palais Royal, and was given back to the Orleans family, 
who restored and purified it. Hither, in July, 1830, Louis 
Philippe, prompted by his ambitious sister. Mademoiselle 
d'Orléans, came from Neuilly to receive the offer of the 
throne, contrary to the wish of the duchess, who "lui fit 
des adieux pleins de larmes, comme à une victime qui allait 
se dévouer au salut de son pays." ^ 

In the revolution of 1848 the Palais Royal was sacked 
by the people, who destroyed most of the works of art it 
contained. In 1852 it became the residence of Jérôme 
Bonaparte, ex-King of Westphalia, after whose death, in 
i860, his son Prince Jérôme Napoléon, resided there till 
September, 1870. In May, i87i,a great part of the palace 
was burnt by the Commune. The principal buildings are 
now occupied by the Conseil d^Eiat, the Aile Montpensier 
by the Coar des Comptes, and the portion of the Aile de 

* Trognon, Vie de Marie Amélie. 


Valois looking upon the second court and the garden, by 
the Direction des Beaux-Arts. The interior of the palace 
has now little interest, but the great gravelly square, mis- 
named Jardin du Palais Royal., surrounded by gay arcades 
of shops, and planted with lime-trees, is still a popular re- 
sort, though the opening of the Tuileries gardens under 
Louis XVI. deprived it of its glory, which reached a 
climax under Louis XIIL, when it became the resort of all 
the rich citizens. 

" On voit là, étalé dans les habits, tout ce que le luxe peut 
inventer de plus tendre et de plus touchant. Les dames, avec les 
modes toujours nouvelles, avec leurs ajustements, leurs rubans, 
leurs pierreries et les agréables manières de s'habiller, étalent 
dans les étoffes d'or et d'argent les applications de leur magnifi- 
cence. Les hommes, de leur côté, aussi vains que les femmes, 
avec leurs plumes et leurs perruques blondes, y vont chercher à 
plaire et à prendre les cœurs. . . . Dans ce lieu si agréable, on 
raille, on parle d'amour, de nouvelles, d'affaires et de guerre. 
On décide, on critique, on dispute, on se trompe les uns les 
autres, et avec cela tout le monde se divertit." — Lettres d'un 
Sicilien, 1692. 

The surrounding buildings, by Pierre Louis (1735- 
1807), reproduce in effect the Procuratie Nuove of the 
Piazza St. Marco at Venice. 

"Imagine a magnificent château with the lower story com- 
posed of arcades, and beneath these arcades, magazines in which 
gleam the treasures of India and America, gold, silver, diamonds, 
&c. ; the most exquisite productions that industry has brought 
forth to satisfy and charm our senses ; all this arranged in the 
most picturesque manner, and illuminated with magic fires that 
dazzle the spectator's eyes ! Imagine these galleries filled with 
a crowd that comes to see and, above all, to be seen ! There are 
cafés, well frequented, where you read the papers, talk, discuss, 
&c. I felt giddy ; we went into the garden of the palace ; there, 
calm and obscurity reigned. The dim light from the arcades, 
falling on these green alleys, was absorbed by the density and 
motion of their foliage. We heard, in the distance, the languish- 


ing sounds of enchanting music. I seemed to be transported to 
the isle of Calypso or the palace of Armida." — Kara77isine, 1790. 

"La promenade de votre maussade Palais-Royal, où tous 
vos arbres sont estropiés en tête de choux, et où l'on étouffe, 
quoiqu'on ait pris tant de précaution en élaguant, coupant, 
brisant, gâtant tout pour vous donner un peu d'air et de l'es- 
pace." — Diderot, ** Lettres a Mlle Volland.'" 

" For several hours, the toiling population of the suburbs 
has been asleep ; the most central streets are silent and aban- 
doned to the light of the lamps ; you might believe the city com- 
pletely buried in repose ; but, on approaching the Palais Royal, 
your eyes and your ears are astonished ; your senses, lately 
numbed, awake, and when you enter its precincts, you find it 
still full of life and resplendent with light ; it is the heart which 
remains warm, long after the extremities have grown cold." — 
^^ Paris, ou le livre des cent-et-ti7t." 

It was in the garden of the Palais Royal that (July 13, 
1789) Camille Desmoulins, mounting upon a table, called 
the crowd to arms, and bade them assume a green cockade 
supplied by the leaves from the trees — in sign of hope. 

The Palais Royal has always been celebrated for its 
restaurants and gaming-tables. 

" If Spain has its bull-fights and Rome had its gladiators, 
Paris boasts of its Palais Royal, whose fascinating roulette tables 
give you the pleasure of seeing blood flow in streams, without 
any fear of finding your foot slip in it. Cast a glance on this 
arena ; enter. . . . What nakedness ! The walls, covered with 
a gray paper the height of a man, present nothing that can 
cheer the soul. There is not even a nail to facilitate suicide. 
The floor is worn and dirty. An oblong table occupies the 
centre of the room. The simple straw chairs, crowded around 
this cloth, frayed by gold-pieces, betray a curious indifference 
to luxury among the men who come to perish there for fortune 
and for luxur)'." — Balzac, " Le peau de chagrin." 

Richelieu spent 200,000 crowns upon producing his 
own play of Mirame in the theatre of the Palais Royal, 
and was furious at its being unappreciated. 

"Sur ce théâtre, en 1636, parut la tragédie du Cid, qui, en 


1639, ^^^ suivi des Horaces et de Cinna. Ainsi, ce tliéâtre, favo- 
risé par un puissant protecteur, fut presqu'en môme temps le 
berceau et le char triomphal de la tragédie." — Dulaure. 

The site which was bought by Cardinal Richelieu for 
the Palais Royal was previously occupied by the Hôtel de 
Mercœur, and by the famous Hôtel de Rambouillet (for- 
merly Hôtel Pisani), where, in the midst of the reign of 
Louis XIV., Catherine de Vivonne, Marquise de Ram- 
bouillet, created the famous literary society — the bel-esprit 
coteries — which flourished from 1620 to 1630. 

" A select society sprang up, in the seventeenth century, in 
the bosom of the capital ; it united the two sexes by new tics and 
new affections, it brought together the distinguished men of the 
court and the town, the men of the polite world, and men of 
letters ; it created refined and noble manners amid the most dis- 
gusting dissipation ; it reformed and enriched the language, pre- 
pared the flight of a new literature, and raised the soul to the 
feeling and the need of pleasures unknown to the vulgar." — 

" All who frequented the Hôtel de Rambouillet soon adopted 
nobler manners and purer language, devoid of provincialism. 
The women in particular, to whom more leisure and a more deli- 
cate organization give a readier and finer social tact, were the 
first to profit by the advantage which was offered them by this 
constant community of cultivated minds and association of per- 
sons unceasingly occupied in emulating what was most agreeable 
and fitted to please in each. Consequently those who formed 
part of these assemblies speedily became easily distinguishable 
from those who were not admitted to them. To show the esteem 
in which they were held, they were named the Précieuses, the Illus- 
trious : which was always given and received as an honorable 
distinction during the long space of time that the Hôtel de Ram- 
bouillet retained its influence." — Walckenaer. 

Here that " art of society," for which France (and Paris 
especially) has since become so celebrated, was first culti- 

" It was here that conversation real!)'- had its birth ; that charm- 
ing art whose rule cannot be formulated, which is learned, at the 


same time, by tradition, and by an innate feeling for what is re- 
fined and agreeable ; where kindness, simplicity, polish, even 
etiquette and knowledge of social customs, variety of tone and 
subject, the shock of different ideas, piquant or animated stories, 
a certain fashion of speaking and narrating witty sayings that 
can be repeated, refinement, grace, sly wit, openness and origi- 
nality, were incessantly mingled together, and form one of the 
most keen pleasures which delicate spirits can taste." — M. de 

"The number of frequenters of the house was at first re- 
stricted ; they were received either in one of the cabinets or in 
the bedroom, and, around the circle formed in the centre of the 
room, three or four screens were spread open, to keep off the cur- 
rents of air from those seated ; for there was never any fire on the 
hearth, even in mid-winter, Mme de Rambouillet not being able 
to support the heat of a fire. Moreover, the tapestries that cov- 
ered the floor and adorned the walls checked all sensation of 
cold from without. There were ten chairs in each cabinet, and 
eighteen in the bedroom. These seats were, according to the 
definition in the Dictionary of Furetière, ' chairs with backs and 
arms, chairs with a back only, and seats and stools without 
either.' The bedroom did not yet, as the fashion did later, ad- 
mit intimate visitors to the ruelle, a space reserved on the two 
sides of the bed, and separated from the room by a balustrade." 
— Paul Lacroix. 

The taste of the time as to building as well as living, 

was to a great extent guided by Mme de Rambouillet. 

"C'est d'elle qu'on a appris à mettre les escaliers à costé, 
pour avoir une grande suite de chambres ; à exhausser les plan- 
chers et à faire des portes et des fenestres hautes et larges et vis- 
à-vis les unes des autres. Et cela est si vray que la reine-mère, 
quand elle fit bastir le Luxembourg, ordonna aux architectes 
d'aller voir l'hostel de Rambouillet, et ce soing ne leur fut pas 
inutile. C'est la première qui s'est avisée de faire peindre une 
chambre d'autre couleur que de rouge ou de tanné." — Tallema^it 
des Re'aîix. 

The personal charm of Mme de Rambouillet is re- 
corded by her contemporaries. 

* Hist, de Mnte de Maintenon èi des principaux événements du rcgne de 
Louis XIV. ^ par le Duc de Noailles. 


" She was kind and courteous, and had an upright and just 
disposition. She it was who corrected the bad habits that existed 
before her, and taught politeness to all of her contemporaries 
who visited her. She was, too, a good friend, and obliged all 
the world." — Scgrais. 

In her old age, Mme de Rambouillet was partially con- 
fined to her bed, but established in her bedchamber a 
great alcove, to which she admitted a few of the friends 
who came to see her. This was the origin of the alcoves, 
which became, both in Paris and the provinces, the inti- 
mate centres of familiar conversation. 

'" The Hôtel de Rambouillet still preserved its old reputation, 
although it had decidedly changed its physiognomy. Mme de 
Montausier and her husband only appeared occasionally ; the 
great ladies and the women of wit, who used to shine there, were 
seen but rarely : the Duchess of Longueville and her daughter, 
Mme de Nemours, Mme de Sablé and Mlle de Scudéry. The 
Duke de Rochefoucauld came only when passing ; he met there 
his old friends. Gombauld, Chapelain, Ménage, Courart, La- 
mothe de Vayer, Habert de Montmor, Balzac, who died in 1654, 
and Racan, had entirely abandoned the scene of their early suc- 
cesses ; Corneille and Georges de Scudéry lived in the country, 
and appeared sometimes for a moment. Ménage brought there 
his pupil, the spirituelle Marquise de Sévigné, whose entry to the 
Hôtel de Rambouillet was a triumph ; but it was no longer the 
Hôtel de Rambouillet of other days ; the air and tone had 
changed ; prudery, a dr}% icy prudery, had invaded this sanctuary 
of good company, as if to protest against the frivolity and flip- 
pancy of the young court. Still, it was the most glorious time of 
the reign of the pr/cietises ." — Paul Lacroix. 

Adjoining the Place du Palais Royal is the small Place 
du Theatre Français, containing that famous Theatre, built 
1782, but much altered since. In its vestibule is a statue 
of Talma, by David d'Angers. 



Abbattoir, le Grand, 491 

Abbaye aux Bois, 425 

de Longchamp, 465 
St. Geneviève, 352 
St. Victor, 341 

Académie Française, 391 

Allée des Orangers, 26 

de l'Observatoire, 326 

Arc du Carrousel, 41 
de l'Etoile, 459 

Archevêché, 307 

Archives Nationales, 143 

Arsenal, 208 

Auteuil, 458 

Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, 

463. 465 
des Champs Elysées, 

deConstantine,279, 280 
d'Eylau, 463 
des Gobelins, 314 
Kleber, 453 
d'Italie, 315 
M al a k off, 463 
Montaigne, 453 
de Neuilly, 460 
du Trocadéro, 456 
Victoria, 229 


Bagatelle, château de, 466 
Banque de France, 503 
Barrière d'Enfer, 327 
d'Italie, 315 

Bastille, the, 186, 187 
Baths, Roman, 365 
Batignolles, 476 
Beaux Arts, palais, &c., 387 
Belleville, 493 

Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, 210 
Mazarine, 392 
Nationale, 497 
de Paulmy, 210 
St. Geneviève, 357 
Bicêtre, 325 
Bois de Boulogne, 463 
Boulevard Beaumarchais, 186 

Bonne Nouvelle, 486 
des Capucines, 475 
de Clichy, 481 
des Filles de Cal- 
vaire, 186 
Henri IV. 189 
de l'Hôpital, 314 
d'Italie, 314 
des Italiens, 478 
de la Madeleine, 

Magenta, 490 
Malesherbes, 469 
Mazas, 250 
Monceaux, 469 
Montmartre, 486 
Montparnasse, 328 
Poissonnière, 486 
du Port Royal, 324 
St. Denis, 493 
St. Germain, 333 
St. Marcel, 314 
St. Martin, 493 
St. Michel, 333, 363 



Boulevard de Sébastopol, 133, 
de Strasbourg, 490 
du Temple, 495 
Boulogne, Bois de, 463 
Bourse, la, 496 
British Embassy, 471 
Butte Chaumont 491 

Montmartre, 482 
Mortemart, 465 
St. Roch, 506 


Cabaret du Roi Clovis, 351 
Café Parisien, 493 
Procope, 385 
Riche, 478 
Carrefour de la Croix Rouge, 
Gaillon, 478 
Longchamp, 466 
Carrés d'Atalante, 27 
Carrousel, Place du, 41 
Caserne de la Cité, 280 

des Pompiers, 340 
Catacombs, 327 
Cathedral of Notre Dame, 289 
Ceinture St. Eloi, 280 
Chambre des Députés, 436 
Chambre des Martyrs, 426 
Champ de Mai, 436 
de Mars, 435 
Champs Elysées, 450 
Chapelle Expiatoire, 471 
Sainte, 272 
St. Eloy, 230 
St. Ferdinand, 460 
St. Joseph, 126 
St. Martin le Vieux, 


St. Michel, 117 

St. Yves, 337 
Château de Bagatelle, 466 
d'Eau, 496 
des Fleurs, 458 
de la Muette, 463 
Madrid, 467 
de Neuilly, 462 
Rouge, 484 

Châtelet, le Grand, 228 

le Petit, 335 
Chaumière, la Grande, 328 
Chaussée, d'Antin, 476 
Chevaux de Marly, 450 
Church. See Eglise. 
Cimetière — 

des Innocents, 117 
St. Jean, 117 
St. Joseph, 486 
de la Madeleine, 471 
St. Marguerite, 245 
St. Médard, 316 
Montmartre, 481 
Montparnasse, 328 
Père Lachaise, 239 
de Picpus, 249 
de Vaugirard, 411 
Vert, 117 
Cité, island of La, 251 
Cloître des Billettes, 145 
St. Benoît, 359 
Notre Dame, 308 
St. Séverin, 373 
Cluny, Hôtel de, 365 
Collège d'Arras, 342 
d'Auîun, 378 
Ave Maria, ,345 
de Bay eux, 364 
St. Barbe, 357 
de Beau vais, 342 
de Boissi, 378 
de Boncourt, 345 
des Bons Enfants, 341 
de Bourgogne, 384 
de Cambrai, 360 
de Cardinal Lemoine, 

de Chanac, 337 
des Cholets, 358 
de Clermont, 359 
de Cluny, 364 
de Cornouailles, 337 
des Ecossais, 351 
St. Etienne des Grès, 358 
de Fortet, 358 
de France, 360 
des Grassins, 345 
de Huban, 345 
de Justice, 364 



Collège des Lombards, 343 
Louis le Grand, 358 
de Maître Gervais, 373 
de la Marche, 345 
de Mans, 359 
de Marmoutier, 359 
de la Merci, 344 
St. Michel, 337 
de Mignon, 379 
de Montaigu, 357 
de Narbonne, 364 
de Navarre, 345 
de Plessis, 359 
de Presles, 343 
de Reims, 358 
Sts, Come et Damien, 

de Secy, 364 
Sorbonne, 360 
de Tournai, 345 
de Tours, 379 
de Tréquier, 360 
du Trésorier, 364 
Colonnade du Louvre, 41 
Colonne de la Halle de Blé, 115 
de l'Hôtel de Soissons, 

de Juillet, 186, 188 
de Vendôme, 439 
Comédie Française, 129 
Commanderie St. Jean de La- 

tran, 343 
Conciergerie, La, 269 
Concorde, Place de la, 443 
Conservatoire des Arts et Mé- 
tiers, 136 
de Musique, 486 
Cour de Commerce, 380 
des Fermes, 505 
de Mai, 264,267 
de Miracles, 489 
du Mûrier, 389 
de Rohan, 380 
Couvent (Convent) — 
des Augustines, 488 
des Augustins déchaussés, 

de l'Ave Maria, 196 
des Bénédictins Anglais, 

Couvent (Convent) — 

des liernardins, 340 

des Capucines, 441 

des Capucins, 439 

du Fauburg St. 
Jacques, 329 

des Carmélites, 322 

des Carmes, 344 

des Carmes (of the Rue de 
Vaugirard), 408 

des Célestins, 198 

du Chardonnet, 340 

des Chartreux, 324 

des Cordeliers, 380 

des Feuillants, 26, 439 

des Feuillantines, 330 

Filles Dieu, 489 

des Jacobins, 356 

Les Mathurins, 373 

Montmartre, 485 

Notre Dame de Pentémont, 

des Petits Augustins, 388 

des Petits Pères, 501 

Picpus, 248 

Port Royal, 325 

St. Jean de Dieu, 390 

du Sacré Cœur, 249 

des Ursulines, 330 
Croix Catelan, 467 

du Trahoir, 112 
Cuisines de St. Louis, 265 


Domus Marmosctorum, 283 
Duval, Restaurants, 15 


Ecole des Arts et Manufactures, 
des Beaux Arts, 387 
de Dessin, 383 
de Droit, 343 
de Médecine, 383 
Militaire, 435 
Polytechnique, 345 

Eglise (Church)— 
Sacré (^œur, 484 



Eglise (Church)— 
St. Agnan, 286 
St. André des Arts, 378 
Assomption, 442 
St. Augustin, 469 
St. Barthélémy, 280 
St. Benoît, 359 
des Billettes, 145 
St. Catherine, 280 

du Val des Eco- 
liers, 174 
St. Clotilde, 430 
des Cordeliers, 380 
St. Denis de la Chartre, 280 
du Sacrement, 175 
St. Elizabeth, 157 
St. Eloi, 281 

St. Etienne du Mont, 345 
des Grès, 358 
St. Eustache, 121 
St. François Xavier, 426 
St. Geneviève, 352 

des Ardents, 
St. Germain rAuxerrois,ioo 
des Prés, 415 
le Vieux, 283 
Sts. Gervais et Protais, 218 
St. Hilaire, 344 
St. Jacques du Haut Pas, 331 
de la Bûcherie, 
St. Jean Baptiste, 493 
en Grève, 221 
le Rond, 309 
Sts. Jean et François, 145 
St. julien le Pauvre, 335 
St. Landry, 285 
St. Laurent, 490 
Sts. Leu et Gilles, 131 
St. Louis des Invalides, 431 

en risle, 310 
St. Luc, 284 
La Madeleine, 473 

on the Island, 
St. Magloire, 132 
St. Marcel, 319 
St. Marguerite, 245 
St. Marie l'Egyptienne, 126 

Eglise (Church)— 
St. Marine, 287 
St. Médard, 316 
St. Merri, 134 

St. Nicolas des Champs, 136 
du Chardonnet, 
Notre Dame, 289 

des Anges, 191 
des Blancs Man- 
teaux, 480 
des Carmélites, 

de Lorette, 479 
des Victoires, 501 
L'Oratoire, m 
Sts. Paul et Louis, 212 
St. Paul des Champs, 194 
St. Philippe du Roule, 470 
St. Pierre aux Bœufs, 286 
de Montmartre, 
St. Roch, 107 
St. Séverin, 373 
St. Sulpice, 413 
St. Symphorien, 280 
St. Thomas Aquinas, 428 
du Louvre, 42 
La Trinité, 476 
Val de Grâce, 320 
Visitation, 191 
St. Vincent de Paul, 486 
Egouts, Les, 230 
Elephant of the Bastille, 188 
Elysée, Palais de 1', 470 
Embassy, British, 471 


Faubourg, St. Antoine, 234 
St. Germain, 386 
St. Honoré, 469 
St. Marcel, 312 
Fontaine (Fountain) — 

de la Croix du Trahoir, 112 

Gaillon, 478 

de Grenelle, 428 

des Innocents, 119 

Louvois, 507 

St. Michel, 376 



Fontaine (Fountain) — 
de Medicis, 404 
Molière, 509 
de la Samaritaine, 253 
St. Sulpice, 415 
de la Victoire, 228 

For l'Evêque, 230 

Galerie Marchande, 267 

Mazarine, 500 
Garde-Meuble, 436 
Grand Jeusneur, Le, 288 
Grande Orberie, 283 
Grange Batelière, 487 

St. Eloy, 194 
Grenouillière, La, 436 
Guichets des St. Pères, 40 


Halle de Beauce, 282 
au Blé, 114 
aux Vins, 312 
Halles Centrales, 116 
Hôpital (Hospital)— 
Bicêtre, 325 
La Charité, 390 
des Enfants Trouvés, 288 
de l'Hôtel Dieu, 283, 287 
Lariboisière, 487 
des Ménages, 425 
de la Pitié, 313 
des Quinze-Vingts, 250 
St. Antoine, 250 
St. Louis, 495 
de la Salpêtrière, 314 
des Sourds-Muets, 331 
Val de Grâce, 320 
des Vénériens, 329 
Hôtel Aguado, 486 
d'Aligré, 429 
d'AngouIême, 167 
d'Aubray, 205 
d'Aubriot, 214 
d'Aumont, 40, 217 
de Bahaigue, 115 
Barbette, 162 
de Mme du Barri, 126 

Hôtel de Beauce, 282 
de Beauvais, 193 
Béranger, 430 
de Béthizy, 113 
de Béthune, 192 
de Bczcnval, 430 
de Biron, 428 
de Boisboudrand, 148 
de Boissy, 191 
de Bouchage, m 
de Boufflers, 149 
de Bouillon, 386 
de Boulainvilliers, 477 
de Bourbon, 100 
de Bourgogne, 127 
de Bretagne, 203 
de Brissac, 407, 430 
de Bullion, 110 
de Canaleilles, 428 
Carnavalet, 170 
de Châlons-Luxembourg, 

Charost, 471 
du Châtelet, 430 
de Châtillon, 168, 427 
du Chevalier du Guet, 

Chivry, 498 
de Choiseul, 487 
de Clavigny, 286 
de Clérambault, 504 
de Clisson, 141 
de Cluny, 365 
du Commandeur de Jars, 

de Condé, 100, 505 
Conti, 429 
de la Cour des Comptes, 

de Créqui, 389. 
Crozat, 479 
de Dangeau, 174, 182 
Dieu, 287 

du Duc de Maine, 209 
de la Duchesse d'Orléans, 

de la Duchesse de Savoie, 

d'Ecquevilly, 176 
d'Emery, 502 



Hôtel de l'Empereur Joseph, 407 
d'Epergnon, iio 
de Fecamp, 378 
des Fermes, iio, 506 
de Ferrière, iio 
Fieubet, 206 
de Fontenay, 159 
Forbin, 430 
de la Force, 168 
Fould, 471 
Furtado, 471 
de Grammont, 429 
du Grand Prieur, 148 
de Graville, 214 
de Gaucher, 168 
de Guéménée, 184 
de Guise, 148 
de Harcourt, 373 
de Hennisdal, 407 
d'Herbouville, 168 
d'Hercule, 377 
d'Herwert, iio 
de Hollande, 160 
de la Houze, 168 
de l'Infantado, 441 
de l'Intendant Foucault, 

des Invalides, 430 
Janson, 430 

de Jeanne d'Albret, 166 
de Juigné, 386 
Lambert, 310 
de Lamoignon, 166 
de Lauzun, 311 
de Laval, 141, 142 
de Lavalette, 206 
de Lesdiguières, 206 
des Lions du Roi, 205 
de Longueville, 42 
de Lyonne, 507 
de Luynes, 428 
de Marbœuf, 471 
de Marion de Lorme, 181 
de Matignon, 428 
de Mayenne, 191 
de Mazarin, 389 
de Mesmes, 139 
de la Miséricorde, 141 
de Mme de La Fayette, 


Hôtel Monaco, 428 

de la Monnaie, 395 
de Montpcnsier, m 
des Mousquetaires Noirs, 

de Nesle, 114, 390, 393 
Nesmond, 312 
Nicolai, 184 
de Ninon de l'Enclos, 

Nivernais, 407 
d'Orléans, 115 
d'Ormesson, 191 
d'Orsay, 428 
de Penthièvre, 504 
de Périgord, 429 
Petit de Conti, 395 
du Petit-Musc, 191 
de Pimodan, 311 
Pompéien, 453 
Pontchartrain, 507 
de Ponthieu, 113 
du Porc-épic, 214 
des Postes, 502 
Pourtalès, 474 
du Prévôt de Paris, 214 
des Princes, 115 
des Ranes, 390 
de la Reine-Mère, 115 
de René d'Argouges, 413 
de Richelieu, 182, 184 
de Roche-Guyon, 141 
de Rohan, 141, 159 
de Royaumont, 126 
de St. Aignan, 139 
de St. Géran, 184 
de St. Paul, 201 
de St. Pouange, 506 
Salé, 158 
de Savoisi, 168 
Séguier, 506 
de Senneterre, 502 
de Sens, 210 
de Soissons, 115, 505 
de Soubise, 142 
de Sully, 192 
de Tallard, 157 
de Talleyrand, 441 
de Torpane, 339 
âe Toulouse, 425, 504 



Hôtel de Tourncllcs, 177 

de la Trémouille, 116 

Tubeuf, 498 

de Turenne, 411 

des Ursins, 285 

Valentinois, 457 

des Ventes Mobilières, 

de Vicuville, 204 
de Ville, 221 
de Villcquier, 40 
de Vitty, 176 
de la Vrillière, 441 


Imprimerie Nationale, 159 

Institut de France, 390 

Invalides, Hôtel des, 430 

Isle de la Cité, 251, 258 
aux Javiaux, 251 
de la Gourdaine, 251 
St. Louis, 309 
aux Treilles, 251, 257 


Jardin d'Acclimatation, 468 
des Plantes, 312 
du Luxembourg, 403 
du Palais Royal, 513 
des Tuileries, 24 

Longchamp, 465 
Louvre, the, 36-99 

Colonnade du, 41 
Escalier Daru, 82 
Çralerie d'Apollon, 50 
Grande, 65 
Mollien, 79 
Guichets des St Pères, 

Musée des Antiquités 
Grecques, 83 
Assyrien, 97 
Campana, 83 
Caze, La, 47 
de Chalcographie, 

Louvre, the — 

Musée Charles X., 83 
Chinois, 86 
des Desseins, 85 
Egyptien, 84, 97 

Français, 77 
Français Moderne, 

de Gravure, 97 
de Marine, 86 
du Moyen Age, 

de la Renaissance, 

de Sculpture, 86 
de Sculpture Egyp- 
tienne, 97 
de Sculpture Mo- 
derne Française, 
de Sculpture du 

Moyen Age, 91 
des Souverains, 84 
Pavillon Denon, 81, 86 
de Flore, 40 
des Lesdiguières, 

du Roi, 38, 48 
Salle des Antiquités Grec- 
ques, 83 
des Antonins, 87 
d'Apis, 97 
des Auguicr, 95 
d'Auguste, 87 
des Bronzes, 83, 86 
des Cariatides, 90 
Carrée, 51 

des Cent Suisses, 90 
de Chaudet, 99 
de la Cheminée de 

Bruges, 95 
de Coustou, 98 
de Coysevox, 98 
d'Eustache Lesueur, 77 
des Gardes, 90 
du Gladiateur, 88 
de Henri IL, 48 
de Henri IV., 97 



Louvre — 

Salle d'Hercule et Télèphe, 
de Houdon, 98 
de Jean Goujon, 91 
de Mécène, 86 
de Médée, 90 
de Melpomene, 88 
de Michel-Ange, 93 
de la Paix, 87 
de Pallas, 88 
de Phidias, 87 
de la Ps3^ché, 89 
de Puget, 98 
de la Rotonde, 86 
de Rude, 99 
des Saisons, 86 
des Séances, 47 
des Sept Cheminées, 48 
de Septime Sévère, 87 
des Sept Mètres, 61 
des Vases Corinthiens, 

de Vénus de Milo, 88 

Luxembourg, Palais de, 396 

Lycée Henri IV., 352 

Louis le Grand, 358 
St. Louis, 364 


Madeleine, La, 473 
Madrid, château de, 467 
Maison (House) — 

de l'Abbé de l'Epée, 478 

Blanche, 315 

de Cagliostro, 503 

de Calvin, 105 

de Colbert, 502 

de la Croix rouge, 130 

de Desmarteaux, 360 

Dorée, 478 

du Doyen, 100 

d'Education Correctionelle, 

d'Etienne Marcel, 105 
de François L, 453 
de François Ra5mer, iio 
de Franklin, 457 

Maison (House) — 

de Jean Jacques Rousseau, 

de Jules Janin, 457 
de Lamartine, 456 
de Lauzun, 457 
de Lulli, 506 
de Marat, 385 
de Mme Lebrun, 503 
de Mme Mohl, 426 
Molière, 508 
de M. d'Etoiles, 489 
du Paradis, 282 
aux Piliers, 222 
de la Reine Blanche, 315 
de Rigaud, 477 
de Robespierre, 442 
de Rollin, 488 
de Rossini, 456 
de Sophie Arnauld, 114 
M. Thiers, 481 
de Voltaire, 453, 508 
Manufacture des Gobelins, 314 

des Tabacs, 436 
Marais, 161 

Marché des Blancs Manteaux, 
des Carmes, 344 
aux Fleurs, 474 
aux Innocents, 117 
Neuf, 283 

aux Pourceaux, 480 
St. Germain, 415 
Ménilmontant, 244 
Micra Madiana, 280 
Ministère de Marine, 443 
Missions Etrangères, 426 
Monastère (Monastery) — 
des Carmélites, 324 
des Carmes, 408* 
St. Eloi, 280 
Monceaux, Parc de, 468 
Mons Cetardus, 319 
Martyrum, 482 
Montfaucon, 492 
Mont de Pieté, 480 
Valérien, 463 
Montmartre, 481 
Montparnasse, Cimetière de, 



Morgue, 307 

Muette, La, 457 

Musée des Archives, 143 

d'Artillerie, 435 

Dupuytrcn, 380 

Carnavalet, 174 

de Cluny, 368 

de Galliera, 456 

Ethnographique, 454 

of Hydraulic Machinery, 

du Louvre, 46 
des Monuments Fran- 
çais, 388 
des Moulages, 454 
Sigillographique, 144 
des Thermes, 372 
des Voitures, 371 



Napoléon, tombeau 
Neuill3\ 462 
Nouvelles Athènes, 480 


Obelisk of Place de la Con- 
corde, 449 
Observatoire, 326 
Odéon, 406 
Opera, 475 
Oratoire, The, m 

Palais (Palace) — 

of the Abbot of St. Germain 

des Prés, 421 
Archiépiscopal, 306, 430 
des Beaux Arts, 387 
Cardinal, 159 
de la Cité, 200-268 
du Corps Législatif, 436 
de l'Elysée, 470 
de l'Industrie, 453 
de l'Institut, 392 
of Julian the Apostate, 260 
de Justice, 266 
de la Légion d'Honneur, 436 

Palais (Palace)— 
du Louvre, 36 
du Luxembourg, 396 
Royal, 509 
des Thermes, 372 
des Tournelles, 177 
du Trocadéro, 453 
des Tuileries, 18 
Pantheon, 352 

Parc des Buttes Chaumont, 491 
Monceaux, 468 
des Tournelles, 178 
Parvis Notre Dame, 288 
Passage du Caire, 489 

Charlemagne, 214 
Colbert, 508 
des Panoramcs, 135 
Passy, 457 
Pavillon de Flore, 40 

d'Hanovre, 476 
de Lesdiguières, 42 
de Rohan, 41 
Pays-Latin, 333 
Père Lachaise, 239 
Pharmacie Générale, 217 
Picpus, Cimitière de, 249 
Piliers aux Halles, 119 
Place de la Bastille. 186 
Baudoyer, 131 
de Bellechasse, 430 
de la Bourse, 496 
du Carrousel, 41 
du Château d'Eau, 496 
du Châtelet, 228, 230 
de la Concorde, 443 
Dauphine, 258 
de l'Ecole, 105 
de Grève, 224 
de l'Hôtel de Ville, 224 
Lafayette, 486 
Louis XV., 443 
Louvois, 507 
Maubert, 337 
de la Nation, 246 
Notre Dame, 307 
de l'Opéra, 441 
du Parvis Notre Dame, 288 
du Palais Royal, 517 
.du Petit Pont, 335 
de la République, 496 



Place R03^ale, i8o, 184 

St. André des Arts, 378 
St. Georges, 480 
St. Jacques, 331 
St. Michel, 376 
St. Sulpice, 415 
du Temple, 156 
du Trocadéro, 453 
du Trône, 246 
Vendôme, 439 
des Victoires, 501 
des Vosges, 177 
Point du Jour, 458 
Pont d'Arcole, 227 
au Change, 229 
de la Concorde, 436 
de la Grève, 227 
Neuf, 252 
Notre Dame, 279 
Petit, 279 
aux Pleurs, 252 
Royal, 288 
des St Pères, 386 
de Solferino, 436 
de la Tournelle, 311 
Port Royal de Paris, 325 
Porte de la Cité, 279 

de la Conférence, 25 
St. Denis, 488 
St. Martin, 493 
de la Muette, 463 
de St. Paul, 193 
Post Office, 502 
Pré aux Clercs, 421, 430 
Priory of St. Martin des Champs, 

Prison de l'Abbaye, 422 

de la Conciergerie, 269 

de la Force, 168 

de Glaucin, 279 

des Jeunes détenus, 


Mazas, 250 

Nouveau Bicêtre, 237 

La Roquette, 237 

St. Firmin, 341 

St. Lazare, 490 

St. Pélagie, 313 
Provence, La Petite, 25 * 
Puits d'Amour, 132 

Quai d'Anjou, 311 

des Augustins, 376 

de Bourbon, 311 

des Célestins, 205 

Conti, 395 

Henri IV., 207 

de l'Horloge, 262, 

Malaquais, 386 

de la Mégisserie, 230 

des Miramionnes, 312 

des Orfèvres, 262 

d'Orsay, 436 

de Passy, 456 

Voltaire, 386 
Quartier Latin, 333 

de St. Paul, 193 


Restaurants, 14 

Rond Point, 453 

Rue de l'Abbaye, 421 
d'Aboukir, 489 
des An\andicrs, 345 
del'Ancienne Comédie, 385 
des Anglais, 337 
d'Anjou St. Honoré, 471 
de l'Arbre Sec, 112 
des Archives, 145 
d'Argenteuil, iio 
d'Arras, 342 
de Babylone, 426 
du Bac, 425 
des Barrés, 197, 217 
de la Barillerie, 281 
de Beautreillis, 203 
des Bernardins, 339 
Bertin-Poirée, 230 
de Béthizy, 113 
Bichat, 495 
de Bièvre, 337 
des Billettes, 145 
Bonaparte, 387, 418 
des Bons Enfants, 341 
du Bouloi, 504 
des Bourdonnais, 116 
de Bourgogne, 430 
de Boutebrie, 373 



Rue de Braque, 141 
de Bretagne, 157 
de la Bûcherie, 335, 336 
de la Calandre, 282 
des Capucins, 329 
du Cardinal Lemoine, 340 
des Carmes, 344 
Casimir Périer, 430 
Cassette, 40